The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology


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THE OXFORD DICTIONARY OF ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY E D IT E D B Y

C. T. ONIONS W IT H TH E A S S IS T A N C E OF

G . W. S. F R I E D R I C H S E N AND

R. W. B U R C H F I E L D

OXFORD A T TH E CLA R EN D O N PRESS

Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford 0x2 6 dp London Glasgow New York Toronto Delhi Bombay Calcutta Madras Karachi Kuala Lumpur Singapore Hong Kong Tokyo Nairobi Dar es Salaam Cape Town Melbourne Auckland and associates in Beirut Berlin Ibadan Mexico City Nicosia oxford

is a trade marA. IS B N o

Oxford University Press iq

861112 9

Published in the United States by Oxford University Press, New York © Oxford University Press, 1966 First published 1966 Reprinted 1966 Reprinted 7967 (with corrections), 1969 (with corrections) 1974, 1976, 1978, 1979, 1982 (twice) A ll rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproducedystored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press

Printed in Great Britain at the University Press, Oxford by Eric Buckley Printer to the University

INTRODUCTION Etymology has been briefly defined in this book as ‘the origin, formation, and development (of a word)*. Some of the words going back to OE. are as old as time, and are represented in many of the Indo-European languages; acre, for instance, in OE. æcer, has cognates in all the Germanic languages, and can be recognized in Latin ager, Greek azrâs. and Sanskrit afras, which go back to an Indo-European original *agros\which is based oil a root *ag to . drive, do, a c t . Other words commence their documented life nôt before the Middle English period, such as Lent, in M E. lenten, which' is traced to a West Ger­ manic form cognate with l o n g , whilst many others appear in written works much later, or derive from or are compounded with words already long in use, such as handicap (xvii , = ‘hand in cap’), landslide (xix: see l a n d ). Acrey Lent, handicaps landslide are native words by descent through a long ancestry of Germanic stock. Other words have come into English from a foreign language such as Greek or Latin, (Old) French or Low Dutch and, later, from many non-Indo-European languages of the East, South, and West. The forms from which English words are derived, whether by descent or by adoption, are traced to their ultimate source so far as this is known or reasonably to be presumed. Words whose cognates are within the Germanic group of dialects are traced back to the inferred Germanic originals, with mention of any Indo-European collaterals as may be thought expedient. It often happens that a Germanic word is represented in West and North Germanic, but not in Gothic as, e.g., o a k , OE. âc9 OH G. eihy ON. eik CGerm. (exc. Gothic) *aiks. Here ‘(exc. Gothic)’ means that no Gothic cognate appears in the extant Gothic fragments, not that the word in question did not exist in Gothic, although that may have been the case, as it seems to be with the West and North Germ, s t a r k , s t r o n g , where the notion is expressed in known Gothic by swinps — loyopog, swinpei = Kparos: similarly, s.v. b r e a k 1, ‘ CGerm. (exc. ON.) *brekan\ For words derived from French, the ultimate source is given where pos­ sible, and the same treatment is given to many Latin originals from which the English has directly or mediately been derived. The etymology of Greek words is usually given in detail, as, for instance, under c o m e t . E

tym o lo g y

Derivation directly from French or from Latin One of the permanent difficulties that beset the etymologist is to determine whether a word such as evident, which has its counterpart in (O)F. évident as well as in L. evident- f. ëvidëns, is to be derived from the French or the Latin. Since literate Englishmen have been acquainted with both French and [v]

INTRODUCTION

Latin throughout the Middle Ages and down to our own times, either channel, or both, could be assumed as the means of entry into English, other things being equ^l. This 'z especially true of the flood of new words of French-Latin form that came into English during the late xvth and the xvith centuries in the wake of the renaissance. The reader will see that ‘- (O)F. or L .’ has been predicated of a very large number of words from this period. In this connexion ‘French or Latin’ is to be understood as ‘French and/or Latin’, or even ‘French and Latin’, according to circumstances. There was a comparable period during the xivth/xvth centuries when many words were adopted from Latin, especially in translations of scientific and theological works, among which may be mentioned the writings of Trevisa (xiv), Lanfranc (xiv), Arderne (xv), the anonymous translation of Guy de Chauliac’s Grande Chirurgie (xv), and the writings of W yclif (xiv). For the earlier period, in M E. of the xnth and xm th centuries, the source is more likely to be Anglo-Norman or Old French, and this is often revealed by the earliest spelling of the English adoptions, which point conclusively to their French origin. Liturgical terms and words relating to the Church or to monasticism are likely to have come into English from the ‘Anglo-Norman of the cloisters’, yet even there the Clerks were conversant with Latin also. These and other factors have to be taken into consideration, and each word needs to be judged on its own merits, from its form and context. It is hoped that the conclusions arrived at will be as correct as probability and human wit can make them. Words from Low Dutch Many words have been adopted into English from Low Dutch, that is from (Middle) Dutch and (Middle) Low German, and that from quite early times, from the xm th century at least, since wThen there has been constant traffic between England and the adjacent Continent. Where the 0 .2?. Z). tentatively refers to M Du. and M L G . forms as ‘probably’ being the source of the English word, or wdth ‘cf.’, these words will in the present work be more often found given as the actual source of the English, see e.g., b c w s p r i t ( x i i i ), d e c k 1 (xv). Development of individual words in English T he etymologist might be content to give the earliest recorded date of each word, with its previous history, whether of English or Germanic descent or admitted to citizenship from other languages, thus accounting for their ‘origin and formation*. There remains, however, the ‘development’ of the word, that is, its progressive development in form and sense in English. This is every whit as important, and to many whose interests are the history of words in English rather than their remoter ancestry, the more useful and important function of etymology. In the present wrork the development of spelling, pronunciation, and sense has been considered, so far as this does not usurp the functions of lexico[vij

INTRODUCTION

graphy. Thus, under a c r e is explained the source of God’s acre, and under l e n t is the added information ‘the eccl. sense of the word is peculiar to English’, whilst m e r r y includes a reference to merry England. The account of individual words includes, where useful or necessary, pro­ nunciation and spelling. Thus under d i e 1 the reader will find ‘ For the develop­ ment of die from ME. dë$e, cf. dye, eye, high, nigh, thigh', and under j o is t ‘T he development (of ME. giste) to joist is paralleled by foist, hoist’ ; s.v. j o l l y , ‘ Final / was lost as in hasty, tardy'-, s.v. h a r b in g e r , ‘The intrusive n occurs x v ; cf. celandine-, messenger, ostringer, passenger, porringer, scavenger, whar­ finger-, nightingale ; popinjay’ ; and s.v. a n c i e n t 1, ‘The addition of homorganic t to final n (xv) is paralleled in pageant, pheasant, tyrant'. Under m o b 2 we are reminded that it is one of a group of shortened forms (as cit, rep, pos, incog.) in Addison’s “ Spectator” ’, and comments on the pronunciation and spelling will be found wherever necessary, as, e.g., under a n t h e m and a n t i p o d e s . Earlier forms are recorded, as under h i p p o p o t a m u s , ‘Earlier forms (from xiv) were ypotam(e), hippotame, ypotamos, -anus, - OF. ypotame’ . Con­ temporary, now obsolete, synonyms are given, as under d i g e s t : 'In x v i - x v i i disgest, disgestion were also current’. Words common and current in earlier stages of the language are sometimes replaced by other words. Thus OE. niman (see nim ), which was in general literary use until xv, was replaced by take, which had been in concurrent use since late OE. times, into which it had been taken from ON. ‘In OE. the words for “ die” were steorfan, sweltan, or wesan dëad.' OE. capeüân, from medL. cappelldnus, was superseded in early ME. by capelein, from AN ., and that by chapelain from Central French (see chaplain), acclimatize (xix) superseded acclimate (xviiv) which was a direct adoption from French. Then there are words which come into political history, the connexion being explained in addition to their more general history. Thus under h o l d 1 reference is made to copy-, free-, lease-, house-, stronghold. Less known words such as floruit are referred to the similar forms habitat, tenet, Retient. Among many items of more genera! interest are such as the origin of psychological moment, lushington, quack, tantivy, etc. Order and arrangement of articles I he word heading each article is printed in bold type, e.g., depose, and any related words which may be grouped under this are printed in the same type ; if any of these end in a suffix which is treated in a separate article, this is printed in small capitals, thus depose . . . deposit . . . depositARY . . . deposiTiON . . . depositORY1 , . . depot. References to other articles are printed in small capitals, e.g. under b u s y , ‘cf.. b u i l d ; contrast b u r y ’ . These words are arranged in alphabetical order, except when a word is selected to head the article because it best or most conveniently illustrates the etyroology of the other words which are associated with it : thus astrologer, astro- logical are treated under the catchword astrology. The catchword is followed by the pronunciation, the key to which is given below. 0

[vii]

