A Catalogue of Roman Military Equipment in The National Museum of Wales 9781841718262, 9781407320359

This work is a catalogue of the Roman military equipment held in the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff. Included are an

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Table of contents :
Front Cover
Title Page
Copyright
Table of Contents
Preface and Acknowledgements
Introduction
A: Swords
B: Scabbards
C: Daggers
D: Spears
E: Pila
F: Plumbatae
G: Conical Ferrules
H: Bows
I: Arrows
J: Artillery
K: Caltrops (triboli)
L: Lorica Segmentata
M: Lorica Hamata (Mail)
N: Lorica Squamata (Scale armour)
O: Lorica Plumata
P: Apron-Mounts
Q: Helmets
R: Shields
S: Belt Fittings
T: Horse Harness
U: Cavalry parade armour
V: Standards
W: Pendants
X: Button-and-Loop Fasteners
Gazetteer of Sites Producing Military Equipment
Discussion
Bibliography
Plates
Recommend Papers

A Catalogue of Roman Military Equipment in The National Museum of Wales
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BAR 388 2005 CHAPMAN A CATALOGUE OF ROMAN MILITARY EQUIPMENT IN THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF WALES

B A R

A Catalogue of Roman Military Equipment in The National Museum of Wales Evan M. Chapman

BAR British Series 388 2005

A Catalogue of Roman Military Equipment in the National Museum of Wales Evan M. Chapman

BAR British Series 388 2005

ISBN 9781841718262 paperback ISBN 9781407320359 e-format DOI https://doi.org/10.30861/9781841718262 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

BAR

PUBLISHING

Contents Preface and Acknowledgements - -

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Roman Military Equipment - - - - The Collection of the National Museum of Wales The Roman Army in Wales - - - - The Catalogue - - - - - - - -

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v

Introduction

1 -

Catalogue

1 1 4 7

9

A: Swords

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Hilts

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10

B: Scabbards -

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12

First to second century plates and binding Chapes - second to fourth century - Heart-shaped or peltiform chapes Box chapes - - - - - Disc chapes - - - - - Scabbard Slides - - - - - Metal slides - - - - - Bone slides - - - - - -

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12 14 14 15 17 17 18 20

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21

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21 22 25 25 26

C: Daggers

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First to early second century daggers First to early second century dagger sheaths Dagger sheath suspension rings Other daggers - - - - - Later dagger sheaths - - - - -

Shafted Weapons -

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27

D: Spears -

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27

E: Pila

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35

Pilum-heads Pilum stem -

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36 39

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G: Conical Ferrules -

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41

Archery Equipment

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43

H: Bows -

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F: Plumbatae

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43

Ear laths Grip laths

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44 47

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49 50 51 51 52 52 52

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53

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53 54

I: Arrows-

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Vaned, tanged arrowheads Vaned, socketed arrowheads ‘Bodkin’, tanged arrowheads ‘Bodkin’, socketed arrowheads Flat-bladed, tanged arrowheads Flat-bladed, socketed arrowheads Fire-arrows - - - - -

J: Artillery

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Bolt-heads - - - Type I - Pyramidal head

Type II - Flat-head - Type III - knob-ended heads

K: Caltrops

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56 56

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L: Lorica Segmentata

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60

Fragments - - - - Lobate hinges - - - Buckle and strap fittings Vertical hook and loop fasteners Girdle-plate tie-loops - Girdle-plate tie-rings - Bosses and rivets - - -

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61 63 66 73 74 77 83

Body Armour

M: Lorica Hamata (chain mail) -

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86

Iron - - - Copper alloy - Hook-fasteners - Miniature breastplates

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87 88 88 89

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90

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N: Lorica Squamata (scale armour) O: Lorica Plumata

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92

P: Apron-Mounts

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93

Plates - - - - - Studs - - - - - Studs with niello decoration Studs with repoussé heads

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93 94 94 94

Q: Helmets

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96

Fragments - Cheek-pieces Ear-guards - Carrying-handles Crest-holders -

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97 98 99 99 101

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103

Shield bosses - - - Handgrip and strengthening bars Binding - - - - -

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104 105 105

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107

R: Shields

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S: Belt Fittings

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Belt-plates - - - - - - - - - - - Tinned with niello decoration - first / early second century Embossed belt-plates - first / early second century - Open-work belt-plates - mid second / third century - Enamelled belt-plates - mid second / third century - Enamelled openwork belt-plates - third century - - Other belt-plates - - - - - - - - - Buckles - - - - - - - - - - - - Hinged buckles - - - - - - - - - Buckles with trapeziform extensions – second / third century Miscellaneous buckles - - - - - - - Buckle tongues - - - - - - - - - Frogs - - - - - - - - - - - - Fourth century belt fittings - - - - - - - Strap-ends - - - - - - - - - - - Belt or strap mounts - - - - - - - - - -

T: Horse Harness

107 108 108 109 111 113 114 115 115 118 120 121 122 123 124 125

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Saddle - - Girth buckles

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131 131

ii

Saddle plates Junction rings - Phalerae - - Junction loops - Strap fasteners - Strap terminals - Pendants - - Strap mounts and studs Miscellaneous fittings Bits - - - Spurs - - - -

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132 132 132 133 136 136 137 137 140 141 143

U: Parade Armour

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Helmets Chamfrons -

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144 144

V: Standards -

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W: Pendants -

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Lanceolate pendants - - - ‘Trifid’ pendants - - - Winged pendants - - - Circular pendants - - - Large crescentic pendants - Small crescentic pendants - Heart-shaped pendants - - Teardrop pendants - - - Lozenge-shaped pendants - - Small enamelled pendants - Unclassified pendants and fragments Pendant hangers - - - - -

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147 150 150 151 152 152 153 154 154 155 155 157

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159

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159 159 159 160 161 161 161 162

X: Button-and-Loop Fasteners

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Teardrop or petal-headed fasteners - - - - Fasteners with hollow boss and shank attached to the rim Disc-headed fasteners - - - - - - Smaller ‘Vindonissa’ type fasteners - - - Fasteners with bar for shank - - - - - Fasteners of bone - - - - - - - Unclassified fastener - - - - - - - Fragments - - - - - - - - - -

Gazetteer of Sites Brecon Gaer - - - Caerleon - - - - Abbeyfield - - - Alstone Cottage - - Amphitheatre - - Amphitheatre Field - Bear House Field - Blackhall Street - British Telecom Site - Broadtowers Field - Broadway House - Broadway Meadow Castle grounds - - Churchyard Extension 1908 East Corner - - - Endowed School - Fortress Baths - - Fortress Ditch - - Golledge’s Field - - -

163 -

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iii

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- - 163 - - 164 - - 166 - - 166 - - 166 - see Vicus - see Vicus see Fortress Baths - - 167 - - 168 - - 168 - see Vicus - - 168 - - 169 - - 169 - - 169 - - 170 - see Vicus - - 171

Great Bulmore Farm - - - - Isca Grange - - - - - - Jenkins Field - - - - - Museum Site - - - - - Museum Street - - - - - Museum Street 1965 - - - - Museum Street 1969 - - - - Myrtle Cottage - - - - - Prysg Field - - - - - - Racecourse - - - - - - Roman Gates - - - - Sandygate - - - - - - School Extention - - - - School Field - - - - - The Croft - - - - - - The Hall - - - - - - Vicarage Garden - - - - Vicus - - - - - - - Vine Cottage - - - - - Whitehart Lane - - - - - Unprovenanced - - - - - Caernarfon - - - - - - - Caersws - - - - - - - Caerwent Courtyard House - - - Dinorben - - - - - - - Ffrith - - - - - - - - Gelligaer - - - - - - - Hindwell Farm - - - - - - Holt - - - - - - - - Llandough - - - - - - - Loughor - - - - - - - Pen Llystyn - - - - - - Pen-y-Corddyn - - - - - - Segontium - - - - - - - Seven Sisters - - - - - - Usk - - - - - - - - Cattle Market - - - - - Detention Centre - - - - - former Church Voluntary Primary School Old Market Street - - - - Old Market Street 1986 - - - Priory Orchard - - - - - Sewage main trench - - - - Unprovenanced - - - - Whitton - - - - - - - -

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- - 171 - - 171 - - 172 - - 172 - - 172 - - 173 - - 173 - - 173 - - 174 - see Vicus - - 175 - - 176 - - 176 - - 176 - - 177 - - 177 - - 178 - - 178 - - 179 - - 180 - - 180 see Segontium - - 181 - - 181 - - 182 - - 182 - - 183 - - 183 - - 183 - - 184 - - 184 - - 185 - - 186 - - 186 - - 188 - - 188 - - 188 - - 189 - - 189 - - 190 - - 190 - - 190 - - 190 - - 191 - - 191

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Discussion Provenance of the Collection - - - ‘Military Equipment’ on ‘Civilian’ SitesContents of the Collection - - - - Deposition - - - - - - Retrieval - - - - - - -

192

Bibliography

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192 193 194 195 196

197

PLATES

iv

Preface and Acknowledgements This is the publication of a MPhil thesis presented to the University of Wales, Cardiff in 2003. The text and illustrations remain virtually unchanged but the layout has been radically modified to provide one more suitable for publication. Thus, in general, references are only to work published by the summer of 2003, however the final publication of the military equipment from Dura-Europos (James 2004) has allowed the replacement of a number of rather obscure references to the interim reports. I should like to thank the following people for the help, support and friendship they have provided during the writing of this catalogue. Firstly thanks must go to my two supervisors. To Prof. William Manning for the enthusiasm with which he greeted my suggestion of the project and his sound advise at the start. Dr Peter Webster deserves special thanks for volunteering(?) to take over supervision after Prof. Manning’s retirement. His gentle pressure and constant support were perfection, and his continued interest as I turned the thesis into this volume has been much appreciated. That this work appears in print is due in no small part to my two examiners Dr Peter Guest (Cardiff University) and Dr Ralf Jackson (British Museum) who kindly suggested that the thesis might be worthy of publication and who have actively supported the processes. I must also thank David Davison for the speed and efficiency with which he has dealt with its publication. To all my colleagues in the Department of Archaeology and Numismatics of the National Museum of Wales who’s support and interest is much appreciated. In particular I must thank the Keeper (and Romanist) Richard Brewer who first suggested the idea of a catalogue of military equipment. I also wish to thank all the staff of the Roman Legionary Museum, Caerleon who always made me so welcome on my frequent visits there. In particular Julie Reynolds and Mark Lewis, the two Curatorial Officers, who allowed me to trample all over their territory without any sign of complaint, and actually seemed pleased to see me on my invasions of their store. Finally to my parents for their support and interest. My Father also kindly read the final draft of most of the thesis. The mistakes that remain are all my own effort.

Evan M. Chapman March 2005

v

vi

Introduction This is primarily the catalogue of a museum’s collection and so is driven by what that collection contains. It has no pretensions to being a comprehensive study of Roman military equipment. The amount of detail entered into for a particular type of object is largely dependent on the number of such pieces in the collection. Thus swords and helmets receive little attention while body armour, in particular lorica segmentata, is considered at some length. As well as defining what is included here within the term ‘Roman military equipment’ this introduction provides an historical survey of the collections of the National Museum of Wales relevant to this study; a brief account of the Roman Army in Wales; and an explanation of the structure of the catalogue. The catalogue is followed by a gazetteer which gives an outline description of the sites from which the material comes and a listing of the objects by site, with cross-reference to the catalogue proper. There is also a chapter of discussion which aims to give a brief overview of the collection as a whole; to look at its strengths and weaknesses; and to consider whether any patterns emerge.

Roman Military Equipment What is meant by the term ‘military equipment’? There is no general agreement amongst scholars and a definition is most easily made in negative terms. There are grey areas within which objects could be either civilian or military, according to their context, which is only to be expected, since the Roman army included within its ranks many of the trades to be found in civilian life. Cart fittings are a case in point: soldiers used wagons and carts of various kinds, but these vehicles were not necessarily ‘military’ in design. Fittings are found in both military and civilian contexts without distinguishing features. Thus, there is little advantage in defining a rigid specification for what is, and is not, ‘military equipment’. (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 12) In the case of the current study, based as it is on one museum’s collection, the presence or rather the absence of particular objects is another factor to consider. Thus clothing is not included as none exists to be catalogued. Some marginal items which are only represented by the odd fragment have also been ignored as they can add nothing to our knowledge of the particular type of object. Thus tents are not discussed despite one fragment existing from Segontium (Boon 1975, 60-1). What has been included here is broadly the equipment a soldier would have used to actually fight: his armour and weapons, and in the case of cavalry the harness of the mount. To this has been added parade armour and a standard head as these are undoubtedly purely military pieces.

The Collection of the National Museum of Wales There shall be and there is hereby constituted and founded a Museum in the City of Cardiff with the name of “National Museum of Wales” So opened the Royal Charter of Incorporation granted by His Majesty King Edward VII on 19th March 1907 and delivered to the first President by the Home Office Authorities on 22nd March. The Collections, however, can be traced back into the nineteenth century, to the formation of the Caerleon Antiquarian Association in 1847 and the founding of the Cardiff Municipal Museum in 1868. The offer of the collection of the Cardiff Municipal Museum (renamed the Welsh Museum of Natural History, Arts and Antiquities in 1901) formed part of Cardiff’s bid, in 1904-5, to become the site of the new museum. The transfer, authorised by the passing of the Cardiff Corporation Act of 1909, duly took place on 15th November 1912. This explains the rather curious situation of accessioned material existing from before the formal existence of the National Museum of Wales. In terms of Roman military equipment, the notable collections acquired from the Cardiff Museum were those from Gelligaer fort excavated between 1901 and 1909 by the Cardiff Naturalists Society and John Ward, the Curator of the Cardiff Municipal Museum (Ward 1903) and the Seven Sisters hoard (Allen 1905; Davies and Spratling 1976). Building work on the new museum building in Cardiff’s Civic 1

Centre was halted by the First World War so it was not until late 1919 that the work of transferring the collections from the Municipal Museum actually commenced (Bassett 1982; 1993).

Map of Sites Mentioned J Sites represented in the Catalogue 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Abergavenny Brecon Gaer Bryn-y-Gefeilian Caerau Caer Gai Caer Gybi Caerhun Caerleon Caerphilly Caersws Caerwent Caer-y-Tŵr

13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

F Other sites mentioned 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

Llandovery Loughor Neath Pen Llystyn Pennal Pen-y-Darren Pen-y-Corddyn Pumsaint Segontium (Carnarfon) 34. Seven Sisters 35. Tomen-y-Mur

Cardiff Carmarthen Castell Collen Chester Dinorben Ffrith Forden Gelligaer Gloucester Hindwell Farm Holt Llandough

2

36. Trawscoed 37. Usk 38. Whitton 39. Wroxeter

On 30th June 1920 John Ward, who had become the first Keeper of Archaeology of the National Museum of Wales in 1912, resigned on account of ill health. By August he had been replaced by Dr (later Sir) Mortimer Wheeler. The following year Wheeler took over the excavations of the Roman fort of Segontium on the outskirts of Caernarfon. The larger part of the fort, north-east of the main road that runs through it, had been bought in 1913 by a group of members of the Cambrian Archaeological Association to save it from development. Excavations, delayed by the First World War, had finally started in 1920 under the direction of A.G.K. Hayter. Wheeler worked on the site for three seasons, 1921-23, and investigated most of the area available for excavation (Wheeler 1923). The site was bought by Mr John Roberts of Caernarfon in 1925. He erected and endowed a museum, with quarters for a custodian, and with the assistance of the then Office of Works, the excavated buildings were laid out as we see them today. The site was vested by him in the National Trust. The finds were presented to the National Museum of Wales by the Excavation Committee, and to them were added other articles in the keeping of the local authority; so that, when the Site Museum was opened in 1937, almost the whole range of available objects from the site and its environs could be placed on exhibition (Boon 1974, 4). These collections have been added to by various stray finds, notably on the site of the cemetery opposite Llanbeblig church, which happens also to have been that of the Roman cemetery. A rough building exposed when the housing, estate south-east of the fort was built in 1958-9 proved upon full excavation to have been a temple of Mithras erected in the third century (Boon 1960). The area south-west of the main road across the fort was acquired by the then Ministry of Works in 1955 and the vicarage, erected in 1845-6, was demolished. Part of this area was excavated between 1975 and 1979 (Casey et al. 1993). Having finished excavating at Segontium Wheeler turned his attention to Brecon Gaer, conducting two seasons of excavations there in 1924 and 1925 and again publishing a report with remarkable promptness (Wheeler 1926). Most of the finds came to the National Museum of Wales but some went to Brecknock Museum, Brecon. Also in 1925 the museum purchased the material from the excavations at Holt, Denbighshire, on the site of a works-depot of the Twentieth Legion when based at Chester, which had been conducted privately by T.A. Acton between 1907 and 1915 (Grimes 1930). Finally in December that year the Museum was to start its long association with Caerleon. As the Annual Report for 1924-25 recorded: In December, 1925, a situation of extreme urgency arose at Caerleon in consequence of the acquisition of land within the area of the Roman fortress for building purposes. Steps were taken by the Museum to forestall the danger by the immediate excavation of the threatened area. A permanent Excavation Committee was constituted under the presidency of Lord Treowen, and work was begun forthwith, the Assistant Keeper being placed in charge. Four months were devoted to the area in question. Known as Jenkins Field this area was not only the start of almost annual excavation at Caerleon but also of V.E. Nash-Williams’s nearly thirty year association with the site (Brewer 2001, 18). While this rescue excavation was being put in hand Wheeler was also busy organizing the excavation of the amphitheatre, sponsored by the Daily Mail. This took place in 1926 and 1927 (Wheeler & Wheeler 1928; Brewer 2001, 1416). There had been a museum at Caerleon since 1850 run by the Caerleon and Monmouth Antiquarian Society, which, as the Caerleon Antiquarian Society, had been founded in 1847 with the primary object ‘of founding a museum to house the inscriptions and other Roman finds from the legionary fortress’ (Brewer 2000, 6-7). One of the leading lights behind this was John Edward Lee a Yorkshireman, who settled in Caerleon in 1841 having joined a firm of iron-manufacturers in Newport. In 1862 he published Isca Silurum an illustrated catalogue of the collections. Lee also participated in the first archaeological investigation of any significance, when in 1849-50 he undertook the recording of the remains of a large Roman building (later identified as a bath-house), lying outside the east corner of the fortress on the site of the medieval castle. His involvement in Caerleon ended in 1868, when he moved for the sake of his wife’s health to Torquay (Jones 2001, 3-7). By 1929 the Caerleon and Monmouth Antiquarian Society realized that they could no longer provide the necessary curatorial care of the collection and so entered into negotiations with the National Museum. As the 3

Annual Report for 1929-30 recorded: During the past year negotiations have been proceeding with the owners of the Caerleon Museum - Caerleon and Monmouthshire Antiquarian Association - for the transfer of the building and its contents. It has been agreed that the Caerleon Museum shall become a branch of the National Museum, being entitled “The Legionary Museum of Caerleon”. Its special function will be to illustrate the Roman occupation of the district. A Committee, consisting of members nominated by the Association and by this Institution, will be appointed to advise the Council in all matters relating to the Caerleon Museum; and it is hoped that legal formalities connected with the transfer will be completed in the near future. In 1930 the Museum of Antiquities was handed over to the National Museum. It soon saw a rapid expansion of its collection as material from the continuing series of rescue excavations flowed in (Boon 1972, 115). The most important of these, certainly in terms of military equipment, was the excavation of Prysg Field between 1927 and 1929 which, as well as uncovering a row of ten barrack blocks, exposed a series of buildings against the back of the north-west defences which contained considerable quantities of such equipment (Nash-Williams 1931; Chapman 2002). After the Second World War the areas excavated were generally smaller, with the notable exception of the disused racecourse which overlay the vicus to the east of the fort (Brewer 2001, 25-7; Boon unpublished). From the point of view of finds of military equipment the most important post-war excavations are those of the fortress baths between 1977 and 1981 (Zienkiewicz 1986a), and the ‘Roman Gates’ site in 1980-81 (Evans & Metcalf 1992). Since the Second World War collections from other sites have also continued to grow. The additional material from Segontium has already been noted. The other principal sites being the early legionary base at Usk (Manning 1981a; 1989) and the auxiliary fort at Loughor (Marvell, & Owen-John 1997) both rescue excavations: those at Usk in the late 1960s and early 1970s, those at Loughor in the mid to late 1980s. Other additions to the collection have provided only the odd few pieces of Roman military equipment (see Gazetteer p.302-43 below).

The Roman Army in Wales See the Gazetteer for details of individual sites All the military equipment considered in this catalogue was found in Wales. Wales, however, did not exist in Roman times. All the documentary references are to imprecisely located tribes rather than areas of land defined by natural features. The idea of the area of land west of the Wye/Severn and the Dee might have been understandable in the Roman period. In military terms, at least, it is far more likely to have been considered as two areas. The south under the control of Legio II Augusta at Caerleon with trading and cultural contacts with the lands on either side of the Severn and into the Cotswolds. The north controlled by Legio XX Valeria Victrix from Chester with contacts with the north-west midlands. Julius Caesar’s punitive expeditions to Britain in 55 and 54 BC had no direct impact on Wales and even the Claudian invasion of AD 43 could have been of little significance. It is entirely possible that Roman plans of conquest did not extend much beyond the south-east of England. Certainly many of the later advances seem to be in response to native belligerence rather than Roman policy. The first recorded advance into Wales in AD 47 seems to have begun in just such a way: ‘chaos greeted the new governor P. Ostorius [Scapula]: the enemy had broken violently into the territory of our allies, believing that a new general with an army unknown to him would not fight now that winter had begun’ (Tacitus Annals XII: 31-40). The establishment of legionary fortresses at Wroxeter at a date between AD 52-7 (White & Barker 1998, 42) and Usk in about AD 55-60 (Manning 1981a, 31-4), together with a network of forts, can be seen to mark a turning-point in Roman military activity insofar as they represent an intention to retain and control territory rather than simply to operate across it. At the western extremity of territory certainly incorporated within the province of Britannia by 60 was Cardiff where a campaign base, succeeded by a fort, seems probable (Webster 1990, 38-9; Whittle 1992, 68-9). In the central Marches fort sites are either tied to the WroxeterUsk road or, as at Hindwell Farm (p.183), pushed forward to control a fertile basin.

4

In South Wales the items of Roman cavalry equipment incorporated in a native bronze-founder’s hoard at Seven Sisters (p.188) are most likely to have to come into native hands during or after a successful engagement against a Roman force, most probably in a pre-Flavian context. In North Wales arrowheads of typical Roman military pattern from the promontory fort of Dinorben (p.182) may be evidence of an assault or of garrisoning. With the accession of Vespasian as emperor in AD 69 it seems clear for the first time that an emperor planned for total conquest of Britain (Jarrett 1994, 8). Though no specific activity in Wales is recorded for the governorship of Petillius Cerialis (71-3/4) it is possible that preparations for the final conquest may have begun during this period. Though Tacitus records only Julius Frontinus’ (73/4-7) conquest of the Silures, the Ordovician rebellion of late AD 77 seems to indicates that, with the exception of Anglesey, and possibly Snowdonia, the conquest of Wales was essentially complete by the end of Frontinus’ governorship. Initial steps involved the construction of legionary fortresses at Caerleon in AD 74 or 75 for Legio II Augusta (p.164) and at Chester for Legio II Adiutrix (Davies 2000, 13). Usk had been abandoned, or at least mothballed, as a legionary fortress in AD 66 or 67 but with Legio XX operating out of Wroxeter, overwhelming force was now concentrated on the Welsh front (Manning 1981a, 45-52). It is to this phase of offensive operations that most of the Welsh temporary camps probably belong, though the pre-Flavian campaigns must have produced some of them. None, however, have produced any of the military equipment in the Museum’s collection so their dating is academic, as far as this catalogue is concerned. Most of the forts of this period were new foundations, though a number of existing forts, such as Abergavenny (Jarrett 1969, 46), were kept in commission. On purely historical grounds Segontium and Pen Llystyn ought to be Agricolan, as may be Tomen-y-Mur, Caer Gai and even Pennal (Davies 2000, 15). As the demands of campaigning both in northern Britain and on the Continent increased in the period 78-83 selective troop withdrawals occurred in Wales. The abandonment of Scotland in about 87 would have released a number of units to return to Wales, though the strength of the provincial army will have declined substantially with the removal of Legio II Adiutrix and its accompanying auxiliary regiments. It was replaced at Chester by Legio XX, who quite possibly brought ‘new’ auxiliaries to Wales, and Wroxeter was closed for good (Davies 2000, 21-2). By the close of the first and beginning of the second century, a new thinning out of the auxiliary garrison in Wales was already underway, partly in response to the needs of redeploying manpower either to the continent under Trajan (98-117) or to northern Britain under Hadrian (117-38). The details of this process remain unclear, as does the chronology, but it was evidently achieved in a number of different ways, to judge from what is known of the history of individual sites. In some cases, as at Pen-y-Darren, Caer Gai and Trawscoed, the ceramic range tails off rapidly in the Trajanic period and is soon followed by abandonment (Davies 2000, 23). Outright closure, however, was rare, more typical was a reduction in the size of the fort, as at Caerau (RCAHMW 1986, 130) and Tomen-y-Mur (Jarrett 1969, 11-13). Occasionally, a reduction in garrison saw the building of a brand new fort to replace the existing one, as at Gelligaer where a new stone fort was built in the period 103-11 (p.183). Sometimes forts were succeeded by fortlets early in the second century, as at Pen Llystyn (p.185), and possibly Loughor either late in Trajan’s reign or early in Hadrian’s (p.184). What is demonstrable is that Wales was subject to a process of garrison reduction which seems to have gathered momentum under Trajan and reached its climax in the period 110-25. In the north-west the three forts at Segontium (p.186), Caerhun (Jarrett 1969, 59), and Bryn-y-Gefeiliau (Jarrett 1969, 54), continued to be held after 125, and in mid-Wales another three, Forden (Jarrett 1969, 88), Caersws (p.181) and Castell Collen (Alcock 1964, 82), remained occupied. South-west Wales appears to have been bereft of troops by the mid-120s and in the south-east there is good evidence only for Brecon Gaer (p.163), and probably Cardiff (Webster 1990, 35), being held into the Antonine period. By Hadrian’s reign the Silures and Demetae were regarded as pacified, though it may have been necessary to maintain small garrisons in a policing or tax-gathering capacity in the southern uplands. Short-lived troop reductions of Hadrianic date, reflecting Legio II Augusta’s and Legio XX commitment to building Hadrian’s Wall in northern England, had a major impact upon the legions’ bases at Caerleon and Chester. Then from about 140 both legions were engaged in campaigning in Scotland, and in building the Antonine Wall and its forts (Breeze 1989, 4-5). Ceramic evidence shows uneven occupation and a marked 5

reduction of activity at Caerleon in the later second century, with the legionary baths at one stage apparently in the process of being dismantled. Similar demolition work was also undertaken at the amphitheatre, though the process was soon reversed (Zienkiewicz 1986a, 47-9). The evidence seems to suggest that the barracks and probably the defences were undergoing a similar process, and this is all possibly related to a Severan scheme for the redeployment of the legion in northern Britain. Very few auxiliary forts seem to have been occupied after about 140 and at several of those that do remain in use the evidence suggests that the garrisons of this period were much reduced. At Brecon Gaer the internal bath-house is best suited to serving a small unit (p.163), while at Segontium an imposing stone courtyard building occupied the south-eastern portion of the praetentura in the Antonine period (p.186). At Caersws too the Antonine garrison was certainly smaller, the retentura being abandoned early in the third century (p.181). However not all the forts were being run down. At Forden the defences were extensively refurbished some time after 150, and an intensive later Antonine-Severan occupation followed (Davies 2000, 26). At Castell Collen a dedication-slab may record the rebuilding of the defences in stone, in the Antonine period (Alcock 1964, 82-3). With the division of the province under Caracalla, Wales came within Britannia Superior, but the military dispositions remained essentially unchanged from the later second century. A large-scale programme of reconstruction at Caerleon between 212 and 222 may indicate the return of most of the legion to its base following the Emperor Caracalla’s decision to abandon Scotland (Boon 1987, 34-7). The closure of the legionary baths in about 230, however, suggests that the fortress by then did not have a sufficiently large garrison to support their continued function (p.170). Excavations at Caersws suggest abandonment of the fort by the 230s (p.181), and even where occupation certainly continued beyond then, as at Segontium (p.186) and Brecon Gaer (p.163), significant internal modifications appear indicative of very small garrisons more appropriate to their role as police posts or centres for the collection of taxes. It is not until later in third century that we have indications of redeployment to face the threat of sea-raiders, presumably from Ireland. At Cardiff a fort, closely comparable in plan to the Saxon shore fort of Portchester, was erected some time after about 260 (Webster 2002, 72). This was presumably built for a military/naval force to control access to the upper reaches of the Severn estuary. Further west the fortlet at Loughor has produced evidence of reoccupation in the period 260-310 (p.184), though whether this was of a military nature remains unclear. A similar sequence at Neath is dated 275-320 (Marvell & Heywood 1992, 290). A number of other fort sites, Bryn y Gefeiliau, Caersws, Llandovery and Gelligaer, have produced some evidence of possible, short-lived, activity in the late third and early fourth centuries, though whether this was military is unknown since the evidence generally comprises no more than some pottery or a coin or two (Davies 2000, 29). The latest known inscription attesting to continued work at Caerleon dates to 270-5 (Evans & Metcalf 1992, 83-4). This has been interpreted as signifying the closure of the fortress under the separatist administration of either Carausius or Allectus and the transfer of its surviving elements to bases elsewhere in Britain, perhaps Cardiff or Richborough (Boon 1987, 43-4; Casey 1991, 20). Certainly the fortress experienced a major upheaval at the close of the third century. The debate centres on whether the period 290-300 saw the end of military occupation at Caerleon or a rationalisation of building usage after the steady reduction in the size of the legion, and also on how evidence of later activity is to be interpreted (Davies 1991, 54-5). Some buildings at Caerleon were certainly in use up to the mid-fourth century and some streets were resurfaced after 346-8 but whether post-300 occupation was military or civilian is unclear, although some late military equipment is present (p.164). Numismatic evidence suggests that relatively few Welsh forts were occupied beyond 330 though Segomtium and Cardiff certainly were, with the latter seemingly abandoned under Valentinian, 364-78 (Webster 2002, 72). The fort of Caerhun was, however, recommissioned at about the same time (Davies 2000, 31), and a dramatic increase in activity is recorded at Segontium, presumably a reaction to an increased threat posed by Irish raiders (p.186). Segontium appears to have been one of the latest, if not the last, fort to be occupied in Wales. The presence of post-Magnus Maximus (383-8) coinage at Segontium and the late Roman watchtower at Caer-y-Tŵr on Holyhead Mountain (Crew 1981, p.35), probably indicates that these sites were not abandoned until about 393, when troops were transferred in response to the revolt of Eugenius in Gaul (Casey 1989, 326). These, with the apparent naval base of Caer Gybi at Holyhead (Lynch 1995, 100) 6

may represent elements of an integrated and perhaps formerly more extensive system for the protection of north-west Wales and may provide a context for the late Roman belt plate and buckle from Pen-y-Corddyn (p.186). In the south Cardiff cannot have stood alone; it is possible that units of the army were based in the towns. Plumbatae, crossbow brooches and a late Roman belt-buckle are certainly known from Caerwent (Knight 1996, 36-47). Carmarthen too has produced a fourth-century belt-stiffener and a crossbow brooch of about 350-80 (Davies 2000, 34). The possibility that soldiers continued to be stationed in the Welsh civitas capitals at the close of the fourth and beginning of the fifth centuries represents the final stage in an imperial presence which had lasted three and a half centuries (Davies 2000, 34).

The Catalogue An illustrated catalogue needs but few introductory remarks; the drawings speak for themselves, or at least ought to do so, combined with the descriptions. It may be well, however, to say a few words as to the arrangement. (Lee 1862) The objects are catalogued by type, mainly on functional grounds, though for some objects, such as pendants, it is difficult to assign a definite function to many examples with any certainty. Subdivision of any category depends on the range of objects covered by the main grouping, the level of knowledge about chronological changes, and the number of items in the collection for the type. Where suitable typologies exist they have been used. There seems to be no point in creating new typologies for the sake of it. Within a sub-section the objects are placed in accession number order, which reflects the date the items entered the Museum. The intention is that this would allow the possibility of new material being added without requiring the existing entries to be renumbered. Each catalogue entry, with the exception of the bow components, is laid out as follows. Catalogue number1 object name2, material3 (accession number)4 dimensions5 Description.6 Previous publications7 Site8: context information9 1. 2.

3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8.

9.

The Catalogue uses an alphanumeric numbering system with the first, upper case, letter indicating the section and the second, lower case, letter the sub-section. Within sub-section the entries are numbered sequentially. A ‘?’ before the object name indicates a doubtful object. Everything included in the Catalogue could be Roman and could have been military, but in some cases this cannot be proved, and some doubt exists. It has been considered worth making the catalogue as comprehensive as possible, as it is easier to disregard objects listed than to search the collections for missed objects. The material in the title is the principal material from which an object is made, other materials used for decoration and the like are referred to in the description. The first two digits of an accession number indicate the year of acquisition. The accessions of a year are then number sequentially, which are the numbers after the point. Thus acc. no. 31.78 means that the item is part of the seventy-eighth accession acquired by the National Museum of Wales in 1931. Numbers after a ‘/’ are sub-numbers sometimes allocated when an accession contains more than one object. The aim has been to provide all measurements that could be seen as being useful. Measurements are generally given to the nearest millimetre. Where a dimension is incomplete this is indicate by [broken] after the measurement. The term ‘tinned’ has been used as a ‘short hand’ for a white metal surface coating which could be silver, tin, or an alloy of either. This is generally the original site report. Passing references and instances were an object is simply cited as a parallel have not been included. Information about a site and a list of other objects from it in the Catalogue can be found in the Gazetteer. The amount of context information available for an object varies considerably. For some of the early excavation nothing more than the site is known; while for some of the more recent excavations that are still unpublished context numbers can be given but information about their type and dating is not readily available. All site codes

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have been recorded even if no sense can at present be made of them.

The objects listed in the Catalogue are illustrated by photographs at the end of the text, arranged in the same order as the Catalogue. Most of these photographs are digital images taken for this catalogue; but for the items on display in the National Museum & Gallery, Cardiff and the Roman Legionary Museum, Caerleon record photographs already existed and it was more convenient to use scans of these images. These record photographs had been taken by staff of the Museum’s photography department and are labelled ©NMW.

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A: Swords Apart from a possible blade tip (Aa01) from Loughor, swords are represented in the collection only by handle components and scabbard fittings. Nevertheless a brief discussion of Roman sword types is warranted as they are relevant to consideration of scabbard fittings in the next section. Traditionally archaeologists have divided Roman swords into two types: the gladius, a short sword designed for thrusting in close combat, used by legionaries; and the spatha, which was longer than the gladius and seen as the weapon of auxiliary infantry and cavalry in the first and second century AD and all Roman soldiers thereafter. It should be noted, however, that in the Roman period the term ‘gladius’ could mean any sword and was certainly not specific to short weapons (Manning 1985, 149). Although the majority of Roman swords fall into these two categories, other types of swords have occasionally been found. It seem possible that some troops in Roman service were using their own native weapons at least as late as the Flavian period (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 74). Two types of gladius were in use in the first century AD. One with a tapering blade and a long point, was a continuation from the Republican period, the so-called gladius Hispaniensis or Mainz type, named after the many examples from the Rhine at Mainz. Many of these have waisted blades but whether they were deliberately made that way or were worn down by repeated sharpening is unclear (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 69-71). Examples of this type and its associated scabbard fittings (p.12) are found throughout the first half of the century and it was clearly still in use at the time of the invasion of Britain. Some time after the middle of the first century this type was phased out in favour of the so-called Pompeii type with straight parallel sides and a shorter point. These are named after examples found at Pompeii (Ulbert 1969, 97-9), with the wellknown terminus ante quem of AD79. Evidence for the Pompeii type earlier than this, however, is provided by a piece of scabbard from Verulamium, dated to before the Boudican revolt in AD60 (Goodburn 1984, 33 no.71). The blade length of surviving Mainz type swords varies between 500 and 560 mm, Pompeii type between 420 and 500 mm. Reconstructions of these swords weigh about a kilogram, and the scabbard a little over half that (Connolly 1981, 233). Finds of scabbard fittings suggest that the gladius was still in use in the first half of the second century (Bishop & Coulston 1989, 41), however, during the late second and early third centuries it appears to have been gradually superseded by the spatha (Connolly 1981, 260). A new form of short sword, however, does appear during the second century which, both in appearance and technologically, represents a clear break with the ‘Pompeii gladius’ tradition. They had tapering blades, length 480mm, which were pattern welded, and a grip-assemblage made up of iron tang, guard and ringpommel, the most characteristic feature (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 111 & 126-30). Evidence for the third century comes from the Künzing hoard, which produced 14 pattern-welded short swords of varying proportions, length 231-389mm (Herrmann 1969, 129-33). The spatha is usually assumed to have been derived from the long Celtic sword, a type intended for cutting rather than thrusting (Manning 1985, 149). Roman tacticians, however, strongly disapproved of slashing with a sword when a thrust could be used: slashing rarely killed the opponent, while the swinging action exposed the attacker in a way which a stabbing action did not. That auxiliaries as well as legionaries were trained to stab is confirmed by a passage in Tacitus (Agricola, xxxvi) where the stabbing action of the Batavian and Tungrian auxiliaries at the battle of Mons Graupius is contrasted with the actions of the Britons who were fighting with swords lacking points (Manning 1985, 149). A long sword was a prerequisite for a cavalryman to operate against infantry (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 74). Few first or second century examples of these swords have survived, but at least two from Newstead (Curle 1911, pl.XXXIV,6-7) seem to belong in this class. Third century spatha are more plentiful and have been classified by Ulbert (1974, 204) into two types, based on blade proportions: the long, narrow ‘Straubing/Nydam’ type with a blade length to breadth ratio of 15-17:1, length c.650-800mm, max. width 44mm, and, generally, a slightly tapering blade; and the shorter, wider ‘Lauriacum/Hromowka’ form with an 8-12:1 ratio, length c.557-655mm, width 62-75mm, parallel edges and a triangular point. There is, however, some overlap between groups and some individual exceptions (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 126). In the fourth century long swords continued to be the main type of bladed weapon and Ulbert’s two types presumably continued. Long swords are depicted on imperial statues, grave-stones and paintings, some with eagle9

headed pommels (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 162). A spatha from a fourth century burial at Köln had a blade 720mm long and 52mm wide (Schulze-Dörlamm 1985, 515 abb.4). Dawson (1997) p.284 no.80 (Not illustrated) Loughor: SF037 (55\037) fill of modern cut

Aa01. ? sword tip, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) length 165mm [broken], max. width 46mm Possibly the broken tip of a sword the V-shaped profile is certainly reminiscent of a sword of Mainz type (cf. Manning 1985, 148-9 V2). However it could also be the remains of a large spearhead (cf. Manning 1985, 170 V139).

Attention should be drawn to the gladius found at Segontium in 1879 and now in the Bangor Museum and Art Gallery (Boon 1962, 85-9), a replica of which exists in the collection.

Hilts In the first century AD sword handles consisted of a hand-guard, an octagonal-sectioned handgrip, and a pommel of slightly flattened ovoid appearance. These pieces were held onto the tang by a copper alloy rivet. The pommel and hand-guard were often made of wood, as examples from Vindonissa show (Unz & Deschler-Erb 1997, 14 nos. 7-12 & 17-21), but could also be of bone or ivory; the handgrip appears usually to have been made from bone (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 71). The best known type of handgrip had four moulded depressions for the fingers. The earliest example of this type is probably that illustrated by Robinson (1975, 169 pl.473) on a late Augustan relief . Most were made from the metapodials of horses or cattle, the former being more regular in section; wood provides the most common alternative (MacGregor 1985, 165). Many bone grips are cut to a rhomboid section and clearly have been shaped entirely by hand. Often associated with the gladius both in the archaeological record (e.g. Ulbert 1969, tafel 17-18) and in sculpture, such as the tombstone of Facilis at Colchester (Huskinson 1994, 23 no.47); they are less commonly found in association with the spatha (e.g. Curle 1911, pl.XXXIV.13). Circular-section versions of these handles also exist, sometimes with bands of incised lines on the mouldings to improve the grip, as on an example from Richborough (Henderson 1949, 151 no.269). Further variants, some of them slightly barrel-shaped and all probably of the second century, are illustrated by Oldenstein (1976, 240 nos.17-9). Third century handgrips could be plain, or decorated with spiral twists, a basket-weave design or ribbed (Southern & Dixon 1996, 103-4). Incomplete bone handgrips are not always easy to distinguish from knife handles; however, given the prominence of the pommel in complete hilts, it seems unlikely that grips closed with simple discs could ever have been used for swords, and should be regarded as knife handles (MacGregor 1985, 165). The most common form of early hilt guards are plano-convex in section and oval or rounded in plan but that on the Segontium sword is cylindrical (Boon 1962, 86-7 fig.1). In the second century others guards with a flatter outline and more angular plan developed. Third century guards were rectangular or semi-oval in shape and are found in iron, copper-alloy, wood and bone (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 126; Southern & Dixon 1996, 104). Spherical or elliptical shaped pommels favoured in the first century, as on the Segontium sword, appear to give way to flatter and more rounded types (Boon 1962, 86). Ring-pommel swords were introduced in the second century (Bishop & Coulston 1989, 43). In the third century the most common pommel shape was elliptical, although eagle-headed pommels are depicted on tombstones, sarcophagi and Imperial statues (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 126; Southern & Dixon 1996, 104). The Museum’s collection is dominated by objects from Segontium. Green 1973, 42 fig.64.7) Wheeler (1923) p.139, fig.61.11 Greep (1983) p.559 no.5:38 Segontium: mid fourth century floor of guardroom B, north-west gateway

Ab01. hilt guard, antler (acc. no. 23.292) length 87mm, max. width 35mm, thickness 14mm Flat pointed oval with a central oval perforation (24 by 9 mm) extending into a long tapering groove (60mm long) on one face, to accommodate the top of the blade. Cf. Caister-by-Norwich (Myres &

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remains of the central section of a composite pommel (Greep 1983, 106). However only one example of such a pommel was recorded from Britain by Greep (1983, 557 no.5.12), on a complete hilt from Dorchester, so caution is required. Allason-Jones (1993) p.202 no.448 Segontium: SF1147 (1132) dirty clay layer; Period 4 - Flavian-Trajanic

Ab02. ? pommel, jet (acc. no. 23.292) length 38mm, width 57mm [broken], max. thickness with ribs 17mm, max. thickness without ribs 13mm A curved segment with four vertical ribs and a small perforation, top and bottom, in the spaces between. Wheeler (1923)p.147, fig.69.2 Segontium: found in the fourth century floor of the ‘cross-hall’ of the praetorium

Ab07. handgrip, bone (acc. no. 82.22H/5) length 82mm, max. width 25mm, thickness 20mm Tube cut from the long bone of a large animal. The bone has been trimmed to rectangular section with splayed ends and three transverse ribs. Split with a number of chunks missing out of both ends. Cf. Colchester (Crummy 1983, 134 no.4227); Segontium (Boon 1962). Greep (1983) p.555 no.29 Allason-Jones (1993) p.202 no.449 Segontium: SF1169 (2364) drain cut; Period 6 Hadrianic-early Antonine

Ab03. hilt guard, antler (acc. no. 57.317/13) length 81mm, max. width 41mm Flat, oval plate with angled cuts still visible at both ends. Rough out for a flat, oval guard. See Ab01. Segontium: Found during the excavation of the W. Guardroom, S.W. gate of Segontium Ab04. ? handgrip, bone (acc. no. 81.79H) length 110mm [broken], diameter 20mm Elaborately turned cylinder, decorated by a series of evenly spaced narrow collars. The cavity at the complete end has been carefully enlarged by turning. Greep (1986) p.209 no.28 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: (4) Basal ash of the stokeholes of the S.W. apodyterium in its Phase V state; c. 150/160 (Zienkiewicz 1986b, 256)

Ab08. ? handgrip, bone (acc. no. 82.22H/5) length 53mm, width 22mm Only one side survives, consisting of a length of cow metatarsus with rounded ends. The face has been carved into wide ribs and is further decorated by incised transverse grooves. It is too short to form an entire handgrip on its own. Cf. Richborough (Henderson 1949, 151 no.269). Allason-Jones (1993) no.450 Segontium: SF112 (311) trench; unstratified

Ab05. ? handgrip, bone (acc. no. 81.79H) length 58mm [broken], width 19mm [broken] Fragment of a turned cylinder with bands of transverse groove decoration. Greep (1986) p.211 no.34 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: (1016) S3.34, soil and refuse filling of frigidarium drain in its length A; Phase X - c. 300-380 (Zienkiewicz 1986b, 257)

Ab09. ? handgrip, bone (acc. no. 82.22H/5) length 44mm [broken], width 20mm [broken] Fragment made from the long bone of a large animal with deeply carved ridge and groove transverse bands and a double triangle at the surviving end. Allason-Jones (1993) p.202 no.452 Segontium: SF443 (348) occupation layer; Period 9 – early/mid 4th century

Ab06. pommel, bone (acc. no. 82.22H/5) length 38mm, width 31mm [broken] Less than half of a barrel shaped tube, cut from a long bone of a large animal. Although fragmentary, its size, and apparent form, would fit with being the

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B: Scabbards Generally only the metal fittings of scabbards survive. Scabbards, probably of Roman origin, from the Danish bogs, however, suggest that these fittings attached to a case of wood covered with leather (Southern & Dixon 1996, 104). In the first century AD scabbards had suspension rings on the side but precisely how they were attached to the belt is unknown. It is not clear whether only two suspension rings, three, or even all four were employed, although various suggestions have been made (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 71-4). Finds from Newstead (Curle 1911, pl.XXXV. 13, 16-18) and turrets on Hadrian’s Wall (Allason-Jones 1988b, 35a.3 & 50b.3) indicate that scabbards began to change in the second century. Peltaform chapes are found, as well as scabbard-slides, indicating the form of belt attachment that became standard in the third century and continued into the fourth (Bishop & Coulston 1989, 43).

First to Second Century Plates and Binding Three principal types of scabbard have been identified for Mainz swords and two for Pompeii swords (p.9). These seem to have had a broadly chronological development which extends from the late first century BC into the second century AD. Individual fittings, however, particularly if fragmentary, are not always easily assignable to a particular scabbard type, as the pieces in the Museum’s collection make clear. A distinctive characteristic of all the Mainz type scabbards was the use of U-shaped copper alloy binding, or guttering, along the edges to prevent damage from the sword blade during sheathing and unsheathing. The first type had elaborate openwork fittings at the mouth and chape (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 71). A chape from Dangstetten must have been deposited around 15BC (Fingerlin 1970-71, abb.13.11), but the form seems to have continued until the Claudian period, pieces of this kind of scabbard coming from the Magdalensburg, abandoned c. AD45 (Deimel 1987, tafel 69.1,3). The second type has embossed motifs instead of openwork decoration. Fragments of suspension bands, decorated with a laurel wreath motif, have come from Colchester (Crummy 1983, 168 no.4658) and Chichester (Down 1981, 166 no.9), indicating the continued use of this type later than AD43. The third type was almost totally covered with embossed plates. A fragment of this type from Vindonissa belongs to a phase that finished before c.AD50 (Ettlinger & Hartmann 1984, 8-14). Pompeii type scabbards sometimes lacked the guttering, but had decorated locket plates and chapes decorated with a combination of punched-out shapes and incised detail. An ornate palmette was fixed just above the chape, and the bottom of the locket and chape plates were adorned with palmettes at the side. Some examples also had studs on the face of the scabbard. These metal components were usually tinned or silvered (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 71). nos.78-110). Caerleon – Jenkins Field: - - -

Ba01. plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 64mm, width 9mm, thickness 3mm, stud protrudes 4mm Long narrow rectangular plate with the edges turned back forming a rim at the back. The front is decorated by a pair of parallel longitudinal grooves and there are three studs evenly spaced along the centre of the back. Cf. Vindonissa (Unz & Deschler-Erd 1997, 16 no.111-2). Caerleon – unprovenanced

Ba03.

plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 61mm, width 48mm, thickness 1mm Damaged sheet with repoussé decoration consisting of a female figure, probably Venus, within a circular wreath, flanked on the left by figure, possibly Mercury or possibly Pan, and on the right by a figure holding a jug. Possibly from a Mainz type scabbard. Wheeler & Wheeler (1928) p.167 no.38, fig.15 Caerleon – Amphitheatre: layer 7, with a denarius of Hadrian and Hadrianic pottery

Ba02. binding, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.62) length 80mm, width 12mm, thickness 2mm Strip bent into an ellipse with a loop at each end. Cf. Hod Hill (Brailsford 1962, 1 no.A6); Vindonissa (Unz & Deschler-Erb 1997, 16-7

Ba04. ? chape plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H/2)

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length 26mm, thickness 1mm, rivet 9mm V-shaped plate with a flat circular terminal pierced by a rivet made by rolling a copper alloy strip into a tube and hammering one end to form a head. Battered and clearly only a fragment of something. Allason-Jones (1993) p.172 no.79 Segontium: SF613, (1511) layer; Period 8 – late 3rdearly/mid 4th century

Ba08. chape, iron (acc. no. 92.32H) length 85mm, max. width 47mm, thickness 8mm The iron plates were originally bound by copper alloy side channels, which are now largely lost. The chape would originally have terminated in a cast copper alloy knob (see Ba06), which is now lost, although it is clear where it fitted. Across the plates, and linking the side channels, are moulded copper alloy, or brazed strips. From a narrow scabbard probably of Pompeii type. This scabbard, however, appears to have been largely made of metal, rather than of wood and leather bound in metal. This fact suggests an earlier first century date, while the form indicates a date after the middle of the century. Evans & Metcalf (1989) p.56 no.1 Usk – Old Market Street 1979: SF058 (21/821) Phase III – mid-sixties to end of the first century AD

Ba05. binding, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 115mm, width at top 15mm, width at bottom 9mm, diameter of knob 12mm One arm of the binding from the lower end of a scabbard and the knob chape from the bottom. The top of the arm is embellished with a stylized palmette. The arm is facetted and there are two sets of rivets along its length. These originally secured the ornamental fittings which extended from one arm of the chape to the other across the scabbard. Cf. Neuss (Ulbert 1969, 114 tafel 26); Rottweil (Ulbert 1969, 124 abb. 4); Verulamium (Goodburn 1984, 33 no.71); Vindonissa (Unz & Deschler-Erd 1997, 15 no.62); and a larger example from Hod Hill (Brailsford 1962, 1 no.A14). Webster (1992) p.128 no.114 [report illustration wrong, too short] Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1812 (31/1457) Block B; Phase III/IV- c.100-340, found among early second century material from the mid second century reconstruction.

Ba09. ? plate, iron (acc. no. 92.32H) length 47mm [broken], max. width 46mm, max. thickness 10mm Iron plate, rapped round to form a flat tube. There are remains of a transverse binding strip with raised edges. It appears that the whole piece once had a copper alloy coating. A ring (diam. 26mm) is apparently attached through one face. From a narrow scabbard. See Ba08 Usk – Old Market Street 1979: SF061 (21/301)

Ba06.

chape, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 14mm, max. diameter 13mm, diameter of socket 7mm Small knob chape. The hollow terminal has three transverse mouldings, widening to an inverted mushroom shape, with a further moulding at the end recessed perhaps for a setting. On the Interior of the socket a separate layer of copper alloy remains in situ, presumably the remnant of the scabbard binding (see Ba05). This piece is small for a knob chape but a similarly small example is known from Vindonissa (Unz & Deschler-Erb 1997, 16 no.133). Webster (1992) p.128 no.116 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1792 (31/1779) Block B Phase; III/IV - c.100-340

Ba10. ? binding, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.110) length 88mm [broken], width 14mm, height 8mm Strip with a U-shaped cross-section, but no traces of any nail holes. Cf. Hod Hill (Brailsford 1962, 1, no.A14). Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.259 no.110 (Not illustrated) Loughor: SF176 (57\138) rampart tail or collapse; Period VII (Phase 9) c.115/120 - c.260 Ba11. binding, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.111) three principal pieces - length 103mm, width 13mm, height 7 mm; length 75mm, width 14mm, height 7mm; length 25mm, width 13mm, height 5mm. Lengths of other fragments 28mm, 19mm, 23mm (width c.13mm), 12 by 17 mm, 10 by 10 mm, 10 by 13 mm and a rectangular strip 36 by 11mm Fragments with semi-circular cross-section and remains of a stylised palmette at each upper end, now much damaged. The two larger pieces have an applied reinforcing rib slightly off-centre. Cf. Hod Hill (Brailsford 1962, 1 no.A14); and Verulamium (Goodburn 1984, 33, no.72). Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.259 no.111 Loughor: SF272 (57\445) layer slumping into ditch behind rampart; Period I (Phase 4) c.73/4 - c.80

Ba07. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 92.32H) main piece: length 51mm [broken], width 11mm [broken], thickness 2mm Fragments including one of the looped ends and part of one suspension ring. Decorated by horizontal ridges and grooves. See Ba02. Evans & Metcalf (1989) p.55 no.7 Usk – Old Market Street 1979: SF109 (21/380) Phase III – mid-sixties to end of the first century AD

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Between the two engraved panels is a plain narrow tinned panel with the remains of a nail hole towards the centre, and another panel seems to have continued below the lower decorative panel. Attached, at an angle, along the right-hand side is what was originally a continuous series of raised repoussé lines. Traces of the scheme of decoration can be made out. On the right-hand side of the upper panel can be seen a vexillum, with part of the fringed cloth and possibly the handgrip; towards the centre left is perhaps part of the skirt or tunic hem of a figure. The lower panel shows, in the upper centre left, part of the upper portion of a vexillum and towards the right-hand side a Victory advancing left in profile with a stylised palm branch over her left shoulder and her skirts billowing out behind her. Below her is a lentoid-shaped object, probably intended as a shield in side view, thrown down, and perhaps suggesting captured spoils. Cf. Nijmegen (GerhartlWitteveen & Hubrecht 1990, 102-3 no.5); and Vindonissa (Unz & Deschler-Erb 1997, 15 no.61). Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.260 no.113 Loughor: SF612a (53\2354) fill of pit cutting road; Period IV (Phase 9) c.100 - c.105

Ba12. binding, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.112) length 31mm [broken], max. width 17mm, thickness 1mm Fragment with one curved end and longitudinal reeded decoration. There is the remains of one nail hole. Traces of tinning still remain on the undecorated reverse. Cf. Hod Hill (Brailsford 1962, 1 no.A6). Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.259 no.112 Loughor: SF365 (53\1003) foundation material from wall of uppermost praetorium; Period VI (Phase 14) c.110 - c.115/120 Ba13. plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.113) length 116mm [broken], max. width 59mm [broken] Twenty-one fragments from the upper decorative panels of a scabbard. They can be partially reconstructed to produce two incomplete panels with engraved and cut-out detail, and further details picked out with tinning. The two panels are each framed by a raised repoussé line lightly punched to suggest beading, and by a further series of three raised repoussé lines along the top and bottom.

Chapes – Second to Fourth Century Chapes in metal or bone were used to strengthen the tip of a scabbard. In the first century triangular guttering chapes were the norm and have been considered above (see Ba04-Ba06, Ba08). During the second century a change occurred and copper alloy heart-shaped or peltiform chapes start to appear in the archaeological record (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 111-12). The late second or early third century Column of Marcus Aurelius depicts these and semicircular chapes in use along side the older triangular guttering chapes (Waurick 1989, figs. 3,4,11-14). In the third century, peltate and heart-shaped copper alloy scabbard chapes continued in use and new box and disc chapes made an appearance (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 130). Chapes from Vermand, Gundremmingen, Liebenau and Trier in the fourth century represent a new type with an elliptical copper alloy plate attached to the end of the scabbard by three ribbed cylindrical or dome-headed copper alloy rivets (Gilles 1979 129-33). These are clearly depicted on the porphyry Venice Tetrarchs (Southern & Dixon 1996, pl.16).

Heart-shaped or Peltiform Chapes The Museum’s collection is dominated by material from the Prysg Field site at Caerleon and in particular the second century phase of the North-West Rampart-Buildings which produced five examples (p.174-5; Chapman 2002). Rampart-Buildings Room 2; Period Ia c.120-200

Bb01. chape, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 39mm, width 43mm, thickness 9mm Peltiform, almost crescent shaped, with a central fleur-de-lis shaped projection on the front, which the two sides bend in to meet. The top part of the back plate is broken, so it is unclear how this would have ended. Cf. Richborough (Wilson 1968, 93 nos.91-2); South Shields (Allason-Jones & Miket 1984, 160 no.3.401); from the Upper GermanRaetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 243 nos.112-6). Nash-Williams (1932) p.85 fig.34.40; p.88 fig.36.15 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBa(2)S; North-Western

Bb02. chape, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 48mm [broken], width 40mm, max. thickness 7mm Shield or heart shaped example, damaged at the top with its central projection largely missing. Cf. from the Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 243 nos.105-7) Nash-Williams (1932) p.85 fig.34.41, p.88 fig.36.19 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBa(2)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 2; Period Ia c.120-200

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centre of the back. The front is damaged. See Bb02. Nash-Williams (1932) p.88 fig.36.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: C28 A2 X (+) unstratified

Bb03. chape, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 37mm, width 22mm, thickness 6mm An unusually small example. See Bb02. Nash-Williams (1932) p.88 fig.36.16 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBa(2)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 2; Period Ia c.120-200

Bb08. chape, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 61mm, width 47mm, thickness 7mm A complete but slightly crushed example. See Bb02. Nash-Williams (1932) p.88 fig.36.22 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBa(11)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 11; Period Ia c.120-200

Bb04. chape, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 51mm, width 32mm, max. thickness 6mm There is a small circular perforation through back, centrally between shoulders, presumably used to aid attachment to the scabbard. See Bb02. Nash-Williams (1932) p.88 fig.36.17 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBa(8)T; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 8; timber phase c.75-120

Bb09. chape, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 61mm, width 52mm, thickness 7mm Slightly wider than the other examples in the collection giving a more rounded, almost semicircular, look to it. See Bb02. Caerleon – Prysg Field: - - -

Bb05. chape, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 53mm [broken], width 35mm, max. thickness 7mm There is a small circular perforation at top of back, set slightly off centre. The bottom of the chape is damaged. See Bb02. Nash-Williams (1932) p.88 fig.36.18 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBa(2)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 2; Period Ia c.120-200

Bb10. chape, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.118) length 52mm, width 31mm, thickness 6mm A narrow, more pointed example. See Bb02. Caerleon – School Field: CDS Bb11. chape, copper alloy (acc. no. 36.470) length 39mm [broken], width 26mm [broken], thickness 7mm Part of one side and the downward curve of the top edge. Caerleon – Jenkins Field II: at (29) in charcoal and occupation next on natural clay

Bb06. chape, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 52mm [broken], width 38mm, max. thickness 7mm Complete apart from the tip of the central projection, but with a split down one side of the face. See Bb02. Nash-Williams (1932) p.88 fig.36.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: C28 RB2 Dc (+) unstratified

Bb12. chape, copper alloy (acc. no. 56.214B) length 23mm [broken], width 49mm, thickness 9mm Badly battered with virtually nothing of the back surviving. Probably the remains of a chape similar to Bb01. Boon (unpublished) no.94 Caerleon – Bear House Field III: F3; Building VIII; unstratified

Bb07. chape, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 60mm, max. width 42mm, max. thickness 7mm There is a small circular perforation at the top

Box Chapes Box chapes of bone or copper alloy are generally made in two parts. The front element is most commonly rectangular or trapezoidal with the longer, vertical, sides often slightly concave. The sides of it curve round to form flanges which are deeper at the top than at the bottom and which also tend to taper in relation to one another, frequently, but not invariably, towards the top. The rear element is a simple plate which slides within the flanges and displays a corresponding taper. Some examples incorporate rivet holes for fixing to the scabbard (see Bc14), but the majority have no such holes and were presumably glued in place (MacGregor 1985, 163). The front plate is commonly decorated by a central rib, or ribs; a raised border down each side; and a pair of opposed pelta-shaped piercings near the top (see Bc01). The most common alternative to this decorative scheme features a central ellipse in relief, often with an axial rib. Some chapes of this second type are also pierced by opposed pelta-shaped holes, as one from Silchester (Boon 1974, 67 no.5), but most feature a pair of incised scrolls near the top of the ellipse (see Bc02). Among chapes of either of the above groups the 15

upper and lower edges may be notched, serrated, or carved into a sinuous outline. The long-bones of cattle, probably tibias, provided the principal source of raw material (MacGregor 1985, 163). They have a Europe wide distribution and are dated to the late second to third century, the earliest being one recovered from Dover of c.163/5-208 (Williams & Parfitt 1981, 169 no. 242; Bishop & Coulston 1993, 130). They are particularly common at Niederbieber (Oldenstein 1976, 244-5), a site occupied in the late second to third centuries (Greep 1992, 189). All the box chapes in the Museum’s collection are of bone and come from Caerleon. Indeed Caerleon has produced more examples of bone box chapes than any other site in the north-western Empire (Greep 1992, 189), all but two coming from the Prysg Field excavations (p.174-5; Chapman 2002). length 57mm, max. width 40mm [broken], thickness 11mm Front plate, trapezoidal in shape and slightly convex. Decorated by three raised ribs with open pelta-like ornaments between. The top is notched and the bottom edge bevelled. See Bc01. Nash-Williams (1932) p.97 fig.43.4 Greep (1983) p.560 no.45, fig.127.3 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBa(2)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 2; Period Ia c.120-200

Bc01. box chape, bone (acc. no. 32.60) length 62mm, width 54mm, thickness 13mm Front plate, trapezoidal in shape and slightly convex. It is decorated by three raised ribs with open pelta-like ornaments between. The upper end is notched and lower edge bevelled. Cf. Colchester (Crummy 1983, 137-8 no.4242); Lydney Park (Wheeler & Wheeler 1932, 91 no.150); Richborough (Radford 1932, 79 no.22); South Shields (Allason-Jones & Miket 1984, 47 no.2.80); and from the Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 244 nos.148-59). Nash-Williams (1932) p.97 fig.43.1 Greep (1983) p.560 no.43, fig.127.1 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBa(2)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 2; Period Ia c.120-200

Bc05. box chape, bone (acc. no. 32.60) length 60mm, width 38mm, thickness 5mm Back plate with a groove down each side, a notched top, and a bevelled bottom edge. Cf. South Shields (Allason-Jones & Miket 1984, 42 no.2.75) Nash-Williams (1932) p.97 fig.43.5 Greep (1983) p.563 no.77, fig.135.10 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBa(2)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 2; Period Ia c.120-200

Bc02. box chape, bone (acc. no. 32.60) length 58mm, width 36mm [broken], thickness 12mm Front plate, trapezoidal in shape and slightly convex. It is decorated by a raised central rib dividing a raised ellipse with a pair of incised scrolls near the top. The upper end is notched and lower edge bevelled. Cf. Richborough (Wilson 1968, 106 no.228); Verulamium (Goodburn & Grew 1984, 71 no.262); and from the Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 245 nos.170-5). Nash-Williams (1932) p.97 fig.43.2 Greep (1983) p.561 no.56, fig.128.17 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(22)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 22; Period III c.200-300

Bc06. box chape, bone (acc. no. 32.60) length 56mm, width 44mm, thickness 12mm Front plate, trapezoidal in shape and slightly convex. Decorated by three raised ribs with open pelta-like ornaments between. The top is notched and the bottom edge bevelled. See Bc01. Nash-Williams (1932) p.97 fig.43.6 Greep (1983) p.560 no.44, fig.127.2 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(13)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 13; Period III c.200-300 Bc07. box chape, bone (acc. no. 32.60) length 63mm, max. width 20mm [broken], thickness 13mm One side of a front plate similar to Bc01. Nash-Williams (1932) p.97 fig.43.8 Greep (1983) p.560 no.46, fig.127.8 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(25)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 25; Period III c.200-300

Bc03. box chape, bone (acc. no. 32.60) length 58mm, max. width 35mm, thickness 5mm Back plate decorated by a groove down each side, eight notches across the top and bevelling of the bottom edge. Cf. Dover (Williams & Parfitt 1981, 169 no.242). Nash-Williams (1932) p.97 fig.43.3 Greep (1983) p.563 no.74, fig.135.7 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(22)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 22; Period III c.200-300

Bc08. box chape, bone (acc. no. 32.60) length 61mm, width 41mm, thickness 4mm Back plate with a groove down each side, a notched top, and a bevelled bottom edge. See Bc03.

Bc04. box chape, bone (acc. no. 32.60)

16

Greep (1983) p.563 no.73, fig.135.5 Caerleon – Prysg Field: unstratified

Bc12. box chape, bone (acc. no. 32.60) length 59mm, width 18 [broken], thickness 14mm One side of a front plate probably of similar type to Bc01. Caerleon – Prysg Field: - - -

Bc09. box chape, bone (acc. no. 32.60) length 53mm, max. width 40mm, thickness 4mm Back plate, only decorated by four notches across the top. See Bc03. Greep (1983) p.563 no.70, fig.135.2 Caerleon – Prysg Field: unstratified

Bc13. box chape, bone (acc. no. 88.3H) length 57mm, width 29mm [broken], thickness 6mm Fragment of a front plate with a narrow central ridge and grooves, and the remains of cut-outs, presumably originally of pelta-shape. Neither side remains. See Bc01. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: (138/011)

Bc10. box chape, bone (acc. no. 32.60) length 54mm, max. width 38mm [broken], thickness 4mm Back plate originally decorated by a groove down each side, seven notches across the top and bevelling of the bottom edge, but broken on the line of one of the grooves. See Bc03. Greep (1983) p.563 no.71, fig.135.4 Caerleon – Prysg Field: unstratified

Bc14. box chape, bone (acc. no. 88.3H) length 63mm, width 29mm [broken], thickness 5mm The central part of a front plate decorated by a raised central rib dividing a raised ellipse with a pair of incised scrolls near the top. There is a small circular hole in the top left corner, this probably took a rivet to help secure it to the scabbard. See Bc02. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: (138/108)

Bc11. box chape, bone (acc. no. 32.60) length 35mm [broken], width 31mm, thickness 4mm The lower part of a back plate with a remains of a groove visible down each side and two notches, one very faint, in the bottom edge. See Bc03. Greep (1983) p.563 no.72, fig.135.9 Caerleon – Prysg Field: - - -

Disc Chapes The disc chape is the most common form represented on gravestones. Roman scabbards on Sassanid reliefs have circular chapes and a white, probably bone, disc chape appears on a long brown scabbard on a third century mosaic at Palmyra (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 130). The actual chapes are found made of ivory, bone, iron or copper alloy and can be plain, engraved, or, in the case of iron, inlaid with contrasting coloured metal or niello. Both of the major decorative devices noted amongst box chapes, midribs combined with peltashaped holes and relief ellipses with opposed scrolls, are again represented (MacGregor 1985, 163). The finest examples come from the German Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 116 nos.138-47) but, there are also examples from Dura-Europos (James 2004, 154-56 nos.566-575) and the Syrian Hauran (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 130). They are, however, virtually absent from Britain. Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBa(2)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 2; Period Ia c.120-200

Bd01. disc chape, bone (acc. no. 32.60) length 44mm, width 46mm, thickness 14mm The slide is apparently on the front of the chape, as this is the decorated face. Decorated by a vertical groove down each side, on one side on the body and on the other on the slide. These help to disguise the presence of the slide by making the joins appear part of a double groove pattern. Stained green. Nash-Williams (1932) p.97 fig.43.7 Greep (1983) p.561 no.62, fig.129.23; p.564 no.82, fig.136.16

Bd02. disc chape, bone (acc. no. 32.60) diameter 52mm, thickness 13mm About half of a front plate. There is no sign of any decoration and it may well be an unfinished, possibly failed, piece. Greep (1983) p.561 no.61, fig.129.22 Caerleon – Prysg Field: - - -

Scabbard Slides Vertical runners or slides mounted on the scabbard facing away from the wearer first appear as a means of suspending the scabbard in the second century. A copper alloy slide from the Bonner Berg may be Hadrianic 17

(Bishop & Coulston 1993, 112), and examples come from Antonine contexts along Hadrian’s Wall, such as Appletree Turret (Allason-Jones 1988b, 50b.3). The origin of scabbard slides appears to lie in Asia, where examples occur from the Near East to China, and Bishop & Coulston (1993, 112) suggested that slidesuspension came into Roman use through contact with steppe peoples in the Danubian zone. In the third century scabbard slides occur in considerable numbers and in a variety of forms and materials: copper alloy, iron, ivory and bone (Southern & Dixon 1996, 105).

Metal Slides The slide was fixed to the scabbard by two, or three, studs protruding from the underside which were pushed through holes in the scabbard and then probably secured by glue, in addition binding was wrapped around both the slide and the scabbard (Southern & Dixon 1996, 105). Copper alloy pieces generally have cast ribbing and bevelling, and many have foliate, ring, pelta, crescent or heart-shaped terminals. The most elaborate were cast in the shape of a dolphin (Dixon 1990), although none of this type exist in the Museum’s collection. Some iron examples were decorated with niello inlay. Oldenstein (1976, 107-8) suggests a date from the latter part of the second century up to the mid third century for the British copper alloy scabbard slides. All the examples in the Museum’s collection come from Caerleon, with nearly half coming from the Prysg Field (p.174-5; Chapman 2002). There is no evidence for a stud on the back. Cf. Stockstadt (Oldenstein 1976, 241 no. 40). Caerleon – unprovenanced

Be01. slide, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 146mm, max. width 14mm, thickness 3mm, clearance 6mm Slide with a small heart shaped lower terminal, decorated by a saltire cross, and the upper terminal in the form of a ring. Cf. Colchester (Webster 1958, 76 no.61); Fremington Hagg (Webster 1971, 120 no.82); Lancaster (Webster 1988, 148, no.6); Silchester (Boon 1974, 67 no.8); South Shields (Allason-Jones & Miket 1984, 197 no.3.646); and from the Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 242 nos.55-6). Collingwood & Richmond (1969) p.304, fig.108a Caerleon – unprovenanced

Be05. slide, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 115mm, max. width 15mm Looped over at the top and tapering to a knob terminal at the bottom. There is also a knob at the step which suggests a stylised animal head, but this may all be the product of corrosion. Cf. from the Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 243-3, nos.70-100). Nash-Williams (1932) p.73 fig.26.5 Caerleon – Prysg Field: 6(7)S; barrack block no.6, Room 7; stone phase c.105-200 AD

Be02. slide, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 71mm [broken], max. width 11mm, thickness 2mm, clearance c.6mm Upper part with a pointed terminal. Possibly same slide as Be03, but there is no definite join. See Be06. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Be06. slide, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length c.109mm, max. width 19mm, thickness 2mm, clearance c.5mm Slide with a pointed terminal at the top and an openwork terminal at the bottom. Complete but in two pieces. The lower part is twisted so that it now lies almost at right angles to the rest. Nash-Williams (1932) p.87 fig.36.2 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBa(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 5; Period Ia c. 120-200

Be03. slide, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 57mm [broken], max. width 19mm, thickness 2mm Lower part with an openwork terminal. Possibly same slide as Be02, but there is no definite join. See Be06. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Be07. slide, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 114mm, max. width 11mm, thickness 2mm, clearance 5mm Slide with a pointed terminal at the top and an openwork terminal at the bottom. The studs for attachment are of iron. See Be06. Nash-Williams (1932) p.87 fig.36.3 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBa(2)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 2; Period Ia c.120-200

Be04. slide, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 59mm [broken], max. width 17mm, thickness 3mm Lower part with a heart shaped terminal decorated by a saltire cross and now slightly bent to one side.

18

Be14. slide, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 69mm [broken], max. width 12mm, thickness 2mm, clearance c.7mm Upper part with a pointed terminal. Nash-Williams (1932) p.87 fig.36.11 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBa(2)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 2; Period Ia c.120-200

Be08. slide, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 111mm, max. width 13mm, thickness 3mm, clearance 5mm Slide with a pointed terminal at the top and a heart shaped terminal at the bottom. The studs for attachment are of iron. Nash-Williams (1932) p.87 fig.36.4 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBa(11)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 11; Period Ia c.120-200

Be15. slide, copper alloy (acc. no. 36.472) length 68mm, max. width 12mm, max. thickness 7mm, clearance 5mm Short slide with a ring terminal at the top. The presence of two rearward attachment studs and the apparent bevelling of the bottom edge suggests that, despite its short length, this piece may be complete. Caerleon – Vine Cottage: at (8) in SP I; charcoal and occupation layer

Be09. slide, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 112mm, max. width 15mm, thickness 2mm, clearance c.5mm Slide with a pointed terminal at the top a heart shaped terminal at the bottom. Complete but in two pieces. See Be08. Nash-Williams (1932) p.87 fig.36.5 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBa(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 5; Period Ia c. 120-200

Be16. slide, copper alloy (acc. no. 46.1) length 86mm [bent], max. width 13mm, clearance 5mm A slide missing both its terminals and slightly bent. Hawkes (1930) p.194 no.9 Caerleon – Eastern Corner: (+) unstratified

Be10. slide, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 106mm [broken], max. width 13mm, thickness 3mm, clearance c.6mm Slide with a small heart shaped lower terminal. It has lost the terminal from the top end and the lower part is slightly bent to one side. See Be01. Nash-Williams (1932) p.88 fig.36.6 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Be17. slide, copper alloy (acc. no. 54.389A) length 111mm [broken], max. width 14mm, clearance c.5mm Now badly corroded and encrusted. There is some evidence for a brake at the top, suggesting that there was once a terminal at the top. The attachment studs appear to have been of iron. Boon (unpublished) no.95 Caerleon – Bear House Field I: F72; Main lateral drain; c.130-230

Be11. slide, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 113mm, max. width 15mm, thickness 2mm, clearance c.6mm Slide with a pointed terminal at the top and a heart shaped terminal at the bottom. Complete but in two pieces. See Be08. Nash-Williams (1932) p.88 fig.36.7 Caerleon – Prysg Field: C28 A2x; unstratified

Be18. slide, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.10H) length 73mm [broken], max. width 13mm, clearance c.5mm Upper part of a ring-headed slide. See Be01. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.29 no.6 Usk – Detention Centre Site: FNF (2) pit; third century

Be12. slide, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 106mm [broken], max. width 19mm, thickness 2mm, clearance c.6mm Slide with a pointed terminal at the top and an openwork terminal at the bottom. The tip of the bottom terminal is missing. See Be06. Nash-Williams (1932) p.87 fig.36.8 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBa(2)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 2; Period Ia c.120-200

Be19. slide, copper alloy (acc. no. 84.43H) length 65mm [broken], max. width 13mm, thickness 2mm, clearance c.6mm Upper part with a pointed terminal. There is slight iron staining around the site of the, now missing, upper stud, which may have come from the scabbard. Zienkiewicz (1993) p.114 no.37 Caerleon – The Legionary Museum Site: unstratified

Be13. slide, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 69mm [broken], max. width 11mm, thickness 2mm, clearance c.6mm Upper part with a pointed terminal. Nash-Williams (1932) p.88 fig.36.9 [probably, but appears complete in publication] Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBa(8)T; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 8; timber phase c.75-120

19

V c.200

Be20. slide, copper alloy (acc. no. 84.43H) length 52mm [broken], max. width 11mm, clearance c.6mm Lower end, with a heart shaped terminal. The length of the attachment stud, as compared to other specimens, seems too long for the piece ever to have been used, suggesting an unused piece and the possibility of local manufacture. Zienkiewicz (1993) p.113 no.31 Caerleon – The Legionary Museum Site: (76) Phase

Be21. slide, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 84mm [broken], max. width 11mm, thickness 2mm, clearance 4mm Slide with a pointed terminal at the top, missing its lower terminal. Both attachment studs are of iron, the upper one being riveted through from the front. Webster (1992) p.129 no.117 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF624 (31/410) Block C, Robbing

Bone Slides Bone and ivory scabbard slides take the form of elongated blocks, either flat and waisted, or with an upstanding lobate profile, pierced from side to side by a rectangular slot to accommodate the baldric. Above and below the slot are usually two smaller circular holes by which the slide was bound to the scabbard. For additional stability the small tongues which tend to project from either end would have allowed further binding (MacGregor 1985, 163-5; Chapman 1976). Bf02. slide, bone (acc. no. 82.44H/4.1) length 85mm, max. width 11mm, thickness 14mm, length of perforation 29mm, width of perforation 7mm Almost complete except for the projecting tongue at one end. There is a rectangular perforation to take the baldric, and two circular holes (diam. 6mm) to aid binding to the scabbard. The upper surface is decorated by two longitudinal grooves as on most other known examples of this type. Cf. Colchester (Greep 1983, 565 no.93); two examples from London (Chapman 1976, pl.XLVa); South Shields (Allason-Jones & Miket 1984, 300 no.6.1; Chapman 1976, pl.XLVc); and York (Greep 1983, 565 no.97). Greep (1983) p.566 no.98, fig.139.9 Greep et al. (1988) p.172 no.1 Llandough: (002) modern disturbance

Bf01. slide, bone (acc. no. 38.472) length 59mm [broken], max. width 17mm, max. thickness 17mm, clearance c.5mm One end of a low flat slide with concave sides. It has a transverse perforation to assist attachment to the scabbard. The upper surface is decorated by raised outer borders and the whole piece is highly polished. Cf. Colchester (Greep 1983, 565 no.86); Great Chesters (Greep 1983, 565 no.87); Shakenoak (Brodribb, Hands & Walker 1973, 142 no.131); Worms (Oldenstein 1976, 242 no.65); and three examples from Wroxeter (Greep 1983, 565 nos.8991). Greep (1983) p.565 no.92, fig.139.8 Caerleon – Museum Street: at (3) in debris next below uppermost occupation layer (4)

20

C: Daggers By the first century AD the sword was supplemented by a double edged dagger, the pugio, and this practice appears to have continued until at least the third century. With blade lengths of between 250mm and 350mm these daggers were clearly formidable weapons, to have in reserve should the sword be lost or damaged. Tombstones show that both legionaries and auxiliary infantry carried daggers in the first century; and a papyrus from Egypt, dating to AD 27, suggests that they were also owned by at least some cavalrymen. It records that L. Caecilius Secundus, an eques of the ala Paullini, borrowed money from an auxiliary infantryman, and one of the objects he used as security for the loan was ‘a silver dagger sheath with ivory inlay’ (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 76). Finds of first century Roman military daggers and their inlaid sheaths are well known and a good number have been published (cf. Scott 1985). Their handles were an inverted ‘T’ shape, with a swelling half-way along its length and another as a pommel at the top. Scott (1992, 164) suggests that these daggers and their associate sheaths went out of use during the early Flavian period but a dagger from Buciumi, in the new province of Dacia (Bishop & Coulston 1989, 44), and a T-shaped dagger handle with crescentic pommel from Bar Hill (Keppie 1975, 99 no.15), as well as the dagger from Gelligaer (Ca01) point to continued use in the second century. The Bar Hill handle is particularly interesting because, in terms of size, length 130mm, it more closely resembles third century daggers than those of earlier periods (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 112). Herodian (II 13.10) stated that when Severus cashiered the Praetorians, in AD 193, he deprived them of decorated daggers in addition to their belts. The use of daggers in the third century is clearly demonstrated by the presence of fifty-one blades and twenty-nine sheaths in the Künzing iron hoard (Herrmann 1969, 133). The larger daggers had 280mm long blades and were c.400mm long overall. Most had a pronounced waist and two longitudinal channels defining a rib, although some had parallel sides. Some had inverted ‘T’-shaped grip-plates with crescentic pommels but others had entirely organic handles. Other third-century daggers from British, Rhenish and Danubian sites are often longer and proportionally wider than those of earlier periods (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 135): an example from London has an 80mm wide and 300mm long waisted blade (Merrifield 1965, 182 pl.99). No evidence exists for the use of double-edged daggers during the fourth century but a single-edged knife is a common grave find in this period and may have served a similar function (Southern & Dixon 1996, 112).

