Roman Military Equipment: the Sources of Evidence: Proceedings of the Fifth Roman Military Equipment Conference 9780860546139, 9781407347639


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Table of contents :
Cover Page
Copyright Page
Table of Contents
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
PREFACE
O FORTUNA: A SIDEWAYS LOOK AT THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD AND ROMAN MILITARY EQUIPMENT
NTRODUCTORY REMARKS ON NATIVE AND ROMAN TRADE IN THE NORTH OF BRITAIN
THE INNER AND OUTER RELATION OF THE MILITARY VICUS TO ITS FORT
THE VALUE OF TRAJAN'S COLUMN AS A SOURCE FOR MILITARY EQUIPMENT
DIE MILITÄRISCHE RÜSTUNG IN DER RÖMISCHEN KUNST: FRAGEN ZUR ANTIQUARISCHEN GENAUIGKEIT AM BEISPIEL DER SCHWERTER DES 2.
WAS TRUG DER RÖMISCHE SOLDAT UNTER DEM CINGULUM?
ROMAN TERRACOTTA HORSE FIGURINES AS A SOURCE FOR THE RECONSTRUCTION OF HARNESSING
REKONSTRUKTIONSMÖGLICHKEITEN DER PFERDEGESCHIRRFUNDE AUS PANNONIEN
AN OFFICER OR A GENTLEMAN? A LATE -ROMAN WEAPON - GRAVE FROM A VILLA AT VOERENDAAL (NL)
AN EARLY ROMAN BURIAL IN VELSEN I
ROMAN HELMETS AND OTHER MILITARIA FROM VECHTEN
A NOTE ON THE ORIGIN OF THE IMPERIAL GALLIC HELMET
A ROMAN HELMET IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
TESTING PLUMBATAE
THE SLING AND ITS PLACE IN THE ROMAN IMPERIAL ARMY
THE VINDOLANDA CHAMFRONS AND MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS OF LEATHER
SADDLE COVERS, CHAMFRONS AND POSSIBLE HORSE ARMOUR FROM CARLISLE
A REVIEW OF THE EQUIPMENT OF THE ROMAN ARMY OF DACIA
INDEX
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Roman Military Equipment: the Sources of Evidence Proceedings of the Fifth Roman Military Equipment Conference

edited by

C. van Driel-Murray

BAR International Series 4 7 6 1989

B.A.R.

122 Banbury Rd, Oxford, OX2 7BP, UK

GENERAL EDITORS A.R. Hands, B.Sc., M.A., D.Phil. D.R. Walker, M.A.

BAR -S476, 1989: 'Roain Jlilitary Equipment: the Sources of Evidence'

©

The Individual Authors, 1989

The authors’ moral rights under the 1988 UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act are hereby expressly asserted. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be copied, reproduced, stored, sold, distributed, scanned, saved in any form of digital format or transmitted in any form digitally, without the written permission of the Publisher. ISBN 9780860546139 paperback ISBN 9781407347639 e-book DOI https://doi.org/10.30861/9780860546139 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library This book is available at www.barpublishing.com

C ONTENTS P age L ist o f C ontributors

i ii

P reface

T HE B ACKGROUND 0

F ortuna:

a

s ideways l ook a t t he a rchaeological r ecord

a nd R oman m ilitary e quipment M .C. I ntroductory r emarks o n t he n ature o f R oman t rade

i n

B ishop

1

t he

N orth o f B ritain L . A llason-Jones T he i nner a nd o uter r elations o f v icus

1 3

t he m ilitary f ort t o i ts C .S.

S ommer

2 5

T HE I CONOGRAPHIC E VIDENCE T he V alue o f T rajan 's C olumn e quipment

a s

a

s ource

f or

m ilitary J .C.

C oulston

3 1

D ie m ilitärische R üstung i n d er R ömischen Kunst: F ragen z ur a ntiquarischen G enauigkeit a m B eispiel d er S chwerter d es

2 . J ahrhunderts n .

C hr. G .

W as

W aurick

4 5

H . U bl

6 1

t rug d er r ömische S oldat u nter d em C ingulum?

R oman t erracotta h orse f igurines r econstruction o f h arnessing

a s

a

s ource f or t he G .M .E.C. v an B oekel

7 5

M ILITARY E QUIPMENT I N B URIAL O R R ITUAL C ONTEXTS R ekonstructionsmöglichkeiten P annonien

d er

P ferdegechirrfunde

a us

S . P alagyi A n

1 23

o fficer o r a g entleman? A L ate-Roman w eapon g rave f rom

a v illa a t V oerendaal

( NL) W . W illems

1 43

A . W aasdorp

1 57

R oman m ilitary e quipment f rom t he H ague H olland

P age A n e arly R oman b urial i n V elsen I J .-M .A.W. M orel & A .V.A.J.

B osman

1 67

C .A. K alee

1 93

P . C onnolly

2 27

H OARDS A ND C OLLECTIONS R oman h elmets a nd o ther m ilitaria f rom V echten

A n ote o n t he o rigins o f t he I mperial G allic h elmet

A R oman h elmet i n t he D ominican R epublic J .

B ennett

2 35

J . E agle

2 47

G riffiths

2 55

E XPERIMENTAL E VIDENCE T esting p lumbatae

T he s ling a nd i ts p lace i n t he R oman I mperial a rmy W .B .

I NDIRECT S OURCES O F E VIDENCE T he

V indolanda

c hamfrons

a nd

m iscellaneous

i tems

o f

l eather h orse g ear C . v an D riel Murray S addle c overs,

c hamfrons a nd p ossible

h orse

a rmour

2 81

f rom

C arlisle S . W interbottom

3 19

A r eview o f t he e quipment o f t he R oman a rmy o f D acia M .

I ndex

D awson

3 37

3 67

i i

L IST O F C ONTRIBUTORS

L .

A llason-Jones*

M useum o f A ntiquities, T he U niversity, N ewcastle u pon T yne, N E1 7 RU, E ngland

J .

B ennett

D ept. o f A rchaeology, T he U niversity, N ewcastle u pon T yne, N E1 7 RU E ngland

M .C.

B ishop*

D ept. o f A rchaeology, T he U niversity, N ewcastle u pon T yne, N E1 7 RU E ngland

G .M .E.C.

v an B oekel

B feaufe 9 ,

5 263 G B V ught,

A .V.A.J.

B osn ian

C remerlaan 2 5, N etherlands

2 071

N etherlands

S K S antpoort-N,

P . C onnolly*

2 2 S pring S treet, 2 XW , E ngland

J .C.

D ept. o f A rchaeology, T he U niversity, N ewcastle u pon T yne, N E1 7 RU, E ngland

M .

C oulston*

D awson*

9H awkins R oad, E ngland

S palding,

L incs,

P Ell

B edford, M K42 9 LS,

C . v an D riel-Murray

A lbert E gges v an G iffen I nstitute f or P re a nd P rotohistory, U niversity o f A msterdam , S ingel 4 53, 1 012 W P, A msterdam , N etherlands

J . E agle*

2 2 E mber F arm W ay, K T8 O BL, E ngland

W .B.

3 6 D uchy R oad, H arrogate, H G1 2 ER, E ngland

G riffiths*

N . Y orkshire,

U lst

J .-M .A.W. M orel

A lbert E gges v an G iffen I nstitute f or P re a nd P rotohistory, U niversity o f A msterdam , S ingel 4 53, 1 012 W P A msterdam , N etherlands

S .

V esprgm ,

C .S.Sommer*

H .-J.

U bl*

3 861 L V N ijkerk,

S urrey ,

C .A. K alee*

P alägyi

7 ,

E ast M olesey,

N etherlands

B okonyi M üzeum , H -8201, H ungary

L andesdenkmalamt B aden-Württemberg, A rchäologische D enkmalpflege, S ilberburgstrasse 1 93, 7 000 S tuttgart W . G ermany

I ,

S chelhammergasse 6 4, A -3420 K ritzendorf, A ustria

i ii

A .

W aasdorp

G emeentesecretarie D en H aag, a fd. V OM . s ectie A rcheologie, P ostbus 8 0.000, 2 508 G A D en H aag,

G .

W aurick*

N etherlands

R ömisch-Germanisches Z entralmuseum , E rnst-Ludwig-Platz

2 ,

D -65 M ainz,

W .

G ermany W .J.H.

W illems

R ijksdienst v .

O udheidkundig

B odemonderzoek, A mersfoort, S .

W interbottom

E ngland

d elivered a p aper a t

1 ,

C arlisle A rchaeological U nit, P aternoster R ow,

*

K erkstraat

t he c onference

i v

3 811

N etherlands

C arlisle,

4

CA3 8 TT,

C V

P REFACE S ince m eeting

1 983,

p lace

t he R oman M ilitary E quipment S eminars h ave p rovided f or

a mateurs a nd p rofessionals a like w ho,

a

f or w hatever

r eason, a re c oncerned w ith t he s tudy a nd a nd i nterpretation o f t he e quipment a nd d ress o f t he R oman s oldier. T hat t his i s n ot j ust a nother o f t he s uper-specialization c onferences, b ut a nswers a w idely f elt n eed i s w ell i llustrated b y t he f act t hat t he l ustrum o f t he s eminars w as c elebrated b y i ts f irst m eeting o utside B ritain, a lthough C ontinental s cholars h ad r egularly a ttended p revious m eetings. T he F ifth C onference w as o rganized u nder t he a uspices o f t he A lbert E gges v an G iffen I nstutuut v oor P raee n P rotohistorie ( IPP), U niversity o f A msterdam , b ut t he s eminar i tself t ook p lace i n t he v ery a ppropriate s urroundings o f t he R ijksmuseum ( now P rovinciaalmuseum) G . M . K am , N ijmegen, where a s pecial e xhibition o f m ilitary e quipment w as a lso m ounted. T he t heme c hosen f or t he N ijmegen c onference w as ' Sources o f E vidence f or t he S tudy o f R oman M ilitary E quipment', a t heme w ide e nough t o e ncompass s ubjects r anging f rom t he t heoretical c onsideration o f t he b ias i nherent i n t he a rchaeological e vidence ( Bishop, A llason-Jones) t o i conographic s tudies o f T rajan's C olumn, t hat p rimary s ource f or a ll m ilitary e quipment e nthusiasts ( Coulston). T he g reat v ariety o f s ources w hich a re a vailable f or t he u nderstanding o f t he f orm, f unction, h istory, d evelopment a nd u se o f m ilitary e quipment -q uite a part f rom t he b asic a rchaeological s ource a s t he p rovider o f t he s urviving m aterial - i s w ell i llustrated b y t he c ontents o f t his v olume. T he l ist i s b y n o m eans e xhaustive, a nd s ufficient r emains t o f ill a t l east o ne f uture c onference. D ocumentary a nd e pigraphic e vidence i s o nly t ouched o n i n p assing ( Ubl), t he v icus a nd i ts i mplications a s a f ind l ocation o f m ilitary e quipment w ill a lso r equire f urther a ttention ( Sommer, A llason-Jones). P ractical p roblems p revented t he e xploration o f t he s ources o f R oman m ilitary e quipment o utside t he L imes, n ot o nly i n t he g reat r itual b og d eposits, b ut a lso t he l ess s pectacular i tems which s o r egularly t urn u p i n p rea nd e arlyc onquest n ative s ites i n B elgium a nd t he N etherlands.' T he v ery p reliminary a ccount o f a n u nusual m ix o f m ilitary e uqipment, f igurines a nd a n eolithic a xe a t T he H ague a lso p oints t o a lternative i nterpretations t o t hat o f s imple ' loss' f or f inds o f m ilitary o bjects ( Waasdorp). T he c ontexts o f m uch o f t he m ore s pectacular e quipment w ould c ertainly m erit r e-examination. D ifferent a spects o f t he i conographic e vidence a nd i ts r elation t o a rchaeological f inds a re t reated b y W aurick, C oulston a nd U bl, w hile V an B oekel t aps a m uch n eglected s ource f or t he a ll-round d epiction o f h orse h arness i n h er s tudy o f p ipe-clay f igurines. A s i n p revious y ears, h orse g ear i s a gain w ell s erved, w ith t he f igurines, t he r econstruction o f h arnessing f rom P annonia ( PaIagyi) a nd t he l eather t rappings ( van D riel-Murray, W interbottom). B urials p rovide u nique c losed a ssociations w hich a re e ssential s ources f or t he d ating o f e quipment, i ts h istory, i ts f unction a nd i ts r econstruction,

t hought t heir i ndividuality f requently

r aises

f urther

p roblems ( Willems). D r. S . P alägyi w as u nfortunately u nable t o a ttend t he c onference, b ut h er p aper o n t he r econstruction o f P annonian h orse h arnesses w as c irculated t here. W hether r egarded a s a h asty, i f p ious, b urial, o r s omething a ltogether m ore s inister, t he V elsen s oldier g ives u s t he e nsemble w orn b y a s ingle i ndividual. M orel's s tructural a nalysis o f t he d agger n ot o nly s ets a s tandard f or f uture w ork, b ut a lso i llustrates t he c lose i nteraction o f a rtifact s tudy a nd t echnical a nalysis w hich h as b een a t heme r unning t hrough t hese s eminars f rom t he v ery b eginning. T he r ewards o f r e-examining m useum d rawers w ere r ichly d isplayed i n t he e xhibition a t M useum K am . M useum c ollections a re a lso e xploited b y B ennett, C onnolly a nd v an B oekel, w hile t he p ainstaking a ttempt b y K alee t o t race a nd d ocument t he s cattered f inds f rom t he b lighted s ite a t V echten i llustrates n ot o nly t he l ost p otential o f t his e xceptionally r ich s ite, b ut, m ore p ositively, s hows w hat c an b e r escued f rom p rivate c ollections w ith p atience a nd d iplomacy. A t

N ijmegen

t oo,

t he t radition o f e xperiment a nd r econstruction

w as m aintained. C . C onstable, M . W hite a nd A . S haw o f t he E rmine S treet G uard d emonstrated a v ariety o f e quipment d uring t he c onference ( and s ubsequently t o a ppreciative s tudents a nd a s omewhat a pprehensive e xamination c ommittee). T he v illainous e ffect o f t he p lumbata w as a mply d emonstrated

b y

J .

E agle,

w hile

W .

G riffiths

o nly

j ust

a voided

d isplaying t he e fficiency o f t he s ling i n c reating v acancies i n c oveted m useum p osts. 2 T he e ffectiveness o f t he w eaponry a nd p erhaps a bove a ll t he v isual a nd p hsychological i mpact o f t he R oman m ilitary m achine c an o nly b e f ully a ppreciated b y s uch e xact a nd d etailed e xperiment a nd r econstruction. F rom t he b eginning t he c onferences h ave m aintained a s timulating m ix o f a cademic r esearch a nd p ractical r econstruction a nd e xperiment t o t he b enefit o f O ne o f t he p urposes

b oth.

i n h olding t he F ifth R OMEC i n t he

N etherlands

w as t o s timulate r esearch i nto e quipment h ere. F or f ar t oo l ong , f inds h ave b een r elegated t o a p oor t hird p lace, r usting a nd d ecaying i n c igar b oxes w hile w hat s eem t o b e m ore i nteresting s ubjects a re p ursued. P ublication i s o ften s cattered a nd I h ave u sed p roceedings t o s olicit p ublication o f s ome o f t he m ore d iscoveries w ithin t he c ontext o f m iltary e quipment s tudies, t han

a s

a n

a ppendage

t o

s ettlement

a rchaeology.

T hough

t hese r ecent r ather t hese

c ontributions d o f it i nto t he o verall t heme, t he L ow C ountry b ias w ill b e e vident e nough. A ssessments a nd i mplications h ave y et t o b e e xamined, t he

' find'

b ut a t l east a s tart h as b een m ade o n t he r ehabillitation

o f

a s a c orner s tone i n t he f ormation o f t he t heory.

I m ust r ecord m y g ratitude t o m y d epartment f or f inancial a ssistance a nd f or t he g eneral s upport p rovided. I n p articular, M rs G . D omhoff t yped m any o f t he c ontributions, F . G ijbels a djusted s cales a nd s izes o f p hotographs a nd B . B rouwensteijn a ssisted g reatly i n t he p reparation o f d rawings a nd a ssociated t echnical p roblems. I a m i ndebted t o M r. P . G uest f or h is a ssistance w ith G erman m anuscripts. I a m p articularly g rateful t o a ll t he m embers o f s taff a t P rovinciaal M useum K am , e specially t he t hen d irector M r. A .V.M . H ubrecht a nd t o M rs. A .M . G erhartle-Witteveen f or t he e nthusiasm a nd h ospitality w hich m ade t he c onference p ossible. T hanks a re a lso d ue t o J .K . H aalebos, ( Katholieke U niversiteit, N ijmegen) f or a rranging t he i mportant m atter

v i

o f

r efeshments.

I n

a ddition,

b oth h e a nd W .J.H. W illems

( Rijksdienst

v oor O udheidkundig B odemonderzoek) p rovided a t our o f t heir r espective e xcavations i n N ijmegen. I a m a lso g rateful t o t hose w ho g ave p apers a t t he c onference w hich d o n ot a ppear h ere. F inally, Im ust t hank M ike B ishop, w ho n ot o nly t ook u pon h imself m uch o f t he p roduction o f t his t ext, b ut a lso, b y r ecognizing t he n eed f or s uch a g athering i n t he f irst p lace a nd b y a ctively s upporting t he v arious o rganizers, h as e nsured t he c ontinuing M ilitary E quipment C onferences. C .

v an D riel-Murray

s uccess

o f

t he

R oman

A msterdam 1 988

N OTES 1 . R OYMANS, N .G.A .M ., 1 987: T ribale s amenlevingen i n N oord-Gallia: a nthropologisch p erspectief. ( theseis, A msterdam 1 987), c h. 4 2 . N ieuwe R otterdams C ourant,

1 7.04.1987

v ii

e en

O F ORTUNA :

A S IDEWAYS L OOK A T T HE A RCHAEOLOGICAL R ECORD A ND R OMAN M ILITARY E QUIPMENT M .C. B ishop

T here i s a n e ssential c onflict a t t he h eart o f a rchaeology, d eeply r ooted i n t he a cademic o rigins o f t he d iscipline. T his i s t he f undamental d ichotomy b etween a rtefacts a nd t heir c ontext ( the t echnical s ense, ' a s tratigraphic u nit', c an b e r ead a longside t he n ormal m eaning), a r ift t hat i s l argely a c onstruct o f a rchaeologists. I t i s a s w ell t o h ighlight t he h uman c ontribution t o t his d ilemma a t a n e arly s tage, f or i t w ill p rove t o b e aL eitmotif i n t he c ourse o f t his s hort p aper, w hich d erives f rom s ome p reliminary t houghts o n l oss m echanisms f or m ilitary e quipment,' b ut c oncerns i tself w ith q uestions a nd d oubts a bout t he v alidity o f o ur c ontemporary i mage o f t he R oman s oldier. O f p articular r elevance t o t his l ine o f i nquiry i s t he q uestion o f h ow m uch a n a rtefact h as t o t ell a bout t he c ontext i n w hich i t i s f ound, a s o pposed t o w hat t he c ontext s eems t o b e t elling a bout t he a rtefact. T his r elationship i s c omplex , b ut i s o ne a pproach m ore v alid t han t he o ther? I n t he d ays o f L ysons o r t he L indenschmits, a rtefacts w ere o f p rime i mportance t o t he a ntiquarian , b ut a rchaeology h as n ow p rogressed t o t he m odern d octrines o f t heory a nd p ractice, w here s ome e xcavation r eports m arshall t heir s mall f inds i nto c ontext g roups, s ubordinating t he a rtefact t o t he c ontext. Y et t here i s a n u nderlying a ssumption h ere t hat t he c ontext i s i mportant; p erhaps i t i s, b ut i t i s i mpossible t o i gnore t he p erennial p roblem o f r esiduality. N ow w ould s eem t he r ight t ime t o a sk t wo q uestions: ' have w e g one t oo f ar?' a nd ' are w e m issing s omething?'

C ONCEALMENT A n a ttempt h as a lready b een m ade t o e xplore t he r easons w hy m ilitary e quipment m ay h ave b een d eliberately d eposited i n t he f irst c entury A .D.L T his w as a pparently r elated t o t he w ay i n w hich i t w as p roduced, d amaged, a nd r ecycled o r s crapped. H owever, w hat h as p ossibly r eceived i nsufficient s tress h ere i s t he s electivity o f t he e vidence, f or o nly i tems l eft b ehind b y t he a rmy c an b e f ound i n t he a rchaeological r ecord ( and, i ncidentally, i mplying t hat t hey h ad l ost t heir o riginal s crap v alue). Y et t here i s s till a nother l evel t o t his a rgument, f or o nly i tems w hich w ere s usceptible t o d amage i n t he f irst p lace s tood a c hance o f e nding u p i n t he g round. O ne e xample w ill s erve t o i llustrate t his p oint. I t h as r ecently b een a rgued a new t hat f inds o f ' lorica s egmentata' d enote t he f act t hat a uxiliaries w ere e quipped w ith t his t ype o f a rmour. 3 H owever, ' lorica s egmentata' s eems t o h ave b een e specially p rone t o d amage a nd t he p ieces i n t he C orbridge H oard s how t hat f requent r epairs w ere n ecessary t o t he m any f ragile f ittings. 4 A h igh a ttrition r ate m eant t hat i t w as m ore l ikely t o e nter t he a rchaeological r ecord. L orica h amata, o n t he o ther h and, w as f ar l ess l ikely t o s uffer p eripheral d amage t o t he i ntegrity o f i ts s tructure

1

( in

o ther

w ords,

p ieces

f ell

o ff

l ess

f requently),

s o

i t

i s

c onsequently r arer. T his r aises t he q uestion o f w hether i t i s p ossible t o d raw c onclusions a bout t he a rmour o f a uxiliaries f rom t he a rchaeological e vidence: a s a d irect r esult o f t he c ontrast b etween t he v ulnerability o f s egmental a rmour a nd t he l ow a ttrition r ate o f m ail, i t w ould s eem t hat t he p resence o f l orica h amata i n t he a rchaeological r ecord i s b eing e ffectively ' masked' b y f inds o f il orica s egmentata'. 5

B URIAL R ITES I t i s n ow a ccepted t hat R oman m ilitary e quipment o ccurs i n f unerary c ontexts w ithin t he R oman E mpire. 6 A t t he s ame t ime, i t i s r ecognised t hat i t w as n ot n ormal p ractise f or R oman s oldiers, w hether l egionary o r a uxiliary, t o b e i nterred w ith t heir w eapons o r a rmour. 7 T he p roblem h ere l ies i n g auging j ust h ow r epresentative t hose b urials w e k now o f r eally a re. T he C amelon a nd M ehrum s oldiers w ere b oth e quipped w ith R oman-influenced ( or e ven p roduced) a rms, 8 b ut i s i t p ossible t o ' r elate t hem t o t heir f ellows i n t he a rmy a t t hat t ime, o r s hould t he v ery f act t hat t heir b urial p ractices d iffer w arn t hat c aution i s n ecessary?

I t

i s

i ndeed

i ronic

t hat

t he

N awa

b uria1,

9

a pparently t hat o f a n oble s erving i n t he R oman c avalry i n t he A ntonine p eriod, s hould i nclude t he o nly known c omplete s et o f R oman m ilitary h orse e quipment f rom t he f irst t wo c enturies A .D. 1° A b urial f rom L yon,

c omplete w ith U TERE F ELIX

b elt

f ittings

l ong s word, h as b een a ssociated w ith t he e vents i n G aul o f 1 97, i s s uch a n e xplanation a cceptable? T his c ertainly s eems t o n on-Roman b urial w ith R oman a bove, b ut n eed i t r elate t o l atest c oin p resent d ates t o w ould m ost c ertainly b e a

a nd

1 1

b e

b ut a

e quipment, a s i n t he o ther c ases m entioned o ne p articular b attle j ust b ecause t he A .D.194? H ad i t b een a m ass g rave, t hen i t d ifferent m atter, b ut t he v ery f act o f t he

i ndividuality o f t he b urial m ust c ast s ome d oubt u pon t hat i nterpretation ( without, o f c ourse, r endering i t t otally i nadmissable).

D EDICATORY S ome o f t he b est f inds o f e arly i mperial m ilitary e quipment, p articularly t he l arger i tems, h ave c ome f rom r ivers a nd a l arge p roportion o f t he h elmets i llustrated i n R obinson's b ook 1 2 w ere f ound i n t his w ay. M any o f t he r icher f indspots a re b iased t owards m ajor n avigable r ivers, w here d redging a ctivities a re k nown t o h ave b een c arried o ut, b ut m uch h as b een g leaned f rom t he T hames b y ' mudlarking'. T he d istribution o f m uch o f t he R oman m ilitary m aterial s eems w ith p rehistoric d eposition p atterns, a s T orbrügge h as n oted. 13

t o

f it

F requent f inds i nclude h elmets, a long w ith d agger a nd s word s cabbards a nd b lades. H ow d id t hey g et t here a nd w hat d oes t his i mply a bout T ype

t heir f ormer o wners? K lumbach s peculated t hat t he I mperial-Gallic 114 h elmet f ound i n t he R hine a t M ainz m ay h ave b een l ost

o verboard b y a s oldier o n t he f erry w hich w as t hought t o h ave e xisted b efore t he b ridge w as b uilt t here a round A .D.83. 15 W hilst i t i s r easonable t o e xpect i solated i nstances o f m ajor k it l oss, t he s ort o f p roportions s uggested b y t he s urviving e vidence s tretch c redulity j ust a l ittle t oo f ar. I t b ecomes n ecessary t o c hoose b etween a n e xtremely

2

c areless R oman a rmy o r a n a lternative l oss m echanism a t w ork . F or e xample, w as t he s hield b oss f rom t he R iver T yne a ccidentally l ost i n t he w ater, o r w as i t d eliberatley o ffered i n f ulfilment o f s ome v ow? " T he p ractice o f d edicating i tems t o d eities s eems t o b e a ttested i n p rehistory a nd, b y t he t ime o f t he R omans, v ow-fulfilment w as a p art o f e veryday l ife, a s i s d emonstrated b y a ltars f rom a ll o ver t he E mpire.I 7 G reek h istory p rovides e xamples o f e quipment, p articularly c aptured m aterial, b eing d edicated. 1 8 A n i nscribed p laque f rom T ongres e xplicitly s tates t hat t he c enturion 2 . C atius L ibo d edicated h is s cutum a nd l ancea t o t he g oddess V ihansa. 1 9 N ow, a c ase c an c ertainly b e m ade f or c onnecting t he d eposition o f m ilitary e quipment i n w ater w ith s imilar p ractices, b ut t his o nly s erves t o c omplicate m atters e ven f urther; f or w hat s ubtle f orces a re a t w ork, u nseen, s electing w hich i tems a re t o b e o ffered ( and t herefore t o s urvive i n t he a rchaeological r ecord)? M oreover, w ere o bjects ( as s ome h ave s uggested) b eing s pecially m anufactured f or d edication? A t t his p oint, t he C oolus h elmet f rom B osham H arbour w ill s erve a s au seful i llustration o f s ome o f t he p roblems i nvolved i n i nterpreting t he e vidence. 2° W as i t l ost o verboard b y a s oldier, o r w as i t v owed i n e xchange f or b eing g ranted s ome l ong-forgotten d ivine f avour? T his i s s omething t hat c annot b e k nown a nd c an o nly b e g uessed a t. T hese p roblems o f i nterpretation c an b e f urther e xplored b y e xamining t wo p articular R oman h elmets. T he f irst w as f ound i n t he R iver P o a nd h as b een a ssociated b y s ome w ith t he c ivil w ar b attle o f A .D .69, 2 1 w hilst t he o ther w as r ecovered b y e xcavation i n t he f ortress o f V indonissa. 22 V iewing t hem p urely a s a rtefacts, t hey s ay s omething t o s tudents o f R oman a rmour a bout t he r ange a nd d evelopment o f h elmet t ypes. H owever, w hen c onsidered i n t he l ight o f t heir r espective p rovenances, t hey a re s een f rom a d ifferent p erspective: e xcavated h elmets a re r are b y c omparison w ith w ater-finds, 2 3 s o i t i s l egitimate t o a sk w hether t he l atter a re m asking t he f ormer. I f s o, h ow d oes t hat a ffect t he c urrent s tatus o f h elmet s tudies? B esides e arly i mperial h elmets, d aggers a nd s words, a long w ith t heir s cabbards, a re n ot i nfrequent f inds i n w atery c ontexts. I t i s n oteworthy t hat v ery l ittle b y w ay o f a rmour h as c ome f rom t his o therwise p roductive s ource o f a rtefacts a nd n o p ieces o f ' lorica s egmentata' a re y et k nown f rom r ivers. A rmour c ertainly s eems t o h ave b een d eposited i n w ater i n C eltic s ociety, s o i t i s c urious t o n ote i ts a pparent a bsence i n t he R oman p eriod. 2 4

B ATTLES I t i s ah istorical c ommonplace t hat R oman s oldiers o nly r arely e ncountered b attle c onditions; t heirs w as m ore l ikely a h umdrum l ife s pent o n f atigues a nd r outine p olicing d uties. 25 I f t his w as i ndeed s o, t hen f inds o f e quipment f rom c ircumstances r elated t o c ombat w ill, b y d efinition, b e r are. N evertheless, t he s urvival o f m ajor i tems o f e quipment o n b attlefields i s, i n i tself, u nusual, o ne e xample b eing t he w eapon h ead f ound l odged i n t he s pine o f a s keleton a t M aiden C astle. 2 6 I t h as a lways b een m an 's p ractice i n w ar t o s trip t he d ead o f a ll v aluables, w hich f or m ost o f h istory h as i ncluded a rmour a nd o ther m ilitary e quipment.

3

E xceptions t o t his a re r are, b ut p erhaps t he b est k nown a re t he m ass g raves a t W isby i n G ottland, w here m en w ere b uried w earing c omplete s ets o f a rmour a fter b eing d efeated b y t he D anes i n 1 367. 2 / T he a pparent h aste i n a rranging t heir d isposal h as b een i nterpreted a s i ndicating t hat t he b odies w ere a lready b adly d ecayed i n t he h ot s ummer w eather, s o s tripping t hem w ould h ave b een t hought u ndesirable. 28 E ven s o, h and w eapons a nd t he l ike w ere r emoved a nd d o n ot a ppear i n t he g raves. W e m ay n ote i n p assing t hat m any o ut-of-date s ets o f e quipment w ere a pparently u sed, p erhaps a m easure o f d esperation o n t he p art o f t he d efenders,

o r m erely a n i ndication o f t he d urability

o f

a rms

a nd

a rmour. S tripping t he d ead i s a f eature o f w arfare a nd w e s ee i t o n t he B ayeux T apestry, i n t he a ftermath o f t he B attle o f H astings, 29 a s w ell a s i n t he P lains' I ndians' p ictorial a ccount o f t he B attle o f t he L ittle B ighorn. 3° T his l ast c onflict, d espite e vidence f or w idescale p ilfering o f t he d ead, 3 1 m anaged t o l eave o ver 4 ,000 a rtefacts f or a rchaeologists t o f ind d uring a r ecent e xamination o f t he b attlefield. 32 I ron a rrowheads w ere s carce, h owever, s ince t hey h ave a lways b een g reatly p rized b y t ourists. L ittle B ighorn m ay h ave a d irect b earing u pon t he d iscovery o f m ass c avalry g raves a t K refeld, w ith i ts s parse f inds o f e quipment a nd r elated m ateria1. 33 C an m ilitary e quipment n ormally b e e xpected t o i ndicate t he s ites o f b attles? 34 I t s eems d oubtful. D ura-Europos, o n t he o ther h and, o ffers a s eemingly i deal s cenario f or e quipment p reserved i n a ction. T he d estruction o f t he m ine a nd t he r esulting p artial c ollapse o f T ower 1 9 l ed t o i tems b eing t rapped w ithin i t, i ncluding t he f amous h orse a rmours a nd s hields. 35 B ut w hy w ere t hese t hings i n t he t ower i n t he f irst p lace? I f t hey w ere a ctually i n u se, t hen t hey a re g enuine r elics f rom t he b attle, b ut i f, a s

s eems

m ore

l ikely,

t hey

w ere

i n s torage,

t hey a ssume a t otally

d ifferent i dentity, f or t hey c ould b e a nything f rom a ntiques t o n ewly p roduced r eplacement o bjects. I t s eems t hat c aution m ust a lso b e e xercised h ere. P aradoxically, t he f inds f rom D ura a lso h ighlight o ne o f t he m ain p roblems w ith t he r est o f t he E ast: t he m onuments a re i mpressive, b ut h ardly a ny e quipment h as b een r ecovered. t hat i t h as n ot y et b een f ound, o r w as i t e ver t here

3 6

i n

I s i t s imply t he f irst

p lace?

B OOTY F lorus r elates ( 11,24) t hat V innius, w hen h e t ook w eapons a s b ooty f rom t he P annonians, b roke t hem u p a nd t hrew t he i tems i nto t he r iver, r ather t han b urn t hem, a s w as t he u sual p ractice i n w ar. T he r eason o ffered f or h is d oing t his w as s o t hat ' the f ame o f C aesar m ight t hus b e a nnounced t o t hose who w ere s till r esisting '.

t aken

I t h as b een s uggested t hat t he D oorwerth c avalry t rappings w ere a s b ooty d uring t he B atavian r evolt, p ossibly f rom V etera o r o ne

o f t he n eighbouring c astella, i n w hich c ase a s imilar a ccount f or t he X anten p ieces. 37 S poils o f w ar

e xplanation m ay h ave a lso b een

i dentified i n t he c ases o f t he F remington H agg a nd S even S isters h oards, a gain i ncluding c avalry e quipment. 38 O ne s uggestion i s t hat t he

4

u se o f s ilvering m ay h ave l ed t he l ooter t o a ssume a n o bject t o b e b ullion, b ut, d iscovering i t t o b e o nly a s ilver f oil, d iscard i t. 39 T he d isparate c ollection o f m aterial ( infantry h elmet, c avalry s ports h elmet a nd m ask , g reaves, a nd m ail a rmour) s aid t o c ome f rom a c ave i n H ebron s hows a s lightly d ifferent p erspective o n t his: p robably c ollected a s s crap, i t w ould o f c ourse h ave b een i llegal f or a J ew t o b e c aught i n p ossession o f R oman e quipment, 4° h ence t he n eed t o c onceal i t. W as i t h idden b y r ebellious J ews a nd h ow s ound i s t he r easoning t hat s uggests t hat t his w as s o? T his l eads u s o n t o a sk w hether i t i s p ossible t o d istinguish b etween b ooty a nd m aterial s till o wned a nd u sed b y t he R omans? I t w ould s eem t hat i n s ome i nstances i t i s p ossible, b ut o nce i t h as b een t aken , i t a ssumes a n ew r ole i n a ddition t o t hat i t m ay o nce h ave p layed a s a p iece o f e quipment, f or i t m ay n ow h ave s crap o r p restige v alue ( this i s o ne w ay o f a ccounting f or t he p iece o f R oman c avalry e quipment f rom G allanach i n A rgyll, S cotland). 4 1

C HANCE A ND P ROBABILITY C hance: t he H erculaneum s oldier ( or m arine) a nd t he e quipment i n t he D ura m ine a re c ases o f c hance s urvival. 42 T here a re f ew p ossible a rchaeological b iases i nvolved h ere, b ut s uch c ases a re e vidently e xtremely r are i n t he a rchaeological r ecord. T hese a re g enuine s napshots' o f t he p ast, w hen t ime i s f rozen. P robability: w hat a re t he c hances o f f inding a p iece o f m ilitary e quipment i n t he a rchaeological r ecord? L et u s c onsider w hat, f or t he s ake o f c onvenience, w e s hall c all t he W ebster H ypothesis - t hat p ieces o f m ilitary e quipment d enote a m ilitary p resence i n t heir i mmediate v icinty. G raham W ebster h as u sed t his p rinciple i n a t l east t hree o f h is b ooks t o d educe t he l ocation o f f orts i n B ritain w hich a re o therwise u nattested. 43 I f i t i s a ssumed t hat, w hatever t he m echanisms i nvolved, o ne p iece o f m ilitary e quipment i s f ound a s a s tray f ind o n a s ite, w hat c an b e s aid a bout i t? N othing ; c asual l oss, r edeposition, o r a ny o ne o f a t housand e xplanations m ay a ccount f or i t. I t i s m eaningless... u ntil a s econd p iece o f e quipment i s f ound. I f f rom e xactly t he s ame p lace, t hen t he s ame e xplanations m ay b e v alid, b ut i f d ivorced f rom t he f irst p iece, t hen w hat s hould b e m ade o f i t? W hen n umbers o f i tems s tart t o a ccumulate, w e a re f orced t o f ace t he f act t hat t here i s a n e xponential i ncrease i n p robability - h owever s light, a nd c ertainly n ot q uantifiable, b ut n evertheless e xisting - t hat a g enuine s ource f or t his m ilitary e quipment m ust b e t aken s eriously. I f w e t hen r ecall t hat t he d eposition o f m ilitary e quipment w ithin f orts a nd f ortresses i s n ormally d eliberate a nd p art o f t he c leaning-up o perations, 4 4 w e b egin t o s ee t hat t he W ebster H ypothesis i s n ot s o e asy t o d ismiss a s s ome h ave s upposed. 45 F orts i n t he v icinity o f t he W albrook i n L ondon a nd i n t he c entre o f S ilchester r emain a p ossibility. 4 6 W ere t here a ccidental l osses o f e quipment w hich c ould t hen b e r etrieved a s c hance f inds i n m odern t imes? U ndoubtedly s o, b ut h ow s mall a p ercentage o f t he t otal m ilitary e quipment a t a ny o ne t ime m ust

5

t hey h ave r epresented? I t i s e asy t o l ose a c oin; t he d iligence o f t he e nsuing s earch i s u sually p roportional t o t he v alue o f t he c oin, b ut h ow e asily c an o ne ' lose' a s pear o r a s word? I f t he s oldier h ad t o p rovide h is o wn a rms, w ould h e n ot h ave t aken s pecial c are o f h is k it? D id h orse t rappings r eally f all o ff w ithout t he c avalryman n oticing ( since m ost o f t hem w ere f unctional,

t he

h arness

w ould

h ave

f allen

a part i n m any c ases 47 ) ? D id ' lorica s egmentata' f ittings r eally s pring o ff, n ever t o b e s een a gain, o r r ather d id t hey w ork l oose, l ook a s i f t hey n eeded r epairing, a nd g et p ut a side f or t hat v ery p urpose? 48 W e d o n ot k now t he t ruth; w e c an o nly g uess, b ut l et u s a t l east m ake t hese i ntelligent g uesses a nd a cknowledge t hat t here a re m any p ossible e xplanations f or a ny g iven p henomenon.

C ONCLUSIONS R ussell R obinson w as p uzzled b y t he a pparent w illingness o f c raftsmen m anufacturing I mperial-Gallic h elmets a t C olchester S heepen t o i gnore t he t hreat p osed b y B oudica a nd t o i nsist o n d ecorating t heir p roducts

w ith

b osses,

e yebrows,

a nd

t he o ther c uriously p eripheral

a spects o f t hat p articular t radition o f h elmet m anufacture. 49 R obinson's o nly m istake w as t o b elieve t he p articular i nterpretation o f t he e vidence w hich t he a rchaeologists c hose t o e mphasise.



I t i s c ertainly n ice a nd t idy t o b e a ble t o w eave s tories a round t he m aterial w e f ind, b ut b y s o d oing, b y r efusing t o a cknowledge l oose e nds, w e d o o urselves a nd o ur e vidence a n i njustice. T he n arrative s chool o f a rchaeological i nterpretation, h owever g reat i ts r omantic a ppeal - a nd i n t hese d ays o f f inancial s tringency a nd t he n eed t o g ain m edia a ttention, t his p oint h as p erforce t o b e e mphasised - w e d o n ot h ave t he r ight t o b e s o s ure o f o urselves. T here i s s o m uch t he a rchaeological r ecord c annot t ell u s: l et t he s tory o f t he c enturion C ornidius a ct a s a f inal c autionary t ale. D uring O ctavian's w ar a gainst t he M oesians i n 2 9 B .C., w e a re t old t hat ' No

l ittle

t error

w as

i nspired

i n

t he b arbarians b y t he

o f r ather b arbarous s tupidity, m an ithout e ffect u pon m en o f s imilar n ot w op o f h is h elmet a p an o f c oals t he t ovement o f h is b ody, h e s cattered t he m ad t he a ppearance o f b eing o n f lame f rom h is h ead, which h

c enturion C ornidius, a w hich, h owever, w as c haracter; c arrying o n w hich w ere f anned b y f ire.' W e

5 1

n eed

o nly p onder f or a f ew s econds h ow s uch a n i ncident w ould

m anifest i tself i n t he a rchaeological r ecord, i f i ndeed i t w ould. W e s hould p erhaps s pend r ather l onger c onsidering h ow l ong i t w ould t ake a n a rchaeologist, c onfronted w ith a h elmet f ound i n M oesia w ith s igns o f b urning o n t he c rown, t o m ake t he c onnection b etween t he i solated a rchaeological f act a nd a r ather p urple p assage i n a h istorian o f q uestionable m erit.

6

N OTES 1 . M yself a nd J .C. C oulston i ntend t o p roduce, i n t he n ear f uture, a d etailed s tudy o f t he l oss m echanisms t hat l ed t o t he d eposition o f m ilitary e quipment. I s hould l ike t o t hank M artha A ndrews a nd J on C oulston, w ho r ead p reliminary d rafts o f t his p aper. N eedless t o s ay, w hilst t heir s uggestions h ave u sually b een a cted u pon, a ll r emaining e rrors a re t he s ole r esponsibility o f t he a uthor. 2 . B ISHOP,

1 985, 7 -9,

3 . M AXFIELD,

1 7-18;

1 986, 7 17.

1 986, 7 1.

4 . A LLASON-JONES & B ISHOP,

1 988,

1 02.

5 . T he o nly r eally v ulnerable p art o f l orica h amata w as t he f astening h ook a t t he f ront - c f. L ongthorpe ( FRERE & S T.JOSEPH , 1 974, F ig.31) o r C olchester S heepen ( NIBLETT, 1 985, F ig.63,22; 6 5,44). 6 . B REEZE e t a l

1 976, 8 0-1.

7 . I bid., 9 4-5. 8 . C amelon : 4 52.

B REEZE e t

9 . A BDUL-HAK , 1 0. B ISHOP,

1. W UILLEUMIER ,

1 5.

1 82 n .157. 1 950,

1 47-8.

1 972, 4 3-6; c f. B eilage 9 . 1 961.

I bid., 9 9-100.

1 6. A LLASON-JONES & M IKET,

1 984,

3 .724.

1 7. T he v ows t hemselves a re a ttested o n c urses ( HENIG,

1 984,

1 42-5) a nd

t he d edication i tself r ecorded w hen a ltars s urvive ( ibid., 1 8. F or a P ersian h elmet d edicated 1 981, 1 3 f ig . 1 9. M ERTENS, 2 0. R OBINSON, 2 1.

1 983,

1 975.

1 3. T ORBRÜGGE, 1 4. K LUMBACH ,

1 976, 8 1-6; M ehrum : G ECHTER & K UNOW ,

1 955.

1 988,

1 2. R OBINSON,

a l

b y

1 984, 6 3 a nd f ig . 1 975, P ls.73-6.

I bid., 6 7-8, P ls.155-9.

2 2. H ARTMANN,

1 983.

7

t he

A thenians,

s ee

1 31). C ONNOLLY,

2 3. E ven

a

p eremptory

s tudy

o f

c aptions

i n R obinson's ( 1975) b ook

r eveals h ow m any h elmets c ome f rom r ivers. 2 4. M ILLER ,

1 986,

2 5. W EBSTER ,

18-9.

1 985,

2 69; W ATSON,

1 969,

1 43.

2 6. T his w eapon i s v ariously i nterpreted a s a n a rrowhead 1 972, 1 8) a nd a c atapult b olt-head ( WEBSTER , 1 980, 1 09). 2 7. T HORDEMAN, 2 8. I bid.,

1 939.

9 5.

2 9. W ILSON,

1 985, P ls.71-3.

3 0. S ee J ORDAN, B ighorn. 3 1.

I bid., 8 10.

3 2.

I bid.,

1 986

1 971, 4 5.

3 4. W EBSTER ,

1 978,

3 5. J AMES,

a n

1 983,

1 11; K EPPIE,

a ccount

o f w ork o n t he s ite o f L ittle

1 981, 8 5.

7 .

c it.

3 7. D oorwerth: B ROUWER , 3 8. W EBSTER ,

1 971,

3 9. C f. W EBSTER , 4 0. W EINBERG, 4 1. R ITCHIE, 4 2. G ORE,

f or

7 93.

3 3. P IRLING,

3 6. L oc.

( WHEELER ,

1 66; X anten : J ENKINS,

1 08; D AVIES & S PRATLING,

1 971,

1 976,

1 985.

1 40.

1 08.

1 979. 1 974, F ig .2,8.

1 984,

4 3. W EBSTER ,

1 982,

5 72-3.

1 978,

1 8;

1 980,

1 7-18.

4 4. S ee a bove, n ote 2 . 4 5. B ut M ANNING ( 1983) q uite r ightly p oints o ut t he q uestionable n ature o f t he p ostulated n etwork o f f orts. 4 6. T he W albrook f inds m ay h ave b een r edeposited f rom e lsewhere i n t he C ity ( Tony W iimott, p ers. c omm.), b ut s ome o f t he S ilchester m aterial h as v ery c onvincing p rovenances ( e.g. F OX & S T.JOHN H OPE, 1 901, 2 44.) 4 7. B ISHOP,

1 988,

1 00 & 1 16.

8

4 8.

I d.,

1 985,

1 2.

4 9.

R OBINSON,

5 0.

HAWKES & H ULL,

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d istribution o f m ilitary e quipment w ithin f irst c entury A .D.' i n S tudien z u d en

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t he

R oman c ity o f S ilchester, H ants.

i n 1 900', A rchaeologia,

G ECHTER , M ., & K UNOW , J ., 1 983: ' Der f rühkaiserzeitliche M ehrum ', B onner J ahrbücher, 1 83, 1 983, 4 49-68 G ORE,

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t ales

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V esuvius', N ational

H ARTMANN, M ., 1 983: ' Ein H elm v om T yp W eisenau a us V indonissa', J ahresbericht d er G esellschaft P ro V indonissa, 1 982 ( 1983), 5 -9 H AWKES, C .F.C., & H ULL, M .R., 1 947: C amulodunum. F irst R eport o n t he E xcavations a t C olchester 1 930-1939 ( Reports o f t he R esearch C ommittee o f t he S ociety o f A ntiquaries o f L ondon, N o.XIV), ( Oxford 1 947) H ENIG, M ., J AMES,

1 984: R eligion i n R oman B ritain,

( London 1 984)

S ., 1 983: ' The a rms a nd a rmour f rom D ura-Europos' i n M .C. B ishop ( ed.), R oman M ilitary E quipment. P roceedings o f a S eminar h eld i n t he D epartment o f A ncient H istory a nd C lassical A rchaeology a t t he U niversity o f S heffield, 2 1st M arch 1 983, ( Sheffield 1 983), 6 -7

J ENKINS, I ., 1 985: ' A g roup o f s ilvered-bronze h orse-trappings X anten ( Castra V etera)', B ritannia, X VI, 1 985, 1 41-64 J ORDAN, R .P., G eographic,

1 986: ' Ghosts o n 1 70, 1 986, 7 87-813

t he

L ittle

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K EPPIE, L .J.F., 1 981: ' Mons G raupius: t he s earch f or a b attlefield' i n J . K enworthy ( ed.), A gricola's C ampaigns i n S cotland ( Scottish A rchaeological F orum 1 2), ( Edinburgh 1 981), 7 9-88 K LUMBACH, H ., 1 961: ' Ein r ömischer L egionarshelm a us M ainz', J ahrbuch d es R ömisch-Germanischen Z entralmuseum M ainz, 8 , 1 961, 9 6-105 M ANNING, W .H.,

1 983: r eview , B ritannia, X IV,

M AXFIELD, V .A ., 1 986: ' Pre-Flavian B ritannia, X VII, 1 986, 5 9-72

1 983,

f orts

a nd

3 77-9 t heir

M ERTENS, J ., 1 984: ' L'armge r omaine e n B elgique', L es h istoire e t a rchgologie, 8 6, 1 984, 5 8-64

g arrisons',

d ossiers

M ULLER , F ., 1 986: ' Das F ragment e ines k eltischen K ettenpanzers v on d er T iefenau b ei B ern', A rchäologie d er S chweiz, 9 , 1 986, 1 16-123 P IRLING, R ., 1 971: ' Ein B estattungsplatz g efallener R ömer i n K refeld-Gellep', A rchäologischer K orrespondenzblatt, 1 , 1 971, 4 5-6 R ITCHIE, J .N.G., 1 974: ' Iron A ge f inds f rom D ün a n F heurain, G allanach, A rgyll', P roceedings o f t he S ociety o f A ntiquaries o f S cotland, 1 03, 1 974, 1 00-12

1 0

R OBINSON, H .R., T HORDEMAN,

B .,

T ORBRÜGGE, W , u nd

1 975: T he A rmour o f I mperial R ome,

1 939: A rmour f rom t he B attle o f W isby,

( Stockholm 1 939)

1 972: ' Vor- u nd F rühgeschichtliche F lußfunde. Z ur O rdnung B estimmung e iner D enkmälergruppe', B ericht d er

Römisch-Germanischen K ommission,

W ATSON, G .R .,

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5 1-2,

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W EBSTER, G ., 1 971: ' A h oard o f R oman m ilitary e quipment f rom F remington H agg' i n R .M. B utler ( ed.), S oldier a nd C ivilian i n R oman Y orkshire - E ssays t o C ommemorate t he N ineteenth C entury o f t he F oundation o f Y ork, ( Leicester 1 971), 1 07-25 W EBSTER, G ., 1 978: B oudica. ( London 1 978) W EBSTER , G ., W EBSTER,

1 980:

G .,

W HEELER , M ., w nsoN, D .M.,

1 985: T he

1 979:

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R ome

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Army o f t he F irst a nd S econd

' A h oard o f R oman a rmor', A ntike K unst,

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1 985: T he B ayeux T apestry, 1 950:

A .D.60,

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1 972: M aiden C astle

W UILLEUMIER, M .P.,

R evolt

T he R oman I nvasion o f B ritain,

C enturies A .D., W EINBERG, S .S., 8 2-6

T he B ritish

1 979,

( London 1 972) ( London 1 985)

' La b ataille d e 1 97',

1 1

2 2,

G allia,

8 ,

1 950,

1 46-8

I NTRODUCTORY R EMARKS O N N ATIVE A ND R OMAN T RADE B RITAIN

I N T HE N ORTH O F

L indsay A llason-Jones

O ver t he y ears t here h as b een m uch d ebate o n t he e ffect o f t he R oman i nvasion o n t he n ative p opulation o f B ritain a nd i n p articular t he e ffect o f H adrian 's W all c utting a cross t he t erritory o f t he B rigantes. I n 1 980 H oward K ilbride-Jones,' r epeating h is t hesis o f 1 938, 2 s aid ' it m ust b e r emembered t hat t he C ivil P rovince w as o ut o f b ounds t o T raprain L aw g oods' a nd t alked o f d ress-fasteners b eing ' sneaked' i nto t he C ivil P rovince. T he o bject o f t his p aper i s t o l ook a t t his s tatement i n t he l ight o f r ecent w ork o n t he a rtefacts f rom t he n ative s ettlement s ites a nd m ilitary s ites i n t he e nvirons o f H adrian 's W all i n a n a ttempt t o d iscover w hether t he p resence o f t he R oman f orces h ad a ny e ffect o n t he t rading p atterns i n t he n orth o f B ritain. T here h ave a lready b een s everal p apers l ooking a t R oman o bjects f rom n on-Roman s ites i n S cotland. 3 T his p aper w ill l argely c oncentrate o n n ative o bjects f ound o n m ilitary s ites i n a g eographical a rea n orth o f t he S tanegate a nd s outh o f t he A ntonine W all w ith m uch o f t he e vidence c oming f rom t he c ounty o f N orthumberland, a d istribution w hich r eflects a b ias o f a rchaeological e ffort r ather t he d ensity o f p opulation i n t he R oman p eriod. T he d iscussion s hould a lso b e r egarded a s i nterim : a s tatement o f r esults s o f ar, a nd n ot a s a f inal c omment. Af ull c atalogue o f a rtefacts h as n ot b een i ncluded a s t he m ajority a re a lready p ublished o r i n t he p rocess o f b eing p ublished, n or i s e very e xample o f e ach t ype r eferred t o. P ottery a nd c oins a re a lso o mitted a s t hey f all o utside t he r emit o f t he p reent a uthor a nd c arry w ith t hem t heir o wn p roblems o f i nterpretation. 4 N ative s ites i n t he a rea, o n t he w hole, p roduce f ew f inds s o o bjects o f R oman o rigin a re p articularly n oticeable, f or e xample m elon b eads. 5 G uido's a ccount o f b lue g lass m elon b eads 6 r efers t o t heir d iscovery i n 3 rd a nd 2 nd c entury B C c ontexts o n t he C ontinent b ut s tates t hat n o p re-Roman e xamples h ave b een f ound i n B ritain. T he m ajority o f B ritish e xamples c ome f rom s ites w ith F lavian o r A ntonine d ates f ollowed b y a g ap i n t he c hronology u ntil t hey r e-emerge i n p ost-Roman t imes. M elon b eads a re n ormally f ound a s s ingle f inds a nd i t m ay b e s uggested t hat t hey w ere n ot u sed a s n ecklace b eads b ut h ad s ome t alismanic s ignificance. T his i s c onfirmed b y d olabra s heaths n ow i n B onn M useum w hich h ave m elon b eads h anging f rom t he r ings. 7 A lthough i mitation m elon b eads a ppear t o h ave b een m anufactured i n R oman B ritain 8 t he m ajority, a nd c ertainly t hose f ound i n t he n orth, w ere o f C ontinental m anufacture. A n umber o f i ntaglios h ave b een f ound o n R omano-British s ettlement s ites i n t he a rea u nder r eview . T hese a re c learly l uxury i tems a nd m ay h ave b een i n t he n ature o f p resents o r b ribes t o a l ocal l eader f rom t he m ilitary a uthorities o r p ossibly l oose f inds o r b ooty. T o a ccept t hem a s t rade i tems p resupposes a t aste f or t hem , t he m oney t o s pend o n s uch f rivolities a nd t he u nderstanding o f w hat t hey w ere f or. W ould a n ative B riton u nderstand t he s ignificance o f t he s cene o n t he H artburn i ntaglio w hich s hows A chilles d ragging t he c orpse o f H ector a round t he

1 3

walls of Troy?9 This intaglio is made of orange glass, unusual in itself, and has ·a very detailed scene which indicates the work of a skilled craftsman (Pl.). From Dryburgh comes an onyx intaglio with the figure of Bonus Eventus standing front and facing left, holding a patera.1 0 This might be seen as appealing to local taste more than Achilles as would the black jasper, also from Dryburgh, 11 which shows two animals leaping up at a tree, but it is difficult to see these intaglios as trade objects. Possibly they were dropped by military personnel from the fort at Newstead and picked up by the locals because of their aesthetic appea1.12 Brooches found on native sites vary considerably in type but tend to be of early date. Doubstead has produced an incomplete Nauheim derivative brooch l3 and there is a complete example from the recent excavations at Dod Law.14 Also from Dod Law hillfort came a brooch of the Hod Hill type which is not to be expected beyond AD 6 0 according to Don Mackreth.15 Such brooches are rarely found north of the Humber and the appearance of an example on'an Iron Age hillfort in Northumberland, predating much of the military activity in the area, is puzzling. The site at Whitekirk in Midlothian has produced a dolphin brooch of 2nd century date l6 whilst from Bow Broch comes an enamelled brooch in the form of a cock: 17 a form of brooch found in military contexts in the eastern counties of Britain and thought to have been produced in the Rhineland.1 8 In her discussion of Roman finds from Scotland Robertson lists a number of paterae and other bronze vessels.1 9 Unfortunately few, if any, of these can be associated with native use. The majority are likely to have been casual losses by the Roman army or, like many of the Roman coins found in Scotland, 2 0 later introductions. The set of paterae and cauldrons found at Prestwick Carr21 in Northumberland, for example, was found in a marsh and cannot be seen as evidence for either settlement or a permanent military presence. A very fine bronze colander of 1st century AD date found at Whitfield22 to the north of Hadrian's Wall may be an exception as it was found with three large cauldrons of native type. In marked contrast to the cauldrons, which were heavily repaired, the colander is in pristine condition, almost unused. This is a unusual find in a native context and again one wonders if it was a gift or a chance find. Colanders of this type were originally of Italian manufacture but were produced in Gaul and Germany after the 1 st century An.23 A single find, apparently unused, does not suggest the brisk trade in luxury tableware between North Britain and the other provinces of the Empire which might be implied by the finds list for Scotland, where paterae have been found in association with native goods in hoards, apparently hidden for reuse in metalworking.24 Iron objects found in the area are often difficult to assign to military or civilian origins, particularly as iron tools and implements found in native contexts are conspicuous by their absence. Piggott identified a scythe, field anvil, sickle, buttress and two hipposandals from the Carlingwark, Eckford and Blackburn Mill hoards as being specifically Roman in type, whilst sword-tips, mail, tyres, lynchpinsi horsebits, cauldron chains and a shield boss he saw as native.2 � 14

1 5 T he H artburn i ntaglio.

H owever, t he m ethods b y w hich t he s miths o r s crap-metal m erchants o f t he i st a nd 2 nd c enturies A D c ame b y t heir h oards o f b ronze o r i ron i s o pen t o c onjecture a nd m ay n ot g ive a ny h elpful c lues a s t o t rading p atterns. I n f act h ow a ny o f t he o bjects o f R oman d esign r eferred t o a bove a rrived a t t heir e ventual f indspot i s u nclear. T he q uantity o f f inds d oes s ites i n t he i mply a l ack o bjects u sed

n ot s uggest a h ealthy t rade f low . T he n umber o f s ettlement a rea w hich h ave p roduced n o f inds a t a ll m ay b e t aken t o o f i nterest i n m aterial p ossessions a nd c omplete a pathy i n b y t he R oman m ilitary o ther t han f or s crap v alue.