INTRODUCTION

After this comes a selection of the senses in order to illustrate the general trend of the sense-development. The meanings are given in their chrono­ logical order, which often involves a re-grouping of the uses of the word as given in the Oxford English Dictionary. The century in which any word or sense is first recorded is indicated by roman numerals. Thus, under e s t e e m : A. f value, assess xv (Love) ; hold in (such-and-such) estimation x \ i, B. "fjudge of xv (Fortescue); account, consider xvi. Similarly under f r a n k : ffree x n i; bounteous, generous; f o f superior quality (see f r a n k in c e n s e ) x v ; ingenuous, candid xvi. The semicolon serves to separate a sense, or group of senses, from what precedes or follows: thus in the second example the senses ‘free’ and ‘of superior quality* are obsolete, the other two are not. For dates earlier than those recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary this work is indebted especially to the published parts (A-F) of the Middle English Dictionary, and for the later period to Craigie and Hulbert’s Dictionary of American English and M . M . Mathews’s Dictionary of Americanisms, and for Scottish words to Craigie’s Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue. Some earlier dates have also been obtained from publications of the Early English Text Society and from miscellaneous sources. Spelling of Germanic words In Germanic words, long vowels are distinguished by the macron ( ), except in ON., for which the traditional diacritic (') has been retained; thus OE., OFris., OS., O H G . hûs, ON. Ms h o u s e . In Germanic inferred forms (g) is employed for the palatal and the voiced guttural spirants, as in *geban g i v e , *go3az g o o d . The unvoiced guttural spirant is represented by (x), as in *doxtèr d a u g h t e r , *xorsam, -az iio r s e . The voiced dental spirant is denoted by the barred d (3 ), the unvoiced by the ‘thorn’ (p), thus *brû3iz b r id e , *bropar b r o t h e r . In OE. words the voiceless palatal stop, which in manuscripts is written c, is in this work printed d, as in dild c h i l d , cydene k i t c h e n , bidee b i t c h , similarly after î as in sdield s h i e l d , blysdan b l u s h . The palatal spirant (g) is distinguished as (g), as in gagel g a l e ', Sage e y e , regn r a i n , giefan g i v e ; after n, and in gemination, as (g), thus swengan s w i n g e , enngan c r i n g e ; brydg b r i d g e ', bydgan b u y (but bygest, bygep, etc.). The letter g without diacritic is used for both voiced guttural spirant and voiced stop, as in lagu l a w 1, fugol f o w l ; gôd, g o o d . The corresponding spirants in M E. are represented by the yogh (3), as in dejen d i e ', lap (lawe) l a w ', Layamon (personal name). Dating of Latin words In Latin words it is important to indicate their age and status, and for this ■ purpose L . is used for words recorded as being in use down to c. a . d . 200, late L . covers the period c. a . d . 200-c. a . d . 600, medL. from then to c. 1 5 00’ and modL. after 1500. [viii]

KEY TO THE PRONUNCIATION Vowels T h e incidence o f m ain stress is shown b y a raised point (*) after the vow el, and a secondary stress b y a double point (:) as in ch u :rch w A ‘RDEN, me:ditarei*nian. à à à æ æ ai au

chant (tfànt), enhance (énhà*ns), bath (bàb) arm (âjm), calm (kâm), bravado (bravâ-dou) Marathi (màrâ*ti), alamode (æ-îâmoud), loofah (lü-fà) man (mæn), access (æ-kses), detach (ditæ-tj) accessary (ækse-sari), borax (b5*ræks) bind (baind), rely (rilai*) allow (alau*), bough (bau)

e é è z a 5 ei

equity (e*kwïti), correct (kare*kt) estate (éste;*t), endow (éndau*) accent (æ-ksënt), Moslem (mo*zlëm) (with glide-vow'd) bare (beaj), declare (dikkau) accept (akse-pt), measure (me*3aj), (as glide-vowel before j) desire (dizaia-j) bird (bajd), occur (akau) delay (dilei ), rain (rein)

i ï i

bid (bid), naked (nerkid), Monday (rrLvndi),acme (æ*kmi), depart (dipâ-jt), gatling (gæ*tliq), (with glide-vowel) beer (biaj), career (kariau) clarity (klæ-rïti), discrepant (di-skrïpant), bulletin (bu-litin) / equal (i-kwal), deviate (drvieit) t

o b 0

moral (moTal), priority (praia-riti) oft (6ft), broth (broh) boreen (boron), cocotte (koko-t)

ô 5 01 ou

bodega (bôdrgo), bolero (bôleaTou), obedient (ôbôdiant), diplomatic (diplômae*tik) awful (3 -fal), (with glide-vowel) board (boajd), four (foaj) boy (boi), destroy (distroi*) hero (hia-rou), zoology (zouo*l3d3i)

u ü ü

look (luk), bulbul (budbul), (with glide-vowel) poor (puaj), cure (kjuaa) opulent (o*pjùlant), monument (mo*njOrnant) moon (mün), boudoir (bû-dwâj). few (fjü), endue (éndjü-) blood (bL\d), butter (bA*taj), frustum (frA-stam) . •

a



»

The stressed vowels a, æ, e, i, o, u become obscured with loss of stress, and the indeterminate sounds thus arising, and approximating to the ‘neutral* vowel a, are normally printed 8, æ, ë, ï, ô, ü. Examples : loofah (lü*fë), acclivity (ækli*vïti), accent (æ*ksënt), elegy (e*lïd3i), brocade (brôkeod), opulent (o*pjü!ant).

[ix]

KEY TO THE PRONUNCIATION

Vowels in French Words a e z e d i o ô, ô u ü ü

Marseillaise (marscjcz) écarté (ekarte) gourmet (gwrme) Gruyère (grüjir) fleur-de-lis (flôrcUh's) lingerie (lÊ3ri) margaux (margo) ô œillade (ô-jad), morbleu (m5jblo ) hauteur (otor) bouts-rimés (bt/nme) bourg (bar) curé (küre)

Nasal Vozvels â ë o

enjamk(e)ment (âjabmà) lingerie (lë3n) feuilleton (fcjto)

Consonants and Semi-Consonants b, d, f, h, k, 1, m, n, p, s, t, v, z have their usual values i her (hâj), farther (fâ*JÔ?i) r run (rAn), harrow (hæ*rou) b thin (bin), bath (bàb) ô bathe (beiô), father (fâ-ôaj) J shop (Jop), dish (dij), vicious (vi-Jas) tf chop (t/op), ditch (dit/), butcher (bu*t/aj) 3 incision (in$i*33n), garage (gæ-r§3) 1 d3 judge (d3Ad3), gender (d3e*ndaj), pigeon (pi*d3Ïn) j allure junker (ju-i}kaj), yes (jes) x,‘'' . r) bring (brii]), hanger (hæ-ipj), finger (fi-ggaj) m what (Mot), wheat (Mit), whether (A\e-ôoj) ' w wen (wen), away (owei*) v Sc. loch (lov), Sassenach (sæ-sonàx) Ij, nj repr. glf gn in Italian words: imbroglio (imbrou-ljou), bagnio (bæ-njou)

1

^ ,k . * •'i . . s\

ï

y

The reversed r and small ‘superior* letters (büt, frind3, ndstædd^d) are used to denote elements that may or may not be present in a local or an individual pronunciation.

;

Special symbols

\

# indicates a hypothetical etymological form f « obsolete f. = formed on, as L. discipulus, f. discere learn - = adoption of, as OE. discipul - L. discipulus = normal development of, as ME. mesel leper — OF. mesel •— L. misellust f. miser wretched )( as in concave)(convext means ‘contrary7 to, the opposite of* || = alien, or not naturalized

*

r «

*



The printing of a word in small capitals indicates that further information will be found under the word so referred to. «

M

*

*

A

. >



- r

M

r

;

V

l

V 4* ' * e \ P*

.

'

• *



■*. -

-

«



»

îftsr

i '-i

V L G »

ABBREVIATIONS

.

a. abbrev. abl. abstr. acc. acc., accus. act. add. adj. adv., advb. Aeol. Afr. agric. A L. Alb. aich. alt. Amer. AN. anat. AncrR Angl. Anglo-Ind* Anglo-Ir. anthrop. antiq. aor. Apocr. app. Arab. Aram. arch. archaeol. archit. arith. Arm. assim. assoc. astrol. astr., astron. attrib. augm. Austral. Av. A.V. biol. bot. Braz. Bulg. c. Cat. Cath. Angl. Celt. cent. CEur. •



7

ante abbreviation, -ated ablative abstract J according accusative active" addition | ^^ | adjective adverb ; {< ' Aeolic . 1 African_ 1 ^ agriculture* Anglo-Latin ^ Albanian alchemy altered, -ation American •• Anglo-Norman . anatomy ‘Ancrene Riwle* Anglian Anglo-Indian Anglo-Irish anthropology antiquities, -quarian aorist Apocrypha apparently Arabic Aramaic * ‘ archaic *1 archaeology architecture arithmetic Armenian assimilation, -ated t j »• association, -sated’ . astrology ,l ^ astronomy, -ical attributive augmentation, -ative Australia(n Avestan, Avestic Authorized Version biology * botany Brazilian Bulgarian circa Catalan ‘ Catholicon Anglicum* Celtic century« Common European •

} ) |



*

"

* - " '

*

-,

-



'







Av

. |A 4% A a

» * 4}

m

m

r

'**

a



r

>



f

r :

m

». a

%

cf. CGerm. Ch. chem. , CIE. classL. cogn. coll. colloq. comb. comp. compar. concr. conj. conj cons. contemp. contr. Com . corr. correl. Cotgr. CRom. cryst. CS1. Cursor M. d. Da. dat. decl. dem., demonstr. deriv. dial. dim. dissim. dissyil. Du. eccl. EFris. e.g. el. electr. ellipt. emph. Eng. entom. equiv. Emout & Meillet .

erron. esp. etym., etymol.