First to Early Second Century Dagger Types The typology and chronology of first century daggers has been discussed at length by Scott (Manning 1985, 152-9; Scott 1985, 165-73). There are a number of features that seem to have a chronological significance (Scott 1985, 161-5). Simple upstanding midribs are found on daggers from Augustan contexts, and they continue in use until the Flavian period (Scott 1985, 162 Type A). Midribs defined by grooves are only found on daggers from contexts dating to the late Tiberian-early Claudian period and after (Scott 1985, 162 Type B). Daggers of later date can also have slim blades, often with only a slight waist, and with very reduced or vestigial midribs (Scott 1985, 164-5 Type C). Flat tangs appear to be an early feature, though may continue to be used into later periods, where as rod tangs are found only on daggers from contexts of late Claudian/early Neronian and later date (Scott 1985, 162-3). Finally, rivet holes through the shoulders of the blade are an early feature found generally, but not exclusively, on early daggers with flat tangs (Scott 1985, 163). Scott (Manning 1995, 156) suspected, however, that the various types of dagger will prove to be largely contemporary, the Type A and Type B daggers representing two separate traditions. The same possibly applies to the different types of sheath. Handles were an inverted ‘T’ shape, with a swelling half-way along its length and another as a pommel at the top. They were made up of a layer of organic material, usually bone or horn, placed on each side of the tang with iron plates generally of triangular cross-section in the area of the grip, as an outer covering (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 74). With plate tangs the rivets holding the handle together ran through holes in the tang. A typical handle appears to have had two rivets through the pommel, one in the central expansion and a variable number in the hilt guard (Manning 1985, 153). With rod tangs the rivets of the handle did not 21

actually pass through the blade or tang. The handle thus depended on the tightness of its fit to stay in place. A few examples of this type of tang are known with turned wooden handles, but these are almost certainly later replacements for damaged or lost originals of composite type (Manning 1985, 153). The Museum’s collection contains the remains of seven such daggers. Probably the most important is from Usk (Cb02), for until its discovery there was uncertainty about the form of handle used on the daggers with rod tangs. The Usk find suggests that the handles on most, if not all, first century military daggers were similar regardless of type of tang. It also provides the earliest securely dated example of a rod tang, coming from a late Neronian-early Flavian pit at Usk. In contrast the dagger from Gelligaer (Ca01), where the excavated fort had a Trajanic foundation, would appear to support the continued use of daggers into the second century, though the presence of a nearby Flavian-Trajanic fort should be noted (p.183). Ca01. dagger, iron (acc. no. 02.127/1) length 180mm [broken], max. width 31 [broken] The stripped remains of a narrow, Type C, blade with rod tang, as is usual for the type. Cf. Kingsholm (Manning 1985, 157 V10). Scott (1985) no.36 Bishop & Coulston (1993) p.74 Gelligaer: from the fort itself rather than its annex, but context otherwise unrecorded

Tapering portion of the blade from near the tip, broken at both ends. The x-ray showed clearly that the cutting edges had been welded to a piled core. It would seem on present evidence that there is little or no chronological significance in the presence or otherwise of a piled core (Scott 1985, 165). Scott (1985) no.22 Scott (1992) p.164 no.4 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF573 (31/527) Block A; Phase I/II – c.75-100

Ca02. ? dagger, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 220mm [broken], blade length 160mm [broken], max. width 38mm [broken] Remains of a tanged blade, with a slight midrib. Nash-Williams (1932) p.73 fig.26.4 Caerleon – Prysg Field: 6(23)S; Barrack Block No.6 Room 23; c.105-200

Ca05. dagger handle, iron (acc. no. 97.55H) length 93mm [broken], width 15mm, thickness 5mm Plano-convex strip with a central swelling and a flat cross-piece (length 27mm) at one end. There are two perforations in the cross-piece and one through the centre of the swelling. Cf. Kingsholm (Manning 1985, 157 V15); London (Manning 1985, 157 V14). Usk – Old Market Street 1986: SF174 (106/081); Period II (Phase 5) – c.55/60 - c.75 (Marvell 1996, 54)

Ca03. dagger, iron (acc. no. 54.389A) length 290mm [broken], blade length c.260mm [broken], max. width c.59mm [broken] Gently tapering blade with a flat tang. It is heavily encrusted and broken in four places. Boon (unpublished) no.1 Caerleon – Bear House Field I: F131; Main lateral drain; c.130-230 [actually found during a sectioning of the drain late in the summer of 1958]

Ca06. ? dagger tang, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) length 53mm [broken], max. width 15mm, max. thickness 7mm Fragment with a central perforation, reminiscent of a plate tang. See Ca05 Dawson (1997) p.284 no.81 (not illustrated) Loughor: SF216; (69\005) accumulation in gulley; Post-Roman

Ca04. dagger, iron (acc. no. 88.165H) length 32mm [broken], max. width 30mm

See also Cb02

First to Early Second Century Dagger Sheaths There are two basic forms of first century sheath both usually decorated with inlay (Manning 1995, 154). The earlier form, Type I, was made from two metal plates, lined with wood and leather, while Type II only had a metal face plate with the rest being of organic materials. The plate was fixed to the front of the sheath by means of four sets of rivets, through rectangular expansions, two on each side of the sheath. These rivets also attached the suspension loops of the dagger. The bottom of the plate was secured to the sheath by means of a single rivet. Type I sheaths occur in archaeological contexts dating from the Principate of Augustus to that of Claudius (Scott 1985, 166-7). The presence of Type I sheaths in Britain shows that they were still in use at the time of the Claudian invasion. A sheath of this type from Lincoln (Scott 1985, no.31) was found in the demolition layer of the legionary timber buildings associated with late first-century pottery. There is no other example 22

with a secure dating which is as late as this (Manning 1985, 155). Type II sheaths are later in date, being found in contexts dating from the principate of Tiberius to the early Flavian period (Scott 1985, 165-6). Type II sheaths from Hod Hill (Manning 1985, V18) and Richborough (Henderson 1949, 123 no.74) are of Claudian date but the only securely dated example from the Continent is from a mid-Flavian deposit at Nijmegen (Gerhartl-Witteveen & Hubrecht 1990, 104 no.10). Four suspension loops were elaborately formed and were hinged to the sheath, one pair on either side of the mouth of the scabbard, and another on either side of the scabbard at its widest point before it narrows to the tip. An example from Velsen had iron loops as the upper pair and silver as the lower, all of which were constructed in the same way, although from different metals (Morel & Bosman 1989, 178). Although a wide range of decorative motifs is found on first century inlaid sheaths, including rosettes, temples, palmettes and various geometric elements (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 76), the majority of sheaths have their decoration laid out as a ‘four zone scheme’ (Scott 1985, 168). In this scheme it is quite common for the first, uppermost, panel and the third panel to have similar decoration. These are the panels flanked by the fixing points for the suspension loops. Both of these zones and the second zone between them are rectangular or trapezoidal in shape. The fourth panel is triangular, filling the tapering lower end of the sheath. Only a small number of sheaths do not conform to this pattern and have a single panel of decoration running the length of the sheath (Manning, Price & Webster 1995, 22). Apart from the inlaid sheaths, there were embossed examples, such as the piece from Leeuwen, and completely undecorated sheaths from Mainz, Basel, Oberaden, Dangstetten and Carnuntum (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 76). Decorated sheaths continued in use into the Flavian period, with an example from Corbridge probably dating to after AD85 (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 79). It has often been suggested that decorated sheaths were personal purchases replacing ‘standard issue’ items, but the rarity of such plain pieces from the archaeological record, together with the Roman soldiers’ evident taste for decorated equipment, makes this uncertain (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 76). Type A blades are found associated with Type I sheaths; for example from Dunafoldvar (Thomas 1969, abb.1-2), Alleriot (Bonnamour & Fernoux 1969, 179 figs.1-2) and Utrecht (Ypey 1960-61, abb.5). Type B blades are found associated with Type I and wide Type II sheaths: Type I, for example, from Risstissen (Ulbert 1970, 36 nos. 258-9); Type II, from Leeuwen (Ypey 1960-61, abb.12). Type C daggers and narrower Type II sheaths appear to go together, they are of like size, and are found together at Vindonissa and at the Auerberg (Manning 1985, 156). Inlaid dagger sheaths are particularly well represented in the Museum’s collection: three come from Usk, and one each from Loughor and Caerleon. Zone 2 is rectangular and bordered as Zone 1. It is divided into two square panels by a line of running crosses, flanked by two thin lines of inlay, and possibly originally by other lines of crosses. The two square panels each contained small roundels with what appears to be small crosses within them. The fields around the roundels is filled with diagonal hatching. Zone 3 is rectangular but otherwise similar in design to Zone 1. The roundel has a border of three concentric circles, the middle one of which is formed of wider inlay. Zone 4 is the triangular zone that fills the lower part of the plate. The decorative panel is bordered as the previous zones, with inlaid lines and running crosses. The upper part contained a small trapezoid panel with what appears to be a small cross, probably originally in a roundel much like those in the panels of Zone 2. The rest of the decoration is missing. The distinctive feature of this sheath is the use of borders of ‘running crosses’. The closest parallels are a very poorly preserved fragment from Chester

Cb01. inlaid sheath plate, iron (acc. no. 82.10H) length 213mm, width 50mm Plate, slightly curved in cross-section, from a Type II sheath. The front face is decorated with engraved lines that are inlaid with silver wire. In outline it narrows from the mouth to the waist and then widens before tapering towards the point. There are four rectangular projections from the sides of the plate. These are in pairs, one pair flanking the mouth of the plate and the second pair just below the halfway point. Each projection is pierced with a vertical row of four holes to take the rivets that secured both this plate and suspension rings to the sheath. The decoration is laid out in a ‘four zone scheme’. Zone 1 is trapezoid with a border of three thin, parallel lines, filled between with lines of running crosses. In the centre a segmented roundel, which may have had a border of three concentric circles like that of the roundel in Zone 3. The field between the roundel and border of the panel was filled with diagonal hatching.

23

possibility. Silver wire seems to have been used for the fine hatched background. The decoration of this sheath is unparalleled, indeed only a few sheaths are decorated with a single panel (Scott 1985, 168 , 199). Scott (1985) no.15 Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.25 no.2 Usk – Detention Centre Site: 69 CN (1) Fortress pit; Pre-Flavian or early Flavian (Manning 1981a, 155)

(Scott 1985, 203 no.46) and a plate from Vindonissa (Unz & Deschler-Erb 1997, 19 no.216). Scott (Manning, Price & Webster 1995, 23) assigns these to a separate group, which he terms the ‘Running Cross’ group, with a reasonably secure date. The Chester plate can be dated no earlier than the early Flavian period, and the Vindonissa plate is also probably Flavian in date. The Usk example is securely dated to the late Neronian-early Flavian period. Scott (1985) no.45 Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.23 no.1 Usk – Detention Centre Site: 69 CN (1) Fortress pit; Pre-Flavian or early Flavian (Manning 1981a, 155)

Cb03. inlaid sheath plate, iron (acc. no. 88.165H) length 76mm [broken], max. width 49mm Fragment of a plate from a Type II sheath. The plate is slightly curved in cross-section, and engraved for inlay. Few traces of the inlay can be discerned but the pattern of engraved lines can be clearly seen on the X-ray. The main surviving decoration consists of a stylised plant motif within a diamond shape defined by broad bands of inlay. On one side of the fragment are traces of a strip of copper alloy and, in the same area, four rivet holes, to secure a suspension ring. This plate belongs to a group characterised by having one, and sometimes both, of two diagnostic motifs. These are stylised plants (palmettes) and stylised buildings (temples) set in a panel. A third motif - the ‘hatched diamond’ - is often found in association with others, but is not in itself characteristic. The contexts in which this form of sheath is found appear to be exclusively Flavian. Scott (1985) no.55 Scott (1992) p.165 no.5 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF324 (31/271) Block B, Robbing

Cb02. dagger and sheath, iron (acc. no. 82.10H) overall length 335mm sheath plate: length c.220mm, width 55mm dagger: length of handle 105mm, width of guard 57mm, width of blade less than 40mm [from X-ray] The dagger and its sheath are corroded together. The dagger has a narrow blade with a rod tang. The handle is largely intact with the whole of the front hilt plate in situ, but the back plate is missing. There are two rivet holes through the expansion at the pommel, and one each end of the guard. X-ray photographs show that the shoulders of the blade did not extend far into the hilt-guard. Most of the metal fittings of the scabbard survive. The suspension loops are made of iron, and each consists of a crescentic loop with internal scrolls, fixed to a basal strip. The ends of each of these strips are extend out, bent up at right angles and rolled over to form external scrolls supporting the main loop. The loops appear to be fastened together by welding. The plate and the loops were fastened to the sheath by means of rivets, and there are traces of elongated rectangular washers, formed from copper alloy sheet, at the points where the loops were attached. There were four rivets to fix each of the upper loops and three to secure the lower ones. It is unclear whether the loops were rigid or hinged. Cf. comparable fittings on a sheath from Velsen (Morel & Bosman 1989, 178 figs.7-9). The decoration on the plate is best seen on the X-rays. It consists of a sinuous stem running the length of the sheath plate. From this stem, leaves or shoots sprout, some developing into curling tendrils. Between the curves of the stem and the wide strip forming the outer border of the decorative panel are leaf motifs. These become progressively smaller and more stylized as the plate narrows towards the bottom of the sheath. The field behind is filled with a very fine hatching. There is a very narrow plain border separating the background hatching from the decorative elements. Few physical traces of the materials used as inlay survive, however it seems likely that the main stem and shoots, and its flanking leaves, may have been inlaid with niello. The outer border also may have been inlaid with this material but silver is also a

Cb04. inlaid sheath plate, iron (acc. no. 97.55H) length 195mm [broken], max. width 64mm Type II plate with waisted edges. The decoration is barely visible but is clearly a four panel design, with each panel enclosed by a series of borders. Some traces of white metal inlay survives, including a couple of cross motifs. Enough of the rivets remain to show that the four ring plates were each attached by three dome headed rivets. Usk – Old Market Street 1986: SF020 (106/053) Period IV (Phase 9) – c. 120/125+ - 350+ (Marvell 1996, 54) Cb05. inlaid sheath plate, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) length 215mm, max. width 54mm Type II plate with a slightly irregular outline. Details of its structure and decoration are only discernible on X-ray. There are traces of the rivetholes to secure three of the four suspension rings. The fixing points for the upper rings are incomplete - one has no surviving holes, the second only three holes - but those for the lower rings are more or less complete with four rivet-holes each. The decoration is divided into four zones,

24

lines of inlay and panels of fine inlaid hatching: cf. three examples from Chester (Scott 1985, 205-6 no.62-4); Neath (Marvell & Heywood 1992, 24950); two examples from Vindonissa (Unz & Deschler-Erb 1997, 19 nos. 210, 213 & 217); and Le Rondet (Schwab 1973, 339 tafel 68). The datable examples of this group are from Flavian contexts, and in some cases from sites first occupied towards the end of the first century. There is little doubt that these plates are amongst the last examples of inlaid military dagger sheaths to be made or used (Scott 1985, 173). Scott (1985) p.204 no.61 Scott (1997) p.288 no.1 Loughor: SF050 (57/051) [not SF037 (57\050) as in Report]; Period VIII (Phase 12) c.260 - 310+

separated from one another by gaps. The first zone is trapezoidal, delineated by a broad band of inlay, and contains a V-shape formed by two parallel bands of inlay, within which is a smaller inverted ‘V’. The background is fine herring-bone hatching. The second zone contains a cross formed by two pairs of parallel lines of broad inlay, on a background of fine cross-hatching. The third zone contains an inverted ‘Y’ or ‘V’ similar to that in the first zone, with a background of herring-bone hatching. The fourth zone is decorated with panels of fine diagonal hatching. It is clear that the thicker lines were cut first, as might be expected, in order to define the fields. The fine hatching was then cut in. This plate belongs to a small group distinguished by their decoration of abstract patterns formed from

Dagger Sheath Suspension Rings SF083 (135/224); Period II (Phase 3) – c.55/60 c.75 (Marvell 1996, 54). From the same context as Cc03.

Cc01. sheath suspension ring, iron (acc. no. 82.11H) length 23mm [broken], width 29mm, thickness 3mm Strip of square section bent into an oval with its ends turned inwards to touch each other, in the centre of one of the longer sides, before curving over. A second straight strip runs along this side of the oval, ending in S-shaped curves at each end which reach to the mid-line of the oval. The ends of these curves are rolled into small loops. There are slight remains of copper alloy coating on the lower parts of the piece. An identical loop to those seen on Cb02. Cf. Velsen (Morel & Bosman 1989, 178 figs.7-9). Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.29 no.4 Usk – Cattle Market Site: LCG (1) Fortress Pit; PreFlavian (Manning 1989, 98)

Cc03. sheath suspension ring, iron (acc. no. 97.54H) length 12 [broken], width 23mm [broken], thickness 4mm Part of the loop and basal strip, with the internal scrollwork and a rearward lug surviving. The basal strip and lug are inlaid with copper alloy. See Cc01. Usk – former Church Voluntary Primary School: SF177 (135/224); Period II (Phase 3) – c.55/60 c.75 (Marvell 1996, 54). From the same context as Cc02. Cc04. sheath suspension ring, iron (acc. no. 97.54H) length 16mm [broken], width 28mm, thickness 4mm The basal strip with a central lug, and part of the loop, including the external scrolls and parts of the internal scrolls. See Cc01. Usk – former Church Voluntary Primary School: SF101 (135/156); Post-Roman (Marvell 1996, 109)

Cc02. sheath suspension ring, iron (acc. no. 97.54H) length 26mm, width 29mm, thickness 3mm A crescentic loop with internal scrolls, fixed to a basal strip. Each end of this strip is extend out, bent up at right angles and rolled over to form external scrolls either side of the main loop. The basal strip has a central lug. See Cc01. Usk – former Church Voluntary Primary School:

See also Cb02

Other Daggers pommel plate, cf. Butzbach (Oldenstein 1976, 241 no.29). Brewer (1986) p.173 no.7 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: (1175) S7.28; fill of water-pipe trench; phase III - c.AD 100/110 (Zienkiewicz 1986b, 257)

Cd01. ? pommel plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) diameter 17mm, thickness 4mm A disc with a shallow socket. In the dished centre is a rectangular hole, 5 by 3 mm, and in the side of the socket a small hole for a pin. Possibly used as a

25

Later Dagger Sheaths The iron sheaths in the third century Künzing iron hoard had a mouth, medial plate and chape on the outer face only, connected by edge guttering (Herrmann 1969, abb.3.4). Many had two pairs of rings attached by rivets to the mouth and medial plates, a conservative feature, retained long after ring-suspension had been discontinued for swords (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 135). Segontium: SF542 (097) pit; Period 10 - late 4th century

Ce01. ? chape, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) length 43mm, width 24mm Curved tapering sheath with a straight moulded fold. The front is pierced by a small circular hole, 2mm in diameter, and is decorated by groups of incised transverse lines. The short back is also decorated by sets of incised lines. It has sustained damage probably before final deposition and is probably residual in its context. Allason-Jones (1993) p.172 no.78

Ce02. ? chape, iron (acc. no. 88.165H) length 58mm, max. width 29mm, max. thickness 14mm Tapering tube of sub-rectangular cross-section with its tip missing. Scott (1992) p.166 no.8 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1327 (31/1345) Block A; Phase VI - c.350-400

26

Shafted Weapons In this section are considered weapons consisting of an iron head mounted on a long wooden shaft, sometimes with an iron ferrule at the other end. They can be thrusting weapons, used in hand-to-hand combat; or missiles, thrown at an enemy from a distance. Those with flat, or nearly flat heads, some having mid ribs on one or both sides, are considered together here under the term spear. Pila and plumbata are considered separately in the following two chapters, with a chapter on ferrules completing the evidence for shafted weapons.

D: Spears Spears are notoriously difficult to classify. Although there are the two extremes of function, thrusting weapon, which would include pikes and cavalry lances, and missile, which might be referred to as javelins or darts, there are also many spears that could be used for either or both purposes. Indeed, in extremis, even the slenderest of javelins could be used as a thrusting spear and the longest of spears as a missile. When dealing with archaeological material we are further hindered by the fact that some of the indications of function, such as the length of shaft, do not normally survive. Classifications thus tend to be dependent upon analysis of the head form and size. Although some spearheads can be described as either triangular or lozenge-shaped the vast majority have curving edges. For want of a better term such blades are generally referred to as ‘leafshaped’, but this is pretty much a meaningless description, particularly as, over the years, it has been applied to so many different shapes and forms of spearhead. Depictional evidence is of little assistance as the size of the spear appears generally to be scaled to fit within the frame of the work and the shape of the head is usually nondescript. The literary evidence is equally unhelpful. The precise meanings of ancient terms like hasta, lancea, verutum and spiculum, let alone the more general tela or missilis, is virtually impossible to untangle, and Roman writers often seem to use them interchangeably (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 69). Bishop and Coulston (1993, 69) came to the conclusion that there is ‘no one satisfactory way of categorizing Roman spearheads’, but a total lack of any standardization, apparently suggested by some (e.g. Marchant 1990, 5), seem improbable as whether using it for thrusting or throwing a Roman soldier would have required a spear that handled and behaved in a manner he was used to. Manning (1985, 161-8) rightly arguing that the blade is the functional part of the head, used the dimensions of the blade to produce a typology based on the mid first century spearheads from Hod Hill, one of the largest collections from any Roman site in Europe. Given a more or less symmetrical blade, the key characteristics are length and maximum width, and if these two measurements are plotted against one another the form of the blade can be defined. Using this method Manning identified four distinct groups with relatively few outliers. Although blade lengths and widths were related, the width varied between groups rather than within them. Previous classifications of the Hod Hill spearheads tended to emphasize the differences between the crudely-made weapons with flanged sockets formed of rolled-over flanges the edges of which are not welded together, and the more common carefully finished ones (Brailsford 1962, 5-6; Scott 1980, 333). When plotted, however, the cruder ones almost all fall within the major groups suggesting that they are in fact examples of the standard types, the differences being in the technique of manufacture, rather than function. Manning (1985) Group I consisted of small-bladed spearheads, blades normally between 45mm and 65mm in length and 20mm and 30mm in width. Most had rounded edges and their maximum width about a quarter of the way along the blade but a few had an almost triangular or a diamond-shaped blades. These spearheads would have worked efficiently as javelins, or cavalry lances. Group II were larger versions of the slender examples of Group I. In length they ranged between 80mm and 100mm and in width between 20mm and 30mm. The absence of a strongly defined midrib was characteristic of the type. The blades either had rounded edges or were roughly triangular. Functionally they must have been similar to the blades of Group I. A number of minor variations of design recurred in both Groups I and II with sufficient frequency to suggest that they were intentional, although their significance, if any, is unclear. The first was an asymmetry in the blade, one shoulder being strongly curved while the other was more angular. The second was a tendency for many of the blades to have a triangular cross-section, one side being arched the other flat. Group III had 27

relatively long, narrow blades, scarcely wider than their sockets, varying in length between 130mm and 150mm, and in width between 18mm and 23mm. There was no distinct midrib, although their midline was relatively thick. They would be ideally suited as the heads of cavalry lances. Group IV consisted of large spearheads with blades ranging in length between 170mm and 250mm and in width between 30mm and 40mm. All were probably intended for hand-to-hand fighting rather than throwing. Groups I and II form the vast bulk of the spearheads from Hod Hill. The numbers from other mid-first century sites are smaller, but tend to support this pattern (Manning, Price & Webster 1995, 30). The continued use of Type II well beyond the first century is shown clearly by the examples from Britain and Germany listed by Manning (1985, 163, 165). The large group of spearheads from the Corbridge hoard, probably dated to the first quarter of the second century, fall mainly into Groups II and III (Allason-Jones & Bishop 1988, 103, 109). A variation on the method of using the ratio between the length of the blade and its broadest point is to also consider the distance from the tip of the blade to this broadest point. This is termed the ‘length of entry’. A low-shouldered blade would be one where the broadest point was nearer the socket than the tip, midshouldered where it lay about half-way along, and so on (Allason-Jones & Bishop 1988, 103; Bishop & Coulston 1993, 69). A long length of entry would suit weapons with plenty of momentum, such as javelins or cavalry laces, while a mid- or high-shoulder would appear to suit the short stabbing action of a thrusting spear. Thirty-two of the spearheads in the Museum’s collection retain dimensions that appear sufficiently complete to be worth measuring: twenty-three can provide dimensions for the complete blade, while for nine others the dimensions seem so nearly complete as to be worth including. For these spearheads both their blade length to maximum width and their blade length to length of entry ratios were plotted.

length/width ratio 80 70 width (mm)

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

length of blade (mm)

The length to width ratio appears to work quite well, with twenty-four of the spearheads fitting reasonably comfortably into one of the Manning (1985) Groups. All four of the groups are represented in the collection but the most common by far are the slender spearheads of Group II. The length of entry proved difficult to measure with any high degree of accuracy and the results did not seem to help greatly in term of distinguishing between different types of spearhead. For the spearheads in the Museum’s collection the length of entry seemed to be pretty much related to the overall length of the spearhead: the longer the spearhead the longer the length of entry.

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length of entry (mm)

length of entry/blade length 150 100 50 0 0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

blade length (mm)

Cat. no. Da02. Da43. Da47. Da48. Da17. Da18. Da29. Da04. Da08. Da09. Da11. Da12. Da14. Da23. Da24. Da26. Da32. Da35. Da36. Da40. Da42. Da44. Da45. Da46. Da16. Da20. Da07. Da31. Da34. Da03. Da39. Da15.

Length 66 51 47 49 70 75 71 89 122 105 100 115 110 92 113 90 82 104 108 80 88 93 93 104 110 85 148 127 125 160 159 170

width 29 28 19 22 43 49 22 23 26 25 25 25 26 23 26 30 28 26 32 30 24 29 22 32 41 39 24 35 37 41 42 70

Manning (1985) Group I I I I Short wide spearheads I/II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II ? very wide Group II III somewhere between Group II and Group IV ? IV ? IV very large arrowhead, than an average spearhead. Gelligaer: from the fort itself rather than its annex, but context otherwise unrecorded

Da01. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 02.126) total length 124mm [broken], blade length 76mm [broken], length of entry c.50mm [broken], width of blade 17mm, socket externally 11 by 12 mm, internal diameter of socket 7mm Small slender spearhead. The socket, as it survives, is more the size of a bolt-head, or even an

Da02. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 02.126) total length 120mm [broken], blade length 66mm [broken], length of entry c.40mm [broken], width of

29

Rampart-Buildings Room 25; Period Ia c.120-200

blade 29mm, external diameter of socket c.18mm, internal diameter of socket c.15mm Remains of a small spearhead. Manning (1985) Group I. Gelligaer: from the fort itself rather than its annex, but context otherwise unrecorded

Da08. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) total length 222mm, blade length 122mm, length of entry c.80mm, width of blade 26mm, external diameter of socket 22mm Blade thin at the base but thickens towards the point. Split socket. Manning (1985) Group II. Nash-Williams (1932) p.69 fig.17.2 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(26)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 26; Period III c.200-300

Da03. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 23.292) total length 235mm, blade length 160mm, length of entry c.135mm, width of blade 41mm, external diameter of socket c.23mm Large slender spearhead complete apart from slight damage at the bottom of the socket. Probably a an outlier from Manning (1985) Group IV. Wheeler (1923) p.142, fig.65.1 Segontium: found in the fourth century floor of the sacellum in the praetorium

Da09. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) total length 193mm [broken], blade length 105mm [broken], length of entry c.70mm [broken], width of blade 25mm, external diameter of socket 21mm Blade thin at the base but thickens towards the point. Split socket. Manning (1985) Group II. Nash-Williams (1932) p.69 fig.17.3 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300

Da04. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 25.212) total length 116mm, blade length 89mm, length of entry c.65mm, width of blade 23mm, external diameter of socket c.11mm, internal diameter of socket c.8mm Stripped remains of a small narrow bladed spearhead with a split conical socket. Edges of the blade badly corroded. The socket, as it survives, is more the size of a bolt-head, or even an arrowhead, than an average spearhead. Manning (1985) Group II. Brecon Gaer: - - -

Da10. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) total length 171mm [broken], blade length 110mm [broken], width of blade 24mm, external diameter of socket 21mm Long narrow blade thin at the base but thickens towards the point. Split socket. Probably Manning (1985) Group II. Nash-Williams (1932) p.69 fig.17.5 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Da05. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 25.212) total length 121mm [broken], blade length 84mm [broken], width of blade 24mm, external diameter of socket c.13mm, internal diameter of socket 10mm Narrow blade and closed socket. Stripped, the point of the blade, and possibly more than a third of the original length, is missing. Would seem comparable to Manning (1985) Group III spearheads. Brecon Gaer: - - -

Da11. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) total length 185mm, blade length 100mm, length of entry c.75mm, width of blade 25mm, external diameter of socket 18mm Blade thin at the base but thickens towards the point. Split socket. Manning (1985) Group II. Nash-Williams (1932) p.69 fig.17.6 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(35)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 35; Period III c.200-300

Da06. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 25.212) total length 120mm [broken], blade length 66mm [broken], width of blade 49mm Broad apparently flat blade with rounded shoulders. The end of the blade is lost and the socket is badly damaged. Brecon Gaer: - - -

Da12. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) total length 188mm, blade length 115mm, length of entry c.80mm, width of blade 25mm, external diameter of socket 22mm Blade thin at the base but thickens towards the point. Split socket. Manning (1985) Group II. Nash-Williams (1932) p.69 fig.17.7 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Da07. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) total length 228mm, blade length 148mm, length of entry c.100mm, width of blade 24mm [broken], external diameter of socket 17mm Blade thin at the base but thickens towards the point. Split socket. Manning (1985) Group III. Nash-Williams (1932) p.69 fig.17.1 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBa(25)S; North-Western

Da13. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) total length 179mm [broken], blade length 105mm [broken], width of blade 25mm, external diameter of socket 19mm Blade thin at the base but thickens towards the

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Rampart-Buildings Room 25; Period Ia c.120-200

point. Split socket. Probably Manning (1985) Group II. Nash-Williams (1932) p.69 fig.17.8 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Da19. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) total length 85mm [bent], blade length 69mm [bent], width of blade 49mm Most of the socket is missing and the tip of the blade is folded back on itself. Nash-Williams (1932) p.70 fig.18.5 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBa(25)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 25; Period Ia c.120-200

Da14. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) total length 219mm, blade length 110mm, length of entry c.75mm, width of blade 26mm, external diameter of socket 19mm Blade thin at the base but thickens towards the point. Split socket. Manning (1985) Group II. Nash-Williams (1932) p.69 fig.17.9 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBa(2)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 2; Period Ia c.120-200

Da20. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) total length 158mm, blade length 85mm, length of entry c.70mm, width of blade 39mm, external diameter of socket 24mm Straight sided blade with closed socket. Probably a rather wide example of Manning (1985) Group II. Nash-Williams (1932) p.70 fig.18.6 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(26)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 26; Period III c.200-300

Da15. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) total length 267mm, blade length 170mm, length of entry c.110mm, width of blade 70mm [broken], socket externally 22 by 24 mm An exceptionally large spearhead with a closed socket. Nash-Williams (1932) p.70, fig.18.1 Caerleon – Prysg Field: 6(11)S; Barrack Block No.6 Room 11; c.105-200

Da21. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) total length 180mm [broken], blade length 92mm [broken], width of blade 45mm [broken], socket external diameter c.24mm, internal diameter 19mm Blade with a strong mid rib and a long socket, now much corroded. Caerleon – Prysg Field: - - -

Da16. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) total length 170mm, blade length 110mm, length of entry c.85mm, width of blade 41mm, socket externally 21 by 20 mm, internal diameter of socket 15mm Split socket with blade fairly central to it. Possibly traces of mineralised wood still in socket. Manning (1985) Group II. Nash-Williams (1932) p.70 fig.18.2 Caerleon – Prysg Field: 7(39)S; Barrack Block No.7 Room 39; c.105-200

Da22. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) total length 124mm [broken], blade length 65mm [broken], width of blade 40mm [broken], external diameter of socket 19mm Badly corroded, with traces of mineralised wood in socket. Caerleon – Prysg Field: - - -

Da17. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) total length 120mm, blade length 70mm, length of entry c.65mm, width of blade 43mm, socket externally 23 by 22 mm, internal diameter of socket 16mm Spear with a short wide blade set to one side of the socket. No clear mid rib survives. See Da18. Nash-Williams (1932) p.70 fig.18.3 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(26)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 26; Period III c.200-300

Da23. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) total length 168mm, blade length 92mm, length of entry c.60mm, width of blade 23mm [broken], external diameter of socket 19mm Complete but with some damage to the edges. Manning (1985) Group II. Caerleon – Prysg Field: - - Da24. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) total length 190mm [broken], blade length 113mm [broken], length of entry c.75mm [broken], width of blade 26mm, external diameter of socket 19mm Complete example of Manning (1985) Group II. Caerleon – Prysg Field: - - -

Da18. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) total length 137mm [broken], blade length 75mm, length of entry c.60mm, width of blade 49mm, external diameter of socket 24mm, internal diameter of socket 17mm Short wide blade with strong midrib. Now badly corroded. See Da17. Nash-Williams (1932) p.70 fig.18.4 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBa(25)S; North-Western

Da25. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 35.119) total length 94mm [broken], blade length 51mm [broken], width of blade 38mm, external diameter of socket 16mm

31

See Da34. Hogg (1968) p.184 I1 Pen Llystyn: apparently in the wall trench on the north-eastern side of P2 near the north end, but perhaps lying on the floor immediately against the wall

Blade with an ogee profile. The socket is split. Wheeler & Wheeler (1928) p.169 no.54, fig.16 Caerleon – Amphitheatre: - - Da26. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 39.386) total length 148mm [broken], blade length 90mm, length of entry c.65mm, width of blade 30mm [broken] Blade complete but the socket is badly damaged. Manning (1985) Group II. Fox (1940) p.136 no.39, Pl.VIII [probably] Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage Orchard: Trench I; unstratified

Da32. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 82.11H) total length 134mm, blade length 82mm, length of entry c.65mm, width of blade 28mm, external diameter of socket 20mm, internal diameter of socket c.14mm Short blade with rounded shoulders and a closed socket damaged at the mouth. Manning (1985) Group II. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.30 no.7 Usk – Cattle Market Site: HUK (2) Fortress pit; PreFlavian (Manning 1989, 66)

Da27. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 39.386) total length 188mm, blade length 106mm, width of blade 58mm [broken], external diameter of socket 38mm Broad rather badly damaged blade. Fox (1940) p.136 no.40, Pl.VIII Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage Orchard: Barrack VI; unstratified

Da33. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 82.10H) total length 160mm [broken], blade length 91mm [broken], width of blade 24mm [broken], external diameter of socket 14mm Narrow blade without distinct shoulders. Both the tip of the blade and the mouth of the socket are lost. Although much damaged, probably of Manning (1985) Group III. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p. 30 no.9 Usk – Detention Centre Site: 69 CN (1) Fortress pit; Pre-Flavian (Manning 1981a, 155)

Da28. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 54.389A) total length 132mm [broken], blade length 108mm [broken], width of blade 24mm Long slender blade. Boon (unpublished) under no.3 Caerleon – Bear House Field I: F.129; main lateral drain; c.130-230

Da34. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 82.22H) total length 200mm [broken], blade length 125mm [broken], length of entry c.80mm [broken], width of blade 37mm, external diameter of socket c.20 mm, internal diameter of socket c.17mm Long slender blade with a shallow groove to one side of the median line on both faces, the result of manufacturing the blade by folding the metal and not finishing the hammering. The circular socket is incomplete but appears to have had two rivet holes. The blade is offset from the line of the socket on one face. The tip is missing. Somewhere between Manning (1985) Group II and Group IV. See Da31. Allason-Jones (1993) p.187 no.278 Segontium: SF1162 (2279) spread of brown soil; Period 4 - Flavian-Trajanic

Da29. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 58.167/71) total length 102mm [broken], blade length 71mm, length of entry c.50mm, width of blade 22mm Small, flat, round-tipped blade. The socket is almost entirely lost. Manning (1985) Group I/II. Gardner & Savory (1964) p.157 fig.22.12 Davies (1977) p.258 no.5 Dinorben: area SXXb, at a depth of 4 in., 2 ft. southwest from the inner face of the rampart foundation, overlying Hut-floor 5; late Roman layer Da30. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 60.482) total length 98mm [broken], blade length 44mm [broken], width of blade 24mm, external diameter of socket c.13mm The edges of the blade are largely missing. Caerleon – Jenkins Field III: - - -

Da35. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 82.22H) total length 157mm [broken], blade length 104mm [broken], length of entry c.75mm [broken], width of blade 26mm, external diameter of socket c.16mm, internal diameter of socket c.13mm Small spearhead with a long blade which is slightly curved to one side. The circular-sectioned socket is pierced by a single rivet hole. Only the very tip is missing. Manning (1985) Group II. Allason-Jones (1993) p.187 no.279

Da31. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 67.266/3.1) total length 210mm, blade length 127mm, length of entry c.85mm, width of blade 35mm, external diameter of socket c.23mm, internal diameter of socket c.13mm Complete but heavily corroded. Somewhere between Manning (1985) Group II and Group IV.

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total length 86mm [broken], blade length 42mm [broken], width of blade 20mm, external diameter of socket c.16mm Little remains of the blade. The socket appears complete but is completely full of corrosion product. Dawson (1997) p.284 no.84, pl. XX Loughor: SF251 (55\246) clay layer filling of drain to rear of north rampart in primary fort; Period IV (Phase 6) c.100 - c.105

Segontium: SF1155 (2279) spread of brown soil; Period 4 - Flavian-Trajanic Da36. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 82.22H) total length 173mm [broken], blade length 108mm [broken], length of entry c.85mm [broken], width of blade 32mm, external diameter of socket c.18mm, internal diameter of socket c.15mm Wide mid-rib on both sides of the blade. The circular socket is pierced by a single rivet hole. Tip missing. Manning (1985) Group II. Allason-Jones (1993) p.189 no.280 Segontium: SF1196 (1320) slot; Period 3 - FlavianTrajanic

Da42. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) total length 147mm, blade length 88mm, length of entry c.60mm, width of blade 24mm, socket externally 19 by 14 mm Long narrow, slightly asymmetrical, blade, complete but in two pieces. Split socket, now somewhat flattened, with a rivet hole. Manning (1985) Group II. Dawson (1997) p.284 no.86 (pl. XX) Loughor: SF083 (57\088) topsoil; unstratified

Da37. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 84.117H/3) total length 90mm [broken], blade length 31mm [broken], width of blade 22mm, external diameter of socket c.18mm, internal diameter of socket c.12mm Remains of a small spearhead with narrow blade. The fact that the part of the blade that survives has straight parallel sides may indicate that it was originally quite long. The long closed socket, which tapers considerably, bears traces of wood. Brewer (forthcoming) no.21 Caerwent – Courtyard House: (2038) soil beneath track; Phase I/II – late second / late third century

Da43. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) total length 104mm, blade length 51mm [broken], length of entry c.30mm [broken], width of blade 28mm, external diameter of socket c.20mm Short, stubby blade, but apparently largely complete. Manning (1985) Group I Dawson (1997), p.285 no.87 (Not illustrated) Loughor: SF192 (57\166) cleaning; unstratified

Da38. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 87.47H) total length 110mm [broken], blade length 72mm [broken], width of blade 40mm, external diameter of socket 18mm Badly corroded remains of what appears to be a fairly broad bladed spearhead. Caerleon – Endowed School: SF197 (98/062)

Da44. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) total length 148mm, blade length 93mm, length of entry c.60mm, width of blade 29mm, external diameter of socket c.15mm, internal diameter of socket 10mm The blade appears some what asymmetrical. Socketed with securing rivet-hole still surviving. Manning (1985) Group II. Dawson (1997) p.285 no.88 (Not illustrated) Loughor: SF185; (57\067) demolition spread; Period VIII (Phase 10) c.260 - 310+

Da39. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 92.59H) total length 156mm [broken], blade length 156mm, length of entry c.118mm, width of blade 42mm Blade virtually complete but nothing of the socket survives. Probably a an outlier from Manning (1985) Group IV. Caerleon – Abbey Field: SF007 (175/070)

Da45. spear, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) total length 140mm [broken], blade length c.93mm, length of entry c.60mm, width of blade 22mm, internal diameter of socket c.10mm In two pieces and badly corroded at the junction between the blade and the socket. Manning (1985) Group II. Dawson (1997) p.285 no.90 (Not illustrated) Loughor: SF452; (53\1139) layer of burnt material; Period II (Phase 3) c.80 - c.85

Da40. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) total length 126mm, blade length 80mm, length of entry c.60mm, width of blade 30mm, external diameter of socket c.16mm, internal diameter of socket c.10mm Complete but heavily encrusted. Manning (1985) Group II. Dawson (1997) p.284 no.83 (Pl. XX) Loughor: SF081 (55\064) demolition spread; Period VIII (Phase 10) c.260 - 310+

Da46. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) total length 117mm [broken], blade length 104mm [broken], length of entry c.75mm [broken], width of

Da41. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4)

33

blade 32mm. Blade missing its tip and virtually all of the socket. Manning (1985) Group II. Dawson (1997) p.285, no.91 (pl. XX) Loughor: SF498; (53\1296) fill of post-trench in Building 3.5; Period II (Phase 3) c.80 - c.85

Da48. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) total length 57mm [broken], blade length 49mm, length of entry c.35mm, width of blade 22mm Blade of a small spearhead. Manning (1985) Group I. Dawson (1997) p.285 no.102 (Not illustrated) Loughor: SF324 (53\740) layer deposited at start of phase; Period III (Phase 7) c.85 - c.100

Da47. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) total length 86mm [broken], blade length 48mm [broken], length of entry c.30mm [broken], width of blade 19mm, external diameter of socket c.16mm, internal diameter of socket c.11mm Small spearhead, now in two pieces. Manning (1985) Group I. Dawson (1997) p.285 no.101 (Not illustrated) Loughor: SF269 (53\656) fill of pit, demolition debris and rubbish; Period V (Phase 10) c.105 c.110

Da49. spearhead, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) total length 67mm [broken], blade length 45mm [broken], width of blade 23mm Fragment of a small slender spearhead. Dawson (1997) p.285no.94 (Not illustrated) Loughor: SF193 (55\179) cleaning; unstratified See also Aa01

See also Type II bolt-heads (p.56) and Flat-bladed, socketed arrowheads (p.52)

34

E: Pila The traditional weapon of the legionaries, the pilum was a javelin some 2m long, consisting of a pyramidal head on a long slender iron shank, generally between 650 and 750 mm long, secured to the shaft by means of a socket or a broad flat tang and a pair of rivets. It was designed to bend on impact rendering it useless to the enemy. Polybius (VI.23) tells us that in the second century BC two sorts of pilum were used, ‘stout and fine’, with the ‘stout’ pila coming in two forms. This variety may have continued, at least to some extent, into the Imperial period, although we have too few examples for the types to be defined with certainty (Manning 1985, 159). First century AD examples come from Hod Hill (Brailsford 1962, 6 B108-16; Manning 1985, V20-V25b) and Waddon Hill (Webster 1981, 70 no.67). The progressive lightening of the flat-tanged pilum during the early empire may have led to the introduction of a heavier pilum with a round lead weight inserted at the junction of the wood and the iron, as depicted on the Flavian Cancelleria relief from Rome (Andreae 1978, 398 pl.389) and the Trajanic Adamklissi monument (Bishop & Coulston 1993, fig.50). Unfortunately we have no certain archaeological specimens of this type, though several pila have been found which have spiked tangs and may be from such a weapon (Connolly 1981, 233). The extra weight would theoretically give additional penetrative power but limit the range. Performance of the pilum may have been further enhanced by the use of a throwing strap (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 66), thought to be shown on the tombstone of Flavoleius Cordus (Selzer 1988, 126, Abb.16). The Cancelleria relief also suggests that the pilum, may have had a conical ferrule. The continued use of the pilum into the second century is supported by the presence of examples in the vicinity of the Antonine barracks at Newstead (Curle 1911, 189) and by some rather unusual heads from the Antonine Wall fort of Bar Hill (Keppie 1975, 100 no.18). In addition pila are depicted on a small stone relief from the nearby fort of Croy Hill (Keppie & Arnold 1984, 34 no.90). It should be noted that the Bar Hill heads are short and stocky, between 50mm and 58mm in length, and even though they have many of the characteristics, square-sectioned pyramidal heads and square-sectioned shanks, doubt has been cast upon their identification as pilum heads (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 109). Pila, including examples with a large, bulbous weight between shaft and shank, are represented on a number of third century Praetorian gravestones from Rome (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 123). Provincial Gravestones generally do not depict pila, but there are exceptions. A stela from Apamea shows a pilum as does the gravestone of Aurelius Iustinus Celje (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 123). Third century pilum heads and shanks have been found at Caerleon (see below) and Corbridge (Richmond & Birley 1940, 112, pl.XI). Other heads from Richborough (Henderson 1949, 152, nos.281-82) and from German sites may also date to the third century (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 123). A new form, consisting of a barbed head and a long shank, may have come into use in the third century, though its introduction may be later. It represents either a pilum derivative or the influence of Germanic ango, like those from Danish bog deposits (Bishop & Coulston 1989, 55). Examples have been found at Carvoran (Richmond 1940, 136-8) and South Shields (Allason-Jones & Miket 1984, no.5.90). According to Vegetius (I.20) by the last quarter of the fourth century the pilum was rarely used and was by then known as the spiculum. He describes the spiculum as having a triangular iron head nine Roman inches (200mm) long and a wooden shaft five and a half Roman feet (c.1.6m) long. He also mentions a smaller version called the verutum with an iron head five Roman inches (114mm) long, attached to a shaft measuring three and a half Roman feet (1m) in length (Vegetius II.15). Pila of any period are rare finds in Britain (Manning 1985, 160). In the Museum’s collection the pila come almost entirely from the Prysg Field excavations at Caerleon. Of these all bar one of the stratified examples come from the North-Western Rampart-Buildings and mostly from their third century phase (p.174-5; Chapman 2002). They are longer and slimmer than examples from earlier periods but are closely paralleled by heads from Corbridge (Richmond & Birley 1940, 112, pl.XI).

35

It is possible that some of the smaller heads catalogued here as pilum-heads could actually be tanged pyramidal bolt-heads (p.54), however the lengths of the heads seem fairly much to form a continuum, without any obvious point of division.

Pilum-heads Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300

Ea01. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 130mm, max. thickness 10mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(40-41)S; NorthWestern Rampart-Buildings Room 40/41; Period III c.200-300

Ea08. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 112mm, max. thickness 13mm, total surviving length 119mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Ea02. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 131mm, max. thickness 10mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(40-41)S; NorthWestern Rampart-Buildings Room 40/41; Period III c.200-300

Ea09. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 115mm, max. thickness 14mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified Ea10. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 115mm, max. thickness 12mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(40-41)S; NorthWestern Rampart-Buildings Room 40/41; Period III c.200-300

Ea03. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 124mm, max. thickness 10mm, total surviving length 132mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(40-1)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 40/41; Period III c.200300

Ea11. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 108mm, max. thickness 10mm, total surviving length 125mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Ea04. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 121mm, max. thickness 11mm, total surviving length 133mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(40-41)S; NorthWestern Rampart-Buildings Room 40/41; Period III c.200-300

Ea12. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 104mm, max. thickness 12mm, total surviving length 130mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Ea05. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 111mm, max. thickness 12mm, total surviving length 141mm stripped Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 5; Period III c.200-300

Ea13. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 105mm, max. thickness 16mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Ea06. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 131mm, max. thickness 14mm, total surviving length 134mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 5; Period III c.200-300

Ea14. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 102mm, max. thickness 12mm, total surviving length 121mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: Rba(26)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 26; Period Ia c.120-200

Ea07. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 122mm, max. thickness 16mm, total surviving length 129mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20

Ea15. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 97mm, max. thickness 10mm, total surviving length 104mm

36

stripped Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

length of head 95mm, max. thickness 10mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Ea16. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 98mm, max. thickness 13mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Ea25. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 92mm, max. thickness 12mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300

Ea17. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 95mm, max. thickness 10mm, total surviving length 106mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300

Ea26. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 75mm, max. thickness 12mm, total surviving length 90mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified Ea27. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 96mm, max. thickness 12mm, total surviving length 109mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 5; Period III c.200-300

Ea18. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 92mm, max. thickness 9mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified Ea19. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 81mm, max. thickness 13mm, total surviving length 98mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 5; Period III c.200-300

Ea28. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 93mm, max. thickness 10mm, total surviving length 119mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 5; Period III c.200-300

Ea20. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 83mm, max. thickness 12mm, total surviving length 94mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Ea29. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 98mm, max. thickness 11mm, total surviving length 111mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(22)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 22; Period III c.200-300

Ea21. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 86mm, max. thickness 10mm, total surviving length 89mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 5; Period III c.200-300

Ea30. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 149mm, max. thickness 10mm, total surviving length 154mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(40-41)S; NorthWestern Rampart-Buildings Room 40/41; Period III c.200-300

Ea22. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 75mm, max. thickness 10mm, total surviving length 78mm square section Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Ea31. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 134mm, max. thickness 11mm, total surviving length 141mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(40-41)S; NorthWestern Rampart-Buildings Room 40/41; Period III c.200-300

Ea23. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 99mm, max. thickness 8mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Ea32. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 136mm, max. thickness 10mm, total

Ea24. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60)

37

c.200-300

surviving length 146mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(40-41)S; NorthWestern Rampart-Buildings Room 40/41; Period III c.200-300

Ea41. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 139mm, max. thickness 12mm, total surviving length 145mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(40-41)S; NorthWestern Rampart-Buildings Room 40/41; Period III c.200-300

Ea33. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 120mm, max. thickness 12mm, total surviving length 141mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+); unstratified;

Ea42. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 186mm, max. thickness 11mm, total surviving length 190mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(40-41)S; NorthWestern Rampart-Buildings Room 40/41; Period III c.200-300

Ea34. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 157mm, max. thickness 10mm, total surviving length 160mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Ea43. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 135mm, max. thickness 11mm, total surviving length 142mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(40-41)S; NorthWestern Rampart-Buildings Room 40/41; Period III c.200-300

Ea35. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 110mm, max. thickness 11mm, total surviving length 138mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified Ea36. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 153mm, max. thickness 10mm, total surviving length 157mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Ea44. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 165mm, max. thickness 12mm, total surviving length 175mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(40-41)S; NorthWestern Rampart-Buildings Room 40/41; Period III c.200-300

Ea37. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 151mm, max. thickness 16mm, total surviving length 164mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Ea45. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 123mm, max. thickness 12mm, total surviving length 143mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300

Ea38. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 139mm, max. thickness 11mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(40-41)S; NorthWestern Rampart-Buildings Room 40/41; Period III c.200-300

Ea46. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 81mm, max. thickness 10mm, total surviving length 99mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Ea39. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 149mm, max. thickness 12mm, total surviving length 154mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Ea47. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 121mm, max. thickness 10mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Ea40. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 165mm, max. thickness 16mm, total surviving length 173mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(40-41)S; NorthWestern Rampart-Buildings Room 40/41; Period III

Ea48. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 130mm, max. thickness 10mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.21

38

Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300

Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Ea54. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 150mm, max. thickness 10mm, total surviving length 153mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Ea49. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 74mm, max. thickness 9mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified Ea50. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 74mm, max. thickness 8mm, total surviving length 86mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBa(26)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 26; Period Ia c.120-200

Ea55. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 82mm, max. thickness 11mm, total surviving length 98mm, Caerleon – Prysg Field: - - Ea56. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 80mm, max. thickness 10mm Caerleon – Prysg Field: - - -

Ea51. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 123mm, max. thickness 12mm, total surviving length 133mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(40-41)S; NorthWestern Rampart-Buildings Room 40/41; Period III c.200-300

Ea57. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 102mm, max. thickness 8mm, total surviving length 116mm Caerleon – Prysg Field: - - -

Ea52. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 141mm, max. thickness 9mm, total surviving length 154mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Ea58. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 80mm, max. thickness 12mm, total surviving length 100mm Caerleon – Prysg Field: Turret 4 debris filling Ea59. pilum head, iron (acc. no. 62.265) length of head 88mm, max. thickness 14mm, total surviving length 94mm Caerleon – Bear House Field I: - - -

Ea53. pilum-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length of head 132mm, max. thickness 12mm, total surviving length 140mm Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western

Pilum Stem broken off at the other. Nash-Williams (1932) p.73 fig.24.7 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 5; Period III c.200-300

Eb01. pilum stem, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 300mm [broken] Bent rod with a conical socket at one end,

39

F: Plumbatae The literary references to plumbatae belong to the last quarter of the third century and later but Vegetius (II.15), at least, suggests a longer existance. Plumbata was probably a diminutive of hasta plumbata, meaning leaded spear (Southern & Dixon 1996, 113). Vegetius (I.17) uses the term mattiobarbulus, presumed to be a scribal error for martiobarbalus, meaning Mars-barb, for what would appear to be the same thing (Southern & Dixon 1996, 113-14). De Rebus Bellicis (X-XI) mentions two types, plumbatae et tribolata and plumbatae mamillatae. Both types are described as having flights like arrows and a lead weight on a wooden shaft. The tribolata had a hunting (barbed?) head and caltrop spikes (triboli) attached to the weight so as to be dangerous even if it missed its target and fell on the ground. At present there have been no recognized finds of plumbata et tribolata (Southern & Dixon 1996, 114) and as most of the weapons described in De Rebus Bellicis would appear to be largely or wholly fanciful, it is doubtful how much reliance should be placed on its description. The mamillata lacked the spikes and supposedly had a pointed, round-sectioned head specifically designed for penetration. According to Vegetius (I.17; II.15; II.16) plumbatae were used both in offensive actions, when they were thrown at the first charge, and defensively, when employed by the third row of reserves. The De Rebus Bellicis (X) states that the plumbata et tribolata was designed to be hurled by hand at close-quarters, it does not mention whether the plumbata mamillata was thrown by hand or machine. Although it is generally held that plumbatae were thrown by hand, doubt still remains as to whether they were of javelin or dart like proportions. Manuscript illuminations in De Rebus Bellicis represent them as shafted weapons of arrow or quarrel proportions. Vegetius gives no dimensions but as he says that five were carried behind an infantryman’s shield it suggests a comparatively short weapon. Experiments have been carried out with replica plumbatae based on examples found at Wroxeter (Musty & Barker 1974, 275-7). Tests undertaken by Musty and Barker were based on them being similar to javelins with a 1m long fletched shaft. After a number of attempts this version travelled about 30m. More recently experiments have been carried out giving the plumbata a more dart-like appearance, only some 500mm long (Eagle 1989, 250-1). Many variations were tried, allowing different lengths of shaft behind the flights, and throwing it under- and over-arm. The under-arm method proved the most effective, achieving distances approaching 64m with comparatively little effort. This accords well with Vegetius’ statement that soldiers using the plumbata took the place of archers ‘for they wound both the men and the horses of the enemy before they come within reach of the common missile weapons’ (I.17). In the Museum’s collection the only site represented is Segontium, one of the few sites in Wales with military activity continuing through most of the fourth century (p.6). across barbs 20mm, max. thickness of shank 11mm, weight 19.6g, Long barbed point with a solid oval-sectioned shank which expands to the end. The lead weight is missing and the shaft is broken off. See Fa01. Allason-Jones (1993) p.187 no.276 Segontium: SF434 (1512) mixed layer; Period 10A late 4th century

Fa01. plumbata, iron (acc. no. 82.22H) total length 119mm, length of head 41mm, length of lead weight 34mm, width across barbs 17mm, weight 74.2g, Long barbed point with an oval-sectioned shaft which expands towards the end and passes through a barrel-shaped lead weight which is faceted leaving a scalloped effect. Cf. Burgh Castle (Sherlock 1978, 141); Doncaster (Buckland & Dolby 1972, 275); Richborough (Henderson 1949, 152, no.295); and six examples from Wroxeter (Musty & Barker 1974, 275-6 pl.LVb; Barker et al. 1997, 203). Allason-Jones (1993) p.187 no.275 (Fig 10.12) Segontium: SF710 (2000) fill of open drain; Period 10A - late 4th century

Fa03. plumbata, iron (acc. no. 82.22H) total length 112mm, length of head 44mm,width of barbs 20mm, max. thickness of shank 13mm, weight 22.6g Long barbed point with an oval-sectioned shank ending in a circular split socket. The lead weight is missing. See Fa01. Allason-Jones (1993) p.187 no.277 Segontium: SF54 (304) soil accumulation; Period 11 – late 4th century or later.

Fa02. plumbata, iron (acc. no. 82.22H) total length 109mm, length of head 39mm, width

40

G: Conical Ferrules Ferrules in the form of a conical socket closed at its narrower end are particularly common on military sites where it is assumed that they protected the butts of spears (Manning 1985, 141; Manning, Price & Webster 1995, 32). On the other hand they occur sufficiently often on civilian sites to suggest that they were not purely military objects. Although spears are not uncommon on such sites, Manning (1985, 141) sees this as suggesting that spear butts were not their sole use, and that they could have been used to protect staffs with equal efficiency, though on how many staffs one wants a point is debatable. He also suggests that some of the longer and thinner examples could have protected the tips of wooden pitchforks (Manning 1985, S58). A passage in Polybius (VI.25), written in the second century BC, suggests that pointed ferrules were fitted to provide an emergency second point in case of breakage during a battle: a practice, which he says the Romans took from the Greeks. While such use in a crisis is entirely possible their principal function was probably to enable the spear to be stuck in the ground when not in use, for convenient and safe storage. length 76mm [broken] Badly corroded, little more than the core of the object left. Caerleon – Vine Cottage: (11) uppermost occupation

Ga01. conical ferrule, iron (acc. no. 23.292) length 93mm Thickly coated in wax. Wheeler (1923) p.142, fig.65.2 [probably] Segontium: in Floor IV of the cellar in the sacellum; mid 4th century [probably]

Ga08. conical ferrule, iron (acc. no. 39.386) length 64mm [broken] Badly corroded, little more than the core of the object left. Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage: - - -

Ga02. conical ferrule, iron (acc. no. 23.292) length 138mm, external diameter of socket 24 by 21 mm, internal diameter of socket 18 by 15 mm Long slender example, missing most of its original surface. Socket virtually entirely filled with corrosion product. Segontium: - - -

Ga09. conical ferrule, iron (acc. no. 56.214A) length 99mm [broken] Badly corroded, little more than the core of the object left. Boon (unpublished) no.29 Caerleon – Bear House Field II: (F67) Building VII

Ga03. conical ferrule, iron (acc. no. 25.212) length 169mm Large, heavy ferrule ending in a blunt point. One side of socket almost completely missing. Brecon Gaer: - - -

Ga10. conical ferrule, iron (acc. no. 58.535/873) length 70mm Made from a strip folded and joined along the edges. Gardner & Savory (1964) p.157 fig.24.7 Dinorben: found at a depth of 2 ft. 6 in. in the upper road surface, in the main south-east entrance opposite the end post-hole.

Ga04. conical ferrule, iron (acc. no. 25.212) length 143mm Heavily pitted by corrosion. Brecon Gaer: - - Ga05. conical ferrule, iron (acc. no. 25.212) length 83mm Part of the socket end is missing. Brecon Gaer: - - -

Ga11. conical ferrule, iron (acc. no. 62.265) length 106mm Caerleon – Bear House Field I: - - Ga12. conical ferrule, iron (acc. no. 82.10H) length 88mm Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.32 no.19 Usk – Detention Centre Site: 67 B II (41) Gully; post-dating the Fortress phase

Ga06. conical ferrule, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 111mm Heavily coated in wax. Nash-Williams (1932) p.77 fig.29.4 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Ga13. conical ferrule, iron (acc. no. 82.10H) length 75mm

Ga07. conical ferrule, iron (acc. no. 36.472)

41

Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.32 no.25 Usk – Cattle Market Site: 73(+) unstratified

The tip is damaged. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.32 no.23 Usk – Detention Centre Site: 69 WC (1) Pit; second to third century

Ga19. conical ferrule, iron (acc. no. 82.11H) length 65mm With a more or less rectangular cross-section. Breaking up Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.32 no.28 Usk – Cattle Market Site: HWQ (1) Fortress pit; Pre-Flavian (Manning 1989, 64)

Ga14. conical ferrule, iron (acc. no. 82.10H) length 83mm Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.32 no.24 Usk – Detention Centre Site: 67 A XII (4a) levelling; nineteenth century containing pre-Flavian material

Ga20. conical ferrule, iron (acc. no. 84.119H) length 75mm A well made closed conical with a nail through one side. Caerleon – Isca Grange: SF074 (77c/061)

Ga15. conical ferrule, iron (acc. no. 82.10H) length 68mm Split on one side, possibly by corrosion. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.32 no.26 Usk – Detention Centre Site: 68(+) unstratified

Ga21. conical ferrule, iron (acc. no. 88.165H) length 97mm There is no sign of a seam or split. Scott (1992) p.166 no.61 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1188 (31/1139) Block A. Phase VI c.350-400

Ga16. conical ferrule, iron (acc. no. 82.11H) length 87mm Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.32 no.20 Usk – Cattle Market Site: HXM/B (15) Fortress latrine pit; Pre-Flavian (Manning 1989, 48)

Ga22. ? conical ferrule, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) length 81mm [broken] Heavily encrusted. Loughor: SF708; (53\3136) Period VI (Phase 14) c.110 - c.115/120

Ga17. conical ferrule, iron (acc. no. 82.11H) length 86mm Poorly preserved with a triangular cross-section which may be the result of corrosion Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.32 no.21 Usk – Cattle Market Site: HUK (1) Fortress pit; PreFlavian (Manning 1989, 66)

Ga23. ? conical ferrule, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) length 52mm [broken] Tip end only. Loughor: SF197; (69\150) via sagularis; Period I (Phase 2) c.73/4 - c.80

Ga18. conical ferrule, iron (acc. no. 82.11H) length 79mm

See also Knob-ended Bolt-heads (p.56)

42

Archery Equipment It seems probable that, as argued by Davies (1977, 265-6), archery was not confined to the auxiliary units of specialised archers, sagittarii. He pointed out that finds of archery equipment come from too many forts for them all to have had such garrisons, and cited ancient authors to show that at least a proportion of both legionaries and auxiliaries were trained in archery. The types of bows, quivers and other archery equipment used by the Roman army were not specifically Roman but belonged to Levantine or Central Asiatic traditions (Coulston 1985, 220). Roman sculptural depictions of quivers all show a cylindrical form (Southern & Dixon 1992, 57; 1996, 118) and Trajan’s Column depicts archers wearing arm bracers (Lepper & Frere 1988, pl. 50, scene 70), however there is no archaeological evidence for them, made as they were of organic material. What does survive are the iron arrowheads and occasionally the bone components from the bows.

H: Bows The archaeological and pictorial evidence examined by Coulston (1985, 222-63) pointed to the use of composite bows by the Roman army. He does not preclude the use of all wooden ‘self-bows’ in training or hunting but the evidence for such does not survive. Composite bows came into use by the Roman army after its first oriental contacts in the Late Republican period and became increasingly used under the Empire (Coulston 1985, 220). The core of a composite bow was wood and consisted of a grip from which flexible arms sprang symmetrically on either side. At the ends of these springy arms were rigid ‘ears’ which, in some instances, continued the line of the curve but, more generally, diverged markedly from the line of the arms. Strong strips of cattle horn were glued to the belly of the bow, the surface of the bow facing the archer when in use. These strips were thickest and strongest towards the grip, gradually thinning out until they terminated at the end of the arms and the start of the ears. The back of the bow, the surface furthest from the archer, was covered with sinews mixed with glue, disposed longitudinally along the bow, and moulded in one or more layers onto the wood. The ears were frequently reinforced with bone or antler, let into the ears as strips, which helped to stiffen the ears and act as levers when the bow was drawn. The grip also required to be ridged so strips of bone or antler were also attached at this point (Coulston 1985, 245-8; MacGregor 1985, 155-6). The variety of lath shapes and lengths suggests a range of bow designs in contemporaneous use (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 139). For instance, the bows used on horseback were probably both shorter and lighter than those used on foot, as mounted archers lost the stability of the ground which enabled foot-archers to use larger and more powerful bows (Coulston 1985, 245-6). No bow has survived intact from within the Roman Empire. Only the ‘ear’ of one with bone laths, horn and sinews attached to a wooden core, remains preserved by arid conditions at Belmesa in Egypt (Coulston 1985, 222 & 233 figs.3 & 15-18). Generally only the bone or antler ‘laths’, or ‘bow-stiffeners’, survive. The function of these laths found on Roman military sites is interpretable because identical items are found attached to the grips and ears of bows in steppe nomad graves (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 135). Coulston (1985, 224-34) lists ten sites in Britain and seventeen from elsewhere in the Empire, ranging in date from the first to the fourth century, that have produced laths. A single room (Room 44) of the third century Rampart-Building at Caerleon produced all of the bow fragments in the Museum’s collection (p.1745; Chapman 2002). The laths, which form the largest group from any Roman site, had probably been made in the room in which they were found, for with them were a number of animal bones and antler fragments with knife-marks and saw-marks, apparently representing the raw material of manufacture. Given the apparent nature of the deposit it seems likely that most, if not all, of the laths were never actually applied to bows. It is indeed possible that some of them were discarded ‘failed’ pieces. Many laths curve out from the concave face and some even then curve inwards again. In this respect they follow the irregular curve of the parent bone, usually rib in these cases. It is very difficult to distinguish between bone and antler materials except 43

where cellular structure makes it obvious, but the majority of laths are apparently made of bone. Ox-ribs were found in the deposit with varying degrees of tooling suggesting that these formed at least one source of raw material.

Ear Laths Laths are referred to, according to their position on the bow, as ‘ear laths’ or ‘grip laths’. In describing ear laths the end nearest to the nock, the notches on the ears which take the bow-string, is the ‘upper’ end, the other is the ‘lower’ (Coulston 1985, 223-4). Ear laths are long and narrow and can be straight or curving. They are usually rounded and wider at the upper end and irregularly plano-convex in section. The underside is roughened to facilitate gluing to the ear of the bow and the nock for the string is cut into the thinner of the two edges (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 135; MacGregor 1985, 156-8). Ha01-41. fragments with nocks, bone (acc. no. 32.60) The upper ends are mainly either rounded or horizontally cut-off, with only one pointed example. Nocks are semi-circular, rounded or triangular. Some are very crudely cut, with knife-marks suggesting unfinished work. Nash-Williams (1932) p.94 fig.42 Coulston (1985) p.227-9 figs.11-2 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300 fragments with nocks, bone (acc. no. 32.60) Thickness (mm)

Width (mm)

Length (mm)

Pieces

Ha01

1

300

17

5

Ha02

2

370

19

5

Ha03

2

242

18

5

Ha04

3

240

17

5

Ha05

2

220

18

4

Ha06 Ha07

2 1

200 180

15 22

3 5

Ha08

1

178

23

4

Ha09 Ha10 Ha11 Ha12 Ha13 Ha14 Ha15 Ha16 Ha17 Ha18 Ha19 Ha20 Ha21 Ha22 Ha23 Ha24

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

174 133 129 120 118 118 109 108 108 108 107 106 105 102 93 88

20 15 14 18 17 16 17 19 14 18 20 14 17 18 18 15

4 4 4 5 4 4 4 6 3 4 5 4 3 5 5 3

Only lath to survive unbroken and intact, apart from missing its lower tip Nash-Williams (1932) p.94 fig.42.1 Coulston (1985) p.227-9 figs.11-2 Nash-Williams (1932) p.94 fig.42.4 & 11 Coulston (1985) p.227-9 figs.11-2 Bishop & Coulston (1993) p.137 fig.96 no.4 Coulston (1985) p.227-9 figs.11-2 Bishop & Coulston (1993) p.137 fig.96 no.1 Coulston (1985) p.227-9 figs.11-2 Nash-Williams (1932) p.94 fig.42.7 Coulston (1985) p.227-9 figs.11-2 Coulston (1985) p.227-9 figs.11-2 Nash-Williams (1932) p.94 fig.42.3 Nash-Williams (1932) p.94 fig.42.5 Coulston (1985) p.227-9 figs.11-2 Nash-Williams (1932) p.94 fig.42.6 Nash-Williams (1932) p.94 fig.42.8 Nash-Williams (1932) p.94 fig.42.9 Very small, unfinished nock Nash-Williams (1932) p.94 fig.42.10

Coulston (1985) p.227-9 figs.11-2

Very small, unfinished nock Coulston (1985) p.227-9 figs.11-2

44

Pieces

Length (mm)

Width (mm)

Thickness (mm)

Ha25 Ha26 Ha27 Ha28 Ha29 Ha30

1 1 1 1 1 1

79 77 71 70 68 67

17 19 16 17 16 13

4 5 5 5 2 5

Ha31

1

61

16

5

Nash-Williams (1932) p.94 fig.42.2

Two nocks of different sizes on the same edge Nash-Williams (1932) p.94 fig.42.12

1 56 16 3 Ha32 1 55 20 4 Ha33 1 50 20 4 Ha34 1 50 16 3 Ha35 1 50 15 4 Ha36 1 49 15 3 Ha37 1 47 18 3 Ha38 1 41 18 3 Ha39 1 33 20 4 Ha40 1 33 17 4 Ha41 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300 Ha42-67. lower tip fragments, bone (acc. no. 32.60) The fragmentary lower tip sections are mostly pointed, some sharply, but one has a square-ended tip and two are rounded. Nash-Williams (1932) p.94 fig.42 Coulston (1985) p.227-9 figs.11-2 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300 Lower tip, bone (acc. no. 32.60) Length (mm)

Width (mm)

Thickness (mm)

Ha42 Ha43 Ha44 Ha45 Ha46 Ha47 Ha48 Ha49 Ha50 Ha51 Ha52 Ha53 Ha54 Ha55 Ha56 Ha57 Ha58 Ha59 Ha60 Ha61

Pieces

4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

250 162 147 136 131 112 103 102 100 99 96 84 82 78 77 73 72 70 70 69

17 14 17 16 15 15 15 15 15 15 14 13 16 14 15 15 16 12 13 13

5 4 3 4 4 3 3 5 2 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 3 4 3 4

Coulston (1985) p.227-9 figs.11-2 Nash-Williams (1932) p.94 fig.42.15 Nash-Williams (1932) p.94 fig.42.2

Nash-Williams (1932) p.94 fig.42.13 Nash-Williams (1932) p.94 fig.42.14

45

Thickness (mm)

Width (mm)

Length (mm)

Pieces

1 69 17 5 Ha62 1 66 12 4 Ha63 1 49 12 3 Ha64 1 46 15 3 Ha65 1 45 14 4 Ha66 1 32 18 4 Ha67 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300 Ha67-204. ear lath fragments, bone (acc. no. 32.60) ‘Middle’ ear sections, broken at both ends, with or without a back zone of scoring on the convex side, and a varying degree of curve. Nash-Williams (1932) p.94 Coulston (1985) p.227-9 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300

Thickness (mm)

183 177 161 147 144 125 125 124 124 124 122 119 118 111 110 106 103 99 92 88 87 85 84 83 82 81 80 80 80 80 79 78 77 77

15 16 20 19 13 17 13 17 18 18 17 15 13 17 15 17 15 13 14 15 15 19 17 17 20 16 14 15 16 16 11 16 20 16

3 4 6 5 2 5 5 5 5 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 5 2 4 4 4 5 4

Ha102 Ha103 Ha104 Ha105 Ha106 Ha107 Ha108 Ha109 Ha110 Ha111 Ha112 Ha113 Ha114 Ha115 Ha116 Ha117 Ha118 Ha119 Ha120 Ha121 Ha122 Ha123 Ha124 Ha125 Ha126 Ha127 Ha128 Ha129 Ha130 Ha131 Ha132 Ha133 Ha134 Ha135 Ha136

46

Thickness (mm)

Width (mm)

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Pieces

Width (mm)

Length (mm)

Ha68 Ha69 Ha70 Ha71 Ha72 Ha73 Ha74 Ha75 Ha76 Ha77 Ha78 Ha79 Ha80 Ha81 Ha82 Ha83 Ha84 Ha85 Ha86 Ha87 Ha88 Ha89 Ha90 Ha91 Ha92 Ha93 Ha94 Ha95 Ha96 Ha97 Ha98 Ha99 Ha100 Ha101

Pieces

Length (mm)

‘middle’ ear sections (acc. no. 32.60)

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

77 77 75 73 71 70 68 68 68 67 66 65 65 64 64 64 64 64 63 62 62 62 61 61 61 60 59 59 58 58 58 57 57 57 56

18 18 16 17 15 15 15 19 16 18 18 14 15 16 19 20 14 12 14 12 17 16 17 15 14 14 14 17 17 13 19 17 16 16 18

4 4 2 4 4 5 5 4 2 4 4 5 3 2 5 6 4 3 4 3 5 3 5 5 3 3 4 5 4 3 4 5 3 5 3

16 16 15 11 16 13 15 13 17 17 13 18 12 14 13 16 12 13 17 17 17 15 17 10 16 15 14 19 13 17 19 15 16 14

3 4 4 4 3 3 4 3 5 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 3 3 5 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 5 3 4 4

Thickness (mm)

Thickness (mm)

56 55 54 54 53 53 52 51 51 51 51 48 48 48 47 46 46 46 46 45 45 43 43 43 42 42 41 40 40 39 39 39 39 39

Width (mm)

Width (mm)

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Pieces

Length (mm)

Length (mm)

Ha137 Ha138 Ha139 Ha140 Ha141 Ha142 Ha143 Ha144 Ha145 Ha146 Ha147 Ha148 Ha149 Ha150 Ha151 Ha152 Ha153 Ha154 Ha155 Ha156 Ha157 Ha158 Ha159 Ha160 Ha161 Ha162 Ha163 Ha164 Ha165 Ha166 Ha167 Ha168 Ha169 Ha170

Pieces

1 38 17 4 Ha171 1 37 14 3 Ha172 1 36 17 3 Ha173 1 36 19 3 Ha174 1 35 15 4 Ha175 1 35 16 3 Ha176 1 35 14 3 Ha177 1 35 14 4 Ha178 1 35 16 3 Ha179 1 34 15 4 Ha180 1 34 20 2 Ha181 1 32 14 4 Ha182 1 32 17 4 Ha183 1 32 19 3 Ha184 1 31 15 3 Ha185 1 31 16 4 Ha186 1 29 17 4 Ha187 1 28 15 4 Ha188 1 28 12 3 Ha189 1 27 16 4 Ha190 1 27 13 3 Ha191 1 25 17 4 Ha192 1 25 22 2 Ha193 1 25 16 4 Ha194 1 24 18 4 Ha195 1 24 12 3 Ha196 1 23 14 3 Ha197 1 22 15 4 Ha198 1 22 11 4 Ha199 1 21 16 4 Ha200 1 20 16 3 Ha201 1 20 15 4 Ha202 1 16 16 4 Ha203 1 11 16 4 Ha204 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300

Grip Laths Grip laths are very much rarer finds than ear laths. They are much shorter and are roughly symmetrical with a waisted profile (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 135; MacGregor 1985, 156-8). Hb01- 08. grip laths, bone (acc. no. 32.60) Twelve fragments make up six complete and two fragmentary grip laths. The pieces are characterized by a ‘waisted’ profile with two square ends which slope downwards on the upper, convex, face. They are flat, or only slightly curved, when viewed from the long edge. The second longest has scoring all over its convex face and some of the others are characterized by a cross-section with sharply angled sides which are likewise scored. Nash-Williams (1932) p.94 Coulston (1985) p.227-9 figs.13-4 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300

47

grip laths, bone (acc. no. 32.60) Thickness (mm)

Width (mm)

Length (mm)

Pieces

Coulston (1985) p.227-9 figs.13-4 Bishop & Coulston (1993) p.137 fig.96 no.2-3 Coulston (1985) p.227-9 figs.13-4 2 138 13 3 Hb02 Bishop & Coulston (1993) p.137 fig.96 no.2-3 2 165 14 5 Coulston (1985) p.227-9 figs.13-4 Hb03 1 162 15 3 Coulston (1985) p.227-9 figs.13-4 Hb04 2 158 12 4 Coulston (1985) p.227-9 figs.13-4 Hb05 2 124 14 4 Coulston (1985) p.227-9 figs.13-4 Hb06 1 80 10 4 Coulston (1985) p.227-9 figs.13-4 Hb07 1 71 18 3 Coulston (1985) p.227-9 figs.13-4 Hb08 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300 Hb01

1

154

13

4

48

I: Arrows Arrowheads constitute the bulk of archery related finds from military sites. The nature of their use meant that they existed in large quantities and would have been easily lost during training and in battle (Coulston 1985, 264). The fact that arrowheads are not very commonly found on Roman military sites in Britain (Manning 1985, 177) probably reflects the fact that their small size makes them vulnerable to loss through corrosion. The arrowheads were attached to the shafts (stele) by means of either a socket or a tang. The tang attachment method had the disadvantage of the shaft tending to split on hitting a hard target. On the other hand a socket could snap off at the point where the collar ended (Coulston 1985, 269). The best examples of shafts come from the East, such as those from Dura-Europos, where the arid conditions have preserved organic material. The longest has a nock 10mm deep with the ends and sides rounded off. The end was first bound with gluesoaked sinew for 25mm, then the nock was cut so that its sides and base were strengthened by this binding against the thrust of the bow-string. Three slightly ballooned vanes, 150mm long, 11mm high, fletched the arrow with the cock feather aligned with the string. A sinew whipping extends along the shaft to give the glue purchase on the reed for these fletchings (Coulston 1985, 266-7; James 2004, 195-7 nos.720-41). In the Roman West shafts do not survive so well but probably less use was made of reed than in the East. The Germans of the period employed pine and hazel (Todd 1987, 157), while birch was common in Medieval Europe (Coulston 1985, 268). The size, weight and style of head and type of fletchings employed, were dependent on the size of the bow, the use to which the bow was being put, and the degree of protection the target had (Coulston 1985, 264; Southern & Dixon 1996, 117). The most efficient war arrow, according to later treatises, was one with a heavy head with square or triangular section which would not have a great range but would hit hard and penetrate well. Barbed heads were for hunting arrows used against soft targets which would be hit with very little shocking power but deep penetration. The reason why the Romans employed barbed heads rather than the type later more favoured is possibly that there was little incentive to use or develop a more penetrative head in the West, where the enemy was seldom armoured. With barbed heads the wounds could be horrific (Coulston 1985, 268-9). Manning (1985, 177-8) defines three types of Roman arrowhead that occur in Britain but notes that other forms exist. Coulston (1985, 264-6) adds four more types, grouping Roman arrowheads from British into seven broad categories. It is this typology that is followed here. The Museum’s collection has examples of four of the seven types, with vaned arrowheads with sockets being by far the most numerous. See also Type III bolt-heads (p.56)

Vaned, tanged arrowheads (Manning 1985, Type II) A tanged blade with three or four ribs, which may continue beyond the blade to form small barbs. The tanged trilobate, or quadruple-vaned, iron head was of Central Asiatic origin spreading southwards into Achaemenid Persian, Parthian and Syrian use, and thus into the Mediterranean world (Coulston 1985, 264; Davies 1977, 260). They are known from a number of sites in the early imperial period (Bishop & Coulston 1989, 30), and continued in use into the third century (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 139) although postAntonine examples from Britain are few, as seems to be the case on the German Limes (Davies 1977, 264). The type is discussed at length by Davies (1977, 258-64) who listed the majority of examples known from Britain as well as examples from the German and Danubian Limes. Additional examples are recorded by Manning (1985, 177-8) and Coulston (1985, 264-5). Gardner & Savory (1964) p.157 fig.22.9 Davies (1977) p.258 no.1 Dinorben: area XIII, at a depth of 1 ft. at the southern end of the crags on the west side of the site

Ia01.

arrowhead, iron (acc. no. 58.535/166) length 40mm [broken], length of head 23mm Triangular in section, it has three ribs, ending in barbs, with three concave flutings between. The tang is cylindrical.