O n t he o ther h and t here i s a l arge b ody o f e vidence t o s uggest a b risk t rade i n n ative o bjects t o t he R oman t roops. F irstly t errets: t hese w ere u sed i n s ets o f f ive f or a p aired d raught a lthough f ull s ets a re r arely f ound. T he s hape a nd d ecoration o f t hese p ieces h ave t heir o rigin i n t he E arly I ron A ge a nd o ften d isplay c haracteristically C eltic d esigns w ell i nto t he 2 nd a nd 3 rd c enturies A D. T he s imple t ype M acGregor s aw a s h aving a g radual d evelopment ' in t he h ands o f I ron A ge B c raftsmen, a ugmented b y a p ossible a doption b y B elgic i ncomers w hose C ontinental b ackground h ad n ot e quipped t hem f or c hariotry '. 26 T he v arious f orms o f t errets m ay b e s een a s a ppealing t o t ribal p references - t he c rescent t errets, f or e xample, b eing c onfined t o t he a rea o f t he C atuvellauni a nd t he T rinovantes, w hilst p latform t errets a ppear t o h ave b een a n I cenian i nvention a nd t he m assive t errets f ound f avour w ith t he M aeatae a nd t he C aledonii. I t i s, h owever, t he knobbed t errets w hich s eem t o h ave a ppealed t o t he m ilitary p opulation w ith t he m ajority b eing f ound i n f orts o r m ilecastles s uch a s B enwel1, 2 7 B irrens, 28 , C arlisle, 29 V indolanda, 3° C hesters, 3 1 G reat C hesters, 32 H igh R ochester, 3 3 H ousesteads, 3 4 N ewstead, 3 5 P oltross B urn 36 a nd N ether D enton. 3 7 A mong t he m ore a mbiguous f inds f rom t he a rea a re t orcs. D espite t heir o bvious C eltic a ncestry t orcs p resent p roblems w hen a ssigning t hem t o a p urely m ilitary o r p urely c ivilian f unction a s n eck r ings a re k nown t o h ave b een a warded t o l egionaries f or d eeds o f b ravery a nd l ater a s s ymbols o f g ood l uck. A n e xample w as f ound i n 1 983 i n C aw G ap, 38 j ust t o t he n orth o f H adrian 's W all. I t i s f ashioned t o l ook l ike a s tring o f f ifteen b eads, t he e nd b eads h aving m ortise h oles i nto w hich t he t enons o f t he m issing s hank w ould h ave f itted. T he n otion o f h aving t he b eads c onfined t o t he f ront b ecame p art o f t orc d esign f rom t he e arliest L a U ne p eriod, a nd t heir d istribution i n B ritain i s l argely i n t he a rea n orth o f t he H umber-Mersey l ine a nd s outh o f t he r ivers F orth a nd C lyde. T hey c an b e d ated t o t he i st c entury A D a nd w ere m ade b y C eltic c raftsmen a ccording t o M acGregor. 39 S imilar t orcs a re k nown f rom W hitekirk, 4 ° L amberton M oor 4 1 a nd C arlisle. 42 T here h as b een m uch d iscussion a s t o w hether t orcs o f t his p articular t ype w ere n ative n eck o rnaments o r m ilitary d ecorations b ut m ost o f t he s culptural e vidence s hows t he t orcs w orn b y s oldiers t o b e t he p enannular t wisted o r t ubular t ypes r ather t han t he b eaded. T orcs w ere a lso p resented t o w hole u nits; i n f act e leven u nits a re k nown t o h ave h ad t he a pellation t orquata o f w hich t wo w ere s tationed i n B ritain. 43 I n t hese c ases t he t orcs w ere p resumably o f g old o r s ilver a nd c arried o n t he u nit's s tandards. T he C aw G ap t orc, d espite i ts f indspot, i s l ikely t o b e n ative, l argely b ecause i t i s o f b ronze a nd a lso b ecause t he b eaded t orc s tems f rom a s olid n ative C eltic t radition. T he

B enwell

t ore p resents e ven m ore d ifficulties i n a ssigning i t

1 6

t o m ilitary o r n ative u se. I t w as f ound i n 1 937 i n a b uilding i n t he r etentura o f t he f ort. 4 4 I t i s a lso o f b ronze a nd a gain f alls i nto t he b eaded c lass a lthough i n t his c ase t he r ather a ngular b eads a re s trung o nto a h ollow t ube e nding i n i ron t enons. I t i s n ot a ttractive a nd i t m ay b e t he i nsensitivity o f t he p iece w hich l ed R ichmond t o a ssign i t t o a R oman m ilitary w orkshop. H e a ctually d escribed i t a s ' designed l ike a g irder, i n a m anner d evoid o f a ll a rtistic f eeling '. 45 V alerie M axfield, h owever, i n 1 974 c ame t o t he c onclusion t hat t he B enwell t orc w as n ative a s i t b ears n o r esemblance t o a ny k nown r epresentation o f a m ilitary t orc w hilst i t c an b e a ssigned t o a n ative t ype. " R oman b rooches f ound o n n ative s ites h ave b een d iscussed a bove. T here a re, h owever, m any m ore b rooches o f l ocal m anufacture t o b e f ound i n m ilitary c ontexts. T rumpet b rooches a re o ften s een a s b eing m ilitary i n t ype a nd a ppear i n t urrets o n H adrian 's W all w hich w ere n ever o ccupied b y c ivilians, 4 7 a s w ell a s b eing u biquitous o n f ort s ites, y et t he e vidence s uggests t hat t hey a re o f n ative m anufacture w ith p ossible f actories a t B rough-in-Westmorland, S tanwix a nd T raprain L aw . 48 T he e arly e xamples h ave s wirling C eltic m otifs w hich d eteriorate i nto a m uddle o f g eometric u nits a s t he 2 nd c entury p rogresses. T heir u se o f e namel h as b een s een b y M acGregor 49 a s i ndicating t hat t hey w ere s uccesors t o t he h arness a nd s word f ittings a s a p roduct o f t he n ative f actories b ut t he p resent a uthor p refers t o s ee t hem a s p arallel p roductions. E namelling w as v ery m uch a C eltic s kill a nd u sed t o g reat e ffect o n t he 9 0 t rumpet b rooches, 2 5 h ead-stud b rooches a nd 1 0 d ragonesque b rooches f ound s o f ar i n t he a rea. 5 ° T he l atter t end t o c luster t hickly n orth o f a l ine j oining t he H umber a nd M ersey e stuaries a nd s outh o f t he F orth-Clyde l ine, c overing a d ate r ange o f a h undred y ears f rom t he C laudian c onquest t o t he m id o r p ossibly l ate 2 nd c entury. S uch b rooches m ight b e s een a s t he r esponse o f l ocal c raftsmen t o t he g audy t aste o f t he m ilitary. S everal e xcellent p apers h ave b een w ritten o n t he s ubject o f b utton-and-loop f asteners a nd i t i s n ot t he i ntention o f t he p resent a uthor t o d iscuss w hether s uch f asteners w ere u sed f or d ress o r h arness. F or t he p urpose o f t his p aper, h owever, i t i s i nteresting t o n ote t hat o ne t hird o f t he k nown e xamples h as a n ative f indspot w hilst t he r est c ome f rom R oman m ilitary s ites. T he e arliest m embers o f W ild's C lass I c ould b e I ron A ge i n d ate b ut t he C lass I II e xamples d ate f rom F lavian t imes t o t he l ate 2 nd c entury w hilst s ome o f C lass V w ere s till i n u se i n t he 4 th c entury a t T raprain L aw. 5 1 M any h ave C eltic m otifs a s d ecoration b ut a f ew h ave a d istinctly R oman f lavour, f or e xample t here i s o ne i ncised w ith a n e agle f rom C orbridge 5 2 a nd a nother i n t he s hape o f a s tylized v ine-leaf f rom C hesters. 53 T his a gain l ooks l ike n ative c raftsmen p andering t o t he t aste o f t heir m ilitary c ustomers. R ing-headed p ins a re w ell k nown i n I ron A ge B ritain. M acGregor h as s uggested t hat t he a bsence o f s uch p ins ' from R oman s ites w ould s eem t o f avour m anufacture b efore f ull-scale o ccupation o f n orthern E ngland' b ut t hat t he u se o f e namel o n s ome p ins w ould s uggest t hat t hey c arried o n w ell i nto t he R oman p eriod. 54 S ince 1 976, h owever, s everal h ave e merged f rom R oman c ontexts - m any e xcavated i n t he n ineteenth c entury a nd h idden i n m useum s tores. E xamples a re n ow k nown f rom C orbri 4e, 5 D G reat C hesters, 5 6 H alton C hesters, 5 7 H ousesteads, 5 8 S outh S hields 59 a nd

1 7

W inshields

M ilecastlee°

-

e nough

e xamples

t o

p ostulate

a

n ative

a rtefact b eing t raded t o t he m ilitary.

c lear

O nly t wo t ankard h andles a re known f rom t he a ffinities w ith k nown C eltic e xamples:

a rea b ut b oth h ave t he Wallsendel e xample

h aving a v ery c lose p arallel i n t he h andle f rom O xstrow B roche 2 w hilst t he e xample f rom t he C orbridge H oard ° h as m uch i n c ommon w ith a h andle f rom N eath.e 4 ' Weaving c ombs' a re c ommon o n I ron A ge s ites i n B ritain a nd a re i ncreasingly f ound o n R oman m ilitary s ites. T hese a re s trips o f b one o r a ntler, a bout 1 5cm l ong a nd 3 cm w ide w ith t eeth i ndented a t o ne e nd. T hey a ppear t o b e p eculiar t o t he B ritish I sles a nd t heir f unction i s o pen t o a rgument. T raditionally t hey a re a ssociated w ith t extile p roduction b ut t his i s b y n o m eans c ertain a nd t heir r egular d iscovery i nside f orts m ight b e s een a s a n a rgument a gainst. A lone H adrian's W all t hey h ave b een f ound a t C arlisle,e 5 C hesters,e 1 2 C orbridge,e 7 H ousesteads,e 8 S outh S hieldse 9 a nd W allsend. 7° A nother b one o bject w hich h as I ron A ge a ntecedents a nd h as b een a ssociated w ith t extiles i s t he s heep's m etacarpal b obbin. I n 1 970 W ild d escribed t hese a s b eing u nique t o t he B ritish I sles 7 1 b ut t wo a re k nown f rom Z ugmante1. 72 T hey a re c ommon f inds o n m ilitary s ites s uch a s C hesters, 73 C orbridge, 74 S outh S hields, 75 W allsend 7 e a nd H ousesteads 7 7 b ut d espite t heir k nown n ative o rigin n one h ave b een f ound o n n ative s ites n orth o f H adrian's W all a nd i t i s p ossible t hat t hey w ere b eing t raded f rom t he s outh. A f inal g roup w hich n eeds T hese

w ere

t o b e c onsidered a re t he g lass

f irst d iscussed b x K ilbride-Jones i n 1 938 78

a rmlets.

a nd o n s everal

o ccasions s ince b y S tephenson./ 9 K ilbride-Jones d ivided t hem i nto t hree t ypes, t ypes 2 a nd 3 o f which h e r egarded a s p roof o f h is h ypothesis t hat H adrian's W all f ormed a n e ffective t rade b arrier a gainst n ative-made p roducts i nfiltrating s outhwards a s t hey n ever a ppeared f urther s outh t han H adrian's W all. T he f ew w hich h e w as aware o f i n t he s outh h e w rote o ff a s ' probably c arried s outh a s c uriosities'. H owever, s ince 1 938 m any a rmlets h ave b een f ound i n t he s outh, f ar more t han c an b e e xplained a way a s m ere c uriosities, p articularly a s t hey t end t o g roup d own t he w est c oast i nto W ales i n a m anner w hich s uggests t hat t hey w ere b eing t raded a long t he r oute u sed f or b lack-burnished p ottery. K ilbride-Jones p ut f orward t he t heory t hat H adrian 's W all p ermitted s outhern-made o bjects t o b e e xported t o t he n orth b ut w ould n ot a llow m ovement s outh. T he e vidence, h owever s eems t o s uggest t he c ontrary: t hat t rade w as b risk n orth t o s outh a nd n egligible s outh t o n orth. T he R oman f inds o n n ative s ites a re f ew a nd t end t owards t he l uxurious a nd c an b e s een e ither a s p resents - o fficial b lackmail t o l ocal l eaders; b ooty o f g uerilla r aids; s tolen g oods; o r s crap m etal. T he n ative f inds o n f ort s ites a re t o b e f ound i n g reat n umbers, o nly a s ample o f w hich h ave b een d escribed a bove. H adrian's Wall s een i n p urely c ommercial t erms m ust h ave a ppeared t o t he l ocals a s t antamount t o t he K londyke i n A merica - t housands o f p eople s uddenly s et d own i n a n arrowly c onfined a rea w ith m oney t o s pend. A ll t he l ocals h ad t o d o w as t o p rovide a s teady s tream o f a rtefacts t o t he i ncomers' t aste. A ny a rmy o n d uty i n a f oreign l and a ppears t o b e g ripped w ith t he

1 8

u rge

t o

s pend. H ow m any h ouses i n B ritain h ave e lephant u mbrella s tands, I ndian i nlaid t ables a nd o ther o bjects o f a s imilar n ature a s a r esult o f a m ember o f t he f amily h aving s erved a broad s ome t ime i n t he l ast 1 00 y ears? N o d oubt t he R oman a rmy f elt t he s ame a nd when o ff d uty w ould b e o n t he l ookout f or n ative a rtefacts. B ehind H adrian's W all t here w ould h ave b een f ew t rading o pportunities u ntil Y ork s o t here w ould b e l ittle i ncentive i n t ransporting p roducts w hen t here w as a n e asily a ccessible m arket o n t he W all. T o s um u p: t he h ypothesis b ased o n a nalysis o f f inds f rom t he n orthern m ilitary z one i s t hat t he R omans w ere n ot s elling t o t he n ative p opulation n orth o f H adrian's W all b ut t he l ocals w ere u sing t he p resence o f t he m ilitary a s a t rading o pportunity a nd t he ' factories' n orth a nd s outh o f t he W all w ere s ending t heir g oods t o t he f orts. O ne m ight g o s o f ar a s t o s ee t he l ack o f m etalworking t o b e f ound i n t he 4 th c entury a s a c ollapse i n t he m arket a s t he t roops w ere s lowly w ithdrawn t o o ther t rouble s pots.

N OTES 1 . K ILBRIDE-JONES,

1 980,

3 6.

2 . K ILBRIDE-JONES,

1 938,

3 66-95.

3 .

C URLE,

1 913;

C URLE,

4 .

s ee C ASEY,

5 .

E xamples a re known f rom C astlehill ( Strathclyde): C URLE, 1 932, 3 77, n o.44; H yndford ( Lanarks.): C URLE, 1 932, 3 81, n o.51; D od L aw

1 986,

1 932;

R OBERTSON,

1 970.

1 08-9.

( Northd.): A llason-Jones i n S MITH, f orthcoming; H olywell ( Berwicks.), G lass R igg ( Dumfries.), C rossmichael ( Dumfries.), G len L uce ( Dumfries.) a nd N ew L uce ( Dumfries.): R OBERTSON, 1 970, 2 24; D owalton L och ( Dumfries.), L ochlee ( Strathclyde), a nd L ochspouts ( Strathclyde): ROBERTSON, 1 970, T able I II; C amphouse ( Rox.): C URLE, 1 932, 3 63, n o.18. 6 .

G UIDO,

1 978,

1 00.

7 .

C URLE,

1 911,

2 79.

8 .

G UIDO,

1 978,

3 7.

9 . J OBEY,

1 973,

4 4,

p l.V;

1 0. H ENIG,

1 978, n o.219.

1 1. H ENIG,

1 978, n o.499.

1 2.

H ENIG,

1 978, A pp.72.

S ee a lso a n o nyx i ntaglio f rom O verwells, J edburgh, w alking r ight: H ENIG, 1 978, n o.176.

1 3. J OBEY,

1 982,

1 5-17,

f ig.7, n o.2.

1 4. A llason-Jones i n S MITH,

f orthcoming.

1 9

s howing a s atyr

1 5.

P ers.

c omm.

1 6. R OBERTSON, 1 7.

C URLE,

1 8.

F or

1 970, T able V .

1 932,

o ther

3 51,

b rooches

R OBERTSON,

1 970.

1 9. R OBERTSON,

1 970.

2 0.

C ASEY,

1 986,

2 1. H ODGKIN, 2 2.

S MITH,

2 3.

B OESTERD,

1 969,

2 5.

P IGGOTT,

f ig.34.

o f

R oman

m anufacture

f ound i n S cotland s ee

1 08-9.

1 892,

1 59-60.

1 72-81.

1 956,

2 4. R OBERTSON,

n o.1,

1 9-21.

1 970;

P IGGOTT,

1 955.

1 955.

2 6. MACGREGOR,

1 976, 4 2.

2 7. MACGREGOR,

1 976, n o.70.

2 8. MACGREGOR,

1 976, n os.65,

2 9. MACGREGOR,

1 976,

n o.78.

3 0. M ACGREGOR,

1 976,

n o.81.

3 1. MACGREGOR,

1 976,

n os.67,

3 2. M ACGREGOR,

1 976, n o.83.

3 3. MACGREGOR,

1 976, n o.71; B RUCE,

3 4. MACGREGOR,

1 976,

n os.84,

8 5.

3 5. MACGREGOR,

1 976, n os.63,

7 3.

3 6. M ACGREGOR,

1 976, n o.99;

G IBSON & S IMPSON,

3 7. MACGREGOR,

1 976, n o.98;

B UDGE,

3 8. A LLASON-JONES,

1 984,

6 6; B IRLEY,

4 9; P HILIPSON,

2 27-8.

3 9. MACGREGOR,

1 976,

9 7-9.

4 0. MACGREGOR,

1 976,

n o.206.

4 1. MACGREGOR,

1 976, n o.203.

1 938,

2 0

1 880,

1 903,

3 37,

1 886,

3 36,

f ig.38.2,

P l.XIX,31.

1 45, n o.776.

1 911,

f ig .21.13.

4 08, n o.184.

1 .

4 2. MACGREGOR, 4 3.

1 976, n o.199.

A la P etriana s tationed a t S tanwix ( RIB 9 57) a nd a la G allorum e t T hracum C lassiana, k nown t o h ave b een s tationed i n B ritain b ut o nly a ttested X VI.69).

b y

d iplomas

o f

A D 1 05 a nd A D 1 22 ( CIL X I.6033;

4 4.

S IMPSON & R ICHMOND,

1 941,

2 3-5,

4 5.

S IMPSON & R ICHMOND,

1 941,

2 4.

4 6. M AXFIELD,

1 974,

4 7. A LLASON-JONES, 4 8. C OLLINGWOOD, 1 976, 1 24. 4 9. MACGREGOR, 5 0.

1 988.

1 930,

1 976,

I 970a,

5 2. U npublished.

3 7-58; K ILBRIDE-JONES,

1 980,

3 4-8;

A rchaeology D epartment, T he U niversity, N ewcastle

3 7-55. C orbridge S ite M useum.

1 976,

f ig .7,

5 4. MACGREGOR,

1 976,

1 39.

F ORSTER & K NOWLES,

n o.17.

1 911,

1 89,

f ig.34.

5 6. Museum o f A ntiquities o f t he U niversity a nd S ociety o f o f N ewcastle u pon T yne, A cc.No.1956.150.18.A . 5 7. P SAN 4 I ,

M ACGREGOR,

1 24.

5 3. MACGREGOR,

5 5.

p l.II.

4 1-7.

I nf. M . S nape, u pon T yne.

5 1. W ILD,

X VI.51;

1 923-4,

A ntiquaries

2 06, n o.V.

5 8. U npublished. H ousesteads S ite M useum. 5 9.

A LLASON-JONES & M IKET,

1 984,

6 0. U npublished. C hesters Museum. 6 1. A llason-Jones i n D ANIELS, 6 2. MACGREGOR,

1 976,

C ORCORAN,

1 953,

S ee a lso H ODDER & H EDGES,

1 7.

f orthcoming.

1 988.

f ig.lc.

6 5. U npublished. T ullie H ouse M useum, 6 6.

1 977,

n o.291.

6 3. A LLASON-JONES & B ISHOP, 6 4.

n o.3.536.

C hesters Museum , A cc.Nos.630,

6 31;

2 1

C arlisle. B UDGE,

1 903,

3 69, n os.335-6.

6 7.

C orbridge

S ite Museum, A cc.Nos.75.1629;

7 5.1627;

7 5.1626;

7 5.1628;

7 5.1625. 6 8. U npublished.

C hesters Museum, A cc.No.1909.10.

6 9. A LLASON-JONES & M IKET,

1 984, n o.2.23.

7 0. A llason-Jones i n D ANIELS, 7 1. W ILD,

1 970b,

3 4.

7 2. O RL 8 , T af.XX , n os.91, 7 3.

f orthcoming.

9 2.

C hesters Museum , A cc.No.472;

B UDGE,

7 4. A llason-Jones i n B ISHOP & D ORE, 7 5. A llason-Jones i n M IKET,

1 983,

1 903,

3 68, n o.147.

f orthcoming.

f ig.81, n o.11;

A LLASON-JONES & M IKET,

1 984, n o:3.24. 7 6. A llason-Jones i n D ANIELS,

f orthcoming.

7 7. U npublished. H ousesteads S ite M useum. 7 8. K ILBRIDE-JONES, 7 9.

S TEVENSON,

1 938.

1 957;

S TEVENSON,

1 976.

B IBLIOGRAPHY A LLASON-JONES, L ., 1 984: ' A f irst c entury b ronze t orc AA 5 X II, 2 27-8 A LLASON-JONES,

L .,

1 988:

f rom

C aw

G ap',

' Small f inds f rom t urrets o n H adrian's W all'

i n J .C. C oulston ( ed.), M ilitary E quipment a nd t he I dentity o f R oman S oldiers: P roceedings o f t he F ourth R oman M ilitary E quipment C onference ( BAR I nternational S eries 3 94), ( Oxford 1 988),

1 97-233

A LLASON-JONES, L ., & B ISHOP, M .C ., 1 988: T he C orbridge H oard ( HBMCE A rchaeological R eport), ( London 1 988) A LLASON-JONES, L .,

& M IKET, R .F.,

1 984:

S outh S hields R oman F ort, B IRLEY,

E .,

1 938:

' Excavations

C atalogue o f S mall

( Newcastle u pon T yne a t

B irrens', P SAS,

F inds

f rom

1 984) L XXII,

1 927-8,

2 75-347 B ISHOP, M .C., & D ORE, J .N., f orthcoming : C orbridge: E xcavations o f t he R oman F ort a nd T own, 1 947-1980 ( HBMCE A rchaeological R eport), ( London f orthcoming) B OESTERD,

M .H.P. d en, 1 956: D escription o f t he C ollections i n t he R ijksmuseum G .M . K am a t N ijmegen, ( Nijmegen 1 956)

2 2

B RUCE, J .C., 1 880: A D escriptive C atalogue o f t he A ntiquities, C hiefly B ritish, a t A lnwick C astle, ( Newcastle u pon T yne 1 880) B UDGE,

E .A .W ., 1 903: A n A ccount o f t he R oman A ntiquities P reserved i n t he M useum a t C hesters, N orthumberland, ( London 1 903)

C ASEY, J .,

1 986: U nderstanding A ncient C oins,

C OLLINGWOOD, R .G., 1 930: A rchaeologia, L XXX ,

' Romano-Celtic 2 7-58

( London 1 986) a rt

i n

N orthumbria',

C ORCORAN,

J .X.W .P., 1 953: ' Tankards a nd t ankard h andles o f t he B ritish E arly I ron A ge', P PS, X VIII, 8 5-102

C URLE, J .,

1 911: A R oman F rontier P ost a nd i ts P eople: t he N ewstead i n t he P arish o f M elrose, ( Glasgow 1 911)

C URLE,

J ., . 1913: 7 3-115

' Roman

F ort

a nd n ative r emains i n C aledonia', J RS,

o f

I II,

C URLE, J .,

1 932: ' An i nventory o f o bjects o f R oman a nd p rovincial R oman o rigin f ound o n s ites i n S cotland, n ot d efinitely a ssociated w ith R oman c onstructions', P SAS, L XVI, 2 77-397

D ANIELS,

C .M ., f orthcoming : W allsend

e xcavation

r eport

o n t he R oman f ort a t

F ORSTER , R .H ., & K NOWLES, W .H., 1 911: ' Corstopitum : e xcavations i n 1 910', A A3 , V II, 1 43-267 G IBSON,

r eport

o n

t he

J .P., & S IMPSON, F G., 1 911: ' The m ilecastle o n t he W all o f H adrian a t P oltross B urn', T CWAAS 2 , X I, 3 90-461

G UIDO, M .,

1 978: T he G lass B eads o f t he P rehistoric a nd i n B ritain a nd I reland, ( London 1 978)

H ENIG,

B ; it e l : 78(

1 4 .

A

B rit is h r igr fme ld1= i So ef r ie:o 8 )7

R oman

P eriods

rom B ritish tones f

H ODDER , I ., & H ODGES, J .W ., 1 977: "Weaving c ombs", t heir t ypology a nd d istribution w ith s ome i ntroductory r emarks o n d ate a nd f unction' i n J . C ollis ( ed.), T he I ron Age i n B ritain, ( Sheffield 1 977), 1 7-28 H ODGKIN ,

T ., 1 892: ' Discovery C arr', A A2 , X V, 1 890-1,

J OBEY, G .,

1 973: ' A n ative s ettlement a t H artburn, C auseway, N orthumberland', AA5 , I , 1 1-54

J OBEY,

o f R oman b ronze v essels a t P restwick 1 59-60 a nd

t he

D evil's

G ., 1 982: ' The s ettlement a t D oubstead a nd R omano-British s ettlement o n t he c oastal p lain b etween T yne a nd F orth', A A5 , X , 1 -23

K ILBRIDE-JONES, H .E., 3 66-95

1 938:

' Glass a rmlets i n

2 3

B ritain', P SAS,

L XXIII,

K ILBRIDE-JONES,

H .E.,

1 980:

C eltic

C raftsmanship

i n B ronze,

( London

1 980) M ACGREGOR, M .,

1 976:

E arly C eltic

A rt

i n

N orth

B ritain,

( Leicester

1 976) M AXFIELD,

V .A .,

1 974:

' The B enwell t orc - R oman o r n ative?', AA 5

I I

4 1-7 M IKET, R .,

1 983: T he R oman F ort a t S outh S hields: E xcavation D efences 1 977-81, ( Newcastle u pon T yne 1 983)

P HILIPSON, J ., P IGGOTT,

1 886:

' Roman h orse t rappings', AA 2 , X I,

1 885,

o f

2 04-15

S ., 1 955: ' Three m etalwork h oards o f t he R oman p eriod', L XXXVII, 1 952-3, 1 -50

R OBERTSON, A .,

1 970:

B ritannia,

' Roman f inds f rom n on-Roman I ,

s ites

i n

t he

P SAS,

S cotland',

1 98-226

S IMPSON,

F .G., & R ICHMOND, I .A ., 1 941: ' The R oman f ort o n H adrian's W all a t B enwell', AA 4 , X IX, 1 -43

S MITH,

f orthcoming : e xcavation r eport o n t he I ron A ge D od L aw i n N orthumberland

S MITH,

C .,

h illfort

a t

D .J. 1 969: ' The f orgotten W hitfield h oard o f b ronze v essels', AAL, X LVII, 1 72-81

S TEVENSON,

R .B.K., L XXXVIII,

1 957: 1 954-6,

' Native 2 08-21

b angles

S TEVENSON,

R .B.K ., 1 976: ' Romano-British A rchaeological J ournal, I V, 4 5-54

a nd

R oman

g lass

g lass',

P SAS,

b angles', G lasgow

W ILD, J .P., 1 970a: ' Button-and-loop f asteners i n t he R oman B ritannia, I , 1 37-55

p rovinces',

W ILD, J .P., 1 970b : T extile M anufacture i n t he N orthern R oman P rovinces, ( Cambridge 1 970)

2 4

T HE

I NNER A ND O UTER R ELATION O F T HE M ILITARY V ICUS T O I TS F ORT C .

S ebastian S ommer

' Miles n on t imetur , s i v estitus , a rmatus , c alciatus e t s atur e t h abens a liquid i n z onula .' ' The s oldier i s n ot t o b e f eared w hen h e i s d ressed, a rmed, s hod, h as a f ull s tomach a nd s omething i n h is m oney-belt " a nd, a s I w ould l ike t o a dd, a p lace w here h e c ould s pend t he m oney. T his q uote o f A lexander S everus f rom t he S criptores H istoriae A ugustae p rovides t he c onnection b etween m y l ecture ' The I nner a nd O uter R elation o f t he M ilitary V icus t o i ts F ort' a nd t his c onference. W hen I w as a sked t o d eliver a p aper a t t his c onference, i t w as s uggested t hat o ne t opic w ould b e t he r ole o f t he c ivil s ettlements o utside t he f orts - t he m ilitary v ici - a s p laces o f p roduction a nd l oss o f m ilitary e quipment. A s I h ave n ever s pecifically w orked o n m ilitary f inds, I f or m y p art w anted t o g ive s ome b ackground i nformation a bout t he c lose r elation b etween f ort a nd m ilitary v icus. 2 H owever, l ooking a t t he p rogram i t s eems t o m e t hat t he p roblem o f m ilitary f inds i n m ilitary v ici h as b een p ushed a l ittle t o t he s ide. N evertheless, I h ope t hat m y p aper m ay b e o f s ome i nterest a nd u se t o y ou. F rom

t he

t ime

o f

t he R epublic, w e k now t hat

v ates d enique e acrificosque' a nd

' mercatores s corta

Il ixae 1 3

a ccompanied t he R oman a rmy. W hen a rriving a t t heir t roop s ites i n 1 34 a nd 1 08 B .C. r espectively, P . C ornelius S cipio A emilianus a nd Q . C aecus M etellus N umidicus f irst h ad t o e xpell t hese c amp-followers a nd t o s eparate t hem f rom t he s oldiers. T hat t his a ction d id n ot h ave a l asting e ffect b ecomes c lear w hen w e r ead a bout l ater i ncidents. B oth C aesar a nd A ugustus h ad t o d eal w ith t hese p eople who, f or e xample, s ettled b ehind t he p orta d ecumana o f o ne o f C aesar's w inter-camps, o r w ho e ven f ollowed V arus' a rmy o n c ampaign i nto F ree G ermany. 4 B ut n either C aesar w orried m uch a bout t he i ssue.

n or

A rchaeologists f ind t races o f s hort-lived A ugustan c amp o f D angstetten V espasian's s iege-works o f M asada i n

A ugustus

s eemed

t o

h ave

c amp-followers o utside t he i n U pper G ermany, n ext t o J udaea a nd, m ore i mportantly,

o utside a lmost e very l egionary f ortress a nd a uxiliary

f ort,

a t

l east

w here o ne h as l ooked f or t hem. I n R oman B ritain f or e xample, a m ilitary v icus i s k nown o r c an b e s uggested a t 6 4% o f a ll k nown f orts; i n R aetia t he f igure i s 8 4% a nd i n U pper G ermany e ven 8 7%. T his l eads t o t he c onclusion t hat p robably e very f ort h ad a m ilitary v icus a nd t hat t heir i nhabitants d eveloped f rom a g roup o f p eople w ho w ere o riginally a h indrance t o m ilitary d iscipline - d uring t he R epublic - t o c ivilians who w ere g enerally a ccepted a djacent t o t he t roops d uring t he e arly a nd m iddle E mpire.

I n o rder t o u nderstand

t his

d evelopment b etter w e h ave t o l ook a t t he b eginning a nd e nd o f t he m ilitary v ici. A s f ar a s i t i s p ossible t o p rove a rchaeologically, 3 7 t o 4 4% o f a ll k nown m ilitary v ici i n t he p rovinces s tudied ( Britannia, U pper G ermany a nd R aetia) b egan a t t he s ame t ime a s t he f ort t hey a re

2 5

a ttached

t o.

L ooking

a t

t hese

f igures o ne h as t o b ear i n m ind t hat

a erial p hotography, f ield-walking , a nd s mall n ot n ecessarily i mmediately d iscover t he b elieve t hat t he s imultaneously t o

s cale t est-trenching d o e arliest f eature. T hus, I

a ctual n umber o f m ilitary v ici w hich b egan t he f orts i s m uch g reater t han c urrently k nown. A n

i mportant f act i s t hat i n U pper G ermany a nd i n R aetia ( to t he r ight o f t he R hine a nd t he n orth o f t he A lps) m ost o f t he f orts a nd t heir m ilitary v ici c ame i nto e xistence i n a reas w here v irtually n o t race o f n ative p opulation h ad b een f ound. 5 T herefore, a t l east i n t hese r egions t he p eople o f t he m ilitary v ici c ould n ot h ave c ome f rom t he v icinity. B ut where d id t hey c ome f rom? W e c ome c loser t o t he a nswer a fter r ealising v ici

d issolved

a t

t he

t hat

m any

m ilitary

s ame m oment when t he a djoining g arrison m oved

a way. T his w as t rue e specially i n a reas w ith l ittle o r n o r omanized h interland, s uch a s W ales a nd t he P ennines i n G reat B ritain, t he O denwald a nd t he S chwabian A lb i n G ermany. A pparently t he m ilitary v ici w ere h ere s o f irmly a ttached t o t he t roops t hat w ithout t hem t hey d id n ot h ave a b asis f or l ivelihood. T hus, t hey m oved w ith ' their' m ilitary u nit a nd h alted when t he a rmy h alted. I n s ummarising t he p oints m ade s o f ar, I w ould l ike t o e mphasise t hat t he i nhabitants o f t he m ilitary v ici w ere f irmly c onnected t o ' their' u nit, s o much s o, t hat t hey w ould f ollow i t e verywhere - e ven i nto F ree G ermany o r a cross t he C hannnel. T his m eans t hat w e h ave t o l ook f or t heir t races a round m arching-camps t oo. T his

l eads

u s

t o

t he

q uestion o f t he f unction o f t he m ilitary

v ici: F rom t he l iterature w e k now t hat s ervices w ere v ery i mportant. W e m ust e xpect s oothsayers, p riests, a ctresses, m usicians, p rostitutes, p ubs, r estaurants e tc.,' e verything a s oldier m ight h ave n eeded o r m issed i n t he c amp a nd w hich h e c ould a fford w ith h is r egularly-filled m oney-belt. P roduction w as a v ery i mportant a spect o f t hese s ettlements, t oo. I n a lmost e very m ilitary v icus t here w as a t l east p ottery p roduction a nd/or m etal-working. T here a re n o s igns t hat t his p roduction w as d irected b y t he m ilitary, n or t hat i t w as u sed e xclusively b y d etailed s tudy.

t he c amp-followers. T his, h owever, i s a f ield f or m ore A nother m ajor p oint w as t rade. N egotiatores a nd

m ercatores a re m entioned i n l iterature a nd i nscriptions. A rchaeology p roves t heir e xistence, t oo, a t l east i ndirectly, a s s omeone m ust h ave b rought v ici.

S amian

w are,

t he w ine,

t he o il e tc.

t o t he f orts a nd m ilitary

T he w hole l ayout o f t he m ilitary v ici h ad b asically o ne p urpose: t o b ring t he c ustomers i nto c ontact w ith t heir s uppliers i n t he e asiest a nd m ost e fficient w ay p ossible. A s e verybody h ad t he s ame d esires t he s o-called s trip-houses o f t he m ilitary v ici w ere p acked t ightly a long t he m ain r oads. A dditionally, t here i s i ncreasing p roof o f t he e xistence o f m arket-places, u sually j ust b eyond t he f ort-gates, a s f or e xample i n L adenburg, where t he s treet t owards M ainz w as w idened o ver a s tretch o f 2 00m t o a bout 2 4m. A t Z ugmantel t he s treet t o t he b aths w as s haped i nto a t riangular a rea o f m ore t han 1 00 m l ength. M alton, i n G reat B ritain, i s a nother e xample. I n m ost c ases m arket-places w ere l aid o ut c ontemporary t o t he f ort a nd m ilitary v icus. T his f act a nd t he d imensions o f t he m arkets i ndicate t hat a m ajor p roportion o f t he s upply t o t he m ilitary v icus a nd t he f ort w as e xchanged h ere. O ther

2 6

m eans o f a cquiring p rovisions a re u nlikely - d uring a l ong t erm s tationing r epeated r equisitioning i s i nconceivable, a nd t he a nnona m ilitaris was n ot e stablished b efore t he t hird c entury. F urthermore, t he p eople o f t he m ilitary v ici d id n ot e arn t heir l iving t hrough l arge s cale f arming f or t he f ollowing r easons: 1 . T he s trip-houses d id n ot s upply t he s pace f or a gricultural a ctivity. 2 . A round t he f orts a nd m ilitary v ici t here w as n ot e nough f arming s pace. T he n eighbouring v illae r usticae w ere o ften l ess t han 1 k m a way f rom t he f ort. T he a rea a round F riedberg f or e xample, which w as n ot m anaged f rom t he v illae, h ad t he s ize o f a bout 4 km 2 , e qualling t he s ize o f o nly 4 a verage v illas. T he o ften c laimed m ilitary t erritory o r p rata c ould o nly h ave c onsisted o f f airly s mall e xercising a nd g razing g rounds. O ne o ther p oint a bout t he m ilitary v ici s hould b e m entioned h ere a nd t hat i s t he r esult o f t he p ersonal c ontacts b etween t he s oldiers a nd t he c ivilians. A lthough s oldiers w ere n ot a llowed t o m arry, o r e ven t o h ave s exual r elations,/ t he m ilitary d iplomas s trongly s uggest a d ifferent p ractice. A pparently t here w as a b ig d ifference b etween t he o fficial l aw a nd what w as o fficially a ccepted, a s e videnced b y t he f requent l egalisation o f d e f acto m arriages a nd c hildren. I t i s t herefore u nnecessary t o p ropose t he e xistence o f ' married q uarters' a s a t V indolanda, 8 d espite t he f act t hat i t w as n ot b efore A lexander S everus t hat s oldiers w ere b y l aw a llowed t o l ive w ith t heir w ives. 9 A s J .C. M ann s howed, t he c hildren o f t he l iaisons b etween s oldiers a nd w omen f rom t he m ilitary v ici o ften j oined t he u nits o f t heir f athers. 1° T he m ilitary v ici s oon s erved a lso a s r ecruiting g rounds f or t he a rmy. I n t he l iaisons o f s oldiers w ith c ivilians w e h ave t he k ey t o t he q uestion: w here d id t he c amp-followers c ome f rom o riginally? I b elieve t hey c ame f rom t he a rea o f i nitial r ecruitment, a s m any m en m ust h ave a lready h ad s trong p ersonal b onds w ith c ivilians w hen t hey w ere d rafted. A t l east s ome o f t he w ives, g irlfriends, c hildren a nd p erhaps p arents w ill h ave f ollowed

' their'

s oldiers a nd t hus f ormed t he n ucleus

o f t he m ilitary v ici. T he c lose r elation b etween s oldiers a nd c ivilians, o r b etween f ort a nd m ilitary v icus, w hich I h ope h as a lready b ecome c lear t o y ou, a lso h as a n o fficial s ide. T he w ay i n w hich t he s urveyors l aid o ut n ot o nly t he f ort, t he r oads, t he b aths a nd o ther m ilitary i nstallations, b ut a lso an e xtensive a rea f or t he m ilitary v icus, c learly p oints t owards t he f act t hat t he m ilitary v icus w as c onsidered a n i ntegral p art o f t he s urroundings o f t he f ort. I n R oman B ritain a s w ell a s i n U pper G ermany a nd R aetia c emeteries w ere a lways p lanned a nd l aid o ut a t a c ertain d istance t o t he f orts. T he p urpose w as n ot t o k eep t he d ead a part f rom t he l iving, b ut t o p rovide s pace f or t he m ilitary v icus. T his i s p roven i n q uite a n umber o f p laces. I t c an c learly N ida-Heddernheim, w here t he

b e s een a t w hole l ength

G rinario-Köngen a nd o f 6 00m a nd 1 000m,

r espectively, b etween f ort a nd c emetery w as u sed f rom t he b eginning t he f ort b y t he m ilitary v icus.

o f

T he v iew o f t he c lose l ink b etween f ort a nd i ts m ilitary v icus i s s upported a t p laces l ike H ousesteads w here d itches w ere a pparently n ever b uilt a t t he s ide o f t he c ivil s ettlement. F urthermore, i n t he

2 7

p rovinces s tudied i n d etail, e xcept f or t he i ncident a t V etera, 1 1 I c ould n ot f ind a ny p lace where a n e xisting m ilitary v icus h ad t o g ive w ay t o e xpanding m ilitary i nstallations. T hat m eans t hat t he c ivilians n ext

t o

t he f orts w ere n o l onger p ushed a round - t hey w ere a g roup o f

p eople w ith t heir o wn r ights. T o c onclude: a t l east i n t he n orthern p rovinces o f t he R oman E mpire t here w as a v ery s trong t ie b etween m ilitary v ici a nd f orts. T he o ne c ould n ot e xist w ithout t he o ther. T he i nhabitants o f t he m ilitary v ici e arned t heir l iving f rom t he s oldiers. T hrough t he m ilitary v ici t he a rmy c ould s atisfy a l arge p ortion o f i ts v ital n eeds, s uch a s f ood, p ottery, m etal e quipment a nd r ecruits. T he s oldiers a s i ndividuals w ere a ble t o a cquire i n t he m ilitary v ici l uxury i tems, a dditional f ood, e quipment, a nd, p robably m ost i mportant, a musement. T his m eans t hat t he s oldiers v ici. W e s hould t herefore n ot

s pent q uite s ome t ime i n t he m ilitary b e s urprised i f w e f ind m ilitary

e quipment i n t he m ilitary v ici a lmost a s f requently a s i n t he c amps.

N OTES 1 .

S criptores H istoriae A ugustae A lex.

2 . F or m ore d etails s ee S OMMER , 3 .

A ppian,

I ber. 8 5;

4 .

C aesar,

G allic W ars 6 ,

5 .

C HRISTLEIN,

1 982,

6 . V ON P ETRIKOVITS, 7 .

C AMPBELL,

8 .

B IRLEY,

9 . H erod. 1 0. M ANN,

1 978,

1 977, 3 ,

8 ,

1 963,

V al. M ax. 3 6,

2 75ff; 1 979,

1 53ff;

1 984; 2 ,

7 ,

S ev.

1 8,

S OMMER , 1 ;

3 7; D io,

5 2,

3 .

1 988.

S allust,

B ell. J ug. 4 4,

R oman H istory 5 6,

2 0,

5 .

2 -5.

S OMMER, f orthcoming.

1 027ff. J UNG,

1 982,

3 02ff.

4 4ff. 4 -5.

1 45ff.

1 1. T ac., H ist.

4 .22.

B IBLIOGRAPHY B IRLEY, R .,

1 977: V indolanda.

( London 1 977)

C AMPBELL, B ., 1 978: T he M arriage o f S oldiers u nder t he E mpire. J ournal o f R oman S tudies 6 8, 1 978, 1 53-166 C HRISTLEIN, R .,

1 982:

Z u d en

j üngsten

B ayerische V orgeschichtsblätter 4 7,

k eltischen 1 982,

F unden

S üdbayerns.

2 75-297

J UNG, J .H., 1 982: D as E herecht d es r ömischen S oldaten. i n H . T EMPORINI &W . HAASE ( eds), A ufstieg u nd N iedergang d er r ömischen W elt I I, 1 4 ( Berlin 1 982), 3 02-346

2 8

M ANN, J .C., 1 963: T he R ole o f t he F rontier Z ones i n A rmy R ecruitment. ( Berichten 5 . I nternationalen L imeskongresses Z agreb), A rheoloski R adovi i R asprave 3 , 1 963, 1 45-150 V on P ETRIKOVITS, H . 1 980: ' Lixae' i n W .F. H ANSON & L .J.F. K EPPIE ( eds), R oman F rontier S tudies 1 979. B AR I nternational S eries 7 1 ( Oxford 1 980), 1 027-1035 S OMMER ,

C .S.,

1 984:

T he

M ilitary

V ici

i n R oman B ritain.

t heir O rigin, t heir L ocation a nd L ayout, A dministration B AR I nternational S eries 1 29, ( Oxford 1 984).

A spects o f a nd

S OMMER, C .S., 1 987: K astellvicus u nd K astell. U ntersuchungen Z ugmantel i m T aunus u nd z u d en K astellvici i n O bergermanien R ätien. F undberichten a us B aden-Württemberg 1 3,

E nd.

z um u nd

1 988 ( forthcoming)

S OMMER, C .S., f orthcoming: D as r ömische M ilitär u nd s eine E influss a uf d ie B evölkerung i n O bergermanien u nd R ätien r echts d es R heins u nd n ördlich d er A lpen. A kten 1 4. I nternationalen L imeskongresses, C arnuntum 1 986. ( Forthcoming)

2 9

T HE VALUE O F T RAJAN'S C OLUMN A S A S OURCE F OR

M ILITARY E QUIPMENT

J . C . C oulston

T his s hort s tudy o f T rajan 's C olumn i s n ot i ntended t o b e a l isting o f t hose i tems o f m ilitary e quipment w hich a re a ccurately o r r eliably d epicted v ersus t hose w hich a re n ot. R ather i t s eeks t o m ake a nd i llustrate t wo p oints w hich m ust b e u nderstood i f t he f rieze i s t o b e p rofitably e mployed a s a s ource o f i nformation f or a ny a spect o f R oman a rmy s tudies.' F irstly, a n e xamination m ust b e m ade o f t he s culptural p rocesses a nd p ractices i nherent i n t he c reation o f t he m onument. S econdly, a nd m ore b riefly, t he i nformation i nput f rom t he f rontiers a nd t he ' war z one' m ay b e s hown t o h ave b een p otentially m inimal c ompared w ith t hat f rom s ources a vailable i n R ome i tself. E xamination o f t he s piral r elief i n t he u tmost d etail h as b een m ade p ossible b y t he e rection o f s caffolding a round t he s haft t o p rotect i t f rom a cid r ain e rosion. 2 R eference h as a lso b een m ade t o t he s et o f c asts i n t he M useo d ella C iviltä R omana ( Rome) b ecause m uch d etail h as b een l ost f rom t he m arble s ince t he c asts w ere m anufactured i n t he 1 860s. 3 A c lay w ash h as b een a pplied t o t he c olumn , p erhaps i n t he 1 6th c entury, a nd w here t his s urvives s o d o t he m ost m inute t ool-marks. W here i t h as g one t he m arble s urface i s g ritty, e roded a nd p itted. T his w ash i s p articularly i mportant f or t he o bservation o f t he z ig-zag c hisel m arkings e mployed t o i ndicate m ail a rmour. 4

T he s piral r eliefs w ere c arved f rom t he b ottom o f t he s haft t o t he t op a nd i t i s c lear t hat t he s piral d ividing-band w as n ot l aid o ut m uch a head o f t his w ork. 5 T he s culptors p robably d id n ot p roceed u pwards s pirally b ut s everal g roups m ay h ave m oved v ertically u p t he s haft i n p arallel f ashion. T here i s a f ramework o f v ertically c orresponding s cenes, s uch a s t he b ridge a nd a rch s cenes w hich i nitiate e ach p hase o f t he t wo w ars, b ut w ithin t his f ramework t he s culptors p robably h ad a f ree h and i n c omposition .6 W ith t he e xception , p erhaps, o f s ome o f t he l argest s et-piece s cenes, t hese p eople w ere p robably n ot w orking f rom d etailed c artoons. T he v ertically c orresponding s cenes c reated r ipples o f c onfusion a round t hem b ecause t hey w ere f ixed-points w hich h ad t o b e a ccommodated a s w ork p rogressed a nd t hey c aused t he s culptors t o m ake m istakes i n t he p osing o f f igures a nd s cenery. 7 T he s culptors w ere a fter a ll f aced w ith t he u nprecedented t ask o f s culpting a 2 00m. l ong f rieze c overing 2 84 s quare m etres o f s haft s urface. I n t he p rocess t hey c reated n o l ess t han 2 ,639 h uman f igures, a nd j ust f rom t he s hear s cale o f t he e nterprise i t s hould b e e xpected t hat s ome c ompromises w ere n ecessarily m ade. O ne k ey t o p resent u nderstanding o f t he d epiction o f t hese f igures m ay h ave b een t he f ormulation o f ' figure t ypes' b y t he R oman d esigners a t a n e arly s tage o f t he w ork. T hese m ay b e c ategorised a s f ollows: a rmoured o fficers ( including T rajan), s oldiers w earing t he ' lorica s egmentata', i nfantry a nd c avalry i n t he l orica h amata, s tandard b earers, m usicians, u narmoured s oldiers, a rchers, s lingers, b arbarian s ymmachiarii, M oorish c avalry, l ictores a nd s acrificial a ttendants, D acians, G ermans, S armatians, R oman c ivilians, b arbarian c ivilians a nd d eities. T he

3 1

s econd a nd t hird c ategories m ake u p t he m ajority o f

t he f igures a nd a re

c entral t o t he m onument's p ropoganda p rogramme.

i s

T he i dentification o f t he ' segmentata'-wearers a s c lear f rom t heir t echnical r ole, t heir u se

c itizen t roops o f t he c urved,

r ectangular s hield a nd b y t heir c lose a ssociation w ith s igna w hich m ay b e i dentified a s e ither l egionary o r p raetorian ( Fig. 2 , 4 ). 8 O f 1 82 f igures o n t he c olumn e ngaged i n c onstruction w ork o nly 3 a re n ot i n ' segmentatae'. 9 T he f igure t ype h as a ' lorica s egmentata', t unic, c aligae, b are l egs, c ingulum a nd a pron, b aldric a nd s word, h elmet a nd t he r ectangular s hield. T his i s t he m aximum c ombination o f d etails a pplied, m any i tems b eing o mitted a s a r esult o f l axity i n t he s culptural p rocess. T he h amata-wearers m ay b e i dentified a s b ecause o f t heir f ighting a nd a ncillary r oles ( Fig.

a uxiliary p eregrini 1 , 3 ). O f 1 61 R oman

f igures i n f ighting p oses, 1 18 a re i n h amatae, 2 6 a re s ymmachiarii a nd o nly 1 7 a re i n ' segmentatae'. T he h amata f igure t ype i s e quipped w ith t unic,

b reeches,

c aligae,

s word,

b aldric, h elmet a nd f lat,

o val s hield.

T hese i dentifications a ppear t o b e s traightforward b ut c omplications a re c aused b y c ommentators w ho a ttempt t o g o f urther a nd d istinguish p raetorians f rom l egionaries, o n t he b asis o f s igna t ypes a nd t he p roximity o f t roops t o t he e mperor.

S ome h ave g one e ven f urther

t o i dentify e quites s ingulares A ugusti a nd e xploratores a mongst t he a uxiliaries. T he m ost ' elite' c lassifications w ere p ut f orward b y G auer w ho s aw t he ' segmentata'-wearers a s l egionaries a nd p raetorians, a nd t he m en i n m ail a s m embers o f g uard u nits o r a s l egionaries i n s ome f orm o f

' camp d ress'.

1 1

T his v iew

i s

v itiated

b y

t he

i nclusion

o f

i rregular t roops o n t he c olumn o f a l ower s tatus t han t he a uxilia ( Fig. 3 , 4 ). F urthermore, e ven t he d istinguishing o f l egionaries f rom p raetorians i s p robably a nachronistic. M any g roups o f ' segmentata'-wearers, i t i s t rue, a re a ccompanied b y a ll-legionary o r a ll-praetorian s l.&21 , b ut o ver t he w hole f rieze t here i s m uch m ixing o f s tandard t ypes. 1L O n t wo o ccasions _ s igna , e ven a ppear w ith m en i n m ail " a nd i t i s c lear t hat s tandards w ere n ot i ntended b y t he f rieze d esigners t o b e a g uide f or t roop i dentification. T heir r ole i s d ifferent a nd t wo-fold. F irstly, a t t he h eads o f m arching c olumns t hey d enote m ovement, 1 4 a nd, s econdly, c lustered i n s acrifice, a dlocutio a nd b attle s cenes, t hey s erve t o v isually l ocate t he e mperor's p osition o n t he f rieze.

1 5

I t w ould, t herefore, b e b est t o c onsider t he m en i n ' loricae s egmentatae' g enerically a s c itizen t roops a nd t he h amata-wearers s imply a s a uxiliaries. T his d ivision f orms a m ajor p art o f t he c olumn's p ropoganda p rogramme, g lorifying t he a rmy's t echnical s kills, T rajan's g eneralship a nd t he v ictories w on w ithout t he l oss o f c itizen b lood. " T he s tylisation i nherent i n f orming v isually d istinguishable c itizen/non-citizen f igure t ypes p rovides a s imple e xplanation f or t he d ifferences b etween c itizen t roops o n t he c olumn a nd t hose o n t he c ontemporaneous A damklissi m etopes. S ignificantly, t he a uxiliary i nfantry a re i dentical o n b oth m onuments. 1 7 T he c itizen d istinction w as i mportant t o t he s culptors o f t he c olumn a nd p resumably t o t he v iewing a udience i n t he c apital. T he f act t hat n ot a ll l egionarii i n r eality w ore t he ' lorica s egmentata' w as u nimportant t o t hem. O nly t he f act t hat

a ll c itizen t roops o n t he c olumn w ore i t m attered.

3 2

S imilarly,

t he

n on-depiction o f s cale a rmour i gnorance

b ut

f or

f or

t he

a uxiliaries

w as

n ot

t hrough

r easons o f v isual c larity b ecause s cale a ppears o n

t he c ontemporary G reat T rajanic F rieze.

1 8

W hen c hanges w ere i ntroduced i nto t he d etails o f t he

c itizen

a nd

a uxiliary f igure t ypes o r i n t heir c omparitive r oles, i t i s l ogical t o s uspect t hat t he s culptor c oncerned w as m istaken, r ather t han n ecessarily t o c onclude t hat a p articular d etail o r a ction r eflected p ractices c urrent w ithin t he R oman a rmy. T his i s t he o nly s afe m ethod o f p roceeding, t o t ake a m inimalist v iew b ased o n t he s culptural p rocesses r ather t han o n a cceptance o f t he s ubject m atter a lone. I f t his a pproach i s a dopted t hen m any o f t he w ilder m odern h ypotheses e vaporate. F or e xample, o ut o f 6 38 c itizen t roops o n t he c olumn, 2 h ave o val, n ot r ectangular s hields ( Fig. 4 ). 19 O f 5 24 a uxiliaries o nly o ne h as a r ectangular s hield. 2 ° I n s cene X XXVI a g roup o f a uxiliaries w ear a nimal s kins o ver t heir h eads ( Fig. 1 ), a f eature u sually c onfined t o s tandard b earers a nd m usicians, a nd i n s cene L s ome s oldiers e ven w ear s kins a nd ' loricae s egmentatae' ( Fig.2). I n a c ouple o f s cenes t wo o r e ven f our c ingula a ppear i nstead o f t he c ustomary o ne. 2 1 I n o nly o ne b attle s cene ( CXII) a uxiliaries f ight b are-headed whilst i n o nly t wo c onstruction s cenes ( LXVI, L XXVII) c itizen t roops w ork w earing h elmets. S cene L XXII i s f ull o f c onfusion w ith s callopped-sleeved c itizen t roops, a s linger w ho t hrows h is s tone i nstead o f s linging i t ( Fig. 4 ), t wo D acians w ho s eem t o b e f ighting t heir o wn s ide a nd t he t wo c itizens w ith o val s hields. I n f act t he l atter a nd o ne o f t he D acians l ook a s i f t hey h ave c hanged f igure t ype d uring t he c ourse o f s culpting, a ll t hree h aving o riginally b een i ntended a s a uxiliaries. T he a ppearance o f t hree a uxiliaries i n b uilding s cenes a nd t he c ombination o f s igna w ith a g roup o f m en i n m ail m ay b e c lassed w ith t hese f igure t ype c ontraventions, a lso r esulting f rom s culptural i nattention a nd l assitude. M oreover,

w ithin

e ach

f igure

t ype

t here a re v ariations i n t he

s mallest f eatures. F or e xample, t he z ig-zag c hiselling c onvention f or m ail i s v ery a rbitrary i n i ts a pplication. 22 I ts d istribution i s b est s een o n t he c asts b ecause t he l oss o f d etail t hrough a cid r ain e rosion o n t he c olumn i tself i s c onsiderable. O f 5 88 c ases where t he s urface i s p reserved w ell e nough t o b e s ure, o nly 2 39 t orsos w ere c hiselled. T his c hiselling m ay h ave b een a s eparate p rocess f ollowing o n f rom t he m ain s cene s culpting, w hich w ould e xplain t he u neven a nd, a t t imes, m istaken c overage. I n s cene X XIV t he c hest p lates o f s ome ' loricae s egmentatae' a re z ig-zag c hiselled a nd i n t wo o ther s cenes ( one i ncluding t he s kins'se _ementata' c ombination) c uirassed o fficers h ave c hiselled t orsos.

2 3

S hield s izes, s hapes a nd p atterns h ave a ttracted c omment s ince C ichorius f irst r ecorded t hem. 24 R ectangular s hields v ary r andomly i n s ize b ut t heir s hapes c luster s ignificantly o n t he s haft. T ruly r ectangular f orms a ppear o n s pirals 1 0 t o 1 6 w hilst a bove a nd b elow t his z one t he t ops a nd b ottoms o f c itizen s hields a re c urved, f orming a s ub-oval s hape. 2 D T he v ariety o f f orms i s a f unction o f t he p roblems e xperienced

b y

R oman

a rtists i n p erspective r endition.

S ome a ttempts

h ave b een m ade t o a ttribute s hield ' blazons' t o s pecific u nits. 26 T his a nachronistic n otion m ay b e s wiftly d ismissed w ith r eference t o s cene L XX where a s ymmachiarius h as t he s ame p attern a s a uxiliaries a longside h im ( Fig.

3 ). M oreover, a n umber o f

3 3

' Roman'

d evices

a ppear

o n

D acian

s hields, w hilst t he w reath p attern o n r ectangular s hields o ccurs a t v arious i nconsequential s tages w ithout f ollowing a d iscernable p lan. 27 W hat m ay b e s ignificant, o n t he o ther h and, i s t hat i n m any c ases s hields a re h eld i n a n u nnatural m anner i ntended t o d isplay t he f ace t o t he v iewer. 28 T his w as n ot t o i dentify p articular u nits b ut v ery l ikely c itizen, a uxiliary a nd D acian s hields w ere c olour-coded i n t he p ainting s cheme i n o rder t o m ake t he a ction c learer t o t he v iewer. 29

T rajan's D acian t riumphs w ould h ave p rovided a ll t he n ecessary m odels f or t he b arbarians a nd t heir e quipment, a nd f or R oman m ilitary s tandards a t l east. 3° T he c olumn's p edestal r eliefs a re c learly a s till-life s tudy i n s tone o f c aptured w eaponry. 31 I n a ddition, a g reat n umber o f e xperienced i nformants v ersed i n m ilitary a rchitecture, i n t he e vents o f t he w ars a nd i n a rmy l ife i n g eneral w ere p resent i n R ome t emporarily f or t he t riumph o r o n a l onger-term b asis i n t he v arious c astra o f t he , c apital. A rchitects w orking o n t he F orum T raiani c omplex w ould h ave b een c onversant w ith f ortifications, n aval a rchitecture, e ngines o f w ar a nd b ridging t echniques. 32 S ome i nvolvement o f A pollodorus o f D amascus i n t he c olumn w ork h as b een p lausibly s uggested. 33 T he p raetorians u sed a rtillery i n p ublic d isplays, h aving t heir o wn t echnicians, a nd t he t roops p resent i n R ome c ould e asily h ave b een e mployed a s m odels f or t he c itizen a nd a uxiliary f igure t ypes. S ignificantly, p raetorian s igna a re d epicted i n g reater n umbers t han a ll c lasses o f l egionary s tandards ( 60 t o 4 7), t he r everse o f r eality i n a f ield a rmy s ituation, a nd t his i s e xplicable b y t he s culptors' f amiliarity w ith t he s tandards c ommonly s een i n R ome.J 5 M uch o f t he m ilitary a rchitecture i s i n f act g eneralised a nd u nconvincing, a nd t he D acian f ortifications h ave l ittle t o r ecommend t heir a ccuracy. 36 B uilding a ctivities a lso i ncorporate e lements w hich s uggest t he i nfluence o f c ontemporary c onstruction p ractices i n R ome, r ather t han t hose o n t he f rontiers. 3 7 T he a rtistic k oine w ithin w hich t he s culptors w ere w orking p rovided t raditional m odels f or t he n atural a nd a rchitectural s cenary, t he c omposition o f g enre s cenes a nd m any o f t he f igure p oses. 38 T he H ellenistic b ackground g overned t he p resentation o f t he h uman f orm which w as n ot a llowed t o b e s eriously o bscured b y b uildings, o r b y l arge s hields, c heek-pieces, h orses o r v ehicles. T hus t he s ources a vailable i n R ome t o t he d esigners a nd s culptors o f t he c olumn w ere q uite a dequate f or t he e xecution o f t he f rieze w ithout r esort t o ' campaign s ketches' o r t he p resence o f a rtists i n D acia.

3 9

D epictions

o f c itizen a nd a uxiliary t roops o n t he c olumn a re o f a

m ost g eneralised f orm a nd t hey a dd v ery

l ittle

i nformation

n ow

t hat

l ate i st t o 2 nd c entury h elmet a nd b ody a rmour f inds a re a vailable. O ther f igure t ypes a re o f s ome i nterest b ut n o s pecific i dentification c an b e m ade o f t he b are-chested s ymmachiarii, f or e xample, 4 ° a nd t he a rchers, who a re u nquestioningly l abelled b y s cholars a s ' Levantines', a re am élange o f e quipment o f t he k ind s een o n t he p edestal r eliefs. 4 1 L ike t he a rmoured S armatian c avalry o f s cenes XXXI a nd X XXVII, t hey a re a n a rtificial c reation, p erhaps b ased o n v erbal i nformation. T he c olumn i s u seful i n t he c ases where e quipment t ypes g enerally d o n ot s urvive ( standards, t ents, a rtillery) a nd p erhaps i n a t l east s uggesting t he v ariety o f i rregular t roops e mployed i n t he w ars, b ut i t c annot b e

3 4

F ig.1: T rajan's C olumn, S cene X XXVI,2, 4 -6, 8 -11. A uxiliaries w earing a nimal s kins. P hoto: t he a uthor.

F ig.2: T rajan's C olumn, S cene L ,1-6. s kins. P hoto: t he a uthor.

3 5

C itizen

t roops

w earing

a nimal

F ig.3: T rajan's C olumn, b are-chested

S cene L XX,6,

i rregular

9 ,

1 2,

1 4. T hree a uxiliaries and a

w ith a c ommon s hield b lazon.

P hoto:

t he

a uthor.

F ig.4: T rajan's C olumn, S cene L XXI1,14-15, 1 7, 2 0. Two c itizen t roops w ith o val s hields; s linger t hrowing a s tone; b are-chested i rregular. P hoto:

t he a uthor.

3 6

e mployed a s a n i ndependent s ource f or m ilitary e quipment. N evertheless, t he t emptation i s v ery s trong t o i llustrate g eneral w orks o n t he R oman a rmy w ith s cenes f rom T rajan's C olumn b ut t his i s o ften d one w ithout a n u nderstanding o f t he c ontext o r o f t he s culptural f orces a t w ork . 42 O ne c ould l iken t his, f or e xample, t o q uoting u ncritically f rom t he H istoria A ugusta w ithout a n a wareness o f i ts p itfalls a nd l imitations.

W hen c ompleted, t he s haft w ould h ave b een g arishly p ainted a nd g ilded, p rincipally t o h elp t he v iewer l ocate t he e mperor, b ut e ven f rom t he h ighest v iew-points m ost o f t he s culpted d etail w ould h ave b een i nvisible. 43 I ronically, t he l atter f eature i s r ather m agnificent b ecause T rajan's C olumn w as n ot m erely t he f irst a ttempt a t s uch a m assive s culptural m onument, i t w as t he l argest p iece o f R oman s culpture e ver t o h ave b een u ndertaken i n s uch a mazing d etail. W ith T rajan 's C olumn i n f ront o f t hem , s culptors w orking o n l ater c olumns a nd a rches w ere f ar m ore p ragmatic w ith r egard t o t he o bserver's i nterests, m aking t hese m onuments f ar p oorer f ields f or m odern s tudy.

N OTES 1 . T his w ork h as b een m ade p ossible b y t he f inancial g enerosity o f t he B ritish S chool a t R ome a nd b y t he k ind p ermission o f P rof A . l a R egina. A p articular d ebt o f g ratitude i s o wed t o M s A . C laridge a nd A rch. G . M artines w ho h ave b een s o h elpful a nd s upportive. T he p aper h as k indly b een r ead i n m anuscript b y D r M .C. B ishop, M r C .M. D aniels a nd D r H . D odge b ut o pinions a nd a ny m istakes h erein a re s olely t he r esponsibility o f t he w riter. F or b ibliographies o f T rajan's C olumn s ee F LORESCU, 1 971; K OEPPEL, 1 982, 4 91-3. M ilitary e quipment o n t he C olumn r eliefs h as n ever b een c omprehensively e xamined ( COUISSIN , 1 926, p assim 3 85-464; R ICHMOND, 1 935; A LFS, 1 941, 7 3-4, 1 00-1, 1 12-16; G AMBER , 1 964; R OBINSON, 1 975, 6 3-4, 8 2, 8 5, 9 3, 1 43, 1 70, 1 83; W AURICK , 1 983, 2 93-6). 2 . S caffolding h as b een e rected a s p art o f a r estoration a nd s tudy p rogramme i nvolving a n umber o f m onuments i n R ome. O verall, T rajan's C olumn h as b een a s s everely a ffected b y e rosion a s o ther m onuments w ith h igher r elief s culpture b ecause i ts r elief d etails a re s o f ine ( MARTINES, 1 980; A RMSTRONG, 1 983; C OLONNA , 1 988, 2 81-94). H owever, t he e ffects o f e arthquakes h ave b een l ess s evere o n T rajan's C olumn t han o n t he M arcus C olumn ( MARTINES, 1 983, 6 0-1). 3 . C asts w ere m ade f or t hree F rench r ulers, F ran;ois I , L ouis X IV a nd L ouis N apolgon I II. T he m atrices o f t he s eries m ade f or t he l atter h ave b een u sed t o p roduce a ll t he m ajor s ets o f c asts i n t he M useo d ella C iviltä R omana, R ome; T he V ictoria a nd A lbert M useum , L ondon; T he C asts M useum , B erlin; T he N ational M useum , B ucarest; a nd t he M usge d es A ntiquitgs N ationales, S aint G ermaine-en-Laye ( part o nly) ( FROEHNER , 1 872-74, x x; R EINACH, 1 886, 1 5-20, 2 3-5; C ICHORIUS, 1 896, 3 ; R ICHMOND, 1 935, 1 ; F LORESCU, 1 971, 2 07; M OSTRA , 1 983, 1 09, 1 56; C OLONNA , 1 988, 2 61-73).

3 7

4 . R OBINSON,

1 975,

1 70.

T he i dentification o f m ail w as m ade a s l ong

a go a s F ROEHNER , 1 872-74, 1 3. T he e xact d ate o f t he c lay w ash i s u nknown b ut i t i s l ikely t o b elong t o t he 1 6th c entury ( COLONNA , 1 988, 5 .

2 95-8).

V ery l ittle d etailed w ork h as b een c arried o ut t echniques ( LEHMANN-HARTLEBEN, 1 926, 1 46-9; S CHEIPER, 1 984, 2 47-8; R OCKWELL, 1 985).

6 . L EHMANN-HARTLEBEN, 1 926, 1 11-14, F ARINELLA , 1 981; S CHEIPER, 1 982,

o n t he G AUER ,

s culptural 1 977, 7 8;

1 45-6; G AUER, 1 977, 4 5-8, 7 8-86; 2 52-4; H ANNESTAD, 1 986, 1 67.