[xi]

«





.•

A r ! I l

confer ‘compare* Common Germanic Chaucer chemistry Common Indo-European classical Latin. cognate(s collective colloquial -t combining compound(s * comparative concrete *r? conjugation uî; conjunction -cr.J‘ ' ; * consonant i * contemporary contraction Cornish corresponding correlative Cotgrave Common Romanic crystallography Common Slavonic ‘Cursor Mundi* 'V dative Danish « dative declension % demonstrative •4 ,

«

t



. . M

U

*' 1

‘i

' * * *i

i l •

*. * ~

«

i'

J

. c

i*

«

.E. geforpian advance, promote, accomplish, f. ge- y- f•Jorpian further, pro­ mote, t . fvrp forward, forth . Typical M E. forms were iforder*, aforth{e)\ after the re­ duction of tiie prefix to a-, the sp. was asom. to words of !.. origin in aff- ; È»r the change of th to d cf. burden, murder. afforest aid r»st convert into forest, xv. - medL. affotesfdre (Charter of Eoicsts, temp Henry 11T>, f. ad af--f-foresla foiu> i . So afforest a“TiON. x v ij . - medL.

affray ofrei* (arch.) alarm, startle, frighten, xiv. - AN. afrayer, O F. effreer, effreer (mod. effrayer) Pr. esfredar Rom. *exfrïdâre, f. I.. ex ex -1 f Rom. *fridus, -G e r m . *fnj uz peace (whence OIL fnp frith 1) ; lit. ‘remove from peace*. T h e pp. af(f frayed alarmed, in a state o f fear, has become a distinct word, atkaii.». So affray* sb. fattack, alarm, disturbance xi v; violent breach of the peace xv. - AN. affrai, for O F. effrei, esfrei, f. the vb. Aphctic ekay1. affrigh t afrai-t (arch.) frighten, xvi. f. f af­ fright frightened, MK. affri^t, O E. dfyrhted, pp. of *dfyrhtan, collateral wit!» offyrhtan. Hence a ffri’ght sb. xvi (Spenser). affront afr.vnt insult (on».) openly to his face; put to the blush. x/V. - O K afranter strike in the face invxl. affronter) — - l’j., Sp. afrontar, It afhunlare Rom. *. xvi; cf. I n affront. affusion ofjü-san pouring water on the body in baptism. x\;i - iate I . affüsiô{*i-), 1'. affth-, affundtre , se». AF-, i t.s, on . afield r»f»•iii on or t(‘ the field O E. ; abroad XV. ML a f tide, a jelde, OE. on felda ; i.e. ON, A-1, anil dai '.e of FIELD. afire ;>fai » j (art h . d'.d.) on tire. \m. M h . afüft, o fiire, i.e. a, on, a-1, and •1, t i\»■ of t t KL

a ffa m e r>fh i m ahla. e, wing. X\T f. A-1 • l lame, alter A» int aflo at Dilou’t on the water or the sea. ME, on flute ( x i i ), o fa-tc on the sea -at sc . ON, a and J a n e t . a !c/i matioii. \ : K ' S x.

AFOOT

AGATE

(There is no historical connexion with OE. afoot afirt on foot (lit. and fig.), xm . ME. æftemest, Goth, aftumists last, latest, or the afote, i.e. ON, A-1, and dative of foot ; partly occas. early ME. aftermest.) after ON. d fôtum. afore af5a*j (arch.) in front, in advance. OE. afternoon àftajnü*n time between midday onjorariy ME. on-, aforen, reinforced by xiv and evening, xm . f. after- + noon ; cf. late afore, f. ON+ obs. fore adv. and prep. Hence L. postmeridiem adv. (medL. postmeridies fafo-rehand, afoT etim e(s), afo resaid afternoon meal), F. après-midi. ( xiv), modelled on beforehand, - tim e , t beafterw ard à’ftajwajd fbehind O E. ; sub­ foresaid (xm). afo-re thought premeditated sequently xm . Late OE. æfterwearde (see (leg. phr. malice d.) xvi ; thought, pp. of after, - ward), to which con*, an adj. æfterthink ; after Rprepensed (see prepense). weard latter part of, of which æftan -, æfte a fra id afrerd in fear, xiv (R. Mannyng). weard are collateral forms. ME. af(J)raiedt -ayed, pp. of affray used as a g - assim. form of ad- before g ; cf. ac-. adj. after AN . afrayé; superseded afeard. The sp. -aid dates from xvi ; cf. staid . ag a, agha â*gâ Ottoman title of distinction, xvi. - T u r k , dghd master, lord. a fre e t, a fr it æ*frît (also efreet) evil demon of Mohammedan mythology, xvm . -A rab . again age-n, agei*n adv. -fm the opposite *if rît - Pers. âfarïd creature, f. âfrïdan create. direction, back OE. ; -(m return x m ; once afresh afre*/ anew. xv. Earlier of fresh more, anew xiv; fprep. towards, opposite, (xv-xvi), after anew ; see a- 2, fresh, and cf. against. OE., WS. ongeant ongent later agënt OF. de frais recently. Anglian ongægnt ongegnywhence typical M E. forms ayen, ayent and ayainf ayein ; corr. to A frica n æ*frikan pert, to Africa, xm (La3*). OS. angegin, OH G. ingagant ingegin(i)t - L . Âfricânus (Cicero), Africa, sb- use of M H G . engegene, engein (G. entgegen oppo­ fern. (sc. terra land) of AfricuSy f. A fri (sg. site), ON. igegn against (Sw. igen, Da. igjen Afer) ancient people of N. Africa ; see - an again, anew); CGerm. (exc. Goth.) phr. and cf. F. africain, etc. A frik a n e r (older A frica n d e r, -kan d er) • f. ON (vary ing with in) -f *gagan-t *gagindirect, straight (cf. OE. gegnt O N . gegn æfrikâ*naj (-kændaj) white native of S. straight), the orig. meaning being ‘in a Africa, xix. - Afrikaans, earlier (Cape) Du. direct line (with)* ; the Germ, base *gag- is Afrikaander, f. Afrikaan (sb.) African+ -d)er, of unkn. origin. pers. suff., after Hollander Dutchman. So The native forms in ay-t ay - did not A frik aa n s æfrikâ*ns Cape Dutch, the taal. survive beyond xvi, being superseded uni­ xx. var. of Afrikaansch. versally by forms in ag-t derived from aft àft (prop, naut.) in or near the hinder Scand. and appearing first in northern and part, xvii (fore and aft), prob. alteration of eastern texts xm . Aphetic gain survives in earlier abaft, bafty after L G ., Du. achter GAINSAY. abaft, after ; there is no historical con­ against age*nst, agei*nst opposite (now nexion with OE. æftan behind. only in over against) ; in resistance to xn ; afte r à*ftaj behind in place or time. OE. in opposition to; in return for xm . M E. æfter adv. and prep. = OFris. efter, OS., ajatn^Sy ayeineSy ayainest ayenst f. ayeiiiy etc. 4OH G. aftar, -er (Du. achter)t ON. aptr adv. -es\'see again, - s . For the parasitic -t cf. (eptir prep.), Goth, aftra back, again ; amidst. Aphetic gainst (xvi, Spenser), often CGerm. adv., prob. compar. deriv. of *afsp. *gainst. in OE. æftan from behind, OS. at\aftant ON. aptant Goth, aftana; perh. to be re­ agam ous æ'gamos (biol.) non-sexual. xix. ferred to IE. *op- in Gr. opisô behind, again, f. late L. agamus - Gr. dgamos unmarried, or *ap- in Gr. apo of. Hence a*fter adj., f. a- a- 44-gdmos marriage; see gamo-, - ous. in OE. æfter(r)a; later the adv. in attrib. agape1 agei*p gaping, xvii (Milton), f. use (cf. next). A-1-f GAPE. a fte r- à*ftaj the adv.-prep, after in comb., agap e2 æ*gapi love-feast, xvii (used earlier fixed or transitory, with sbs., adjs., and vbs., and later in Gr. letters aydirr)). - Gr. agape in various relations and senses, ‘hinder*, brotherly love, f. agapdn vb. love. Hence ‘subsequent(ly)*, ‘eventual(ly)*, ‘subordi(irreg. formed) agapem one ægopï-mani nate(ly)*. (OE. had e.g. æfterboren post­ ‘abode of love* (Gr. monê abode), xix. humous, æfterfolgere successor, æftergield a g a r-a g a r ei*gârei*gâj East Indian sea­ additional payment, æfterrdp crupper.) weed. xix. Malay. afte r-b irth k’ftajbSjJj placenta, xvi (also Rafter-burthen), perh. directly — G . afteragaric æ’gorik, agæ*rik kind o f fungus. biirde (Luther, Deut. xxviii 57), also afterXV. — L. agaricum (Pliny) - Gr. agarikôn , geburt ; cf. Icel. eftirbur&ry OSw. efterbdrd, said by Dioscorides to be named from Da. efterbyrd ; see after-, birth . Agaria in Sarmatia ; see -ic. afterm ath à’ftajinæjD second crop of grass agate æ'gat variety of chalcedony, xvi. x v i; esp. fig. xv ii . f. after- + math. - (O)F. agate, also Ragathe (cf. It. agata) — L. achates — Gr. akhdtés. T he older F. afterm o st à*ftajmôst most aft. x v iii . f. form ac(h)ate was adopted in M E. (xm ). after (in naut. use, as after sails) 4- -MOST.

