Roman Military Equipment: The Accoutrements of War: Proceedings of the Third Roman Military Equipment Research Seminar 9780860544302, 9781407346083


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Table of contents :
Front Cover
Copyright
Table of Contents
List of Illustrations
List of Contributors
Preface
Introduction
The Roman Saddle
On Making a Roman Cornu
The Roman Military Tunic
Dura-Europos and the Introduction of the "Mongolian Release"
Professor Robert Newstead and Finds of Roman Military Metalwork from Chester
The Wellingborough and Nijmegen Marches
"The Evolution of Certain Features"
Roman Military Equipment on Thrid Century Tombstones
A Note on Roman Military Equipment from Romania
Evidence for the Roman Army in Southwark
The Drawn Sword
Index
Recommend Papers

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Roman Military· Equipment .· The Accoutrements of War

Proceedings of the Third Roman Military Equipment Research Seminar

edited by

M. Dawson

BAR International Series 336 1987

B.A.R.

5, Centremead, Osney Mead, Oxford OX2 ODQ, England.

GENERAL EDITORS A.R. Hands, B.Sc., M.A., D.Phil. D.R. Walker, M.A.

BAR-S336, 1987 : ' Roman Military Equipment' © The Individual Authors, 1987 The authors’ moral rights under the 1988 UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act are hereby expressly asserted. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be copied, reproduced, stored, sold, distributed, scanned, saved in any form of digital format or transmitted in any form digitally, without the written permission of the Publisher. ISBN 9780860544302 paperback ISBN 9781407346083 e-book DOI https://doi.org/10.30861/9780860544302 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library This book is available at www.barpublishing.com

C ONTENTS P age L ist of I llustrations L ist of Contributors

i x

P reface

I ntroduction M .

Dawson

1

Connolly

7

The Artefacts The Roman saddle P . O n making a Roman cornu P .

Barton

2 8

Wickenden

3 8

Appendix N . T he Roman military tunic N . D ura-Europos and the introduction of the

Fuentes

4 1

' Mongolian

r elease' S .

James

7 7

Lloyd-Morgan

8 5

P rofessor Robert Newstead and f inds of Roman m ilitary metalwork from Chester G .

The Theory The Wellingborough and Nijmegen marches D .

Atkinson & L .

Morgan

9 9

B ishop

1 09

' The evolution of certain f eatures' M .C.

R oman military equipment on third century tombstones J .C.

i ii

Coulston

1 41

P age A note on Roman military equipment f rom Romania A . E vidence

D iaconescu & C .

Opreanu

1 57

Sheldon

1 67

Morgan

1 75

for the Roman army in Southwark M .

Hammerson & H .

The drawn sword L .

I ndex

1 76

iv

L IST O F

I LLUSTRATIONS P age

CONNOLLY At

Durham ,

the

s addle

mount despite the P l.II

The

s addle's

proved remarkably easy to

l ack of stirrups

horns

provided

a

9 high

degree

of

s tability f or the rider The

s addle

1 0

horns hold the r ider f irmly in place -

even in potentially d isastrous s ituations

common in

combat

1 3

P l.IV

The

horns

on

t he

s addle

F ig.1

The s addle f ragments

a llowed

the

r ider

a

r emarkable d egree of mobility and balance

1 4

f rom Valkenburg and Vechten in

the Netherlands F ig.2

S implified

2 0

reconstruction

of

the main Valkenburg

p iece

2 1

F ig.3

D r Groenman-van Waateringe's

F ig.4

The rear,

F ig.5

The f ront pommel

reconstruction of

the

s addle components

F ig.6a The

stiffeners

f rom Rottweil

stiffeners from Rottweil

2 4

saddle tree

2 4

The suggested method of stitching the pommel to the

f acing

f ront pommels of the main Valkenburg l eather

F ig.8a & b S ide

and

2 3 2 4

front o f the saddle tree

F ig.6b The back of the F ig.7

2 2

L-shaped pommel

threequarter

f ront

v iew

o f

2 5

the

Valkenburg saddle F ig.8c,

d & e The s itting position f rom the s ide,

back and

top F ig.8f A f allen horse S t. Remi F ig.8g A

detail

Mainz

shown on

t he

Julii

monument

f rom

in southern France f rom

the tombstone of Gaius Romanius at

in Germany

F ig.9a-e Front,

2 6

underneath,

back

and

t op

v iews

o f

t he

r econstructed saddle without g irth strap F ig.9e A

possible

reconstruction

of

the

g irth

s trap

a ttached t o f laps which are stitched to the wood of t he tree

2 7

BARTON P 1.1

The

cornu

under

College of Music, F ig.1

The

P ompeii

t rials

a t

t he

R oyal

M ilitary

Kneller Hall

cornu,

w ith

t he

2 8 r econstructions of

Mahillon and Alexander

3 0

F ig.2

D etails of Kakaki bell

F ig.3

D etails of construction of bell

F ig.4

D etails of construction of bell

3 2

F ig.5

D etails o f handle socket

3 3

F ig.6

Mouthpiece

3 4

F ig.7

The harmonic series which represent the range

Page F ig.8

of the reconstructed cornu

3 4

The completed cornu

3 5

WICKENDEN F ig.9

Trumpet mouthpieces Lydney Park,

f rom

C olchester,

Verulamium ,

and Wickford

3 8

FUENTES F ig.1

V ine dresser

F ig.2

D efaced olive harvester,

F ig.3

P artly defaced s lave,

F ig.4

Tunic-clad

f rom C ordova

f rom Waltersdorf,

4 2 E .

Austria

soldier in a religious procession ,

f rom

Trajan's Column

4 3

F ig.5

Rower,

presumably a soldier,

f rom Trajan's Column

F ig.6

Bare-shouldered soldier cutting down a

t ree,

f rom

Trajan's Column F ig.7

Soldier

procession , F ig.8

Soldier

4 5

c arrying

a

p latform

in

a

t riumphal

f rom the Belvedere s arcophagus

c arrying

a

box

of

t ablets,

f rom

t he

Chatsworth relief

4 7

P 1.1

The s econd reconstruction of a tunic when unbelted

P 1.2

R ear view of the belted tunic

P 1.3

S ide v iew of the belted tunic

7 2

P 1.4

Front view of the belted tunic

P 1.5

A

P 1.6

Two

s tance

in

the

7 3

manner of the Chatsworth relief

( Fig.8) ( modern)

f ibulae s ecure the two panels

of

t he

tunic

7 4

P 1.7

The unknotted tunic with a bared shoulder

P 1.8

The unknotted tunic with a bared shoulder

7 5

JAMES F ig.1

The Dura thumbring,

Yale no.

F ig.2

The Dura thumbring

F ig.3

D etails of shaftments

F ig.4

S haftments

1929.475A

f rom Tower 1 9

7 9

f rom Tower 19 and f rom " L7-W",

the wall

in the vicinity of the tower

8 0

LLOYD-MORGAN P l.I

P rof. F ield,

Robert Newstead Chester,

April

P l.II. A Iron scale armour I I.B I ron

hob

f ittings,

e xcavating

copper

Deanery F ield,

F ield,

D eanery

a lloy

Chester 1 914

belt plaques and

1 928

P l.III. A Copper a lloy buckles and I II.B Copper

t he

8 6

f rom Hunter S treet,

nails,

D eanery F ield,

i n

1935

pelta

8 8 s haped

p laques,

1928

a lloy,

l ead,

and i ron pendants,

1928

Deanery 9 0

vi

P age P l.IV. A L ead

' luggage

I V.B Copper

label',

a lloy

D eanery F ield,

' luggage

l abel',

1 928

D eanery

F ield,

1 922-3 IV.0 I ron caltrop ,

Deanery F ield,

P l. V. A Chester Pageant 2 0.

1 910:

1 928

9 4

Agricola with soldiers of the

l egion

V .B Chester Pageant 1910:

' Soldiers playing dice'

9 5

ATKINSON & MORGAN P ls.I

& I I The N ijmegen march - these photographs show the method

of s uspension of helmet and other equipment

on the march - this i s to be method

contrasted

with

the

i llustrated on Trajan's Column

1 06

B ISHOP F ig.1

The

' mental

t emplate'

and

the

spread

o f ideas

amongst military craftsmen

1 12

F ig.2

Types

1 15

F ig.3

B elt plates

F ig.4

of phalera fastening

' St.Andrew 's

Cross'

belt plates

1 17

F ig.5

P endants

F ig.6

The relationship between l unula and trifid pendants

F ig.7

' Lorica s egmentata'

l obate hinges

F ig.8

' Lorica s egmentata'

hinged strap f ittings

F ig.9

' Lorica s egmentata' hinged buckle

F ig.10 F ig.11

1 18

' Lorica s egmentata'

1 21

f ittings

tie hocks

1 22

The distribution of embossed belt plates

F ig.12 A l arge F ig.13 The

' bird-headed'

d istribution

t ombstones and

1 19

1 23

pendant f rom Cirencester

o f

f igured

' bird-headed'

Thracian

c avalry

pendants in Britain

1 24

COULSTON P 1.1

Tombstone

of

an unknown soldier found in I stanbul

Archaeological Museum P 1.2

Tombstone

of

1 42

Aprilius

S picatus

f rom

a n umerus

D ivitensium P 1.3

1 42

Tombstone

of

Aurelius

S urus

f rom

t he

l egio

I

Adiutrix P 1.4

1 44

Tombstone of an unknown soldier found at

t he

s ite

of Herakleia Pontica

1 44

D IACONESCU & OPREANU F ig.1

Cavalry parade horse armour f rom t he

F ig.2

C avalry parade horse armour f ragment f rom I nläceni

F ig.3

D ecorative

plate

d epicting Mars;

f rom

c avalry

f rom Straubing

fort of Gilau parade

1 59

armour 1 60

F ig.4

B ronze s tuds

1 62

F ig.5

B utton and

1 65

F ig.6

M ilitary strap ends

loop f asteners

1 68

v ii

P age HAMMERSON & SHELDON P 1.1

Auxiliary

harness

pendant

f rom

1 5-23

S outhwark

harness

p endant

f rom

1 5-23

S outhwark

Arcadia

buildings

S treet P 1.2

Auxiliary S treet

1 69

P 1.3

Lorica s egmentata

buckle

f rom

F ig.1

C arnelian gemstone with l egionary motif f rom 1 -7 S t

F ig.2

Location plan of military f inds f rom S outhwark

( X-ray) Thomas'

1 70 Street

1 70

v iii

1 73

L IST O F CONTRIBUTORS

P .

Barton

1 5

D enbigh

T errace,

London,

Wll

2QJ,

England M .C.

B ishop

D ept.

of Archaeology,

Newcastle upon Tyne, P .

Connolly

1 5

C hurch Gate,

2RA , J .C.

Coulston

NE1

A .

Dawson

Diaconescu

University ,

7RU,

Spalding,

England

Lincs.,

PEll

England

D ept.

of Archaeology,

Newcastle upon Tyne, M .

The

The NE1

University ,

7RU,

England

Archaeology

S ection ,

P lanning

D ept.,

County Hall,

Bedford,

MK42 9 AP,

England

Muzeul de I stoire S tr

Emil

a l

I sac,

Transylvanie,

C luj-Napoca,

4

3 400,

Romania J .

Eagle

2 2

Ember

S urrey, N .

Fuentes

7

Farm

Way ,

KT4 OBL,

C oalecroft

East

Molsely ,

England

R oad,

London ,

SW15 6LW,

England G .

L .

Lloyd-Morgan

Morgan

Grosvenor Museum ,

2 7 Grosvenor

Chester,

England

3 4

CH1

M idfield

Northants., C .

Opreanu

2DD ,

Court, NN3

S tr

Emil

Thorpelands No.2,

1XP,

Muzeul de I stoire

England

a l

I sac,

S treet,

T ransylvanie,

C luj-Napoca,

4

3 400,

Romania H .

Sheldon

D ept. The

of

London , N .

Wickenden

Greater

Museum

EC2Y 5 HN ,

Chelmsford Writtle E ssex,

of

Archaeology , London

Road,

Wall,

England

Archaeological

England

i x

London London,

C helmsford,

Trust, CM1

1 3 BL,

P REFACE

The Roman Military Equipment R esearch Seminar was 1 983 at a t ime when specialists f elt

a n

increasing

f ormed in n eed,

not

only to discuss the relevance and u sefulness of their d iscipline with

other

colleagues,

but to place their

studies

in the wider

context of Roman archaeology and generally to increase awareness i n the potential of military studies. As a measure of which

was

f irst

enthusiasm

held

and

s uccess,

t he

conference

i n Sheffield was quickly publishedl

and

f ollowed by a s econd conference which was subsequently published a s a full BAR volume. by

t he

Dept.

By the third conference,

2

contributions were being received from material

individuals

f rom s ites as exotic a s Dura-Europos

in Northern Transylvania, The

s eminar

presented

to

d iscussion ,

hosted

i n

1 985

o f Archaeology at the University of Nottingham ,

took

t he often

a s well a s

working

on

in Syria and G ilau

f rom nearer home.

a f amiliar form with a s eries of papers

participants hectic,

f ollowed

notes

by

a

period

of

f rom which in many cases have

been included in the submission of papers for publication. I n addition to the d isplay

presented

and a photograph and

t ext

d isplay

Greater London Archaeology I

without their

mounted

work

the

( L.

a lso

by

t he

D ept.

f or

a of

publication ,

Allason-Jones and P eter Hazell),

s eminar

would

have

been

for

s tillborn.

welcome was the presence of the E rmine Street Guard and

their excellent repertoire of replicas. t oo

was

( Southwark and Lambeth).

- those who have produced papers

t hose who have not

Equally

there

s hould l ike to take this opportunity to thank all of the

contributors and

papers,

of replica armour by members of the Ermine Street Guard

t o the Dept.

Further

I

am

i ndebted

of Archaeology at the University of Nottingham

for hosting the conference and help in the arrangements. F inally special thanks must go to M .C. and

encouragement

B ishop f or his

help

t hroughout a s well a s his preparation of the

typed text during the autumn of 1 986. The Roman military equipment s eminars are an that

a ttract

annual

e vent

both s cholars and amateurs and f urther details of

f uture meetings may be obtained f rom the editor.

NOTES 1 .

M .C.

Bishop

( ed.),

Roman Military Equipment.

P roceedings of a

S eminar

Held

C lassical

the

Archaeology

March 1 983 B ishop

i n

( Sheffield

D epartment at

of

Ancient

H istory

the University of S heffield,

1 983).

Copies

a vailable

f rom

( see L ist of Contributors f or contact address),

and 2 1st M .C.

price

£ 0.90. 2 .

M .C.

B ishop

M ilitary

( ed.),

The P roduction and D istribution

Equipment.

of

R oman

P roceedings of the S econd R oman M ilitary

Equipment Research S eminar,

BAR

( Oxford 1 985)

x i

I nternational

S eries

2 75,

I NTRODUCTION M .

T he

Dawson

R oman m ilitary equipment s eminar of 1 985 was g enerally

i ntended t o explore the i ssues r aised by c urrent t he

d iversity

o f

a rtefacts

a ccoutrements o f war. s imply

c oncern

c ontrary , o f

i tself

w ith

i ts

c overed

s pectrum ,

t raining ,

a ssemblage

m attocks,

f rom

c hisels,

d ividers,

s upply,

S aalburg,

o f

t he

a rtefacts

we

have

f ew

dolabrae ,

s aws,

t urf

c utters,

weighing

i s

hammers, and

e quipment,

and so on.

army's

r equirements,

s urvives,

however ,

only a s mall

and

of

t hese

a d isproportionate number of c ertain types;

a nd of these d isproportionate survivals, a

building

F eldburg and Z ugmantel

b its,

vehicle mounts,

a rray of

s urvivals

on the

majority

t ransport,

comprising axes,

whilst other f orts 2 have yielded

t he

t he

n ot

and communication .'

f iles,

m edical instruments,

p roportion

d id

uniform and weaponry;

including areas s uch as

p articularly i lluminating,

b ut

o ther ,

their equipment r equirements c overed a much wider

( and maintenance), T he

i nto

by t he t erm the

l ike any

a lthough s uch a spects c urrently r eceive

a ttention ,

Of

l oosely

The Roman a rmy ,

r esearch

a spects.

r esearch

has

c overed

T he r easons f or this a re s traightforward,

r elating

t o

i nterest ,

not to mention the intrinsic attractiveness of c ertain

f orms.

I n

every

o rganised, r ight

-

t radition ,

s urvival,

s ense,

t hese

f ashion ,

r esearch

in s ome small measure,

and

i ndividual

s eminars

t o begin to

g et

have t he

providing a platform f or opinion and research.

t his will be a s low business,

b een

balance C learly

a s t he study of m ilitary artefacts

i s only a recent phenomenon and the f inancial s upport f or i t

i s

s lim indeed. D espite

t he

o rigins

of

i nterest

i n

s tretching back t o the R enaissance and before, a rchaeological

s ituation

t he

R oman

the

c ontemporary

i s one of confusion .

There i s g eneral

a greement a s t o t he date and occurrence of uniform t he

f irst

a nd s econd centuries AD ,

R obinson ,

3

O ldenstein ,

4

Works

l ike

t hose

i dentification ,

a nd

t heir

a

d iversity

s pades,

f or s uch

hoes,

e quipment,

1 1

of

o missions.

a s well a s A s

r egards

i n s ome cases t he chronological occurrence

o f t he r emaining a ccoutrements of war, c atalogues

of

, and B ishop 5 go a l ong way to c larifying

knowledge of t he uniform of t he imperial armies,

h ighlighting the d eficiencies by

a nd

f ittings

a lthough not n ecessarily to

which t ype of unit t hey may have belonged. o ur

a rmy ,

o f

works

o ther d iaspora

and mattocks,

ballistae,

1 2

8

a s

Manning's

c atalogue 6

have derived typologies and l ate

R oman

c auldron chains,

lothes and c

1

BM

9

belt

f ittings,

nails,



f asteners. 1 3

7

medical

I ntegral

t o

e xamination a rtwork,

s uch

of

a rchaeological

s urviving

which

s erve

e ither

i dentifications of individual, l ess

i ntegral

has

and

o ther

d ecorative

t o

o r

r einforce

i dentify

often unassociated,

been

t he

artefacts.

No

t o the process of r ecognition of l oose i tems has

been t he analysis and r e-analysis of t hose

works

s culptural

l arger

a ssemblages,

l ike

f rom Newstead and Corbridge. T hus

we

have

t he initial problem of artefact study - the

s econd l evel of development observed over the l ast c entury ,

that

of t he typology,

t his

v olume).

has

C learly

b een

t he

prehistoric study,

l argely

typology

s idestepped

has

( Bishop ,

i ts place particularly in

when date r anges are wide and tools,

pottery,

a nd building types may indeed have developed a long stylistically d iagnostic t he

l ines.

t ypology

I n Roman military

i s

t he

end

d evelopmental s equence,

e quipment

product

a nd

i s

t he corpus,

d istribution ,

s eries.

however,

be

with the vagaries of f ashion ,

and military n ecessity r eflected in i ts v alue

t erms,

s hould

O f

s een a s a e conomics, much

m ore

which s eeks t o d isplay not only s patial

1 4

but to relate artefacts t o each

o ther

a nd

t heir

point of d iscovery. T he

l imitations of the corpus are t hose imposed l argely by

t he archaeological past - interest in m ilitary f irst

a t the turn of the century,

s ites s uch as Newstead 15

and through

l ike

Jacobi,

von

D omaszewski,

a rtefacts thus d iscovered, t he

l ate 1950s,

p recisely

d iscovered,

work

o f

i ndividuals

R itterling.

Most

G iven

t his

i nstance

t he

brooches

artefacts took a s econd t echniques

p lace.

The

s eventies,

t hat occurred in the 1 950s and

s aw

t he emphasis c hange.

s till y ielded c lear s tructural s equences. p ut f orward the corpus, ( often

c ollections

f rom

r evolution

t o

d istributions;

d ated) i dentify

i n

' 60s,

by

t he

More and more s ites

were examined t hat could not be coin d ated in every t o

r arely

only the occasional

- and with the quantity of coins and inscriptions

a rchaeological

w ith c lear

o f the

their c ontexts

l egacy,

with t he n eed f or f ast efficient rescue d igs dominating e arly

a rose

and for the s ucceeeding decades until

t ypology was d eveloped - l ike f or Camulodunum 16

t he

and

were u sed i llustratively ,

i dentified.

a rtefacts

f rom t he excavations of major

a spect

b ut

I t was possible t hence

combining information f rom artefacts c ontexts, a

w ith

d evelopment

t hose o f

f rom

t ypes

e arlier

and

o ther

and to begin to u se artefacts in a way that coins

had been u sed previously. A lthough the progression ,

d evelopment

t here

i s

n ow

c ontinues on the recognition c ontinuing

work

of

t he

s omething of

c orpus

was

o f

i mpasse

a rtefacts,

an but

on the i st and 2 nd centuries AD ,

c enturies are l argely i gnored.

Worse s till,

2

i n 1 7

a

n atural - work

s pite

of

t he 3 rd-5th

despite t hree papers

i n 1 986,

t here i s

c onstitutes

s till

no

a greement

a s

t o

what

l egionary or auxiliary uniform 18 . I n 1 982,

o bserved t hat there was then a d isparity between t ypes

p recisely

t he

Holder 19 t wo

m ain

o f evidence - documentary/epigraphic and archaeological -

a nd t his r emains t he s ame today. T he way forward i s f ar f rom clear in the l iterature p roduction

o f

C olchester 21 e asier,

c atalogues

l ike

t hose

makes a ccess t o l arge bodies

b ut

s till

t he

b eginning

a ny

analysis.

g eographical l imitations, i n

t he

Near

E ast,

t he

o f

a rtefacts

a

l ot

r esearcher must spend much time s imply

s earching f or and e xamining the context of individual b efore

-

f rom S outh S hields 2 ° and

Even

t his

f or in many of the

and

North

Africa,

a rtefacts

p rocess B alkan t he

has

i ts

c ountries,

a rchaeological

t echniques c urrent do not a llow f or the publication of artefacts which are i dentified with their precise point here i s to emphasise, t he

i dentification

p rerequisite,

o f

o r

The

that not only i s

a rtefacts

an

e ssential

but so too i s the detailed understanding of their

r elative

o ccurrence,

t hrough d iscussion ,

d iscovered

c ontext and the possible c lose

l ocation or context.

r eason

o r

f or

a bsolute

d eposition.

L ikewise,

a

d ate r ange for t he artefact's

derived f rom other s imilar deposits and r igorous u se

o f excavation

d ata ,

i s

e ssential

before

any

d iscussion

of

d evelopment or association may be attempted. S o if i t proves possible to r elate r egiments to their bases i n

t he

f irst two c enturies AD f rom inscriptions or documentary

e vidence,

i t follows that - g iven a g reater insight into the u se

o r f unction of d iscarded, f orward i s c lear. f unction ,

d ate

l ost ,

or destroyed artefacts - the way

O n the one hand, r ange,

and

the continued s earch for

d evelopment

on the other

work!

s ay to u se artefact a ssemblages t o identify

T hat

i s

t o

g arrison points

t he

D iocletian),

r eforms

f unctions. b egun

-

of

I n some areas, B ishop ,

this

t his volume,

s uch

a s

t his

s eries

w ill

a rchaeologists

t o

f unctions,

t ype

o f

a nalysis

a fter

building

has

a lready

2 2

e ditor

help r esearchers,

t o t hink

e xpansively

t hat

s eminars

in what i s often a nd

f or

o ther

r ealise how u seful the study of the minutiae

NOTES P IETSCH ,

e ven

and t he attempted correlation of

o f R oman m ilitary e quipment can be.

1 .

e quipment

( of particular interest

i t i s t he p ious hope of this

c onsidered a minor f ield ,

m ilitary

f ort

a rrows with the cohors I Hamiorum . H ence,

make

t he

a rtefacts through

i ndividual analysis; t roops movements,

t o

o f

1983.

3

2 .

DAWSON ,

1985,

1 40-1.

3 .

ROBINSON ,

4 .

OLDENSTEIN ,

5 .

B ISHOP,

6 .

MANNING,

7 .

HAWKES & DUNNING,

8 .

MANNING ,

1969.

9 .

MANNING ,

1 983.

1975. 1976.

f orthcoming. 1 985.

1 0.

CLEERE ,

1 958;

1 1.

KUNZL,

1 2.

BAATZ & GUDEA,

1 3.

W ILD ,

1 4.

B ISHOP,

1 5.

CURLE,

1 6.

HAWKES & HULL ,

1 7.

WEBSTER ,

1 8.

MAXFIELD ,

1 9.

HOLDER ,

1 961;

MANNING ,

BULLINGER ,

1 969.

1 976 .

1983. 1 974.

1970. f orthcoming;

OLDENSTEIN ,

1 976 .

1 911. 1 947.

1985. 1986;

B ISHOP,

1 986.

1982.

2 0. ALLASON-JONES & MIKET, 2 1.

CRUMMY,

1 983.

2 2.

DAVIES ,

1977.

1 984.

B IBLIOGRAPHY ALLASON-JONES & M IKET 1 984: C atalogue

of

S mall

L .

A llason -,J ones

F inds

f rom

&

R .

M iket,

The

S outh Shields R oman F ort,

( Newcastle upon Tyne 1984) BAATZ & GUDEA 1974:

D .

Baatz & N .

4

Gudea,

' Teile

s pätrömischer

Ballisten

aus

Gornea

S aalburg-Jahrbuch XXXI, B ISHOP

1 986:

M .C.

equipment

B ishop,

within

und

1 974,

O rsova

' The

d istribution

Roman f orts of the

Studien z u den M ilitärgrenzen Roms Limeskongreß Aalen 1983 Vorträge, B ISHOP f orthcoming: army

i n

the

P roceedings

Bishop , c entury

I II.

1 969:

H .

the

Fourth

H .

B ullinger,

C leere,

A . D.'

I nternationaler

in J .C.

Roman

7 17-23

Coulston

M ilitary

( ed.),

Equipment

' Spätäntike Gürtelbeschläge'

' Roman domestic

I sle

of

Wight,

Institute of Archaeology I , 1 983:

1 3.

in

( Oxford forthcoming)

by the Brading,

CRUMMY

military

( Stuttgart 1986),

D issertationes Archaeologicae Gandensis CLEERE 1958:

of

f irst century A . D.'

' Cavalry equipment of the Roman

f irst of

Conference, BULLINGER

M .C.

( Rumänien)',

5 0-72

N .

C rummy,

1 2,

( Bruges

i ronwork, v illa',

1958,

a s i llustrated

Bulletin

of

the

5 5-74

The Roman Small F inds

in Colchester 1 971-9,

in

1969)

f rom Excavations

Colchester Archaeological

R eports

2 ,

A Roman Frontier P ost and its P eople.

The

( Colchester 1983) CURLE

1 911:

J .

Curie,

Fort of Newstead in the Parish of Melrose, DAVIES 1977:

J .L.

s agittarii', DAWSON

1 985:

' Arrowheads

B ritannia VIII,

M .

excavations CV ,

D avies,

D awson in J . 1 968-1983',

D inorben

and

the

2 57-70 Dool & H .

Derbyshire

Wheeler ,

' Roman Derby:

Archaeological

Journal

1985

HAWKES & DUNNING 1 961: s ettlers

i n

1 961,

HAWKES & HULL 1 947: F irst

R eport

R eport

of

S .C.

B ritain ,

Archaeology V ,

1 982:

P .A .

& G .C.

f ourth

t o

Dunning,

' Soldiers and

f ifth century',

Medieval

1 -70

C . F.C. on

t he

Hawkes

the

Hawkes

&

M .R.

Hull,

Camulodunum.

Excavations at Colchester 1 930-1939,

R esearch

Antiquaries of London 1 4, HOLDER

f rom

( Glasgow 1911)

Holder,

Committee

of

t he

S ociety

of

( London 1947) The

Roman Army in B ritain,

( London

1 982) KUNZL

1 983:

E .

Kunzl,

Medizinische

S epulkralfunden der römischer Kaiserzeit, MANNING

1 969:

W .H.

Manning,

' Mattocks,

5

hoes,

Instrumente

aus

( Bonn 1983) spades

and related

tools

in Roman B ritain'

in A .

Gailey & A .

Spade in Northern and Atlantic Europe, MANNING 1976:

W .H.

Manning,

Fenton

MANNING 1985: Tools,

The

1 8-29

Catalogue of Romano-British I ronwork

in the Museum of Antiquities Newcastle upon Tyne, upon Tyne

( eds.),

( Belfast 1969),

( Newcastle

1976) W .H.

Manning,

F ittings

Catalogue of the Romano-British I ron

and Weapons

in the B ritish

Museum ,

( London

1985) MAXFIELD

1 986:

garrisons', OLDENSTEIN

V .

Maxfield ,

Britannia XVII,

1 976:

J .

P IETSCH 1983:

5 7, M .

Saalburg, 1 983,

1986,

O ldenstein ,

Auxiliareinheiten ', Kommission

' Pre-Flavian

and

t heir

5 9-72

' Zur

Bericht

f orts

Ausrüstung

der

römischer

Römisch-Germanischen

49-284 P ietsdh,

' Die

F eldberg und

römischen

Z ugmantel',

E isenwerkzeuge

v on

S aalburg-Jahrbuch XXXIX,

5 -132

ROBINSON 1975:

H .

Russell Robinson ,

The Armour of Imperial Rome,

( London 1975) WEBSTER 1985:

G .

Webster ,

The Roman Imperial Army,

ed.3,

( London

1985) WILD 1970:

J .P.

provinces',

Wild,

' Button and loop f asteners

B ritannia I ,

1970,

6

2 71-337

i n

t he

R oman

T HE ROMAN S ADDLE P eter Connolly

I n 1 967 D r f inds

f rom

W .

G roenman-van Waateringe published the l eather

Valkenburg

and

Vechten

t he Netherlands which

f rom

r estoration these p ieces

f ormed the s addle c overing.

had

a l arge main p iece

R oman

i n

i ncluded s everal pieces

s addles

( Fig.1).

and

f our

o utside

p ommels which were s titched t o the main piece. t riangular in shape with a rounded top. Type

her

( Fig.1,a) which covered t he s eat and the

i nside of the four pommels

t ypes:

I n

Each s addle

f acings

o f

t he

These are roughly

They appear to be of two

1 ( Fig.1,e) has one rounded and one pointed corner

a t t he base and type 2 ( Fig.1,d) has both corners pointed. These a re

s hown

i n

Waateringe's

a

s chematic

analysis

r econstruction

o f

d rawing

f orm

i n

t hese

of

F ig.2.

p ieces

t he

was

a ssembled

D r

G roenman-van

a ccompanied by a

p ieces

o f

l eather

( Fig.3). T his

was a t remendous s tep f orward in our understanding of

t he R oman s addle but D r Groenman-van Waateringe did not h ow

i t

f itted

t o

t he

wooden

f rame

e xistence of so-called pommel stiffeners n ail holes a long the edges a t

l east

must

have

r econstructed f orm ,

t hat she envisaged. m ade

o f

b ronze

l ed

m any

The with

( Figs.4 & 5 ) proves that some s addles

had

a wooden f rame or tree but,

in their

there s eemed to be no r ealistic way t hat the

Valkenburg/Vechten pieces could be f itted to such a has

e xplain

p eople to s uggest t hat it was

t ree.

T his

j ust a l oose cover

f or a s addle.

I I I n 1 984 whilst preparing a s mall book on a Roman cavalryman m y attention was d rawn to t he s addle f ighting

was t hat there was c ombined

b ecause

c apabilities of t he horseman. w ith

t he

n o

t rue

l ack

s addle

a t

o f stirrups,

c apability of the c avalryman. n ot

t rue;

d ictates

t he

t his

t ime

and

t his,

s eriously r estricted the

The s culptural evidence f rom f irst

c entury t ombstones s uggested t hat t he w as

i t

The consensus of opinion

f irst of these

s tatements

one way t o t est t his was to build a r eplica of a

R oman s addle and t o r ide i t. I t i s e ssential

t hat a ny r igid s addle should be made to f it

a particular build of horse.

A f ourteen hand pony was

t he

horse

average

s ize

of

t he

7

s elected,

s keletons found at the Roman

c avalry f ort at Krefeld-Gellep in Germany , t o

f it it. b e

s addle

m ade

F irst the contours f rom the withers to the c entre of

t he back were reproduced as a f orma on c ould

and t he

c onstructed.

which

t he

s addle

t ree

The t ree of l aminated s trips of wood was

g lued together in the same way a s the D ura

E uropos

a nd

F ayyum

s hields and reinforced with an i ron backet a cross the withers. T he

r econstruction

of

t he

back of the t ree presented no

p roblems a s a pair of L-shaped pommel s tiffeners f rom n ow

i n the museum at Aalen in Germany

( Fig.4)

R ottweil,

gave not only the

s hape of the pommels but a lso the exact d imensions of o f

t he

s addle.

l eather b ack

Fortunately

( Figs.la & 2 )

t o

t he

b ack

t he pommels f itted the Valkenburg

a lmost perfectly.

The

d istance

f rom

t he

f ront pommels could easily be calculated a s could

t he d istance between the f ront pommels, pommel

t he

but although

s tiffeners had a lso been f ound at Rottweil

two

f ront

( Fig.5)

these

m erely f it over the pommels themselves and provide no c lue a s to t he shape of the f ront of the s addle. Any s addle has to f it a cross the withers of the t herefore

must

a bout 6 0'. Assuming that the pommels stuck out at t o

t he

a bout

t ree 3 0°

s traightforward evidence

t he

horizontal

and

( Fig.6a).

T his

obvious r econstruction.

a nd

would

be unwarranted.

r ight

a ngles

t his

was

t he

most

To put them at any i nterpretation t he

understanding

f ront pommels.

point the reconstruction came to a halt a s i t was

impossible to determine the depth of the s ides of the

t ree.

had

t he

b een

a ssumed

Valkenburg l eather

t hat

a s

t hem .

H owever

t he

i f

t he

which were a lso

t hing

pommels

o n

would

t urn

s maller ,

went

l ower part of t he pommel f acing

to the dart and t he

m ain

s titched

t ogether ,

under f orming a s ort of bag.

w ith

( D-E on

l eading edge of the s ide panel

t o the bottom of the pommel were whole

f ront

I t

( Fig.la) were smaller than the back ones t hat

t he Type 1 pommel f acings, F ig.7a)

o f

As will be s een l ater

t his proved to be of paramount importance in o f the f unction of the At

and

t hey would have projected s ideways at an angle of

t o

o ther angle would have required an arbitrary t he

horse

r ise to a peak at the f ront f orming an angle of

t hen

( B-C) t he

Not only

would t his solve the problem of how the l eather f itted over

t he

t ree but it would a lso determine the depth of the s ide which had t o

b e

( B-C).

l imited

by

t he maximum extent o f the f olded s ide panel

This s eemed to be confirmed by

pommels

t hemselves

had

t he

s titching,

P l.I:

T his

was

d one

A t Durham , d espite the

by

t he

b een stitched f rom the inside with the

l eather turning inwards to f orm an invisible top S ).

f or

s eam

( Fig.7a ,

p re-punching the holes with an awl and

the s addle proved remarkably l ack of stirrups.

8

e asy

t o

mount

P i. I



1 0

s ewing

f rom both f ront and back u sing two p ig hairs a ttached to

e ither end of a piece of f itted

o ver

t he

t hread.

p ommels

Once

t he

l eather

had

a ll f urther stitching had to be done

f rom t he outside a ccounting f or t he d ifferent coarser o n t he dart and s ides I t

r equired

b een

s titching

( Fig.la).

a n enormous amount of trial and e rror to make

t he f rame t he r ight s hape to f it inside the l eather a s it had to b e s titched up f irst but, r estitching

the

d isintegrated, was

after

s econd

t earing

s o

many

t he

f irst

t imes

c over

t hat

t he

the wood and l eather f inally f itted.

r eminiscent

o f

t he

l ozenge

and e dges

t he

r esult

s haped s addles s hown on many

f irst c entury tombstones s uch a s that of Gaius Romanius at Mainz ( Fig.8a)

and the one shown on the Julii monument at S t.

s outhern F rance The

c rescent

s haped

holes

( Fig.2,X ,X ,X,X)

V alkenburg l eather and a lso on other t he

l ower

edge

o f

t he

t ree.

f ragments

o n

t he main

c oincided

w ith

These cords c an be s een

o n many R oman s culptures and had a dual purpose; t he

i n

These are c learly f or attaching

c ords or t hongs to t he edge of the t ree. t o

Remi

( Fig.8f).

to t ie

b aggage

f ront and back of the saddle and to s uspend decorations

when on parade. At f irst I thought they might be

f or

a ttaching

t he g irth s trap but they would be f ar too f limsy. The

a rchaeological

r emains

a ttachment of the g irth strap.

t ell

u s

n othing

about

t he

One must a ssume that the tree was

n ot totally covered by the l eather and that the g irth strap a ttached

d irectly

t o

u se of saddle f laps. m onument

( Fig. 8 f).

c rupper

a nd

f laps

s eem

This may have been done by the t o

be

s hown

o n

t he

J ulii

I f this i s the case then the g irth strap,

the

t he breast plate may a ll have been attached t o the

( see F ig.9e). Although the

u seful f rom

t he t ree. T hese

was

b ronze

pommel

s tiffeners

i n making t he reconstruction , obvious.

I t

i s

u ncertain

o utside the l eather covering. S cotland

have

names

o n

t he

p roved

v ery

whether t hey f itted inside or e xamples

f rom

N ewstead

i n

s cratched on them which suggest that they

m ust have been on t he outside l eather

T he

had

their exact f unction i s f ar

o utside

b ut

t hey

a lso

have

t races

which suggest the opposite.

a rgue that the names were put there by the bronzesmith

o f

One c ould t o

t ell

t he s addler which s addle they were f or or on the other hand that t he

t races of l eather were f rom a s addle cover.

S ince some have

n ail holes and s ome s titching holes i t i s d ifficult t hat

t hey

had

a ny s trengthening f unction .

T he saddle 's horns provided a high degree f or the r ider.

1 1

t o

b elieve

They must therefore

o f

s tability

have been e ither f or s haping the pommel on the inside or purely f or decoration on the outside. have

l ooked

v ery

Used outside they would c ertainly

f lashy and typically R oman .

l ittle t o s upport this s uggestion and M rs. b elow)

However t here i s

van D riel-Murray

( see

strongly f avours the f ormer solution.

I II T he main r equirements of a s addle a re that i t provides

t he

r ider w ith a s ecure s eat and that i t t ransfers the weight of the r ider

f rom

t he spine to the f lanks of t he horse.

a chieved by padding the saddle underneath

The l atter i s

( see F ig.6)

l eaving

a

c hannel down the m iddle s o that the c entre of the t ree i s r aised a bove the horse's spine and withers. a ttached

e ither

t o

t he

b een entirely s eparate.

The padding could have been

t ree or to the f laps o r it could have

I stuffed the area where the s ide panels

t urned under and this s eemed to work f airly well. W ith the s addle padded and the g irth strap attached i n m anner

t he

d escribed

above

t he s addle was r eady to be r idden .

horse was not too

happy

a bout

a ccepted

i t

w ithout

t oo

t he

much

b ut

he

t he

pommels

e fficiency

d id

not s eem to be much affected by t he s ize of the

When

( Fig.8c,

s itting

d ,

e ).

a

e ntirely

s hape

I t i mmediately became

c lear t hat r ider.

were

unfamiliar

t rouble.

The

horse

t he

As a r esult,

s lips a l ittle further back.

r ider s omersaulting

out

t ightening

knees

of

t he

of

r ider's

l egs

s tock

s played

o ut

t he

pommels.

A

s limmer

r ider

s addle

b ackwards.

A

s light

under the f ront pommels would be all c oming

o ut

of

S imilar projections can be f ound on modern rodeo and

s addles.

T hey

p revent the r ider being pulled out of the

s addle when roping cattle. v ery

t heir

The f ront pommels prevent the

t hat was required if the r ider f elt that he was t he s addle.

a nd

i f the r ider s lips backwards his

h ips become l odged between the back j ust

f unctional

A Roman

c avalryman

must

have

f elt

s ecure in t he knowledge that he would not be pulled out of

t he s addle when his spear struck home. At t he end of my f irst r ide I encountered d ismounting

-

w ithout

s tirrups

t he

p roblem

one could not d ismount a s one

would a b icycle a s the pommels were designed to keep one i n s addle. pommels

o f t he

I t was s uggested t hat I swing my l eft l eg over the f ront a nd

s lide

down the r ight s ide i n the s itting position

a nd this worked well.