7 . L EHMANN-HARTLEBEN, 1 926, 1 46; R ICHMOND, 1 935, 5 ; G AUER , 1 977, 7 8-9. T he w riter w ould s ee t he g reat n umber o f m istakes a nd t he m ultifarious v ariations i n e quipment d etails ( helmet t ypes, b elts, ' lorica s egmentata' d etails, s hield-patterns e tc) a s e vidence f or i ndividuality i n c omposition a s w ork o n t he s haft p rogressed, r ather t han a s m istakes m ade i n f ollowing d etailed, p re-prepared c artoons. T he d ivision o f t he s piral i nto w ars a nd c ampaigns c ould h ave b een w orked o ut b eforehand v ertical c orrespondence f ramework.

o n

a m odel,

t ogether w ith t he

8 . F or s tandards s ee V ON D OMASZEWSKI, 1 885, 2 8-69, 7 8-89; R ENEL, 1 903, 2 6-8, 2 00-3, 2 62-7. T he r ole o f c itizen t roops a nd i dentification o f s pecific e quipment t ypes i s d iscussed b y C OULSTON, 1 988. F or t he d istinction o f f igure t ypes b y e quipment s ee R OSSI, 1 971a, 5 9; G AUER,

1 977,

5 5-6.

9 . X II,10; C XXIX,5, 6 . A s ystem h as b een d evised b y t he w riter w hereby h uman h eads i n e ach s cene a re n umbered f rom l eft t o r ight, a nd, w hen t hey c oincide v ertically, f rom b ottom t o t op. T hus e very h uman f igure m ay b e r eferred t o b y a L atin s cene n umber ( scrupulously f ollowing t he t ext o f C ICHORIUS, 1 896, 1 900) a nd a n i ndividual n umber f or p urposes o f c omputer d ata s orting. P ETERSEN e t a l., 1 896 n umbered f igures o n t he M arcus C olumn, b ut r ather a rbitrarily w ithin s cenes. 1 0.

' Segmentata'-wearers f ight i n o nly o ne b attle

p roper

( XL,36,

3 7,

3 9, 4 3, 5 9, 6 5). Two m en i n S cene L XXII ( 14, 1 5) a re p roblematical a nd s ieges a re a d ifferent c ategory o f a ction w ith a t echnical e lement ( LXXI, X CVI, C XIII, C XV). U sually t hese m en s tand i n r eserve i n b attle s cenes a s o bservers. 1. F ROEHNER,

1 872-74,

4 ,

1 6;

C ICHORIUS,

1 896,

9 0,

18,

1 31,

1 36,

1 58-9, 1 64, 1 78, 2 02-3, 2 05-6, 2 09, 2 27-8, 2 43, 2 50, 2 78, 2 84, 2 91, 3 54, 3 68-9; 1 900, 5 6, 7 9, 9 0, 1 19, 1 30, 1 32, 1 65-6, 1 71-2, 1 81-2, 1 93, 2 22, 2 76, 2 84; P ETERSEN, 1 899, 9 -11, 1 5-16, 5 5, 6 9; P ARIBENI, 1 926, 4 7-8;

2 59; 1 984,

R ICHMOND, 3 3; R OSSI,

1 2. M ixed s tandards:

1 935, 1 971a,

7 -8; S PEIDEL, 1 965, 8 4-5; 1 05-8; GAUER , 1 977, 5 6-60.

I V-V, V III, X XIV, L I, L I M, L XIII,

1 3. L XXV, L XXVII. 1 4.

I V-V, V II, X XII, X XVI, X LVIII,

C VI,

3 8

C VIII.

C IV.

1 978,

1 6,

1 5. V III, X , X XIV, X XVII, X XXIII, X L, X LII, X LVI, L I, L III, L XIII, L XXV, L XXVII, L XXXVI, L XXXVII, X CVIII, C II, C IV, C XXIII,

C XXV,

L IV, L XI, C V, C XVIII,

C XXXVII.

1 6. T his f ollows s enatorial i deals o f v ictory a s c ontemporaneously e xpressed b y T acitus, A gricola, 3 5. F or t he p ropaganda c ontent o f t he s piral s ee R ICHMOND, 1 935, 3 ; G AUER, 1 977, 6 , 5 5; S CHEIPER , 1 982,

1 86-204; H ANNESTAD,

1 7. L egionary t roops o n t he t heir s tandards, 2 8-9, 3 1, 3 3, 3 5,

1 986,

1 58-9.

A damklissi

m etopes

a re

i dentifiable

b y

p ila a nd c urved s hields ( Inv.no.12-13, 1 6-23, 3 8, 4 3); a uxiliaries b y t heir f lat s hields, a nd

l ack o f c ingula a nd p teruges ( Inv.no.14, 3 2, 3 4, 3 6). M etope n umbers f ollow G . T ocilescu's i nventory ( FLORESCU, 1 965, F ig.51). 1 8. K OEPPEL,

1 985, N o.9, F ig.No.17,

2 4,

3 1-4,

4 5,

5 6,

6 5.

1 9. LXXII,14, .15. 2 0. X XXVIII,5. 2 1.

I V,3, 4 ,

8 ,

1 4; X XI,6,

7 .

2 2. F or e xample, m ail c hiselling a ppears i n S cenes X -XI b ut n ot b efore, a nd n ot a gain t ill XXIV. 2 3.

S egmentatae X XIV,11,

1 2,

1 3,

1 5; o fficers X ,2; L ,8.

2 4. F or a s traight d escription F LORESCU, f or i nterpretation.

1 969,

6 6,

6 9-85.

S ee a lso n .26

2 5. R ectangular: LXVI, L XXII, L XXIII, X CVIII, C II, C IV, C VI, C VIII, C XIV, C XV. S ub-oval: I V, X , X III, X XI, X XII, X XIV, X XVI, X XVII, X XXIII, X XXVIII, X L, X LVIII, L , L V, LXII, C VI, C XXIII, C XLVII. 2 6. E arly c ommentators w ere v ery l iteral i n t he i nterpretation o f s uch d etail ( CICHORIUS, 1 896, 3 4, 9 0, 1 42, 1 64, 1 84, 1 91-2, 2 05-6, 2 55, 2 81, 2 84, 2 88, 3 08, 3 38, 3 44-5; 1 900, 5 6, 1 62, 1 65, 1 75, 1 81-2, 1 93; P ARIBENI, 1 926, 2 33-4). A ttribution o f s hield-blazons h as b een r evived b y R OSSI, 2 7. D acians

w ith

1 966;

R oman

1 971a,

t ype

1 08-18.

b lazons:

s cuta w ith w reaths: I V,4, 6 , 8 , L XII,10, 1 2; L XXII,7; L XXXV,24;

S ee a lso S TROBEL,

X LI,4; X CIII,21;

C XLV,1,

4 ,

8 ;

1 35.

C XVI,1. R oman

1 4; X ,25; X XVI,12; XXXVIII,5; L V,8; C II,23.

2 8. X XIV,62, 6 9; X XXVII,3-5; X LII,1; L VIII,1; L XXII,24; 2 2; C VII,4; C VIII,18; C XIII,7; C XV,17; C XLII,2-3, 5 ; C XLIV,1-4;

1 984,

C XLVIII,1;

X CIV,14, C XLIII,1,

2 0, 3 -4;

C LI,5.

2 9. T his i s c lear i n s uch s cenes a s X XXII, X XXVIII, X L, X LII, L XVI, X CV, X CVI, C XV, C XXXIV, C XLVIII, C LI. C olour w as n ecessary t o c lassify c omplex s cenes a nd t races o f p aint h ave b een r ecognised o n t he s haft ( FROEHNER, 1 872-74, x viii; L EHMANN-HARTLEBEN, 1 926, 1 47; R EUTERSWÄRD,

1 960,

2 29-30;

S CHEIPER,

3 9

1 982,

2 48-52.

3 0. D io L XVIII,10,15; P liny, E pistulae V III,4. F or t he d ating o f o ne T rajanic t riumph s ee M AZZARINO, 1 978. T he i nfluence o f t riumphal p rocessions a nd p ainted

p lacards

L EHMANN-HARTLEBEN,

2 ; H AMBERG,

3 1. T hey

m ay

b e

1 926,

o n

s culpture 1 945,

3 2. V itruvius, d e A rchitectura, 1 982, 1 37-42. t he

d iscussed

b y

h ighly r ated b ecause t he o bjects a re c orroborated b y

s mall-finds a nd o ther p ictorial s ources

3 3. O n

i s

1 25-9.

g rounds

t hat

t he

v ;

( GAMBER,

1 964).

X ,x-xvi.

S ee

M ACDONALD,

C olumn h as a n i ntegral p osition i n h is

f orum c omplex, t hat t he c arving o f a s piral f rieze o n a c olumn w as a n u nprecedented d evice w orthy o f h im, a nd t hat h is b ridge ( XCIX) a nd, p erhaps, o ne o f h is w ar-machines ( CXIV), a ppear o n t he s piral ( LEHMANN-HARTLEBEN, 1 926, 1 44-5; B ANDINELLI, 1 958; GAUER , 1 977, 7 6-8;

S CHEIPER,

1 982,

1 52-4).

3 4. F or a rtillery i n R ome s ee M ARSDEN,

1 969,

1 93-4.

L arge

n umbers

o f

t roops w ere u sually p resent i n R ome i ncluding p raetoriani, u rbaniciani, e quites s ingulares A ugusti, c lassiari a nd s oldiers i n t he c astra p eregrinorum ( KENNEDY, 3 5.

1 978).

1 4 a quilae, 1i mago a nd 3 2 l egionary s igna c ompare w ith n o l ess t han 6 0 p raetorian s igna. B y a ssociation a nd b y d etails o f d epiction ( V), m ost o f t he v exilla m ay b e p raetorian a s w ell p raetorian i nfantry v exillarii s ee D E A ZEVEDO, 1 951, N o.119). p raetorian t roops i n t he D acian W ars s ee S TROBEL, 1 984, 1 03-4.

( for F or

3 6. P roblems w ith f ort w alls w ere i dentified b y R ICHMOND, 1 935, 5 , 1 8-20. F or m aking p aper o r f ull-size r econstructions s cholars h ave b een o ptimistic a bout u sing r epresentations o f R oman a rchitecture ( TURCAN-DgLgANI, 1 958; H ANSON, 1 982) a nd D acian f ortifications ( ROSSI, 1 971b) o n t he C olumn. 3 7. W hether t he f ort w alls o n t he C olumn w ere t hought b y t he s culptors t o b e m ade o f t urf o r o f c ut s tone, m en s hould n ot b e m ixing m ortar f or t heir c onstruction i n S cenes X VIII a nd X CVII ( see A DAM, 1 984, 7 8-9). 3 8. G enre s cenes a nd f igure p oses h ave b een e xtensively d iscussed b y L EHMANN-HARTLEBEN, 1 926. 3 9. R ICHMOND, 2 46.

1 935,

3 . R ecently r epeated b y T OYNBEE

&

W ILKINS,

1 982,

4 0. F ROEHNER, 1 872-74, 1 6; R EINACH, 1 886, 4 5; C ICHORIUS, 1 896, 1 77-8; P ARIBENI, 1 926, 2 16; R OSSI, 1 971a, 9 6, 1 03-4; C ISEK , 1 983, 2 94; S TROBEL, 1 984, 1 52. T he g eneral c oncensus i s t hat t hey r epresent G ermanic a llies, p ossibly M arcomanni a nd Q uadi. 4 1. F ROEHNER ,

1 872-74,

1 6;

C ICHORIUS,

1 896,

3 28-9;

1 900,

P ARIBENI, 1 926, 2 16; R ICHMOND, 1 935, 1 5-16; F LORESCU, R OSSI, 1 971a, 1 02; C ISEK , 1 983, 2 94; S TROBEL, 1 984, 1 50;

1 93,

2 38;

1 969, 6 2; C OULSTON,

1 985, 2 79-80; H ANNESTAD, 1 986, 1 60. I n a ctuality t he a rchers a re q uite l ikely t o h ave b een S yrian b ut t he s culptors c ertainly d id

4 0

n ot d epict t hem a s s uch. 4 2. K EPPIE,

1 984,

1 2 r ightly m akes a p oint o f n ot u sing T rajan's C olumn

o ut o f p eriod. 4 3. F or r econstructions o f c olonnades a nd b alconies f or a v iewing a udience a round t he C olumn s ee A MICI, 1 982, F ig.125-6, 1 46-8.

B IBLIOGRAPHY A DAM, J .P., 1 984: L a c onstruction ( Paris 1 984) A LFS,

r omaine:

m ateriaux

e t

t echniques,

J ., 1 941: ' Der b ewegliche M etallpanzer i m r ömischen H eer', Z eitschrift f ür h istorischen W affen u nd K ostumkunde, 3 -4, 1 941, 6 9-126

A MICI, A .M ., 1 982: F oro d i T raiano: B asilica U lpia e B iblioteche ( Ripartizione a ntichitä e b elle a rti e p roblemi d i c ultura. S tudi e m ateriali d ei M usei e M onumenti C omunali d i R oma 1 0), ( Rome 1 982) A RMSTRONG, G ., 1 983: ' Trajan 's C olumn M agazine, F ebruary 2 0, 1 983, 3 2-4 D E A ZEVEDO, M .C.,

i n

t he

W ars',

1 951: L e A ntichitä d e V illa M edici,

B ANDINELLI, R .B., 1 958: d ell'Arte A ntica I ,

' Appollodorus d i ( Rome 1 958), 4 76-80

C ICHORIUS, C ., 1 896, 1 900: D ie ( Berlin 1 896, 1 900)

R eliefs

S unday T imes

( Rome 1 951)

D amasco', E nciclopedia

d er T raianssäule

I I & I II,

C ISEK ,

E ., 1 983: L 'gpoque d e T rajan. C irconstances p roblames i dgologiques, ( Bucarest 1 983)

C OLONNA ,

1 988: L a C olonna T raiana e g li a rtisti F rancesi d a L uigi X IV a N apoleone I , ( Rome 1 988)

C OUISSIN , P .,

1 926: L es a rmes r omaines,

p olitiques

e t

( Paris 1 926)

C OULSTON, J .C., 1 985: ' Roman a rchery e quipment', i n M .C. B ishop ( ed.), T he P roduction a nd D istribution o f R oman M ilitary E quipment. P roceedings o f t he S econd R oman M ilitary E quipment R esearch S eminar ( BAR I nternational S eries 2 75), ( Oxford 1 985), 2 20-366 C OULSTON, J .C., 1 988: ' Three l egionaries a t C roy H ill ( Strathclyde)', i n J .C. C oulston ( ed.), M ilitary E quipment a nd t he I dentity o f R oman S oldiers. P roceedings o f t he F ourth R oman M ilitary E quipment C onference ( BAR I nternational S eries 3 94), ( Oxford 1 988), 1 -29 V ON

D OMASZEWSKI, A ., 1 885: ' Die F ahnen i m r ömischen H eere', A rchäologisch-epigraphischen S eminares d er U niversität W ien , V , 1 885, 1 -80

4 1

F ARINELLA ,

V .,

1 981:

v erticale',

' La

c olonna

P rospettiva, 2 6,

T raiana: 1 981,

u n

e sempio

2 -9

F LORESCU, F .B.,

1 965:

D as S iegesdenkmal v on A damklissi,

F LORESCU, F .B.,

1 969:

D ie T rajanssäule,

F LORESCU, F .B., 1 971: M iclea ( ed.),

d i l ettura

( Bucarest

( Bonn 1 965)

1 969)

' Study a nd a rchaeological c ommentary', T he C olumn, ( Cluj 1 971), 2 07-19

i n

I .

F ROEHNER , W ., 1 872-74: L a c olonne T rajane d 'apres l e s urmoulage e xecute a R ome e n 1 861-62, ( Paris 1 872-74) G AMBER,

V ., 1 964: ' Dakische u nd s armatische W affen a uf d en R eliefs d er T raianssäule', J ahrbuch d es k unsthistorischen S ammlung , W ien, 6 0, 1 964, 7 -34

G AUER,

W ., 1 977: U ntersuchungen z ur R omanae X III), ( Berlin 1 977)

H AMBERG,

P .G., 1 945: S tudies i n R oman I mperial A rt w ith S pecial R eference t o t he S tate R eliefs o f t he S econd C entury, ( Copenhagen 1 945)

H ANNESTAD, N .,

1 986:

T raianssäule

R oman A rt a nd I mperial P olicy,

( Monumenta

A rtis

( Aarhus 1 986)

H ANSON, W .S., 1 982: ' Roman m ilitary t imber b uildings: c onstruction a nd r econstruction', i n S . M cGrail ( ed.), W oodworking T echniques B efore A .D.1500 ( BAR I nternational S eries 1 29), ( Oxford 1 982), 1 69-86 K ENNEDY,

D .L., 1 978: ' Some o bservations A ncient S ociety, 9 , 1 978, 2 75-301

o n

K EPPIE,

L .J.F., E mpire,

K OEPPEL,

G ., 1 982: ' Official s tate r eliefs o f t he c ity o f R ome i n t he i mperial a ge. A b ibliography', A ufstieg u nd N iedergang d er r ömischen W elt I I, 1 2.1, 1 982, 4 77-506

K OEPPEL,

G ., 1 985: ' Die h istorischen R eliefs d er r ömischen K aiserzeit, I II, s tadtrömisches D enkmäler u nbekannter B auzugehörigkeit a us

1 984: T he M aking o f t he R oman ( London 1 984)

t rajanischer Z eit',

t he P raetorian Guard',

Army

B onner J ahrbücher,

1 85,

f rom

1 985,

R epublic

t o

1 43-213

L EHMANN-HARTLEBEN, K ., 1 926: D ie T raianssäule. E in r ömisches K unstwerk z u B eginn d er S pätantike, ( Berlin 1 926) M ACDONALD, W .L., 1 982: T he A rchitecture o f t he I ntroductory S tudy, ( New H aven 1 982) M ARSDEN,

E .W ., 1 969: G reek a nd D evelopments, ( Oxford 1 969)

M ARTINES, G .,

1 980:

R oman

R oman

A rtillery.

' Appunuti s ulla C olonna T raiana:

4 2

E mpire,

I ,

A n

H istorical

g uasti e

p atine',

R icerche d i S toria d ell'arte,

1 1,

1 980,

5 6-62

M ARTINES, G ., 1 983: ' La s truttura d ella C olonna T raiana: u n'esercitazione d i m eccanica a lessandrina', P rospettiva, 3 2, 1 983, 6 0-71 M OSTRA

1 983:

D alla m ostra a l m useo.

a l M useo d ella 1 983)

c iviltä

D alla M ostra a rcheologica d al

r omana,

e xhibition

c atalogue,

1 911 ( Rome

M AZZARINO, S ., 1 978: ' I F asti O stienses e i i p rimo t rionfo d acico d i T raiano', E pigraphica, 4 0, 1 978, 2 41-6 P ARIBENI, R .,

1 926:

O ptimus P rinceps I ,

P ETERSEN, E ., 1 899: T rajans ( Leipzig 1 899)

d akische

( Messina

1 926)

K riege,

I ,

d er

e rste

K rieg,

P ETERSEN, E ., V ON D OMASZEWSKI, A ., & C ALDERINI, G ., 1 896: M arcus Säule a uf d er P iazza C olonna i n R om, ( Monaco 1 896) R EINACH,

R ENEL,

S ., 1 886: 1 886)

C .,

1 903:

L a C olonne T rajane a u Musge d e S aint-Germain,

D ie

( Paris

C ultes m ilitaires d e R ome. L es e nseignes,

( Paris 1 903)

1 960: S tudien z u P olychromie d er P lastik ( Stockholm 1 960)

G riechenland

R ICHMOND, I .A ., 1 935: ' Trajan's a rmy o n T rajan's C olumn', B ritish S chool a t R ome, X III, 1 935, 1 -40

P apers o f t he

R EUTERSWÄRD, P ., u nd R om,

R OBINSON, H .R.,

1 975: T he A rmour o f I mperial R ome,

( London 1 975)

R OCKWELL, P ., 1 985: ' Preliminary s tudy o f t he c arving t echniques o n t he C olumn o f T rajan', S tudi M iscellanei, 2 6, 1 985, 1 01-11 R OSSI,

L .,

R OSSI,

1 971a: T rajan 's C olumn a nd t he D acian W ars,

L ., 1 971b : ' Dacian A ntiquaries J ournal, L I,

f ortifications 1 971, 3 0-5

o n

( London 1 971)

T rajan's

C olumn',

S CHEIPER , R ., 1 982: B ildpropaganda d er r ömischen K aiserzeit u nter b esonderer B erücksichtigune d er T rajanssäule i n R om u nd k orrespondierenden M unzen, ( Bonn 1 982) S PEIDEL, M ., 1 965: D ie E quites S ingulares A ugusti. B egleittruppe d er r ömischen K aiser d es z weiten u nd d ritten J ahrhunderts, ( Bonn 1 965) S PEIDEL, M .P., 1 978: G uards o f t he R oman A rmies. S ingulares o f t he P rovinces, ( Bonn 1 978) S PEIDEL,

M .P.,

1 984:

A n

E ssay

' Germani c orporis c ustodes', G ermania,

3 1-45

4 3

o n

6 2,

t he

1 984,

STROBEL, K., 1984: Untersuchungen zu den Dakerkriegen Trajans. Studien zur Geschichte des mittleren und unteren Donauraumes --in der Rohen Kaiserzeit,Tsonn 1984) TOYNBEE,

J.M.C., & WILKINS, A., 1982: Britannia, XIII, 1982, 245-51

'The

Vindolanda

horse',

TURCAN-DELEANI, M., 1958: 'Les monuments representes sur la Calonne Trajanne. Schematisme et realisme', Melanges d'archeologie et d'histoire de l'Ecole Francais de Rome, 70, 1958, 149-76 WAURICK,

G., 1983: 'Untersuchungen zur historisierenden Rilstung in der romischen Kunst', Jahrbuch des romisch-germanischen Zentralmuseum Mainz, 30, 1983, 265-301

44

D IE M ILITÄRISCHE RÜSTUNG I N D ER R ÖMISCHEN K UNST: F RAGEN Z UR A NTIQUARISCHEN G ENAUIGKEIT AM B EISPIEL DER S CHWERTER D ES 2 . J AHRHUNDERTS N .CHR. G ötz W aurick

W affen u nd R üstungen i n d er r ömischen K unstl s ehen o ft g anz a nders a us a ls d ie g leichzeitigen O riginalfunde. D as l iegt d aran, d aß z .B. f ür m ythologische T hemen d ie h istorisierenden g riechischen W affentypen b evorzugt w erden. D asselbe g ilt a ber a uch, w enn r ömische S oldaten i n B ildwerken m it z eitgenössischer, ' historischer' T hematik a uftreten u nd d iese D arstellungen i n a llegorischer W eise ü berhöht s ind. 2 S olche D enkmäler b esitzen f ür d ie a ntiquarische W affenforschung k einen g roßen W ert. D aß a uf d er a nderen S eite d ie G rabreliefs z uverlässige Q uellen s ind, i st a llgemein b ekannt u nd b raucht h ier n icht e rörtert z u w erden. W ie s teht e s a ber m it d en g roßen h istorischen B ildwerken, d enen e in a llegorischer C harakter n icht o hne w eiteres a nzumerken i st? E inige s pezielle A spekte z u d ieser F ragestellung s ollen i m f olgenden a nhand d er R eliefs d er T rajans- u nd d er M arcussäule b ehandelt w erden.

T RAJANSSÄULE E s i st s chon l ange b ekannt, d aß d ie D arstellungen d er T rajanssäule d ie g leichzeitige A usrüstung d es r ömischen H eeres z iemlich g enau w iedergeben. D ie O riginale d er h ier d argestellten K ettenu nd S chuppenpanzer k ommen a n F undplätzen v on 1 . b is z um 4 . J ahrhundert v or. D er S chienenpanzer i st e benfalls s eit d er f rühen K aiserzeit b elegt; d en ä ltesten N achweis l iefern F ragmente a us D angstetten, d ie a llerdings k eine s ichere A ussage d arüber z ulassen, o b d iese f rühen R üstungen s chon s o a usgesehen h aben w ie d ie T ypen a uf d er T rajanssäule. 3 E ine b essere z eitliche E ntsprechung z u d en R eliefdarstellungen b ieten d ie O riginalfunde a us d em K astell U rspring, d eren V erwendung a ufgrund d er B esetzung d es K astells i n d en Z eitraum v om s päten 1 . b is z ur M itte d es 2 . J ahrhunderts f estgelegt i st. 4 D ie H elme a uf d en R eliefs d er T rajanssäule g ehören z um T yp W eisenau d er O riginale ( CXIV C ichorius T af.85). E in s olches E xemplar m it K reuzbügeln w urde i m d akischen L ager v on B erzovia g efunden u nd i st d amit m indestens i n d ie e rsten J ahrzehnte d es 2 . J ahrhunderts d atiert. 5 L ediglich d er a uf d em R elief a b u nd z u e rscheinende H elm a ttischen T yps ( XXIV C ichorius T af.17) i st u nter d en O riginalfunden n icht v ertreten. M an k ann ü berlegen, o b v ielleicht d ie D arstellungen b eeinflußt h aben o der

P aradehelme d er R eiter d iese o b s ich h ier h istorisierende

T endenzen i n d er B ildhauerarbeit b emerkbar m achen. 6 D amit a ber w äre s chon d er e inzige u nrealistische Z ug i n d er W affenwiedergabe d es g anzen R eliefbandes g enannt. W ährend o vale S childformen a nhand v on R andbeschlägen u nd L ederfutteralen a us f rühu nd m ittelkaiserzeitlichem Z usammenhang l eicht z u b elegen s ind, i st d ie E xistenz d es e ckigen S cutum unter d er O riginalrüstung d es 2 .

J ahrhunderts

4 5

n ur

z u

v ermuten.

V oraussetzung

d afür w äre S hields z u

z um B eispiel, d aß d er S childbuckel d er 8 . L egion a us S outh R echt m it e iner h adrianischen e xpeditio B ritannica i n

V erbinding g ebracht w ird. D er

S chwerttyp

i st

w ird m eist a m B alteus

7

a uf

d er g anzen S äule e inheitlich. D ie W affe

g etragen ( Fig .1).

C harakteristisch i st d as s pitze

O rtband. D ie A ufhängung w ird n ormalerweise n icht d argestellt; i n E inzelfällen e rkennt m an d ie T ragringe ( Fig.2), d ie i n d er R ealität a n d en S cheidenzwingen h ängen. D ieser S chwerttyp e ntspricht d en F unden d es 1 . J ahrhunderts. E ine S cheidenzwinge a us d em d akischen L ager v on B uciumi z eigt a ber, d aß e r n och i m 2 . J ahrhundert v erwendet w urde ( Fig.5,

1 ).

8

MARCUS S ÄULE B ei d er M arcussäule s ieht d as O riginalfunden f olgendermaßen a us:

V erhältnis

v on

D arstellungen

u nd

N eben K etten- u nd S chuppenpanzern s cheint a uch d er S chienenpanzer n och a n g leichzeitigen F undplätzen v orzukommen. I n N ewstead l agen F ragmente e ines S chienenpanzers i n e iner G rube, d ie a uch Rheinzaberner S igillata e nthielt. 9 S ie k ann a lso e rst n ach 1 50 z ugefüllt worden s ein. O b d ieser P anzer a llerdings g enauso a usgesehen h at w ie a uf d em R elief, i st n och f raglich, d a d ie F ragmente k eine R ekonstruktion z ulassen. S chwierigkeiten b ereitet d ie t ypologische E inordnung d er H elme. D er a uf d er T rajanssäule k lar d argesstellte T yp W eisenau k ommt h ier n icht m ehr v or. U nd a uch d essen N achfolger, T yp N iederbieber m it d en g roßen, d as g anze G esicht b edeckenden W angenklappen u nd d en c harakteristischen K reuzbügeln, i st a uf d er M arcussäule n icht z u e rkennen. D ie d argestellten H elme d agegen f olgen z wei G rundtypen, d ie i m O riginalbestand k eine P arallelen b esitzen ( III P etersen T af.10 A ): 1 . D er a ttische H elm, d essen V erhältnis z u r ealen R üstung - w ie b ei d er T rajanssäule - n icht e indeutig b estimmt w erden k ann. 2 . E in H elm, b ei d em d er S tirnbügel v erlängert u nd w ie e in R ing h inten u m d ie K alotte h erumgeführt i st. S eine F orm i st a nhand d es O riginalmaterials n icht z u e rklären, s ie w irkt v ielmehr wie e ine k ünstlerische S tilisierung. V ereinzelte V orläufer e rscheinen s chon a n d er T rajanssäule. O riginalfunde

d es

S cutum a us d er Z eit d er M arcussäule k ennen w ir

n icht. A uf d em R elief s elbst i st j edenfalls g anz s elten g eworden.

d ie

e ckige

F orm

d ieses

S childtyps

D as S chwert a uf d er M arcussäule i st t ypologisch g ut a nsprechbar. E s h ängt m eist a m B alteus ( Fig.3), b ei T rägern v on S chienenpanzern z .T. a uch a m C ingulum. D as s pitze O rtband ( Fig.11) i st n och z u f inden ( siehe u nten), e s ü berwiegt n un a ber d ie h albrunde F orm , d ie i n m ehreren V arianten v orkommt: 1 .

D ie o bere B egrenzung d es O rtbandes i st p eltaförmig ( Fig.3).

2 .

D as P eltamuster s cheint e benfalls, a ber d arüber g ibt e s n och e ine w aagerechte B egrenzung z ur S cheidenfläche h in ( LXVI P etersen T af.75 B ).

4 6

F ig.!: T rajanssäule X XXVII ( Cichorius T af.28).

F ig.2: T rajanssäule X XXVIII ( Cichorius T af.28).

4 7

F ig.3: M arcussäule X XVI ( Petersen T af.33 B ).

F ig.4: M arcussäule X XVII ( Petersen T af.35 A ).

4 8

6

F ig.5: 1 B uciumi ( Anm. 8 ). - 2 Z ugmantel ( Anm. 1 0). - 3 N iederbieber ( Anm. 1 0). - 4 S aalburg ( Anm. 1 0). - 5 B utzbach ( Anm. 1 0). - 6 B onn ( Anm . 1 2). - 7 B ad C annstatt ( Anm. 1 3). - 8 N eckarburken ( Anm. 1 4). - 9 N ewstead ( Anm. 1 6). - O hne M aßstab ( Die A bbildungen s ind d en i n d en A nmerkungen z itierten P ublikationen e ntnommen).

4 9

Pig.6: Lyon (nach Wuilleumier 1952).

Fig.7: Marcussaule LXXXI (Petersen Taf.92 B).

50

3 . D as O rtband i st h albkreisförmig u nd g enauso b reit w ie d ie S cheide ( Fig.14). 4 . D as O rtband i st h albkreisförmig , j edoch w esentlich b reiter a ls d ie S cheide ( Fig.4). D as s ind d ie c harakteristischen F ormen d er O rtbänder d es 2 ./3. J ahrhunderts, w ie z .B. d as a m O bergermanisch-Raetischen L imes g efundene M aterial z eigt ( Fig.5, 2 -5). 10 E inen s icheren t erminus a nte q uem b ieten a llerdings e rst d ie S tücke a us d em u m 2 00 v erlassenen K astell N ewstead. 1 1 W ie d ie S chwertscheide a m C ingulum o der B alteus b efestigt i st, k ann m an auf d em R elief n ormalerweise n icht e rkennen. W ir d ürfen a nnehmen, d aß m an s ich - ä hnlich w ie b ei d er T rajanssäule - u m d ie W iedergabe s o f einer D etails g ar n icht b emüht h at. N ur s elten s ind d ie - a uch a n d er T rajanssäule z u b eobachtenden - T ragringe z u e rkennen. B ei d en W affen e iner S zene a ber l iegt d er S chwertriemen e indeutig v or d er S cheide, w o e r d urch e ine H alterung g eführt i st ( Fig.7). D as m uß d er S chwertriemenhalter s ein, w ie w ir i hn a us z ahlreichen O riginalfunden, d es 2 ./3. J ahrhunderts ä ltesten D aten s einer V erwendung F undzusammenhänge b ezeichnet: 1 . B ronzener S chwertriemenhalter L egionslagers a m ' Bonner B erg', 1 2 w ird. 2 .

u nd a uch s päter k ennen. D ie w erden d urch f olgende

( Fig.5 , 6 ). B onn. F abrica d es d eren E nde u m 1 40 n .Chr. a ngesetzt

S chwertfragment m it e isernem S chwertriemenhalter ( Fig .5, 7 ). B ad C annstatt. 13 G rube m it W affenfunden u nd K eramik a us d er M itte d es 2 .

J ahrhunderts. 3 . E iserner S chwertriemenhalter ( Fig.5, 8 ). N eckarburken. 14 D ie A ufgabe d es K astells N eckarburken a m O denwaldlimes a us A nlaß d er E rrichtung d es V orderen L imes v or 1 61 n .Chr. i st n icht s icher. M öglicherweise h at d ie B esatzung b is n ach 1 80 n .Chr. h ier g elegen. 15 4 . B ronzener S chwertriemenhalter ( Fig.5, 9 ). N ewstead. 1 6 5 . B ronzener S chwertriemenhalter. W affengrab L yon. 1 7 D as G rab i st d urch e inen p rägefrischen D enar d es S eptimius S everus ( insgesamt z wölf) u m 2 00 n .Chr. d atiert. D arauf d eutet a uch d ie K niefibel. D er F und b estätigt z ugleich, d aß S chwertriemenhalter u nd p eltaförmige O rtbänder z usammengehörten. W enn d iese D aten a uch a lle e ine g ewisse W ahrscheinlichkeit b esitzen, s o s cheint v on i hnen a ber n ur K astell N ewstead e inen g anz s icheren t erminus a nte q uem z u l iefern. A uf j eden F all b estätigen s ie, d aß d ie D arstellung d ieser S chwerter a uf d en R eliefs d er M arcussäule a ls r ealistisch a ngesehen w erden k ann.

Z UR S CHWERTROSTUNG I M 2 . J AHRHUNDERT I nsgesamt g esehen f inden a lso v iele d er a uf d en b eiden M onumenten w iedergegebenen W affenu nd R üstungstypen i hre P arallelen b ei d en g leichzeitigen O riginalen. N ur b ei d en H elmen s ind m ehr o der w eniger s tarke E inschränkungen z u m achen. S chienenpanzer u nd e ckiges S cutum n ehmen v on d er T rajans- z ur M arcussäule i n a uffallender W eise a b. D iese T endenz l äßt s ich a nhand d er F unde b isher k aum k ontrollieren. 1 8 D agegen s piegelt

s ich

d er

i m

O riginalmaterial

5 1

g ut

z u f assende W echsel v om

S chwerttyp m it s pitzem O rtband, S chwert m it h albrundem

S cheidenzwingen u nd o der p eltaförmigem

T rageringen O rtband

z um u nd

S chwertriemenhalter 19 a uch i n d en R eliefs v on T rajans— u nd M arcussäule w ieder. D as f rüheste A uftreten d es j üngeren S chwerttyps l äßt s ich a nhand v on f olgenden D enkmälern n och e twas s icherer a nsprechen : 1 . D er G rabstein d es F lottensoldaten Q . S tatius R ufinus a us K erameikos v on A then ( Fig.8) 2 ° d ürfte j ünger s ein a ls T rajanssäule. D as B ildnis d es M annes m it d em k urzen B art d eutlich

i n

A nlehnung

a n

d as

H adriansporträt

e ntstanden.

S chwertscheide h at n och d as s pitze O rtband.

F ig.8: A then ( vgl. A nm.

5 2

2 0; n ach C onze 1 893).

d em d ie i st D ie

2 . A uch d er G rabstein d es P . f rühestens h adrianischer s pitzem O rtband ( Fig .9).

A elius M estrius a us A quincum 2 1 g ehört Z eit a n. D er O ptio t rägt e in S chwert m it

F ig.9: A quincum ( vgl. A nm.

2 1).

3 . D en f rühesten s icher d atierbaren B eleg i n d er K unst f ür e in S chwert m it h albrundem O rtband b ietet d ie B auinschrift v on B ridgeness a m A ntoninuswal1. 2 2 D er s iegreiche R eiter i m l inken B ildfeld h at e in S chwert d es n euen T yps ( Fig.10), f ür d en w ir d amit a ls ä ltstes D atum d as Jahr 1 42 n . C hr. n ennen k önnen. Z u B eginn d er R egierungszeit d es A ntoninus P ius w ar d as n eue S chwert i m r ömischen H eer a lso b ekannt. U mso e rstaunlicher i st e s, d aß a uf d er M arcussäule d aneben a uch n och d er ä ltere T yp m it s pitzem O rtband v orkommt ( Fig.11). S ein A nteil i st z war w esentlich g eringer u nd s eine Verteilung w irkt u ngleichmäßig ( Fig.12): i n d er u nteren H älfte d es R eliefbandes f ehlt e r v öllig; e twa i n d er M itte e rscheint e r a uf e iner S eite d er S äule i n d rei ü bereinanderleigenden B ildfeldern ( Abb. 1 2 N r. 6 0 A .B; 6 5 B ; 6 6 A ; 7 1 B ) , a m s tärksten i st e r o ben v ertreten, w o e r ü ber z wei v olle U mläufe d er R eliefspirale d en n euen S chwerttyp m it h albrundem O rtband w eitgehend v erdrängt ( Abb. 1 2 N r. 9 5 A .B; 1 02 B ; 1 03 B ; 1 05 A .B; 1 07 A .B; 1 08 A .B.; 1 10 B ; 1 12 A ).

5 3

F ig.10: B ridgeness

( vgl. Anm .

2 2; n ach K eppie).

F ig.11: M arcussäule X CVII ( Petersen T af.105 A ).

5 4

1 24 18 12 1 06 1 00 94 88 82 7 6 7 0 64 58 52 46 40 34 2 8 2 2 1 6 1 0



V

F ig.12: M arcussäule. S chematische V erteilung d er s pitzen u nd h albrunden O rtbänder. D er s chematischen E inteilung l iegen

d er d ie

T afeln i n d er P ublikation v on P etersen u .a. z ugrunde. D as R eliefband b eginnt l inks u nten m it T af.5; j eweils s echs T afeln e ntsprechen

e inem U mlauf d er S pirale. D a j ede T afel z wei F otos

e nthält, s ind d ie F elder p ro T afel n och e inmal i n e ine l inke ( A) u nd e ine r echte S eite ( B) u nterteilt. J eder O rtband-Typ i st p ro F oto n ur m it e iner S ignatur g ekennzeichnet, a uch w enn e r a uf d em F oto m ehrfach e rscheint.

5 5

F ig.13: Marcussäule C II

( Petersen T af.110 B ).

F ig.14: Marcussäule LXXXI ( Petersen T af.92 B ).

5 6

S piegelt s ich i n d er W ahl d er b eiden S chwerttypen n un d ie R ealität o der h aben e inige B ildhauer s ich b ei d en a ntiquarischen E inzelheiten a n ä lteren K unstwerken o rientiert u nd d abei v ielleicht a uch d en ä lteren S chwerttyp ü bernommen,

z .B. v on d er T rajanssäule?

F ür d ie z weite M öglichkeit s pricht, d aß n ur f ür O riginalfunde d es j üngeren T yps D aten a us d er z weiten H älfte d es 2 . J ahrhunderts v orliegen u nd a uch d as F undmaterial v on d er ä ußeren L inie d es g esamten o bergermanisch-raetischen L imes n ur H inweise a uf d en j üngeren T yp b ietet. A ndererseits s ind a uch d ie S chwerter d er T rajanssäule m it s pitzem O rtband u nd T rageringen s o g ut w ie g ar n icht i n g leichzeitigen F undzusammenhängen v ertreten ( sieht m an v on d em e rwähnten B eispiel a us D akien a b). D ennoch w ürde w ohl n iemand b ezweifeln, d aß a uf d er T rajanssäule d ie W affe d er t rajanischen S oldaten d argestellt i st. E bensowenig w äre e s z ulässig, d en Q uellenwert d er M arcussäule i n F rage z u s tellen. W enn h ier d as a lte S chwert i n g ewissem A nteil n eben d em n euen e rscheint, s o m uß d as a ls R eflex d er r ealen V erhältnisse b ewertet w erden, s olange k ein s chwerwiegender G rund d agegen s pricht. D as b loße F ehlen g leichzeitiger O riginale r eicht a ngesichts d er w enigen ü berhaupt v orliegenden d atierten B efunde a ls G egenargument n icht a us. E s i st u mso e her z u e rklären, a ls d as a lte S chwert n ach A ussage d er M arcussäule d amals j a b ereits d eutlich i n d er M inderzahl w ar. D ie T atsache, d aß e s i nnerhalb d es R eliefbandes a uf z wei A bschnitte b eschränkt b leibt, k önnte d arauf d euten, d aß z u d ieser Z eit n och n icht a lle E inheiten u mgerüstet w aren. B eide S chwerttypen f inden s ich z .T. i n u nmittelbarer N achbarschaft ( z.B. X CIV/XCV P etersen T af.103 B ). D as w äre k aum v orstellbar, w enn n ur d er e ine v om r ealen V orbild, d er a ndere a ber v on e inem J ahrzente ä lteren K unstwerk o hne B ezug z ur z eitgenössischen W irklichkeit ü bernommen w äre. H aben w ir i n d em g enannten P unkt a lso k eine M öglichkeit, d en B ildhauern d er M arcussäule U nzuverlässigkeiten n achzuweisen, s o l äßt s ich d agegen b ei d er S chwertaufhängung z eigen, d aß h ier w ahrscheinlich n icht i mmer a lles r ichtig d argestellt i st. S ie i st ü berhaupt n ur i n s ieben S zenen z u e rkennen. E ine, w ahrscheinlich z wei z eigen d en S chwertriemenhalter, k ombiniert m it d em h albrunden O rtband w ie e s d en F unden entspricht 2 3 ( Fig.7). D ie T rageringe k ommen i n s echs S zenen v or: e inerseits - w ie i m F undmaterial - b ei d em ä lteren S chwerttyp m it s pitzem O rtband 24 ( Fig.13), a ndererseits a ber a uch b ei d em j üngeren m it h albrundem O rtband 25 ( Fig.14). D ie l etzte K ombinationsmöglichkeit g ibt e s i m O riginalmaterial n icht. D a a ber u mgekehrt g leich m ehrere F unde g enannt w erden k önnen, b ei d enen d ie h albrunden O rtbänder n icht m it T rageringen, s ondern m it d em S chwertriemenhaltger a uftreten, 26 e rscheint e s g erechtfertigt, d ie Z uverlässigkeit d er M arcussäule b ei d iesen Darstellungen z u b ezweifeln.

d er

D iese B eobachtung z eigt - w ie m anche a ndere , d aß d ie b eiden g roßen R eliefsäulen a ls Q uellengattung

B edeutung f ür d ie

W affenforschung n icht s o s ehr i m a ntiquarischen D etail l iegt: d .h. z ur R ekonstruktion d es O riginalmaterials k önnen s ie n ur b edingt e twas b eitragen. D er W ert b esteht a bgesehen v on d er s icheren c hronologischen A ussage - v ielmehr d arin, d aß d iese b eiden M onumente m it i hren H underten v on S oldatenfiguren e ine g ewisse s tatistische V orstellung

v on

d en

R üstungsstücken

5 7

g eben

u nd

v om

z ahlenmäßigen

V erhältnis d er e inzelnen T ypen. S olche E rkenntnisse s ind a us d en O riginalfunden n icht z u g ewinnen. S o l äßt e rst d er V ergleich d er b eiden S äulen e rkennen, d aß S chienenpanzer u nd e ckiges S cutum i m V erlauf d es 2 . J ahrhunderts a n B edeutung v erlieren . U nd b ei d en S chwertern i st n ur a n d en D arstellungen d er M arcussäule z u s ehen , d aß n ach d em Aufkommen d es n euen T yps u m 1 40 d as a lte S chwert d aneben n och e ine Z eitlang i n G ebrauch b leibt. N ur D enkmäler w ie d ie b eiden R eliefsäulen ü berliefern u ns, w ie s ich d er a n d en O riginalfunden z u b eobachtende R üstungswechsel a bgespielt h at. E s w ar d emnach k eine k urzfristige U mrüstung , s ondern e in a llmählicher V organg , b ei d em d ie a lten T ypen e rst n ach J ahrzehnten e ndgültig v on d en n euen a bgelöst w aren .

A NMERKUNGEN 1 . I m f olgenden w erden d ie R eliefs d er T rajanssäule u nd d er M arcussäule n ach S zenen-Nummern m it r ömischen Z ahlen z itiert; h inzugefügt s ind d ie j eweiligen T afeln d er g roßen Publikationen v on C ICHORIUS b zw. v on P ETERSEN u .a. ( zum B eispiel M arcussäule X XVI P etersen T af.33 B ). W em d as W erk v on P etersen u .a. n icht z ugänglich i st, d er f indet d ie S zenennumerierung d er M arcussäule T afelteil d er P ublikation v on C APRINO u .a. 1 955. 2 . W AURICK , 1 983,

a uch

i m

2 85 f f.

3 . F INGERLIN, 1 986, F undstellen 2 68,

1 7; 2 80, 8 ; 3 71,

1 0.

4 . O RL A bt. B N r. 6 6a U rspring 3 6, 1 2; 3 7, 1 3 ( vgl. O RL-Fundindex U. O ldenstein] 2 6). - V gl. S CHÖNBERGER, 1 985, 4 70. 5 . P ROTASE & P ETCULESCU,

1 975.

6 . W AURICK , 1 983, 2 99. 7 . K LUMBACH , 1 966, 1 76. 8 . C HIRILA , G UDEA u .a., 1 972, 7 7 T af.115, 2 1. 9 . C URLE, 1 911, 1 16 ( pit I ); 1 56 p l.

2 2.

1 0. z .B. O LDENSTEIN, . 1 976, N r. 1 05, 1 30, 1 31, 1 37. 1. C URLE, 1 911, 1 87. 1 2. V AN D RIEL-MURRAY & G ECHTER, 1 984,

5 9 N r.

2 5 T af.16; v gl. S . 4 .

1 3. O LDENSTEIN, 1 976, 1 07 N r. 6 2. 1 4. F undberichte a us B aden-Württemberg 5 , 1 980, T af.136 D 5. 1 5. S CHALLMAYER , 1 984, 4 64. 1 6. C URLE, 1 911,

1 87.

1 7. W UILLEUMIER , 1 952.

5 8

1 8. D ie B efunde v om B onner B erg s cheinen d iese T endenz d en S childen z u b estätigen; 1 9. O b

d ie

h atte,

b ei 4 .

b leibt

s pitzem

f raglich,

d a

O rtband

e in

e ntsprechende

r eales

V orbild

O riginale

f ehlen:

M arsstatue v om H eiligtum S chneidershecke am O denwaldlimes

( WAURICK,

1 983, T af.50, 6 3 Abb. 5 5).

7 8 f .

C ONZE, 1 941,

1 893,

6 ), G rabrelief aus A quincum ( HOFMANN,

N r.

1 9 Anm.

2 1. H OFMANN, 2 49 N r. 2 2.

1 984,

a uf D arstellungen g elegentlich z u b eobachtende K ombination

v on S chwertriemenhalter und

2 0.

w enigstens

V AN DRIEL-MURRAY & G ECHTER,

P HILLIPS,

2 3. LXXXI

- C IL I II 5 56a.

7 7

N r.

6 2 Abb.

1 975. - K EPPIE,

5 4.

- C IL I II 3 530.

1 979,

- MÖCSY,

1 959,

9 f .

( = h ier F ig.7) und wahrscheinlich C VII

( Petersen T af.69 B :

O rtband z war z erstört; S oldatengruppe F all

S TARR,

6 .

2 4. LXXXIV ( Petersen T af.95 A ), LXXXV ( Petersen T af.110 B = h ier F ig.13). 2 5. LXI

- Z ur D atierung v gl.

N r.

3 5.

1 905, 1 85,

2 127.

1 905,

( Petersen

T af.95

B ),

C II

b ei d em S chwert m it d en T ragringen i st d as

d a aber a lle

a nderen

e in r undes O rtband h aben,

s o s ein),

( Petersen T af.116 A ).

( ?) LXVIII

( Petersen

S chwerter

i n

d ieser

d ürfte d as a uch i n d iesem

T af.76

B ),

L XXXI

( Petersen

T af.92 B - h ier F ig.14). 2 6. V gl.

a bgesehen

v on

d em

i n A nm.

1 7 z itierten W affengrab a us Lyon

f olgende F unde a us d em F reien G ermanien: K emnitz, 8 18 ( GEISLER 1 974); Mov, G rab 4 5 ( RYBOVÄ Z auschwItz, G rab 2 0, 6 2 ( MEYER 1 969, 6 3. 1 11 f f.

F undstellen

2 20,

1 970, 2 5 T af.24); 1 74 f f.).

L ITERATURABKÜRZUNGEN C APRINO,

C ., A .M.

C OLINI,

G .

GATTI, M .

L a c olonna d i M arco A urelio C HIRILA ,

E .,

N .

G UDEA u .a.

C ICHORIUS,

C .,

1 896:

C ONZE,

A .,

1 893:

C URLE,

J .

1 911:

1 972:

P ALLOTTINO,

D as R ömerlager v on B uciumi

1 955:

( Cluj

1 972)

D ie R eliefs d er T rajanssäule ( Berlin 1 896)

D ie a ttischen G rabreliefs A

P . R OMANELLI,

( Rom 1 955)

R oman

F rontier

( Berlin 1 893-1922)

P ost

a nd i ts P eople.

T he f ort o f

N ewstead i n t t ie - P arish o f M elrose ( Glasgow 1 911) V AN D RIEL-MURRAY, l egio

I

C .

& G ECHTER, M .

M inervia

a m

1 984:

B onner

B erg.

F unde

a us

d er

r ömischen Rheinlandes 4 ( Rheinische A usgrabungen 2 3), F INGERLIN,

G .,

B erichte ( Stuttgart

1 986: z ur

D angstetten I ,

V or-

u nd

5 9

1 984,

d er

1 -83

K atalog d er F unde ( Forschungen

F rühgeschichte

1 986)

f abrica

B eiträge z ur A rchäologie d es

i n

u nd

B aden-Württemberg 2 2)

G EISLER , H ., 1 974: P otsdam-Land.

D as g ermanische U rnen uäberfeld b ei K emnitz, K r. T eil I , K atalog ( Veröffentlichungen d es M useums f ür

U r- u nd F rühgeschichte P otsdam 8 ) H OFMANN, H ., 1 905: ( Jahreshefte d es

( Berlin 1 974)

R ömische M ilitärgrabsteine d er D onauländer ö sterriechischen A rchäologischen I nstituts 5 )

( Wien 1 905) K EPPIE, L ., 1 979: R oman d istance s labs f rom t he ( Hunterian M useum P ublications 1 2) ( Glasgow 1 979) K LUMBACH,

H .

1 966:

R öm.-German. M EYER, E .

1 969:

D rei

r ömische

S childbuckel

Z entralmuseum M ainz 1 3,

1 966,

Z auschwitz,

F orschungsberichte B eiheft 6 ) ( Berlin 1 969)

M ÖCSY, A ., 1 959: D ie B evölkerung v on M arkomannenkriegen ( Budapest 1 959)

a us M ainz.

W all

J ahrbuch

1 65-189

D as ermanische G räberfeld v on

( Arbeitsu nd B odendenkmalpflege.

A ntonine

K r.

z ur

P annonien

B orna

S ächsischen

b is

z u

O LDENSTEIN, J ., 1 976: Z ur A usrüstung r ömischer A uxiliareinheiten. R öm.-German. K ommission 5 7, 1 976, 4 9-284 P ETERSEN, E ., A . V ON D OMASZEWSKI, G . C ALDERINI, 1 896: a uf d er P iazza C olonna i n R om ( München 1 896)

D ie

d en

B er.

M arcus Säule

P HILLIPS, E .J. 1 975: T he R oman d istance s lab f rom B ridgeness. P roceedings o f t he S ociety o f A ntiquaries o f S cotland 1 05, 1 972-74, 1 76-182 P ROTASE, D . 1 975,

& L .

P ETCULESCU,

1 975:

C oiful r oman d in

B erzovia.

B anatica

8 5-89

R YBOVÄ , A . 1 970: D as B randgräberfeld d er j üngeren r ömischen K aiserzeit v on Y nov ( Archeologickg S tudijni m ateriäly 9 ) ( Praha 1 970) S CHALLMAYER, E .,

1 984: D as z weite r ömische M ilitärbad v on N eckarburken,

G em. E lztal, N eckar-Odenwald-Kreis, m it n euen F undberichte a us B aden-Württemberg 9 , 1 984, 4 35-470

I nschriften.

S CHÖNBERGER, H ., 1 985: D ie r ömischen T ruppenlager d er f rühen u nd m ittleren K aiserzeit z wischen N ordsee u nd I nn. B er. R öm.-German. K ommission 6 6, 1 985, 3 21-495 S TARR, C h.G., 1 941: T he R oman I mperial N avy, 3 1 B .C. - A .D. ( Cornell S tudies i n C lassical P hilology 2 6) ( New York 1 941)

3 24

W AURICK, G ., 1 983: U ntersuchungen z ur h istorisierenden Rüstung i n r ömischen K unst. J ahrbuch R öm.-German. Z entralmuseum M ainz

d er 3 0,

1 983,

2 65-301

W UILLEUMIER, P .,

1 950: L a b ataille d e 1 97. G allia 8 ,

6 0

1 950,

1 46-148

W AS T RUG D ER R ÖMISCHE S OLDAT U NTER D EM C INGULUM? H annsjörg Ubl

O mnes, b edeutet

q ui

m ilitant,

g anz a llgemein

c incti

s unt b ehauptet S erviusl

' Soldat w erden'.

A ls c incti

2

u nd c ingere

t reten

u ns

d ie

r ömischen S oldaten a uch i n d er a ntiken B ildüberlieferung i mmer e ntgegen. A uf d en o ffiziellen R eliefs d er r ömischen S taatskunst i n R om e benso,

w ie a uf d en p rivaten G rabreliefs i m g esamten R eichsgebiet.

C incti

s ind

S pätantike.

d ie

D er r ömische

L egionäre

u nd

d ie A uxiliarsoldaten b is i n d ie

M ilitärgürtel,

i mmer d eutlich d argestellt.

d as

c ingulum

m ilitiae,

w ird

Z uerst m it d em t ypischen S treifenschurz a ls

G enitalschutz, s päter i n d er F orm d es a llgemein v erbreiteten R ingschnallengürtels u nd z uletzt b eschlagen m it v erschiedenen M etallplatten,

d eren r eichste

S pielart w ir K erbschnittgürtelgarnituren

n ennen. V on

ä ltester

Z eit

a n

w ar

d as c ingulum

S tandeszeichen s ondern W affengürtel, J ahrhundert n .Chr. - m it d em V erschwinden g etragene

O rdonnanzwaffe - v erliert d as

s eine Funktion a ls W affenträger.

3

m ilitiae

W ehrgehänge. d es D olches

n icht

n ur

E rst i m 3 . a ls a llgemein

c ingulum f ür w enige J ahrzehnte

D och s chon i m 4 .

J ahrhundert w ird d ie

s patha wieder v om b alteus a bgenommen u nd am b reiten L eibgurt b efestigt. H ier n un s oll u ns a llein d as

c ingulum d es

1 .

J ahrhunderts

n .Chr.

b eschäftigen, w ie e s u ns i n a usgezeichneter B ildüberlieferung b esonders a uf d en g anzfigurigen M ilitärgrabstelen d es R heinlandes, v om T erritorium b ekannt

i st.

c ingula,

i m

d er 4

P rovinzen G ermania

s uperior

u nd G ermania

i nferior

D er r ömische I nfanterist t rug n ach d iesen B ildwerken z wei N ormalfall

a n d em e inen r echts d as S chwert

a nderen l inks d en D olch ( pugio)

( gladius),

a m

( Abb 1 -3).

B eide c ingula s ind n ahezu g leich g earbeitet. W ir k önnen d aher a uch v on e inem C ingulumpaar s prechen. d icht

m it

v erschiedene

h äufig

D ie aus L eder g earbeiteten G ürtel s ind

q uadratischen

W eise

v erziert

M etallplatten

s ein

f inden s ich k onzentrisch um e inen B lattmuster

u nd

v erschiedene

F amilienpropaganda,

k önnen. N abel

g etragen

L oyalitätsbezeugung

a n

g elegte

B ildmotive a ls

d en I mperator.

5

b esetzt,

d ie

a uf

A ls e infachstes Z iermotiv K reisringe,

d aneben

d er k aiserlich-dynastischen A usdruck

m ilitärischer

D iese P latten s ind m it z umeist

v ier N ieten a uf d em G ürtelleder b efestigt. D ie S chnallen l iegen s eitlich a us d er K örpermitte v erschoben. N ach D arstellungen u nd O riginalfunden w aren d ie B eschlagsplatten u ntereinander n icht v erbunden; k leine K ugelknöpfe v erhinderten g egenseitiges S cheuern. D ie S chnallen j edoch w aren m ittels S charnier m it d en v erbunden. v erziert.

S chnallenbügel E benso m it

B efestigungshaken

f ür

b eweglich m ontiert.

6

E ndplatten

b eweglich

u nd S chnallendorne w aren g erne o rnamental S charnier w aren d ie s cheibenbesetzten

d en D olch a n d en e ntsprechenden B eschlagplatten

A n e inem d er b eiden G ürtel

-

u rsprünglich

n icht

i mmer,

s päter

j edoch r egelmässig d em D olchgürtel - h ing d er i n l ange L ederstreifen a ufgelöste, m it g elegentlich v erzierten m etallenen S cheibenknöpfen

6 1

b eschlagene u nd m it l änglichen o der l unulaförmigen e ndbeschlägen b eschwerte S treifenschurz .7

R iemenzungen-

M it d en b eiden W affen , d em S treifenschurz, d en m etallenen B eschlagplatten u nd a nderen Z ierelementen t rug d er r ömische I nfanterist d es 1 . J ahrhunderts n .Chr. e in d oppeltes, m ehrere K ilogramm s chweres W ehrgehänge, d as ü ber d ie H üften g egürtet w urde u nd v or d em B auch ü berkreuzt w ar. W enn d ieses n un ü ber d em P anzer, n ach d en D arstellungen m eist e ine K ettenrüstung ( lorica h amata), d ie s amt e inem L ederwams ü ber d er M ilitärtunica g etragen w urde, a ngelegt w orden i st, k ann d as s chwere d oppelte W ehrgehänge d em T räger k aum g rößere B eschwerden b ereitet h aben ( Abb.4). N icht w enige d er G rabreliefs j edoch z eigen d en r ömischen I nfanteristen i m s ogenannten I nterimskostüm , d er D ienstuniform , z u d er k ein P anzer g etragen w urde ( Abb.1-3). A uf d iesen D arstellungen e rscheint d as d oppelte c ingulum m ilitiae d irekt ü ber d ie T unika g egürtet. E s t rennt h orizontal d en F altenwurf, d er i m B rustbereich v ertikal u nd u nter d en G ürteln, i m B ereich d er O berschenkel, b ogenförmig v on H üfte z u H üfte v erläuft, w o d ie T unika h ochgezogen , s eitlich g eschürzt w orden w ar, u m d en B einen f reieren S chritt z u g ewähren. N un i st w ohl j edem , d er i n i rgendeiner

m odernen

A rmee

j e

e inen

s chweren G ürtel m it d aran h ängenden A usrüstungsstücken w ie B ajonett, F eldflasche, B rotbeutel u nd w omöglich G asmaske g etragen h at, s chmerzlich b ekannt, w ie s ehr d ie f estgeschnallte M annesrüstung d urch W affenrock u nd H ose d rücken u nd w undreiben k ann. E s d arf d aher d ie F rage g estellt w erden , o b d er r ömische I nfanterist t atsächlich, w ie v iele d er D arstellungen a nzugeben s cheinen , s eine b eiden c ingula m it d en d aran b efestigten W affen d irekt a uf d em K örper g etragen h at, z wischen H aut u nd n ietengespickter I nnenseite d er G ürtel n ur d ie i n d rückende F alten g elegte M ilitärtunika a us g robem L einen o der W ollstoff. S chon e ine ü berprüfung d er r heinländischen G rabreliefs m acht s keptisch ! D enn b ei n icht w enigen R eliefs s chieben s ich z wischen d ie s chräg-horizontal v erlaufenden g ekreuzten G ürtel u nd d en F altenwurf d er T unika, o berhalb u nd u nterhalb d er c ingula, m ehrere d eutlich h orizontal v erlaufende F alten e in ( Abb.5). D iese g ehören s ichtlich n icht z ur T unika ! A ls e indeutige S toff-Falten k önnen s ie a ber a uch n icht z u d en b eiden G ürteln g ehören.

A bb.!: G rabstein d es P . F LAVOLEIUS, S oldat d er l egio X IIII g emina M ittelrheinisches L andesmuseum M ainz N ach A uhV H eft I X, T af.4. A bb .2: G rabstein d es Q . P ETILIUS, S oldat d er l egio X V P rimigenia R heinisches L andesmuseum B onn N ach A uhV H eft V III, T af.6. A bb .3: G rabstein d es A NNAIUS, S oldat d er c ohors 1 111 D elmatarum K arl G eib M useum B ad K reuznach N ach A uhV H eft X , T af.5.

6 2

P ' F fA TO I .E IV M v T iNkC 0Re s W U1 L 4 I . EaI l i (G EW S I E : A NN .X 1 . 1 1 1 'S T I PXX m

A NNA ! VSIR •AVA I •F •DAV ER ZVS IE XCO I I •1 1 - D ELMATARVM A NN XX XV I - S T IPEND - XV 3 1 S- E • H - P

l

V i ß EN N IV S 'E . EX P FE C

A bb .2

A bb .1

A bb .3

6 3

E ine n ahezu r undplastisch g earbeitete S oldatenfigur i n N orditalien b ietet d ie E rklärung:

I n C ASACCO,

e inem k leinen O rt i n

F riaul

a n

d er

v ia I ulia A ugusta, e twas n ördlich d er r ömischen S traßenstation A D T RICESIMUM L APIDEM u nd s üdlich d es v on C äsar g egründeten u nd v on A ugustus

z um M unizipium e rhobenen I ULIUM C ARNICUM g elegen,

i n N ischen e iner P arkmauer d es M ontegnacco

e ingelassen,

b urgartigen

z wei

S chlosses

S teintorsi

e ines

f inden s ich

d er

G rafen

T ogatus

u nd

T unicatus i m b ekannten I nterimskostüm d er r ömischen I nfanterie J ahrhunderts F ertigung

n .

C hr.

m it

B ildnischen

d es

1 .

B eide F iguren s tanden n ach i hrer r undplastischen

8

u nbearbeiteter

e ines

v on e ines

R ückenzone

u rsprünglich

w ohl

i n

m onumentalen G rabbaues. U ns w ird h ier n ur d ie F igur

d es S oldaten n äher i nteressieren ( Abb.6-8). W ie v on d en r heinländischen G rabreliefs b ekannt, S oldatenfigur

i n

C ASACCO

z wei

W affengürtel f ür d as r echts D olch.

D er S treifenschurz

D arstellungen B auch,

a uch

d ie

g etragene S chwert u nd d en l inks

g etragenen

i st n och n icht i n d er v on d en r heinländischen

b ekannten

s chmale R iemenzungen,

t rägt

s ich v or d er B auchmitte ü berkreuzende

A usführung

a usgebildet.

M ehrere

b eschlagen m it k leinen Z iernägeln,

l ange

u nd

h ängen v or d em

a us u nd n eben d er S chnalle d es S chwertgürtels k ommend, ü ber

d ie

G enitalgegend t ief n ach u nten. I m U nterschied z u d en r heinländischen B eispielen h andelt e s s ich h ier n ur um d as i n S treifen aufgelöste E nde d es

G ürtels;

d ie

S treifen

s ind

n och

n icht

a uf

e inem

e igenen

q uerliegenden M ontageelement b efestigt. D as S chwert i st f ast z ur G änze w eggebrochen; k aum

e in

R est

e rhalten,

v om

Z uweisung d er W affe z um T ypus

G riff

a ber

v on d er

g ute

S cheide

T eile,

i st

s odaß an d er

g ladius k ein Z weifel b estehen

k ann.