AGAVE

AGNAIL

agave 9gei*vi American aloe, xviii. — modL. adoption as generic name of L. Agavë - G r . Agauë, mythological name (daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia), prop. fern, of agauos illustrious. age eid3. period of existence or of time; time of life. xm . - OF. age, earlier aage, edge (mod. age) = Pr. atge Gallo-Rom. *ætâticum, f. L. ætât-, ætâs, earlier ævitâs, t. sevum age of time ; see ÆON. Hence age grow old xiv ; make old xvn. agED1 erd3id having lived long xv; eid3d of the age of (soand-so) xvii ; after F. âgé ; see - ed1. -age -id3 suffix repr. (O)F. -age = Pr. -atge, It. -aggio L. -dticu-s, - atic. (For the Rom. extended use of -âticum see age, courage.) The meanings are typified:by baggage, carriage, cartaget damaget dotage, hermitagey homaget language, luggaget mar­ riage, passage, tillage, tonnage, vicarage, village. In badinage, barrage, camouflage, entourage, garage, sabotage the suffix is pronounced §3. agenda ad3e*nda things to be done, e.g. items of business to be considered, xvii. - L., pi. of agendum (also current), sb. use of n. gerundive of agere (see next). agent ei*d39nt one who (that which) acts or operates, xv. - L. agent-, agëns, sb. use of prp. of agere do ; perh. through It. agente, whence (acc. to R. Étienne) F. agent (xvi) ; see -ENT. So a-gENCY. xvii. -m e d L . agentia, whence also F. agence. L. agere drive, pursue, occupy oneself with, carry on, perform, act (a play), do, is f. IE. #ag- drive, lead, whence also Skr. djati, Av. azaiti drives, Arm. acem I bring, OIr. -aig leads, Gr. dgein lead, ON. aka drive a vehicle, j carry. For other derivs. of the base see act, AGILE, AGITATE, AGONY, AMBIGUOUS, COAGU­ LATE, COGENT, COGITATE, EXACT, EXAMINE, EXIGENT, EXIGUOUS, PRODIGAL. agglomerate æglo-mareit gather into a mass. xvii. f. pp. stem of L . agglomerâre, f. ad ag - + glomus ball, mass, partly through F. agglomérer', see - ate8. So agglomerA*TiON. xviii. - F. or L. agglu tin ate aglkrtineit fasten as with glue, xvi. f. pp. stem of L. agglûtinârer f. ad AG--f glüten glue ; see - ate8. So agglutinA-TiON. xvi. agglu-tinATivE (of languages, first used by Max Müller, 1861). aggrandize æ-grandaiz make or make to appear greater, xvii. f. agrandiss-, lengthened stem (see - ish1) of (O)F. agrandir prob. - It. aggrandsre, f. a- AG-+grandire - L. grandire, f. grandis grand ; the ending was assim. to verbs in -ise, - izb. So aggrandizeMENT ograemdizmsnt. xvii . - F. agrandissement. aggravate æ*grave it fload, burden; add weight or gravity to xvi; incense, provoke xvii. f. pp. stem of L. aggravate, f. ad ag-Hgravis heavy, grave ; prob. through F. aggraver ; see - ate8. S o aggravA TiON. xv.

foppression (Caxton); (eccl.) censure x v i; increasing in gravity xvii. — F. - medL. aggregate æ*grigeit collected into one body (now techn.) xv; sb. -9t sum total, entire mass xv. - L. aggregdtus, pp. of aggregâre, f. ad AG--\-greg-, grex flock (cf. gregarious). So aggregate -eit vb. (see -ate8), aggregA*TiON xv. aggression 9gre*j9n unprovoked assault. xvii . - F. agression dr L. aggressiô(n-), f. aggress-, pp. stem of aggredi attack, f. ad AG- -\-gradi walk, step, f. gradus step, grade ; see - ion. So aggressiVE. xix ; perh. after F. •

aggrieve 9*griv bear heavily upon. xiv. ME. agreve - OF. agrever make heavier L. aggravare aggravate. The sp. was assim. to L. (with agg-) from xv, the F. word being latinized to aggraver. (A Rom. by-form maggreviare gave OF. agregier, whence Eng. t aggrege xiv - xvii .) aghast 9ga*st dumbfounded, xm . M E. agast, short form of pp. of f agaste frighten, strengthened form (with A-8) of igaste , app. 2- OE. gæstan, which is, however, recorded only once and with the sense ‘torment’. The sp. with gh, established from x v iii , is due to assoc, with ghastly. agile æ*d3ail nimbly' active, xv (Wyntoun). •- (O)F. agile - L. agilis, f. agere ; see agent, - ile. So agiliTY 9d3i*llti. xiv. - (O)F. - L . agio æ*d3iou percentage of charge for ex­ change. xvii. - It. aggio, of unkn. origin ; so F., Du. agio. So a*giotAGE speculation in stock, xix. - F. agiotage, f. agioter specu­ late, f. agio, with connective t. •

agist 9d3i*st take in live stock at a certain rate xvi ; subject to a charge xv ii . - O F. agister (mod. agiter), f. a AD--{-gister lodge Rom. *jacitdre, frequent, of jacère (cf. ADJACENT). So agi’StMENT. xvi. - OF.

agitate æ*d3iteit excite, disturb; f act a* agent; discuss, xvi. f. pp. stem of L . agitare move to and fro, frequent, of agere (see agent, -ate8); cf. (O)F. agiter. So agitA’TiON. xvi. - F. or L . (Public ‘agita­ tion* first in 1828.) a*gitATOR. xvii. - L . agitator. (First used in 1647 in the sense o f ‘agent’ for the delegates of private soldiers in the Parliament of 1647-q ; political agita­ tor in the present >ense dates from xviii.) aglet, aiglet æ-glit, erglit tag ; catkin, xv. - (O)F. aiguillette, dim. of aiguille needle late L. acücula pine-needle, dim. of acus needle (cf. acid). Cf. aiguille.

a £ly

aglai’, agli* (Sc.) crooked, awry, xviii (Bums), f. a1- fgley, gly (x iii ) squint ; cf. Sc. aglied (xvii) squintingly. agnail æ*gneil fcom on the foot OE. ; whitlow xvi ; sore piece of skin at the root of a nail xv iii . OE. angnægl, corr. to OFris. ongneil, OH G. ungnagel (G. dial, armeglen, eirmegeln) ; f. *ayg- compressed, tight, pain­ ful (cf. anguish) 4- nægl n a il , in the sense

fiç]

AGNATP o f ‘ haid excrescence in the fie^h* (of. U. claims and F. tlou used of a metal nail and a com on the foot). T h e two later senses ha\e arisen from assoc, of ■ 'Hail with the finger-nail; in the last sense also dial. hang­ nail (xvii) and Sc. anger-nail.

agnate

avgneit kinsman by the father’^ side ; kinsman bv descent from a com mon male ancestor. XV. — L agnatus, f. ad Al>--t*(g)ndfus horn (cf. nature ). See also ADNATE,

agnize a 'g n a iz recognize, xvi. f. !.. agtwscere ((. ad ag- -f *(g)noscere know ), after cognize, recognize. agnom en ægnou*men second cognom en, xvin. - L . agnônun, f. ad ag-H *(g)nomen NAMF. agnostic ægno'&tik holding that .nothing is knowable. beyond material phenomena. 18(19. f. a-M gnostic ; invented by Thom as Henry H uxley (1825-05) when aonem ber o f the M etaphysical Society to express his attitude of mind in contrast with that of contem porary ‘gnostics’ ; see his own ac­ count in ‘Agnosticism ’ and ‘Agnosticism and Christianity’ in Collected Essay's (1900), vol. v, pp. 239, 309. T here was no allusion to the use o f G r. dgnôsto' (unknown) in A cts xvii 23 (*Ayi'd>oTat &cw to an unknown god).

