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A 'fHESAURUS OF OLD ENGLISH In two voln••JeS Volume I: Introduction and Thesaurus

Volume D: Index





Volume I: Introduction and Thesaurus

Klaa's CoUeae London

Centre for Late Antique and Medieval Studies




King's College London Centre for Late Antique and Medieval Studies Dinctor: Janet L. Nelson



Janet Bately


EDITORIAL BOARD: Roderick Beaton, Janet Cowen, Albini• de la Mare, Carlotta Dionlsotd, Claire lsoz, Manin Jones, S1qan Kruse, Karen Pratt, Jane Roberts, David Yeandle

© Jane Roberts. Christian Kay, and Lynne Grandy 1995

ISSN 0953-217X ISBN: complete work 0 9522119 0 4 ISBN:-.olumel 0952211920 ISBN:-.olumeD 0952211939

'JYpeset by Harold Shon 11 King's Collcse London with the l4l6X Documentation System. l4l6X was developed by Lealie Lamport, and is based on the 1};1C formatting program of Donald E. Knuth. Many of the designations used by manuflctwers and sellen of computer hardware and software to distinguish their products are claimed as lndemub. Pollowin& is a list of trademartc desigulions and their owners relevant to this publication. TrlMkmark DOtlce lBXTM is a trademartc of the American Matbemadcal Society. INGRES™ is a trademut of Ingres Corporalion. UND(fM is a lnldemartc of AT&T BeU Laboratories. VAX™ is a lnldemartc of Digital Equipment Corponllion. dBaseTM is a lnldenwt of Borland lnternltional Inc. ApricotTM is a trademut of Apricot Computers Ltd.

Printed in Enptnd on 80pm add-free recycled paper

by Short Ran Press Ltd, Exeter


Gl 1sy Gt/1b ENGL

9· :15-9r.,,



Acknowledgements Abbreviations Introduction





A TbesaDnUI of Old Enafkb

I. The Physical World 01 Earth, world OJ .OJ Surface of the earth OJ .02 Fmnament OJ .03 Air surrounding earth, abnospbere 2. Life and Death 02Creation 02.0 I Existence, life 02.02 Death 02.03 Humankind 02.04 Body 02.05 Sensation, perception, feeling 02.06 Animal 02.07 A plant 02.08 MentaUspiritual health 3. Maner and Measurement 03 Material, matter, substance 03.01 Propeaties of matter 03.02 Bad condition of matter 03.03 Measumnent, determination of amount 03.04 Fonn, kind, nature, character 03.05 Order, arrangement, disposition 03.06 Comparison 4. Material Needs 04 Consumption of food/drink 04.01 Digestion 04.02 Farm 04.03 Hunting, the chase 04.04 Weaving 04.05 Building, constnJction 04.06 Salubrity v

1 1



23 23 29 37


64 79

96 114

134 134 152 153 175 177 179

185 185 205 220

222 231 243


5. Existence 05 Aught. anything, something 05.01 Growth, increase, what springs up 05.02 State, condition 05.03 Source, origin 05.04 Fa1e, lot. fortune, destiny 05.05 Constitution, founding (e.g. of world) 05.06 Destruction, dissolution, loss, breaking 05.07 Ending of existence, end of world 05.08 S~ngth 05.09 Weakness 05.10 Space, extent 05.11 A time, period of time 05.12 To move, be in motion 05.13 Changeableness, change 6. Mental Faculties 06 Spirit. soul, heart 06.01 The head (as seat of thought) 06.02 Will, the faculty of willing 7. Opinion 07 Judgement, forming of opinion 07.01 Appraisal, appraising 07.02 Goodness 07.03 Evil 07.04 Consideration, esteem 07.05 Disrespect, irreverence 07.06 Pride 07.07 Humility 07.08 Reputation, fame 07.09 Shame, disgrace 07.10 Beauty, fairness 8. Emotion 08 Feelings 08.01 Heart, spirit. mood, disposition 9. Language and Communication 09 Speech, vocal utterance 09.01 To speak, exercise faculty of speech 09.02 Silence, refraining from speech 09.03 A language



248 248 248 250 254

255 257 266

267 269 272 298 318 352 356 356 387 403

403 404 407

410 412 416 418 420 423 424 427 427 458 458 460



09.04 Sense, purport, meaning 09.05 Curiosity 09.06 To take matter for discourse 09.07 Dispute, debate I 0. Possession 10 Having, owning, possession I 0.0 I Fact of belonging, possession by I0.02 Want, l1e:k 10.03 Giving 10.04 To take 11. Action and Utility 11 Action, operation 11.01 Action, doing, perfonnance 11 .02 Occupation, activity, business 11.03 Endeavour 11.04 Ability, capacity, power 11.05 Natural/proper way/manner/mode of action 11.06 Disinclination to act, listlessness 11.07 Use (mtde of things), service 11.08 Uselessness I I .09 Peril, danger 11.10 Safety, safeness 11. l l Difficulty 11.12 Easiness 12. Social interaction 12 Power, might 12.01 Power, control, sway 12.02 A public office 12.03 Direction, guidance 12.04 Fellowship, union, association 12.05 Contradiction, opposition 12.06 A province, country, territory 12.07 An obligation, bounden duty 12.08 Principle, character 12.09 Marriage, state of marriage 13. Peace and War 13 Pm, tranquillity 13.01 Peace, state of law and order 13.02 w.. ••



415 479 483 487 487 490

491 496 499 499 502

505 S09

512 516 521 524 526 527 533

535 538 538

5SO 553 551 S61 568 573

511 591

595 595 596

14. Law and Order 14 Law, custom, covenant 14.01 Law, body of rules 14.02 Lawlessness 14.03 Right of holding court, jurisdiction 14.04 Making of terms, agreement, convention 14.0S Punishment IS. Propmy IS Propea ty, possessions, weallh IS.01 Propeaty lS.02 Worth, value lS.03 Exaction of tax/lribute IS.04 A debt, due IS.OS Trade, traffic, commerce 16. Religion 16 The extra.sensorial world 16.01 A divine being 16.02 Religion 17. Work 17 Work, doings, actions, labour 17.0 I Strenuous effort, twd work 17.02 Work. occupation, employment 17.03 Implements, tools, etc. 17.04 Materials 17.OS Fuel, fire, lighting 18. Leisure 18 Quiet, leisure, rest 18.01 Rest, quiet, freedom from toil 18.02 Amusement, revelry, festivity

613 613 617 620 629 630 636 636 642 64S 646 646

648 648 660 696 696 696

702 706 709

711 711 711







ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We should like above all to thank Michael Samuels, who had the imagination and courage to establish procedures for an historical analysis of the meanings of words. The materials of this thesaurus originated as a research tool for the Historical TM.saunu of English, which he founded at Glasgow University. During the years in which these materials were compiled Jane Roberts was grateful for the support first of Glasgow University, then of University College Dublin and, from 1969, of King's College London. The King' s College Computing Centre has been closely involved in the computer-related aspects of the TM.saunu of Old English, in particular members of its Humanities Division, and more recently of the Research Unit in Humanities Computing. From them we have received unstinting help and advice. Christine Brown designed the program for the microfiche checklist of the Skeleton Old English 'I'Msaurus, of great importance in the early stages of our work. Much of the technical database work, together with the creation of the processes required to go from database to camera-ready copy, was carried out by Harold Short. There was also assistance with the database work from Gordon Gallacher, and with preparations for printing from Anna Morawska. Similarly, we must thank Ken Browning of Glasgow University Computer Publishing Unit for initial help. Our debt to the staff of the Historical 'I'Msaunu in Glasgow is enormous. We are grateful too for the funding received from the Leverhulme Foundation, the British Academy and the Research Strategy Fund of King's College London. The resources of the standard dictionaries of Old English have been plundered for the basic materials of this thesaurus, and we have looked to countless editions and word studies for a better understanding of a few of the problems presented by these materials' without any acknowledgement other than that made here. We are especially grateful for the generosity of Ashley Crandell Amos and Toni Healey of the Dictionary of Old English in making available to us updated versions of their working files, which were invaluable in proofreading the thesaurus materials. We should like particularly to thank Janet Bately, George Kane, Angus Mcintosh and F.ric Stanley for their unfailing encouragement and support. We have benefited from the help of many colleagues and students: Carole Biggam, Tom Chase, Julie Coleman, Susan Cooper. Andreas Fischer, Reinhard Gleissner, Bill Griffiths, Astrid Holtman, Andrew Horton, Gunter Kotzor, F.rik Kooper, Carole Maddern, Anne Miller, Hiizu Moriyami, Mary Palmer, Hans Peters, Liz Reay, Angus Somerville, Sue Stephens, Hannah Stone, Louise Sylvester, Noriko Tachi, Freda Thornton. Their work, in theses, projects and articles, has contributed to the structure of the classification for the Historical



Thestmrus, adapted by Christian Kay for the Tlrumlrus of Old English. Our debt to Iren6 Wotherspoon is especially large here. Finally, we wish to thank all those who, at various stages of the Tlrumlrus of Old English, did the toilsome work of data entry, most of all flora F.dmonds and Ian Hamilton.



















a certain number


INTRODUCTION This presentation of Old English vocabulary is conceptually arranged, and is thereforeentitledA Thuaurwo/Old&glish [TOE]. The vocabulary of AngloSaxon England is presented in two ways. First, the word-senses arc presented within ordered categories: this arrangement is summariud within the Table of Contents. Secondly, an alphabetic index allows the user to identify the category or categories in which word-senses arc to be found; i.e., it serves instead of cross-references for individual words. The index includes every instance of all meanings classified in the TOE; and beside each entry is a code identifying its location. Ideally, the ttader should approach the materials of the TOE by subject rather than through the alphabetic index. Roget-owners have long been accustomed to begin with a word and, by trying a few locations listed in the index, find the vocabulary group wanted. 1 Moreover, for inclusiveness they trade detailed information. Should a word's precise meaning be wanted, a dictionary is needed. 2 Most conceptually-organiud thesauri tend therefore to be used by native speakers of a language, who know the meanings of the words scanned. Less assured speakers may turn to those alpbabetically-organiud thesauri where they will find more help with meaning but far fewer words. In the TOE any small group of items listed together as sharing a component of mning resembles the strings of words that make up the entries of an alpbabetically-organiud thesaurus, but they arc embedded within an inclusive conceptual scheme. The provision of brief indications of meaning at all levels of this scheme looks back behind Roget, to the way in which Wilkins supplies notions and words, where word-senses follow on from ideas explained.3 Thus, this thesaurus incorporates infonnation ~ut word meaning and could be described as an inside-out dictionary, with meanings first and then words. For the contents of the TOE dictionaries have indeed been turned inside out, a task initially undertaken to supply the editors of the Historical Thesaurus of &glish· [HT] both with some idea of the range of Old English vocabulary not 1

Peter Martt Roget, 11sesawwof E:nglish Word.rand Phrases, London, 1853.


Two useful inttoductions 10 die history of English dictionaries arc: Tom McArthur, Worlds of Reference, Cambridge 1986; and Sidney I. Landau, Dictionaries: 11se Art and Craft of Lexicography, New York, 1984.


John Wilkins, An Essay towarrh a Real Character and a Philosophical Language.

London, 1668.


Introduction to be found in the Oxford English Dictionary [OEDJ4 and with a body of materials from which a pilot thesaurus could be made. 5 The standard Old English dictionaries contain vocabulary for over five hundred years of the history of the language: little probably from the eighth century, much more from the ninth century, more again from the tum of the tenth century, and most from the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Because the OED generally omits those words that had dropped out of use by 1150, the TOE provides a complementary overview of the earliest vocabulary of English. The vocabulary is drawn essentially from pre-Norman England, the slips used in its compilation representing the work of generations of Anglo-Saxon scholarship. Within the wider context of the I{[, it is useful that the TOEs contents trickle over into the twelfth century and sometimes beyond. Once the I{[ is complete, all correspondences between the OED-derived word senses and the independently excerpted Old English ones should be clear. It will be possible then both to accept all Old English slips matched up with OED-derived slips as validated and for the first time to assess the range of early English vocabulary altogether omitted from the OED. At that point, it should be possible to undertake full checking of any non-validated word senses more easily than at present. The source dictionaries Whereas the I{[ uses as its main source material the word senses compiled by the editors of the OED, the complementary Old English slips were made from standard Anglo-Saxon dictionaries. 6 This procedure ensured that the separate Old English slips would not be made so as to match up with the decisions of the OED editors. The more fully edited materials of the OED have greater

authority than the Bosworth-Toller listings, and the temptation to accept OED decisions might easily have gone against straightforward recording of the often uncertain evidence for Anglo-Saxon usage. The TOE is therefore largely dependent upon the definitions to be found in the Bosworth-Toller and Clark Hall dictionaries. These definitions are as far as possible accepted, a principle shared with the I{[, which reflects OED definitions. 4


The Oxford English Dictionary, ed. J. A. H. Murray and William Craigie, Oxford,

1933. Jane Roberts, 'Towards an Old English Thesaurus', Poetica, 9 (1978), 56-72.

e J. Bosworth and T. N. Toller, ed., An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, London 1898; T. N. Toller, ed., An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary: Supplement, London, 1921; A. Campbell, ed., An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary: F.nlargedAddendD and CorrigendD, Oxford, 1972; J. R. Clark Hall and H. D. Meritt, A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, 4dl ed.. Cambridge, 1960.



lntrodMction Given that so many Old English words lack the twenty to forty citations that a lcxicograpba might ideally hope for before arriving at a meaning, it would have been ill-advised to neglect the inherited wisdom of Anglo-Saxon scholarship. During compilation of the slips, it was usually necessary to check on word use in at least six places in the Bosworth-Toller dictionaries: headwords in both volumes, headwords prefixed by ge- in both volumes and again in the Campbell Addenda. For not a few forms, as many as ten or twelve places was more like the norm, because of the unsettled nature both of Anglo-Saxon spelling and of editorial choice in headwords. In our turn, we have not attempted to be wholly consistent in the use of headwords chosen. Although we have for the most part adopted the forms to be found in Clark Hall, in all fairness it must be noted that the C1ark Hall spellings arc not always followed. Sometimes it seemed inappropriate to normalize a nonceword. Often the usual variations (for example, i, ie and y or tz and ea) were so much part and parcel of the Bosworth-Toller entries that it seemed best to aim at fullness of cover and to excerpt meanings for forms that might very well be spelling variants one of another. Spelling doublets, it was felt, could be discarded later, and inconsistency was to be preferred to loss of evidence for word meaning.7 The Meritt supplement to Clark Hall's Dictionary was invaluable in giving access to more recent work, especially on glossaries. Herc the Campbell Addenda provided a useful second witness to newer infonnation, particularly to place-name clements. The attempt was made to list all senses recorded in these base dictionaries, and to indicate informally if the word forms tbcmsclves appeared to be restricted in distribution. The TOE is not, it must be cmpbasiud, a new listing of Anglo-Saxon words, but it depends upon the information to be found in the major completed Old English dictionaries. Scrutiny of its contents in the light of the Toronto Dictionary of Old Engluh [DOE] is obviously very necessary.8 Until that is possible, a working thesaurus compiled from available dictionaries must be viewed as the research tool it is. Fuller information, for example on the infrequent or restricted distribution of individual word senses or, in particular, on the use of names for people and places, must wait for the completion of the DOE. 7

It must be noted that many of the incoosiltent spellings of the soun:e dictionaries remain in this research tool. For 6/p we have adopted p throughout


Por the early history of this project see A Plan for the Dictionary ofOld English, ed. Robata Frank and Angus Cameron, Toronto, 1983. Publication of edited dictionary entries began with the 1eaer D in 1986.



Introduction Five letters have now been edited by the DOE team: A, .tE, B, C and D.9 In the final stages of preparation of the TOE, spot checks have been made on some words beginning with these letters, but it bas not been possible to give such careful attention to the bulk of the word senses contained in our classification. Use of the invaluable research tools so generously made available by the DOE team bas allowed us to check eyecatching forms, at the same time making us only too aware of the thorough checking still needed to underpin detailed lexical field studies for Old English.10 With this in mind, two parts of the TOE, 02.04 Body and 04.01 Eat, have been scrutiniud with particular care, in a project to establish working procedures for supplying further annotations to the TOE database held in the English Department in King's College London. We have sometimes gone back to texts themselves, but not as often as we could have wished. If it is borne in mind that a separate investigatory scrutiny of the files for 04.01 Eat took five weeks of full-time work for one person, the reasons why will be evident. Essentially therefore the TOE reflects the information to be found in the Bosworth-Toller and Clark Hall dictionaries. Fortunately, Waldorf's examination of the words noted as infrequent in Clark Hall is a useful tool to put alongside Bosworth-Toller, although it too needs to be checked in the light of the DOE research materials. 11 Even the two sets of fiches which together make up the Microfiche Concordance to Old English (MCOE) are not themselves exhaustive. The standard dictionaries occasionally yield evidence for fonns not included in the preliminary materials published by the Toronto team: alternative readings for words in, for example, the Dialogues, the Old English Bede, the Leechdoms, or the Parker Laws, which are to be found represented in the published fascicules of the DOE. 8

Pase. D, 1986; Pase. C, 1988; Pase. B. 1991; Pase. A!, 1992; Fase. Bean. 1992; Fase. A, 1994.


A Microfiche Concordance to Old English, ed. Antonette DiPaolo Healey and Richard L. Venezky, Toronto, 1980; A Microfiche Concordance to Old English: The High-Frequency Wonls, ed. Richard L. Venezky and Sharon Butler, Toronto, 198S. We arc particularly grateful IO Professor Healey and her colleagues for a CD version of their files (1988). Vic Strite, in Old English SemanJic-Field Studies, American University Studies, Series IV: English Language and Literature, 100, New York, 1989, provides a useful introduction to published and cwrent work in progress on Old English lexical fields; see alao C. P. Biggam's review of Strite in Anglia, 109 (1991), 116-9.


N. 0 . Waldorf, 'The hapa1C ~gomena in the Old English vocabulary: a study based upon the Bosworth-Toller dictionary'. Stanford University PhD dissertation, 19S3. XVUI


Liltina tbe 11M•nh1p The first stage of the TOE was the creation of an archive of slips. 12 For each JDt.Aning found in the standard dictionaries a slip was made. Together with the making of slips for each word-sense, sorting numbers were chosen from the 1962 edition of Roget's The.saunu. 13 Each slip was given at least one number, often two, sometimes more, and cross reference slips were written for each number other than the first. All these slips were filed in the Glasgow archive, according to Roget numbers. For checking purposes the compiler (Jane Roberts) kept alphabetically arranged duplicates for each sense excapted. Given the caaegories of information available in current dictionaries, no attempt could be made to cover phrases, whecher verb phrases or idioms, other than baphal.81'dly. Consultation of the completed letters of the DOE~ veals a wealth of new collocational detail that must be taken into account in fuller lexical field studies. This thesaurus is, for the most pan. a presentation of concepts lexicalized in Old English as single items.14 Where obvious groups were clearly identifiable when the contents of the standard dictionaries were examined, these were excerpted and have been included, but all too little is known of multi word structures in Old English. Once compilation from the standard dictionaries was complete, microfiche checklists, both alphabetical and notional, were made from the duplicate slips retained by the compiler.15 This stage was completed in 1982. It must be emphasized therefore that the compilation of the Old English slips for the HT was mostly completed before the publication of the MCOE. In order to create the Skeleton Old English Thesaunu, information essential for checking purposes was entered on punched cards: Old English form; putative related OED forms; and Roget number(s) for each sense excerpted. Where this minimal information was insufficient for the differentiation of any two or more slips, the slips liable to confusion were given numbers. Thus, a record was made of the word senses excerpted from the Anglo-Saxon dictionaries, to 13

Jane Roberts, 'Some Problems of a Thesaurus Maker', Problems ofOld Engli.rlt Lu· icograplry, ed. Alfred Bammeabelger, Eiclt.rtdlter Beindg1, IS (Regensburg, 198S), 229-43.


Robert A. Dutch, ed., Roget's Tltnaunu of Engli.rlt Wordr and Pltrasu, London, 1962.


Not all words from the language's closed systems are included.


Ske/.eton Old English Thesaurus (1982). Research tool on 9 microficbes. Prepared by Jane Roberts wilb Ouistine Brown at the King's College London Computing Callzc.




allow checking at later stages in the compilation of the KI'. 1be completion of the microfiche checklists provided a clearer overview of the experimental Old English materials contributed to the Glasgow archive. Thus, from 1982 we had available for research use both an alphabetic index to the Old English supplementary materials and a skeleton thesaurus arranged according to Roget-derived classificatory numbers, and copies are in use in the English departments both in London and in Glasgow. (As well, a copy is used by the DOE tr.am in Toronto.) 1bey are of particular value in London, where most of the Old English side of the thesaurus is centred, giving access not only to both alphabetic and notional checklists but also to a complete notional listing for every Roget number used on each slip. This useful product of the machinegenerated listings has given us a summary not otherwise easily retrievable of all Old English slips assigned each particular Roget number. The first stage in generating a fully computer-based system for the thesaurus was to create a structure to hold the information from the slips in a database, using dBase ll software on Apricot microcomputers. In this phase floppy discs containing newly-converted materials and corrections were regularly exchanged between Glasgow and King's. In 1989 all the CUJTCnt dBase files were converted al King's - by a somewhat convoluted process made necessary by differences in storage formats - and loaded into a new system, using INGRES relational database software. Initially the database was on a personal computer, but by 1992 the volume of material in electronic form was such that it became desirable to allow simultaneous aa:ess by several people. As a result the database was transferred to a VAX mainframe computer. More recently, the database was moved to a UNIX machine set up as a 'database server', but still using INGRES software. Once the HT materials in Glasgow were themselves moved into INGRES format. there was the additional advantage that data files could be transferred electronically between King's College and Glasgow over 'JANET' (Joint Academic NETwork), the communications system which links all UK research and higher education institutions. Holding the information from the slips in electronic form made it possible for the classification(s) of a word or group of words to be modified readily and for listings of all the entries in a category or sub-category to be produced al will. 1be database software also allows different combinations of information to be produced in various sequences, for example by category, or by word. Hence both the Thesaurus and the Index were initially extracted from the database by report programs. In order to prepare these materials for publication, a further process was created to make them ready for input to l6IBX typesetting software. The l6IBX process produced the camera-ready copy sent to the publisher. xx

Introduction 111efoarftap Four symbols are used as annotations of the Old English entries in the TOE. These four ftags relate only to word forms, not to meanings. No phrase is flagged. The ftags point to aspects of word frequency that should always be held in mind, given that the extant corpus of Old English is small and probably skewed in its representation of Anglo-Saxon vocabulary. Many Old English words occur once only. Yet quite how to identify a word as truly a hapax kgomenon is problrmatic if its appearance in multiple manuscripts of some one work be held to constitute evidence of its greater currency.16 The flag o should be viewed as a warning that a particular word form is very infrequent Conversely, not all hapax kgomena may have been identified. Occasionally the reader may find the tag q attached to a word, to indicate that a form is highly dubious. Forms flagged q are of varied origins: they may reflect the inventiveness of generations of ingenious editors; or plausible forms have been abstracted from place-name evidence or from words first recorded in later English; and some are dictionary ghosts of long standing. Queried forms are avoided as far as possible. The flag p points to a form that seems to occur only in poetry. This flag assumes no value judgement but deals solely with distribution. Similarly, 1 points to word forms that appear generally in glossed texts or glossaries. It would have been both easier and safer not to supply these four distribution flags, but their presence should serve as a salutary reminder of the difficulties of interpretation presented by the small but diverse corpus of Anglo-Saxon words that haphazardly remain. The decision whether or not to ftag entries was long discussed. That we decided to ftag may be thought foolhardy but, because of the nature of a thesaurus, in which words and word-meanings do not. as in a dictionary, have one obvious preordained place, it seemed best to give some rudimentary indication of word distribution, if only as a constant reminder that many Old English words occur infrequently. In lexicographical work generally the incidence of hapax kgomena can be very high, if strict differentiation of forms is observed. For Old English the number is certainly high, even when criteria approaching those of Waldorf are observed. In the TOE the adjectival ending -lie and the adverbial -lrce are taken as supporting one another, and all adverbial forms that are inflected substantival forms are generally regarded as supported and hence not hapax legomena. Adjectival participial forms, whether used as adjectives or nouns, are not flagged if related to an attested verb form. Again, where adjectives are used as nouns, these are generally taken as mutually supportive. Conceptually the forms are similar, and it would therefore be misleading, and 11

See Waldorf (note 11 above) for discussion of Ibis problem. •


Introduction often impracticable, to label an occasional one--off substantival use of an adjective as a hapax legorMnon. Unfortunately, many of the word senses listed in Old English dictionaries have the support of a single context. and that too often in a glossed text. 1bese senses have been included, but where they occur for well-attested word fonns, they go unflagged. Tempting though it was to discard such items, we decided that they should remain in the TOE, which is, after all, a pilot thesaurus for the HT. To have left out the evidence from glossed texts and glossaries would have meant disregarding much valuable material for the history of English lexis. In any case, until the better sifting of evidence being provided by the DOE team is complete, there can be little secure infonnation about the frequency of the senses in which words are used. For now, therefore, we have contented ourselves with presenting a comprehensive listing of Old English word senses, and the four flags must be regarded as tentative, as minimal signposting of some of the most striking distributional features of the corpus. Inevitably there are grey areas in the application of the four flags. Some examples follow, collected together in illustration of particular difficulties thrown up by the four flags. 17 0

Forms that for one reason or anothel' seem familiar can prove surprisingly infrequent. Thus, because the seemingly unremarkable word hiJmllas (Rid 39 7) occurs once only in Old English it is flagged as found once only, in poetty: it comes as a surprise to find that the earliest OED example of 'homeless' is dated 1615. The solitary glossary instance of wlodung (AntGl 2 (Kindschi)) predates by some 300 years the next evidence for this word, also from a glossary. Within the whole recorded history of English these are not noncewords, although they occur once only in Old English. Attempts were made, during early checking of the categories 02.03 Mankind and 02.08 Health. to leave unflagged any forms found in later English, but it soon became apparent that the experiment was premature. To look beyond the Anglo-Saxon period, however loosely de-fined, to the whole later history of English would confec apparent currency on even more words than was already the case. Further, the omission of the o flag would conceal evidence that could be of use in the editing of the HT. Inconsistent word division within edited texts often makes it difficult to be sure that a word really does occur once only. Although consultation of standard dictionaries suggests op as an appropriate label for Mah/and (Exo 384), the clause Hl sene hf o/er Mah land (Deut 32 13) indicates otherwise. Two 17

Citations appear in the form recorded by the MCOE and are identified by MCOE short titles and references.



Introduction elements occmring side by side are interpreted as compound by some editors, but not by others, as is evident from Mahhleo}Ju (Christ A,B,C 744) and hlah hlio-. Some singletons can acquire a spurious validity through accepted reconstIUction. The actual forms, which arc not found here because dictionary practice is on the whole followed, arc less convincing. ReconstIUcted Anglo-Saxon spellings give us cwabba instead of the qu- of its appearance in a charter copied in the fifteenth century (Ch 762 (Birch) 1218 quabben) or weardgerlfa (not in MCOE, but sec Bosworth-Tolltt Il for LI Th i 479, 25-28 Et guardereve, id est prepositus custodwn). Overall the identification of hapax kgomena is a perilous business, and what at one time seems an isolated form may with increased knowledge be identified as an instance of some better-attested word. A moment's reflection on the alternate forms thrown up by metathesis is enough for the reconciliation of the manuscript variants ealdorbold and ealdorbotl (Bede 2. 8 122 13 aldorbold), with one form flagged o standing for both. And luckily where senses may seem to have diverged with alternate forms, there arc often sufficient examples of each spelling type, as with bearhtm/breahtm, for there



Introduction to be no need to flag either. Forms that for various reasons proved hard to cat-

egori7.e are nevertheless numerous, and some examples follow. For crypelas 'lattice', flagged OK. we follow the DOE description, although tempted to identify it with the better-attested forms for 'drain', which would support the flag a. Similarly sceacga is flagged oa in its use of 'hair', although it may be no more than a separate sense of a word of similar shape for 'copse' . For Waldorf unl4de 'stray' (Ch 1445 (HarmD 18) 49 jJIJ unU!dan oxan) was a nonccword, but deeming it merely an extension of the adjective 'unhappy' we gave it no flag. Time and time again the problem lay in glimpsing connections and in being convinced of their likelihood: so agen 'ear' agnan 'chaff and egenu 'blades', apparently infrequent 1 forms, arc mutually supportive. Given this litany of difficulties a final random selection of words flagged o should confirm the virtual impossibility of devising finn guidelines for the categorization of Old English vocabulary ahead of the completion of the DOE. Maybe gurgullione (Lit 4.3.5 (Logeman) 46) should be regarded as a Latin word rather than a loanword? There are, after all, glosses that provide an Old English word ymel alongside the Latin lemma 'gurgulione'. Should hnor 'sneezing' (Occ GI 36 (Gough) 8880) be oa or conflated withftwra? Would it not be better to leave out styficliah (Ch 371 (Birch 606) 3 Stijicleie) altogether because it looks like a place-name? Conversely, should not place-name evidence allow the removal of the flag o from stoc (GD l (C) 1 12 92)? Theo flag as often as not should serve to give rise to speculation and inquiry. p This flag is used of words found only in Old English poetry, which is roughly defined as the texts contained in the Anglo-Saxon Poetic Record (ASPR) volumes. 18 Even so, some words are not easily categorized. The three tJsolian forms (LEProv 3, Prov 2 (Zupker) 2 and Prov 3 (Roeder) 3) mentioned above in comparison with solian (Rim 61 solajJ), come from both verse and prose according to MCOE categorization, but the close relationship of these three Distichs of Calo collections might be held to show that tJsolian is essentially a 'poetic' word. Again, weal/fasten, found once in charter bounds (Ch 339 (Birch 392) and four times in ASPR texts (Gen 1056, Ex 282, Ex 482 and PPs 79 12), may be a form that should not be flagged as restricted in usage. 19 However, the charter bounds within which it occurs look to be sound Old English 11

E. V. K. Dobbie, ed., Tilt Anglo-Saxon Minor Poems, ASPR, 6, New Yort, 1942; ibid., Beowulf and Judith, ASPR, 4, New Yort, 19.53; G. P. Krapp, ed., Tilt Junius Manuscript, ASPR, l, New Yort, 1931; ibid., Tilt VercelU Book, ASPR, 2, New York, 1932; ibid., Tilt Paris Psalkr and the Meters of Boethius, ASPR, .5, New York, 1932; ibid. and E. V. K. Dobbie, ed., Tilt Euter Book, ASPR, 3, New Yort, 1936.


Introduction metre, and weallftzsten is given a p ftag, with some trepidation. Despite such inconsistency, the attempt has been made to use the p ftag strictly, and it is

therefore indicative only of distribution. Any urge to label particular senses of words as p was resisted as inappropriate in the current state of Old English lexicography. Thus words regarded traditionally as 'poetic' will be so flagged only if restricted to poetry and conversely some unremarkable words that just happen to occur in poetry only will also be so ftagged. 20 Although the Clark Hall use of the dagger to indicate poetic words is an invaluable guide, given the stricter observance of distribution attempted, quite a few words traditionally marked as poetic are without ftags in the classification. The p ftag is therefore an indication of distribution only, and not of any 'poetic' quality within the word flagged. Differentiation among the words restricted to poetry must wait for more detailed studies. Many of the compounds found in poetry have p ftags, and it is interesting to see them cluster, much as might be expected, in certain areas of the classification.21 Examples of groups especially heavily studded with p and op are: 01 Earth, world; Sea/ocean; Sun; A grave, burial place, sepulchre; A nation, people; A voyage; A ship, boat; Sagacity; Great fear, terror, horror; Courage, boldness, valour; Good feeling, joy, happlnea; 08.01.03 Bad feeling, sadness; Poetry; A leader, ruler; 13.02.08 Military equipment; 15.01.03 Treasure, riches, wealth; The Almighty; Heavenly dwelling place. 22 Less marked concentrations are found in: Shore, hank; 02.03 Humankind; Male person, man; 03.01.12 19


For discussion of these bounds, sec Peter Kitson, 'Some unrecogni:zed Old English and Anglo-Latin verse', Notes and Queries, 232 {1987), 147-S 1.


For discussion of lhe difficulties of categorizing Old English vocabulary, sec E. G. Stanley, 'Studies in lhe Prosaic Vocabulary of Old English Verse', Neuphilologische Mitteilungen, 12 (1971), 385-418; M. S. Griffith, 'Poetic Language and the Paris Psalter: the decay of the Old English tradition', Anglo-Saxon England, 20 (1991), 167-86; Roberta Frank, 'Poetic Words in Late Old English Prose', From AngloSaxon to Early Middle English: Studies presented to E. G. Stanley, ed. Malcolm Godden, Douglas Gray and Teny Hoad, Oxford, 1994.


Such concentrations were signalled as long ago as J. W. Rankin, 'A Study of the Kennings in Anglo-Saxon Poetry', Journal of English and Germanic Philology, 8 (1909), 357-422; 9 (1910), 49-84.


For examples, reference is made to the head of each group. XXVI

Introduction BriPbwrr, llsbt; CM.04.10.01 A r1J11 (for ft•cer, arm, neck); CM.05.03 A dwelllng·pl•ce, •bode, habit8don; A W, bolld· Ina; Samet; 06.01.01 Thought, the f•culty of thlnklna; An aerdte of power, mighty work, miracle; 07.06 Ptide; Despondency; lbbecl; F.mnity; 12 Power; 12.05.04 Sb'ife, bostility; 13.02 War; 13.02.02 Battle; 16.01.05 Hell, lower world, abode of the dead; A .ong, • poem to be sung or recited. Again more vague but still discernible scatterings of forms restricted to poetry are found in such groups as: 02.03.01 People; 02.06.10 Monster, strange creature; A be8m of light; 05.08 Strength; 05.10.01 Amplitude, spaciousness, vastneas; Swift· nerr, velocity; Love, affection, care; Anger; Malevolence, m•lice; Treachery; 13.05.01 Victory; 16.01.04 Sorcery, magic, witcbcnf't; The er.. (u Christian Image); 17.02.05 A work/product of art. Other areas are less the concern of Anglo-Saxon poets. Category 04.01 Eat is, for example, relatively free of p flags, at least so far as food is concerned: exceptions include the group of words for 'banqueting hall' in 04.01.02, words which on the whole place more emphasis on liquid than solid intake. Category 04.01.03 Drink has clusters of poetic words. Categories 10 Possession, 11 Action and Utility and 14 Law and Order are almost entirely without poetic vocabulary. Because the vocabulary of Old English poetry has been more extensively analysed than the rest of the extant vocabulary, it is useful to see such long-rccogniz.ed groups of terms arrayed among words in more general use. Certain concepts were apparently likely to spawn compounds, not all of them restricted to the Anglo-Saxon poetic corpus. It comes as a shock, on reading through 13 Peace and War, to find randbeah unflagged, whether as 'shield' or 'shield boss': all twenty-four instances occur outside the poetic corpus. Some words that occur outside the poetic corpus only as proper names are flagged p, for example wrnburh (Dan 57, Dan 620, And 1636, 1672, Jul 78, Wid 75; Vain 9, PPs 79.12, Instr 44; compare Ch 911 (Kem 714) 3, the etymon for the place name Wimboume) or heajJollJc (Beo 583, 1970; compare Bede 5. 22 478 12, a bishop's proper name). So too «scstede (Vain 9) is flagged op, even though formally it has possible support in the charters (Ch 274 (Birch 392) 2, Ch 619 (Birch 982) 15, 18, Cb 766 (Searle) 2 282) with today's placename Ashstead. In such cases it seems more helpful than not to supply flags. Again, there are words that appear mutually supportive, but are nevertheless flagged op: gemt!l (And 1330), for example, looks like genufled (Jul 590; and compare ClGl 1 (Stryker) 3723 and CIGl 3 (Quinn) 20630). The close similarity of certain compounds that occur only once suggests a dedicated seeking


xx vu

Introduction for variety on the part of the poets: heorucumbol (El 1OS) and he~combol (El 24); he~syrc (Bco 1506) and heorusyrc (Bco 2538 hiorosen:ean); heoruwlfpen (Jud 261) and henwt!pen (PsFr 34 3). When such forms are drawn together conceptually according to their long accustomed meanings; it is only too tempting to redefine some of them. On the whole it is a temptation firmly resisted. The classification is a sumnwy of past work; and it would be wrong to tamper unnecessarily with the evidence for meaning provided in the standard dictio-


nanes. Meaning is especially a problem with poetic compounds. Because of their nature and infrequency they are more like phrases than single words. We have endeavoured to place poetic compounds in an appropriate lexical set, although they may not be placed to the taste of all readers of Old English poetry. The meanings drawn from the standard dictionaries must serve as a starting-point for reconsideration. Thus, campwudu (El 46) is entered under 'shield' when perhaps it would be better under 'spear'. Both hlence (Ex 211) and wtZlhlence (Ex 172 and El 23) have been placed under 'spear' instead of 'coat of mail' .23 Notoriously, poetic compounds defeat exact analysis; yet the positioning of, say, ealuscerwen (Beo 767) and meoduscerwen (And 1526) according to their overall meaning rather than their constituent parts may seem to some a bold step. To have done otherwise would have led to an unwieldy enlargement of the TOE and possibly also to the incursion of poetic words into unlikely areas of the whole. These compounds add spice to the words grouped under Great fear, terror, horror within Category 06 Mental Faculties as well as to those under Advenity, aftliction within Category 08 Emotion; other possible homes might be: 'pouring out', 'provision of drink', 'generosity' (ironic); or 'deprivation', 'deprivation of drink'; or under 'beer' or 'mead' as single compounds dealing with specific deprivation (ironic). The classification could become a 'black hole', exhaustively drawing in components of meaning, a classification of parts of words rather than word senses. The meaning of a poetic nonceword is inherently insecure. no matter how unanimous the translators and dictionary editors. What, for example, is a w«lsteng (Beo 1634)? Four men carry Grendel's head on this piercing implement, readers visualizing it usually as a spear or spike. It could equally well refer to a sword. Its appearance preceded by the definite article seems to indicate that the implement has already been mentioned, so does Beowulf after all have a use for Brunting on the return from the mere? 33

G. Storms, in his review of P. 0 . E. Gradon'sElene: English Studies, 46 (1965), 54, points out that warriors shake spears rather than coats of mall.



lnlroduction Lengthy accounts could be written on the placing within the classification of word after word. During editing we kept open a special notes line in the database, to indicare reasons for decision, worries, indecisions: information that will be useful for more detailed handling of the materials of the database. But where traditionally a thesaurus-user bas been expected to know the meanings of words scanned, users of this thesaurus are expected to be aware of the sorts of problems Old English words present and to speculate generously as to the choices made by the editors. Metaphorical compounds must be regarded either as a source of enjoyment or as grounds for despair. Tempting though it would be to place such compounds for their separate elements as well as for any recogni:zed derived meaning, a mixture of daring and caution led to their being placed according to derived meanings as far as possible. Thus, words as me~hengest and sundhengest will be found only under the heading 'ship', and not within 02.06 Animal or even 01.01.03 Sea, whereas s~hengest appears both as a ship and a hippopotamus. Yet. the more exotic the image found within a poetic compound, the more likely it is u a candidate for two or three, or even more positions within the classification. Equally, words found outside the poetic corpus can be similarly charged: for example the image contained in s,;Jmutlum (Bo 20 47 25) relates to sword decoration, but the word is properly found at Storm, tempest. I Were we certain of having achieved consistency, we would assert that this flag is used of words restricted to glossed texts and glossaries. lWo areas of particular doubt must be noted. First, Latin/English word equivalents within .Elfric's Grammar are anomalous, being a part of prose usage according to Cameron numbers. If the form in question is infrequent or indeed a nonceword the decision not to invoke g is a hard one to take. The form «cennann (..£GI 303 19), for example, occurs only in Aelfric's Grammar, but is flagged o rather than OI· So too ~rmlJa (..£Gr 85 5) is given non-gloss status. At leut its o flag indicates its rarity; the supporting form ~fyrm' (AldV 13.l (Nap) 39180) differs from it in meaning. Counting g forms is so fraught with difficulty that an accompanying o is invoked only after considerable thought. Once the decision had been taken to regard use in the Lindisfarne Psalter Gloss and the Rushworth Psalter Gloss as separate instances of a form, it became the harder not to be similarly generous in respect of other words. It would be fair to say, therefore, that multiple copies are not generally reconciled. This is comparable with the practice adopted in respect of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, although not for all prose





texts that occur in more than one manuscript.24 Thus g on its own may relate to a rare infrequent form, but any word flagged both o and g is very probably found once only, in I texts. Further doubts linger: there is great need for differentiation among glossed texts. Some contain free.running materials and can present English as good as or even better than palChes of texts categori:zed as Old English prose texts. Influence from 'the practice of interlinear glossing' has been advanced for the Bede translation, which is not alone among prose texts in providing forms every bit as questionable as many a word flagged g.25 Future work will require a better sense of the quality of glossed texts, each of which should be examined carefully with the distinctions made by Gneuss among loan translations in mind.211 q Every effort has been made to use this ftag as little as possible. It should be thought of as indicating a word that does not occur, indeed a word whose putative existence is gravely to be doubted. Its use is best explained as indicating words that it might have been wiser to exclude. The retention of such words is a matter almost of book-keeping, an entry showing that the fonn was thought worthy of inclusion when the dictionaries were excerpted and that it was retained throughout the editing of the TOE materials. Word senses and words altogether rejected from the thesaurus are not recorded, although the slips themselves remain with the King's College files for consultation. There are three sorts of remainders: some absolutely intractable g forms; some words rejected because rejected by Meritt and other authorities; and some words from the language's closed systems, for example t.et, and, hie~. his, min, sin. 1be q flag is found disproportionately often in certain areas of the classification. 1be place-name elements included in Campbell's Addenda cluster markedly in Category 01 The Physical World and in 04.03 Farm. Sometimes quite a number of the items under a heading are flagged q, as for example rop, ro/Jer, ryd, rydingl-na (postulated cognates for rod) in Oeand 24

Multiple copies of the Old English Bede arc reconciled.


See Dorothy Whitelock, 'The Old English Bede', Proceedings of the Brilish Acalkmy, 48 (1962), 76, for the mixture of 'stiff and clumsy' and 'vigorous and

idiomatic' passages in this lranSlation. :ie See Helmut Gneuss, Lthnbildungen und LtlWHdeUllUlgen im Altenglischen, Berlin, 19SS, and 'Some Problems and Principles in the Lexicography of Old English', Festschrift fUr Karl Schneider, ed. Kun R. Janltowslty and Ernst S. Dick, Amsterdam/Philadelphia, 1982, pp. 153-68.


lntrod11etion land. These are listed alongside(ge)ryjnr, another of the place-name elements

included in Campbell's supplement to Bosworth-Toller, but (ge)ryper is unftagged because supported by use within Old English (Ch 468 (Birch 756) 5, Ch 619 (Birch 982) 6, Ch 1028 (HarmApp 2) 10). In RWng ground, eminence the form hylloc is another of these place-name additions, placed coincidentally under the heading Hillock; and it is comparable with the unftagged hylc, under the heading Hummock within the same group. Here we might have omitted hylloc altogether, but it remains and is separately flagged, therefore giving more evidence than would its absence. Had it been mapped on to hylc (that is, as hylc/hylloc in both entries), it would not have been possible to show it as apparently unexemplified within the extant corpus of Old English. Some words have a dictionary life but are not to be found anywhere in Old English as separate words. Where these have been recogniu:d, they are flagged q. Examples include fonns not found as independent words, whether fairly common elements such as gelegu 'tract of land' and rad 'road' or less frequent forms such as plac 'peak' (supported by the single occUJTCnce of two proper names only, Chron A (Plummer) 924 42 Placlond, Rec 26.2 (Birch 297) 35 Plcst!tna and by a charter phrase Ch 1503 (Whitelock 20) 35 at Placestllle). Otherwise the q flag is invoked for words in some way untrustworthy. For example, a solitary OCCUJTCDCC in Old English of swdn 'warrior' gets into dictionaries, reflecting the emendation swc2nas from swanoc, the form found in Hickes's printed text of the Finnsburla Fragment (Finn 37 swltne/). The form appears in the TOE, but the accompanying q flag ensures that its inclusion cannot be misread as acceptance of the word's existence in Old English.

The aassifbtion The classification of vocabulary used here is essentially a reduced version of the classification devised by Michael Samuels and Christian Kay for the JIT and in use as editing of materials from the OED progresses. 27 The outline classification was developed in the JIT project's early years and is continually refined as word senses are placed within it. 28 Its final shape cannot therefore be seen until the full historical thesaurus is complete. From the outset of the IIT project the usefulness of a small and easily separable body of ancillary materials (that is, c. 48,000 word senses from the Anglo-Saxon dictionaries as 27

Christian J. Kay, 'Historical Thesaurus of English: Progress and Plans', Corpora across the Cenlllries, ed. Merja K)'U), Matti Rissanen and Susan Wright, Amsterdam, 1994, l l l - 20.


C. J. Kay and M. L. Samuels, 'Componential Analysis in Semantics: Its Validity and Applications', Transactions of the Philological Society (1975), 49-81.




opposed to some 650,000 word senses drawn from the OED) was evident, to serve as the corpus for a pilot study for the full thesaurus. 'The word senses abstracted from the Clark Hall and Bosworth-Toller dictionaries are presented, as will be seen from the Table of Contents, in 18 categories, some of which themselves are further divided into si:zeable subcategories. Running titles are provided throughout the thesaurus. The classification is best approached through the Table of Contents. Wherever possible the defining beadings, which are based on the wording of the standard dictionaries, are written so as to match grammatically what is defined, although sometimes an adjectival heading may define a noun sub-category to which it adds a degree of specificity. Thus the wording of the definition reflects the part of speech: verb definitions opening with 'To . .. ' and adjective ones with adjectival fonns. The sense definition for a group of nouns may point to their use in mass or count contexts, but noun gender, specifically a matter of grammatical congruence, is not given. Again, with verbs an intransitive definition may indicate that the verb is used intransitively, but until more work has been done on the verb phrase in Old English, little that is certain can be stated. Nor should it be, if the evidence needs examination. To assume that one thousand years ago English verbs could be distinguished as transitive and intransitive, as has been done from the evidence contained in the Bosworth-Toller dictionaries, may stem from a wish to find them so and to contrast them with today's system, in which transitivity is viewed rather as a feature of the clause than of the verb.29 From another standpoint it can be argued that Old English has the same basic sentence types as today's English and that too little is known of the differing transitivity realizations of even the commonest verbs. From the broad conceptual point of view it is more important to indicate the central meanings of verbs than to classify them into strong, weak and other grammatical types. 'The overall structure of the classification is hierarchical, proceeding from the most general terms to the most specific. Thus, the meaning of a word at any particular point in the hierarchy is defined not only by its own heading but by the headings above and below it in the structure. Within each heading, further subordination or co-ordination may be indicated. The following selection from Category 02.06 Animal will serve as an example: 02.06 Animal 02.06.03 Wild animal Particular animals (alphabetical order) Rodents l


See Halliday: Sy1tem anti function in language, ed. Gunther Kress, Oxford, 1976, p. 162.



Introduction .Mouse: mils ..A thieving mouse: milst>Cof0 S .Rat: If the word we arc interested in is mils, we place it by reading back through the information, represented by the numerical hierarchy, that it is a type of wild animal, then animal. 1bc unnumbered dots give us the further information that Mouse and Rat arc subordinate to Rodent and co-ordinate with each other, while milsplof. with two dots, is subordinated by a further degree of specificity to Mouse. (The system of dots representing degrees of internal subordination was originally devised by Tom Chasc.) 30 Whether a category is numbered or introduced by dots depends partly on perception of the taxonomy and partly on how many words it contains: a large category may be given a number for case of reference at any level. Within the category, an order of Noun, Adjective, Adverb, Verb, Other, is followed unless the predominance of a particular part of speech suggests that a different order would be preferable. Where there is heavy lcxicali:zation under a particular part of speech, it may have a category to itself, as with 02.02.03 To die, perish or the categories under Frimcllinea, affection. This method of displaying the materials is intended to indicate the interdependence of items within a thesaurus structure, as opposed to the arrangement of an alphabetical dictionary, where each definition stands alone. 1bc set of headings relevant to any given item may not add up to the precision of a dictionary definition, but often comes close to doing so, thus, we hope, rewarding the user for effort expended in mastering the system. Oassitying the meaninp 1bc structure described above developed out of the day-to-day work of sorting the slips into groups which shared at least one component of meaning. No claim is made that the words assigned to each group arc synonyms in any strict sense of the tcnn, i.e., that they arc mutually substitutable in all or most contexts. Rather, they arc loosely synonymous terms which express the concept defined by the heading, which will itself often be a descriptive phrase rather than a single word. The precision of meaning (whether real or apparent) indicated by the Old English compounds leads to many small categories, often containing only one word. Such categories have generally been retained, as in Putun/pasturqe, but occasionally a set of partially synonymous terms of relative transparency will be grouped together, as for 30

Thomas J. P. Chase, The English Religious Lexis, Texts and Studies in Religion, 37, Qucenston, Ontario, 1988.


Introduction example under Half of another kind/ .Man, where centaur, healfmann, meremenn(en) and twlomann are listed together. The starting point for classificatory work was the 26 major categories already established for the Historical Thesaurus. The fate of these categories, reduced to 18 for the TOE, illustrates the general principle on which both classifications are based: that the structure should evolve from the data rather than be imposed upon them. HT, for example, has separate categories for The Supernatural and Institutional Religion, but when it came to the TOE, such a dichotomy proved difficult to operate in lexical terms and counterintuitive in historical and cultural terms. It was therefore abandoned and the material classified under the single heading Religion. Many other distinctions which seem clearcut to the modem mind, such as that between Astrology and Astronomy, proved equally impossible to sustain. Below this macro-level, we allowed the taxonomy to emerge from the data, a relatively easy task for the vocabulary of the material universe, but one requiring a greater degree of subjective intervention in the abstract lexis. As far as possible, we tried to be guided by what we knew of the Anglo-Saxon world-view rather than by modem taxonomies (although our knowledge is obviously limited and this is another area in which we hope that the TOE will stimulate further research). Thus, the major headings in 02.06 Animal might not impress a modern zoologist, but seem to us to indicate the priorities reflected in the vocabulary: 02.06 Animal 02.06.01 Animal parts/activities 02.06.02 Domestic animals, livestock 02.06.03 Wild animal 02.06.04 Exotic animals 02.06.05 Marine animal 02.06.06 Fish 02.06.07 Reptile (serpent, snake, dragon) 02.06.08 Bird 02.06.09 Insect/small creature 02.06. l 0 Monster, strange creature Technical terms such as 'mammal' or 'arachnid' simply do not appear in these headings, thus allowing us to place words such as hwerl 'whale' in 02.06.05 and iitorcoppa 'spider' in 02.06.09, without. we hope, offending either scientific or historical sensibilities (and, in the latter case, with some fidelity to the modem folk taxonomy). Where possible, categories within such headings follow a semantic order; 02.06.01 Animal par1s/activities, for example, follows the order of Head to Tail, and the equivalent sections for human beings and for



lntrrxhlction diseases are also organi:zed in descending order. Where a semantic order is not apparent, alphabetical order is followed. Individual words are generally classified by their most specific component. so that general terms for tools are in 17 Work, dolnp, actions, labour, while tools and implements used in agriculture or the care of animals occur in different parts of 04.02 Farm. The section above on the four flags has described the difficulties faced in ascribing meaning to many Old English word forms. For a conceptually organi:zed lexicon, some meaning must be attached to a form if it is to be included at all, and the vaguer the meaning, the greater the problems confronting the classifier. In addition to this, some concepts are inherently ambiguous and could find more than one home whatever the system of classification. Thus we have the categories 16 Religion and 18.02.07 Music: where do we put Religious Music? In such a case, it is Hobson's choice, and in the TOE those who tum first to Music will be supplied with cross references to appropriate points in Religion. Where the number of words is small, as in the sub-category War trumpet. the group may be repeated, here in both Music under A tnunpet and in Warfare under Battle-horn. Economy must be practised for a printed book, but in a database repetition is less of a luxury. Polysemous words can legitimately be dealt with by placing their senses in as many categories as is necessary, but problems arise if there is a single definition of wide extension or if the boundaries of the senses are not clear cut. One solution is to use a comprehensive defining heading, as in 14.01.06 A nale, order, precept, tenet, principle, which can receive words which cover some or all of this area of meaning. Another is a series of overlapping headings, as in the verbs attached to 11.11.02 A hindrance . Neither solution is ideal, but both the nature of meaning in general, and the nature of Old English meanings in particular, renders a degree of fuzziness inevitable. Where all else fails, we have fallen back on categories like the depressingly large Unldentlfted plants (alphabetical order). Compared with a dictionary, any thesaurus is somewhat of a blunt instrument, sacrificing semantic or grammatical specificity to breadth of conceptual coverage. Schemes of classification have no inherent truth, but represent the best attempts of the compilers to present their materials within a coherent and illuminating framework. We hope that we have gone some way to achieving this goal in the TOE, and that it will provide its users with at least some new insights into the vocabulary of Old English and the lives of its speakers, as well as fulfilling its primary function of supplying data for further research.

xx xv

A THESAURUS OF OLD ENGLISH 1. The Physical World 01 Earth, wortd: brytengrundas0 P, brytenwangas0 P, eormengrund0 P, eor}>e, eofl>ricc, eorJ>stcde0 P, eorpwegP, folde, foldwangP, foldwegP, grundwzg°P, grundwangP, gumriceP, leoht, middangeard, moldwegP, woruld .As God's creation: ealdgeweorcP, frumheowung°S, frumsceaft, frumgesceap0 P, frumsetnungs, frumweorc, fymgesceap0 P, fymweorcP, landgesceaft°P, Stle and eorpe, gesceaft, woruld, woruldgesceaft ..In the beginning: frymp ..Awaiting redemption: gehzftworld° ..Before the last judgement: l!rworuld0 P .As dwelling place: eardgeardP, ijlel, hrilseP, molde, peodeor}>e0 , willwong0 P, wundorworuld°P .As distinct from heaven: grund, hriiseP, woruld, woruldrice .Material world: woruld, ymbhwyrft .Of the wortd: eorpcund, eorpcundlic, eorplic, middangeardlic, woruldcund, woruldlic . .In earthly situation: her, in werpeode, on grunde, under sunnan, under wolcna hrofe, under wolcnum ..(ln)to this wortd/life: hider .In earthly manner: eorplice 01.01 Surface of the earth: Stle and eorpe, wang, widlandP .Region:ende,eodor,grundsceatP,sceat .Zone, belt: gyrdel(s) .Borbon: eaggemearc0 P ..Space enclosed by borbon: bring 01.01.01 Direction: See; Side, quarter. direction North: norpd~I .Northern part or place: no~I. norpende, norphealf, norphyme, norpland, norpsceata0 , thila .Northern: norp, norJ>anweard, nor}>eme, norpeweard, norpheald, norplang, norplic0 8 ..More: norperra ..Most: nort>mest I North-east .Towards/from, etc., north: be norpan, norp, norpan, norprihte(s), nort>weard, norpweardes, on nort>an ..Further: nort>or .By north: be nort>an North-east: norpeast, norpeastende0 .North-eutem corner: norpeasthyme .North-eutem: eastnorp, eastnort>eme0 , norpeasteme0 S, norpeastlangq .Towards/from, etc., north-east: be nort>aneastan, eastannorpans,

nort>aneastan, norpeast 01.01.0l.Ol.02 North-west: norpwest, norpwestende .Towards/from, etc., north-west: norpanwestan, norpwest, westannorpan,

westnort>, westnort>langq South: sii~21 .Southem part or place: sii~zl, siipecg, sii~nde, siiphealf, siipland,

supmzgp .Southem: sup, sii~me, sii~weard, siiphealdP, siipweard ..More: sy~rra ..Most: siipmest .Towards/from, etc., south: be siipan, sup, siipan, siiprihte, siipweard, supweardes, wip siipan South-east: eastsii~lo, Siipeastende0 , siipeasthealf0 S .South-eastern: eastsiiplangq' siipaneastemeoS' siipeast, siipeasteme0 •Towards/from, etc., south-east: be eastsiipan, eastansiipanS' eastsup,

supaneastan, siipeast South-west: siipwest, westsii~nde0 .SOuth-westem: siipanwesteme0 • supwesteme0 .Towards/from, etc., south-west: be westansiipan, siipanwestan, siipwest East: eastdzl .Eastem part or place: eastende, easthea)f, eastJand, eastrice, eastwegasP

.Eastern: east, easterlic0 S, easterne, easteweard, eastlang •Towards/from, etc., east: east, eastan(e), eastrihte, eastrihtes, eastweard, eastweardcs, wip Castan .By east: be eastan See Sun

2 I Mainland West: setlgang, sunsetg, westdltl, wcstwegu0 P .Western part or place: westd~I. westende, westhealf -Extreme western boandary: rihtwestende0 .Western: west, westanweard0 , wester, westernc, west(e)wcard, westlang

..Most: westrnest .Towards/from, etc., west: be westan, sunganges, west, westan, westanc, westlang, westribte(s), wcstweard ..Most westerly: wcstmest .By west: be westan, wil> westan See Sun 01.01.02 Land: zcer, eard, corJ>e, foldc, greot, grund, briiseP, land .On land: on drygum, iip .(Of land) to lie: biian, licgan Ground: beann, ear 0 P. coq,e, foldc, grund, grundbedd 0 P, hriiseP. land, molde, na:ss, sceat, scCata .Chalky ground: cilccq .Rough ground: clinc, ryhl>q. scrippa, ungcrydc .Stony ground: srzneq, stl!nerg .S.ndy ground: sendeq .Of the ground: coq,e(r)ng, cort>lic -Rough: riih ..Stony: srzncn, stinberendc0 g, stanig, staniht, stinscylig

-Rocky: cliidig Tract of land: ctisc(c)q, Jandscearu, Jandsplott, geleguq,

scirlett .Common/unenclosed land: ccart .Small piece of land: buttucas, bytt, landstyccc, plot .Strip/stretch of land: ricq, stracaq, streccaq ..Piece of land cut oft': scirtcq ..Strip of land beside a stream/other land: sidlingq .Horn-shaped piece of land: horn .Land lying by water: flOdhamm, holm .Alluvial land: scydd, wa:tergcwa:sc0 g .Place with tree stumps: stocccttq, stumblct~

See Clearing; Plot of land; 12.06 Territory Mainland: l>a:t mire land


01 . Island Island: caland, cit, ieg, iegland .Small Island: elq. iggap .Island in river, etc.: holm .Other types of island: fyrsig0 , ncahcaJond0 , paddaniegq, st!ryric0 P .Sand-bank: sandhricg Shore, bank: brerd, clif, landgemirce, ofer, scora, sta:J>,

strand, streamsta:J>0 P, strearnwealJ0 P, waro)> .SOUtb shore/bank: sii}>rima, sii)>stzJ> .Coast, seashore: brim, brimfarot>0 P, brimsta:J>0 P, faroJ>P, gematre, mearcland, merehwearf0 P, st!farot>P, sl!geml!re, st!rima. sl!sta:J>, st!strand, satwarot>P, wltgstret>0 P, wir, y)>JifP ..Sandy shore: sand, sandland 0 P, warol>a geweorp .Land near roast: caland, szhealf, szwong0 P ..Maritime district: slt)and, szgesetS .River-bank: i!a6fer, Castzl>Op ••East river-bank: eaststrel>0 ..Land in bend of river: crambq .Wharf, embankment: hwearf Promontory, headland, cape: bearuna:s0 P, foremunt0 S,

fyrgenheafod0 P, hoh, na:ss(e), nose, sl!na:s, sceat, snOca. steort .Northern promontory: nor1Jsceata0 .Isthmus: sweora Inlet in river/sea: earm, fteot, pull, si!earm0 , sceat, wrc .Bay, gulf: healh High land: diin, heah, heahland, heahstede0 P, healicnes, mor,

morhat)>0 P, muntland, weald .Peak land: peaclond0 .(Of land) high: hcah Rising ground, eminence: hi inc .In marsh or swamp: merschop0 .Small mound: hype, hypeJS, gewyrpe .Stony mound: stanceastel, stancno11°, stangefea11°, stanhype0

.Hummock: hobbq, hylc .Hillock: beorgstede0 P, cna:pp, cnoll, hygelq, hyllocq, stiit ..Particular kinds of hillock: brerhli!w 0 , hyrst .Ridge: forstq, hoh, hrycg, walu 4

01 .01 . Slope

..Dividing ridge: hlinc, rdrhlinc, mearchlinc0 , middelhrycg .Other kinds of ridge: landgewyrpe, lindrycg, mealuq, sandhrycg, stinhlinc, slinhricglt, timberhrycg, troghrycg .Bank, escarpment: eardweallq , eorJ>weall, ffre .Of stones: stinwalu0 • Hiii, mountain: beorg, dun, hyll, munt .Summit: cnaepp, cnoll, coppK, heafod, hrel>(u), top, ypplen .Slope, side: zfdyneas, hengq, hlencq, hliJ>, hylde, side, slindq, slinuq

.Grassy slope: sleaq ..Steep slope: scyte .Foot: wyrtruma, wyrtwalu .Prominent/isolated biWmountain: heafodbeorg, mundbeorg0 P .HDly/mountainom: dunlendisc0 , dunlic°' Hill: borq, cancq, claccq , clopq, clud, cnyllq, cylfeq,

dun, hCalor, hyll, pampq, ~q. rind .HUis: gesweoru .High hill: heahhliJ>P .Round/conical hill: beallq, bolq, hlltw, hocerq , swelle ...ctand-hill: sandbeorg, sandhyll, sandgewyrpe .Other kinds of hill: foxhyll, berq, rdrccnoll, nCahdun°, stinbeorg, weargbeorg°, winterdiin°, wulfhliJ>0 P .Hilly: clildig, hyllic Mountain: (ge)beorg, fergenbeorg0 P, fyrgenq,

hCahbeorgP, hCahtorr', munt .Lowest part of mountain: grundweall .Side of mountain: beorghleoJ>P .Neighbouring mountain: nCahmunt .Alps: alpis (l>ii muntas) ..St Bernard Pus: muntgru .Apennines: barda0 .Pyrenees: perenei (J>I beorgas), pireni .Mountainous: beorgiht° .Higb/steep: steap, sticol Slope: hlil> .Topofslope: heafod .S.ndy slope: sandhlil>op .Hollow in slope: healh


01 . Cliff

.North slope: nort>hyldeq .Slope (of beadl•nd): nieshli!>0 P Cliff: clif, ccgclif0 P. sta:l>hlype, stinclif, stinhli!JP, stinsc~&. wcall .Edge of cliff: ccg

.Shelf: pcallq ,Sea-cliff: brimclif0 P, clif, holmclifP, sl!beorgP, Sltclif, sltweallP, sta:1>wcaIJ0 P, wcallclifOP .High cliff: hlahclif .Overhanging cliff: hcngcclif& .Misty cliff: rnisthli!JP .Of/concerning dHrs, steep: clifig°&. clifiht&, geandele0 &, neowol, sta:l>hlype, stcaJcP, steap, strfigQ, swift, trondende0 &, wil>erdiine See Sea/ocean Crag, rock, stone: carr&, scylf, still, stintorr

.Mw of rocks: clild, cliiderq -Landslip: cort>gcberst

.Opening between rocks: stingcat .Rocky peak, cng, tor: ing(cl)q, stincnol1°, stinrocc8, stintorr. torr .Stack: carr& .Cragy, rogged: anbrucolog. cliidig, hamcl, scylfig& See Rock. stone Hollow/depression in land: deopingq. hcaloc, holcq,

holhncs0 , hylu, scra:f, wamb .Hollow in hills: muntclysc0 , sweora .Hole, pit: dylf(ct)q, corl>pf0 P, pf, hot, holh, pytt, 5Ca1>, swalgq ..Particular kinds of pit: f~r5Ca1> &, horpytt, hringpytt, mltrpytt -Quarry/ditch: gedclf, die, foss, grafct See 17.04 Materials 0 Cave: cine, dcnn, grafu0 &, hll!w, scrref .Mountain-cave: diinscra:fP .Cave in the rocks: stinho1°, stinscra:f .Cave as dwelling place: brocchol, cleofa. cofa, eorl>hiis, eorpscraf .Place with caves: scra:fcnq

.Rocky arch: stinbogaP 6 Covered with vegetation Abyss, chum: a:fgrynde0 , deop, deopnes, f~rsCa&>08, gin, grund, grutt8, grynde, n&SS, neowelnes, neowol, geswelg8 Valley: b&c(e), clofq, clohq, cumb, dzl, dene, denelandS, eortxlene0 , glad/gl~q. gyllq, pa:I>, sla:d .Mouth of valley: (ge)mYl>e .Head of dale: bytn .Small valley: dell .Gorae, ravine: ceole, cliise, crundel, brace .Particular kinds of valley: cealccrundel, fildenu, hlipcumb, ~rcumb, morsla:d, standenu, wulfsla:d ..Valley containing water: bingQ, byden, cymbe0 , dumpeVdumbelq, dyfe0 , holh, wa:tersla:d .A deep place in water: hol .(Of land) low-lying: nil>erlic Open Oevel) land: diinland, feld, feldland .Level place, plain: camp. emnet0 ' feld, gefilde, smet>ettq' smet>nes, stedewangP, wang .Particular kinds of level land: frit>owang°P, gra:swang, ~lwangP, stanwong°P, wudufeld°P .(Of land) level: efen, tilde Mania, bog, swamp: gebl'Zc, cwabba0 , fenn, fengeliid0 P, fenhleot>u0 P, fenhop0 P, fenland, ft~thamq , fynig, gyr(u), gyrwefenn°, hop, la:c(e)q, mersc, merschop0 , merscland°, mOr, m0rhop0 P, mos, piduq, polraq, ~geq, sl~. sna:p0 , strod, strOdetteq, fy~, fyrsgira0 , fyrsleah, hreod .Woocledfanct: (ge)fyrhl>(e), weald, wudu, wudufald0 , wudufeld0 P, wuduland .To be covered with vegetadon: (ge)growan

See Grassland Wild/uncultivated land: elzte, in8Lf P, ceart, feldwesten°, hreohnes, mearcland, mearcstede0 P, Unland, WCstC land, WCslen, westnesS .A wactefdeserted place: WCstenstapol0 P .Moor, heath: ~I>. hi!l>feld, hi!l>feldland0 , heahmor 0 , mor, morhit1>0 P. morland ..A waterless moor: driigol>. driigung, dryge •Wild, UDCUldvated: unbegin, undolfen°, unered0 8, ungearu, weste, wilde -Heathy: hrel>iht(e) -Barren/desert: iepe -Lacking vegetadoa: calu -Waterlea: l>yrre ..Desert, desolate: l!ll!te, westen, westig .To grow/remain wild: awildian See Barnnness; 03.01.18 Dryness Earth, soil: eort>e, great, hJiiseP, land, molde, myldeq .Virgin soil: maegdeneort>e0 .Dust (of the ground):~. dnst .Lump of earth or peat: clodd Rock, stone: carr, clentq, clifstin, cnearrq, flint, beans, srestin°S, stin,stincarr0 S,stinclud .Kind of stone: stlncynn ..Stone from 8 river: eastin° -Huae stone: maegenstin ..Loose stones: claterq, clyderq ..Pebble: papolstin, stinincel0 S .Rocky, stony: stinberende0 S, stinig, stiniht, stl!nilic0 See Crag, rock, stoM; 04.05.01 Building materials Types of soil: 8 Types of metals/minerals Sand, sraffl: sand, sandceosol, stinceosel, war .8andstone, gravel: ceoselstin .Gravel: cisq, cropp, greon°1, greosnt! .Gravel, send, shlnsle: ceosel, grindeq .Sea-sand, shinale: ~ceosol .A araln of send: sandcom, sandgrot°P Sandy: sandfut 0 •, sandig, sandiht -Covered with send: grotigt! .Gravelly, shinsly: ceosel~ret!, ceoslent!, ceoslig°I, cisenq, greotcnq Sandy, chalky: mealmeht0 Cay, loam: clzg, folde, Jim, ~hel .Sbele: stiinscalu0 .Oiht°S .Stony, sbely: stinscylig Limestone, chalk: cealc, cealcstin, meahnstin .Qaicklime: gebaemd lim, gebaemd stln .Gyfl'um: spaerstinl .Chalky place: cilceq Marble: manna0 , mannanstln, mannelstin°, marmorstin, mannstin F1lnt: flint Achlllll•t: r•ns0 See 17.04 Materials Minerals and metals: .Stoae that COll'lalm metal: stln .Ore, aawroapt metal: Ora Types of metals/minuals: .Ba awfcopper: Ir, goldmaestling, grene Ir, maestling ..Baus, brome: bra .Crystal: cristalla ..saJt: sealt -Coarse salt: grtat sealt -.A pillar of 181t {Lot's wife): sealtstin .Copper: coper

9 F.arthquake

.Gold: gold ..Pure gold: s~te gold -Ingot of gold: goldwecg0 S. -Gold ore: goldOra' .Iron: ise(r)n .Lead: lead .QuicksUver: cwicseolfor .SUver: seolfor .Tin: tin .Brar.en, of brass: zren, bnesen .Of copper: cypren .Of crystal: cristallisc0 .Of pure gold: smlttegylden .Of iron: ise(r)n .Leaden: leaden .Of sUver: seolfren .Of tin: tinen Earthquake: cwacung, eorpbeofung, eorpdyne, eorpbremes, eorpryne, eort>styren, eor)>styrennes0 S, eorpstyrung 01.01.03 Water: earwela0 P' flOd, holm, lagu, lagufael>m0 P' laguflOd, lagustream, s&, streamas, sund, waetergesceaft0

See Water. liquid Body of water: gelagu, mereftOdP, ricq, l>rymm, (ge)waed, waeter, wzteras, waeterscipe .Deep water: wltl .Neighbouring water: ncahwaeter 0 , scirwzter 0 .Navigable waterway: eaJad0 P .Bed of: botm, grund -Floor of subterranean place: brUseP .Stapant water: meresteall0 .Deep: deop, hcah .Still, calm: meresmylte0 P, undrefed° .Stapant, standing: dead, standende

See .03 Shore, bank Moving water: ftOd, wyllestrcamP .Agitated movement: styrenes, wielm, ymbcerrS .Agitated: if'Ysed, (ge)drof 10

01.01 . Stream

.To surge, beat, be agitated: ~. (ge)weallan River: ca, eastream. ftoo, Iacu, lagustreamP. stream,

wztersbiam .Head/source: hWod .Course: forpryne, pep, rihtryne, ryne .Mouth: genlad, miil>(a), gemynde, gemyl>(e) .Midstream: midstream .Bend: bycgeq .Pool as part of river: pal, wrel .Put wbel'e fish caught: fiscnop, fiscwer, steallq .Neighbouring river: neahea0 .Confluence: (ge)mype -Collision, meeting of waten: wipercwide, wiperszc .Bed of: earacu .Particular riven: ..8evern: sacfern -Thames: temes(e) ..Eider, 'doorof1ea momten': fifeldor 0 P .Relating to rivers: ealic', ftOdens, ftoolic' ..Flowing in four stJ c•ms: fiperft&lendeoS, fiperftOwende _nowing rapiclly/violeady: mooig .Up-river: iip .To rise: onspringan, iip weallan br0cri)>0 .Fork: creowelq, twicele0 , twisla0 Sbeam: l!wyll, burn(-a/-e), eanp0 , fteamaq, fted(e)q,

foldwylm0 P, gytestreamS, lacu, wzterburne0 P, wetempeg, wyllestr~P

.Small stre•m, brook: bzc, broc, funta/-e, rinnelle/rynel, (ge)np(e), npig, sic(e), sicelq ..Intermittent: sic, winterburna0 s .Freshet: fersceta .Boundary stream: (ge)rrutrbrOc, mltrft0de0 , (ge)ml!rlacu, m&rsic, (ge)mrerwyll .MDI stream: cweomburna, hweolnpig, mylenbroc, mylenburna, mylentroh0 8, mylestream .Stream with particular cbaracterisdcs: 11 Watercourse/channel

..Dirty: horwyll, smitcq "With alden: alcrbrac, alcrbumc ..Lined with planks: bordnpig ..In a plain/meadow: fildbumc, llltdlacu0 ..Mountain/woodland: firgcnstreamP "With fish: fisclacu0 , wtt}>cbumc "Rushy: riscbrac, riscnpig ..salty: saltbrac, saltwcllc Watercoune/channel: ltd.re, ccolc, caldoj>S, ftooc, gotaq, gutt, lid, pipe, streamracu, swinq, J>ryng°l!, wztcrgcliid0 i, wztcrgclzt°&, wztcrscipc, wztcrtrgc°', wztcrwcgO Toaaent: brimstreamP, ftoo, gyseq, hlimmcP, hlydc, hlynn°', scytcrc, wztcrpeote Waterfall: hlfcp(e), hlynn°i, J>Cotc, wztergcfcall 0 , wztcrt>Cotc Spring, fountain, well: zspring, zwclm, burhwcllc, bum(-a/-c), ccldcq, cwilmq, cwyllc0 , fant, funta/fynt, pytt, spring, iipspring, iipwill 0 , wzterZd(d)re, wzterpytt, wzterspring0 P, wztcrwyll, wellwill 0 , wicll(-a/-e), wielm, wyllebumeP, wyll(ge)spring, wyllung .Bubbling spring: citelftooq, citelwyllq .Spring having water in winter: wintcrwille0 .Salt spring: sealtseap0 , sealtwillingO, sealtwylle .Miraculous/healing spring: hit bzp .Other sprinp: "Where eras grows: czrswillq -Boundary: mcarcwill .From/of a spring/fountain: willici .To spring: ibrecan iip, ispringan iip, iwcallan (iit), brecan of, brecan iip, cnpan', onspringan, wcallan Sea/ocean: bzpwcgP, brim, brimftoo, brimstrcam, deop, egorstreamP, fim, fifclw~gOP, fiSCCS bzp, fisccs cpeJ, ftoowcgP, ftot, ganotcs bzp, girsecg, gcofonP, hzf, hzm, holm, hranmere0 P, hranridP, hwz)CS Cpe), hwzJmereP, hwz)weg0 P, lagu, lagufzstenP, Jaguftoo, mzwcs epel, mere, sit, sitfzsten°P, sitftoo, sitholm0 P, secg', seglrid0 P. seolhbzp0 P, seolhpzp0 P, siolop0 P, streamas, sund, sundhclmP, 12 Wave

swinridP, wzd, wel, waerP, windgeard0 P, woruldwaeter 0 , yt>. yt>a ful, yt>faruP,yt>gewinnP .Open/deep sea: dCop, ear, fifelstream0 P, ftotweg°P, fyrnstteamas0 P, beah, holmmegen°P, mereftOdP, satweg°, iltermere, w~gholm P, widsat, yt>mereop .Remotest sea: iitgirsecg°P .Rel•tina to the sea: heahhef0 , holmeg°P, 5Zlic, 5Zng, sznig0 g 0 Region of sea/ocean~ .Bosom: flmigb0sm0 P, sceat .8ea-patb/-way: brimJAdP, brinuidP, farot>stt~tP, holmweg°P, JagulidP, lagustrat0 P, mere1Ad0 P, merestnttP, sltJAdP, sltweg, streamrid .Deep place: w~I .sea bed: eargrund. grund, satgrund, waetergrund Sea-cbannel: merestreamP, satftOd, smst:ream .Strait/narrow dwnnel: middelsat0 , sweora .Bristol Channel: nort>sZ .English Channel: siit>sat Sea In particular area: eastgirsecg, eastsZ, nort>girsecg°, siil>girsecg°, westsZ .Meditemmean Sea: wendelslt .Baltic Sea: norpsat State of sea: .Rough sea: farot>. holmt>racuP, stormsz0 , waeterftoo, gewinn .Rough: gedrof .Violently: strange .To agitate: (ge)drefan, (ge)wregan •To become rough: irisan •To crow calm: driisianP. sessian°P .To 1D8ke calm: (ge)smyltan Waw: ~r. haem, w~g. wal>um(a)P, YI> •Towering wall of: holmwea11°P, meretorr 0 P, randgebeorb0 P, randburgP, stlweaJJP .Crest: hrycg .Billow/sea-wave: brimwylm0 P, ft0dyt>0 P, holmwylm0 P, smw~g°P, satwylm0 P, sttyt>, sealcyt>P, sigend, w~g. waetcryt>0 P, wealca, YI> 13

01.01 . Surging, rolling, heaving of waves .Large wave: egewylm, ft0dweard0 P, ftOdwylmP, heah gel>ring, mOdewf!g°P,

oferyl>0 1, dbeorgP .Breaker: waro1>faru1>0 P .Surf: warol>gewinn°P .Foamy: flimig .To move in waves: y)>(g)ian Surging, rolllng, heaving of waves: merefarot>P, ~hete , streamwelm0 P, streamgewinn°P, geswing, gewealc, wielm, gewilc, gewilcl>0 1 .Ad of mingling: geblandP, W"geblandP, ofer d!op gedreg, sundgebland0 P, yl>geblandP .Ad of bftAking./dashfn&: hopgehnist0 P .Running higb/surginglroDing: il>unden, hopig°P, wealco1°1, weallende .To move restlessly about: ispringan (ilp) .To swell: uppian° .To run higb/surxeJbeave: mOdig(i)an, on wealcan, (ge)wealcan, weallan, windan, ymbswipan

0 Lake: la:c(e)q, lagu, luh•, mere, seap .Large lake/Inland sea: ~ .Icy lake: ismere0 P .Bed of: grund, grundwangP, meregrun. stJegl, wa:ter5Ca1>, wa:tersoJ 0 1, wa:tersteall0 .Round: hringmere0 P •With birds: crampulq, rdwpul •Where fish are kept: fisclacu 0 , fiscmere0 1 .Mill-pool: mylengear, mylenpull .For swimming: sundmerel .Boundary: ~rp01°, ml!rpull0 .Brackish: sealtmere Weir: pynding, wer, wering0 , werstede0 .Where fish are kept: ha:cwer .Of logs: beamwer 0 .At a ford: fordwer 0 .Floodgate, sluice: forscft°I


01 .01.03.05 Whirlpool Ice: is .Piece of: is .Jdde: cylegicelP, gicel(e), hrrmgicel 0 P, ises gicel .Icy: gicelic', isig, Isiht° See Ol. Jce F1ow/8owina: sitftOd, singalreneog, toftowendnes0 .Upward OD to land: ilpgang .F1owlna: iiemende, cwicwelle', ftowende, forpgoten, iemende, singalftOwendeog, weallende ..Flll'-tlowing: Widrynig°P .In tbe m•nner ofa staeam: st:reamrynes0 .Gendy: smoltlice0 P .To flow: faran, feallan, fteotan, (ge)ftowan, ftowan iit, forpftowan°, gehlcapan, ieman (iit, of), rinnan, toglidan ..To flow In: ftowan ..To tlow upon, round: beftowao0 P, geondftowan, geondlican°P, onbeftowan°' ..To flow under: underflowan°P ..To flow up to: tObeftowao°' ..To tlow through: t>urhl>rtwan° ..(Of water) to disperse: oferyman, toft&>n, togin, togelan°, toscn1>an°P Current, rush of water: nts, streamfaru0 P, wltgstream0 P, wactera t>rYl:>e. wactert>ruh', wacterpryt>0 P .sea c:arrent: cgorst.reamP, geofonft0d0 P, merestreamP, sltstream .Tide, incoming dde: dreariend°B, ftOd, sltftOd .Ebbing/flowing out of tide: ebba, eftftowung°C, sltacbbung°S .Hip dde: egors, fyllet>ftOd. ~Od .Neap dde: nepftOd .Strong: stearc, strang, swi}>strfme0 .Rushing: lfjsed, forpresende, gefysed .Enplftn1: forswelgende .Full: full .Ebbing and flowina: geondftowende, ong!anftowendeS .To ebb: iebbian, geebbian, eftftowan°' Wbhtpool: edwielleS, edwindeS, grutS, hwyrfep01°S, s&swelg, geswelgS, swelgend, swelgendnes0 S, swelgnes°', t>oden, wet IS flood lilood: cwild(e)flOdg, drenceflOdP, fled, flOd, geofonP, mereflooP,

wl!gl>reatog, gewzsc«, wzterflOO, willfl0d0 P, Yt>ung .8ea-8ood: sl!OOd .Biblical: egorhereP, flOd, wzlstream0 P .In 8ood: flede, flooeog, infledeP, oferflede0 .To ftood/overftow: geflowan .To ftood/overftow (land, etc.): oferflowan, yl>(g)ian .To carry away by a 8ood: to0eotan° .To be 8ooded: flowan .(Of 8ood) to sink, go down: ebbian, sincan Reheat (of Red Sat): sl!cir 0 P 01.02 Firmament: fzsten, fzstnes, heofon, rodor, stal>l, stat>olnes0 g,

ttumnes/trymnes, getrym .Bright ftrmament: beorhtrodor 0 P .Cosmograpber: middangeardt0dzlend0 g .Of the firmament: rodorlic 01.02.01 Heaven(s), sky: heofon(as}, hrOf, lyft, swegl, sweglb0sm(as)0 P ,

ilprodorP, wolcnu .Cin:uit/expanse of heavens: hwearft .Regiom of the heavens: eastrodor 0 P, no~trodor 0, nort>rodor 0 P,

sill>rodor, westrodor .Vaults, roof of heaven/bell: heofona gehlidu .Celestial: heofoncund, heofoncundlic, heofonisc, oferlyftlic, tungellic0 g ..Heaven-born: heofoncenned0 g ..Heaven-dwelling: heofonbilende0 g .In a celestial m•nner: heofonlrce See 16.01.02 The hmvens Heavenly body: godgim0 P, heofoncandelP, heofontungol, tungol Planet: tungol

.Mars: tir .(Of planets) wandering: dweliende, woriende Star: heofonsteorraP, rodortungolop, steorra. tungol .Fixed star: tungol

.Noble star: zt>eltungolP, gim, tungolgim 0 P .Day star: dzgsteorra, morgensteorra 16 Comet .Dog star: se hlra steorra .Evening star: ltfensteorra, swinsteorra0 8 .Pole star: scipsteorra .Hyades/the raiaen: rzdgasrams .Starry, starlike: ~nedoS, istyrred, steorbltre0 • , tunglen, tungolbzreS .(Of star) solitary: ingenga Constellation: mearcung, getlcnung, tungol .Great Bear: caries wen, waenes l>isl(a) .Milky Way: iringes weg .Orion: eofo$ing' Tbe Zodiac: circul .Sign of Zodiac: tlcen, tlcnung -Particular signs: crabba, ramm, wsctergyte0 See Astrology Sun: dzgcandelP, dzgsceald0 P, fril>candel 0 P, heal>usigel 0 P, heofenes gim, heofonlwma0 P, merecandel 0 P, sigel, s0JDP, sunna, swegl, sweglcandelDP, wedercandelP, wederticnop, woruldcandel0 P, wuldorgimop, wyncandel 0 P .Arc of the sun: sunbogaoa .8ddng place of sun: set, setl .(Of sun) act of aetting: setlgang, setlung, sunset• .Of the. sun: sunlie .(Of sun) rising: uppeomende .(Of sun) having risen: upsprungen .(Of sun) setting: setlgangende0 .(Of SUD) to set: setlan

See 05.11.04 Day and night; Dawn; Sunset Moon: lyftfsct°P, mOna .Full moon: se fulla mOna .Hom, pointed exbemlty of moon: horn .Of the moon: mOnelic •Waxing: weaxiende .Full: full •Waning: wanigende Comet: cometa, cometa se steom 17 Heavenly light Heavenly light: heofoncandelP, heofonleoht, heofontungol .Flery light: fyrcn topp •Whirlpool of fire: edwylm0 P An eclipse: isprung(en)nes, eclypsis0 , onsprungennes0 g, upsprungennes0 01.03 Air surroonclin& earth, abnospbere: lyft, uplyftP .Airy, aerial: lyften, lyftlic See 03.01.15 Vapour. air 01.03.01 Weather, condition of abnospbere: weder, wederung°, gewidere •Variation of weather: wederiwendednes0 g .Unseasonable weather: untidgewiderc0 .To exhibit a chanae of weather: wederian Hot, 8ne weather: h2te, h~tu .Torrid zone: ~te ,S11mmer beat: sumorh~te, sumorhit0P ..Doa days: hiredagas' .A day of 8ne weather: wederd&g°P .Sunshine: sumorswegel 0 P, sunbeam, sunnan leoma, sunnan sclma .Warmth, sunninas: hleownes0 g, hleowp .Sunny: sigelbeorhtP, sigeltorht0 P, sunwlitig0 P .aear, not doudy: hlutor .Calm: col, fa:ger, gla:d, smylte, smyltlicS •.As the sea: meresmylte0 P .(Of weather) to be fine: gewiderian See 03.01.09 Heal Dry weather: drygnes .Aridity: ~pa, hepung .I>rought:driigop,driigung ..Autumn drought: a:fterhZpa0 .A dust-doud: dustswearm0 g .(Of weather) dry: dryge .Without dew: undbw 0 Bad weather: mis(ge)widere, ungetemprung°g, un(ge)widere, ungewiderung° .Rough, violent: hreoh, stearc, stymlic, swiJ>, swiJ>feorm, swiJ>lic 18 Frost

-Escessively rough: ofcrgeswincfull0 .(or ships) weatberboancl: wedcrfacst° •Vlolendy: grimme .To become rough: hreogan° Storm, tempest: fort>swebbung&, hreoh, hreohnes, oferweder, rij>nes, storm, unsmyltnesog, un(ge)weder, un(ge)widere .Hurricane: gestun, yst .Storm of wind: windr&soS .Storm of l"llin, bail, mow: bri1>0 P, sciir, wintergeweorp, wolcengehnist0 P .Stormy: cwildbzre, hreohful 0 , scUrflh, stormig, ystig .Stormily, tempestuously: scyrmzlum0 .In a manner indicatina stonm: unwederlrce0 8 .To storm, be stormy: styrman, ystanS .To drive, beat: bedrrfan Tbanderlna, thunder: &>unor. &>unring0 •Thunder from north: nor&>&>unor 0 .Thunder-clap: slege, &>unontd, l>unorslege, &>unorsliht0 .Tbutulery: &>unorlic8 .To thunder: tonian°, (ge)l>unrian Liptninc: fYr, heofonfYr, leoma, ligetung°S, lihting,

onzletOK, rynegiest°P, wildefYr Jllasb, 1bvke ofliptning: bladesung, tyres scotung, liget, ligetsleht, slieht .Cc:.1 oscation, &'om of lightning: glitenungs, lfgetracsc0 , ligrzsc, ligrzsc(et)ung&, lixende, racscet(t)ungs .fluhlng: lixende Wintry weather, cold: winter .Coolness, cold, frost: ciele .Perpetual cold: sincalduP .Morning cold: morgenceaJd°P .Cool, cold: ceald, c61 •Wintry: wintrig -Wintry-cold: winterbiterP, wintcrcealdP .Icy-cold: hrimceaJd0 P .Exccuively cold: ungemetceald0 P

See 03.0/.11 Coldness Frost: forst, gefyrst° 19 Ice

.Hoar frost: beolcaog, brim, hrimforstg -Fall of: hrimcs dryrc .Frosty: forstig/fyrstig .Frosty,rbny:hrimig .Covered in frost: hrinde0 P .To cover with frost: behriman°P Ice: is .ldde: cielegicelP, gicel(e), hrimgiceJ0 P, iscs gicel .Icy bond: isgebind0 P, wegrlpq .Icy, glacial: giceligg, isig, isibt° .Frw.en: forstlic0 g _FJw.en bard: hrimigbeard0 P .To f1eeze: (ge)freosan See Ol.OJ.03.02 /ce Wind: weder, wind .Puff of wind: pyffO .Breeze: bwit>a, lyft, geJ>yllog .Blast, gust: bl~. blzst. windbland0 P ..Sudden gust: fzrblzd0 P .Strong wind: byrc0 g .Cool/cold wind: celnes .Violent wind, whirlwind: J>oden .Blowing of the wiocl: bliwung .Windy: ibhtst. bliwende, windbZre0 S , gewinde0 , windhladens, windig .(Of wind) bot, sultry: swolig ..Drying: dryge .Favourable: ambyrc, gesundig/-syndig, gesundiglic .(Of wind's movement) pndy, mUdly: smylte .Blown-down, wind-felled: windfylled0 .To blow: (ge)bliwan, forbliwan, gespurnan, wiwan •To wait for wind: gewidora bidan Winds from particular points: .Headwind, canlhwl wind: ~odwind .North wind: norp(an)wind, rihtnort>anwind0 ..North-east wind: eastannort>anwind0 g, castnorJ>windg, nort>ancastanwind8 ..Nonh-west wind: nort>anwestanwindog, westnort>windg .SOuth wind: sOl>(an)wind 20 Rain ..SOUtb-ast wind: eastansiiJ>anwindoS, siiJ>aneastanwind°', sii1>Ca5terne wind

-South-west wind: siiJ>anwestwind(a), westansiit>anwindll, westsiil>windll .East wind: wt(an)wind .West wind: west(an)wind 0oud: heofODWOlcen, lyft. lyfthelmP, genip, sceo0 P, wzgfret0 P, wolcen .aoucls: lagus~ ful, lyftedor 0 P ..Mass of cloud-troops: hlol>gccrod0 P .Fine-weather cloud: wederwolcen°P .Storm-cloud: genip .SC:Udding of clouds: wolcenfaruP .Ooudy: genipfull°' .(or cloud) low-lying: neowol .aoud-making: wolcenwyrcende0 B .To overdoud, grow dark: ~strian, (ge)t>uhsian .To lower (u a cloud): seomianP aouc1, mist: gesweorc .Mist: mist .Coverina of mist: misthelm0 P ..Mist coverina the slain: wzlmistP .Misty gloom: mistglom0 P .Misty slope: misthlil> .Misty: mistig .To mist, mist over: mistian, ofermistian°11 Dew: deaw, deawung°B .Dewy, bedewed: gedeaw, deawig, deawigendlic0 11 Rain: regn, wzter .Drop of rain: rendropa0 .5easonable rain: tidrCn° ..Autumn rain: hrerfestwzta0 .Morning rain: morgenren°P .Deadly rain (causing ftoods): wzlregn°P .shower, fall of rain: drCopungs, drCorung, dropena dreorung, hryre, regn, rensciir, sciir(a) -Winter shower: wintersciir 0 P _(or shower) swishing sound: sumsendc0 P .Downpour, heavy rain: gytc, heofonfloo0 , rrescs 21 Hail, shower of hail .Rainbow: boga, renboga, scilrboga0 P .Rainy: renig, renlic, wl!t -Torrential: deor .To rain: regniang, (ge)rinan -To rain heavily, pour: dreopiang, reotan _(Of rain, etc.) to fall: (ge)dreosan .To wet with rain: gerinan Hail, shower of hail: hagol, hagolsciir .Hailstone: gicelstang, hagol, hagolstin .Hailstorm: gicelgeblandg, hagolfaru0 P .Producing bail: hagolberende0 g .To hail: hagolian Snow: sniw(a}, wintergew~de .Snow-storm: sniw, sniwgebland0 .Snowy: sniwig°, sniwlic .To snow: sniwan •To cover with snow: besniwian°S




02.01.02 Gift of life

2. Life and Death 02 Creation: forpgcsceaftP, fymweorcP, gcsceaft, woruldgcsceaft .Created world: ealdgeweorcP, landgcsceaftOP, leoht, gcsceaft. geSOOip, woruldgesceaft -'l'hinc, substance in: wise -To exist: beon/wesan, wesan .Created thinp, creatures: gcsceaft, woruld, woruldgesceaft ..AU of creation: eallwiht -Race. species: (ge)cynd -Race of mortals: feorhcynnP ..Liviq being, creature: eorpgesceaftOP, feorh, feorhberendP, feorhbora0 P. ftl!sc, frumsceaft, gesceaft, geSOOlp, t>ing, wiht -Noble creature: beahgcsceaft0 P -New creature: edsceaft -Earthly creature: woruldsceaftP -Hnm•n creature: mann -Rational creature: gcsceaft See 02.03.01 People 02.01 Existence, life: ctwist, edwist, gist, lif, wunung .Being, eaence of a thing: iweosung°&, iwesnis0 &, wist .Of/concerning life, Yitai: feorhlic0 &, liflic .Eaenti•lly: wesendlfce .To oist, last: beon/wesan, wesan 02.01.01 Life, Yitai put: bled, ealdorP. feorh, feorhlif0 P. lif .Life (u poaasion): lif .Dependence OD sustenance: )ff Soul, spirit: feorh, feorhhordP, gist, ort>ung, siwol, siwolhordP See 06 Spirit, soul, heart; 16.0/ .03 Spectre, ghost 02.01.02 Gift of life: feorhgiefu0 P .GiYing life: liffzst, lifwelle0 & .SO as to give life: liftrce .To make alive, qukken: (ge)cwician, (ge)liffcstan ••With breath: t>urhbliwan°& -With speech: onsprecan ..Act of quidenin1: strangung 23 That lives, living That lives, llvin&: cwic, cwiclic0 ' . cwiclifigendeP. feorbeacen°P. gangende, libbende, liffzst, lifiende, liftic, gesiwelod .And moving: cwichrerende0 P .SO as to have life: lifes. on/to life .Eager to live: feorhfzgen° .Half-alive: healfcwic .To have life: ilibban, (ge)libban To come to life, have life: acwician, cwician, (ge )libban .And breath: (ge)bliwan. or~ian .And sight: geseon .To stay, keep alive: ibidan, geliffzstan Condition of life: ealdorgesceaft0 P, lif .Manner of life: lif .Means of life: lifen .Pl~t life: deaJ>licnes, woruld, woruldlif .Life to come: o)>er lif Lifetime: ealdorleguP, lif, lifdzg, liffzc, liflid, lifgesceaftP. woruld .To live, pus one's clays: ilibban, beferian, gebidan, teores neotan, (ge)libba'n, lifes neotan, wunian .To live to see, stay alive, not die: ilibban, (ge)bidan, gelibban .To pass through, withstand, survive: gedigan, oferfaran .To oudast, oudive, survive: oferbfdan, oferlibban .To arrive at, attain: becuman tO, gebidan See 02.01.04 Age

02.01.03 Fndtfulness, fertility: berendnes'. wzstm, wzstmbzmes, wzstmbzro0 • wzstmberendnes0 .Fertile, fruitful, fecund: berende, !acniende, gOd, swij>feonn, t&mful, tiiddorfuli, tiidorfzst0 i , wzstmberende, wzstmfzstq, wzstmlic0 i , wridende - Productive of food, fndtful: wistful0 , wistgifende0 i .With fecundity: berendlice0 ' .To flourish, be productive: wridan, (ge)wridian -(Of man, right, etc.) to flourish: edblowan°i . rogian°P .To make flourish: gebetan .To be fruitful, bear, produce: beran, tydr(i)an. gewzstmbZriani, wzstmian, weaxan

24 To beget .Fruitful, fertile, productive: wzstmbl!re

.Fertility, abundance of off.spring: tiiddorsped°P ..Prolific, provided with off.spring: cydred ..Promise of numerous off.spring: womgchit°P Fertility, plenty: eort>wela .Lasbnea, richness: geSl!lignes ..Lash, rich: welig .(Of land) rich, 8'dtainlng: swi]>feonn .(Of land) to produce vegetation: growan .Producing people: mannbl!re0 Bai 1ennc11, lterillty: unberendness, unwzstmbremes, unwzstmberendnes0 , unwzstmfzstnes0 , wl!dl .Sterility, weakness: tydrung°« .Baaaen, unproductive: gl!sne, geldcS, ort)idre, stedig, unberende, unbcniendlicS, unspedig, untydrende0 , untymende, unwzstmbrere, unwzstmberendlic0 , unwzstmfzst, wzstml&s ..(Of land) barren, unproductive: dCadwylle0 , deaf, weste .To remain unused/unproductive: licgan .Not p1egnant/fertillzed: unbcen°S, ungehefegod0 S See Wild land Bu1enness, aridity: sealtness, sealtszlel>aS .Dryness from bea~ parched condition: hrel>og Sex, generation: gesceaft, gesceap, tydrung .Internal gene1ation: insceaft, geogulJcnosJ0 P ..Producing fruit/offspring: tiiddorteondeP .To bring forth young: canian, hwelpian°' ..Bringing forth of young: forph!dnes0 , t0stor, la!dnes0 ..One who brings forth, a mother: iicennicgeS, bearncennicgeS, byrl>re, cennestre, mOdor .To bring forth, bear: lberan, (ge)beran, (ge)Cacnian, gehrifianS, oncennan, tieman ..To produce cblldrm: beam habban, (ge)cennan, cild habban, tieman ..To have a cblld by: tieman be Birth: icen(ned)nes, lcenning, (ge)beorJ>or, gebyrd, cennes, cenning, forpcyme, frumicennes0 s, frumbyrd. frumsceaft, iipspring .To be born: lspringan of, iwacan, iwzcn(i)an, cuman up, forpcuman. onwacan, onwaecn(i)an, wacan, wzcnan

26 Sex, kind

.Born: icenned. geboren, fort>AtYdredog ..Pcwthwnously born: cfterboren ..Bom alive: fullboren "Late born: sJl>borens "Uabom: unboreo See Breeding Child-bearing, childbirth: bearngebyrda0 P, (ge )byrd, byrdscype0 P, cennes, (ge)Cacnung, team •Time of bringing forth: cenningtid .A midwife: beorJ>orJ>inen°, beorl>~ineou, ~inen .Bearing of male children: cnihtgebeorpor 0 , hysebeorpor, hyseberJ>lings, hysebyrdiog ..A woman who bean a son: hyseberJ>re0 S, sunucennicgeS .A slow birth: lctbyrd°P .A diflkult birth: swerbyrd0 P .An imperfect birth: Jambyrd0 P .A mbcarriqe: misbyrdS .An abortion: zwyrp, iwegiworpnes0 • beorporcwelm0 S Nunioa, child·feecling: cildtedende0 g .A wet-nurse: cildtestre, cildfOstre See Feeding, nourishing Offspring, race, breed, famUy, children: tiidor .Progeny, offspring: bearnteam, byrdling0 S, cnOsl, cynrcn, geeacnung, eormensuynd0 P, fcslP, forcneowog, forccennednes0 g, forecneowrcss , forccynredog. forccynrcns . magotimber p. magotildor p. manncaca0 • dd, stofn, wcstm ..LlYiog generations: wOcor P ~umber of offspring: cneowrimP .Delceod•nts, progeny, race: gecynd, cynn, sZdswomog, team See 02.03.02 Family/household Rebirth/regeneration: efticenn(ed)ness, eftcneoreso0 g .Rebom: eftlcennedS,eftborcns .To regenerate: geedbyrdanP .To revive, nfreab: gehiertan Sa, kind: (ge)cynd, cynn, had .A sex: cynn 27

02.01.04 Age ..Male sex: wepnedcynn, wepnedhid, werhid ...Male sexuality: wzpnedhad° -A male: wer -Female sex: wifcynn, wffhid ~ female: wif ..Hermaphrodite: bZ:ddelll. scritta'. wepnedwifestre0 11

See Male person; Female person 02.01.04 Age: gear, gcargeta:I, ieldo .Life-span, days of one's life: d~g. dzghwfl0 P, dagas, dogor, dogorrim,

ealdordzgP, endebyrdnes, feorhdagas0 P, gcaras, gcardagas, ryne, tiddzgP, woruldstund0 P .Having a certain age: eald -Older: ieldra -Oldest: forj>mest, ieldest -Younger: gingra -Youngest: gingest _Of specifk age (numerical order): inwintre, twiwintre, j>rfgcare, J>risumerq, J>riwintrc, tcowerwintre0 , fifwintrcll, seofonwintre, eahtawintre, nigonwintre0 , tienwintrc, tiengewintred0 , twelfwintre, J>reotinegcare0 , teowertienewintre0 , sixtynewintre0 , seofontienewintre0 , eahtatynewintre0 , twentiggcare0 , twentigwintre0 , J>ritigwintre, fiftigwintre0 , sixtigwintre, hundseofontiggcare0 , hundseofontigwintre0 , hundeahtatigwintre, hundnigontiggcare0 , hundnigontigwintre0 , inhundwintre0 , hundteontiggcare, hundteontigwintre0 , hundwintre, hundtwelftigwintre0 , hundtwentigwintre0 , J>reohundwintre0 , seofonhundwintre0 Youth: frumildoOI!, geoguj>, geoguJ>feorhP, geoguj>hid,

geoguJ>hidnes, geonglicnes0 , magogeoguj>0 P, niwnes .Youthful qualities/nature: geoguJ> .Infancy, the cradle: cildcradul .Childhood: cildgeoguJ>, cildhid, cildyldu0 ..Boyhood: cnihthid, cnihtiugol> .Youth as period of immaturity: geoguJ> - Young, immature, balfgrown: mearu, samgung 0 , samweaxen°. ungeweaxenll, unweaxenP, ungewintred0 .Boyish, childish, youthful: cnihtlic, geong .Young: cnihtgeong0 P, geoguj>Jic, geong, geonglic -A strong youth: J>ryj>beam0 P

28 Aging, growing old ••Being a child/youth: cnihtwesende, umborwesendeP ..Childish, )'OUJll: cildgcoog, cildisc, cildlic, frum)>yldeS ..Little/tender of age: lytel, mearu ..Newborn: oiwaniicenned0 , niwcend0 , niweme0 .Young again: cdgcoog See Child To grow, grow up: full growan, (ge)weaxan

.To approach maturity: growan •To grow up: asti)>ian°' for)>framian°S' gconglitcan, (ge))>Con .To be grown up: gesupod beon/wcsan .Grown to maturity, full grown: fullweaxen, ranc .Grown up, adult: ge)>ogen, geweaxcn, werlic, gcwintred .Mature yean, manhood: streng)>(u) .Maturity: a:fteryld0 P, ripnes, ripung, gc)>ungennes ..Mature: caldlic, fullripod0 , gc)>ungcn .Middle-age: midfcorh, midfeorwe, midferh()>)0 , midfyrhtnes0 ..Middle-aged: midfcorh .Mature penons, elden: dugu)> Aging, growing old: ealdung

.Growing old: ealdigende .To grow old: ealdian, gomelian°P, onealdianS ..To grow old/feeble with age: aealdian, clingan, ealdian, forealdian .Old age: ealddom0 , caldncs, forealdung0 S, icldo, langieldoq ..Great age: forildu ..Extreme old age: forwcorenness , ofcryldu, oryldu ..Old age, decrepitude: forwerodness .(Of age) advanced, old: forwerod, langfzre, gelefed ..Decaying: onsigende .(Of beinp, etc.) old, of great age: eald, gamolP, gamolferh)>0 P, ofergeare, gewintrcd ..Old, venerable: caldlic, ealdge)>ungcn° ••Very old: geomorfr0d0 P, infrOdP, ofcreald, oreald ••Long-lived: langlife, lffiic ••Too old: a:tcaldod0 .To be advanced In yean: for)>gin .Wom out with age: forcaldod, forworcn See Old man; Old woman


02.02 Death

02.02 Death: deaJ>, swyltP .Act of dying, decease: deaJ>, ende, (ge)endung, gchror, hryrc, lyre, swyltP ..As loss of life: fcorhlcguP, fcorhlyre0 , lifteast, Jiftyre0 ..As end of life: caldorbcaJuP, cndedcap0 P, cndclif0 P, fcorhcwaJuP, fcorhcwcalmP, swyltdea1>0 P ..As loss of body: lichryre0 P •.As separation: dcapgcdil0 P, caldorgediiJP, feorhgedfilP, fril>gediiJ0 P, lifgcdil, tolysncs .-From a lord: ):>eodengcdfil0 P - With compulsion: nydgcdfilP -Separation from the soul: gistgedaJP, siwlung°, siwolgcdaJP -.And the world: woruldgedil ..Death as departure: cllorsiJ>0 P, ferhl>weg°P, foij>Ieredncs0 , foij>tering°, foij>lor, foij>geleorednes0 , foij>sige0 , foij>si}>, foij>wegP, geonsi}>0 , heonansi}>, hingang, hinsij>P, geleor(ed)nes, si}>, tofrer 0 S, iitsi}>, gewitendnes -Hateful departure: lij>siJ>0 P ...Departure of particular kind: bealusij>P, neosiJ>0 P, wrelweg0 P ...Departure with compulsion: nidfaru 0 P ..Great mortality: ofercwcalm0 See 05.J I.OJ.OJ Mutability 02.02.01 Particular mode of death: dcap .Death with torment: pinecwalu, siislcwalu .Death by violence: cwcalmbealu0 P, deaJ>cwaJuP, wrelcwealm0 P .Death in battle: giil>deaJ>0 P, wreldeaJ>0 P .Deathatsea:meredeaJ>P .Marvellous death: wundordcap0 P ,Premature death: zrdcap0 P .Sudden death: fzrdeaJ> .Cup of death: deaJ>wege0 P .Passion: 1>rowung ..To suffer: (ge)l>rowian .Agony of death: deaJ>cwaluP, swyltcwalu 02.02.02 Liability to death, mortality: cwcalm, deal>licnes, morp .Mortal: deal>lic .Occurrence of death: dcaplicnes ..Time of death: endetima •..Day of death: dcapdreg, endedreg, endedogorP, swyltdregP 30 State of being dead

-Hour of death: swylthwflP ..Place of death: cwealmstede°', dhl>stedc0 P, ~wang°P -Valley of death: d~nuP -Rall of death: ~wrc P ...Death-bed: hildbedd0 P, mort>orbedd0 P, neobeddP 0

02.02.03 To die, perish: Acwelan, uwindan, gefeallan, forswealtan, forwcort>an. (ge)losian .To die: ld!adian, utcorfan, uweltan, becwelan°, belifan, cwelan, deadian, diagan°P, (ge)dreosan, gcendian, forweort>an (to), steorfan, sweltan, otx:welan° ..lmolvin&journey: gefiran, gefCran, fCran forj>, forfaran, forteran, forli!tan, forsi}>ian°P, forl>(ge)faran, forl>(ge)fCran, forj>geleoran, gegin, glidan, hwcorfan, leoran, tostencan, witan, gewitan of lice ..Sagesdng loss: feorh igiefan, fcorb losian, fcorh gesellan, lif gcendian, linnan ealdre, unztnessa gebidan ..Involving separation from tbe soul: gut igiefan, g~st ofgiefan, gut onsendan, sawlian ..Forfeitiq life: heafdes l>olian ..In battle: set hilde gcdreosan, ifeallan, (ge)cringan, (ge)feallan, gchrCosan, licgan ..By buming: swclan ..By drowning: ldrincan, (ge)drencan -And choking: undcrdrencan°g -To perish, founder: gcdeorfan In procca of dyina: farendc, forj>fCrende, framweard, rus, hinfllsP, waelfnsop .About to die: deadlic, mCJ>c, sweltcndlicl .Struggling for life: lifbysig0 P .In exbem.ls: fram d~ lil>c. on ftmcstum si}>e .Fut to death: fylwerig°P Mortally wounded: ellcnseoc0 P, fcorhseoc0 P. hildcblacq ..And doomed: fzge, slegcfzgc0 P ..Not fated to die: unfiegc .Half-dead: hcalfcwic, hcalfdead, simcwic, simstorfcn°g .Deathwards: heonan, unlffcs0 State of helng cleacl: d!al>, d!al>scufa0 g, leger, sl~p .Dad person: se licgcndc 31 Appointed death, doom

-Who is a departed friend: geowine0 P .In state of death, dead: ileged, isprungen, belifen, dead, f~ge, g~sne, lifteas, geswogen, unlifi(g)ende ••Involving separation: ealdorleas, gistleas, orsiwle, siwolleas, woruldead0 P -Involving journey: gefaren, forl>(ge)faren, fort>fered, fort>geleored 0 , fort>weard, geleoren ••Involving wearinas: deapwerig°P, limwerigP ..(Of animal) dead: myrten, styrfig .To be dead: licgan ••To sleep in death: gerestan, slrepan, swefan ••To be gathered to bis people: beon/wesan gelogod to his folcum .Still-born: deadboren See 02.04.01 Dead body Appointed death, doom: deapwyrd0 S, endesta:f, rnetodsceaftP, wyrd .Penon doomed to death/whose time appointed: deapfl!ge0 P. tidfara0 P See 05.04.01 Fate Spiritual death: deap, swylt, unlif .To endure spiritual death: losian 02.02.04 Killing, violent death, destruction: cwalu, cwealmbli:mes .Deadliness, destructiveness: deaj>bremess .Killing, slaughter: acwellednes0 S, cwealrn, gyte b!Odes, mancwealm, siege, slieht, gesnid, snide, snij>ung •Violent death, slaughter: beaducwealm0 P, bealucwealm0 P, cring°P, deapcwealrn°P, ecgwa:J 0 P, feorhbealuP. fiell, garcwealrn°P. giij>scearu0 P, hryre, wighryre0 P .Death caused by sword: sweordbealo0 P .Sudden death: deaj>rres0 P, hrify11°P .Carnage: ibreotnes0 S, forslihtS, inwitscear 0 P, wa:l, wa:lfilJP, wa:lsce1°P, wa:lsliht •.Destruction of men: mannrnyrring0 •.Destruction/killing by night: nihtbealu0 P ••Bloodshed: bloodrync0 , bloogyte, heapuswatP ••Place of carnage: hra:wic0 P, rninfeld 0 • wa:lbeddP. wrelstow -FiWabundance of slaughter: wa:lfyllu0 P .The slain: wrel ..Killed, slaughtered: deaj>cwylrnendeog, fordon, forslegen, onsa:ge 32 To kill, slay -Not sl•in~ unofslegen° -Slainltbe slain: beliden, ofslegen See Blood Cause/occasion of death: bana, deap .Power causing death: wzlcreft"P •Wound causing death: feorhbenn°P, feorhdo(g°P, feorhwund0 P, syndolh0 P,

wzlbenn°P .Death-stroke: deaJ>slege0 P, drepe, wzlhlem0 P, wzlsweng°P .Deaclly boacl, embrace: heorufzt>m0 P, wzlbend0 P, wzlclomm0 P, wzlfzt>m0 P .Death-bringing tree: deapbeaJn°P .Deadly flame: wzlfJrP .Battle icicle: hildcgiceJ 0 P .Causing death: l!tren, cwcalmberc, cwcalmbercndlicog, cwcalmlic0 , (gc)cwildfuJlll, gecwylmfuJ 0 11l, deadlic, dl-al>bzrc, deapberlic0 , wzlbleat'P .SO as to cause death: dl-adlicc .Boding death: dcapbeacnigende Murderous, bloodtblnty: blOdgeotcndclll, cwcalmbl!rc,

cwildrofop, deapbercndc, hcorugifreP, heorugntdigP, hrigifrc0 11l, mo$>rhycgcndc0 P, myrpu0 P, wzlfeJ0 P, wzlgifrcP. wl!lgntdig, wzlgrim, waelslftcndc To kill, slay: ibrccan, ibrcdwian°P, ibreotan, licwcllan,

licwylman, ifyllan, igeotan blOd, ilccgan, imierran, istyrfan, iswcbban, belifian, blOd gcspillian, (ge)cwcllan, (ge)cwiclman, cwylmian, gcdcadian"lll, gedct>anlll, dydan, gccndian, fonh1gian, fordon, forfaran, forslean, forswcfianlll, forwcgan°P, gctan°P, lecgan, ofislean, offcallan, offyllan, ofslean, oncwcaldan°11l, onsendan, ongeslean, onswebban, ot>J>ringan feorMif, rCodanP, spillan, (ge)swebban, to deap gcdon, wzl gcslean .To kill outright: full slean .To kill by thrust: of istingan, ofstician, ofstingan, slzhtan, (ge)slean, stician •To kill with hu.rled weapon: ofsc!otan .To kill by crushing: hcafod brccan .To cut down, slaughter. forhcawan -To slaughter an innocent: gcmart(y)rian .To kill by drowning: Adrencan, (gc)drcncan, (gc)sencan 33 A killer

..Ad of drownina: rysmian, iwiergan, forsmorian, ofsmorian, ofl>ylman°, smorian ..Choking, suffocation: iismorung° ..That bas been staangled/smothered: forsmored ..To kill a child by overlaying: ofticgan See Poison A killer: bana, cwealmcuma0 P, cwellend, cwcllere, cwylmcnd, cwylmere, ecgbana0 P, handbanaP, ordbana0 P, w~lslihta .As life-destroyer: ealdorbana0 P, feorhbana, ferhJ>bana0 P .As devourer: miiJ>bona0 P .As sbedder of blood: bloogeotend0 S .As spirit of death: d~scua0P Manslaughter, bomidde: banweorc0 , mancwealmness, mannslege, manslieht, moipcwalu0 , morJ>dltd, morpor, morporbealu0 P, morporcwalu0 , morporcwealm0 P, morporslagu', morl>orslegc0 , mor1>( or)sliht, myiprung°S .As mu.rder: morJ>, wertihtlc ..By group member: hloJ>sliht .To commit murder/manslaughter: lmyiprian, forferian°, formyrJ>rian, manslean°1, ofmyiprian° .Murderer, killer: itorsceaJ>aP, dzdbana, mannmyipra0 , manslaga. moip, mor1>(or)slaga, morl>(or)wyrhta, myipra, slaga ..Of child: beammyipra ..Of priest: m~sscrbana , sicerdbana ..Of thief: l>Cfslcgc0 , t>Cofsliht° 0 Murder ofa relative: mtegcwalm0 s, mzgmorpor 0 s, mzgJ>morpor 0 S, m~gslaga, m~gsliht .Murderer of relative: mzgbana0 , ~gmyipra, mzgJ>myrJ>ra' .Murder of brother: broJ>orcwealm0 P, broJ>orslege, broJ>orsliht0 ..Murderer of brother: broJ>orbana0 P, broJ>orslaga


02.02.05 A burial, burying

Murderer of father: faederslaga' Murderer of mother: m0dorslaga0 g Suidde: selfcwalu0 P, selfmyrprung .To commit suicide: offcallan, spildan .One wbo commits suidde: igenslaga, selfbanag, selfcwala, selfmyrpra0 g Putting to death: (o), hOhing° -To bang, be cnadfied: ihangian°g, hangian, (ge)hOn -Ranged: onhangen .To gore to death: ofhnitan .Death by reading: slitcwcalm .To scalp: behaettian .To stone to death: ofstaenan°, oftorfian, ofweorpan, ofworpian .To tread to death: oftredan° See 14.05.02 Tonnenl; Crucify; Crucifixion; Martyrdom To slaughter (an animal): ofsrupan, sni)>an .To cut up, disembowel: holdian -To disembowel, eviscerate: Asdotan, onsceotang .slaughter of pigs: sticung -(Of pig) stuck, stabbed: ofsticod .slaughter of sheep: ofslegennes0 g .slaughterhouse: holdingstow 0 .Stock, stabbed: ofsticod 02.02.05 A burial, burying: bebyrg(ed)nes, bebyrgung, byrgen, byrging, byrignes .Of/concerning burial: hriwlic0 g, liclic0 g .To bury, lay (to rest): lecgan, onswebban, gesettan -To bury, inter: bebyrgan, bedelfan, befaestan, beteolan, bemyldang, (ge)byrgan,delfan

35 Place of burial Mlgnominiously,in unconcecrated ground: on rulan lecgan .Entombment: nil>erlecgung° ••To place in a tomb: gelogian .To lie buried: licgan, (ge)rcstan .Unburied: unbcbyriged, unbyrged .To exhume: gedon iip, niman iip Place of burial: byrgenstow, legerstow, licburg8, licrest,

licstow 0 , lictiin .Churchyard as: cirichege A grave, burial place, sepulchre: (ge)byrgen, byrignes,

d!aj>bedd0 P, d!aj>ra:ced0 P, eorpa:m, eorpbyrgen, eorJ>grap0 P. eorpscra:f, foldzmP, foldgra:f P, foldra:st0 P, ga:rsbedd0 P, gra:f, gra:thiis0 P, grype, landrest0 P, leger, legerbedd, moldzmP, moldgra:fP, moldstow 0 8, pytt, rest, sandhof0 P, sepulcer, wa:lrcstP .A gravedigger: byrgend .A secret grave: diegol, heolstorcofa0 P .A consecrated grave: clzne legere .A tomb, coffin: byrgels, byrgennes, cist, licbcorg8, lfcrcst, licJ>riih, ofer(ge)weorc, J!Costorloca0 P, J>riih, ymbfa:stnung0 8 ••To put In a coffin: cystian .A burial mound: bcorg, bcorghliJ>P, hlzw, morJ>crundel 0 .A pyre: ad, b~I. bzlfYrP, wa:lfYrP ••Place Of a pyre: bltlstede0 P "Wood for: bzlwudu0 P "F1ame of: adleg0 P. bzlwylm0 P ..Smoke from: wudurec0 P See Fire To prepare for burial: bchweorfan

.Preparation for burial: dC&l>J>Cnung, licJ>Cnung .Laying-out: licJ>Cnung .Grave-clothes: gew~(e) "Winding-sheet: deadhra:gJ 0 8, lichra:gl, oferbrl!dels, sciete -For head: heafodclij> .A bier: b~r. licrcst .A corpse bearer: byrgere8, licmann .Lying-in of body before burial: leger To attend the dead: bestandan

36 Male person, man •Watching over the dead: heafodweard .Visit to a grave: diistsceawung0 .A place of mourning: wopstow ..A day of mourning: heofungdzg .An epitaph: byrgelsleoJ>oS, byrgelssang', byrg(en)leot> .A dirge, lament: byrgelssang'. byrgensangs. ftlsleot>P , geomorgiddP, heafsangs. licleoJ>S. licsang, myrgeleoJ>0 .To toll the k....U: cnyllan Baeavemmt: istyp(ed)nes .Bereaved: iscypt 02.03 Humankind: eormencynnP, eormenJ>Cod0 P, eorJ>cynn°P, eorJ>tiidor 0 P, eorpwerod, gumcynnP, gumJ>Cod0 P. mancynn, mennisc, middangeard, sigetiidor0 P, wercyn°P. woruld .Buman nature, humanity: lie, lichama, mennisc, mennisclicnes, menniscu0 .Buman: ftaclic, gemenelic, mennisc, mennisclic -Corporeally: ftl!sclice -Generally: geml!nelice .Humanly: mennisclice 02.03.01 People: dryht, dryhtgumanP, firasP , folc, ieldeP, leode, menn, mennisc, niJ>J>asP, J>Cod, (ge)waran, weras, werJ>CodeP .Human beina: feorh, guma, mann, manna, mennisc, woruldbeam0 P, woruldman Jndividual, pel"SOll: hid, sweg .Living person, body: hrZw, lif .Dweller(s) on earth: eorpbigenga0 , eorpbiiend, eort>ware, foldbiiende, grundbiiendP,berbiiendeP, landbiiendas, landbiiende,J>CodbiiendeP, woruldbilendeP, woruldwuniendeP ..Eartbborn: eorpcennedS .Spirit bearer: gistberendP, siwolberend0 P .A being with speech: reordberendP .Person of past days: fyrnmann°P, geomann .Person in latest age: endemann .To have (a brother, husband, etc.): habban See Su, kind Male person, man: zJ>elingP. beornP, earl, carlmann, ceorl, esne, folclgendeP, folcbeamP, folewer P, freomann, gumrincP. 37

02.03.01 .02 Female person, woman gumt>egen°P, lead, mzcgP, mzcga0 P, migaP, mann, witp(en)mann, wltpned, wltpnedmann, wer .Male: wltpenlicl, wltpned, werlic .In a male manner: werlice See Warrior Female person, woman: cwen, cwene, fitmne, freo0 P, frowe0 P,

ides, meowleP, wif, wifmann .Race of women: wifcynn .Fewule condition: wifhid .Female: wiftic .Wlfely,matronly: wiftic .In a female manner: wiftice Eunuch:

if'Yred. belis(t)nod, cwenhirde 8, hwasta 8 0

0 Child: beam, gebyrd, gebyrl>en°, cild, lytling, magotimberP,

umbor 0 P, wencel .In cradle: cradolcild0 .Beloved: wiiscbeam0 8 .Of geode birth: freobeam .Intended for monastic life: munuccild .Male cblld: cnihtcild, hysecild, mago, mann, w~pnedbeam0 , witpnedcild .Female child: ml!dencild, wifcild0

See Youth; Offspring Youth, boy, stripling: cn~pling, cnafa, cnapa, cniht, esne,

geonglic, geongling, hysebeorpor, magorincP •Whose beard bas just come: frumbyrdling .Princely: dryhtbeam0 P .(Collectively) the young: geogut> Young man; geonga, hyse, hyserinc0 .In the manner of young men: hysewise0 8 Girt: fzmne, mzgden, m~gl> .Beloved/winsome maid: healsm~gef>0P, wynmzg0 P Adult male: mann, wer .Old man: ealda 38 A son Old wom•n: ealdwif, geomeowlc0 P Dwarf: dwcorg' Giant: cnt. cotenP, gigant. l>yrs .Race of giant: cntcynn° .Progeny of giant: gigantnu~cg°P

02.03.02 F•mUylboasebold: hired See 02.03.03 Household Parent: icenncnd°', cennend, ealdor, icldra, migling .Father: feder Mother: icennicgcl, bcamcennicgcl, bYrl>rc, ccnnestre, ml>dor .Mother of a son: hysebcrl>rc0 ' , sunuccnnicgcl Child, otr.pring: beam, byrcP, caforaP, tudor .Suacssor(s), posterity: acftercneorcso, acftergcngncs, acftcrwcardnes0 S, gccneor(c)ncs, cneorisn, cynn, cynrcn, cynrcsus, caforaP, framcymc0 P, framcynnP, ofspring .A ftnt-born cbUd: fruma, frumbcam, frumccnning°' ..Ji'lrst born: zrborcn°P, bctstOOl'CO, frumccnncd .A posthumous cbUd: unlifl -Posthumous:acfterborcn .Lawfully born: zwumborcn° .(Of Christ) only-begotten: iinborcnP, inccnncd .An orphan: steopbcam, stCQpdorlw0 See Offspring; Child 0 Twins: lffgctwinnan°P, gctwinnas .One of twins: gctwinn, gctwisa .Of/concerning twins: (gc)twinn Triplets: gctwinnas A son: m.igaP, sunu .A IOD, heir: yrf(c)wcard 39 A daughter A dau&hter: dohtor .Own daughter: fr!odohtor 0 .Daughters: gcdohtra Having the same parents: genu!ne, getwis .Consanguineous: geboren -Having the same father: gefzderen° -Having the same mother: gemCdred/gemedrcn -Child of one's own mother: m0dorcild0 P .A bastard: bastard0 , dOcS, dOcincelog ..Bastard son: homungsunu0 ' ..Bastard brother: homungbrot>or 0 ' .Bastard: cifesboren, dOcS -Bastard-born: sunderboren°' Brother: brOt>or .Own brother: geboren brot>or, freobrot>or 0 P .From same father: fzderenbrot>or 0 P .By same marriage: zwenbrOt>or 0 1 .Brothers: gebrOt>or ..Full brothers: rihtgebro}>ru0 1 -Brothers pleasant in their lives: willgebrot>or0 P -Relationship between brothers: brot>orsibb .Of brothen, brotherly: brOt>orlic .Brotherless: brOt>orlcasP Sister: sweostor .Sisters: gesweostor ••Gracious sisters: willgesweostor 0 P A~y, descent: z}>elu, gebyni, gecneorednes, framcynnP, frumcynnP, woruldgebyrd .Line, lineage: rlpincel', strcng ..Lineal, ancestral: fzderlic .Side: hand, side .Generation, dqJee of descent: cneow ..Flnt. primal dcgaeei frumcneow 0 P .Genealogy: cynnreccenes', folctalu0 P, mtegburg, ml!ggewritq, ml!gracu Ancestry, paternal ktmhlp: fedene}>eloP .Direct paternal dacent: rihtfzdrencynn 40 Descendant


.Male line dr:sceat: sperehand0 , spcrehealf 0 , wttpnedhand, wtepnedhealf0 .Father's side: fzderenhealf0 ..Paternal: fzdcren, fzdcrlic, forpfzdcren° Maternal descent: m0dorcynn° .Dinct mother's line: rihtmedrcncynn°i .Female line descent: spinclheaJf0 , Wifhand, Wifhealf0 .Mother's side: m0dorhealf0 -Maternal: moodren, mooorlic

or Fon.father, aacestor: terfzder 0 P. cneowmitgP. ealdfzder, forpfzdcr, icldra, ICodfrumaP .Male aacestor: fzdcr .Fan•le ancestor: ealde mooor, mOdor

or (Of dqpees descent) great·, grand-: eald .Gnadfather: ealda fzdcr, ealdcfzdcr, icldra fedcr .Grandmother. ealde mOdor .Great grandfather: l>fidda feder, icldra fzdcr .Great grandmother: ~riddc mooor .Great 11 eat grandfather: teorpa fzdcr .Great 11eat gnndmother: teow• mOdor .Great 11eat 11eat grandfather: fifta fzdcr .Great 11 eat great grandmother: fifte mOdor Desceadaat: iertcrgcnga, byreP, beam, gcongra, hyse, ncfa .Desceaclants (of a geaention): gecynnes', mitg~ .Fanale descendaat: dohtor .Successor, heir: listwcard, yrfcnuma .Grandson: ncfa, sunsunu0 ..Daughter's soa: dobtorsunu0 .Granddaughter: nefc, nift .Great grandson: ~ridda sunu .Great granddaughter: ~riddc dohtor .Great great grandsoa: leorpa sunu .Great great granddaughter: feor~ dohtor .Great great 11eat grandson: fifta sunu .Great great great granddau&hter: fifte dohtor 41 Kinship. relationship Khwhip, relatiombip: cyj>j>u, ftl!sc, hid, ml!gn!den,

rntegsibb, ml!gj>hid, ml!gl>ntdcns, nfcdsibbS, sibb, sibgcbyrd0 P, gcsibncs0 S, sibreden .Related: bcsibb0 , cuj>, ftl!sclic, freondhcaldlic0 s, gelenge, mitgcii!>S, ml!glic, ~gsiblicoS, (ge)sibb ..According to the 8esh: ftl!sclrce .or another kin: clfrcmcd, frcmde, ungecynde KlftSl•aan, relative: cneoWil'IZgP, ciil>a. freomzgP, freond,

gcdelingP, gegilda. gelanda. neodfreond0 , gesibb, (ge)sibling, woruldml!g°P Male relative: ml!g, ml!gmann° .Female relative: ml!g, miga .Paternal relative: fcdcrenml!g .Maternal relative: medrenml!g .Young relative: rntegcild, ml!gcnafa0 .Relative affording protection: hleowmi!gP .Next of kin: nrehsta .Natural heir or relative: ml!ghand .Kimfolk: cnosl, cyj>j>u, ml!gburg, ·ml!gj>sibboS ..To whom 'law of kindred' applies: ml!gl> ..Father's kinsfolk: fcd(c)rencnosl, fcderencynn, fcderenmt!gl>0 ..Mother's kinsfolk: medrencynn°P, m!drenml!gj>0 .Bad kinsman: unmitg°P aose relationship: gehcndncs, neahsibb .aosely related: gehende, neahsibb

..Dear: swl!s .A dose relation: hCafodmzgP, hCafodmiga0 P, hyldemfegP, neahfreond 0 , neahml!g, (ge)nydrnteg ..A dose female relation: nydmige ..Blood relations: sibgemigas0 P ..Degree of aftinity: sibfcc .Distandy related: fcorsibb .Not related: unml!ge0 P, ungcsibb Unde (espedally maternal): earn .Paternal unde: fcdera Aunt: .Maternal aunt: mOdri(g)e

42 Foster relationships .Patenaal aunt: fal>u Child of brotberlsister: .Silter's child: sweostorbcarnoS .Nephew: (ge)nefa ..Sister's son: sweostorsunu ..Brother's son: brot>orsunu, suhterga .Niece: nefene, nift ..Brother's daughter: broJ>ordohtoroS .Uncle and nephew: suhtergefsederan°P, suhtorfzdran°P Cousin: mOdri(g)e, (ge)sweor, geswigra .Children of listen: gesweosternu beam .Father's sister's 10n: fal>usunu0 of a comln: genefa

.son Step relatlomhlps:

.step-father. fseder, steopfseder .Step-mother: steopmOdor .Step-son: nefa, steopsunu .Step.daughter: nift, steopdohtor In-law relationships: .Father-la-law: sweor .Motbel'*ln-law: sweger .Daagbtel'*ln-law: snoru .Brotbel'*in-law (husband's brother): tJcor .Sistel'*ln-law: brOl>orwff .SOn-in-law/brotber-in-law: ij>um .8oa-in-law and latbel'*in-law: il>umsweoras0 P Adoption: gewjscednesoe, gewyscing .Adoptive: gelgnod, gewyscendlic .By adoption: gewjscendlfce .To adopt: gewyscan Foster relationships: .Fomrfatber: f'lsterfseder, fflstorfseder .Fomrmotber: f!stermOdor, fflstormOdor, oftestre0 .FOlterdaild: fOstorcild. fflstorling& ..With reference to place of apbrincins: fflstring&

43 Spiritual relationships .Fosterbrother: fOstorbrol>org Spiritual relationships: sibb .Spiritual: gistlic

.A sponsor: godsibb ..A godfather: cumpa:der 0 , fa:der, gefa:dera, godfa:der ..A godmother: cumml!dre/cumendre, gefa:dere, godmooor .A godchild: godbearn ..A godson: bisceopsunu, godsunu ..A god-daughter: goddohtor .A kinswoman in Christ: cristes mooor 02.03.03 A family, household: heord, heort>werodP, hfred, hiwan, hfwise,

hfwn!den, hiwscipe, hus, inhired, inhiwan .Connected with a 'him': hlimwerod0 .Head of a household: oonda, fa:der, fa:derhiwi~, hf(g)na ealdor, hliford, husbonda, hushliford •.Mistress of a household: hlti!fdige, hilsbonde .Member of a household: hiwcill>a ..Woman member: hiredwifmann •.Members of same household: samhiwan .A royal household: hfwan ..Ol/conceming a royal household: hofti~ .A great man's household: hired, hiwn!den See 02.03.02 Family Body of retainers, household: heorpwerodP, innweorud0 P .Band offoUowers, retinue: gedryht, faru, folc, fylgingg, handscoJuP,

geneatscolu0 P, werod ..Member ofa retinue: ambihtl>egnP, IJ'P, gefCra, getere, hiredmann, geneat, gesfl>, gesfl>a, gesfl>mann, l>egnhyse, ymbhringend 0 g ..Sitting in ball, on benches: bencsittendP, ftetsittendP, heallsittendP .A band of kinsmen: sibgedryhtP. l>Codma:gen°P .A dan: cynling, mitgl> See Follower A race, tribe: cneorednes, cneorisn, cneowsibb0 P, gecynd, cynn,

cynren, folc, frumcynP, hiwn!den, hils, hfirideng. (ge)husscipe, mltgburh, (ge)mitgl>. mennisc, gestrynd, teoh, t>eOOcynnq, wyrttruma 44 People of a shire A nation, people: gecyndnes, cynren, dryhtfolc, folc,

folcmzgenP, folC111ZgJ>P, folcrZden, folcscearuP, folcscipe0 P, folctruma. landleod, leodritden°, leodscearu0 P, leodscipe, (ge)Jdg)>, mancynn, rice, srdfolcP, sigefolcP, sige)>eodP, )>Cod, ge)>eode, )>eodscipe, )>eodstefn°P, wennzgJ>P. werod, wer)>eodP, widfolc0 P .or the people, national: folcisc, folclic, )>Codli& .A noble/pat people: gumcynnP, h!ah)>Cod .Diverse peoples, nations of the world: el)>eode See 12.06 Country A native people: ingefolc0 P, inge)>eodP .Natives of a country: ingemen°P. landfolc, landwaru0 P. leode, leodwerasP.

scir .A native: foldbiiend, inborenaas, inbiiend!, inbyrdling, inlenda!, landagend,

landbegenga, landbiiend, landesmann, landleod(-a), landman, leod .Native, indigenous: inlende, inlendisc •.Native, of that country: ik:ennedlic, gecynde, gecyndelic, )>iderleodisc0 .A compatriot: cy)>)>u, gelanda, geleod, leodm&gP, m&g _or your/our country: !owerlendisc0 , hiderryne0 !, firelendisc0 .A division containing kin: m&gsciroS An inhabitant: brgenga, biiend, eardbegenga!, eardere0 !,

eardiend, corJ>bfgenga0 , ineardiend, insittend0 P, weartere0 , wunigend .Domiciled: eardfa=st .Inhabitant of the north: nor)>eme, nort>mann .Inbabitant(s) of the south: sii)>folc, sii)>mannP .Inbablti111 the eat: casteme See Residence Country people: folc .Dwellen In open country: feldwareq .Dwellen In fens: merscware

See 04.02.02 Farmer Dwellen by the sea: sundbOendeP .Islander: regbiiend

or People a shire: scir .An Inhabitant of a clistrict: scinnann .People nnder summons In a district: manung

See 12.06.02 District 45 lnhabitant(s) of a 'tun' lnhabitaat(s)ofa 'tiia': tilngebiir'. tilnesman, tOnrnan, tunscipe .A cottager: cotsetla, cottereq ..Bom on the estate: inbyrde Populace of a town/dty: burgwaru, burhwerod ,Inhabiting a town/dty: burgsitteode .CUittM: ij>olware0 P, burgwaran, burgware, ceasterleod(e), ceastersetan (-e), (ge)ceasterwaran (-e/-u) ..Residmts within walls: innanburhware ..Dwellen in a suburb: underburhware0 « ..Citi:uns outside a town: iltanburhware0 ..A citizen: burgleod, burg~tai. burgsittend, burhmann, burhwarurnann°, castelmann, ceasterbilend0 P, portmann, portwara0 , portwer, stocweardi ...A Roman dti:RD: rOmlnisc fOstorcild See Township Peoples of Britain:

See 12.06.01 Countries The English: angelcyon, angelfolc, angelseaxe, engle .An Englishman: engliscman, englisc .English: englisc Angles: angelcynn, angell:>Cod. angle, engle, norpleode .Angles from the Continent: angell:>Cod. angle .East Angles: castengle .SOUtb Angles: sil)>engle Gyrwe: gyrwas, norpgyrwas0 Kentish people: centiogas, centware .Kentisb: centisc .People of East Kent: eastcentingas .People of West Kent: westcentingas .Geats: g~tas .People of the Isle of Wl&ht: wih~tan°, wihtware .People of Romney Manh: merscware People of Wiltshire: wil~te (-an) 46 The Scots Belonslac to London: lundonisc Madam: mierce, sut>anhymbrc, silJ>hymbrc .or the Madam: miercisc° .North Madam: noJt>min:e0 .8oath Madam: sDJ>myrce0 People of Monmouthshire: wentas People of Norfolk: nort>folc Northumbria•~ humbre, norj>(an)hymbre, nort>folc .Northambrtaa: nort>hymbre, nort>hymbrisc° .Bernid•m: beomicc .Cumbri•m: cumerc0 ,Inhabitants ofl>eln: dent (-e) .Belongina to Mein 1e: mailrosisc0 1 Suoas: seaxc, seaxan .SUoas from the CoadNDt: seaxc, seaxan .Eat Suons: wtseaxc (-an) .SOUtb Suom: suJ>scaxc (-an) .Wat Suom: wcstseaxc (-an) De.ceOO•nta ofCwlcelm: cwicclmingas0 AD unknown people: wtwiUc0 The BritisblWelsb/Brdolll: wcalhcynn .A Briton/Welthman/Brdoll: brytt, wcalh .Britisb/Weltb/Bretoa: brytwylisc, wiclisc .The British: bryttas ..British: bryttisc •The Welsh: bryttwcalas, wcalas, wcalbcynn, wcalh~0 -The North Welsh: norj>wealas, nort>wblcynn° ..The Wat Wela, Comish: wcstwblas ..Wellll of the mountains: dilndte

See France The Scots: scottas .North Scots: Dorj>scottasO .8c:otdsb~


47 The Irish Tbe Irish: scottas .Irish: scyttisc A northern people: norpt>C00° .Dweller in the north: norpmann Vlklng(s): hi!l>en, sceg}>mann, wfcing .Of the Viklnp: httl>en Peoples of Continental Europe: See Continent Peoples of France: .Franks: francan ..Frankish: frencisc ..East Franks: wtfrancan .Gauls: gallcas, gallie, galwalas ..Gaulish: gallisc .Merovingi•n: mercwfoing0 P .Bretons: bryttas .Norman: norpmandisc0 See British Germany and Low Countries: ,East Suons: ealdseaxe(-an) .Flemish: flemisc .Frisians: fresan , frisan ..Frisian: fresisc, fris0 P ..North Frisians: norpfresanog -North Frisian: norpeme .Jutes: eotenas, iotas Other peoples: .Al•mannl: alamanne0 .Bulgarian: bulgarisc .East Tburlnpnw: Wl}>yringas0 P .?Eruli: eorle0 P •?Estonians: este •?Karellans: beorrnas Unidmtl&ed people: baniogas0 P

48 African The Greeb: crCca5, gm:as .Greek: mcisc, gr&:isc .Atbnd•na: atMniense ..Athenian: athenisc Italians: eotolware0 .Lombardlam:longbeardas .Rom•n11: lzdenware, romine, romware/-an ..A Rom•n: romwalh, wealh ..Roman: remisc0 &, rominisc .Skilians; sicilie ..Sicilian: sicilisc Scandinavian: norj>eme .A dweller in the north, ScancliMvian: nor1>mann .Danes: dene, l>l deniscan ..Danish: denisc ..East Danes: Castdene ..North Danes: norl>dene ..West Danes: westdene ..Danes with spam: girdeneP .Fbms/Lapps: cwcnas, finnas, terfinnas .Gotm: gota ..Gothic: gotisc0 , gotonisc0 & .Swedes: sweon, sweol>Cod0 P ..Geats: geatas -Geatisb: gcatiscq .Waaclels: wendlas/-e Spanish: ispanisc0 , speonisc0 Other peoples: African: affricanisc, affricisc0 &, afrisc0 P .Africam: affrice .Ethiopians: redlingas0 &, sigelhearwa, sigelwaras ..Ethiopian: sigelhearwen .E1YPtiam: egipte ..E1YPtian: egiptisc ..Alnanclrian: alexandrinisci, alexand(r)isc .Libyan: libanisc°'

49 Arab Anb: arabisc

.Syrians: syrw~op ..Syrian: usiriscoS, syrisc0 .8aracens: sar(a)cene ..Sancen: saracenisc0 Eastern/Oriental people: eastfoleoS, east1Code0 •

east}>Cod0 Indian: indisc, syndonisc Jews: cbreas, iildeas

.Jewish: ebreisc, iildeisc .Pharisees: fari~ -PhariseelPbarltean: fariseisc .8adducees: saduceas ..s.dducean:saduceisc0 Gentiles: }>Cod

.Gentile: )>Codisc« Penian: persisc Other (alphabetical order): caldisc0 S, cananisc,

cappadonisc, eicropiscoS, eillinescoS, efieisc0 S, galileisc, memfitisc0 S, nazarenisc, pierisc0 S, pirenisc0 S, scyl>l>isc, sodomise, sodomitisc, tirise, tyrrcnisc0 S 02.04 Body: bincofaP, binfaetP, binhilsP, binsele0 P, bodig, eadorgeard°P,

ealdorgeardq, corl>faetP, feorhbold0 P, fcorhhils0 P, ftzsc, ftzsccofa0 P, ftzschama, ftttschordP, foldaemP, ~thord P, had, hrzw, limfztP, lie, liefaetP, liehama., limgesi]>og, selegesccot .State/quality of ha~: ftzsclienes .Bodlly,camal: lfehamlie .Bodily, in the ftesh: liehamlice .As seat of appetite/desire: liehama .8emal: ftttsclie .Body with regard to appearance: ftzsc See 02.06.01 Animal body 0

02.04.01 Dead body: deal>lie, dilst. fcorh, hold, hn!w, lie, lfehama., wael

50 Back of head .Of a warrior: dryhtnE0 P .Dead: cfEal>lic

02.04.02 Bodily shape/physique: (ge)lfcnes .Bulk: greatnes Fat/plump: ft!tt, g:r<, oft!telofeteng .ExceniveJy: freafl!t0 g, oferft!t, J>iccolg .To become fat: geft!ttian, forweaxan Lean, thin, slender: hl&ne. gehl&ncd, gchh!nscd, hlancP, DUCger, smzl, J>ynne, J>ynnol0 g .State of bein1 lean: hlt!nnes .To become thin: ihl&nsian, (gc)hlt!nian, smalian°, (gc)J>ynnian .To make thin: (gc)hlt!nian, (gc)hlt!nsian, DUCgeriang, (ge)J>ynnian ..Ad ofmakin1 thin: smalung, J>ynnung Height, stature or form: leng(u), limgelecg!, limwzsbJ1°P, onlfcnes, Qpwzstm0 , wzstm, wcrmetg Tall: lang .And bnad: great. gegieatod°I Shon: lytel, scort Flmbllity of limbs, suppleness: leoJ>ubignes0 .Having supple limbs, ftedble: bfgendlic, leoJ>ubig, leoJ>ucrzftig, leoJ>uwac, IQ>ig 02.04.03 Pan of body: lim .Region: stcde Head: hafeJaP, heafod .Without: hWodlw .With a splendid, shlnin1 bead: hWodbeorht°P .With a bi1 head: miceU1eafdcde0 g Top of head: hnoll, molda0 , moldgewind 0 , ofcrhealfheafod0 8, scidaOP Back of head: zftewcard hWod SI Face Face: andwlita, ansren, hleor, mil)>, neb(b), nebwlite, wlita .Countenance, exprcmon: andwlita Forehead: foranhcafod, forehcafod, foreweard heafod, healfhcafod0 g, hnifol .Intercillum: briimiddelog .Temple: )Junwang(e) Eye: cage, hcafdes gim, hcafodgimmP, hcafodsrenP, sren .Comer or eye: angn~. caghyme0 g .Eyelid, eyebrow: bntw, brii, cagbntw 0 , oferbriw 0 , oferbrii(wa) .Having one eye: incage(de) .Grey-eyed: gla:seneage0 g -Or bleary-eyed, wall-eyed: waldenige0 g .(Of eye) prominent, ?bright: stcap See Sight organ Ear: care .Flap/lobe: earla:ppa, earliprica, ftzreog, la:ppa, ufeweard care See Hearing organ Nose: nasu, neb(b), nosu .Nosbil: na:s)Jyrl, nos)Jirl, nosu .Side of: ftzre0 g -Septum: middelfteraog, na:sgristle, nos(u)gris(t)l~ .Bridge: eaghyll0 g .Sinus: pocca/pohha See 02.05.08 S~ll Cheek: ceace, hagospind, hleor, wange Mouth: mii)J .Llp(s): lippa, sml!r(-e~. weler -Upper: uferra lippa -Lower: ni)Jera lippa .Having no mouth: mii)Jleas0 P .To yawn, gape: ginian Jaw(s): ceace. ceaft, geaftas, geagl, goma, hraca Chin: cinn 52 Arm Neck: heals, hnecca, sweora Trunk: bodig, I~. Ire, lichama Middle or trunk, waist: middel Back: baec, hrycg Shoulder: eaxl, sculdor .Sboalders: gescyldru .Part between sboalders: middelgesculdruK Buttock(s), back parts: baece, geba:cu, broc, earsenduK, earslyra°K, gupan°K, setl .With buttocks: earsode Side: sfde .Loln(s): lendenbntde, lendenu .lilank: ftanc°K .Hip: hype Chest, breast, bosom: andribb, bearm, oosm, breost, breostbydenK, foranbodig°K, foranbreost/forebreost, grcada, hretJerP, sceat .Puff-breasted: byledbreost0 P .Breast/breasts (ofwom•n): breost, breostwylmK, stricelK, titt, uder°K .Breast area: breostl>ing0 .Nipple: delu, forweard titt, mamme, spane(-u~ . striceJK, titt, tittstryce1°K Belly/abdomen: buc .Pit of: neweseol>a .Navel: nafela, nafulsceaft0 .Bit-bellied: wzmbede°K Lap: bearm, greada. sceat Groin/crotch: grin°, hregresiK, lescaK , (ge)weald Limb: bin, lim, Iii> .Of/concemlng the limbs: leol>ulic0 P .Nimble of limb: lcol>ucrzftig0 P Arm: earm 53 Hand .Armpit: 0custaS. oxns .Inner: innaneann° .Elbow: earmboga0 S, elnboga, hal>liJ>a0 .Forearm: fzJ>mS .Wrist: handwyrstS, wrist° Hand: folm(e}, hand, mund .Right hand: rihthand, swij>ra .Of/conceming the right hand: swij>ra .Left hand: winstre .Left: winstra .Palm of: brid hand, folm, handbrcd .Open: brid •With the hand open: bradlinga .Witbfm the hands: handlinga/-lunga .(Ot the hands} half closed: simloccn .F1st: lyst .To close (the hand}: clzmman, cryppan Finger: finger .Of/concea uing the ftnger: fingcrlic0 S .Tip: Iii> .Forefinger: bfcn(ig)cnd, Jeawfinger 0 P, scyte(l}finger, tltcnend .Middle ftnger: l!wiscbcrcnd0 S, hilettend0 S, middelfingcr, sc midlcsta finger .Ring finger: goldfinger, hringfinger, Jl!ccfingcrs .Little finger: Can:lt!nscnd0 S, Carfinger, Carscripcl, sc J~sta finger, sc lytla finger .Thumb: J>iima Leg: Jim, scanca Thigh: innewcard j>eoh, leow, j>eohS, j>eohscanca .Back of: hamm Knee: cneow .Back of: hamm .Having big knees: cneowcde/-ade Lower leg: hohscanca0 , scanca .Shin: scra&, sci nus .Calf: scanclira0 S, scotlrras, spzrlfra, spcarwa& 54 Nail -With a tblck calf: spa:rlrred0 g Ankle: ancleow(e) Foot: fOt .Having ono'two feet: intele0 P, twl""f'Cte& Heel: fiersn, hcla, helspure', hoh, hohf0t0 S, hoh nilJeweard, hohsporog, spure .Having heels: h6nede0 g -Having large heels: h!lade' Sole: fOtli:st, fOtwelm(a), gang, ile, list, nilJeweard rot, tredel Instep: middelf0t0 Toe: ti .Tip of: tihspura0 S .Big toe: micle ti .Other toes (in order): a:fterre ti, midleste ti, feorl>e ta, lytle ti 02.04.04 Sida: fell, ferh1Je0 , hyd, sweardg .Having a skin: gehyd0 .Pore in skin: lict>Cote0 g, orJ>ung, swlq>yrel0 g .Wrinkle: hrympel 0 g, rifeling°g -Wrinkled: gehnycned0 , gerifod0 , (ge)rifeled .Detached skin: sceorf Having a certain complmon: gehiwed •Wbltelfalr: hwit .Pale: tebli:ce ..Pale-cheeked: blachleor P .Ruddy complexion: rudu -Roddy-complexioned: rudigg .S.UOw-complmoned: geolu .Duk-complexioned: bla:c, salu0 P, saluneb0 P See 03.01.14 Colour Nall: na:gl .Flager nail: handnaegl0 .Thumb nail: i>fiman na:gl 55 Hair .Claw-like nail: clawu Hair: feax, ~r. sceacga0 s .A hair: hzr .Woman's: wiffexs .Of/concerninc hair, hairy: feaxede, gefeax(en), gehi:r(e)0 , gehi:rcde0 S, hzren, hzriht°«, hfiseht°S Texture of hair: .Coal'Mlbristllng hair: camb _With bristling hair: upfeax°' .Curly: cirps -Having curly hair: cirps .Busby, thick: t>icce -Having thick, shaggy hair: sceacgede', ruh Colour of hair: .Fail'-haired, blonde: gyldenfeax°', hwitloc0 P, hwitloccede0 P .Flame-haired: ryrfeaxens, rCod .Dark-/black-haired: blzc, blzcfexede0 , wanfeax0 P .Grey-haired, hoary: blandenfeax, feaxhir 0 P, gamolfeaxP, hir, hirwenge, isengritg, unhir ..SOmewhat hoary: healthir 0 S -Very grey, entirely hoary: fulhir« -Hoariness: himesS, hirung, hilrwengnes0 S ..Penon: hir ..To become grey/hoary: hirian See 03.01.14 Colour Hair of bead: feax, feaxness, hi:r, heafodhitr', JzS, locc, locfeax°', locgewind0 S, sceacga°' .Hairy, shaggy: loccod .Lock/Jocks: locc, hzrloccas0 S ..Curly lock: windelocc' -Earlock: earJoccs ..Forelock: forefeaxs , foreJoccS ..Fringe: hitr .Dishevelled, spread out: tospritd .Long haired: sidfeaxe •With braided locks: wundenloccP .Hair of the ear: feax earan 56 Skull Beard, whisker: bcard(-as), wangbcard0 .Lock of beard: locc .Bearded: gebcarded°, gebyrd .Beardles.. (through youth): bcardlw, ungebierdeS ..A beardles.. youth: beardlw .To wear (a beard, etc.): werian .Moustache: cenep, granug Bald, shaven: iblered0 , andfeax0 , beha:ttod, blereS, blerigS,

calu, hnot, unhufedg .Baldness: calu Baimltting, tomure: efesung, scearu .Sbom: bescoren .To cut (hair): beceorfan, beefesian°, bescieran, (ge)efesian, (ge)scieran,