D as

S chwert h ing a n d em e inen c ingulum, n icht a n e inem b alteus. D er v on d er l inken

S chulter

w ulstartige

u nter

s chmale

d em

G urt

M antel

i st

z ur

r echten

k ein b alteus

H üfte

s ondern

e in

v erlaufende b is

i n

h adrianische Z eit b ekanntes U niformelement, d essen b efriedigende D eutung n och a ussteht. 9 D er D olch i st a usgezeichnet e rhalten. S cheidenu nd G riffumriß e ntsprechen U nterschiede l assen s ich f eststellen, T ypus

d er

j enen d er a llerdings

r heinländischen G rabreliefs; a n d en S cheidenbeschlägen

s odaß d er D olch a uf d er S kulptur D olche

m it

v on

C ASACCO

n icht

v om

t auschierten und e mailverzierten E isenscheiden

s ein k ann. A uch

d er

F altenwurf

r heinländischen e ntsprechend d er l eicht

d er

T unika

M ilitärreliefs. r undplastischen

v orgesetztem

l inkem

e ntspricht

v öllig

j enem

d er

E r i st j edoch b esser durchgebildet u nd A usführung

S pielbein

d es

r eicher

S oldatenbildes u nd

m it

n aturalistischer

g egeben. Auch a n d er S kulptur v on CASACCO l aufen d ie T unikafalten d er B rustpartie s enkrecht n ach u nten u nd v erlaufen u nterhalb d er Gürtel b ogenförmig v on H üfte z u H üfte. D eutlich

z eigt

s ich

u nterhalb

Abb.4: G rabstein d es P INTAIUS,

b eiden

G ürtel

h orizontal

F eldzeichenträger d er c ohors V A sturum

R heinisches L andesmuseum B onn N ach A uhV H eft X I,

d er

T af.6.

Abb.5: Ausschnitt a us A bb.3.

6 4

A bb . 4

A bb .5

6 5

Abb .6 G rabstein e ines r ömischen S oldaten i n C ASACCO ( Foto H . U BL), A nsicht v on l inks.

v erlaufendes F altenw erk, d as n icht v on d er D rapierung d er T unika s tammen k ann. E s u mläuft a ls d icker, h orizontaler S toffwulst d en B auch d es S oldaten, w o e s o berhalb d er W affengürtel s chmal, d arunter b reit u nd i n d er B auchgegend t iefer n ach u nten g ebauscht, g ut e rkannbar h ervort ritt u nd n och a n d en S eiten , h inter S chwertu nd D olchgriffen , d eutl ich e rkennbar b leibt. D ie D eutung d ieses h orizontalen F altenw ulstes i n K örpermitte d er S oldatenfigur v on C ASACCO f ällt n icht s chwer. 1° D er S oldat v on C ASACCO t rägt ü ber d er T unika e ine m ehrfach u m d ie B auchpartie g ewicke lte S toffbinde, v erg leichbar d en s hawls d er o rientalischen M ännerk leidung. D iese S toffbinde b ildet, f est a nliegend, e in d ickes, ü ber d en H üften f est s itzendes K issen. A uf d ieses K issen s ind d ie b eiden W affengürtel g eschnallt ( Abb.9). N un l assen s ich d ie w eniger r ealistisch g earbeiteten H orizontalfalten o berhalb u nd u nterhalb d er W affengürtel a n d en G rabstelen r ömischer I nfanteristen i n O ber- u nd U ntergermanien l eicht w iedererkennen u nd e benso a ls F alten e iner h orizontal g ewickelten B auchbinde d euten. O ben a us d er m ehrfach g ewickelten B auchbinde r agt, z wischen B inde u nd T unika h ineingeschoben, e in f lacher, g efalteter G egensand h eraus, d er e iner m odernen B rieftasche o der e inem z usammengelegten T uch ä hnelt. W ir k ennen a uch d iesen G egenstand v on d en r heinländischen G rabreliefs, u nd D . B aatz h at v or n icht a llzulanger Z eit v ersucht, i hn w ieder n ach e iner ä lteren A rbeit a ls S chreibtäfelchen z u d euten. 1 1 D och k ann u nser G egenstand ' das N otizbuch d es F eldwebels', d ie S chreibtafel d es t esserarius w ohl s chwerlich g ewesen s ein. D ie g efaltete H olztafel m it d en W achsflächen würde z um e inen i n g egebener T ragweise d en S oldaten w ohl a rg i n d ie M agengrube g edrückt h aben, z um a nderen l äßt s ich

6 6

Abb.7 W ie A bb.6, A nsicht v on v orne.

f ragen, o b n icht d ie K örperwärme d en w ächsernen S chreibf lächen S chaden g efügt h ätte u nd d ritten b leibt z umerken, d aß

z uz um a nd ie

e rhaltenen G rabi nschriften d ie M ehrz ahl d er T afelträger n ur a ls e infache m ilites g regales a usw eisen. S o h at u ns d ie S oldatenfigur v on C ASACCO, z usammen m it d en n un b esser l esbaren G rabreliefs a nderer F undorte, g el ehrt, d aß d er r ömi sche I nfanterist d es 1 . J ahrhunderts n . C hr., b evor e r s eine b eiden W affengürtel a nlegte, s ich d en B auch ü ber d er T unika m it e iner S toffbinde m ehrfach u nd f est u mwickelt h at. D iese S toffbinde h at a uch d ie s eitlich l eicht g eschürzte T unika i n d er g ewünschten P osition g ehalten, s odaß d er b ogenförmige F altenwurf v or d en B einen ( und s icher a uch d ahinter) n icht v errutschen k onnte. G leichzeitig a ber, u nd d ies w ar v orallem d er a ngestrebte S inn, s chützte d iese B inde d ie v erletzliche B auch- u nd H üftpartie d es T rägers v or d em G ürteldruck, v erhinderte d as W undscheuern d urch d ie s chweren, m etallbeschlagenen W affengürtel u nd g estattete, d iese a uch f est u m d en B auch z u s chnallen, s odaß s ie a uch s elbst n icht r utschen k onnten. E rst d adurch w ar e rreicht, d aß d ie b eiden W affen i mmer i n d er g ewünschten G riffposition u nd d er S treifenschurz i n K örpermitte b lieben. D arüberhinaus a ber d iente d ie B inde n och a ls B ehältnis f ür v erschiedene k leine G egenstände, d ie d er S oldat i mmer m it s ich f ühren w ollte. E r k onnte d iese l ose, i n e ine g efaltete L edertasche o der i n e in T uch e ingeschlagen i n d en F alten s eines u mgeschlungenen B auchkissens b ergen. N un w issen g etragen h at!

w ir,

w as

d er

r ömische

6 7

S oldat

u nter

d em c ingulum

Abb.8 W ie A bb.6, A nsicht r echts.

v on

D a a nscheinend k ein r ömischer M ilitärs chriftsteller d ieses d em S chutz d es S oldatenb auches d ienende K leidu ngsstück b eschrieben h at, k ennen w ir n atürlich a uch s einen N amen n icht. E ine N achl ese i n d er n ichtm ilitärischen L iteratur d er r ömischen A ntike h ilft j edoch w eiter. N atürlich h aben a uch R ömerin u nd R ömer U nterwäsche g etragen. D ie m ännliche w ar f ür H andwerker, A rbeiter u nd S klaven A rbeitskleidung , o ft a ber a uch d ie e inzige K leidung .1 2 D em R ömer d er g ehobenen S chichten g alt s ie, u nter T unika u nd T oga a ngelegt, a ls Z eichen f ür K rankheit o der g ar V erweichlichung. S ueton f indet e inen d erartigen H inweis a uf d ie K leiderg ewohnheiten d es A ugnführenswert. n d essen V ita s ogar f ür a u stus i

1 3

Z u d en U nterkleidern z ählen d er L endenschurz - s ubligaculum o der s ubligar - u nd d as v entrale, a uch f ascia v entralis g enannt. L etzteres w ar e ine a us e inem l angen T uchstreifen g efertigte B inde, d ie u m d en B auch g eschlungen, u nter o der ü ber d er T unika g etrag e n w erden k onnte. E inige w enige S chriftsteller, d arunter P linius d .Ä ., ü berliefern u ns d iese f ascia v enteralis a ls B auchbinde, d ie m an a us G esundheitsgründen t rug , i n d ie m an a ber a uch k leine G egenstände u nd G eld h ineinstecken k onnte. D ie f ascia v entralis, v on F ischern a uf d em b loßen B auch u nd v on s ervierenden S klaven a n g ürtelstatt ü ber d er T unika g etragen 1 4 ,w ar d em r ömischen S oldaten n atürlich a us d em z ivilen L eben w ohlvertraut. U nd s icher k onnte i hn a uch d ie S pöttelei d es S tadtfracks, d er d ieses K leidungsstück n ur B resthaften u nd W eichlingen g estatten w ollte, n icht h indern, e s u nter d ie p raktischen U niformsorten z u r eihen u nd a uch z u t ragen. G erade d ie D arstellungen d es r ömischen S oldaten i n d er G rabkunst z eigen i m k rassen G egensatz z u d en M ilitärdarstellungen d er o ffiziellen R eichskunst, d aß s ich d er S oldat i n d en k limatisch e xponierten P rovinzen d es R eiches n icht d en D eut u m u npraktische A djustierungsvorschriften g eschert h at. 1 5 S ehr r asch h at e r d ie

6 8

Abb . 494 -

e f (AWL ARl i Gh t i t

P a u se woe ( »Je tt b e t te lms 4 1 t . t r -M ie

Abb.9: Um M antel u nd S chultergurt r eduzierte U mzeichnung S oldatengrabsteines v on C ASACCO. N ach U BL, 1 969, A bb.194.

d es

v erpönte H ose a ngezogen u nd d en Ä rmelrock d es P rovinzialen a ngelegt, d er i m 3 . J ahrhundert a ls t unica m anicata d ie a llgemein g etragene M ilitärtunika g eworden i st. F rüh s chon f indet s ich d as g eschmähte f ocale u nd d ie k ommode P elzkappe, d er p illeus P annonicus w ird s ogar T eil d es kaiserlichen M ilitärornates. " D ie s eltenen B eschreibungen d er f ascia v entralis i n d er a ntiken L iteratur p assen h aargenau a uf d ie B auchbinde, w ie s ie d er r ömische S oldat a uf d er S kulptur v on C ASACCO u nter s einen b eiden W affengürteln u m d ie L enden g eschlungen t rägt. I ch g laube d aher a nnehmen z u d ürfen , d aß d iese B auchbinde i m m ilitärischen S prachgebrauch ( zumindes o ffiziell, d enn w ir k ennen e ine M enge A usdrücke d ie d em S oldatenwitz i hre E ntstehung v erdanken 1 7 ) a uch v entrale o der f ascia v entralis g eheißen h at. S o b in i ch d er M einung, d aß e s d urch d ie I nterpretation d er S oldatenskulptur v on C ASACCO g elungen i st, e in z war u ntergeordenetes, f ür d en T räger j edoch w ichtiges u nd v on d er A ltertumswissenschaft b isher u nbeachtetes S tück d er r ömischen I nfanterieuniform d er f rühen K aiserzeit w iederzugewinnen. S eine a llgemeine V erbreitung s cheint m ir d urch d as Z eugnis d er G rabreliefs b estätigt, d ie u nsere f ascia v entralis i n d en b eiden G ermanien, a n d er R eichsstraße v on N orditalien

g egen

6 9

d en

n orischen

A lpenraum

u nd

i m

p annonischen

C arnuntum n achweisen. E in G rabrelief i n C arnuntum " z eigt

d ieselbe B auchbinde ü ber d em M ilitärmantel, g etragen v on e inem L egionssoldaten, d er e inen W agentransport v on M ilitärgütern e skortiert. E ndlich w erden w ir a nnehmen d ürfen, d aß d er S oldat d ie B auchbinde a uch z um P anzer, u nter d er o der d en T uniken g etragen h at. S o m öchte i ch d enn a bschließend d ie F rage: ' was t rug d er r ömische S oldat u nter d em c ingulum ', m it d er A ntwort: d ie f ascia v entralis, a ls g eklärt e rachten.

7 0

N ACHTRAG N ach d em A bschluß d es M anuskriptes f and s ich a uf

e inem

r ömischen

M ilitärdokument d och n och d er N achweis, d aß d er B egriff f ascia i n d er r ömischen M ilitärsprache ü blich g ewesen i st. D as D okument, e ine S oldabrechnung f ür z wei S oldaten a us 8 1 n . C hr. b efindet s ich i n d er G enfer P apyrus S ammlung .1 9

d em

J ahr

B eiden S oldaten w urde n ach P .Gen.Lat. 1 r egelmäßig b ei j eder S tipendienzahlung f ür c aligas ( et) f ascias d er g leiche B etrag v on 1 2 D rachmen a bgezogen . E s h andelt s ich u m e inen P auschbetrag , w ie e r ä nlich, a ber i n H öhe v on 1 0 D rachmen f ür H eu o der S treu u nd i n H öhe v on 8 0 D rachmen f ür M enage b ei j eder S oldzahlung i n A bzug g ebracht w orden i st. D ie E inbehalte f ür B ekleidung w aren h öher, w urden a ber n icht r egelmäßig u nd n icht m it g leichen B eträgen, s ondern a nscheinend n ach i ndividuellen B edürfnissen z u 6 0, 1 00 u nd 1 46 D rachmen a ngerechnet. A ls B eispiel s ei d ie A brechnung d es e rsten J ahressolddrittels d es S oldaten C . V alerius G ermanus a us T yrus a ngeführt. 2°

C .VALERIUS G ERMANUS T YR

a ccepit I a n I II d o e x e is

d i " c cxlvii s d i ' d i ' d i ' d i ' d r d i ' d i ' d i ' d i '

f äenaria i n v [i]ctum c aligas fascias

s aturnalicium k i n v estimen[t]is e xpensas r eliquas d epo e t h abuit f it s umma o nmis

x l xxx x ii x x c c cxxii x xv s x x[i] x lvi s

D araus f olgt, d aß v on e inen S tipendium i n H öhe v on 2 474 2 D rachmen i m J ahre 8 1 n . C hr. i n A bzug k amen : f ür L agerstreu 1 0 D rachmen f ür M enage 8 0 D rachmen f ür S chuhwerk u nd B inden 1 2 D rachmen f ür g emeinsames K ultmahl 2 0 D rachmen f ür B ekleidung 1 00 D rachmen u nd e s l äßt s ich u nschwer a blesen , d aß f ür v erschiedenste B ekleidungssorten w ie c aligae ( Schuhwerk), f asciae ( Binden) u nd v estimenta ( Oberbekleidung, U niform) i mmer w ieder A bzüge g emacht w arden s ind u nd d ie v erschiedenen S orten e inzeln a ufgezählt w urden . G .R. W atson h at d ie f asciae d es P apyrustextes a ls R iemen v erstanden u nd m it ' straps' ü berzetzt, 2 1 R . M arichal d agegen ü bersetzte I bandes'. 22 N atürlich k önnte m an n ach d er T extstelle c aligas ( et) f ascias a n S chnürriemen o der R iemenzeug a llgemein d enken , d och s ollte d ann w ohl e her c orrigia h abenae, bra o der a menta g estanden h aben . W enn e s d ie B ildüberlieferung z uließe, k önnte m an f ascia i m g egebenen Z usammenhang a uch a ls ' Fußfetzen ' o der ' Fußlappen ' v erstehen , w ie s ie n och v on S oldaten d er M oderne a nstelle v on S ocken u m d en F uß

7 1

g eschlungen i m S tiefel g etragen w orden s ind. D och s cheint d er

r ömische

S oldat s eine c aligae b arfuß a ngelegt z u h aben, w ie d as a uch n och v on e inigen m odernen a frikanischen u nd a rabischen A rmeen g epflegt w ird. 23 S o würde i ch d enn a uch d ie f asciae d es P .Gen.Lat 1 e infach m it ' Binden' o der f reier i m ü bertragenen S inn s ogar m it ' Wäsche' ü bersetzen u nd m it u nserer f ascia v entralis i n V erbindung b ringen,

d ie u m d en L eib

g eschlungen g etragen w orden i st.

A NMERKUNGEN 1 . A d A en. V III, 2 . D ie

7 24.

g esammelten

L iteraturstellen f inden s ich i n d em g rundlegenden

A ufsatz v on M ÜLLER, 3 . U BL,

1 873 b esonders S .

7 .

i m D ruck.

4 . O hne G ewähr d er V ollständigkeit v ergleiche E SP RANDIEU, R ecueil B d. 7 , N rr. 5 495, 5 797, 5 840, 5 850; B d. 8 , N Nr. 6 125, 6 136, 6 137, 6 207, 6 209, 4 12. 5 .

6 213,

6 253,

6 254,

6 255;

B d.

1 4, N r. 8 534;

C omp., N rr.

1 6

u .

Z um c ingulum m ilitiae v ergleiche a llgemein U BL, 1 969, 2 08, b esonders d as K apitel D as S churzcingulum i m 1 .u.2.Jh., 2 16-224. W eiters: v on G ONZENBACH,

1 966; R UPPRECHT,

1 987; K ÜNZL,

1 976; d ers.,

1 977. 6 . MANO-ZISI, 7 . U LBERT, 8 . M ORO, 9 . 1 0.

U BL,

1 957.

1 971;

1 956, 1 969,

S ZÄBO,

1 24, A bb.42; 4 90, A bb.379;

F EUG hE,

U BL,

1 969,

F UENTES,

1 985. 2 42.

1 987, 4 9, F ig. 8 ,

P l.

5 .

I n m einer A nm. 5 z itierten D issertation h abe i ch S . 2 42f., A bb.194 d en S tein v on C asacco m it d er B auchbinde z wischen T unika u nd C ingulum e rstmals b esprochen. I n d er v orliegenden A rbeit w ird n un v ersucht d as P roblem d urch d ie W iedergewinnung d es a ntiken S achbegriffes z u b ereichern.

1. B AATZ,

1 983.

1 2. V ergleiche B LÜMNER, 1 3.

1 976;

1 911,

D ie T racht,

2 05ff u .

2 29.

S ueton, A ugustus 8 2.

1 4. D ie e ntsprechenden L iteraturstellen s iehe b ei R ICH, 1 892, s ubligaculum, s ubligar u nd v entrale u nd b ei M ÜLLER, 1 873, 2 21.

s .v.

1 5. A m d eutlichsten e rkennbar a n d en D arstellungsunterschieden d er r ömischen o ffiziellen S taatskunst u nd p rivaten G rabkunst. A ber a uch a n d er u nterschiedlichen W iedergabe d es r ömischen H eeres a uf d en M etopenreliefs v on A damklissi u nd d en R eliefs d er

7 2

T raianssäule

i n

R om. 1 6. U BL,

1 976.

1 7. E twa n overcae = S tiefmütter f ür e inen s chlechten L agerplatz o der c libanarius = P anzerreiter v on c libanus = B ackpfanne. 1 8. KRÜGER, 1 970, N r. 3 30. - E ine g leichfalls d eutliche D arstellung d er f ascia v entralis o hne c ingula f indet s ich a uf d em R elief e ines c lavicularius a us N ickenich i m M useum B onn: B Jb 1 37, 1 932, s . 3 44, T af.62, 1 . D er S oldat t rägt d ie b ekannte T unika m it d em b ogenförmigen F altenverlauf ü ber d en K nien, u m d ie M itte e ine b reite L eibbinde u nd ü ber d ie l inke S chulter g eworfen d ie p aenula m it d er a uf d ie B rust f allenden K aputze. A uf e inem G rabrelief a us K öln ( RGM K öln) t rägt d as S teuermann e ines R uderschiffes ü ber d er b ogenformig g eschwurzten f ascia v entralis; d arüber d ie P aenula: H ORN, 1 987, 1 49, 1 9. F INK ,

1 971,

1 981,

2 2. MARICHAL,

d ie

6 8.

2 0. D ie W iedergabe d es T extes f olgt S PEIDEL, 2 1. WATSON,

T unika A bb.84.

1 03 u .

1 945,

1 973,

1 43.

2 21.

3 8.

2 3. U nter a nderen: S omalia, S udan, A den, J ordanien; S taaten, T ruppen i n b ritischer U niformtradition a usgerüstet h aben.

d ie i hre

B IBLIOGRAPHY A uhV: L . L indenschmit, ( Mainz 1 858-1911)

A lterthümer u nserer h eidnischen V orzeit

B AATZ, D ., 1 983: L ederne G ürteltaschen A rchäologisches K orrespondenzblatt 1 3, 1 983,

r ömischer 3 59-361

5

B de.

S oldaten?

B LÜMNER, H ., 1 911: D ie r ömischen P rivatalterthümer ( Handbuch A ltertumswissenschaft B d. I V, A bt. 2 , T l. 2 ) ( München 1 911) E SPERANDIEU, E ., 1 907-: R ecueil G gneral d es B as-Reliefs, B ustes d e l a G aule R omaine 1 0 v ols. ( Paris 1 907-)

d er

S tatues e t

F EU CARE, M ., 1 985: N ouvelles O bservations s ur l es C abochons d e B ronze E stampes d u C ingulum R omain. i n, M .C. B ishop ( ed) T he P roduction a nd D istribution o f R oman M ilitary E quipment: P roceedings o f t he S econd R oman M ilitary E quipment S eminar B AR I nternational S eries 2 75 ( Oxford 1 985), 1 17-141 F INK, R .O.,

1 971:

R oman M ilitary R ecords o n P apyrus ( Cleveland 1 971)

F UENTES, N ., 1 987: T he R oman M ilitary T unic. i n: M . D awson ( ed) R oman M ilitary E quipment; T he A ccoutrements o f W ar B AR I nternational S eries 3 36 ( Oxford 1 987), 4 1-75

7 3

G ONZENBACH,

V .

v on,

b eschläge A ntigua H ORN, H .G.

m it

1 966:

( Festschrift E . ( Her.)

T iberische

f igürlichen

1 987:

G ürtel-

R eliefs.

V OGT 1 966)

D ie R ömer i n

i n

u nd

R .

( Zürich

S chwertscheiden-

W yss

1 966),

( Her.) H elvetia

1 83-208

N ordrhein-Westfahlen,

( Stuttgart

1 987) K RÜGER,

M .-L.,

T eil: K ÜNZL,

1 970:

D ie

E ,

1 976:

C ingula aus

M oulin,

A ctes

a ntiques

( 17-21 m ai

K ÜNZL,

R eliefs d es

D ie f igürlichen R eliefs,

E ,

1 977:

1 977,

d u

S tadtgebietes v on C arnuntum;

C SIR Ö sterreich 1 /3,

C ampanien.

I Ve

C olloque

1 976)

A nnales

( Lyon 1 976),

C ingula d i E rcolano

d e

l 'Universit6

I nternational

e

I .

( Wien 1 970).

s ur

l es

J ean

b ronzes

8 3-86

P ompei.

C ronache

P ompeiane

3 ,

1 77-197

M ANO-ZISI,

D . . ,

MARICHAL,

R .,

1 957:

L es T rouvailles d e T ekiya

1 945:

L 'Occupation

R omaine

( Beograd 1 957)

d e

l a B asse E gypte

( Paris

1 945) M ORO,

P .

1 956:

J ulium

C arnicum.

P ublicazioni d ell'Istituto d i M ULLER,

A .,

1 873:

D as

P loen ( Ploen 1 873) R ICH,

A .,

1 862:

U niversitä

d egli

S toria A ntica

C ingulum m ilitiae.

2 ,

S tudi

d i

P adova;

1 956 A .

P rogramm d es G ymnasiums z u

3 -28

I llustriertes

W örterbuch

d er

r ömischen

A lterthümer

( Paris & L eipzig 1 862) R UPPRECHT,

G .,

1 987:

C ingulumbeschlag m it L upadarstellung aus Mainz.

A rchäologisches K orrespondenzblatt S PEIDEL, M ., 1 973, S ZÄBO,

1 973:

T he P ay o f

1 7,

1 987,

2 23-225

t he Auxilia. J ournal o f R oman S tudies

6 3,

1 41-147

K .,

1 976:

C abochons

d ecores

d e

K loz.

A lba

R egia

1 5,

1 976,

1 93-197 U BL,

H ., 1 969: W affen P rincipatsepoche n ach ( ungedr.

U BL,

u nd U niform d es r ömischen d en G rabreliefs N oricums u nd

H eeres d er P annoniens.

d iss. W ien 1 969)

H ., 1 976: P illeus P annonicus, d ie F eldmütze d es s pätrömischen H eeres. i n H . M itscha-Marheim, H . F riesinger & H . K erchler ( Her.), F estschrift ( Wien 1 976),

U BL, H . U LBERT,

f ür R . 2 14-241

( im D ruck): G .,

1 971:

F undberichte a us WATSON,

G .R.,

1 981:

P ITTIONI.

( Archaeolgia A ustriaca B eiheft

1 4)

W ann v erschwand d er D olch v om C ingulum? R ömische S chwaben 1 9,

B ronzeknöpfe

m it

R eliefverzierung.

2 78-297

T he R oman s oldier ( Bath,

7 4

r epr.

1 981)

R OMAN

T ERRACOTTA HORSE

F IGURINES AS A S OURCE FOR T HE

R ECONSTRUCTION O F G eorgette M .E.C.

HARNESSING

v an B oekel

P REFACE T housands o f t erracotta s tatuettes w ere p roduced i n n umerous w orkshops t hroughout t he N orth-Western p rovinces o f t he R oman E mpire.' T he s ubjects r epresented c over a w ide r ange. F ull-length r epresenta tions o r b usts o f d eities a nd m en, a nimals, f ruit, e ggs, m asks a nd e ven f urniture a re d epicted. T hese t erracottas p rovide u s w ith i nformation o f a v aried n ature: r eligion, d aily l ife, c ommerce, t echniques o f p roduction a nd s tylistic d evelopments. M oreover, t hey g ive u s a n i nsight i nto s everal a spects o f m aterial l ife i n t he R oman N orth-Western p rovinces, s uch a s f or i nstance c lothing. T he p urpose o f t his p aper i s t o p resent a nd d iscuss a s election o f h orse t erracottas t hat i llustrates t he u se o f h arnesses o f d ifferent k inds. I t w ill b e a pparent f rom t he r epresentational e vidence g iven b elow t hat t erracottas p reserve s ufficient d etail t o m ake t hese a s u seful a s ource f or t he r econstruction a nd a rrangement o f h arness e lements a s c onjunction.

t he

t ombstone

r eliefs w ith w hich t hey s hould b e s een i n

I NTRODUCTION P recisely o n t he d ay t hat I d elivered t he m anuscript f or t his c ontribution t o t he p resent v olume o n m ilitary e quipment, a n i mportant p aper a ppeared i n p rint b y M .C. B ishop, e ntitled: ' Cavalry E quipment o f t he R oman A rmy i n t he F irst C entury A .D.' t o

2

F ortunately,

I

w as

e nabled

i nclude s ome o f B ishop's c onclusions i n t he r evised v ersion o f

t his

p aper. B ishop d iscusses R oman f unerary m onuments a nd o fficial s culpture s howing m ilitary h arnesses i n r elation t o t he a rchaeological a rtefacts. I t w ill b e o bvious t hat t he p ictorial e vidence i s o f m ajor i nterest f or c omparison w ith t he t erracotta s tatuettes d ealt w ith h ere. T hese s upplement a nd g eographically e xtend t he e vidence p resented b y B ishop w hich c onsists m ainly o f t ombstones p ortraying m ounted s oldiers f rom t he R hineland a nd B ritain ( and o ne f rom C halon-sur-Saone). I n a ddition h e c onsiders a s p art o f t he ' official' s culpture t he t riumphal a rch a t O range, t he m ausoleum i n S aint-R6my-de-Provence, t he T ropaeum T raiani a t A damklissi a nd T rajan's C olumn i n R ome. T hese m onuments d ate m ainly t o t he f irst c entury A D a nd t o t he T rajanic p eriod ( Trajanus, 9 8-117). T wo t erracotta f igurines a re a lso i ncluded, b ut a s w ill a ppear b elow, B ishop's r emark t hat ' there a re a f ew r epresentations o f h orses a nd t heir h arness e xecuted i n p ipe-clay' i s a n u nderstatement, a s h undreds o f t erracotta h orses h ave b een f ound, s cattered o ver t he N orth-Western p rovinces o f t he R oman E mpire a nd m any o f t hese a re h arnessed. I n c ontrast w ith t he p rovenance o f t he s tone m onuments d iscussed b y B ishop, t he t erracotta s tatuettes d ealt w ith h ere c ome f rom w orkshops i n C entral G aul. W hen d atings a re a vailable, i t a ppears t hat t he h orse f igurines w ere m ade t owards t he e nd o f t he f irst c entury A D

7 5

a nd t hroughout h alf. I t m onuments,

t he s econd c entury,

a lthough

e specially

i n

i ts

f irst

i s o bvious t hat t he s tatuettes w ere c heaper t han t he s tone i n v iew o f t heir p roduction p rocess ( with t he u se o f m oulds)

a nd t he m aterial f rom w hich t hey w ere m ade ( clay). T herefore, t hey m ay h ave c overed t he n eeds o f p eople w ith a s mall p urse, a lthough w e c annot b e c ertain a s t o t he s ocial p osition o f e ither t he m odellers o f t he t erracottas o r t he p eople w ho b ought t heir p roducts. H owever, C entralG aulish t erracottas h ave i ndeed a lso b een r ecovered f rom m ilitary c ontexts, f or e xample f rom t he f ortress a nd t he a rmy s anctuaries a t V indonissa. 3 T he m onuments s tudied b y B ishop h ave t he a dvantage t hat t hey c learly h ave a m ilitary c onnotation w hereas t his i s n ot a lways a pparent f or t he t erracotta h orses ( see G eneral C onclusions, b elow). A nother d ifference w ith t he m ore f requently c ited p ictorial e vidence i s t hat i nstead o f f lat r elief w e h ere h ave f igures i n t he r ound, i n o ther w ords, w e h ave t he e ntire t hree-dimensional h orse. B ishop n otices c ertain s imilarities

b etween

t he

t wo

t erracotta

s tatuettes h e i ncludes i n h is c atalogue a nd t he t ombstones. M any a spects o f t he t erracotta h orses i ndeed r esemble t hose o n t he f unerary m onuments r emarkably c losely, b ut o n t he o ther h and, t he f igurines a lso r eveal o ther e lements n ot f ound i n t he f irst c entury h arnesses a s r econstructed b y B ishop. T he p resence o f a s trong C eltic e lement i n t he R oman m ilitary h arness w hich h as b een s uggested m akes t he e xamination o f C entral-Gaulish t erracotta h orses e ven m ore r elevant t o m ilitary e quipment s tudies b ecause t hrough t hese w orkshops w e a pproach t he C eltic r oots m ore c losely. B ut t he e vidence p rovided b y t he t erracottas m ust n ot b e o verestimated b ecause d etails a re s ometimes s implified o r s chematized. F urthermore, e lements p resumably o riginally i ndicated i n p aint a re n ow w orn o ff.

T ERRACOTTA S TATUETTES T he f our m ajor a reas o f t erracotta p roduction i n N orth-Western E urope w ere i n C entral G aul, e specially i n t he d istrict o f t he r iver A llier, i n t he C entral R hineland, i n t he M osel a rea a nd i n C ologne a nd e nvirons. 4 B roadly s peaking , t erracotta p roduction t ook p lace f rom t he f irst c entury A D t o t he b eginning o f t he f ourth c entury, w ith t he m ost e xtensive o utput i n t he s econd c entury A D. T he C entral-Gaulish d istrict c ontained b y f ar t he m ajority o f t he p roduction c entres a nd h ad a n e normous t erracotta ' industry' w ith f igurines o f a ll k inds o f s ubjects a nd t ypes b eing t ransported t o f ar d istant m arkets i n N orth-Western E urope, i ncluding B ritain, a nd o n t he C ontinent r ight u p t o t he l imes. 5 T he

m ajor

c ategories

i n t he C entral-Gaulish s ubjects a re d eities a nd

m en, w hether f ull-length r epresentations o r b usts, a nd a nimals. T he t hree m ost p opular s ubjects a mong t he a nimals w ere t he h orse, t he d og a nd t he c ock. I t i s t he C entral-Gaulish a rea w hich i nterests u s h ere, a s i ts w orkshops p roduced h orse s tatuettes t hat f requently s how h arnesses i n e laborate d etail. A lthough h orses w ere m ade i n t he c entres i n t he R hine-Mosel d istrict, t heir h arnesses a re g enerally s trongly s implified. 6

C entral-Gaulish t erracottas o f h orses H orse s tatuettes h ave b een r ecovered f rom n umerous s ites i n t he R oman N orth-Western p rovinces,

a s

w ell

7 6

a s

f rom

t he

C entral-Gaulish

w orkshops

t hemselves.

T echnical

a nd s tylistic a spects a re h elpful i n

t he d istinction o f C entral-Gaulish h orses f rom t he s pecimens m ade i n t he N orthern w orkshops. E ven w ithin t he C entral-Gaulish i ndustry t here i s a w ide v arity o f t ypes, v ariants a nd s tyles. H orses m ay b e s lender o r s turdy, w ith a l ong m ane o r w ith a s hort b rush-like m ane; s pecimens a re s hown w ith c omplete h arness,

o nly a b ridle, a s addle w ithout b ridle

o r ' nude'. 7 T he h orses c ome a lone o r a s p airs o f d raught-horses. S ometimes r iders a re p ortrayed o n t he b acks o f t he s ingle h orses, n amely, s oldiers a nd t he g oddess E pona w ho i s r epresented i n h er u sual p osition, s itting s ide-saddle. T he h orsemen m ay s it o n h arnessed m ounts o r o n u nsaddled h orses, b ut t he h orses a re a lways s tanding q uietly. T here a re a lso e xamples o f h orses t hat a re a ccompanied b y a s tanding m an o r b oy. E xamples o f a ll c ategories c ited h ere w ill b e f ound i n t he d iscussion b elow.

T he m anufacturing p rocess I t s hould b e n oted t hat t he v oluminous c orpus o f t erracottas i n E urope i s t he r esult o f m ass-production. T erracotta m odellers u sed m oulds t o e stablish a n e fficient l arge-scale p roduction o f f igurines. T heir m odels o r o riginals w ere f irst h and-modelled i n c lay a nd t hen f ired i n k ilns. T he t en t o t welve o riginals k nown t o m e ( not o f h orses) a re m ade o f t he s ame f ine-textured c lay a s w as u sed f or t he m oulds a nd f or m ost o f t he s tatuettes, n amely, a p aste t hat g ives a w hite p roduct w hen b aked, o ften c alled I pipeclay'. 8 T he s tatuettes c ould b e p ressed ( not c ast) o nce t he m oulds t aken f rom t he m odels h ad b een f ired. I n t he m ost c ommon C entral-Gaulish p rocedure f or t he m anufacture o f h orses, t wo h alf-moulds w ere u sed t o p ress t he s ides o f t he h ead a nd b ody, w ith t he t ail, l egs a nd p linth b eing s eparately h and-modelled a nd a ttached w ith l iquid p aste p rior t o f iring ( figs 3 , 9 , 1 8). 9 T he r esulting b odies w ere h ollow, w hile t he l egs, t ail, a nd p linth w ere s olid. A ll t he j unctions w ere u sually c arefully r etouched b efore f iring. O ccasionally h orses w ere p ressed f rom m oulds t hat d id i nclude t he l egs a nd t he t ail, a lthough t he f lat r ectangular p linths a ppear a lways t o h ave b een h and-modelled. 1° A s mall v ent w as p ierced t hrough t he b ellies o f t he h orses i n a n u nobtrusive p lace t o a llow f or e vaporation t o p revent t he h orses f rom c racking d uring d rying a nd f iring.

a nd

s o

M ost t erracottas, p erhaps e ven a ll s pecimens, w ere o nce g aily p ainted i n b right c olours. A lthough f igurines m ight h ave b een p ainted p rior t o f iring, t he f act t hat p aint r arely s urvives r ather s uggests t hat t he u sual p rocedure w as t o a pply p aint a fter f iring . A ll t he d etails o f t he p ainted h arnesses w hich s till s urvive a ppear o n o ther f igurines i n r elief, s o t he t wo t echniques w ere c omplimentary, n ot m utually e xclusive. T he a bsence o f c ertain f eatures, s uch a s g irths ( see b elow, S ection I V; C onclusions) c an n ot t herefore b e a ttributed s olely t o t he f act t hat t hese m ight h ave b een r endered e xclusively i n p aint, n o s ingle t race o f w hich n ow r emains.

F ind c ircumstances S tatuettes o f h orses h ave b een r ecovered f rom w orkshops, t emples a nd d eposits t hat p robably c ontain v otive o fferings f rom s anctuaries, s uch a s A sse-Kalkoven, E lewijt a nd H arelbeke i n B elgium. 1 1 A d omestic s hrine i n L angon ( France, I lle-et-Vilaine) y ielded o ne h orse t erracotta.

1 2

S everal h orse f igurines h ave b een f ound i n

7 7

c emeteries.

1 3

T wo o f t hese s tatuettes w ere d iscovered i n a c hild's g rave d ated t o t he s econd c entury i n A rgenton-sur-Creuze ( France, I ndre; A rgentomagus). 1 4 A nother s pecimen c omes f rom a b urial a t E nns

( Austria)

d ated

t o

t he

f irst h alf o f t he s econd c entury a nd c ontaining t he r emains o f a w oman a ged b etween 1 8 a nd 2 5 y ears. A lso i n A ustria, i n L inz, a h orse f igurine w as f ound i n a b urial o f a m an o f 2 5-to-50 y ears o ld. T hese h orses a re a ll b ridled.

W orkshops, m odellers a nd d ating T he t ime o f m anufacture o f t he h orses d ealt w ith h ere c an f or t he m ost p art b e e stablished t owards t he e nd o f t he f irst c entury A D o r i n t he s econd c entury, e specially i n i ts f irst h alf. D atings c an, a mong o thers,

b e

d educed

f rom

t he p roduction c entres o f h orse t erracottas

w hose p eriod o f a ctivities i s k nown w ith g reater o r l esser c ertainty. T he C entral-Gaulish w orkshops t hat p roduced m ost o f t he p resently d iscussed h orse f igurines a re i n C rouzilles ( Indre-et-Loire), s econd h alf o f t he f irst c entury A D-third c entury; S aint-Pour ain-sur-Besbre ( Allier), c . A D 7 5/80-150/160; T oulon-sur-Allier ( Allier), t he w orkshop a t t he s ite c alled ' Champ L ary' o r ' Le L ary', s econd c entury A D; a nd Y zeure-Saint-Bonnet

( Allier)

w here

t erracottas

w ere

m ade

i n

t he

T rajanic p eriod. 1 5 W ith t he p ossible e xception o f C rouzilles, p airs o f d raught-horses w ere a lso m ade i n t hese w orkshops, a s w ell a s i n B ourbon-Lancy ( Saone-et-Loire; f ig. 1 9A) 1 6 a nd m ost p robably i n Y zeure-Saint-Bonnet. I t i s v ery l ikely t hat o ther c entres a lso m anufactured h arnessed h orses o r t eams, b ut m ore l arge-scale r esearch i s n ecessary t o f ind t hat o ut. T wo B elgian v otive d eposits a nd s everal b urials a re a lso i mportant f or t he d ating o f t he s tatuettes d iscussed h ere. T he A sse-Kalkoven d epot i s d ated t o b etween a bout t he e nd o f t he f irst c entury A D a nd 1 75 ( external e vidence). 1 7 T he H arelbeke d epot c ontained g lass, p ottery a nd c oins d ating t o b etween A D 7 0 a nd 1 50. 1ö G raves d ated b y t he a rtefacts f ound i n t hem a nd c ontaining h orse f igurines o ccur i n B ern Rossfeld ( Switzerland),

F lavian-Trajanic

p eriod;

C halon-sur-Saone

( Saone-et-

L oire) i n a c emetery u sed d uring t he f irst c entury A D; C hamalieres ( Puy-de-Dome), b urial w ith a n a braded c oin o f N erva ( 96-98 A D) h ence d ating t o t he s econd o r e ven t he t hird c entury, a nd W els ( Austria), G rünbachplatz, f irst h alf o f t he s econd c entury, a nd c ontaining f our f ragmentary h orse s tatuettes ( see a bove f or A rgenton-sur-Creuze a nd E nns).

u nder

1 9

T he n ames o f t hree m odellers o f h orse t erracottas o f t he t ypes c onsideration a re k nown, s igned o n t he b ack o f m oulds ( prior t o

f iring).

T hey a re S acrillos, M arcellus a nd P riscus

( figs

3 B,

1 8,

2 0) . 20

T he f irst m ade r iding h orses, t he o ther t wo p roduced y okes f or p airs o f d raught-horses. S acrillos i s i nscribed i n t he b ack o f t wo m oulds, o ne f rom

S aint-Pour ain-sur-Besbre,

t he o ther f rom T oulon-sur-Allier,

b oth

o f t he s ame t ype ( fig. 3 B). B ut h is s ignature i s a lso f ound o n a m ould f rom V ichy ( France, A llier). T his r aises t he q uestion whether i t i s l ikely t hat m oulds b y a s ingle m odeller S acrillos c ould h ave b een u sed i n s everal w orkshops o r w hether t he m oulds r epresent d ifferent m odellers. I nterestingly, t his n ame i s f ound m ainly o n a nimal m oulds, s o S acrillos m ay h ave s pecialized i n t erracottas o f b easts. T he m odeller i s d ated b y G . S chauerte t o t he s econd t hird o f t he s econd c entury A D; a s tatuette o f a w oman h olding t wo r abbits, f rom t he

7 8

H arelbeke d epot, i s o f t he s ame t ype a s a s ur-Besbre s igned b y S acrillos.

m ould

f rom

S aint-Pour;ain-

A m ould i nscribed b y M arcellus c omes f rom t he s ame p roduction c entre a nd r epresents t he r ight h alf o f ah orse u sed t o t ake p airs o f d raught-horses ( fig . 1 8). T he p eriod o f a ctivities o f t his m odeller c an b e p laced i n t he l ast q uarter o f t he f irst c entury A D b ecause t wo p arallels f or h is h orse w ere d iscovered i n t he C halon-sur-Saone c emetery a nd b ecause o f t he k nown p eriod o f a ctivity o f t he S aint-Pour;ain-sur B esbre w orkshop. F inally, t here i s t he m ould b y P riscus w ith a d epiction t hat c an n ow b e i nterpreted a s a y oke ( fig . 2 0), r ecovered f rom t he w orkshop L e L ary a t T oulon-sur-Allier.

T he s ignificance o f t he h orses I t i s n ot t he p urpose o f t his p aper t o e nter i nto a d iscussion o f t he s ymbolism o f t he h orse i n G allo-Roman s ociety b ut i t i s c lear f rom f inds a nd d epictions t hat t he h orse p layed a n i mportant p art i n t his c ulture. 2 1 T hat t he h orses h ad b oth a v otive a nd a f unerary c onnotation w ill b e o bvious f rom t he f ind c ircumstances l isted a bove. T he s tatuettes w ere p robably o ffered t o g ods o r g oddesses, f or e xample E pona, t o o btain h ealth f or t he l iving a nimals o r, f or i nstance, t o e xpress t hanks t o ad eity w ho w as t hought t o h ave r estored a h orse t o h ealth. F urthermore, i t i s c onceivable t hat t erracottas w ere c heap a nd d urable s ubstitutes f or l ive o fferings t o t he g ods i n s anctuaries a nd b urials. A nother p ossibility i s t hat t he s tatuettes w ere s ymbolic r eplacements f or t he m ount t hat w as t o c arry t he d eceased o n h is j ourney t o t he h ereafter a nd w e m ay s peculate whether a h orse m ounted o r a ccompanied b y a s oldier w as i ntended t o p reserve s omething o f t he s ocial s tatus o f t he d eceased. I t i s s urely u nlikely t hat h orses i n b urials w ere m erely d ecorative o rnaments b rought f rom ' the m antlepiece' a t h ome. F inally, t he f requently o ffered i nterpretation o f t erracottas a s c hildren 's t oys m ust a lso b e r epeated h ere. O f c ourse i t c annot b e e xcluded t hat s ome f igurines w ere p laythings f or c hildren , f or i nstance, p erhaps t he h orses p rovided w ith m ovable w heels, 22 b ut t his w ill c ertainly n ot h ave b een t he m ain p urpose o f t he t erracotta p roduction. S ome a rguments a gainst t he i nterpretation a s t oys a re t he f acts t hat t he h ollow s tatuettes a re u sually f ragile, t hat m any f igurines c ome f rom r eligious c ontexts, a nd t hat s everal t erracottas, a nd i n p articular t wo h orse s tatuettes, w ere r ecovered f rom a dult b urials. 23 T he f ind o f t wo h orse f igurines i n t he c hild's g rave i n A rgenton-sur-Creuze, m entioned a bove, i s n o c ompelling p roof f or t he i nterpretation a s t oys. I ndeed, a r eligous c onnotation i s s trongly s uggested b y t he p resence o f t hree V enus t erracottas a nd o ne o f a m other-goddess ( 'nutrix ') i n t he s ame g rave. A ll t he s tatuettes w ere p laced i n a c ircle a nd s eem t o h ave p artly p rojected a bove t he s oil o f t he b urial i n t he R oman p eriod.

C ENTRAL-GAULISH T ERRACOTTA R IDING H ORSES T erms f or t he i ndividual p arts o f t he h arness a re d erived f rom B ishop 1 988, h ere d epicted i n f igs 1 -2. 24 I n t he d escriptions ' left' a nd ' right' a re v iewed a s f rom t he o bject i tself.

7 9

H EADP IECE

S HOUL D ER S TRAPS

T HROA TL A TCH SHOULDER J UNCT ION

S ADDLE

B ROWBAND

P OMM E LS S ADDLE C LOTH /B LANKET

CHEEKP IECE H AUNCH S TRAPS HACKA AAORE

H AUNCH J UNCT ION

B IT B REECH ING

R E INS B REAST J UNCT ION

B REAST S TRAP

MART INGALE P ENDANT S TRAP

T R IPLET S TRAPS G IRTH

r f r . b

F ig.!:

C elto-Roman B ISHOP,

1 988,

h arness f ig.

a s

r econstructed

b y

M .C.

B ishop. A fter

2 5

A

.1

F ig.2:

T ypes o f C elto-Roman h arness o f r iding h orses. A : h alf h arness. B : f ull h arness. C a nd D : t hree-quarter h arness ( front a nd r ear). A fter B ISHOP, 1 988. f ig. 2 7

8 0

I A H orses w ith s addle a nd s addle c loth ( figs 3 ,

4 D,

S A)

H orses w ith s addles c ome i n s pecimens w ith a nd w ithout s addle c loth. T he f ine, a lthough s chematized d etails i n s addle c loths f rom h orses f ound i n F rance, W estern G ermany a nd B elgium s eem t o r epresent d ifferent f abrics o r d ecorations u sed f or s addle c loths. I t i s r emarkable t hat s addles a nd s addle c loths a re r eproduced i n e laborate d etail while h eadstalls a nd r eins o n t he s ame h orses a re n ot i ndicated. T hat r iding h orses a re t ruly i ntended i s p roved b y a h orse f rom E lewijt ( Belgium) a nd a nother f rom S eebruck ( Germany) b oth w ith s addle a nd s addle c loth a nd e ach w ith a h orseman, m ost p robably a s oldier, s itting o n i ts b ack ( see b elow). 25 T he p ossibility t hat h eadstall a nd r eins w ere o riginally p ainted s hould b e t aken i nto a ccount. A f ragmentary h orse w ith a r ider, p erhaps E pona, b ut m ore p lausibly, a s oldier, f rom A utun ( France, S aone-et-Loire; f ig. 5 A, c f. S ection V II) a lso d isplays a s addle c loth. 26 T he h orses f irst d iscussed h ere a re o f t he s ame t ype a s t he A utun, E lewijt a nd S eebruck h orses, b ut w ithout r ider. T wo m oulds a nd a f igurine o f t his t ype c ome f rom S aint-Pour ain-sur-Besbre; a t hird m ould w as f ound i n T oulon-sur-Allier. 2 7 T he b ack o f o ne o f t he m oulds f rom S aint-Pour ain-sur-Besbre ( fig. 3 B) a nd t he b ack o f t he m ould f rom T oulon-sur-Allier a re s igned b y t he s ame o r t wo d ifferent m odellers n amed S acrillos ( see a bove). T hese h orses h ave a s mall s addle w ith f our p ommels, a l arge r ectangular s addle c loth w ith f ringes, a s ingle b reeching a nd a b reast s trap p assing o ver t he s addle c loth t o t he f ront p ommels a nd c onsisting o f t wo s traps t hat w iden o n t he b reast ( figs 3 8, 4 D); a t hird b reast b and i s r endered o n b oth f ig . 3 A, a nd t he S eebruck p arallel. G irths a re n ot f eatured. T he E lewijt h orse a nd t he s pecimen f rom A utun ( fig. 5 A) h ave a d ifferent b reast s trap. T his i s v ery b road w ith r ing j unction p arallel h aunch c loth t o t he

t wo b ands, e ach d ivided i nto t wo o n t he b reast. T he o n t he h aunch i n f igs 3 -4D i s a ssociated w ith a d ouble s trap t hat r uns s lightly o bliquely o ver t he s addle b ack p ommels. T he s addle c loth t hat c overs t he f lanks

c ompletely i s a n e laborate t extile, t he s ides b ordered b y s even s tacked b locks e ach d ecorated w ith f ive v ertical r idges ( unless a braded). T he l ower h orizontal b order h as s ix p artitions e ach c onsisting o f f our h orizontal r idges. A f ringe o f 1 6 t o 2 0 t assels i s v isible. T he t exture o f t he c entral p art o f t he s addle c loth i s i ndicated b y c rescentic r idges i n s ix v ertical r ows. I nterestingly, a p art o f t he b order o f t he s addle

c loth

i s

d iscernible

o n t he h orse's b ack d irectly b ehind

t he

A

F ig .3:

T wo m oulds f rom S aint-Pour ain-sur-Besbre. A : h t. o f t he n egative 1 1.5 c m . B : h t. o f t he m ould. 1 2.2 c m. T he b ack i s s igned b y t he m odeller S acrillos. A fter R OUVIER-JEANLIN, 1 972, n os.

9 99,

1 001

8 1

s addle.

I t

i s

t herefore

c ertain

t hat

t he

s addle i s p laced o ver a

s eparate s addle c loth. I B H orses w ith s addle a nd s addle c loth ( fies 4 E, 5 B, 5 C) I n o ther e xamples o f h orses w ith t he t ype o f

s addle

c loth

d iscussed a bove d etails a re s implified o r t he b orders o f t he s addle c loth a re s mooth, t he r esult o f w orn m oulds. S uch s pecimens c ome f rom M acon ( Saone-et-Loire), F oret d e C ompiagne ( France, O ise), S aintP our ain-sur-Besbre, A sse-Kalkoven ( two h orses) a nd o ne T udot ( fig. 4 E; f ind p lace n ot j unction a re n ot a lways f eatured.

m entioned) .28

w as

d rawn

b y

B reeching a nd h aunch

T he h orse f rom C ompiagne h as a v ery b road b reast s trap ( fig. 5 B). T he b reeching i s a braded. T he s houlder j unction h as a r ing w ith p endant s traps ( blurred). A s houlder s trap o f t wo p arallel b ands p asses f rom t he r ing o bliquely t o t he f ront p ommels. T he h orses d ealt w ith t hus f ar h ave a b reast s trap w ithout a s houlder j unction. T he h arness o n a h orse f rom S oissons ( France, A isne; f ig. 5 C) i s a nother v ariation o f t his h arness

b ut w ith a dditional r ings n ear t he s addle a nd t he s addle c loth

a nd r ings w ith p endant s traps a t b oth s houlder a nd h aunch. 2 9 T here a re t wo d ouble s houlder s traps, b oth a ttached t o t he r ings n ear t he s addle.

F ig.4:

H orses r eproduced f rom T UDOT, 1 860, p l. 5 8, f ind p laces u nknown. A -B: h orse i n R ouen. C : d raught-horse. D : d rawing b y T udot o f a n o riginal o r o f a m odern i mpression f rom a m ould b y t he m odeller S acrillos. E -F: r iding h orses. G a nd H : h orses w ith h eadstall. N ot t o s cale. ( Courtesy o f M usge d es A ntiquitgs N ationales,

S t.-Germain-en-Lay)

8 2

A

F ig.5A :

H orse

f rom

A utun w ith f ragment o f a r ider,

s eated o n a r ectangular 1 973, B : H orse C :

4 7,

n o.

f rom

4 75,

p l.

F oret

s upport.

A fter

1 1C.

H .

d e

C ompiegne,

S oissons, M usge M unicipal,

8 3

&

V UILLEMOT,

7 c m h t.

R ouvier-Jeanlin, 1 972, n o. 1 003 D rawing b y M rs M . J eanlin o f a h orse f rom c m.

p ossibly a s oldier

V ERTET

i nv.

n o.

5 .5

S oissons,

1 092

c m. h t.

A fter 1 2.7

I C H orse w ith s addle, s addle c loth a nd t riplet s traps ( fig. 6 ) A n early c omplete s tatuette i n M ainz, R ömisch - G ermanisches Z entralmuseum ( find p lace u nknown) p ortrays a s addle c loth t hat d iffers f rom t he f oregoing t ypes ( fig. 6 ). 3 u T hree l ong v ertical r idges a re v isible b elow e ach p ommel a nd p artly b elow t he s mooth p art o f t he s addle. B etween t hese r idges, t he s addle c loth h as t hree r ows o f r ound c avities v arying f rom f ive t o s ix p er r ow ( obliterated o n t he l eft s ide). I t i s c lear t hat a r ow o f c avities i s f eatured o utside t he v ertical r idges, i ndicating t hat t he l atter a re r endered o ver t he s addle c loth. t he b orders

I t i s t herefore l ikely t hat t he v ertical r idges a re n ot o f t he s addle c loth b ut l oose p endant s traps f alling f rom

t he s addle. T he s traps a re l onger t han t he s addle c loth. S uch s traps h ave b een i dentified b y B ishop o n c ertain g ravestones o f t he T iberioC laudian p eriod, a nd o n s ome o ther f irst c entury m onuments. T hey a lso a ppear o n t he C elto-Roman s addle o f t he f irst c entury A D r ecently r econstructed b y P . C onnolly. 3 1 T hey h ave b een t ermed ' triplet s traps' b ecause t hey u sually o ccur i n s ets o f t hree ( fig. 1 ). T he g ravestones f eature f ront a nd r ear s ets, b ut, o ccasionally, r ear s ets o nly a re r epresented. T riplet s traps o n t erracottas a re t o m y knowledge a lways i ndicated i n s ets a t t he f ront a nd r ear o n b oth s ides o f t he s addle ( see a lso b elow f or f urther e xamples). T he h orse i n M ainz h as n o h eadstall b ut a d ouble n eck s trap p asses o bliquely h igh o ver t he n eck t o d isappear u nder t he m ane ( cf. t he d raught-horses, S ections V III-IX). T he b reast s trap c onsists o f t wo t hick b ands. T he l ower b and e nds a gainst t he f ront p ommel a nd t he u pper b and e nds a gainst t he m ane d irectly a bove t he f ront p ommel. T he p ommels a re m odelled i n v ery h igh r elief. T hose a t t he f ront a re p laced f ar f orward a t e ither s ide o f t he w ithers. G irth a nd b reeching a re n ot r epresented. M ost o f t he p linth o f t his s turdy h orse i s n ow b roken o ff, a s mall p art r emains u nder t he h ind l egs a nd t he v ery l ong t ail. T he h orse's h ead c losely r esembles t hat o f t wo h orses f rom a w orkshop i n Y zeure-Saint-Bonnet ( fig. 1 2A). 32

F ig.6:

D rawing a nd p hotographs o f a h orse f rom t he R ömisch G ermanisches Z entralmuseum , M ainz, i nv. n o. 0 .24021, h t. 1.3 c m. F ind-place u nknown. ( Courtesy o f t he R ömisch G ermanisches Z entralmuseum , M ainz)

8 4

8 5

I I H orses w ith s addle,

s addle c loth,

t riplet s traps a nd h eadstall

( figs

4 F,

7 , 8 A) F our s ets o f t riplet s traps a re a lso s een o n s lender h orses which d iffer f rom t he M ainz s pecimen ( figs 4 F, 7 ). 33 T hese c ome f rom a braded m oulds, b ut t he r ectangular f ringed s addle c loth, t he p ommels a nd t he t riplet s traps c an a ll b e d istinguished.

T he t riplet s traps a re

l onger

t han t he s addle c loth a nd h ave V -shaped e nds. T he h orse a llegedly f rom V ichy, d epicted i n f ig. 7 B, s eems t o h ave a f ringed b reast s trap. T he h eadstall i s b est p reserved i n t he H arelbeke h orse ( fig. 7 A), b ut t he c heekpiece d oes n ot r eflect r eality a s i t s hould b e t aut. T hese t hree h orses a nd a nother a llegedly f rom V ichy , a re o f t he s ame t ype a lthough o n t he l atter M rs M . R ouvier-Jeanlin n oticed t races o f d amage t hat s uggest t he p resence o f a f oot o f a r ider, n ow l ost. 34 A nother, s pecial, h orse f igurine c omes f rom a b urial d ated t o t he F lavian-Tralanic p eriod i n t he B ernRossfeld c emetery ( Switzerland, f ig. 8 A). 3 T he s turdy h orse s tands w ith i ts h ead i nclined t o t he r ight, w hereas h orses u sually g aze f orward i n o ther s tatuettes f rom t he R oman N orth-Western p rovinces. T he t riplet s traps e nd s traight o r s lightly p ointed a nd c onsist o f t wo b ands e ach. T he s mooth s addle c loth h as a s traight h em. T he s addle i s s ecured t o t he h orse 's b ack b y a b reast s trap w ith a q uadrifoil o rnament o n e ach s houlder, s uspended a l arge l unula. R emnants o f a s imilar o rnament v isible i n t he h aunch h eadstall h as a n oseband,

f rom w hich i s a re p ossibly

j unction, b ut t hese p arts a re v ague. T he c heekpiece a nd a f rontlet w ith a l arge

l unula.

F ig.7

l eft:

H orse

f rom

H arelbeke,

h t.

8 .3 c m.

( Stedelijke M usea v an

K ortrijk), i nv. n o. 5 022 F 3 79. ( Drawing a fter a p hoto b y A .G . P auwels, K ortrijk) r ight: H orse a llegedly f ound i n V ichy, h t. 8 c m. A fter R OUVIERJ EANLIN,

1 972,

n o.

I II H orses w ith s addle a nd ( fig.

8 B) S addles

w ith

f our

1 007

t riplet s traps,

b ut

w ithout

s addle

c loth

p ommels a lso o ccur w ithout s addle b lanket b ut

w ith f our s ets o f t riplet s traps. T wo d ifferently e xecuted h orses p ortray t riplet s traps w hich f all o ver t he s mooth h ide o f t he a nimals

8 6

F ig.8A : H orse f rom B ern Rossfeld G ONZENBACH, 1 986, T af. B : H orse f rom S alzburg MAZAKARINI,

1 970,

n o.

c emetery,

1 07, 3 B ürglstein

h t.

1.5

c emetery,

1 46 a nd V ON G ONZENBACH,

w ith n o i ndications o f a s addle

c loth

u nderneath.

c m. h t.

1 1

1 986, O ne

A fter c m.

T af.

V ON A fter

1 07,

s pecimen

4

w as

p ossibly d iscovered i n V ichy a nd a s econd c omes f rom S alzburg, B ürglstein c emetery ( Austria, f ig. 8 B; t he p hotograph a nd m y c opies a re n ot i n f ocus: i s a l ower b order o f a s addle c loth v isible?). 36 T riplet s traps i n t he t rue s ense o f t he w ord a re i n f act d epicted o nly o n t he S alzburg h orse ( fig. 8 B) b ecause t here e ach s et c onsists o f t hree s traps, w hereas t he o ther a nimal r eferred t o h as s ets o f t wo s traps. T he t riplet s traps e nd s traight, n ot V -shaped l ike i n f igs 4 F a nd 7 B. U nless s addle b lankets w ere o riginally p ainted, t he s addles w ould s eem t o r est d irectly o n t he h orses's b acks. T he s addles a re e ach h eld b y a s ingle b reast s trap w ith a s houlder j unction f ormed b y a l arge r ing. T he b reeching i s n ot r endered. A p rotrusion o n t he S alzburg f igurine s uggests t hat i t w as o riginally a ccompanied b y a m an. T his h orse h as a h eadstall,

t he f rontlet o f w hich i s v isible.

I V H orses w ith e laborately i ndicated h arness b ut w ithout

s addle

c loth

( figs 4A-B, 9 -13) A nother g roup o f C entral-Gaulish r iding h orses p ortrays s addles, b reeching, b reast s traps, a nd s everal r ings a nd p halerae w ith p endant s traps, b ut n o s addle c loths o r g irths. A n early c omplete s pecimen i s s een i n a l eft m ould f rom S aint-Pour ain-sur-Besbre ( fig. 9 A). 3 7 T he s oftly c urved b reast b and c onsists o f t wo t hick s traps, b oth a pparently d ivided i nto t wo o n t he c hest. T hree r ings a nd a p halera, e ach w ith p endant s taps, a re v isible o n t he f lank; t hus, a t otal o f s ix r ings a nd t wo p halerae w ould h ave b een m odelled o n t he c omplete h orse. T he r ing a nd p halera o n t he s houlder a nd h aunch j unctions a re l arge, w hereas t he t wo c entral r ings, b elow t he p ommels, a re s mall. A l arge s egmented r ing f orms t he s houlder j unction w ith o ne d ouble s houlder s trap r unning t o t he f ront p ommel, a nother t o t he s mall r ing b elow. T he p halera c onsists o f t hree c oncentric c ircles. T he l ong V -shaped p endant s traps c over a bout t wo-thirds o f t he f lank a nd a re s urrounded b y a r idge.

8 7

A v ertical

g roove r uns t hrough t heir c entre. I t i s u nclear w hether t he c entral p endant s traps a re t riplet s traps s uspended f rom t he p ommels a nd d ecorated w ith r ings, o r w hether t hese a re a ttached t o t he r ings a lone. T he t wo c entral r ings a re l inked t o e ach o ther b y a d ouble h orizontal s trap r unning b elow t he e dge o f t he s addle ( cf. b elow , f ig. 1 3). T here i s a d ouble h aunch s trap w ith a b road d ouble b reeching s trap p assing u nder t he t ail

( which w ould h ave b een a dded s eparately).