Agnus D ei æ ’gnas d ra i, a*gnus d e l part o f the canon o f the mass beginning with these words, xiv. L ., ‘Lam h o f G o d ’. ago ogou*, (arch, and dial.) agone ag.vn gone by, past. xiv. pp. of ]\IE. f ago, OK. dgdn pass away, corr. to O S. âgangan, O H Ci. irgangan, irgân (Ci. ergehen), G oth, usgaggan ; see a - 3, GO. Used first to qualify an expres­ sion o f time in adv. phr., e.g. ago fif ycr five years passed, longe tyme agoc ; later as an adv. in long ago at a time long distant. agog ago*g in eager expectation, xv. prob. modelled (with assim. to formations with A-1) on late O F . en gogues (cf. *Estre en ses gogttes, to be frolicke, Justie . . . all a-hoit, in a pleasant hum our’, Cotgr.), i.e. en in , pi. o f gogue merriment, pleasantry, of unkn. origin. agony æ ’gani anguish o f mind x iv (Ch., W ycl. B ible); death struggle x v i; extreme bodily suffering xvii . - (O )F. agonie or late 1 agônia - G r. ogônîâ contest, mental struggle, f. agôti contest, struggle, rel. to dgein ; see agent, - y 3. S o agonizE torment xvj ; suffer agony xvii ; contend x v m . - F. agoniser, late L . agonisât e (after G r. agdnlzesihai) . agoraphobia æ:garafou*bû> morbid dread o f public places xix. inodL,, irreg. f. G r. agord (place of) assembly, market-place, rel. to L . grex flock ; see gregarious, - phobia . agouti agû’ti W. Indian animal of the cavy family. xvii (Furchas). - F. agouti or Sp. aguti - T u p i aguti.

ag rarian ogre»*iian pert, to the land. f. L. agrârius, f. agr-, ager land ; set

x v ii . acre,

- ahjam. Used first with ref. to the lex ugraria of ancient Home (cf. the lau agrarie, Bcilenden’s ‘L ivy’, 1533). agree ogri* fp leasc, become favourable, accede xiv (Ch.); be in harmony or accord xvi. - (O)F. agréer -- Pr., Sp. agradar, It. aggtadare Rom. *aggrâtâre, f. L . ad ag- -r gtains pleasing, agreeable (cf. grace). S o agrce-ABLE pleasing, harmonious, suitable. xiv(Ch-). - (O)F. agréable. Hence agree*ably. xiv (Ch.); see ~l y 2. agree ment accord, covenant; concord, xiv. ag ricu ltu re æ*grikAltJaj cultivation of the soil. xvii. — F. agriculture or L. agricultural i.e. agrï culîüra tillage of the land ; see acre, culture. Hence agricu*lturAL xvm , a g r icudturaliST (cf. naturalist) xix, agricu lturisT xvm . agrim on y a^grimani plant of the genus Fupatoria. Earlier egre-, egrimoigne, -moine (xiv, Ch.). - (O)F. aigremoitie\ the later agrimony (xv), with var. fegri-, is based directly on agritv.ônia, misreading for L. argemania (Pliny, Celsus) - Gr. argememê poppy (Dioscorides), f. argemon white spot on the eve (which the plant was reputed to cure), f. urges, argds white, shining (cf. argent). a g ro - æ’grou comb, form of Gr. agrôs field, ACRE. agrostis ogr.vstis genus of grasses, x v m . late U. - Gr. agrostis, f. agrds (see prec.). «

aground ograu-nd f on or t0 the ground xii 1; on or to the bottom of shallow water xvi. f. a-14 ground ; cf. ON. d grunn into the shallows. ague ei*gju facute fever x iv (PPl.) ; malarial fever xiv (Ch.). - OF. ague medU. acuta, sb. use (se. frbris fever) of fern, of L. aeûtm acute. Earlier ME. t fever agu - OF. fiei-re ague — L . febris acuta (Celsus). ah à int. x m . Earliest form a - O F . a (later and mod. ah)\ cf. It., Sp. ah, ami similar forms in various langs., as U. à, ah, Gr. a, ad, O H G. d (G. ah), Lith. à, ad, Skr. à. (OE. had æ, êa, ON. a.) (Combination with ha produced aha alia* xm (Cursor M .); so in L., (M)HG., etc. ahead ohe d (orig. naut.) at the head ; in front (of); forward, onward, xvn. Earlier fow head (xvi) ; see A-1, head. ahem (a)hm excl. to attract attention, or used in hesitating speech, xvm. var. of hem with the ‘indeterminate* vowel a prefixed. ahoy ahoi* (naut.) call used in hailing, xvm . f. a, ah -h hoy 1. ahungt red ohA*r)gîud (arch.) hungry', xiv. prob. repr. a var. of ME. ofhungred, offingrid, OE. ojhyngrod, pp. of ofhyngran, 1. of-, a - *4 hyngran be hungry, f. iihncfk ; by confusion of a -2 (of) and a-1 (on) altered to anhu*ngered xiv (as in Tindale, Matt, xii 1, whence in A .V .); so f a(n)hungry xvii.

AI aî â*i S. American sloth, xvn. - native Brazilian word repr. the animal’s cry, prob through F. or (f/itfy, f fmiit). aid eid help, assistance, xv. - O F . aide (mod. aide) ~ IV. ajud(h)a, Sp. ayudi Horn. madjüta, sh. use of fern. pp. of adjuvdre. So aid vb. xv. - OF. didirr (mod. aider) — IV. ajudar L . adjütdre, lrequent. of adjuvdre, f. ad ad- -yjuvdre help, assist. aide-de-camp eid da kâ officer who assists a general, xvn. F., Jit. ‘camp assistant’ (aide, f. aider aid , de of, ca?np camp ). aigrette ei-gret spray of gems, etc. ; feathery tuft, bundle of rays, etc. xvn (stgret, egreite). - F. aigrette ; set euret . aiguille ei*gwi(i) slender sharp-pointed rock. xix. - F.. needle ( — It. agugtia, etc.) :~ Horn, *acûcula, dim. of acus needle (of. acid ). S o aiguillette cigwile-t ornamental tag. xix. F., dim. of aiguille ; see - e t ik . ail eil (arch ) trouble, afRict ; be ill (now in prp. ailing). OK. eglan, eglian, f. egle troublesome, rel. to Goth, agis disgraceful, agio oppression, us'ugljan oppress; further connexions doubtful. Hence ai* Latent. XVIII aifanto cilarntou large K. Indian tree. xix. - Native name in Amboyna, whence modL. ailuntus, -thus (after Gr. dnthos flower). aileron erloran small hinged flap on an aeroplane, xx. - F. aileron, dim. o f aile wing (see alate 2). aim eim ■ festimate: calculate a course or direction XIV; direct (a missile, blow) xiv. MF. ame, later ay me, aime. ; partly - O F. amer, dial. var. of esmer ( - - Pr. esmar, It, stimare) >- L. nsiimdre (see estimate ); partly - OF. aesnier, aemer, IV. azeswar, * >Sp. a(e)smar L. *ad:igbt top, qua* ter of rite cnrnp 1 roj!Hi- Wltl 1 G r. nulls point. a i r - t i g h t rvjtiur >mp< /■ tnr.»hit to air. w i n . T AIK ; TIOin. aft e r ?..a!er~, / - d - h y k t ; c f ( ' lujtdicht. a i r w o o d see hah -, wood . a isle ail lateral section of a church XI < passage-way m cmnch xv Ml:, eh. liter i/e, yie, i.!e ( w i - x v i i u , aile, aisie • (irom x v n i; - O F . eir (mod. nik) L. din wmg of bird, arrn\, ■. i building *r:kua (cf. O F . enxl, G . adisd shoulder): the var. forms o f the F word (part’y confuted with isle' island, as d ‘detached part o f a building’, whence rnedL. insula aisle) were repr. in Kng., the common early ntodF. iorm aisle being finally established. a i t , e y o t eit islet OK. tggap, ig(leksifâ*jmik (that is) an antidote to poison, x v ii . Alteration, by assim. to -ic. of f alcxipharmac-F. alexipharmoque - modL. alexipharmacum - Gr. alexiphdrnuikon, n. sg. of adj. f. aléxein ward off 4- pharmakon poison (cf. pharmacy). a lfa lfa ælfædfo variety of lucerne, xix. - Sp. alfalfa, formerly alfalfez - Arab. al-façfaçah ‘the best sort of fodder*. al fresco æl freyskou in the open air. xvm . It. phr. alfresco ‘in the fresh ’. Cf. FRESCO. a lg a ælgo pi. algae avld^ï seaweed, xvi. L . a lg e b ra ædd^ibra fbone-setting (as in obs. Sp.) xiv; department of mathematics using general symbols, xvi. - It., Sp., medL. algp-bra - Arab, aljebr, i.e. al al-*, jebr reunion of broken parts, f. jafmra reunite, redintegrate. The full Arabic term for aleh o o f ei*lhüf ground-ivy, Nepeta Glealgebraic computation was *ilm aljebr choma. xiv. prob. alteration of hayhove ua'Imuqdbalah science of redintegration and f. hay hedge, CE. hegc-\-hofe (also in tûnhôft equation, the first part of which was^ taken ‘garden hove’); there appears to be an allusion into It. in xm , the second, almucabala, being to its alleged use in brewing instead of hops. used by some medL. writers in the same A lem an(n)ic, A ile-, A la - jtlimavnik. xvm. sense. 'The str. tvlgfbra is shown in Butler’s - late L. Alemannicus, f. Alemanni pi. ‘ Hudibras* (1 1 126), 1663. Rccorde, the ((3r ’Alamanui), Germanic tribe hist men­ earliest user of the math, term, has the form tioned by Dio Cassius s.a. 213 -G e rm . algeber, directly repr. the Arabic; Billingsley, *Alamanniz (cf. ON. almanna- general, Dee, and Diggc> have algebra. Hence public, Golh. alamamiam d. pi. mankind), j a lg eb ra ic -hmi ik xvn, - ical x v i ; a*lgeprob. f. a l l 4-man and so denoting a wide b raisr xvn, which was preceded by falgealliance of peoples; see -ic. brrçiAN xvi- xvn. The retention o f -a in the derivs. is abnormal, but is paralleled by alem b ic ale mbik distilling apparatus, xiv Sp. algebraico ; more regular forms are seen (Ch.). Late MK. alambic, alembike - 0 1 4 in F. algébrique, It. algebrico, Sp., It. alembic (mod. alambic ; cf. Sp. alambiqué, It. algebrista. lambicco) - med L. alemhu us - Arab. al- after ON. d hie. aleg a r ædigoi, ei-ligaa malt vinegar, xiv f. ALE4 ' -eger, -egar (see eager) of vinegar. Cf. \beeregar (xv) vinegar made from beer.