See Hair-care 02.04.05 Bodily substance: bin and fell , fll!sc and bin, flt!sc and fell Flesh: bntd, fll!sc .Fleshy part: lira .A dewlap: fratlaeppaog .About spinal cord: hrycgbrltdan°, hrycriple/ricgribleS .Fleshy: flzsceht° , ftzscen, lireht0 Fat: heorthama, micgem .About kidneys: gescincioK Membrane: felma/filmen, reoma Bone/bones: gebln/gebl!ne, mearhcofa0 P .Having DO bones: blnlw0 P Substance of bones: biin .Made of bone: bltnen .Bone marrow: mearg

-Full of: gemeargodog Skull: bnegenloca0 P, bneg(en)panneS, heafodbiin,

heafodbolla0 , heafodloca°K, heafodpanne 57 Socket of eye Socket of eye: ttgmore0 , eaghring, hringbin°K Cheek/chin bones: ceacbin', ceace, ceaft, cinbin, hleorbin Neck-bone: sweorbin Spine: hrycg, hrycgbinl, hrycgmergliJ>°K, lendenbiin°g, gelodr 0 .Marrow of: hrycgmearg°g .Vertebra of: binhring°P, hweorfa Bones of trunk: Collar-bone: wiJ>obin Breast-bone: breostbiing RJb: hrycgribl, ribb .Rib-spokes: ribbspicanoS Hip-bone: hypeban .mum: lendenbin°K Share-bone: scearu Bone of arm: .Humenas: eannsceanca0 .Radius: hrisel, spica Bone of leg: .Bone of thigh: J>Cobscanca .Knee-cap: hweorfbin, J>Cohhweorfa .Shinbone, shin: scanca, scinbiing, scinug Joint: hweorfa. hweorfbin, liJ>, gel>Codnes, gepeodrteden .Small joint: liJ>incelg .Joints of spine: gelodaoS, gelynduoS .Joint of finger: fingerlit> .Joint of thigh: J>Cohgelttte0 g .KDft: cneow, cMc>wwyrstoS .Ankle: ancleow(e) 58 Mouth .Fixed joint: Kam, ge)>ecxlnes Muscle: binlocaP, Ilia, mus0 g, sinulira0 g .?Maecles of neck: geweald .Maeda of spine: ntgereose Sinew/tendoalllpment: edre, cnynclsg, scono, streng, wzlt, wealdwcax~

.Oftoape: tungeJ>rum0 g, ufg, .Of heel: hOhsinu .Sinewy: sincht0


undenunget>rurnog Cartilap, gristle: gristle, grost0 g, grundsopag .Of nose:

nzsgristl~, nos(u)gris(t)l~

02.04.06 Organs of the body: Sight organ: eage, gesiht/gesihl> .Eyeball: zppel .Iris: wuldorbeag .Pupil: eaghring, sCo(n) See Eye; 02.05.09 Sight Hearins organ: care .Ear-passage: C8rl>yrel 0 S See Ear; 02.05.10 Hearing Internal organs, inmrds: guttas0 g, inneweard, innot>, innylfe Cavities of internal organs: .Chest: b6sm .Abdomen: rysel, wamb ..Lower: smzll>earme ..Membranes of: midhril>reS, netalne~ Diaphragm: midhrif, midhril>re8 Digestive tract:

See 04.01 Digestion Mouth: mut> .Palate: gOma. milt>es hrof, mut>tirofs 59 Tooth/teeth

.Uvula: hractunge •Tongue: tunge .Gum: ftzscto1>0 &, tol>rima Tooth/teeth: 101> •Toothless: to1>Jeas0 ' .Root: wyrtrum .Projecting tooth, molar, aanine: fengto!>0 , tiisc, tiixl .Projecting: twiseltol>og .Front tooth/teeth: foreceorfend0 &, forete!>0 S, 101> onforan heafde .Molar tooth/teeth: cintfil>', cweomte!>', grindingtfil>, wangtol> .(Of teeth) clenched: tosett Throat/gullet: ceole, ceolor, ceosoJS, edrocS, gurgullion°,

hrace/-u, !>rote, wzsend, woddor 0 P .Fauces: ceace, ceaft, hygeS .Larynx: 1>rotbolle Stomacb/belly: breos1, biic, ceosoJS, edrocs , hrif, inno1>.

maga, wamb Intestines: bzct>earmas, guttas0 S, heortgesida0 ,

iesend(e)lgesens, innefaran, midhrif, ropp, smeorut>earms, t>earm. 1>umle0 S, wamb .Small intestines: smzlt>earmas .Large intestine: zmiil>aog, blind t>earm. snzdell>eann -Rectum: bzct>earm, ende, fort>gang, iitgang -.Anus: ears, earsgang, earsl>erlog Reproductive organs: gecynd, gecyndlim(u), scamigendlican,

scamu, (ge)sceap, getawu, l>Cohgeweald0 S, geweald .Genital: cennende, cennendlic See Sex, generation Male genitalia:

.Penis: Jim, pinteJ0 S, scamJimS, teors, wzpen ..Foreskin: felcyrf0 S, filmen .Testicle/testicles: beallucasog, burseS, eowende0 , herl>an, sceallan •.scrotum: codd, herl>belig, sweotaq Female reproductive organs:

60 Synovia, oily matter between joints .Womb: bOsm, breost. cildhamal, cwil>(a), gccyndlim, fcorhhamaoS, (ge)hrif, ingehrifoS, innop, mOdor bOsm, mOdor hrif, mOdor innot>, wamb Secadory orpns, glands: Tonsil: readaq .Glandular swelling: cyrnel Spleen: milte Liver: lifer .Lobe of: lzppa, liferlzppa .nve-Jobecl: fiflzppedO Kidney: lidre, cropp, lundlaga Bladder:

bl~ Mammary pmd, breast: breost, breostcofa, breostwylm, melcebreostoS, striceJS, titt, iider 0 S .Nipple, tat: forweard titt, mamme0 S, spaneS, stricets, titt, tittstryceloS .Lactating: mete Secretions: Humoun: dropa. inwzte0 , wzta

Moist: wzt Mucus, phlegm, rheum: dylsta, geolster/gillister, horh/hrog, hrica, hntcung, mietdropa0 S, risoda0 , snoft, gesnot, spedS .Of nose: nebgebntcS, snyftung0

Mucous: dylstiht° .Full of/covered with: mieldropiendeoS, snoflig0 .A coulh: hw0sta .To cough: hw6san .aeartng of the throat: hr8ca, hrZcea, hrZcung .Sneerina. a sn«ze: fneosun~. fnora, hnorq .To sneae: gefnesan See Clear nose Synovla, oily matter between joints: li1>5eaw, li1>ule 61 Secretions of ear Secredom of ear: dr6sq, teoru Saliva: IJlZldropa0 S Gall/bile: Ator, gealla Secretion from spleen: sogeJ>a Milk: meolc .To secrete milk: meolcian Discharge, emanadon: l!J>m, igotennes, brzJ>, steam .Action of e:1Cftthaa: iitror, iitgang .To excrete: geleoran, iit ieman Sweat: swat .Sweating: geswit, switig ••With sweaty brow: switighleor0 P .Pore: switJ>yrel0 S .To sweat: iswztan°, (ge)swztan Tear:

tear Action of clearing nose: snyting0 8 .To clear nose: snymn Spittle: fim, spitVspold, spitlung0 8, swat .Retching and spitting: hrzcetung, hrohun~. spztung0 , wynnshrl!cing0 s,

wynnsspiung°S .A slobberer: drefela0 .To slaver: dreftian°8 .To retch and/or spit: gebliwan, efengespittan°g, hriecan, hrl!cetan°, hrohian°s, hyran°8, spztan, spietl(i)an, spitanS, spigettan -He/they retcbed and/or spat: speoft(on)S ••To spit out: lhntcan iit, spitlian°S --Spat out: ispeoftoS ••To spit upon: bespl!tan, hor(g)ianS, onspl!tan, spztl(i)an, gespeoftian°S, (ge)spittang Action of breaking wind: feorting, fistings

62 A sigh Faeces: cw!ad, droge0 , dyncge, gor, meox, mesa0 , mixen, mixendynge0 , scearn, scytel0 , tonl, tyrd(e)lu, l>ost, iitgang .Defecation: dnling', earsgang .To defecate: gedritan°, Qt (ge)gln, Qt gangan Urine: Adela. bland, micga. migoJ>a, wteta .Urination: miggung' .To urinate: (ge)migan, to gcdreog gin MenMS: gecynd, monal>Adl, m6napbl0d8. m6napgecynd .Memtraous: monapidlig°, monaplic, monapseoc Semen: dd Respiratory orpas: Wind-pipe: J>earm(ge)wind8, protbolla. wlsend, windeddJ'e08 Laap: lungen Breath: zpm, bhid, fnzst, gist, orop, orpung, wind Breatbla1: cp(g)ung, fnzst, hwzst°8, orop Jnt..latioa: incpung°S .Breatbia1 upoa/'mto: inbliwing°'. oncpgung', onorpung', orf>ung .Paatiaat breathiaa bani: cp(g)ung, hr&>ung, swOret(t)ung .Sbort-wi~ pantiaa: sworetendlicoS To breathe: lt)>mian8, iteon, (ge)bliwan, gebregdan orepe, (ge)C)>ian, hladan orop, onbliwan, ort>ian, geteon oro)> .?Breathed: iblest8 .To breathe in: mon to, tO(ge)teon, wi)>teon .To exhale: Afltman ilt, ipyffan, ilt ibliwan, ilt ltpmian, ilt ipyffan .To breathe oallato: ibliwan on/ofer, edblowan°1, epian on, geondbliwan, inbliwan, onort>ian08, ort>ian, toe)>ian° .To blow oat cbeck1t blow bani: bliwan, hlyrian08 .To breathe~ pant: fnllstian°, fnesan, ort>ian, stenecian, stenian°8, )>efian A silh: sice0 , sicettung, sworet(t)ung .To silh: isfcan8, iswOrettan, sfcan, swOrettan, swOrianq 63 To snore To snore: fnltrettan°g, hriitan Heart: heortc .Artery, vein: IMre, geotcnd0 g, geotcndZder, heaf~dre , lungenzder 0 , middch!dr 0 Blood: bloo, cwcalmdreor 0 P, deadbloo, drear, heolforP, swat .Supply of blood: bloosceawung0 .Blood shed in violence: heorudrCorP, wa:ldreorP .Life blood: siwoldrCorP .Blood mixture: bloogcmang°S .Flowf155ue of blood: a:minglicming, bl0dsihtc0 , flOwingS .Bloody: blooen°S, blOdig, dreorig, heolfrigP, heorudrCorigP, swiitig "Bloodstained: dreonah0 P. read, switflihP .Bloodless: bl0dleas0 S .To bleed: bledan, sw&tan "(Of blood) to 8ow: flowan, icman Brain: bra:gcn, ex(e), ha:m 0 .(Of outer membrane) dura mater: hion° 02.05 Sensation. perception. feeling: (ge)telncs, gefredncs, gewitt .A sense: andgiet, gcwitt .8ensitive: getele .To have semation: (gc)fredan .To feel, be sensible of (a sensation): (gc)felan, gefredan .To entertain (a feeling) towards (an object): habban to .Perceptible (to): gcfredcndlic (on) ..Strong, severe: swij>lic See 08 Feelings 02.0S.01 Without feeling, illMDlible: ungefele(d), untelendc0 .Of flesh: dead .Insensible to: dead .Devoid of feeling: felcleas0 P .Incapable of suffering: unJ>rowigendlic ..State of being: unt>rowendlicncss 02.05.02 Consciousness: gcmynd .Conscious: gcgitc0 S .Wakefulness. sleeples.mess: sl&pleast, waccn, wa:cc(e) 64 Weariness .sleepless: sleplbs°', unsltepig°g ..Eadrely: l>w'bwacol .Disturbed, rutlt1a: restlbs .To l'ftll•in awake, not to lleep: wacian .To awake: iwacan, iwacian, iwccn(i)an, onwacan -With a start: ibregdan, stepe t6bregdan -Early awake: zrwacol -To wake, arouse: iwcccan, iwrca:an, (gc)wcccan, wrcccan -To rouse, enliven, stimulate: wcccan •To get up, rise: irisan -To get up early: morgcnwacian'

02.05.03 Edaaastlon, falnbwss, weariness: iteorodncs, iteorung, me)>ncs0 g. werigncs .Fainting, swooning, eshaastlon: gcsw6gung, (gc)teorung -lnftance or state of: swima ..In state of: gcswogcn -To get exhausted, faint: itCorian Dullness, lack of animation: hefigncs .(Ofbeart, mlad) beavy,dull: hefig .(Of life): deadlic .slowness of miad, torpor: l11:tncs .slow-minded, dull: l11:thydig°P .Dully, heavily, sluggbbly: hcfclicelhefiglicc, hcfige .To make dull or slow: gchcfigian .To be/become heavy, dull: ihefigian, hefigian Weariness: iprjtncsg, foryldu, gcswinc, gcteorodncs0 g, )>rcce .Tired. weary, exhausted: me)>c, me)>ig, gcsolccn°g, gcwergod, werig -Wom oat: forccymen, fut werig .Weary in body, grievously wearied: hriwerig°P .Weary from illness: adlwerig°P •Weary at heart: reonigm6dP .Battle-weary: gii)>werig°P, hcal>uwerig°P, hildes&dq •Weary from feasting: symbclwerigP .sea-weary: lidwerig°P, mcrcwerig°P, ~me)>c0P, 52werigP •Travel-weary: ridwerig°P, si)>geomor0 P .To weary, tire: )>rictan .To srow weary, get tired: iseolcan, (gc)wergian 65

02.05.04 Sleepiness, drowsiness, sleep •To be e:,hausted: geteorian .To ahaust, weary: besylcan°P, (ge)mej>gian -To exhaust with labour, travel, etc.: fordrifan, geswencan, gewrecan -To exhaust with n1nning: ofiman 02.0S.04 SleeplMss, drowsiness, sleep: slzp, slzpnes0 .Sleep, slumber: sll!p, sliima, swefecung, swefn, sweofot ..Act of sleeping: hnappung .Sleeper: sll!pere, sliimere0 , swefecere0 .First sleep: frumslzp .Sleep during night: nihtslzp0 .Deep sleep, lethar&Y: mamors .Excessive sleep: oferslzp0 .Rest, repose, sleep: rest -Evening rest: l!fenrestP, nihtrest0 P -Morning rest: undernrest° .Drowsy, sleepy, addicted to sleep: slzping, slzpor .Weary and sleepy: sll!pwmg0 P .Sinking, drowsing: driisendeP .Half-asleep: healfslzpende .(Of sinews) relaxed, unstnmg: t61zten .(Of limbs) relaxed in sleep: t6slopen .Sunk in sleep: beszged0 S .(Of eyes) heavy with sleep: hefig .(Of sleep) light: leoht .(Of sleep) heavy: hefelic, swl!r .(Of sleepina) lighdy: leohtlice .(Of sleepina) deeply, heavily: fa:ste, swl!rlice .(Of sleep, rest) undistua bed: fa:st, slfte, softe •Without disturbance of sleep: s0fte .To become sleepy: slipian .To be in one's sleeping-place: licgan .To 10 to sleep: onslzpan .To sleep: aslzpan, besll!pan, (ge)slzpan, swefan -To sleep beside: a:tslipan° -To sleep lighdy: hnappian -To be fast asleep: swodrianog .To repose In sleep, rest: (ge)restan To make heavy with wearinealsleep: hefigian 66 Sexual appetite, lust .To pat to deep, lull: (ge)swebban .To rock (a chlld, in a cradle): roccian° .steeping draft: sl2pdrenc0 .Poppy .. soporiftc: popig .8oporific: shtpbatre0 A dream: ~ting. swefn .To dream: (ge)~tan. swefnian .Dreamer: swefnigend .To appear in a dream to: geswefnian .A niptmare: elf, elfidl, elfsiden, egesgrima. mere/mare, unswefn° See Dream, vision 02.05.05 Desire, appetite: friclo, geomung, hungor, tango}>, lust, myne, J>urst, gewillung, (ge)wilnung .Dairoas: }~re. lustful, gelystcd, oftysted, geJ>ancol, willende, gewilniendlic .Tbinting, longing: ofl>yrst(ed), (ge)J>urstig, J>yrst ..Ever-thirsting: sinJ>yrstende0 .To desire: friclan , frymdig b&>n/wesan, (ge)gieman, (ge)lystan, J>yrstan, (ge)willian, (ge)wilnian -To cause to desire: lystan -To pluck with desire: plyccan See Hunger; Thirst; 06.02.05 Will, desire Object of desire: lufu, gewilnung .Desired, desirable: efenleof0 , geomlic, (ge)giemendlic, (ge)lustful, mynelic0 P, gewilniendlic, gew)iscendlic Eager desire: grl!dignes, lustbl!mes .Eqaty desiring: free, geom, geomful, grfre, grl!dig, lust, ofhingrod .With eager desire: gn!diglice, neodfraece0 P .To desire eagerly: iigeoman .To daire uassively: grunciant! .Desiring aassively: lustful, oftangod See Desire, eagerness Semal appetite, lust: lust .Strong feeling, passion: lufu, lust, ontendnes .Youthful lust, youthful pleasure: geogu}>lust" .(or la1l8l pa•Nn) beat: h2tu

67 Sensual pleasure •Wanton excitement, titillation: tolcetung' .Evil pleasure, lust: unlust .Sinful passion: synbrync0 .Lacking in lust: unwrenc

See Desire Sensual pleasure: willa .Easy, pleannt, pleamrable: caJ>c, gcrydc, sOftc, wcj>e .Pleasant, without pain or discomfort: leoht. seftc .Easily, comfortably: Caj>(c), cat>clice .At ease, calmly, without trouble: softc .Gendy, softly, smoothly: smoltlice, geta:slice See lotity, indulgence Luxuries, dainties, good tbinp: est, estmctc .Fond of: estgcom .Luxury: estfulncs, wcrodncs .Delicate, delicious, dainty: Caj>gcom0 S, estful, estlic .sott: hnesce, hnesclic ..(Of beds) soft, luxurious: softe .Delicately, luxuriously: est(e)llce, hncsclice ..Luxuriously, sumptuously: wistfulliceog .SOftly, in a cushioned manner: hncsce .To enjoy thoroughly, relish (food):


02.05.06 Sense of touch: gripung, hrcpung, brine, brining .Touch: a:tbrine, handhrinc0 P, hrepung, hrinings .Exercise of faculty of touching: hrepung .Action of touching or handling: grapung, handlung°, brine .Touch, contad: (gc)brincnes, onbrine0 ..Handgrasp: mundgripeP •Touch of an inanimate object: brine .To know by sense of touch, perceive: (ge)felan .To touch: a:thrinan, gcfelan, (ge)hrepian, hrinan, tacan on, getillan, trinans .To touch, come in contad: (ge)hrinan, o~hrinan .To touch, handle: ahrinan, (gc)gripian, handlian .Tangible, touchable: grapigcndlic .Not touching/feeling: ungripigcndc0 .Untouched: ungehrepod See 05.06.09ff Striking

68 (Of food, etc.) bad, tainted, rancid To touch aM pn91: (ge)t>eowan, gel>rYccan .To press, apply Pft11SUft to: e$olan, ofsettan ..(Of hands) to bold on: habban . .. on ..To grope about, feel eamesdy: etfeohtan .A layina on (ofMncls): onisetednes°', onset(e)nes .To tickle: citclianq ..Tickling: citelung°' ..To tickle, acite, tfdllate: tinclian Stroldnz, can 11•ng: stricung°' •To stroke: scrapian°, strician, sttoccian° •To stroke, smooth with the hand: (ge)sttican •To pat, caress, soothe: (gc)smacian .To pat, dap, mike pady: (ge)j>accian Litklng: liccung •To lick, pe• tbe tonpe onr: (ge)liccian 02.05.07 Facalty of taste: ibir(g)ing, swec .Act of twting: (gc)birging, birgnes, onbyrignes .Tate: gcbirg°i, birgnes •Thrt~, savour: (ge)birging, sealt, smec .A taste, 8avou.r: swaec .Clear to the taete: sweotol .To twte: (gc)birgan, inbirgan°i , onbirgan, gesma:ccan, geswzccan ..To taete, sample: (ge)fandian .Tasty,delldoas: lrlic, gOd, swOtlic Strona twte, addlty, pungency: scearpncs .Btturwww: bitemes .8oarness: siimes .Strong, bitiq, pungent: bncnde, heard, scearp, sticol ..Bitter: ilorlic°', biter, gcbiterod ..salty: sealt ..SOUr, add: lfor, mealt°, silr, unsw~e. unwerod0 ...Made soar: silr .(Of food, wine, etc.) to bite: teran .To be or become 10Ur. ibit(c)rian, biirian (Of food, etc.) bad, tainted, nndd: iwyrd, genumen, unwerod°

69 Insipid .Disgusting, IUINe'>US: wealg° •To go bad, lose savour: forweorj>an lmlpld: atmcllc0 g, unmcagolg, unscalt, unslit0 g .To become insipid: lmealliang, iweorj>an Sweetness: swetc, swetncs, wcrodncs .SOmetbinK sweet: swetncs .Sweet: li)>e, swats, swetc, swOtlie, unsiir 0 , wcrod "Verysweet:~urhwcrod

.To grow sweet: wcrodian° .Made sweet, sweetened: gcswet, gcswetcd, gcswetlatht .(Of apples) sweet and sour. siinnilsc See Sweeten

02.05.08 Facalty of smell: stcne, swze .Odour, smell, 1Cmt: bladcsnung, bnt~. smze, (gc)stcne, (gc)stcnencsg, SWEC

..Exhalation, i.mpng:uted air: bnl~ .Emumon of odour: ep(g)ung .Strong-smelling: swij>stinccndc0 g "Oppressive, o~ei puwering: hefig .To smell, perceive by smell: ij>ian, gcstincan, gcswECcan "To distioguisb by smell, smell out: tostinean° •To be odorous, emit odour: at~mian, bladesian, hrenian°g, stincan See Nose Foul smell, stench, stink: fill, fillncs, f'Ylncs, stcne .Foul-smelling, stinkln1: fill, flllstincende, reoccndc, runl 0 , stenebatrcq, stincendc, unswete .Foully: fille .To stink, emit an unpleatant smell: reocan, stcncan, stincan See 04.06.02 Insalubrious Pleaunt smell, fragrance, perfume: zl>clstene0 P, bra~. stene, stieming, wyrtbnl~ .Quality of beina fragrant: swetncs, swOtncs .Fragrant substance, spice, perfume: wyrtgemang, wyngemengnes ..Myrrh: myna "Perfume container: stenefzt°g, gewyrtbox0 g, wyrtfztg

70 •

02.0S.09.03 To give light, restore to sight .Jl'lleennt, aweet-smellh•, fnarant: el>ele, el>ellic, feger, gOd. stencbrengende°'. gestence0 • stiemende, swete, swot. swOtstence0 8' swOtstencendeoC, welstincende0 -Roee-scented: gerOsod .Sweetly: swOte •To perfume, impart fragrance: gewyrtian -To perfume witblu with lnc:m.ce: besmocian°, recelsian, steran -To lnllllle fumes/smoke (as of lnceme): drincan See Incense 02.05.09 Faculty of sight: beorht, beorbtnes, hiwung, leoht, leoma, sien,

gesiht, (ge)sihl> .E:a:erdse of sight: gesihp .Nature/power of the eye: eagegebyrd0 P .Night-sight: nihteageS .To poaen the power of sight: (ge)IOcian, seon .One who sees light: leohtsceawigendoC See Sight organ To open the eyes/be awake: wacian .To dose the eyes, wink, blink: bepriwan, fortynan, wincettan°, wincian,

winclianq .OeaMlgbted: scearpsiene -(Of sight) bright, dear: beorht, gleaw, scearp, torht -(Of sight) brightness, dearness: beorhtnes, scearpnes -(Of sight) brlghdy, dearly: 'beorbte, beorhtlice -(Of weing) well: gearolice, gearwe, scearpe, sweotole -To see dearly: behlwian lnabWty to see (because of darkness): blindnes

.Blinkered, blinded: iblend .To blladlold: geblindfellian .To dim the sight: t>Costrian See Defective vision To pve light, restore to sight: (ge)lihtan, onltntan,

ontjnan eagan .To ••pm (the sight): gescierpan .To make the alabt aood: (ge)beorhtian 71 To see, look upon, behold To eee, look upon, behold: i.16on, bchealdan, bel6cian8, bcsCon (on, tO, wi~). bewlitian, bewlnan°P, capian (iip), (ge)hiwian (on, to), (ge)l0cian (on, tO), ofs!on, ongietan, onhlwian, onl0cian, ons!on, (ge)sceawian, (ge)s!on, wlitian, wlilan .Look/see/behold!: efne (nii), heonu, loc, 16c nii, ono, seh)>e .Act ot $ftfng, look, slaac:e: ant&:, bebealdnes, I&:, gcsiht, (ge)sih~ .To gau, stare: gorettan, gorian, (ge)starian (on, to) ..Act of gazing: gorettung°S .To look round: ymbli'>cian'. ymbscCawian, ymbseon ..Act of looking round: ymbsceawungl .To look asluulct'lsideways: bescylan° ••(Of eyes) turned away: glyrendel .To look forth: forj>besCon°S, forl>(ge)locian •To overtook: oferseon To watch, obeene, llll'Vey: begiman, behealdan, besceawian, bewitian, cepan, geondsceawian, geondwlnan, oferseon, geseon, ymbwlitian .Looking at, observation, watchh•: begimen, besceawung, ceping, foregimncsoS , hiwung, ofergcmncs°', ymbs!on, ymbwlituog .Obaener, spectator: ztstandend, behealdend, bescCawereoS, bescCawigend, giemend, hiwere0 ' insceawerel. onlociend, sceawere, sceawigeod, tOhiwiend', wlitere0 , ymbstandeod, ymbwlitend ..Jn a drde: hringsittcnd' .To look through, eumine: ~urhsCon, l>wbwlnanP .To examine, study: (ge)cneordl~can . cunnian, (ge)sceawian .Inspection, examination: iosceawungl, sceawung .Act of witnessing, witness: gewitncs, (ge)witscipe ..An eye-witness: gewita, (ge)witnes Tbfag seen, sight, vision: ansien, bescCawodness , gesiht, (ge)si~

.To appear, be 9eCn: ztiewan, ztsceawian°, o~iewan .To appear, come to light: oohlidan, iip imylan .To show dearly, shine: scinan .To shine tbroaab: blican .To peep oat: tOtian ilt See Vision, apparition Form, appearance, aspect: andwlita, bleo, hiw, sceawung, wlite


02.05.10 Faculty of hearing, appe•r to be: beon/wesan gesicnc, (ge)l>yncan Visible: ansieneP, eagsyne0 P, ell>gesieoeP, forpgesyne0 P, gesewen, gesewenlic, gesiene, gesfenelic, sweotol •Visibly: gesewenlice, gesienelice -Where all may ae, plelnly: foran ..Pleinly, with one's eyes: l-agsynes Look-out place: prtwq, sceawungst6w, yppe ,Rill: t6thyllq •Wetcbtower: sceawere, weardsteall«, weardst6w og Mirror: sceawere, sunscinoS To sbow: s:tiewan, on cage beran, 01>rewan .Showing, displey: ztjwednes, s:tjwnes, l-awdnes .A visible displey, manifestation: s:teowodnes, sweotolung, ypping .A sigbt,sbow,spectede: wzfemesoS, w~fersyn, wzfl>/wzft. wlitung0 , wliteseon°P, wunderseon°P, wundrung -Worldly sight: woruldsceawung0 See Manifestation lmisible: oriege0 , ungesewen, un(ge)sewenlic, ungesyue0 «, ungesynelic, unsweotol .Invisibly: ungesewenlice Jlldden from sight, secnt: dfegol .Hard to see: earfol>hlwe, earfol>~ne P .Bard to ftnd: earfol>fynde0 .Blurred, feint: dimm 0 To vanish, dlnppear: s:tdwinan°, iidl(i)an, islupan, ij>winan°, gedrysnian«, gedwfnan, fordwinan, t6l>winan° 02.05.10 Femltyofbeulna: !arc, heorcnung, (ge)hremes, (ge)hlyst .To bear: (ge)hieran, ofhreran°, ongietan -To ovea bear: oferhleran .Haarina: gehering°S, gehremes, hlCot>or, (ge)hlyst .To 'Wea (to): (ge)heorcnian, (ge)hreran, hlosnian, hlysnan, (ge)hlystan, ontynan earan .Act oflistmina: heorcnung, (ge)hlyst, hlysting° •Tbat llttens: hlosniende, hlysnende 73 Thing heard .A listener. (ge)hierend, hlosnere', hlysnere0 S, hlystend, hlystere0 , t6hlystend .Inattentive to sound, falling to hear: oferhleopur0 P .To stop, dose the ean: forolyccan caran See Hearing organ; Deafness Thing beard: gehiemesoS .8ound, noise: hlem0 , hleopor, sang, stefn, sweghlwporP, sweging, swegnes0 S. swinsung, wop .To sound, make a sound: dynian, hleoprian, hl6wan, gesellan stefn, styrian, swegan .8ounding: hlwpriende .Audible: gehierendlic, gehlyste0 , sweotol .Clear: beorht, freabeorht, hidor ..In battle: heal>utorht0 P .Clearly: hidre, openlice .To sound dearly: beorhtian Noise, din: (ge)dyne, (ge)hlynn, brympe0 , hwelung0 S, sweg, gepun .Loudness, clamour: hliidnes .Loud: hliid, micel, onswij>lic0 , ungefOglic .Loudly: be &One, hliide, hliidswege, swij>e .To make a noise: hriixlian°', rfotan ..To sound forth: on(i)swegan ..To sound loudly/noisUy: hlydan, bropan Noise, tumult, uproar: breahtm, (ge)hlyd, hlyding°', bream. gehriixl, prass, storm, unstil(l)nes, wOma .At dawn: iihthlem0 P .In battle: heresweg°P. hildesweg0 P, hildewOmaP, wfgcyrm0 P .On day of judgement: heofonwOmaP .Made by living cratul"ell: gedra:gP .Of thunder: punorridstefn°P •Thunderous: punorlicS, punorridlic0 S .To make a noise, thunder: punian .Rumbustious, nol$y: hlydende .Overloud, noisy, clamorous: hlildclipoloS, hremigP, oferhlild, oferblydeS .Overloudly: oferhlOde .To surpass in loudness: oferhleoprian •To overpower with sound: idyfan°

74 Clattering, noise To raoaacl: lhleot>fian, cracian', hleot>fian, onscillan°' .Echo: windmncr°', wudmnzr' .To echo back: oncweJ>an .To IOUDd, resound, make a aolse: dynian, hlynnan

: hlagolendeoS, hleglendel .sonorous: scicll0 P .To resound, sound loudly: scrallettanP, scyllan .To resound, roar: hlimmanP, hlynsian, onhwclan°1, l>Cotan .To make to resound, knock: clynnan .Resouncliog din: swegdynn°P RoariJll, nsins: bren1ung°I, byrstende, grymet(t)ung .To IUrp, grind, roar: grillan, grindan, grymet(t)an, hwelan°P, hwoperian ..To roar again; lhlOwan°' .Lowing, bellowing: gchlOw, hlOwung .YeHlns, shrillln&: giellcnde, gylicnde .To yeU, shrill, scnecb: gicllan, gylian, scriccettan°1 Hanh IOUDd: hwo)>rung0 1 .Noisy, creaky, ltrldent: hrfstlende, tiryscende •To m•ke a cn•ldng sound: breahtmianl, cearcian, ceorran°, gyrran, tiryscan A caashlns, noise: gebrzc, byrst, cearcetung°, gcstun, punungl .To crash, crack: berstan, brccan, stunian, swegan .Cnddng: liJ>erlic0 1, smyllcndeoS .To cause something to dnb, to cnsb: behlcmmanP, hlcmmanP .A 1011acling blow,mueck: dynt, plztt'I A crackllq, rua-tling: gcbrutl, brastlung .c..1r11111, msdtng: brastlicnde .To crackle, msde: ibraslian°, brzclian°, brastlian A hiaing, whhdlns: hwistlung .To m•lre a hlalns sound: Ahwistlian, hwistlian .To wblzz: hwinan°P Clattering, noise: clatrung°I, clidren' .A rattling: hrfscungq, bristle .To rumble, rattle: briitan .To gnash, chatter: gryrran°8 75 Clang, sound of metal a •.., sound of metal: cnyll .a.agoor: clangettung°g .To resound, ring: clynnan, (ge)hringan .To jingle, sound: gliwian .5ounding as bl'lla, tinkling: zren .To make clang by shaking: hrisian •.By shaking together: gehrisian .To strike, knock, d8p: (ge)cnyllan An audible signal: beac.en •To make sound by • stroke: st~ .Sipal that marks the hour: stund .A board struck to give a signal: tabule Sound of bell/musiaal imtnunent: hleol>or, stefn .To ring (a bell, etc.): (ge)hringan .To sing, make regulated/modulated sound: (ge)singan A bell: belle, clugge0 .A bandbell: handbelle .Capper: ctipur See Church bell Stroke/sound of a bell: cnyll .A bell-stroke as signal: bellticen, cnyll ..Bell for summoning moot: motbell 0 -Bell for putting on shoes: sc0cnyl1° .To strike, ring a bell: (ge)cnyllan, (ge)hringan .Bell-ringing: belhring ..5ound of bell-ringing: belhringes bCacn -.Atnoon:nonhring0 .A bell-ringer: bellringestre0 .Flnt ringing: forecnyll 0 .To 1U1DOUDce a time by ringing: hringan Sound of water: wzterstefn°P •?To plash: l>Cotan Voice, cry (of living creature): geb2ru, hleol>or, gehlyd, (ge)reord, sang, stefn .Opening mouth and uttering sound: ginung

76 Hoarseness

.To open mouth and utter 90UDd: ginian ..To utter 90UDd: cohhetan°P .8ound made by the voice, a cry: gehlyd, bream, sweg, swcghleot>orP .aear-voiced: beorhtword0 P .SOaorous, deep: swcglic°S See 09 Speech To raise (the voice), raiw ap (noise): irzran, hebban, onhcbban, geuferian .Rahed, load: h!alic .Loodly: healice .A shout, howl: (ge)l>Cot .To roar, bellow, make a loud aolse: bylgan, circian°P, grimman, hlydan .aamour, outcry: ccarm/cinn, ceir', geclips, clipung, herecirm0 P , herewOp0 P. hrOp, onbrop .Clamorous, squalling: blaegettende0 , bremigP .Violent speech, outcry: gehlyd •To speak loud, cry aloud: ceallian°P, hlydan •To cry out, call (out): breodianP, gcgan°1, hrepan', ofclipian, oferclipian' .To call out, cry, adalm: (ge)ciegan, (ge)clipian .One who calh: cigere0 1 .Ob!: & .To shriek, shout: cirman, hrieman, styrman .To acn:am: scn!man° .To call out (like gooR/cock): gn!dan Gnmting, bellowiq: grun(n)ung' .To grunt: grunnettan°1, grun(n)ian Groaning: gesten°, poterung .To groan, howl: stenan, l>oterian .To sigh, groan: onsican, sicettan Gawting of teeth: gristbitung, gristbite0 , gristbilung, gristlungOI .To pa•b the teeth: gristanq, gristbltian, gristbitian .To make a gnashing IOUDd: gnyrran, grindan Hoaneness: hisnes .Roane: his, hisgrumeJ0 1, hisriinigende0 , hisswege0 ' .To sound hoarse: hishrimanq

77 A roar, bowl, etc. •To be/become boane: hisian° A roar, bowl, etc.: geriir 0 .Bellowing, roarma: rirung' .To bellow, roar: bellan, gyrretanS, ririan, ryn, rynan •To low: bl6wan .To bleat: bhttan •To snort: fneran .Howling: gep&>t ..To bowl (like a wolf): J>eotan .Barking: bearceq, (ge)beorc, byrce ..To bark (at): beorcan (on), borcianq .Whining: bwinsung° ..To whine: hwinsian° .Neighing: hna!gung ..To neigh: hna!gan .8queaking (of mice): hwicung°, hwiscettung° .Croaking~ crfS, cntcetung°' ..To croak: cricettan°, (ge)criwan, gntdan -Horribly: miscrocettan° .To cry, chatter: hlydan Voice, note (of a blnl): hleoJ>or .SOna: sang, sweg ..To sing: (ge)singan .To cry, call: galan .To scream: begiellan°P .To chirp: writian .To duck: cloccian° .Cock-crowing: hana.ung°, hancrCd .Noise of storks: cracelun~ .8ound of wlnp: fepersweg° Quiet, 90ft, faint: gedefe, gehwa!de, stille .Low, not loud: unhlOd0 .Not loudly: diegollice .(Of voice) small, not loud: sma:I .(Of voice) not loudly: smale .A mattering, murmurina: hwisprung°' .To matter, marmar: hwisprian' 78 Flesh of dead animal .lnaadlbly: stillrce Ablence of noise or cllstarbaoce: stilO)nes .Siience, quiet: forsuwung°', smyltnes, stil(l)nes, swrge, swigung .:.Silence (lack of music): unsang°« .SUent: stille, swige .SUendy: stillfce, swigiendlice0 «, swiglic.e0 , swiglunga« .To be silent, not to IOUDd: stillan, swig(i)an .To silence, prevent a IOUDd: gestillan See 13 Peace, tranquillity Dumb,slleat: dumb .To keep sllmce: idumbian, aetswigan°, forswigian .To become silent, stop spc•kl"I: opswigan° See 09.02.02 DumbMss 02.06 Animal; d&>r, n!at, nieten .Race of animals: d&>rcynn .WUcl animal: deor, wildeor -Race of wild animals: wildecynn°', wildeorcyn°' ..Of/conceming wild animals; deorenl, r!J>e, wilddeorcn°, wilde .A four-footed animal: fi}>erfOtnieten ..Four-footed: teoweriete, teowerfflt(ed)e .Of the 8eld: feldgangende .Creature of the heath: ~l>stapaP, mOrstapa .A noxious animal: bita', gisrlc°', wildd&>r .A IOlitary animal: ingenga, sundorgenga0 .A benl, drove of animals: drif, Oocc .Yoong of animal: fola, sunu -Yoa"I collectively: t!am, tiidor ..5ac:ldng animal: dfend«, meolcd!ond«, meolcsilc.end ..Mother: mOdor -With foal, mUcb: gefol 0 , meolc .A maimed animal: gldinca' .Aquatic: wacterlic°I See Voice, cry 02.06.01 Animal parts/activities: lilesb of dead animal: myrten, steorfa See Food 79 Head Head: .Animal with ftasb OD forehead: steornedc0 g .Hom: horn -Having horns: hombzreog, homcde0 , gehymcd _(Of a snake) hoaoed: gerumpcn -.Not having horns: hnotg, homlw0 g .Tusk: ban, hildctux0 P -Fanaed: geteJ>ed0 .Snout, trunk: bile, nypcl0 • wrot .Long-necked: langsweorcd Barnl, body of animal: byrla0 , hyrdelg .Shoulder: bOg .Stomach, maw: felofe(o)rt>' .Teat: gesceapl>Cote0 P Leg: .Foreleg: carm, fOt(en)sccanca .Foot: mt -Front of foot: t!J>emund°P, furl>ra _aoven·footed: cliferlete, twigzrcde0 , twisnzcce0 , twfsnese0 g -Uncloven: unt0clofen° -Hom-footed: homf0tod0 g -White-footed: fitelf0ta0 g, hwntotg -Cniel-pawed: sll)>hende0 P -Hoof: clawu, hOf -Having hooves: geh0fod0 Tall: steort, tzgel Skin, bide: fell, flies, hyd, hyrd, scinn/scynn, sweard .Hair on an animal's back: hrycghitr 0 ..Shaggy: raggig .Mane: manu -Having a mane: gemane0 -With twisted mane: wundcnfeax0 P .Tall hair: tzglht:r 0 .Firm nail, talon: stedenzgeJ0 P See 04.04.06 Undressed hide Breeding, batching: brOd 80 Cat .A brood: brOd .A mate: gemaca, symbelgemeca0 .(Of ewe) with 1oanc, y•n•na: geeane0 .(Of cow) peat with calf: gccealfe0 .To brina forth: br&lan .To cal•e: 009lfian -To celt • calf: miscealfianoS A lair, dm: (ge)bedcleofa, denn, incleofe .A dm: pytt, seat> .A burrow, bole: hol -A barrow, nenow ,.••ce: aypel .An otter's bole: oterbola0 .A fox's earth: foxbol .A t.dger sett: brocchol .A wolf's den: wulfbol' .Home of sea-monsten: nicorhi.1s0 P .Home of k l pents: wynngeard°P .An ant·bW: emetbcd°, emethylJ 0 ..Food in an ant's nest: bedgerid° .A nest: nest .To 1M1tea mst: nestlianoC, nist(i)an'. nistl(i)an 02.06.02 DoaMSdc ••l1Mh, U•atocli:~ eht, ceap, cwi~ht , feoh, icrfc .Herd: heord .Animals for slaqbten sliebt -A fatted enl1Mllblrd: f&lcls°' .Dnmgbt •nlm•l(a): weorf See 04.02.05 Livestock 0 Particular anlm•la (alphabetical order): Am: esol .A young-= weorf .A female aa: asse(n), assmyre0 , esole .A male aa: assa -Used for harrowing: cgl>wirfO .Male: mot -As beast of burden: Karnere Cat: 81 .03 Cattle .A femele cat: catte .A male cat: catt Cattle: hnper, hwyorf, n~ nieten, orf .Of/conceming cattle: hri}>eren° .(Of cattle) given to butting: hnitol .Race of cattle: nietencynn, orfcynn .Deni of cattle: hnperheord .Cattle for slaughter: sleghryJ>er, slegn&t0 •Working cattle: weorcnyun° .Pulured cattle: feldhnper 0 • feldoxa .Stabled cattle: faldhrf)>er 0 .Dang of cattle: weorftord0 P .Young of cattle, call: cealf, cOcealf, frymetling° .Cow: co -Belonpn1 to the people: folccu0 P ..For sleughter: metecu ..Eye of• cow: cu cage ..Hom of a cow: cUhom -Tall of a cow: cOtsegl -Urine of a cow: ciimicge0 • cumigoJ>a0 -Heifer: beahfore .Ball: bula. fearhryJ>er, fearr -Oflconcemina a ball: fearlic0 S ..A bull-calf: bulloc ..A steer: steor ..An ox: oxa ...An old ox: eald hnper - (Of OX) gelded: gildet -As beast of burden: n&t ...An ox at mill: mylenoxa0 ...An ox-calf: oxancealF -.A steer: st&>roxaog Dog: docga0 S. hund .Of/concaoin1 a dot: hunden, hundlic .A mad dog: wedehund .A bitch: bicce, life .A young dog: hwelp(a) .A huntfna-clog: hund, welhwelp0 P

82 Pig, swine ..A deta bcwlncl; ~und, hrinhund ..A aaeybouncl: grfghund ..A •••tiff: rot>hund', ryJ>l>a ..A .uer: niece' Goat: .A female goat: git ..Of/coDCel"Dinc a goat: buclic°', byccen°, gl!ten .A male goat: gitbuccaoC. b&fer .A kid: becen, ticcen See Wikl goat Hone: hors, mearh, wicg .Stud, herd of: stM ..Herd belongina to a lord: inheord0 .A pey or white bone: blanca, sceam0 P .(Of bone) shod: calcrond°P .Aa Inferior bone: stot .(Of horse) pl.led: geallcde .A mare: hyrse, mierc ..A broodmare: stOdmyre .A ICallloa: hors, st!da, gest&ihors, st0dhors0 ..A year old stallion: wintersteal ..A colt: colt .A working bone: hors ..A plcting, bone, steed: hengest ..A mount: ridhors0 , nt.dbors0 , onrid° ...A war-bone, duuaer: eohP ...A ceremoalaJ bone: fril>hengest°P ..A draqbt-bone: eafor ...A cart-bone: cnetehors°' ...A pwk-bone: ealfara, seamborsoC .(Of a bone) pllaful in movement: swancorP

See Ride Pis, swine: ~g, pecg°, swrn .Of/conc:ernlna swine: swrnen, swfnlic0 1 ..Hallarown: healfeald0 .Herd of swine: sunor .Swme (fataeaed) for tmlna: tedetsswrn, sliehtswYn

83 Sheep .Shank of swine: sccnceVscenceng .A )'OUDI pfa: fcarhB, picgaq ..A YOUlll pig kept la a sty: strfearh0 .A IOW: sii/sugu ..A banen sow: giltc ..A sow in farrow: gcfearhsugu ..A IOW'I womb: fcarhhamaog ..A )'ODDI IOW: gilte .A boar: bir, gcaltez' ..A male lamb: purlamb0

02.06.03 WUd •nlm•I: Particalar animals (alphabetical order): Badger: brocc Bat: cwcldcn!dcB, brcapcmus, hreremusg Bear: bcra .Of/coace1 olng a bear: bircng .A female bear: bircn(c)/byrcnc .A beanldn: bcrascin° Bl9on:

Qr, wcscnd'

84 Rodents .A bilon•s born: wcsendhom0 Boar: bir, cofor, coforswin°, wildeswin° See Pig Deer, bart: hcorot .Of/coac:enUnc deer: hcorten° .A deenldn: heor1>a8 .A YOUDI deer: hindcealf' ..Skin of a YOWll deer: nesc .A IDl!le deer: bucca, buchcort08 ..A sta1: hCahder, st•gga ..A roebuck: rl, rlhd!or .A rana•e deer: di, hind .An elk: eolh' .A reindeer: deor, hrin, wilddeor ..A m""-"' .. decoy: st&lhrin° Fos: fox .A ranale ros, vhen: fyxc0 ..A vhm skin: fyxcnhyd° Goat: stlnbucca0 &, wudugit .A male 1oat: wudubucca .A lnn••e 1oat: ~gc See Domesticated goat Heclgebos= hercnfagol/haltcfagol'I, n .Hedpbop: crinaces0 P Marten: mcart> Mole: wand', wandcweorpe Otter: otor Rodents: .Beaver: bcfcr .Dormouse: hcarma8, sisemus& .Hare: hara .Mome: miis ..A tbieviJ11 mouse: mllsJ>CofO'

85 Weasel

.Rat: rzt°g .Shrew: scirfemiisoS, screawaS .8qulrnl: licwcor(na)ll Weasel: wesle Wolf: mearcweard0 P, wulf .Head of a wolf: wulfes heafod .A female wolf: wylfg, wylfen ..Of/concerning a female wolf: wylfen 02.06.04 Exodc animals: Puticular node anlm•I• (alphabetical order): Ape: apa Camel: camel, olfenda/-e .A camel as mount: steda .A female camel: olfendmyre0 Elephant: elpend, yip .An elephant's task: elpendbln, elpendtOl>og "Of ivory: elpendbltnen IDppopotamus: nicor, sithengestS Hyena: nihtgenge' Ibex: firgenbucca0 • firgengiit lclmeumou: nltderbitaS Leopard: lafor 0 , l!opard0 , pardus Liou: leo, leona/-e .F1esb of lion: leonftzsc0 .A young lion: leonhwelp0 g Lyu: lox Panther: pall>er 0 , pandher 0 P

86 .04 Minnow Tlpr: trger .Of/concu11ln1 a tiler: tigrisc0 02.06.05 Marine animal: Sl!wiht° See Sea-monster Particular marine animals (alphabetical order): Dolphin: delfin°K, hran, mereswin Seal: seolh Walrus: horschwae1° Whale: fyrnstreama geftota, hran, hranfix, hwael, waeterprsaP .Of/concemiq a whale: hwaelen°P 02.06.06 Jilsb: fisc, Sl!fisc .Race offish: brimhlaest°P, fisccynn, holmes hlaest, waeterleod0 1l .Swimming in the sea: laguswimmend0 P, yt>wOrigende°K .Shoal or fish: scolu

.A small fish: fiscince1°K, fiscl>rUt°K See 07 Fish Part or fish: .Fin: finn .Gills: cianK .scaJe (offish, seapent, etc.): sciell Rl•er fish, fr-esbwater fish: !afisc .Fm-fish: fenfisc0 Particular 8sb (alphabetical order): Burbot: l!lepiitell, cwappa/cwaepq Eel: Ill, lllfisc0 , egeswinoS, grundling0 , ior 0 P, sl!~l .Eelsldn: lllhyd° Gudpon, bleak: bhtge Minnow: myne 87


S I .OS Perch Perch: hers' Pike: cypera, hacod', homfisc Roach, rudd: scealga Tench, mullet: slrws Trout: fom, sceota, triiht .Small trout: fometecle' Safhh: Particular sea8sb (alphabetical order): Flounder, 8uke: ft0cS Herring: grindle, hl!ring Lamprey: lamprede0 8, lempedu0 8, merenzddra8 Mullet: heardhara8, mecefisc0 .8ea mullet: tygle0 8 Plaice, loacb: facgoS Ray: reohha8, ruhha8 Salmon: leax .A spawning salmon: cypera Sardine: smelt Sn bream: 1>unorbodu0 S Shad: sceadd Sprat: sprott Squid, cuttlefish: cudele0 8 , wisescite 0 8 Sturgeon: styri(g)a Whitin&: hwitling°8

88 Frog, toad Shellfish~ sciell, sciellfisc .Of/CODCe1'11lng sbellftsb: scielliht .Without shell: unscelleht° .Shellfish yielding dye: wunna(-e) Particular sbellfisb (alphabetical order): Cockle, whelk:


weoloc, weolocscyll Crab: crabba', hacfeml, hindergenga', wacterbacfem 0 Lobster: lopost'. loppestrcl Morel: muscel(le)I Oyster: ostre, dostre0 .8bell: osterscyll Sea-mall: dsnacgl' Winkle: dwinewincle0 , winewincle 02.06.07 Reptile (seapeut, make, drqon): wyrm .Race of reptiles: wyrmcynn Reptile (mpeut, make): slincend, snaca .Snake: ru!drc -Race of smkes: nedercynn Part of make: .8lougb of make: llsmogu0 , insmoh0 .Coil of make: slite .Three-forked tongue: l>flslite tunge, prfsnaccce tunge Particular awkes: Viper, up: a.spide .A type of adder: ipnalis0 Watersnake: wactemlldrel Fros, toed: padde, tosca, yce .Swamp-froa: fenyce0 P


02.06.07 .03 Liwd, newt

.Fros: frogga. frosc, wseterfrocga0 .Toad: tid(ig)e Lb.anl, newt: IJ>exe', efete .Bllnchrorm: sllwyrm 02.06.08 Bird: feJ>erberend', fteogenda, fugel, heofonfugolP, lyftfteogend0 P .Race of birds: fugelcynn .YOODg bird: bridd, fugeltimber 0 P ..Nestllngs in nest: nest -Unfledged: ungefe)>ered0 S, unftycge0 S .To be fleclaed: fel>rian' Part of bird: .Feather: fel>er -Plumage: wzd(e) -Wing: fel>er, fil>erc -Tall: fintaP ..Feathered: gefe)>eredS, fe!>riht0 S -Dark-feathered: salupid0 P, salwigfepera0 P, salwigpidP -Dewy-feathered/-winged: dcawigfeJ>eraP, iirigfepercP -Grey-feathered: haswigfet>rc0 P .Crest, comb: camb, scield .Beak: neb(b) ..Having a beak: gebilod° •••Raving a horny beak: hymednebbaP .Crop, craw: cropp .Claw: clawu, clifer •Web-looted: ftaxf'Ote0 , ftohtenf'Ote0

.Ea:zg ..Shell: zgscill, sciell -OI •hen's eu: hennescil1° -Fllm, skin: atgerfelma0 Domestic fowl: hlmhennq, henna

.Fatted fowl: tedelfugol°' .Table bird: capun, cicen .Young fowl: cicen .Female fowl: cwenfugol, henn, hennfugol .Male fowl, cock: carlfugol 0 , cocc, hana .(Of a hen) broody: brodig° 90 Bird of prey

.To lay 1111: egru lccgan .To ilM'llbete •nd lwtcb: br&fan See Chicken Partic:u1ar fowl (alpbabedcal order): Dack: dike, ened Gooee: g0sfugo)O .Female 1ooee: gos .Male aooee, pnder. gandra .A white aooee: hWJ"legOs°' P.MOCk: piwa .Fll'ftU!le pcllCOCk: piwe, pea0 Plpoa, clove, culver: cul fer •'J'urtle.clove: turtla, turtur ..Female turtle-don: turtle, turtun: Game-bird: .Moor-fowl: fenfugolq .Cusbat dove: cilscote' .Moon:ock, cock-pbea1ant: morhana°'. wOrhana ..Mooabeo, ben-pbea•ant: wOrbenn• .Partriqe: pemexop .Quail: edischenn, erschen -QuaWcorncrake: sccgsciral .Snipe: heferbl~te', snllel _WOQ.-knlpe: wudusnllel

.Woodcock: holthana', hrucge, wuducoccl, wuduhona0 1 .Wood-piaeon: wuduculfre' Bird of prey: herefugoJ0 P, n!fugoJ0 P, welc!asega0 P, wr0cq .Bn•••nl: tysca°'

.Eatte: earn ..As warbawk: giiJ>fugoJ0 P, giiJ>hafoc0 P -Race of eqles: eamcynn° .Falcon: fealcen, heoruswealwe0 P -Gerfalcoa: wealhhafoc' .Hawk: hafoc, hafocfugel0 91 Forest bird, wild-fowl

-Race of hawks: hafoccynn -Goshawk: goshaf~ -Kestrel, m01•sebawk: mfiseres, mushaf~. pyttel ..SpalTOw-bawk: spearhaf~ .Kite: puttoc -Kitelbittern: cyta, glida. puttaq -Red kite: blcrig pyttcl .Osprey: herefong&

•Vulture: camgCap/-geats. ors. ultur 0 Forest bird, wild-fowl: wudufugol .A bee-haunting bird: treowfugoJ0 P .Blackbird: osle

.Comcrakdquail: sccgsciraS .Crow: cracaq -Crow, raven: criwa, criwe .Cuckoo: geac .Fieldfare: clodhammcr0 8, feldfare0 8 .Finch: finc8, ragufinc8 ••Cbaftinch: ccaffinc -Linnet: linete0 S, lrntwig(l)cl! -Goldfinch: goldfinc8 -Goldfinchllinnet: l>isteltwigcS ,Jackdaw: ci0 , cidac, ccahhc, ceo .Lapwing: lz:pewince .Lark: liwerce8 -Titlark/warbler: swcrtling0 8 .Magpidjay: agu0 8, aguster 0 8, higera .Nightingale: nihtegale .Nuthatch: geolna0 8 , rindeclifcr 0 S .Owl: ors, ulc .Raven: hcardnebba0 , hrzfn, lyftsccaJ>a0 P, nihtegale, nihthriefnog, nihthroc0 S •• Ravenlcrow: criwa, criiwe -Race of ravens: hrz:fncynn .Redstart: saeltna0 8, salthaga0 s .Robin: ntdda0 8, rudduc .Rook: hrOc .Spa1TOw: hrandsparwa0 8, neodspearuwa0 8, spearwa, succaq -Hedgespa1TOw: bzgsugga/hegesuggcS

.Starling: dropfig&, st&r, stzrlingas


02.06.09 Insect/small creature .Swallow: swealwe .Thrush: !>rfstling, J>rostle, t>rysce ..Missel-thrush: scric' .Titlark/wagtall: sugga' .Titmouse: colmiselcummise, frecmise8' mases' spicmise0 g ..Blue titmouse: hfcemlse' .Woodpecker: final, hicol ..Green woodped:er: speohtq .Wren: wrcnna ..Wrmlwagtall: yrl>ling .Yellowhammer: omerg Water bird: .Water-fowl: fugeldoppeog ..Diver: dopened, dopfugelg .Gull, sea-bird: brimfugoJ0 P, ~w .Bittern: cytag, felofor, fryscag, ha:ferbli:teS, riradumblag .Cormorant/ibis: scealfor/-ra, scnebl! .Crane: crans, cranoc' .Curlew: hwilpe0 P .Gannet: ganot

.Heron: hragra' .Ibis/cormorant: scealfor/-ra8, scra:bl! .Kinlfkber: fiscere, rseams .Plover: hulfestre0 S .S-Nlmuiia: Sl!swalweq, sta:t>swealwe .sandpiper: stint ..Dunlin: pilr

.Stork: store .Swan: ilfetu, swan .Tern: steam, teamog •Wild goose: gn!ggoss, wildgoss ..Barnade goose: bymeteog Exotic bird: .Ostrich: strYta' .Panot: hrce0 S, rCodmut>aog .Pelican: dfifedoppa. pe))jcan°P, St!Jlge))aS, W&nf0ta0 S 02.06.09 IDMct/nnaH creature:

93 Parasite .A venomous Insert: spilaeg°' .Mite, small Insect: grimena0 g, mitcS, stzlgicst°P, twinwynn°g .Ins«t found In wine: mustwynnq Paruite: flea, pie! .Animal parulte: hundcsfteoge, hundcslils, hundcspeo!, sweorhnitu0 g .Itch·mite: handwynn .Leech: h!ce .Louse: liis ..Eu of louse, nit: hnitu .Tick: ticia0 g Particular Insects (alphabetical order): Ant: l!mette Bee, hoaoet, wasp: .Bee: beo, dora. feldbeo -Queen bee: beomOdcr ..Drone: drin ..Swarm of bees: beogangg, swcann, ymbc -To swarm: swirman .Hoaoet/pdfty: hymct(u) •Wasp: waeps

See Bee-keeper Beetle: bitela', budda0 g, ceafor, cort>ceafcr0 g, toroc°S, wibba0 g, wicga, wifel, ymel .Black beetle: hrzdbita' .Com-weevil: hamstraq, ymcl .Dung-beetle: scearnbuddaq, scearnwibba0 g, tordwifel0 Butterfty, moth: .Caterpillar: cawelwurmg, leafwynng, treowwynng -Caterplllar/cankerworm: m2lsceafa! .Butterfty: butcrfteogcS, fifaldcS .Moth: mot>J>e. nihtbutorfteoge Cricket, 1rassbopper, locust: .Cricket, grasshopper: hima', hyllehamag .Grasshopper, locust: gershoppa, stapag, wealdstapa0 g

94 Half of another kind .Locust: broc°', loppestre& Earwig: earwicga F1y: fteoge .Flies: mysci0 P .Race of 8ics: fteohcynn°P .Cariscus: morfteoge°' .F1y found in wine: mustfteote0 S .Gadfly: bCawl, hyrnet(u) Gnat, midge: gnet, mycgs, stiit Snail: rensnegloS, snegl •With a boulle: gehilsed Spider: itorcoppe, gangewifre, gryttel, hunta, inspiderwiht, lobbeS, loppe, renge, spi)>ra0 , wefergange0 S, weterbucca0 S, wetergitog .Spider's web: nett. renge Worm: eorJ>mata°', moldwynn°P, renwyrms, wynn .Silkworm: seolcwynn. sidwynn' .Worm, grub, magot: ft~scmal>u S , ftaescwynn° , mapa 0

02.06.10 Monster, stranae creature: aeglzcaP, aglaecwif0 P, elwihtP, merewif0 P, unsceaftop, untydreP, wundor .Describing cbancterlstia of: twifeJ>erede0 S, twibeafdedeS, twinebbe0 S Pardcular monsters (alphabetical order): J>naoa: draca, eort>scea&>a0 P, hringboga0 P, inwitgest0 P, ligdraca0 P. J>Codsceal>a, iihtftoga0 P. ilhtscea~a P. widftogaP .Dngon's coll: hringgewindla0 ' 0

0 Griflln: giw, griffus0 P Half of another kind: .Doa: healfhunding -Ollcoacernlna a doa momter: healfhundisc0 .Man: centaurs, healfmannog, meremenn(en), tweowmann° 9S Phoenix Phoenix: fcnix Sea-monster: brimwyJfP, fifcl0 P, grundwicrgcn°P, mcrcdeor 0 P, mcrefix0 P, nicor, s&deor, s&draca, w~gbora0P, w~gdCor 0 P, w~lgcnga8

.Race of Ma·moDSten: fifclcynn°P Serpent, scorpion, basilisk: }>rowend .Basilisk: basilisca, figwyrrn8 .sea pwt: draca Unicorn: inhom(a)8 .Having one born: inhymc, inhymc(n)d(c)8 02.07 A plant: grenncs, plantc, plantung .Not having animal life: lifteas .Plant, herb, weed: crydcq, gzrs, gzrswyrt0 8, wCod, wrid, wyrt ..Species of plant: wyrtcynn -Collectively: wyrtcynrcn°8 -A tare, noxious weed: wCod, unwzstm, unweod -A female plant: wifmann -A pleasant plant: wynwyrt°P -A wild plant: wuduwyrt0 -(Of plants) wild: feldlic, wildc, wudulic8 02.07.01 To grow: bn!dan, (gc)growan, springan, (gc)wcaxan .That is growing: growcndc .Grown again: cftgcwzxen° .To take root, strike: niman to, wyrttrumian°8 "Well rooted, ftrmly established: cJl>faest0 .To sprout forth, spring up: aspriitan°P, aspryttan, spryttan, lip aspringan, up aspryttan, up icman, up springan, ut aspringan .To spring up, grow, branch: ilCodan, (gc)leodan ..And become leafy: tclgian°P, }>ufian°8 .To grow together: efcnweaxan .To grow over, cover with growth: beweaxan, towcaxan .To overgrow: ofergrowan, oferwcaxan "Overgrown: igrowen° .To produce by natural growth: (ge)cennan, gewyrcan .To put forth (a shoot, growth): spryttan

96 Seed, kind of seed .To lloarisb, grow viproasly: b16stmian, (gc)blowan, grenian, growan, swincan,g~

..FlouriBhing growth: bl&f, grenncs, waestm

-Covered with growth: gcwcred mid ..(Of groves) quick-growing: bl&fhwaet°P ..(Of plants, etc.) growing thickly, abundant: piece ..(Of growth) gtcco, vigorous: aelcgrene/callgrenc', grenc, undeadcd0 , unforwealwod0 , unforwyrded0 ...Not green: ungrencop ..(Of young growth) soft, tender: grenc, hncscc, niwlic ..1 acldog sap/moisture: pyrrc, unsaepig° ..sere, fallow, withered: fcalu, forclungcn, sear, srcrc .To ripen: gcwcndan Fndt of tbe earth: cort>waestm, foldwaestm0 P, gearwaestm0 , waestm .Produce of bea: treowwaestm 02.07.02 Part of plant: Root: rot, wyrt, wyrtruma, wyrtwala •?Filaments hanging from roots: drisncq A dove (bolb, tuber): clufu .Bulbous: clufcht(e) A stalk, stem: stela .Having one stalk: instelcdc .Having a red stalk: readstalcdc0 .Inner part of stalk, pith: pipa .Joice, sap: meolc, wlieta, was ..Full of sap: gcs&w, w6sig .Resin: cwudu ..Galbaaum (a gum nslo): galban(um) .Oleoresin: balsalm Seed, ld...t of seed: ~d. ~dcynn .S.d, ke1nel, pip: com, cymel, ~d ..Of out: hnutcymc1° .5eed, germ, shoot: ci)> .Natty growth, nut: hnutu 97 A shoot. sprout. tendril

.Berry: berie. com .Fnlit which produces seals: 5Zd .seed pod: gehoppl .Of seeds: satdlicoS .Bearing seeds: combltre, comberende0 g, gecymlodS, ddberende .Skin, shell, husk: codd, filmen ..Nutshell: hnutscillq .(Of snds) to aea 1olnate: grOwan See ff Seed A shoot, sprout, tendril: brod0 g, ci)>, crohg, hosg, stofn, sumorloda0 g, wise .A succulent shoot: wzterb0h0 g .A blade, shoot, spike: blzd, brord, spir, sp(r)zcg, sprytting, tydernes0 g .A thorn, prickle: pfl, l>rn ..Having thorns/prickly: l>yrniht(e) A leaf: leaf .Leaves, foliaae: helm ..A tuft of foliage: l>iif -Davina foliage: helmbereog, helmberende, helmihtg, gehilmedg, geleaf, 1Cafhelmig0 g, gel>iif, l>iifbereS. l>iifig°g ..Broad-leaved: br8dleaf0 -Having red leaves: readleaf ..Having three leaves: l>n1cfe0 g •.A bough with foliage: (ge)brognag ..A (tree) top with foliage: wuduhztt0 g Blossom, ftower(s): blltdnes0 , bl0stm(a) forest: wudubtedP .Having blossom, Bowery: blOstmbere, blOstmberende, blostmiende, bli'.istmig°g, geblOwen, blOwendlic0 g ..llowery and bright: beorhtbl0wende0 P -Oustered: croppiht0 .Nectar: ambrOsie0 , meledeaw .(Of Bowen) ftowlna with honey: hunigbereS, hunigftowende See Honey

.or Head, rounded part of plant: hCafod .Havi111 a head: hCafodiht°

98 Wood (as substance) Top of plant, duster, bunch: (gc)clyster, cropp, croppa 02.07.03 A bee: bmn, treow, wudu .A s....,ciel of bee: treowcynn, wuducynn°' .Of a bee: treowen .Dedduous: hrurolotl .(Of leaves) evupeen: singrenc .A forest bee: wudubeamP. wudutreow ..On mountain: firgcnbeam0 P .In leaf: grenc •Without bark: rindlcu°' .Gnarled: wcaniht .A fallen bee: hruna .A boundary tree: ge~rtreow 0 , mearctreow 0 A bush: buscq, fcaxq, ~yfcl .Busby, full of foUqe: fcaxcdc .Fune, gorse: fyrs, gors(t), gorstbmn° ..A tune thicket: fyrssceaga0 ..Grown with tune: fyrsenq. gorstenq, gorstigQ .Broom, bnashwood: brom ..Butcher's broom: cn!owholcn ..Grown with broom, broomy: bremenq, brOmigq .Brushwood: ceacga. hzs(t), hris, rispeq, spicq, spn!gq ..A place grown with brushwood: rispet~ -Grown with brushwood: hris, hrfsehtotl, hrisenq, hrisigotl, trusenq .A ?gooseben'y bush: word'! A tndbusb with beaaies: bcgbeam Part of a tree/bush: Wood (as substantt): wudu .Bole, trunk: bol0 , bolaq, cipp, licbama, stcfn, stofn .Bark: barc0 , fires, rind(c) ..Inner bark: best' ..Of bark: rindens -Knobby,jaged: cn!owiht0 , gccymod ..A pll-nut: galluc ..A knot, protubenmce: Ost .A shnnp: buttq, strumpq, stiice, stumbclq, stybb, styficq

99 Tree top ..Stw•mpy: stubbig'I .A bough, brancb, twig: bOg, brogeng, gierd, Jim, onwzstm, owzstm, spranca8, sprota, tin, telga, telgor, twig(u), tydrung, wudutelga0 ..A nn•ll bough: bOgincelg, sp(r)ecS, sprytle0 - With straight/outsprndin1 bou&bs: radelod Tree top: wuduhett0 g

.Lopped,pollanled:copped,hnot A wood, trees: haraJ>, holt, timber, treow, wudu, wudubearo,

wuduholt •Woodland: wudu, wuduland, wuduwald°g -Wild woodland: wuduwesten° .Wooded: wudig, wudulic .'lbick with woods: geJ>ilf, wudiht0 g .Wood-producing: J>rocenq, wudubltre .A wood on a hillside: hangra .A mountain wood: firgenholt0 P .?A wood in a meadow: holmwudu0 P .A neighbouring wood: ncahwudu0 .An outlying wood: iltwald0 .A wood of tall bees: heahholt0 , beahhylte .A wood as a screen: forefengnes0 g See Woodland A small wood, coppice, copse: bearu, grzfe, grif, grifa.

hyrst, rippel, sceaga .A cln:ular copse: trindhyrst'I .A muddy copse: gorgrl!fe0 .A copse near stubble-field: erscgrifa0 .?An enclosed copse: gehaegholt° .A sunny/delightful grove: sunbearu0 P, wyngrif0 P A thicket: byscq, scealdJ>yfel, scomhylte0 g, scrybb0 ,

treowgewrid0 , J>iccet8, J>icnes, J>uft0 g, J>yfel, J>yfelettq, weald, gewrid, wridelsq .A boundary thicket: mearcpfa0 A hedgt!lborder: biwinJ>la, hege, hegen!w, n!w .A beech hedge: bOchaga .A bed&e of living plants: cwichege0 100 Particular tnlCS/shrubs (alphabetical order) .A willow brdp: wtpigntw 0 .(Of a Mdse) cut, trimmed: miwen .Untrimmed: riih Partkalar trees.ldarulls (alphabetical order): .Alder: alor ..Baay-bearin& alder: spracen ..Black alder: rota ~m. mtetm>' ..Of alder: zlrcn, elren ..Alder bark: alorrind0 ..An alder bed: alerbedd° ..An alder copee: alersceaga, alrettq ..An alder wood: alerholtS .Am: zsc ..Of asb, uhm: zscen ..Alb bark: zsaind ..An asb stump: zscstybb ..A bedldump of asb: zscbedd, zscett'l .Aspen: zspe, cwicbeam, cwictreow' ..Of aspen: cwicbeamen° ..Aspen bark: zsprind°, cwicbeamrind, cwicrind ..An aspen wood: zpsett'I, zsphangra ,BalsaJm, b'ee yieldia1 balsalm oO: balsalm .Beech: ~. b&:tm>w 0 &, bOc, bOctm>w ..Of beech, beechen: ~. bOcenq ..A laeecb copse: bCcett'I ..A beccb wood: bOcbolt, b6cwudu0 P .Birch: beorcJbyn:e, byrctreowog ..Blrda bark: beorcrind° ..A birch copse: bin:enq, bircett'I ..A birdl wood: beorcholt& .Box: box, boxtreow 0 , byxeq ..Of boxwood: byxen' .Cedar: ceder, cedert>Wn, cedertreow ..Of ccd•r: cedrisc°' .Chestnut: cystel(beam), cysten, cyst(en)beam', stlncyst(en) ..A cbcstaut copee: cistelettq .Co1oeUdogwood: comtm>wS, gitetreow 0 .Cypress: cypressus ..Of cypress: cypressen°, cypressus

101 Particular trees/shrubs (alphabetical order) .Elder: cllcn, cllcnWow 0 _Of elder(wood): cllcn ..Elder bark: cllcnrind ..Elder leaf: cllcnllat'° ..Elder root: cllcnwyrttruma0 ..An elder sh1mp: cllcnstybb ..An elder twi1: cllcntln° -Tufts of elder: cllcncropp0 ..An elder pvvflcopee: cllcngrifa, cllrctq .Elm: elm, ilmc, ulmWowog -Wych-elm: wice ..Near/pvwa with elms: clmcnq _EJm bark: clmrind .Fir/pine: lbics0 , aebs, furh/fyrh, furhwudul , gyr 0 • , gynreow 0 •, pinbeam,

pinWow ..Spruce fir: saeppc' -Of pine: pinWowcn° -Fir cone: pinhnutu .Hazel: haescl, haeslcrq _Of hazel: haeslcn -Grown with havl: haeslcn ..A copse/thicket of hazel: haesclwrid, haeslcttq ..A row of hazel•: haescl~w 0 ..A place pvwn with havl: haeslingq

.Heath: ~l> .Holly: holcn, hulfcrcq - Of boUy: holcn -Holly bark: holcnrind - Holly leaf: holcnlW •.A holly sh1mp: holcnstybb0 .Honeysuckle: hunigsugcl

.Ivy: ifig

..Barren tnllia& Ivy: corf>llig - Grown with Ivy: Ifed. ifibt(c) - Ivy bark: ifigrind° -Ouster or Ivy bu I ies: ifigcrop(pa) -Ivy leaf: ifigtW0 ..Ivy twig: ifigtwig° -Ivy pvve: Ifigbcaro ,Juniper: gorst, safcnc, sul>crigcog 102 Particular trees/shrubs (alphabetical order) .Laurel: laur, I~ laurtreow, lawembeam0 .Of laurel: laurisc° .l.aurel betay: lauiberige .Lime: lind .or lime, linden: linden .Maple: hlin°P, mapulder, mapultreow .Of maple: mzsen° ..Made of maple: mapuldern .Opming near maple-bee: mapuldorgeat° .Mistletoe: !icmistel0 , mistel, misteltin& •?Mountain ash: cwicenq .Myrtle: wrr, wfrlr!ow .Of myrtle: wfrb'Cowen° .Myrtle bark: wfrrind ..A srove of myrtles: wlrpfe& .Oak: ic, icbeamq. ictm>P .Kind of oak: iccynn°' .Of oak, oaken: l!cen .Oak sapling: zcernspranca0 -Oak as boundary: IJU!ficO .Oak bark: &:rind -Oak leaf: iclW .Oak twig: actin° .Oak stump: icstybb .Oak grove: icbearo .Oak wood/forest: icett'l, kholt, icwudu0 , l!cen -Oak wood on a slope: ichahgra ...Place where oaks pow: firelq -Ridge where oaks srow: kecg •?Poplar: populq .Privet copse: pryfet .SU vice tree: syrfe, syrfueow .Spindle-bee: ananbeam0 , liist>om, wananbeamS .Sycamore: heard°&, heord°', sicomorus, sycomer 0 .aaster/ftower of: heorotcrop0 .A thorn-tree/bush: prict>om0 , sett>om, t>om, t>omJ>yfel0 , J>yme ..A kiad of thorn: J>yrncin° ..A briar, bramble: brer, brapyme° ..A bramble/hawthorn: J>yfet>om ..A blacktborn18'oetbom: blzct>omq. sllh)>om


02.07.04 Fem ..A bucktborn: heorotbrem(b)elq, hcorotbrers -Thorn as boundary: m~rt>om. m2ri>yme0 ..Full of thorn or brian: l>ornig, l>orniht(e)l-eht(e), l>yftig°S -Grown with thorn: brmgq -Thorn bark: slAhl>omrind, l>omrind0 -Thorn be11y: heorotberge8 -Thorn leaf: heorotbrembelleafO -Thorn stump: t>ornstybb ..A thorn copse: l>ornegnq.1>omettq, l>ompfe, 1>ymet8 ..A row of thorn: l>ornntw ..A thorny place: l>orning° .Wbitebeam-bec/'wbittm': hWJungtreow 0 S .Willow: oseroS, sealegnq, sealh, welig, windeltreowS, wij>ig -Ol willow: SBClenoS -Grown with willow: salih(Q, wiliht -Willow bark: sealhrind, wij>igrind0 -?Willow straw: windelstreaw -Willow stomp: WJ")>igstybb -Willow copse: sealhyrst°, siletq, WJ")>igettq .Yew: eoh, iw - Yew berry: eowberge0 See Fruit trees

02.07.04 Fern: fearn .Fern-covend: fearnig Marsh fern: fenfearn°S .Polypody fern: eoforfeam .Bed of fern: fearnbedd, fearnbracu0 .Place overgrown with fern: firnl>eq 02.07.05 Fungus: swamm .Toadstool: feldswanunS Mushroom: swamm -Edible: meteswanunS 02.07.06 Llcbea: ragu .On birch: beorcragu0 .On blackthorn: s1Ahl>ornragu0 .On church: ciricragu0 .Grey with lichen: n!ghir 0 P 104 Particular fruits (alphabetical order)

f¥1..fY1.fY1 Mom:



ftl.fYT.08 Gnnes, necls, etc.: .Grus: gzrs, gntd .Blade of grass: brord, gzrscij>0 .Grown with IJ'UI: gzrscnq, gntde0 .Bent IJ'UI: beonctq, beosq, beosucq, cassuc, hassuc, sccg -Of bent grass: cassucenq, sccgihtig°' ..Blade of bent IJ'UI: cassuclW° .Coach grass: cwicc .Reed, sedge: bcnncq, colhsccg, hamorsccg°, m0rsccg0 ..A kind of reed: hrfodcynn° ..Reed(s), rush(es): bunc°', cannon°, Carisc, hrCod, lzfcr, liscq, pillspcr 0 ' , rise(e), scaldhiilasoS -Of reedslnJShes: hreodcnq, hrCodig°, hrCodiht°, hrCodihtig°', risciht° ..A coarse reed: diil>hamor, sprot(t) ..A bed of 1 eeds: hrCodbcdd, hreodct'I, lzfcrbeddoS, riscbcdd, risccttq, riscl>yfcl ..A rushy mr oer: rischcsi!h .JCnotanss: unfortrcddc, unfortreden wyrt See Grassland

ftl.fYT.09 Fruit: zppcl, bl&!, ofctt .A kind of fruit: zppclcynn°

ftl.fYT.09.01 Beny: bcgcr', bl;rgc ftl.'11 .09.02 Particalar fruits (alphabetical Older): .Apple: zppcl ..Sweet apple: milscapuldor', mircapuldoroS -(Of apple) bavingsweet/llOW' tute: silnnilsc ..An apple core: zppelsccaluoS ..An apple pip: zppelcymel°' ..An apple tree: zppeltreow, apuldor -Yielding apples: zppel~re. zppclbercndc0 ' , zpplenq ...Apple ta ee bark: apuldorrind ...An apple bee on a boundary: ~rapeldre -Crab apple: wergulu0 , wuduaeppcl0 , wudusiirzppcl 0 -Bitter substance in: wcargolq ...A crab apple tree: zppclJ>om0 , siirapuldre0 , siirmilsc apulder 0

105 Particular fruits (alphabetical order) -Crab apple bee bark: sUrappuldrc rind ..Medlar: ltpening°, openers' ...A medlar tree: mispelerq . •Blackberry, bramble: blaecberie, bremelaeppel, brCmelberie ..A blackberry bush: bremel, bremelbntr 0 ' , bremelJ>om0 , bremelJ>yme -Blackberry bark: bremelrind° ...A blackberry leaf: bremellW ...A blackberry thicket: bremell>Yfel0 ...A blackberry wood: bremelwudu .Blackthorn fruit, sloe: pl0msli0 1, slih .CberTy: ciris/cirse, cisera:ppel°' ..A cherry tree: cirisbCamB, cyrstr&>w' .Colocyoth bt:a aies: hundescwelcan°& .Date: gedropa'. fingera:ppla. palmaeppel' ..A palm tree: fenix, palm(a), palmtr&>w ...A palm branch: palm(a), palmtwig ...A palm grove: palmbearu0 & .Fig: fie, ficaeppel ..A dried fig: caric0 ..A fig tree: fie, ficbCam, fictreow ...A fig leaf: ficleafO .A grape: berie, song0 ' . winbeger, winber(i)ge ..A bunch of grapes: (ge)clystre, winclysterl, wingeardhring' ..A vine: winbeam, wingcard, wintreow -Branch/tendril of vine: winbOh, winclyster', gewind, wingeardb0g0 S, wingeardh0c', wintwig' ...A vine leaf: winlW°' ...A row of vines: oemseten wingeardes -Of the vine: wintreowig0 S .Haw: haga ..A hawthorn tree: hegJ>orn, haguJ>om .Hip: heope ..A briar/rose bush: hCopbremel, heope, rose, wudurosc0 "Of briar/ni11es: r6sen ..A bed of briar: r6sbedd°' .Hop-plant: feldwl>pS, hegehymele', hymele, mealtwyrt' -Female: eowohumele0 .Mulberry (or bramble?): byrigberge0 , m6rberie ..A mulberry bee: m6rbCam .Olive: eleberge 106 F.dible root/bulb

..An olhe bee: el~. eletr!ow -Of olives: ele~n°' , eletr!owenq -An olive leaf: elel!af -An olive twig: eletwig& -An olive pove: elebearu' -An olive stomp: el~bb ~ach: persic ..A &Mach tree: penoctreow 0 s .Pear: peru ..A pear a ee: pirie -Tbat grows pean: percnq .Plum: plilmbl~. plOme, pliln°', plyme ..A plum tree: plilme, plOmtreow, ptyme .Pomegranate: affricanisc cppel, comcppel' .Quince: coddzppeJI, godzppeJI .Raspbeny: hindberge ..A raspberry bush: hindlrir .Strawbea ay: eorpberge°', stmtwberige ..A staawberry plant/runner: stmtwberian wfse, stmtwberige .Wboa1leberry: Iu!J>berie0 , wfnberge ..A wboa11ebeny plant: hortel 0 Nat: hnutu .Kernel: hnutcymel0 .Mast: cfesa, mcst ..As food for livedock: ccem, I>«, mcsten, picgbrfad0 8 ..A bee yieJdina man: mcstentreow°' .Nut-bee: hnutb&m Particular nub (alpbabetic:al order): .Acorn: ccem .Almond: imigdal ..An almond bee: easteme nute b&m, magdalatreow 0 8 oe.maut: ha:selhnutu .A walnut bee: wealhnutu' Veaetable: Edible root/balb: eort>nutu, more, wclwyrte more, wealhmoru .Beet: ~more, ~ 107 Other vegetables (alphabetical order) .GarlkJleek/onion: leac, sec::gleac •.Leaf of: leacbl~ "Garlic: craw(an)leac, cropleac, girleac, riscleac0 s ".Wild garlic, ramsons: hrarnsa -Head of wild garlic: hramsa(n)crop8 "Leek: brideleac, cipeleac, leac, porr, porleac -House-leek: fulle8, himwyrt, sinfulle, singrene, t>unorwyrt0 "Onion: hwnleac&, ynneleac -Onion/shallot: cipe, holleac .Pannip: englisc more, feldmore .Radish: antre, redic .Turnip: nltp, wilde nltp "Turnip seed: nitpsltd Other vegetablet (alphabetical order): .Asparagus: eofl>nafela .Cabbage, kale: brassica0 , cawl, cawlic "Cabbage leaf: cawelleaf0 "Cabbage seed: cawel~d° "Cabbage stalk: cawelstela0 , cawelstoc0 .Cress: czrse "Grown with cress: c2rsenq -Full of cress: czrsiht° "Cress/nasturtium: l~rse. tiinaerse, wort>(ig)czrse "1.amb's cress: lambes cerse "Watercress: billere8, br0ccerse0 , eacerse0 , fencerse, wyllecrerse .Cucumber: cucumer, eofl>eppel, hwerhwette .Fennel: finol Jennel seed: finolsied0 .Feaugreek: fenogrecum .A gourd: cucurbite, cyrfet ..Plant that bean gourds: curuettreow 0 8 .Lettuce: lactiice, Jeahtric .Mallow: cottuc .Pulse, bean: bean ..A kind of bean: beancynns ".seed-bean: beansltd "or beans: beanen° "Bean pods: beanbelgas, beancoddas, beanscealuS ..A buck-bean: gl2ppe 108

02.07. I I Plants/flowers (alphabetical order) -Lmdb: lentq, lenticulas ..Pea: pise, reosan°' -A kind of pea: pysecynn° _or peas: pisenq •Thistle (edible): rnefellistelll 02.07.10 (Garden) bablspke: wyrt Puticalar bubs/spices (alphabetical order): .Basil: eort>mistel0 , mistel .Camomile: lil>eleaf°', maget>e .Coriander: celeodre, coliandre .Cumin: cymen

.DID: dile .Marjoram/wild thyme/pennyroyal: zlere&, cyninges wyrt, organe ..Pennyroyal: brol>orwYrt°'. dweorgedwosle, ~luwyrtq, hylwyrt, pollegje - Wild marjonm: feltwurma, wurmillell .Mint: minte -Types ofmlat: bals~. balsmitell, brocminte, feldmintell, fenmintc,

hiremintell, horsminte, dminte .M,.....nl: senep ..Mastard seed: senepdd0 .Parsley: petersilic, stlnmerce' .Ro11nwry: feldmzdere, sunddeawll -Roeemary/darael/thyme: bogcn, bol>en -Saffron: croh -Sage: salfie .Thyme: fillc -Wild thyme: bridel&c, cunele, wuducunelle, wudufille •Wild cianamoa: cassia 02.07.11 Pluats/ftowen (alphabetical order): .'Addenrort': nedderwinde0 11, nedrcwyrt .Apimony: agrimonia, gArclife, heorotcl&fie, sticwyrtll -Water agrimony (ambrosia): hindrutlet>e .Aleboof, ground iyY: hofc, merschofc0 , tunhofc0 .Aloe: alwc

.Ardumgelica: blind(c) netcl .Argeodlla: argentillell .Becwort, sweet lag: b&>wyrt l()C)

02.07. I I Plants/flowers (alphabetical order) .Betony: betonice, bisceopwyrt, bisceopwyrteJoS -F1eld·bisbopwort: feldbisceopW)'rt° -Water betooy: briinwyrt .Bindweed, convolvulas, woodbine: argentille', bedewindq, berewindeoS, wil>obend0 , wil>owinde, wudubind(l)e, wuduwinde& .Bishop-weed: ameos0 , bisceopwyrt .Bobooica: hratele' ·Boa·myrtle, pie: gagel ..Tuftslcatkln.c of: gagelcroppan° .Bryooy: heahhymele, wilde eyrfet .Bqle: 1>unorclitfre .Bar, burdock: elite, elife, elifwyrt, elit>eoS, eawyrt, foxes elite, lappe0 g ..Greater burdock: clilccropoS, foxes elife .Buttercup: elufl>ung(e), elufwyrt .Caltrops: coltetrzppe' .C.mmock, Iles, nstbarrow: cammoc .Caper-plant: springwyrt .Catmiot: nefte .Celaodlne, swallow-wort: celel>nie .C'.entaury: centaurie, eunnealle, feltere, hierdewyrt ..Black centaury: Isenhearde ..Lesser centaury: eoipg(e)alla ..Sm•ll ceotaary: curmealle, curmealle seo li!sse, seo lytle culmille, seo lytle cunnealle .Cbartock: cerlie, coydic0 g .Cbervil: cerfelle .Cblckweed/grouodlel: cicena mete .Clnquefoll: fiffingre0 , fifteafe, hnefnes fOt .Clary: slarege .cutrwort, water-wort: clifwyrt .Cleaven/barclock: elite, elife, elifwyrt, elite, clit>eoS, elil>wyrt, hegeclife ..Top of burdock: elite crop ..Cleaverslgooee arus: smale elite, smale elife .Clover: elltferwyrt0 , eltefre, wuduel~freog ..Hart-clover, hemp: heorotelefre ..White dover. hwne elefre _Purple clover. reade elefre .Coltsfoot: elite, coltgn!g°C .Comfrey: consolde0 , gallue .eo.tmary, cost: cost 110

02.07.11 Plants/flowers (alphabetical order) .Cow-panley, wood cbenil: wuduc:erfille .Cowslip: cilslyppe .Crocus: titol6se°' .Crowfoot/cowbene; brOc}>ung"I, clufl>Ung(e) .Cuckoo flower: bulut. f~tcs folm .Cydamea, sowbrad: slite .Daisy: brysewyrt°, d&ges !age .Danclelioa:egwyrt .Dock, son'el: ampre, docce, feoompn:0 , sundampre0 , silrc, wegbntde

-Wood dock/son-el: gbces silre, wududocce, wudusilre°' _aump of dock: docc)>yfel .Dragom, 'drqoawort': dricentse .Dwarf elder: ellenwyrt, leo}>uwyrt/liJ>wyrt, wealwyrt .Elttampane: eolone, h~loJ>e, honelene .Eyebrigbt, eyewort: !agwyrt .Feverfew: adreminteq, feferfilge .F1eld balm: healfwudu .Flport: briin(e)wyrt, ficwyrt°', wenwyrt .F1eabaae, 8eawort: cristalla0 , dweorgedwusle, fteawyrt' .Foxglove: fingerdoccal, foxes gl6f(a) .Gentian: feldwyrt, ferdwyrt°, meargealla, merscmeargealla .Ga 111aader: cymed .Go.tweed: gOtwoJ>e .Goose grass: hegerife .Gromel: sun(nan)com .Gl"OOlldHI: g(r)undeswelge, selft!te, siger/sir' .Hare's foot: haranhige .Heliotrope: goldwyrl°', sigelhweorfa, s6late0 , s6lsece, sunfolgend0 g .Hellebore: wedberge ..Black bellebore: ceasterzsc, ceasterwyl't°, hamorwyrt ..White hellebore: tunsingwyrt .Hemlock: hymlic/-lfce, w6dewistle' .Benbaae: argentille', belene, hennebelle ,Hlllwort: hylwyrt .Hog's fennel: cammoc .Horeboancl: bulut. hlrbiine, hiine .Hone parsley: alexandn: .Hound's tongue: cuneglcsse, glOfwyn. hundes micge, hundes tunge, ribbe .Hyseop: hlenort!ar°', ysopc .lrts/~: fane, glcdene, hwatend' Ill

02.07.11 Plants/flowers (alphabetical order)

.Knapweed: Isenhearde .Ladderwort, Jacob's ladder: hl2derwyrt0 .Lady's smock: lustmoce .Lady's mantle, lion's foot: leonfOt

.Larkspur: fugeles wyse .Lily: lilie .Lily of the ..Uey: glofwyrt .Liverwort: !alifer, liferwyrt .Lords and ladies: arod .Lovage: lufestice .Lupin: elehtre .Madder: mzddre ..Sprig Of madder: mzdercfl>0 .Mallow: cottuc, geonnanl!af, geormanletic0 1, hoc(c), hocl!af, mealwe, symeringwyrt' ..Marshmallow: bisceopwyrt, merscmealwe .Marigold: goldbloma, golde0 •, goldwyrt°' .Mayweed: nueg)>a/mage)>a .Meadow saffron: greate wyrt .Meadowsweet, meadwort: meduwyrt .Mercury: cedelic, efe(n)liste .Moorwort: mrwyrt° .Maport: mucgwyrt

.Mullein: candelwyrt°'. feltwyrt .Musk: disma(-e) .Nettle: blind netel, netel(e), seo reade netele, smale netel, )>i great.an netlan, wor)>ignetele0 ..Not stinging: blind .Nightshade: a:lfl>one, hundesberie0 1, mixenplante, nihtscada' .Oracbe: melde, tilnmelde°' .Orchid: hra:fnes teac .Oxeye: gesca(l)dwyrt .Oxbeal: oxna lybb .Oxlip: oxanslippe .Pellltory: asterion, dolgrilne, pyretre0 .Peony: peonie .Periwinkle: perwince

.Pimpernel: pipineale .Plantain: wegbntde .Poppy: popig 112

02.07.11 Plants/Oowers(alpbabetical order)

.R•11ed robin: bulut .R•mpll: ramgealla .'R.ttlewort': hnetelwyrtI .Ravensfoot: hnefnes tot .Rlbwort: hundes tunge, ltkewyrt, ribbe .Re: rade -Wild rue, 'bulula': armelu, feldriideoS .&l•ory: saturege .&tdfrage: moldcom, sundcom -Granulated tuber of: moldcom .8elfheal, sanlcle: selfbele .SU•erweed: lelo)>~. gelodwyrt .5m•Hage, wild celery: merece .Smeanrort: smeoruwyrt .Smpclrqon: hundes heafod .8oapwort: brysewyrt°, IC&l>orwyrt, leo)>uwyrt/li)>wyrt .8oatbernwood, wormwood: aprotane, prutene0 ' sii)>eme wermoo, sii)>emewudu, wermOd .Spearwort: sperewyrt .Speedwell: hleomoc(-e) .Splkawnl: nard .Stitcbwort: ae)>elferl>ingwyrt .Stonecrop: stinaop .&udloWer: sO)ateO

.1imsy: englisc cost, disma(-e), helde, tansi}>eq .Teasel: wulfes carob, wulfes ~sel •Thistle: brad )>istelq, )>istel -Tblstledown: )>istles blOstm -Cartlne thistle: eofort>rote, snil>sb'Coll -Sow-thistle: )>ii)>istle' -Wood-thistle: wudu)>istle •TOI wwwtiUsetfoD: seofonleafe .V..erian: ualeriane .Verbena, venain: esc)>rote, aescwyrtS, berbene, bisceopwyrt, isenhearde •Vetch: earfe, fugles bean, miisepiseoS •Violet/pansy: aeppelleafoS •Viper's baglOSI: haransprecel .W~Wy,nymph·i•: colloncrohS, !adocce, Oeapdfteo)>e, OeaJ>orwyrt0 1! •Water-stanrort: staelwyrtI, waeterwyrt .WOlld: wid 113 Seaweed

-Woad seed: wild~ .Wood lettuce, wild sleepwort: wuduleahtric •Woodmint/wild parsley: wudumerce •Woodndf: wudurofc .Wood wax(en)/dyer's broom: wuduweax(c) •Wormwort, wonngnss: wyrmwort .Yarrow: gcarwc .Zedoary: sidewire

0 Seaweed: ft~twyrt0, ftotwyrt0 S, sl!warS, warS, WliroJ>0 P .Full of Maweed: wiriht' Unidentifted plants (alphabetical order): ~fcrJ>c, binwyrt,

bulcntsc0 , cealfwyrtQ, coJ>uwyrt0 S, criwcnbeamoS, dynigc0 , eacrop0 S, cofolc, cort>colcS, hltwcnhydclc, hafocwyrt, hirewyrt/hilranwyrt, hcalswyrt, holccerse0 , ife, lungenwyrt, onred, oxantunge0 S, rydcn°, seo grbtc binwyrt, sionq, sigsonte, s~J>wyrt , stfcmeq, supe0 P, st(r)zlwyrt, siiJ>erigcoS, toscanleacoS, twfleafaoS, J>elncJ>ung°S, J>Corwyrt, J>n1efc0 S, J>ung, J>yfcl, uma0 , witmltreswyrt0 , wnctt(c), wuduclitc0 S, wunna(-e) 0

02.08 MentaVsplrih•a• health: hzlJ>, hltlu, gcsynto 02.08.01 Sound physical condition: hltl(u), hilc lif, (gc)sundfulncs, trumncs

.Healthy: ~l~wc, ansund, h~lc, hil, ~l. gcsund, gcsundful, gesundlic ..Strong of stomach: magapiht0 -Well-fed: fztt - Well-formed: fullborcn, limhiJ 0 P ..Able-bodied, 8t for work: wcorcwyrJ>c -Thoroughly: fullhil0 -Without pain: unsir ..Delicate: mearu

-Healthily: on gehilum J>ingum, tcla -Is In good health: nueg See 05.08 Stnngth 02.08.02 Disease, in&rmity,sicknea: ildl, broc, brocung, coJ>u, hefigncs, medtrumncs, ~cs. suht°P, trcdemes, unhltlJ>, u~lu, unmiht,

unmihtigncs, untrumnesluntrymnes, untrymmigo', untrymJ>, wicmOdnes, wanhzlJ>0 S, wanhilnes 114 .01 An infectious disease .Force of dlaenee: idlJ>racu0 P -To nduce (by medical beabuwt), waken; wanian .Humour, choler: dropa

-Corrupt humour: 6mcynn° -(Of evil humoun) acrid: scearp .Great illness: oferseocnes Jaflrm condition: untrumhild° .Decay of body: hryre .Condition of lying sick: leger .sick, ill, diseased: geidlcd, idliende, idlig, ilefed/ilewed, co}>ig°, lef, gelefcd, legerbtere0 , legerfest, medtrum, mishtebbendec, ofslegen, simhi1°, sCoc, seoslig°P, sicle0 , sleac, tfcdre, unhil, unmihtiglic,

unsttang, untrum, untrym(m)ig', unweorchean1°, wanhZie0 , wanhll, yfelhtebbendel _Inft1 m, decrepit: forwerod, lriosendlic, tidriende, ticderlic, }>ynne ..Dried up, emaciated: gedrycned°, forscrencend, forscruncen Jn sickly way, ill: yfle .To be ill: idlian, sCocian, seonian°, winnan -To be taken UVbe inftrm: (ge)sfclian, (ge)untrumian -To fall ill: ifeallan, forweorpan, (ge)hreosan, untrymigang, (ge)yfelian -To pt worse: (ge)tidrian, wyrsian .To decay, pine away: imolsnian, hwelian, losian, scrincan, sCarian, sipian, swindan, unhilian°g -To become powerless: t6sliipan -To waste away with age: ieldan' -To meke weak, enfeeble: onberan, geunhelan«, (ge)untrumian, gewanhilian -To 1educe (by medical beabuwt), weaken: wanian -To stiffen, grow stiff: ist11ian, stifian See 02.05.03 Exhaustion; Animal diseases; 05.09 Weakness An illness, aDment, disorder: ldlung°, gcdrecccdnes, leahtor, seocnes, uncyst, wansceaftal-e, yfel .An early illiless: ltridJP .A fatal illness: feorhidl .(OfDlness) nc:.wamt: (ge)cdleht .(Of Illness) chronic: singal, ungewendendlic An lnfectioas dlseaee; geflog°P, onftyge(n) .Infection: itor

115 Onset, attack of illness .Atllk:ted witb infection: idlseoc, ongeftogen°

.Dlrc•se·beuing: idlberende°', idliende J>eaenerating: ecnOsle', geecnosliende0 S •To catcb/bave an attack of infection: bCon/wesan genumen, gelaeccan, gestelled bCon/wesan mid .(Of ad""•) to infect: smittian', gestandan, getiwian .(Of a d""1•) to Jl"OW worse: befigian See 04.06.02 Insalubrious Onset, attack of Ulness: fer, gong .A deadly attack: slieht, welpfl0 P, welscrel 0 P .A sudden attack: ferbaga0 P, fltruntrymnes .An insiclious attack: ~g°P .A recurreace of infection: edcierr .Hold/grip (of a cancer): bite A symptom: ticen .Flnt inftammatioa: frurnwylm0 .A painful symptom: i>rowung .A threatening symptom: bCotung A sick person, ia...Ud: idliga, l~fmon°P, ~ geslegen, t>rowerc Bed of lk• 1w 11: legerbedd .Bed-ridden: bedrcda. fortyhtcd°S, hofrede, gelegered .To keep one's bed: leger weardian, (ge)licgan 02.08.03 Pain, bodily dJscomfort: angnes, angsumnes, earfol>e. earfoJ>licnes, earfoJ>nes, nearones, sir, simes, ungescrepnes0 , wercsir°', gewinn, wile .An ache, pain: ece, sir, were

.Palatul: (ge)sir, ungeJ>wl!re ..More painful: gefredra0 .Suffering of pain: grennung, i>rowung .Painfully: angsumlice, unsOfte .To suffer pain: acan, (ge)i>r'Owian .To be sore, painful: sirian, waercan •To express pain, 1rimace: grennian .Pain ca"sed by blow: dynt ..Baklbart caalM!d by a sword: sweordbealo0 P 116

02.08.04 Hurt, injury, damage

.8UIJinl pain: sirwy}m0 P .Sharp pain: f~rsticeop, gir, pungetung°, spere, (ge)stice ..Shafts of pain: hildescQr 0 P ..(Of sharp pain) to shoot: sceotan -To strike through with pain: l>urhslcan -To nm tbrou&h, pierce: in gesincan ..To be pierced through with pain: beon/wesan l>urhl>yd

See also ff Extreme pain, torture, torment: clzmnes0 , cwealm, cwealmnes, cwylming, (ge)dreccednes, gedrecenes, niedbld, J>n!stung0 .sutrering, in exbane pain: forpegide0 P, soden, geJ>rowad .Writhing: grenniende .To torment, harass the body: (ge))>ntstan See Suffering; 14.05.02 Torment, punishment Itch, irritation: cleweJ>a0 , gicce, gicelness, gicJ>a .Suffering from itching: giccende, giccig°S .To itch: giccan

.To Irritate: slitan .A dngling, smarting: blots, smeortung°S, tend(l)ing -Gooseskin: cylewearteS .A bum, scald: ~mett, bryne, forbzmednes -From cold: cite bzmett -To tingle, bum, smart, throb: bieman, clzppettan, forswrelan, hoppettan,

prician, smeortan -.8marting from beat: fYrsmeortende0 -To become frost-bitten: icalan .A bite, sting: iflygennes0 , bite, siege, geslit, slite, sting ..or a snake: wyrmslite0 ..To bite, sting: ofslit.an°, (ge)slcan, slitan, toslitan 02.08.04 Hurt, injury, damage: daru, gederednes0 , hienJ>( o), oncyJ>dzd0 P ,

ome, ~l>ung, scel>(e)nes, sceJ>J>u, wierding, yftung0 .A blow (with a missile): scyte, wyrp ..The bite, cut of a weapon, etc.: bite ..Weal, mark of a blow: dynt, lzl, tobrytednes, walu ..(Of blow) forceful: onbeslagen° .To d•mage, injure: ibreotan, geltwierdlian°, iJefian, amierran, iwierdan, for~lanoS, forn!dan, gretan, gescendan, (ge)wierdan, (ge)yfelian 117 A wound -To htjure, bmlw, harm: beatan, forf>ryccan -To get black and blue: telian -Livid. discoloured: asweattod, lei, wann -To mub, touch roughly: hrepianlhreppan

-Tooppress:ofsettan .hqured: gedered, heal>oseoc0 P, gel~fed See 05.06.04 Damage; 07.03.02 Ill, harm; 08.0/. /njury, offence A wound: bennP, dolg, dolgbenn°P, licsirP. licwund°P, snQ>ung, sting, tOslitc, wund, wundel/wyndle, wundwico0 .A wound received in battle: hcapuglemm0 P, heorudrync0 P .A stab-wound: lil>bite0 P, ordstzpe0 P, seaxbenn°P, sweordbite0 P .A bleeding wound: blOddolg .A mortal wound: bealubenn°P, heorudolg0 P, sindotb0 P .Pain of a wound: dolwite0 P .A gash, scar: bengeat°P, bilswzJ>0 P, dolg, dolgswzJ>, spor, swaJ>u, wundswaJ>u0 S .Wounded: gedolgod0 P, dolhwundop, secant,~. wund -Wounded in the belly: hrifwund° -Wounded in the groin: scearwundq -Wounded by a sword: sweordwund0 P -Badly wounded: cearwund0 ..Mortally wounded: heorubtac0 P ..Not wounded: unwundod0 P •To wound: (ge)bennianP, bitan, forslean, (ge )gymmian, hrepian, ge!'Zcan, gesirgian, t2san, (ge)wundian ••Badly: forwundian, J>urhwundian° -With an anow, etc.: ofsceotan, ofscotian .To crush, pound: gebrys(i)an See also ff Blemish, disfigurement: awierdnes, glemm0 , misbyrdo, gewemmednes, wierding, wletta, wh!tung, wtous .Of race: wlitewamm .Deformed: ehiweS, gecnycled, gecrocod0 , miscr0ced0 , unwlitig, WOhbogen°P -At birth: misboren -Growing deformed: misweaxende0 -With deformed Mncls: wohhandede0 S 118 Mutilation/injury to limbs ..One-banded: lnhende ..With defocmed feet: sclffOt&, wOhfOted°& ..(or lep) bandy: gehylced°' ..A bump: hofer -Hamp-backed: (ge)hof(e)rede ..A bare-lip: ha:rsceard

See Deformea, ugly A maimed man: hamola0 .Maimed/mutilated: forj>wyrft, limli:weo0 ..(or ear) gashed, mutilated, cut: sceard .To mutilate: behamelian, bemancian° .To dlsftpre: geblltcan, gewemman Castrated: ifYred, belis(t)nod .To casbate: lfYran, belistnian, fYran Paralysis: crypeJnesoS, lefung0 , Jyftidl, neurisn, paralisin .Paralysed: lid~. islipen, islegen, slipende .To be paralysed: laman legeres lid!, sli:pan .A palsted man: eorpcryppel State or belna crippled: ilefednes0 • hielto0 .A cripple: creopere, crypel, lama .Crippled, lame: crypel, let>eleas, healflet>e0 ' , healt, lama. lemphealt&,

limleas, limmlama0 , Ji~P , unf'Cre .To limp, crawl: ihealtian&, huncettanoS, Juncian°& .To creep, crawl: (ge)cr!opan .To limp, bop: healtian .To stoop, bend: ibugan .To lame, cripple: ihyltan°P, lemian .To hamstring, mutilate: hamelian .To break (body/bone): gebrecan, (ge)brocian Mutilationlbtjury to limbs: limli:w 0 .Fracture or limb, etc.: bryce ..Fracture Of bone: binbryce, bingebrec0 P ..(or limb) broken: forod -Broken-legged: scancforad -Broken-footed: forodfflt(e)0 119 (Of limbs) to be di~ (Of limbs) to be dlwased: beon/wcsan yfte getueft Withered: dryge, misscrcnce0 , gescrcnce0 g, gescruncen, scrynce0 g, pynhlzneog 02.08.0S lnftammation: bryne, forbzming, hltung, ontendnes, sweolung°, swyle, ):>eor, ):>eoridl, ):>eorgerid0 , ):>eorwyrm, wielm, wielma .Full or inflammation: omig/omihte, swellende .Pain by Inflammation: ):>eorwaerc0

a.....,, Swelling: lbliwnes0 , lbliwung, iJ>enung, iJ>indung0 , ipundennes, bliwung, tobliwennes0 , topundennes .A swelling: ampre, blzdre, byl(e), cwydeleS, deadspring, dolg, nop0 , onfeall, swelca0 g, geswell, swyle, gepind, wenbyl, wenn ..Braking of: toberstung° .Dropsy: waeteridl, waeterbolla, waeterseocnes ..Dropsical: waeterfulg, wacterseoc .Elephantiasis: micel lie •?Some similar disease: waeterzlfidl .Swollen: ibliwen, iswollen, ipened. iprunten°P, apriiten, forbliwen, geswollen, toswollen, topunden .To swell (up): ibliwan, iswellan, iJ>indan, forpindan, geondbliwan, (ge)swellan, pindan .(Of swellin&) to lessen: pwinan 02.08.0S.02 Particular Inflammation/swelling: .Sudden eruption/swelling: fzrspryng°, fzrswile0 .Swelling caused by friction: gegrindswileog .Swelling from snake-bite: wyrmgeblzd0 .A swelling, wound: cumuVcumbl .A wound, raw place, sore: puddog, sir ..A little sore: puduc0 g ..A painful soR/wouncl: sirbennP ..A sore caused by disease~ wund, wundel .A blister, boll, pastale, ulcer: blegen, by le, flgnes, hwy lea. pocc, pyu, . spnng ..A watery pustule: waetergebl~0 ..Blister caused by thistle: pistelgebl~d° ..Blister caused by tbom: pomgebled0 ..Blistered: iblegned, geblegenod, byliht°, iltlblegned ..An ulcerous wound: wundspring° 120

02.08.06 Sirin disease, erysipelas

..sore, ulcerous: tOborsten, toftogen, wund, wundig/wundiht • To break out in sores: tObcrstan ..An ln8amed tumour: }>Corwenn° ..A spongy exc1escence: spong ..A sore accompanied by patnlacdon: rotung .A spot (from rub): specca ..A spot OD the face: nebcom .Had of a spot: dott • To break out in pimples: piplian .An abscess: itorgebl2d, gegadcredncs0 , gegaderung, t0borstenncs0 .A wart, wen, mole: weart(e), wenncfcen°K, wenspryng°K, wcmzgeJ 0 Matter, parulence, pus: dylsta, gcolstor, gund, lyswen°, unsyfcmcs, wonns, wynns .Clot or pus/mucus: wonnsgcmang° .Coagulation (of pm): gcrinning .Containing pus, pundent: dylstiht°, gcolstrigK, gundigK, lyswen, unsyfre, gewynns(ed), (ge)wyrmsigK .To fester, putldy,suppunte: ~trian, hwelian, rotian, wesan, (ge)wynnsan .To run, ooze: seon Scab, roupN11 of slrin; hn1]>o, nide°K, sceorf, wearrihtnesK .A scab: bryfing°, ~bb. wearr .Having sores/scabs: sceabbedeK .Callous, bard: wearrig° .To crack open, be chapped: cinan 02.08.06 Skin disease, erysipelas: angset, bincol>a. brunel>a0 , oman, wildelyrK .Shingles: circulidl, weargbnMe .Ring-worm: hringidlq .8curftness of the bead: heafodhriefl>o0 , sccorf .Loss of hair: feallende feax, feaxfeallung°K .?Measles: nutlsceafaK .(?Small)pox: pocidl .8crofala, eczema: scrofel0 , teter .Skin disease (?leprosy): bl2ce, bhkJ>aoS, bl~l>nistfeJK, hreoft, hreofta. hreofnes0 , seo micle idl, l>nistfelJK .Oflcoaceming this d-.se: hreof, hreoftic, trioftig ..A leper: hreof, hreofta, 1rc1>rowere 121

02.08.07 Specific diseases (head to toe) _(Of penoas, body) scabby, leprous: triof, trioft, breoftig, unsme~.

wearriht -Leprous from sin: syruwoftig° -To become leprous: llriofian° ..Not leprous: unhmlftig° .?Disease (unspecified): sugesweard0 S 02.08.07 Specific dl••MS (bead to toe): Pain In head/neck: heafodece, heafodsir, heafodwzrc, heafodwylm .Dizziness: heafodswima0 P -To reel, be dizzy: tumian .Migraine: healfes heafdes ece .Head wound: heafodwund -Wound under the hair: feaxwund0 ..Skull-wound: hWodbryce -Face-wound: wamwlite Disonlen of the eye: .Pain In eye: eagece, eagwzrc .Weaknes.9 of eyes: lewsa0 S .Contraction of pupil: l!smzl 0 .Albugo: eagfteabS, fteah .Stye: stigend0 S .An eye-disea~ web: gewif0 .Cataract: eags&>ungs .Wound in eye: eagwund .Tending to squint, squinting: sceols, sceolhe(a)gede, sceolhege .Bleary-eyed: siwenigeS, siil'Cagede, tcarig, geteorigende, toreneage, cyrende -To ran with water: tjran Defective vision: dimnes, eagmist0 , mist, genip, l>Cstrel-tru, t>ynnes .Blindness: blendnes0 S, blindnes .Night-blindness: nihteage .Dim-sighted: unscearpsyne0 , unt>yhtig .Blind: bisene, blind, ungeseonde0 , ymesene0 -Bom blind: blind(i)boren8 -Blind in one eye: ineage(de) ..Stone-blind: stzrblind 122 Respiratory disease .(Of sight) to grow dim: idinunian, deorcian, dimmian, mistian, mistran°, t>eostrian,ge~ynnian

-(Of sigbt) growing dfm, becoming douded: dimgende ..(Of npt) to make dim: fordimmian, ofl>ystrian .To become blind: iblindian .To Impair (the sight): forstyntan .To make blind: lblendan, iblindan, (ge)blend(i)an, forblindian°g,

otblindiang ..Blinded: foregeblind0 g

See Inability to see Disorden of the ear: .Earache: earwerc .Tumour nest to ear: earco~uog DeefMls: deafnes, deafu, ungehymes .Deaf: dlaf .To become claf: Wafian, islfiwian .Condition of growing deal: idWung .To make deal: forclysan° Disorders of the lower face: Mouth dlHase: mill>ldlg, mutx:o~ug .Pain In mouth: mi11Jsir 0 .Erapdoa in mouth: mil~berstung! .Toothache: tot>ece, to~werc, to~wynn° .Looeeness ofteetb: wagung .To slwlre, be looee: wagian Tumour affecting epiglottis: ilf A dlHaR of the Jaws: ceacadl, ceaftid1°, geaglswile Respiratory diseue: .A sore throat: ceolwerc, hn!cgebn!c' .A qalnsy: sweorcot>u .A bead cold, caturll: (ge)bn!c, (ge)pos .Cboldng: ismorung0 ..To choke: ic!ocian°, ismorian, forpylm(i)an

123 Pain in bones Pain in bones: blnwa:rc0 s Disorders of the neck: .Pain in the neck: healswa:rc0 • sweorwa:rc0 .A neck tumour, swelling: hcalsgang"S, healsgund, hcalsome0 .Glandular swelling: cymel .Muscle contraction: oferba:cgeteung"S, getog .To contract: fortogian Disorders of the body: .Pain in the limbs: leol>usiroS, lil>wa:rc .Injury to sinew: seonobcnn°P, seonudolg"P .sdatica: hypebinece0 , hypsar 0 8, hypwa:rc0 S .A rick, wrench, crick: hrisc .Pain in the side, stitch: srdece, sticlldl0 S. sticwa:rc0 s .Pain in the shoulders: sculdorwa:rc .Swelling on band: handswyle0 S .(Of nail) brittle, rough: sceorfe(n)de .Pain in the buttocks: endwerc0 .Pain in the tbJgb: binece, J>Cohece, t>Cohwra:c0 .Pain in the knee: COCosif 0 S, CDCoWWll:fC .A varicose vein: amprcS Foot ailments, ?gout: dropa, totlidl, totcot>u, lij>a .Worm producing gout: deawwyrm .Suffering from gout: deaggedeoS, totidlig" .Gouty: deawwynnede0 S Pain in the foot: com, fOtece, f0twa:rc0 Swelling of the foot: fOt(ge)swell, isgeblitd0 .A com, callosity: angna:gl, ile .A chilblain: l!celma ..Suffering from chilblains: itcelmehte0 S Diseued in the toes: tinede8 02.08.08 Internal disease: inlidl, incot>u, innantrdemes .An eating/spreading dbnse: bite, cancer, canceridl, ha:fembite0 S .Stone: ceoselstin, stin .Condition of hardening (of liver/stomach): iheardung, heardung 124 (Of stomach) disordered

-To harden: heardian .Internal nrellfna: innanonfeal0 , ingcswcl°' .Internal wound: innanwund0 , innol>wund0 , inwund -Cancerous wouod: cancerwund - 'Bole' ha bodyniver: hole .Internal pain: inbcnd0 P, insticc, inwerc Pain ha the emit: breostwerc .Ti&btness ha the chest: angbreost, breostnyrwct0 , nircwctt ..Suffering from tlgbmcss: ncaru Lung disease: lungcniidl, lungcncol>u .Consumption: yfeliidl0 g .Spitting up blood: blOdhni:cung°', blOdsprwungg .Pleurisy: srdidlog, sidwzrc .Rheumy: saftricndeog, spedicndeq .(Of lungs) to atrophy: brtol>an Heart dlwase: heortcol>a/-u .Heart attack: heortan cnys .Pain ha heart: heortccc, heortwerc .Ansina: breostnyrwct° .Buntin& of blood vessel: blOdrync .Heartburn: 5&1>a Pain in stomach: hrifteung°S, hrifwercog, magan iidl, magan untrumncs, ryselwerc0 , wambidl0 , wambc col>u .Itching: wambc gicl>a .Affected by stomach pains: wambseoc .SOre, tender: sircrene0 .Motion, stirring: istyrung, wcndung Gripe, colk: cliwung, fortogencs, innanfortog0 , .A cramp, spasm: hramma, togung, l>rig .Affected by colic: fortogcn .To mfrer from colk: forteon (Of stomach) disordered: ungcwcalden .(Of stomach) loOle: ungemetfest, ungemetfestlic0 .lndlaestion: h!Uq, ungemcltncs0 , unmeltung0 ..From surfeit: metecweorra0 125

ropwa:r~ Intestinal worm ..Irritable indigestion: gesceorf •Wind, flatulence: wind ..Suffering from wind: forsogcn, windig .Nausea: snoffa0 , wlztung ..Morning sickness: morgenwletung° ..Vomit: spiwe0 , spiwl>a ..Act of vomiting: spfwingg, spiwl>a ..One who vomits: spfwere0 g ..To vomit: ispfwan (iit), iweorpan, mean, sprwan, spiw(i)an, iitispfwan .To belch: bcalcettan, cylcan°g, iitrocccttang, iltrocciang .A hiccough: ~lfsogol>a0 , geocsa, gicl>a0 , sogel>a ..To biccouab: siigan -(Of the stomach in spasm) to suck in: forsiigan Intestbwl worm: anawyrm, trcwyrm0 , innanwyrm, inwyrm, rengwyrm, smeawyrm, wambe wyrm, wyrm Disc•se of spleen: miltcol>e0 g .Pain in spleen: miltewerc .Splenetic: miltcseoc Disnse of liver: liferidl, liferseocnes .Affected by liver disease: liferseoc .Pain in liver: liferw~rc .Hollow in liver: liferhol0 .Protuberance on liver: 1iferbyJ0 .Jaundice: cynelic idl, geallidl, sio geolwe idl Disnse of kidneys: lendenwyn:0 g Disnse of loins: lendcnidl 0 g .Suffering from loin disease: lendcnseoc .Pain in loins: lendenece Piles: fie, trcidl, gefigo Disnse of penis: homidl 0 Rupture: hcala .Sulfering from napture: healede Disaiae of bowels: hriflidl 126

02.08.10 Fever

.W•••Mll in bowels: inno)>tydemes0 .nm: a:ming/ieming. ft!wsa, flowing', 0ftownes, spring, Otimings ..Bloody flux: blOdes ftownes, bl0dsihte -(Of blood) to flow: ftowan, ieman, swl!tan -To bleed: bledan .Diarrboea: scitte, Otsiht(e) ..Dlarrboea/dysentery: blOdig iitsiht ..Bloody diarrboea: meteiitsihtS, iitsihtidl, iitwzrc ..satrering from diarrboea: iitimende -(Of disease) dlarrboeic: iitimende -To suffer from diarrboea: iit yman .Tbe bleeding dls.oaH: se bl~enda fie .An is.me/8ow of blood: blMes gyte, blOdgyte, blOdiom/blOdryne, ryne -Having an Issue of blood: bl0dymende0 .Atrophy: meteiftiung°C .Constipation: gebind'. forgebind° -Constipated: fzst, forha:fed .Constipation tbroulh operation of beal>e: wyrtforbor 0 .Pain in bladder: blzdderwa:rc0 .Painful discbarge of urine: earfol>12te0 S .Stnmgury: londidl0 , stede .To be blocked up: beon/wesan forboren, forsittan .To looeeo: toll!tan, tOsliipan 02.08.09 Nervom d••s1m: Apoplay: fl!rco1>u. fa!rdeal>, t>rOwendlic dcap EpUepsy: b~ccoJ>u S, fylles&>cnes0 , fyllewzrc .sufrering from epUepsy: fylles!oc .EpUeptic: symbelmonaJ>licOf! .To tremble, quiver: hriJ>ian 0

02.08.10 Fever: bryneldlS, (ge)drif, fefer, teferldl, hriJ>0 , hril>idl0 , hril>ing0 , ridesoht°S .Kind of fever: tefercyn° .Satrering from fever: teferende, teferig, teferseoc8, hit -Not feverish: untcferig° .To be feverish: cwacian, tcferian, inh2tan° .Feverish condition: hete, swol .(Of beat of d'1i 1e) to burn: iweallan, onbeoman 7

127 I Malaria Malaria: lcncteniidl, unlyft0 Sunstroke: sunbryne Pestiferousness, pest, bane: wolbcmes0 Plague, patilence: cwealm, cwild, mancwealm, mancwyld0 ,

siege, steorfa, unco1'e/-u. wile, wolbryne0 .Sudden plague/pestilence: fltrcwealm .Plague: stric, unco~a (-u/-e) .Pestilence, plague, murrain: wol .(Of plague) deadly: cwildbltre, cwildberendlic0 , deaj>berende .Pestilential: wolberende .(Of year) plague-ridden: wolberendlic0 02.08.11 Mental health: Sound mind: gemynd, rihtgewitt0 , (ge)witt .In one's right mind, sane: rihtgewittig, gewitfaest°, (ge)wittig -(Of mind) sane, sound: hil .Rationally, sensibly, sanely: gewittiglice Mental weakness: braegenes hwyrfnes, mOdes elhygd,

mOdes geswz~rung, untrumnes .Abeaaation (of mind): iweggewitenes0 S, weggewit0 S .Dizziness, giddiness: hwyrfnes, swima, swinglung .Not strong of mind: seocm0d0 -Weak, confused: unfaest ..8eoseless, witless: gemyndlcas .To lose perceptive power: gesweorcan .To be doting, dote: dofiang Innnity, madness: deofolseocnes, feondgyld.

monat>seocnes0 , ungewitfulnes0 , ungewitt, ungewittignes, (ge)witlcast, wOdscipeog, woffung .CraHd, ill: (ge)bl'Zcseoc, braegensCocS, deofolseoc, feonds!oc, gydig, gemltd, monal>seoc. monseoc, ofset, ofseten, unwis, ungewitful, ungewittig, wede, wedende, wedenheort, (ge)witleas, (ge)witseoc, wOd, ylfig •.Melancholic: wanseocg .To ~me mad: iwoffian 128

02.08.12 Healing, curing ..To be mad: iw&lan, dwolian, wedan ..To ao mad: iwedan, dwelian, w6bhian° ..To make mad, denmp: geelt>Cod(g)ian .A madman: gedwola, (ge)witseoc, wOda Parosynn of madness, folly: scinnlic, woot>rag .The devil (In poae81ion): eordrcnc -A sleeping draught: slzpdrcnc0 ..A soothing syrup: lij>ncs ..A potion containing vinegar: cccddrcnc ..A 90Verap remedy: tYfiica ..Lye:

leag 130 To cleanse, clean away ..SOmethlng to stop bltwllng: blOdseten .Taking of blood (u medicine): b10dl>igen° ..Day of purgation, medidne-taking: cll!nsungdzg .Efticacy, virtue, force (of medicine): m&gen, strengl>(u) ••Eft'ective, ellicadoas: zltewe, mihtig, scearp, scearpnumol, teartnumol .(Of a remedy) severe: ifor .(Of a 1emedy) to sting: slnan A be.I b with medicinal properties: ll!cewyrt .Particular herbs: caulic, magepe, mandragora .A herbal drink: wyrtdrenc "With add: wyrteccdrcnc0 -A drink made from pulverised seeds of herbs: diistdrenc0 See 02.07.10 Herb, spice Salves, ointments: l&cesealf0 g, sealf, smeorusealfO, smerenes, smirung, sw&sung°& .Red lead: teafor •White lead: hwitl~teafor g .Henna: cypersealf0 8 .Spikenard: nard ,Balnm: balsam(um). spaldur' .Wu: weaxhlifsealfO .To smear, anoint (with salve): (ge)clzman, smierwan .To ease, comfort (a wound): (ge)retan, sJDCl>an "To foment, dnss (a wound): (ge)llcnian -Salve for a wound: dolgsealf ..Drtok for a wound: dolhdrenc "To soften away: tohnescan° See Salves, etc.; Soaps 0 A poultice: clim, clil>a, flacg°'. flyne, ll!cedomnes'. onlegen, plaster, swel>ung .To apply a poultice: becll!man .(Of poultice) applied: onlecgende To deame, dean away: ifeormian (of) .Ad of deansin1: cl&nsung .To bathe, lave: (ge)bel>ian, bel>ettan° .Ad of bathin1: bel>ung "Vapour bath: stanbzl> 131 Surgical .To lu.mipte: (gc)r&:an, smeocan, smocian, st!ran •To syringe: gcsptetan ..Act of syringing: spring .An iDJection: ondOung°

See 04.06.01 ff Clean Surgical: licnigcndlic0 g .A lancet: itdrcseax0 g, bloose.ax, bor, ccorf~x , flytme, lzceiren°, lzccscax0 , snidiscn° .A cut, incision: gcsnid ..8carification, incision: scearpc, scearpung -To make an incision: (ge)wundian -To lance: iscCotan -To let blood: forhttan, lztan, oflztan -.Act of blood-letting: bIOdlzs(wu), bloolzte, bloolzting°, ties -Blood-letter: blodlztere0 g -Cupping-born: tygchom 0 -Time for blood-letting: bl0dlzstid0 -To amputate: gesni)>an -.A cutting oft', amputation: ofcyrf ••To stanch (a flow): forpriccan .To cause to suppurate: gchwelian ..To prevent suppuration in a cancer: iblcndan cancer .Act of cauterizing: bzmctt •To cauterize: bzman, fortcndan 0 A bandage, binding: bindcle, dolhsmelt0 g, onwn1>ung0 g, sirclil>', scaxclap0 g, spclc, wa:tla, wn!d .In bandages: in swaJ>um .To bi.nd up, bandage: forwnl>an, gewnl>an .To bind with splints: spclcan .A thumbstall: ~ymcl .A splint: spclc Remedies for spedftc parts (bead to toe): .A wash for the head: heafodbz~ .To gargle, swill mouth/throat: swilian, swolgcttan° -Gargling, a gargle: swil(l)ing .Cough medicine: gcbrzcdrencog .salve, ointment for head: heafodsealf0 , ~csealf 0



02.08.13 Recovery, growing better .s.Jyeforeye:&lgsealf .s.Jye for ear: earsealf .s.Jve for mouth: mOl>sealf0 .s.Jve for tooth: tol>sealf .s.Jve for bones: binscalfO .s.JTe for lnnp: lungensealf .s.Jve for a tumour: wcnnsealf Purgative: .A liquid emetic: ch!nsungdrenc, spiwdrenc, wcccdrcnc .A parpdve berb: lybcom .To purse: ifcormian, istyrian, (gc)clznsian, gcgrcmian .Act of purging: ifcormung ..Day for: clznsungdzg ..Motioa/sti.muladon (of bowels, etc.): istyrung .That purges, purpdve: scito1°, spiwol, iitimcndc .Not emetic: unspiwol .Diaretic: migol .To apply a dyster: sprengan (on) 02.08.13 Recovery, ll'Owina better: cdhwyrft. cdst$>1°, edwytping0 , cftbetung°S, eftbOtl, wytpe, ymbwcndung' .To come to, recover fHling: cuman, cwician, gccdcwician .To ncover: icwician, imagian, iwytpan, batian, (gc)bOtian, gedigan, gcedwytpan, gcfcl>rian. gcmanian, gctrumian, trymman, (gc)wierpan ..(Of person, wound) to recover: icofrian ..(Of body) to become easier: leohtian ..(Of wound) to mend: (gc)batian, wgzdere lztan ..(Of sinews, ciostiveness) to relax: tolztan, tosliipan .Recovering quiddy: sccortwyrplic° ..Refnsbed, not weary: gcli)>cweht. unwerig ..To refresh one'1 lllf bJ autina: gcrestan .Recovered: (gc)hll .Better: sel(or) See 02.05.04 Sleep; /6.0/.0/.02.09 Resurrection


03 Material, matter, substance

3. Matter and MeaS1Jrement 03 Material, matter, substance: andweorc, efne0 , ontimber, ontimbemes0 ,

geteoh, timber .A thing: t>ing ..8omething: sum ..8omething or other: nlthw&t ..A mass, lump, ball: clottg, clyne, weler 0 ...A loaf-shaped maut hlif .An incorporeal bein1 (e.g. offtre): gist .An element, one of four elements: gesceaft ..Earth: eofl>e, hriiseP ..Heat/fire: tyr, ~te/-u ..Air: lyft ..Water: weter

03.01 Properties of matter:

See 05. JO ff Spatial properties 03.01.01 Thick, dO!le-tatared, dense: iheardod, ansund, digerq, hefig,

t>icce, get>yllic' .(Of texturelstructun) closely: l>icce 03.01.02 Thin-, slightness of density: t>ynnes .(Of demtty) thin: t>ynne .(Of texture, powder, etc.) fine: smzl 03.01.03 Hardness, callosity, bard material: heardnes .A bard object, bard material: bin, heard .A hardening, making bard: hyrden° .Hard: heard ..Very bard: forheard, regnheard°P ..Very sharp/bard: fColheard0 P, stedeheard0 P

..Flft..bardened: f'Yrheard0 P ..hon-bard: irenheard0 P ..Hardened, made bard: forheardod ..Not hardened, not dried: unidrilgod0 .To pow bard: iheardian, isttl>ian, forheardian, heardian, stearcian°8 Stimless, hardness: stI)>nes .Rigid, stiff, unbencling: stif, unibygendlic0 8


03.01.06 Smoothness

.Britde, fncile:

br!al> hnescc, tiedre, tObrocenlic, t0brytendlic g 0


, Strenatb. power: strengt>(u) .Strona, not bending easily: stean:, stif, stl)> .Hard, aot easily broken: heard, swfl> .Not to pve way, to rm••in aabroba: hcaldan

See 05.08 Strength 03.01.04 Softne9s: hncscnes .A llOft object, something that Is soft: hnescc, hnescncs .soft, soft to the touch: hnescc, mearu .To become soft, soften: hnesc(i)an .To soften (bani material): gehnesc(i)an -To soften (with olatmeat, etc.), moisten: (ge)l>watnan

See 05.09 Weakness Power of bendina, flexibility: brgnes .SUpple, flexible, pUable: swancorP .soft, yielding, flexible, lmpr• •Ible: leol>uwlc, lfl>ig .Pliant, not rigid: toh, wic .Not banlened, not firm: unistl)>od0 .Boneless, not rfPd: bin)eas0 P .To become pJi4nt: (ge)leol>uwitcan 03.01.05 Roapne11: scearpnes, unsmepncsg .Knottiness: wearrihtnesl .Roup: hreof, rub, scearp, unmte]>e, unsmO]>e, woh, wrang, wrangwrs0 g • _Half-roap: heaJfhrilhoS -One-side rough: inhealfrilhq ..Broken, jagged, rugged: byrstig, gecymod -Rough-cast, unsmoothed: uncUemod°g -Rough, scaly, knotty: ostiglostihtl, sticol -Coarse of grain or texture: giUt -KnoUy: rUh .Studded, set with: besett 03.01.06 Smoothness: mtel>ncs .Smooth: slicaq, s.mt>e. unrilhl .Slippery: glidg, glid(d)er, slltpeq, slid0 g, slidor, slifer0 g, slipor .To become smooth: smij>ian •To make smooth: gesmll>an, (ge)s~ian 13S

03.01.07 Weight, heaviness -To smooth by rubbing round: ymbsttican° 03.01.07 Weipt, heaviness~ hefe, hefignes, swl!mes .A heavy men, burden: hefe -Great bulk, swoUen form: greatnes .Heavy: hefig, pis0 ' . swl!r •To bo'become/make heavy: hefigian 03.01.08 Lfaht, of little wei&ht: leoht .Without much pressure or force, lightly: ICohtlice 03.01.09 Heat: hit .e~. heat: hitnes, hyt'I .Quality/property of being bot: hl!te, hl!tu

.State of feeling hot: hl!te .Heat of the sun: heofoncolu0 P, sunnhl!teq ..Spring heat: lenctenhl!to0 .Intense heat: wielm .Burning heat: bzmett, bryne, ferbryne0 P, swol .1'1aming heat: sweolol>(a), sweol>ol .Hot: hat ..Becoming hot: hitigende ..Sun-heated: sunhitog ..Burning hot, torrid: biemende, brynehit°P, hitwende0 P, wealhat0 , weallende, wielmhit0 P ..Hot as fire: tyrhit, sweolol>hitq -Unmeasurably bot: unmethat° -verhot: oferhat° .Hotly: bate .To be hot: aweallan -To dry up with heat: hitian - To become hot: ihitian, hitian, onhitian' .(Of a bot •"•tion) to bum, inflame: swelanP See Hot weather; 17.05 Fuel, fire Warmth, heat: hleowt>, wearmnes0 .Warm: (ge)hleow, hleowfzst, weann, weannlic0 P -(Of milk) warm from the cow: ciiwearm -Fully warm: fullweann° .Act of wanning: wyrming°

•Warmly: hleowe, wearme


03.01.0CJ.02 Fire, flame

.To become warm: hl!owan, (gc)wearmian "To warm by blithlng, foment: (gc)bel>ian .To heat, warm: (gc)beman, (gc)hetan, hl!owan, onbeman, o~tan. (gc)wynnan "To beat tbroacb: l>urhglectan°P "To IN!ke O'fabot: forhetan°, ofl>efian° See Heating (Of liquids) boiling: weallendc .Not boiled away: unbewcllcd° .To boil, be hot: (gc)weallan .To boil, cause to boil: (gc)wyllan "To boil too much, boil over: ofcrwillan "To boil thoroughly, boil to piecea: ofcrwillan, toseo1>an° "To reduce by bo1Hn1: bc5Co1>an, ofcrwillan "To boll away: beweallan, bcwyllan, forweallan° See Boil That melts, melting: (gc)mcltendc .Molten: ligoten, lmoltcn°, g!otcnlic0 ' .To melt: lmyltan, (gc)mcltan See 03.01.16 Liquid Fusible: rniltcndc .To l'use by melting: gcmcltan togzdcrc Fire, flame: etedP, iii, ~), brync, fYr, gJCd, ligbryncP, ligfyr .Flame, blaze: eJedfYr 0 P, 1!Jing, ~Jbl11:sc0 P, bltlbJys(c)P, blltd, blltst, blltstm0 , lig, lfgcr 0 , swaJ>ul 0 P ..Hot breath, blast (of fire): e1>m ..A wave of flame: bryncwylmP, fYrwylm0 P, lfgy1>0 P ..Fierce flame: hcaJ>uwylmP, wiclmfYr 0 P "Violentt of lames: belt>racu0 P. ligt>r&cuP "Towering flame: heahfjr0 P ..Lurid flame: wanfYrq "rneamlng fire: ltledl&>ma0 P .Crackling of fire: lyrgcbrll:c0 P .A Ire-spark: fYrgnast°P, fYrspcarca°', gled, spcarca. ysl(e) .Acti'fe in fire: ligbysigP .That sparks, sparkina: yslcnde°' .(Of ooals) live, bamlna: cwic 137 Fare, burning .Fiery, fire.bearing: ~re&. fYren, fYrenfulS, lfg~re&. ligberende', ligen, 1Iglic0 •Vomiting ftame: 1Igfemendc0 , ligfimbliweode0 , ligfYrbercnde0 , trgsprwel .(Of comet) havina fiery locks: IIglocc(ed)S .Burning, fiery: fYren, glowende, read .Unquenchable: unicwencedlic, unldrysneodeoS, uoidrysoendlicS, uniidwzsced, uniidwiesce(n)dlic, undrysnendc0 S -Unquencbably: unidwl!scendlice .Without being on fire: unbymende0 P .To ftame, fticker with ftame: (ge)bieman, bladesianS, (ge)bliwan, blysian° •To Bame, blaze, rage: forswielan, risettanP, weal Ian .To bum, K1ow: glOwan Flre, bum.ing: atlednes0 , hemes, ba:mett, beming, brand, bryne, forbeming, forswatlednes0 S, inbryneoS, ontendnes, swatlednes0 S .Fire (fuel In state ot combustion): fYr ..A fire: fYr, gled -Firem•king: ilgeweorcS .A burning, roasting: hienting, wielm ..A burning, kindling: onil ..A scorching, burning: fontyrs .A live coal: col, gled, glede .A fire.brand: brand, fYr, fYren l>ecele .Burning, fiery: biemende, bymig0 P, ijren, SWZlende ..Evel'-buming: sinbyrnendeop -Getting bu1 ned up: biemende .Bearing fire: fYren .Kindled: geswzled .Burnt: geltld,besengd,gebrZd -Thoroughly bumt: l>urhbumen° -Balf-bumt: simba:medS, simswatledS -Unburnt: unbesenged0 , unforba:med, unforbumen°, unforswa!led0 .To be on fire: in fYre wesan .To bum, bum up: ibeoman, (ge)t!lan, (ge)ba:man, (ge)bieman, forba:man, forbeoman, forswielan, forswelan°P, onielan, onba:man, (ge)swzlan .To scorch, bum: besengan, beswzlan •To suffer beat ot fire, bum: (ge)bieman, ontendan .To set on fire, bum up: ontendan -To kindle, set alight: itendan, (ge)ba:man, gegledan°P, lecgan ijr on, lihtan, onielan, onba:man, 6nbeornan, ontendan 138 Smoke

-To ldndk a &re: ltled wcccan .To damap with Ire, ICOl'Cb, ~are: (ge)bredan, forba:man, forswl!lan, hierstan A kind of &re: fYrcynn° .An immense &re: tyrbryne .Cruel &re: beaJndyrP .Dtsbuctive &re: minbryne0 , teonlegP .Desbuctive fllune (from a drqon): hildel~maP .A burning of a house: bilsbryne .Holocaust: ealloffrung°' .Fire for barnia& dad or Uvina: id J1ame of toneral &re: idleg°P. bltlwytm0 P See Grave Emben, daders, ashes: l!merge, escegeswip0 , asce .Ash of ,,.1mm: icumba(-e) .Ash of elder: ellenasce0 .Ash-heap: id .soot: hriim -Kettle IOOt: citethriim0 Sulphur, brimstone: brynstin°, cwicfYrl, swefel .Sulphuroasnas: sweftenes0 .Sulphurous smoke: swefelrec&, sweft}>rosm' .Sulphurous: sweften Smoke: rec, smoca, J>ism0 , 1>rosm .Smoke from wood (of funeral pyre): wudur&:0 P .(Of hearth) smoking: reocende .Deadlysmokflreek:we~P

.Blast (of smoke, Ire, etc.): fnl!st

·.Steamy, smoky, vaponias: reocende, J>rosmig0 .To emit smokf/dnm/vapou.r: (ge)reoc:an, smeocan, smican, smocian, streman .To 11110b, belch forth anoke: reocan .To 8U with smoke: geondrf:can° .To cause to emit smoke: recan .To apo1e to smoke, fumlpte: berecan, bereocan°, smeocan .(Of smoke) to me up: up e}>ian 139

03.0 I. I0 Tepidity, lukewannncss .(Of smoke, doud, etc.) to be dispersed: toglidan See Incense 03.01.10 Tepidity, lukewarmness: wla:c, wla:cnes .Tepid, lukewarm: wlacu/wlaec ..Cooled to tepid: gewlecced .Moderately bot: gemethit° .To be/become tepid: wlacian .To make tepid: (ge)wlacian, (ge)wleccan 03.01.11 Coldness, coolness: ceald, cealdnes, celing, celneS, COJnes0 P,

cyldu0 1 .Intense cold: fzrcyle0 P .Cooling power, reta eshment: celing, gecelnes .Cold, cool: ceald, ool ..Made cool, chilled: icOlod, gecilledoS, forcilled ..lntenwly cold: a:lceald0 P, ofcalen, winterbiter P ..Excessively cold: ofcrceald, ungemetceald°P ..Cold as the sea: brimcealdP ..Pupt"tually cold: sincealdP ..Deadly cold: WCJceald0 P ..Icy-cold: eallisig, brimceald0 P' iscealdP' sniwceald0 P ..Fieezing, frozen, cold: freorigP

...Frcnen: forstlic°' -F'lv&en bard: brimigbeard0 P _Frozen over: oferftoren ...Covered with ice: isig, isiht(e)0 ...With frosted winp: isigfet>era0 P .Coldly: cealde .To be/become cold: icalan, iicealdian, calan, (ge)celan, (ge)colian .To cool, make cool: iicelan .To become cold: icolian, cealdian ..To freeze: (ge)freosan See /ce; ff. Wintry weather 03.01.12 Brightness, light: beorht, (ge)beorhtnes, bierhtu, fignes, glzmP,

gleomu0 P, hidor, leoma, lihting, lihtnes, lixungi, scima, scinnes0 1 , torhtnes, wlite .Gem-splendour: gimrodor'

140 Glittering, effulgence .Light, bript: beorht, beorhtlic, blttc, glzd, gl2dlic, gn!g, bidor, hliltor, hwn, l~t, leoht~re. leohtberende, leohtlic0 P, Jihtende, lrxende, scearp, serene, scfnende, scinendlic°', scrr, steap, swegleP, torht ..Equally bright: efenbeorhtP ..Shining, bright: briin, fig "Radlandy bright: eallbeorht°P, tieabeorbt, frealorhtg, fulbeorht0 , ~retorht0P, l>urhbeorht, l>urhscinendlic°', wlitebeorhtP, wlitescine, wlitetorhtP, wuldorfaest, wuldortorhtP - Victoriously radiant: sigebeorht°, sigetorht°P, sigorbeorht°P _aotbed in radiance: scirwercdP, sweglwercd°P ..Bright with sunshine: sunbeorhtP ..Bright as the sun: sigelbeorhtP, sigeltorht°P, sunscrene0 P ..Heaven-bright: heofonbeorhtf>, heofontorhtP, rodorbeorht°P, rodortorhtinen° -Tborougbly wet: J>urhwa!t° .To be moist: ruhtian°, J>2nan .To be/become moist: J>inianog .To grow moist, get damp: J>inan° .To be/become wet: wztian •To m·..m, be wet with: berinnan°P. dennian'l. geotan 148

03.0l.16.04Foam, froth

.To drink, abeorb, take in liquid: bedrincan, ingcdrincan, liccian, swelgan, sypian° .To pour out: lgeotan, ofgeotan, iitweallan -To spread/pour tbroup: geondgeotan •To well up: iipiweallan° .To be 8ooded, be covend with a ftuid: ftowan .To IOllk, lie in a liquid: socian .To moisten: be~wcanoS, fYhtanl, ofl>l!nan, (ge)~l!nan, (ge)wl!tan .To wet, make wet (with): beieman, bescymanP, beswylian°P, (ge)leccan, ofergeotan, geswilian, (ge)wetan Water, liquid: wl!g, weter .Form/kind of water: wetercynn° -Rain water: renweter ..Sprina water: wylleweter ..Brine: bcyne0 1, selmerige0 -Sea water: sl!weter, sealt .Of water, watery: streamlic0 • weterig .(Of water) salt: sealt .Fresh (not salt): fersc, swcte .That babbles, babbling: writolq .To become fresh: iferscan° See 01.01.03 Water; Water; Holy water A drop of liquid: dropa, tear .Dripplng, a falling drop by drop: droppetung' .Stram, ftow: dropung, ftoo .Drop by drop: dropml!lum .To drip, trickle: idreopan°P. (ge)dreopan, dropian, droppettan, dryppan .To cause to fall in drops, to drop: (ge)drYpan .To trtclde, ooze, penetrate: sicerian° .To ooze, drain oat: (ge)sigan iit .To wring, squeeze out: ibl!dan, iwringan of, ilt apywan, (ge)wringan Foam, froth: flrn, wapull

.scum: hrot°

.Foaming, frothy, bubbllng, agitated: fl!mende, famiende, lamig •To foam, froth: ifreo~ , fl!man, flrnian .To foam, bubble up, pour forth: wapelianl 0

149 A sprinkling A sprinkliq: istrcgdnesoS, sprenging«, stanc0 g, strcgdnes0 , strogdnesq .To sprinkle: istregdan, bedn'"fan, begCot.an, besprengan, gcondstrcgdan, onsprengan°, onstregdang, (ge)sprengan, stancrianoS, strcgdan, wcorpan A snaking, steeping: w!sing0 s •Wetting, act of soaking through: sype •Watering, irrigation: geondleccung«, leccung°S .soaked, soused, full of moisture: ofgoten, geseaw, wese0 .Watered: wa:terig .To cover with liquid, pour over and bathe: gcondgeotan, ofgeotan, }>urhgeotan .To fill with water: ondrincan .To squirt through, syringe through: gcondspretan° .To pour water on material: (ge)weterian •To water, irrigate: geondleccan .To dip, immerse, submerge (in): bedyfan, bedypan, bedyppan .To submerge, 8ood (with water), drown: bedilfan, (ge)sencan •To soak, steep in a liquid: socian, soppian°, (ge)wesan -To saturate, completely soak: (ge)drencan, gcondgeotan, l>urhdrencan° 03.01.17 Thickness, viscosity: t>icnes .Sticky slimy suhftance, paste, pulp: ftyne, gor, slypa, slyppe, sticce0 •Thick, viscid: slipeg, stille, sbp, l>icce ..As thick as pottage: briwl>icce0 .Sticky: toh .Tenaciously, toughly: tohliceS .To make/become thick, thicken: l>iccian -To bring to the consistency oftar: getyrw(i)an° .To adhere, stick (to), ding: a:tclifianS, a:tf'Colan, clifan°, (ge)clifian (on), (ge)f'Colan, onclifian, ot>fColanoS, toclifiang, get>Codan A coagulating, mislng: gemang .State of coagulation: gerunnenesq .Congealed, clotted: gerunnen -(Of blood) congealed: dead, lifrig° ..Half-congealed: healfclungeng .To coagulate, tbJckeo: geieman/gerinnan, standan, swomiang .To congeal, stick together: clingan Sap, Juice: sa:p, seaw 150

03.01.18 Dryness (not wetness)

.sappy, sacculent, juky: saepig& Fat, peasie: ftttnes, (ge)lynd(e), seimog, smeoru, smolt, spindg .Fatty, greasy: fett, mearglic', gemeargodog, smeoruwig

See Fa//suet Oil: ele .Containing oU: eleberende0 « .(Of wool) oily, greasy: eowocig

See Unction; Holy oil Wu: weax .A ball of wu, wu-apple: wzxzppel0 .A tablet/cake of wu: weaxhlAf .Wu(en),maofwu: weaxen' Rain, tar, gum: hlilttorpic, rysel, st0rsaep8, teoru, treowterug,

tyrwa(-e) .Gum from cut Ivy: Tfigtearo .Of nsin: tyrwenl Bitumen, pitch: eort>tyrwe0 , pie, sciptearo .Pitchy, of pitch: picen .To pitch, stain a dark colour: betyran°« Salves, ointments, etc.: sip/-e, sealfcynn°g, smirels, smirenes .Henna ointment: cypersealf0 1 .OU salve, sweet balm, nard: elesealf«

.Hart's gnaw: heorotsmeoru0 .Pleasant salve: wynele0 P See Ointment An anointing, grasing: smirels, smir(w)ung .Smeared, pea•: gem&st, gesmired .To anoint, cover with oil, grease: Afttttian', il>wean, befettianq,

besmyran/besmyrwian, (ge)decan, gedyPafl, ofersiruam0 , sealfiang, (ge)smierwan, (ge)smftan (mid/on) .To lather, smear, anoint: ily~ran. (ge)ly~ 03.01.18 Dryness (not wetuas): dryge, drygnes .Dry place/land; drilgo~. drilgung 151

03.02 Bad condition of matter .Dry, without water: dryge, pyrre, unw2terig, weterlcas .(Of plants) lacking sap/moisture: dryge, pyrre, unszpig° ..sere, fallow, withered: ihyrst, isocen, fealu, forclungen, sear, srerc .(Of bands, etc.) shrunken: dryge, forscruncen, misscrence0 , scrence0 g,

gescruncen, scrynce0 g, pynhhtne08 .To become dry: idriigian, drygan .To dry up, become dry: idriigian, bedrilgian°, forspyrcan°P, forl>yrrian° .To dry up, make dry: adri:igian, idrygan, (ge)drygan, p2ran°, pyrran°P .(Of plants, people, etc.) to wither, dry up: uearian, istij>ian, awisnian08, clingan, (ge)driigian, forclingan, fordrUgian, forscrincan, forsearian, screpanq, wisnian • •To cause to shrivel or shrink, wither away: fomerwian°, gescrencan .To wipe off (moisture), dry up: idrygan (of), oRdrygan° .To dry up (a ftukl): idrygan .To dry by aposure to beat: (ge)drygan ..To dry by the ftre: geroscianq See 0/.0/.02.0/.06 Desert 03.02 Bad condition of matter: 03.02.01 Decay, decline, corruption: (ge)brosnung, wanung .A blemish, fault: milg .Corruptible, decaying: (ge)brosniende, brosniendlic, (ge)brosnodlic,

feallende, tobrocenlic .(Of physical condition) worse: wiers ..(Of physical condition) worst: wierst .Withered, contracted: Aclungen°g .Consumed, withered: forsoden° .Unrenewable, ia·aepoarable: ungenrwiendlic0 g .To decay, degenerate, fall away: ibreopan, adwolian°g, etlimpan,

(ge)feallan, (ge)losian, omian°g, opfeallan, (ge)trdrian, tOdreosan, tofeallan, (ge)wlician, wanian, wipganganP, yfelian .To wrinkle, shrivel, contract: gesneorcan08 •To contract, shrink: scrimman°, (ge)scrincan .To wither, decay, fade: forweomian, forwisnian See 05.09.05 Decline • Decay, corruption, rottenness: formolsun~. forrotcdnes,

molsn, rotung, preax, gewemmednes 152

03.03 Measurement, determination of amount .Mouldering, decayed: cweldeht, fonnogod°, fonnolsnod, forrotod, fiil, gundig°', lyswen, gemolsnod, t6hroren ..Fluid, ?causing deaeneration: ftowende ..Putrefying, stinking from decay: ifiiliende, filliende ..Liable to decay: gewemme(n)dlic .To pnhefy, rot, grow foul: ifiilian, forealdian, fonnolsnian, forrotian, forweomian, forwisnian, framicnyslian°', fiilian, (ge)molsnian, (ge}rotian, toflowan .Undecayed, unconupted: unfonnolsnod, unforwordenlic8, unmolsniendlic8, ungemolsnod Decay from age: ieldo .i>eaeplt, decayed: forbrocen, forealdod, forworen .Used, threadbare: igniden, forwerod .To decay with age: ieldan -(Of dead matter) to decay over time: forealdian .To wear out (dotbes): iwerian° .To be threadbare, get worn out: t6sigan Worm-eaten state: W)'lldte .Moth-eaten, worm-eaten: mol>freten°, wynru!te Rust: om, rust, sinderOm°' .Rusty: 6mig, riistig .To eat through (metals): l>urhetan Mould, moisture: fyne°' .Mouldy, musty: fynig .To become mouldy: (ge)fynegian Blight (causing leaves to look blbned): brand .Perishing, destniction (of crops): forweofl>enes0 , forwordenes0 .To blight (crops): etstandan .(Of plants, bees, etc.) to wither, decay: fealwian, (ge)scrincan, searian 03.03 Measurement, determination of amount: gemet .Act of measuri111: gemetgung .A measurer: metend .A system/standard of meamri111: gemet .That by which one measures: (ge)met ..A proper measure: rihtgemel°