A d ouble s trap o f u ncertain p urpose i s v isible d irectly b ehind t he s addle. T his m ight b e a s trap h olding u p t he h aunch s trap, b ut i t c ould a lso m ark t he r ear e dge o f t he s addle, a lthough i t i s p laced r ather f ar b ack, o r e ven t he e dge o f a s addle c loth. T he b order o f a s addle c loth i s d epicted b ehind t he s addle o f t wo o ther h orses f rom S aintP our ain-sur-Besbre d ealt w ith a bove, b ut t here i t i s c learly a c ontinuation o f t he s addle c loth ( fig. 3 A). T here i s, h owever, n o o ther s ign o f a s addle c loth i n t he p resent m ould. T he s addle i s a pparently h eld o nly b y t he s ystem o f s taps b ecause a g irth i s n ot r endered. T he h orse h as n o h eadstall. T he h arness c an b e c ompared w ith t hat i n s ome o ther h orses, a lthough i t i s n ot i dentical. C omparable h arnesses a re s een o n h orses f rom L inz ( Austria, f igs 1 0-11), B ibracte ( France, N ievre), S aint-Pour ain-sur-Besbre ( fig. 1 3A), L ezoux ( France, P uy-de-Dome, ( fig. 1 3B), A miens, B rimeux a nd i n s pecimens n ow i n C ompiegne a nd T ours ( figs 4 A-B, 5 B).38

A

F ig.9A : M ould f rom S aint-Pour ain-sur-Besbre, h t.

o f t he m ould

1 3

c m,

h t. o f t he n egative 1 0 c m. A fter R OUVIER-JEANLIN, 1 972, n o. 9 95 B : H orse f rom B rimeux. N ot t o s cale. A fter G allia 3 3, 1 975, 2 84, f ig . 2 6 I VA T he h arnessed h orse f rom L inz ( figs 1 0-12) T he h arness o f a f ragmentary h orse f rom L inz w as r econstructed b y E .M . R uprechtsberger ( fig. 1 0B) w ith, i n m y v iew , t he s addle p ommels m istakenly i ndicated a s r ings, g irth s trap.

a nd t he l ong t riplet s traps a s a

d ouble

T he b road b reast s trap c onsists o f t wo t hick b ands a nd t he

n arrow , t hick b reeching b ifurcates a t t he r ings i n t he h aunch a nd s houlder j unctions. A V -shaped p endant s trap w ith a v ertical g roove i n t he c entre h angs f rom e ach o f t hese l arge r ings. T he o blique u pper h aunch s trap a ppears t o b e a ttached t o a f aintly v isible s egmented b and

8 8

d irectly

b ehind t he s addle.

I nterestingly,

a s imilar

t ype o f

s egmented

b and i s a lso v isible o n a h orse d rawn b y T udot ( fig. 4 A-B; f ind p lace n ot m entioned, f igurine n ow i n T ours, F rance). H owever, t he h aunch s traps w ere i nterpreted a s a k ind o f l oop b y T udot a nd t he r ing o f h aunch j unction w as p laced a gainst t he s egmented r idge ( cf. f ig.

t he 9 B).

T he s egmented b and i s o f u ncertain s ignificance; i s i t a p art o f t he s addle, o r w as i ts f unction t o h old u p t he h aunch s traps? W as i t

F ig.10: H orse o f B ,

f rom

L inz,

t he h arness: b y t he a uthor.

K reuzschwestern

c emetery.

A , a fter R UPRECHTSBERGER, C f. f ig. 1 1

R econstructions

1 983,

T extabb.

2 4a.

p art o f t he b order o f a s addle c loth, a ll f urther i ndications o f w hich a re n ow m issing, o r i s i t a k ind o f b lanket r oll, s lung a t t he b ack o f t he s addle?

( Cf.

a lso t he d ouble r idge

b ehind t he s addle

i n f ig.

I t i s a ppropriate t o s ummarize h ere t hree o f t he b etween t he h arness d iscussed a nd t hat a s s een i n P our;ain-sur-Besbre m ould h aunch

s trap

a ttached

a nd

( fig.

s econdly,

t o r ings u nder

9 A). i t

F irstly,

t he p ommels.

d ifferences t he S aint-

t he m ould h as n o

h as p endant s traps o r

9 A).

o blique

t riplet s traps

T riplet s traps f all d irectly

f rom

t he p ommels i n t he L inz h orse a nd i ts i dentical p arallel f rom B ibracte. T hirdly, t he t riplet s traps a re s horter i n t he m ould t han o n t he f igurines.

U nfortunately,

t he t riplet s traps o n b oth t he L inz

a nd

t he

B ibracte s pecimens a re s trongly a braded. A s D r R uprechtsberger k indly i nformed m e, t he s traps d o n ot p ass u nder t he a nimal's b elly, b ut e nd l ow o n t he f lanks. I f i ndeed a d ouble g irth w as i ntended, t hen t he b ack g irth

w ould c ertainly h ave b een p laced f urther f orward;

8 9

i t i s u nlikely

F ig.11: H orse f rom L inz.

( Photo F r. M ichalek,

S tadtmuseum L inz)

t hat i t w ould p ass o ver t he a nimal's g enitalia ( cf.

f igs

1 0,

1 3A ,

a

s tallion). I t i s s ignificant t hat n o o ther C entral-Gaulish h orse f igurines k nown t o m e, whether o f c omparable o r o f d ifferent t ypes, d isplay a g irth a t a ll. F urthermore, a d ouble g irth w ould s erve n o p ractical p urpose. T he L inz h orse must o riginally h ave b een a ccompanied b y a b oy o r a m an s tanding o n i t's r ight s ide w ith h is l eft h and p laced o n i ts c rest. 39 T his f igure w as a ttached t o t he h orse's f lank ( see t he t hick r idge i n t he r ight s tatuettes p ortray

f lank n ear t he h ole). C ertain C entral-Gaulish a m an o r b oy s tanding t o t he s ide o f a h orse. 4 ° A

s pecimen f rom H arelbeke d epicts a h orse o f t he s ame t ype a s t he a nimal f rom L inz. 41 T he f igure s tanding o n t he r ight s ide h olds t he m ane w ith h is l eft h and. T hough h is h ead i s m issing, t he f igure, w hen c omplete, m ust h ave b een s lightly t aller t han t he c rest. T he s ame t ype o f m an o r b oy i s s een i n a nother g roup, p ublished b y H . V ertet ( fig . 1 2A). 42 T his g roup, f ound i n t he T rajanic w orkshop a t Y zeure-Saint-Bonnet, p ortrays a m an a nd a h orse s tanding o n a c ommunal, f lat p linth. A s oldier s its o n t he b ack o f t he a nimal h oldine a n e longated l ozenge-shaped s hield w ith u mbo i n h is l eft h and. 43 H is r ight a rm i s r aised ? a s t hough i ntended t o r epresent a m an b randishing o r t hrowing a s pear. 44 H is a rms a nd l egs a re b are, a lthough i t i s c onceivable t hat b racae w ere o riginally p ainted o n. T he h orse's h eadstall i s i ndicated b y a d ouble n oseband o nly. A b reast s trap o f t wo t hick b ands i s v isible, a s w ell a s a t hick, t ight n eck s trap h igher o n t he h orse's t hroat. T he s hort h air o f b oth t he m an a nd t he r ider i s c ombed f orward i n t he T rajanic m ode.

9 0

A

C

F ig.12A :

S oldier o n h orseback a ccompanied b y g room. F rom t he T rajanic w orkshop A fter V ERTET, 1 984, f ig. 7

a nother s oldier o r a a t Y zeure-Saint-Bonnet.

B : F ront o f a f igure o riginally a ccompanying a h orse, f rom L inz K reuzschwestern, b urial 7 3b, h t. 7 .8 c m. A fter MAZAKARINI, 1 970, n o. 8 9 a nd R UPRECHTSBERGER, 1 983, T extabb. 3 7 C : B ack o f a f igure o riginally s tanding b eside a h orse, f rom L inz, K reuzschwestern c emetery, h t. 1 0 R UPRECHTSBERGER, 1 983, T extabb. 2 3, A bb. 1 3-14

c m.

A fter

T he r ight h and o f t he s tanding f igure r ests o n t he t unic o ver t he s tomach i n a s imilar f ashion t o t he f igure f rom H arelbeke. H is c lothing s eems t o b e c haracteristic f or s uch a ccompanying f igures, a lthough a s imilar d ress i s a lso s een o n t he r ider f rom E lewijt. 45 T he s tanding m en w ear a c ape f olded u p o ver t he s houlders t o l eave t he a rms f ree, p erhaps t he s agum, w ith t hick V -shaped f olds. T his i s w orn o ver a s hort t unic, o ften p atterned t o s uggest a c oat o f m ail. T he S aint-Bonnet t unic i s e dged b y h orizontal b ands a nd h as a b road r ounded c ollar ( part o f t he u nder-tunic o r a n eck s carf?). T he l egs a nd a rms a re b are i n b oth s pecimens ( or w ere b racae o riginally p ainted?). I nterestingly, t he t unic i n t he H arelbeke f igure i s b ordered b y a f ringe, e ach t assel o f w hich e nds i n a d isc o r h eart-shaped p endant. I dentical c lothing o ccurs o n

a

f ragment

f rom

A sse-Kalkoven,

9 1

f ound a midst c .

5 0 s tatuettes o f

h orses. " T he m ail i s g irt b y a b elt a t t he w aist. S imilar c lothing i s d epicted o n t wo f ragments o f w hat i s p robably t he s ame f igurine f rom t he K reuzschwestern c emetery a t L inz

( fig.

1 2);

o ne

o f

t he

f ragments

c omes f rom a b urial d ated t o t he f irst h alf o f t he s econd c entury A D. 47 T he p iece f rom t his b urial p ortrays, i n m y o pinion, t he f ront o f s uch a s tanding b oy o r m an ( fig. 1 2B). T he o ther f ragment ( fig. 1 2C) p reserves t he b ack o f t his o r o f a s econd f igure. 48 B oth s how a t hickening a t t he h ip f or t he b ridge o f c lay t hat s hould c onnect t he f igure t o t he h orse. T he a rms a re f ragmentarily p reserved. T he r ight u pper a rm i s h eld a gainst t he s ide while t he l eft u pper a rm i s h eld h orizontally, a way f rom t he b ody, a nd m ay, t herefore, h ave o riginally r ested o n t he c rest o f t he h orse ( fig. 1 2A). 49 A s t he L inz a nimal d escribed a bove h as a t hick r idge o n t he r ight f lank a nd s ome t races o n t he c rest, i t i s c onceivable t hat t his h uman f igure w as o riginally a ttached t o i t, s tanding i n t he s ame p osition a s i s f amiliar f rom t he o ther g roups, i n p articular t he c losely r elated o r p erhaps e ven i dentical H arelbeke g roup.



F ig.13: L eft: h orse w ith r ider ( note t he f oot), f rom S aint-Pour ains ur-Besbre, h t. 6 c m. R ight: h orse f rom L ezoux, h t. 4 c m . A fter R OUVIER-JEANLIN,

1 972, n os 9 97 a nd 9 98

I VB O ther h orses w ith e laborately i ndicated h arness b ut w ithout

s addle

c loth ( figs 4 A-B, 9 B, 1 3, 1 4 c entre) A s h as a lready b een m entioned, h orses w ith h arness c omparable t o t hat o f L inz c ome f rom A miens, B rimeux, L ezoux, S aint-Pour;ain-surB esbre a nd i n a ddition, t here i s o ne i n t he c ollection a t C ompiagne w ith a nother i n T ours. 5 1 S ome d etails d iffer f rom t he L inz h orse, f or i nstance,

a s

s een o n t he r ight s ide o f t he f igurine i n T ours d rawn b y

T udot ( fig. 4 A-B: t he o riginal i s n ot k nown t o m e). T he h orse i s c losely s imilar t o t he A miens, B rimeux a nd C ompiegne s pecimens ( fig . 9 B). A part f rom t he r epresentation o f t he h aunch s traps ( see t he p receeding p aragraph) a nd t he o mission o f t he p ommel t he B rimeux p arallel, f ig. 9 B), T udot's d rawing s eems

( indeed s een i n t o b e f airly

e xact. O n t he w hole, t he h arnesses i n t he o ther d rawings b y T udot a re r ather a ccurate i n t heir d etails s o w e n eed n ot d oubt h im h ere. T he b reeching b and i s d ivided i nto t wo s traps a t t he e nd which p ass t o t he l arge r ing o n t he h aunch a nd t o t he p endant s trap h anging f rom t hat r ing.

T he s hort

s ets o f t riplet s traps h ave f our b ands a t t he b ack a nd

f ive a t t he f ront. T he s addle h as a t hick, b road b ack r im f rom w hich p rojects t he s egmented r idge ( only f aintly v isible i n t he L inz h orse). I nterestingly, a t hin s trap c urves d own o bliquely f rom t he b ack o f t he s addle o ver t he f lank t o t he e lbow ( fig. 4 A-B, s pecimens f rom B rimeux, f ig. 9 B , a nd A miens).

a nd a lso p resent o n t he T he f unction o f t his

s trap r emains a m ystery t o m e. F urthermore, a t ightly f itting s trap i s i ndicated o n t he n eck o f t he h orses ( except f or t he C ompiagne h orse).

9 2

F ig.14: H orses w ith r iders f rom T oulon-sur-Allier, L e L ary. C entre: E pona. L eft a nd r ight: t wo v iews o f a h orse w ith a s oldier s eated o n a r ectangular s upport. A bove: s oldier s eated o n a c ylinder. N ot t o s cale.

A fter T UDOT,

1 860,

p l.

3 5

A s s aid, t he p arallels t o t he h orse i n d iffering o nly i n d etail, f or i nstance,

T ours a re c losely s imilar, i n t he n umber o f b ands i n t he

t riplet s traps a t t he b ack ( three i n f ig.

9 B).

T races o f a r ider r emain

o n a nd n ear t he r ight e lbow o n t he B rimeux h orse, f ig. 9 B ( or p ossibly o f a f igure s tanding a t t he h orse's s ide, s ee a bove, L inz). T his h orse h as a r ing i n t he s houlder j unction whereas t he p halera o n t he T ours h orse ( fig . 4 B) c onsists o f a b road o uter r ing w ith a t iny d isc i n t he c entre. T he h aunch j unction o f t he C ompiegne h orse h as a p halera w ith t hree c oncentric c ircles. B ifurcating s houlder s traps a re m odelled o n t he h orse f rom T ours, b ut a re c overed b y t he l ong w avy m ane i n t he p arallels f rom A miens a nd C ompiagne. T he p halerae o n t he n early i dentical b ut f ragmentary h orses f rom S aint-Pour9ain-sur-Besbre a nd L ezoux ( fig. 1 3) c onsist o f a r ing w ith a d isc r endered i n r elief i n t he c entre. A ll a re i dentically s haped a lthough a p halera i n t he s trap w hich p asses f rom t he s houlder j unction t o t he s addle i s s maller a nd t he t wo c entral p halerae o f t he h orse f ig. 1 3B s eem t o c onsist o f t wo c oncentric c ircles w ith a t iny c oncave c entre. T he S aint-Pour ain-sur-Besbre h orse i s m ale. T he r ight f oot o f a h orseman, s itting a stride, r emains. T he h arness i s c losely s imilar t o t he h arness o f t he o ther a nimals d ealt w ith h ere ( Section I V, f igs 4 A-B, 9 -11), b ut m ore p endants a re d epicted. W hen c omplete, t he h arness w ould c omprise t en p halerae, f ive o n e ach s ide, t he l argest n umber o f p halerae o n t he C entral-Gaulish t erracotta

9 3

h orses

k nown

t o

m e.

T he

p halerae o n t he f lanks h ave V -shaped s traps. A gain, w hether t he t wo c entral p halerae h ave p endant s traps

i t i s u ncertain o r w hether w e

s hould c all t hem t riplet s traps. T hese t wo p halerae b elow t he p ommels a re a ttached t o e ach o ther b y a l ong h orizontal d ouble s trap t hat r uns p arallel

t o t he s addle

( cf.

f ig.

9 A, m ost o f t he o ther b ands a lso h ave

d ouble s traps). T he m ain d ifference b etween t he t wo h orses d ealt w ith h ere a nd t he h orse f rom L inz ( figs 1 0-11) i s s een i n t he p halerae. N ot o nly d oes t he h arness o f t his l atter h orse c arry a t t otal o f m erely f our r ings, b ut t hese a re a lso d ifferently s haped f rom t he t en p halerae o f t he t wo o ther h orses. M oreover, t he t riplet s traps o f t he h orse f rom L inz f all d irectly f rom t he p ommels, a nd a re n ot s uspended f rom p halerae o r r ings. T riplet o r p endant s traps a re a lso a ttached t o r ings i n t he m ould f ig. 9 A . T he f igurine t aken f rom t his m ould w ould h ave h ad a t otal o f e ight r ings. I n c ontrast t o t he h orses o f f ig. 1 3 t he r ings a nd p halerae o n t he m ould d iffer f rom o ne a nother i n s hape a nd t he t wo c entral r ings a re s maller t han t he o thers i n t hat m ould. I t h as a lready b een n oted t hat t he h orse f ig. 1 3A w as o riginally m ounted b y a h orseman, p robably a s oldier, c arrying a s hield i n h is l eft h and, a s o n m any o ther C entral-Gaulish f igurines. - 2 T he h orseman i s s itting a stride w ith h is f oot p laced f ar f orwards, c lose t o t he h orse's e lbow . H owever, t wo h orses f rom T oulon-sur-Allier w hich a re o f a t ype c omparable w ith t he h orses f rom f ig . 1 3 c arry t he g oddess E pona s itting s ide-saddle, i n h er c ustomary f ashion. 53 O ne o f t he h orses o f E pona w as f ound a t t he s ite L e L ary ( fig. 1 4 c entre; s econd c entury A D). T he g oddess a nd t he h orse w ere e ach m ade f rom a s eparate m ould, a s i s c learly d emonstrated b y t he o ther T oulon-sur-Allier h orse o n w hich t he a braded h arness i s n ot o nly v isible o n t he l eft f lank b ut a lso o n t he r ight f lank w here i t w as o riginally c overed b y E pona's l egs: t hese a re n ow b roken o ff. S addled h orses: c onclusion T o c onclude t hese s ections o n t he s addled h orses, i t m ay b e s aid t hat a w ide v ariety o f h arnesses o ccurs o n C entral-Gaulish h orses. T he a nimals v irtually a lways c arry s addles w ith f our p ommels, s ome s trongly p rotruding, o thers h eavily a braded b ut s till r ecognizable. S everal s addles r est o n r ectangular s addle c loths t hat h ave e laborate

d etails.

T here a re a lso s pecimens i n w hich t he s addle b lankets a re s implified o r i n w hich e lements a re w orn d own f rom t he p rocess o f c ontinuous p ressing f igurines f rom a s ingle m ould. H owever, i t a ppears t hat m any s addles d o n ot r est o n a c loth. T his i s r emarkable, b ecause s addle c loths a re a n ecessary a rticle w ith t he s addle. E qually s triking i s t he a bsence o f g irths. O f c ourse, i t i s p ossible t hat d etails, s uch a s t he g irth a nd s addle c loths w ere o riginally i ndicated i n p aint, b ut a g irth i s n ot e ven s hown o n t he o ne h orse w ith w ell-preserved p aint known t o m e. 54 B ishop d emonstrates

t hat o n c ertain d epictions o f h arnessed h orses

o n s tone r eliefs l ong s addle b lankets a re d raped o ver t he s addles. I t i s a lso n oticeable t hat g irths o ften p ass u nder s addle c loths t hus r aising t he q uestion w hether s addle c loths w ere d raped o ver s addles a nd g irths, b ut u nder t he h arness s traps. I n t hese c ases a s mall u nderb lanket w ould h ave b een p resent. I f i ndeed s addle c loths p assed o ver s addles o n t he t erracottas, t his w ould p artly e xplain t he a bsence o f g irths b ecause t hey w ould h ave b een c overed b y t he o ver-blankets.

9 4

H owever, i t w as p ointed o ut a bove t hat s addles r est d irectly o n t he s addle c loths, n amely, o n t he h orses t hat s how t he e dge o f t he s addle c loth b ehind t he s addle a nd w here t he s houlder a nd h aunch s traps a nd t he t riplet s traps p ass o ver t he s addle b lankets ( figs 4 D, 4 F, 5 B-8). F urthermore, i f g irths w ere c overed b y t he s addle b lankets i n t he t erracottas t hen p arts s hould s till h ave b een v isible o n t he b ellies o f t he h orses. N either a re g irths s een i n h orses w ithout s addle c loths. O n t he b asis o f t he e vidence p resented a bove i t m ay b e c oncluded t hat g irths w ere e ither i ntentionally o mitted b y t he m odellers, p erhaps b ecause i t w as n ot c onsidered n ecessary t o d epict t hem , o r t hey w ere o riginally p ainted. I t i s u nlikely t hat t hey w ere n ot d epicted s imply b ecause t heir f unction w as ' misunderstood'. I t m ay b e q uestioned w hether t he o mission o f g irth s traps h as a s pecial s ymbolic o r m ytho logical s ignificance b ecause t heir a bsence i s p articularly r emarkable i n v iew o f t he m any o ther, o ften l ess f unctional, d etails o f t he h arness t hat w ere i ndeed m eticulously r endered. T he h arnesses d isplay a w ide v ariety i n t he c ombination a nd n umber o f t he p endant s traps, b reeching a nd b reast s traps, t o w hich r ings o r p halerae c an b e a ttached t hat i n t heir t urn h ave l oose d ecorative p endant s traps h anging o ver t he h aunches a nd s houlders. M oreover, t riplet s traps a re o ften f ixed t o s addles b elow t he p ommels. A ll t hese l oose s traps c learly h ad a d ecorative e ffect; b ut a part f rom t hat t hey m ay h ave b een h elpful i n k eeping a way f lies a nd o ther i nsects w hich c an b e v ery i rritating t o ah orse.

T riplet s traps A s B ishop d emonstrates o n t he e vidence o f s tone r eliefs, t riplet s traps o ccur f requently i n C elto-Roman s addles. 55 T here t hey a re s hown a s f our s ets a t t he f ront a nd r ear o f t he s addles, o r a s t wo, a t t he r ear a lone. T hey s eem t o h ave b een m erely d ecorative d etachable s traps t hat w ere s ecured t o t he l ower e dge o f t he s addle b elow t he p ommels. I t h as a lready b een s hown t hat t riplet s traps a re a lso d epicted o n t he t erracotta h orses. T he l ong v ertical r idges v isible o n s everal s tatuettes a re n ot t he b orders o f t he s addle c loth b ecause t hey a re c learly d epicted o ver t hese b lankets ( figs 6 -8). N either a re t hey a d ouble g irth ( cf. f ig . 1 0). W hen t riplet s traps a re p resent o n t he t erracottas, t hey a re a lways s hown i n f our s ets. T hese d o n ot a lways c omprise t hree s traps e ach b ut s ome m ay h ave t wo o r e ven f our i ndividual s traps. T he s traps c annot a lways b e c ounted c orrectly b ecause t he s ets a re s ometimes a braded. S ome o f t he s ets s uspended f rom t he p ommels t ogether f orm a r ectangular s hape, w hile o thers a re V -shaped a t t he b ottom ( figs 7 , 9 A , 1 3). T hese V -shaped s traps w ith t heir r ounded o uter e nds p ossibly c onfirm B ishop's s uggestion t hat ' straps h ad r ounded e nds, w hich w ould a void t he p roblem o f t he r edundant c orners o f t he s traps b ecoming t atty'. 56 I n g eneral, m ost o f t he o ther p endant s traps i llustrated h ere h ave r ounded e nds. I n s pecial c ases t he p endant s traps b elow t he s addle a re a ttached t o r ings o r p halerae b elow t he p ommels ( figs 9 , 1 3). I t i s u ncertain w hether w e a re h ere c oncerned w ith t riplet s traps f astened t o t he s addle d irectly u nder t he p ommels a nd a lso p rovided w ith r ings o r p halerae, o r w hether t he p endant s traps a re s uspended f rom t he r ings o r p halerae o nly. I t i s r emarkable t hat i n t hese c ases t he s ets a re a lways V -shaped. T he h orses w ith e laborately d ecorated s addle c loths h ave n o t riplet s traps, i nstead, b orders o f t he s addle b lankets c onsist o f s hort v ertical

9 5

r idges

i n r ectangular b locks

( figs 3 ,

4 D,

5 ).

P endants o n h arnessed h orses T he p endants o n t erracotta h orses o ccur i n a f airly l imited r ange o f f orms. T here a re l arge s mooth r ings i n s houlder a nd h aunch j unctions. P halerae 5 7 w ith d iscs i n t heir c entres a re a lso s een i n t hese j unctions a nd b elow t he p ommels ( figs 4 B, 1 3A). C oncentric c ircles

a re

r endered

i n

t he p halerae o f

t he h aunch j unctions o n t he

A miens h orse ( Section I V), i n f ig.9A a nd p robably i n t he p halerae f ig . 1 3B. I n f ig . 9 A a s egmented r ing i s s hown i n t he s houlder j unction. L unulae h ave b een r ecognized o n o nly a s ingle h orse, o ne l arge s pecimen h anging f rom a s trap a ttached t o a q uadrifoil o rnament i n t he b reast b and, a nd a nother a ttached t o t he f rontlet ( fig. 8 A). R ings a re s hown i n o ne o r t wo s ets o f t wo ( figs 3 , 4 D, 5 , 9 B, 1 0) a nd f our s ets o f t wo i n t he a braded f ig. 5 C. B ut c ombinations o f p halerae a nd r ings a re a lso a ttested. O ne s et w ith t wo r ings a nd o ne w ith t wo p halerae a ppear i n f ig. 4 B. T wo p halerae w ith c oncentric c ircles a re c ombined w ith f our s mooth r ings a nd t wo s egmented r ings i n f ig. 9 A . T hus a t otal o f e ight p endants w as r endered. T he h orses f ig. 1 3 h ave t he m ost e laborately d ecorated h arness. T hey h ave t en p halerae e ach. A s mall p halera i s s een i n t he o blique u pper s houlder s traps o n e ach s ide. B ut s ome h arnesses a re n ot p rovided w ith p endants ( figs 4 E-F, 6 -7). B ishop i ndicates t hat t he

j unctions

i n

t he

h arness

o f

t he f irst c entury A D a re f ormed b y

r ings a nd p halerae. 58 F rom t he e vidence g iven a bove, i t a ppears t hat t erracottas m ade t owards t he e nd o f t he f irst c entury A D a nd i n t he f irst h alf o f

t he

t he s econd a lso h ave t he t wo t ypes o f p endants.

T he h arness B ishop p oints o ut

t hat R oman h arness p ossessed t hree e lements t hat

w ere i ntended t o k eep t he s addle c orrectly i n i ts p lace ( figs 1 -2), n amely, t he g irth, t he b reast s trap, a nd t he b reeching ( crupper). 59 I t w as i ndicated t hat t he h arness h ad f our i mportant j unctions, s ometimes f ive. T here w ere t wo s houlder a nd t wo h aunch j unctions. B oth a re f ound t ogether o r s eparately i n t he t erracottas. B ut t he g irth a nd t he f ifth a spect, t he b reast j unction, a re n ot s een o n t he t erracottas, a lthough a b reast s trap i s n early a lways r endered. T he b reast j unction o n t he s tone r eliefs c onsists o f a ' martingale' a ttached t o t he g irth a nd b reast s trap. T he t ombstones s tudied b y B ishop p rovide e vidence f or t he i n t he b asic f orm o f t he h arness a s e xistence o f s everal v ariations t he ' half hree t ypes. F irstly, d escribed a bove ( fig. 2 ). T here a re t ravestones; t he s addle i h arness' o ccurring c ommonly o n t he g s a ttached t o t he h arness b y f our s traps ( in t otal; f ig . 2 A). S econdly, t he ' three-quarter h arness' d isplays s ix s traps a ttached t o t he h arness b ecause t wo a dditional s traps a re r epresented a t t he f ront o r r ear ( fig. 2 C-D). T hirdly, t he ' full h arness' d isposes o ver e ight s traps t hat c onnect t he s addle w ith t he h arness ( fig. 2 B). I t a ppears t hat m ost s traps f rom a j unction e nd a gainst t he l ower o r u pper p arts o f t he n earest p ommel. I n t he t ombstone r eliefs t hey p ass u nder t he p ommel. H owever, a d ifferent f astening i s s hown i n f igs 4 A-B, 5 C, 9 A , 1 0, 1 3. I n

f igs

4 A-B a nd

1 0 t he u pper h aunch s traps s eem t o h ave b een s ecured

t o a s egmented b and d irectly b ehind t he s addle. I n f ig. 5 C t he s houlder s traps a re a ttached t o r ings, o ne a t e ach f ront p ommel, t he o ther

9 6

a gainst t he s econd c ompartment o f t he b order o f t he s addle c loth. I t i s u nknown h ow e xactly t hese t wo r ings w ere s ecured t o t he s addle. I n f ig. 9 A t here i s a d ouble h aunch s trap, a ttached t o t he p halera i n t he h aunch j unction a nd a lso t o as maller r ing b elow t he b ack p ommel. A d ouble r idge d irectly b ehind t he s addle i s p ossibly a s trap h olding u p t he h aunch s trap ( for o ther e xplanations s ee S ection I V). I n f ig . 1 3 t here a re t wo h aunch s traps. O ne p asses u p t o t he b ack p ommel b ut i s s trongly a braded ( fig . 1 3B), t he o ther i s a ttached t o t he h aunch j unction a nd t he p halera u nder t he b ack p ommel ( cf. f ig . 9 A).

T he t hree t ypes o f h arness o n t he t erracottas A s urvey o f t he e vidence d ealt w ith a bove i ndicates t hat t he t hree t ypes o f C elto-Roman h arness a s e stablished b y B ishop ( fig. 2 ) a re a lso f ound o n t he t erracotta f igurines o f h orses. B ut t he t hree-quarter h arness o ccurs o nly w ith s houlder s traps a nd n ot w ith h aunch s traps ( fig . 2 C). T he s tatuettes d escribed a bove w ill b e d iscussed h ere i n r elation t o t he t hree t ypes o f h arness. N ot a ll f igurines c an b e a rranged a mong t he t ypes a nd d eviations w ill b e s ummarized b elow . A s h as a lready b een s tated, g irths a re n ot s een o n a ny o f t he C entral-Gaullish t erracotta h orses t hat I a m a ware o f ( in f ig. 1 4 o ne i s a dded e rroneously b y T udot). T he h alf-harness ( fig. 2 A) i s v isible i n f ig . 1 4 c entre a nd p ossibly f ig . 8 A . T he b reast s trap i s d irectly a ttached t o t he s addle w ithout s houlder j unctions, a n a spect n ot s hown i n t he h alf-harness f ig . 2 A . T he s tatuette f ig . 8 A p ossibly h as b reeching a nd h aunch j unctions. T he t hree-quarter h arness i s s een i n f ig . 5 . T he h orse i n f ig . 5 C h as a s houlder a nd a h aunch j unction, a s w ell a s t wo s houlder s traps. T he r ings i n t he j unctions o f f igs 5 B, C h ave p endant s traps ( not a ll i ndicated i n f ig . 5 C, b ut g iven i n t he d escription b y M . J eanlin). A s s aid a bove, t he a ttachments o f t he s houlder s traps t o t he s addle o f f ig . 5 C d iffer f rom • those i n t he h arnesses a s p resented b y B ishop b ecause t he s traps a re s ecured t o t wo r ings n ear t he s addle. T he f ull h arness i s s hown i n t he f ollowing s tatuettes a nd t heir c lose p arallels: f igs 4 A-B, 9 B, t he m ane c overs t he s houlder s traps i n t he l atter s pecimen, 9 A , 1 0, 1 3. I n f igs 9 A a nd 1 3A t he d ouble h aunch s trap i s r egarded a s t wo h aunch s traps ( a s econd h aunch s trap i n f ig . 1 3A m ay h ave b een b roken o ff, c f. f ig . 1 3B). T he s ame a pplies t o f igs 3 a nd 4 D t hat, h owever, p ossess t wo b reast s traps a ttached d irectly t o t he s addle ( no s houlder j unction) a nd t hus p ossess e ither t he t hree-quarter o r f ull h arness. I n a ddition, t he m ould f ig . 9 A d isplays a n e xtra s trap t hat r uns p arallel t o t he s addle a nd t o w hich t wo r ings w ith p endant s traps a re a ttached. F urthermore, i t i s p ossible t hat a nother s trap r endered d irectly b ehind t he s addle h olds u p t he h aunch s trap ( see S ection I V). T he d ouble s trap b elow t he s addle i s a lso s een i n f igs 1 3. T he u pper s houlder s traps i n f ig . 1 3A ( broken o ff i n f ig. 1 3B) e ach c onsist o f t wo s traps l inked b y a s mall p halera, a n a spect n ot e ncountered i n f ig. 2 . A s a lready p ointed o ut, i t a ppears t hat t he u pper h aunch s traps i n f igs 4 A-B a nd p robably i n 1 0 a re s ecured t o a s egmented b and d irectly b ehind t he s addle. T he d rawing b y T udot, f igs 4 A-B , s hows s ome a nomalies w ith r espect t o t he o ther h orses d ealt w ith h ere. F irstly , t he b reeching b and c onsists o f b ifurcating s traps, o ne

9 7

s ecured t o t he h aunch j unction, t he o ther t o t he p endant s trap t hat i s s uspended f rom t his j unction, b ut i n i ts p arallel f rom A miens, t wo s traps o f t he b reeching a re a ttached t o t he r ing i n t he h aunch j unction. I n f ig. 9 B t he b reeching c onsists o f o ne b and e nding a t t he p endant s taps o f t he h aunch j unction. S econdly, p ommels d o n ot s eem t o b e r endered, t hough t hey m ay b e a braded. I n a ddition, a n eck s trap i s r epresented, f itting t ightly r ound t he n eck a nd t here i s a lso a t hin s trap c urving d own o bliquely o ver t he f lanks t he d iscussion o f

( see a bove,

S ection I V f or

t his a nd s imilar h orses).

T here a re a lso h arnesses t hat d isplay f ewer e lements t han t hose p ossessed b y t he h alf-harness o f f ig. 2 . A s addle a nd b reast s trap o nly a re s een i n f igs 4 E,

6 ,

7 B,

8 B a nd p ossibly i n 8 A .

T hese

b reast

s traps

a re e ither s ecured d irectly t o t he s addle o r t o a r ing i n t he s houlder j unction. T he f igurine i n M ainz, f ig. 6 , h as a d ouble n eck s trap i n a ddition. A s addle w ith n o f astening d evice a t a ll i s a nd 7 A ( horse w ith h eadstall).

s hown i n f igs 4 F

F inally, i t s hould b e n oted t hat s traps o ften c onsist o f d ouble b ands, w hether t hey a re t he b reeching, t he s houlder, h aunch o r p endant s traps o r t he h orizontal s traps t hat r un p arallel t o t he s addle. I n s ummary,

i t

m ay

b e

s aid

t hat

t he

h arnesses

o n

t erracotta s tatuettes o f h orses i n p art a ccord w ith t he b y s tone r eliefs, b ut t hey a lso p resent n ew a spects.

C entral-Gaulish d ata

p rovided

V H orses w ith r iders U nfortunately, t he t erracottas d o n ot p resent u s w ith t he f inest d etails, n amely, t he c lasps o r t hreads w ith w hich s traps w ere f astened t o r ings, p halerae, a nd s addles. B ut, i ndeed, s o m uch a ttention w as g iven t o t he r epresentation o f t he a ccessories o f t he h arness, t hat i t i s p articulary s triking t hat s everal e laborately e quipped h orses h ave n o h eadstall, e ven w hen s ome o f t hese a nimals c arry r iders. T hese h orsemen a nd t heir m ounts w ere p ressed f rom s eparate m oulds a nd w ere a ttached t o e ach o ther b efore f iring ( cf. S ection I VB , E pona). T herefore, h arnessed h orses o f o ne a nd t he s ame t ype c an o ccur e ither a lone o r w ith a r ider. T he r iders t hat s it o n t he h orses, w hich a lways s tand q uietly, p ortray E pona, s itting s ide-saddle, o r s oldiers s itting a stride. T he l atter c ommonly, b ut n ot i nvariably, h old a s hield ( six-sided, s mall a nd r ound, o r o val) w ith t he r ight h and r aised a s i f b randishing a w eapon,

p robably a s pear o r s omething s imilar

( see

a lso

S ection V II). S uch a s oldier o n a h orse f rom Y zeure-Saint-Bonnet i s a ccompanied b y a s tanding m an o r b oy w earing a s hort t unic a nd a t riangular c ape ( a s agum? f ig. 1 2A , c f. a lso S ection I VA) .6 ° A n a lmost i dentical f igure s tands o n t he r ight s ide o f a s addled h orse f rom H arelbeke. T he t unic o f t he s tanding H arelbeke f igure h as a h erringbone t exture a nd i s p erhaps a c oat o f m ail. T he h em h as a l ong f ringe w ith d isc- o r h eart-shaped o rnaments.

T his

c haracteristic

d ress

i s

a lso

s hown o n t he t wo f ragments f rom L inz t hat m ay h ave b een p art o f o ne s tatuette, a ttached t o ah orse a nd o f t he s ame t ype a s t he H arelbeke g roup ( figs 1 0-11, 1 2B, C ). I t i s u nknown w hether t hese a ccompanying m en o r b oys a re s oldiers t hemselves, g rooms, o r f ootmen ( cf. t he t ombstones o f c avalrymen w here h orses a re c ommonly l ed b y a g room). I nterestingly, t he h orsemen i .e., t he s oldiers, a nd t heir c ompanions, u sually h ave b are f eet a nd l egs. A s y et t here i s n o e vidence f or b racae

3 8

p ainted o n t he l egs. T he f ragmentary s oldier ( ?) o n t he E lewijt h orse ( see a bove, S ection I A) w ears a s hort t unic a nd a lso t he s agum ( See b elow , S ection V II, f or r idden h orses w ith b ridles).

V I H eads t ails 1 2A , 1 4, 1 5)

o n C entral-Gaulish h orse t erracottas ( figs 4 C-H,

7 A ,

8 ,

S ome h eadstalls h ave a lready f eatured i n t he f oregoing d iscussion ( figs 7 A , 8 , 1 2A , 1 4). 6 1 I t h as a lready b een n oted t hat t hey a re s eldom d epicted o n s addled h orses. I n t he e xample o f ah orse w ith s addle a nd h eadstall f rom H arelbeke, d escribed a bove, f rontlet, c heekpiece, n oseband a nd p robably c hin s trap a re r endered ( Section I I, f ig. 7 A). T he c heekpiece f ollows t he c urve o f t he j aw ; i n r eality t he c heek s trap i s t aut. T he r eins c urve o ver t he n eck a nd e nd h igh o n t he c rest. E ssential p arts o f ah eadstall a re t he c rownpiece, t he b it a nd t he c heekpiece ( cf. f ig . 1 ). T he c rownpiece ( also c alled h eadband, h eadpiece, o r. h eadstrap) r esting o n t he h ead b ehind t he e ars i s n ecessary t o h old u p t he h eadstall o n t he h ead. T he c heekpiece i s a ttached t o t he c rownpiece a nd t o t he b it. T he o ther e lements h old t he h eadstall c orrectly i n i ts p lace, n amely , t he f rontlet o r b rowband, t he t hroatlatch, n oseband a nd c hinband. C heekpiece, f rontlet a nd n oseband a re n early a lways d epicted t ogether i n t he e xamples o f h eadstalls i n C entral-Gaulish h orses k nown t o m e. H owever, i t i s o ften d ifficult o r i mpossible t o i dentify c rownpiece, t hroatlatch, a nd c hinband. T he c rownpiece i s u sually o mitted b ecause o f t he p resence o f t he m ane d irectly b ehind t he e ars. T he t hroatlatch i s g enerally n ot p ortrayed, p erhaps b ecause t he j aws o f t he h orses a re m ostly h eld t ightly a gainst t he n eck. S ometimes t he h eads a re a ttached t o t he n eck a s f ar d own a s t he c hin. T herefore, t he t hroatlatches w ere p robably o mitted b ecause o f t he l ack o f s pace. F rontlet, c heekpiece, a nd n oseband s ometimes c onsist o f d ouble s traps, f or i nstance, i n s tatuettes f rom A lesia ( France, C ote-d'Or), A utun, S aint-Pour ain-sur-Besbre, T ronoun ( France, F inis tare) a nd W roxeter ( UK , S alop) a nd i n am ould f rom C rouzilles ( fig . 1 5). 6 2 F rontlet a nd n oseband i n f ig. 1 5A h ave t hree s traps e ach. T hese p arts a nd t he c heekpiece e ach c onsist o f t hree s traps o n ah orse d rawn b y T udot, p reserved i n R ouen ( France, S eine-Maritime) f ind p lace n ot m entioned ( fig. 4 C). 6 3 T he n oseband i n s ome o f t hese s pecimens c onsists o f a b road p art o n t he n ose a nd n arrow o uter e nds ( fig. 1 5). I t i s n ot c lear h ow t he n oseband i s a ttached t o t he o ther p art o f t he h eadstall o n t hese a nimals o r t he o ther h orses. O n a h orse f rom A utun t he n oseband i s p laced h igh o n t he n ose a nd w idens i n t he c entre; m ight t his r epresent ah ackamore? ( Cf. f ig. 1) . 64 F rontlet, c heekpiece, a nd c rownpiece ( a s mall p art o f w hich i s v isible) c onsist o f s ingle s traps. T he t hroatlatch i s p erhaps i ndicated. A s pecial h eadstall i s s een i n a h orse f rom ( Lauriacum-) E nns ( see a bove, F ind c ircumstances). R eins a nd c heekpiece a re r epresented a nd a f rontlet t hat i s c onnected b y a s trap t o t he n oseband. T he s trap p asses v ertically o ver t he c entre o f t he n ose. 65 O rnaments i n h eadstalls T he r eins a re o ften a ttached t o a d isc t hat a ppears t o b e f ixed t o t he o uter e nds o f t he b it, f or i nstance, i n e xamples f rom A lesia, A utun, B ourg ( France, A l , C hamaliares ( see a bove, W orkshops e tc.), C rouzilles, S aint-Pour;ain-sur-Besbre, l a T ourelle, n ear Q uimper

9 9

F ig.15: L eft: M ould f rom C rouzilles, h orse w ith h eadstall, h t. o f t he n egative 5 c m. A fter G allia 3 2, 1 974, 3 15, f ig. 1 4. R ight: D rawing c ombining d etails f rom t wo i dentical h orses w ith h eadstall, c m. A utun, 3 2, ( France,

n o.

b ut b oth w ith a braded p arts, h t o f b oth h eads c . 3 u npublished, A lesia, R ABEISEN & V ERTET, 1 986, p l.

2 61

F inistare)

a nd

W roxeter

( figs

1 5).

6 6

O riginally,

s uch d iscs

w ere p ossibly r ings, b ut l ater w ere f lattened t o d iscs a s a r esult o f t he s mall d imensions a nd t he p roduction p rocess. O ccasionally, l ike i n t he a nimals f rom A lesia, A utun, l a T ourelle a nd V ersigny ( France, A isne), 6 7 a s econd d isc w as r endered o n t he p lace where t he f rontlet a nd c heekpiece j oin ( fig. 1 5B). T he c entre o f t he d isc h as a s hallow d epression i n t he A utun h orse. T hese d iscs p roject f ar i nto t he n eck s o i t i s r easonable t o a ssume t hat t hey w ere a lso a ttached t o t he ( invisible) t hroatlatch. A t hird d isc i s p ortrayed o n t he f orehead o f t he A utun h orse w here i t h angs f rom t he f rontlet. I t i s f aintly d iscernible i n t he h ead f rom A lesia t hat i s i dentical w ith t he A utun s pecimen ( in b oth h eads t he m ouths a re o pen a nd t he t eeth a re v isible). T he d iscs o n t he f orehead a nd c heekpiece a re p robably p halerae. I t i s l ikely t hat t he f ragments o f t hese t wo h orses w ere o nce p art o f a h orse w ith s addle, b reast s trap a nd s addle c loth ( comparable t o S ections I A a nd B ).

6 8

V II S ome h orses w ith h eads t ails a nd w ith r iders ( figs 5 A , 1 4) T hree h orses m ounted b y r iders, f rom T oulon-sur-Allier, ' Le L ary' w ill b e b riefly d ealt w ith h ere. 69 D rawings o f t hese f igurines w ere m ade b y T udot i n 1 860. O ne h orse c arries E pona who s its s ide-saddle ( fig. 1 4, c entre), t he o ther t wo h ave s oldiers o n t heir b acks ( cf. a bove, S ection V ). T he h orse o f E pona h as a h alter, t he c heekpiece a nd n oseband o f w hich a re v isible; t he s addle, b reeching b and, b reast s trap a nd p endant s traps a re a lso m odelled ( cf. S ection I V). T he h eadstall o f o ne o f t he o ther h orses i s c ompletely p reserved ( fig. 1 4, l eft a nd r ight). F rontlet, c heekpiece, n oseband a nd r ein a re i ndicated. T he r ein c urves l ow o ver t he n eck a nd p asses u nder t he s oldier's f eet. H e h olds a s mall r ound s hield w ith u mbo a nd h as r aised h is r ight h and t o h is e ar. T he s oldier s its o n a h igh r ectangular s upport a ttached t o t he

1 00

b ack o f t he h orse. T he o ther, f ragmentarily p reserved, g roup p ortrays t he h orseman s itting o n a c ylinder a ttached o bliquely t o t he b ack o f t he h orse ( fig. 1 4, a bove). T he f ragmentary h orse f rom A utun ( fig. 5 A , S ection I A) s eems t o h ave a s imilar r ectangular s upport. W ith r espect t o t he m anufacturing t echnique, t hese s upports a re s uperfluous, s ince t he r iders c ould h ave b een p laced d irectly o n t he h orse's b ack. 7° I t s eems t herefore t hat t hey h ave a s pecial s ignificance. T he i nteresting p ossiblity h as b een r aised t hat t hey r epresent s tatues w ith t heir s upports t hat w ere t emporarily p laced o n l ive h orses d uring s pecial o ccasions ( processions, c eremonies) • 71 W hen w e s tudy t hese s oldiers a nd o thers c ited a bove, i t a ppears t hat t hey h old a s hield i n t he l eft h and, a nd t hat t he o ther h and i s r aised a s i f h olding a w eapon. T hus, i n c ombat t hey w ould h ave n o h and l eft t o h old t he r eins, w hich a re i ndeed s hown l ying o n t he h orse's n eck . I n d iscussing s tone m onuments B ishop h as a lready c ommented u pon t his a spect, i ndicating t hat t he b ridle i s o ne o f t he m ost i mportant m eans o f c ontroling t he h orse w hile i n c ombat: ' the r elationship b etween a nimal a nd r ider w ould h ave b een o f p aramount i mportance'. 7 z I ndeed, s uch a r elationship m ust h ave b een e ssential, b ut i t s hould n ot b e f orgotten t hat h orses c an b e g uided b y t he p ressure o f t highs, k nees, a nd c alfs o f t he r ider, a nd b y s hifting t he w eight o f h is b ody.

H orses w ith h eadstall: c onclusion I t i s c lear t hat o n C entral-Gaulish f igurines h eadstalls a nd r eins w ere e specially d epicted o n h orses w ithout a s addle. S uch u nsaddled, q uietly s tanding a nimals s ometimes c arry t he g oddess E pona, s itting s ide-saddle. O thers a re m ounted b y s oldiers h olding a s hield. T he h eadstalls a re u sually e quipped w ith f rontlet, c heekpiece a nd n oseband, b ut c rownpiece, t hroatlatch, a nd c hinband a re m uch l ess f requently d epicted, p robably b ecause o f l ack o f s pace o r b ecause s uch t iny d etails a re e asily w orn a way d uring t he m oulding p rocess. S ections o f h eadstalls s ometimes c onsist o f d ouble s traps, o ccasionally e ven o f t riple s traps. R eins a re o ften f astened t o d iscs a ttached t o t he b it. T he r eins m ay r est o n t he w ithers b ut f requently l ie h igh o n t he c rest. O rnaments o r p halerae a re r arely d epicted, i n c ontrast t o t he h arnesses o n o ther h orses. I n s ome h eadstalls a d isc i s v isible i n t he p lace w here f rontlet a nd c heekpiece j oin. T wo i dentical s pecimens o f t his g roup, o ne f rom A lesia, t he o ther f rom A utun i n a ddition p ossess a d isc t hat h angs f rom t he f rontlet o n t he f orehead. T he s addled h orse f rom B ernRossfeld d iscussed a bove, s hould a lso b e m entioned h ere, b ecause a l unula i s v isible a ttached t o t he f rontlet o n t he f orehead ( fig. 8 A).

D RAUGHT-HORSES ( figs 4 G,

1 6-21)

S everal C entral-Gaulish t erracottas f eature p airs o f u nsaddled d raught-horses. 73 T he s ubject d oes n ot s eem t o o ccur a mong t he R hine-Mosel f igurines. T he h orses i n t he t eams a re s turdy o r s lender ( always t wo s turdy o r t wo s lender a nimals c ombined). S ome a re ' nude', o thers h ave a n eck s trap a nd s till o thers h ave b oth a n eck s trap a nd a y oke. I t i s r emarkable t hat h eadstalls a re n ot r epresented, a lthough p erhaps t hey w ere o riginally p ainted. 74

1 01

V III P airs o f h orses w ith n eck s trap ( Figs 4 G,

1 6)

A c ompletely p reserved p air o f s turdy h orses w ith n eck s trap c omes f rom a c remation b urial a t S ougares-sur-Sinotte ( France, Y onne). 75 T he n eck s trap o f e ach h orse c omprises a t hin u pper b and a nd a b roader l ower s trap w ith a l arge l unula h anging f rom i t. S uch c rescent-shaped a mulets o r o rnaments w ere e specially f avoured a mong t he s tatuettes o f d raught-horses. T hey a re a lso s een o n s everal s lender h orses w ith o bliquely p laced, p ronounced o val e yes w hich r esemble t hose o f t wo o ther, s ingle, h orses f rom t he T rajanic w orkshop a t Y zeure-Saint-Bonnet ( figs 4 G, 1 6). 76 T hey h ave h ollowed i rises a nd a n u pright, b rush-like m ane. A bout s ix s uch s pecimens, p ublished b y P rof. S .J. D e L aet, c ome f rom A sse-Kalkoven, f ound t ogether w ith a bout 4 4 o ther h orse s tatuettes ( many m ore h orse f igurines h ave i n t he m eantime b een d iscovered t here d uring r ecent e xcavations, b ut a re n ot z et p ublished; t hese i nclude f igures o f t he t ype d ealt w ith h ere). 7 / T erracottas o f t he t ype u nder d iscussion a lso c ome f rom A utun a nd E lewijt, 78 w hile T udot p ublished a d rawing o f a f ragment w ith n ose- a nd c hinband ( fig. 4 G a nd c f. f ig . 1 2A). 79 A n eck s trap o f t wo p arallel b ands p asses o bliquely u p t o t he c rest t o d isappear u nder t he m ane. A l arge l unula i s a ttached t o a n o val o rnament, o r t o a d ouble s trap a nd i s f astened t o t he b reast c ollar w ith a s trap o r h ook ( fig. 1 6). A r ound o rnament i s v isible o n t he f orehead o f t he A utun a nd E lewijt h orses a nd i n s pecimens r ecently r ecovered a t A sse-Kalkoven ( see a lso b elow , C halon-sur-Saone). I t c onsists o f a l arge d isc s urrounded b y a r idge a nd i s a ttached t o t he m ane b etween t he e ars, a pparently w ith a s trap. T he c entre o f t he d isc i s s ometimes c oncave. C ould t his b e a p oll-knot w ith u pstanding p halera o riginally c ontaining a b ust? 8 °

F ig.16: D etail o f a d raught-horse w ith n eck s trap a nd a l unula b reast 6 .

f rom A sse-Kalkoven.

R eproduced f rom D E L AET,

o n

t he

1 942,

f ig.

N ot t o s cale

I t i s e vident t hat t hese h orses h ad a c ompanion. D e L aet i dentified a t l east t hree p airs a mong t he s pecimens h e p ublished f rom A sse-Kalkoven , e ach c onsisting o f t wo i dentical h orses. O ne o f t hese a nimals h as t races o f a j unction o n t he l eft s houlder b ut t he o nly o ther h orse o f t his t ype w hich i s s ufficiently w ell-preserved b ears n o t races o f a j unction. T his c ould i ndicate t hat t he p air c omprised t wo h orses c onnected t o e ach o ther o nly b y t he c ommunal f lat p linth. T hat d raught-horses a re r epresented, m ay b e c oncluded f rom t he f act t hat t hey o ccur i n p airs, a nd, i n p articular, b ecause t he b reast s traps c ross t he n ecks o bliquely, a s i n y oked h orses ( see b elow , S ection I X. T he r iding h orse i n f ig. 6 a lso h as a d ouble, o bliquely p laced n eck s trap, b ut i t a lso h as a s addle). M oreover, a c losely s imilar h orse f rom t he f irst-century c emetery i n C halon-sur-Saone m ay h ave t races o f

1 02

a y oke o n t he c rest. 81 T his a nimal d iffers f rom t he o ther s pecimens t hat t he n ose i s n arrow a nd p ointed. A n a lmost s pherical o rnament

i n i s

m odelled o n t he h ead b etween t he l ocks o n t he f orehead a nd t he n oseband. T he n ose i s m issing o n a nother, s trongly a braded, f ragment f rom a b urial i n W els-Grünbachplatz ( first h alf o f t he s econd c entury A D) .82

I t i s

t herefore u nclear w hether t he h orse i s

i dentical

t o

t he

b road n osed h orses o r t he C halon-sur-Saone s pecimen. I n s ummary, i t c an b e s aid t hat s pecimens o f C entral-Gaulish p aired h orses w ith o blique n eck s traps, n osea nd c hinbands, w ith a l unula h anging f rom t he n eck s trap a nd u sually w ith a r ound o rnament o n t he h ead o ccur i n A ustria, B elgium a nd F rance a nd m ay b e d ated t o t he T rajanic p eriod. T he g roup c ontains a nimals w ith b oth b road a nd n arrow n oses. A c omplete t eam o f t his t ype i s n ot known t o m e.

I X P airs o f h orses w ith n eck s trap a nd y oke ( figs 1 7-21) A s p ointed o ut a bove, t he h orse f rom C halon-sur-Saone p robably o riginally h ad a y oke n ow b roken o ff. O ther p aired h orses s till p reserve p arts o f t heir y okes. T he d ouble y oke t hat u nites a p air f rom t he B ürglstein c emetery a t S alzburg i s l argely r estored ( Austria, f ig. 1 7). S everal p arts o f t he h orses a re f illed i n w ith p laster. 83 T he y oke w as s eparately m oulded a nd w as p laced h igh o n t he n eck p rior t o f iring. T he d ouble y oke i s a lso s een i n s tone r eliefs f rom n orthern G aul a nd c onsists o f t wo a rched b ranches r esting o n t he h orses' n ecks a nd u nited b y a c entral b eam ( see a lso b elow , T he y oke) .84 T he l eft a rch r emains o n t he S alzburg p air w ith t he t erret o n t op r educed t o a s emi-circular p rotrusion t hat h as a c rescent-shaped g roove a t t he f ront. A f ringed n eck s trap i s r endered t hat e nds a t t he m ane a nd a l unula h angs o n t he b reast. T he n eck s trap h as n o c onnection w ith t he y oke, b ut, o f c ourse, i n r eality i t s hould h ave. T he n eck s trap i n a m ould f or t he s ame t ype o f h orse, s igned MARCELLUS, f rom S aint-Pour ain-sur-Besbre, i s d ecorated w ith c losely s et g lobular p rotrusions ( cavities i n t he n egative f ig. 1 8). 85 A nother t eam, f rom W els B ernardin c emetery, o f w hich m ost o f t he y oke i s m issing, a nd f ragments f rom t he f irst-century C halon-sur-Saone c emetery a re o f

t he s ame t ype a s f igs

1 7 a nd

1 8. 86

T he y oke ( fi _gs 1 9-20, 2 6) A lthough t hey a re s implified, t he t erracotta y okes p reserve n umerous d etails. T he y okes k nown t o m e o ccur a nd a re i ncompletely p reserved, o r a s l oose f ragments o f d raught-horses f rom A sse-Kalkoven, b ut t hey m ay a lso b e e xamined a s i mpressions f rom s urviving m oulds. T he l atter P riscus,

h ave

b een

d iscovered i n T oulon-sur-Allier, L e L ary,

S aint-Pour ain-sur B esbre a nd B ourbon-Lancy ( figs

s igned b y

1 9-20).

8 7

A lthough T udot d id n ot u nderstand t he s ignificance o f t he m ould b y P riscus, h e n evertheless m eticulously d rew f ive v iews o f t his o bject w hich c an n ow b e r ecognized a s a pparently t he o nly y oke t o s urvive c omplete. T he m ould d isplays a d ouble y oke e quipped w ith t hree g lobular p rotrusions e venly d ivided o ver t he u pper r epresent t he d raught p ole a ttachment a nd

p art, w hich e vidently t he t errets ( rings f or

g uiding t he r eins) ( fig.20) .88 T he c entral r ings o n t he d ouble y okes, w hich a re a lso v isible i n P riscus' y oke, a ppear t o h ave s erved a s a s upport

t o f ix t he y oke t o

c entre

w ould h ave b een i n b etween t he t wo h orses:

t he p ole.

1 03

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p rotrusion

i n

t he

s uch a n e lement w ith

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F urther p roblems a re c aused b y t he b ottom e dge, w here s econdary(?) c uts a s w ell a s r epairs(?) h amper i nterpretation. T he e dge i s u nique i n t hat i t i s f olded, n ot s titched a nd i t i s p artially c overed b y a l arge p atch, p resumably c ircular, which m ay h ave b een f olded r ound b oth s ides, a s t here a re n o t hread i mpressions o f t he a ttachment v isible. T his p atch w as e vidently s ewn o n w hile t he l eather w as s till n ew a nd m ay b e a ssociated w ith a n arrow s lit which c ould h ave s erved t o

3 07

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F ig.15: V indolanda c asing ( scale 1 :2)

3 08

t hongs t o s maller, h ave b een s omewhat

t he u nderlying t ree i n t he a bsence o f c rescentic t ie h oles. A r ound p atch h as a lso l eft n o i mpressions: i ts e dge a ppears t o s econdarily c ut t hrough, b ut i n s hape a nd p osition i t i s r eminiscent o f t he r einforcements a t t he b ase o f t he h orns.

T hree l arge r ound h oles,

o ne o f w hich

s till

c ontained

a

w ooden

p eg

i ndicate t hat t he l eather w as p egged t o a w ooden f rame. T here a re i n f act t oo m any i mponderables h ere f or a d efinite r econstruction t o b e p roposed, b ut t his p iece d oes p rovide d efinite e vidence f or t he u se o f a w ooden s tructure u nderneath t he s addle. V echten 8 ( Fig. 1 4) A c ut a way d art,

r emarkably l ike C arlisle n o.

6

a nd

V indolanda,

w ith t ripple s titching o f r einforcement p atches a t e ach s ide ( no t hread i mpressions, s o p atches a ttached t o b oth s ides o f t he l eather). F olded e dges, d ouble s titched, n o t hread i mpressions v isible, t hough t he s urface i s i n p oor c ondition. T he f olded f laps a re s o w ide t hey a lmost d ouble D .

t he t hickness o f t he d art a t t he b ack.

C arlisle B ritain S ee s eparate c ontribution b y S .

W interbottom,

t his v olume f or

t he

1 3 f ragments w hich f orm l arge p ortions o f t wo s eparate s addle c asings a long w ith 6 o ther s addle f ragments f rom v arious l ocations i n C arlisle. T hese f orm o ne o f t he l argest a nd b est d ated c omplexes. E . V indolanda B ritain ( Fig. 1 5) T his i s a n i mportant r ecent a ddition t o t he c orpus o f s addle l eather a s i t p reserves a c onsiderable p art o f t he f ront a nd i t h as a lso b een p rofessionally c onserved, t hus e nabling a ccurate e xamination. 5 6 T he d art, h orn, c omplete s ide f lap r emain w ith a t l east 5c rescentic t ie h oles a nd t he s titching o f t hree p atches a t e ach s ide o f t he d art, t he s mallest s ewn t o t he f lesh s ide, w ith a l arger p atch a ttached t o b oth s ides o f t he l eather. S ufficient r emains f or t he e ntire f ront h alf o f t he s addle t o b e r econstructed. T he

s ide

f lap i s u nangled, a s a t N ewstead a nd V echten n o.

6 .

T he

t op s eam e xtends r ight r ound t he h orn t o t he l evel o f t he c rescentic h oles ( a), w here t he f olded e dge w idens a nd t he w hole n ature o f t he s eam a nd s titching c hanges. T he s titch h oles p ass a wkwardly t hrough t wo o r m ore t hicknesses o f r ather c rumpled e dge f or a bout 5 s titches, s till a pparently a t op s eam, b ut a s t hough t he w orkman w as h aving d ifficulty i n s ewing i t. B elow t his ( b), a nd t o t he e nd, i t b ecomes a f olded h em, w ith t hread i mpressions o n b oth s ides o f t he f old a nd a l arge, p ulled o ut h ole w hich l ooks a s t hough i t i s e ither t he s tarting o r f inishing h ole. T his h em w as e vidently s ewn a t a d ifferent s tage i n t he p roceedings t o t he s eam a bove i t. A l ap s eam a long t he b ottom e dge ( thread i mpressions f lesh s ide) m ay i ndicate t hat a f lap, l ike t hat a t V alkenburg, w as a ttached t o t he g rain s ide ( grain t o g rain), h anging d own t he f lanks o f t he h orse. T he t reatment o f t he e dges o f t he d art i s i dentical t o t hat o f C arlisle n o. 6 a nd V echten 8 . T he e dges a re f olded a nd s titched s o a s t o l eave c lear c ontinuous t hread i mpressions o n t he f ront, w hile o n t he b ack t hey a re a lso v isible, t hough m uch f ainter. T he f old a t t he b ack c urves o ut i n a f ashion r eminiscent o f t he f orm t he l eather t akes o n e ither s ide o f a b eaded s eam, a nd t here i s a s trong p ossibility t hat t hese e dges a re n ot f olded h ems a t m ight s eem a t f irst g lance, b ut a re s eams s ewn t o a r elatively t hin b eading o r o uter p iece. T he f orce e xerted o n t he s ewing t wine m ight b e s ufficient

3 09

t o

l eave

' ghost'

i mpressions

o n

t he u nderlying p iece,

a p henomenon

n oted e lsewhere. T hat c onsiderable f orce w as e xerted o n t his p articular rom t he v ery m arked s tess l ines o n t he l eather, r unning c over i s c lear f f t he d art, a nd c urving u p r ound t he b ottom o f t he h orn a long t he b ase o reas t hat C onnolly's r econstruction w ould l ead u s t o i n e xactly t he a w rinkle a t t he e dge o f t he h orn i s a lso h ighly e xpect. T he c haracteristic o f t he d ifficulties e ncountered i n s moothing t he l eather s imultaneously a round t he u pstanding h orn a nd t he o pposing c urve o f t he s addle p ad. O ther p ronounced l ines o f s tress c urve d own f rom t he s eam c hange a t a ), p assing b elow t he t ie h oles a nd l eaving a c lear, w ell p reserved a rea i n t he c orner. A gain, t his i s w hat w e w ould e xpect f rom l eather s tretched o ver a p added f rame. A n e xceptionally i nteresting f eature i s t he n ail h ole a t t he t ip o f t he d art. I n C onnolly's e xperiment,

a p ermanent p roblem w as h ow t o k eep t he d art i n p lace w hile

i t w as b eing w orked o n: t he R omans h ad t he s ame p roblem a nd t acked t he f lap t o t he w ooden f rame f irst. T his f ragment c ame t o m y n otice i n s ummer 1 988: t hat i t c orroberates C onnolly's p revious w ork s o n eatly m ust b e m ore t han c oincidence. F . N ewstead S cotland ( Fig . 1 4) A s mall f ragment o f a s addle w as r ecognised a mongst t he b oxes b riefly e xamined i n t he M useum o f A ntiquities, E dinburgh d uring a v isit i n 1 980: 57 t he p ossibility r emains t hat o ther, l ess o bvious p ieces w ere a lso p resent. A s tubby h orn, e dged w ith t he s tandard t op-seam p rojects o bliquely, a t m uch t he s ame a ngle a s C astleford a nd i t m ay t herfore a lso b e a f ront h orn. I t h as t he u nangled, s traight s ide o f V echten a nd V indolanda, w hich i t r esembles c losely i n s ize a nd p roportion. I t i llustrates c learly t he c hange f rom t he t op s eam w ith r egular r ound h oles t o i rregular, s lit-like s titch h oles o n t he l evel o f t he c rescentic t ie h oles. T he t op s eam s eems t o f latten o ut a fter t he k nick i n t he h orn e dge, w hich m ay i ndicate t hat t his p art w as s ewn u p a fter i nsertion o f t he h orn s tiffeners. A b eading w ould s eem t o h ave b een i ncluded: i t i s q uite p ossible t hat a b eading s trip w as i ncluded i n t he t op s eam a s w ell. B ecause o f i ts c ontext

t he

p iece

i s

o f

m ore

t han

i ncidental

i nterest. N ot o nly i s N ewstead t he f ind s pot o f t wo c hamfrons, b ut i t h as a lso y ielded a n otable a mount o f h orse g ear - b ridle b its, p endents, r ectangular s addle p lates a nd, a bove a ll, t wo s ets o f f our m etal s addle h orns. M any o f t hese i tems c ome f rom p its, t he c ontents o f w hich a re o f c onsiderable i nterest i n t he r econstruction o f a ssociated s ets o f e quipment. O ne o f t he s ets o f s addle h orns, t he p ieces o f w hich w ere

m arked

P it X XVII.