[24]

I

«

ALLAH

ALGUAZIL - ism ) Arab. al-Khotvdrazmi the man of Khwârazm (ancient name of Khiva), sur­ name of the Arab mathematician Abu Ja’far Mohammed Ben Musa (ix), through the European translation of whose work on algebra the Arabic numerals became generally known. Cf. the use of Euclid for plane geometry. (By contamination with Gr. drithmos number, a form algorithm became current xvii- x ix .) algu azil ælgwazi‘1, Sp. algwaprl justiciary ; sergeant; minion, xvi. Early Sp. alguazil (now alguacil) - Arab, al-wazir, i.e. al al- 2, wazir minister, officer, vizier. algu m aHgom tree of the Bible (2 Chron. ii 8, erron. almug 1 Kings x 11), variously identified, xvi. Heb. algüm. * Alhambra ælhæmbra ancient royal Moor­ ish palace at Granada, xvn. — Sp. - Arab. al-hamra* ‘the red’, i.e. al al- 2 and fern, of ahmar, named after Muhammad Ben al Ahmar, who built it in 1273. alias eidiæs otherwise named xvi ; another (assumed) name xvii . - L. alias at another time, otherwise, f. alius (cf. else). alibi æ-libai (leg.) felsewhere; plea' of having been elsewhere, xvm. — L. alibi, f. alius other (see else), with loc. ending after ibi there, ubi where. alid ad ædidæd index of an astrolabe, etc. xv. orig. in medL. forms allidatha, alhidada (cf. Sp. alhi-, alidada) - Arab, al-idddah revolving radius of a graduated circle, f. 'add, 'adid upper arm, radius ; later - F. alidade. alien eidian not one’s own, foreign, xiv (R. Rolle). - OF. alien - L. aliénus belong­ ing to another person or place, f. alius other (see else). For the freq. ME. forms in -n/, e.g. aliente, alia(u)nt, cf. ancient. So a*lien vb. xiv (Ch.) - (O)F. aliéner ; earlier synon. of adienate estrange (xvi), which was pre­ ceded by the pp. f alienate (xv) —L. aliénâtus, pp. of àliènâre; see - ate2. adienABLE. xvn. - F. alienA TioN. xiv (Wycl. Bible). - (O)F. or L. a lieniST. xix. - F. aliéniste. alight 1 alai*t come or get down, dismount OE.; settle on xm . OE. dlihtan; see A-*, LIGHT*. alight 2 olai*t lighted, on fire. xvm . prob. evolved from phr. \on (also of, in) a light fire (xvT-xvm) ablaze, where light appears to be pp. of light 8 kindle, ignite. align, aline alarn place in line. xvn. - (O)F. aligner, f. phr. à ligne, repr. L. ad lineam in a straight line (see ad-, line 2). So ali-gnment. x v iii . - (O)F. alignement. alike alai*k (adj. used prcdic., rarely other­ wise) like one another. OE. gelic (ME. ilich-e, ilik-e ; a- forms from xiv) = OFris. gelïk, OS. geltc (Du. gelijk), OHG. galih (G. gleich), ON. glikr, Goth, galeiks t- CGerm. •galikaz, f. *ga- y -+*Ukam form» body (see lychgatb) ; for the development of OE.

ge- to a- cf. AFFORD, aware. See LIKE. So a li'k e adv. OE. gelice, f. gelic with adv. ending -e. In ME. both words were prob. reinforced, or superseded in certain areas, by ON. adj. dlikr, adv. dlika, which corr. to OE. anlié, onlic, anlice, O H G. analih, Goth. analeiks/m which the prefix is Germ. #ann(see on). alim ent æ*limênt nourishment, food, xv (rare before xvii ). - F. aliment or L. alimenturn, f. alere nourish, f. *al- grow (cf. old) ; see - ment. So alim e ntARY. x v ii . - L. a lim o n y æ* liman i maintenance, spec, of a separated wife by her husband, xvn. - L. alimônia, f. alere ; see prec. and - mon Y. a liq u o t ædikwot (math.) of a quantity con­ tained exactly in another, xvi (Billingsley). - F. aliquote (les parties aliquotes xv), medL. aliquota fern, (in A L . partes aliquotæ xm), f. L. aliquot some, several, f. alius one of two (cf. alien ) + quot how* many (cf. quotient). -a lity æditi comp, sudix — (O)F. -alité - L. -alitât-, -tâs ; see -AL1, -ITY. a liv e alai’v living. OE. phr. on life, M E. on live, olive, alive; i.e. on (cf. A-1) and life, d. sg. of Hf life . On live is found as late as xvii. alkahest, ale- ædkahest universal solvent of alchemists, xvii . First used by Paracel­ sus, and believed to have been arbitrarily invented by him with a form simulating Arabic (al al- 8). alkali ædkalai fsoda ash xiv ; saltwort, Salsola Kali xvi ; gen. applied to sub­ stances having the properties of soda xvii ; (mod. chem.) hydroxide of sodium, potas­ sium, etc. xix. Late ME. alcaly - medL. alkali - Arab, al-qaliy calcined ashes of Salsola and Salicomia, f. qalay fry, roast; see al- 2, kali. Cf. F. alcali (xvi). So a*lkaI ine xvii ; see - ine and cf. F. alcalin (1700). a lkaloiD. xix. - G . alkaloid. alkanet æ-lkanct (plant, Anchusa or Alkanna tinctoria, yielding) a dye. (xiv) xv. - Sp. alcaneta, f. alcana (medL. alchanna), corr. to OF. alchanne, arcanne — Arab, alhenna ; see al- 8, henna. alkekengi ælkike*nd3Î winter cherrv, Physalis Alkekengi. xiv. - medL. - Arab. al-kdkanj, -kenj, i.e. al al- 8, Pers. kdkanj kind of medicinal resin, (also) nightshade. all 51 every ; entire ; the whole of ; also adv. OE. all, (eaJl) = OFris. al, o/, O S., O H G . al (Du. al, G. all), ON. allr, Goth, alls, prob. CGerm. *alnaz, ppl. formation on •ai-, which is found also in O S., O H G . alung completely, and the prefix #aia- of Goth, alaniutci quite new, alatvàri quite true, alamannam (see A lemanic ), and has been referred to IE. #oi-, repr. by (O)Ir. uile all (:- *oljo~), W. oil (î- *oljod) wholly. Allah æ*b the deity among the Moham­ medans. xvi. - Arab, alldh, for al-ildh, Le. al al-*, ildh god =« Aram, elàh, Heb. elâah

[25]

ALLANTOIS (see E lohist ). (Early forms in Eng. writers are Alla, Allah, A la, Alàt Allough, -4 //w.) allantois abrntouis (anat.) fœtal membrane lying between amnion and chorion, xvii . modL., spurious form evolved from allan­ toides —‘ Gr. allantoeides sausage-shaped (Galen), f. allanto-, alias sausage; see - oid .