03.03.01 Specific measures .A measure (verrel): gemet, gemetfet .A mc•pift (qaandty): ~I. gemet. telmet .Tbat measures, meepirlng: gemetlic .To measure, arszrs, appraise: imetan, (ge)metan ..To fix tbe amount ot, measure: (ge)mearcian, gemetgian

03.03.01 Speclftc meuans: burhgemet°, cuclCl'JD&l, cyricmitta0 , gildsester,

healfsester°' .A dry or liquid measure: amber, leap, mitta ..An omor (Hebrew measure): gomor

See Measure ofdistance Liquid measures: cumb, dryncgemett0 , oma, pegel 0 S, pund,

weterpundoS Dry measurer: sceppe, sester, sife~ .A bushel: byden, mydd° .A tbrave (of com): ~refe .A quantity of ftsb: gebind, snls, sticca .Holding tea amben: trenambre0 .Holdiq two sesten: twisestre0 0

03.03.02 M,.,..1anmt by weigbiq: ipinsung&, gewltge, gewiht ·Tumtna of scale, weighing In balance: heolwung°S .A system/stand•nl of welgbiq: gewiht • ..For particular substances: leadgewiht0 , seolforgewiht° .A weight, measure: anmitta, hefe, pundurS, (ge)wltge, gewiht .A weighing machine: anmitta, twiheolor 0 S, twiwltg°g, wltge, wegpundem0 ..SC.le of a balance: heolors, heolorbleduoS, scealu, wegscalu0 S ..Moving part of a balance: scutel, wttgetungeoS ..A counterpoise: efenwttgeS, feal~ing°S ..scaJes for wool: wullwttga0 S .(Of weight) faulty, lnco11ect, false: fals, wOh .To weigh ln a balance: iheolorianS, ipyndrian°s, iwegan, heolorianS,

(ge)wegan .To weigb out: iwegan .To clnw, be of (a certain) weight: teon, (ge)wegan ..To be equal ln weight to: iwegan A weight, deftnlte amount: (ge)wttge, gewiht .Pu1kular weights: liferq, mare, tryrnes, yndse 154 Arithmetic ..A poaadweipt: pund, pundweg ..A pennyweight: pening, peningw~g° -Weiplng a pound: puna ~I .A sixth part: scsclc .A fourth: ~a, feorl>an d&I, leorJ>ling, t!orJ>ungs .A third: J>ridda, J>riddan dzl, J>rimcn° "Two-thirds: tw~c. twf~I .A hair: hcalf, hcalf dzl "Hair (aj): hcalf "Hair, (one) half(av): hcalf "Half as, by half: hcalfc "In two: on cfentwl, twii .To take out a tenth part: teogoJ>ian .To halve: hclfanq, gcmidlianS See 03.03.07 Division Specific numbers: One: iin .One (aj): iin .One single (aj): iinfcald, iinlfpi(g) .Once: line, lines, enc si)>a, line si)>e, on ltnnc si)> .One by one, separately, severally: in and in, incummun°S, synderlfpesS, syndrige, syndriglfce .Per bead: zt hWde See 03.04.01 Singularity One and a half: ot>er hcalf Two: twegen .Two, twain (aj): twegen .Both: begen, bOtO 156 Six .Doable: dypleq .Twin: getwinn .8ecoad: OJ>er' .Dual, twin (aj): twifeald, twrfealdlic, twflic, (ge)twinn .second (aj): eftcrlic°', efterra. oJ>er •Twice: twi, twegen, twrfeald .Twofold, twice (u): be twifealdwn. twl, twi swl, twi swi micel, twifealdlrce •Two by two: twim and twim, twegen and twegen .In two way1: twifealdlrce •The one ••• tbe other: 6J>er' ... oJ>er •To doable: (ge)twifealdian/(ge)twrfildan Two and a half: l>ridde healf Three: .Trinity: txrnes .Three (aj): l>rfe




.Tlmerold, triple: l>rifeald, l>rt1ic, l>rinlic0 S .Tbrke: ~rinna0 , 1>riwa .In three way1: on J>reo, ~rifealdlice

.To triplicate: l>rtlyldan Three and a half: aorj>e healf Four: Rower .Foar (aj): Rower .Fourth: fCorJ>a .Fourfold, qaadnaple: Rowerfeald, fi~eaJdOI .Fourthly: fCorl>e .Four times: Rower .Qaadnaply: Rowerfealdlrce Fm: fif .Jlye (aj): fif .Fifth: fifta .Flftbly: tTfte Jilyefold: fiffeald Sb:: siex 157 Seven .Six (aj): siex .Sixth: siexta .Sixfold: siexfeald .Sixthly: siexte Seven: seofon, seofongeuel' .seven (aJ): seofon .5eftllth: seofol>a .5nenfold: seofonfeald .5eventbly: seofope .5evenfoldly: seofonfealdlrce' Eisbt: eabta .Elsht (aJ): eabta .Eighth: eahtol>a .Eightfold: eahtafeald Elsht and a half: nigend healf Nine: nigon .Nine (aJ): nigon .Ninth: nigende, nigol>a .Ninefold: nigonfeald° .Nlntbly: nigoJ>e Ten: dicorq, tren .A tmth: teot>a .Decade: bund .Ten (aJ): tren .Tenth: teot>a .Tenfold: tienfeald Jn tms: tjnwn .Tmtbly: teoJ>e Eleven: endleofan .Eleven (aj): endleofan .Eleventla: endleoft(ep)a .Elevenfold: endlyfenfeald0 .In the eleventh place: endlyfte Twelve: twelf 158 Fony .Twel•e (~): twelf .'IWelftll: twelfta .Twelvefold: twelffeald •Twelftbly: twelfte

03.03.o3.0it.13 Thirtem: )riotfene Thirtemtb: ~ Fomtem: tcowertiene .Fomtemtb: tcowert!ol>a Flftem: tlftlene ~Dtb~ fiftCo)>a/·tegl>a Sixteen: sixtyne .Sixteenth: sixteol>a Seventeen: seofontiene .8eYenteentb: scofonteot>a Elabteen: eahtatiene .Eipteentb: eaht(a)teol>a Nhwteen: nigontiene .Nlndeentb: nigonteot>a .Con..lntna tbe number nlmteen: nigontjnlic0 Twenty: scoru, twentig .Twenty(~): twcntig •Twentieth: twcntigol>a .Twentyfold: twentigfeald .In twentlel: twentigum Thirty: ~rftig .1blrtiedl: P'ftigol>a .Tlllrtyfold: Priugfeald Forty: tcowenig, tcoweniggete1° .Forty (~): tcowenig .Fortieth: tcowenigol>a .Fortyfold: tcowenigfeald • : tcowertigfeald, tcoweniglic 159 Fifty Fifty: fiftig .Fifly (aj): ffftig .Fiftieth: fiftcogo)>a .FU'tyfold: fiftigfea)dO Sb:ty: sicxtig .Sixtieth: sixtcogoj>a .Sbtyfold: sixtigfeald Seventy: hundscofontig, scofontig .Seventieth: hundscofontigoj>a .Seventyfold: hundseofontigfeald .Seventy-seven: bundscofontigscofon°S .Seventy-seven fold: hundscofontigscofonfeald Eipty: eahtatig, hundeahtig .Eipty (~): bundeahtig .Eiptieth: hundeahtatigoj>a0 Ninety: hundnigontig, nigontig .Ninetieth: hundnigonteoj>a, nigonteoJ>aS Hundred: hund, hundfealdgctel, hunclraP, hundred, hundteontig .Hundred (~): hund, hundteontig .Hundredth: hundtlontigoJ>a .Hundredfold: hundfeald, hundfealdlic0 S, hundtlontigfeald(lic), hundwclle0 S .Hundredfold: be hundfealdum, hundteontigfealde One hundred and tm: hundendlcftig .One hundred and tenth: hundzllcftigoj>a0 One hundred and twenty: hundtwclftig, hundtwcntig Three hundred: J>reohund, J>reohundred° Five hundred: fifhund, fifhundrcd0 Sb: hundred: sicxhund, sicxhundrcd Tbousaad: J>ilscnd, J>ilscndfealdgctel, J>ilscndgcte1° .Computation by tbiJasancls: J>ilscndgcrim0 P 160 Greatness, bigness, sii.e .A thousand eeda: l>Ose~le .Tbousand (-.j): l>iisend .Tbousaadfold: )>iisendfeald, )>Usendlic .In tbousaads: l>iisendnutlum Twelve hundred: twelfbund, twelfbundred0 03.03.04 Quantity: andefn .Amount, content: gewyrt>e Much: mice! .No 11111all amount, much: unlyt°P, unlytel •Very much, a great amount: mltst .A peat deal, abundance, multitude: d&I, fulsumnesog, manigfealdnes, manigfealdsumnes°', micelnes, weamP, worn .Many, much: fela .(Of quantity) much: mice! ..Just as much: efenmicel -(Of quantity, number) not litdt!lfew, much: unlytel .(Of quantity) good, generous: gOd •Very: bitre, forwel, full, tela, wel - Very much, exceedingly: swI}>e -Very much, greatly: ealfelaP, fela, forhearde, forj>earle, micclum, micel, micles, neodlice, swi]>e, trumlice ..Not a little: ne lythwon .To abound, become much: (ge)manigfealdan .To make abund•nt, accumulate: gooian, gemanigfealdian .To accnmulate, get large amount of: (ge)heapian Greatnc:s.., bi~ size: micelnes, micelu .Greatness, bigness: grCatnes, gryto0 .Fatness, bulkiness: fztnes Something huge, a very peat mass: ormzte .Large, big, broad: brid, mice!, wid -Large, capacious, ample: sid -(Of a ship) ample, with a large bold: wfdfz)>meP .Massive, bulky, huge: great .(Of thinp) plump, lull-bodied, substantial: fen .Considerable: gehycglic0 , ungehwltde0 .Not Uttle, peat: unlytel .Very peat, aceedingly peat: swijllic 161 A great number, multitude .Huge, Immen-~ enonnoas: cacencra:ftigP, ~tc. ornu!tlic, ungeR>g, ungeR>glic, unml!tc, unml!tlic, ungemet, iil>ml!tc0 .Giant, gipntk:: entisc0 P, eotcniscP .Of varying mes: mismicel See 05.10.01Amplitude05. Extension A peat number, multitude: felafealdnes, (ge)samnung, getalscipeoS .A crowd, multitude, number: gemang, swearm .Great numben, lots, hoses: ln'Yl>u .A peater number, more of kind spulfWI: mi .Many, m•ny a: manig -Very m•ny: for(e)manig ..Not a smaller number than: ni li:s )>onne ..Just so many, as many: efenfela .Manifold, many, numerous: felafeald, manigfeald, manigfealdlic ..Numerous, m•ny: gelomlic, recondlic0 B, getselful0 B, welmanig .Thick, dense, closely packed toaetber: J>icce ..Swarming with: acreowed° .Numerously, abunclandy: manigfealde, manigfealdlice .Tbicldy, In gaeat numbers: J>icce, J>iclice .To swarm, exist In large numbers: icrCopianq, iweallan, weallan .To multiply, become more numerous: manigfealdian/manigfildan .To teem, be produced In abundance: (ge)J>Con .To crowd toaether, throng: J>iccian .To throng, crowd, press upon: ofl>ringan .To crowd (a place): genierwan A beap, maa, 'ICCQmulation: bultq, coccq, diisq, fin, gegaderung, heap, heapung, hord, h9pel, gesamnung, stilcq .A string of thinp: gerifB .A collection, gathering: gegaderung .A bundle, sbeaf: bundoS, sceaf, wntd -A bundle/bouquet of herbs: sc!af -A bundle, tuft: sengelq -A small bundle, bunch: cynce0 .A handful: gilm, gripa, handful -Of stones: stingripe0 P .A band, company, collection: heap, getsel, gel>r&c -A band, company, lock: drif, worn, wn!d 162 A sufficiency, sufficient supply

.Into bandies, into sheaves: ~Jum0 .In a body, in a company: on he&pe .In companies, herds, baNls, etc.: ft~lum, swec>tumP, ~Jum0& .In heaps, in troops: h&ipum .In troops/companies/crowds: heapdlum, w~Jum &, ~lumoS .To bringfcoUect together, ptber up: (ge)gadrian, lesan, gel6gian, gesamodl~can°&, t6 somnian, t6getfon .To bring together, heap up: (ge)heapian, (ge)samnian, ge~icfyldan°& .To heap on: behypan (on) 0

See 12.04ff Fellowship An lmmeme quantity, immensity, immmse number: ungemet .An Immense quantity: ungerim .Excea, immensity: onn~tnes .Vastness, excesnveness, peahM"n: unmetnes .An incalculable number or amount: un(ge)rim ..No count, an infinity: nin nm .Excellldve, peat, lmmmw: o~te. o~tlic, orne, unm~te. un(ge)dtlic, ungesc!ad .Utter, excesnve: t>earl .Vast, immenee, very peat: ofemutte, ofemuttlic, ungemetlic .Vast, boundless, immense: grundlwlic0 , unlmeten, ungrundP .Boundless, lmatiable: grundlw .lnftnlte, very great: ungeendod .Infinite, boundless: unirimendlic, ungedillic0 , ungeendodlic .Unmeasured: ungemedemad0 P .Immeasurable, Immense: ungedte ..Excessive, beyond measure: ofemutte, ungewenedlic0 .Without number, coundess: ofer elc gerim .Coandess, innumerable, untold: uniirimed, unirime(n)dlic, unilalodlic0 &, uniteald0 , unitellendlic, u~te, un(ge)rim, unrime, ungerimed0 , un(ge)rimedlic, ungerimlic0 , unteald0 , ungeteJ0 & .Immensely, hugely: orml!te .Excessively, immensely: o~tlice .Beyond measure, excessively: ofer gemet, oferswiPe .Immensely, immeasmably: ungedte A suftidency, sutllcient supply: (ge)nyhtsumnes .Suflldeacy,rightamount: gemet,genyht 163 Abundance ..SOme, a deal/lot/portion: ~I .Plenty, enough, an ample supply: genCah, genog, genyhtswnnes Meeting the case, suftident: gemetlic .Sufticieot, ample: fulhealden°g, ginneP, goo, genog, riim .Softicieody: genog, genyhtsumlrce .Abundandy,sufticiendy:geneahhc .To be sufticient, to suflice: lician, (ge)nog beon/wesan, (ge)nyhtsumian, wet lician .Not to be imuflicient, to last: gelitstan •To be suftident for, support: iicuman .To satisfy: gefyllan .To have enough: habban genog Ablllldance: cystignes, forwana. fyll(u), genyhtsumung0 g, riimgifulnes, riimnes, gesundfulnes .Abundance, plenty, opulence: genyht, sped, wela -Glorious wealth/abundance: wuldorsped°P .Plentiful, abundant: brid, fittt, full, genyhtfulg, (ge)nybtsum, (ge)nyhtsumiende, rife, riimgiful, riimlic, riimmOd, spedig, gel>uhtsum0 , weallende -With &b: fiscwylle -With birds: fugelwylle0 .Not ronning short: unscortende', unget!orod .Making rich, enriching: weligstedende0 8 .Gold-abounding: goldhwet°P .Abundandy: be fullan, be fullum ~ingum, fullice, genog, genyhtliceS, genyhtsumlice, riime, spedum -Thickly, lmuriandy: ~icce .Has abundance of: genCah .To be abundant, abound: iiweallan, ftowan, genogian°g, (ge)nyhtsumian, weallan, weligian .To provide abnnd•ndy: ifyllan, (ge)fyllan .To make rich/abundant: (ge)weligian Exce1B: ofennicelnesog, swi)>licnes0 g, ungelog .Excas, immodention: ungemet .SOmetbing in excess, an overplas: eaca .Extravagance: ungemetnes0 g .Immoderate, exec rlive: ungemetfest .Out of due proportion, excasive: uogemetgod 164 Growth, increase

.OYamacb, a:a1dve: ofermicel .Esce mve, lnordiaate, violent: ungemetlic .Grown to a:c:ess, OV~llCl'OWD: forgrowen°P .Exaaively, very: firenum, heardlice, mid ungemete, oferlice, ungefOge, ungemet, ungemete/-es/-um, ungemetlice .Exce11lvely, lmmodentely: ~te. omiZtlice, swi}>e, to, ungefOglice, ungemetlice, ungesundlice0 .Umasonably, a:cenlvely: ungesc.Qdlice See 12.08.07 Immoderation Sape1 abundance, a:cess: oferflewednesog. oferflowe(n)dnes, ofering .Saperftulty: oferflowedlicnesog. oferflownes .Saperftuous: oferflowend, oferflowe(n)dlic, unnyt .Saperftuously: oferflowendlrce .To saperaboancl: ofergenihtsumian°' .To overflow, p•• all boandl: oferflowan .To be filled, to oveaftuw with: yi>(g)ian (mid) Growth, Increase: onwzstm, sprytting, gel>angq, toecnes0 , westm, weaxnes, weaxung .Angnnntatioa, growth: sidung° .An Increase, addition: et~°'. etYcnes, !aca, eacnung, gefyllnes, mi, oferCaca., toetycnes0 , toecnes0 , togeihtnes0 , J>Coging .Otber persons/thinp in additioa: !aca, ma .One who increases: icend&, icestre0 .Incnased, anpnented: eacen ..Augmented: migcectB .Added, additional: togeiht .More: ma .That will be Increased: eacniendlicS .Yet, besides, u well, also: samod.1>erto, 1>onne .Allo, likewise, moreover: eac, eac swi, to eacan .SO also, moreover: eac swylce, swylce eac .Even, also, moreover: efne .Moreover: feorr .Apin, moreover: eft, eft sana .Yet further, yet •pin: giet, gieta, l>i giet .Further: fw1>or, gen, gena .More, fa.rtber: mi, swi)>or

165 Littleness, smallness

eac mire to, efen wel, elcor, ellcs, h& t6 eacan. to, to cac, )>ttrbufan, ~&r to eacan, ufan on ~et, ufenan


..Besides, still, yet: giet(a), nu gict, !>i giet, J:>onnc giet .Besides, ID adcUtion to: bfltan, eac .Above, baides: ufcnan .Besides (cJ): butan ~im ~ .And so on: and swi fort>

.To grow,lncn:ase, wu: eacian, eacnian, forj>wcaxan, growan, (ge)J>Con, (ge)wcaxan MTo become peat, inae•se, mount up: etftowang, irisan, istigan, miclian -Rapidly: hleapan .To swell (up): t0swellan, to~indan, ~rintan°P, iipstigan, iip~yddan° .To 8ourisb, become peat: grytan°g MTo develop, o:ceed: (ge)J>Con .To increase, add to, enlarge: etjcan, eacan, (ge)bcnian, (ge)iecan, gemirian°g, (ge)miclian, t6eteacnian°, tO&tjcan, tO(ge)iecan .To increase in qwmtity,multiply,mlarge: (ge)manigfealdan/(ge)manigfildan .To increase, augment, make peater: dipan .To add: (ge)iccan. gemanigfealdan, underiecan°g, undeJ1>Codan MTo add to: (ge)eacnian to, ot>Ccanog, to don To add, append: gecnyttan .To put to: tobesettanog, tO(ge)settan .To apply (one thl111 to another): tontcan, ~accian, gel>Codan See 02.07.01 Grow; 05.01 Growth M Littleness, smallness: gehw&dncsg, lytelncs0 .Little, a small amount: hwethwugu, hwega, hwon, hwugudZl 0 , lyt, lytel, lythwon, mcdmicel, tohwega .A particle, anall piece, jot: com, egl, grot, lyttuc0 g, mot, prica, pricele, spots, wloh .(Of amount) small, little: hwede, lytel, medeme, sma:I, unginne0 P, unmicel ..Little, small, slipt: bwonlic, ie~lic, m&te, medemlic, medmicel .Very little: forlyiel, lytel Ml.east: lest .somewhat, a little: ethwira, ethwega, be sumum dele, hwethwira, hwethwugu, hwethwugununges, hwene, hwon, sumdZI, swne dele, sumcs, sum on dele, tohwega 166 Diminution .8Ugbdy, Utde: hwethwugu, hw6n, hw6nlfce, leohtlfce, lft, lyiel, lythw6n,

19t1e, 19t1um, medemlfce See 05.10.02 Narrowness; Reduction 03.03.G4.G4.01 Paucity, fewuc11, ICU'dty: f!anes, (ge)fCawnes .Feww:11 of nnmben: gehwltdnesg .(A) few (of), a small number (of): t&, fCawa, hw6n, 1Ytel .Few: lyt, lythw6n .Few (aj): fCawlicoS, ljt ..Not many, few: unmanig ..Few, rare, few and far between: selden°' ..Small in number, baviq few memben: lYtel -1.ftl in number: lltssa 03.Gl.04.05 INollldwcy, '8ck, want: ljtlung, onsien, ungenyhtsumnes, wan(a) ..,CM:antlneal of material, ICIU'dty: gn!ai>nes .A l11ek, want, defect: wanung -1 ·ack of women: wifteast° .Falling, falHn1 short, shortfall: lspringungs .(Of things) scanty,ICal'Ce, meeve: gn~gnJl>e, hungerlictl, hungrig, t>earfendlic .Wanting, not complete, deftdent: wana J>eAdent in, poor In, wanting: w~a ..Not possessing, destitute or clnokl of: idel -Empty-banded: gelltr .Unfilled, ansatJsfkd: idel, idelhende .Unsatisfted, ansatiated: unlseddg -lllilllllftdently, too Uttle. not mooch: t6 lyt .To be in want of, lack: wzdlian .To be wanting: iteorian, gewanian .To ran short, ran out, fall: Ascortian, (ge)scortian, gescyrtan, trucian .To '8ck, fall, fall short of: wana beon/wesan

See Need; 10.02 Lack Dimbmtion: (ge)lytlung, wanung .A dec1 c•w: wanung .J 411, a nn•ller amount: Jes, lltssa .Lela (aj):· l~ssa .8bortmed, cut off: gecyrted


03.03.05 Extent. degree

.To become las, dec1ce1t1 (ge)lYtlian. wanian •To diminish, le rscn, mah aaeller: lhlitnsian, ij>wenan°, iwanian, gelYtlian. (ge)minsian, (ge)wanian, wansian See 05.09.04 Abalement 03.03.05 Esteat, de&• ee: .To a certain atmt, to 110111e extmt: bealfunga .To (such) a depee (as): swi foci> swi. o)>

•To this extent, thus: )>us .To that extent: be )>em dl!le, t6 )>es ()>et), tO )>on, tO )>y ()>et) .To a gaeater depeelextmt: furt>or, mi .To a gaeater depee than, abo•e: on ufan. on uppan, tOforan ..O.er and above: furt>or .More (in degaeelextmt/quantity): mi. wide ..More, rather: ml ..More and more: ml and mi. widor ..The more: )>on ml. l>Y hral>r, l>Y ml ..By how much more: )>im mycle ml ..(Any) more than: )>C mi )>e, )>on mi )>e .Most: hiiru swi']>ost ..Most of all: )>C swQ>ost micle ..At most: be (J>im) ml!stan

.In/to a high degree, exbcmely, peady: h&lrce .Excerdlagly, peady: beanie, micellice, micles, stundum, swi)>e, swiplice, syndorlice, )>earle, ungescead See Proportion R•nk, position, dqpee; ir, endebyrdoes, grid. leodge)>inc)>0 ,

suepe, (ge))>ync)>o .(Marking nmk/degree) under: under .To amp to dea/category, daa, grade: (ge)tellan •To fall to, be la d to: befeallan on, gelimpan

See Rank Priadpel/chicf (of Us dus or type): ealdor, ealdorlic,

frymJ>lic .Pre-eminent: ealdordOmlic .Greater, superior: furJml .First: forl>mest

.Best (aj): betst 168

03.03.06 Wholeness

.In the front nnlt: foran .Best, most (av): bet.st .Better (av): betera, innor .Superior to: toforan .Cblefty, espedally: hOru, ldst ..Principally: ealdorlfce .Particularly, especially: hlalfce, ldstlicost"', onsundran, syndorlice, syndriglice .(Figurative) to tower above: fort> hlifian fore .To surpass, excel: oferhlifian, oferstigan See 11.07.04 Superiority; Superior rank. Of middle nnlt, in the middle: medeme, medemlic •To a mlddlln1 dep'ee, moderately: medemJrce, midlunga See Middle rank Inferior: niJ>era, ni)>erlic, ytera .Small, little, poor: lytel, medeme, minlic°'' waclic .lulerior, poorer: ldtre .In an inferior position: ni)>er .M•n, poor, paltry: uncymc, wac, wiclic, gewealden .Lowest, last: latst, nitJemest, Ytmest •Worse: sitmra, wiers .Wont: sltmest, wierst .Poorly, meanly, cbaply: wactrce .To diminish, leum (quality,degree, etc.): (ge)lytlian .To become poor/mean: wiciin See 11.08/f. Useless; lnferiority

03.03.06 Wbolmea: ansundnes, hilnes, onwealhnes, gesynto .Completeness, perfectloa: fullfremednes .Full development, full capacity: fullJ>ungennes0 .Completion, complement: fylling .A samltotal of abmad units: (ge)tzl .Whole, entire: ansund, eall, (ge)hil, onwealg -fndestnlctible, unbreakable: unbJ&ceP, untoworpenlic°' -Unbroken, intact: ungebrocen°', unbryceP. unfored, unforedlic', unforfeorcd°', unscended, untObrocen .Unspotted, uninjured: un(ge)wemmed -Untorn, unbUund: unsliten°', untasliten, untaslopenq. ungewyrded0 P 169 A whole formed by joining ..Umh.ettend, not beaten to pleca: unt0slegen° .Capable of completion: gefyllendlic .Perfect, complete, finished: zlt&we, full, gcaro .Full-grown, complete, perfect: fullJ>ungen .Thoroughly, completely: swtpc, tela, wel ..Too much, too thoroughly: to wel .Fully, In full: be fullan, fzstlrcc, fulgcarc, fullunga, swl}x>st .Completely, to the full extent: fullfrcmcdlrcc .Completely (not partially): fullrce, iltlrcc ..More completely: iittor .In full, without contraction: riimc, riimlicc .Thoroughly: deopc, deoplfcc, fullfcc, inweardlrcc, J>urh ilt, J>urh iitlicc ..Thoroughly, exceedingly: forinlice0 ..Exceedingly, very tborougbly: forinweardlicc0 .Utterly: forswi}>c .To a greater degree/extent, more thoroughly: furPor .SO as to leave nothing, entirely: chtne, cll!nlicc ..To the dregs, completely, to dryness: to drygum .Perfectly, thoroughly, totally: zlt&wlice, full medomlicc, gcarwe, grundinga0 , grundlinga .Fully, without exception: endemes, fullicc .'.fo form, make up, complete: (ge)settan .To make complete: (ge)fyllan See Fullness A whole formed by Joining: gegaderung .A union of pans: gemltnscipc, samwn!dnes0 .A joining together to form a whole: gegaderung .Joining, rousbuctlon, fastening together: cimbing8, gcfCg, (ge)fCging, (ge)span .A joining, joint, juncture: gef'Og, gesamnung, seam, (gc)l>Codnes ..A proper joining/joint: rihtgef!g° .Joined: lcnyht0 S, gefCged, loccn, ge~ne ..Fut joined together, yoked: fzst, gcgeocod, gciht, samodfzst°P ..Cunningly bound: searobundcn°P, searos&led0 P .(Marking association/combination) together: toged(c}re, wil> .(Marking comblnatioo/colnddence) together: endcmes .(Marking association/comparison) together: etgzdcrc, etgederum0 , etsamne, gegadere, geadorP, mid, ongeador 0 P, samens, samod, tOsomne 170 Mixing, mingling, preparation

.Top••wr, anitedly, la a body: samodlice0 .All together, both toptber: mid ealle, mid eallum, samod aetgedere .Topther, as one: samlice0 .To unite so as to form a wbole: gemengan .To unite, draw together: (ge)gadrian, (ge)samnian •To joia toaether: gelerlitcan, (ge)l>Codan •To joia together, aaodate, unite: Megan', (ge)f!gan, (ge)gadrian, gelOgian, (ge)~nsumian, gcsamnian, geteon, (ge)~ ..To unite oneself to, joia with: gettnan° •To joia, connect, combine, put togetber: (ge)mengan, teofenianP. (ge)tiegan, tOget>Codan, (ge)wnpan ..To IDcorporate, insert iato: gel>Codan in •To joia, attach, unite to: betcgan°, bel>Codan°, (ge)faestnian, gefCgan, (ge)f!rll!can, gehaeftan, lecgan to ~an. gemengan, tOcnyccan°' ..To joia with joiats/dips: gefangian°, (ge)spannan .To glue toaether: beliman°', geliman ..To cohere, joia, unite: hlecan° .To bind/draw toaether: (ge)bindan, gewrfl>an .To pow/knit togetber: gegrOwan .Alon&ftoaether with: fort> mid, inne mid, mid, samod mid .In attendance on: ymb(e) .(Of mutual relatiom) between: betweoh, betweonan, betwux .Both ••• and: tlghwaet>er(ge) ... ge, l!gl>er ... and .And, along with: mid See 05.05.03Binding; 12.04 Fellowship; 17.03.10 Fastenings Midn1, mingling, prepantioa: gemang(en)nes' .Mlagling f.olether, mixing, mixture: gemengednes .A mhcture: (ge)blandP, gemang, mengung' ..A blood mixture: blOdgemang°I .Mhed, not simple: gemenged .Mhed, mingled f.olether: gemengedlic', gerunnen tOgedere '.Mingled, infected with: onblanden°P

.Confusedly: gemengedlicel .To mix, intermingle: (ge)blandan, (ge)blendan, fonnengan°, (ge)mengan (mid), gemengan tO, (ge)mengan wil> .To stir f.oletber, mix up: (ge)hreran, gelJweran .To mix (la due proportion), prepare: gemetgian, miscian, temprian ..To compound a draqbt: gesettan morgendreoc .To pt mingled, run toptNr: gerinnan 171 Fullness Fnllnc•: fullnes, (gc)fyllnes .Fullness, plenitude: (gc)fyllednes .Act of filling (vessel, etc.): fylling ..Act or filling butts: byttfylling° ..Act or filling a bottle: cyllfylling° .A fill, full supply (of food, etc.): fyll(u) .Full (of), filled (with): fut .In full, full: fullic .Heaped up, loaded: gchladcn .Brimful: brerdful0 .Crammed full: fullgcdrifcn° .Overfull: fullic, oferfull .Distended/filled (with food): ll>egcn8 .Entirely, altogether: be callum, calle, callunga, lungre, mid calle, mid call um, onwcalglice0 , samod .Entirely, fully, altogether: inunga. call ..Absolutely, entirely: forl>earlfce .(With numeral) in all, altogether: calles, calra .Quite, altogether: zghwzs, calles, fzste, wclhwzsP .Just, quite: efne, cfnes ..AU, entirely, quite: call, gcneahhc, gcnog .To fill, fill up: ifyllan, befyllanq, gccndian, (ge)full(i)an, (gc)fyllan, gcinnian .To cram, stufl': icrammian°8, icrimman8, (gc)crammian, (gc)crimman MTo stuff full below: undcrcrammian° .To load, furnish ab11ndantly: (gc)hladan .To become full, fill up: fullian .To overftow: ofcrflowan Unity/oneness: infcaldnes, innes, untOO&lednes .Indivisible, Pmeparable, inextricable: unisundrodlic8, untd&l(ed)lic, untooelendlic .Undivided, not separated: untOtwzmcd, untwifcald .Simple, not resolvable into components: infcald, uniscyrod0 g, undZled, untOO&led .Simple, unml:sed: infcald MUnmixed: unblondcn°8, ungcmcnged0 , unmenged .Made one, united: gcined0 ,Indivisibly, inseparably: untOdZledlice •To unite, make one: (gc)inlzcan 172 Division, partition, separation 03.G3.07 A put, diYisioa, portion:


fa:t. part, gedad, t6dil,

t~ledncs, t~lnes

.Part (of a whole): sum ..A piece cut off: ofcyrf ...A slice: snid°I ...A sbnd, sbaYID&: gesceaf, sceaf(o)pa, scread(e )8, screadung&, sp0n -With sap: sa:pspan° -aippinp: hnygelani, get>wit° ...A fragment, piece, bit: (ge)broc:, gebrot, (ge)bryce, (ge)brytsen -Of land/water: crymelq -OI doth: clilt -OI stone: ft6hoS, sdnsticceoS ...A morsel, bit: slotaoS, stycce ...A crust/rind: rind(e) ..A layer, stratum: ft&ing .Divided, separated Into parts: t~led ..Dhided, cut up: t6hrfcod' ..Divided into four parts: fet>orbyrste0 , fiJ>ert~ledq ..Unapportioaed: untf>d21ed .SOmewbat, partially: 'sum ~I ..Partly: be sumum e twim .Step by step: enge trym, mbdlum, sta:p~lum .To pieces, to bits: stycce~lum 0

See Refuse: Filings Division, partition, separadon: isyndrung°i, gedil, tOdil, tf>sc&d, tf>sc&dedncs0 • tf>slilping°', t6wcsnes, tweming, twislung ,Separadon, break of connection: t~lednes .,Separadon, cutting off: scelleq .One who divides or separates: tOsc!adend .8epanted, detached: gesyndrod 173 What is left, remnant. remains .Bepante, dlljoined: ungelJ&>dop .Asunder, apart: sundor MReckoned apart, not reckoned with others: sunderboren°S .Bepante, alone, not joined with others: syndrig .8eparate, quite apart: a:lsyndrig°S

.That sepantes: betweohgangende8 .Divisible, sepanble: lOdl!lendlic J>etacbable: sciriendlicoS .Apart, separately: g~lcdlkeoS, twemendlice' .Bepantely, not in connaioa: onsundran, lOdl!ledlice .Bepantely, sevenlly: gescladenlrce0 S, sundorlfce, sundorlipesS .To separate, divide: iscilianS, isyndr(i)an, At>Codan. (gc)dl!lan, (ge)scf.adan, lOdon, lolysan, loscCadan, lOscirians, loscylian/loscyllan, losettan, losundrianoS, lolw~man. (ge)lwl!man, lwt"lerlkan°S, (gc)J>Codan fram •To 1epante, part from, detach: iliJ>ian, besc!adan, bescieran, (ge~Ian, (ge)niman, (ge)scirian, l0d2:lan •To divide, separate into parts: (gc)d&lan, ldl!lan .To separate, sunder, cut off from: Wlan, ilOcan, Asyndr(i)an, bcsnyJ>J>anP .To prevent the joining of, part: (gc)lwl!man .To part, set apart, separate from: ificrran, Ascirian •To sunder, sepante, keep apart: (gc)syndrian MTo drive asunder, sepante: lOdrifan .To separate off, take out: scylian (of) •To separate lbelf into parta, spllt ap: gedelan, login See 03.04.0J Singularity; 05.06.02 ff Cleaving Wbat Is left, remnant, nmalm: lif .An overplas, surplus, the rest: ofereaca .Other, the rest, remainder: oJ>cr .Other, remaining from the whole: ot>cr .As a remainder, remalnlna: lo life

.Unobausted: unihladcnoS .Not enHd, not blotted oat: undilcgod° •To leave, not UR/take, etc.: isparian°, (gc)lefan .To leave after sabtradioa: tefan .To leave over, not use up: oferhtfan .To remain, be left: gcJ>olian, (ge)wunian .To be left over: ofcrtefan •To 1 em.ain, survive: bell!fan, bellfan .To leave, be survived by: bell!fan 174

03.04.01 Singularity, peculiarity 03.03.cJI Empdncrr: emugnes. Jdelnes. lemes .Empty: emettig, hJancP, Tdel, geler, w~ ..Empty of: emettig (fram), gesne, l!as, n!pq, tOm, w&te ..Emptied oat: imeallod4 •To m•ke empty: (ge)emtian, beaian°P, onrdlian°& -To deprive of, empty of: ll'dl(i)an .To bo'bec:ome empty: (ge)Tdlian, r0mian° .Witboat: biitan, foriltan, wil>Utan 03.o4 Form, kind, aatare, dw• IK:ter: hiw .Quilty, nature: (ge)hwilcnes .A DUJDberld•n of objects: (ge)rfm .A kind, genus, 10rt: (ge)cynd, ende, hid, getzl ..A nee, kind, apeder: (ge)cynd, cynn, cynren, hrw, ldgwlite, J>Cod ..sa: bid •Tbe like, suda: swilc ..8ocb, suda a: )>yllic, )>ys(ge)lic .Whoever, whatever, whicbever: 16c(a) hwl, l6c(a) hwylce .Such, of such kind: swl gerld _Of this kind: )>us gerld -Of what kind: hO gertd ..8acb ••• u: swilc . .. swilc .or every kind: gehwilc .Whatever, wboeoever: swl hwaet (swl), swl hwl (swl), swl hwilc swi .or what sort, wbo, what: hiilic, gehwilc .Whatever: aethwega .To number/include In ad••: (ge)tellan -To d•• with: (ge)tellan to .To fall to, beloas to, be M'i11wt to: befeallan, (ge)limpan See 05.10.06 Form, shape 03.04.01 Sinplarity,pec11Harity: synderlicnes .One: sum .I: ic .self: self .(My, etc.) part: ~· .One, sole, slnale, unique: in, incyn', Inga .Only, sole, slnale: enga. enig, enlic, inlic, lnllepig, lnlrpe .Sln&le, distinct from otben, lncllvldaal: inlrepig, lnlrpe -One (nferrina to previous DOUD): In 17S

03.04.02 A diversity .Special, pecaliar, singular: inlipe, sundorlic, syndcrlipe8, syndrig, syndriglic .Peculiar, own, proper: lgen, in .Uniform, of one form: infeald, inhiwe' •Without addition/additives, simple: infeald .8ome, (a) certain: gehwilc, swnhwilc .Certain (thina), some: gewiss .Each severally: inliepig, syndrig .A, an: in .One apiece, one each: syndrig .separate, quite apart: aelsyndrig°I .E:sempt from, not sbariag in: aelfremcd fram, l!mettig (fram), unmli:ne .Only, alone: znlice .Uniquely: itngancundes0 P .Singly, one by one: incwnmwn&, inlipum, sundonru!lumg .Singly, onefold: be infealdum ..Simply, without connuion with another. infealdlice .By himself, etc.: mid him selfum, self .Partkularly: eallcs, ealra .Just, only, no other than: efne, syndorlice .None but, only: ina, for in, nemne .Not only ••• but also: ni l>aet in l>aet ... ac eac swy lee .Uniformly: inntdlice .E:scept: foriitan, wi)>Utan .E:scept, unless: (ge)nemne, nymlJe .To e:scept, leave oat: forl~tan. of ldOn, ill isundr(i)an .To e:sclude: ill llilcan .E:scept: biltan ..E:scept, unless: nemne See Unadorned; Plain; 12.04.04 Solitude

03.04.02 A diversity: tlgung .Complexity: manigfealdnes .Belonging to one or other of two kinds: twifeald .Manifold, of many kinds: maenibntde0 S, manigfeald, manigfealdlic, manighCowlic0 g, seldcill> .Complex, complicated: manigfeald .Multiform: ma:nihiwe0 , l>iisendhiwe0 g ..HaYina four forms: filJerhiweoS 176 Someone/something .In a complicated manMr. manigfealdlice See Contrariety

03.04.03 GeaenlltJ: gmUCnelicnes .One, people, they: man .For everybody, aenenJJy a...U.ble: open .Onlinary, common: gewunelic .Of the people, common, general: folclic .Jn aenenJ, without exception: in gemennesse, gmUCnelice .Genenlly, DPU1Dy: oferheafod0 , gewunelrce .Commonly, valprly,popalarty: ceorllice Someoaelsomethlna: hwi, hwitchweneK, nlthwi, nithwilc, sum Some oaefthhaa, ...,. oaeftblng: ehwzt>ec. hwilc, hwilchwugu .some one, uy one: enig mann .Anyone: ihwl .Any one, uy thlna: enig, gehwl .Anything: ihwzt .E..+, mcb one: egbwilc in, eJc in, inra gehwitc .E..+ of two: ltghwzt>ec, (ge)hwzJ>er .FAch, everyone: zghwzt>er. zghwilc, zthwl .Fri, every (thing/one): itghwitc in, etc, etc in, itlchwega, in hwi, in gehwilc, gehwi, gebwttmlic°I, gebwilc .Everyone: cghwi, wel hwl .Eve11thlng: egbwct, etc wiht, we) hwa:t Some: samhwilc .some, certain, uy: sum .Any: clc (in) .Nearly every (tblnsfone): mest etc, (ge)welhwilc .Every: erre etc .AD, every, etc.: eall .Jn uy mpc:d: be iwihte .Jn uy case: lhwer, lhwergen, hilru .Jn evca1 respec-., In every way: itghwl!r, eghwanon, itgbwilces, etces J>inges, zlce J>inga, in eallum J>ingum, J>ulb etc J>ing .Jn net) case~ &ghwltr, gehwzt>ec .Jn every particular: fynnest .Univenally: eall efne See 05 Anything


03.0S Order, arrangement, disposition 03.05 Order, arranpment, dlspo.ttioa: diht, endebyrd, endebyrdnes,

gclogungl, onsuel .Order, disposition, metbocl; gesdad, gcwuna .Rlpt order: rihtcndcbyrdnes° .Ordered coune (of events): gcsc:eaft, gcsceap .Ordered, IU'l'IUlled: gcfadod -Well·IU'l'IUlled, well-onlaed: gcrid, gentde -Orderly, harmonious: gcbyrdlic .That may be laid in order: gclogcndlicog .In an orderly manner: (gc)byrdclTcc, gcdr&>glTcc, cndcbyrdcs, (gc)cndcbyrdlicc, gcfedlicc, gcmctlfcc, gcreclicc .In a skewed/disordered m•nner: pweorlicc .To IU'l'IUlle. put in order: gcdr&>glkan, fuldon, (gc)glcngan, gcrecenian, gcscttan .To IU'l'IUlle. dispoee, put in order: (gc)cndcbyrd(i)an, (gc)fadian, (ge)logian, tOdihtnian', t0stihl(i)an' .To usip to its proper place: (gc)cndcbyrd(i)an, (gc)lecgan on, (gc)scttan .To dfspo'e/set thlnp apart: tOsc&dan, toscttan .To IU'l'IUlle •mha, order wrongly: miscndcbyrdan° 03.05.01 Arnmging, ordering, disposition: (gc)fadung, gcsceapcnncs,

(gc)st$>lung .Regulation, ordering, managanent: cndcbyrdnes, gcmetgung

.Direction,ordering:tJcnung .Ordering, disposition, repladon: (gc)dihtnung, dihtung .To arrange, set right, put in order: (gc)rihtan, (gc)sidian .To make flt, order, regulate: gcmcdcmian .To setde (what is disturbed/disordered): (gc)logian .To order, regulate, dispose: (gc)fadian .To manage properly, regulate, order, dispose: (gc)mctgian .To keep in proper order, direct/regulate: gchcaldan, (gc)reccan .To order, regulate, arrange, direct: (gc)dihtnian .To make firm, establub, regulate: gcst$>lian .To regulate (the sb:e of): bcsidian .To regulate (a measure, weight, etc.): gesciftan 03.05.02 An llJTIUtlmleDt, order, succemion: cndebyrdnes, gcuelrim0 P ,

t0cndcbyrdnes0 .A place in a aeries: stow .A series of objects in a line, a line, row: lfnc, ntw 178

03.06 Comparison .Condaaoas, consuudTe: samodgang .Next: OJ>er .Latter: efterra ,I alt: endenlhst .In 1UCU1slon, in order: endebyrdlice, on ntwe ..In a row: on (ge)n!we .To arrange in line: gerlwan

See 05.J1.07ff Relative time

03.05.03 A list, tal~ series: talu .Enumeration, catalogue.: wordsomnere0 g .A written llst/catalope: gewrit .A list in tabular form: rcgol •To list, enumerate, describe in suecealoa: itellan, (ge)rfman .To coant, indade amoaa: midgetellanog 03.06 Compuboa: efenncsg, wi)>metenncs, wi)>metingg, wi)>gemetnes0 .la comparison with: tOglancs •Than: )>e, )>onne .SO, the, to express propordoa: )>lies .The, any (plus comparadve): l>Y .Ever, in the world: ltfre, on woruld .Just, exactly: hand .About, approdmately: lbiltan, hilhwega (swi), hwega, sum, swilce, ymb ..At least, about: hilru ..Almost, nearly: ethw0n°', ettihte, fomlah, fuln~. hwethwega, lytes(t)ne, mat call, olah, nlalice -Only just: unla)>e .Even a llttl~ at .U: Ra ..At .U, by any means: iwiht, tO ihte ..At .U, to any exteut: be ltnigum dltle .Relatively: cdlesendlice _(Not) at all: ne hwame

-.Any at .U: l!fre l!nig ..By no means, not at all: lythwon, mid ninum )>ingum, nl!nigd21°, nl!nig )>ing, nl!nig )>inga, nl!oig wiht, niht, nihwl!r, nihwanon, nine, nines )>ingcs, nin )>ing, nin wiht, nitcshwon, nite)>eshwon, neallcs ..Neither ••• nor: nihwe)>er ne ... ne .Even: furl>um, hilru .Still, yet: gen, giet, gieta 179

03.06.01 Similitude, likeness .Altbough, though: mid l>Y, )>Cah, J>onne .However: swi hweJ>er (swi), swi )>Cab hwepre .However, yet, still, nevertheless: eac hwepre, loca hii, l0ca nil hu, sOl> hwepere, swii peah, peab, peah hweJ>ere, }>Cana, J>onnc hwe}>ere .None the less: ni )>y les, noht(c) l>n lti. nOhte l>Y lh .Though ••• however: )>Cab (J>e) ... hwe}>ere .But: ac ..However, yet, but: (gc)hwe}>ere, J>onne ..Notwitbstanding, in spite of: biltan .To compare: geefenlzcan, efenmetan&, geefnan, geefnettan, gclician, geliclztan&, gcmacian, metan, gcmetfestan&, gconlician, (ge)seUan ong~wi)>, (gc)tellan gelrc, gctcllan wi)>, wi}>ermctan&, wi)>metan

03.06.01 Similitude, llkenc11: gelfc, (ge)licnes, onlicncs, onlicung0 .A like shape, semblance, the like: gclica, (gc)licnes .A person like another, the like: gelrca -{Deroptory) such a person u: gclica .Like, similar (to): cfcnimcten&, (gc)lic, on(gc)lic, gcrislic, swilc .Related: gesibb, siblic .Near, close: hcndc .Jnst such: callswilc ..SUch (as): swilc ..Aaotber such: oJ>er swilc .some ••• or other: swilchwugu0 .Jn like manner, even so, similarly: callswi, cfne swi, endcmes, gel rec, onlicc, ongclic(c), swi gclicc, swilcc, )>im gclicc ,Just as, like: callswi, samod anlicc .After the manner of, lib as: on J>ill>erc gclicncssc .aoee to, near to: gchcndc .SUch: swi gclic -Such that: swi gcllc swi .Like, such as: swclclswi ... swilcc .To be like, resemble: geefcnhtcan, gcnealecan, onywan .Aa, like: callswi, gclicc and ... , gclicc ... swi, swi same (swi), swilce .Al If: callswi, samod anlicc ... swi swi, swilcc .Just as If: cfnc swclcc .Al it were: swilcc lmitadoa: (gc)cfcnlkung, liccttung, onhyrcnes 180

03.06.02 Difference, diversity, dissimilarity .A copy, an Imitation: gelicbisen&, gelicbrsnung°' .A c:ountapart (ola docvmmt): geclofa .An imitator: gebisnere0 ' , efenll!cend, gelrcbisen' ..A female imitator: geefenlecestre°' ..An imitator, follower: efenlecerel .Imitative: efenll!ce .That may be Imitated: fyligendlic°' .To imitate: ~fterhyrigan, (ge)efenhtcan, efnettan, hyrian, gelicettan, gelrcian, othyrian° lmitatioa, maalatioa: hyring, onhyring .One who Imitates or emulates: onhyr(i)gend •To emulate, pattern oneself on: andian, onhyrian .To pretend to be, make oncself like: geonlic(i)an to .To make to appear like to: gelicettan tO Equality: efenlicnes, efennes, gelrcnes .An equal, a match: (ge)maca. geIMCCa .Just as much (~n): efenmicel ..AMso much, as/so many: swilc .The same: (ge)ilca, self ..One (and the same): in .seH, very, own: self .Equal, like: gelrc, gem~ .Equally: efenlrce, efne, gelrce, geliclrce, on emne .Just as much (av): efne swi)>e .On equal terms, • equals: efenlrce •To make equal or like: geefenlician, (ge)efnan .To make even or equal, square, acljast: geefenlfcian, (ge)efnettan Matual: gerdne .Mutual, reciprocal: gemene .Mutually: gemltnelrce 03.06.02 Dlffermee, cliftlsfty,dlnfmilarity: r~. toberennes0 8, t6sc!ad, ungelrcnes •Variety, diversity: mislicnes, missenlicnes .One dissimilar, not an equal: ungelfca, ungemaca, ungermecca .Dlffa eotiation: twislung .Distinction, difference: bescl-ad°I, (ge)dll, gesd.ad, tOd&lednes, tOdfil, tOsc&deMes0 , twa!ming, gewand 181 Conttariety, diversity .Different, unlike, diverse: mislic, unefen, unefenlic0 g .Different, various: mislic, missenlic .Unlike, unequal, dissimilar: ungelrc, ungemzc, ungemetlic ..Distinct, separate: toozted .Other, different: ell, ot>er ..Other than before, different, new: nrwe •Variously, diversely, differmdy: mi slice, mislicum, missenlice .Unequally, diversely: unefne ..DHl'erendy, diversely: ungelrce .Distinctly, separately: t~lendlice .Otherwise, differently: elles, sundor .Far (other, etc.): feorr .To differ, be different: toslitan, tostandan, ~weorian .To differ, diverge from: twid&lan •To be distinguished, to differ: scher .. . Ol>er See 03.04.01 Singularity Contrariety, divenity: wi~rweardnes .Oppositeness of nature: wit>errZerweard .On the contrary, on the other twnct: ongean t>et, ~itrongen, ~itrtogeanes ..Contrariwise: herongean .Else, otherwise: apor ot>er, elcor, elc(o)ra. elcran, o)>alicor .Else, under other conditiom: elcor, elles .How ebe: elles bu .Apimt, In contrast/comparison: ongean See 03.04.02 Diversity; 12.05 Opposition lncompanbillty: unwi~metenesog .lncompanble, aot to be compared: unwi~metenlic .Incomparably: unwi~meten(d)lice 182 Order, decorum, discretion

03.06.03 CoaanitJ, 8t1w19, llllitabWty: gedafenlicnes, gedafennes0 &, gdueplicnes&, gerisnes°', t>eslicnes .Commlent, suitable, fit: (ge)cwane, gccwem(ed)lic, gedafen, (ge)defelic, gef'Og, gegenge, gehep°', gdueplic', hislic0 , gehyJ>e, gelimpful0 &, macalic', getiemeq, wenlic .8ultable, llllited, fitted: geaged, gelimplic, (ge)ldte, rihtlic, gerisenlic, (ge)screpe, (ge)J>eslic, geJ>ungen, gewunelic ..Acceptable, suitable: andfenge, andfengelic°' ..Well-matched, suitable: gema:c ..8ultable, adequate: til ..Suitable, opportune: gelumpenlic ..Reasonable, suitable: g~allic .Appropriately, suitably, fidy: gecw!mlice, gedteftelice, gedafenlice, gedafniendlicel, gehyhtlice, (ge)limplice, mid gef'Oge, rihtlice, gerisenlfce, gesdadwislrce, gescrepelrce0 .Properly, fidy, well: gesceaplfce0 , gescirpendlrce0 .Fldy, adequately, meetly: gemete, mid gemete .Ripdy, properly: gelimplice .Fldy, opportunely: (ge)cOplfce .Fldy, 90 as to fit: gelimplice .R.eaMnable, in reaaon, fidy: gesdadlrce .To be suitable, be fittin1: belimpan, berisan, (ge)byrian, (ge)dafenian, (ge)limpan, (ge)rrsan .To become fitted: gelimplkan°' .To please, suit: gehagian, geweort>an .To ao accordlna to: faran be .To adapt, turn: gebfgan, geliJ>ewkan, getemprian See I 1.07.02 Utility Compatible: geJ>wt!re .Harmonious, In apElilmcat, accordaat: inn!d(e), efenJ>wt!re°', J>eslic, geJ>wa!re, geJ>wt!rlic .In apeemmt, in the right maaaer: geJ>wt!rlfce .Flttiasly, ap eeably: gesdadwislrce .To agree, accord, fit, suit: rihtget>w~rlt!canq, gerisnian', (ge)J>eslkan', get>rowian, geJ>wt!rian, geJ>wt!rlkan .To brin& Into apeemeat, make barmoaloas: (ge)J>wt!rian Order, deconun, dilcredon: gefzd .Aa eumple: forebysen 183 Measure, degree, proportion .A nde, pattern: gemet .Strictly,accordin1 to the model: stiplfce •To set an nample: istellan byscn, bysen onstellan, (ge)bysnian .To take the model for: (ge)bysnian Measure, depee, proportion: 112)>, gemet .Meet, of suitable dimensions: gen2te .In due measure or amount: (ge)metlrce See 03.03.05 Extenl, degree What Is 8Uingl1eemly/appropriak/decent: gedafen, (ge)defe, (ge)ris(e)ne .Proper, ftttina, beoomina, meet: Arlie, gebeorglic, gebyredlic, cynlic, cynn, (ge)dafenlic, gedafniendlic, gedefe, gedreog, gefacdlic, gemet, (ge)ridlie, riht, (ge)risne, (ge)~slic .Becominsly, worthily, meetly: cynlice, gedafenlfce, gedafniendlfce8, gedefe, gedcfelrce, medemlice, gemetlice, rihte, ryhtum gerisnum, sidelrce, (ge)~slice 03.06.04 I.nconpuity, absurdity: unpcslicu .Inconvenience, disag1 eeablmess: ungerisnu .Unsuitable, inappropriate: ungehcpJicoS, ungerisene, un~slic .Unseemly, indecent, unfit: ungedafeniendlic0 1 , ungedafenlic, ungefegeoS .Absurd: un~slic .Unsuitably: ungedafenlrce, ungedefelice0 P, un~slice .In spite of: ufenan

184 Act/action of sucking

4. Material Needs 04 Consumption of food/drink: toddort>cguP, onbyrigncs, l>igen •To COO"•me (food/drink): ibirgan, ibrtan, ibriican°, bebriican, (gc)briican, niman, (gc)notian, onbitan, onbriican°, (gc)l>icgan -To taste, consume: in(gc)birgan, on(gc)byrgan .To swallow/ingest: besiipan, forsiican°K, forswclgan, glcndranK, (gc)siipan, swclgan -To swallow (clown): forcwolstan° 04.01 Digatlon: mcltung .To digest: (gc)mcltan, (gc)micltan, tofcrian .Not digested: ungemylt -(Of Jonah) not digested: unfonnoltcn° .Half-digested: simmclt° .(Of keeping food clown) clown: under .(Of food) to stay clown: gewunian 04.01.01 Eada&: et/cte, eting/ctingK, ftltSere F1sb: fisc .Herring: hl!ring .salmon: leax .Trout: triiht .Lamprey: lamprede' .Oyster: ostre, s& ostre ..Oyster patty: osterhlif0 •Whelk/winkle/cockle: weoloc .Maael: muscelle .Cnb: crabba .Lobster: loppestre Egg: l!g .Hen's egg: zg, henne zg .Egg white: hlilttor ttg, hwn .Egg yolk: egergelu0 S, dydrin°, geolo, geoloca .Egg-mixture: ttg(ge)mang Milk: meolc .Of milk: meolcen .Fresh milk: J>eorf

See To milk Cow's milk: cu meolc Milk from goats: gite meoluc Ewe's milk: eowe meoluc Bt:eslinp (colostrum): beostS, bysting, frummeoluc0 g, l>icce meolc Cream: ftiete, ream Rennet: cyslybb, cysgerunn°g, rynning0 g Buttermilk: syring .Drink made with sour milk: calwerbriw 0 S, cysebriw 0 S 190

04.01 . Fine Oour Whey: cysehwl!g", hwl!g, wringhwl!g" Cu.nla: calwen:limq, cealer, molccn, molegns .Piece of: molegnstycceog Batter: butcre. butergeJ>w&>r°', cil buterc Cbeae: cyse .Piece of cbcue: cysstycce .Goat's cheese: glle cyse Cora: blcodu0 1, com, speJtS .Cora for grindina: grfstS .Grain of cora: hwl!te See Crops Wheat: hwl!te .Grain of wheat: hwl!tccorn •Type of wheat: hlifbwl!te0 •Wbeatea: hwl!tcn Barley: tJ&>wS, here Oats: Ile Rye: ryge, sigle0 .MIMle of rye: rygen Mlllet: mns' panic Bran: sife)>a .Oat·bran: ltrima0 Meal: grot. griit, grytt, melu .(Of meal) fine, mDled: wlh0 .Coarse meal: grotan, grytta. hwl!tcgryttan°' .Wbeatmeal: hwl!temelu0 , hwl!tesmedma0 .Bean meal: beanme)UO .Acora meal: lcmelu Fine Boar: smcdma .or &ne lour: smedmenog 191 Parched com (biblical) Pardled corn (biblical): polente0 Anlm•I food, fodder. RXider, fOl>or .Mixed fodder, 'barley-grass': beregracs0 g .Hay/straw: hieg, streaw .Food for cattle where there is no gru.ing: orfgebittg Mast, pig-food: ~. bOc, JIUJeSl, picgbread0 g .Charge for fattening pip: zfesn Cud chewed by •nlm•ls; cwudu Prey to be torn or rent: gecow 0 , geslit Seasonln&'ftavouring: cOcnung, syftige/syfting, sylting0 g See To season Salt: sealt Vinegar: eced Oil: ele Honey: hunig, mell .Honeycomb: beobread, camb, hunigcamb .Wild honey (or nest of wild honey): treowbicenog, wuduhunig .Liquid honey: hunigt!ar .Downl1t11d honey: dQnhunig0 .Nectar: hunig(deaw)q, meledeaw .Containing honey: hunigb~reS. hunigflowende .Sweet u honey: hunigswete, hunigteareng, hunigtearlic0 g .Mixed with honey: rnilisc, gemilscad •Tute of honey: hunigsmzc0 P Spice: inwise0 , spicelspica, werednys Ginger: gingifer Mustard: senep Pepper: pipor .Peppercorn: piporcom .Types of pepper: blzc pipor, lang pipor 192

04.01 .02.01 .07.04 Cake erbeawere0 To smoke food:

recan, smican To singe: sengan To prepare fruit: .Apple-parinp: zppeJscreadaOI To seaso111: gec0cnian'. gelogian, gestregdan, (ge)wyrtian .8e•soned: gebrysed, gewyrtod See Seasoning To salt: sealtan, (ge)syltan .5alted: sealt .U•alted: ungesilt To pepper: (ge)pip(e)rian Fermented/soured: siir Flavoured with rose-leaves: gerosod Flavoured with laurel: gelaured0 To sweeten: (ge)swctan, gewerodll!can°' .To become sweet: miliscian See Sweetness Provided with • relish: gesufel, gesyfted 194 Baking Dae 11ed wltb batter. gebuterod° Cooklq: fYrgcarwung°I, metel>ing°, gesod .To cook: ibn!dan°, (ge)bn!dan, gec0csian•, (ge)seol>an .Cooked: (ge)brzd, gearo, gesoden ..Uader-lllabUy-cooked: bra, hrtrenbreden° ...IJcbUy (cooked): hme ,,Ralf-cooked: healfsoden, slmsoden° ..Not cooked/raw: hmw, hr&:>w, riih, uo(ge)soden -(Of veaetables) raw: grtne -(Of veaetables) fresh, not dried: grtne, singrtne -(Of meat) to be raw: hmwan°' ..Cooked wltb oil: elebaccn .A cook: cOc Heatina, wanning: heting0 • .Melted: imylt. gemylt(ed) To boil: lwiHan, (ge~l>an. wyllan .To oYea boil, boil too mada: oferwyllan .Bolled: iwyld, gesoden ..Newly bolled: nisoden°' .To boil sou to reduce: oferwillan .To clarify,ltnln (battier, wine, etc.): lhliittrian ..(Of honey, wine, de.) dutled: lhlOttrcd, lmen:d, gehlilttrod, gemercd See Boiling Frylnglrouting: hiersting .To rout/fry: lhyrstan, (ge)hierstan ..To rout oa a spit: stacanq ..Fried: lfigen• Baking: gebiEC .To bake: lbacan, bacan .Jbked: lbacen, hylsten° ..Newly-baked: niw(an)bacen ..Baked on ashes: ascbacen° ..Baked on hearth: heort>bacen ..t>umfet, wundorfet°P See Drinking vessel Dish forfood/senla&.dish: bleddisc°', ~ningfet 04.0l. Tray: berdisc°', trig Plate/platter/bowl/dish: bead, disc, lepeldre, lempit0 g, metefet°I, scute)I .Small clishlsicle-d.isb: gabotel .Bowl/?crc•m dlab: credic°' .Shell (u receptacle): sciell Cap/bowl/basin: bledu, bolla, gellet0 , hnzpp, lefel, mele, ore, scealu, wearr •Table-bowl/table-wwel: beodbolle°', beodfet°« .A wt.e-•eskl-can: wlnbeJg°I, wfnsester 0 g .Cap for.,.,.: sopcuppe LadlelKOOp: criice, bledel, turl°' .Spooa, etc.: cucler, metesticca°', sticca Knife: metseax0 Hook for llftins food: lwel, metelwelq Pa• rr: tredde, wringe0 .00-prem: eletredde .Gnpe paew: wfotmlde -To prr 11: wringan Mortar: pfle Claara: buterstoppa°', cort>er'. cym •?Claara hanclk/mHk wbltlt: l>wiril°' .To cbara: 11>weran .To be9t (up): swingan CheeTe tab/vat: qsefet 197'J A mill .CJieete.m•ker: cyswyrhte A mill: mylen, mylensteall, mylenstede .In • fen: mcrscmylen .B•ncl mill: cweom, handcwym .Pepper-mill: piporcwym0 .Mlll-wbeel: mylenhw~I .Millstone: byrpenstinotl, cweomstin, mylenstinS -Turned by an us: esulcweom .Mlll-stieam: cweomburna, hw~lnpig, mylenbroc, mylenbuma, mylentrobotl, mylestream0 ..Mlll-pool/-welr/.Um: mylengear/mylenwer/myller, mylenpull .Mill-dyke: mylendrc .Mill-field: milenfeld0 .Path to a mUI: mylenstig, mylenweti .Mlll-tax/?rmt: mylengafol0 .A miller: gristra', mylenweard/mylenwyrd, mylnere -A grinder of corn: grindere0 .To 1rincl corn: grindan -That grinds, pindina: grindende .To sift (meal): (ge)temesian ..Sifted: (ge)temesed Saltworks: sealtem, sealthiis0 S .Salt-worker: sealtere ..Salt-boiler: wyllere To serve (food/clrlak): (ge)sellan .To serve (food): lite bealdan .To break bread for distribution: (ge)brecan hlif -Breaking of bread for distribution: bretings, gebroc, bryce, dl!lnes0 S Service in kitchen: cycent>lnung .Steward in charge of food: hlifbrytta0 .Dish-bearer, steward: discberendS, disct>egn .Jag-bearer: c!acboral

See Service Abanclance of food: mddorwela0 P, wistfyllo0 P .Small quantity of food: bita, cruma, geofola/giefl, snl!d .Tableoffood: b&>d, b&>dwyst°S, ~ 198 Feeding, nourishing .Dish of food: mete, metegearwa0 , sand .&apply of foodlpro'fhions: flSda. f'Odnol>, mstor, mstomol> ..Requisites: metenead° ..Rations/fixed contribution of food: feonn. nest -Cow provided as food source: metecii -Allowance of grain: metecom0 -Allowance of meat: ftitsct>Cnung° -Portion of meat: ftescsand ..Supply for journey: lonnete, wegnest ..Day's supply: dzgfeorm, degswesendo0 ..SUpply for winter. wintersufe1° ..Provision for royal bomebold: cyningfeorm0 -Given as reward to harvest labouren: breaccopp0 , hreacmete0 Meal: dzgmete&, dzgwist. hlif, ~l. mete, metscipe0 , (ge)reord,gereordnes,(ge)reordung,l>Cnung .Lisht meaVsmck: snltding Meal at partic:alar time of day: .Bl"kfast/moming meal: morgenmete, underngieft0 , undernmete, undemgereord, undemsw~sendu , undemgeweorc .Mid-day meal: midd&gl>Cnung°, nOnmetc, n0ngereord0 .Evening meaVsupper: itfcngi(c)ft, ttfcnmete, itfengereord, ttfengcreordung°', ttfent>egnung 0 Meal time: gereordungtid ,


mttltid, mttltima, metetid, Feast: etwelaP. b&>dgereord, (gc)b&>rscipe, feonn, (ge)reord, symbel, symbelgereord0 P, winl>eguP, wist .Excenive feasting: ofcntt .Wedding feast: brydealo(}>) .Christmas feast: winterfeonn° .Easter feast: eastcrfeorm0 .Royal feast: cyninggereordu0 ' .Feast for travellen: cumfeorm .Entertainments as reward for labour: benfeorm0 , dryncelcan, gytfeorm0 .Day of a banquet/feast: symbeldzg See Feasting; 18.02 Amusement Feeclina, nourishing: f&ling°, tostor, strangung 199

04.01 . To feed/nourish .Giver of food: ~tgiefaP .Glvin&ftaldn& of food: gereordnes .Fewllng, keep: tedelsq, Rida

See Sllcking To feed/nourish: IRdan, lmaestan, gecdwistiang, (ge)tedan, tedan and lostrian, (ge)fEstriang, fOstrian, metsian, (ge)reord(i)an .To feed well: ~tan° .To feed improperly: misfCdang .To feed up/overfeed: ofennzstan° Fed/noariabed: geled .FUled with foocllwell-nourisbed: AJ>egeng, mete~iht .Not fed: ungereordod0

0 Bringing-up, fostering: fOstor .Nourishment of offspring: tiiddonostorog .To nurture, bring op: IRdan See Nllrsing To malnt81n, support, provide for: iledan, ifercian°, belifgan°, biferan°, feonnian, (ge)healdan Provider/suppUer of food: feormend, feormere0 .Forager: f0drere0 •To supply with provisions: Arnetsian°, etan, metian, (ge )metsian -To preparefprovide food: macian Entertainment with food: gereordnes .To entertain with food: (ge)feonnian, wenian tO wiste -To entert•in with supper: ~fengercordian° -To hold a wake: yrfan° Hospitality, harbouring, entertaining: feonn, feonnung, fynn~. luffeorm0 .At ni&ht: nihtfeormungOP .For royal household: cyningfeorm0 .Giver of boepitality: feormend .To give food llJld loclginp to: (ge)feonnian See Hospitality 200

04.01 .03.02 To drink heavily, get drunk Qaarteriag of olRrl•••: fcsting, n!defcsting° .A RrnUlt thus quartered: fcstingmann .PIKelboase where quartend: biir, cumena hils/wicung, cumenhQs0 , giestsem, giestbof0 P, giestbils, giest.seleP, hQs be wege, inn, t0cirhiis0 & See Lodgings

04.01.03 Drinking: (ge)drenc, (ge)drync .A drink/draught: bttdewlg, drenc, drync(a), bladung°'. li}>, scene, tyge ..Small drink/sip: sopa ..A cupful: scene ..A glassful: glcsful0 ..A Jugful: ceacfull .To drink: (ge)drincan, indrincan'. ondrincan ..To quench tbint: ic!lan, bltan 1>urst. (ge)c!lan, of adrincan ..To sip/sup: (ge)siipan ..To lap: lapian, liccian •To arve (with) drink: byrclianP, (ge)drencan, druncnian, forJ>scencan°&, (ge)sccncan ..Dealing out of drink: medun!den°P J>rlnldna of pardcular drink: b6orj>eguP, medudrincOP, meodudrenc0 , windrenc, win(ge)drinc Thlnt: l>urst •Want of water: weterlwt°, wcterlist, weterwedlnes0 .Tblnty: ot]>yrst(ed), l>urstig. gepyrst .To thlnt, snf'fer tbint: (ge)l>yrstan, l>yrste (ge)l>ecgan • To drink bea'f'llJ, pt drunk: oferdrencan, oferdrincan .Act of drinking deepl1: gedrync, oferdrcncJoferdrync, oferdruncennes .To drink exassively: gedrincan, of druncnian .To pve copiously to drink: oferdrencan .To m•ke dnmk: drencan, (ge)druncnian, fordrencan, (ge)indrencans, of drincan, oferdrencan, ondrencan ..Act of making dmnk: druncning°I .(Of drink) intoxic.tlng: druncenleweoS .To be m•de dnmk: fordruncnian° .To get dnank: druncen gedrincan, (ge)druncnian, geonddrencan, ondruncnian°' .Drank: (ge)druncen, druncenig°'. dryncw&ig°', ealuglJ0 P, fordruncen, indruncen', medugiJP, meduw&igP, oferdrenct, oferdruncen, symbelgiJ0 P, symbelwlonc0 P, windruncen, wingiJP 201 Sober .DnmkmMrr: druncen, dnmcenbid°, drunoennes, druncenscipe0 , ealuglJnes, oferdrunccn, oferdrunceones, oferdruncolnes0 , ofer(ge)drync .A drunkard: drincere, druncen, eaJuwosa0 P, Oferdrincere, WCsaog ..Drunken maidsenant: druncmennen°P .Dnmkenlwanting drlak: druncengeom, druncenwillen .Surfeited: geillerocad' ..S.dated with wine: wfnsedP Sober: syfre, undruncen° See 04.01.0/.06.0J Abstinence; 12.08.03 Restraint Water: weter .A drink/cup of water: wetcrdrync0 .(Of water) fnsb: fc:rsc .Provision of water: weterung .To pro.tdewitb water: (ge)weterian A drinklbnaqe: drcnc, drync(a), wl!t, weta .Made of fruit: berigdrcnc0 g, peaewOs°', plOmseaw 0 .Made of sap: a1ordrenc0 .Made of berbs/seedslbark: wermOd, wyrtdrenc .Strained-off liquor: oferfyllo0 , gewring .some sort of juice: sohJ>a' .(Of drlak) mixed, adulterated: gemenged .(Of drlak) fatted: f~tt' Intosicating liquor: ealu, Ii)>, sicera .A drlak of: drync .GIYm as reward: dryncel~ .Light, mild, not strona: lwht, li)>e, peall'. unswi)> Wine: win, win(ge)drinc .Of the nature of wine: wfnlic .A drink of wine: windrenc, wiodred°I, wfndrend°' .Wine of a partk:ular nature: wincynn° ..New wine: must, nwwe wrn -BoOecl wine: coiteml!re!, morap -Wine reduced by bolllna to sweeten: ceren ..Bitter wine: ecedwfn°1 ..Sweetened wine: rbmwfn' 202 Tavern ..A thin, TIDMI drink: hccine°' -Wine mbture: wlngeman&° .Mast: must .(Of wine) purUled: iblOttrud, gehlilttrod .(Of wine) sharp: scearp .(Of wine) DOt sharp: UDSCemrJ>O .(Of wine) boiled dowa: gewylled -(Of wine) sweetmed: milisc See Wine-growing Wine-pa• rr: torculoC, tmldc. wlntredde, wintrogOI, wrnwringe Brodi: bryJ>en .Aldbeer: efterealooC, b&>r, ealu, mealtealoJ>, swatan (pl), twibrowen ealoJ>, wylisc eala (-o) ..Drep of beer: b&>rdr1est(e) .(Of beer) twice brewed: twibrowen° Cider: eppelwrn°1 Mead: b&>r, medu, medudrenc0 .Drep of meed: ~na 0 Brewlac: brjwlic0 , ealugewcorc0 .A brewlq: bryJ>en .Mab: masc, maxwyrt .Wort: mealtwyrt&, wyrt .Groats, speut com: grit .Malt: ealumealt°. mealt .Drep: daerst, drosna .Brewing-home: br&wemc, mealthils0 1 .Brewed: gebrowen ·-Twice: tw1browen° .Promotiq fea mmtatioa: triowende .To brew: (ge)triowan .A brewer. meduwyrhtaq Tavaa: Cf;apcaluJ>el0 , drcnchQs0 1, ealuhQs0 , ealusele0 , wrnem, wlnbQsl .Be~•r: ealuclyfac 203

04.01 .03.05.04 Drinking vessel •Wine-cellar: winzm .City where mad drank rejoicingly: meduburgP .Innkeeper, tapster: tzppere, tzppestre0 , winbrytta', winbyrcle0 g,

wrntzpperc' .Cup-bearer: byrcle, gedrynca0 , fztfyllere, fyllerc0 .Drinking entertainment: gytedlop, medudreamP ..fnvftatlOD to wine: Wfnhite0 P See Eating place; lnn Drinldna vessel: bune, calic, coppS, cuppe, drencecuppe0 g , drencfzt/dryncfzt. ful, gropaog, scene, wl!geP, wearr 0 .Horn: drenchom/dryncehom, horn, wrnhom .Glass: gla:s, glzsen fzt, glzsfzt .Vessel uwt in ball: selefuJ0 P •Vessel for spedftc liquor: ealuwl!geP, li)>wege0 P, medufulP, meduscenc0 P, wztermele .A lipped vessel, beaker: easeog, nzstcrog .A cupl?jug: scencingcuppe0 .A vessel, pitcher, crock: canne, ceac, crogK, crilce, crilse0 g , srzna/-eS .A vessel with stem or handle: amber, stelmele0 .A studded vessel: nzgledsinc0 P .A water-pitcher: wztcrbiic, wa:tercrog°g, wztercriice0 g, wzterfzt, wa:terftaxe0 See Vessel; 17.03.12 Conlainer A flask, flqon, bottle: ampelle, biic, biitq, butruc, bytt, cyll, fluce, glzsfzt, pinneog, stlap .(Of wine-jar) a ldM of vend: cr0gcynnog .A leatbeM:Overed vessel: cyll A barrel, tqn, vat, cask: byden, bydenfa:t, bytt, cyf, cyfl, sAoS, trog, tunne .A tqb: tyncen° ..A butt-Ucl: bytte hlid .A wine-vat: wrncolc0 g' wrnfa:t, wrnmere0 g .A wine-cask: wfntunne0 .A beer/ale barrel: beorbyden°, ealufzt° .A water-cask: wa:terbydenog A bucket, pail: a:scen, embrcng, stoppa .A water-budtet: wa:terstoppa 204 Enclosed land/field .A vessel for drawing water: hllledenog, hlcdfet°

See Mille 04.02 Farm: feorme him, him, stat>ol. tiln, l>orp .smau-~dl"lfcroft: croft,

cryftingQ, norpcroft°, suJ>croft, tiinincelS,

wuducroft° .Estate: him, land .Home farm: berewic 04.02.01 Fanmteacl: tilnsteall, tilnstedeS, wor}>(ig) .Farmyard: foresteallq .(Of land) inhabited: ibiirod0 , byne, geseten ..Colonised, funUsbed with 'gebins': gebyred0 S .To dear for oc:uapation: geryman

See 12.06.03 Inhabited 04.02.02 Farmer, culdvator: aecermann°, tthtemann°, bigenga, bilend,

gebiir, landbegenga, landbiiend, tilia .Rustic/peasant: aecerceorl, (ge)biir, ceorl, tilman° .Rustic, of a peasant: ceorlisc See Coumry people 04.02.03 Caldvatable landlfarmJancl: hriise, land, seten, tilnland0 ,

wyrl>ing°S .Marked out for a homestead: toft .Caldvated: begin, gesett, geworht .To procluce: (ge)growan .••nd yWdlna food-rent: ferme land Plot of land: etisc(e)q, gegrynd0 , plot. splott .Plot of cultivated land: ecer, grund .Small piece of land: buttoc .Wedge-shaped piece of land: glr(a), glraecer

.Mlll·tield: mylenfeld0 See Tract ofland Enclosed landlfteld: feld, bamm, pearroc, teab, tiin, wort> .Jn a manb: hop .Small tield/eodomre: croft

205 Cleared land Cleared l•nd; btyding°I, rod. rot>q. rot>crq. ryd'I, ryding/-enq, (gc)ryt>er. stjcing, styficung .Cleared: clenc, rilm "°'bushel: hnot .Ia• wood: fillet. filling°, styficleab0 .Near • 'barb': burgrod° .A pllace with bee••..: stocettl, stumblcttwcorhfero' .An end farrow, border farrow: endefurh, ~rfurh •Two-ful'l'Owed: twlfYrede°' .11lrec-ful'l'Owed: ):>rffYredeq .A luank, ridp: balc(a) Sown pmt of fteld: heccingQ .SOwa/pl•nted: bcslwcn, gcslwcn, gcsctt ..Not 10wn: unslwcn° Barley land/ftejd: berecroft0 , bereland0 Ban land/lekl: l>Wlfurlang°, beanland. blanleag, l>Wlsct°,blanstede0 206 Grassland Ji1u land/Wei: ftexaccer 0 , ftexhamm, lfnacer, linland, lfnllag Oat landl8elcl: ltland0 , ltllag Wheat laad/8eld: bwattecroft", hwa!teland0 Stubble leld: enc, gredtiinq, healm Fallow ..nd: fealh, fealu, fylging&, latgaccer0 , latghrycg° .Left for a loq time: ealdland0 .(Of ..nd) fallow: b&r ?Strip of untilled laad: br&c A mwure of l•nd~ gcoc, gcocled, gicer•, sulh .A rod: rod See Measure ofdistance A plougbland: pl6g, pl6ges land, sulhgang A hide~ hrd, biwisc, hrwscipe, oxangang .B7 hides: hrdmatlum0 , hrwisc .A half-hide: healfhyd0 .A ~h~ virpte: gierd .A tenth of a hide: teol>ung An acre: aecer .B11oe1a: accau~lum0

.Acre-plot: aecersplott° .Strip at bead of 8eld: b!afodaecer .A half-.cre: healfaccer Area a furrow-Iona acJ'Olll: furlang Gl"8111aad: angerq, grede, gracsmolde0 P , gracswang, turf, turfhaga0 P , wangturf0 .Place with bent arw: beooeting° .Undulide of a turf: stal>I See Vegetation;02.07.08 Grass

207 Meadow land/meadow Me.dow land/meadow: fi.liJ>lcag, gersttln, leab, rdd, nu!dzcer, rruedwe, rdd(we)land, mlweq, winnq .Plot of meadow: truedsplott° .Endoeed meadow: gelueg .8eparate mceclow: sun~ .Me.dow mown for rent: gafoltrued 0 Watermc..SOW: ft0dmed0 , wisce, wiseq, wisocq .Me..tow wbeae willows p-ow: sealhangra0 Thistle-covered meadow: J>istell!ag° : efsweorc°«, ltting, bltr, denst6w 0 , eteland°, etenhts, feldsetens, feohland°, fbd(r)ingQ, f0stom6J>, gers, gersing, tes, set .Ddned tract of pasture: sne)>feld° .Endoeed putllJ'f/plld: d!ortiinl, edisc, hamland0 ..Keeper of: ediscweardl .To me as pasture: ettan ..To stock pasture: land gewerian -To stock witb cattle: geierlian -Umtocked: yrfeleas0 Types of pasture: .Pasture in open coaatry: feldles .A fem-pasture: feamedisc" , fearnl&s0 .Woodland pasture: wudubltr, wudugelueg°, wuduhts .Putureland by a pool: p0lbl!r 0 .Palt.. nl•nd near a weir: werbltr .Manby paature: m6rll!s0 .Poor pasture: stcorfQ .Oat.pastures: Otllts0 .Pasture grazed by animal• of a fold: faldgang° .Pasture witb tlowen for bea: bCol&sq H~ne pasture: horsgerstiln° Sheep pasture: sleget .Hiii on wblcb lbeep are wintered: winterdiln° 208 Harrowing Swine putme: denbe~. deobercnde°, denn, maten, mestland0 ' swrnland°' wealdber 0 Puturap in return for plougbina labour: gacrsy¢0 04.02.04 Apiculture: eorf>tilung°, tilung To oecapy and caltlYate l•M: (ge)blian .To dear land: geryddan° •To hedae, endoee: (ge)bcgian .Flnt brakina of IP"O"ncl: landopenung°S .Work on tbe land: eort>weof'C'> CaltifttlOllltlllap: ecerweorcotl, begang, brgeng, eorf>bigengnesI, eorf>till>0 , till>(e) .A tillerofsoU: begangoJI, begenga, bigenga, bilend, eorf>tilia, tilia, tilman°, yrl>ling .To caltlqtlltill: begin, beswincan, titian, wyn:an To prepare lawlllOil: n!dan, (ge)teagan .Act of weedina: w~ung°I .To weed: w~an° To manure, dana: gedyng(i)an .Act of danglna: dyngung°S .Dana: dung°', dyncg(e), meox, mixen -Heap: mixen To lntpte (pl•nCs, land)ldtannel (water): gewacterian, wyrf>an°' .Wateriq (of plants): wacterung .Dltdl: die, seobter(e) ..Dltcber: dicere°'

.To dam (water): gepyndan, (ge)werian To dla up tbe poancl: idelfan, delfan .To dla with a small spade; spittan° .A dlaer: delfereO Harrowina: ecgung0 1 .Harrower: egl>ere' .To barrow: beecgl>an, (ge)ecgan, gcegl>an°

209 Ploughing, tilling Ploup.ina, dlHn1: eriung°C, yrp .For the 8nt time: landbntce°' .Ploughin1 as part of rent: ~nyrp0 , gafolyrp0 .A ploughman; sulhhzbbereoS, sulhhandlal, sulbmannq, sylal .To plough: (ge)erian, (ge)fiirian, (ge)fYran, (ge)gin, gegangan ..To plough up: fealgian°, onerian ..To plough apin: hricianoS .A ploughing feast: gytfeorm0 Sowins: sed, sedna&>0 ' . sewet0 .A 90wer: ddete, siwend, siwere0 .Time for 90wins: ddtima0 .To..,,,, K11tter (wtdl): isiwan, besiwan, onsiwan, ddian, (ge)siwan, sprengan, stencan, tOslwan ..To sow over: ofersiwan ..To provide 1eed for land~ ddian Plantlna: plantung, waestma setcn .To plant: lplantian, isett•n, (ge)plantian, (ge)settan, wyrtwalian ..To transplant: oferplantian°' ..To plant with somethlna: ymbsettan A plant: plantung .(Of plants) nurtured: itCd .(Of plants) to grow: geweaxan .(Of soil) to produce, bear: gegrowan .A slip, shoot: setcn .A shoot, graft: impa ..To graft: impian Seed: 5Zd .Seed for an acre: aecers&d .Beans for sowlns: ~nsed

See Seed Crop/crops: aecer, tilt>(e), waestm, yrp Gnin crops: com, comci}>0 ' , emq, em~0 .Spelt, corn: amerq, spelt' .Parched com: polente0 .Blade of com: gaers 210 To ripen .An ear of snla: agen•, bleodu°', cropp, ear ..A snla of cona: comdd° .Pod, busk: beanbelg, beancodd. codd, bosu, bulu', gewrid°' ..A busk, shell: egenu', scealu .A ltraw, stalk: earbledl, bealm

See Com Barley: b&rlic, blow•, bere .Sprins•90Wb barley: lenctenbere0 .A barley-crop: berewa:stm0 P .Barley seed: beredd° .Barley corn: berecom, berengrytta0 .A beard of barley: egl .A barley busk: berenhulu°' .Barley staaw: berehalm .or barley: b&rlic, beren A ldnd of mDlet: nu11, panic Oat·braa: lttima0 Rye: ryge, sigle0 Wheat: bwete .A wheat-crop: hwete, hwetewa:stm .A aood kind of wbwt: hwctecynn°P .Wbwt..stJaw: hwetehealm0 F1u: fleax, Jin, linwyrt

.nu seed: lindd

.F1u corn: lrns&com0 Ba7: file&>e, hreg, ~n°, streaw .Gaw left mndlna~ focgaq Hemp: ha:nep Harvat, crop: bl&!, (ge)rfp, rrpnes, ripJ>0 • .BIHi harvest/crop failure: unwa:stm •Tare(s): Ile, coccel, earfe, giJ>rife, lber, sifeJ>a OC. To ripen: fealwian, gearwian, (ge)ripian 211 Harvesting .Act of ripenln1; rfpung .Ripe: rfpe ..Partially ripe: simgr!nc0 • -Unripe, not 8nn: ungcfynde0 Harvestins: (gc)gaderung, ohtripl, (gc)rip, ripung .Harvest time: luerfcst. rfptima .Compulsory work at harvest: bed.rip, bennp0 .Brinalna in of com: cornlld0 .Flnt·lndtl: aclmesecer, frumrfpa, frwnscca1t, frumwacstm, frym~ .Of barvest: luerfcstlic Raper, mower: rlperc, sll>bercnd°I


rru!J>cre', riftcrc, ripemann, To ptber lralts, crops, etc.: (gc)gadrian, (gc)samnian (in) .To nap: repan, (gc)rlpan, (gc)snll>an .(Of com) cut: isniden .RftD•nt of com: corngcbrot° Mowin&: m~wcct°, nu!~ .To mow: (gc)miwan .Amount mowa: medn!dcn° To ateaa: samnian Stubble, staaw: healm, hcalmstttaw 0 • Stack, rick: hr!acc .Hap, mow: mnga .A abeal: gilm, gripa, (gc)reopa, scCaf -Sbea't'a: gcrypan ..In lbeava: sceafml!lum0 To tbreah (com): t>crscan .Tbnsblag-8oor: bercft0r•, bcrctiln, Oden, ~yrsce(l)ftor ..Hollow nwd as tbreshln1·8oor: Odcncolc0 See Flail To winnow: fannian°1, (ge)hrldrian, windwian 212 A ddacbed area of woodland Cbalr: egnan•, ceaf, comesceda°', gedrif, granwisc«, sifel>a. windung, windwigceafl Bara: bereem, bembils0 , bcrettln, comblls0 •, melublldem0 , melubils°' .Bara-keeper. bercbrytta

.Corn bin: combwicce0 .Baynore: hfegbils• .Fruit store: eppelhils°' Ganim: (ge)wyrttiln .Full oft.etbs, garden-like: wyrtig0 .KJtcben/berb garden: l~tlln. wyrtgeard .A prdea enclosure: wyrttunbege0 .A nonery, plantation: seten .A pnlener: l~nweard°•, lbcweardl, orcerdweard°I, wyrtweard A pnlen-plot: bedd .A roee bed: r6sbedd°I .A eras bed: cersingq .A bed of herbs: wyrtbedd .A Beld of mint: mintfeld0 , minthamm, mintllag An orchard: eppelbeaJu0 P, eppeltiin, apuldortiin•, orcerdl!bl, ortgeard .or pean: pirgrlf° .A bop prdm: bopping° A wine-growins COllDtry: wfnland0 .A Yineyard: wfngeard -Walled: wrnburb -Row of vinel: oemseten wrngeardes -A worker In a Yineyanl: wingeardwealh0 , wrnwircend°' ..A pninlq-knife: Wfngeardseax0 1 -To pick grapes: wfnian•, wfnluUfetian°•, winreopanl A detached area of woodland: sned .A deftnecl tnd of woodland: snl!J>feld0 .I.and on which to grow timber: timberland .A plantation: telgetta' .Gdting of wood: wudung .Timber. bolt. holtwudu, treow ..(Of timber) greenness, want of seawning: grennes ..A heap of wood: fin ..A place wbeft wood is heaped: finin~ .To cat wood: beheawan, (ge)heawan, timbrian, wudian .To fell trees: fyllan Pnmlngllopping: screadung .Pruning book, instrument for cutting wood: bill .Pruning knife: screadungisen°' .To pnmellop: besnedanP, of iceorfan, of iscreadian, (ge)screadian, sn~dan .Pollarded: copped, hnot Agricultural implements: A spade: delfisen', pil, spadu .A small spade: spite) .A shovel: scoft ..For dung: meoxscoft0 .A turf-cutting implement: turtbacceq, tyrfhaga' A fork: gafol .A dung-fork: meoxforce0 ' .A barley fork: berigeblae0 ' .A pitchfork: forcel 0 ' A mattock: becca', mattuc A rake: raca A boe: wCodhOc: Harrowing equipment: egepgetigu0 .A barrow: ear', egl>e', wealh 214

04.02.0S.Ol Care of livestock Ploa&hfaa eqcdpnt«nt: solhgcsidu0 , sulhgeteog°P .A ploqb: sulh/s1ll ..A lhare-beam: beam, scearblaJnoC ..A rest: ~st, sntereost°S, )>roe ..A plousbsbare: cipp, orJ>ancpll0 P, scear -?A plousbsbare: sjlexl ..A coalter: cutter ..A ploucb-tall: s~ . sillhandlal, sulbbeam' ..Ploa&h·m•klng: sulhgcweorc°P A dibble: plantsticca0 1 .A woed-dlbble: wldspitl0 A sower'• besket: sedlbp A duns-barrow: meoxbearwc0 1 .A duns-basket: meoxwillc0 ' A nttle, d•pper: cladersticcal, cledur' A scythe, lldrle: riftere, rfpfseml, sicol, sl)>e .Jhndle of: snttd .A an•ll sickle: bOcfsem°' .A bay-scythe: fOdderbillq, hicgsi}>e0 A stick to beat Bu: swingcl A ftall for tbrablq corn: ftigc1°, )>erscel' A wilmowlnalan: fann, wind(gc)fonal, windscoft°', windswingcl°' A winnowing sieve: briddel 0 , bridder, windwigsyfc0 1 A ve11el for deamlna corn: comtrog°I Put of a corn me 111ire: striccl 04.02.05 Livestock: eht, icrfc .A bad of cattle: hWod, yrfc

See 02.06.02 Domestic animals

2IS To feed/fatten animals .Act ot breedlna and rearlna: M

in~ster 0

To brud, rear: ln!ran, adan To feed/fatten •nilll81s: iol2stan, maestan .Fattened: lm&stcd, fett, gcm&st .To water (animals): waeterian .To rear (fowls): f&lan .(Of •nimals) to grow: weaxan To put oat to panre: (ge)leswian .(Of anlm•ls) to pue: ettan, f&lan, grasian°', leswian .(Of anhmls) that pue: lesweode To tend, herd: (ge)healdan .A herdnnan: f0dderbrytta0 g, hierde, hicrdeman, swan Animel diwases: .Unsoundness: unhl!lu .Unsound: unhil .Sida disea1e: hreofta (Of cattle) seized with dlseaH: ofscoten .Murrain (in cattle): cwild, fi=rstcorfa, orfcwealm, scitte, yrfcwealm (Of sheep) sore, ulcerous: ibrocen Eryslpel• in hones: hors6man° .A hone gall: gealla M(Of hones) piled: geallcde Doa'• worm: hundeswynnoC A park, enclosure for enim•ls: dwrtung, teag, wulfhaga .A den for keepina animal•: hot .A pte for anl,,,.ls: deorgeat, blidgeat A pen, fold, enclosure: fald, fyrspenn, penn, plettg, pundq, pundfald, set .One who puts animal• in fold: faldereq A byre, stall, sty, shed: binn, byre, set, setl, steal!, stig .To place in a stall/sty: stiellan, stigian 216 A cowherd .A manger: binn, cribb, RM:lderhec°, yrfcbinn° .A roost: hrOst° To tame, break In (animals): itemian, geleran, (ge)tamcian, tam geteagan, (ge)temian, gewenian tam, gewieldan :1•me1HSS: tama .Tamer/owueir ot an animal: migister .(Of animals) tame(d)lquleted: gedreog, hilig, bandtam0 , tam, getemed ..Accustomed to yoke: undergeocoe •Wiid, not tamed: wilde ..Uotamable: untamculoC Equipment: A goad: gid. gidfren°, giidisen, gierd, sticel(s) Barnea ot dnaght animal~ sadolgen!du0 , s!am .A baiter/collar: solq .Trace(s): getoge, J>istra' A yob: geoc, geocboga' .A yoke-stick: geocstcccal .Yoked: gegeocod .To harness/yoke: (ge)geocian, spannan .To unyoke: unscennan°« Rope, rein: tygel .Shackle, leash: fetor ..A jess or vervel (In falconry): wyrpeJ0 P ..Tethered: gebunden,gegeocod,getreged Animals yoked together. geoctlma0 «, team, gelfeme .First team (in a line): frumteam0 « .Yoke of oxen/pair of bones: geoht .Ox-team: (ge)sylhl>(e), getjme oxena .mred yoke ot oxen: hyrgeoht° ..mred ox: hyroxa0 A cowherd: cuhyrde, feohbfgenga0 , hnperhyrde0 , oxanhyrde .Keeper of cattle In common field: hzgweard° .(Of animals) untended, unwatched: giemellas, hierdellas, unlede 217

04.02.0S.06.01.01 A cattle pen/cowshed A catde pmlcowibecl: bOsq, cilbyre, hrfln fald, scipen, wyrmsteallq .A cattle-yard: geardsteall0 .A calf-pea: cealftocaq .A stall: bOsig& To milk: imelcan, (ge)melcan, meolcian .Yield at a milki. .: fild°

.Milked: (ge)molcen .A mllk-pall: ceoldrc', fildcump0 , meolcfet°S

See Milk A lbepberd: hierdeman, IOcereq, sciaphyrde .A lbepberd's boy: hierdecnapa .A sbepbercl's bq: hierdebelig° A 1be epfold: &>wde, &>westre, loc, daphlm0 , sceapwrc0 .A hurdle: locbyrdcl0 .A lbeep 1bed: sc!apbeorden°' .To make a fold: faldian° Dip, wublna-place: schpwesce, wescingq Sbeep-lbearina: .To sbair sbecp: scieran .To fleece, pluck olrwool: pullian


scearu A 1oatbercl: githyrde A bowe'pea for aoaa: gila hiis, gila toe A swineherd: swin, swrnhyrde°' .Of a lord: inswin° .Payina rent in kind: gafolswin .Chattel oa an f:ltate: ehteswin A plaery: hlOsstede .A plpty/pea: hlOse, suligQ, swinhaga ..A plpty/puturi.Da for pip: swrna sceadu .A fence to eadoee pip: swinhege Studlllenl of bones: stOd 218 Saddle Care of lllones: borsweard" .A p-oom, oder: borscnibt°, borshierdel, borsl>egn. borswealh .A male-keeper. mnlhyrde0 A plldclock: st6dfald A stable: horsem' .To stable: gestzllan° Harnea, trapplnp: gebttte(l), gearwe, gentde, sadolfaet°, sadolgearwe0 , ~ .Ra1uc1sed, caparisoned: gentdod ..Unha• iH 11ed: ungentdod .To bridle and saddle: (ge)betan Briclklbalterlcarblmume: bitoJI, bridel(s), aefesterl, aeft, cima0 , haelfterl, (ge)weald .Bridle ornaments: bridelgym0 1, bridelhyrstq ..Brielle ring: bridelshring°P ..Ornamented cheek: fetedbl&>r0 P .To bridlelbalter: gebridlian .Bridled, muzzled: gemfdlod ..Unbridled: ungemfdlod A bit: mfdl .Brialh• witb pobats: cenep Jlia& of a bit: midlhring°I Reins: bridell>wangu°', healslel>er°' .A nin: sil, (ge)wealdlel>er ..A .....,. . nin: litteab Saddle: sadol .Sllddle-bow: sadolbogal .Pommel: sadolfelgl .Pack-saddle: seamsadol°' .8addle of a war-hone: hildesett0 P .To saddle: (ge)sadelian .Saddled: gesadelod ..HaYina a splendid addle: sadolbeorht0 P ..Umcldled: nacod, un(ge)sadelod 219 A girth A girth: )>canngyrd°S A martinplt/fore-pnue: forpgyrd' .Ornaments on the martingale: fort>gegyrdu0 S A tall-barnealcrupper: aeftemi:p( e)S A stinup: f0tbrcd0 S, stigripi A spur: spura .A spar-strap: spurleJ>er°' A curry-comb: horscamb. screpui An attendant on clop: hundwealh0 S .A dog-collar. hoppe0 A &sh-pond: fischiis0 s, fiscpol, fiscwell(e) .A bl eedlng pool: tWllp61 A bee-keeper: beoceor1°, beocere A beehive: hyf, ymbhaga0 .Opt-nin1 in: teol}>yrel' .A Rump containing a swarm: ymbstocc0 An enclosure for wild animals~ deorfald .A bind-fold: hindfald .A deer fence: deorhege, rihhege 04.03 Hunting, the chase: hunt(n)ol>Jhuntnold. huntung, waJ> .A hunting expedition: hunta)>faru .A hunter, huntsman: dn!fend, hunta, huntereq ..Female: hunticge0 , huntigystreq .To chase, hunt, drive: be~. (ge)drifan, Chtan, geftleman, huntaJ> don, (ge)huntian, to huntian, wteJ>an ..To worry, set dogs on: btetan, sltetan° .To take, catch: (ge)fOn, gegrfpan, gelaeccan, (ge)niman .What is hunted/taken, pme: hunt(n)aJ>, huntung .A hunting spear: huntigspere0 S, lutegirq ..A boar-spear: birsperc, birspreot'l, eoforsperc0 S, eoforsprCot, J>eox0 s 220

04.03.05 Fishing .Game-protection: deorfriJ>0

See Game 04.03.01 Tracking: spor .A tracker: spyremann° .To track, pursue: (ge)spyrian, spyrian zfter .A stag-hunter: heahdeorhunta0 .A hunting-dog: hund, wzlhwelp0 P ..A stagbound: heahdeorhund, hrinhund ..A greyhound: grighund ..A mastiff: roJ>hundg, ryJ>l>a ..A setter: rzccg .A n!indeer as decoy: st&lhrin° 04.03.02 A snare, trap, noose: feall~. (ge}grin, nettrapg, sida, sneare, geswic, treppe0 g, ~lmal!, wealt~. w0ci(g~ .Bait: 1ts .A hook: hOc .To set (a snare, trap): gerenian .To entrap, snare: begrynian°i, betreppan°, gripan .A pit for trapping wolves: wulfpytt, wulfseap 04.03.03 Net, drag-net, hunting net: deomettg, drzg~. drzgnetg, fengnett0 P. nett, wadu0 g .To spread, set (a net): teldian .To catch, entangle, net: gadrian, genettiang 04.03.04 Fowling: fugel(n)oJ>, fuglun~ .A fowler: fugelbana0 P, fuglere .To fowl, hunt birds: fuglian .To ensnare, decoy: beswican .A bird-net: fugelnet0 g ..A pole for spreading bird-nets: fugeltreowg .Birdlime, bird snare: crammingpohha0 , fugelli~. lim, mistellam0 g .A clearing for catching woodcock: coccscieteq, cocrodu .Hawking: hafocung° ..A hawker: hafocere .To feed hawks: leppan°P 04.03.05 Fishing: fisc(n)oJ> .A flshennan: fiscere 221

04.04 Weaving .To ftsb: fiscian .A catch offtsb: fisc(n)ol> .A rod. reed as rod: hreodgyrd0 S

.Bait: its, angeltwicce .A book: angel, h0c .A net: fiscnett ..For seafaring: sl!net, scgne ..An eel net: l!lnet° .Basket-snare: bogenettS, cupc0 cytwcr, leap, sprincc)S .A fish weir: fiscwer, hzc(c), mylengcar I

.Herring season: hl!ringtima0 .seasonable for shad: sce.addgengeq

•Whalin&: hwzlhuntat>0 ..A whale-fisber: hwzlhunta

04.04 Weavina: wcbbgeweorc, wefungs, weofung°S, gewyndeS, wyndecra:ftS .Skill in weaving: towcrzft0 .Of/concerning weaving: towlicS .To weave: awefan, sce.acan, (ge)wefan .Toh the weft, begin the weave: (ge)hefeldianS .A weaver: webba, webwyrhta -(Of damask worker) town worker: ~tcrwyrhtaS -Of fine doth: godwebwyrhta0 -Female: crcnccstrc0 , wcbbcstrc0 S .Of/concerning a weaver: weblicS

04.04.01 Fulling: wealcq .A fuller: ifulliend0 S, fullere, fulwa, spumere0 , wealcere0 S .A comb (for wool, etc.): bannuccamb0 S, camb, wullcamb0 .To comb (wool, etc.): ccmban .To pluck. tease (wool): (ge)tZsan 04.04.02 A bleaching-pit: bhtcpytt 04.04.03 A spinning-house or chamber: towhus0 S .To spin: aspinnans, nestanS, (ge)spinnan .A wool-maker: wulltewcstrcS .A spindle: inspinns, spinet -The whorl of a spindle: hwcorfaS .A reel, yam-winder. geamwinde .A reel (for cotton): hreol 222

04.04.05 Woven material, fabric .A weaver's comb: ftae1>ec3mb01, webhOc& .Cnnk: crancsuef'O .A distaff: dimer•, wullmod' .A weaver's beam or pole: cipp, lorg, Qmal, webbeam', websoeaft"& .Sbatde: hefeJgyrd&, hrisel ..?Shuttle: sceat>el0 , weft .Reed, slay: Im, steal, siege, stodla0 ..?Reed, slay: sce.at>el0 , webhOc' .Treadle of a loom: medema0 &, webbl-am .Put of a loom: pihten .Otber weavina Implements: s&msticca0 , ur:bere0 &, timple0 , towtol 0 ,

webgeret>ru', webgerod°' •'fA workbollltow-cbut: towmyderce0 04.04.04 A thread (of wool, etc.), ftbre: l>n!d, webtiwa0 • .Thread (forwea..tna): hefeJdl, hefell>n!d, webteag0 1 ..A ball of thread or yUD: clywen ..Tbe amount of thread on a spindle: spinet ..Material for splnnlna: towlic weorc .YUD, span wool: geam' .Not wonnd: unwunden geam&

.Rolled back, unrolled, unwound: gewunden .Twice-spun: twfspunnen° .Gold-thread: goldl>'*n1en°', l>rili(g)

223 Coarse, rough (of cloth) .Woven: gclocen .Handwoven: handgcwripcn°P .Broken-twill: twflibroccn° .Thin-woven: J>ynwcfcn°! .Thick, dose textured: J>iccc Coarse, rough (of dotb): riih, ungerydelic .Coarseness or material: grCat.ncs .Coarse dotb: tysse°C

..S.ckdotb, nckln1: cilic0 ! , here, szcc Felt: felt Woollen stuff: wyllen .Woollen,orwool: wyllen Linen, linen doth: Jin, lincnhrzgl, scyte, twin .Linen, made or linen: linen, twinen! ..Made or 8ne linen: sindonisc0 F1ne woven material from silk, cotton or linen: godwebb .Of silk or cotton: godwcbb(en) .Silk textile: scolc, side .Made of silk: scolccn, siden ..All-silk cloth: ealgodwcb0 ! -Entirely made of silk: ealgodwebben°!, eallscolcen! .Costly material: pzll, purpurc .Purple, costly (of material): godwebb(cn), pzllen .Woven with gold: goldgcwcfcnog .From Tyre: tirisc To sew, stitch: aseowan, seowan .To sew together, sew up: beseowian, (gc)siwian .A $Nm: custurc0 !, seam .A tailor: seamcrc, seamcstrc ..A sempstress: seamcstre

-Tailor's shean: hrzglsc&J'tl .A needle: n&dl -Sewed, patched, stitched: gcs!owod, gesiwed .8eamless: unurwod0 .To sew together, repair: (ge)treagian


04.04.07 Trappings, equipment, garb

.Patched, repaired: geclutod, getreagod .A patch, remnant,dout: ~. cli&>ftyhte°K, cliit. f0gcli&>°K, ftyhteK, ftyhtecllJ>K. scyp Embroidery: bl&>cr11eftog, borda, byrding°K, fetJercr11eft°K, feJ>ergewcorc°K .An embroiderer: byrdestreog, byrdicge°K .To bedeck, embroider around: ymbczfian°s .To Ol"DIUDeat, decorate: becllefian°K 04.04.06 Undressed condition (of bide): hreawnesK .Raw, undrused: grene, hreaw, riih .Tanned: getanncdK .A banner: lel>ef'wyrhta&, tannere ..A leather-worker: scohwyrhta .(Of skin) reddened: rCadlescK .Made of various kinds of skins: brocccn°K, deorfellen°K, gzten, griscinnen°, merj>ern°, yteren° See 02.06.01 .06 Slcin, hide 04.04.07 Trappings, . equipment, garb: gearwe, hyrst, gerzde •Clothing, garments, clrea: (ge)gierela, h11eteru, hfllegl, hr11eglgewii:deog, hflleglung, limwzde0 P, reaf, sceorp, gescierpla. scriid, scriidwaru, wred, gewitde ..A trunk, clothes-box: hflleglcyst° .A covering, garment, wrap: oferhelungK, swl!pels(e) .A garment: cli&>, {ge)gierela, hflleg), reaf, gerifOK, scCat, scora°K, scriid, wl!d, gewl!de ..A garment, veil, mande: orel ..A light, floating garment, wrap, veil: wealca ..A waap, swathe: swetJel, gewind .Ready, armed, clothed: gearo, gegerwcd, gegirwed, gegier(e)ladK, gewered in/mid .(Of loins) girt, girded up: begyrd .Of/concerning clothes: gegierelicog .To drea, clothe, equip, arm: (ge)gearwian, gegirwan, gewzdian .To clothe, provide with clothes: rCafian, scrydan, ymbsellan .To clothe, dress: bescrydan, gecli&>ian, oferwreon, ongierwan, (ge)scierpan, gescrydan (mid), gewedian, werian, (ge)wreon, ymbgearwian°K, ymbscrydan 225 Mode of dressing, fashion .To clnss, attire, deck: gefractwian, ymbh6n .To clothe, mwrap, wrap round: bewefan, bewr&>n, ymbwefanll .To wrap up, cover up, dotbe: beswipan, forhelian, wefan° .To roll up, muftle up, envelop: wealcian, ymbswipan .To cover, veil: behylian .To gird about, put a girdle round: ymbgyrdan .To put on (dotbes): d6n on, gegierwan, hon, ond6n, scrydan, tyslian .To slip (dothes) on: slefan .To gird (oneself), clothe: begyrdan, (ge)gyrdan .To wear (clothes, armour, etc.): beran, wegan, werian .To wear (clothes): brfican .(Of fetten, conelet, etc.) to Ue oa, about: licgan on/ymbe .To slip (onlofl'): slypan .To take olf, andotbe: iwindan of, don of, gearwian, gierwan, ofdon,

ongierwan, ongyrdan, onscrydan Mode of dresslna, fashion: tyslung0 .Fine clothing: ngelgefractwodnes0 ..A splendid garment: fell, godwebb, pallium, purpure .A garment of varied hues: lipgeJ°K .Garb of glory (of angel's radiance): wuldorhamaP .Royal robes: cynegewzdu0 ..A royal robe: cynegierela, cynereaf .Triumphal apparel: sigesceorp0 P ..A triumphal robe: sigereaf0 1 .Linen garment: linwltd ..Clad in linen: 1Tneweard0 .Ootbed in a toga: getunecod .Ordinary clothing (not vestmmts): werreaf, woruldgyrla0 •Women's clothing: withnegel 0 , wifscriid ..Harlot's dress: forlrsglengll .Swadclling-dotbes: cildclij>as .soldier's garment: gewZde .Sheltering robe, protecting garment: hleosceorp0 P .Flnt garment (offigleaves in Eden): frumru'&g) 0 P .A sackcloth/penitential garment: cilicOI, biere, secc, wtlehrzg1°P .Long, flowing (of clothes, hair, etc.): sTd .Baggy, loose (of dotbing): pohhede0 .Girt back (ofa garment): ofergyrd°' .Wrongly dnsaed, improperly dad: misscryden

226 A long outer garment. covering, cloak, etc. •(Of dot•a) pl•ln, worn, mean: unomlic° .Poorly dad~ wanscrjd° ,(Of manner clothed) roucblY: ungerydelrce

See Religious garb Not cbc11ed, andotbed: ber, ungegearwod°', ungegerad°&, unscirpedoS, unw~' Nutdncu: na:cednes. n2Ced(u) .Bare: ewitdeoS. ber, nacod. unbehelod, unscrydd ..Half-naked: healfnacod0 ..Stark-naked: eallnacod0 P, limnacod°P Part of prment: .Neck ofa hlnlc: hWodsma:l&, healsed0 &, healseta .Collar: wri~a .A sleeve: earmella. eannslrfeoS, eannstoc0 , slrefe .Catr, sleeve: handstoc ..Furnished with sleeves: geslefed°& ..sleeveless: slrefteas .Waistband: underwn!del°' .A skirt (of a prment): leppa ..With two lappets or skirtl: twflepped0 & •Train of a dras: hopsteort°' An underprment: ham, underhwt""tel 0 & •With short sleeves: heme~ .An undenbirt: undersyrc°' Niaht-wear. nihtwaru0 & White dothlna: hwn A long outer prment, covering, cloak, etc.: wl!fels .(Of prments) outer: uferra .Racbing to the feet: mtsrd' .Reaching to the lolm: lendensid°' .An overprment: oferslop, oferslype ..An overprment, rocbet: rocc


lo~ pad'. stole, A shon garment, skirt, kirtJc ..A doak, mande: basing, branog, hacelc, hrycghregl0 , laccn°g, mcntcl,

ofcrlaguog, rift, scicccl(s) ..A mantle, doak, cape: sciccing&, sculdorhreglog ..A kind of cloak or pall: godwcbbcyn° ..A silk robe, cloak: pell ..A coarse doak: frenccog ..A coat that bas been worn: broccn cyrtcl "(Of a cloak) ?flared: gcftcrod0 g .A warm fur garment: pylccc ..A fur coat: cr\iscnc "A mantle made of goat's skin: hrel>aS .A costly robe: godwcbgyrla0 .A robe of fine material circular in form: hweolgodwcb0 g .A circular cope: hoppadaog, ofcrscrud0 g .A short cloak, scapulary: scapularc .A thick upper ga1 mait ot coane material: hcdctij>0 .A hood, cape: ofcrhacelc0 See Skin, hide A short garment, skirt, kirtle: scyrtc0 & •Tunic, coat, gown (for men or women): cyrtcl, tunccc .A shirt, shift, smock, tunic: scrc(c) •.A smock, shift: smoc' ..A shirt: ccmcs .Chest-clothing: bl'Wstrocc0 & .A stomacher: breostlin°g .An apron: bcarmclij>0 g, bcanJihragl0 g Breeches: braccas, brzccc', brec, brechrzgl0 P, strapulas0 &, witdbrec .Hose, leg-covering: broc, hosu .A leather gaiter: lcJ>crhosu .A garter, •nldet, leg-clothing: scancgcgircla0 & ..A garter: hoscbcndg, scancbcnd°', wining A veil: heafodgcwltdc, wrigcls .For women, possibly religious: hiligryft A headcloth, covering for the head: cufficq, heafodclal>. heafodhrzgl, hcaJscd, hiifc', snOd .To put a covering on the head: (ge)hiifian

228 Footwear, covering for the feet .A hood: cufel, hOd, snOd .A cap, hood: ceppe .A bat, bead-covering: b&t .A woman's hood or headdrea: scyfel(e)' .A wimple (for women): wimpell .A ftllet, headband: binde, lofOS, nostle, snOd, l>wt!lel, wrt!d, wril>els0 ' ..A balMI for the hair: feaxclll>°' .A hair-net: feaxnett' A collar, neck-doth: sweorc1ap0 1 .A collar or neddace: sweort!ag& .A tippet: taepped -HaYins one side roap: lnhealfiilb0 1 A girdle, belt: belt. gyrdel(s) .Belted: (ge)gyrd(ed) •To gird (somethln1 over some part): gyrdan A &love: glof .Thumb (ota &love): l>Ymel .Gloved: geglofed0 .Provision of &loves: glofung° Footwear, coveriq for the feet: fOtgewZde .A shoe, sandal, foot-covering: celesoC, calCO, celis0 , JllCo, sc(>h, SOIUog ..A pair of shoes: gescy ..Shoe or sandal of undressed bide: hemming°', rifeling°' ..A dipper: slefescoh°'. slypescoh°', socc, staeppesci)bl, swifilere ..A shoelace, bootlace: scohl>wang, 1>wang Shod. furnished with shoes: gescOd -(Of the Israelites) dry-shod: dryg~ .Umbod, without shoes: unscOd ..Barefoot: bzrf'Ot .To put on (one's) shoes: (ge)scogan -To put on one's shoes apln: eft sc!ogian ..A sipal for puttin1 on shoes: sc6cnyll0 .To take off• shoe: onscogan, unscogan .To provide with shoes: geseogan, gestjgean° ..Provision of shoes: scoung° .A shoemaker: cordewlnere0 , lestwyrbta', scOerel, scohwyrbta, siitere •? A last, boot: leste0 ' 229

04.04.08 A covering, cunain, veil, garment. etc. .A shoe-nail: sc0hneglS .Patcbed, clouted (of shoes): behammen°, gehammen° .A sboe-deaner: 5COhJ>Cn°S .Shoe-polish: gedreog

04.04.08 A coveriq, curtain, veil, garmeat, etc.: oferbntdels .A blanket, cloak, m•ntle, .,.., etc.: hr&gl. hwilel, reowe, rilwa. cyheS .A veil, covering: heolstor, ryft, segl ..To keep off the sun: sunsceadu0 S .Covering, doth, sheet, napkin: cl&l>. sceat, sc!ala, sciete ..For a seat: sethra:gl ..For a table: beodclil>0 , beodhr&gl 0 S, beodreaf0 , bCodsceat°8, beodscfte0 S, bordclij>S Curtain, wall-hanging, etc.: bnrreaf0 , godwebb, beallreaf0 , heallwibrift, pell, rift, wigbregl, wigrift .Pullable curtains: scufhracgl0 Figured doth, tapatay, carpet: tepped/teppet .Tapestry: webb .A mat: meatte A fly-net, mosquito-net: fteogryftS, fteohnet, mycgnet0 S, nett 04.04.09 A fringe, border, hem: fes, (ge)fned, fnes .An ornamental border, fringe, hem, edging: borda. hem, listeS, stefning, l>n!ss, url0 S, wloh ..A band, ribbon, tape: teppe0 S ..?A tassel: toppa0 S .Having a fringe or border: bebyrded0 S, geberbed0 S, bestefnod0 S, gebyrdedS, (ge)stefnedS, ymbl~rgodS .(Of dns.t) with cin:ular border or decoration: hweolflg°S .?With key decoration: aczglod0 04.04.10 Ornaments, trappings, accoutrements: geatwe, ger~de .An ornament or jewel that ls worn: gegierela. sigil .Wearing an ornament: bulberendeoS •.Ado1ned with gold: goldhladen°P, goldbrodenP ...Brave with gold: goldwlancP .A band, chaplet, crown, omameat, ribbon: bend ..A hair ornament: cefing', feaxpreonoS, heafodfrztenness, iiplegen8 230

04.0S Building, construction .A drdet: clywen, hoppe .A prland: cynehelm

See Harness; Ornament A ring (for fln&er, 111'111, neck): bring .A necklace, collar, onuament, jewel: mene .A moon-shaped ornament: hlif'OC, menescilling°g, scilling .A torque, collar, necklace: beag, bOJoS, halswurping0 P, healsbeagP, bcalsbeorggoldg, bcalsmyne, healswri)>a0 P, sll, sigle, sweorbeag, sweorracenteh0 g .A breat-onuament: breostweorpung°P .A dup: spennels°g .A ba a.:elet, armlet: beag, beagwril>a0 P, eannbeag, eanngegirela0 g, eannhrCadop

.Adoaawd with rinp or armlets: beaghrodenP .A cosdy ring, ring given u honour: hringweort>ung°P .A betrothal ring: bring .An ear-ring: car(h)ring, mpreon', carspinl0 g See Gems A button, brooch: cncpp .A clasp, pin, brooch: bul(a)I, dale, preon, sigil .A mande-pln, brooch: mentelpreon° .A buckle: clof~, fifeleog ..A buckle, clasp: hringe, oferfengg, (ge)span ..A glnlle-budle: gyrdel(s)hrin~ •

04.05 Bolldlng, construction: timber, getimbre .First bulldfng: frumgeweorc .To found, build,establkb: istemnian°, gegryndan, (ge)settan, gestaJ>olian, (ge)timbr(i)an .A buiJdlng, edi8ce, structure: timber, getimbre, (ge)timbrung ..A wooden structure: tr&>wgeweorc0 -To raise, erect: iipt'Cgan° .To C'ONltruct, bolld: ihebban, ilecgan, ireran, isettan, ltimbr(i)an, betimbran°P, byldan, (ge)bytl(i)an, ofergetimbran°, oferwyrcan, ongetimbran, reran, (ge)settan, (ge)staJ>olian, (ge)stq>an, (ge)timbr(i)an, (ge)wyrcan -To heap up, bulld: hladan -Ralwd, ereded: lntred 231

04.05.01 Building materials MTo build on a 8rm foundation: gcgrundstapelian° MTo comtnJct using nalh: geneglian MTo constnact strongly: (ge)trymman MTo use as a building material, build with: getimbr(i)an .A builder, constructor: byldalbytlaP, cra:ftiga, timbr(i)end ..A builder of churches: ciricwyrhta0 MCburch building: mynstertimbrung° MCastle-building: castelweorc See ff Buildings for animals; 17.02.04 Trade 04.05.01 BuDdina materials: See Use of tools Muoary, building in stone: stlngefOg°P, stlngetimbre0 S, stln(ge)weorc, weall(ge)weorc .Bulldlng with loose stones: stinlesung°S .Stone for building: gef0gstln°, hiewestln°, stin, weallstinP, weorcstin ..A piece of stone: stlnbryce0 S ..Built of stone: stttnen .Act of hewing, forming: hiewet •To cut, hew stone: snlldan, (ge)snJl>an .A mason: stinwyrhta8, weallwyrhta ..A skilled mason: stlncra:ftiga0 See Rock, stone Timber for buildfna: b0htimber0 , boldgetimber/bolttimber, wudu •Wooden, made of wood: treowen ..Made of boxwood: byxen' Boanllng, planking, 8oor: .A board, plank: bord, bred, ~l M 1be edge of a plank: bordrima' .Joining of boards: treowlcging°S .Made of boards/planks: breden .(Of wood) cut, hewn: iheawen .To plank, board over: ~ilian

~iling A shingle: scindel0 , scingaJ 0 S Wattle: watel

232 Briclanaking Made of nJShes: riscen A hurdle: hyrdel, hurf>q, windung°S .A hurdle (In sheepfold): lochyrdel0 A log, mire, etc.: staca, stapel(a), steng, tin, telga. treow, ~isl .Stake •wd for fastmlna: staca, steng .A log supporting a dike: dicsticce0 .Made of lop: stoccen A fence, bed1e: geard, glind°, haga, hecg(e), pearrocl-ucs .Of a field: eecerhcge, ecertYning° .A bonier fence: mzrgeard0 , gemerhaga. ou!rhege .Fence of a walled raiclence: burghege0 .A fence of fem: feamhege .A fence offune: fyrsn!w 0 .Wooden paling: brcdweall, scidweaJJ0 S .A fence (of nails?): hzcce ..A batch-pte: hzcgeat

..Without a feacelbatcb: hllcccclcas0 .A wire fence: eodorwrrq .A barrier: hramaq .Bar to stop opmin1 In fence: hegsuefOS .To hedge, fence, enclose: behegian°, betynan, (ge)cynan .To stake out: idrifan .To drive (a stake): (ge)slean • Gypenm, chalk: spaerstinS .Plaster, cement: cealc, clam, lim, stinlim°', weallim0 ..Act of plastering, cementing: Ifming' ..Made of pluter/mortar: sperens ..Half·plastered/-finished: healfch!med° .To caulk: (ge)chtman

.To plaster up: forclemanS A tile, brick: bryce, limsceallS, tigel(e), tigelstin°S, ~bryceq .A roof-tile: hrOftigels, ~aectigileq .A tiler (roofing hOUTes): hrOfwyrhtaS Brickmakin1: tigelgeweorc .A brick-field: tigellbh0


04.05.02 A building, edifice, structure .A brick/tile-maker: tigelwyrbta, tiglere0 .A quantity of tiles: tigelgetel0

04.05.02 A ballding, edifice, stnicture: (ge)bytlung, bus, gerene, tra:f P .Buildings: boldgetimbru, gebytlu • .A stone stnlc:ture: stanblil>", stlnweorc, stinwyrht& ..A stone building: st!nhof0 P .An ancient building: iersceaft"P, iergeweorcP, fyrngeweorcP .A lofty building: heahtimber 0 P ..High buildinp: heahgetimbruP ..High-built: heahgetimbrad°P "Three-storied: ~n11ere 0

..Five-storied: tifflere0

See 16.02.05ff Church buildings; 17.05.02 Hearth A f01•Nlation: grund, grundweall, staJ>ol, weallsteall 0 P .Foundation of 'burg' wall: borgsteall', burhstaJ>ol 0 .A foundation stone: grundstin&, hwamstin°& ..A corneNtoae, keystone: hyrnstln .To support a foundation: onfOn A wall: miir 0 P, wag, weall .A stone wall: stingaderungl, stlnhege°', stinweall .A north wall: norf>weall .A south wall: sii~wig, sll~weall .Building of a wall: weall(ge)weorc .Wall-panelling: wig~yling &, weallwala0 P See Wall 0

0 An arch, vault: bfgels, boga .An uda of red stone: teaforgeapa0 P A coJumn, pillar: columne, post, stapol, supere°K, stod°K, studu, sweor, syl · .Pillar acting as prop/stay: stu~ansceaft, syll, wrz~studu, wraj>u .?A protecting pUlar: werbeam0 P .A standing stone: slinrocc' .A stone drde: hringstlnq ..Stonehenge: st!nhengeq A pedestal, socket: cimbstin°', fOtstin, st&pe 234 Flooring, a floor A buttaea1, support: cantcl0 , fcorstu1>u, slypncsn°' .To support/prop: wreJ>ian A bnm, rafter: lens, nefter, ncsns, tinnS, treow Top of a building: heafod .Roof-top: hrycg .Roof: hrof, hrostaca. t>ec. }>ecen -RJdge-pole: first -A roof-stone: hrofstin° ..81abs for roofing: tigel(e) -A roof-tile: 1>ectigileq -Woodwork of a roof: hrosthf.ag°P -A plank for roofing: bord)>acaS, hroftimberoS •To roof (over): (ge)hr!fan, oferhrffan .Ha.tag a ftrm roof: hroffest°P .Concave, arched: hot ..Having a concave roof/dome: sinewealt ..Broad between the pbles: homg!apl' .Rootless: hrofteas, unoferhr!fed .A pinnacle, gable: horn, hompJcS, scylf -Win& of the gables: hornschl>0 s -Wealth of plnmdes: homgestm>n°P .Eaves: efes -Overhang of eaves: yfesdrop0 Thatch: fennl>ec°', l>zc, t>ecen, watcl .To thatch: )>acian° A ...Ulng, Inner roof: first, firsthrofoS, hcofonhrOfq, hcofonbQs0 &, h0shefen°s .A mpentructure: ofer(ge)wcorc A storey: ftering .An upper storey/room: iipft!ring, lipftor(e) .A lower storey/room: nil>erff Ore flooring, a Boor: burhJ>elu0 P, ftettpel>0 P, l>ille8 .Of an upper Boor: Opftering .A rahed platform: solor, yppe .A shelf, ledge, ftoor: sci}fe0 P 235 A staircase

.The ground, a 8oor/pavemmt: ftett. ft6r ..Jiloor stone, paving stone: ftorstlnoS, stinftor 0 & ..Coloured stonework: bleostteningoS ..Stone-paved: st1nf1hP A staln:ue: hlteder, stteger .A step, tread: sta:pe, trcdel .Step, stair (to dais): gang •?Stain to a house: stapol Gak/doorway of a bulldlng: dor, duru, geat, port, wlgi>er1°& .A door: duru, gedyre, muJ>a ..A large door: dor ..A north-door: norpduru ..A south-door: suJ>duru ..A door in a wall: wealldor 0 P ..A lattice-work door: hlinduruP ..A folding-door: durhere& .A door-post: durstodloS, durustodoS, gedyre .A lintel: ofer(ge)dyre, oferslege .Door of a treasure-chamber: hordgeat0 P .A door-fastening: sAI ..A hinge/door-fastening: heorre

See Opening; Bolt, lock A porch, covered entrance: inburh, portic, selde0 & .A south-porcll: sQJ>portic .A north·pordl: nort>portic A vestibule, entrance, courtyard: cafertiln, foreburh, foreduru&, foredyre&, forehus0 , forestig(e)&, foretige0 &, forJ>tige&, infrer, infa:reld, ingang, insta:pe0 , getyne0 P, J>erscold, wictilnP .A castle yard: burhgeard0 A window-space: J>yrel .A window: eagduru, eagJ>yrel, fenester, teolJ>yrel& .Lattice: crypeJasoS 04.05.03 A dwelling-place, abode, habitation: burgst.edeP, card, eardstede0 P, eardung, eardungstow, eardwicP, ij>elstowP, folcst.edeP, geard, geardungl, geardungstow, him. himsteall, himstede, herewic, 236 A human habitation sele, selegesceot, selescotl, gestealdP, stocwic0 , geteldung', tiin, wiceard°P, wicstedeP, wicstOw, wunung, wunungstOw .A dwelling, babitadoa: gebDnnes, innung, onwunung, wicung°I, wunenes .A dwelling, abode, house, home: him, hof, hiis, geset, setl, wrc .A habitation, dwelling, building: a:m, bold, bii, byht, byldq, ftett .A built-up place, house, group of houses: stow ..A collection of bulldinp: bol>ltilnq .A habitation, dweJlin1-bouse: eard&mq, eardunghiis, sa:lt>0 P .Permanent lod&fnpldweJHng: giesthils See 04.02 Farm; 12.06.03 Settlement Habitadoa, sojourn: eardbegengnes', inlendiscnes', inwunung°, onwrecscip°', wrecscip0 1 .Sharing of a dwelling-place: samodeard0 P, samodwunung0 .Dwelling in the neighbourhood: ymbeardung0 1 .(Of a place) habitable: eardiendlic0 .(Of land, territory) inhabited: byne, geseten .That Inhabits, dwells: woruldwuniendeP .settled (in respect of domidle): eardfa:st, liffa:st ..Living around: ymbeardiendel ..Living among tbe people: dryhtwuniende0 P .An Inhabitant, resident: bigenga, biiend, eardbegengal, eardiend, inbilend, oneardiend, tiingebilrl, weartere0 , wunigend .To dwell in, live in, Inhabit: (ge)bilan (inion), biigian, (ge)eardian (in/on), geondeardian°1, (ge)inbiian, ineardian', oneardian, onwunian ••To Uve, stay, abide (in a place): dwellan, (ge)sittan, t>urhwunian, (ge)wunian -To take up one's abode, reside, dwell: eftsittan°', (ge)libban, (ge)wician, wicnian -To occupy, live in (place, seat, etc.): geignian, isittan on, begin, onsittan, gesittan, weardian A human habitation: burgsa:JP, tiin .A small habltadon: tiinincel' .A bousebold: himwerod0 -The residence of. bousebold: hired -A bousebolder: bOnda, strwitaP

See 12.06.03 Settlement 237 A building, house, ball, palace, etc. A balldt"I, house, hall, palace, etc.: folcsel0 P, foldbold0 P. reced, sa:I, sele, solor, stoc° .A dwelling-home, home: heart>. hilsaem, hQswist°', dte, j>eceo •Tbe site of a house: hCisstede .To found (a bouse): gegryndanq .Housing, shelter afforded by a home: hiishleow .To house, shelter: hiisian .Occupying a bousdhome: boldigendeP, himfest, himsittende, hiisfest0 .Bomelea: himleas0 P .Homeward (aj): himweard .At home: et him, et hiis .Homewards: him, himweardes .To establish in a home: (ge)himettan, gehimian° Types of dwelling: .A small home: hiisincelB, hyscenq .A summer-house: sumorbiis0 , sumorselde0 B .A winter-house: winterhQs0 .An enclosed dwelling: haga, portic .A walled dwelling: burg .A detached/remote dwelling: sundorwic0 .A windy ball: windseJeP ..A windy/delated ball: windgereste0 P See den Dwellinp in particular places: .A dty-dwelling: burgrececi°P, ceasterhof0 P ..A castle-ball, dty-dwelling: burgseJe0 P .A hill dwelling: beorgsej>eJ0 P .A dwelling in the woods: heargeard0 P .?A border dwelling: mearchof0 P .A cave-dwelling, earth-house: eor1>feccd°P, eort>seJeP ..A cave, mound-dwelling: blew ..A dwelling-place, den: cleofa, scref ..A robber'• cave: g~f. t>Cofa cot, t>Cofdenn° .A lake-bottom dwelling: grundseleq See Cave Apeeable dwelllnp: .A pleasant dwelHn1: willsele0 P


04.0S. A tower .A eeat otjoynwWom: gl&awst61°P .A beloved home: lufen .A woadroaa dwelllftl: wundorcardung° Dfsa&• eeable dwelllnp: .Aa unfriendly/evil home: inwithrofOP .A hostile/battle ball: rul>seleop .A miserable dwelling: scra:f, eo~f .A dreary ball: dreorsele0 P .A home of carea: carseld°P Foamer dwelllnp: fymgesetu0 P A paternal dwelll1t1: fledergeard0 P, frumstol .A hereditary eeat: ~lstOIP, b&lfodbotl, yrfestOIP A royal/noble pal11Ce: cynebotl, cynehof0 &, cynestol, cyningwi&P, palendselpalent(s)e, seld/setl, t>rYl>em0 P, l>fYl>gesteald0 P .A palace/mansion: bold, cafortiln, ealdorbold/ealdorbotl0 .A royal 11UU10r. cynehlm .A bejewelled ball, palace: gimreced0 P A ball balldlng: heall, heallem0 P, heallrecedP .A rooted ball: hrofsele0 P .A ball with gables: homrcced"P, homsele0 P .A large room/peat ball: heall, ~lwig°P, stig .A courtJball: worp(ig) .A high ball: heahseleop .A hall where gifts, etc., are distributed: beagseleP, gifheall0 P, goldseleP, bringseleP, mAt>t>umsele0 P .A princely ball: dryhtseleP .A hall of warrion: giil>seleP .Woodwork of a ball: heallwudu0 P .Of/concemlng a ball: heallic', palentlic0 8, recedlic0 8 .With a 8nn root: hroffest°P .Adorned with pbles: bint'ig°P A tower: strpel, torr, tiir .A stone tower: stintorr .A tower with a winding staln:a1e: windelstln°8 239 A lowly dwelling, cottage, but A lowly dwelHn1, cottqe, hut: biir, cot(e), cotlif, cyie, hulc, scyr 0 8 , gesellq .Site or a coU•p: cotst6w .A hut on summer pasture: s, feltungrep, honJSCal>0 , scitereq, scnef, ~ A privy: adela, earsgang, feltiin, for!>gang, gang, gangem', gangpytt0 , genge, gr!plgrype, grof, heolstor, utgang .8eat of• privy: gangsetl0 , gangstOl0 .Privy (baUdina, room): gangtiin°, nredhus0 Drainqe: soc0 .Drained (of a meadow): siht° A ditch, dike: dfc, gl'Op°', scohtra. spaldq .A bounduy dike: ~rdrc, mearcdrc .A meadow dike: ga:rstundfc, ~ddft° .A manhy ditch: m0rseohtrc0 .A ditch near where sports held: plegdrc .A ditch about • stronghold: fa:stendrt° .A Naked up dike: wealldfc ..Bank of: drcwalu, dfcweall0 ...Breach in: drcsceard° .Boundary or end of ditch: dfcende, drcheafod0 .Fmce/enclosare by ditch: dfcha:g° See Digging 04.05.04 Funllture, IDndsblnp: A bc•h, seat: benc, bencl>eJP, formelle0 , hleda, scamol, sess, (ge)setl/seld .A drialdn&·hencb: ~op, ealubencP, medubencP .To furnish with bencba: bencian° 241

04.0S.04.02 A table .A stool, eeat: stol ..A foldina-stool: fyld(c)stol ..A footstool, foot-rat: fbtsceamo), fOtsetl, f0tspure0 -Covaecl with tapwlry: t&ppelbred' A table: beod, bord, mese, J>iling, J>roc See 04.04.08 Tablecwth A box, ca-, cbmt, container: box, czpse0 , castncrc0 , cist, earce, fet, fOdder, hwicce, press0 , tetlg .For predous thinp: scrfn .For aapents: scalfbox .A lodled depository: cegloca0 See 17.03.12 Receptacle A ladder, Mt of steps: hll!dcr .A nma: hlederst&F, st&pe ..Furnished wltb mnp: hJlitdrcdeO A bed, bedstaMI: bedd, bedding, bcddrest, bcddstow, song' .A bed-bad, place for heed: h&fod, h&fodstow 0 .A bed on the ground: corJ>rest' .A bed In a separate room: biirrcst0 .A bed In ball: ftctrest°P, selcrzst°P .A featbe~bed: fcJ>crbcdd', langbolstcr°' .A bed made of sacking: seccing° .A litter, pallet, couch, etc.: her, bcdbl!r', ferbcdd0 1 .A couch, bed: cribb, hlinbcd0 P, h0banca0 1, Jcger, nihtrest0 P, (gc)rest, restbcdd0 P, scalma. s~ncsl, streowcn ..A tridlnlum (three coucbes): biir J>rYbeddod .A cndle, cot: cilda trog, cildcradol, ciltrog°I, cradol Bedding (e.g. of straw): bcdd, bcdstreaw, breding, streowncs0 , strewung .To furnish with bedding: bcddian, ~an°, gcstregdan ..(Of a bed) spread, made: gcstreht ..HaYing bedding to lie oa: understreowod0 .Other bed coverinp: bcdcliJ>, bedding, bcdfclt, strell, westling ..To cover, spread with coverinp: ofcrspn!dan .Bedclothes, beddina: bcddcliJ>as, bcdr&f, w&d(c) ..A lbeet; sabanot1, scar, stjte

242 Cleansing, washing ..A bed-cartala: bedwlhriftO, hopscyte ..A bobter, pillow: bedbolster 0 S, bolster, beafodbolster, beafodhrzgl,

hleorbolster 0 P, pyle, pylewer, wangere ...Down, pillow feathen: healsrefeJ>er 0 P, plDmfcpcr -Supported with pDlowslcusblom: gebolstrod° 04.06 Salubrity: bllwendnes •Wholesome, healthy: g6d, geheled ..Pure, fresh: fersc ..Sweet: sw!te ..Desirous of deanlfne•: clengeom ..Not harmful to health: underiendlic0 04.06.01 aean: clene .SO• to leave deamed: clene .To deame, dean: ifeonnian, (ge)clensian, (ge)feormian ..To deanse tboroqbly: )>UrhclensianS .Act of cleaming: lfeormung, clensung, fyrm .aeaned: ifeormod •To remove impurity, dea""': iclensian, ihliittrian .To d ....nse, make dean, wipe: weoxian .To wipe off, wipe away, dnnse: gefeonnian, wfpian ..To scour, rub, ftle: sweorfan .To rub, wipe: strican ..To rub off: of strican .To Kl'llpe: besceafan° .To sweep, dean: iswlpan, swlpan ..A brush, besom: besma .To polish, burnish: ibywan, (ge)bywan, feormian, (ge)hwitan ..To grind, polish: begrindanP ..Act of polishing, damln1: feormung ..Polished: isworfen ..A polisher. feormend ..Wanting a polisher: feormendlw0 P

See Cleanse aamlna, washlaa: fyrm)>, on)>wzgennes, )>w!al, wzsc .Frequent w•hlna: oft)>wCal0 .To wub, da""' by wamlna: ll>w!an, (ge)feormian, on)>w!an, (ge))>w!an, (ge)wascan 243

04.06.01 .02 A bathing place .To wash, bathe: iwascan, (ge)t>apian, bebapian .To pour water on, wash, laYe: (ge)lafian .To dean, rinse, wash off: §l>iman° .To wash oneself: ispylianq ..Washing of parts of body: ffltJ>wcaI, handJ>wcaI, heafodJ>wcaiog .To wash an anhml by sending It Into water: beswerrunan° A b8tbfng place: bzJ>, bcJ>stOw°', bumstow .A place ofbatbs: beJ>stede .A bath-home: beJ>em0 , beJ>hiis, bumsele0 P ..A room for a warm bath: stofa0 « .A washing-place, wuh·houle: wesaem°', wescbiis0 « ..I .annd1 y man/wuherwoman: wescestte

See Privy A bath: bzJ>, wescelsq .A vapou~bath: stofbel> .A bath-tub: bzJ>fet0 .A washhand basin: mundl&>w What Is used In washing, an ointment: J>weal .A bath salve: beJ>sealf .SO.p: sipe, J>wcal ..A nitre med as 90ap: l~r ..?Soap for removing hair: pillsape0 « ..Soapbox: sipbox0 ..To lather: llYJ>ran, gelll>ran .Pumice: pumic, pumicstin°« .A sponge: swanun ?A doth for wiping: strichnlegl 0 , wApe .A napldn/handdoth: cn&>wriftO', ~gl°', switcliQ>, switlin .A towel/napkin: handcliQ>, handhr&gJ0 «, handlin, wetercliQ>, weterdat°', W&terstjte0 A toothpick: tQl>gir 0 , toJ>sticca°' HaiM:al"e: .A comb: camb .To comb: (ge)cemban ..HaiMbean: feaxsceara°' 244

04.06.02 Insalubrious, injurious to health .To .-r, shave: (ge)efesian, (ge)scieran ..Umhom: unscoren .A crisping pin: feaxnitdel°', hitmitdl'. l>rlwingspinll, wealcspinl' ..To crisp, curl: (ge)cirpsian, gecrympanoS. (ge)l>riwan, gewealcian ..To arrange gracetully: glengan .(Of bair) bound up: ge~winglod° ..Wltb bounden b c r1es: bundenheonf>P

See Haircutting Face powder: nebsealf' .Red CGdmetk: rudu To deanre, remove Impurity from (an object): iiclznsian. (ge)clitnsian .aeamed: Abywed .(Of heat) to dear Impurity from: We~ of, (ge)fatlsian, (ge)seo~an .Free from dross or alloy: clitne, hwrt ..?Spedfically of money: lnZre .Pure, refined: asoden, sm2te ..To refine by meltlna: mieltan .(Of a liquid) clear, pure: hlutor ..To make clear, purify: (ge)hluttrian, (ge)hlyttrian, (ge)merian ..A purifying, refining: hlyttrung0 1 ..Purifted, made dear: imered, gehluttrod, gehlyttrod, gemered See Smelting To separate objects already connected, unmis: Asyndr(i)an, hluttrian •To sieve, sift: Asiftan, (ge)siftan ..A sieve: temesq -.A hair-sieve: hitrsyfe0 -.A sieve-support: t&mespfle0 .To strain, strain out: Ahluttrian, aseon, drCahnian, (ge)seohhian/seon ..A strainer: seohhe ...An oil-strainer: eleseocche0 1

..To clarify, strain: oferhlyttrian° .To skim (somethlna) otr: afteotan of, fteotan (oO 04.06.02 Insalubrious, Injurious to health: cwyldbl!rc, cwyldberendlic0 , gecwylmfuloS, de&pberendc, yfel .Causln& disease; idlberende0 1. idliende

245 Dirty, unclean .Cause of disease: feond

See Foul smell; /nfection Dirty, undean: fill, fiillic, sceamigq, sOtig°S, unclltne

.Unwashed: uniwescens, unt>wogen, unwescen° .Dirtiness: besmitenes, uncltennes -(Flgurative) of the world: woruldwidl .To become dirty: isolian, solian°P .Defiled, undean: geblanden, gewidlod _(Of animals) defiled, unclean: forciil> -Ceremonially undean: genutnelic .Undefiled: unlfitedoS, unbesmiten Foul, ftlthy, squalid: adelihtS, fill, horig, horsc0 , horsclic,

horweht(e), orfeonne, slipor, sol, unsyfre, wltetlic, yfellic .Foully: filllice .Infested with vermin: renenq ..Mouse-trap: miisfealle .Foulness, ftltb, pollution: adel(a), fill, fYll>, horines0 S, slipomess, smitte, unsyfemes, widl -Fllthy place: adela -Flltb, squalor: orfeormnes0 S, orfiermu0 S •To soil, defile, pollute: ifYlan, iwidlian, betylan, bescftanoS, besnu"'tan, besmittian, besylian, (ge)fYlan, onbesou'llm, smitan, (ge)sminian, sylian, (ge)uncll!nsian, (ge)widlian .Dirty substance: horh ..Mud, dirt: fenn, Jim ...Muddy, dirty: fenlic, fennig -To wallow: bewealwian° ..Dung, dirt, ftlth: gor, tord Stain, smear: besmitenes, cll!ming0 S, smitte

.Spot: specca, wamm -Spotted: specfih0 S .To daub, smear, besmirch: begleddian, behriimianS, besutian°S, besylian, (ge)sminian .To mark. stain: igleddian°S, begleddian, (ge)m&lan°P -With blood: (ge)blOdgian,JiodanP .Stained, dirty: genutl0 P, ml!le0 , wirig°P -With blood: blOdflgP, blOdig 246 Poison

.Was dirty: forhorwadel Refuse, litter, rubbiab: l!fyrm)>a'. l!sc&da'. l!swl!pa'. l!wyrp, orfyrml>og. (ge)sripa'. gesw6pel .Parings, dippings: lcumba(-e) .(Wood-)choppinp: zcyrf'° .Rubbish for bumin&, underwood: ryt" .sectiment, dregs: d&rste, drOsna -OI oil: eledrosna0 -Full of dregs, rubbiaby: dr&stig°' .Liquid mess: swilleq .8cum, floating lat: drOs', ftotsmeru0 See 03.03.07 Portion; Leftover food Dust, powder: ltmerge, diist, gilpq, grytt. myl .Powder made from dried worms: wyrmmelu' .Heap of dust: moldhype0 .Dusty: dustig/dystig'

.soot: hrilm, s6t ..From a kettle: citelhrilm0 -Sooty: behrilmig°. hrilmig' Poison: ilor, ilorcyn°P, bealu, unlybba .Poilon, usually vegetable: 1>ung ..A vegetable pot.on: clufl>ung(e) -Wormwood: wermOd •Venom: ftogol>a0 ' .A poisonous draqht: mindrinc0 P .Poisonous: itorbzre0 , itorberende, l!tren, !!trig, geolstrig' .Poisonous nature: ztrennes0 .Palnful, pievous, noxious: weorcsum0 P -(Of a herb) noxious: minful -(Of poison) baleful, dire: ealfeloP -(Of poison) quick-acting: fl!rlic .Taking of poilon, polsonlq: ilorl>igen .Poisoned: geittred .Poisoned, polluted: bewlled See Kill, slay


05 Aught, anything, something

S. Existence 05 Aught, anything, something: cnigwiht, iwiht, edwihte0 P .A being one with, common existence: samodwist0 , samwist .Material (aj): iiterlic •Without a beginning: unigunnen°, unbegunnen, unongunnen° ..Not begotten: selfsceafte0 P, unicenned •To be: beon/wesan -To lie in, reside, be: onstandan -To consist oflln, subsist, be: wunian .To be, become: beon/wesan, becuman to, (ge)weorpan (on) -To become, be made, be: (ge)weorpan -To get, become: cuman -To come into ellistence: geselan -(Of thinp) to be made: gelimpan -To be tnmsf~11ed to, become: becuman (on), cuman, gangan, gelimpan, (ge)J>eon (to), (ge)weorpan (on/to) See 02.01 Life; Someone 05.01 Growth, increaw, what sprinp up: grownes, iipspring, wOcorP .A regrowing: edgrowung0 1 .(Of substance) a welding together: samodwellung°I .To grow, ariw, take shape: ispringan (iip), iweaxan, (ge)growan, wzcnanP, (ge)weaxan -To take shape: scypian° .To come from, spring from: ispringan of, iwacan of. awzcn(i)an fram, iwridian, cuman (of) -To ge-a odute (litenl/fiprative): growan -To well up: Op iweallan See 02.07.01Grow; Growth 05.02 State, conclitioa: stede, (ge)~ing, wyrdnesq .Natural state or condition: (ge )cynd, gesceaft, gesceap .External condition, state, position: gesceaft .Original condition or comtitution: ealdgecyndP, frumsceaft .A condition that continues: forpgesceaftP .Constituted, of such a kind: gerid •To be the condition of tbinp, be: beon/wesan, (ge )standan •To be placed in certain cin:umstances: licgan .To be habitually so: gin, gangan


05.02.02 Nature, established order of things •To n.ch a stak/condltioa, come to: cuman to .To reach, attain: (gc)folgian, gcukan

05.02.01 Condition, state of •ffain, situation: gcrid, steVsteall, geting, wise .Affaln, concern: bclimp .A coune, affair, dmunstance: wend, wise ..A way, point, respect: dltl .A thing, drcumstance: l>ing .Time, circumstance, condition: sltl •Time, condition or thlnp: tima .Ca1e, dminwtance~ bclimp The coune of human affaln: woruld .A penon's world, conditions or life: fa:r, woruld .CoarR/way or life, proceeding: fa:rcld, faru, lffwcg, si}>fa:t .Condition or life, lot: gecynd, folgot> .Condition, state, employment: drohtal> ..State of dependence upon chosen lord: cyrclff .State, station, condition, degree: dOm, card, mitt> .Fleld, sphere. place, position: fcld, set!, stow .To fan, get on, proceed: (gc)dOn, (gc)faran, (gc)fmul, (ge)gin, gangan. hweorfan, hwicrfan See 05.J J.06 Course of time; History 05.02.02 Nature, established order or tblnp: gecynd .Nature, natural condition (external): gcsccap .Generic nature or quality: (ge)cynd ..A nature peculiar to one species: sundorgecynd0 P .A natural quality or property: igenncs, (gc)cynd -(Of a herb) a godlike quality: godcundnes .Quality or nature: a:t>elu, misscnlicnes, swilcnes .Inborn nature, natural disposition: a:t>elborcnnes, (ge)cynd .Nature, natural character: gebyrd .Natural, in agreement with nature: gecyndclic .Naturally pertaining to: gecyndc .Natural to, innate: (gc)zl>ele, cwit>enlic0 S, gccynde, (gc)cyndclic -Born, situated by birth: a:t>elborcn, (gc)borcn, gcbyrde, ongcborcn .That beJonp: lcngc .Unnatural, uncbal'9Cterlstic: un(gc)cyndc, ungecyndclic

249 Inclination ..Not natural to one: fremde, ungebyrde

-Contrary to nature, monstrous: ungccyndelic -Unnaturally: ungecyndelrce .To have a place in: niman in -To be Inherent in, Inhere: beon/wesan gelogod on, clengan°P, clifian, onclifian, ol>beald, fort>Ioten .To be prone to: for~liitan .(Of thlnp) to tend: willan -To tend (to an end): wilnian .To be subject (to), lie (under): licgan See 06.02.02 Will (One's) own person: bad .Penonal quality: gescir .Qnality, capacity, nature: andefn .Disposition, temperament, character: heorte ..Nature derived from mother: medrengecynd0 .Equipped with: gefretwod .As to penons, in respect of penons: bad(e)lice& A comiaion, anodation: t>Codscipe .To serve as a link between: get>&xtan .To concern, have to do with: bef'On on, belangian°, belimpan, (ge)byrian mid/to .To be attacbed to, link to: hangian on, ge(>Codan See Whole 05.03 Source, origin: itspryng, l!wielm, gebyrd, fruma, frumsceaft, h!afod, ord, ordfruma, sl!d, Qplsprungnes0 , wiell(-al-e), wyllspring, wyrtruma, wyrtwalu .(Of God) 90IU'Ce of all thinp: frymJ> -(Of Christ) doorway: wealldor 0 P -(Flprative) foster mother: f&tonnOdor 250

05.03.01 A cause (of anything)

.SCmlnal: sedlicl M(Of Seth) leed-calTJIDs: ddbei'ende0P .From this cause or oripn: beonan .Tbenof: l>~ron, ~rtO, ~rymbe, l>iderinn