Ia02.

49

arrowhead, iron (acc. no. 65.409/117)

Heavily encrusted triangular head. Dawson (1997) p.285 no.96 (Not illustrated) Loughor: SF172 (55\242) via sagularis in primary fort; Period IV (Phase 6) c.100 - c.105

length 44mm [broken], length of head 34mm Fluted, triangular-section with three ribs, the barbs of which have been broken off. Savory (1971) p.49 fig.12.8 Davies (1977) p.258 no.2 Dinorben: surface layer, on top of the foundation of the Period III-IV rampart, pre AD 150. The precise find-spot is unrecorded, but it may have been close to the south-west comer of the hillfort.

Ia04.

arrowhead, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) length 37mm [broken], length of head 33mm Fluted, triangular section with three ribs. No barbs survive. Dawson (1997) p.285 no.103 (pl. XX). Loughor: SF830 (53\1139) layer of burnt material; Period II (Phase 3) c.80 - c.85

Ia03.

arrowhead, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) length 52mm [broken], length of head 44mm

Vaned, socketed arrowheads A socketed head with three or four barbed vanes c.l00mm in overall length. This represents a socketed variant of the previous type and appears to have replaced it in Britain, at least, by the early third century. In the Severan workshop at Corbridge three tanged, quadruple-vaned heads were found, with five socketed examples (Richmond & Birley 1940, 112 pl.XI). All but one of the examples in the Museum’s collection come from the late third century deposit in the Prysg Field Rampart-Building at Caerleon (p.174-5; Chapman 2002). The head is largely lost to corrosion, and the socket is split and damaged. Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.19.9 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(25)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 25; Period III c.200-300

Ib01. arrowhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 103mm, length of head 49mm Originally quadruple-vaned, but not much survives of these vanes. Nash-Williams (1932) p.70 fig.19.3 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 5; Period III c.200-300

Ib06. arrowhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 96mm, length of head 51mm Originally quadruple-vaned, but the vanes are now largely hidden in the corrosion. Nash-Williams (1932) p.70 fig.19.10 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 5; Period III c.200-300

Ib02. arrowhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 102mm, length of head 49mm Quadruple-vaned, with evidence of barbed ends surviving. Nash-Williams (1932) p.70 fig.19.4 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 5; Period III c.200-300

Ib07. arrowhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 95mm [broken], length of head 41mm [broken] Originally quadruple-vaned, but the details of the head are lost to corrosion. Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.19.11 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300

Ib03. arrowhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 101mm, length of head 53mm Quadruple-vaned, but now with a heavy layer of corrosion. Nash-Williams (1932) p.70 fig.19.5 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 5; Period III c.200-300

Ib08. arrowhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 95mm [broken], length of head 44mm [broken] Quadruple-vaned, but now with a heavy layer of corrosion. Nash-Williams (1932) p.70 fig.19.12 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 5; Period III c.200-300

Ib04. arrowhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 100mm, length of head 45mm Quadruple-vaned, but now with a heavy layer of corrosion. Nash-Williams (1932) p.70 fig.19.6 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Ib09. arrowhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 88mm, length of head 41mm Originally quadruple-vaned, but the details of the head are lost to corrosion.

Ib05. arrowhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 98mm [broken], length of head 40mm

50

Nash-Williams (1932) p.70 fig.19.13 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildigs Room 5; Period III c.200-300.

Ib15. arrowhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 72mm [broken], length of head 44mm Probably quadruple-vaned, but now badly damaged by corrosion. Nash-Williams (1932) p.70 fig.19.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 5; Period III c.200-300.

Ib10. arrowhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 94mm [broken], length of head 42mm Quadruple-vaned. Nash-Williams (1932) p.70 fig.19.15 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 5; Period III c.200-300

Ib16. arrowhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 72mm, length of head 42mm Probably quadruple-vaned, but now badly damaged by corrosion. Nash-Williams (1932) p.70 fig.19.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Ib11. arrowhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 83mm [broken], length of head 49mm Probably quadruple-vaned, but now with a heavy layer of corrosion. Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.19.16 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(25)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 25; Period III c.200-300

Ib17. arrowhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 80mm [bent], length of head 50mm [bent] Probably an arrowhead of this type, but could be a bolt-head. Nash-Williams (1929a) p.71 fig.19.23 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(25)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 25; Period III c.200-300

Ib12. arrowhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 75mm [broken], length of head 31mm [broken] Quadruple-vaned, now missing its point. Nash-Williams (1932) p.70 fig.19.17 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 5; Period III c.200-300

Ib18. arrowhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 91mm, length of head 49mm Probably quadruple-vaned, but now badly damaged by corrosion. Nash-Williams (1932) p.70 fig.19.24 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 5; Period III c.200-300

Ib13. arrowhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 74mm [broken], length of head 46mm Probably quadruple-vaned, but now with a heavy layer of corrosion. Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.19.18 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(25)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 25; Period III c.200-300

Ib19. arrowhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 94mm, length of head 40mm Probably quadruple-vaned, but now badly damaged by corrosion. Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.19.25 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300

Ib14. arrowhead, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 67mm [broken], length of head 34mm [broken] Quadruple-vaned, with evidence of barbed ends surviving. Nash-Williams (1932) p.70 fig.19.19 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 5; Period III c.200-300

See also Ia03

‘Bodkin’, tanged arrowheads A type with a square or triangular cross-section, c.40mm long. Erdmann (1982, 7-9) lists British examples from Newstead (Curle 1911, 189 pl.XXXVIII.9), Corbridge, Poltross Burn, Kirkby Thore and Richborough (Henderson 1949, 153 no.300). It occurs much more frequently on the Continent (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 139). [There are no examples of this type of arrowhead in the Museum’s collection]

‘Bodkin’, socketed arrowheads A long, slim head, square or rhomboid in section, about 50mm long. Few examples occur in Britain, rather more have been found on the German Limes (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 139). An example is said to come 51

from Richborough but the published photograph (Henderson 1949, pl.LIX.301) would seem to suggest an artillery bolt-head, as do the drawings of most of the examples listed by Erdmann (1982, 9-11). Id02. arrowhead, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) length 64mm, length of head 36mm Tapering rectangular head. Now fairly badly corroded. Dawson (1997) p.285 no.95 (pl. XX) Loughor: SF215 (55\179) cleaning; unstratified

Id01. arrowhead, iron (acc. no. 54.389B) length 95mm, length of head 41mm Slender, tapering rectangular head on a long conical socket. Boon (unpublished) no.4 Caerleon – Bear House Field I: F40, Building II; unstratified

Flat-bladed, tanged, (Manning 1985, Type I) A plain triangular or curve-sided blade, sometimes slightly barbed, with a tang. They occur across the Empire with the majority of examples coming from relatively late contexts (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 139). Some 800 were found in a fourth century context in the principia at Housesteads (Manning 1976, 22-3, no.37-44). Scrap-metal found with them suggests hammering into shape on the spot and they are very crude compared with the trilobate, tanged heads found elsewhere in the fort suggesting improvisation (Coulston 1985, 266). Similar examples, all with slight barbs, come from Richborough (Henderson 1949, 153, no.294 & 302; Wilson 1968, 108, pl.LIII.264). There is also a group of 44 tanged heads with triangular blade from Bearsden, dating to the Antonine period (Breeze 1984, fig.19). The only approximate contemporary parallel is a head from Vindolanda (Birley 1996, 19 no.34). [There are no examples of this type of arrowhead in the Museum’s collection]

Flat-bladed, socketed arrowheads Triangular or curve-sided flat heads with sockets are found across the Empire (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 139, 165-66). An example from Watercrook has a flat, triangular blade and appears to have been fixed to the stele with a pin (Potter 1979, 223 no.105). See also the discussion of Type II bolt-heads (p.56). socket are missing. Wheeler (1923) p.144, fig.65.8 Segontium: context unrecorded

If01.

arrowhead, iron (acc. no. 23.292) length 57mm [broken], length of head 36mm [broken], max. width 21mm Flat blade, now asymmetrical, with a small cleft socket. The tip of the blade and the end of the

Fire-arrows (Manning 1985, Type III) The head comprised three outwardly curving thin bars welded at their ends to form a short point and a tang. The cage thus created would have enclosed inflammable material. Davies’s suggestion (1977, 262) that they were constructed to reduce the time and skill needed for the manufacture of Type 1 arrowheads can be dismissed as the bars are not sharpened and would buckle on impact (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 113; Coulston 1985, 266). Five examples were found at Bar Hill (Keppie 1975, 99 no.14), and a further undated example comes from Wroxeter (Atkinson 1942, 255 no.22). These heads compare well with fire-arrows (malleoli) discussed by Ammianus (XXIII.4.14). According to Ammianus (XXIII.4.15), these darts were more successful when fired from a loosely strung bow, since it would prevent the fire from being extinguished during flight. [There are no examples of this type of arrowhead in the Museum’s collection]

52

J: Artillery All Roman artillery was constructed largely of wood and rope with only a few metal components. These have occasionally been found but it is generally only the ammunition that appears in the archaeological record. Roman terminology for artillery is confusing as different literary sources use different names for what appear to be the same weapon. This appears to suggest a change in terminology over time but whether this is real or purely literary is hard to say. The two main types of artillery in use by the Roman army in the first century AD were the stone-thrower (ballista) and the bolt-shooter (catapulta). By the time of Trajan these static field pieces were supplemented by versions mounted on carriages (Carroballistae), designed to provide mobile artillery employable in open battle (Trajan’s Column scene xli: Lepper & Frere 1988, 88; Richmond 1982, 16-7). In the third century the onager, also called the scorpio, was added, apparently becoming the main stone-throwing engine by the time of Vegetius and Ammianus (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 167), and by the fourth century the term ballista had come to mean a bolt-shooter (Marsden 1969, 188-9). The catapulta and the ballista were both twin-armed torsion engines constructed in a similar manner, differing only in size, the ballista being larger and having a band rather than a bow-string. Most of what is known about them comes from literary evidence; this has been collected together and analysed in Marsden (1971), but some of the metal components have been found (Baatz 1978). They were powered by two cord springs housed in a wooden frame, strengthened by metal fittings. Each spring was wound round iron levers at either end of it, the levers in turn rested on washers. Two wooden arms were inserted into the springs and connected by a cord forming a bow-string. The centre of this string was engaged by an iron trigger mechanism mounted on a wooden slider which could move freely in a groove set into the case. The catapult was shot by the slider being pulled back by a windlass positioned at the end of the case, causing the cord and the arms to be drawn back. The movement of the arms resulted in the springs being placed under greater and greater tension, thus storing energy for the shot. A bolt or stone was placed against the cord. The trigger holding the string was then released, shooting the projectile forward (Baatz 1978, 3). The onager was described in detail by the fourth century writer Ammianus (XXIII.4.4-7), who also stated that it was previously called a scorpio because it had ‘an upraised sting’, whilst later it was known as an onager, derived from a type of wild ass with a powerful kick. The onager had the torsion-coil mounted horizontally across the bottom of the carriage and a single vertical arm drawn back by a windlass. A large stone ball was placed in a cup or sling at the end of the arm. When the arm was released it passed through almost 90 degrees and came to a violent halt against a heavily cushioned buffer. The violent jerk projected the missile as if from a sling. The onager was designed more for siege warfare than for open battle (Southern & Dixon 1996, 158).

Bolt-heads The standard catapulta (or ballista) bolt throughout the Roman period was a socketed pyramidal iron head on a wooden shaft. Manning (1985, 175) identifies a second, flat bladed, type of bolt-head and a third, knobended, type is tentatively added here. In addition the existence of larger socketed versions of the fire-arrows discussed above (p.52) intended to be fired by artillery, rather than a bow, is suggested by an example found at Dura-Europos (James 1983, 142-3; James 2004, 220-1 no.804). Pyramidal bolt-heads have been recovered from sites right across the Empire. Numerous examples were found at Dura-Europos along with some 30 wooden shafts, 340-375mm long. The majority were made of ash, with some of birch and pine, tapered towards the head, and had a vertical tail end to engage the catapulta string. Two or three triangular flights of maple wood, 50mm long, were fixed in slots or mortice joints at or near the tail (James 2004, 210-3 nos.805-42). These vanes were positioned so that one face of the shaft remained smooth, enabling it to be placed in the groove of the machine. The use of wooden vanes instead of feathers is noted by Procopius (V.21.16). 53

There is clear variation in the overall lengths of the heads. In his discussion of the Hod Hill bolt-heads Brailsford (1962, 6) noted this variation in length which he thought suggested the use of weapons of at least two calibres. Whether the variations really support this idea is arguable as there is little tendency to cluster around specific sizes (Manning 1985, 170). In fact the length of the bolt-head alone is not a characteristic which would greatly affect the behaviour of the bolt. Their function was to provide the penetrating point of a wooden bolt, and ancient authorities make it clear that it was the length of the bolt which was the controlling characteristic; as Vitruvius (X.10.1) wrote: ‘all dimensions of these engines are calculated from the given length of bolt which the particular engine is intended to shoot’. Although the heads vary in length the diameter of the mouths of their sockets, which presumably reflects the diameter of the shaft on which they fitted, shows far less variation. That the diameter of the bolts was fairly closely controlled is not surprising for they must have fitted quite closely into the channel along which they were fired or there would have been no hope of their being accurately aimed (Manning 1985, 171). As one would expect the majority of the bolt-heads in the Museum’s collection are of Type I. There are two examples of Type II and five examples of Type III form.

Type I - Pyramidal head Bolt-heads of this type are relatively frequent finds on Roman military sites of all periods from the Republic onwards, and probably continued in use with little or no modification throughout the Roman period (Manning 1985, 175). The type is discussed in some detail in Manning (1985, 170-5) where he lists many examples from Britain. To the examples cited there can be added three from the Corbridge hoard (AllasonJones & Bishop 1988, 17, 105, fig.19.48-50). There are variations in form and in the relative proportions of their parts: the point, the neck and the socket. In particular the tips vary from a well-made pyramid with sharp shoulders to a rough diamond-shape. A variant of this type even has a round-section, giving conical rather than pyramidal heads and may represent a late form (Manning 1985, 175): examples come from Brough (Manning 1985, V252-3), Wallsend and Housesteads (Manning 1976, 22, fig. 14, 33 & 34). Functionally, however, they are all the same, for, as with their length, a high degree of standardisation of form does not appear to have been required. There is also evidence, from Dura-Europos, for tanged versions (James 2004, 210). It is possible that some of the smaller pyramidal heads catalogued as pilum-heads (p.36-9) could be bolt-heads. Ja01. bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 25.1/542) length 81mm [broken], length of point 49mm The point is now roughly octagonal in section, but this may be the result of corrosion. Marked shoulder at the junction of the point and the socket. Holt: - - -

Ja04. bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 25.212) length 70mm [broken], length of point 42mm Badly corroded pyramidal point with little of the socket remaining. There is a marked shoulder between the point and the socket. Brecon Gaer: - - -

Ja02. bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 25.212) length 99mm, length of point c.55mm Now of nondescript section, but it has been stripped. Brecon Gaer: - - -

Ja05. bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 25.212) length 71mm [broken], length of point c.42mm Badly corroded, now of square section. The socket is largely missing. Brecon Gaer: H.Q. well 5-8ft. down; unknown date

Ja03. bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 25.212) length 89mm, length of point 41mm Of uncertain, though apparently round section. Socket open, probably with the remains of a rivet hole. Fragments of the shaft appear to survive in the socket. Stripped. Brecon Gaer: - - -

Ja06. bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 120mm, length of point 63mm Large, heavy example. There is now hardly any shoulder between the point and the socket, but this may be, at least in part, the result of corrosion. Nash-Williams (1932) p.70 fig.19.1 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(16)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildigs Room 16; Period III c.200-300

54

A slender, square-sectioned point which narrows slightly, without distinct shoulders, into the tubular socket. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.30 no.13 Usk – Cattle Market Site: HIC (1) culvert by via principalis of Fortress; Pre-Flavian or Flavian (Manning 1989, 6)

Ja07. bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 100mm, length of point 56mm Point of square section. The shoulder between the point and the socket is not very marked. Nash-Williams (1932) p.70 fig.19.7 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(16)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 16; Period III c.200-300

Ja15. bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) length 78 mm Now sub-rectangular, almost circular, in section, it lacks a distinct shoulder. Originally published as a conical ferrule, but its diameter is more like that of the sockets of bolt-heads. Dawson (1997) p.383 no.71 Loughor: SF142; (69\163) primary ditch fill; Period III (Phase 3) c.85 - c.100

Ja08. bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 98mm, length of point 53mm Point of sharply tapering square section. The shoulder between the point and the socket is not very marked. Nash-Williams (1932) p.70 fig.19.8 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified Ja09. bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 70mm, length of point 43mm Unusually shaped head; the point tapers rapidly and then continues as a square sectioned rod, with only a slight further taper. Nash-Williams (1932) p.70 fig.19.22 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 5; Period III c.200-300

Ja16. ? bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) length 49mm [broken] Now little more than a corroded lump, but with a clear point at one end. Nothing remains of the socket. Dawson (1997) p.285 no.93 (not illustrated) Loughor: SF131; (55\154) west rampart of reduced fort; Period VII (Phase 8) c.115/120 - c.260

Ja10. bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 76.41H/3) length 100mm, length of point 50mm Point of square section. Boon (1979) p.18 no.7 Hindwell Farm: - - -

Ja17. bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) length 91mm, length of point 48mm Point of tapering square section. Dawson (1997) p.285 no.97, pl. XX Loughor: SF102; (69\056) abandonment/levelling deposit; Period VII (Phase 7) c.115/120 - c.260

Ja11. bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 77.40H/3) length 93 mm, length of point 46mm Badly corroded but point apparently of octagonal section, stepped into a closed socket. Manning (1981b) p.190 no.1 Whitton: (+) unstratified.

Ja18. bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) length 81mm, length of point 43mm Point now sub-rectangular, almost circular, in section, with a largely indistinct shoulder at the junction with the socket. Dawson (1997) p.285 no.98, pl. XX Loughor: SF237 (69\056) abandonment/levelling deposit; Period VII (Phase 7) c.115/120 - c.260

Ja12. bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 77.40H/3) length 70mm [broken] Now little more than a straight bar with a point at one end and the remains of a socket at the other. Manning (1981b) p.190 no.2 Whitton: (+) unstratified.

Ja19. ? bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) length 59mm [broken] Encrusted remains of a solid pointed object. The right size and shape for a bolt-head, it appears to end in the start of a rod, rather than a socket. Dawson (1997) p.285 no.99 (not illustrated) Loughor: SF165: (69\227) charcoal layer; Period VIII (Phase 10) c.260 - 310+

Ja13. bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 82.11H) length 67mm, length of point 45mm Short point with a lozenge-shaped cross-section and a short socket; it lacks distinct shoulders. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.30 no.12 Usk – Cattle Market Site: LDD (3) Fortress pit; PreFlavian (Manning 1989, 109)

Ja20. bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) length 109mm, length of point 50mm Tapering square point, with a very distinct shoulder at the junction with the socket.

Ja14. bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 82.11H) length 90mm

55

Dawson (1997) p.285 no.100 (not illustrated) Loughor: SF028; (53\069) fill of robber trench building 3.12; Period VII (Phase 16) c.115/120 c.260

[no meaningful measurements possible] Just an unrecognizable lump but according to the report a bolt with a diamond-shaped head Marvell & Maynard (1998) p.260 no.1 (Not illustrated) Usk – pipeline trench: SF010; (051) topsoil; unstratified

Ja21. bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 99.49H)

Type II - Flat-head They are characterized by flat, triangular blades with sockets. Although they resemble the smallest of Manning (1985) Group I spearheads in overall size (p.27), their blades are narrower than is normal in such spearheads, and the diameter of their sockets approximates to that of Type I bolt-heads rather than spearheads. Considerable numbers have been found at Hod Hill (Manning 1985, V254-270) and Maiden Castle (Wheeler 1943, 281 fig.93.3-13). Their general relative rarity suggests that they were not a favoured form (Manning 1985, 175). In fact Bishop & Coulston (1993, 56) consider bladed artillery bolts to be unlikely as they suggest that any slight inaccuracy in manufacture might lead to a missile diverging from its intended course. Quite why this should be a factor with bolt-heads when bladed arrowhead clearly exist and work is, however, unclear. A more significant reason against blade like bolt-heads would seem to be that they were possibly not strong enough always to make full use of the considerable striking force imparted by an artillery piece. Other uses are indeed possible. They have often been identified as arrowheads or they could be the heads of hand thrown darts, as apparently described by Josephus (III.96). Manning (1985, 175) questioned their use as arrowheads on the grounds that those Roman arrowheads which can be identified with certainty are tanged and not socketed. This view of arrowheads has not been accepted here (p.49), but it would appear that the size of the socket may be the key. While their sockets are too small for spearheads they are rather large for arrowheads. There is, however, no real clue that allows us to distinguish them from the heads of hand thrown darts, which must remain a possibility. The great majority of the bolt-heads which have flat blades are crudely made with a flanged socket (Type IIB), but there is a small number which are more carefully formed with closed sockets (Type IIA). As with the flanged spearheads Type IIB were probably rapidly made to overcome shortages on campaign (Manning 1985, 176). Both the examples in the Museum’s collection, however, are of the more carefully formed type. Jb02. bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 82.10H) total length 69mm, length of head 50mm, width 23mm A relatively broad blade with slightly concave edges, now distorted by corrosion. The socket is broken. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.31 no.14 Usk – Detention Centre Site: 68 CR (1) Fortress pit; Pre-Flavian (Manning 1981aa, 155)

Jb01. ? bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 61.505/14) total length 93mm, length of head 41mm, width 20mm Small pointed leaf-shaped head and elongated socket with large rivet-hole. Gardner & Savory (1964) p.157 fig.22.11 Davies (1977) p.258 no.4 Dinorben: area SXXXVII, at a depth of 9 in. in the stony layer overlying Hut-floor 16, near the northeast rampart

See also Spearheads (p.27-34) and Flat-bladed, socketed arrowheads (p.52)

Type III - knob-ended bolt-heads This is a group of iron objects which consist of a narrow, relatively short tapering socket with a distinct terminal knob. They appear to be confined to Roman military sites but their function is uncertain. They have generally been seen as ferrules for spears despite their sockets being rather narrow to have been fitted to the butt of a spear (Manning 1985, 141; Manning, Price & Webster 1995, 32). Curle (1911, 189) suggested that those from Newstead might have been fitted to the butts of artillery bolts, which they would fit quite well for 56

size, and various German specialists have suggested a similar function on arrows (Manning, Price & Webster 1995, 32). A conical terminal, however, does not seem the best form to engage with a bow string and a ferrule seems an unnecessary refinement for an expendable weapon. Birley (1996, 8) makes the interesting suggestion that they are arrowheads or, in the case of the larger examples, catapult bolt-heads. With sufficient momentum their terminal knobs could certainly cause considerable damage. Given their socket size, compared to known Roman arrowheads, if they are indeed projectile heads, most, if not necessarily all, would seem more likely to be bolt-heads than arrowheads. They are not particularly common in Britain but more are known from Germany (Manning 1985, 141). Several examples are known from Ham Hill (Webster 1958, 83 no.129) but none are recorded from Hod Hill. Given the relatively large numbers from the late first-century deposits at Newstead (Curle 1911, pl.XXXVIII, 12, 13, 15-17), the early second century layers at Vindolanda (Birley 1996, 23-4, figs.9&10); and the Corbridge hoard, which was probably deposited in the 130s (Allason-Jones & Bishop 1988, 17, 105, nos.51-3, 57-61, 63), it seem that they became more popular as the first century progressed. There is also an example from Housesteads (Manning 1976, 21 fig.13.28). In the Museum’s collection only one example, from Usk (Jc02), comes from a dated first century context. length 36mm It has a rounded knob and flared socket. Usk – Old Market Street 1986: SF538; (106/1820)

Jc01. bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 54mm A tapering socket ending in a small conical head. Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.19.26 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 5; Period III c.200-300

Jc04. bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) length 64mm A large example. Dawson (1997) p.285 no.92, pl. XX Loughor: SF243; (55\066) west rampart of reduced fort; Period VIII (Phase 10) c.260 - 310+

Jc02. bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 82.11H) length 42mm Short tapering socket, which is probably broken, and a small conical head. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.31 no.18 Usk – Cattle Market Site: HPK (1) Fortress pit; Pre-Flavian (Manning 1989, 56)

Jc05. bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) length 37mm A small example, possibly more the size of an arrowhead. Loughor: SF186 (57\067) Period VIII (Phase 10) c.260 - 310+

Jc03. bolt-head, iron (acc. no. 97.55H)

57

K: Caltrops (triboli) Caltrops consist of four iron spikes joined at the base to project at angles so that, however they lie, three form a tripod and the fourth points upwards. They were thrown on the ground to impede the enemy’s advance by wounding the feet of men and horses. Usually deployed around fortifications, they were on occasion employed in open battle as recorded by Herodian (IV.15.2-3). Roman caltrops are not common finds. A number were found at Wroxeter (Bushe-Fox 1914, 16, no.30; Webster 2002, 124 no.189) and three at Catterick (Mould 2002, 82 no.19-21), but the largest group by far is that in the Museum’s collection from the Prysg Field, Caerleon. Here seventeen were found, fourteen in the same room (Room 44) of the third century Rampart-Building. This is the same room as produced the large collection of bow components (p.174-5; Chapman 2002). There are single examples at Chester (Lloyd-Morgan 1987, 94 pl.IVc); Newstead (Curle 1911, pl.XXXVIII.14), Waddon Hill (Webster 1981, 70 no.80) and Walthamstow (Manning 1985, V283). Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.22.8 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300

Ka01. caltrop, iron (acc. no. 32.60) Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.22.1 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300

Ka09. caltrop, iron (acc. no. 32.60) Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.22.10 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Ka02. caltrop, iron (acc. no. 32.60) Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.22.2 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300

Ka10. caltrop, iron (acc. no. 32.60) Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.22.11 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300

Ka03. caltrop, iron (acc. no. 32.60) Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.22.3 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300

Ka11. caltrop, iron (acc. no. 32.60) Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.22.12 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300

Ka04. caltrop, iron (acc. no. 32.60) Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.22.4 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300

Ka12.

caltrop, iron (acc. no. 32.60) Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.22.13 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300

Ka05. caltrop, iron (acc. no. 32.60) Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.22.5 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300

Ka13. caltrop, iron (acc. no. 32.60) Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.22.14 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300

Ka06. caltrop, iron (acc. no. 32.60) Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.22.6 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c. 200-300

Ka14. caltrop, iron (acc. no. 32.60) Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.22.15 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300

Ka07. caltrop, iron (acc. no. 32.60) Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.22.7 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(44)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 44; Period III c.200-300

Ka15. caltrop, iron (acc. no. 32.60) Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.22.16 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(22)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 22; Period III c. 200-300

Ka08. caltrop, iron (acc. no. 32.60)

58

Caerleon – Prysg Field: 6(8)S; Barrack Block No.6 Room 8; c.105-200

Ka16. caltrop, iron (acc. no. 32.60) Nash-Williams (1932) p.71 fig.22.17

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Body Armour Six types of body armour are known from the Roman Empire. Four of these are represented, to at least some extent, in the Museum’s collections: lorica segmentata (articulated plate armour); lorica hamata (mail); lorica squamata (scale-armour); lorica plumata (mail with small scales attached). The fifth type, the metallic muscled cuirass shaped to the body, is depicted in art but is not yet attested in the archaeological record (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 85). Lamellar armour was an eastern form, never adopted by the Romans to any great extent (Robinson 1975, 162). Limb armour, in the form of greaves and segmented armguards, was also used, at least in the first and second century AD (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 87; Bishop 2002, 68-71), but archaeological evidence for it is extremely rare and nothing is present in the Museum’s collection. In the fourth century the use of body armour appears to have declined. Certainly there are few finds of metallic body armour artefacts dating after the third century and monuments of the period show mainly unarmoured soldiers, or men in lorica squamata (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 167; Coulston 1990, 139-47). This appears to fit with Vegetius’ (I.20) assertion that helmets and armour were rarely worn by infantry from the time of Gratianus (367-83). It has, however, been argued that Vegetius was writing about eastern forces in the aftermath of the Hadrianopolis disaster of 378 and that his remarks cannot be extended to the whole Empire for the entire late Roman period (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 167; Coulston 1990, 148-9). Ammianus (XVI.10.8) writing in the late fourth century certainly refers to infantry helmets and body armour and indicates the use of heavily armoured cavalry (cataphracti and clibanarii) on the Mesopotamian model, the existence of the latter supported by unit titles in the Notitia Dignitatum (Bishop & Coulston 1989, 65).

L: Lorica Segmentata The term ‘lorica segmentata’ was not used by the Romans, being invented during the Renaissance in the sixteenth century, but as the Roman name is unknown it has become a generally accepted convenient term (Robinson 1975, 174; Bishop 2002, 1). It was formed of overlapping bands of iron fastened together on the inside by strips of leather and outside by copper alloy hinges, buckles and hooks with leather laces and straps between. It is the copper alloy fittings which are most commonly found. This undoubtedly partly reflects the difficulty of identifying corroded fragments of the iron plates but must also reflect a tendency of the copper alloy fittings to become detached from their iron plates or to need frequent replacement because of damage. This is understandable since the fittings were designed to be flexible and at the same time were in use at points of maximum stress (Manning, Price & Webster 1995, 10). Moreover, the electrolytic reaction between the copper alloy and the iron of the plates would have led to these being the first place where corrosion would start (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 85; Bishop 2002, 80-1). It was not until excavations at Corbridge in 1964 produced a box, dated to the first quarter of the second century AD, containing three sets of girdle plates and some five half collar elements with shoulder guards attached (Allason-Jones & Bishop 1988, 3-6 and 23-51), that the construction of lorica segmentata was properly understood (Bishop 2002, 2-4). From this evidence Robinson (1975, 174-80) reconstructed two cuirasses which differed in the methods of attaching the chest and upper back plates to the lower part of the armour. One type, Corbridge A, was joined with straps and buckles which were on the outside at the front and on the inside at the back. The other, Corbridge B used hooks. On both types the left and right chest and upper back plates were joined by straps and buckles. The segments of the chest and back units were held together with hinges. On one example a shoulder hinge had broken and the two pieces had been riveted together, suggesting that the hinges were possibly largely decorative and the armour could function without them. On both types the narrow bands on the shoulders, waist and upper back were riveted to leather strapping and the waistbands were laced together at the front and back, around hooks (Bishop 2002, 31-44). With the knowledge acquired from the Corbridge finds, Robinson (1975, 180-1, fig.179) was also able to reconstruct the fragments from a pit in the headquarters building at Newstead (Curle 1911, 156-8 pl.XXII), producing a third type of lorica segmentata. The breast and back plates were larger; in the case of the back there was one plate each side instead of three. The system of attaching the upper portion to the girth hoops was similar to that employed on the Corbridge type B cuirasses but the breastplates were now joined together by a turning pin, passed through a slot and held in place by a pin. Robinson suggested that the semi60

functional hinges on the collar and shoulder plates were also abandoned, these components being simply riveted together. Recently, however, Bishop (1999, 36) has cast doubt on this, pointing out that ‘all the key areas that would carry evidence of such riveting have been damaged’, and in his most recent work on the subject cites examples of hinges from Carnuntum and Carlisle (Bishop 2002, 47-8 figs. 6.1 and 6.2). The tie loops on the girth plates were replaced by more solid eyelets (Bishop 1999, 35; 2002, 57-8). The origins of lorica segmentata are uncertain, but it may derive from gladiatorial equipment, since an articulated armguard or vambrace (manica) was certainly used (Coulston 1998, 4-5). In 1994 the excavation of a breastplate and a number of loose fittings at Kalkriese, near Osnabruck, an Augustan Varusschlacht site of AD 9, showed that lorica segmentata was in use in the first decade of the first century AD, at least 40 years earlier than had previously been thought (Franzius 1995, 76 Abb.2). After the publication of the Kalkriese breastplate it became possible to identify similar fittings from other sites: the earliest pieces so far identified come from Dangstetten (Germany) and date to around 9 BC (Bishop 2002, 23). By the time of the Invasion of Britain in AD 43, lorica segmentata of Corbridge type appears to have been widely used, at least in the West, by legionaries, and possibly some auxiliaries (Connolly 1981, 231; Bishop & Coulston 1989, 32). Traditionally it has been thought that lorica segmentata did not continue in use much beyond the start of the third century, because the latest representations are on monuments of Septimius Severus (Robinson 1975, 183 fig.189). However, a find of lorica segmentata, of Newstead type, from a temple at Eining, constructed c.226-9, and abandoned by c.260, suggests that this type of armour was possibly still in use until the middle of the third century (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 145; Coulston 1990, 147).

Fragments The difficulty of identifying the original function of corroded fragments of iron plate has already been commented upon. What is included in this section are a number of probable pieces, and plate fragments with more than one copper alloy fitting of different types, which thus do not fit comfortably into one of the following sections. La01. fragment, iron (acc. no. 32.60) 56mm by 48mm by 73mm, thickness c.2mm to 3-4 mm at edge Slightly curved, roughly triangular piece with a copper alloy stud (18 by 16 mm). One edge thicker and possibly rounded. Nash-Williams (1932) p.77 fig.29.7 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 5; Period III c.200-300

La04. ? fragment, iron (acc. no. 82.11H) length 80mm, max. width 80mm The shortest edge is clearly broken but the other edges appear original. The general form of the piece suggests a fragment of lorica segmentata but if the edges are original it is difficult to locate it. One possibility is that it is a fragment cut from a collar plate, but such an identification is not wholly convincing. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.12 no.20 Thomas (2003) p.133 L no.105 Usk – Cattle Market Site: HFN (2) Fortress pit; PreFlavian (Manning 1989, 20). See also La06 from the same context.

La02. ? fragment, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 28mm [broken], width 20mm [broken] Fragment of an iron plate with copper alloy attachments on both sides. On one side is possibly the remains of a lobate hinge, secured by two flat headed rivets. On the other side is a loop or plate with a curved end and a perforation. Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

La05. cuirass fragments, iron & copper alloy (acc. no. 82.11H) lengths 64mm and 78mm, lengths of hinges 30mm & 27mm [broken], widths of hinges 22mm & 24mm Two iron plates each equipped with half a copper alloy lobate hinge. The plates originally hinged together with the now flatter plate overlying the other. There are slight traces of rolled neck edges on each plate and the method of overlap suggests that the now flatter plate is the one which was originally curved to cross the shoulder. The curvature of the short extant length of neck edge of the lower plate suggests that it would be more appropriate as a left

La03. ? fragment, iron (acc. no. 76.33H/B) length 42mm [broken], width 37mm [broken] Fragment of an iron plate with traces of copper alloy, but no form can be discerned in either the iron or the copper alloy. Caerleon – Museum Street 1969: - - -

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fitting (length 32mm, width 17mm) secured by two slightly domed rivets; and the plate of a tie-loop (length 30mm [broken], width 12mm) secured by a single flat headed rivet. This arrangement of fittings is found only on the uppermost girdle-plate on the left side, connecting it to the breast-unit. Fox (unpublished b) no.13 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF699 (138/355)

breastplate than as a back-collar plate. The better preserved hinge leaf is rectangular with rounded outer corners and is secured by three rivets, one close to each curved corner and one centrally placed close to the hinge proper. The other hinge leaf is much damaged but appears to have been very similar. See Lb01. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.7 no.5 Thomas (2003) p.85 Fix no.59 Usk – Cattle Market Site: HBS (2) pit; late first century

La10. ? fragment, iron (acc. no. 97.55H) length 45mm [broken], width 31mm [broken] Fragment of iron plate with two dome headed copper alloy studs inserted from one side and three flat headed copper alloy studs from the other side. The two sets of studs overlap each other suggesting a repair. Usk – Old Market Street 1986: SF118 (106/100); Period III (Phase 6) – c.AD 87/90 - c.120/125 (Marvell 1996, 54)

La06. fragment, iron and copper alloy (acc. no. 82.11H) length 68mm Fragment of iron sheet with copper alloy fittings including remains of a small ring and a broken rod like fitting. Usk – Cattle Market Site: HFN (2) Fortress Pit; PreFlavian (Manning 1989, 20). See also La04 from the same context.

La11. fragments, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) Some with the remains of grass or straw adhering. i) Max. dimensions 46mm by 44mm. One leaf of a lobate hinge (length 26mm, width 34mm) still attached to iron plate by five dome headed rivets. Folded in antiquity. ii) Max. dimensions 57mm by 49mm. Fragment of plate with a flat headed copper alloy rivet. iii) Max. dimensions 37mm by 34mm. Plate fragment with a strip of copper alloy (17 by 12 mm) riveted to it. iv) Max. dimensions 70mm by 22mm. Plate fragment with rolled edge. Dawson (1997) p.283 no.76 Thomas (2003) p.67 Fiv no.27 Loughor: SF170; (53\431) burnt timbers; Period V (Phase 12) c.105 - c.110

La07. fragments, iron (acc. no. 82.22H) Totally mineralised, the iron plates survived best where they are in contact with copper alloy fittings. The recognizable fragments suggest that originally there was a breast plate, mid-collar plate and elements of three back plates from the left side of a Corbridge type A cuirass. Two pieces of iron plate (37 by 37 mm), fastened together by a dome-headed copper alloy rivet (diam. 8mm), with the hole for a second rivet visible at one broken edge. Also a large sheet with a thickened rather than rolled edge. Length 83mm, width 56mm. Allason-Jones (1993) p.198 no.415 l & af Thomas (2003) p.121 L nos. 2 & 5 Segontium: SF1099 (2172) pit; Period 6A Hadrianic-early Antonine. Scraps of copper alloy with tinned or silvered faces were found with the lorica fragments suggesting that the deposit was intended for scrap. See also Lb08-Lb13, Lc33Lc34, Le08-Le09, and Lg09-Lg13 from the same context.

La12. ? fragment, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) length 43mm [broken], width 32mm [broken] Fragment of iron plate with two straight edges meeting at a right angle. There is an iron flat headed rivet in the corner with traces of a second next to it. Loughor: SF635; (53\3276) pit fill; Period VI (Phase 13) c.110 - c.115/120

La08. ? fragment, iron (acc. no. 84.43H) length 55mm [broken], width 59mm [broken] Rectangular plate with a mount of folded over metal (19 by 25 mm), projecting from one edge. Caerleon – The Legionary Museum Site: - - -

La13. ? fragment, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) length 57mm [broken], width 35mm [broken] Irregular fragment of an iron plate with the remains of two copper alloy rivets and two lumps, suggesting the original presence of further rivets. Loughor: SF170; (69/330) Period VIII (Phase 10) c.260 - 310+

La09. fragment, iron (acc. no. 88.3H) length 54mm [broken], width 37mm [broken] Fragment of iron plate retaining two fragmentary copper alloy fittings: one plate of a hinged strap

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Lobate Hinges Hinges were used to attach the cross-shoulder mid-collar plates to the top backplates and the breastplates, and also for attaching the three pieces which made the topmost shoulder guards. Thus eight complete hinges, or sixteen hinge-leaves were used on any one cuirass (Robinson 1975, 176-80). Generally each hinge-leaf was fixed with five rivets. Robinson (1975, 180-1) thought that these hinges had been abandoned on the Newstead style armour, but, as noted above, Bishop (2002, 49) suggests that shoulder hinges continued to be used. A variety of forms is found, some of the simpler ones possibly representing replacements by a local armourer (Robinson 1975, 180-2, Thomas 2003, 62-85). visible and traces of the other two remain. The position of the rivet holes suggests that the central lobe, away from the hinge, projected considerably beyond the line of its two neighbours. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.8 no.7 Thomas (2003) p.77 Fvi no.41 Usk – Detention Centre Site: FFB (1) Fortress latrine; Pre-Flavian (Manning 1981a, 190)

Lb01. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 31mm, max. width 23mm, thickness 1mm One half, formed of a plate folded round an iron axial bar. One dome headed stud survives and there is a hole for a second. Caerleon – unprovenanced Lb02. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 34mm [broken], width 34mm Openwork hinge with triangular central perforation. One of the arms is missing. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Lb07. ? lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) length 30mm, head width 24mm Strip with a trilobate head pierced by three globularheaded rivets holding it to a sheet of iron. Allason-Jones (1993) p.178 no.110 Segontium: SF853 (1562) subsoil; unstratified

Lb03. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 38mm [broken] Fragment of one openwork leaf. The central lug and one arm are double thickness but the surviving leg is only single thickness. A domed stud remains in the arm. Caerleon – Prysg Field: G(20); Barrack Block No.7 Room 20

Lb08. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) total length 56mm, max. width 31mm Two pieces of iron plate joined by a lobate hinge. The plates are flexed at 90-degrees and there is a break along the hinge. Each leaf originally had five rivets with thick disc heads, although only four remain on each. Allason-Jones (1993) p.198 no.415a Thomas (2003) p.71 Fv no.5 Segontium: SF1099 (2172) pit; Period 6A Hadrianic-early Antonine. See also La07, Lb09Lb13, Lc33-Lc34, Le08-Le09, and Lg09-Lg13 from the same context.

Lb04. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) overall length 43mm [broken], length of plate 34mm, max. width 29mm, thickness 1mm, diameter of stud head c.6mm Most of one leaf and a corner of the other. The more complete leaf has four surviving studs with squarish flattened domed heads, and clearly originally had a fifth. Caerleon – Amphitheatre: main drain OW15

Lb09. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) total length 36mm, length of hinge 25mm Part of a lobate hinge with an iron axial bar. One dome-headed rivet survives (diam. 5mm), a second, larger disc-headed rivet may be a repair (diam. 10mm). Allason-Jones (1993) p.198 no.415b Thomas (2003) p.71 Fv no.6 Segontium: SF1099 (2172) pit; Period 6A Hadrianic-early Antonine. See also La07, Lb08, Lb10-Lb13, Lc33-Lc34, Le08-Le09, and Lg09Lg13 from the same context.

Lb05. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 67.263) length 26mm [broken], max. width 28mm One repaired leaf, the three rivet-holes at the tip have been broken and the large-headed rivets are not original. Murray-Threipland (1965) p.139 no.1 Thomas (2003) p.66 Fiv no.4 Caerleon – Museum Street: lowest metalling of the pavement, south-east of street; Period IIa, probably second century

Lb10. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) total length 55mm, max. width 25mm, thickness 1mm Part of two iron plates joined together by a lobate hinge with an iron axial bar. Each leaf retains four

Lb06. lobate hinge, copper alloy & iron (acc. no. 82.10H) length 30mm [broken], max. width 28mm One leaf on an iron plate fragment. Three rivets are

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length 45mm [broken], max. width 31mm, thickness 2mm Remains of both leaves of the hinge still joined by the axial bar. Each is formed from a sheet wrapped round this bar. Both have a central triangular cut out, beyond which they are broken. Two dome headed rivets remain on one leaf and there are corresponding rivet holes on the other. Fox (unpublished b) no.4 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF803 (138/409) Phase Ib

of the original five dome-headed rivets. Allason-Jones (1993) p.198 no.415c Thomas (2003) p.66 Fiv p.5 Segontium: SF1099 (2172) pit; Period 6A Hadrianic-early Antonine. See also La07, Lb08Lb09, Lb11-Lb13, Lc33-Lc34, Le08-Le09, and Lg09-Lg13 from the same context. Lb11. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) total length 59mm, max width 28mm, width a cross plates 36mm. Lobate hinge with an iron axial bar. Each leaf has five dome-headed rivets of varying sizes, not very carefully placed. The leaves are flexed at a slight angle. The edges of the two iron plates are visible. Allason-Jones (1993) p.198 no.415d Thomas (2003) p.75 Fvi no.6 Segontium: SF1099 (2172) pit; Period 6A Hadrianic-early Antonine. See also La07, Lb08Lb10, Lb12-Lb13, Lc33-Lc34, Le08-Le09, and Lg09-Lg13 from the same context.

Lb16. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 30mm [broken], max. width 29mm [broken], thickness 1mm Poorly preserved, but still attached to fragmentary iron plate. Traces of two lugs for attachment to the axial bar, and four rivet holes. There is a central triangular piercing with what appears to be an iron rivet in one corner, possibly a repair. A delicate looking example, comparable to Lb35. Fox (unpublished b) no.5 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF258 (138/100) unstratified

Lb12. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) length 39mm [broken], max. width 30mm The axial bar and part of both leaves of a lobate hinge still attached to the remains of an iron plate. One leaf retains three dome headed studs, the other leaf has traces of two. Allason-Jones (1993) p.198 no.415e Thomas (2003) p.81 Fix no.11 Segontium: SF1099 (2172) pit; Period 6A Hadrianic-early Antonine. See also La07, Lb08Lb11, Lb13, Lc33-Lc34, Le08-Le09, and Lg09Lg13 from the same context.

Lb17. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 36mm, max. width 29mm The hinge is riveted very close to original curved and turned-over edge of a fragmentary iron plate, probably the neck edge of one of the top shoulder plates. Missing one arm but otherwise complete, four fairly flat rivets survive, and three lugs are still rapped round the axial bar. The remains of the two lugs of the other leaf are still attached to the axial bar. Fox (unpublished b) no.6 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF899 (138/355)

Lb13. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) length 34mm [broken], max. width 31mm Most of one leaf still attached to part of an iron plate by four dome headed rivets. Fragments of the other leaf are still attached to the axial bar. Allason-Jones (1993) p.198 no.415e Thomas (2003) p.75 Fvi no.7 Segontium: SF1099 (2172) pit; Period 6A Hadrianic-early Antonine. See also La07, Lb08Lb12, Lc33-Lc34, Le08-Le09, and Lg09-Lg13 from the same context.

Lb18. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 36mm, max. width 29mm Complete leaf with two lugs for attachment to the axial bar. It still retains all five rivets, which are dome headed. Fox (unpublished b) no.7 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: unstratified

Lb14. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 33mm, max. width 24mm Sill retaining the axial bar in its three lugs and attached to a fragment of iron plate by five dome headed rivets, burred over at the back. Fox (unpublished b) no.3 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF910 (138/396) Phase I

Lb19. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 34mm, max. width 28mm, thickness 2mm Complete leaf formed of a folded sheet, secured by five fairly flat rivets to fragmentary iron plate (thickness greater than 1mm). Two lugs, one broken, for attachment to the axial bar Fox (unpublished b) no.8 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF794 (138/315) Phase Ib

Lb15. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H)

Lb20. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H)

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to take the axial bar are entirely missing. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF644 (138/302)

length 32mm, max. width 23mm, thickness 1mm A noticeably narrow example. It is missing one arm so only four rivet holes survive. Three widely spaced lugs. Fox (unpublished b) no.9 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF413 (138/173) Phase Vb

Lb27. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 26mm [broken], max. width 28, thickness 1mm Two dome headed rivets survive and the remains of three other rivet holes are visible. The lugs for the axial bar are entirely gone. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF930(138/406)

Lb21. ? lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 25mm, max. width 40mm, thickness 2mm Broad rectangular leaf with four rivet holes irregularly placed and a single wide loop for the axial bar. Two of the rivet holes are so close together as to suggest that they were not in use at the same time. Fox (unpublished b) no.19 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF841 (138/315) Phase Ib.

Lb28. ? lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 43mm [broken], max. width 28mm A rectangular plate secured to the remains of an iron plate by a rivet at each corner. Three of the rivets are flat headed, the fourth more domed. Slight projections at the broken edge suggest the remains of lugs. Possibly a make shift repair. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF788 (138/396)

Lb22. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 33mm, max. width 29mm, thickness 1mm One leaf formed of a sheet folded back on itself. Four raised, fairly square headed rivets survive and there is the damaged hole to take a fifth. One lug for the axial bar survives. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF624 (138/367)

Lb29. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 38mm [broken], max. width 47mm Large openwork hinge with triangular piercing, still attached to a section of iron plate. Four of the five rivets survive: the two close to the hinge have flat, more or less circular, heads, while the two at the outer edges have domed heads. The shafts of the rivets are of stout rectangular cross-section. On the rear of the piece is a small rectangular plate of iron similar to those used as washers to the copper alloy rivets which secured the internal leather straps of lortca segmentata and there is a corresponding protrusion of copper alloy breaking the line of the openwork triangle on the front of the hinge. These are presumably a repair since this additional copper alloy rivet is eccentrically placed in the openwork triangle. If they represent a means of securing internal straps then the arrangement was clearly unusual, but without evidence for the direction in which any such strap would have run it is impossible to interpret it further. Webster (1992) p.114 no.28 Thomas (2003) p.80 Fviii no.1 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1377 (31/1731) Block B, Phase III c.100-160. Found with Lb30 and Lb31.

Lb23. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 30mm, max. width 20mm [broken], thickness 1mm Formed from a sheet folded back on itself. Traces of four rivets can be seen, the fifth would have been in the missing arm. The axial bar is bent up onto the front of the leaf pulling free of one of the lugs and bending the other two. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF435 (138/210) Lb24. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 21mm [broken] , max. width 33mm, thickness 2mm Lower part of a broad leaf with an axial bar retained by three lugs. There are remains of two rivets and traces of iron adhering to the back. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: (138/397) Lb25. ? lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) Length 16mm [broken], max. width 25mm [broken], thickness 1mm Fragment, apparently consisting of one riveted arm and the top central rivet. See Lb22. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF861 (138/315)

Lb30. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 29mm [broken], width 22mm [broken] An asymmetrical hinge with curved ends, still attached to a section of iron plate. Two domed rivets survive, close to one there is a small circular hole, perhaps to take a piece of wire to affect a temporary repair to the hinge. A similar hole appears on Lb31 which comes from the same context, and though of different shape; may therefore possibly be the other plate of the same hinge. Webster (1992) no.29

Lb26. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 27mm [broken], max. width 30mm Still attached to the remains of an iron plate. It still has all five dome headed rivets in place but the lugs

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Thomas (2003) p.81 Fix no.9 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1377 (31/1731) Block B, Phase III c.100-160. Also found with Lb29

length 32mm, max. width 27mm Still retaining all five rivets, which have flat fairly rectangular heads. The remains of three lugs are visible and there are traces of iron on the back. Caerleon – Broadway House: SF354 (248)

Lb31. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 42mm [broken], width 24mm [broken] Hinge fragment still attached to a section of iron plate. Two domed rivets survive, close to one there is a small circular hole. A similar hole appears on Lb30 which comes from the same context, and though of different shape; may therefore possibly be the other plate of the same hinge. Webster (1992) no.30 Thomas (2003) p.81 Fix no.8 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1377 (31/1731) Block B, Phase III c.100-160. Also found with Lb29

Lb34. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.52H) length 21mm [broken], max. width 27mm [bent] A badly distorted and corroded fragment with an axial bar retained by three lugs. Casey & Hoffmann (1995) p.89 no.i Caerleon – Alstone Cottage: SF47; (303) dark brown soil, black humic material with slag and charcoal; Room V make-up and construction; Phase II, Trajanic Lb35. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 99.47H) length 33 [broken], max. width 37mm A delicate leaf with a large triangular central cut-out . It is broken across the fold. Thomas (2003) p.64 Fiii no.1 Caerleon – unprovenanced

Lb32. ? lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 29mm Axial bar with three lugs around it and room for two more. Caerleon – Roman Gates: (31/272)

See also La02, La05 and La11

Lb33. lobate hinge, copper alloy (acc. no. 94.29H)

Buckle and Strap Fittings Hinged strap fittings were used to join the two shoulder units together, front and back, on both Corbridge A and B types, and the breastplates to the top girdle plates on type A. A hinged buckle attached to one plate and a hinged strap-holder to the other (Robinson 1975, 176-8; Bishop 2002, 31). The form of the plate riveted to the cuirass was the same for both elements: a strip of copper alloy folded back on itself round the axial bar of the hinge, and apparently generally with a central cut-out to receive the other element. The strapholder was formed in the same way but with the folded end cut to key with the other plate. Buckle plates had to wrap round an axial bar at both ends but were not always of double thickness throughout their length. The buckles themselves are of simple D-shape form. On Corbridge type A cuirasses the bottom back plates are joined to the top girdle plates by internal buckles of similar form but without a hinge and apparently usually of iron (Bishop 2002, 31, fig.5.3c). Lc03. ? hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 26mm, max. width 13mm, thickness 1mm Slightly tapered strip with a rivet hole at the narrower end and a notch out of the wider end. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Lc01. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 25.212) length 28mm, width 15mm, thickness 2mm Formed by folding a plate in half, and cutting away the fold to form the hinge-sockets. Remains of both the domed rivets survive. Brecon Gaer: levelling; unknown date

Lc04. ? hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78/119) length 25mm, width 13mm [broken], thickness 4mm Strip folded back on itself and secured by two flat headed rivets. Usk – unprovenanced

Lc02. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) plate length 18mm [broken], max. width 20mm; buckle length 23mm, width 27mm D-shaped buckle and remains of plate. Hoop of roughly circular section. Plate simply a strip with one end folded back on itself round the axial bar, now lost. Caerleon – Whitehart Lane: - - -

Lc05. buckle plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 16mm [broken], width (axial bar) 18mm, thickness c.3mm Strip rapped round an axial bar and riveted together.

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Badly corroded. Caerleon – Prysg Field: D(11)T; Barrack Block No.4 Room 11; Flavian - Trajanic (Nash-Williams 1931, 146)

Lc13. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 67.264) length 39mm, width 14mm Complete, doubled over plate, fixed by two domed rivets, only one of which survives, still joined to the remains of a second plate. Brewer (1986) p.173 no.5 Thomas (2003) p.38 Cii no.10 Caerleon – Museum Street 1967: (S48.13) an early hollow, north-west end of basilica; c.75-100/110

Lc06. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.118) length 49mm, width 15mm, thickness 1mm Two plain plates, each with two rivet holes, hinged by being rapped round a common axial bar. The larger plate is double thickness throughout its length, the shorter plate is single. Caerleon – School Field: A 14 T

Lc14. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 76.33H/B) length 23mm, max. width 19mm Fixed with two dome headed rivets, one of which survives. The copper alloy spindle, 30mm in length, is too long for the hinge, and it is possible that this piece was in the process of being repaired. Brewer (1986) p.188 no.175 Thomas (2003) p.81 Fix no.7 Caerleon – Museum Street 1969: unstratified

Lc07. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 18mm, width 21mm, hoop 2 by 3 mm D-shaped buckle, now slightly distorted, with hoop of rectangular section. Caerleon – Amphitheatre: - - Lc08. buckle plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 30mm [broken], width 18mm thickness 1mm Strip bent back on itself with a notch cut out of the fold. Now in two pieces. There is a matching small perforation in both pieces, and the longer piece also has an iron rivet still in situ. Caerleon – Amphitheatre: - - -

Lc15. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 76.33H/B) length 15mm [broken], width 20mm D-shaped loop with perforations at the end to take the axial bar. Brewer (1986) p.188 no.177 Thomas (2003) p.58 Ev no.5 Caerleon – Museum Street 1969: unstratified

Lc09. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 36.472) length 24mm, width 26mm, thickness 3mm Folded over strip pierced by a single rivet. Caerleon – Vine Cottage: Room (59); in pink layer next below stone debris, SP I

Lc16. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 76.33H/B) length 20mm [broken], width 22mm Sheet folded over to form a loop. One large square rivet hole (5 by 5 mm) survives. Caerleon – Museum Street 1969: top road metalling

Lc10. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386/248) length 27mm, width 18mm, thickness 8mm Open ends rounded, large slot and holes for two rivets. Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage: Area IV Barrack VII surface

Lc17. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 76.33H/B) length 28mm, width 16mm Folded over sheet with two circular rivet holes. It still retains an axial bar and the lug from the other plate. Caerleon – Museum Street 1969: ash and pit below red clay levelling

Lc11. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 56.214A) length 42mm, width 22mm Simple, D-shaped loop with separate, riveted axial bar, and a folded-over plate bearing a single dome headed rivet. Boon (unpublished) no.60 Caerleon – Bear House Field II: F16; Building VII, occupation?

Lc18. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 76.33H/B) length 27mm [broken], width 19mm Heavily encrusted but with traces of one rivet surviving. Caerleon – Museum Street 1969: ash and pit below red clay levelling

Lc12. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 62.265A) length 18mm, width 26mm D-shaped buckle with an iron axial bar. Badly corroded, much of the surface gone. Boon (unpublished) no.60 (under) Caerleon – Fortress Ditch: F5;burnt beam-slot in the Amphitheatre bank; probably Flavian

Lc19. buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 76.33H/B) length 15mm [broken], width 16mm Fragment of the plate retaining the axial bar and one rivet. Caerleon – Museum Street 1969: - - -

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length 19mm, width 26mm D-shaped buckle and tongue. Although more often made in copper alloy, iron examples are known (Manning 1985, 147, T4, T5), indeed the internal buckles used on Corbridge type A cuirasses appear to have been usually of iron (Bishop 2002, 31). Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.12 no.17 (drawn from X-ray) Thomas (2003) p.61 Ev no.46 Usk – Detention Centre Site: 69 EM (1) Fortress latrine pit; contained pottery ranging from preFlavian to late second century in date, probably residual Pre-Flavian (Manning 1981a, 149)

Lc20. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 77.56H/B) length 29mm [broken], width 21mm A D-shaped buckle attached to a plate retaining one dome headed rivet. Murray-Threipland (1969) p.109 no.9 Thomas (2003) p.53 Dviii no.1 Caerleon – The Hall: XIXb Hearth 3; Period 1, c.70/80 - c.100 Lc21. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 26mm, width 17mm Formed by folding a plate in half, and cutting away the fold to form the hinge sockets. Pierced by two rivet holes, one of which retains a domed rivet. Brewer (1986) p.173 no.2 Thomas (2003) p.38 Cii no.9 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: (1180:B) drain sediment; c.75-100/110

Lc26. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.11H) length 16mm The corroded remains of the axial bar with parts of the loop and tongue projecting from it. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.10 no.9 (not illustrated) Usk – Cattle Market Site: ICF (1) Fortress gully; Pre-Flavian (Manning 1989, 79)

Lc22. buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.10H) length 42mm [broken], width 16mm, thickness 2mm Parts of both plates but the hinge is broken. The fixed plate retains the remains of two dome headed rivets. The buckle-plate has a single, central, dome headed rivet with concentric circle decoration around it. The buckle loop is missing but the tongue remains. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.10 no.8 Thomas (2003) p.18 Aii/iii no.3 Usk – Detention Centre Site: 69 XD well; third century

Lc27. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.11H) length 21mm [broken], width 16mm, thickness 2mm Remains of two plates still hinged together. One plate retains a dome headed rivet, the other plate has a rivet hole. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.10 no.10 Thomas (2003) p.24 Bi no.32 Usk – Cattle Market Site: HFN (3) Fortress pit; PreFlavian (Manning 1989, 20) Lc28. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.11H) length 49mm [broken], width 17mm, thickness 2mm Remains of two plates still hinged together. One plate is perforated by two rivet holes, the other plate has the remains of a rivet still in place. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.10 no.11 Thomas (2003) p.24 Bi no.33 Usk – Cattle Market Site: HFN (3) Fortress pit; PreFlavian (Manning 1989, 20)

Lc23. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.10H) length 17mm [broken], width 14mm, thickness 1mm Axial bar with a fragment of plate looped round its middle. A dome headed rivet passes through the plate. The lugs for the other plate are still rapped round the ends of the axial bar, but nothing else of this second plate survives. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.10 no.15 Thomas (2003) p.26 Ci no.46 [illustration wrongly numbered as 45] Usk – Detention Centre Site: 70(+) unstratified

Lc29. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.11H) length 13mm [broken], width 12mm [broken], thickness 2mm Remains of an axial bar with a fragment of a plate still attached. Faint traces of a rivet through the plate. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.10 no.12 Thomas (2003) p.24 Bi no.31 Usk – Cattle Market Site: HFN (3) Fortress pit; PreFlavian. (Manning 1989, 20)

Lc24. ? hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.10H) length 21mm [broken], width 18mm, thickness 3mm Three rectangular plates held together by two rivets, with a rivet hole for a third passing through at least one of the plates. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.12 no.16 Thomas (2003) p.52 Dv no.10 Usk – Detention Centre Site: PGC (1) drainage ditch by via principalis of Fortress; contained pre-Flavian material (Manning 1981a. 138)

Lc30. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.11H) length 19mm [broken], width 13mm [broken], thickness 2mm

Lc25. buckle, iron (acc. no. 82.10H)

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Segontium: SF1099 (2172) pit; Period 6A Hadrianic-early Antonine. See also La07, Lb08Lb13, Lc33, Le08-Le09, and Lg09-Lg13 from the same context.

Fragment with a flat headed rivet still in place. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.10 no.14 Thomas (2003) p.36 Ci no.44 [illustration wrongly numbered as 46] Usk – Cattle Market Site: INL (1) Fortress pit; Neronian/early Flavian (Manning 1989, 22)

Lc35. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 84.43H) length 32mm, width 21mm D-shaped buckle, still with its tongue, attached to the remains of a folded plate with one, torn, rivet hole. Zienkiewicz (1993) p.108 no.6 Thomas (2003) p.53 Dviii no.2 Caerleon – The Legionary Museum Site: filling of Well 2; Phase I/II c.74/5-90/100

Lc31. buckle, iron (acc. no. 82.11H) length 16mm, width 25mm D-shaped buckle attached to the remains of a plate. See Lc25. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.12 no.18 Thomas (2003) p.58 Eiii no.11 Usk – Cattle Market Site: LAB (1) Fortress pit; PreFlavian

Lc36. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 46mm, width 18mm, thickness 2mm Two plates folded round a common axial bar and each originally secured with two flat headed rivets, one of which is now missing. Fox (unpublished b) no.10 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF733 (138/354) Phase Ib. Found with Lc37.

Lc32. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) length 17mm, width 17mm, thickness 2mm D-shaped loop of oval section one end expands into a flat oval terminal pierced by circular hole which contain traces of iron. Other end broken off. Allason-Jones (1993) p.174 no.88 (Not illustrated) Segontium: SF952 (256); stone lined drain; Period 7A. - Hadrianic/Antonine-late 3rd century

Lc37. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 49mm [broken], width 17mm, thickness 2mm Two plates folded round a common axial bar and each originally secured with two slightly domed rivets, one of which is now missing. Fox (unpublished b) no.11 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF733 (138/354) Phase Ib. Found with Lc36.

Lc33. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) length 61mm, width of first plate 17mm, width of buckle at hinge 19mm, length of first plate 21mm, width of second plate 16mm, width of third plate 16mm D-shaped buckle with the ends expanded to enclose an iron axial bar covered by a rectangular plate. This is hinged by an incomplete tubular hinge to a second rectangular plate which is pierced by two disc-headed rivets. Part of the pin survives ending in a small rectangular plate, either a stop or more probably a repair. An incomplete tubular hinge to a second rectangular plate pierced by two disc headed rivets hinge this. Another pair of hinged rectangular plates is attached to the end of the second plate at right angles. An iron cuirass plate fragment lies behind all the pieces. The last rectangular plate is flexed back on to the one before. From a left breast plate. Allason-Jones (1993) p.198 no.415f Thomas (2003) p.12 Aii no.7 Segontium: SF1099 (2172) pit; Period 6A Hadrianic-early Antonine. See also La07, Lb08Lb13, Lc34, Le08-Le09, and Lg09-Lg13 from the same context.

Lc38. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 56mm [broken], width 15mm, thickness 2mm Two plates folded round a common axial bar and each originally secured with two rivets. Both rivets survive in one plate, and are fairly flat headed, but neither survives on the other. There are concentric, punched rings around the rivet holes and hint of a punched line around the hinge margin. Fox (unpublished b) no.12 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF772 (138/375) Phase Ib Lc39. buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 42mm, width 16mm, thickness 2mm Remains of both plates of a hinged buckle, retaining traces of the iron plate to which the fixed plate was riveted. Nothing of the buckle itself survives, only the notch for the tongue is left to indicate the function. The fixed plate has two flat headed rivets, the other a single dome headed rivet. The plates are joined by both being folded round a common axial bar. While the fixed plate is double thickness throughout its length, the doubling of the buckle plate stops just beyond the rivet, the edge is straight

Lc34. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) length 24mm, width 14mm Rectangular plate with one lug of a hinge. Still attached to the remains of an iron plate by two dome-headed rivets (diam. 3mm and 5mm). Allason-Jones (1993) p.198 no.415g Thomas (2003) p.46 Cix no.1

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and looks like an original feature rather than a break. Fox (unpublished b) no.14 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF802 (138/409) Phase Ib

Lc45. buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 12mm [broken], width 15mm, thickness 2mm, length of axial bar 21mm Fragment of a strip rapped round a rod and notched in the centre of the fold. Slight traces of the buckle tongue survives in the notch, Caerleon – British Telecom Site: (138/170)

Lc40. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 28mm, width of buckle 29mm, width of plate 25mm, thickness 2mm D-shaped buckle and plate, the other end of which still has the loop for the hinge attaching it to the fixed plate. The plate is three layers thick for most of its length as it is folded right back on itself from both ends. All three layers are secured by a single, square-headed rivet in a hole encircled by punched, concentric rings. Fox (unpublished b) no.15 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF551 (138/100) unstratified

Lc46. buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 21mm, width 22mm, thickness 3mm Strip folded over at both ends and secured by a dome headed rivet. One end is cut to form a central loop for an axial bar. The other end is notched for the tongue of the buckle. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: (138/375) Lc47. ? hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 31mm [broken], width 39mm, thickness 3mm Sheet fragment folded over and secured by three flat headed rivets. There are patches of iron corrosion on one side. Possibly a make shift fitting. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF785 (138/396)

Lc41. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 26mm, width 18mm, thickness 3mm Plate rounded at one end and with the loop for the hinge at the other. Pierced by a single flat headed rivet. Fox (unpublished b) no.16 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF833 (138/306) Phase Ib

Lc48. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 23mm, width 14mm, thickness 2mm Two strips riveted together by a flat headed rivet and both pierced by a second rivet hole. There is a central rectangular cut out of what would originally have been the folded end. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF914 (138/397)

Lc42. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 21mm, width 17mm, thickness 2mm Plate rounded at one end and with the loop for the hinge at the other. Pierced by one surviving slightly domed rivet but with a second hole at the rounded end. Fox (unpublished b) no.17 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF672 (138/313) Phase IIa:

Lc49. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 21mm, width 15mm, thickness 2mm The folded end is cut to form a central loop, still retaining the remains of the axial bar. Both of the rivets survive, one is flat headed, the other domed. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF545 (138/269)

Lc43. ? hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 29mm, width 23mm, thickness 2mm Hinge plate with a rivet hole in each corner. The iron plate, of which a trace remains, appears, unusually, to have been riveted between its leaves. One loop round the axial bar is all that remain of the second hinge plate. Fox (unpublished b) no.18 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF839 (138/353) Phase IIIa

Lc50. ? buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 14mm, width 18mm Loop from a D-shaped buckle, with remains of the perforations to take the axial bar visible at both ends. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF726 (138/207) Phase Vb Lc51. ? hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 24mm, width 14mm, thickness 2mm Two sheets held together by a flat headed rivet and with a circular perforation for a second rivet. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: (138/209)

Lc44. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 30mm, width 16mm, thickness 2mm Double thickness plate with one of its, originally two, lugs surviving. One rivet with a raised square head survives and there is a hole for a second. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF908 (138/382)

Lc52. ? hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 32mm, width 15mm Strip still attached to the remains of an iron plate by

70

Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF142 (138/163)

two, slightly domed, rivets. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: (138/396)

Lc60. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 30mm [broken], width of plate 15mm, thickness 2mm, width of buckle 18mm Heavily corroded buckle and plate. The buckle loop is more rectangular than D-shaped. There are the slightest of traces of a rivet hole in the centre of the plate. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF845 (138/315)

Lc53. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 42mm, width 18mm, thickness 2mm Two plates folded round a common axial bar and each secured with two domed rivets. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF860 (138/315) Phase Ib Lc54. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 16mm [broken], width of plate 16mm, width of buckle 20mm Plain D-shaped buckle bent back over the plate. The plate is broken on line with a rivet hole. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF804 (138/409) Phase Ib

Lc61. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 28mm, width 14mm, thickness 2mm Corroded remains of a double thickness plate. Curved at one end and with one lug surviving at the other. Pierced by two rivet holes, one large and square, the other small and circular. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF893 (138/318)

Lc55. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 29mm, width of plate 15mm, thickness 2mm, width of buckle 20mm A rather battered plate with a single flat headed rivet. At one end it has a plain D-shaped buckle and at the other retains its axial bar. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF626 (138/170)

Lc62. ? hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 17mm [bent], width 20mm Crumpled remains of a plate, retaining an axial bar between two lugs. Traces of three rivets survive, two near the hinge and one further back. Such an arrangement of rivets is unusual on a hinged fitting and could suggest a lobate hinge, all be it of rather small size. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: (138/101)

Lc56. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 28mm, width 15mm, thickness 2mm Strip bent back on itself with a central rectangle cut out of the fold. Pierced by two rivet holes. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF 912 (138/396)

Lc63. buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 21mm, width 17mm, thickness 1mm Strip folded over at both ends and secured by a flat headed rivet. One end is cut to form a central loop for an axial bar. The other end is notched for the tongue of the buckle. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: (138/246)

Lc57. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 26mm [broken], width 14mm, thickness 2mm Strip bent back on itself with the folded end cut to leave two lugs, both now broken. The other end is slightly rounded. The plate is pierced by two rivet holes, round which traces of circular decoration survives. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: (138/207) Phase Vb

Lc64. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 92.32H) length 18mm [broken], width 16mm, thickness 2mm Remains of a D-shaped buckle bent back onto its plate. Traces of a single central rivet survives. Evans & Metcalf (1989) p.52 no.4 Usk – Old Market Street 1979: SF117 (21/921); Phase II – mid-fifties to mid-sixties of the first century AD

Lc58. ? hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 374mm [broken], width 21mm, thickness 1mm Strip pierced by two rivet holes and with slight traces of a central lug projecting from one end. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: (138/383)

Lc65. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 92.32H) length 17mm [broken], width 15mm Fragments of both sides of a plate with traces of a rivet and the remains of the axial bar at one end. Originally found with traces of a leather strap. Impressions of vegetation in the corrosion suggest that it had been lost in straw or some similar floor covering. Evans & Metcalf (1989) p.55 no.5 Usk – Old Market Street 1979: SF118 (21/2311)

Lc59. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 15mm [bent], width 15mm, thickness 1mm The whole plate is bent back on itself, trapping a large flat headed stud (diam. c.14mm) which appears to pass through one of the two rivet holes, presumably a repair. There are the remains of two lugs, with a cut out between, at what would have been the folded end.

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Period II – c.AD 55/60 - c.75 (Marvell 1996, 54)

Phase III – mid-sixties to end of the first century AD

Lc73. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 97.55H) length 27mm [broken], width 13mm, thickness 2mm Remains of two plates folded round a common axial bar. One plate is represented by little more than its central lug round the bar. Sufficient of the other plate remains to retain one slightly domed rivet with concentric incised circular decoration around the hole, and faint traces of the start of a second set of circles, presumably around a second rivet hole, now lost. Usk – Old Market Street 1986: SF057 (106/018); Post-Roman (Marvell 1996, 108)

Lc66. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 94.29H) length 17mm [broken], width 21mm, thickness 4mm Strip bent back on itself with the folded end cut to leave two lugs, one now broken. Pierced by a rivet hole just behind the surviving lug. Caerleon – Broadway House: SF542 (127) Lc67. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 94.29H) length 18mm [broken], width 19mm [broken], thickness 4mm Strip bent back on itself with the folded end cut to leave two lugs, one of which is now detached. Caerleon – Broadway House: SF455 (127)

Lc74. buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.116) length 23mm, max. width 12mm, thickness 1mm. Plate shaped at one end to take an axial bar and with a hole for the tongue of the buckle to sit in. One rivet hole survives near the other end. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.262 no.116 Thomas (2003) p.39 Cii no.33 Loughor: SF013 (57\006) sub-soil; modern

Lc68. buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 97.54H) length 14mm [broken], width 13mm, thickness 1mm Fragment still retaining an iron axial bar at one end. Around the axial bar is still, attached the remains of the tongue Usk – former Church Voluntary Primary School: (135/280)

Lc75. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.117) length 22mm [broken], max. width 20mm D-shaped buckle with tongue and part of a riveted plate. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.262 no.117 Thomas (2003) p.54 Dviii no.24b Loughor: SF198 (57\063) dump underlying Building 2.13; Period VIII (Phase 10) c.260 - 310+

Lc69. buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 97.55H) length 20mm [broken], width 13mm [broken] Fragment of a plate housing the remains of an axial bar at one end. There are traces of two rivet holes on the underside. The tongue of the buckle is bent back over the plate. Usk – Old Market Street 1986: SF165 (106/081); Period II (Phase 5) – c.AD 55/60 - c.75 (Marvell 1996, 54)

Lc76. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.120) length 18mm, width 19mm, thickness 1mm Two square sheets held together by a square headed rivet. There is also a hole for a second rivet. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.262 no.120 Thomas (2003) p.34 Ci no.32 Loughor: SF198 (53\568) levelling dump for timber building; Period V (Phase 11) c.105 - c.110

Lc70. hinged fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 97.55H) length 25mm [broken], width 14mm, thickness 5mm Fragment with two dome headed rivets. Sandwiched between the two strips are fragments of leather. Usk – Old Market Street 1986: SF393 (106/1726); Period II – c.AD 55/60 - c.75 (Marvell 1996, 54)

Lc77. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.124) length 29mm, max. width 23mm, thickness 2mm Angular D-shaped buckle with an iron axial bar. The tongue and part of the buckle plate also survive. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.263 no.124 Thomas (2003) p.51 Div no.2 Loughor: SF524 (53\1822) mixed layer of rubbish filled into sunken mortar floor; Period IV (Phase 9) c.100 - c.105

Lc71. buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 97.55H) length 18mm [broken], width 13mm, thickness 2mm Fragment with a central domed rivet, part of one lug for the axial bar, and the notch to accommodate the tongue. Usk – Old Market Street 1986: SF394 (106/1726); Period II – c.AD 55/60 - c.75 (Marvell 1996, 54) Lc72. buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 97.55H) length 21mm [broken], width 17mm, thickness 3mm Plate retaining the axial bar and base of the buckle tongue. Faint traces of a central rivet survive. Usk – Old Market Street 1986: SF421(106/1747);

Lc78. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.146) length 21 mm, width 21mm, thickness 4mm Loop with kite-shaped cross-section, decorated with fine punch-dots on either side of the raised angular

72

buckle 19 Two plates folded round a common axial bar. The fixed plate retains two flat headed rivets, while the buckle-plate has a single central rivet hole. The buckle-plate is three layers thick for most of its length as the strip is folded right back on itself from both ends. Plain D-shaped buckle with a flat, spatulate tongue. Casey and Hoffmann (1995) p.88 no.1 Thomas (2003) p.12 Aii no.6 Caerleon – Alstone Cottage: SF106; (100) dark brown clay soil, with much charcoal and slag, cut by construction trenches of walls 2, 3 and 4; Room 1 Phase Ib, c.75 - Trajanic

edges. There are traces of an iron axial bar in the perforations of the flat end sections. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.267 no.146 Loughor: SF194; (55\274) make-up of via sagularis in primary fort; Period III (Phase 5) c.85 - c.100 Lc79. buckle, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) Length of plate 29mm, width of plate 13mm, length of buckle 14mm, width of buckle 17mm Remains of a D-shaped buckle folded back on the plate. See Lc25. Loughor: SF297; (57/142) via sagularis surface and make-up; Period VIII (Phase 10) c.260 - 310+ Lc80. buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.52H) length 52mm, width 15mm, thickness 2mm, width of

See also La09

Vertical Hook and Loop Fasteners Hook and eye fasteners were used to connect the top girdle-plates to the breastplates and backplates of Corbridge type B and Newstead type lorica segmentata (Robinson 1975, 177-81; Bishop 2002, 31 & 49). The hooks, consisting of a riveted plate with a rod extending from one end, are of similar basic form to the tie-loops considered in the next section and it is not always possible to be certain whether a piece is a hook or a distorted, or unfinished, tie-loop. length 21mm Rod of flat rectangular section (2 by 4 mm) bent into a U-shape with a perforated plate at one end. Caerleon – Amphitheatre: unstratified

Ld01. hook, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) overall length 64mm [broken], length of plate 37mm, width of plate 12mm, thickness of plate 1mm, diameter of rod c.4mm Flat, roughly rectangular plate with two rivet holes near one edge, this edge is clearly damaged. A rod of roughly circular section extends from one end. This is now more or less straight and is broken off. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Ld06. hook, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386/16) length 32mm, rod diameter 3mm Curved rod flattened into a pierced plate at one end. Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage: - - Ld07. hook, copper alloy (acc. no. 76.33H) length 71mm, max. width of plate 15mm, thickness of plate 2mm, rod diameter 3mm Unfinished piece, the plate is unpierced and hook not yet bent round. Caerleon – Museum Street 1969: top gravel metalling

Ld02. hook, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.118) length 31mm, rod diameter 3mm Rod bent back on itself. One end is flattend out and pierced, this has iron corrosion on both surfaces. Caerleon – School Field: - - Ld03. hook, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 43mm [broken], rod 3 by 4 mm Bent rod with one flattened end which is pierced and has iron corrosion on both surfaces. Caerleon – Amphitheatre: B21

Ld08. ? hook, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 55mm Piece of rod, circular in section (diam. 3mm), with one end hammered out into a plate. Brewer (1986) p.186 no.163 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: (10) S29-34.10. Infilling of the natatio; phase IX – c.AD 290/300 (Zienkiewicz 1986b, 256)

Ld04. hook, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 25mm [broken] Badly corroded rod (diam. c.4mm) bent into a Ushape with remains of a perforated plate at one end. Caerleon – Amphitheatre: Arena (+); unstratified

Ld09. hook, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) length 34mm [broken] max. width 12mm, hook length 28mm

Ld05. hook, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119)

73

Thomas (2003) p.90 Gv no.4 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF452 (31/480) Block A, Phase V c.275/300 or later

Cut from a sheet with a strip hook (4 by 1 mm). The sides of the plate taper slightly away from the hook and the plate is pierced by two holes, one punched from the front, the other, from the back. The latter still holds a flat headed rivet. Allason-Jones (1993) p.174 no.85 Thomas (2003) p.86 Gi no.2 Segontium: SF1100 (2172) pit; Period 6A – Hadrianic-early Antonine

Ld13. ? hook, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 30mm, plate width 10mm, thickness 2mm Hook formed from a sub-rectangular rod (4 by 3 mm), with a spatulate plate. Webster (1992) p.156 no.365 Caerleon – Roman Gates: SF1007 (31/1111) Block B, Phase IV c.160 - 340

Ld10. ? hook, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 67mm, max. width 15mm, thickness of plate 1mm, length of rod 24mm An unfinished piece, with the square-sectioned rod (3 by 3 mm), still straight, and with rivet holes not yet punched. This piece could equally well have become a girdle-plate tie-loop. Fox (unpublished b) no.22 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: (138/396) Phase Ib

Ld14. hook, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) length 32mm [broken], plate width 14mm Rod, probably originally of circular section, bent into a U-shape and flattened out at one end to form a plate. Dawson (1997) p.283 no.74 (Not illustrated). Loughor: SF253 (55\263) via sagularis in primary fort; Period III (Phase 5) c.85 - c.100

Ld11. hook, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 58mm [bent], rod length 28mm, plate width 10mm Plate pierced by two rivet holes both with traces of circular decoration around them. From this projects a rod (diam. 4mm) ending in a bi-conical knob. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: (138/409)

Ld15.