5 8

w ith t he n ame S enecio,

c ame f rom P it X XII,

t he o ther f rom

I t i s u nfortunately u nknown w hether F RA 1 0 c ame

f rom

o ne

o f t hese p its, b ut a t antalizing r eference t o ' some s haped p ieces o f l eather' ( p.122) f rom t his p it s uggest t hat i t m ay h ave d one s o. C urle w ould c ertainly h ave r eferred t o o ne o f t he p lates i f t hese p ieces h ad b een i llustrated, s o w e m ay a ccept t hat t he s haped l eather i s n ot o ne o f t he i tems o n P l. X IX: v irtually a ll t he l eather I s aw i n E dinburgh w as g eometric s o b y ' shaped' C urie p resumably m eant s omething w ith a c urved o utline. N o l oose l eather i s m entioned i n P it X XVII, s o i f F RA 1 0 i s t he s haped l eather, i t m ust b elong t o t he s et o f h orns P l.XXXII 1 -4. T he i mplication i s t hen , t hat t he h orns w ere n ot s imply i ncluded a s l oose i tems o f m etal, b ut t hat t his p it i n f act c ontained a c omplete

3 10

w ood, m etal a nd l eather s addle.

V iewed i n t his l ight,

C urie's

c omment

' towards t he b ottom a c onsiderable q uantity o f c haff' t akes o n a n ew s ignificance: t he c haff i s p robably t he s tuffing o f t he s addle. T he p lywood f rame w ould h ave d isintigrated t o u nrecognisable s craps o f w ood ( Curie d oes m ention q uantities o f t wigs i n t he p it) a nd t he v ery f act t hat n o l arge p ieces o f w orked w ood r emained m ay c ount a s a dditional e vidence i n f avour o f C onnolly's s uggestion o f a p lywood f rame. s kulls o f a h orse a nd a d og a l ittle a bove p robably m ean t hat a nimals a ccompanied t heir t rappings. T he p it w ould, t herefore, b e n ot m erely t he r eceptacle f or a ssorted u nwanted s crap m etal,

T he t hese

5 9

s eem t o b ut a

d eliberate d eposit o f e quipment l ooking s uspiciously l ike a n o ffering o f a ll o f am an's m ost t reasured p ersonal p ossessions. 6 ° H ere w e s ee p erhaps w hat w as p ersonal e quipment a nd w hat w as i ssue t o b e r eturned t o c amp s tore o n d eath, d ismissal o r d esertion: t here i s s ignificantly n o b ody a rmour o r w eaponry i n t his p it. I n P it X XVII, t he a ssociation o f a s et o f f our h orns w ith ' over a h undred' s tuds ( evidently l ike t hose u sed o n t he c hamfrons) a nd s everal r ectangular b ronze m ountings s uggest t hat h ere t oo a c omplete s addle, t ogether w ith i ts d ecorative p lates ( not o rnamental b elt m ountings f or a h uman) w as b uried. 6 1 T he t wo d ogs s kulls a re a lso s uggestive. H ere, f ragments o f l eather p reserved o n t he h orns i ndicated t hat ( p. 1 78) t hey h ad b een e ntirely c overed o ver w ith l eather o n t he f ront. T he e dges w ere t urned o ver t o t he b ack a nd t he l eather w as s ewn w ith t wine t hrough t he h oles o n t he m etal p lates. T hese f ragments a part, t here i s n o i dentifiable s addle l eather w ith h oles o f t his t ype r ound t he e dge w hich m ight h ave b een u sed i n a ccociation w ith m etal h orns. G . M ainz G ermany T he e arly v olumes o f t he c atalogue o f t he M ittelrheinisches L andesmuseum M ainz i ncorporate d etailed d rawings o f r egistered o bjects, m any o f w hich w ere l ost d uring t he l ast w ar. T he m eticulous d rawings p robably b y L . L indenschmit h imself - p ermit t he i dentification o f a t l east o ne s addle f ragment. 62 T his i s p robably a b ack h orn, w ith r einforcement s titching l ike t he V alkenburg e xample, t op s eam e xtending f rom t he m issing d art r ight r ound t o t he c rescentic t ie h oles, t hree o f w hich a re v isible a nd a long w hich t he p iece i s t orn. M ore r ecent e xcavations ° a t t he E mmeransgasse a lso y ielded a h orn c over, a d ouble t hickness t op p iece, s imilar t o t hose f rom C arlisle i n s ize p robably f or t he b ack h orns.

( nos 8 a nd

1 2),

b ut

H .

B onner B erg G ermany ( Fig. 1 4) F rom t he f abrica o n t his s ite ( where r epairs m igh b e e xpected t o h ave b een c arried o ut), t here i s o nly a s ingle f acing f or a f ront h orn w ith s lits s imilar t o C astleford.

6 4

J . V indonissa S witzerland G ansser-Burckhardt 6° c onsidered t hat c ertain s titched p ieces o f l eather c a. L u f rom s addles, c learly v isualizing a q uilted s tructure w ith , o1 , Ld f ront a nd b ack b ows o n t he m edieval m odel. H owever, t he t ongued s hape i s c 2early s econdary a nd t he s olution c hosen i n t he V indonissa m useum - t he b acking f or s ewn o n s cale a rmour - l ooks j ust a s s atisfactory. O n t he o ther h and, a t ongue s haped f ragment, d escribed a s a n i nfantry m an's b reast c overing " i s p robably t he h orn a nd s ide f lap o f a s addle s imilar t o t he V indolanda e xample i n s ize a nd s hape. H owever, t he d rawing i s s ketchy a nd p robably i naccurate: t he a bsence o f

3 11

c resentic t ie h oles w ould a lso b e u nusual. K . O ther s ites F ragments o f s addle c overs f rom L ondon w ill b e e xamined b y M . R hodes, M useum o f L ondon, i n a f uture p ublication. D espite q uite e xtensive e xcavations a nd c areful a ttention t o t he l eather, n o c onvincing s addle f ragments h ave y et a ppeared a t Z wammerdam, d espite t he p resence o f am ounted u nit, " n or a t V elsen I o r I I, W oerden , X anten ( Colonia), t he S aalburg, Z ugmantel o r W elzheim . N either h as a nything a ppeared a t B ar H ill, w hich i s p erhaps c urious i n v iew o f t he p resence o f S yrian a rchers - t hough t hese n eed n ot, o f c ourse h ave b een m ounted.

N OTES 1 . I a m g rateful t o B . B erensteijn ( IPP) f or d rawing f igs 1 -4 a nd f or h is a ssistance w ith t he o ther f igures. C ontigencies o f p age s ize m eans t hat a s ingle s cale c ould n ot b e m aintained. W here p ossible, d rawings a re 1 :2. 1 :4 i s i n f act t oo s mall f or t he d etails o f s titching , s o e ssential i n t he i nterpretation o f l eatherwork t o b e p roperly v isible a nd a s cale o f 1 :3 i s t herefore r esorted t o o ccasionally. 2 . C ONNOLLY,

1 987; B ISHOP,

1 988

3 . I m ust e xpress m y t hanks t o M r. R . B irley a nd t he V indolanda T rust f or s uggesting r apid p ublication o f t hese f inds, f or t he c onsiderable p ractical s upport i n e nabling m e t o d o s o a nd f or p roviding t he p hotograph f ig . 6 . 4 . B ISHOP, 5 . T EUPKEN ,

1 988; P ALAGYI,

t his v ol.

1 823, V .73-76

6 . E .g.EMERY,

1 938, 2 51ff.

7 . R OSTOVTZEFF E T. A L. 1 936, 4 39-449. F or t he c onstruction o f h ousings o f p added c loth, s tiffened b y w ithies a nd c ontaining a s mall m etal p eytral l aced t o t he i nside s ee L e L ivre d es T ournois i n t he s eries ' Ici e st p ourtraite l 'histoir d u h ourt', t he h eraldic b ardings a re d raped o ver t his c onstruction: n ot m uch o f t his e laborate a nd c ostly h ousing w ould r emain f or t he a rchaeologist. 8 .

C ONNOLLY, 1 975, f igs p p. 6 4-65; R OBINSON & E MBLETON, 1 976, p .17 a s c ompared t o L e L ivre d es T ournois o r Y OUNG, 1 987, f ig .

9 . M entioned b y R OBINSON,

1 975,

f ig. 1

1 91, P l. 5 21

1 0. T ombstones s uch a s t hat o f O clatius ( Rheinisches L andesmuseum , B onn), t he h orses o n o ne o f t he S traubing c hamfrons, G ARBSCH, 1 978, T af. 4 .B16, f igurines s uch a s V AN B OEKEL, t his v ol. f igs.3 a nd 5 a nd a p articularly w ide b reast b and w ith p endants o n a s tatue f rom J ünkerath, E SPERANDIEU X IV, P l. C , n o. 5 251.2 1 1.

F ind n o. L 86/418, P eriod I II

3 12

1 2.

G ROENMAN-VAN W AATERINGE,

1 3.

G ANSSER-BURCKHARDT,

1 4.

C at. n o. FRA 1 4. E dinburgh, w here

1 967,108-111,

1 946,

3 4-37;

f igs 3 6,

3 7

G ROENMAN-VAN WAATERINGE,

1 974

I n s tore a t t he R oyal M useum o f S cotland, I e xamined i t i n 1 980. I a m m ost g rateful t o D r

C larke a nd M r T .G. C owie o f t he D epartment o f A rchaeology, M useum o f S cotland f or p ermission t o r efer t o t hem h ere. 1 5.

V AN D RIEL-MURRAY,

1 6.

C URLE,

1 911,

1 53-5,

1 7.

C URLE,

1 911,

1 21;

1 8.

F ind

n os:

R oyal

f orthcoming P l. X XI, R OBINSON,

s ee b elow ,

C hamfron

I ,

p .

1 975,

1 90-1,

P Ls 5 14-515

I II,

f loor,

t ogether w ith a

2 4

1 87/1345,

P er.

l eather o ff c ut i nscribed V ELDEDII S UPONDU(S). R . B irley k indly i nforms m e t hat t his m an w as p reviously k nown f rom a l etter, w here h e i s d escribed a s E QUISIO C ONSULARIS, ' the G overnor's e query', p resumably c onnected t o t he G overnor's m essenger s ervice c f. V indolanda F riends R eport, 1 987, 6 ; C hamfron I I, L 85/97, P er. I II; C hamfron I II, L 87/1628, P er. I II/IV 1 9.

I t i s i mpossible t o e stimate t he o riginal s ize o f t he c hamfron.

T he

c hamfrons h ave a ll b een p rofessionally c onserved, a nd t he n ow w ell e stablished 7 -10% s hrinkage d uring t reatment s eems t o r estore t he l eather t o a pproximately i ts o riginal s ize ( cf. T ACONIS, 1 987; N EWSLETTER, 1 987). T he t hickness o f t he l eather i s a d istorting f actor h ere, b ut a s t he c hamfron f itted c omfortably o n a c ontemporary s kull, o ne o r t wo c ms o n e ither s ide w ould s eem a r easonable a llowance. D imensions o f C hamfron I a fter c onservation, w ith m issing p ortions r econstructed h t. 5 3.8 c m , w . 4 4.8 c m. w hich c ompares w ith 5 7 x 5 1.4 c m f or N ewstead 2 0.

E WART i n C URLE,

2 1.

R OSTOVTZEFF E T A L.,

2 2.

G ARBSCH,

2 3.

T hese h eads, c haracterised b y s wept b ack l ocks a nd a t op k not, a nd k nown v ariously a s B acchus o r A mor h eads, s eem t o h ave b een r ather p opular f or d ecorating a ll k inds o f l eatherwork. E xamples o ccur i n v arious c ollections, f ew o f t hem d atable, t hough o ne f rom N euss m ay b e l ate 1 st/early 2 nd c entury ( LEHNER, 1 904, T af. 3 0B, n os 2 9, 3 0; M ENZEL, 1 986, n o. 3 39). I n v iew o f t he p resence o f B atavian t roops a t V indolanda, i t i s c urious t hat t he c losest l ikeness i s p rovided b y a s tud f rom V echten ( NL). B ROUWER, f orthcoming.

2 4.

D etails

1 978,

o f

1 911,

3 65

1 936,

4 46

i n p articular T af.

t he

6 ,

B 21 a nd B 22

p roduction p rocess m ust a wait f urther a nalysis o f

t he a ssociated l eatherwork 2 5.

L EHNER ,

2 6.

G ARBSCH,

1 904,

3 72,

1 978, T af.

T af.

2 9;

G ARBSCH,

4 5

3 13

1 978,

T af.

4 4

2 7.

G ARBSCH,

1 978, T af.

6

2 8.

G ARBSCH,

1 978, T af.

4 -5, R OBINSON,

2 9.

R OBINSON 1 975,

3 0.

R OBINSON,

1 92; G ARBSCH,

1 975,

1 91

P l.

5 18;

1 975,

1 978,

P is 5 22-26

1 3

G ARBSCH,

1 978,

T af.

4 8.2.

M edieval

f ittings w ere l aced, n ot r ivetted, t ogether, w ith t he t wo l aces f requently knotted t hrough a s ingle h ole: a s imilar s ystem m ight e xplain w hy s o f ew r ivets s urvive. 3 1.

S ee L e L ivre d es T ournois; Y OUNG, A rmouries, L ondon

1 987,

6 4-5;

e xamples i n t he T ower

3 2.

C hamfrons a re n ot t he o nly l ink: b oth a lso p osses a c urious f ringed h air-moss ' cap'. C URLE, 1 911, 1 08, P l. X V. A c loser e xamination o f o ther e quipment f rom t hese s ites m ight b e p rofitable

3 3.

B OWMAN & T HOMAS, 1 983, 4 7-8, 7 7. I a m i ndebted t o R . B irley i nformation o n t he u nit f rom t he m ost r ecent t ablet f inds

3 4.

I n t he o pinion o f R . B irley, V eldedius w as p robably a m essenger a ttached t o t he G overnor's p ostal s ervice ( see n ote 1 8): w hether

f or

s uch p eople w ould s port s uch l avish e quipment i s u nknown. 3 5.

W RD 3 71,

F lavian i n d ate a nd f rom r iver s ide r ubbish d eposits

3 6.

L uttrell P salter,

B ritish L ibrary,

M S A dd.

4 2130,

f o.

3 7. M y d ebt t o P eter C onnolly w ill b e a pparent t hroughout

2 02 v . t his s ection.

Ia m g rateful n ot o nly f or h is c riticism, c omments a nd s uggestions, b ut a lso f or h elp w ith s ome o f t he i llustrations. I a m a lso g rateful t o S ue W interbottom, o f t he C arlisle A rchaeological U nit, f or b ringing t he C arlisle f inds t o m y a ttention s ome t ime b efore w e d ecided t o i nclude a f uller r eport o n t hem h ere. 3 8.

G ROENMAN-VAN W AATERINGE, 1 967, 1 06, f ig. 3 5. T hough u sually r eferred t o a s a ' saddle c over', ' saddle c asing ' w ould b e m ore a ccurate a s t he l eather i s c ertainly n ot a c over d raped o ver t he s addle, a s

3 9.

t he f irst t erm w rongly i mplies

G ROENMAN-VAN W AATERINGE, 1 983,

2 5-8, T af.

4 0.

C ONNOLLY,

4 1.

S uch e laborately p added C ollection, L ondon, w here r evealed

1 967,

1 20;

V AN

D RIEL-MURRAY

&

G ECHTER ,

5 .

1 987

t o

t he

e xamples m ay b e s een a t t he W allace a c onservation d isplay i n 1 987 a lso

v isitor j ust h ow r ough a nd u nfinished t he a ctual

s addle-tree w as. 4 2.

T he f unction o f t hese p ieces w as o nly e stablished w ith c ertainty b y G ROENMAN - V AN W AATERINGE, ( 1967, 1 14-118) i n d irect c onsequence o f t he l eather s addle c asing f rom V alkenburg

3 14

4 3.

I llustrated i n L AWSON,

1 978,

T af.

5 4.2

4 4.

S ee K ESSLER, 1 940, A bb. 7 ; B ISHOP, t ombstone o f V onatorix i n B onn ( BISHOP,

1 988, f igs 2 2B , 3 5. T he 1 988, f ig. 1 4) a ppears t o

s how t he h aunch s trap p assing d irectly t o o n t he r ear h orn. 4 5.

B OGAERS & R ÜGER ,

1 974,

6 2.

4 6. G LASBERGEN & G ROENMAN-VAN W AATERINGE, 4 7.

B OWMAN & T HOMAS,

4 8. V AN B OEKEL, 4 9. W HITE,

1 962,

5 0. R OBINSON,

1 983,

t he a ppropriate p osition

1 974,

5 ,

1 3ff

4 6-49

t his v ol. 7 ff.

1 975,

1 94-196;

5 1. G ROENMAN-VAN W AATERINGE,

C ONNOLLY, 1 967,

1 975,

6 0-61

1 06-121

5 2.

C ONNOLLY,

1 987

5 3.

I i ndebted t o M r. J .D. H edges, a nd M r. P . A bramson o f t he W est Y orkshire A rchaeology S ervice f or a llowing p ublication p rior t o t he f ull r eport w hich i s d ue f or c ompletion i n 1 989.

5 4.

I a m g rateful t o M r. d isposal

5 5.

G ROENMAN-VAN W AATERINGE, 1 967, 1 12, f ig. 3 8, r esp, h ere r eferred t o a s V echten 1 -5 r esp.

5 6.

F ind n o. L 84/641

5 7.

F RA 1 0,

5 8.

C URLE,

5 9. U nless

c f. 1 911,

G .W .

W ttewaal f or p lacing t hese p ieces a t m y

c at.

n os

8 -10,

1 1-12

n ote 1 4,above 1 21-123,

1 17-118,

P l. X XXII,

1 -4,

5 -8

t he p ad w as o nly a s tuffed c ushion w ithout a n i nternal f rame

( as I o riginally e nvisaged: V AN D RIEL M URRAY & G ECHTER, 1 983, p . 2 7). I n t his c ase t he h orns w ould l oose m uch o f t heir h olding p ower a nd h ence t heir p ractical p urpose. F urthermore, t he h orns w ere a nchored f irmly e nough f or s hields t o b e s lung f rom t hem, e g. t ombstone o f R omanus D ardanus, K öln ( BISHOP, 1 988, f ig. 6 ). P lywood i s u nikely t o b e r ecognised u nder n ormal c ircumstances. A n a nalogous a pplication o f h ind-sight c an b e q uoted c oncerning t he t hin p ieces o f w ood a t V alkenburg w hich, i t i s n ow s uggested, b elonged t o s hield b oards, c f GROENMAN-VAN W AATERINGE, 1 967, 6 7, n ote

1

6 0. R OSS & F EACHEM, 6 1.

1 976

C URLE, 1 911, 1 23, 1 78, X XV. c f. B ISHOP, 1 988,

P l. X XXII 5 -8, s addle p lates, 1 62-163, P l. f ig. 2 8; 1 31, T able 3 , s addle p lates t ype l a

3 15

6 2.

N o.

5 096,

6 3.

G ÖPFRICH,

6 4.

V AN DRIEL-MURRAY & G ECHTER,

6 5.

GANSSER-BURCKHARDT,

6 6.

GANSSER-BURCKHARDT, 1 974,

6 7.

Emmeransgasse 1 986,

A bb.

5 2,

n o.

1 942,

1 59 1 983,

c at.

1 10-111,

1 946,

3 4-37,

n o 1 18

Abb. Abb.

8 4 1 0;

G ROENMAN-VAN W AATERINGE,

7 2-76

B OGAERS & R ÜGER ,

1 974,

5 0

B IBLIOGRAPHY B ISHOP,

M .C.,

c entury

1 988:

' Cavalry e quipment o f

A .D.'

i n

J .C.

C oulston,

I dentity o f R oman S oldiers 1 988) B OGAERS

t he R oman a rmy i n e d M ilitary

t he

f irst

E quipment a nd t he

( BAR I nternational S eries

3 94)

( Oxford,

6 7-195 J .E.

&

C .B.

R ÜGER,

1 974:

D er N iedergermanische L imes

( Köln,

1 974) B OWMAN, A .K. & J .D. T HOMAS, 1 983: V indolanda: T he L atin W riting-Tablets ( Britannia M onograph S eries N o. 4 ) ( London, 1 983) B ROUWER, M ., f orthcoming. N ew A cquisitions. O udheidkundige M ededelingen u it h et R ijksmuseum v an O udheden L eiden, 1 988. C URLE,

J .,

1 911:

A R oman F rontier P ost a nd

N ewstead i n t he P arish o f M elrose C ONNOLLY,

P .,

C ONNOLLY,

1 975:

P .,

E quipment: ( Oxford

D RIEL-MURRAY, L egio I

T he R oman A rmy ( London,

1 987:

' The

R oman

P eople.

D eurne'.

F ort

i n M .

o f

D awson R oman M ilitary

( BAR I nternational S eries

3 36)

7 -27

C .,

V AN

M inervia

&M . a m

G ECHTER,

B onner

1 983:

B erg'.

' Funde a us d er F abrica d er

R heinische

B eiträge z ur A rchäologie d es r ömischen R heinlandes D RIEL-MURRAY,

T he

1 911)

1 975)

S addle'

T he A ccoutrements o f W ar

1 987)

i ts

( Glasgow,

C .,

V AN,

f orthcoming

O udheidkundige

' A

M ededelingen

n ew l ook a t u it

h et

Ausgrabungen I V,

1 983,

2 3,

1 -83

t he l eather f rom R ijksmuseum

v an

O udheden L eiden EMERY,

W .B.,

1 938:

T he

A rchgologique d e N ubie E SPERANDIEU, E .,

1 907-66:

R oyal

T ombs

1 929-34)

J .,1978;

B allana a nd Q ustul

( Mission

1 938)

R ecueil g eneral d es b as-reliefs,

b ustes d e l a G aule r omain ( Paris, G ARBSCH,

o f

( Cairo,

s tatues

e t

1 907-66)

R ömische P araderüstungen ( Münchner B eiträge z ur V or-

u nd F rühgeschichte 3 0)

( München,

3 16

1 978)

G ANSSER-BURCKHARDT,

A .,

1 942:

D as

L eder

und

r ömischen L egionslager V indonissa ( Basel, G ANSSER-BURCKHARDT,

A .,

1 946:

W .

&

W .

G ROENMAN-VAN

G arrisons o f V alkenburg Z .H. G öPFRICH, 4 2,

J .

1 986:

1 986,

i m

1 945/46 ( 1946),

W AATERINGE,

( Cingula I I)

' Römische L ederfunde a us

1 974:

T he P re-Flavian

( Amsterdam, M ainz'.

2 6-39

1 974)

S aalburg

J ahrbuch

5 -67

G ROENMAN-VAN Z .H.

V erarbeitung

' Weitere L ederfunde a us d em S chutthügel',

J ahresbericht G esellschaft P ro V indonissa, G LASBERGEN,

s eine 1 942)

WAATERINGE,

( Groningen,

G ROENMAN-VAN WAATERINGE,

W .,

u nd V alkenburg Z .H.: V indonissa,

W .,

1 967:

R omeins

l ederwerk u it V alkenburg

1 967)

1 974,

1 974:

' Römische L ederfunde a us

e in V ergleich'.

V indonissa

J ahresbericht G esellschaft P ro

6 2-84

K ESSLER, P .T., 1 940: ' Jahresbericht d es A ltertums Museums d er S tadt M ainz'. M ainzer Z eitschrift 3 5, 1 940, 6 4-75 LAWSON, A .K., 1 978: ' Studien z um r ömischen P ferdegeschirr'. J ahrbuch d es R ömisch-Germanischen Z entralmuseums M ainz 2 5, 1 978, 1 31-172 L EHNER,

H .,

1 904:

1 11/112, L e L ivre

1 904,

d es

' Die E inzelfunde v on N ovaesium '.

T ournois

d e

f ran ais 2 695) e d. F . M ENZEL,

H .,

( Mainz,

1 986:

R ,

1 975:

R OBINSON, H . R .

A .

R ene, ( Paris,

r ömischen

B ronzen

T he A rmour o f

N ationale,

m s.

a us D eutschland.

I II,

B onn

& R . E MBLETON,

1 976: 1 976)

& R .

F EACHEM,

M egaw,

P resented t o

1 976:

S tuart P ig ott.

R OSTOVTZEFF, M .I., A .R. P reliminary R eport o f

W hat

t he

5 -6

S oldiers W ore o n H adrians

' Ritual r ubbish? T he

e d T o I llustrate

1 986/87,

I mperial R ome ( London 1 975)

( Newcastle u pon T yne,

J .V.S.

( Bibliotheque 1 986)

A rchaeological L eather G roup N ewsletter

R OBINSON, H .

R OSS,

D ie

R oi

A VRIL

1 986)

N EWSLETTER :

W all

B onner J ahrbücher

2 43-418

t he M onuments:

( London,

1 976),

N ewstead

P its'.

i n

E ssays o n A rchaeology 2 29-237

B ELLINGER, C . H OPKINS & C .B. W ELLES, 1 936: t he S ixth S eason o f W ork, 1 932-33 ( New Y ork,

1 936) T ACONIS,

G .

1 987:

B oekbandjes

e en T ielse b eerput. T EUPKEN,

J .F.,

T roepen

1 823:

u it d e z estiende e n s eventiende e euw i n

T abula B atavorum, V-1-1987,

2 -14

B eschrijving H oedanig d e K oninklijke N ederlandsche

G ekleed,

G eU vipeerd e n G ewapend z ijn

1 823)

3 17

( 's

G ravenhage,

W HITE, L .,

1 962: M edieval T echnology a nd S ocial C hange ( Oxford,

Y OUNG, A .,

1 987: T udor a nd J acobean T ournaments ( London,

3 18

1 987)

1 962)

S ADDLE

COVERS,

C HAMFRONS A ND POSSIBLE HORSE A RMOUR

F ROM CARLISLE

S . W interbottom

W ork i s c urrently i n p rogress o n l arge c ollections o f R oman l eather f rom C arlisle. T he i tems o f h orse e quipment d escribed h ere h ave s till

r elatively

f ew

p arallels

p ublication, a s w ell a s p roduce u seful f eedback.

a nd

i t

i s

h oped

t hat

a dvance

a dding t o t he n umber o f k nown e xamples, m ay

T he d esign o f t he R oman s addle c over i s n ow b etter u nderstood t hanks t o t he w ork o f P eter C onnolly. T he w ay i n w hich t he c over w as f itted a round a w ooden s addle t ree h as b een c onvincingly a rgued' a nd i s n ot c ontradicted b y e vidence o n t he C arlisle s addles. A p roblem s till t o b e s olved i s h ow e xactly t he l ower e dges w ere s ewn t ogether: t hese e dges f requently h ave t he f orm o f h ems w hile i n p ractice t hey m ust h ave b een s eams. T he p roblem i s n ot s olved b y t he C arlisle p ieces b ut t hey d o p rovide' i mportant e vidence f or t his a nd f or o ther a spects o f t he s addle's c onstruction a nd a ppearance. T he o ther i tems ( chamfrons a nd s tudded l eather) a re p arts o f c omposite o bjects w hose a ppearance i s i mperfectly u nderstood, o r i n t he l atter c ase u nknown. I t i s h oped t hat a s m ore e xamples a re f ound t heir i nterpretation w ill b ecome e asier. T he f inds c ome f rom e xcavations b y C arlisle A rchaeological U nit a t A nnetwell S t. w ithin t he a rea o f t he F lavian f ort 2 a nd a t C astle S t. j ust o utside i t. 3 E arlier e xcavations a t A nnetwell S t. b y t he l ate D orothy C harlesworth h ave a lso c ontributed m aterial. T he l ast i tem c omes f rom a r ecent w atching b rief i n t he c ity. S ite c odes: A BB A : Abbey S t. w atching b rief, 1 987. A NN A : Annetwell S t. C .A.U. e xcavations, 1 981-84. C 73: A nnetwell S t. C harlesworth e xcavations, 1 973. C ST B :

C astle S t.

C .A .U.

e xcavations,

1 981-82.

A BBREVIATIONS F l.= f lesh s ide G r.= g rain s ide L H/RH = l eft h and/ r ight h and T hr.imp.= t hread i mpression. S eam

t ypes

I

a nd

I I

r efer

t o

W .

G roenman

v an-Waaterin e 's

c lassification. 4 D imensions g iven i n b rackets a re i ncomplete.

i ).

S ADDLE C OVERS

1 -5. ( Fig.') F ound t ogether i n d ebris b eside ? bread o vens. d ate i n s econd q uarter o f s econd c entury. A NN A 2070 L 73.

P rovisional

1 . R emains o f o ne s ide o f a s addle c over. T he e dges f ront a nd b ack a re f lat

w ith

i mpressions

a

s ingle

a nd

o nly

l ine i n

o f t he

3 19

s titching. l ower

R H

T hey c orner

h ave a re

n o

t hread

t here

a ny

i mpressions o f a nother e dge s uperimposed. H ere t here i s i mpression l Omm w ide o n t he f lesh s ide r unning f or a bout 2 5mm.

a n

T he l ower e dge i s f olded o nto t he f lesh s ide a nd s titched a s f or a T ype I I(a) s eam . A n a dditional l ine o f s titching n ear t o t he e dge a nd g oing t hrough b oth t hicknesses m ay h ave b een e xtra s trengthening f or t he s eam . T he r econstructed l ower e dge m easures c . 5 50mm; t he a ngle b etween t he l ower a nd RH e dges i s o f a bout 7 3 d egrees,

s imilar

t o

t hat

o n

a

s addle

f rom V echten 5 w hile t he

V alkenburg s addle i s m ore r ectilinear. R unning o bliquely t o t he l ower e dge a re t wo r ows o f c rescent s haped s lits: t he R H r ow i s c omplete w ith e ight s lits, o nly o ne a nd a h alf s urvive o n t he L H s ide. Above t hose i s a l ine o f s titching w ith t hr.imp. o n t he g r. s ide, s uggesting a b acking p iece s ewn b ehind t he o penings. B oth p ommel b ackings, which s hould p roject f rom t he f ront a nd b ack e dges, h ave t orn a way b ut o n t he L H s ide a re r emains o f t wo h alf c ircles o f s titching w hich l inked t he b ase o f t he p ommel b acking w ith t he t riangular ' dart' ( cf.Fig.2). B oth r ows h ave a c ontinuous t hr.imp. o n t he g r. s ide. T here a re a t l east f our r epairs t o t he s addle c over: i ) A ' U ' s haped t ear, b ottom r ight, i s s urrounded b y s titching f or a n o val p atch ( 3) a pplied t o t he g rain s ide. C ontinuous t hr.imp. o n f l. s ide. i i) A s mall o val h ole, c entre l eft, m easuring 2 9 b y 1 6mm. T he e dges a re c ut, t he r esult o f t idying u p a s mall t ear b efore a pplying a p atch t o t he f lesh s ide. T he p atch i s l ost. e dges o f a t ear 3 0mm l ong ( top l eft) h ave b een w hip

i ii) T he s titched

t ogether. i v) T he b ottom 6 5mm o f t he R H e dge h as e xtra s titching, p ossibly a r epair a fter t he o riginal s titching h ad c ome a drift. v ) I n t he t op r ight o f t he c over a s d rawn, a c urving l ine o f s titch h oles f ollows t he c urve o f t he e dge w hich a t t his p oint m ay b e r oughly c ut r ather t han t orn. N o s uch i nternal s titching o ccurs o n t he V alkenburg s addle 6 a nd i t m ay r esult f rom a l arge r epair. I t l ies o n t he c entre l ine o f t he s addle, i .e. t he r ider's s eat, a nd w ear w ould b e e xpected h ere. I f t he s titching i s f rom a n o val p atch ( as s uggested i n t he r econstruction, F ig.1) i t w ould h ave m easured a bout 2 00 b y 1 50mm. A s n o t hread i mpressions a re v isible h ere i t i s p ossible t here w ere p atches o n b oth s ides. L .(500)mm. W .(460)mm. T hickness 1 -2mm. U nconserved. 2 . D etached p iece w ith t wo e dges m eeting a t 7 5, t he t hird e dge t orn. P resumed t o c ome f rom o ne o f t he t riangular d arts a t f ront a nd b ack o f t he s addle. I llustrated o n t he l eft i n F ig.1 s ince t he l ower e dge o f o ne s uch d art s urvives t here o n t he m ain s addle p iece. S ince t he t orn e dges o f t he t wo p ieces d o n ot j oin u p a t t his p oint t here m ay b e s ome m issing. E ach o riginal e dge i s f lat w ith a s ingle l ine o f s titching a t b etween 3 a nd & nm f rom t he e dge. N o t hr.imps. b ut t he l ower e dge ( as d rawn) h as t he i mpression o f a s uperimposed e dge 7 mm w ide o n t he g r. s ide. T he u pper e dge h as a s imilar i mpression u p t o 8 mm w ide o n t he g r. s ide a nd u p t o 9 mm w ide o n t he f l. s ide. L .(66)mm . W (81)mm. T hickness l mm . U nconserved.

3 20

a )

1 7 • • MM

c t )

c r )

U-

e t

7

, .

. . . .

• . . . . . .

• • •••,

3 21

3 . O val p atch w ith o ne e nd t orn a way. S ingle l ine o f s titching a round t he e dge w ith c ontinuous t hr.imp. o n g r. s ide. T he s titch h oles m atch t hose a round t he t ear o n 1 . L .(79)mm. W .64mm . T hickness l mm . U nconserved. 4 . D etatched b acking p iece f or p ommel. E dges t orn a ll r ound, a part f or 3 5mm a long l ower R H e dge ( viewed f rom f l.) where t he e dge i s f olded w ith a l ine o f f our s titch h oles r unning a long t he f olded p ortion. T his s titching c an b e m atched t o t hat o n 5 a nd t here i s l ittle d oubt t hat t hey w ere s ewn t ogether ( Type I s eam). A cross t he b ase r uns a s ingle l ine o f s titching w ith n o t hr.imps. e ither s ide. A t i ts L H e nd i t i s c onverging w ith a d iagonal l ine o f t hree s titch h oles a lso w ithout t hr.imp. A s ingle h ole 9 mm t o t he l eft o f t hese m ay b e p art o f a nother r ow r unning i n t he s ame d irection . L .(75)mm . W .(65)mm. T hickness < =1mm . U nconserved. 5 . P ommel f acing m ade f rom t wo t hickness o f l eather s ewn w ith t heir f lesh s ides t ogether. T op a nd p art o f o ne e dge a re m issing. T he u pper I X e dge i s f olded o nto t he i nside a nd h as s titch h oles r unning a long t he a pex o f t he f old; l ower d own t he e dge h as u nfolded a nd t he s ame s titching s hows a c ontinuous t hr.imp. o n t he i nside o f t he f acing. T he c urving l ower e dge h as a s ingle l ine o f s titching w ithout t hread i mpressions, b ut t here a re c lear i mpressions o f s uperimposed e dges 6 -10mm w ide o n t he i nside a nd 6 -8mm w ide o n t he o utside, where t he a rea o f o verlap i s v ery m uch l ess w orn t han e lsewhere. A t t he b ase o f t he f acing i s a U s haped s lit t hrough b oth t hicknesses, p ulled o ut o f s hape a t t he b ottom a nd w ith i ts e dges t urning o utwards. T here i s a s emicircle o f s titching a round t he s lit a nd t wo s lanting l ines a bove w hich a ppear r oughly t o e cho t he s hape o f t he f acing a nd t o m eet n ear t he t op i n a n ' M '. T his s titching m ay h ave h ad a d ecorative e ffect b ut i t a lso s erves t o s ecure t he t wo l ayers o f t he f acing t ogether. T he s titch h oles a re q uite c losely s paced a nd s how a c ontinuous t hread i mpression o n t he i nside: o nly i n a f ew p laces c an i t b e s een o n t he o utside s ince m uch o f t he o utside s urface i s h eavily a braded, p resumably f rom u se. L .(176)mm. W .(132)mm. T hickness 2 -3mm . U nconserved.

D iscussion I t w ould b e u seful t o k now f rom w hich s ide o f t he s addle 1 c omes. A s i nternal e vidence t here a re t he t wo r ows o f c rescent s lits, w ith e ight o n t he r ight a nd a n u nknown n umber o n t he l eft. T he V alkenburg s addle h as s ix s lits a t t he f ront a nd o nly f our a t t he b ack. I f a g eneral r ule ' more a t t he f ront' a pplied t hen a r ow o f e ight c ould b elong t here. O ther e vidence s hould c ome f rom t he p ommel f acing 5 a nd ( torn o ff) p ommel b acking , 4w hich w ere f ound w ith 1 a nd s eem l ikely t o b elong t o i t. T he s hape o f 5 , when v iewed f rom t he o utside, i s s uch t hat i t m ust b elong e ither t o a f ront o r a b ack R H p omme1. 7 T hen 1 m ust c ome f rom t he R H s ide a nd i ts R H e dge m ust b e t he f ront e dge o f t he s addle. T he p roblem r emains, t o w hich e dge d o t he p ommel p ieces b elong? I n C onnolly's v iew t he f ront f acings a re d istinguished b y h aving t wo

3 22

a ngled l ower c orners a s o pposed t o o ne a ngled a nd o ne r ounded. U nfortunately o ne o f t he l ower c orners o f 5 i s m issing a nd m ay o r m ay n ot h ave b een a ngled. T he b acking p iece 4 a ppears t o b e q uite s hort h owever, a c haracteristic o f f ront p ommel b ackings a ccording t o C onnolly. A lthough t he t op i s m issing i ts c urrent t op c oincides w ith t hat o f t he f acing a nd s ince n o m ore t han 2 0mm s eems t o b e m issing f rom t his ( comparing i t w ith 1 0 a nd 1 1 b elow) t he b acking p iece c an h ave b een n o m ore t han 9 5mm l ong a t m ost. T his i s s horter t han t he V alkenburg t he f ront.

r ear p ommel b acking o ne a nd w ould s uggest 4 m ight c ome f rom

W ith 4 i n t he p osition o f a r ight f ront p ommel b acking , h owever, t he t wo r ows o f s titching i n i ts l ower R H c orner ( gr.side) a re o n t he w rong s ide t o b e p art o f t he t wo h alf-circles o f s titching b etween t he p ommel b acking a nd t he t riangular d art. A ll t he C arlisle b acking p ieces ( 4, 7 , 8 , 1 2, 1 5) h ave t hese t wo r ows o f s titching a t o ne s ide a nd t his c an o nly b e t he s ide w hich w as a djacent t o t he d art. T hus 4 m ust c ome e ither f rom t he r ear RH p ommel o r t he f ront L H o ne. S ince 5 .c annot, a pparently, b e f rom a f ront L H p ommel t he c orrect p ostition f or 4 s hould b e t hat i llustrated. T he ' circle' s titching o n 4 d oes n ot j oin w ell w ith t hat o n t he m ain s addle p iece, b ut t he l atter i s b adly t orn a nd p erhaps d istorted i n t hat a rea. T he i nterpretation o f 4a nd 5 a s r ear p ommel p ieces r aises d ifficulties, b ut f or t he r easons g iven t hey c annot e asily b e p laced e lsewhere. T here a re n o i ndications a s t o t he w ay i n which t he e dges o f t his s addle c overing w ere s ewn t ogether, o ther t han a round t he p ommel. T he l eading e dges o f t he l arge p iece, t he e dges o f t he t riangular d art a nd t he b ase o f t he p ommel f acing a re a ll w ithout t hread i mpressions, y et P eter C onnolly's r econstruction o f a ' fitted' c over r equires t hat t hese e dges b e s eamed a nd n ot f ree h anging b ound h ems. T he o nly w ay t his c ould b e d one w ithout l eaving a t hread i mpression w ould b e t o s andwich t he e dges t ogether a nd t o s ew t hem i nside a b inding o r p iping. W hile i t i s

d ifficult

t o

i magine

h ow

t his c ould b e d one a nd t he e dges s till

r emain p erfectly f lat s ome s uch e xplanation must b e l ooked f or.

6 -13 ( Figs.2 a nd 3 ) F rom s oil s tratified a nd a l oose C 73/103 A .M .Lab N o.738717.

a bove

d ating

b ackfilled

r ange

o f

d itch.

7 9-130 A .D.

N ot

s ecurely

i s s uggested.

6 . T riangular d art f rom c entre f ront o r b ack o f s addle c over w ith l ower e dge c ontinuing t owards t he b ase o f a p ommel. T he p rojecting d art n ow h as b ase 1 80mm a nd h eight 6 6mm b ut m ay h ave s hrunk s ince e xcavation. T he o uter e dges m eet a t a n a ngle o f 1 00 a nd a re f olded o nto t he f l. s ide w ith t he u pper e dge o ver t he l ower. A s ingle l ine o f s titching g oes t hrough b oth t hicknesses. N o t hr.imps. b ut f rom t he f l. s ide t he a rea b etween t he s titching a nd t he f old a ppears s lightly d epressed. O n t he g r. s ide t he s urface i s l ess w orn f or a d istance o f 8 mm i n f rom t he f olded e dge. W here t he e dge c eases t o b e f olded a s ingle l ine o f s titching c ontinues, a gain w ithout a ny v isible t hr.imp.

h oles

A cross t he b ase o f t he d art i s a n i nverted t riangle o f s titch j oined a t t he l ower e nd t o a h alf c ircle a pproximately 6 0mm

3 23

a cross.

O n t he f l.

s ide t he w hole a rea d efined b y t his s titching i s

d arker a nd s hows l ittle s ign o f w ear, s uggesting i t w as c overed b y a pplied p ieces. O n t he g r. s ide t he s titching h as o ccasional f aint t hr.imps. T he g rain s urface i s v ery c racked a nd a braded i n t his a rea ( less s o o n t he d art i tself) a nd t his m ay e xplain t he l ack o f a b etter t hr.imp. T he L H e dge, t hough n ow t orn i n p laces, w as o riginally c ut i n a r easonably s traight l ine. A t i ts l ower e nd t his p iece j oined 7 , t hough d amage t o b oth p ieces h as m ade t he j oin n ow n ot a p erfect o ne. L .(219)mm. W .(93)mm. T hickness 1 .5mm. C onserved. 7 .

P ommel b acking w ith s hort l ength o f a djacent e dge. W idth a cross b ase o f p ommel 8 5mm; h eight 7 0mm. O uter e dge f olded o nto f l. s ide w ith a s ingle l ine o f s titching r unning a long t he f old o r j ust i nside i t. T he c urving e dges h ave n o t hr.imp. u nder t he f old a lthough t he s traight s tretch t o t he l eft d oes a ppear t o. A l ine o f s titching a cross t he b ase o f t he p ommel a nd t wo s lanting l ines a t t he e nd a djacent t o 6h ave t hr.imps. o n t he g r. b ut n ot o n t he f l. s ide. T he p resent L H e nd a ppears s calloped b ut i n f act h as t orn a long a l ine o f c urved s lits l ike t hose f ound o n 1 and o nly t heir u pper e dge r emains. A bove i s a l ine o f s titching w ith a t hr.imp. ( just) o n t he g r. s ide. T he u pper e dge o f 7h as b een c ut a nd w hen 6 a nd 7 a re j oined ( Fig.3) t he l ine i s c ontinuous a cross b oth p ieces. L .(135)mm. W .(105)mm. T hickness 1 .5mm. C onserved.

8 . H as t he f orm o f a p ommel b acking b ut t he s traight e dge a ppears o riginal, n ot c ut o r t orn o ff. O ther e dges f olded o nto t he g rain s ide w ith s titching a long t he a pex a nd a c ontinuous t hr.imp. u nder t he f old. T he s titch h oles e xactly m atch t hose o n 7 : 8 w as s ewn i nside i t t o g ive e xtra s trength t o t he p ommel b acking. T he e dges o f b oth p ieces w ere f olded a s o ne, s o t hat when t hey w ere s titched t o t he f acing ( 10) t he t hread w as i n c ontact w ith 8 n ot 7 . A s ingle l ine o f s titching r unning a cross t he b ase c orresponds t o t hat o n 7 . I t w ould h ave h eld t he e xtra p iece i n p lace when t he e dges w ere s ewn. T his s titching h as a t hr.imp. o n t he g r. s ide a t t he L H e nd b ut i t d issapears o n t he r ight. N or a re t here a ny i mpressions o n t he t wo s hort s lanting r ows. A nother p iece ( 9) h as c overed t his e nd. L .75mm. W .(max.)90mm ( min.)55mm. T hickness l mm. C onserved 9 .

R einforcing p iece: L H e dge p artly c ut, p artly t orn, t he o ther e dges o riginal. A h alf c ircle o f s titch h oles a pproximately 5 5mm a cross h as t hr.imp. o n g r. s ide. B elow i s a f urther a rc a lso w ith t hr.imp. T he f inal h oles i n e ach r ow a nd t he s traight s titching c utting a cross t heir R H e nds c orrespond t o s titching o n 7 a nd 8 . T he c entral h alf c ircle m atches t hat o n 6 , t hough 6 h as n o o uter c ircle. A s s hown i n F ig.3 ( bottom) 9 w as s ewn o ver 6 ,7 a nd 8 t o r einforce a p oint o f s tress b etween t he p rojecting d art a nd p ommel b acking. A long t he R H e dge ( Fig.2) o f 9t he s titching i s o f t hree s orts. A t t he u pper e nd t he p iece w as s ecured u nder t he f olded e dge o f 6a nd t here a re n o t hr.imps.; m idway b etween 6 a nd 7 a t hr.imp. a ppears w here f or a bout 2 0mm t he e dge w as f olded i nside t hat o f 7 a nd i ncorporated i nto t he s eam a round t he p ommel. L astly t he s titching b ecomes m ore c losely s paced a nd i s p art o f t he l ine h olding 7 a nd 8 t ogether. 9 h as a t hr.imp. where i t o verlaps 8 : o n 8

t he

a rea

o f

o verlap

i s

i ndicated b y a m issing i mpression a s

3 24

6F l .

9G r .

7 T hread i mp .

F ig .2: C entral d art w ith p ommel c overings. T op l eft: p osition o f t he f our p ommel f acings r espective t o t he r econstructed V alkenburg s addle, f ollowing C onnolly ( scale 1 :2).

1 0 I ns ide

3 25

1 2 G r . \

-

1 3 G r .

1 :2 R e lat ionsh ip:

10

I2

1 :4 F ig.3: A bove: p ommel c overings a nd r einforcing p iece. r elationship o f n os. 6 -13.

3 26

B elow :

o riginal

d escribed a bove. L .94mm. W .(72)mm.

T hickness

1 -1.5mm.

C onserved.

1 0. P ommel f acing m ade f rom t wo t hicknesses o f l eather s ewn w ith t heir f l. s ides t ogether. B oth p ieces a re b adly c rumpled a nd t orn b ut t hey h ave n ot s eparated. T he i nside i s i llustrated, s howing a f olded e dge c orresponding t o t he s eam ( Type I ) a round t he t op a nd s ides o f t he p ommel. S titching r uns d own t he c entre o f t he f olded p ortion. T he l eather i s t oo f ragile t o a llow a s earch f or t hr.imps. u nder t he f old, b ut a s ingle i mpression c an b e s een o n t he R H s ide j ust b elow t he p oint where t he f old e nds. S titching a round t he b ase h as n o t hr.imps. a nd t here i s e vidence o f s uperimposed e dges: o n t he i nside a n i mpressed l ine a t 1 0mm f rom t he e dge a nd o n t he o utside a g lossy s trip o f u nworn s urface e xtending 7 mm i n f rom t he e dge. N ear t he b ase a re t he t orn e dges o f a n o val s lit s ome 3 0mm a cross; t he l ower e dge i s d istended a nd t urning o utwards. A s o n 1 t he s lit i s e nclosed i n a s emicircle o f s titching t hrough b oth t hicknesses. S titching c ontinues u p b oth s ides o f t he p ommel a gain t erminating i n a n ' M '. A t hr.imp. i s v isible i n p laces o n t he i nside, t he o uter s urface i s v ery w orn a nd s hows n o i mpressions. P ossibly t he t hread i tself h ad d isintegrated b efore t he s addle w as d iscarded. L .170mm W .(max.)126mm ( min.)54mm ( estimate). T hickness 2 mm. C onserved. 1. P ommel f acing m ade f rom t wo t hicknesses s ewn w ith t heir f l. s ides t ogether. T he p ieces h ave n ow s eparated. I nside i llustrated. T he t op i s f latter a nd t he L H e dge m ore s harply a ngled t han t he c orresponding e dge o n 1 0. N evertheless t he t wo a re c losely c omparable i n s ize a nd h ave i dentical s titching. A t hr.imp. c an b e s een u nder t he f olded e dge o f 1 1. T he b ottom e dge h as a s trip 7 mm w ide o n t he o utside where i t h as b een o verlapped a nd p rotected f rom w ear. T his i s e xactly a s o n 1 0. O n t he i nside t here i s a lso a s uggestion o f a n o verlying e dge i n t he f orm o f a s light r idge a t a bout 7 mm f rom t he e dge. H owever, s ome o f t he s titch h oles o n t his s ide a lso h ave a f aint t hr.imp. b etween t hem. T hr.imps. a re u nusual h ere and i t m ay b e t hat t hese a re ' ghost' i mpressions: i .e. n ot m ade b y d irect c ontact w ith t he t hread b ut t hrough a n i ntervening t hickness o f l eather. T his m ay h appen w hen t he t hread i s v ery t ight, o r t he i ntervening l ayer o nly t hin. T he i nternal s titching i s a s o n 1 0 w ith t hr.imp. o n t he i nside a nd a lso o n t he o utside b ut o nly o ver t he l ower t hird o f t he f acing. T here i s a s lit n ear t he b ase s ome 2 3mm w ide o n t he i nside b ut 3 5mm w ide o n t he o utside ( probably t orn). A s o n 1 0 t he l ower l ip i s s tretched a nd e verted. L .171mm. W .(max.)130mm ( min.)50mm. T hickness 2 .5mm.

C onserved.

1 2. L ining p iece f or p ommel b acking. S ewn g rain s ide o ut l ike 8 t o t he i nside o f t he s addle c over. S ome f ragments o f t he p ommel b acking a re s till s ticking t o t he f lesh s ide: o ne c an b e s een t op l eft w ith i ts f olded e dge o verlapping 1 2. S titching r ound t he e dge m atches t hat a t t he t op o f 1 1 a nd i dentical c reasing o n t he t wo s hows t hey w ere s ewn t ogether. T hr.imp. u nder t he f old a s o n 8 . T he s titching a t t he b ase i s am irror i mage o f t hat o n 7 a nd 8 : s ince a ll c ome f rom t he s ame c ontext t hey a re p robably l eft a nd r ight p ommel

3 27

c overings f rom t he s ame s addle. T he s traight r ow o f s titching h as a t hr.imp. w hich s tops j ust t o t he l eft o f t he s lanting r ows. T o t he r ight t he g rain s urface i s d arker a nd l ess w orn, p iece ( 13) h as b een s ewn o n t op. T hickness 1 .5-2mm. C onserved.

L .82mm.

s uggesting a nother

W .(max)95mm

( min.)48mm.

1 3. R einforcing p iece. T wo c oncentric a rcs o f s titching a nd a s traight l ine a cross t he t op a ll h ave c ontinuous t hr.imp. o n t he g r. s ide. A t t he t op t he s titching m atches t hat o n 1 2: t his p iece w ould r einforce t he e dge b etween t he L H p ommel b acking a nd t he t riangular d art ( Fig.3, b ottom). I ts t op e dge c urves d own t o t he r ight: t he s titching h ere ( four h oles) c orresponds t o t hat o n t he p ommel f acing 1 1 j ust b eyond t he k ink i n i ts s horter f olded e dge. T he R H e dge i s t orn b ut o riginally m ust h ave c ontinued o nto 6 m aking a p air w ith 9 . L .78mm. W .(45)mm.

T hickness 1 .5mm.

C onserved.

D iscussion I n F ig.3 ( bottom) t he r elationship b etween p ieces 6 -13 i s s et o ut. T his i s av iew o f t he i nside ( fl. s ide) o f t he s addle c over w ith t he p ommel f acings t urned s o t hat t heir e nds m eet t he c orresponding e nds o f t he p ommel b ackings. A d irect c omparison i s p ossible w ith P eter C onnolly's l ayout f or a w hole s addle ( reproduced a bove i n F ig. 2 ) e ven t hough h e i llustrates t he g rain s ide: t he s addle i s s ymmetrical a bout i ts c entre l ine ( front t o b ack) a nd t he o utline s hape o f t he p ieces d oes n ot a lter i f i t i s f lipped o ver. T hat

l ayout

s hows

a

s ignificant

d ifference b etween t he p ommel

f acings a t f ront a nd b ack: a ll k nown f acings h ave a ' tail', o ne o f t heir l ower c orners w hich i s m ore a cute, o r m ore e longated a nd w hich i s l ower t han t he o ther w hen t he f acing i s u pright; t he s addle d esign a rrived a t e xperimentally b y C onnolly r equires t hat t he f ront f acings a re f ixed w ith t heir t ails p ointing t owards e ach o ther, w hile t he b ack o nes h ave t heirs p ointing a way. T he d ifference a rises f rom t he f act t hat t he f ront p ommels a re s played w hile t hose a t t he b ack a re v ertical. I n F ig.3 t he t ails o f 1 0 a nd 1 1 a re p ointing o utwards a nd t he c onclusion s hould b e t hat t his i s t he b ack o f a s addle c over. H owever, 1 a rguably h as t he f orm a scribed b y C onnolly t o a f ront f acing : ' both c orners p ointed', a t l east w hen c ompared f or e xample w ith 1 4 b elow . A nother o bjection i s t hat, a s i n t he c ase o f 4 , t he p ommel b ackings h ere a re s hort ( 70 a nd 7 5mm) a nd a re m ore s imilar i n s ize a nd p roportion t o t he s hort V alkenburg b acking t han t o t he l onger o ne. I f t hese p ieces m ust c ome f rom t he b ack t hen i t s eems i ndividual e lements f rom f ront a nd b ack a re n ot s o e asily d istinguished a s w e i magine. O nce a gain o n t his s addle t here

i s

e vidence

f or

T ype

I

s eams

a round t he t ops a nd s ides o f t he p ommels b ut n ot e lswhere. T he f olded e dges o f t he t riangular d art a re u nparallelled a nd m ay s imply h ave b een f or e xtra s trength. I f t hese e dges w ere ' bound s eams' ( see a bove, p .4) t hey d id n ot n eed t o b e f olded.

1 4-18 ( Fig.4) F ound b elow b rushwood w ithin t he i ntervallum a rea o f t he F lavian f ort. T hought t o b e f rom t he e arly p eriod o f o ccupation i .e.

3 28

8 0's A .D. C 73/78 A .M.Lab N o.738710. 1 4.

P ommel

f acing m ade f rom t wo t hicknesses s ewn w ith t heir

f l.

s ides

t ogether. P atches o f t he o utside l ayer a re s till s ticking t o t he b ack o f t he i nside, w hich h as s urvived b etter. S ome d etatched p ieces o f t he o uter l ayer w ere a lso r ecovered. T he t op h as t orn o ff a nd t he u pper L H e dge i s m issing. S titching a cross t he t op a nd d own t he R H e dge h as a c ontinuous t hr.imp. o n t he i nside a nd i s v ery c lose t o t he e dge. O n t he d etached t op p ortion t he e dge i s f olding i nwards, a t f irst a long t he l ine o f s titching t hen s ome w ay i nside i t. O n t he l ower p ortion t he e dge i s f lat, t hough p uckered i n p laces. S titching d own t he L H s ide a nd a cross

t he

b ottom

h as

f aint

( ghost?) t hr.imps. o n b oth s ides. O n t he b ottom ( outside) t he i mp. r uns a s a c ontinuous l ine f ractionally a bove t he s titch h oles a nd m ay i n f act b e t he i mpression o f a n o verlaid e dge. T he L H e dge ( outside) a lso a ppears t o h ave a n o verlay i mpression i n t he f orm o f a s hort r idge r unning p arallel t o a nd s ome 3 -5mm b eyond t he s titching. F rom i ts f latter b ase a nd r ounded L H c orner t his f acing s hould b e f rom a r ear p ommel; t he d irection o f t he ' tail' s uggests t he L H o ne. I nternal s titching i s s imilar t o t hat o n t he o ther f acings: i n t his c ase e nding i n a n ' M ' w ith t he c entral d ip m ore r ounded t han a ngular. T his f eature i s s hared w ith t he V alkenburg f acing .8 A t t he l ower L H c orner i s a s lit 1 8mm w ide w ith i ts u pper e dge s lightly e verted. L . ( min.)(52)mm.

( 156) 1 1 1m, r econstructed t o 1 80mm. T hickness 1 .5-3mm. U nconserved.

W .(max.)110mm

1 5. F ragment o f p ommel b acking. T he p osition o f t he t wo s lanting l ines o f s titching b ottom r ight i s c onsistent w ith i ts c oming f rom a r ear L H p ommel a nd s o b elonging w ith 1 4. A lthough i ncomplete i t s eems t o h ave b een w ider t han 4 o r 7 a s t he e dge i s n ot t apering i n f rom t he b ase. T he L H e dge i s t ending t o f old i nwards a long i ts s titching. T here i s a c ontinuous t hr.imp. s uggesting t hat t his b acking d id n ot h ave a l ining , u nless t his p iece i s i t: i n which c ase i t w as s ewn i n f l.side o ut u nlike 8 a nd 1 2. S titching a cross t he b ase h as n o t hr.imp. o n t he f l.side a nd w ould h ave b een c overed b y a ( further?) r einforcing p iece. A t t he R H e nd t he s titching s uggests a p iece w ith c oncentric h alf c ircles a s o n 9a nd 1 3. L .(77)mm. W .(76)mm. T hickness

l mm.

U nconserved.

1 6,17,18. T hree f ragments p ossibly f rom t he s ame p art o f t he s addle a s 1 4 a nd 1 5 b ut w hose p osition h as n ot b een d etermined. 1 6 h as s titching l ike t hat o n 1 5 a nd m ay a lso c ome f rom t he p ommel b acking. 1 9. ( Fig.4) F ound i n c lay s oil a butting a f ence. F lavian, 7 8/79-91 A .D. C ST B 1619 L 259. P ommel f acing m ade f rom t wo t hicknesses s ewn w ith t heir f l.sides t ogether. T he t wo l ayers h ave n ow s eparated. B oth l ower c orners

a re

a ngular s o t his s hould b e a f ront p ommel f acing :

f rom

t he d irection o f t he t ail a R H o ne. S titching o n t he u pper e dge i s v ery c lose t o t he e dge a s o n 1 4, a llowing o nly a s hallow f old i f a ny. I n p laces t he e dge i s f lat b ut p uckered. T here i s a c ontinuous t hr.imp. ( inside) d own b oth e dges a s f ar a s t he a ngle. L ower e dge

3 29

i s w ithout t hr.imps. o n e ither s ide. O n t he o utside i s t he i mp. o f a s uperimposed e dge ( 8mm i n f rom t he e dge) a t t he RH e nd o nly. I nternal s titching w ith c ontinuous t hr.imp. o n b oth s ides a s o n t he o ther f acings. T his o ne h as o nly s light w ear o n t he o utside. S lit a t b ase, 2 5mm l ong w ith i ts l ower l ip t urning o ut. L .(151)mm . W .(max.)149mm ( min)56mm ( estimate.) T hickness 3 -3.5mm.

U nconserved.

D iscussion 1 4 a nd 1 9 d iffer f rom t he o ther f acings i n t hat t heir u pper e dges a re n ot p roperly f olded a s r equired f or a T ype I s eam. T his m ay c all i nto q uestion w hether t hat s eam w as u sed. T he e dges a re f olded i n p laces, b ut where t hey a re n ot, a n e xplanation m ay b e t hat w ith s titching s o c lose t o t he e dge t he e dges w ere b ent r ather t han f olded, a nd h ave s ubsequently f lattened o ut i n t he g round. B oth f acings a re o f e arly d ate a nd c ould b e p roducts o f F our

d ifferent

s addles

a re

t he s ame w orkshop. r epresented b y n os.1-19,

r anging i n

d ate f rom 7 9 A .D. t o a t l atest 1 50. T he c onsistency o f t heir d esign w ith t hat o f t he V alkenburg a nd V echten s addles i s s triking a nd s uggests a h igh d egree o f u niformity i n t his i tem o f m ilitary e quipment. N evertheless t he C arlisle p ieces s hare d etails which d ifferentiate t hem f rom t he C ontinental o nes. I n e very c ase t he p ommel f acings a re o f d ouble t hickness a nd h ave a h ole a t t he b ase. T hese h oles o ccur o n b oth f ront a nd b ack p ommels a nd t heir e dges a re s tretched o utwards a nd d ownwards. C onceivably l oads w ere a ttached t o t he s addle a t i ts c orners b y s traps t hrough t hese h oles; a lternatively t he b reastplate a nd c rupper a ttachments, s hown b y P eter C onnolly a s s titched t o f laps u nder t he s addle, m ight b e f astened t o t he b ase o f t he p ommels, o r t hreaded t hrough t he c over a t t his p oint t o b e s ecured u nderneath t he s addle. O n o ne s addle a d ouble t hickness w as a lso u sed i n t he p ommel b ackings a nd i dentical s titching o n t he o ther b acking p ieces ( 4,15) s uggests a g eneral u se o f l inings. T he V alkenburg s addle h as c ontinuous s titching a t a d istance f rom t he e dge i ndicating a d ouble t hickness, b ut w ithout t he C arlisle e vidence t his m ight b e a ssumed t o h ave b een a chieved w ith o ne c ontinuous p iece r ather t han i n s mall o verlapping s ections.