.or this: tterof

.In this connexion: hm>ngemang . •Therewith, In aepnl to that: ~rwil> .Acconling to what, as, acconling u: t>&s l>e .About, concerning: ymb(e), ymblitan .For, open to (marking relation): tOforan .Tblreto, for it: l>i!rfore .Therefrom, from which: ~rof, 1>anon ..From what, u far u: 1>aes l>e . •To be a source or cause of, procluce: icennan, weccan, (ge)wyrcan .To start otr, make a beginning of: ofgin .To begin, 11ndenake: underginnan° •To sprout forth, aa 111lmte: growan, lipkpryttan See Origin

05.03.01 A came (of anything): andweorc .Came (from which aesult follows): intinga .Be cause: for 1>cm (l>e), for t>on (l>e), for l>Y (l>e), hwy, )>zt, l>Y ..For that cause, became: for ~m. for !>on, for l>Y ..Because, since: 1>aes .For, through, from, became, oa 8CCOUDt of: fore Through, In conwqu:mce of, by neson of: l>urh .In that case, then: ~r. t>onne .How: hii, hiimeta ..How on earth: nihwl!r eort>an hll .Why, wherefore: for hwon, for hwy, bwaet, hwy, to hwem, tO hwln, to hwy ..From what position or state: hwanon(e) .To bring about, came: ber!nian, gccncftan, gedon, get'Cran, fullfremman, (ge)macian, wegan MTo bring about, came (evil): forwyrcan •To pve riae to, stir up, came: geaefnanP, lbebban, istyrian, (ge)macian, llplhebban MGlves rise to: llllleg tO •To ofter an opportunity for: onlilcan .To came to be/become: (ge)brengan (on), (ge)dOn (tO), (ge)macian (to), gesettan to, gewyn::an M

251 Without need or cause .To bring (someoM/thing to): (gc)babban, gcteon to, to (gc)don .To bring upon (someone): isettan, bcspanan on, on/to gcteon, sendan .To give, cause (effect on object): forgicfan .To cause to, let: forlretan, lretan .To get/cause ((to be) done): begictan, (ge)habban .To contribute (to a result): (ge)giin, gegangan See I 1.0/.05 Accomplish Without need or cause: t>earflw •Without cause: carwunga, idellicc, on idel ..Without came, undesenedly: be ungewyrhtum .Needlessly, unaccountably: t>earflWe To work upon, inftuence: in weorcan .To guide, induce to: (ge)cierran (on/to), (ge)lredan .To cause to act, tum (to action): gehwierfan .To bring to, cause to assume: gewyrcan ..To cause to assume (attitude): gesettan, gewyrcan .To bring (affecting quality/condition to): (gc)don .To draw to, attrad: (gc)teon to A destructive inftuence: sceadu .Oppressive effect or inftuence: hefe Reason, cause: ontimber. l>ing, wise .A reason, ground (of action): intinga, gcscCad .CoDS4"'1uent on, attributable to: fofl>gclang, gelang .For this reason: for l>isum l>ingum .For that reason: on 1>iet gerid, !>anon .Whence: be hwon, hwanon(e) .Therefore: ciil>licc, eomostlfcc, for l>Y. to l>im. l>Y ..Therefore ••• because: for l>Y .. . for l>ttm, for l>Y .. · l>Y ..Therefore, consequently, then: t>onne •Whether: hwiet>cr, hwzt>cr l>c ... t>c. J>eah ..Whether ••• or: hwzt>cr . .. t>e ..Whether, if: sam ... sam, sam l>c ... sam (l>c), sam ge ... sam ge ..Given if, should it be that: J>eah ..If, unless: l>ttr ..If so: elcor ..seeing that, if, as, inasmuch as: nii (l>onne), l>i ..Since, seeing that: t>onne

252 Chance, hap, event -••~

bl>c weg, t>Y l~s (J>c)

"Unless, lest: t>Y l~s (J>c) .To attribute (to), ucribe (to): cnOdan, hlrgan, geb"lelian, tomearcian,


See 06.01.03 Faculty ofReason 05.03.02 Event, issue, result: becyme0 , cyme, cndc, gclimp, swice, gct>ing, wzstm, (gc)wyrd .Co'""'quence, result: fintaP, team, tohrgung«, tiidor .EJrect, effect produced, frdftlment: (gc)frcmcdnes, (ge)fremnesg, (ge)wcorc, gewyrd .Effectually, with telling effect: deoplrce, spCdlrce .When, as, since~ mid t>Y .The case in which, when: t>onnc •Then ••• when: l>i ... l>i .That, in order that: to t>on t>zttc, J>zt, 1>zttc, 1>zt t>c .Jn order that, to the end that: to l>im 1>zt, to t>on t>zt. 1>zt .To come from, be caused by: (gc)wcofl>an of •To become, prove a source of, be: (ge)weort>an to .To tum out, have as issue: cuman, (gc)gangan, gclimpan, (gc)wcort>an to .To be, have result, tum out: wcort>an bchworfcn, wcsan "To tum out badly, fall (impen): mistidan° "To tum out unfortunately: mislimpan .To experience, undergo: (gc)bidan, ton .To meet with, incur, undergo: gcfaran, geferan, findan, (gc)metan, gcmittan,underhnigan .To come acroa, meet with, light upon: (ge)metan, onfindan .To run into, have recourse to: bcicrnan on .To come about, come upon: lgicldan, forecuman, ofercuman .To be done about: gcwcort>an be Chance, hap, event: gcgang, g~ligncs, g~lnesq, gcsitll> .A chance oemnence: weasgclimpq .A chance, accident: wyrd .Chance: wenung .Fortuitous, happening by chance: f&rlic, g~lig, gcwyrdclic .Occasional, accidental: gclumpcnlic .By chance: fltringa, fatrlicc, of bclimpc, semnendlrce«, wyrdgcsceapum0 g .By chance, ac:dclentally: gclimpc, mid WW, WW See Possibility

253 An event, occumnce An event, occw rmce: belimp, gelimp, j>ing, (ge)wyrd .Ordered coune of events: gesceaft, gesceap •That happens or befalls: gelimplic .Abnormal, unvasonable: ungelimplic .Come upon, fallen upon: ondge .To come to pus, happen: igin, igangan, llimpanP, irfsan, besceotan (on),

belimpan, beon/wesan, (ge)byrian, cuman, (ge)f!ran, (ge)gin (forj>), (ge)limpan, (ge)dlan, gesceotan, up irisan, wendan, (ge)weort>an .To fall out, happen: faran, forj>fyliganoS -To happen amlu: mistimian .(Of time, season) to come, fall, take place: to mannum cuman, geweorl>an -(Of time) to come, arrive: gegin, gegangan _(Of time) to draw near: onhigian .To befall, come upon, happen to: aetfeallan, Meallan, becuman, befeallan on, begin to, gegangan, (ge)limpan, ongin, (ge)sceon, (ge)tidan, getrmian, geweort>an •To come forward: forj>cuman •To supervene, emue: oferbecuman& 05.04 Fate, lot, fortune, destiny: gebyrd, (ge)dil, gedryht, geosceaft0 P.

gifel>e, heahg~p P, hiw, hliet, hlot, hlyt, gelAc, gelimp, m2lgesceaftP, orlaegP, gesl!lignes, gesceaft, gesceap, gescipe0 P, si):>, gewif, wintergegong°&, (ge)wyrd .Predestination: forestihtung, foreteohhung -An order of providence: gesceaft, gesceap, gesetnes, wyrdstaef0 P .Predestined, destined: forestiht, foregetihtged&, foreworden •To foreordain, predestine: forcgesecgan, forestihtian, forcteohhian°&, foreteon .To foreordain, destine, appoint: (ge)scirian, (ge)teon .To mark out (for an end), destine: imearcian .To destine, adjudge (a person to anything): (ge)scieppan (to), geteon .To destine (a thing for a person): (ge)endebyrd(i)an, gemyntan (to), (ge)serifan •To appoint, dispose: iscttan, onstellan, gesecan .To determine (a course of action): (ge)teon .To appoint, fix (position): getrymman .To settle, fix, ordain (immaterial objects): (ge)teon •To be compelled by destiny: j>urfan ..Sball, must: scea1



05.05.01 An author, source, originator 05.04.01 Fortune, Fate (pea11CN110.:ation): (ge)wyrd .Wheel of Fortune: !>et hwerfende hw~I .Tbe Fates: wyrde ..One of tbe Fates: metten° .A fated hour: gesooipbwt1°P .Granted by fate, given: ~nP, gifepe .Appointed, arranged: gescrifen .To decree, appoint, allot, asstp: (ge)scieppan, (ge)sclifan .To dictate, bring forth: myntan .To fall to one's lot: (ge)tidan .(Of what lies before one) to be appointed: gelicgan 05.05 Comtitudon, foandina (e.g. of world): onset(e)nes .Construction, putdng together, creadon: (ge)hiwung, gesceap, (ge)sceapennes, gesetednes, (ge)setnes, (ge)timbrung .Creation of tbe world: fru~wung°S, frum.sceaft, frumgesceap0 P, frumsetnunglf, frum(ge)weorc, frymJ>, fymgesceap0 P ..Artificer, maker, author, a eetor: crefta, creftiga, wyrhta .To creete, make, bring about: lscieppan, bewyrcan, (ge)fremman, (ge)scieppan, (ge)t~n ..To create amln: miswyrcan° .To compose, put toaetber, make: (ge)legan, gesamnian, wefan, wylw(i)an, (ge)wyrcan .To make, produee, do: (ge)dOn, gegearwian .To bring forth, produce: forpberan, forpbringan, forplEoliend .To oriafnate, institute: istellan, iweccan, hebban, ingangan, onstellan, (ge)siwan, (ge)stepan .To found, establish, Ht up: Hran, isettan, istellan, istemnian°, gegearwian, rl!ran, (ge)settan, (ge)sta)>olian, (ge)timbrian •To initiate, do something ftnt: istellan, onstellan .To repeat, establish for a second dme: (ge)edsta)>elian


05.05.02 Productivity, bringing forth 05.05.02 Produdlvity, brinalna forth: fort>l>Cro0 P .Propagator, one that brinp forth: tjdriend -Ground, earth (as productive): hrilse .To yield, produce, brina forth: igieldan, illtdan (iit), (ge)brengan,

forJ>it&>n, gin fort> mid, giefan

See Sex, generation 05.05.03 Bindina, fattening: gebind, bindings, gewriJ>ing0 S .Binding, condition of befna bound: gewrit>ennes0 .A bond, tie, fastening: bend, gecnyccl, fa:stnung, gegaderung ..SOmethingl-one that binds one: bindere0 P ..A knot, fasteoina: cnotta

.That binds: wnpende ..A cord for bindioa: wealhslda0 P .Fut, not easily looeecl, that bolds fast: fa:st, fa:sthafol .Fastened: (ge)wril>en -Having a cord: gecorded°I ..Knotted: cnotted0 .Inclissoluble, not to be unbound: unibindendlic0 , unibrecendlic0 g, unicnycendlic0 g, unanbindendlic, unforedlicl, untOlesendel, untolysendlic0 .Fut, ftrmly bound, tightly: fa:ste, hearde, srn!alrce .To tie, bind, couoect: becnyttan, (ge)bindan, (ge)bregdan, (ge)cnyccan, (ge)cnyttan, onbindan, (ge)tiegan, gq,ryn, (ge)wilian, (ge)wn1'an, gewril>elian°1 .(Of a rope, bond, etc.) to de, fasten: becnyttan, befa:stnian, (ge)bindan, (ge)wn"Jlan .To make fast: onifa:stnianl, onfa:stan .To tie round, bind about: bebindan, becnyttan, (ge)windan, ymbbindang, ymbsltlanl, ymbwindan -Into a ball: ymbhringan -To swathe, wa ap around: beswe1>1>an -To waap up, roU up: (ge)fealdan .To yoke, join together: (ge)geocian, n!pan •To twist together, bind together: gewntstan .To bind (up), mume: forbindan .To bind together, rubict: clencan° See Whole; 17.03.10 Fastening 05.05.04 That l()(Jf=s, looemlna: iliesendlic0 256

05.06 Destruction, dissolution, loss, breaking .Open, loo1ed, unloo1ed: t6slopen, unslopen° -Untied: Uenod°I, ulcacod, untogen .To unloo1e, undo, untie, uafutm: lwrij>an, (ge)lresan, onbindan, onlipian, onlysan, ondlan, onsliipan°, onteon, ontigan°, onwindanP, tooon, unbindan, uncnyttan, undon, unfestnian°, unlysan, undJans, untigan, unwrij>an .To release, nlax: onlattanP .To slacken, looern: klaeccan°' .To unfold, unroll, unwind: lrlfian, unfealdan, unwindan, gewindan of .To unbind, unclasp: kpannan°, onspannanP, unspannanoe .To unyoke: ungeocian° .To looselreAeaee from• bond: ilysan of, tolysan .(Of• bond) to be loosed/undone: t6sliipan

05.06 Destrucdon, dlnolution, loa, bnakln1: bntc, cwild, gedil, dilignes0 S, endel>fZst°, for(e)scendingS, forlor, forspild0 , forspillednes, forwyrd, forwyrht, gefylness, hryre, lyre, nij>cwalu0 P, nQ>cwealm0 P, onforwyrdS, spild, tobrytingoS, tOcwescednes, tOcwestednesq, t61ysednes, t6stencednes, t6worpednes0 , toworpennes, toworpnes .A dubuctive journey/expedition: spildsi)>0 P .A ravqer, dcstrvyer: ilupend, itorsceal>aP, iwestend, iwierdend, dZdhata0 P, dolsceapa0 P, forhergend, forswelgend, slrtere, tolysend, wiga, wundiend .Destrvying, desbucthe, voracious: lhypende, iwestende, ~lie, etende, etol, grfre, gredig, grimlic, grimm, heardlupende0 P, hypende, numol, tolysendlicS, towyrpendlic0 s, welgrim, wurpol°' ..Destructive to sbippina: scipbrucoloS .Destrvyed, demolished: ibryredS, forfaren, gehriered, oferbryredS, onfordon°8, tohrered, tohroren, t0stenced, toworpen .Choked, strangled: fori>r~t .Dutructively: cwildbatrlice°', to lore, to lose .To dcstrvy: ibreotan, ibr&>t>an, ibrytanS, ldon, ihildan, ibryranS, lhwylfan, npsans, kciifan, klitan, ispilJanoS, ktyrfan, iwierdan, (ge)brecan, (ge)dflegian, gedreccan, forbrecan, forcinnan°P, fordilgian, fordon, forecuman, forgnanoa, forgnidan, forgrindan, forleosan, forscrencan, forspildan, forspillan, forstregdan°S, forsweorfanS, fortredan, forwyrcan, (ge)hienan, gehwierfan, (ge)losian, ofslean, onwendan, sliJ>an°P, spildan, (ge)spillan, tobrecan, t6brytan, tMltlan, tOdrifan, tohwyrfanoS, tOliican, toscendan, tospillan°', t0stencan, tostregdan,


05.06.01 Devastation, laying waste towendan, toweorpan, trzgJianS, gepn!stan, undOn, unwyn::an°, gewemman -To destroy by cboldng: ismorian, fo$ysmian, ofl>rysm(i)an

OS.06.01 Devastation, layins waste: forhergung, here, hfennes0 , I)>ungq .Ruin, destruction, perdition: bite, fiell, forspenning, fortreding°S, losing°S, sup0 P, tolysings ..Destruction of protection/shelter: hleohrascnesq ..Destruction of Ille: tlbemes0 ...Destruction of men: mannmyrring° -Utter destniction, extirpation: iitcwealm0 S ..Destruction by night: nihtbealu0 P .Desolation, ndn: iwest(ed)nes, forhtt(en)nes, forlorenes, framslitnesS, hryre, loswistS, tOcwysednes, tolysnes, wacl, wig .A destroyer, devastator: tOlysend, westend, ytend •.Flood as destroyer: ftOd •Waste, desolate: weste .Fallen, spoiled, desolate: gehroren, weste .Fallen, dilapidated: hreorig°P, gebroren, togliden, tohroren -(Of stones) loosened: tOgliden .Damaged: byrst, gewyrten°S .Burned up, parched, consumed: forhtel>ed0 g, forswzled .Exposed to storms/?nined: brypig°P ••Wind-felled/wind-shaken: bewiwen°P, windfylled0 .To lay waste, destroy, devastate: adflegian, Ahypan, arepan, Amierran, i)>erscan°, iwestan, forhergian, forhienan, forslean, (ge)hypan, ie)>an, (ge)striidan, tolysan, (ge)westan -(Of person) to lay waste, destroy: barian, forhergian, (ge)rCafian, (ge)ripan •To devour, engulf, consume: ibitan, if'edan, igeotan, beswelgans, geendian, etan, facprnianP, forglendrian, forgripan, fomiman, forsceorfan°, (ge)forswelgan, (ge)Cretan, geneopan°P, offrettang, ofswelgan, (ge)slitan, (ge)swelgan -(Of animates) to devour, consume: beginan, forglendrian, fomiman, forslitan, (ge)Cretan, (ge)frettan, purhetan -To be comumed: wesan fomumen .To overthrow, topple, destroy: isciifan, iscylfanog, iwendan, geeapmed(i)an, foreistreccan°g, (ge)glendriang, gehnzgan, ofcirrang, oferweorpan, g~gan, tOweorpan, )>ennan, ymbstyrianog ••To burl to destruction: forbregdan, forgnidan


OS.06.02 Cleaving, splitting, cutting .To cut down, deatlVy, crush: idwl!scan, idydan, igytanP. istreccan, t>RotanP, gebrytan, (ge)ceorfan, forbrytan, forlosian, forscrencan, (ge)fyllan _(Of blade) to cut down, dabvy: forceorfan, of)>ecgan°P .To desbvy, exterminate: igilanP, ilt lmer(i)an .To send to destruction, to have dabvyed: forsendan .To nd.n (oneself): forp~ran, forwyrcan .To h•mble, fall down: ifeallan, ihreosan, isigan, isincan, tOfeallan, toglidan .To fall into 1111111: ifeallan, (ge)brosnian, (ge)lriosan, tohreosan, wOrian .To slip away, be looemecl: tOglJdan, tOslilpan See;05.12.02/f Move

05.06.02 Cleaving, spllttinc, cutting: cleofung0 s .Catting, act of cutting: cyrf .A cut, incision: snide .A cuttinc oft', amputation: ofcyrf .That is slit, cut: isniden, tOsliten .Cut up, cut into pieces: tOsniden -Cut, (badly) cut up: forcorfen .Broken off, detacbed: aborsten .To cut, cut otr, cut down, hew: (ge)ceorfan .To cut up: toslzfan°, tosnZdan° .To cut between: betweohceorfan' .To cut, cut otr: J>witan •To cut off, snivlier, l!eVel': isciran, isrupan (of), beheawan, (ge)ceorfan (of), forceorfan, forcippian'. forJ>wyrftan, of iceorfan, of ibeawan, of isciran, of isnij>an, otbcccan°, ofsrupan, tOc:eorfan, tosrupan .To strike otr: beslean, of isleait .To cut up, cut asunder: forceorfan, forwn'lan°P, onsnij>an° .To cut open: hrician .(Of weapon) to cut tbroagb, shear: (ge)scieran •To cut down: Amlwan°P, forceorfan .To cut to pieces, cut down: gescyrdan°P •To cut to pieces: forhCawan, tOceorfan, t0cleofan, tohaccian°. toheawan, tOslifan, t0snij>an .To cut into slices, cut up: gesnedan, (ge)snij>an .To cut to shreds, shred: (ge)scearfian •To cut otr the front: forcceorfan .To fell, cut down: iceorfan, ifyllan, ihCawan, (ge)b!awan See; Cutting

259 A cleft, split A deft, spUt: gcclyftOI .(or a dHr) cat, riven: scoren •To deave, split: kleofan°, ispletanoS, cleofan, gescieran, slilan, t6chtfanog, t6cleofan .To slit, rend, deave, break a•nder: tOslilan .To split: splitanq -To split asunder: tOhlidan .To divide, take to pieces: tOniman .To dismember, disjoint, take to pieces: ot>l>Codan°P, tOli~ian .To divide in two by blow/stroke: tOsl!an •To spilt in two: twifyrclian .To divide by a blow: swingan on twi •To deprive (of) by a stroke: besl!an .To break off, separate forcibly: lbrecan A cnck: cine, filmen .C111Cked, full ofc:racb: cineht°' .Iaky, bavinl cracks or rents: hlcc .To crack, break into chink•: cinan, t6cinan, tOspringan

See 05.10.03 Gap A tearin& apart: geter .A slit, rent, tear: slite, taruog, geter .Ripped up, torn apart: isprindlad0 •To cat, tear, rend: ceorfan, gehrespan°, rendan', (ge)reofan, slilan, (ge)teran, tOslilan .To tear asunder, part, separate: arcafian°P, fram iteran, tObregdan, ti>slitan -To pull apart: toferian ..To pull away: onwegpullianq .To pull or tear to pieces: toteon, toteran, toweorpan ..To pull to pieces: tObregdan, totreglian°' .To tear: slilan, teran .To make an opening in, cut, break: (ge)openian .To separate (into parts), be torn to pieces: gcdi:lan, gcdi:led beon/wesan 05.06.03 A dashing together, breaking, sbaUering: .Broken: forod -(Of a sieve) broken: iwyrd _(or ice) half-broken: healfbrocen° ..Broken, bunt asunder: tOborsten 260


05.06.05 A grinding, pounding ..Broken, tom apart: t6brocen ..Broken, dlMOlved: tolysed

.To fall upon, dub aplnst, O'te& whtlm; ilriosan, cwysan, forfeallan°, inhrmn', on(ge)breosan To dub together: behlennnanP .To break: forbrecan .To break, tear: forgnidan .To Alike against and break: geslean .To break to pieces, demolish: ibrccan, (ge)brecan, bn:can idiine, t6fyllan°P, t6rcndan, tOSCltnan, tOslean, tOswenganP, tl>)>e:rscan° .To break to piects, shatter: ibrccan, bebrecanop, forbritan, (ge)dnan, tObrecan . •To shatter: fulberstan .To break, be tom asunder: forberstan, onspringan, tOberstan .To fty to pieces, sprina asunder: tOspringan M

05.06.04 Damage, Injury, defect, hurt, loa: aefwyrdelsaP, aefwyrdla, byrst,

lyre, unfremu, unntd, wanung, wroht. wrobtstaepe0 P .(Of sword) pitted, having lndeatatloas: pytted0 .(Of weapons) hacked, tom: sceard •To harm, touch rou&hly and Injure: forweorpan, hrepian/hreppan, hrrnan, gel>l'Cagan/gepreawian •To harm, Injure, mar: aeteglan°P, (ge)hearmian, mismacian°, ol>wyrcan°, (ge)scel>l>an .To sbanafe, throttle, worry: wyrgan To beat severely, maul, strangle: isilcan .To shake to plects, dabvy: swengan, t6braan .To desbvy by beadlna, trample upon: fortrcddan, ofstaeppan, oftredan, M


•To destroy by drauln& about: forbregdan .To prosbate, stretch out (on rack, etc.): ij>enian .To 1errate, give tom effect: t0slitan .To tear (with weapon), wound, pierce: tisan .To hack Into (someone): inbeslean° .To stab 1eVenly,desb'Oy by th.rusts: t0stician° ~~M~~~wumm~~MOJ. UW~Ol~ury

05.06.05 A pin.ding, ponwllng: grists, trifelung°S

•That pincls: grindende .Kneaded, anshed: becncden°, gebercd 261 A rubbing .Pounded, beaten: gebeaten

.Ground, powdered: gegrunden .Finely, into small pieces: smale .To pound, grind, batter: (ge)beatan, (ge)cnucian, (ge)cnii(w)ian, forgrindan, (ge)grindan, (ge)trifulian, J>erscan, gewealcan •To crumble, niblpind to pieces: ignidan, (ge)brytan, gccrymman°, (ge)gnidan See 17.03.04 Tools A nibbing: gnfding° .To nib: (ge)gnfdan, gnuddian°8 "To nib thoroughly: begrudan° "To cover by nibbing: gnrdan "To nib oft: ignidan A ftllng, nibbing with file: ffliende0 8 .To file away: sweorfanP See Filings Bruisina, cmshing: gebrysednes0 8 .Crushed condition (of material): gel>n!stednes .Crushed, buried by something crublng: othroren .Crushed, beaten to pieces: tobeaten .Plessed (down): il>yd, bel>rydoS .To bniiw, crush: gecwysan "To blunt, break, crush: aetstyntanS, forstyntan .To crush, break to pieces: forl>n!stan. tObJ"Ytan .To desbvy, crush: (ge)hnkan, gehnyscanoS, othreosan, ofsettan, ofl>ryccan .To crush, smash, shatter by cnishlng: tObrys(i)an, tOcnyssan, tOcwysan,

tOl>ntstanoS, gel>n!stan .To dcsbvy by beating: fort>erscan° .To beat to pieces: tobeatan .To press down: bel>ryccan .To shatter, be crushed: tOcwysan 05.06.06 A scraping, scarifyina: scearfung, scyrft0 g .A scarification, indslon: scearpe, scearpung .Chipped, scraped: gesceafen __,,__,. 0 , bescrepan, scearft.1an0 , scrap1an . 0 •11o scrape: beM;1~1an , screpan "To scrape off/away: iscrepan lweg/of .To shave, grind, plane: (ge)scafan


05.06.07 Pricking, a prick, puncture

.To sbatr, shave oft: lcfcsian°, lsceafan .To scrape, shred: sceorfan, gcsceorpan .To mince, cut up !PIUlll: corftian .To KOre round: bestrican°, bewrilan, ymbwrrtan° .To llCUify, malre Incision lo skin, ICOl"e: scearpian A tearloa, laicentloa: slitncs, t6slitncs .A tearlJll, rending, bltiq: gcslit. slnung .A clawing: clifrung0 S .To scratch, tear, lattiate: sceorfan, tOclifrian, t6rjpan° •To sa atcb, claw: cliwan, cliwian°, clifrian .To bite, tear (with teeth, beak, etc.): ibitan, bebn.ans, (ge)bJtan, slrtan, (ge)teran, t6slrtan .To bite through: forbrtan° .To chew, gnaw: becCowanP, begnagan° .To chew oft, bite oft: beslitanP, fon:Cowan° .To lay, skin: iflean, beftean, behyldan, oeans, hyldan .To scalp: behaettian, haettian 05.06.07 Prlddng, a prick. puncture: brord, prcung0 s, sticung .A piercing, perforation: stacung°, pyrelung° .A bole made lo anything, aperture, orUlce: pyrel .A prick, puncture, stab, tbnlst: stice .Bored through, pierced: purbholodoS, purhpyrel ..Perforated: pyrel ..With belly pierced: pyrelwamb0 P •To prick, pierce: ipriccan°, (ge)prician, pyngan .To perforate, make a bole through: borian (on), onfaestnian, purhborian°, purhpyr(e)lian, pyrlian .To paocture, prick to pieces: t6stingan .To lance: asceotan .To pierce, strike into: beslean on .To stab, pierce, gore, wound: inbcstingan°, ofstician, ofstingan, (ge)stician, (ge)stingan, J>Cowan, pyddan ..(Of animal) to gore: hnitan

.To run/smiWtbnlst through: idrifan, purhdelfan, }>urhdrifan, purhslean, purhstingan,purhpyddan°,purbwrccan .To pien:e through, pt through: }>urhfaran, purbfOn, purbgin, purbieman,

J>urhwadan .To nm through, pierce, spit:



05.06.08 A plucking, taking away .To spit, impale, stab: isnl!san .To tnr.sftx: lfestnian, t>urhfestnianl, l>urhsticcianq. l>urhl>Yn/-t>&>wan .To shoot through, transfix: t>urhsceotan .To shoot, strike (an object): ilt lscC!otan

See 05.l Enter; l Contention; 13.02.03ff Attack 05.06.08 A pluddna, taking away: mit>numen°' .Tom out, plucked out: ifohten -Rooted up, pulled oat by the roots: of iwyrttumad, up ilil>d. up ilocen, iit ilocen -(Of thorns) pulled out: ilp ilooen .To pluck, pull: plyccan, pullian •To twist, tweak: wringan •To pluck off: ihncapan°P, ipluccian, ircndan°, of ipluccian .To pull, tear off: of ipullian, pluccian .To twist out, waest out: ij>nlstanl .To pluck out: iholian ilt, unlilcan .To pull out, tear out: of idOn .To puWclraw/pluck from, extricate: ibregdan (iip), ihlcfanoS, iliican (iit), itCon of, iteon iit of, iwyrtwalian, bregdan of, forgnidan, of ileon, of dOn, onteon, pycanq, iip iliican, iip ilCon, iit ililcan .To puWroot up, weed out: iwCodian, iwyrttrumian°, iwyrtwalian, iwyrtwarian', bregdan ilp, liican°P, unwyrtrumian°' , iit iwyrtrumian, gcwyrt(t)rumian •To root up, extirpate: istyfician, iswcfccian', iteran° , iwyrtwalian, ofwyrtrumianl, styfician°, wyrtwalian -To pull up, loosen: ilp ihwylfan - To root up with the snout: wrotan •To extract by digging, di& up/oat: idclfan, iblocian', (gc)dclfan, ofdclfanl, iip idclfan, iit idclfan -To dig up, damage by digina: fordclfan° .To tbnist/pidr. out, KOU&e out: iweg idclfan, stician ilt, iit lidon •To scratch out: screpan .To tbrost out (eya): istingan, ilt istingan .To put out (eyes): ot>tan See Removal

264 A shower of blows (?hammer on weapon) 05.06.09 Act of strUdna: spyrring' .A stroke, blow, lmodr: gedrq>op, dynt, lujsc, ofslegeoS, onslaegel, siege, sweng, swingel ..A retum blow: andslyhtP ..A swordstroke: heoruswengP, sweng ..A blow striking off tbe ear: earslege0 ..A fatal blow: feorhsweng°P ..A wounding/evil/treacberous blow: dolgslegeP, hearmslcgc0 P, heteswcng°P, inwithlemmop, mlnslagu0 P, slrslcgeP ..A striking in the face: hleorra:scncsq ..A blow/box on tbe ear: earplaett ..A blow on tbe cheek: hleorslaege0 ..A stroke OD tbe neck: sw\irplaett°P .(Of a wound) inflicted by a blow: onbcslagcn° .To beat, strike: ibeatan, bCatan (on), bcslean, bewrecanP, cnrdan, dcngan, (ge)drepan, hentan, hnaeppan, hnossian°P, (gc)hrinan, (ge)slean, strlcan, t>accian, (gc))>crscan. J>oddcttan ..To strike bard, smite: istrrcan, bcslean on, j>urhslean .To remove by a stroke: (ge)slean of .To strike/beat down: ifyllan, brcodwianop .To strike through: ofcrswingan° .To box the ears: (ge)earplaett(i)gan .To strike, hit (with object): sceotan, getyrfan°, (ge)weorpan, worpian •To poke, strike at: pucianoS .To butt,pusb: hru'UUl, potian See 02.05.06ff. Touch; Metal wort.er A llap with tbe band, blow: handsmael&, handgcswing, snuel0 ' .Struck with the fist: fYstslaegenoS .To strike (with tbe band): islean, swingan •To strike with tbe fist: gctystlian°& Act of ldddng: sporetung' .Given to kicking or tnmplina: spurul' •To tick, strike with tbe feet: speamlian, sporettan', sporncttan', spurnan, steartlian' .To press with tbe foot, hold tbe foot on: (ge)trcdan .To strike (foot) aplmt, stumble (upon): spurnan A shower of blows (?hammer OD weapon): sciir 265 Stoning, casting of stones .Hammered. beaten: islegen .To strike (with hammer): islean See 17.03.08 Htll'fl1ner Stoning, c:astina of stones: s~ning .A shower of stones: hryre .To stone: (ge)h&nan, oftyrfan°, (ge)s~nan, (ge)torfian .To destroy by non•na: oftorfian, tOtorfian 05.07 Ending of aistence, end of world: (ge)endung, woruldende0 P .Flnal state: ende .A last day: endedeg .Nothing: nlht. nlnwiht. nlt>ing ..Nothing more, no more: ni mi, ni mire ..Nothing else, DOtblng at all: ealles niubt, nlht elles ..None, not one, no: nl!nig, nin ..Neither: nihwel>er .SUdow (u opposed to reality): sceadu ..Sbadow (as opJJ1111?d to substa111tt): sceadu, sciia ..A phantom, apparition: gliderung°S .Not being: nitrende .That Is perishing: forwordenlic .Annulled, made void: forllrCrestillan° .To bring low, put down: ilicgan, fellan .To delete, blot out, obliterate: ihwitianS, (ge)dflegian, (ge)dwitscan, fort>idflgian° .To dissolve, put an end to: tolysan, toslitan, toweorpan •To undo, bring to naught: wil>slean .To make null, annal: iidl(i)an, lwl!gan, don tO niubte, undon, wanian •To fall, come to an end: iblinnan, icwincan, ilicgan, lspringan, istandan, itCorian, (ge)blinnan, gedilegian, (ge)dm>san, ende habban, (ge)endian, faran, forberstan, forcgeleoran°s, forgin, forbweorfan°, forsittan, forweofi>an, forj>scacan', fort>gewitan, (ge)leoran, (ge)licgan, ofergin, 266

05.08 Strength

ofergangan, slfdan, (ge)t!orian, tofaran, toftowan, togangan, t6slupan, ttucian, weoq,an to nluhte, gewllan .To qnlsb, d•ppear: lcwincan, idwfnan, aetglrdanog, iiernan, lslupan, forsweltan See 05.l 1.10.02 End 05.08 Strenatb: cr&ftig, ellcn, innol>ma:gens, strengu .Great sbeogtb: tmuniht&, hQh strengi>u, ma:genstrenguP ,(Of animates) bodily strength: miht, woruldstrengu0 P

..Strength of arm: handmaegenP ..Strength of tusks: tol>maegen°P .Strength/toughness of sword: ecgt>racu0 P .A strenathenlng: hyrdungoS, (ge)strangung, trumnat>0 P, trymming, trym}> .Strong: maegenig0 , swi}>, tnun, trumlic "Very strong, strenuous: elf, forcmihtiglic0 8, forstrang0 P, l>urbstrangoS ..Strong-armed: earmstrang°', earmswips, stranghynde -Famed for strong arm/band: h•ndr0f0 P, mundrof0 P .Strong, robust, sturdy: stranglic, swi}>, tnun -Of full strength, grown up: orpcd -(Of bone) sturdy, stout-framed: gel>racen°8 ..Strong as a man: ceorlstrangoS -(Of ass) strong at carrying burdens: byrf>cnstrang° .(Of sword-edge) strong, clnagbty: dyhtigP. l>yhtig°P .Very bard: sciiJ'heardP .Made strong: trum .Strongly: stranglrce .Using only natural sbeogtb: mid gemcte .SO as to encourage, strvmgly: trumlice .Strongly, very much: forswij>e, sbpe, swipe swipe ..Strongly, ftrmly: tulge .Mightily: scirc .To grow/be sbvq: (ge)strangian ·"Thrives, ls/becomes strongi dCag .To become strong: gesti}>ian, (ge)trymman .To pin sbeugtb: elnian .To make stroag: getrumian, (ge)tJymman/(ge)trymian -(Of sight) to make more active, sbeapben: gescicrpan .To make firm, sbeogtben, stHren: ifaestnian, forpgestrangian, gesbl>ian, (ge)trymman/(ge)trymian .To be/become stronger: (ge)swi}>rian


OS.08.01 Vigour, activity, force .(Of health) to become stronger: batian

See 02.08.01 Sound physU,iu; Strength. power; Fonitutk

05.08.01 Vigour, acti'rity, fon:e: feestnes, framnes0 • hweetscipe, lust, sttangung, strengt>(u), J>racuP •Vigour of youth: geogup .Vigorous, lively, active: feestlic, liffeest, DU1tgenfeest, scearp. sprin(g)d, sttanglic "Very active: swiJ>hweet°P .F1ourishing, 'ri1orous: blostmba!rc, geblowen, blowende •Vigorous, young, lusty: eepele .Potent, producing a powerful effect: sttang, swi}> •Vigorously, keenly, actively: ciftice, cwiclice, cwiferlice, feeste, feestlice, sprindlice0 g, sttanglice, swjplice .Vigorously, wholeheartedly: unisolcenlrce .To move/ad with energy/vt1our/fon:e: sttangian .To ftoarisb, be vigorous: (ge)blowan

See Strong feeling; 11.02.01 Energy; 17.01 Hard work

05.08.02 Violence, fon:e: meegenpise0 P, riceter(e), strec, sttangnes, strengpu, swi}>nes, (ge)preat, preatung, Ullldtnes .Violence, destructive fon:e: pracuP, w0da0 .Turbulence, tumult, commotion: (ge)drefednes, gedr!fnes, hestP, seecP, scilr, stonn, styrenes, styrung, gepra:c, gepring, ungerec, yp(g)ung .Noise, hlmult, chaos: (ge)dwolma, ungerydnes0 11 .8urge, (bot) touch (of death): wielm "Whirlpool: grutg .Violence offtre: belpracu0 P .Fierceness, keenness (of hunger): genjplaP •Violent, using force: stnec .Violent, unrestrained: stearc, stearcheard0 P .Burning, vehement: biemende .(Of fire) furious, blowing ften:iely: ibh!st .Rushln1, overwhelming, violent: onfeallende, onbreosende .Gushing with destruction: heoruweallende0 P .Mad, raging, furious: wOd .Becoming violent: swi}>feonnende' .Fiercely, violendy: grimlfce, bite, heardlice, hetelice, hetollice, replice,

stundum, )>earllice, prymme, prymmum, prypum


05.09 Wcalcness

..More atroqlyMoleady: swl}>or .Stralahtway, at once. vlolendy: lungreP .Violently, with impetus, fordbly: nydwreclrce0 , stem"Clfce, sti}>lfce, strzclice, ungerydelrce •Tumultuously: ungereclice .Vlolendy, vehemendy: forswipe, stranglrce .To rush upon, move violendy (towards): inntsan•, onn!san .To rush with violence, drive, act impetuously: drffan .To burst out, crack, break: iberstan .To beat, lash: bbtan (on) .To pour, flow, gush: g~tan .To make more acute, sharpen, inteNtfy: iscirpan, scierpan .To 1..,e, be violent: iwedan, grimsian •To be ardent/vehement: (ge)bieman See Severity OS.08.02.01 (Of living creatures) 8erceaer1, roupncsr: grimnes, grimsung° .(Of animals) ferocity, npadty: hetolnes, r!t>nes •Violent, rough, rmel, 8.eau: grimlic, grimm, b&stP, heard, st0r 0 , strang, swi}>lic, ungeryde, ungerydelic .Cruel, hard, fierce, savage: slij>e, slij>en, unbiere, unhierlic .Banh, fierce, not gentle: unbilewit°S .(Of violent men) untameable, 8erce: unltemedlic0 .Bani to subdue: earfot>wylde0 "Turbulent, ungovea ned: wilde .Greedy for war/destruction: giit>frecP .(Of beasts, etc.) ferocious, fierce: ~. betOJ, mOdig, J'Coc0 P, repe, rif .Untamed, wild: un(ge)temed "Very fierce: felafrecne0 P .S.ftlely,cnaelly: sli}>e .Ranhly, violently, blttaty: ullSOfte, un50ftlice0 .(Of people) to become wild: iwildian See Fien:eness OS.09 Weakness: tiedemes, untrumnes, wic •Want of vigour: hnescnes .Lack of power: unmiht .Inability, powedessners, w•kMM: mzgenlcast. unmihtiglicnes0 , unmihtignes .W•lmcss, feebleness, impotence: 1D11Cgenleast


05.()C).01 Slow, inactive .Impotence, Infirmity: unfemes .A weakening, redadng streagtb: wanung •Without strength, weak: mibtlbs, unframP, unmeagol', ungemihtq, urunihtig,unstrang, unstrcnge •Without force, weak: wic .Lacking in energy: hnesce .Belplea, powerless: uncneftig"P .Fragile, weak: bret>eJ 0 P, brocenlic0 , ticdre .Fragile, worthless: bryce0 P .Feeble, weak, without ftrmneu: swancorP .Frail, perishable, weak: gehreneoS, J~ne, unwn!st(e) .Perishable, decaying: hryre0 .Without strength, feeble, powerless: ma:genlbs .8oft, weak, feeble: hnesce .Feeble, weak, infirm: s&>c, un(ge)trum, unttumlic .Weakened, debilitated: oncydre', swter .Weakly, feebly: mearulrce. unswtpe, wiclice .Feebly, impoteady: ma:genleaslfceotl .To weaken: iblician, Agin, ihnescian, ishpian, lswindan, itidrian, iwician, lwindan°, lytlian, wanhilian, (ge)weomian, weorpian' .To be/become weak: (ge)wacian .To weaken, abate, subside: (ge)swe~rian .To make weak, weaken: ilefian, lwecanq, tOlysan, untrumian, (ge)wtecan, gewanh~lan°

.To reduce (by medical treatment), weaken: wanian •To deprive of strength: geunmihtan° .To weaken, disable: gesJeccan°P .To hurt, weaken: (ge)sce~~ .To reduce/destroy strength of, subdue, weaken: (ge)wieldan .To enfeeble, weaken: (ge)hnesc(i)an, t~lan° .To reduce strength, temper, weaken: gewieldan See 11.08.01 Uselessness

05.09.01 Slow, Inactive: lact .Subdued, ovea powered: gemeneq .Getting exhausted or wearied, falling: tiori(g)endlic .To be slack or inacdve: (ge)idlian, iseolcan .To IJ'OW sluglsb or dull, slacken: ilatian°', islacian .To rein: lwician •To cause to fall or faint, to dre (someone): tCorian 270

05.09.03 Mitigation, liglltening, alleviation

.To eat away below,sap: uoderetan .To ckndea: idydan .To cbeck, mnke daO: gestyntan°'

See 11.06 Listlessness 05.09.cn MildatlB, modeaate qaallty: h1>nes .Moderation, tempnatmcrr: (ge)metgung, gemetnes0 .8oothlngnm, 1entlmr•: Oleccung

.Mild, moderate: IQ>e, row .Mild, not strong: slfte .Smooth, sootbha&, bland: 51* .Not fierce, 1entle: UJrit>e0 , unscel>J>ig .Gentle, plen•nnt: bll)>elic .Gentle, quiet: bll)>e .Tender, delicate: unbrocbeard .soft. yielding: hnesce .Moderately: gemetlice, gewealden .To a moderate dea•ee: liJ>elice .softly: hnesclice •Without pre 1111re, ll&hdy: lwbtlrce .To beat aently, IOOthe, w : (ge)Oleccan .To make soft, softm. moderate: (ge)hnesc(i)an .To make smooth or N•IMI: g~ See GentleMss 05.09.03 Mitigation, llghtenlna, alleTladon: lco)>uwlcunga0 , llbting, liss .Tempering, moderation: temprung' .Relief, alleviation: wyrp .To mitigate, soften the rigour of, alleviate: brysan, gehelpan, (ge)lihtan,

geli)>ewician, (ge)li)>ewlkan, (ge)li)>igian, onhntan°P, onli)>ian, onwzcan .To relieve, alleviate, ll&hten: ilihtan .To mitigate, allay, moderate: gemetgian, gemetl~ .To mbclue, temper: liss•n°P .To moderate, temper, ....iate: gemetgian, (ge)temprian .To appeaae, calm, quiet, AP!ftle: iswebban, (ge)stillan, geswebban, J>yllanq •To P"O• easier, alleviate, abate: Ul>ian .To ltop, mlNdcle, be allayed: (ge)stillan 271

OS.09.04 Abatement. reduction, checking 05.09.04 Abatement, nduc:tioa, dlttldq: wanung .To brin& within narrower limits, abate, check: (ge)wanian .To reduce, subdue, abate, les1~n: oferslean, (ge)wkan .To repress, abate, an'lage: oflxyccan, oflxyscan, (ge)stillan .To weaken, abate: gemieltan See Diminution; Reduce 05.09.05 Cr sstq, dttllne, fall off: dryreP .Wasting away, decay, falling: iteorung .Falling off, diminution (of crops): (ge)sweJ>rung .Degeneration, weakness, wortbJeu1re11: iwordennes0 S .To weaken, impair: wanian .To cause to wither or shrink: fors&rian .To impair, diminish: gewemman .To dilute: gecringan, ~ynnian .To draw away (from), seduce (from): idreogan, &tbregdan .To decline, fall away: idreosan°P, ifeallan, iglrdan, ilecgan, isinian, islgan, iswimian°P, iswirc(i)anS, iswindan, fordwinan, ofniman, onislidan8, onslidanog, wealwian .To waste away, lessen: (ge)dwinan, essianS .To fall, crumble, fail: (ge)dreosan .To give way, fall down, fall: (ge)wtcan See 03.02.01 Decay 05.10 Space, atent: bridnes, (ge)rilm, rymet .A space of two/three dimensions: f&c .SurTOUDded space, atent: ymbhwyrft

See Expanse 05.10.01 Amplitude, spacioamea, ....me.: widgilnes .Great/Immense atent: ~tnes. rym~ S .An extensive place: riimnes, sidhealf0 S, t6bn!d(ed)ness .An expanse, deep, abyss: f&~m .Spacious, ample: brid, bryten°P, f&cfulog, ginneP, rilm, rilmwelle0 S, sid, wid, widbrid0 P, WidgjJ .Widely: rilme, rilmgallfce0 , wide 0

05.10.02 Narrowne rr, scantlnea of space: nearones, nirewett .A narrow place, sbalt, conftnemmt: engu, nearones .A narrow strip (of land or water): ricq .A very PMll space, dot, point: prica


OS.10.04 Place, room .OMaftned, not lplldoas: enge, nemu, unrQmoS, unwfd° .Briefty, narrowly, within Umlts: nearolTce

05.10.03 A pp, cleft: sceard .A windy pp: windgeat° .Openin1 nor maple tree: mapuldorgeat° .Openi. . betwww roeh~ stingeat See Cleft, split

05.10.04 Pl•ce, room: geriima, rymet .A pl•ce, spot, locality: st&I, stede, st6w, wangstede .Place, position, staid: l6h, gesetnes, sta&K>I, steall, stedc, stOw, wic .A ltanclin&-place: standq, tillP .A place or rest, rc:stln1 place: rest .A place where somethi,. rests: sb&>wen .A place: sundorstow 0 .Aa appointed place (meetina place): gecwedstOw 0 .A pl•ce for waitiq: anbidst0w 0 .A camping-place: wicsteal1°P .Locallwd, occupying• place: stOwlic .Placed: ileged, ofergeseted, ofteged ..Pot/given to a place: forgiefen .ID reaped of pl•ce: st6wlrce .To be placed, be: (ge)standan .To sellle, take up position (ID): gesettan, gesittan .To come to rest, rat: gesittan .To remain ID• place: (ge)licgan, (ge)sittan •To occupy • position, rest, lie: (ge)wunian .(Of land) to lie: bOan, licgan ..(Of river, etc.) to be between, separate: g~lan, dadan, tOlicgan, tOtwteman .(Of directioo/n>M) to run, Ile: lltdan tO, (ge)licgan, sceotan, stician ..To nm/lie ID cWl'erml dlrectiom: tOlicgan ..(Of a boundary) to begin, start: iip gin .To put/bring into posltioo/rel•tion: (ge)dOn, (ge)t&>n .To place, lay, pal in position: befOn, (ge)dOn, htdan, (ge)lecgan, (ge~nian ..To put/place (over), bold (up to): habban .To move to• position ofnst, place, lay: (ge)sendan, (ge)settan, geweorpan .To eslablilb, place, ldde: gefestan, (ge)IOgian, (ge)settan, gewunian .To place in• position, eslablllll: lrl!ran (on), lsettan (on), beslq>an (on)


273 Position, stance MTo post, station: (gc)settan •To settle, 1eat, pat In a position of rest: setlan°P .To replace, nf11m (to a f6inw position): iwendan, gecicrran, gcbwicrfan Position, stance: etsteall, stedc .A proper posidoa: frumstOI .Orf&inal position: frumstapol0 P .(Of posidon) to stand: istandan .To station oaaelf, take one's stand: (ge)standan •To stand off from, keep away: wiJ>standan A ftlioa, zone: ende, eodorP, grundsceatP, sceait .A coa ner, quarter, side: ende, sc&llt ..Foar quarten: fit>ersceatas0 P ~ cardinal point: heorr(c) .A district, region: ~I. ende, gcard, leppa, landscipc, scbl, woruldscealq ~bode of moasten: fifela gefeald .A region, neighbourhood: him, l>&>0 P, fcorland, fco~ .A hostile land: unfripland° .I.and easily defended: festland0 See OJ.OJ Surface; J2.06 Territory 0 Presence: etwist, andwcardncs, neawcst .Presence, being with othen: midwist .A bystander, someone praeat: etstandend, ymbstandcnd .Praent: andwcard, inbrobt ..Present and with otben: gcandwcard ..Present In: gclang .Bystanding: etstandendc .Passing by, looking-on: weglercndc .Praent (av): andwcardlicc •Where: hwl!r, l>a!r Where, wherever: pidcr WberellOffer: bwltr ... swi, hwider swiVswi bwider (swi), IOca hwltr, swi hwidcr ymb Wherever: 1>1tr pl!r Whither: hwider/hwi~. t6 hwes, tO l>es t>e. )>er •To IOllle place or other: hwidcr, hwiderbwega0 M




274 Presence

..Anywhere, somewhere: (ge)hwl!r ..8omewbue (or other): forhwega. bwerbwega/-bwuga, nitbwerP ..Anywhere: ihwl!r, ihwergen, ofer eall ..From all sides, from anywbue: l!gbwanan, ihwanan, gebwanon,

hwanonhwegus ..In any di1ection. anywbelt: ihwanon, ihwider, gehwider .Here, in tbJs pblee: ha, ha(... )inne ..Just here: ha rihte ..Herein: heron ..Hereabouts: ha ymbOtan ..Hence, departins thence: heonan, l>anonweard° ..Hither, to tbJs place: hider, hidere, hiderweard .Here ••• there: hwl!r .. . hwl!r MBere and there, in d.itrerent places: stycce~lum To and fro: hider and geond ..Hither and thither: hider and J>ider, hidres l>zdles. hidres J>idres •There, where: J>l!r MTbere, in that place: )>l!r, J>l!ret Therein, theninto: )>l!roninnan Tbereabout: J>cributan T'bence. whence: }>anon Tbeftto, to that pl1tee: J>l!rt6 Thither: geond, geon ofer, J>ider, J>ideres, }>ider geond, J>iderweard, J>iderweardes Tbltber, yonder: hidergeond° .E'fflywhere: l!gbwl!r, geond eall, gehwl!r, gehwl!r and )>l!r, ofer eall, wel wide ..Nearly evel)wbere: wel(ge)hwl!r, (ge)welhwcr Tbrougbout: l>urh MOD all sides, all round: l!gbwl!r oobOtan, on ilteweardum, wil> l!lce hand ..EYerywbere, on all sldesldlncdom: l!gbwl!r, l!gbwanon, l!ghwider, gehwider .To be present: aetbeon/aetwesan, instandan&, t6wesan& .To be, stand, baYe place, dwell: beon/wesan .To stay, 1emaln (in a place): aetsittan .To live in. be situate (at): ibidan .To bold, occupy (space/a place): ibisgian, bebealdan, ofersittan, gesettan .To occupy entirely: (ge)fyllan .To brins before one, present: geandweardian .To ftx a penoa in pla~tion: gestal>olfaest(i)an, gestal>lian M









OS.I Visiting/seeking of a place .Before, in the p1 e11ence of: beforan, foran .Before, to the prwnce of: beforan, fore, to ... foran VllitiDafwldn1 of a place: sOcn .Frequented, attended by many: gelomlic •To visit: (ge)n&>sian .To 10 to/attend a meed. ., ceremony, etc.: (ge)s&:an See; Visit Ab1rnce: aefweardnes .Abllence OD a joarney: framsi)> .AbeencellOllS: miss0 .Ab1ent: aefterweard, aefweard, ofweard0 , unandweard ..Ablmt OD a journey: framwesende°' ..Over there: geon .(Of space) empty, void, vacant: emettig .Out, not in: ilte .Apart: framsundor°', ofsyndrige0 •, on geriim, onsundran, on syndrige, sundor .Yonder, away there: geond, t>er .Beyond: begeondan,geondan,wiJ>geondan° .(With motion verbl) away, off: onweg ..El9ewbere: elcor, elles, elles gehwatr, elles hwanon, elles hwergen, elles hwider, ellorP, onweg .Nowhere: nihwatr, nlhwa!m ..To nowhere: nlhwider ..From nowhere: nlhwanon .To be absent from: forsittan •To leave the pretenee/sodety of: forletan .To evacute, lean dear of (penom): (ge)rfman .To leave, pve place, 1emon oaaelf: (ge)rfman Dispenion: forstrogdnesq, geondstrednes0 1, tOdil, tOlysednes, tOStenc(ed)nes, tOworpnes .To acatter, cause to disperse: istencan°, gedelan, forsc&dan, tooelan, tOdrifan, tohweorfan, toletan, tOscearianq, tOstencan, tOStrcgdan, tOtwatman, towegan°P, toweorpan .To driv6'tbrust MUnd«, clispene, acatter: tOdntfan, tosciifan, tot>ringan°P, tOwrecanP .To acatter, drive in difrerent dlncdom: totesian, tOscead•n, tosendan 276

OS.IO.OS A space, span .To scatter violendy: t6sceacan, tOsc&cerian .To scatter, be dlspetsed: bn!dan, stregdan, tofaran, toteran, toftowan,

tohladan°P, iitOowan .To break up, dispene: ibm:an Op .To 8y apart, bunt aw•nder. tOft&>gan, tOftOwan See; Cast out; Throw

OS. RemoYal, taking away: onwegil&dncs0 .Taken away, removed: aetgenumen -Rolled away: framiwaelted°I .To remove, displace: istyrian fram, (ge)dOn fram/of, settan of, unsettan' .To move, take up, translate: Qp idOn .To move, transfer the position of: forhwierfan .To remove, take away: idOn, aetgeniman, anweg idOn, isettan, iwegiwendan°', onwegiwendanoS, gcstyrian -To remove to a distance: ot>feorrian°P -To carry otr, take away: iwegan .To take oft', remove: idOn of .To take away, remove, pt rid of (from): idOn Cram. ifremd(i)an, ifyt1>an°, iscyndan, tOferian •To shake otr, remove by shaking: ihtaescian of, ihrisian of, isceacan, isceacan fram/of, fram isceacan, ofisceacan, onsceacan .To cut aside, throw away/oft': forsendan, of iwcorpan See 05.06 Destruction; Carry off; 10.04.03 Take away OS.IO.OS A space, span: faec, spannungoS .Distanc:e: feomcs0 , fyrlen, fyrl(u) ..Distance to which a shot will go: scyte, wyrp ..Excessive distance: oferfyr 0 .Remotenea, distance: ungehendnes0 -A remote part, extremity: endcmestencs0 1, gcendung, fcorweg, geml!re ..Distant parts/regions, distance: sidwegasP, widwegasP .A track that stretches far: widlistP .InacceaibWty, remoteness: orwegnesoS .Distant, far: unncah .Far, distant, 1emote: feorr, fyrlen -Remote: isynderlicoS, ungehende, iltlic -Remote, separate (from): iscired, forscired0 , syndorlic .(Of travel) travening many lands, distant: wid

277 A little way, no great distance .Oaterloatmost, distant: utera.lytera, utmest/Yt(e)mest ..Most remote: endenlhst ..Quite apart: nydsyndrig° .(Of mountains) standing apart, lnac.usslble: syndrig .Beyond, further away, at a clistaace: ufor, iittor ..From/at a distance: feorr, feorran ..From a distance: widan ..Tbus far: hCrto ..From further: feorlicor 0 ..Still further: (ge)riimlicor, rumor .Far, to a great distance: lange ..Far from: unneah ..Far and wide: feor and wide, wide and side ..Far and near: feorr and neah ..From far and wide: widan and sidan ..From far and near: feorran and nUrl ..Far, widely, to a clistaace: feorr, wrde ..Widely: bride, side, wide, widlesteq •To distance one thing from another: toberan ..Not to allow to remain together: totweman .To place at a distance, segregate: iscirian, isyndr(i)an, (ge)sceadan, tOsyndrian, totwltman .To be distant, stand apart: tostandan .To sit at a distance: tosittan° A little way, no gaeat distance: hwon, unfeor .Tbat which is to hand: gchcndnes .Nearness, neighbourhood: gehcndnes, nCahnes, ncawest ..Neighbourhood: neahdltl 0 , neahland0 ...Neighbourhood, a place near: ne.Ah.;tow -A neighbouring town/village: ncahtiin° ...Nearby mountainous country: ncahheahland0 .(Of distance) little, short: lytcl .Near, close at band, neighbouring: neab, n~ic ..Neighbouring, not: gchcndc ..Neighbouring: ymb(gc )sett .In juxtaposition, close (to): gctang, gctenge .Placed near (in retinue): neahgangol0 .aose against, lying in/by, toocblng: getcngc ..Near to, mting on: getangc

278 Extension, stretching .Contipous, In contact (with): gadertang, tC>g~ .Near, at haNI: gehcndc, nbh • ..Near, dose by: aetrihtes, n&n, onemn, getenge, unfeor Q>anon) ..At haNI, within reach, near: aet banda, gearwe, to banda, ymb handa ..Not far away (from): lythwon, unfeor ... (fram) ..Equally near: efennbh -Very near: fulnbh .Close by, nearer: beheonan, hideror ..Nearer aNI nearer: near and near ..Nat, nearest: to ..Nearly, closely: ncalice -From near: n&n •Together, In eontad/jmtapollition: getanglice0 , tosomne .To be neigbbourlna, to Mghbour: ymbsittan .To touch, come In contact, be contipoas with: (ge)grlpian, (ge)gretan,

o)>hrlnan, ge)>Wdan •To abut on: ut sceotan See Neighbour Extmsion, stretcbing: ipenenes0 ' , )>enning .Distension, stietchl111: to)>enednes', to)>ening°' .Extension (of boundaries), mendl111: cymet -(Of land pined) an atension: rYJnet .Strdcbed out, atencled: abntded, ireaht, btreht -E:dended, spread out (over): t6spntd .Large, broad, far-reachlna: brid, riim, sid, widbrid0 P, ynnenP .Equal in extent: efenlang, efenlic ..As broad as 10111: efenbrad -As long as broad: efenlang .To reach, extend: bebugan -To exteNI, reach (to): bridian (oJ>), bntdan (to) .To reach over, extend (to): gin, gangan, licgan (to), (ge)ritcan, sidian°P .To stiekb out, extend (In a line): i)>enian .To stretch, atend (oneself after sleep): itybtan, raxan° .To sbetcb out, extend, bold out: astrcccan, strcccan, tinnan, (ge)J>ennan ..To bold out, reach forth: Hean, ipenian, gespntdan' .To stretch, extend, beNI: on)>enian' .To extend (/?tauten): ipenian

279 Diffusion, effusion, spreading DUrusion, efrasloa, spread•na: istrowenes', bntding, spn!dung°', togotennes .scattered, spread about: tOdrifen, tostrogden ..Widely scattered: sid, wid, widsceop0 P, widscofen°P •Widely, in diffeftllt places: wrde .To cllffuse, spread, spread about: isprCadan°', ispringan, ityhtan, il>cnnan,

ged&lan, (ge)scCadan, teldian, tobredan, toflowan, togeotan, (ge)t>ennan ..To spread, be diffused: (ge)springan .To spread over: geondgeotan, geondscndanP, geondspringanl, geondstregdan, oferweaxan See; Bespread Greater, biger: mi .To extend, enlarge (space ftlatiom): (ge)bntdan, geondbn!dan, (ge)rYman •To extend, increue the amount of: (ge)lengan •To enlarge, make broad, extend in size: tbnldan .To expand, make bigger: upibregdan .To stretch (out), utend, enlarge: apenian, (ge)reccan .To make peat, extend, enlarge: lllZrsian .To make broad, extend, spread: (ge)bn!dan .To become enlarged: (ge)greatian .To become broad, expand: bridian •To become wider, widen, grow wide: wfdian .To broaden: bridian .To spread out, extend, expand, dilate: lbn!dan, (ge)bntdan, tobledan', tOl>redan, t&prl!dan See Bigness To n:duc:e, make thin(ner): iJ>ynnian' .To diminhb, n:duc:e, curtail: genierwan, get>ynnan .To make narrow, contract: genierwan .To constrain, pinch, constrict: get>ringan .To press together, compress, squeeze: (ge)t>Cowan .To pinch, squeeze: twengan •To become smaller, to shrink: (ge)nearwian .To shrink together from beat or cold: clingan .To contract: genierwan .To wrinlde, shrivel, contract: (ge)hrimpan, gesneorcan' •To contract, shrink: scrimman°, (ge)scrincan See 05.09.04 Reduction 280 Breadth, width across A men w•re of distance: gemet. spynl' .A league: J&>wc°' .A mile: nu1, nu1gcueJ ..A milestone: mna stln, mDgemet°. mflstlnq .An acre: a:cer .A fmloaa: furlang ..A stadium (tnllllatina Latin): furJang .A rod: rOd .A yard: gierd, metgeard .A pace, step, stride: totes trym, fbtl&st, suepe, stntdc°'. strideog ..A foot: tbt, fOtm&I, ~tgemet .Span of outstaekMd arms: fa:l>m ..A cubit: fa:l>m ..An ell (eJbow to middle finger): cJn, mannes cJn .A Mnd: hand, handJcng(u)0 , mund ..A hand's width: handc brid ..A span: handbrcd, sccafta mund, spann ..A 8nger's lqtb: fing~J ..An inch: yncc .Measured in miles: mflgcmcarccs0 P .Measured in fathoms: fa:l>mrimcs0 P .Measured in feet: fbtgemcarces0 P .EU-length: elngcmct°P .Two 8ngers broad: twifingre0 .Three 8ngers broad: l>n1ingre0 .Of the tbidmea of a thumb: l>ymcle0 See Land measure 0 Length: istrowencs0 ' . Jang, langncs, langsumncs, lcng(u) .Long: Jang, Jangsum - Very long: Jnistlong ..Twice as Jona: tii swi lang(c) Breadth, width across: bn!d(-u/-o ), widncs, widu/wide .Broad, wide: brid, ynncnP, wid .Tbkkness, breadth: greatncs, l>icnes .Tbkk, wide: brid, l>icce .Narrow: sma:J, l>ynnc, unbrid •Tbla, not thick: l>ynnc See OJ.OJ.OJ Thick 281

OS.10.0S.03.02 Shortness Sbcu1utr1: scortnes .Short: scamm, scort Height, loftiness, sublimity: oferhllfung&, sticolnes0 g .Height, tallness: hlanes, langsumnes, Iengl>u. Ieng(u), iipnes0 g ..A height, high place: beanes, hrehl>u -The highest point, top, apex: hrof, ord .Distance from hue upwards, altitude: hrchl>u .High, tall: grCat, heah, tang, iipheah, iipledcndc0 P, iiplang -High in measurement: Mah .High, steep, lofty: brant, bealic, s~gcl, steap •Very high or tall: beahsteap0 P, ofcrheah0 P, steapheah0 P -Reaching to heaven: heofonMab0 P -Towering up: blifendc .High, having a lofty position: h&dl, heahsittendc, sticol .Placed at the top: beafodlic .Higher, upper. ufcrra, ufeweard, yfera ~Highest, utmost: ufemest, yfcmest .On high: bcalrce .SO as to extend to a peat height: h&dl -1Hgher (av): heahra, bealicor, ufcror, ufor -Highest (av): yfcmcst .At the top: ufan(e) -Right on the top: ufan ribtc .To tower up: istigan iip, hlifian, ofcrhh1ian, standan up istreht, torrian° Depth, deepness: oosm, heanes .A deep place: d!opnes, heanes .Deep: brant, deop, heah .Deep, low, profound: ncowol, ncowollic .Bottomless: grundleas, ungryndc0 P .Deeply: deope .To get/become deep, deepen: (gc)deopian Shallow: sceald, scealuq, undeop Spatial relations: See 05.12.05ff Move lmide, interior: f21>m. hrif, incundnes, wamb .Inner part or: inneweard

282 Face, swface .Inward, internal, In""', Interior: incund, inlic, innancund, innanweard, innecund, innera, inneweard, inweard, inweardlic •Wltlaln, lmlde: binnan, innan, inne. inweard, oninnan, wil>innan _Inner: innor _Innermost: innemest .Inwardly (In the heart): inlrcc, innan, inweardlrcc .lmfde there, therein: ~rbinnan, l>&r wil>innan .Wherein: ~rin •Therein, in that: ~ron .Tbfreln, Into that place: l>~rinne, l>l!ron, l>iderinn .To put in, place la: bescttan on, (ge)don inion, ingedon° •Within, inside (IOIDdhing): innan, inne on, on in •Within, into (IOIDdbing): innan Tbe mlcldle: rnidd, rniddel, rniddeweard, rnidlen, midlung, midnes •Tbe heart or centre: heorte •Tbe midst of: middel .Euct middle: elemidde .Mlddle part (of a country): rniddeld&l 0 , rniddelgeml!ru 0 P .Mid, middle: midd, rniddel, middeweard ..Midmost: efenmid0 P, midlen, rnidlest, midmest .Middle, in the midst: on rniddan, tomiddes .Midway, halfway: healfweg°, midweg .Into the midst of: tomiddes Contents, what ls lnduded: innung .Collection of weapons la forti8ed place: wambhord°P .To bold, contain: behabban, beniman, facl>mianP, healdan, (ge)niman .To contain, comprise, lnducle: belucan, habban, geinnian .To consist of: ~n/wesan on .To encompass, lndncle, contain: beclyppan, heron, gefCrlzcan, underfOn, ymbhabban .To DDload, dL!charge: onhladan°1 Face, llll'face: andwlita, ansien, bridnes, bred, oferblica0 1, wang .Brim, top: brerd .Uppermost, top: ufanweard

283 Exterior, outside of .Thereon, upon that: t>Cron, )>er on ufenan, )>eronuppan, ~r ilp, ~ruppan, 1>eruppc .Upon, on: onufan, onuppan .At, •gaimt: wil> .Upon, OD top of: bufan .Upon, above: ofcrufa', 1>erofer .Unto: wil> Exterior, outside of: Dtanweard, iltera, ilterlic, iiteweard .Eldemal, not of the Inner man: utera/ytera .On the outside, on the surface: Otan, ute .Outwardly, externally: ut, iltane .Outside of, beyond: ut .Oat, outside: iite, iltweardes .On the outside: ibOtan, fit ibiitan .Outside: butan, l>~riit( e}, iit, utan(e), ute, ymb ... utan(e) ..From outside: utan, wil>iltan .Oat of doon, outside: onutan° .Forth, outside, oat of doon: utweard .Away, out: iweg, fram, ill, iltan, ute .Out, from home on service: ute .To bring forth/out: forledan, forl>bringan, forj>lcdan, (ge)yppan .To send forth: gefort>ian .Outside of (something): wil>utan Under, beneath: under, undemeol>an, wil>neof>an .Beneath, below, underneath: bencot>an, ncot>an(e), on under, l>i!r under ..Lower, und~: nil>er(e), nil>eweard .To stand under: undergestandan .To put under/place beneath: underd6n°, underlecgan .Under: under ... ncol>an .From beneath: neol>an Lakl below: nil>erheald0 P, ofdl!le, underled, under(ge)sett .Down below: hinder .(Of attitude or polition) down: ofdune .Down, downwards: idilne, idilnwcard°, dilne, nil>er(a), nii>efweard(es), ofdune, ofdiineweard(es), ofdunrihte0 , on dun(e) .Down, from above: idun(e), ofdilne, ufan(-e), ufenan .Directed downwards: ofdunehealdq 284 Uprightness, straightness .Downwards, turned downward: ofdiineonwend0 .To place downwards: underbregdan° .To place, ldllay down: idiine isettan, ihildan, ilecgan .To pat down, depoee: nil>erlsettan°1, ofdiinesettan' A low position, the bottom: ni&>emes0 .A lower part: ni~1°P .Bottom ground, lowest point: botm, tot, grund .Low, not high: unheah ..Lower, low in position: neo)>anweard°', ni)>era ..Lowest: nil>emest -Lowest of all: undemi}>emestop .At the bottom of: nil>eweard Reclining, rest: gehlinung .One wbo reclines: hliniend .That reclines, lying down: hliniende .Prone/prostrate: istreht, fort>llotenl, fotl>heald, neowol, nil>eristreht0 1 .To be at rest on, lie upon: (ge)hlinian, (ge)licgan, (ge)restan .(Of penon) to recline, rest: (ge)hlinian .To He down: (ge)licgan, gerestan .To He, be prostrate/recumbent: (ge)licgan .To cause to sink down. prostrate: onsteganP ..To prostrate oneself: istreccan .To rest/lean (on): hlinian, onhlinian, (ge)restan .To seat oneself up against (something): gesittan wit> .To rest on: (ge)restan •To He heavily/securely on: seomianP

See 02.05.04 Sleep Above: bufan, ofer ( ... ) heafod, on Jofte, on lyfte, iiprihte,

wit>ufan, wit>uppon .On high: iiplic .Upwanh, up: ilpweard, ilpweardes .To be above: ofer(ge)standan .To rise, mount: hebban (iip) .To elevate, make higher: (ge)uferian Uprightnea, stralgbtnea: rihtnes .A standlna position: steal! .Straight, erect: riht

285 Support, maintenance .Upright: ilph!ah. Oplang .Lying with face tua oed upwards: upiwend, ilpriht .Straight up, uprigbdy, eaecdy: ilp on geribte, upribte .Upwards: ilprihte, ilpweardes .To stand, bold (oneself) erect: (ge)standan •To stand up 11ttmy: striltian .To get up, get to one's feet: istandan, ilp istandan OS. Support, meintepance: ilpheald .A support, prop, crutch: crycc, stela, getrymedness, (ge)trymnes .Supported, upheld: onwnpoo0 _(Figurative) shouldered: gebrobt .Leaning against: onbield(cd) .To support, prop, lift up, bear: ifOn, ihabban, andwrel>ian°, iwrel>ian, (ge )beran, bewrel>ian°P, (ge)healdan, underberanS, underhebbanS, underlecgan, und~, underwre~ian, ilpiwegan, wegan See 17.03.02 Supporter OS. A line, continuous length: line .Flat: brid .Close to the ground, level to the ground: eo$lihtes0 , grundlinga ..Equally level: efenemnoS -Evenly, without inequalldes of surface: efenlice .To level, bring to a level with: efnan -To level: (ge)efnettan OS.10.0S.04.04 A descent, slope, iodine: of~le .Sloping, inclined: forl>heald, heald, hwemdragen°, obilde/obeaJdS, scyteheald(en )8, toheald -lndined forwards: fort>weard -Leaning against: wil>erhliniende8 .(Of bead) bent down, inclined: ibnigen, nit>eronwend0 .With length sh etching downwards: nil>eflang .To bend, incline: (ge)hieldan, (ge)hnigan, gehwemman, onbilgan, stilpian -To iodine to, bend towards: ahildan, toliltan° .To cause to lean, lean, Iodine: hl~nan°P OS. Steep: wil>efs~gers .Steep as a wall: weallst~ .Steeply, at a steep iodination: stzl>hlyplice0 .sloping steeply: scytehealdS 286 Side, quarter, direction Stnlpt, direct: (ge)riht .Unbmt: ungebfged8 MRlglcl, that cannot be beat: ungebfgendlic .(Of a road) direc:t: gen°, gerid, gewiss .Rl&ht, due, in a sb alpt line: on gcrihte, rihte .Straight up: uprihte .Directly: rihte, rihtes, rihtlice, sceaftriht(e) .Without intermediate agency, dlnctly: gcgnunga .Straight on, without swerving: forl>rihte, gegnunga. unforwandodlice .To go direct/straight: gangan .. . gereht •To make straipt: gcrihtlecan .To came to movestraigbt (to): gcrihtan Cross, tnnsvene, bent, crooked: )>weorh .Athwart, trannenely, obllquely,acroa: )>weores A fort (in mer, ..ct, etc.): creowelq, twisla0 .(Of sbeam, road) bnmcblng: twisted, twisliht°, iitscyte, wreoq .To fork, branch: twifyrclian, twislian .(Of river's course) to Jut out: hyrnan Crookedness, a crooked place: wOhnes, wntslq, wrltstq, wrengclq .Crooked: crumhlcrumpll, gewedS, woh .To gofmake crooked: lmicrran, gcwens A bend: ciccq .A bend, a winding, tortuous way: hylcS .Winding, sinuom, full of bends: bogiht°S, b6smig8, cringolq, fz)>mcnde,

fz)>mlic, gewrinclod .To twist, bend, distort: gehlencan, t6wrl)>an, wnistan Side, quarter, direction: hand, healf, side .Outer side: Qthea)foS .Side of house, ship, etc.: healf, side .IUgbtlleft (side): hand .On the flank: )>weores MOn/to one side: hider .From tbe side, lndlrectly: healfunga .Aloapkle: andlanges, on andlang, on andlanges, )>er onemn, )>erwi)> ..Aloaplcle all the way: I

287 Front .On this side of: beheonan .Beside, near: be healfe, birihte0 P, wit> .Along, by the side of: andlang, andlanges, on andlanges, tCiemnes .About. along: ymb(e) See OJ.OJ.OJ Direction Front: forewcard .Front. placed in front: forewcard .In front: foran, fore, onforan, on forewcard(um) .Form1ost: fyrmest •With the face towards, fedn1: tOweard .Forwards (from upript position): fort> .To tum towards: abweorfan in .BefOR that: t>itrforan .In front of: ztforan, beforan, foran(e), fore, fom ongean, on . .. foran, tOforan, wit>foran, wit> ... foran Head, front (position): or, ord .Forward, adl'1lnced: roipweard ..Foremost: fyrmest .More forwards: fur1>or .Form1ost. in advance: fyrmest .At the bead of: ztforan •To put/place before: foresettan Front. beainnlng: forewcardnes0 .Pleceding, before-placed: foreset .Above, previously mentioned: ibufan°, bufan, herbufan .In the earlier part of: on foreweardum Hinder part, rear: zfteweard .Hinder, lower: zfterra ..Hindermost: zftemest .Havina the eyes averted: framlece0 S, framweard .Hlndward, wrong end ftrst: hindeweard .Behind: zftan, zfter, zftewearde, hindan, hinder, on hindan, on hob, on list(e), wit>bindan .Beblncl. after: bezftan, behindan, wit>zftan .At the further end, at the tips: hindanweard0 P .At one's back: onbaccling .Having one's back tuaoed: on bzcling gewend

288 l l A circle, circuit. circumference .Back, behilMI (of looldn&): onbec .After (of dlnctioa): aefter .To remain behind: list weardian, swat>e weardian Reverse, inverted: andelb&reS, onwended •Vice vena: ihwerfedum si]>e .To invert, turn upside down: onhwerfan, onwendan Opposite (av): ongean, to emnes, l>~nogeanes, wil>ernehtes0 P .Over against, facln1, opposite (prep): foran(e) (on)gean, ongean, wil> Amona: lmang, betweonan, inmang, gemang, mid, on(ge)mang, on ymbhwyrfte .Among otben/otber thlnp: h!rongemong .Amons (prep): betweoh, betweonan, betwux, on(ge)mang, on/in gemange, on(... ) middan, tOmiddes, under lntaposed: betwuxgesett .To Ue between: betwux licgan .(Of interposition) between: betweoh, betweonan, betwux, be ... tweonum Through (into and out): l>urh A drde, dn:uit, circumference: ymblyt0 P .EodOIUft, act of enclosing: ymbfaestnesq, ymbstandednesg, utanymbstandnesog,ymbstand(en)nesg .An enclosed place: beclysingg, clysung, eodorP, ponic .An enclosure: faesten, (ge)feald, geard, glind0 , hecging, haegen/hagen, baga, hagin~. hecge, heyning°, lycceq, pearrq, pearroc, pundq, scrre ..An enclosure of furze: fyrspenn -An enclosure made with stakes: stacingq -Enclosure reached by a stile: stigelhamm ..A walled enclosure: caste! ..A locked enclosure: loca .Embracing, encompassing: fael>mlic .About, round, thereabouts: be iitan, on/in ymbhwyrfte, on ymbegang, l>~r onbiitan, l>i!r ymbiitan, Otan, ymb utan .About, around: ibiltan, onbOtan, ymb(e), ymbiltan ..All around: ymb(e)... (Otan) .About (movement about cenbT/uis): ibiitan

289 A bound, limit .In a drde, about: on hwcarfte .To pow about, surround: bcwcaxan, ymbweaxan° .To throw round. surTOU.Dcl: ymbwcorpan .To stand about or round: ymbstandan .To S111TOUDd, lie about, (en)compass: lbiltan bchringan, bcbilgan, bcfealdan,bcfOn, bcgin,bcgangan,bchabban,bchhtnanP,bchringan, bchwirfan iltan, bclicgan, bclOcan (mid), bcsellan, bcsettan, bcstandan (utan), bcwegan utan, bcweorpan, bcwindan, bcwnpan, call utan bchypan, utan bchringan, ymbclyppan, ymbfOn, ymbhabban, ymbhealdan°P, ymbhegian, ymbhlennans, ymblicgan, ymbsellan, ymbstandan, ymbtyman .To encircle, embrace: fa:pmianP, oferfa:pman, ymbclyccan, ymbfa:pmian° .To swathe, encompass, beset: bcsweppan, bcteJdanP, bcpringanP, fort>ylm(i)an, ymbhringan, ymbwindan .To S111TOUDd, enclose, confine: becnyttan on, bcfa:pm(i)an, begin, bcgyrdan, bclacan°P, bclucan, clyppan, forgyrdan, (ge)gyrdan, ymbclyccan°', ymbgyrdan, ymbsettan, ymbtynan, ymbwyrcan .About, around: ymb(e) See Enclosed land A bound, limit: (ge)lllZre .Border, margin, edge: brerd. efes, ende, eort>gemitre0 , mcarc, ofer, ofes(c), Ora, Owisc, rand, rima, rimucq, rippq ..Border bounded by horizon: bring _Exbem~ or remotest limit: iltgenutreP .Lower edge: niperecg° .Llmltofajurisdiction:hring -Lawful boundary of land: rihtlandgemi:re0 , rihtgenutre .A land-boundary: epelmearc, landgemitre, landmearc, landgemirce, landscearu, (ge)mitre, mearc, gemierce, styntefes0 , nort>geltlZre, nort>mcarc0 • nort>westgemitre0 • supgemitre0 • supmearc0 • westmearc .Upper end, top end: heafod, ilpende, Opheafod .Outermost part, part nearat boundary: ende .Border of a wood: wudurima0 .Boundary of arable land: Yrt>mearc .Ancient boundary: ealdgeml!re0 .Boundary marked by logs: stoccgeml!re0 .A neighbourhood, neighbouring dbtrlct: efenehp .Bank forming boundary: hlinc, hlinc~w 290 The condition of being covered .Projecdng stone as part of boundary: hin .Boundary stone: tnL!rstin .Boundary strip: rinq .Boundary thicket: mearcgn!fa0 .Boundary tree: g~rtreow , mearctreow 0 ..Oak as boundary: lllZric° ..Thom .. boundary: mer1>m. nu!rj>yme0 0

.On the edge: eclinga .To bound, form the boundary (of land): healdan, tnL!ran .To fix the bounds of: g~rian, g~rsianq, (ge)mearcian, (ge)metan .To trace (a line, boundary, track, etc.): ledan .To march to, border upon, have as boundary: mearcian .To bold to a boundary, not paa a limit: healdan See 01.01.03 Water as boundary Object placed u point to be reacbed, a llUU'k: mearc .A stake, post: staca, stlleferq .A beacon, mart: mean:, ticen ..Cl'OIS as mart: aescstederod0 , Iotm&I .To mart, give marting object to (a place): gemean:ian

See Goal The condition of being covered: ofertogennes .A covering: baelc0 P, besceadwung', bewrigennes, lol>or, helm, helung°S,

hleo, hlid, brof, oferhelings, oferwrigelsS, (ge)l>aca. geweald, wrigelnesoS, wrigels, wrigennesoS ..A p-ouncl-covering: eorJ>hele0 ..A cover, envelope: ymbfengS ..A cover(i.ng), wrapper: wulluc« .Covered: behroren, betogen, oferhangen, ymbhammens ..Covered, decorated: begoten, beslept, gewloh0 P .Under, within, covered by: under .To cover: iwreon, behwylfan, beteon, betredanS, beJ>ennan°P, bewegan, forbregdan, fortredan, forJ>eccanS, oferhelian, oflecgan, gescierpan, t>eccan. gewerian, (ge)wreon ••To cover over, cover: behelmianP, behlrdan, belecgan, bewefan°, beweorpan, bewreon, forlecgan, forwreonq, (ge)helian, oferhelian, oferj>eccan ..To cover over by J...ning against: behleonian° ..To spread, lay (down) on: (ge)bn!dan (on), onbn!danoS, (ge)streccan 291 To bcsprcad, cover with "To th as a co•ering: lecgan on "To work a co•erin& oftl', overlay: oferwyrcan "To lay over/abov&'upoa: oferlecgan "To impose, place on: onsettan "To cover with an awning: ofcrteldan°P .To act as a covering, ovenpracl, suft'use:: oferbntdan, ofergan .To cover (by drifting): oferdn"Tan •To cover thickly, choke: asw0gan°, oferhelian, ofersw0gan° .To cover over, conceal: ahelian', behydan, be}>eccan, (ge)helmian, oferwreon .To ovenbadow: bescead(uw)ian, oferhelmianOJ> .To lean/bang over: hangian .To wrap up, enwaap: befealdan, bewriJ>an, inbewindan'. oferwnpan, on gewltdian, utan ymbfOn, ymbfOn, ymbwreon° .To wrap, swathe: bewindan, ongefealdan°', sw$ian°, gewnpan See Bedding; Conceal OS. To bespnsd, cover with: bebn!dan°, bestyrian°, beteldanP, geondbn!dan, oferbntdan, oferbregdan, oferlltdan, oferlecgan, oferteon, (ge)J>eccan, wreon .To bestrew: begeotan, (ge)strewian .To bestaew, cover by scattering: bestredan, bestreowian, bestrel>l>an .To bnsk out over a suJface'ln patches: oferbregdan, tObrecan See Diffusion OS.10.0S.04.13 A removal of that which obscures or conceals~ onwrigennes .Uncovering, exposure: blice0 .Not covered so as to be concealed, exposed: open .Not covered, without covering: nacod, open, unoferwrigen° "Without skin, peeled: ~felle, rindleas0 ' .To uncover: uniiwreon°', un}>eccan°', unwreon ..To remove a lid or covering: unhlidian .To remove a wrapping: onwreon .To unwrap: Hfan, onfealdan, onwnpan .To folcl/roU back: ongeanfealdan°g .To lay bare, divest, strip: abarian, barenian°P, barian, benacian', genacodian, ongierwan, gerCafian, ungierw(i)an, unscrydan .To strip off peel/busk: berendan .To peel, skin: pilian°, gerendrian° •To peel off, take off (skin/bark/busk): iiscealianog, beftean, berind(r)an 292

OS.10.0S.04.14.02 An opening/space in an enclosure •To tear oft, rip: lrjpanop •To pluck: hnoppian°', pullian .To peel, pare away: screadian

See 09.05.05 Reveal An openlnc, apenme: eage, hot, mii~. ontjnnes .Opening, ad of opening: (ge)openung .An entity that opens: openere0 .Open (not shut): open .Open, not shut In: open, wfd .Unfenced, not endo1ed: untjned .Having two openlnp: twihlidede0 .Having three openings: ~n1llidede .To open, become open, make an opening: ontjnan, openian .(Of a door) to yield, give way, open: onieman .To bunt open, spriq open: tOspringan .To open, make open: ilynan, ondon, onhlfdan, onliican, onopenian°g, onpenn(i)an, (ge)openian .To open the mouth: ginian .To open a door, gate, etc.: (ge)openian .To bock (at) a door: cnucian, cnyllan .To throw open, fling open: ibregdan, weorpan iip .To WftDCb open, open fon:efully: onbregdan, scenan .To open, allow to bunt forth, unloct: ontjnan .To free of obstructions: undon, unliican .To and08e, open that which is doeed: (ge)rYman 0 A yawning, gaping opening: ginun~. ginun~. gypung°g .That gapes, yawning: giniende, giniend, gypigend°' •To gape, yawn: iginian°, cinan, cinnan°P, ginian, ginian, tOginanP .To open, spread apart, expand~ (ge)openian .To yawn, gape, open, awck: tOblidan See 05.10.03 Gap An openlnr/space In an enclosure: .A pte: geat, hlid ..A low gate: hliepgeat ..A swing-gate: hlanungeatq, hlidgeat ..A tmmtile: tyrngeat° ..A ring-gate: bringgeat°P 293


wigJ>eorl0 g

05.l Closure, being closed .Gate of a walled dwellinglforta ea: burggeat. fzstengeatP, fzstergeal° ..A dty-gate: ~terhlid0P, portgeal ..A side-gate, post.em gate: ludgztg ..A wall-opening: crypelgeat'l .A stile: stigel ..A beechwood style: b0cstige1° See Gate Closure, being dosed: fzstnung .Closed: beclysed .Closed, locked: belocen, fordytt .Closely shut up, secure, fast: fzst .Closed at one end: blind .Having a lid: gehlidod0 .Closed by a lid: hlidfzst° .Blocked, stopped up: forseten .Moutbless, without a mouth: miit>lcas0 P .Fast, firmly: fzste .To dose, shut, shut up: beclysan, bedOn°P, besdotan, betynan, dyttan, inbeliican°, (ge)lucan, (ge)tYnan .To dose, block up, block: fordyttan, forstoppian°, forpryccan .To dose, make secure in: geinseglian .To shut up in a building: bewyrcan .To shut up (a place), prevent entrance into: beliican, forscyttan, tYnan • To stop an opening (by a stone): fortrendan° .To stop, stop up, render unreceptive of: betYnan, fordemman°g, fordyttan, forhabban, forpyndan°P, forsittan, fortimbran8, fort>ryccan See Prison A bar, bolt: clysing, forcscyttels, grinde1°P .A bar closing a fence: hegsi&fOg .A stone dosing an entrance: locstin .A barrier, bar: clilstor •To fasten with a bolt, lock, bar: behzpsian°, besparriang, hzpsian, (ge)lucan, scyttan, gesparrian°g .To unbolt, push back a bolt: unscyttan° •To unlock: uninseglian, unseglian° See Bolt A wall: miir 0 P, wig, wean 294 A hemisphere .A dty·wall: ceasterweal1°, portweall .A dty·banier or defence: burglocaP

See Wall 05.10.06 Form, sbape: andwlita, ansien, bl~. gef'Cgcdnes, hrw, hiwung,

(ge)licnes, li~n°', ~gwlite, on(ge)IIcnes, gesceap .Frame, stnlcture: hwyrfelq, gesteal .Biform: twibt~. twihfw(cd)e .Having three forms: t>ndZlcd, tmmwede0 .Having four parts: fil>erdZlcdS ,Septiform: seofonhiweoS .First-formed: frumsceapen .Symmetrical: get>werlic See Appearance; 03.04 Form, ldnd Not formed, without form: un(ge)hiwod, ungehiwodlic0 .Shapeless, formless: hiwt~. unhrwe°' .Not caeated, unformed, umbapen: un(ge)sce(a)pen Rotundity, roandwss: tyrning .Spberidty, aJobosity: sinewealtnes .An orb, &lobular object: eppel, clrewen, bring, hwyrlling, trcndel, trinda,

t>Ot>or .A ditc (plane surface): trcndel .A drde, ring: ~. trcndel, wealte°', writ>a. ymbhwyrft ..A small ring: bringelq .A drcular llUU'k, ring: bring .A drcular band: hw~I .A hoop, drde: hoppe

.Roand: bealgq, sinhwyrfendeS, sintrc(n)dendeS, trindle .Rounded, round: hwyrftede0 S .Macie round: trcndeJed°S .Spherical, globular, round: sinewealt. sintryndel .Round, embossed: epplcdP .Clrcular, round: sintryndel .Cirmlar, round, cylindrical: sinewealt, sinhwyrfel .Ring-wile (in rings): on l>Qgwrsan, on bringwisan A bemispbere: healftryndel .A bow (ai in saddle-bow): boga .Curved part of a yoke: geocboga'

29.5 Curvature, bend, twist .8eml-dmdar: healfsinewealt°S .An arch, vault: hwealf .Vaulted, conva: geap, hwealf, sincwealt Curvature, b«m, twist: b&ming°I, gebfgcdncs, bfgels, biging, bigncs, bogctung°I, byge, gebygc0 , (ge)byht(c), ccareq, criiwq, crymbing°g, hylding°g, onbegnesll, wendeq, wih~. wridcq, yrnb(be)bigncs0 ,y111bgang,yrnbhwyrft .Bent, curved: gebend, gcbieged, gebogen, geap, hOced, wendsu111q ..Bent or taaued downward: nil>erbgen, nil>ergewend° .To bend, curve: (ge)bendan, (ge)bfegan, (ge)bilgan .To arch, bend over. hwielfan° .To bend, make curved: ibygan, biegan .To bead or atmd (a bow): }>cnnan A drcular fold, coll: hring .Twisted, twiaed, carted: il>riwcn, iwundcn, (ge)wunden ..Double-twisted: twij>riwen -Twisted back: gecdlriweooS .To twine, twist, curt: iJ>riwan, bel>riwan°g, windan, wnpan .To entwine: befealdan .To twist, coll: gehrirnpang, windan .To twist, writhe: spinnan, J>ntstan, wrencan .To wind, worm, move as a serpent: slingan° Projection, bead, abemity (otanytbing): heafod, Iii>, ord .A knob, button: cnopll .Headed, having a bead: gehcafdod°g -Three-beaded: 1>nncafedc0 .A beak-shaped thing: neb(b) .A tongue-shaped thing: tungc .A neck (e.g. of bagpipes): heals -Rid&ed: waled0 g .Projecting, standing up or out: sl!ap .Having great horns: ofcrhymed0 P •With x feet: infCte0 P, l>n1Cte, l>n10tedg .(Projecting, etc.) out, forth: forj> •To stand out, project, jut: forcgln, forj>hllfian°, forprkan, forj>ntsan, forj>stzppan, scorian, stician, totian°, J>unian, Qp igin .To make prominent, thrust out: lscCotan


OS.10.06.04 A comer, bend, angle A point, spike, prickle: brord, onl, palstrg, pre, prica, pyncall .A sharp point: pricels& ..A mnning point:




.A pointed stict: pn, prcg«>& ..A stake: staca .A goad, thorn, prick: pricel, sticel, sticels .A bristle: byrst .Pointed, pricldy,sbarp: picecri, scearp .Sharp, pierdn&: hwzs0 P, teart _Very sharp: heoruscearp0 P, ungle&w ..Equally sharp: efenscearp0 P .8barpened, 81ed: gegrunden ..Sbarpened on grindstone: mylenscearpP .Edged, provided with edae: geecgode0 ..(?Sharp) edged: idig°P ..sbarp-ed&ed: scearpecgede0 -Kem-edged: scirecg°P ..Double-edged: twrbilleog, twrecge(de), twnafte0 g .Spiked, spiky: t11nihtg, gepned ..Having spikeslteetb/pronp: tindig°', tindiht -Three-pronged: l>rifyrclede0 , l>rig~redeq .Tbomy, full of prickles: l>meht. l>rnig ..Barbed with thorns: l>yrnen, l>yrniht ...S.vqely barbed: heoruh6ciht°P .Bristly: gebyrst' .Sharply: scearpe • •To sba•pw, pnt an edae on: ecganq .To provide with spikes: itimplian° Hollow: bol .Hollowed oat: geholod •To bollow oat: holian •To KOOp out: hladan A corner, bend, ancle: byge, crohq, healh, h0c, hwamm, hwemm, gehweorf0 , hyme, scf.ata, wincel .Anplar, full of comen: healhihtg, h&:iht(e), hymenog, hyrnfulg, hyrnig0 g .Triangular: l>rifel>r', l>rfhyrne(de), l>rfstjte -Wedge-shaped: gerede0 .Four-cornered: teowerecg(ed)e, teowerscyie0 , fiJ>ersct'"le

297 A fold, plait, wrinkle ..F~pointed:

f&>wergerede0 .Oblong: langwyrpe0 .Having five angles: fifecgcde0 .Having sb angles: sixhymcde°' .Hexagonal: sixecge(bi:re), sixecgede& .Eigbt-coa oend: eahtahymcde A fold, plait, wrinkle: fild .A fold, ply: feald .To fold (over), fold: (ge)fealdan .To roll up: befealdan, befealdian°, onfeaJdanoS .To roll up, roll together: onwealcan, onwylwanog, tobefeaJdan&, gewealcan .To bind up, waeatbe, bind: iwrft>an .To curt: gecrimpanog A wrinkle: hrympel°', rifeling°S .Wrinkled: rifelede°', gewrinclod .To wrinkle: geriftianq 05.11 A time, period of time: tid .A stretch/period of time: dzgtid, fzc, fzr, first, first(ge)mearc, hwt1, hwflfzcq, hwfll>rag0 , riim, rynei>rig0 P, tid, tfma, l>inggemearcP, l>rig .A division of the nipt, nicht·watch: heordnes, gehield, hierdnes,

nihtwacu0 P, nihtwzcce, wacen, wzcce .While, when: mid l>Y Q>e) .Meanwblle: imang l>im, betweonan, herongemang, ongemong l>isum/l>~m. l>enden .Meanwblle, wbilst: imang l>im l>e. betweoh )>em l>e. gemang l>i!m l>e. mid l>Y l>e. ongemong l>isum/l>i:m l>e. l>i hwt1e, l>ende(n), J>rige l>e. l>urhlonge0 P ..During a cea1aln time: binnan ..In bis time: on his dzge .(Of time) to pm, elapse: igin, igangan, iieman, ileorans, iscortian, beleorans, forl>(ge)faran, forj>gin, (ge)gin, gin fort>, (ge)iernan, gelij>an, oferfaran, geweorpan "To be consumed: wesan fomumen "To press on, ad~ roll on: on sittan, scrij>an .To pass/spend (time, e.g. a nicht): idreogan, ispendan, (ge)dreogan, l>urhdreogans .To use/employ (time in some pUrsult): ibisgian, (ge)dOn 298 Shortness/brevity in time


..To the winter: oferwintran°' ..To spend one's Ille (in): ealdor gezfnan, (ge)eardian aet/in ..To IJ'OW old in, continue Jong: (ge)ealdian .Du.ring, in the coune of: imang, betweoh, betwux, binnan, iMan, gemang, ongemong, )>urh .In, witb (marldna ac:companylna cimJDMtallCft): l>urh

05.11.01 Lenatbfduntion in time: langnes, langsumnes .For a ti.me, for some time: hwaethwega, hwile, J>rige, widefeorbP, wideferhJ>P Long duntlon, Jong space: langfCmesOll, langfirst°P, Ieng( u) .Lona, extended: Jang, langsum, micel, riim .Lasting, amurecl, granted for a Iona time: langtwidig0 P ..I .asting, permanent: Jang .Lifelong: ealdorlangP .Tedious, prolix, protracted: lang, langsum, langtoh' ..More prolix: lengtogra' .For a Jona ti.me: feorran, lange hwne, lange J>rige, langlice, langne fyrst, to langre hwile, to langum fyrste ..For a Jonaer ti.me: Ieng, ml ..For/during a Jona ti.me: lange, langsumlice ..Long ti.me, to a distant ti.me: feorr .To lengthen, IJ'OW longer: langian, ~n .To protract, extend: iteon, ij>enian, dragan, (ge)lengan Eternity: l!wicnes0 S, ealdor, ecnes, endeleasnes .Eternal life, immortality: ilif, ece lif, lif, undcal>licnes .Eternal, everlasting: ece, ecelic, endeleas, endeleaslic, ungeendod. ungeendodlic, unhwOenP, unlene, untrdlic, widefeorhlicoS .Always, forever, eternally: I, Abot.an ende, efre, efrelrce0 , t!fre to ealdre, i fort> ece, Aon ecnesse, i woruld, i worulda woruld, ealne widan feorh, ece, ecelice, endeleaslice, in ecnesse, on ealdre, on ecnesse, on ecum l>ingum, on widan fCore, 01> on worulde, to ealdre, to ecum J>ingum, to widan ealdre, to widan tcore, to worulde, widan fCore, widan feorh, widan ferhl>, widefeorbP, wideferhJ>P .Permanently, without Passtnc away: ungewnendlice .To last, not to fall: (ge)l&stan See Eternal life Sbortnea/brevity in ti.me: hraednes, gebwaetnes, lytel, scortnes 299 Swift movement of time .A short period of time: hwflsticce, lytel, prica. stycce

..An Instant, a moment: bearhtm. bearhtmhwectP, bearhtmhwi1, beorhthwfl, brachwfl0 , eagan beorht, eagan byrhtm, handbwi1, preowthwn, princi .(Of dUl'lltion) limited, brief: imetendlicC, scort .(Of time) short, brief: gehwltde, lytel, medemmicel, scort, scortlic .Transitory, temponry: hwflen, hwi1(w)ende, hwflwendlic, h!ne, lenelic, lltnendlic, leorende, geleorendlicoS, tealt, trdlic, u1>gende0 , u1>genge, (ge)witen(d)lic .For a little while: gehwl!de, hwon, hwonlice, lYthwon -For a very short time: to swij>e scortre hwfle .For a time only, temporarily: hwflwendlice, trdlice .(Of dUl'lltion) to shorten: Jytlian, (ge)scyrtan Swift movement of time: hrecdnes ..,eeting, transitory: iwegweard0 , fteonde, ftugol, heonanweard, hr~. hrecdlic, scort, tredre - Very quick: freahrzdS -Swift as an arrow: flinhrcd0 P -Speedy, that comes without delay: breed .Changing, transitory: hwearftic ..,actuating, stormy: yl>ig, yl>(ig)ende .Rapidly: geome .Quickly, shortly, briefly: hrecdlice, hrape, hwectlice .To move fast, happen quickly, hurry: efestan, (ge)hradian •To move swiftly, ftit: fteon See Swift Mutability: iwendedlicnes .The present (temporal) state: woruld .Temporal, not spiritual: hwfl(w)ende, hwi1(w)endlic .In this world, for • time: tidlice See 05. I 3 Change Mortal state, this life: deadlicnes, deaplicnes .Brief span of life, transitory days: litndagasP .Earthly thiap, temporal possessions: woruld .Transitory, perishable: ileori(g)endlic, deadlic, deaplic, dreosende, dreosendlic0 , gedrorenlic, feallendlic, forwyrdende, forwyrl>endlic0 g, hreosende, hreosendlic, gehrorenlic, (ge)witende See 02.02.02 Mortality 300

OS. A time of celebration Incorruption, lnmmaptibillty: un(gc)brosnung, unwcmming°S, unwcmmu .Undying, imperishable: undeadlic, undeal>lic, ungcwil.cndlic .Incorruptible, not liable to de ray: unifiilicnde0 ' , un(gc)brosn(ig)endlic, unforrotcdlicq, unforrotcnlic°', unforrotcslic°', unforrotigcndlic, unfiilicnde°', unfiilicndlic°', unfiilicndrelic°' .Incorruptibly: unbrosnodlice0 See 03.02.01 Decay 05.11.02 A time, particular time, occaslon: byre, cicrr, ~l. s&l, Sip, stund, tid, tima, l>rlg .A day/night (of time of oc-:waw:e): deg, dogor, nibt .A time appointed, a heel, proper time: indaga, intid0 P, firstmearc, hwn, ml!I, riht!ndaga, rihttid, rihttima0 , stefn, stund, tima .(Of time) fixed, set: lsct .Suitable, opportune: gclumpcnlic .When: mid ~iim. mid ~y. nii, J>i, ~~r. )>on(nc) .Wbeasoever. l0ca hwonnelhwaennc .When?: Ahwaennc, hwonnc ..Bow soon?: hwonnc er .Thea: ~i, ~r. )>on(nc) .At some time: hwilwn. hwonnc, sumbwaennc0 -One day: sume degc ..Another day: o~ deg .At any time: efrc. enc, ~r o~~ sll>. Ahwaennc, sll> ol>l>c er/~frc .(Of time) to arrive, be: standan .To h/appointa dateltenn: (gc)lndagian, (gc)scttan .At: mid A dt.finite point of time, date: datarum .An appointed day: mldeg An anniversary: gWe5 gchwyrft, gcmynd, gcmynddaeg, tid .Anniversary of a birth: gcbyrddaeg, gcbyrdtid, gcmynddaeg -A blrtbday: gcbyrdtid, gcbyrdtima, deg cenncssc .Anniversary ofa death: gcl!or(cd)ncs, gcwitenncs A time of celebration: mersungtima0 .Festival time: cdm21c0 • , cdmeltid°, tid -Festival days: gilddagas°' -A festival: cdmeldaeg°, wcorJ>ungdeg 301

05.11.03 Period of time, era, epoch

-Time of a peat festival: h&hfm>lstrd" -A peat festival: heahfreols0 , heahfreolsdaeg° "Yule: geol ..New Year's Day: g!ares deg "I,ammas: blifnuessetrd0 ..A year ot jubilee: frColsg!aJ'oS See Feast-day; 18.02.01 Festival 05.11.03 Period of time, era, epoch: ieldo, lid, Wna, woruld .The period otthe world's duration: woruldlrf .Life-span of anything: dzg, tima "Times, days (as 'our tima', etc.): dagas, tide .Tam of oftke, reign: deg, rice .The Christian dispe...atlon: godspelbodung .Belonging to the Christian dispenntion: godspellic See Life-time; 02.01.04 Age A year: g!ar, g!arf~ , missereP .or twelve months: twelfmOnat> .or thirteen lunar months: t>zs m6nan g!ar .Years: winter, wintru .Annual: g!arlic .I -ting a year: gearlic ..Forming part of a year: g!arlic "Ten years long: tienwintre ..Forty years long: teowertiggeare0 .Every year, yearly: g!arbwimlfce0 , gwlrce, g&lnrutlum0 P .For a year: gearlanges0 .(In) this year: nu to geare, to geare See Liturgical year

0 A Mlf.year: missereP of the year: trd, tima .Herring sea80D: hl!ringtima0 .Tl.me for sowing: sedtima0 .5easonable for sbad: scuddgengeq Spring: bstre, g!ar, len(c)ten, lenctentid, lenctentirna .Early spring: foranlencten° .Spring eqalno:s: ~ lenctenlic efenniht 302 Specific months .A sprina moath: lenctemn6nal>0 .Sprina, of sprina: bsterlic, lenctenlic

See Lent Sam.mer: sumor .MkhnmllMI' (24th Jane): middansumer, midsumer, sumomuesseq .8ummer, of summer: sumorlic .8ammer-lona. •a 1111DU11er'1 day: sumorlangP .To dnw on towards mmmer: sumorlkan° Autumn; urfest •Tbe autumn equinox: s&> urfaestlice efenniht .Autumn .. barvat-tlme: haerfest, urfesttid, urfesttima0 , onrfptrd°, riptima

-Tbe month of harvest: urfestm6nal>0 .Autumnal: urfestlic Winter: winter, winlettfd .Midwinter: middanwinter, midwinter .Wintry, (of) winter: winterlic .To P'OW wintry, dnw near to winter: winterlkan A moath (lunar or calendar): mOnal> .A calendar month: cilend Monthly: m6naJ>lic, mOnelic Spulftc months: ,January: ianuarius, se aeftera gecila .February: februarius, solmonal> .March: hlyda, hn!ddK, hre}mtOnaJ>, martius .April: aprelis, eastermOnal> May: mlius, )Jrimeolce, IJrimilcemOnal>q .Jane and July: lij>a. lij>llnOnal>q ..Jane: lyl>a, midsumermOnal>q. se ~rra IYl>a. seremona&>q ..July: giululing°I, Julius, lyl>a, ~onal>q. se aeftera lyl>a .August: agustus, urfest, rugem0 • weodmonal> ,September: urfestm6nal>0 • hlligml>nal>. september .October: october, octobermonaJ>0 , winterfylledm6nal>. winterfyllel> .November: blOtmOnaJ>, nouember, nouemba1nona1> .December and J•nu•ry: gecila 303 A week ..December: december, decembcrmOnal>,

g~la, g~lmOnal>',

midwintermonal>q. se erra g~la A week: wucu .In duty periods of a week: ymbe wucstemne &e Holy week A day: dzg, dogor .A day of the week: wicdeg .A week-day, working day: weorcd&g, wicdeg .A day's space: dzgtid, dzgl>em. hwn, niht, nihthwi1° .Eve, evening before a day: l!feo .A winter day: winterd&g .A market day: ceapdeg&, cypedaeg& .A wished-for day: dzgwilla0 P .A period of three days: l>RC>nibt°P, j>ridzgl>em0 g .A period of four days: feowerdogors .Dally: dzg(ge)hwamlic, dzggehwilc°', singal .(Of day) weekday, not Sunday: wucu .(Of day) ordinary, private: syndorlic .(Of day) present, very: dzgenlicO, dzgj>erlic .Forlofaday:dzgryneS .Fordayu.se,everyday:dzgl>emeS .Lasting a day, for a day: dzglang .Lasting one day: indzgeP .Lasting two days: twfdzglic0 .Lasting three days: l>reodzglic0 .Lasting four days: feowerdogors .(Of day) lengthening: langiende ..Shortening: sconigende .(Of day) having a Joas momlng: morgenloog°P .By day: deges, on dzg .All day long: andlangne dzg, deglanges .Every day, daily: dzghwim, dzg(ge)hwamlrce .To-day: heodzg°P, to dzg(e) .On the nme day: Idzges, to Ines dzges .(Of days) to grow short: onsceonianq, sconian Spttifk days: .Sunday: sunnandzg 304 Dawn, daybreak, sunrise

..Mondaa: sunnanmergeo0 ..Evening: m0nanl!fen°, mOnanniht .Monday: mOnandzg ..Evening: trwesniht° .Tuesday: trwesdzg ..Evening: wOdnesniht .WMnaday: wOdnesd&g ..Evening: l>u~fcn°, l>unrcsnihtunresdzg ..Evening: frig~fcn, frigcniht .Friday: friandzg°', frigcdzg ..Evmlng: 12tcrniht° .S.tunlay: 12tcrdzg, 12temdzg, 12tcr(ne)sdzg ..Evmlng: sunn&nefcn, sunnanniht .Tbe time before daybreak on Sanday: sunnanilhta See Sabbath An boar: bwt1, trd .A winter-hour: winterstund°P

See Canonical hour 05.11.04 Day and nl&bt: Day (not nl&bt): dzg .Daylight, bN•d day, daytime: dzgtrd, dzgtrmaoS, hlOttor dzg, l&>ht dzg .Early part oftbe day: forandzg .Early day, early morn: l!rdseg, !!ring, ermorgcn, iihta(n)trd, iihtantima0 ,

ilhttfd ..Prime, tbe fbwt boar: prfm .(Of monaJna) early: l!rlic, l!tmorgenlic', erncmergcnlicoS, forewcard, iihtlic .Early la tbe morning, at/towards daybreak: l!rlice', on dagunge, OD ilhtan, tO l>iJn l!rdsegc, tO ilhtes ..Very early la tbe momln1~ on ealne l!mcmcrgen Dawn, daybreak, sunrise: dzgr&i, dzgrima, dagung, &rendel, morgen .Rusblnoise of dawn: dzgr&iwOmaP, dzgwOmaP .Ltpt of dawn: dzgredl&>ma0 , fruml&>ht°, lihting, morgcnleohtP,

rodorlihtung°' .Belonging to tbe dawn: dzgr&ilic 305 Morning .To dawn: (ge)dagian, fnunlyhtan°, inlixan', l!ohtian, (ge)llbtan Momlna: mergendzg, mergentid0 P, morgen, morgendzg°, morgentid, undem, undemml!l .Tblrd hour: undem, undemtid, undemtima .Morning, matutinal: mergenlic, morgenlic, morgentrdlic0 s, Uhternlic0 S .In the moming: on mergen, on morgen ..In the early moming: to undeme(s) ..In the middle of the momlna: to middes mergenes Mid-day, noon: middzg, middzgtid, middcldreg .Afternoon: geloten dzg, ofemon°1 ..Ninth hour: non, nontid, nontima0 .Mid-day, meridian: middzglic, middandzglic0 1 .(Of noon) high: hCah .At mid-day: midne dzg, to middes dzges .At noon: to nones .In the aftemoon: ofer midne dzg Nlght, nlght time: niht, nihtemes0 .Evening: zfcn, efenrcpsung. efcntid, zfcntima. itfnung, cwildtid', efems. cfcmtidl. foranniht, rcpsung ..Quiet of the evening: smyltnes ..A time of silence: silncs, swignes0 S, swigtima0 , swigung .Time for going to prayer: gcbedgibt0 8, (gc)bedtrd .Evening, of the evening: zfenlic', cfcrnlic' .Nocturnal, of the night: nihteme, nihtlic .Durlnglfor a night: nihtlang ..Lasting a night: nihtcmc .Lasting seven nights: seofonnihte .Far on, late in the day: langc on dzg .This evenlna: to atfcn .At/by night: nihtemum, nihtes .Nlghtly: nihteme .To grow towards evening: (gc)itfenla!can, (gc)a!fnian Suneet: sctlgang, sctlrid0 P, sctlung, sunnan sctlgang .Gloaming, evening twilight: atfcnglom(a), atfcnglomung, degred, deorcungs. glom0 P, glomung, nihtglom0 P, scima. tw!onel!oht0 S .Evenina llght: atfenleobt°P, atfcnscima0 P .Nlghtf.U: atfcnrepsung, niht, repsung 306 A calendar .Flnt boon oftbe nisht: cwildsetcns, cwildtrd' .Night, darlmea of nisht: niht. nibthcbnP, nihtscQaP, sinnibtc .To become nisht, grow darlt: gcnihtian Midniabt: middelnibtP, midde(r)niht, midniht .At mldnisbt: to midrc nihtc Lut boar of tbe Digbt, just before daybreak: iihtc .Cock-crow, boar before dawn: hancred, hancredtfdoS .Cock-crow: hanasang° 05.11.05 A dial, borlop: dzgm&I .A sundial: s0Jmerca0 .A water dock: weterwn~°'

05.11.06 Coanelcyde of time: (gc)gang, hring, hwyrfcl, hwyrfolung, ryne, trcndcl, ymbrync .Cycle (ofyean): hwcarft .Fifteen-year cycle, lndktion: gcbann, ticcncircol •Year of tbe indlction: gcbannglar .Five-year period, lustrum: fee, fifglaJ' 0 S .Tbne-year period: J>riglarc .Double period: twlhwyrft' See Course; History Cycle of tbe year: glarrync0 .The sun's year: ~re sunnan gear .An equinox: cfcnniht. cmnibtcs deg .A solstice: sungihtc, sunnstcdc .Kalends: l>i cilcndas, l>i clypunga, gchealdagas0 1! Jdes: idus, swatsenddagas, swatsingdagas0 S .Nones: nonas .Equlnoctial: cfcnneabtlic0 Reckonlng./computatlon of time: gerim, telmcarc0 P .Reckonln1 by years: gcargcmcarc°P, gcar(gc)rim, wintcr(gc)rimP .Reckoning by days: niht(gc)rimP .A cycle for computation: circul, gctelcircul 0 ' .An erroneous cycle: gcdwolhring° A calendar: gcrfm, ri~ft 307 A calculated space of time .In book form: gcrfmb6c0 .Skill in me of caleadan: (ge)rimcreft

See 'Zodiac A calculated space of time: gcrfm, geuel .A team, fixed elate or period: tennen .A number ofyean: gcargetzl, winter(ge)rimP, wintergeuelP .A number of months: cilendcwide0 P .A number of clays: dzgrimP ..A regular number of clays: rihting .Regular clays in compatadoa: regulares, rihtinge ..Lunar regulan: lunares

..The concurrents: concurrentcs, samodrynelas0 Atijnstment In calcnladon: .Epacta: epactas .Year with exba month: pn1ij>e0 .A leap year: bissextus ..Extra clay In leap year: bises0 P , bissextus .Day left over In calculadon: oferd2g0 .(In Easter calcnladon) containina nineteen: nigontYnlic0 .(In calenclar calculation) backwards: upweard Lunar cyde of nineteen yean: ticencircol .Time occupied by lunar revoludoa: )>es mOnan gm .(Of moon) malntalnlna a aeaaonal coane: tidgenge08 .(Of moon) monthly, tunar: monal>lic, monelic Time/period of the moon: mona, monan ieldo Time of full moon: monal>fylen' Wanlnaoftbe moon: wanung .That wanes, wanlna: wanwegende0 .To wane: wanian Newness/a mceat ph•se: nfwnes .New: nrwe .(Of moon) to chanae, renew: genfwian (Of lunar cyde) so many nlpts old: lnnihte, eahta nihta eald, fCowemihte, fCowertrenenihte, fifnihte0 , fiftiene nihte, 308 Former times, days of old nigonnihte0 , seofonnihte, seofontrenenihte, sixnihte, sixtjnenihte, tiennihte, twinihte, twelfnihta. tw!ntiges nihte, twinihte0 , l>rinihte0 P 05.11.07 RelatiYe time:

See Tense Contemporary,coe'Ylll: efeneald .Coalsteat (otthe Father and the Son): efeneardigende, efenwesende0 P .A coeval: efenealda .At the same time: aetgaedere, aetsamne, forpmid, mid, samod, sona swi,

tosomne, t>znnid .At once, forthwith, immediately: edfeP, zne, bealde, bealdlfce, efne (nii),

endemcs, fzringa, fttrlicc, faeste, faestlice, forhral>e, framlice, freaofcstlfcc°', full rat>e. full ricene, gegnunga, higendlicc0 , hraedlice, hrat>e. instaepe(s), instedef!, is1)>es0 , lungreP, nii, recenlice8, rihte, samJinga°', samnunga, samtingcs, semninga, sneomeP, sniide, s0na, stunde, l>ttrrihte, l>zrrihtcs, J>onne ••Phrases: aet frumcirre, call endemes, efne nii, in staepe, nii hwaenne, nii rihte, of stede, on inne si)>, on styde, s6na aefter, s6na eft, swi hrat>e swi, to timan, ymbe hand The pnsent (time): andweardnes .The present state ot existence: woruld

.Present: andweard .Now, at the present time: nii, nilnaq, nil l>i. to }>ises .Nowadays, at present: nu hwflum, to daeg(e)

Just now: furpum, nu, nu hwonne .Here, at this point/juncture: her .Herewith: herwil> .With that, therewith: }>znnid .Until now: 01> nu, 01> l>isum .At this point: ymb(e) .About: onbutin .To be current/prevalent: genge beon/wcsan ••To be In season: gengan ..To become current/prevalent: weorpan genge Fonner times, days of old: ealddagas, (ge)fyrndagas, geardagas .Day of old: geodaeg .A year Iona gone by: fyrngcar .Antiquity: gefyrnncs

309 Time within remembrance

.Hoariness: ha!ru°' .Put, p••ed away, gone: Agin, lumen, beleorendlici, forplgln, forpiumen,

forpgiten°, forpgewiten, ofgebfged8 ..Lona-past: gefymgewiten° .Ancient, former, earlier: cald, fym .Of early times, authoritative: caldlic .Primitive, early (e.g. or church): caldlic, frumcennende, frymplic .Formerly, Iona qo: zrhwilwn, for lange, (ge)fym, geant. geara iii, g~agum. geo, geo itr, geo dagum, geo gcara, geo hwilwn, on ~r. on zrdagum .Historically: s~rlice S .Ago: p&s ymb(e), ymb(e) .Once, at some former time: &ne


See Tradition Time within remembrance: gemynd .The preceding year: fymgear .Recently: sJl>lice .Not long ago, lately: unfym, ungeara .The day before: d&g l!r ..Tbe day before yesterday: on ~m) itrran d&ge .On a former day: on zrran d&ge Yesterday: gisterd&g0 S, gistran d&g, gyrs(t)andzg •Yesterday evening/night: gyrstan zfen, gystran niht .Of yesterday: giestemlic, geostra ..That happened yesterday, a day old: nihtcald .Yesterday: geostran, giestran ..Yesterday evening; giestrana!fenne Earlier, antecedent: foregangende .Former, earlier: ltrra .Done before: l!rgedon, &rgefremed0 .Previously imtructed: zrgel~red°g .Earlier, before, formerly: l!r, zror, zr pissum, l!r pan, etforan,

beforan (a!r), beforan pissum, forane, foran to, fore, gefym, geo, on l!r, wipforan, wipufan ..Long before: Jang ltr .Already: nii gco, pi geo .Stlll, yet, as yet: g!n(a), giet(a), nii gen, nii giet, ponne gyt 310 Future, time to come .Yet, still, hitherto: g~n(a), gfet(a) .Since: 1>nne Q>e) .Until: hwonne, o)>, o)> )>ct Q>e), swi lange (o)>) )>ct, to l>on )>et .Before: etforan, beforan, foran, fore, onforan, toforan, )>a ymb A precunor, one wbo goes before: foregenga, foregengel0 , foreiemere, forerynel, foresteppend, wrcsc!awere0 .Pnced•na: fort>ymende .To go before: forecuman See Precede The aforesaid: se gemyndiga .Afo.n 11ld, •hove mentioned: l!r(ge)nemned, bufan(ge)cweden, bufannemned0 , bufansprecen, forecwcden, foremcarcodS, forenemned0 , fo~d. foresprecen, gemyndgod .Above written: forewriten .Before, prevlomly: h!rbeforan, ha beufan .To meation before, 18)' already: foresecgan See Make known Old, not new: eald, frod, bAr .Old, hltvlng basted long: eald ..Hoary: hirwelle0 S .Ancient, of time long put: eald, frameald°, gamolP ..Ancatral: fzderlic .Ap, oldness of world: gbrgetel .Ancient tndltloalordl,,.nce: fymsaegen°P, geset(ed)nes •To ll'OW old: gamolianop, onealdianS Future, time to come: toweardnes .The future state: fo£l>gesceaftP, toweardnes, woruld .The life to come: o)>er Irf .Lllter times, clays to come: zfteryldo, siJ>n lange .Paucpectlvely, looldna to tbe future: fo£l>weard .From now: heonan 311 Nearness, approach, imminence .From this time forth: fort> heonan, forweard, heonan, heonan fort> .Hereafter: eft, giet(-a), heonan, benefter, her bacftan .To be (future): ~n •WUVsball (as amlllary for future): willan .Towards: ongean, togcanes Nearness, approach, lmminence: neahtcung, neawung0 S, toweardnes .A time dose at band: neabtid0 .At band, imminent: actwesende, gebende, n!ah, toweard .Threatening, impending: on~tends, snild .Shortly, before long: hracdlice, hral>e. scortlice, s6na, un(ge)fym, ungeara .Near, at band, imminendy: gehende, neah ..From a time near at band: nean .Nm year: ot>er gwa .(Of time/event) to draw nigh: (ge)neaJecan .To approach, threaten: onstandan, onwunian .Near: gehende (To)morrow: morgen, morgendacg, se morgenlica dacg .Of tomorrow: morgenlic .Tomorrow: on morg(en)ne, to mergen, tomerigen, to morgen (Of time) later/latter: acfteweard, ufeweard .(Of things in time) later/latter: acfterra, n&r, uferra, yfera .Late, well·advanced: lact .Hindmost, last: hindemaP .Last: geongest, letemest .After/afterwards: t>acs (l>e), ymb(e) .. . J>acs l>e .Then, from that time: 1>anon, J>anonfor1>, J>on .Thereafter/after that: acfter J>on, si)> J>im, J>i, l>~racfter, J>onne .After, afterwards, later: acfter, acfter si)>facte, acftumq, eft, fort>. furJ>or, si)>, si)>et0 S. si)>lfce, sil>l>a. siJ>J>an, ufor -Long afterwards: tang . .. sil>l>an -Longer: Ieng .After, later: acfter l>Y, si)>or .Below, hereafter: be&ftan, eft •To follow, ensue, be tbe outcome of: folgian, (ge)fy lgan .When, after: J>onne 312

05.11.08 A suitable time, OJ>POrtUnity .After, beyond: beeftan, begeondan, bufan, onufan, ymb(e)

See Follow Succasion: aefterfylgendnes0 S .Succeuion to an oftlce: aeftergcngncs .A suttessor, one who follows: aefterfolgere, aefterfylgend, aeftergenga, aeftergengelq, folgere -One who lives to speak pnlw: aeftercweJ>end ..A successor to an otftce: aeftergenga, folgere .Succeuive, next. following: aefterfylgende, aefterfylgcndlic, aefterra .In succession: aefterfylgendlice -In succession to: on liste .Next. then: t>~r nchst, ~rto, l>onne .To come after, come next. aw: aefterfylgan 05.li.07.04.03 Newae11, novelty: niwnes .A new creadon: edsceaft .A new creature: edsceaft .Strangeness, novelty: uncut>nes0 .New,rec:ent: geong,niwe ..Most recent: endenehst .New, new made, novel: edniwe, niwe .Difl'erent from previously: niwe .New, still unimpaired by use: niwe ..AU new: call niwe .Ever new: geong, niwe .Lately, recently, newly: n!a.h, niwan, niwe, niwlice Renewal, restoradon: (ge)edniwung .Anew, like new: ednrwan, ednrwe, ednrwinga, niwunga .To renew, restore, make new: (ge)edniwan, (ge)edstal>elian .To restore, make good: geinnian, (ge)niwian, gestal>lian .To restore (di1t11ed pnctice): edniwian .(Of renewal, etc.) apln: eft See 02.08.13 Recovery 05.11.08 A suitable dme, opportunity: (ge)byre, gedafenlicncs, inca, intinga, gelimplicness, sel, tid, tidlicnes0 S, tima, towyrd .Ti.me for going: gang .Oppom•nity for freedom of acdon: rum .Opportune, &Ulna: gebyredlic, gelimplic, tidlic, timlic, t>aeslic 313 Untimeliness -(Of wind) favourable: ambyr, gesundig°, gesundiglic .Coaveniendy, at a fhtl111 time: gebyrcdlrce, ged&ftclice, trdlrce, timlice .At tbe proper time, in due coune: l trman, on trde, to rihtes trman, to seles, to trman .In due time, earty: gemetlice Untimeliness: unged&ftnes0 .A wrolllllmproper time: untrma .Untimely speech: untidspk .Inopportune, 11nuasouable: untrdlic, unt>zslic -Unsuitable for work: unwcorclic -Born out of due time: simborenq .UDHlllODllbly, at an inopportune time: ungecoplice0 g, unged&ftlice,

ungedafenlrce, untrdlice Suddenness: gebregdnes. ft!mes .Suddea: ft!rcumen°g , ferlic, hra:dlic, semnendlic .saddenly, all of a sadclea: inunga, feringa, ferlice, hra:dlice (Untimely) earlinea: hra:dlicnes .Happening betimes, early: hra:dlic

.Too early, immature: unn~. ungenped ..Maturing too early: hra:drl~ .Equally advanced (in duties): efenfort>0 .At an earty time, early: t!r, t!rli~ ..At tbe earliest: raJ>ost l>inga .In a state of forwardness: forl>lice .soon, betimes: atr, tidlice, timlice

-The sooner: t>on atr. l>y t!r, l>Y hraJ>or -Too soon: to atr .To rise early, pt up early in tbe morni111: morgenwacian°g •To do IOOD: gehradian Antidpadoa: forcsteppung° .To anticipate, forestall: forhradian, forsc!otan, Onettan See 06.0/.08.01 Expectation Late: lzt, lztcumen°g, lztlic, lztsum0 , sil>lic

.Later: sQ>ra .Latest: sil>emest. sil>est •Too late: to sil> 314

05.11 .09.03 At times, sometimes Delay: elcung, geling°, ielden, ielding, latu, latung°S, siimnesoS, swige, swigung, uferung° .A delay, pause, stay: stand .Delay in speaking: wordlatu0 P .A procnstinator: elciend .A wait, period of waiting, delay: anbid, anbidung .A delay, long wait: langung .Diiatory, tardy: ieldendlit°8, langsum .Causing much delay, dilatory: ieldful8 •To wait to see, wait: (Je)anbidian .To a.y: gltlan .To pause, delay: oferwandian°8 .To delay, tarry, be dow: (ge)latian ..To procrastinate: elcian .To delay, put off, defer: lyldan, forieldan, forsittan, forslltwan, (ge)ieldan, ieldian, (Je)lengan, (ge)lettan, tOferian, tOtweman. (ge)uferian ..To delay, put off too long: forelcian° 05.11.09 Frequency: Always: ii, l!fre, itr and sij>, lhw~nne, i simle, i to widan teore, ealle dagas, calling, ealneg, ealne weg, ealning(a), gehwitr, on wega gehwim, on wega gehwylcum, sij> and ltr Frequent, of common occmreoce: gelom, (ge)lomlic, gel6mntde0 , oftJ'l!de, oftredlic, ryfe0 , gewunelic .Frequendy, often: (ge)lome, (Je)lomlice, manigsij>es, (ge)neahhe, ofemtdlfceoS, oft, oft and gelome, oftrltdlice, oftsipum0 , on oftsij>as, symle, ~icce, unseldan ..Very often: foroft, full oft, oft ... gelOme, oft and gelome, oftost ..Much oftener: oftor micle ..Whenever, as often u : ~an~ ~ ..Times without number: unarimendlice .To be/become frequent, happen again: gelomlltcan, gelomlician° ..To become more ft equent: gestrangian At times, sometimes: hwi1tidum, hwnum, o~hwile, stundum, trdum, ~rlgnutlumP, ~rigum .At sonw/otber timet: hwilum . .. hwilum, hwi1trdum .. . hwiltrdum .Now and then: stu~lum 315

05.11.0'J.03.0l Occasional Ocasional: ol>ethwflen°S .On one ••• on another flC'Cltsioa: ot>re sl)>e . . . ot>re sl)>e Seldom, rarely: tcawum si}>um, seldan, seldhwanne Never: ni. nltfre, nihwltr, ni on life, niwa0 , ne !tr ne si}> .Not: ne Frequency, repetition: gelomJicnes .Repetition, neu11eoce: edlatcung° .Repeated action: gelomJatcing .Return (to a condition): edhwyrft

.Recurring: edlitcende .Repeated, come round: gebeted .Resumed, done again or anew: nrwe .Renewed, begun again: geedgunnen°S .Apin: a:fters0na!, eft, eftsOna, gen, gena. ongean .Anew, again: edruwan, ednrwe, ednrwinga. nrwlinga0 .Anew, a second time: niwan stefne .Back to, again: onbaecling .Periodically: pricmatlum .Uniformly, regularly: efne .In return, back again: togeanes .To recur: geedh~can, efthwyrfan .To do frequently, repeat: gelomJitcan .To repeat: geedlatstan°, geednlwian, geeftgadrian°, (ge)nrwian .To restore, revive: (ge)edniwian 05.11.10 Timescale: A beginning: anginn, ealdordom, fruma, frumtrd0 , fryml>,

heafod, heafodhebba, ingang, (ge)nealitcung, ordfruma .The beginning of time: fruma .A first time: frumcyrr .The first: in, forma .F1nt: fynnest, fyrst .For the first time: itne, l!nes .Fint, first of all: atrest, atrest l>inga, forJ>mest, furt>um, fyrmest, fyrst .To begin with, at ftrst: a:t fryml>e, on fryml>e .To begin (at/with): beginnan, fOn (on), ginnan, inginnans, onfOn, onginnan See 05.03 Source; 05./ Middle


05.11.11 Continuity Origin: gebyrd, Or, Qplsprungennes0 .A rudiment, btpnnlna: (ge)niwung .A root, primitive: ealdor .Original: ordfrymm0 .Oripnal, primiti•e, tint: frum .Originally: frumlice&, frymplice End, completion: geendadung°I, ende, edwendenP , gefyllednes, (ge)fylling, (ge)fyllnes .Latter part, end: zfteweard, ende .Ending, conclusion: ende, endestzf, (ge)endung, genutre, gem2rung .A Hmlt, end, team: geoiere, mearc, tennen .Cessation, coming to an end: iblinnendnes, itCorodnes, blinn, (ge)endung, geswic, geswicennes, geswicu0 .Coming to a dose: iwegweard0 .Ended, ftnitbed: gedon, forslzgen .Last, ftnal: zftemest, zftresta. endemest, endenehst, niehstan, siJ>(e)mest, sij>est, yt(e)mest .Final, ultimate: uteweard .Coming to an end: iblinnendlice .At last, at length: on list, on Ieng~ .Lastly, in the last place: irunst°P, lzt(e)mest, lztest, niehstan .At the latest (date): hiiru .In the end, finally: zt nehstan, zt sij>emestan, zt sij>estan .In the end, ultimately: zt (pam) ende, on ~am) ende .To decline, approach an end, wane: (ge)lutan, (ge)sigan .To cease, come to an end, stop: ztstandan, belucan, forstandan, geswican .(Of time) to run out, expire: foreealdian .To end, bring to a dose, conclude: beliican, betynan, lucan, tynan See 05.07 End ofexistence; 05.09.05 Ceasing; I I.OJ 06 Fulfilment 05.11.11 Continuity: gadertangnesoS .Continuance, not ceasing: istandennes0 , uniblinn° .Continuous: gadenang, samodgang, samodtang0 , singal, singallic .(Of time) rolling on: fo~gangende .Sustained: togewegen°, prigbysig°P .LMting, of long continuance: iwunigende, langfzre, singal, priglic0 .Perpetual, to all time, Jon&lastlnc: b, blic, fo~weard, gclzstende, singal, purhwuno1° 317

05.l l.l l.Ol A not ceasing, persistence, recurrence .Constandy, always, continaomly: dzges and nihtes, eallc l>rAgc, ealncg,

fa:stlrce, gclomc, gcncahhc, gcncahhclrce0 , gcncahlrce, oftost symlc, on symbcl, singala, singales, singallice, (ge)sinlice, symle, symles, symling(a)', wuniendlrce0 .Evermore, to all time: ~r dzge and a:fter dzgc, dzg a:fter dzg, ece, ecelrce, fort>, in ende .To remain, persist, continue, endure: gea:fnan, awunian, ofstandan, l>urhwunian, (ge)wunian .(Of time) to extend: standan istreht .To be upheld, endure: (ge)standan .To continue, perpetuate: gesingalian', gesingallician' See 05.13.06 Constancy; Constancy A not ceasing, penistence, recurrence: uniblinn° .8ucceaioa ol events: endebyrdnes .Continuous, uninterrupted: andlang, onwealg .In unbroken succeuion: forl> gerimed, singal .Unceasing, unexhausted: onstandende, uniblinnendc, uniblinnendlic,

uniteorod', unforhladenoS, unteorig°P .Unwearying, inexhaustible: unAj>reotend0 P, ungeteori(g)cndlic .Continuously, without a break, unceasingly: instreces, endelcaslrce, for1>. forJ>rihtes, forJ>weard, ·on in, on in um, on ende, samod, symle, toga:dere, tosomne, uniblinnendllce, unigitledlice0 , uniteorigcndlice, unblinnendlice, unget!origendllce, untolittendllce0 ..One after another: on gebyrd .Day and night: da:ges and nihtes .Unweariedly, unceasingly: iblinncndlice', unAj>rotenlrce .To pent.st, continue: iwunian, onstandan Let up, intermission, ceuation: inforhttnes, betw!ohblinnes0 ' ,

bctw!onanforlittnes0 , blinnes0 , forllttednes0 , forlitting', forlittnes, geswicing0 ' . toozlednes, toforlittennes .A break, pause, gap: ginnes0 ' , tOditlednes .A pause, aespite: biding°P, first, firstmearc, rothwil .At times, at intervals: hwiltrdum .Periodically: pricmitlum .After a short time: ymb stycce .(In narrative) then, apin: t>onne .To lntermpt, break: (ge)brecan on/in, fram don, tobrecan, toslltan


05.12.01 .01 To go on a journey/expedition, travel

05.12 To move, be In motion: lstyrian, hwearfian, geieman, lican, ltecan°P. onstyrian, styrian, ymbcyrran .To move from: ibiigan fram, bregdan of .That moves, movina: ftoteriende, licende, styrigendlic, unstille .Able to move, mobile: ferende, styrigendlic "Liking movement, unquiet, restlea: unstille .Motion, movement, agitation, fluctuation: istyrung, drefing°g, gegrind, hrer(e)nes, gelicP, onstyre(d)nes, styrenes, styrung, swangettung°. unstil(l)nes, gewinn, gewrixl, ymbcerrg ..Movement of bmmn body, aeature, action: geb&re See JI .OJ Action

05.12.01 To go, progress, travel (usually OD land): astigan, dragan, (ge)faran, (ge)gln, (ge)gangan, gengan, (ge)hweorfan, hwierfan, (ge)li)>an, (ge)niman, oferfaran, oncierran, gen!can, gerecan, rfdan, sciifan, (ge)stzppan, (ge)stigan, strican, (ge)wadan, (ge)wegan, (ge)wendan, wrigian .Able to travel: ferende .Ready to travel: si)>gearu0 P .Locomotion, going, Pl"Olress. way: fer, fereld, faru, fOr, forpgang, gang, hwyrft, lid, ryne, si)>, si)>fet, wadung, wzg To 10 on a Journey/expedition, travel: iteon, (ge)feran, ferian, fulfaran°, gang/si)> settan, listas lecgan, si)> asettan, (ge)si)>ian, teon .To Journey abroad: elt>CoP, worung .A wanderer: widfarend0 ..A vagabond: woriend ..A wanderer, eDle: eardstapa0 P -In the marsbeslborderlands: mearcstapaP See Alienation Expanse over which something travels: gang, hwearf, weg .A circuit. apanse covered: gang, ymbgang .Course, circuit: zftenyneoS, begang, gedrif, bring, hwyrft, ryne, scriJ>e0 P, trendelncsg .A digaession, roundabout way: ieflist°P, ymbswzpeoS .Path along which something travels: gang, siJ>, si]>fzt, weg "Right or proper path: rihtryne ~th leadina astray: dwolpzl>og See 05.10 Extent A means of access: fzr, weg .A way, road: fzreld, gang, gangweg, si]>fzt, stntt, weg "Road lying in a spttific diaection: eastwegP, norpweg0 P, Siil>weg0 P, westweg -Path in opposite direction: gegnpzl>0 P ..A narrow way: inpzl>P, foldwegP, mearcpzl>P, rancstrat0 P, sidwegP, siJ>weg°P, wealdswapu0 P ..A bard way: supweg°P ..A desired way: wilweg 320 A highway ..A juactioa, CN•·nialk: gem6t, twicen(e), twfweg°S, wega (ge)l~te, wega gemyl'e, wegged118, weggeletcl, wegtwislung°S .An outlet, wt, P'"'lll&e: iitgang, iitgeng(a)oS, iitryne .Open, free of entrance or admission: open .Easy of access, acasstble: gefbe0 P, open, l>urhfCreS .Easy for travelling over: eapfbeoS .Acassible by two ways: twifbeoS .On tbe way (to): be ... wege .To make/leave tbe way dear (to), make way: geryman .To make paaeble, bridge (a road/way): gebrycgian .To yield, cede, pve place (to): (ge)rjman A path, back: pel>. si)>, slig, stigaq, wirpelsq .An oat-of-the-way path: orwegslig8 .A track, trail: fir:rcld, list, swtr:I>, trod .A track with willows: sealtrod0 .A track stained by blood: feorhlist°P, switswaJ>u0 P .A winding ascent: gewind8 ..A nanow path up a bill: insliga ..A goat-path: gitinslig° .A trace, track, spoor: lolswir:1>. list, spor, stzpe, swir:I>, swaJ>u ..A damp track: iiriglist°P See 04.03.01 Tracking A catting, p1111: corf0 .A narrow pass: nirewett .A ra•age between hills: geat •?A plly: sulh A highway: burgstntt0 , burgweg, ceasterherpaJ>0 , folcherpal>, fyrdstntt, hCahstntt, hCahwcg, her(c)pir:I>. hcrestn!t, hereweg°S, portherpal>0 , portstntt, portwcg, wigstntt0 .King's highway: cyncstn!t°', fril>herpal>0 .A p11ved road: stinstntt, stinweg, stntt .Road made with wood: beamweg, gierdweg .Road marked out by posts: stapolweg° .A (?)walled road: weallweg .A road between hedges: hegeweg .Road along whicb miles are measured: rru1pet>P .Road along whicb army pa11es: her(e)pel>. wrgrid0 P, wigtrod0 P 321

05.12.01 .03.01.04 A lane, street

OS. A lane, sheet: lanu, sritlanu0 , wic .A narrow lane: twicen .A dirty lane: horweg .A north lane: nort>lanu0 .A town place or sbeet: worl>(ig) OS. Types of road/path: .A bead-road: heafodweg, hrycgweg .A boundary-road: (ge)matrweg, mcarcweg .A field-road: zcerweg .A private road: tiinweg .?A side-road: srdlingweg° .A road made by dearing tree ftnmps: stificweg .A cart-road: fzrweg, hweolweg0 , wzgnweg .A bridle-path: horspa:J>, horsweg, gerid0 , ridaq .A cattle-road: drif .A public path through a wood: wuduherpaJ>0 .A public road to a wic: wicherpaJ> .A road to a saltworks: sealtherpaJ>0 , sealtstn!t .A road/path to a mill: mylenstig, mylenweg0 .A road to a well: wylleweg .A road to a sports-field: llicweg .A path to a mead.ball: medustig°P .A path to a funeral pUe: idfaru0 P OS. Impa~ want of a road: wegleastg .Unpassable: ungefCrc, ungefCrcd, ungeieme', unoferlere', unJ>urhrere0 g, unJ>urhsceotendlicg, wegleasg .Impassably: ungefCrc OS. A fordable place: brycg, ofenemes0 .A ford: ford, (ge)wa:d, wa:J> ..A ford on a highway: herefor~. herepa:J>ford ..A bonier ford: ml!rford, mearcford ..A stony ford: stanford .A place to be jumped over: hliep(e) .A stepping-stone: cleac, hyppels, hyppingq OS. A bridge: brycg .A bridge of planks: J>elbrycg .A bridge of poles covered with earth: eorJ>brycg0 322 To amble, stagger .A wooden bridge: wudubrycg .A stone briclae: slinbrycg .A bridge over a river: &lbrycg° .l.ancl-pien of a bridae: landperan Coastructinglrepalrlna bridges: brycggeweorc .Repairing bridges: brycgbOt .To make a causeway, bridge a abeam: (ge)brycgian .To span as by a bridge: oferbrycg(i)an To go, proceed on foot: bestzppan, fCJ>an, (ge)gin, (ge)gangan, onstzppan, (ge)stzppan, treddianP, treppan .To walk through, perambulate: geondgangan -To wade across: oferwadan° -To step/go out of: wiJ>stzppan°g .That goes on foot: lotgangendeog, lotlic, gangende, stzpegong0 P -That walks quickly: fCJ>espedig°P .On foot: on f'Cl>e .Ability to walk: fa:reld, fel>e, gang .Ad of going on foot: fCJ>ung, gang, stzpe .A journey OD foot: fCJ>egang0 P -One who journeys OD foot: tet>a, fCJ>emann Manner of 1oing. pit: fzr, gang .A footstep, pace: fCJ>elistP, list, stzpe -Track of footstep, a footprint: fOtl~st. lotspor, fOtstapoJ 0 S, lotswreJ>, si}>stapelog, stzpe, stopel -Of a bone: hofrec, hofrings To stride: strfdan To tread upon, trample: beatan, fortredan, ofstzppan°, oftredan, (ge)spurnan, totredang, (ge)tredan, treddan .To prea with the foot: tredan .To b'ead, Imprint (a footstep): Asteppan°, bestzppan .Ad of b'eadlng down: h!annesq .One who tramples: tredend To amble, stager: tealt(r)ian .To stumble, totter: spuman .That stagers: dilniendlic0 g, tealt(r)iende 323 To stumble, trip, strike (with the foot) To ftumble, trip, strike (with the foot): ztspoman (et/on), ofcrwcorpan, spuman .To slip, stumble: iglfdan, gelfsian°, slfdan, slidrian .To slip and fall: ietslfdan, aslrdan, (ge)fcallan, nit>cr isigan .To move accidentally, slip: ha:ppan .EasUy caused to slip or slide: slipor .One who sh•mbles/slips: ztslidendc To ride (on bone, etc.): onrfdan, (ge)ridan, sittan on .To mount (a bone, etc.): astrgan, bcsb'fdan, (ge)hlcapan {iip on), sb'idan (Op on), iipstrgan (on) -To dismount: ilihtan ... of, (ge )lihtan (of) .Mounted: gehorsod, ntdc' .Ad of riding: onrid0 , onsctl0 , rid, gerid .A ride, joumey on horseback: rid -Riding in company with: midrld0 .A mounting-block: hlfpc .A rider: astfgend, hleapcrc, onsittend, onstrgend, ntdcmann, ridda, rfdend, stfgend, Opstrgend ••One who rides ahead (with message): forridel0 See Horse Modes of riding: .(?)To ride at walking pace: gengan .To ride quickly, gallop, race: (ge)zman ..To ride quickly and take: gca:man ..To overtake by galloping: ofzmanog ••To gallop and reach: gca:man .To ride past, overtake: ofridan ..To overtake and intercept: forrfdan •To ride around, surround, take: bcridan, gcrfdan •To ride across: oferrfdan° .(?)To ride away from: o):>ridan°P ..To ride out of, away from: irfdan iit of, iittrdan° .To ride in pursuit of, follow: zftcr rfdan .Galloping, bone-racing: zming, fltra:ming° Vebide: cearruce', fzreld, fcring°, scrid, wegu0 •Wheeled vebide: crzt, wzgn .Carriage: fyrdwen° 324

05.12.01 .07.01 To hang .Charlot: cnet. cnetwen, &>red, ryne, scrid. scridwen ..Chariot of spe clRc comtraction: ncgledcnetq ..Chariot drawn by bone: horscnlet°I, horswen°S ..Fut chariot: hredwen, rynewen°P ..War chariot: wigwcgn

.utter: mrbed°'. send

..Hone litter: honber .Driver: wissigend ..Charioteer: certare0 , cnetwisa, eoredman, scridwisa°', wcgnere'

.Chariot journey: wcgnfaru' .Carrying of children: cildfaru0 •Wqon companion: wcgngmfa' .Wqon plank: J>islq, wcgngehradooS .Wqon cover: wcgngewede0 .Equipment of a vebide: faru ..Two-wheeled: twibweole°' ..Four-wheeled: teowerhweolod°' ..H11h·wbeeled: h~wrolod°'

..With four bones: fi)>erteme' .To travel In a vebkle: rfdan on To8y (with winp): (ge)fteogan, (ge)fteon, fticorian .To 8y on to: befteogan° •To 8y forth, away: forp fteogan, o}>fteogan .To 8y over: oferfleon •To 8y through: l>urhfteon° .To 8y up: iip fteogan •To ftutter: fi}>ercian°, fi}>erian°, ftogettan .To beat winp In Bight: swingan .Able to fty, winged: fe}>erbere' , fi}>erberende' , (ge)fi}>erhamod, gefi}>erod •That Bies, ftying: ftacor P, fteogende, fteogendlic0 , fteonde, heofonfteogende°',lyftllcendeP ..(Of arrows) ftying: ftacorP .Swift In Bight: ftyhthwctP .Without wlnp: fi}>erleas0 P J.illgbt: ftyge, ftyht, lyftgelicP ..Wlnp as means of Bight: fe}>erhama ..Act of beating winp, wing·beatin&: fi}>erslehtS To bang: lhangian, hangian, rfdan 325

05.12.01 .08 To move inion water

'"' ftoat: hangian .To hang, remain suspended, -To hang heavily: seomianP .To put up, hang (on): ihOn, (ge)hOn, macian Qp, oniMn, onhon, ilp ahon .That swings, swaying: ridusende' .Hung around with: behangen .Ad of banging: hangelle .A hanging object: hangelle .A swing: totridal See Capital punishment OS.12.01.08 To move inion water: fteotan, swimman .To be tossed OD waves: ftoterian .That Boats, Boating: fteotende .Aftoat: iftote0 , on ftot(e) .Being tossed on waves: faroJ>licendeP .Movement in water: sundplegaP .Passage along which liquid travels: gang, liidq See Conducting of water OS. To swim: rowan, (ge)swimman .To swim over/across: oferswimman°P .To swim through: J>urhswimmanog .Ability to swim: sund -Use of ability: sundnytt°P .Able to swim: swimmendlic0 .Ad of swimming: sund .Strength in S\lrimmin1: merestrengu0 P .That swims, swimmins: ft~ende -Good at swimmins: sundhwact0 P, syndig0 P See Plunge OS.12.01.09 To travel OD water: fteotan, ftotian°, (ge)li}>an, (ge)siglan .To journey by water: (ge)rowan, (ge)segl(i)an -To journey across water: oferlll>an, oferseglian -To journey round by water: ymbli}>an° -To reach by journeying on water: gehl>an, gerOwan, gesiglan .To 10 on board: ist&gan on scip, istigan on scip, istigan/istigian scip, bit gestigan, ceol gestigan, gin on scip, (ge)scipian, stigan on scip -To embark stealthily: bestelan up .To put out to sea: ill iiscufan, ilt l~tan 326 A voyage ..To leDd out to 1ea: ihttan iit, settan iit .To steer: ledan, stieran •To lower the mast: lecgan t>one mzst .(Of boat) to travel, ride: ndan, swimman ..To niVdart over the sea: brecan ofer 1>21>weg, ftocgian°g ..To shape a coune for: hwemman, gel&tan n~ ..To llide back to shore: gesigan .To come to land, land: land ges&:an, (ge)lendan, tofealdanq ..To come to land and anchor: wician ..To put ashore: ilp l&tan ..To disembark: on wang stiganP .AJ•nding:ilpgang, iipgange0 P To row: irum/mundum bregdan, hrCran mid hondum, (ge)rowan, teon .To row acroa; oferrowan° •To row round: berowan .To row after: efter rowan .To reach by rowing: gerowan .Act of rowing: rewet. rowettg, rowingg. rownes0 ..A pull at the oan: droht°g To nil: (ge)siglan •To reach by sailing: gesiglan .To beat against the wind: bctan .Act of nlling: segling .Swelling of sail: swelling ' .(Of sails) ftlled: gebesmcdO« .Beating against the wind: !>&ting° A voyage: eolet°P, fer, lagusiiJP, rid, Sltf0r 0 P, SltsQ>0 P, scipgefer0 , scipfereld, sciplid0 , segling, witgfer 0 P, wcgfaru0 P, yl>lidP .A voyager, seafarer: &gftota0 P, brimltpendP, brimmannP, eatQ>end0 P, ferend, ft!otend, ftota, ftotmann, lida0 P, lidmannP, lidweard0 P, lil>smann, merefara0 P, mereliJ>endeP, nicdling, rol>ef, rowend, segenga, SltlidaP, slllij>endP, Sltmann, drincP, scipere, scipfarend0 , sciplerend°P, scipftotaP, scipliJ>end, sciprowend0 g, stigend. wl!gliJ>endP ..A leader ·or nllon: brimwrsa0 P ..A mariner who goes on trading voyages: scipmann 327 A ship, boat .A ship's company: scipwered°I, werod -One ofa ship's aew: scealc, scipmann, scipweard0 P -Captain: frumlida0 , nOwend', sciphllford, st!oresmann° -Captain and steersman: steormann, steorret>ra ..Steersman, pilot: holmweard°P, scipst6ora, st&>ra, st!orere0 ..A boatman: bitswegen°, butsecarl ..Look-out man at the prow: forest&>ra0 S, fort>weard scipes, plihtereS ..A ship's watchman: bitweard°P ..A servant with boat dudes: scipwealh0 ..Man in charge of the anchor: ancormanns .An oarsman: hmta0 , rel>ra. scipret>ra .8eafaring, sailing: farol>ridende0 P, ~li}>endeP, scipli}>ende, wttgli}>endeP .Skilled as a sailor: Iagucneftig°P .Brave in sailing: s&rOfOP .Carrying ships: scipberendeoS

See Ctn' A ship, boat: le, zsc, bit. beam, bord, brenting°P, brimhengestP, briml>yssaP, brimwuduP, ceol, cnearr, fzrP, farol>hengest°P, ft0dwudu0 P, ftota, hcmftota0 P, Iagumearg°P, lidP, mzgl>egsan wyn, mereblt°P, menlhengestP, meret>yssa0 P, nacal', now q, s&bitP, s&ftota0 P, ~gengaP, ~hengest, ~li}>endP, s&mearhP, s&naca0 P, ~wuduP, scegl>, scip, sundhengestP, sundwuduP, wttgbord0 P, wttgftotaP, wzghengestP, wzgl>elP, wztert>yssaP, wudubit0 P, Yl>hengest, Yl>hof0 P, y)>lidP, yl>Iida0 P, yl>mearhP