P l.III: The s addle horns hold the r ider f irmly in place

-

e ven

i n potentially d isastrous s ituations common in combat.

1 2

H H H r 1 f l .

t 2 4

I V T he

r econstructed

M ilitary

E quipment

University

i n

t he

g reat interest , s ome

s addle was presented to t he Third Roman

S eminar s pring

which

was

h eld

of 1985 where,

i t a lso met with

a t

Nottingham

a lthough i t provoked

c onsiderable

o pposition .

F or

t ime I had been in contact with Mrs Carol van D riel-Murray

o f t he Albert E gges v an G iffen I nstitute of P re- and P rotohisory i n Amsterdam who had been studying the

R oman

t he

s everal

Netherlands

a nd

e lsewhere

i nterest

i n

f or

t he

l eatherwork y ears

a nd

g reat

c onvinced

o f i ts e ssential accuracy had s ome reservations about However ,

and

s he

e xpressed

t he interpretation o f the stitching.

r econstruction

f rom whilst

d iscussion l ed

t o

t he f ollowing observations: F irstly

t he

s eam running f rom the top of the f ront pommel

t o the point of the dart

( Fig.7a,

t he

f ormed

c ut

o ut

l eather,

A ,D,E),

t he

l ower

p art

V-shaped

a s mooth continuous

r econstruction and t herefore s upported t hat

which i s

t he

on

l ine on the

s uggestion

( above)

o f the pommel f acing was stitched to the

l eading edge of the s ide pommel. S econdly where t he ( Fig.2)

l eather i s doubled up in s everal

p laces

i t s eemed t o be more than coincidence that two of these

p laces were j ust above the darts where the

l eather

t urns

over

b e t ubject to

t he f ront and back o f the t ree and would t herefore g reater wear. Thirdly

t he

c hange

f rom

n eat to coarse s titching

o ccurs on a ll known examples of s addles e xplanation

( van

D riel-Murray

P ers.

r eceives c omm .)

t echnique of f irst s ewing an inside and

a

because

' invisible'

' which

f unctional o f

t he

s eams on the

pommel covers which was turned inside out l eaving the corners to be attached by a c oarser external l ine of s titching at the

base

( Fig.1). D oubts

e xpressed

by

M rs

v an

D riel-Murray concerned the

s titching of the d art and the s ide f laps t o which

was

f undamental

t o

t he

t he r econstruction.

pommel

D r Groenman-van

Waateringe considered that the r equisite p ieces had had s titched over them i .e. was

n o evidence f or the s ide T here

a

t rim

a bound hem not a s eam - c ertainly there

j ust a s e asily have hung down r econstruction.

f acing

was

f laps turning under and they could t he

s ides

c ertainly

a s

i n

s culptural

t he

p revious

e vidence

t o

s upport t his but i f that were the c ase i t would be impossible to c alculate t he s ize and shape of the tree.

P LIV:

T he horns o n the s addle allowed the r ider d egree of mobility and balance.

1 5

a

r emarkable

Unfortunately

e ven

r e-examining

t he

V alkenburg/Vechten

p ieces s eemed u nlikely t o shed f urther l ight f or the pieces came f rom s everal d ifferent s addles and therefore t he stitching could n ever be matched. B efore returning to Holland Mrs v an Wakefield

C astleford in Yorkshire. part

D riel-Murray

w ent

o f

Among these were the pommel f acing

and

t he main l eather f rom a s addle but she d id not r ealize

a t the t ime that she had in her hands t he solution to the p roblem .

Later ,

a s

s he

was

able

t o

whole

r evealed t o t he Fourth Roman M ilitary

E quipment S eminar held at Newcastle University in s he

t o

t o examine the recent f inds of Roman l eatherwork f rom

r estitch

t he

s pring

1 986,

two p ieces and found that the

s titching holes matched not only down t he s ides but

a lso

a long

t he bottom proving that the s ide f lap was indeed stitched to the bottom

o f

t he pommel

( Fig.7b).

This had been t he weakest point

o f my r econstruction but i t was now entirely v indicated. The Castleford f ragments which s uffer f rom e xtreme wear and t ear,

have not yet been published.

Their i nterpretation i s

v ery

d ifficult and r equires a f ar more detailed account than could be p ublished

here.

I t will be published by M rs v an D riel-Murray a s

p art of the Castleford r eport. her evidence l eading

I t i s s ufficient to s ay here that

l ends considerable

e dge

o f

weight

t o

t he

c ase

f or

t he

t he s ide f lap being s titched t o the bottom of

t he pommel f acing.

V Although the s addle has been t ried out on a t imes

i t

c ould be tested t horoughly. c onstructed

and

A wooden horse

t he saddle bolted to i t.

t he Roman cavalry course held 1 986.

horse

s everal

s eemed e ssential to build a v aulting horse s o t hat i t

a t

D urham

1 4

hands

high

was

This was t ried out at University

i n

April

D r David B reeze volunteered to vault into t he saddle f rom

e ither s ide as d escribed by Vegetius.

This

proved

t o

b e

much

e asier than expected as we had anticipated some r eticence on the p art

o f the men because of the pommels.

f eat about a dozen t imes and f ound g ripping

i t

D r Breeze performed the e asiest

w ith

one

hand

t he n earer f ront pommel and t he other in the c entre of

t he s addle

( see P late I ).

C onstable

o f

t he

E rmine

This was

l ater r epeated

by

M r

C live

S treet Guard wearing a s cale c uirass

weighing about 1 2kg. I mportant s ignificant

t hough

were

l ong s lashing sword. t he

e lliptical

t hese

e xperiments

were,

f ar

more

t he experiments carried out with a shield and The shield was a

r econstruction

s hield c over f rom Valkenburg.

b ased

on

This shield which

was about 1 .3m l ong and s omewhat over 6 5cm wide with a weight of

1 6

a bout

7 kg covered t he

r ider f rom shoulder to ankle and acted as

a counter balance t o the sword The sword was a copy of s outhern

G ermany.

about

1 -5kg.

drawn

with

I t

was

( Plate IV). a

s patha

j ust

not

t he

r ight

Rottweil

only

I t

i mmediately

i t

could

became

pommels,

obvious

f or

t he

momentum

but with the pommels

possible f or the r ider to s lash out to the r ight , of the sword reaching out almost two metres,

it was

with the point

and to use the

f ront pommel to pull himself back into the saddle with his s ame

I n

f act i n

the

s addle.

This has

whole view of the Roman cavalry. s hock

tactics

l eft l eft

t he pommels were performing almost exactly the

function as stirrups in allowing the rider

position

be

would it be impossible to wield a sword of this

pull the r ider off the horse,

t high.

in

l ong and weighed

hand with the scabbard on the r ight hip

s ize and weight without the saddle would

a t

It was f irst of all e stablished that

which many people had doubted. that

f ound

over a metre

were

r egain

s erious implications

The

i mpossible

t o

l ong

a ccepted

his

for our

v iew

t hat

before the introduction of the

s tirrup will have to be reconsidered. I would l ike to thank Mrs Carol van t remendous

help

t hat she has

D riel-Murray

of the saddle and i n preparing this article. t o

thank

a ll

Hassall of the

those

f or

the

g iven me both in the construction I would

a lso

l ike

who have encouraged me e specially Mr Mark

Institute of Archaeology and D r Brian Dobson

and

P rofessor John Mann of Durham University.

B IBLIOGRAPHY C URI AE,

J .:

A

Roman

Frontier

Newstead i n the

Post and i ts

P arish of Melrose

P eople.

( Glasgow

The Fort of 1 911)

( for

the Newstead f inds) GROENMAN VAN

WAATERINGE,

Z .H., K IMMIG,

W .:

D .: d es Vor-

Romeins

Nederlandse Oudheden 2 ,

l ederwerk u it Valkenburg ( Groningen 1 967)

' Ein K e1tenschild aus Aegypten ',

1 06-11 P LANCK,

W .:

Germania 24,

1 940,

( for the Fayyum shield)

Arae

F laviae

I .

Neue Untersuchungen z ur Geschichte

römischen Rottweil, u nd

F orschungen

Frühgeschichte

( Stuttgart 1 975)

( for

i n

t he Rottweil

1 7

und

B erichte

B aden-Württemberg f inds)

z ur 6 ,

F IGURE CAPTIONS Fig.1:

The

s addle f ragments

Netherlands,

f rom Valkenburg and Vechten in the

after Dr W .

a : The main piece

Groenman-van Waateringe.

f rom Valkenburg which i s

s hown

i n

a

r econstructed form in Fig.2. b & c : d :

Fragments of s imilar pieces from Vechten .

Pommel

e & f :

Fig.2:

f acings

Pommel

S implified

f rom Valkenburg.

f acings

from Vechten .

r econstruction of the main Valkenburg piece.

The stippled areas are where the l eather i s double. P .

Pommels;

f acings

X .

Crescent shaped holes;

( see Fig.1,e);

PF2.

PF1.

Type 2 pommel

Type 1 pommel f acings

( see

F ig.1, d).

Fig.3:

D r

Groenman-van

Waateringe's

r econstruction

o f

the

s addle components.

Fig.4:

The rear,

L-shaped pommel

stiffeners

from Rottweil after

P lanck.

Fig.5:

T he

f ront pommel

Fig.6a:

The

f ront of the s addle t ree.

the

shape

of

stiffeners

t he

horse

f rom Rottweil after P lanck.

The l ight stippling

at

s tippling shows the padding

t he

withers.

n ecessary

t o

s hows

T he

protect

d ark t he

horse. b :

The

back

of

t he

s addle

t ree.

The

shows the shape of the horse across the back.

T he

r aise

Fig.7:

dark

s tippling

t he saddle above

l ight stippling c entre

Fig.8,a & b :

t he

s hows the padding needed to

the horse's spine.

T he suggested method of stitching the pommel t he

o f

f acing

t o

f ront pommels of the main Valkenburg l eather.

S ide

s addle

and threequarter front v iew of the Valkenburg

r econstructed

complete

1 8

w ith

g irth

s trap

and

a ttachments f or the crupper and breast plate. c ,

d & e : T he

s itting

position f rom the s ide,

back and

t op. f : A f allen horse shown on the Julii monument R emi

i n

s outhern

F rance.

s addle with c rupper,

T his

f rom

S t.

s hows a f our pommeled

breast plate and

g irth

s trap

a ll

possibly a ttached to s addle f laps. g : A

d etail

f rom

Mainz in G ermany.

t he

t ombstone

o f Gaius Romanius at

I t shows a l ozenge-shaped s addle

with

pommels f itting c losely t o the thighs and hips.

F ig.9,a, b ,

c & d : Front,

u nderneath,

back and top v iews of the

r econstructed s addle without g irth s trap.

The two p ieces

X ,X are totally hypothetical. e : A possible r econstruction of the g irth s trap attached t o f laps which are stitched to the wood of the tree This would

have

c overing

was

had

t o

put

c rupper attachments f laps.

b e over a re

attached

before

t he tree.

The breast plate and

a lso

s hown

This i s entirely hypothetical.

1 9

t he

s titched

l eather t o

t he

0

2 0 c r e ,

Fig.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .

* I .

s , . ....

. .....

. .... ....

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. ......

•••

• • . . . . . . . . .• . .

2 0



a

F RONT

20c m

F ig. 2

2 1

Fig. 3

2 2

210

/ 0

F ig.4

2 3

I

o

1 0

210 c . rn

Fig. 5

F ig. 6

b

a

2 4



•.

• • •

- I

..

. 1

.

'N •

• • I .

• .• • •I . ••

. . • I • ' • •• • .

F ig. 7

2 5

f

d

g

Fig .8

c

e

2 6

a

F ig .9

2 7

P 1.1:

T he c ornu u nder t rials a t the R oyal M ilitary College of M usic 1 Kneller Hall,

2 8

ON MAKING A R OMAN CORNU P eter B arton

I n

1 984

I

w as

approached by the Roman Military R esearch

S ociety to make a Roman military cornu; i nstrument well as

r esearches over

r evealed

n omenclature,

t ranspired that a cornu i s

r eal

a s

considerable t o

in f act a

what

a

g eneric

confusion ,

cornu

t erm

was.

I t

covering

a

v ariety of musical horns made of a variety of materials

s heet i ron ,

brass,

cast and sheet bronze,

and animal horn.

l ength too varied f rom less than 100cm up to R eference ( tube)

was

a s

m ade

in

Roman

t imes

' horribilis sonitus',

s onitus',

' raucitas',

Amongst

t he

' rudor',

f amily

' terribilis ' clangor',

of

Lituus and Carnyx:

Cornua,

v ero

4

metres.

s onitus',

and

' fracti

' gravis'.

authorities distinguish following species:

Beginning straight but curving in the bell s ection.

3 5cm to 80cm ,

cavalry.

The carnyx usually decorated with

animal head bells. Tuba

nearly

-

Their

to the sound of the Tuba

i nsofar as there i s agreement - between the

2 .

a

which would produce an effective and viable sound as

I nitial

1 .

be

r eproducing an original i nstrument.

e specially g reat

this was to

d irecta:

S traight ,

probably

u sed

by

Conical bore.

short,

of bronze or i ron ,

somewhat l onger than but akin to the f ox

and

short

English hunting horn

( for

and varying in l ength

f rom 1 05cm to 1 80cm .

hunting),

Also conical bore. 3 .

Cornu/Bucina/Tuba

Curva:

A group of considerable confusion!

All curved, c ircle,

some helical,

some almost full

with a wooden cross-piece,

ranging

in l ength f rom 1 40cm to nearly 4m . The horn required by the Society G roup

3

a bove,

f ound

i llustrated in the

in

P ompeii

' Pompeii AD79'

was and

t he now

cataloguel

military i n

and

t ype,

Naples,

but

described

f ollows: ' Bronze horn 1 .20m.

( cornu);

Naples

height 1 .28m width 1 .10m;

Museum ,

o ld inv.

tube i s approximately 3 .3m c ircle

l ong,

and held by a transverse

in ivory),

1 277. bent strut

which rested on the player's

a lmost

i nto

The a

( probably covered shoulder so that

the bell of t he horn appeared above his head.'

2 9

diameter

From Pompeii.

a s

3 .

2 .

Fig.1:

The

P ompeii

M ahillon

cornu

( 2 & 4 )

( 1),

w ith

t he

r econstructions of

and Alexander ( 3).

S everal copies of the instrument have already been made but w ith a variety of i naccuracies. o f

B russels;

t he

The f irst copy was

M ahillon - this t ime in F lorence. i n B russels. A s

a

by

M ahillon

s econd by Alexander o f Mainz 2 and another by 3

There i s one f urther

e xample

4

m ilitary

i nstrument

was

n eeded i t s eemed t hat the

P ompeian example would be the most appropriate.

Many o f t he

oft

quoted Latin references to the sound o f t he Tuba would s uggest a l onger

r ather

than

a

s horter instrument,

e specially

' gravis'

which would hardly be appropriate to t he short Tuba v ero d irecta o r to the Lituus or Carnyx.

3 0

Another o riginal,

important

which

p roduced the

was

c onsideration p layable,

was

was

i n

t hat G

the

( loft)

fundamental and a ll the harmonies up

P ompeian

and r eadily

t o

t he

1 6th

w ith e ase. I t

was

t herefore

d ecided

t hat

a

P ompeian instrument should be attempted, a nd

u nadorned

s tructure

d ictated

r econstruction of the

in brass,

by

t he

with a

l imits

basic

o f

f unds

a vailable. S o,

f rom a c onsideration of the evidence available,

p hotos

o f

modern

t he and

' reconstructions'

by

Mahillon

A lexander ,

and t he exhibition catalogue photo

o f

t he

o riginal,

i t

o riginal,

t he

o f

P ompeian

was c lear a modern r econstruction of the Pompeian

in brass, would be f ar

c loser

t o

an

o riginal

t han

a nything e lse on show at present. F rom

the

p hoto of the Pompeian original,

I e stimated that

t he l engths of t he three s ections were roughly in the proportion 1 :3:1,

i .e.

Bell s ection to top T s ocket of handle 7 26cm ;

b etween T handle sockets 1 886cm ; r eceiver

6 97cm .

' mouth-pipe'

l ength

beginning

o f

This made f or a shorter mouth-pipe s ection than

t hat of the Alexander reconstruction

( Fig.1,3)

f inished

a rticle

more

i n

o riginals

( Fig.1,1

& 5 ).

The Alexander

t o

t o

keeping

w ith

but

photos

produced o f

a

e xisting

' reconstruction '

a ppears

a ttempt to maintain the curve of the back-bow into an almost

f ull c ircle. I

was

a lso

' reconstruction ' d iameter 1 10mm ; T hese,

being

o riginal, t ook

s upplied i n

t he

w ith

t ubing OD at top e asy

t o

s o used them .

d imensions

B russels c opy ,

M useum :

T I

2 2mm7

t he

M ahillon

b ell-end

o f

i nternal

a t

bottom

T

1 6mm .

t ook a s those of the Pompeian

R eceiver and mouth piece measurements

I

f rom plastic casts taken f rom an exhibit in the Colchester

M useum .

T HE

' BELL '

SECTION

A c omparison of the i llustration of the ( Fig.1,1) with t hose of Mahillon 's ( Fig.1,3),

i s

a

o riginal

and A lexander 's

e nough to indicate t hat these made no a ttempt t o

m atch the original's bell profile l ike

P ompeian

( Fig.1,2 & 4 )

n arrow bore trombone bell,

have a r einforced r im of s orts,

a nd

r im .

A lexander's

while Mahillon 's,

l ooks

which does

i s s till a s s traight a s a f lower

v ase. E xamining t he photo of the s imilarity at the bell-end,

' original'

I was struck

by

i ts

t o that of a N igerian Kakaki which I

3 1

had

once

r estored.

t he bell-end, 9 0°

to the

This had a wide f lat r im at r ight angles t o

with a s much width again i nside the bell,

r im .

5

This

protective

appendage

m ust

hammered

have

b een

B ell

R im R im

Fig.2:

a n

e arly

f orerunner

D etails of Kakaki bell.

o f the bell-frame or Garland.

I t herefore

d ecided that such a strengthening of the bell-end would be a ppropriate.

However ,

most

a s the r im brass had to be f airly thin to

a llow of i t being hammered and stretched to l ie a long the i nside o f the bell,

it was not v ery strong.

s lightly l arger in c ircumference,

S o

I

c ut

a nother

r ing,

t o s lip over t he f inished bell

t o l ie back to back with the f irst r im .

S econd r im ,

soldered and

hammered over f irst r im Fig.3:

D etails of construction of bell.

B ELL PROFILE T he f lare was i ntended t o begin at 2 2mm at t he top T s ocket a nd b ell. t he

i ncrease r egularly to a d iameter of 1 10mm a t the end of the The curve i ntended can be s een f rom P ompeian

o riginal

r ather l ike an outsize,

( Fig.1,1).

I

t he

i llustration

s elf-adhesive patch

f or a tapered

t ube.

T rimmed and notched t o a llow c urving and l ater s eaming

Fig.4:

D etails of construction of bell.

3 2

o f

t reated t he bell s ection

) collar s ilver s oldered to handle socket

Tapered

t ube with

c ollar for strength

Wood cross handle

/ 1 7

Fig.5:

D etails of handle socket.

The result left much to be desired, two

T

but d id look convincing.

The

s ockets to hold the wooden cross-piece were built up out

of 2 layers of lmm wall tubing,

with a f iller of 0 .5mm .

BACK-BOW This, outside

a length of 1 .9m ,

was taken in one

d iameter 0 .5mm thick tubing,

and expanded to 2 2mm at the other. weak points,

p iece

f rom

1 9mm

tapered to 1 6mm at one end

Thus the

j oins,

potentially

are inside the T sockets.

' MOUTH-PIPE' This modern

l ooks

s hort

( 0.7m),

r econstructions,

original

f rom

but

P ompeii shows

compared

a s

a lready

with s tated

s imilar proportions.

worthy of consideration i s that this

t hose on other above,

the

Another point

f irst s ection i s apparently

only supported at one end and i s therefore extremely vulnerable. B ut,

on this point M .

t oo ,

s ince for one of his reproductions

s upporting

p iece

c ross-piece. r eceiver

of

Mahillon must have pondered ( Fig.1,2),

t his

problem

he supplied a

brass between the receiver and the wooden

I have supplied a s imilar support but

r inging

the

j ust below the mouth-piece.

RECEIVER AND MOUTH-PIECE Many

originals,

being of thick metal,

3 3

have been unearthed

by a rchaeologists possibilities.

and

B ehn

provides

a

s election

The receiver i s a lmost cylindrical outside,

j ust

o f

t apering

s lightly to the detachable mouth-piece. Mouth t ube

_ Narrow throat,

Hemispherical cup

expanding

t o l ong back bore Fig.6:

Mouthpiece.

I f ound the mouth-piece, m ade

c entering

with sharp edge and narrow throat ,

notes very d ifficult,

and for playing purposes,

s upplied a cut-down cornet mouth-piece. U sing this l atter i ncisive

t one,

f rom

p layed softly , F rench

Horn

I t he

was

a ble

t o

produce

the instrument produced a sound i n

F ,

but,

a

g ood

f at ,

f undamental up through 16 harmonies. played Brasse,

not

unlike

t he

i t produced the sort of -C i-

C )

a t z d a c 3

o

° 0

( 1 3

n

o

0

Fig.7:

The above are the harmonic s eries range

o f

the

r econstructed

which

c ornu

-

r epresent t his

r ange

i s

specific to the instrument and any

c hange

shape,

a d ifferent range of

o r

volume

would

sounds.

3 4

produce

i n

t he

i nternal

Fig.8:

T he completed cornu.

Although o stensibly a

c ornu i s based on t hree d istinct c urves.

3 5

s piral,

t he

sound characterised in the Latin quotations

mentioned

And,

i f

i t

could

corresponds

the

s ound

' Grave',

t his

to the much valued Roman quality of

D esigned ' carrying'

c ertainly

a s

a

s ignal

qualities

horn,

e arlier. a djective

' Gravitas'.

i t s hould

possess

good

and test were s ubsequently carried out on

instrument.

THE TESTS The reproduction of the cornu had been originally conceived to test its efficacy in the

f ield - to

e stablish

i ts

material

range and potential carrying power. The in the the

cornu

reproduced by P .

Barton was subsequently tested

f ield by the Roman Military Research Society.

behest

of

Mr

John Eagle at Gresham 's School,

cornu was used in a demonstration by the three

perfect

and

Firstly

loud notes.

the instrument besides

the

Society

a t

Norfolk the

and

produced

Further experiments showed that

' terribilis sonitus'

was

capable

of

more subtlety producing a haunting quality when played softly. A

third test was carried out by t he army at Kneller Hal1,

where a bugler, c alls.

He

using his own mouth piece played s everal

ended with a ' Trumpet Voluntary'

with a full demonstration of

t he

harmonics

and these, were

6

modern together

r ecorded

on

cassette and reproduced at the Nottingham conference.

NOTES 1 .

WARD-PERKINS & CLARIDGE,

2 .

BEHN ,

1912,

' 111

( N164)

3 .

4 .

4 1

1976,

Item 3 03.

and accompanying illustration.

Tuba C urva,

19 copy by M ahillon ,

Pompeii,

l ength

Cherubini,

Palazzo Vecchio Firenze.'

No.466

' cornu'

d 'Histoire, should

l ength

Conservatorio

1 40cm

Brussels Catalogue,

however

follows:

3 43cm :

be

a

Bucina,

( Branch D - instr.

( Musse vol.I)

Tuba Romana f rom d i

Musica

Royale - f rom its

a lthough

a Imbouchure)

Luigi

d 'Art

e t

l ength this

i t i s described as 466

Cornu.

1 40cm ,

including mouth piece. 5 .

From

an

1980,

P 1.111,3 & 5 .

e xample

r estored

by

3 6

t he author,

s ee also BAINES ,

6 .

Royal M ilitary S chool of Music,

Kneller Hall,

Twickenham .

APPENDIX by N .P. Wickenden T rumpet mouthpieces, known

i n

B ritain

and W ickford,

probably for u se

f rom Colchester,

E ssex.

1

on

in advance of a

o n

a

s ite

a re

Lydney P ark,

2

3

The l ast example came f rom the excavations

4

by Warwick Rodwell in 1 971 t he

t he c ornu ,

Verulamium ,

o f

l ate

housing

d evelopment

p re-Roman

I ron

Age

s ettlement/Romano-British v illa. M ilitary presence on ' t he s ite i s s trongly

s uggested

by a number of bronzes,

m artingale and hinged c oins;

C laudian-Neronian

' military-style' c arried

out

ditch.

i n

T rust ,

coin

p roduced 5

including part of a

p re-Roman

l ist an a s,

as u sed on coins a t

o f Moguntiacum ( Mainz).

e xcavations i s being

mount; brooches;

The

1 978

c ounterstamped TIB.IM , f ort

harness

and

and a

f rom

C laudian

l ength

watching

p robably t he

of

b riefs

o f T iberius,

R hine

f rontier

Post-excavation work on R odwell's

u ndertaken

by

C helmsford

A rchaeological

and a report will appear in due course.

The

W ickford

i ncomplete , The hole,

mouthpiece

( Fig.9,4)

i s

o f

with a low moulding around t he base

a s s een in the broken end,

c opper a lloy , o f

t he

mouth.

i s not central.

l i 1 P ; A l i . 4 4 , 1 0 s ho q . , , •' •

3 . Fig.9: •

T rumpet Park,

mouthpieces f rom Colchester,

and Wickford.

3 8

Verulamium ,

Lydney

NOTES

( numbers

as F ig.9)

1 .

Colchester Museum Report

2 .

FRERE,

3 .

WHEELER & WHEELER ,

4 .

WICKENDEN forthcoming.

5 .

M .

1 972,

1 937-44,

2 8-9 and plate 4 .

F ig.40,129. 1 932,

F ig.16,47.

Context Cat.3128.

Hammerson in COUCHMAN,

1979,

43-4.

B IBLIOGRAPHY BAINES

1 980:

A .

B aines,

D evelopment, B EHN 1912:

F .

B ehn,

' Die

Z eitschrift 7 , COUCHMAN

1 979:

C .

FRERE 1972:

&

S .S.

&

Frere, ( Oxford

r ömischen

( ed.),

H eer',

Mainzer

' Work of Essex County Council

1 978',

E ssex

Archaeol

Verulamium Excavations,

Hist

1 1,

C LARIDGE

WHEELER Lydney

( Oxford

1 ,

Soc Antiq Res

1972) 1 976:

J .

Ward-Perkins & A .

Claridge,

( Bristol 1976) 1 932:

Excavation of the i n

im

3 6ff

S ection ,

P ompeii AD79, WHEELER

Their History and

3 2-77

R ep 2 8, WARD-PERKINS

Instruments:

Musik

1912,

Couchman

Archaeology 1 979,

Brass

( London 1980)

R .E. M.

Wheeler

P rehistoric,

Park,

&

T .V.

Wheeler ,

Roman and Post-Roman S ite

Gloucestershire,

Soc Antiq Res Rep 9 ,

1 932)

W ICKENDEN f orthcoming: S ettlement

at

N .P.

Wickenden ,

B eauchamps

The

P rehistoric and Roman

Farm ,

Chelmsford Archaeological Trust R ep.

3 9

Wickford, 8 ,

E ssex,

( forthcoming)

T HE ROMAN M ILITARY T UNIC N .

The

o riginal

a im

o f

Fuentes

t his

p aper was to d iscuss both the

d esign and t he colour of the Roman l egionary tunic in the p art

o f

t he

2 nd

c entury A .D.

However,

e vidence f or colour of tunics in t hat period, b een

g reatly extended in both d irections

s o a s t o bracket i t. r elating

t o

t he

This

i n

t urn

the time span

has

( forward to c .A .D.300)

b rought

c olour of centurions'

n aval tunics and,

f irst

because of t he l ack of

t ogether

uniforms,

t o a very l imited e xtent,

m aterial

of cloaks,

of

of auxiliary tunics,

a ll of which has been thought worthy of inclusion.

PART 1 - D ESIGN

T HE M ILITARY TUNIC OF THE REPUBLICAN PERIOD A s g ood depictions in this period

s how

only

s oldiers

i n

a rmour,

i t i s not possible to evince the detailed designs of the

t unics

worn.

T he monument of Aemilius P aullus

' Altar of Domitius Ahenobarbus' f rom

S eville

( c.100

( 1st c entury B .C.)

B .C.),

( 167 B .C.), the

2

I st c entury B .C.) 4 a ll show the bottom

e dge

of

b eing e ither j ust above the knee or at m id-thigh. t he

the

bas-relief

and the Glanum r elief

3

1

t he

( ? l ate

t unic

a s

I n the case of

f irst three e xamples the s leeves appear to be m inimal which

s upports t he remark of Gellius t hat the original Roman tunic was n arrow and s leeveless.

5

C IVILIAN TUNICS F or the l ate R epublic and t he f irst two Empire

t here

a re

many

c ivilians in tunics, f amily. a s

d epictions

i n

c enturies

v arious

ranging f rom the poorest

t o

o f

f orms of

t he

I mperial

I t i s noticeable that men engaged in physical work,

f armworkers

a nd

f ishermen ,

a re

t he

a rt

s uch

o ften shown a s having the

r ight shoulder bared. Most tunics o ffering

w ine

w ere t o

a

s leeveless,

' T-shirt',

7

while

a ) be of

' slit'

e xample,

on

g uest at a P ompeian banquet.

have c losed neck openings, r ight shoulder,

f or

o thers,

6

man

S ome tunics

somewhat in the manner of the

modern

i n order to a llow the baring of the

appear to:

f rom shoulder to shoulder with only a short

s titching

t he

holding

t he

back

4 1

and

f ront

l ength

t ogether ,

f or

Fig.1

( left):

Vine dresser - note the l ong s lit on the shoulder

which allows the arm through so a s shoulder, STRONG, Fig.2

( right):

e xample,

but

1 923,

l eaves

t he

t o

' sleeve'

bare

t he

r ight

stitched up ( after

tay.XLIII).

D efaced olive harvester ,

f rom Cordova - note the

l arge knot behind the neck and t he folds

o f

l eading up to i t

p1.175).

( after BANDINELLI,

1971,

a vine dresser f rom the Torre del P adiglione

t he

t unic

( Fig.1).

8

b ) have the back and f ront j oined at the shoulder by a f ibula or s ome

o ther

e xample,

f orm

of

a ttachment,

the f uller f rom S ens.

r ather

t han being s ewn ,

9

T unics are u sually g irdled at the waist and, bottom

e dge

t o

be

g irt

at

t he

( late i st century A .D.)

4 2

to

d esired height,

material i s pulled up over the belt and a llowed to Q uintilian

for

a llow

the

the s urplus b louse

out.

notes t hat f or the person who

has

n ot

t he

r ight

t o

t he l ati

c lavi,

the edge of his tunic

s hould c ome a l ittle below the knee.IU E xamples of this a re

numerous,

f or example,

f ashion

the bronze s tatue of a youth i n the

C apitoline Museumll o r t he bas-relief of a rabbit s eller and his c ustomer. 1 2 O ccasionally , a s

t he

o live

a f igure i s shown in an unbelted

o il s eller in Cherchel Museum ,

a lso f requent d epictions of civilians who, p hysical

work,

have

a bove their knees;

hitched

t he

t unic

s uch

while t here are

1 3

when engaged in

hard

bottom edge of their tunics

this e specially applies to f arm-workers.

1 4

T he l ength o f ungirdled tunics varies somewhat on a rtistic r epresentations, b ut u sually comes down t o mid-calf. There i s a p recise

m easurement

r ecommends

g iven

by

C ato

( c.160

w ith t unics of a l ength of 31 2 R / oman f eet E lsewhere i n l iterature, c entury

B .C.)

o f purple) p anels

o f a tunic with c lavi

o f material s ewn together.

c offin l ids

3 ft 5 in).

on

s ome

f rom Egypt.

o f

1 7

back

1 5

( mid ist

( the twin v ertical s tripes s eparate

while the

a ctual

s titching

t he i st and 2 nd century A .D. painted

1 8

p aper

a re

t he

o ccasional

v iews of tunic-clad workers who are shown with a

knotted bunch of m aterial at the back of the n eck e xample,

he

On many s culptures the s eam

1 6

O f particular interest to this o r

( 1.03m ;

clearly indicates that i t was made f rom two

d epicted

s ide

when

the description of Varro

on the s houlder i s c learly shown, i s

B .C.)

t hat i n a lternate years f arm s laves should be i ssued

t he o live harvester f rom Cordova

o pening ,

( Fig.2)

a ttending magistrates and l ictors f rom Waltersdorf, (F ig. 3 ) .2 0

f or

and a s lave

1 9

east Austria

The most obvious explanation f or the gathering of t he o f

t he n eck opening in t his

m ethod of opening.

c onsiderably

back

f ashion would be that i t i s an easy

r educing

t he

s ize

o f

a

l arge

n eck

This i n t urn s uggests that s uch t unics are of the type,

m entioned

above,

which

have

a

s lit r unning f rom shoulder to

s houlder in order to a llow the baring of t he r ight shoulder. B y a happy c hance t he comparatively well preserved o f

s ome

e ighteen

c oloured

have been f ound i n the C ave of A .D.132-5)

in

t he

Nahal

L etters

H ever ,

O n the

l oom t he c lavi have been

a s

b ands

Two s uch

one

s elvage

woven

horizontally) within a r ectangular panel. a long

one

t orn apart,

p eriod

-

t hey have

2 1

another

t ogether

f rom

K ochba

t o

j oined

r unning

( Bar

where

a pparently been u sed as burial shrouds.

t hread

r emains

woollen tunics complete with c lavi

o f

( i.e. p anels

weft woven were

s elvage to f orm the shoulders of a

4 3

( F ig.3

( left):

P artly

d efaced

s lave,

f rom

Waltersdorf ,

E .

Austria - note the knot behind t he neck and folds of the t unic centering in on i t Fig.4

( right):

T unic-clad

( after ALFÖLDY ,

s oldier

1 974,

p 1.19).

i n a religious procession ,

f rom Trajan 's Column - note the f olds c entering

o n

t he

knot which appears to have been d oubly s ecured with s ome s ort

o f

t he belt

t unic,

while

s erve

a s

was

t hong ,

and the heavy b lousing over the back of

( after C ich.

2 73).

' the s ection between the bands was l eft unsewn'

a

n eck opening;

t hus,

2 2

f ormed of a s elvage f rom each panel which obviated t he

f or

a

s ewn hem .

However,

t o

t he bottom edge of t he tunic n eed

i t i s not c lear f rom t he report a s t o

whether t he s elvages at the shoulders were always s ewn up t o and i ncluding the c lavi,

or whether s ome could be of t he shoulder t o

s houlder s lit variety.

The s ewn borders o f no.7

b een c losed on the s ides, w ere

l eft

f or

t he

except at t he upper parts where

arms

1. 2 3

a nd

t unic

t heir

R oman

C ounterparts.

s hop

v arious

which

ide a has on the r ight hand s

t unic.

2 4

t o

s ign

s tages

P ompeii,

a ppears

d epicts

T he

m aterials, what

j oining

imilar t o, p anels were s

H ever

holes

I t would s eem r easonable t o infer

t hat the general methods of weaving N ahal

w ith

' show i t t o have

4 4

o f o f

worker

unic panel, b e a t

t ogether

t he

i f not the s ame a s, Verecundus

a t

m anufacture

o f

c oming

f orward

or perhaps a c omplete

F ig.5

( left):

R ower,

presumably a s oldier ,

f rom Trajan 's Column

- note t he knot and t he f olds again ( Cich. F ig.

e( right):

B are-shouldered s oldier

c utting

2 09). d own

a

t ree,

f rom Trajan's Column - note t he l ack of a s emblance of a s leeve and the apparent d earth of s titching on t he r ight hand s ide of t he t unic

O f

( after C ich.

t he ten Nahal Hever t unics where i t i s possible t o t ake

m easurements of t heir o riginal l onger

t han

d imensions,

t o

d hildren.

( no.17),

2 5

L eaving

L ikewise,

t o 3 ft 3 in),

a side

l ength

t hem

a re

s ome a

t unics

m ay

have

p articularly s mall

with an average of

0 .93m

( 3ft

t he t unic widths r ange f rom 0 .60m to 1 .00m ( 2ft

with an average of 0 .79m ( 2ft 7 in) .26

m ay be compared with Cato's 31 2 R / oman f eet t he

o f

t he l engths of the t unics measure between 0 .72m

a nd 1 .12m ( 2ft 4 in and 3 ft 8 in), i m ).

n ine

t hey are broad; while i t i s not possible t o arrive

a t the height and build of t heir owners, b elonged e xample

2 43).

( 1.03m ;

T hese f igures 3 ft

5 in)

f or

of a s lave's t unic and with t he one n early complete

4 5

s ingle-piece woollen adult's t unic D ura

E uropos,

w ide or, w ide. 27

which i s c .0.92m

i ncluding

t he

( with

( 3ft)

s leeve

s hort

s leeves)

f rom

l ong and c .0.66m ( 2ft 2 in)

l engths,

c .1.03m

( 3ft

41 2i / n)

T HE LEGIONARY TUNIC O n

T rajan's

C olumn t unic-clad l egionaries d epicted in one of three basic f orms of dress: 28 a ) dressed only in a tunic where

a

back

r ear

building

( Cich.

r oads C ich.

both

s houlders

o r s ide v iew i s shown ,

m aterial at the ( Fig.4

w ith

2 73)

o f

t he

and

c overed

but,

with a bunched knot of

n eck

2 55-6),

a re normally

opening,

f or

e xample,

t aking part in a procession

rowing

( Fig.5

-

C ich.

8 2-6

and

2 09-12); b )

dressed

i n a tunic and c loak - sometimes the bunched knot of

m aterial still s hows, p rocesion c )

dressed

( Cich. in

f or example,

the

a rmour

d epicted

m usicians

w ith

a ' scarf'

i n a knot at the throat,

u sually

t he

l egionary

unlike the scarves t ied

which the auxiliaries wear.

O nly one s cene shows soldiers dressed in a t unic s houlder

( Fig.6 - C ich.

b ared 2 41-4).

a t

t he

w ith

t he

while f elling t rees and excavating earth However,

t he r ight hand s ide of the tunic

appears not to have been stitched e ither at the o r

a

around his n eck with one l ength

c rossing over another under the chin ,

r ight

i n

when t here i s no v isible indication of a

b unched knot at the back of the neck; i s

two

2 73);

r ight s ide.

r ight

s houlder

As this i s t he only s cene on the Column

d epicting the s tate of dress,

the apparent vagary may perhaps be

a ttributed t o a s culptural error. T he depiction of a soldier's tunic with a bunched m aterial C olumn. on

t he

behind

t he

For example, Antonine

n eck

i t i s c learly shown on the t riumphal

B elvedere

s arcophagus

c ollection of debt tablets s cene r elief, ( Fig.8).

which

knot

a lso

o f

opening i s not confined to T rajan 's

o n

i llustrates

( Fig.7)

t he

t hat

2 9

H adrianic

s cene

and in the C hatsworth

t he tunic i s s leeveless

3 0

T he bunched

knot

o f

m aterial

b ehind

t he

n eck

opening

a ppears to have the f ollowing effects: a )

the

n eck

opening,

a ssuming

a shoulder s lit ,

i s r educed to

whatever s ize i s r equired; b ) because the knot draws material towards b ack, c )

t he

c entre

o f

t he

the tunic blouses out t o a considerable extent over the

back of the belt ( Fig.4); the knot a lso produces a cross t he back of the tunic a number o f f olds which c entre onto i t

( Fig.3, 4 6

4 and 7 );

F ig.7

( left):

S oldier

p rocession ,

c arrying

f rom

t he

a

p latform

i n

a pparent d ouble thonging around the knot, t he

t unic

t he belt F ig.8

( right):

c entering

1923,

S oldier carrying a r elief

s leeveless t unic,

the

-

a s

t he

knot

f ront

l ength

o f

t he

t aken

box

of t he

r ight

t ablets, knot,

f rom

t he

i s

i nto t he knot,

c omplete a rm bared

c learly

a rm

( after

S TRONG ,

( Cich.

f orward

i n

c haracteristic

a djustable

which f alls by

t he

f rom the

amount

d esign

t o those

8 2-6 and 2 09-12).

f ound at the Nahal Hever.

t unics at l east t his contention i s s ystem

o f

c ompulsory purchase

s trengthened

by

a

For military t he

o ther c lothing f rom both t owns and s mall v illages in Egypt. Judaea,

o f

known

f or t he Roman Army of tunics and

would s eem most l ikely that the system was prevalent i ncluding

of

f or example many rowers have the

I t has a lready been suggested that Roman tunics were s imilar

t he

( Fig.8);

s ide of the tunic,

s houlder t o make a ' sleeve', m aterial

of

f ig.179).

n ote

d rops

' V '-shaped f olds u nder t he chin the

f olds

p ulls in the material at the back of the s lit,

t he spare material in e )

the

' V '-shaped f old under the chin and

t he strap p assing under the 1 923, f ig.125).

d )

t riumphal

on the knot and the blousing over

( after STRONG,

C hatsworth

a

B elvedere s arcophagus - note the

3 1

I t

e lsewhere,

and one would therefore expect the designs to 4 7

b e basically the s ame. Two of the references to the compulsory purchase of i n

Egypt,

i n

A .D.128

and

A .D.138 ,

s pecifically t o t he wool weavers of

a re

t he

o rders

v illages

t unics r elating

c oncerned.