? eye-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.52H) length 29mm [broken], width 13mm, thickness 1mm, diameter of eye 7mm Strip with a perforated circular end. Possibly rather slight for such a function. There are no surviving rivets. Casey and Hoffmann (1995) p.88 no.2 Thomas (2003) p.88 Giii no.3 Caerleon – Alstone Cottage: SF138; (405) clay, charcoal and tile fragments incorporating layer of flags; veranda area Phase Ib, c.75 - Trajanic

Ld12. hook, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 23mm [broken], plate width 10mm, thickness 1mm Short length of plate with one large, probably torn, rivet hole. Rod of sub-rectangular section (3 by 3 mm). Webster (1992) p.116 no.43

Girdle-Plate Tie-Loops Tie-loops were used in pairs, joined by individual leather laces, down the centre back and centre front of Corbridge A and B types to close the girdle plates (Robinson 1975, 176-8 fig.183; Bishop 2002, 31). Usually made of copper alloy, they have occasionally been found in iron (Manning 1985, T8), though no iron examples are present in the Museum’s collection. Le01. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 45mm, diameter of eye 7mm Tapered plate with one rivet still in place. The loop has a distinct knob at its tip. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Le03. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 37mm, width 14mm, thickness 1mm Plate with one rivet hole and a short projecting rod, beginning to curve round. Caerleon – Amphitheatre: - - -

Le02. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 43mm, loop diameter 13mm, plate thickness 1mm, hoop thickness 3mm, perforations 3mm Plate with one straight edge and one ragged edge. It is pierced by two, roughly square, perforation. Caerleon – Prysg Field: - - -

Le04. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386/220) length 49mm, width of plate 11mm, thickness 1mm, rod diameter 3mm, eye diameter 7mm Strip with up turned loop for suspension, and two rivet holes. Fox (1940) p.134 no.29, fig.7 Thomas (2003) p.102 Hv no.5

74

loop is of unusual and weak construction, being simply a flat strip of metal, one end of which was rolled to form a hollow tube then bent to form the hook; such hooks are more usually manufactured from a solid rod, beaten flat to form the plate. Zienkiewicz (1993) p.111 no.18 Thomas (2003) p.104 Hvi no.3 Caerleon – The Legionary Museum Site: (160) Phase IIIa c.90/100

Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage Orchard: Barrack V, earliest version. Under cement floor with first century pottery Le05. ? tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 77.56H/B) length 17mm, eye diameter 9mm Only the loop survives. Murray-Threipland (1969) p.111 no.12 Thomas (2003) p.104 Hvi no.2 Caerleon – The Hall: Id (b) 4; Period 2a, early to mid second century

Le11. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 84.43H) length 37mm [broken], plate width 10mm [broken], rod 3mm by 2mm in section Much distorted but still retaining one roughly triangular headed rivet. The loop is of unusual and weak construction, being simply a flat strip of metal, one end of which was rolled to form a hollow tube then bent to form the hook. See Le10. Caerleon – Legionary Museum Site: (266) Area 12, primary floor; Phase I c.74/5 - 85/90

Le06. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 40mm, max. width 10mm, eye diameter c.7mm [distorted], rod 3mm by 2mm in section One square headed rivet survives and there is a hole for a second. Brewer (1986) p.188 no.173 Thomas (2003) p.101 Hiii no.1 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: unstratified

Le12. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 55mm, max. plate width 16mm It has a square-sectioned hook and a slightly waisted body, and is still attached to a fragment of iron plate (thickness c.1mm.) by two slightly dome headed rivets. Fox (unpublished b) no.20 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: (138/409) Phase Ib

Le07. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 46mm, max. width 13mm, eye diameter 10mm Long with two square headed rivets surviving. Brewer (1986) p.188 no.174 Thomas (2003) p.102 Hiv no.6 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: unstratified Le08. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) length 23mm, width of plate 12mm, eye 7 by 9 mm, strip 3 by 1 mm The end of the loop is curled right under until it touches the back of the plate which has broken across the first rivet hole. Allason-Jones (1993) p.198 no.415k Thomas (2003) p.106 Hvi no.14 Segontium: SF1099 (2172) pit; Period 6A – Hadrianic-early Antonine. See also La07, Lb08Lb13, Lc33-Lc34, Le09, and Lg09-Lg13 from the same context.

Le13. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 42mm, width of plate 12mm, eye diameter 7mm Hook of rectangular-section (4 by 2 mm). There are remains of two rivet holes through the plate with faint traces of circular decoration around them. Fox (unpublished b) no.21 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF361; unstratified Le14. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 51mm, width of plate 16mm, eye diameter 10mm An unfinished piece, the hook of rectangular section (3 by 2 mm) has been formed but the rivet holes have not yet been punched. Fox (unpublished b) no.23 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF828 (138/397) Phase Ib

Le09. ? tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) length 21mm, width 4mm. Strip bemt back on itself at one end. The other end expands slightly and is pierced by a circular hole. Allason-Jones (1993) p.198 no.415ab Thomas (2003) p.106 Hvi no.15 Segontium: SF1099 (2172) pit; Period 6A – Hadrianic-early Antonine. See also La07, Lb08Lb13, Lc33-Lc34, Le08, and Lg09-Lg13 from the same context.

Le15. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 38mm [broken], width of plate 15mm, thickness 1mm, eye diameter 7mm, rod diameter 2mm Badly corroded with much of the surface missing. The remains of two flat headed rivets are just visible. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF538 (138/196)

Le10. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 84.43H) length 27 mm [broken], plate width 12mm, eye diameter 9mm, rod 3mm by 2mm in section Incomplete but retains one square headed rivet. The

75

Only the loop survives and this is badly corroded. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF474 (138/231)

Le16. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 32mm [broken], width of plate 13mm, thickness 1mm, eye diameter 10mm, rod diameter 3mm Incomplete plate with one slightly domed rivet surviving. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: (138/409)

Le25. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 35mm [broken], width 10mm [broken], thickness 1mm The whole piece is flattened and rather battered. The rod forming the loop is of rectangular section (3 by 2 mm). The plate is pierced by the remains of two rivet holes. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF813 (138/408)

Le17. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 56mm [broken], width of plate 14mm, thickness 1mm, eye diameter 8mm Plate with the remains of two flat headed rivets and a loop of square section (3 by 3 mm). Caerleon – British Telecom Site: (138/313)

Le26. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 28mm [broken], width 15mm, eye diameter 8mm A single pentagonal headed rivet survives and there are traces of an iron plate on the back. The loop is rectangular in section (3 by 2 mm). Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF872 (138/480)

Le18. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) eye diameter 8mm, rod diameter 3mm Only the loop survives. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF681 (138/313)

Le27. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 26mm [broken], width 15mm, eye diameter 8mm Part of the plate still attached to remains of iron by a flat headed rivet. The loop is formed by a slightly tapering rod (diam. c.3mm). Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF374 (138/173)

Le19. ? tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 51mm [broken], max. width 10mm, thickness 1mm Plate pierced by two flat headed rivets, with circular decoration around them. One end of the plate is tapered. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF569 (138/100)

Le28. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 48mm [bent], max. width 13mm, thickness 1mm Slender plate, now rather crumpled, with one, slightly domed, rivet surviving and a hole for a second. Looped formed by a rod of roughly square section (2 by 2 mm). Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF102 (138/001)

Le20. ? tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) eye diameter 5mm Only the loop survives. The rod forming it is of rectangular section (3 by 2 mm). Rather a small example. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF369 (138/205) Le21. ? tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) eye diameter 10mm, rod diameter 2mm Only the loop survives. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF574 (138/251)

Le29. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 55mm [bent], width 12mm [broken], thickness 1mm, eye diameter 8mm The edges of the plate are rather battered but it still retains two slightly domed rivets. The loop is formed by a rod of circular section (diam. 3mm). Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF432 (138/210)

Le22. ? tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) eye diameter 7mm, rod diameter 2mm Only the loop survives and this is in two pieces. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF526 (138/240)

Le30. ? tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) eye diameter 7mm, rod diameter 2mm Only the loop survives. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: (138/308)

Le23. ? tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 41mm [broken], width 13mm, thickness 1mm Narrow rectangular plate with two square headed rivets. There is circular decoration around the rivet holes. No remains of the loop survives. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: (138/308)

Le31. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 20mm [broken], width of plate 9mm, thickness of plate 1mm, eye diameter 8mm Little of the plate survives but what does retains one, flat headed, rivet. Loop formed of a tapering rod (diam c.2mm).

Le24. ? tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) eye diameter 9mm, rod diameter 2mm

76

Thomas (2003) p.105 Hvi no.10 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1203 (31/1514) Block A, Phase IV c.160-275/300

Webster (1992) p.115 no.35 Thomas (2003) p.105 Hvi no.6 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1735 (31/2616) Block A, Phase I/II c.75-100

Le36. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 20mm [broken], width of plate 8mm, thickness 1mm, eye diameter c.8mm Distorted loop made from a tapering strip (c. 3 by 2 mm). Webster (1992) p.116 no.40 Thomas (2003) p.106 Hvi no.11 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1482 (31/1361) Block B, Phase IV c.160-340

Le32. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) eye diameter 9mm Only the loop survives. It is formed by a rod of square section that is noticeably thicker (3 by 3 mm) at its free end than where it joins the plate (2 by 2 mm). Webster (1992) p.115 no.36 Thomas (2003) p.105 Hvi no.7 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1742 (31/1572) Block A, Phase I/II c.75-100

Le37. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 27mm [broken], eye diameter c.10mm Distorted loop made from a tapering strip (c. 3 by 2 mm). Webster (1992) p.116 no.41 Thomas (2003) p.106 Hvi no.12 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF323 (31/271) unstratified

Le33. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) eye diameter 11mm Only the loop survives. The rod forming the loop is of rectangular section (3 by 2 mm). Webster (1992) p.115 no.37 Thomas (2003) p.105 Hvi no.8 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1661 (31/1963) Block A, Phase IV c.160-275/300

Le38. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.114) length 24mm [broken], eye diameter c.10mm Rod (2 by 2 mm) curled into a loop. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.262 no.114 Thomas (2003) p.106 Hvi no.28 Loughor: SF077 (69\020) silt washed off rampart; Post-Roman

Le34. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 22mm [broken], plate width 8mm, eye diameter c.9mm Distorted loop of light construction, manufactured from sheet metal tapered to a narrow strand at one end, the edges of the strand being rolled backwards to form the material for the loop (diam. 2mm). Close to the junction between the plate and the hook these edges have been insufficiently worked to give a smooth finish and remain partly open. Webster (1992) p.115 no.38 Thomas (2003) p.105 Hvi no.9 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF854 (31/700) Rampart Area, Phase IV c.160-340

Le39. ? tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.119) length 34 mm, width 11mm, thickness 1mm Strip with a flat headed rivet (diam. c.7mm) passing through one hole, the strip is broken across a second hole. Bent and a little irregular. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.262 no.119 Thomas (2003) p.92 Hi no.22 Loughor: SF043 (53\069) fill of robber trench Building 3.12; Period VII (Phase 16) c.115/120 c.260

Le35. tie-loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 25mm [broken] Large badly distorted loop made from a flat strip (4 by 2 mm). Webster (1992) p.115 no.39

See also La09, La11

See also vertical hook and loop fasteners (p.73)

Girdle-Plate Tie-Rings Tie-rings consist of an eyelet, with a shank which passed through the iron girdle plate and were secured with roves (Bishop 2002, 58). It has generally been assumed that they functioned in the same way as tie-loops, being positioned in pairs down the front and back of the cuirass and fastened with leather ties (Bishop & Coulston 1993,117; Bishop 1999, 35). The recent discovery of a complete set of girdle plates at Stillfried, however, has shown that while one half was equipped with tie-rings, the other had small horizontal slots through which the rings fitted (Bishop 2002, 57). 77

Webster (1992, 116-7) divided the tie-rings from the Roman Gates Site at Caerleon into four different types. 1 Cast circular rings with basal transverse rib which extends beyond the line of the circle at the point of junction and with a short flat shank of rectangular cross-section. 2 Cast circular rings with basal transverse rib which extends beyond the line of the circle at the point of junction and with a long shank of circular cross-section. Cruder and heavier than those of category 1. 3

Cast rings shaped like the letter D on its side with shanks of rectangular cross-section.

4 Cast rings similar to those of category 3 but more elongated so that they describe an inverted Ushape. The shanks are of flat rectangular cross-section. This typology is followed here but with Categories 3 and 4 combined as there appears to be a continuum of forms rather than two distinct shapes. The long shafts of Category 2 rings are a problem. A number are bent in a manner which suggests extraction and the ends of several show signs of having been hammered which suggests that they had seen service so one cannot postulate that the shafts were to be cut off after insertion. The greater length of the shafts would seem to represent a risk of injury unless these shanks were designed to pass through a greater thickness of armour. Webster (1992, 119) suggested that the length might be accounted for by the addition of a lining to part or all of some forms of lorica segmentata in the latter part of the second century. Though Robinson (1975, 174) did doubt the use of lining to lorica segmentata on the grounds of limiting flexibility. All the tie-rings in the Museum’s collection come from Caerleon. There are nineteen examples of Category 1; eleven examples of Category 2; thirty-four examples of Category 3/4; and seven that cannot be classified. bent up. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Lf01. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 20mm, diameter 16mm, thickness of ring 3mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 1, with a flat shaft, 8 by 3 mm, and a very distinct collar. Lee (1862) p.67 pl.34 no.13 Thomas (2003) p.110 Ii no.14 Caerleon – Castle Baths: - - -

Lf05. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 25mm, diameter 16mm, thickness of ring 3mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 2, with a sub-circular shaft, 5 by 4 mm. Caerleon – unprovenanced Lf06. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 18mm, width 14mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 3/4, with a flat shaft, 6 by 3 mm. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Lf02. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 16mm, diameter 14mm, thickness of ring 3mm, diameter of hole 7mm Category 1, with a flat shaft, 6 by 3 mm, and only faint traces of a collar. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Lf07. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 17mm, width 14mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 8mm, Category 3/4, with a flat shaft, 6 by 3 mm. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Lf03. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 20mm, diameter 16mm, thickness of ring 4mm, diameter of hole 9mm Category 1, with a flat shaft, 6 by 4 mm, the collar barely survives. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Lf08. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 18mm, width 15mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 11mm Category 3/4, with a flat shaft, 6 by 3 mm. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Lf04. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 35mm, diameter 17mm, thickness of ring 4mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 2, with a sub-rectangular shaft, 5 by 4 mm, there is only a faint trace of a collar. Shaft now

Lf09. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78)

78

length 19mm, width 15mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 10mm Category 3/4, with a flat shaft, 6 by 3 mm. Caerleon – unprovenanced

length 18mm [broken], width 17mm, thickness of ring 3mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 3/4, with a rectangular shaft, 8 by 4 mm, which has a clear projection to one side. Top of hoop missing. Caerleon – Amphitheatre: - - -

Lf10. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 19mm, width 15mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 9mm Category 3/4, with a flat shaft, 6 by 2 mm. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Lf18. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 15mm [broken], diameter 14mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 1 or 2, with part of the hoop and the shaft missing. Caerleon – Amphitheatre: - - -

Lf11. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 29mm, diameter 19mm, thickness of ring 3mm, hole 8 by 10 mm Category 2, with an oval hole and circular shaft, diameter c.5mm. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Lf19. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 18mm, width 14mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 9mm Category 3/4, with a flat shaft, 6 by 3 mm. Now slightly bent. Caerleon – Amphitheatre: - - -

Lf12. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 24mm, diameter 17mm, thickness of ring 3mm, diameter of hole 12mm Category 2, with a sub-rectangular shank, 5 by 4 mm, and a well moulded collar with groove decoration. Nash-Williams (1932) p.83 fig.32.14a Caerleon – Prysg Field: c.75-300

Lf20. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 22mm, diameter 15mm, thickness of ring 4mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 1, with a flat shaft, 7 by 3 mm. Badly corroded. Caerleon – Amphitheatre: - - -

Lf13. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 21mm, diameter 16mm, thickness of ring 3mm, diameter of hole 10mm Category 1, with a flat shaft 5 by 3 mm. Caerleon – Prysg Field: C28.A2X

Lf21. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 17mm, width 17mm, thickness of ring 3mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 3/4, with a flat shaft, 8 by 3 mm. Rather weathered. Caerleon – Amphitheatre: MI

Lf14. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 24mm, diameter 14mm, thickness of ring 3mm, diameter of hole 9mm Category 2, with a substantial collar and subcircular shaft, diameter c.4mm. Caerleon – Prysg Field: C(7)T; Barrack Block No.3 Room 7; Flavian - early Trajanic (Nash-Williams 1931, 143)

Lf22. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 22mm, width 17mm, thickness of ring 3mm, diameter of hole 9mm Category 3/4, with a rectangular shaft, 6 by 4 mm. There are traces of iron corrosion at the end of the shaft. Caerleon – Amphitheatre: O.W. distant 11

Lf15. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 19mm, diameter 15mm, thickness of ring 3mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 1, with a flat shaft, 7 by 4 mm. Caerleon – Prysg Field: RB(17)T, 74/5-c.120

Lf23. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386/201) length 18mm, width 15mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 11mm Category 3/4, with a rectangular shaft, 6 by 3 mm, which has a slight flange to one side. Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage: Period III, third century

Lf16. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 19mm, width 16mm, thickness of ring 3mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 3/4, with a flat shaft, 6 by 3 mm. Caerleon – Amphitheatre: - - -

Lf24. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386) length 18mm, width 18mm, thickness of ring 4mm, diameter of hole 9mm Category 3/4, with a rectangular shaft, 7 by 3 mm. Fox (1940) p.135 no.36, fig.8 Thomas (2003) p.112 Iiii no.16

Lf17. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119)

79

Category 1, with a rectangular shaft, 6 by 4 mm. The shaft has traces of iron still adhering. Boon (unpublished) under no.59 Caerleon – Bear House Field I: F15; Building X; Antonine

Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage Orchard: Barrack VI, Room 7, on clay floor, third century Lf25. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386) length 19mm, width 19mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 3/4, with a rectangular shaft, 8 by 3 mm. Fox (1940) p.136 under no.36 Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage Orchard: found in deposit of period III, third century

Lf32. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 60.482) length 24mm, diameter 16mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 9mm Category 2, with a circular shaft, diameter 4mm. Caerleon – Jenkins Field III: D1 (E of D) (4)

Lf26. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386) length 21mm, diameter 14mm, thickness of ring 4mm, diameter of hole 7mm Category 1, with a rectangular shaft, 6 by 3 mm. Fox (1940) p.136 under no.36 Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage Orchard: deposit of period III, third century

Lf33. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 62.265A) length 18mm, width 15mm, thickness of ring 4mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 3/4, with a rectangular shaft, 7 by 5 mm. Boon (unpublished) no.58 Caerleon – Fortress Ditch: F7; building near south corner of the fortress; probably second century

Lf27. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386) length 18mm, width 16mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 10mm Category 3/4, with a rectangular shaft, 7 by 3 mm. Fox (1940) p.136 under no.36 Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage Orchard: deposit of period III, third century

Lf34. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 62.265B) length 21mm, width 20mm, thickness of ring 4mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 3/4, with a rectangular shaft, 9 by 5 mm. Rather corroded. Boon (unpublished) under no.59 Caerleon – Racecourse: F30; Broadway Drain

Lf28. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386) length 20mm, diameter 16mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 10mm Category 1, with a rectangular shaft, 6 by 3 mm. Fox (1940) p.136 under no.36 Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage Orchard: deposit of period III, third century

Lf35. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 62.265B) length 16mm, width 17mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 3/4, with a flat shaft, 8 by 3 mm. Boon (unpublished) under no.59 Caerleon – Broadway Meadow: F15

Lf29. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 54.389A) length 19mm, width 14mm, thickness of ring 3mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 3/4, with a flat shaft, 6 by 3 mm. Boon (unpublished) under no.59 Caerleon – Bear House Field I: F64; main lateral drain

Lf36. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 65.170) length 16mm, diameter 14mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 1, with a flat shaft, 8 by 4 mm. Brewer (1986) p.184 no.148 Caerleon – Blackhall Street (FB): from the ash of the stokehole of the enlarged apodyterium; c.100/110 - 230

Lf30. ? tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 54.389A) length 18mm, max. width 19mm, thickness of ring 3mm, hole 10 by 12 mm A variant, almost crescent shaped, possibly not a tie-ring. Virtually nothing of the shaft survives if it is a tie-ring. Boon (unpublished) under no.59 Caerleon – Bear House Field I: F65; main lateral drain

Lf37. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 77.56H/A) length 19mm, width 16mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 10mm Category 3/4, with a flat shaft, 6 by 2 mm. Murray-Threipland (1967) p.48 no.9, fig.5 Thomas (2003) p.112 Iiii no.15 Caerleon – The Croft: (+) unstratified Lf38. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 18mm, width 14mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 3/4, with a slightly flaring shaft, 6 by 3

Lf31. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 58.330) length 25mm, diameter 19mm, thickness of ring 3mm, diameter of hole 11mm

80

mm. Brewer (1986) p.175 no.29 Thomas (2003) p.112 Iiii no.13 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 11; Antontine-third century

Lf46. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 87.47H) length 17mm, width 15mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 10mm Category 3/4, with a rectangular shaft, 5 by 3 mm. Caerleon – Endowed School: (98/013)

Lf39. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 21mm, diameter 17mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 10mm Category 1, with a rectangular shaft, 8 by 4 mm. There is some iron adhering to the shaft. Brewer (1986) p.175 no.30 Thomas (2003) p.112 Iiii no.14 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 4; Antontine-third century

Lf47. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 87.47H) length 19mm, width 14mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 10mm Category 3/4, with a flat shaft, 6 by 2 mm. Caerleon – Endowed School: (98/008) Lf48. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 16mm, width 15mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 3/4, with a rectangular shaft, 6 by 3 mm. Fox (unpublished b) no.24 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF637 (138/207) Phase Vb

Lf40. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 28mm, diameter 15mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 10mm Closest to those of Category 2 but with an unusual stepped shaft starting as a plate 6 by 3 mm and then reducing to 3 by 3 mm. Brewer (1986) p.175 no.31 Thomas (2003) p.109 Ii no.13 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 11/12; Antontine-third century

Lf49. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 16mm, width 13mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 3/4, with a flat shaft, 6 by 2 mm. Fox (unpublished b) no.25 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF665 (138/207) Phase Vb

Lf41. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 87.47H) length 16mm, width 13mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 9mm Category 3/4, with a rectangular shaft, 6 by 3 mm. Caerleon – Endowed School: (98/001)

Lf50. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 19mm, diameter 14mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 1, with a rectangular shaft, 6 by 3 mm. Webster (1992) p.117 no.45 Thomas (2003) p.109 Ii no.5 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1105 (31/1149) Block A, Phase IV c.160-275/300

Lf42. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 87.47H) length 18mm, width 15mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 11mm Category 3/4, with a flat shaft, 6 by 2 mm. Caerleon – Endowed School: (98/001)

Lf51. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 19mm, diameter 15mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 1, with a flat shaft, 8 by 3 mm. Webster (1992) p.117 no.46 Thomas (2003) p.109 Ii no.6 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF603 (31/501) Block A, Phase IV c.160-275/300

Lf43. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 87.47H) length 18mm, diameter 12mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 1, with a flat shaft, 5 by 2 mm. Caerleon – Endowed School: (98/243) Lf44. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 87.47H) length 8mm [broken], width 15mm, thickness of ring 2mm Category 3/4, with a rectangular shaft, 5 by 3 mm. Caerleon – Endowed School: (98/286)

Lf52. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 17mm, diameter 15mm, thickness of ring 3mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 1, with a flat shaft, 7 by 3 mm. Webster (1992) p.117 no.47 Thomas (2003) p.109 Ii no.7 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1676 (31/1963) Block A, Phase IV c.160-275/300

Lf45. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 87.47H) length 19mm, diameter 13mm, thickness of ring 3mm, diameter of hole 7mm Category 1, with a flat shaft, 8 by 3 mm. Caerleon – Endowed School: (98/240)

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Lf58. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 32mm, diameter 18mm, thickness of ring 5mm, diameter of hole 10mm Category 2, with a stout shaft of circular crosssection, diameter 5mm and 14mm long, possibly with a hammered end. The line of the shaft is at an angle to the rest of the fitting. Webster (1992) p.117 no.54 Thomas (2003) p.110 Iii no.4 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF631(31/395) Block C, Phase V c.300-350

Lf53. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 21mm, diameter 17mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 10mm Category 1, with a flat shaft, 7 by 2 mm. Webster (1992) p.117 no.48 Thomas (2003) p.109 Ii no.8 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1603 (31/1959) Block A, Phase V c.275/300-350 Lf54. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 19mm, diameter 16mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 9mm Category 1, with a flat shaft, 8 by 3 mm, eccentrically aligned with the hole of the ring and its bottom edge describes a diagonal. Webster (1992) p.117 no.49 Thomas (2003) p.109 Ii no.9 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1119 (31/1432) Block B. Phase IV c.160-340

Lf59. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 34mm, diameter 19mm, thickness of ring 4mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 2, with a stout shaft of circular crosssection, diameter 5mm and some 15mm long. The end may have been hammered. The line of the shaft describes a slight curve. Webster (1992) p.117 no.55 Thomas (2003) p.111 Iii no.5 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF964 (31/1012) Block B; Phase IV c.160-340

Lf55. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 22mm, diameter 17mm, thickness of ring 4mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 1, with a heavy rectangular shaft, 10 by 5 mm. Badly corroded. Webster (1992) p.117 no.50 Thomas (2003) p.109 Ii no.10 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1446 (31/1361) Block B, Phase IV c.160-c.340

Lf60. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 30mm, diameter 19mm, thickness of ring 6mm, diameter of hole 9mm Category 2, with a stout shaft of roughly circular cross-section, diameter 7mm and some 10mm long. Badly corroded. Webster (1992) p.117 no.56 Thomas (2003) p.111 Iii no.6 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1234 (31/1440) Block B, Phase IV c.160-340

Lf56. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 28mm, diameter 18mm, thickness of ring 3mm, diameter of hole 12mm Category 2, with a crudely rendered basal rib consisting of little more than a straight edge and two projecting pieces at the base of the ring. There is a stout shaft of circular cross-section, diameter 5mm and some 12mm long, flaring slightly into a rib at the end as if it had been hammered. The line of the shaft is at an angle to the rest of the fitting. Webster (1992) p.117 no.52 Thomas (2003) p.110 Iii no.2 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF440 (31/206) Block A, Robbing

Lf61. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 17mm, diameter 16mm, thickness of ring 3mm, diameter of hole 7mm Category 3/4, with a rectangular shaft, 7 by 4 mm. Webster (1992) p.117 no.57 Thomas (2003) p.111 Iiii no.8 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1237 (31/1509) Block A, Phase IV c.160-275/300 Lf62. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 17mm, width 15mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 3/4, with a flat shaft, 6 by 2 mm. Webster (1992) p.117 no.58 Thomas (2003) p.111 Iiii no.9 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1408 (31/1389) Block B, Phase IVA c.160-340

Lf57. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 28mm, diameter 17mm, thickness of ring 3mm, diameter of hole 10mm Category 2, with a stout shaft of circular crosssection, diameter 5mm and 10mm long. The line of the shaft is at an angle to the rest of the fitting. Webster (1992) p.117 no.53 [hole diameter drawn too small] Thomas (2003) p.110 Iii no.3 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1424 (31/1904) Block A, Phase V c.275/300-350

Lf63. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 18mm [bent], width 17mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 8mm

82

Category 3/4, with a rectangular shaft, 8 by 4 mm, now badly bent. Webster (1992) p.117 no.59 Thomas (2003) p.112 Iiii no.10 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1803 (31/1777) Block B, Phase III c.100-160

Lf68. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 28mm, width 18mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 11mm An unusually well modelled example incorporating features of both Categories 1 and 2. It has a neatly modelled basal rib which extends beyond the line of the circle at the point of junction. The shaft, some 8mm long, consists of an upper, slightly flared, facetted portion, of polygonal cross-section, 6 by 5 mm, with a narrower shaft of circular cross-section below. Webster (1992) p.118 no.64 Thomas (2003) p.109 Ii no.12 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1714 (31/2517) Block B, Phase III c.100-160

Lf64. ? tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 20mm, width 16mm, thickness of ring 4mm, diameter of hole 5mm Category 3/4, with a sub-rectangular shaft, 5 by 4 mm and approximately 10mm long, at an angle to the fitting as a whole. This piece is something of an oddity both in its form and the small size of its perforation, and may not actually be a tie-ring. Webster (1992) p.117 no.60 Thomas (2003) p.112 Iiii no.11 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1046 (31/1063) Block B, Phase IV c.160-340

Lf69. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 22mm, diameter 14mm, thickness of ring 3mm, diameter of hole 8mm Closest to the tie-rings of Category 2 but somewhat slighter. Basal rib is reduced to little more than a straight edge with projections at either end. The shaft, of sub-rectangular cross-section, 4 by 3 mm, is 8mm long and is at a very slight angle to the rest of the fitting. Webster (1992) p.118 no.65 Thomas (2003) p.111 Iii no.7 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF244 (31/254) Block A, Phase VI c.350-400

Lf65. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 18mm, width 15mm, thickness of ring 2mm, diameter of hole 8mm Category 3/4, with a flat shaft, 6 by 3 mm. The shaft shows signs of having been hammered. Webster (1992) p.117 no.61 Thomas (2003) p.112 Iiv no.1 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF302 (31/271) unstratified Lf66. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 22mm, width 15mm, thickness of ring 3mm, diameter of hole 9mm Category 3/4, with a rectangular shaft, 8 by 5 mm. The shaft appears to have been hammered. Webster (1992) p.117 no.62 Thomas (2003) p.112 Iiv no.2 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF617 (31/409) Block C, Robbing

Lf70. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 25mm, width 17mm, thickness of ring 4mm, diameter of hole 8mm Closest to those of Category 3/4 but has an additional moulding at the top. The shaft is short, flat and of rectangular cross-section, 8 by 5 mm, and shows evidence of having been hammered. Webster (1992) p.118 no.66 Thomas (2003) p.112 Iiii no.12 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1377 (31/1731) Block B, Phase III c.100-160

Lf67. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 20mm, width 15mm, thickness of ring 3mm, diameter of hole 7mm Category 3/4, with a rectangular shaft, 8 by 4 mm. The shaft shows evidence of having been hammered. Webster (1992) p.118 no.63 [hole on drawing too large] Thomas (2003) p.112 Iiv no.3 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1582 (31/2351) Block B, Phase III/IV c.100-340

Lf71. tie-ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 16mm [broken], thickness 2mm Fragment, perhaps of Category 1. Webster (1992) p.119 no.67 Thomas (2003) p.112 Iv no.1 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF400 (31/452) Block B, Phase VI c.350-400

Bosses and Rivets Large numbers of rivets were required to secure the iron plates to the many internal leather straps which held a cuirass together, while allowing flexibility (Robinson 1975, 176-81). Such small items are inevitably under 83

represented in the archaeological record, particularly where early excavations are concerned. Also, when found in isolation it is impossible to be certain about their original use. Thus very few rivets appear in this catalogue. Rosette bosses were used on lorica segmentata during the first century AD as decorative washers to those of the rivets that were visible on the outside of the cuirass, not being hidden by an overlapping plate. Ten appear to have been used on a cuirass of Corbridge type A and eight on that of Corbridge type B, while there seems to have been no place for such decorative refinements on the Newstead form (Robinson 1975, 176-9). They were also used on helmets of the first century AD (p.96). Rosette bosses were manufactured from rectangular sheets of copper alloy, the excess metal being cut away before, or perhaps when, the boss was put in place (see Lg01). Lg06. rosette boss, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.10H) diameter 25mm Rosette boss with at least sixteen petals and remains of a decayed white backing material. The absence of an outer border, lost through damage, and the improvised rivet, of sheet copper alloy rolled into shape, suggests that it represents a local, attempt at repair. The eccentric angle of the rivet suggests extraction. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.12 no.19 Usk – Detention Centre Site: DUZ (3) well; third century

Lg01. rosette boss, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) 25 by 24 mm [both broken], max. depth 2mm Thin sheet fragment with embossed decoration of a raised ring, diameter 20mm, with a series of dots on it. There is no visible means of attachment on the back. This would appear to be an unfinished boss that has not been fully cut out. Caerleon – Prysg Field: D(33); Barrack Block No.4 Room 33 Lg02. rosette boss, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) diameter c.28mm, thickness 1mm Badly corroded and rather battered. Wheeler & Wheeler (1928) p.168, fig.15 no.48 Caerleon – Amphitheatre: entrance A

Lg07. rosette boss, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H/2) diameter 31mm, thickness 2mm Thin disc with repoussé decoration consisting of a pelleted border around a concentric valley which in turn encircles a rosette with a depressed ringed centre. Traces of lead-tin alloy survive on the back. About half the original edge missing. Allason-Jones (1993) p.178 no.125 Segontium: SF917 (192) make-up layer; Period 6A – Hadrianic-early Antonine

Lg03. rosette boss, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386/257) diameter 15mm, thickness 1mm Coated with silver wash, and decorated with floweret in repoussé technique. Fox (1940) p.132 no.21 Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage Orchard: Barrack V, Room 3, on cement floor of period III, third century.

Lg08. rosette boss, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H/2) diameter c.28mm, thickness 0.5mm. Circular with a shallow central dome surrounded by a band of beading with an outer border of repoussé ovals. Traces of lead-tin alloy on the back. Incomplete, only about half survives. Allason-Jones (1993) p.180 no.129 Segontium: SF981 (1643) clay; Period 10 – late 4th century

Lg04. rivet, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 12mm, head diameter c.8mm, washer 8 by 8 mm, shaft diameter 3mm Domed head with a washer under the burred ends to prevent the leathers from pulling away. Brewer (1986) p.173 no.3 Thomas (2003) p.118 Ki no.3 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: (1180:B) drain sediment; c.75-100/110

Lg09. rivet, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) diameter 7mm Dome headed rivet still attached to the remains of an iron plate. Allason-Jones (1993) p.198 no.415g Segontium: SF1099 (2172) pit; Period 6A – Hadrianic-early Antonine. See also La07, Lb08Lb13, Lc33-Lc34, Le08-Le09, and Lg10-Lg13 from the same context.

Lg05. rivet, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 12 mm, head diameter c.8mm, washer 8 by 7 mm, shaft diameter 3mm Rivet with domed head and a washer at the other end. Brewer (1986) p.173 no.4 Thomas (2003) p.118 Ki no.4 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: (1180:B) drain sediment; c.75-100/110

84

Lg13 from the same context.

Lg10. rivet, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) diameter 8 by 7mm Flat headed rivet still attached to the remains of an iron plate. Allason-Jones (1993) p.198 no.415g Segontium: SF1099 (2172) pit; Period 6A – Hadrianic-early Antonine. See also La07, Lb08Lb13, Lc33-Lc34, Le08-Le09, Lg09, and Lg11Lg13 from the same context.

Lg13. rosette boss , copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) diameter of washer 12mm, total height 5mm Embossed washer with a pelleted border around a dome headed rivet. Still attached to the remains of an iron plate. Allason-Jones (1993) p.198 no.415j Thomas (2003) p.118 Kiii no.1 Segontium: SF1099 (2172) pit; Period 6A – Hadrianic-early Antonine. See also La07, Lb08Lb13, Lc33-Lc34, Le08-Le09, and Lg09-Lg12 from the same context.

Lg11. rosette boss, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) diameter of washer 26mm, diameter of boss 7mm Large embossed washer decorated with repoussé design of small pellets around the edge and longer pellets around a dome headed rivet. When in position the domed head of the rivet forms the central boss of the washer. Allason-Jones (1993) p.198 no.415h Thomas (2003) p.114 Ji no.4 Segontium: SF1099 (2172) pit; Period 6A – Hadrianic-early Antonine. See also La07, Lb08Lb13, Lc33-Lc34, Le08-Le09, Lg09-Lg10, and Lg12-Lg13 from the same context.

Lg14. rosette boss, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) Diameter of rivet head 8mm, diameter of washer 22mm Rivet with washer embossed as a multi-petalled rosette. Incomplete but still attached to the remains of an iron plate. Fox (unpublished b) no.26 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: (138/302) Phase IIIa Lg15. rosette boss, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) diameter 25mm, thickness 0.5mm Fragment with a rectangular central hole implying the use of a rivet with a square sectioned shaft. Webster (1992) p.135 no.136 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1402 (31/488) Phase VI or VII c.350+

Lg12. rosette boss, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) diameter 28mm, diameter of boss 7mm Large embossed washer decorated with repoussé design of small pellets around the edge and longer pellets around a dome headed rivet. Allason-Jones (1993) p.198 no.415i Thomas (2003) p.114 Ji no.3 Segontium: SF1099 (2172) pit; Period 6A – Hadrianic-early Antonine. See also La07, Lb08Lb13, Lc33-Lc34, Le08-Le09, Lg09-Lg11, and

See also La10, La11, La12 and La13

85

M: Lorica Hamata (Mail) Probably a Gallic invention, both literary sources (Varro V.116; Polybius VI. 23.9) and sculptural evidence, such as the Aemilius Paullus monument at Delphi (Robinson 1975, pl.460), show that lorica hamata was being used by the Roman army by the early second century BC. From then on it becomes increasingly common, both as site finds and in sculptural representations which show that mail tunics were regularly worn by both legionaries and auxiliaries throughout the Roman period (Robinson 1975, 164-73; Manning, Price & Webster 1995, 12). Lorica hamata is made from rings of iron or copper alloy, each one passing through the two rings above and the two rings below. The most common method of construction in the Roman period used alternate rows of solid rings and of riveted wire rings. The solid rings could be punched out of sheet metal or made of wire with the ends welded together (Southern & Dixon 1992, 36). Hip-length mail shirts with extensive shoulder reinforcements which fell half way down the upper arm were common in the first and early second century AD (Robinson 1975, 164-9). These reinforcements were held to the chest by hooks which allowed movement in the shoulder pieces (p.88). This type of lorica hamata weighed about 16kg (Connolly 1981, 235). On Trajan’s column the cavalrymen wear a much simpler form of mail shirt with darts at the shoulders and waist (Lepper & Frere 1988, scenes xxiv, xxxvii, cxlv), probably reflecting a reduced need for massive shoulder protection, and weighing only about 9kg (Connolly 1981, 236), helping to reduce the weight a horse had to carry. The shirts worn by cavalrymen had a short slit on either side to make it easier to sit on a horse (Robinson 1975, 164). This feature is also evident on the lorica worn by a legionary on a Mainz column base (Robimson 1975, 76 pl.197; Frenz 1992, 62 no.9). Hook fasteners, comparatively common in pre-Antonine deposits, are absent from Antonine sites. The reason for this seems to be that a new system of closure was introduced. Pairs of fairly small, decorated breastplates have been found in association with both lorica squamata and lorica hamata in second and third century contexts (p.89). These have usually been interpreted as belonging to ‘parade’ or cavalry sports armour but Petculescu (1990, 849) demonstrated, that the plates were used in the field, not specifically for ‘parade’, by both infantry and cavalry. Longer length mail shirts seem to have become more common from the late second or early third century onwards. A cavalryman wearing a longer loricae hamata is depicted on a tombstone from Chester (Southern & Dixon 1992, 38 pl.4) and a complete example of a knee-length mail shirt, with sleeves that finished at the elbows, was found among the Roman equipment thrown into the bog at Vimose (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 141). The Dura-Europos Synagogue shows ranks of soldiers in the ‘Exodus’ panel marching below Roman vexilla wearing knee-length loricae, although the convention used makes it unclear whether lorica hamata or lorica squamata was intended (Kraeling 1956, pls. LIII, LIV). Armoured warriors in the ‘Battle of Ebenezer’ panel wear knee-length metallic cuirasses with wrist-length sleeves (Kraeling 1956, 9 pls.LIV-LV; James 2004, xxvi pl.4). A fourth century painting of a standing soldier in the Via Latina Catacomb, Rome, depicts a lorica hamata shirt extending to wrists and knees (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 167 pl.7a). It is uncertain what was worn under lorica hamata. In De Rebus Bellicis (XV) there is reference to a garment, ‘thoracomachus’, which appears to be a version of the type of padded garment which was worn under mail in later periods (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 167). This is the only evidence for such a garment from the Roman period and modern re-enactors tend to simply use a woollen tunic. This, however, seems improbable on practical grounds: while mail prevents cutting by a sharp edge it does little to absorb the impact of a blow. Without padding the links would tend to be driven into a wound. Hyland (1990, 116-19) having experimented with riding in lorica hamata suggests that padding at the shoulders, at least, was required to prevent bruising caused by movement of the shirt. The fragments of very fine mail, from Usk (Ma05, Ma07, Ma08) are remarkable, and their significance is considered along with the fine lorica plumata which was also found at Usk (p.92). Their apparent rarity may be exaggerated by the fact that the examples listed here were only identified by extensive use of X-ray examination, so similar pieces, found in earlier excavations, would probably not have been recognized (Manning, Price & Webster 1995, 1). 86

Iron Ma06. fragment, iron (acc. no. 82.11H) length 35mm; mean ring diameter 8.0 ± 0.4mm; thickness of wire c.1.6mm (from Manning, Price & Webster 1995). Small, flat triangular fragment. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.14 no.24 Usk – Cattle Market Site: HFN (2) Fortress pit; PreFlavian (Manning 1989, 20)

Ma01. fragments, iron (acc. no. 32.60) ring diameter 7mm; thickness of wire 1-2mm. Several pieces partly fused by burning. Nash-Williams (1932) p.68 fig.16 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(40-41)S; NorthWestern Rampart-Buildigs Room 40/41, layer of burnt rubbish; Period III c.200-300 Ma02. ? fragment, iron (acc. no. 81.79H) ring diameter 6-8mm Short length made up of small rings, apparently alternately double and single. No rivets closing any of the rings is evident even on the X-ray. Could be a length of chain rather than a fragment of mail. Zienkiewicz (1986b) p.192 no.14 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: Drain Group 4; c.160230

Ma07. eight fragments, iron (acc. no. 82.11H) i. length 25mm; mean ring diameter 2.6 ± 0.2mm; thickness of wire c. 0.5mm ii. length 2lmm; mean ring diameter 2.6 ± 0.2mm; thickness of wire c. 0.5mm iii. length 15mm; mean ring diameter 2.6 ± 0.2mm; thickness of wire c. 0.5mm iv. length 32mm; mean ring diameter c.5.5mm; thickness of wire c.1.2mm v. length 16mm; mean ring diameter 5.0 ± 0.4mm; thickness of wire c. 1.0mm vi. length 34mm; mean ring diameter 6.1 ± 0.8mm; thickness of wire c. 0.1mm vii. length 25mm; no intact rings survive viii. length 19mm; no intact rings survive (from Manning, Price & Webster 1995) The different diameters of the rings suggest that fragments of at least two garments are involved, one of very fine mail. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.14 no.25, Plate II Usk – Cattle Market Site: HFN (3) Fortress pit; PreFlavian (Manning 1989, 20)

Ma03. fragment, iron (acc. no. 82.11H) length 33mm, mean ring diameter 4.3 ± 0.3mm, thickness of wire c.1mm (from Manning, Price & Webster 1995) Flat, slightly bent, square of mail. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.13 no.21 Usk – Cattle Market Site: HCC (2) Fortress pit; PreFlavian (Manning 1989, 19) Ma04. fragment, iron (acc. no. 82.11H) length 34mm, mean ring diameter 5.4 ± 0.8mm, thickness of wire c.1.1mm (from Manning, Price & Webster 1995). Crumpled fragment of mail. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.13 no.22 Usk – Cattle Market Site: HNB (2) Fortress pit; PreFlavian (Manning 1989, 19)

Ma08. two fragments, iron (acc. no. 82.11H) lengths 63mm and 54mm; mean ring diameter 2.6 ± 0.2mm; thickness of wire c.0.5mm (from Manning, Price & Webster 1995) Three small fragments of fine mail. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.14 no.26, Plate II Usk – Cattle Market Site: HDH (1) Gully; PostFortress but containing some residual Fortress material

Ma05. six fragments, iron (acc. no. 82.11H) i. length 6lmm, mean ring diameter 2.8 ± 0.2mm, thickness of wire c.0.7mm ii. length 40mm, mean ring diameter 2.7 ± 0.3mm, thickness of wire c.0.6mm iii. length 5lmm, mean ring diameter 2.6 ± 0.3mm, thickness of wire c. 0.6mm iv. length 33mm, mean ring diameter 2.6 ± 0.2mm, thickness of wire c. 0.7mm v. length 26mm, mean ring diameter 2.5 ± 0.1mm, thickness of wire c. 0.8mm vi. length 75mm, mean ring diameter 2.4 ± 0.3min, thickness of wire c. 0.7mm (from Manning, Price & Webster 1995) All probably from the same garment of fine mail. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.13 no.23, Plates I & II Usk – Cattle Market Site: HFN (2) Fortress pit; PreFlavian (Manning 1989, 20)

Ma09. fragment, iron (acc. no. 84.43H) 80mm by 40mm, ring diameter c.7mm, thickness of wire c.1.2mm Folded over on itself and preserved only as a mass of corrosion. The pattern of rings is clear but detail of manufacture cannot be discerned. Zienkiewicz (1993) p.116 no.6 (not illustrated) Caerleon – The Legionary Museum Site: (5) Phase V/VI c.200-346+ Ma10. fragment, iron (acc. no. 88.3H) ring diameter 7-8mm, wire diameter 1mm Selected links of mail, punched and riveted.

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Fox (unpublished b) no.30 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: (138/207) Phase Vb

Ma12. two fragments, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) ring diameter 5mm, with some larger rings of diameter 7mm One flat square piece (27 by 27 mm) and one crumpled and folded piece (38 by 34 mm). Dawson (1997) p.284 no.79 (not illustrated) Loughor: SF313; (57\085) surface and make-up of via sagularis; Period VIII (Phase 10) c.260 - 310+

Ma11. five fragments, iron (acc. no. 98.6H/4) mean ring diameter 3mm Five small, fused lumps of mail. Dawson (1997) p.284 no.78 (Not illustrated) Loughor: SF277 (55\073) west rampart of reduced fort; Period VII (Phase 8) c.115/120 - c.260

Copper Alloy Mb04. ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) diameter of ring 7mm The terminals of the ring are flattened and punched to hold a small rivet. Brewer (1986) p.183 no.144 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: (28) S23.28. soil makeup beneath the natatio base; phase V – c.100/110 230 (Zienkiewicz 1986b, 256)

Mb01. fragment, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) ring diameter 9mm; thickness of wire 1-2mm Wire rings with the ends in each case hammered flat and riveted together. Nash-Williams (1932) p.94, fig.41.4 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified Mb02. four rings, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) diameter of ring c.10mm, thickness 1-1.4mm All riveted closed through flattened terminals. Caerleon – Amphitheatre: E-D on footings

Mb05. ? seven rings, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) Diameter of rings 6mm; thickness of wire 1mm All appear to be made of wire and to be butt ended. Add to this the fact that those still joined form only a line of rings, and their identification as lorica hamata must remain somewhat speculative. Fox (unpublished b) no.29 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF664 (138/207) Phase Vb

Mb03. fragment, copper alloy (acc. no. 69.326) diameter of rings c.7.5mm, thickness of wire 1mm About a dozen or fifteen rings, mostly concreted into a solid lump. Two butted rings, one copper alloy and one iron, linked by two riveted copper alloy rings. Boon (1970) p.56 no.1, fig.17 Caerleon – Vicarage Garden: found in the hard earth surface adjacent to Pedestal I; uncertain date

Hook-Fasteners The shoulder reinforcements on first and early second century lorica hamata were held to the chest by hooks, attached to the centre of the chest, which allowed the shoulder pieces to move easily. These hooks frequently echo their Iron Age antecedents (Robinson 1975, 164; Bishop & Coulston 1993, 85; Stead 1991, 54 fig.45). The most common form for such fastenings is a hinged double-hook such as those from Chassenard (Robinson 1975, 172, pl.480) and Stanwick (Smith 1925, 142 fig.160) where two S-shaped hooks are placed back to back and hinged together at the lower end by means of a rivet passed through their overlapping flat, discoid terminals and secured in the two examples cited, through the mail shirt beneath, the whole being positioned in the centre of the chest so that the upper hooks could be secured round studs on the shoulder reinforcements (Robinson 1975, 164). But this is not the only form of fastening in which S-shaped hooks occur, Robinson (1975, 164) suggests that single hooks, which attached to each shoulder-piece separately, may sometimes have been used. Examples of S-shaped hooks from Britain show a range of styles of decoration. Some have a zoomorphic form using the head or tail of an animal to form the hook, others have the hook decorated with bosses, and some incorporate both styles of decoration (Manning, Price & Webster 1995, 17). Hooks can have one boss on each hook, cf. Stanwick (Jope 2000, pl.201c; Smith 1925, 142 fig.160); or two bosses on each hook, cf. 88

Polden Hill (Jope 2000, pl.201a,b), Longthorpe (Frere & Joseph 1974, 60 no.66), and Tooley Street, London (Jope 2000, pl.201d). Zoomorphic hooks are found in the form of dolphins, cf. Brough (Jope 2000, pl.201f); duck’s-heads, cf. Camerton (Wedlake 1958, 258 no.30); or ram’s-headed serpents, as in the case of the example in the Museum’s collection. which lie immediately above them. The curve of the horns extends beyond the curved line of the cheeks, but below the eyes the face tapers sharply to a narrow muzzle but then widen out slightly to a bulbous snout. By the Roman period, the ram’sheaded serpent occurs as the companion of Cernunnos and the Celtic versions of Mars and Mercury, as well as on its own (Ross 1967, 140-1; Green 1986, 192-5). Cf. a hook with a similarly modelled head but much less accentuated curves to the hook from Baginton (Hobley 1973. 69, no.4); Dangstetten (Fingerlin 1970-71, abb.11.7). Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.16 no.34 Usk – Detention Centre Site: FGP (10) Fortress pit; Pre-Flavian (Manning 1981a, 193)

Mc01. cuirass hook, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.10H) length 71mm The hook takes the form of a simply modelled, highly Celtic rendering of a ram’s-headed serpent. The body, tapering towards the head, describes two curves, the upper a tight reversal of the lower, to form the hook, and the neck partly reverses the curve again so that the head points outwards. The body of the serpent is hardly decorated, with only a light ridge down the centre which sweeps inwards above the hinge emphasizing the one-sided nature of the fitting. The head is modelled in very high relief. Two large lentold eyes dominate the face and converge inwards at the top of the head, their line being continued in the tightly curled ram’s horns

Miniature Breastplates Pairs of small, decorated breastplates have been found in association with both lorica hamata and lorica squamata in second and third century contexts. These plates have rivet holes down the long, outer edge, and a curved upper edge which fitted round the front of the wearer’s neck (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 117; Southern & Dixon 1996, 97). A pair from Manching, still retain the square-headed pins which fastened the two plates together (Garbsch 1978, 53 tafel 8 D1). Third century chest-pieces differ in decorative detail from second century examples (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 145). There are no examples of these in the Museum’s collection but an object from Caerleon might just possibly be a fastening pin from one of them. Short bar expanding to a pierced plate at one end and a plate set at right angles at the other. Cf. Manching (Garbsch 1978, 53 tafel 8 D1). Caerleon – unprovenanced

Md01. ? fastening pin, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 16mm, thickness 3mm, both plates 9 by 6 mm, perforation 3mm

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N: Lorica Squamata (Scale armour) Surviving Roman reliefs seem to indicate that lorica squamata was widely used in the Roman army (Robinson 1975, 156-9 pls.442-53), although the amount of lorica squamata which actually survives is relatively small (Manning, Price & Webster 1995, 14). As far as we can now tell, the styles of lorica squamata shirts seem to have mirrored those of lorica hamata and when dealing with representational evidence it is sometimes unclear which is intended. Lorica squamata consisted of rows of small metal scales arranged so that each scale overlapped the adjacent scale on one side and was itself overlapped by the scale on the other side. The rows themselves were staggered so that the midlines of the scales in one row lay above the junctions between the scales in the row below, with each row overlapping the row below by half the length of the scales. Most scale armour was attached to a fabric backing, probably normally coarse linen (Robinson 1975, 157; Manning, Price & Webster 1995, 14). A piece of lorica squamata from Carpow actually has the linen and some of the leather edging around the neck preserved (Wild 1981, 305-6). The making of lorica squamata required only a minimum of skill as the cutting of each individual scale and the mounting of them demanded patience rather than craftsmanship (Southern & Dixon 1992, 38). Scales were produced in both copper alloy and iron, the former being more commonly found and published, probably as a result of the iron ones being very easily made unrecognizable by corrosion. Each scale was pierced by a number of holes. Roman practice was to join each scale to its neighbours with thin wire ties which passed through one or two pairs of holes set close to the edges of the scales. The holes at the top were used to attach these rows to the backing fabric (Wild 1981, 305-6). Within this overall system the size and shape of the scales and the arrangement of the tie holes can vary considerably, as is shown by the large group of scales from Carnuntum (Robinson 1975, 154 fig.159). In size they can be anything from about 2cm2 to over 40cm2. The most common type is rectangular and flat with a rounded end. To strengthen the scales a central ridge could be embossed on them, creating the appearance of feathers, though it is believed that this type of scale would have been worn only by officers (Robinson 1975, 156). Scales could also be made more decorative by tinning every alternate one, producing a silver and gold chequerboard effect, like those found at Ham Hill (Webster 1958, 80 no.105) and Augsburg (Southern & Dixon 1992, 38). Isolated groups of scales are by no means uncommon; a large group of copper alloy scales from Newstead is illustrated by Curle (1911, 158, pl. XXIV), others are listed by Robinson (1975, 154-7). A new type of lorica squamata appeared during the second century, typified by pieces found at Corbridge (Forster & Knowles 1911, 188 fig.41) and Mušov (Tejral 1990, 795 abb.1) on which, instead of the scale being wired only to its horizontal neighbours and then sewn to a backing, it was also wired to the one above and the one below as well. The individual scales were very small, and long and slender in shape. Cuirasses constructed from such scales would be semi-rigid with little movement possible in the vertical plane (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 117). Some uncertainty remains regarding the position of the opening in lorica squamata to enable it to be put on. The suggestion of a back opening was rejected by Robinson (1975, 156) on the basis that a soldier would have required assistance to do up the fastenings, favouring instead a left-side opening. Recent experiments, however, using a reconstructed lorica squamata with a back opening, have demonstrated that the wearer can fasten the garment completely unaided (Southern & Dixon 1992, 40). From the mid second century, however, it would appear that a front opening closed by mini breast-plates was used, as with lorica hamata (p.89). All the fragments of lorica squamata in the Museums collection are of copper alloy and one appears to be of the semi-rigid Corbridge/Mušov type (Na03). short length of wire with ends overlapping at back. Stripped. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Na01. three scales, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 23mm, width 7mm Four pairs of holes placed vertically in the middle of each edge. Overlap neighbour to left. Joined by

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half-way down and the central pair close to the upper edge. The scales overlapped to right and were laterally secured by small twists of thin wire, several of which survive. Brewer (1986) p.186 no.155 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: (10) S29-34.10. Infilling of the natatio; phase IX – c.290/300 (Zienkiewicz 1986b, 256)

Na02. four scales, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 25mm, width 12mm Three pairs of holes, two in middle of the top edge and two near the top of each side. Scales overlap neighbour to left. Joined by short length of wire with ends overlapped at back. Traces of tinning survive on outer faces, under overlaps. Wheeler & Wheeler (1928) p.165 no.29, fig.14 Caerleon – Amphitheatre: make-up of the original ramp of Entrance H; therefore dating from the Flavian period

Na07. ? scale, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.10H) length 15mm, width 14mm Small sheet fragment with a perforation. Possibly, but not necessarily, a scale. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.15 no.27 Usk – Detention Centre Site: 68 LQ (1) Fortress pit; Pre-Flavian (Manning 1981a, 167)

Na03. three scales, copper alloy (acc. no. 54.389A) length 17mm, width 10mm The scales have slightly rounded lower edges, overlapped to right and were laterally secured by wire of flat rectangular section with ends overlapped at back. The holes are pierced in vertical pairs at the middle of each edge, suggesting that they belong to the semi-rigid Corbridge/Mušov type, where instead of the scale being wired only to its horizontal neighbours and then sewn to a backing, it was also wired to the one above and the one below as well. Cf. Corbridge (Forster & Knowles 1911, 188 fig.41); Mušov (Tejral 1990, 795 abb.1). Boon (unpublished) no.57 Caerleon – Bear House Field I: F62; Main lateral drain; c.130-230

Na08. two scales, copper alloy (acc. no. 84.43H) length 21mm and 22mm, width 12mm and 14mm Overlapping to the left. Both scales have two pairs of holes vertically set to either side and a horizontal pair at the top edge. The link consists of a length of wire threaded through and folded over so as to overlap at the rear. The front surface of one scale has traces of tinning. Zienkiewicz (1993) p.106 no.3 Caerleon – The Legionary Museum Site: (215) Phase II c.85/90-90/100 Na09. three scales, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.121) length 25mm, width 11mm All are slightly damaged but each would originally have had two holes on the upper edge and two on either side. Joined horizontally with two wire loops, they overlap to the left. Traces of tinning survive. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.262 no.121 Loughor: SF285 (53\586) gravel and mortar floor; Period IV (Phase 8) c.100 - c.105

Na04. ? scale, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 10mm, width 8mm Small plate, with three holes pierced vertically down the centre. Possibly used as a replacement scale in a repair. Brewer (1986) p.181 no.125 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block -1 ; Antontine - third century

Na10. two scales, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.122) length 20mm and 25mm, width 11mm and 14mm Damaged but with tinning on the front face. Overlapping to the left. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.262 no.122 Loughor: SF286 (53\586) gravel and mortar floor; Period IV (Phase 8) c.100 - c.105

Na05. ? scale, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 16mm, width 8mm Pierced by three vertical pairs of holes; two lateral pairs close to the lower edge, and a central pair near the top. Brewer (1986) p.181 no.126 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block -1; Antontine - third century

Na11. scale, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.123) length 22mm, width 11mm Damaged scale with the remains of one wire loop. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.263 no.123 (Not illustrated) Loughor: SF320 (53\796) levelling layer at start of phase; Period III (Phase 7) c.85 - c.100

Na06. thirty scales, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length c.16mm, width c.11mm The scales have a slightly rounded lower edge, and three vertical pairs of holes; the two lateral pairs

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O: Lorica Plumata A hybrid form of body defence, possibly called lorica plumata, consisted of mail faced with small scales (Bishop & Coulston 1989, 32). Presumably very time-consuming to produce, it is not a common find (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 85-7). Though the apparent rarity may be exaggerated by the fact that the examples listed here were identified only by extensive use of X-radiography, so similar pieces, found in earlier excavations, would probably not have been recognized (Manning, Price & Webster 1995, 1). It is briefly discussed by Robinson (1975, 173) who cites an almost complete cuirass in the museum at Augsburg, where copper alloy mail is covered with alternating copper alloy and iron scales. Fragments with copper alloy mail and scales were found at Newstead (Curle 1911, 161, pl. XXXVIII.8) and Ouddorp (Robinson 1975, 173). Where the details are clear the upper edges of the scales had been bent back at right angles and drilled with four holes through which rings of the mail were passed before they were closed with a minute rivet. Lorica plumata is only represented in the Museum’s collection by fragments from Usk. Made entirely of iron they are most unusual, perhaps unique (Manning, Price & Webster 1995, 15). Work of such quality must have been, as with the fine lorica hamata (p.86) also from Usk, relatively expensive suggesting the property of officers rather than general issue. How efficient they would have been in protecting the wearer must be an open question; the great advantage would have been their lightness and flexibility. It is possible that they were used in conjunction with heavier armour to protect the more vital parts of the body, or that they were worn under normal clothing to guard against surprise attack (Manning, Price & Webster 1995, 13). Another possibility is that they are the remains of ‘dress uniforms’, for want of a better term, for parades and other occasions when officers needed to appear in military dress but did not actually require protection. one face, completely mineralized. The scales are straight sided, tapering slightly to a rounded tip, with a median rib on the face of each scale. Price (1983) p.12-3 Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.16 no.32, Plate III Usk – Cattle Market Site: HWX (9) Fortress pit; Pre-Flavian (Manning 1989, 62)

Oa01. fragment, iron (acc. no. 82.11H) length 69mm, mean diameter of rings c.3mm, thickness of wire c.1mm, width of scales 5mm, length of scales 9mm Fragment formed of fine rings with small scales on one face. It is completely mineralized and when discarded was folded with the scales on the inside. Where the form of the scales can be seen they appear to be straight sided, tapering slightly to a rounded tip, with a median rib on the face of each scale. Price (1983) p.12-3 Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.16 no.31 Usk – Cattle Market Site: HXC (3) Fortress latrine pit; Pre-Flavian (Manning 1989, 59)

Oa03. fragment, iron (acc. no. 82.11H) length 66mm, mean diameter of rings c.3.5mm, thickness of wire c.1mm, length of scales c.10mm, width of scales c.5mm. Fragment formed of fine rings with small scales on one face, completely mineralized The scales have slightly convex tips and median ridges. Price (1983) p.12-3 Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.16 no.33, Plate III Usk – Cattle Market Site: HWX (2) Fortress pit; Pre-Flavian (Manning 1989, 62)

Oa02. fragment, iron (acc. no. 82.11H) length 95mm, mean diameter of rings c.3mm, thickness of wire c.1mm, length of scales c.11mm, width of scales 5-6mm Fragment formed of fine rings with small scales on

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P: Apron-Mounts The ‘apron’ which hung from the belt of the legionary and of many auxiliaries, in the first and second century AD, consisted of a series of vertical leather straps reinforced by decorative metal studs and terminals (Grew & Griffiths 1991, 52). It probably did not offer much protection to the soldier’s lower abdomen, as some have suggested, but was worn rather as a mark of status, for the visual effect and the jingling noise it made (Bishop & Coulston 1989, 35). Evidence for the developed ‘apron’ is remarkably good. An actual example survives from the Rhine at Mainz and a set of fittings were found with the Herculaneum soldier, closely paralleling some from Tekije (Bishop 1992, 91-6). These correspond with the ‘aprons’ shown on first century AD infantry tombstones (Bishop 1992, 81-91). It seems to have developed from the free end of a belt, ornamented with studs and finished with a terminal. By the middle of the first century AD the ‘apron’ had acquired as many as eight straps each with sixteen studs. Apron straps ended with a hinged pendant. Examples of crescentic terminal pendants can be found both in sculpture and amongst archaeological finds but the teardrop type seem to have been equally common (p.152, p.154).

Plates Plates used on apron straps are of the same form, and share the same schemes of decoration, as belt-plates, the only apparent way to assign function is on the basis of width. Here, those little more than 10mm wide are classified as apron-plates as they seem to form a distinctly separate group when compared to first to third century belt-plates, even the narrowest of which are nearer 20mm in width. A wasted plate, slightly curved in section. There is a stud at either end each with a disc terminal (diam. 6mm). Brewer (1986) p.175 no.39 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 12; Antontine - third century

Pa01. plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.118) length 34mm, width 11mm, thickness 2mm, shaft length 5mm, shaft diameter c.1mm Narrow rectangular plate with shaft projecting from each corner. Front face has traces of tinning and possibly the remains of niello decoration. Cf. Grew & Griffiths (1991) nos. 45-47. Caerleon – School Field: ALMB

Pa05. plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 24mm [broken], width 12mm, thickness 2mm The surviving end is of trefoil shape and the other probably was, originally, the same. There are traces of a piercing in line with the brake. The back has two studs with disc terminals (diam. 5mm). Brewer (1986) p.175 no.41 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 11; Antontine - third century

Pa02. enamelled plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.118) length 25mm, width 12mm, thickness 3mm, shaft length 4mm Small rectangular plate, at either end there is a short shaft with circular disc terminal (diam. 6mm). The front is decorated by an enamelled lattice pattern, the outer edge of which is slightly raised and notched. There is a slight projection from one of the short edges. Caerleon – School Field: - - -

Pa06. plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 84.43H) length 33mm [broken], max. width 10mm, thickness 1mm One end of a plate with a stud behind. It appears to consist of two rectangular sections with a heart shaped section between. The face retains traces of tinning. Cf. Verulamium (Waugh & Goodburn 1972, 120 no.40). Zienkiewicz (1993) p.112 no.23 Caerleon – The Legionary Museum Site: (165) Phase IIIb c.90/100-130/140

Pa03. plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386/15) length 40mm, width 12mm, thickness 2mm Narrow rectangular plate with a stud at either end, each with circular, slightly domed ends (diam. 7mm). The surface is uncleaned but no decoration is visible through the adhering soil. Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage: Trial Trench 1, mixed soil, top occupation

Pa07. plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.125) length 35mm and 14mm, max. width 10mm Incomplete and in two pieces with a rivet at either

Pa04. plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 28mm, max. width 14mm, thickness 3mm

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Cf. Colchester (Crummy 1983, 132 no.4209). Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.263 no.130 Loughor: SF027 (53\643) fill of post-trench of Building 3.10; Period V (Phase 11) c.105 - c.110

end. Most of the piece is encrusted but the central section may have been rectangular with a slightly curved cross-section. The terminals were probably sub-diamond-shaped. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.263 no.125 Loughor: SF078 (69\008) [not 69/003 as in report] floor make-up; Period VIII (Phase 9) c.260 - 310+

Pa09. plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.154) length 23mm, max. width 11mm Two strips joined together by a dome headed rivet (diam. 6mm). The outer piece retains traces of tinning and appears to be slightly shaped. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.268 no.154 Loughor: SF509 (53\1729) layer dumped down prior to construction of Buildings 3.6-3.8; Period III (Phase 5) c.85 - c.100

Pa08. plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.130) length 29mm, width 10mm, thickness 1mm Flat plate, now in two pieces, with two rivets projecting from the back. One end is square, the other damaged. The curved and wasted nature of the long edges appears deliberate. The front is tinned.

Studs Plain disc-headed studs, many of them tinned or silvered, of the type on the Mainz strap and many in the Tekije hoard (Bishop 1992, 91-6), abound on most Roman sites and it is usually impossible to tell what they were used for (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 99). There seems to be little to be gained in the present context by listing all such studs present in the Museum’s collection.

Studs with Niello Decoration Some disc-headed studs were inlaid with niello, a sure sign that they were in military use as studs of this type are found only in military contexts (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 99). Pb01. stud, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) diameter 17mm The head is decorated by a scroll pattern inlaid with niello, now fairly indistinct. Cf. Gorhambury (Wardle 1990, 130 no.217). Nash-Williams (1932) p.83 fig.33.20 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Pb02. stud, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) diameter 17mm The head is decorated with incised radial lines and circles, the latter apparently inlaid originally with niello, now very indistinct. One side is partly missing. Nash-Williams (1932) p.83 fig.33.21 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Studs with Repoussé Heads Studs decorated in repoussé with a male bust in profile or representations of Victory, are mainly found, both in Britain and the Continent, on military sites, and it seems likely that they were used on ‘aprons’, though this may not have been their only function (Goodburn 1984, 45; Garrard 1995, 1007). Feugère (1985, 117) suggests that they were given to the soldiers as part of imperial propaganda on specific occasions. A precise chronology remains to be established but it is clear that they were manufactured over a period of at least two centuries: the earliest finds appear to be Flavian and the latest probably third century (Brewer 1986, 181; Garrard 1995, 1007). Fox (1940) p.132 no.20, fig.6 Feugère (1985) p.128, Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage Orchard: Turret, in disturbed soil

Pc01. stud, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386) diameter 18mm, thickness 2mm The head is decorated with a repoussé barbarous portrait of an emperor, laureate in profile, with a palm in front and caduceus or second palm behind, Feugère (1985) Type 7b. Cf. Canterbury (Garrard 1995, 1007 no.254); London (Wheeler 1930, 113 fig.37.2); and Verulamium (Goodburn 1984, 45 no.138)

Pc02. stud, copper alloy (acc. no. 65.170A) diameter 22mm, thickness 1mm Repoussé decoration of the head consists of a circular beaded border, within which appears a

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bearded and possibly cuirassed bust to right, with tight locks of hair, mostly worn off. In front, a palm-branch; behind, a lenticular hooked object. There is a central rivet at the back, 5mm long, slightly burred. The style of the stud combines with its context to suggest a later second century date. Not of a type in Feugère (1985). Cf. three examples,

probably early third century, from Malton (Corder 1948, 176 no.5). Brewer (1986) p.181 no.134 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upon a gravelled surface below orange concrete floor-bedding at south west corner of basilica; Hadrianic - Antonine

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Q: Helmets The helmet is probably one of the best attested types of Roman military equipment in the first century AD. A number of different types of helmet appear to have been in use, from a number of different traditions. There are various systems used by modern scholars to classify them (eg. Waurick 1988, beilage 2), but British scholars generally follow the typology created by Robinson (1975, 13-106), a practice that is continued here. The traditional Montefortino types of helmet of the Republic remained in use into the early first century but was supplemented and gradually replaced by a round capped copper alloy helmet with small neck guard, usually referred to as the Coolus, and an iron helmet with a deep neck guard, usually called the Port type after an example found at Port bei Nidau in Switzerland. Both are clearly derived from the helmets that were in use in Gaul in the first century BC. The Coolus type in turn went out of use in the middle of the first century, and the Port type developed into the type referred to as Imperial-Gallic (Connolly 1981, 230). Imperial-Gallic helmets are characterized by stylised eyebrows on the front of the helmet bowl. They are usually made of iron, though copper alloy examples exist, trimmed with copper alloy piping and decorated with copper alloy bosses, sometimes enamelled. Some are extremely elaborately decorated and are amongst the finest helmets produced by the Romans. Robinson (1975, 62-75) identified another type of helmet which he called Imperial-Italic. These were similar in shape to those of the Imperial-Gallic type but were generally more crudely made and lacked the eyebrows. In fact his distinction between the two traditions may not really exist and the implication in their names that they were manufactured in different areas may be misleading (Bishop & Coulston 1989, 32; Bishop & Coulston 1993, 93). The essential characteristics of all the helmets introduced in the first century were a bowl and neck-guard manufactured in one piece, a brow-guard, and large hinged cheek-pieces. Imperial-Gallic helmets also had cut-outs on the side of the bowl for the ears, some with added ear-protectors. The brow-guard and ribbing on the neck were probably designed to counter, or at least hinder, slashing blows travelling downwards, whilst the neck-guard quite clearly protected the back of the head and shoulders. By the second quarter of the first century all the features that were to characterise the Roman infantry helmet for the next two centuries had been established (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 93; Connolly 1981, 230-31). In the second half of the century reinforcing braces were added to the crown of the helmet. At first these were just two flat strips but later they were replaced by two thick bands (Connolly 1981, 230). Second century helmets are poorly represented in the archaeological record, but in general terms the neckguards on helmets seem to have become deeper, offering increased protection (Bishop & Coulston 1989, 47). Auxiliary infantry appear to have used the same types of helmet as the legionaries. It has been suggested that the helmets of poorer quality manufacture, might have been specifically designed for auxiliaries (e.g. Simkins 1988, 144), but this is impossible to prove at present (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 93). Cavalry helmets can be distinguished by the fact that their cheek-pieces completely covered the wearer’s ears (Bishop & Coulston 1989, 32). They enjoyed a quite separate development during the first century, which can be seen gradually to offer greater protection to the wearer (Robinson 1975, 89-106). Surviving examples are made of iron, covered, all or in part, with copper alloy sheathing, embossed to look like hair on the bowl itself. Cheek-pieces were usually highly decorated with embossed mythological scenes (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 93-6). In the late first or early second century AD, cavalry helmets began to be fitted with reinforcing strips across the forehead. These over time gradually rose more and more at the front, eventually forming a peak (Connolly 1981, 235; Robinson 1975, 89). Later in the second century the cheek-pieces became larger, fitting round the face, and leaving only the eyes, nose and mouth visible (Robinson 1975, 90, pl.259). Helmets were now also fitted, like the infantry helmets, with crossed reinforcing bars over the top and deep neck-flanges (Connolly 1981, 235; Southern & Dixon 1992, 35-6). Helmet finds datable to the third century do not continue the evolution of first to second century infantry forms. The last type of legionary helmet which retains the original form is Robinson’s Imperial Italic type H 96

(Robinson 1975, 73-4; Connolly 1981, 259-61). A new type of helmet with the bowl generally extended down to the base of the neck, and with a low, angled neck-guard, a horizontal or upwardly-angled pointed peak, and crossed reinforcing bars, has been attributed to cavalry use (Robinson 1975, 97-9 Type E & F). This type, however, corresponds closely with the representational evidence for infantry helmets of the period. An unfinished helmet of a related form was found in a well at Buch, presumably deposited when the fort was abandoned c.259-60. The bowl extended down to the base of the neck and has embossed cross-ribs. The peak was missing, but rivet-holes show it was intended to angle slightly upwards. Wide cheek-pieces covered the ears and overlapped at the chin leaving only a small, T-shaped face-opening (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 148 pl.2c). The fort at Buch is thought to have held an infantry unit and Buch type cheek-pieces have been found at Regensburg (Garbsch 1978, 76 no.O78), Caerleon (Qb01) and Dura-Europos (James 1986, 123 n.52-3; James 2004, 104-7 no.372), all sites associated with legionary troops. Adoption of similar helmet forms for both infantry and cavalry use would account for, and fill, the apparent typological gap in thirdcentury infantry helmet types (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 145-8; Connolly 1991, 362-3). Some time in the period 270-300 there was a complete break in helmet development bringing to an end the tradition of fashioning helmet-bowl and neck-guard in one piece. A new form, the ‘Ridge’ helmets, appeared. The infantry type, known as the Intercisa type after a site in Hungary where fifteen to twenty examples were found, had a bowl made up of two or four iron plates joined together by a strip ridge. Cheekpieces and neck-guard were not directly attached to the bowl but were stitched to straps or a leather or textile lining. Cut outs in the sides of the bowl and at the tops of the cheek-pieces indicate that the latter were worn over, not in front of, the ears. A helmet of the type from Berkasovo has a T-shaped nasal plate riveted to the front for additional protection. Some had crests of hair or of solid iron, and silver foil decoration (Bishop & Coulston 1989, 66-7; Bishop & Coulston 1993, 167-70; Klumbach l973, pls.45-64). The cavalry type has an iron bowl of four to six pieces, a ridge, noseguard, neckguard and very wide cheekpieces, which are attached to the bowl by rivets or hinges. Many of the surviving examples are covered with gilded silver, and some are encrusted with glass gems and have embossed designs (Bishop & Coulston 1989, 66-7). The similarity of a securely dated third century helmet from Dura-Europos (James 2004, 104 no.371), which apparently belonged to a Sassanid Persian, to those of the fourth century Ridge helmets has been used by James (1986, 128) as evidence that the late Roman ridge helmets were Partho-Sassanian in origin. He suggested that the technically undemanding ‘Ridge’ helmet with its simple design and easier construction, fitted the requirements of a state, which was more interested in the quantity produced rather than the quality (James 1986, 131-2).

Fragments The line of the cut-out for the ear is just discernible as a straight line with a slight outward curve at the edge but whether this formed a rib as in an Imperial Gallic helmet of type C (Robinson 1975, 52 pl.107) or a flange as in a helmet of type B (Robinson 1975, 50 pl.104) can not be determined. It seems unlikely that there were applied ear-guards (as Qc01-Qc04 below) since there is no evidence of any means of attachment. The iron loop which formed part of the hinge was attached to a rectangular iron plate on the inside of the bowl secured by two large copper alloy and one large iron rivet. The copper alloy rivets appear to have functioned like spilt-pin staples and have their ends hammered out on the inside of the helmet: the iron rivet terminates on the inside in a washer. It seems likely that the irregularly shaped iron rivet may represent a replacement of an original copper alloy piece. Between the cut-away for the ear and the rivets

Qa01. ?helmet, iron (acc. no. 82.10H) length 44mm [broken], width 33mm [broken], thickness 2mm Fragment of plate with a beaded edge and a triangular depression. Possibly from a helmet or cheek-piece but too little survives for any certainty, let alone any idea of type. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.5 no.3 Usk – Detention Centre Site: 68 BJ (1) area of charcoal; Pre-Flavian (Manning 1981a, 133) Qa02. bowl fragment, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 49mm [broken], width 62mm [broken] Fragment from the right hand side of the helmet bowl, just in front of the cut-out for the ear, with an iron hinge for a cheek-piece. Insufficient remains of the piece to be able to determine the class of helmet it represented.

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for the hinge the copper alloy of the helmet above the rim is of silver grey patina and carries traces of horizontal ribbing. There is now no other trace of a brow band but the circumstances which occasioned the replacement of the lower rivet may also have accounted for the loss of such a feature. There are traces of straw in the corrosion on the inside of the fragment.