See Fleet Kind of sbJp: .With beaked prow: barda/bar(l>)a', hornscip0 P, hringedstefnaP, hringnaca0 P, wundenstefna0 P .With ftat bottom: fti!ot(e)lftiete, punts .Canoe-like: trog, trogscipS .Rowing boat: rewet .Nall-fastened: nzgledcnearrP .Skift', small boat: cuopet0 s, ft!ge', ftotscipS, plegscip0 s, recs, scipincel', wra:cq

.Trading vessel: c!apscip, hlzstscip0 s, hulc .Transport sbJp: sciphlzst Scooting vessel: ttrendscip .Guanl ship: fri)>scip0

328 Part of ship

.Enemy ship: unfril>scip .Piratical ve11el: hydscip0 1, hyl>scip°', )>eofscipl .Small vessel, wanhlp: snacc .Wanhlp of some kind; dulmunus .Sixty-oared ship: sixtigi:re •Trireme: 1>nrCJ>re, 1>rrre1>receo1° .An ark/the Ark: cofa, care(e), geofonhils0 P, hoimem0 P, mereciest0 P, merehusP, sundrececr>P. l>ellfesten°P, wudufesten Of/conc:eming • ship, naval: sciplic •Well-made: bunden •Water-tight: fest .seaworthy: f&e .Steady, stable: unwealt .Capadoas: Sltgbp0 P, sidfel>me(d)P, widfel>meP .Newfy•tarred: Diwtyrwed0 P .Dug-out (as in canoe): lnbYme0 ' .Oar-propelled: l!ren .With nailed sides: negledbordP •With beak: brandsllltfn°P, bundenstefna0 P, h~tefnP, hymed, wundenhals0 P .Foamy-necked: timighealsP .Foamy-sided: timigbord0 P .Equipped for senke, ready: gearo .Having three rows of nan: l>tfrel>re .In form of• ship: on scipwisan • Part of ship: .Keel: bydenbotmoS, bytme, bytming ..Bllge: 1>urruc« .Keel, bold: bOsm, heald, lecl>a', wranga' ..Jilecked with foam; timigbOsmop J>eck: cColl>el 0 P .Side: bord, bordslllt1>0 P, bordweallP, yl>bordP .Starboard: steorbord .Larboard: blltcbord .Prow: ancorsetl, bile, forscip°', forpstefn°, frumstemn°1, heals, neb(b), stefn, stefnaP .Flprebead: heafod .Stern: se eftera stefn, steorsetl, stbstefn' 329

05 .12.0 l. F.quipping of ships .Helm: helma, sciprot>or0 S, steordalc0 S, steoma:glq, stCorrOt>or, steorscofclg .Gangway: bolca .A ship's ladder: sciphlt!dcrs .Rowen' bench: scipsctlg, l>oft(c)S .Oan: (gc)rCl>ru, sciprel>ru ..An oar: ir, rl>or ..Blade: t!rbla:JS .Rowlock: irloc0 S, irmidJS, irwil>l>c. hi0 , hamcle, hin°, midi, strop0 g .H•mmer: hamor, sciphamor0 g •Tackle: sciptlwu0 , scipgctlwu0 8, scglgc~dc ..sans: wt!de -A sail: hregl, merehregJ0 P, scgl .-A topsail: oferscgl°' .-A bellying sail: scglbOsmS -Lower comer of a sail: sc!ata .Mut, sail-yard: maest, scglgyrd, scglr0d0 P ..Mast-step: maestcyst' ..Holes in upper part or m•st: hilnl>yrlu0 g ..Pulleys at top of m•st: ma:stlon°g .Riaiug: wmdcrapas' ..Part of rigjng~ bogcnstrcng°', hiinsporug, racca0 g, strcng ..Stay: maestrip0 P, maesttwistg, sta:f°', sta:g°S, stedingline', watderipS ..Rope to lower part of sail: fOtripoS, sc!atline' .A cable: mirels08, matrclsrip°', scipmt!rls0 g, sciprip .A IODDding-line: mctrlpS, sundgyrdg, sundline', sundripq .A sounding-rod: sundgyrdg .An anchor: ancor ..Anchor cable: ancorbcnd0 P, ancorrip0 P, ancorstrcngc 0 Equipping of ships: scipforpung0 , scipfyrl>(r)ung0 .Oak for shipbuilding: scipic .Beat timber uHCI in shipbuildina: h6c .A shipwright: scipwyrhta°' .To equip, fit out: gcgcarcian, gcgcarwian ..To rig a ship: scrydan, gcwatdian ..To equip with sails: gcscglian .To man/equip a ship: (gc)scipian See Fleet 330

OS.12.02 To move, set in motion Harmlalp on board: scipbroc0 .Sbipw1 eek: forlidennes, scipgebroc .Destructive to shipping, causing sbipwreck: scipbrucoJ0 S ..Drifted, out of control: undrifen° .Sbipw1ecked: forliden, scipdrincende0 S .To overturn, capsbe: ihwylfan .To suft'er sbipw1eck: forli}>an .(Of ship) to sink, founder: idrincan, gedeorfan, (ge)dluncnian .To be aground: uittan 05.12.01.f)9.03.03 Piracy: wfcingsceat>eS .A pintical fleet: ftothere .A plrate: zscmann, ftota, ftotmann, s&lidaP, s&mann, s&sceal>a0 s, scegl>mann, wrcing, wicingsceal>aS ..A foreign pirate: utwfcing° ..A seafarer from oveneu: brimgiest°P ..A chief pirate: h!ahse~fg, hcahsceal>aog A harbour: hzfen, hYl>. port .A warden of a barboar: hYl>weard0 P .A place for a ship: scipsteall0 .A landing-place: lending° .A wharf: hwearf .Sllcles to bn111eb or pall up ships: slidor .Relatina to a harbour: hyl>licog

See I Guard A ltptbouse: beacenfYrog, beacensling, fYrtorrg, hercbeacen A channel for shipping: scipryne0 See 0/.01.03.0/ Body of water 05.12.02 To move, set in motion: utyrian, bedrrfan, bestyrman°, geblandan, geondstyrian°P, (ge)hreran, othrmm0 , onhman, sceacan, (ge)styrian, t0S«8Can, weccan .To came to move, alter dlrecdonlpositioa: (ge)cierran, onwendan, (ge)wendan •To move a thing from its place: utyrian ..With tbe &ngen: zthrfnan .To transfer, move from one place to another: gegirwan, gehwierfan 331 To fetch, bring, bear, conduct -To move from one place to another, band over: weorpan to handa ..To be carried/moved: gin .To carry over or across, tnmsport: oferberan, oferferian, }>witbregdan°8 .Capable of moving, easily moved: unstael>J>ig .A setting in motion, disturbance: istyrung, hrer(e)nes, onstyre(d)nes,

onwend(ed)nes, styrenes, styrung

See Carriage To fetch, brina, bear, conduct: iicuman, idon, gefeccan, fercian, (ge)ferian, (ge)fetian, habban (forl>/ilp/oO. onhtdanl! .To fddl by compulsion: gelon, teon .To carry, bring: (ge)beran, (ge)brengan, cuman, gefCran, (ge)ferian, hebban, (ge)lzdan, (ge)niman, recan, (ge)wegan .To fddl, Jead, bring in: in aberan, in beran, in brengan, in feccan, in (ge)bringan, in (ge)ledan .To brina out/forth: forh!dan, forf>bringan, forf>don .To bring through: J>urhbrengan°8 .To bring home: begietan ... him .Act of carrying, brinslng: lid ..A bearer, porter, carrier: bl!nnan, berend, byrf>lingl!, (ge)byrJ>re, fer(i)gend, lttdend, wegend -.A female porter: byrf>es~ To carry oll', remove: aberan, iidreogan, a:tferian, ihebban, ill!dan, lwegan (ilpliit), (ge)niman, offerian°P, onhebban, oJ>beranP, oJ>bregdan,ol>ferianP,oJ>li!danP,fitlwegan .To remove, tbnlst aside: toscilfan, totwl!man .To carry olf in different diRCtions: toberan .To carry (on?), bear forth: a:tberan (ilp/ilt) •To take away from, draw olf: (ge)wenian .Remoftl: ifierrednes0 , feorrung0

See Remove; 10.04.03 Tak away To send: isendan, besendan (on), (ge)sendan .To send, let go: ill!tan, (ge)ll!tan, lit forll!tan .To send forth: isendan, lweg ll!tan, forf>ll!tan, forJ>sendan, onsendan, gespnngan .To send olf, dispatch, send forth (to): ofersendan°, onbesendan, on(ge)sendan .To send in advance: foresendan 332 To pull, drag, draw •To send in: in ~. in sendan .To send hack: igcn sendan .To eend flyin1: isprengan° .About to he sent: sendlic0 8 .A sending, causf111 to 10: onisendednesoS, onsand8, sand To cast out, drive away: idon, adntfan, idnlan, ifierran, iftiegan, iftieman (iit), ifYsan, iidanq, inYdan (iweg/iit), isciifan, iscybhan8, isellan, isettan of, iswipan iweg, iswengan, iweg idnlan, iweorpan (of), iwrecan, iYtan (iit), bewrecanP, (ge)don fram, dn!fan iit, gedrifan, drifan fram/of/iit, (ge)ftieman (iit), fordrifan, forsciifan°P, forsendan, forweorpan, forwrecanP, fram idrifan, fram inydan, fram isciifan, fYsan, fYsian°, onweg idrifan, onweg drifan, oJ>ebtian°P, tiddan°&, bestingan, be~yddan°,(ge)drifan,hrindan°P,(ge)scufan.~yddan,wrecan

.To shove violendy: drifan, (ge)sciifan .To impel rapidly, shoot (a bolt): sceotan .To shoot (a missile): fort> fleogan, letan ... fleogan, (ge)sceotan, scotian .To push away: iscilfan, onweg iscilfan ..To thrust away violendy: aetj>ringan, apringan, foipringan ..To sweep away: forswiipanP, tmwlpanP .To push down: ni~r iscufan .To tbnut back: wi~~yddan& .To shove in/into: inscilfan°, onbestingan ..To jam, prea, ram in: beslean inion, bestingan on/in/innan, crimman -Crammed full: full gedrifen ..To press into: apywan on .To prealsquccze out: ll>ywan, ilt ll>ywan .Act of pushing, shoving: scyfe

05.12.02..06.01 To push, drive: Mysan, bedn1'an, bewrecanP, criidanP, (ge)dntfan, (ge)drifan, fordn1'an, (ge)tysan, (ge)scilfan, gescyndan, ~wan, wrccan .To drive hither and thither: scofettan° ..To drive, shove round: (ge)drifan .To drive back: ginan ongean .To cause to collide with, strike, hit against: cnossian°P, (ge)cnucian (set), (ge)cnyssan, hnilan, slean ..To strike loudly: stunian -To strike loudly against: wi~stunian ..To clash one's footagaimt: aetspuman, wi~spuman& .To be carried, moved, impelled: gangan ..To be driven by the wind: wi}>bliwan .Battered, impelled: ofstofen°P ..Driven by the wind: lyftgeswenced0 P .Action of driving: drif .Thrust, drive, impetus: nts .A striking, stroke: cnyssung .Collision: gecnosog, siege ..Collision, meeting of waten: wit>ercwide, wi~rsaec 05.12.02..07 To throw, cast, toss: beweorpan, (ge)sendan, torfian, (ge)weorpan, (ge)worpian 334

OS.12.02.08 To give a different direction to, turn .To throw in: (ge)weorpan in -To cast/throw Into: anbeweorpanoC, (ge)weorpan in/on .To throw down: fellan, forweorpan .To throw away: fram iweorpan -To swing away, shake off: fram swengan .To throw out: tOweorpan (ilt) .To cast, hurl, fting: iweorpan, bedotan, bescilfan, wealcan -To cast about/fling in all dlrectiom: t0torfian° .To take by casting a snare: geweorpan mid grine .To miss, fail to hit: missan .Suitable for throwlna: wyrpendlic« .Action of throwlna (on): geweorp, onweorpnes -In sport: tOswung°I, weorplwyrp See Shoot To throw, scatter: (ge)torfian •To sprinkle, besprinlde, throw/sift over: besc!adan, beseonP, besyftan°, gleddian°, geondsprengan, ofersceadan°, oferweorpan .To scatter abroad, strew about: geondsawan°P, geondstregdan, tOsiwan -To atJ ew: (ge)stregan, (ge)stregdan -To sbew under: understregdan° -Having bedding to lie on: unders1Rowod0

See Dispersion To pve a dUl'erent direction to, tum: (ge)cierran, (ge)hwierfan, onswifanP, (ge)wendan .To move (something) in a drde: tyman, (ge)wendan, ymbhweorfan -To spin: sprengan .To wind, twist, weave: (ge)windan .To tum away from, ddlect: ibregdan fram, ibygan, ihweorfan, anweg iceorfan, iwendan, biegan fram, forbugan, fram icymm, fram ihyldan, framcyrrans, onswifanP, onwendan of, onweorpan fram, ymbcyrran fram, ymbwendan fram .To tum back, drive back, l'ept'I•~ apriwan, gccierran, werian, wil>dn""fanP -To tum back, be averted: gehweorfan -To ao back: eft gin .Able to be turned ulde: iwendendlic ,.Easily tamed: bJ>wylteS

See Rotate


05.12.03 Speed, rate of movement 05.12.03 Speed, rate of movement: .Pace, speed of walldn1: repe Swiftness, velocity: cifnes0 , cifscipe, fiisnes0 S, hradung, hrzdlernes0 , hrzd(lic )nes, scrind0 P, snelnes0 , sniid, swiftnes, swiftu .Fast, quick: arod, cif, fl!rlic, fteotig°P, ftugol, fiis, gearu gangende, gehradod, hrzd, hrzdlic, hwet, leoht, lungorP, ofstig0 S, recen, rynestrang°P, ryneswiftOP, scrid0 P, snell, snellic, swift ..Swift of foot: ieJ>espedig°P ..Swift of ftight: ftyhthwetP - Very quick: swipsnel0 P .Quickly: lnunga. arodlrce, cife, cAftfce, fitrlrce, forhra:dlice0 , hredlice, hral>e. hwetlice, IWhtlice, ofostlice, recene, ryneliceq, scearplice, snellice, sneomeP, spedum, swiftlfce, uniiswundenlice -Very quickly: full raJ>e .To be quick in movements or actions: fteogan, onettan, pleg(i)an, sceonP .To ao fast, nm: ij>ringan, beieman, (ge)ieman/rinnan (to), racian, (ge)ntsan, (ge)recan, scotian, sneowanP -To nm in difrerent directions, nm about: toiernan, l>ocerian -To ao ahead of, nm before, outrun: foreiernan -To overtake by mnnfn1: ofirnan -To tire onaelf by mnnfq: ofirnan -To nm for a prize, race: iernan See 05.J Swift ti~: Active Quick movement or movements: gebregd, plega .Rapid locomotion: nts, gescot .Rapid motion caused by pusb: scyfe .Rush, violent rush: fl!rnts0 S, nts, scot, scytents .Headlong, in a rush: fzrrzsende0 S .To move quickly or suddenly: (ge)bregdan, onbregdan •To move quickly and sportively, dance: pleg(i)an .To bop, leap, dance: hoppettan, hoppian .To start up out of sleep: ibregdan, onbregdan .To leap, sprina, rush: bentsan, besceotan, besigan, bhtstan, (ge)hleapan, (ge)ntsan, (ge)sceotan, scotian, slean. (ge)stiellan, stincanP. l>eran°', windan -To rush at: swengan on -To rush in, enter witb force, invade: swogan -To rush noisily, roar: swcgan, swogan 336

05.12.04 Absence of movement, stillness .To 8y forth (as mhslle): forl> ft&>gan H•ste, harry: efestung, hrzdhydignes, breding, bredwilnes, brerednes0 S' ofost. onettung° .That hastens, hastening: ofstendc .Hasty, precipitate: bred, hrzdhydigringan ..To bastea before: forchradian .To came to be doae npldly: (ge)hradian, (ge)scyndan .To be precipitate: rempan SIOWDIEll: letnes, sl&enes .A slow penon: lala .A cause or delay: letting .slow: hinderweanf0 P, hygegitlsa0 P, let, st!ne, sleac ..Very slow: swi]>lct°, to~ .slowly, slugisbly: letlfce, late, sliwlice0 • sleaclice, unswi]>e .GnduaUy, little by little: lythwon, lytlum, lytlum and lytlum ..Gradually, by depecs: stcpm&lum, styccemZlum ..Gradually, at inte"als: stundmitlum .To be slow, sluggish: forsliwian, (ge)latian, (ge)lengan .To become slow, sluggish: drilsianP, (ge)latian, sliwian, sleacian .To make slow, delay: (ge)lengan .To move slowly, creep, cnwl: (ge)crCopan, smiigan ..To reach by creeping: becreopan ..To aeep throuab: }>urhcreopan°, l>urhsmiigan .To limp, bop: healtian, boppian See Lame; 05.09.01Slow;I1.06 Listless 05.12.04 Absmce or movement, ltillnas: row, seftnes, sibb, smyltnes, stede, stilnes .Resting place: rest. stm>wen .Motionless: stille, unistyred, uniistyriendlic, unhror 0 .Quiet, calm, gentle: bli]>e, hnesce, lQ>e, sefte, sme}>e, smolt, smylte, stille, get>w~re

337 Stability, firmness .Gendy, smoothly: fa:gcre, l~hte, gereclrce .To be stUJ, not moviq: a:tstandan, (ge)licgan, (ge)standan ..To remain still, not move: a:tstandan, belrfan, healdan, gewunian ••To remain, stay (in position), stand: ibidan, (ge)bidan, healdan, seomianP, gepolian, gewunian •To become calm, stUJ, subside: (ge)leot>uw~can. sessian°P, (ge)settan, (ge)stillan .To come to a standstUI, stop: a:tstandan, ot>standan, (ge)standan, (ge)stillan •To bring to a standstill, stop: gestedigan°, (ge)stillan .To stop, binder the movement of: (ge)lettan •To take up position of rest, settle: setlan •To put in position of rest, settle: setlan .To make calm, make sdll: a:tstillan°, lstillian°, gefa:stnian, li}>igian, (ge)mild(g)ian, gesmyltan, (ge)stillan, wet>an°P See 05.l I.I 1.02 Cease; 13 Peace Stability, fln:nness: fa:stnes, fa:stnung, stat>ol, stat>olfa:stnes

.F1rm, solid: fa:stlic, ma:genfa:st, stat>olfa:st, sbplic, strang, stranglic, strenglic, trum, trumlic ..Extremely ftnn: ungemetfa:st •With ftnn foundations: stzt>t>ig .Flt to tread on, ftnn: trede0 P .F1rm (as the shore): sta:t>fa:st0 P .Firmly attached/fixed: fa:st, fa:stheald0 •Wal-rooted, firmly established: ci}>fa:st°, eorpfa:st, rotfa:st° .Transfixed: oferfzstog .F1xed, unmoving, fast: ofstanden .F1rm, stationary: bidfa:stP, stat>olfa:st, unstyriende .Immovable: unawendedlic .Firmly: stat>olfa:stlice .F1rmly, without shaking or tottering: uncwaciende0 .Fast, firm, so as not to be moved or shaken: fa:ste .To make firm, fix: gefa:stnian, gestal>lfa:st(i)an, swi}>ian .To fasten, make firm, fix: afa:stnian .To root, fix firmly, establish: (ge)wyrt(t)rumian .To fix/place firmly (that which can be moved): (ge)fzstnian (on/to) .To steady, keep steady: stzt>t>an°P See Firm Umtable: stedeleas, tealt

338 To go/travel towards, come, approach

.Totteriq, amteedy: tealttiende .?Tottering: cwiccliende0 1, tObigende' .Unsteady, rocki,.: copeJ .To slip, totter, be umtable: gliddrian'. scelfan, sinewealtianq, tealt(r)ian, 05.12.05 To move and m.,.e direction, turn: icirran, becierran, behwirfan Otan, (ge)cierran, bwearfian, hweorfan, (ge)hwierfan, oncierran, onhwerfan, onswifanP, swifan, turnian, tyman, gcl>riwan°s, (ge)wendan, ymbtyman .To face about, tum round: icirran, bcwendan, ymbwendan •To turn round/about: faran ... onbatan, ymbcirran, ymbwacrJan .To turn aside, avert (tbe face): icirran, ihildan, iwendan, forcierran, fram iwendan, onwendan iwcg .To turn one's back on: bacc . .. (to)wendan .To swerve: biegan .To nm in different dlncdoas, run about: icman, toirnan/torinnan .That turns, turning: tymendc .In contrary direction: ongeanwcard, wil>crwcard .From what direction: hwiderrync0 1 .A tarn, turning: hwyrft. onwend(ed)ncs, turnung, tymings ..A wonderful turn: wundorgchwyrftop .A swerve: byge See ff. Spatial nlalions; Tum; 11.06.06 Turning To 10 astray: idwelian, iswifanl, dwclian, dwelsian°S, (ge)dwolian, rcccan .To 10 adrift, be lost/cast away: (ge)drifan .To be e11atic: wandrian .To lead astray: idweJian, (ge)dweJian, gedwellan .Erratic: mislic, widscril>ol .Erratically: mislicc .A coin& ubay: gedwolfacroS .Stray, stranae. beloqing to another: iitancumcn See Error To aoftnvel towards, come, appl'08Cb: actgangan, actstacppan°P, begin, (ge)cierran, (ge)cuman, (ge)faran, forcstacppan, (ge)gin, (ge)gangan to, gegretan, gelihtan, genitganP, geneahbian, gen!abwianl, 339

OS.12.0S.02.01 To come upon, meet with (ge)nealzcan, onnean°, (ge)secan, sigan, t!on tO, to beftowan, (ge)weort>an •To bead towards, make one's way to: lredian, (ge)bugan, (ge)feolan, fercian, (ge)fundian (on/to), healdan on/to, (ge)hweorfan, (ge)iernan, scn1>an, spyrian, toneallCcan, l>n!ganP, winnan, wil>teon •That approaches, approaching: toweard .Towards: mid, ongcanweardes, togaedereweard, togeanes, tosomne, to t>aes gemearces t>e. to .. . weard(-es/-e) .An approaching, beading towards: cyme, neall!cung, onbecyme0 g, t0cyme, togang' _Coming there: l>idercyme -Glorious coming: J>rymcyme0 P .To, unto, as far as: 01> .Towards: ongean, ongcanweardes, togw, tog!anes, toweard, toweardes

See; Seek To come upon, med with: ifindan, befaran, befcin, begin,

(ge)findan, (ge)hittan, (ge)m&an, ofercuman, oferfaran, oferteran, gen!can .To come upon, sarprUe, attack, lnftde: bewadan°P, brecan, geondswoganq, geieman in, inbrecan°g, ing!otan, inswogan°, in l>ryccan, geniedan to, ofergin, ofergangan, oferyrnan, onblhtan°8, onsrgan, onswogan°, onwadanP, gesecan, l>urhswogan° -(Of fear, etc.) to ...... ran upon: (ge)feallan inion, gehr&>san .Coming upon, attacking: onsigende .Surprise encounter, attack: insw0gennes0 , ongang, oris, onryne, onscyte, lipgang See 13.02.03ff Attack To come together, meet: igcn ieman,

(ge)cuman ongcan(es)ltogcan(es), efencuman, gegegnian°g, geiernan/gerinnan, liican, (ge)mctan, gemittan .Coming together: geancumende, geanul0 g, samodcumende, toftowende, toiemende .A coming together, meeting: geancyme, geancyr, geancymesq, geangang0 g, geannes«,geanryne,(ge)mCting,gemitting,gerecenesq,gesaJIUlung .Meeting, junction: gemot See 12.04.02 Assembly


OS.12.0S.02.04.01 To insert into (a hole) Toarrl•e: Hean, (gc)cuman t6, gcdOn et, fllcian, gcfaran, gcf'Uan, fort>cuman, fullcuman°, gegin, gegangan, (ge)ntcan, ges&:an, tOcuman, ge~ .To arrl•e quickly, run to and reach: gciernan .Newly come, just arrl•ed: nfwcumen .Coming, arrival: cyme, ofercyme0 , si)>, t6cyme ..Arrival here: hidercyme, hidert6cyme0 ..Arrival there: ~idercyme ..Homecoming: himcyme .To go to, visit: As!can, ~n. (gc)neosian, (gc)s&:an, (ge~n .To reach, attain (to): ilillan, (ge)cuman (tO), gefolgian, gegripian, (gc)hrinan, gerl!can, gercdian, gestfgan, (ge)tillan See Hospitality To go In, eaten biigan on, gefetsian, ge~lan, in gebiigan, incuman, infaran, inf&an, ingin, ingangan, innian, insteppan, ongin .To penetrate: As!can, geaolan, in(gc)biigan, ingeotan, ongeotan, oferfaran, ~urhfaran, ~urhleran, gewadan .To permeate, pervade: geondfaran, geond~Jan°P, geonds«.an, geondspriitan°P, ~urhdrifan, ~urhgin, ~geotan, ~urhseon°, ~urhswogan°

..Pervious, pendiable: farendlic0 1, sfgende .To allow In, let in: in(for)letan, in lztan ..To admit, receive (a person): underfbn, wi~ tacan .In: in(n) .Ad of going in, enterlng: incyme0 , infzr, ingang, ongang, onstzpe3 .Person who goes in: cuma, infarende, ingcnga0 P To insert into (a bole): borian on, gc~an in .To Insert by blowing: bliwan ... on .To Insinuate, slip In: aspanan .To 8x In position, plant: (ge)settan ..To plant, transplant: aplantian, gesettan .To Implant, Instil: besiwan, onislwan°, onsiwan .To Implant into, imprea upon: onlsendan .To Implant, shoot into: besc:Cotan .To Impart, infuse: indzJanl, on(i)geotan, on~lan ,Inserted: ingeseted .Implan~ fnarown: ingeweaxcn°1 See 05.06.07 Puncture 341 To pour in To pour la: onigeotan, ~Ian, onyJ>an& .Pouring in, Infusion: ingeoting', ingyte0 &, ongeotung°, ongyte To plunge (llOIDething Into something): (ge)dyfan .To plunge (someone) Into (e.g. bell): bedipan on, beweorpan on, onbesettan& .To plunge into (e.g. sin): (ge)dlifan in/on .To sink: isincan, gedlifan, (ge)sigan, (ge)sincan -To sink into: isigan .To dive, plunge: (ge)dlifan -To dive through: l>urhdlifan°P .To immerse, plunge something Into something: gedlifan inion .To sink, plunge, immerse: isencan&, (ge)sencan See Swim

.To snak, plunge (Into): (ge)drencan .To plunge, sink, submerge (IOIDething): (ge)drencan .To cause to sink, submerse, immerse: besencan .To dip, immene: bcdipan, (ge)drpan. dyppan, (ge)indepan& -To dip often: doppettan To travel away (from): framiteon&, (ge)hweorfan (fram/of), ol>sclifan°P, (ge )wendan, (ge)witan .To travel a d1staoce from: (ge)feorrian, feorsian .To move rapidly away from: isceotan of, istellan of, lit asceotan ..And escape: ot>sceotan .To slip, slide away: a:tslidan, islidan, iweg iglidan, iwindan of, beglidanP, (ge)glidan, ol>glidan°P, slincan, lit iwindan .Outward: litweard .Outward bound, ready to start: ellorftisP, litftls0 P .Away from, away: framweardes To part ways, separate from, depart: mlan, (ge)dl'tlan, forl~tan . swfcan, toberan, tocyrran, tofaran, toferan, togan, togangan, togengan°P. tohweorfan, toswifan°P, towitan .Parting, separation: (ge)dil OS.12.0S.03.02 To keep dear of, stand off from, withdraw: illican, asceadan, gedl!lan, forbligan OS. To depart, leave, set out: ibligan, Maran (of/lit), ifeorsian, ifierran, ileoran (lit), isettan, iweg gin, iweg gewitan, iwendan,

342 To come/go out from behildanq, beonlwesan of, (ge)biigan (ftam/of), don fram, (ge)faran, (ge)ferian, fort>faran, framgeblgan', fram (ge)bOgan, framf&anl, framgin/framgangan, framhweorfan, fram httan, framgewitan, (ge)gin, (ge)gangan, (ge)hweorfan, (ge)leoran, of igin, oferleran, ofstigan, settan, swician (fram), iip isettan, iit ifaran, iit igin, (ge)wendan, gewican, (gc)witan .To depart hurriedly, flee: ifleon, bcrstan (fram), fteogan, (ge)fteon, forbiigan, fort> intsan, sceacan, tOsc!otan, ilt brecan, gcwrtan -To cletert, forsake, ftee: Asceacan -To steal out: ut etbregdan .To cause to flee, put to fll&ht: fteon, forftygan, iltlleoran' .That departs, departing: framwcard, iitgangendc, iitleoricnde, iiJ>gcngc .Departure: awcggcwitenes, fer, fereld, (gc)lemes, forlet'I, forlet(cn)nes, forletingl, fort>framung', fort>wegP, fort>gewitenes, framfer, framfercld0 , framfundung, framlid0 P, fundung, onwegfereld°, onwcggewitel, onwcggcwitenes, gcrecennes, t>anonsi}>0 , t>urhfereldq, iltfer, wcgffir0 1 ..Departure, escape: swice -Hurried departure: sceacd6m0 ••(Of pillar of doud) herald of departure: si}>boda0 P See I/. 10.04 Flight OS.12.0S.03.04 To com~go out from: icuman, bcsc&>tan,

(ge)cuman (fram/of), (ge)faran iit, forecuman, fort>t>ecuman, fort>cuman, for}>(gc )leoran, fort>gcwtlan, fort>yppan', framlcranl, ofcuman, of feorrian, of gin, sigan ilt, swican ilt, ilticuman, ilt ulbn, iltfaran, iit f'eolan, iit(ii)gin, ut ofgin .To be going out from: beonlwcsan iltwcard .To slip away, become loosened: tOglfdan ..SUpped out: iitislidcn°1, iitiwinden°1 .To put out, send forth: iisendan, lwcg l~tan. fort>ian ut, fort>Ietan, fort>sendan,ofcirranl,onsendan,utidOn,iltdn-Can -To shake out: cweccan ilt -To thrust out: ilt iJ>ringan .To adude, shut out: lscfadan, iscirian, llynan, beclysan wit>iitan, bclucan, iite bctynan -To exclude, cut off from: lhladan° .To banish, drive away: ldn!fan, ldrifan (fram/of), ifeorsian, iflfcman (iit), isciifan, iscyhhan', bcyndan, iiweg iJ>ywan, fordn-Can, forsendan, forswi}>an, of idrifan, ofslean, onbescufanl, on swipan, onwcg ifirran, 343 To burst forth, break out teon iit, iiticnyssans, ilt ildr(i)an, ilt inydan, ilt iscilfan, ilt bcyndan, iit 11Pydan, ilt 11Pywan, ilt drifan, (ge)iltian, ~listianS - To drive away with a cone: ihwl!tan°P .Out: fort>, ilt .A going oat from: forl>gang, forpsi)>, (ge)leor(ed)nes, iltfer, iltfereld, iltgang, iltryne, iitsi)>, ymbcerrS .A going abroad/oat of doon: iltfaru See Outlawry To bunt forth, break out: iberstan ilt. ibrecan (iit), etspringan°P, ispringan, (ge)berstan, forl>bli:stan, forl>bliwan°S, forphreosanoS, forJ>rocettanoS, roc(c)ettan, sceotan of, (ge)springan, tOberstan, )>urhbrecan°P, ilp ibrecan, iip isceotan, ilprocettan°S, iitlberstan, ilt ibrecan, iit isceotan, iit islean, iit rl!san .To fight one's way out: iit ifeohtan .A bursting out: geberst To Bow oat, well up, enipt: iflowan of/iit, iflowan iip, igeotan, ispringan iip, iweallan, (ge)ftOwan, iip ibliwan, iipreran, iitftowan, weallan .To ooze, trickle out: seohhian/seon, sicerian°, sigan iit, iit sron •To came to escapo'8ow out: geotan, letan, onsendan -To emit, belch: bealcettan •To suck out: sucan, silgan .'lbat Bows, Bowing (out): forl>goten, geotende .A Bowing out: be}>, flOwnes, framimingoS, gang, ilpcyme, utryne See 03.01.16 Liquid To rotate, turn round, revolve: betyman, hwearfian, hwearftlian, (ge)hwierfan, iernan, onhwerfan, tumian, tyman, J>riwan .To travel round, skirt: ymbtcran, ymbgin, ymbhweorfan •To sunound: begin, begangan, belicgan, beteldanP, be1>£ingan, iitan befaran, ymbberan, ymbfaran (... utan), ymbteran, ymbgangan, ymbieman, ymblicgan, ymbtrymman -To SDJTOUDCI in crowds, throq around: ymbheapianS, ymb}>ringan -To surround by riding: beridan .To revolve around, orbit: hwcarfian, hwierfan, ymbcyrran, ymbgin, ymbhweorfan, ymbiernan, ymbscnpan°P, ymbswrfan° .'lbat turns, turning: hwcarfiende, tumiende, tumigendlic0 , wendende .Rotation: welung°S, wendung

344 To shake, quake, wag

.Golna about, dmdt: ymbfer ymbfereld, ymbgang, ymbhwyrft 0


"Orbit, drde: circul, Mhhwyrfingl, hw~llist°I, hw~lridl, hwyrft, ierning, ongeangangl, ongeanrynel, oruyne, ryne, scri)>e0 P, ymbfaru0 •, ymbhwyrft, ymbryne .SOmething wblcb turns round: wendend See Tum (Ofwbeel, etc.) to roll, tnmdle: ltrendlian°P, iwilwian, lwyltan, bettendan°', trendan°, wealwian, (gc)wyltan, (gc)wylw(i)an .(Of sky, birds, etc.) to wheel, swoop: swipan, swifan, windan "(Of objects) to wheel away: otbwylfanl, (ge)windan "(Of objects) to whirl or spin oft': lwindan of .To twist, writhe: spinnan, geJ>r~stan, wrencan "To roll, writhe, wallow: gcfealdan, hwcarfian, tcarftian°, wealwian, windan ••(or. a serpent) to twist, worm, wind: slingan .To cause to roll towards: lhwylfan, t0wicltan°1 .To roll (in the bands): onwealcan .That rolls, rolling: wealcol0 1 To shake, qu•ke, wag: lbifian, Acwacian, Acweccan, (gc)bifian, bliccettan, cwacian, (ge)cweccan, ftotcrian, hrisian, sce.acan, sprangcttan°1, spreawlian°•, wagian •To pulsate, throb, beat: cleppan°, clzppcttan, clocccttan°, slecgcttan° "(Of objects) to clash, strugle: (gc)winnan •To swing, oscillate, ripple, toss: IAcan .(Of flames) to leap: lican .(Of people) to twitch: togcttan° .(Of a banner, etc.) to ftutter, wave: hwcarfian, windan .(Of birds, etc.) to ftutter: fi)>ercian°, fi)>erian, ftogettan .To cause to shake: Acwcccan, ihreran, iisceacan, bregdan hider and gcond, (gc)cweccan, hafetian, hrisian, onbregdan, onsceacan, sceacan, wecgan "To shake violently: ahrisian, awecgan, forcwysan• "To brandish (e.g. a sword): iisceacan, borettanl, gcbrcgdan, brogdettan, sceacan, wifrian°1, windan .To make a brandishing movement: iibregdan •That swings, swinging, swaying: ridusendel .Act of shaking, quaking: brogdettung, cwacung, cweccung•, styrung, swangettung0 , weallung .Pnlsation: cleppctung .(Of eyelid) act offtickerlna: breahtmung°I 345 To wave, undulate To wave, undulate: windan, yJ>gian .To toss, be toaed (on 1ea): ftoterian, hwearfian, hwearftlian, (ge)torfian .Being toaed on waves: faroJ>licendeP .Movement, motion of water: w~g See Sea To travel overltbrougb/along, travene: befaran, beteran, begin, beieman, (ge)teran, foq>fcran, fort> oferfaran, (ge)gin, (ge)gangan, geondfaran, geondieran, geondgangan, geondhweorfan, geondscnpan, geondyrnan, hweorfan (zfter/be), (ge)metan, ofercierrang, oferfaran, oferfCran, ofergin, ofergangan, oferspyrianog, oferyrnan, pzJ>J>anP, J>urhfaran, J>urhferan, J>urhgin, J>urhgangan, t>urhllor(i)an, J>urhscrij>an, J>urhwadanP, (ge)wealcan, ym~man°, ymbfaran, ymbgin, ymbgangan, ymbhweorfan, ymbieman .To travene quickly: J>urhieman, J>urhn1:san°P .To walk through, penmbulate: geondgangan .A journey over: geondscnpung°g, ofercierr 0 g, oferfzr, oferfereld, ofergeong°S To travel smoothly, slide, &tide: glrdan, scnpan, slidan, sliipan .To glide througb: J>urhscnpan .To glide over: oferglidan .To glide away: iweg iglrdan, oJ>glidan°P To force a way through: brecan on .To penetrate, break through: brecan, J>urhfaran, J>urhfCran, J>urhgin, J>urhlwr(i)an, J>urhwadanP .To drive through, pierce: J>urhdrifan See 05.06.07 Punctu~ To go beyond, pass: begin, behindan l~tan. forgin, gegangan, ofergin, ofergangan, oferhleapan, oferhl!J>rian, oferlloran, oferstzppan, oferstellan°, oferstrgan, J>urhfaran •To overtake: beieran, hindan offaran, ofemiman, offaran, offeran, offyligang, oftacan° -To overtake by mnning: ofiman ..By galloping: ofzman°g To pass by: befCran, begin, begangan, bewzrlang. forellorang, forj>gin, forj>stapan, oferteran, (ge)wzrlang 346 To go forward, proceed

.That passes by, passina by: for1>bigferende0 To ao Wore, p1ecede: beforan gin, forefmui, fore(ge)gin, foregangan, foreleoran, forest&ppan .That precedes, preceding: foresta:ppende, forestapuJ0 i .One who goes Wore: foregenga, foregengel, foreiernend, forerynel , forest&ppend. wicschwere0 ..And keeps guard: foreweard -One who rides ahead (with a me11age): forridel0 .Before, In advance of: etforan, beforan .Before: aetforan, beforan See 05.l Precursor To 10 Wore and pide: gerihtlkan, (ge)teon, (ge)wisian, (ge)wissian .To pide, show the way: lt~ran. ~nan .To bring, bear, conduct: icuman, idon, fercian, (ge)ferian, (ge)fetian, inbeli:dan°i, (ge)Uedan, (ge)li:ran -BY holding: ll!dan .To lead: forelfedanoS, forli:dan, (ge)li:dan, (ge)teon -To lead out or away: aetll!dan, ihladan, ili:dan, (ge)ferian, ol>li:dan, illlli:dan -To lead towards: tO(ge)l&dan ..To lead onwards: fort>(ge)li:dan ..To lead through: l>urhl&dan' .Led up: up geli:ded .Guidance, leadenhlp: litteowdOm .Guidance, showing the way: wissung .One who precedes, a guide: feri(g)end, ll!dend, wissi(g)end ..(Of Mary) a female pide: htttewestre0 .A pide (showing the way): litteow, ticnbora See 12.03 Guidance OS.12.05.09 To go forward, proceed: ist&ppan, forpfCran, forpgin, fofl>gangan, forpst&ppan, forpwecgan°B , gangan forp, healdan (on/to), gelendan, racian, wrecan .To proceed with energy, pna on: criidanP, (ge)fundian, onettan (forp), onl>ringan, scufan, (ge)l>ringan •To go forward, condnae, persist: gangan forp, (ge)healdan, l>urhstandan°, l>urhteon 347 To go behind. follow .To come forward: forecuman, forpcuman -(Of a plough) to nose forwards: snyt>ian°P .Forward: forJ>weard .Forwards: forJ>, forJ>weard, forJ>wcardes, gegnum .A going forward: forecymeq, forJ>gang, forJ>scype,


forJ>stzpping, fyrding .Advance, progress: forJ>stz~. fort>stzpping, frcmming See 11.03.02 Progress

OS.12.0S.10 To go behind, follow: acfterfolgian, acfterfylgian, Mylganq, (ge)folgian, forJ>folgianog, fullfyligan°S, (ge)fylgan (acfter), (ge)secan, underfyl(i)gans, weorJ>an acfterweard .To follow and hunt/search for: ispyrian, fylgan, (ge)s!can .To follow a trail: iidnran spor, bedrifan trod. drifan trod, fylgan swacf>, list weardian, on list lecgan .To pursue with hostile intent: (ge)Chtan, folgian, neosian •To chase, persecute: oferfylgan .Act of following: fylgingS .Pursuit: acfterfylgungS, crydeq, eht°P, tos6cnes0 S, tos0cnungOS .Pursuer: ehtend, listweard .Following In the rear, coming after: acftanweard0 P .Behind, after: acthindan, hindan, on hindan ..From behind: hindan See 04.03 Hunt, 05.1J.07.04.02 Latter OS.12.0S.11 To tum back, Htteat: ofteon, onwicanq, onwindanP, (ge)swican (fram), wiJ>styllan°S, wit>teon, wit>tremman° .Reheat, turning back: wiJ>efb'odP .Back, backwards: ofer bacc, on bacc, on baccling(a), on earsling, on hinder, on hinderling, underbacc, underbacclingS -Backwards, contrariwise: wi1>er5ynes0 -Backwards (In order): eft. on hinder .Back, again: eft, eft ongean, ongean See Defeat OS. To retum: acthweorfan°P, igen bewcndan, igen cuman, igen(ge)hweorfan, igenhwyrfan°, iwendan, (ge)cierran, edbwierfanS, edwendan', eft cuman, eft cyrran, eft hweorfan, eft sij>ian, (ge)hweorfan, (ge)hwierfan, ongean f!ran, ongean hwyrfan, on list faran, onwendan, geweodan 348 To reach up •To return bome: himsij>ianoS, him ... si}>ian .To spring back (as a spring): springan, Op springan .To lead back: agenlitdan°', ongcan (gc)htdan •To send back: agenscndan .That returns, retumln1: cft hwirfcndc, ongCanhwirfcndc& .Return: igeancymc', igeancyrding', igCanhworfconcs', cymc, cdcicrr, cdhwyrft, cdrync', cftcymeJ>, cftcyrr 0 ' , cftrync', cftsi)>P, geancyr, geanfaer 0 ,gcangang,geanhwurf',geanhwyrftoS,hwyrft. gcbwyrftncs0 P,ongcancymc,ongcanfer0 ',ongcanhwyrft'. ongcanrync' ..A loins home: himfercld0 , himsi}> up, Ma!nd: ln!man, btrgan (ilp), clymman, cft ansan, fort>ritsan, ofstandan, ofstigans, (gc)stigan (iip), iipansan, iipaspringan, iipastigan, iipcuman, iipgin, iipspringan, iipstigan .To dimb up, scale: climban, ofcrclimban°, ofcrstigan, (gc)stigan .To rise together: gcrfsan .To dimb into: astitgan°S, btigan, btigianl, instigan°' .To pt over, climb over: ofcrstrgan .To overcome, surmount: ofcrstigan .That rises up, welling up: fort>atscndc .(Of sun) having risen: iipsprungcn .Rkln1, ascent: erist, istigncsl, stigc0 P, iipbpringncs0 S, iipastigcnncs, iipbtfgncs, iipcyme, iipfercld0 , iipgang, iiphcbbingoS, iiprync, iipspring, ilpstigc .An ascent, way up: iipastigcnncs, iipastigncs, iipgang, iipstige, iipwcgP .One who ascends: iipstfgcnd See 05.J / .04.0/.01 Dawn To reach up: iiprzcan° .To stand (up): arrsan, astandan, gcstandan, ilpihcbban, iip Antman .To sit up: gcsittan iip, iip asittan .To leap, spring: (gc)hleapan, springan, (gc)sticllan ..To leap about: hleapan, hleapcttan° ..To leap up: ahleapan (iip), styrtan°S ..To leap upon/across: gchleapan, ofcrbleapan ..To leap over: oferstellan° .A jump, leap, bound: hlicp, stic))P ..A leap over: oferhlyp0 ••One who leaps over: ofcrhleapcnd 349 To raise, lift up, elevate .Erect, upright: ilpstandende -Upright, havina stood up: iipriht To raise, lift up, elevate: idOn, ihebban (iip), Hran, ireccan, (ge)don ilp, ferian ... iip, hafenianP, (ge)hean, (ge)hebban (ilp), onhebban (iip), onstepan°P, n!ran, teon iip, underliitan, ilp ibregdan, ilp in!ran, ilp lreccan, ilp lstreccan, ilpitCon, ilp IJ>enian, iipgin, ilpnimanog, iipn!ran'. ilpreccan°i, wreccan .To elevate, esalt: (ge)uferian, ilp lrengan .Exalted, raised high: heahpungen, tobitden, geuferod .R•iced up, lifted, tuaoul upwards: heah, iipihafen, iipihebbendlic0 i, iipistreht0 , iiplwend0 .A lifting up, raising, elevation: ihafennes, iiplhafennes, iipihafu, iipihefednes,iiphef(en)nes -Elevation, es•ltatioa: lfangennes, ln!mes, onhefcdnes To go down, descend: idiine (i)stigan, lstigan, lstigan idiine, misstigan°i, niper lstigan, niJ>erfaran°', niper gin, ofistigan', ofdiine istrgan, ofstigan, (ge)sigan, (ge)stigan (idiine/niper) .(Of sun, etc.) to descend, decline: igryndan°P, ihildan, lsigan, gryndan°i, (ge)hnigan, (ge)liitan, onhieldan, onsfgan, (ge)sfgan .To sink, descend (into): besincan .To descend (to lower pl•ce): (ge)lihtan .To go down into: istfgan on .To reach by descendina: gestigan .To alight, descend (from): ilihtan (of) -To alight upon: oferlihtan° .To let down, cause to descend: lztan ofdiine .To cause to sink or settle: Sl!gan°P .That descends, descending: dilnestigendei, niJ>eristigende ••(Of light) coming from above: ufancumende -Rushing downwards: nijlersceotendei .Descent: ihyldnes0 i, nipergang0 , niperstige, ofhildeq, ofgestignes0 i, onhield(cd)nesi, stige0 P, stignes°' _Hasty downwards descent: fzrfyll0 i, niperscyfe0 i, scyterits0 i .(Of heavenly body) a falling, setting: nipersigei, s!g0 P, sige0 P ..setting of sun: l!spryng°P, setl, setlung .One who descends: niperstigende See SllllSet 350 To fall To claceDll btne•tb, go lower duan (• pl•c.e): underhnigan, undersc&>tan •To go/pass under wwwtb: underieman .To bury, put under ground: bedelfan, begrafanP .Parra1e unclernatb, tramlt: underscyte .Tbat .Ups 11ncler, rllpplaa under: understrcende0S To bow, bead down: ibUgan, ilutan, (ge}biegan, (ge)bugan, (ge)lutan, onhieldan, onhnigan, onlutan, stupian .To bow the bead: hnipian .To prostnte onerelf: il>enian, (ge)strcccan .To lower, bend, cause to bow: (ge)hieldan, inhildan°', litan°P, onhieldan, onhnigan .To allow to droop: hon .Bowed, bent: iloten, gehnipen To kneel down: (ge)cn!owian, cnwwlian, licgan on cn!owum, on cnww(um) sittan .Act of kneellaa down: cnwwbigung', cnwwung See Kneel To sit down: ofsittan, gesittan .To be sitting down: (ge)sittan •To sit on: gesittan .To recline: gebugan, fCt fealdan, geliitan .Tbat sits, sitting: (ge)sittende .Act of sittln1 down: ofsetenes°', geszt, gesetenes', setlung, sittings .Slttln1 position: setl To fall: befeallan, behreosan, (ge)feallan, gefetan8, (ge)hr&>san, oferhm>san', offeallan, onbehreosan' .To fall upon: oferfeallan° .To fall in: infeallan°8, onbefeallan' .To fall forwards/down: forJ>hnigan, forl>lutan .To fall down, fall to pieces: tofeallu .To fall off: actfeallan, ifcalIan .To stumble and fall: iislidan, (ge)feallan, nyJ>er iisigan .To fall down/to the ground: idiin feallan, AhnJgan, ilriosan, biigan, gecringan, (ge)feallan, fealletan•, (ge)lriosan, ofhr!osan .To roll down: bewylwian°s .To fall be8dlong: (ge)hnosan 351

05.13 Changeableness, change ..And come upon, reach by falllna: gefeallan •To fall, drop: drCopianS, (ge)feallan .To rain, fall: regnianS, (ge)rinan .To let fall, drop: gefyllan .To knock down, cause to fall: ifyllan, befyllanP, (ge)fyllan .That falls, falling: feallende, hreosende .Readynikely to fall: (ge)hreosendlic .That is falling down: nit>erhreosende .Tumbling downwards: dreorig, neowol .Fallen, tumbled: isliden ..(Of snow) fallen: gefeallen .A fall, falling: (ge)feall, (ge)fiell, ruineq .A fall from a height: hryre .A fall, overturning: gefealnesS .A slide, fall: slide .A falling to the ground, toppling: hryrc .A falling down: nit>erhryrc0 S .Dropping, fall: fillen° .A sudden fall: fzrdryrc0 P, fterslide0 P ..A. sudden/headlong fall: fitrfylloS, hryrc .A cliff leap, plunge to nlin: clithlypll

OS.13 Changeablenea, change: iwendendness .Change, alteration, variation: hwearfung .Alteration, change: edwend0 P, onwend(ed)nes, (ge)wend(ed)ness .Change, mutation: onhwerfednes0 , wendung, (ge)wrixl, (ge)wrixlung .Changing: wendedJicoS .Varying: hweorfende .To change, vary, alter: tlgian, (ge)wendan, (ge)wrixlan .To change, tum, alter: icirran, iwendan, becierran, bewrixl(i)an, hwearfian, hweorfan, inwendanoS, oncierran, onhwerfan, onwendan, (ge)wendan, gewixlanq, ymbcyrran .To tum to, bring to a condition: iftowan to, bemiltian on, gehwierfan on, gewendan to • .To change, alter the character of: (ge)wrixlian .To change, alter, put one thing for another: gehwierfan .To tum (Into), convert, alter: (ge)cierran .To go over to, tum to: iwendan, (ge)bilgan to, (ge)cierran on/to .To pass from (a condition etc.): (ge)bilgan from, gewilan Ste 05.//.0/.03 Mutability, 11.J 1.04 Subversion


05.13.04 Exchange, commutation

05.13.01 Tramformatioa, t111rtns another shape: hiwung, oferymbwoendnisse0 1 .Altered, tramformed: lwemmcd, forscepen .Converted: gehweorf .To tramform: lbrcgdan (tO), aethiwian°, lwendan, forhwierfan (tO), (ge)hiwian .To traasftgure: oferbrwian .To tum, change to another form: bregdan on, hiwian on, oncierran (on) -To &ive another shape to: gecdhiwianl .To change for the worse, tramform: forbrcgdan, forscieppan. misbrcgdanl .To convert, change: ihweorfan, ihwierfan (frarnlof), (ge)cierran, (ge)hwierfan, gell!ran .To tum to, convert into, chance: behwirfan (on/to) 05.13.02 A reversal: cdwendenP, wit>ercyr 0 P .To change, revene: onhweorfan .To return to, change back into: lwendan, onhweorfan 05.13.03 Regular alternation: gewrixl .Alternating: gewrixlic°', wrixliende .Alternate: gewrixl .In turn, tum about: lbOtan, betw!onan, hwierflice0 1, l>atrgemang0 1, wrix(i)endlice, ymb stefn .Alternately: ste~lum .To alternate: stefnan

05.13.04 Exchange, commutation: behwearf(t)I, (ge)hwearf .An exchange, thln1 exchanged: (ge)hwearf .lnten'hange (of blows): wrixl .Substitution: wil>erstcde°' ..Thing substituted: gield .Muh181: wrix(i)endlic -Reciprocal: cdlesende .Vicarious: gewrixl .As an alternative: elcor, elles .In return, in eschangie (for): ongean, togeanes, 1>ttrtogeanes, 1>atrwil>. wil> .In the stead of, in place of: fore, in (. .. ) stealI, on (.. . ) stale, on (. .. ) stcde, on ( .. . ) gewrixle .To exchange, change (for another): lwendan, bewrixl(i)an, gehweorfan, onwendan 353

05.13.05 Changeability "To barter, adwnp, cb•n1e for: behwirfan •To stand for, be as good u: forstandan, gesettan for


01>J>e. l>e

05.13.05 Changeability: onstydfullncs&, onwendedlicnes0 &, ungewendnesq, wandlung° .Inconstancy, matabillty: hwurfulnes .Unsettledness: unstaj>olfacstnes .Changeable: iwende(n)dlic .Changeable, fickle, unstable: hwurful 0 , onwendedlic, unfa:st, unstacl>l>ig .Not firm: unstcdcfa:st°& .Unsettled, not remaining in one place: unstaj>olfacst .Unsteadily, without stabillty: ungestacl>l>iglice See 11.06.06 Turning 05.13.06 Constancy, ancbangeablenas: fa:strZdnes .Stabillty, unchanging conditioa, tbity: stcde .Unchangeable, fixed, unalterable: facst, unandwendlic0 , unawcndcn(d)lic, unhwearfiende0 , unymbwendedlic0 & .Unchanging: uniwendende .Unchanged, unaltered: uniwend(cd) .Quiet, uuchangiog, undisturbed, stable: stille .Permanent, durable, immutable: &:c, facstlic, heahfacst0 P .Immovable, firm: unistyriende .Unsbakea, immovable: uniwa:gendlic0 , untosceacen .Unfailing: unispringende, unispringen(d)lic .Unending, imperishable: uniteorigendlic .Unalterably, without possibility of change: uniwendendlice .To ftlllain standing, remain: ot>standan .To stick, l'f'main fixed: stician .(Of things) to bold together, endure: ll>lian .To remain, not to be destroyed: actstandan, istandan .To continue (in a stato'conditlon): sittan, IJurhwunian .To be upheld, endure, not to fall: (ge)standan See 05.11.11 Continuity; Constancy Ftrm, stable, steady: facst, staj>olfacstlic, trum, untealt° .Ftrmly bed, fast.: facst .settled: eardfa:st, feststea1J 0 P .Firm, fast: festlice 354 Firm, stable, steady .Firmly: SWl"J>e .A f01•ndatlon, idtlement: staJ>olfatnung°i, stapolung, trymming .Foandadon, root: stin, stapol, stefn, stofn, wyrtwalu ..Foandadon stone: grundweall .To ftx, establish, found: befaestan, gegrundst$elian°, (ge)grundweallian, gestapolfaest(i)an, (ge)stapolian .To set, &x, plant, implant (in): iplantian, plantian, (ge)settan .To fix (up)on, fasten: ifaestnian, behleapan •To ftx, leltle: getrymman .To place, leltle, establish in: (ge)settan See Stability


06 Spirit, soul, heart

6. Mental Faculties 06 Spirit, soul, heart: ferhj>P. heorte, heonscra:f 0 P. hret>er. lichordP. moo, mOdsefaP, siwol .Provided with a soul: gesiwelod ..Without a soul: sawolleas .Spiritual, inner, of spiritual nature: gistlic, incund, innera .Spiritually (as opposed to corporeally): gistlice .souJ, mind, inner man: breostloca. mOdsefaP, se innra man ..Body as soul-house: siwolhord, siwolhiis .Breast, heart, mind: breost, breosthordP, breostsefaP, ferhjx:leofa0 P, ferhjx:ofaP, gistcofa0 P, heone, hordcofa, hret>ercofa0 P, hret>ertocaP, hygesceaft0 P, incofa, ingel>anc, (gc)mOd, mOdscfaP See;08.01 Heart; 16.01.03 Ghost

06.01 The bead (as seat of thought): heafod .Intellect, intellectual part of man: gcwitt .Mind, intellect: heonc, hordgc~c , hygc, (gc)moo, gemynd, myne, sefa, gewitloca, (ge)witt .Mind, thought(s): ferhl>JocaP, ferhl>sefaP, mOdgcmyndP, mOdgcl>ancP, moogel>Oht°P •.8ecret thoughts: hord)ocaP, moohord0 P .To come to, occur to the mind: bcieman on moo, cuman on gemynde, (ge)ieman on moo, ieman on gemynde .A thought, an idea: gel>anc, get>Oht, mOdgel>ancP .To form an idea In the mind, conceive: t>encan .To conceive of, consider: understandan be .(Of an idea/state) to take possession of: ofsittan, warian .A preconceived idea: fore1>anc 0

06.01.01 Thought, the faculty of thinking, mind: gel>anc, (ge)l>Oht •Thought, thoughts of the mind: breostgehygd, breostgel>ancP, gistgehygdP, g~stgemynd P, gistgeryneP, hygcJ>ancP, ingehygd, ingemyndP, ingel>anc, mOdgcbygdP, mOdgcl>ancP, mOdsefaP, (ge)l>anc ..Worldly thought: woruldgel>Oht° .To receive as matter for thought: underf5n .To think (certain) thoughts: (ge)hogian, (ge)hycgan, (ge)t>encan ..Having (certain) thoughts: gehogod 0 Thinking about, minding, httdlng: gemynd .Mindful of, having the thoughts engaged upon: gemyndig


06.01 . Consideration, rumination .Tboqbtfally: gemyndiglice .To think about, employ tboagbt about a matter: foresceawian, hogian, (ge)hycgan,gemunan,gemyndgian -To coocentrate thought: gesamnian ingeJ>anc - Violence, force (of tboagbt): swiJ>fa:stnes0 .To regard, bend the mind to: lgfman, ltybtan, (ge)bwcorfan, hwierfan, lacian .To dlnct one's attention to: l6cian to .To deal with a subject: (ge)traht(n)ian .To present to the mind for c:omiclentioa: g~can .To suggest, brine to the mind: tyhtan .Consideration, disamlon: l'Zdels .8crutiny, consideration: ismeagung°, foresceawung, giemen, ~wung, yuib(e)J>anc(a), ymbsmeagung°' .To 1cprd, cooslder, olJ1e1 te: beheaJdan, gcondsd.awian, gieman, (ge)scCawian .Ob1ervatioo, perc:eption: g~wung Tboagbt, coptation, meditation: (ge)hygd, metgung,

smea(g)ung, smeaJ>og .Tboqbttul, reftective, meditative: ~wiendlic°', smeagendlic, J>ancful, l>ancbycgende0 P,J>encendlic° .To consider, reeect on, ponder, meditate: ipinsian, ira:fn(i)an, ismeagan, behiwian (be), bebycgan, ~wian, bel>encan (yuibe), geondJ>encan, genu!nan, metgian, oferrzdan, oferJ>encan°, onhycgan°P, (ge)smea(ga)n belon/ymbe, (ge)J>encan - To re8ect, collect oneself: besmCagan°, geniman -To nm over (a subject): gcondyman -To look i.oto: underJ>encan° .To meditate, consider: gemunan, (ge)l>encan, yuibJ>encan .To weigh, consider, delibetate: iheolorian, (ge)denum, eahtian, heolorian, ongietan, pinsian, (ge)smea(ga)n belon/yuibe, get>ancmetian°P, l>rcodian, yuib(e)J>ridian, ymbl>eahtian .To turn, revolve: bewindan, wealcan (yuibe) .To look (back), think, consider: beseon (on ba:c) .To reconsider: underJ>encan Consideration, mmioatioa: lceocung°', edroc8 .To mmloate: edreccan/codorcan, grun(n)ian•, n!sw(i)an

-To preoccupy:


forebisegian' 357

06.01 . Forethought, consideration .Contemplative, deeply thoughtful: deophycgendeP, deophydigP, deop)>ancol •Wisely considering: gl!awhycgende0 P .Profoundly, with deep thought: deope, d&>plice, h!ah, sm!alice .Very thoughtfully: deopJ>ancenlice •With depth of thought: deopJ>ancollice0 .Deliberation: frigedom, J>ancmet(eg)ung°. (ge)J>eaht, geJ>eahtung, J>reodung, ymbJ>reodungt! ..Deliberative: pundemgend0 i, geJ>eahtendlic .(Of thought) profound, deep: deop, d!oplic, smCalic .(Of commentary) subtle, acute: smeapancol .(Of the mind) to direct to a lofty object: hebban Forethought, consideration: foreJ>anc

.Premeditated: ltrbeJ>Oht0 -Unpremeditated: unbel>Oht .To premeditate, consider (beforehand): foresmeagan, foreJ>encan Care, attention, observation: begfmen .Observation, marldng, notice: geheald .Ear, attention to things beard: !are

.Intent, attentive: atyht, becneord0 , gecneord .Not omitted, not passed over: unforswigod0 .Carefully: behydiglice, f'refellice, hohfullicei, Jistelice0 _Carefully, attentively: carfullice, geome, geomfullice, geomlice .Attentively: scearplice -Very attentively: forgeome0 .aosely, carefolly, attentively: gehende, scearpe, scearplice •To tum/direct attention to: ij>enian mOd on, dybbian', hebban moo to, (ge)sceawian, sinnanP, (ge)wendan to .To watch, mark, observe, notice: bewarenian, beweardian, (ge)gieman, (ge)hiwian, understandan •To observe, take heed of, take notice of: becq>an'. hedan, mearcian, serifan, sinnanP, weorJ>ian See J1.02.02/f Diligence; l 1.10.02/f Vigilance 06.01.02 The imaginative faculty: rltdels

.(F1prative) illumination: lihting -{F1aurative)aspark:spearca .To see with the mind's eye, visualize: geseon 358 Dialectics, logic

.To illumine: (ge)inlihtan, onelan, onlihtan

See Pretence An lnwpury form, fancy: hiw .A delusion, illusion: gedwimor, dydrung, lo!ming, unnytnes .(Of mind) snwllnea, sNllowness: hlitnnes, medmicelnesoS, mindom0 P .Not deep, shallow: undeop ..Shallow, silly, not given to think deeply: undeopl>ancol0 .Tbougbdess,-enMless: hygeleaslic "Tbougbdessly, with levity: hygeleaslice .Heedlessness, folly: hygeleast .Foolish, unwise: hygeleas, unhoga .Absurdity, fatuousness: (ge)dofung .Puerility, cbildisbness: cildsung° .Emptiness, vanity: gemearr .Empty, idle: ltlltte, framdons

See 11.08.04 Frivolity lndi«retion: ungefaed0 .Hasty, anconsidend: unforesceawod0 , unforesceawodlicoS .Tbougbdessly, without due consideradon: leohtlice, unforsceawodlice,

ungcaplice0 S Unreasonableness, foolishness, imprudence:

ungesceadwisnes .Folly, rashness, recklessness, imprudence: wanhygdP .An ill-advised acdon, foolish enterprise: unn!den°P, unr~dsij>, ungewittignes, gewitleast .Evil counsel, ill·advised coune, folly: unn!d .Ill-adviMd, unwise, rub: redleas, unn!dlic .Foolish, rub: wanhygdigP .Iruliscreet, unreasonable, imprudent: ungesceadwis, un(ge}scl;adwislic .Unreliable, incompetent, unwise: unn!dfaest .ID-advisedly, without good counsel: unn!dlice .Unwisely, rashly: unn!dfaestlice0 , unsnotorlice 365

06.01.06 Understanding, knowledge, cognizance .Unreuonably, foolhhly: un(ge)schd(e)lice, ungeschdwislice See 11.02.04 Heedlessness 06.01.06 Unclentanding, lmowlqe, cog•dzaMe: andgiet(e), cyppu, ongietenes .To know, unclentand: (ge)cniwan, oncniwan, understandan .Knowledge, discernment, undentanding: tocniw(en)nes "To discem/unclentand the difference between: tocniwan, tOsceadan .Aware, having knowlqe of: wa:r "To become awarefcomdous of: wcorpan gewa:r "To become/be made aware of: ifindan Knowledge, copblmce, knowing: ingewitnes, oncniw(en)nes, wisdom, (ge)witnes .Copizant of, knowing, aware of: gecnltwe, gecypig', gefn!ge, gewiss, witende .Faculty of lmowlna (In animals): gewitt .To get to know, bear of, leam: igitan, (ge)iscian (be), findan, gefricgan, gefrignan, (ge}hieran, (ge)leomian, oficsian, gewitan .To become known: Agin iit. (ge)ciipian, (ge)cypan, (ge)cyplecan Knowlqe: tjppu, ingehygd, lircra:ft, oncniwung"S, ongesetenes .Knowledge resulting from enquiry: gefrige0 P .Jnformadon:gewissung .One who knows (something): oncniwend, (ge)wita .Knowingly, with knowlqe: gewisfullice0 .Accurately, showing knowlqe: gewislice .By heart, thoroughly known: gemimorlice0 .Well known: gemimor, widciip, ymbspntce0 P .To know, have knowlqe: (ge)cunnan "To know, have lmowlqe of: becniwan, (ge)cniwan, (ge)cunnan, ongietan, (ge)witan (be) .To come to know: geseon .To know, be competent: oncunnan .To know thoroughly: gcondwadan° Acqaalntance, lmowledae: ciipnes, tjpnes, cyppu .To know, be acqaalnted with: (ge)cniwan .Familiarity: biwciipnes, biwcupntdnesog ..Familiar, known: fullciip, himciipog, biwciip, biwciiplic

366 Thal which is taught. doctrine or teaching -FamUier, well-known: namciil> • To make famllier to: gehrwciiJ>lician

See I I .05 /f Habit To know, recopia: icnlwan, oncnlwan, ongietan, undergietan .Known, recognfud: gecdwe, (ge)ciiJ>, cyJ>ig, folcciiJ>P, gearowite0 , oncnewe, oncyJ>ig, wrs .To ""°*''in, identify: (ge)cnlwan, JOcian, (ge)s&>n Knowledge, leamiq, erudition: cneft, gelerednes, llr, llrcrzft, leomes0 , leomungcneft, gecydnes, wfsdOm, witnes .Leaming, understandina, knowledge: ~ipe .Knowledge (in poetry): leoJ>ucrzftP .Connected with leamlng, leamed: gelered ..Skilled, teamed (in artslcnafts): cr&ftig, cr&ftgl~w 0P, getyd, wisfzst .Leamedly: snotorlfce .Vased in, steeped in: begriwen •Well-informed: felafricgende0 P •Well-directed, knowledgeable: ginnwised0 P .Very teamed, erudite: geJ>ungen, J>urhleredoS • With profound learning: deoPt>ancollice0 .5cbolarly, teamed: l>Ocx:r&ftig, bOclic, st&fcr&ftig', gest&fll!red, st&fwis0 A wlw man, man olaacleas•anding or learnina: l>Codwita, wisa, wita, witega

.A learned layman, sage: woruldwita .A man acquainted with mysteries: riinwitaP .A learued man, scbolar: esne, lirCow, liirwita0 , leomere, leomungmann, rltdere, st&fleomere' ..An authority, master in a subject: dihtere, ealdor -•n history: stZrleomerel ..A scbolar, bookman: bOcere, l>Ocn!dere0 1, pundere0 1 ..A master, peat scbolar: heahleomereoS

See 17.02.04 Craftsman That wbicla is taupt, doctrine or teaching: llr .(Sc:holarly) study: gecneordnes .A study, discipline: llr, llrCowdOm ..A subject/topic for study: gccneordnes -A rate laid down for a subject: lagu 367 Leaming, science (secular knowledge) .Edifyiq matter, a foundation: ttymming .Fully to be learned: l~rgedefe0P Leamina, sdence (wnlar bowledae): woruldwisdom .Learned, having sec:ular knowledge: woruldwfs ..In song/poetry: leo~ftig°P ..In reckoning: rfmcrzftig, g~lwis ..In astronomy: steorglcaws .An art or science: gesdad ..A liberal art: bOclic staef -Liberal: freo .An obsc:utt/esoteric subject: geryne, geszgcdnes .Letters, learning, science: bOccra:ft, bOclar, gelise, stafas _Cunning skill in letters: gebregdstafas0 P, staefcneftas -Excellence in letten or learning: staefcyst -Knowlqe of Latin: htdenlir Philosophy: wisdom .Study of philosophy: ill>witegung .A philosopher: philosoph, ill>wita .To study philosophy: ill>witian° .Philosophical, lea111ed, academical: ill>witlicS, wordsnoterlic0 S ,Sophism: wordsnoterungS ..A sophist: wordwisas -Captious, sophistical: ha:ftlic0 S, hedendlicS -Captiously: hedendliceS -To play with words, equivocate: Bgettan mid wordum, pleg(i)an See Logic The action of teaming: leomung .Being taught, teaming, study: Jar .Being a learner, pupillage: discipulhid, leomung .Concerned with learning: lirlic A pupil, disciple, scholar: cniht, fCsterbeam 0 , fCsterlings, f'OsterbearnS, fflstorcild, f'OstringS, blystend, leorningcild, leorningcniht, leomungmann, sc0lere, sc0lmanns .A female scholar, pupil: h!rin~n°, leomestre .A fellow-studmt: efen5COlere0 See Follower 368 Teaching, insttuction Dlldplesblp: leomung .A d'·clple: ambiht, discipul. folgere, geongra. hlosnere, htringmann°, lircniht°S, leomere, leomingcniht, leomungmann, m&Cg, l>egn ..A female disciple: discipula0 ..A fellow dbdple: efenleomereoS ..A mentor, mnter, pru: mlgister, wita To study, appl1 oneMlf to learning: (ge)cneordlzcan .To listen (as a learner): hlystan .To learn, accept teaching: (ge)niman lire .To take into the mind, imbibe: (ge)drincan, swelgan .To acquire knowledge of a subject: leomian, n!dan .To perceive after consideration, learn: gel>encan .To learn tboroqbly, master: )>Urh.leomian° .To pin a knowledge of: onfindan, onwr&>n .To follow(a teacher, instractlon, etc.): (ge)folgian An act of reading: n!ding .A reading ler90n: n!d .Reading of books, study: becn!de0 , becn!ding0 , b6cn!de, b6crzding, b6cweorc0 , leomung, n!ding .To read, peruae: leomian, ofem!dan, n!dan, l>urhredan°' ..To read out, read aloud: Hdan, (ge)n!dan ..To read over (to another): oferr~dan ..To read of, discover by reading: n!dan •To dktate what ls to be written: (ge)dihtan ..To dictate, teach: stafian .A racier: leomend, leomere, n!dend, n!dere, n!distre ..Who reads sometblns aloud: n!dere See Book TeKhing, instractlon: lir, lirdOm, lirCowdOm, littCowdOm, ontimbemes, ~ing, getihq, )>Codscipe, wise, gewisnes0 , (ge)wissung .Onl teaching: wordlir 0 .Good teachlq: gOd lir .Bad teaching: mislir .Primary teaching: stefplegaoS .Te..hlq contahwd in boolrt: bOctecung°, b6ctalu0 •What Is learned or taught: leomung 369 A school .A piece of teaching, a lesson: lir A school: leomungsc01°, sc61, scolu .A school-house: lirhiis0 S, leominghiisS ..A monastic school-house: spnkhiis .A platform for a teacher: yppe .A teaching-seat: heabseld/-setl, lirCowsctl A teacher. beodend, discipul, fCsterfzder, forelzrend, ll!rend, lirCow, lirlJCgn°, migatoga0 1, migister, ~cend .A female teacher: lzrestre .A former teacher: geomigister 0 .A peat teacher: heahlirCows, l>Codlarcow 0 P .OfBce of a teacher: migisterdom .Characteristic of a teacher: lirCowlic See Preacher To teach, hwtnact: ilseranop, behwirfan, (ge )lseran, onleran°, (ge)~can. gewissian .To put to school: ruedan to leomunge .To teach, educate, bring up: lf&lan, (ge)fCdan, fo$bringan, (ge)lzran, (ge)teon .To train, instnlct: geridian, gereccan, (ge)tyhtan, (ge)wenian .To educate, form the habits of: ge~wian .To teach wrongly: mislzran°, miucan .To set a bad example: misbysnian° Under instruction, heing taught: lirlic .Receptive (oflmowleclge): nl!meloS .Devoted to studies: to leomunge o}>fest .Educated: getogen .Half-taught: s8mlitred •Well-instructed, well-educated: fullfremed, welgelzred0 S. welgetyd0 .Teachable: lirsum0 , leomi(n)gende ..Easy to teach: !al>lltre ..Unteachable, learning with dilllculty: ungeleredlic Edlftcation, instruction: getimbemes0 , (ge)timbrung, ttymnes, getydnes .A strengthening by words, exhortation: ttymming, trymnes .To iustnJct, edify: intimbr(i)an°, ontimbr(i)an, (ge)timbran 370 Ignorance, uninstructedness

.To enliahten, Wnmhwte: onbyrbtan, onlibtan •To came to perceive: sepanP .To instnact, teach, imbue: (ge)t)ln •To inculcate: befestan, inbecweJ>an°', inbfccnan°g .To enjoin: ong~°' Experience: andcy)>nes0 , andwfsnesg .Experienced: gefaren, onfunden .To ftnd out by experienc:e: iredian, gccunnian, gemetan Inexperienced: ung~g .IDeQiertenc:ed, youna: unfrod0 P .Unskilful, inexperienced: unandwisg Ignorance: nytennes, unandcy)>ignesg, uncyJ>l>(u), unfr0dnes0 , unwisdom, u.nwfsnes .Ignorant (of): nyten°, nytende, nytenlic, uncyJ>ig, unwfs, ungewiss, unwitende, unwittol 0 .Ignorantly: nytende, ungewisses .Uncertainty, Ignorance, unconsdoasness: ungewfsnes, ungewiss .Does not know: nit .To profea Ignorance of: (ge)fremdian What Is uncertain/unknown: ungewiss .Not known: ungccniwen, uncu)>, ungewiss ..Not previously known: nfwe ..Unheard of: ungeh)ired0 .Not to be named: ungena:mnendlic0 .(Of thought) concealed, sea et: diegol .Not understood: unciil> .Unaccustomed, unknown: ungewfslic0 See Mystery lgnonnc:e, unlnstroctedness: ungelerednes .Uneducated, rude, illltente: ungleaw, un(ge)ltered, ungetowen, un(ge)tyd .Ignorant, unleaaned, umkilled: lzwede, ungerid, ungerZdlic ..Without skill or cunning: zgype0 P •Want of particular knowledge: nytennes .Ignorance (want of instnaction): lirleast .Foolish, Ignorant, without instruction: steorleas .Unskilled/cleftdent (in teaching): ~lleas 371 Ignorance, folly .Illiterate: unsuefwrsas •Without instnaction, ignorandy:


See I 1.04.03 Unskilled Ignorance, folly: unsnyttru, ungewitnes0 .Ignorant, stupid: unwittig .Unwise, foolish: unsnottor, unwrs, unwrslic .Unwisely, fooUsbly: unscellrce0 , unsnyttrum, unwfslfce 06.01.07 Tnatb, conformity with absolute standard: s)> •Tnatb, ripts (in particular dmirmtances): ribt, 50)> .A co11ect account/statement: ribtracu, 50)>segen •The plain truth: folcse>J>0 .Putting forward of truth: fores6)>scip0 g .Tnte: fl!le, 50)>, 50)>lic, unllogenog, unl!as, ungelygen, wzr 0 P ..Authentic: ealdorlic, s)> ..Not feigned: s0)>faestlic, s)>lic, unhiwed'. ungehrwod ..Deplorably true: yfel50)>0 .Tnaly: wl!rlice ..Not falsely: unl!aslfce _TnaJy, in accordance with the facts: s)>e -Rlpdy, aright, truly: aefter ribte Ccu 1ect, right, free from et 1or: riht, gewiss .Exactly, predlely: rihte, ribtlfce .Exactly, just: call rihte, efnelefen .Tnaly, genuinely, really: sO)>e, 50)>secgendlice0 .Tnaly, actually, really: mid 50)>um )>ingce, t s)>an )>ingon .A.aaredly, of a truth, indeed: eac 50)>, eac 50)>lfce, faestlrce, fors)>, hilru, Ii, mid gewisse, on eomost(e), s)>lice, s)>nes, t 50)>an, t s)>e. t 50)>um, )>urh s)>, weorcum, gewislice, witod, (ge)witodlrce Stridnesl, exactnaa: sm~ancolnes .A letter (oltbe law), detall: suef .Narrowly, exactly, strictly: nearolice, ncarwe .In detail, exactly, accurately: ~endlice, smealrce, smeapanclice .Property: gedefe, gedefelice .Thoroughly, in a searching manner: sm~ancole, smbJ>ancollice, )>earllfce Certainty, truth, wbat really is: 50)>, gewiss

372 Deception, a leading asttay .Certain information, what ii certain: gewiss .Certain, evident: cOl>lic, gewiss .Certainly, with certain knowledge: gewisse, to gewissan -Certainly, unquestionably, uaeqaivoc•lly: untweogendlice, gewislice Tnath of speech or tboagbt, vendty: s01>fzstnes

.Vel'lldous: &Ol>cwed8, &Ol>cwedens, s01>fzst, s01>sagol, sol>secgende, s01>5pnece0 , unleas, unlygen° .A tne uying, truth: &Ol>cwide, s01>sagu, s01>segen .To speak the tntb, uy truly, ded•re: s0t>secgan .To maintalin as a fact: willan habban •To grant (the tnth of something): geatan .Tndy, honestly: s01>fzstlice, getreowlice .Frukly, honestly: freolice, untriglfce0 P ..Freedom,fr.nkness:freodom -To be stnigbtfonrard/tree from deceit: cll!ne bzc habban Deception: bepkungs, beswicennes, beswicungs, tacenness,

leascrzftO, lytwistweomes .Deceivin&, seduction, fraud: ~swicung, gedwimor, swicung .Fraudulent, deceitful: fl!cne, swzpig«, swice, swicollic ..Duplicitous, deceitful, shifty: (ge)swipor, twifeald .Fraudulent, done with fraud: bregde .False, untnastwortby: gebregden, leas, swice, swicol .Deceitfully, fraudulently: ficenlice ..Most duplldtoasly: in heortan and heortan Inconstancy' folly, ralsemss: leasfert>nes0 .False, tkkle: leasferht> Pretence, felpln1, dissimulation: brogdettung, dilmeng0 ,

hiwung, ielding, leaslfcettung° .An appeannce, pretence, show: hiw, sceawung .Fda•wd, bogus: gehiwed .SMm, not aenuine, pseudo-: leas, leaslic .Artlftdal: cra:ftlic •To shape in the mind (falwly), fabricate: hiwian .To rep1aent falwly: hiwian •To give false appearance of 1oodness to: gelicettan .A false tbin1: gedwolt>ing ..A deceitful token: ficenticen°P ..A vene of doubtful attribution: Ieot>wrenc0 ..Counterfeit or supposed land: unland


375 Hypocrisy .To pretend, simulate, fdp: ll!ogan, bebregdan°', behiwian°, gebregdan, (ge)hiwian, ieldan, leasettan, lwlicettan°', (ge)licettan, searwian, twihiwian° -Pretence, feignlq: hiwung - Wise of speech, plausible: snotorwyrde -To pretend, make a false claim: licettan .To conceal, dissemble: (ge)hiwian, (ge)licettan, nupan -To gloss over: fordilemengan° .To deceive, delude, leduce: bepzcan .A dlnembler, pretender, imposter: hiwere, oferhylmend0 P See 06.01.02 Imagination Hypocrisy: licettung .A hypocrite: leasere, leogere, licettere ..A thorough hypocrite: rihtlicettere0 .To be a hypocrite (in speech): licettan .Plausible, affectin& simpUdty: bilewit .flattering: twispntce

See 07.05.03 ff Calumny Deceit, fraud, beacbery: fiicen, swic, swice, swicolnes, ymbcerr .Betrayal, deception, treachery: belitwung, swiccrzft .Falsity (betraying nature): litw 0 .Treacherous, deceitful, insidious: ftih, searwigende .To betray: belatwan, beswican, forliicanP, forwyrcan, lit wan, leogan -To take by treachery: bentdan -To deprive of (by treachery): beritdan, forratdan .A betrayer, traitor: belzwa, beh!wend. Jatwa, latwend, manswica, swicend ..A traitor to one's father: f~rswica ..A breaker of faith: wl!rloga, wedloga See Treachery Error, being astray: dolscipe0 , gedwild, dwolscipe0 .Mist of a aor: gedwolmist, misthelm0 P, unrihtwrigels0 _aoud of error/Ignorance: wolcen .An error, mistake: woh ..A mistake, slip: ztspomings .A delusion, false idea, error: gedwimor .Supentition: aefgzlt>S, ofertzle0 S 376

06.01 .07.06.01 To accept u the result of enquiry, suppose .Foollsb practice: dysigncs .A slip (Into ea aor/misfortune): slide .What is Wl'Olll, iDCOlied, inacmrate: leas

false, Inaccurate: leas ...(Of weight) false: wOh .That errs, wrong: dwoligendc ..Deceived, led astray: gcmieared ..Deluded, blinded: iblend, bedrOg°P ..(Of actions) erroneous, penene: gedwolen .Erroneously, wrongly: (ge)dwollicc ..Wrongly, Inaccurately: leaslrcc ..J'ncoQgnaonsly, inaccurately: unwntstlicc0 .To 10 astray, err, wander: (ge)dwelian, dwelsian°S, (ge)dwolian, healtian, wandrian ..To be mistaken: bcleogan ..To make a mistake, faD, err. slfdan, (ge)syngian ..To mistake, conceive wrongly, err. dwelian, (ge)dwolian, misron, misJ>yncan° ..To make a mistake, say what is lncoa aect: leogan .One who em: (ge)dwola, gcdwolmann .To be untnistwortby, misinform: tcaltrian .To misteacb, mislead, deceive: forlzran ..Learning wrongly, error: forlcomung° .To obscure, darken, becloud, mislead: fordimmianS, ofcrmistian°g, of)>ystrian See; Wrong; Heresy ..Inc:o11 ect, Mental acceptance, belief: geleafa .Acceptance, act of believing: andfengncs .One who believes: gelrefend .Easy to believe: leafteoht0 .To believe, accept as genuine; gelrefan .To bold a belief/opinion, accept as true: (ge)hcaldan, getrefan, niman .To accept credulously, swallow: fercian See 16.02.01 Faith To accept as tbe result of enquiry, suppose: smeagan .Supposition, opinion, thought, Idea: wen ..Supposition, opinion: wcna .To think, suppose, coaslder: myntan, rzdan, (ge)tcohhian, (ge)J>cncan 377 Unbelief .To think, suppa1e, opine: (ge)l>encan. (ge)wman .A matter of opinion: wena .An (apnrred) opinion: word •To opine, belleve: (ge)wen&n Unbelief: ungeleafa. ungelifnes0 ' .Unbelieving: ungeleafsum .Unbelief, Incredulity: ungeleafulnes -Unbelieving, Incredulous: ungeleaf, ungeleafful, ungeleafullic .Doubt, unbelief: tweonung .Doubtingly, In disbelief: twiendlice0 .A questioaias, misciving: frisung .A doubt, scnJple: inca, tweonung .To have questions, question: frisian .Unbelievable, Incredible: ungeleafful, ungeleaffullic, ungeleaftic, ungeliefe(n)dlic ..Incredibly: ungeleafullice See Want ofbelief Doubt, aacemlnty: (gc)tweo, twCo(g)ung. tweona, tweonung. wenung .A doubtful state of thlnp, lncledslon: tweo .Doubting, doubtful: tweogendc, tweonol .Expressing doubt: tweonigendlic .Doubtful, uncertain: tweogendlic, tweolic ..Doubtfully, uacertalnly: tweoglrce .To doubt, feel doubt: (gc)tweonian .To cause doubt: itweonian°, (gc)tweon, tweonian -Canslng doubt: tweogcndlic .To doubt the possibility of: gcortrfcwan, gcortriiwian .To hesitate, doubt: wiJ>styltan°S .One wbo doubts or hesitates: tweonigcnd See I 1.06.05 Scruple Poaibility: icumcndlicnesl .Possible: lcumendlic, miht, mihtelic, mihtig -Tolerable, poaible: irzfnicndlic' See Chance Llkelihood,probablllty,cbanc:e: wen .Llkely,probable:gelic 378 Certainty .To 1ecm likely: gelfcian .Credible, probable: l&fteoht, gel&ftic, geleafsum, geliefed ..Credibly: gel&ftfce ..To make true or aedible: getreowan .Possibly, perhaps, by chance: wlnunga/-e

..Perhaps: gewlneS, wln is J>zt ..Perhaps, maybe: C8l>e mzg, weald )>lab

..EMUy, possibly,peab.tps: lai>e .Is able, may: mzg ..(Awdllary) may: mot unmiht°', unmiht(e)lic, unmihtig .Impossible to do: unlcumen(d)lic .Out of the way, anreuonable: wegleas .By no meam, not at all: ne to wuhte, ne wihte .In any case, at all: i, ileshwon', mid wihte, wihte Certainty: sicomes0 .F1rmnas, strength, certainty: trurnnes/trymnes .Certainty, absence of doubt: untweo .Certainty, becoming certain: gewissung .Certain, that gives certainty: gewislic .Cerfaln, mre, not bavlngdoabt: untweodq, untweogeode, untweogeodlic, gewiss, witodlic .Firm, valid, assured: strang .Sare, unfailing, reliable: gewiss .Establlsbed in reputation, sure, ltaDdard: fest .Appointed, ordained, assured, certain: witod .That cannot be l"C'Sisted, inevitable: unifeohtendlic' .Undoubted, not to be doubted, indubitable: untweolic, untweonigende0 S .Without fall, surely, firmly: biitan ficoe, f&ste, mid gewisse, gewislrce .With certainty, without a doubt: gefzstlfce, mid gewisse .With full certainty: sicorlfce0 .Cea1ainly, for certain: to cOJ>an, to gewissan, to gewisse .Certainly, assuredly: Afzstli°, eallunga, gewiss, (ge)witod, witodlrce .Certainly, undoubtedly, Indubitably: untweolfce ..Without feeling doubt, with certainty: uotwlolice ..Without feeling doubt, certainly: unitweogendlice, un(ge)tweogendlice •To satisfy the doubts of: (ge)seman

379 Unknown, uncertain Unknown, uncertain: uncut>, ungewiss, unwitod

.Unassured, uncert•in: zwene0 .To hang in the balance: to tweon weort>an 06.01.08 Expectation: anbid, (ge)anbidung, bisnungg, onbisnung0 g, tohopa .To expect, think probable, await: ibrdan, (ge)l>Mnian, hyhtan, onbldan,

wenan •To look to someone for something: wenan to .To look to with trust, expect of: t>encan Expectation, waiting: bid .To wait for, await: ibidan, (ge)anbidian, (ge)bldan, (ge)cepan, forbyrdian°g,

onbrdan, get>yldian ••To await eagerly: cepnian° See 05.l Anticipation Hope, expectation: hopa. hyht, wen, wena, wenung .Hope, trust, expectation: tohopung° -Hope, trust: tohopa -Hope, confidence, trust: tohyht .An object of hope, what is hoped for/expected: hyht ..Focus of hope, the hope of: hopa, hyht -Hoped for joy/desire: hyhtwilla0 P -To be hoped for: gehyhtendlic0 , wenendlic0

.Hopefully, expectantly: wenum .To hope, have confidence, trust: hycgan (on/to), (ge)triiwian .To look forward with hope to: agan to hyhte, hyhtan .To be hopeful about: hopian .To look for, hope for: gehogian, (ge)hopian (to), gewenan -To hope (for) something, hope to get: (ge)hyhtan .To aspire: gebliwan Encouragement, comfort: elnung, getrymnes .Promising, giving grounds for hope: hyhtful, hyhtlic ..Atl'ording hope, not indicative of death: unfzglic0 See Encourage To disappoint: &t>witan°g Trust, faith, confidence: geleafa, (ge)treow, (ge)triiwa .A feeling of trust or confidence: hopa, hyht


06.01 .08.04 Foreseeing

.BaYina faith or trust: geleafful .Inspired with trust: getriiwod "Trusting to: getriwe .Unquestioning: unfricgendc0 P .(Of testimony) true, trustworthy: getreowful .Faithfully, confidently: getreowfullice .Confidently: geleaffullice, priitlice, getreowlice • With confidence, tnutfully, in 1ood faith: geliefedlice .To hope for, trust in: ahopian to • To set hopes on, trust in, rely on: behyhtan°, besettan hiht on "To confide in, trust to, trust: behycgan on, bet>encan, fultriiwian°,

geliefan (to) .To trust, con8cle: befestan, hopian (to), (ge)hyhtan (on/to), ontreowan°P,

(ge)treow(i)an, (ge)triiwian (be/on/to), getryccan°8 .To trust to, expect con8dently, feel sure of: liefan (tO) See Faith Belief, trust, faithfulnea: geleaffulnes, getreownes .State/condition of being faithful/true: treowri:den°P .Trust, devotion: etfele0 P .A prop, stay, faith, trust: (ge)treownes, getriiwung .Believing, faithful: belyfed, geliefed, getreowlic .In accordance with faith, faithfully: geleaffullice .To believe, have faith in: belyfan, (ge)liefan (on) .To exercise faith: (ge)liefan .To aclmowledge/dedare one's faith in: geandettan .To make of good faith: getreowsian .Faithfully, loyally: getreowlice .To be trusty, faithful, firm: getreowfestnianog Distrust, want of faith or confidence: ortreownes .Dlstrustful, without confidence: ortreowe, ortriewe .Not to trust (In), to mistrust: mistriwan°8, geortriewan Suspicion: f~cnung°S .To suspect: irisian, ntsw(i)an Foreseeing: foresc!awung .Foreseeing, divination: foresc&wung, witegdOm, witegung ••An oracle: god(ge)sprece .To for..-.e: forhradian 381 Premonition, prophecy .Foresight, consideradon of tbe future: foret>anc ..Providence, forethought, foresight: fore(ge)dawung .To foresee, foreknow: foresceawian, fo~n. forewitan .To mention beforehand: foresecgan .To take heed beforehancl: forewarenian ..To wam of, forewarn: foremanian°, foresecgan, forewamian .Foreknowledge: foresceawung ..Forelmowinl, having foreknowledge: foreglcaw, forewis, foregewis0 g, forewitig, forewitol0 •With foresight, with foreknowledge: foresccawodlice°' See 05.l 1.07.04 Future; I J.09.02 Warn Premonition, prophecy: sagu, gesegen .A prophecy: itrcwide0 P, forebicnung°, forecwide, forewnegung, witegdom, wnegung ..An old prophecy: fymgidd0 P .A presage, sip, omen: andgietticen°P, gebicnung, bydel, forebeacen, foreticn, fortin/ferti~. ticen, ticnung, wnega ..A dire wonder, portent: nij>wundor 0 P ..A sip of coming grief: wcaticenP .Presaging, prophetic: foreglcaw, forewitig, forewittiendlic0 g, witedomlic, wnegiende, witigendlic •To predkt, prophesy: iwitegian, bodian, forecwe)>an, forecyt>an. foresecgan, forewitegian, (ge)wnegian ..To portend, Indicate the future: andb&:nian°«, (ge)ticnian ..To betoken, foreshadow: foreticnian See 06.0/.06.02 Prophet; / Prophecy Unapected: unbej>Oht, unforj>Oht°&, ungewened .Unforc:secn: unforsewen°' .Unhoped for, wiexpected: unwened .Unexpectedly: unforsccawodlice, unmynd(l)inga, unwene, ungewenedlic0 , unwenlice, unwenunga0 .Unexpected, sudden, undetennlned: un(ge)~inged ..Unexpectedly, suddenly: unforwandodlice .Not ready, unprepared for attack, lnapectant: ungearo .Unawares, unexpectedly: on ungearwe, on unwaer, on unwaran, unwaer, unwaeres .To come upon unawares, surprise: undersmugan 382 .OJ Wondrous, glorious, marvellous Am•P"Mllt, utoalsbmeat, woDder, admiration:

ferstyltnesq, oferstige0 , wlfung, wundor, wundrung .Am•:rement, silence from astonishment: swige, swigung .Am•:rement, sudden silence: fitrswige' .That wonders, marvelling: wifiende, wundrigendlic0 .Astonished: iblycge(n)de, areaht, belisned, ofwundrod .Astonishing, amazing: toJ>uniendeog .To astonish: igaelwan, imasian, brlgan .To wonder, be astonlslwd: iwundrian, wifian .To wonder: wlnan .To wonder at, nprd with surprile: wundrian (aefter/fram) .To become ama:ud at, pt astonished: iblycgan, iforhtian .To be astonished: istyltanl!, ofwundrian •To be overcome with amaRment: forstyltanl! .To be ama:r.ed, be silent from astoalsbment: (ge)styltanl!, (ge)swigan, swigian .Listening spellbound with astonishment: hlosniende, hlysnende ..To listen spellbound: hlosnian .O! ah!: higl!, hwy, II ..Lo! bebold! now!: nu, nu II, (ge)sehJ>e, sihJ>e Wondrous, slorioas, marvellous: cymeP, egesful,

towundorlicl!, wuldorlic, wuldrig, wundorful, wundorlic .Very wonderful: forwundorlic .Strange, extraordinary, woaderful, unheard of: seldlic, syndrig, ungefutge' .Woaderful, rare, stnmp, mlracaloas: seldcuJ>, seldsfene, wraeclic ..Strange, unknown, unatnny: seldcilJ>, uncOJ>, uncOJ>lic, ungecyndelic ..(Of God) mysterious: rynisc°' .aever, wondrous, curious: searolic, wn!tlic ..Not made with hands: unhandworht° .Wonderfully, marvellously: onnttdum, to wundre, wundorfullice, wundorlice, wundrum .Gloriously, marvellously: wuldorfaestlice0 , wuldorfullrce .Marvellously, mightily, mlracalomly: mihtelice, )>rym)ice .Strangely, wonderfully: seldlice, wra:ctrce .Strangely, wonderfully, terribly: wundrum .Wondrously,curiously: wn!tlrce .lndacribable: ungeltsce0 , unireccendlic, unisecgende0 , unisecgendlic, untellendlic0 383 An exercise of power, mighty work, miracle .lucstimable, ab aordinary: ungceahtendlic .Ineffably, in a way that camaot be told: unlsecgeodlice .Extraordinarily, to an unheard-of extent: ungefreglice See 07.02.04If. Excellence An exercise ol power, mlpty work, miracle: nuegen, miht .Miraculous power: wundor, wundorcra:ftP .That does great thlnp: miceld0endg .A peat action, wonderful thing, mighty work: m2rl>(u) ..A glorious/peat work: metednes0 g .A marvel, great wonder: callwundor 0 P, mzgenwundor 0 P, sundorwundor 0 P, J>Coticcn°g, so1>wundorP, wundortaccn ..A fiery sign: tyrenticcn° ..A wonder of the air: lyftwundor 0 P ..A strango'wondrous sign: wundorbeacen°P .A wondrous spectacle, show, sipt: sceawung, wundorseon°P, wundrung .A wonderful object: wundor ..A very wonderful object: searowundor 0 P -One wrought by band: handwundor 0 P See Miracle Fear: anda, ege, egesa, egnes0 g, forhtnes, forhto, forhtung, fyrhtnes, (ge)fyrhto, oga, oht, ondesn(es)S, ondrysnu, on1>racung°g, gewand .State ol fearing water, hydrophobia: wzterfyrhtnes0 s .Frlabtened, fearful: icol, icolmOdP, anforhtq, egeful, gefltred, (ge)forht, forhtful0 g, forhtiende, forhtiendlic, forhtlic, forhtmOd, fyrht, sceohm0d0 P, ungehyrt0 , ymbhydig _Exp1essing fear: egeful, (ge)forht .Fearfully: forhtlice .To fear, be afraid: forhtian, (ge)fyrhtian, muman -To bo'become afraid: iforhtian, onforhtian, scunian, gesweorcian -To be atrected/oven:ome by fear: iblician, iblycgan, gelicgan 384 Causing dread, terrifying -To reprd with fear: onscunian A sbudderias with fear, nervousness: bifung, cwacung .Nenowncss, une••: m6cWocnes°', gewand. ymbhydignes _Uneasy: onswornod° .To shudder with fear: igrfsan, bifian, broccian, brogdettan, cwacian, ofscacan°• .To melt with fear: tOslnpan Great fear, terror, horror: angrisla0 , broga, cwealmprea0 P, ealuscerwen°P, folcegesa0 P, grisla0 , gryre, gryrebroga0 P, heortgryre0 , leodgryre0 P, meoduscerwen°P, ondrl!ding, ongrisla, J>eodegesa0 P, wnebroga, woma .Gready afraid, terri8ed: igzlwed, egesfullic, forfyrht0 , forbtferp''. ofdn!dd, ondrl!dendlic, unforht°P .To fear greatly, be terrified: ldntdan, lglisan, iJ>racian, beforhtian°, besorgian, dntdan, ondntdan, onegan, onsittan, (ge)onpracian, onJ>recan°, pracian• Cause of fear, terror, horror: atolP, bregnes0 g, egesa, egesfulnes, egesung, f&rgryreP, gryre, oga .A horrible event, thing, creature: bl0degesa0 P, egewylm0 P, fl!r, fzrspellP, f&rwundor 0 P, gryregiest0 P, gryregeatwe0 P, gryreleopP, gryremiht0 , gryresi)>0 P, woruldege0 ..Battle-terror: herebroga0 P, hildegesa0 P, sperebr0ga0 P, wiggryre0 P ..Death-tetaor: hinsij>gryre0 P, wztgryre0 P ..Fire-terror: ~legesa P, brynebroga0 P, gledegesa0 P, trgegesa0 P -Hell-terror: hellewrtebr0ga0 ••Water-terror: ft0degesa0 P, ~br0ga , wzterbrOgaP, wseteregesaP -Wilderness-terror: westengryre0 P ..Moming·terror: morgencolla0 P ..Night-terror: nihtegesa0 P .Causing fear: egeful, egesful, egeslic, forht, forbtiendlic, forhtlic .To cause fear: lfyrhtan, A1>racian, (ge)drefan, (ge)egesian, gefyrht(i)an 0

0 Causing dread, terrifytoa: atol, atollic, ij>reclicog, bifigende, bifigendlic0 , bregendlicoS, earhwinnende0 , egelic/ahwlic&, egesfullic, egesig°P, frecne, gl!stlic, grislic, gryrefsest, gryrefih0 P, gryrelic, ondegslicog, ondn!dendlic, ondrys(e)nlic, ondrysne, ongrislic, ongryrelic0 , ont>r&ce, onprzclic, rccen, preclic0 • , unhiere .Fearfully, dft8dtully: atollice, egefullice0 , egesfullice, egeslice, grislice 385 Care, anxiety, solicitude .To terrify: ibregan, geiclian, geicolmOdian«, ifatran, (ge)brCgan, gebryddanq, fltran, gitstan°P, geiergan, oferhlifian Care, anxiety, solldtude: behydignes, hogu, hohfulnes, ymbhoga, ymbhydignes, ymbhygd .SOUdtous, careful, anxious: lhogod, behydig, fyrwitfulg, geomful, gemyndig, ymbhydig "Careful, anxious, solidtous, sedulous: ymbhydiglic -Carefully, sedulously: ymbhydiglice .To take care of, be solicitous about: behogian, ymbhogian See Anxiety Wariness, carefulness: wzrlicnes0 g •Warinea, caution, prudence: wzmes, wzrscip .A taking heed, caution, watchful care: wamung, waru .Cautious, wary, pnident: wzr, wzrlic ..Attentive to a warning, wary: wzr "Careful to avoid, on guard apinst: wzr .Cautious, reserved: behealden "Cautious in speech: wzrsagol0 , wzrwyrde .Warily, cautiously, drcumspecdy: wzrlrce .To take care: behawian, ware niman .To be careful about, take precautions: recan, warian .To be apprehensive of: asittan Timidity: unbieldo, unforhtlwnesq .Timid, fainthearted: bleap, fitge, forhtig°, sceoh, tied.re, unbeald, uncamprofOg, ungedyrstig°, unt>nste .Dispirited: hcortlw See Prudence; Vigilance Despair: ortreowl:>', ortriiwung .Despair, desperation: ormOdnes .Despair, hopelessness: orwennes .Despairing, hopeless: ormOd, ortrfewe, orwene, unwene, unwcnlic "Unbelieving, without hope: hyhtlw ..Desperate, despairing: geortriiwod ..Sunk in despair: forl>Oht .Despaired of, despenate: orwene .To lose heart, (of spirits) sink: nil:>erlittan°g .To dapair: forpencan, georwenan 386 Will, wish, pleasure "To despair of: gconriewan, geortriiwian, georwenan, ne wenan "To cause (oneself) to despair/to despair: geortriewan, geortriiwian See Despondency 06.02 WW, tbe faculty of wllliDI: willa •To will, u:erdse tbe faculty of willina: willan 06.02.01 Freewill, own will: freodom, selfwill .A freewill offering: wilsumnes .Free, unfon:ed: freo, (ge)freolic, undrifen° .Under one's control: selfgewealdesq .Voluntary: selfwillendeoS .Spontaneous, voluntary, willing: selftic, selfwille, (ge)wilsum, (ge)wilsumlic .Willingly, voluntarily, of one's own accord: selfwilles, sylfes will um, J>ances, willes, willice "Without compulsion, willingly: unniedige, unniedunga .Without reluctance, willingly: freolice .Voluntarily, spontaneously: Agnes J>ances, wilsumlice 06.02.02 WW, disposition: willa .Intent, will, desire, lnclinadon: heorte .Desire, wish, will: gewilnesq ..Evil desire: unriht gewil, unrihtgewilnung0 •WW, one's own way: willa .Willing (to do): willende .Willingly: geomfullrce, lustsumlrce, wilfulliceq, willendlrce, willodlice0 S "Very willingly: forlustlrce0 .Arbitrarily, foUowin& one's will: selfwealdlrce, selfwillendlice .By my will: mines J>ances .At one's pleasure/will: J>ances .To be disposed, have a will: willan .To will, be willing (to do): willan .To will, wish, want, desire: freogan, willan See Inclination WW, wish, pleasure: (ge)wil •WW, accord, cc.-0 eent, pleasure: willa •What pleases, accords pleasure: gemede, gewyrd •Willingoess to give, pleasure In doing: unne .Alacrity, cheerful happiness: glllednes 387

06.02.03 Unwilling, loath .Willing, glad: unnende .Fain, glad: wilf~gn •Well-plNsed: gOdwillendeog .As Is desired: on gewil .Gladly, willingly: estelice, estum, geome, geomlice, leoftice, lustlice, lustum. 1>ancweort>Irce .Happily, willingly: bli\>elice .With pleasure, gladly, willingly: lustb~re. on lust(e) .Willingly, cordially, gladly: luftice .Readily, gladly, willingly: eat>e. fiislice, gearwe, hrat>e .With alacrity, eagerly, willingly: lustum, on lust(e) .Cheerfully, with alacrity: glzdlrce 06.02.03 Unwilling, loath: Iii> .Unwilling, involuntary: ungewealden, unwillende .Involuntary, not under control: unwealden .Against one's will: ungewealdes, unwilsumlice0 .Unwillingly, under compulsion: unt>ances .Unwillingly, reluctantly: un~. ungeome, unwilles, unwillum .Undesignedly, involuntarily: ungewilles .Unintentionally, involuntarily: ungewealdes .Undesignedly, unintentionally: unmyndlinga .To hesitate (to ad): (ge)tweon .To begrudge, wish to deprive of: ofunnan See lndifference; 11.06 Listless

06.02.04 Necessity, inevitability: neadung, neadwrsnesg, nied, niedbehefe, niedJ>earf, nydnes .Unavoidable necessity: neadneod0 .One acting under compulsion: nyd~da , nydwyrhta .Necessary: neadwis, nydlic0 g .Imperative: bebeodendlic .Unavoidable, inevitable: unforbugendlic .Necessary, needful: J>earf, J>earftic ..Eqnally useluVneedlul: efenbehefe0 P .Necessarily, inevitably: anunga, for nrede, gemetodlice0 , neadunga, neadwfslice0 , niede, niedes, niedJ>earftice, of niede .To be under necessity (to do): nied habban, sculan -It is necessary/needful: nied is .To be obliged, compelled by destiny: l>urfan 0


06.02.05 Will, desire, wish .To be obliged: l>urfan ..II obUpd, sboald, mmt: nueg, IOOt, sceal

See 12.05.(u), beh6f, gidP, nied, niedbe~fedncs0 ,

nied)>earf, nied)>earfnes, )>earf, wilnung .Temporal need: woruldneod ..Tbe world's nerds: woruld)>earf'° .E:abeme need: ofemeod .Urpnt need: feorh)>earfop ~e's need: folcn&l°P .8oal's need: siwoll>earf° .A requisite, what is needed: nied~fnes. nred)>earf, niedl>ing° ..Needs, necessities: nied, )>earf .Nece11•ry: behefe, behef(e)lic, behOftic', ni~fdlic , nfedbehefe, nredbehOf, nredbehOftic, nrcdbq>earf0 , niedful, nred)>earf, niedl>earftic ..Very necessary: ofemeod .Required for p1C9Cnt me: instandendlic°' .As Is needed: to )>earfe .To need (to do): l>urfan ..Needs (to do): sceal .To need, have need. require: igan )>earfe, beh6fian, bel>urfan, nred habban, (ge))>earfan, (ge)l>urfan ..lbs need, requires: beneah .To dem•nd. require: ~dan. forcrafian°' .To seek out, demand, require: is&:an .To desire poaealoa of: (ge)gieman .To be requisite, be wc11•ry: gebyrian, (ge)neodian See Insufficiency; 10.02 Lack 0 Need, distresa, straits, dHBculty: )>earf .Needing, unprovided, lacking: orfeorme, orhlyte, )>earfa, wanblyte0 g .Stripped or, deprived of: behroren .To llM"k, want for: springan fram. tOsa!lan •To do without: iberan

See I I.I I Difficulty 06.02.05 WW, desire, wish: hungor, lust, l>urst, willa •Wished for, clednd: gewysccd .To like, wish: willan

389 Strong liking for, devotion to .To wish (something for someone): unnan See 02.05.05 Desire, appetite Strong liking for, devotion to: lufu .Desire, want, longing: gcomnes, gicmnes, gi"lsung, langung, mynlc0 P , nCod

..Desire, gaeecl: lust - Vain desire: idcl lust _Improper desire: unrihtwillnung ..Earthly desire: woruldgilncs0 , woruldgilsung, woruldwilnung -Coveter of worldly dainp: woruldgitserc0 P .Desirous: willcn° - Very desirous of: oftystcd .Longingly, desirously: langungc .To love, feel desire (for), be fond of: (gc)lufian .To be strongly attached to: lufian .To wish for, desire: iwilnian°, cepan, gicman, recan, (gc)wyscan •To long for, desire: langian, muman zftcr .To covet, desire, crave: (gc)gi"lsian .To want, aspire to: gce)>gian •To wish for, desire to obtain: fician -To set one's heart on, fix on: hcortan to bcscttan .To desire or wish (to do): (gc)wilnian •To desire to do, endeavour to get: fltcan°, gicman on/to .To make eager, inspire wlda longing: i1)isan See Love Greed, imporhanate desire, rapacity: gcmltg)>, reafolnesg

.Devil-like gaeecl, wicked craviQg: deofolgitsung0 g -Wicked craving, guilty I* eecl: scyldfrccu0 P .A putton (for): grelsa .Greecly, voracious: gifrc -Greecly, rapacious, ravenous (of): f&rcnde, gifrc, reafigende, reafolg, risende -Thinting after, gaeecly for: )>urstig -Very greedy to grow: weaxgcom 0 g .Greedily, rapaciously: slriidgcndlicc0 .Greedily, eagerly: giferlicc .To thint, thirst for: (gc))>yrstan .To pant for: or)>ian (to) See lust; Desire

390 Zeal Saddactloa, repledoa: stillnes .Satiety, repletion: szdnes0 ' .Fall, brimmlna, satisfied: full .Satiated, wearied, ba'rin& bad one'• 811: szd .Insatiable: gilsicnde, gilsicndlic&, unifylledlic, unifyllcndlic,

unase}>cn(d)lic&, ungcfylled, ungcfyllc(n)dlic, unreordedlic0 &, unreordlic0 ' , unszd .Insatiably: unifyllcndlfcc .To satldy, 811: ifyllan, gcs&lan°P .To have enough of, be satlsfted with: gcnihtsumian •To satiate, 811, aurfelt: isadian°, iseclan°', (gc)sadian •To be sated, get wearied/satiated: gcsadian See Satisfaction Deaire, eap1w11: (gc)cneordncs, geomfulncs .For spect&de: witfcrgeomncs0 .Keen, eager: gntdig ..Desirous of goin&, eager to go: tepcgeom0 P .Eagerly: nCodc, on nCod ..Very eagerly: fulgeomc .To desire to go (to): (gc)wilnian (tO) .la eager to: is n~ See Eager desire Ambition: ricctcr(c) .Ambitious: domgeomP, lofgeom See 11.01.04 Accomplish Promptitude, readlDeSS: hredncs .Ready: arod ..Alwaysl1enenlly ready: oftnldc ..Ready to go, eager to act: fiis .Prompt, quick, willing: gcaro .Ready-banded: gcarofolm0 P .Of ready mind, prompt: glsedmOd .Readily, willin&ly, eagerly: gcarwc .Actively, promptly: hredlrcc .To make willlng/ready: lystan See 11.02.01 ff Vigour Zal: efcst, clnung 391 Earnestness .Zealous (aplnst somnhlng b8cl): efestig (wi~) .Zealous, earnest: n&xtful .Zealously: bim handum twim Earnestness: geomfulnes, meagolnes .Ea1 oestuess, diligence: mcagolmOdnes .Earnestness, zeal, resolution: eomost .ot ea• mt mind, earnest: mcagolm0d0 .Eager, zealous, diligent: gecneord, gcomlic .serious, earmt, plll'pOleful: comoste .Ea1nesdy: cistmelum°' •With a will, in earnest: geome .Eagerly, earnestly: gcomfullice ..Eagerly, anxiously: neodlice ..Earnestly, urgendy, pressingly: geome, geomlice •Willingly, earnestly: (ge)lustfullice .Firmly, earnestly: eomostlice .In earmt, resolutely: eomoste .In earmt, resolutely, seriously: on eomost See Depth offeeling 06.02.06 Mind, parpose: gemynd .Purpose, Intention: diht, ingehygdnes0 S. ing~anc. gel>Oht ..A purpose: gesetnes ..A thought, purpose, intention: ge~anc .Intention: itihting, mynna, gemynt ..An (expressed) intention: word ..Desire to act, Intent: hyht .Hope of doing anything, Intent, desire: willa, gewilnung .Intention, resolution: ontihting' .Intention, power of determination: geweald .Intention, effort: smca(g)ung .Minded, disposed, of purpose: gehugod, gemOdod, geworht .Mindful, intent on: gemyndig .Deliberately, on purpose: ntdlice, ~ingum .Voluntarily, intentionally: (ge)wealdes .Directly to an end, simply: gegnunga .To will, purpose, think. mean, intend: wiJlan -To have a mind, be disposed: gemynd(e) habban -To tum one's thoughts (to): (ge)bregan mad, on mOd geniman, (ge)~ncan

392 A proposal, proposition, suggestion .To Intend, parpoee: ll>encan, myndgian/mynegian - To Intend, purpoee, meu, deta 11alne: (ge)l>encan .To n:solve: tO n!de niman _To think, n:solve, detea 1nlne: (ge)hogian, (ge)hycgan -To purpose, Intend, resolve (to do): (ge)teohhian .To be Intent on: ontyhtan

See 07 Judge~nt An end, 1Q81: ende .Alm, dpt, mark, objec:tive: sygeq ..A mark to aim at: mircels .An object, purpose, objec:tive: ~ing •With definite aim, with certainty: mid gewisse .In order that, to an encl: on )>i gerld l>et. tO ~y ... ~&t ..Forthatend/purpose:~zrtO

•To •Im at, go after, aspire to: mynian .To seek, strive after: hiwian efter, (ge)~an - To strive to attain: fundian (tO)), fylgan, (ge)s&:an .(Of mind, etc.) to bave as objective: licgan on .With a view to: J>urb •With, towards, to, at, apinst: wi~ See 05.J0.05.04.JI .OJ.OJ Marie A proposal, proposition, suuestioa: cwide .A proposition, purpose, Intention: foresetnes .A considered decision, plan: nM .A plan, purpose, intention: 4ndgiet .A design, intention: gerld .Pmpose, design, device, plan: gel>eaht ..A device, design: ge~t -Invention, device: wi~metednes' .To mean, purpose, plan, intend: IDZnan .To mean, purpose, design: (ge)myntan .To propose, intend: foresettan .To devise a plan: sierwan .To think out/up, devise, design: lcra:ftan, lhycgan, mamrian, g~ncan .To devise, plan, use art ID cloina: sierwan .To plan, contrive: wefan .To arnnge, contrive, plan: (ge)r!nian .To plan, dts,D1e: gestihtan 393 To devise a plan, arrange, settle .To lay down coadltions for a plan: get>ingian See Conspiracy To devise a plan, 8IT8llp, aettle: (ge)findan .To arrange a matter: geridian, gestihtan ..To arrange for another: gel>ingian .To arrange witblabout: gefadian .To arrange to have done: gemacian .One who orden or arranges: endebyrdend Pt:r"•uion, prompting: scyndnes .Persuasive: lirlic, geswzs ..Penuading to evil: yfellercndeog, yfelonbecwel>ende0 S .Penuasively: sweslice .To persuade: geleran, getecan, l>urhlerans ..To lmpire, penuade: beswipan ..To persuade, lead: forptihtan° .To urge, incite, persuade (to): onbryrdan, scyan, (ge)tyhtan .To cause to feel or act, move, cause, dlspoee: gecierran, (ge)don, gelogian .To incline towards, bend, dispose: ihildan .To persuade, convince: getreowian, getriiwian ..To convince: oferreccan, oferstttlan •To give heed, be penuaded: hlystan .Persuadabllity: rZdfzstnes To dissuade (from): ij>reatian •To speak dlnpprovingly, diauade: lean .To wean from, disaccustom: ztwenian, iwenian, (ge)w!man fram Instigation: istihtingS, onbring, piitung0 , t0tihting0 .Inward imp1dw, instigation: tyhtnes8 ,Instigation, incitement: ontyhtings, tOsprytting° .Instigation, goading: onbringelle0 .Incentive, instigation: ityhting .Sugestion, instigation: scienes .Instigator: weccend ..Instigator, one who Incites: wrchtend0 8 ..One who incites, instigates, exhons: tyhtend .To instigate, incite: stihtan .To suggest, hint, urge: (ge)nwiian

394 Allurement Prompting, fMtlptioa (peJontive): scyfe .(Of the deril) Inciter to nil: yfeltihtend .ladtiag to evil: yfeltihtende ladtemeat: onweceog .Iadtement, uousiag, lacentive: onwaccan°S, wacen .Stimulation, incitement: bryrdnes ..An incitement, -Umulus: onbryrding°S ..A pad, stimulus: anga, sticels .An ladter: bl!dend, )~rend .An awaker: iwrcccend .To stir up, arouse, iadte: onwecnan, reran, (ge)styrian, toweccan -To rouse, prompt to: iweccan to -To stimulate, prick: (ge)prician, pyngan -To incite to: onl!lan, spryttan -To kindle desire for, incite: onbacman •To urge on, incite: bryrdanP, gceggianog, ontyhtan -To drive, impel, incite: drifan, tOsciifan -To urge, press, compel, force, impel: (ge)bltdan, befeolan, brecan, inbecwe1>an, (ge)l>rafian -To urge, prompt (to): etfylgan°, fmnman to, (ge)sciifan -To get to take part in: habban to -To impel, prompt, mp: scyhtanP -To drive to: bedrifan to .To provoke, urge to: (ge)gremian -To provoke, ladte: (ge)ciegan, forl>(ge)clipian See An incitement Incitement, prompting, abortatioa: onbryrdnes .A makin1 steadfast, abortation: festnung .Hortatory, eacourapn1: trumlic, trymmendlic .Penuadlag, hortatory: tyhtendlic :To urge, incite, abort: (ge)scyndan .To abort, eacourqe, comfort: (ge)trymman .To abort, impel, warn: myndgian/mynegian See; Admonition Allurement: forspaning .An allD19Mat, mtlcemeat: wamJustS -?Enticement: scocha8 395 Temptation .A promptina, enticement, seduction: gespan

.Allurement, enticement, seduction: IWspnung°S, ymbspa:nning0 .Allurement, incitement, incentive: tyhteng, tyhting .A luring (to evil/destruction): forspenning .Enticement, deceit: swl!p ..A snare, enticement to evU: grin .An inciter, enticer: tyhtere .An enticer, seducer: l!asuht, spaner~ .That allures, enticing: forspennendlic8 ..Alluring, ptea....nt, tempting: geswatslic .To allure, entice, win over: bespanan, geloccian .To entice, allure, penaade: lspanan, ityhtan, (ge)wcman .To captivate: gebindan •To allure, seduce: belytegian° .To attract, urge, allure: (ge)spanan .To lore, COllll, incite, encourage: tennan°P •To allure, attract, draw: ongespanans, getyhtan, J>urhteon -To attract, draw to: ztwenian, to lteon, togeteong, tyhtan, (ge)wenian -To draw to/from, attract, seduce, allure: (ge)t!on, (ge)wetnan .To lure, decoy, entice: betyllan°, (ge)spannan -To entice out: iloccian ilt -To lure from wrong: (ge)wcman •To deceive, delude, seduce: bepa!can .To entice away, lead astray, seduce from: iipa!can, forteon, fortyllan°P .To lure (to evU, etc.): forspanan .To d.muade, lead astray, persuade against: mistihtan Temptation: cost(n)ung, fandung, (ge)swenc .Through the fle:sb: ftatsccostnung° .A tempter: cost(n)erc, costigend, cunnere0 1 -Female: spennestre0 g .To tempt: fandian, forcostian° -To tempt, try: forcunniang -To tempt malidously, try: (ge)cunnian -To tempt, Induce to evU: (ge)costian 06.02.07 WW, detea 11dnatiou, "90latiou: willa .Resolution, constancy, firmness: inmOdnes, arodnes .Resolute: fzstlic, m0dswi)>0 P, n!dfzst, statnen -Resolute, stem ofmlud: heardlic, strangmoo, stymmOd°P, swij>mooP 396 Sttength, fortitude "Raiolute, determiDed: insU'ec, bwaetr&f0 P, suphydigP .Bold-minded, of stroaa parpoee: swi)>hycgendeP, l>risthycgendeP. t>nsthydigP .Firm, unyidding: stfl>, untjdre0 P ..Steadfast, firm, unyiddlng: stedefaest ..Firm, zealous, resolute: meagol .Raiolute, firm, in8exible: stif, stlpferht>P, sbphycgendeP, strang .Resolutely made, whole-hearted: t>weorhtimber 0 P .Resolute, constant: inntd(-e), heard, sbphygd0 P, sbpmOd ..Firm, constant, stodfast: heardntd0 P .Resolute, certain: Hd .Made steadfast, constant, conftnnecl: gefaest .Resolutely, firmly: strenglice ..Firmly, tenadeusly, resolutely: faeste .Raiolutely, without faltering: inn!dlfce, unwicliceP .To resolve: trumian, gel>reodian° .To 8x on, settle: behleapan on, besettan t6, (ge)trymman, (ge)l>ingian .Is determined, shall, must: sceal .To stand firm: standan, stefnettan°P .To make firm/steadfast: (ge)faestnian, (ge)stal>lian .To coafirm, 8x (on): (ge)faestnian (on/t6) .To 8x, plant (in the heart, de.): iplantian, plantian See J1.03 Endeavour Strength. fortitude: strangnes

.Power to bear, fortitude, firmness: strengl>(u) .Endurance, bearing (pain): forbyrd .Steadfast, brave: anbydigP, inmOd, deormMP, heardhicgendeP, heardmOd, geheort, hygerofP, hygestrang°P, hygel>ihtig°P, mOdhwaetP, swfl>ferht>P ..Strong under aftliction: )>robtheanfP "Unfainting: unliteorigende "Firm, unftincbing: stearc .(Of passion) unquenchable, victorious: sigorfaest .Firmly, steadfastly, strongly: trumlice .Fixedly, without turning aside: unforbiigendlice .Firmly, resisting (force): stranglice .Stoudy, manfully: Ahtlrce, esnlfce, werlrce .To endure, sutler, bear, put ap with: ihebban, il>olian, (ge)beran, (ge)l>oliao, underberan' "To bold out, resist, endure: ipolian 397 Constancy -To go throqb, under1.:>: )>urht!on .To streactben onaelf, be brave: elnian .To prevail, be strong: )>urbsWJpanoS .To fortify, strengthen: begyrdan, (ge)hierdan, (ge)strangian, (ge)swij>(i)an, (ge)trymman -To strengthen, make ft90lute: gescierpan

See Suffering Comtancy: bield(o) .Constancy of mind: faestrl!dnes .Steadfastness: staj>olfaestnes, stedefaestnes .Steadiness, constancy: stedewist°' .Firmness, constancy: stI)>nes .Constant: faestr&dlic, gerq,re0 -Constant in mind: faestmOd .Constant, 8rm, steadfast: fest. faestgangoJ0 P, faesthydigP, faestr&d .Strong, firm, steadfast: faesthafol, trum

.Faithful, constant: wzrfaestP .Firm, unyielding, constant: sta.J>olfaest .Unfaltering, steady: inn!dlic .Fbmly, with constancy, steadfutly: (ge)festlice, faestnMlice, sta.J>olfaestlice .Coaatandy, penistmdy, steeclf•stly: inmOdlice See 05.11.11 Continuity; 05.13.06 Constancy Peneverantt: inwilnes, )>urhwunenes0 , )>urhwunungnes0 S .Penistenc:e, peneverance: inwunennes°K, onwunung, )>urhwunung -Perseverance, assiduity, constancy: singalnes -Penisteace, pe1tioadty: straecnes ..Pasistent effort, endeavour, pertinacity: inntdnes

.Continuance, peneverance: istandennes0 , wunenes .That dings, cllnging: clibbor0 P .Persistent, peneverlJll: hohful, onclyfiende, streccanm6d0 , l>urhwunigendlic' .Endnring, firm, peneverlng: )>rohtig .Assiduous, unremitdng= singal .Assiduous, constant: arod, gelOmlic .Penistendy, ceaselessly: faestlfce, ungeswicendlice .Peneveringiy, persistently, continuously: )>urhwunigendli~ .Coaatandy, penlstendy, pertbuidonsly: inntdlfce 398 Obduracy .A&dduously, penistmdy, comtandy: gcneahhe, gencatrce, gewunelfce .To stick to, adhere to, ding to: etfeolan, tOgq,eodan .To deave to, •dhere to, bold on to: etclifianS, etclll>an°S, etfeolan,

(ge)clifian (on), (ge)feolan, hangian, geneahwians, gen~ecan. onclifian, tOclifianS, ge~. ge&>eodlkan°' .To continue, persist, persevere with: beteolan, (ge)restan in, )>urhwunian .To follow up, penneR with: befylgan •To penlst, continue to act: istandan, benolan on, gefeolan See Importunity Obstinacy: heardm0dnes0 , wil>erung°S .Pet tlMcity, stubbornness, self-will: inwilnes .Opposition, obstinacy: t>weornes .A stubborn fellow: wi)>erbreca(-broca) .Stubborn, obstinate: heardmOd, stearcm0d0 , Slip, sllphycgendeP, sllpmoo, unfordyttl ..8elf·willed, obstinate: inwille "Obstinate, stiff(-necked), stubborn: heardheort. sllp ..Stubborn, unyleldJnc, obstinate: fat, stearc .Incorrigible, bani to coned: earfol>ribte0 .Hard to teach/convert: earfol>cierre0 , torcyrre0 .Hard to teach, undlscipUned: earfol>h!re .Stubbornly, obstinately: inwille .Obstinately, pertinaciously, stubbornly: inwillice, mid inwilnesse .Obstinately, lady:


See 12.05.05 Resistance Obdancy: heardnes .J.n8eldbillty, lmplacabWty: unleot>uwiicnesS .Ripdity (ofmlncl): sncnes .Obdurate: heard "Impervious, impenetrable: ungetcre .lnfteuble: unibygendlic°' "Inflexible, implacable, Intractable: unleot>uwic .Not to be subdued, unyieldJnc: ungewildelic0 "UnyieldJnc, pendstent, ript: sac .lnflnlbly, rigorously: stymlrce .To become bard, not yield: iheardian .To harden, make obclunte: gehierdan 399 Perversity Pei venlty: forcicrrednes .A perverse person: t>rtwere0 S .Perverse: afulic0 S .Bold, beadstrona, stabbom. wUfal: mOdig .Contrary, stubbornly oppo1ed: wiJ>erweard .Pervenely: wi}>em!dlice Irresolution: twrfcaldnes •Wavering, unsettled in mind: unstaPlfacst .Doubtful, undecided, b1c:solute: twifcald, twirede .To be uncertain, waver, vadllate: ftogcttan -To waver, vacillate: wancian°P .To waver, delay, hesitate: windan Inconstancy: uninntdnes0 .Inconstancy, hmabWty: unfacstn!dnes, unstact>t>ignes, unstaPlfacstnes, unstydfullness .Unstable, inconstant, inflrm of parpoee: unfacstred .Easily moved, umteady, inconstant: lal>e. unstact>t>ig, unstaPlfacst .Unstable, changeable, fickle: wancol -Umettled, desirous of cbanae: unstaPlfacst .Fitfully, not finnly, vquely: unfacstlice0 .With fickleoas, weakly: lal>elice Moral weakness: tiedemes, wAcmoones, gew~cednes .MoraUy weak: wAcmoo .Sugestible, ftexible: lij>ig •Yieldina to temptation, sugestible: hnesce See Bad

0 Courage, boldness, valour: anmedla, bealdnes0 , (ge)bield(o), ellen, eorlscipeP, hwactscipe, hyge, hygeJ>rymrn°P, mOd, mOdsefaP, mOdt>racuP, snellscipe0 , t>egnscipe .Warlike valour. gilt>cyst0 P, gQt>mOd0 P, wig .Mighty valour: macgenellen°P .Prowess, valour: herewacsm0 P, hildcyst0 P, hildet>rymrn°P, hildet>f'Yt>0 P .Brave, bold, valorous: cif, cene, deor, dohtig, ellenheardP, ellenlic, ellenrof, ferht>frec. fram, gOd, hrOrP, mOdig, mOdiglic, m6drof0 P, rofP, praccfulq, l>Jist(e), wlanc -Of high courqe: mOdiglic, mOdwlancP ••Very brave: bregorofOP, cynebealcihwset°P, gii)>r6fP, hea)>udeorP, heal>urofP, hilded&>fP, hildfrom0 P, nl)>heardP, )>rzcheard0 P, )>rzcri>fOP, wfgheard0 P ..Eager to advance: forj>georn°P .Courageously: beaJde, cenlrce, ellenlrce, m6diglrce, ranclrce, sttanglice, )>egnlice, unheanlfce .To take courqe: gecollenferhtanoS, tafdu ilp ihebban, mOd niman -To bear oneself bravely: bea1dian°P .A hero: beaJdor P, beomwiga0 P, eorl, frecaP, hseleP, hele)>P, heardingP, hildewulfOP, rincP, secgP, )>rymma0 P, unmannq, werP .A brave act: ~. ellen, ell~P, ellenweorcP -(Of deed) brave, rmowoed: deorlic0 P See Fierceness Embolclenl111t l!IKOUl'llplDent: forj>bylding .To encourqe: geanmedan, (ge)bieldan, (ge)hiertan, medan on, onbyrdanP, gestrengan -To abort, eacourap: foretyhtanoS, trumian Boldnc 11: c!n)>u0 P .Bold, eonfklmt: beaJd, collenferh)>P, framlic, heard, heardlic, hwsetmooP, ranc, stearcbeortP, stercedferh)>P, )>ristlic -Keen, bold, active: hwset, snell, snellic -Very bold: ellen)>rist, felamOdigP, searocene0 P ..Bold in fight: garcene0 P, gii)>heard, hildeheard°P, orlegfrom0 P, wig)>rist°P ..Bold in journeying: si}>fromP .Boldly: ciftice, framlice, frecne, heard.lice, on cine ..Boldly, eonfklmdy: beaJdlrce See 07.06.01 ff Arrogance Fearleaness: egeleasnes0 , forhtleasnes .Fearless: ungeblyged, unearg, unearhlic0 , unforht, unforhtigende0 • unforhtmoo, unforwandodlic .Fearlessly: biltan gewande, egelcaslrce0 , unforhte, unforhtlrce, unforwandigendlice, unforwandodlice Boldness, darina: net>ing, nOl>" .Rish spirits, bravado: wlenc(u) .Daring, bold: arod, free, gedyrstig, frecne, girl>rist°P, horsc, )>ristiglic .Boldly,darinaly: dyrstiglrce, )>riste, )>rrstlice .Boldly, vfaorously: geheortlrce0 , horsclrce 401 Presumption .Boldly, rubly: l>ristiglicc •To dare, venture: (ge)n!pan

.He dares: deaJT See 11.02.04 ff Heedless Prea11mptioa: giemeleast. t>rfstl~cnes, get>rfstli"tcung0 .Audacity, pftlWDption, wUfulaea: gedyrstnes0, (ge)dyrsti(g)nes, gemihnes, wanwilla0 .Pl ...•mptuous, rash, bold: dol, (ge)dyrstig, foredyrstig, )>riste, )>ristful0 S .Presumptuously: oferhigendlrcc0 , t>rfste .To dare, pfiA1me: gedyrstigian, (ge)dyrstlkan See 07.06/f Pride Overcon8dmce: ofertriiwa .Overcoaftdait: ofertrilwod .To truat too mucb: ofertrilwian Cowardice, pusUlanimity: eargscipe, iergl>(u), mindom0 P , m6ingian .To establish, settle: gesiapolian

See 06.02.06 Purpose; 12.07.04 Justice; Sentence fY7.0l Appnlsal, appnlsiftl: lofung .Estimation, estimate: eahtnung°S, eahtung, wen .Flxlng of measure, valuation: medemung ..A•essment, determination of amount: dom, ~t>ung .A valuer, appraiser: eahterel .To deem, Judge, consider as: bemetan, (ge)deman, don, habban (for), l~tan. geliefan (to), munan, gereccan to, riman, geseon, (ge)talian, (ge)tellan •To weigh, appnise, consider: iwegan, iwcnan°8, pinsian •To estimate, judge: eahtanP, (ge)wenan .To dlstlnguish, appraise: ofdeman°s •To value, appnise, estimate: (ge)lofian, (ge)medemian, gewyrt>an •To atimate, fix cbarac:terlquality: eahtian fY7.01.01 Choice, election: {ge)corennes, (ge)corenscipeS, cyst .Option, choice: cost, cyre, dom, wysc0 .Adoption: togecorennes0 S ..One chosen b7 lot: gehlytta .One of two, either: (ge)hwaet>er ..Whichever (of two): 10c hwet>er, swaet>er 403

07.01 .01.0 I Discrimination, faculty of distinguishing .(Fit to be) chosen, elect: gec!osendlic°'. (ge)coren .To choose, select, elect: Aceosan. ilesan. (ge)cCosan, niman ..To choose in preference: forcceosan' ••To choose beforehand: foregec!osan° .To cull, pick the best, select: pluccian, puslian° .To seek out, select: isCcan .To seek for, select, mark oat: sceawian ..To mark out, assign: t6imcarcian .To attribute to, assign: icennan .Either •••or: Ol>er oJ>Pe ...01>1>c. ot>er twcga ol>l>c .. . ol>l>c. ol>l>c ... ol>l>c ..Either ••• or, whether •• •or: swaet>er .. . swi ... swi

' Discrimhwtion, faculty of djstinphhin1: tOsccad .Dlscemln1, discernment: gescead, tOdl!lednes, tOdil ..Discrimination, &ood juqement: gesceadwisnes ..Discretion, discrimination: gescead, scele0 .One who divides or separates: toscCadend .Discemin1, intelligent, discriminating: (ge)scadwis .Discreetly, with discrimination: gescadlice •To cUscem, dJstinpish, separate: tOdelan, tosyndrian, totweman .To judge between, dktinguish: tOdeman ..And make dear: sciran .Between (two thlnp): mid ... twih ' Fastidiousness, dalntinea: cymnes0 ' .Fastidiousness, squeamishness: cisnes .Fastidious, di'"* ulna: cis ' To prefer: betre/furPor don, foreberan •To put at the head, prefer: foresettan .Rather, preferable: leofre .Be.fore, above (markina preference): toforan .Rather, SOODer: ~ror, geornlfcor, sll(or), swi}>or l>onne ' Confusion: gemengung' .Mhed, In which no distinction ls made: gemenged .IIMIHrermdy: untOdzlendlice .To mis up, fall to dlstingukh: (ge)mengan See Folly; I J.04.03 Incompetence '17.02 Goodnea: gOd, gOdnes 404 Uninjured, unhurt, unharmed .The good part of anything: gOdnes -The better part of anything~ gebetera .Incalculable good: unrimgoo .That is good: freme, gleaw, gOd -Good of its kind: sel - Very good: fulgOd ..Equally good: efengOd .Well: gleawe, wel -Quite well: call tela -Very well: forwel -Well for: wel .Is 1ood: deag

See 12.08.02 lntegrity 07.02.01 Right, virtue: gOd

.Honourable, creditable: rihtwyrl>e .Well, aright, righdy: igendlice, iriht, onriht, on rihte, onrihtlice0 , tela .(Of actiom) valid, sound, good: goo .To be valid, n:wphed: genge bCon/wesan .To stand good, be valJd: standan 07.02.02 Good, what is bene8dal, advantageous, etc.: gOd

.Profttable, advantageous, bene8dal: fremfullic, fremlic, gestreonful .Beoefidal, wholesome, salutary: goo, hilbzre' See Prosperity; 11.07.03 Profit 07.02.03 Perfection: fullfremednes, gefyllnes, gOd .5omething perfect of its kind: fulla

.Complete, perfect, whole: full, fullboren, geriped .Perfect, of complete excellence: gefremed, fullfremed, fullfremedlic .Clear, without detect, perfect: cll!ne, leahtorleas, gesundful .Perfectly: forJ>lice, fremedliceoS, fynnest .Truly, well: fele .To make perfect: geendian, (ge)frietwian, fullfremman, (ge)fullian .To bring to completion, make, form: gegearwian See 11.01.06 Completion Uninjured, unhurt, unha1 med: hil, gesund, uniscended8 ,

ungebrocod0 , ungehrepod,ungescended0 8,ungesceJ>J>ed0 .Uninjured, undestroyed, intact: unamyrred0 , ungedered, ungehrinen


07.02.04 Excellence .Uncorrupted, undecayed: onwealg, uniscruncen°g, ungebrosnod,

ungebyrded0 .Unhurt, uninjured, uncorrupted: uniwerdedg .UniDJured, inviolate: unwemme(d) .Incorruptible: ungewemmedlic .(Of Christ) incorruption: uniwemmednes .Spotless, without marks or spots: unm~le, unwemme .SO as to be without impurity: fzgere See 02.08.01Sound;03.03.06 Whole

07.02.04 Excellence: zt>elnes, (ge)corenscipe' .Choice, best, the pick of: cyst, f~tnes. weolme0 P, wynn .Of exalted quality, of superior kind: heah, hcalic •.Exalted, raised high: heahl>ungen, tOb~den, geuferod .Best, of great excellence: fyrmest, fyrst. medemest, unforciil> -Old and excellent, very good: ~rgOdP ..More excellent: fur1>ra - Very excellent: forweofl>fullic0 Seel 1.07.04 Importance; Excellence Excellence, virtue, goodness: crzft, cyst .Merit: forgeeamung .(Of character) paatness, excellence: (ge)miclungg .(Of persons) good, worthy, excellent: s!l Nobleness, nobility, dignity: zt>elborennes, (ge)l>ungennes .Noble, distinguished: zt>elboren .High iu worth, dignity, etc.: healic .Excellent, distinguished: zmyrceog, get>ungen .(Of a tribune) noble, commanding: dugul>licg See 12.08.01Magnanimity; Honourable Nobleness, excellence, nobility, magnifk:eace: zt>elcuodnes0 , zt>elu, (ge)micelnes, mOd, l>rymm, weofl>fulnes, weofl>nes, weort>scipe .Excellent, choice, fair, noble: icoren, zlt2we, znlic, zt>ele, zt>ellic, inlic, gecoren, deore, deorwiert>e, dryhdic, eacen, fzger, freolic, fiislic, healic, micel, rru, til, weofl>fullic, wlitig, wr~st .Noble, excellent, splendid: bedicP, cl~nlic, hre)>eadigP, mzre, mzrlic, micellic, regallic, t>rymfuJP, l>rymlic, l>r)ll>ful, unwiclicP, weofl>ful, weofl>lic .Lofty, noble: iiphcah .