3 2

T his s uggests t hat the tunic of the ordinary soldier was made of wool. The u se of a s elvage to form the bottom edge of a tunic may e xplain

why

on

s ome

s culpture

a stitch l ine i s shown on the

v ertical edges of a paenula but not at t he f or example, T he

the Camomile Street soldier .

d epictions

c enturies A .D. f ront

e dge

o f

t he

continue the

m ilitary e arlier

' hem '

of

t he

t unic,

3 3

t unic

i n the f irst two s howing

t he

o f the tunic a s coming to j ust above the knee.

practice

o f

This

practice i s c onfirmed in l iterature by Q uintilian who notes that when a tunic's edge comes above the knee , c enturion.

T he

3 4

i mportance

t o

a

i t i s t he dress

s oldier

o f

d istinction i s i llustrated by one of the punishments by

Augustus

f or

On ( Fig.8)

a

( tunicati d iscincti).

number

I t

o f

monuments

i nstituted

o f

t he praetorium

i n

3 5

s uch a s t he Chatsworth r elief

i t i s of additional interest

c rossing over the

a

d ress

d ereliction of duty by c enturions whereby the

offenders were to stand a ll day in f ront beltless tunics

o f

t his

t o

n ote

t he

t hin

s trap

l eft shoulder and passing under the r ight arm .

appears to be in the same position a s a modern c avalry pouch

belt,

but i s much narrower.

t his

s trap

The most practical

on the r ight hand s ide of the sword

a pplication

f or

s eems to be to prevent the b lousing of the material

g rip ,

t unic

f rom

f alling

a cross

t he

which could otherwise make i t d ifficult to draw the

weapon. One f inal point not yet covered i s whether t he of the e arly 2 nd century A .D.

l egionaries

had c lavi woven into their t unics.

This point i s c onsidered in P art 2 .

A RECONSTRUCTION OF A M ILITARY TUNIC As

a n a id to t he understanding of t he design of the t unic,

two s uccessive simple r econstructions were m ade up f rom m aterial.

T he

d imensions

C onference) were 1 .15m practical

of the

( 3ft 9 in)

appreciations.

I n

m easurements of t he Nahal Hever r econstruction

were

width of 0 .90m

( 3ft),

r educed

f irst t unic

square ,

o rder

b ased

( exhibited at the o n

( lft)

v isual

and

t o f all within the m aximum

t unics,

t hose

o f

t he

s econd

t o a l ength of lm ( 3ft 3 in) and a

with s lits at the n eck of 0 .50m

and at the arms of 0 .30m

b lanket

( P1.1 4 8

and 2 ).

( lft

8 in)

I n

p assing i t s hould be noted t hat the f olds of the s econd

r econstruction ,

which was made of a thicker material,

a l esser d egree t hose s een on so many s o-called

' undress

u niform '

of

s culptures.

imitate to

I ndeed,

t he

t unic and c loak must indicate

t hat the f ormer was made of a comparatively l ight material. I t was f ound t hat when the back b unched

up ,

opening

i s

t he knot pushes t he material into a thin cone,

but

t his when f olded down and tied c losely

a round

r esembles t he depictions.

o n t he knot,

of

t he

n eck

w ith

a

L ikewise,

l eather

t hong,

the f olds c entering

and t he heavy blousing at the back of the tunic are

r eproduced well

( compare P 1.3 with F ig.4). Wilson has

s uggested

t hat the knot was s ecured by a f ibula but a thong not only s eems more practical but a lso follows the s culpture better. When

f ollowing the Chatsworth and other r eliefs by wearing

a ' pouch belt' o f

t he

strap

b lousing

( Fig.8),

o n

a ccess t o t he sword

t he

i t c an be s een to gather

r ight

( P1.4 and 5 ).

hand s ide, When the

o f room f or swinging a pick or whatever c onsidering

t he

f irst reconstruction ,

wearing

much

t unic

i s

u nknotted

there i s plenty

( P1.6).

o f

when unknotted

up

thus a llowing easy

and the r ight arm i s passed through the opening,

I n

3 6

armour over a tunic, and

material pulled f orward around the n eck,

t he

r olls

o f

the

s pare

a llowed the two l engths

o f roll t o be crossed over in the manner of a s carf worn under a l orica

s egmentata.

a ctually was a s econd,

T his

s eparate

s maller ,

r aised s carf.

d oubts

a s

H owever,

t o

n ot

whether there only

m aterial but also t he ends of s carves appear to be two

o f

t he

praetorians

on

t ie

n eck

opening

c hafing of the n eck by body m ight

e ven

t he

provide

d epicted

t he Cancelleria r elief;

would t hus be of t he order of 1 .20m p revent

d oes

r econstruction not a llow f or this crossover of

( c.4ft)

b . .N 2 oming a rmour;

l ong.

3 7

A s carf

on

a s carf would

e xcessively d irty and any i n

d iffering

c olours

i t

a d istinction between d ifferent l egions or

c ohorts.

How t he s lit o f a t unic was f astened when armour was m ust

r emain

s omething of a mystery.

p air of f ibulae t op

s houlder

( P1.7) p late

The answer may s imply be a

- this could e xplain the o f

t he

l orica

m ight a lso go some way towards accounting f or the

4 9

r ather

u nusual

s egmentata which creates a

hollow beneath i t w hich could house t he f ibulae; o f f ibulae f ound on m ilitary s ites.

worn ,

this s uggestion l arge

n umber

CONCLUSIONS T he

evidence

c learly

e arly 2 nd century A .D.

a nd

i ndicates t hat the l egionary of the of

t he

p receding

and

s ucceeding

periods wore a s leeveless tunic with a w ide neck opening capable of

a llowing

an arm to pass through so a s to bare the shoulder;

t he opening was reducible by knotting a bunch of material behind t he n eck.

The g arment was probably woollen ,

and

a t

i ts

l ower

e dge and neck opening there was a s elvage rather than a stitched hem .

A

l ength

of

c .lm ( 3ft 3 in)

a ppear to represent the order of

and a width of c .0.90m ( 3ft)

t he

m agnitude

m ilitary tunic of the early 2nd c entury A .D.

5 0

of

t he

R oman

PART 2 - COLOUR

A CATALOGUE OF THE EVIDENCE Although f or

colour

g enerals), omitted.

an a ttempt has been made to note all the evidence r elating

t here

t o

will

m ilitary

c lothing

( leaving

a side

doubtless be some items which have been

The evidence i s arranged in

c hronological

o rder

with

individual interpretations.

a )

Historical

f resco

( 3rd century B .C. Four

- a tomb on the Esquiline)

r egisters

of

c haracters being named;

f igures two

3 8

are depicted with some of the

of

t he

r egisters

s how

f ighting

taking place. I nterpretation: event

with

T he

t he

s cenes

R omans

appear

in

white

t o represent an historical t unics

and

t heir

enemies

( ?Samnites) wearing only short white kilts.

b )

Historical

( late

f resco

i st century B .C./early i st century A .D.

S tatilii) The tunics,

- the tomb of the

3 9

f resco includes a who

are winning,

battle

between

s oldiers

i n

white

and other men who are dressed only in

short white kilts. I nterpretation:

c )

The victorious

soldiers are Romans.

The Barberini N ilotic mosaic

( ?c.30 B .C. D ates 3 rd

- Palestrina) for this mosaic range

c entury

A .D. 41

offered i s the

from the time of Sulla

v isit to Egypt by Octavian after

Actium

when

N ile7

some support for this date comes

42

tesserae 43

t here and

f rom

c arried by two of t he

to

t he

but to the writer the most convincing date was t he

a

t he

Battle

of

particular abundant f looding by the presence

f igures.

from the

of

t he

s ize

of

t he

r ectangular s cuta

44

The scene at t he bottom of the mosaic 5 1

i n

an

e ye-catching

position shows a number of f igures with shields, and

body

armour

approaching

n earby to the r ight i s a war galley. horn

s pears,

helmets

t he f ront of a c lassical t emple; ' Octavian '

i s

b lowing

t o s ummon t he priestess and i mmediately behind him ,

manner of

a

bodyguard,

( ?)chainmail a uthority

a nd

an

a

v ery

i n

i s

a

s oldier

o ffwhite p ale

a ccompanied by a f igure,

t unic.

b lue

t hese

two

a

bronze

h elmet,

N ext stands a person of

t unic

and

possibly bearded,

a r ed s leeveless knotted tunic and, i n t his s cene,

i n

a

in the

moulded

c uirass

dressed apparently in

unlike any other male person

he i s not wearing any body armour; by the f eet of

f igures

who f ace one another ,

i s a dark blue shield

b earing a dolphin design. O f t he r emaining s ix soldiers, only

f our

t he two men emblem

w ith

r ed

painted

o f the s corpion.

t unic i s not v isible, helmet;

t he c olour of the tunics

a re v isible - in each case t hey are white ,

t he

r ectangular s cuta

bearing

The l eading s oldier of t hese s ix ,

wears a

r ed

c rest

on

a

o f

including t he

whose

white-coloured

other f ive soldiers have white horsehair plumes on

t heir bronze helmets. I nterpretation:

B ecause of the nearby g alley and the shield with

dolphins on i t,

the

' Octavian '

may

' officer'

b e

c onsidered

admiral) while the unarmed c learly be a

not a soldier,

n aval

praetorians l egionaries, o fficer ,

personnel. ( with

t o

p ale

b e

T he

t he

' Agrippa'

r emaining s corpion

a

c enturion.

H is

o ther

and t ransverse.

r ecall t he c umm-NL b y which

a id r ecognition.

d )

c rest ,

f ive

a re

p robably

t he s cuta)

o r

b e

an

unlike the f lowing

s oldiers,

a ppears

t o

b e

t hen t hese two

f eatures

t hat c enturions wore i ron helmets

were both s ilvered and t ransverse,

s o a s to

f resco - Pompeii) 46

T his i s a court s cene

f igures

o n

4 5

( earlier i st c entury A .D.

c ontemporary

i s

I f the white-coloured helmet can be

i i

' Judgement of S olomon'

podium

f igure

connection he may

s oldiers

e mblem

n ear

( or s ome other

but the l eading f igure with a red c rest may

p erhaps

c rests

t unic

a ccompanying

t aken to r epresent a s ilver plated one, w ith

b lue

Agrippa

( ?)bearded

but with the

horsehair plumes of the s ymmetrical

in a v ery

p ractice

and

which, d ress.

( ?Solomon plus two advisers) o f attendant soldiers;

a rguably,

a ppears

B ehind the t hree a re

a

number

t o

e cho

j udges on a o f

s hadowy

in f ront of t he podium are three

other s oldiers who are rendered in more detail. T he soldier about to c leave the b aby in half i s white

t unic

a s

i s

his

w earing

a

c ompanion i n t he background; both are 5 2

wearing bronze cuirasses and helmets.

The third f igure stands in

a pose o f authority c lose to the podium and i s dressed in a t unic

a nd

a

r ed

r ed

c loak while his c uirass and helmet appear to

have been s ilvered ,

unlike the other

t wo

s oldiers.

A ll

t hree

s oldiers have red horsehair plumes. I nterpretation:

W ith

V egetius'

r emarks

i n

m ind

( above)

f igure in r ed with s ilvered armour may be r egarded a s s ome of officer , of

t he

perhaps a c enturion.

podium

m ay

be

the s ort

The other two soldiers in f ront

c onsidered

t o be l egionaries,

or even

p raetorians.

e ) A wine s hop s ign ( earlier i st c entury A .D.

- Pompeii) 47

M ine host offers a j ug of water spear

a nd

wearing

a

t o

a

f igure

c arrying

a

y ellow-brown paenula which f alls down to

c over his arms and t unic;

he

i s

a lso

wearing

a

l ight

g reen

s carf. I nterpretation:

T he

c loaked

f igure

i s an off-duty soldier in

undress uniform .

f )

T he entry of V itellius

i nto R ome

( A .D.69 - T acitus) 48 The e agles of the praefecti

c astrorum ,

( primi c enturionum) c enturions

marched

V itellian t he

a rmy

t ribunes

were

and

p receded

by

t he

t he s enior c enturions

dressed in c andida v este, with t heir c enturies,

while

t he

o ther

their arms and medals

g leaming. I nterpretation: officers

This special mention by Tacitus

i ndicates t hat their normal perhaps

o f

t he

s enior

o f the l egions being dressed in shining white probably r ed

u niform

above i s c orrect.

On the other hand,

t heir c lothing had been specially a lthough t his

s uggestion s eems

t he

c enturions

j unior

s ilvered crests, of t he P ompeii

was

a

d ifferent

c olour,

i f t he interpretation of the evidence of c )

a gain

whitened

l ess

and d )

the r eference may mean that l ikely.

r ecalls

f or

t he

o ccasion ,

The g leaming arms of

Vegetius'

m ention

o f

and the s ilver colour of t he cuirass and helmet

' centurion '

( above).

5 3

g )

P apyrus r eceipt f or t unics and c loaks

( A.D.128 - Socnupaei Nesus,

Arsinoite nome) 49

T he v illage weavers had delivered n ineteen tunics for g uards',

and

f ive

s erving in Judaea' I nterpretation:

h )

white c loaks

' the

' for the needs of the soldiers

to the collectors of public c lothing.

S ee 1 ) below.

Antonine Wall d istance s lab

( c.A .D.142 - Bridgeness)



T he s culptured s cene on the r ight shows a pouring a l ibation on an altar. v exillarius,

a

man

i n

a

t oga

Behind him and to his l eft are a

i n a paenula and s carf,

who has been defaced;

m an

and a third f igure

on this l ast f igure there

a re

t races

o f

r ed paint on the cloak. I nterpretation:

In the l ight of the evidence already r eviewed,

s oldier

r ed

i n

a

c loak

m ight

b e

c onstrued

a s

c enturion ,

but on the other hand the r ed paint may

r epresent

an

o utline

on

a yellow-brown cloak ,

with many depictions of c lothes of

t his

a

a possible more

l ikely

a s i s the case

c olour

i n

N orth-West

E urope • 51

U

C hurch parade of C ohors XX P almyrenorum

( earlier 3 rd century A .D. T he

c entre

o f

- Dura Europos)

t his

5 2

f resco i s occupied by t he v exillarius

wearing a dark yellow-brown c loak and t he unit's who

i s

pouring

a

l ibation

u pon an a ltar;

white c loak with purple f ringes.

t hese m en

y ellow-brown c loaks;

c loaks of a darker hue,

t he f igures white

s even

of

whom

a re

wearing

the e ighth has a white c loak.

f igures but in an upper r egister are some w ith

t ribune

To the r ight i s a double row of

e ight f igures of some distinction , l ight

n amed

the l atter wears a

in t he s cene a re

f ourteen

o ther

which appear t o be hairy.

b areheaded,

t unics with l ong s leeves

Behind

u narmed

and

All

wearing

( and with some purple decorative

s tripes). I nterpretation:

The f resco i s

e ight

i n

f igures

c enturions a pparent

and f iner

f airly

s elf

e xplanatory

-

t he

t he l ower r egister may be interpreted a s t he

d ecurions c loaks

and

o f

t his

p art-mounted

u nit.

T heir

t heir portrait f aces contrast with

t hose of their soldiers behind them . 5 4

j )

S oldier and g oddess

f resco

( earlier 3 rd century A .D.

- Dura Europos)

On t he s ame wall a s the w ith

a n

a pparently

' church parade'

i n

a

i s

a nother

f resco

m ilitary f igure with one hand on his sword

f ace-to-face with a ' goddess'. d ressed

5 3

white tunic

T he

f ormer

who

i s

presumably

( the text does not g ive the colour),

w ears a r ed cloak. I nterpretation: The soldier i s p robably c olour of his c loak perhaps a c enturion .

k )

' Chapel'

f ew

s oldiers, f ar

o n

t he

5 4

b attered surviving f ragments appear to depict two

one of whom wears a helmet,

has been s uggested, i s

o fficer,

f resco

( c.A .D.200-38 - C astellum D immidi) The

a n

f rom

and a third f igure who,

i s pouring a l ibation on an a ltar ,

c ertain.

T his

t unic with l ong s leeves and

but

it

t his

l ast f igure i s dressed in a white a

blue-grey

( 'gris-bleu')

c loak.

T here i s a purple edging to the n eck of his tunic and he wears a r ed baldric. I nterpretation: c ommander , s word

T he

t hird

f igure

i s

probably the garrison 's

e ither a tribune or a c enturion.

a nd

of

a

helmeted

The

presence

o f

a

s oldier must s urely indicate t hat a

l ibation i s not t aking place.

1 )

P apyrus r eceipt f or a tunic and a c loak

( A .D.285 - Arsinoite nome)

5 5

T his i s a r eceipt f rom t he c loaks'

' controllers of tunics and white

t o the l eaders of a v illage f or t he delivery of a

t unic

a nd a c loak. I nterpretation:

B oth

s imilar c ircumstances r eference

s eem

m ilitary

P iazza Armerina c loaks

c olour. At f irst ,

t he

i n Greek

l eave no room f or manoeuvre, c ollecting

s ome

( g) 1 50

above)

of white c loaks

y ears

e arlier

and

in

t his

t o go against a ll t he p ictorial evidence which,

i ncluding Luxor, t hat

t he mention b ut

officials

and

g eneral

B one s hould

words pallion

( below), be

i ndicates

y ellow-brown in

l eukon,

a ppear

t o

but the wording of the title of the

s uggests

t hat

5 5

' white

c loaks'

( not j ust

' cloaks') u ndyed

could be a technical term ,

wool

which

c ould

p erhaps m eaning

c loaks

o f

be of varied l ight c olours. With the

white tunics shown at Dura,

D immidi and e lsewhere ,

i t would s eem

l ikely that the tunics in t he two receipts were a lso white which m akes t he term

' white c loaks'

even more puzzling if

t he

c olour

i s meant to be an a ccurate description .

m )

Egyptian t emple f rescos

( A .D.284-305 - Luxor) The

f rescos,

5 6

which were badly damaged when f ound,

d epict a

number of scenes of soldiers wearing the distinctive l ate d ecoration

o n their tunics.

s ix horses and f ive soldiers who a ll wear f or

o ne

man

who

i s

white

d ressed in a r ed tunic.

a rmed with spears and s hields but there i s no c loaks;

t he

s cene

i s

o f

emperors,

which

a re

b orders

p ainted

two

e xcept s ign

t hey

a ppear

t o

be

a rmed,

an

f acing

o f

On the

a pse

r egisters

standing in straight l ines and

not

c ertain o n

s oldiers each, d o

t unics

The soldiers are

obviously not a ' church parade'.

adjoining wall to the r ight , d epictions

p atch

One wall has painted on i t a t l east

with

o f four f orwards;

b ut wear white t unics and

yellow-brown cloaks. A third s cene depicts t he l ower parts unarmed

men

i n

y ellow-brown

white

c loaks;

m ushroom-shaped

o r

o ne

off-white f igure

o r

a

end and may be an officer.

b lack

t unic

f our

t unics

holds

f resco shows a commanding f igure advancing, g rey

o f

a nd

a pparently y ellow

s taff

with

o r a

The f ourth s urviving dressed

i n

a

d ark

and a yellow-brown cloak with a thin red

l ine r unning close to and parallel to t he * lower edge; behind him a re two other f igures. I nterpretation:

In the horses s cene the

o ne

f igure

i n

t unic i s to be r emarked on and presumably i s an officer , a decurion . s tances

n )

r ed

The other three scenes are of unarmed soldiers whose

r ecall the parade s cene f rom D ura.

y ellow-brown

a

perhaps

( or yellow)

The white tunics and

c loaks are now f amiliar company.

The g reat hunt mosaic

( c. A .D.300 - P iazza Armerina) To f ollow in v isual

g eneral

5 7

t he

e xposition

C arandini,

t he

c entre of t he mosaic r epresents I taly which i s c onnected

on t he l eft to Carthage and on the r ight t o g alleys,

o f

e ach

w ith

A lexandria

b y

two

a gangplank l et down f rom t he bow on I taly

and another gangplank l et down f rom the s tern in the

5 6

r espective

N orth African ports; I ndia.

T he

to the f ar r ight i s a third boat berthed in

hinterland

o f

a nimals being hunted and

t he ports i s c overed with s cenes of

c aptured,

while

t he

g angplanks

a re

c rowded with animals being taken on their way to I taly. W ith mosaic,

well over 7 0 human f igures depicted on this very l ong

i t i s not possible to g ive a detailed description of the

s cenes in t he space available.

For ease

o f

d iscussion

v arious

a reas of the mosaic are treated s eparately. T o

t he

r ight

o f the African gangplank of the middle ship

t here are 2 5 f igures on f oot, c arters.

For

5 8

t he

of whom two

a re

obviously

l ocal

twenty r emaining f igures where i t has been

possible to a scertain the colour of the t unics, they a re white o r o ff-white ( with t he u sual l ate d ecorative p atches). E ffectively a ll of these twenty

have

a

r ed,

o r

mostly

r ed ,

c ingulum , while s even sport a r ed baldric and s even others carry s hields,

one

o f

which

has

l egion XX Valeria Victrix, c loaks.

a running boar,

painted on i t;

T here are a lso three horsemen ,

o ff-white

t unics,

while

t he

the emblem of the

f ive wear yellow-brown

two of whom wear white or

c olour

o f

t he

t hird

i s

not

i n

t he

a scertainable. I nterpretation:

C arandini

i s

t o

be

f ollowed

i dentification of these men in white a s soldiers who were u sed f or c atching animals f or the games. On

t he l eft hand ship two f igures in l ight blue tunics are

a ttending to the r igging ,

while another f igure i n a r ed tunic i s

h elping to ease an antelope on board. s hip

o ften

5 9

I n t he bows of the

m iddle

a f igure in a r ed tunic i s e ither a ttending to the r igging

o r adjusting a l ine attached to t he gangplank; f igures,

in the stern

two

one in a dark blue tunic and t he other in a white one,

a re helping to haul on board an e lephant. I nterpretation: a s

The two f igures in l ight blue must

b e

r egarded

s ailors while t he f igure in dark blue might a lso be r egarded

a s a s ailor with his darker tunic perhaps indicating a r anking.

S tarr

n otes

c entury with both a centurion and p resumes

t hat

t he

f ormer

a t rierarchus

v essel

o f

( captain)

and

s hould have r ank over the l atter.

W ith t he earlier evidence in mind the f igure e ach

s ign

t hat e ach warship was c onsidered to be a

i n

r ed

o n



board

m ay be s een a s the ship's c enturion and the f igure

i n dark b lue as t he t rierarchus. On t he African gangplank of the l eft hand two

f igures

y ellow ,

i n

l ight

b lue

t unics,

one

s hip

while on t he middle ship 's African gangplank

two l ight blue tunics and t hree white ones.

5 7

t here

a re

i n white and one in t here

a re

I nterpretation:

Again ,

the men in l ight blue tunics may be s een

a s s ailors and t hose in white a s soldiers, l oad

t he

on

t ogether

t o

board.

T he

m an in the y ellowy t unic i s

p robably a port worker - there

a re

t hree

I talian

animals

working

g angplanks.

I t

i s

r emarkable

o thers t hat

on

a ll

t he

two

t he f igures

d epicted in l ight blue tunics are e ither on board a ship o r on a g angplank. I taly , f light

or c ould i t be S icily ,

of

t he v illa. s tanding

l ies i n

f ront

of

t he

I mmediately to the r ight a bove

t he

spot

where

of t he

t he two

c entre

point

I talian

r ed c ingulum ,

a

l ight

blue

c loak

a nd

a

c arrying a staff with a mushroom-shaped end, t he spectator.

his

and

r ight

P annonian hat , l ooks

I nterpretation:

a

v ery l ight yellow tunic,

l eft ,

g lancing sideways at his

t here

d iffident f igure,

t he

appears

and

d irectly

a t

t o

be

i n

stands behind f ace,

w hile

t he remains of a s imilar

B ecause t he man in the l ight blue

t he owner of the v illa. t he

c loak

i s

i n

he may well be

The colour of his tunic matches t hat

P alestrina

o f

mosaic and the l ight blue of his

c loak e choes the colour of the s ailors a ttending the r igging. i s obviously a person of substance and may well be o f

t he M isene f leet.

o fficer and ,

perhaps,

t he

a ' ship's c enturion '.

b een s o badly damaged, i n c olour which makes t hese

a reas,

a nimal

have

l ittle of these areas have been published

including the I talian g angplanks,

a ttenders,

s hown a s porters. by

' Italy '

i t d ifficult to comment on t hem in d etail.

l east s ix. F igures in yellow tunics, a nd

He

p refect

His two attending f igures could be an army

B ecause the l eft hand s ide of the mosaic and

I n

a

probably wearing a r ed c loak or tunic.

e ffective v isual centre point of t he mosaic,

' Agrippa'

t unic,

Another f igure s imilarly d ressed but with a c loak

y ellow-brown

t his man and to his on

and

g angplanks

c onverge i s a f igure dressed in a l ong v ery pale blue

o f

w ide

s teps l eading f rom the corridor into t he basilica of

acting a s

there are at

porters,

c arters

while two f igures in r ed t unics are also

A third f igure in a r ed t unic i s being

a man in a white tunic,

r ed c ingulum ,

b eaten

and yellow-brown c loak

a nd carrying a s taff with a mushroom-shaped end. I nterpretation: c ivilians; N ahal

m en

i n

y ellow

o nes

published

a s

m ay

b e

c oloured

p lates.

6 1

i n r ed t unics pose problems of i nterpretation ,

m ight o n

s een

a s

T he t hree a lthough

be c onstrued as a c enturion being beaten by a s enior

o fficer f or dereliction of duty , d oubt

t unics

the yellow of t he tunics i s r eminiscent of s ix of the

H ever

f igures o ne

T he

t he

their presence must t hrow

' ship's c enturion '

interpretation.

t he shade of r ed i s a d eciding f actor.

5 8

s ome

I t may be that

o ) A wild animal hunt mosaic ( end 3 rd c entury A .D.

- Bone,

Algeria)

6 2

A l ine of men i nvisible behind their r ed shields f orm o f

a t rap into which animals are being herded.

who has been knocked down by a l eopard,

i s wearing a white tunic

a s are two other f igures on foot and two on horseback, c arrying

a

brace

s hades of brown;

p art

One of t hese men a ll

f our

o f spears e ach and wearing cloaks of various

two a lso wear a r ed c ingulum.

I nterpretation: As with t he P iazza Armerina mosaic soldiers b eing e mployed of white t unics.

a s beaters,

p ) Mosaic of soldiers

f ighting

( ?early 4th century A .D. The mosaic d epicts s oldiers

w ith

- R ielves, i n

t he

o val shields,

6 3

c entral

panel

two

p airs

o f

yellow tops

( ?scale

armour)

and

One pair i s f ighting and the other i s shaking hands.

I nterpretation: white tunics,

B ecause

a ll

and

f our

f igures l ook a like and wear

the s cene may celebrate the peaceful s ettlement of

a c ivil war between the two a rmour

Spain)

a ll f our being identically d ressed

i n s hort s leeved white tunics, helmets.

a re

wearing the by now f amiliar uniform

t unics

l ooks

R oman

a rmies.

T he

s tyle

o f

t o be of a much earlier date ,

t he

and i s

c ertainly not g ladiatorial.

q )

C andidati duplares and s implares

( unknown date - Vegetius)

6 4

At t he end of a l ong l ist t he

l egion

a re

s oldiers

p erform munera

l ikely

p rotected a re

by

p rivileges,

c alled munifices

( ?immunes)

t he

because they have to

and a s t hey are excused f atigues,

l owly

i t would s eem

t hat their t unics stayed cleaner t han t he munifices. boys',

s lang

word,

' the

The l ily

being eventually incorporated into official u se a s

was t he word papilio c ase

whereas

The d uplares and s implares obviously hold

t erm c andidati could t hen be s een a s a white

o f

( services).

I nterpretation: r anks

( 'officers')

a re the c andidati d uplares and c andidati s implares.

T he principales r emaining

o f principales

( butterfly)

f or a tent.

6 5

Alternatively ,

a

m ight be made f or the munifices wearing non-White c lothing

f or part of the t ime at l east when doing f atigues. 5 9

Naval uniforms ( date unknown - Vegetius) Vegetius mentions were

painted

waves,

in

6 6

that scout ships

the

c olour,

of

venetus

t he

British

f leet

which he l ikened to the

and that their soldiers and sailors wore clothes

o f

t he

s ame colour. I nterpretation: the

blue

The

f action ,

g reeny-blue.

colour, c an

venetus,

perhaps

which was also applied to

be

envisaged

The special mention of this

was not that in normal usage,

a s

a

dark

colour suggests that it

but it still might

j ust be related

to the blue tunics at P iazza Armerina.

GENERAL DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS L egionary tunics Without

doubt

the

evidence

l egionaries of the early d ressed

in

white

2 nd

tunics,

c learly

c entury

on

s oldiers'

undyed

wool colours.

or variants on them , that

t he

earlier

t hat the have

been

g leaming

white,

probably

I t i s not however clear whether

tunics would have had clavi.

on soldiers prior to the

s hould

although the shade i s more l ikely to

have been an off-white rather than a based

indicates

A .D.

There

l ate 3rd century,

i s no s ign of these

but thereafter c lavi,

are generally to be s een. l egionaries

This

could

imply

d id in f act have c lavi on their

tunics. The only possible clue comes mosaic

playing. knees, pass

f rom the

Z ilten

All

t hree

with c lavi, a s

are dressed in white tunics g irt above the

and yellow-brown paenulae

s oldiers;

a

yellow

shows,

I n

these

musicians

of

amphitheatre 6 7

t he t hree t he by

l ight

of

f igures l egion s upporting

and

t he

e asily

been placed l eft

o f

t he

m ight I II

perhaps

Augusta

t he

l ady

be

i nterpreted

a s

helping out at a l ocal o rganist

who

i s

a lso

it might seem unlikely that an amphitheatre could f ind at 2 nd

The

l ack

of c lavi

on

t he

P alestrina and Pompeii may simply be the removal of

minor detail by the artists. i st

could

has

t he activities at modern f etes and

f ull time employment for musicians. f igures

and

painted s cutum

indicatively against a herm j ust a l ittle to tubicen.

shown;

g ladiatorial

( 2nd century A .D.) where a t ubicen and two cornicines are

The question of c lavi on tunics

c entury soldiers must however

unproven.

6 0

of

l ie on the table as

C loaks W ith the exception of the two Egyptian papyri r eferring white

c loaks,

t he

y ellow-brown

v ariety

a ppears

t o

t o

be

a

ubiquitous garment f or the ordinary soldier and even on occasion f or officers. d epictions E urope,

Wild has

o f

c ivilian

t hey

' are

y ellowish-orange'. l ife

n oted

t hat

c oats,

p ainted

where

c olour

s urvives

o n

s carves and capes in north-west

without

e xception

yellow

o r

He s uggests that the colours would be t rue to

i f t hey r epresented shades of undyed woo1.

This could be

6 8

a llowed t o retain most of i ts natural oils in o rder to make such a g arment warm and f airly waterproof.

C enturions'

uniforms

T he i dentification of the possible c enturions at Palestrina and P ompeii by their s ilvered helmets and touches of r ed o ut

t wo

points.

A

r ed

t unic,

d istinguish a centurion f rom his d ay-to-day e xamined,

a ctivities. three

c loak and crest would help to m en

S econdly,

( Palestrina ,

both

o f

i n

t he

r ed

t unics

Pompeii and Luxor)

f or r eligious ceremonies, ( and

and

' crowd'

i n

scenes

a ll have one man

The l ack of one

o r

a t t he Dura church parade may only imply that

and f or s pecial events c enturions

b attle

f ive

i n r ed among the many white tuniced f igures. more

brings

when n either arms nor armour are worn ,

( e.g.

o ther

t he

V itellian

o fficers)

c oloured uniforms i n order

t o

put

a ssume

e ntry

i nto

R ome)

a side their s pecial r ed t he

white

t unic

of

a

c itizen . At

P iazza

c enturions', c ould

b e

Armerina,

l eaving

there does not appear to be a

t hought

t o

b e a centurion ,

c enturions dressed d ifferently. t o

e nvisage

' Naval tunics'

t he

f igure

two i n

' ship's r ed

I t i s an attractive

f ragile;

who

hat date but perhaps by t p roposition

( and probably decurions a s well)

c enturions

u niforms but the evidence i s under

a side

in r ed

enturions s ee also ship s c

below.

N aval t unics B efore considering the uniforms of naval personnel, u seful

t o

r ecall U lpian 's d ictum ,

s ailors are soldiers'.

I t

6 9

has

a lready

l ight blue tunics s ignify s ailors, ( perhaps t he t rierarchus) m ight

a lso

hold

t he

v enetus coloured c lothes

i t

i s

' in the f leet a ll rowers and b een

s uggested

t hat

dark blue ones naval officers

and a r ed one the ship 's centurion who

s enior

c ommand,

f or ships'

6 1

while Vegetius mentions

c rews.

This s uggestion f inds P iazza

Armerina ,

s upport

which

m iniature galleys.

d epicts

f rom

another

c herubs

m osaic

f rom

f rom

f our

f ishing

There are three cherubs in e ach ship ,

but

i n

t he case of one of them only the head s urvives. Apart f rom three c herubs

e ither naked or in l oin c loths,

blue tunic in e ach ship t he

g alleys

have

there i s one in a l ight

( in one instance,

an oarsman).

Three

a c herub in a red t unic a s a c entral f igure

( ?in command) while the f inal cherub wears a d ark blue I f,

a s proposed above,

f leet,

o f

t unic.



the owner of the v illa was prefect of t he

then i t i s plausible to s ee the cherubs being depicted in

t he correctly coloured t unics in t his d roll mosaic. The

c oncept

o f a ship's c enturion wearing a r ed tunic not

only would mirror the possible uniform of an army c enturion ,

but

a lso would explain the presence of the unarmed f igure in

r ed

t unic

n ext to

' Agrippa'

in the Pälestrina mosaic;

c ould have a bodyguard or attendant,

if

a

' Octavian '

t hen so could ' Agrippa',

a

c enturion f rom his f leet. I n

passing

awarded Agrippa a ction

off

d escribe the

i t

i s

of

a v exillum

i nterest

t o

r ecall that Augustus

c oloured b äe 'ruleus

a

n aval

which

( ?Mediterranean)

i s perhaps best t ranslated a s

s ea,

was

a fter

S icily./ 1 C aeruleus,

s ometimes used to

a m id-blue. The r emarkable, f act

but perhaps i n tetrospect

n ot

s urprising,

i s t hat a ll the evidence r elating to the various shades of

t he colour blue in a g eneral military context r efers only t o the n avy , a s

r ather than to the army.

t o

when and

t o

s peculate

t he troops of the two Adiutrix l egions changed the

c olour of t heir tunics, l egio,

I t i s entertaining

whether

perhaps w hen each

a ny

c olour

r etained in their n ew uniforms,

u nit

b ecame

a i usta

t race Of their naval past was

perhaps a blue n eck s carf.

Auxiliary t unics The appearance of the Cohort XX P almyrenorum t he

soldiers

f rom

D immidi and Luxor)

held t o indicate that auxiliaries A .D.

a lso

wore that colour.

c omes

f rom Arrian

in

c olour

well

a s

t he

f irst

t wo

c enturies

Some support f or s uch a contention

( c.131-7) when he states that c avalry t roopers

on special parades wore t unics of s carlet , bright

( as

in white tunics m ight be

w ith

b lond/yellow

l ong

hyacinth

o r

another

f lowing plumes.

7 2

T his

s tatement c ould be s een a s implying that t he t roopers wore white t unics on normal occasions. However, c itizenship

i t may be argued t hat o n

a ll

before

t he

c onferring

o f

f ree inhabitants of the Empire i n A .D.212,

and probably even earlier ,

there would 6 2

have

been

a

c all

f or

d istinguishing

marks

c itizen c ohorts,

b etween t roops of the l egions and the f ew

and the g reat bulk of non-citizen

a uxiliaries;

t his might have been achieved by not a llowing the l atter to wear white

t unics.

I ndeed,

i f the principle of raising new cohorts

was s imply t o enlist a suitable number of l ocal warriors, w ith

t heir

own

weapons,

and add some officers,

e xpect l ocal traditional colours appearing. n otes

t hat

For example,

i n f our named t ribes of northern Spain

d ress in blackl

which

7 3

c ould

m ean ,

f or

o ften

then one might S trabo

' all the men

i nstance,

t hat

t he

v arious A sturian c ohorts and a lae wore black tunics. The g eneral l ack of evidence f orbids an attempt to make any worthwhile conclusion ,

but the f uture may be more yielding.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I should l ike to express my g ratitude to Alan Micklethwaite f or

t he l ine drawings,

John Eagle for the photographs and P eter

Johnson f or advice on the Palestrina mosaic. t o

a cknowledge

t he

debt

I should a lso

l ike

owed to Lilian Wilson f or the ground

work on t he s ubject in the chapter on t unics in her The C lothing o f t he Ancient R omans.

NOTES 1 .

KAHLER ,

1965,

Taf.6,

2 .

BANDINELLI,

3 .

P IDAL,

4 .

R USSELL ROBINSON ,

5 .

G ellius,

6 .

GRIMAL ,

1 963,

p1.44.

7 .

GRIMAL ,

1 963,

p 1.43.

8 .

S TRONG ,

1 923,

t ay.XLITI.

9 .

GRIMAL,

1 963,

p 1.90.

1 0.

Quintilian ,

1 1.

W ILSON ,

1 970,

1 982,

1 4,

1 8 & 1 9.

p1.53.

f ig.76.

Noct.

Act.,

I nst.

1 938,

1 975,

p1.200.

V I,xii,3.

Orat.,

XI,138.

pl.XLII.

6 3

1 2.

GRIMAL,

1963,

p1.82.

1 3.

GRIMAL ,

1963,

p1.86.

1 4. WHITE ,

1970,

1 5.

Cato,

Agri.

1 6.

Varro ,

1 7.

W ILSON ,

1 8.

PARLASCA ,

p1.1,

2 ,

C ult.,

Ling.

2 6,

2 7,

2 8,

etc.

5 9.

Lat.,

1938,

19,

I X ,79,47.

5 7.

1 969-80,

e .g.2,

tay.205,

f ig.1 & 2 ( Antonine).

l atter which comes f rom Hawara and very stitching Museum ,

on

t he

s houlder,

Egyptian Galleries,

i s Room

c learly

s hows

the t he

o n d isplay in the British 6 2

( NG

2 912);

s houlder

s titching continues into the 4th c entury. 1 9.

BANDINELLI,

2 0. ALFÖLDY ,

1 971,

1 974,

p1.175.

p1.19.

2 1.

YADIN ,

1963,

2 04-19.

2 2.

YADIN ,

1963,

2 04.

2 3. YADIN ,

1963,

2 13.

2 4.

MAIURI,

1953,

1 47.

2 5.

YADIN ,

1963,

2 05.

2 6.

YADIN ,

1963,

2 12-9.

2 7.

PFISTER & BELLINGER ,

1945,

1 4,

2 8.