9

a nd 1 3 a re v ery s imilar t o

t he r einforcing p ieces u sed o n

t ent p anels a nd w ould n ot h ave b een i dentified a s p art o f a s addle t hey n ot b een f ound a longside t he m ore r ecognisable p arts.

i i). 2 0.

h ad

C HAMFRONS ( Fig .5)

F ound

i n a d eposit o f c lay s oil a nd t wigs i n a n arrow g ap

b etween b uildings 8 0's - 9 1 A .D.

C ST B 1560 L 245.

T op o f c hamfron. R oughly t riangular a bove t wo e ye h oles o f a pproximately 7 0mm d iameter. T he h oles a re 7 5mm a part a nd m easure a pproximately 1 40mm c entre t o c entre. O n t he r ight t he u pper e dge s lants i nwards t o m eet t he e ye o pening ; u nless a nother p iece w as s ewn o n h ere t his w ould b e o nly p artially e nclosed. A l ine o f s titching o n t he s lanting e dge m ay h ave j oined i t t o a l ower p iece ( lap s eam): t here i s a t hr.imp. o n t he f l. s ide a nd t he i mpression o f a s uperimposed e dge c learly v isible o n t he g r. A lso o ne o f t he

3 30

• 1 6 F l .

1 5 F l .

, •

1 4 I ns ide

. . . .

. ..

1 7 G r .

1 8 G r .

I ns ide

Outs ide

1 9 1 :2 F ig.4: P ommel c overings.

3 31

C hamfron l ining . •

•...... . •••

L L

0

\

3 32

2 1 F l .

1 :2

F ig .6: C hamfron l ining .

3 33

c ircles o f s titching a round t he R H o pening h as a d own o ver t he e dge,

t hr.imp.

r unning

s uggesting i t c ontinued b elow .

T he s titching a round t he e ye h oles a nd t hat s et i n f rom t he u pper e dge s uggest a d ouble t hickness o f l eather, w ith 2 0 a s t he i nner l ayer o r l ining. T he s titching a long t he u pper e dge i tself h as n o t hread i mpressions a nd t he e dges m ay h ave b een b ound. H eight ( 225)mm. W .(261)mm, r econstructed 3 50mm. T hickness 1 .5mm. U nconserved.

2 1.

( Fig.6) F rom p it b ehind e ast t ower o f s outh g ate o f f ort. A .D. A NN A 4636 L 574E.

C irca 9 0

T op o f c hamfron. P ointed? a bove t wo e ye h oles o f a pproximate d iameter 9 0mm, 1 30mm a part a nd m easuring a bout 2 20mm c entre t o c entre. A s o n 2 0 t he o penings a re n ot c ompletely e nclosed. T o t he l eft o f t he L H o ne a s hort s lanting e dge w ith t wo s titch h oles a nd t hr.imp. o n f l. c ould i ndicate a nother p iece s ewn o n, a s s uggested f or 2 0. O n e ither s ide a bove t he e ye h oles i s a g roup o f s lits, p erhaps f or t hongs, b ut t he e dges s how n o s tretching . T he a rrangement o f s lits d iffers o n t he t wo s ides. A s ingle l ine o f s titching o n t he u pper e dge a nd r ound t he o penings h as n o t hr.imps. o n e ither s ide a nd t hese e dges m ay h ave b een b ound. T here i s a n i rregularity i n c utting o ut o n t he LH o pening : a p rojecting s liver o f l eather which i s f olding o ver o nto t he g r. s ide. T he f act t hat t his h as n ot b een r emoved a lso s uggests t he e dges w ere b ound. H eight ( 290)mm. W .(285)mm, r econstructed 3 04mm. T hickness 1 .5mm. U nconserved.

i ii) 2 2.

? HORSE ARMOUR ( Fig.7)

F rom s poil d ug o ut o f r oad w orks. R oman l evels a re h eavily

t runcated a t t his p oint a nd a F lavian o r e arly s econd c entury i s l ikely. A BB A 61 L 16.

d ate

T hick h ide. T op e dge o riginal w ith s lightly c oncave c urve a nd r ow o f s mall h oles ( up t o 2 mm d iameter) s et c lose t o t he e dge. A t t he L H e nd a re t wo l arger h oles ( 10 b y 7 mm) a nd p art o f a t hird. B elow i s a w avy l ine o f t he s maller h oles, m any c ontaining a s mall c opper a lloy s tud o r r ivet w ith a c ircular d omed h ead o n t he f l. s ide. N o s tuds a ppear i n t he u pper r ow b ut o n t he g r. s ide o ne o f t he h oles h as a c ircular i mpression a round i t o f s imilar s ize t o t he h eads o n t he f l. s ide. I t s eems l ikely t hat a ll t he s tuds/rivets h ad h eads o n b oth s ides o riginally, a ssuming t hat t he g rain s ide w as t he o utside a nd a d ecorative e ffect i ntended. W hy t hey s hould n ow a ll b e m issing f rom t he g rain s ide i s a m ystery. I n t he c entre o f t he g r. s ide i s a m ass o f c risscrossing s hallow s traight c uts a nd s cratches. T hese s eem a ncient a nd m ay b e a ssociated w ith o ne p eriod o f t he o bject's u se. T he t hickness o f t he l eather s uggests a p rotective f unction a nd t he d ecoration a m ore t han w orkaday o ne. A rmour f or a h orse, o r f or a m an w ere p ossibilities s uggested b y C arol v an D riel-Murray. T he l arger h oles c ould a ccommodate w ooden d owels o r i ron p egs; t here a re n o m arks

3 34

. • • • ••. .. .

• •. .. .

i ; 0 •

• •

00 m m l l•

0 S tud h ead

F ig.7: L eather a rmour.

LL

0

• • • • •

• •

0



\

•\,/

0 0

0

7. • • •

oI

\

\ ••

4 .,

t 3

• • •

a4 1

3 35

M 1 1.

a round

t hem

t o

s uggest

L .(226)mm. W .(223)mm.

c ords

o r

t hongs w ere t hreaded t hrough.

T hickness 4 -6mm.

U nconserved.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I a m g rateful t o I an C aruana a nd M ike M cCarthy f or encouraging t he p ublication o f t o

t he

t he f inds

a ppearance

o f

f rom A nnetwell S treet and C astle

S treet

t he

t o

e xcavation

D riel-Murray f or h er m any c omments

r eports.

A lso

p rior

C arol v an

t o d ate o n t he C arlisle l eather

f or s uggesting t he u sefulness o f p ublishing t hese

and

i tems.

N OTES 1 .

C ONNOLLY,

2 .

C ARUANA,

1 987. 1 986.

3 . MCCARTHY & D ACRE,

1 983.

4 .

GROENMAN-VAN WAATERINGE,

5 .

I bid.,

1 13,

F ig.38,9.

6 .

I bid.,

1 07,

F ig.35.

7 .

C ONNOLLY,

8 .

G ROENMAN-VAN WAATERINGE,

1 987,

F ig.2,

1 967.

2 1,

r eproduced i n o utline i n F ig.2 b elow.

1 967,

1 07,

F ig.35,2).

B IBLIOGRAPHY C ARUANA, C ONNOLLY,

I .D.

1 986:

P .

' Carlisle',

1 987:

' The

C urrent A rchaeology 1 01,

R oman

S addle',

i n

M .

1 986,

1 72-177.

D awson ( ed.), R oman

M ilitary E quipment: T he A ccoutrements o f W ar, P roceedings o f t he 3 rd R oman M ilitary E quipment R esearch S eminar, BAR I nternational S eries 3 36,

1 987,

7 -27.

G ROENMAN-VAN WAATERINGE,

W .

1 967:

R omeins

L ederwerk

u it

V alkenburß

Z .H., N ederlandse O udheden 2 ( Groningen 1 967). M cCARTHY, S t.,

M .R.

&

D ACRE, J .A .

1 983:

' Roman T imber B uildings a t C astle

C arlisle', Antiquaries J ournal 6 3(2),

3 36

1 983,

1 24-130.

A R EVIEW O F T HE E QUIPMENT O F T HE R OMAN A RMY O F D ACIA M .

D awson

T he r eceived v iew i s t hat R omanian a rchaeology i s i naccessible, p olitically i nfluenced a nd i nadequately p ublished. T he p redominant t heme i n W estern p ublications, w here R oman m ilitary e quipment f rom D acia h as

b een s tudied, h as b een t o a ttempt t o

r epresentation

o n

T rajan's

C olumn

a nd

I nterest i n t hese h as s pawned a ttempts r egiments,

a s

w ell

a s

t o

c ampaign r outes,

t est

t he

t he

a ccuracy

A damklissi

i dentify

o f

m onuments.

a rmy

u nits'

t he I mperial r etinue,

a nd

D acian

a ristocrats a nd s tructural t ypologies. 2 M uch o f t his r egarding m ilitary e quipment h as b een s peculative a nd a necdotal b ecause o f a f ailure t o e xamine t he c onsidering

r esults o f R omanian e xcavations. R ossi f or i nstance, when ' Arms, A rmour a nd E quipment' i llustrates n o R omanian

a rtefacts » I f s ome

t he p ractical p roblems o f a ccess t o i nformation w ere n ot e nough

E nglish l anguage p ublications h ave c onfused t he s ituation f urther

- M acKendrick,

i n T he D acian S tones

o f D acia a nd M oesia I nferior I nferior

i s

i n

f act

o ccupied t he B anat, i ncluded W allachia

a s

R omanian

S peak 4 d ealt w ith t he t wo p rovinces

o ne

a cross

m odern

R omania!

M oesia

D obruja a nd N E B ulgaria; whilst D acia

O ltenia a nd T ransylvania. D acia u ntil t he w ithdrawal b y H adrian,

o nly a nd

b riefly i s n ow

g enerally r eferred t o a s D acia L ibra. T his m ay c ause c onfusion - t he a rea n ames c ited a bove a re b oth a ntiquated a nd c olloquia1. 5 M odern c ounties

( judet) a re n ow u sed f or l ocating

c ontain a C lausenburg,

s ites.

O lder

p ublications

p lethora o f h istorical n ames f or i ndividual s ites t he A ustro-Hungarian n ame, f or C luj N apoca, G radista f or

S armizegetusa

-

a re

t he b est known. Where p ossible a ttention w ill b e

d rawn t o s uch a nomalies, i f t he R oman n ame i s u sed, o r a n f amiliar o ne, t he m odern l ocation w ill f ollow i n b rackets. R omanian

a uthors

i n

g enerate a n o ver v iew o f

t ranslation

h ave

n ot,

h istorically

g enerally,

h elped

t he a rchaeology a nd h istory o f D acia,

a lthough

C ondurachai a nd D aicoviciu d id p resent a n ow o utdated f ramework. 6 L atterly M acKenzie 7 h as n ot h elped c larity w ith h is w ork e ntitled ' Archaeology i n R omania. u seful

T he M ystery o f

h istoriographical

s tudy

i n

t he R oman O ccupation '!

t ranslation

i s

t he

The m ost

s ummary

b y

C ondurachai. 8 I n

R omania

t he

s tudy

o f R oman m ilitary e quipment i s f alling i n

w ith t he g eneral t rend t o t ake m ilitary s tudies b eyond

e pigraphy,

r egimental

a lthough t here a re c onstraints t he

p rovince

o f

D acia

o rganisation t o p rogress.

e xcavation

P ublication r eports

a nd

t he

h as

s o

h ave

b een

s ince

w anting.

i ncludes

t here i s o nly a

a nd

t he

p eriod

m ovements,

s tate

b ut

e xcavations

f lourished

R oman

c ampaign

T he m odern

a nd p art o f L ower M oesia,

s mall a rchaeological e stablishment l imited.

o f

r esearch

a re

1 950s a lthough f ull

D espite

t his

t here

i s

a n

i ncreasing a mount d ealing w ith t he p roblems o f R oman m ilitary e quipment a nd

a rtefacts

f ittings, j ournals,

-

h elmets, a rmour,

s hield b osses, u sually

a s

s words

b elt

a nd

f ittings,

d aggers

s trap e nds,

a ppearing

i n

s cabbard r egional

i ndividual i tems i n e xcavation a ssemblages,

o ccasionally i n a rticles o f

s ynthesis.

3 37

P otentially

t hese

d raw

b ut u pon

s everal a dvantages s pecific t o D acia. F irstly D acia, t he p rovince, w as c reated b y T rajan a fter t wo b rief w ars i n A D106 a t a t ime w hen p robably m ore i s k nown a bout R oman m ilitary e quipment, g enerally, f rom s culpture, a rchaeology a nd l iterature, t han a ny o ther. I n a ddition t he c onditions o f t hose w ars, n ot o nly t he d estructiveness b ut t he i ntense b uilding a ctivity o f t he a rmy a s i t d eveloped l ines o f s upply, e stablished g arrisons, b ridging p oints a nd f orts, s uggests t hat R omanian a rchaeology h as a n ear u nparalleled p otential f or p recise a nd a ccurate d ating o f a rtefact a ssemblages. I n t he p eriod a fter t he D acian w ars o ther a dvantages a ccrue f or i nstance t he a bundance o f e asily w orked l imestone h as l eft t he p rovince r ich i n i nscriptions. P ostwar t here w as a r ise i n t he l evel o f t rade a rchaeologically t his i s m anifest i n a l arge r epertoire o f e xternally d ated s mall f inds. L astly , i n A D 2 71, D acia w as f ormally a bandoned b y A urelian: u nlike t he w estern p rovinces, i t w as n ot l ost i n a d rawn o ut w ar o f a ttrition ; a part f rom t he m aintenance o f D acia R iparensis o n t he b anks o f t he D anube, i t w as n ever r eoccupied. T hus t here i s a n ear a bsolute t erminus f or m ilitary e quipment i n t he p rovince. C ontemporary c onditions h ave p layed t heir p art t oo, a lthough p rotective l egislation i s n ot a s c omprehensive a s i n s ome c ountries, m any s ites r emain u ndeveloped o r w ithin a rchaeological r eserves l ike t hose a t S armizegetusa a nd T ibiscum ( Jupa). L atterly o nly o ne m ajor w ork, t hat b y M acrea, h as s ummarised t he a rchaeology a nd h istory o f D acia i n R omanian. 9 D acica, t he f irst o f a s eries e dited b y D aicoviciu a pproached a spects o f p rovincial h istory. 1° U nfortunately T udor's O ltenia R omana, w hich i s a n e xtensive a nd c omprehensive w ork, o nly d escribed t he h istory a nd a rchaeology o f R oman s outhern c entral R omania. 1 1 C hristescul 2 w as t he f irst m odern c ommentator t o s ummarise t he m ilitary h istory a nd a rchaeology o f D acia. H e i dentified s everal p hases o f d evelopment f orming a f ramework. T his b ecame f undamentally i mportant f or s ubsequent w ork b ecause t he p hases, o r p eriodisation , h e i dentified a re s een t o e mbody a rchaeologically d efinable m ilitary , p olitical a nd o rganisational c hange. T o p araphrase C hristescu t he f irst p eriod i s t hat o f T rajan's D acian w ars, i ncluding t he m ilitary b uild u p f rom A D 9 9-107; t he s econd, t he c onsolidation a nd i nitial e xploitation o f t he p rovince's r esources; t he t hird, A D 1 18-138, c ontinued d evelopment a nd r eorganisation i nitiated b y H adrian i n t he a ftermath o f a r evolt; t he f ourth, t he p eriod o f b arbarian r aids a nd s ubsequent r estructuring o f t he l atter h alf o f t he s econd c entury. T he f ifth e ncompasses t he S everan r eforms a nd c ivil w ar o f t he l ast d ecade o f t he s econd a nd e arly t hird c enturies w hilst t he l ast, t he s ixth, s pans t he p eriod f rom t he a ccession o f P hillip t he A rab t o t he w ithdrawal i n t he A D 2 70s. W ithin t his f ramework G udea h as d eveloped a s cheme f or t he d efensive s ystem o f D acia, 1 3 whilst C ataniciu h as e nlarged u pon t his a nd g enerally i mproved i t w ithout e ssentially c hanging i t.I 4 S he s ummarised t he e vidence f or a ll t he R oman f ortifications i n t he p rovince, b ut t his w as h eavily c riticised b y G udea. 1 5 B oth t hese s urveys i llustrate why

3 38

C hristescu 's

f ramework

i s

s o

i mportant

f or

R oman

m ilitary

e quipment

a nd

d ominate t he d ating o f

m ilitary s ites. E ssentially t he h ypothesis h as c ome t o l ead t he e vidence. T hus t he t wo r ecent c ommentaries b y G udea, i n p articular, a nd C ataniciu, t o a l esser e xtent, a re d escribing a s tatic m odel. N either a uthor a ttempts t o d efine t he c hanging r ole o f f orts a nd l ittle d etail, p articularly d ating, h as b een q uoted f or t he e xpansion o r c ontraction o f s ites, t he d evelopment o f c ivilian a reas a nd s o o n. I n t his c ontext t he v alue o f C ataniciu's w ork i s n ot o nly t hat i t i llustrates t he q uality o f e vidence f rom a R omanian p erspective, b ut t hat s he e mbodies t he c urrent a ttitude t o f ort d ating. T hus t he t hree e lements o f t he d evelopment o f R omanian m ilitary e quipment s tudies a re b rought t ogether; t he d ominance o f t he p olitical a nd h istorical f ramework f irst e lucidated b y C hristescu a nd h eavily r eliant o n e pigraphy a nd l iterary s ources, t he r ole t his h as p layed i n t he d evelopment o f d ating m ilitary s ites a nd s ubsequently t he l ack o f i ncentive i t h as p rovided f or t he d evelopment o f o n-site m ethodology t hat w ould, i n d ue c ourse, h elp q uestion t he a ssumptions i nherent i n C hristescu's f ramework. ttention a re t hose o f T he p eriods t hat h ave r eceived t he m ost a n t he f irst p eriod T rajan's wars a nd c onsolidation o f t he p rovince. I t hrough t he V ilcan a nd t he e arly f orts a long t he s outhern r outes he p rimary s ource o f M ehadhia p asses a nd f rom t he w est s hould p rovide t f orts, V irtop 1 6 a nd m ilitary e quipment. I n t he V ilcan P ass t wo e vidence, t hough t he B umbestil 7 a re w ithout a ny c onvincing e arly f ormer, n ow d estroyed b y m odern d evelopment c ould, o n t ile s tamp e vidence, h ave b een o ccupied b y a v exillation o f V M acedonica. T his, h owever, i s n ot s ufficiently u nderstood t o b e c ertain o f o ccupation i n t he t hird c entury o r e arly s econd c enturies. T his r aises t he g eneral q uestion o f t he o rigin o f t hese t iles a nd t he v alue o f i dentifying t he p resence o f t roops b y t hem . B umbesti h as b een e xcavated b y t renching a nd t he p re-stone p hases a re u npublished. I n b oth c ases t he a rgument f or e arly f orts r ests u pon u ndemonstrable a p riori r easoning: t he f orts a re e arly b ecause t hey g uard a s trategically i mportant p ass. a re n ot p ublished. F urther

n orth

t he

f orts a t J igoru,

T he

f inds

C omarnicel, M uncelul a nd t he

P atru P eak, a re t hought t o b e e arly b ecause t hey g uard v alleys i n O restia m ountains b ut t hey a re u nexcavated. E astern r outes i dentified w ith f orts a t C astra T raiana, I zlaz, t he O lt d efile, b ut a s G udea p oints o ut

t he a re

S laveni a nd A cidava i n t here i s n o u nambiguous

e vidence y et f or t he e arly c onstruction o f t hese f orts - e xcepting a w ooden p hase a t A cidava. A r oute f urther e ast - t hat o f t he c onjectured l ate l imes T ransalutanus - w ith F laminda a s a p ossible v exillation h eadquarters, i s p roposed w ith J idava ( Cimpulung M uscel) a nd R isnov a s a uxiliary f orts a nd t wo f ortlets a t D rumul C arului a nd R uccar. R isnov 1 8 ( Fig.2), a t renched f ort, i s t he m ost e xtensively p ublished o f t hese b ut w hilst t he c oin s eries r uns f rom G alba t o S everus A lexander t here i s n o p ublished m eans t o r elate a rtefacts t o t heir c ontext. m ilitary i tems i llustrated ( Taf.LVIIa) a re r ecorded o n p age 3 7,

T he a s

' Beschläge u nd a ndere B ronze- g egenstande'. T he a ssemblage ( Fig.2,1-3) i ncludes o penwork m ounts, a p ossible f ragment o f s cale a rmour a nd a s trap e nd. T here i s o ne s mall i ron s pearhead a nd a n a rrowhead ( Taf.LIVa,

2 5.22).

3 39

O ne o f t he n odal p oints o f T rajan's c ampaign w as t he f ort g uarding A pollodoros' b ridge o ver t he D anube b ut a s C ataniciu p oints o ut ' despite t he f act t hat D robeta i s o ne o f t he m ost i ntensively e xcavated f orts i n D acia n o s cientific m onograph h as y et d ealt w ith t he o verall r esults o f

t he a rchaeological s urvey o f i ts s ite'.

1 9

A s econd p ossible i mportant s ite i n T rajan's s trategy i s t he l ater c ity o f U lpia T raiana S armizegetusa, s ited a stride t he I ron G ates p ass i t b locks o ne a ccess t o t he D acian h eartland. A licu 2 ° s ees t he c olonia f ounded u pon a n e arlier l egionary f ortress, s imilar s ay t o C olchester a nd t his i s e mbodied i n t he p aper b y I lies 2 1 d iscussing t he m ilitary e quipment f rom t he s ite. S ections t hrough t he c ity w alls h ave r evealed a ' military' t urf w all p hase o n t he n orth, e ast, a nd s outh s ides; t he d imensions o f t hese e stimated a s 5 04m x 4 15m e nclose 2 2.36 h ectares c omparable t o Y ork, E mona, L ambaesis a nd L auriacum; t he s o c alled A ugustalium i s s imilar i n p lan t o a p rincipia; l arge g ranaries o ccupy t he e astern a rea o f t he t own a nd t here i s u nstratified m ilitary e quipment f rom t he s ite. G iven t he d educta o f t he c olonia i s p robably c elebrated o n a s estertius d ated A D 1 03-11, t he b est c ontext f or t he m ilitary o ccupancy o f t he s ite i s t he i nterwar p eriod a nd i mmediately a fter A D 1 06. A s f or t he g arrison t his i s l ess s ecure - t iles o f t he 1 111 F lavia F elix h ave b een d iscovered i n t he A ugustalium a nd e quipment 22 f ound a fter I lies' p aper w as w ritten - b uckle h inge ( Fig.10,7); a b elt p late ( Fig.10,2), p ossibly o f P annonian o rigin, c ould b e o f e ither l egionary o r a uxiliary t ype e ven t hough o ne d amaged f ragment i s p robably t he r emains o f a l orica s egmentata h inge ( Fig.10,16). 23 O f a ll t he s ites p ossibly o ccupied d uring t he i nterwar y ears o nly t he c olonia, U lpia T raiana d educta, l atterly S armizegetusa, h ad p ublished e vidence o f e arly d amage - a f ire a djacent t o t he A ugustalium s uggests a s light c hange o f o rientation w ithin t he f ortress w hen r ebuilding t ook p lace. 24 I lies 25 e xamined t he m ilitary e quipment a vailable i n 1 981 a nd d eveloped a l imited t ypology f rom 4 0 p ieces; s pears, a rrowheads a nd b elt p endants. H e d oes n ot a ttempt t o d ate, s pecifically, a ny o f t he p ieces, e xplaining ' Este d ificil, i n s tadiul a ctual a l c ercetarilor s a p rezentam c ronologie f ormele d e l anci p rovenite d e l a U lpia T raiana. E le p ot f i d atate, l arg, u s ecolele I I-III' - ( 'It i s d ifficult, a t t his s tage o f r esearch t o p resent a c hronology f or t he l ance t ypes f ound i n U lpia T raiana. T hey d ate i n g eneral f rom t he 2 nd t o t he 3 rd c enturies A D ' - p .416). A lthough t his r efers s pecifically t o l ances, s pears a re t reated s imilarly ( p.417). T hus t hree t ypes o f s pearhead a re d efined: 1 . l ancelolat ( long t hin b laded), 2 . r ombic ( in s ection), 3 . f iliform a lungit; a nd f our t ypes o f l ances: 1 . P yramidal ( in s ection), 2 . R ound s ocketed a nd r ombic, 3 . C onical, 4 . S quare. A rrowheads a re: 1 . T riangular, 2 . P yramidal, a nd 3 . S yrian ; a nd b elt p endants a re: 1 . t erminating i n a s tud, a nd 2 . i n a p oint, b ut a ll a re a ssigned t o t he 2 nd o r 3 rd c entury. N or d oes I lies l ist t he c ontexts f rom w hich h is m aterial c omes, a ll t he c atalogue n umbers q uoted a re t hose o f t he s ite i nventory a nd a ccession r egister f or t he m useum a t C luj-Napoca. H e d id n ot c ite d ating p arallels e ven t hough, f or i nstance, t he p ottery h ad b een p ublished f rom t he T emplul M ars x a s w ell a s a n e xtensive c atalogue o f l amps a nd f igured s culpture. 2 b I nterim r eports b y A licu a nd D aicoviciu s how b y t he p eriodisation t hat e ven t his s ite r elies h eavily u pon t he o rthodoxy o f t he C hristescu f ramework, a s w ell a s b eing l imited b y e xcavation m ethodology. 27

3 40

3 41

L oca t ion o f p l aces men t ioned i nt he t ex t

A s f or t he r est o f t he p rovincial g arrison, e xcavation h as y et t o s how c lear e vidence o f e arly o ccupation, H inova, I nsula B anului, D esa, Z avalu, S ucidava, I slazul, F laminda J idava-Cimpulung, B uridava ( Biresti) a nd R isnov a re c lear p ossibilities b ecause t heir p ositions s uggest a n e arly c oncern w ith t he s ecurity o f t he D anube a nd s upply r outes n orth, t hese s ites t hough s hould n ot b e c onfused w ith t he T etrarchic f oundations a nd r efurbishing a fter w ithdrawal f rom t he p rovince. D espite, t hen, t he m ajor p ossibilities o ffered b y t his e arly p eriod n o s ecurely d ated m ilitary e quipment h as b een p ublished a nd u ntil t he p roblem o f d ating t he c onstruction o f f orts o f t he f irst t wo w ars i s r econciled n o c oherent a ttempt c an b e m ade t o t est, e xcept i n t he m ost g eneral s ense, t hose r epresentations o f a rmour, T rajan's C olumn, b ut e lsewhere t oo. 28

t erm

p rincipally o n

A fter t he v ictory a t t he e nd o f t he s econd w ar, a p eriod o f l ong c onsolidation b egan. T he m ilitary c oncern o f t he p eriod w as t he

d ual r ole r esistance,

o f t he a rmy: f irstly o ccupation, n eutralising D acian d eveloping, s afeguarding a nd b uilding t he n ew p rovincial

i nfrastructure. S econdly, i ts i nitially p assive f unction a s b ulwark a gainst i ncursions f rom t he t ribes o f c entral e astern E urope. F rom t his p eriod t he f irst c ollections o f m ilitary e quipment s eem t o a ppear. T his i s

n ot

n ecessarily

b ecause

e ither

t he

a rtefacts

o r t he f orts a re

s pecifically d ated t o t he y ears a fter A D 1 06 b ut b ecause o f t he g eneral a cceptance t hat, a p riori, i n t he a bsence o f g ood d ated c ontexts, f orts w ith s tone d efences h ave t heir o rigins i n t he e arly 2 nd c entury, a nd w here w ood o r t urf p hases a re n ot d emonstrable t hese o rigins m ust b e p ost A D 1 06 a nd p robably H adrianic.

C ataniciu 29

a pplies

t his

r easoning

t o B rincovinesti, C alagureni, a nd S arateni. I t i s a s ituation w hich i s a rchaeologically i mprecise, b ut which r eflects t he m ore g eneralised h istorical a pproach. B eyond

t he

p rovince

t he

m ajor

t hrust o f a ctivity f or t he a rmy

c hanged w ith T rajan's p ursuit o f c ampaigns i n t he E ast p robably s tretching r esources. I t m ay h ave b een t his w hich w as p artially r esponsible f or t he r evolt t hat o ccurred a t t he a ccession o f H adrian a nd i mplicit i n t his e mperor's a pparent d esire t o a bandon t he p rovince.

A

3 0

D espite T rajan 's w ithdrawal o f t roops, a l arge g arrison r emained. s eries o f a uxiliary f orts w ere p ositioned o n t he f rontiers a nd a long

m ajor r outes o f t he p rovince. D uring t he p rincipate o f T rajan t he a rea o f s outhern M oldavia a nd W allachia h ad b een o ccupied a s p art o f M oesia I nferior a nd t he f orts o f D rajna d e S us, C iolan, P ietrosa a nd F ilipati g uarded t he e ast e xtension o f t he r oad w hich r an f rom A quincum t o t he B lack S ea. T his i s a p eriod t hat h as r eceived s ome d etailed s tructural a nalysis a nd t his s hould b e r eflected i n t he f inds r epertoire. O ne o f t he e arliest c losely d ated, a s w ell a s e xtensively d ug, f orts w as D rajna d e S us. 3 1 E xcavated i n 1 939/40, t he p raetorium , t he n orth g ate, t he v ia s agularis a nd p art o f t he c ivilian s ettlement w ere r evealed. T he f ort e nclosed 4 ha a nd t he e xcavator f ound p arallels f or t he w all s tructure a t U rspring a nd M ainz b oth o f l ate f irst c entury d ate; t iles o f t he V M acedonica a nd I I talica w ere d iscovered a nd t he c oin s eries r uns f rom D omitian t o T rajan. I t w as a s tone b uilt f ort - s uggesting

3 42

2

3

6

4 L i

7 9

1 2

F ig 2 A pp l iques a nd p enden ts

1 5

1 4

1 3

1 6

1 0

1 7

1 8

1 :2

3 43

1

sC 0

1

Co

8

7

F ig 3 S ca le a rmour

1 : 2

3 44

9

t hat t his w as p ractised b efore t he r eign o f H adrian. O ccupation o f t he f ort c eased a fter i t h ad b een d estroyed b y f ire, w hich m ay h ave b een p art o f a d eliberate a bandonment p rocess, a s a lmost n o f inds r emain. M ilitary e quipment f rom t he s ite w as c onfined t o o ne s pearhead a nd a s hield b oss. T here a re t wo l egionary f ortresses a t t his t ime, t hat o f t he I III F lavia F elix a t B erzobia 32 u ntil t he r egiment's w ithdrawal s outh o f t he D anube i n A D 1 13/4, a nd t hat o f t he X III G emina a t A pulum. 33 A t B erzobia, a part f rom t he t ile s tamp e vidence a nd t he h elmet w hich R obinson d escribed a s I mperial I talic G34 t here i s l ittle s urviving e vidence f or t he f ortress a nd n o c omplete p lan o f t he f ort, b eneath t he m odern t own, h as y et b een r ecovered.

w hich l ies

T he l egionary e quipment i s e qually s parse f rom A pulum. I t i s b eneath a m ilitary h eadquarters b uilt i n t he f irst h alf o f t he 1 8th c entury when m ost a rchaeological m aterial w as d iscovered. L ater,

i n t he

1 860s, m ore f inds w ere m ade i n t he P ortos q uarter, t o t he s outh, when t he r ailway w as b uilt. L ike D robeta, m any o f t he f inds f rom A pulum r emain i n t he c ollection o f t he l ocal m useum , i n t his c ase A lba I ulia, a nd a re n ot y et p ublished.

3 5

A s w ell a s t he p osting o f l egionary v exillations f rom t he p rovincial prrison, l ike t hose o f t he I III F lavia F elix f rom B erzobia, w hich B enea 36 a rgues ( from t he o ccurrence o f t ile s tamps) w ere a ctive a t o ver A rcidava,

t wenty f orts i ncluding T ibiscum , P ojejana, l egions f rom o ther p rovinces w ere i nvolved i n

m ilitary i nfrastructure. T hus, t iles, e lements o f t he I A diutrix a pparently r esponsible f or a ny o f C laudia a nd I III F lavia F elix

D robeta, b uilding

a nd t he

a gain f rom t he o ccurrence o f s tamped w ere a t A pulum i n A D 1 07 a lthough n ot t he b uilding w orks; I I talica, V II h ad d etachments a t D robeta, p robably

o riginally d efending a nd b uilding t he b ridge a nd p robably n ot l ater t han A D 1 07/8; t roops o f t he V M acedonica h elped b uild S laveni, B umbesti, R acari a nd S ucidava w hilst d etachments o f I I talica a nd X I C laudia w ere a ttested a t B uridava, a s w ere X G emina a t S ucidava, l astly a s tamp o f X I C laudia a pparently o f e arly d ate w as f ound a t R omula. D espite t his e xtensive l egionary p resence i n t he p rovince, a lbeit f or a s hort p eriod, t here a re s urprisingly f ew d istinctive a rtefacts. T his, o f c ourse i s r eflected i n t he c urrent d ebate c oncerning t he d ifficulties o f i dentifying h ard a nd f ast d ifferences b etween t he e quipment o f t he t wo t ypes o f u nit, b ut o ther f actors a re i nfluential. T he l argely u npublished a ntiquarian c ollection o f A lba I ulia a nd t he g enuine p aucity o f m aterial f rom B erzovia ( and l ater f rom P otaissa) d istorts c omparisons w ith a uxiliary e quipment. T he u se o f s tamped t ile t o i dentify o utposted v exillations i s f raught w ith d ifficulties a nd t here r emains t he p ersistent p ossibility t hat t iles m anufacturer b ut n ot t he l ocation o f t hat r egiment.

i dentify

t he

E nough e xamples h ave b y n ow b een a dduced t o d emonstrate t hat a s a c onsequence o f a m ethodological f ailure t o k eep p ace, a rtefact s tudies h ave c ome t o r ely o n e xternal p arallels o r a n i nadequate p olitico-historical m odel f or d ating . M any h ave s ought I lies, i n a rt h istorical o r t ypological d escriptions. P erhaps

s urprisingly

r efuge,

l ike

t here a re m ore t han 6 23 a rtefacts r ecovered

3 45

a nd p ublished f rom D acia c overing a ll a spects o f m ilitary e quipment, m any o f t he f orms a re f amiliar f rom a ssemblages i n w estern l iterature, a lthough, h owever, w hether i t i s v alid t o d raw m ore t han f unctional p arallels f rom t hese i s n ot c lear. T he s equences d efined f rom t hose p rovinces a re d erived f rom m aterial a nd s culpture w hich m ay n ot o nly b e s patially d istant b ut u pon which t he i nfluences o f s uppliers, t aste a nd o rganisations m ay b e i nappropriate t o D acia. I t i s i nescapable b ut l argely i rrelevant t hat t he w orks o f O ldenstein 37 a nd R ussell R obinson 38 o we m uch t o T rajan's C olumn. Q uite a part f rom t hese r eservations a ny a nalogies a re f raught w ith t he p roblems o f r esiduality a nd o bsolescence. L astly, a s t he m etopes f rom A damklissi 39 h ave b een u sed t o i llustrate, t he e astern t roops 4 ° t hat w ere e mployed b y T rajan m ay h ave h ad a d ifferent e quipment r egime - s cale a rmour a nd l ighter f ittings. 41 N onetheless i t f ollows t hat a ll r eflected i n t he e quipment r epertoire.

t hese

f actors

s hould

b e

T he m ost s triking f eature i s t hat t he r ecovery o f p late a rmour a nd s cale d oes n ot r eflect t he e xpected p roportions. T here i s n o r eason t o d oubt t he e xtensive l egionary p resence i n t he p rovince, e ven i f i n d etail a rguments f or v exillation s econdment s eem i nflated, b ut t here i s a lmost n o p ublished l orica s egmentata. T o c onfound t he p roblem, o f t hat w hich i s p ublished, a h inge i s f rom S armizegetusa, 4 z a n u nconfirmed l egionary s ource; a p ossible a ngular h inge o f l orica s egmentata, C orbridge t ype, c omes f rom D robeta; 43 a nd a l obate h inge c omes f rom B uciumi,

4 4

a n a uxiliary f ort.

I n c ontrast t o t he p aucity o f ' legionary' m aterial ' auxiliary' e quipment i s w ell r epresented. I n b oth t he i nitial a nd l ater p eriod o f c onsolidation p robably s ome 1 34 f orts w ere o ccupied b y a uxiliary t roops. S cale a rmour h as b een f ound a t s everal o f t hese, 1° a s w ell a s a t U lpia T raiana

( although n one o f

D acia I nferior i s w here e quipment

f rom

t he

t he o ccurrences a re d ated - F ig.3). m ost

w ork

h as

b een

d one

o n

t he

f orts. L atterly V ladescu h as p repared a n e xtended l ist

o f t roops, f orts a nd w eaponry, c oncentrating o n t he e quipment f rom t welve f orts b ut i t i s l argely a n u ncritical w ork a nd h is a nalysis o f t he w eaponry i s s imply t ypographic. S ignificantly h is c atalogue c ontains a lmost n o b ronzework, e xcept t he s trap e nds f rom C opaceni a nd A rutela ( Fig.4) .46 T his i s b ecause a lthough h is m aterial i s d rawn f rom a v ariety o f s ites, h e d oes n ot d iscuss a ll t he p ublished a rtefacts f rom t hem ( see R isnov a bove). A nd s econdly h e d oes n ot d raw u pon t he m ajor, a lbeit u npublished, m useum c ollections. F rom a p rovince t hat i ncludes t he L imes A lutanus a nd t he L imes T ransalutanus V ladescu's s urvey g ives a n i nadequate s ample. T his i s t he o nly s ummary w hich d iscusses e quipment f rom t he s outh, f or T udor, 47 t he m ajor c ommentator, i n ' Dacia O ltenia' o nly u ses i t i llustratively. T he o ther p rovinces c reated b y t he H adrianic r eform

c ontain

l ong

s tretches o f f rontier - D acia P orolissensis t he n orthern f orts a nd l imes, i ncluding P orolissum, D acia S uperior t he w estern m argins a nd t he n odal f ort o f M icia; f rom n either o f t hese p rovinces h as t he e quipment b een r eviewed. F rom D acia P orolissensis t he m ajor p ublished a ssemblages c ome f rom B uciumi, 48 P orolissum 49 a nd G ilau ( Figs.2, a nd 4 -7). 50

3 46

Q i

4

3

2

a t 1 0 6

8

7

9

1

le er

ec

1 3

1 6

1 5

F i g 4 P enden ts a nd a pp l iques

1 4

1 :2

3 47

1 1

5 2

l i

7

6

8

1 1 0 9

1 2

1 5

1 3

4

F ig 5 App l iques

1 6

1 : 2

g u r 1 7

0

1 8 1 9

3 48

2 0

2 1

B uciumi w as d ug f rom 1 963 t o 1 970 u sing a c ombination o f t renches a nd a rea e xcavations, 5 1 b ut t he d ating e vidence f or i ndividual i tems w as

a mbiguous,

t he

c oin

s eries

r uns f rom T iberius t o P hilip I .

e quipment f rom t he f ort i ncludes h orse g ear ( Fig.6), p endants a w ide v ariety o f b uckles i ncluding o penwork m ounts, 5 2

T he

( Fig.4), b ut t he

i llustrated m aterial e xhibits t he p roblem o f u ncritical p resentation a s a r owel s pur i s s hown a longside o stensibly R oman a rtefacts. T his r aises t he s pectre o f r esiduality a nd l ater c ontamination p roblem f or p oorly p rovenanced a ssemblages.

w hich

i s

a

r eal

T he m ajor r esearch i n t he p rovince h as b een c onducted b y G udea 53 i n t he a rea o f P orolissum b ut a lthough i nterim r eports h ave a ppeared t he o nly m ilitary e quipment s o f ar i llustrated i s t hat f rom t he e xtensive g uide t o t he s ite 54 ( Figs.2 a nd 7 : o penwork m ounts, b uckles a nd p endants). G ilau, a n a uxiliary f ort w est o f N apoca ( Cluj N apoca), w as t he s eat o f t he p rocurator o f D acia P orolissensis, a nd h as b een c ontinuously e xcavated o ver s ummer s easons s ince 1 976. 55 I n 1 987 t he b ronzework, i ncluding p endants ( Fig.4.5), h arness c lips ( Fig.6) a nd o penwork m ounts, w as p ublished a nd f or t he f irst t ime p recise c ontextual d etail a nd d ating a nalogies w ere q uoted.

5 6

N o l arge a ssemblages h ave b een p ublished f rom t he t erritory o f D acia S uperior, e xcept t he a rtefacts f rom U lpia T raiana S armizegetusa, a nd m any a re a waiting p ublication i n m useum c ollections. 5 7 I n a ddition t o t he a ssemblages, i ndividual a rtefacts o f h igh p rofile h ave b een s tudied, f or t he m ost p art b y L iviu P etculescu. H e h as c oncentrated o n t he e arlier m aterial i ncluding t he B erzobis h elmet, s cabbard f ittings, h elmet c heekpieces, b elt p lates o f t he U tere F elix t ype, 58 t he B umbesti h elmet, 59 a nd t he b alteus ( below) . 60 P rotase a nd P etculescu 6 1 p resented t he B erzovia h elmet; i t w as e xtensively d escribed a nd c ame f rom t he f ormer's s ection t hrough t he f ortress, i n a d emolition l ayer o f b urnt t imber a nd t ile. I dentified w ith t he W eisenau t ype ( it w as p ublished j ust p rior t o R ussell R obinson's s urvey) o f K lumbach, i t w as d ated t o A D 1 06-18, w hen t he 1 111 F lavia F elix o ccupied B erzovia, b efore t ransferring t o S ingidunum ( Belgrade) i n A D 1 18/9. P etculescu 62 h as d iscussed t he d ecoration o n p ieces o f R oman a rmour f rom P orolissum ( found 1 913), B uciumi ( barrack n o.5) a nd o ne f ragment f rom O ltenia. T he i tems a re w ithout p recise c ontext b eyond t heir f indspot. P etculescu's p rinciple c oncern i s t he i dentity o f t he d epictions, M ars o r M ercury, t he p ossibility o f i dentifying t he u nit c oncerned a nd t he d ate o f t he p ieces ( in t he 3 rd c entury A D) w hich i s d erived f rom K lumbach. 6 3 T he B umbesti h elmet, d iscovered b y N icolaeculopsor i n 1 937, h as p arallels a t D akovo ( Bosnia) a nd B riastovets ( Burgas, B ulgaria) a nd w as i dentified w ith R ussell R obinson's A uxiliary I nfantry t ype D , a nd t he u nstratified h elmet a ssigned t o t he c ohors I V C ypria c ivium R omanorum, t hus d ated t o A D 1 06-80 s uggesting t hat t his m ay h ave b een m ade i n c amp f abrica.

t he

T wo a rticles a ppeared i n 1 983 - s cabbard f ittings a nd U tere F elix b elt p lates. I n t he f ormer P etculescu f ollowed R addatz i n s eeing a

3 49

C eltic o rigin f or t he t ype a nd f inding p arallels f or t he p ieces i n G ermania, R aetia a nd G ermania l ibra. B ecause t he f ittings a re f ound o n b oth l egionary a nd a uxiliary s ites - P orolissum, B uciumi, P otaissa, G ilau, R acari, C opaceni, R omula, M icia, T ibiscum a nd D robeta P etculescu a dvances t he a rgument t hat t his p articular t ype o f e quipment r eflects t he u se o f s imilar i tems b y b oth l egionaries a nd a uxiliaries. A ll t he p ieces a re d ated t o t he l ate 2 nd a nd 3 rd c enturies o n t he b asis o f t wo i ndicators: t he p eriod o f o ccupation o f P otaissa i s f rom A D 1 69 o n, a nd t he a rtefacts f rom M icia c ome f rom, ( unpublished) p ost M arcomannic r evolt,

d estruction l evels - c .AD 1 70.

B ut i t w as i n 1 982 t hat w ork,

t aking

t he

P etculescu

p roduced

a nalysis o f m ilitary e quipment,

h is

m ost

d etailed

c heekpieces i n t his

i nstance a s f ar a s p ossible w hilst c learly s hortcomings o f o nly g enerally p rovenanced m aterial.

i llustrating

t he

P rior t o 1 982 f our h elmets h ad b een p ublished f rom D acia, t he c avalry p arade t ype f rom L unca M uresului; t he ' Weisenau' t ype f rom B erzovia; t he O riental t ype f rom B umbesti; a nd t he R omula m ask. " P etculescu f i ade t he p oint t hat t here w ere m ore f ragments o f h elmets u npublished, a nd h e i dentified f our c heekpieces, f rom G radistea M uncelui ( with a r epoussg e agle r epresentation o f J upiter); M icia ( a W eisenau t ype, w ith p arallels a t B ryastovets, B urgas, B ulgaria); T ibiscum ( another W eisenau t ype, o f i st c entury d ate) a nd B uciumi. P etculescu f elt t he p rinciple p roblem t o b e a ddressed w as t hat o f t ypology a nd c hronology. T hus t he G radistea h elmet w as i dentified w ith t he I III F .F., a s t he u nit w as a ctive i n t he a rea a round S armizegetusa R egia, t he T ibiscum p iece w ith t he c ohors I V indelicorum m illiaria; t he B uciumi w ith t he c ohors I I N ervia B rittonum m illiaria a nd M icia w ith t he c ohors I I F lavia C ommagenorum e quitata s agittariorum - a ll w ere d ated t o t he 2 nd a nd 3 rd c enturies. B ut t here i s a f undamental w eakness h ere f or i t i s n ot e nough t o i dentify u nits w ith e quipment t ypes w ithout c larifying e ither t emporal o r s patial r elationships a s t his d oes n ot a llow f or l ater p erhaps m ore d etailed o r p robing r esearch. B ecause t here a re v ery f ew

w orks

o f

s ynthesis

a nd

a

l ack

o f

d etailed e vidence i t i s p remature t o a dvance d etailed f indings f rom t he e arly e quipment r epertoire, b ut t here a re c learly g eneral t rends e merging. B elt f ittings, t he m ost c ommon i tem i n t he b ronze r epertoire ( Fig.7), i n f act d isplay a w ide v ariety c omparable w ith O ldenstein 's G erman a nd R aetian c ollections, b ut c ontaining P annonian a nd M oesian f orms, 65 a nd n o d oubt r eflect t he c osmopolitan c haracter o f t he e arly D acian g arrison. G enerally t he e quipment r epertoire c ould r eflect f irst c entury o rthodoxy o f a uxiliaries i n s cale a rmour o r l ess, l egions i n l orica s egmentata ( as i ndeed T rajan 's C olumn m ay s how)

t he a nd b ut

i n t he c ontinued a bsence o f a ccurate d ating a nd i n t he knowledge t hat a v ery l arge b ody o f b ronze a rtefacts l ies u npublished i n m useum c ollections t here c an b e n o c onfidence i n t his. G iven t he w idespread u se o f t he l egions a nd t he a bsence o f p late a rmour s o p rolific o n t he C olumn i t m ay n ot b e p remature t o s uggest t hat t he d istinction b etween l egionaries a nd a uxiliaries w as e ven i n t he f irst d ecades o f t he 2 nd c entury b eing e roded a s b oth i ncreasingly t urned t o t he u se o f l orica s quamata. T he a ppliqués

l ater

2 nd

c entury i s a t ime o f g reat m ilitary t urmoil.

( Fig.5.15) a nd

a

s trap

e nd

3 50

f ound

i n

p ost

f ire

B elt

l evels,

2

4

3

C

0

e

6

r

1 0

1 2

z

1 4

F ig 6 H a rness f i t t ings

1 :2 3 51

O mm ow n 2

T › E D

3

F ig 7 B uck les

1 :2

2

F ig 8 S cabba rd f i t t ings

1 :2

2

F igure 9 1 :2

3 52

3

4

p rovisionally

d ated

t o

t he

p eriod o f r aiding d uring t he M arcomannic

w ars, a t S armizegetusa, m ay s uggest t roops a t c ivilian s ites. " O f c rucial, b ut l argely u nexplored i mportance, a s P etculescu h as i llustrated, i s t he a rrival o f t he V M acedonica i n A D 1 69 o n a n ew s ite a t P otaissa ( Turda) p roviding a p recise t erminus p ost q uem f or e quipment. M ajor e xcavations, t hough, h ave o nly t aken p lace i n t he 1 980s a nd t o d ate o nly o ne b elt f itting a nd f our s cabbard f ittings ( Fig.8), t he c oinage a nd a p rovisional p lan h ave b een p ublished b y M itrofan. 6 7 T he p ieces f rom P otaissa w ere d ated t o A D 1 68-271, t he s ame p eriod a s t he f ortress w as o ccupied a nd t hus s till b etraying a l ack o f d etailed c ontextual o r c omparative d ata. T he f ittings f rom P etculescu's o wn e xcavations a t M icia a nd t he r emaining a rtefacts w ere a ssigned a d ate r ange o f 2 nd t o 3 rd c entury. P etculescu u sed t hese i tems t o a rgue t hat m ost a uxiliary e quipment i s i ndistinguishable f rom l egionary f orms. S cabbard

f ittings

h ave

r eceived

t he

s ame

t reatment

b y

P etculescu " ( see a bove). N either o f h is p apers d o d eal w ith t he p roblem o f r esiduality, p artcularly r elevant a t P otaissa a nd i n n either h ave c ontextual a nalogies s uch a s p ottery a ssemblages o r o ther d atable a rtefacts b een e mployed. O f s imilar i mportance t o t he a rrival o f t he V M acedonica a t P otaissa a s a d ating t erminus i s t he c reation o f t he ' Limes T ransalutanus'. 69 T udor h as a rgued t hat a fter t he r eduction o f M oesia I nferior b y H adrian t he E astern f rontier o f D acia b ecame e stablished a long t he r iver O lt. I t r emained t here, w ith m inor c hanges, u ntil t he t urn o f t he 2 nd c entury. O n t he b asis o f a c oin h oard f rom S apata d e J os, d ated t o t he A D 2 40s, d eposited b eneath t he f loor o f a b urnt o ut b arrack a t t he d estruction o f t he b lock ( and t hus t he l imes), 7 ° t he a rguments r uns t hat i t c ould o nly h ave b een S everus w ho h ad h ad t he r esources t o a dvance t he l ine o f t he f rontier s ome 2 0/30 k ilometres e ast o f t he r iver O lt. H ere h ad b een c onstructed a l imes o f f ortlets, w atch t owers, a w ooden p alisade, a nd s ome 1 4 f orts w hich s urvived o nly a s hort t ime b efore t he t roops w ere w ithdrawn o nce m ore t o t he O lt. N otwithstanding t he c oin h oard, t he e vidence i s s lim. A s econd c oin h oard 7 1 a t I onestii G oroni ( Pons A luti o n t he l imes A lutanus!), f rom t he d estroyed f ort z i s n ot c omplementary a nd e vidence o f a b reak i n o ccupation a t J idava/ l imes f urther s outh. W hether

o r

2

a nd C umidava

n ot

o ne

( Risnov) 73

a ccepts

t he

i s n ot r elevant

v alidity

o f

t o

t he

t he

L imes

T ransalutanus, a nd i t h as b een s uggested t hat i t i s a H adrianic p henomenon, D acia h as a s ignificant r ole t o p lay i n t he m ilitary a narchy o f t he 3 rd c entury A D, n ot l east i n c larifying t he t ypes o f e quipment u sed a t t his t ime. T here

w ere

p robably

t wo

m ajor

c entres

f or t he e astern l imes,

R omula 74 a nd S ucidava, 75 b oth a re c ities which b ecame 3 rd c entury A D f ortresses, n either h ave a c learly u nderstood t opography o r h istory b ut R omula h as b een p roposed a s t he h eadquarters o f t he e astern f rontier. N o w ork o n t he f inds f rom T udor's e xcavations 76 h as y et b een p ublished ( although C ataniciu o bserved t here i s a l arge c orpus o f m ilitary e quipment f rom t he s ite) a nd i t i s s till t he c avalry p arade m ask, n ow i n

t he

K unsthistorisches

M useum

3 53

( inv.

I V

4 46),

V ienna,

t hat

c haracterises t his i mportant s ite. S ucidava, u nlike a ll t he s ites s o f ar d iscussed i s i dentified w ith l ater R oman e quipment 77 a nd t his i s w here t heir p otential l ies ( Fig.9). A t t he e nd o f t he 3 rd c entury a n ear c omplete c hange o f o rientation o f t he R oman d efences t akes p lace s hortly a fter t he w ithdrawal f rom t he p rovince; w hilst t he r easons f or t his a re a m atter o f h istory, t he e ffect u pon t he a rmy i s d iscernible i n t he e quipment r epertoire. I n A D 2 35-6 M aximinus T hrax ( 235-8) h aving w intered a t S irmium m oved a gainst h ostile t ribes l ater a ssuming t he t itle o f ' Sarmaticus M aximus' a nd ' Dacicus M aximus'. I n A D 2 38 t here w ere r aids, i nto L ower M oesia, b y t he C arpi o f D acia a nd o ther t ribes, i ncluding t he G oths, a nd b y t he 2 40s P hilip I w as b uilding n ew w alls a t R omula, D robeta a nd S ucidava. P erhaps t his w as t he f orerunner t o t he c onjectured w ithdrawal f rom t he L imes T ransalutanus i n t he m id-240s. C laudius I I d efeated t he G oths a t N aissus ( Nis) i n A D 2 70. D espite a ll t he a pparent u pheaval, m ilitary e quipment f rom t he f orts o n t he E astern b orders o f D acia, l ike J idava, d o n ot s how a ny t angible c hanges a nd t his s eems t ypical o f t he m aterial f rom f orts a ll o ver D acia. T hus t he c hanges a pparently v isible i n e quipment f rom t he r eforms o f t he T etrarchy o nwards a re n ot p reempted b y a t hemselves, f or

g radual e volution, a nd t his m ust r ender t he c hanges t roops o nce s tationed i n D acia, a ll t he m ore

s ubstantial. T hus w hat s eems t o b e e merging i s t hat d espite t he e ffects t he 3 rd c entury a pparently h ad u pon t he R oman a rmy e lsewhere, 78 i n D acia t he e quipment r egime a t l east r emains u nchanged u ntil t he m ajor r eorganisations o f C onstantine. T his v iew i s a lso i ronically r einforced b y t he p ublication s tandards o f m uch o f t he R omanian m aterial - f inds p resented w ithout a p recise c ontext a nd f rom t renches w hich c riss-cross f ort

s ites

a re

n ear,

a lthough

n ot

n ecessarily,

r andom

s amples.

T herefore a s a ssemblages t hey d o r eflect t he s cope a nd r ange o f e quipment a vailable t hroughout t he 2 nd a nd 3 rd c enturies, a nd m ay b e c ontrasted w ith a ssemblages r ecovered f rom t he n ew f oundations o f t he l ate 3 rd a nd e arly 4 th c enturies. T he l ack o f p erceived c hange s hould, t hough, b e s een i n t he l ight o f t he f act t hat m any m odern e xcavations l ike t hat a t t he i mportant e astern f ort o f J idava 79 h ave n ot y et b een p ublished i n f ull a nd t he m ilitary e quipment u sed b y V ladescu i s f rom e arly e xcavations. T he r eal c ontrast l ies i n t hose n ew f oundations o n t he n orth b ank o f t he D anube i n D acia R ipensis. T here a re t wo a spects t o t his, t hose f orts w hich w ere r efurbished 8 ° P alanka, P ojejena, M oldava, a nd t he n ew f ortresses ( quadroburgium) o f G ornea 81 a nd I nsula B anului. 82 G udea 83 s ummaries t he m ost f undamental c hanges: ' The f ound w eapons d iffer m uch f rom t he w eapons o f t he p revious p eriod. T here a re n o m ore l ong h eavy s pears, t hey a re l ight o nes. T hese b elong t o t he t ypes c alled " barbed i ron s pearhead" a nd " arrow r omboidal h ead" o f g reat i mportance i s t he d iscovery o f t hree e lements f rom t hree m anuballistae'. ( The l atter l ed t o t he d iscussion o f t he o ccurrence o f t hese w eapons b y G udea a nd B aatz 84 ) . Y et t he q uestion o f u niform i s n ot r aised a lthough a b uckle 85 i s s imilar t o t he S impson's T ype 1 1 86 a nd i llustrates a nother a spect o f a

3 54

r egime c hanged s ince A D 2 71. T hus t he D acias n orth o f t he e mpire i n A D 2 71, J ordanes d escribing

D anube c eased t o b e p art o f t he t he l ines o f c overed w agons

d riving s outh a s t he G oths r eturned t o t he D anube. A s f or t he m ilitary e quipment r egime t hat h ad s urvived l argely u nchanged o ver 2 00 y ears, t his w as r eorganised w ithin a g eneration. T here

i s

n o

d oubt

t hat R oman m ilitary e quipment w as d istributed

e xtensively a round a nd w ithin t he p rovince o f D acia w ith o ver 9 3 k nown a uxiliary r egiments, t hree c omplete l egions a nd d etachments f rom p ossibly s ix o thers o perating f rom o ver 1 34 f orts a nd f ortresses. I n s pite o f t his t he p ublished m ilitary m aterial i s s light, a nd e ven f or t he m ajor e xcavation r eports l ike t hose o f B uciumi, 87 I nlaceni, 88 a nd D rajna d e S us, 89 R isnov, 9° C opaceni, 9 1 n one o f t he a rtefacts i llustrated o r c atalogued a re d iscussed o r g iven t heir p recise c ontext a nd h ence a ny d iscussion p articularly i n a rticles o f s ynthesis l ike t hose o f P etculescu a nd D iaconescu a re h eavily r eliant o n f oreign w orks; i t w ould b e i mpossible t o p roduce t he t ype o f d iscursive a rticle t hat B ishop 92 p resented t o t he l imeskongress i n A alen. S imilarly d ifficult i s t he d erivation o f r ealistic d ate r anges - f or t he m ajority o f a rtefacts d iscovered i n R omania w ithout e xternal p arallels o r e pigraphic l eads t he u sual f ormula i s ' of t he s econd a nd t hird c enturies'. I t i s q uite i nadequate a nd c an c learly o nly b e i mproved b y a ttention t o c ontextual a nalogies a nd a spects l ike p ottery d ating a lthough t his f ield t oo i s s omewhat n eglected. O nlx o ne m ajor w ork o f s ynthesis h as b een w ritten, t hat b y P opilian 9 3 f or O ltenia a nd n o p ublication c onventions t hat a llow c orrelations b etween c ontexts a nd s ites h ave y et a ppeared. J ust a s f undamentally i mportant i s t he m ethodology e mployed i n s ite e xcavation, t he c ommon u se o f l ong n arrow t renches i s n ot c onducive e ither t o t he d iscovery o f a rtefacts o r t o t he p recise d efinition o f t heir c ontexts. M oreover s uch m ethods o ften d estroy, d istort o r m islead a nd t he m ore r igorous m ethodology o f c ontemporary p ractice n eeds c areful c onsideration i n R omania. U nfortunately u ntil t he q uality o f p ublished e vidence i mproves, c urrent r esearch i n w estern E urope b ecomes m ore a ccessible a nd d ialogue i mproves b etween o ur c ountries t hen t he u sefulness o f m ilitary e quipment d espite w hat I h ope h as b een a n o ptimistic r eview, w ill r emain s everely l imited.

N OTES 1 . R OSSI,

1 971b;

B ARKER,

2 . R ICHMOND,

1 982.

3 . R OSSI o p.

c it.,

4 . MACKENDRICK, 5 . K ALEDAROV, 6 .

1 981.

8 3-5.

1 975.

1 977.

C ONDURACHI & D AICOVICIU,

1 971.

3 55

7 . M ACKENZIE, 8 .

1 986.

C ONDURACHI,

9 . M ACREA ,

1 964.

1 969.

1 0. D AICOVICIU, 1. T UDOR ,

1 969.

1 976, O R4.

1 2. C HRISTESCU, 1 3. G UDEA,

1 977a; G UDEA ,

1 4. C ATANICIU, 1 5. G UDEA ,

1 937.

1 981.

1 986a.

1 6. P ETOLESCU,

1 980.

1 7. C ATANICIU,

1 981,

1 8. G UDEA & P OP, 1 9. C ATANICIU, 2 0. A LICU, 2 1.

I LLIES,

1 979.

6a nd r efs.

1 971.

1 981,

1 1.

1 980. 1 981.

2 2. D AICOVICIU e t a l.,

1 983.

2 3. C f. t he C arnuntum g roup w hich B ishop d rew a ttention t o 1 987. R LO I I, T af.XVII, 2 58. 2 4. D AICOVICIU & A LICU, 2 5. I LLIES,

1 984, F ig.6; A LICU,

1 980,

i n

D AWSON,

1 6.

1 981.

2 6. S ORACEANU, 1 979 ( pottery, T emplul M are); A LICU e t ( figured m onuments); A LICU & N EMES, 1 978 ( lamps).

a l.,

1 979

2 7. D AICOVICIU & A LICU, 1 984. T he l atest s ummary o f t he e xcavations w as t hat o f D aicoviciu a nd A licu, w ritten j ust b efore t he f ormer's d eath, b ut i t h as n o b ibliography a nd d oes n ot d etail t he d ebt o wed t o t he e pigraphic w ork o f P iso u pon w hose d ating m uch o f t he s ite r ests ( the h istory o f t he s ite p p.12-61). 2 8. T he q uestion o f s culptural e vidence h as b een t ouched u pon b y C OULSTON, 1 987, 1 46, a nd a lthough h e s uggests a n i ncrease i n 3 rd c entury f igural t ombstones, f ew a re p ublished. T he g eneral w orks a re t hose o f F LORESCU, 1 942 a nd M ARINESCU, 1 982. 2 9.

C ATANICIU,

3 0.

S YME,

1 981,

1 968.

2 3.

A lthough a c ollection o f p apers p roduced o ver .several

3 56

d ecades T he D anubian P apers p ublication i s t he m ost a ccessible f ormat f or c onsiderations o f t he e arly g arrison i n E nglish ; o therwise t he t wo w orks o f M OGA , 1 985 a nd B ENEA, 1 983 a re t he p rinciple s yntheses o f l egionary s tudies f or t he p rovince. 3 1.

S TEFAN,

3 2.

B ENEA,

3 3. M OGA,

1 945-7. 1 983,

1 985,

3 4. R OBINSON,

1 53-7. 2 2.

1 975.

3 5. T UDOR,

1 968,

1 44-72.

3 6.

1 983,

1 53-6.

B ENEA,

3 7. O LDENSTEIN,

1 976.

3 8. R OBINSON,

1 975.

3 9.

1 984;

S AMPETRU,

4 0. R OSSI,

1 971,

4 1. R ICHMOND, 4 2.

F LOREA e t a l.,

f ig.V.

1 982.

I LIES,

1 981,

f ig.16.8.

4 3. T UDOR,

1 976,

p l.X.8.

4 4. G UDEA & P OP, 1 979, i nstead o f 1 :2). 4 5.

1 965.

S laveni, V LADESCU,

p l.LXIII

1 983,

f ig.127;

p ublished a t t he w rong s cale,

I nlaceni,

G UDEA,

1 979,

1 :1

p l.XVIIII;

D robeta, T UDOR, 1 976, p l.XIII.3; T ibiscum, A NN, 1 983, X X p l.XI.16, 1 7; B uciumi, G UDEA, 1 972, p l.LXVIII, C XIV; G ilau, D AICONESCU & O PREAN, 1 987b, f ig.4.32. 4 6. V LADESCU, 1 983. V ladescu u sed a rmour a nd e quipment f rom 1 3 f orts b ut w as u nable t o u se t he a ssemblage f rom P raetorium I ( Copaceni) w hich w as i n t he c ourse o f p ublication b y T UDOR ( 1982, f ig.2.3, 6 -10). 4 7.