406 Abominable, detestable .Princely, acdlent: eaJdorlic .Gloriously gaat, mapiftcmt: wuldormiceJ 0 P .Splendid, brilliant, glorious: hlOtor, l~ht~re. lixende, scir, torbt .Splendidly, excdlendy, gloriously: inlice, borlfce, cynelice, dugupa, gedyhtedum, ealdorlice, faegerlice, hlisfullice, lixende, micellice, seldlice, swegleP, unforcul>lice, weorplrce .Honourably, excellently: weorpfullrce .Splendidly, excdlendy, wftbout manMSS: ungnil>elfce, unheanlice, unwicliceP .Peertesaly: l!nlice "With distinction: mttrlrce "Worthily, beftttlngly: d!orlrce "With happy result: faegere ..As beftts a man: manlfce

See Wondrous Peculiar acdlentt: synderlicnes .Slnplar, especially aoocl: seldlic, synderlic 07.03 Evil: gil, weargnes .Great evil: ~nbcalu0P .Not good, bad: ungOd, yfel "Wone: wiersa "Wont: wierst ••Bad, evil: gil, Ill>, lll>wende, trigP, unfl!le, ungOd, ungesund0 ..Poor, bad: ma!te .Badly: earge, earme "m, badly, wrong: untela ••Badly, poorly, •ml•: IYl>re, mltte ..Badly, imperfectly, improperly: yfellrce, yfle ..SOrely, severely: l>earle

See Wicudness 07.03.01 Abomination: andiistrung°', liP .Vileness, obscenity: fracol>nes .An o«eoce, object of dislike: andspurnes

•Wearisomeness: 11>rotennes°'

See Hatred Abominable, dekstable: iwyrgendlic .Awful, abominable, horrible: ondrysne, sli)>elic

407 With hatred or enmity .Not dear, bated, odious: unteof .Very hateful: l>urhtij>0 S .Foul, horrible, obscene: scandlic, wamm .Disa1rerable, oft'easive, repupant: fiillic, swicot, swicollic, wil>erntde .Irksome: ij>rotsum0 S With hatred or enmity: tape Jn detestation: tape .Horribly, hatefully: tlj>tice, teahtorlice To loathe, bate, abhor: ilij>ian, imansianoS, (ge)feogan, forlatl>an°, (ge)hati(g)an, titl>an, Iapettan, onhyscan, onscunian, scunian, tredan°S, geuntustian°, wlitian .To take a dislike to: geniman zfest t6 .To oft'end, cause dislike: (ge)l'tswician .To oft'ead, displeue: (ge)andspurnans .To irk, dJsplease, annoy: ij>reotan .To provoke, oft'ead: grillan .To embitter, exasperate: lbit(e)rian .To be/become hateful: ilij>ian .To be hateful, to excite hate: tij>ian •To make hateful/detestable: belatl>an°, l&pettan .To cause to be hateful, cause to sbaa: latl>an 07.03.02 m, barm, hurt: heann, yfel .Hurt, mischief, desbuction: bealu .Hurt, mischief, bVury, damage: zfwyrdetsa0 , demm, sc:e-al>l>ignes0 , teosu, unl>earf .Action of harming: derung .SOUia! of barm, bane: w6t ..Injurer of one in holy orders: hidbreca .A wicked word: minword0 P .Evil, hannM, wicked: min, yfet ..Evil, malicious: heann, yfetcundS ..Harmful, dreadful, dire: unhiere ..(Of crime, sin, etc.) horrible, grievous: grimm ..htjurious, causing hurt/harm, noxious: deriendlic, tyl>re, sceaJ>ful 0 , sceal>ig, gescel>l>endlic0 S, teonful, wundtic0 1, yfelwyrcende ..Baleful, pernicious, malicious: bealu, bealublonden°P, ungifre0 P ..Poisonous, malign, pernicious: geattred, etrig, deal>berende, w6lberende 408

07.03.0S Infamy, shame, wickedness -(Of UJnea, cold, etc.) banb, severe: unli)>e .To bqure, hurt, harm: (ge)brys(i)an, (ge)derian, (ge)sceaf>ian, teoswian°

-To do harm: wrohtianq •To spot, mar, spoil: (ge)wemman See 02.08.04 Hurt; lnjury; Malevolence

07.03.03 Mediocrity, lnsipUlcance: medemlicnesl .Imperfection: ungefremmungoS, unfulfremcdnes, unfulfremmung°g .MJdclling, moderate, common: mcdeme -Imperfect, defective: (ge)teorigendlic, unfulfremed Empty, meless, worthless: orfeonne .Good for nothing, worthless: forciif>, forciif>lic, nahtlic, unweort> .Despised, despicable, worthless: forhogod, forwcnedg , unweort> .(Of tbinp) unprofitable, evil: unge5Clig See 11.08/f Useless To degrade, debase: una:f>elian .To depreciate, make out to be Inferior: gelytlian .To set at naught: for niuht don 07.03.04 A waetcb, poor creature: canning, hinderling, wyrm, wynnlic .Mean, vile, wretched: lytel, yfel(l)ic ..Evil, wretched, unblat: wan~ligP -Poor, miserable, wretcbed, grievous: dimm, earmsceapen, unli!d(e) ..Bad, sordid, vile: lyf>re, wic, wyrslic ..(Of clothing) mean: lyf>erlic ••(Of wealth) wretched, vile: wearglic ..(or life, etc.) limited, poor: nearu .Meanly, wretcbedly: coi>lice0 P, yfellice ••Vilely, wlckediy: Aworpenlice, lyf>erlice, wearglice See Adversity 07.03.05 Infamy, shame, wickedness: fracot> .A dlsgaacetul/lnfamous deed: irleast, bismer .Infamous, shameful: forciif>, fracoJ>, frzte, fiil, lyf>re, manlic, scandful, scandlic, ungef>ungen .Infamously, wickedly: forciif>e ..Sbamelully, disgracetally: huxlrce, to scande 409 lgnobility ..Shamelealy:


See 07.09 Disgrace

' lgnobWty: uneJ>elnes0 Jpoble, base (in character): uneJ>ele ..Ignoble, disgraceful, infamous: unweorl>lic ..(or thlnp) Ignoble, mean. of nil repute: uneJ>ele, unhlrse0 s, wi~re .Ignobly, basely: uneJ>elice0 '11.04 Consideration. esteem: geehtle0 P, eaht .Approved. boaoured. held in (blgb) esteem: gecoren, weort>, weor~ful ..(or actions/activities) valid. sound: gM .Showing honour to, honourably: weort>trce ..Gloriously, honourably: loftice ..Attracting esteem, nobly: weorl>fullice .To appreciate: eahtan ..To regard with favour, approve of: hid onfOn, 10cian on, lufian, (ge)sc!awian ..To bold in esteem. honour, acprd: habban on, healdan, letan ..To honour, show aespect to: (ge)irian, geirwier)>anog ..To regard. respect (a person): iM~ian ..To esteem, think worthy of: (ge)medemian, onmunan ..To make worthy, give worth to: geweort>ian ..To prize. honour, cherish: geclyppan ..To value, esteem, reverence: (ge)weort>ian ..To call bfessed, count fortunate: !adigan .To be valid/recognbed: genge beon/wesan '11.04.01 (orpenons) worth/value. worthiness: weort> .Honour, came of esteem: weorpscipe .A good/excellent thing: weort>scipe ..A precious thing: eorcnanstin, hord, sealt ..Good points. excellence: dugu~ .Famous. excellent. of good repute: hlisful ..Honoured. well thought of, clear: weort> ..Valuable, precious, costly: deorwierJ>e, deorwier~lic -Worthy of boarding: hordwyrJ>e0 P -Irreplaceable, invaluable: unandergilde0 .or any account or value: ihtes '11.04.02 Merit. desert(s): (ge)earnung, gewyrht(u) 410

07 .04.04 Praise, acclamation, applause .Worthy of, clelel'Ylns of: weort> ..FJttfn1, dm +eel: wyrl>ig ..Undeserved: ungceamed°' -(Of punishment) undeau +eel: unsynnig .Daervedly, acconHna to one's deeds: mid/be gcwyrbtum .To daerve, merit: (gc)camian (tO), (gc)wyrcan, gcwyrbt(o) igan

See 12.07.01 Due 07.04.03 Revenace, nspe..'l: l!wiscnes, ir, irung, irwcorj>nes, ondrysnu,


.Honour, respect (shown to otben): IllZ)> .Respect, regard: sceawung .Feelin1 of respect: wandung .A looking apin, nspect: edsihJ>°', cftlOcung°g Showing honour or 1apect: irful ..(Of speech) respeclful: forwandigcnde0 ..Submissive: aloten ..Bending, bowing low: hnip(i)ende -With the face bent down: hnifo(crumi,g -(Of knees) bent: betymed .Rapected, honoured, honourable: lrcrzftig°P, irwesa "8onourable, reverend, venerable: irful, irwcorj>, irweorj>lic, ondrysne .Honourably, showing respect: gerisenlrce ..Reverendy, honourably: arweorj>lrce, hyg~J>um0P, ondrysenlrce .To honour, reverence: (ge)irwurj>ian, forwandian, (ge)frzpgiang ..To honour, VMtiate (a place, day): begin/begangan ..To bend, bow lo reverence: gebregan, (ge)hnrgan, gehnigian, onbOgan,

onhnrgan ..To bow, bend the bead: hnigian, hnipan ..To bow to, do reverence: ibOgan, iliitan ..To bow, fall before, make obeisance: liitan ..To pl"U8trate oae.,ar, fall lo revere&c:e: ifeallan, ij>enian, betyman,

(ge)feallan ..To bumble (onaell) lo wonbip: geeaJ>mM(i)an

See Submit 07.04.04 Pralle, acclamation, applause: herenes, hcreword, herung, lof,

wordlofOP .One who praita: hergere' .Exprasina pnile, praisina: hergendlic 411 Approbation, applause

..Praisina (especially in convenadon): mzl>elhergcnde P 0

.Well! good!: tela .To speak of with praise: (gc)bicrhtan, (gc)bletsian, eahtian, giclpan, (ge)hcrian ..To celebrate: widhcrgan°, gcwidmi:rsian ..To extol: ihcbban, illnitran°, (gc)miclian, iip ihcbban ..To elevate, exalt: ol>hcbban .Unpraised, not celebrated: unhcrcd0 , unhcrigendlic0 , unlofod0 See 16.02.04/f Worship Approbation, applause: hlisa .Applause: fa:gnung .To applaud, show appreciation: fa:gnian Clapping (the hands), applause: plega .To clap, applaud: flocan, hafetian, plcg(i)an Laudable, praiseworthy: 8.fandigendlic0 S, 8.fandodlicS. (ge)hcrigendlic, leoMl, lfcwyrJ>e, loflic, lofsum0 P, unt~lwierl>e .Excellent, estimable, meritorious: acorcnlic0 • 8.fandod, leoflic, gc!>ungen .Praiseworthy, honest, creditable: gerisenlic .Commendable, right: goo .Praiseworthy, acceptable: 1>ancweor1> .Praiseworthlly, laudably: hcrigendlicc, licwyrl>lice0 , untci:lwier!>lice ..SO as to be approved: 8.fandodliceS ..Io high esteem, as of great value: deorwier!>lice ..Creditably: gerisenlice •.Acceptably, sincerely: deorliceq 07.0S Disrespect, ineverence: unirwyr!>ness .To disapprove of, condemn: fordeman, (ge)~lan .To disregard, resist: wil>hogian .To reject, renounce: iweorpan •To show active contempt: hierwan .To leaen, impair the credit of: geminsian .To shun: forbiigan .To spurn: iwcrian, iwicrg(c)an .To make light of, undiervalue: gclihtan .To disregard, neglect: forgicman, forhealdan

See I J.06.01 Neglect 412

07.05.03 Calumny, backbiting

(YT.05.01 Censure, reproof, rebuke: l!swic, l!swicnes8, l!swicung, ceas, ceast. gecid, cidung, edwit, giem(e)ncs, hleol>rung, lzccung°g. leahtrung, nl!ting°, ofercidung°g, repsung, sacu, gcstil, steorspntcog, t&ling, t&lncs, }>Cowing, l>rafung, l>rCa. l>r!agung, l>uapung°. l>reatung .A harsh reproof: niedl>rafung0 .A 001 aection, reproof: rihting. l>real .A verbal reproof, rebuke: rihtandswaru .One who reproves: eftforfundenog, t&lend, l>rtagend .Prone to blame, cemorious: t&lende .To chide, reprove, ftbuke: ilrisian, ijriatian, becwel>an, begripan, brocian, (ge)cidan, eftedwitan°g, forcwet>an. forcyt>an, gieman, hrepian/hreppan, geleahtrian, lean, gemidleahtrian°g, nlttan, nierwan, gereccan, repsan, gerihtan, (ge)scendan, gestandan, (ge)stieran, (ge)}>Cowan, l>rafian, (ge)!>reagan(-wian), l>U&i>ian, !>reat(n)ian, wil>costianog ..To reprove sharply: ofercidan ..To reprove much: forlean ..To reprove, castigate: wil>cCsan See 12.05.07 Rejection (YT.05.02 Contempt: forhogodncs, forhogung, forsewen, forsewenncs, hierwncs .Contempt, contumely, insult: oll .A despiser, coutemner: forhogiend, oferhogiend •.A female cootemner: forsewcstre' .Pejorative: forhogodlic0 .Exdting contempt, despised: forsewenlic ..Contemptible, despicable: forhogiendlic', forhygdelic0 g, forsewen , forsewenlic, hierwendlicg, gehyspendlic0 g, ll!st, ofersewenlicq .With contempt: forciil>lice, forsewenlice .To despise, scom: zwan°g, fort>encan, (ge)hierwan, oferhogian, oferhycgan ..To disdain, bold in contempt: forhogian, forseon ..To feel repugnance at, despise: getregian -To deip, condescend to: geCal>mOdian ..To despise, disre1ped, have no use for: forhogian (YT.05.03 Calumny, backbitina: onscyte, gcslit .A slanderer, backbiter: t&lend .Slaaderous, backbiting: ruccbitol, b~cslitol , t&lende .To speak evil, backbite: slitan, teran, tfunzldan See Hypocrisy 0

413 Falseness in speech, detraction F••w:uen in speech, ddnlcdon: twisp(r)itc, twispri:cnes .A whisperer, cletnctor: rilnere .Tbat wbispen: runiende ..(Of envy) that detracts: twisp(r)ec:e8 .To murmur against, whisper: becidan°, (ge)cidan (ymb), gehyrstang, lycettan, runian, twisprecan' Calumny, dander, ID"'lt: fracol>, heann, heanncwide, bearmcwidolnes°', hearmspri:c0', hOI, hOltihte', U'eling, U'elnes, teona/teone, teoncwideP, teonword, unword0, wroht, wrOhtJic0, yfelsacung .A sbmclerer, caJamniator: heanncwe)>Cnd, hyspend, teonere°', tYnende .Calumnious, slanderous: hearmcwidol, scandwyrde0, teonful, wrohtspite1°g •To speak W of, calumniate: lcursian°', gremian, hearmcwcodelian, hearmcwel>an', hearmcwiddian, helan°', bierwan, teoncwidian'. teonian, wil>sprecan ..To speak very W of, calumniate: unbierwan° Scorn, insalt, abuse: bismer, bismemes, hosp, byspnes0g, onl>reagung°, orwyrpu, scending', scendle', tel, weam, yfel .Worldly reproach: woruldbismer 0 .Grievous reproach: beannedwrt°P .Opening of moatb in abuse: ginung' .Abase, taunting, etc.: edwit, byspung, onbrop .SCOrn, words of contempt: edwitspri:cP, hospword .Harsh speech: heardcwide0P .Insulting speechllllllgWlge: hospcwide0P, hospspri:c0, hux word ..An insult: bismerword0, fracol>word0 ..Insult, taunting: 0I'Ct)80, tirgung' .Hurtful speech: tomcwideP, tomword0P ..Hurtful or deceitful speech: teosuspri:c0P ..A cutting word: sirsta:f0 P ..An htjurious word: teosuword .A deftant word: wealword .A cllider, an abuser: cidere0, oferspreca0g .A scoffer: edwitspreca0P .One who reproaches: ongeansprecend' .Abusive terms: deofol, docga0', bund, uipere0' See Sharpness 414

07.0S.04 Mockery, derision, scorn Contamelloas,scornfal: hyspful°' .Evll-spealdna: wamcwideP, yfelcwct>elgiende', yfelwyrde .Abusive: ofersprecol, t&>nfullic°, yfelspntce0 , yfelspn!cende0 S .'fftlldting: hospJiCO .l....dtlngly: scandlrce .S.ylng too much: oferspnlce .Bold or speech~ bealdwyrde0 .Proudly tbreatmlng: (ge)b&>tlic To reproach, l'ffile, abme: ihyspan°s, edwit(i)an, ehtan, firenian, hospan, gehyspan, misntcan, onleccan°S, (ge)~lan, tynan, Op(ge)brMan .To taunt: ztwitan, oJ>witan .To addna abusively: tornwyrdan° .To call names: forcweJ>an .To offer scom to: bysmere healdan .To speak ill or, abme: IzJ>an, onhyscan .To speak ill or, denounce: forsp(r)ecan •To Insult: gehomian°8 .To revile in return: ong!an werian .To retort, answer back: nebbian° •To va, provoke: (ge)tirgan .To say too much: ofersprecan 07.05.04 Mockery, derision, scom: (ge)bismerung, hux .Jeering, mockery: gliw .SCOrn, derision: (ge)cancS, crincq, hlacerung, (ge)hlcg, hocor, t&ling .Derisive laughter: hleahtor, t&lhleabtor .A scoa nc:r, mocker: bysmeriend, hyscend, t&lend, t&Iere0 S .A jester, mocker: gliwingman°', onhiscend .SCOmful, derisive: hleahterful 0 , hocorwyrde0 .That reviles/mocks: hyscende .Mockingly: forhogodlice .To mock, deride, revlle: (ge)bismerian, (ge)hyscan, gehyspan .To deride, mock, laugh at: lhliehhanP, behlyhhanP, cancet(t)anS, hlacerian°8, (ge )hliehhan, inhlihhanS, onse&ganoa, se&gan°, (ge )~Ian .To deride, lauah to scom: hleahtrian, hliebhan to bismere/on bismer, smerian°' .To rldkule, mock: hospettan°' See Mockery 415

07.06 Pride fY1.06 Pride: bzlcP, blltd, gil, heahmoc:tnes0 , hyge, oferhige0 P, oferhogodnes0 , oferhygdig, oferm&le, orgello, orgelnes', unmoones0 , wlenc(o) .Proud state: ofermoc:tgung° -Pit (of pride): pytt .Worldly pride: woruldprydo .Proud: inmOd _Proud, haughty: heahmoc:tP, m0dful0 , m0dwlanc0 P, oferhygd ..Proud, haughty, hip-hearted: heahheort0 P ..Proud, elated, exultant: deaUP, hygewlancP, wlanc .To be proud: oferhygdianl, priitian ••To feel proud/elated: heafod hebban ..To ll'O"' proud or gaeat: wlancian fY1 .06.01 Pride, anopnce: anm&lla, moc:t, mOdignes, oferhygd, oferhygdnes, ofermitto/ofermetto, ofermedla. ofermoo, ofermoo(ig)nes, priitscipel, priitungl, p..Yt(e), weorpetung°, wlenc(o) .A proud penon: oferhoga .Exceuive pride: oferpriit .Extravagance, pride: 1Pundennes, creasnes, gltlsa, to1>undenes, upahafennes/upahefednes .Anogance, praumption: fortriiwodnes, fortriiwung .Arrogance, ambition: riceter(e) .Arrogance, perversity: wiJ>erweardnes .Shamelessness, cootnmacy, perversity: gemlhnes .Egotism: selftrce ..self-exaltation: creasnes .Boldness, praumption: dearfscipe, gedyrstll:cung°. l>ristnes .Insolence, effrontery: forwenednes, hygel>ry1>0 P, nebwlitung"f!, scearpnes See Boldness

' Proud, arrogant: forwlenct, healic, mOdig, oferhygdig, ofermOdig, priid, swi)>moc:tP, wlanc .Overburdened with pride: priltswongor 0 .Puffed up, swelling with pride: gebinned, oferpriit, priitlic, topunden ..Swollen-necked: belcedsweora0 P .Anogant, praumptuous: gefortriiwod, oferhygdlic, ofermede, ofermoo, ofennoolic .Proud, obstinate: fn!te .Proud, contemptuous(?): healsfzst0 P 416

07 .06.03 Boastfulness, arrogance .Sumielea, Impudent: geandwlitodl, hbfodbald0 «, gemlhlic, nebwlitfull, scaml!as, unscamfest · ..Sumeless, wanton, lmporto1111te: gemlh ..Forward, bold, wanton: hwalll .Bold, pnsomptuoaa, lmpadeat: beald, br&sen, dearf, dearflic, gedyrstig, gedyrstlic ,ln">lent, arropat: forwened', ranc, t>weorh Proudly, arropntly: gielplfcc, heah, oferhygdiglicc, oferhygdlfcc, orgellfcc, priillicc, tot>undenlicc, iipAhafenlicc, OpAhefedlicc0 «, wlanclicc .Arroaantly, presumptuoudy: ofermOdiglicc, ofennOdlicc .Sumelessly: scamleaslrcc .Boldly, presumptuously: (ge)dyrstiglrcc.1>nsllrcc .Boldly, Impudently, lmolently: bealdlicc, gemlhlrcc, 1>wwrlicc To be proudlam>pnt: ofermOd(ig)ian, t>unian .To rtae, nrell up (In pride): istigan, IJ>indan, inbliwan, onbliwan, tot>indan •To raise oneself up: Ahlenan°P, onhebban .To be overconftdent: forlrilwian .To be bold/presume (to do): il>Jistian, (ge)n!l>an, gepristian, (ge)l>rfslltecan ..He dares, presumes (to do): dearr .To pvw baugbty/insolent: iwlancian«, mOdig(i)an .To become insolent: iwoffian, oferwenian, wlancian .To m•ke proud, 8ll with pride: forwlencan .To puff up, nalt: ihebban, iip ihebban 07.06.02 Arropnce, valnalory, vanity: gielp, gielpgeomes, idelgielp, lwgielp, unrihtgilp0 , wuldor .self-love, vanity: selfticc .Vainglorious: gielplic, wuldorful ..Egotistic, puffed up: selftrcc ..Strutting, pompom: l>riltigende .To be vain: goffian° 07.06.03 Boastfulnea, arropnce: bOgung, gealpellung0 , gielpnes0 1 .A bout, boasting: gebeot .Act of boasting: gebeotung, beotwordP, gielp, gielping0 .A bout, vaunt: gielp, gielpword .Boutlul speech: gielpcwideP, gielpspn!c0 P .Arropnt speech: orgelword0 417

07.06.04 Pride, ostentation .A bouttal awet don: boaP .Boastful: gielpen, gielpgeom, lofgeom, micelsprecende0 g -Exultant, vaundng: hremigP .Boasted of, tnunpeted forth: forgolpen° .Boutingly, arrogandy: bWtlice .To boast: boan°P -To exult In, glory in: igylpan°P, begylpanq, gielpan, mOdig(i)an

07.06.04 Pride, ostentadon: gielp, renc .Aa a-ogaot, ostentatious: andeaw Osteatadoa, showiness: oferftownes, getot .Showy, osteatadous: gielplic, ranc .Arrogant in gold: goldwlancP .Showily: ranclice ExtnvapDtt; oferrencu0 , oferwlencu0 P .Extnvapnt,ovencloauect: oferglenged°, oferranc0 .Unsuitable, extnvapnt: hygeleas 07.06.05 Pomp, splendour, magnifkence: gleng, orgel, prass, prytu(-o) .Worldly pomp: woruldglenge, woruldwlenco .Golden pomp: goldwlencu0 .State, magniftcence: weorpnes, weorJ>scipe .Proud array: prass .Festal character: healhilgun~. symbelnes .Dignity, nobleness: weorpmynd, weorJ>scipe .Splendid, sumptuous: glenglic0 g, mOdiglic, riclic - Very opulent: oferwlenced° ..Made splendid: iiwlencedog -Proud, gay, exultant: dcaJJP ..solemn, very stately: felawlanc0 P .Sumptuously, splendidly: behyJ>eliceog, deorwiert>IIce, riclice -In a stately manner: priltlice .To move proudly: mOdig(i)an 07.07 Humility: eapmettu 418

07.07.03 Flattery .Readiness to obey/aene: hrersumnes .Humility, lowliness: C&l>mCdu .Humble: ibogen, C&l>mede, C&l>merlic ..Humble, lowly, humble-minded: C&l>mmmCdlrce0 , C&l>mCdum ..Meanly, abjectly: eannlice .To be humble: ihnigan ..To humble oneself: culpian°, (ge~med(i)an, gee&l>mettan ..To make humble, humble oneself: ..To creep, crawl abjectly: creopan


07.07.01 Simplidty, milclnas: bilewitnes .Simple, meek: bilewit .Plain, simple, artless: infeald .Simply, with simplldty: bilewitlice ..Gendy: get>wzrlrce 07.07.02 Humlllty, meekness: C&l>mmnes, lcastyhtung°g, riining,

swaesnes .Flattering speech: olyhtwon1° ..Blandishments, fair speech: swzsende .A flatterer: herigend, lyffetere, oleccere, olectend ..A false flatterer: lcasolzccere0 , leasoleccend° .A parasite, sycophant: glrwere&, glrwman .Cajoling, Battering: lcastyhtendel, lyffettende ..sort, honey-tongued, soothing: li}>e, li}>elic 419

07.08 Reputation, fame .F1atteringly, suavely, softly: li)>elice .To flatter: fician°, liJ>ercianl, lyffctt(i)an ..To wheedle, cajole, flatter: (gc)swl!slecan ..To pay court to: weorpian -To fawn upon, pay court to: Oleccan ..To curry favour with: licettan ..To speak to please: willwyrdan° 07.08 Reputation, fame: dom, hlisa, nama, totalu0 S •What is told, report: hlisa, narna, word

.Praise: lof .Celebrated, well-known: (gc )cul>, folcciil>, folcmlirc0 P, fullciil> ••Very celebrated: freanu!rc ..Worthy of celebration: bremcndlicl ..Commendable: gemyndig ..Undisgraced: ungeorwyrd°' .To be celebrated: (ge)widml!rsian .To make known: forl>gebrcngan ..To make celebrated: gecyl>an ..To extend the fame of, exalt, magnify: l>cnnan Stt Remembered 07.08.01 Nobility (of character, rank, etc.): hCanes, weorpnes .A man of mark: esne ..A gaeat man: woruldfruma0 ..F1ower of a people: dugul> .Excellent, distinguished, high-ranking: heah, heahealdq , heah(ge)l>ungen,

welweorl>c0 ..Eminent, pre-eminent: fore~rlic , fream.iceJ 0 S ..Of g1eat excellence: wel(ge)l>ungen ..Old and distinguished: ealdgel>ungen° ..Desirous ot honour, excellent: weorpgeom ••Eager for glory: lrhwztP, dOmgeomP, gielpgeom, lofgeom See ff Nobility


07.08.02 Honour, glory: iir, domweorpungP .Honour, dignity, worth: arweorpnes, medemnes, gcl>yncl>o, weorpscipe .Worldly honour: woruldiir, woruldgel>incl>. woruldweorpscipe .Strength/dignity of country: ll>cll>rynun°P .An honour shown: iir, gcris(e)nc, weorpmynd, weor1>nes, weorl>scipe


07.08.06 Exaltation .HtJd In bonoar, worthy, honourable: irlic, mcdemlic, unscendc, weort>. weorj>ful ..Equally worthy: efenmedome0 ..Very worthy: efenweorj> .Bonoarably, worthily: irlice, lrweorj>e, gemedemlice ..With honour, showing respect: weorj>fullice .To honour, celebrate, dlplfy: geae~lian, gebreman, domes belecgan, (ge)~ran. (ge)~J>rianlgemll>rian. (ge)weorj>ian, gewlitigian •To tbe bonoar of: fore

07.08.03 Honoar, Yeaaatlon: ~nes. weorj>ung .zeatoas honouring: n&>dweorj>ung°P .To bonoar, treat with respect: weort>ian ..To honour, adYance In dipity: fur1>or gemedemian ..To iDcrwe tbe diplty of, mhance: gegOdian See 16.02.04 Wonhip

07.08.04 An onwnmt, bonoar, glory: gleng .Honouriq of• home: hlmweort>ung°P ..HonouriJll with bea+n-e: hordweort>ung°P .A launl: laur .A crown, garland: beag, bring .A aeat of honour: foreseld. beahset1 •To adorn, dignify: beweort>ianoS ..To adorn, mhance: (ge)glengan, IDZrsian ..To bestow with honour: gemel>(cg)ian ..To crown: gebeagian, gecor6nian°, gehclmian, (ge)wuldorbeagian ...As Yictor: gcsigef&stan 07.08.0S Glorifyina, maldna peat, slorihtion: IDZrsung, l>rymdom0 , weort>mynd, wlitignes, wuldrung .To glorify: gebierhtan, gedyrsian°P, (ge)wuldorfullian ..To glorify, exalt: (ge)deoranP, (ge)mzrsian ..To make great, increase worth of: miclian ..To make wonderful, dipify,mapify: (ge)wundrian ..To make slorious, bestow glory upon: weort>ian, (ge)wuldrian 07.08.06 Exaltation: iipihafenncs/iipihefcdnes .Exalted: ilpihafen .In an nalted poeitioa, blah: beah, on hiehJ>u(m) ..Blaha': ufor 421

07.08.07 Glory, splendour, magnificence .To raise, elevate: ihebban, (ge)hebban, onlhebban°, onhebban, stepan, geuferian, iip lhebban, geweorpian, geyferianS ..To move forwards, cause to advance: forpgefremman°P, geuferian 07.08.07 Glory, splendour, mapHk::aio.:e: anmedla, dugul>. l>rymm. weort>ung, wlenc(o), wuldor .Worldly glory: woruldgielp, woruldl>rymm0 , woruldwuldor 0 .Splendid, bright, glorious: beorht, ti&beorht, hlutor, ICoht, m&rlic, scfnende, torhtmOdP, wlanc, gewlenced, wuldorful, wuldorspCdig0 P ..Very glorious, splendid: cynel>rymlic0 , forpml!re0 P .Splendidly, gloriously: beorhte, beorhtlfce, dOmlfce, wuldorlfce .To shine: iiscfnan, (ge)bierhtan, glitenian ..To come forth brilliantly: Alyman, ilp Alyman 07.08.08 Noblenas, honour, glory: indryhtoP, nutmes, (ge)nutrsung .Renowned, famous, esteemed, glorious: blatdigende0 P, breme, cynerof P, dOm~gP, dOmlic, herigendlic, herlicP, indryhten, (ge)riim .Nobly: borlfce ..Gloriously, famously: breme .To be distinguished, become peat: nutrian ..To become ricbleoricbed: geweligian ..To receive glory, be glorified: wuldrian 07.08.09 Renown, fame, glory: foreml!mes, hlfsa, hlfseadignes0 , hrel>. ml!rsung, ml!rl>(-u), tirP, torhtnes, weorpmynd .Worldly fame: woruldhlisa0 .An illustrious being: oferma:cga0 P ..A glorious friend/follower: tirwine0 P .Noted, famed, illustrious: dOmfiestP, foreml!re, gefntge, hlisbi:reS, hlfsladig, hlisful, hlisig°S, hrC}>eadigP, mitre, namciil>, tireadigP, tirfiestP, l>rymfiestP, widmi:re, wuldorfzst .Equally famous: efenmi:re0 P 07.08.10 Fame of courage, valour: ellenm&rpuP .Fame of victory: sigehret>0 P .Martial glory: zsctfr 0 P, &ill>hrC1>0 P, herelofS •Valiant, famed for deeds: di:drOf P ..Famed in battle: heal>umi:re0 P See Courage 07.08.11 Fame after death: listwonJP, gemynd


07.09.02 Disgrace, shaming, humiliation 07.09 Shame, dlapace• epsen&, epsenes°', l!wisc(e), l!wiscnes, bismer,

edwn, edwi"lscipe0 P, hienp(o), orwyrl>(u), scamu, ungewiss, woruldscamu .Penoa incurriq: earming, edwn .A source/cause of disgrace: edwn, edwnstaefP, leahtrung, scand, ~I. wanun ..A stain, aspersion: iwyrdungd.ian, iryderian' ..To cover with shame: oruMtan mid sceameq , purhgeotan on gescyndnesse 07.09.02 Disp'ace, shaming, bumDiatioa: efwyrl>(u)0 , genil>erung,

scamung, unweort>ung .Humbled, shamed, brought low: ge&swicod, Man, gepylmed°' ..Traduced, shamed: (ge)orwyrl>ed ..(Of pride) broken: forod .lpominiously: tieanlrce .Dispacetully, sbamefully: scamlfce .To humiliate, degrade: tO bismere gerenian ..To bumble, abase: ge&swician, (ge)bfegan, gebl>m&l(i)an, forbfgan, bienan, (ge)bnl!gan, gemedemian, (ge)nipenan, nil>enorfian°1, (ge)wanian ..To ciep'ade: gebienan 423

07.09.03 lnfamy, ignominy, shame "To dlsboaour, traduce: georwyr)>an 07.09.03 Infamy, ipominy, shame: bismer, bismerung, nytennes, orretscipei, orwur)>, scand. unhlfsa/unliss .Dishonour: unir ..Dishonour, disgrace, shame: scandlicnes, unweort>nes, unweorpscipe, unweor~ung, unwlite' ..A life of dishonour: edwt"llif0 P ..Notoriety: nutrhlisaq .Infamous, ipominious, shameful: forcii~lic, forslegenlic0 , fraco~lic, gefrl!ge, hospuJI, buxlic, orgellic, orwyr)>lic0 , unblisbi:re0 1, unhlisCadig0 1, unhlfsful, unblfsig°I deeds, feelings, etc.: domJeasP, bean, beanlic ..Dishonourable, inglorious: irleas, domlwP, br!t>lw0 P, tirleas0 P. unirlic, unirwur~lic0 , unnutre0 , unmi:rlic0 ..Notorious: ml!re, widnutre .lpominlomly, beleJy, disgracefully: earglice, forcii~lrce, huxlice, scandlicc, teonlicc, unweorl>lice "Unworthily: unweort>e .To dishonour, disgrace: forweorpan, geunirian, unirwur~ian, (ge)unwur~ian "To dishonour, degrade, insult: (ge)hrenan "To bring/put to shame: geliwian "To become dishonoured: unweort>ian "To become dishonoured. to stink: ifiilian


07.10 Beauty, fairness: faeger, (ge)faegemes, hrw, hrwnes0 , wlite, wlitignes .Earthly beauty: woruldfaegernes .What is beautiful: faeger .Wondrous beauty: gli:m .Lovely, beautiful, fair: geblCod, cymeP, cymlicP, faeger, hrwbeorhtP, hiwlic, hleortorbt°P, sciene, wlitebeorhtP, wliteful0 , wlitescfne, wlitig ..Shining, splendid, radiant, beautiful: aelfscieneP, geatolicP, sunsciene0 P, torht, torhtlicP, ~urhbeorht, ~urbscinendlic01, wrl!tlic singular excellence, beautiful: inlic ..Divinely fair, of heavenly beauty: heofonwlitig "Very fair/beautiful: forfaeger 0 , freawlitig0 "Of enduring beauty: wlitigfaest .Beautifully: faegere "Beautifully, splendidly, fairly: torhte, torhtliccP, wlitige, wlitiglice


424 Deformed, ugly .To become fair or beautiful: fegrian ..To pow beautiful, be beautiful: wlitigian ..To be splendid, shine: scinan ..(Of vlna) to take oa alory: gimmian ..To make beautitul, beautify: (ge)cyrtenl~. (ge)wlitigian 07.10.01 Elegance, beauty,comelinell: cyrtenes• .(Of dress) elegance: creasnes .Beautiful, stately, fair: fril>0 P ..Comely, fair, handsome: cyrten, hiwfest•. l!oftic, J>eslic, wenlic ...Comely of form: hiwfeger 0 ..Goodly, well·appearins, plnsl1111, fair: gOdlic, leoht. gemede ..Fair, fine, beautiful, elepnt: smicer ..Delicate, elepnt, splenclld: wn!st, wn!stlic ..Fine. elepnt: creas0 ..Exquisite, choice: smaalic ,Handsomely, fairly, In comely fashion: wenlice, wlitelice ..Elepntly: gecorenlicel, wn!ste ..Beautifully, elepntly: wnttlice ..Fairly, excellendy, elepntly: el>ellfce ..Elepntly, fitly, fairly, well: cyrtenlrce ..Elepndy,tastefully,falrly:srnicere .To belmake elepnt: wn!stan 07.10.02 Ugliness: unfegemes .Not beautiful, uaty: unwlitig, wliteleas • ..Dark, ugly, unfair: fiil, unfeger ..Mean-looking, ualy: forlegenlicq ..Untrimmed, W·kept, ugly: esc&re .To become ugly: unwlitegian Deformed, ualy: atollic .Deformed, repulsive: atol, Awlete .Disfigurement: unwlitignes0 .Disftguring: unwlitegungOI •To disftaure: rnisbegan°• ..To disftaure, make ugly, deprive of beauty: fomiman, un(ge)wlitegian ..To disfigure, m•ke hideous: geatolhiwian°•, (ge)atolian ..To make loathsome, disftpre: Awletan See Blemish


07.10.03 An adornment, decoration, ornament 07.10.03 An adornment, decontioa, ornament: fra:twe, (ge)fra:twung,

glengnes0 , (ge)hyrst, wlite, woruldfnetwung° .A beautiful thing, ornament: faegemes ..An ornament: cynen, fra:tenes, frztwednes, (ge)fra:twung, gleng, geglenged, geren(e), wnttt .Act of adorning: fra:twednes, weort>mynd .To ornament, adorn: ifaegrian°, lm&an, lreccan, gefadian, (ge)faegrian, (ge)fra:twian, (ge)glengan, gehyrstan, onhrCodan°P, (ge)r!nian, (ge)smicerian8, getewian°, geweort>ian, gewlitigian ..To set around: ymb(ge)fra:twian, ymbgerenian ..Adorned, ornamented: gediht, gefra:twod, glengeq, geglenged, glengful, gehlaest, gehongen, gehroden, (ge)hyrsted, ticgende&, getiicodq, geweorpod, gewlenced, geworht See 04.04.10 Trappings: Ornament Unomammted, uudo1oul: unbegln, ungefnctwod0 8,

ungeglengedog, unrenod .Unadc;1 ned, unpolished: unfra:tewodog .Unonwnented, plain: lnfeald, medumlic, ungerenod0 .(Of dotbes) plain, worn, mean: unomlic0

See Plmn


08.01 .01.01 Ardour, fervour, strong feeling

8.Emodon 08Feelinp:

See 02.05 Sensation, perception 08.01 Heart, spirit, mood, disposition: mOd .Disposition: tosetcdncs' .Heart/bosom as seat of emotions: beann, bOsm. breost, breostcofa. breosthordP, breostsefaP, feorhloca0 P, grCada, heorte, bre)>erP, bret>ercofa0 P, bre)>erlocaP, hygesccaftP, inno~, ingc~anc, moo, rilncofa0 P ..Heartstrinp: hygcbend0 P •To attach oneself to, bave feeHnp for: gcf!gan .To touch, affect (mind, heart, etc.): ifOn, (gc)hrepian/hreppan, ~hrrnan, (ge)slean, gctesan -(Of voices) to peadrate, sink in: ~urhfaran -To adze, grip: irisian, undergripan° -To strike inwards, touch: fundian (tO), (gc)hrrnan, gc)>ryccan .To cause the breast to swell: tObliwan .To 811, imbue, inspire: ~urbgeotan -To inspire, give wings to: gcfi)>erian .To make alive, quicken: (gc)liffs:stan .To animate, inspire: onbryrdan See 06 Soul 08.01.01 A feeHn1, wbat is felt: styrung, gcwitt .Ei:perleace, trial: ifandung .Shaken: ihrered .To aperleace, feel, nndell"IO: ifandian, ifindan, cunnan, (gc)fandian, (ge)habban, hcaldan, (gc)libban, onfindan, ongietan, (gc)seon, (ge)wcgan, (gc)witan .To quake, shiver, bemble: lbifian ·. (Flguntlve) to abate, move: lwccgan Ardour, fervour, stroq feellDI: t!ling, bls:se, bn!I>. breostwylm, bryne, cllcnwoones, fyrwit, fyrwitnes, hattu, hygcws:lm0 P, incundnes, oferbeortnes0 , oobryrdnes, ontcndnes, i>s:celc, ~rowung, wea11°1, wielm .Fever of adtanent: hl:tc., onworpennes0 .A flame: lfg 427

08.01.01 .01.01 Exaltation, elation .Ardent, fiery, passionate: brandhitP, fYren, tyrcnful, tyrhil°P, hit, hitheort, inbryrd, onbryrd, (ge)l>ancful, weallende -(Of feeling) severe, intense, vehement: hit, healic, swll>lic -1bat titillates, kindling: tincligende8 .Fervently, vehemently, passionately: bite, hilheortlfce, hitJfce .To bum, have ardent feeliq: ibeoman, a!~mian, iweallan, (ge)byman, (ge)hitian, (ge)weallan .(Of heart) to become hot: ihitian •To pour out, lavish: igeotan See 05.08.01 Vigour Eultation, elation: heannes .FJated: ofgeom' •To elevate oneself: Antman Alienation of mind, ecstasy, rapture: elhygd, f&ring', gistlice fiphefnes, (ge)leorednes, oferstigennes' An incitement, cause of strong feeling: onbryrdnes .A sting, goad, prick: anga .Exdtatlon, arousal, stirring up: itendend, itending°S. itendnes, iwecenes0 , iwehtnes0 , onw~nes .One who aroHses, a stirrer up: iri:rend, istyrigend .To exdte, inspire, cause emotion: ihrisian, ihwettan, istyrian, iweccan, iwreccan, gefYsan, (ge)gremian, (ge)hwettan, indrencan, ona!Ian, onbryrdan mid/to, onhreran, onstyrian, ntran, np Hran, (ge)weccan .To qitate: (ge)styrian .To exdte, inflame: itendan, gelu!tan, (ge)hierstan, on2lan, onbzman, onbeoman, onha!tan, onlfg(i)an'. ontendan .To make (passton/emotlon) violent: onwyllan°P See Incite 0 Depth of feeling, zeal: anda, andung0 1 , ellen, ellenwOd, hilheortnes, weallung .Flnt fervour: frumwylm .Earmt, hearty: innancund, meagol, mOdig .Heartfelt, dose to one's heart, sincere: incund, innemest, inneweard, inweard, inweardlic, strang .aose to one's heart: i~e .Earnestly, hear1Uy, eagerly: deope, deoplice, geome, inweardlice, meagollice, stundum


08.01.01 .03 Good feeling, joy, happiness .From tbe heart, wldl peat sincerity: befiglice, incuodlice0 , inlice, inwerdre heortan, mid inwerdre hcortan

See F.amestness L.:•tng In ree11,., fcsnwitive: iideadod .TnhoJNJn: unmennisclic0 .Callously: ungefredelfce0 .To become inured: ibeardian .(Of beart) to dry up: ldrilgian Want of lnteftat or coacera, indiffermce: giemeleast .Cool, lukewarm, unentbusblstic: icOlod, wlaco .Lukewarmly: wleclice, c61 .(Flprative) at a distance: feorr .To cool, grow lukewarm: icOlian, iwlacian .To cool, make cool: Acelan •To alienate, make indifferent to: fremdian •To tame, subdue: itemian, (ge)temian .To calm (exdted people): gestillan

See 06.02.03 Unwilling: I J.06.0/.0/ Negligence Good feeli. .,JO)', happiness: bliss, bb")>nes, dr!am, eadwelaP, CstnesO, fzgennes, (ge)tea, gefCannesO gefeohtsumnes0 , (ge)glednes, glzdscipe, gliwstzfOP, hyhtwynn°P, liss. r!otu0 P, ges&lignes, t

wynsummung°S .Great happiness: h!afd)P •Worldly bliss: woruldblisop, worulddreamP, woruldhybt°P .Enjoyment of life: gumdreamop, lifwynnP .Heavenly joy: lyftwynn°P, swegldreamP .EverlastiagJoy: sindreamP .Joy of youth: geogo1>myr1>0 P .Domestic Joy: et>eldream0 P .Joy among one's own people: 1Codwynn°P •Vain Joy: idelblissog .A joyous action: gefea .Joyful, happy: blissig'I, blissigendlic0 , blft>e, blft>emOd, bb")>heort, dreamhzbbendeop, drCamhealdende0 P, hygebliJ>eP, li}>e, m0dgled0 P, ges&lig, sorgleas, wynfzst°P, wynsum ..Very &lad: fullbtit>e0 ..Too li&ht·hearted: oferbli}>e


08.01 .01.03.01 Freedom from ttouble, comfort. security .BappDy,Joyfully: (ge)blll>e, blll>elrce, Cadiglic:e, gefealrce, lustfullrce. on dlum, gedlige, gedliglrce, unmumlfceP Freedom from trouble, comfort, security: carleasnes0 g, carleasts, giemeleast, gehydnes, Ielmes. orsorgnes, sibb .A quiet time: gerec(u) .Untroubled, without care: carleas, feger, giemeleas, hliitor, hogeleas0 , leoht, orsorg, riimheort, teonleas, unmurnop, unsorb0 .Easily, comfortably: leohte, (ge)riime •Without amiety/trouble: hlutre, orsorglrce .To be at ease, remain ulMli•rbed: (ge)restan See 13 Peace Pleasure, satisfaction: (ge)cwemednes, 1>anc .Contented, content: bl>hylde, gehealdeq, gehealden (on), getricce, (ge)l>zf, J>ancful, geJ>w~re -Easily pleased: eaJ>georn°' .Pleasurably: (ge)lustfullrce •To propitiate, atisfy: (ge)cweman See Repletion Happiness, blessedness: (ge)dll> .Gift of blessedn'9S: Cadgiefu .Blessed, happy: eadP, Cadhr!l>igP, Cadig, Cadiglic, gedlig ..Equally bleued: efeneadig°P .Blusedly: eadiglfce .To bless, enrich: geblissian, Cadigian Gladness, cheerfulness: gled, rotnesS .Glad, joyful: Mo, gled, gledmOd, hyhtful, rot, unseofiende0 , wiltt"]>e8 .Pleued, cheeftd: gegladod .Cbeerfully, joyously: amberlice0 • glade, gledlice, rotlice0 • wynsumlrce .To cheer, inspirit: imestan Pleamn, delight: bleofestnesS. leaf, liss, lust, (ge)lustfullung, (ge)lustfulnes, myrgen°P. nCod, will a, wynn .8ource of joy: wynstat>lop .Pleasure (penonifted): gelustfullung .Joy (used of persons): wynn .Excessive pleasut"e: oferdlJ>0 P •Worldly pleasure: woruldlufu, woruldlust 430 Laughter

.Plearantni;in oftbe air: lyftwynnop .SCPNldon of pleasure, e.Qoyment: bryce, lustbemes .With delight: lustbzrlrce .To take pleasure in, dellpt in: dreogan, (ge)lufian, (ge)lustfullian, gelustian°', unnan, wel (ge)lfcian "To esQo)' tborouply: forwynsumian° Emltation,joy: (ge)blissung, (ge)faegnung, f!owung, h&lhbliss, hyht. hyhting°', Qpihafennes, Qpibefcdnes, Ophefnesi, wuldrung', wynsumnes .Exultant: heahJnMP "Emlting,joyons: blissigendlic0 , (ge)faegen, (ge)f!onde, hyhtende, hyhtlic, mooblissiendeop "Rejoicing witb one another: efenbli]>e0 "Rejoicing in bean: ferhl>gef!ondeP "Revelling in release from conftn.emmt: rQmgiJ 0 P "Rejoicing In victory: sigehrCmigP ~mltant, satisfted: wilhremig0 i, wilhrCl>ig°P "(Of thoughts/looks) apn syina glad1M11: glaed "Glad to pre.serve one'• life: feorhfaegen° .Joyously: miltsum .To rejoice, be glad: (ge)blissian, (ge)blQ>ianS, bli)>sian, (ge)faegnian, (ge)tcon, (ge)gladian, (ge)hyhtan, (ge)lustfullian, mancian, (ge)wuldrian inion, (ge)wynsumian "To make glad, rejoice: (ge)wynsumian "To rejoice es&Wdlngly: frCadremani, freal>ancian°' "To rejoice together: efenblissian, efengef!on, emblissian°', midblissian°' Joyous 80UDd, mh1b: dmun. gamen, gladung, wynm&lll', wynd.r&lnnes°S .Joyous 90UDd of music: gl~ P .(Of 10ng, etc.) joyous: gedryme .80S11nnab!: gel\el •To rejoice, make a joyous sound: (ge)drYman, hliehhan .To jnmp about for joy, rejoice: faegnian, hoppettan See 18.02 Anuuement 0 Laupter: hleahtor .A bunt/peal of a.nghter: hleahtor .BolsteroUI laapter: cancettung°', cincende0 • cincung 431 Jesting, pleasantry .Immoderate laqbter: ungemethleahtor 0 .A laugbter-m•ker: hleahtorsmil>0 P .Laughing, smiling: hliehhende .Inclined to laqb: hlagol .Causing laqbter: hleaht~re -Comic, amusing: bismerlic, gamenlic, plegli~ ..Ridiculous, exciting mlatb: hleahterlic .To laqb: hliehhan -To laugh repeatedly: ceahhetan -To exult, laqb: lhliehhanP .To smile, smirk: smearcian ..He smiles (upon): ongratal>og. ongrynt°g .Ha ha!: ha ~he, tzg tzgg 0 Jesting, pleasantry: ceahhetung, gamen, gamenung, gliw .Jesting, mocking: glfwlic°g .Playful, jocular: plegol .To joke, jest (about): glfwian .To jest, pun: gamenian Butroonery,acunility: gegaf0 , (ge)gafsprrec .A bufrooa,jester: gliwere! .Given to butroonery,scurrilous: gegafs~ce See 18.02.05 Buffoonery Scoftin1, mockery: cancettende, gaffetung, geaa>", gliwung!, hux .Jeering raillery: geslitgliwog .A mocker: onhyscendq .To mock, make sport of: ihyscang, onhyscan, pleg(i)an See 07.05.04 Scorn Happiness, well-being, prvsperity: dugul>, cad, eadig~. forl>sp0wnes0 , gOd, gOdnes, grOwnes, ht!l(u), orsorgnes, &ti, geSttlignes, (ge)5Zll>. (ge)sundfulnes, gesynto, wela .Peac:eful prosperity: fril>ospCd0 P, fril>ol>Cawas0 P .A prosperous time: httlotid0 .A day of prosperity: blttddegP .A day of joy: wilda:g0 P, wyndegP .DwelUna of bappinat: boldwelaP, g1Iwsto1°P .Condition of plenty: bledwela0 P, genyhtsumnes, wlenc(o) 432

08.01 . A favour, blessing .Wortclly prosperity: woruld(ge)dli>a ..Jn.:n•• of plOSperity: rjmet, weaxung ..m-aotten pro1perfty: w6hgestreon .Man of worldly power/wealth: wonddrfca .ID easy dmnnstanos, lumrious: gedeorflwoS. esteadig'I, hnescc, sefteadigq. seftlic0 • gestreonful ..Blc11ed with the world's pods: woruldgedlig°P ..Very pro1perous: anwlC>h0 P .Pnieperously: geome, gesp&ligtice0 • , spC>wendlfceP, gesundfullice, gesundlice, tela, wel .To pl'Cllper: famian°', forspMianq, gC>dian, on~n. gespedsumian•, gestandan mid miclum welum, (ge)sundfullian, ge~n. ge~iogan, wel on hand gin ..To pt on, 8omisb: (ge)fyrt>rian, (ge)weaxan ..To be prwnoted, lldftntt to: gelJ&>n tC> See 07.02.02 Good; 11.07.03 &nefit Abundance of frieMI: freondsped .Rieb In friends: !Rondsp&lig Good fortune, succ:as: gelimp, sige, woruldsped .Pl'Olperity, success: bl~. gebltedf&stnes0 .Sacuss, prosperous illae: spM .AdftDCelllellt, PIO&* c11, succ:as: fort>scipe, framscipe .Sua:css In sp ecdl: wordsige0 P .Sacua In work: weorcsige0 P .Fonunate, pn.perom, tlourisblna: beotig~. (ge)bltedfestP, eadig, &Mliglic, forpgenge, gedlig, gedliglic, sp&lig, spC>wende, gesuodful, ge)>ogen, welgewende0 , gewilsi:lig& ..More than fortunate: oferdlig See Success A fa•our, bl""na: hen, bletsung .Happy, fa•ourable: blisful, eadiglic, gC>d, gedliglic, s!l, smylte, gesund, gesundlic/gesyndlic, gesundiglic/gesyodelic .Conducive to well-being: hilweode .Happily, satisfactorily: gedliglice .To be favourablo'lldTIU1tqeous to: geweaxan .To further, cause to prmpel': gehradian, gesyndgian°, gesyntlkaJtl 433 Pleasantness, agn;cableness Pl"'taDlw•, 91Peeeblenea: fegemes, gelustfullung, sw!tnes, wellicung', wynsumnes .A delight, that which gives pleesn'!'e: myrgp, wynn .A pleasant/desirable thing: leof, wil(I), willa .(Of things) charm, elluremmt: 6lcccung .Pleasurableness, sweetness: swet .llMlulgenc:e, semuel pteesure: Olebtung .Good pleasure: licwyrpnes0 S, welgecw!mness, welgelicwirpnes0 S .Pleeunt coolness: edc!lnesS .(Of honeyed words) sweet taste: hunigsm&e0 P .Pleasing, giviaa of pleasure: (ge)gladdung, gelicung, gelustfullung .Pleesin1, utisfection: gc:cweming, (ge)cwemnes .To propitiate, be submissive: Oleccan See Sensual pleasure,91Peeable: gecweme, gecwemedlic, (ge)cw!mlic, gecwlmsums, gedlfe, hCorc, hold, iepe, lic(i)endlic, (ge)lfcigende, (ge)licwyrpe, lipe, lufi(g)endlic, luftic, lufsum, luftYmlicog, lufwende, (ge)sw~s. sweslic, swlte, (ge)~se. pancful, welgecwemes, welgecwemedlic0 S, wel(ge)licod, wel(ge)licwirpes, (ge)wynsum, (ge)wynsumlic .Pleennt, desirable: leortzl, (ge)lfcwyrpe, lufsumlic0 , luft9me, lustb&rc, lustbltrlic, wilsum .Joyous, delightful: getcalic, gll!Cd, glllCdlic, hyhtful, hyhtlic, leoflic, l!ofwende, lustsumlic, myrge, wynlic •Wished for, Pi* eeable: onwille0 P .Mellihous: hunigftowende, hunigswete Pleesendy, apeeably: gecwemlice, hyhtlice, on pance/to pances/to pance, gesw~se. sw~slrce, wel, wel liciendlice, wynsumlrce .Sweedy, with pleaP1re: swltlfce .Delightfully: wynlice, wynnum To make &lad: iblissian, icwician, imyrgan, aretan, (ge)blissian, (ge)blQ>ian, (ge)&ldigian, (ge)gladdian, (ge)li}>igian, (ge)retan, (ge)rotsian, tietan°P .To please, be agreeable to: (ge)cwlman, (ge)efenllcian, (ge)gladdian, (ge)lician, swetian, wellician .To give delight to, cause pleesnre in: (ge)lustfullian, lystan, (ge)Oleccan

434 Gentleness

.To pleaw, content, saddy: onhagian, wcld6n .To make pleasing: bcfcstan, (gc)sw~. (gc)wynsumian 08.01.02 Disposidoa towards others: Favour,ldnclness, grace: ir, irfcstncs, irstzf, laj>m6dncs, est,

estincs, fremfulncs, frcmsumncs, fremu, glcdmooncs, (ge)glcdncs, g6dncs, g6dscipe, hyldo, rummOdncs, til, treow, t>anc, unnc, weldonnes, welwille(n)dncs, wclwilnes .A kind action, benefit: ambihtsumncs, dugut>. gccarnung, goo, liss, t>enung, wcld~d. welfremming, welfremncs .Good will: bliss, willa .Loving kindness: s6l>lufu .~appreciation of others: medemncs .A benefactor: iri(g)cnd, bigcnga, g6dd6ndP, wcld6nd .Gracious, kind, beneficent: irful, bentigl>c, bliJ>hcort, laj>bedc0 P, C8J>benc0 P, C8J>c, CstC, CstliC, fremfu} , fremsum, fremsumliC, g}cd (wil>), glcdlic, glcdmoo, (ge)hlystfull, li)>c, gcmctfcst, mildc, riimhcort, riimlic, tilP, tilfremmcndc0 P, tilm6digP, wcl(gc)don, wclfremmcndl, wclrilmm6d, wclwillcndc, wei>c. wynsum .Affable: gcspntce .Gradously, kindly, beneftcendy: irfcstlicc, irfullicc, irwcorl>licc, bilewitlicc, (gc)cwemlicc, estelicc, fremsumc, fremsumlicc, holde, holdlicc, lissum, li)>clrcc, medemlrcc, riimlrcc, riimmoolicc, tilliccP, t>ancfullicc, welriimliccl, wclwillendlicc, wynsumlicc .To show kindness: lij>ian .To be favourably disposed to:· (gc)cicrran (to), hlinian •To repnl with (kindly) feeling: hiwian .To smile kindly on, bless: wclcwct>anog See 10.03.01 Favour Humaneness, humane behaviour: mennisclicncs .Humane, that sbonld cbarac:terbe men: mennisclic .Humane, considerate: mitt>ful 0 .ComlderateJy, courteously: mit!>Ircc

See Courtesy Gendeness: iel>ncs, mildncs, gct>wzmcs .Mildness, gendeness, sweetness: gedefcnes, lij>ncs, gemetfcstnes,

gewet>ncs .Tendemess, delkacy: mearuwncs 4'.Y5

08.01 . Mildness, leniency, indulgence g~fte,

ged!fe, IJl>e, gemetfest, gemetfestlic, gernetlic, m0wzre0 s, sefte, s0fte, stille, unwelgrim0 ..SOft as milk, gende: meolclJl>e°' "Tender, gende: hnesce -Kindhearted, meek: mildheon .Mild, gende:

- Tractable, gende, mild: tam .Gently: IJl>e -Gently, mildly: g~ftelice, (ge)metfzstlfce -Tenderly, delicately, inclalgendy: mearulice ..Lightly, tolerantly: hnesclice .To be mild or tolerant: ll}>igian .To be gentle to: geiel>an -To refrain from unkinclN11, spare: (ge)irian .To become gentle/mild: geleot>uwU&n, gemildians -To yield, soften In attitude: hnesc(i)an .To soften (one's heart): Ahnescian, (ge)hnesc(i)an -To relent, be appeased: swet>olian° .To m•ke mild/merdful: gemiltsian .To nwke gentle, bnnwnltt: gemanl>w~rian°

See 05.09.02 Mildness Mildness, leniency, inclalaence: forgiefnes .Mild, Indulgent: forgiefen, fril>lic, Iel>e .Gently, not banbly: leohtlice, IJl>elice, s0fte Gentleness, meekness, composure: gedzftu, smyltnes .Unruflled, senne: efen, smOI>, smylte .Staid, sober: ged~fe .With equanimity, calmly: efenlfce, efenmOlufuop, heonlufu0 P .Faithful love: treowlufu0 P .Hapless love: sorglufu0 P .Love for men: manlufu0 P .Brotherly love: sibsumnes .Love/affection between kinsmen: megsibb 0

436 A loving relationship .Love for one's cbUcl: bcamlufu0 .Love for a mother: m0dorlufu0 .A lover: lufiend .Affectionate, amiable, loving: (ge)leof, leofwende, Jufiende, luflic ..(Of words) loving: luflic .Lovingly, with love: Cstfullfce, leoflrce, luflrce, sw6tlrce .Ardendy, lovingly: leofwendum .To bold dear, care for, love: carian, deoranP, (ge)freogan, (ge)lufian, rCcan (be) .To bestow aft'ection upon: lufian (on) .To express aft'ection In words: Jufian See 02.05.05 Desire A favourite, loved one: dY11ing .A (king's) favourite: dY11ing .A favourite follower: dY11ingl>egn° .Darling (as nickname): dyrling .Jewel, treasure (In address): eorcnanstln, meregrot .Beloved, dear, precious: besorg, gecorcn, dyre, fl!JeP, leof, leoffa:st0 , Jeoflic, geliefed, lufi(g)endlic, m6dleof0 P, swete ..Very dear: felaleof0 P, oferleof0 P ..Equally dear/precious: efendyrc, efenleof ..Dear to the community: hrrcdleofO' An embrace: beclypping'. clypping, feng, ymbclyppungl .Act of kissing: cossetung0 ' ..A kiss: COSS .A token of love: luftJcen°P .To embrace, clasp: beclyppan, befa:~m(i)an, clyppan, ymbclyccan°K .To embrace, caress: (ge)freogan, (ge)Jufian .To kiss: cossian°, (ge)cyssan A loving relationship: freondlufu0 P .Love between man and woman: freondntden, freondscipe, lufu .Love/desire (for): freondmynd0 P, (ge)wilnung ..Love for a woman: brydlufu0 P, wrftufuP, wffrnyne0 P .Love-makin1: frigeP, Jufung° .A lover: copenerc0 • freond, lufiend ..A partner: gegada ..A (male) lover/husband: wineP

437 Wooing ..A lover (probably female): lufestre& ..A secret lover: dymeceorl 0 .A beloved one, sweetheart: drilt0 P, loof

.Loviq, affectionate: lufwende ..Inclined towards: forJ>weard ..Amorous: wogerlic0 .Exdting warm feelings of affection: hit .To fall in love: gefeallan on lufe, lufe niman to

See Desire Wooing: wogung0 .A wooer, suitor: wogere .To court, woo: iwogian, wogian

See 12.09 Marriage Love, caritas: broJ>orlufug, lufu, sibgeomes .Spiritual love: gl!stlufuP .Blessed love: cadlufu0 P Friendliness, affection: cyJ>t>(u), hyldo, sibb

.Kindly interest: freondrl!den, freondscipe .Friendship: geferrl!den, freondn!den, freondscipe, siblufuP, winescype .Friendship, brotherly love: brOJ>orlfcnes, (ge)broJ>orscipe, broJ>orsibb .Bond (of friendship): wl!r .Old acquaintance: ealdcyJ>J>u .lndmacy, special acquaintance: sundorcyJ>J>u0 .Fellowship/communion with people: geml!nnes, (ge)~den, J>eodscipe .Fair words of peaco'friendsbip: sibcwide0 P An acquaintance, friend, aaociate: ciiJ>a, (ge)rera, freond,

wine .Friends: (ge)frfend .An earthly friend: woruldfreond .A dose friend, bosom friend, conftdant: gehala, gehola, niehsta, sundorwine0 P .Kimman and friend: ml!gwineP, wineml!gP .A female friend: wrffreondg .A pleaunt companion: wilgehleJ>a0 P, wilgesij>P, wilgeJ>ofta0 P .A pleasant band: wilgedryhtP 438

08.01 .02.04.01 Visiting Friendly, amiable: freondheald°I, freoodlic, lufwendlic, sibb, unwit>erweard° .lndmete, frialdly: cilJ>, inlic, n&lhfeald°, nbhfealdlic0 , gesi}lcundJic0 • gesij>lic .Kind, friendly: blij>e, blij>emM. hold, holdlic .Kind to one's frlendl: freondlij>e0 .Fatherly: faederlic .Compatible, in sympathy: gebyredlic .Social: geterlic°' In a friendly manner, kilMlly: lrlrce, blij>e, cilJ>lrce, deore, freondlrce, holdlrce, lufsumlrce, lufwendlrce .F•miliarly, in friendly fashion: cilJ>lice, hrwcuJ>lice .In a fatherly manMr: faederlice .In a motherly way: mOdorlice .8odably: (ge)ferlij>lfce To sbow aladncrr, be friendly: onfaegnian° .To m•ke frieada with, auech oneself to: (ge)clll>lkan, (ge)J>Codan .To associate with: (ge)wunian Hospitality: andfeng, cumlij>nes, giestlij>nes, giestning0 .An inviter of guests: inl&t>igend .Lord of the feast (at a wedclfna-banquet): dryhtealdor .A friendly invitation: freondl$u0 P .An invitation from a superior: h&s .Reception, welcoming of guests: onfangennes ..Lack of a room: rymetleast° .Being visited: geneosung .Hospitable: cumli)>e, gicstlicq, giestli)>e, gistltpicnd0 .To call (as a guest), invite: (ge)cregan to, gchllan, (gc)l&t>ian, togc1$ian .To invite, receive: in(gc)l$ian .To receive, welcome: faegnian, ontOn, undcrtOn .To entertain, be hospitable: bcwcnianP, gcl$ian See Harbour Visiting: (gc)neosung, t6s6cn° .SOjoam as a guest: cumlij>nes .A rare visit: scldcyme0 P .A guest: ftctsiUendP, giest, wilcuma •.A welcome guest: wilgaest0 P

439 Thanks, gratitude ..A hand of pats: gisbrulegen°P

.Uninvited: un(ge)lal>od .As a guest: on gistli}>nesse .To go to, visit: fandian, (ge)nwsian, (ge)*811, swe1>htcan°11 .To visit, have personal communication with: (ge)seon ..To visit frequendy: (ge)lomlecan .To be a guat: cumliJ>ianOI!, giestianB See; Meet Thanks, gratitude: hyldo, t>anc, t>ancung .Glory, praise, thanks: wuldor .A word of thanks, thanks: 1>ancword0 P .Thankful, grateful: 1>ancful, gel>ancol .Thankfully, gratefully: on 1>ance, 1>ancfullice, 1>ancweor1>lice •Thanks to: l>ances .To make grateful nturn for: (ge)gieldan .To exprea thanks by action, shew gratitude: (ge)l>ancian .To express gratitude, thank: ~n }>ancas. (ge)secgan pancas. l>anc cunnan, (ge)l>ancian See Thanksgiving Compallion: besirgung, canning, efensirgung°, efen1>rowungB, midl>rowungB, (ge)miltsung, ofearmungB, gel>Oht .Compassionate: efensirig, mildheort .Compassionately, mercifully: mildheortlfce .To sympathi:u, compasstonate: behreowsian, be~nan, besirgian (be/for), efensirgian, efensorgian°, efen1>rowian, midl>olianl, gemiltsian, ofeannianB. onemn1>rowigan°, gel>rowian •To remanber with compassionlldndnea: gemyndgian .To feel pain for, feel sorry for: sirian Mercy, pity: Ir, liss, liJ>, mildheortnes, milts .Merciful, dement, propitious: inh!de0 , Arfest, milde, mildelic, mildheortlic .Mercitully: irlfce, milde, mildelfce .To show mercy, be mercitul to: Arfestian°B, (ge)irian ..To show mercy to, aefrain from harmin1: sparian See Forgiveness Pity: earmheortnes0 B .Pitier, one who taka pity: (ge)miltsi(g)end 440

08.01.03 Bad feeling, sadness .Pltiful, tender-heuted: eannheort .Exdtfna pity, lamentable: hreowlic, w6plic .Expressing pity, piteous: earmlic .Piteously: eannlice .SO as to exdte pity: hreowlrce .To pity: lissian, (ge)miltsian, ofhreowan .To affect with pity or compallion: (ge)hreowan .To cause pity (in a person): eannian .To melt, soften, disarm: gemieltan Forsfvener1, reminion, demency: forgiefnes .Favour, demency, remission of a penalty: giefu .A release, mitigation, ranillion: libting .To pardon, forgiw: ilittan, forgiefan "To remit, forgive: forletan .To relent, be appeatecl: swet>olian° See Forgiveness 08.01.03 Bad feeling, udncss: angm6dnes0 , caru, dreorignes, efneunr6tnesog, gnomP, gnomsorgP, gnomung, gnymP, gromtom0 P, gromP, gromtomq, gym, heof, heortsarnes0 , m6dcearuP , sir, sirgung, sirignes, sorg, sorgung, unbliss, ungef!a0 .Great/dire sorrow: bealusorg°P, ealdorcearu0 P, sorgcearuP .Heart sorrow: hre)>crbealu0 P, hygesorgP, mOdsorgP .Branch bringing sorrows: heanntAn°P .SOrrow brought about by malice: inwitsorhP .SOrrow for loss of thanes: )>cgnsorh0 P .Brew of sorrow: sorgbyJ1>en°P .SOrrow at dawn: iihtcearu0 P .Tumult of never-ceasing sorrows: sinsorgna gedrzg .sad, •rrowful: angm6d, cwinig°P, dr!amleasP, dreorig, dreoriglic, efneunr6tsad0 S, freorigP, gealg, gcocorP, geomor, gnomP, hrcowig, sirig, seoc, sorgful, sorig0 , switr, l>Costor, unbliJ>e, unrotlic, un(ge)rotsod, w!alic "Very ud: fclageomor 0 P' heorudreorigP, j>urhunrOt0 S, unreonc0 ..sad in mind/heart: dreorigfcrp0 P' dreorigmoo0 P. freorigmoo0 P. gealgmooP, geomorrnoo, hefigmoo. hohmoo0 , hreohmooP, hygcgeomorP, hygcml)>c0 P, m6dcearig°P, m6dgeomorP, sirfcrhj>0 P, sirigfcrhj>P, sirigm6d, unbJr)>cm&leoS, unr0tm6d0 "Full of sorrows: carmccarigP 441 Despondency

•.s.d ot CODDtmantt~ dr!orighloor 0 P -Hutenina away In sadness: gnomscendende0 P ..Sad at morning: morgenseoc0 P -Sad at loss of friends: winegoomor 0 P -Sad with yean: wintercearig°P .Sadly: deorce, dr&>riglice, unrOtlfce ..Joylessly: ungef!alrce ..For sonow: for longunge .To b&'become ucl: dreorigian, (ge)hefigian, (ge)sweorcan, (ge)unrotsian See Adversity; Contrition Despondency: ctspringnes0 «, driipung°, t6h!tennes0 , unmOd°,

wCrigu0 .Gloom, joylasoea: gealg(mOd)nesq, gesweorcenes0 , unlust J>epnssed, sad, troubled: drOfig, bean, meJ>e, geswl!red0 , unrot, wCrig -Troubled In mind/heart: l!mOd, ferhlJCearig0 P, ferh)>wCrigP, forege)>istrod0 «, freorigferJ>0 P, goomormOd, heanmOdP, hrCowigrnOdP, m6clsCoc0 i, sweorcendferh)>P, wCrigferh)>P, wCrigrnooP •To droop, be grieved, look gloomy: iswltman, isweorcan°, hnipian, seo)>an See Despair Dilcontent: lango)> .Discontented: earfo)>hylde .To cause lonpng, dl'CO'lltent: langian .To become dlsc:c>ntented: (ge)unretan Compunction, remorse, contrition: gebryrdnes,

fort>rytednes, forbrytennes0 ' . forbrjtnes0 ' . forgnidennes«, (ge)hreow, inbryrdnes, onbryrdnes, tobrjtednes .Contrition, penitence, remone: behrCowsung, dltdoot, for)>n!st(ed)nes« , hrCow, (ge)hrCownes, hrCowsung, geswicennes, ge)>n!st(ed)nes -Remorse, prick of conscience: pricung° .Remorseful, contrite: forgniden, fortreden, forJ>n!sted, gehnyst0 P, hrWw, hrCowende, (ge)onbryrd, onbryrded, tObrjtt, ge)>rzsted -Unrepentant, unrepenting: unbehreowsigende0 .To acknowledge, admit (wrong, sia, etc.): (ge)andettan -To confess, acknowledge, admit: beon/wesan andetta .To affect with repet: (ge)hrCowan Anxiety: behygdnes, brec)>a0 P, byrd0 , byrJ>en, carfulnes,

carsorg°P, caru, (ge )drefednes, (ge)drefnes, gl!lsa, geh)>u, giemen,

442 Grief giem(e)nes, hohfulnes, nearones, oncyt>t>J', simes, sorg, sorgstafas0 P,

tornsorg°P, unr!tu0 , unsibsumnes°', unstil(l)nes, gewinn, ymbhoga .Aulety of heart/mind: breostcearuP, heorthogu, mOdbysgung°P, IDOdearfo~0 P,rnOdt>rCa.0P,OlOdgewinna0P

-Gnublog of teeth in andety: gristbitung, toi>a gebitt, tOl>a gristlung, tO~a gristbitung, tO~a gehCaw .(?Of anxiety) 'burning treasure': brandhord0 P •Worldly care: woruldbisgung, woruldcearu, woruldhogu0 , woruldsorg -Care about this life: lifcearuP -Care cau.wd by war: giil>cearu0 P .Caring, state of being anxious: gferning ..Amious: behydig, earful, carig, geengedS, gnomcearig°P, gromP, hefig, hohful, hreoh, hrCowcearigP, orsorgleas0 , sorgcearigP, sorgful, unstille, winnende ..Anxious, causing anxiety: sorgful, ymbhydig .Grievously, with trouble: drofe, sirlice ..Straidy, with anxiety: h~dreP •To be in anguish, be troubled: (ge)angianS, becarcian°, besorgian, forsorgian°, gieman, hogian, sirian, sorgian, sorgian ymb .To m•ke or become troubled, dismay: swearcian See Care Grief: bit(t)emes, langung, rnurcung, mumung, tlaras, tom, wiwa, w~ .Violent grief: swil>hreownes0 .Deep grief: h~gnomung P .Perpetual grief: sinsorg0 P •Welling sorrow: carwylrnP, sorgwyJrnP .One who repines: rnurcnere .Day of mourning: heofungdeg Sorrowing, mournful: g&mtor, geomorlic, murcen°P, rnumende, reonigP, reotig0 P, SOrgiende ..Equally sorry: efensirig .Lamentable, pitiable: bewependlic, earmlic, triisc0 , wilic, wependlic .Causing grief, horrid: dreorig, dreorlic, geomor, geomorlic, heaflic0 , sir, sirlic, sorgful, sorglic, undlig, werig .sadly, mournfully: geornore, geornorlice, grome0 P, hefelice ..Miserably, unhappily, grievously: hreowlice, sirlice, sorglice .In • w•y that causes sorrow: geornorlice .To grieve, become sad: (ge)sirgian, (ge)sorgian 0

443 Complaint, lamentation

.To mourn, grieve: igeomrian, carian, gromian, gyrmanog, sirettan, sicettan .To mourn for, grieve at/about: begnomian°P, sworcttan, wepan .To be sorry for, grieve at: besirgian, d&dbetan, gnomian, heofan, sican zfter, sorgian ymbe/on/for, (ge)wepan .To affect with sorrow, sadden: ldimmian, lweorpan, (ge)hrCowan, ofheannian°, ofhreowan, ofl>yncan, gedgan, geunblissian, (ge)unretan, geunrotian°, (ge)unrotsian .To become saddmin1: sweorcan Complaint, lamentation: cwi}>nes, cwi}>ung0 S, geanop0 P, gromungg, slrseofung°S .SOrrowful speecb/50D1: cargeaJdor0 P, gnomword0 P, hearmleopP, sircwide, slrspell, sorgword0 P ..Cry at morning: morgensweg°P ..A sad story: sarspell .Weeping, lamentation: cwlnung, dream, geomrung, gnomung, goung0 , grinung, heaf, heof, heofung, bream, hrCoWSUng, reon°P, sirgung, sirigcienn°. seofung, wlnung, wop ..O!: wl Ii (wi).lwei Ii wei ..Alas!: eg Ii eg, eow 0 g, euwi°g, hrgli, wi, wi Ii (wi), wegli, wel Iii (wel) .l.amenting, mournful: heofiend, heofigendlic, ririgende, wepende .Expressing sorrow: hefig, heofendlic, slrig, sirlic, wopig, woplic •With lamentation: woplice .Bitterly, grievously: biterlice, sirlice, sorglice, wependlice ..Equally bitterly: efensire0 .To lament, wail: beaftanS, begeomerian, begnomian°P, begretan°P, beheofians. bematnan, bemurnan, bereotan°P, besirgian, besingan, bewepan, cwiinian, cwij>an, dryman, geomrian, gnomian, goian, grinian, greotanP, gretan, handbzftiang, heafe bewindan, heofan, heofian, hrCowsian, (ge)hrieman, (ge)matnan, murcian, muman (zfter/for), ririan, reotanP, seofian, (ge)wiinian, (ge)wepan, woperian° .To feeJ penitence for, mourn: bematnan, wepan See Complaining Shedding of tears: teara gegot, teara gyte, w0p .A tear: hleordropa0 P, tear, Wltgdropa0 P, WOpdropa0 P ..A burning tear: brynetear 0 P •.Teen: heafodwylm ..A 8ood of tears: flOd teara. wflbec0 P 444 Anger .Tearful: bew6pen, t!arg~tende , tearig, wepende, wollenteare0 P ..With tearful cbeeb: tearighl~r P .To sbecl tears: lg~tan t!aras, (ge)tearianS, tyran, (ge)wepan


0 Sobbing: gcocsungs .A sob: geocsa .To sob: (ge)gcocsian Sighing: srcing0 s .A sigh, sob: sicettung, sw6rct(t)ung .To sigh: sician° Sighing, groaning: hloccetung0 S .A sigh, groan: sice0 .To sigh, groan: hlocettanS, srcan Murmuring, complaint: ceorung, murcung .Gnunbling, complaining, quenllous: besprecende, ceorigS, murciende .To murmur, feel/express discontent (at): beceorian, bemurcnian°, bemuman, besargian, besprccan, ceorian, gnomian, hwitstrianS, missprccans, murcnian, seofian, ~otan, wit>ercwiddianoS ••To clamour against: wi)>reotan A gradae: gnomung, inca .To have a grudge: incan witan .To have as a grievance: (ge)mitnan Anger: ~bylg, itbylga0 S, ~bylg)>(u), gebelg, grama, iemes, ierscipe0 S, wn!)>)>o .Anger, wrath, fury: itbylgnes, gramfitmes0 , hatheort(e), hatheortnes, hithige0 P, ierrc, mibtm6d0 P, re)>scipe, gefisoS, tom, WlalJ1Ct(t6), weamoones, wielm .A rage of darts: ganom0 P .Unrighteous anger, rage: tom •Woman's fury: wifgem~la .Readiness to anger, irascibility: iersung .Gnashing of teeth In anger: gyrstq .Angry: gealg, ierlic ..Very angry: ierre)>weorhq ..With grim look: andwlitefu1°S ..Fierce: gram 44.5 Exasperation, irritation -Fierce at evening: ttfengromop .Passionate, emotional, capable of anger: iersigendlic .Furious, angry, enraged: bolgenmOdP, ellenwOd, Rondlic, gefrecnod, gealgmooP, gram, grambttre, gramigende, gegremid, hit, (ge)hitheort, gehithiert, ierre, ierrem0d 0 P, inbolgen°S, iersigende, onbolgen°P, tomm0d0 P, WCamOd, WOd, wrap, wrapmooP .Angrily: grame, hefiglice, ierlice, ierringa, wriJ>e ..Furiously: hltheortlice .Ah!: wi (Ii) wi .To be/get •ngry: ibelgan, (ge)belgan, forbelgan°, (ge)hithiertan, (ge)iersian, (ge)iersian wi)> (on/ongean), onstingan°S, gesweorcan, (ge)wrij>ian, (ge)wn!)>an ..To wreak anger: (ge)wrecan tom/yrre ..To gnash the teeth: brtan te)>, griJlanS .To rage, be furious: igrimettan, breman°S, bremmans, gristbltianS, gristbitian, (ge)grymet(t)an, rabbian°, re)>ian, seo)>an, )>indan, woffian .To make angry: abelgan, (ge)ibylgan, igrimsian°S, gebelgan, (ge)gremian, grimman, gehithiertan, (ge)iersian, onbelgan°P, wrat>ian •To become provoked: wi)>erian Exasperation, irritation: ibolgennes0 S, gremmings,

onscunungS, )>weor(a) .Causing exasperation, exasperating: teonful ..Very bitter, exasperating: )>urhbiterS .As a vexation to: on andan •To vex, irritate, exasperate: gramian, onscunian, teonian .To tempt, provoke, try the patience of: (ge)fandian Irritability: eapbelg0 , eapbylgnes0 .Easily irritated: eapbylige, ie)>bilge .Quick-tempered: nwttrlice .To take offence, take umbrage: andan (ge)niman, graman niman, mooig(i)an •To be offended at: yfelmynnan Indignation: unweor)>scipe, unweorj>ung

.Indignantly: unweor)>lice .To be indignant at: undemiman 446 Adversity, affliction Advenity, aftlkdon: (ge)broc, gedeorf, gedeorfnes&, dracu0 ,

(ge)drea:ednes, dreccing°I, gedrecenes, gedrehtnes0 , gedyrstP, earfot>e, folcgedrefnes0 , forpntst(ed)ness, heandom0 , gehrorenes0 S, iermt>, lij>, myrpu0 P, nfedt>earf, ni}>, nydbysgu0 P, sacu, sir, sirig, swzr, (ge)swenc, (ge)swencednes, geswencnes, (ge)swine, geswincfulnesi, (ge)swincnes, t>ing, t>iUtnes0 , gel>Jyccednes0 , t>rycnes', unlzdu, unmyrht>, unget>wzmes, wiwa. wea, weargungi, wit>ermednes'. wit>ermedo, wit>errl!dnes, wil>erweardnes, wrzcsi}>, wrtl> .Great/clire advenity: broht>rea0 P, dryhtenbealuP, ealuscerwen°P, firent>earf0 P. folcbealo0 P' heaJlt>earfP. heahl>fCa0 P. leodbealuP. ma:genearfet>e,meodusccrwen°P,nearoned,nearosorg°P,nydwracuP, . t>eodbealuP, j>eodl>fCaop .Darkness of trouble: genip .Trouble on account of security: borgsorg0 P .Unceasing trouble: sinnJ1>0 P .State of misery: lglichki0 P, h~fsi)> P, llt>scipe0 P, neadclam', nfed, ofergel>yld° •Time of advenity: earfot>hwfl0 P, earfol>t>rlg°P, gryrehwfl0 P, breoh, hreohnes, gemihlicnes, mistfd, orlegstund0 P, stund, t>~IP, l>fowingtfma0 , untima, untfmnes0 , wrzcfzc0 P, gewintid° ..Time of weariness: langunghwfl 0 P ..Time of distress (present life): wrzchwfl 0 P ..Day of tribulation: earfol>dzg°P, geswincdzg0 P, (ge)winncfregP ..Day of pestilence: woldzg°P 0

..Trouble of a particular time: m2lcearu0 P ..Troubles of this life: woruldbroc0 , woruldearfot>P, woruldyrmt>u ..World of care: gewinworuld0 P, wrzcworuld ..Place of misery: wrzcstow

..DI.effects of wrath: grama .Wretched man~ earfot>ma:cgP, earming, ierming, t>earf(ig)end, wrzcca. wrzcmzcgP .Aflllctecl, full of trouble: ihwl!ned, iswenct, begroren°P, byrstig, earm, forhiened, forwundod, hreowlic, ntdlw. (ge)swincful, wund ..Not having a lord: hlifordlw ..Beset by dangers: ft!rbifongenq ..Troubled by dist1esaes: nydbysig°P .Adverse, unfavourable: unhilwende, wit>emtde. wit>erszc, wit>erweard, wit>erweardlic ..Gloomy, miwaable: bllat°P, deorc, earmful, earmlic, hnlgP, siriglic0 , unglzdO, unglzdlic, unhierlic, wynlwP 447

08.01 .03.06.01 Affliction, misfortune, calamity -Worse: wicrs ..Worst: wicrst .Full of hardship/misery: broclic0 , hreohlic0 , (ge)swincful, wan~ligP, gewinful, wrzcful, wrzclic .Calamitous: byrstful, eann, g0dleas0 , heannlic, l>rCalicP, ungelimplic, unge~lig

.In adversity: angsume, frecne, lij>lfce ..Wretchedly: bleate0 P, carlice0 P, eannlrce, unlitdlrce ...More wretchedly: wiers -Most w1etcbedly: wiersl .To be troubled, travail: (ge)swincan, winnan See 08.01.03 Sadness; 07.03.04 Wretch; J1.06.03ff Failure Aftliction, misfortune, calamity: earfol>nes, flOd, hearmberg0 P, 1>rea. l>reanicdP, ungemednes0 g, unsitl 0 , ungesl!lignes, un(ge)~ll>, un(ge)limu, wil>cnn0dnes0 .Misfortune, calamJty: bealusJl>P, earfol>sJI>, fitr, forscapung, heard~lnes0 , heard~ll>. heann, mcdsell>0 , mis(ge)limp, unbelimp8, unhrelu, un(ge)limp, unsi}>, un(ge)wyrd, yfelnes .Losses, suffering: forlzte .Vicissitude, change: hwyrflung, (ge)wrixl .Fall from high estate, reverse: hryre .Fall of a prince (?people): leodhryreP .A slip (into misfortune/error): slide .Unfortunate, suffering misfortune: earfol>sitlig0 P, earmsceapen, bean, heard~lig, unhyl>igP, unlred(e), unlredlic, un(ge)~lig, unwrrest(e) .ID-timed, unfortunate: unlime .Ready to perish, in danger of destruction: losigendlic .Unhappily, mise~bly: hreowlice, t>earfendlice, ung~liglice ..Very unhappily: unhlitme0 P .Unhappily, unreasonably: ungelimplice .Detrimentally, adversely: wil>crweardlice .(Of temporal prosperity) to fail, be ruined: losian .To tum out badly (for a penon): misweort>an .To fall (Into an unhappy condition): slidan Unt>'easantness: unwynsumnes .What is not desired: unwilla .Disagreeable, uncongenial: unlicwyrt>c0 , unswres0 P, ungel>w!!re 448 Misery, trouble, affliction -UnpJa•ent aacl df-a11eeable: lij>, lij>lic, un(ge)cweme, ungedefe, unCal>e, unwynsum, wiJ>erweard ..IM.pleuing, not with a person's aoodwUJ: ungewill .Unp,easent, unfair: unmyrge0 .Not acceptable: unfenge0 , unpmcwurl>e .To displease: miscweman°. mislician, oflician, unge1Ician° Tedium: l!lenge, l!lengness, z~rot, l!~ryl, l!~rylnes .Tedious, Iona: l!lenge, l!~ryt(e), dead, hefelic, hefigtyme, langsumlic .Wearied: gel!~ryt, waig .To weary, tire: (ge)l!~ryttan, apcytan .Tom.eke weary, displease: ij>reotan Misery, trouble, afllfction: iglzcP. geomomes0 s, gym, gymstafas0 P, heann, heannstzfP. hefigtymnes, lewsa0 S, nearol>earfP, ni]>hete, (ge)styrenes, styrung, trigP, wansceaft, wile .An afllfction: nydcosting°P .A difticult matter: hefignes .Sinful woe: firenearfe~ .Trouble, anxiety: angnes, angsumnes, bisgu, (ge)drefednes, teona, trega, uneat>nes .Oppression, distftss: cursung, fo~ryccednes, fo~rycnes, oferswi]>ness, oferswi]>ungs, of~ryccednesS, ofl>ryccednes, onhettings, onteonas, ~real, ~reatung, ~rohtP

.(Of fears, burdem, etc.) heavy: ihefig0 8, pislicS, swl!rigq -Very heavy: ~urhhefig -Burdensome: byr~n~te S .Troublesome: angsum, angsumlic .Harmful, noxious: heannfuJ0 S, ~wra:c .Oppressive, harassing: nearolic, ~rohtq, ~weorh, windig .HarasHd, oppressed: ispomen°S, gebered, genearwad .Weighed down, heavy-laden: gebyrdog, gehefedog, hefigtyme .Heavily: pislicel! .To afllict, vex, oppress: iderian°, a:tfa:stan, iwl!lanS, iwierdan, iwyltan, belecgan, beswencan°8, bewl!lan°P, (ge)dreccan, dyrfan, (ge)fl!tan, fornttman°, (ge)gretan, (ge)hrinan, genl!ganP, (ge)nl!tan, oncnyssan, onhergian, (ge)swencan, (ge)tintrcgian, (ge)tirgan, (ge)tregian, (ge)~n!stan, gewnpan .To distftss, trouble, worry: ibelgan, ibisgian, ihefigian, ihwl!nan, geangsumian, (ge)iswician, gebindan, (ge)bisgian, (ge)brocian, 0


449 Injury, offence (ge)cnyssan, (ge)costian, gecunnian, (ge)drefan, (ge)earfopian, (ge)eglian, (ge)hierwan, lemian, (ge)nierwan, ofersyman, ofsettan, ofsittan, on handa standan, ofl>yncan, (ge)lnagan, )>reotan, (ge)wierdan .To disturb, vu, disquiet: (ge)drcccan, onhreran, onstyrian, onwendan, tynan, (ge)unstill(i)an, unypgian°S .To distract, upset: tObregdan, toslilan .To burden, weigh down: oferhealdan, ofersyman See Oppression hqury, oft'ence: l!bylg~u), zfwyrdla, iwierdnes, clacu0 , daru, dyrfing0 S, liep~o), lij>, sceat>a. scendings, gescentu0 P, teona, teonr~en, wierdness, wund, wundel .Sudden mischief: fiemi]>0 P .An injurious deed, mischief: yfel~d ..Deliberate i.J\jury/offence: hygeteonaP .An offence, annoyance: zfl>anc, l!swic, l!swicung, lij>, unpanc ..An i.magined i.J\jury/offence: lygetom0 P .ID-treated, unfairly treated: forhealden .To wound, strike, attack: i~san. iwrecan, beslean, bestandan, (ge)Chtan, (ge)gretan, ot]>ryccan, (ge)sargian, (ge)slean, (ge)tiician, (ge)preagan, weorce wesan, (ge)wundian ..To inflid btjury, aftlict, hurt: (ge)myscan, scamu don, scyrdan ..To ill-use, abuse: misbeodan ••To gnaw, rend: sceorfan, sceorpan°, slitan .To aftlict grievously,crush with pain: sengan, seopan, tobrytan, toteran .(Of source of pain) to be fierce, inteme: (ge)hilian .To torment: becwylmanq, (ge)cwylm(i)an .To mortify the 8esh: cwylman, cwylmian .To be made to suffer, to be crucified: prowad beon/wesan .To oft'end: geincfullianS, gelettan, myscan, swician, (ge)untreowsian See 02.08.04 Hurt; 05.06.04 Damage; 07.03.02 Harm Suft'ering, torment, pain: angnes, cringwracu0 P, cwylming, cwylmnes, firen, morpor, pin, pinnes0 , siisl, weorc, wracu, wrzc, wyrgpuP .Great suffering: hearmcwala0 P, sorgwrte0 .Pain inflicted as punishment: preaweorc0 P .Hell torment/woe: cwicsiisl, hellcwalu0 P, hellebealu0 P .Torment oftbe soul: gl!stcwalu0 P, gl!stgewinn°P .Passion, suffering: cwylming, martyrung°, polungs, prowung 450 .04.0 I Unbearableness .Martyrdom: martyrdom. martyrbid, l>rOwerhid, J>rowethid, J>row(i)endhid .Capable of suffering: J>rowiendlic .Grievously, sorely, painfully: bitre, breowlrce, sire, sirlrce, scearplfce,

swttre, switrlrce, treaftrce0 P .To suffer, bear, eoclure: iberan, icuman, idreogan, geaefnan, istandan, (ge)dreogan, dnlan, forberan, (ge)rzfn(i)an, (ge)J>olian, underfijn, underhnigan .To suffer, submit to, undergo: icwylmian, zfianq, ij>olian, iJ>rowian°, cwylmian, dragan, (ge))>afian, (ge)J>olian, underfijn, wegan, (ge)winnan See Extreme pain; 14.05.02 Torment Severity, banlmess: grimnes, rfJ>nes, stnecnes, teannes,

uneapnes .Sharp, severe: cwics\islen°, deoplic, hetol, sirlic, scearp, scirpenq, smeart, teart, teartlic, getenge, l>earl .Grievous, dire, bitter, troublesome: ifor, biter, earful, carig, ceald, deaplic, gedeorfsum, droflic0 P, earfoJ>e, earfoJ>lic, egle, enge, geocor, gramlic, grimlic, grimm, heard, heannlic, hefeful, hefelic, lij>, meJ>e, nearu, swttr, swzrlic, swyrige0 S, teart, teonful, tom, tomlic0 P, J>rearuedlic0 P, wi"'telic, wi1>ert9me, wrij>, wrij>lic ..Wone: wiers

.Stem, awe-inspiring: deop .Grievously, fiercely: angrys(en)lrce, biterlrce, bitre, bitrum, cealde, earfoJ>lice, eannlice, geocre, grimme, beanie, hcardlrce, hefelrce, hefige, incuJ>lice0 , nearolrce, nearwe, teartlrce, tlonlrce, tome, trlgeP, J>nste, wrij>e .Grievoasly, hardly: un&ll>e .Sharply, severely: teartlice .Horribly: deorcliceoS, ondrys(e)nlice, wzlbreowlice •To aggravate, make wone: gehefigian

See 05.08.02 Violence Unbearableness: unacumendlicnes0 S .Unbearable, bard to bear: hearcl, hefelic, hefigtyme, uniberendlic,

unandhefeoS, unberendlic0 , unstyrendlic0 S .Unendurable, grievous: hitigende, heardlic, hefig, hefigtyme, l>earlic, uneape .Intolerable: uniberendlic, uniberiende0 , unAcumendlic, unahefendlic0 • unirl!Cf(n)ed, unirl!Cfne(n)dlic, unriefniendlicq, unJ>oligendlic0 S .Intolerably: uniberendlice, unirl!Cfnedlice 451 Relief, alleviation Relief, alleviation: lihting, lij>ung

.Modentioa, reduction (ofp11nishment): miltsung .Relieved, relaxed: tOlil>d .To alleviate, lighten, relax: idrjgan, (ge)hnesc(i)an, gefeJ>an, geieJ>rian, (ge )lihtan, tol~tan. tOliJ>ian, tOlysan, underlihtang ••To refresh, restore, set aright: (ge)retan Comfort, comolation: frefer 0 , frefemes0 g, (ge)frofor,

frofomes, geoc, hygefroforP .Action of consolation: frefrung, frofor .A solace, comfort: frofor, hrol>r .A word of consolation: fr0forword0 .A comforter, one who comforts: frefriend, retend .Comforting:frefriende .(Of words) consolatory, consoling: froforlic .In a way that coDIOles: froforlrce .To comfort, console: lfrefr(i)an, efenfrefrian°g, (ge)frefrian Patience: l>lmoo, (ge)J>yld(-u/-o), geJ>yldmOdnes0

.Tolerance, patience: fort>yldegung°g .Patience, long-sufl'ering, forbeannce: langmoonesog, langsumnes, t>otebyrdnes, l>lmoones .Patience, meelmea: mooJ>wt!mes .Patient: moogeJ>yldig0 P, (ge)J>yldeJiC, geJ>yldmOd0 ..Patient, long-suffering, forbearing: forbyrd, forbyrdig, langmoog, langmooigq, langstrang°g, langsum, l>lebyrde8, l>l(e)mOd, (ge)J>yldig .Tolerable, beanble: aberendlic, icumendlic, leoht .Patiendy, long.sufl'eringly: langm0dlice0 g, langsumlrce, geJ>yld(ig)lice .Patiendy, quiedy: J>yldelrce .Patiendy, steadfastly: geJ>yldum .Tolerably, in a way that may be borne: forberendlice0 g .To be patient, have patience: (ge)J>yldian ..To be patient with: gehabban geJ>yld on .To bear up, sustain, be patient: ij>yl(d)giang .To bear, suffer, take patiently: forJ>yldian ..To bear with, put up with, tolente: aberan, adreogan, beteolan, forberan ..To bear, endure: arzfn(i)an, geJ>yld(i)an Impatience: unt>olemoones0 S, ungeJ>yld

.Impatient: unforebyrdig0 g, ungeJ>yldig, ungewildendlic0 g 452 Harsh, unfriendly, unkind .lmpatimdy: ungel>yldelice Bad disposition towards otben: li'1erceaea: grimnes, rffnes0 B .F1erce, grim: grimful 0 , grimlic, hreoh ..Very fierce: singrim0 P ..Fierce of mind/spirit: ferh~grimP, hrCohmOdP, reJ>emooP, rc~igmoo P ..Fierce in flight: ftygmow 0 P ..Fierce in battle: giiJ>rCow 0 P .Fiercely: grimlrce, grimme •To be fierce: grirnman See Fierceness, Courage 0 S.yqe: frCcne .Barbarous: h~~n .Brutish, bestial: wildeorlic .Fiercely, savqely: unhiere, unhierlrce ..As wild basts: wildCorlice Bitterness, acrimony: bitemes, ~rohB .E:1cadve bitu1oess: oferbitemess .Bitter, angry: biter, biterlic, teart, l>J'Oh'. ~weorh •With the utmost bitterness: welgrimlrce .To be/become bitter, aftlict: biterian, unswctian° Sbarpnea (of speech): scearpncs .Hostile/angry speech: gramword0 P, heoruword0 P ..Bitter words: sircwide .Hasty of speech, sharp-tongued: biterwyrde, bnedwyrde0 P, scearp, tungwoooS ..Unbridled, unchecked (often of tongue): un(ge)mldlod ..(Of speech) bard, severe: st~. suplic .Bitterly: sire

See Insult Hanh, unfriendly, unkh1d: uncii~ .Inhospitable: uncumli)>e0 , ungystli)>e0 .In an unkindly manner: uncil~lrce, unfreondlice0 P ..In an 11n'8therly manner: unfederlice .To reach, bit (with paip, mockery, etc.): gespringan 453 Malevolence, malice Malevolmce, malice: zfl>anc, bcalu, hanmg, hete, beterup, bot, nij>grama0 , nij>bete •Wicked machination: bealuseani0 P, bealul>anc0 P. hetel>anc .Deceit, treacllery: bealuinwit0 P .Malicious/evil deed: deofolded0 P, hete, ni)>(ge)weorcP .Malignant, bearing bate: attrenmOd°P, bealubycgende0 P, bcalubygdig0 P, betelic, hete)>ancoJ0 P. betlen°P. betol, rupful, ruphycgendeP, nij>hygdig°P, yfelwille0 1, yfelwillende .Malignandy: hetelice .Maliciously: nij>fullice .Dl, out of spite: yfle .To bear malice, be malevolent: (ge)hati(g)an, yfelwilnian' See 07.03.01 ff Abomination; 07.03.02 Harm llabed: f&>ung, hatung, hete, latl>l>(o), m0dhete0 P •Warlike bate: cumbolhete0 P .Sword-bate: ecgbeteP .Hate felt by a people: ICodheteP .Murderous bate: morjx>rllete0 P .Rancorous bate: rupbete .Malicious bate: teonbeteP .Unjustifiable bate: unrihtf&>ung°P .Hate that resorts to arms: watpenbete0 P .Hate that lead. to war: wigbete0 P .Hostility, malignity: liJ>wendnes0 .Hateful contrivance: Jij>searu0 P .Speech full of batl eel: betesprZc°P .Nauiu:a, loathing: whttta ..An object of loathing: wh!tta .Abomination, execration: onscunung', scunung' .A bater: onscuniend .Hating, full of bate: figende, beterof0 P .Evilly disposed, malignant: IAl>wende, IAl>wendem0d0 P .Intensely hostile: nearofih0 P .Hateful, odious, repugnant: ands&te, lscunelic', egle, hatigendlic, hatol,

hil>fulq. liJ>, lil>lic, onscuniendlic, onscunodlicq. szcq, slij>ful°' See 07.03.01 ff Abomination Enmity: anda, fathl>, ae>ndn!den, f&>ndscipe, Ill>, mp, genij>laP. synn, teona, unhyldo, unsibb, wil>ennCdo

454 'lbreal, threatening, menace .Treacherous enmity: inwitnij>P .Mortal enmity: waclf&b1>0 P, waclnij>P .Penecution, active enmity: wracu .An enemy: leond, gram. batigend, hettcnd, gem1>laP, sceal>a. unwine, gewinna, wi)>ecling°&, wi)>ecsaca. wil>erweard, wit;>eawinna, wil>riend ..An alien enemy: unfril>mann° ..An ancient foe: ealdgefl0 , ealdhettend0 P, ealdgewinna0 P, fymgeftita0 P ..A hateful enemy: lil>gerul>laP, lil>get&>naP, lil>gewinna0 P ..A deadly enemy: ealdorgewinnaP, teondsceal>a", feorhgeni)>laP, ferhl>geni)>Ja0 P, ni)>hataq, ni)>sceal>a0 P ..A royal foe: cyninggeni)>laq ..A dangerous enemy/assailant: f&rsceal>a0 P ..A battl~-enemy: hildegiest0 P ..A harmer of the people: leodsceal>aP ..A man-bater: mannhata -One who bates wrongfully: scyldhataP ..A foe armed with a sword: sweordgeni)>Ja0 P ..A 8erco'anlP'Y enemy: torngeni)>laP ..An accuned foe: heann.scal>a0 P, heoruwearg0 P, rul>ga:stP -To prove a foe to, opp.na: gescel>l>an Hostility: inwitl>ancP, wilJem!dnes .Hostile: andwri1>0 P, tab, leondlic, gram, gramheort, gramhycgende0 P, gramhygdig, grimhydig0 , hefig, gelij>, nil>hygdig0 P, onweard, unbl!ow 0 P, unhold, wil>erhydig0 P, wil>em!de, wil>erweard .Hostilely: leondlice • -In a manner bostlle to: on andan .To be bostlle (to): fll&can°, (ge)gremian, wil>erian. wil>standan See 12.05.04 Strife Threat, threatening, menace: behit, (ge)beot, beotung, b!otwordP, egesung, t>Cowwracu, l>rCa. l>reagung, 1>rcat, 1>reatung .Anger, menace, threat: l>riitung0 •Threatening: egeslic -Threatening,anlP'Y: l>riitigende .Threateningly: b!otlfce .To threaten. menace: llldian, behltan, (ge)b!otian (to), (ge)egesian, gehltan, hwOpanP, (ge)l>Cwan, l>Cwracian, l>reaganfl>reawian See 11.09.02 Warning; 12.05.02 Hostility 455

08.01 .03.09.08 Envy.jealousy Envy,jealousy: aefest, aefestung, ~mynd, anda, andung°S,

ellenhete0 , elnung, of)>anc0 S .Spite, rancour, envy: nij> .Full of envy: aefestful 0 , aefestig, andig, nij>ful, nij>ig .Enviously: andiendlicc0 .To be envious, envy: (ge)aefestian, andian .To grow envious: aefcstian .To fret over, show feeling about: (ge)clnian .To envy, bate: nI}>an° .To become rapacious: (ge)hrifnian .To covet: (ge)wilnian, dlspleuure expressed in words: unI>anc .Thankless, ungrateful: un(ge)I>ancful, unI>ancol, unI>ancwurI>e .Ungratefully: unI>ancwyrplicc0 Wrath, sternness, displeuure: unmilts, unI>anc .Hardening, obduracy: ihierding°' .Stem, bard, severe: rCI>emOdP, strang, styme, unblij>c, unrot .Hard, harsh, severe: deor, geomful, heard, hetelic, slip, stij>lic, strang,

stranglic, strenge, )>earlwislic .Stern, implacable: unglaedlic .Strict, severe: reI>e, t>earI, )>earlwis .Having bard/unpleasant thoughts: sllphycgendcP .Of ftint, steely: ftinten°, heard, heardhcon, st&nen, stearc, stearcferI>0 P,

stII>lic, stymlic .Fierce, cruel, harsh: gramlic, grimlic, hreoh, reI>e ..F1erce in arms, formidable: searogrim0 P ••(Of death) ungentle, cruel: unswzslic0 P .Strictly, sternly, severely: heardwendlicc, sllpe, sllplicc, straeclice, stranglicc, stymenga0 P, stymlicc, swij>licc, )>earlwislicc .severely: deopc, frecne, hetollicc, strange, )>earllicc, I>ream ..severely, cruelly: grimlicc, grimme .Hardly, banbly: stij>c .Fiercely, cnlelly: grame, gramlicc, unfaegre .To harden, make bard: ihicrdan, forhyrdanP, onsllpianS, wil>heardian' Hardheartedness, cruelty, severity: grimnes, hcardheonnes,

hetolnes, reI>ncs, slij>ness, ungeI>wzmes, waelgrimnes, waelhreownes, wrAI>. yfelncs

456 Pitilessness .Evil, cruelty: mlnbealu 0 P .(Of jndiftable cruelty) severity: re1>nes .A cruel man: wulf .Cruel, malevolent: bealuful, cealdheort°P, grammOd°, grimm, hetcgrimP, hygcgrim0 P, niJ>grimP, rel>e. rij>igg, rij>lic&, stercedferhi>P, stiJ>, supmOd, l>earlmOdP, unhiere, wriJ>, wulfheortP. wylfcn ..Equally cruel: efenrel>e0 _(Of Inanimate&) very bard, cruel: sliJ>hcard0 P, wzlflg°P .Bloodthirsty, cruel: blOdhJ'eowP, blOdig, blOdigtoJ>op, dcaj:>reow 0 P, heaj>ugrimP, heorugrimmP, wzllriow, wzllriowlic .Bitterly, cruelly: bitre, deofollrce, deore, hreowlrce, wzlhreowlice, WJ'il>e, wraplrce, yftc -Cruelly, sorely, grievously: hreowlrce, sire, sirlfce, swq,c, 1>rrstc •To be bloodthirsty: blOdgian Pltileuness: unmiltsung .Merdleu, banb: irleas, hcardlic, unmilde0 , unmildheort .Unforgiving: unforgifcnde .Merdle§ly: heardlfce, unlrlfce .Inhumanely: unml!l>lfce .Unpityinaly: unmumlfceP


09 Speech, vocal utterance

9. Language and Communication 09 Speech, vocal utteranc:e.: cwiss°K, hleo)>orcwidcP, gemape1°, (ge)reord, (ge)spn!c, word, wordcwidc .Faculty of speaking: spn!c ..To have the faculty of speech: (ge)sprecan •Tbe voice: beafodw0 P, hleot>or, gereord, stefn, wordhleol>or P ..A well-modulated voice: rihtstefn° .Artkulation:clipung ..Articulate: rihtli1>1ic°K "8trong: gcscirpt .A vowel: clipiendc st&f, clipol, selfswcgend ..Vocalic: clipigendlic, clipol, stefnhlow 0 , swegendlic0 ..(Of vowels) open: open ..semi-vocalic: healfclypigendc .Consonantal: samodswcgendc0 ..(Of consonants) mute: dumb .Quantity: trma ..Long: lang, getogen "8hort: scon

See Voice 09.01 To speak, aerdle faculty of speech: (ge)sprccan .Able to speak: wordclipindc0 , wordsprecendc .Utterable, that can be spoken: isecgendlic ..That should be spoken: gesprecendlic°K .With words, orally: wordes .Utterance, speaking: bodung, cwidcgiedd0 P, secge0 P, gesegen, gesegnes0 ..(Of articulate words) cry, clamour: bream .A speaker: mapelereK, mapeliend, secgend, wordliend°' .To speak, utter, say: lcwel>an, cwel>an, t~lan, tOscbdan, tol>um oncynan,

wrecan .To speak about, say, utter: isecgan, isingan, isprecan, becwq,an, besprecan, ~Ian, forlztan fo.pliit, hleol>rian, (ge)mzlan, (ge)1JlZnan, mapelian, onsendan, oncynan mutyweoloras, secgan, (ge)spellian, (ge)sprecan, l>ingian, ymbsprecan, geyppan ..To tum over, rebeane: wealcan ..To speak often of: drifan 09.01.01 A speech, what is said, words: (ge)sprzc, word, wordlic°K 458 Using dangerous speech .A dictum, remark, oll1e1 tatioa: spell .A •Jial, words: cwide, word. wordcwide .A pluue: foreset(ted)nes .A formula: formala0 , hlw .An Idiom: wise .A vene, 1e11tmce (of Bible): fers .A dilcoane: Ollle}>elcwideP. 1IU1eJ>elword0 P, spn!ce, tospntc .A Id speech: getyngnes .An Instructive t.lk: spell .A tbesls, proposition: betjnungs 09.01.02 Fluenq In 1peech: wordl$i. wo1> .To bunt forth In words: gespringan .Ready of1peech, eloquent: cwcdol, gearowyrde0 , gearowyrdigP, gespntce, gcucl, getyngc, (gc)tyng(c)lic, wordgleaw 0 P, wordsnotcr ..Ineloquent: ungctingc0 ' , ungctingful .Eloquently: on sp&l. getyngclrce .An ontor, public spnker: motcrc0 S, gcmotmannS, racicnd0 , recccrc, spcllboda, l>ylc See Sharpness Excessive ftuency, loquacity: fclaspntcoS, fclasp(r)ccolnes, fclawyrdncs0 , gylung't, mal>clung8, oferspntc, ofcrsprccolnes0 , sprccolncs0 , wordig gchlyd .An outpouring of words: worda gong .Loquadoas, gamdous: fclaspnke, fclasp(r)ccol, fclawyrdc0 , gylicndc, hlydigs, ofcrspnkc, ofcrspn:cen, ofersprccol, spl'Zcfu1°S, sprccuJ0 S, swi)>Spccendeq, tungful0 , tunggclaellc°', getyngc, wordful, wordig8 .Noisy, talk•tive: hliid, ma}>elig°' .To utter, pour forth (words, etc.): bealcan•, bealcettan, fort> forlittan, locettans, rocettan, (gc)sellan, (gc)sendan .SWy chatter: dolspntc°, wordlung ..Chattertns (:emptily): fclaidelspnkc0 , hlydcndc, pritolq, tolcettcndcS ..To chatter: gyrran, word indrifan See Foolish Dia:embllna speech: hlwspntc°S, twispl'Zc Using dangerous speech: fr&:ncnspntccq 459

09.01 .03 To address, speak to

09.01.03 To address, speak to: gcant>ingian, (ge)gretan, gemltnsumian, (ge)ntegan, onmtelan°P, gentcan, gereccan, rihtan, (ge)sprecan, t>ing(i)an (ongean/wit>) •To invoke, call upon: (ge)cfegan, ingecigan, nemnan, togecigang •.An invocation, appeal: t0clypung Interjections: Ob!: buf0 g, Cali, efne (nii), georstu .What, bowl: hii II, hw~t Ii, Ii hii 09.01.04 Convenadon, discussion: gerscipe0 P, mitt, (ge)mzt>el, motungg. onspr&c, samodspntc0 , gesegen, spellung, (ge)spntc, get>oftr!Men, wordlung, gewosa', ymb(e)spntc .A private conversation: sundorspntc .Conversation of an evenina: ltfenspntc0 P .Conversation on worldly matten: woruldspntc .One who convenes: (ge)sp(r)eca .To convene, talk, commune: (ge)spellian, (ge)sprecan, wit>sprecan, wit> t>ingian, wordlian, wordum wrixlan •To speak fonnally, discuss: (ge)gieddian .To have audience of: gretan 09.02 Silence, refraining from speech: swige, swigen, (ge)swigung .Silent: lttinge0 g, cwideleas .To keep silence, be(come) silent: idumbian, miit> beliican, gesugian, geswigan .Silently, not speaking: stillice .To silence, make silent: gestillan, geswig(i)an 09.02.01 Silent, taciturn: swige .Slow of speech; unhrzds~ 0

09.02.02 Dumbness, lack of speech: dumbnes .A dumb man: dumba .Dumb: dumb, spltcleas0 g, uncwet>ende, uncwisse0 , unsp(r)ecende .Not possessed of speech: uncwet>ende .(Of the 'bonds' of the tonaue) loosened: unslyped0 .To strike dumb: idumbian See Dumb

09.02.03 lncllstinct speech: 460

09.03.02 Art of grammar Murmur, whispering: hwestrung. reonung .To murmur, ape•k low: clum(m)ian, hwestrianS, J>wistrian° Stammerina: stam, stamors .To stammer: ibyffanoS, stamerian, stammctan°S, wlzffian° .A st•mmerer: stamera8, wlzffetcrc0 S Liapin&: wlisp .To lisp: ilwlyspian° 09.03 A language: leden, (ge)reord, (ge)sprl!c, tunge, l>Cod, geJ>Code, l>Codisc .To speak a language: gemenan .Bilinpal: twisprece .A foreign language: lttden 09.03.01 Particular laopapa: .The vernacular: folcisc -Vernacular: folclic .The English language: englisc -English: englisc .The Frankish/Frmcb language: frencisc _or FrankishlFrencb: frencisc .The Greek language: grecisc/gregisc

_or Greek: grecisc/gregisc

.In Hebrew: ebreisclicel .The Indian language: indisc -In lndwn: on indisc .The Irisb/Scots Gaelic language: scyttisc _or Irish/Sc:ots Gaelic: scyttisc .The Latin language: ll!den, ledengereord, ll!densprtic, ll!dengeJ>Code -Literary Latin: bOcll!den -A Latin word: ll!denword -Knowledge of Latin: ll!denlir _Of Latin: ll!den, ledenisc, ledenlic -In L8tin: h!denstzfum0 .A Scandinavian language (None): denisc

09.03.02 Art of grammar: grammatican crzft, grammaticcrzft0 • strefcrreft .Grammadcal: grammatic .A grammarian: grammaticere0 • suefwrrtere 461 A period, sentence A period, sentence: clysung, cwide .Part of sentence/colon: cyrf, Jim, loc Vocabulary: wordhordP, wordloca .A word: dzl, word ..A word form: clipung ..A compoancl: gesetnes

.Teclmical vocabalaey: cracttsprec A part ofspeeo:b, form: emtsacendlic0 ..Adversatively: ongbnweardlfcc .Afllrmative: sel>ende .Completive/expletive: gefyllendlic .Debortative: forbeodendlic, mistihtendlic0 .Disjunctive: lscyrigendlic0 ..(Of adverbs) cliscretive, separating: syndrigendlic0 .Frequentative: gel6ml~ccnde .Intemive: istrgendlic0 .Jurative: swer(ig)endlic .Remisdve: ilslacigendlic0 Adjectival: t6geiecendlic Minor parts of speech, etc.: .A conjUDction: gefCg(ed)nes, tcgnes, gel>Codnes 462

()C). Gender -CoaJuactive: l>&>dendlic .Demonstrative: aetjwigendlic, ewigendlic0 .An Interjection: betwuxilegednes0 , betwuxiworpennes0 .A preposition: foresetnes ..Imeparable: gespn!celic° ..Plepositive: foresettendlic0 .A relative: stefn -Relative: edlesendlic, geancirrendlic0 , ongeancyrrendlic0 .A g1Msed particle: eaca Compoeition (lnlectional or compou.nding): leging, trging0 .Prlmltlve:frumcenned .Derivative: ofcumende, ofgangende, ofgangendlic .Unbound, free: ungebunden .Diminutive: waniendlic Acddence: gelimp .Pert•lnlna to acddence: gelimplic Declension: declinung .Subject to hdlectlon: ihildendlic0 , declinigendlic .Infkctional: gebigendlic° .Incledlnable: ungebigendlic, undeclinigendlic .To cledine: ihildan, (ge)biegan, cisum niman, declinian, macian Cate: gebigednes, cisus, gcendung, fiell .Nominative: nemni(g)endlic° .Vocative: gecigendlic, clipigendlic, t6clypigendlic0 .Accusative: ~gendlic0 .Poaznive: geigniendlic, gestrienendlic .Dative: forgifendlic .Ablative: aetlridendlic0 , st6wlic ..In ca•: gehiwodlice Number: getael .Plunl: manigfeald .Collective: gadrigendlic0 Jn tbe ainauJar: infealdlice Jn tbe plural: manigfealdlfce Gender: cynn 463 .01.04 Person .Masculine: wer .FemlnlM: wjf -Feminine: wiftic .Neuter: nihwie}>er Penoa: bid Comparative: wi}>meten(d)lic .Superlative: oferstfgendlic Relation: edlesung A ~option: gel>Codnes .Anomalous, ia aegular: unefn .Defective: ltCor(ig)endlic -To be defective: iteorian Mood: gemet .Indicative: bicn(ig)endlic .Interrogative: asciendlic .Subjunctive: under~en(d)lic .Optative: gewyscendlic .Imperative: beb&>dendlic Voice: .Active: d&dlic .Passive: }>rOwendlic Tense: tid .Of/concendng time: tidlic _Of the present: andwerd -Of the future: towe(a)rd .Past teme: forJ>gewiten tid, for}>gewiten tima See 05.11.07 Relative time Aspect: .Perfect: fullfremed ..(Of action) completed: fullfremedlice, fullice .Imperfect: unfulfremed .Incboative: onginnendlic0 A lllp of the tongue, solecism: islidung°8, uncyst 464 A figure .Faulty, ungnmmatical: leahtorlic, miscweden .To be n'«• •mmatleal: misbeodan .A IJ'IUDllUltleal fault: st&fteahtor°'

09.03.03 A psture, action, psticulatioa: anginn .Gesture, sip, movement oprr r1lq mr•nlna: gebeacen, ticen .A significant gesture, sign or feeling: ticnung .A quick movement, gesture: plega ..Stretchina out, extending (ofhaNl1, etc.): nking .To point to an object, make a sip: (ge)blcn(i)an wTo point out: gebicn(i)an wTo enquire by sips: gebicn(i)an To make a sip, beckon: (ge)~nian To indicate, make a gesture, beckon: cwacian To make an indlnation with, motion, sip: lliltan wTo reach out, extend (the hands): (ge)ntcan To wave, gesticulate: wafian To wink, make a lip: wincian wTo bow,gaeet, pay rerpects: lliltan M





09.03.04 Rhetoric, art of expositioa: racu, getingcreftoS, pylcneftg .Uaer or rhetoric, rbetoridan: hl~J>ere g, getynge, wordslwere .Rhetorical: getynge, getyngelic .Repetition: getwinnes0 •To bandle, put together: styrian .To pat into words, say: (ge)wurdlian .To compose, Mt (words together) pao:efully: glengan 0 Mode of speech: spi:ceheow°', spri:ccynn° .Style, cboice: spntc, word Written style: gesetnes ..Literary: stzft ic .8tnM of lan&uaae: cyste ..A ftttlna word: cyneword°P .To write in good style: gelOgian M (Oflaquqe) embellished: gehtwod .To embellish: gccyrtenli:cang A figure: g~nung, (ge)bicnung, bisen, geflgednes, giedd, onlicnes, gesetnes, (ge)ticnung

465 Eloquence, elegance in language .A mystery, aUecory: (ge)rYne

.Allecorical, ftguradve: (ge)bicn(ig)cndlic, gehrwed, gehrwendlic, hrwlic, geryn(e)lic, ticni(g)endlic, ~wlic .Allecorically, Bguradvely: mttgwlitliceoS, geticnigendlice, l>urh geticnunge .To symbolize, be a figure of: (ge)ticnian .To express Bguradvely: gebfcn(i)an, bisenian, (ge)ticnian .Irony: hrwung Eloquence, eJepnce in languaae: burhsp!'Edl, giedd, glcawnes, sprite, getyngnes, wordazftP, gewyrdelicnesoS,

gewyrdigness .Elepnt, choice: gecorenlidl .EJepnt, smooth: smCJ>e, smicer .Beauty/elepnce (or languaae): faegemes, smicemes0 S' getyngnes .EJepndy: faegere, (ge)glengendliceS, gewyrdelice .Fair, plausible: faeger .Honeyed, mellifluous: hunigbltreS, swetwyrdeS .Fair-spoken, or pleannt speech: swltswyrde0 S .Magniloquent: swi}>sprecots .Noble discoune: rihtspell0 , l>r)il>word0 P .Powerful speech: ellenspntc0 P Plaln, simple: infeald, forpriht, hil, nacod, gerltde

.Simply, without om•ment: infealdlice, forprihte, leohtlice .Literal: staeftic .Pedestrian, low-style: fOtlic See Unadorned Discunivenc11: widgilncs .Verl>oslty, copiousness ol Sf*cb: gewyrd

.Roundabout: ymbsprecende .Compendiously: imctendliceS .Poured forth, profme: forplgoten To pat briefty: hradian

.Shortly, in brief: inunga, cnotnu!lumoS, hwonlice, scortlice .Briefty, na11owiy: nearolice •To shorten, abbreviate: gescyrtan 09.03.05 Art or poetry: Ieot>cncft. sangcrzft, scopcra:ft0 , wot>cncftP .Art/gift of 90ng: wOt>cncftP. wOl>gifu0 P

09.03.06 Prose

..Skill in slnglnafcomposltioa: gereordgleawnes0 S .To compose poeby: findan -To compose verse, narrate: singan -To recite, sing, compose a poem about: gieddian, gliwian, (ge)singan .An ontor, singer, poet: wbora

..Singer, poet, mlnstael: gliwman ..An evenln1 sia&er: l!fensceop0 P ..A poet: lfJ>wyrbta, sangere, scop Poetical ~: g1Iwword0 P, scopgereord

.Poetic: scoplic' Poeby: lfol>weorcoS, lfol>word0 P .Lay,IODg, poem: fitt, galdor, giedd, gieddung, hlfol>orcwideP, leol>,

leot>C:wide0 , leoJ>giddingP, sang, scoplfol> ..song of biumpb: sigeleoJ>P ..A dlrae, eleat: sorglfJ>P, wOplfol>', wordgydd0 P ..A contempdble poem: bismerlfJ>S - Vene of doubtful attribudon: lfol>wrenc0 _(Of poetry) heroic: gielphl~en°P, swi)>swlgeS .Poetic, vnfled, rb)'thmical: lfol>lic, lfoJ>wis, scoplicS -In vease, rbytbmlcally: on lfJ>wfsan See Song Art of vene composldon: leoJ>cr&ft. metercrzft0

.Venfftcadon: meter .Poetical venlon, verse: lfI>, ~geweorc0

.A metrist, poet: !MterwyrhtaoS .Measure, mebe: gemetu .A vene of poetry: fers ..A bemisticb: healffersoS, healfgemet°' .Reladn1 to metre: ~undl ..Metrical: metcund°S, metcundlicoS, IMterlic .To compose in verse, venif)': isingan, fersian°, singan .Vene dependlna on number of feet: getelfersS -Of so many feet: fiffCtede&, sixtete -Haameterverse:meterl'ers -Coa aect bexameter verse: rihtrMterfers0 09.03.06 Proee: infeald gerecednes, geride spntc


09.03.07 Writing

09.03.07 Writing: iwritS, riin, (ge)writ, writing°S .A line, stroke of a pen: line, mearc, mearca, strica .A mark, character, sign, letter: mearc, mearcung, not .Formation of letters in writing: sticfgefCg .Written symbols, writing: sticfntw, stafas, gewrit .To form with a pen-stroke: (ge)mearcian, gestrican .To write, form letters: (ge)writan .Half-written: bealfgewriten°' .Written afterwards: efterwriten°

See Painting A written character, letter: bOcst&f, sticf .An alphabet: ~. sticfntw, staefrOfoS .Letter names: ell, em0 , ess, i, u A runic letter: riin, riinstzf .Rone names: ic, esc, beorc, cen, cweoq,, deg, ear, eoh. eoh, eolbsecg, el>el. feoh, gear, giefu, hagul, ing, Ior, Is, lagu, mann, nied, Os, peoq,, rid, sigel, tir, tiw, t>om, iir, wynn, yr A word: word .A syllable: sticfgeteg .A cligraph: sticfgeteg Handwriting, autograph, signature: handseten, handgewrit .Holograph: eallwriten .To subscribe, sign: underwn"lan° .A mark as signature: mearc ..A cross as a mark: cristes ml!I To make a mistake in writing: miswritan .Misuse of letter L: elleahtor°' .Misuse of letter M: emleahtor0 S .To supply a missing letter: underhlystan ..Supplying a mlaing letter: underhlystung0 A scribe, copyist: mearcereS , notereS, notwritere0 g, (ge )writere .One who writes cot aectly: rihtwn'lereS "One who writes inco11ectly: unwnlere .A (Jewish) scribe: bOcere 468 A writing instrument .A resident scribe: inwn'"terc' .A clerical scribe: cleric To make a symbol, mark: iwrftan .To place a marlt above, superscribe: gett'"telian ..Marked above, superscribed: gett'"telod .To mark: gebicn(i)an, toscirian -Having a mark, marked: gemearcod, genotod _Indicative: gebicn(ig)end, bicnol 0 i -To mark with a dot: geprician To punctuate, divide: tOdelan .To mark with a point: geprician, pyngan .(Of punctuation) to place, mark: imearcian, (ge)mearcian .A stop, point: prica .A mark, stroke: gierd •.A mark that divides: tOdal .A long virgula: lang gyrd .A cUacritk:: accent, suef A diagram: gefeg .To draw a figure: wn'"tan Marking out, disposition of materials: (ge)mearcung .A prick/point to guJde niling: prica ••To mark out by pricking, prick: ipryccan .To give prominence by marking with point(s): geprician To cover with writina, inscribe: awn'"tan, bewritan .To write out/write down: iwn'"tan .To transcribe, copy: iwritan .An inscription: inawritting0 i, inwrittung°', onmearca0 i, onmearcung0 i -An inscription (on a coin): onwn'"tung -A superscription: ofermearcung', oferwrit, oferwriten°i , ufanmearcung0 i Writing materials: A writing instrument: .A pen: feJ>cr, pinn, wn'"tingfeJ>cri, writseax°' -A knife (for renewing the point): brediseml, writisen° .A stylus: grzf, writingisen°, writiren°

469 Ink .A reed: hrCod .A sharp point (for supplYlna ltopllpolnta): price! Ink: atnun&, ~telg°P, blec, b6cblcc0 .As 'meful drop': speddropaOP .(Of ink) with black tracks: sweartlist°P .An inkhorn: blaechom .Red colour for illumination: b6c:readl, t!afor .Leaf for decoration: l!af A ruler. rcgol, regolsticca .To draw lhw with a ruler: rcgolian A writia&·tabld: bred, tabule, weaxbred, writbred .Tablet to be carried: gyrdelbred0 1 .A slate: tigel(e) hpyrus: paper 0 1 Membrane, vellum: bOCfell, carte, hyrd 0 .A piece of vellum: cliit .A saoll, leaf of vellum: ym(e)le .A folded sheet: boga ..A quarto sheet: cine, cwaternl ..A quaternio, quire: cine A book: bOc, gefalden bOc .A leaf, page: l!af, tramet ..Pases of a book: bee .Astel (?polnterlboard, etc.): aestel .Board of a book cover. bred, hl!obord0 P, spelt .Adhesive: &glfmog .To bind a book: gel>ryn, wr!on ..To cover, bind (a book): (ge)beldan See Read A library, collection of books: b0cgesamnung0 1 , b0Cgestr!on° .A 1eceptade for books: bOcciste, OOcfMderq, bOchordl .A chest of books for sale: bOccest .A library where boob are kept: biblio}>&:e, bOchilsl

470 A description, writing down .To furniab with boob: gebOcian A written work, book, treati9e: bOc, (ge)diht, gesetnes, gewrit .A kind of book: b0ccynn° .Autboritadve books: gewrit .A Latin book: lltdenbOc .A bandbook, manual: handbOc .A biography: lif A main division: bOc, h!afodcwide .A secondary division: undert0dll0 .A division, lectlo: capitol A beadl.., title, supencripdon: forweardmearcung0 g, ofergewrit, tRul°' .A giving of dtles or hewllnp: ll"lelung& .A dtle, chapter headJna: forccwide, foremearcungll, hcafodweard, mearcung ..Divided into chapters: gecapitulod ..Without chapter beadinp: uncapitulod0 A prolope, preface: forenm0 , foreszgdness, foresagal!, frespl'Zc, foreweard, geforewrit0 , prologa0 , t>urhl0cung°g .Flnt wonts of a discoane: frumspnk 09.03.07.fY7.02.01.03 Contents so far: forespm: A pamge in a book: stow, traht, gewrit .A condudi. . paSMp: geendung ~ epilope: endespl!c0 S Additional material, sequel:

~fterfylgednes0 ,

eaca Composidon,amu11anent, wridna: (ge)diht .Argument: ~tywnes .To ptber literary material, compile: gadrian, samnian .To compose: idihtian°P, iwrilan, (ge)dihtan, (ge)settan, trahtian, wrftan,

gewyrcan ..To write, compose, draw up: efenwn-ian°s, tO!wn-ian°g A description, wrid-. down: towritennes 471 To write, state/say in writing .Sbe, extent, lenath (of narrative): gesetnes "(Of a story, letter, etc.) progress, coune: forpgang .To write about/of: iwritan (be/of), t6wrflan, wn'lan be/ymbe .To write out a narrative: gesceadan .To revise what is written: sceawian To write, state/say in writing: iwritan, secgan, wnlall .To record, set down In writlng: ifa:stnian, (ge)mearcian, gemunan "To put down an ordered account: logian "To record u agreed: wn'lan .A record, mention: gemynd .Unwritten, UDJ'eCOnled: uniwriten, ungewritens, unwriten An epitome, short account: scortnes, scyrting0 .(Of namative) condensed: scort .To epitomize: gebr!fan .To excerpt: llesan (of), itwiccian A letter: zrendgewrit, carte, epistol(a), pistol, stafas, gewrit .To write to a penon: iwritan, wn'lan A writer, author: wrftere .An author, writer, historian: scop .A writer on ancient history: ealdwn"lere0 s .An historian, a chronider: cranicwritere0 S, sta:fteornere!, strerleornere!, s~rtractere S, s~rwritere, (ge)wyrdwrftere ..A chronop'&pber, annalist: tidscriptor 0 S, tidwritere! .An authority: regolweard 0 Chronide, annals, history: cranic .Historical: gewyrdelic .Historically: gewyrdelice .5ecular writings: woruldgewritu See Tradition A document, deed: carte, sweotolung, gewrit .In one's own band: handgewrit .Original: frym~lic .An exact record: gewiss, gewrit See 14.04.01 Deed

472 A secret, mystery A nghter, catalogue: gettel .A register, catalogue, book: bOc, wrsb0c0 P ..A register of names: namb6c0 g -On a tablet: nambredog -To record/Inscribe names: iwrftan See Name

09.04 Ser-, PUJl")rt, meanin1: andgiet, ingehygd, ongietenes .Signlftcation, meanina (of words): (ge)ticnung .To signify: behealdan, betAcnian, (ge)~nan, secgan, swegan, getllcnian •To intend to convey: ~nan 09.04.01 Slpal, siplllng: bfcnung, ticen, getacnung .A sip, token, portent, etc.: beacen .A token, sign, emblem: beh1>0 P, ticen .A stin, mark, token: mircels, segn .A token, sip, significant form: ticen ..A sign of peace: fril>obeacen°P, fril>oticn°P ..A sign of victory: sigeticen, sigortAcen°P .A sip, indication, symptom, mark: mearc, ticen, ticnung .A marking, mark, distinguishing sign: gllawnes, mearc, mearcung, gemierce, mircels, ticen, ticnung .To be shown/indicated: geticni(g)endlic .Marked, branded, sca11ed: gemearcod .To show, indicate, signify: gebeacnian, matnan, gesweotolian, (ge)ticnian, tatcan •To make a mark on: (ge)mearcian, (ge )ticnian .To mark out, distinguish: amearcian, geticnian

See Stamp

09.04.02 Depth of meanln1, mystery: deopnes .A mystic meaning: geryne .Mystical: (ge)rynlic A secret, mystery: diegolnes, riin, (ge)ryne .A mystery, somethin1 beyond comprehension: geryne ..A cunning mystery: searoriin°P .A dark sayin1, enip1a: gieddung, r&dels, wordgeryneP .Inscnitable, incomprehensible: unasmeagendlic, unaspyriendlic, unbefangenlic, unbefOndlicq, unbegrfpendlic .Mysterious: diegolfulop

473 Dubiety, ambiguity .Arcane, abstruse, dark: deon:, dregol .(Of thinp) mysterious, IJDl'evaling: ungewiss .(Of feelings) impervious, impenetrable: ungeRre .Hard to get knowledge of, secret: dregol .In secret, mysteriously: diegle, gerynclrce •To set/pose a riddle: bettan ntdels .To rad (riddle, dft.8m, etc.): lr~dan, onwreon, r~dan. geseon -To rad wrongly: misntdan See lnvisible; Unknown; 09.05.04 Secret Dubiety, ambiguity: twenung .Ambiguous: twelic, twiwyrdig .Ambiguously: tweolrce 09.04.03 Exposition, making dear by explanation: etywnes, (ge)sweotolung .An explanation: gerecednes .Esplanation, interpretation: intrahtnung0 S, onwrigennes, racu, gerec, reccenes, gerecednes ..An interpretation: bodung, dOm, n!dels, scimes0 S, smea(g)ung, sweotolung ..An explanation, definition: sweotolung, getimbrung .Key, answer, solution: ettg, M5ele0 P .Giving mental illumination: leht .Explained, elucidated: ismCad .Oearly, certainly, well: cill>lfce, gearolice, gearwe -Very well: forgeare0 , fulgearc, fullgeome •To explain, expound: ireccan, itellan, fulfealdan°, ofertrahtnian°, oferyman, geopenian, (ge)reccan, gerecenian, gesceadan, gesecgan, togesceadan, (ge)traht(n)ian, unfealdan, unliesan -To give explanations about: geopenian, trahtnian be .To make distinct, make dear: isceadan, iscyran, gerihtan, (ge)sweotolian, tosceadan .To define: imearcian, gefestan .To invatipte,explain, make dear: gecneatianS .To unravel/solve: reccan A tramlation: foresagaS, geJ>Code, gelJCodnes .A tramlator: becwet>erc0 g, l>Cdend, wealhstod, weallstaj>ol 0 , wendereS


09.05.01 Inspection, examination .To tn""•te: ireccan, iwendan, gecierran, gehwierfan, oferledan, reccan, getraht(n)ian, g~. (ge)wendan GloeRna; gl&ingO .To gloa: gles&n° .To write gl011Ses over: ofergles&n°1 A commentary, ezpollitioa: crzftbOcoS, traht, trahtaJ>I, trahtbOc, traht(n)ung . .A commmtator, laterpreter: becwcJ>ereoS, bicn(ig)end, lalimcr 0 1, reccere, rihtraciend, traht(n)ere, wealbstod .To sunouacl/funUsb (with words/commentary): bef'On 09.05 Curiosity: fyrwit, fyrwitgeomes, fyrwitnes .Curious, laquisidve: fyrwit, fyrwitgeom ,.L.isteidag, eavesdropping: hlosniende .Jacurious: unfricgende0 P .To be curious, wonder: frymdig ~n/wesan

Set 06.01.06 Knowledge 09.05.01 Iaspectioa, ez•mlaatioa: onbesceawungOI, scriitnung, smca(g)ung .Study, aan:lul ez•ml1111doa: (ge)cneordnes ..Over-exhaustive study: ofersmcaung .A searcher, examlaer, lavesdptor: fiscere, sceawere, scriidnere0 ' smeagend, spyrigend ..An lavestiptor: ispyrgend .(Of enquiry, etc.) searchlna, penebadftl: smCalic .To be sought out: isecendlic°I .That should be re-ex•mlned: geedyppoloS

.8earchingly, aarefully, D1UTOwiy: smeatrce .To ez•miae tborougbly,search, sift: iJ:reddanP, geondsecan, geondsmcagan, reodian, scrtltnian, (ge)sm!a(ga)n, J>urhsm!agan, undersecan, windwian ..To ez•miae la detail: t6smcagan° .To go through, ex•mioe: t>urh.scrfl>an, l>urhs&:an°', J>urhsmilgan .To enquire (into), comicler, lavesdpte: efterspyrian, iscriltnian, ispyrian, iswaJ>ian°', besceawian, geondseon°P, l&:ian, spyrian, geswet>ian°1, treddanP .To explore, lay open, search out: ismcag(i)an, risian°P See 11.03.01 Experiment


09.05.02 A question, inquiry, questioning 09.0S.02 A question, inquiry, questionln&: (ge)itsce, (ge)i.scung, befiinung8,fra!gning,frisung.~gen,(ge)frignes,frignung,s0cn

.Inquiry, inquisition, investigation: cneatungK, spyrung8 .A question, case to be explained: spn!c .Ao inter1vgator: frisende .Unasked: unibeden, ungeixod0 .To ask, question: (ge)iscian, befrignan, (ge)fra!gn(i)anK, (ge)frignan, infrignan°K .To ask about, enquire: (ge)iscian, gefrigian°K, (ge)frisian, (ge)fricgan, (ge)frignan ••Exhaustively: t>urhfrignan°K •To investiga~ question: secan .To question, intel'l'Olate: befrignan (be/of/ymbe) .To seek to know, enquire (about): (ge)cunnian, (ge)fandian, (ge)spyrian a=fter •To search out, find out by enquiry: neosian .To seek to be told: secan on miit>e .To ask for, inquire for: (ge)iscian .To ask, demand to be told: iscian 09.0S.03 Ao answer, reply: andcwiss0 P, andswaru, andwyrde, gegncwideP .In reply to, as a reply: ongean, t6wit>ereP .To amwer, reply: igiefan andsware, (ge)andswarian, (ge)andwyrdan, oncwet>an, wit>cwet>an, wit>gynan° .To respond, answer: acwet>an, oncwet>an .To retum/give an answer: secgan andsware .To make a response: andsware (ge)sellan, cwide oncwet>an 09.0S.04 A secret: behydnes0 , diegol, dieme .A secret of the heart: hygeriin°P .A secret of approaching slaughter: wzlriin°P .8ecret, bidden: beholen, diegle, diegollic, dieme, dimlic, dymlic, forholen, onh~leP, geryn(e)lic ..Hidden, covered up: iheled0 8, dieme, forheledK .Clandestine: dieme .Suppressed (not mentioned): forswiged .8ecredy: diegle, (ge)diegollice, dymlice, fzste ..Io secret: diegollice, on diglum .Clandestinely: dearnunga 476

09.0S.OS Exposure, revealing, revelation .To conceal, keep secret: bed!aglian, bediglian, (ge)dicman, (ge)hclan, gchydan .To be silent about: forhabban, forswigian, gchealdan, helan, (ge)swigan, (ge)swigian -To keep one's cou.asel: rune healdan See Mystery Concealment, obecurity: diegol .Cover, concealment: helm, scCal .Covering (that conceals): hrof .A bldln1·place, place of concealment: bediglings, bchydedncss, diegolnes,

hcolstor, hydels, indiegelncs°', ~storcofaP ..A corner, secret place: hal, healh, ncaru, smuggeq, ~urhfa:r S ..A lair, den: (ge)bedclcofa, inclcofe ..A den, hide-out of thieves: gcscraef, ~fa cot, l>Cofdenn° .Hidden, sea et: dimm ..Dark, secret, Ml of biding-places: heolstrig' - Hidden away: tOgcd~glcd°' .To bide, conceal: adeaglian°', ihwierfan, ihydan, bedyrnan, bchclan, bchelian, bchydan, bcml)>an, bcwiWn, (ge)dTegl(i)an, (ge)dieman, forhclan, forhydan, (ge)hclan, (ge)hclian, (ge)hydan, mi~gian° , ofcrhelian, getynan. ):>eccan, wreon -To bide, conceal oneself: gchclan, (ge)hydan -To bide, conceal from: bedydrian .. . wi~, (ge)helan wi~/fram, o~hydan° .To sene as a covering, conceal: wr&>n -To ICl"eeD, cover (a thief): forlicgan -To acreen: ymbscuwans .To He bidden: becreopan, bediglian, licgan, nupan .To seclude, make private: gcdieglian See Cover 0

09.05.05 EspolUl"e, revealing, revelation: iwrigenncs, onwrigenncs,

opennes,openung,unwrigcdncs0 S .Manifesting, revealing, disclosing: ontj~igP .To disclose, reveal: iwr&>n, iyppin°', onlQcan, unwreon, geyppan .To disclose, bring to light: abzran°P, iberan .To disclose, di1COver, reveal: lbarian .To uncover, reveal: unhelian° .To discover, reveal, make evident: gcswcotolian .To show, display, not conceal: onwiWn

477 Showing, manifestation, display .To display (sometbfna bad), expose: onwreon .To reveal, expose, betray: geyppan .To bring forward, send forth, make known: forl>benm, forl>yppanl, lecgan beforan, ge~. (ge)wr~rsian, geyppan See Uncover Showing, manifestation, display: ztywednes, zcywnes, sweotolung, ypping .Showin1, disclosure: eawdnesq .Openness, manifestness: eawiscnes' .Openness, publicity: opennes .Plain, manifest, open, displayed: andgete0 P, eawisclic, open, gesrene, sweotol .Made manifest, revealed, disclosed: iscyled', unwrigen, gewr~rsod. yppe .Brouabt to Upt, revealed, dlsoovered: l!bl!re, l!rCafe0 , undieme, unwrigen .Broupt to lipt, patent, evident: open .Evident, well known, manifest: orcnl!weP, orgyte, undieme .Oear as daylipt, perfectly known: degci1J>0 P .Not secret, public: undieme, undigle0 .Open, public: bzrlicl, folclic, gemitnelic, openlic, undieme .(Of Juqement day) with aothln1 concealed: open .Oearly, plainly, openly: ciiJ>e, ciiJ>lice, eawiscirce, eawunga, inion eawunge, gescCadwislrce, gesiene, sweotole, sweotollrce ..Openly, without colK"ftllment: unbehelendlice0 , undeamunga, undeogollice, undieme ..Openly, publicly: bzrlicel, sweotollrce .Plainly, without obstruction, dearly: riime .Very plainly: forsweotole0 .Without concealment, without nKrve: openlrce, sweotole .Boldly, dearly, plainly: orpedlrce0 .Openly, unashamedly: on l!wiscnesse .To make known, manifest, reveal, sbow: acyJ>an, ztrewan, (ge)cyJ>an, foresittan, foflx:yl>an', gesweotolian, (ge)tl!can, (ge)tecnan, (ge)teon (for)>), (ge)yppan .To disclose, reveal, manifest: oncynan, (ge)openian, unwreon .To make known, reveal, disclose: ameldian .To indicate, show, make known: (ge)bfcn(i)an, (ge)ticnian, tobrcnan°g .To show, make dear: torhtian°1 .To show forth, reveal, discover: onwreon


09.06.02 A saying, speech, statement .To show, display, exhibit: a:tberan, gedOn forp, giefan, (ge)iewan, on eage beran, onywan, oJ>iewan, (ge)sceawian .To become manifest, be dkdo1ed: (ge)openian, sweotolian .To appear openly: on tiin gin See Show; Clear; Proof 09.06 To take matter for disc:oune: ton on, ton to .To deal with, beat, dhcu11 a subject: ihrepian°, itrahtnian, ton ymb, gretan, (ge)handlian, (ge)hrepian (ymbe), trahtnian belymbe -To raise, introduce (a topic): iipnran .A matter/topic for speech, dilcuslioo, etc.: sprl!c, J>ing ..A tat: gaderung, traht, gewef ..Ao argument: insiht 09.06.01 To relate, recount, tell: ireccan, anman, isecgan (ymbe), itellan, iwrecan, forecweJ>an, (ge)secgan, (ge)tellan, wordum heron .To narrate, set out: geendebyrd(i)an .A narrative, story, account: bfspell, edcwide0 g , lirspell, racu, reccing0 , (ge)rece(d)nes, (ge)sagu, gesegen, spell, spellung, suer, geta:l, talu, word ..A narrative, series of statements: endebyrdnes .A first account: frurnspellun~ .A tnJe account, tale: s0J>gieddP .A similitude, parable: bisen, gieddung, gelic, ongelicness .A fable, fal,.../loolish story: hfwung, spellung .A tale of woe: inwitspe11°P A tradition, ordioaoce handed clown: geset(ed)nes .Ao old story, ancient tradition: ealdgesegen°P, ealdspell, fymsa:gen°P .History, an historical narrative: istoria. lir, gerecednes, soJ>sagu, soJ>spell, spell, spellcwide0 See History A ayia&, aw, proverb, maxim: bicwide, biword, biwyrde, cwide, ealdspntc°, folccwide0 , foregiedd°S, giedd, sagu, soJ>cwide, word .A sayioa, clin11m, oracle: diht, heafodcwide, geset(ed)nes ..Ao old saying: aldgeddung°S ..A tnJe saying: sJ>s~og •Wile sayiop, aws: getyngnes 09.06.02 A sayioa, 1~h, statement: sagu

479 l To tell, make known, declare, relate, announce .A declaration, IDdmatlon, report: forpspeU 0 P .An account, ordered lpft'C'h: gedad .A making known, telling, narration: cYl>ing° .To say, state: (ge)cwet>an, cwiddian, gereccan .To express: gel>ryccan, gel>ryn -To express (thanks): cunnan .To open the mind, speak, disclose thoughts: onspannan .To make an incomplete statement: cyJ>an be dzle .To penist In a statement: geedhtcan, willan habban .To put words In another's mouth: settan on miil>e To tell, make known, declare, relate, announce: ibeodan, inemnan, becwet>an, bereccan, (ge)cennan, gecniwan, cweJ>an, deman, (ge)meld(i)an, (ge)reccan, scfran, (ge)secgan, (ge)tellan, gewrtegian .To announce loudly, declare: geclipian -To call out: icleopian - To declare dearly: (ge)sweotolian .To make known, disclose, reveal: Ameldian, bemeldian°, (ge)openian .To make known, tell forth beforehand: forecyl>an .To blab, let out: miiJ>ettan° To make known, cause to know, inform: don to witanne, (ge)wissian .To communicate, impart, convey: gerru!nsumian, wegan .To give information, inform: lmeldian, gewiterian° •To give information about: (ge)cyl>an .To give a full account of: fullsecgan (be) .To ofrer for consideration: giefan .To advocate: ~rendian .To make mention of: gemyndgian, gemynegian ••To mention by name, mention: (ge)namian, (ge)nemnan .A sayer, informant: secga0

-A tale-bearer: wroht .A narrator, informer, announcer: melda

See Aforesaid Not said, undeclared, unsaid: ungecyd0 , un.dd Recapitulation: edspellung°S, eftspellung0 S .To repeat: ~ftercwet>an, (ge)edlZC8n, eftgian, ofercwel>an

480 .06 A message, announcement by a messenger A coafeaioa, dedaradon: andetla0 .A coafesslon, profeaion: andettung .A declaration: gecwedoS, m4tre .Confeaion of splendour: wliteandd°P .To confess, admit, dedare, make known: (ge)andettan, geanwyrde beon/wesan, begin, (ge)secgan, gewitnian° .To acknowledge, make acknowledgement of: oncniwan .Tbat confessu/acknowledges (a charge, sin): gecnl!we .To denounce, betray, Inform aplnst: imeldian See Confession Prod•mation, spreading abroad: wfdml!rsung0 .A prodamadon: meld°P .A proclamation, manifesto: gebann .To proclaim, announce, etc.: lbeodan, ibodian°g, bebeodan, gebeodan, (ge)bodian, (ge)cyJ>an, forebodian, foreclipiang, foresecgan, fofl>secgang, fmlbeorhtian°g, freabodianoS, fullcyl>an°, l&ran, meld(i)an, oncyl>an°, iit cyJ>an, iit m4tran, wlman -To announce, tell, proclaim, send word: onbeodan .A summoner: bannend .Proclaimed: inboden°g .Made public: l!wiscod0 g .Trumpeted forth: forgolpen° .(Of speech) open: open .Publicly: openlice .A place ofprod•mation: spellstow 0 ..A house-top: hrof To spreed, m•ke known, proclaim, celebrate: (ge)br&dan, brlman, (ge)m&ran, (ge)mzrsian, geopenian, (ge)widmzr(i)an, (ge)widmzrsian .To spreed quickly: ieman .A making known, report, nunour: mtersung .Report, rumour, fame, talk of a paaoa: hlisa, hlyd, sprite A me1sa1e, announcement by a m•srenger: zrendsprl!c0 P , bod, bodung, lie, sand, spell, word .To send a message/meaenger: (ge)sendan (acfter, to) .A message, written me111a1e: erendb&:, l!rendgewrit .Message taken by a mounted m•n: ridstefn° 481 A messenger .A menage, ticlinp, news~ l!rende, tidung, word ..News published at morn: morgenspe11°P A messenaer. ltrendraca, zrendsecg°P. ar, boda, lerend, forridel0 , sand, spellboda .A boneman as messenger: hleapere .A numer, mclfP!lger, courier. rynel .A herald, crier: bodiend, bydel, foreboda, forebodere8, fricca. m&rsere0 8, wcmend Good tidlnp: leofspeJl0 P, miiJ>hl!J 0 P, willspellP .To proclaim good tJdlnp: godspellian DI tidlnp: bealuspe11°P. lij>spell, weaspe11°P .Tklinp of war: giiJ>spe11°P .Bringer of Ill tidlnp: yfelberende0 8 ..One who llDDOUDCeS violence or clisttta: nydboda0 P A name, appellation: gecfgednes, gecfgnes, clipung, nama, nemning° .A proper name: igen nama .A co11ect, right name: rihtnama0 .A Christian name: fulwihtnama .A forename: forenama0 .A surname: cii}>nomaoS, frConama, tonama ..A patronymic: fzdemama0 .To name, give a name to: lhitan°8, benemnan, (ge)hitan, naman/to naman (ge)scieppan, (ge)namian, (ge)nemnan ..To be called: hllan ..To call/name (after a person): gecnOdan naman ..To surname: getonamianoS .By name: be naman, n&mmZlum See Register A title, label: gesweotolung .To pve the title of: settan .To call by some name or title: (ge)namian, genemnan A cateaorizing name: nama .An appellation, tam applied to person/thing: griting .A naming, calling by name: namcjging°, namntden°8


09.07.03 Disagreement, dissent .To call, name: (ge)ciegan, (ge)clipian, (ge)cwel>an, namnian° .To mark out (by name): lmearcian, (ge)cwet>an, (ge)hitan .To name, didingulsb by names into parts: tlinemnan .By name, lncllvict...Hy: namcii)>lice To mention by name, name: (ge)nemnan .To mention by name, mention: (ge)namian, (ge)nemnan •To speak of as, tam: genemnan to 09.07 m.pute, debate: cneatungs .To discuss: tosOOKtan .To dispute, discuss: reahtiganq .Not discussed: unareht°

See; Deliberation 09.07.01 Contention, arpment, strife ofwonls: (ge)ftit, stnpP .Argument, a sharp, strict examination: scearpsmeawungS .Argument about an inheritance: yrfegeftit0 .Contest, disputation: wi)>ercwide .An opponent, wrangler, disputant: wi)>erftita .Disputing,contentious: ftitende .To llJ'l1le. dispute, be at variance: cneatians, (ge)ftitan, (ge)motian, gewesan ymbe, wi)>erian 09.07.02 Contradiction: geantalu0 , wi)>cwedennes, wi)>ercwedolness,

wi)>ercwedung°S, wi)>ercwe)>nes0 , wi)>ercwidenness .A confouncllng, confutation: gescendnes .That contradicts, opposing: wi)>ercwe)>oi 0 S .To contradict, oppose opinion: ongeansp(r)ecanS, wi)>cwej>an, wi)>sp(r)ecan, wij> j>ingian .To contradict, withstand: wi)>ercwe)>anS .To resist, oppose: wi)>erian .To confute, confound: efsecganog, istyntanS, gefyllan, ofercuman, oferdrifan, oferftitan, of~nan°S, oferreccan, oferstitlan, onsacan, gescendan, wi)>sciifan See 12.05 Contradiction 09.07.03 Disagaeement, dissent: t0dntfnes0 S, toslitnes .Dissentient: unge)>were, unge)>yreog .To be at variance, disagree, dissent from: geun)>wzrian, unge)>wltrian

See 12.05.03 Disagreement 483 A denial A denial: bescyrednes°', forsacennes0 , forsacung0 .Denial, repudiation: wii>erszc .A denial, refusal, resistance: ands&sacan, wiJ>sacan .No: nl, nese, nic .Nor: eac ne, nl, ne, ne nl, nymt>e Refusal, denial: wirnung° .A refusal: wcam .Denied, aefused: on~ •To refuse: forweoman, insacian°', wiJ>sceorian° .To refuse/drdine to do: fon:wet>an, forsacan, forseon •To refuse, deny: sacan .To deny, refuse (request, etc.): etsacan, forwirnan, niccan°, onsacan .To refuse what is due: forsacan .To reject (something), shun, refuse: fleon, onscunian .To resist, refuse, reject, decline: onsacan, wiJ>sacan •To refuse, reject, repudiate: scorian

..To deny, disown: etsacan, onsacan, wit>sacan .To reject, not allow, refuse: wit>cwet>an ..To refuse permission/a request: wit>sacan 09.07.04 Assertion, aftirmadon: geset>nes .Aftlnnation, proof: (ge)set>ung .Aftlnnation of truth, asseveration: sat> .A supporter of a statement: geJ>afa .To make known, declare, aftlrm: (ge)cennan, togznan°g .To assert conftdendy: geh!tan •To conftrm, aflinn: af~stnian, aset>an°, (ge)trymman ..To confirm thoroughly, corroborate: J>urhtrymmang .To aftlrm, asseverate: benemnan ..To aftlrm, assert, state as a fact: (ge)sel>an .To establish, conftrm: istellan, (ge)trymman .To approve: afandian .Yes: gca, gese ..Yea, amen: gea Ii gea

484 Unanimity Conlrmation, apeement: gem6dsumnes0 , trymming, trymnes .An agiun•ent: forespn!c .One who makes an agaeement. ltlpalator: taymmend .One who aventllapees/allows(1endmly): gel>afa. l>afetere .United, accordant, ap eed: gemOd, gem0dsum0 , S8JJlJIUtle, unwit>erweardlic0 .That ooDWllts, agiee•ns (to): getenwyrdeq, ge~f ..Ap-eeable, comentient: get>afsum°' .UnopposecUy: unforbodene .Without dispute, llllftSerVedly: unflitmeop .Incontestably: unfrofortrceq .To accept, entertain, bear favounbly: onmn •To accept as co11 ed, admit: onmn, underfOn, understandan be .To listen compllandy, hear, event to: (ge)breran .To become pliant, yield: onliJ>igan°P •To apee: efencuman, efensecgan°', gegadrian, get>wl!rian -To apee with (another): efengel>eahtian°1, (ge))>afian, ge1>wttrian,

(ge)l>wttrlltcan "To arrive at an agi eemeat: (ge)cierran to inum -To come to terms, be recoadled: (ge)l>ingian •To ap ee a courile of action, 8JT1Ullt: gecwet>an .Tor.pee to a fact, concur: get>wttrlttcan, geweort>an •To agree, coment to: gem6dsumian°, (ge)J>afian, gel>wl!rian, gel>wl!rliecan .To come near in opinion, etc., M?ent to: nblkan See 14.04ff Agreement Admowledpmeat: cnlwlatc0 , cnlwla!cing° .Acknowledgement, aeeopltion: oncnlwennes .An admowiedgement: gecniwnes .Acknowledging accuracy of: gecdwe .In apeemeot with, admowledPnl: gewyrde0 •To acknowledge (sometbins): g~f bk>n/wesan Consent: gifung, (ge)l>afung, gel>wa!rung .Co"smt, apeement: gel>afsumnesoe, gel>Cafettan°1 Unanimity: inm6dnes .Union, ... eeawat: Innes .Unanimous, of one mlnd/acconl: inmOd, inn!d(e) 48S

O'J. Unanimity ..Speaking as one, unanimous: insprece0 .Unanimously: inmMlrce, inn!dll'ce, efenlice, gel>r~fq , ge~w~rlice -Unanimously, with one voice: geswegsumliceq -With one voice, in chorus: mid/of inum mu~


l 0.0 l Fact of belonging, possession by

10•.Possession 10 Ha'riJI&, owning, poaessioo: &htgesteald0 P, ha:fen, ha:ft .Possession, ownenhlp, control: l!ht .Poaession, keeping: bearm .An owner, possessor: igend, igendfrea, lgnere, lgniend ..A pet"SOD in possession: andfenga .An owner, keeper: hierde .An owner, proprietor: iga0 , hliford _owner, possessor, master, lord: igenfriga, wealdend

-Owner, mistress: igendfrea .Possessed or, endowed with: eacen, gegOdod, (ge)ha:fed .Restored to one's posse1rion, founcl: ifunden .Own: (ge)lgen, igenlic -(One's) own: sw&s ...By right of possession: switslice ..Private, own: syndrig .As one's own: igcndlice .In one's possessi'l>nlcbarge: on hand(a), to handa .To poaess, own, have In posselllioa: (ge)igan, (ge)lignian, besettan, besittan, (ge)buan, (ge)habban, on/under handa habban, gesettan, gesittan, stealdan°P - To possess, have disposal of: ntdan .To have power over, possess, master: (ge)wealdan .To take charge/possession of: gfeman .To have, hold, carry: (ge)beran .To keep, bold, maintain: belieatdan .To store (up), lay up: bet&can, (ge)healdan, gehedan, (ge)logian, gesettan _(Of produce) to gamer: gadrian .To retain, hold on to, keep posselllion of: a:thabban, forhabban, (ge)habban, habban and healdan, (ge)healdan -To retain, bold (abstract qent): bemn, geniman .To recover, find: (gc)findan .To keep, not to abandon: (ge)healdan -To keep too long: forhealdan .To bold, keep fordbly: (ge)bealdan, (ge)werian See 15.01 Property 10.01 Fad or belonging, posseasion by: inhymes0

•That belonp, appertaining: togelicgcnde


10.01.01 Acceptance, receiving •To appertain, belong to: belicgan, belimpan, (ge)byrian, hieran tO, langian°, limpan, IOcian (in) tO, tOIOcian, wesan .To be in possession of: on handa standan .To attach to: befealdan to .To fall to, pus to, be pven to: becuman, (ge)byrian, gin, geweorl>an ..To be allotted/assigned to: (ge)gin, gegangan, gehl!otan 10.01.01 Accepbulce, aecdvin&: andfang&, andfeng, andfengnes, underfang&, underfangennes,underfeng .Receivin& of rings; beag~gu P. hring~gu P ..Receivin& of treasure: sinc~goP .A receiver, one who receives: andfangoJoS, eftondf0end0 g, onfangend0 g ..One recelvin& afterwards: ~fterontbnd°g .One taking a benefit: dugul>dmere0 g .That can receive: andfenge •To be received: ontbndlic°, undertbnlic0 g ..(Of ransom) to be accepted, answer: gin .To receive: itbn, g&>pan°P, onion, undertbn 0

0 Receivin&, plnln1, 1ettfna: onfangennes .One wbo 1ets1obtalns: begietend, bl!otend .One who takes in charae: underandfOndoS, undertbnd .To receive, accept, obhiln; iniman, gefOn, fOn to, (ge)niman, onion, get>Con ..(Of person) to adopt, receive as: (ge)niman to .To have alloUed, 1et, obbiln: (ge)bleotan .To accept what is offered: geceosan 10.01.02 Acquisition: geignung, begietennes0 g .Attainment, acquisition: begeat .Procuring, acquisition: tilung .(An) acquisition, pin, pro&t: (ge)streon .Gain from labour, acquisition, pro8t: till>(e), tilung, gewinn, gewyrce ..An increase of 1oods: eaca .Acquirer, one who acquires or pins: strfnaog, strfnend .To pin, get: iwinnan, (ge)fOn, (ge)winnan ..To 1et as advanta1elpro8t, pin: geleon°K, (ge)strfenan ..To heap up: geheapan .To obtliln, 1et, acquire: geaftianog, begietan, gebidan, gefylgan, gegin, gietan°g, geholian°, ofercuman, ofgangan, o~ • gel>Con 0


10.01.03 A sharing, participation .To pla by labour, pt by tftort, acquire: (gc)camian, gcn!can, (gc)stricnan, (gc)tilian, (gc)winnan .To Mize, lay bold of(abshact object): (gc)grfpan, gcgrippan .To pt, acquire, procure: gclgnian, bcgictan, (gc)findan, gcm!tan .To set, have, take: (gc)lgan, habban, gclea:an ..To 1et into one's power: gcswlpan .To 1et, ettjoy: gcdZlan .To obtain, find (favour, cndJt, etc.): findan .To draw, obtain (favour, Inspiration, etc.): hladan .To come by, 1et: becuman to .To come by, 1et at, obtain: begin .To pt, obtain, meet with and keep: onfindan .To pt by exchange, obtain: gcwrixlian .To obtain by payment: gcbycgan .To obtain by work, earn: (gc)camian .To obtain by lot: gchleotan .To obtain by false pretencel: gclfccttan .To 1et by seeking: gcs&:an .To ao and get what one seeks, obtain, get: (gc)fcccan, (ge)fctian .To get by basteoing: gccfcstan ..To run and obtain, get by runnln1: gcicman ..To get by riding for: ge&man .To apply to and obtain: g~rcndian to .To obtain by asking/entreaty: lbiddan, bcgictan .To obtain by negotiationf'mterussion: gcercndian, gcpingian .To attain, gain, acquJre (something): geehtan • •To discover/attain by search/tftort, find: onfindan .To bake upon one's self, receive, acquire: undem.iman ..To receive, take in: lfbn 10.01.03 A sbarin&, participation: dZlung°I, g~nsumncs, gcmina .Participation: dZlnimcndnes8, dZlnimung, dZlnumclnes', dielnumcnncs0 1, ml!nsumung .A sharing, impartina: gcml!nncs .Part, participation: diel .Part, proportion: endc .A part, portion, share: (gc)dll, blot, sceatt .Community of goods, common ownenblp: gcml!nscipe .A sharer, partaker, participator: dielnimend •.A partner, sharer: cfcnhlytta, gctcra