C ICHORIUS,

1 900

- in this article the s cenes have

1 896

&

1 7-9.

been identified by t heir cast numbers. 2 9.

STRONG ,

1923,

f ig.179.

3 0.

STRONG ,

1 923,

f ig.125.

3 1.

JONES ,

1974,

3 55-7.

3 2.

JONES ,

1974,

3 55.

3 3.

B ISHOP,

3 4.

Quintilian ,

1983,

p1.4 & f ig.l.

I nst.

Orat.,

XI,138. 6 4

3 5.

Suetonius,

Augustus,

3 6.

WILSON ,

3 7.

BANDINELLI,

1 970,

p1.236.

3 8.

BANDINELLI,

1 970,

1 15

3 9.

BANDINELLI,

1 970,

1 18-9 & p1.121.

4 0.

The description of the military scene has been drawn from

1938,

6 5.

s ite

postcard

best

s ource

photograph

XXIV ,2.

( E. f or

of

& p1.117.

R ichter, c olour

t he

Roma),

r eproduction.

s cene occurs

but the quality of the colour is recent

r eproduction

appears

in BOWMAN,

appears

in f ig.l.

4 1.

WHITEHOUSE,

4 2.

BONNEAU,

4 3.

1976,

1964 ,

but

a

which appears to be the A

in BECATTI, v ery

poor.

much

l arger

1968,

f ig.259,

A

much

more

small and again with poor colour,

1986,

f ig.45

&

7 1;

t he

whole

mosaic

4 .

9 3-4.

The size of the tesserae indicates an early date which could be compatible with the Augustan era - pers.

comm .

f rom Peter

Johnson. 4 4.

The incidence of depictions of the curved rectangular s cutum suggest that it f irst appeared in the

4 5.

Vegetius,

Milit.,

1 1,13

&

1 6;

l ater i st century B .C.

the early 1 7th century Dal

Pozzo detailed pen and ink drawing of this red crest

a s

half-circle

being and

of

crests - WHITEHOUSE, 4 6.

VANAGS, soldier

1983,

1 16;

about

apparently a

1900,

4 8.

Tacitus,

a detail of the scene,

2 20 & pl.III.

4 9.

JOHNSON et a l.,

5 0.

CLARKE et al.,

5 1.

WILD,

Hist.,

1968,

1 1,89. 1915, 1980,

in

a

f ig.13c.

1 10. GUSMAN,

s haped

quite different design to the other

1976,

t o cleave the baby,

4 7.

scene depicts the

t ransverse,

2 36-7. 1 5.

2 19.

6 5

appears

which

shows

in MAIURI,

t he 1953,

5 2.

CUMONT ,

1 926,

pl.L.

5 3.

CUMONT ,

1 926,

1 16-7 & pl.LIII.

5 4.

P ICARD ,

1 947,

1 59-72.

5 5.

CRAWFORD ,

5 6.

W ILKINSON ,

1 955,

3 9-40.

1 859,

p l.XXX-XXXII

f .51-62;

( B

& W );

MONNERET

D E

t he horses,

including the f igure in r ed,

c olour

BANDINELLI,

i n

V ILLARD ,

1 971,

p 1.266,

( f.51)

a ppears

5 7.

occur in BOWMAN ,

CARANDINI e t a l., 1 21,

1 22,

2 10,

2 20-1,

1 986,

1982,

1 25 & 1 29,

( f.51 &

f ig.34.

9 4-103,

I 11.1,

and pl.XXIII;

2 23 & 2 26-7.

f ig.12-8 ,

1 15,

1 18,

GENTILI & EDWARDS,

1957,

These colour plates cover t he great

majority of the s cenes in the centre and r ight hand s ide t he

mosaic;

only

o ne

and

t he

other,

b ut

a lso

r eproductions. 5 8.

CAR A NDINI e t a l.,

1982,

1 02.

5 9.

CARANDINI e t a l.,

1982,

1 01-2 & 9 4-5.

6 0.

STARR ,

1941,

5 5-61.

6 1.

YADIN ,

1 963,

p1.64-6.

6 2.

HADAS e t a l.,

6 3.

BLAZQUEZ,

1 966,

1 982,

6 5.

MACMULLEN ,

6 6.

Vegetius,

6 7.

WOOD & WHEELER ,

6 8.

WILD,

6 9.

Ulpian ,

7 0.

CARANDINI

46-7 - the plate i s reversed.

7 3 & l am .50.

M ilit., 1 963,

1 1,7. 1 67.

M ilit.,

1 968,

o f

there are however problems of colour shades not

b etween

6 4. Vegetius,

i n

while the whole s cene

t ogether with t he one with two registers of soldiers 5 2)

1 953,

the l eft hand half of the s cene with

IV ,37.

1 966,

p1.18.

2 19.

D ig.,

3 7,13.

e t a l.,

1 982,

pl.XXIII.

6 6

with

o ther

7 1.

Suetonius,

Augustus,

XXV ,3.

7 2.

Arrian ,

Tact.,

3 5,3.

7 3.

Strabo ,

Geog.,

3 ,3,7.

ADDENDUM While

this

a rticle was

g ood t ranslation f rom ( B.G.U. Jones

1 564),

t he

which

i s

in press,

Greek

of

The papyrus, f rom

8 3

were

t o

l ooking,

c ubits

w ith

( 1.326m;

4ft 7 in) wide, 1 985,

t he

compulsory

including a tunic

be

without d iscolouration, g ood

of

purchase

made

of

' fine,

soft,

no

imperfections'.

4ft 4 in)

well

s elvaged,

The tunic was

long and 3 cubits,

4

in

pure white wool to be

f ingers

( 1.6kg;

3

( 1.40m;

3 .61bs)

( LEWIS,

1 74-5). a : Side

the

colour

and

t he c lavi,

the

specification might well have been used to describe f rom

Nahal

Hever.

strengthened,

the

of

for the soldiers

well and tightly woven ,

and its weight 3 .75 minae

Leaving

i s

A .D.138 l isted by

weavers of the village of Philadelphia ,

s pecifies that the items, C appadocia ,

papyrus

references.

in referring to

t he

t he

the only one of the sources

not t ranslated in the actual

g arments

the writer came across a

pictorial

c enturies weight

of

the

the

tunics

lack of reference to c lavi s eems to support that

s oldiers

i n

t he

i st

d id not have them on their tunics. t unic

1 .25kg/2.751bs

the

While the general argument over white tunics

e vidence

A . D.

g eneral

of

at the

1 .6kg/3.21bs s econd

and

compares

r econstruction.

with The

d imensions are hard to reconcile with those of Cato and Nahal

H ever

u nless

r eached

c ivilians

( e.g.

t he

tunic's at

t he

e ither it was destined for a very tall and

broad chested soldier or ungirt,

2 nd

The specified

soldiers normally had tunics which when

t heir GRIMAL,

ankles, 1963,

a s

was

t he

c ase

with

some

p1.86 and 9 2).

B IBLIOGRAPHY ALFÖLDY 1974: BANDINELLI

G .

Alföldy,

1 970:

R .B.

Roman Art to A .D.200, BANDINELLI

1971:

R .B.

Art A . D.200-400, BECATTI

1 968:

G .

Noricum ,

( London 1974)

B andinelli,

Rome,

the C entre of P ower:

( London 1970)

Bandinelli,

Rome,

the Late

Empire:

Roman

( London 1971) B ecatti,

The Art of Ancient Greece and Rome,

6 7

( London 1968) B ISHOP

1 983:

M .C.

B ishop,

' The

r econsidered',

Transactions

Archaeological

Society,

BLAZQUEZ

1 982:

Academia Cuenca

J .M.

de

3 4,

the

1983,

B lazquez,

l a

Camomile

of

C iudad

Romanos R eal,

( Corpus de Mosaicos de E spana,

BONNEAU 1964: BOWMAN 1986:

D .

Bonneau,

A .K.

Egypt

s oldier M iddlesex

After

d e

Toledo,

Fasc.V),

La Crue du Nil,

Bowman ,

and

3 1-48

Mosaicos

Historia,

S treet

London

l a

R eal

Madrid y

( Madrid 1982)

( Paris 1964). the

P haraohs,

( London

R icci

de Vos,

1986) CARANDINI

e t

al.

Filosofiana, C ICHORIUS

1 982:

1 896

&

Traianssäule, CRAWFORD

A .

Carandini,

A .

The Villa of P iazza Armerina, 1 900:

C .

C ichorius,

& M .

( Palermo 1982)

D ie

R eliefs

der

( Berlin 1 896 & 1900)

1955:

D .S .

Crawford

( ed.),

P apyri

M ichaelidae,

Doura-Europos

( 1922-1923),

( Aberdeen 1955) CUMONT 1926: ( Paris GENTILI in

F .

Fouilles de

1926)

&

EDWARDS

1957:

1 ,600-year-old

Magazine, GRIMAL 1963: GUSMAN

Cumont,

CXI:2, P .

1 900:

c olor

1957,

Grimal, P .

G . V.

Gentili & D . pictures',

Edwards, National

' Roman l ife Geographic

2 11-29

The

Gusman ,

C ivilisation of Rome, Pompeii:

The C ity,

( London 1963)

i ts LIfe and Art,

( London 1900) HADAS et a l.

1966:

M .

Imperial

Rome,

( Amsterdam 1966)

JOHNSON e t

al.

( eds.),

JONES 1974:

Romans

de M .

Manchester, A .H. M.

al.

H .

I I,

Jones,

1 980:

in S cotland,

KAHLER 1965: Paullus

J .

Johnson ,

Catalogue of the Greek

Library,

CLARKE et

1915:

Hadas and the Editors of T IME-LIFE

Kähler,

in D elphi,

V .

Martin and A .S.

P apyri in

t he

John

Hunt,

Rylands

( Manchester 1915)

The Roman E conomy,

D .V.

Books,

Clarke,

D .J.

( Oxford 1 974)

Breeze & G .

Mackay,

The

( Edinburgh 1980) D er Fries vom R eiterdenkmal des Aemilius ( Berlin 1965)

6 8

LEWIS 1 985: 1 985)

N .

MACMULLEN 1 963:

L ewis,

R .

Roman Empire, MAIURI

1 953:

MacMullen ,

Maiuri,

Mass.

The Great Centuries of P ainting:

U .

Monneret de Villard,

Imperial Cult at Luxor',

PARLASCA 1 969-80:

K .

Parlasca,

Archaeologia,

R itratti

d 'Arte dell'Egitto greco-romano, P FISTER

&

BELLINGER

1 945:

R .

P ICARD

d i

Roman

' The Temple of

XCV ,

1 953,

Mummie

s er.B,

P fister

E xcavations at D ura E uropos: Textiles

Later

1 963)

( Lausanne 1953)

MONNERET DE VILLARD 1 953: t he

( Oxford

S oldier and C ivilian in the

( Cambridge,

A .

P ainting,

L ife in Egypt under Roman R ule,

1-3), &

85-105

( Repertorio

( Rome 1969-80)

L .

F inal R eport IV ,

B ellinger,

The

P art

The

I I,

( New Haven 1 945)

1 947:

G .C.

P icard,

Castellum D immidi,

( Algiers

& Paris

1 947) P IDAL 1982:

R . M.

Romana, R USSELL

P idal,

vol.II

ROBINSON

I mperial S TARR 1 941:

S TRONG

de J .C. H .

I I

- 4 14 de J .C.),

Russell

R obinson ,

-

E spana

( Madrid 1982)

The

Armour

of

( London 1975)

Starr,

The

Roman

Imperial

Navy:

3 1

B .C.

( Ithaca 1941)

1 923:

E .

Constantino, VANAGS 1 983:

1 975:

Rome, C .G.

A . D.324,

H istoria de E spana - part

( 218 a .

P .

S trong,

La

S cultura

Romana

da

Augusto

a

( Florence 1923) Vanags,

The Glory that was

Pompeii,

( New

York

1 983) WHITE 1 970:

K . D.

White,

WHITEHOUSE

1 976:

H .

Whitehouse,

P alestrina Mosaic, WILD 1968:

J .P.

Wild,

A )

1 859:

G .

BAR Suppl.

Ser.

D al

Pozzo Copies of the

No.12,

Bonner Jahrbücher,

Wilkinson,

in the Bodleian Library,

definitive

The

( London 1970)

( Oxford 1976)

' Clothing in the North-West

t he Roman Empire', W ILKINSON

Roman Farming,

r eference

168,

p rovinces

1968,

of

166-240

Large S ketchbook No.22,

( Section

Western Asiatic Department -

no

has as yet been allocated because the

collection has been recently transferred from

6 9

the

Griffith

I nstitute of the Ashmolean Museum . W ILSON 1 938:

L .M. Wilson ,

The C lothing of

the

Ancient

Romans,

( Baltimore 1 938) WOOD

&

WHEELER

C olour,

1 966:

R .

Wood

& M . Wheeler ,

R oman Africa i n

( London 1966)

YADIN 1 963: Y .

Yadin,

The F inds

t he C ave of t he Letters,

f rom t he B ar

( Jerusalem 1 963)

7 0

Kokhba

P eriod

in

P LATES

P 1.1:

T he s econd r econstruction of a t unic when unbelted - note where t he s ides and bottom edge come on t he f igure.

P 1.2:

R ear

v iew of the belted tunic - note t he f olds c entering

o n t he knot and t he heavy blousing. P 1.3:

S ide v iew of the belted tunic - note t he f olds

c entering

o n t he knot and t he heavy blousing. P 1.4:

F ront

v iew of the belted tunic - note t he heavy blousing

u nder the arms which impedes a ccess t o t he s word and t he P 1.5:

hilt

o f

t he

' V '-shaped f old under the chin .

A s tance in the manner of the Chatsworth r elief

( Fig.8)

-

n ote the u se of the transverse l eather strap to gather in t he

spare

s leeveless

material

u nder

t he

l ook and the pronounced

r ight

a rm

p it,

' V '-shaped f old

t he u nder

t he chin . P 1.6:

Two

( modern)

f ibulae s ecure the two panels of the tunic

c lose t o t he n eck and under where

t he

t op

p late

o f

a

l orica s egmentata would come. P ls.7

&

8 :

T he unknotted tunic with a bared shoulder

w ith Figs.1 and 6 ).

7 1

( compare

• P . 4

e 2

r e l e ” 4 g 2 4

" 4 ' • s I 0 4

N •

7 5

DURA - E UROPOS AND T HE

I NTRODUCTION OF T HE

" MONGOLIAN RELEASE"

S imon James

Of the various ways of drawing a bowstring and releasing an a rrow ,

t here

a re

Mediterranean medieval

two

world

times.

which seem to have been standard in the

and The

t he

M iddle

f irst

of

Mediterranean release in which the t he

f ore-

l eft hand on the bowstring

and

thought

t he

l eft,

s tave.

Variants

have

On

r elease,

l eft arm ,

of

t his

m ethod

empires,

down

period of the Hunnic invasions of Europe if not l ater. i s

thought

t echnique was This

was

f ingers,

s o-called

Mongolian

the bowstring.

but

held

to

of

t o

t he

2

a t some date in l ate antiquity a new

introduced by nomadic peoples

the

t humb holds

t hat

t he

which i s

been universal in the classical

world and in the P arthian and Sassanian

I t

of

The shaft rests on the

1

against the

bracer.

t o

and

s o-called

with the nock of the arrow

l eft s ide of the bow

i s thrown to the a re

c lassical

m iddle f inger.

c ommonly protected by a r elease

i n i s

f irst two or more f ingers

t he r ight hand rest on the bowstring, between

E ast t hese

3

f rom

r elease,

The arrow

i s

C entral

A sia.

in which only the

not

g ripped

by

t he

t he string by a s lightly sprung nock or

s imply wedged between the thumb and a knot on the string itself. Unlike the Mediterranean release, r ight be

s ide

of the bowstave,

thrown

outwards

unnecessary.

f rom

However,

t he

t he

the

s haft

s its

against

t he

and on release the string tends to l eft

g reat

arm ,

s train

making p laced

r equired the wearing of a r ing to spread the

a

bracer

on the thumb

l oad over the

ball

of the thumb to prevent cutting and ensure a smooth release.

4

The date and place of invention of the Mongolian release u nknown,

but

j ade r ings

i n China in Han times, e arly Roman empires. C entral s ocial,

A sian

5

n omads

i dentified as thumbrings

i .e.

contemporary with the

t o

whom

s kill

r eview

o f

t he

found nothing to indicate that the Mongolian

However,

7

and

6

r elease was known in I ran or the West before c entury.

P arthian

at archery was of great

importance.

Jon Coulston's excellent and very thorough evidence

imply i ts use

I t i s more l ikely to have been invented by

military and practical

available

i s

i ncompletely

D ura-Europos

in Syria indicates that

M iddle East,

by Rome,

t he

published i t

was

l ater

f ourth

evidence employed

S assanian Persia or both,

i n

f rom t he

by the mid third

c entury AD. Dura

was

a g arrison c ity of the Roman empire besieged and

d estroyed by the S assanians

in the mid 2 50s AD.

7 7

8

The

c ity

was

n ever

r eoccupied,

s o

t here

M iddle Roman deposits. b etween

1 928

and

e xceptionally

The

a re no l ater phases overlying the

j oint Yale-French Academy e xcavations

1 937

r ecovered

well preserved arms,

l arge

quantities

o f

i ncluding archery e quipment,

d eposited during the s iege. D uring the course of p olished

bone,

( Figs.1 and 2 ).

t he

e xcavations

Unfortunately,

it was described a s

r eason

g iven

s o

i t

r ing

" certainly P arthian",

a

c asual

s urface

f ind,

on the s ite by s ome hunter in l ater t imes.

a nd

d ot

d iagnostic,

d ecoration

but

i ts

r ing

o f

was r ecovered 9 1°

b ut

n o

m ay reasonably be s uggested that the

t humbring could have been d ropped

b roken

no exact provenance was r ecorded.

A t the t ime, was

a

c ertainly an archer's t humbring ,

o f

s tate

t he o f

object

a n

1 1

i tself

preservation

M aterial which had not been deeply buried on

i s

i s t he

object

T he s imple hardly

s ignificant. s ite

was

i n

v ery poor condition due to t he penetration of the s urface l ayers by

t he

w inter

d egradation . b uried, p eriod.

r ains which f acilitated chemical and biological

The r ing i s therefore l ikely to

been

d eeply

which in turn s uggests t hat i t does belong to t he s iege But clearly ,

this i s hardly conclusive.

The crucial evidence comes s hafts f ound at the s ite

f rom

t he

( Figs.3 and 4 ).

s ealed during the f ighting , b est

have

f ragments

o f

s o their dating i s beyond doubt.

e xample i s a shaftment with i ts f letdhing intact ,

one f rom the Roman empire. positioning

of

a rrow

Some come f rom contexts

1 2

The main point of interest

The

t he only i s

t he

t he f letdhing. Arrows d esigned to be shot u sing

t he Mediterranean r elease must have a s pace between the tail end o f the vanes and the nock to a ccomrodate the f ingers holding the a rrow t o t he bowstring , D ura

a rrow

or the f letching will

has no s uch gap;

e dge of the nock.

c rushed.

I therefore s uggest t hat this arrow

have been shot with the Mongolian r elease, a s

b e

t he f ingers do not g rip the arrow.

1 3

v anes

have

f allen

a part,

c an

only

which requires no g ap

S everal other l ess well

p reserved shaftments bear t races of their f letching. t he

T he

the vanes e xtend r ight back t o the

1 4

A lthough

t he base of each f eather still

a dheres to the r eed shaft so it may plainly be s een that in each c ase t hey e xtended s haftment

t o

t he

e dge

o f

t he

f rom Dura has the tell-tale g ap ,

n ock.

No

s urviving

but t he s ample i s so

s mall that this cannot be s een a s proof t hat a ll arrows were of

F ig.1: The Dura t humbring,

Yale no.

1 929.475A

( photo;

author).

Fig.2: T he Dura thumbring. Fig.3:

D etails of shaftments f rom Tower 1 9. Yale n o. 1 933.445A ( bottom ) and 1 933.445C, s howing the vanes reaching the e dge of the nock. 7 8

0

7 9

2 0 mm

0

F ig.4: S haftments and C ), t ower

f rom

1 90mm

T ower

and f rom " L7-W",

1 9

( left t o r ight ,

1 933.445A ,

t he wall i n the v icinity o f

( right). 8 0

B , t he

t he attested design. The Mongolian r elease, D ura.

I t

i s

then ,

was employed at the

s cutum

and

s uggest that they c ollapsed

of

r ather more difficult to decide who was using it.

Three of the shaftments were found inside tower f amous

s iege

and

horse

armours

belonged

s ealed

the c ity.

1 6

r ecords

and plans,

However,

t o

l ay.

the

1 9,

This

1 5

defenders,

where

the

would s eem to a s

t he

tower

i ts contents before the Persians overran i n

t he

absence

of

adequately

d etailed

the possibility that they were shot into the

t ower by the attackers cannot be ruled out. To

c onclude,

t he

D ura

evidence

d emonstrates

that

the

Mongolian release was known on the borders between the Roman and S assanian

empires

by

t he mid-third century AD,

e arlier than has hitherto been believed. u se

at

t he

over a century

How widespread was

time i s a question which remains unanswered.

absence of contemporary depictions may suggest that l ong time to become common in the Middle East. c ould

i t

1 7

i ts The

took

a

Alternatively ,

it

be a salutary warning of the dangers of using depictional

evidence

f or such f ine technical details of military history.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l ike to thank Yale University Art Gallery, particular

Ms.

S usan

Matheson,

and

in

f or permission to publish the

Dura thumbring and arrows.

FOOTNOTES 1 .

RAUSING ,

2 .

COULSTON ,

3 .

MORSE,

1 885;

COULSTON,

4 .

MORSE,

1 885,

1 6;

5 .

POPE-HENNESSY, 1 975,

1967,

2 8;

1985,

COULSTON ,

1985,

2 78.

2 77-8. 1 985,

LUSCHAN ,

1 923,

2 75-8.

1891,

7 4-6 and

6 70; plate

COULSTON , 5 0;

1 985,

RAWSON

&

2 76. AYERS,

6 3 no.171.

6 .

COULSTON,

1985,

2 77.

7 .

COULSTON,

1985,

2 76-8.

8 .

The

best

contains a CUMONT

D ura i s HOPKINS 1981 which also t he e xcavations, s ee b ibliography. For

i ntroduction f ull

1 926;

to

eries of F inal R eports t he Dura R eps and the s 8 1

which remains incomplete.

9 .

s ee JAMES 1 985.

Yale

G allery

U niversity

f ield number , mentioned 3 9 =4

Art

if

any ,

i n D ura

D ura R ep.

I I,

1 1.

COULSTON ,

1 985,

l ost. I I,

plate XXIV , was

T he

7 3-4.

object

was

o f

Dura

b riefly

I ts s urviving l ength i s

and height l lmm .

7 4. 2 76.

1 2. Yale no.1933.445A ,

This

i s

R ep.

i nventory no.1929.475A .

width of aperture c .24mm ,

1 0.

1 3.

For the m ost recent discussion

t he date of the s iege,

published in D ura R ep.

V I,

453,

no .1

and

top l eft. s uggested

i n D ura

overlooked by Coulston ,

R ep.

V I,

4 53,

a

and by myself until this

r eference p aper

was

a lready in draft. 1 4. Yale nos.1933.445B; 1 5. Yale

1933.445C;

n os.1933.445A

appears to be

t o

" L7-W",

C .

1982.28.34.

T he

p rovenance

of

1 982.28.34

which i s the c ity wall in the v icinity

of tower 19. 1 6.

Tower 1 9 collapsed when the P ersian attackers f ired t he mine t hey had dug beneath i t ,

with the intention of bringing down

t he tower and adjacent wall to create a breach be c arried by a ssault.

which

c ould

The collapse t herefore occurred while

t he defenders were still in control. 1 7.

COULSTON ,

1 985,

2 76-8.

ABBREVIATION D ura

R ep.:

P .V.C.

E xcavations at F irst vols.

B aur,

M .I.

R ostovtzeff e t

D ura-Europos.

to N inth S easons,

P reliminary

1 928-1936,

in 1 0 parts.

8 2

a l.,

e ds.

T he

R eports

o f

the

( New Haven 1929-1952),

8

B IBLIOGRAPHY COULSTON 1 985: M .C.

J .C.

B ishop,

Coulston , The

Military Equipment, 1985)

' Roman archery equipment',

P roduction

and

D istribution

in

of

BAR International Series,

no.275

Fouilles de Doura-Europos

1 922-3,

e d. Roman

( Oxford

2 20-348

CUMONT 1926:

F .

Cumont,

( Paris

1 926) HOPKINS 1981:

C .

Hopkins,

The

D iscovery

of

Dura-Europos

( New

Haven and London 1981) JAMES

1 985:

S .T.

James,

' Dura-Europos

Syria in the 2 50s AD', LUSCHAN 1 891:

H .

von

Chiron,

Lusdhan ,

XV ,

and the chronology of

1985,

1 11-24

' Bogenspannen ',

B erliner Anthropologischen Gesellschaft, 1 891, MORSE

Verhandlung

der

S itzung von 1 8 Juli

6 70

1 885:

E .S.

arrow-release',

Morse,

' Ancient

and

modern

methods

Bulletin of the E ssex I nstitute,

XVII,

of

1 885,

3 -56 P OPE-HENNESSY

1 923:

U .

P ope-Hennessy,

Early

Chinese

Jades

( London 1923) RAWSON

&

AYERS

1 975:

Throughout the Ages RAUSING 1 967:

G .

D evelopment

J .

Rawson

&

J .

Ayers,

Chinese

Jade

( London 1975)

Rausing,

The Bow;

( Lund 1967)

8 3

Some Notes

on i ts Origin

and

P ROFESSOR R OBERT N EWSTEAD AND F INDS O F ROMAN M ILITARY M ETALWORK F ROM C HESTER G .

L loyd-Morgan

Although some R oman f inds had been d iscovered and published f rom

t he

s eventeenth

c entury on ,

t hese t ended to be the l arge

u nmistakable items s uch as a ltars or architectural f ragments,

i t

was not until the l ater part of the n ineteenth century that more a ttention was g iven t o the s maller, f ragments of metalwork. s urvey R oman f or

t he

In 1 886 W .

Cheshire,

c ounty,

often

l ess

well

e xhaustively collating all t he evidence

i ncluding

e arly

m anuscript

a ccounts

a ntiquarian collections.

Apart f rom the coin l ists,

b rooches

m etalwork

and

o ther

p athetically small

( Watkin

r ecorded

p .202-208),

s ome

o f

provides

i s a

a stray.

1 886 was a m ilestone in another respect a s i t marked the o f

t he

G rosvenor

t he

C hester

i tems

C hester

i t

a ccount

c ollections

t he

f rom

t hough

and

the f inds of

u seful opening

o f

preserved

Thompson Watkin published his

M useum ,

which

A rchaeology

s ince i ts f oundation in 1 849,

which have s ince gone was

S ociety

t o

f or

Natural

the

and the arrival of Robert Newstead

who was appointed a s Curator of the collections of S ociety

house

has a ccumulated

S cience.

I t

was

t he

C hester

n ot l ong before he was

i nvolved with the d isplay and conservation of the archaeological m aterial,

housed in the s ame building ,

e xcavations

and

a rchaeological

f inds

f rom

publications,

t he

and with the r eporting of

r egion.

Amongst

a r ecord of a small angular military bronze buckle S treet 1 898 which

( JCAS 6 part 2 ,

his

e arly

which appear f rom 1 899 onwards,

p .160 p1.3 f ig.5,

f rom

acc.no.

c an be dated to the l ater s econd century A .D.

i s

H unter

3 0.R.1898) ( Oldenstein

1 976 p .215-6 Taf.76 no.1010).

This has s ince been paralleled

by

f inds

more

an

f rom

e xcavations

i n

r ecent

y ears,

s uch

a s

u npublished piece f rom Abbey Green 1 975-8 s mall f ind no.908. F rom

t he

s tructures c ity,

n ear

s ingle

a ccidentally

u ncovered

r eporting

d igging

North Wales. c emetery

i n

Chester ,

f inds

C heshire ,

t he

I nfirmary

b etween May 1 912 and 1 916, north

e astern

F ield ,

i nto

r escue

o f

t o our understanding of Roman Chester N ewstead

was

t he

t echniques

o f

his

( P1.1). his

t ime.

i ronwork hoard and o ther f inds f rom the

8 5

f ortress,

g reatest

m eticulous

s crap of evidence w ithin the l imits o f a rchaeological

t he

i t i s his excavations in the c orner

and R oman

dug at i rregular intervals

N ovember 1 922 and 1 938 which has been of c ontemporaries,

and

s outh Lancashire and

Although his f irst major excavation was

a t t he

o f

by building activity i n the

he e xtended his archaeological a ctivity

r esearch

F ield ,

handed

D eanery b etween

s ignificance

Unlike many of his

i n

r etrieving every

r esources

and

t he

H is retrieval of the

r edevelopment

s ite

on

P

P rof.

Robert

C hester,

April

N ewstead 1 935

e xcavating

( photo.

8 6

by H .S.

in the Deanery F ield, Woodward,

Chester).

H unter i ron

S treet in 1 914 i s typical. s cale

armour

f rom

I t included the f irst f ind of

B ritain ,

d iscussed i n his published a ccount p .73-4 pl. The

1 11.8,

which

he

( Pl.II.A ;

r ecognised

JCAS 2 7 part 2 1 928

I V).

i mportance

he placed on the small f inds c an be g auged

by the occasional b itter comments added to the e nd h is r eports. o f

which

been

a cquired

he notes that

a nd

I

am

American v isitors'

t old

f or

t he

' There

s ome

Archaeology

was

some

S ociety 's

r est

were

t hat

s ome

o f them were purchased by

( JCAS 6 ,

1 899,

s old

o f

' The

p .398);

i n

f or

1 914

were undertaken on t he s ite of the Co-Op S tores, -

o f

I n 1 899 referring to f inds f rom Bridge S treet ,

had

c ollections, p rices;

and

f abulous

e xcavations

Foregate S treet

e ither a remarkable s carcity of s mall f inds or a

l eakage through t he

hands

o f

t he

workmen '

( JCAS

2 7,

1 928,

p .102). The

r ichness

e xcavations,

o f

t he

f inds

he

d id

r etrieve on his own

or by paying workmen on building s ites, has been of

c onsiderable value,

not only a s a s ource of comparative material

f or f inds f rom excavations during recent years, r ecord

H is e ssays at conservation e specially of the s ome

but

a lso

a s

a

o f what was d iscovered on s ites now totally obliterated. i nstances

a ppear

primitive,

p roved to be effective.

b ut

i ronwork,

t hey

m ay

i n

have in the main

Effective enough so that in s ome

c ases,

s uch

a s t he f ragments of l orica s egmentata f rom Kings Buildings

1 921,

a

c orrect

r ediscovered

i dentification

( JCAS

2 7

p laques and f ittings ( Pl.III.A)

p art

c ould

2 ,

( Pl.II.B),

H e

was

i nscriptions, ( Pl.IV.A;

i t

was

p .91 no.3-8 P l.IX).

Belt

buckles

made

a nd

and pendants whole or incomplete

t he same weight of a ttention a s the bone.

be

1 928,

j ust

a s

LAAA 1 8,

1 931,

d ecorative ( Pl.III.B)

c oins,

p articular

or t he s crawled

pottery

whether

g raffiti

when

o n

s tuds

r eceived

o r

worked

he was publishing a

' luggage

l abel'

p .140 no.127 P l.L).

H is work was r ecognised both in Chester when in 1 936 he was g ranted

t he

f reedom

o f

t he c ity ,

and internationally when he

p rovided e xhibits f or the B ritish contribution to E xhibition

o f

i llustrating p hotographs p .125).

t he t he

and

R oman Empire, R oman

c asts

o ccupation o f

l ocal

Although he only published

of

f orty

f actual

o r

s o

about

t he

c ontemporaries. t races

o f

o ccupation ,

o perations brought t hem to l ight ,

and

8 7

e ight

1 936,

a rticles

and

e specially the m ilitary

which

A s P rofessor D roop , R oman

p lans,

t hey contain a wealth of

t he

was

r ecognised

by

a colleague on some of

h is l ater e xcavations noted in the obituary r ecording

w ith

in contrast to the hundred

f inds,

a spects of the occupation of Chester , h is

Augustan

( JCAS 3 1 part 2 ,

t hirty

on natural history,

i nformation

C hester

f inds

p amphlets on archaeological s ubjects, a nd

t he

which opened in R ome in 1 937,

' He was untiring

i n

a s chance or building s mall

s ums

he

was

g l t

8 8

c onstantly

e xpending

t o

s ave

potsherds

a nd other f inds f rom

oblivion must have t otalled a l arge amount over the he

was not a wealthy man...

There was

N ewstead about s cientific d igging,

but most of what

R oman work in Britain I l earnt f rom him , o f

patient

work

a nd

y ears;

observation '

and

l ittle that I could t each I

know

o f

the result of his years

( JCAS

3 6

p art

2 ,

1 948,

p .180-1).

B IBLIOGRAPHY I : A S elect B ibliography

f rom

R obert N ewstead

1 859 - 1 8 F eb.

' Notes

on

( 11 S ept.

s ome

R oman

environments'

the

R emains

Archaeological

f ound

R eports

of

1 947) i n

t he

C ity

a nd

i ts

JCAS 6 ( 1899) p .156-162

' Discovery of Roman R emains in Bridge Street 1899'

JCAS 6 ( 1899)

p .395-399 ' A D escriptive account of Roman and other objects r ecovered f rom v arious s ites in

C hester

and

D istrict

1 898-1901'

JCAS

8

( 1901) p .81-106 ' The

R oman

C emetery

i n

t he

I nfirmary F ield ,

Chester'

LAAA 6

( 1914) p .121-167 ' The Roman Cemetery in the I nfirmary F ield ,

C hester ,

P art

i i'

LAAA 8 ( 1921) p .49-60 ' Report

on t he Excavations on the s ite of the Roman camp at the

D eanery F ield ,

Chester'

LAAA 1 1

( 1924) p .59-86

' Report on the Excavations on the s ite of the Roman Fortress t he D eanery F ield , ' Records

o f

Chester

Archaeological

( no.2) F inds

.

LAAA 1 5

a t

a t

( 1928) p .3-32

Chester'

JCAS 2 7 P art 2

( 1928) p .59-162 w ith J .P.

D roop

P art 1 : w ith J .P.

D roop

P art 2 :

' Excavations i n the D eanery F ield ,

The Excavations'

LAAA 1 8

' Excavations in the D eanery F ield ,

The F inds'

LAAA 1 8

I ron

hob

f ittings, ( photos.

nails,

Chester 1 928.

( 1931) p .113-156

I ron Scale armour f rom Hunter S treet , I I.B:

Chester 1 928.

( 1931) p .6-18

c opper

D eanery F ield , R . Newstead).

a lloy 1 928.

Scale 1 :1

8 9

belt

Chester 1 914 p laques

a nd

PI.III.A: Copper alloy buckles, two with enamel inlay, pelta-shaped plaques, Deanery Field, 1928.

and

fl.III.B: Copper alloy, lead, and iron pendants, Deanery Field, 1928. {photos. R. Newstead). Scale 1:1 90

w ith J .P.

D roop

' The

R oman

Amphitheatre

a t

Chester'

JCAS

2 9

( 1932) p .5-40 w ith

J .P.

D roop

C hester' w ith

J .P.

' The south e ast corner of the Roman Fortress,

JCAS 2 9 ( 1932) p .41-49 D roop

d iscovered

' The

T urret

R oman a nd

F ortress

Rampart

a t

Chester :

B uilding '

LAAA

A 2 2

N ewly ( 1935)

p .19-30 w ith J .P.

D roop

' Excavations in

Green 1 935'

LAAA 2 3

( 1936)

t he

D eanery

' Records of Archaeological F inds i i - v ' w ith

J .P.

D roop

' Excavations

S treet C learance Area'

F ield

a t

JCAS 3 3

Chester

Abbey

F inds

v i'

JCAS

( 1939) p .5-117

1 939.

JCAS 3 4 part 1 ( 1939)

' Records o f Archaeological

and

p .3-50

3 6

The P rincess

p .5-47 p art

2

( 1948)

p .49-172 T he R oman O ccupation of Chester JCAS

Journal

o f

t he

( Deva)

Chester

( Chester 1 948)

Archaeological Society

( 1849 to

present) LAAA L iverpool University Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology ( 1908-1948)

I I:

O ther R eferences

M anning ,

W .H.,

1985 C atalogue of t he Romano-British I ron

Tools,

F ittings and Weapons i n t he B ritish M useum ( London) O ldenstein ,

J .,

1 976

Auxiliareinheiten '

' Zur

B ericht

Ausrüstung

der

r ömischer

Römisch-Germanischen

Kommission 5 7 p .49-284 Watkin,

W .

R emains

Thompson , in

f acsimile,

the

1 886 R oman C heshire: County o f C hester

Wakefield 1 974

9 1

A D escription o f R oman

( Liverpool)

r eprinted in

APPENDIX I : A CHECK L IST OF SOME C HESTER A lthough

most

s mall f ragments,

of

t his

t he

F INDS

i tems

O F

R OMAN

ARMOUR

FROM

l isted below s urvive only a s

preliminary

c atalogue

w ill

g ive

s ome

i ndication of the s ize of the collections of military f inds f rom C hester

g athered

f ittings,

over

t he l ast s eventy years or more.

S maller

s uch as the decorative belt plaques or f astening l oops

f or t he l orica s egmentata,

are common ,

weapons l ess

s o ,

t hough

a t l east s even decorated s cabbards have been identified to date. Unless

s tated to the contrary,

a ll i tems are in the collections

housed in the Grosvenor Museum ,

A :

Chester.

F inds of l orica s egmentata

n o.381.R.1976 Large f ragments f rom Kings B uildings, N ewstead JCAS 2 7 part 2 ,

1 928,

Chester 1 921

p .91 no.3-8 pl.IX

n o.382.R.1976 two f ragments with parts of

hinge

i n

s itu.

o ld

c ollns. Unpublished items f rom recent excavations

( consisting mainly

o f AE f ittings with f ragments of l orica attached). S t.

M artins F ield 1 964 ,

C rook

S treet,

1 973-4,

s mall f ind no. small f ind no's.

5 1 1 96,

4 12,

6 61,

6 65 ,

7 55 ,

2 568 ,

and

and an unnumbered i tem f rom l ayer 68. Abbey Green 1 975-8 ,

s mall f inds

perhaps no's. Hunter S treet S chool, Hunters Walk,

B :

n o's.

1 426,

1 919,

1 677 and 1 802?

1979 small f ind no 's 5 07,

1980 s mall f ind no's 5 33,

1 036.

5 45.

F inds of s cale armour

( i)

B ronze f or s ewing on t o l inen backing in rows.

n o.377.R.1976 two examples f rom the Deanery F ield 1 928. D roop

and

N ewstead LAAA

1 8

( 1931)

p .135-6

no.8

p l.XLVII ( ii)

Bronze - l inked together on a ll s ides

n o.377.R.1976 one example D eanery F ield 1 928 D roop

and

N ewstead LAAA

1 8

( 1931)

p .135-6

no.8

p l.XLVII n o.Go

1 9

two

f ragments f rom Goss S treet 1 948,

not included in

t he excavation r eport. Unpublished i tems f rom recent excavations N ewgate/Pepper S treet 1 963-4 small f ind no.

1 42 = no.376.R .1976 ,

a t l east s ix f ragments F rodsham S treet 1966 s mall f ind no. 9 2

64b f our l umps

G oss S treet ,

1 973 s mall f ind no 's 1 287,

C rook S treet,

1 973-4 small f ind no 's

c ontext n o 's Abbey G reen , ( iii)

I 2 9;

1 816,

8 41,

1 834.

a nd

f ragments

f rom

and I F 5 2.

1975-8 s mall f ind no 's 6 25,

1 992

I ron - l orica squamata

H unter

S treet

1 914

( Pl.II.A)

n o.1928.8-9.4;

n ow

i n

t he

B ritish

M useum

1 928.7-9.5 and 1 928.7-9.6.

N ewstead JCAS 2 7 part 2 ,

1 928,

p .73-4

p l.IV

a nd

I II

n o. 8 M anning 1 985 p .146 no.T1-3, D eanery F ield 1 922-3, G oss S treet 1 973,

C :

P 1.71.

Newstead LAAA 1 1,

s mall

f ind no.