T UDOR,

1 976.

4 8. G UDEA,

1 972.

4 9. G UDEA,

1 987.

5 0. D AICONESCU & O PREAN, 5 1. G UDEA,

1 972,

5 2. O LDENSTEIN,

1 987.

f ig.3. 1 976,

c f.

p endants T af.36,

3 57

o penwork T af.62.

5 3.

G UDEA,

1 980.

5 4.

G UDEA,

1 987.

5 5.

E xcavations a t P orolissum h ave

b een p ublished b y G udea i n t he

t hree

l atest v olumes o f AMP 1 984,5,6. 5 6.

DAICONESCU & O PREAN,

5 7.

DAICONESCU

&

1 987a.

O PREAN

i n DAWSON,

1 987,

1 57,

t here a re p erhaps 1 000

i tems a waiting p ublication i n C luj. 5 8.

P ETCULESCU,

1 983.

5 9.

P ETCULESCU & GHEORGHE,

6 0.

P ETCULESCU,

6 1.

PROTASE & P ETCULESCU,

6 2.

P ETCULESCU,

6 3.

K LUMBACH,

1 962,

1 88.

6 4. R OBINSON,

1 975,

1 24-5;

1 980,

1 979.

i ncluding t wo f rom P otaissa. 1 975.

1 975.

G ARBSCH,

1 979,

7 0;

V LADESCU,

1 983,

1 95-203.

6 5. V eliko T arnovo Museum. 6 6.

D AWSON,

f orthcoming.

s tructure

b rief d escription ( March

T he

s ite

r eferred

1 985)

o f

a nd

t he

s ite

a ppeared

i s

a n

e xtra

m ural

S armizegetusa.

i n P opular

A

A rchaeology

i nterim r eports h ave b een p roduced a nnually f or

t he M uzeul d e I stoire a l T ransylvanie, 6 7.

t o

( EM 2 3) s ome 5 0m f rom t he w alls o f U .T.

C luj-Napoca.

M ITROFAN, 1 969; s ee a lso P ETCULESCU, 1 980. A s t his g oes t o p ress, M . B arbulescu h as p ublished L egionea V M acedonica s i c astrul d e l a P otaissa,

( Cluj

1 987).

6 8.

P ETCULESCU,

1 983.

6 9.

T UDOR,

7 0.

I stros. R evue r oumaine d 'archeologie e t d e i stoire 1 975, q uoted i n f ull i n C ATANICIU, 1 981, n ote 2 91.

1 972.

7 1. P ETRE-GOVORA , 1 936;

1 986.

M ITEA,

a ncienne.

I ,

1 968.

7 2.

T UDOR,

P OPESCU & P OPESCU,

1 970.

7 3.

G UDEA & P OP,

7 4.

T UDOR,

1 968.

7 5.

T UDOR,

1 968,

7 6.

T here i s a n e xtensive b ibliography f or t he s ite o f R omula - m any o f

1 971.

2 02-11.

3 58

t he c ommentaries a re c oncerned w ith t he i dentification o f t he c olonia M alvensis w ith t his c ity ( and t herefore t he a rea o f t he p rovince o f D acia M alvensis). T he e xtensive, b ut l argely t rench e xcavations o f T udor h ave n ot b een p ublished i n f ull, b ut w ere s ummarised i n 1 968 ( TUDOR, 1 968), t he l atest p aper b y P ETOLESCU ( 1987) s ummarises t he e vidence f or c olonia M alvensis. 7 7. T UDOR, 1 968, 4 55, f ig.140 s hows f rom S ucidava; B ULLINGER, 1 969. 7 8. J ONES,

1 986,

6 07-8,

t he 4 th a nd

s ummarises

t he

5 th

c entury

o rthodox p osition,

m aterial

t hat t he

r eforms o f t he m ilitary w ere l argely t he r esponsibility o f C onstantine, b ut T OMLIN, 1 987, i n WACHER, 1 987, s ees a n e volution f rom t he r eign o f A urelius. 7 9. V LADESCU,

1 983,

8 0. G UDEA,

1 982,

8 1. G UDEA,

1 987.

8 2. D AVIDESCU, 8 3. G UDEA,

9 3.

1 977,

S IMPSON,

1 972.

8 8. G UDEA,

1 979.

S TEFAN,

f ig.50.4. 1 95-6.

1 945-7.

9 0. G UDEA & P OP, 9 1. T UDOR,

1 974.

1 976,

8 7. G UDEA,

8 9.

1 944.

1 980.

8 4. G UDEA & B AATZ,

8 6.

T OCILESCU,

f ig.5.

1 977,

8 5. G UDEA,

f ig.99.8;

1 971.

1 982.

9 2. B ISHOP,

1 986.

9 3. P OPILLIAN,

1 976.

B IBLIOGRAPHY coperti a d U lpia T raiana A LICU, D ., 1 983: ' Elementi d i d ivisa m ilitare s S armizegetusa', A NN XX, 1 983, 3 91-5 A LICU,

D .,

1 980, A LICU,

1 980:

' Le

c amp

S armizegetusa',

P otaissa,

l egionnaire

d u

1 978:

L amps f rom S armizegetusa,

2 2-8

D .,

&

N EMES,

I nternational S eries

E ., 1 8,

R oman

( Oxford 1 978)

3 59

B AR

A LICU,

D .,

P OP,

C .,

S armizegetusa, B ARKER,

P .

a nd

W OLLMAN,

V .,

1 979:

F igured

B AR I nternational S eries 5 5,

1 981:

Armies

a nd E nemies o f

M onuments

( Oxford

f rom

1 979)

I mperial R ome,

( Goring b y S ea

1 981) B ENEA,

D .,

1 983:

D in i storia m ilitaria a M oesia S uperior s i

L eg V II C laudia,

L eg I III F F,

B ISHOP, M .C., 1 986: R oman f orts o f M ilitärgrenzen ( Stuttgart B ISHOP, M .C., B ODOR, A .,

( Cluj-Napoca

' The d istribution t he f irst c entury R oms

I II.

1 3.

a

D aciei:

1 983)

o f m ilitary e quipment w ithin A .D.' i n S tudien z u d en

i nternationaler

L imeskongress,

1 986) 1 987:

' The e volution o f c ertain f eatures'

& W INKLER,

I .,

1 979:

' Un

a telier

d e

i n DAWSON,

1 987

a rtisanat', ANN

X VI,

1 979 B ULLINGER, H ., C ARTER,

W .,

1 969:

1 977:

C ATANICIU,

S pätantiker G urtelbeschläge,

A n H istorical G eography o f

I .B.,

1 981:

V .,

1 937:

t he B alkans,

1 969) ( London 1 977)

E volution o f D efence W orks i n R oman D acia,

I nternational S eries C HRISTESCU,

( Bruges

1 16,

( Oxford

I storie

B AR

1 981)

M ilitara

a

D aciei

R omane,

( Buburesti

1 937) C OULSTON,

J .C.,

1 987:

t ombstones', C ONDURACHI,

C ONDURACHI, D AICONESCU,

i n DAWSON,

E .M.,

( Bucuresti

' Roman

1 964:

m ilitary

R omanian

E .,

a nd DAICOVICIU,

A .,

a nd

O PREANU,

a nd O PREANU,

DAICOVICIU,

C .,

1 969:

D acica

DAICOVICIU,

C .,

P ISO,

I .,

1 971:

C .,

i n

t he

2 0th

C entury,

R omania

1 987:

' A

( Geneva 1 971) n ote on R oman m ilitary

i n DAWSON,

1 987

C .,

' Bronzuri R omane d in c astrul d e

1 987b: 5 2-71

( Cluj-Napoca

A LICU,

S armizegetusa,

( Bucuresti

D .,

M ateriale

1 969)

1 983: s i

S apaturile

C ercetari

d e

l a

U lpia _

A rcheologice X V,

1 983)

C .,

a nd

S armizegetusa, M .,

A rchaeology

C .,

l a G ilau l , S CIVA T om 3 8 p t.1,

D AWSON,

t hird c entury

1 964)

D AICONESCU, A .,

DAICOVICIU,

o n

1 987

e quipment f rom R omania',

T raiana

e quipment

( ed.)

A LICU,

D .,

( Cluj-Napoca

1 984)

1 987:

1 984:

C olonia

T he A ccoutrements o f W ar.

T hird R oman M ilitary E quipment R esearch S eminar, S eries 3 36,

( Oxford

1 987)

3 60

U lpia

T raiana

P roceedings o f B AR

t he

I nternational

F LORESCU,

F .B.,

A damklissi, F LORESCU,

G .R.,

( Bucuresti G ARBSCH,

J .,

1 965:

T ropaeum

( Bucuresti

T raiani

d as

1 942: M onumenti F unerari R omani d ella

1 979:

R ömische P araderüstungen,

C astrul R oman d e l a B uciumi,

G UDEA, N .,

1 977:

' Gornea',

N .,

G UDEA, N ., G UDEA, N ., 1 979, G UDEA ,

1 977:

' Limesul

D aciei

R omane

d e

l a

T raianus

( 106)

l a

1 977

1 979:

' The d efensive s ystem o f

1 980:

N .,

' Recent

N .,

1 980,

1 986a: s i

I .B.

A MP 3 ,

R oman

1 979

D acia',

B ritannia

X ,

' Sistemul

C ataniciu,

I .I.,

a nd

1 981:

JONES, A .H.M. 1 964)

1 986,

D acie

i ntre

1 83-203

1 986)

D as R ömerlager

L .J.F.,

' Arme

P .S.

( Oxford R omane

A MN X VIII,

1 964:

v on

R isnov

( Rosenau),

1 981,

1 980:

F rontier S tudies,

B AR

d escoperite

l a

U lpia

T raiana

4 13-24

T he L ater R oman E mpire

1 977:

R oman

1 980)

2 84-602,

V ol.I & I I,

( Oxford

' Ethical a nd p olitical p reconditions f or r egional t he B alkan p eninsula',

i n

1 977

K LUMBACH, H . R GZM X III, MACKENDRICK, A .

1 962: 1 966,

P .

1 975:

' Drei r ömische S childbuckel a us M ainz', 1 65-89 T he D acian S tones

S peak,

1 986: A rchaeology i n R omania.

O ccupation, M .

p rovincilor

n ote s i c ompletari c ritice l a

i n t he c entral a nd e astern p arts o f

C ARTER,

MACKENZIE,

a l

AMP X ,

( Bucuresti

1 971:

K EPPIE,

S armizegetusa'

n ames

i n

1 971)

W .,

K ALEDAROV,

d efensiv

B AR 1 16),

I nternational S eries 5 7, C .

o n t he l imes o f R oman D acia',

( Observatie,

P orolissum,

a nd P OP,

( Cumidava

r esearch 7 99-814

f ictiune.

1 986b:

G UDEA, N .,

MACREA ,

1 972)

6 3-89

c artea

I LIES,

I nferior,

1 977

' Castrul R oman d e l a I nlaceni',

N .,

HANSON,

( Cluj

1 979:

r ealitate

G UDEA ,

B anatica,

( 275)', A MP 1 ,

H ANSON & K EPPIE, G UDEA,

D acia

( Munich 1 979)

1 972:

A urealius

v on

1 942)

G UDEA, N .,

G UDEA,

S iegesdenkmal

1 965)

1 969:

( California 1 975)

T he M ystery

( London 1 986) V iata i n D acia R omana,

3 61

J ahrbuche

( Bucuresti

1 969)

o f

t he

R oman

MARINESCU, L .T. 1 982: F unerary M onuments i n D acia S uperior a nd D acia P orolissensis, B AR I nternational S eries 1 28, ( Oxford 1 982) M ITREA,

B .

M ITROFAN, V I, M OGA ,

1 968: I .

1 969:

1 969,

V .

S CN I V,

1 968,

2 09-22

' Descoperiri a rcheologice l a

P otaissa,

T urda',

AMN

5 17-23

1 985:

D in i storia m ilitara a D aciei R omane,

( Cluj-Napoca

1 985)

O LDENSTEIN, J . 1 976: ' Zur A usrüstung r ömischer A uxiliareinheiten', B ericht d er R ömische G ermanischen K ommission 5 7, 1 976, 4 9-284 P ETCULESCU,

L .

1 975:

' Garnituri d e a rmura r omane d in D acia',

m ateriale d e M uzeografie s i P ETCULESCU,

L .

1 975b:

I stoire M ilitara 7 -8,

S tudie

s i

1 974-5

' Coiful R oman d e l a B erzovia',

B anatica,

1 975,

8 5-9 P ETCULESCU, L . 1 980,

P ETCULESCU, 1 982,

1 980:

L .

1 983,

B alteus

1 982:

1 983:

P otaissa,

' Obrazare d e c oifuri R omane d in O ltenia',

' Centiroane d e

1 983:

L .

&

S CIVA 3 0:4,

t ip " Utere F elix ",

' Prinzatoare d e

t eaca R omane d in

G HEORGHE,

1 979,

AMN 1 9,

M useo N ationale

D acia', AMN

2 0,

P .

1 979:

C .

1 980:

O ltenia,

P ETOLESCU,

C .

1 987:

' Colonia Malvensis',

P ETRE-GOVORA,

G h.

E m.

1 968:

&

s apaturilor

G h.

P OPESCU,

R ICHMOND,

I .

R OSSI, L .

1 971:

1 976:

1 982:

( Craiova 1 980)

S CN I V,

e fectuate

C impulung Muscel

' Coiful R oman d e l a B umbesti',

6 03-6

P ETOLESCU,

P OPILLIAN,

D acia',

4 51-66

P ETCULESCU,

P OPESCU,

d in

6 9-73

P ETCULESCU, L . 1 983,

d e

2 91-300

P ETCULESCU, L . 7 ,

' Inchizatoare

5-62

E u. i n

1 968,

1 987

2 07

1 970: a nil

S CIVA 3 8:1,

' Raport 1 962-1967

( Jidava)', MCA I X,

1 970,

p reliminare i n

c astrul

a supra d e

l inga

2 61-2

C eramica R omana d in O ltenia,

( Craiova 1 976)

T rajan's A rmy o n T rajan 's C olumn,

( London 1 982)

' Dacian f ortifications o n T rajan's C olumn', A ntiq J L I,

1 971 R OSSI,

L .

1 971b :

T rajan's C olumn a nd t he D acian W ars,

R OBINSON, H .R.

1 975:

T he A rmour o f

S AMPETRU,

1 984:

T ropaeum

M .

I mperial R ome,

T raiani,

3 62

V ol.II.

( London 1 971)

( London 1 975) M onumentele

r omane,

( Bucharest

1 984)

S IMPSON, C .J. 1 976: ' Belt b uckles a nd s trap e nds o f t he l ater R oman e mpire; a p reliminary s urvey o f s everal n ew g roups', B ritannia V II, 1 976, 1 92-224 S OROCEANU, A . 1 979: ' Tipologia c eramicii R omane d in T emplul P ater d e l a U lpia T raiana S armizegetusa', A NN X VI, 1 979, S TEFAN, G h. 1 945-7

1 945-7:

T OCILESCU, G ., 1 944: B ucuresti X XXVII, T OMLIN, R .S.O.

1 987:

' Le c amp R omain d e D rajna d e S us',

' Butelinul C omisiunii 1 944, 1 19-22 ' The a rmy o f

T UDOR , D . 1 936: ' Castrele r omane C impulung-Muscel', B ucuresti I I, 1 936, T UDOR , D . 1 944: ' Arme s i d iferite X XXVII, 1 944, 1 19-22 T UDOR, D .

1 968:

O ltenia R omana,

T UDOR , D .

1 968b:

R omula,

o biecte

( Bucuresti

( Bucuresti

D acia X I-XII,

M onumentelor

t he l ate E mpire', d e 8 9,

1 968,

I storice',

i n WACHER,

l a 1 17

d in

l ui L iber 5 51-76

J idava

1 987 d e

l inga

c astrul

J idava',

B CMI

3 rd e d.;

1 976 4 th e d.)

1 968)

T UDOR , D . 1 972: ' Nouvelles r echerches a rcheologique s ur l e l imes A lutanus e t l e L imes T ransalutanus', i n A ctes d u 9 C ongres i nternationale d 'etudes s ur l e f rontier R omane, ( Bucuresti 1 972) T UDOR , D . 1 976: O biecte d e m etal d in D robeta, d escoperite i n s apaturile l ui D .C. B utulescu s i G r.G. T ocilescu ( 1896-1899), ( Drobeta 1 976), 17-37 T UDOR ,

D .

1 982:

( Copaceni, 1 982) V LADESCU, WACHER , J .

C .M.

M ateriale

a rcheologice

d in

c astrul

j udetul V ilcea) d escoperit d e G r.G.

1 983:

( ed.)

A rmata R omana i n D acia I nferior,

1 987: T he R oman W orld,

3 63

P raetorium

T ocilescu,

( London 1 987)

I

( Drobeta

( Bucuresti 1 983)

A PPENDIX:

F IGURE C APTIONS A ND T HEIR S OURCES

F ig.1:

M ap o f s ites m entioned i n t he t ext.

F ig.2:

O penwork m ounts a nd p endants.

1R isnov

( GUDEA & P OP,

2

"

( ibid.,

1 971,

3

"

( ibid., T af.LVIIa,l)

4 D robeta

( TUDOR,

1 976,

5 6

( ibid., ( ibid.,

p l.IX,9) p l.IX,13)

"

T af.LVIIa,7)

T af.LVIIa,5) p l.IX,6)

7 P orolissum ( GUDEA, 8 I f ( ibid.,

1 986, f ig.XIX) f ig.XIX)

9

f ig.XIX) T here i s a n ear i dentical h arness(?)

( ibid.,

m ount

f rom

T ibiscum

( BONA,

1 982,

p l.VIII) 1 0.

( ibid.,

1 1.

f ig.XIX) A s 9 a bove,

( ibid.,

f ig.XIX)

1 2.

( ibid.,

f ig.XVIII)

1 3.

( ibid.,

f ig.XVIII)

1 4.

( ibid.,

f ig.XVIII)

1 5.

( ibid.,

f ig.XVIII) f ig.XVIII)

1 6.

( ibid.,

1 7.

( ibid.,

f ig.XVIII)

1 8.

( ibid.,

f ig.XVIII)

F ig.3:

c f p l.VIII

S cale a rmour.

1 S laveni

( after V LADESCU,

2

( ibid.,

"

3 U .T.

1 983,

S armizegetusa

( DAICONESCU e t a l.,

4 I nlaceni

( GUDEA,

1 979,

5 6

( ibid., ( ibid.,

p l.XVIII) p l.XVIII)

i t

7 D robeta

( TUDOR,

8 T ibiscum ( AMN,

f ig.126)

f ig.127)

1 976,

1 981,

f ig.10.18)

p l.XVIII)

p l.XIII)

1 983)

9 T ibiscum ( ibid.) F ig.4:

P endants.

1 B uciumi

( GUDEA,

1 972,

2

( ibid.,

p l.CXVII.2)

"

p l.CXVII.1)

3 A rutela ( after VLADESCU, 1 983, 4 C opaceni ( ibid., f ig.129) 5 B uciumi

( GUDEA,

1 972,

f ig.130)

p l.LXXI.39) c atarama' p endant.

6 G ilau ( DAICONESCU & O PREAN, 7 8

U I t

( ibid., ( ibid.,

9 B uciumi 1 0 1 1

1 987,

f ig.8.59b) f ig.8.59c)

( GUDEA,

1 972,

( ibid., ( ibid.,

p l.LXXI.28) p l.CXVIII.3)

p l.CXVII.5)

1 2

( ibid.,

p l.LXXII.1a/b)

1 3 1 4

( ibid., ( ibid.,

p l.LXXV.2a/b) p l.LXXV.1a/b)

1 5

( ibid.,

p l.LXXII.20

1 6

( ibid.,

p l.LXXV.3)

3 64

d escribed p robably

f ig.8.59a)

a s

' limba

d e

h orsegear

F ig.5: R iveted a ppliqués, 1 B uciumi

( GUDEA,

o penwork m ounts,

1 972,

2G ilau ( DIACONESCU & O PREAN, 3

( ibid.,

1 987,

( GUDEA, ( ibid.,

f ig.XVIII)

1 972, p l.LXXI.27) p l.LXXVII)

8 P raetorium I ( TUDOR,

1 982,

p .53.2)

9 B uciumi 1 0 t

( GUDEA, ( ibid.,

1 972, p l.LXXIII) p l.LXXV)

1 1 1 2 1 3

( ibid., ( ibid.,

p l.LXXIV) p l.LXXII)

i f

1 4

t

( ibid., ( ibid.,

p l.LXXV.5) p l.LXXV.4)

t

p 1.5.59d)

p 1.5.59e)

4 ( ibid., p 1.5.59f) 5 P orolissum ( GUDEA, 1 987, 6 B uciumi 7 "

b elt m ounts.

p l.CXVII.9)

1 5 U .T. S armizegetusa, EM23, l ay 1 00, p ost A D 1 72 f loor s urface. 1 6 G herla ( GUDEA & C HIFOR, 1 978, p l.IV.20) 1 7 B uciumi 1 8 1 9 2 0 D ierne

( GUDEA, ( ibid.,

1 972, p l.CXVIII.13) p l.CXVIII.14)

( ibid.,

p l.LXXIII)

( BODOR & W INKLER,

1 979,

f ig.8.14)

2 1 U .T. S armizegetusa ( DAICOVICIU, 1 983, 2 2 B uciumi ( GUDEA, 1 972, p l.CXIII.31)

f ig.10.3)

F ig.6: H orsegear. 1 B uciumi

( GUDEA,

1 972,

2 3

( ibid., ( ibid.,

p l.LXXVI) p l.LXXX)

" "

4 T ibiscum ( ANN,

1 983,

p l.LXXIX)

p l.X.5)

5 G ilau ( DAICONESCU & O PREAN, 6 ( ibid., f ig.6.48i) 7

( ibid.,

f ig.6.47)

8

( ibid.,

f ig.5.48g)

( ibid.,

f ig.5.48a)

9 1 0

( ibid.,

f ig.5.48d)

1 1

( ibid.,

f ig.5.48e)

1 2

( ibid.,

f ig.5.48f)

1 3

( ibid.,

f ig.5.48a)

1 4

( ibid.,

f ig.5.48b)

F ig.7:

f ig.6.48h)

B elt p lates a nd b uckles.

1D robeta

( TUDOR,

1 976,

2

( ibid.,

p l.VII.1)

"

p l.III.1)

3 P orolissum ( GUDEA,

1 987,

4 5

( ibid., ( ibid.,

f ig.XVI, f ig.XVI,

( ibid.,

f ig.XVI,

6 7 R isnov F ig.8:

1 987,

( GUDEA & P OP,

f ig.XVI,

1 971,

p .68)

p .68) p .68) p .68) T af.LVIIa)

S cabbard m ounts.

1P otaissa

( PETCULESCU,

2

( ibid.,

"

1 983,

f ig.1.2)

f ig.1.6)

F ig.9: L ate R oman. 1D robeta

( TUDOR,

1 976,

p l.VII)

3 65

3 rd & 4 th c entury A D

2P raetorium I ( TUDOR, 1 982, p .53.12) 3 S ucidava ( TUDOR, 1 968, f ig.140) 4

"

( ibid.,

f ig.140)

3 66

I NDEX

A bbeville-Hombliares: 1 48, 1 54 A bergavenny: 2 73 A chilles: 1 3, 1 4 A cidava: 3 39 a ctresses: 2 6 A damklissi: 3 2, 3 9, 7 2, 7 5, 3 37, 3 46 a dlocutio: 3 2 A d T ricesimum L apidem : 6 4 A egium : 2 63 A egolium : 2 56 P . A elius M estrius: 5 3 a la G allorum e t T hracum C lassia na: 2 1 P etriana: 2 1 IT hracum: 2 19-20, 2 23 A lba J ulia: • 345 A lchester: 2 73 A lesia: 9 9, 1 00, 1 01, 1 16 A lexander: 1 70 A lexander S everus: s ee S everus A lexander A licu , D .: 3 40, 3 56 A llier, R iver: 7 6 A lps: 2 6 A mbleside: 2 73 A miens: 8 8, 9 2, 9 3, 1 14 A mor: 2 90, 3 13 a mphorae: 1 70, 1 71-2, 1 74, 1 76 a nimal s kins: 3 5 A nnaius: 6 2 a nnona m ilitaris: 2 7 A nonymus: 2 48 a ntler p late: 1 70 A ntonine W all: 1 3, 5 3 A ntoninus P ius: 5 3 M . A ntonius E xochus: 2 07 A pollodorus: 3 4, 3 40 a pron : 3 2, 6 2, 6 4 A pulum : 3 45 a quilae: 4 0 A quincum: 5 3, 5 9 A rch o f C onstantine: 2 95 a rchers: 3 1, 4 0, 2 67, 2 69, 3 12 A rcidava: 3 45 A rdoch: 2 73 A rgenton-sur-Creuze: 7 8, 7 9, 1 17 a rmlets: 1 8 a rmour: 2 65 a rrowheads: 4 , 1 47, 1 48, 1 49, 1 50, 2 15, 2 65, 3 39, 3 40 a rtillery: 3 4, 4 0, 1 50, 1 51, 1 52

A rutela: 3 46, 3 64 A sculum : 2 75 a sh ( Fraxinus e xcelsior): 1 49 A sse-Kalkoven : 7 7, 8 2, 9 1, 1 03, 1 06, 1 08, 16, 18 A ssyrians: 2 65-6, 2 70 A thenians: 7 A thens: 5 2 A ugst: 14 A ugustus: 2 5, 6 4, 6 8, 2 69 A urelian : 3 38 T . A urelius P robo: 2 99 A utun : 8 1, 8 3, 9 9, 1 00, 1 01, 14, 15, 16, 1 17 a uxilia: 3 2, 2 69, 2 70, 2 73 a uxiliaries: 3 3, 3 4, 3 5, 3 6 A venches: 14 a xe: 1 52

1 48, 1 02, 1 09,

1 02,

B aatz, D .: 6 6, 1 50, 3 54 B acchus: 2 90, 3 13 B ad C annstatt: 4 9, 5 1 b aldrics: 3 2 B alearic i slanders: 2 56, 2 63, 2 69, 2 70 i slands: 2 67 b allista b all: 1 74 B almuildy : 2 73 b alteus: 5 1, 6 1, 6 4, 3 49 B anat: 3 37 B arcöczi, L .: 1 30, 1 33 B ar H ill: 2 55, 2 73, 2 75, 3 12 B arker, P .: 2 47 b arrels: 1 67 B atavian r evolt: 4 b attlefields: 3 -4 B ayeux t apestry: 4 b ead, g lass: 1 71 B elgium : 7 7, 8 1 B elgrade: 3 49 B elisarius: 2 47 b elts: 6 1, 6 2, 6 4, 6 6, 6 7, 1 80, 1 83, 1 87 b uckles: 1 70, 1 80, 1 84, 3 49, 3 54 p lates: 1 59, 1 62-3, 1 70, 1 79-81, 1 87, 3 40, 3 52 m ounts: 3 48, 3 49, 3 50 p endants: 3 40, 3 49 B enea, D .: 3 45 B enwell: 1 6, 1 7

3 67

B ern Rossfeld: B erzovia:

7 8,

1 13 4 5, 3 45,

8 6,

1 01,

3 49,

1 12,

B udapest:

2 07

B umbesti: 3 39, 3 45, 3 49, 3 50 B ürgelstein c emetery: 8 7,

3 50

1 02,

B ibracte: 8 8, 8 9, 1 14 B ingen : 1 13 B irdoswald: 2 73 B irrens: 1 6, 2 73 B ishop, M .: 7 5, 7 6, 7 9, 8 0, 8 4, 9 4, 9 5, 9 6, 9 7, 1 01, 1 09, 1 10, 2 27, 2 44,

1 03, 1 04, 1 07, 1 14, 1 15, 1 18 b urgus: 1 54 B uridava: 3 42, 3 45 B urnswark: 2 56, 2 61, 2 71, 2 73 b utton-and-loop f asteners: s ee

3 55, 3 56 B ititralis: 2 23 B lackburn M ill: 1 4 B ogaers, J .: 2 19 b olt-heads: 1 46-7, 1 49-50, 1 51, 1 52 B onn: 4 9, 1 30, 2 98, 3 00, 3 15 B onner B erg f abrica: 5 1, 5 9, 2 95, 3 07, 3 11

b uttress: B utzbach:

b ooty: 4 -5, 1 3 B osham h arbour: 3 B oudica: 6 B ourbon-Lancy: 7 8, 1 03, 1 06, 1 09, 1 18 B ourg : 9 9, 1 16 B ow B roch : 1 4 b owmen: 2 60 B raat, W .: 1 93, 2 19 b racae: 9 0, 9 8 b reeches: 3 2 B riastovets: 3 49, 3 50 B ridgeness: 5 3, 5 4 B rigantes: 1 3 B rigetio: 1 23, 1 25, 1 27, 1 30, 1 31, 2 07 B rimeux : 8 8, 9 2, 9 3, 1 14 B rincovinesti: 3 42 B ritannia: 2 5, 2 7 b rooches: 1 4, 1 10, 1 52, 1 63, 1 74 b ow : 1 59, 1 63, d olphin: 1 4

1 64,

d ress f asteners

1 08,

1 28,

1 70,

1 70

3 53 c ataphract t roops: 2 89 Q . C atius L ibo: 3 C atsgore: 2 73 C atuvellauni: 1 6 c auldrons: 1 4 81 c avalry, D utch: 2 R oman: 2 , 2 69, 2 83 C aw G ap: 1 6 C elsus: 2 64

1 4

B rotonne: 1 16 B rough-in-Westmorland: B rough o n H umber: 2 73 B rown, R .: 2 47 B uciumi: 4 9, 3 46, 3 49, 3 64-5 b uckles: 6 1

1 7

3 50,

1 61

Q . C aecus M etellus N umidicus: 2 5 C aerhun : 2 58, 2 73 C aerleon: 2 73 C aesar: 2 5, 6 4, 2 58, 2 64, 2 67, 2 69 C alagureni: 3 42 C aledonii: 1 6 c aliga: 7 1, 7 2 c althrops: 2 60-1 C amelon b urial 2 C ampbell, D .: 1 50 C amphouse: 1 9 C ananefates: 1 57 C arlingwark: 1 4 C arlisle: 1 6, 1 8, 2 82, 2 92, 2 93, 2 95, 2 96, 2 98, 2 99, 3 00, 3 07, 3 09, 3 11, 3 19-36 b read o vens: 3 19 d itch : 3 23 g ate: 3 34 i ntervallum: 3 29 C arnuntum : 7 0, 2 07, 2 14, 3 56 C arthaginians: 2 67 C asacco: 6 4, 6 6, 6 7, 6 9 C astleford: 2 94, 2 95, 2 96, 2 98, 2 99, 3 01-4, 3 10, 3 11 C astlehill: 1 9 c astra p eregrinorum : 4 0 C astra T raiana: 3 39 C ataniciu, I .: 3 38-9, 3 40, 3 42,

d ragonesque: 1 7 e namelled: 1 4 h ead-stud: 1 7 H od H ill: 1 4 k nee: 5 1, 1 59, 1 64 N auheim d erivative: t rumpet: 1 7

1 4 4 9,

3 55,

c estros:

2 60

C etate-Razboieni:

3 68

2 01

chaff: 294 Chalon-sur-Saone: 75, 78, 79, 102, 103, 109, 112, 115 Chamalieres: 78, 99, 112, 116 Champ Lary: see Le Lary chariots: 264 Charlesworth, D.: 329 Charterhouse: 273 Chassenard: 242 cherry (Prunus avium): 175 Chester: 273 Chesterholm: see Vindolanda Chesters: 16, 17, 18 chiton: 270 Christescu, V.: 338, 340 Cichorius: 33 cingulum: 32, 33, 39, 51, 61, 62, 64, 67, 72, 7 3 Ciolan: 342 Clarke, G.: 149 classiarii: 40 Claudius II: 354 clavicularius: 73 Clermont-Ferrand: 117 clibanarius: 73 clibanus: 73 clipeus: 114 Cluj-Napoca: 337, 340, 349, 358 Clyde, River: 16, 17 cohors V Asturum: 64 VIII! Batavorum: 292 _!!_ Brittonum � �: 219 II Nervia Brittonum m.: 350 ---II Flavia Commagenorum � 350 VI Commagenorum: 269 IV Cypria c.R.: 349 IIII Delmatarum: 62 !Flavia Hispanorum �: 219, 223 I Vindelicorum: 350 coins: 14, 153 colanders: 14 Colchester: 6, 7 Cold Kitchen Hill: 273 Colchester: 340 Cologne: see Koln colonia Malvensis: 359 Comarnicel: 339 Compiegne: 82, 83, 88, 92, 93, 114 Concelles-les-Monts: 117 Connolly, P.: 84, 244, 263, 281, 295, 296, 300, 294, 301-2, 310, 311, 319, 322, 323, 325, ·328, 330

�=

369

Conquistadores: 264 Constantine: 354, 359 Contrat: 154 Copaceni: 346, 350, 355, 357, 364 Corbridge: 17, 18, 258, 273, 291 Hoard 1, 18 Corfinium: 263 P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus: 25 Cornidius: 6 Cramond: 273 Cretan archers: 267 crossbow: 150, 152 Crossmichael: 19 Crouzilles: 78, 99, 100, 116 cummerbund: 61-72 Cunaxa: 266 Curle, J.: 283, 310-1 Dacia: 337-55 Dacians: 31, 33, 39, 337 daggers: 2, 3, 61, 64, 66, 161, 167-88, 189, 337 blade: 177, 185 sheath: 167, 170, 172, 174, 177-8, 183-4, 187 suspension disc: 180 suspension loops: 178, 183, 184 Daicoviciu, C.: 340, 356 Dakovo: 349 Damascus: 34 Danes: 4 Dangstetten: 25, 45 Danube, River: 221, 338, 340, 342, 345, 354 David and Goliath: 265 De Laet, S.: 102, 109 Desa: 342 Deurne: 282 Daiconescu, A.: 355 Dierne: 365 Dionysius of Halicarnassus: 260 diplomas: 21 De Rebus Bellicis: 251 Dobruja: 337 Dod Law: 14, 19 dolabra sheaths: 13 dolia: 170, 171, 174 Domitian: 342 van Doorselaer, A.: 152 Doorwerth: 4 Doubstead: 14 Dowalton Loch: 19 Drajna de Sus: 342, 355 draught horses: 101-9 dress-fasteners: 13, 17 van Oriel-Murray, C.: 223, 334

Drobeta: 340, 345, 346, 350, 354, 364-5 Drumul Carului: 339 Dryburgh: 14 Dunapentele: 138, 139 Dura-Europos: 4, 154, 250, 281 Dymae: 256, 263 Dyrrhachium: 267 Eckford: 14 Edinburgh: 310 Eining: 197, 208, 223 Elagabalus: 219 elephants: 260, 264 Elewijt: 77, 81, 91, 99, 102 Embleton, R.: 281 Emona: 340 enamel: 177-8 Enns: 78, 99 Epona: 77, �4, 98, 100, 101, 113, 116 equites singulares Augusti: 32, 40 Eumenes: 264 Ewart, J.: 285 exploratores: 32 fabrica: 349 fascia ventralis: 68, 69, 70, 71, see also 72, 73; cummerbund fibula: see brooches field anvil: 14 Filipati: 342 Flaminda: 339, 342 P . Flavoleius: 62 Florus: 4 foederati: 152 Forum Traiani: 34 Forth, River: 16, 17 France: 81 Fran�ois I: 37 Fremington Hagg: 4 207, Frankfurt-Heddernheim: 27, 211, 221 Franks: 143, 152 Frisians: 188 rebellion: 167, 168 Froitzheim: 154 funda: 255 funditores: 255, 267, 269 Furfooz: 148, 154 Gaal, A.: 135, 136 Galba: 339 Gallanach: 5

370

Gansser-Burckhardt, A. 311 Ganymede: 207 Garbsch, J.: 194, 218, 291 Gaul: 2, 267, 271 central: 75, 300 Gerhat: 123, 130 Germania: 350 inferior: 61, 66 libra: 350 superior: 25, 26, 27, 61, 66, 163 Germanicus: 269 Germans: 31, 40, 143, 151, 152, 154 Germany, West: 81 Gerulata: 123 Gherla: 223, 365 van Giffen, A.: 193, 218 Gilau: 346, 349, 350, 364-5 girths: 77, 84 Giubiasco: 229 gladius: 61 glandes: 259, 261, 267, 271, 277 Glasbergen, W.: 171 Glass Rigg: 19 Glen Luce: 19 Gloucester: 273 Gorgoneion: 217 Gornea: 354 Goths: 354, 355 Gottland: 4 Gradistea Muncelului: 350 Great Chesters: 16, 17 Great Trajanic Frieze: 33 greaves: 5 Greensforge: 273 Groenman-van Waateringe, W.: 301, 304, 319 von Groller, M.: 214 grooms: 98 Gudea, N.: 338-9, 349, 354 Guido, M.: 13 haddock-bone: 161-3 Hadrian: 52, 269, 334, 338, 342, 345, 353 Hadrian's Wall: 13, 14, 16, 18, 19 The Hague: 157-64 hair-moss cap: 314 Haltern: 154 Halton Chesters: 17 Harelbeke: 77, 78, 79, 86, 90, 91, 92, 98, 107, 108, 109, 115 Hartburn: 13

p eytrals: 2 81-3 t rappings: 6 , 2 82,

H assuna: 2 74 H awaii: 2 56 h azelnuts: 1 72, H ebron: 5 H ector: 1 3 H edel: 2 28,

2 29,

2 40

H edges, J .: 3 02 H eddernheim: s ee F rankfurt-Heddernheim h elmets:

2 , 3 , 5 , 6 , 8 , 3 2, 3 8, 4 5, 1 87, 1 94-214, 2 19, 2 20, 2 23, 2 47,

2 27-35, 2 65, 3 37,

I biza: 2 61 I ceni: 1 6 I lies, C .: 3 40 i magines: 4 0 I nlaceni: 3 55, 3 64 I nota: 1 25, 1 26, 1 28, 1 29, I nsula B anului: 3 42, 3 54

3 4, 1 93, 2 22,

2 35-44, 3 50

A gen: 2 27-8, 2 40 c avalry: 2 08, 2 11-14, 2 19, 2 27, 2 40 c heek-pieces: 2 14, 2 19, 2 27, 2 39, 2 41, 3 49, 3 50 C oolus: 3 , 240, 2 42 g ladiators': 2 07, 2 21 H ebron: 2 42 M ontefortino: 2 40, 2 42

j avelins: 1 49, J edburgh: 1 9 J ews: 5 , 2 65

4 6

K emnitz:

H olywell: 1 9 h orses: 2 83 A rabs: 2 85 a rmour: 4 , 2 17, 3 34-6 b ardings: 2 81-3, 2 92, 3 00 b its: 1 4, 1 25-6, 1 28, 1 34, 2 91 c hamfron: 1 93, 2 17-8, 2 81, 2 83-92, 3 00, 3 11, 3 12, 3 13, 3 14, 3 30, 3 32-4

9 2, 1 01, 1 14,

1 51

8 4,

3 54

5 9

K ilbride-Jones, H .: 1 3, 1 8 K isköszeg : 1 27 K lakanje: 2 18 K lumbach, H .: 2 , 1 94, 2 18, 3 49 k nives: 1 48-9 K öln:

7 6,

12, 1 30, 2 21, 3 15

1 94,

2 07,

K öngen: 2 7 K örnye: 1 25, 1 39 K orfmann, M .: 2 61 K refeld: 4 , 1 48, 1 54

8 8,

9 3-4, 9 5, 1 09, 1 10, 1 23-39,

K reuzschwestern c emetery: 9 2

2 81-312, 3 15, 3 30, 3 49 h eadstall: 8 1, 8 4, 8 6, 8 7, 9 0, 9 8, 9 9-101, 1 09, 1 16, 1 25,

1 50,

J idava: 3 39, 3 42, 3 53, J igoru: 3 39 J ohn o f A rmenia: 2 47 J ordanes: 3 55 J udaea: 2 5 J ünkerath: 3 12 J upiter: 2 07

H inova: 3 42 H istoria A ugusta: 2 5, 3 7 H olwerda, J .: 1 93, 2 19

8 9-90, 9 6-8, 1 13,

1 39

I ron A ge B : 1 6 I ron G ates p ass: 3 40 I sings, C .: 2 20 I slazul: 3 42 I talia: 2 67 I ulium C arnicum : 6 4 G . I ulius P rimus: 2 99 I zlaz: 3 39

H igh R ochester: 1 6 h ipposandals: 1 4 H erculaneum ' soldier': 5 H erculii: 2 47 H iero o f S yracuse: 2 67

e ye-guards: 2 17, 2 91 h arness: 8 0, 8 1, 8 2,

2 73

i ntaglios: 1 3, 1 4, 1 9 I onestii G oroni: 3 53 I ovii: 2 47

N iederbieber: 4 6 N ijmegen: 2 42 O ssorio: 2 35-44 P ersian: 7 P ort: 2 27-8, 2 29, 2 40 s ports: 1 94-208, 2 09-10 W eisenau:

3 51

H ousesteads: 1 6, 1 7, 1 8, 2 7, H r ii gica: 2 15 H umber, R iver: 1 4, 1 6, 1 7 h unting : 2 65 H yndford: 1 9

1 75

L achish: 2 65 L adenburg: 2 6 l aeti: 1 52

1 27

3 71

8 9,

9 1,

l unula: 8 6, 1 02 L uttrell, S ir G eoffrey : l ynchpins: 1 4 L yon b urial: 2 , 5 0, 5 1 L ysons 1

L ambaesis: 2 58, 2 69, 3 40 L amberton M oor: 1 6 l ancea: 3 L angon : 7 7 L auriacum : 3 40 l ead w eights: 2 47 l eather: 2 81-312, 3 13, 3 19-36 c alfskin : 2 92 c ow h ide: 2 86 d eer s kin : 2 83 g oatskin : 2 83 s heep s kin : 2 83 03, 1 07 L e L ary: 7 8, 7 9, 9 3, 9 4, 1 l egio I A diutrix: 3 45 I I talica: 3 42, 3 45 I I I talica: 2 71 40, 3 45, 1 111 F lavia F elix: 3 3 49, 3 50 53 42, 3 45, 3 VM acedonica: 3 39, 3 V II C laudia: 3 45 V III A ugusta: 4 6 X G emina: 3 45 X I C laudia: 3 45 X III G emina: 2 77, 3 45 X IIII G emina: 6 2 X V P rimigenia: 6 2 l egionaries: 3 2 L eiden : 1 93 L eiden-Roomburg : 1 63 L evantines: 3 4 4 L ezoux: 8 8, 9 2, 9 3, 11 l ictores: 3 1 L imburg : 1 43 L indenschmit: 1 , 3 11 3, L inz: 7 8, 8 8, 8 9, 9 0, 9 1, 9 2, 9 9 4, 9 8, 14 , .116 v an L ith, S .: 1 71 L ittle B ighorn, b attle: 4 , 8 L ivy: 2 56, 2 60, 2 64, 2 70 l ixae: 2 5 L ochlee: 1 9 L ochspouts: 1 9 L ondon: 5 , 2 21, 3 12 L ongthorpe: 7 l orica h amata 1 , 2 , 5 , 7 , 1 4, 3 1, 3 2, 3 3, 3 8, 3 9, 4 5, 4 6, 6 2, 9 1-2, 9 8, 1 58, 1 59, 1 61, 1 93, 2 16, 2 94 ' lorica s egmentata' 1 , 2 , 3 , 6 , 3 1, 3 2, 3 3, 3 8, 5 8, 1 93, 2 17, 3 40, 3 46 l orica s quamata: 4 5, 4 6, 1 93, 2 07, 2 14-6, 2 23, 3 11, 3 39, 3 44, 3 46, 3 50 L ouis X IV: 3 7 L ouis N apoleon I II: 3 7

2 92,

2 93

M acGregor, M .: 1 6, 1 7 M acKendrick, P .: 3 37 M ackreth, D .: 1 4 M acon : 8 2 M acrea, M .: 3 38 M aeatae: 1 6 M aiden C astle: 3 , 2 58, 2 65 m ail: s ee l orica h amata 91, 2 95, M ainz: 2 , 2 6, 8 4, 8 6, 2 3 00, 3 11, 3 42 M alton: 2 6 M ann, J .: 2 7 m anuballistae: 3 54 03, 1 05, 1 08, M arcellus: 7 8, 7 9, 1 1 12 m arching c amps: 2 6 M arcomanni: 4 0 50, 3 53 M arcommannic w ars: 3 M arcus C olumn: 3 8, 4 6, 4 8, 5 0, 7, 5 2, 5 3, 5 4-6, 5 5 1, 5 8 22, 3 49 M ars: 1 70, 2 07 , 2 18, 2 m artiobarbuli: 2 47 M asada: 2 5 M aurik: 1 64 M axfield, V .: 1 7 M aximinus T hrax : 3 54 M eaux : 16 M edusa: 1 97 M ehadhia p ass: 3 39 M ehrum b urial 2 m elon b eads: 1 3, 2 82 M enorca: 2 67 m ercatores: 2 6 M ercury: 3 49 44 M erovingian c emetery: 1 M ersey, R iver: 1 6, 1 7 27, 2 29 M esnil-sous-Joumiages: 2 M etellus: 2 67 M euse, R iver: 1 59 M icia: 3 46, 3 50, 3 53 M idlothian : 1 4 m ilites g regales: 6 7 M itrofan, I .: 3 53 M oesia: 6 I nferior: 3 37, 3 42 M oesians: 6 M oldava: 3 54 M oldavia: 3 42 M ongolia: 2 56

3 72

O ssorio, G en . A .: O strov: 2 07 O udenburg : 1 48

M ons-et-Monteils: 2 28, 2 40 M oorish c avalry: 3 1 M oselle ( Mosel), R iver: 7 6 M özs: 1 35, 1 36, 1 37 M uncelul: 3 39 M useo d e l as C asa R eales: 2 35 M useo d ella C iviltä R omana: 3 1 m usicians:

2 6,

O verwells: 1 9 O xstrow B roch:

1 8

p aenula: 7 3 P alanka: 3 54 P alatine u nits: 2 47 P annonia: 1 23-39 P annonians: 4 p aterae: 1 4 P atrae: 2 56, 2 63 P atru P eak : 3 39 p each ( Prunus p ersica): 1 75 p endants: 9 1, 9 3, 9 4, 9 6, 1 25, 1 33, 2 82, 3 12, 3 43, 3 47, 3 49 P erseus: 2 60 P ersians: 2 61, 2 66 P etculescu, L .: 3 49, 3 50, 3 53, 3 55 Q . P etilius: 6 2 v on P etrikovits, H .: 1 49 P fünz: 2 21 9 7, 9 8, 1 01, p halerae: 8 7, 9 6, 89, 2 90 1 02, 1 07, 15, 2 P harsalus: 2 67 P hillip t he A rab: 3 38, 3 49 P hrygian c ap: 2 07 P ietrosa: 3 42 P iggott, S .: 1 4 p ila: 3 9 p illeus P annonicus: 6 9 p ins: 1 7 P intaius: 6 4 P liny t he E lder: 6 8 p lumbarii: 2 59 p lumbatae: 2 47-41 f lights: 2 47, 2 40 P hov: 5 9 P o, R iver: 3 P ojejana: 3 45, 3 54 P oltross B urn: 1 6 P olybius: 2 60 P ompey: 2 67 P opillian, G .: 3 55 P orolissum : 3 46, 3 49, 3 50, 3 58, 3 64-5 P ort b ei N idau: 2 29 P otaissa: 3 45, 3 50, 3 53, 3 58, 3 65 p ottery: 1 48, 1 51, 1 59, 1 67, 1 70, 1 71-6, 3 40, 3 53 P raetorians: 3 2, 4 0 P raetorium I : 3 65-6 p rata: 2 6

3 1

N agytet6ny: 1 25, 1 36, 1 37-8 n ails: 1 46, 1 72, 1 74-6, 2 47 N aissus: 3 54 N awa b urial 2 N ear E ast: 2 55 N eath: 1 8, 2 73 N eckarburken : 4 9, 5 1 n egotiatores: 2 6 N gris: 1 16 N erva: 7 8 N ervii: 2 58 N ether D enton : 1 6 N ea l : 2 91, 3 13 N ew G uinea: 2 61, 2 63 N ew L uce: 1 9 N ewstead: 1 4, 1 6, 4 9, 5 1, 1 08, 1 09, 18, 2 83, 2 85, 2 89, 2 94, 2 95, 3 00, 3 07, 3 09, 3 10-1 N iederbieber: 4 9 n iello: 1 27, 1 78 N ijmegen : 1 15, 2 11, 2 29 N ineveh: 2 65 N orthumberland: 1 3, 1 4 N otitia D ignitatum : 2 71 N ottingham : 3 02 n overcae: 7 3 n umeri: 2 69, 2 70

2 35

1 07, 2 82, 2 90, 3 05,

O are: 2 73 O clatius: 3 12 O denwald: 2 6 O elmann, F .:148 l imes: 5 1, 5 9 o fficers: 3 9 O ldenstein, J .: 3 46, 3 50 O ld K ilpatrick : 2 55, 2 73, 2 75 O ld W interingham : 2 73 o live: 1 75 O lt, R iver: 3 39, 3 53 O ltenia: 3 37, 3 49, 3 55 O lynthos: 2 58 o nager: 2 64 O nasander: 2 59, 2 63 o ptio: 5 3 27 O roszvär-Rusovce: 1 23, 1 25, 1

3 73

P restwick C arr: 1 4 p riests: 2 6 P riscus: 7 8, 7 9, 1 03, P rocopius: 2 47 p rostitutes: 2 6 P rotase, D .: 3 49 p teruges: 3 9 p ugio: 6 1 p ulley: 1 68, 1 74 P uy-de-Dome: 8 8 P yrrhus: 2 60 Q uadi: 4 0 q uadroburgium : 3 54 q uernstones: 1 67, 1 72,

1 06,

9 6, 9 7, 9 8, 1 13, 3 20, 3 21, 3 22, 3 23, 3 25-7, 3 28, 3 29, 3 31 s tuffing : 2 94 s agum : 9 1, 9 8, 9 9, 15 S aint-Bonnet: 9 1 S aint-Marcel: 1 52 S aint-Pour9ain-sur-Besbre: 7 8, 7 9, 8 1, 8 2, 8 7, 8 8, 8 9, 9 2, 9 3, 9 9, 1 03, 1 05, 1 06, 1 08, 1 09, 1 12, 13, 1 14, 1 16, 1 18 S aint-R6my-de-Provence: 7 5 S alignac: 1 52 S alzburg : 8 7, 1 03, 1 04, 1 06, 1 07, 1 09, 1 14, 1 15, 18 s amian : 1 72, 1 74 S anto D omingo: 2 35 S apata d e J os: 3 53 S arateni: 3 42 S armatians: 3 1, 3 4 S armizegetusa: s ee U lpia T raiana S armizegetusa S armizegetusa R egia: 3 37, 3 50 S ärszentmiklös: 1 25, 1 36 s atyr: 1 9 S axon S hore G uard: 2 50 s cabbard c hapes: 1 59, 1 60, 1 61 f ittings: 3 49, 3 52, 3 53 s lide: 1 59, 1 61 s cale a rmour: s ee l orica s quamata S chauerte, G .: 7 8 S cheveningseweg : 1 57-64 S chimmer, E .: 1 68 S chwabian A lb: 2 6 S chwarzenacker: 2 07 S cott, I .: 1 88 s cutum : 3 , 3 9, 4 6, 5 8 s cythe: 1 4 S eebruck: 8 1 S egontium : 2 73 S ellye, I .: 1 23, 1 25, 1 37 S enecio: 3 10 S eptimius S everus: 5 1, 2 71 r eforms: 3 38 S even S isters: 4 S everus A lexander: 2 5, 2 7, 2 19, 3 39 s habrack: 2 93-4 S heepen : 6 , 7 s hellfish: 1 71-2, 1 74-6 s hields: 4 , 3 3, 3 4, 3 6, 3 9, 5 9, 9 0, 9 4, 9 8, 1 00, 1 01, 1 14, 1 52, 2 47, 2 50-1, 3 15 b lazons: 3 3, 3 6, 3 8, 3 9

1 08

1 74

R acari: 3 45, 3 50 R aepset, G .: 1 06, 1 08 R aetia: 2 5, 2 6, 2 7, 3 50 R eka: 2 28, 2 29 R emouchamps f A .: 1 93, 2 19 R hine, R iver: 2 19, 2 22 R hodes: 2 67 R hodes, M .: 3 12 R ichmond, I .: 1 7 R ijswijk-de B ult: 1 57 r ing, s ignet: 1 70, 1 74, 1 88 R isnov: 3 39, 3 42, 3 46, 3 53, 3 55, 3 64-5 R obertson, A .: 1 4 R obinson, H .: 2 , 6 , 1 94, 2 03, 2 05, 2 06, 2 07, 2 18, 2 27, 2 91, 3 45, 3 46, 3 49 R omanus D ardanus: 3 15 R ome: 3 4 R omula: 3 45, 3 50, 3 53, 3 54, 3 58 R ossi, L .: 3 37 R ottweil: 1 17 R ouen : 8 2, 9 9 R ouvier-Jeanlin, M .: 8 6, 9 7 R uccar: 3 39 R uprechtsberger, E .: 8 8, 8 9 R usovce: s ee O roszvär S aalburg : 4 9, 1 61, 3 12 S acrillos: 7 8, 7 9, 8 1, 8 2, 12 S addington, D .: 2 69 s addle: 7 7, 8 1, 8 2, 8 4, 8 6, 8 8, 8 9, 9 2, 9 3, 9 4-5, 9 6, 9 7, 9 8, 1 09, 1 13, 14, 1 16, 1 30-1, 2 93-302, 3 19-20 b lanket: 8 7, 9 4 cloth: 8 1, 8 2, 8 4, 8 6, 8 8, 9 4-5, 9 7 p ommels: 8 1, 8 2, 8 4, 9 2, 9 4, 9 5,

3 74

07, 1 4, 9 0, 1 00, 14, 2 3 37, 3 45 s hoes: 1 59, 1 61, 1 74, 2 23 s ickle: 1 4 S idonius A pollinaris: 2 70 S iemeichöw : 2 28, 2 29 s igna: 3 2, 3 3, 3 4, 3 9, 4 0 S ilchester: 5 , 8 S ilius I talicus: 2 63 s ilver f ir ( Abies a lba): 1 67 s ilvering : 5 , 1 27, 1 80 s ilver s tud: 1 70 r ivet: 1 77-8, 1 83 S irmium : 3 54 s lag : 1 71-2, 1 75 S laveni: 3 39, 3 45, 3 64 s lingers: 3 1, 3 6, 2 60 R hodian : 2 61-3, 2 66 s lings: 2 55-74 a ccuracy: 2 . 63 c onstruction: 2 56 e ffectiveness: 2 63-5 r ange: 2 61-3 s ling-shot, c lay: 1 71, 2 55, 2 58, 2 69, 2 72-3, 2 75 i nscribed: 2 67, 2 71 l ead: 2 55-6, 2 59, 2 64, 2 71, 2 72-3 m oulds: 2 57 s tone: 2 55, 2 58, 2 64 S oissons: 8 2, 8 3 s older: 1 80 S omodor: 1 25 s oothsayers: 2 6 S ougeres-sur-Sinotte: 1 02, 18 S outh S hields: 1 7, 4 6 s pathae: 6 1 s pears: 9 0, 9 8, 14, 1 47, 1 48, 1 49, 1 59, 1 62-3, 2 23-4, 2 47, 3 39, 3 40, 3 45, 3 54 s pruce ( Picea a bies): 1 67 s tandards: s ee s igna s tandard b earers: 3 1 S tanegate: 1 3 S tanwix : 1 7, 2 1 S tatius: 2 56 Q . S tatius R ufinus: 5 2 S tevenson, R .: 1 8 S trabo: 2 56 S trageath: 2 73 s trap e nds: 3 46 2 23, S traubing : 2 08, 2 17, 2 21,

S ucidava: 3 42, 3 45, 3 53, 3 54, 3 66 s words: 2 , 3 , 3 2, 5 3, 5 7, 6 1, 1 52, 1 87, 2 65, 3 37 f ittings: 1 7, 4 6, 5 1, 5 2, 5 3, 5 5, 5 7, 5 9, 1 59, 1 60, 1 61, 3 37 h ilt g uard: 1 59, 1 61-3 t ips: 1 4 s ymmachiarii: 3 1, 3 3, 3 4 S yrians: 3 12 S zalacska: 1 25 S zekesfehgrvär: 1 27 S zöny: 1 23

b osses:

T acitus: 2 69 T aylor, A .: 1 34 v an T ent, W .: 2 19 t ents: 3 4, 2 82, 2 99 p egs: 1 74 t erracotta f igurines: 7 5-109, 1 57, 1 59, 2 82, 3 00, 3 12 t erra s igillata: 1 46, 1 47, 2 23 m anufacture: 7 7, 1 12 s ignificance: 7 9 w orkshops: 7 8-9 t errets: 1 6, 1 03, 1 06 T erry, M .: 2 50 t esserarius: 6 6 T hames, R iver: 2 T hapsus: 2 64 T heilenhofen : 2 07 T hiele: 2 40 T iberius: 3 49 T ibiscum : 3 38, 3 45, 3 50, 3 64-5 T ihany: 1 28, 1 32, 1 33, 1 34, 1 36, 1 37, 1 39, 1 40 t iles: 3 45 t inning : 1 27 T iverton: 2 73 t oga: 6 8 T ongres: 3 , 1 11, 1 48 T orbrügge: 2 t orcs: 1 6, 1 7 t orquata: 1 6 8, 7 9, 8 1, T oulon-sur-Allier: 7 9 3, 9 4, 1 00, 1 03, 1 07, 1 08, 1 09, 1 12, 1 13, 18 l a T ourelle: 9 9, 1 00, 1 16 T ournai: 1 53 T ours: 8 8, 8 9, 9 2, 9 3 3 1 , 3 4 , 7 5 , 1 27, 2 07, T rajan: 2 71, 3 38, 3 40, 3 42, 3 46 T rajan's C olumn: 3 1-7, 4 5-6, 4 7, 5 1, 5 2, 5 7, 5 8, 7 2, 7 5, 2 67, 2 68, 2 70, 2 99, 3 37, 3 42, 3 46, 3 50

2 89, 2 91, 3 12 s tylus: 1 71 s ubligaculum : 6 8, 7 2 s ubligar: 6 8, 7 2

3 75

v estimenta: 7 1 V etera: 4 , 2 8 v exilla: 4 0 v exillarii: 4 0 v ia I ulia A ugusta: 6 4 V ichy: 7 8, 8 6, 1 12, 13 v ici: 2 5-8 V ictoria: 2 07, 2 22 V ihansa: 3 V ilcan p ass: 3 39 v illa: 1 43-52 V indolanda: 1 6, 2 7, 2 73, 2 77, 2 81-92, 2 95, 2 96, 2 99, 3 00, 3 07, 3 08, 3 09-310, 3 11, 3 13 V indonissa: 3 , 7 6, 10, 1 54, 2 82, 2 95, 3 11 V ienna: 3 53 V innius: 4 V ireux-Molhain : 1 48, 1 54 V irgil: 2 56 V irtop: 3 39 V ladescu, C .: 3 46, 3 54 V oerendaal: 1 43-52 V onatorix: 3 15

s caffolding : 3 7 T ransylvania: 3 27 T raprain L aw : 1 3, 1 7 T rier Süd: 1 11 T rinovantes: 1 6 t riplet s traps: 8 4, 8 6, 8 7, 8 9, 9 2, 9 3, 9 4, 9 5, 14 T ronogn: 9 9, 1 13, 16 T roy: 1 4 T udor, D .: 3 38, 3 46, 3 53, 3 59 T udot, E .: 8 2, 8 9, 9 2, 9 7, 9 9, 1 00, 1 02, 1 03 t unica m anicata: 6 9 t unics: 3 2, 6 2, 6 4, 6 6, 6 8, 7 3, 9 1, 9 8 t urma: 2 23 T yne, R iver : 3 T yre: 7 1 t yres: 1 4 U lpia T raiana S armizegetusa: 3 38, 3 40, 3 46, 3 49, 3 53, 3 58, 3 64 U pper G ermany: s ee G ermania s uperior u rbaniciani: 4 0 U rspring : 4 5, 3 42 u tere f elix b elt f ittings: 2 , 3 49 U trecht: 1 93, 2 03, 2 04, 2 06, 2 07, 2 18

W albank, F .: 2 60 W albrook: 5 , 8 W ales: 2 6 W allace C ollection: 3 14 W allachia: 3 37, 3 42 W allsend: 1 8 W atercrook: 2 73 W atson, G .: 7 1, 2 69 w eaving c ombs: 1 8 W ebster, G .: 5 , 1 87 W ebster H ypothesis: 5 w ells: 1 67-88 W ells, C .: 1 93 W els: 7 8, 1 03, 1 09, 1 12, 13 W elzheim : 3 12 W estendorf: 1 54 W heeler, M .: 2 63, 2 65 W hitekirk: 1 4, 1 6 W hitfield: 1 4 W indridge F arm : 2 58, 2 73 W inshields m ilecastle: 1 8 W interbottom , S .: 2 92, 2 93, 3 09 W interton: 2 73 W isby: 4 W oerden : 1 64, 2 92, 2 93, 3 12 W olfsheim : 1 07, 18 W oodeaton: 2 73 W orthing : 2 07 W roxeter: 9 9, 1 00, 16, 2 47, 2 48

C . V alerius G ermanus: 7 1 V alens: 2 23 V alkenburg : 1 71, 2 82, 2 93, 2 94, 2 96, 2 99, 3 00, 3 01, 3 02, 3 04, 3 05, 3 07, 3 09, 3 11, 3 14, 3 15, 3 20, 3 22, 3 23, 3 25, 3 28, 3 29, 3 30 V arus: 2 5 V ajta: 1 39 V echten : 1 64, 1 89, 1 93-220, 2 21, 2 22, 2 95, 2 96, 2 98, 2 99, 3 00, 3 04-7, 3 09, 3 10, 3 13, 3 15, 3 20, 3 30 V egetius: 2 47, 2 61, 2 63, 2 64, 2 69 V eldedius: 2 92, 3 14 V elence: 1 39 V elsen I : 1 67-88, 3 12 V elsen I I: 1 71, 3 12 v entrale: 6 8, 6 9, 7 2 V enus: 7 9 V ersigny: 1 00, 1 16 V ertet, H .: 9 0 V ert-la-Gravelle: 1 48, 1 54 V espasian: 2 5

3 76

X anten: 4 , 3 12 X enophon : 2 61-2,

2 66

y okes: 1 01-9, 1 17, 1 18, 1 27, 1 28 Y ork: 3 40 Y ounger D unes: 1 57, 1 64 Y pey, J .: 2 11 Y zeure-Saint-Bonnet: 7 8, 8 4, 9 0, 9 1, 9 8, 1 02, 1 08, 12, 1 14, 1 15 Z auschwitz: 5 9 Z avalu: 3 42 Z ugmantel: 2 6, 4 9, Z wammerdam:

1 57,

3 12

1 64,

3 12

3 77