I0.02 Want, lack

..In equal proportions: efenhlyia .Held joindy, common: (ge~ne ..Sharing equally: efenhlYto .In common: to geminan .To obtain, have a share in: (ge)delan wi)> .To participate, share with: (ge)~nsumian .To have in common, share equally: habban/igan g~ne "To share alike: efenged&lan°P .To divide up, share: (ge~lan "To divide up work: ged&lan .To awke to share: geedwistanl 10.02 Want, lack: be)>yrfingl, wana .Not in one's possession: nacfd, unigen .Lacking, not poaessed of: wan, (ge)wana .Destitute or. without: dli:lleas, eann "Having nothing, destitute: idel, idelheode "Lordi~ without a lord: ~enleasop .Does not have: nlh ..Not to have, be without: nabban .To de/go without: forberan, for)>olian°P .To fail to obtain: losian .To forgo, abstain (from): (ge)facstan (fram), forgin .To give up, relinquish: inforlli:tan, forlli:tan, forleosan, giefao, ofgiefan, (ge)sellan .To fail to keep, let go: illi:tan •To let go, fornke, abandon: lnforlli:tan, forltttan .One less than (with numerals): Ines wan Q>e ... ) See Insufficiency; 10.02.01 Loa, deprivation: daru, lyre, wana .Absence, loss: miss0 ..Decrease of wealth: acfwela0 ..Loss of territory: landlyre0 .Trick ca1islng loss/damage: lyrewrenc0 .Lost, absent: othende0 P .To lose: llztan, lmierran, inforlli:tan, forlorianoS, forspillan, (ge)losian, )>acrnianq "To loee, be deprived of: beleos&nP, II)>an°P, (ge)losian "To suffer lack of: (ge))>olian, )>Orfnian° 490

10.03 Giving .To be lost, not obtained: losian .To be lost (to): aetberstan, losian •To be lost, mlsl•kl. ltrayed: losian Loa, forfeiture: iletnes, inforhttncs, forletnes .Liable to forfeiture, forfeltiq: scyldig .To lose through f•ult, forfeit: inforhttan, blinnan, forgieldan, forlztan, forsellan, l~san -To forfeit by evll-doln&: forwyrcan See Fine 10.03 Giving: (ge)seleness .A giving, bestowal: giefu, gift .Act of giving: sealdnes0 8 _Jato another's bands: handselenoS ..Giving of swords: sweordgifu0 P .A gift, present: (ge)fyrt>ring, giefu, gifsu~ttP, gift, lie, lzn, send 0 ..A rich gift: sincweorpungP ..A p•eactng gift: hyhtgiefu0 P ..A gift from • noble: eorlgifu0 ..A gift of treuure: mAl>}>umgifu0 P, sincgifu0 P -From a leader: }>eodenmij>m0 P ..A worldly gift: woruldgifu ..A gift from one's bomehmd: eardgyfu0 P -Sea-spoil, a gift from oversas: ~JicP .A donor, giver: giefa, giefend, gifola, sella/sylla, sellend ..A female giver: forgifestreoS, gifestre0 , syllestreoS ..Giver, dispenser: brytta _Imparter, bestower: on~lend8 .Given: forgiefen ..To be given: sellendlic ..Given personally: handsealdq ~ot given: unseald0 .Fu.ndsbecl/proviclecl with lifts: geliicod .Given freely, gratis: to gife(s) .To give: isellan, (ge)giefan, (ge)sellan -To give, give gifts: (ge)gifian -To give (as remembrance): (ge)t>encan mid -(Of God) to MDCI: sendan .To deliver, hand to, give: (ge)giefan 491

10.03.01 Grace, favour "To band over: Hean, besellan, gesellan Jnto the band: on hand (ge)sellan .To glve/allow(as right): forgiefan .To give (as promised): gcll!stan .To give to, render, afford: ztgifan°P .To pnsent, bestow: geicwan, gelician, (ge)rzcan "To give, bestow, bring as gift: get!on .To give (something) in (to): ing~cans .To give, bold out (to): arzcan, (ge)rccan .(Figurative) to impart to: etfzstan, begeotan on .To commit, entnut, impart to: ztfzstnian°, (gc)beodan, oj>fzstan .To lend, grant temporary me of: ihtnan, (ge)lttnan, leon, onl~nan, onleon .To meanllateacl (sometbing for a penon): myntan See 15.01.02/f Property; Alms

10.03.01 Grace, favour: ~t. giefu, gifnesP .A sped•I gift, grace: sundorgifu .To benefit, prosper, favour: (ge)bletsian See Grace

10.03.02 Presenting, oftering: rkings .To ofter, proft'er: bewegnan°P "To proft'er: toritcan° "To oft'er, present to, show: gesellan .To ofter, present, contribute: (ge)beodan, (ge)brengan, geforj>ian .To reach, bold forth, oft'er, present: (ge)ntcan .To bring to: tobringan .To oft'er, announce what may be expected: ibeodan •To propose, declare, oft'er: gecwet>an •To propose to grant, oft'er: (gc)beodan 10.03.03 Granting: ilefednes0 .Grant, cession, coacesdon, giving: tl}> .A grant, gift, what is given: (ge)sealdnes, selen, unnc .Gitt, grant, boon, conc:es.tion, favour: tJ1> .One who grants: forgifcnd, unnend .To grant, bestow, give: igifianoS, forgiefan, (ge)gearwian, (ge)giefan, (ge)girwan, ondlCanian, onleon, (ge)sellan, (ge)tJ1>ian .To grant, allow to have, give: ilt!tan, ilfefan, forlt!tan (to), (ge)lt!tan, (ge)liefan, (ge)unnan


10.03.05 Recompense, reward .To bold oat, put: lreccan .To pve In adulnp, put: gcwrixlian .To put a shaft: (gc)dZlan wil> .To put, assign: bcf&>lan .To allot, assign, put: (gc~lan, gcscearian, (gc)scirian .To make posses90r of, endow with: Agan .To endow, enrich, belp by giving: gcfyrt>fian .Unac:ioorded, not anmted: ungyfct>c0 P

10.03.04 ProYisioa, supply: onstal .Neccrsary equipment: neadprin° .A provider: forcseond .To provide, supply: bcbcran, (gc)findan, (gc)gcarcian, (gc)ierfian, gcseon .To provide, give for me: fo~wian .To give, furnish, supply with: (gc)scllan ..To furnish with, supply with: (gc)gOdian, t!on, l>cgnian .To bestow, confer, give, supply, furnish: (gc)dOn .To procure, provide, furnish: (gc)gcarwian .To wk out, procure, provide: gctilian .To take, provide oneself with: (gc)niman .To provide, bold out: ihwcttan .To provide (for): foresceawian, fores&>n ..To provide for the wants of: don Mode, gl'cman ..To provide for, equip: gcredan -To equip fully: full gcarwian -To equip for a journey: gcscierpan Rertltution, making good, repayment: egift, edgift, (gc )edstaJ>clung .One who repays: eftcrgildend& .Back, again: cft .To give back, fttum: igicfan, igicldan, iletan, cft igicfan, forgicfan, forgicldan, ongicfan .To restore, make rertltution: ofstandan .To 8U anew: nfwfyllan° 10.03.05 Recompenw, reward: eftcrlean°P, ~lean°P .A rewarding, nc:ompenw: edleanung' .A nc:ompen'e, a reward: andleanq, edlean, cftlean°P, handlean, lean, med, wil>crlean

493 Reward, meed, pay

..Ia eclmowltJdaemeat of favour: ptiog ..Earthly reward: woruldlean°, woruldm&i° -Reward for past deed: geolean°P -Recompense ror lire saved: feorhlean°P .A rewarder: edgyldendg, (ge)edlw(i)end, eftlwuend0 g .That brinp recompepw: andergilde0 .Tbat receives a reward: llcnimende°' -Unrewarded: unforgolden° .In recompense: t6 leanes, t61Mdes .To reward, recompenM!: edgyldang, (ge)edluoian, gieldan, lean forgyldan , (ge)leanian, gemanigfealdan, m&iian° .To give a reward: d6n edlean, lean forgyldan, lean sellan .To give as a reward/requital: forgiefan .To repay, requite witb reward: forgieldan Reward, meed. pay: meord .For rartna • cblld: fOstorlean .To reward, 1emo""'ate ror. WI +ice! (ge)leanian

roster A bribe, gift, payment: giefu, medsceatt, geJ>ingsceat0 .Not bribed. waboqbt: ungeboht° .To boy, bribe: geceapian 10.03.06 Wltbboldlq, keepins b.c:k: oftige •To withhold, keep back, retain: etbregdan, ethealdang, behabban,

ofhabban°, ofhealdan, oJ>healdan -To withhold, keep back, deny to: ofteon° -To withhold wroagfnlly: ~tstrcngan° .To relnse, withhold, not give: wiJ>sacan .To withhold. refuse top-ant: ofunnan .To relnse, refrain from p-anting: wieman 10.03.07 Distribution: t6dll .Distribution, dispensation: brytnung°I .A distributing, speucliua, givin&: (ge)dil ..Dlstribntfoii of bracelets, ring-glviua: i>bggifu0 P .A divtdina of property, sharing: (ge)dll .A share, lot, portion arauted: tan°, hlytman° .To assip to, put into the poaessioa of: lecgan in .To assip something to a penon: mcdcmian, genamian .To assip something to a penon. allot: (gc)scttan .To adjudge, assip (reward, etc.): (ge)deman .To mete out (justice, etc.), allot, aslip: lmetan .To assip due measure: (gc)metgian .To assign. destine to: betZcan, gcsc!otan, gctZcan •To aaip, allot, destine, appoint: (gc)tcohhian ..To assip, appoint: gemearcian, gcrcccan, teofrian°P ..To mark out, assip, designate (for): lmcarcian .To order to be pven, •ssip, appoint: gcrihtan .Aaiped, destlned:


10.03.08 Bountifulness, munificence: cyst, cystignes, dugu)>gifu, est, fr!oicgan, gel>ingian

.To aaume, take on oneself: (ge)teon on/t6 .To lay bold of, take: f'On on, healdan .To take (for oneself): (ge)f'On t6

496 To seize, take, grasp, lay hold on .To catch: forhreppan°' 10.04.01 To bold, ba•e: habban be handa/in handum, (ge)healdan, gehendan .To lay bold ot, bold: (ge)niman, geweorpan handa on .To twi~ catch bold of: twiccian .To adhere, stick to, bold on to: onclifian .That may be held: hzbbendlic° .The bold, tenedty (of): fa:stnes .To IGee bold~ let p: Ietan 10.04.02 To pup, take bold ot: lgrlpian°, ila:ccan°, gefbn on, (ge)la:ccan, onhrinan, t6gegripan' .To pip, seize, take bold ot: hpsian•, befbn, clyppan, (ge)fbn, fortbn, (ge)gripan (on) ..To clasp, dutch: ymb(e)fbn ..To 1p11n, embrace (with bands): ymbspannan° .To dmcb (the band): (ge)clyccan, (ge)cryppan .To pup at: gripan togeanes ..To pup at, dutch: wi)>fbn°P, wi)>gripan°P .To lay violent bands on: gela:ccan .Embredna, embrace, dasp: clypnes0 , clypp, clypping° .Grip, du~ clasp, bold, pasp, power. clamm, fa:)>m. feng, gripP, gripe, gegrip(en)nes• ..Grasp by the baml~ handgripe0 P ..A wlzina by the hair: feaxfang°, ~rgripaq ..A dose pup: nearogrip0 P ..A violent arup: nydgrip0 P. nydgripe0 P ..Sadden (terrifyina) dutch: f~rclamm P, f~rgripe ..A hostile pip: tcondgrip0 P, hildegripP ..Spiteful dutch: inwitfeng°P 0 To pluck, ptber: gecweccan, (ge)niman, stripligan°•, twiccian .To take bold of, pick up: forgripan .A takina, placklna: nimung°I To 11elze, take, pup, lay bold on: a:tgn!pe weor)>an, Amn, befbn, begripan, (ge)fbn, forefbnl , forfbn, (ge)gra:ppian•, (ge)gripan, (ge)gripan (on), (ge)grippan, gehendan, gelangian, onfbn .To 11elze violendy: gefbn, gela:ccan (of), (ge)niman, nydniman, gen!can, gesla:ccanq ..(or abstract qents) to •be ~mdy: forgripan, forniman, ongietan 497

10.04.03 To take away, remove .To take forcible poaelSioa of: beffln, begietan, gegin, gegangan, gcl>rlngan -To seize, occupy: geOnettan .To take, get by fon:e: habban -To take by fighting: befeohtan .To capture (an animal): hentan .A laying bold of, seiziftl, taldft1: andfeng, gerisen°

.Capture, taldftl, seizure: (ge)feng, (ge)hteft, onfeng, ntcings, t6feng°S 10.04.03 To take away, remove: ibrcgdan, aetfeorrian, ibebban onweg, iniman (of), il!on fram/of, gebregdan, framicyrran, framidon, framlstyrianS, frambringan°, fram(ge)nimanS, hreddan, ofiniman,

of(ge)niman, ongenl!man, ongeniman, gentcan on, tolynnans, toniman, wil>bregdan, wil>I~. wil>t!on .To take away, carry off: aetberan, aetferian, aetwegan°P, (ge)niman, ofemiman .To remove by fon:e: gen~man on, ot>l>fingan .To match away: ibregdan, ol>gripan° -To snatch away, carry off: (ge)rfsan -To seize and carry off: grfpan, hentan See Remove; Carry off To take away, deprive of: aetbregdan, aetd6n°, aet(ge)niman, igeotan, istYJ>an, bedl!lan (of), bedreosanP. bcheawan, belJl>anP.

ben2man, beneotanP, beniman, bentdan, bereafian, berCofanP. bescierian (fram/of), besierwan, bestelan, bestyPan°, fremdian, ofteon, ol>bregdan, ot>teon°, ol>l>icgan°P, gesceadan, wil>erli!canog, gewomanq .To deprive of (where attainment prevented): bed&lan (fram) •To separate from, deprive of: ot>wendan°P, getwltfanP .To deprive of lands: belandian .Deprived of, bereft of: befeallen (set), befyUedP, belorenP, gefyUed, sceard .Deprival, deprivation: beniming°S See Theft


11.01.01 Practice, exercise, doing

11. Action and Utility 11 Action, opeaatlon: andweardnes, gegearwung, (ge)weorc, wyrcnes .To do, act, be In action: (ge)don, (ge)dreogan, (ge)faran .To do (substitute verb): don .To put Into action, ma~ work: gewyrcan •To work tosetbel', work with: midwyrcan

See 05.12/f Movement 11.01 Action, doing, perfonmnce: ~. macung°, (ge)weorc, wyrcing8 .Work (clone by und): handgeweorc .A work, deed, act: Con, wracian°, (ge)wyrcan .To do about/with: don be/of .To do (to someone), bring upon: gell!stan .To attempt/offer to do (to): (ge)b&xlan .?To profess to do: fleswian° .To bring oneself (to do), find heart/courage: findan (zt) .To control (movement/action), manage (to do): gewealdan .To respond with action: geandswarian .To uve the trouble (ofdolng): carcian° See Good deeds 11.01.01 Practice, aen:iH, doing: begang/bigeng, bebogadnes0 s, stynmg .A going about bmfnca: ymbgang .Affairs, doinp: ping, (ge)weorc .Proceedings, coune of Ufe: faru, Hf .Domain, sphere of activity: land .A reciprocal action, commerce, dealing: (ge)wrixl •To aercise, practise: behweorfan, ferian .To apply oneself to: ztleolan, befColan, (ge)fylgan, onwunian .To sbow (feelinglcapedty), practise: (ge)cjpan


11.01.02 An undertaking .To practiae, amy on, do babitn•lly: bebriican, begin, begangan, faran mid, gell!stan, on gewunan bringan, on gewunan habban, to gewunan niman .To take upllldopt (a practice): (ge)niman

11.01.02 An DDdertalda&: forenymeoS, foreonfong&, onginnes, ontige0 .An ondertaldna, enterprile, •ttempt: anginn, fer ..A bold undertaklna: gedyrstignes .A mis.trion: sand .That enpaes in: onfangen, geJ>yde .To undertake: lhebban handa, beginnan, ton on/to, onion, underlon, underginnan, wrcccan .To fall/take to (action): befeallan tO, ton (tO), gretan, onhebban, (ge)l>Cdan, (ge)weorpan on, wipteolan° .To perform, undertake: bewitian .To enp1e in, take part in, perform: litdan .To send, dispatch (on mission, etc.): isendan, (ge)sendan 11.01.03 Preparation: foregearwung&, gearcung, (ge)gearwung, gegearwungnes°'.midgearwung'l .A preparation, concoction: gerenung& .Ready, prepared: gearo, geworbt ..AU ready, prepared: cal gearo ..(Of loins) alrded: ymbgyrd ..Not ready for me: ungearo ..Unprepared, improvident: untilad0 .To prepare, make ready: in!dan, iscirpan, gebinnan, efenstilian°g, frztwian, (ge)gearwian, (ge)scirpan, tOgearwian°' ..To prepare oneself, ready speedily: (ge)fYsan ..To make rady, adapt: arcdian ..To make ready, equip: geatwan°P .To pat in order, make ddy, prepare: (ge)deftan, (ge)rfnian .To prepare, make ready (various materials): (ge)gearcian, (ge)renian, getiwian, getemprian .To prepare, mh, blend: (ge)blandan, briwan, gemengan .Aplnst, ready for: ongean pet(te), tOgeanes 11.01.04 A doia&, accompllshln1 (of sometlaias): fremming, fylignes0 , gefyllednes, gefyllnes, ll!st°P .Enactment, peapebatioa: fremednes 500

11.01.06 End, completion (of action), fulfilment .Petpebator, author (of action): or .To further, advance blgber: in!ran, don to hrerran hide, forl>hebban•, (ge)fremman, furJ>or don, niman to l>im miclan hide, rZran 11.01.06 End, completion (of action), fuJ&Jment: code, endung .A finisher, one wbo adds last touches: endefcstend°• .Completed, at the limit: full .Completed, finished: fullfremed, J>urhgeendadl .At an end, ftnlsbed: ct ende .(Of action continued to finish) out, through: forp SOI

11 .02 Occupation, activity, business .To complete, brina to coadasion/mcl: (ge)don, (ge)endian, fulleodian°,

(ge)fullfremman, fullgangan, fullgearwian, fullwyrcan, (ge)fyllan, ~urhteon

-To complete (tnmsactionlbal'l•in): belilcan

See 05.l 1.10.02 End; 07.02.03 Perfect 11.02 Occupmtion, activity, business: ibisgung, bisgu., woruldbisgu,

woruldbisgung, worulddzd° .An occupmtion, affair, business: cierr, intinga, ~ing ..Business taking undue time: unltm(et)ta .8ecular affain or matten: woruldscipe, woruld~ing, woruldge~ingu .Sphere of action, function: stede .Occupmtion, preoccupmtion: bisgung, brucung0 .A man of the world: woruldman .Active: andweard, donlic8 .Busy, occupied: bisig .On band, requiring attention: anhende .(Of preoccupations) worldly, mundane: middangearden°g, middangeardlic .To involve/implicate oneself in: gefealdan, geimpian, gel>Cdan in -To have to do with: beon/wesan on ... genu!nes, habban wi~ . .. gemlfne ..To intervene, come to take part in: swifan .To bold, occupy (an oftice, position): healdan .To busy (oneself) with, be active: ibisgian, (ge)bisgian •To take thought to do, busy oneself: hogian .To attend to, engage in: befOn on, begin (in), begangan, (ge)habban ..To be engaged in doing: standan on .To engage in, apply oneself to: ibisgian (in/on/mid/ymb), beon/wesan ymbe, dreogan zfter, on handa habban, onstandan, ymbwesan°g ..To devote oneself to, take time for: (ge)ltmetian (to) ..To press, apply, devote oneself to: (ge)tengan ..To follow, practise, devote oneself to: folgian, full(ge)gin, fullgangan •To go about, busy oneself with: gewindan ymbe .To find amusement In, busy oneself with: pleg(i)an .To be employed/busy, labour: dreogan unstille/bysig .To be busied with: onhyrsumian See 17.02/f Work 11.02.01 Enel'IY, vigour, vigorous mctioa: framscipe, snelnes0 .Alacrity: arodscipe0


11.02.01 .02 Unwearied ..Alw.:rtty, boldnc11: clfscipe .Sbenaoas, active: fram .Energetic, strong In deed: dl!dfrom0 P .Ready, prompt: hr~. recen .Active, diJigent: unsleac' ..Active, industrious, laborious: wcorcfulS .Requiring effort, active, enerptlc: geswincful .Vigorously, with a will: arodlice, gcomlice .Strenuously: geftitlice0 , (ge)ftit~lumS, stil>lice, swi}>fromlice0 g, tl> geftites ..Sbenuously, not slackly: unsleaclice0 .Actively, not sluggishly: unsliwlrce0 .(OI continued action) further: furpor .To fall to doing, busy oneself with: gefeallan .To tum to, set about: (ge)hwcorfan .To prd up one's loins, be stroaa: ymbgyrdan ... lendena .To run (and linked verb): geieman .To rise up (with intent to act): irisan .To prosecute, carry on vigorously: dn""fan .To continue doiq, penevere: ztaolan .To continue, 10 on with: healdan fort> See 05.08.01Vigour; Eagerness; 12 Power Active, nimble: bwzt. wzfreP .Aaile, active, busy: hror .Quick, ready, busy: (ge)sc!ot .Active, ready, quick: unsllw -Ready to travel, ?active: si}>gearu0 P .Aailely, nimbly, actively: hwztlfce .To be quick In movement, active, busy: Onettan

See Swift Unwearied: unwmg .Fresh, not weary: unwmg .Unwearied, lndefatipble, active: unlzt .lndefatipble, unwearied: unlt!origendlic .lnclelatipble, unwearying: unitCoriende8 .Unwearied, untiring: ungewergod° .Unwearied, persevering: unij>roten° .Unceasing, unwearyina: ungeswenced°, ungeswencedlic .Inclefadpbly: unlt!origendlice S03 Unhesitating -lndefatipbly, unweariedly: ungcdrehtlrceas, ungcteorcde .Unweariedly, unceasinaly: una&>rotenlice .Uncnsingly, without desisting: unoftinnendlice0 See 05. J J. / l / f. Con1inuity Unhesitatfna: unwandiende0 •Without hesitation: iinm6dlice 11.02.02 Diligence: forwitolnes0 ' . geomung, gleawnes, gleawscipe .Diligence, ea1 neat endeavour: gecneordnes, neod .Diligent: becneord° ..Diligent, zealous: (ge)cneordlic, geom ..Diligent, active, earnest: geomful ..Diligent In paying tithes: teo}>unggeom .Diligently: geome, geomfullice, geomlice ..Diligently, earnestly: gecneordlice ..Diligently, zealously: neode, neodlrce -Very diligently: fullgeorne See 06.0/.0/.02 Care; //./0.02.0/ Vigilance DUlgence, studious care: geomfulnes .Diligence, assiduity: geomnes .Careful, assiduous, zealous: geomfullic .Carefully, diligently: behogodlice, gesinlrce .Aaiduously, diligently: gelome Care, mlndfulnea, attention: carfulnes, gieme .Care (to do/not do): gremen -Care, trouble, labour: studding°, gewinn .Care, pains, trouble (in doinc): giemen .Careful, taking pains: hohful .Careful, palmtaklng, solicitous: earful .Thorough, effectual: g6d .Carefully, studiously: fyrwitgeomlice0 .Carefully, wholly, thoroughly: geome .To regard, have a care for: beseon on/tO/wiJ>, giemen don, bedan •To be careful of: munan .To be conceanecl about: bestuddian° .To care, reek: recan, wandian .To take care/pains/thought: carian, gfeman .To take care of, see to: gieman, hiwian, hogian, lacian, geseon, (ge)wamian


11.03 Endeavour .To 1ee about, take care of, look after: besceawian, ~n. bewitian, c!pan, studdian°, (ge)tilian, gewnan Attention, cultivation: ymbhwyrft .Intent, assiduous: behealden .To attend to, cultivate: begln/begangan, fylgan, l0cian to, weorJ>ian, ymbhweorfan ..To cultivate zealously: andian •To turn the attention to: bewendan See Discretion 11.02.03 Forethought, care: gehygd .Prudence: hog~pe8 .Prudent: gebeorglic, laetn!de0 .Careful, thoughtful, prudent: behogod, foret>anclic, hoga .ThoUghtful, considerate: get>ancol .Discreet, considerate: wel besceawod .Circumspect: ymbsewen .Mindful of and doing (what Is ftt): gemyndig •With forethought, carefully: foret>anclice .Carefully, beedfully, prudently: waerlice .Circumspecdy: ymbsceawiendlrce0 See Prudence 11.02.04 Heedlesmess: unwaemes0 , unwaerscipe0 .Unwary, heedless: unwaer, unwaerlic .Unwarily, heedlessly: unforwandodlfce, unwaerlice .To rush, be hasty: gehr!osan on, (ge)n!san on, rempan See Boldness; Imprudence R.ulmas, madness: dolwillenP .Heedlessness, reckl"11uas: wanhygdP .Rash, foolish: dollic .Rash, bold: arod, dolwillenP .Reckless, rash: r!ccl!as, swJ1>ferht>P, wanhygdigP .Rashly: blindlice0 , dollice, Jmstlfce .Rashly, vehemendy: firenlfce 11.03 Endea•our: gccneordnes, tilen .Effort: hoga .Endea•our, effort: hogung


11.03.01 Experience, trial, experiment ..Strivlna, endavoar, effort: hrgung° -Labour, effort, strivina, endeavour: anginn, tilung -Exertion, eft'ort: higJ>0 & -Utmost effort: eallm&gen°P -Labour to obtain: eamung -A particular act of labour, work: (ge)weorc .To try, attempt, endeavour: (ge)cunnian, (ge)fandian, (ge)secan ..To try, explore how to do: (ge)cunnian ..To put one's hand to, attempt: ongefOn .To strive, endeavour, attempt: Onettan, (ge)tilian ..To try ea1nertly, study: (ge)cneord1Zc8n ..To strive, endeavour, try hard: brecan, onginnan, J>ennan ..To labour for, strive after, endeavour: beswincan, eamian,

higian (~fter/to), plegan for, winnan efter/be ..To continue strivina: forJ>tilian° •To strive after, try to do, undertake: (ge)efestan .To try to do, set about, perform: (ge)cierran .To try a plan, put into practice: cunnian .To try to pt: hentan efter, r6migan°P See 06.02.07 Determination; 17.01 Hard work 11.03.01 Experience, trial, experiment: icunnung, fandung,

oferfundennes',onfundennes .Trial, testin&: cost(n)ung, cunnung, (ge)fandung .Ex•mlnation by feel (especially medical): hrepung .One who tries, tests, etc.: fandere°' .Not tried or experienced: ungefandod .To try, test: ifandian, (ge)costian, (ge)cunnian, fundian .To tat quality/character: (ge)fandian .To try, examine: imerian, iseoJ>an .To experience, ascertain by trial: Acunnian See 09.05.01 Inspection Trial, probation: ifandung, gecostnes0 , cunning, onfundelnes

.Fierce trial: brynenesq •To try, prove, put to the proof: icostnian', icunnian, idlman, irisian, oferfindan, t6KJ>an° .To test, prove, examine: imerian Proof, demonstration: fandung, gerecenes,


~ning Finding, discovery .An ex•mple, proof, Indication: bfsnung, tlcen, ticnung .Show senlns • proof, sip: aetjwnes .A credential, token: ticen .A witness: (ge)wita .Able to be proved: gesCJleanclice0 B .Succesdully, elllcadously: spedliceP .Confidendy, successfully: wewaer)>lice .To speed, succeed: geerendian, (ge)spedan, (ge)spawan .To succeed: fort> cuman .To succeed in a purpose, bring about: gesl!lan


11.04.01 An aptitude, bodily skill .To proa:ecl •plmt successtully: teon .To succeed in withsbmcHn1: wil>standan See Good fortune 11.04 Abllity,capmdty, power: craeft, megen, m21>, gemet, miht, sped, geweald, woruldcraeft .Spedlll power/capmdty: sundorcreft .Craft, aptitude: craeft .Ability: l>egnscipe .AbUity,devancss, talent: gleawnes .aevemess, skill: orl>anc •Wondrous endowment: wundorgiefu0 P .Endowed with (certain qualitia, etc.): gedl>n ..Gifted with, endowed, talented: giffest ..Rieb in spiritual/mental gifts: mdwelig0 P .Fit for, capable, 1ood (at): medeme, tit .Capable, 1ood, competent: gefindig0 , maga, tillicP .Competent, fit: gelimplic .aever, in1enious: 1>ancful .Matured, of developed powers: geiJogen .Esperienced: Munden ..(Long) experienced in: eald on ••Crack, experienced, chosen: gecost ..Tried, experienced: irisod .To be able, have power/ability to: cunnan, wealdan .To be within a person's power: onhagian .Has suftident power: geneah See lntelligence; 12 Power 11.04.01 An aptitude, bodily skill: leol>ucra:ftP .Dexterity, skill: manigteawnes ..Skill of band: hand, leol>ucra:ftP -Quick movement, deft playina: gearobrygd0 P .Skill in work: weorccra:ft0 S .Skill in hindering access: nearocraeft0 P .Skill with horses: wiccraeft0 P .Dexterous, skilful: maenigtywe, manigteaw ..Having sklllul banch: listhendig0 P ..SUre of arm: rihtscytte0 P


11.04.02 Skill, skilfulness .Dexterously, skilfully (u a smith): smiJ>lice&

See 17.02.04 Craft

11.04.02 Skill, sldlfnlncss: list .Skill: gebregd, getyngnes ..High skill: hcabcra:ftP .A skill, banduaft: handcrcft .An art, skill, uaft: list •Workmanship: (ge)weorc .(Of people, bands) sldlfnl: gehtred, getynge .Sldlful, skilled: crzft(e)lic ..Very skilled: gearosnottorP .Having the required skills, able: gOd •Well-qualified, skilful, eftident: sel .Showing skill, ingenious: orpanclic0 .Skilled, instructed: gerad .Advised, instructed, skilful: g~e •Well-instructed, educated: getogen .Skilled, expert: wis, gewittig .Having mastery of: getzl .(Of things) characterised by skHVprudeoce: gleaw .Skilled in an art/punuit/subject: trod, gleaw ..Skilled in secular arts: woruldcnieftig .Expertly, well: sel .With skill, skilfully: gleawe, gleawlice, orpancum, n!dlice •With skill, expertly: ciiJ>lice .With special skill: sundorcrzftig1Ice0 .With wondrous skill: wundorcrzftiglice0 See Learned Art, skill, contrivance, mnning: searo .Art, skill, a cunning art: searocrzft .Cunning, skilful: orpanc, searolic ..Skilful, cunning, skilled in: searocrzftigP .Subde, cunningly made: smCa1>ancollic .Skilfully, cunningly, ingeniously: crzftiglfce, deoplfce, listum, searoliceP, searwum, smCalJancollrce, wrslice .Elaborately, with skilled workmanship: cyrtenlrce, hCalice See Deception 510

11.04.03 (Of ability) low, mean, of less worth Cn•••na, craft, craftiness, pile, wlle: gebntgdnes0 ' . fizfeli, fizfelnes8, foxung°, lir, list, lytignes0 , (ge)swipomes, waerlot0 S .aeveauess, astutenea: geapscipe ..A.stutenea, devt:1ue11, deerJt: waergeapnes0 S .Cunning, subdety: deopnes .Subtlety, guile: smealicnes0 .Cunning, sly astutenell: waerscipe .Worldly cunning: woruldwrenc0 .Contrivance, machination, pile: sierwung .Art, wile, craft, stratagem, etc.: listwrenc, praett, searo, wt1q, wrenc ..A mnnlng device, aatifice, wile: searot>anc ...A IUdden artiftc:e: fzrsearoop ...A mighty device: freabregdq ...A wile, device, dart of the mind: hygegir 0 P ..A beacberous/eonning device, bick, etc.: nearobregd0 P, searocraeft, searowrenc, sm&wrenc0 ..An eviVmean trick: nearowrenc°P -Wile causing confinement: nearosearu0 P .Cnfty, cunning, skilfu.I, artful: lbered', andwrs0 P, (ge)braegden, craeftig, fzcnig', fizfel', geaplic, log)>er', lytig .Cnfty, clever, astute: geap .SUbtle, crafty: sm&h .Cunning, astute: (ge)swipor .Cunning, sly: wis .Cnfty, deceitful, false: bregdende, lytiglic .Crafty, whe In deceit: braegdwfs°P .Wily, sly: frZte, hinderg&p', praettig, searocraeftigP •Wily, insidious: sierwiende .Cunningly, craftily: craeftlfce, fizfellfce, lytigfice, searot>ancumP -Craftily: gebraegdenlfce0 1, gefaedlice -Cunningly: geswipore, geswiporlice°' .Cunningly, cleverly: geaplice .Artfully: gamenlice •To be cunning: fizfelian' .To act cunningly: lytigian°P .To plan, contrive, plot: (ge)sierwan •To practise wiles, me deceit: wrencan 11.04.03 (Of abWty) low, mean, otlea wortb: hnig .Inapt for, lneompeteat: unmedome SI I

l l .05 Natural/proper way/manner/mode of action .Unleaaoul, unskilled: cmftJC.SS .Rude, lnaperlenced, umktlled: nrwe .To mistake, go wrong: ztspoman .To fail to take, bungle: misfOn .To strike against, stumble: andspumang, onspumang, ot>spuman .To grope (about, on, etc.): grlpian See Unlearned; Error 11.05 NaturaVproper way/manner/mode of action: gecynd .Conduct, habitual action, habit, wont: t>Caw, gewuna .Usual character or (thing), wont: gewuna .Habitual action, practice, habit: gewuna .A custom, practice, usa1e: droht(n)ung, mant>CawP, sidu, t>Caw. j>Codscipe, gewuna •.A tradition, practice: (ge)selenesg, gewuna .Custom/way or the world: woruldntden°P, woruldwise0 "Manner/custom or men: manwfseP "Popular usage, custom or a country: landsidu, ICodj>Caw "A necessary/suitable custom: neadgewuna0 g .Order, regular mode or p~ure: endebyrdnes "Customary rule or usa1e: lagu, gewuna ..Established practice, course, institution: gesetednes, (ge)setnes ~ custom or (monastic) rule: regolt>Caw 0 .Ceremony, prescribed riWpractice: gescrifg ~ctice or. rite, study: anginn .Natural, usual: gecynde, gewunelic .Customary, usual: get>Cawe, t>Cawlic, get>ywe, gewuna. (ge)wunelic .Ordinary. or usual occurrence: gemaenelic ..Dally, usual, customary: dzghwimlic, dzgl>erlic .Habitually done, customary: eald, gewunelic .According to fixed custom, customary: gewunelic .Wont, accustomed: bewuna, togewunod, gel>Cawod, gewuna. (ge)wunelic ~ccustomed to, using habitually: gewunelic "Given/addicted to (behaviour): forgiefen, gelenge .Usually, ordinarily: gewunelrce .Habitually, customarily: t>Cawum, gewunelrce .Constantly, usually: geneatrce .Generally, always, habitually: on simbel .In the way or the world: zfter/for worulde, woruldlice .To be •uedlaccustomed (to do): willan 512

11.0S.02 Mode, manner, way, method, fashion, course .To btlbecome acmstomed: (ge)wunian .To accustom Ollt9elf, be ac:costomed: (ge)wenian .To be devoted to, practise babltu•lly: lufian .To take to, m•ke customary: ton to .To accustom, trala, habituate: gewenian See 05.02.02 Nalure

11.05.01 Familiarity: hiredwist°S, hiwciil>nes, hiwciil>ntdnes0 S •Well-known, usual, customary: cill> -Well-known: folcciil>, full ciil> .Familiar, accustomed: geheme0 .Familiar, household, domestic: hiredcill>°', hiredlicS, hfwcund°S, hiwciil>lic .To make known/familiar to: gehiwcill>lician° Unfamiliarity: unhiredwist°S .Unusual, not customary: unge~we , ungewuna. ungewunelic .Unaccustomed, unused: ungewuna .Unusually: ungewunelice See Acquaintance 0

11.05.02 Mode, llUUIDel", way, method, fashion, course: cost, endebyrdnes. gemet, gesc!ad, weg, wise, gewuna .A proceeding, course of action: faru, sIJ>, l>ing .A mocWway/cou.ne of life, part: dZI, droht, (ge)drohtnung, ingehygd ..A way of life, mode of life, conduct: drohtap/drohtnot>. lffiad, lifweg -.A right way of life: rihtliftid° .Behaviour, action, proceedinp: anginn .Conduct, behaviour: diht, tyht, t>Caw, ymbwendungs -Worldly conduct: woruld~w -ReauJadon of one's life, conduct: liffadung0 -Reasonable conduct, rational plan: ge.sce:ad .Bearing, manner, demeanour, conduct: geba!mes0 S, gebl!ru, gelli:te0 -Consistency (of behaviour): gesta:l>l>ignes ..Boyish ways, boylshntsa: cnihtt>Cawas0 , cnihtwise0 .Of (certain) mannenlbablt: ge~wod ..In my manner: minlice .To bear oneself, behave, conduct oneself: gebZran, begin, droht(n)ian, (ge)healdan, lif gelogian .To behave, act: (ge)don, gefCran, macian .To behave, seem, m•ke as tboagb: Jetan 0

513 A standard, norm, ethos .To act acconlln1 to, adapt to: gel>witrltkan •To treat, deal with: behweorfan, healdan ..To deal with, treat, behave towards: itCon, ledan ..To beat, use: habban .To tum, make a penon adopt (behaviour): lwcndan, gebfegan, gehwicrfan tO/on, oncierran ..(Figurative) to shake, move: iwecgan A nalMlard, norm,.....,.; regol .A worthy, proper proceeding: cynn .8ecular customs, worldly propriety: woruldgcrysnc .A proper mode of conduct: ~ipc .seemly/orderly behaviour, gravity: gcdreog, gcdnnl>, dugul>, ondrysnu, (ge)stiel>l>igncs .An exemplar, model, pattern: bfsen ..One who proves by example, a witness: gcwita ..An example (to follow/avoid): bisen ..An example of conduct: bfsen, bfsnung ..An example, parable: gclicncs .Active, versed (in suitable behaviour): gehwcorf ..Quiet, serious, orderly: gcdreog ..sober, grave, staid: (gc)stzl>l>ig .In accordance with good usage, properly: }>eawfzstliccq, }>eawlice ..Rlpdy, conformably, properly: rihtlrce, gewunclicc .Becomingly, with propriety: clznlicc, fzgere, gelimplicc .In a seemly manner, with respe...'t: (gc)dreoglicc .To follow an example/pattern: (gc)bisenian •To act in accordance with: geefcnlzcan .To conform to: (ge)cfcnlician .To set/give an example: (gc)bfscnian .To set an nample, exemplify: bfsen (on)stcllan See 12.07.01Proper; 14 ff law Humanity, courtesy, dvillty: manscipc .Consideration, courtesy: wzmcs _ .Courtesy, gendenea, meekness: man1>wzmcs .Pleasant behaviour: wynsumncs .An act of kindnes.t, courtesy, grace: liss, lufu, l>Cncst0 .Kindliness, blandness: swetncs .Gradous, kind, gende: gifol, glzdman, gOd, mann1>wttre, J>Cawfzst 514 Courteous forms of address

-Lon& 1racious;very kind: zrgl~ P 0

.Kind, charitable, lovlna: (gc)sw~s .Smooth, suave, not offending: smet>c .Fairly, courteously: f~gere, lufticc, gctynge, getyngelicc .Kindly, IJ'llciously, blandly: swzslicc .Fair in words, pf...,..nt in speech: f~gcrwyrdc P, lij>wyrde0 , wordwynsumoS ..Smootbspokeo, bland: swetwyrdc' .(Of voice, words, etc.) gende, courteous: lij>c, lij>clic .(Of words, etc.) soft, kindly: swetc .(Of speech) pndy, courteously: lij>clicc See ff Kindness 0 qrertinp, courteous terms of address: h&l(u) .Courteous adclrea on meedna: grfting .Respectful address/salutation: greting, gr!tingword -Respc::c:lful addrea to a superior: greting .To peet, ball, salute: gr!tan, hl!l abeodan, gch2lan, gchilcttan, gesund beon/wesan -To peet a superior respectfully: gr!tan .To welcome, 1reet: (ge)wilcumian .To acknowledge a person/greeting, bail: (gc)cniwan, oncnawan .To address respeclfully, salute: gr!tan .To announce, introduce: besecgan .To make oneself known: (ge)ciiJ>ll!can .Hail!: beo/wes J>ii hil, hil, hil wes J>ii, wclga, wet gesund .Welcome!: wilcumc .A greeting in letten, etc.: greting -(Of greetinp) commendatory: gegr!tlic0 g -To greet in a letter, etc.: grftan See 09.01.03 Address Courteous forms of address: .Dear people, friends: leofan men .Brotber(s): gcbrot>or, gcbrot>or l>8 leofestan, J>in brot>orlicnes -Fair(brothers): cyrten .Sir, sire: leofa .Lord: hliford .Lady: hh!fdigc .Majesty: cyncscipc 515 To greet amiss, insult To peet •miss, frmdt: misgretan

See Insult To bid farewell: (ge)gretan, gesund faran .Ungreeted, without proper leave: ungegret0 Indeconun, improp~ety, umeemH,,...~ unsidu, unt>zslicnes0 .An improper IDIUllleJ'/mode of conduct: unrihthad0 .UnMemly, unmannerty, unbecoming: ungedeftic, ungeliclic, unt>zslic .ID-mannered: t>Cawleas ..(Of habits) ill-mannered, disorderly: unt>Cawfzst .Unmannerty, troublesome: ungedefe .Ungracious. disobliging: unestfuJ 0 S .m-conditioned, rude: ungerid .Unmannerty, n1de: ungedafenlic .Rude, importunate: ungec0pJicoS .In an unuemly manner, improperty: ungedafenlice, ungeliclice,

unmedomlice, unsidelice0 , unt>zslice .In an undisciplined m•nner: unendebyrdlfce, ungel~redlfce .Roughly, n1dely: ungerl!delice0 .Pertly, saucily: gemahlice .Tactlessness, gruffness (of speech): gehlYd See Misconduct 11.06 Disinclination to act, listlessness: unlust .Spiridessness, inactivity: unarodscipe0 .Weariness, tedium, disgust: l!melnes .Wearinea, inability: unmzgnes0 ' .Sluggishnes.t, want of movement, heaviness: swl!mes .SOmnolence, lethargy: sliipolnes ..Lethargy: slzgus, sliipomes0 .Sloth, slugisbness, idleness: l!melnes, iisolcennes, aswundennes, slzwt>,

sleacmOdnes, sleacnes, swancomes, uncifscipe .Idleness: idel ..Idleneu, lack of energy: idelnes ..1-a:dness: solcennes0 S .A sluggard, one slow to act: dl!dlata0 P .A sluggish penon: sliwa .A triflet', idler: swl!m 516

11.06.01 Neglect .Slotbfol, Idle, lazy: eswindS, isolcen, creftlW', Idelgeom, slacfuVslecful,

sliw, slcac, sleaclic, swltr .slow, inactive, dull: besolcen .Enervated: iswunden •Wavering, languisbina: wl!freP .Heavy, inert, slow, slugisb: swangor .Slow, dull, slugisb, inactive: 5Zne/sene .Not ready/prompt, slow to act: ungearu .That makes sluggish/Inactive: sleac .Overpowering, heavy: hefig ,Somnolent, lethargic: slipol .81otbfol, inactive: bleap Jnclolent, slugisb: switnneahtendlice0 .Unthinkingly, thoughtlessly: orpancesq, unbel>Ohte .Thoughtlessly, without clue consideration: leohtlice, unforsceawodlice, ungeaplice°' .To slacken, grow remiss~ islacian .To slacken, relax, mak~ remiss: toslacian°1 .To become remiss or slothful: ieargian° 518 Ill fortune, bad success

.To Joee by sloth, neglect through luiN•: forsliwian .To neglect, be remlsslcarelea (of): lgllian, ir&:elWian, rbl~ian° •To be forgetful/careless about, ncalect: ofergapian°, ofergumian° .To leave uncared for, neglect: forgieman, forgiemel~ian, forletan, misgytnan°, ofergietan Set

11.06.02 Sufferina (not ac:tina): J:>rowung .To suffer (not ad): J:>rowian .To bear with, tolente, not stop: forberan .Not done: ungedOn ..State of being not done: undoonesoS .Unfinished, uncompleted: unfulworht°, ungeworht .Unflnlsbed, not accomplished: ungefrcmmed .UntuUUled: ungefullod0 P .Unperformed, not carried tbroqb: un)>urhtogen° .Not laboured over, not well done: ungeswuncenoS .Untried: unifandod0 , unifunden .Unftnlshed, Mlf.ftnl•bed: simworht •To half do, do Incompletely: simwyrcan 11.06.03 FaUlq, failure: isprungennes •To fall, come to naupt: ibreo)>an •To fall to perform: iw~gan, iwitgnian°, brecan gilp, trucian ..To fall to attend: forbugan .To undo, bring to naught: wi)>slean .To fall (a person), leave in the lun:b: beswican mfortune, bad sua:fM: medseJJ>O .A bard time: )>raechwfl0 P .Umucc:essful: untyg)>a0 .Badly, unsuccasfully: yfte .To fare badly, have ill sac:a:•: misfaran, missp()wan° .To fall, be unsuccessfu): t6dlan ..To slip up, fall: etslidan .(Of men) to sink: (ge)sigan .To fall (into sin, another's power, etc.): befeallan in/intO/on, beteran, (ge)gin, (ge)tiuosan, (ge)ieman, gewnan .To fall into, be removed to (bad place): ulfdan on .(Of penoas, 1DOnls) to fall, fall away: ibr&>J>an 519

11.06.04 Abstention, abstaining from .To fall from (power, etc.): lfeallan .(Figurative) to fall, be dtsbvyed: lfeallan See 08.0/.03.06 Adversity

11.06.04 Abstention, abstaining from: forbyrd, geswicennes .Not partidpating (in): fremde (fram}, ordele .To bold back, abstain (from): ihabban (fram}, ihealdan, forbiigan, forfteon, forgin, forhabban, oftinnan ..To guard agahwt, abstain from: wamian .To refrain from usin&, forso, forbear: forberan, forgin, forgangan, rrupan ..To allow to remain, not take/consume, etc.: (ge}Jltfan ..To omit to take, spare: forllttan ..To leave, not take with one: Jltfan, llttan -To leave behind, go away without: behindan littan ..To lay aside, put off, discontinue: ilecgan •To refrain from using/doint, spare: belltfan, forl~tan. (ge}lltfan, (ge)sparian, wandian ..To spare, ab..tain from injury to: beorgan .To desist from, abstain from: a:tbregdan, ofersittan .To abstain from action: (ge)fa:stan, forbOgan, forfteon, forgin, oftinnan ..To refrain from action, restrain oneself: (ge)healdan (wit>) ..To abstain from doing, not attempt, refrain: forllttan • ..To overlook, not demand: unmynegian° •To let be, cease from: llttan beon/wesan .To leave off, case (from), desist: iblinnan, (ge)blinnan, (ge)cierran fram, forberan, forllttan, llttan (fram/of), Jinnan, oftinnan, swefan, (ge)swrcan (fram), gewrtan (fram/of} ..To cease to have connection with: ot>feallan •To grow weaey (of doing), ceasie to do: geteorian .To let alone: in Jetan, forhltan, llttan .To cea~ come to an end, stop: a:tstandan, islrtan of, forstandan, oftinnan, geswrcan See 05.//.//.02 Let up; 12.07.03 Freedom from 11.06.05 Hesitation, scruple: t>reodung .Hesitation, delay: tweo .To hesitate: healtian, windan ..To hesitate (to act): (ge)tweon ..To hesitate, think over: t>reodian 520

11.07 Use (made of things), service -To hesitate, h.eng back, sbrlnk/8incb from: iwandian, forwandian, wifian,

wandian -(Of mala) to shy: scyn See Delay; ()(j, Doubt 11.06.06 Turuina: gecierring .Act of tuming ukle: forcierrednesg, forcierringg, wandung .A turning aside, defection, bacblldlng: frambige .To tum aside from, tum from: abweorfan fram/of, onbugan of,

onwendan fram/of, o~sceotan .To tum aside, avert from: oncierran fram .To tum back on (a decision): fram10cian .To avoid: iwaerlan, bebOgan, beorgan wi~. bewaerlan, fteogan, forbugan, forfteon, genesan -To shun, avoid: forescynian, forg&lan, onscunian, scunian -To tum aside from, avoid: forcierran, wandian -To go round. pass by, avoid: becierran -To step back, retire, recoil: onhupian -To avoid, keep aloof from: fteon -To cat ofl' from, bold aloof: iscirian .To beg ofl': belidian .To excuse (oneself from doing): forcwe~an See 12.07.03 Exemption Abandonment (of principle): forlittnes .One who leaveslforsaka: forlltterc0 g .To remove oneself from, witldraw: aetfeorrian, aethebban°, (ge)feorrian, gin of, (ge)swican (fram), ilt gangan

•To withdraw from, desert: fram swrcan .To abandon (someone), daert: itswician, aetfeallan, iswican, gewitan .To defect, daert: (ge)biigan .To quit, abandon: llttan .To pan by, abandon: oferleoran .To give up, abandon, relinquish: lgiefan, ihttan, forl&tan, ofgiefan, oftittan .To cease to regard, abandon: forllttan •To band over, deliver: iliefan, iscilfan, (ge)sellan, to handa weorpan

See 05.12.05 Change direction; 05.13.05 Changeability 11.07 Use (made of tbinp), service: ir, bryce, notu, ~nung, woruldbroc0 .Glorious use, glorious senlce: wuldomytting"P


11.07.01 Utility, usefulness

.An olllce, IUVke: wet~ .Beboof, med, use: bchOf .Necessary use, requlnmeat, need: nydbricc0 .To use, make use of, employ: mon, (gc)briican, (gc)dOn to, (gc)notian .To take/get and use: geniman .To apply, employ for a purpose: gct>eodan .To have recoune to: becuman on .To touch, make use ot, have to do with: hrcpian/hrcppan .To use, subject to operation, manage: (gc)macian .To enjoy, use: (gc)briican, (ge)bcyc(s)ian, gcbrytsnian, bryttian, gecamian,

nwtan, (ge)nyttian ..E*ys, U1eS: bcneah "To consume, eat up, deplete: bcnotian°, genotian°' 11.07.01 Utility, uselulnels: nytlicnes, nytncs, nytt(o), nytwcofi>licoesoS,

nytwiefl>nes, t>Cnung .Usefulness, beneficial operation: frcmfulnes .Effect, operation, efRcacy: gefrcmming .Useful: bchefe, brycc, gifre, niedl>earftic, notwicrt>coS, nytlic, nytt. nytl>earftic, nytwiert>e, nytwiefl>lic, l>rfest«, geJ>yht°P ..Equally useful/needful: efcnbchefe0 P .serviceable, useful, beneficial: ste~wiert>e, til, gel>Cnsum .Efticacious, beneficial: frami(g)eodlic, nytlic, nyttol0 .Usefully: niedl>earftice, nytlice, nytwiefl>lice "Very usetully: fomytlicc0 .Usefully, profitably, to good purpose: t>earftice .5erviceably, appropriately: briicendlice0 S .To have eftlcacy: bcheaJdan .To be serviceable, profit, avail: (ge)helpan .To prove serviceable, be of senkeluse: on~o. ~wian "Is good for, senes a purpose: ma:g to Desirability, expediency: gedafcnlicnes .Advisable, expedient: n!dlic .Advisably: redlice •To seem advisable: t6 n!de ~yncan 11.07.02 Utility, advantage, convenience: bchefnesS, gchy~nes, getlisnes, til .An advantage, convenience: gescrepe, gescr!pocs0 s, get&se .Suitable provision: gchyJ>l>o0


11.07.03 Use, advantage, profit .Occasion, opportunity: gchyl>ncs MOpportnnlty, means: spC!d

.Convenient, advantageous: (gc)hyl>lic, t2slic .Convenient, suitable: (gc)t&se .Within reach, convenient: gearo .Adapted to an end, useful, suitable: gOd .Convenient, opportune, snitable: gchyJ>clic .Opportune, good, convenient: til .Coaveniendy, snitably: gchyJ>clicc, gcscrCpclicc0 .EuiJy, apeeably, conveniendy: (gc)t&slicc .To snit, be convenient: onhagian See 03.06.03 Congruity; 12.07.01 Proper 11.07.03 Use, advantqe, profit: broc, brycc, feorm, nyttungg, geu!su. woruldnyttP .A u"lful ploy, profitable employment: J>carf .Benelt, profit, advantage, good: fo~. framung, frcmsumncs, frcmu, fremung, hyJ>cgung°g, gchyJ>clicncsg, hyJ>l>(o), notu, nytlicncs, nytncs, ongchyJ>ncs0 , rted,gctiCsncs,J>carf .A benefit: gOddZd, hrOJ>or ..A 11'4ul object, be:neflt, advantage: gOdncs ..A public benefit: foJcn!dP ..A good thing, benefit: gOd ..A useful thing, desirable object: gctiCse .,Something enjoyable, a beae8t: wa:stm ..An action benefiting tbe llOUI: fcorhrted°P ..A wished-for day: da:gwilla0 P .Advantageous: nytlic .Advantageous, profitable, benefldal: bcl>carftic0 , fremful, frcmi(g)cndlic, nytt, nytwicrJ>c, J>cm Ilic .Good, advantageous, in one's interest: sel .Any good, good for anything, of value: iwiht ·.To (one's) advantaae: furl>or1Icc0 MTo (one's) profit/advantage: fremfullicc .Well, properly: wcl .To profit, bendlt: bcyc(s)ian, fconnian, forstandan, forpswcbbang, forl>l>Cn°, framian, fremian .To avail: swiprian MTo profit, avail: sp6wan -To profit, avail, beM fit: (gc)hclpan 523

11.07.04 Superiority, p~nence, primacy ..Avails, is stroqleftlcacious: deag, m&g, l>earf .To seem good: (ge)lician, (ge)pyncan .To beneftt, profit, make progn11: framian See 07.02.02 Good; Prosperity; l Success

11.07.04 Superiority, pre-eminence, primacy: ealdordom .Dipity, importance: hefe, hercq ..Position of dignity, eminence, distinction: hCanes, (ge)pungennes .Cornerstone, keystone: hymstin .High degree (of a quality): hreh~u) .Chief, principal, foremost: forJ>mest, fram, fynnest, heafodlic, heah, ieldest .Great: great, heah, micel, unlytel ..Very &•eat: fonnicel ..Distinguished, eminent: gecoren, gepungen .Weighty, important: hefig ..Weighty, important, grave, serious: heah, hefig, hefigtyme, witwrerJ>lic _Very important, urgent: niedmicel0 .lll&her/more importantly: ufor, yfera .Uppermost/most importantly: yfemest .In the highest degree: on hrehpu(m) .At the head of, chief of: fore .Of higher rank: beforan .To make serious: gehefigian .To take precedence of: beforan gin, foregangan See 07.02.04 Excellence; 07.04.01Worth; High rank 11.08 Uselessness: unnytnes .Useless, of no use: ltnote0 , idel, porlcastl 11.08.01 Uselessness, umerviceableness: unnytlicnes .What is useless/unprofitable: unnyt .Lack of result, inelrectiveness: Tdelnes .Useless, unprofitable: unbryce, unfremful, unnyt, unnytlic ..Useless, unserviceable, unprofttable: unnytwyrJ>e ..Useless, lnel'fectlve: Tdel See 05.09 Weakness; Useless 11.08.02 lnconveaieace, unfitness: ungedafenlicnes0 g .Inconvenience: unge1Zsnes0 g ..An inconvenience: ungescrepe0 .Umuitable, onfttting, improper: uncynlic0 , uncynn°S 524

11.08.04 Vanity, idleness, frivolity

.Not suitable, lnconvmimt: unbchefc0 s .Inc:omrenlalt, unftt, useless: ungcscrepc .(Of material thinp) unseemly: huxlic .Inc:onvenlaltly: ungctttslfcc0 .To be lnconvmimt: ofhagian° 11.08.03 Needle11, mele11, anprofttable: unt>orfest°S .Useless, vain, unprofitable: unbi)>yrfcP .(Of words) empty, not backed by deeds: nacod •Worthless, of no avail: nibtlic .Without a cause, needlessly: un)>carfcs Jn vain: on oil, un)>erfc)>ing°• Jn vain, without reason/purpose: biitan intingan, holunga, idellicc, on idel, on idclncsse, unnytlicc, unnytwur)>licc .Vainly, emptily: ofcridclliccl .To lie idle, be put to no me: etlicgan° .To be wasted, not uced: losian .To make vain, render nugatory: (gc)fdlian, miswcndan, miswenian• .To waste, me to no purpose, abuse: imierran .To pour away, squander: g!otan 11.08.04 Vanity,idlene11, frivolity: idcl, idclncs .A DOlllfmle, triviality: lodrung°I .A worthless/trlftlng thing: hagal, idcling°•, swttm. unnyt ..A thing of no value: niht .A penon of little account: iwerdc0 • , flicma, lytling, sccalc .Worthless material: untimber 0 .False wealth: nihtwela0 •What Is of less Importance: ll!ssa .Useless, worthless: fraco)>, Tdellic, niht, ungengc°', unnyt .Worthless, of no value: nibtes .Of little worth/Importance: C$elic, bean, heanlic, (ge)hwl!dc, leohtlic, tytel, medmiccl, unmedomc, unwcorp, unwcor)>lic ..Frlvolom, trivial, useless: idcl, idclgcom, leoht, lytcl .UnwortbUy: unwcorplrcc .To be worthless: iwcorpan •To be of no account: nc standan tO ihtc .To lose force, worth, etc.: IJ'dl(i)an .To fall away, deteriorate: etfcallan .To make ftin/weak/worthless: iidl(i)an


11.09 Peril, danger

.To weaken, spoil: gew&tcan See LightmiNkd; /nferior rank

11.09 Peril, danpr: beot. freccdoes. fm:elncs, frec(en)ncs, frecoe, orleahter, pleoh, pliht, scyfe .Peril of the sea: wttgt>rea0 P .Perilous, dangerous: fr&:endlic, fr&:enful, fm:enlic, frecne, pleolic, plihtlic .Unprotected, unsheltered: giemelbs, unwered .Without defentt/protection: open .Unprotected, without 'pith': gri~lw0 •Without help: fultumlbs0 "Without u army: fyrdlbs .Unwarned: unwamod0 "Unaware, unprepared: unwaer .Dangerously: fm:eolrce, frecne .In peril: frecedlice .Unguarded: orwearde0 P .To endanger, imperil: gedyrfan, fm:elsian°', (ge)frecnian, pleon •To dare, adventure (oneself): fomet>an°, pleon ..Dares: dearr .To imperil, compromise: plihtan .Not to keep safe/preserve: forhealdan 11.09.01 Stealthiness, a stealthy act: creopung«, stalu .Stealthy movement: stalgong°P, stealcung° .A spy: leassceawere0 P, setere, sc&twere .Furtive, stealthy: stulor .Creeping, imidious: slincende, smeah, smiigendlic0 11 .Furtively, stealthily: stulorlice0 .8ecretly, sou to surprise: diegollrce .To proceed stealthily, steal upon: bestealcian°, bestelan (on), stalian "To embark stealthily: bestelan iip .To creep, crawl, sneak along: (ge)creopan, slincan, smilgan, (ge)snican "To enter SlllTeptidously, creep into: undercreopan Ambush, lylna in wait: slttnung, settung°I!, weard .A lurking place: dimhof, onliitung°ll, syretun(l ..A place of ambush: sltt .A mare, ambush: gesltte°' ..A bouae where ambusben wait: insattehiis0 11


11 .10 Safety, safeness .A hider, skulker: liltiend .To De in wait for: bestttian°, fof"Sdnian&, dt(i)ln, seomian, sicrwan .To lark (in), skulk, He bidden: etlutian, beliltian°, bemJl>an, darian°, (ge)diegl(i)an, (ge)liltian, stician on, wacian .To catch by lyfq in ambush: fordtian°

See Deception 11.09.02 A reminder, warnlna: gemynd .Word of waming, forewarning: werword .A warning/danger signal: getAcnung ..A slgnal-ftre, lighthouse: beacenfYroS ...Stone on which to Upt beacon: beacenstln' .Admonitory, senina to wam: gemyndiglic .To warn, make beware: (ge)warian, (ge)wamian -To wam epinst, pve notice of: (ge)wamian See; Foresee An edmonidoa, warning, abortedoa: myndgung/mynegung, wamung .Hortatory: mynegiendlic°I .To warn, admonish: (ge)myndgian/(ge)mynegian, gewerlkan° See; Threal 11.10 Safety, safme•; hilwende, (ge)synto .8ec:arity: sorgllast ..Life's security: ealdomeruP, feorhgebeorhop .Safe, not dangerous: geheald, gehieldelic0 , gesund, gesundlic ..Not bannfal: gebeorglic, unpleolic -Sale, to be trusted, not risky: treowlic .Safe, secure: (ge)hzle, (ge)hil, gehealdfest&, orsorg, orsorglic, sicor -Escaped from danger, safe: gesund -UninJund, safe ud sound: heghil&, gesund -Guarded, protected, safe: gehealden ..Free from care, secure: orsorg, sorglw -Secure, free from cbarp: cleclw, saclw ..8afe, unbetaayed: unswicenq .Safely: gesundfullice, gesundlrce -Securely, safely: orsorglrce ..S.fely, panlina against: werlrce .To ftl'ider ware, make safe: gefestnian, generian, weardian 527

11. I0.0 I Protection, safekeeping "To make sec:ure from falling away: gcstat>olfsestnian "To place in security: bcfsestan 11.10.01 Protection, safekeeping: gebcorg, bcwerung, forcscieldncs0 S,

frit>owaruP, frit>u. grit>. hl!owl>. mund, mundbyrd, mundbyrdncs, mundbeals0 P, ncrings, scead, sceadu, scield, scildens, (ge)scildncs, scildung. scua. getrymming, w~r. waru .That which protects, (a) protection: gebcorg, corj>wcard0 P, scield .Protecting power: mundcrzft"P, gewcald .A protector, defender: bcwerigend, burhwcard, frit>a0 P, (ge)fril>iend, gchcald, hcaldend, helm, hierde, hi!, gebola/gchala. hreddcre0 , mundbora, mundbyrdncs, mundiend, t>cccend, wcriend ~tector, life's guardiao: fcorhhyrdc ..A refuge, prop, protector: gcbcald, (ge)ncr .To protect, guard: bchcaldan, b!on/wcsan on gebyrge. (ge)bcorgan, bcwarian, bcwcardian, bcwreon, (ge)fril>ian, (ge)gril>ian, (ge)hcaldan, (ge)mundbyrdan, (ge)mundian, sceadwianS. (ge)scieldan, gewarian, wreon .To secure, protect: bclucan, ymbtrymman .To save from, protect against: ihreddan wiptfram, (ge)bcorgan wit>, bcwerian ongeanlwit>, gencrian (wit>) .To protect, defend: imundian, iscildanS, bcwerian, forstandan (fram), (ge)hcaldan, weardian "To defend oneself: iwcardian°, bcbcorgan (wit>), bcwarcnian (wit>) .To go to for protection, safety, etc.: (ge)secan "To take refuge with: (ge)secan .To receive protection from: mundbyrdan See 13.02.04 Defence; Protector Preservadon from ~my/destruction: (ge)hield

.Protection of life: lifwral>uP .Praervadon of life: fcorhgener 0 .Preservadon, maintenance: (ge)hcaldsumncs .A keeping-place: hcordncs, hcordreden, gehield .To protect, guard from ~ury,9eCUre: lwerian, (ge)fril>ian, geocian, (ge)ncrian, wcrian .To keep from destruction, save: (ge)nerian Refuge, help, shelter: gebcorhncs. gebcorhstow 0 • fcorhncru,

help, bl!, bl!onat>0 P. bl!owt>. hl!owungS. (ge)bybt, (ge)ncr. rotncs, rotsungS, sc!oq. tOft~oS

528 Vigilance .A relage, shelter, place of ll!fety: fril>st6w, hleo, hleowst61°P, hliwdhlig,

(gc)ner, gcncrstcdcoS, scildburhP .A place to creep into, ftbeat: smygcl(s)I .A place of shelter: gicstzm ..some kind of shelter: poshlrwc ..Shelter built of turf: turfhleow ..A sheltered and warm place: hleowstedc' ..Housing, shelter afforded by a house: hilshleow .Shelter apinst storm: scilrbcorg°P, sciirsccadu0 P .Protecting, sbelterin&: hleowfcst .(Of placa) protected, sheltered: fril>cn, gcfrit>ou0 P .Moor fastness: m6rfestcn •Water factnas: wctcrf&stcn .Wood fastness: wudufcstcn 11.10.02 Watcblna, pard, watch: hcordn!dcn, wcard .~custody, surveillance: gchealdsumncs .To watch, keep under observation: healdan .To watch over, take charge of: bcwacian, bcwitan, ton to, l0cian, wcardian Viplance: wacung .Vigilant, waklna, watchful: wacicndc, wacol, wacor, wcccendc "Very vigilant: l>urhwacol, l>urbwaecccndlic0 .On pard, prepared: wcr .(Of person) ready, alert: gcaro •Watcbtully, vigilantly, canfully: wacollice0 , wacorlice, waeccendlice0 .To watch, wake: (gc)w&eean .To take care, be on pard, be viplant: (gc)bcorgan, wacian •To be alert: wacian .To take care, beware: bchealdan .To beware, take heed to 0De9elf: (ge)wamian .To take heed of, gnard aplnst: (gc)wamian 529 Watchful care, keeping guard .To guard (oneself) aplnst: (ge)beorgan, bewarian wil>, onwarian,

warian (wil>). (ge)wamian See Warinus; 11.02.02/f Diligence Watchful care, keeping guard: (ge)heordnes, beordntden,

(ge)hierdnes .Watch, guard (kept over): geheald, geheordung', (ge)hierdncs, wacen -Watch over life: feorhweard0 P - Watch against the monster: eotonweard0 P -Watch on the shore: a!gweard0 P, sitweard .One who watches, watch, guard: heordncs, heordntden ..A guard, body of men keeping watch: weard, weardseld ..A guard, sentry: weard ..A keeper, guardian, watchman: giemend, hand, gehield, mundbora,

sc!awere, weard, weardmann -A day watchman: dzgweard8 -A guardian at night: nihtweard°P -A bodyguard: heafodweard -A guardian of the shore: ende5Zte0 P, landweard0 P -A guardian of a harbour: hyl>weard -A forward guard aboard ship: for)>weard scipes .A steward, guardian: stiweard ..A guardian of treasure: goldweard°P, hordweanfP -Guardian of the ball: renweard0 P, seleweard0 P -Guardian of the abyss: grundhyrde0 P -(Of the whale) guardian of the sea: mereweard0 P .To look after, guard, watch: begiman, gieman, habban, hiwian, (ge)healdan, oferwacian°, wacian ofer, witan .To guard, m•ke a defence: scieldan ongean See 13.02.04 Defence Care, interest in: C8JU .Care for, looking after: giemen, giem(e)nes, waru .Watcbful care: (ge)hield .Faltbful care, protection: triiwa .Care, keeping, guarding: gfeming, heord, (ge)hierdnes

.Protection, guardianship: gehealdnes, mundwist0 , weard -Le&al protection: mund, mundian -Guardiambip (entrusting child to another): facsting 0 0 .Emb~ keeping: facl>m, hleowfetne P, onfacl>mncs 530

11 .10.03 Salvation/deliverance from

.aoak, fold, boeom: sclal .Lap, boeom: greada .A patron, protector: feder, fyrt>rlend ..A protector, cherisher: lufiend ..A protector, guardian: mund ..A (powerful) protector, patron, lord: hleowdrihten°P, wine .One who lacks a protector: hleowlora0 P .Mindful of welfare of, caring for: gemyndig .Careful, caring, protective of: (ge)healdsum .To care for, see to welfare of: begiman, carian .To cherish, shelter, take care of: gehiertan .To take care of, attend to: behogian, ymbhogian -To attend to, see to tbe 1oocl condition of: behweorfan, gieman, (ge)healdan -To take care of, beat carefully: gTeman •To IU'dve (for protection, etc.): undertOn .To turn for help to, have recourse to: (ge)cierran (tO), (ge)hweorfan, ieman .To commit, entrust, deposit (in keepiq of): etfestan, befestan, belltcan, (ge)fa:stan, gefestnian, (ge)giefan, (ge)sellan .To commit (duty, etc.) to, entrust: isettan, belltcan, opfa:stan .To put (into a post), commit, entrust: on treowe gelittan 11.10.03 Salvation/deliverance from: hitl(u), generednes0 , generenes .Relrase, liberation, settln1 free: forgiefnes, frCodOm, hreddung .Release, redemption: ilies(ed)nes, tOlysing .A giver of freedom, liberator: freolsgefa0 , freotgifa' .Not bound, unbound, free: un(ge)bunden .Awaiting release, to be released: helpendlic0 1 .To make free (in respect to penoa/thlnl): iliesan for/wip .To free (from a bond): unbindan .To reJeas.e, set free (from): Adon (of), iheordanq, iliesan (et/fram/of)q, bed~lanq, befreogan°P, forletan (ut), (ge)freogan, gelangian, onliesan, unbindan, unlresan .To redeem, rescue, deliver: iliesan, ut gedOn, ut niman .To redeem, buy ort: ibycgan, forgieldan .To deliver, rescue (from): ifreonl, ihreddan (a:t/on/fram), ihttan, llynnan/ilynian, inerianl, (ge)dOn fram, (ge)freogan, gefripian, hreddan, (ge)liesan (of), (ge)nerian .To save from: (ge)helan, (ge)hllgan .To undo (what Is bound): tolysan, undon


11.10.04 Flight

.To t.ke, carry off from, rescue: aetbregdan, iledan (ilt), gelaeccan of, iit o)>bregdan, wil>ferian See 12.01.0/./0 Freedom 11.10.04 nlabt: ftWri .Condition of beiJll a tuptive: fteamdom0 .One who flees: ftiema ..A deserter, one who nms away: ftrema .One who leaveslfonakes: forletere0 S

.To flee, flee from: a:tfteon, aweg fteon, befteon, forfteon, fullfteon°, on fteame weorpan, ol>fteon •To nm away, flee (from): a:tieman ilt. (ge)bUgan, fteogan, (ge)fteon, for(e)fteon (fram), infteonq, ofer bee bugan, oferfteon°P, ol>faran°P .To witbdnw from, desert: fram swican See Travel away: Outlaw 11.10.05 Escape: hwyrftweg°P .A survivor: belrfend, oferstealla0 ..SUmvon of a adamlty: w~if ..last (remnant): endeJlf0 P .To break out, escape: ibrccan (iit), a:tberstan, a:thl~. ol>berstan (ut), ol>hleapan° .To nm off, escape: ol>ieman/oj>rinnan, 01>scacan° .To escape, get away: a:tfaran°, aetsceotanq , iweg(e) cuman, ol>sceotan, ol>windan, wil>faran°P ..To escape by swimmiaa: ol>swimmanq, iit a:tswimman ..To escape by rowing away: ol>r0wan° .To escape (from): a:twindan, cuman iweg, cuman of, ol>gin .To escape (from) danger, harm, etc.: gedigan, (ge)nesan ..To escape from an enemy: gedigan .To escape, abscond (from): onweg Josian .To pass through (danger): oferfaran .To survive, escape: is~ P ..To escape with one's life: ealdre gedigan, gefaran feorh, teore gedigan, mid life gedigan 0 Evasion, escape from threat: swice .To escape, evade (something uapleennt): a:twindan .To evade, be free from: beswician .To lteal away: bestelan (on weg), forstalian 532

l l.l l.01 A physical difficulty, strait .To dip away from: 01>~tan .To slink away: slincan .To get away, get oft: iwcg tengan .To ward off (evil, etc.), de8ect: bewarenian, bewarian, bewerian 11.11 DUlkulty: earfol>nes, unlal>elicncs0 , unl>yldlicncs0

.What Is dJflicult, a dlftlmlt thine: earfo)>e ..A knotty point, pnme, diftlculty: cnotta .DHllcult: earfo)>e, earfol>lic ..DUlicu.lt, bani to do: earfol>elic ..Impracticable, bard to do: forgcngc0 ..Hard to get: t0rbegete0 ..Bard to relate/tell: earfol>recce0 · •With difBculty: earfo)>e, earfol>lfce, hefigc, nealfce, unlal>e. unlal>elice, weamwislice', weorcc ..Not easily, only by depees: heardlice ..With great difBculty: unearfol>lice' ...With greater difficulty: unicl>e ..With difBculty, with trouble: unlal>elice, unsOftc 11.11.01 A physical difRcuJty, strait: ncaru

.A danger, hindrance, obstacle, difRcuJty: meoring0 P, wearn .Physical inconvenience, difficulty: ncaroncs .Need, distnss, straits, dUllculty: J>carf .A physical barrier: hramaq .A check, stay, clamp: undcrscytc .Skill in hindering access: ncarocneft0 P .Arduous, rough, bard, difBcult: clincig0 s, geandyne0 , heah, stearc, sticol .DHllcult to pas5 through: earfol>fercO .DifRcuJt of access: orwcgs ..Impassable, without a road: ungcfarens ..Trackless, diftlcult: ungcferenlic0 .To be in straits: ncaru l>rOwian .To crowd someone, pve little space: (ge)nicrwan .To blockade, surround: forsittan .To trip up, cause to stumblrlfall: iscrencan, fyllan, scremman°, (gc )screncan .Against, in the way of: wil> 533

11.11.02 A hindrance 11.11.02 A hindrance: gelatu .A blnclrance, stnmbli111·block, obstade: l!swic, l!swicnes8, gemearr,

mierrelse0 P, ongeanhworfenness, ongeanwyrdnesoS, o)>spemingoS, rilma/ruinaq, gescrencednes8, spomingO• .Hindrance, hindering, obstacle: hremming .Hindrance, thwarting: (ge)letting .Hindrance from worldly •train: woruldhremming .A hinderer: lzttend .(Figurative) a burden, weight: hefe, hefenq, pund, wl!g -(Figurative) a mill-stone: byr1>enstin°• .That binders, obstructiJll: forctimbrigende .Hindered, held back (by storms): foretyned, forset .To binder: awierdan, (ge)lettan -To binder from doi111: igl!lan -To binder, delay: dwellan -To delay, retard: sleacian -To binder, impede: (ge)bindan, gl!lan, (ge)hremman -To binder, interrupt, impede: imierran -To interrupt, break into: gebrecan on/in -To binder, obstruct, impede: idwellan, (ge)mierran, wierdan -To obstnict, stand in the way: wil>standan ..To mar, disturb, obstruct: onmyrran° .To dose, block up, obstruct (passage, etc.): beliican, fordician, forfyllan°8,

forsettan, forstandan, fortimbrian, fortfnan, forwyrcan .To refuse admittance: forwiernan .To hinder, impede, check: (ge)hindrian .To hinder, check, restrain: forwieman, gehnZc80, werian .To ratrain, obstruct: wil>habban, wil>haeftan .To repress, check, curb: ofsittan .To impede, restrain, stop: belilcan, (ge)healdan .To obstruct, prevent: forecuman, forestemman8 See Restraint 11.11.03 Impedi111 of progress, prevention: foresteall .Prevention in order to protect: gebeorg .To prevent: forlettan8 -To prevent (someone's action): forbeodan ..To prevent, be a stumbllJll block: (ge)hremman ..To forestall: foresta:ppan .To keep (something) off (from): (ge)beorgan, werian 534

11.12 Easiness .To prevmt from rachlng, keep from: gehremman fram .To prevent from dolnglbelng, keep back from: (ge)st!oran/(ge)stieran .To get in front of, intercept: forebegin .To cut off, intercept (by riding): forridan .To prevent, stop: forfOn (forane), forsc&>tan ..To compel to stop, bring to bay: on bid wrecan .To stop, put a stop to: iwendan, opstillan° ..To stop (an action): gestillan ..To stop (someone) from doing: forstandan .To stop, hinder the movement of: (ge)lettan .To stop, det•ln (someone): behabban •To be prevented from action, hampered: stician 11.11.04 Subvenion, change: iwending8 .Undta mlniq: underdclfl .Cbange, revolution: ymbhweorfnes0 1 .To alter, change, subvert: forhwierfan .To overturn, subvert: undercerranl .To cut down, overthrow: understapplian°1, underwyrtwalianl See 05.13 Change 11.12 Eashws: ~licnes°' .Ease, freedom from dlftkulty: IeJ>nes .What is easy, an easy thins: cat>e .Easy, easy to do: cat>dl!de, cat>e. Iet>e, Iel>elic, leoht ..Just as easy, equally easy: efenet>e0 P ..Easy, presenting little dif&culty: ~lie, leoht ..Easy, requiring little effort: sleac ..Eesily brought about: IeJ>togen° ••Easy to bear: gesefte ..Easy to recognise: eat>cnewe0 ..Easy to pess: Caj>n!de ..Easy to get, easily got: laJ>begeate, laJ>ge(a)te .Easily: Caj>(e), Caj>elice, iel>elice ..More easily: iel> ..Very easily: forea&>e0 , forea&>elic0 ..Most easily: ieJ>ost ..Easily, without opposition: sOfte ..Easily, without inconvenience: leohtlice .Readily, without clUBculty/delay: gearwe


11.12.01 Absence of resttaint, freedom .To make easy to do: gegcarwian 11.12.01 Absence of restraint, fl eedom: frCodom, frignes .Free: frCo -Unimpeded, unhindered: ibunden, freo, riim -At liberty to speak: muJ>freo0 .(Of feet) unobstnlcted, unhindered: unetspomen°, unforspomed0 ,

unforspomen .Unobstnlcted, penetrable, paSMble: open, J>urhtere' .Unforced, uncompelled: ungenidd .Not living under a rule: steorleas •Without hindrance or restriction: freolice, freolslice, wel .Without obstruction, at large: openlice .At large, freely: on geriim .Without hindrance, irralsdbly: unweamumP .To free (from objection/condition): (ge)freolsian .To dear away (an obstruction): (ge)cyman .To open a way, make dear: geopenian, (ge)cyman .To ovenmne, surmount: oferstrgan .To let go, cease to bold up/restrain: inforletan, forlztan .To unloose, relase, relax: (ge)liJ>ian .To free from restraint/distress, facilitate: (ge)hyJ>egian .To make dear for, allow (action, etc.): (ge)cyman .To give play to (emotion, etc.): (ge)cyman See FreetkJm 11.12.02 Aid, help, succour: frofor, fullest, fultum, fylst, help, midhelp0 g,

wrapu .Help in trouble: geoensum -(Of counsel) helpful, salutary: hilwendlic 536 Amendment, setting right, reparation .To help, aid: ihelpan, andfylstanoe, (ge)irian, (ge)feonnian, {ge)fullestan, (ge)fultumian, (ge)fylstan, (ge)helpan, gestepan, tOhelpanoC .To promote, advance, support: (ge)fort>ian, fullgin, (ge)fyrt>rian, (ge)helpan, scOfan .To receive a penon for belplprotection: onfOn .To stand by, help, aid: bestandan, fultum gestandan, mid standan, on fultum gestandan, on stale beon/wesan, undercumanl ..To aid the escape of: iit sceotan .In support, with, for: mid .For the sake of: fore, for ... intingan, for . .. lufum, for .. . l>ingum, for ... willan, on lufan, t6 1>ance Streaplmdng, confirmation: (ge)trymming, trymnes .(Figurative) a support, crutch: crycc .Sb mgtheni.ng, sustenance: strangung, underwrel>ungl .(Figurative) sustenance, food: Rdnes0 , fOda, fOddurgifaq, tostor .Life-sustaining: ferl>fril>ende0 P .To support, sustain: alan, iwrcl>ian, gebidan (mid), bredan, f'Cdan, feormian,

(ge)fercian, (ge )t!strian, (ge)tostrian, (ge)leswian, ontYdran°, undersceotan, understingan°, gewacterian See / Spiritual renewal Amendment, setting right, reparation: gebetendnes0 1, bOt,

Ief>rung0 P, rihting .An improvement in cin:umstances: wyrp .Restored, renewed: cdniwe, nrwe .Better: bet

.To put ript, direct arilht: (ge)rihtan .To recreate: eftscippan°1 See 05.//. Renewal; 12.07.04 Justice; Repair


12 Power, might

12. Social Interaction 12 Power, might: afol, ellenazftOP, m&genscype0 P, miht. geweald .£xcess:ivefo•etpowering might: oferma:genP, oferprymm0 P .Power, might, streo&tb: crzft, dugul>, eafoJ>P, miht. strcngJ>u, s~gu ..Power, might, abundance of strength: macgencrzftP, mzgensp&IP .Power, foru: 1>racuP, J>rymm. l>ryJ>P .Power, might, p eatness: riceter(e) .A sbvag/powerful foru: stlpmzgen°P ..(God's) wise power: ntdmacgen°P .A power, nerciser of power: miht .Powerful, mighty: anweald, anwealdig, bresne, crzftig, miht, spedig,

J>rymlic, gel>ryJ>ed0 P, l>fYl>licP, weald, (ge)wielde ..Very powerful: forcmihtig, swi}>mihtig°P, J>ryJ>swYJ>P ..Equally powerful: efenrice0 .Strong, powerful: hror, mzgenlgende0 P, mzgen!acenP, macgenstrangP, maga, rice, Strang, l>ryl>ful, l>ryJ>ig°P ..Very strong/powerful: forswi}>, mzgenheard0 P .Great, powerful: micel, rice ..Very peat: swi}>lic .(Of power) peat: full ..(Of power) far-reaching: wid .Powerfully, mightily: igendlice, mihtelice/mihtiglice, ricelice, l>rymme, l>rymmum, l>ryl>lfceP, gewealdendlrce0 P .Strongly, mightily, with power: l>fYl>umP .To have power, cause: wealdan .To b&'become strong, pin power, prevail: macg(e)nian, swi}>ian .To make powerful: crzftigian°, gemacg(e)nian, gestrangian, (ge)swi}>ian See 05.08Strength;11.04 Ability; 12.05.06 Control 12.01 Power, control, sway: tthtgewealdP, gefadung, miht, onweald,

(ge)weald, gewield .Suprem~ power: dugul>miht& .Dominion, power: hlifordJ>rimm0 .8ecular/worldly power: eorJ>macgen°P, woruldafol, woruldrice,

woruldricetere0 .Patronage, jurisdlctloa: hliforddOm .Power over, possession: onwealdnes8, geweald .That wlelcls power. wealdende .(Of power) eecular, worldly: woruldrice, woruldstrang0 538 Seat of authority •To control, have power over: (ge)wealdan 12.01.01 Authority: dom, ealdord6m, ealdordomlicnesq, ealdorlicnes, folgot>, frumsetnesoS, miht. onsting, rice, scir, t>rymm

.Great power, authority: fullnuegen° .Lawfol authority: rihth1Aforddom0 .Lordship, authority, rule: dryhtscipe•>, ealdord6m, ealdorscipe, hliforddom, hlAfordscipe .Leadership: ladscipeoS, litteowdom .Royal power: cynedom. cynebelm, cynerice, cynet>rymm ..Kingly rule: riccdom ..Imperial rule: ciserdom _Imperial: ciserlic0 S .Supreme authority, empire: cynedOm .sovereignty, majesty: dryhtendom0 P .Monan:hy: sunderanweald°S .Tetrarchy: fiJ>enice0 .Lordship, rank of an earl: eorldom ..Belonging to a lordship: eorldomlic Rule, domination, di1ection: diht, gieming, riEd, rl!den,

ricsungS, wealdnesoS, wielding', wissung .Rule, governance: onweald, n!ding, gerec, reccendom/rccedom ..Governance of a people: lCodweardP -Kingship of Kent.: centrice -Royal business, affairs of state: cynewise ..Bad rule, misgovernance: misl'Zd .That aoverns: landhzbbende .To rule (over), govern, dlrec:t: forewesan, gieman, (ge)healdan, oferbebeocian°S, ofer beon/wesan, oferricsian°, onwealdan, geonwealdianS, racian, n!dan, (ge)reccan, (ge)ricsian, rihtan, rihtwisian, stihtan, (ge)wealdan, weardian Seat of authority: seld/setl, stol .Seat of power: mihtesetJO

.An ofticial seat: ealdorsetJoS .A throne: cynesetl, cynestol, ealdorstol0 P, gifstoJP, gumstol 0 P, heahseld/-setl, sundorsetl, t>CodenstolP, t>rym.seld/-setl ..Heavenly throne: rodorst61°P ..Papal throne: plpseld/-setl 539 Symbols of power .To sit in authority, preside: foresittan, (ge)sittan .To come to the throne: Ion to nee .To sit on a throne: sittan cynestol See Seat Symbols of power: .A crown, diadem: byge, corenbeg, corona, cyneba:nd0 , cynegold, cynehelm,

cynewi):>t>e8, gyldenbend0 , heafodb&g, hWodbend, heafodgold, helm, hro):>girela', mind0 S, sigbeag .sceptre: cynegyrd .An oftlcial staff: sta:f .Banner with a staff: hiltecumbor 0 P .Hom: horn .(Figurative) to crown: (ge)cynehelmian .To dab: dubbian° A leader, ruler: bora0 P, brego, bregoweardP, dryhtwerP,

ealdonnann, ealdorwisa0 P, eodorP, fengelP, folcfrea0 P, folcgesij>P, frea/frigea, fr!areccereS, fruma, heafodwisa0 P, heahealdor 0 , healdend, hearra, hierde, hi Mord, hofding°, onwealda0 P, onwealdendS, ord, ordfruma, ntdend, n!sbora, (ge}n!swaP, reccend, regolweard, rfca, ricsere0 S, ricsiend, rihtend, rihtere0 , strenge1°P, ):>engelP, wealdend, weard .Ruler as ring-giver: beaggifaP, goldgiefaP, goldwineP, mij>):>umgyfa0 P, sincbryttaq, sinces brytta, sincgiefaP, wilgiefaP .A chief, leader, prince: beohiita0 P, beomcyning0 P, beotma:cgq, breosttoga0 P, ealdor, folctogaP, foreliitteows, forwost, framrincs, frumgarP, heafod, heretoga, l~dereS, magor~swaP, peoden, wigendra hleo A royal leader: cynehlAford, cynemanns, cyning, dryhten,

dryhtenweard0 P, eaJdhliiford, eaJdorfrea0 P, epelcyning0 P, ij>elweardP, folccyningP, treadrihtenP, gumdryhtenop, heahcyning, hlMording, hordweardP, landfruma0 P, landhliiford, leod, leodgebyrgaP, leodcyning°P, leodfrumaP, mandryhtenP, rexq, ricehealdendq, sinces hyrde, ):>eodcyning, ):>eoden, ):>eodfruma0 P, woruldcyning .An emperor: cisere, woruldcyning .A queen, empress: ciisem0 , cwen, cyningeq, dryhtcwen°P, folccwen°P, hlrefdige, ):>eodcwen°P Kinp and qunns:


12.01.0 l.06 Condition, rank, standing .A rigbtful king: riht cyning .A later king: acftercyning° .A dependent kina: undercyning .An eartbly king: eort>cYning, woruldcyning .A heathen king: hatl>encyning°P .An eastern king: wtcyning° .An lsl•nd kina: calandcyning° .A king or England: angelcyning, bretwalda0 • hliford .A king with sea-power: ~cyning°P .A mighty king: brytencyning°P, brytenwealda, ml!lgencyningP .A warlike king: gill>cyningP, gilJ>weardP MKing preceded by a banner: segncyning°P .A warlike queen: gill>cwcnP ..A victorious queen: sigecwcnP A lord, master: bebCodend, foregenga, 112sere' .A rightful lord: rihthliford .A secular lord: woruldhliford .A lord or valt!Ullslretainen: hliford ..A master or servants: hliford, magister .A dear lord: frCawineP, winedryhtenP .A gracious lord: hold hliford .A hereditary lord: ealdhliford A leader, administrator: canceler, ealdor, ealdordemaP, ealdormann, giemend, heafodmann, hcafodweard, heahealdor 0 , heahealdormann, heahgerefa, heahl>egn, heretoga, hliford, hlifweard 0 P, horsl>egn, gemetgiend, ofer(ge)set, prafost, (ge)refa, gerefmann, scirwita, steallere, tictator, tiingercfa, gel>eahtere. !>egn, underliitteow 0 , weor)>scipe, wice, wicnere, wicgerefa .In England: ealdormann, teoJ>ingmann, heahgerefa, J>npinggerefaq .Count of the Welsh marches: wealhgerefa Condition, rank, standina: hid, scipe, stede .A rank, arade, order: endebyrdnes, geferscipe, hid .One of like rank, a fellow, peer: efen(ge)lica, efengemaccca, efenhada0 , gelica, gem&eea •.A fellow-servant, equal: efeni>Cow(a) .Equal, or like condition: efen, efen(ge)lie, (ge)efenlic 541 I Rank. position due to birth .Of equal rank/dignity: efenweort>

See Rank R•nk, position due to birth: (ge)byrd .Of (particular) birth: boren .Of equal birth: efenboren°, efenbyrde0 .Of legitimate birth: fullboren .Eldest, ftnt bona: betstboren Superior: ofergeset .Placed above otben, superior: ofer(ge)set See; 11.07.04 Superiority (High) rank, status, deaaee: geJ>ynct>o .Majesty, rank, deaaee, 1reatness: healicnes .Hip rank: gebyrd .Of rank/excellence: inlic .(Of rank/position) peat: eadig .Of hip rank: (ge)byrde, healic ..Equally hip: efenhCah .Best or highest in rank: fyt 111est. fyrst, selest, yfemest Of middle rank: medstrang0

See Middle Inferiority of status, lowest place: a:ftergengnes .Meanness of condition: gehwZdness, wacnes .An inferior, a low person: geongra .Inferior in rank/position: lytel .Inferior, junior, lesser: ll!ssa .Last, lowest: endenehst .Subordinate in rank, lesser, younger: geongor .Youngest, least: geongest .Less in deaaee: lits See lnferior; 11.08.04 Vanity Nobility, noble condition: a:t>elnes, a:t>elu, heahnes, weort>nes .Noble, of noble rank: a:t>ele, dryhtlic, eorlcund, eorlisc0 ..Equally noble: full zt>ele ..Very noble: efena:t>ele 542 A person of rank, elder, great man .Possessed ofbonoun, noble, boaounble: weort> .Noble, illustrious: fm>, h&llic, weorl>ful, widcill> .Lordly, noble: eorlic, hlifordlic', l>egnlic .With high quality: h&llice ..In the llUlDDel" of a lord: dryhtlice

See 07.08.01 Nobility Gende birth, nobility: tel>elborennes, tel>elu, eorlgebyrdP .Of ge.nde birth: tel>elboren, tel>elcund, d~. forl>boren .More highly bom: betboren°, borenra .Well bom, noble: betstboren, cynegOcfP, cynnig8, l>egnboren°, welboren .Noble, gende: freolic, gesij>cund .Noble, kingly: cynewyr)>e Royal/princely status/dignity: tel>elinghid0 , cynedom, cynehid, cynescipe .Kingliness, distinction, royal excellence: cynelicnes0 .Kingly, royal: cynelic .Queenly: cwcnlic0 P A royal nee: cynecynn .A rlghtfol royal line: ealdhlifordcynn° .Royally bom: cyneboren A person of n1nk, elder, peat m•n: eald, ealdormann, ieldest, ieldra, gentswaP, (ge)refa, gesi)>, gesi)>mann, l>egn, l>Cningmann, wita •Who ls a Dane, a jarl: eorl .Holder of land below a jarl: hold .A person of n1nk, noble: tel>eling, beomP, domne, eorl, forl>rnan°, gummann°P. hliford, hlifording, ord, rid(e)cniht, sibtel>eling0 P ..Chief noble: forl>l>egn ..Nobles collectively, nobllity: dugul>, ealdorduguJ>P, g0ddd0 P, ord, rihtcynecynn, rihtcynn ..A noble lady: cwcn, forj>wif0 S, hlzfdige, (ge)si)>wif -Queen dowager: sea ealde hlzfdige ..A noble child: cynebeam ..A youth of geode birth: cild .A thane: l>egn ..Status of thane: l>egnscipe ..Thane In a burgh: burhl>egn 543

12.01.01 .07 A follower -Thane of a shire: scrrt>egn ..A secular thane: woruld}>cgn ..Fit to rank as a thane: gesi}>cund .Man of 600-shilling wergild: sixhynde man -Having 600-shilling wergild: sixhynde .Man of 1200-shilling wergild: twelfhynde mann -Having 1200-sblllingwergild: twelfhynde .A tide of rank or dignity: nama ..Majesty: cynescipe -Lord: domne, eorl, hliford -Lady: domne, hlzfdige A follower: ambiht, folgere, geongra. magoP , mago}>cgnP, mann,

}>cgn, wassen .A retainer: hand}>cgn, heall}>cgnP, heorf>geneatP, mann, seldguma0 P, selesecg0 P, ~gumaP ..A principal retainer: ealdorl>egn -(Ironic, of Grendel) a hallthane: heall}>cgnP .A body of retainen: }>cgnscipe, }>cgnscolu0 1 , }>cgnweorud0 P ..A retinue, train, company: corf>or, gefCrscipe, hos0 P, leot>u0 P, gesi'}>P, t>Cnung ..A band of bousebold retainen: hygedriht0 P ..An (armed) retinue: heap ..A noble retinue: a:}>cldugut>0 P .A client, protege: scolmannl, geJ>ofta, wine ..A dependant, orphan: unmaga .A servant, retainer, follower: cniht, heorf>cniht0 , hleremann, hrredmann, hieringmann, hyra. scealcP, J>Cnestmann°, l>Cni(n)gmann, l>CCodan to .To be dependent on: llician to See 06.0/. Disciple; /3.02./0.0/.02.01 Armed band Service: J>Cowdom, J>Cowot, J>Cowtscipe0 .Service, homage: t>Cowotdom .Service to a lord/master: }>cgnscipe, J>Cnung .Secular service: woruldJ>Cowdom0 ..Service in the kitchen: cycenJ>Cnung° .State of being a senant, service: t>Cowdomhid0 , J>Cowhid

544 A servant, attendant ..State of belna a thane/vassal: j:>egnreden, t>CowdOm .semce, c:Alke: ambeht, folgol> .Compulsory service: hen .(Of persons, mind) lenile: t>Cowlic, t>Cowtlic .Domestic: hiwcut> .To serve: ont>Cowigan°', (ge)t>Cowian ..To lfti te under: undeq>enian°' .To be a se"ant to: (ge)hrersumian .To act a1 a se"ant: t>Cowian .To Mn~ wait upon: geembiht(i)anl, (ge)hreran, onbidan, seruian, tOIJCnianl, (ge)j:>egnian, wicnian .To offer a form of service: bryce healdan See 14.0/.05 Obligalion A senaat, attendant: ambiht, ambihtere0 1, ambihtmann, ambihtmecgP, ambihtsceaJcP, ambihtsecg°P, irl>egn°, esne, forcgenga, forcwyrcend, gesi}>, gesi}>a. gesi}>mann, j:>egn, IJCningmann, t>Cow, t>Cowa, t>Cowmann, l>n!l .A body of serving men: J>!nungwerod° .A Uttle servant: t>Cowincel' .A llen'ant of Uttle account: t>Cowtling .A female se"ant: ma:gden, J>!nestre, a>eowe.1>inen.1>ir•, t>yftenl, wifmann ..A Uttle female servant: wilnincel°' .A biftllng: celmertmonn•, esnemann•, esnewyrhta, hieremann, hierigmann, hyra, hyrling°, ~gilda, ~wyrhta .A fellow-servant: efenesnel, efenj:>egn', efent>Cow(a), getera ..A female fellow-servant: efent>Cowen° .An obedient servant: ambihtbera0 P .A weekly se"ant: wicJ>!nestre .A dependant, servant: htlfeta0 .Household se"ants: hiwan, inhiwan ..A domestic: hircdcniht, (ge)husa, incniht ...A female domestic: geongre, inl>inen°' .Member of kine's household: cyninges geneat, hilscarl ..One putting up at monastery wblle on duty: facstingmann .A (young) man in service: cnapa .A steward/reeve: acfgerefal, acmj:>egen°1, dihtnerc, fadicnd, feohgcrefal, geongra.hofwcard0 1,horderc,IJldel>egn°P,ntdesmann,gerefa, scyldhl!tal, strwcard, tungcrefa ..A house-steward: boldwcard 545

12.01.01.()1) Bondage, slavery ..A steward In charge of food: hlifbryttaO ..A steward In charge of swine-pasturaae: swingerefa ..Member of reeve's stair: gereftang° ..A woman deputy, stewardess: geongre, hordestre .A keeper of robes: hr&gell>egn ..Female keeper of robes: hnegl~nestre0 .A boot·bo)': sc0h~n°' .A cup·bearer: byrcle, gedrinca0 , fa:tfyllerc .A jug-bearer: ceacboraS .A dish-bearer: discbercndl, discl>egn .A llgbt-bearer: Ieohtbora .A chamberlain: biirl>egn, selet>egn°P ..sei tant of the bedchamber: bedl>egns, bUrcniht .A keeper of keys: c&ghiorde°' .A janitor, doorkeeper: dorweard', duruhaldend', durut>egn°P, duruweard,

geatweard ..A female doorkeeper: durul>Cowen°, durul>inen .An attendant oa bones: horsl>egn .An attendant on clop: hundwealh°' Bondage, slavel')': nredhiemes0 1 , l>Cowdom, 1>CownydP, 1>Cowot .slavery, captiYity, lenice: lutftedom0 P .slaves as property: eht .A slave: ha:ftinccl°', mann, 1>Cow.1>Cowa. J>ntl, wielincelq ..A woman slave: lytle, l>Cowe, wiln ..A handmaiden, slave: mennen .A lawful slave: rihtl>Cowa0 .A bought servant, slave: ceapcniht .One taken and enslaved: lutft .An enslaved person: 1>Cowa .One reduced to slaffl')' b)' law: nydl>Cowetling°, wftel>Cow .A slave or aervant: gop0 P, underl>Cow, wealb, wenc.el, weorct>Cow P.

wilh/wiel .A serf, slave: &btemann, inbyrdJing .A slave, bondman: nfedling, niedl>Cow .A bonclse"ant, sea tant lad: l>Cowcnapa0 .Not free: l>Cow, wielisc ..Bom In bondage: ltbtborcn°. t>Cowberde0 , t>Cowboren ..Enslaved as punishment: witcfa:st .To be reduced to slavery: freotes l>olian

546 The common people .To be enslaved: ~wian .To act/1e1 voe as a slave: ~wian .To !NMlave: (ge)~wian .To accept as a slave: hWod niman .To bring into bondage: (ge)lueftan See Oppression; 14.05.08 Captivity Freedom, being free: freols, frCot .Citizenship: burhrteden°g, burhscipe .A ftee man: b6nda. ceorl, ceorlman, freomann .A free woman: freowt1'0 , locbore0 .Freeman of lowest dass: ceorl .One able to choose bis lord: cyrelif .Man of class between slave and 'ceorl': l&t° .Free, not in bondage: freo, freols, ungewilde ..Free to go: fa:rfrige .Having full rights: folcfreo .Half.free: healffreo See 11.12.01Freedom;12.07.03 Exemption Freeing, manumission: freot, freotgift°g .One who manumits: freotgiftal .A freedman: freol~~. freolsmann°, freotmann, liesing .To manumit, free: (ge)freogan, lihtan .To boy out, redeln•: gebycgan (ut) See I 1.10.03 Salvation The common people: ceorlfolc, folc .One of the common people: ceorl ..A man not noble: ceorl •.A common woman: cwene .Common, not noble: ceorlisc, folcisc, folclic, bean •.Not of noble birth: mAtgf>l!as0 g, un&)>elboren, una:)>ele ..Of humble birth: ceorlboren, lesboren ..Of lowly rank: hbn, ll!ssa, ll!st, geml!nelic, IDAttra, medmicel, medrice0 S, medtrum, unome0 P, unrice, unweorf> .As for a 'ceorl': ceorlisce .Humbly: medmicle .A man of the servile dass: esne ..Of the servile class: esnecundog


12.01 .01.12 Loyalty

.Man having 200-sblllina werPJd: twlhynde man -Having 200-sbllling werglld: twlhynde .Peasant, husbandman: (ge)biir, ceorl, facrbena -Of peasant birth: biirbyrde0 Loyalty: hlifordhyldo, holdntden°, holdscipe, hyldo, hyldntden°, tm>w, (ge)treow~. wzr .Loyalty justly due to a lord: rihthlifordhyldo .Faith delibe1ately pledged: hygetr!ow 0 P .Homage: mannrzden .Oath of allegiance: holdip .Loyal, faithful: fltle, hold, (ge)tm>w(e), wltrfacstP -Unfailing, not deceiving, loyal: unswic(i)ende _Very loyal: inhold, welhold0 P -Loyal to one's lord: dryhtenhold0 P, hllfordhold°, J>CodenholdP .Loyally: holdlice -Faithfully, loyally: treowlice .To be true to a person: (ge)tr!owian .To follow, stick by: (ge)fylgan, (ge)lzstan See Fidelity Obedience, service: geongordomP, geongorscipe0 P. hiemes, hiersumnes, t>Cawfacstnes, ):>Cnung .Obedient, submissive: gebygel. C&t>mOd, (ge)hiersum, ge~wzre .(Of service) willing, ready: hiersumlic0 .Mindful (of command, etc.), obeclieot to: gemyndig .To obey: (ge)Cal>mOdian, fullfyligan, (ge)hieran, (ge)hiersumian, (ge)hlystan .To comply with. be obedient to: (ge)cweman, folgian, gieman See Submission Disobedience: oferhiemes, un(ge)hirsumnes .A breach of a nde: regolbryce0 .Ao act of disobedience: mishemes0 .Disobedient: un(ge)hiersum, ungehirsumod0 1 -Undisciplined, ungovernable: steorleas, steorleaslic0 , wilde .Disobediently: unhiersumJice0 •To disobey: forhogian, mishyran, oferhieran -To refuse obedience to: forhylman°P .Not to bold to, not to follow: forbugan, forhealdan

548 Conspiracy Rebellion, ledition: l!swicung, folcslitcog, sl!tnung, gcstric, ymbsctnungl .A rebel: 5Ztnercog, treowloga0 P, wiJ>ersaca .Rebellious, bostlle to authority: wit>cm!de, wiJ>crwcard .To revolt, rise up against: onhcbban (onge&n), on risan, wiJ>crwinnan°g, wit>s&>n° .To rebel against, tDnl from: swican (fram) Treachery: bigswic, flcensearuP, tlccnstafas0 P, scaro .Faltblwss, treachery: swicdom. (gc)treowleasncs, ungctreowncs, un(gc)treowl> .Treachery, a tnacberoas act: unn!d wCrafty enmity, a treacherous quarnl: scaronij>P ••Treachery, bracb of pledge/agreement: wcdbrycc .Hip treason: hlifordsearu, hlifordswicc .A traitor: swica ..A traitor, turncoat: l!swica ..A traitor to one's father: fzdcrswica0 .Faithless, perfldlous: leas, ortm>we/ortricwc, swicc, (gc)treowleas, unhold, un(ge)treowc, untreowfa:st, wl!rleasP .Very beacberous: felafl!cne0 P .Faltblesaly, perftdiously: untreowlicc .To be a traitor (to), dellert: (gc)swrcan See Fraud Betrayal: lzwungl .BetraJ11) or one's lord: hlifordswfcung, hlifordsyrwung0 .Ad or supplanting: forscrcncedncssog .A betrayer, traitor: ll!wa, seJlcnd .A betrayer, informer: mclda .To band over bcM"berously, bebay: bct2can, (ge)sellan .To supplant by bcacbery: bcswfcan Conspiracy: andwyrding°g, ficengccwisg, ol~uog, (ge)reonung, smea(g)ung, gesm&b0 , webbungg .Conspiracy, compact: gccwcdn!dcn, gccwisg, efenteantog, ntd .Maliclom counsel, a plot: llir .A traitor, plotter: forntdaq .To complre, plot: (ge)reonian, spellian, wordlian .To plot against, lntripe: forntdan


12.02 A public office .To He in wait, plot: (ge)sierwan ..To lie in wait for, plot against: sierwan ongean/ymbe .To deliberate, design, plot: ymbsierwan .To seek opportunity, contrive: sm!a(ga)n .To contrive a plot, weave: webbian

See Plan

12.02 A public ollke: dibt, J>Cnung, gewrixl .An bonounble position: weorf>mynd, weorf>nes, weorf>scipe .Act of serving ollidally: J>Cnung .Discharge of an ofBce, business, etc.: notu .Ofllce of g1 eat lord: ealdordomscipe .Stewardship: gerefscipe, gerefscire .Administration of an estate: tOnscir •To fix upon for an office: findan .To nominate, appoint to otlice: (ge)namian (to), nemnan, getitelian to .To assign, appoint (to of6ce, duty): isettan, geendebyrd(i)an, (ge)sellan, (ge)settan (inion), getellan .To entrust (work, oftlce, etc.) to: betZcan, on treowe gelztan •To be appointed to an oflice: hleotan •To take oflice: ton to ..To act as steward, act in authority: gesciran .(Of oflice) to be vacant, rest: blinnan .To remove from oflice, etc., depose: gesettan iit .To retire from oflice, cease work: gesittan 12.02.01 A substitute, representative: spala0 , gespelia, speliend .An agent, deputy: forwyrhta, hand ..An ambassador, envoy: zrendraca/ttrendwreca, sand ..A beadle: bydel .Deputyship, acting as rep1esentative: speling .Ofllce discharged by a substitute, stead: gewrixl .On behalf of: for .. . hand, on ... healfe, to handa .To be substitute for, represent: ispelian, spelian .To go on a mhslon for, negotiate for: (ge)zrendian •To deputise control/management: ll!tan A distinguishing mark, stamp: mearc .A aeal, sipet: min:els, inseg(e)I, insigle 550 Place of conference or assembly .To place a aeal upon: (ge)inseglian See 09.04.01 Sign 12.02.02 An wembly, meeting: gemang, (ge)samnung, werod, ymbcyrne0 .Courts, a•mblies: m6tl~JM1° .A aeated assembly: gesetl .Awembly in a building: hOsting .A pnetal assembly: folc(ge)m&, 1Codstefn°P .A national assembly: witena gemOt .A moot/popular assembly for voting: gemOt .A warlike a.csembly: heremel>e1°P .A meeting for discussion: gemOt .A merdng of ldmmm: mltggemOt° .A session of an assembly: setlung .A council, usembly: mzl>el, gemOt, ntd, sinot>, get>eaJtt, (ge)t>ing ..A private council: sundorrilnung°, sundorspn!c .A sblre-moot: scirgemOt .A hundred-moot: hundred, hundredgemOt .A town-meeting: burhgemOt, tiinntd .Attendance at the hundred mttttag: hundreds0cn° .A public ofticer: folcgerefa& ..A chief otBcer: oferealdormann° ..An otBcer of the court: hfredcniht, hfredgerefa0 S ..Ofllcer of the hundred: hundredes ealdor, hundredmann, hyndenmann, gemOtmann ..Chairman of a moot: m0tgerefa0 ..Ofllcer set above tea persons: teot>ingmann .A sheriff: scfrmann, scfrgerefa .A town otlicial: burhealdor, burhgerefa, burhwealda0 , burhwita, portgerefa .Qualified to attend the moot: m0tweort>0 .To hold a meeting, hold a coundl: eaht besittan, sinoM>ing gehegan ..To hold a meeting of the hundred: hundred healdan .To a...,.,ble (a council): (ge)gadrian .To sit at council: ymbsittan .To spe•k in council: nMan See 12.04.02 Gathering Place of coalei ence or a=embly: hleof>orstcde0 P, macl>elstcdeP, (ge)inOtbeorh, (ge)mOthiis, gemOtleah, gemOtstcde0 P, (ge)mOrstow, t>ingstedcl', (ge)t>ingstows 551 A counsellor, advisor .An appointed meedna-plac:e: gccwedstOw 0 A counsellor, advt.or: ewita0 P, d!ma, folcwita0 P, larsmit>J>, l!odwita0 , ntdbora, n!desmann, ntdgifa, ntdl>eahtere. ntdwita, n!sboraP, n!swaP, geriina', (ge)sp(r)eca. gel>eahta°', gel>eahtcnd, gel>eahtere, ~wita, J>yle, wita .A blab counsellor: h&hwita .A privy counsellor: largespecaoS, riinwitaP .A counsellor of men: magon!dend0 P .A counsellor in a hall: seleredendP .An Enalish coumellor: angelwita0 Taibi for daakal world: .Consulatsbip: gerefscipe, gerefscfr(e) .Oftke of aedlle: himscfr& .Roman senate: ntdgift& .A counsel house, praetorium: nue)>elaem' .A forum, syaqope: spree .A comul, tribum:, etc.: consul, ealdormann, heahscTreman°&. hold, ntdbora, n!dgifa ..One holding authority for a year: glarcyning& ..Of/concerning a tribune: ealdorlic .A proconsul: forefrefrend0 &, undergerefa .A tetrarch: fi)>errica Counsel, dellbe1adon: eahtung, rOn, gel>Oht, ge)>6htun8° •fiking of counsel, deliberation: diht, efenspn!c0 &, ntd, n!ding .8ecret discussion: riinung .Act of self-communing: riin .Speech in counsel: n!dels .That deliberates, holding coodave: mae)>elhegendeP. ntdende, r~dfindende &, n!dl>eahtendeP .To think, deliberate, take connsel/tbougbt: (ge))>encan .To take counsel (upon): bentdan, (ge)mOtian (ymblbe), gemOt wyrcan, ntdan (wi)>), (ge)J>eahtian See 09.07 ff. Debate 0 Counsel, advice: forJ>eahtingOS, lir, ntd, ntdgel>eaht, ntdl>eahtung0 , (ge)l>eaht. l>eahtung, ge)>6ht •Wl.se counsel given in 90Dg: l!o)>wiln°P .Frimdly cou.mel: freondlir 0 P 552 I Control, direction, regulation .Evil coamel: inwitriin°P, ungepeabt° .Givlna of coumel, coamelllng: gen!ding .Good in counsel, of good counsel: n!dfest. rjnig0 P .To uk advice, conmlt a penon: ~dan .To give counsel: n!d gelteran, (ge)ntdan

12.02.03 A society, guild, association: (ge)terscipe, (ge)gield, (ge)gildscipe .Guild meetina: morgenspa!c0 .Meeting-place: gildsetl0 ..Guildhall: gegildheall 0 .Guild-membership: gegilde0 , gildntden ..A member of a guild: getera, (ge)gilda ...Duly appointed member: rihtgegylda0 ...Junior member: cniht ...Fellow members: gesamhiwan ...Not fully appointed member: ungylda0 .A peace-guild: fril>gild0 ..Member of a peace guild: fril>gegilda0 12.03 Direction, guidance: diht. rihting, steor .Control, direction, steering: helma, steorrol>or .Ad of leadlng, guiding: lid ..Gaidance, direction, sbowina of the way: wissung .A guide, director, ruler: begimend, dihtend, dihtnere, forestandend, helma, lidmann, lidrinc0 , m!gister, rihtend, steora, steorend, stihtend, stihtere, wealdend, (ge)wisa, wissi(g)end ..A gnide, one who shows the.way: litteow, ticnbora ...(Of pillar of cloud) herald of departure: sij>boda0 P .To direct, guide, steer: istyran°, (ge)dihtan/diht(n)ian, ferian, (ge)lzdan, (ge)lzran, onstyran°, (ge)reccan, (ge)stieran, (ge)tZcan .To show the way, direct: lteran, (ge)tZcan, (ge)tZcnan •To show course, pide, direct, indlaate: (ge)wissian See Guide 12.03.01 Direction, care, management, supervision: begimings, giemen, gieming, nytt(o) .To superintend: ofersceawian .To bold and control, manage: igan, (ge)healdan Coatrol, dlrec:tion, reguladoa: stefnbyrd0 P .Instruction, condition, dlrec:tioa: wrse


12.03.02 Advice, admonition

.An order, replation: (ge)setnes .A regulation, an IUTIUlpllleat: gemetgung .Providence, disposing: (ge)stihtung .Dtspeasation, provision: gestiht° .To regulate the coune of, guide, instrac:t: (ge)rihtan, (ge)rihtlkan. stefnan .To dispose, arraaae: (ge)stihtan

See 14.01.06 Rule 12.03.02 Advice, admonition: manung .An admonisher: maniend .To advise, imtnict, tell: (ge)manian ..To give bad advice, advise wrongly: misntdan .To show what should be done: (ge)htran .To exhort: mynian, myndgian .Sball, must, ought, etc.: sceal .Persuadability, readiness to follow advice: n!df8'stncs

See I 1.09.02 Warning 12.03.03 A command, bidding, order: arnbeht, gebann, bebod,

bebodntdenoS, (ge)bodscipeP, h~s. miht, n~h~s , nydbebod0 P, gewilbod, willa, word, wordbebod0 .A strange order, wondrous command: wundorbebod°P .An instruction, order: lir, gcsetncs .To command, order, bid: ibWdan, gebannan, bebeodan, (ge)beodan, biddan, (ge)cwej>an, foregeh!tan&, forcsecgan, (ge)hlitan, onbeodan, willan ..To command by signs: gebeacnian See 14.01.06 Order

0 Summons, a call, summoning: gecznencs0 , gecigedncs,

gecignes, lal>ung .A summons to anemble: gebann .Urgent summom: n~la&>u P .To call, summon, send for: icigan, (ge)langian, ofsendan .To summon, bid come, call: (ge)beodan, (ge)ciegan, (ge)hlitan .To call, bring by calling, summon: (ge)clipian, (ge)lal>ian .To 1t1mmon, call together: (ge)bannan (t6somne), gelal>ian .To call out, summon: lbannan ut, bannan ilt, ut Abeodan .To call forth, summon: forl>icigan°, forpgecigan 0

.To command, lllllllllOD, order: libannan

554 Entreaty, solemn appeal .To command by a nod, mmmoa by sip: (ge)bfcn(i)an .To IUllllDOD, call oa to act: gestefnian .To call back: eftgecigan, ong~fgan°', ongean(ge)clypiang

..Called back: ongeangeclipod' .To rec•ll, call away: geedciegan°' .UnbJcJclen, DOt1ammooed: unbeden°, ungeboden° 12.03.04 A request, pnyer: (ge)bed, bedu .Desi.re ap1c11ed lo words, petition, pnyer: giemes, (ge)gimung .A petition, an asklog: giwung' .Supplication, petition, request: ben •Words of appeal, call, d•lm: (ge)clipung .A petitioner: bena/bene, gebensende, biddcnd, biddere .That supplicates: (ge)bensende .That is suppliant: bedul°', gel>ancol .Called for, demanded: gelenged°' .Be.eecblngly: benlice' .To uk, make a request (for): (ge)biddan .To ask (advice, etc., from): beihsian, befrignan, (ge)gieman .To ask, bea (tbat): firmettan° •To appl"ll acb, IOlkit (someone): igin .To apply to, appeal to: (ge)~ .To call for, obtain by calllJll: ofclipian .To ask, demand: (ge)giwiang .To demand (what is due): (ge)manian .To demand, request: bena wesan .To call for, demand: gelal>ian .To demand, require: lbl!dan, (ge)l>rafian (zfter/for) •To require: ofgangan .To require, seek satisfac:don for, nact: ofgin, on~ .To Mk for, require, nact: (ge)b2dan .•To look for, demand: lsm&gan

See Prayer Enbeaty,90lcmn appeal: hllsung .A time of sappllcatloa: hllsungtima0

.CalllDa, entreaty: gecignes .CalllDa, invocation: cigung .That may be enbeated: benlic', healsiendlic .To enbeat, ask (for ••• fl"Om): lbiddan ct, frymdig b6on/wesan

SSS Speech on behalf of, advocacy .To pray to (someone), entleat: ibiddan .To beseech, beg earnestly: bcsecan, geomian, gieman .To beseech, entleat, make solemn appeal to: (ge)hJJsian .To implore: ihilsianoS .To cry to, implore: (ge)clipian .To pray, supplicate, implore: bensian .To beg for, strive after, supplicate: (ge)wilnian .To ask, implore, demand, crave: crafian

See Beg Speech OD bebaH or, advocacy: foresp~c .An advocate, Intercessor: midsp(r)ecend, l>ingere .To speak for, pray for: becwet>an (fore) .To make a defence (In speech): scieldan .To Intercede, plead for: (ge)t>ingian

See 13.01.03 lntercession Importunity, penlstence: gemihlicnes, gemihnes .m-timecl assiduity, importunity: geomnes .Importunate: wede .Persistent, pertinadous: gemihlic .Over-persistent, importunate: gemihlic .Shameless, wanton, importunate: (ge)mih .Importunately, pel1inac::iously: gemihlrce .To importune, beset: behropan°

See Perseverance 12.03.0S Permission: (ge)J>afung .Leave, pa11tiuion: leaf, (ge)lWa, (ge)leafnes .Assent, permission: Up .Consent, will: est .Permission, allowance: unne .A password: lWnesword .Leave, leave or absence: leaf, lWnes .Right of egaeas: iitgang .Allowable, permissible: ilrefedlic, gelrefedlic .Having permission, excused: geliefen .Not forbidden, allowed: unforboden .Lawrutly, allowably: ilrefedlfce, geliefedlice


12.04 Fellowship, union, association .To let, allow, peamlt: lll!tan, forletan, (ge)lfefan, onletan, (ge)l>afian, willian -To permit, allow (to do): llfefan, (ge)liefan -To give permil8ion: (ge)liefan -To permit, allow (to do/be done): forgiefan -To give leave to go home: lfefan him .To allow, permit, grant, con•nt to: willan .To grant a request, cc.>!Mftlt: geunnan .To allow, accept: onfOn .To bear, suffer, allow: dm>gan, (ge)lztan .To admit to be fitting, allow: getemian .To concede, allow, grant: (ge)tI)>ian .To turn to, assent to, approve: (ge)cierran tO .To condescend, deign: gemedemian .To allow to be: habban .Is allowed, may: mzg, mot .To be permitted: lliefan .To let olf, not enforce: li!tan of 12.03.06 Prohibition: bewerenes0 , forbod .Not allowed, illicit: unilyfed, ungelifed .Forbidden: forboden .To diullow: forbabban .To prohibit, forbid: bewerian, forbCodan, foresacan, forwieman, stieran, t0cwe1>an .To forbid, pl"OtlCrlbe: forWodan -To deprive of, proecrlbe from: Idem.an fram .To prevent, prohibit, keep from: wieman .To prevent, binder, forbid: ~tbregdan, forelztan, forestemmans .To restrain from by blaming, prohibit: belean .Is not to be allowed, ought not: nib See Restrain 12.04 Fellowship, union, uaocl8tion: brol>orreden, getegnes, (ge)lem!den, (ge)terscipe, (ge)gaderung, (ge)gaderwist, ged0 P, gehlytto. leonesq, geml!nnes, geml!nscipe, geml!nsumnes, gemina, midhlyt°, midgehlytto0 S, midwunung, gesI)>scipe, t0gehlytto0 s, gel>Cod. (ge)l>oftrZden, (ge)l>oftscipe .Partidpation, collabontioa: midwist .A source of union, bond: geoc 551

12.04.01 A fellow, companion, associate, comrade .sodety, fellowship (of usodates): n~west .Fellowsblp, partnenblp: teolagscipe .Companionsblp, society: drohtal> ..Loving companiombip, friendship: geswl!sscipe0 .Associated, banded together: geten:d .That co-operates: samodwyrcende .Corporate, associating: geml!nelic .United, joint: gelllZne .Harmonious, united, concordant: gq,were .8oda.I, of comradesblp: ge~lic .In common with others: gemznelfce .To have fellowsblp, associate with: (ge)ml!nsumian, tO geefnan, towettanq .To nnite,join together (as comrades): (ge)fegan .To ciome into usodation with: gererlzcan, gemittan, (ge)t>eodan .To agree together, be companions: ge~wl!rlitcan .To unite In purpose. associate: gesamnian .To be in agreement, conspire: geinwyrdan°K .To come near, enter relations with: (ge)n~ltcan .To live with, consort with: drohtnian mid/betwux .To mingle, mi:x: gq,werian .To unite (othen), Join, usodate: (ge)gadrian, (ge)mengan, geteon, (ge)l>Codan •To join together (In doina): geinlltcan, ton tOgaedere •To join with, make common came with: gelitcanK .To league, ally with, confederate: geJ>oftian .To make confederate, ally: gesibbian, get:reowian See Heap; Whole 12.04.01 A fellow, companion, associate, comrade: efenheafda,

efenheafodling°, efenling°K, efenwiht, gefara, tera, gre~°K, hWodlingK, heafodgemzcca, gehle~aP, gehlyt(t)aK, gemaca., geselda/gesetla, gesi)>, gesi)>aK, si)>mann .A partner, colleague; efning0 , leolaga, gef'Cra, gegada, gehlyt(t)aK, gewita .An ally, comrade, friend: broJ>or, freond, gefylca0 , samodgesi)>°K, geJ>ofta .An old comrade: ealdgerera0 , eald geneat, ealdgesi)>P .A namesake, comrade: genamnaP .A fellow-worker, co-opea ator: efenwyrcend0 , efenwyrhta, midwyrhta, gewyrhta .A close companion: gebedda, eaxlgestealla, handgemaca0 , handgesella0 P, handgesteallaP 558

12.04.02 A crowding together, assembly .A constant comP"nion: symbelgef&a0 P .A ple••ent companion: wyngesll>op .A faitbtul/tnuty companion: tm>wgel>ofta .A companion In need: nydgef&a0 P, nydgestealla0 P .A companion, comrade, one In n"M troop: gescola, sc0JmannB .A companion In war: campgeferaB, folcgesteallaP, lindgesteallaP A company of people, fellowship, sodety: gefCre, (ge)fCrscipe,

gegaderung, gemina, gesij>P, (ge)si]>scipe, ge)>Codnes, (ge)l>ftscipe .A troop, band, company: ftocc, (ge)genge, teoh, t>~. wer .A band, group, gang, crew: fzr, gang, hlOJ>, scolu .A band of comrades: efenbeapB, efenwerod"', gesi]>ouegen°P .A community, family: hired ..A community of one hundnd: hynden .A side (In conftict, transaction, etc.): hand, healf A fellow travellfl', companion: gegenga, weggesi]>aB

.That accompanies: andlang ..Act of riding In company: midrid0 .To accompany, golbe with: mid gin ..To accompany and guide, conduct, convey: h!dan ..To lead about: YJJlbll!danB .To accompany: gefCrscipianB, (ge)h!stan, samod SJ1>ian, t0gel~stan°B .To accompany/associate with: (ge)midsil>(eg)ian .To accompany, attend upon: folgian, fylgan .To seek someone's company: (ge)*an See Travel 12.04.02 A crowding together, cmmbly: getred .An enrmbly, pthering, crowd: (ge)gaderung .An •wmbly, congreption, company: cort>or, mannweorod, (ge)m~ting,

(ge)mitting, (ge)samnung, sinot>, togelat>un&°, l>Cod .A body of young people: geoguJ>, ouegt>hid .A joyous band: wynwerod"I .A crowd, throng: here, gemang, mengung, ge)>rangOP, txeat. get>fing ..A crowd moving on foot: fC)>ebwearf0 P .A crowd, troop, band, host: drif, folc, (ge)gaderung, hwearfP, ouegen, manfaru0 P, sweotP, J>rymm, werod .A tumultuous aarmbly, host: gedreagP, gellcP .A group standing In a drde: hring .S.S9

12.04.03 A sttanger .A gathering for a purpose: (ge)mOt .A multitude, mighty company: (ge)dryht, dugup, folcdryhtP, folcsweot0 P, here, leodwerod0 P, gelomlttcing, DU1Cgenfolc°P, mzgenheap0 P, m&genpreatP, mannmenigu0 , menigduq, menigu, secgrof0 P, srdfolcP, geJ>rYI, )>rymm, werod ..An innumerable people: unrimfolc0 .A number of men: manrimP, rincgetzJ0 P .Gratest number, majority: hWodgerim0 P .A numerous ascembly: gelomlzcnes8, gelomlicnes .Numerous, massed~ gelomlic, picfeald8 .To gather together, anemble: gelnh!can, (ge)gadrian, geheapian, (ge)samnian -To bring together, collect, aaemble: (ge)gadrian, (ge)samnian .To visit in large numben, throng: flOwan, gelOmlttcan .To throng, pra1, crowd: getingan°P, pringan See Meet; 12.02.02 Meeting 12.04.03 A stranger: cuma, giest, uncii)>a. iitacunda8, iitwttpnedmann° .A newly come stranger: niw(ge)fara .Visiting of a ball: selegyst°P .Condition of not being known: nytennes .Strange, DDf'amiliar: giestig8, inciip, unciip .Unknown, foreign: elfremed, elpeodig, fremde Estrangement, alienation: itlfremedung0 8 .Estranged, alienated: elpeodig .Far apart: feorr .To break up, part (company): bacum tObregdan, (ge)dzlan .To alienate: (ge)zlfremedan, ifremd(i)an, ftemedlftcan8

See Wander; 12.05.07 Rejection 12.04.04 Solitude: zmenne0 , znetnesq, znett, inlipnes0 , innes, diegol,

diegolnes, unbyeng0 8 .A solitary being: infloga0 P, ingenga, inhagaP, inhoga, instapa0 P, WJ'2cca -One who acts alone: inlaga0 8 •Want of friends: freondleast0 .One deprived of protection: steopcild •.A foundling: funden cild .Alone, solitary: ttnlic/inlic, inliepig, instandende .Single, isolated: ina

560 Lack of peacefulness .Friendless, wltboat friends: t"m>ndlw, winelwP, winet>earfendeP .LonUess, wltboat chW: ealdorlw, hlifordlw, J>eodenlw0 P .Unatteaded, without a•• +ant: cnihtlw0

.Homeless: !)>ellwP See 03.04.01Singularity; Exile

12.05 Coatndictlon, opposition: fordrifnesoS, wi)>ercwide, wi)>erszc .A coatradldor, opponent: wi)>ercwidal, wit>enPrecend° .Against: togeancs, 1>1trongean .To oppose by coatndktion: wit>cwet>an See Diversity; 09.07.02 Contradiction 12.05.01 RlYalry,coatest: ellen, gefeoht. wi)>erwinn°' .Contesting, oppositlon: bfsaec°P .A rim, competitor: eaxlgestealla. ellenll!cal, gehata, gehtcaq, gewinna. wi)>erwinna .To contend, emulate: ellencampian°', ellenwMian', (ge)feohtan, (ge)ftnan 12.05.02 Hostillty, coatendon, opposldon: wi)>erweardnes .An opponent, adversary: gesaca, scel>J>end, wi)>erbersta0 , wi)>erbreca, wi)>erbroca, wi)>ercora. wi)>erwengel' .Advawe, opposed: l>weorh, 1>weorhlic, wi)>erl, wi)>eau10d0 .Aplmt, in opposldoa to: forane tog!anes, foran ongean, ongean, towil>reP. wiJ>, wi)>er .To oppose: gem!tan, ongean wi)>erian, wi)>erbrocian' .To be opposed/averse to: mn ongean, l>w!orian, wi)>erweardian' .To make hostile to, provoke: wi)>erian .To become provobd: wi)>erian See Hostility; 13.02/f. War Lack of peacefulness: unstillnes, ungeJ>wltre .Restiveness, unndlnc11: unstillnes .A tumult, uproar, distorl>ance: gech!fednes, gehlyd .A disturber, turbulent penon: (ge)drefend, drefre0 .Unruly: unstille .Rombustio-. DOiiy: hlydende .Unquiet, disturbed: unbli)>e. unstille .To disturb, brat up, disrupt: Hran, (ge)dr!fan .To disturb, clll'lluiet: (ge)dr!fan, (ge)unstill(i)an See Complaint 561

12.0S.03 Disagreement, discord, dissension 12.05.03 Dfsagaeemmt, dl1COrcl, dilsrreion: getcr, t6dil, t~fnes°', tOslitnes, t0twemednes0 , tOwesnes, t~es. twisebtnes0 g, ungerid, unger&dnes, unseht, unsibb, uns0m. un(ge)t>wzre, un(ge)t>wemes .Not in aga eement, at variance: twimdc, twisehtg, ungcrid, un(ge)seht, un(ge)sibb, ungcsOm0 , un(ge)t>were, ungct>wterlic .To dl•gtee, differ from: tobcran wit>, twischtang, unsibbiang, unget>wzrian .To caw dlueMioa. divide: t~lan, tOscladan, twteman .To stir up strife/enmity: fathl>e (ge)st2lan, synne stelan

See 09.07.03 Dissent Quarrel, contentiousness, strife: ceas, ceast, (ge)cid, (ge)ftit, geftitenq, geftitfulnes, sacu, talu, twintdnes, i>rzft0 P, ungem0dignes0 , ungem0dnes0 , unseht, unsehtnes0 , ungesibsumnes, un(ge)t>watmes, gewesnes0 , (ge)winn, wiJ>erwenning°', wroht .A quarrel-monger: flitere .Contentious, quarrelsome: ceaslunger 0 , ceastful, (ge)ftitful, ftitfullic, (ge)ftitgeom, giil>geom°', orleggifre0 P, sacful, t>w&:>rtieme, ungemOd, ungesibsum, unget>witre, wrohtgeom .To contend, wrangle, quarrel: (ge)cidan, cncatian8, (ge)flitan, sacan, geteon 12.05.04 Strife, hostility: 1Codgewinn°P, nij>, orlege, orlegnipP .Murderous bate, strife: billhete0 P .A conlict, hostile meeting: gem&ing, gemOt, t0ryne0 g .An opposer, enemy, advenary: andsacaP, scildhete0 P, (ge)winna. wil>feobtend .Hostile: orlege .To encounter hostility, meet attack: gem!tan, gemittan .To be In conftld with: beon/wesan ibisgod wit> .To turn on: wendan on

See 05.06.07 Puncture; Hostility Fighting, contention. warfare, strife: feohte, fitt, (ge)ftit, hearmplega0 P, (ge)lie, m21°P, Oret0 P, samodgeftit°g, stnp, tog°g, gewealc, (ge)winn .Worldly strife: woruldgefeoht°, woruldsacu0 , woruldwig .Andent stnJgle: zrgewinnop, ealdgewinnP, fymgeftitP, fymgewinn°P .To strive, struggle: (ge)feohtan .To tight, strive, contend aplnst: (ge)ftnan, gehnzstan°P, sacan, gewegan wit>, (ge)winnan, (ge)winnan ongean/wit>, wil>flt"bm0 8, wil>sacan


12.0S.OS Resistance, repulsing .To contend vigorously: ellencampian°' .Contendlq/stiu1sling toptber: samwinnende0 '

See 13.02.03ff Attack F1ptlns, a ftgbt: (ge)feoht, feohtlac .An exchange of blows: gegnslege0 P .A hitting bard with &ts: f'Ystgeb&l .Act of ftpting in a house: fletgefeoht. infiht. ins0cnq .An assailant: ehtend, ofercymend, onirisende, onntsend .To avail, attack: forgrfpan, onsacan, onsittan .To rush upon, attack: be~san .To attack savagely, attack: gewn!).>an .To brawl, spar: sacian, spyrran, wigian° .To assault and knock over: oferweorpan Venpance, revqe: wracu, wrecnes •Vengeance for trouble/grief: gnymwracu0 P, gymwracuP .Grievous revenge: tomwracu0 P .Revqe for blood: bl0dwracu0 .Vqeance for a relative: ~ggewracu0 -Vengeance for brothers: broj>orgyJdOf> .Deadly feud, vendetta: fzhl> .An avqer: wrecend -Out of neceaity: neadwraca0 .Sin-avenging, guilt-punishing: scyldwreccende0 P .(Of a person) unavenged: unwrecen .To avqe, revqe, take revenge: iwrecan, gieldan, wrace don, (ge)wrecan Retribution, requital: edleanung', lean .What Is given in requital, return: (ge)wrixl .In retal.iation: on l>i wrace .To repay, requite (injury, etc.): gieldan, (ge)leanian .To give in requital: gewrixlian .To get in requital: gewrixlian See 14.05.03 Retribution 12.05.05 Resistance, repulsing: andwfgP, foresteall, ofersteall, wil>ersteall, wil>rc0 P, wil>setnes0 ' .That resists, stnlggling apinst: ongeanwinnende •To resist, oppoee: andhweorfan°P, irisan wil>, licgan ongw, striman', iip ahebban handa, (ge)winnan ong!an/wil>, wil>gangan, wil>licgan 563

12.0S.06 Grasp, power, control, mastery .To enpge apinst: lbisgian wiJ> .To resist, bold out against: ongean (ge)healdan, wiJ>ababban°P, wiJ>erstandani, wiJ>habban, wiJ>settan, wiJ>standan, wiJ>wiJ>erian° .To labour, contend against: iwinnan wit> .To make a stand: bidsteall gifan .To be defiant: heafod hebban, wealian° .To ward olf: warian, (ge)warnian See Obstinacy 12.05.06 Gnsp, power, control, mastery: gripe, handgeweald0 P, bring, mund .To prevail: forstandan, framian, (ge)fremman, magianS, rfcsian, strangian, swtpan, swlJ>ian, swlJ>rian .To overwhelm, overcome: (ge)cnyssan, ofercuman, ofergin, ofergangan, ofersettan .To undermine, overthrow: underdelfan •To cast down, overthrow: ilecgan .To overcome, brush aside: ofergetilianq .To overcome, pt the better of: oferwealdan .To subdue, tame, bring low: ibygan, (ge)brccan, onhieldan, (ge)wieldan See 12 Power; Conquer Restraint, check, curl>, control: gebundenness, steor, geweald .Di8cipline, control, harnessing: J>Codscipe .A curb, bridle, yoke: brfdel(s), geoc, geweald .A yoke, burden: gespan .Repressed, curbed: ofseten .self-controlled: gewealdenm0d0 P -Undisciplined, uncontrolled: earfoJ>lere, un(ge)midlod, unJ>CawfuJS .To bridle, restrain, curb: lnlfdlian, (ge)b~tan. (ge)bndlian, gecafstrian°, (ge)midlian, ymbebittan°P .To bind, comtraln, hamper: iseJanP, bebindan, (ge)J>~stan .To disdpllne, restrain, confine: gepyndan, (ge)~lan .To compel, restrain: ibzdan .To ae&tialn, bold back: beR>n, behealdan, bewerian (fram), geniman, st6wigian°S, geteon, (ge)J>ryccan, (ge)wieldan, wiJ>teon .To restrain, check, bold back: adrysnian', forbeodan, forhabban, gestillan, gep~tian, wiJ>bregdan, gewnpan .To aeatraln, confine, bold: f!gan, geheftan, ymbhabban See 11.11.02 Hindrance; 12.03.06 Prohibit

S64 Trouble, disturbance Opprc1slon: ofeafiecednes, onnrcd0 P .Oppression, bardnea, beavinea: hefignes .IJVustice, oppraaion: unriht .Oppression, repression, restraint: ofl>rycnes, J>rCanicdlaP .Coercion, repression: gestynJ>o .Force, violence, oppression: I>~ .A violent person, using force: nydnima', )>reatend .Oppressed~


.Fordbly, oppressively: nearwe .(Of defeat) heavily, tevenly, Olea wWmbllly: swtpost .To oppress: h01ian°S, (ge)niJ>erian, ofsettan, ofsittan, ofl>ryccan, onsittan .To afllict, oppress: (ge)J>reat(n)ian, (ge)J>ryccan, (ge)wltcan .To bead upon, trample, oppress: ihenans, grindan, ofertrcdan, tredan •To weigh down, aftlict, oppress: (ge)hefigian, geJ>ryscan, (ge)wl!gan ..To lay as a burden, impose: (ge)fittan .To sit/weigh heavily on, oppress, harden: on (ge)sittan, onufan (ge)sittan,

sittan •To oppress, bear down, impede: onsettan .To crush, press, oppress: ll>t'Yccan, forbrecan, forsettan, fortredan .To oppress, depress: (ge)J>ryccan •To overtax, press too bard, overmatcb: ofersecan .To oppress, overwhelm: forj>ryccan See 12.0/.0/.09 Slavery • Tyranny: genydgewald0 P, rfceter(e) .A tyrant: lCodhata •To tyrannize: rfcsian Persecution: eahtnes, ehting, ehtnes, onehtings .A penecutor: eahtendP, ehtend, 81tere .To penecute: Aehtan°S, besettan ebtnysse on, eabtanP, (ge)ehtan. ehtend gestandan, ofCbtanS Trouble, disturbance: ibisgung .Tribulation: (ge)cost(n)ung ••Great tribulation: ofercostung0 S ..Place of tribulation: costnung, costnungstOw 0 .Grievous penecution, sore tribulation: sirwracu .Oppressiveness, burdensomeness, trouble: befignes .(Figurative) chastisement, aftliction: swinge, swingel, swipu

S6S Necessity, constraint .Troublesome, annoying: hefig, hefigmOd, hefigtyme .Detrimentally, apinst one's inteJests: wilJerweardlice .To aftlict: iiswencan -To aftlict, vex: (ge)dreccan, (ge)wt!lan -To aftlict, make wretched: (ge)hienan, (ge)ierman .To bring low, harass, aftlict greatly: foryrman •To inflict (on/upon): an beset tang, gefa:stnian on, onbeledan, o~fa:stan -To inftict calamity: wroht ilccgan .To ill-heat, harass, afllict: mistucian, (ge)tiwian (to bysmore), (ge)tiician (to bysmorelyfle), yfle babban, wierdan .To ill-treat, harass, torture: (ge)swencan .To chastise, amict, plague: (ge)swingan .(Of aftliction, etc.) to strike: fundian to See Affliction Neceaity, constraint: oiedl>earf .A compulsion, necessity: niedl>earfnes .Compulsion, force: neadhiid0 g, neadung, oied, nydma:gen°g .Compulsory, forced: geniedelic0 , genydenlic0 .Forcibly, by force: neadlunga, neadunga, niede, oiedinga .To compel, force, drive: benidan°g, besciifan, be~ridian, dn-Can, fordratfan°, fomydan°, (ge)neadian, (ge)niedan, gescrifan, ge}>eowan, ge~reagan/ge~reawian, (ge)~reat(n)ian

.To comtrain, compel: (ge)healdan .To impose (something): (ge)lccgan -To impose, force by neceaity: get>earfian .(Of moral conquest) to overcome, subject: gewieldan .To exact service from: nyd}>eowigan°, gewnpan See 06.02.04 Inevitable Pressure, compulsion: ge~f .To prea, urge, force: igenstandan, ~rietan

0 A trampling upon, subjection: hiennes, underdrifennes0 g .Being repressed, subjection, slavery: geweald .A subduer, subjugator: gewieldend .A subject person/people: hierend, under}>eod •.A subordinate, subject, underling: underling .Subject, under control: under(ge)~ed. gewealden, gewielde _(Of people) subordinate, subject: under}>eod 566

12.05.07 Casting out, rejection .Under subjection: under, under hand .To subdue, subjugate: gecierran (tO), geblJm&l(i)an, onbrgan, underbel>Cdan°', underbiegans, under(ge)IJ&>dan, underplantianS .To subjugate: (ge)hienan, in anweald gerea:an, (ge)wieldan -To subjugate a people: (ge)hiersumian -To oppre., subjugate: (ge)t>&>wan .To bring into subjection, conquer: (ge)hiersumian -To beat violently, oppress, conquer: gel:>ringan .To compel submiaion to: (ge)wieldan to .To keep in subjection: spannan, get>rYn, J>rysman° .To lead off, auT)' off: il~dan .To make prisoner: gehzftan •To bring into captivity: (ge)hzftan, gel>Cwtian° .To seize, secure: (ge)wieldan

See Defeat Submlsslon to action, toleration: get>afung .To permit, suffer, tolerate: (ge)J>afian, (ge)f>olian .To undergo: undergangan° Submission, subjection, obedience: hrersumnes, undeJ1>Comed(i)an, (ge)fylgan, on hand gin, onhieldan, underbiigan .To submit, yield, bend in submission to: onbiigan .To receive as master, submit to: underf'On .To be subject to: belimpan, hieran to, licgan (in/on/under), underlicgan .To give in, agne: gef>yldanq .To give way to, yield to (sin, etc.): underlicgan •To be oveftOllle, fall: feallan See 07.04.03 Reve~nce; Obedience; Surrender 12.05.07 Cuting out, rejection: forwyrpnes0 S, wierping°S .What is cast away: iworpednes0 8, iworp(en)nes .To throw away: iweorpan •To reject, spurn, cast aside: forsencan° , forweorpan, (ge)spurnan, t0spurnan°8, wif>weorpan .To repulse, repel, not accept: inidan 567

12.0S.07.01 Separation, dismissal, rejection .To decline, nfule: forbiigan, forsacan .To refuse to acapt, return: tO handa weorpan .To refuse, reject, dinppron of: forcwet>an -To reject with scorn: fol'Xon .To throw of'f, free oneself from: iwcorpan of .To rid of, get rid of: Aceorfan fram/of .To cast of'f, renounce (idea, etc.): iwcorpan .To rmounc:e, reject, give up: wiJ>sacan -To rmounc:e, give up claim to: onsacan .To fonake, renounce: iwegan, forsacan, wi~secgan .To dediM to bear, refuse to undergo: forsacan

See 05.l 2.02.04 Cast 0111; 07.05.01 ff Censure; Alienation Separation, clismissal, rejection: scirung° .To dismia: tl!can fram, tOforl~tan .To put out of commission, dlsclua~: scylian of mile .To sead away, eject, expel: (ge)sendan .To order out, banish: beodan iit .To banish, expel: forwrecan

See Outlawry; Excommunication 12.06 A province, country, territory: ml!g~. mearc, mearcland .Juri9dictioa, territory, country: eard, corj>e, folcland, folde, grund, land,

landcofa0 1 , landmearca. landrice, landstede0 P, ICodgeardP, lcodmearcP. leodscipe, onweald, t>eod -A broad, atemive land: sfdlandP, widland .A dominion: geweald .A kingdom, realm, empire: cynedom, cynerice, hCafodrice, rice .A tetrarchy: fi~rrice .A princely kinadom: bregorfce, bregostoJP, brytenriceP, gumrfceP .An earthly kingdom: corl>rice. woruldrice .A kingdom east of another: wtrfce .A kingdom in the east: wtrrce .A middle kingdom: middelrfce .A western kingdom: westrfce See Nation; 05. 10.04.02 Region 12.06.01 Particular countries: Englawl: engla land, seaxland

.East Anglia: wtengle 568

12.06.02 District, province .Kent: cent, centescrrq, centland, cenmce ..Isle of Wiabt: wiht, wihtland .Norfolk: nort>folc .Suffolk: siil:>folc .Weaex: wcstseaxe, wcstseaxena land/rice .Mercia: mierce, mircna land/rice .Northumbria: norl>(an)hymbre .Mercl•n-Nortbumbrian border: humbre streames geml!re, geml!re See The English Britain: breotenrice, bryten, brytenland .Wales: brytland, nort>wcalas, w!alas ..The Welsh border: geml!re .Among the Comish: on westw!alas, on westw!alum

See Peoples of Britain The Continent: t>eoweg, norweg .Sweden: sweoland0 , SWCoriceP .Estonia: eastland

See Continental peoples 12.06.02 District, province: boldgettel, scrr .District under authority: folgol:>, hremcs ..Under English law: on engla lage ..Under Danish law: on dene lage .A tu district: manung, s0cn, tollscir ..In Kent: siilung .Land under a reeve: sundorgereftand0 g .A shire: scir .A riding: l:>nl>ing •.A riding subdivision: w&pen(ge)ttec .A lathe (of several hundreds): li:I:> ..A hundred: hundred .A parish: rihtscir 0 569 A township -Parish assigned to • priest: rihtscriftscfr

See People of shire A tow••bip: burhscir .A manor: run .Enclosed land round dwelling: run .A town, dty, villa&e: bold, boldwelaP, burg, (ge)burgscipe, caste!, ceaster, ceasterwic0 ' ICodburgP, port. stoclif, run, l>orp, wic ..A town oa a height: heahburg ..A cathedral town: bisceopstOI, mynsterstow 0 ..An exposed town: wederburg°P ..A fortified town: fzsten, hleoburhP ..A neighbouring town: neahceaster 0 ..A seaport: Sl!burg°S, Sl!ceaster0 ' ..A ricbldellghtftd town: goldburgP, hordburgP, meduburgP, winburgP, wynburhq .A dty: burgstedeP, burgtilnop, eardungburg°, freoburh0 P ..A royal/capital dty: cynesetl, cynestOl, el>elstOIP, heafod, beafodburh, beafodport0 , beafodstOI, heahburg ..A metropolis: ealdorburg -Rome: rom, romeburg ..A city boundary: burgende0 P .A suburb: underburg° ,Open place, Sb eet: plzce8 .Urban, munidpal: ceastemisc0 See Populace oftown; Stronghold Country (not town): folcstOw 0 , land, uppeland0 .Rural, from beyond town: feldlic, runlic0 ' , ilplendisc 12.06.03 A site, settlement: el>elseldP' el>elst$o1°P. st$olwangP .A colony, settlement: landbilend, landbilnes Search for land to settle on: lands0cnP .settler, colonist: landseta°' .Habitable: eardiendlic0 .Inhabited: ibiirod0 , byne, geseten -Coloaiwd, furn.isbed with '1eburas': gebyred0 S .Populous: folclic, folcwelig°S -Fully peopled: fullmannod0 .To plant (with settlen): (ge)settan 570

12.06.04 Native land

.To populate a place: (gc)l6gian See 04.05.03 Dwelling-place Waste lalMI, daerted place: w&tenstapol0 P, w&tncs& .Not inhabited: manl!uog, unbyed& .Uninhabitable: ungcwunclic, un(gc)wuniendlic .Desolate, unpopulated: l!ll!te, !!men, w&ten, w&tig .Away from habitation: iitc .To leave, cease to occupy: forl~tan

See Wild land Livlna, dwelling, residence (ln): droht(n)o)>, droht(n)ung, eardung, onwist0 P, onwunung, sell, wunung .Habitation ofa country: cardbcgcngncsg, landbcgang&, landbcgcngncsoS .Dwelling ln one's own country: eardwunung° .Joint occupancy of a place: gcnu!nnes .Continued occupancy/residence: J>urhwunung .That resides, resident: standendc .settled, independent, propertied: hcorl>facst° .To occupy, bold, Uve ln: gcagnian, gesittan, warian, (ge)wunian

See Inhabitant A nelahboar: landgcmaca&, neahbiicnd0 P, neahgcbiir,

neahgebyYen, neahgebyrildog, neahgehiisa8, nCahmann, (ge)nichsta .A local amociate, fellow-citizen, neighbour: gelera .Local auociates, neighboun: efenceasterwaran .A neighbour, borderer: ymbsittcnd, ymbstandcnd .Foreign borderers: aclmyrcc0 P .Warlike borderers: gii)>myrcc0 P .A neigbbourlng tribe/province: neahml!g)>, neah)>eod ..A border district: gcnu!re .A nelgbbourlng people: bffylcc0 12.06.04 Native land: igcn, (ge)cYJ>I>, ealdcy)>J>, eardland0 P, e)>cl,

C)>cleard0 P, cJ>cllandP, e)>clrfccP, CJ>clturf, facder C)>cl, him •True native land: rihtc)>c1° .Beloved native land: eardlufu0 P .A common homeland: samodcard°P .Joy of ownership/country: e)>clwynnP .Of our land/country: iirelendisc0 .Of your land/country: eowerlendisc0

571 Binhplace .At home, within a country: binnan gc~re. binnan g~rwn. innan hordes, innan landcs .Home(wards), towards one's native country: him, himwcard(cs) See Native people Birthplace: ccnningstow