Webster (1992) p.113 no.25 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF956 (31/795) Rampart Area, Phase IV c.160-340, from a second century make up layer in building G. Its history of repair and subsequent irreparable damage clearly indicate that its main period of use was in the first century.

Cheek-pieces A pair of these were hinged to either side of the helmet rim, and fastened below the chin. They protected the ears and cheeks and were called bucculae. Cheek-pieces were presumably originally lined to protect the face but no trace of lining remains on any of the examples below. The usual pattern for the hinge that attached the cheek-piece to the helmet, until the radical change in design at the end of the third century, was for the two outer lobes of the hinge to be fashioned from the metal of the cheek-piece, with a projecting loop from the skull cap of the helmet interleaved in the central gap. The pivot bar was driven through the hole and hammered flat at the ends (Robinson 1975, 78-81). two decorated cheek-pieces probably from the same cavalry helmet. i. Ear of a right cheek-piece. The ear is naturalistically, if somewhat sketchily, modelled. Though it obviously form a pair with and is of similar size to, the ear on the next piece (ii), they are not identical. ii. Upper portion of a left cheek-piece, including the hinge and an ear positioned behind and slightly above it so as to cover the wearer’s ear. The decorative area is defined above by the narrow cabled border only and apparently by two or more cabled borders down the side. The hinge appears to follow the usual pattern with the two outer lobes of the hinge on the cheek-piece (Robinson 1975, 78-81, nos. 20433). iii. Curved chin-piece of a right cheek-piece. The main decorative area was contained within a narrow, raised, cabled border lying a short way in from the outer margin, and almost converging with it in parts. Immediately inside the narrow cabling is a broad, more shallowly raised cabled border. On the back is an iron stud, secured by a rivet, and a ring. This ring and the similar ring on the next piece (iv) are both some distance from the outer edge and so cannot have been intended to fasten directly to each other. Instead the cheek-pieces were presumably secured on the front of the chin by means of a leather tie passed through the rings. iv. Large portion from the lower part of a left cheek-piece where it curves forward towards the chin. On the back is an iron loop for a ring. This piece retains the most decorative detail, though insufficient to be able to identify with confidence the central element. Immediately inside the narrow cabling is a broad, more shallowly raised cabled border.

Qb01. cheek-piece, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 160mm, 156mm [broken] Fragment of thin sheet with rivet-hole. One edge is turned up and the other shows traces of shaping by cutting. Buch-type cheek-piece: cf. Buch (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 148 pl.2c); Regensburg (Garbsch 1978, 76 no.O78). Nash-Williams (1932) p.87 fig.36.1 Boon 1972, p.54 fig.30.5 Bishop & Coulston 1993, p.148 fig.103.3 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(26)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 26; Period III c.200-300 Qb02.

cheek-piece, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386) Length 148mm, max width 104mm Embossed cheek-piece of Robinson (1975) Imperial-Gallic type I. Fox (1940) p.134 no.32, fig.8 Robinson (1975) p.47 pl.143 Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage Orchard: Trench IV, Barrack I, beside wall foundation, with coin of Domitian; c.100.

Qb03. cheek-pieces, copper alloy & iron (acc. no. 82.11H) lengths 112mm, 87mm, 57mm, 50mm Fragments of wafer-thin copper alloy sheet, with repoussé decoration and originally ‘silvered’, on an iron backing. Where the original outer edges remain the copper alloy sheet has been rolled over an outer rib in the iron and turned up on the inside. Most of the decoration is confined to the copper alloy sheeting but when it comes to the ears the iron is also modelled, following the same contours exactly. It is to the difficulty of modelling in this medium that the differences in the two completed ears must be attributed. In addition to the modelled ears each iron cheek-piece had a ribbed outer border. There are four identifiable pieces representing

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helmets of auxiliary cavalry Type A which is of first century date (Robinson 1975, 95). While he dates the helmet type to the first century the cheekpieces he assigns to type are variously dated by him from the first to the third century. Among these there is no surviving first century example equipped with an extant ear nor are there any iron cheekpieces associated with the type. However, the auxiliary cavalry helmet from Witcham Gravel, Ely (Robinson 1975, 89 pl.250), is also of first-century date and differs little from those of Type A. This helmet provides evidence for the modelling of the ears. It is perhaps to this type of helmet that the Usk cheek-pieces belong. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.2 no.1 Usk – Cattle Market Site: HCH (1) Fortress pit; PreFlavian (Manning 1989, 20)

Along the bottom edge there is a small dolphin lying, facing towards the chin and above, close to the broken edge of the fragment, the corner of a rectangular ornament. This rectangular corner may represent a foot-rest or ground-line for a figure which would have formed the central element of the decoration. Cf. Gloucester (Pitts 1985, 26 pl.9; Hurst 1975, 287-90 pl.XLVIIIa); Brough (Toynbee 1964, 297 pl.LXVIb); Newstead (Robinson 1970, 290-2 fig.3). Robinson identifies two types of helmet to which cheek-pieces of this type could be attached. The cavalry sports helmet of his Type I (Robinson 1975, 133-5) can be rejected in this case as it dates from the second to third century. The other is the service

Ear-guards Helmets of Imperial-Gallic types E to K had added ear-guards riveted to the side of the bowl above the cutout for the ear to help deflect blows away from the ears (Robinson 1975, 47 fig.75). Phase II c.85/90-90/100

Qc01. ear-guard, copper alloy (acc. no. 84.43H) length 57mm, thickness of plate 0.4 mm Right ear-guard strengthened by a raised, moulded rib around the outer edge which curves in to meet the bowl at its base. Only a single rivet hole for attaching it to the bowl survives. Vindonissa (Unz & Deschler-Erd 1997, 28 no.588-96). Zienkiewicz (1993) p.106 no.4 Caerleon – The Legionary Museum Site: (154) Phase I/II c.74/5-90/100

Qc03. ear-guard, copper alloy (acc. no. 84.43H) length 58 mm, thickness of plate 0.6mm Incomplete left ear-guard with two rivet holes for attachment to the bowl. The edge is decorated by two parallel grooves with a distinct ridge in between. Zienkiewicz (1993) p.114 no.36 (not illustrated) Caerleon – The Legionary Museum Site: unstratified

Qc02. ear-guard, copper alloy (acc. no. 84.43H) length 63mm; thickness of plate 0.3mm Incomplete left ear-guard. There are traces of one rivet hole towards the base of the flange, but the others are completely lost through corrosion. Zienkiewicz (1993) p.108 no.5 Caerleon – The Legionary Museum Site: (150)

Qc4.

ear-guard, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.118) length 51mm. Incomplete right ear-guard with L-shaped crosssection and two surviving rivet holes. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.262, no.118 Loughor: SF611 (53\2353) fill of pit cutting road; Period IV (Phase 9) c.100 - c.105

Carrying-handles By the second half of the first century AD helmets had a carrying-handle fixed to the top of the neck-guards (Robinson 1975, 47). As these took the form of simple drop-handles which could have other uses on boxes and furniture, the interpretation of handles found in isolation will clearly always be slightly speculative. There does appears to be, however, a certain uniformity of internal width: just big enough to place the three middle fingers through the loop whilst steadying the neck-guard with the thumb and little finger (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 93; Robinson 1975, 47-8). section. Neither terminal survives, one arm is bent outwards, the other is completely missing. Caersws: - - -

Qd01. carrying-handle, copper alloy (acc. no. 20.526/2) max. internal width 58mm, width 67mm [broken], depth 36mm, thickness 5mm It has an angular, irregular diamond shaped, cross-

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width 75mm [broken], depth 00mm, thickness 4mm Curved rod of roughly circular section, tapering towards the ends. Very corroded, distorted and lacking both ends. Allason-Jones (1993) p.178 no.102 Segontium: SF920 (1568) layer; Period 7A – Hadrianic/Antonine-late 3rd century

Qd02. ? carrying-handle, copper alloy (acc. no. 25.1/535) max. internal width 59mm, width 74mm [broken], depth 42mm, thickness 8mm Circular-sectioned handle tapering to a big conical terminal at the surviving end. Grimes (1930) p.128 fig.56.20 Holt: - - -

Qd09. carrying-handle, copper alloy (acc. no. 87.47H/2) max. internal width 58mm, width 69mm, depth 52mm, max. thickness 7mm Handle of diamond shaped section, with bi-conical terminals. Caerleon – Endowed School: SF140 (062)

Qd03. ? carrying-handle, copper alloy (acc. no. 25.1/552) max. internal width 48mm, width 54mm, depth 37mm, thickness 4mm Circular-sectioned drop handle tapering towards ends. Both terminals missing. Holt: - - -

Qd10. carrying-handle, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) max. internal width 28mm, width 47mm [broken], depth 27mm, max. thickness 5mm Handle of diamond shaped section, the one surviving terminal is bi-conical. A fragment of one of the loops that would have attached it, is corroded to it. Cf. Mülheim (Robinson 1975, fig.76). Fox (unpublished b) no.27 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF837; unstratified

Qd04. carrying-handle, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) max. internal width 59mm, width 81mm, depth 39mm, max. thickness 4mm One bi-conical terminal surviving. Caerleon – unprovenanced: (A26.7) Qd05. carrying-handle, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) max. internal width 48mm, width 56mm [broken], depth 29mm, max. thickness 4mm It has an angular, irregular diamond, cross-section. There is no noticeable terminal to the one surviving end. Caerleon – Prysg Field: - - -

Qd11. ? carrying-handle, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) max. internal width 37mm, width 58mm, depth 23mm, thickness 3mm Handle of square section. Despite its context this handle is closer to his first century examples (Robinson 1975, 48 fig. 76-80) than his second and third century ones (Robinson 1975, 92 fig.117-19). Webster (1992) p.153 no.333 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1476 (31/2100) Block B, Phase IVA c.160-340

Qd06. ? carrying-handle, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) width 47mm [broken], depth 30mm, max. thickness 8mm The surviving terminal is acorn shaped. There is a ball and collar moulding in middle of handle. Probably too heavy and elaborate for a helmet handle. Wheeler & Wheeler (1928) p.168 no.11, Pl. XXXII Caerleon – Amphitheatre: layer 7; with a denarius of Hadrian and abundant Hadrianic pottery

Qd12. carrying-handle, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) max. internal width 33mm, width 42mm [broken], depth 26mm, max. thickness 3mm A small example of square section. It is missing both its terminals. Webster (1992) p.153 no.335 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF317 (31/271) unstratified

Qd07. carrying-handle, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) max. internal width 57mm, width 74mm, depth 49mm, thickness 4mm It has conical terminals, one of which was poorly cast. There are distinct file-marks on all sides, and on the underneath of the grip there is a series of chamfers. The handle would have been retained on the neck-guard by two riveted strips. Cf. Mülheim (Robinson 1975, fig. 76). Brewer (1986) p.186 no.156 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: (4) S29-34.4. Infilling of the natatio; phase IX – c.290/300 (Zienkiewicz 1986b, 256)

Qd13. carrying-handle, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.68) max. internal width 36mm, width 67mm, depth 32mm, thickness 4mm Handle with angular cross-section and a fragment of each of the split pins still in situ. The surface is badly eroded. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.253 no.68 Loughor: SF804 (53\3123) road surface; Period VI (Phase 14) c.110 - c.115/120 Qd14. ? carrying-handle, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.69)

Qd08. ? carrying-handle, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H/2)

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max. internal width 33mm, width 45mm [broken], depth 15mm [broken], thickness 2mm Wire tapering towards each end. Possibly part of a light drop-handle or simply an off cut. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.253 no.69 (Not illustrated) Loughor: SF262 (53\656) pit fill of demolition debris and rubbish; Period V (Phase 10) c.105 - c.110

Qd15. ? carrying-handle, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.52H) width 47mm [broken], thickness 3mm Part of a handle of square section with a split pin still attached to the surviving end Casey & Hoffmann (1995) p.88 no.3 Caerleon – Alstone Cottage: SF76 (021) disturbed footing of Wall 7

Crest-holders Most Imperial-Gallic helmet types had a slot for the insertion of a crest support which was usually Y-shaped, the crest being fixed between the two arms. There was usually a hook at the front and back of the helmet to hold it in place (Connolly 1981, 230; Robinson 1975, 140-3). Helmets could also have plume-tubes on the side of the bowl to receive decorative plumes (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 93). The Museum’s collection also includes a solid metal helmet crest from a Coolus type helmet (Qe04). pit; Period 10 – late 4th century

Qe01. ? crest-support, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.118) length 86mm [broken], width 4mm, thickness 2mm, width across arm 39mm [broken] Flat rod with three prongs, one now lost, at one end, other end broken off. Caerleon – School Field: - - -

Qe04. helmet crest, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H/2) height 36mm, base diameter c.30mm Solid stand with a splayed base decorated with two incised grooves. The shank flares out to a sharp rib also marked with incised lines although these appear to be the result of lathe-turning rather than deliberate decoration. Top slotted and pierced by a circular hole 2.5mm in diameter. From a Coolus Type E or Coolus Type G helmet (Robinson 1975, 140 figs.141-3, pls.46-72 or pls.81-5). Cf. Colchester (Hawkes & Hull 1947, 336 pl.CII.2 & 3); Vindonissa (Unz & Deschler-Erd 1997, 27 no.576). Allason-Jones (1993) p.174 no.95 Segontium: SF1116 (2019); strip of burnt clay; Period 5A – Flavian-Trajanic

Qe02. crest-support, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.10H) length 117mm, width across basal arms 31mm [broken], width across upper arms 51mm [broken], length of tongue 27mm [bent], max. width of shaft 13mm, thickness 3mm Bar ending in a central spike and two bent arms, with curling ends, to take the base of the crest-box. Robinson (1975, 141) suggests that the additional security to the crest-box afforded by such a spike might obviate the need for additional fastenings at the front and back of the helmet. It was attached to the helmet by a tongue set at a right-angle at the other end of the bar, there is no evidence that it split towards its outer edge. This slotted into a tube riveted to the top of the helmet (Robinson 1975, 46, figs. 62-3). In addition to the tongue two basal arms, only one of which survives, extended out sideways following the curve of the helmet to provide greater stability. Cf. three examples from Vindonissa (Unz & Deschler-Erd 1997, 28 no.60911). Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.5 no.2 Usk – Detention Centre Site: 69 DQ (2) Fortress pit; Pre-Flavian or early Flavian (Manning 1981a, 154)

Qe05. ? crest-holder, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 38mm, width 23mm, thickness 1mm Strip, octagonal in shape and raised as a ‘bridge’ between the rivet holes. Cf. Rheingönheim (Robinson 1975, figs. 62-3). Fox (unpublished b) no.28 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF567 (138/251) Phase Ib Qe06. crest-support, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 68mm [broken], width across basal arms 32mm [broken], width across upper arms 42mm, length of tongue 26mm, thickness of shaft 5mm It has a single tongue and two basal arms to attach it to a helmet. The top has two bent arms but no central spike for insertion into the base of the crest box. Additional hooks or rings riveted to the front and back of the helmet would therefore have been required to ensure that the crest box remained in place (Robinson 1975, 143, pls.118-19 126-8). Webster (1992) p.114 no.27

Qe03. ? plume-tube, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H/2) length 115mm, max. diameter c.10mm Curved tapering tube ending in a rectangularsectioned bar with a short rod projecting at right angles from the base. This could be a plume-tube from a helmet but if so it is a very unusual type. Allason-Jones (1993) no.94 Segontium: SF874 (1588) [not (1587) as in report]

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Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1163 (31/1292), Rampart Area, Phase II c.90-100

two holes at one end, one with the round head of a nail or rivet still in situ. The other, broken, end is curved. Cf. Castleford (Bishop 1998, 70 no.230); Hod Hill (Brailsford 1962, 2, no.A21). Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.268 no.153 Loughor: SF456 (53\1139) layer of burnt material; Period II (Phase 3) c.80 - c.85

Qe07. ? crest-holder, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.153) length 21mm, width 30 mm, diameter head of stud 6mm Incomplete fitting with flat rectangular section with

See also parade-helmet face mask (p.144) and rosette studs (p.84)

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R: Shields Shields were constructed from either laminated strips or planks of wood, held together with glue, and were apparently usually strengthened across the back with wooden or iron bars. Such iron bars were also used to reinforce the wooden handgrip which ran horizontally across a central hole. This hole was covered by an iron or copper alloy boss (umbo) which was fixed to the outside of the shield by four or six rivets. The edges of the shield were reinforced by copper alloy or hide binding (Southern & Dixon 1992, 43-5; Bishop & Coulston 1993, 81-2; James 2004, 162-3). The classic shield of the legionary was a bow-fronted rectangular shield. A relief on the mausoleum of Munatius Plancus at Gaeta shows that this type of shield was in use by c.10 BC (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 81) and a coin of Caligula (AD37-41) shows soldiers of the Praetorian Guard equipped with it (Kent 1978, pl.49,168). An almost complete rectangular semi-cylindrical shield and fragments of at least two others at Dura-Europos provides evidence for the continued use of this type of shield in the middle of the third century (James 2004, 182-4 nos.629-32). This type, however, was not the only shield used by legionaries (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 81-2). Oval shields are shown on the tombstones of Flavoleius Cordus of legio XIIII Gemina from Mainz (Selzer 1988, 31 Abb.16, 126) and C. Castricius Victor of legio II Adiutrix from Aquincum (Robinson 1975, 167 pl.470). A soldier, probably a Praetorian Guard, carrying a shield with curved sides and a straight top is depicted on the Great Trajanic Frieze reused on the Arch of Constantine (Rankov 1994, 556). The curved rectangular shield seems to have been exclusive to Praetorians and legionaries; no representation accompanied by a diagnostic inscription shows an auxiliary equipped with one. Auxiliaries, both infantry and cavalry, used flat shields that were normally oval, but hexagonal, rectangular and round shields are also attested. Sculptural evidence appears to imply that the three former shapes were mainly employed from the first to the third centuries AD, with the round shield becoming the more dominant style from then onwards (Southern & Dixon 1992, 43-48; Bishop & Coulston 1993, 81-2). Standard bearers and some other specialists had small round shields that could be tucked under the arm (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 82), depicted on Trajan’s Column (Lepper & Frere 1988, scenes xlviii, cvi), and the Flavian Cancelleria relief from Rome (Andreae 1978, 398 pl.389), whilst a leather cover for such a shield has been identified at Castleford from a Flavian context (van Driel-Murray 1998, 306-8). These shields continued in use in the third century as one is shown on the gravestone of Aurelius Bitho, cornicen of legio II Adiutrix from Aquincum (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 151). Archaeological evidence for fourth century shields is meagre so most of our knowledge has to comes from literary and pictorial sources. Large oval and round shields with a central boss are depicted in various artistic media, but the curved rectangular shield seems to have been completely abandoned (Bishop & Coulston 1989, 67-8; Southern & Dixon 1996, 101-3). The faces of the shields appear to have been decorated with a painted design. Most of the shields found at Dura-Europos were certainly painted (James 2004, 176-86 nos.616-34). Vegetius (II.18) states that in order to help soldiers recognize their unit during battle, different signs were painted on the shields, together with the name of the soldier and the cohort or century he was from. Ammianus (XVI.12.6) records an incident where the Alamanni, fearing the Romans, noticed the emblems on their opponents’ shields, and realized that they had in fact defeated these troops on a previous occasion. That decorated shields existed earlier is suggested by Tacitus’ account of the second battle of Cremona in AD 69 where he describes how two legionaries of legio VII picked up the shields of two dead soldiers of legio XVI and managed to infiltrate the enemy lines, where they put a catapult out of action (Histories, III.23; Connolly 1981, 233). Representational evidence, including Trajan’s column, where a wide range of devices are shown, suggests that legionary shield-blazons comprised a thunderbolt (fulmen) and wings, as well as stars, crescents and wreaths (Florescu 1969, 82-3 abb.42). Oval, auxiliary, shields appear to be decorated mainly with wreaths, scrolls and circles although other devices including stars, crescents and cruciform designs are also represented (Florescu 1969, 71-5 abb.41). In the first century BC and the first century AD, at least, shields were protected when not in use by a 103

goatskin cover with a drawstring around its edge. These had specially shaped patches that fitted over the boss, and were decorated with appliqué panels indicating the unit (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 81-2). A carrying strap was probably attached to these covers, enabling them to be slung over the back when not in use, while Trajan’s Column depicts shields hung from the two side horns of the saddle (Lepper & Frere 1988, scene xlix; Southern & Dixon 1992, 47). In de Bello Gallico Caesar (II.21) implies that it was normal to take the cover off before battle.

Shield Bosses The function of the boss was to cover and protect the hand-grip. Roman shield bosses take two main forms: a rectangular plate with a central hemispherical umbo, and a simple hemisphere with a flanged rim. The rectangular plate type was probably confined to the curved rectangular legionary shield. It appears to have been often made of copper alloy and could be elaborately decorated with engraved designs. The simple hemisphere type, in contrast, was usually made of iron and undecorated, although a number of elaborately decorated copper alloy examples are known (Manning, Price & Webster 1995, 20). Circular shield-bosses continued in use throughout the third century (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 149). In the fourth century domed bosses certainly continued to be used in Free Germany alongside pointed, conical bosses, one of these which occurred in a grave at Misery had a figure stamped on the flange with the inscription MAR(tenses seniors?), clearly identifying it as Roman (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 172-3). A pointed boss is depicted on the Stilicho diptych at Monza (Southern & Dixon 1996, pl.15). Only the simple hemispherical type is represented in the Museum’s collection. All are fragmentary and pieces of others were almost certainly missed in earlier excavations or remain today as fragments beyond recognition. survives, consisting of two conjoining fragments and two detached fragments of rim. There are no nail holes in the surviving fragments of flange. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.21 no.46 Usk – Detention Centre Site: EBA (7) Lower fill of Fortress Ditch; Flavian? (Manning 1981a, 93)

Ra01. shield boss, iron (acc. no. 32.60) 62mm by 60mm In six pieces, one not joining. There is one irregular nail hole, 5 by 3 mm, surviving. Cf. Vindolanda for a boss of similar date (Jackson 1985, 130-2, fig.47.1). Nash-Williams (1932) p.77 fig.29.2 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 5; Period III c.200-300

Ra04. ? shield boss, iron (acc. no. 82.11H) length 87mm Hemispherical fragment of plate. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.21 no.47 Usk – Cattle Market Site: MEW/D (3) culvert by via principalis of Fortress; Pre-Flavian (Manning 1989, 8)

Ra02. shield boss, iron (acc. no. 82.10H) lengths 168mm, 109mm and 67mm, original diameter c.190-200 mm Hemispherical boss with wide, flat flange; now in three fragments. The greater part of the boss is lost. One rectangular nail hole survives in the flange, and it seems likely that some of the breaks have occurred at others. Cf. Doncaster (Buckland 1978, 249-51 pl.XIII); London (James 1980, 322 pl.XXIA). Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.20 no.45 Usk – Detention Centre Site: 68 JX (1) Post-Fortress levelling containing pre-Flavian material; PreF1avian or Flavian?

Ra05. ? shield boss, iron (acc. no. 82.11H) length 61mm Fragment of domed plate with a flat rim, too little survives to determine the diameter, but it could be the remains of a shield boss. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.21 no.48 Usk – Cattle Market Site: LAL (1) Fortress well with later first century material (Manning 1989, 94) Ra06. shield boss, iron (acc. no. 92.32H) length 142mm Fragment of flange and bowl, with one extant nail hole. Evans & Metcalf (1989) p.56 no.2 Usk – Old Market Street 1979: (21/328); Phase III – mid-sixties to end of the first century AD

Ra03. shield boss, iron (acc. no. 82.10H) lengths 138mm, 80mm, 53mm and 28mm, original diameter c.150mm The edge of the flange has been turned buck on itself to form a blunt edge. About two-thirds of the flange and lower part of the hemispherical body

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Handgrip and Strengthening Bars The back of the shield was sometimes strengthened with iron bars, fastened through the shield-board with disc-headed iron nails, and such a bar would frequently also reinforce the handgrip (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 81-2; Buckland 1978, 263). The best examples of the type are the group found at Newstead (Curle 1911, 182, pl.XXXIV), but evidence for them is also provided by the Doncaster shield, probably deposited at the beginning of the second century (Buckland 1978, 247-9). Complete bars were of some length (800mm in the case of the Doncaster example, c.720mm and 640mm for those from Newstead) with rivets at intervals of c.150mm but with a wider space about the midpoint where the actual grip lay. At the ends the bar flattened out into a disc (Curle 1911, pl.XXXIV, 1, 12), or in some cases divided to form an anchor-shaped head (Curle 1911, pl.XXXIV, 2, 4, 5). The Doncaster handgrip appears to have been bound with leather (Buckland 1978, 256). Fragments are not always easy to recognise (Manning 1985, 147), but a number of sufficiently complete examples were found during the Prysg Field excavations (p.174-5). length 220mm [broken], width 15mm, thickness c.8mm Bar of rectangular section, expanding slightly at one end. The expanded end is pierced. There is a slight swelling about two-fifths of the way down which may well also have been pierced. Nash-Williams (1932) p.76 fig.28.12 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 5; Period III c.200-300

Rb01. ? shield mount, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 98mm, shaft 14 by 10 mm tapering to 7 by 7 mm head 24 by 23 mm, thickness c.6mm, hole 5mm Strip with nails for mounting. It is battered and the original cross-sectional shape of the shaft is uncertain. Cf. Doncaster (Buckland 1978, 249 fig.4.1). Nash-Williams (1932) p.74 fig.26.9 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBa(25)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 25; Period Ia c.120-200

Rb04. ? shield mount, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 232mm [broken], width 12mm Strip with a circular terminal (diam. c.24mm) at one end; broken at the other end. The circular terminal has a damaged perforation and there is the suggestion of another nail hole at the broken end. Nash-Williams (1932) p.76 fig.28.13 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 5; Period III c.200-300

Rb02. ? shield mount, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 120mm [broken], width 16mm, thickness c.6mm Strip with a nail still attached at one end and a perforation at the other end. The end of the nail is bent back against the strip and the head stands proud, clearly indicating that the nail was driven in from the face of the shield. Nash-Williams (1932) p.76 fig.28.11 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBb(5)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 5; Period III c.200-300

Rb05. ? shield mount, iron (acc. no. 32.60) length 218mm [broken], width 13mm A strip, broken at both ends, with the remains of two nails still attached. Nash-Williams (1932) p.76 fig.28.14 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Rb03. ? shield mount, iron (acc. no. 32.60)

Binding The evidence suggests that first century AD shields were edged with U-sectioned copper alloy binding, normally fastened to the wood with copper alloy nails inserted through lobate expansions on either side of the binding (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 81-2). All the, third century, examples from Dura-Europos, however, were edged with rawhide, which was stitched on through holes pierced along the rim (James 2004, 162-3) nor does metal binding occur in third century Roman contexts elsewhere. Rawhide may have replaced metal because it was cheaper and easier to repair, probably allowing soldiers to undertake any necessary maintenance themselves (Bishop & Coulston 1993 149; Southern & Dixon 1996, 101). Rawhide clearly rarely survives in the archaeological record and fragments of copper alloy binding are difficult to positively identify, objects other than shields also potentially requiring metal binding. Some 105

fragments of copper alloy binding in the Museum’s collection would, however, appear to belong to shields. Rc02. ? binding, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) length 110mm [broken], width 19mm, thickness of strip 0.5mm Long U-sectioned tube narrowing to one end. The wider end is distorted with three roughly drilled holes one of which contains a rivet holding a rectangular strip. The strip has a second rivet through it suggesting that it went across the open end. Battered. Allason-Jones (1993) p.174 no.97 Segontium: SF404 (832) [not (001) as in report] modern disturbance; unstratified

Rc01. ? binding, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) length 83mm [broken], width 19mm, thickness of strip 0.5mm Length of U-sectioned sheathing with circular holes set alternately along the edges. One end is almost flat whilst at the other the two sides are almost squashed together. Dents along the curve suggest that the piece has been hit six times with a straightedged blade. Allason-Jones (1993) p.174 no.96 (not illustrated) Segontium: SF7 (301) topsoil; unstratified

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S: Belt Fittings The most obvious purpose of the belt was to carry the sword and dagger, but it was probably equally important as an accessory to lorica hamata or lorica squamata, making these more comfortable to wear. These garments would have tended to hang heavily on the shoulders and to drag uncomfortably as the wearer moved. A belt would have distributed some of the weight onto the hips and have generally reduced the movement of the cuirass (Grew & Griffiths 1991, 51). In the early first century AD the sword and dagger were generally suspended from separate belts that crossed over at the back and front. From these was also suspended the military apron (p.93). Later in the century it became more common for a single belt to be worn to which the dagger and apron were attached, with the sword suspended from a baldric (Grew & Griffiths 1991, 52). When baldrics were first introduced, they appear to have had no metal fittings; no fastener was needed as they could simply be slipped over the head and shoulder (Grew & Griffiths 1991, 52). However, attempts to identify cavalry harness fasteners as baldric fittings persist (Bishop 1988, 103). The use of a single belt and a baldric continued through the second and third centuries but with changes in style and decoration. A new broad baldric appears in the second half of the second century (Bishop & Coulston 1989, 47). Its introduction appears to coincide with the change to wearing the sword on the left side, rather than on the right as had previously been the case, and the replacement of ring-suspension by the scabbard-slide (p.17). By the third century, at least, these broad baldrics had distinctive decorative plates. There is good representational evidence for this type of baldric in the third century, for example the tombstone of a centurion from Aquilea (Franzoni 1987, 35 no.19) and the tombstone of a soldier from Byzantion (Speidel 1976, 129 fig.3). From the few complete examples of a baldric that have survived, it is known that one end of the baldric was broad and finished in a straight edge, sometimes with an ivy-leaf terminal, the other tapered to a narrow strip (eg. Stjernquist 1954, abb.4). A phalera, circular metal disc fitted with an eye, was attached about 30cm from the broad end, the eye piercing the leather. The narrow end was firstly brought through the scabbard runner and then it was tied to the eye of the phalera (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 130-35; Southern & Dixon 1996, 106-8). No certain baldric fitting, however, is represented in the Museum’s collection, although some pieces may be. There is no evidence for the continued use of the wide baldric in the fourth century, although there are some representations of narrow baldrics from the fourth century onwards, such as can be seen on the diptych of Honorius, dated to 406 (Southern & Dixon 1996, 110). Third century representations of both infantry and cavalry on tombstones most commonly show a broad waist-belt fastened by a ring-buckle. The earliest securely dated representation is on an altar from Eining, dated by consular year to AD 211 (Wagner 1973, 109-10 no.477). The tapering belt-ends pass through the ring from behind, then back along the front, and are held in place by a stud on either side. Often the end on the wearer’s right is long and narrow, hanging down in a crescentic loop, and then tucked back up behind the broad belt. This narrow strip appears again at the right hip and hangs down by the right thigh. Alternatively, the narrow strip passes along the front of the belt to the hip (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 152-3). Plain iron or copper-alloy rings, or adjustable decorated copper alloy examples, with or without a tongue, have been found in positions in inhumations which suggested waist-belt fastening (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 153). Examples in bone are occasionally found. One of these, from Niederbieber, has its iron tongue still intact (MacGregor 1985, 103). There are, however, no recognizable ring buckles present in the Museum’s collection. Ring-buckles do not seem to have survived into the Tetrarchic period and belts appear to have become broader (Bishop & Coulston 1989, 68).

Belt-plates Belts themselves were of leather which rarely survives in the archaeological record, but they were covered with plates, usually of copper alloy, which do survive, as do the buckles. These plates were not merely 107

decorative but also stiffened and strengthend the belt. A statue from Casacco (Ubl 1989, 68 Abb.8) suggests that some belts, at least, only had plates covering the part visible from the front. This is supported by an almost certainly complete set found at Velsen which comprised only four plain plates, one buckle plate, and two frog plates (Morel & Bosman 1989, 180-1, fig.5). Large numbers of belt-plates are known from the first century, most of which were decorated, with either niello inlay or embossed designs. All of them used decorative motifs derived almost entirely from classical art. There were ordinary belt-plates, plates with a hinged buckle, and plates with dagger or sword frogs (p.122; Grew & Griffiths 1991, 48-51; Bishop & Coulston 1993, 96-8). In the mid second century belt fittings appear to have changed completely with most now incorporating openwork designs, many of which show traces of Celtic influence. Enamelled and millefiori inlaid plates also begin to be found. The artefactual evidence for this period is limited, however, and it is not until the third century that fittings are again found in considerable numbers, by which time they are certainly of these new types (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 119). During the fourth century belts became broader, necessitating a greater use of stiffeners. Copper alloy belt fittings are common in fourth to fifth century funerary contexts where they consist of rectangular or propeller-shaped belt-stiffeners, decorative appliqué belt-plates, belt end plates, buckle plates and strap ends (p.123-5). Fittings have ring-and-dot or ‘chip-carved’ decoration and some buckles have dolphin or horsehead details. Dating for the introduction of these belts is primarily provided by Tetrarchic tombstones (Bishop & Coulston 1989, 68).

Tinned or silvered belt-plates with niello decoration First / early second century In Britain and the Rhineland the narrow belt-plates generally seem to have been part or wholly tinned or silvered on the front face and were sometimes decorated with niello inlay, providing a contrast between the white metal surface and the black of the niello. The decorative motifs largely consisted of geometrical and vegetal designs, frequently incorporating one or more saltire patterns. These plates were usually cast and fastened to the leather of the belt itself using four rivets (Grew & Griffiths 1991; Bishop & Coulston 1993, 98). with a dot pattern: straight horizontal line through middle with scrolls above and below. A stud projects from both of the surviving corners. Cf. Grew & Griffiths (1991) nos. 49-50. Caerleon – Prysg Field: 29 H (MCE) T

Sa01. belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 28mm [broken], width 21mm, thickness 1mm, stud length 5mm, stud diameter c.3mm One end of a plate with tinned front face decorated

Embossed belt-plates First / early second century Belt-plates embossed with a simple boss and concentric rings appear to dominate the latter half of the first century AD. Both ends of these plates were rolled over to form a tube and a spindle with bulbous terminals passed through it as a sort of ‘pseudo-hinge’ (Grew & Griffiths 1991, 49; Bishop & Coulston 1993, 98). They are accurately depicted on the Casacco Statue (Ubl 1989, Abb.6-8). Another type of embossed belt-plate with pictorial designs such as the wolf-and-twins (lupercal); a hunt scene; or a bust, often thought to be the emperor Tiberius, with cornucopiae, is also found. In Britain, these are mostly found in the south and west where the legio II Augusta campaigned, while on the continent, they are mainly found in Upper Germany, where that legion was based before coming to Britain (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 98; Bishop 1987, 123). There are, however, no examples in the Museum’s collection.

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Openwork belt-plates mid second / third century Openwork belt-plates, many incorporating Celtic inspired designs, are found for the first time in the second century (Webster 1992, 123-4; Bishop & Coulston 1993, 119). Oldenstein (1976, 197), dates them to the last third of the second century and the first half of the third. In Britain the range of sites on which openwork belt-plates occur suggests common usage among both legionary and auxiliary troops (Allason-Jones & Miket 1984, 224-6; Webster 1992, 123-4). Four distinct designs are represented in the Museum’s collection. The most common, with thirteen examples, is a lattice of interlocking crosses (see Sc01). There are five plates with a stylised ‘floral’ design (see Sc04). Four plates have tracery consisting of a central lozenge with a heart shape at either end, though with clear variations in the amount of additional decorative detail (see Sc05). The fourth design is represented by a single example (see Sc23). Caerleon – Prysg Field: G(11)S; Barrack Block No.7 Room 11; c.105-200

Sc01. openwork buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 25.1/538) length 60mm, width 25mm, thickness 2mm Lattice of interlocking crosses. The end away from buckle has an elaborate openwork terminal, now damaged. On the back there are two studs ending in discs. Cf. Catterick (Lentowicz 2002, 62 no.167). Grimes (1930) p.128, fig.56.23 Holt: - - -

Sc06. openwork belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 48mm, width 22mm, thickness 1mm Stylised ‘floral’ design with the central lozenges divided in half by a bar running the length of the plate. Two studs behind. See Sc04. Nash-Williams (1932) p.85 fig.33.33 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Sc02. openwork belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 23mm [broken], width 17mm, thickness 1mm One end of a plate decorated by a lattice of interlocking crosses. One stud, ending in a rectangular plate (6 by 5mm), survives. See Sc01. Caerleon – Churchyard extension 1908: - - -

Sc07. openwork belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 42mm, width 20mm, thickness 1mm Plate decorated by a lattice of interlocking crosses. There is a stud in the centre of the back of each end. See Sc01. Caerleon – Prysg Field: unstratified

Sc03. openwork belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 37mm [broken], width 18mm, thickness 2mm Rectangular openwork belt-plate, now distorted and most of the openwork pattern missing. Face slightly curved in section. One stud, ending in a circular plate (diam. 7mm) survives. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Sc08. openwork belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.118) length 32mm [broken], width 18mm, thickness 2mm, shaft length 3mm, shaft diameter c.3mm Tracery consisting of a central lozenge with a heart shape at either end. A short shaft projects from the middle of the surviving end. There are traces of tinning. See Sc05. Caerleon – School Field: A95B

Sc04. openwork belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 29mm [broken], width 20mm, thickness 1mm Stylised ‘floral’ design consisting of a central line of lozenges with trilobate terminals. A pierced lug (8mm long) projects from the back. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Sc09. openwork belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.118) length 30mm [broken], width 20mm, thickness 1mm Lattice of interlocking crosses. Rectangular plate with short shaft projecting at middle of the surviving end. See Sc01. Caerleon – School Field: SF. APMU

Sc05. openwork belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 31mm, width 20mm, thickness 1mm Tracery consisting of a central lozenge with a heart shape at either end. There is a bar across the middle of the lozenge and additional scrollwork decoration. It has a stud with disc terminal (diam. 7mm) on back, in centre of short edge. Cf. South Shields (Allason-Jones & Miket 1984, 231 no.3.811). See Sc25. Nash-Williams (1932) p.85 fig.33.32

Sc10. openwork belt-plate and frog, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 31mm [broken], width of plate 19mm [broken], thickness of plate 1mm, button diameter 10mm One end of an openwork plate with a rod with button terminal projecting from it. There is a stud with sub-rectangular terminal (6 by 6 mm) on the back.

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interlocking crosses. There is one attachment stud in the centre of the surviving edge. See Sc01. Brewer (1986) p.175 no.36 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 11; Antontine - third century. Found with Sc18

Caerleon – Amphitheatre: railway cutting east of entrance B, sand Sc11. openwork belt-plate and frog, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 18mm [broken], width 14mm, button diameter 10mm Extreme end of a plate, probably of openwork type, because of the nature of the brake, with a rod and button projecting from the edge and a stud with circular terminal (diam. c.6mm) from behind. Caerleon – Amphitheatre: entrance E R III

Sc18. openwork belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 22 [broken], width 18mm, thickness 1mm Lattice of interlocking crosses. There is one attachment stud, with a disc terminal (diam. 5mm), in the centre of the surviving edge. See Sc01. Brewer (1986) p.175 no.37 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 11; Antontine - third century. Found with Sc17

Sc12. openwork belt-plate and frog, copper alloy (acc. no. 36.472) length 32mm [broken], width 18mm, thickness 1mm Lattice of interlocking crosses. Traces of silvering on front. A stud, with a disc terminal (diam. 6mm), projects from the centre of the surviving edge. See Sc01. Caerleon – Vine Cottage: - - -

Sc19. openwork belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 22mm, width 18mm, thickness 1mm Fragment with stylised ‘floral’ design. There is a broken stud on the underside in the centre of the surviving edge. See Sc04. Brewer (1986) p.175 no.38 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain block 11; Antontine - third century

Sc13. openwork belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386/179) length 22mm [broken], width 18mm, thickness 1mm Lattice of interlocking crosses. A stud projects from the back of the middle of the surviving edge, and ends in a disc (diam. 5mm). See Sc01. Fox (1940) p.132 no.19, fig.6 Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage Orchard: Barrack V, Room 2, in top clay floor; Period III, third century

Sc20. openwork belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 18mm [broken], width 14mm [broken], thickness 1mm Fragment with a lattice of interlocking crosses. See Sc01. Brewer (1986) p.175 no.36 (under) Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 11; Antontine - third century

Sc14. openwork belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 54.389A) length 22mm [broken], width 22mm, thickness 2mm One end of an openwork plate. It is badly corroded but probably a lattice of interlocking crosses. A stud projecting from middle of surviving end. See Sc01. Boon (unpublished) no.75 Caerleon – Bear House Field I: F58; Main lateral drain; c.130-230

Sc21. openwork belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 14mm [broken], width 9mm [broken], thickness 2mm Fragment with a lattice of interlocking crosses. See Sc01. Brewer (1986) p.175 no.36 (under) Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 11; Antontine - third century

Sc15. openwork belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 54.389B) length 11mm [broken], width 18mm, thickness 1mm Openwork plate fragment. A stud projects from middle of the edge, with oval disc terminal (5mm by 6mm). Caerleon – Bear House Field I: F20

Sc22. openwork belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 87.47H) length 21mm [broken], width 17mm, thickness 1mm Lattice of interlocking crosses. A stud with a disc terminal (diam. 6mm) projects from the back of the centre of the surviving edge. See Sc01. Caerleon – Endowed School: (98/240)

Sc16. openwork belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 77.56H/B) length 46mm, width 21mm, thickness 2mm Stylised ‘floral’ design. Small plate with one stud attachment on back, at the centre of one end. See Sc04. Murray-Threipland (1969) p.109 no.7, fig.5 Caerleon – The Hall: robbing trench

Sc23. openwork belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 87.47H) length 62mm, width 26mm, thickness 2mm Divided into three panels: the central one containing eight ‘spokes’ radiating from a solid central ‘hub’; the two end panels containing pelta shapes. The

Sc17. openwork belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 33mm [broken], width 19mm, thickness 2mm Rather battered fragment with a lattice of

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front face is heavily tinned. There is a stud projecting from the back at each end. Caerleon – Endowed School: (98/002)

Sc26. openwork belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 46mm [broken], width 16mm, thickness 2mm Narrow plate with a rounded openwork appendage at one end. The opposite end of the plate is damaged and it is not now possible to determine how it terminated, but the broken edges which remain suggest there may have been a hinge for a buckle which would have balanced the surviving terminal. The main panel of openwork is too damaged for any pattern to be discerned. The centre of the broken end is pierced by a hole through which passed an iron shafted rivet. In the equivalent position at the other end of the plate a copper alloy shaft emerges from the rear of the plate. Webster (1992) p.124 no.92 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF656 (31/416) Block C, Phase IV c.160-340

Sc24. openwork belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 43mm, width 18mm, thickness 2mm Openwork design consisting of a central lozenge with a heart shape to either side in very thin tracery. There are bars across the upper and lower points of the lozenge and across the points of the heart shapes. The ornamental panel is eccentrically placed to leave a broad margin at one end and a narrow margin at the other. These margins are pierced by holes for rivets and part of a rivet remains in that on the wide margin. See Sc05. Webster (1992) p.124 no.90 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF962 (31/994) Block B, Phase IV c.160-340

Sc27. openwork belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 10mm [broken], width 18mm [broken], thickness 1mm Lattice of interlocking crosses. Two Fragments, the larger fragment with a stud at the rear. See Sc01. Webster (1992) p.124 no.94 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1016 (31/1120) Block A, Phase V c.275/300-350

Sc25. openwork belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 43mm [broken], width 19mm, thickness 1mm Tracery consisting of a central lozenge with a heart shape to either side. The upper and lower points of the lozenge each merge into a configuration of copper alloy in the form of two conjoined leaves or, perhaps, a solid heart-shape. At the top of each openwork heart the ends are recurved and terminate in scrolls. Plate is in two pieces with a couple of small fragments missing. There are the remains of two studs to the rear, one in the centre of each short edge. Cf. South Shields (Allason-Jones & Miket 1984, 230 no.3.811). See Sc05. Webster (1992) p.124 no.91 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF321 (31/360) Block A, Phase V c.275/300-350

Sc28. openwork belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 94.29H) length 22mm [broken], width 17mm, thickness 1mm Fragment with stylised ‘floral’ design. A stud projects from the back of the centre of the surviving end. See Sc04. Caerleon – Broadway House: SF198 (54)

Enamelled belt-plates mid second / third century Enamelled belt-plates were introduced on a large scale during the second century and continued in use in the third (Bishop & Coulston 1989, 47). Seven decorative schemes are represented in the Museum’s collection, two of them by more than one example (see Sd01 and Sd03). 377 no.157); Chesters (Henry 1933, 114 fig.27.3); Manchester (Bruton 1909, no.15). Segontium: - - -

Sd01. enamelled buckle-plate, copper alloy ?(acc. no. 23.292) length 60mm, width 21mm, thickness 2mm The front of the plate carries an elaborate panel of decoration originally filled with enamel. The main, central, element of the design comprises three rectangular blocks of leaf ornament, this panel is flanked by a border of copper alloy with small triple-lobed projections towards the edge of the plate. The whole decorative panel is surrounded by a plain copper alloy margin except at the hinge end. It has three studs visible from the front, two at the hinge end and one, slightly off centre at the other. These are presumably a repair as they obscure parts of the decoration. Cf. Brough (Henry 1933, 114 fig.27.2); Caerleon Canadae (Lloyd-Morgan 2000,

Sd02. enamelled buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 25.1/537) length 61mm, width 20mm, thickness 2mm The decoration is the same as Sd01 but with an additional transverse moulding at the hinge end. Grimes (1930) p.128, fig. 56.22 Grew & Griffiths no.32 Holt: - - Sd03. enamelled buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 47mm [broken], width 22mm, thickness 2mm

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triangular insets of white enamel. The plate has a central geometric pattern of similar insets, flanked by panels with a curvilinear scroll design of late Celtic type, all in white and yellow enamel on a dark ground, probably of red enamel. On the back there are two studs near the buckle and two stud in a line near the other end. Cf. Richborough (Henderson 1949, 123 no.73); and a fragment from the Roman Gates, Caerleon, not in the Museum’s collection (Webster 1992, 122 no.87). Fox (1940) p.128 no.10, fig.6 Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage Orchard: Barrack V, earliest version, in disturbed soil over footings; probably early second century

A plate slightly curved in section with lugs for a buckle at one end. The other end is broken. The decoration is divided longitudinally into three panels each containing a raised tendril pattern, the two outer cells with ‘open’ trilobate ‘flowers’ and the centre with heart-shaped buds. The enamel forms the background, turquoise blue and probably green. There are also three spots of a rust coloured enamel, but is unclear how they fit into the overall pattern. These are presumably what is referred to as crimson in the original report. There is no trace of the white enamel mentioned in the original report, though there is a patch of very light corrosion product. There are two substantial studs on back near complete end. Nash-Williams (1932) p.89 fig.37.8 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Sd08. enamelled belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386/138) length 49mm, width 26mm, thickness 3mm Rectangular plate divided into six cells, presumably to take enamel but this is now missing. Slight projections in the centre of one long edge suggests the original presence of a terminal or hinge at this point. There is a stud at either end of the back, one still with a disc terminal (diam. 9mm). Cf. Richborough (Wilson 1968, 94 no.108). Fox (1940) 9.134 no.30, fig.7 Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage Orchard: Trench VI, Barrack VII, with early second century pottery

Sd04. enamelled belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) Length 49mm, width 29mm, thickness 2mm The front of the plate is divided into six panels. The four outer panels are filled with enamel of a yellowbrown colour. The two centre panels contain a chequer-pattern worked in crimson and blue. There are two studs, with disc terminals (diam. 7mm), on the back. Cf. Newstead (Curle 1911, P1.LXXXIX.25). Nash-Williams (1932) p.89 fig.37.9 Caerleon – Prysg Field: F3; Furnace No.3 in charcoal layer on tiled floor c.150-200

Sd09. enamelled buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 56.214A) length 65mm, width 24mm, thickness 2mm Plate of slightly rounded cross-section, with three studs for attachment on the underside, two near the buckle and one at the opposite end, all have remains of metal washers. A mark near the buckle may indicate another stud. The design of the decoration is as Sd03 but with an additional band of opposed triangles, also filled with turquoise enamel, at the end away from the buckle. Boon (unpublished) no.61 Caerleon – Bear House Field II: F13; Building VII; unstratified

Sd05. enamelled buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.120) total length 84mm, length of plate 60mm, width of plate 20mm, thickness of plate 2mm; length of buckle 30mm, width of buckle 30mm, thickness of buckle 2mm Plate complete with the loop of the buckle, only missing the pin. The decoration is the same as Sd01 but with the addition of a transverse moulding at the hinge end, as on Sd02. On the back there are two studs near the buckle and one stud at the other end. Caerleon – Golledge's Field: - - Sd06. enamelled belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 36.472) length 61mm, width 21mm, thickness 2mm The decoration is the same as Sd01 but with the addition of a transverse moulding at the hinge end, as on Sd02. Caerleon – Vine Cottage: at (3) in band of pink clay and charcoal layers = S.P.

Sd10. enamelled buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 56.214A) length 14mm [broken], width 21mm, thickness 2mm One end with lugs for a buckle and two studs project from back. What remains of the enamelled panel suggests a design as on Sd01. Boon (unpublished) no.63 Caerleon – Bear House Field II: F14; Building VII, occupation?

Sd07. enamelled buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386) total length 84mm, length of plate 58mm, width of plate 20mm, thickness of plate 2mm; length of buckle 30mm, width of buckle 28mm Buckle and plate, hinged together with an iron hinge pin. At the back of the plate there are the remains of five studs. The buckle is decorated with

Sd11. enamelled belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 56.217) length 16mm, width 25mm, thickness 2mm One end of a plate of slightly rounded cross-section. The decoration is in three bands: a central band of late Celtic curvilinear pattern, flanked by shieldshaped triangles filled with blue enamel. There is a stud, with a washer (diam. 10mm), on the back,

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Block B, Phase III c.100-160

slightly in from the edge. Boon (unpublished) no.62 Caerleon – Amphitheatre Field: F2; Building IX, occupation or fill beneath; Flavian?

Sd13.

enamelled belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.131) length 43mm, width l5mm, thickness 2mm Plate inlaid with a regular series of small triangles of possibly blue enamel, in four longitudinal rows. These are framed by a single incised line. There are no traces of studs or other means of attachment. The piece is worn and now has an irregular outline. Oldenstein (1976, 197-8, nos.827-31) illustrates five similar plates, though none is identical, all of which date to the first half of the second century. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.263 no.131 Loughor: SF279 (53\639) gravel and mortar floor; Period IV (Phase 8) c.100 - c.105

Sd12. enamelled buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 83.46H) length 60mm, width 20mm, thickness 2mm The decoration is the same as Sd01 but with the addition of a transverse moulding at the hinge end, as on Sd02. From the rear of the plate extend three shafts of copper alloy, two close to the hinge and one centrally placed near the other end, each of these is bent over at the end indicating that the piece has been used. Webster (1992) p.123 no.88 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1532 (31/1799)

Enamelled openwork belt-plates third century Enamelled rectangular openwork plates with peltiform ends occur right across the Empire (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 153). Four similar plates from South Shields (length 83mm, width 36mm) were chained together on a broad leather belt with their long axes aligned vertically (Allason-Jones & Miket 1984, 94-6, no.3.10), but none of the Museum’s examples have evidence of such chaining. Se01. buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 23.292) length 64mm, max. width 25mm, thickness 3mm Frame with pelta-shaped terminal, filling of blue and green enamel. Stud with disc terminal (diam. 6mm) project from the centre back of either end.. Wheeler (1923) p.139, fig.61.10 Segontium: floor of the Commandant’s House, Room 5; mid-fourth century

Se04. belt-plate centre, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 36, thickness 2mm, cell diameter c.6mm Three circular cells, containing blue enamel, with narrow waisted collars between. Cf. Corbridge three examples (Allason-Jones 1988a, 177 no.146); Wroxeter (Webster 2002, 110 no.47). Nash-Williams (1932) p.83 fig.33.24 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Se02.

Se05. belt-plate centre, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 41mm [broken], thickness 2mm, cells c. 9 by 6 mm Four oval cells, containing blue enamel, with narrow ribbed collars between. See Se04. Nash-Williams (1932) p.83 fig.33.25 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 79mm, width 41mm, thickness 5mm Large plate with stepped front and two lugs for a buckle at one end. Black and yellow glass mosaic border and enamel circles and semi-circle, probably dark green, along the rear edge. The four central cells are filled with blue enamel. On the back there is a studs at either end, each with a disc terminal (diam. 7mm). Cf. Vimose (Henry 1933, fig 38,4). Caerleon – unprovenanced

Se06. belt-plate centre, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.118) length 39mm [broken], max. width 12mm, thickness 2mm Three oval cells with a narrow bar between. The centre cell contains orange enamel, the two outer ones green. See Se04. Caerleon – School Field: - - -

Se03. belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 29mm [broken], width 27mm, thickness 4mm One end of a rectangular plate frame inlaid with milifori blue and white very fine chequer-pattern. The pelta-shaped terminal shows evidence of enamel inlay, but the colour of the enamel is not discernable. Stud attachment behind centre of terminal. Nash-Williams (1932) p.83 fig.33.23 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Se07. ? belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 54.389A) length 29mm [broken], width 20mm, max. thickness 4mm Possibly a belt-plate but no means of attachment survives on the back and both sides are very worn on their upper face, as if a strap had rubbed upon it.

113

decoration of the surviving semicircular end comprises two P-shaped insets of green enamel and a bow of alternating blue and red squares, of the same type as appear in the central square. The lug terminal contains a spot of decayed, probably green, enamel in which a small chequer of red, blue and white is set. Since there are traces of gilding below the cloison which survives, it seems likely that the whole ensemble was gilt or possibly tinned: if so, no trace remains. Boon (unpublished) no.74 Caerleon – Racecourse: F6; Main lateral drain; c.130-230

On the back there is a small recess at one end, to take a central bar. Boon (unpublished) no.93 Caerleon – Bear House Field I: F113; Main lateral drain; c.130-230 Se08. belt-plate centre, copper alloy (acc. no. 58.330) length 46mm, cells 13 by 7mm, thickness 3mm Four flattened oval / sub-rectangular cells filled with well-preserved blue enamel, and joined by a narrow bar. See Se04. Boon (unpublished) no.73 Caerleon – Bear House Field I: F6; Main lateral drain; c.130-230

Se11. belt-plate centre, copper alloy (acc. no. 69.326) length 25mm, cells 13 by 8 mm, thickness 3mm Two flattened oval / sub-rectangular cells with royal blue enamel, connected by a narrow bar. See Se04. Boon (1970) p.56 no.2, fig.17 Caerleon – Vicarage Garden: found in a crevice of the street-drain on the north-east side of the building; uncertain date

Se09. belt-plate centre, copper alloy (acc. no. 60.482) length 38mm, cell 9 by 7 mm, thickness 2mm Three widely spaced oval cells. The central cell is filled with red enamel and one of the others with blue enamel, while the third cell is missing its enamel. Cf. Wroxeter (Webster 1958, 98 no.258) Caerleon – Jenkins Field III: F1 (S. end) (3)

Se12. buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 77.56H/E) length 72mm [bent], width 37mm, thickness 3mm Frame with two lugs to take an axial bar at one end. The other end is semi-circular. This has a central circular terminal with a pierced semi-circular lug to either side. The traces of enamel at this end suggest a yellow and black chequerboard pattern. There are two rectangular cells down each side of the frame. Two of these retain traces of a blue background set with red centred white florets. A stud projects from the centre of the back at either end, one has a disc terminal (diam. 10mm). Caerleon – Broadway Meadow: in clay N.W. of R. Rd.

Se10. belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 62.265B) length 60mm [broken], width 34mm, thickness 5mm A variant of the open-centred belt-plates of this section. The main, stepped, central portion is divided into three squares. The end sections retain traces of having been fitted with a pierced cloison, the recess below having been gilt; the central section contains a circle of light green enamel in the middle within a ring of copper alloy, and the remainder is occupied by 43 squares of millefiori glass mosaic. Four of these squares, symmetrically placed, are outlined in red and have a minute chequer-pattern of blue and white. The remainder are blue, set with red-centred white florets. The

Other Belt-Plates Rectangular plate, slightly curved lengthways. Front plain apart from a groove round the edge. Rivet hole near the middle of each short edge. One rivet survives (length 6mm, diameter c.3mm). Caerleon – Castle Villa: - - -

Sf01.

? belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 25.212) length 67mm, width 19mm, thickness 3mm Oblong with an incised boarder around three sides, and possibly also along the fourth. In the centre of one long side is a slightly raised lump with a curving top edge, this may be the remains of a ring. Both ends have the remains of curved terminals about half the width of the main body. Surface now pitted but evidently originally smooth, there is no evidence of decoration on it. No evidence for any means of attachment. Cf. Colchester (Crummy 1983, 136 no.4239); South Shields (Allason-Jones & Miket 1984, 194 no.3.631). Brecon Gaer: - - -

Sf03.

? belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 25mm [broken], max. width 25mm, thickness 2mm Flat, roughly heart shaped plate projecting from a substantial collar, D-shaped in section. There are traces of tinning on the front. Probably the decorative terminal from a belt-plate. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Sf04.

? belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 54.389A) length 27mm, width 20mm, thickness 3mm

Sf02.

belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 60mm, width 25mm, thickness 1mm

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Slightly trapezoid plate, the front is recessed for a chequer of white and red glass mosaic. The edges are square-cut. Possibly a belt-plate but no means of attachment visible on the back. Boon (unpublished) no.145 Caerleon – Bear House Field I: F28, Main lateral drain, c.130-230

length 51mm, width 19mm, thickness 3mm Plain plate slightly thinner at the ends than in the middle. There are traces of a substantial lug at either end of the back. Possibly rather heavy for a beltplate. Caerleon – Endowed School: (98/101) Sf09.

buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 45mm, width 22mm, thickness 2mm Simple undecorated plate with two integral lugs on the back, perforated laterally. The 1oop projecting from one end would have attached it to another element, probably a buckle. Cf. Upper GermanRaetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 265 no.749). Fox (unpublished b) no.33 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF542 (138/254) Phase IIIa

Sf05.

belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 43mm, width 19mm, thickness 4mm Hollow rectangular fitting, possibly part of a buckle-plate with one end turned up to form a hook. The plate is pierced by two holes, one at either end, and on the back there are two small studs. One of the studs has a small domed washer (diam. 5mm) still attached, which suggests that the plate was attached to a leather strap. Brewer (1986) p.178 no.76 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 12 ; Antontine - third century

Sf10.

belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 36mm [broken], width 24mm, thickness 3mm A rectangular plate pierced by two rivets. It is badly corroded and apparently incomplete. Fox (unpublished b) no.34 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF843 (138/315) Phase Ib

Sf06.

buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.11H) length 30mm [broken], width 23mm [broken], thickness 3mm The plate is slightly ‘waisted’ below the rib which accommodates two closely spaced cylindrical loops to take an axial bar. Two studs projecting from the back. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.18 no.42 Usk – Cattle Market Site: LEG (1) Fortress pit; PreFlavian (Manning 1989, 96)

Sf11.

belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 33mm [broken], width 24mm, thickness 1mm Incomplete rectangular plate, plain apart from a grove along each side. A single, substantial shaft (diam. 4mm) projects from the back. Webster (1992) p.122 no.86 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF007 (31/100) unstratified

Sf07.

belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 84.117H) length 53mm, width 15mm, thickness 4mm Rectangular plate with a slightly sunken centre and pelta-shaped terminal at each end, one of which is now incomplete. The plate is hollow on the underside, and has two struts for attachment. Brewer (forthcoming) no.31 Caerwent – Courtyard House: SF170 (069) demolition deposit; Phase II - late third century

Sf08.

Sf12.

belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 94.29H) length 21mm, width 20mm, thickness 3mm Roughly square, with a shaft projecting from the centre of the back, ending in a disc (diam. 11mm). The surface of the face is largely lost. Caerleon – Broadway House: SF38, Tr. B (217)

? belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 87.47H)

Buckles Hinged Buckles First and second century buckles were normally hinged to a belt-plate, or occasionally were integral with it. Most buckles in the archaeological record, however, are found in isolation. Buckles of this period were normally D-shaped, frequently with internal volutes, although one type had a quadrilateral form that can be seen in both earlier and later periods. Buckle tongues were almost exclusively of the ‘fleur-de-lys’ type, less elaborate examples usually being repairs (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 98; Brailsford 1962, 3 no.A77-94). Buckles are known in bone and occasionally in ivory, the majority are copies of metal types. While bone tissue undoubtedly performs better under compression than in tension, its mechanical properties were evidently quite adequate for this task. Predictably, breaks are most common on the hinge pivots, which 115

endured most of the stress (MacGregor 1985, 103). Sg01. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 04.132) length 46mm, width 36mm Rectangular buckle with spherical corner projections and two cylindrical lugs to hold the axial bar of the hinge. Cf. Richborough (Wilson 1968, 93 no.97-8); South Shields (Allason-Jones & Miket 1984, 194 no.3.623); five examples from Wroxeter (Bushe-Fox 1916, 32 no.5; Webster 2002, 107 no.36-9). Allen 1905, p.138 fig.18 Grimes 1951, p.224 Davies and Spratling 1976, p.127 no.10, fig.4 Savory 1976, p.63 Seven Sisters: chance find

Sg07. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 32mm, width 36mm, thickness 2mm Crescent shaped buckle decorated by triangular enamel settings. The enamel is in poor state but now appears green. Rear of buckle broken so no evidence for means of attachment survives. Caerleon – unprovenanced Sg08. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.118) length 39mm, max. width 41mm, hoop 10 by 4 mm Crescent shaped loop with pierced lugs at both ends. Badly corroded. Caerleon – School Field: A 17(M) ST

Sg02. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 23.292) length 30mm, width 42mm [broken], thickness 3mm Portion of large but flimsy simple crescentic hoop continuing into an internal scroll at the surviving end, this also has the remains of a perforated lug. Cf. Hod Hill (Brailsford 1962, 3 Type 1 nos.A8994). Segontium: - - -

Sg09

buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 30mm, width 26mm [broken], thickness 2mm Half a crescent shaped buckle with tubular lug. Flat loop with slightly convex top. Wheeler & Wheeler (1928) p.166 no.26, fig.14 Caerleon – Amphitheatre: outside the amphitheatre; unstratified

Sg10. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 20mm, width 28mm, thickness 3mm D-shaped buckle hoop. D-shaped in section with lugs for axial bar expanded upwards so that they are entirely above line of the back of the hoop. Caerleon – Amphitheatre: arena unstratified

Sg03. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 25.212) length 30mm, width 30mm Practically square buckle with spherical corner projections and circular terminals on either side of the gap for the tongue. The attachment arms are pierced by small circular holes. See Sg01. Brecon Gaer: - - -

Sg11. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) [no meaningful measurements are possible] Remains of a D-shaped buckle folded back on itself. Hoop apparently of flat rectangular section. Caerleon – Amphitheatre: E.R.2

Sg04. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 55mm, width 41mm Large buckle, the internal scrolls are double and joined to the hoop at both ends. Cf. Hod Hill (Brailsford 1962, 3 Type 3 nos.A77-80). Caerleon – unprovenanced

Sg12. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 36.472) length 24mm, width 26mm, thickness 2mm Rounded D-shaped, almost oval, buckle decorated by internal scrolls either side of the bar to take the tongue. Remains of an iron axial bar are still in place between the two reward lugs. Cf. Aldborough (Bishop 1996, 71 no.435); Newstead (Curle 1911, 304 pl.LXXVI.1); and the Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 275-6 nos. 983-4 & 9867). Caerleon – Vine Cottage: at (49) uppermost occupation below stone and tile(?) debris(?) earliest SP II

Sg05. buckle, bone (acc. no. 31.78) length 36mm, width 35mm, thickness 8mm Plain loop of a D-shaped buckle. Cf. Gloucester (Greep 1983, 570 no.168); Vindonissa (Unz & Deschler-Erb 1997, 52 no.2012-2035). Greep (1983) p.570 no.169, fig.152.2 Caerleon – unprovenanced Sg06. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 31mm, max. width 13mm [broken], thickness 4mm Half an elaborate buckle with perforated lug for attachment to a belt-plate. Caerleon – Churchyard extension 1908: - - -

Sg13. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 36.472) length 26mm, width 27mm, thickness 3mm Hoop of a D-shaped buckle with ends pierced for

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Boon (unpublished) no.71 Caerleon – Fortress Ditch: building near south corner of the fortress; perhaps Flavian

attachment to an axial bar. Caerleon – Vine Cottage: at (8) in SP I; charcoal and occupation layer

Sg20. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 62.265A) length 38mm, width 29mm, thickness 4mm An unusual rectangular buckle, with two lugs, and traces of an iron axial bar. The tongue, with its simple incised decoration, is of a shape similar to that from Hod Hill (Brailsford 1962, 3 no.A81). No parallel for the buckle itself is known. Boon (unpublished) no.72 Caerleon – Fortress Ditch: F6; deposit below paving adjacent to the street on the counterscarp of the fortress-ditch, south corner; second century

Sg14.

buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386) diameter of buckle 36mm, width 7mm, thickness 1mm Hoop decorated with triangular insets of white or yellow enamel, and incised lines. There are traces of an iron axial bar. See Sd07. Fox (1940) p.128 no.11, fig.6 Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage Orchard: Trench IV, Barrack VIII; unstratified

Sg15. ? buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386/4) length 21mm, width 15mm [broken], thickness 2mm Half of the hoop, D-shaped in section. Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage: Trial Trench 1 southwest of K, top occupation layer

Sg21. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 62.265B) length 31mm, width 32mm, thickness 3mm Plain D-shaped hoop of plano-convex section, with remains of two lugs. Rather corroded and in two pieces. Boon (unpublished) no.64 Caerleon – Racecourse: F22; Broadway Drain; c. 230-296

Sg16. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 48.152/37) length 30, width 34mm, thickness 4mm Heavy buckle with a broad flat hoop, thickening to form two pierced lugs. Davies (1949) p.236 fig.85.14 Ffrith: found during levelling of a section of Offa’s Dyke

Sg22. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 63.228B) length 32mm, width 31mm [broken], thickness 2mm Portion of buckle-hoop with traces of decoration in black and yellow glass mosaic, both in a groove round the loop and a spot near the lug. See Sg18. Boon (unpublished) no.69 Caerleon – Broadway Meadow: F10; Building X; with Antonine pottery

Sg17. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 48.152/41) length 29mm, width 31mm, thickness 1mm Rounded D-shaped, almost oval, buckle with internal scrolls either side of the bar to take the tongue. Traces of tinning on the front. Iron corrosion in the area of the two, circular, lugs suggests an iron axial bar and possibly also an iron pin. See Sg12. Davies (1949) p.236 fig.85.13 Ffrith: found during levelling of a section of Offa’s Dyke

Sg23. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 15mm [broken], width 13mm [broken], thickness 2mm Fragment of an openwork buckle with a broken lug for a hinge. Cf. Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 275 nos.983-6). Brewer (1986) p.186 no.158 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: (16) S29-34.16. Silting on the base of the abandoned natatio; Phase VIII c.230-300 (Zienkiewicz 1986b, 256)

Sg18. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 56.214A) length 21mm [broken], width 14mm [broken], thickness 3mm The surviving part of the loop is channelled to take decoration and there are traces of black and yellow glass mosaic surviving. There is also a spot of red enamel, containing a yellow swirl. See Sg22. Boon (unpublished) no.70 Caerleon – Bear House Field II: F15; Gully inside boundary-wall; second - third century

Sg24. buckle, bone (acc. no. 82.11H) length 35mm, width 43mm [broken] Over half a bone buckle consisting of a D-shaped loop continuing into an internal scroll. The form is a copy of a common copper alloy type (see Sg19). Bone buckles normally have a copper alloy axial bar (Crummy 1983, 130, no.4176), the perforation for which remains here, and a bone tongue. Cf. London (Greep 1983, 570 no.174); Richborough (Wilson 1968, 106 no.227); at least 15 examples from Vindonissa (Unz & Deschler-Erb 1997, no.1194-1209).

Sg19. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 62.265A) length 33mm, width 36mm [broken], thickness 2mm Portion of large but flimsy simple crescentic hoop continuing into two internal scrolls. In two pieces. See Sg02.

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Greep (1983) p.570 no.175 Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.18 no.39 Usk – Cattle Market Site: HNB (2) Fortress pit; PreFlavian (Manning 1989, 19)

Sg30. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 23mm, max. width 25mm, thickness 2mm Hoop of flat, rectangular section. The ends of the hoop curved back to form scrolls to either side of a central bar, which lies slightly in advance of the back of the hoop and held the iron tongue. Projecting from the centre of the back of the hoop are two lugs retaining traces of an iron axial bar. See Sg12. Webster (1992) p.121 no.80 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1001 (31/1111) Block A, Phase VI or later, c.350+

Sg25. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.11H) length 20mm [broken], width 13mm, thickness 3mm Part of the hoop, one lug and a decorative circular setting that may once have held enamel. Usk – Cattle Market Site: U73 (+); unstratified Sg26. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 84.43H) length 26mm, max. width 22mm, thickness 2mm Long, narrow D-shaped loop, slight curve to the upper surface, with substantial lugs at the ends to take the axial bar. Zienkiewicz (1993) p.111 no.19 Thomas (2003) p.58 Ev no.4 Caerleon – The Legionary Museum Site: (95) Phase IIIb c.90/100-130/140

Sg31. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 29mm, width 30mm, thickness 2mm The back of the hoop is concave and retains some traces of tinning. Two loops emerge from the ends of the hoop to accommodate the axial bar. Now in two pieces. Webster (1992) p.121 no.81 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1008 (31/1043) Block B, Phase IV c.160-340

Sg27. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 87.47H) length 43mm, width 36mm, thickness 3mm Broad hoop with a hollow back. One lug survives and there are traces of the other. Caerleon – Endowed School: (98/398)

Sg32. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 24mm [broken], thickness 3mm One side of a buckle including one lug to the rear and the start of the curve of the hoop. The surviving fragment of the hoop retains one complete triangular cell for enamel and the start of a second. See Sg07. Webster (1992) p.158 no.381 Caerleon – Roman Gates: SF716 (31/417) Block C, Phase IV c.160-340

Sg28.

buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 31mm [broken], width 13mm [broken], thickness 2mm Fragment including a circular pierced lug to accommodate the axial bar. It is not now evident whether the straight edge of the buckle was continuous and afforded the means of attaching the buckle tongue or whether there was a gap in the centre with the tongue being secured around the axial bar. Webster (1992) p.120 no.73 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1593 (31/1950) Block A, Phase IV c.160-275/300

Sg33. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 97.55H) length 20mm [broken], width 21mm [broken], thickness 2mm Remains of a buckle in two pieces, held together by a length of wire through the two lugs. Usk – Old Market Street 1986: SF374 (106/1680) Sg34. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 97.55H) length 20mm, width 24mm, thickness 3mm Plain D-shaped buckle with hoop of D-shaped section. A perforated disc terminal survives at one end. Usk – Old Market Street 1986: SF375 (106/1680)

Sg29. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 24mm, max. width 31mm, thickness 2mm Hoop of triangular section, flattened at the surviving end to allow perforation to take the axial bar. Webster (1992) p.120 no.74 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1765 (31/2570) Block B, Phase II c.90-100

See also Sd05, Sd07, Sh05, Sh08 and Sh18

Buckles with Trapeziform Extensions Second / Third Century Buckles of this type are discussed in detail by Oldenstein (1976, 214-6 nos.997-1025) where he dates them to the second half of the second century and the first half of the third. They are distinguished by the 118

trapeziform or sub-rectangular extension in the same plane as the hoop but behind it. This extension, with its T-shaped hole, rectangular when the buckle tongue was secured round its bar, served as the means of attaching the buckle to the belt-plate (see Sh06). The buckle was positioned behind the belt-plate so that the hoop was visible but the extension was concealed. A bar or band of copper alloy passed from the back of the belt-plate, through the rectangular hole in the buckle’s extension, and was soldered or fastened at the opposite end of the plate (Webster 1992, 120-1). Examples in the Museum’s collection come almost exclusively from Caerleon, including an apparently unfinished example (Sh05) suggesting their possible manufacture there. Sh01. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 32mm, max. width 27mm Rounded D-shaped, almost oval, hoop decorated by internal scrolls either side of the bar to take the tongue. The extension is T-shaped. Caerleon – Churchyard Extension 1908

3mm Trapeziform buckle attached to a plain belt-plate, decorated only by a simple groove round the edge, by a strip on the back of the plate, secured by two rivets through the plate. Evidence for an iron tongue. Caerleon – School Field Site: - - -

Sh02. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 22mm, max. width 19mm, thickness 2mm Small, fairly crude example with an oval hoop and trapeziform extension. The outer edges are bevelled. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Sh07. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 48.152/40) length 27mm [broken], width 26mm, thickness 3mm Rounded D-shaped hoop with the ends curved back to form simple scrolls either side of the bar to hold the tongue. Davies (1949) p.236 fig.85.15 Ffrith: found during levelling of a section of Offa’s Dyke

Sh03. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 30mm, hoop width 28mm, thickness 2mm Buckle with D-shaped hoop and a T-shaped extension. The outer edges are bevelled. Caerleon – Prysg Field: - - -

Sh08. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 56.214A) length 26mm [broken], max. width 29mm, thickness 4mm Incomplete but with the tongue surviving. Probably a trapeziform buckle but could possibly be a hinged type. Badly corroded. Boon (unpublished) no.67 Caerleon – Bear House Field II: F17; Gulley inside boundary-wall; second-third century

Sh04. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 30mm, hoop width 26mm, thickness 3mm Buckle with an oval hoop and trapeziform extension. Iron corrosion either side of axial bar suggests an iron pin. Hoop D-shaped in section. Caerleon – Prysg Field: G(20)T; Barrack Block No.7 Room 20; Flavian - Trajanic (Nash-Williams 1931, 149)

Sh09. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 62.265A) length 39mm, width 35mm, thickness 3mm An unfinished, rough casting. The extension seems to be rectangular. Boon (unpublished) no.68 Caerleon – Fortress Ditch: F2; fill beneath top surface (paving) adjacent to street at south corner of fortress

Sh05. ? buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 36mm, max. width 31mm [broken], thickness 3mm Buckle shaped piece but seems unlikely that it could have functioned as such, as it stands. Two rearward circular lugs suggest a hinged attachment but the bar connecting them casts some doubt on this interpretation. Hoop roughly D-shaped in section, the back of the object being more or less flat with an unfinished appearance. This would appear to be an unfinished piece. Caerleon – Prysg Field: F(1); Barrack Block No.6 Room 1 in lower part of tile debris

Sh10. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 62.265B) length 31mm [broken], width 25mm [broken], thickness 2mm Incomplete hoop, D-shaped in section, with a trapeziform extension. Boon (unpublished) no.65 Caerleon – Racecourse: F23, Main lateral drain, c.130-230

Sh06. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.118) total length 74mm, length of plate 45mm width of plate 22mm, thickness of plate; length of buckle 33mm, width of buckle 29mm, thickness of buckle

Sh11. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 62.265B) length 26mm [broken], width 22mm, thickness 3mm

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Webster (1992) p.121 no.76 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF621 (31/395) Block C, Phase V c.275/300-350

Rounded D-shaped hoop of triangular section. Boon (unpublished) no.66 Caerleon – Racecourse: F24; Broadway drain, top fill; late third century

Sh16. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 32mm [bent], width 25mm [bent], thickness 4mm Somewhat distorted hoop of pointed D-shaped section.The long sides of the extension are embellished each with a knob, level with the back end of the tongue. The tongue survives and is of iron. Webster (1992) p.121 no.77 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF340 (31/359) Block A, Phase V c.275/300-350

Sh12. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 27mm [broken] One side of a buckle, the outer edge is curved. See Sh01. Brewer (1986) p.175 no.32 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 12; Antontine - third century Sh13. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 87.47H) length 30mm, width 26mm, thickness 3mm Rounded D-shaped hoop with curled internal projections either side of the tongue. The extension is T-shaped. The outer edge are bevelled. Iron corrosion suggests an iron tongue. Caerleon – Endowed Junior School: (98/223)

Sh17. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 33mm, max. width 26mm, thickness 4mm Oval hoop and T-shaped extension. There are traces of iron in the corrosion round the rectangular opening, perhaps suggesting that the means of attachment to the belt-plate may have been of iron. The hoop is pointed D-shaped in section and its ends are only slightly recurved. Webster (1992) p.121 no.78 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF694 (31/417) Block C, Phase IV c.160-340

Sh14. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 27mm, max. width 23mm, thickness 2mm Rounded D-shaped hoop with the ends curved back in the form of scrolls to either side of the tongue. The extension is trapeziform. The back is flat and the outer edge of the hoop is curved. Webster (1992) p.121 no.75 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1023 (31/1049) Block B, Phase V c.340-350

Sh18. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 24mm [broken], width 15mm [broken], thickness 3mm Fragment, probably from a buckle with trapeziform extension. The hoop is triangular in section giving an inner straight edge from which branches elegant recurved scrollwork. Cf. Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 277 no.1024). Webster (1992) p.121 no.79 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF063 (31/100) unstratified

Sh15. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 28mm, max. width 24mm, thickness 3mm Oval hoop with trapeziform extension. The edges are bevelled, more markedly on the outside than the inside. There are possible traces of iron in the corrosion which may suggest an iron tongue. Associated fragments of leather were apparently noted during conservation.

Miscellaneous Buckles Si01.

Si03.

buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 21mm, width 31mm, thickness 3mm Simple curved loop and a plain rod as the axial bar, with crude wedge shaped pin. Caerleon – Prysg Field: G(5); Barrack Block No.7 Room 5 in lowest dark accumulation

Si02.

Si04.

buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 26mm, width 25mm, thickness 2mm D-shaped hoop of uneven, but generally rectangular, section, pivoting on a plain length of rod. Caerleon – unprovenanced buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 25mm, width 31mm, thickness 3mm Plain D-shaped buckle with axial bar apparently cast in one with the hoop. The hoop is subrectangular, almost pointed oval, in section. Cf. Uley (Woodward & Leach 1993, 177 no.11). Caerleon – unprovenanced

buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386/214) length 29mm, width 30mm, thickness 3mm U-shaped hoop, flat but with a slight curve to upper face. There are remains of an iron axial bar and a simple flat cooper alloy tongue. Fox (1940) p.128 no.12, fig.6 Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage Orchard: Barrack V,

120

dump of clay; Period 8, late third - early/mid fourth century

Room 2, first occupation layer, c.AD 90-120 Si05.

buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 69.326) length 20mm [broken], width 30mm, thickness 3mm. Plain U-shaped hoop. Boon (1970) p.56 no.3, fig.17 Caerleon – Vicarage Garden: on late earth surface, basilica; late third to fourth century

Si07.

buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) 26mm by 25mm, thickness 2mm Square buckle with thin bars. The pin is missing. Allason-Jones (1993) p.174 no.90 Segontium: SF1000 (457) [not (475) as in report] dump of slates; Period 9, early/mid fourth century

Si06.

buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) length 13mm, width 13mm, thickness 1mm Small square buckle. The pin is made from a rod with one end flattened and curled round the bar. Pin in two pieces. Allason-Jones (1993) p.174 no.91 Segontium: SF862 (084) [not (076) as in report]

Si08.

? buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 18mm, width 24mm, thickness 1mm Small flat D-shaped hoop of uncertain function. Webster (1992) p.122 no.84 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1198 (31/1514) Block A, Phase IV c.160-275/300

Buckle Tongues 1a; c.75-100/110 (Zienkiewicz 1986b, 255-7)

Sk01. buckle tongue, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.118) length 20mm, width 3mm Short slightly curved strip with rounded ends. At the wider end there is a 3mm perforation for attachment to the axial bar. Caerleon – School Field: A 24 T

Sk06. buckle tongue, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 28mm, max. width 5mm Flat tongue of elongated lozenge shape. Brewer (1986) p.178 no.65 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 11 ; Antontine - third century

Sk02. buckle tongue, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 48mm, max. width 7mm Large tongue with a distinct step in to form the point and a square perforation (3 by 3 mm) for attachment to an axial bar. Caerleon – Amphitheatre: - - -

Sk07. buckle tongue, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 34mm, max. width 6mm Plain, slightly arched tongue. There are the remains of an iron axial bar in the pivot hole. Brewer (1986) p.175 no.34 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 12; Antontine - third century

Sk03. buckle tongue, copper alloy (acc. no. 46.1) length 40mm, max. width 8mm Broadened tongue with a distinct step in to form the point. Hawkes (1930) p.193 no.8 Caerleon – Eastern Corner: unstratified over corner buildings

Sk08. buckle tongue, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 40mm, max. width 3mm Presumably the flattened portion behind the tongue would have been rolled for attachment to a axial bar, suggesting that the tongue was never used. Brewer (1986) p.175 no.35 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 11; Antontine - third century

Sk04. buckle tongue, copper alloy (acc. no. 64.474) length 24mm, max. width 5mm A tapering strip simply rapped round the axial bar, which was of iron. Brewer (1986) p.188 no.179 Caerleon – Backhall Street: Trench along near side of ‘E’ block

Sk09. buckle tongue, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.11H) length 44mm, width across arms 18mm [broken], thickness 4mm Elaborate fleur-de-lys style tongue. Cf. Hod Hill (Brailsford 1962, 3 no.A81). Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.18 no.35 Usk – Cattle Market Site: HWY (5) Fortress pit; Pre-Flavian (Manning 1989, 60)

Sk05. ? buckle tongue, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 24mm, width 2mm, max. thickness 4mm A claw-shaped piece, possibly the remains of a buckle tongue. Brewer (1986) p.173 no.6 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: (1302:C) Drain Group

Sk10. buckle tongue, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H/2)

121

length 19mm, width 4mm. Strip with one end curled round and the other rounded. Allason-Jones (1993) p.174 no.89 Segontium: SF330 (1502) topsoil; unstratified

Flat tongue with large perforation for attachment to the axial bar. Caerleon – Endowed School: (98/286)

Sk11. ? buckle tongue, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H/2) length 24 mm, width c.3mm, thickness 2mm An oval-sectioned rod curled over at one end. Allason-Jones (1993) p.186 no.247 Segontium: SF1011 (245) burnt clay layer; Period 5A – Flavian/Trajanic

Sk15. buckle tongue, copper alloy (acc. no. 92.32H) length 31mm [broken], width across arms 17mm [broken], thickness 4mm Fleur-de-lys style tongue. See Sk09. Evans & Metcalf (1989) p.55 no.6 Usk – Old Market Street 1979: SF123 (21/358); Phase III – mid-sixties to end of the first century AD

Sk12. buckle tongue, copper alloy (acc. no. 84.43H) length 34mm, max. width 5mm, length of tubular attachment 14mm Long gently tapering tongue with a wide tubular attachment for the axial bar. Caerleon – Legionary Museum Site: (87)

Sk16. buckle tongue, copper alloy (acc. no. 97.55H) length 32mm [broken], thickness 4mm Central part of a fleur-de-lys style tongue, missing its arms and both ends. Usk – Old Market Street 1986: SF114 (106/081); Period II (Phase 5) – c.55/60-75 (Marvell 1996, 54)

Sk13. ? buckle tongue, copper alloy (acc. no. 84.43H) length 20mm, max. width 3mm Large perforation for attachment to the axial bar. Caerleon – Legionary Museum Site: (228)

Sk17. ? buckle tongue, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.182) length 14mm Wedge shaped bar with a curved extension rising from its broader end. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.272 no.182 Loughor: SF383 (53\820) fill of post-trench in Building 3.9; Period IV (Phase 8) c.100 - c.105

Sk14. buckle tongue, copper alloy (acc. no. 87.47H) length 36mm, max. width 6mm

Frogs Frogs were button or knob fittings on a belt used to attach sword scabbards or dagger sheaths with suspension rings (p.12 & p.22). They were generally, but not always, hinged to a belt plate, in a similar way to hinged buckles (p.115). Examples are found both cast in one piece and with the button as a separate piece riveted on (Grew & Griffiths 1991, 50; Bishop & Coulston 1993, 98). Richborough (Wilson 1968, 94 no 102); and Hod Hill (Brallsford 1962, 3 no.A97-A100). Webster (1992) p.120 no.72 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1769 (31/2574) Block B, Phase II c.90-100

Sm01. ? frog, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.10H) length 13mm [broken], width 24mm, thickness 2mm Fragment of a plate with openwork ornament, and the remains of lugs for an axial bar projecting from a moulded bar at one end. Cf. Hod Hill (Brailsford 1962, 3 A98). Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.29 no.5 Usk – Detention Centre Site: 69 MY (1) gully; Medieval

Sm03. frog, copper alloy (acc. no. 97.55H) length 30mm [broken], width 24mm, thickness 2mm Triangular openwork fitting with traces of tinning. The point of the triangle extends into a bar which ends in a circular socket. Faint traces of three lugs survive at the other end. Cf. Camerton (Jackson 1990, 32 no.52); and Richborough (Wilson 1968, 94 no.102). Usk – Old Market Street 1986: (106/1747); Period II – c.55/60 - 75 (Marvell 1996, 54)

Sm02. frog, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 32mm [broken], width 38mm, thickness 2mm Triangular openwork fitting with traces of tinning. The base of the triangle has two lugs to take an axial bar. It is broken at the triangle. Cf.

See also openwork belt-plates Sc10, Sc11, Sc1) and button-and-loop fasteners (p.159)

122

Fourth Century Belt Fittings The fourth century saw a marked change in belt fittings. Belts became broader, necessitating a greater use of stiffeners, and the styles and methods of decoration changed. Enamelling seems to have gone out of use being replaced by punched and ‘chip-carved’ decoration (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 173-4). Late Roman graves at Winchester provide examples of wide belts, up to 140mm wide, with long, narrow stiffeners applied vertically (Clarke 1979, 267-9 fig.33). The belt-ends butted together with narrow tubularedged plates. A narrow strap bearing a dolphin-loop buckle with a small plate was stitched or riveted to the face of the belt near one end, whilst a second narrow strap was attached to the other end. These fittings occur in southern England, and across northern France to north-western Germany beyond the frontier. Most scholars date them to the second half of the fourth and first two decades of the fifth centuries (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 174-8). There were also large highly-decorated chip-carved belt-plates, such as those found in London (Barber & Bowsher 2000, 206-7 no.4). As their main distribution is in south-east England, across northern France, along the Rhine and Upper Danube, in north-eastern Italy and northern Yugoslavia (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 174), it is not very surprising that there are no example of them in the Museum’s collection. Some belts had rings attached to their lower edges by rivets with small circular, rosette plates. These rings have been interpreted as attachment-points for a narrow shoulder strap but as the belt was probably not weighed down by a sword on one side, such shoulder-support was unnecessary. A more likely function for these rings was for the attachment of a knife, pouch or utensils (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 178). rectangular plate (Hawkes & Dunning 1961, 66-8 Type VII). Since the total original length of the terminal fitting is not known it cannot be determined whether the fitting belonged to one of the narrower of the two-strap belts which were usually below 60mm in width and are thought to have gone out of fashion by the last quarter of the fourth century (Clarke 1979, 267) or whether it belonged to a wider belt of the later fourth century type where the wide strap may have been between 60mm and 140mm in size. The suggestion that the fitting may have belonged to a wider two-strap belt is supported, however, by the fact that one of the other fragments found in association with it, may be the end of a plain rectangular belt stiffener of the type which featured on the later wider two-strap belt. If this surmise is correct dated examples from elsewhere, notably scarce, would suggest that these items belong towards the close of the fourth century (Clarke 1979, 268). The fragment of copper alloy which is thought to be part of a rectangular stiffener is pierced by a hole which shows traces of iron corrosion from the iron shah of a circular copper alloy stud the outline of which remains impressed into the end of the stiffener. There are two other fragments similar to the last but wider. One is rounded on three sides with the fourth side straight. It is pierced by a hole and has the impression of a circular stud. The other comprises two sheets of metal riveted together with an iron rivet; one piece is roughly circular with a single straight edge as above, the other somewhat more rectangular and extending beyond the straight

Sn01. buckle plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.11H) length 36mm [bent], width 21mm, thickness 1mm Damaged rectangular plate with one rivet remaining in the extant lower corner. There is a semicircular cut away to accommodate a buckle-tongue at one end. The whole front of the plate is decorated with simple bands of zigzag line ornament. Part of the buckle plate of a single strap belt of the type in use from c.340 onwards (Clarke 1979, 266-7). Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.18 no.43 Usk – Cattle Market Site: KOA (1); unstratified Sn02. belt-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 21mm, width 11mm, thickness 0.5mm Small rectangular strip with a rivet hole at one end, the other end is broken. Decorated by a border of repoussé dots close to the extant edges. Possibly part of a plate from a single-strap belt, cf. a slightly wider, strip attached to an improvised buckle from Lankhills, dated to the latter half of the fourth century (Clarke 1979, 266, 286 no.280, fig 81). Webster (1992) p.129 no.121 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF533 (31/325) Block B Collapse, Phase VII c.400+ Sn03. belt fittings, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 54mm [broken], max. width 9mm Fragments of the fittings from a later fourth century two-strap military belt. Firstly a hollow, incomplete tube with spiral fluting. Probably the remains of one of the more elaborate terminal fittings to the widestrap of a two-strap belt, which consist of a ribbed cylinder into which is inserted a separate

123

life. The buckle is held in the bend of the plate. It consists of a D-shaped stylised dolphin’s head with circlet eyes, surmounted by reverse horse heads. A late Roman belt buckle and plate of Hawkes & Dunning (1961, 45-50) Type 1B. Burnham (1993) p.271 Mawer (1995) p.61 D1.Br.3 Pen-y-Corddyn: chance find on the surface of the western rampart in an area disturbed by sheep.

end of its partner, after the manner of the stiffener. These fragments may represent further stiffeners. There are also four other associated fragments of copper alloy. Two of these are additional bits of the terminal fitting and must indicate additional length but because of the damaged state of the object the extra length they represent is not now measurable. The other two fragments may originally have formed part of a single tapered, bent strip of copper alloy which may perhaps represent an atypical suspension ring. Webster (1992) p.129 no.122 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1019 (31/1049) Block B, Phase V c.340-350

Sn05. buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.149) length 29mm, width 22mm, thickness 4mm Two plates with circular cut-outs in their wider ends, probably to accommodate the buckle pin. To either side of the cut-out are the remains of a rivet holding the two plates together. The top plate is decorated with engraved zigzag lines in a saltier pattern. Possibly a later fourth century buckle-plate, some of which use such zigzag ornament (Simpson 1976, 193-5, Group Ie). Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.267 no.149 Loughor: SF001; (57\001) top soil; unstratified

Sn04. buckle-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 93.31H) length 80mm, length of plate 62mm, width of plate 18mm, thickness of plate 4mm; length of buckle 22mm, width of buckle 28mm, thickness of buckle 3mm The plate is made from a single sheet bent over, with the open ends riveted together. It is engraved on one side with fish and peacocks facing the tree of

Strap-ends Functionally strap-ends existed to reinforce the free ends of leather belts and straps, such as the end of a belt opposite from the buckle, and in some instances to provide some extra weight to help the strap or belt-end hang properly. However, there was also a strong decorative element to them. They are clearly similar in both form and function to pendants (p.147), the distinction being that strap-ends were riveted firmly to the leather strap, while pendants had some element of hinging. Greep (1983) p.575 no.204, fig.158.1 Caerleon – Bear House Field I: F173; Main lateral drain

Sp01. strap-end, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 30mm, max. width 6mm, max. thickness 5mm Rod with a simple knob and collar terminal at one end and a bifurcated shank secured by a single rivet at the other end. Cf. Magdalensberg (Deimel 1987, 244-49 tafel 57). Caerleon – unprovenanced

Sp04. ? strap-end, copper alloy (acc. no. 77.40H/2) length 19mm [broken], max. width 16mm, thickness 1mm Probably the lower part of an ‘amphora’ strap end. It is decorated with ring-and-dot and there are transverse mouldings at the point where the terminal knob is broken off. See Sp08. Webster (1981) p.178 no.37 Whitton: (+) unstratified

Sp02. strap-end, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 42mm, max. width 6mm, max. thickness 6mm Moulded rod, expanding slightly to form a bifurcated shank secured by a single rivet. Cf. Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 249 no.312). Nash-Williams (1932) p.91 fig.38.13 Caerleon – Prysg Field: unstratified

Sp05. strap-end, copper alloy (acc. no. 77.40H/2) length 44mm [broken], max. width 40mm, thickness 2mm Heart-shaped with an acorn-shaped terminal at its point. At the top the heart-shaped element merges into a circular disc, now broken. On the back, behind the acorn-shaped knob, is a stud (5mm long) ending in a disc (diam. 8mm). Cf. Woodcuts (PittRivers 1887, 66 pl.XXI. 7). Webster (1981) p.178 no.38 Whitton: beneath wall running from south-west to north-east beyond west end of South Range

Sp03. strap-end, bone (acc. no. 54.389A) length 32mm, max. width 26mm, thickness 4mm Flat shield-shaped plate with one hole in the point and four across the top. Decorated by simple, filed, transverse mouldings and notches all the way round the edge, with a deeper nick in the centre of the top. Probably a strap-end but no parallel has been found. Boon (unpublished) no.6

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length 51mm, width 21mm, thickness 2mm (4mm at top) ‘Amphora’ shape with the split top pierced by a single rivet. The face is decorated with a series of stamped ring and-dot motifs and the top by a series of notches. Simpson (1976, 204) suggested that such strap-ends were manufactured in Pannonia or Illyricum, and formed part of the equipment of the regular Roman soldier serving on the frontiers in the second half of the fourth century. Cf. Simpson (1976, 198-200). Allason-Jones (1993) p.174 no.98 Segontium: SF734 (1547) layer; Period 9 - early/mid fourth century

Sp06. strap-end, bone (acc. no. 81.79H) length 36mm, max. width 20mm, thickness 3mm Plate decorated with a series of drilled perforations (diam. 3mm and 1mm). The shape is reminiscent of the later ‘amphora’ strap-ends (see Sp08). Probably a strap-end for a braided belt. Cf. Leicester (Greep 1983, 575 no.203). Greep (1983) p.575 no.205, fig.158.3 Greep (1986) p.207 no.9, fig.73 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 11; Antontine - third century Sp07. strap-end, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 40mm, max. width 9mm, thickness 2mm Strap-end of lanceolate type. Flat with the slightest of curves to upper face. Pierced for a stud attachment. Cf. Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 249-50 no.305-24). See lanceolate pendants (p147). Brewer (1986) p.177 no.47 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain; block 7; Antontine - third century

Sp09. strap-end, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H/2) length 14mm, width 13mm, thickness 2mm Two plates with bulbous bases, which end in a point. They are held together over a fragment of leather by a rivet near the base. Remains of two more circular rivet holes survive at the top corners of the plates. Allason-Jones (1993) p.174 no.99 Segontium: SF314 (1502) topsoil; unstratified

Sp08. strap-end, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H/2)

Belt or Strap mounts This section contain mounts, many fragmentary, that would appear to be designed for attachment to leatherwork, but the function of which is not precisely known. Their military connection relies on them, and good parallels, coming from Roman military sites. Sr01. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 00.156) length 38mm, max. width 27mm, thickness 1mm Circular openwork plate with two opposing trilobate projections. Short circular studs behind each projection. Cf. South Shields (Allason-Jones & Miket 1984, no.3.777 & no.3.780). Caerleon – unprovenanced

length 27mm, width 5mm, thickness 5mm Narrow plate grooved at both ends and ending in rounded terminals, semi-circular in section, with back slightly hollowed. Has two studs on the back just in from the point of grooving. Cf. Verulamium (Waugh & Goodburn 1972, 120 no.43). See Sr52 for related pieces. Brecon Gaer: clay floor; unknown date

Sr02. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 23.292) length 23mm, width 19mm, thickness 2mm Decorative A-shaped plate with a single stud on the back. Segontium: - - -

Sr05. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 25.212/11) length 50mm, max. width 21mm, thickness 3mm V-shaped attachment. The bottom point ends in a doubly grooved decorative terminal. There are three long thin studs on the back. Wheeler (1926) p.117 fig.59.8 Brecon Gaer: unstratified

Sr03. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 23.292) length 32mm, width 21mm, thickness 2mm Decorative B-shaped plate, with no means of attachment surviving. Wheeler (1923) p.141; fig.62.5 Segontium: - - -

Sr06. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 41mm, width of bar 3mm, thickness of bar 3mm; width of terminal 22mm, thickness of terminal 2mm Narrow bar expanding into a pelta-shaped terminal at one end. The front face is tinned. There are two studs, with disc terminals (diam. 6mm and 5mm), on the back. Cf. Upper German-Raetian Limes

Sr04. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 25.212)

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(Oldenstein 1976, 270 nos.862-5). Caerleon – Churchyard Extension 1908: - - -

Sr13. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 52mm, width 18mm, thickness 2mm Scrollwork mount with two studs behind. Nash-Williams (1932) p.83 fig.33.28 Caerleon – Prysg Field: 6(1)S; Barrack Block No.6 Room 1; c.105-200

Sr07. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 47mm [broken], max. width 21mm, thickness 2mm Heart shaped openwork plate with remains of one iron stud on the back, in centre of straight edge. See Sr12. Caerleon – Churchyard Extension 1908: - - -

Sr14. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 40mm, width 24mm, thickness 4mm Small scrollwork mount, the ‘trumpet-ends’ in the decoration show strong Celtic influence. There are two studs, with disc terminals (diam. 5mm) on the back. Cf. Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 272 nos.908-10). Nash-Williams (1932) p.83 fig.33.30 Caerleon – Prysg Field: 7(39)S; Barrack Block No.7 Room 39; c.105-200

Sr08. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 44mm [broken], max. width 45mm, thickness 2mm Heart shaped plate with central impressed dot which has two concentric circles round it, filling most of the front face. Traces of tinning. Two shafts top and bottom of central line. Top one pointed, bottom one flat ended. Cf. Vindonessa (Unz & Deschler-Erb 1997, 55 no.2158-67). Caerleon – unprovenanced

Sr15. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 34mm [broken], width 23mm, thickness 3mm One end of an openwork plate. Stud with circular terminal (diam. 8mm) at centre of surviving end. Nash-Williams (1932) p.85 fig.33.31 Caerleon – Prysg Field: - - -

Sr09. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) diameter 28mm, height 8mm Circular plate with central conical dome. Two shafts on back, on opposite sides, one still with a terminal disc (diam. 6mm). Caerleon – Churchyard Extension 1908: - - -

Sr16. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) diameter 46mm, thickness 1mm, perforation 4 by 3 mm Disc with central square perforation and ring of scroll like openwork decoration. Remains of an attachment loop, or similar, visible on the edge at one point. Tinned on front face. Cf. Upper GermanRaetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 283 no.1159). Nash-Williams (1932) p.91 fig.38.14 Caerleon – Prysg Field: 7(11)S; Barrack Block No.7 Room 11; second century AD (Nash-Williams 1931, 50-2)

Sr10. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) 25 by 23 mm [both broken], thickness 2mm Triangular fragment of a slightly domed plate, probably originally circular. Scaloped edge with the face divided into segments by radiating lines. Central stud with terminal disc (diam. c.8mm). See Sr20. Caerleon – unprovenanced Sr11. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 52mm [broken], max. width 28mm [broken], thickness 2mm Broken and distorted fragment. Stud-attachment behind, with remains of disc terminal, in centre of surviving end. See Sr42. Nash-Williams (1932) p.83 fig.33.26 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Sr17. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 20mm, max. width 20mm, thickness 1mm Small plate with central rivet on back (Fernández 1996, 98-9, 103-5, Group I). Cf. Cirencester (Webster 1982, 114 no.118-9); Richborough (Wilson 1968, 96 no.128-9); and the Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 261 nos.627-35). Caerleon – Prysg Field: - - -

Sr12. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 53mm, width 19mm, thickness 2mm Although the general type is well known, exact parallels are rare. Cf. Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 247 no.242); Corbridge (AllasonJones 1988a, 181 no.171). Nash-Williams (1932) p.83 fig.33.27 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Sr18. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 36mm, width 29mm, thickness 1mm Rectangular, almost square, openwork plate, now slightly distorted, with a terminal projecting from one side. There is evidence for rivets in all four corners: two rivets survive and two holes are visible. Tinned on both faces. Internal openwork pattern entirely lost.

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the back at either end. Front decorated by a series of knobs and collars. Wheeler & Wheeler (1928) p.168, Pl. XXXII.2.5 Caerleon – Amphitheatre: - - -

Caerleon – Prysg Field: F(11)S; Barrack Block No.6 Room 11; Trajanic - early third century (NashWilliams 1931, 148-9) Sr19. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 43mm [broken], max. width 20mm, thickness 2mm Elongated figure-of-eight design, now in three pieces. Cf. Richborough (Wilson 1968, 95 no.123). Caerleon – Prysg Field: G(11)S; Barrack Block No.7 Room 11; second century AD (Nash-Williams 1931, 50-2)

Sr26. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) 39mm by 33mm, original diameter c.48mm, thickness 1mm Fragment of a slightly domed openwork plate, probably originally circular. Remains of two circular rivet holes through the rim. Foliage style pattern of decoration with traces of tinning on the front. Possibly a phalera from a baldric. Cf. Richborough (Bushe-Fox 1928, 50 no.64); and the Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 283 nos.1153-5). Wheeler & Wheeler (1928) p.169 pl.XXXIII.6 Caerleon – Amphitheatre: - - -

Sr20. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.118) diameter 32mm, thickness 2mm, stud length 4mm Slightly domed disc plate with scalloped edges. Face divided into segments by radiating lines. Central stud. Cf. Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 263 no.704). Caerleon – School Field: MPMU

Sr27. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.120) 21 by 16 mm, thickness 3mm Fragment of an openwork plate with curved edge. Caerleon – Golledges Field: fortress gate in road metalling to south-west of north gate tower

Sr21. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.118) length 42mm [broken], width 19mm, thickness 2mm Openwork plate, the decoration includes the letters SERV. Possibly part of CONSERVA, ‘protect (us)’. Caerleon – School Field: A21 TS

Sr28. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 36.470) length 28 [bent in], width 38mm [bent in], thickness 1mm Crescent shaped plate with stud projecting from the centre of the back. Crumpled and badly corroded. See Sr08. Caerleon – Jenkins Field II: at (56) in charcoal and paving

Sr22. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.118) length 43mm [broken], max. width 17mm, thickness 3mm Openwork plate with remains of one stud surviving at the centre of the straight end. Bevelled edge and flat back. Caerleon – School Field: - - -

Sr29. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 36.471) length 46mm, max. width 18mm, thickness 2mm Triangular plate with a bar extending from one point. On the back one shaft projects from the centre of the widest part and there are traces of another at the other end of the triangular opening. Caerleon – Broadtowers Field: at (4)

Sr23. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 48mm [broken], width 33mm [broken], thickness 1mm, shaft length 17mm Remains of a crescent / heart shaped plate with concentric circle decoration, faintly visible on front. Long tapering shaft projects from what would have been centre back. See Sr08. Caerleon – Amphitheatre: outside east of entrance C

Sr30. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386/100) length 34mm, width 23mm, thickness 1mm Lozenge shaped plate with boarder of raised dots and a small circular perforation at each end. Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage: Area IV Building B, Room 7, on clay floor

Sr24. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 44mm, width 13mm, thickness 3mm Small mount in the shape of a dolphin with a ring projecting from its mouth and a perforation through its tail. Wheeler & Wheeler (1928) p.168 fig.15.42 Caerleon – Amphitheatre: - - -

Sr31. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386/149) length 32mm, width 20mm, thickness 1mm, height at centre 6mm Oval, shield like plate, with large oval boss, which has a deep median groove, in centre. Two studs with disc terminals (diam. 7mm) project from back, at either end of the boss. Similar items have been

Sr25. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 40mm, max. width 7mm, thickness 4mm Narrow plate with slightly curving sides, a convex face and a concave back. A short stud projects from

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Caerleon – Bear House Field I: F69; Main lateral drain; c.130-230

found on many Roman sites, cf. Aldborough (Bishop 1996, 71 no.440); Caerleon Canabae (Lloyd-Morgan 2000, 376 no.149); South Shields (Allason-Jones & Miket 1984, 237 no.3.870-1); and the Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 248 nos.267-72). Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage: Trench VI, surface B-J

Sr37. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 21mm [broken], width 6mm, thickness 2mm Remains of a narrow plate, slightly curved in section. There are two studs on the back with disc terminals (diam. c.4mm), and it is pierced at one end, possibly to hold a decorative stud. Brewer (1986) p.175 no.40 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block -1; Antontine - third century

Sr32. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386/263) diameter c.18mm, thickness 2mm, length of shaft 8mm Circular stud decorated by a double crescent shaped pattern. Plain tapered shaft behind. Cf. Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 262 nos.659-63). Fox (1940) p.130 no.13, fig.6 Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage Orchard: Barrack V; top soil

Sr38. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 26mm [broken], max. width 24mm, thickness 1mm A delicate openwork plate, with two holes for rivets. Brewer (1986) p.175 no.43 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 8; Antontine - third century

Sr33. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 54.389A) length 45mm, diameter 31mm, thickness 4mm Circular openwork plate, one terminal survives and there are traces of another opposite. Two small studs for attachment underneath. See Sr47. Boon (unpublished) no.76 Caerleon – Bear House Field I: F71; Main lateral drain; c.130-230

Sr39. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 32mm, thickness 2mm Portion of an openwork plate. See Sr22. Brewer (1986) p.178 no.60 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 12 ; Antontine - third century

Sr34. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 54.389A) length 34mm, max. width 21mm, thickness 6mm Portion of a trumpet-scroll plate, with traces of a loop at one end, and of a stud at the other. Cf. Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 272 no.908-10). Boon (unpublished) no.77 Caerleon – Bear House Field I: F59; Main lateral drain; c.130-230

Sr40. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) 15mm by 13mm, thickness 2mm Fragment of a circular, openwork plate. See Sr26. Brewer (1986) p.178 no.61 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 0 ; Antontine - third century Sr41. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 28mm, max. width 7mm, thickness 3mm Elongated phallus shaped mount. There are two studs, with disc terminals (diam. 5mm), on the back. Cf. Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 253 nos. 410-2). Brewer (1986) p.186 no.168 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: (1016) S3.34. Soil and refuse filling of frigidarium drain in its length A; Phase X – c.300-380 (Zienkiewicz 1986b, 257)

Sr35

mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 54.389A) length 38mm, max. width 25mm, max. thickness 7mm Incomplete openwork trumpet-scroll motif with remains of one rivet surviving on the back. Cf. Caerleon Canabae (Lloyd-Morgan 2000, 376 no.182); Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 271 no.899). Boon (unpublished) no.78 Caerleon – Bear House Field I: F60; Main lateral drain, c.130-230

Sr42. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 84.43H) length 38mm [broken], max. width 27mm, thickness 4mm Incomplete fitting of simple openwork palmette form. It is hollow to the rear and has a hole for a rivet to secure it to backing material. Cf. the Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 263 no.700). See Sr11. Zienkiewicz (1993) p.113 no.32

Sr36. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 54.389A) diameter c.31mm, thickness 2mm Circular plate, very slightly domed, with slot (7 by 2 mm) in centre. Two studs project from back, one at each end of slot, both have discs at end (diam. 9 and 10 mm). Boon (unpublished) no.86

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Webster (1992) p.125 no.97 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1010 (31/1121) Block A, Phase V c.275/300-350

Caerleon – The Legionary Museum Site: (90) Phase V c.200 Sr43. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 87.47H) length 27mm [broken], width 25mm [broken], thickness 2mm One corner of an openwork plate. There is a stud with disc terminal (diam. 6mm) in the surviving corner. Caerleon – Endowed School: (98/086)

Sr48. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 97.55H) length 72mm, width 56mm [broken] Large heart shaped plate with the remains of two studs on the back, one at the bottom and one at the surviving top corner. Usk – Old Market Street 1986: (106/105)

Sr44. mount, copper alloy (acc. no.87.48H) length 29mm, width 28mm [broken], thickness 4mm Remains of a plate in the form of a scallop shell. There are two substantial rectangular lugs (5 by 2 mm), one behind the point of the shell and one projecting from the centre of the base, opposite. Cf. Lowbury Hill (Atkinson 1916, 45 no.3-4); and the Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 263 nos.700-3). Fox (unpublished a) no.8 Caerleon – Great Bulmore Farm: (76F/649)

Sr49. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.126.1) length 37mm, width 8mm, thickness 4mm, width of terminal 17mm Narrow, bar like fitting, D-shaped in cross-section. Of a similar type to Sr52 but one of the terminals is crescent-shaped. Two studs project from the underside, one of which still has a disc terminal (diam. 7mm). Badly corroded. Cf. Verulamium, from a context dated 155/160 (Waugh & Goodburn 1972, 120 no. 432). Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.263 no.126 Loughor: SF034 (53\101) fill of shallow gully; PostMedieval. Found with Sr50 and Sr51.

Sr45. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 46mm, height 29mm, thickness 4mm Cast in the shape of an eagle, but with the surface decoration largely obscured by corrosion. There were original four integral lugs on the back, of which three survive. Possibly the central element from an openwork phalera. Cf. Aldborough (Bishop 1996, 67 no.422); Carlisle (Allason-Jones 1986, 68-9); and the Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 280 nos. 1092 & 1096). Fox (unpublished b) no.35 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF684 (138/300) Phase IIIa

Sr50. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.126.2) length 29mm, max. width 9mm, thickness 4mm Narrow, bar like fitting, D-shaped in cross-section. Knob terminals at either end. Two studs project from the underside, one of which still has a disc terminal (diam. 7mm). See Sr52. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.263 no.126 Loughor: SF034 (53\101) fill of shallow gully; PostMedieval. Found with Sr49 and Sr51. Sr51. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.126.3) length 16mm, width 8mm, thickness 6mm Short length of a bar like fitting of D-shaped crosssection. Curved face decorated by a series of transverse grooves. Evidence for one stud survives on the back. See Sr52. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.263 no.126 Loughor: SF034 (53\101) fill of shallow gully; PostMedieval. Found with Sr49 and Sr50.

Sr46. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 34mm [broken], max. width 11mm [broken], thickness 3mm Fragment of a plate, cast as a stylized trumpet, and probably part of a design composed of a number of such forms. Cf. Newstead (Curle 1911, pl.LXXVI.2); and the Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 272 no.901). Fox (unpublished b) no.37 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF557 (138/292) Phase IIIa

Sr52. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.127) length 27mm, max. width 6mm, thickness 4mm Complete narrow bar like fitting of D-shaped crosssection. Curved surface decorated by a series of transverse grooves. Knob terminals at either end. Two studs with disc terminals (diam. c.7mm) project from the back. Cf. Corbridge (Allason-Jones 1988a, no.189-91); South Shields (Allason-Jones & Miket 1984, no.3.877-8); and the Upper GermanRaetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 264 nos.727-9). Oldenstein (1976, 188-90) dates the type to around the middle/late second century.

Sr47. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 45mm [broken], width 29mm, thickness 3mm Circular openwork mount. There are openwork extensions to either side of the main circular element and these accommodated the attachment studs, the shaft of one such stud remains in place. See Sr33.

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length 29mm, max. width 8mm, thickness 7mm Fitting of narrow semi-cylindrical cross-section, with ribbed or segmented decoration on the upper curved surface, and a hemispherical knob at each end, with two rivets for attachment. The foot of one stud with its washer is now lost, and the piece is generally decayed and split. See Sr52. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.263 no.129 (Not illustrated) Loughor: SF124 (53\310) burnt demolition debris Building 3.10; Period V (Phase 12) c.105 - c.110

Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.263 no.127 Loughor: SF160 (53\310) burnt demolition debris Building 3.10 Period V (Phase 12) c.105 - c.110 Sr53. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.128) length 27mm, width 7mm, width with lug 13mm, thickness 6mm Narrow bar like fitting of D-shaped cross-section. Curved surface decorated by a series of transverse grooves. Swivel or hinge fitting along one side. Knob terminals at either end. Two rivets on the back. Badly corroded with only one stud surviving to any extent. Cf. Munningen, with an enamelled lunular pendant attached to the swivel, mid second century (Oldenstein 1976, 255 no.450). Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.263 no.128 Loughor: SF385 (53\018) disturbed/mixed layer; post-medieval

Sr55. ? mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.152) length 22mm, width 9mm, thickness 1mm Sheet fragment with remains of a single domeheaded rivet in situ, and a hole for a stud with a square cross-sectioned shaft. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.268 no.152 (not illustrated) Loughor: SF384 (53\993) levelling layer deposited at start of phase; Period III (Phase 7) c.85 - c.100

Sr54. mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.129)

See also harness strap mounts and studs (p.137)

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T: Horse Harness The function of the horse harness was to provide a secure seat for the rider by attaching a saddle to the horse by a system of straps, and to allow the rider to control the horse, by reins and a bit. The principal strap for the saddle was the girth strap, which ran around the horse’s middle and held the saddle in a central position. In order to prevent the saddle slipping backwards, a strap extended round the horse’s breast, and to prevent the saddle sliding forwards, a further strap passed under the tail. Sculpture depicts some of these straps as being bifurcated, as on the tombstone of Bassus (Bishop 1988, 71 no.6). At the junctions where the straps met, rings or discs (phalerae) were provided to connect them together. Roman harness fittings also included nonfunctional items such as pendants. (Hyland 1990, 130-6; Southern & Dixon 1992, 67-8; Bishop & Coulston 1993, 105). Although the leather straps have not survived in the archaeological record, the copper alloy components of first century AD cavalry equipment have survived in large quantities and these have been studied in some detail by Bishop (1988), along with the pictorial evidence. After the first century evidence for harness is considerably more meagre but what there is suggests that the basic form of the harness remained the same throughout the Roman period. Bishop & Coulston (1993, 182) cite depictions on the Arch of Constantine and a silver dish from Yugoslavia, as evidence for the continued use of the horned saddle into the fourth century. Changes in style of decoration of course occurred, as did some changes to the preferred means of attachment of straps at the junctions.

Saddles No remains from a saddle survives in the collection of the Museum so Roman saddles are not considered here. It is, however, worth noting the reconstruction work of Connolly (1986; 1987) which has demonstrated that, despite the lack of stirrups, Roman cavalry were securely seated by their horned saddles.

Girth Buckles No recognizable girths have survived and, apart from the fact that their size, c.30mm wide, suggests they may have fulfilled some such role, archaeological examples of girth buckles are virtually impossible to prove. Some of the possible examples appear to have had the loop moulded complete while others were clearly composite, formed from side pieces, cross-member, spindle, and tongue. Most seem to have been of copper alloy with an iron spindle (Bishop 1988, 94, Types 1-4). From the archaeological remains it is not possible to tell how many buckles or indeed girth straps were used for each saddle. Western, American, girth buckles, are very similar in design to the Roman buckles but are up to 90mm wide, only one such buckle is used. English buckles are much closer to the Roman size and two of these buckles are used on each girth. A wide girth spreads the pressure over a greater area, offers more security, and is more comfortable for the horse. Hyland (1990, 135) suggests that either two girths were used, each with a single buckle at each end, or one wide girth, which was similar to an English girth, with two buckles at each end. still in place. Given its finds spot it may not be Roman. Wheeler & Wheeler (1928) p.170 no.63, fig.16 Caerleon – Amphitheatre: Entrance F, unstratified

Ta01. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 32mm, width 48mm, hoop thickness 3mm Large D-shaped buckle with hoop of pointed Dshaped, almost triangular, section. The tongue shown in the original report is now missing. Wheeler & Wheeler (1928) p.166 no.25, fig.14 Caerleon – Amphitheatre: on Road 2 in Entrance G, with abundant Flavian pottery

Ta03. buckle, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.10H) length 27mm [broken], width 59mm, thickness 3mm The loop and bar are separate, the bar being inserted through holes in the flattened two ends of the loop and secured in position by means of knobbed ends. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.18 no.36 Usk – Detention Centre Site: FFB (3) Fortress latrine; Pre-Flavian (Manning 1981, 190)

Ta02. ? buckle, iron (acc. no. 35.119) length 56mm, width 70mm , thickness 3mm Large, angular D-shaped buckle with the tongue

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Loughor: SF001; (69\003) sub-soil; modern

Ta04. buckle, iron (acc. no. 97.55H) length 31mm, width 57mm D-shaped almost oval buckle with the tongue still in place. Usk – Old Market Street 1986: SF280; (106/1318)

Ta06. buckle tongue, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.137) length 46mm, width 8mm Heavy tongue from a large buckle, with the loop worn through. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.265 no.137 (Not illustrated) Loughor: SF507 (53\1727) metalled surface around Building 3.1; Period I (Phase 2) c.73/4 - c.80

Ta05. buckle tongue, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.132) length 39mm, max. width 8mm Large, heavy tongue cast in one piece with some slight moulded detail. A little worn in places. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.265 no.132

Saddle Plates Sets of straps, usually depicted in groups of three, are frequently shown on the front and rear of saddles on Roman sculpture. The straps on the horse of Primigenius (Espérandieu 1922, 350-1 no.6448) appear to have three plates positioned close to the saddle on either side, and it is possible that the rectangular plates from the Doorwerth find of horse equipment may have served such a function (Bishop 1988, 110). Their function was probably purely decorative (Bishop 1988, 89; Southern & Dixon 1992, 75). Made of copper alloy, these objects were normally cast. On their rear faces, a series of rivets and strips secured them to straps. The dimensions of those listed by Bishop (1988, 131-3) suggest two standard sizes were in use: ‘narrow’ plates 80-89mm wide and ‘broad’ plates 120-129mm wide. ring. Other small fragments survive, some with parts of bosses and one with a square rivet hole, suggesting that there was more than one plate. Such plates could have been used in several ways. Allason-Jones (1993) p.174 no.92 Segontium: SF953 (453) stone surface; Period 9 early/mid fourth century

Tb01. ? saddle plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) originally c.70mm square, now 40mm by 38mm Fragment of a rectangular plate with repoussé decoration. A rib runs round the edge and in the surviving corner there is a boss within a concentric ring. In the centre there is a much larger boss and

Junction Rings The first type of junction used consisted of a cast copper alloy ring, to which three or four leather straps were attached by means of free-moving junction loops (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 105). Where ring junctions have been found, most have an external diameter of 30-50mm; smaller examples possibly belong to the bridle or reins (Bishop 1988, 94). Plain copper alloy rings are, however, fairly common finds on most Roman sites and while some undoubtedly come from harness it is impossible to tell how many do and whether a particular example does. There seems to be little to be gained in the present context by listing all such rings present in the Museum’s collection.

Phalerae Phalerae were an alternative to the junction rings, serving exactly the same purpose. It appears that about the middle of the first century AD phalerae, utilizing concealed loops behind the discs, became the more favoured (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 105). In the Antonine period phalerae with loops around the periphery, previously used in the Augustan period, reappeared (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 120; Curle 1911, p1.LXXIV.6). By the early third century the leather straps came to be directly attached to the phalerae, thus avoiding the need for fragile metal fittings joining the strap to the junction (Bishop & Coulston 1989, 61-2). Some phalerae continued to have external loops, but as they were mainly openwork designs, strapping could be simply folded over the inner rim of a piece (Bishop & Coulston 1989, 61-2). The dominant decorative motifs were now a mixture of Classical (waves, swastika) and Celtic (trumpet, lotus blossom) elements (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 157).

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Bishop (1987; 1988, 94-5) classifies first century AD phalerae both by functional criteria, the means of attachment, and by decoration. The functional criteria are totally separate from the form of decoration and the two do not appear to be connected in any way. diameter c.43mm, thickness 1mm Disc with raised rim and central boss. A shaft (length 8mm, diam. 4mm) projects from centre of back to which is attached a strip (37 by 12 mm) one end of which extends just beyond the circumference of the disc and has a U-shaped eye. Nash-Williams (1932) p. fig.37.2 Caerleon – Prysg Field: RBa (1)S; North-Western Rampart-Buildings Room 1; Period Ia c.120-200

Tc01. phalera, copper alloy (acc. no. 04.135) length 96mm, width 87mm Triangular mount, complete but for two broken coils at the corners, with two damaged junction loops of an original set of three. There are pronounced wear-facets caused by movement of the junction loops on the sides of the mount. The seven little domes enclosed by the triangle and the pairs at each corner are separately made dome-headed rivets inserted into holes through the mount, the other ends of which were hammered down at the back. The more complete of the strap-ends has a pair of circular settings for the attachment of now lost studs. Allen (1905) p.137 fig.9 Grimes (1951) p.224, fig.40.13 Davies & Spratling (1976) p.125 no.4, fig.3 Savory (1976) p.63, fig.39.13 Bishop (1988) p.160, Type3e Seven Sisters: chance find

Tc05. phalera, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.62) diameter 31mm, thickness 2mm Disc with a central perforation and two stud attachments behind. Decorated with a sunk leafand-tendril pattern originally inlaid with niello. Nash-Williams (1929a) p.255 no.7 Caerleon – Jenkins Field: Room 26 (T); ‘floordeposit’ c.70-110 Tc06. phalera, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.11H) diameter 32mm, thickness 3mm Remains of a disc with, on the back, the stubs of two rectangular loops, slanting inwards towards the bottom (cf. Bishop 1988, 139, fig. 41). Front decorated by an inlaid petal design. Cf. a harness phalera and studs from Fremington Hagg (Webster 1971, 114 nos. 23-4, 38, 40-1); and harness studs with similar decoration from Xanten (Jenkins 1985, 149, pl. VIIIA). Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.38 no.2 Usk – Cattle Market Site: NAI (1) Fortress pit; PreFlavian (Manning 1989, 74)

Tc02. ? phalera, copper alloy (acc. no. 04.143) length 53, width 51mm Sheet roundel broken out of a larger object, with a domed stud attached in the centre. The continuous linear elements in the pattern were executed by chasing or engraving. A centre-punch; was used for the dot-facets arranged in lines and within the circles. Probably part of a phalera. Allen (1905) p.138 fig.26 Grimes (1951) p.224, fig.40.14 Davies and Spratling (1976) p.125 no.2, fig.3 Savory (1976) p.63, fig.39.14 Bishop (1988) p.140 Type 1g Seven Sisters: chance find

Tc7.

phalera, copper alloy (acc. no. 97.55H) diameter c.55mm, thickness 2mm Disc with a central perforation. The front is decorated by notched decoration around the edge and two concentric rings of small square depressions which may once have held enamel. On the back are four studs forming a square, one of which retains a washer (diam. 9mm). A pair of lugs project from the circumference at one point. Usk – Old Market Street 1986: SF354 (106/1590); Period III (Phase 6) – c.AD 87/90 - c.120/125 (Marvell 1996, 54)

Tc03. phalera, copper alloy (acc. no. 20.526/2) diameter 31mm, thickness 1mm Disc with a slightly raised rim and a circular groove around a central perforation. There is no evidence of other decoration, but the surface is largely lost. Traces of two studs survive on the back. Caersws: - - Tc04. ? phalera, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60)

Junction Loops Junction loops consisted of a decorated front plate which was bent over on itself with the back element riveted to the front, with the harness strap in between. The bend formed the loop which was attached to the junction ring or phalera (Brailsford 1962, 2 no.A30-31; Curle 1911, pl.LXXIV.6). They were not generally detachable from the junction. Junction loops intended for use with rings had moulded or decorated loops, frequently arched up from the body of the fitting, whereas those for phalerae had unadorned loops and were 133

simply folded back on themselves. Evidence of two rivet holes at broken end of plate away from the hook. Brecon Gaer: H.Q.(+) unstratified

Td01. junction loop and ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 04.130) total length 101mm; length (strap-end) 72mm; diameter of ring 44 by 45 mm The front of both the junction loop and the ring are decorated with insets, some still filled with a black alloy, probably niello. The empty insets are all less than one millimetre deep and slope up to the surface at their ends. The junction loop has a single rivet behind its rectangular terminal for securing it to the strap; there is no sign of any other rivet. Wear facets on the inside of the ring indicate that three junction loops were originally attached to it. Allen (1905) p.137, fig.7 Grimes (1951) p.223, fig.40.11 Davies and Spratling (1976) p.125 no.1, fig.3 Savory (1976) p.63, fig.39.11 Bishop (1988) p160 type 4f Seven Sisters: chance find

Td07. ? junction loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 25.212) length 23mm [broken], width 15mm Semi-circular band attached to the remains of what appears to be a flat base. Very fragile as badly decayed. Brecon Gaer: pit; unknown date Td08. junction loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 25.212/9) length 80mm, width 17mm Looped strap-mounting with one rivet and a hole for a second. The exterior of the riveted tang is tinned, and the decoration, consisting of what may be described as threaded chevrons, is of inlaid white metal. Cf. Chichester (Down & Rule 1971, 45 no.2); Colchester (Hawkes & Hull 1947, 339 pl.CIII.7). Wheeler (1926) p.113, fig.57.1 & fig.58.14 Bishop (1988) p.160, Type 5a Brecon Gaer: under commandant’s house; late first century

Td02. junction loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 23.292) length 29mm [broken], width 14mm Hollow hook attached to a plate with chip-carved edges. There is the remains of a single rivet hole, with double concentric circle decoration around it, at the broken edge of the plate. Segontium: - - -

Td09. junction loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 52mm [broken], max. width 13mm, thickness 1mm Flat plate with damaged edges. A circular perforation with slightly sunken circular area around, at either end. Junction between plate and loop decorated by a pair of collars. Surviving portion of loop of D-shaped section and tapered away from plate. Cf. Verulamium, from a context dated 105-115 (Waugh & Goodburn 1972, 130 no.124). Caerleon – Amphitheatre: Arena; unstratified

Td03. junction loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 23.292) length 37mm, width 7mm, thickness 3mm There is a slightly raised collar, with transverse groove decoration, between the plate and the loop. The plate ends in a circular terminal. Two studs project from the back of the plate. Wheeler (1923) p.141, fig.62.4 Segontium: - - Td04. junction loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 23.292) length 54mm, width 11mm, thickness 4mm Plate waisted and with a narrow extension, ending in a disc. There is a perforation through this disc and another just below the loop. Segontium: - - -

Td10. junction loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 16mm [broken], width 15mm Squashed loop and solid rectangular collar. Caerleon – Amphitheatre: - - Td11. junction loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 57.314) length 33mm [broken], max. width 15mm, thickness 2mm Much worn loop end. Boon (1964) p.20 no.1, fig.6 Caerleon – School Extension Site: - - -

Td05. junction loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 23.292) length 44mm [broken], width 16mm, thickness 2mm There is a raised collar between the loop and the plate. The surviving portion of the plate has a perforation surrounded by a slightly sunken circular area. See Td09. Segontium: - - -

Td12. junction loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 62.265A) length 23mm [broken], max. width 11mm Loop part with simple moulded and incised decoration. See Td05.

Td06. junction loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 25.212) length 29mm [broken], width 11mm Hollow hook attached to a plate of the same width.

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Hook and fragment of the front plate, the first hole is just visible surrounded by two deep concentric grooves. Allason-Jones (1993) p.172 no.76 (not illustrated) Segontium: SF1025 (277) [not 227 as in report] road; Period 5 - Flavian-Trajanic

Boon (unpublished) no.96 Caerleon – Fortress Ditch: F8; black earth beneath paving adjacent to the street on the counterscarp side of the fortress-ditch, south corner; probably second century Td13. junction loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.10H) length 53mm [broken], max. width 15mm, thickness 3mm Fitting of Bishop (1988) Type 1d, the spectacle type with a triangular facet at the base of the arched loop. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.40 no.3 Usk – Detention Centre Site: FNF (2) pit; third century

Td19. junction loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) length 15mm [broken], width 15mm Lowest section of the front plate. A once circular hole, countersunk in circular depression survives with traces of the next two. Broken off across the bottom edge of these middle two holes Allason-Jones (1993) p.172 no.77 (not illustrated) Segontium: SF1073 (+) unstratified Td20. junction loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 84.43H) length 30mm [broken], max. width 7mm Loop end now misshapen and incomplete. Pierced by rivet-holes, one at the front and two at the back, and decorated with a moulded collar between the loop and the front rivet hole. Zienkiewicz (1993) p.108 no.7 Caerleon – The Legionary Museum Site: (225) Phase II c.85/90-90/100

Td14. junction loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.10H) length 25mm [broken], max. width 10mm, thickness 4mm Only the loop, with a triangular facet at the base, survives. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.40 no.4 Usk – Detention Centre Site: EOD (1) furnace; second century Td15. junction loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) length 48mm, max. width 15mm Complete, with a hollow hook and a lentoid back plate pierced by four tiny holes arranged in a lozenge pattern. The front plate has flat splayed shoulders, chip-carved edges and four circular holes countersunk in circular depressions. The front and back plates are of equal length. Allason-Jones (1993) p.172 no.73 Segontium: SF1168 (2361) layer; Period 4 - FlavianTrajanic

Td21. junction loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 84.43H) length 52 mm, max. width 14mm The two holes at the front are set in recessed circular panels. The front of the loop is decorated with a simple raised collar. Zienkiewicz (1993) p.108 no.8 Caerleon – The Legionary Museum Site: (225) Phase II c.85/90-90/100 Td22. junction loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.133) length 17mm, max. width 8mm Hook-shaped fitting with a moulded section just below the break. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.265 no.133 Loughor: SF153 (57\085) surface and make-up of via sagularis; Period VIII (Phase 10) c.260 - 310+

Td16. junction loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) length 47mm, max. width 16mm Hollow hook and a lentoid back plate. The front plate has flat splayed shoulders, chip-carved edges and four circular holes countersunk in circular depressions. Missing the end of the back plate. Allason-Jones (1993) p.172 no.74 (not illustrated) Segontium: SF1158 (2279), spread of brown soil; Period 4 - Flavian-Trajanic

Td23. ? junction loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.134) length 41mm, max. width 16mm Damaged plate with two heavy integral studs and part of a washer on the reverse, with the remains of the loop attachment at one end. There are possible traces of decoration on the flat outer face. Cf. Exeter, published as a lorica segmentata tie-loop (Allason-Jones 1991, 247 no.42). Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.265 no.134 Loughor: SF223 (57\251) fill of post trench in Building 2.4; Period V (Phase 7) c.105 - c.110

Td17. junction loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) length 19 mm [broken], width 7mm Solid hook from a junction loop. Allason-Jones (1993) p.172 no.75 Segontium: SF1017 (1603) disturbed layer; Period 7A - Hadrianic/Antonine-late third century Td18. junction loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) length 30mm [broken], width 14mm

Td24. junction loop, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.136)

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length 20mm, width c.13mm Damaged loop section. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.265 no.136 (Not illustrated) Loughor: SF100 (53\314) clay and building debris levelling prior to Building 3.12; Period VI (Phase

14) c.110 - c.115/120 See also Tc01 and Tg27

Strap Fasteners ‘Bar-and-keyhole’ strap fasteners consisted, as the name suggests, of two elements, a male ‘bar’ and a female ‘keyhole’ to receive it. The male half came in two basic forms. The simplest of these was a bar, curved upwards from the main body of the fitting. A more elaborate version consisted of an upward curving neck, from which two short terminals sprouted on either side, giving it a vaguely zoomorphic appearance (Bishop 1988, 103). The female half came in three forms. The most elaborate has the fastening element hinged to the main body of the fitting. As is to be expected, the hinged element was vulnerable to damage and it and the main body are often found separately. A second type is cast in one piece with no hinge. A less common third type has a simple rectangular opening rather than a key-hole shape (Bishop 1988, 103). Fragments in a poor state of preservation. Of the double spectacle type, with a rectangular opening (Bishop 1988, 167 Type 3b). Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.40 no.6 Usk – Cattle Market Site: MAV (5) Fortress pit; Pre-Flavian (Manning 1989, 90)

Te01. ? male strap fastener, copper alloy (acc. no. 25.212) length 17mm [broken], width 11mm, max. thickness 2mm T-shaped terminal to a narrow strip. The terminal slightly up turned. A similar piece from Castleford is published as a button-and-loop fastener of Wild (1970) Type IX (Bishop 1998, 70 no.238). Cf. Gorhambury (Wardle 1990, 130 no.208). Brecon Gaer: - - -

Te04. female strap fastener, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) length 54mm [broken], width 13mm, thickness 3mm Solid rectangular plate with two transverse grooves at one end. Beyond these it expands into a curved openwork end. Two studs for attachment on the back, one at each end of the rectangular section. Cf. Newstead (Curle 1911, LXXVI.14). Allason-Jones (1993) p.174 no.86 Segontium: SF1015 (2054) clay and stone deposit; Period 4 - Flavian-Trajanic

Te02. male strap fastener, copper alloy (acc. no. 25.212/8) length 73mm [broken], width 15mm, max. thickness 3mm Elongated lozenge sheet. The body is pierced by four rivet holes, surrounded by one or two incised concentric circles. Remains of three dome headed rivets survive. There is also remains of a single hole at the end, which is now broken off at this point. The top extends into a tapering neck which curves forwards and ends in a cross-piece. Wheeler (1926) p.116 fig.58.15 Bishop (1988) p.169 Type 3a Brecon Gaer: - - -

Te05. ? male strap fastener, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.151) length 15mm [broken], width 12mm, thickness 2mm T-shaped connector, very slightly upturned. See Te01. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.268 no.151 Loughor: SF359 (53\1002) second phase of MFB; Period IV (Phase 9) c.110 - c.105

Te03. female strap fastener, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.11H) length 22mm [broken], max. width 16mm, max. thickness 15mm

Strap Terminals Strap terminals were used to weight the end of straps. There was usually some provision for butting or crimping the end of the strap itself, and the fitting would then be finished off with a terminal knob (Bishop 1988, 103). 2mm Two perforated discs with a waisted strip between. At one end there is a flat terminal knob, separated

Tf01. strap terminal, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 51mm [broken], max. width 15mm, thickness

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length 17mm [broken], width 15mm, max. thickness 6mm A terminal knob. The convex part is hollow behind. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.40 no.7 Usk – Detention Centre Site: FBE (2) furnace; third century? (Manning 1981a, 190)

from the disc by a grooved rectangular plate. Cf. Castleford (Bishop 1998, 72 no.277). Caerleon – unprovenanced Tf02. strap terminal, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 52mm, max. width 14mm, thickness 2mm, diameter of terminal knob 7mm, length of stud 6mm Two discs, pierced by ball headed rivets, connected by a markedly waisted strip. An elaborate terminal consisting of three ribs and a spherical terminal knob extends from one end. Now in two pieces. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Tf05. strap terminal, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.10H) length 55mm [broken], max. width 13mm, thickness 11mm Fitting of Bishop (1988, 100, 103) ‘spectacle’ type with trace of a perforation at the bottom end. Fixed rear plate cast in one with the front. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.p.40 no.5 Usk – Detention Centre Site: FNL (5) extra-mural road; first century (Manning 1981a, 195)

Tf03. strap terminal, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.118) length 52mm, width 13mm, thickness of plate 2mm, thickness of terminal 4mm Narrow rectangular plate with a terminal knob at one end. The front surface is entirely hidden by corrosion. On the back there is a stud in the centre of the straight end and a short, curved oval, hook like plate at the other. Caerleon – School Field: APMX

Tf06. strap terminal, copper alloy (acc. no. 97.55H) length 26mm [broken], width 13mm, max. thickness 6mm Remains of a narrow rectangular plate with a flattened, bi-conical terminal knob at one end. Usk – Old Market Street 1986: SF153 (106/271)

Tf04. strap terminal, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.10H)

See also Tg27

Pendants Roman harness fittings also included non-functional pendants which came in a variety of forms (cf. Bishop 1988, 142-56). As the precise function of an individual pendant found in isolation is unclear all pendants have been considered together in their own section of the catalogue (p.147).

Strap Mounts and Studs Strap mounts appear to be non-functional, purely decorative, elements, but may have helped to straighten or weight down the strap. The mounts are usually symmetrical longitudinally. is then wasted before expanding again with transverse decoration across the middle. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Tg01. harness stud, copper alloy (acc. no. 23.292) diameter 30mm Conical stud. Segontium: - - -

Tg04. harness mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length to hinge 40mm, overall length 46mm [broken], max. width 13mm, thickness 2-3mm Waisted strip with a hinge at one end. It is pierced by two dome headed rivets, one in the middle and one at the other end from the hinge. The central rivet still has a flat disc (diam. 7mm) attached to its other end. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Tg02. harness mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 57mm, max. width 13mm, thickness 2mm Flat strip tapering to a point at both ends. The edges of the central part are curved giving a circular appearance. The central part is pierced by a circular hole set slightly off centre. The tapering parts of the strip have bevelled edges. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Tg05. harness mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 56mm [probably complete], max. width 21mm, thickness 1mm, length of strip 49mm, max. width of strip 5mm Flat plate, apparently complete apart from one corner. The face is plain but with slight traces of

Tg03. harness mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 41mm [broken], width 10mm, thickness 3mm Badly corroded strip, apparently symmetrical, but one end is broken. The surviving end is circular and pierced centrally by a small circular hole. The strip

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Nash-Williams (1932) p.83 fig.33.22 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

tinning. The means of attachment on the back consists of a tapering strip, most of the length of the object. The broad end springs from the object and the narrow end is held by a perforated plate, an arrangement reminiscent of a brooch pin. Cf. Aldborough (Bishop 1996, 71 no.432). Caerleon – Churchyard extension 1908: - - -

Tg11. harness stud, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) diameter 30mm, height 17mm, disc diameter 18mm Conical headed stud with a disc terminal at the other end of the shaft. Nash-Williams (1932) p.85 fig.34.35 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Tg06. harness stud, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) diameter 25mm, height 15mm, disc diameter 11mm Conical headed stud with a disc terminal at the other end of the shaft. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Tg12. harness mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 45mm, max. width 15mm, thickness 4mm Symmetrical mount with traces of circular shafts projecting from both terminal knobs. Convex front and hollow back. Nash-Williams (1932) p.91 fig.38.12 Caerleon – Prysg Field: 6(11)S; Barrack Block No.6 Room 11, c.105-200

Tg07. harness stud, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) diameter 51mm Large elaborately enamelled stud. The enamel is contained within four concentric bands of metal. The outer circle of enamel is of a deep-blue with forty-three delicate sprigs of a pure white. The second circle has a background of a bright red with thirty-nine squares of three by three white and blue chequerboard pattern. The ground of the third circle is blue and contains twenty-eight flowers with white petals around a white dot within a red circle. The central panel is filled by some forty-five distorted squares, alternating between three by three white and blue chequerboard pattern within a red frame, and five by five white and blue chequerboard pattern within a blue frame. Cf. an exact parallel from near Chepstow (Potter 1983, 54; Johns 1996, 201). Lee (1862) p.56, Pl. XXVIII fig.14. Usk: ‘believed to have been found at Usk’

Tg13. harness stud, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) diameter 30mm, height 14mm, disc diameter 14mm Conical headed stud with a disc terminal at the other end of the shaft. Cf. Aldborough (Bishop 1996, 74 no.453). Caerleon – Prysg Field: I(N-E)S Tg14. harness mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 45mm [broken], max. width 12mm, max. thickness 5mm Two flat perforated disc with a raised, D-shaped, collar between them. There is a similar collar before the broken end, which is notched. Cf. Vindonissa (Unz & Deschler-Erd 1997, 45 no.1722). Caerleon – Amphitheatre: black occupation below roads outside Entrance A

Tg08. harness stud, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) diameter 33mm, height 10mm Inlaid with enamel, now mostly missing, arranged in four concentric bands. The centre contains orange, the next band but one traces of conjoined patches of orange and blue. A square sectioned shaft projects from the centre of the back (3mm square). Nash-Williams (1932) p.83 fig.32.16 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Tg15. harness mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.120) diameter c.45mm, height at centre 16mm, thickness 2mm Dished circular plate with a projecting conical boss in the centre. The remains of an iron shaft or stud protrudes from the back of the boss. Caerleon – Golledges Field: FB5

Tg09. harness stud, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) diameter 33mm, height 8mm Four concentric cells for enamel, now entirely gone. Square shaft in the centre of the back (3mm square). Nash-Williams (1932) p.83 fig.32.17 Caerleon – Prysg Field: (+) unstratified

Tg16. harness mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 36.472) length 53mm, height at centre 11mm, thickness 1mm Disc with domed centre, and decorated by three grooves around the edge. Caerleon – Vine Cottage: at (42) on uppermost rough paving, latest SP ?

Tg10. harness stud, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) diameter 35mm, height 10mm [bent] Decorated with incised scroll-ornament inlaid with niello. The shaft is bent over.

Tg17 harness stud, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386/171) diameter 57mm, thickness 4mm, diameter of central shaft 3mm Thin disc with a ridge slightly in from the edge. Cf. Vindonissa (Unz & Deschler-Erd 1997, 56 no.2285-

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or silver. Boon (unpublished) no.83 Caerleon – Vicus: F37 apparently found in the occupation layers of Building VII

6). Fox (1940) p.127 no.3, fig.5 Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage Orchard: Trench VI, Barrack VII, on cement floor; with coin of Hadrian

Tg24. harness roundel, copper alloy (acc. no. 77.40H/2) diameter 27mm, thickness 11mm The front of the roundel is elaborately moulded with a stud piercing a truncated cone in the dished centre. Parts of two bars remain on the back. Webster (1981) p.180 no.39 Whitton: (+) unstratified

Tg18. harness stud, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386/254) diameter 37mm, thickness 4mm Circular disc with the edges bent back and a central circular shaft (diam. 3mm) on the back. Front decorated by four concentric circles of enamel: blue centre, then red, then blue and red on a yellow ground, and the outermost circle red and white flowers on a blue ground. Fox (1940) p.130 no.17, fig.6 Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage Orchard: Barrack V. Room 3, on cement floor of Period III, third century

Tg25. harness stud, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) diameter 27mm, thickness 2mm The enamel decoration, now very decayed, consists of a central roundel surrounded by two bands, the outer of which is inlaid with small rings of a different colour. On the back of the disc are the remains of two lugs, possibly originally forming a loop for attachment. Brewer (1986) p.175 no.44 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain; Antontine - third century

Tg19. harness stud, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386/271) diameter 49mm [broken], thickness 4mm A battered and corroded disc with a central circular shaft (diam. 3mm) on the back. The front is decorated by four concentric circles of enamel. Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage: Building A Room 1, below floor level

Tg26. harness mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 43mm, max. width 18mm, thickness 2mm Plate heart shaped at one end but with a narrow extension running from it. There is an integral stud behind the top of the heart and it is pierced by a rivet at the other end. Fox (unpublished b) no.36 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF039 (138/001) unstratified

Tg20. harness stud, copper alloy (acc. no. 54.389A) diameter 32mm, height 16mm, disc diameter 10mm Conical headed stud with a disc terminal at the other end of the shaft. Boon (unpublished) no.87 Caerleon – Bear House Field I: F82; Main lateral drain Tg21. harness stud, copper alloy (acc. no. 54.389A) diameter 17mm, height 19mm, disc diameter 14mm Heavy, solid conical headed stud with a disc terminal at the other end of the shaft. Boon (unpublished) no.88 Caerleon – Bear House Field I: F70; Main lateral drain.

Tg27. harness mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 36mm [broken], max. width 13mm, thickness 2mm Part of a slightly waisted plate with a circular end and punched concentric rings around the rivet hole. Possibly the remains of a junction loop, as Td21, or a strap terminal, as Tf01. Fox (unpublished b) no.38 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF902 (138/374) Phase Ia

Tg22. harness mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 54.389A) length 72mm, max. width 44mm, thickness 2mm Large plate with traces of peltaform ends and a central boss. Three studs, two rectangular and one circular in section, project from the back. The rectangular studs may perhaps be remains of a square-ended loop. Boon (unpublished) no.148 Caerleon – Bear House Field I: 54.389A.F81, Main lateral drain, c.130-230

Tg28. harness mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 94.29H) length 39mm, width 44mm, thickness 2mm Roughly crescentic shape mount with a central perforation and moulded decoration around the edge. On the back are four studs and a hinge to suspend a pendant from. Caerleon – Broadway House: SF247(227)

Tg23. ? harness stud, copper alloy (acc. no. 56.214A) diameter 21mm Face damaged but retains traces of an overall pattern of tiny florets with six petals executed in tin

Tg29. harness mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.138) length 68mm, max. width 13mm, thickness 1mm

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Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.265 no.139 Loughor: SF543; (53\1964) wall of building 3.12; Period VI (Phase 14) c.110 - c.115/120

Narrow rectangular plate with a central pierced disc. There is a stud at either end of its back. Now broken in two across the middle. Cf. Gorhambury (Wardle 1990, 126 no.178); and Vindonissa (Unz & Deschler-Erd 1997, 47 no.1831) Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.265 no.138 Loughor: SF405; (53\1009) fill of post-trench in building 3.9; Period IV (Phase 8) c.100 - c.105

Tg31.

harness stud, copper alloy (acc. no. 99.52H) diameter c.37mm, height 9mm Large circular stud, originally with a tinned finish. The stud rises to a knobbed shallow cone in the centre. The flat area is decorated with incised rings parallel to the outer edge of the stud. No means of attachment survives. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.40 no.11 Usk – Priory Orchard: 65 Tr X Pit J (4) Fortress pit; Pre-Flavian (Manning 1989, 138)

Tg30. harness mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.139) length 38mm, max. width 13mm, thickness 1mm Narrow rectangular plate with a central pierced disc, but now broken with only one half remaining. The one surviving end has the remains of a stud on the back. See Tg29.

See also belt or strap mounts (p.125)

Miscellaneous Fittings Included here are a number of pieces which appear to relate to horse harness, but which are difficult to parallel and or to discover their precise function. Th01. strap-slide, copper alloy (acc. no. 04.133) length 43, width 13mm Mount with a pair of domed ornamental rivets of an original set of four. The concave sides of the principal loop appear to be an original feature of the design and not the result of wear. The other terminal loop is broken and incomplete. Allen (1905) p.137 fig.16 Grimes (1951) p.224 Davies and Spratling (1976) p.126 no.5, fig.3 Savory (1976) p.63 Seven Sisters: chance find

Th04. harness fitting, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 32mm, width 32mm, thickness 10mm Hollow cruciform fitting. Objects of this type are reasonably common on Roman military sites, but their precise use is uncertain. Cf. Corbridge (Allason-Jones & Bishop 1988, 173 no.119); Manchester (Bruton 1909, 86 p1.44.9); Newstead (Curle 1911, Pl. LXXVII, 9); Verulamium (Waugh & Goodburn 1972, 122 no.57). Nash-Williams (1932) p.89 fig.37.5 Caerleon – Prysg Field: 4(29)S; Barrack Block No.4 Room 29; c.105-200

Th02. harness mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 25.1/527) arm length 37mm, thickness at centre 7mm Saltire, with a central diamond shaped boss. Arms end in circular plates containing pins pointing both up and down. The back is otherwise flat. Grimes (1930) p.127, fig. 55.12 Holt: - - -

Th05. harness ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.10H) diameter of ring 32mm, height of stud 7mm, diameter of head c.11mm [broken] Plain ring of circular cross-section (diam. 5mm) with a stud set perpendicular to the plane of the ring. The stud has the remains of a flat disc head. Cf. Broxtowe (Webster 1958, 70 no.14) Hod Hill (Brailsford 1962, 17 no.197). Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.40 no.8 Usk – Detention Centre Site: DTZ (2) Fortress ditch; Pre-Flavian (Manning 1981a, 199)

Th03. harness mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 57mm, max. width 22mm A rod with two loops set perpendicularly to it at either end. At one end there is a rectangular plate decorated by squares of yellow and blue enamel, and half way along a square plate projects from each side of the rod, these are also decorated by squares of yellow and blue enamel. Lee (1862) pl.L.2 Caerleon – unprovenanced

Th06. harness ring, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.11H) diameter 40mm, height of stud 10mm, diameter of head 21mm Plain ring of circular cross-section (diam. 5mm) with a stud set perpendicular to the plane of the ring. The stud has a flat disc head. See Th05. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.40 no.9 Usk – Cattle Market Site: HUK (2) Fortress pit; PreFlavian (Manning 1989, 66)

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Th08. terminal, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.135) length 19mm, width 14mm, thickness 1mm Disc-shaped terminal, with part of the central concave-sided section. Part of the rivet for attachment remains in situ, with some encrustation from copper alloy products on the outer face. Cf. Verulamium, context dated 105-115 (Waugh & Goodburn 1972, 130 no.124). Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.265 no.135 Loughor: SF251 (57\346) rubble make-up for road; Period III (Phase 5) c.85 - c.100

Th07. harness mount, copper alloy (acc. no. 97.54H) length 23mm [broken], max. width 16mm, max. thickness 6mm Fragment with a central raised collar decorated by transverse grooves. Above and below are traces of pairs of rivet holes surrounded by incised circular decoration. Usk – former Church Voluntary Primary School: SF155 (135/197); Period IV (Phase 6) c.120/125+ 350+ (Marvell 1996, 54)

See also button-and-loop fasteners (p.159)

Bits From the archaeological remains it appears that there were two types of bit in use during the Roman period, the snaffle and the curb (Manning 1985, 66-7). The snaffle-bit is the simplest and least severe form of bit, consisting of a ‘bar’ which may be solid, ‘plain’, or jointed, with free moving rings at each end. It is used with both draught and riding horses, and is attached to the bridle by means of the side rings, which also receive the reins. It is designed to be used two-handed, making it less than ideal for use by cavalry. A number of variant forms were used in the Roman period, all differing in the form of the bar. The commonest form had a two-link bar. Complete examples are relatively rare but the distinctive form of the links makes it possible to identify fragments with a high degree of certainty. A typical link is a relatively short rod with a loop at each end; the loops of one link are set in the same plane, those of the other at right angles to each other, an arrangement which enables the links to be connected while keeping the outer loops in the same plane. The loops holding the side rings are often widened into short tubes. Rings without attached links can rarely be identified as coming from a bit. Spirallytwisted bars, and bars with loose rings on them are also found, both devices being intended to make the bit more severe (Manning 1985, 66; Southern & Dixon 1992, 63-5). Roman curb bits were very severe (Hyland 1990, 136-9), and were designed to give riders full control of their mounts using only one hand, making them particularly suitable for cavalry. They consist of a bar, which may be plain or jointed; if plain the bar may be bent to form a U-shape at its centre. Of the two types, the jointed curbs are more severe than the straight mouthpieces, as not only does the normal curb action operate, but the jointed mouthpiece compresses the tongue and lips in a squeezing action like the snaffle (Hyland 1990, 138). Set at the ends of the bar are side-pieces with rings at the top for attachment to the headstall of the bridle, and eyes at the bottom for the attachment of the reins. Normally a chain, cord or bar links the sidepieces below the horse’s jaw to keep the curb in place. When the reins of such a bit are tightened the horse’s head is forced sharply upwards in a way not possible with a snaffle-bit. There is little doubt that the curb-bit was a Roman introduction into Britain where three forms are found (Manning 1985, 67). The Type 1 curb bit is the simplest and commonest form. It consists of a two-link snaffle-bit with trefoil cheekpieces set near the outer ends of the links; where the side rings survive they are relatively small. In use the rings were fastened to the bridle and the reins attached to the lower loop of the cheekpieces, which also received the cord which must have passed under the horse’s jaw. As the ends of the links run through the upper edge of the cheekpiece the top opening has a roughly heart-shaped outline, and it is this feature which makes them so easily recognisable. Links from such bits would not be recognisable if divorced from the cheekpieces (Manning 1985, 67-8). A complete example of this type of bit comes from an early fourth century context at Verulamium (Manning 1972, 171 no.23). A Type 2 curb bit has long, curving cheek-pieces with loops at each end. The lower one of these loops held the reins, the other the rings attached to the headstall and a bar which went in the horse’s mouth. The two cheek-pieces were connected by a cross-bar set near or somewhat below their mid-points, which fitted below the horse’s jaw. A complete bit of this form comes from an Antonine context at Newstead (Curle 1911, 297, 141

pl.LXXI.3). In Britain such bits come almost entirely from military sites (Manning 1985, 68). The Type 3 curb bit is known in Britain only from two examples found at Newstead (Manning 1985, 69; Curle 1911, 296, pl.LXXI.1 & 2). Hackamores were also employed by the Romans. These consist of metal bars which runs above the nose and under the chin. They are attached by rings and eyes to the bridle straps and the reins, and prevent the horse from opening its mouth and ‘getting away from the bit’ (Southern & Dixon 1992, 64-5). The size of Roman bits suggest that the animals were smaller in the muzzle than the horses and ponies ridden today. The largest bits measure only slightly over 100mm, which by today’s standards would indicate a medium-sized pony of 1.32-1.37 m. There was, however, a great deal of eastern Asiatic blood in the Roman horse and eastern horses are generally finer boned and therefore narrower headed than northern horses of the same height. Thus although some idea of the height of a Roman cavalry horse can be gained from bit size, not too much should be assumed from this one measurement, particularly as, whereas today pinching the horse’s mouth is avoided, the Romans actively sought to do so with some of their spiked bits. The narrowness may thus not necessarily mean that horses’ muzzles were that much smaller than those of similar-sized horses today (Hyland 1990, 139-40). Caerleon – Bear House Field II: F64; Parade-ground levelling; before c.130

Ti01. side-plate, copper alloy (acc. no. 20.526/2) length 71mm [broken], width 61mm, thickness 3mm Disc with a central hole and radiating openwork design. Two lugs project from the edge at a rightangle to each other. One lug is straight sided with a triangular perforation; the other lug is broken but appears to have a circular or oval perforation. Cf. Hod Hill (Brailsford 1962, 2 nos.A25-27); Vindonissa (Unz & Deschler-Erd 1997, 50 no.1958). Caersws: - - -

Ti04. bit link, iron (acc. no. 56.214B) length 77mm, width of rod 5mm, thickness of rod 5mm Short rod, now of indeterminate cross-section, with a loop at each end. The loops are set perpendicular to each other and are markedly different in size (diameters 23mm and 16mm). Boon (unpublished) no.19 Caerleon – Bear House Field II: - - -

Ti02. bit link, iron (acc. no. 23.292) length 68mm [broken], width of rod 10mm, thickness of rod 9mm Short rod, of rectangular section, with a loop at either end, set at right angles to each other. One survives more or less intact (diam. 19mm) but only the start of the other survives. Wheeler (1923) p.144, fig.65.10 Segontium: - - -

Ti05. bit link, iron (acc. no. 82.10H) length 89mm, width of rod 7mm, thickness of rod 7mm A short rod with the remains of an opened loop at one end. The other end is broken but sufficient remains to show that it too was looped, although in a plane at right angles to the other. A similar arrangement was used in the medieval period, however, given the small proportion of medieval metalwork from the site, a Roman origin is accepted as being far more likely. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.41 no.19 Usk – Detention Centre Site: 70(+) unstratified

Ti03. head stall, copper alloy (acc. no. 56.214A) length 134mm [broken], width 60mm [broken] Portion of the right-hand side of a head-stall, consisting of two arms of D-shaped section at rightangles, the shorter being curved somewhat. Both arms are imperfect. This example differs from other examples in possessing a buckle cast in with it. The buckle would certainly permit the head-stall to be more readily adjustable than would be the case with stalls of the Newstead type, and on the left-hand side of the stall there would, presumably, have been a loop to which the other end of the strap would have been fixed. The strap passing over the animal’s head was also probably furnished with a buckle for adjustment. cf. Wroxeter (Bushe-Fox 1914, 31 pl.XX.2) and Newstead (Curle 1911, 297 p1.LXXI.4). Boon (unpublished) no.99

Ti06. curb bit, iron (acc. no. 82.10H) length 98mm Slightly curving rod which is broken at one end and has an eye (diam. 8mm) at the other end. Probably a fragment of the cheek-piece of a Type 2 curb bit (Manning 1985, 68). Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.42 no.22 Usk – Detention Centre Site: FBU (1) pit; late second / third century Ti07. ? bit link, iron (acc. no. 82.11H) length 76mm, width of rod 10mm, thickness of rod

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10mm Sub-rectangular rod which tapers to a relatively wide hooked end. The other end is broken. Heavily encrusted.

Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.42 no.20 Usk – Cattle Market Site: LAL (1) Fortress well; Pre-Flavian or Flavian (Manning 1989, 94)

Spurs How common the use of spurs was in the Roman cavalry, or in the Roman Empire in general, is unclear: Vigneron (1968, 84-5) believes that they formed a regular part of the cavalryman’s equipment, whilst Shortt (1959, 61) argues that they were not in general use. There is certainly an absence of sculptural depictions of spurs, although this may be due to the difficulty of carving such a small item (Southern & Dixon 1992, 589). Roman spurs were made of both copper alloy and iron, the material used having relatively little effect on the basic design of the spur, but a higher degree of decoration was easier with ones cast from copper alloy. They have been classified into a number of groups based on the means by which they were attached and the shape of the arm or prick which protrudes centrally from the back of the spur (Shortt 1959, 61-2; Manning 1985, 69-70). Three basic methods were used for iron spurs in Roman Britain: the hook spur, where the ends of the arms turn back to form hooks (Manning 1985, 69 H24); the loop spur, with rectangular or rounded loops at the ends of the arms (Manning 1985, 69-70 H25-8); and the rivet spur with rivets at the ends of the arms (Manning 1985, 70 H29). The prick of a rivet spur is often more elaborate than on the other two types, commonly having a hook which protrudes above the heel-plate (Manning 1985, 69). There are only two spurs in the Museum’s collection and as the context of one of them is unknown it could be of a later date. length 73mm [broken], max. width of strip 17mm, thickness 2mm, length of prick 12mm Curved strip with a simple, square pyramidal prick pushed through at the apex. No evidence for the means of attachment survives. Usk – Old Market Street 1986: SF098 (106/081); Period II (Phase 5) c.AD 55/60 - c.75 (Marvell 1996, 54)

Tk01. spur, iron (acc. no. 23.292) length 88mm [broken], max. width of strip 19mm, length of prick 29mm Curved strip tapering towards the ends. A slightly tapered rod, prick, extends from the apex. No evidence for the means of attachment survives. Segontium: - - Tk02. spur, iron (acc. no. 97.55H)

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U: Cavalry parade armour Evidence for what is usually called sports or parade armour, thought to have been used by Roman cavalry in the exercise called the Hippika Gymnasia, first appears during the first century AD (Robinson 1975, 108). Our knowledge of the manoeuvres executed in the Hippika Gymnasia is based upon Arrian, writing in the second century, who describes these displays fully in his Ars Tactica (Hyland 1993, 72-7). He stressed the special helmets and the emphasis on ceremony (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 96). The Museum’s collection contains two fragments of such armour: part of a helmet face mask and the probable remains of a chamfron.