2 594,

1 924 ,

p .77 pl.III i .

unpublished

F inds o f c hainmail

( i)

B ronze

n o.375. R.1976,

old c ollns.

Unpublished i tems

c a.

1 4 l inks.

f rom recent excavations

F rodsham S treet 1 966 ,

s mall f ind no.

1 58

O ld M arket Hall 1 967-9 Phase I II s mall f ind no's. L ower

B ridge

S treet,

1 974 small f ind no 's 2 49,

6 14, 2 50

869

( mixed i ron

a nd copper a lloy) ( ii)

I ron

D eanery F ield ,

1923,

now in the British Museum no.1928.7-9 .8

Newstead LAAA 1 1,

1 924 ,

p .77-8 ,

p 1.111 no.3

M anning 1 985 p .146 no.T3a P l.XVIII. Another f ragment f rom the s ame s ite and i llustrated by 1 924

op.cit.

b rass l inks.

P l.III

n o.2

i s

N ewstead

d escribed a s i ron with a row of

I t c annot now be l ocated.

no.602.R.1977 Deanery F ield 1 924-6 r ing of i ron ? from chain mail Newstead LAAA 1 5 n o.254.R.1977,

( 1928)

p .20 no.10 pl.VIII

Deanery F ield 1 928

D roop & N ewstead LAAA 1 8

9 3

( 1931) p .136 no.84 pl.XLVIII

P 1.1V.A . : rV.B:

L ead

' luggage l abel'

c opper a lloy

' Luggage

D eanery F ield , I V.C:

I ron Caltrop , ( photos R .

" > T ITIANI", l abel'

1 922-3 D eanery F ield ,

Newstead).

1 928.

Scale 1 :1

9 4

D eanery F ield ,

" LEG XX/ IULI

1928.

CA/NDIDI",

P l.V.Aa

C hester P ageant 2 0th.

V .3:

9 0:

Agricola with

s oldiers

L egion.

C hester P ageant

9 0:

' Soldiers playing dice'

9 5

o f

t he

APPENDIX I I: I n

A ROMAN EPISODE IN THE CHESTER PAGEANT OF 1910

the

autumn

of

1 909

i t was d ecided to mark the three

hundredth anniversary of the Pageant performed on the Roodee S t.

G eorge's

Day

1 610

honour of her Prince'. a ll

a spects

which

1 910.

in

history

were

was

Eaton

After the

held, P ark

to

on

t o

cover

t he

s atisfaction

of

a ll

t he 1 8th to 2 3rd July inclusive e ight

e pisodes

f rom

C hester's

The cast l ist i s taken f rom the Official

S ouvenir Programme which was i s

on

' Chester's Triumph in

( Robert Newstead was on the l ecture

I ntroduction , enacted.

performances;

the title

Various committees were s et up

of the pageant

committee), concerned,

u nder

on

s ale

b efore

and

during

the

the description of the action in the Roman episode

taken f rom the revised account published later in the Journal

of

the

The

Chester Archaeological Society vol.17

i llustrations

photographs Chester

now

( Pl. V. A ,

Episode

1 :

are in

r eproduced

the

f rom

collection

a

o f

( 1910) s et

p .107-119.

of

o riginal

the Grosvenor Museum ,

B ).

Agricola

returns

to

Deva

after

defeating

the

Ordovices A . D.78 Felix, P iso,

a Roman Soldier a Roman Soldier

Carantus, D euccas, Cn.

a Briton a Briton

Julius Agricola,

B rica, C .

D ecius,

Hodge

Mr.

J .G.

Mr.

S .

Dring

Mr.

L .

Bebbington

R ev.

a British Maiden

Frater

J .R.

Miss M .

Brica's Father

Aufidius Rufus,

A .

Governor of

the Province of Britain C unobarrus,

Mr.

a Centurion

a Roman Soldier

Fuller

Keall

Mr.

George Cochrane

Mr.

Thomas G .

McQuire

Mr.

E .T.

Carpenter

Mr.

E .P.

I rving

The M ilitary Tribune

Mr.

P ercy Smith

Ledicca,

Mrs.

Valerius,

a Roman Soldier Brica's Mother

L ictors,

Trumpeters,

Legionaries

the I I Adjutrix P ia Fidelis, the Wild Boar, Children, ' Although

Mason

of the XX Valeria Victrix,

Standard Bearers with the Eagle and

the Badge of the Legions.

British Men ,

Chester ,

anciently

" Dev e,

down to us of any s cene that l ends

spectacular display. c haracter,

By making the

are

episode

applicable to any town in these

a s cene possessing much dramatic ' We

and

was an important garrison

t own during the Roman occupation of Britain , c ome

Women

and Sutlers.

and

a lthough

C ity possesses a r ich store of remains of that period, has

and

t he

no record

itself to adequate one

of

a

g eneral

I slands at that time,

force has been constructed.

introduced to Julius Agricola, 9 6

the great statesman and

warrior,

whose administration of this

c ountry

f orms

t he

most

b rilliant epoch of the Roman occupation.

He was a m an profoundly

s killed

He s trove to conciliate

i n

t he

a rts of peace and war.

t he n ative tribes by a cts of kindness,

and introduced among them

m any of the advantages of c ivilisation. ' Agricola came to D eva at the c lose of a s uccessful campaign Wales.

I n

t he

h is officers.

s cene before u s,

A Briton steals up behind him ,

and Agricola

only j ust i n time to s ave himself f rom assassination. i s

s eized

by the angry soldiers,

o f the man 's action f lagrantly a rrest , where

i nsulted

i s by

t o a

l ife

o r

o fficer i s at stake, ' Agricola, himself,

however,

a t

a venge

his

c enturion.

l east

t urns

The native

and we g ather that the motive b ride, The

t he

who

has

been

c enturion i s under

but the Briton mistrusts the honesty of t he

i n

he i s engaged in business with

R oman

j ustice,

l iberty of so important an

and only a native has been wronged. has the c lemency to f orgive the a ssault upon

and further v indicates the honour of his r ace by having

t he c enturion brought to immediate trial, s ending him t o death within the hour.'

9 7

and after

c onviction ,

T HE

WELLINGBOROUGH A ND N IJMEGEN MARCHES D . Atkinson and L .

Morgan

D uring 1984 organised walking events by the Waendal Walkers C lub

at

Wellingborough,

Northants and the Dutch K .N.B.L.O.

N ijmegen were entered by the society to carry t rials

of

Roman

m ilitary

1 00

miles

i n

f our

basic

at

f ield

equipment under strict s crutiny and

appropriate f ield conditions. and

out

D istances of

days

5 2 miles

r espectively

in two

d ays

were covered.

The

purpose was to wear R oman military equipment and march in it for a g iven l ength of t ime over distances that would bear comparison with t he daily march routine of the a ccount

of Vegetius,

l egions as

specified in

the

and f inally to assess the effects on both

1

the reconstructions and the wearers. The entrants commenced training during November of 1 983 progressively increased the t empo and length of the march t hey

were

was

attained

the

Once

equipment was worn.

persons 2 representing a i st century l egionary in equipment,

until

c apable of covering the average official Northampton

marathon route at an average speed of 4mph. objective

and

a

l ight

a uxiliary

o f

t his

i nitial

F inally, f ull

four

f ighting

the same period and two 4th

c entury infantrymen took part in the marches.

3

EQUIPMENT Armour Owing to the d ifficulties encountered in obtaining suitable s heet iron the helmets,

lorica and the blades

constructed from mild steel. that

this

material

s imilar to the i nvolved

r epeated

and

reheating

( caligae)

on numerous s ites throughout Europe. and various f rom

a

s ingle

p iece

Holland.

4

s tudded

boot

a s

The patterns for the

f orts a long Hadrian's Wall.

u sed came f rom Valkenburg Z .H. made

in

f inished product.

uppers were taken f rom archaeological reports London

cycles

f orges would thereby have ensured a reasonably

The caligae u sed were a standard pattern f ound

were

Their manufacture which must have

hammering

high carbon content in the

The Boots

weapons

would possess a tensile strength generally

i ron originals.

c harcoal-fuelled

of

We are nevertheless r easonably sure

f rom

Valkenburg,

The stud pattern

The open work upper

i s

of cowhide with three or four sole

9 9

p ieces s ewn on and over 1 30 metal studs bottom , with no raised heel. I nitially

s ocks

were

n ot

worn

u nduly

R omans, walk

f lat

c aligae but

i ntroduction.

W e

were

would

be

c onditioned

t o

f ar g reater d istances than their modern counterparts.

F urthermore, a re

t he

t he

p erturbed by t his development a s we a ccept t hat the

whether military o r c ivilian

f or

i nto

i nside

p ersistent blistering soon f orced their n ot

f itted

socks or at l east their equivalent

mentioned

a s

f oot

c overings

having been s ent to a soldier s erving in the

F irst Tungrian Cohort at Vindolanda in t he period A .D.95-105. Whether socks were worn for the s ame r eason o r

a s

5

o urselves,

s imply f or warmth cannot be a ssumed f or c ertain but t he f act

r emains that an a ssessment of the durability of n ot

o ur

f eet

was

t he

t he

object of the e xercise.

e xcess

o f

4 00

m iles

wearing

t herefore,

t he

t hat

a nd

A s a r esult of

t aking this decision we f inally managed t o cover a while

boots d istance

i n

d uring both t he t raining and t he marches r econstructed

e quipment.

W e

b elieve,

t his i s s ufficient j ustification i n i tself f or

t he wearing of socks. The boots were restudded immediately prior to the f our

d ay

N ijmegen marches and the pattern of the s tuds was made in modern hobnails. o f

A lthough

d urability

o riginals,

we c annot be positive a s to t he d ifferences

between

o ur

modern

we f eel if anything,

hobnails

a nd

t he

R oman

that modern studs would be of a

better quality. B y c alculating the rate of wear of t he studs, d istance

c overed,

we

f or 1 2 days on a metalled surface before s tuds

would

be worn down.

s urprisingly harder c omplete 8 d aysl

a gainst

t he

c oncluded t hat t he l egionary could march

on

By contrast ,

h is

boots

a ll

o f

h is

o riginal

t he l ight a uxiliary was

which

would

have

l ed

t o

r estudding and r eplacement of t he originals after only This unexpected result c an only b e explained by t he f act

t hat t he two persons d ifferent

ways.

i nvolved

i n

T he l egionary,

t he

e xperiment

p laced his heel down f irst whilst the auxiliary d ragged

m arched

i n

in s pite of his heavier l oading s eems

t o

have

his toes on occasions which c aused some part worn s tuds

t o be pulled out.

On s oft g round or unmetalled roads

t he

s tuds

would naturally have l asted l onger. W e

m ust

a cknowledge that the s cope of this e xperiment was

r ather narrow a s c omparative results boots

c an

hardly

b e

c onsidered

f rom

c onclusive.

g ives an average rate of wear of only before

t he

only

t en

s ole begins to s ustain damage.

d ays

o f

t he

p airs

For a ll t hat , r oad

o f i t

m arching

I t must be qualified

h ere t hat the wear takes p lace initially on the s ole

two

h eel,

t oe

and

f oot to a g reater extent t han the i nstep and that

1 00

t hese higher points require v irtually daily r eplacement. d ay a verage period i s therefore the o riginal

s tud would l ast.

t aking i nto a ccount r eplacement

o f

t he

t ime

f act

e quipment

t hat

f or

p articularly

i n

which

R oman

t he

t he

l ast

particularly

s oldiers,

i nvolved s toppages of pay.

w ear a lso highlights the l egionaries' s tuds

f or

This i s not a l ong t ime,

T he t en

t he

This high

g rievance over paying

f or

P annonian mutiny of A .D.14 and two

o ther r eferences made to calacarium endorse t he c laims

m ade

by

t he mutineers in P annonia: T acitus 6, mentions m oney', R ome.

a n a llowance c alled CLAVARIUM ,

which was c laimed by T he

t he

F lavian

o r

' nail

m arching

on

motivation f or the c laim was that the l ong march had

c aused unreasonable wear in mens' r eplaced

f orces

a gainst

boots

s toppages of pay.

which

c ould

only

b e

The f act that the a llowance

h ad a name s eems sufficient evidence f or i ts existence. S econdly, a bove, t o

s imilar a llowances,

a re mentioned by S uetonius.

possibly 7

t he

same

m arch r egularly f rom O stia or P uteoli to R ome,

m oney ', have

Vespasian ,

r equired

with his c ustomary dry

t hem

t o make the

a s

When the C lassiarii,

c laimed

humour,

i s

j ourney barefoot.

t he

who had ' boot

s aid

t o

According to

S uetonius they s till d id so in his day.

T HE MARCHES E ffects on the Wearers I n t emperatures of 7 0°F o r above,

a ll f our marchers

t ended

t o sweat profusely in their woolen c lothing but with one n otable e xception

g iven

b elow ,

t he

i nconvenience,

once

i nevitable became t olerable.

The c lothing however

r etain

a nd

dampness

d iscomfort l egionary

o vernight

was who

e xperienced

a

on

c ertain

t he

a ccepted a s d id

i nitial

f ollowing

t end

d egree of

m orning.

s teel l orica s uffered f rom

b outs of nausea and d izzyness after t hree t o f our hours W eight

l oss

a lso,

t emporary

b lindness

were

t he

a nd

O n

t his

d isorientation

were

e xperienced over a period of approximately 3 0 a dvice

o n

was e xcessive and during one particular 2 6

m ile march on a v ery hot day s even pounds o ccasion

T he

was obliged to undergo the additional i mposition

o f having the upper part of his body encased in a which p ermitted v ery l ittle a ir t o c irculate, m arch.

t o

s hed! s econds.

M edical

was s ought and we were informed t hat a f ar l arger i ntake

o f l iquid would be required t o counter d ehydration and t hat d isorientation ,

v ision

a ttributable

t o

s alt

a ttended

no f urther s ymptoms r ecurred.

t o,

f ailure d eficiency.

r elate t his s ituation to the i ssue R oman s oldiers.

a nd

n ausea

O nce o f

t hese

s alt

were

t he

d irectly

m atters

were

I t i s interesting to ( salaria)

t o

t he

I t would s eem probable that they understood that

1 01

i t

was an e ssential requirement f or maintaining a f ast marching

r ate quite apart f rom its m eat. o r

u ses

i n

f lavouring

a nd

preserving

We must a lso assume that e ach man e ither carried with him ,

had

i mmediately available,

l arge amounts of water. A lthough

t he s tomach should n ever be overloaded at l ong

m arch,

i ntervals.

s mall

amounts

I n our case,

n eed

t o

b e

b eginning

t aken

a t

o f

a

f requent

a f air approximation was half a p int per

hour which means that half a g allon c onsumed

t he

o f

water

d uring the course of a d ay's march.

p er

p erson

was

Urination o ccurred

s eldom if at a ll.

E ffects on the Equipment A lthough the c aligae came out rather h ighly

polished

m etal

o f

v isibly under the repeated drenching in l earned

t hat

a

t he

t he

i nitially

p erspiration .

W e

s oon

l iberal application of g rease would protect i t

f rom the worst effects of the corrosion . t o

well,

t he l orica and helmets deteriorated

s omewhat

Unfortunately this

u ncomfortable s ituation where arms, c oated

i n

t urn

a nd

l ed

f aces and

l egs s oon

became

u ltimately

c ustomary

t o exude an unpleasant odour compounded of grease and

s weat which d id nothing to endear u s to t he other t he

e nd

o f

t ainted.

t he day ,

i t

b ecame

m archers.

At

everything we ate and drank was s imilarly

I f we l earned nothing e lse f rom this,

we c an

a t

l east

b e c ertain that Roman t ravellers who encountered a m ilitary unit o n t he march would have passed t o windward! At

a n

e arly s tage in the t raining ,

c ertain l oosely attached

o f

e ither

o r

Whilst this can be endured over s hort d istances, i s

q uite

another

i llustrations of Marius' h istory books, h is

handle

m atter. f or s o

W e

l ong

F ree

hanging

i tems

t he

e nd

o f

s uch

a s

a c arrying pole,

c ertain ,

be more f irmly s ecured.

e ffects

on

f eature

o f

t he i n

would,

Q uite apart

d isposition of the s oldier.

f rom

by

we a re quite t he

a dverse

The banging of the

t he manner portrayed on Trajan's C olumn ,

t herefore

t aken into a ccount, B oth t he a gainst

t he

t he

r ight

c aused a

o f

t he equipment must be

l egionary and auxiliary swords t ended t o swing h ip

t o

a s well a s t he c arrying position . i n

a nd t high and to shift position constantly a s

t he march progressed. e ffect

d urability

f or t he

m etal hinge p in of 0 .931n d iameter on one of the c heekplates f racture,

2 5 t he

t he patera ,

s uspended

h elmet during our initial attempts to s uspend i t f rom the s houlder,

a

f eel s ure that the a

which i s u sually depicted a s being

f rom

o f one kind or

requires s ome r evision a s r egards the d isposal of

e quipment.

i nstance,

Mule,

p ropensities

r attled,

c lanked

m arch

i rritating

i t was noticeable t hat

e quipment

a nother. m ile

d eveloped

i tems

I n order

t o

c ounteract

t his

u npleasant

a nd prevent the n eed f or constant r eadjustment ,

1 02

t he belt

w as passed over both b aldric straps whereas

f ormerly

r ear s trap had been s ecured in this manner.

T he pommel,

h igh

up

u nder the r ight arm pit ,

I n the c ourse of t ime the

a ffected a reas became c alloused and hardened modifications

t o

t he

t he

s ituated

t ended to c hafe the bicep and

a t f irst this caused minor blistering. f urther

o nly

position

a nd o f

t herefore

t he

s word

n o

were

c onsidered necessary. The s uspension of the helmet on i nvestigation.

t he

r equired

s houlder

s ome

d ifficult and u ltimately c aused damage to the c heekpiece

h inge.

was

f rom

m arch

proved

i t

i t

t he

plates

M oreover

H anging

v ery d ifficult to unfasten with any degree of

u rgency a s would be required if a s udden a ttack d eveloped whilst o n t he march. was

Hanging the helmet by i ts t hong

i nitially

c omfortable,

a round

t he

n eck

but after half an hour or s o became

p ainful despite the protection of the s carf.

The solution

quite

s imply involved hanging it across the chest by passing the thong t hrough the horizontal chest s trap on the l orica. c ould

e asily

This operation

b e c arried out whilst at r est o r on the march and

t he helmet could be deployed with the s ame f acility. T he

c arrying

of

t he

s cutum

a lso

proved

d ifficult.

A

p ossible s olution has only now come under s erious consideration . T hough

we have no information r elevant to the arrangement

c arrying s trap or harness, e mployed. s topgap

f eel

s ure

o ne

must

have

b een

We therefore decided t o improvise a r easonably l ogical e xpedient

b earer.

we

o f a

which

u tilized

t he

hand

g rip a s t he l oad

The s cutum which we u sed was of a s tandard s ize.

That i s

t o s ay that i t conformed g enerally to the d imensions of the Dura s cutum and t hose of the shield covers f rom V indonissa.

A l eather

s trap was f astened t o both ends of the shield handgrip l oop

s o

f ormed

p laced over the r ight shoulder.

a nd

t he shield was c arried in a high port position on the l eft where

i t

s everely r estricted v ision in that d irection.

p osition interfered t herefore

opted

with

t he

movement

o f

t he

I n this manner

t he

l egs

s ide

A l ower a nd

we

f or the f irst choice a s the c arrying position .

T he carrying s trap was t ried in s everal d ifferent positions: 1 .

Locked

a round

t he

u nsatisfactory.

l eft

T he

s houlder

d ownward

p lates.

This

proved

pull of the s hield caused the

s trap t o j am progressively more t ightly under t he plates. t hereby

proved

a lmost

without a ssistance. s hield

t his

was

i mpossible

D espite the

t o

d rawback

I t

d isengage the shield i n

d eploying

t he

t he l east painful method attempted and our

s olution under c onsideration u ses this method a s

a

s tarting

point. 2 .

The

s trap a cross t he upper body and around t he r ight s ide of

t he n eck.

A d isaster!

A process of

s low

s trangulation

t ook

p lace. 3 .

R etention p late

o f

t he

( Epaulette)

c arrying

s trap

by t he projecting l orica

on the r ight shoulder.

1 03

This possibility was

s uggested by N icholas Fuentes and a ccordingly t ried over f irst

2 5

m iles

a t N ijmegen.

This method produced an e ffect

s imilar to t hat g iven in No.2 above. c ompressed

a nd

f orced

obvious d iscomfort, c ut

o ff

t o

u pwards

The r ight

s houlder

w as

a nd inwards. Apart f rom t he

breathing was r estricted and

c irculation

t he extent that towards t he f inal s tages o f the

march the r ight arm and shoulder u seless

t he

f or

a ny

were

c ompletely

p ractical purposes.

n umb

a nd

I t became e ssential t o

halt at more and more f requent intervals for r eadjustments t o be made.

I t was f ound l ater that the i nternal r ear

a lthough t hick,

m ade

o f

g ood

quality

c alf l eather about 0 .125in

had been r ipped and the r ivets and

t hem

t o

t he

l eathers,

washers

m etal plates were pulled f ree.

a ttaching

All this i n one

d ay's march of 2 5 miles. C onsequently a believe

t he

modus

weight

operandi

was

d eveloped,

f rom the l eft shoulder and are c urrently s imple

harness that s eems to work well,

c omment on it

h ence

we

o f the shield must be s uspended vertically

until

i t

has

been

e xperimenting

w ith

a

but we are r eluctant to

t ried

i n

t he

f ield.

O ur

e xperience shows that the shield cannot be carried by hand a lone o ver l ong d istances, c an

b e

a s

f urther that the wrong sort of carrying a id

p ainful

and e xhausting a s n o a id at a ll. A f urther

r eport on our progress will be published a s appropriate. I nsofar a s t he e quipment

l essons

a re concerned,

a brief mention .

An

l earnt

f rom

t he

f ourth

though of l ess s ignificance they m erit

a lmost

t otal

l ack

o f

a rmour

e xception of the helmet greatly f acilitated marching, f or

profuse

s weating

were

c arried

w ith

t he

and except

c aused by the woolen tunic and t rousers,

t he marches were comparatively enjoyable. s hields

c entury

T he l arge

r ound

f lat

a cross t he back by a s ingle l oop t hrough

t he handgrip passed over t he r ight or l eft shoulder a ccording to p reference.

By t he s imple process of bending the e lbow backwards

a gainst the projecting s ide of the shield and hooking the i nto

t he

b elt

o n

t he

t humb

appropriate s ide the s hield was e asily

s tabilised and no undue f atigue was experienced. I nitially the helmets and spathae T he

l atter

w as

s uspended

on

c aused

m inor

problems.

t he l eft s ide by a baldric over

w hich a waist belt was passed t o l ock i t i nto position , c hape

o f

b anging against t he wearer's shins. worn

o r

b ut

c arried

by hand.

T he helmet had e ither t o t ogether

t he helmet s uspended by t hem over t he hilt of t he sword. t he

weight

o f

3 0 d egrees

a nd

I n this

t he helmet counterbalanced that o f t he

s word and a s a r esult the s cabbard hung at an approximate o f

be

Eventually a n ingenious s olution was

a rrived at whereby t he helmet thongs were knotted m anner,

t he

t he s cabbard hanging a lmost v ertically downwards kept

f rom the v ertical,

t hereby keeping the offending chapes well out of the way.

1 04

a ngle

away f rom and behind t he l egs, I n t he

c ase of the two fourth century infantrymen were

u sed.

This

modern

s uede

t hat the reconstructed boots could not be broken in in ensure

that

blisters

point of fact, f airly

boots

c ompromise was forced upon us due to the fact t ime

to

were kept to an acceptably low l evel.

we believe that the boots which were worn bore

c lose resemblance of those of the actual period.

I n a

However

no tests could be carried out on these particular items as

t hey

would be i rrelevant.

NOTES 1 .

Vegetius Epitoma r ei militaris.

2 .

Members

taking

p art were David Atkinson ,

Morgan and Len Morgan.

Backup party

was

Steve Rogers, S tephany

Mark

Atkinson ,

E lizabeth Morgan and John Eagle. 3 .

List of equipment: l b

Legionary i st c entury A .D. Helmet

( cassis)

Body armour

I mperial Gallic

( Lorica Segmentata)

M ilitary belt

' H' Corbridge

( cingulum militare)

Dagger and scabbard

4 .4 ' B'

Cast plates

( Pugio et vagina)

1 8.959

kg 2 .0 8 .6

2 .64

1 .2

1 .54

0 .7

Fulham/Mainz pattern sword and s cabbard ( Gladius et vagina)

3 .52

1 .6

Boots

3 .3

1 .5

1 5.18

6 .9

Without l ead loading

2 .42

1 .1

C lothing and shield cover of canvas

3 .0

1 .3

( Caligae)

Shield

( Scutum)

Dura Europos s ize

( Pilum)

Hod Hill pattern.

Javelin

Total

5 4.959 l b

Auxiliary i st century A . D. Helmet

( cassis)

M ilitary belt

Coolus

Pompeii sword s cabbard Shield Boots

' C'

( cingulum militare)

( Clipeus)

Oval

Cast plates

( Gladius et vagina) type

( Caligae)

D agger and scabbard

( Pugio et vagina)

C lothing Total

2 4.9 kg

3 .52

1 .6

1 .10

0 .5

2 .86

1 .3

7 .49

3 .4

3 .3

1 .5

1 .54

0 .7

1 .5

0 .7

2 1.31

9 .7

No body armour was worn by the Auxiliary 4th century l imitaneus

( Frontier soldier)

1 05

lb

kg

Helmet

( cassis)

I ntercisa pattern

Sword,

s cabbard and baldric

2 .21

1 .0

vagina et balteus)

5 .72

2 .6

M ilitary belt.

0 .40

0 .2

S hield ,

( Spatha,

4 th century pattern

based on Dura Europos round/oval

pattern C lothing

( approx.)

Total

1 1.0

5 .0

2 .2

1 .0

2 1.52

8 .8

No body armour was worn by the Limitaneus. 4 .

GROENMAN-VAN WAATERINGE,

5 .

BOWMAN & THOMAS ,

6 .

Tacitus Histories

7 .

Suetonius Vespasian 8 ,3.

1 983,

1967.

No.15.

1 11,50.

B IBLIOGRAPHY BOWMAN

&

THOMAS 1 983:

A .K.

Latin Writing Tablets,

Bowman & J . Britannia

Thomas,

Vindolanda:

Monograph

S eries

the

No.4,

( London 1983) GROENMAN-VAN Romeins 2 ,

P ls.I

WAATERINGE

1 967:

W .

Groenman-van

l ederwerk u it Valkenburg Z .H.,

Waateringe,

Nederlandse Oudheden

( Groningen 1 967)

& I I The N ijmegen march - these photographs show the method

of

s uspension of helmet and other equipment

on t he march method

- this

i s

to be

i llustrated on Trajan's

1 07

c ontrasted Column

w ith

t he

APPENDIX:

THE ROMAN M ILITARY RESEARCH SOCIETY

I n 1 983 a small group of people came s ociety

t ogether

t o

f or practical experimentation w ith the arms,

e quipment of the R oman army. r ealisation

t hat

m any

The

R .M.R .S.

was

f orm

a

armour and

f ormed

i n

t he

g aps in our knowledge could be u sefully

a ddressed by practical experimentation . T he i tems

l ast three years

o f

R oman

have

a rmour

a nd

been

s pent

weapons,

i n

i n l ecturing at home and

a broad and in carrying out s imple basic t ests, c onjunction i nto

t he

w ith

marching

d urability ,

have

r econstructing t hese

o ften

i n

a llowed u s to g ain an i nsight

awkwardness

a nd

practicability

o f

r econstructions. Our

k it

n ow

encompasses

f igures f rom the l ate R epublican

a rmy t hrough to f ourth c entury soldiers o f the R oman army. a re the s ubject of our l ectures at home and

abroad

T hese

which

have

b een t ailored to s uit a ll l evels of interest. T he

s ociety

i s in t he main based i n Northampton and i t i s

here t hat we have had our greatest s uccess to date v isits.

W e

c an

a dd

c hildren are l earning about Roman B ritain knowledge

a dds

a

w ith

s chool

a u seful v isual a id for t eachers when the

u seful

a nd

o ur

s pecialised

t eaching tool to the l ocal education

r epertoire. We are a society whose policy, endorsed

by

our

c lose

A rchaeological S ociety N ijmegen.

We

have

a nd

a ims and enthusiasm

a ssociation D r.

w ith

H ubrecht

c ooperated

and

worked

o f

t he

Upper

t he

K am

r eturned

t o

H olland

a nd

be N ene

M useum

with the Guildhall

M useum in Northampton and in our l atest major v enture we

c an

i n

1 986,

G ermany f or another l ecture tour

which coincided with f estivals of the Emperor Trajan 's b irthday. We do not intend in the above s tatement about a ims

p olicy,

a nd e xperiments to m islead anyone i nto thinking we are the

only g roup r esearch. s ocieties

o r

s ociety

i nvolved

i n

t his

o f

l ine

o f

p ractical

T he s ociety f reely a cknowledges the existence o f other a nd

i ndividuals

both

h ere

a nd

s imilar experiments of a practical nature , i nform

o ur

o ur

e xistence

i n

a broad t his

i s

e ngaged in m erely

t o

a n attempt to f orge constructive

l inks with l ike m inded workers.

1 08

" THE E VOLUTION O F CERTAIN F EATURES" M .C.

" My

c lassification

i s

B ishop

b ased on what I r egard a s t he

e volution of c ertain f eatures t he s eries." R OBINSON , F or

b etter o r worse,

1 975,

t hat

r ecur

t hroughout

4 6.

the s tudy of Roman m ilitary equipment

i s inextricably l inked to typological considerations. o f a ssemblages a re a lmost i nvariably drawn s cheme of c lassification ,

i nto

however r udimentary ,

Catalogues

s ome

s ort

o f

s o t hat questions

a bout t he way in which typologies a re f ormed and t he objectivity w ith

which

u sed,

are a s f undamental to our understanding of t his particular

t his

i s

done,

a long with t he way t he r esults are

a rea of a rtefact s tudies a s t hey a re to any other. o f

t he

f irst

a pproach.

c entury

I n

d oing

s upplementary , s uggested, o f

purpose

t his p aper i s t o probe some of the ways in which typological

s tudies have influenced our present v iew of o f

T he

A .D.

s o ,

m ilitary

e quipment

and t o a ssess t he v alidity of t his

a lternative

( in

r ather t han r eplacement)

t he

s ense

o f

interpretations will be

but i t w ill be n ecessary t o begin with

t he

b riefest

t humbnail sketches of some of the main i ssues t hat have c ome

t o be a ssociated with typology.

T HEORY The t heory c onsiderable

o f

d epth

typology

t hat

p rinciples

i nvolved.'

who was

t ypology,

f or

t ypology i tems

r ecently

by s cholars of t he

i s t o t hem C larke,

has

w e

m ust

t urn

Most

f or

a rtefacts

( the d ivision into

a s c oming i nto,

with a nd

t ypes)

f ast

r ate of adoption ,

d ecline. b lurred,

3

r ' esume

i s

o f

t he

i n

and i t basic

amongst t hese was D avid t he

c lassification

s ocieties.

and going out of,

a t ypical pattern i s t hat known a s

e xplored

' new a rchaeology' a

prominent

l argely concerned both

b een

of

D istinct f rom

2

s eriation ,

which

s ees

f ashion i n a known way;

' lenticular',

a period of maximum u se,

which

has

a

and t hen a l ong

T he d ifference between typology and s eriation i s often

b ut s eriation demands good dating evidence t o

c onvincing.

m ake

i t

4

A rtefacts ' attributes'

n umber

o f

- perhaps t he u se of a c ertain decorative motif

c an

be

d efined

i n

t erms

o f

a

o r

a p articular d imension - and i t i s t he c ombination of t hese that s erve t o c haracterise artefacts. 5 There a re a lso d ifferent kinds o f attribute: t he

i tem

( was

there a re t hose a ssociated with t he manufacture of i t c ast o r wrought?)

1 09

and t hose t hat c ome f rom the

way in which the object d ecoration

i s

was

u sed

( swords

a esthetically pleasing).

have

s harp

However ,

6

t o deciding which attributes are t o be u sed to f orm a t he

problems

b egin;

a ttributes which p robably ( e.g.

w ill

be

of

have sharp e dges), attributes

s ubjectivity into t he R obinson ,

a s

we

t ypology,

there will inevitably be a l arge number of l ittle

which

process

s aw

i n

a ssistance

( all

s words

so u seful a ttributes must be c hosen

t he shape of the sword blade)

' important'

e dges,

when i t c omes

and i t

i s

t hat

i ntroduces o f

t he

f orming

a n a

c hoice

of

e lement

t ypology.

of Thus

7

quotation at t he beginning, was

b asing his typology on what he regarded

a s

c ertain f eatures" common to a ll helmets;

t his of c ourse begs the

q uestion

o f

whether

b eing of importance.

a

t hat

e volution

o f

R oman would have s een s uch f eatures a s

8

C larke s aw t hat the best the m inimise

" the

s ubjective

c ompletely eradicate i t.

9

a rchaeologist

c omponent,

b ut

c ould

d o

was

i t i s i mpossible to

The question o f whether s uch

a

t hing

a s a ' natural'

typology c an exist has been widely d ebated 1 ° but,

i n

t his

the

end,

m ay not be the most productive approach and

e ventually we shall have to

c onsider

w hy

what

we

r egard

a s

t ypologies originated in t he f irst instance. There i s one f orm of typology that a pproaches our objective i deal and that i s one which we c an c all t he f unctional typology, which o f

d epends upon practical attributes n ot r elated to the whim

the

m anufacturer.

G roller's C arnuntum . a long

S uch

t ypologies

c lassification

of l orica

This was f ounded

1 1

upon

t he e dges of these objects,

a re

t ypified

s quamata

t he

a rrangement

n ine

c ategories 12

and,

l argely

v olume of evidence available to him , a ny

s ubsequent

d iscovered

c lassifications,

v on f rom

o f

holes

which were in t urn determined

by t he way in which the s cales were attached to e ach d efined

by

s cales

o ther.

H e

because of t he sheer

he s ucceeded i n pre-empting

s ince

n early

s ince have adhered to his s cheme.

1 3

a ll

s cales

N evertheless,

i t

s hould be s tressed t hat this i s purely c oincidental and that von G rolier a t no stage s et out to produce a ' universal'

typology of

s cales. U lbert's c lassification of g ladius t ypes 14 f unctional typology , P ompeii

t ypes

r elated t o t he i s

l argely

f orms, f rom

o f

with i ts d istinction between t he Mainz s word.

s peculation a t t he moment. f act

t hat

p articular blades.

and

I t i s a d ifference which may well be

f unction of the r espective blades,

on t he other hand, t he

i s e ssentially a

i s

c ertainly

a lthough

t his

T he wide r ange of s heath n ot

f unctional,

a part

t hey have to be t he r ight s hape f or t heir

1 5

S cott's e xamination of spearheads 16 t he f unctional approach,

i s another

e xample

of

a lthough t his e xample i s by no m eans a s

1 10

s traightforward

a s

t he

others.

c ertain types of shafted weapon l ancea)

and

I t

i s

c lear that there were

( notably

t he p ilum ,

b ut f inding a meaningful way of defining blade e lements

a re

p roblematical. s pearhead

s ignificant

i n

s hape

a nd

t hen

t he

however,

a esthetic

w ith

R obinson and i t must be i nherently

wrong,

t o

what i s

d escribe

particularly productive.

k ind,

a p articular s et of attributes, c hanged

and

analysed the r esults by computer;

t ime.

t he

was

upon

1 8

1 9

what

we

a rt-historical

s uch a s the arrangement of

or t he 2°

past

b ased

c onsiderations of f orm or decoration , a ttribute

a nd

d istinctions

t echniques

T he c ommonest f orm of typology i n t erm

s hape

f orming

D ensem u sed numerical

1 7

t his approach was not,

m ight

hasta,

t hat these could be d istinguished by t heir blades,

way

i n

which

a

g iven

T his was t he kind practised by

s tressed

t hat

t his

a pproach

i s

n ot

but i ts u se does r epay c loser examination and

we s hall l ook at s ome relevant examples in the n ext s ection . B ehind any attempt at typology , d etect

t he influence of a model:

a rtefacts s hould c ertain

b iases

s hare a re

s ubsequent analysis.

i t i s s eldom

a ttributes

i mplicit

d ifficult

t o

t he idea t hat an a ssemblage of

i n

i n

c ommon

both

On the one hand,

t he

c an

mean

typology

t hat

and i ts

we may s ay t hat there

a re

o nly s o many ways to f asten s cales together on a l orica s quamata s hirt,

o r t hat there i s a f inite r ange of spear s hapes t hat a re

u seful f or the tasks r equired of them ,

but to e xpect

a ttributes to behave in a certain way ,

e specially when spatially

r emote,

i s

d ecorative

t o presuppose a particular kind of s ystem producing

t hem - a lmost invariably a c entralised one.

2 1

However,

p repared to accept t hat this i s a prerequisite to the o f

a typology and a cknowledge i t a s s uch,

i f we a re f ormation

then i t n eed not be a

p roblem . O ne f inal idea r emains a nd

t hat i s t he

t o be considered

' mental template'.

2 2

i n

W ith t his,

t his

t he c raftsman carries within his head an i deal of object

whilst

what i t i s, e xact m ind,

2 3

of that i deal:

b ut

n ot

an

i deal

i n

t heir f inished products will only v ary a ccording to

s ubconscious; o thers

f inished

e ssentially t he P latonic notion of

I f a ll c raftsmen are working with the s ame

t hen

t heir p articular f oibles and o f

his

human n ature being

that f inished product i s an imitation ,

m atch,

m imesis.

he i s working on i t and that ,

s ection ,

we s uppose t hat

p references,

both

c onscious

a nd

but i f s ome are working with the f inished products

a s t heir i deal,

t hen they will not only be unable t o

m atch i t e xactly when t hey copy i t,

but will introduce their own

p ersonal e lement i nto i t;

( Fig.1).

and so on

1 11

MENTAL T EMPLATE

ARTEFACT 1

-

MENTAL

MENTAL

T EMPLATE

T EMPLATE

ARTEFACT

A

f r A c t ,

Fig.1:

The mental template and

t he

spread

of

i deas

amongst

military craftsmen

EXAMPLES OF PREVIOUS TYPOLOGIES At

t his

point

i t

will

be useful to examine a number of

typologies of Roman military equipment, c an

t ell

not only f or

u s about the artefacts in each case,

i nformation they contain

about

t he

way

in

what

t hey

but a lso f or the which

they

were

c onstructed. H .

Russell

Robinson's survey of Roman armour 24

contains a

n umber of typologies of d ifferent pieces of equipment, amongst

which

was

his

l engthy

s ection

on

t echnique he used i s most c learly demonstrated in I mperial-Gallic d ated pieces

helmets:

he

the

2 5

c ase

The of

t ook a number of archaeologically

and then proceeded to

and it i s here that the

f oremost

helmets.

l inbetween'

2 6

the

r emainder,

" evolution of certain f eatures" was used

t o determine the place of any one helmet within the structure of t he typology. n o

2 7

s ufficiently

Robinson i s

I n the case of l obate cuirass hinges 28 f ine

c hronological

t here are

f ixed points available,

so

forced to use traditional art-historical criteria to

i llustrate a supposed deterioration from e laborate, hinges to extremely crude and inelegant e xamples.

1 12

2 9

f inely made, The

d ating

evidence

f or

these

hinges,

however,

l east,

and s ince most of the hinges

small

span

of

t ime,

t he

i s ambiguous to s ay the

in question belong within

' typology'

c an

i nverted to show a progression f rom crude e laborate

a

quite plausibly be

hinges

t o

t he

more

3 0

That

being

s aid,

there

R obinson did i solate genuine e quipment,

but

i t

i s

i s

no

t rends

d isputing within

the f act that

various

kinds

of

t he interpretation of these trends with

which we are primarily concerned. A .

Böhme

harness

published

t hat

a lmost

bears

s olely

Ih erzblattförmig .

forms.

n umbers

of

t he

o r

b ird-headed

This

f or

s equence

typology

i t.