olei* flay aside OE. ; put down, repress, quell; appease, assuage xiv; dilute, temper xv; mitigate xvm . OE. alezan, pt. alegde, alêde, pp. alegd, aléd, M E. alegge (aleide, aleid), superseded by aleie, alay (cf. lay 1). The sense-development has been infl. by formal assoc. writh OF. aleger, lighten (:- L. allevidre alleviate) and aleier, alier L. alligdre) alloy, temper, qualify. a l l e g a t i o n æligei’Jan charge or matter to be proved xv ; affirmation of a thing to be proved xv; assertion without proof xvii. - (O)F. allégation or L. allëgàtiô(n-), f. allêgàre depute, bring forward, adduce, f. ad KL--\-lëgâre dispatch, commission (cf. legate) ; see - ation . Used as the noun of action of next. allege 3le*d3 fdeclare before a tribunal, plead ; cite, quote ; advance as a reason ; assert without proof, xiv. - AN. alegier, for OF. esligier Rom. *exlitigare clear at law, f. L. ex EX--\-lit-, lis lawsuit (see litigate ) ; used in the senses of L. allegdre (see prec.), whence F. alléguer (which cannot be the source of allege). allegiance alrd3ans relation of a liege man to his lord ; obligation of a subject, xiv. - AN . *alligeance (AL. alligantia), f. OF. ligeance (AL. Uganda), f. lige liege (see - ance) ; so contemp. fUgeance - OF. ; the prefixing of al- was peril, due to assoc. writh • ofUganda alliance. a l l e g o r y aHigari figurative description or narrative, xiv. - (O)F. allégorie - L. allé'goria - Gr. allêgorid ‘speaking otherwise*, f. alios other (cf. allô- ) + agor-, as in agoreuein speak, agora public assembly; see -Y a. So a l l e g o r i c æligo*rik xiv, allego-riC A L xvi. a*lleg o riZ E . xv. F. allégoriser - late L. alUgorizdre (Jerome). a l l e g r o ælergrôu (mus.) lively, xvii (Pur­ cell). It., repr. L. alacer brisk (see alacrity). €J Familiar from the title of Milton’s poem ‘L* Allegro*, 1632, ‘the cheerful one*. a l l e l u i a ælilü’ja xiv. — eccl. L. alléluia — Gr. allélouia, the L X X repr. of Heb. hallelu­ jah . As applied in medL. (and It.) to the wood-sorrel, Oxalis Acetosella, it may be a perversion of some vernacular name.

a lla y

æ*bjd3i sensitiveness to certain foods, emanations, etc. xx. - G. allergie (Pirquet, 1906), f. Gr. alios other, ALLO- + érgon W O RK+-Y8 (cf. energy) ; orig. denoting a changed condition brought about by an injection. Hence a l l e r g i c hypersensitive (hence, antipathetic) to. So a lle r g e n æl5 *jd3in substance to which a body is allergic ; with -en after pollen.

a lle r g y

À

ALLODIUM

alleviate alrvieit lighten, mitigate, xv. f. pp. stem of late L. allevidre, f. ad al -x+ levis ligh t *; see -ate *. The L. verb was repr. earlier by f allege (xiv- xvi) - OF. alegier (mod. alléger) = Pr. aleujar, It. alleggiare; cf. allay . alley1 æ*li walk, passage ; enclosure for bowls, etc. xiv. - OF. alte (mod. allée) walking, passage, f. aller walk, go (:- L. ambuldre walk ; cf. amble). alley*, ally æ*li toy marble, xvm . Fami­ liar dim. (see -Y6) of alabaster. Cf. the similar use of L G ., Du. albasl. all fours 51 f 5djz In the sense ‘all four extremities* orig. all four xvi ; the name of the card-game has always been aU-fours xvm . All Hallows 51 hæriouz (feast of) All Saints, 1 November. OE. ealra hdlgena dæg day of all saints ; hence, with retention of the g. pi. inflexion, ME. allé halewene day (xm), alhalwen (xiv), all haloum (xv), all Holland, allhollondaye (xvi), etc.; with loss of this, al halow, al hal (xiv), alhalwgh (xv), etc.; with substitution of -s from xv. See hallow , Hallowe’en, hallowmas. alliaceous ælierjas (bot.) of the genus Allium (garlic, onion, etc.), xvm . f. modL. allidceus, f. L. allium garlic ; see - aceous. alliance olarans union by marriage; con­ federation. xi 11. - OF. aliance (mod. alUance), f. alier ally * ; see - ance. alligator aHigeitaj reptile of the crocodile family, cayman, xvii. Earlier forms lagarto, aligarto, alagarto (xvi) - Sp. el lagarto the lizard (repr. *lacarto for L. lacerta lizard), which was applied spec, to the large saurians of the New World. The 1st Folio (1623) edition of Sh. ‘Romeo & Juliet* v i 43 has Allegater, the 1st Quarto (1597) Aligarta. Alligator pear (xvm) is a corruption o f avocado pear. alliteration olitarei*Jan commencement of words in a passage with the same letter, prop, with the same or the same kind of sound, xvn. -m o d L . alliterdtiô(n-) rhet. repeating and playing upon the same letter, f. ad al- 1-f* lit era letter, after L . agnomindtio paronomasia; see - ation. Hence alli’t e r ate(d), alli-terATiVE. xvm . alio- æ*lo, ælo* comb, form of Gr. alios other (see else). allocate ædôkeit allot to a place, xvii (before xix only Sc.), f. pp. stem of m edL. allocdre, f. L. ad a l -1 loedre place, locate, after pp. f allocat (xvi). So alloca*TiON. xv. - F. - medL. allocution ælôkjtrjan address, exhortation. xv ii . - L. allocûdô(n-), f. allocüt-, alloqui address, f. ad al- 1-! loqui speak (see locu ­ tion ). allodium alou'diam estate held in absolute ownership, xvii. —medL. allodium (Domes­ day Book), f. Frankish *allod- ‘entire pro­

ALMOND

ALLOPATHY perty’ (in latinized forms alodis, alaudes), f. all ALL+ôd (OHG. ôt, OE. Sad, ON. audr) estate, property, wealth. Also (angli­ cized) al(l)od ælod. xvn. So allo*diAL. xvii. -m e d L . allopathy æ ierpajn )( homoeopathy.- xix. - G . allopathie, f. Gr. dllos other -f -pdtheia, pathos suffering. So allopath ædopæp - F. allopathe, back-formation from allo­ pathie. a llo p a th ic . - F. See allô-, pathos. allot ab*t assign, orig. by lot. xvi. «- OF. aloter (repl. by mod. allotir), {. a AD-, AL-l -f lot (of Germ, origin) ; see lot . Hence allo*tment action of allotting xvi; portion of land allotted xvii . allotropy ob-trapi variation of physical properties without change of substance, xix. - modL. allotropia - Gr. ~allotropia variation, f. allétropos of another form, f. dllos allô- -f tropos manner (cf. trope) ; see -Y*. allow alau* A. (arch.) commend ; admit, ac­ cept ; permit ; B. assign, allot, xiv. - OF. alouer, later all- (i) L. aüaudâre, f. ad al- 1-f- laudàte praise, laud, (ii) medL. allo­ cate, f. ad al-1^- locate place, stow, allo­ cate. The phonetic identification in OF. of the orig. distinct forms involved semantic conflation and the development of a variety of meanings in which the two main senses were blended, e.g. assign with approval, grant, concede, permit. So allow*able (aphetic f lowable) - OF. allouable. xiv. allow-ANCE. xiv. - OF. alouance. alloy aloi*, æ*loi admixture of metals; in­ ferior metal of a mixture ; quality, standard, xvi. - (O)F. aloi (orig. in phr. de bon aloi of good mixture), f. OF. aloier, earlier aleier = Pr. altar, Sp. allegar, It. allegare L. alligâre, f. ad AL-lJrligate bind (cf. ally *, lien ). So alloy* vb. xvii . - F. aloyert f. aloi; superseded f allay sb. and vb. (xrv) - (O)F. alei, aleier. allsp ice 5 *lspais Jamaica pepper, xvii . f. all + spice , so called because supposed to combine the flavour of cinnamon, nutmeg, and cloves. allude aflü*d f*play* with or upon; refer indirectly (to), xvi. - L. allüdere play or dally with, touch lightly upon, f. ad al-1-!lüdere engage in play, f. lüdus play, game (cf. ludicrous). So allusiON aliû*3an. xvi. - F . allusion or late L. allüsiô(n-), f. pp. of allüdere. allure aljua*i attract strongly, entice, xv. - OF. alurer, f. a- ad-, AL-l -f Jure falconer’s bait, lure. alluvion al?ü*vion wash of sea against shore ; flood ; alluvium, xvi. - F . alluznon-'L. allu­ vion-), f. ad al-1-f -luiiô, f. luere (see ablution). alluvium aliirvbm deposit left by water flowing over land. xvii . L., n. of alluvius washed against, f. ad k l - x+ Iuv- of luere (cf. prec.). Hence allu*viAL xix, earlier allirvIAN, allu •VIOUS XV’II.