Helmets The elaborate masked helmets which were worn during the Hippika Gymnasia are described by Arrian (Ars Tactica 34.1) and examples dating from the first to the late second century AD have been found. These helmets were made in two parts, a helmet bowl and a face mask, usually hinged together. During the late second and the early third centuries, some helmets appear to have retained only the surrounds of the face and not the central face mask (Robinson 1975, 129). In the third century helmets appear to have had elaborate cheek-pieces and no masks (Southern & Dixon 1992, 130). More than one typology based on stylistic and constructional variants exists for parade helmets, most notably those produced by Robinson (1975, 107-35) and Garbsch (1978, 4-7). Having none of the helmet’s bowl and only fragments of the face mask it is, however, impossible to match the Museum’s example to a particular type but given the date of its context, Robinson (1975, 112-25) Groups B to E would all be possible. upper lip (cf. Robinson 1975, 112-25 Groups B to E). Wheeler (1926) p.112, fig.56 Brecon Gaer: pit; late first century

Ua01. parade-helmet, copper alloy (acc. no. 25.212) Fragments of the face mask of a cavalry parade helmet. Only a few pieces are identifiable, notably part of an ear and the tip of the nose with part of the

Chamfrons Chamfrons provided protection to the head of a horse. They were made either of leather or metal, usually copper alloy. The most complete leather examples from Britain were found at Newstead (Curle 1911, 153-5, pl.XXI), and Vindolanda (Driel-Murray 1989, 283-90, fig.5). These are virtually identical, comprising a mask shaped to cover the front and sides of a horse’s head including its ears, with circular holes for the eyes. Both are decorated by designs picked out in metal studs. It has been suggested that the metal eye-guards which have been found on a number of sites, would have belonged to these leather chamfrons, but direct evidence is lacking (Southern & Dixon 1992, 131-2; Driel-Murray 1989, 291). Two distinct types of metal chamfrons can be recognized. The first consists of three hinged panels, with eyeguards as part of the two side-panels, giving similar coverage to the leather examples. The second group have a similar central plate, but to this are hinged only two eye-guards (Southern & Dixon 1992, 132; Garbsch 1978, 13-4 taf.4-6; Robinson 1975, 190-3). It is impossible to say to which of these two types of metal chamfrons the example in the Museum’s collection belongs or, indeed, even to be certain that it is part of a chamfron, but at present this remain the most plausible identification. It does not answer in form to any known type and the quality of the workmanship is higher than normally appears on them. Garbsch (Zienkiewicz 1990, 466), however, allows that the plaque is of appropriate size to have served as the frontal of a horse chamfron, albeit one of unusual form and without surviving trace of the hinges which would have attached the perforated eye-pieces. The closest parallel is provided by a frontal-plate from Eining, depicting Victory alone, which is probably of third century date (Kellner 1978, 22-4 no.7, taf.31-3).

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modestly down turned and, despite damage to the front of the head, it can be seen that the stronglywaved hair is parted at the centre, with a roll of locks above the brow, and there is a hint that the hair is drawn up into a bun. The trophy takes the usual form of a manikin made up of a cruciform structure decked with armour to lend it human appearance. It is much scaled down in proportion, made askew to its shaft, and appears almost to be tucked into the corner so as to leave prominence to the Victory. It comprises helmet, muscle-cuirass (with pteryges), and opposed pairs of oval and trapezoidal shields; the flared mouths of two trumpets project upwards from behind the shields, and markings on the face of the trapezoidal shield may be meant to be another. The helmet is fitted with a broad, peaked brow-plate with scrolled terminals, and cut-away cheek-pieces (bucculae); two faintly scribed lines falling from a central plume are presumably meant to be a horsehair crest. Throughout there is a sophisticated use of high and low relief. Both the trophy and the chest of the figure are left shallow so as to concentrate attention on the head, which, being most highly raised (89mm), forms the natural focus. Also the left leg raised in higher relief than the right in order to accentuate the swing of the hips. Zienkiewicz (1990) Evans (1991) p.130-2 Caerleon – Sandygate: SF003 (020) Room 10 of the centurion’s quarters of barrack no.9 of the Prysg Field series in the north-west corner of the legionary fortress (Nash-Williams 1931), in makeup level associated with construction of the single phase of stone-founded building which was apparent there. Late second or early third century.

Ub01. ? chamfron, bronze (acc. no. 86.29H) [metallic compositions confirmed by XRF analysis] length 262mm, width 162mm, thickness 1mm or less Substantially complete flat panel which appears originally to have been of trapezoidal, slightly asymmetrical, form. The original edge survives in part on all four sides and is slightly turned over in a way which may suggest that it had once been attached to a backing plate, but no trace of this remains. There are two punched holes near the upper edge, but in the absence of others around the edge, these are not necessarily an original means of attachment. On the back are extensive traces of a thin, silvery metallic coating, probably the remains of lead-tin solder used to fill the raised parts of the design, in order to give strength to what would otherwise have been a very delicate object. In places this metallic coating extends onto the flat areas, and rises well proud of its plane, showing that the sheet cannot have been very tightly matched to any backing. The front face shows no sign of ever having received a plating of silver or tin. The main parts of the design were worked up in repoussé, and the finer detail chased and punched from the front, with particular care being taken to sharpen up the edges of raised areas both with a thin scriber and a broad edged tool to push the surrounding metal back to the flat. The decoration consists of a winged Victory bearing an anthropomorphic tropaeum, set on a bare ground. It is executed to a high standard, and much attention has been given to the overall balance of the composition. Victory, in a frontal pose, wears a loose-fitting chiton, clasped at the shoulders. This is gathered beneath the breasts with a simple knotted tie-cord, and a second girdle is hidden beneath the billowing folds of an over fall at the hip. Her head is

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V. Standards The standards played a very important role in the Roman army, for not only were they a rallying point for troops and a method of relaying signals in battle, but they also had a religious significance. The loss of a standard was one of the most disgraceful events that could befall a unit. Naturally such valued items hardly ever turn up in the ground (Southern & Dixon 1996, 125). There were at least four types of standard: the aquila, or eagle, normally made of gold, which each legion carried; the imago which bore the portrait of the reigning emperor; the individual signa for each century; and the vexillum, a square piece of material with fringing on the bottom edge, which hung from a crossbar attached to a lance (Connolly 1981, 218-9; Rostovtzeff 1942, 93-7). The Museum’s collection contains one piece, a silver spearhead shaped object, that has been identified as the top of a standard (Boon 1972, 67). This could have been for either a vexillum or a signum, both of which are depicted on Trajan’s column with spear shaped ends (Lepper & Frere 1988, Scenes vii, xxvi, cxxviii; Richmond 1982, pl.9). There are, however, other items which this object could have formed a part. It would appear to resemble the elaborate tips of some of the wands-of-office of an emissary or official on the staff of a senior officer (beneficiarius, etc.), both sculptured and actually surviving. Those which do survive are of bronze or iron, however, and not of silver, and they regularly have slots or perforations for streamers or for discs with the letters BF (b(ene)f(iciarius) (Bishop & Coulston 1993, 126). A third possibility is that it is the tip of a decoration awarded to a senior officer (hasta pura, vexillum argenkum). Boon (1972, 67) rejected this identification on the evidence provided by the Amastris monument which shows both hasta pura and vexillum argenkum, with other decorations, and identifies them by name (Maxfield 1981, pl.5). On it the hasta pura is a spear with a somewhat broad lozengular point and the vexillum argenkum does not end in a spear-point. Overall, however, the evidence for the form of such awards is too slight for any absolute certainty (Maxfield 1981, 82-6). Although these other possibilities cannot be completely ruled out, its size and the fact that it is of silver, makes an identification as a standard head the most attractive at present. shaft, where it narrows to little wider than the central shaft before expanding again into a fishtail shape. Split socket, formed simply by the plate rapped round. Boon (1972) p.67 Caerleon – School Field: lying on the uppermost floor of Room 9 in the magazines adjacent to the basilica exercitatoria (XIX)

Va01. ? standard head, silver (acc. no. 35.118) length 285mm, max. width 98mm; spike 9mm wide, tapering to 6mm, and 9mm thick; socket 15 by 13mm internally and 19 by 15mm externally Slender, slightly tapering shaft with a socket at one end and a blunt point at the other. Immediately above the socket is an onion-, or inverted heart-, shaped plate, this extends nearly halfway up the

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W: Pendants Roman military sites produce large numbers of pendants, the precise function of many of which cannot be ascertained. The difficulties of distinguishing between pendants for use with the military apron and those for use with horse-harness are well known since some pieces would be appropriate in either role (Webster 1992, 115). It is fairly easy to spot the two extremes but in fact there is a range of forms and sizes which make a clear functional division difficult or impossible. There were also less common uses as parts of vexillia and signa. Pendants are thus here treated together as a group. Also included are items generally referred to as strap-ends, but which were clearly designed to hang freely and would appear to fit happily within the broad range of pendants found and do not appear to have a clear cut functional difference. While some, or all, of these could easily have hung from the ends of straps, whether on harness (p.138) or military aprons (p.93), they are clearly distinct from strap-ends that formed a ridged end to a strap (see p.124 & p.136). A number of different shapes of pendants are discernable and shape is generally used to divide pendants into groups. These divisions, however, are based on modern perceptions of the shapes and may not all really represent clearly distinct forms. For instance, pendants are now described as tear-drop or heart-shaped but these could well be part of a continuum of forms which may even include pendants now perceived as hexagonal. Bishop (1987, 118-9) demonstrates how the ‘triffid’ pendants may have derived from crescentic pendants and so may be seen as extreme examples of the one form.

Lanceolate Pendants Oldenstein (1976, 142-7) distinguishes two types of lanceolate shaped strap-ends, those with an eye at the top of the fitting, for suspension and those with butt ends for fastening directly onto leather and with full round moulding. It is the first of these types (Oldenstein 1976, 249 nos.290-304), that is discussed here as pendants. The second type (Oldenstein 1976, 249-50 nos.305-24), is considered with other strap-ends (see Sp07). Those with a wide U-shaped eye flat across the top could have been secured directly to a narrow leather strap threaded through the eye, the evidence, however, suggests that these pendants were usually secured by means of a copper alloy strip passed through the eye and folded back on itself with the leather strap interleaved and the whole secured with a rivet or stud (see Wa04). Oldenstein (1976, 144) suggests that their main period of use was in the second century and that they continued into the third century with occasional later survivals. The examples, from dated contexts, in the Museum’s collection range from the mid second century to the fourth century. The precise use, or uses, to which lanceolate pendants were put is uncertain. Webster (1992, 125) discusses their use as terminals for the narrow-strap military apron, as seen on the tombstones of Annaius Daverzus, from Bingen, and Hyperanor Lappa, from Bingerbruck (Espérandieu 1922, no.6125 & no.6136). Neither of these tombstones, however, show lanceolate pendants and present evidence seems to suggest that the narrowstrap apron passed out of use considerably before the currency of lanceolate pendants. On the other hand it is to a modified ‘down-market’ form of the narrow-strap apron that the lanceolate pendants would have belonged and it is possible that such a modified form of narrow-strap apron may have survived longer, though, in the absence of other evidence, it is unlikely that the narrow-strap apron could have survived even in modified form throughout the full currency of the lanceolate pendants. Wa02. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 23.292) length 47mm, width 8mm, thickness 2mm Long slender example with a semi-circular eye. Wheeler (1923) p.141, fig.62.7 Segontium: - - -

Wa01. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 23.292) length 45mm, max. width 10mm, thickness 2mm Flattened D-shape in profile with a distinct terminal knob. The eye is rectangular. Below the eye there are a pair of notches out of each side. Slight hollow, casting flaw, on back. Wheeler (1923) p.139, fig.61.15 Segontium: - - -

Wa03. ? lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 23.292) length 35mm, max. width 14mm, thickness 3mm

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tinning on both faces. Caerleon – unprovenanced

There is a large head with a semi-circular eye at one end. The other end is rounded and has a circular peroration. Wheeler (1923) p.141, fig.62.6 Segontium: - - -

Wa11. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 49mm [broken], max. width 11mm, thickness 4mm D-shaped, almost flattened oval in section. It has a very small terminal knob. The eye is broken but suggests a broad U-shape. Nash-Williams (1932) p.85 fig.34.36 Caerleon – Prysg Field: 7(6)S; Barrack Block No.7 Room 6; c.105-200

Wa04. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 25.1/552) overall length 57mm, length of pendant 31mm, max. width 7mm Pendant attached to a strip folded back on itself. The strip has been narrowed at the fold to fit through the loop in the pendant. Holt: - - -

Wa12. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 42mm [broken], max. width 11mm, thickness 3mm It is of pointed oval section with a pointed terminal knob. There are remains of a large U-shaped or subrectangular eye. Caerleon – Prysg Field: A(20)T; Barrack Block No.1 Room 20; 74/5 - c.110 (Nash-Williams 1931, 140)

Wa05. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 35mm [broken], max. width 7mm, thickness 2mm It has a flat terminal knob and a wide U-shaped eye. Caerleon – unprovenanced Wa06. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 42mm [broken], max. width 13mm, thickness 2mm Flat slightly tapered towards bottom, it is broken at both ends. There is a crude lattice pattern at the bottom end on one side and a saltier on the other. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Wa13. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 37mm, max. width 10mm, thickness 2mm It has a U-shaped eye and no terminal knob. Caerleon – Prysg Field: - - Wa14. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 34mm [broken], max. width 14mm, thickness 2mm Flat with the lower end missing. It has a broad Ushaped eye with remains of a copper alloy strip rapped round its top. Caerleon – Amphitheatre: - - -

Wa07. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 23mm, max. width 12mm, thickness 4mm Flat top plate with a sub-rectangular eye separated from body by a disc like collar. The surviving part of the body is convex with a hollow back. There are faint traces of tinning. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Wa15. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 36.470) length 39mm, max. width 9mm, thickness 2mm Flat, possibly with bevelled edges but these may be caused by corrosion. The eye is rectangular. Caerleon – Jenkins Field II: at (53) charcoal of pink and charcoal layering

Wa08. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 34mm [broken], max. width 9mm, thickness 2mm Narrow wasted example without a terminal knob. Both faces are flat but the edges are bevelled giving a flattened D-shaped appearance. The eye is broken but was probably originally U-shaped. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Wa16. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 36.472) length 41mm [broken], max. width 10mm, thickness 4mm Pointed D-shaped, almost triangular, in section with a bi-conical terminal. There is a horizontal groove below eye and traces of tinning on the surface. Caerleon – Vine Cottage: (45) S

Wa09. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 43mm, max. width 10mm, thickness 1mm Flat, including the terminal knob, with crudely bevelled edges. The eye is rectangular. The bottom end is slightly bent up. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Wa17. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 54.389A) length 31mm, max. width 8mm, thickness 3mm Small example, of D-shaped section. The top of the eye is missing, but it appears to have been rectangular. Boon (unpublished) no.79

Wa10. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 43mm, max. width 9mm, thickness 2mm Flattened D-shape in profile with a distinct terminal knob. The eye is semi-circular. There are traces of

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Caerleon – Bear House Field I: F67; Main lateral drain; c.130-230

Wa24. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 30mm, max. width 9mm, thickness 2mm Flat with angular edges and a circular eye. Brewer (1986) p.177 no.52 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block -4; Antontine - third century

Wa18. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 54.389A) length 48mm, max. width 11mm, max. thickness 12mm More in the form of a Hercules club than a normal lanceolate pendant. No close parallel has been found. Boon (unpublished) no.81 Caerleon – Bear House Field I: F68; Main lateral drain

Wa25. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 84.43H) length 32 mm, max. width 7mm, thickness 2mm A slender example with rectangular eye, to which a plain metal strip is attached as suspension loop. Cf. Chichester (Down 1978, 302 no.110); and the Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 249 no 304). Zienkiewicz (1993) p.113 no.33 Caerleon – The Legionary Museum Site: (93) Phase V c.200

Wa19. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 56.214A) length 44mm, max. width 17mm [broken], max. thickness 7mm More in the form of a Hercules club than a normal lanceolate pendant. There is evidence of tinning. See Wa18. Boon (unpublished) no.80 Caerleon – Bear House Field II: F23; Gulley within the line of the boundary-wall; Antonine/third century

Wa26. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 36mm, max. width 9mm, thickness 3mm The back is flat but the front is slightly raised. The edges are bevelled. There is a distinct terminal knob. The eye is a wide U-shape. Webster (1992) p.126 no.99 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF332 (31/359) Block A, Phase V c.275/300-350

Wa20. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 60.482) length 44mm [broken], max. width 12mm, thickness 4mm Rough casting, certainly unfinished and possibly even an abandoned miscasting. Caerleon – Jenkins Field III: A3, unstratified on top of wall

Wa27. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 30mm, max. width 9mm, thickness 2mm It has a slight ridge down the front and a wide Ushaped eye. Webster (1992) p.126 no.100 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1050 (31/1057) Block B, Phase IV c.160-340

Wa21. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 33mm, max. width 12mm, thickness 3mm D-shaped in section with an eye of flattened Ushape. It is now in two pieces. Brewer (1986) p.177 no.49 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 11/12; Antontine - third century

Wa28. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 37, max. width 11mm, thickness 2mm Both back and front of the fitting are flat but on the front the edges are bevelled. It has a wide U-shaped eye. Webster (1992) p.126 no.101 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF747 (31/325) Block B Collapse, Phase VII c.400+

Wa22. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 31mm, max. width 12mm, thickness 2mm Flat but with a slight curve to the upper face. The eye is a flattened U-shape. Brewer (1986) p.177 no.50 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 11; Antontine - third century

Wa29. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 39mm, max. width 8mm, thickness 2mm A slightly unusual example with a circular head, pierced with a circular eye. The front is ridged and facetted and the tip pointed. It was originally tinned. Cf. Saalbug (Oldenstein 1976, 249 nos. 303-4). Webster (1992) p.126 no.102 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF986 (31/6511) Phase VII c.400+

Wa23. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 33mm, max. width 10mm, thickness 2mm Flat with bevelled edges, the eye is worn to almost an oval. Brewer (1986) p.177 no.51 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 11/12; Antontine - third century

Wa30. lanceolate pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.144)

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length 17mm, max. width 12mm, thickness 2mm Upper section with a rectangular eye. Cf. Richborough (Wilson 1968, 95 no.120).

Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.267 no.144 Loughor: SF494 (53\1180) fill of post-trench in Building 3.4; Period II (Phase 3) c.80 - c.85

‘Trifid’ Pendants Found from the Claudian period onwards, ‘trifid’ pendants appear to have evolved from a simple inverted lunula (Bishop 1987, 118). One of the commonest forms of pendant in the first century AD, they were always associated with phalerae, on horse harness, and were usually silvered and inlaid with niello. There are a wide range of variations upon the basic form but most had a central lobe decorated in the form of a leaf. The inlaid decoration is usually based on the theme of viticulture, with vine leaves, tendrils and bunches of grapes in a variety of more or less stylised forms (Bishop 1988, 96, 142-6 Type 1; Jenkins 1985, 143-8). suspension-loop. Originally pierced in four places, only one hole remains free of corrosion. Analysis shows the present example once to have been tinned. An incised pattern, faintly preserved, probably represents trailing vine-leaves, possibly inlaid. The small object to the bottom left is meant to be an acorn. Cf. Newstead (Curle 1911, pl.LXXIII,2-4); Strageath (Grew & Frere 1989, 145 no.40); and Xanten (Jenkins 1985, 143-8, pl.V-VII). Zienkiewicz (1993) p.108 no.9 Caerleon – The Legionary Museum Site: (172) Phase I/II c.74/5-90/100

Wb01. trifid pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 04.134) length 54mm, max. width 50mm, thickness 1mm Front decorated with a chased or engraved foliate pattern originally filled with niello, which survives only in the left flower, and with a pair of beanshaped openings. The nipple on the end of one of the acorn-terminals and the central tail are broken away. The front is tinned but the back is plain. Cf. Vindonissa four examples (Unz & Deschler-Erb 1997, 40 no.1393-6); Wroxeter (Bushe-Fox 1916, 30 no.30). Allen (1905) p.137 fig.8 Grimes (1951) p.224, fig.40.12 Davies and Spratling (1976) p.125 no.3, fig.3 Savory (1976) p.63, fig.39.12 Bishop (1988) p.146, type 1n, Seven Sisters: chance find

Wb03. trifid pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.142) length with loop 53mm, max. width 38mm, thickness 2mm The outer face is tinned and decorated with lightly incised scroll decoration. The patterning is emphasised by four comma-shaped cut-outs. The loop for attachment is intact. See Wb02. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.267 no.142 Loughor: SF628 (53\2532) fill of post-trench in Building 3.5; Period II (Phase 3) c.80 - c.85

Wb02. trifid pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 84.43H) length 53mm [broken], max. width 37mm [broken], thickness 2mm The pendant has an integral, turned-over

Winged Pendants Bishop (1988, 98, 149-51) describes winged pendants, his Type 7, as being one of the commonest preFlavian types of harness fitting, their absence from Tiberian and earlier sites suggesting a narrow ClaudioNeronian date range, which their distribution in Britain reflects (Manning, Price & Webster 1995, 38). Tinning seems to be the most frequent form of decoration, but pieces could incorporate openwork patterns. Pieces have either a stylised wolf’s head or a stylised bird’s head, either duck or goose. The method of suspension is always by the neck of the animal, which was passed through a loop, often suspended from a stud, riveted to the strap. On two examples in the Museum’s collection a rivet survives on the body of the pendant (Wc02 and Wc04). These were perhaps originally used to hold a leather backing in place on the rear of the pendant to prevent the metal chafing the horse (Bishop 1988, 108). The four Usk pendants (Wc02-Wc05) come from the same context and are so alike that they must surely have belonged to the same harness. The number of fragments found with them suggest that they represent substantial portions of both the breech- and breast-bands of a single harness (Manning, Price & Webster 1995, 38). possibly originally tinned. The suspension loop is entirely missing. Brewer (1986) p.177 no.45 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the

Wc01. winged pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 33mm [broken], width 46mm, thickness 1mm Simple flat plate, the surface is largely gone but

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disc, with the outer edge rolled back, to the front of the tab and would originally have attached both to a leather strap. See Wc02. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.36 no.1 Usk – Cattle Market Site: HUO (1) Fortress pit; PreFlavian (Manning 1989, 64)

drain; Antontine - third century Wc02. winged pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.11H) length 102mm Remains of the central part of the pendant including the gently tapering lower edge ending in an acornshaped knob. A rivet survives on the body of the pendant. From the top extends a narrow strip which curves forward over the pendant to form a loop terminating in an animal head of wolf or fox-like appearance with two sharply-pointed ears, two staring eyes consisting each of a slightly raised dot surrounded by a shallow groove, and a sharply tapered snout with a slightly more bulbous nose. The loop, before being closed against the pendant, passes through a small copper alloy ring from the top of which emerges a rectangular tab. A knobheaded tack attaches a disc, with a marked marginal rib and a pronounced inner rib, to the front of the tab and would originally have attached both to a leather strap. Cf. Vindonissa (Unz & Deschler-Erd 1997, 40 no.1364). Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.36 no.1 Usk – Cattle Market Site: HUO (1) Fortress pit; PreFlavian (Manning 1989, 64)

Wc04. winged pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.11H) length 86mm Remains of the central part of the pendant showing the upward curve from either side of the top centre and including the gently tapering lower edge ending in an acorn-shaped knob. A rivet survives on the body of the pendant. From the top extends a narrow strip which curves forward over the pendant to form a loop terminating in an animal head of wolf or foxlike appearance with two sharply-pointed ears, two staring eyes consisting each of a slightly raised dot surrounded by a shallow groove, and a sharply tapered snout with a slightly more bulbous nose. The loop, before being closed against the pendant, passes through a small copper alloy ring from the top of which emerges the remains of a tab. See Wc02. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.36 no.1 Usk – Cattle Market Site: HUO (1) Fortress pit; PreFlavian (Manning 1989, 64)

Wc03. winged pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.11H) length 105mm Remains of the central part of the pendant showing the upward curve from either side of the top centre and including the gently tapering lower edge ending in an acorn-shaped knob. From the top extends a narrow strip which curves forward over the pendant to form a loop terminating in an animal head of wolf or fox-like appearance with two sharplypointed ears, two staring eyes consisting each of a slightly raised dot surrounded by a shallow groove, and a sharply tapered snout with a slightly more bulbous nose. The loop, before being closed against the pendant, passes through a small copper alloy ring from the top of which emerges a rectangular tab. A knob-headed tack attaches a plain concave

Wc05. winged pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.11H) length 33mm and 38mm The two fragments not definitely from the same pendant. One is part of the lower edge ending in an acorn-shaped knob. The other a strip terminating in an animal head of wolf or fox-like appearance with two sharply-pointed ears, two staring eyes consisting each of a slightly raised dot surrounded by a shallow groove, and a sharply tapered snout with a slightly more bulbous nose. See Wc02. Manning, Price & Webster (1995) p.36 no.1 Usk – Cattle Market Site: HUO (1) Fortress pit; PreFlavian (Manning 1989, 64)

Circular Pendants fig.15] small pendant: length 19mm, diameter 10mm, thickness 2mm Top of the main pendant, including the suspension hook, and a small circular hanger. The suspension hook is formed of a strip bent back on itself. The hanger is gilded and has a repoussé face on it. Wheeler & Wheeler (1928) p.168 no.44, fig.15 Caerleon – Amphitheatre: layer with a denarius of Hadrian and much Hadrianic pottery

Wd01. circular pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) diameter 37mm, total length 50mm, thickness 1mm Simple flat plate with a loop formed by a strip extending from the top. Three circular holes with Dshaped slits above to take circular hangers. Traces of tinning on front. Wheeler & Wheeler (1928) p.169 no.5, Pl.XXXIII Caerleon – Amphitheatre: layer containing abundant pottery of c.130-60

Wd03. circular pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 65.170A/1) length 55mm, diameter 45mm, thickness 1mm Flat disc with a suspension hook formed of a

Wd02. circular pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) main pendant: length 66mm, width 45mm [measurements from Wheeler & Wheeler (1928)

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narrow strip bent round and continued down the back. It contains three small hangers of oval shape with projecting terminals. All the components are decorated with pointillé scrolls.

Brewer (1986) p.181 no.132 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upon a gravelled surface below orange concrete floor-bedding at south west corner of basilica; Hadrianic - Antonine

Large Crescentic Pendants Large crescentic pendants, come in a wide range of forms and are found from the Augustan period through to the second century AD in association with cavalry harness (Bishop 1988, 98, 152-5 Type 9). The shape suggests an amulet. They generally appear to be one of the more common types of pendant but surprisingly there are only two examples in the Museum’s collection. length 63mm, diameter 50mm, thickness 5mm It has a convex face and concave back, and a large loop for suspension. The small circular hole just below the loop would have taken a hanger (see Wf01). An inner disc is recorded in the report but does not appear to survive. Hogg (1968) p.181 Br7 Pen Llystyn: surface of intervallum road outside norh corner of Commandant’s House

We01. crescentic pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.118) length 47mm, diameter 50mm, thickness 5mm A tag at the centre of the top represents the remains of the means of attachment. Cf. the Upper GermanRaetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 254 nos.436). Caerleon – School Field: - - We02. crescentic pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 67.266/2.7)

Small Crescentic Pendants A type common on Roman military sites, and indeed the second largest group in the Museum’s collection. There is representational evidence for their use on military aprons (Bishop 1992, 81-91). As noted for the previous group, the shape suggests an amulet. length 36mm, diameter 18mm, thickness 4mm Hollow backed, with twisted wire suspension loop. Wheeler & Wheeler (1928) p.166 no.30, fig.14 Caerleon – Amphitheatre: roadway of Entrance C; early third century

Wf01. crescentic pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 25.1/528) total length 45mm [broken], diameter 33mm, thickness 3mm; length of hanger 33mm, length of phallus 32mm A two piece pendant. The upper, crescent-shaped part is angular in section with moulded ends. From it is suspended a sub-circular plate, that sits within the horns of the crescent, and connects with a phallus hanging below. There is evidence of tinning. Cf. Colchester (Crummy 1983, 164 no.4621). Grimes, 1930: p.127, fig. 55.13 Holt: - - -

Wf05. crescentic pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 27mm, width 20mm, thickness 2mm Hollow backed, with a solid attachment loop. Now in three pieces. Wheeler & Wheeler (1928) p.166 no.31, fig.14 Caerleon – Amphitheatre: outside the amphitheatre; third century level Wf06. crescentic pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 36.472) length 37mm [broken], max. width 18mm Hollow backed, with twisted wire suspension loop. Caerleon – Vine Cottage: - - -

Wf02. crescentic pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 44mm, diameter 21mm, thickness 3mm Hollow backed, with twisted wire suspension loop. Nash-Williams (1932) p.85 fig.34.38 Caerleon – Prysg Field: 7(11)S; Barrack Block No.7 Room 11; c.105-200 Wf03. crescentic pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 27mm, diameter 19mm Hollow backed, with twisted wire suspension loop. Caerleon – Prysg Field: - - -

Wf07. crescentic pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 54.389A) length 17mm [broken], width 17mm, thickness 1mm Hollow backed, with a solid attachment loop. Boon (unpublished) no.92 Caerleon – Bear House Field I: F93; Main lateral drain; c.130-230

Wf04. crescentic pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119)

Wf08. crescentic pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 77.56H/A)

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length 18mm [broken] Small loop and twist of wire, presumably part of a pendant of this type. Murray-Threipland (1967) p.48 no.10, fig.5 Caerleon – The Croft: Barrack IX C (Period 4) probably early third century

Wf11. crescentic pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 84.43H) length 26mm, width 21mm, thickness 2mm Cast with integral suspension-loop and lobes at the joining crescent tips. Zienkiewicz (1993) p.114 no.38 Caerleon – The Legionary Museum Site: (19) unstratified

Wf09. crescentic pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 35mm, width 20mm, thickness 3mm Hollow backed with twisted wire suspension loop. Brewer (1986) p.177 no.53 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 8; Antontine - third century

Wf12. crescentic pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 87.48H) length 26mm [broken], width 20mm [broken], thickness 4mm Incomplete, missing its suspension loop and the horns of crescent. Hollow backed. Fox (unpublished a) no.7 Caerleon – Great Bulmore Farm: (76F/744)

Wf10. crescentic pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 84.43H) length 30mm [broken], width 17mm, thickness 3mm Incomplete. The tips of the crescent join and terminate with lobes in relief. The back is hollow. The shank returns on itself and is twisted around to form a loop for attachment. Zienkiewicz (1993) p.111 no.20 Caerleon – The Legionary Museum Site: (34) Phase IVa c.130/140

Wf13. crescentic pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 35mm Suspension loop of twisted wire. It hangs from a thin copper alloy strip. Fox (unpublished b) no.32 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF460 (138/239) Phase Vb

Heart-Shaped Pendants There is representational evidence for the use of heart-shaped pendants on military aprons (Bishop 1992, 8191). Caerleon – Amphitheatre: make-up of the third century level by Entrance F;. Probably Antonine

Wg01. heart-shaped pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 47mm, width 20mm The heart shape is elongated at the bottom by an additional crescent shaped extension and a terminal knob. There is incised decoration on the front. The loop is formed by a strip bent round. Oldenstein (1976, 139) dates the type to the mid second to third century. Cf. Cirencester (Webster 1982, 114 no.117); South Shields (Allason-Jones & Miket 1984, 200 no.3.660); Verulamium (Goodburn 1984, 36 no.88); and the Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 248 nos.261-7). Wheeler & Wheeler (1928) p.169 no.7, Pl. XXXIII Caerleon – Amphitheatre: make-up of the third century level by Entrance F; Probably Antonine

Wg03. heart-shaped pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) total length 60mm, length of pendant 47mm, max. width 25mm, width of plate 35mm Flat but with a collared terminal knob. The attachment hook is bent forward and has a bulbous end. Still attached to a squat T-shaped sheet with a sub-rectangular hole in the leg and a small circular piercing at either end of the head. See Wn01. Allason-Jones (1993) p.174 no.84 Segontium: SF1043 (2000A) fill of open drain; Period 10A - late fourth century Wg04. heart-shaped pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) total length 55mm [broken], length of pendant 42mm, max. width 29mm, thickness 1mm Damaged remains with much of its edge gone. It is pierced near the bottom by a round headed rivet and has a forward curving suspension hook, ending in a rounded bi-conical knob. The hook is still attached to a thin strip pierced by a small rivet. Cf. Cirencester (Webster 1982, 112-4 no.115); Walbrook, London (Webster 1958, 86, no.155). Fox (unpublished b) no.31 Caerleon – British Telecom Site: SF518 (138/207)

Wg02. heart-shaped pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) total length 60mm, pendant length 47mm, width 17mm The heart shape is elongated at the bottom by an additional crescent shaped extension and a terminal knob. There is incised decoration on the front. The loop is cast in one with the pendent and is set at right-angles to the plane of the pendant. Altogether a heavier piece than Wg01. It is still attached to a dome headed stud. Wheeler & Wheeler (1928) p.169 no.8, Pl. XXXIII

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Phase Vb

Wg06. heart-shaped pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.141) length 37mm, max, width 23mm, thickness 1mm It is now more of a shield shape because of damage around the two lunate holes near the top. There are some traces of tinning. See Wg04. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.267 no.141 Loughor: SF003 (66\018) layer of gravel Period I (Phase 1) c.73/4 - c.80

Wg05. heart-shaped pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.140) length 39mm, max. width 19mm, thickness 3mm The heart shape is elongated at the bottom by an additional crescent shaped extension and a terminal knob. There is incised decoration on the front. The loop is cast in one with the pendent and is set at right-angles to the plane of the pendant. see Wg01. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.265 no.140 Loughor: SF002 (69\003) sub-soil; modern

See also Wm09

Teardrop Pendants Teardrop shaped pendants (Bishop 1988, Type 5), are extremely common and fulfilled a variety of purposes. Some of the smaller ones formed terminals to ‘apron’ straps (Bishop 1992, 81-91), or central pendants in lunulae, but the larger examples could be suspended from phalerae, as the finds from Inota show (Bishop 1988, 98). These normally employed neck suspension, but hinged examples are also found. Flat but with a bi-conical terminal. The suspension hook is broken. Brewer (1986) p.177 no.46 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 11/12, in a mass of iron corrosion with an as of Antoninus Pius adhering to it; Antontine third century

Wh01. teardrop pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 49mm [broken], max. width 24mm [broken], thickness 1mm Flat but with a bi-conical terminal. The front has a Y-shaped pattern of four incised dots, one of which is now a small hole all the way through. Most of the surface is gone but two of the dots show traces of pairs of concentric circles round them. The suspension loop is broken. Cf. Wroxeter (Webster 2002, 110 no.65). Caerleon – unprovenanced

Wh04. teardrop pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 82.22H) length 45mm, max. width 25mm, thickness 1mm Flat but with a bulbous end. The face is tinned and decorated with a complex but delicate pounced design, reminiscent of a fern. The loop or hook at the top is broken off but otherwise the pendant is complete apart from a slight notch out of one side. Possibly a debased copy of the vine-leaf motif, two examples from Stockstadt and Pfiinz are shaped like vine leaves with the pounced lines following the veins of the leaves (Oldenstein 1976, 246 nos.2078). Allason-Jones (1993) p.174 no.83 Segontium: SF1061 (1022) demolition spread; Period 6A – Hadrianic-early Antonine

Wh02. ? teardrop pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386/37) length 54mm, max. width 31mm, thickness 2mm Badly corroded, so no surface detail is visible, and in two pieces. It has a forward bent suspension loop, apparently with a terminal knob. Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage: Trial Trench 1 K-C occupation soil Wh03. teardrop pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 40mm [broken], width 23mm, thickness 1mm

Lozenge-Shaped Pendants length 50mm [bent], max. width 25mm, thickness 1mm Diamond shaped openwork pendant with small terminal knob. The loop is bent forward and ends in a decorative knob. Caerleon – Vine Cottage: at (56) from SP I and earliest SP II layers

Wi01. lozenge-shaped pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 25.212) length 50mm [broken], max. width 17mm [broken], thickness 2mm Flat, with a more three dimensional conical terminal. Two sides are smooth but two, opposites, are now very jagged. The surface is badly corroded. Cf. Wroxeter (Bushe-Fox 1916, 32 pl.XXI.1.6). Brecon Gaer: - - -

Wi03. lozenge-shaped pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 38.472)

Wi02. lozenge-shaped pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 36.472)

154

surviving. Caerleon – Endowed School: (98/177)

length 57mm [broken], max. width 16mm, thickness 1mm Elongated diamond shaped plate with a raised circular terminal and a circular suspension loop in the same plane as the face of the pendant. The original surface is lost. Caerleon – Museum Street: at (3) in uppermost occupation layering

Wi05.? lozenge-shaped pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.177) height 57mm, width 37mm, max. thickness at centre 6mm Openwork pendant, or escutcheon, with central domed boss. The openwork decoration is emphasised by a border of light punch dots with scroll patterns visible in the upper and lower sections. The three projecting angles are slightly domed. Most of the loop is now lost. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.272 no.177 Loughor: SF173 (53\492) demolition debris Building 3.10; Period V (Phase 12) c.105 - c.110

Wi04. lozenge-shaped pendant , copper alloy (acc. no. 87.47H) length 49mm [broken], max. width 23mm, thickness 2mm Broken at both ends, but one end does retain evidence for the start of the suspension loop. Badly corroded with no evidence of surface decoration

Small Enamelled Pendants The military nature of these pendants must be open to question, but can certainly not be ruled out, elaborate enamelling being known on both belt-plates (p.111) and harness fittings (p.137). chequerboard pattern. Fox (1940) p.130 no.16, fig.6 Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage Orchard: Surface soil

Wk01. enamelled pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386) length 34mm, width 13mm, thickness 2mm The design in the two, side panels comprises a red centre in a white ring, on a dark blue ground. In the centre panel the enamel is missing. Fox (1940) p.130 no.14, fig.6 Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage Orchard: Surface soil.

Wk03. enamelled pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 43mm, max. width 10mm, thickness 2mm Elongated kite-shaped pendant with a heart-shaped inset of black and yellow glass mosaic. The small, circular suspension loop is broken. Cf. Caerleon Canabae (Lloyd-Morgan 2000, 380 no.168) Brewer (1986) p.177 no.56 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 11; Antontine - third century

Wk02. enamelled pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386/213) length 33mm, width 12mm, thickness 2mm Pointed oval with a bi-conical terminal and circular suspension loop. Decorated by a blue and white

Unclassified Pendants and Fragments Wm01. pendant fragment, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 27mm [broken], max. width 29mm, thickness 2mm Crescent shaped fragment with a triangular terminal extending from the centre of the outer edge; three raised ribs run from this to the broken edge. There is notched decoration round the outer edge of the crescent and traces of tinning on the front. Caerleon – Churchyard Extension 1908: - - -

Wm03. ? pendant fragment, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 29mm [broken], max. width 18mm, thickness 1mm Openwork plate broken at one end with no evidence for means of attachment. Possibly the end of a pendant. Caerleon – Amphitheatre: above pit 2 in gravel Wm04. ? pendant fragment, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.120) length 38mm [broken], max. width 30mm [broken], thickness 2mm Decorated openwork fragment. Possibly the end of a pendant. Caerleon – Golledges Field: - - -

Wm02. pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 33.408/6) length 54mm, max. width 29mm, thickness 1mm Flat but with a bi-conical terminal knob. It appears to have been chemically stripped. Cf. Vindonissa (Unz & Deschler-Erb 1997, no.1307). Caerleon – unprovenanced

Wm05. pendant fragment, copper alloy (acc. no. 36.472) length 33mm [broken], max. width 24mm, thickness 1mm

155

refuse filling of frigidarium drainin its length A; phase X – c. 300-380 (Zienkiewicz 1986b, 257)

Top part of a pendant with curving shoulders. A suspension ring is attached by a strip folded over and down the back. Cf. Vindonissa (Unz & Deschler-Erd 1997, 41 no.1496). Caerleon – Vine Cottage: - - -

Wm11. pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 84.43H) length 37mm, max. width 18mm, thickness 1mm Pointed oval pendant, beaten and expanded from a rod. Hooked at both ends, the piece could have hung either way up and would have formed an intermediate element with another pendant hanging off it. It retains a single link of loop-in-loop chain. Zienkiewicz (1993) p.111 no.21 Caerleon – The Legionary Museum Site: (88) Phase IIIb c.90/100-130/140

Wm06. pendant fragment, copper alloy (acc. no. 56.214A) length 20mm [broken], width 20mm [broken], thickness 1mm The top of a pendant with an unusually elaborate suspension loop. A strip from the top of the pendant curves forward and expands into a perforated circular disc which is secured by a rivet through the body of the pendant. Traces of tinning survive on the front. Boon (unpublished) no.91 Caerleon – Bear House Field II: F38; On cobbles laid over filling of main lateral drain opposite Building VII

Wm12. ? pendant fragment, copper alloy (acc. no. 87.47H) length 22mm [broken] max. width 12mm, max. thickness 4mm Flat backed terminal knob, with two grooves above, and the start of a flat plate. Caerleon – Endowed School: (98/275)

Wm07. pendant fragment, copper alloy (acc. no. 77.40H) length 32mm [broken], thickness 1mm A fan shaped plate, decorated by line and dot decoration, with a marked ridge and an hour-glass shaped protuberance of D-shaped cross-section, forming a terminal. Much of the upper part of the fan is lost. Webster (1981) p.188 no.102 Whitton: (+) unstratified

Wm13. ? pendant fragment, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.3H) length 22mm [broken] max. width 13mm, max. thickness 3mm Remains of a flat, tapering plate with a narrow, more rounded, terminal projecting from it. Caerleon – British Telecom Site: (138/100) Wm14. ? pendant fragment, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 30mm [broken], max. width 25mm [broken], thickness 1mm Openwork heart-shape with an acorn shaped terminal. The upper half is lost. Cf. Heftrich on the German Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 246 no.199). Webster (1992) p.126 no.106 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF607 (31/534) Phase VII c.400+

Wm08. ? pendant fragment, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 29mm [broken], max. width 10mm, thickness 3mm Portion of openwork, possibly the remains of a pendant. Cf. the Upper German-Raetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 252 nos.388-97). Brewer (1986) p.177 no.57 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 11/12 ; Antontine - third century

Wm15. pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 39mm [broken], width 21mm [broken], thickness 1mm Although the piece is now roughly oval in shape this was not its original form as is shown by the short stretches of original edge to either side of the rearward facing hook at the top of the fragment. In the centre of the fragment is a hollow raised boss. Cf. South Shields (Allason-Jones and Miket 1984, 227 no.3.791). Webster (1992) p.131 no.125 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1187 (31/1134) Block A, Phase V c.275/300-350

Wm09. ? pendant fragment, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 26mm [broken], max. width 20mm, thickness 1mm Portion of an open-work plate, possibly from a heart-shaped pendant. Cf. the Upper GermanRaetian Limes (Oldenstein 1976, 246-7 nos.21740). Brewer (1986) p.178 no.62 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 12 ; Antontine - third century Wm10. ? pendant fragment, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 26mm [broken], thickness 3mm Portion of mount or pendant, with globular terminal. Brewer (1986) p.186 no.169 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: (1016) S3.34. Soil and

Wm16. pendant fragment, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.143) length 17mm, max. width 15mm, thickness 1mm Small light rounded pendant, made of sheet metal. In two pieces and incomplete.

156

Loughor: SF146 (57\049) surface and make-up of via sagularis; Period VIII (Phase 10) c.260 - 310+

Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.267 no.143 Loughor: SF602 (53\2279) burnt demolition debris sealing Buildings 3.6 and 3.7; Period III (Phase 6) c.85 - c.100

Wm18. ? pendant, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.178) height 39mm, width 17mm, thickness 1mm Damaged, roughly oval, piece with a border of small triangular piercings. The suspension loop is eroded and at some time has been replaced or augmented by a copper alloy rivet through one of the upper holes. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.272 no.178 Loughor: SF200 (53\568) levelling dump for timber building; Period V (Phase 11) c.105 - c.110

Wm17. pendant fragment, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.150) diameter 30mm, thickness 7mm Hollow domed boss with a flat flange decorated by two turned or moulded concentric circles. There is a small knobbed suspension hook at the edge. Cf. Vindonissa (Unz & Deschler-Erb 1997, 41 no.1468). Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.268 no.150

Pendant Hangers Some pendants could have been attached directly to a narrow leather strap by means of threading the leather through the eye or loop. Others, as noted with the lanceolate pendants (p.147), were secured by means of a folded copper alloy strip. However, more elaborate means of attachment were also used including, on horse harness, some of the phalerae (p.132). Wn05. hanger, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 21mm, width 48mm, thickness 2mm The fitting retains traces of gilding and was clearly intended to be decorative as well as functional. At either end of the fitting are pierced discs for rivets or studs and below the central decorative feature is a slightly irregular hole. See Wn01. Webster (1992) p.127 no.113 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF969 (31/854) Rampart Area, Phase III or IV c.100-340

Wn01. hanger, copper alloy (acc. no. 25.212/21) length 32mm, max. width 17mm, thickness 2mm Squat T-shaped sheet with a sub-rectangular hole in the leg and a small circular piercing at either end of the head. Wheeler (1926) p.118, fig.59.21 Brecon Gaer: - - Wn02. hanger, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.119) length 22mm, max. width 9mm, thickness 2mm, stud length 5mm A small pointed oval plate with a perforated lug projecting from one end. A stud projects from the centre of the back. This stud has a disc terminal (diam. c.5mm). Cf. Roman Gates, Caerleon, not in the Museum’s collection (Webster 1992, 127 no.103). Caerleon – Amphitheatre: Entrance C u/s

Wn06. hanger, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 24 mm, width 6mm, max. thickness 3mm A bent over strip with a flat headed rivet near the top edge and a hole for a second about halfway down. Brewer (1986) p.175 no.42 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block N-7; Antontine - third century

Wn03. hanger, copper alloy (acc. no. 36.472) length 57mm, max. width 20mm, thickness 2mm Strip folded back on itself. It tapers towards the open end, which has a perforated terminal. Caerleon – Vine Cottage: at (49) uppermost occupation below stone and tile debris; ? earliest SP II

Wn07. hanger, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) length 41mm, max. width 10mm A strip with two holes for rivets, only one of which survives. Brewer (1986) p.178 no.74 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: upper sediment of the drain, block 11; Antontine - third century

Wn04. hanger, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386/71) length 51mm, max. width 10mm, thickness 1mm One side of a folded strip hanger, broken where it bends over. Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage: Area IV top occupation, Building B on top of floor 3

Wn08. hanger, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length of tag 27mm, width 15mm, thickness 1mm, hole diameter 10mm length of pendant 29mm [broken], max. width 21mm [broken], thickness 1mm, Suspension tag with the remains of a large pendant still attached. There is a single large rivet hole

157

through the tag. Webster (1992) p.127 no.112 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1791 (31/1779) Block B, Phase III/IV c.100-340

Squat T-shaped sheet with a sub-rectangular hole in the leg and a small circular piercing at either end of the head. There is a fragment of a pendant still attached. See Wn05. Usk – former Church Voluntary Primary School: SF119 (135/271)

Wn09. hanger, copper alloy (acc. no. 97.54H) length 30mm [broken], width 17mm, thickness 2mm

See also Sr53, Tg28 and Wg03

158

X: Button-and-Loop Fasteners Button-and-loop fasteners were discussed in some detail by Wild (1970) who catalogued the then known examples both from Britain and abroad, dividing them into ten classes. Six of these classes are represented in the Museum’s collection, there are also a number of fasteners that can not be classified as only the loop survives and one object of related form despite not actually having a loop. The number of button-and-loop fasteners found on military sites suggests that they were items of military equipment (Wild 1970, 146), but no precise function has been identified for them. They are most often associated with horse harness but there is also evidence to suggest their use as alternatives to frogs (p.122), to attach a sword or a dagger to a belt (Wild 1970, 145-6; Grew & Griffiths 1991, 51).

Teardrop or Petal-headed fasteners Wild (1970) Class III Fasteners with heads consisting of a central boss surrounded by a raised rim drawn out into a point away from the loop. Most datable examples seem to belong to the second century so the example in the Museum’s collection is apparently an unusually early example. It is also unusual for having been enamelled, a feature of only five of the twenty-five examples catalogued by Wild. colour of which is uncertain. The outer raised border rises up to a slight moulded ridge at the tip. The triangular loop was probably made separately. Cf. Castleford (Bishop 1998, 70 no.237). Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.243 no.36 Loughor: SF226 (55\452) rubble feature; Period I (Phase 3) c.73/4 - c.80

Xa01. button-and-loop fastener, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.36) length 33mm, length of head 23mm, width of head 20mm, depth c.6mm, internal width of loop 7mm, internal length of loop 6mm The central boss on the head has the remains of a disc-shaped field of enamel inlay, the original

Fasteners with hollow boss and shank attached to the rim Wild (1970) Class IV Only four examples of this type of fastener were listed by Wild. Three of these came from Scotland and the fourth from Manchester, making the example from Caerleon a notable outlier. A second century date is tentatively suggested for the type. Insufficient of the loop survives to identify its original shape. Caerleon – unprovenanced

Xb01. button-and-loop fastener, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 28mm [broken], diameter of button c.21mm

Disc-headed fasteners Wild (1970) Class V Wild divides this class of fastener into four sub-types with different forms of decoration to the head. All have the loop attached to the centre of the head. Class Va: heads with cast ornament. Class Vb: enamelled heads. Wild notes that the flower-petal motif was the most popular design in this category. Class Vc: plain flat disc heads. Class Vd: conical heads. The Museum’s collection contain three examples of Class Va and Class Vb, and two of Class Vc, but no 159

examples of Class Vd. Room 1. on cement floor, third or fourth century

Xc01. button-and-loop fastener, copper alloy (acc. no. 31.78) length 47mm, diameter of button 35mm, internal width of loop 13mm, internal length of loop 11mm Class Vb: with a large button and triangular loop. The edge of the button is decorated by a ring of triangles, the enamel infilling of which is almost entirely missing. There is a central diamond with circular extensions from each point, all marked out in red enamel on a turquoise enamel background. Right at the centre is a royal blue dot. The end bar of the loop is mostly missing. Lee (1862) p.55, pl.XXVIII, fig.13 Caerleon – Castle grounds: - - -

Xc06. button-and-loop fastener, copper alloy (acc. no. 81.79H) diameter of button 20mm Class Vc: with the loop almost entirely missing. Brewer (1986) p.173 no.12 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: (385) c.75-100/110 Xc07. button-and-loop fastener, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 30mm, diameter of button 20mm, width of loop 15mm, thickness 2mm, internal width of loop 8mm, internal length of loop 8mm Class Vb: with the button decorated by six circles of yellow enamel, each set within a copper alloy wall, arranged, in a field of now brown enamel, round a similar circle of yellow enamel in the centre. The loop is triangular. Webster (1992) p.142 no.263 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1014 (31/1121) Block A; Phase V c.275/300-350

Xc02. button-and-loop fastener, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 28mm, width 16mm, thickness 3mm, diameter of button 17mm Class Vc: with a triangular loop. Nash-Williams (1932) p.91 fig.38.11 Wild (1970) p.151 no.75 Caerleon – Prysg Field: 4(22)S; Barrack Block No.4 Room 22; c.105-200

Xc08. button-and-loop fastener, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H) length 37mm, diameter of button 19mm, width of loop 14mm, internal width of loop 7mm, internal length of loop 9mm Class Vb: with the button decorated by a seven petalled flower, with petals defined by copper alloy walls, set against a turquoise ground; the centre comprises a small circle of red enamel with an outer ring of enamel now lost. Webster (1992) p.143 no.264 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF462 (31/461) Block A Phase IV c.160-340

Xc03. button-and-loop fastener, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.118) length 41mm, diameter of button 29mm, internal width of loop 7mm Class Va: with a U-shaped loop. Caerleon – School Field: SF J’X TS Xc04. button-and-loop fastener, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.118) length 42mm, diameter of button 28mm, internal width of loop 8mm Class Va: with a rectangular loop. Caerleon – School Field: SF J’X TS

Xc09. button-and-loop fastener, copper alloy (acc. no. 98.6H/3.35) length 40mm, diameter of button 24mm, thickness 4mm, width of loop 17mm [broken], internal width of loop 11mm, internal length of loop 12mm Class Va: with button decorated by three raised mouldings as a border and a lightly moulded ring around the raised centre. The heavy triangular loop is cast in one piece with the head. Lloyd-Morgan (1997) p.243 no.35 Loughor: SF214 (55\300) make-up of via sagularisin primary fort; Period II (Phase 4) c.80 - c.85

Xc05. button-and-loop fastener, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386/209) length 35mm, diameter of button 17mm, internal width of loop 6mm Class Vb: with the button decorated by a white daisy pattern on a yellow background. The loop is teardrop shaped. Fox (1940) p.130 no.18, fig.6 Wild (1970) p.151 no.61 Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage Orchard: Barrack VI,

Smaller ‘Vindonissa’ type fasteners Wild (1970) Class VIII Fasteners of this class are generally smaller and less robust than those of the other classes. Wild dates this type as starting in the pre-Flavian period and going out of production by the end of the first century. Class VIIIa: with hollow domed heads Class VIIIb: with flat cast heads, sometimes with enamel decoration. 160

The Museum’s collection contains three examples of Class VIIIa and one of Class VIIIb. Xd01. button-and-loop fastener, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.118) length 24mm, diameter of button c.17mm, internal width of loop 8mm Class VIIIa: with a slightly domed disc head and teardrop shaped loop. It is badly corroded, much of the edge of the button is gone. Caerleon – School Field: A 14 T1

length 34mm, diameter of button c.21mm, internal width of loop 14mm Class VIIIa: with plain disc-head, only very slightly domed, and a frail jointed loop. Hawkes (1930) p.193 no.2 Wild (1970) p.153 no.117 Caerleon – East Corner: filling under ‘furnacehouse’ floor; late first to late second century

Xd02. button-and-loop fastener, copper alloy (acc. no. 39.386/212) length 22mm, diameter of button 14mm Class VIIIb: with plain disc head and a broken loop. Fox (1940) p.130 under no.18 Wild (1970) p.151 no.74 [catalogued as Class Vc] Caerleon – Myrtle Cottage Orchard: Barrack VI, Room 2, on sandy floor; c.100-120

Xd04. button-and-loop fastner, copper alloy (acc. no. 65.170) length 26mm, diameter of button 15mm, internal width of loop 7mm [bent] Class VIIIa: with a jointed, circular loop. Some evidence of tinning. Brewer (1986) p.181 no.131a Caerleon – Backhall Street: Basilica S.W. corner below orange concrete bedding (S43.23)

Xd03. button-and-loop fastener, copper alloy (acc. no. 46.1)

Fasteners with Bar for Shank Wild (1970) Class IX Wild (1970, 143) thought they were probably late Roman in date. Richborough (Bushe-Fox 1926, 47 pl.XV.28). Caerleon – School Field: A 24 T

Xe01. button-and-loop fastener, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.118) length 25mm, length of bar 14mm [broken], internal width of loop 14mm, internal length of loop 8mm ‘Button’ in the form of a short, plain bar. Oval loop, distorted to a point where it joins the shaft. Cf.

See also Te01 and Te05

Fasteners of Bone Wild (1970) Class X Complete bone button-and-loop fasteners are rare from Britain and only one is present in the Museum’s collection. Of eleven examples catalogued by Wild, none is later than the first century AD (MacGregor 1985, 102). making it a Class Xb type (Wild 1970, 144). Greep (1983) p.572 no.193, fig.155.2 Greep (1986) p.209 no.22, fig.74 Caerleon – Fortress Baths: early clay surface at the north-west end of the basilica; earlier than construction c.75-100/110

Xf01. button-and-loop fastener, bone (acc. no. 65.170A) length 37mm, diameter of button 30mm The button is a convex disc decorated by a single groove near the circumference. It is attached to the loop by a small, copper alloy dome-headed rivet,

Unclassified Fastener A piece of clearly related form but with a bar instead of a loop. instead of a loop. Boon (unpublished) no.82 Caerleon – Bear House Field I: F63; Main lateral drain

Xg01. button-and-bar fastener, copper alloy (acc. no. 54.389A) length 33mm, diameter of button 25mm, length of bar 20mm Round, conical button but with a T-shaped shank

161

Fragments length 25mm [broken], width 17mm, thickness 3mm, internal width of loop 10mm, internal length of loop 14mm Slightly bent triangular loop. Webster (1992) p.143 no.265 Caerleon – Roman Gates Site: SF1383 (31/1772) Block B Phase III c.100-160

Xh01. button-and-loop fastener, copper alloy (acc. no. 32.60) length 26mm [broken], width 18mm, thickness 2mm Triangular loop. Caerleon – Prysg Field: 6(11); Barrack Block No.6 Room 11; no information as to phase Xh02. button-and-loop fastener, copper alloy (acc. no. 35.120) length 45mm [broken], width 10mm Triangular loop with only a fragment of the button surviving. Caerleon – Golledges Field: - - -

Xh04. ? button-and-loop fastener, copper alloy (acc. no. 94.29H) length 20mm [broken], width 23mm, internal width of loop 14mm, internal length of loop 9mm Triangular loop, with slightly curved sides. Caerleon – Broadway House: Tr. B (217) SF84

Xh03. button-and-loop fastener, copper alloy (acc. no. 88.165H)

162

Gazetteer of Sites Producing Military Equipment

1 Brecon Gaer; 2 Caerleon; 3 Caersws; 4 Caerwent; 5 Dinorben; 6 Ffrith; 7 Gelligaer; 8 Hindwell Farm; 9 Holt; 10 Llandough; 11 Loughor; 12 Pen Llystyn; 13 Pen-y-Corddyn; 14 Segontium; 15 Seven Sisters; 16 Usk; 17 Whitton

Brecon Gaer Fort

county: Brecknockshire unitary authority: Powys

SO 003 296

Accession no. 25.212 Spears Conical Ferrules Artillery Lorica Segmentata Belt Fittings Horse Harness Parade Armour Pendants

3 iron spearheads 3 iron conical ferrules 4 iron pyramidal bolt-heads copper alloy hinged fitting copper alloy belt-plate copper alloy hinged buckle 2 copper alloy mounts 3 copper alloy junction loops 2 copper alloy male strap fasteners copper alloy parade-helmet copper alloy lozenge-shaped pendant copper alloy hanger

cat. no. Da04, Da05, Da06. cat. no. Ga03, Ga04, Ga05. cat. no. Ja02, Ja03, Ja04, Ja05. cat. no. Lc01. cat. no. Sf01. cat. no. Sg03. cat. no. Sr04, Sr05. cat. no. Td06, Td07, Td08. cat. no. Te01, Te02. cat. no. Ua01. cat. no. Wi01. cat. no. Wn01.

Excavation Report: Wheeler (1926) References: Nash-Williams (1954) no.21; Jarrett (1969) no.6; RCAHMW (1986) RF2; Burnham (1995) no.73 Brecon Gaer sits on the summit of a rounded spur of high ground, overlooking the junction of the valleys of the Usk and the Yscir and at 3.14 hectares is one of the largest auxiliary forts in Wales. Its importance is emphasized by its relationship to the road system. It lies close to the road up the Usk valley from the legionary fortress at Caerleon to Llandovery, and thence to Carmarthen and west Wales. Roads north to Castell Collen and south to Neath may reasonably be presumed, and a few miles to the east a road branched 163

off from the Usk valley route to cross the Brecon Beacons to Penydarren, Gelligaer, and Cardiff. Excavation in 1924-5 revealed the plans of the principal buildings, which were all of stone in the latest phases, and of a small bath-house, clearly a late insertion, in the praetentura. Nothing is known of the timber barracks and stables, beyond the fact of their existence. There is no evidence that any of them was rebuilt in stone. The excavations showed that the fort was originally built in c. AD 75, receiving stone defences c.140 and stone principal buildings then or a little later. Thereafter the story is less clear. It is not clear that regular military occupation outlasted the second century, although the evidence suggests reoccupation by a small force late in the third century (Jarrett 1969, 48-51). The excavations also revealed traces of a substantial civil settlement on both sides of the road from the north gate, for a distance of c.300m. Most of the buildings were of timber, although they included at least one stone workshop. To the west, another stone building may have been a mansio; the site of the original bathhouse was located, but not fully explored. The presence of the Ala Hispanorum Vettonum at Brecon Gaer, probably by the turn of the first century is suggested by a tombstone to a trooper of that regiment (RIB 403), and it may even have been the primary garrison of the fort (Jarrett 1994b, 45; Davies 2000, 20).

Caerleon (Isca) Legionary fortress

county: Monmouthshire unitary authority: Newport

ST 338 905

Accession no. [see individual sites] Excavation Reports: see individual sites References: Nash-Williams (1954) no.3; Jarrett (1969) no.1; Boon (1972); Boon (1987); Whittle (1992) no.66; Knight (1994) Caerleon, being the only one of the permanent legionary bases to fall within the boundaries of modern Wales and probably having seen more excavations conducted than all the other sites considered combined, not surprisingly completely dominates the Museum’s collection of Roman military equipment, producing 975 of the 1305 items catalogued. Within Caerleon one site, Prysg Field, provides over forty per cent of the material including all the examples of a number of types of items (p.174-5). The fortress is a rectangular enclosure 490m by 418m giving an area of 20.5 hectares. To the south-west lie a parade-ground and an amphitheatre and beyond, various buildings of a civil settlement have been excavated. At a greater distance from the fortress, cemeteries have been identified alongside the roads running west, north-east, and east. History and archaeology combine to suggest foundation in AD 74 or 75, and epigraphic evidence identifies its garrison as the Second Augustan Legion. Building activity and density of occupation at the fortress appear to have reached their peak at the close of the first and beginning of the second century, before troop reductions, reflecting Legio II Augusta’s involvement in the building of Hadrian’s Wall, had an impact. The fortress, however, still held a large body of troops, and stone-footed timber barracks and other buildings were replaced piecemeal in stone from the early years of the second century (Boon 1972, 116-18; Evans & Metcalf 1992). It was only from early in the reign of Antoninus Pius that the scale of occupation at Caerleon appears to decrease dramatically, probably indicating a more major commitment to the north (Breeze 1989, 4-5). Ceramic evidence shows uneven occupation and a marked diminution of activity at Caerleon in the later second century with the legionary baths at one stage apparently in the process of being dismantled. Similar demolition work was undertaken at the amphitheatre, though the process was soon reversed (Zienkiewicz 1986, 47-9). The evidence seems to suggest that the barracks and probably the defences were undergoing a similar process. This dismantling may relate to a Severan scheme for the redeployment of the legion in northern Britain, with the subsequent rebuilding, evidenced by inscriptions (RIB 331) and Antoniniana tile-stamps, being coterminous with Caracalla’s decision to abandon Scotland (Boon 1984, 34-7). Thereafter the site shows a highly variable pattern of occupation. Some barracks were abandoned in the first 164

General Plan of Caerleon showing sites and areas (after Boon 1984) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 14a. 15.

16. 17. 18. 19.

G.P.O. Car park, 1968 Priory Garden, 1960 Telephone Exchange, 1937 Backhall Street, 1964-5, 1967 Fortress Baths, 1978-9 20. High Street, 1957 21. Bull Inn Garden, 1966,1977-9 21a. High Street, 1969 2lb Mills Garden and Shop, 1979-81 22. Backhall Street, 1956 23. The Hall, 1964 24. South Corner, 1909, 1982 25. White Hart Lane, 1938 26. Myrtle Cottage, 1939 27. East Corner, 1928 28. Museum Site, 1983

Prysg Field, 1927-9 Prysg Field II, 1952 Alstone Cottage, 1970 Mill Street, 1937, 1956 The Croft, 1966 School Field, 1928, 1957 Town Hall Field, 1930 Broad Towers, 1936 Jenkins Field I, 1926 Jenkins Field If, 1936 Jenkins Field III, 1959 Vicarage Garden, 1968-9 Golledge’s Field, 1931-3 Churchyard Extension, 1908 Vine Cottage, 1936 Roman Gates, 1980-1 Museum Street, 1965, 1967 I. Barracks for two cohorts II. Barracks for two cohorts III. Granaries? IV. uncertain V. Fortress Baths VI. Hospital VII-IX. Officer’s houses? X. Officer’s house. XI-XIII. Officer’s houses? XIV. Barracks, 1st Cohort

XV. XVI. XVII. XVIII XIX. XX. XXI. XXII. XXIII. XXIV.

165

Headquarters Workshops ? Barracks for one cohort uncertain Drill-hall, stores Legate’s residence Workshops uncertain Barracks for two cohorts Barracks for two cohorts

quarter of the third century (Casey & Hoffmann 1995, 74); and more tellingly, the legionary baths was closed in about AD 230 suggesting that the fortress no longer held a sufficiently large garrison to support their continued function. On the other hand, inscriptions record that it was still the headquarters of the legion (RIB 327-8); that the barracks for the seventh cohort were rebuilt in AD 255-60 (RIB 334); and the latest known inscription attests to continued building work under Aurelian, AD 270-5 (Evans & Metcalf 1992, 834). Numismatic evidence pointing to the stripping of the fortress baths of usable materials in about 290-300, and substantial dismantling of the principia and some of the barracks, has been interpreted as signifying the closure of the fortress under the separatist administration of either Carausius or Allectus (Boon 1987a, 43-4; Casey 1991, 20). Certainly the fortress experienced a major upheaval at the close of the third century. The debate centres on whether this marks the end of military occupation at Caerleon or a rationalisation of building usage after the steady reduction in the size of the legion, and also on how evidence of later activity is to be interpreted (Davies 1991, 54-5). Whether post-300 occupation must be civilian is unclear. Some buildings at Caerleon were certainly in use up to the mid-fourth century and some streets were resurfaced after AD 346-8, but post-350 coins are sparse (Davies 2000).

Abbeyfield Site

(accession no. 92.59H)

Spears

iron spearhead

cat. no. Da39.

Excavation Report: Evans & Maynard (1997) Excavation in 1992 of part of the Lodge Hill Roman cemetery to the north west of the fortress. The pottery recovered suggests activity on the site from the late first century to c.120-40 (Evans & Maynard 1997, 221).

Alstone Cottage

(accession no. 98.52H)

Lorica Segmentata Helmets

copper alloy lobate hinge copper alloy buckle copper alloy eye-plate copper alloy carrying-handle

cat. no. Lb34. cat. no. Lc80. cat. no. Ld15. cat. no. Qd15.

Excavation Report: Casey & Hoffmann (1995) Excavation, in 1970, opened two trenches in the garden of Alstone Cottage. One trench provided a transverse section across the via decumana; the other trench investigated the northernmost contubernium and the southernmost rooms of the centurion’s quarters, of the last barrack block of the Prysg Field series (p.174-5). Three major structural phases were recorded. The first, of Flavian date, saw the erection of a concrete floored building flanking the via decumana, with a gravelled yard to the rear, used for iron working. In the Trajanic period this building was demolished and replaced by a stone barrack block. By the late second century the barrack itself had been demolished and the site given over to an area of hard standing (Casey & Hoffmann 1995, 64).

Amphitheatre

(accession no. 35.119)

Scabbards Spears Lorica Segmentata

Lorica Hamata Lorica Squamata Helmets

copper alloy plate iron spearhead copper alloy lobate hinge 2 copper alloy buckles 3 copper alloy hooks copper alloy tie-loop 7 copper alloy tie-rings copper alloy rosette boss copper alloy fragment copper alloy scales copper alloy carrying-handle

166

cat. no. Ba03. cat. no. Da25. cat. no. Lb04. cat. no. Lc07, Lc08. cat. no. Ld03, Ld04, Ld05. cat. no. Le03. cat. no. Lf16, Lf17, Lf18, Lf19, Lf20, Lf21, Lf22. cat. no. Lg02. cat. no. Mb02. cat. no. Na02. cat. no. Qd06.

Belt Fittings

Horse Harness

Pendants

2 copper alloy openwork belt-plates 3 copper alloy hinged buckles copper alloy buckle tongue 4 copper alloy mounts copper alloy buckle iron buckle 2 copper alloy junction loops copper alloy mount copper alloy lanceolate pendant 2 copper alloy circular pendants 2 copper alloy crescentic pendants 2 copper alloy heart-shaped pendants copper alloy pendant fragment copper alloy hanger

cat. no. Sc10, Sc11. cat. no. Sg09, Sg10, Sg11. cat. no. Sk02. cat. no. Sr23, Sr24, Sr25, Sr26. cat. no. Ta01. cat. no. Ta02. cat. no. Td09, Td10. cat. no. Tg14. cat. no. Wa14. cat. no. Wd01, Wd02. cat. no. Wf04, Wf05. cat. no. Wg01, Wg02. cat. no. Wm03. cat. no. Wn02.

Excavation Report: Wheeler & Wheeler (1928) The amphitheatre, situated outside the west gate of the fortress, was explored in 1926-27, an operation involving the removal of nearly 30,000 tons of soil (Brewer 2001, 16). Erected in c. AD 90 (Knight 1994, 33), the amphitheatre has a sunken arena surrounded by earth banks, revetted front and back with stone walls. The main entrances into the arena are on the main axis with three additional entrances to either side giving access both to the arena and the seating. Large post-holes in the tops of the banks suggest that the seating was carried on a wooden superstructure. The amphitheatre was badly damaged by a fire which swept through the extramural settlement at the end of the first or in the early years of the second century (Boon 1972, 35), and was apparently not reconstructed until about 140 (Boon 1972, 45). The presence of numerous Antoniniana tiles in the structure of the amphitheatre point to an extensive refurbishment of the building in 213-22 or shortly after (Boon 1972, 59), necessitated by a period of serious neglect or possibly even deliberate demolition work (Zienkiewicz 1986, 48).

Amphitheatre Field

see Vicus

Bear House Field

see Vicus

Blackhall Street

see Fortress Baths

British Telecom Site

(accession no. 88.3H)

Scabbards Lorica Segmentata

2 bone box chapes iron fragment 15 copper alloy lobate hinges 5 copper alloy buckles 4 copper alloy buckle plates 19 copper alloy hinged fittings

2 copper alloy hooks 19 copper alloy tie-loops

Lorica Hamata Helmets Belt Fittings

2 copper alloy tie-ring copper alloy rosette boss iron fragment copper alloy fragment copper alloy carrying-handle copper alloy crest-holder copper alloy buckle-plate copper alloy belt-plate 2 copper alloy mounts

167

cat. no. Bc13, Bc14. cat. no. La09. cat. no. Lb14-Lb28. cat. no. Lc40, Lc50, Lc54, Lc55, Lc60. cat. no. Lc39, Lc45, Lc46, Lc63. cat. no. Lc36, Lc37, Lc38, Lc41, Lc42, Lc43, Lc44, Lc47, Lc48, Lc49, Lc51, Lc52, Lc53, Lc56, Lc57, Lc58, Lc59, Lc61, Lc62. cat. no. Ld10, Ld11. cat. no. Le12, Le13, Le14, Le15, Le16, Le17, Le18, Le19, Le20, Le21, Le22, Le23, Le24, Le25, Le26, Le27, Le28, Le29, Le30. cat. no. Lf48, Lf49. cat. no. Lg14. cat. no. Ma10. cat. no. Mb05. cat. no. Qd10. cat. no. Qe05. cat. no. Sf09. cat. no. Sf10. cat. no. Sr45, Sr46.

Horse Harness Pendants

2 copper alloy mounts copper alloy crescentic pendant copper alloy heart-shaped pendant copper alloy pendant fragment

cat. no. Tg26, Tg27. cat. no. Wf13. cat. no. Wg04. cat. no. Wm13.

Excavation Report: --Interim Report: Frere (1988) p.421-2; Zienkiewicz (1987a) Excavations in 1987 of an area of 400m2 immediately to the east of the basilica thermarum (p.170), revealed 18m of the edge of the via principalis, a stone lined drain, and a row of tabernae behind a portico. The many armour fittings, some unfinished, found, together with abundant evidence of metal-working, suggest that these tabernae served as smithies and armourer’s workshops. Originally constructed of timber, late in the first century the tabernae were rebuilt in stone and the colonnade of the portico in brick. In the early third century the buildings were repaired and the street resurfaced. At the end of the century the drains became filled and the portico was dismantled, but new metalling was laid in the street and portico after 330.

Broadtowers Field

(accession no. 36.471)

Belt Fittings

copper alloy mount

cat. no. Sr29.

Excavation Report: --Interim Report: Nash-Williams (1936) Broadtowers Field was an orchard and garden of about a quarter of an acre, which was excavated in 1936. Parts of two separate stone buildings were found. One of them, comprising transverse walls extending the full width of the site and dividing the interior into long narrow rooms or courts, can now be seen to be part of the legate’s residence. The floor-levels yielded practically nothing in the way of datable evidence. The second structure, separated from the first building by a wide street or alley-way, was represented by part of a range of rooms, parts of four of which lay within the site. This was the back of the headquarters-building (p.178).

Broadway House

(accession no. 94.29H)

Lorica Segmentata Belt Fittings Horse Harness Fasteners

copper alloy lobate hinge 2 copper alloy hinged fittings copper alloy openwork belt-plate copper alloy belt-plate copper alloy mount copper alloy button-and-loop fastener

cat. no. Lb33. cat. no. Lc66, Lc67. cat. no. Sc28. cat. no. Sf12. cat. no. Tg28. cat. no. Xh04.

Excavation Report: --Interim Report: Burnham (1996) p.394 Excavations in 1994 revealed details of the tabernae lining the via principalis, in both their original timber and subsequent stone phases. From the mass of amphorae sherds and animal bone found it is clear that this area had been associated with the sale of foodstuffs, perhaps as a tavern.

Broadway Meadow Castle grounds Fasteners

see Vicus

(accession no. 31.78) copper alloy button-and-loop fastener

cat. no. Xc01.

Excavation Report: Lee (1862) p.85-93 In 1849 investigations in the grounds of the medieval castle revealed the remains of a bath-house outside the walls of the fortress.

168

Churchyard Extension 1908 Belt Fittings

(accession no. 31.78)

copper alloy openwork belt-plate copper alloy trapeziform buckle 3 copper alloy mounts copper alloy mount copper alloy pendant fragment

Horse Harness Pendants

cat. no. Sc02. cat. no. Sh01. cat. no. Sr06, Sr07, Sr09. cat. no. Tg05. cat. no. Wm01.

Excavation Report: Evelyn-White (1909) The excavation of the ground that had been recently added to the churchyard was carried out under the auspices of the Liverpool Committee and the Monmouthshire and Caerleon Antiquarian Association in 1908. The method of excavation generally adopted was to drive a trench along the line of a wall revealing the plan of this building but excavating few of the rooms. Excavations revealed part of a large building and the smaller part of a second. The larger building comprised three blocks, the southern block being separated from the rest by a narrow passage. The rooms were floored variously with concrete and slab paving and in some cases decorated with painted wall plaster. One or two of the rooms had been heated by hypocausts. The central space in the south wing, paved with a gutter on the north side, was probably an open courtyard (Brewer 2001, 13-4). Boon (1987, 54), on comparison with other similar structures within the fortress, suggested that it was a fabrica or workshop.

East Corner

(accession no. 46.1)

Scabbards Belt Fittings Fasteners

copper alloy slide copper alloy buckle tongue copper alloy button-and-loop fastener

cat. no. Be16. cat. no. Sk03. cat. no. Xd03.

Excavation Report: Hawkes (1930) It was an area of about four and a half acres lying, as the name suggests, in the eastern corner of the fort. It was excavated in August 1929. Parts of the defences, the rampart road and two barracks were examined. The report concluded that the stone barracks were built in about 115 and refurbished in 200 or thereabouts, but no certain traces of earlier timber structures were found (Brewer 2001, 21).

Endowed School

(accession no. 87.47H)

Spears Lorica Segmentata

iron spearhead 7 copper alloy tie-rings

Helmets Belt Fittings

copper alloy carrying-handle 2 copper alloy openwork belt-plates copper alloy belt-plate copper alloy hinged buckle copper alloy trapeziform buckle copper alloy buckle tongue copper alloy mount copper alloy lozenge-shaped pendant copper alloy pendant fragment

Pendants

cat. no. Da38. cat. no. Lf41, Lf42, Lf43, Lf44, Lf45, Lf46, Lf47. cat. no. Qd09. cat. no. Sc22, Sc23. cat. no. Sf08. cat. no. Sg27. cat. no. Sh13. cat. no. Sk14. cat. no. Sr43. cat. no. Wi04. cat. no. Wm12.

Excavation Report: --Interim Report: Frere (1987) p.307; Zienkiewicz (1987b) An area of some 400m2 excavated in 1985, adjacent to the School Field Site (p.176). The excavation showed that the large basilica had been constructed in stone from the outset and probably dated to AD 75. Deposits of ash and slag attested extensive iron working in all phases and indicated a function as a fabrica. Occupation continued into the third century and there are indications of deliberate dismantlement, probably at the end of the century.

169

Fortress Baths

(accession no. 65.170A, 67.264, 81.79H)

Blackhall Street (accession no. 64.474, 65.170) Swords Daggers Lorica Segmentata

Lorica Hamata Lorica Squamata Apron-mounts Helmets Belt Fittings

Horse Harness Pendants

Fasteners

2 bone handgrips copper alloy pommel plate 2 copper alloy hinged fittings copper alloy hook 2 copper alloy tie-loops 4 copper alloy tie-rings 2 copper alloy rivets iron fragment copper alloy link copper alloy scale copper alloy scale copper alloy scales 2 copper alloy plates copper alloy stud copper alloy carrying-handle 5 copper alloy openwork belt-plates copper alloy belt-plate copper alloy hinged buckle copper alloy trapeziform buckle 5 copper alloy buckle tongues bone strap-end copper alloy strap-end 5 copper alloy mounts copper alloy stud 4 copper alloy lanceolate pendants copper alloy winged pendant copper alloy circular pendant copper alloy crescentic pendant copper alloy teardrop pendant copper alloy enamelled pendant 3 copper alloy pendant fragments 2 copper alloy hangers copper alloy button-and-loop fastener copper alloy button-and-loop fastener bone button-and-loop fastener

cat. no. Ab04, Ab05. cat. no. Cd01. cat. no. Lc13, Lc21. cat. no. Ld08. cat. no. Le06, Le07. cat. no. Lf36, Lf38, Lf39, Lf40. cat. no. Lg04, Lg05. cat. no. Ma02. cat. no. Mb04. cat. no. Na04. cat. no. Na05. cat. no. Na06. cat. no. Pa04, Pa05. cat. no. Pc02. cat. no. Qd07. cat. no. Sc17, Sc18, Sc19, Sc20, Sc21. cat. no. Sf05. cat. no. Sg23. cat. no. Sh12. cat. no. Sk04, Sk05, Sk06, Sk07, Sk08. cat. no. Sp06. cat. no. Sp09. cat. no. Sr37, Sr38, Sr39, Sr40, Sr41. cat. no. Tg25. cat. no. Wa21, Wa22, Wa23, Wa24. cat. no. Wc01. cat. no. Wd03. cat. no. Wf09. cat. no. Wh03. cat. no. Wk03. cat. no. Wm08, Wm09, Wm10. cat. no. Wn06, Wn07. cat. no. Xc06. cat. no. Xd04. cat. no. Xf01.