The

On

the

of

shape,

pendants,

There

3 2

f or,

horse

f rom

a s

i s

with

t he

t hrough ovoid, i gnores

t he

found in military contexts,

typology

s equence of development,

f rom

Böhme's approach i s based

3 1

a rchaeological dating information i s t o support

pendants

completely

l ess c ommon types.

the

of

evolution

l unate pendants

a s many of the basis

typology

c onsideration.

upon

' trifid'

a

n o

to

l arge as well

c hronological

l obate

hinges,

t he

insufficiently well-defined

appears

t o

present

a

l ogical

but in f act this i s an i llusion.

more positive s ide,

Lawson has produced a typology

that does not purport to show a logical progression of any kind, but merely classifies the range of available types of pendant. A s imilar approach was Witteveen

i n

N etherlands, dated,

as

their

adopted

by

Z adoks-Josephus

c atalogue

of

l unate

commenting that

3 4

" they

be

path

t o

pursue,

' development',

i f

t hat i s what it i s,

c hronological,

and not spatial,

upon

we

whether

helmet designs, ( in

c hose

t o

o ther

words,

d ifferent

a s

t emplate).

Although we may

command was

we

have

s ee n

t he

i dea

that

the

Again,

this

d epends

over

units'

in

t he

t ime

helmets f rom

and

over

will show a

c ommon

d iscussion of the mental

j ust be able to accept that a central

shape

f rom on high;

the

even if taken

controlling helmet shape

t hat

a

a central authority dictating

progression

c orrespondingly d iffering trends, original,

f ace of it,

i s genuinely a result of

s eparation.

s ee

or a n atural

3 5

t here are dangers inherent in the

a ssumptions that have to be made - such as

d ictated

the

typologically

Whilst the method used by Robinson i s, on the

u nlikely

f rom

t hey show v ariation but no definite development".

r easonable

space

and

pendants

c annot

3 3

J itta

of

there

( and decoration?),

l obate must

be

c uirass hinges another,

more

3 6

i t

i s

should be l ogical,

e xplanation. Two

o f

Robinson's dated Imperial-Gallic helmets came f rom

t he Sheepen s ite t raditional

at

C olchester 37

e xplanation

that

and

R obinson

f ollowed

the

t hese entered the archaeological

1 13

record as a

d irect

equipment in the S heepen

was

result

o f

colonists

hurriedly

f ace of the Boudican rebellion.

probably

a

Roman

m ilitary s ite 39

and that these

helmet f ragments need not be associated with the m ight be earlier i s of l ittle help e ither way, the difficulties Any

producing

The f act that

3 8

r ebellion

and

but does point up

inherent in archaeological dating evidence.

attempt

at

s eriation

o r

the

f ormation



of

c hronologically-based typology i s dependent upon the quality our

d ating

evidence.

I n the

periods of Roman history , m ight

u sefully

f irst century A .D.,

we are subject to

be termed chronological

a

occupation

( in f act,

phenomenon

' clustering';

of

s ites

i n

A .D.40 45 42

the

Voralpenland

Mainz),

s ubsequent Batavian V indonissa,

t he

these changes, in

t o

A . D.101.

' events':

( Bregenz,

r evolt

events

in

as well a s the Thus,

and all

a f ew categories.

o f

A . D.68-71.

contents of the

45

inconsistent

the

43

be

a t the end of a phase of the

The f irst

abandonment

Kempten ,

Salzburg)

and movements that f ollowed the invasion of

( Vindonissa,

that

this i s a

at the moment of abandonment 41 ) .

c entury i s marked by a s eries of such

o f

as with other

r esult of the way in which Roman military equipment came deposited in the archaeological record,

a

the

c ivil I n

44

' Schutthügel'

in

B ritain war

the

and

c ase

of

probably reflect

f inal abandonment of that fortress

our

c hronological

i nformation

i s

f inds are bound to f all within one of only

Quite s imply,

there

i s

l ittle

basis

f or

a

c hronological typology. One work

of the prime requirements

i s

t hat

development,

t here but

s hould

for d ecorative typologies to some

t he mechanisms

in the ancient world. army,

be

and

manufacture

S allustius Lucullus, equipment

are

of

empire-wide

There was no central command in the

other than the emperor himself,

design

s ort

for this clearly did not exist

4 7

were

t raditionally a ssumed.

t o

be

f ar

R oman

and matters of equipment

c learly a l egionary

an army-group)

bound

46

concern, more

With these thoughts

( or,

so trends

parochial in mind,

a s with within t han

i t

i s

i s now

t ime to consider some new typologies.

SOME NEW TYPOLOGIES OF MILITARY EQUIPMENT As

has

a rchaeologists pointed

out,

been i s

pointed out,

i t i s possible

s ubjective element, e lusive.

There are,

variations

( indeed desirable)

but true

f unctional typology, t he

objectivity

however ,

typologies

As

C larke

has

to minimise

t his

n evertheless

r emains

different s pecies of typology:

where l ogical explanations are evident

embodied

within

typologies where such reasons ' valid'

the production of typologies by

e ssentially a s ubjective task.

-

in

a rtefacts,

or

can be suggested might

other 1 14

words,

the f or

d ecorative be

t ermed

a ssemblages where the

5

Fig.2:

Types of phalera .f astening

1 15

process of taxonomy i s g enuine

phenomenon.

s eek to do t he

worthwhile ' Invalid'

s ame,

b ut

t o

d istinguish

a

s purious

i s

a

on t he other hand,

g rounds;

p attern within i ts b ehaviour.

any s ense of the word,

d efining i f

a

g iven

then there i s l ittle point in t rying

t hat are u sed here a s e xamples are not,

1 .

i t

typologies,

on

a ttribute varies at random ,

because

The typologies

t herefore,

definitive in

but merely i llustrative of t he process.

' Valid Typologies' I n t his investigation

o f

v alid

t ypologies,

i t

w ill

be

u seful to begin with a s imple example of t he f unctional typology t hat i s i ndependent of any decorative criteria. a )

P halera Fastenings The

r ecent

c entury

d etailed

c avalry

knowledge

o f

publication

e quipment

has

e xtended

t ook

t he f orm of either a r ing or a phalera. 49

Whilst

d iscs

d ecorative s chemes,

s trap

C rucial to which

t hese

t he

o ur

j unction ,

t he f ront f aces of e laborate

two hoards of f irst

t he workings of Roman horse harness. 48

t he f unctioning of the harness was n ormally

o f

c onsiderably

c ould

c ontain

a

v ariety

o f

the s uspension system at t he rear

a lways had to conform to i ts f unctional r equirements. S mall phalerae might u se only a s imple f lat t hem

onto

ones had, c ould

t he

l eather

in addition ,

be

a ttached

s trapping

( Fig .2,1).

( Fig.2,3).

Another

( Fig.2,2).

Even

5 1

l arger

t ype

i ncorporate

e ither

The arrangement of i s

p endant

e xamples

a lso

j unction-loops

were

t rue

t hree

s trap

t hese

j unctions.

( Fig .2,4)

d ifferent

or f our

T hese

( Fig.2,5)

5 3

t ypes

o f

l oops

and

r elated to t he role played by t he phalera within the

harness.

That i s why i t i s a f unctional t ypology

t o

d ecorative

any

T he next l arger

of phalera does not u se f lat l oops t o attach

l oops t o which j unction-loops are attached.

hinges

hold

5 2

t hem to s traps because t hese are u sually

t o

a hinge at the bottom to which a

i ncorporated two l oops a t the top to which f astened



l oop

t ypologies

which

a nd

u nrelated

m ay also apply t o one of

t hese objects. b )

B elt plates There are two d ifferent,

d istinctions p lates. p lates

t hat

F irst, s eem

motif-embossed, i s

a

d egree

b ut

not

u nrelated,

t here are three broad categories i nto t o

f it:

t hese

c omprise

and roundel-embossed plates of

t ypological

c an be made in the c ase of pre-Antonine belt

o verlap

t he

which

a ll

n iello-inlaid,

( Fig.3,1-3).

T here

amongst these c lasses which makes

1 16

i t

1& " r i i e s 5 l i 1

2

r e

. , . el

3

r trr rr-re-r-r A il o

r

0

tr ,

1 11 1tAilA1 . 4

4

5

6

F ig.3:

B elt plates

7

( scale 1 :2)

[

£f l atY M ,• ,: f .Y .t .Y .T .Y

i e

X

$f Pf tP

* \

0 . - ( -b i

W I OHO

Pe )g

2

6

0

. 49C 4 '4 . *. 1 01 , *4 •1 . '1 :

3

4

7

8

i '

X xxxxxx.o

X b ,

9

' X X XX X

1

1 0

1 2 e n b

Fig.4:

' St.Andrew 's C ross'

1 17

belt p lates

( scale 1 :2)

d esirable t o go

f urther

a nd

break

o ne

e xample

d own

e ach

of

t hem

i nto

s ub-groups. T aking d iscussion ,

j ust

the n iello-inlaid belt plates include a s eries

a v arying number of t hat

' St.

Andrew 's c ross'

w ithin the s ub-group with two

a re even more s ub-types c )

f or t he purposes of the present motifs

' St. Andrew 's c rosses'

( Fig.4,1-12).

with

( Fig.3,4-7),

and

there

5 4

P endants The l unula

p endant o rigin

types o f

f unction

( Fig.5,1) was one of the e arliest and

horse d efines

was harness s ome

d ecoration.

o ther

i ncorporating a prominent b ird-headed s ymbolism

R omano-Celtic

probably connected with the apotropaic t ypes

phallic

5 5

T his

s uperstitious

o f pendant,

motif

s uch a s t hose

( Fig.5,2),

5 6

or

t he

p endants with their possible connection with C eltic

( birds being l inked with

C eltic

Mars

-

F ig.5,3).

5 7

L ater pendants i ncorporated decoration a ssociated with f ertility p rimarily v iticulture or the a corn pun on g lans

-

n evertheless

betrays

e xamined closely

F ig.5,4).

5 8

This

( and its v isual and v erbal

l atter ,

s ophisticated

f orm

i ts origin in the humble l unula when i t i s

( Fig.6).

5 9

2

4

3

Fig.5:

P endants

1 18

( scale 1 :2)

7

\

2

/ 7

fr1

1

2 F ig.6:

T he r elationship between l unula and t rifid pendants

1 19

2 .

' Invalid Typologies°

' Lorica s egmentata'

f ittings

T o be able to f ollow Robinson

i n

s equence amongst c uirass f ittings t hem

a s a ' valid typology'),

m echanism

whereby

s imilarity

t o

t hey

e ach

c entral authority m anufacturers

a

typological

to categorise

we need to be able to describe the

a chieved

other.

d ictate

d efining

( in other words, t heir

T here s uch

i s

v arious

v ariations

o f the objects themselves,

of purely decorative items s uch a s

d egrees

i n

s hape

t o

o f

c raftsmen

l obate hinges. An a lternative

c oncerned.

s ome

o f these objects,

t o

Whatever the r easons,

c ertainly possible to i solate attributes t hat c lassify

t he

e specially in t he case

approach i s t o a scribe variations in shape or crudeness a bilities

of

l ittle s ense in having a

c an

be

t he i t i s

u sed

t o

at the s ame time a s exercising

c aution with others. a )

Lobate hinges I t would s eem that the f orm of the l obes and the

o f these objects c annot be u sed to c lassify t hem ; c ut

f rom

a

double thickness sheet of c opper a lloy

85 /1 5 brass 6 ° ), d ue

t o

t he

( Fig.7,1-9).

( usually an

s o variations in s uch attributes may

s kill

and

Likewise,

e xperience

s houlders

they had t o be b e

s olely

of t he craftsman concerned

the presence o r absence of s tamped

r ings

a round t he r ivet holes does not appear to be very u seful i n this r espect

( Fig.7,5

s houlders

o f

d ifficult

t o

However, and

&

1 1).

The t riangular openings between the

6 1

t hese

h inges may be s ignificant, but i t i s Fig.7,10-15) . 62 s ay in what way this might be so (

there i s d efinitely a distinction between

t hose

f rom Carnuntum

,13-15), ( Fig. 7

most

hinges

particularly in overall

obes. s ize and the pointed nature of the l b )

H inged stran Again ,

but

l itt

f l 1c

these f orm a f airly homogeneous g roup by and

t here s eems t o be a d efinite D anubian s tyle s imilar t o that

hinted at i n t he l obate hinges. f atter

t han

t hose

may be one type

F ittings

( Fig.8,1-4),

another

f rom

f orm

( Fig.8,5-7). S trasbourg

d ecorative r ings and t he roundness o r c ommon varieties

a re

l arger

( Fig.8,9-16)

T here

s quareness

o f

T he more c ommon r ectangular f orms

f rom t he Rhineland and B ritain , ( Fig.9,5-8).

Other,

l obate m ore

b e

Again ,

t he

more

once again possibly

r eflecting a d ifference between Rhineland and D anube

e xamples which have a

m ay

( Fig.8,8).

do not appear to be d iagnostic.

H inged buckle f ittings Two main t ypes may be d iscerned here,

e quipment.

and

whilst e xamples with t he suggestion

another

u nusual

t hat

c ommonly f ound in t he Rhineland and B ritain

o f a l obate o rigin may be

c )

l arge,

a rmy-group

( Fig.9,1-4),

again

d iffer notably f rom the D anubian p late

m inor,

1 20

a ttached

t o

t he

c uirass

variations s uch a s decorative

1 5

1 4

1 3

1 2

1

1 0

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

MCb

Fig.7:

' Lorica s egmentata'

l obate hinges

( scale 1 :2)

0

3

2

5

7

6

4

8

0 9

1

1 0

1 2

, C *0 C D@ 1 1 3

F ig.8:

1 5

1 4

' Lorica s egmentata' hinged strap f ittings

1 21

1 6

( scale 1 :2)

0

5

Fig.9:

2

3

4

6

7

8

' Lorica s egmentata' hinged buckle f ittings

r ings and the rounding of corners are

p robably

( scale 1 :2)

o nce

a gain

o f

l ittle i mportance. d ) Cuirass t ie-hooks A

v ariety

o f

f orms

a re f ound,

s traight ( or s lightly

t apered)

( Fig.10,1-4),

g roup

b ut

a

a gain) have a r emarkable bottle;

t hey

a lso

p late

f rom

' waisted' have

t he most c ommon being the w ith

r ounded

t he D anube

f orm s imilar t o

v ery

g ently

s houlders

( mainly C arnuntum a

C oca-Cola

s loping

s houlders

( Fig. 1 0,5-8).

2

3

0 5

6

4

r

)

C ° 0

7

8 m cb

Fig.10:

' Lorica s egmentata'

t ie hooks

( scale 1 :2)

TYPOLOGICAL STUDIES AND THEIR USES The embossed belt plates mentioned . above are one example of t he way

i n

which

t hese

t ypologies 1 22

m ay

be

o f

u se

t o

u s.

E xamination

of

a

d istribution

f ound in U pper Germany , G ermany

( Fig.11).

f airly

w ell

V indonissa

map s hows that they are mainly

with a f ew outliers in Britain and Lower

T he dating of these particular belt plates

known ,

( c.A .D.45

i s

g iven t heir presence in the S chutthügel at -

a bandonment

o f l egio

XIII

G emina),

6 3

a ssociated with t he end o f P hase I a a t Valkenburg ( c.A.D. 4 0/1)64, and ( less c ertainly), the abandonment of R ißtissen and O berstimm

i n

A .D.69 65

and of the s outh-western f orts of Waddon

a nd Hod H ill at some point between A .D.55 and 7 5.

6 6

2-5

2 -5



0

Fig.11:

1 00

2 00

3 00

47 0

Km

T he d istribution of embossed belt plates

By f ar t he most interesting characteristic of these i s

t heir g eographical spread:

a nd i t was a l egion f rom that army-group i nvolved

i n

t he

( II Augusta)

i nvasion of B ritain

a s a s tarting point , t he

way

t o

a pparently d ate 68 w ith

only

6 7

The

B ritain ,

Upper

with

preparations

f or

a s an intermediate s tage on

f act

t hat

t hese

p lates

a re

a t s ites with a pre-Boudican f oundation

may indicate that they enjoyed t he

was

( either because Gaius planned t o u se i t

or more l ikely ,

Boulogne). f ound

t hat

s outh-western c ampaigns in Britain; moreover ,

Valkenburg has been d irectly a ssociated t he

p lates

most are known f rom Upper G ermany

a

d egree

o f

popularity

G erman t roops s ome t ime before t he invasion of

but that t heir popularity was waning by the t ime of the

c onquest and they e ventually d isappeared. Amongst the many types of pendant,

one of the most s triking

i s t he bird-headed and particularly t he l arger a re

v ery

s tylised

d istinctive, b eaks

a nd

with their l ooped

e yes

( Fig.12).

1 23

s pecimens.

T hey

' feathered' heads with

Once

again ,

s tudying

a

I neb

Fig.12: A l arge 1 :2)

' bird-headed'

p endant f rom C irencester ( scale

F ig.13: The d istribution of f igured Thracian c avalry and

' bird-headed'

pendants in B ritain

1 24

t ombstones

d istribution e specially

map i n

d istribution

hints

a t

c onnection o f

t he

s ome

with

i nteresting

B ritain.

c onclusions,

C omparison

o f

f ew s amples known f rom this province with

t hat of e arly tombstones a ssociated with Thracian units a

c ertain

d egree of coincidence in the pattern

a re f ar t oo f ew e xamples of e ither a llow

a nything

c oncrete,

but

p endants

r eveals

( Fig.13).

o r

There

t ombstones

t o

we might s ee this a s a possible

i ndication of ethnic specificity amongst t he Thracian c avalry.

t he

a uxiliary

6 9

T his

i s

a ll

v ery

f orward here may even w arnings

t hat

must

s ample,

even f or

s eldom

l arge

i nterpretations f or

p erception

be

enough

and

Next,

r e-emphasised. c ommon

a s was

a re

F irst ,

i tems

admitted

i nterpret o f

a lternative s uggestions i nterpretation

t here

l ike Robinson 's,

t o

u se

but

a

number

o f

t he s ize of our

l ike

p endants,

i s

t o f orm a statistically v iable s ample and

a re, u se

and some of t he s uppositions put

t rue,

r elatively

a re t hus s uspect. s elected

w ell,

be

t he

m ilitary and

e arlier, f irst

present

c entury

e quipment.

not

t he

dependent upon the model T hus

r eplacements:

army's

t hese

t he

a re

objective

o f typological data r emains e lusive f or t he time

b eing.

F UTURE WORK S pecificity - r elating certain variants of a g iven p iece of e quipment t o certain units - would d eserves

f urther

r esearch.

b est t o t reat i t a s t he

c orpus i t

of known

c an

be

d etritus,

l egions, when

e pigraphic kind,

a s i t must do in t he

c ould

be

m ore

d efinite

i s l acking.

' masters'

f rom

possibly even

t heir

e vidence,

i ntelligence'. s tructure

o f an

w ith

m aterial

e specially the

I t

hopefully ,

m ight

be

of t he

possible

r eveals t he

t o

working in a particular s tyle at a particular

i n

t he

f ield

o f

t ypological

by

' artificial

may

b e

E ven

most

c ursory

t he

' expert s ystem ',

7 0

p resented

t axonomy

e xamination

o f

t he

a program t hat makes decisions

( or l ogical deductions) based upon the information a re present.

the

S uch a t ool would profoundly affect

An interesting development a nd

a s

f uture.

however ,

a s c an be done with S amian ware to a c ertain extent.

s tudies

i t,

t hat

m ind

f orseeable

army-groups,

t raced

w ay i n which i ts c raftsmen thought. i solate

i dea

i t i s probably

t o be a g enuine phenomenon ,

o ur understanding of the army's movements and,

t ime,

an

( and published) military equipment of this

s hown

e ven

be

More r ealistically ,

p ossibilities are e xtremely e xciting: p articular

t o

j ust one possibility to be kept in

p eriod g rows s teadily , I f

s eem

s upplied

t o

t hat t he e ssential e lements f or f orming a typology 7 1

P ast types could be f ed into t he

r ules

t hat

d efine

t he type-groups,

1 25

machine,

a long

and the machine

would

then

t heoretically

automatically.

Although

dependent upon the object,

be

able

t o

c lassify

n ew

i tems

d ata-entry i s c lumsy at the moment and

entry

of

a

d igitised

d escription

of

the development of artificial s ensing devices and shape

recognition

are

f undamental

t o

c urrent

work

i n

artificial

i ntelligence and are directly relevant to such a proposa1. Whilst this necessary

intervention, t hem

i t

on

analyses

may

prove

without

t o

t he

data,

be

ability to define rules

Even with the not

C larke said 74 in

a

n eed

u seful

f or

a id

t hem

f or

t he

a s appropriate.

The

of

7 3

artificial

i ntelligence,

i t

will

possible to achieve the ultimate objectivity.

" the real basis of objectivity i s to be

narrowly

human

in this way can only benefit typological

a id

be

a

the

f or his own typologies and

modifying

work on Roman military equipment.

probably

7 2

i s unlikely to l ead to computers performing all

typological

archaeologist to use to draw up rules t est

an

a rbitrary

c onfined and defined manner" and that i s s urely

the best we can hope for.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am

extremely

Coulston,

and

my

g rateful w ife,

t o

Martha

L indsay Andrews,

commented upon earlier drafts of this u sually

a cted

upon their advice,

Allason-Jones, who

p aper.

a ll

r ead

A lthough

I

Jon and have

they should in no way be held

responsible for the contents.

NOTES 1 .

A thumbnail sketch can be found in GREENE, 1 00-3;

t he process of

SMITH, 2 . 3 .

1976,

CLARKE, I bid. death,

2 05-13.

1983,

' building a typology'

3 2-4

and

i s outlined in

S ee also DORAN & HODSON ,

1975,

1 61-7.

1 978.

1 51-2.

CLARKE

l ikened this to

calling i t the

4 .

Cf.

i bid.

5 .

I bid.

1 53-4.

6 .

Ibid.

1 53.

7 .

Ibid.

1 55.

b irth,

m aturity ,

" ontogeny of t he entity"

Fig.47.

1 26

( ibid.

and 1 80).

8 .

We

may

l egitimately

evolution

of

wonder,

' eyebrows'

( ROBINSON ,

1 975,

phenomenon.

Would a Roman

4 6

f or

on

i nstance,

whether the

I mperial-Gallic

F igs.52-61)

i s

c raftsman

helmets

a real or perceived have

been

aware

of

this? 9 .

CLARKE,

1978,

1 0.

H ILL & EVANS,

1 1.

R LÖ I I,

1 2.

I bid.

1 3.

A

1 54. 1 972.

86.

Taf.XV ,I-IX.

s cale

f rom

ST.JOSEPH,

1974,

whilst some Fig.7)

i st

c entury

Fig.27,35)

A .D.

i s of

Longthorpe

von

f rom early 3 rd century A .D.

are of Type

( FRERE

Groller's Carpow

Type

( WILD ,

& V ,

1981,

IV.

1 4.

ULBERT,

1969a.

1 5.

A classified catalogue of sheaths & HARTMANN ,

1 984,

40-3.

i s presented in ETTLINGER

I am grateful to Prof.

W . H.

Manning

f or bringing this paper to my attention. 1 6.

SCOTT,

1980.

1 7.

Terms

l ike

' leaf-shaped'

are unhelpful,

s ince leaves are

f ound in an extraordinary variety of shapes. metaphor

c an

' pinnate'

or

be

The

pursued,

however ,

and

t erms

' lanceolate'

adopted,

but

s ome

botanical s uch s ort

numerical description s eems unavoidable - s ee BARKER , 1 8.

DENSEM ,

1976.

1 9.

ORTON,

1 980,

5 4-62

provides

a s of

1975.

a useful review of the main

r esults. 2 0.

C f.

GREENE,

2 1.

Consider

1 983,

Fig.13.

' lorica segmentata'

s imilar,

l obate hinges:

but f ew excavated examples

- why? The processes governing

t he

t hey

( if any)

a re

a ll

are identical

invention ,

r etention ,

and d issimulation of even s uch a s imple object as this hint at

a

d egree of a complexity about which the archaeologist

can only begin to guess. 2 2.

CLARKE,

1978,

Chapman's

1 53 with

c omments

this approach a s

on

F ig.48;

cf.

ibid.

2 02-3

n .1

f or

the description by Hill & Evans of

' empiricist'.

1 27

2 3.

Republic X ,1.

2 4.

ROBINSON ,

2 5.

Ibid.

2 6.

1975.

Part 1 ,

1 1-144.

A term used in with

two

produce the f irst

computer

d issimilar

animation

images,

t echniques:

t he

c omputer

l inking s equence of frames

into

t he

s econd,

t hus

t hat

presented

proceeds converts

t o the

providing smooth animation

without the necessity to redraw each f rame manually. 2 7.

ROBINSON ,

1975,

2 8.

Ibid.

Fig.182.

2 9.

Ibid.

181-2.

3 0.

The wide range of shapes difficulties

46.

f rom any one

inherent

here,

f rom t he Corbridge Hoard underline this 3 1. 3 2.

A .

and

( report

s ite

hints

a t

the

t he range on the armour f orthcoming)

s erves

t o

impression.

Böhme in SCHÖNBERGER ,

Other

types

these

c onstitute

include a

1978,

Abb.73.

l unulae, not

teardrop ,

inconsiderable

phallic

f orms and

proportion

of

pendants r ecovered f rom the archaeological record. 3 3.

LAWSON ,

1978,

3 4.

ZADOKS-JOSEPHUS JITTA & WITTEVEEN ,

3 5.

I bid.

3 6.

Cf.

3 7.

ROBINSON ,

3 8.

HAWKES

1 977.

1 76.

B ISHOP,

1985,

1 975,

1 3 with n .113.

F igs.84-92.

H ULL,

1 947,

3 9-40;

G .

W ebster in N IBLETT,

1985,

1 14. 3 9.

F ITZPATRICK,

4 0.

C .F.C. at

1986.

Hawkes

l east

one

( in TODD , phase

1985, of

1 92-5) has pointed

t he

military

post-date the Boudican rebellion. 4 1.

B ISHOP,

1985,

8-9;

1986,

7 21-2.

1 28

out

o ccupation

that c ould

4 2.

B regenz:

WELLS ,

8 0-81; Kempten:

1 969,

d ispositions,

s ee F ILTZINGER ,

4 3.

V indonissa:

4 4.

I bid.

4 5.

1 972,

SCHÖNBERGER ,

I t

1 51.

SCHÖNBERGER ,

F or

a 1983,

1 969,

ibid.

u seful

1 53;

8 1-3; map

S alzburg: of

t hese

f rontpapers. Mainz:

l oc.

c it.

1 55.

s eems

t hat

material f rom the occupation of l egio X III

G emina was deposited in the

' Keltengraben '

4 3)

before their s econd fortress was

he

S chutthügel

XXI

R apax,

c onstructed,

c ontained material f rom the

and X I C laudia,

f rom e ast to west d eposits

( HARTMANN ,

( ibid.

a ccumulated

apparently dumped

9 4).

1 986 ,

whilstt

l egiones X III, progressively

I t i s not clear whether these

g radually or in a number of distinct

' events'. 4 6.

CAMPBELL ( 1975;

1984)

has

m ilitares

s hown

t hat

and

c onsidered t here

t he

s o-called v iri

was a strong e lement of

amateurism in t he Roman m ilitary system . 4 7.

S uetonius Domit.

1 0,3.

4 8.

D oorwerth:

4 9.

T he f unctions of the various e lements of horse harness

BROUWER ,

1982;

c onsidered in B ISHOP,

Xanten: JENKINS,

1985.

f orthcoming.

5 0.

BROUWER ,

1982,

Taf.1,106b;

JENKINS,

1985,

F ig.11.

5 1.

BROUWER ,

1982,

T af.3,147b;

JENKINS,

1985,

F ig.8.

5 2.

BROUWER ,

1 982,

Taf.1,138b;

JENKINS,

1 985,

F ig.4.

5 3.

T hree

r ings:

F ig.5;

f our

1 985, 5 4.

BROUWER , r ings:

a re

1 982,

BROUWER ,

Taf.2,140b; 1 982,

JENKINS,

T af.2,144b;

1 985,

JENKINS,

F ig.6.

N eedless

t o

s ay ,

s ince

s o

f ew

e xamples of belt plates

s urvive compared to the presumed original population ,

many

s ub-types are r epresented by only one plate. 5 5.

C f.

B ISHOP,

5 6.

JOHNS,

5 7.

R OSS,

1982, 1 967,

f orthcoming. 6 3-4 & 7 3. 3 42 - the horse and the goose symbolized Celtic

Mars.

1 29

5 8.

P endants such as those decoration

from Doorwerth or Xanten have relief

of oakleaf and acorn motifs,

but inlaid designs

recalling viticulture. 5 9.

The

l unula

i s

WITTEVEEN , 6 0.

d ealt

with

by

ZADOKS-JOSEPHUS

J ITTA

1977.

Orichalcum;

the

z inc/copper

m ixture

probably

v aried

a ccording to the method of manufacture of a f itting. 6 1.

Most r ings appear to be stamped.

worth

noting

that

many objects published with no r ings

in their illustrations

will

r ings d id

sometimes

r eveal

t hat

examination of the actual 6 2.

I t i s

I t i s not a temporal Fig.182); Hoard

one

had

of

been

e xist

upon

item.

f eature, the

s uch

as

R OBINSON

cuirass

r epaired

t hought

( 1975,

e lements in the Corbridge

with

s uch

a

hinge

( report

f orthcoming). 6 3.

RE

' legio'

6 4.

GLASBERGEN & GROENMAN-VAN WAATERINGE,

6 5.

Cf.

6 6.

For doubts about the traditional terminal date of Hod Hill,

SCHÖNBERGER ,

s ee TODD , 6 7.

1 713.

1982,

1969,

1974,

39.

155.

5 3-4.

B ut s ee DE WEERD ,

1977 for a strong case against the direct

involvement of Valkenburg I in the British expedition. 6 8.

Which

may

s uggest that they only enjoyed a brief spell of

popularity. 6 9.

These

pendants,

C irencester

or

parts

( LYSONS,

1 817,

F ig.6,141),

Colchester

Fig.8,256), Oberstimm

of

( WACHER & MCWHIRR , P l.XV ,10),

Aislingen

( SCHÖNBERGER ,

1980,

( ibid.,

7 0.

BULMER ,

7 1.

C f.

7 2.

BLAKE,

7 3.

B ISHOP & THOMAS,

1978,

1 984.

1985. 1984,

6 1.

1 30

a re

known

Fig.36,100),

L ondon Fig.4,69),

( ULBERT,

3 8-42.

B ISHOP & THOMAS,

t hem , 1982,

f rom

Kingsholm

( WEBSTER , Wroxeter

1 959,

Taf.23, B189).

1 960, ( ibid.,

T af.21,17),

and

7 4.

C LARKE,

1 978,

1 54.

1 31

APPENDIX: F ig.3:

SOURCES OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Belt plates

1 .

Hod Hill

2 .

Rißtissen

( BRAILSFORD , ( ULBERT,

3 .

Rheingönheim

4 .

Hod Hill

5 .

Hofheim

( ULBERT,

( RITTERLING,

Vindonissa

( FELLMANN ,

Vindonissa

( UNZ,

' St.

1962, 1 913,

7 .

Colchester Sheepen

2 .

Rheingönheim

Taf.XII,7) Abb.28, b)

Abb.7,38)

cross'

1 .

Taf.27,3) Fig.4, A109)

1 954,

1 973,

Andrew 's

Fig.4, A112)

Taf.1,1)

1969b,

( BRAILSFORD ,

6 .

F ig.4:

1962,

1 970,

belt plates

( HAWKES & HULL,

( ULBERT,

3 .

Hofheim

Colchester Sheepen

5 .

Strasbourg

( FORRER ,

1927,

Taf.LXXVII,29)

6 .

Strasbourg

( FORRER ,

1927,

Taf. LXXVII,28)

7 .

Mainz

8 .

Vindonissa

9 .

Rheingönheim

( BEHRENS,

Ham Hill

Rheingönheim Oberstimm

1954,

Pl.CII,17)

Abb.28,c)

1969b,

1960,

( ULBERT,

Taf.27,20)

Fig.5,120)

1969b,

( SCHÖNBERGER ,

Taf.27,18)

1978,

Taf.22,B146)

Pendants

1 .

Baden

( UNZ,

2 .

Mainz

( BEHRENS,

3 .

Besançon

4 .

Doorwerth

1 .

1947,

Abb.4,23)

( ULBERT,

( WEBSTER ,

1 1.

F ig.7:

1912,

Pl.C,39)

Taf.XII,4)

( HAWKES & HULL,

( FELLMANN ,

1 2.

F ig.5:

1 913,

1947,

Taf.27,21)

4 .

1 0.

( RITTERLING,

1969b,

1971,

Abb.5,44)

1918,

( FEUGERE , ( BROUWER ,

Abb.10,5)

1 983,

' Lorica s egmentata'

The Lunt

( HOBLEY,

F ig.25,a)

1982,

Taf.3,147)

l obate hinges

1 973,

F ig.23,36)

2 .

Rheingönheim

( ULBERT,

1 969b,

Taf.33,17)

3 .

Rheingönheim

( ULBERT,

1 969b,

Taf.33,16)

4 .

Longthorpe

( FRERE & ST.JOSEPH,

( NISSEN et a l.,

1 902,

1 974,

F ig.26,17)

5 .

Neuß

6 .

Oberstimm

( SCgÖNBERGER ,

1 978,

Taf.XXX,81) Taf.20,B81)

1978,

Taf.20,B78)

7 .

Oberstimm

( SCHÖNBERGER ,

8 .

Carnuntum

( RLÖ I I,

Taf.XVII,23)

9 .

R ißtissen

( ULBERT,

1970,

Taf.4,83)

1 0.

R ißtissen

( ULBERT,

1970,

Taf.3,63)

1 1.

Hofheim

( RITTERLING,

1 913,

Taf.XI,6)

1 2.

Hod Hill

1 3.

Carnuntum

( RLÖ I I,

Taf.XIX,57)

1 4.

Carnuntum

( RLÖ I I,

Taf.XIX,58)

1 5.

Carnuntum

( RLÖ I I,

Taf.XIX,59)

F ig.8:

( RICHMOND,

IL orica

1 968,

Fig.56,9)

segmentata' hinged strap f ittings

1 .

Carnuntum

( RLÖ I I,

Taf.XIX,48)

2 .

Carnuntum

( RLÖ I I,

Taf.XVIII,36) Taf.XIX,47)

3 .

Carnuntum

( RLÖ I I,

4 .

Carnuntum

( RLÖ I I,

Taf.XIX,58)

5 .

Carnuntum

( RLÖ I I,

Taf.XIX,54)

6 .

Carnuntum

( RLÖ I I,

Taf.XIX,46)

7 .

Carnuntum

( RLÖ I I,

Taf.XIX,49)

8 .

Strasbourg

9 .

London

( FORRER,

( WEBSTER ,

1 0.

Ham Hill

1 1. 1 2.

1927,

1960,

Taf.LXXVII,25)

Fig.6,162)

( WEBSTER ,

1960,

Fig.5,126)

R ißtissen

( ULBERT,

1 959,

Taf.61,9)

R ißtissen

( ULBERT,

1970,

Taf.3,49)

1 3.

Oberstimm

( SCHÖNBERGER ,

1978,

Taf.20,B88)

1 4.

Oberstimm

( SCHÖNBERGER ,

1978,

Taf.20,B89)

1 5.

Hod Hill

1 6.

Rheingönheim

F ig.9:

( RICHMOND,

IL orica

1968,

( ULBERT,

Fig.56,12)

1969b,

Taf.33,1)

s egmentata' hinged buckle f ittings

1 .

London

2 .

Rheingönheim

( WEBSTER ,

3 .

Chichester

4 .

Vindonissa

5 .

R ißtissen

6 .

S isek

1960,

( ULBERT,

Fig.6,159) 1 969b,

( DOWN & RULE, ( UNZ,

1 973,

( ULBERT,

( HOFFILLER ,

Taf.33,23)

1971,

Fig.8.15,21)

Abb.9,90)

1 970, 1912,

Taf.3,44) S 1.11)

7 .

Carnuntum

( RLÖ I I,

Taf.XVIII,44)

8 .

Carnuntum

( RLÖ I I,

Taf.XVIII,41)

F ig.10:

' Lorica

1 .

Hod Hill

2 .

Rheingönheim

3 .

R ißtissen

4 .

Hod Hill

s e2mentata'

( RICHMOND ,

1 968,

( ULBERT,

( ULBERT, ( RICHMOND,

tie hooks Fig.56,13)

1969b,

1970, 1968,

Taf.34,51)

Taf.3,72) Fig.56,14)

5 .

Carnuntum

( PLO I I,

Taf.XVII,255)

6 .

Carnuntum

( PLO I I,

Taf.XVII,258)

7 .

Carnuntum

( RLÖ I I,

Taf.XVII,256)

8 .

Carnuntum

( RLÖ I I,

Taf.XVII,253)

F ig.11:

The distribution SCHÖNBERGER ,

F ig.12:

Large

of

1978,

' bird-headed'

1 982,

embossed

b elt

plates

( based

on

Abb.76)

pendant

( after

WACHER & MCWHIRR ,

Fig.36,100)

B IBLIOGRAPHY BARKER 1 975: weapon

P .C.

Archaeology, BEHRENS 1912: Mainzer B EHRENS

Barker,

points'

Laflin

( ed.),

( Birmingham 1975),

G .

Behrens,

Z eitschrift,

1 918:

' An exact method

in S .

G .

1912,

B ehrens,

Legionskastell Mainz',

d escribing

i ron

3 -8

' Neue Funde aus 7 ,

of

computer Applications in

d em

Kastell

Mainz',

8 2-109

' Neue

u nd

a ltere

Mainzer Z eitschrift,

F unde 1 2-13,

a us dem 1 917-18,

2 1-46 B ISHOP

1 985:

M .C.

B ishop,

production of arms ( ed.),

The

P roduction

Equipment: Equipment

B ISHOP

1 986:

R esearch

military

of

S eminar

D istribution the

in

a nd

M .C.

t he

B ishop

of Roman M ilitary

S econd

Roman

M ilitary

( BAR I nternational Series

B ishop,

within

' The

d istribution

2 75),

of

m ilitary

Roman forts of the f irst century A .D.'

Studien z u den Militärgrenzen Roms

I II.

internationalen

Aalen

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f abrica

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and

P roceedings

( Oxford 1985),

' The

in the early principate'

Limeskongresses,

Vorträge 1 983,

d es

in 1 3.

( Stuttgart

7 17-23

B ISHOP f orthcoming: army in the

M .C.

Bishop,

f irst century

' Cavalry equipment of the Roman

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i n

Proceedings

of

the

Fourth Roman Military Equipment Conference B ISHOP

&

THOMAS

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BLAKE 1 985: 7 :10,

t he

BBC in

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m icro'

Blake,

1 962:

J .W .

' Ways

of

M .

" BEAKER" - an

in

Laflin

S .

( ed.),

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Conference

P ractical

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s eeing',

1 27 Brailsford,

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in t he Durden Collection,

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Thomas,

Archaeology

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October 1984,

BRAILSFORD

BROUWER

A .

Bishop & J .

Applications

P roceedings,

f or

M .C.

Brouwer,

' Römische

1 34

1 :

Antiquities

f rom

( London 1962) P halerae

und

anderer

Lederbeschlag

a us

d em

R hein ',

Oudheidkundige Mededelingen

u it het R ijksmuseum van oudheden t e Leiden 6 3,

1 982,

B ULMER

1 980:

M .

B ulmer,

6 2,

west ',

1 979

r eeks),

' An introduction to Roman s amian ware

with special r eference to collections n orth

( nieuwe

1 45-87

( 1980),

CAMPBELL 1 975:

i n

Chester

and

t he

Journal of the C hester Archaeological S ociety , 5 -72

J .B. Campbell,

Journal of R oman S tudies,

' Who were the 65 ,

1 975,

" viri

m ilitares"?',

1 1-31

CAMPBELL 1 984: J .B. Campbell, The Emperor and the R oman Army 3 1 B .C. - A .D.235, ( Oxford 1 984) C LARKE 1 978:

D .L.

C larke,

by Bob Chapman , D ENSEM

1 976:

R .

P rojectiles

D ensem ,

f rom

d issertation , London), D E WEERD

Analytical Archaeology ,

R oman

B ritain

I nstitute

of

S pearheads

and

undergraduate

Archaeology,

1 977:

M .D.