See Birth 12.06.05 A foreip country: el(c)land, uncyt>t>u, iltland, wealland

.Foreip parts: cllcndc .A foreigner, stranger: elt>eodiga, iltancumcn, iltlcnda, iltlcndisc, iltscytling°S, wcalh .A foreign people: zlfylccP, clf>&>d ..As enemy: zlfyJccP .Foreign: clclcndisc8, ellcndc, cl)>eodig, cll>Codiglic, clt>eodisc, fremde, tocumcndc, uncut>. Qtacumcn, iltacund8. utancumcn, iltcra, iltlende, iltlcndisc, iltlic, wiclisc ..Foreign, distant: elj>Codig ..Foreign, from afar: feor(ran)cumcn, feor(ran)cund ..From over water: of~lic , ofe~wisc ..With other speech: elreord, clreordig .Dwelling afar off: feorbilcndP ..Living in another country: cll>Codig .Barbarian, savage: bzrbzre0 8, elreord, elreordig, ungerad ••Unsubdued: unitemcd0 ••Without intelligible Jansuaae: ungcreord0 8 .Abroad, away from home, out: cll>Codigc, cll>Cod(ig)lice, ill, utan bordes, utan landcs, ilte, wrzclfcc 0 State of exile, banishment: elj>Codignes, giestingq, wracu,

wrzcscipc0 8, wrzcs1]> .Ad of banishing: forewritcnncs0 8 .Path of exile: wraclistP .Place of exile: wracsct1°P, wrzcstow .An exile: cardwrccca0 , fticma, tOdrifen .An exile, wanderer, stranger: wrzcca .A fugitive, wanderer: fticma, ftiemin~. nydfara0 P, nydgcnga0 P, wrzcmon°P .A wanderer, exile: cardstapa0 P, mcarcstapaP .A vagrant, vagabond: hleapere, woriend 572


12.07.01 One's due, natural place or position .An edle, outlaw: freondleas mann, wulfes heafod .EDled, banished: iftiemed, el~g. fordrifen, forwracned0 , forwrecen, Oflidri:fedO .Fugitive: (ge)flieme, ftfemig' .Into exile: on el~. on ell>Codige .To 10 into exile: fteon .To bo'wander in edle: wracian, wracnian, wr&clistas wunian See 12.04.04 Solitude; 12.05.07 Rejection; Outlawry

12.07 An obliptlon, bounden duty: ~igness, nfed, nfedscyld0 , niedl>earf .A duty. due: gelast .Respomibility: pleoh .Conscience: ingehygd, inge}>anc, inge}>Oht, ingewitnes, gewitt .Bound, obliged, under obliaatlon: gewrit>en .Deserving of, subject/liable (to): weor}> .Of necessity, as reqwred (by law, etc.): niede .To behove, be the duty of: ansan, becuman, (ge)byrian, tobelimpan ••To be obliged/bound (to do): igan, habban ••Is obliged/bound (to do): sceal, l>earf .Shall, must, ought to, etc.: sceal .To bear/be under obliptloa: iberan .To take upon oneself: astundian .To cliscbarae on obligation, pay: ibycgan, (ge)li:stan .To account for (an action): witan See 06.02.04 Necessity; Constraint; 14.01.05 Service 12.07.01 One's due, natural place or position: (ge)cynd, gemet .RJgbt, due, measure:~}>. (ge)riht .RJgbtful, proper, due: gecynde, gecyndelic, domfzstP, neadwrs, onriht, rihtlic, gerisenlic .Proper, fitting: gec0p, gec0plic, ml!}>lic .Meet, suitable, fit: gedafni(g)endlic', gelic, gemetlic ..(Of things) adequate, suitable, fair: gem~e ••Likely, apparendy suJtable: (ge)liclic .Worthy, suitable, fitting: weor}>ful, weor}>lic ••Observina the just mean, fit, meet, worthy: medeme ••Flt, meet, becoming, proper: weor}> .RJgbdy, properly: gelimplice ..Rlgbdy, properly, admirably, excellendy: cymlfceP .F1Uin1ly, worthily, properly: weor}>fullice, weof1>lice 573

12.07.02 Observance, keeping

.Through, by right/virtue of: )>urh See 03.06.03 Fitness; 07.04.02Deserts; Standard 12.07.02 Obsenance, keepin&: begfmcn, begfmingi, behealdennes, gcheald. healding°', healdnes, (ge)healdsumnes, gehield, gehieldnes0 , waru .Dutiful: arfzst .To obsene, keep: begfman, (ge)healdan, l0cian -To bold, keep (peace, law, etc.): behealdan, onhealdan°P .To respect, observe: (ge)hlystan •To adhere to, follow dictates of: begin .To bold to, keep up, observe: forphealdan .To fHlfll, respect, cany out: br!man, fullgin, fullian Covenant, USl1l'IUlce of faith, promise: fzstnung, treow, (ge)treow)> .A promise, covenant: frumsp~c .A solemn wunmce, covenant, word: triiwa, word ..A solemn compact: hCahtreow 0 P .A pledge, solemn promise, covenant, compact: wedd .To engage, pledge oneself: (ge)treowsian .To make a matter sure, engaae, promise: getrymman .To pve one's word to: treowe geniman to .To pve (a pledge): bet&can .To confess a purpose, promise, vow: andettan .To profess oneself ready for: behilan .To will, profess, claim: willan

See Oath; Vow A promise: (ge)beot, (ge)hit, word(ge)bCotP .A vow, promise: behzs, behit, foregehit .A promising, promise: wordbeotung0 P •What is promised, a promised good: gehit ..A promise of money: feohbehit°, feohgehit ..Promise of numerous offsprina: womgehit0 P .Not promised: ungehliten° .To promise: behlitan, beotian, fore(ge)hilani, (ge)hitan, onhitanP -To make (a promiselvow): gehilan -To vow/promise boastfully: (ge)beotian .To promise or vow not to, renounce: forhitan A promise, oath: word

574 Impunity .A promiae oa oath: At>gehit°', il>wedd°I •To vow with an oath: IJ>swerianq .To promhe, swear: lswerian, (ge)swerian .To deny with oaths, lmp1ecate, swear: Adilstrians Truth, faltbful-, good faith, slncerlty: s0J>fzstnes, treown!den°P .Truth, troth, (good) faith, honour: (ge)treow, (ge)treowJ>, truwa ..A season of faith/truth: treowJ>ragP .Truth, fidelity to a promise: 501> .A man loyal to a covenant: w~rgenga .Trustworthy, true: 50l>fest, (ge)treoweltriwe, (ge)treowfzst. getreowful, trum -True to one's word: wordfzst -Faitblully, loyally: (ge)treowlrce .Sure, trusty, true, trustworthy: sicor, unswicol, gewiss -Reliable, true, good, trustworthy: gOd, riht ••Tried, proven: (ge)cost •Truly, in ac:cont.11,.... with a promise: s0J>e .To be trusty, faithful, &rm: getreowfzstnian°1 See Trust; Luyalty To break a promise, vow, etc.: lleogan, forbrecan, forwyrcan 12.07.03 Abstinencelexempdon (from): stil(l)nes .Freedom (from trouble, etc.): freodOm .Not accountable, not nsponsible: unscyldig .Free, unaffected, exempt: fr&> .Exempted, quit of: stille -Free/exempt from sin/crime: J>ingllas -Freed from a charge, excused: onsec' .Is not obliged/bound (to do): nib .To be exempt from: lspelian of -To get dear of, get exemption: sciran See 11.06.04 Abstention; I l.lnes0 .An honest man: unnij>ing° .Honest, true, without deception: ferhtS, s6~fa:st, unfi!cne .Honestly: unbryde0 .To be without fraud, be honest: clene ba:c habban Honourable conduct, dignity: geris(e)ne .Good, honourable, noble, proper: sel .Honourable: irweorj>ful, gecoren, rihtwyrpe .Honourably, uprightly, virluously: bilewitlice, rihtlrce, unfracodllce0 See Nobleness; 07.08.02 Honour 12.08.03 Restraint, temperance: beha:fcdnes0 S 578 Moral restraint, modesty, sobriety .Moderation, temperance: gemetgung, syt'emes .self-restraint: on~ P .Frugality, moderation: gneapncs .Moderate: gehealden, gemetlic, syfrc .Frugal, abstemious: gnca)>/gnead .Temperately, in moderadon: gemetlrce, syt'erlfce .?Discreetly, in an orderly manner: gefsedlice .To control, govem (oneself): getemprian See Eating; Sober 0 AbstinelK'e (from): forwiemednes .Denial, rmnnciation (of flesh, etc.): wit>sacungl! .Abstemious, disciplined: forhcbbend, forhcfed See 11.06.04 Abstention; 12.07.03 Exemption Strictness, austerity, severity: heardnes, heardlicnes0 .Hardship, severity: unge~se ,Severity, strictness, rigour: sul>ncs, stnec, t>earlwrsnes .Hard. not luxurious: sUl>lic ..(Of living, discipline, etc.) rough, bard: stearc .(Of discipline, conduct) stem, severe: strtc, strtclic, swij>lic .Strict, severe, austere: sbl> .Very bani, severe: forheard .(Of Judgement) strict, severe: nearu .Stem, harsh, of severe mind: l>earlmMP .Rigid, unyielding: heard .Strictly: eomostlice, fcstlice, stearclice .Hardly, without eaw: heardlice See 14.05.01 Correction Moral restraint, modesty, sobriety: forscamung°S, gehealdsumncs .SObriety, discretion, modesty: gemetfcstnes .SObriety, sobeaoas: syfemcs .Restrained, modest, virtuous, sober: gehealdsum, gemetfcst, gemetfcstlic, gemetlic, sidelic ..or dress: sideful .SOber, moderate, not acaslve: gemetlic, syferlic .SOberly, modestly: gemetfcstlice, get>ungenliceS .SOberty, purely, witb restraint: syt'erlrce

579 Continence Continence: behealdennes .Continence, restraint: forh2fednes, h2bbednes0 , h2bbungs .Continence, chastity: gehealdsumnes .Continent: gehealdendgeom0 S, gehealdsum -Continent, chute: gehealden .Contiaeady, with restraint: fol'h2fendlice0 , forwiemedlice Chastity: ch!nnes .Chastity, modesty, virtue: hygdigness, scamf2stnes0 S, gepungennes ..Modesty, bashfulness: scamu .Chute: clzne ..Modest, chute, virtuous: ciisc0 P , heofonbig(g)endeS, hygdig, scamfa:st, scamfulS -Bubful, modest: scamJic .Chastely: hygdiglice0 8 12.08.04 Purity, moral dNnness: ch!nnes, clcnsung, orceasness, syferlicnes, peorfnes, un(ge)wem(med)nes .Absence of vice or defect: orleahter .Sincerity, purity: hl0torlicnes0 , hliitomes .Pure, chaste: cll!ne, ch!nlic, heofonlic, syfre ..Very pure: full clzne, heahhliitor 0 .(Flgurative) dNr, pure: hlOtor .Undefiled, pure, umullied: orceass, uniwemmed, uniwidlod8, unbesmiten, unml!le, unml!ne, unwemlic0 S, unwemme, un(ge)wemmed .Fauldeu, free from oft'eace: leahtorleas ..Sinleu, without sin: synleas .(Of virtue) safe, inviolate: gehealdsum .Incorruptible, immaculate: unifiiliende, uni1wemmedlic0 8, unawemmende .(Of spiritual purity) fair: f2ger, hwit .Pure, sincere: cll!ne, hliitor, untwifeald .Pure, whole, pure of heart: cll!nmOd, hil, hi1lfa:st0 , scir ..Pure in heart: clcnheort, hygech!ne0 P ••Yearning after purity: clzngeom .aeansed: ibywed .Purely, chastely: cll!nlice, syferlice .Purely, with sincerity: hliitorlice .Purely, uncorrupdy: ungewemmedlice .To deanse, make pure: Ahliittrian, ilmerian, aseopan, ij>wean (frarnlof), bech!nsianq, (ge)cll!nsian, (ge)feormian, merian 580 Error, wrong conduct. erroneous practice -To dea,se in tbe fire, parity:

iseopm of, (ge)felsian, s&>pm

12.08.05 Innocence: bilewitnes, unbealu0 P, ungesael>fulnes0 S, unscsel>fulnes, un(ge~J>l>ignes, unscyldS, unscyldgungS, unscyldignes .An innocent man: unwemmend ..An innocent (i.e. a lamb among wolves): lamb ..Simplicity, ingenuousness: infealdnes .Innocent, guiltless: bealuleas, bilewit, fr!o, orscyldeq, scyldleas, unbealaful, ungyltig0 , unscsepful, unscsel>l>ig, unscendende8, unscyldig, unsynnig -(Of cblldren) innocent, without reason: un(ge)wittig ..Innocent, without guile: flicenleas, grandorlw0 P ..Innocent, harmless: clzcleas, underiende, unscsel>l>(ig)ende ..Inoffensive, innocent: lij>l!as .Innnceutly: unscsepfullice, unsceppiglice0 , unscyldiglice See Justijicalion 12.08.0S.Ol Blameless: bismerlw0 P, orleahtre, tltlleas0 , untltle, untltllic, un~lwierJ>e

.Not culpable, unblamewortby: unlcahtorwyr1Je0 , ungelzccendlic0 8

.Unblamed: un~led .Blamelessly: tltlleaslrce0 ..Blamelessly, without nproacb: untJtllice .Gulltlessly: bUtan gylte, unsynnumop


12.08.06 Moral evil, depnvity: iennl> .Unhappiness (from lack of moral good): ungull> .Weakening (ofmonl sbengtb): gemengednes .Danger (of moral harm): plcoh, pliht ..Moral canker: riist .A vice, moral fault or defect: uncyst, unriht .An evil habit, vice: unrihtcyst", unsidu, unlJCaw, unwrenc, ungewuna. wierdnesS .Moral impurity, foul practice: fYll> See 07.03 Evil Enor, wrong conduct, erroneous practice: (ge)dwola, hwyrllung, gemearr, misgedwield0 P .Enor, (wicked) folly: (ge)fteard .DJ doing, demerit: unwyrht" .Miaconduct, lraegularity: misfadung .Wlckedne1s, ml-:oucluct, evil behaviour: hearddlp, misntd 581 Pollution, impairment ~wiscnes,

fracot>scipe0 .Penersity, depravity, iniquity: forhwicrfednes0 , lysu, 1>weora, (ge)l>weomes, 1>weorscipe0 , wil>ermednes, wit>ennedo. wi}>erwcardnes .An impure action: gewemmednes .Sinful thought: synnet>Ohtq .An improper wish: unrihtwilla .An evil art, ill practice: uncreft .Sbameless/scandalous conduct:

.One who acts with (wicked) folly: fteardere0 .A moral fall: fiell, hryre .A ruined person: forworht

.Evil nature: inwitgecynd0 P .An evil, depraved race: earful>cynn°P, mincynnq See Error; lndecorum Pollution, impairment: gewemming, wemnes0 .Conuption: iwemmendnes0 B, gebrosnung, ijlnes, gewemmednes, . wemnung -(Figurative) conupt matter: wyrms .An evil seed: un5Zd0 .An evil gift: ungifu .An Utjury cauled by sin: synnleaw 0 , synwund .A guilty stain (on soul): minwamm0 P Lacking moral good: unge5Zlig .(Of Cain) bad, worthless: cystJeas0 P .Bad, vain: minideJP, yfeldysigog .Given to evil-living: yfellibbendeog .Errant, straying, sinfui: woriende .(Of life) reprobate: iworpenlic .(Of conduct) ill-regulated: ungel>Cawfa:st0 B .Profligate: steorleas .Conuptible: gewemmedlic0 .Vicious, proftigate, prodigal: earg .Perverse, wicked, depraved: forhwicrfed, forhwierfedlic0 , lysu, 1>weorh,

1>weorhlic, wiJ>ennede, wil>erwcard ..Sunk in vice: forgriwen° .Wicked, depraved, degenerate: ibrol>en, gea:rwe0 S, ierre, lyl>e1ful0 , 1>weorhtieme, woh .Penerted: mis(be)hworfen, mishweorfed J>ecenerate: misboren, miswende 582 To mislead, seduce, lead astray .Corrupted: ewmt, gel!fed J>econt, corrupt, sick: idlig, seoc .Polluted, pea terted, corrupt: forcierred, forwordenlic, gefYled, gewlt!t .Morally dangerous: pleolic .Vicious, seductive: leahtorfull .Corrupting, polluting: forweorpende, gewemmendlic0 S .Fallen: fort>AslidenoS .Ruined: forworht See Moral weakness Evilly, badly: yfle .Pervenely, wrongly: on ~weorh, ~weores, ~weorlice ..Worse: wiers ..Wont: wierst To lead a bed life: mislybban .To tarn In wroaa direction, be perverted: rniswendan, o~rran°P .To go astray, err, tramp ea: rnisfaran, wandrian .To err, stray, act wickedly: dwelian, gedwellan, gedwolian, fleardian, mearrian°. rnierran, rnisfCran, worian .To fall Into sin, lapae, nlapae: lfeallan (on), lslrdan, iwician •To become corrupt: (ge)brosnian .To deaenerate: mis~n .To be lost or strayed: losian . To order amla, mlsoonduct (one's life): misfadian Orf) • To mislead, seduce, lead astny: idwellan, lscrencan, fortyhtan .To impair, corrupt, dqµade: lswebban, iwierdan, (ge)leahtrian, onwendan, (ge)scendan, (ge)wemman ..To impair, impoverish (the mind): gehh!nsian .To pervert: rniscyrran°P, oncierran, on woh don ..To pervert, corrupt, chanp for the worse: iwendan, gehwierfan ..To pervert, deprave: forcierran, forbwierfan, forleran, forpt!ran .To corrupt, defile, pollute: ifYlan, geblandan, gClllZnsumian, gemengan, gewemman, wrdlian ..To pollute with sin: fyrenticnian°' ..To make'sinful: forsyngian ..To deftle, • I n (oat:Mlf): befYlan, besylian 583 Wickedness, evil .To corrupt, dcslrvy, ndn: forl!osan, (ge)losian, gedtan, undcrgln

See Deception Wfckedners, evil: irleasnes, iwyrgednes, firencnieft0 P, fill, hinderscipeS, inwitstsefP, lyJ>emes, min, mlnf&bpu0 P, minfulnes, ni]>, ni]>scipe°', unwisnes, wca, wOb, wOhfuloess, wrecnes, wyrgpuP, yfel, yfelnes .Evil, iniquity: unrihtnes, unrihtwisnes, unrihtwisu, unsnotomes .Wickedness, guile: hindemes .Wrong, sin, vice, wickedness, evil: unriht .Malicious evil: bealuru"')>P, teona, yfelgiomess, yfelwillendnes0 S .Evil thoqbt: misgehygd0 P, nearopanc, nearopancnesoS, ungepanc See 07.03 Evil; Damned Wrong, evil-clohaa: unrihtd~d. unrihtweorc, wOhnes .Evil, wickedness, evil deed: lysu .An evil thiq, ioiqulty,evil-dobl&: niht, unnyt .A misdeed: misweorc°' .A wroq act: unriht .An evil deed: forsceap0 P, lij>weorcop, min, mlnforwyrht0 P, w!aditdP ..A foul deed, misdeed: fraco~d° ..An evil/malicious deed: inwitweorc°, ni]> .Evil teaching, incitement to evil: unllr A bad man, lnbnman person: unmann .A wicked person: deofol, unrihtwillend, wipennede, wrzcca .A malevolent creature: fCond, mlnsceapal' .A wicked creature: hellehund .An evil-doer: framhycgend°', grynsmip0 P, inwidda, ~ mlnfordl!dla0 P, mlngenga0 , nihtfremmendP, teonsmip0 P, unrihtd2da, unrihtdOend0 , unrihtwyrcend, unrihtwyrbta, wohfremmend0 P, wrohtsmiJ>P, wyrgend, yfeld&da, yfeldond ..A villain: folcsceapa0 P ..An evil persecutor: mlngeni]>la0 P ..A limb (of Satan): lim ..A source of strife: wrohtsiwere ..A fellow-worker of evil: weagesi]> (Of persons) wicked, evil-dobl&: irleas, flh, forscyldigod, trtctig°P, incOp, mind~e. mlndeorfO, minfremmende, minful, mlnfullic, mlnweorcP, minwnke°', unriht, unrihtful0 , unrihtlic, 584 Misdeed, sin unrihtwis, un&elig, wamm, wiJ>ercoren, w6hful«, w6hgeom0 , w6hlic, wOhsum°', yfeldede, yfeld6nde, yfelwyrceode .(Of actions, thoughts) wicked, evil: iwyrgedlic, forscyldig, hinder, yfelful°', yfel(l)ic •Wicked, gross, crimlul: firenlic .Wicked, accursed, evil: iwyrged, iwyrigende, unl~d(e), wearg .Villainous, rascally: weargberende°', wil>erhycgende •Worthy of bell, very wicked: hellic ..Bound for bell: grundfiis0 P, hellfiisP ..Delerving hanglq or cnviflxlon: rodewyrt>e0 Wickedly: irlwlrce, firenum, mlofullice, unrihtlice, unge&el(ig)ITce, w6hlrce .Evilly: nihtlice, nearolice .Evilly, penenely, wickedly: wril>e .Unrighteously: unrihtwrsnce •Wickedly, maliciously: fkne .To ill purpose: unoytlice To do evil: wiergan .To act wrongly, offend, tnnsgaess: misdOn ..To contrive evilly: yfelmynnan .To make or become wicked: forscyldigan ..To harden, become impervious to aood: iheardian Darbess, evil: dimnes .Dark, evil: deorc, deorcful«, \funm, mirce ..Dark, deceitful, evil: dieme .Deep, heinous, profound, grievous: d&>p, d&>plic, frecne, healic, hefig, hefiglic/hefelic, hefigtjme, swer, sweart ..Deepest, most heinous: nil>emest .Evilly, darkly: swearte .Darkly, horridly, foully: deorclfce

.Grievously: deope .Deeply, profoundly: hefelice Mbdeed, dn: misfeng", synn .An evil deed, crime, fanlt, Iha: bealud~P, firenweorcP, folcfireoq, hellfiren°P, mind!.ad, minscild0 P, mlnweorc, see~«, und~. wamm,w6~

..A griffom Iha: nl)>Synnop

585 Transgression, trespass ..A dclldly sin: d&&>firen°P, ~ See 14.02.01 Offence; 16.02.01.l 3 Sin . Tnantp"eaioo, treapua~ forg&gednes, forg&gung°I, forleomesq , mi~. ofcrleomess, wamdl!dP, gewyrbt(u) .A fault, crime, offence: culpa0 P , (ge)eofot, min, wroht, wrohtscipe0 P ..A grievous fault: unscyld0 ..A leria of crimes: wrobtgetima0 P .An offence: geswic, swicdOm ..An offence, vice: swice, swicung -RaponsibWty forotr~. (one's) fault: gylt .Wroaa,fraud: teosu A sinner, tnr.sa1crwr: igyltend, firenwyrhtaP, forg&gend, m1nscea1>aP, mlngewyrhta0 P, mlnwyrhtaP, ofcrgegend, synfull, syngiend/synnigiend, synsceal>aP, wierdend, wit>ercora Gallt,, sinfal, crimluh scyldig, wamfulP, wamscyldig .Gl-.en to evll-doinc: scyldwyrcendeP .Pl"one to sin: bealuftls0 P Sinfully, wickedly: synlrce .Faultily, wronsly, wickedly: gyltlfce •Wickedly, aro-ly: firenlrce To sin (aplnst), do wroaa: igyltan (wil>) .To commit crime (apinst): forwyrcan (wil>) .To commit a crime or sin: (ge)gyltan, synne (ge)dOn •To tramgrcss: ofergegan _To pea a moral limit, tnnsg1 ea: ofergin, oferleoran -To fall (from), tramp'as: ibiigan (fram), forweorpan Deceit, evil, wickednea: flcen, inwit .Ipoblenea, basenea: ibrol>ennes .An evil trick/desip, wicked arlih: unwrenc .A rogue: ceorl, ~c ..A shady peoson, rope, charlatan: scand, sciia, scynde1° .False, wicked. base: lysu, ~ne, gemih, min, yfel -Guileful, wicked: fLtcne, inwit, inwitful -Wicked. fnudulent: gemearr .Wlcbdly, hscly: fracol>lrce -

586 Wantonness, sensuality, lasciviousness -Wickedly, fahely, crlmlmlly: minlfce

See Deception

12.08.07 Immoderation, excess: oferftOwe(n)dnes, ofergemet, ungernetfestnes, ungernetgung, ungemetlicnes0 .&c:e1ses: oferdOne l>ing .De'ril-like peed: deofolgllsung"' .Immoderate, excessive: oferftOwend, oferftOwe(n)dlic, ofergernet, ome, ungetog, ungemetfzst, ungernetigende, undl>ful0 , undl>lic .Unbridled, intemperate: ungemetgod .Unrestrained, UJllOVernable: ungereclic .Immoderately, exc:eaively: oferftOwendlfce, orenlfcost0 , ungebeorhlfce0 , un~l>lice

•Without restraint: unm:lice .InonHutely, unbecomlnal1: ungedafenlrce .To overdo, do to excess: oferdOn

See Excess Lulty, indulgence: forgiefnes •Weakness of wUl/ftesh: hnescnes .Lmury, e«emlnac:y, e•se~ sOftnes .Jndulgenc:e, sensual pleamre: Olehtung ..Snare of pleasure: lustgrynq -0.11: gilfreols« .Las, unrestrained~ riim, sleac .Lumrious, indulgent: fw1>umlic0 .soft, easy, luxurious: mearulic, ~fte .soft, luxurious, e«emlute: hnesclic .To be lu, rem••: toslilpan .To make yielding.lsuaudble: gebnesc(i)an See Pleasure; Pleasantness · Wantonness, lf'"Hallty, lasdvioumess: gagoll>Zmes, gilnes, gilscipe, Iii>, wn!nnes, wn!nsa', wn!nscipe0 S .Lic:endoumess, proftlpc:y: eargnes0 S, eargscipe, fort>orl&tenes0 , unilyfednes .A debauchee, loo1e-Uver: swelgend .Looee, wanton, lamrious: firenlustful0 , forspillende, gagolisc, gil, gilferh1>0 P, gilful', gilmOd°P, glid(d)er, hygegi1°P, leas, leoht, maffiend, plegol, r!celeas, sc&>h, tolcettende', wn!ne

S81 .02 Brutishness .Llcendous, unchaste: wifgi1° .Producing wantonness/excess: gzlslic0 .Wantonly, luxuriously: gilfullice«, gillice, tolcendlice0 g .To be wanton/licentious: galianl, wn!nsian° .To Mlbecome shamelea/wantoa: maffian •To disturb, dtillate, arouse: towcccan° Brutishness: nietennesq .Animal, brutish: nretenlic .Like an animal: nietenlrce Wantoaacss, levity,frivolity: leasmoones0 , leohtbntdnes, leohtmoones, un(ge)stzJ>J>ignes .Levity, falseness: leasnes .An Immoral action: leasung .Fickle, incomtant: gil, hzlig'l, leohunoo0 P, un(ge)sta:J>pig .Remln, Irregular, not steady: unstzl>l>ig .Frivolous, facetious, jocose: gilsmzre Shamelessness, lucivlousness: scamleast, unscamfulnesl .Symbol of Indecency: gecyndlim .Immodest, shamelea: scamleas, scamleaslic, priste, unzwisc0 1 , unscamfJEst, unscamlic ..shameless, wanton, importunate: (ge)mih _Loving shamelessly: scandlufiende0 1 .Unashamed, unabashed, wanton: gemihlic, unscamiende0 P , unscamig0 P •Without feeling shame: unsceandlice0 .Shamelessly: fra:fellice, unscamlice See Impudence lmpropriety,dlsgaace: ungerisnesog, ungerisnu .Improper, 11nqemly: iEpsen, ungerisendeog, ungerisene, ungerisenlic See /rukcorum 12.08.08 Carnal nature, sensual appetites: flLtsc .Carnal, sensual: ftzsclic, lichamlic, gesi}>cundlicq .Carnally, ignoring spirituality: dymelegere, ftttsclice, lichamlice .To be wanton In lntercoune: httmedlAces plegian See Lust Eqer, aasetmly desire: gntdignes, lust, willa 588 Unchastity, incontinence .SCND"I ded.re, last: (ge)wilnung .sauaJ desire, conc:uplsceatt: lustgeomness, (ge)wilnung ..Comtant lechery: sinwntnnes°' .Unlawful dmre: unrihtlust .Shameful lust: bismergl~w .Lust, voluptuousness: gl!ls(a), (ge)wilnung .Slnful/evWseosual pleasure, lust: firenlust, ungelustfullung't, wynlust .A lustful man: gilsere0 .Lustful, lascivious: firenlustgeom, gillie, pdig, gewilniendlic .To become lustful: iwn!nsan° See Greed Rape: nJedhl!med, nydnimungs .Raped, defiled, clisbonoored: forlegen .To fon:e, ravish: genfedan to nfedhl!mde, nydnl!man, nydniman, ofemiman,

seort>an°' Unchastfty, Incontinence: forhealdnes, unfrluefednes,

ungehealdsumnes .Immodesty, immorality: unscamfulnesS, unsidefullnes0 .Impurity, uncleanness: unclennes, unchtnoS, unsyfemes, gewemmednes ..Moral cornaption: woruldwfdl 0 P ..Defilement of the 8esh: ftltscbesmitennes°' .Blemish, pollution, de81ement: bismemes, besmitenes, fignes, wamm, (ge)wemming .A seducer, unchaste penon: fortyhtigend, wemmend .Impure, unclean: forhealden, unclene, unclitnlic, unsYferlic0 , unsyfre .Undeanwd., not made pure: un(ge)cl~nsod .Unchaste: ungehealdsum Hlmmodest, unchaste: unsideful .Impure, de81ed: ilyled

.That defiles: (ge)horwiendeS, gewemmende, gewemmendlic .Not proper to tell: unisecgendlic .Indecorously: unsidelice0 .Jncontinendy: ungehealdsumlice0 .Foally, wantonly: fille .Impurely: unclitnlice, gewemmedlice .To defile, btsmin:b, conupt: idnegian, ifYlan, iwemman, iwhttan, besnu"lan, besmittian, bel>wyrianoS, dreccan, (ge)horgian, geunclensian ..To defile by Wldt lntercoune, debauch: forlicgan

589 .02.01 Fornication, adultery .(Of a woman) to fall, nlin benelf: forhcaldan, forlegen beon/wesan,

forlicgan Fornication, adultery: ttwbryce, dymeforlege(r)nes, dyme(ge)legersci~. dyme(ge)liger, forleg(en)nes, forliggang°S, ~med, hzmedsci~. hzmedping, hOrq, geligere, geligemes, unrih~med, unrihthi:ming°, wohhi:med .Number of incidences: ha!medrfmS .Unlawful wedlock: unrihtwifung° .Fornication with women: wifcynd°S, wifgeomes0 S .Bed of fornication: forligerbed .An adulterer, fornicator: zwbreca, dyme forliger, dyme(ge)liger, fyrenhycga0 S, forlicgend, ~mend, haring, ny~medreS, unrihthi:mdereoS, unrihthi:medfremmere0 , unrihthi:mend, UnrihthZMCfC, (gC)WCmmeOd, WOhhi:MCOd, W0hhzmere0

.Adulterous: ftbntce, dymeforlegen°, dymelegeroS, dymh&mende0 S,

forlegen, forligeren°', forligerlic, unrihthi:med, unrihthi:mend .Adulterously: forligerlice •To commit fornication/adultery: dymlicgans, firenian, firenligerianS, forlicgan mid/wip, forligrianS, (ge)hzman, (ge)syngian, unrih~man. gewemman An adulterer/-ess, whore. pronitute: forliger .A bartot, whore. adulteraa: ~cestre , firenhicgeS, firenhicgendS, forleg(n)is, hOrcwene, hOreS, lufestreS, ny~mestreS , scand, scr&ttel! .A lOOle woman: cwene, scylcen, synnecge0 .A mistress: Unrihtwt'"f'O .A pronitute: forligerwif, myltestre, portcweneS .A procurer: bepl!cend, forspennend, wemere0 S. wif}:>Cgns ..A bawd, procuress: forspennestre0 .A house ofUl-fame, brothel: forlegeswifahiis, forligerhiisS, myltenhiis0 S, myltestrehiisoS, myltestremS, scandhils 0 Concubinage: cifesdOmS, cifeshadS, cifesgemana0 .A concubine, bartot: cifes .To cohabit in concubinage: (ge)hzman See 12.09.06 Cohabitation Unnatural semal behaviour: forliger .Inc:at: ml!g~med , sib(ge)leger .An incestuous penon: sib(ge)leger 0


12.09 Marriage, state of marriage .Unnatunl vke: unrih~med .A 90Clomite: bedling ..(Of sin) 'Soclomish': sodomise, sodomitisc .Improper, inu:sl.iw: gewemmend 12.08.09 Gulltlne111, pilt: lgyltnes0 , gylt, scyldignes8 .Crime, guilt: sacu .An offender, pilty penoa: fih, gyltend .Guilty, guilty of: fib, gyltend, gyltig, sceap)>ig ..Leplly: synnig -Cbaraed wilb guilt, actnzed: sec ...Not acquitted, andeared of cbup: ungelidodO -Without remiaion, not to be forpvea: unilysendlic0 ..Very guilty: felasynnig°P, purhscyldig° ..Equally guilty: efenscyldig° ..Partially guilty: healfsynnig°' ..Guilty, criminal, linful: forworht/forwytbt, scyldful -Guilty of murder/crimelp iev0111 lin: mlnscyldigP, mort>orscyldig°P -Gallty of wmeless sin: zwiscfiriniend°', bacrsynnig' ..Sunk (in guilt): begripen mid/on ..Haanted by pilt: synbysig°P .To be/become guilty: gegyltan ..To do wroag, be pllty: forwyn:an ..(Of llelf-ac:cu111tion) to amwer for: slA'lan

See Condemnation Blameablencss, blamewortblness: lA'lwier)>licnes0 .Culpable, blameworthy: scyldful

.Blameworthy, reprebmsible: st!orweo¢/st!orwierl>e, lA'lful0 , lA'llic, lA'lwierl>e, lA'lwier)>lic .Bl•meably, reprel"fnslbly: lA'llfce 12.09 Marriap, date of marriap: It, ltwnung', brydllc, terscipe', (ge)gaderscipe, gift, hemed, bemedgem•na°', bemcdscipe', hrwung°,

gesamnung, samn!den°, samwist, sinhrwscipe0 , gesinJg°S, sinntden, (ge)sinscipe, wifl>ing .A marriage: gbnung, gift ..(Of the marriage relation) one ftellb: In flltsc .Rigbtful matrimony: rihlA'w, rihlh&med, riht(ge)sinscipe ..Life of riptful matrimony: rihtlif S91

12.09.01 Pledging, betrothal .Marriage with a virgin: mzgdenew 0 .A man's ftnt marriage: frumwifung .Coltjugal fidelity: winetreow 0 P .Married penons, maa aied couple: ~we, gemzccan, gesamhiwan, (ge)sinhiwan, gesinscipe -Rightfully married couple: rihtgehiwanq, rihtgesamhiwan° .Spouse: gebedda, getera, geoc, hemerc, (ge)maca, (ge)mzcca. gercsta -Rightful spouse: rihthiwa0 -Beloved spouse: healsgebeddaop •.Husband, (married) man: bOnda, ceorl, ealdor, freaP, ~medceorl 0 , hliford, sinfrea0 P, wer, wiffa:st wer -Rightful husband: rihthliford0 , rihtgema:cca, rihtwer ..Bride (betrothed/newly-married woman): bcyd -Wife, married woman: ewe, bryd, cwen, cwene, fort>wif0 S, hl!medwif0 S, gesinge0 P, wif -Rightful wile: rihta:l>elcwen°, rihtew, rihtwif .Marriageable: giftlic .Married: ttwfa:st, geew(n)od, ~wnod°, forgiefen, gesinhiwen, gesinscippend0 -(Of a man) married: werlic, wiffa:st0 -(Of a woman) married: beweddod, gebrydod -(Of a wile) lawful: a!we -Twice-married: twihzmed0 S -Three-times married: !>nllf!medoS .Nuptial, spoasal: beweddenlicS, bcydlicS, gemunglicS, giftlic .Co~ugal, matrimonial: hiwlic0 S, gemzclicS, gesinsciplic See Wooing; Sacrament 12.09.01 Pledging, betrothal: beweddung0 , bcydgifa, bcydgifta, wedlic,

weddung0 .Money paid before marriage: bcydgifu, forgifung°S, handgift0 P ..Dowry: fzderfeoh0 , fa:drcnfeoh0 S, giefu, wedd, wedgifu0 S .Suitor: bcydguma. wogerc .Pledged, betrothed: beboden, betA!ht, beweddod, fa:stnod, (ge)weddod, gewedfa:stoS .To pledge, betroth: befa:stnian, beweddian .To betroth: behatan, besceatwyrpans, beweddian, gehandfa:stan°, gehitan, gesceatwyrpanoS .To make payment for a wife: (ge)bycgan wif .To give ln marriage: a:tfa:stan, forgiefan, (ge)giefan, giftian, (ge)sellan 592

12.09.03 Unmarried state 12.09.02 Marrtqe ce1m1011y: brydgifa, brydgifta, brydhlOp, brydllc, brydJ>ing, giefu, gfeming, gift, gerdnung, wlfgifta, wlfung .Bridegroom: brydguma .Bride: bryd .Bridesm11n: brydbodaoS, dryhtealdor, dryhtealdonnann°, dryhtguma, dryhtmannl, dryhtwcmend', dryhtwcmerel, witumboral, wytumal .Bridesmaid: hidswzpel, heort>swzpeoS •Wedding garment: brydrfaf0 S .Marriage-feast, entertainment: brydealo(J>), gfeming, giftfeorm0 .House where wedding Is celebntecl: gifthiis0 .Epithalamium: brydleoJ>'. brydsang'. giftleoJ>0 ' .Marriage blesmaa: brydbletsung° .Nuptial ch.amber: brydbiir, brydhiisoS, brydloca0 , giftbur .Nuptial bed: brydbedd, brjdnest, brjdsceamolq .Bridal night: brydniht° .Groom's gift to bride: morgengifu .To marry: ge&wnian, gemungianoS, (ge)heman, (ge)hrwian, (ge)lllZnsumian, gesamnian, gesinig(i)anl, (ge)weddian .To keep nuptials: gifta don .To take a wire: wifbegietan, wlfhabban, (ge)wrfian (on), wlfledan, wff niman, wif onmn .To take a bnshand: (ge)ceorlian .To join ID marriqe: (ge)gadrian, gesamnian, (ge)spannan, tOsomne gedon, tOsomne gej>Codan, weddian 12.09.03 Unma1 aled state: hagostealdhidl, mzgJ>hid •VhJlnlty: hagostealdnes°' -Of men: cnihthid _or women, maidenhood: femnhid, ouegdenhid -Glory or vlrainity: mzg}>bled"' ..A 'limb-key' (to dose Vlrsln Mary's body): lioJ>u, ma:gJ>mann°' meowle ..A bend Of virgins: medenbeap0 P .An unmarried man: hagosteald, hagostealdman -Youna man without boasebold: cniht, hagosteald .Unmarried: zmettig, unge&wedl, unbeweddod, un(ge)hemed' -Unma11 led, without a wire: wiftcas _(Of a woman) 11nma11 led: ceorles, werlcas ..Not pYen ID marriap: unforgifen' 593 Celibacy -Unbetrothed: unbeweddod .Of a virgin, virgin: bagostealdlic0 1 •.Maidenly, virginal: femn(en)lic, f&mnhidlici, rddenlic, ~)>hidlici ..Pnre, immaculate: unwemme Celibacy: bagosteald .A celibate: forh&bbend .Celibate: clzngeom, forh&bbend 12.09.04 Divorce: hiwgedil .Divorced woman: zll!te -(Of women) divorced: iworpen .To part (man and wife): gedZlan .(Of married people) to part: gedZlan See 14.03.03 Action of the courts

12.09.05 State of woman whose husband has died: wuduwanhid .Relict, widow: forlzten wrf, lif, wuduwe •Widower: wuduwa 12.09.06 Cohabltadon: gebedscipeP, genuecscipe0 P, neawest. samwist .Consortin1 with one man: inlegere0 1 .To couple, join (u man and wife): geJ>&>dan See Concubine

594 Cessation of hostilities

13. Peace and War 13 Peace, tranqollllty: smyltnes, stillnes .Peace, absence of dl...,..on: fri)>, seht. sibb, ge)>wl!re .Unanimity, concord, agreement: irunede0 P, inntdnes, efenheortg, gem0dsumnes0 , (ge)sehtnes, (ge)sibsumnes, s0m, (ge))>wl!mes .Good terms, rapport: freondrl!den, freondscipe .Peace, freedom from bate: unny)>nesq .Pe11ee among dwellinp: wicfreo)>u0 P .Ac:conlant, not at variance: gemOd, gemOdsum, samheort0 P, samod)>yrlic0 g, samrid0 P, ges0m _or peace, peaceable: siblic -Peaceable, pacific: fri)>geom, fril>sumog, (ge)sibsum, (ge))>wl!re -Peaceable, not hostile: unheto1° .Peacefully, peaceably: gesiblfce -In peace, without disoonl: (ge)sibsumlice, softe •To agree, setde: gesprecan See Quiet; 05.12.04 Still

13.01 Pt.-e, state of law and order: fri)>, woruldfri)>0 .(In legal sense) peace; fri)> -Town included in 'frlth': fri)>burh0 .Peace enjoyed by legal •!W!Dblies: mz)>elfri)>q .Peace (droppin& of feud): unfl!h)>0 .To keep (the) pe11ee: fri)>ian See Security 13.01.01 Peace (not war): freod, fri)>, fri)>u, sibb .(Of nations) at peace: gesibsum .Friendly territory: fri)>land0 •.A plain aft'onllng peace: fri)>owang°P Cessation of hostilities: fri)> .A peace agreement, article of peace: fri)>mll 0 , fri)>gewrit0 ..An oath of peace: fri)>il>0 ..A beaty of peace: fri)>ow~rP -A truce, (temporary) peace: gri)> .Peace made by marriage between peoples: dryhtsibb0 P -(Of angel/woman) 'peace-weaver': fri)>owebba(-e)P -(Of woman married for peace) peace-pledge: fri)>osibb0 P .That brings about peace: gesibsum 595

13.01.02 Reconciliation .To m•ke peace: fbn to fril>e, fbn tO sibbe, fril> (ge)fzstnian, fri}>ian,

fril> macian, fri}> (ge)niman, gri}>ian, sibb niman 13.01.02 Recondliadon: ed}>ingungoS, eft}>ingung°S, (ge)sehtnes, gesem0 .Reconcili•don, pace-m•ldng: ~gsibbun(I, gesibsumungs, s0m .A peacelWlker: gesibsumgend .To reconcile (those at varhmce): frit>swnian°, (ge)seman, (ge)sibbian,

(ge)}>werian, (ge)}>wl!rl~ .To bring to an agreement, make terms: icordian, (ge)macian seht(e), (ge)seht(i)an, gesibsumian .To be reconciled (with), apee (with): gesibsumian, (ge)}>ingian, wi}> }>ingian .To settle (a disputefquarn:I): sac (ge)twltman, (ge)sCman, (ge)settan An llPpeasing, pacifying: gecwemnes, gladung .To mollify, appeue: iwician, (ge)gladian, gelil>ewician, gelil>ewitcan,

geli}>igan .An arbitrator, Judae, conciliator: sema. semend -To arbitrate between, end dispute: (ge)seman -To bring qaeement between, aetde (dispute): sehtan, (ge)sehtlian 13.01.03 lntercessJon, plaiding, mediation: ltrendung, forc}>ingrZden,

forc}>ingung, gel>ing, }>ingrltden, gel>ing}>, (ge)}>ingung .An intermediary: d&lere, forcspreca, forct>ingere, fore}>ingiend, midligend, }>ingerc, wealhstod .To mediate, intercede (for): (ge)erendian, forcgebiddan, forcsprccan, forc}>ingian,(ge)}>ingian ..To intercede successlully for someone: (ge)}>ingian See Advocacy; Mediation 13.02 War: beadulicP, (ge)camp, camphid, campn!den°P, campung,

folcgefeoht, folcgewinn°P, girrup0 P, gielpplega0 P, gii}>, hercrup0 P, hild, orlege, }>urhgefeht8, unfri}>, unsibb, wigno}>0 8, (ge)winn, woruldcamp, woruldgewin° .Warlike, ID8rtial: beaducraftigP, wigbltrcoS, wiglic -Bold in war: beadurofP -Greedy for war/destruction: gii}>fm:P ..Mighty in war: wigstrang°8 .In a warlike manner, by fiabdng: wiglice .To raise arms, go to war: ibiddan°, ihebban wltpen, ihebban (ge)winn .To do battle, wage war: gefeoht dreogan, gewin dreogan, (ge)wiMan


13.02.02 Battle •Warlike deed or operation: beaduwcorcP, giil>(ge)wcorcP, hereweorc0 P .Action, 8gbtlna, warring: orlegwcorc0 P -Resistance, opposition: anbyrdnes0 , andwig0 P .Timeofwar: orleghwDP .Destruction in war: wigbealu0 P .Calamitous war: wolgewinn° .Civil war: ingefcoht0 , ingewinn° ..Di'risive, inteawdne: ungefCrlic ••In dvil war: ungefCrlice .External war: ut(ge)fcoht .Land war, operation on land: landfyrding0 .To fight: (ge)campian, (ge)feohtan, (ge)ftitan, hilde dZlan, lacan, (ge)wigan ••To fight against: a:tfeohtan°P, iifeohtan, beon/wesan ibisgod wi~. (ge)feohtan wi~. fOn wi~. onlwinnang, wi~feohtan, wi~eha:ftan, wi~winnan

_Opposed: unsamwn!de0 -.Unopposed, unattacked: unbefohten -To resist, oppose, counter: geanbyrdan°, istyntan See 12.05ff Opposition

13.02.01 A military expedition: a:scfaru0 g, fa:reld, faru, fierd, fOr, fyrding, girfaruP, heresi)>P, gewealc, wfgsit>0 P • •(Of expedition) to march,jOUl'lley: (ge)faran .A raid, hostile expedition: rid, unrid0 •.A hostile raid (Danish): heren!s0 .Approach of army: hleo~rcyme P .Naval expedition: scipfyrdung 0

13.02.02 Battle: a:scplega0 P, a:sc~racu P, beaduP, billgesliht0 P, campwig0 P, cumbolgebrec0 P, cumbolgehnist°P, ecgplega0 P, (ge)feoht, geftit, glrgewinnP, glrmitting°P, gamts0 P, giir~racu P, gii~gemotP, gO~plegaP, gO~ge~inguP, gO~gewinnP, handgemOtP, handplega, handgewinn, heaJ>uJicP, heaJ>uweorc0 P, hild, gehnzst0 P, lindcroda0 P, lindgelic0 P, lindplegaP, nil>, nit>plega0 P, nit>weorc0 P, plega, sa:ccP, searoni)>P, secgplega0 P, geslieht, sperenit>0 P, sweordplega0 P, getoht0 P, tohteP, wa:lsliht, w~penge~ra:cog , wzpengewrixl(e), wig, wigplegaP, wi~den°P, (ge)winn .Day of battle: gefeohtda:g°P, gewinnda:gP 0


597 Single combat .Battlefield: escstcde, beaduwangOJ>, campstede, feld, folcstedeP, herefeldP,

meotudwang°P, meJ>elstedeP, sigewangP, wzlfeld0 P, wzlstOw, wzlwang°P .Battle on foot, affray: fCl>ewigP .Pitched battle: folcgefeoht .Shooting battle: gescotfeohtP .Naval battle: scipgefeoht°' .Of/concerning battle, fighting: heal>ufremmende0 P, winnendlic0 g .Fipting, able to fight: wigende .In battle: on wzl .(or battle) heavy, bard: hefig, hefiglic, micel .(or battle) open: open .Bloodshed, blood of battle: bl0ddrync0 , blOdgyte, heaJ>uswitP ..Bloody, attended with bloodshed: blOdig ...Stained with blood: dreorflh0 P, switfAhP ..Bloodlea, without bloodshed: unblOdig .To join battle: cuman togzdere, faran tOgzdere, faran tOsomne, Ion togzdere, gin togzdere, togzdere giras beran .Onslaught of battle, hard ftabting: beadur&s0 P, giipriesP, bild)>racu0 P, t>rzcwrg0 P, wigJ>racuP .SOund of battle: heresweg°P, bildehlemmP, hildesweg°P, bildewomaP, wigcynn°P Single combat: inwig .A champion, bearing his lord's sword: sweordbora .In single combat: inwiglrce0 g .To fight for: forcampian°g .To fight hand to hand: beon/wesan hand gemt!ne ..Hand to hand, at dose quarten: handlinga ..Battle-hand: beadufolm0 P 13.02.03 To seek with active Intent, attack: forsecanP, geieman to, (ge)secan .To nm after: zfter ieman .Charge, onnub: heal>urt!sP, hildert!s0 P

.Invasion: heregang, hergung, infaru .To ovemm, harry: (ge)hergian (on) ..To ravage: oferhergian •.Act of harrying dose at hand: n!ahhergung° •War-violence, warlike agression: guJ>J>racuP 598

13.02.04 Defence, guard, protection

See Come upon An attack, •111alt: anginn, leon~s P, ftint>racuP, foresteall, gripe, handres0 P, hercgang, hergung, ni}>geteon°P, onbliest°S, onerningq, onfzreldS, ongefehtc, onfeng, ongang, ongrype0 , onhryre0 S, onn!s, ongewinn°s, n!s, s0cn, storm, tomgemot°P, wzJn!sP, wrg)>racuP .Attack with weapons, sword·nsh: sweordnts0 P .Attack on relations: m~gnts .Overwhelming attack: mzgenn!s0 P .That attlcks, assaulting: hr&>sendlic, onfeohtende, ons&ge, onwinnende .To attlck, assault: igrctanS, becuman on, beginnan, ehtan, ron on, ron togeanes, (ge)gretan, gripan (on), hetanq, (ge)hrepian, inion (ge)hreosan, oferfeallan°, onfeohtan, onginnan, onhigian, onhreosan, onn!sans, onwinnan, (ge)riesan on/wi)>, gestandan, tengan on, ymbsittan ..To take by assault: ibrecan, tobrecan


0 Inroad, attack: onbryceS, onrits .Act of breaching a wall: weallgebrec0 .Destruction of walls: weallgeweorc To beset, surround: ymbhypan, ymbsellan .Siege: ofsetenes, setl, ymbset, ymbsetennes0 , ymbsetlq, ymbsetnungs ..Embattled: ungeterlic ..To besiege: besettan, besittan, bettymman, forsetnianS, ofsetnian°S, ofsittan, utan begin, ymbsittan ...To reduce by siege, starve out: ut isittan .To blockade: forfaran To oa:upy a conquered land: geniman, gesettan, gesittan .To oa:upy forcibly: ofl>ryccan 13.02.04 Defence, guard, protection: waru .A defence (from attack): gehield .A defender: forefeohtendS ..Defender of a bridge: brycgweanf0 P .Ready to defend: andwfggearo0 P .To defend: iwerian, bescyld(i)an, (ge)ealgian, forstandan (fram), (ge)mundbyrdan, wearoian, (ge)werian (wi)>) ..To take up defensive position: (ge )wamian (wi)>) 599 Defenceless, unwarlike ..To defend oneself (in battle): (ge)scieldan .To bold one's around, resist attack on: forstandan, healdan, werian .To pnison: (ge)mannian, gesettan, gest&t>olian

See I I.JO.OJ Protect; I Guard Defenceless, unwarlike: orwige 13.02.05 Luck in war: sigorspCdP, wigbledq Victory: herespCd0 P, hre~. hrc~sigor P, sig0 g, sige, sigesi):>0 P, sigor, sigorweorc0 P, wigsigorP, wrgspCdP .A victorious battle, victory: sigegefeoht0 .State of being victorious, victory: sigefzstnes, sigorfzstnes .Bour of victory: sigehwt1°P .A sign of victory, trophy: herelofg, mi reels ..Palm, prize, decoration, reward of victory: sigebeacn, sigelcan, weort>scipe, weot1>ung •Victorious: sigebeorht, sigeCadig0 P. sigefzst, gesigefzsted, sigehre~igP , sigeli~. sigericeP, sigerofP. sigorCadigP. sigorfzst, sigorlic ..Rejoicing in victory: sigehremigP ..Invindble: unoferswi):>ende, unoferswi):>e(n)dlic, unoferwinnendlic, unoferwinnene ••Unconquered: unforcumen°', unforswy~ • unofercumeng, unoferswi):>ed, unoferwunnen .To be victorious: Agan sige, Agan wzlstowe geweald, gcdJgan. (ge)sigefzstan, gesigfzstnian, sigorian ..Is victorious: ofennzg°' .To win a victory: sige niman


0 To overcome, conquer: iwinnan, be~ , be~ridian, (ge)cnyssan, geChtan, forhienan, forscrencan, forslean, forswJl>an, (ge)hienan, (ge)hnregan, ofercuman, oferdrifan, oferfeohtan, oferftitan, ofergin, ofergangan, oferhigian°P, oferstigan. oferswi):>an, oferswi):>rian, oferwigan°P. oferwinnan, oferwrecan', offeallan, ofswy~anog, gescendan, tobrecan, (ge)wieldan, (ge)winnan .To briq into subjection, subdne: lwendan, (ge)biegan, of]>ryccan .To put to ftipt: iftfeman, (ge)ftieman .To Uve, i.e. conquer: libban See 12.05.06/f. Overconre

0 To pin by ftghtiq: gefeohtan, geslean, (ge)winnan

13.02.06 A fortification .To capture, take in war/by fon:e: gefaran, gefOn, (ge)leccan, (ge)niman,

gen!can ..To make captive, carry oft': forhergian, gehergian See Remove; 14.05.08 Captivity State of being a hostage: gislhid0 i

.Giving of hostages: gisldu0 1 .A hostage: gisl ..A hostage against peace: fril>gisl 0 ..A hostage aplnst a promise: foregisl .To give hostages: gislian Booty, spoUs: fang°, feng, herefeoh0 , herehilt>, herelif, herereaf, heretcam, heret>0 , hergap, hergung, hl6l>, hilt>. lie, Orlegceap0 P, rCaf, reaftic .Spoil taken from the slain: deaprCaf0 i. wzlr!af .To despoil: onreafian Defeat: hryre .A defeat, loss: siege .Rout, rout and flight: ftcam

.Defeated: forslzgen, nit>eriworpen°i, oferwunnen, orwirJ>e0 S, sigeleas .That tells of defeat: sigeleas .Not attended by victory: hret>leas0 P . sigeleas, unsigefzst0 .To suffer defeat, lick the dust: liccian eorpan See; Subjection Surrender, submission: beswicennes, eapmedu, handgang .A prisoner of war: herenuma0 .To bow to, surrender: ibQgan, (ge)bilgan, on hand gin

See Submission 13.02.06 A fortiftcation: fzsten, weallfzstenP, (ge)weorc, ymbtrymming

.Fortiftcadom: wic .A making strong, fordfying: fzstnung .Fortifted: fzst, gefrit>sum8 .Fast, so as to make wure: fzste .To fortify: bewyrcan, gefzstnian, gestrangian, getimbr(i)an, weardian 601 Stronghold, fort/fortified town Stronghold, fort/fortUled town: burg, burgfestenop, ~ter. e)>elfesten°P, festen, heahfestenll, )andgeweorc0 P, randburgP, Stinburg, getrymming .Land easily defeadecl: festen ..Natural fortress: landfesten° ..Bill u protection: mundbeorg"P .Cude, fort: caste) ..A castle-yard: burhgeard0 .Tower, wakb·tower: torr, tilr -Tun-et: wighQs -Guard·bome, wakb·tower: weardseld •Wall: burgweall, castelweall0 -Walled, fortified: geweallod .Gate: burggeat, weallgeatP .Earthwork/rampart: breostweaJloS, eorpbyrig, eorpweall, wigsteall .Bulwark, breastwork: breost(ge)beorhll .Outwork: foreburhll, foreweall, pearroc .A moat: fatendfc0 .A bench: dfc -To surround with a ditch, fortify: bcdfcian

See Tower; Township 13.02.07 War-craft, art of war: beaducraeftOP, giiJ>hom0 P, herebyme, herehom0 S .Horn sounded after victory: sigebyme0 P See Trumpet A standard, banner, ensipa: cumboJP, draca, eoforcumbolP, eoforheafodsegn°P, fana, hWodsegnq, gegierela, gii)>fana, heorucumboJ 0 P, herebeacen, herecomboJ0 P, hr&fn, mearc, segn, )>iif .Banner leading to victory: sigebeacen, sige)>iif0 P .Standanl·bearfna: fanbyrde' An artide of warlike apparel: feohtgegyrela0 ' Body armour, war gear: eorlgew~ P, frztwe, fyrdhrzgJ 0 P, fyrdsceorp0 P, fyrdsearuP, gearwe, geatwe, gii)>geatweP, gii)>reaf0 P. gii)>sceorp0 P. gii)>scriid0 P. gii)>searoP. gii)>gewl!deP. heapur'!af0 P. heapuwitd0 P. heresceorp0 P. herewl!d0 P. hildegeatweP. bi)desceorp0 P, hf&g), hyrst, gen!de, se&rO .Wearing armour. scirbam0 P .Armed, having armour: (ge)Isncd', gesierwcd


603 .01 Mail, iron-rings .To wear/bear arms: ot>beran. werian .To arm, put on armour: (ge)gierwan, (ge)sierwan .To disarm: bew&pnian .An armourer: sweordhwila Mail, iroa·riap: hringiren°P .A rina: bring .Twisted: writ>en ,Joined together by baacl: handlocenP .Made of riap: hringed -Wide-meshed: g~neb P .To knit together, link: seowan 0 A helmet: binhelm0 P, beadugrima0 P, grima, grimheJmP, giil>helm0 P, heafodbeorg°P, helm, heregrimaP, isenhelm0 g, wigheafola0 P .A leather helmet: let>erhelm0 g .A helmet giving invisibility: heolol>helm0 P .Wearing a helmet: gehelmod/gehilmedg Parts of a helmet: .Protective rib/comb: walu .Crest: camb -Having a crest: cambihtg .(Of helmet) towering in battle: heat>ustcapP .Boar-image on helmet: eofor, eoforlic0 P, swin, swinlic0 P •Visor, mask: grima .Cheek piece: cinberg0 P, hl!orberg°P .Cbaia mail guard: freawrisn°P Neck armour: healsbeorgg, healsbrynige0 g Coat Of mail/corselet: beaduhrzg1°P, beaduscriidP, beaduserce0 P, br!ostnetP, br!ostgewzduP, byme, bymham0 P, bymh8111.8°P, fyrdhom0 P, goldhama0 P,giil>byme0 P, heaJ:>ubymeP, heoruserce0 P, herebyme0 P, herenett0 P, herepid0 P, heresyrce0 P, hildeserce0 P, hringloca0 P, hringnettP, irenbyme0 P, isembyme0 P, leot>usyrceP, licsyrce0 P, searonetP, sere, wa:lnett0 P .Cunningly inlaid: searofih0 P •Wearing a corselet: bymwigendeP 604 A spear Greaves: bin(ge)beorg', binriftl, scancgebeorg"', scinhosul A shield: b0bscyld0 , bord, bordhreoJ>aP, bordrand0 P, bordweallP, bordwudu0 P, campwudu0 P, geolorandP, giil>billa gripe, giil>bordP, hcal>ulind°P, hildebordP, hilderand°P, lind, plegscyld'. rand, randbeag, scield, scieldhreol>a. sidrand0 P, targa, tudenardl, l>!'Yl>bord0 P, wigbordP .Shield boa: rand, randb&lh .Covernbonler of shield: la:rigP -Ornamented with ?leather: cellodP .Anned with a shield: bordhzbbende0 P, gescieldod, getarged' .A shield-maker: scildwyrhta Weapons, aiw: beag, hildefrofor 0 P, gewitpnu .A weapon: beaduwepenP, campwepen°P, herewitpen°P, hildewitpenP, witpen, wrglice tol, wrgwitpen°, woruldwitpen° -A victorious weapon: sigewltpen°P ••(Of weapon) tried, proved: gecost .Fierce in arms: searogrim0 P .Storm of weapons, armed force: witpenf>racuP .A club/stick: cycgel, repel 0 , sigol, steng, tm>w.1>rsl .A blade, sharp weapon: ccg •.A bewing/cutti111 axe: ceorfa:x0 -.A sm•ll axe: taperzx ·-Back of axe: fr .Handle/shaft of a weapon: bolt, sceaft .Edge/blade of cutting weapon: ccg, ccglist .Head/point of cutting/piercing weapon: glr, ord .A pointed lmtnuneot. pike: pre A spear: a:sc, a:scholtP, a:tg~rc', a:tglr', itorspere0 P, bangir 0 P, daro!>P, darol>sceaftOP, deaj>spere0 P, eoforspere0 S, eoforspreot, franca, gafeluc, glr, garNam0 P, girwudu0 P, giil>wudu0 P, heresceaft0 P, hildepflP, hlence0 P, ma:genwudu0 P, ord, pet0 S, sceaft, sperc, spreot, J>eox0 S. l>ra:cwudu0 P, wa:lgirP, wa:lhlenceP, wa:lsceaft0 P, wa:lspereP, Wfggir 0 S, Wfgspere0 1 .A group of spears: a:scholtP, giirbolt0 P .Armed with a spear/lance: darol>ha:bbende0 P, gesperod .Shaft of spear: sceaft, speresceaftO, wa:lsteng"P 605 A shot, missile, dart, spear, javelin, etc. -Provided with a shaft: getridwet°I -Having a long shaft: langsceaft .(Of spear) without point/head: sperelcas0 s .A spear-strap: sceaftlOS, sceafttog°S, sperewril>q A shot, mi-Ue, dart, spear, javelin, etc.: (ge)scot,

.:& g scotspereog, scotung, scyte, ..wuer .A flying dart: flygepfl0 P .A shower of missiles: sciir .A shot, sbood.ng/hurll.ng of a missile: (ge)scot, scotung, scyte, turfung, wyrp .Rapid movement of a mlssUe: fttrscyteP, (ge)scot .To shoot (someone) with a weapon: (ge)scotian .To send/throw/shoot (a missile): ~tan. lstn!lian°s, l~lian, onsendan, (ge)sceotan, (ge)scotian, (ge)sendan See Throw A sword: beadulema0 P, beadum&:e0 P, bill, brand, tela lif, tyres and teole lif, giil>biJJP, giil>sweonf0 P, giil>wineP, hamera lif, heoruP, heoruw&pen°P, hildebilP, hildeleomaP, hildemece0 P, hiltings, isen, mece, secg, sweord, wttpen, wigbillop .A bllted sword: lueftmece0 P, hiltsweord° .A costly sword: beag, mii.l>l>umsweord°P .Sword wielded by victorious band: sigemece0 P .A flaming sword: bymsweord0 .A damascened sword: brogdenmzlP, hringmiCJP, milswyrd, sceade~J0 P. wzgsweord°P -(Of sword) d•mescened: brogdenml!JP, pgmJC1°P, hringmiCJP, hringmreled0 P, scirmreled0 P, wundenmrel0 P, wynnf"ah0 P -(Of decoration) mark burnt by fire: tyrm&l0 P .A broad sword: brid sweord .A short sword, dagger: handseax, hupseaxP, hypeseax0 S, seax, J>CohseaxS, wclseax 0 P .A pike, sword-stick: stcfsweordog .(Of sword) one-edged: li.necgeog .Keen/sharp of edge: beaduscearp0 P. ccgheard°P. heardccgP. Sbl>ccg°P. stylecg°P, styled .Very sharp/bard: teolheard0 P, stedebeard0 P -Fire-hardened: fYrbeardOP .Strong in battle: wigcrzftig0 P 606 A bow .Dinted in war: heal>usceanfOP .A swonl-m•ker: sweordwyrhta°' Parts of swonl: IDlt of swonl: hilt, (ge)hilte .A ?belted bllt: fetelhilt°P .Provided witb a hilt, bllted: hiltedop -IDlted witb (pndous) metal: fealohilte0 P, goldhilted0 P, gyldenhilte0 , seolforhilt(ed) -Witb twisted hilt: heorubundenq, wreo)>enhilt°P .(Of sword/hilt/scabbanl) ornamented, adorned: (ge)bunden, gescl!ned0 P .Plate of metal (on swonl-bllt): scenn°P .Having DO hilt: hiltleasoS .Belt of bllt: fetel(s), sweordfaetels0 -Belted, provided witb belt: (ge)fetelsod Sbeatb for swonl: cocer, lecgq, sceal> .Jewelled sbeatb: ~tlnfaet, waelgim0 P Armed witb a swonl: sweordberende0 P, gesweordod .Drawing of a swonl: brygd, sweordtige°' -To draw, pull oat (swonl, etc.): lbregdan, Adragan, (ge)bregdan, gedragan. (ge)teon (ilt) -(Of swonl) drawn, unsbeatbecl: itogen, nacod -To aosbeatbe: unscfal>ian8 -To sbeatbe (a swonl): behydan StriJdnw'aUack witb swonl: sweordgeswing0 P .Battle stroke, stroke of swonl: heal>usweng°P, heoruswengP, sweng, sweordgripe0 P, sweordslege0 P ..Fatal blow: feorhsweng°P •To strike, deal blows: h&wan ..To strike fordbly, back, gash: (ge)h&wan A bow: boga. ftlnbogaP. hombogaP .End of bow: horn .A bow-string: streng .Cue for a bow: bogef&ider°' .Devil's deceitful bow: bnegdboga0 P .A crossbow: arblast°

607 An arrow, dart, bolt .To draw a bow: tinnan An arrow, dart, bolt: anga, arcwe, bolt, earh, fta, flan, gar, scutel, stn!l .A battle-arrow: gilpfti0 P, heoruftioS, berestn!l 0 P, hildenzdrcP, wepenstn!l 0 P .Feathers of the arrow: fet>ergearwe0 P .A quiver for arrows: cocer .To shoot (someone) with an arrow: stn!liang .A volley of arrows: earhfaru, ftingeweorc0 P, isernsciir 0 P, sciir, storm .Shaft of arrow: sceaft -Treacherous shaft: inwitftin°P •Thrust of arrows apinst shield: bordgelic0 P A warlike engine: wigcrzft .A batterhl& ram: ramm, wl!hpollq .A sling: lil>erc, stzftipe~ A chariot: crztwzn, eored, wigwzgn .A wart.one: cob 13.02.09 Military style: fyrdwise0 .Military: camplic, fyrdlic, herclic0 g, nu1itisc Military service: campdom, fyrdfzreld, fyrdfaru, fyrdf0r 0 , fyrding, fyrdsocn .A tum/time of military service: stefn, stefning .Enrolled for military service: fyrdend .To serve as a soldier: fyrdian, fyrdrian .Liability for military service: fyrdnop0 .Able/fit for service: fere, fyrdwyrpe ..Eligible for military service: ferdwyrJ>ig0 .Right to compel military service: fyrding .A national leyY: fierd 13.02.10 The military, soldiers: nu1ite .A soldier: cniht, fyrdmann, fyrdrincP, heremanng, pegn ..A fellow-soldier: gedryhtaq, dryhtguma, dryhtgesi)>0 P, efencempa, getera. fyrdgemaca0 , fyrdgesteallaP, incempaoS, gesco~, gesi)>, gesi)>a .A standard-bearer: gesl!li~. segnbora, ticnberend, tacnbora, wibo~ .A ,,.....herald: hildecaJla0 P 608 An armed man A mwn, warrior: ceorl, dedfnunaP, hildestapa0 P, hyse, magorincP, mann, swinq, tJegn, wiga, wfgend .A warrior, fighter. aescwigaP, beadurincP, burgwigcndop, cempa, cumbolwigaP, drcng, fcohtcnd, fcohtcrc0 g, fcohtling, folcwiga0 P, fyrdcsnc0 ,gUbcrcndP,girwigaP,girwigcnd0 P,giil>bcorn°P,giil>frecaP, gOl>frcmmcndP, gQl>gcli!caP, gQl>maecg°P, giil>maga0 P, gOl>rincP, gOl>wigaP, hcal>urincP. hclmbcrcnd, hcoruwulf0 P, hcrcmaecg°P, hcrcrincP, hcrcwit1>aP, hcrcwOsaP, hcrcwulfOP, hild(c)frccaP, hildcmecg°P, hildcrincP, hil~rcmma P, hildcwulf0 P, JindhaebbcndP, lindwiga0 P, ordwiga0 P, Orctmaecg, OrcttaP, randhaebbcnd0 P, randwigaP, randwigcndP, scca~ sceotcnd, scildfreca0 P, scildwiga0 P. searohzbbcndP, segnbcrcnd°P, t>COOwiga0 P, waelwulfP, wl!pcnbora, wiga, wfgboraog, wigcnd, wigfrccaP, wigmann, wigsmi~. winncnd, woruldccmpa ..A YOUDI warrior: hagostcald, hagostcaldman, sccalcP -Young in war. hagostcald. hcal>ugcongq, hcorogcong°P .A slorious warrior: hrCl>mannq, hrCl>sec~ .J>istinauisbed in war. fyrdwyrtJe .A woman warrior: ccmpcstrc' See Man 0 A commander, oftlcer. campcaldorg, fyrdwisa0 P, hcrcrl!swa0 P, heretema, hcrctoga, hcrcwisaP, hildcwisa0 P, hildfrumaP. hliford, litteow, maegcnwisa0 P, wiga, wigfrumaP .A tribune: gmfa .Oftker of a thoasancl mea: l>iisendcaldorq, l>iisendealdormanng, l>iisendmann, l>ilscndrica°' .Oftker of a hundred men: ccntur(io)', ccnturius0 , hundfrea0 g, hundrcdcs ealdor, hundrcdmann .Oftker of fifty men: fifti(g)csman .To march at tbe bead of, lead: (gc)l~ An armed man: wepcnbcrcnd8, wl!pcnwiga0 P .Man armed with spar: zscbcrcndP, darol>liccndP .Man armed with sword: swcordbora, swcordfreca0 P, swcordwcgcnd0 g, swcordwigcnd°P .An archer: sceoterc, scytcrc, scytta, stntlbora' .Man in corselet: byrnwiga, byrnwfgcndP .Man with shield: lindwig(g)cndP ..Men armed with shields: lindgecrod0 P, JindwcredP 609 .02.01 An armed force/band An umed force/bud: beaduwntd°P, bcomJ>reat°P, cort>orP, cyst. eored, eorectcistP, eoredheap0 P, eoredJ>reat°P, CoreJ>rCat°P. here, herecystP. heretet>a0 P. herehlOJ>0 P. herescipe0 P' here&>reat, hildecort>or 0 P. magodryht°P, manJ>rymm0 , scildtruma, gesl}>n!dens, sweotP, (ge)truma, l>reat. wigcr&ft, wigbeap .A band OD foot: gumfCl>a0 P .Iron-dad troop: irenJ>f!at°P .A noble troop: ingetrum0 P, eorlwerod0 P .A strong troop: mzgencort>or 0 P .A ruined troop: forloren heap See Follower Mllltary followers (of bomebold): ftetwerod0 P, liJ>smenn, J>Cod .Member of comitatus: innheardmann°g Armed forces: fCl>a. fultum, fyrding, manfultum, wig .An army: zlfaru0 P, beaduJ>reat0 P, campweorod, (ge)dryht, fierd, folc, folcgetrumP, fyrdtruma0 , fyrdwerod, genge, giiJ>here0 P, heap. here, herefolcP, hercmzgenP, landfyrd, landhere, leodmzgenP, mzgen, mannmzgens, stefn, getrum, J>Codhere0 P, J>rymm, werod .Lack of troops: werodlest°P. ..Without an army: fyrdlw Types of army: .A land force: landhere .Army occupying frontier: mearcJ>reat0 P .Advancing army: forj>here0 P .A campaigning army: fzreld ..An army on summer campaign: sumorlida .An ironclad army: isemherc0 P .A native army: innhere .An army from the north: norj>herc .A foreign army: iithere ..The Danish army: hZJ>enhere, se here .A huge army: sinberc0 P .A bold host: m0dheap0 P .A hostile army: unfriJ>here

610 Survivors of a battle .A predatory army: st&lhere .A slaqbtering army: waelhere0 P Bnncb of army:

,Infantry: fij>ehere, f'Otgangende here, gangehere0 ..A troop of foot-soldiers: lll>a ..An Infantry-man/foot-soldier: ~a, f!l>ecempaP, lll>emann •.soldier fighting in line: andlangcempa0 S .C.valry: horshere0 S, n!dehere, ridehere°' -(Of cavalry) mounted: gehorsod, n!de°' .To provide with horses: (ge)horsian ..Deprived of horses: behorsod ..A troop of cavalry: eoredgerid°', ftocrid ..A horseman: eoredouecg°P, eoredmann, hleaperc, ntdecempaq, ntdewiga0 S, ridda, ridwiga°' ..A soldier of nnk, lmipt: cniht, ridere ..Man in chariot, charioteer: certare0 , cnetwrsa, eoredmann, scridwisa0 ' , witnerel Part of an army: .A corps: fyrdstemn° .A division: ende, heap, here .A lealon: eoredmenigu, legie .A cohort: coorte .Tbe vanguard: ord •?Wmwflank: fel>er .An es:peditiooary party: sij>werod0 P .Reinforcements: faca .A pard: fyrdweard0 ..An ofticer of the pard: weardgerefa0 -A hall pard: seleweard°P .A frontier force: wealhfaereld0 A victor/conqueror: forscrencend, oferswij>end,

oferswiJ>estre°', sigebeom0 P, sigebrol>or0 P, sigecempa0 P, sigedryhtenP, sigriend .A victorious people: sigefolcP, sigel>Coreat>P Sarvivon of a battle: darol>a lif, fyrdlif, herelif, wttpna lif 611 A coward, deserter A coward, deRrter: grcgg°P, hereflymc0 P, hildlataP See Cowardice Crew/men of a ship: ftota, ~. li)>smenn, sciphere, scipblaest .A seafarina figbtlna man: heal>ulfl>endeP, scipmann See Voyage A fleet: aescherc0 P, flota, liJ>, scipcraeft', scipfierd, scipfultum, sciphere, scipliJ>0 .A battle ship: fyrdscip, langscip0 ..Grappling book: gcarufang°S .or a fteet: flotlic0 ' , scipherelic0 ' , sciplic .A hostile fleet: unfriJ>flota ..The Danish fleet: norpsciphere0 See Ship


14.01.02 A law, statute

14. Law and Order 14 Law, custom, covenant: &, lagu .Code of law or faith: &riht .Kina'• pace: grit>, mund, sibb ..Absence of pace: unfrit>

See Standard 14.01 Law, body of rules: lagu .A nation's law: folcn!den .Ript of the people, law of the land: folclagu. folcriht, landriht, leodriht .Civil law: burglagu°', woruldlagu, woruld(ge)riht .Customary law: woruldgewuna0 ..Statement of customary law: wordrihtP .A collection of regulations, code of laws: gridnes, }>Codscipe .A bnncb of law: lagu .Ript/just law, equity: rihtlagu

See Law 14.01.01 Law(s) of particular scope: .Enalisb law: engla lagu .Law for Danelaw: dena lagu .Local law: landlagu · .Rules of hundred: hundn:dseten .Town law: burh(ge)riht .Established law of landed property: ealdlandntden° •Tenant law: geneatriht .Law regarding nrineberds: swinriht° .Replatiom conceming a particular dan~ lagu .Law concemina family responsibility: ~glagu .Law concerning peace: grit>lagu0 0

14.01.02 A law, statute: zbebodP' ibetnes, ~bod8, hit, inseten8' insetnis8'

lagu, (ge)setnes .A (spoken) law: wordrihtP .A lepl text: lahgewrit° .A book of decrees/the law: itbe .Lawfully: ltlice, lahlice 14.01.03 Special law, privilege, law for an individual: synderre0 S .A prerogative, privilege: frumgifu8, sundorgifu .A special honour, prerogative: sundorweorpmynt8 .A privilege, special honour, prerogative: sundorweorpung .Privilege (as regards peace) of holy orders: hadgriJ>0 .Peace privileges attaching to a sanctuary: hltlnesgriJ>0 .Privilege of sheltering an outlaw, asylum: fliemena finnl> .A privilege, special immunity: sunderfreodom, sunderfreols .Grant of land enjoying immunity: freols .Unprotected, without 'grilt': griJ>leas .To grant immunity to a criminal: friJ>ian See 11.10.01 Protection Sanctuary: fril>, slicn .An asylum, a sanctuary: friJ>slicn, fril>stol, fril>stow, generstede0 S, slicn ..A sanctuary-enclosure: friJ>geard ..A sanctuary-building: fril>hiisoS •.A sanctuary (superstitiously so regarded): friJ>splott .8ec:urity granted by one in authority: handgril> .8ec:urity from molestation, safe-conduct: fril> .Lepl protection for a homestead: rihthim.scyld0 .Person under special protection: fril>mann .A seeking for protection: slicn ..From a lord: hlifordWcn .Afforded sanctuary: gefril>d .To afford sanctuary to: (ge)friJ>ian See Holy place Freedom from punishment or ftne: wneleastq .Freedom from tax, etc.: freodom, freolsdom .Remission of ftne, tax, etc.: forgiefnes

614 Rights involving property Jiioee, aempt, not liable to tu, etc.: egafol0 , fleo, freols •Toll-ft ee, aempt frvm paymwt of toll: tolfreo0 .scot-flee, free of tribute: scotfrfo .Not having to pay a fine: witel!as0 .Esempt from hostility, not rrp1ded •foe: unlab0 .Not liable to a cbarse of bomidde: orwige .To flee from obllption/work/tribate: gefreogan •To aemit (fine, obligation, etc.): forgiefan

See lmpunity 14.01.04 A legal right: lahriht .Ript pven by will or charter: b0criht0 .Body of ripts, privUep: rihting .seat u.ted by right: set) .Having a (legal) right, entided: weort> ..Entided to make an oath: iJ>wyrl>e -As king's thane: cyningi:l>e0 .Adapted, 6tted, entided: rihtlic •To make worthy of, entide: geweorpian

See 12.07.04 Righteous A spttl•I right, right punliar to a dan: sundorrihtK .An ancient right: eald(ge)riht .Hereditary right, patrimony: !l>elribtP .Rights of a freeman: freoriht .Royal ript, royal prerogative: cyneriht° .An earl's rigbt or privUeae:' eorlriht° .Rights, duties or privUeaes of a thane: l>egnlagu, l>egnriht .sert's rigbt: l>nilriht .To natore the rtabts (ofa penon): rihtan Rights involving property: .Right of estoven (of cutting wood): timbergewcorc0 , wudung, wuduntden .Rlaht of buntiq: sleting° .F1shlng rights: fiscol> .Right to claim waerkap: scipbryce0 .Right off•wling swine in m•st-pastuns: mest(en)ntden .Rlabt of entry, admi"'on, enbee: infer, infereld, ingang .Entitled to have own fold: faldwyrt>e0

See 15.01 Property 615

14.0 l.04.03 Rights involving money Rights lnvolvlna money: .Right oftaldng toll: toll .Market rights: market .Right of receiving alms: almesriht .Right to fines payable for theft: ~ffeng .Right to ret'eive fines for bribery: feohfang .Right to es.act a patalty for bloodshed: blOdwtle .Right to receive 8ne for sbelterlna outlaw: tliemena firm}> See 15.03 Tax

14.01.05 Service, obligation, duty: hiemes .A duty, service, payment, etc.: (ge)riht .An obligatory service, oftlce, duty: nydriht .A charge, duty: byr}>en, pleoh, }>earf .A debt, due, obligation: scyld .Performance of services of 'in-land': inwaru0 .Obligation of dues to the king: utwaru0 ..or tenant to convey goods and meaqen: eafor .Duty to supply beasts of burden: slam .Duty to perform corvee-work: weorcrcden° .Duty of building a weir: werbold0 .l.andowner's duty to u 1 est thief: ~ffeng .Liable for debt, bound by obliptioa: scyldig .(Of service) owed, due: igenlic .Liable for repair of walls of townlforta ess: burhbOt .Shall, ought, must: sceal .(Of due, privilege, etc.) to belong to: hieran tO .(Of payment, etc.) to belong, be dae: (ge)byrian .To supply with food/lodging as duty: (ge)feormian .To hold land and perform services: land iwerian/(ge)werian See Service; 12.07 Obligation; 17.02.03 Task 14.01.06 A nde, order, precept, tenet, principle: bisen, diht, lagu, regol, rihtung, sidung, s0}>word, steor(e) .A precept, doctrine: lagu, lircwideP .Doctrines, precepts. ordinances: lir .An iatjunction, ordinance: endebyrdnes, (ge)fadung, (ge)riht, gewyrd .A determination, ordinance: geteohhung0 , gel>Oht .A direction, nde, iatjunction: ~ing, ~ipe ..(Of nligioas) a lawful nde of life: rihtregol 616

14.02 Lawlessness .An edict, dea ee, ordlna11tt: gebann, gebenn°1, (ge)bod, bodlic0 , dom, n!d, gentdnes, gerec, (ge)riht, gescrifS .An edict/universal command: woruldbebod° .A clec1 ee, decision: cwide, g~nes0 .5«11lar ordinance: woruldgentdnes0 .A royal ordinance or law: cynedom .Pnvious ordl.,,.nce: frumn!den°P .That nJles, prescribing: (ge)wissigend .To make a law, ordain, decree: (ge)lagian .To determine Oegal ordinances), ordain: gentdan .To settle, establish (~ations, etc.): gecwepan, (ge)sciftan, (ge)trymman .To make, draw up (law,etc.): (ge)dihtan, gewyrcan it .To decree, settle, ordain, appoint, prescribe: astihtan, (ge)deman, (ge)dihtan, (ge)findan, lltran, gelagian, gereccan, gesceadan, (ge)sciftan, (ge)scirian, (ge)settan, gestihtan, (ge)~can, ~cnan, gewissian .To 1ettle ~ations, determine by law: (ge)lecgan .To appoint, imtitute: (ge)insettan, instihtian°1 .To be fixed as a law, regulation, etc.: (ge)standan .To abrogate, annul (law), upset Ouclgement): onwendan .To repeal Oaw), abrogate, change: towendan .To reoounce, reject, pve up: wil>sacan .Revoked: uncweden See Control; 12.03.03 Command 14.02 Lawlessness: zlfest°P .Violation, breach of law: zswice, bryce, lahbryce, oferhremes, unlagu ..Partial breach: simbryce0 ' .Harbouring a criminal: fireman feorm .A law-breaker: ltslnend', niJ>ing, n!pling, rihthandd~a , J>Codsceal>a, wearg ..A felon: fihmann°, teondulfOS, fiil .An accomplice, acceaory: gewita, gewyrhta ..Accessory to a murder: ntdbana ..An accomplice/acceaory in theft: gestala0 .Dlldt, unlawful: unilyfed, uniJyfedlic, unlyfendlic, unriht ..Not authorized, illidt: unilyfed, unlfefed .Vold, invalidated: forod .Unlawfully: ~t unlagum, unzwfacstlice -Unlawfully, without pea 1111ssfon: unilyfedlice .Oulslde tbe law: bOtan It 0


14.02.01 An offence .To brnk, violate (a law): lbrecan, brecan, fulbrecan° , wierdan .To infringe, violate: berstan, oferbrecan, t6brecan, womanq .To abuse (privilege, etc.): forhcaldan .To go/act apimt: forwyn:an (wil>). wil>gin .To harbour a criminal: fireman (ge)feormian See Deception 14.02.01 An offence: fill .A pabUc wavua: folcw6h0 .A crime, offence with which one is charged: reofll. tiht .Crime, guilt: sacu .Fraud, deceit: ficen Types of crime: .A breach of the peace, aaault: lthlYJ>, ethlyp0 .Murder, slaying with attempt at concealment: moq,, wcrtihtle ..Murder by group member: hl6)>sliht ..Murder of a cleric: fullbrycc .Criminal bloodshed: wrohtdropa0 P .Crime worthy of death: d!al>scyld .A breach of the peace: gril>brycc, mundbrycc, unstilO)nes ..By which 'wer' incurred: werfithl> ..IJUury of one in holy orden: bldbrycc ..Complete breach: fullbrycc .Breach of peace between two bolltlle peoples: fril>brec .A fence-breaking: eodorbrccl>0 , eodorbricc0 .Forcible entry into a m•n's house: himfaru, ~ ..A breaking into a castle/dwelling: burgbrycc .megal cutting of wood: wuduhiewet" .Fallure to cut hair: unefesung° .Breach of festival: freolsbrycc .Anon: bemett ..Forest anon: wudubemett •.An arsonist, incendiary: bleserc, blisgere0 .Damage: efwyrdelsa0 .Slander: folclwung .Taking a bribe: feohfang See Treachery; 12.07.05 Wrong Wroagfal taking, theft: andfeng 618

14.02.01 .02.01 Open robbery, rapine, pillage .Theft: stell>ing°, stalu, stalung°, J>Cof0 , J>Cofcnd, J>Cofung°, ~Iefl> ..Hoowbrealdng, burglary: hiisbryce ...Al legally defined: rihtbims0cn° ..s.crilege, church robbery: ciricrena0 .Complicity with a band of robbers: hl6l> .A robber, thief: hl6l>crc0 S, m6rsceat>a, sc!acere8 , J>Cof, J>Cofsceat>a0 ..A Mizer, robber: gripcnd ..A robber, brigand: J>Cofmann, wcaldgenga ..A robber, waylayer: sel(n)crc ..A thief redeemable by wergild: wergild)>eof ..An arch-thief: rcgn)>eofP ..A bee-stealer: bCo)>eofO ..A sold-thief: goldl>CfO ..A bone-stealer: stMl>Cf ..A man-stealer: mant>CofO ..A body of robbers/plllagen: hl6l>, l>Cfscolu0 .Stolen goods: l>fefefeoh0 , l>Tefl> ..A stolen article, what is stolen: stalu -What is tracked after bein1 driven off: sporwrccel0 .Spoil, booty, Ul-gottm pin: gesttod, unrihtgestrod0 .Stolen: forstolen, stulor ..Stolen, taken by thieves: )>eofstolcn .(Of thief) en1aged in bomebftllking: biisbrycclS .(Of thief) red-banded: handhaibbcnde .(Of band) holding (stolen goods): hcbbcndc •With stolen goods: ait haibbcndra handa .To obtain surreptitiously, steal: forstelan, underlon, undcmiman .To steal, thieve, rob: forstclan, fort>CofanoS, (ge)stalian, (ge)stelan, (ge))>eofian .To deprive of, rob: iscirian, bcgrindanP, bch1Yt>an°P, (ge)niman, (ge)reafian (on), (ge)sttYdan See Take ()pm robbery, rapine, pillage: rin° .Robbery, rapine: rCafliic, gestreon, gestrod .Extortion, rapine: for~rycnes, nydnimend, nYdnimu, nYdnimung' .Harrying, plunderin1, rapine, spoliation: here, herct&lm, bcrgal>, hcrgung, gehresp0 , rCaflic, reafung°,ripungs,strildung .Htabway robbery: wegr&lf .Robbing the dain: waill&f 619

14.03 Right of holding court, jurisdiction .seizure, taking by force: niednl!m ..Abduction: wiJ>lrednesog .A spoiler, robber, plunderer: ber&fcrcog, ber&figcnd, hcrgcrc0 S, hcrgicnd, rCafcrc, rCafgcnd, ripcre, sceapa, striidcnd, striidcrc, wanigcnd, woruldstriidcrc .To seize, take with viol«iee, steal: gcgripan, (gc)niman, (gc)reafian .To take away, bear off violently, steal: ibrcgdan, ztbrcgdan, isettan, (gc)la:ccan (mid), oJ>fcrian .To plunder, strip, despoil: arydd(r)an, bcreafian, bcreofanP, beryfan°P, berypan, bcstrrpan, bcstrildan, copian°S, gcfandian, hloJ>ian, gchrcspan°P, (gc)hyJ>an, onbcran, (gc)ripan, sceapian, stridanq, gestrildan, (gc)striidian, gewinnan .To wacst from, extort: lwntstanog, ofn!adian° ..To covet and extort: gcgitsan ..To extort, exact what Is not due: ofgin, ofgangan ..To extort, rob: apryns ..To extort, cheat, deprive by fraud: ztwrcncan°, fomiman

14.03 Right of boldi.Q& court, jurisdiction: sacu and s0cn Jurisdiction over three hundreds: scipfyllcJ>, scips0cn° Jurisdiction over a village: tunsl'.>cnq .Rights within jurisdiction: infangeneJ>Cof .Rights outside Jurisdiction: utfangcneJ>Cof0 .Rights over warranty: team 14.03.01 Judicial body, authority: dom .Town council (as judicial body): burhgcJ>ingJ>0 .A court of Justice: gcmot, J>ing, gcJ>ingJ> ..Court for setting bounds: mcarcgcmot .An of8clal seat, Judgement seat: sctl .Tribunal, place or Judgement: domsctl, domstow, heahsetl, (gc)motstow, J>rymscld .A court-house: domzm, domhuss, heall, gerefzm0 , spreccms, stilcm0 S .A senate house, curia: (ge)motzm, sprl!chus 14.03.02 A legislator: tel2dcnd, t!llteows, tesellcnd .One who gives Judgement, a lawyer: domscttendog, rihtscnlcndS .A lawyer: lahwita0 ..An advocate: forcsp(r)cca, midsp(r)cca, midsprecend0 , gcteama ...Advocacy: forcsprtec


14.03.03 Law, action of the courts .One responsible for another: freond .A Judie: dema. d!mere, d6mere, woruldd!ma ..A judge, arbiter: ~lend, d!ma. d!mend ..An assessor, fellow judge: gesetla ..A judge giviqsentence and punisbmeat: scrift ..An unjust judge: unrihtdema. yfeldema0 .An ofBdal declarer of the law: lahmann° .Enga1ed in law-&ivina: clagol0 ' .To accept or approve laws, decide: geceosan domas

See 07 Judgement 14.03.03 Law, action of the courts: lagu

.Litigation: gem6t .Amicable settlement (not litigation): lufu .Right/obligation to act, coanl:r.ance: cann .Lepl procea: gang -Ript/lawful procedure: geriht -Leaal formality/delay before inheritance: yrfefyrst0 ' .A case for settlement: d6m .A dispute, lawsuit: geftit, woruldgeftit° .An action, suit, cause, daim: mil, sacu, sp(r)cc, talu ..A daim at law: 11efterspntc0 , ~sec. crafing, onspttc, ontalu0 , sp(r)ltc, talu ..An unjust daim: unrihtcr&fing° .A writ: cyrografum .A bW of divorce: iweorpnesse bee, bee forletennesse, bOc freodomes, hiwgediles b6c .A -wro-111 declaration: miscenning .Judicable: demedlic0 .Given to Hti1ation: sacful -Unmolested by litigation: unbesacen .(Of came) undecided, open: open .Contested, disputed: bigsa:c .Clear, undisputed: scir _IJIN)ntestable: unbeceas0 -Tnatbful, not to be questioned: unlygen° -Undisputed: sacleas, unbeftiten, unbesacen, unbesprecen°, uncwyd(d) .(Of person) not subject to dalms: unbecrafod0 , uncrafod0 .Uncontestedly: unbecweden .To brina evidence, a case., action, etc.: (ge)ledan .To refer a case., brln& before: (ge)sc&>tan 621 Accusation .To appeal (for Jmtke): foreskan° •To proceed against: n!dan on .To prosecute a suit, urp a came: sp(r~ce drffan .To daim, demand: aeftersp(r)ccan, escan°, besprecan, (ge)secan ..To make a claim against: cwiddian, sacan, sp(r)ccan aefter/onlymb ..To daim for one's own: (ge)ignian, tOt!on ..To complain with Just camet ceorian .To pin by litigation: 01>flnan° .To bear judldally, try: gehreran .To Judge a person: (ge)dmum .To arrange for settlement: forel>ingian .To dispense with, dismiss: lweg tetan .(Of legal proceedinp) to break down: forberstan .To lw by a suit at law: forspecan Attuaation: fering', lid, meldung°, oncunnes, oncunning°, gewregednes0 , wregung°, wrOht. wrObtstzf0 P .(Frequency of) accusation: betogennes ..State in respect of frequency of charges: ontygnes .A charge, an accusation: onsagu, onstil, gestil, tiht, tihtle, l>ing ..F1nt charge: frumtalu0 , frumtyhtle0 ..Charge of irteaHn1: stzltihtle ..Charge of homicide: wertihtle .An accuser: ford!mend, hienend, t!ond, wregend, wregere, wrehtend, wrohtberend8. wrohtbora ..A female accuser: wregistrc0 ..An acc•aser, plaintiff: onspeca. onspecend ..An accuser, adversary: gesaca, wiJ>ersaca ..An informer, complainant: stennelda0 .Re.sponsibl&'liable for: scyldig .Accused: getihtlod ..Often accused: tihtbysig •To accme: ibeteonS, icunnan, lciisanS, ihenans, behligan°, (ge)fnepgian, (ge)hienan, (ge)ni~an. iip(ge)bregdan .To make an ac.:usation: stilian .To summon: crafian, stefnian .To accme, bring a charge against: beclypian, besccgan on, beteon, betihtlian, cwipan, (ge)flnan oo/wil>, leahtrian, sacan, sciran, gescyldan°, (ge)wregan

622 Witness, testimony, attestation .To ecasw of, charp with: bel&n, belccgan, gereccan (on), (ge)s~lan (on/onp), t!on, tihtan, tihtlian, weorpan on .To lay to person's charp: istt!lan°, (ge)lccgan (on), oncunnao, onst&lan, oJ>witan, sccgan on, wnan .To Impute, ascribe, lay to account ot: (ge)taliao, (ge)tellan •To lay information of a crime: geyppan .To denoonce (to a person): wregan .To involve, Implicate: befealdan, bewealcan° .To deaoontt;, inform apinst~ gebodian, (ge)meldian Defence, reply: wiJ>ertalUO .&«•w, defence apinst a charp: lid .A CGUDter-cbarge: wiJ>ertihtle .A counte....plea, defence: wiJ>ennll .To deny, refute (a charp): etsacan, gr!tan, ofsacan°, onsacan •To defend at law: (ge)werian A searcb for stolen property: esce .Recovery of propea ty: forfang ..A reward for recovery of stolen property: forfang, forfangfeoh _Informer'• reward: meldfeoh .To trace, back (property): bespyrigan (yrfe) See 10.03.05 RewaTd Attachlna, cUstraint of stolen property: iEtfeng, nem, nlm .To seize stolen propeaty: iE$n, (ge)bregdan Wlbw1s, testimony, attestation: 11>. gccyJ>ednes0 1, (ge)cYl>nes, ~pe. (ge)witnes .Condition of being witness at transaction: gewitscipe .Pnctice of having wibwsses prac nt: gewitnes ..8ervlce as a wlb:arn: (ge)witnes .Statement by wlb:arn, testimony: bodung, sagu, (ge)witnes .Evidence, testimony, declaration: sweotolung, gewitnes .Dedaradon of warranty: cenning ..Failure to obtain a warranty: tembyrst° .Witnc1s, testament, covenant: witword .A witness, compurptor: t!wda, t!wdamann° .A witness, testifier: cyl>eJ'e, (ge)wita, (ge)witnes, witnesman° .One who userts or aftlrms: (ge)Kl>end .(Of testimony, etc.) trutbfal: getr&>we, getr&>wful 623 Oath-swearing .Circumstantial: gereclic .Brought apinst smneoae, ad..-ene: ongebrOht .To testify: foretrynunanS .To bear witness: cyt>nesse gctrymman .To attest, bear witnea to: (gc)slpm, gcsOl>ian .To testify (to), prove by witness: gclilestfullianoS, rihtgehltan°8 .To outdo in testimony: ofercyJ>an° •To stand aood. be valid: standan See I /.03.0/.0l.OJ Proof Oath-swearing: iJ>swerung, §l>swyrd .Oath-swearing, oath: §1>, iJ>swaru .Acijuration: hilsung .An oath: §l>s~FS .A preliminary oath: foreil> .A simple oath (oculpation): infeald ij> .A threefold oath: l>ryfeald §I> .Oath taken by a group: ungccoren §I> ..By penon and supporten: nmij>0 ...8elect oath: cyreij>0 ...Supporten or an oath: §l>fultum .Oath or allegiance: hyldij>0 .Oath or denial: andstec .Oath or reconciliation: unceas(t)es ij> .Clearing by oaths: werlid .Sworn under oath: geiiel>cd .(Of oath, etc.) solemn: deop .(Of swearing, etc.) solemnly: dCope •To administer oath, swear (in): gcswcrian .To acijure, charge: (ge)hilsian .To take oath, swear: (ge)hilsian •To give oaths, swear: ij> scllan .To make an oath about, confirm by oath: geiieJ>an .To confirm by oath, swear to: gcswerian .To renounce, abjure: aeftercweJ>an, andsacian, onsecgan -To fonwear, abjure, deny on oath: aetswcrianq, ofswerianq, ot>swcrian See ff Promise; Blasphemy Ordeal: ordil .Ordeal by iron: lscnordll

624 Security, pledge, bail -The iron (u Implement): Tsen, ordi1Tsen° .O.deal by bolling water: wcteron:W0 -Cauldron (as implement): c&c •Trial by combat/battle: omest, orrest .Bread swallowed u test of Innocence: corsdd .To nnderao trial by combat: gefeobtan on F•I• wib1e•: lcasung, liasgewitnes .Calumny, a fake cbarp: b61/hCI, licettung .Perjury: ij>bryce, forswarung°, forsworcnnes, min, minij>, minil>swaru0 , minswaru .Malldous penoa, falw accmer: wrobtbora .A false witness: lcasgewita .A perjurer: ij>loga0 P, forsworen, mlnswara .Guilty of beari!ll f•lse wlblces: forlogen .(Of oetblwitnea) false: ldne, min .Fonworn, perjured: forsworen -Without perjury: un!Mne .To accuse falwly, slander, calumniate: forleogan, forsecgan, fo~gan, gehelan°S .To bring a falw cbarp: licettan .To make a false cbarse aplast: leogan on .To speak against unjustly: (ge)cidan .To commit perjury, fonwear: forswerian, minswerian, t>wflswerian°S .To cbarp with fabebood: (ge)lygnian See 07.05.03 ff Calumny Sec111ity, pledge, ball: borg .Ball where property is stolen: inborb -Violation of ball: borgbryce ,Security: gril> ..A surety for peace: fril>borh. siblic .,Security for a Joan, rewgninnce~ anwedd0 .A bond, pledge: clamm -With religious force: godborg -Confirmed by joining bands: bandfcstnung .A pledge, security: borgwedd°S, wedlic ..Pledge to pay wergild: werborg -Pledge, depollit, thing given as sec:nrity: bid, borg, ceap, underwedd, wedd .A bonff;11aan, .-nrity: anburge0, borg, borhhand, byrga. f!stennann 625 Justification "Guaranton: borg ..Pledged brother (of compact): wedbrol>or .Pledged: forweddod°'

. "Bound fast: borhfaest .Bespoken, deposited: becwyddod°S .Not having security: borbJeas0 .To pledge: (ge)wedfaestanS .To &Ive a pledge or prom.ile: on hand sellan .To 8x by prom.be or agreemmt, pledge: befaestan .To swear/pledge unto: foreswerian •To collect a sec:urity or forfeiture: bidian .To bind by pledge/surety: (ge)borhfaestan •To be security for: iborgian .To be surety/bail for: borgian, onbyrgan .To &Ive sec:urity for: beweddian .To &Ive as surety: trymman .To deposit a pledge: lecgan wedd .To pledge, guarantee security: gesellan wedd .To find surety: findan (wer)borh .To mgage to do, undertake, covemnt: on wedde (ge)sellan, weddian Justlftcation: gerihtwfsung°S .An acusing, defendlna, aculpation: lidung .Clearance from a crimlml cbarp: lid, lidung, swicn .Pardonable: bOtwyrpe .Innocent, not crimlml: unforworht .Innocent, free from accusation: sacleas, unsac ..Faultless, free from oft'ence: leahtorleas .To acuse, defend, exculpate: (ge)lidian .To aculpate, absolve: gerihtwisian, undon .To dear, exculpate (oneself): belidian, betellan, (ge)cennan, (ge)cl~nsian,

(ge)lidian, geswicnan, (ge)~w(i)an, (ge)~wsian, getrilwian, ungereccan°,unsyngian° •To be without frand: cl~ne baec habban See;12.08.05 Innocence A sentence, judgement, ndlng: cwide, dom, gehlot, sprite,

worulddom0 .A just Juclgemmt: riht dom •Verdict against a d•im: oftalu0

626 Atonement

.Just punishment, justice: (ge)riht .Partiality in judgement: hidirung° .(Of sentence) passed: geniJ>erod .To admit (charge, liability, etc.): andetta beon/weqn, andetta weoipan, andetta weqn .To confess, avow: (ge)andettan, beon/wesan becniwe .To render liable to punishment: gescyldigian .To judge, pass as sentence: (ge)scnlan .To give judgement aphut: a:tdeman°, fordeman .To sentence/condemn to: (ge)deman to, (ge)nil>erian to .To carry out a sentence: (ge)deman .To revoke, revene (sentence): oncierran cwide

See 12.07.04 Justice Unfavourable judgement, conden1nation: dom .Condftllnation, proscription: fo~mednes°' -Condemnation to death: deaJ>synoigoes°' .Deserving condemnation: (ge)nil>erigendlic .Deserving (of punishment): scyldig, witnigendlic .Punishable: witewyrt>eq .Gullty, charged with gullt, accused: sa:c .Gullty, culpable: synoig -Guilty of theft: t>Cofscyldig° .Convicted of: gerzfq. gercsp0 .Not acquitted, uncleared of charge: ungebet, ungelidod0 .(Of crime) unpuniilbed: unwrecen .Condemned: fordcmedlic, forgylt, forscyldgod, forworht/forwyrht, fiil -Condemned to death: deadsyonig&, deal>scyldig, feorhscyldig -Condemned to lose a hand: handscyldig° .To prove guilty: forgyltan .To convict of crime: bes~lan (on). ofers~lan, onbes~lan°, gesal>ian on inum .To condemn: (ge)deman, fordeman, fomtdan, forscnlan, forscyldigan, forslean, forwyrcan , gehrenan, (ge)nil>erian, gew~gnian, wil>settan See 12.08.09 Guilt AtonerNnt: godbOt° .Compensation: gield ..Prescribed by secular authority: woruldb0t0 ..In money: chpgyld, feohbOt

627 Outlawry -Kina'• compcnation: cyneb6t. cynegild" -Compensation for slain ldna: cynedOm ..For murdered man: mitgbOt ..For iojury/imult to priest: hidbOt ..For wounding: sirbOt°, wundwne0 ..For engagina in a feud: f&hJ>bOt .Amount of fine for redemption: egngyld, J>egnwer -Criminal's wergild as penalty: wergild -Leplly cotted wergild: rihtwer ..A wergild of 200 sblllings: twibyndc wer .A crimhllll seeking asylum/?recondliation: friJ>bCna .Requiring compensation, liable: ingilde0 .Entitled to a certain compensation: tw~te. twigildc, twiscyldig°,


feowergild0 , sixgylde0 , nigongildc, endlifangilde, twelfgylde0 .Not entitled to compensation: orgilde, ungylde .Not atouble by money: feohl&is .Not paid for: itgildc .Unopiable: bOtl&ls •With x·fold compcllSl!tion: twibOte, nigongylde .To make restitution for, pay for: igieldan, (ge)betan, forgieldan, (ge)gieldan .To make full amends to/for: forebetan .To pay wergild for: gieldan .To help pay the fine of a kiMll!!an: ~ggieldanq See Pe111J11ce Oatlaw1y: iitlagu .An outlaw: iitlaga, Otlah •Ta DiB made at inlawfna of outlaw: frit> ..Money paid for restitution of rights: lahc!ap .Banishment, alle: wracu, wnec .Outlawed, proscribed: (ge)fib, frit>Im0 , iitlah .To outlaw, banhh, pl'09Cribe: (ge)iitlagian -To proscribe: forscrifan •To revene sentence of outlaw• y: (ge)inlagian •To 10 into aile: ft!on

See;I1.10.04 Flighl; Exile 628

14.04.02 A stipulation

14.04 Maki"I oftenm, "iJeEmad, CODYeDtion: gel>ingl> .A CODYeation, an "iJN•neat: gem&ing .An aper•11eat, compact, ueaty: (ge)cwide, forespiec, foreweard, forewyrd, nzming°', seht, gel>inge, wzr ..A spokm ap ermmt, covenant: (ge)cwecbitden, gecwedn!dnes0 , wordgecwide .Agreemmt, b'eaty,stipuladon: fonn&l, mil •To appoint, settle: benemnan, (ge )cwel>an .To conclude (bupin, contrad): macian loc .To strike (a barpin): slean wedd .To make an agreement/treaty (with): getrilwian, (ge)l>ingian, wl!re geruman (wil>). warian, gewerian .A breaker of faith, violator of agreement: w~rloga, wedloga See Confirmation 14.04.01 A deed, contract, agreement: handgewrit .An ap ermeat contalnlnc condidon: rl!dengewrit .Document containin1 conftrmation: fiestnung .A charter: bOc ..A deed, document, oripnal charter: frumgewrit ..A duplicate charter: geanbOc ..Charter granting/conveybaa land: landbOc, gewritrltden°S ...Charter granting freehold land: frCodom ..A charter of freedom: freols, freolsbOc ..Lepl agreement embodied in charter: ge~dnes ..Protection of ri1bts granted by charter: mundbyrdnes .A will, testament: (ge)cwide, willa, wise ..That is written: yrfebOc, yrfegewrit .8eal authenticating document: inseg(e)I, inseglung0 .Signature: handseten .To Mal up, Mal: beinseglianl, (ge)inszglian .To set one's Mal to: getacnian See Document

14.04.02 A stipulation: gehit .A condidon, stipulation, undea1••nclin1: (ge)rid, gewyrd .A condidon, stipulation, proviso: Hdnes, cost, foreweard, for(e)word, forewyrd, gerid, (ge)rZden, (ge)rltdnes, (ge)l>inge .On condidon that: to l>im geride l>e 629

14.04.03 Confirmation, ratification

14.04.03 Conftrmadon, ratiftcation: fiestnung .Deftnition/llmitation by word: wordgemearc0 P .Vouching to warranty: team .To pve assurance, certify: bchitan .To confirm, corroborate: (gc)festnian .To confirm, ratify: (gc)cyJ>an, (gc)fiestnian -To ratify fully: fulfiestnian .To vouch to warranty: ticman 14.04.04 An agi eement, ananpmeat of dispute: som .A conclusion, setdemeat: loc ..A full, final agreement: fulloc0 .A settlement, agreement to terms: scht .A satisfaction of claims, settlement: gcl>ingc .An arbitrator, judge, conciliator: sema, semend .To arbitrate between: (gc)seman .To bring about an agreement, settle: (gc)scht(i)an, (gc)schtlian .To reconcile (adversaries): (gc)seman .To have (something) to settle: habban gcmitnc wil> .To make terms, settle, agree: (gc)forcwyrdan, (gc)schtlian, (gc)J>ingian .To be settled by participants: hi gcwcort>an him betweonum .To agree, be recoadled with: gcl>witrlkan See I 3.01.02 Reconciliation Intercession, mediation: ltrcndung, J>inpdcn, J>ingung .A mediator: l>ingcre .To intercede: (gc)J>ingian -To intercede (for/with): (gc)~rcndian (to), (gc)J>ingian (mid/tO/wiJ>) See 13.01.03 Intercession 14.05 Punishmmt: hcarmscearuP , hctc, witcrltdcn, wnecwt"le, wyrgJ>uP .severe pnnkhmmt: ni}>wracuP .Punishment for theft: J>Cofwracu0 .A punisher: witnigcnd .Punitive, penal: witigliclwitelic, witnigcndc .To punish: igcldan, (gc)wrccan .To contrive as punishment: wyrcan tO wile .To inflict injury on: (gc)tiician .To pve(pnnidnnent): scllan wt"lcs clom .To subject (to punishmmt): undcrJ>Codan 630

14.05.04 A penalty, punishment

.To expose to severe trial: Atendan .To deanU\ cbutm: (ge)clensian .To punish, cba•fise, cutipte: (ge)wi"lnian .To Incur a penalty: gewyrcan .To be p11nisbed for: ongieldan 14.05.01 Coa aection, dkdpllne: st!or, stiemes, Jria, preagung, }>real,

preatung .One who admlnisteft correction: stwrend .To admlnlsterco11ectioa: (ge)streran, (ge)swencan, (ge)j>reagan, (ge)pr!at(n)ian, (ge)wfinian See Strictness 14.05.02 Torment, pwdsbmeat: pinung, tintreg(a), tintregung, (ge)wite,

wneJlcP, (ge)wfinung, wracu, wraec .From Moses' rod: gierdwfieop .Torment of bell: wne .A tormentor, torturer: cwylmend, pinere', tintregend, tintregpegng, witnere .That torments/punishes: wrtnigendlic .To torment, torture: forpryccan, gemart(y)rian, (ge)pinian, (ge)tintregian, tOcwy)manO See Pain; Su/fering 14.05.03 Retribution, requital: andJ&mP, edlean, eft(tO)selenesg, wiperl&m,

wi}>errihtog, wracu .A flml retribution: endeJ&mP .A ncompense of sin: morJ>orleanop, synwracuP .To aac:t/demand a penalty, compersation: imanian, (ge)edl&lnian See Retribution 14.05.04 A penalty, punlsbmeat: scrift, steor .8ecular penalty: woruldstwr0 .Penalty for breach of sanctuary: ciricgrip .Penalty for miscaniage of Justice: hangwiteq .Imposed on member of band: hlOpbOt .Reparation, compemation: .egift, bOt, edgift ..For a wound: dolgbOt •.Amercement for dama1e: efwyrdla .Conflscation: fordemin~. gestrod .To 1equcstaate, confiscate: etreccan, bcirian, beraong, fordeman, forlon,

Ytan 631 A fine .To lose by crime, forfeit: forwyn:an •To court distraint upon: plihtan

See Forfeiture A fine: gylt, gyltwt"le, steor, wite, wnentden, woruldwite .A single payment: ingilde, inwite0 .For contempt: oferhimes, ofersewennes .For violation of 'mand': mund, mundbryce, mundbyrd .For breach of 'gri}t': griJ>bryce .For breach of (Danish) law: lahslitt .Paid when oath falls: Al> .For wrong declaration: miscenning .Payable to a bishop: bisceopwlle0 .Penalty for a crime of violence: scyldwite0 ..Penalty for fighting: fihtwite .Fine for assault: foresteall ..On unmarried woman: mzgJ>bOt0 ..On a priest: weofodoot .Fine for slaying a m•n; !Cod, leodgeld, wergild .Payment to lord for slaying: dryhtenbeag0 • manoot .Fine for man escaping from his lord: iithleap .For not detaining an offender: hengwite .For lying with a woman: legerwiteq .For neglecting 'ftrd': fyrdwite .For not keeping guard: weardwne .For non-attendance at the hundnd-gemot: hundreds0cn°, J>Cofgyld .Fine payable for theft: stalu .For breaking in: burgbryce .Fine for forcible entry into house: hims0cn .For illegal trafticking: w6hceapung0 .For illegal cutting of wood: wuduhfewet° .For alienation of land: landceap .Imtead of a ftouing: hydgild •To bay oat of (feud, punishment): gebycgan, ofice.apian° 14.05.05 Physical punishments: .A flogging: iswungennes0 g , hyd, siege, swingel, witeswinge0 P .A scourging, beating: gebeat, geJ>ersc, geJ>erscing0 g .A stroke, blow: swinge .A racking: hengen 632

14.05.06 MeansflDlplement of torture

.A stonlq: torfung .F1ery torment: lfgcwaluop .A blood-offering: blOdWJ"le .A ftoaer, scourger: beaterc, swingere0 P .A Bayer: hyldercl .That beats: beatende .To beat, flog: iswingan, beswingan, (ge)swingan, swipianP, swippan .To buffet, slap: plaettan° .To be floged: l>olian byde .To flay: beftean .To cut ofr the feet: befOtian .To rack: l>riwan See 05.06.09ff Strike Capital punishment: beheafdung .Place of execution: cwealmstedeog, cwealmstow .An executioner: cwellere, ftl!scbana, fti!sccwellercl, slaga .Beheaded: beMafodlic' .To behead: beheafdian

See Putting to death; Hang CrucUixion, death on cniss: rOd, rOdehengen .To crucify: ihon, (ge)hangian, (ge)hOn, (ge)naeglian on rOde, on ihon,

onhon, ger0dfaestnian°g, iip ihon 14.05.06 Means/implement of torture: wite ,Scourge, rod, whip: besma, corprg, ferele, gierd, 11!1, leadst2f0 g,

olt>wong°g, pollup0 , rodd, swingel, swipu. t>reaswinge0 g .Yoke, pillory: sweorcops, sweorsc.acul0 g .An instrument of torture: balca, gled, lead, pinungtol -Pole nud for torture: wil(e)stengg -A stake: siege -·On which crimlul's bead fhed: heafodstocc -Implement of three stakes: l>repel -A rack: hengen -A wheel: hweol -A furnace: ryrpone!, l>olle! .Immersion as torture: bael> -Sack in which parriddes killed: wilecyll 0 g 633

14.05.07 Binding, fastening with bonds .Gallows, gibbet, cross~ gealga, gealgtreow, hcngen, hcngetr~w 0', lfchanga, rOd, weargrOd, weargtreow 0 , wultheafodtreo0 P ..A noose: grfn .Torture c.-bamber: crucethur 0 .Lion's den: l~na slat> .Bonds of tortuno/pwdsbmeat: wi\ebendP ..About tbe bead: ~odbend .HeJllab bonds: hcllbend0 P, belle clamm

14.05.07 Blndl111, futenlna with bonds: bindele .A bond, chain, fetter: bend, camp0 P, clamm, cosp, fetor, fetorwrisen°P, heft, hefteclommP, ~ftnred, ~flung, lannP, leol>ubendP, racente, racenteah, scaecq, sceacol, wealte', wil>l>e ..An iron bond: irenbendP, ise(r)n, ise(r)nfetor' ..Fetter forcapdves: hildewnisn°P, wealsida0 P ..Collar: geoc ..stock: stocc ..Sinew bond: seonubend0 P ..Handcutrs: handcops ••Foot irons: fOtcosp, f0tfeter 0 ' . fOtgemet ..Grievous bond: bealubend0 , bealuclomm0 P, bealurip0 P, inwitwrasnP .Bound, fettered: gebunden, (ge)cosped, gecospende ..By the feet: gelotcopsed', (ge)fOtcypsed' .To bind, fix (with fetters, ropes): beclemman°P, beclencan°', beclingan°P, (ge)heftan, (ge)n!pan, (ge)s&lan, ymbwindan ..On the feet: (ge)rotcopsian' .To load with cbalm: bendum belecgan, clamme belecgan, witebendum belecgan .To cast into chalm: sl~ on racentan .To pat In bonds, fetter, de: (ge)bendan, (ge)bindan, (ge)cyspan, (ge)festnian, gefeterianP, geracenteagian, (ge)n!ptan, (ge)s&lan, (ge)wnpan

14.05.08 Capdvity: gefeng, heft, geheftednes'. heften°, (ge)heftnes, ~ftnied, ~ftniednes, heftno1>, heftnung, heal>rP, nied .A capdve, prisoner: feng, (ge)heft, geheftend, heftling, heftniedling, niedling, n!p(l)ing ..A fettered prisoner: gefetredP .Capdve, captured: geheft, gehergod .To catch In tbe act, apprebencl: befaran, befOn

634 Prison, confinement. durance .To seltt, arrest: beniman, berfdan, c!pan, (ge)f'On, forfOn, fomiman, gegripan, (ge)hzftan, (ge)heftnian, geheftniedan, healdan, hentan, oferfOn .To bold, detain, confine: (ge)babban, (ge)hzftan, gehzftnian, (ge)healdan, (ge)heaJ>orian, (ge)nearwian .(Offetten) to dutfe: rrdan See Close; ff Victory Prison, confinement, durance: hengen, hengenWJ"lung", nearu .A prison, jail: carcern, cliise, cliistorP, cliistorloc', cweartem, nirewett,

nirwJ:>oS, wrte&m0 S, wnehiis •.A dungeon: dimhfisS, dung"S ..A prison cell: cUistorcleofa0 P ..A cage: scrin ..Prison as enforced enclosure: hlfnrecedP, neaing .Household goods: botlgcstl'WnP, faru, ftcttgcstealdP, inCddisc0 8, inncfcoh0 , innierfe0 , ingcsteald0 P, inorf, yddisc .Property in cattle: fcobgM° .Deadstock: fcorm .Owner of a clweJllng: boldigcndP .A dty-owner: burgigcnd0 P .Owner and builder: wealdendwyrhta0 P .To appertain, belong to: (ge)licgan tO/into .To be allotted: gesceotan •To give possession of, present: gcirian, to banda geridan .To arant a tenth: tcogol>ian, ttpc frcmian •To ride and get possession of: geridan See Property rights; 16.02.05ff Church property 15.01.01 Landed property: i:ht, i:htcland0 , land, landir, landcfnc0 , landhzfen°, landsetcn, landspCd0 , stal>oli:ht0 P .Private lands: sundorfcoh0 , sundorland .Common land: folcland, folcsccaruP ..Divided into strips: (ge)dalland -Meadow stripland: dilmitd0 .Freehold land(s): igenland, b0czceras0 , bOcland, eamingland0 .Pu.rcbased land: ceapland0 .Demesne land: inland, land ..Lord's woodland: insni:d0 , inwudu0 .Land belonging to a 'burb': byrgland .Leased land: gafolland, li:nland 636 Holding of land

.Land granted to tenants: iitland ..Subject to service: wcorcland0 .Lawl occupied by peasants: (ge)biirland .Dependant's land: geneatland _Of a 'boocla': bOndeland° -Of a 'byclel': bydel~ccr. bydelland -Of a reeve: (ge)reftand ·-Reeve's meadow: gere~d -Of a thane: J>egnland0 .Small piece of land: bytt .Enclosed piece of land: ham .Meadowland property: litl> .Addition to an estate: Icelsq .Units of land: -Thousand: J>iisend -Family share: manslot -Manor: him .(Of land) common: ceorlic, (ge)mi!ne ••Belonging to the state, public: cynelic .Unencumbered: clzne, unforwyrht •With dues undischarged: ungestroden°, unwered •Without housing: hrofteas •Without stock: yrfeleas0 .In full, without reservation: clitne •With freedom from control, rule, etc.: freolice See 04.02.03 Farmland; 12.06 Territory 0 Holding of land: szta .Occupancy of land: landseten .Joint tenancy: gemltnnes .A lease, fief: lien .•(Of lease) not lapsed, in force: unigan .Joy in land ownenhip: eJ>elwynnP ••Usufruct: bryce .Declaration of ownership: ignung .Proof of ownership: ignung .A landed proprietor: landrica •.A landlord, owner of land: landhliford -One rich in land, landed man: gelenda .An occupier of land, a tenant: landseJ>la0 637 Hiring, letting out of property/land

.One who rents land, a tenant: hyra, gcneatmann° •..A payer of 'gavel' rent: gafolgiclda -Tenant who gives service: (gc)neat ...A 'sokeman' (under a lord's jurisdiction): s0cnmannq

.Holding land: landlgcndc, landlucbbcndc, gclandod0 .Given land: gelend .Occupying land: landsittende .Never to be removed: unbcrCafigendlic0 .Not owning land: unlandigendc0 ..Landless: landleas .Rightly, with undisputed title: rihte .To bold land: habban, (ge)healdan, gesittan • To obtain, bold, have granted: habban, ofgin • To bold by lease: to handa (ge)healdan •To declare oneself owner: Agnian .To prove one's title: geagnian .To refrain from declaring land: werian land .To appropriate: ignettan°K, (ge)lgnian, (ge)niman, Pt>ingian°, stingan on, teon (tO) .To diminish (land) by appropriation: gewanian Hiring, letting out of propertynand: bchyrong, gehyrong°K .Rented: bchyredK, gehyred .To let, lease out: ifzstan°g, ilenan, ilendan, bchyranK, (ge)lenan, (ge)ltttan (tO), leon, onh!nan, settan to gafole .To rent, borrow, hire: ihyran, gafolian See Rent

15.01.02 Gift, transfer of property: giefu .A grant, donation: selen, unne .From a lord: hlifordgiftOK ..For provisions: feonnfultum .For clothing: scriidfeoh0 , scriidfultum ..Aid from church: ciricfultum .A settlement: gesetnes .Transfer, exchange of land: (ge)hwearf, landgehwearf0 .Conveyance by charter/deed: bOcung .An Irrevocable gift: rihtgifu .To confer, assip, bestow (property, land): bcteon, gecwet>an. geatan, (ge)lttnan, gereccan, (ge)sellan, ut isellan 638

I S.O1.02.0 I Inherited propertY

.To endow wilb property: (ge)g6dian, gelendan •To tnmfer, nchtinp (Jami): gehwierfan ..By charter/deed: (ge)becan, (ge)bOcian, (ge)unnan, (ge)wnlan -Apln: gecd~lsian •To be/become gnmterlncelver/sbarer: tJl>a beonlweorJ>an .To P"' from possession: (ge)hweorfan, gewilan fram .To alimate, put out ofpollellion: gedon ilt, (ge)Utian See 10.03.03 Grant Inberited property: fcdeml>eloP, fzdergestreon', ierfe, yrfeweardnes .A private inheritance: sundoryrfeP .A bc::qu.est, legacy: yrfellfP •.A huge legacy: eonnenllf0 P .An heirloom: yrfellfP .Inherited land: fzder land, (ge)hlotland, yrfeland .A will: (ge)cwide, willa, wise ..That Is written: yrfeb&:, yrfegewrit .A testator: yrfeweardwn"lereoS, yrfewrilend°' .An heir: hand, ierfa0 • yrfellfP ..A natural heir: ~lsuefOP. hordweardP. yrfehand0 ..A benddary: yrfenuma ..A co-heir, co-bmefidary: efenyrfeweard, midyrfenumaoS .A poaessor of property: yrf(e)weard .Division of an inheritance: yrfegedAJ8 ..A heriot: heregeatu ...Land as heriot: heregeatland° .Argument about an inheritance: yrfegeflit° .Belonging to one by inheritance; gecynde .Not left by will: unbecweden .Intestate: cwidelw .hsaeless: unforleten .In perpetuity: on ece yrfe .To inherit: yrfan, (ge)yrfeweardian .To leave, have remainder: forletan, lefan .(Of property) to P"" to: igin .To leave, band down: forhttan, giefan, lefan, ll!ran forp, letan, toforli:tan .To bequeath, leave by will: becweJ>an, gecwel>an .To dkfnhuit: beyrfeweardian 639

15.01.03 Treasure, riches, wealth

15.01.03 Treasure, riches, wealth: a!htsped0 8, a!htgestreon°P, a!htwelaP. eadP, eadwelaP, eorlgestm>nP, feoh, feohspCda0 , feohgestm>n. frztwe, ga:rsum(a), gold, goldi:ht0 P, honl, lifweJaP, m1Pmgestm>n, miPl>umgesteald0 P, miPl>umwela0 P, m0dwyn°P, sine, (ge)streon, wela. willgesteald0 P .Abundance of wealth: honl11U1Cgen°P, sincgewltge0 P .Ancient treasure: zrgestreonP, zrwela0 P, ealdgestreon, fyrngestreon°P, langgestreon°P .Earthly treasure: eort>gestreon°. eort>wela, foldwela0 P, grundwela0 P. landwela0 P, worulddugut>P, woruldfeoh0 P, woruldsped, woruldgestreon, woruldl>ing, woruldwela .Rieb/princely treasure: dryhtmil>m0 P, dryhtgestreon°P. heahgestreonP. icgegoldq. ofenniJ>um0 P, sincgestreonP, l>CodgestteonP. wuldorgestealdP, wundonnil>m .ID-gotten treasure: ungestreon° .A treasure, precious article: iJ1>ing°8, dCorwyrl>nes, ga:rsuma. goldmapm0 P, mapml!htP, JDil>um, sincmij>l>um0 P ..Beaten gold, gilded treasure: fl!tedsinc0 P ..A costly vessel: sincfa:tP .A treasure hoard: bCaghoniP. goldhord, honl, honlmil>m0 P, hordgestreonP. honlwela0 P, hordwynn°P, miPmhoni0 P, searoget>ra:cq ..Dragon's board: wyrmhonl0 P ..Treasure of dty/people: burhwela0 P. folcgestreon°P .A treasury: bigyrdel, feohhonl0 8, feohhiis0 8, goldhonl, goldhordhiis0 8, m!l>mcleofa0 , miPmhiis, JDil>t>um, sceoppa0 .A coffer, treasure-chest: honlfa:t, hordloca0 P, m!l>mcyst .A steward, treasurer: honlere, mil>mhyrde0 • stihtere See Treasure-house; 10.03.08 Munificence 15.01.04 Coinage, money: mynet, peningas, sceatt .Ready money: licgende feoh .Metal used in payment: gold, seolfor .Ring, treasure (as money): bCag .(Coined) metal, coin: feoh .Means, funds: andfeng, andleofen, sceattas .A chest for storing money: myderce .A wallet, purse: bigynlel, bisa:cc0 8 .A money-dealer: massere, mynetcypa0 • mynetere, peninghwyrfere0 8 . peningmangere8 .A coin, piece of money: mynet, sceatt, wecg 640

15.01.05 Possession of wealth ..A ..,.11 coin, mite: pricele, stycce ..A piece ol sllYer, coin: seolforstycce, seolfring ..Denomlnatioas ared la Enaland~ ...A pound: pund ...A mark: mare ....A half-IDIU'k: healfmearc ...A mancus (thirty pence): mancus ...A ,billing: scilling -OI sterling money: rihtscilling° ...A penny: pening ....A threepenny piece: trymes -An ahnspenny: relmespenig° ...A mite, farthing: hielfting° ...A pnall cola, farthing: t!orl>ling, teort>ung ...A rceat (variable value): sceatt ...A Danish cola: ora, yre -Translations of foreip tetms: bizant°', cisering', drnor, pening, pund, scilling, talentc, trymes, yndse .Striking ol money: mynctslcge, peningsla:ht', siege ..A 8nt mlatlng/colnage: frummynctslregc ..A coiner, moneyer. myneterc ..A mint: mynctsmi~l>e ..A die for stamping cola: mynetfsen° .Stetting, accepted: trcwyrt>e, mere, merehwn° -(Of weight or coinage) false: fals .To coin, mint: feoh (ge)slcan, (gc)mynetian .To be cu11mt, be la me: faran, gin, gangan 0

15.01.05 Pwseuion of wealth: fcohgcsteaJd°P .Opulence, wealth: sp&ligncs& .A rich man: bcomP .Rich: gifigog, maga, rice, gcselig, sp&lig, wcle~ig, welig -Rieb la (worldly) goods: chtsp&lig, chtwelig°P, woruldspedig0 ,

woruldwclig° -Very rich. opulent: ladig, fcla rice, full welig, oferweligq, tOftOwcndc, ~urhspCdig°

-Rich in gold, wealthy: goldsp&lig°P ..Rieb la land: lindsp&lig ..Rieb la cattlelgoocls: ceapcadig0 P, fcohstrang& ..Rieb la corn: com~lig°& 641

15.01.06 Poverty, indigence .8umptuously: bchy)>ellce°' .To amass ricbes, lay up tnamre: isettan, goldhordian, hordian, gclogian, ongWilecgan°', sparian, gcstricnan, wclan (gc)gadrian, (gc)wcligian

15.01.06 Poverty, indigence: ieasccaftncs&, hafcnleast, hienp(o), ierm)>, na:ft, J>earfcdncs, )>earflicncs, unsp&l', wl!dclncs, wl!dl, w~lung, wanl!ht0 P, wanhaf(c)ncs', wanhafolncs&, wansp&l, wanspedigncs0 &, w~ P •Want ot money: fcohleasncsq, ncaroncs .Great need, penury: codorgong°P, oferpcarf .A poor person: nrcdw~la P, )>earfa. J>earf(ig)cnd, uniga0 P, unmaga, wl!dla, wzdling, wanhafa, wcorl>J>earfa0 , woruld)>earfa0 P ..Person in ga eat need: ofer)>earfa ..Begar, penon supported by alms: a:lmcsmann, loddcre, ta:tteca .Poor, needy, indigent: be)>earfcndc, be)>earfod, cann, lealog°P, leasccaftP, tU.sccaftig0 P, hWI, mcdsp&lig°P, na:ftig&, )>earfcndc, )>earfcndlic, )>earflic, unrfce, wl!dla, wl!dlig, wl!dligcnd, wanhafol, wanspedig, woruld)>earfendc0 P -Poor, without means: fcohlw, hafcnleas, hWispedig°P, unspedig ..Depending on alms: a:lmcslic -1..ackiag clothing, poor, needy: nacod .MUerably: )>earfcndllcc .To be poor, be in want: rued habban, )>earfan, )>urfan, wl!dlian .To make poor, pauperize: gciennan 0


See 10.03.09 Matkration Beuing: w~lung .A beggar: w&dla .Beging, mendicant: wl!dla .To beg: bedecian, gicman, wl!dlian -To get by beging or asking: ibcdecian See Entreaty

15.02 Worth, value: (gc)wcor)> .Price: dap, fcoh, sceait, weorl> -Fixed price (of cattle/goods as currency): ingildc ..Market-price: ceapgild ..Legal payment deter uained by: hcalsfang .A doctor's fee: lzcefcoh0 .An entrance-fee: ingang, inlid .Pasnge-money: fa:rcht, fa:rsccat/fcrescea1, sciptoll, toll 642

15.02.04 Spending, disbursement .Value/price ofa man: mangyld, wer, wergild ..As a standard for replatiag matten: wer, wergild .Brlde-prlce: wituma .Worth, of (a certain) Yalue: weort> •.A pennyworth: peningweorp ..A halfpennyworth: healfpenigwurp .(Of price) fixed: gescead .To Yalue: geeahtian, (ge)weort>ian 15.02.01 Hlgblsteep price: deop chip .Valuable, cosily: d!ore, d!orwiert>e, hCalic, lwftic, lwfwende, sel,

gestreonful, weorplic ..Equally dear. efendyre .At peat cost: dwre .To raise, increase price: in!ran (gild) .(Of cost) to fall, be reduced: ztfeallan 15.02.02 Cheap: und!ore, unweorp .Of no value, worthless: wort>tcas0 S .Free: unboht, unc!ap, unc!aped0 S, uncype0 S .Cheaply: und!ore .For nothing, free: oldape(s), orceapunga. orc!apungum, orsceattinga0 ,

to gifes, unc!apunga 15.02.03 An acconnt: gescead .An account, reckoning: racu, riht, rihtnes .A reckoning by sbillhlp: scillingrim0 P .An auditor (in a market): gemotmann .A demand for payment: myndgung .To demand payment: gemanian, myndgian .To rmder an account, settle: feoh gesettan, riht igildan, gescead igildan 15.02.04 Sperullng, dfsbunement: spendung .A payment, fee: feoh .Exchange as payment: gield, gewrixl .Payment of money: feohgesceot° .Flrst instalment: frumgield .Further payment: zftergield° .Pay, wages, remuneration: bfieofa. eamung, eftgeafung°S, egnwirhtq, feohsceatt0 P, gield, hyr, lean, medsceatt, scipe ..A day's pay: dzgwine

643 I Payment for temporary use, rent, hire ..Pay for ba)"Nldn1: ~dmed -Payment for prayen: gebedbigen° -Payment in meal/com: comgesceot°, melugescot0 -Payment in ale: mealtgesceot° -Loa of wood as bonus: waegn~w .Money for buyina clothes: scriidfeoh0 .One who makes payment: edgyldend° -Payer of biftlwqes: hyregildaoS .Subject to threefold payment: l>rigylde .Unpaid: unigifen° .Not repaid: unleanod° .With a sinale payment: ingilde(s) .With a double payment: twisceatte0 .With a threefold payment: l>rfgylde .To disburse, spend: Wosyllan, giefan, (ge)gieldan, gehealdan, ongieldan, recenian, sceotan, (ge)sellan ..By way of acknowleqement of a dalm: gecniwan ..To pay a bride-price: gesceatwyrpanoS .To pay for the services of someone: (ge)bycgan .To answer for, be accepted (as payment): gin for •To keep back, withhold payment: forhabban, forhealdan .Not to be forthcomina: tostandan, wit>standan



IS.02.04.01 Payment for temporary use. rent, hire: hyr .Rent: gafol, gafolr~en, sceatt, toll ..In sinale instalment: n!degafol ••Recognitory rent for land: landfeoh0 ••Charge for special pasturqe: aefesn -Payment for pasturing of swine: swinsceadu0 ..8ervice/dues paid by tenant: mannn!den -Ploughing, etc. as rent: gafolyrp0 ..Payment In food: feonn -Payment in barley: beregafol0 , gafolbere0 -Payment in fish: gafolfisc0 -Payment in honey: huniggafol 0 ..Payment in fencing-wood: gafoltining0 ..Payment in fire.wood: gafolwudu0 .Items with special rents: 644

15.03.02 A tax ..(Aplmt a swarm of bees) honey: gafolhcord° ..(Apinst a me..tow) mowiq: gafolmat.d0 ..(Aplmt putunae) plooplng: gaersyf1>0 See Hiring 15.03 Exaction of tu/tribute: gafolmanung°S, manung .Power of leYJina 81w1: sOcn .Gatberiq of tolla: toll .seat of toll or custom: ~mul, c!apsetl0 • tollsceamol, tolsetl .A tu contribution: gafol, (ge)scot .Levy, amount to pay: blot, sceatt .Tribute expected by Ionian power: gafol, gicld, gombeP ..Tribute penny: gafolpenigP ..Danegeld: hercgild •Tu-ptberer/toll-ptbenr: cecepol, gafolcs andfengend, gafolgmfa'. nicdbidcre. tollcre, tolncre0 ' , wfcgmfa .Fllcal: gafollic' .Free of tu: gafolfi&>, gildfi&>0 .To levy a fine/due: bi!odan gield, ofmanian° .To leiR u tu, conl8cate: gegafolian .To pay toll: tyllan° See Money rights 15.03.01 Toll: IOOt°S, toll, toln •Toll on buyina or wlllng: ceaptoln°, cieping, mertz.e0 8 ..On soocls carried Into market: inlld ..On soocls carried out ol llW'bt: iltlld0 ..On exposure of goods: sceawung ..On loading a ship: hlesting ..On packbone load: seamtoln° ..SbHHng toll on wagons: waegnscillung° ..Penny-a-load toll: s&unpending° 15.03.02 A tu: gafol, gafolgyld, gield, gildselcnq, nCadgafol, neadgyld, nicdbld, sclcn, trifct°I .An excessive tu: ungyld(c) .Food/money u tu: metegafol0 .Bl•nket as tu: gafolhwt'lel0 .Tribute paid In ale: ealugafol0 .Lenci-tu: hidgild, landgafol 645

15.04 A debt, due .Forest-tu: wudufcoh0 & .Mill-tu: mylengafol 0 .Tu on a hundred: hundrcdpcnig .Town due: burhgeriht, pongcriht° .Ship-tu: scipgyld0 , scipgcsccot° .Tu in lieu of fighting: wcardpcning

See 12. 06.02 Tax district 15.04 A debt, due: gafol, gylt .A due, what must be paid: nydriht ..A due from land: landriht ..A yearly due: geargcriht -Handful of com: haerfcsthandful 0 .A debtor: borg, borggelda&, gafoJgyJdere, neadgylda0 &, nydgylta0 & ..A fellow debtor: gcscoJa .To owe (money, etc.): igan to geJdannc, scuJan, t>urfan .To fall into debt: begin on borg .To restore, make 1cstitution: ofstandan -To repay (a debt), dkcharce: (ge)learnan, scyttan, tolipian, toJysan See Repay 15.04.01 Lenclina of money: fcohJ~nung°& .A loan: borg, l~n. miltungoS, wrixJ, wrixlung .Redemption of mortgaged land: landhredding° .Usury: fcohgafo)0 , fricooS, minsccattP .Interest: ignett0 g, gafoJ, hyr, byrcborgq, ofcrsccatt0 g, gcstreon, unribtgafol0 , unrihtgcstreon, waestm, waestmsceatt, gewcaxncs .A lender: borggeJda&, borgiend, lenend, Jencre0 g. striidcnd .A usurer, estortioner: rcpcman°P, striidcnd .A collector, creditor: maniend .One paying interest: gafolgielda .To borrow: borgian, onborgian -To borrow from: iborgian set .To lend: ilfon°g, borgian, (ge)scJJan, wrixlan -To lead at interest: ll!nan, wcort>ian .To advance money: forscfotan° 15.05 Trade, trafllc, commerce: bige0 , ceap, ceapung, creping, cype. forceap0 g, mangung .Slave-traftlc: leodbygenq, mannsylen 646

15.05.01 Goods, stock. merchandise ..A bought 1e1 +1111t, slave: cCapcniht

..Remainder of slave-property: mannlif0 .Act of srllin1, sale: bcbycgung', salaog ..Drink conflrmiq sale: dryncel~ .Act orbuyiq: bygen° .Esdwn1e, barter: hwearfung .~return, proftt: innung, nytnes, (gc)till>c ..Honest pins: ribtcbcgitan° ..To be profitable, pro8t: gcl>Con .saleable: cyplicog .Not traded, unbougbt: unbcbobt° .For sale: gccyPc .To sell, buy, a:ch.nce, deal, tnde: (gc)bycgan, (gc)c!apian, (gc)cypan,

mangian, (gc)sellan, (gc)wrixlan .To drive/transact a bargain: c!ap (gc)dn""fan, mangungc dn"fan .To (neaotiate) transfer: f~lan° .To pin by tralBc: gcmangian, gcstm>n, tilian, to bcgictan .To sell: bebycgan, brdapian, bccyPan, gcbycgan, forscllan, (gc)sellan tO/wil> .To buy: bccCapian, (gc)bycgan ..To buy ofrlout: ichpian ..To lay out, 1et the value or: cystan ..To afford: l>urht!on See 17.02.04 Craft

15.05.01 Goods, stock, merdutlMlhe: c!ap, crcpcl>ing, creping, mcrtzcl! .Article or merrhalMlhe: waru .A market, market-place; d8pstow, c!apstn!t. c!apunggemot°«, creping, market ..A home of men:handlw; mangunghOs0 ..A meat-market: ftl!sccyping°', ftl!scbOsog, ftl!scstntt0 « ..A place where salt ls sold: scaltwrc

.A market-day: ceapdzg«, cfpcdzg« .Annual market: geartnarkct° .A trader: ceapman, cypa. cyp(c)mann, cyPcnd, mangcre, masscrc ..A botcher: ftl!scmangcre, ftl!sctlwcrcoS ..A butterwoman: smeorumangcstte0 ..A soap-dealer: sapercq ..A water carrier/seller. w11ttcrbcrend«, wztcrbercrc« . .A buyer. bycgcnd


16 The extrasensorial world

16. Religion 16 The ab 11rnsorlal world: 16.01 A divine Mina: godcundnes, hilig .Heavenly fon:e: hcofonnurgenP .Divinity, divine nature: godcundlicnes0 , godcundnes, godcundspCd,

godhlid0 ,godrna:gen "Of the nature of God: godcundlic .Tbat makes goclHke: godcund. godcundlic .DivbwJy: dryhtlfce, godcundlrce 16.01.01 God, the Lord: dryhten, fiia. fieadrihtenP, god, heahfreaP, hlahgod0 P, h&ihost, hlifont, sigedryhtenP, trrfruma0 P, l>&>den .Of God: dryhten', dryhtenlic, dryhtlic, godcund, godcundlic, godlic, hilig,

ilplic .Proceeding from God: godcund, godcundlic, hcofonlic .Acceptably to the Lord: dryhtenlrce Attributes of God: .The eternal: se b .IMlfable: unisecgendlic, unt0sprecendlic .Incomprebemible: unbefangenlic, unbegripendlic

.Immortal: undeadlic, undCal>lic .Uncreated: ungesceapen, ungeworht .Immutable: unlwendedlic, unlwendendlic .lnclfvisible: in "UDdivided: untOl>ig .Anger: wn!l>l>u ..Anpy: WJ'il>, WJ'il>mOP, stJpmOd .Grace, favour: giefnes, giefu, gif "Glorious/blessed grace: eadgiefuP, wuldorgifuP "Gradoos: eat>moo, l~ft21 "Graciously: leoftice .To live, have life: ilibban The Almighty: zlmihtig, Mahmiht .or the Almipty: zlmihtig, eallic .Kina, majesty: igend, lgendtrea, cyning, cyningwuldor0 P, eallweaJdaP, eallwealdend, gistcyning°P, hCah cisere, heahcyning, heofoncyning, heofonhcbbendog, heofonwealdendog, heofonweardP, hierde, oferwealdend, onwealda. rcccend, rodorcyningP, s0l>cyningP, sweglcyningP, ~yning, J>rymcyningP, J>rymwealdend, 1>£Yl>cyning°P, wealdend, wealdendgodP, wuldorcyning, wundorcyning°P "Gloriom Lord: lrwesa, J>rymm, wuldor, wuldorgod° ..Prince of aqels: brego engla ~rd of hosts: weoruda drihten (/ealdor/helm, etc.) MiptJwvu: miht .Great power, divine mipt: godcundma:ht°I, godl>rymm, llCatuncgen, h!ahmiht, heofonm&genP, mzgenl>rymm "Omnipotence: clmihtignes0 , eallmiht°P .MJgbty, powerful: 1IU£genrofP, m&genstrangP, miht, mihtful0 , mihtig ..Exceedingly mipty,almi1hty: zlcrzftig°P, felameahtigP, swi)>fromq, tirmeahtigP .Powerful, niliq: (ge)wealdende ..All-raliq: eallwealdaP, eallwealdende, J>rymwealdend •Triumphant: gOdspedig°P, sigebrel>igP, sigericeP, sigerofP, sigetorht0 P, sigorbeorht°P, sigorfzst Glory: (ge)beorhtnes, hlisa, weort>scipe, wuldor .Great glory, majesty: godl>rymnesq, heahl>rymmP, heahl>rymnesP, 1IU£genl>rymm, ma:genl>rymnes


16.01 .01.02 The activity of the divine .Triumphant story: sigorwuldor 0 P .Great, sublime, stortous: bcorht, ~re. ~rlic, trr!adigP, tirf~stP, torhtmOrYmsittendeP ..Wonderful, (to be) storified: bodigendlic0 , oferhebbendlic', gewuldrod, wundorlic •To stortfy, stve story to: (ge)bcorhtnian' The activity of tbe divine: Creator: frumsceppend', fryml>, metend. metod, ordfruma, (ge)scieppend, settend. wyrcend, wyrhta .Author of light: geondlihtend, l&>htfrumaP, l&>btsiwendog .Dlumhwtor: inlihtend, onlihtend .Restorer, renewer: ednfwigend, (ge)cdstaj>eligend .Loni of the world: worulddrihten°P .Prtnce of mankind: brego mancynnes .Inspirer (of souls): bliwend .Handiwork (of God): hand(ge)weorc .A dlnctlon (by God): diht .To create: gedihtan, (ge)scieppan, (ge)stal>lian, gestefnan, (ge)timbr(i)an A &ivlna (by Deity): giefu .Giver of IU'e: feorhgifaP, liffreaP, liffrumaP .Giver of all good: wilgiefaP .Giver of bea«ftta: irgifa0 P, bh!dgifaP, cadfrwnaP, !adgiefaP, l&mgyfa0 , symbelgifa0 P .Giver of story: wuldorgifaP A wonder, mlrade: m&gen, wundor .A mighty work, prodigy: m2genweorcP •Wondrous bealina: wundorhi:lo0 .A sip lo tbe sky: b&un, heofonbeacen°P

See Wondrous Protector, defender: andfangolog, andfeng, andfenga, andfengend, healdend, (ge)scildend, scildere0 , weardP .Gracious protector: winedrybtenP .Protector of warrlon: wrgendra hi&> See 11. 10.01 Protection 650 The Trinity Galde: llltew

See Guide God u Juclp: dema, demend, demere, heahdema0 , heofo~0P

.Judge OD last clay: sigedeJDa .(Of God) just: rihtwis .(Of God'• Judpments) undmumcribed: unymbfangen°, unymbfangenlic,

unymbwriten° Divine providence: foresceawung, foreseones, giefu .God of pro'fklentt: foredawere0 1 .To forew: forc:scQwian See 05.04 Fate, tkstiny Salvation, rwlemption: ihredding, iliese(n)dnes, iliesing, llresnes, eftlrsingl, feorhneru, fr&>dom, ha!lnes, ha!IJ>, h~l(u), hilorP, hlls0 P, hilwendnes, hrcddung, ltkedom, liesingl, (ge)IIesnes', onliesnes .Redeemer: geim>gend, tm>lsiend, hllwendlica, lfesend .Redeeming, dellveriJll: ha!lende, helendlicl, hilwendel, hilwendlic, l~cedomlic, nergendlic0 , neriende .SO as to redeem: hilwendlfce .To deliver, redeem: (ge)bycgan, (ge)im>gan, (ge)im>lsian, (ge)ht!lan, (ge)liesan Re1U1 aecdon: ttrist, erymm, sigebeamP, sunu .Prince/thane: zt>eling, t>egn .Redeemer/saviour: iliesend, eftliesend0 S, geocendP, hi!lend, bilwenda, nergend, onliesendS .Only-beaottm: lnboren, iincenned •Without beafnning: unigunnen° Incarnation: ftl!scgebyrdS , (ge)ftzsc(en)nes, fli!sclicnes, fll!scniming°S, inftl!scnes0 , inlichomungS, onfttcscnes .Incarnate condition: fti!sc, fti!sclicnes, menniscnes .Tbe Word incarnate: word .Incarnate: gefti!schamod, gefttcscod0 , gelichamod .That lives, living: libbende/lifigende, liffzstende .To be incarnate, have bum•n nature: beon/wesan mann Events associated with Christ: .Advent: h&cyme0 P, hidercyme, t0cyme ..8econd comin1: toweardnes .Crucifixion: rodehengen -Passion: cwylming, 1>rowung 652 Reward of heaven

-To lllffer crucJhioa: IJrOwad b&>n/wesan .Aseemion: ilpifangnes0 , iipbtignes, iipstige .llarrowina of bell: hergung See Crucifixion Tbe Holy Spirit: gut, heahgl!st0 P, se hilga gut .As paradeto'advocate, comforter: frefriend, frOforgut .Important function (ot Holy Spirit): heahlJegnung°P .That comforts, comfortina: frefrieode 16.01.02 The beaveN, sty: h&hrodor, hWles, hrehl>(u), rodor, swegl,

ilpheofon, ilplyftP, DprodorP .Oftbe heavemlsky: godcund, godcundlic, heofonlic, neorxnawanglic0 , rodorlic, swegleP, ufancund, iipcund, iiplic .From heaven: heofonliee, ufane See 01.02.01 Sky Heavenly dwellln1 place: boldwelaP, ceastcr, elJel, him,

hCahRrYmriee .Court of peace: fril>geard, sibgesihl>' .A building in heaven: heofontimber0 P .A throne of heaven: heofonstoJ 0 P, rodorstoJP Glory/nutjesty ot heaven: heofon, heofonl>rymmP,

heofonwuldor 0 P, hiehl>u, mzgenl>rymm, sweglwuldor0 P, wuldor, wuldorfzstlicnes0 , wuldorprymm .Of heavenly glory: wuldorfzst .Celestial bliss: goddreamP, heofon, heofondreamP, gesa!lignes, (ge)sell>. wuldorblelicnes .Immortally, to immortality: undeapliee 653 Paradise

.To Uve, have etemal life: libban See 05.I l.Ol .Ol.OI Eternity Paradise: .Earthly paradise: ncorxnawang, paradrs .Joyous land: wynlandP .Flnt home: frumstOl .A paradisal fteld: scrnfeld, simfeld/sunfeld .Sion: sceawungstOw, gesele, selegesccot, sron, sronbcorgeP, snyttrubiis0 P, wlitesc&lwung° Inhabitants of heaven: heofonbilende0 8, iipware0 S .That dwells in glory: l>rymsittendeP .A spirit: gist ..A ministerina spirit: J>eninggist° .Tbe heavenly bolt: dugul>, heofondugol>op. hcofont>reat°P, hcofonware(-u), hcofonwerod, (ge)lal>Ung, l>egnweorud0 P, wuldorwcorud0 P An anpl: angel, engel, heofonengelP, ilpengelP, wuldorgist°P .Angel as messengltl': Erendgist°P, godes boda, wilboda0 P .As lel'YllDt of peace: fril>oscealcP ..As 'peace-weaver': fril>owebbaP .As mighty senant: nuegenl>egen°P .Tbe ratt/order of angels: engelcynn "Glorious race: nuegenl>rymm, wuldorheap0 ..5enphim (ftnt order): seraphrn, sigorcynn°P "Cbenibim (second order): ceruphrn "Thrones (third order): l>rymsetl ..Dominations (fourth order): hlifordscipas ..Prfndpalities (ftfth order): ealdorscipas ..Powers (sixth order): anwealdu "Virtues (seventh order): mihta ~ ardwngel (eighth order): heahboda0 P, beabengel, hblic boda .Of IUllels. angelic: angelic, engelcund0 P, engellic

.Incorporeal: lichamleas, unlrchamlic .Victorious: sigorfestP A saint: gist, hilga, hllig, sanct, seint, wuldormagoP .Tbe saints: hllg