Excavation Report: Zienkiewicz (1986a) The Fortress Baths (thermae) occupied an L-shaped plot in the sinistral half of the praetentura of the fortress. Between 1964 and 1969, a series of small excavations by George Boon gradually pieced together the plan of the baths which covered over a hectare of the fortress. Much of the available area for investigation at that time lay over the basilica. Trenching in gardens in 1965 exposed one end of the large basilica, which functioned as a covered exercise-hall; part of the cold hall (frigidarium); and a heated changing room. In 1966, excavations in the Bull Inn Car Park uncovered the long, open-air swimming pool (natatio), and in 1969 there came an opportunity to explore the portico of the exercise-yard (palaestra) in which the pool lay. Then between 1977 and 1981 large-scale excavations conducted by David Zienkiewicz, uncovered the remains of both the frigidarium and natatio. Sufficient details of the tepidarium and caldarium were also recovered from beneath established houses and gardens to complete the plan (Brewer 2001, 30). The baths were probably begun c. AD 75, and certainly were finished and in use in the Flavian period. An aisled basilica thermarum, 64m by 24m internally, ran north-west from the baths proper to the colonnaded portico of the via principalis, but was perhaps never completed. On south-west side of the baths lay an open, gravelled palaestra, 52m by 62m, surrounded on three sides by a portico. A wide pavement, probably colonnaded, lined the via praetoria beyond. In this palaestra, beside the baths, was set a narrow natatio, or swimming-pool, with a large, free-standing apsed structure housing a sculptured fountain at its north-west end. 170

About AD 100 the floor-levels throughout the baths were raised and the apse projecting from the frigidarium was demolished and rebuilt to rectangular plan. In the mid-second century the fountain house was demolished, and the natatio was shortened and re-designed. A curious episode of destruction in the late second or early third century may reflect an intended abandonment of the fortress, perhaps as part of Severan reorganisation of the province, but this damage was subsequently made good. The baths were finally closed down about 230, but left intact until the last years of the third century, when they were stripped of all removable materials and left as an empty shell. The ruin of the baths was then apparently used as a farmstead down to about AD 380; its pools were filled with rubbish and the portico of the palaestra was subdivided to form a series of small stalls. The shell of the bath-building, apparently with its vaults still intact, remained standing into the Middle Ages, being demolished and levelled only in the thirteenth century (Zienkiewicz (1986a, 18-9).

Fortress Ditch Golledge’s Field

see Vicus (accession no. 35.120)

Belt Fittings

copper alloy enamelled buckle-plate copper alloy mount copper alloy mount copper alloy pendant fragment copper alloy button-and-loop fastener

Horse Harness Pendants Fasteners

cat. no. Sd05. cat. no. Sr27. cat. no. Tg15. cat. no. Wm04. cat. no. Xh02.

Excavation Report: --Interim Report: Nash-Williams (1933) Excavations of Golledge’s Field between 1931 and 1933 revealed a stretch of defences and one of the towers of the south-west gate, part of a rampart building and three stone buildings aligned on the via principalis. Nash-Williams suggested that the buildings were residential in character and represented the centurions’ quarters of paired barracks. It is possible that this area of the fortress might have been the site of the accommodation for the first cohort, whose centuries were nominally of double strength.

Great Bulmore Farm Belt Fittings Pendants

(accession no. 87.48H) copper alloy mount copper alloy crescentic pendant

cat. no. Sr44. cat. no. Wf12.

Excavation Report: --Interim Report: Zienkiewicz (1984b) Great Bulmore lies a mile to the east of the fortress, on the left bank of the river Usk. Excavations carried out in 1983-84 revealed an extensive roadside settlement, with some thirteen strip-buildings identified so far, some of which have produced evidence of metalworking and glass making. The relationship of this settlement with the fortress is uncertain, but would presumably have played a role in supplying the needs of the legion (Brewer 2001, 28).

Isca Grange Conical Ferrules

(accession no. 84.119H) iron conical ferrule

cat. no. Ga20.

Excavation Report: --Interim Report: Zienkiewicz (1984a) In 1984 traces of substantial mortared stone buildings were recorded across the river from the fortress. A small trial excavation, 10m by 3m, revealed a dense concentration of rubbish pits and cess pits, all apparently dating from the middle of the second century. Occupation in the area seems to have ceased by the late third century.

171

Jenkins Field

(accession no. 32.62; 36.470; 60.482)

Scabbards Spears Lorica Segmentata Belt Fittings Horse Harness Pendants

copper alloy binding copper alloy chape iron spearhead copper alloy tie-ring copper alloy belt-plate centre copper alloy mount copper alloy phalera 2 copper alloy lanceolate pendants

cat. no. Ba02. cat. no. Bb11. cat. no. Da30. cat. no. Lf32. cat. no. Se09. cat. no. Sr28. cat. no. Tc05. cat. no. Wa15, Wa20.

Excavation Report: Nash-Williams (1929a) Interim Reports: Nash-Williams (1936); Taylor (1960) p.213 Part of Jenkins’s Field was first excavated by Nash-Williams in 1926. The foundations of part of a single stone building were revealed. Traces of an antecedent timber phase were also found, but were not thoroughly investigated. The stone building was of courtyard type with ranges of large and small rooms. Further excavation of the site in 1936 revealed more of the courtyard building, with large halls on two sides and a subdivided space on the third side. Iron slag and charcoal deposits found in the courtyard and a steeping tank for leather preparation, suggested that the building was a fabrica, or workshop. Evidence for lead-working on a large scale from excavations carried out in 1959, support this identification (Brewer 2001, 18-9). A sequence of floor-levels found underlying the building showed that the site had originally, from about AD 75 to 100, been occupied by timber structures. The stone building continued in occupation throughout the second century and possibly later (Nash-Williams 1936).

Museum Site

(accession no. 84.43H)

Scabbards Lorica Segmentata Lorica Hamata Lorica Squamata Apron-mounts Helmets Belt Fittings Horse Harness Pendants

2 copper alloy slides iron fragment copper alloy buckle 2 copper alloy tie-loop iron fragment copper alloy scales copper alloy plate 3 copper alloy ear-guards copper alloy hinged buckle 2 copper alloy buckle tongues copper alloy mount 2 copper alloy junction loops copper alloy lanceolate pendant copper alloy ‘trifid’ pendant 2 copper alloy crescentic pendant copper alloy pendant

cat. no. Be19, Be20. cat. no. La08. cat. no. Lc35. cat. no. Le10, Le11. cat. no. Ma09. cat. no. Na08. cat. no. Pa06. cat. no. Qc01, Qc02, Qc03. cat. no. Sg26. cat. no. Sk12, Sk13. cat. no. Sr42. cat. no. Td20, Td21. cat. no. Wa25. cat. no. Wb02. cat. no. Wf10, Wf11. cat. no. Wm11.

Excavation Report: Zienkiewicz (1993) Excavations between 1983 and 1985 in advance of rebuilding the Roman Legionary Museum revealed the partial plan of the courtyard house, with attendant structures on the street frontage, of one of the senior staff officers of the legion. The construction of the first, entirely timber framed, building and its replacement by a stone house all appears to have occurred in the period AD 75-100. The stone house remained, with some alterations, until it was demolished at a late Antonine or Severan date (Zienkiewicz 1993, 27-8).

Museum Street Scabbards Pendants

(accession no. 38.472) bone slide copper alloy lozenge-shaped pendant

Excavation Report: --Interim Report: Nash-Williams (1937) 172

cat. no. Bf01. cat. no. Wi03.

Trenches, in 1937, across a small plot of land immediately behind the Museum, before the construction of a Telephone Exchange, revealed part of a stone building of ‘residential type’. The building was constructed in the late first or early second century and appeared to have remained in use through out the life of the fortress. There was also evidence for an earlier timber phase on the site.

Museum Street 1965 Lorica Segmentata

(accession no. 65.170B) copper alloy lobate hinge

cat. no. Lb05.

Excavation Report: Murray-Threipland (1965) A small rescue excavation, in 1965, north of Museum Street, produced a section across the via principalis and evidence of activity from the first to the fourth century AD.

Museum Street 1969 Lorica Segmentata

(accession no. 76.33H/B) iron fragment 2 copper alloy buckles copper alloy buckle-plate 3 copper alloy hinged fitting copper alloy hook

cat. no. La03. cat. no. Lc15, Lc18. cat. no. Lc19. cat. no. Lc14, Lc16, Lc17. cat. no. Ld07.

Excavation Report: --Interim Report: Wilson (1970) p.272-3 A small excavation, in 1969, on the site of an extension to the Telephone Exchange, produced plentiful first century metallurgical debris but no structural evidence.

Myrtle Cottage

(accession no. 39.386)

Spears Conical Ferrules Lorica Segmentata Lorica Segmentata Apron-mounts Helmets Belt Fittings

Horse Harness Pendants Fasteners

2 iron spearheads iron conical ferrule copper alloy hinged fitting copper alloy hook copper alloy tie-loop 6 copper alloy tie-rings copper alloy rosette boss copper alloy plate copper alloy stud copper alloy cheek-piece copper alloy openwork belt-plate copper alloy enamelled buckle-plate copper alloy enamelled belt-plate 2 copper alloy hinged buckles copper alloy buckle 3 copper alloy mounts 3 copper alloy studs copper alloy teardrop pendant 2 copper alloy enamelled pendants copper alloy hanger copper alloy button-and-loop fastener copper alloy button-and-loop fastener

cat. no. Da26, Da27. cat. no. Ga08. cat. no. Lc10. cat. no. Ld06. cat. no. Le04. cat. no. Lf23, Lf24, Lf25, Lf26, Lf27, Lf28. cat. no. Lg03. cat. no. Pa03. cat. no. Pc01. cat. no. Qb02. cat. no. Sc13. cat. no. Sd07. cat. no. Sd08. cat. no. Sg14, Sg15. cat. no. Si04. cat. no. Sr30, Sr31, Sr32. cat. no. Tg17, Tg18, Tg19. cat. no. Wh02. cat. no. Wk01, Wk02. cat. no. Wn04. cat. no. Xc05. cat. no. Xd02.

Excavation Report: Fox (1940) The grounds of Myrtle Cottage were excavated by Aileen Fox in 1939. Excavation was largely restricted to three long parallel trenches, which were driven right across the site in order to demonstrate the position of nine stone barracks. No attempt was made to clear any one of the barracks in its entirety. In two of the barracks the centurions’ quarters and four of the contubernia were cleared. In both there was clear evidence for earlier second century construction and third century refurbishment. In one barrack there was also 173

evidence for occupation well into the fourth century.

Prysg Field

(accession no. 32.60)

Scabbards

9 copper alloy chapes 12 bone box chapes 2 bone disc chapes iron slide 9 copper alloy slides

Daggers Spears

iron dagger 18 iron spearheads

Pila

58 iron pilum-heads

Conical Ferrules Bows Arrows Artillery Caltrops Lorica Segmentata

Lorica Hamata Apron-mounts Helmets Shields Belt Fittings

iron pilum stem iron conical ferrule 204 bone ear laths and fragments 8 bone grip laths and fragments 19 iron vaned, socketed arrowhead s 4 iron pyramidal bolt-heads iron knob-ended bolt-head 16 iron caltrops 2 iron fragments copper alloy lobate hinge copper alloy buckle copper alloy tie-loop 4 copper alloy tie-ring copper alloy rosette boss iron fragment copper alloy fragment 2 copper alloy studs copper alloy cheek-piece copper alloy carrying-handle iron boss 5 iron mounts copper alloy belt-plate 3 copper alloy openwork belt-plates copper alloy enamelled buckle-plate copper alloy enamelled belt-plate copper alloy belt-plate 2 copper alloy belt-plate centres 3 copper alloy trapeziform buckles copper alloy buckle copper alloy strap-end 9 copper alloy mounts

174

cat. no. Bb01, Bb02, Bb03, Bb04, Bb05, Bb06, Bb07, Bb08, Bb09. cat. no. Bc01, Bc02, Bc03, Bc04, Bc05, Bc06, Bc07, Bc08, Bc09, Bc10, Bc11, Bc12. cat. no. Bd01, Bd02. cat. no. Be05. cat. no. Be06, Be07, Be08, Be09, Be10, Be11, Be12, Be13, Be14. cat. no. Ca02. cat. no. Da07, Da08, Da09, Da10, Da11, Da12, Da13, Da14, Da15, Da16, Da17, Da18, Da19, Da20, Da21, Da22, Da23, Da24. cat. no. Ea01, Ea02, Ea03, Ea04, Ea05, Ea06, Ea07, Ea08, Ea09, Ea10, Ea11, Ea12, Ea13, Ea14, Ea15, Ea16, Ea17, Ea18, Ea19, Ea20, Ea21, Ea22, Ea23, Ea24, Ea25, Ea26, Ea27, Ea28, Ea29, Ea30, Ea31, Ea32, Ea33, Ea34, Ea35, Ea36, Ea37, Ea38, Ea39, Ea40, Ea41, Ea42, Ea43, Ea44, Ea45, Ea46, Ea47, Ea48, Ea49, Ea50, Ea51, Ea52, Ea53, Ea54, Ea55, Ea56, Ea57, Ea58. cat. no. Eb01. cat. no. Ga06. cat. no. Ha01-Ha204. cat. no. Hb01-Hb08. cat. no. Ib01, Ib02, Ib03, Ib04, Ib05, Ib06, Ib07, Ib08, Ib09, Ib10, Ib11, Ib12, Ib13, Ib14, Ib15, Ib16, Ib17, Ib18, Ib19. cat. no. Ja06, Ja07, Ja08, Ja09. cat. no. Jc01. cat. no. Ka01, Ka02, Ka03, Ka04, Ka05, Ka06, Ka07, Ka08, Ka09, Ka10, Ka11, Ka12, Ka13, Ka14, Ka15, Ka16. cat. no. La01, La02. cat. no. Lb03. cat. no. Lc05. cat. no. Le02. cat. no. Lf12, Lf13, Lf14, Lf15. cat. no. Lg01. cat. no. Ma01. cat. no. Mb01. cat. no. Pb01, Pb02. cat. no. Qb01. cat. no. Qd05. cat. no. Ra01. cat. no. Rb01, Rb02, Rb03, Rb04, Rb05. cat. no. Sa01. cat. no. Sc05, Sc06, Sc07. cat. no. Sd03. cat. no. Sd04. cat. no. Se03. cat. no. Se04, Se05. cat. no. Sh03, Sh04, Sh05. cat. no. Si03. cat. no. Sp02. cat. no. Sr11, Sr12, Sr13, Sr14, Sr15, Sr16,

Horse Harness

copper alloy phalera copper alloy mount 5 copper alloy studs copper alloy mount 3 copper alloy lanceolate pendants 2 copper alloy crescentic pendants copper alloy button-and-loop fastener copper alloy button-and-loop fastener

Pendants Fasteners

Sr17, Sr18, Sr19. cat. no. Tc04. cat. no. Tg12. cat. no. Tg08, Tg09, Tg10, Tg11, Tg13. cat. no. Th04. cat. no. Wa11, Wa12, Wa13. cat. no. Wf02, Wf03. cat. no. Xc02. cat. no. Xh01.

Excavation Report: Nash-Williams (1931) Reference: Chapman (2002) The Prysg Field occupies a large tract of land in the western corner of the fortress. Work on the site began in 1927 and continued through the summers of 1928 and 1929. The remains uncovered included: a row of ten barrack blocks; stretches of the south-western and north-western defences with a row of rampart-buildings; and a series of ovens and cook-houses. Only one of the barrack blocks was totally cleared and even here the rooms were not stripped beyond the latest Roman levels. In general the other barracks were trenched only, to reveal their plans. The earliest phase identified was a series of floor levels associated with slight cobble footings for a timber superstructure. Nash-Williams proposed that these timber barracks were replaced in stone during the first decade of the second century and remained in continuous occupation until about 200 (Brewer 2001, 20). Prysg Field provides nearly a third of all the Roman military equipment in the Museum’s collection, including all, or nearly all, the examples of a number of types. The unusually large assemblage from the Prysg Field, is largely due to the series of structures backing the north-western defences, generally referred to as the North-Western Rampart-Building. Two distinct phases of building occupied the area between the back of the defences and the via sagularis. Four buildings (RBa), all 6.5m in width but varying in length from 21 to 46m, were erected c.120. These mostly survived until c.200 when they were replaced by a single structure (RBb), 146m long and 8m wide, which appears to have burnt down in 270-330 (Chapman 2002, 33-8). One of the RBa buildings is particularly notable for the number of copper alloy and bone scabbard fittings found in it, all of types in use in the late second and early third century (p.14-9). In contrast RBb produced a preponderance of ironwork, principally projectile heads, with virtually no copper alloy objects. This military equipment appears to be concentrated in three small backward projecting rooms, Rooms 5, 26, 40/41, with little coming from the other rooms, apart from one large room, Room 42/44, which produced all the bow components (p.43) and the caltrops (p.58). This later building is clearly a potential candidate for an armamentarium (Chapman 2002, 38-42).

Racecourse Roman Gates

see Vicus (accession no. 83.46H, 88.165H)

Scabbards Daggers Conical Ferrules Lorica Segmentata

copper alloy binding copper alloy chape copper alloy slide iron dagger iron inlaid sheath plate iron chape iron conical ferrule 4 copper alloy lobate hinges 2 copper alloy hooks 7 copper alloy tie-loops 22 copper alloy tie-rings

175

cat. no. Ba05. cat. no. Ba06. cat. no. Be21. cat. no. Ca04. cat. no. Cb03. cat. no. Ce02. cat. no. Ga21. cat. no. Lb29, Lb30, Lb31, Lb32. cat. no. Ld12, Ld13. cat. no. Le31, Le32, Le33, Le34, Le35, Le36, Le37. cat. no. Lf50, Lf51, Lf52, Lf53, Lf54, Lf55, Lf56, Lf57, Lf58, Lf59, Lf60, Lf61, Lf62, Lf63, Lf64, Lf65, Lf66, Lf67, Lf68, Lf69,

Lf70, Lf71. copper alloy rosette boss cat. no. Lg15. copper alloy bowl fragment cat. no. Qa02. 2 copper alloy carrying-handles cat. no. Qd11, Qd12. copper alloy crest-support cat. no. Qe06. 4 copper alloy openwork belt-plate cat. no. Sc24, Sc25, Sc26, Sc27. copper alloy enamelled buckle-plate cat. no. Sd12. copper alloy belt-plate cat. no. Sf11. 5 copper alloy hinged buckles cat. no. Sg28, Sg29, Sg30, Sg31, Sg32. 5 copper alloy trapeziform buckles cat. no. Sh14, Sh15, Sh16, Sh17, Sh18. copper alloy buckle cat. no. Si08. copper alloy frog cat. no. Sm02. copper alloy belt-plate cat. no. Sn02. copper alloy belt fittings cat. no. Sn03. copper alloy mount cat. no. Sr47. 4 copper alloy lanceolate pendants cat. no. Wa26, Wa27, Wa28, Wa29. copper alloy pendant fragment cat. no. Wm14. copper alloy pendant cat. no. Wm15. 2 copper alloy hangers cat. no. Wn05, Wn08. 2 copper alloy button-and-loop fasteners cat. no. Xc07, Xc08. copper alloy button-and-loop fastener cat. no. Xh03.

Helmets Belt Fittings

Pendants

Fasteners

Excavation Report: Evans & Metcalf (1992) The ‘Roman Gates’ site, named after the housing development on the site, lay immediately to the north of the main east gate to the fortress. Excavated between 1980 and 1981 it contained a stretch of the defences with some associated rampart buildings and the parts of three barrack blocks. The later phases of the barrack blocks could be securely dated to the second quarter of the fourth century, possibly as late as AD 341-8. Slightly before this, one of the barracks had been rebuilt as a series of cubicles. The most unexpected discovery, however, was the remains of part of a military belt fitting previously known only from the very end of the fourth century (Sn03). This evidence appears to take the military occupation of Caerleon far later than had previously been presumed. The finds from the ‘Roman Gates’ excavations were returned to private ownership after post excavation work was completed so only those items the Museum subsequently managed to purchase ever reached the collection, resulting in a loss of about a third of the military equipment excavated and published.

Sandygate

(accession no. 86.29H)

Parade Armour

Copper alloy chamfron

cat. no. Ub01.

Excavation Report: Evans (1991) In 1985-6 the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust excavated a small part of the centurion’s quarters of one of the last barrack block (IX) in the Prysg Field series (p.174-5). Parts of five rooms were investigated, but no room was completely dug.

School Extention

(accession no. 57.314)

Horse Harness

copper alloy junction loop

cat. no. Td11.

Excavation Report: Boon (1964) A small trench across one of the barrack blocks, excavated before building work, in January 1957.

School Field

(accession no. 35.118)

Scabbards Lorica Segmentata

copper alloy chape copper alloy hinged fitting

176

cat. no. Bb10. cat. no. Lc06.

copper alloy hook cat. no. Ld02. 2 copper alloy plates cat. no. Pa01, Pa02. copper alloy crest-support cat. no. Qe01. 2 copper alloy openwork belt-plates cat. no. Sc08, Sc09. copper alloy belt-plate centre cat. no. Se06. copper alloy hinged buckle cat. no. Sg08. copper alloy trapeziform buckle cat. no. Sh06. copper alloy buckle tongue cat. no. Sk01. 3 copper alloy mounts cat. no. Sr20, Sr21, Sr22. copper alloy strap terminal cat. no. Tf03. silver standard head cat. no. Va01. copper alloy crescentic pendant cat. no. We01. 2 copper alloy button-and loop fasteners cat. no. Xc03, Xc04. copper alloy button-and-loop fastener cat. no. Xd01. copper alloy button-and-loop fastener cat. no. Xe01.

Apron-mounts Helmets Belt Fittings

Horse Harness Standards Pendants Fasteners

Excavation Report: --Interim Report: Nash-Williams (1929b) In 1928 Nash-Williams uncovered parts of two building blocks, separated by a metalled street. To the southeast of the street were the ends of a row of barrack buildings and to the north-west was a large building, then thought to comprise a spacious peristyle courtyard flanked on both sides by parallel ranges of rooms with intervening corridors. However, it is now apparent from the plan that there were two distinct buildings in this block, the larger of which consisted of an aisled hall flanked by long undivided rooms. More recent excavations on an adjacent area have shown that this building was a fabrica (see Endowed School, p.311).

The Croft

(accession no. 77.56H/A)

Lorica Segmentata Pendants

copper alloy tie-ring copper alloy crescentic pendant

cat. no. Lf37 cat. no. Wf08

Excavation Report: Murray-Threipland (1967) Emergency excavation during March and May 1966, in the grounds of ‘The Croft’, south-east of Goldcroft Common, prior to additions to the house itself in the north-east of the plot and the erection of a new clinic in the south-west. The ground reserved for the proposed buildings and the numerous mature trees standing in the garden, narrowed the area available for excavation considerably. Bad weather and a high water-table also hampered operations, but a series of four trenches were cut across the contubernia of Barracks III, IV, V and part of VI (the barracks being numbered from north-east to south-west with Barrack I nearest to the fortress wall), and an area (Area Z) where the overburden had been removed mechanically was opened up to show the contubernia of Barracks VIII and IX. Five periods of occupation could be identified but there were few finds except for sherds in road or passage metalling and little definite dating evidence.

The Hall

(accession no. 77.56H/B)

Lorica Segmentata Belt Fittings

copper alloy buckle copper alloy tie-loop copper alloy openwork belt-plate

cat. no. Lc20. cat. no. Le05. cat. no. Sc16.

Excavation Report: Murray-Threipland (1969) Excavations in the garden of The Hall, a large house on the east side of Backhall Street, in 1964, immediately prior to housing development. The irregularly-shaped plot contained a number of well-grown trees and bushes, a large rockery and a garage, which made open clearance impossible, so a series of trenches were dug in order to establish the identity of any building in the area. All the walls had been robbed down, or nearly down, to foundation level but it was possible to detect a rectangular building lying alongside the north-eastern intervallum road. On the far side of this road a corner of a building, probably a cook-house attached to the rear of a turret, was also exposed and a section was taken through the fortress defences beyond it. 177

The plan of the main building, with its two rows of cubicles separated by a corridor and with an internal courtyard, containing a large central building, left very little doubt that it was the legionary hospital (valetudinarium). Only about half of the hospital could be examined but it appears to have been in continuous use from the earliest years of the occupation of the fortress, c. AD 75-80, until the early third century. It was rebuilt in stone, possibly c. AD 100, and the interior of the building was levelled-up with clay and refloored three times, but with no major changes to the basic layout, although the central ‘treatment’ room was probably a secondary feature. The absence of third century sherds suggest that during the middle part of that century the hospital was disused and in the last years, c. AD 290, the courtyard and parts of the building had been systematically dismantled and levelled.

Vicarage Garden

(accession no. 69.326)

Lorica Hamata Belt Fittings

copper alloy fragment copper alloy belt-plate centre copper alloy buckle

cat. no. Mb03. cat. no. Se11. cat. no. Si05.

Excavation Report: Boon (1970) In 1968-69 rather more than half the area of the basilica principiorum, the headquarters building, was explored by trenching, with particular attention being paid to a raised tribunal discovered at the north-east end of the hall, and to the central chamber (aedes) on the north-west side. In general, the Roman structures were in a very damaged condition, for the building had been partly dismantled, and the remains had subsequently been plundered for stone. The combination of these factors with the mode of excavation leads only to a skeletal result with principally the general outline of the building being recovered. Very little dating evidence was found. The basilica and its offices certainly had no timber predecessor on the same site, but it is not impossible that a small, timber principia existed within the area later taken for the great court of the stone building. The stone building appears to have been left unfinished for some time, without a floor, and with its walls uncoloured; indeed it is possible that the great hall was never completed to its intended elevation (Boon 1987, 28). Towards the end of the third century, the building was dismantled, and during Constantinian times the site was frequented only to clear away surviving materials. The intervening phases are more difficult to interpret, owing to the denudation of the remains and the general scarcity of stratified material.

Vicus

Amphitheatre Field (accession no. 56.217) Bear House Field (accession no. 54.389A, 54.389B, 56.214A, 56.214B, 58.330) Broadway Meadow (accession no. 62.265B, 63.228B, 77.56H/E) Fortress Ditch (accession no. 56.265A, 62.265A) Racecourse (accession no. 62.265B) Scabbards Daggers Spears Pila Conical Ferrules Arrows Lorica Segmentata Lorica Squamata Belt Fittings

copper alloy chape copper alloy slide iron dagger iron spearhead iron pilum-head 2 iron conical ferrules iron ‘bodkin’, socketed arrowhead 2 copper alloy buckles 6 copper alloy tie-rings copper alloy scales 2 copper alloy openwork belt-plates 2 copper alloy enamelled buckle-plates copper alloy enamelled belt-plate copper alloy belt-plate copper alloy belt-plate centre copper alloy buckle-plate

178

cat. no. Bb12. cat. no. Be17. cat. no. Ca03. cat. no. Da28. cat. no. Ea59. cat. no. Ga09, Ga11. cat. no. Id01. cat. no. Lc11, Lc12. cat. no. Lf29, Lf30, Lf31, Lf33, Lf34, Lf35. cat. no. Na03. cat. no. Sc14, Sc15. cat. no. Sd09, Sd10. cat. no. Sd11. cat. no. Se07, Se10. cat. no. Se08. cat. no. Se12.

copper alloy belt-plate 5 copper alloy hinged buckles 4 copper alloy trapeziform buckles bone strap-end 4 copper alloy mounts copper alloy junction loop 3 copper alloy studs copper alloy mount copper alloy head stall iron bit link 3 copper alloy lanceolate pendants copper alloy crescentic pendant copper alloy pendant fragment copper alloy button-and-loop fastener

Horse Harness

Pendants Fasteners

cat. no. Sf04. cat. no. Sg18, Sg19, Sg20, Sg21, Sg22. cat. no. Sh08, Sh09, Sh10, Sh11. cat. no. Sp03. cat. no. Sr33, Sr34, Sr35, Sr36. cat. no. Td12. cat. no. Tg20, Tg21, Tg23. cat. no. Tg22. cat. no. Ti03. cat. no. Ti04. cat. no. Wa17, Wa18, Wa19. cat. no. Wf07. cat. no. Wm06. cat. no. Xg01.

Excavation Report: --Interim Report: Boon (unpublished) In 1954 and 1955, a number of buildings were excavated to the south-west of the fortress. Six or seven rectangular houses or workshops, probably constructed in about 140, were set obliquely to the bypass road. A short distance away lay a large courtyard house, constructed in the middle of the third century, at the corner of two streets. Slightly further to the north-west lay a house with a single range of rooms, flanked by a colonnade and projecting wings at either end. On the south-east side of the Broadway, near the amphitheatre, the portico of a large building was revealed (Brewer 2001, 25). One of the surprises of the 1954 excavations was the apparent absence of stone buildings over most of the first 150 metres outside the fortress. The traces of occupation encountered in this area were early and NashWilliams believed it marked the site of a bivouac connected with the construction of the fortress. However, when this land was levelled in 1962 for a sports ground, the position turned out to be much more complex with the timber buildings falling into distinct groups. The earliest series were constructed on sleeper beams and probably comprised a number of sheds. These were demarcated from a large building, with gravel foundations, nearer the defences, by a small ditch. Later buildings had timber uprights set into individual pits. These post-pit buildings would appear from their alignment to be connected with purely civilian development. It thus appears that the area was used initially for military purposes, but was then given over to use as part of the vicus, before being cleared, c. AD 140 for use as the legionary parade ground (Brewer 2001, 26-7).

Vine Cottage

(accession no. 36.472)

Scabbards Conical Ferrules Lorica Segmentata Belt Fittings Horse Harness Pendants

copper alloy slide iron conical ferrule copper alloy hinged fitting copper alloy openwork belt-plate copper alloy enamelled belt-plate 2 copper alloy hinged buckles copper alloy mount copper alloy lanceolate pendant copper alloy crescentic pendant copper alloy lozenge-shaped pendant copper alloy pendant fragment copper alloy hanger

cat. no. Be15. cat. no. Ga07. cat. no. Lc09. cat. no. Sc12. cat. no. Sd06. cat. no. Sg12, Sg13. cat. no. Tg16. cat. no. Wa16. cat. no. Wf06. cat. no. Wi02. cat. no. Wm05. cat. no. Wn03.

Excavation Report: --Interim Report: Nash-Williams (1936) The Vine Cottage site comprised a garden and orchard of about three quarters of an acre, situated in the central division of the fortress. Excavations in 1936 revealed remains of three main structural phases. The earliest was represented by a series of floor-levels relating to timber structures, perhaps soldiers’ hutments, which had occupied the site from about AD 75 to 100. About 100 the timber structures were replaced, or 179

supplemented, by a single barrack-building of stone, which was occupied apparently for only a short time, perhaps not more than a decade. The building was then dismantled to make way for a group of three stone barracks. These latter remained in use throughout the second century and possibly beyond. One of the buildings was partially remodelled in the course of its history. There was some evidence of a fourth and late phase in the occupation of the site characterised perhaps by the decay or demolition of the stone buildings and their replacement by wooden structures.

Whitehart Lane

(accession no. 31.78)

Lorica Segmentata

copper alloy buckle

cat. no. Lc02.

Nothing is recorded about the origins of this object beyond a location to Whitehart Lane.

Unprovenanced

(accession no. 31.78, 99.47H)

Scabbards Lorica Segmentata

Lorica Hamata Lorica Squamata Helmets Belt Fittings

copper alloy plate 4 copper alloy slides 3 copper alloy lobate hinges copper alloy hinged fitting copper alloy hook copper alloy tie-loop 11 copper alloy tie-rings

Pendants

copper alloy fastening pin copper alloy scales copper alloy carrying-handle 2 copper alloy openwork belt-plates copper alloy buckle-plate 2 copper alloy belt-plates 3 copper alloy hinged buckles bone hinged buckle copper alloy trapeziform buckle 2 copper alloy buckles copper alloy strap-end 3 copper alloy mounts 2 copper alloy strap terminals 3 copper alloy mounts copper alloy stud copper alloy link 6 copper alloy lanceolate pendant

Fasteners

copper alloy teardrop pendant copper alloy pendant copper alloy button-and-loop fastener

Horse Harness

cat. no. Ba01. cat. no. Be01, Be02, Be03, Be04. cat. no. Lb01, Lb02, Lb35. cat. no. Lc03. cat. no. Ld01. cat. no. Le01. cat. no. Lf01, Lf02, Lf03, Lf04, Lf05, Lf06, Lf07, Lf08, Lf09, Lf10, Lf11. cat. no. Md01. cat. no. Na01. cat. no. Qd04. cat. no. Sc03, Sc04. cat. no. Se02. cat. no. Sf02, Sf03. cat. no. Sg04, Sg06, Sg07. cat. no. Sg05. cat. no. Sh02. cat. no. Si01, Si02. cat. no. Sp01. cat. no. Sr01, Sr08, Sr10. cat. no. Tf01, Tf02. cat. no. Tg02, Tg03, Tg04. cat. no. Tg06. cat. no. Th03. cat. no. Wa05, Wa06, Wa07, Wa08, Wa09, Wa10. cat. no. Wh01. cat. no. Wm02. cat. no. Xb01.

All the material in Caerleon Museum at the time of its hand over to the National Museum of Wales by the Caerleon and Monmouth Antiquarian Society (p.3-4), was given the accession number 31.78. While it is most likely that this material comes from Caerleon, there can be no absolute certainty about the origins of any particular piece as the Caerleon Museum did contain material from other sites and even some foreign items.

Caernarfon (Segontium) See Segontium: in the Museum the site has always been referred to by its Roman name, a practice which has been followed in this catalogue.

180

Caersws (?Mediomanum) Fort

county: Montgomeryshire unitary authority: Powys

SO 030 920

Accession no. 20.526 Helmets Horse Harness

copper alloy carrying-handle copper alloy phalera copper alloy bit

cat. no. Qd01. cat. no. Tc03. cat. no. Ti01.

Excavation Report: Pryce (1940) References: Nash-Williams (1954) no.18; Jarrett (1969) no.12B; Burnham (1995) no.68 The site of Caersws is a natural communication centre in the upper Severn valley. The fort formed the pivot of the road-system controlling central Wales and five roads converged on the site. The importance of the fort was reflected by its size, 3.1 hectares, which places it amongst the largest of the Welsh forts. The excavation from which the finds in the Museum’s collection came from, took place under Bosanquet in the first decade of the twentieth century. He never published the results, but Pryce (1940) edited an account of the work based on the surviving notes and drawings. Bosanquet sectioned the defences at several points and in the interior identified four stone buildings: the principia, partly lost beneath the modern farm; a granary to the east; the praetorium, to the west; and behind this, projecting obliquely into the street behind the central block, three hypocaust rooms, probably part of a bath-suite apparently forming a late addition to the commandant’s house. Apart from this stone-built central block, all the remaining buildings within the fort were of timber construction (Jarrett 1969, 69). Fresh excavations in 1966 and 1967 provided better dating for the site. The earliest structures were timber buildings from the construction-trenches of which two groups of early, or possibly pre-Flavian pottery were recovered. These structures were demolished, with the associated pottery pointing to the late first century for this event. The second fort was also of timber, although the more spacious layout seems to imply a change in the strength of the garrison. The third phase in the late Hadrianic-Antonine period saw a complete reorganization, while the barracks were again of timber, the central buildings were built in stone. The timber barracks seem to have survived into the third century and the praetorium also continued in use. The praetorium was eventually demolished and the debris sealed with a gravel spread. Late third and early fourth century pottery was found trodden into this surface and points to continued activity on the site at this late period, though whether this was specifically military is unknown (Jarrett 1969, 69).

Caerwent (Venta Silurum) Courtyard House (I.28N) Town

county: Monmouthshire unitary authority: Monmouthshire

ST 468 907

Accession no. 84.117H Spears Belt Fittings

iron spearhead copper alloy belt-plate

cat. no. Da37. cat. no. Sf07.

Excavation Report: ---References: Whittle (1992) no.67, Brewer (1993) This plot in the north-west corner of the town (Insula I) was excavated between 1981 and 1984. The earliest building on the site was constructed in the late second or early third century AD, before that, the plot was vacant. Only a single room of this building was available for excavation. The walls, less substantial than those of the later buildings, probably stood only a few courses high, the superstructure being timber framed. A well, over 10m deep was sited immediately outside the north-west corner of the house. In the late third century, the first building was demolished and a much larger house was constructed. It 181

occupied the northern part of the plot, and the rest of the ground was enclosed for a garden and yard. The plan of this house is incomplete, but it seems to comprise a long central corridor which gave access to rooms on either side. The house was one of some pretension, for there is evidence from several rooms for elaborately decorated walls and ceilings, and the central corridor had a fine mosaic. The latest building to occupy this plot was a very substantial dwelling providing a high standard of accommodation. Built in the early part of the fourth century, the house consisted of a number of rooms ranged around two courtyards. A large storeroom and the installation of a corn-drier in the southern courtyard may point to this property being a farm. There were a number of small buildings and walled yards in the vicinity, which may have served as barns, byres, paddocks and orchards. Neither of the pieces catalogued from this site have to be military: spears could be being used for hunting and there is no reason why the belt-plates could not have been used on a belt belonging to someone other than a soldier. The possibility that soldiers were stationed in towns in the fourth century (Davies 2000, 34), is not an explanation for their presence as both pieces come from third century contexts and the belt plate is not of late type.

Dinorben Hillfort

county: Denbighshire unitary authority: Conwy

SH 968 757

Accession no. 58.167, 58.535, 61.505, 65.409 Spears Conical Ferrules Arrows Artillery

iron spearhead iron conical ferrule 2 iron vaned, tanged arrowheads iron flat bladed bolt-head

cat. no. Da29. cat. no. Ga10. cat. no. Ia01, Ia02. cat. no. Jb01.

Excavation Report: Gardner & Savory (1964); Savory (1971) References: Davies (1977); Guilbert (1979) Dinorben hillfort has now been entirely quarried away, but once stood on a limestone promontory, defended by multivallate earthworks. Inside the defences was a dense scatter of hut platforms cut into the steep slopes that covered much of the enclosed area. Dating evidence suggests activity on the site through much of the first millennium BC and at least the first four centuries AD. Dinorben was excavated intermittently in the periods 1912-22, 1956-61 and 1977-8; largely in response to the threat from quarrying. It is the only Welsh hillfort to produce items of undoubted Roman military equipment, though how these came to be there is not known. They might be the result of a Roman attack on the hillfort during the conquest of North Wales. Another possibility, however, is that they reached Dinorben during the course of army manoeuvres on the abandoned hillfort (Davies 1977).

Ffrith small settlement

county: Flintshire unitary authority: Flintshire

SJ 285 552

Accession no. 48.152 Belt Fittings

2 copper alloy hinged buckles copper alloy trapeziform buckle

cat. no. Sg16, Sg17. cat. no. Sh07.

References: RCAHMW (1912) no.166; Davies (1949) p.226-38; Blockley (1989) Found in 1828 during the levelling of a section of Offa’s Dyke. Ffrith appears to be the site of a small Roman settlement, possibly connected with the lead industry of the region. The evidence suggests much reduced activity at the site after the mid-second century (Blockley 1989, 164; Manning 2001, 74-5). 182

Amateur excavations in the late 1960s produced further pieces of Roman military equipment: including an openwork belt-plate, and a tie-loop and a tie-ring from lorica segmentata (Blockley 1989, 147-8 nos. 5, 7 & 8). They also produced two fragments of tile stamped LEG XX VV, suggesting contact with the Twentieth Legion at Chester (Blockley 1989, 153). Lead extraction in the area could well have been under the control of the army, at least some of the time.

Gelligaer Fort

county: Glamorgan unitary authority: Caerphilly

ST 134 970

Accession no. 02.93 – 139 Daggers Spears

iron dagger 2 iron spearheads

cat. no. Ca01. cat. no. Da01, Da02.

Excavation Report: Ward (1903; 1909; 1911; 1913) References: Nash-Williams (1954) no.25; Jarrett (1969) no.22; RCAHMW (1976) no.737; Whittle (1992) no.68 The fort occupied a commanding position on a broad spur of Cefn Gelligaer on the line of the Roman road running south from Brecon to Cardiff, between the forts of Pen-y-Darren and Caerphilly. The site was explored in haphazard fashion by the Cardiff Naturalists’ Society, 1899-1901, with few of the finds being kept (Jarrett 1969, 88). Built between AD 103 and AD 111 (RIB 397-9), it replaced a nearby earth and timber fort, dating from the last quarter of the first century AD. It is much smaller than the fort it replaced and, at 1.5ha, is one of the smallest in Wales. Unlike most other auxilary forts it was built from the first in stone (Whittle 1992, 67-8). The History of this fort is difficult to determine. The majority of the pottery is certainly late first to early second century in date, suggesting that the major occupation of the stone fort dates to the Trajanic and early Hadrianic period (Webster forthcoming). However, finds of the third and fourth centuries suggest some later, possibly civilian occupation, perhaps on a much reduced scale (Whittle 1992, 68).

Hindwell Farm Fort

county: Radnorshire unitary authority: Powys

SO 255 607

Accession no.76.41H Artillery

iron pyramidal bolt-head cat. no. Ja10.

Excavation Report: Pye (1979) An apparently early timber fort, possibly with a stone bath-house. Limited excavations in 1975-76 provided a section across the ditch and evidence of a number of scattered features, including an oven.

Holt (?Bovium) Army works-depot

county: Denbighshire unitary authority: Wrexham

Accession no. 25.1 Artillery Helmets Belt Fittings

iron pyramidal bolt-head 2 copper alloy carrying-handles copper alloy openwork buckle-plate

183

cat. no. Ja01. cat. no. Qd02, Qd03. cat. no. Sc01.

SJ 405 546

Horse Harness Pendants

copper alloy enamelled buckle-plate copper alloy harness fitting copper alloy lanceolate pendant copper alloy crescentic pendant

cat. no. Sd02. cat. no. Th02. cat. no. Wa04. cat. no. Wf01.

Excavation Report: Grimes (1930) References: Nash-Williams (1954) no.2; Jarrett (1969) no.3 The various structures comprising the works-depot cover an area of roughly 8 ha on the west bank of the river Dee, some 12 miles south of Chester (Deva) and the close association of the two sites is attested by the tiles and antefixes naming the Twentieth Legion, as well as by the centurial stones (RIB 439-41), recovered from the site. Extensive excavations conducted by T. A. Acton between 1907 and 1915 uncovered kilns and ancillary workshops for the manufacture of pottery and tiles, together with barracks, a commandant’s house, and a bath-building. The evidence of the finds, thought they cannot now be related to structures suggests that Holt was established towards the end of the first century. The greatest period of activity being under Trajan and Hadrian, with a subsequent decline. The production of tiles with stamps reading ‘Anto(niniana)’ and ‘De(ciana)’ in addition to the normal titles of the legion indicates the continuation, or revival, of activity in the third century up to c. AD 249-51. Late third and fourth century material from the site is slight in quantity, and this seems to imply that occupation of the depot had to all intents terminated by this time (Jarrett 1969, 44; Ward 1998, 141-2).

Llandough Villa

county: Glamorgan unitary authority: Vale of Glamorgan

ST 168 733

Accession no. 82.44H Scabbards

bone slide

cat. no. Bf02.

Excavation Report: Owen-John (1988) Eight weeks of emergency excavation in advance of housing development was undertaken on the Llandough site in 1979. Probably the site of a pre-conquest farmstead (Owen-John 1988, 129). Romano-British occupation of the site commenced during the Hadrianic period, or at least in early Antonine times (OwenJohn 1988, 144). A major expansion of the villa, with a new range of buildings including a bath suite, took place in the early third century, and the site was occupied until the early fourth century (Owen-John 1988, 144). What a bone scabbard slide is doing on the site is unknown.

Loughor (Leucarum) Fort

county: Glamorgan unitary authority: Swansea

SS 563 979

Accession nos. 98.6H Swords Scabbards Daggers Spears Conical Ferrules Arrows

iron sword tip 3 copper alloy bindings copper alloy plate iron dagger tang iron inlaid sheath plate 10 iron spearheads 2 iron conical ferrules 2 iron vaned, tanged arrowhead s iron flat-bladed, socketed arrowhead

184

cat. no. Aa01. cat. no. Ba10, Ba11, Ba12. cat. no. Ba13. cat. no. Ca06. cat. no. Cb05. cat. no. Da40, Da41, Da42, Da43, Da44, Da45, Da46, Da47, Da48, Da49. cat. no. Ga22, Ga23. cat. no. Ia03, Ia04. cat. no. Id02.

Artillery Lorica Segmentata

Lorica Hamata Lorica Squamata Apron-mounts Helmets Belt Fittings

Horse Harness

Pendants

Fasteners

4 iron pyramidal bolt-heads 2 iron knob-ended bolt-heads 5 iron fragments 3 copper alloy buckles copper alloy buckle-plate copper alloy hinged fitting iron buckle iron hook 2 copper alloy tie-loops 2 iron fragments copper alloy scales copper alloy scales copper alloy scale 3 copper alloy plates copper alloy ear guard 2 copper alloy carrying-handles copper alloy crest-holder copper alloy enamelled belt-plate copper alloy buckle tongue copper alloy buckle-plate 7 copper alloy mounts 2 copper alloy buckle tongues 3 copper alloy junction loops copper alloy male strap fastener 2 copper alloy mounts copper alloy terminal copper alloy lanceolate pendant copper alloy ‘trifid’ pendant 2 copper alloy heart-shaped pendants copper alloy lozenge-shaped pendant 2 copper alloy pendant fragments copper alloy pendant copper alloy button-and-loop fastener copper alloy button-and-loop fastener

cat. no. Ja15, Ja16, Ja17, Ja18, Ja19,Ja20. cat. no. Jc04, Jc05. cat. no. La11, La12, La13. cat. no. Lc75, Lc77, Lc78. cat. no. Lc74. cat. no. Lc76. cat. no. Lc79. cat. no. Ld14. cat. no. Le38, Le39. cat. no. Ma11, Ma12. cat. no. Na09. cat. no. Na10. cat. no. Na11. cat. no. Pa07, Pa08, Pa09. cat. no. Qc04. cat. no. Qd13, Qd14. cat. no. Qe07. cat. no. Sd13. cat. no. Sk17. cat. no. Sn05. cat. no. Sr49, Sr50, Sr51, Sr52, Sr53, Sr54, Sr55. cat. no. Ta05, Ta06. cat. no. Td22, Td23, Td24. cat. no. Te05. cat. no. Tg29, Tg30. cat. no. Th08. cat. no. Wa30. cat. no. Wb03. cat. no. Wg05, Wg06. cat. no. Wi05. cat. no. Wm16, Wm17. cat. no. Wm18. cat. no. Xa01. cat. no. Xc09.

Excavation Report: Marvell and Owen-John (1997) References: Nash-Williams (1954) no.32; RCAHMW (1976) no.733 The fort of Leucarum stood on a ridge on the east bank of the River Loughor. The Excavations at Loughor took place in advance of road building in the 1980s, and lasted, in total, just over three years. During this time a number of discrete sites were excavated, mostly at the edge of the fort, but with the largest site revealing more of the interior. The area of the fort revealed by this site was first occupied by granaries but these were later replaces, c.105, by a courtyard building, interpreted by the excavators as the praetorium. The first fort on the site was constructed c. AD 73-80 and remained in use until c. 115/120, but with a possible lull in activity between c.80 and c.100. This fort was replaced by a fort approximately two-thirds its size. The dating of this second fort is less clear but appears to suggest an early second century date for the construction of the defences, followed by abandonment before the interior buildings were constructed. It appears to have been briefly occupied in the middle to late second century, and then more intensively from the mid to later third century into the early fourth century.

Pen Llystyn Fort

county: Caernarfonshire unitary authority: Gwynedd

SH 481 449

Accession no. 67.266 Spears

iron spearhead

cat. no. Da31.

185

Pendants

copper alloy crescentic pendant

cat. no. We02.

Excavation Report: Hogg (1968) References: Jarrett (1969) no.29; RCAHMW (1974) p.115-6 no.A1016a Pen Llystyn stood 12 miles south of Caernarfon (Segontium), commanding the natural route following the valleys of the Dwyfach and the Llyfni across the base of the Lleyn peninsula. The plan and history of the remains were recovered mainly by observations during gravel-digging in 1954-62 (Jarrett 1969, 101-2). The first fort was of 1.8ha with an annexe of about 1.2ha to the south-west. The annexe was enclosed by a small ditch, but apparently contained no permanent buildings. The defence of the fort comprised a rampart of gravel fill faced with turf and two ditches, except on the side covered by the annexe, where the outer ditch was omitted. The internal buildings had clay walls. The finds indicate an occupation beginning within a few years of AD 80, probably AD 78, and continuing for about a decade. After a short interval, a ditch was dug along the north-east side of the via principalis, suggesting the intention to form a reduced fort of about 1.1ha, but the work was never finished, and the site seems once again to have been abandoned for a short time. Finally, a fortlet of 0.5ha was built over the northern quarter of the original fort. The internal buildings could not be worked out as fully as for the earlier fort but suggest a protected storage-depot with only a small garrison. Finds which could be attributed to this period were very scarce. The fortlet was built before the decay of stumps which remained in the ground from the early fort buildings, and apart from a few scraps to be associated with non-military occupation at the end of the Roman period, there is nothing later than about 150. Almost certainly therefore, the whole occupation of the fortlet lay within the first half of the second century. There was no sign of any later military activity (Jarrett 1969, 102-3).

Pen-y-Corddyn Hillfort

county: Denbighshire unitary authority: Conwy

SH 917 764

Accession no. 93.31H Belt Fittings

copper alloy buckle-plate

cat. no. Sn04.

References: Burnham (1995) p.193 Pen-y-Corddyn was a large hillfort of 10ha with probably a sloping annexe, of 5.3ha, to the north-west. It had rubble defences and three elaborate entrances. Both early and late Roman material has come from the site (Burnham 1995, 193). In the late Roman period it may have formed part of a system for the protection of north-west Wales, this would provide a context for the late Roman buckle-plate (Sn04), but remains to be proved (Davies 2000, 33).

Segontium, Caernarfon Fort

county: Caernarfonshire unitary authority: Gwynedd

SH 485 624

Accession nos. 23.292; 82.22H Swords

Scabbards Daggers Spears Plumbatae Conical Ferrules

bone hilt-guard jet pommel antler hilt-guard bone pommel 3 bone handgrips copper alloy chape plate copper alloy chape 4 iron spearheads 3 iron plumbatae 2 iron conical ferrules

cat. no. Ab01. cat. no. Ab02. cat. no. Ab03. cat. no. Ab06. cat. no. Ab07, Ab08, Ab09. cat. no. Ba04. cat. no. Ce01. cat. no. Da03, Da34, Da35, Da36. cat. no. Fa01, Fa02, Fa03. cat. no. Ga01, Ga02.

186

Arrows Lorica Segmentata

Helmets Shields Belt Fittings

Horse Harness

Pendants

iron flat-bladed, socketed arrowhead iron fragment 7 copper alloy lobate hinge 2 copper alloy buckles copper alloy hinged fitting copper alloy hook 2 copper alloy tie-loops 5 copper alloy rosette bosses 2 copper alloy rivets copper alloy carrying-handle copper alloy crest-holder copper alloy crest 2 copper alloy bindings copper alloy enamelled buckle-plate copper alloy buckle-plate copper alloy hinged buckle 2 copper alloy buckles 2 copper alloy buckle tongues 2 copper alloy strap-ends 2 copper alloy mounts copper alloy saddle plate 9 copper alloy junction loops copper alloy female strap fastener copper alloy stud iron bit link iron spur 3 copper alloy lanceolate pendants copper alloy heart-shaped pendant copper alloy teardrop pendant

cat. no. If01. cat. no. La07. cat. no. Lb07, Lb08, Lb09, Lb10, Lb11, Lb12, Lb13. cat. no. Lc32, Lc33. cat. no. Lc34. cat. no. Ld09. cat. no. Le08, Le09. cat. no. Lg07, Lg08, Lg11, Lg12, Lg13. cat. no. Lg09, Lg10. cat. no. Qd08. cat. no. Qe03. cat. no. Qe04. cat. no. Rc01, Rc02. cat. no. Sd01. cat. no. Se01. cat. no. Sg02. cat. no. Si06, Si07. cat. no. Sk10, Sk11. cat. no. Sp07, Sp08. cat. no. Sr02, Sr03. cat. no. Tb01. cat. no. Td02, Td03, Td04, Td05, Td15, Td16, Td17, Td18, Td19. cat. no. Te04. cat. no. Tg01. cat. no. Ti02. cat. no. Tk01. cat. no. Wa01, Wa02, Wa03. cat. no. Wg03. cat. no. Wh04.

Excavation Report: Wheeler (1923); Casey & Davies (1993) References: Nash-Williams (1954) no.8; Jarrett (1969) no.10; Boon (1974); Lynch (1995) no.92 Segontium is the north-west outlier of the Welsh frontier system. Situated on the summit of a broad rounded hill, it formed the pivot of the main northern and western coastal roads, while also guarding access to the Menai Strait and the island of Anglesey beyond. The larger part of the fort, north-east of the modern road that runs through it, was excavated by Mortimer Wheeler in the early 1920s, and part of the area south-west of the road was excavated by John Casey between 1975 and 1979. As first laid out, presumably after the final conquest of the Ordovices by Agricola in AD 78, the fort comprised an oblong enclosure of 2.27ha, defended by a timber palisade and bank. A fort as large as this is more likely to have been intended for a part-mounted unit than one purely of infantry (Jarrett 1969, 60-2). The north-west gateway (ports principalis dextra) seems to have been rebuilt before c. AD 160 but the rest of the defences could well be later. The Antonine period also saw the building of an imposing stone courtyard building, in the south-eastern portion of the praetentura, equipped with its own bath-house, it may have been the residence of a procurator metallorum (Casey & Davies 1993, 13-14). The ‘aqueduct’ inscription shows that the third century garrison of the fort was the First Cohort of Sunici (RIB 430). This regiment was probably a quingenary cohort, replacing the earlier large unit for which the fort had been designed (Jarrett 1969, 62). The central range of the fort underwent substantial rebuilding, with modifications comparable to those within forts in northern Britain at this time. Segontium was one of the latest, if not the last, fort to be occupied in Wales. A dramatic increase in activity is recorded in the early fourth century, presumably a reaction to an increased threat posed by Irish raiders. The recognition of a post-Magnus Maximus (383-8) coinage almost certainly indicates that the sites were not abandoned until about AD 393, when troops were transferred away in response to the revolt of Eugenius in Gaul (Casey 1989). 187

Seven Sisters Hoard

county: Glamorgan unitary authority: Neath Port Talbot

SN 819 073

Accession no. 04.125 – 157 Belt Fittings Horse Harness Pendants

copper alloy hinged buckle 2 copper alloy phalerae copper alloy junction loop copper alloy strap-slide copper alloy ‘trifid’ pendant

cat. no. Sg01. cat. no. Tc01, Tc02. cat. no. Td01. cat. no. Th01. cat. no. Wb01.

References: Allen (1905); Davies & Spratling (1976) Part of a hoard of Roman and ‘native’ Iron Age copper alloy objects discovered by children in 1875 in the bed of a stream, after a severe storm that had washed away part of its bank. The presence in the hoard of both old and new objects, along with ingots, casting-jets and billets suggests that the material had belonged to a bronzesmith. It seems possible that a Iron Age farmstead existed in the field next to the stream (Davies & Spratling 1976, 139).

Usk Legionary Fortress

county: Monmouthshire unitary authority: Monmouthshire

SO 379 007

Accession no. [see individual sites] Excavation Report: see individual sites References: Jarrett (1969) no.36 The fortress at Usk was built in about AD 55, probably by Legio XX, at the point where the main Roman road from the east entered the Usk Valley. The site controlled routes south to the coastal plane and north to the hills of Brecknockshire (Manning 1981a, 34-9). Recent work suggests that an ala may have been brigaded with the legion, not an uncommon situation in the first century (Marvell 1996, 85). Reorganization of the Roman army in AD 66 or 67 saw the transfer of Legio XX from Usk to Wroxeter, filling the gap in the legionary depositions between Lincoln and Exeter, and the abandonment of Usk as a fortress. Demolition, however did not take place immediately and it continued to be held by a small ‘caretaker’ garrison. The fortress was dismantled only once a new legionary fortress was established downstream at Caerleon, in AD 74 or 75. Soon afterwards a small auxiliary fort and or works-depot was established on the site (Manning 1981a, 45-52).

Cattle Market Daggers Spears Conical Ferrules Artillery Lorica Segmentata

Lorica Hamata

(accession no. 82.11H) iron sheath suspenion ring iron spearhead 4 iron conical ferrules 2 iron pyramidal bolt-heads iron knob-ended bolt-head 3 iron fragments copper alloy buckle 4 copper alloy hinged fittings iron buckle iron fragment iron fragment iron fragments iron fragment iron fragments

188

cat. no. Cc01. cat. no. Da32. cat. no. Ga16, Ga17, Ga18, Ga19. cat. no. Ja13, Ja14. cat. no. Jc02. cat. no. La04, La05, La06. cat. no. Lc26. cat. no. Lc27, Lc28, Lc29, Lc30. cat. no. Lc31. cat. no. Ma03. cat. no. Ma04. cat. no. Ma05. cat. no. Ma06. cat. no. Ma07.

Lorica Plumata Helmets Shields Belt Fittings

Horse Harness

Pendants

iron fragments 3 iron fragments copper alloy cheek-piece 2 iron bosses copper alloy buckle-plate bone hinged buckle copper alloy hinged buckle copper alloy buckle tongue copper alloy buckle-plate copper alloy phalera copper alloy female strap fastener copper alloy harness ring iron bit link 4 copper alloy winged pendants

cat. no. Ma08. cat. no. Oa01, Oa02, Oa03. cat. no. Qb03. cat. no. Ra04, Ra05. cat. no. Sf06. cat. no. Sg24. cat. no. Sg25. cat. no. Sk09. cat. no. Sn01. cat. no. Tc06. cat. no. Te03. cat. no. Th06. cat. no. Ti07. cat. no. Wc02, Wc03, Wc04, Wc05.

Excavation Report: Manning (1989) Excavations in 1973-74 revealed part of the internal road system and workshops of the fortress, and one of the officer’s houses.

Detention Centre Scabbards Daggers Spears Conical Ferrules Artillery Lorica Segmentata

Lorica Hamata Lorica Squamata Helmets Shields Belt Fittings Horse Harness

(accession no. 82.10H) copper alloy slide iron inlaid sheath plate iron dagger and sheath iron spearhead 4 iron conical ferrules iron bolt-head copper alloy lobate hinge copper alloy buckle-plate 2 copper alloy hinged fittings iron buckle copper alloy rosette boss copper alloy cuirass hook copper alloy scale iron fragment copper alloy crest-support 2 iron bosses copper alloy frog copper alloy buckle 2 copper alloy junction loops 2 copper alloy strap terminals copper alloy harness ring iron bit link iron curb bit

cat. no. Be18. cat. no. Cb01. cat. no. Cb02. cat. no. Da33. cat. no. Ga12, Ga13, Ga14, Ga15. cat. no. Jb02. cat. no. Lb06. cat. no. Lc22. cat. no. Lc23, Lc24. cat. no. Lc25. cat. no. Lg06. cat. no. Mc01. cat. no. Na07. cat. no. Qa01. cat. no. Qe02. cat. no. Ra02, Ra03. cat. no. Sm01. cat. no. Ta03. cat. no. Td13, Td14. cat. no. Tf04, Tf05. cat. no. Th05. cat. no. Ti05. cat. no. Ti06.

Excavation Report: Manning (1981a) Excavations between 1968 and 1974, revealed part of the defences including the main east gate, part of the internal road system and two major groups of granaries.

former Church Voluntary Primary School Daggers Lorica Segmentata Horse Harness Pendants

3 iron sheath suspenion rings copper alloy buckle copper alloy mount copper alloy hanger

(accession no. 97.54H) cat. no. Cc02, Cc03, Cc04. cat. no. Lc68. cat. no. Th07. cat. no. Wn09.

Excavation Report: Marvell (1996) Excavations in 1988 uncovered part of the northern via sagularis and four contubernia of a barrack block 189

which was later converted into a stable.

Old Market Street

(accession nos. 92.32H)

Scabbards Lorica Segmentata Shields Belt Fittings

copper alloy mount iron chape iron plate copper alloy buckle copper alloy hinged fitting iron boss copper alloy buckle tongue

cat. no. Ba07. cat. no. Ba08. cat. no. Ba09. cat. no. Lc64. cat. no. Lc65. cat. no. Ra06. cat. no. Sk15.

Excavation Report: Evans & Metcalf (1989) Excavations in 1979 produced evidence for Roman activity from the middle to the end of the first century AD. Parts of several buildings of at least two phase were uncovered along with a series of pits.

Old Market Street 1986 Daggers Artillery Lorica Segmentata

Belt Fittings

Horse Harness

(accession nos. 97.55H)

iron dagger handle iron inlaid sheath plate iron knob-ended bolt-head iron fragment copper alloy buckle 2 copper alloy buckle-plates 2 copper alloy hinged fittings 2 copper alloy hinged buckles copper alloy buckle tongues copper alloy frog copper alloy mount iron buckle copper alloy phalera copper alloy strap terminal iron spur

cat. no. Ca05. cat. no. Cb04. cat. no. Jc03. cat. no. La10. cat. no. Lc69. cat. no. Lc71, Lc72. cat. no. Lc70, Lc73. cat. no. Sg33, Sg34. cat. no. Sk16. cat. no. Sm03. cat. no. Sr48. cat. no. Ta04. cat. no. Tc07. cat. no. Tf06. cat. no. Tk02.

Excavation Report: Marvell (1996) Excavations in 1986-8 uncovered a timber framed building, possibly a combined cavalry-barrack and stable, overlying an uncompleted building, probably a barrack block. The site also produced part of another barrack block and a number of pits.

Priory Orchard

(accession no. 99.52H)

Horse Harness

copper alloy studs

cat. no. Tg31.

Excavation Report: Manning (1989, 131-9) Excavations in 1965 were restricted to a number of long trenches. Work concentrated on the major northsouth road and the area to the west of it where the ditch of the Flavian fort and the corner of the fortress bathhouse were found.

Sewage main trench Artillery

(accession no. 99.49H) iron pyramidal bolt-head

cat. no. Ja21.

Excavation Report: Marvell & Maynard (1998) Excavations, in 1994, across the line of the Roman road leaving the south gate of the fortress. As well as a section across the road it provided evidence of Roman industrial activity on both sides of the road. 190

Unprovenanced

(accession no. 31.78)

Lorica Segmentata Horse Harness

copper alloy hinged fitting copper alloy studs

cat. no. Lc04. cat. no. Tg07.

Items in Caerleon Museum at the time of its hand over to the National Museum of Wales by the Caerleon and Monmouth Antiquarian Society (p.3-4, p.180).

Whitton Farmstead

county: Glamorgan unitary authority: Vale of Glamorgan

ST 081 713

Accession no. 77.40H Artillery Belt Fittings Horse Harness Pendants

2 iron pyramidal bolt-heads 2 copper alloy strap-ends copper alloy roundel copper alloy pendant fragment

cat. no. Ja11, Ja12. cat. no. Sp04, Sp05. cat. no. Tg24. cat. no. Wm07.

Excavation Report: Jarrett & Wrathmell (1981) References: RCAHMW (1976) no.761 The Iron Age and Roman farm at Whitton was discovered in 1956, and was fully excavated between 1965 and 1970 because of the extensive damage it was suffering from ploughing. The first occupation of the site began c. AD 30 as a group of timber roundhouses enclosed by a bank and ditch. The excavation revealed at least seven roundhouses, of different first century dates. By the late first century rectilinear timber buildings were being erected, and in the second century buildings with stone foundations of simple Roman character appeared. Continuity of occupation into the fourth century seems certain, even though the absence of stratified levels means that assumptions have to be made about the character of the occupation at some dates. It appears that occupation ended about 340, but the reasons for this are unclear (Jarrett & Wrathmell 1981, 5). At no stage did the site exhibit the luxury features normally associated with a villa: there were no indications of tessellated pavements nor does there seem to have been a bath-house. It is clear that it remained throughout a working farm, all be it a prosperous farm where the residents clearly lived substantially above subsistence level. While none of the copper alloy fittings catalogued from Whitton would look out of place in a military context there is nothing preventing them being purely civilian objects, if indeed such a clear distinction is valid for the Roman period. The same cannot be said for the two bolt-heads which were also found at Whitton. It seems highly improbable that they were ever fired against the farmstead (Jarrett & Wrathmell 1981, 252-3), so other explanations for their presence need to be sort. The Roman army must, at least occasionally, have lost catapult bolts and other projectiles in action or during training. There is no reason why these could not have been picked up either as potential sources of scrap iron or simply as curios, as people today pick up cartridge cases.

191

Discussion This is the catalogue of a museum’s collection. A catalogue however is only a starting point, it is the information that it makes available for further study that is important. The aim here is to give a brief over view of the collection as a whole, to look at its strengths and weaknesses, and to consider whether any patterns emerge. The first section looks at where the objects in the collection have come from; considers the dominant position of Caerleon as source of objects; and examines the ‘non-military’ sites represented in the collection. The second section looks at the range of objects in the collection.

Provenance of the Collection 975

108 83

23

Hindwell Farm

6

6 Whitton

Gelligaer

1

Usk

Ffrith

2

Seven Sisters

Dinorben

1

Segontium

Caerwent

8

Pen-y-Corddyn

1

Pen Llystyn

3

Loughor

3

Llandough

5

Holt

2

Caersws

Caerleon

Brecon Gaer

3

75

The catalogue contains 1305 items from seventeen sites in Wales. The geographical spread of these sites (see map p.2) is partly a reflection of Roman military activity in Wales (p.4-7), but is also influenced by the past and present collecting activities of the National Museum of Wales (p.1-4), and the presence or not of local museums in a particular area. Eleven of the sites are Roman forts leaving six that are civilian or of uncertain type, however only twenty-four objects come from these ‘non-military’ sites (p.193). The collection is dominated by material from Caerleon, 975 items, clearly reflecting the nature of the site and the amount of excavation that has occurred there (p.164). No other site comes anywhere close; the next largest site assemblage comes from Usk with 108 objects; this is followed by Loughor with 83 objects; and Segontium with 75 objects. Of the remaining sites only Brecon Gaer, with 23 objects, makes it into double figures. The clear dominance of Caerleon, and Usk producing the second largest assemblage, despite its sort life as a legionary fortress (but see p.349), might suggest a real difference in the quantity of military equipment to be found in the excavation of a legionary fortress, compared to an auxiliary forts. This difference, however, may not be as striking as it appears, when the relative sizes of the areas excavated at each site and when the date of the various excavations are taken into account. It is striking that the two auxiliary forts that have produced the largest assemblages, Loughor and Segontium, are those where more recent excavations have occurred. There is no reason to suppose that Loughor is that unusually rich an auxiliary site (p.184); while at Segontium it is interesting that the 1920s excavations produced twenty-one pieces of military equipment while those of a considerably smaller area in the 1970s produced fifty-three pieces. At Usk all the excavations are of relatively recent date and at Caerleon it is noticeable that, in general, it is the more recent excavations that have been more productive (British Telecom Site, 83 objects; the Roman Gates site, 79 objects; and the Fortress Baths, 58 objects). The importance of the date of an excavation and the reasons for it are considered further below (p.196).

192

424

83

79

61

58

54 44 34 23

22

18

Vicarage Garden

unprovenanced

The Hall

1 Whitehart Lane

3 Vine Cottage

3

Vicus

2 The Croft

1 School Field

1

School Extention

Roman Gates

Prysg Field

1 Myrtle Cottage

2

Museum Street 1969

Museum Site

1 Jenkins Field

Golledge's Field

Fortress Baths

Endowed School

East Corner

Churchyard 1908

Castle grounds

Broadway House

Broadtowers Field

British Telecom Site

Amphitheatre

Alstone Cottage

Abbeyfield

2

Sandygate

5

3

Museum Street 1965

1

8

Museum Street

1

13

9

Isca Grange

4

6

Great Bulmore Farm

1

7

Dug between 1927 and 1929, Prysg Field stands out from the pattern of increasing retrieval of objects as it does from many of the patterns otherwise detected in the collection. With 424 objects it is also clearly part of the reason for the dominance of Caerleon within the Museum’s collection. Bow fragments account for half of this figure (p.43), but even a figure of 212 is considerably higher than for any other site, and is made up of an unusual mix of items. The reasons for this exceptional assemblage of military equipment are discussed in the gazetteer (p. 174-5). One respect in which Caerleon does stand out is in the evidence it provides for manufacture or at least repair of equipment. As well as the bow fragments mentioned above a number of lorica segmentata fittings (Lc14, Ld07, Ld10, Le14, Lg01), scabbard fittings (Bd02, Be20), belt buckles (Sh05, Sk08 ) and pendants (Wa20) appear to be in an unfinished state. The marked concentration of lorica fittings on the British Telecom site has been used to suggest the presence of workshops there (Zienkiewicz 1987a), but their true significance is difficult to judge as the site remains unpublished. Whether or not this is a genuine difference between Caerleon and the other sites, must again be uncertain as the relatively small scale of the excavations on many of the sites make it difficult to judge.

‘Military Equipment’ on ‘Civilian’ Sites Caerwent

Courtyard house in a town (p.181)

iron spearhead (Da37) copper alloy belt-plate (Sf07)

Dinorben

Hillfort (p.182)

iron spearhead (Da29) iron conical ferrule (Ga10) 2 iron vaned, tanged arrowheads (Ia01, Ia02) iron flat bladed bolt-head (Jb01)

Ffrith

small settlement, possibly related to lead mining (p.182)

2 copper alloy hinged buckles (Sg16, Sg17) copper alloy trapeziform buckle (Sh07)

Llandough

Villa (p.184)

bone scabbard slide (Bf02)

Pen-y-Corddyn

Hillfort (p.186)

Late Roman copper alloy buckle-plate (Sn04)

193

Seven Sisters

hoard possibly from close to a farmstead (p.188)

copper alloy hinged buckle (Sg01) 2 copper alloy phalerae (Tc01, Tc02) copper alloy junction loop (Td01) copper alloy strap-slide (Th01) copper alloy ‘trifid’ pendant (Wb01)

Whitton

Romano-British farmstead (p.191)

2 iron pyramidal bolt-heads (Ja11, Ja12) 2 copper alloy strap-ends (Sp04, Sp05) copper alloy harness roundel (Tg24) copper alloy pendant fragment (Wm07)

Seven of the sites represented in the Museum’s collection of Roman military equipment are not sites of known Roman forts, however between them these sites have produced only twenty-four objects. On some of these sites military activity can not be ruled out. The finds from Dinorben could be the result of a Roman attack on the hillfort during the conquest of North Wales, although there is no other evidence for such an event (p.182). Pen y Corddyn may have formed part of a late Roman system for the protection of north-west Wales but this remains to be proved (p.186). The settlement at Ffrith has been linked with lead extraction which could well have been under the control of the army, at least some of the time (p.182). The possibility that soldiers were stationed in towns in the fourth century (Davies 2000, 34), however does not explain the presence of a spearhead and belt-plate on the courtyard house site at Caerwent as both pieces come from third century contexts. Neither of these pieces, of course, need be military (p.181). The same applies to the copper alloy fittings from Whitton, while none of them would look out of place in a military context there is nothing preventing them being purely civilian objects, if indeed such a clear distinction is valid for the Roman period (p.191). The same cannot be said for the two bolt-heads which were also found at Whitton, and it is also difficult to imagine a civilian origin for the bone scabbard slide at Llandough (p.184). The Seven Sisters material being a nineteenth century chance find is difficult to place in context (p.188).

Contents of the Collection entire collection

discounting the 212 bow fragments

Without any of the Prysg Field material

Copper alloy

782

60%

782

72%

713

81%

Iron

278

21%

278

25%

149

17%

Bone / antler

243

19%

31

3%

17

2%

Jet

1

---

1

---

1

---

Silver

1

---

1

---

1

---

1305

100%

1093

100%

881

100%

194

Prysgy Field

300

Caerleon (other than Prysgy Field) Other Sites

250 200 150 100 50 0

Fasteners

Pendants

Standards

Parade Armour

Horse Harness

Belt Fittings

Shields

Helmets

Apron-mounts

Lorica Plumata

Lorica Squamata

Lorica Hamata

Lorica Segmentata

Caltrops

Artillery

Arrows

Bow

Conical Ferrules

Plumbatae

Pila

Spears

Daggers

Scabbards

Swords

The objects in the collection are obviously not everything that was used by the Roman army in Wales, or even a representative sample of it. Some objects are clearly more likely to survive to be in the collection than others. The relative chances of an object reaching the collection can be seen as a combination of: the chances of it being lost or discarded in the first place; the chances of it surviving in the ground; and the chances of it being retrieved and or recognized. These factor do not work in isolation from each other: the way in which an object is discarded can affect its survival and or retrieval; while its state of preservation clearly influences recognition. The properties of a particular object; material, size, function; variously influence each stage but other factors have an effect.

Deposition In simple terms objects are either accidentally lost or deliberately discarded. Bishop (1985b, 8; 1986, 717-8) argues against accidental loss having played any significant role in military equipment entering the archaeological record. He rightly points out: that while it is conceivable that small items of equipment, such as lorica segmentata fittings could be lost unwittingly it is difficult to imagine larger items, such as a spearhead, being so lost with any regularity; that a large proportion of published material comes from pits or rubbish deposits; and that most was scrap by the time it was deposited. While all this is true it has the danger of setting up too clear a distinction between accidental and deliberate loss and of obscuring the interplay of the two factors. Not everything that goes out with the rubbish is necessarily intended to. With deliberate discard there is the question of whose decision it was. There is a great difference between the actions of an individual soldier discarding a single item and ‘officially sanctioned’ activity. Most of the military equipment found at Usk appears to have been deposited during the closure of the Fortress and seem best explained as damaged pieces which had been kept for reuse until the closure of the establishment led to their being dumped as not worth transportation (Manning, Price & Webster 1995, 1). At Caerleon, the dating evidence for the later Rampart Building (RBb) on the Prysg Field (p.174-5), suggests that its abandonment came at a time when either the fortress was being completely closed, or the military presence on the site was being drastically reduced (p.166). This discarding of equipment at the time of abandonment seems to be paralleled at other Roman forts (Bishop 1985b, 7 & 18). There is thus a concentration of mid first century material from Usk and a large collection of third century material from Caerleon. For most of the sites represented in the collection the limited nature of the excavations, the small number of objects found, and the level of recording makes it impossible to identifying any patterns in the deposition of objects; either temporally or spatially. However, given the, apparent, pattern of activity by the Roman army in Wales (p.4-7), it is not surprising that, in general, the datable equipment in the collection appears to be predominantly of late first and second century types, with little very early or late equipment.

195

Retrieval The objects in the catalogue represent just over a hundred years of collecting by the National Museum of Wales, or it predecessor the Cardiff Municipal Museum, and a hundred and fifty years of collecting at Caerleon, thanks to the Caerleon and Monmouth Antiquarian Society. Changes in excavation techniques and conservation methods during this time have had a profound influence on the nature of the various excavation assemblages represented; both in terms of the objects present and the amount of contextual information available for them. In general more recent excavations produce more finds, and provide more precise information for each piece. The most clear divide is between excavations before the mid to late 1960s and those after. There are number of reasons for this. There is the change from sites only being trenched to area excavation now being the norm. This is connected to a shift in interest and intent, from a desire mainly to recover the plans of buildings, and generally even then only the latest on the site, to the aim to uncover the whole history of a site in all its phases. At the same time there has been a change from excavations being conducted largely using labourers to ones conducted by trained, or trainee, archaeologists. The contribution of improved techniques in conservation is most noticeable with iron objects; both in terms of the quantity and the range of objects being retrieved, identified and preserved. Overall the date of excavation appears to be a major, if not the principal, factor influencing the nature of the assemblages in this catalogue (see Gazetteer). This must be born in mind when considering the material, and in particular when comparing sites excavated at different periods.

196

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Wagner, F. 1973: Corpus Signorum Imperii Romani: Deutschland, Band I, 1 - Raetia und Noricum (Bonn: Rudolf Habelt Verlag GMBH)

Webster, J. 1975 ‘Objects of Iron’, in Cunliffe, B.W. 1975 Excavations at Portchester Castle: Volume I Roman, Soc. Antiq. Res. Rep. 32 (London), p.233-47

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Webster, J. 1981 ‘The Bronzes’ in Jarrett & Wrathmell 1981, p.163-88

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Webster, J. 1988 ‘The Small Finds’, in Jones, G.D.B. & Shotter, D.C.A. 1988 Roman Lancaster: Rescue Archaeology in an Historic City 1970-75, Brigantia Monograph No.1 (Manchester: University of Manchester), p.146-52

Ward, J. 1911 ‘The Roman Fort at Gellygaer The annexe’, Cardiff Naturalists’ Society Transactions, XLIV, p.65-91

Webster, J. 1992 ‘Objects of Bronze’ in Evans & Metcalf 1992, p.103-61

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A: Swords

Ab01

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B: Scabbards

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Bb12 Bb11 Bb10 ©NMW

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B: Scabbards

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C: Daggers

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M: Lorica Hamata N: Lorica Squamata

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U: Parade Armour V: Standards

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W: Pendants

Wf05 Wf03

Wf04 ©NMW

Wf02 ©NMW

Wf01

Wf07

Wf08 Wf10

Wf09 Wf06

Wf11

Wf13

Wf12

Wg01 ©NMW Wg04 Wg02 ©NMW

Wg03

Wg05

Wg06

Scale 1:1

W: Pendants

Wh03 ©NMW Wh01

Wh04 Wh02

Wi01

Wi02

Wi04 Wi05

Wi03

Wm01 Wk01 ©NMW

Wm03

Wk02

Wm02

Wm04

Wm05

Wk03

Wm06

Scale 1:1

W: Pendants

Wm07

Wm08

Wm09

Wm10

Wm11 Wm16 Wm12 Wm14

Wm15

Wm13

Wm17

Wn01

Wm18

Wn02

Wn05 ©NMW

Wn04

Wn06 Wn03

Wn09 Wn07 Wn08

Scale 1:1

X: Button-and-Loop Fasteners

Xb01 Xa01

Xc02 Xc01 ©NMW

Xc04

Xc03

Xc07

Xc06

Xc05

Xc08

Xc09

Scale 1:1

X: Button-and-Loop Fasteners

Xd01

Xd02 Xd04 Xd03

Xe01 Xg01 ©NMW Xf01 ©NMW

Xh04 Xh01

Xh03

Xh02

Scale 1:1