D e

t he

University

o f

Weerd,

' The

d ate

of

Valkenburg

I

r eduction of a multiple choice question '

van B eek,

R .W .

( eds.),

Ex Horreo

( Cingula IV),

Brandt,

HODSON 1 975: J .E.

D OWN & RULE 1 971: A .

& W .

Groenman-van

( Amsterdam 1977),

Doran & F .R.

C omputers in Archaeology,

Vol.1,

M ilitary ( unpublished

in B .L.

&

r evised

( 1976)

r econsidered:

D ORAN

e d.2

( London 1978)

D own

Hodson ,

Waateringe 2 55-89

Mathematics and

( Cambridge 1975)

&

M .

R ule,

Chichester

E xcavations

( Oxford 1 971)

E TTLINGER

&

HARTMANN

' Fragmente e iner G egenstücke

1 984:

E .

v om

Grossen

G esellschaft P ro Vindonissa, F ELLMANN 1 954: Jahre

R .

F ellmann ,

1 953',

1 953/54 , F EUGERE 1983:

a us

&

S t.Bernhard', 1 984,

Hartmann , u nd

i hre

Jahresbericht

5 -46

' Die Grabungen

Jahresbericht

M .

Vindonissa

i m

Gesellschaft

L egionslager P ro

im

V indonissa,

5 -60 M .

D epartement r omanisation l a Loire,

E ttlinger

S chwertscheide

3 ,

F ILTZINGER 1 983:

F eugere, d e

l a

e n

pays

1 983, P .

e ' Llequipement militaire romain dans l l a Loire. C ontribution ä l 'etude d e

s egusiave ', Cahiers archeologiques de

45-66

F iltzinger,

L imesMuseum

1 983) 1 35

Aalen ,

( Stuttgart

F ITZPATRICK

1 986:

A .

F itzpatrick,

' Camulodunum and the early

occupation of south-east England.

Some reconsiderations'

Studien

Roms

zu

den

internationalen 1986), FORRER

Militärgrenzen Limeskongresses,

1 927:

1983,

i n 1 3.

( Stuttgart

R .

Forrer,

Das römische S traßburg,

Argentorate,

2

( Strasbourg 1927)

FRERE & ST.JOSEPH 1974:

S .S.

Frere & J .K.

f ortress at Longthorpe', GLASBERGEN

&

Britannia,

GROENMAN-VAN

Groenman-van Valkenburg

Waateringe, Z .H.

1974,

The

' The

R oman

1 -129

W .

Glasbergen & W .

P re-Flavian

Garrisons

of

( Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Nederlandse

C ingula I I), 1 983:

St.Joseph,

5 ,

WAATERINGE 1 974:

Akademie van Wetenschappen ,

GREENE

Aalen

Vorträge d es

3 5-41

vols.,

85.

I II.

afd.

Letterkunde,

n ieuwe

r eeks

( Amsterdam-London 1974)

K .

Greene,

Archaeology:

M .

Hartmann,

An I ntroduction,

( London

1983) HARTMANN 1986:

HAWKES & HULL 1947: F irst

Report

( Reports

C .F.C. on

of

&

EVANS

Hawkes

the

the

1 972:

HOBLEY 1973:

B .

s ite,

No.XIV),

J .N.

Hobley ,

Hill

of

Society,

JENKINS

1 912:

V .

c arstva', N .S.

1 985:

JOHNS

LAWSON

at Colchester 1 930-1939 of

t he

S ociety

of

&

R .K.

in D .L.

Evans,

' A model

for

C larke

( ed.),

Models

in

B irmingham 85,

1971-3

Hoffiller, V jesnik 1 912,

I .

S econd

interim and

( 1973),

m ilitary r eport',

Warwickshire

7 -92

' Oprema r imskoga vojnika u prvo

Hrvatskoga

Arheoloskoga

D rustva

1 6-123

Jenkins,

' A

f rom Xanten

g roup

of

s ilvered-bronze

( Castra Vetera)',

Britannia,

16,

1 41-64

1982:

Rome,

the

1 2,

horse-trappings 1985,

Camulodunum.

( Oxford 1947)

1 968-71.

Transactions

( Zagreb),

Hull,

' Excavations at the Lunt Roman

Archaeological

doba

M .R.

( London 1972)

Baginton ,

HOFFILLER

&

C ommittee

classification and typology' Archaeology,

( Windisch 1986)

Excavations

R esearch

Antiquaries of London, H ILL

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Erotic

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Jahrbuch

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S .

2 5,

Lysons,

1 985:

R .

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( CBA

Römisch-Germanischen

1 31-72

R eliquiae

N iblett,

S ite at Camulodunum

des

B ritannico-Romanae,

S heepen:

Vol.2,

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( London

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a l.

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M .L.

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d es

Bonner

Jahrbücher,

P aulys

( london 1980)

R ealencyclopädie der classischen

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2 :

Excavations

Carried

and 1 958 f or the Trustees of the British

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E .

i .T.

Vereins

R itterling,

f ur

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' Das

Ausgrabungs-

u nd

f rührömische F undbericht ',

nassauische

Geschichtsforschung,

ROBINSON

L egionslager',

Richmond,

1 951

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PLO:

im

Mathematics in Archaeology,

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Out

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Orton ,

R ICHMOND 1 968:

Koenen ,

' Novaesium.

ausgegrabene

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P rovinzialverbandes vom Bonner Provinzialmuseum

1904 ,

ORTON 1980:

H .

40,

1913,

Lager

bei

Annalen

des

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und

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in O sterreich

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of

Imperial Rome,

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and Tradition, S CHÖNBERGER

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S tudies,

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archaeological 1 969,

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P agan C eltic B ritain.

in I conography

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von

R oman

s urvey',

f rontier

Journal

of

i n Roman

1 44-97 S chönberger,

1 968 bis

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Kastell

Oberstinu i t:

( Limesforschungen 18),

d ie

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W . H.

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i n

Roman F rontier S tudies

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' Oppida and the Roman army. A r eview

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römische

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C .

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Jahresbericht

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P ro

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4 1-58

1 973:

C .

e hemaligen

Unz,

' Rö m ische

Kantonalen

M ilitärfunde

Antiquarium

G esellschaft P ro V indonissa, WACHER

a us Baden - Aquae

&

MCWHIRR 1 982:

E xcavations

1 :

1973,

• Roman

W indisch

im

Jahresbericht

1 1-42

J .S. Wacher & A .D.

E arly

a us

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O ccupation

a t

C irencester C irencester,

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G .

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O storius S capula',

' The

R oman m ilitary advance under

Archaeological Journal,

1 05,

1 958

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4 9-98 WELLS 1 972:

C . M.

W ells,

The

G erman

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E xamination of t he Archaeological Evidence, W ILD

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J .P.

W ild ,

B ritannia,

' A 1 2,

f ind 1981,

1 38

of 3 05-6 '

R oman

of

Augustus.

An

( Oxford 1 972) — s cale armour f rom

ZADOKS-,JOSEPHUS JITTA & Jitta

&

A . M.

Netherlands',

WITTEVEEN

W itteveen ,

1 977:

' Roman

Oudheidkundige

A . N.

bronze

Z adoks-Josephus l unulae f rom the

Mededelingen

R ijksmuseum van oudheden t e Leiden,

1 39

5 8,

1977,

u it 167-95

het

R OMAN M ILITARY E QUIPMENT ON THIRD CENTURY TOMBSTONES J .C.

British have

s tudents

Coulston

of Roman s culpture and of the Roman Army

l argely ignored third century

t ombstones.

d epictions

This i s partly because

1

t he genre occur

in

B ritain

and

o f

s oldiers

on

f ew spectacular examples of

attention

has

understandably

concentrated on the r icher f irst century f igures.

I n contrast to

these the third century stones almost all depict the deceased in ' undress',

often

equipment. t he

with

the

absolute

m inimum

Very f ew e xamples occur in the

region

where

t he

o f

m ilitary

Rhineland,

precisely

f irst century stones are most numerous.

German scholars have been more attentive because of the numerous t hird century small-finds which

may

in

s ome

f rom Upper Rhenish and

c ategories

r eference to the sculpture. numerous

i n

the

D anubian

be

The third century r egion

R aetian

where

s tones

G erman

However,

it i s important to draw

depictions

attention

t o

t he

third

a s an Empire-wide phenomenon and to outline

t he distribution and the relation of archaeological many

most

2

t he important characteristics of the equipment shown. r aises

a re

and Austrian

s culptural studies have unavoidably dealt with them .

c entury

f orts

functionally explained with

important

A study of small-finds

questions concerning the development of

Roman arms and armour in the third century.

CHARACTERISTICS AND DATING The

f amiliar f irst to second century tombstones have one or

more of the t unic

f ollowing

( very

t hree-quarter with'apron';

depictional

occasionally l ength

with

l ong,

s leeves);

one

s cutum;

s ometimes

hasta(e)

f or

AD

d epicting

a

r ectangular,

a uxiliaries,

pila

i s

l egionary

i nvariably s tones

barb-headed type or

( Figs.1-3).

are The

t he paenula a re

on

hexagonal

f or

end

or

l egionaries; 3

o f

t he

s econd

( Figs.1-4).

The

6

and

The

t he

1 41

4

The

by hastae

o r

s horter ,

shields are of the earlier,

proportionally

most characteristic

t ombstones.

P ita do appear 5 but on most

r eplaced

( Fig.1).

broader

a g ladius or

t roops on the Marcus Column in Rome

l ong-sleeved.

t hey

weapons

the

or baggy

plated c ingula

a very d ifferent panoply

and completely replaces

oval

two

a helmet and a l orica hamata or squamata.

s agum is a lready worn by a ll t unic

s hort-sleeved

t ight s leeves, or

A new f ormula appears perhaps at c entury

a

an infantry paenula or cavalry s agum;

c avalry spatha on the dexter hip; oval

e lements:

s quatter

ovals

f eatures are the belts and

P 1.1

P 1.2

1 42

their may

f ittings.

The s ingle c ingulum i s of

be very wide and an almost ubiquitous

t o f asten it at the f ront. f astening, f rom the

' ring-buckle'

belt

and

t o

a ttaching

the

two

d eceased

them

o ften

( Fig.4).

the

a

on

The

sword,

pelta-forml°

ivy-leaf

t erminals

Sometimes both ends of the

8

e ffect.

of g ladius

a

or,

baldric

By

9

i tself

m ore

or spatha

on

the

u sually,

attached

t o

the

a roundel over the

hang o f

or

a lmost

u sually

Chapes

baldric 1 2

the

are

( Figs.2,

s cabbard

i s

The baldric i s very on

t he

c hest

scabbard and a large ivy-leaf terminal ( Fig.4).

1 3

Body

n ever appears though an occasional helmet may be

( Fig.3). The

F lavius

f irst datable depiction of this panoply i s Felix)

s acrificing

l ong-sleeved tunic, d ating

s agum

names

and

on

and

shows

an

a ltar.

r ing-buckle.

with

by

imperial

' Philippiana',

He

1 4

( T.

wears

more

etc.)

including

t itles

' M.

( e.g.

Aurelius'.

' Severiana

a

g eneral

g ive a dating bracket.

Some stones,

by supposed historical context.

1 5

c entury

i nclude reliefs

t he ship relief f rom Palmyra, Dura-Europos

and

t he

t he Sassanid

v ictory 1 6

c haracteristic

f ittings

f rom Albano

of

t ombstone

c ross-bow

o f

( legio I I

S hapur

f rom

brooch

T etrardhic

an

unknown

I

a t

Aquileia

( although others

possibly indicative of a

Tombstone

d ated

s ecurely dated to the P arthica),

f resco

f rom

s eries of Roman soldiers and emperors in

Naqsh-i-Rustam.

prominent

such as

may be

the tribune Terentius

r eliefs

A

Examples

R egimental

A lexandriana',

( dated to AD231-33)

a

officer

For

t he example f rom Apamea Syriae t hird

from E ining,

a n

of these stones names of deceased soldiers often provide

a t erminus post quem

P 1.1

the

t ype

f lat and round

belt by a s lide.

placed by a consular date in AD211,

has

When

i s

hip.

on the end hanging down alongside the scabbard s een

t his

sometimes having applied decorative plates

a rmour

7

and belt

l ength,

s inister

large,

When not obscured by cloak

a rea,

a long

sufficient to identify the deceased as a soldier.

s uspended f rom

w ide,

back

then allowed to hang down.

have

r ing

e ither s ide to fungiform

r ing and are tucked back up behind the c ingulum

double-crescent

r ing-buckle i s

often

i s used

may be s een on many reliefs idly holding this strap in

f rom

g iving

d exter hip,

ends

his dexter hand down

but

A number of methods are indicated for

Alternatively the dexter strap-end i s passed

s plit the

1 1

breadth

such as s imply passing the two ends through the

behind

s tuds.

4 ).

varying

B ishapur

f rom the town

and

and

has none of the do)

but

a ' Pannonian bonnet',

period

s oldier

o r

l ater

f ound

i n

d ate.

1 7

I stanbul

Archaeological Museum . P 1.2

Tombstone D ivitensium.

o f

Aprilius

Spidatus

f rom

I stanbul Archaeological Museum.

1 43

a n umerus

P l. 3

P 1.4

1 44

L ikewise

the

r ing-buckles, t he

D iocletianic Luxor f rescoes do not perhaps depict possibly g iving a general terminus ante

' ring-buckle' A

vast

prove

to

f or

majority of the stones with surviving inscriptions

have

praetoriani.

been

The

s et

up

a uxiliary

by

and/or

exceptions

plain miles a lthough auxiliary milites I ntercisa

quem

panoply. 1 8

and

Brigetio

in

f or l egionarii

and

often have ranks above do

particular.

occur The

1 9

at

Aquincum ,

f irst and third

s ites were l egionary fortresses where auxiliary burial practices were most l ikely influenced by l egionary was

e xceptional

s trong l egionary connections. t he

' horseman' 2 1



Very f ew

type of relief,

s cattered s ingle occurences, R ome.

s tones

and

I ntercisa

f or the wealth of the Syrian community and its e xamples

f all

w ithin

the exceptions being confined to

or to equites s ingulares Augusti in

The majority of third century stones depict

or half-figure standing soldiers,

f ull-figure

sometimes with their families,

though occasionally horses appear in the background or being l ed by

the

deceased

o r

his c ab .

C omparative

pay

l evels

presumably a factor governing the presence of f igures a s

i n

earlier

periods,

hence

t he

praetorian

were

on s telai

and l egionary

predominance.

D ISTRIBUTION The sculptural monuments of third

c entury equipment studies.

heavily stylised in the s oldier-prisoner

panels

on

Arch

pedestal

of

product of s arcophagus with

of

u seless

r eliefs.

The

f or

C onstantinian

s culptors and the style i s not

t he capital puts even greater

Examples

quite

Constantine are for the most part the

s mall details o f belt or s cabbard

t ombstone f igures,

are

l arge panels and hopelessly conservative

i n t he

t he

R ome

The arches of Severus are very

emphasis

f ittings. on

t he

e specially praetorian examples

concerned

This hiatus in third

c entury

f rom the c ity.

f irst to second century tombstone reliefs are

c oncentrated along the Rhine and in Britain with a f ew Upper and M iddle Danubian examples. v irtually

a bsent

w ith

I n

t he

E astern

P rovinces

j ust a f ew instances

in Greece.

more occur in the West African provinces though due in outside vexillationes.

P 1.3

Tombstone

o f

t hey 2 2

a re

Rather

p art

t o

2 3

Aurelius Surus f rom the

l egio I Adiutrix.

I stanbul Archaeological Museum.

P 1.4

Tombstone of an unknown soldier'found Herakleia Pontica.

at

t he

s ite

I stanbul Archaeological Museum .

1 45

o f

The

third

century

d istribution

pattern.

e rection

f igural

of

r eliefs Something

2 4

t ombstones

m iddle Danubian r egion in t he AD and i t i s produced periods.

l ikely

there This

t hat

was may

f orm of

the

a

r ather

d ifferent

r enaissance

i n

t he

s eems to have occurred in the

late s econd to early third c entury actual

proportionally be

a

a

d irect

v olume g reater

f unction

o f

s uch

t han

i n

of

t he

p ieces e arlier

political,

s trategic and economic importance of the I llyrian armies and the r enewed practice spread eastwards and westwards There

may

f rom the region .

be of course be a survival e lement involved,

a t Brigetio and Intercisa where very large bodies and inscriptions are present. o verall

p icture

unduly.

However,

T he

of

notably

s culpture

t his need not distort the

spread

o f

t ombstone

t ypes and

d ecorative motifs f rom the Danube direct to Rome i s indisputable ( for example the use of the on equites

' Danubian R ider God'

s ingulares Augusti tombstones)

type hunt scene

and must be

a

d irect

r esult of the Severan reform of the Imperial Guard units and the c onsequent

shifts

i n

t he Danubian revival t radition

in

e xamples,

t he

r ecruitment patterns. of

f igured

Greek

East

geographical

t ombstones but

or

Speidel attributed

there

t emporal,

t o are

to

a

c ontinuous

no

' bridging'

s upport

this

s upposition. 2 5 The

c oncentration

of

t ombstone

o ccurrences

principally

r eflects the distribution of a particular f unerary practice.

The

v irtual absence of third century f igures on the

the

Lower

D anube

types

do

work has been carried out.

r ecord

t hem

comparable

provinces.

in

r egions

with

D ura-Europos

t he

Africa.

t hese

it i s not

t he absence

of

so significant as much a s the

l argely devoid of a small-finds

, British ,

apart,

s mall-finds occur in Greece, North

former where much small-find

However,

2 6

t ombstone representations which i s of

a nd

not of course reflect an absence of equipment

e specially in the case of the

presence

R hine

R henish

and

e xtraordinarily

Asia M inor,

D anubian

f ew

S yria ,

r elevant

P alestine

and

Third century tombstones in contrast occur in all

r egions 27

contributing

something

t o

contemporary

d iscussion of equipment uniformity and r egional currency.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL F INDS The

equipment

depicted

on

t he

t hird

c entury stones

i s

well-supported archaeologically and a combination of reliefs and small-finds s cabbards bone

has i n

a llowed

r econstruction

particular.

f inds are associated with

r ing-buckles

of

t he

belts

c lasses of i ron ,

t he c ingulum

and

and

bronze and

baldric.

T he

occur either a s plain r ings or as more complex and

d ecorated adjustable types, and

S everal

I ntercisa.

2 8

notably

a t

N iederbieber,

At Intercisa grave-finds

f unction and position on the

body.

1 46

2 9

S aalburg

i n s itu suggested the

Numerous

f ungiform

s tud

f inds may include those used on the c ingulum. Surviving and Vimose s culptural ( Fig.4).

Vimose,

r ibbons

Saalburg,

and

Carlisle,

openwork f rom

plates.

This

and

Bronze

s cabbard-slides the

m id

were

s econd

third

century

S hields, D anish

and

London, bog

bone

Mainz,

de p osits.

and

d id

the

positioning

AD

i n

I ron s lides were i vory

examples

Novae,

u se

f rom

but only appear in u sed

i n

o ccur

Khisfine

the

a t South

and

i n

the

The important point demonstrated by the

3 2

not always pass through the

( Figs.1,

3 ).

The

l ong s lide opening but

i s often depicted as overlaying the sword with the phalera t he

obscured

of

are c learly

3 1

r eliefs i s that the s lide was worn outermost baldric

hinged f or

The Vimose baldrics

apparently

Intercisa,

R ochester

with

positioning

c entury

d epictions of the third century.

H igh

baldric

the phalera

f igural and

attachments

s tandard cross-bars. the

r oundels

a s roundels with

plates

a s

with

' phalera'

p lain

Zugmantel,

c orroborated by the B ishapur reliefs.

approximately

well

c omplex

r ectangular

had punched decoration indicating t hese

a s

a s

were in the past identified hanging

f rom Thorsbjerg

correspond

Zugmantel etc.),

S imris)

( Vimose,

S imilar

' tongues'

l ong)

and the appearance of a bronze

( Vimose,

l ettered openwork 3°

l eather baldrics

1 18.5cm

latter appear archaeologically

reliefs

e tc.).

century

d epictions

The

( Thorsbjerg, i nset

t hird

( c.7-8cm wide,

s lide area

( Fig.4).

over

Oldenstein has explained this

method of attaching the non-plated end of the

baldric

d irectly

a round the s cabbard with the end strip tied to an eye projecting f rom the back of the phalera. a longside

the

attachments were employed The

l arge,

and

by

and examples the

Thus the plated end hangs

C learly

a

Syrian

German

f inds

s o

3 5

many

( Mainz,

f rom Danish Nydam , H auran.

variety

o f

f reely

s cabbard

j udging from the reliefs.

c ircular chape s een on

well-represented e tc.)

3 3

s cabbard.

t ombstones

Köln ,

Dura-Europos,

P eltaform

d hapes

Khisfine

3 4

on the tombstone

r eliefs are attested archaeologically again f rom the mid c entury

AD. 3 6

Ulbert

except

perhaps

into a very l ong,

( length: width

proportion

f rom

3 7

S ome of the

Künzing,

narrow

1 5-17:1)

however,

s uggested by Vegetius'

d ating

belt

brackets

the

B ishapur

together

a nd by

R hine-Raetian l imes

s emispatha sword

l ong.

t ombstone

s hort

( Fig.4).

L auriacum

metre

with a

f ittings

sword

type type F inds

r eliefs a s

l ater

3 8

a re mostly g iven general

the

occupational

s ites

a ssociated

147

a

r ock

f rom Danish

S traubing/Nydam

and

former are a lmost a

d emonstrate continuity in the use of

These

on

c lassified third century spathae

and l imes sites ( 8-12:1).

s econd

Bone box-chapes occur in Britain and Germany but do

not occur on sculpture r elief s .

i s

Niederbieber

periods with

known

of

Upper

barbarian

i ncursions and abandonments. d eposit

i s

the

Lyon

A useful s ecurely dated

3 9

g rave

with

coins

a ssociated with the Battle of Lugdunum produced

a spatha,

phalera.

of

i n

f unerary

AD194,

AD197.



plausibly The

g rave

a bronze scabbard s lide and a bronze baldric

Two identical bronze strap-ends may represent the split

ends of a wide c ingulum. According to sculptural representations oval i n

u se

by

the praetoriani

l egionarii at l east f rom the t hroughout

in the late

f irst

t he imperial period. 41

c entury stones were another

s hields

were

f irst century AD and by some c entury

The oval

evolutionary

and

probably

shields on the third s tage

i n

t he s cutum

d evelopment and may be identified with t he Dura oval examples. The

g reat hiatus

in

t he

between the Niedermörmter bronze R obinson

t o

the

e arly

c entury Intercisa t ombstone

l egionary

third century AD ,

helmets 43

is

representations

only

example,

protection

i nadequately

( Fig.3).

l eaving a ' T'

of a projecting neck-flange c ertainty

and

i s

s culptural

T hese

present

by

f illed

d epict with

c annot

by

s omething

a

shaped f ace opening.

evidence

d ated

and the early fourth

s imilar to the third century cavalry helmets c heek

4 2

s eries of surviving infantry helmets

one-piece HOW much

44

be

s aid

with

f or helmet types

i s anyway

contained pilum-heads

possibly

notoriously unreliable. The Caerleon weapon d ating

t o

hoard

t he third century AD. 45

Few p ila occur on tombstones

a lthough Vegetius s uggests the continued use of weapons.

T he stelai

f avour of

s horter,

l ighter

precursors of Vegetius' The

which are as yet s o.

t hrowing

spears

which

Late Roman types.

may

r epresent

the cultural and

f ar from clear.

t actical

i mplications

Without a fuller archaeological

r esponsible for the process of change, origin.

in of

f or the Danubian region at l east they threaten to remain

The S armatian and Parthian interaction spheres may

s lides

t he

4 6

t hird century representations i mply certain changes

m ilitary equipment, r ecord

heavy

imply l egionary abandonment of the p ilum in

are concerned, O n

the

p edestal

has

be

e specially where s cabbard

these being essentially of Central Asiatic of

Trajan's Column s lides appear on

cene C the D aco-Sarmatian scabbards and in S horse-holder

b oth

one

on

his

scabbard.

s inister

A gradual

barbarian

influence of

oman usage seems barbarian equipment on Danubian region R

l ikely,

e specially in the equestrian sphere

o f

draco,

contus

e tc.).

( compare

t he

u se

t he scabbard s lide as a result of nomadic contacts or A siatic origins. R oman

47

' four-ring'

s econd century AD. s hown,

t he

48

o f

t heir

I n Palmyrene sculpture the characteristically suspension method i s depicted until the Thereafter s cabbard

‚ slides

e arliest dated example being the

r elief of AD191.

t he

Trousdale suggests that the Parthians used

That

t hese

c hanges

1 48

were

a re

l ater

e xclusively

B eth Phaseil g enii having

i mportant

e ffects

outside the Roman Empire i s

clearly demonstrated by the

e xtraordinary f inds f rom Free Germany, D enmark.

particularly

systems and Roman modifications to combat them i s at

present.

However,

r epresentations and points

t hose

f rom

What this meant in terms of changing barbarian weapons

t o

a

the

the

uniformity

small-find

o f

types

a lso t he

obscure

s culptural

a cross

t he

Empire

uniformity of equipment which cannot be explained

away solely by t roop movements. The point made above that a i dentify

t he

r ing-buckle

a

f igure

t o

i mportance.

In the f irst to second century AD the Roman

was d istinguishable f rom his

hobnailed boots,

sword if carried). 49

s imilar

d istinguish soldiers, f eature.



One

when he was in

c entury

m ilitary caligae tunic

' civilian '

only go

' made'

t o

and,

have

the c ingulum a s

office,

t o

d isfavour.

5 2

he

unless

f ar

no

l onger

by

( and wore

been

e ssentially

c olour was used to

was

a

d istinguishing

a s to s ay that visually the

the soldier.

When S everus cashiered the

praetorians their belts were confiscated. Im ilitarisation '

soldier

' undress'

and the sagum had replaced

s eem

dress

m ight

c ingulum militare

i s

a s a soldier i s of some

his paenula and his c ingulum militare

Sagum and

t o

' civilians'

By the third

c haracteristically the paenula.

deceased

on

s ufficient

5 1

With the Late

Roman

of the c ivil service belts became the badges of

be

conferred

or

c onfiscated

with

f avour

or

NOTES 1 .

This paper i s a preliminary note to a detailed survey of 3rd century f igured military tombstones.

2 .

For example,

HOFMANN ,

3 .

Many l st-2nd

c entury

' undress', a ll the any

i .e.

1 969.

t ombstones

without

d epict

t he

deceased

body armour and helmet.

in

Virtually

3 rd century stones do l ikewise so cannot be used Robinson 's

observation

o f

( 1975,

4 .

W ILSON ,

5 .

DURRY,

in

conclusions were based

t he

Arch

on

an

i ncorrect

of Severus in the Forum Romanum,

1 71).

1929. 1938,

examples. C ivico , Mus.

UBL,

d iscussion of a supposed decline in the use of infantry

armour. Rome

1905;

pl.X.B and CUMONT,

Another pilum

1942,

appears

on

pl.XX.1

for

two

Rome

a relief in the Museo

Bologna.

Aquileia,

1 972,

nos

348-9,

( Istanbul).

1 49

3 51;

S PEIDEL,

1 976,

f ig.3

7 .

8 .

BARK6CZI e t

a l.,

OLDENSTEIN ,

1 976,

HOFMANN ,

1 905,

no.5507

C .S.I.R.,

9 .

F or example,

1 0.

MENDEL ,

1 1.

3 2.A-C;

( Salona);

MENDEL ,

UBL ,

1 969,

f ig.169;

1 942,

n o.36

t sperandieu,

1 914,

D eutschland,

CUMONT ,

1 914,

no.47

f ig.19,

f ig.51

( Straßburg);

Pontica);

1 ,2,

1 954 ,

f ig.2,8.

n os

I ,1,

pl.XX.1

1 907-66 ,

8 91-2

no.31

( Heracleia

( Augsburg).

( Rome).

( Istanbul);

C .S.I.R.,

G reat

B ritain,

( Bath).

I nterestingly none of the British stones depict round chapes which

c oincidentally

do

not

o ccur

i n

t he

p rovince's

archaeological record. 1 2.

For example,

1 3.

HOFMANN ,

SPEIDEL ,

1 905,

f ig.56

( Heracleia Pontica); 1 4.

C .S.I.R .,

1 5.

BALTY ,

1 6.

TENTORICI, 1 926,

1 981,

2 00,

Aquileia,

MONNERET DE V ILLARD ,

For

e xample,

p l.XII.2; 2 0.

F ITZ,

2 1.

For

1 978,

2 3.

Collected by

1 914,

no.891

( Perinthus).

no.477.

C OLLEDGE , 1962,

1 976,

p1.197,

p1.103;

2 02,

CUMONT ,

2 04.

1 953,

p l.XXX-II;.

KALAVREZOU-MAXEINER ,

1 905, 1 954,

f ig.58;

BARK6CZI,

1 951,

pl.XLI.5.

1 65.

S PEIDEL , p 1.1

STUART JONES ,

KOS,

f ig.4

no.354.

HOFMANN ,

1 978,

2 2.

MENDEL ,

1976 ,

7 -14.

1 10-2,

e xample,

( Rome);

1972,

BARK6CZI e t a l.,

1972,

S PEIDEL ,

I ,1,

GHIRSHMAN ,

1 8.

pl.I-II,

( Aquicum );

f ig.313;

M us.

1 975,

( Istanbul).

f ig.221.

1 975,

pl.XLIX-L;

f ig.2-3

SPEIDEL,

D eutschland,

1 7.

1 9.

1 976,

1 975,

p 1.2

( Lambaesis); 1 912,

p1.82,

8 4

P alestine);

( Nablus, AMELUNG,

1 903,

p 1.28

( Rome).

p1.1. BENSEDDIK,

1 979 ,

b ut

o mitting

3 rd

c entury

e xamples. 2 4.

For

a

ee COULSTON , brief summary of occurrences s

f or Britain s ee COULSTON & PHILLIPS,

1 50

f orthcoming,

1 983, no.193.

and A

v ery u seful catalogue has now been provided by NOELKE, 2 5.

SPEIDEL , i n

1976,

f act

1 986.

1 35 c ites Black Sea s telai a s influential but

t hey

had

l ittle

o r

n o

m ilitarily most c losely connected,

e ffect

on

namely the

t hose areas Lower

D anube

and northern Asia M inor. 2 6.

T he

p rimary work on the small-finds, heavily r elied upon in

t his paper , 2 7.

2 8.

i s OLDENSTEIN ,

I n addition to t hose mentioned here and in Mus.

L uxor,

1 978,

p 1.2

1 981,

no.296;

BARK6CZI et a l.,

2 9.

BARK6CZI et a l.,

3 0.

STERNQUIST , 1 985;

1954,

3 2.

3 3.

( Auzia);

1 983:

S PEIDEL,

1 954 ,

3 ;

ALFÖLDI e t —

2 18-9.

8 7,

f ig.23,

OLDENSTEIN ,

a l., —

1 957,

9 7-9 .

1976 ,

2 26-34;

ALLASON,JONES ,

1 954;

OLDENSTEIN ,

1 976,

2 23-6,

f ig.10;

1962, p1.197.

BARK6CZI et

a l.,

2 36-7;

OLDENSTEIN ,

3 4. HUNDT,

C OULSTON ,

1 912

1 986.

STERNQUIST ,

2 20-9 ,

pl.XXV .1,

1 976 ,

1 954;

i dem ,

GHIRSHMAN ,

REINACH ,

( Tipasa).

4 56-61; OLDENSTEIN ,

3 1.

1 976.

1 954 ,

1976 ,

1 953;

p l.XIV .1-2,

OLDENSTEIN , 2 28-9,

1 955;

1 976 ,

XX.3;

9 5-109;

TROUSDALE,

CHAPMAN ,

1975,

1976.

f ig.11-2.

OLDENSTEIN ,

1 976 ,

1 16;

pers.

comm . Mr

S .

James. 3 5.

TROUSDALE,

1975,

1 06-7,

p1.18-9;

1962,

p1.197.

pers.

obs. National Museum ,

Damascus. 3 6. GHIRSHMAN, 3 7.

ULBERT,

3 8.

I bid.,

3 9.

OLDENSTEIN ,

4 0.

ULBERT,

4 1.

4 2.

1 974, 2 10-11,

2 15-6. f ig.3;

1 976 ,

1 974,

Vegetius,

1 1,15.

5 9-66.

2 11-15, p 1.72

f ig.4;

STRONG ,

1 980,

pl.XXXVI

( Aquincum s tela).

ROSTOVTZEFF e t a l.,

OLDENSTEIN ,

1 976 ,

( Cancelleria r elief);

1939,

3 26-69, 1 51

pl.XLI-II,

88-9 .

S ZILAGYI,

XLIV-VI.

1 956,

4 3.

ROBINSON ,

1975,

4 4.

C .S.I. R.,

" a esterreich,

f ig.2

7 3;

( Istanbul),

45.

NASH-WILLIAMS,

46.

Vegetius,

4 7.

TROUSDALE,

THOMAS , I II,

1971, 2 ,

13-25.

no.86

( Enns);

S PEIDEL,

1 976,

5 ( Brigetio).

1 932,

f ig.20-21.

1 ,20. 1 975,

85-7.

For

the

question

of

o utside

influences on Roman equipment and tactical developments COULSTON,

1986.

48.

COLLEDGE,

1976,

4 9.

Cf.

Petronius,

5 0.

The

evidence

p1.44. S atyricon, f or

dubious value.

s ee

8 3.

t unic

c olours

i s d iffuse and mostly of

Reliable depictions of 3 rd

c entury

s oldiers

show white tunics with purple embroidered bands and orbiculi ( CUMONT , 1953,

1 926,

pl.XLIX-L,

pl.XXX-XXXIII,

Der-el-Medineh(?)

mummy

indistinguishable

f rom

century mosaics and 199,

2 07,

5 1.

Cf.

5 2.

JONES,

2 11,

Herodian, 1 964,

Zosimus,

Dura f resco;

Luxor f resco;

2 30,

Luxor,

portrait).

' civilian '

f rescoes

2 26-7,

MONNERET DE VILLARD,

Mus.

1981,

no.290,

These

are

dress depicted in 3 rd-4th

( BANDINELL1,

1 971,

p 1.86-7,

3 13).

1 1,13,10. 5 66;

L 'ORANGE,

Historia Nova,

1965,

1 11,19;

7 -8;

V ,46.

WIDENGREN ,

1968.

Cf.



B IBLIOGRAPHY ALFÖLDI

et a l.

Pöczy , Vägö,

A .

1957:

M .R.

Radnöti,

I ntercisa,

ALLASON-JONES

1 985:

Carlisle',

A .

Alföldi,

L .

Barköczi,

Salamon ,

K .

Sägi,

I I,

( Budapest 1957)

L .

Allason-Jones,

Transactions of the

Archaeological

and

Natural

J .

' An

J .

e agle

Cumberland History

F itz,

K .S.

Szilägyi and E .B.

and

Society,

mount f rom Westmorland LXXXV ,

1 985,

2 64-6 ALLASON-JONES 1986: Carlisle', AMELUNG

1 903:

Museums,

L .

Allason-Jones,

S aalburg-Jahrbuch, W .

Amelung,

D ie

( Berlin 1903) 1 52

42,

' An

1986 ,

S culpturen

e agle

mount

f rom

68-9 des

Vaticanischen

Mus.

Aquileia

1 972:

Muse°

delle S culture R omane, BALTY 1981:

J .C.

Balty,

BANDINELLI 1971:

R .B.

Arch4ologico

d i Aquileia:

C atalogo

( Rome 1 972)

Guide d 'Apamee,

Bandinelli,

( Brussels 1981)

Rome:

The Late Empire,

( London

1971) BARKOCZI

1951:

BARKOCZI

e t a l.

Fülep ,

L .

Barköczi,

1954:

L .

Brigetio,

Barköczi,

J7- Nemeskeri,

M .R.

G .

( Budapest 1951) Erdelyi,

Alföldi and K .

E .

Sägi,

F erenczy ,

F .

I ntercisa,

I ,

( Budapest 1954) BENSEDDIK 1979: romaine

N .

en

Benseddik,

Les troupes auxiliaires de l 'armee

Mauretanie

C esarienne

sous

l e

Haut-Empire,

( Algiers 1979) CHAPMAN 1976: London ', COLLEDGE

H .

Chapman ,

' Two

R oman

Antiquaries Journal,

1 976:

M .A . R.

LVI,

Colledge,

s cabbard

1976,

The

Art

s lides

f rom

2 50-3 of P almyra,

( London

1976) COULSTON 1983: f rom

J .C.

Coulston ,

Wallsend',

' A f ragmentary

Archaeologia

a ltar

Aeliana,

t o

s er.5,

Jupiter

XI,

1 983,

3 09-13 COULSTON 1986: tactical The

J .C.

Coulston ,

developments'

Defence

of

t he

International Series COULSTON

&

Corpus

Hadrian's

Wall

P .

Roman 297,

P HILLIPS

Phillips,

' Roman,

in

and

f orthcoming: Imperii

West

the

and

J .C.

( eds.),

East,

BAR

5 9-75 Coulston

Romani,

R iver

S assanid

Kennedy

Byzantine

( Oxford 1986),

S ignorum of

P arthian

Freeman & D .

and

Great

North

E .J.

Britain,

Tyne,

( Oxford

f orthcoming) CUMONT 1926:

F .

Cumont,

Fouilles de Doura E uropos,

CUMONT 1942:

F .

Cumont,

R echerches

des

Romains,

D URRY 1938: P

P

ESPERANDIEU

M .

( Paris

Durry , 1 907-66:

bas-reliefs,

s ur l e

( Paris

symbolisme

1926)

f uneraire

1 942)

Les

Cohortes E .

P retoriennes,

Esperandieu,

statues et bustes de

1907-6 0

1 53

Recueil

l a Gaule

( Paris

1938)

general romaine,

des ( Paris

F ITZ

1 972:

J .

Fitz,

GHIRSHMAN 1 962:

R .

Les

Syriennes A I ntercisa,

Ghirshman ,

I ran:

( Brussels 1972)

P arthians

and

S assanians,

( London 1 962) HOFMANN

1 905:

A .

Donauländer, HUNDT

1 953:

Hofmann ,

H .J.

Hundt,

Dosenortbänder', HUNDT

1 955:

Römische

' Die

H .J.

Hundt,

A . H. M.

1 2,

1953,

' Nachträge

der

e isernen

6 6-79

z u

den

r ömischen

Dosenortbändern

M iniaturschwertanhängern', 1 964:

s pätrömischen

S aalburg Jahrbuch,

R ingknaufsdhwerten ,

JONES

Militärgrabsteine

( Vienna 1905)

Jones,

S aalburg Jahrbuch,

The

Later

R oman

und 1 4,

1955,

Empire,

50-9

2 84-602,

( Oxford 1 964) KALAVREZOU-MAXEINER 1975: chamber at Luxor', KOS

1 978:

H .S.

Corinth', Mus.

Kos,

I .

Kalavrezou-Maxeiner,

Dumbarton Oaks

P apers,

' The

imperial

1975,

2 28-51

' A Latin epitaph of a Roman l egionary f rom

Journal of Roman Studies,

Luxor 1 981:

2 9,

6 8,

1978 ,

D as Museum f ür a ltägyptische

2 2-5

Kunst

in

Luxor,

( Mainz 1981) MENDEL

1 914:

R omaines

G . et

( Istanbul

Mendel,

Catalogue

Byzantines,

Mus es

U .

NASH-WILLIAMS

NOELKE

I mperieux

Grecques,

Ottomans,

Monneret de Villard,

t he imperial cult at Luxor',

1932,

s culptures

I II,

1 914)

MONNERET DE V ILLARD 1953:

f ortress

des

1 932: a t

V .E.

Archaeologia,

Nash-Williams,

Caerleon ,

I I',

9 5,

' The temple of 1953,

86-105

' The Roman l egionary

Archaeologia

Cambrensis,

8 7,

48-104

1 986:

P .

Noelke,

' Ein neuer Soldatengrabstein aus Köln'

in S tudien zu den Militärgrenzen Roms internationalen 1986), OLDENSTEIN

Limeskongresses,

I II.

Aalen

Vorträge d es

1 3.

1 983,

( Stuttgart

Ausrüstung

römischer

2 13-25 1 976:

J .

Auxiliareinheiten Kommission, L ' ORANGE 1965:

5 7, H .P.

O ldenstein , s,

Berichten

1976,

d er

römisch-germanischen

49-284

L ' Orange,

Late Roman Empire,

' Zur

Art Forms and C ivic

( Princeton 1965)

1 54

Life

i n

the

R EINACH

1 912:

Romain . _ s,

S .

I I,

ROBINSON 1975:

R einach,

( Paris H .R .

Rk pertoire

de

R eliefs

Grecs

et

1912)

Robinson ,

The

Armour

of

I mperial

Rome,

( London 1975) ROSTOVTZEFF e t Welles,

a l.

1 939:

M .I.

Rostovtzeff,

F .E.

The Excavations at Dura-Europos:

of the S eventh and Eighth S easons of Work, SPEIDEL

1 975:

M .P.

Speidel,

Roman imperial army', Welt,

1 1.3,

S PEIDEL 1976:

1975,

M .P.

Jahrbücher, S PEIDEL 1978:

M .P.

Aufstieg und Niedergang der

1976,

B .

' Eagle-bearer and trumpeter',

Guards of the Roman Armies:

Sternquist ,

B efestigungsöse', S TRONG 1 980:

D .

H .

Rome: S ZILÄGYI

The

THOMAS

J .

1 975:

1 971:

( ed.),

Aquincum ,

Tentorici,

E .B.

TROUSDALE 1 975:

UBL

1 969:

Thomas,

W .

C atalogue

of

the

Helme,

( Oxford 1 912)

( Budapest 1956)

S childe,

( Rome 1975) Dolche.

S tudien über

( Budapest 1971)

The Long Sword and S cabbard

H .

Ubl,

1 974:

Waffen und Uniform des

S lide

nach

den

römischen Heeres der

Grabreliefs

Noricums

und

( Vienna unpublished dissertation 1969) G .

U lbert,

' Straubing

Langschwerten der späten Limeszeit', ( eds.),

Archäologie. Geburtstag, W1DENGREN

5 9-68

( Washington 1975)

P annoniens,

Ulbert

A

Castra Albana,

Trousdale,

P rinzipatsepoche

ULBERT

1954 ,

( London 1980)

römische-pannonische Waffenkunde,

i n Asia,

1 3,

m it

Preserved in the Municipal Collections of

S zilägyi,

E .

An E ssay

B eschlagplatten

S culptures of the Museo C apitolino,

1956:

TENTORICI

Roman Art,

Stuart Jones

Ancient S culptures

Bonner

( Bonn 1978)

' Runde

S aalburg Jahrbuch,

Strong,

STUART JONES 1912:

römischen

1 25-63

Speidel,

1 954:

( New Haven 1 939)

' The rise of ethnic units in the

on the S ingulares of the P rovinces, STERNQUIST

R eport

2 02-31

Speidel,

1 76 ,

Brown and C . B.

Preliminary

1 968:

S tudien

F estschrift

z ur

Vor-

f ür

und

Nydam .

in G . und

Joachim

Zu römischen

Kossack

and

G .

Frühgeschichtlichen Werner

z um

6 5.

( Munich 1974) G .

W idengren ,

' Le symbolisme de la ceinture',

1 55

T ranica Antiqua, W ILSON 1929: i ssued i n Rome,

L .W .

VII,

Wilson ,

1968,

1 33-55

' Sculptural evidence of an army

by Marcus Aurelius', VII,

1929,

o rder

Memoirs of the American Academy

169-72

1 56

A N OTE ON R OMAN M ILITARY E QUIPMENT F ROM R OMANIA A lexandra D iaconescu and C oriolan Opreanu

We

have written this short note aware that the exchange of

i deas and i nformation i s e ssential when

a ttempting

t he

m ilitary equipment. Any

d isplay

and

e volution

o f

R oman

q uantitative approach t o t he s ubject i s bound to F irst

b ecause

t he

t o

b e

d iscuss

d ifficult.

n umber of artefacts one could excavate on a

s ite r epresents in f act but a small s ample,

and not

t he

i n use at that time.

t ypical

S econd, a reas

one,

o f

t hose

which

because a f airly l arge

were

n umber

o f

f inds

n ecessarily f rom

c ertain

a re not available to most s pecialists due to d ifficulties

i n e stablishing contexts or the availability of published r eports.

I nterim

r eports,

which

a re more f requent,

a void s mall f inds o r do

not

g ive

s ufficient

a rchaeological

and

t hus,

i mportant e lements of dating

c ontext

d ata

f inal

g enerally . bout

t he

a re m issing . I n Romania, were

in the

l ast 2 0 years,

l arge

s cale

e xcavations

p erformed on many Roman f orts producing mainly s mall f inds

c onsisting of mostly m ilitary equipment. n ear

f uture,

t his

b ronze objects,

m aterial,

We

hope

t hat

i n

t he

which we e stimate at around 1 ,000

will be published.

The authors have prepared for

p rint a f irst l ot of 1 50 p ieces f rom the auxiliary f ort at Giläu ( district of Cluj) s oon

m ore

a nd we have strong reasons

p ieces

f rom

P orolissum

l egionary f ortress at T urda s ome

o r

m useums

i n

t he

G herla

b elieve a nd

t hat

f rom

( Potaissa) will be published.

b ig private c ollections f rom the

v arious

t o

c ountry

t he S till

l ast c entury and t hose of

a re

n ot

y et

s ufficiently

e xplored. A

c ategory

o f equipment which calls f or s pecial attention

i s t he c avalry parade armour. S iliana, f ound

i n

1 978,

( Fig.1)

G arbsdh.

1

G iläu ,

horse

t he

d estruction abandonment

t he

f ort

of a la

t hree p ieces belonging to horse armour were armour

c onsists

c entral plate with t he image of Mars. l ast

i n

which were not included in the

The

2

At

l ayer o f

o f

J .

They

were

f ound

i n

t he

which could be dated immediately after

t he

f ort,

b een r eadjusted,

T he

two

c ommon type,

a lthough only one analogy f rom Roman Dacia c ould be

belong to a

The f ragment f rom Figure 2 was d iscovered in the fort

a t I nläceni

( district of Harghita) which

s everal r egiments, V III

equitata.

have

A .D.271-274.

which

c ohors

t o

a round

e ye-pieces, m entioned.

s eem

c atalogue

o f two eye-pieces and a

was

t he

g arrison

o f

among which two c ohortes equitatae are known:

R aetorum

c .R .

equitata .and c ohors

3

1 57

I V H ispanorum

T he r est ,

of what we c onsider t o be a c entral plate f or the

f ront of the horse, position

a nd

depict

a ttitude

t he

with

God t he

o f

W ar

s imilar

i n one

a n

i dentical

f rom Straubing

( Fig.3). 4 The only d ifference between these images i s the way of o utlining t he body. i ncisions,

The Mars of G iläu i s m arked with

A nother

bronze

object

p resenting

a rtefacts f rom other provinces i s a s tud a

s hield.

I t

was

f ound

d ecorated

with

f rom

w ith

The f lat d isc of the

t o s tud

an incision depicting the head of a g enius.

T he same pattern c an be i dentified on ( umbo)

s imilarities

( Fig.4,1) belonging

i n t he auxiliary f ort at Giläu i n an

a rchaeological context not yet dated. i s

c ontinuous

while the one f rom Straubing with s en ate points.

M ainz

M useum

( Fig.4,2).

a

c ircular

5

H .

b ronze

boss

Klumbach found good

analogies f or this motif on a stud attached to another boss f rom M ainz

( Fig.4,3)

( Fig.4,4). t he

and

6

on

a

helmet

f rom

Waal

n ear

N ijmegen

I t must be emphasized that the g enius f rom G iläu and

7

one on t he boss f rom Mainz Museum are a lmost i dentical,

only d ifference i s that the f irst one i s t he other one,

to the r ight.

I t i s not p roduced

i n

c lear

whether

by

i tinerant

K lumbach,

were

s upplied

c onsiderable d istance, e xistence

o f

or in t he same area,

c raftsmen p roduction

a Lwour by

o f

Syrian

c entres

t hat

t he

t o

h is

workshops,

as proved

officers

o f

s upplying the army with a ssumption

a rtefacts

w ere

or whether o rigin ,

a s

We think that

8

s hould

n ot

be

f or i t i s c lear that the R oman s oldier would b uy and

i n t he end s ell back his t roops

i dentical

Garbsch and P etculescu.

t he hypothesis of specific abandoned,

s uch

t he same workshop ,

t hey were made by c onsidered

the

l ooking t o the l eft and

by

t he

d ifferent

weapons theory

a nd

o f

m ilitary

s ometimes H unt

The

9

P ridianum .

r anks,

T he

s pecialised

e quipment,

i tinerant

u nit.

s ituated at a

s upports

c raftsmen

i n t he

i s

n ot

e ntirely convincing. On t he other hand, o ther

problems

objects, t he



' Germanic'

T his

o f

t he

E mpire, t his

a ccount

t he

o rigin.

f inds

were l ocally

T hey

have

t hem

i n G ermania l ibera,

f inds,

p roduced

b een

i nto

t wo

d iscussed

i n

c ategories.

were f ound only

s o-called 1 976 by J . T he

t he

f irst

Outside the R oman

s trap-terminals

o f

T he s econd group has t he annular e xtension n ear

t he m id-point and s uch pieces are t o be f ound on m ilitary on

and

s hould be e xplained a s a matter of

s trap-terminals ending in a r ing.

c ategory.

s mall

O ldenstein has proved t hat the m inor

i s the c ase of the strap-teLminals of

O ldenstein who divides c overs

J .

l ike f ittings and pendants,

s imilarities

f ashion .

taking into

a rise.

s ites

l imes. As a matter of f act s trap-ends of t he f irst g roup

a ppear a lso in the Roman provinces.

J .

O ldenstein considers

t he

p resence of these objects a s an influence of the Germanic t ribes on

t he

R oman

m ilitary equipment, 1 58

against Raddatz who presumes

E7, Aav v ts 1 9 .

A

i g eb: 9A ‘ c i , S 7 2Z7

V 3V »

kr .

N rt yV e h .‘ 1 1- 3i e f i k ei4 , -

, 4 4 , ? ' v g s 7A .7 4 .

J

.

fort of G ilau

qv '

C avalry parade horse

6 ,

a

A

1 59

S .

e , l r e. • ; : , 4 „ •

( N I r s 1 • r 4

p g 4



• •• •••



. •

• • • • •_

• • •r " i t 4

• •



ts

j/ . 1. •

. . . . . .

L 1•

• •

1 60

t hat they must i nfluence. i s

have

a

R oman

o rigin

u nder

f ar more extensive than Oldenstein knew ,

b elieve that they were of Germanic origin. l east

P ontico-Sarmatian

However the d istribution of s trap-ends of both types

two

p ieces

( Edinburgh)

and

o f

i t

of

F rom

1 1

both

Romania

types

and

hard

have

o thers

ten

f rom

t he

I n

the

t ribes.

part of the Roman territory called Dacia Porolissensis

t here i s a strap-terminal ending in a r ing that belongs f irst

t o at

f rom Cramond

we

two

e xtra-provincial territory inhabited by D acian Northern

i s

f ar as we know ,

t his kind exist in Britain ,

N ewstead.

s trap-terminals

so , As

g roup

( Fig. 6 ,1).

I t

was

f ort at Giläu in a third century context porta principalis d extra) .12

t o

the

found at the South gate of the ( the

l evel

I Ib

o f

t he

Three strap-terminals of the second

g roup were also found in Dacia Porolissensis at Giläu and Turda. T he

p iece

f rom Giläu

( Fig.6,3) was discovered at the West gate

i n a s econd century context; o f

S amian

( Fig.6,2;

ware 4 ),

c ontaining

d ated

c ome

A . D.165-190

f rom

objects

1 0cm above this

a

1 9th

f rom the

( Fig.6,7;

two f rom Drobeta

on the r iver Olt, p rovince 16

-

8 )

two

1 5

f rom

one from the

t he

Another strap-terminal East

Eastern

B etween ( Dobrogea)

D acia t here

( Fig.6,9)

was

f ound

fort at Barbo9i

i n

( Fig.6,10)

and dated largely in

I nferior

was

a

( Oltenia)

l owland

a nd

t erritory

Moesia

( Fig. 6 ,11)

I nferior

populated by f ree Romans.

Two

f rom the s econd group have been f ound

in the Dacian s ettlement at Mätäsarul 9 - unfortunately only

one example the

i s

reproduced by the author who also omitted to g ive

relationship between the context and f inds.

i s dated to the

This

s ettlement

second and the third century A .D.

Germanic presence at the Low Danube in the s econd f irst

half

e vidence.

of

The

C laudius

t he

I IIrd century A .D.

I I

i n

A . D.270.

outside

Thus,

t he

and

t he

not s upported by any o f Gothicus

t he strap-terminals with an

at the mid point or

l ikely to be considered typical f inds

i s

f irst Roman emperor who got t he title

annular extension , t he

-

t he

1 7

a region probably controlled by the

s trap-terminals

i s

o f

t he third century A .D.

D acian tribes, here

coming

auxiliary

border

f rom a military s ite

belonging to the province Moesia Inferior 18 t he second and

t he

fort at Säpata de Jos

part of the country in the

6 )

' Limes Alutanus'

which seems to be occupied between A .D.205-242.

t he

there

there are f ive

( Fig. 6 ,5;

on the so called

f or a l ong time

and

c ollection

1 4

f rom f rom 1 9th century excavations, a t R acari

f ragment

The other two

1 3

private

called Dacia Inferior,

p ieces of the second group: f ort

found.

c entury

a

l egionary f ortress at Turda,

i s no dating evidence for them . I n the Southern part,

was

l evel,

at

t he

end,

a re

more

for Roman military equipment and

Roman Empire to be accepted as a Roman 1 61

i nfluence.

Yet,

it i s

not

c ertain

t hat

t he

P ontico-Sarmatian

origin could be denied. I f

publishing

bronze objects

previous conclusions, s till

valid.

For

d iscussed by Wild , a re

v ery

r are

( Fig. 5 ,1)

i nstance, 2°

t he

button-and-loop

i n Dacia.

We can mention one example from G iläu

belonging to Wild's Vc class, d ated

at

example

i s

l oop-fastener

belonging

a t o

t he

c lass

end

Vb,

which

was

f ound

of the s econd century A .D. with

f rom

enamelled

t he

f ort

Although very f ew in number ,

2 1

f asteners

which are f requent on Romano-British s ites,

c ontext

I nferior.

f rom Dacia could change some

in some other cases the old hypotheses are

head

i n

a

Another

( Fig.g,2)

at Barbo9i in Moesia

the

loop-fasteners f rom

t he Low Danube are unlikely to be imports f rom Britannia a s s uch artefacts could

be

l ocally

produced

u nder

t he

f ashion.

NOTES 1 .

D IACONESCU,

1983.

2 .

GARBSCH,

3 .

GUDEA ,

4 .

KEIM et al.,

5 .

KLUMBACH ,

6 .

I bid.

Fig.12,2.

7 .

I bid.

Fig.11,3.

8 .

PETCULESCU,

9 .

BREEZE,

1978.

1979,

2 58 P l.XXIII,7. 1951,

1 966,

1 0.

OLDENSTEIN ,

1 1.

RAE & RAE,

1 2.

I SAC e t al.,

1 3.

I SAC ,

1 4.

BAIUSZ,

1 5.

TUDOR,

9 4.

1974,

69-85. 195.

1981,

Figs.3 & 8 .

7 1-2 Nr.12.

1 980, 1976,

P 1.29.

392.

1976,

1 982,

Nr.17,

Fig.12,2.

1980,

1976,

26-7,

3 82 Nr.575, 1 28 Nr.45,

Pl.III;

48;

3,7 6 ,

Pl.IX,6,

1 62

9 .

Nr.206.

inluence

of

1 6.

TUDOR ,

1 965 ,

1 7.

CHRISTESCU ,

1 8.

SANIE,

1 9.

B ICHIR ,

2 0.

W ILD.

2 1.

SANIE,

2 49,

F ig.8,3,

1 935,

1 981,

1 970,

F iq.13,9.

1 81 Nr.27,

1 984,

4 .

5 7 Nr.3,

P 1.53,6. P l.LI,17.

1 37-46.

1 981,

1 81 Nr.26;

P 1.47,2.

B IBLIOGRAPHY BAIUSZ

1 980:

I stvän ',

I .

B IRCHIR 1 984: r omana, BREEZE

' Colec 5 . ia de antichit ki a l ui Tegläs

G h.

B irdhir,

G eto-dacii

1980,

a m

D .

B reeze,

B ritannia VII,

C HRISTESCU

nMuntenia i n

1 935:

V .

' The 1976 ,

epoca

ownership of arms in the Roman 9 3-5

Christescu,

' Le

" castellum"

S äpata-de Jos',

D acia V-VI,

1 935-6,

D IACONESCU 1 983: A .

D iaconescu,

in Marisia XIII,

GARBSCH

3 67-94

( BucareTti 1984)

1 976:

army',

B aiusz,

Acta M uzuel P orolissensis IV ,

1 978:

J .

Garbsch,

romain

d u

435-47 1983

Römische P aradeausrüstungen,

( München

1 978) GUDEA 1 979:

N .

G udea,

' Castrul

Muzuel P orolissensis I II, I SAC 1 982: I SAC e t

D .

a l.

I sac, 1 981:

D .

I sac,

N apocensis XVIII, 1 966:

Mainz', O LDENSTEIN

H .

K lumbach,

J .

1 980:

N .S.XXIV ,

L .

I nläcenil,

Acta

D iaconescu, d e

l a

C .

Opreanu,

G iläu',

Acta

' Porta Musei

85-97 ' Drei

Jahrbuche RGZM XIII, 1 976:

l a

1 982

c astrului

1 981,

Auxiliareinheiten ', P ETCULESCU

A .

d e

1 50-273

in Potaissa I II,

principalis d extra a

KLUMBACH

r oman

1 979 ,

1 966,

O ldenstein ,

' Zur

B ericht RGK 5 7, P etculescu,

1 980

1 63

r ömische

S chilbuckel aus

1 65-89 Austrüstung 1 976 ,

r ömischer

5 1-284

Review of GARBSCH 1978,

Dacia

RAE 1 974:

A .

& V .

Excavations SANIE

1 981:

Rae,

' The Roman fort

1954-1966',

S .

S anie,

TUDOR G .

( Iasi

1 965:

D .

Tudor,

Oltenia)',

TUDOR 1976: W ILD 1970:

D . J .P.

provinces',

Edinburgh.

1 63-224

- s ec

I I

P .e.n.

-

I II

1981) ' Castra Daciae I nferioris Säpaturile

Tocilescu in castrul

reg.

Cramond,

1 974,

C ivilizatia romana l a e st de C arpati s i

romanitatea pe territoriul Moldavei e .n.,

a t

Britannia V ,

roman de la Räcari

Apulum V ,

Tudor, Wild ,

1965,

2 33-57

in Drobeta I I,

1976

' Button-and-loop f asteners

Britannia I ,

1970,

l ui

( raionul F ilia9i,

1 37-55

i n

t he

R oman

4. 8 C M r d

• G:

(X 1 7 , 7 7 2

0

c ‘ i

0 4

r z 4 1 65

P. \

3

I f

41 ‘ ,

• . . . .

7

8

9 t o

1 Fig.6:

M ilitary

s trap

collection;

ends

3 .Gilau;

S äpata de Jos;

1 0.

f rom 1 . 5 ,6.

B arbo9i;

1 66

G ilau;

D robeta;

2 ,4. 7 ,8.

1 1. Mätäsaru

Turda private R acari;

9 .

E VIDENCE F OR T HE ROMAN A RMY

I N S OUTHWARK

M ichael Hammerson and Harvey S heldon

A

n umber

o f

R oman

f inds which may be m ilitary i n origin

have been f ound in S outhwark,

t he s uburb of Londinium which l ies

d irectly opposite to i t on the south bank

o f

t he

T hames.

T he

s trategic s ignificance of S outhwark was t hat i t l ay at the f irst p lace

upriver

which

c ould

be r eached by roads f rom t he major

e ntry points on the s outh coast ,

and where the Thames

c ould

be

b ridged. T he

d etailed

e xcavations

i n

d ecade and a half have provided a pproaching u ntil c .

t he

AD 5 0.

L ondinium) t o

g uard

r iver

b ank,

P ermanent

may

S outhwark

e vidence

o f

d uring two

m ajor

r oads

b ut neither n eed have been built

a ctivity

i n

S outhwark

n ot have begun until that date,

s upplies

t he l ast

( and

i ndeed

t hough the n eed

and

c ommunications

m ay

b e

e nvisaged

t hat

t he main C laudian invasion route f rom

t hereafter. I t K ent

i s

l ikely

( Watling Street) bypassed upriver,

North

T hames

f urther

s tands,

by a more southerly route.

s upported by the

S outhwark,

r eaching

t he

c lose to where Westminster B ridge now This l ong held s upposition i s

l ack of evidence f or early road construction in

S outhwark.' S tudy of the ancient topography a lso demonstrates t hat much o f t he l and n ear to the Thames between the more obvious c rossing p laces in North Southwark ( Westminster

B ridge)

( London

was

l ow

B ridge) .

l ying ,

c reeks s urrounded by mud-flats l ikely to be t ide.

a nd

N orth

L ambeth

consisting of inlets and s ubmerged

a t

high

2

A

f ort

m ay

b e

postulated

n ear

t o

where the armies of

C laudius crossed the Thames and this could have r emained in t hroughout

m uch

s ubsequent

c onstruction

B ridge.

T here

a nd F uentes

o f i s

t he

i nvasion o f

a

p eriod

d ownriver

i rrespective of the c rossing

a t

n o evidence f or i t though both Morris

( 1985) have advanced s uggestions f or

T opographic

e vidence

would

i ts

L ondon ( 1982)

l ocation.

f avour the l atter's hypothesis and

s everal s ites n ear to the E lephant and Castle which might s ome

u se

t hrow

l ight on the matter may shortly be examined in t he context

o f r e-development. E vidence

f or

t he

c onstruction

o f

t he

r oads

i n

N orth

S outhwark and the topography have been d iscussed previously.

3

I t

s eems probable that t he road-building and a ssociated engineering 1 67

work

( land drainage,

revetting and bridge building) was c arried

out by the Roman army.

I t i s also l ikely that the military

were

involved subsequently in the use of l and on both banks a s a base f or the transport and distribution of s upplies. At

the

t ime

of

c lassed as items of t hese, or

4

writing some thirty pieces that might be

military

equipment

s ome might be pre-Flavian ,

have

been

though many come

f ound.

Of

f rom F lavian

l ater contexts. Excavations have also produced 1 0 r egular and 1 06 i rregular

C laudian coins. t he

These are most common on s ites

c opies are of good style c ommonest

S outhwark

and

types

were perhaps struck c .

the are

B ritain.

C omparison

l ater

ones

where

the earlier

a re

poor.

T he

of an intermediate grade which

AD 5 0-55.

The proportion of copies of

t he

Southwark with other s ites t hose

in Britain

army was present during the pre-Flavian period:

( 92%) i st

i s one

of

t he

highest

i n

c entury coin distribution in

shows that

i t

i s

most

s imilar

t o

f rom coastal or e stuarine supply bases of this period such

a s Richborough,

Fishbourne,

Fingringhoe and Sea M ills.

5

A l ist of Roman military objects d iscovered in Southwark i s g iven

below.

The numbers refer to those on the distribution map

( Fig:/ ). Harness or Belt F ittings:

1 .

Topping's Wharf

2 .

Bonded Warehouse,

3 . 4 ,5,6. ' Auxiliary'

199 B orough H igh Street Courage Brewery

Cavalry Harness Pendants: 8 .

Topping's Wharf

9 .

D istrict Heating Scheme

1 0,11. 1 2. Lorica Buckles:

C ingulum bosses:

Other decorative bosses

Pls.1 & 2 :

Montague C lose

Auxiliary

1 3,14.

1 5-23

S outhwark Street

Courage Brewery 1 3-14 Arcadia Buildings

1 5.

1 5-23 Southwark Street

1 6.

1 -7 S t Thomas'

Street

1 7.

1 5-23 Southwark Street

1 8.

Hibernia Wharf

and

harness

s tuds

c ommonly

p endants

S treet. 1 68

f rom

d escribed

1 5-23

a s

o f

S outhwark

N J

1 69

P 1.3

i

S ca le 3 : 1 Fig. 1

1 70

'military' type: Iron Bolt-heads:

Scabbard M ounts:

19. 199 Borough High Street 20,21. Courage Brewery 22. 201-11 Borough High Street (see SLEA C 1978, fig.63,18; the object is of an uncorruron size and shape (triangular section) and there is uncertainty as to w}:lether it is in fact a weapon-head) 23. 199 Borough High Street

24,25. 1-7 St Thomas' Street

'Military'-type Buckles: 26,27. 175-177 Borough High Street Pair of mounts from a Dolabra Sheath: 28. 15-23 Southwark Street Small Bronze Phallus with Suspension Loop: 29. 15-23 Southwark Street Lead Centurial Property-identification tag, 30. Courage Brewery Corneli Verecundi':

inscribed

'C

Q

Carnelian Intaglio, depicting an eagle between two standards: 31. 1-7 St Thomas' Street There is also a record (J. Brit. Archaeol. Assoc. xxiv, 1968, 309) of an iron object found in Stoney Street in 1865. This was considered to be a gladiator's �rident when discovered, but it has been suggested that it is part of a military standard. In addition to the irregular Claudian coins, which may have been struck by the army or the administration in Britain, a coin of Nero, stamped with a counter-mark of Vitellius (AD 69) was found at 15-23 Southwark S�reet. The late Dr c. Kraay informed us that only four other examples of this counterrnark are known, and that all the provenanced examples are from Britain. The counterrnark may therefore have been produced by adherents to the side of Vitellius serving in Britain. Apart from coins and objects, attention might also be drawn to two ranges of buildings r�cently found in Southwark. Pl.3:

Lorica segmentata buckle from Arcadia Buildings (X-ray).

Fig.l: Carnelian gemstone with legionary Thomas' Street (scale 6:1) 171

notif

from

1-7

St

F irstly, l ocation) t imber

at

1 5-23

a l arge

p iles

built in

c entury

beneath

AD

F urther

i st

7 4

e arly

s tone

s tone

t o

building

d endrochronological

c omplex

no.10 for w ith

f oundations may have been

f ounded buildings whole

( see F ig. -I ,

c ourtyard

t he stone wall

a ccording

s ize and date of the public

S outhwark Street

evidence.

6

l ay to the west and the

s uggests

t hat

t hey

were

rather than private.

Secondly,

a

d iscovery

i mplying

between Southwark and the army came s ettlement,

at

l ocation).

a later Roman connection

f rom the north-west

Winchester Palace in 1 984

There,

i nscription came

f ragments

of

f rom a bath suite,

a

( see F ig.L, l arge

of

t he

no.32 for

multi-panelled

probably the western part of

a s ubstantial stone building. Most

of the surviving f ragments

g rouped according to Cohorts, this

was

a

d edication

l ist names which have been

and it has

been

s uggested 7

that

by a detachment of l egionary soldiers.

Most of the dedicatory inscription itself has been l ost but c losest

parallel

Lambaesis. d ate

The

s hortly

t he

appears to be a dedication to Julia Mamaea at

f requency of the praenomen Aurelius

i ndicates

a

after Caracalla's extension of the c itizenship in

AD 2 13. I n conclusion , Roman

military

we c an therefore envisage

personnel in Southwark,

t hough not on present evidence before c . pre-Flavian

presence

of

AD

5 0.

Any

p resumed

f ort connected either with the Claudian campaign or

l ater phases of the conquest i s g round

t he

during the i st century,

l ikely t o be

s ituated

t o the south of the area shown on Fig.U . ,

f inds support the suggestion that

a

s upply

on

f irm

though the coin

base

was

l ocated

within Southwark during much of this period. Later f inds which might be connected with soldiers, t he

inscription

f rom

W inchester Palace,

presence in Southwark of

m ilitary

such as

could derive f rom the

p ersonnel

i nvolved

in

t he

n ature

and

administration of Britain. More

archaeological

evidence

d evelopment of Roman Southwark i s still

about

the

u rgently

b eing

s ought

and it i s to be hoped that the extent of military involvement in the

l ife

of

t he

s ettlement

w ill

progresses.

NOTES 1 .

SHELDON ,

2 .

GRAHAM,

1978. 1978.

1 72

become

c learer

a s

work

®F ind I .

n u mber

R oman

R oad ( known ) „ ( p ro jec ted)

L and o ver+ 1 .0m O .D . E dge o f C hanne ls 0

Fig. 2

1 73

1 00

2 00

m .

3 .

GRAHAM,

1978;

SHELDON ,

4 .

HAMMERSON ,

1978;

5 .

HAMMERSON ,

1 978.

6 .

SHELDON & TYERS,

7 .

HASSALL & TOMLIN ,

1978.

SHELDON ,

1978.

1983. 1985.

B IBLIOGRAPHY FUENTES 1985:

N .

Fuentes,

Archaeologist, GRAHAM

1 978:

A .

Southwark'

Graham ,

M .

in

Excavations

1 985, MORRIS

c astles

and

e lephants',

London

' The geology and topography of North

Hammerson ,

Hammerson

' The coins'

f orthcoming,

in SLAEC 1 978 S outhwark

and

( to

be

Lambeth

I )

HASSALL & TOMLIN : in 1984

' Of

Autumn 1985

in SLAEC 1 978

HAMMERSON 1 978: updated

5 :4,

I I.

M .W .C.

Hassall & R .S.O.

I nscriptions:

A .

Tomlin ,

Monumental'

' Roman Britain

in Britannia

XVI,

3 17-22

1 982:

J .

Morris,

Londinium.

London in the Roman Empire,

( London 1982) S HELDON 1978:

H .L.

Sheldon ,

' The

1 972-4

contribution to Southwark's history' S HELDON

&

TYERS

1 983:

H .L.

Sheldon

e xcavations:

t heir

in SLAEC 1 978 &

I .

Tyers,

' Recent

dendrochronological work in Southwark and its implications', London Archaeologist, SLAEC

1 978:

Committee,

Southwark

4 : 1 3, &

1983,

Lambeth

Archaeological

No.1,

Soc . and Surrey Archaeol.

Soc.,

1 978

1 74

1 972-1974,

Excavation

Joint Pub.

Southwark Excavations

London & Middlesex Archaeol.

3 55-61

THE

D RAWN L .

This m ade

e xperiment

in 1 981

d uring

in

the

Morgan

c arried

out to check the

' The Pedite Gladius'l

1 983

R oman

S heffield University. t he

was

SWORD

M ilitary

d rawn

were officers'

a cross

S eminar

held

the body,

that are in excess of 2 0in

weapons and worn on the

beinq he

l eft

hip

Fulham

sword

f rom its s cabbard on the

I n 1983

it was demonstrated by a

f ully

presented no d ifficulty when drawn

r ight hip with

w ith the wearer kitted out

and

f elt f ar too l ong to be removed

r ight hip.

t he author and members of the Ermine Street Guard that r econstructed

at

Hazell had suggested that s uch weapons as

2

f rom a s cabbard on the

and s ubsequently discussed

Equipment

Fulham and Mainz pattern blades,

i n l ength,

statements

t he

r ight

hand,

e ven

in a Corbridge B lorica s egmentata.

Our experiments were expanded to tests with a spatha having a

blade

l ength of 2 51 2i / n.

These were carried out while wearing a

orica s egmentata and with the r econstructed Corbridge B l s uspended a rmpit.

on

t he

r ight

hip

with

s patha

t he pommel under the right

The grip with the r ight hand was managed with ease,

s word

withdrawn

e asily.

3

w ith at

the

l east an inch to spare and sheathed as

NOTES 1 .

HAZELL ,

1982.

2 .

BISHOP,

1983

3 .

Further reinforced by Connolly's experiments

in

t he

s addle,

this volume.

B IBLIOGRAPHY B ISHOP

1 983:

M .C.

B ishop

( ed.),

Roman

Military

Equipment.

Proceedings o f a Seminar Held i n the Department of History

and

Sheffield, HAZELL

1 982:

Journal

C lassical

2 1st March P .

6 1,

1 983,

Hazell, 1 982,

Archaeology

at

Ancient

the University of

( Sheffield 1 983)

' The

7 3-82

1 75

pedite

g ladius',

Antiquaries

I NDEX

Aalen Museum:

8

c andidati s implares:

A emilius Paullus: A lgeria:

5 9

Agrippa:

5 2,

A lbano:

4 1

C aracalla: C arlisle:

6 2

A lexander:

c arnyx: 3 0

A lexandria:

1 47

C arnuntum :

1 43

1 10,

1 20,

5 6

C astellum D immidi:

Apamea S yriae:

1 43

C astleford:

Aquileia:

143

C ato:

145

C ave of L etters:

6 2

A rsinoite nome: Augustus:

5 4,

5 5

6 2

4 3,

1 45

6 2

48,

4 9

45

c enturions:

6 1

c hain mail:

9 2,

4 3 9 3

C hatsworth relief:

Aurelius S urus:

5 6,

1 6

Aquincum: A rrian:

1 33

2 9

C arthage:

5 6

5 9

1 72

C herchel M useum :

4 3

C hester B aden:

1 32

Abbey G reen:

B arberini N ilotic mosiac: B arbo9i:

D eanery

1 61

f ittings: 8 8,

1 14

9 0,

1 41,

5 7,

1 05,

1 43,

5 9,

H unter S treet:

1 16,

H unters Walk:

1 68

N ewgate: 4 7

1 32 1 48

C hichester:

B ishapur:

1 43

C ichorius:

B oulogne:

1 23

c ingulum :

1 14

B ridgeness:

5 7,

c lassiarii:

B rigetio:

1 45

c lavarium:

3 9

C laudius I I:

2 9

b uckles:

c lavi:

9 0,

1 43,

b urial s hrouds:

1 71

f asteners:

c ab :

1 01

4 8,

6 0,

3 9 1 13,

1 32

4 3

148

D acia P orolissensis: d ecurions:

6 2

9 9,

6 0

D oorwerth:

1 61

6 1

dolabra s heath:

1 05

1 71

1 32

D omitius Ahenobarbus:

9 4

C ancelleria r elief:

49

D ura-Europos:

c andidati duplares:

5 9

6 1, 1 48

1 76

6 7

5 4

c ornicines:

1 45

c altrop:

6 0,

1 65

c aeruleus: c aligae:

1 41

1 61

S heepen : C ordova:

5 8, 2 4

44,

C olchester: 1 62,

9 3

9 6

1 01

4 3,

c loaks:

4 3

b utton and loop

C aerleon:

9 2

4 5

5 7,

brooches: bucina:

9 2

1 33 44,

C irencester: 5 4

8 7

8 5

O ld Market Hall: C hester P ageant:

B eth P haseil:

B regenz:

9 3,

F oregate S treet:

4 2,

B elvedere s arcophagus: B esançon:

8 5

F ield :

9 4

B atavian revolt: b elt

5 2

8 , 7 7,

46,

4 1 5 4 ,

1 03,

5 5 , 1 47,

Egypt:

4 3,

E ining:

4 7

l orica

s egmentata:

1 43

1 69 , l orica

F ayyum shield: f ibula: T .

4 2,

1 06,

49

L ugdunum

F lavius Felix:

F rodsham:

s quamata:

8 1 43

1 75

L unt

( the):

l unula: G aius:

1 23

L uxor:

G aius Romanius: G ellius:

4 1

g ladius:

1 10,

1 1 1 75

M ainz:

6 1,

6 2,

1 45

3 9

3 0

1 32,

1 47,

M arcus Column: 1 32

1 11,

h elmets,

M ars:

1 41

1 58

m iles: 1 12

1 61

1 45

m imesis:

1 11

M isene f leet: H od H ill: H ofheim :

1 23,

1 32

4 3

1 57

M ätäsaru:

I mperialG allic:

munifices:

5 8

5 9

1 32

horse armour: hobnails:

1 59

Nahal Hever:

8 9

4 3,

1 46

I nläceni:

N euß:

48,

1 43

1 32

1 46,

1 47

N iedermörmter: N iederbieber:

J udgement of Solomon: J ulia Mammaea:

1 48 1 46

5 2

1 72

J ulii monument:

Oberstimm :

1 1

O ctavian: O stia:

1 23 6 2

1 01

3 2

K empten:

1 14

K hisfine:

p aenula:

1 47

K neller Hall

8

1 47

l ituus:

2 9

L ondon:

1 33,

L ongthorpe:

43

5 8,

3 6

p apilio:

5 9

P arthia:

7 7 1 13,

phalera:

1 47

p ila: 1 32

P lato:

1 11,

1 71 6 0,

1 41

3 0,

p raetorium:

1 77

5 6,

1 11

P ompeii: 1 41

1 01

1 18 6 7

1 16,

1 41

6 1

P iazza Amerini:

1 47

6 0,

P hiladelphia: phallus mount:

1 05

l orica hamata:

5 3,

P annonian mutiny:

p endants:

1 13

l imitaneus:

M il.

Music):

K refeld-Gellup :

l ati c lavii:

48,

P alestrina: ( Roy.

C oll. K ünzing:

4 7,

1 61

I ntercisa:

kakaki:

45,

5 8 Naqsh-i-Rustam:

I llyria:

l ancea:

1 71 1 13

1 57

Ham H ill: hasta:

1 48

1 18 5 6,

M ahillon:

4 1

9 3,

1 41

1 32

Lydney P ark:

1 41,

G lanum relief: G ilau:

8 7,

l unate pendants:

F ulham sword:

1 21,

8 9,

1 10,

( battle of):

l uggage tags:

9 2

49,

1 72

4 1, 48

5 3,

6 1

6 2

Q uintillian:

4 2,

U nits

48

a lae R ottweil: R ielves:

S iliana:

2 4

c ohortes

5 9

R ißtissen:

1 23,

R heingönheim:

I V H ispanorum

1 32

R hine f rontier: R acari:

e quitata:

3 9

7

s addle s tiffeners:

equitata:

I Tungrians:

1 57 6 3

l egions

8

I Adiutrix:

1 41

6 2,

I I Adiutrix:

1 01

S allustius Lucullus:

1 57

A sturian(s):

1 47

s addle covers:

S alaria:

5 4

V III Raetorum c .v.

s agum :

1 57

XX P almyrenorum :

1 32

1 61

S aalburg:

1 57

I I Augusta:

1 14

1 45

6 2 1 23

1 14,

148

I II Augusta:

6 0

Sk oata d e Jos:

1 61

X III Gemina:

1 23

I I Parthica:

1 43

S alzburg:

S assanians:

7 7

s cabbard mounts: s cale

a rmour

1 45, ( see

XX Valeria

1 71

V ictrix:

l orica

5 1,

6 0,

1 03,

1 41,

1 49

S outh S hields:

1 47

s patha:

1 4,

1 41,

Augusti: 1 47,

1 48,

S trabo:

Varro:

9 0 1 20,

5 2,

Verecundus:

1 58

Verulamium:

1 01

Vespasian:

5 3,

1 43

1 47

T hracian c avalry: T itiani:

V imose:

1 01

T erentius f resco: T horsbjerg:

t uba:

C olumn:

t unic

44,

3 9

1 03,

( civilian): ( Potaissa):

1 71 1 14

1 58 1 24

W ickford:

43

3 9

W inchester P alace:

4 1 48

1 61

1 14,

4 6,

Z ilten mosiac: Z ugmantel:

U lpian:

5 3,

Voralpenland:

4 2

Waltersdorf: 6 0

t unicati d iscincti: T urda

1 00

Waddon:

5 7

5 4

1 47

V indonissa:

Waal:

1 48

2 9

t ubicen:

6 1,

1 01

V itellius:

t rierarchus:

6 0,

44

V indolanda:

1 24

T orre de P acliglione: 1 02,

5 3,

1 32

9 4

T rajan's

1 23

6 0

v exillarius: T acitus:

9 9 ,

7

v enetus:

1 32

5 1

S uetonius:

1 6,

1 47

s trap ends: S trasbourg: S traubing:

7 ,

1 45

4 3

Vegetius:

6 3

S tatilii:

Valkenburg: Vechten :

( see hasta)

1 43

e quites s ingulares

1 05,

1 69 s pears

9 4

numerus D ivitensium:

s quamata) s cuta:

5 7,

6 1

1 78

1 47

6 0

1 72

1 23,