ally æ*lai, alai* A. fkindred, kinsman xrv ; 1

B. allied person or people xv. In A, - (O)F. allié, sb. use of pp. of allier (see next). For the loss or final é cf. assign*, costive, ta il *, trove. In early Sc. repr. by ally a, alye (3 syll.). which are used for ‘ally*, ‘allies*, and ‘alliance*. In B, f. next ; the str. a-Uy is found xv ii . ally* alar join as associate or confederate, xiii. - OF. alier, analogical alteration of aleier (see alloy). alma(h) æ*lma Egyptian dancing-girl, xix (Byron). - Arab, 'àlimat adj. fern, learned (i.e. instructed in music and dancing), f. 'alama know. (In F. aimée.) almacantar ælmakæ-ntàj (pi.) parallels of altitude, xiv (Ch.). - OF. almicantarat or medL. almicantarath - Arab, almuqantardt pi. sundial, f. qantarah bridge, arch; see

almagest æ*lmad3est orig. the great astro­ nomical treatise of Ptolemy (II), ‘Mathêmatikë suntax is’, xiv. - OF. almageste, ult. - Arab, al-majisti - (with alt al-*) G f. megisti greatest (sc. suntaxis composition), superl. fern, of mégas great (see magnitude). ‘Alma Mater æ*lma mei*toj. xvii. L ., ‘bounteous mother* (alma, fern, of almus, f. alere nourish; cf. aliment) ; title given by the Romans to Ceres, Cybele, and other bounteous goddesses, transf. to universities and schools as the fostering mothers of their alumni. almanac 5 *lmanæk annual table containing essentially a calendar of days and months with astronomical data and computations, xiv (almenak, Ch.). - medL. almanac(h) (Roger Bacon, 1267) ; the only authenticated antecedent form with which this maÿ be connected is late Gr. almenikhiakd (Eusebius, iv), described as containing the names of the lords o f the ascendant and their pro­ perties ; the formal relation of almanac to this is obscure ; a supposed Arab, al-mandkh, invented to account for the medL. ?and Rom. forms (It. almanacco, Sp. almanaque, F. almanach), is non-existent. al mandine ælmæ-ndin, -ain variety of gar­ net. xvn (in xix poet.). - F. falmandine, alteration of \alabandine (in ME. alabaundryne xiv) - late L. alabandtna (sc. gemma gem), f. Alabanda city of Caria ; see - ine 1. almighty 5 lmai*ti. OE. ælmihtig, corr. to OFris. elmachtich, OS. alomahtig, O H G . alamahtic, ON. almdttigr ; f. prefix form of all + mighty , rendering L . omnipotent OMNIPOTENT. almoign, almoin, AN . var. of alms. almond §*mand (fruit of) the tree Amygdalus communis, x iii (Cursor M.). - OF. alemande, a(l)mande (mod. amande), for malmandle - medL. amandula (cf. Sp. almendra, Pg. amendoa, It. mandola, mandorla, O H G . mandata, G . mandel), alteration of L. amygdala - Gr. amugddlë ; initial al-

ALTAR

ALMONER appears to be due to assoc, with Horn, w ords h avin g AL-* prefixed.

alm oner â’manaj, ædmanoj official distri­ butor of alms, xiii (Cursor M.). -«*■ AN. aumoner% OF. aumônier, earlier au-, a(u)lmosnier (mod. aumônier) R oitl *almosinâriu-s, for medL. elecmusynarius e le e m o s in a r y , used sb. ; see - e r and ef. a l m s . alm ost 5 *lmoust, -mast OE. almæst nearly all, for the most part (cf. mast eall ‘for the most part entirely’) ; see a l l and m o st ; substitution of - m o st for the regularlydeveloped -mest was established xiv. alm s âmz charitable gift. OE. almysse, -messe, whence aimes (xiii-xvn ; so in A.V.), reduced to alms xvn ; corr. to OFris. ielmisse, OS. alamosna (MDu. aelmoese, Du. aalmoes), O H G . alamuosan (G. almosen), O N . çlmusa Germ. *alemu$(i)na - popL., Rom. *alimosina (Pr., OSp. almosna, OF. almosne, modF. aumône, It. limosina), altera­ tion, prob. through L. alimônia a l i m o n y , of Christian L. elecmosvna (Tertullian) - Gr. eleèmosu .ê compassionateness, f. eleêmôn compassionate, f. èleos mercy. In OE. the orig. -n was treated as if inflexional and disappeared from the nom. ; ME. vars. are •f almose xm , almoin (AN.) xiv, Sc. aimons, atemous (- ON. ylmusa) ; f almosna, \almoise xv (cf. AN. almosne, almoisne). €[ Treated as a pi. like eaves, riches, w hich are orig. sgs. alm uce see a m ic e . alm ug ædmAg xvn (A.V.) erron. form of 2

ALGUM.

aloe æ*lou flig n a lo e s xiv ; iiliaceous gen u s of plants with a bitter ju ice, w hence is m ade a drug xiv (Trev.). OE. alieywe- L . aloè - Gr. aloi plant and drug, (also) lignaloes (used in L X X tr. Heb. akhalôth) ; in late ME. reinforced by OF. aloes (m od. aloes) or its source, aloes, g. sg. o f L. aloe, as in I ig n a LOES; whence the frequent use o f the w ord in pi. form. aloft alo’ft on high, xn (Orm). ME. o loft(e) - ON. d lopt (of motion), d lopti (of position), i.e. d in, on, to, a - 1, lopt air, sky (rel. to OE. lyft, OHG. lu ft, Goth, luftus air; cf. l o f t , l if t ). alone a k n rn b y oneself, itself, th em selves, xm . ME. al ane, al one, i.e. OE. all en tirely ( a l l ), âna b y oneself (f. an o n e ). In ME. sometimes w'ritten a lone (w hence l o n e ) ; also with pron. inserted, as al him one he quite b y himself. T h e pronunc. w ith ou n is as in ATONE and o n l y , as opp. to w.vn in ONE (cf. ONCE).

along ab'i) (dial.) along of belonging ox owing to. OE. gelang (with preps, on, at) depending, belonging -= O gilang ready, OH G. gilang neighbouring; WGerm. f. mgi- Y--\-*layg- ; cf. next and b e l o n g . along alo‘ 1) through the length of OE. ; lengthwise, in a line forward x iv ; in com p an y uith xvi (Sh.). OE. andlattg, ad vb . use 1

2

(with genitive) »»f adj. meaning ‘extending in same direction*, ‘continuous* = OS. anthing, f. *attd- opposite (see ANTI-) 4 *laijgextend (cf. l o n g 1). For the assim. of nl to // and ult. simplification to / cf. eleven', the stages were andlong, anlong, allong, along (assim. appears early in OE. ollung, but was not gen. before xiv). Hence alo*ngsnoRE, alo ngsim: xvm . a l o o f olO*f (naut.) forder to the steersman to go to windward ; to or at a distance, xvi. Early forms are a luf, aloufe, ahmfc, on luffe, Ti.e. a, ox, A-1, ~uit , prob. after Du. te loef. a lo p e c ia ælouprpo (med.) mangy’ baldness, xiv’. - L. alopecia - Gr. alôpekiâ, f. alôptk-, -pèx fox ; so named from the resemblance to mange in foxes. alou d Aland with a loud voice, xiv (PPL, Ch.L f. a -1-? lo u d . (An earlier syn. was fn/ni'/vopp. to faloiv.) A lp atip (pi.) proper name of a mountain system in Switzerland, etc. xiv. - F. Alpes - E. Alpes ~ Gr. Alpeis, variously ex­ plained as (i) ‘white’ (snow-capped) and so rel. ro A lbion , Ir. Alba Scotland, and (ii) ‘high’ (cf. the Italic names of towms in high positions). So AlpiNE1. xv. - L. a lp a c a ælpæ’ko Peruvian llama, its wool, fabric made from this. xvm . - Sp. alpaca (also paco) — Quichua alpako (also pako, pakoUamct). f. pako reddish-brown. a lp h a b e t ædfobet letters used in a language, xv. - late L. alphahêtum (Tertullian), f. Gr. alpha -f-beta, first two letters of the (ir. alphabet taken to repr. the whole, like a r c ; et. F. alphabet, It. alfabeto, etc. Hence a l p h a b e t i c xv»i, - ic a l x v i ; cf. F. alpha­ bétique, It. alfabetico, etc. a lp h a b e t iZ E xix. a l r e a d y 5 lre*di by this or that time. xiv. orig. two words, a ll adv. and READY, used predic. ‘fully prepared*, passing into adv. (e.g. He is al reay hcere T ie is here just at hand*. Ch. ‘Clerk’s Tale* 299, shows the possibility of transition). Cf. M E G . al{ge)rede (where gerede corr. to O E .genfde), whence OSw\ alia or alt redho (Sw. alluredan), Da. allerede. A lsatian ælsei*J‘an A . wolfhound (also sb.), German sheepdog xx. f.AlsatiaEhasz, Alsace. alsike æ*lsik the clover Trifolium hybridum. xix. f. Alsike name of a town near Uppsala, Sweden, its habitat. also 5 ’lsou in addition, besides. OE. alsicd (ealsud) ~ OFris. aha, Du. alzoo thus, consequently, OHG. clsô even so, as (G. also therefore); i.e. a l l 4 - s o , lit. ‘altogether or even so or thus’. See a s 1. A lta ic æltei*ik Ugro-Finnish (group of languages), xix. - F. altaique, f. Altai, a mountain range in Central Asia; see -ic. a l t a r ô-ltaj table for sacrificial offering. OIL attar, alter, corr. to OFris. altare, alter, OS., OHG., ON. altari, alteri; Germ, adoption of late E. altar, altare, altdrium

ALTAZIMUTH for L. altdria n. pi. burnt offerings, altar, prob. rel. to adolere bum in sacrifice, adolëseere burn (cf. olère smell, and o d o u r ). Forms repr. OF. auter appear xm ; finally the present form, infl. by L., was established xvi. c>- even if. xiv. ME. al pah, pa(u)j, po{u)$, i.e. a l l adv., t h o u g h ; varying with pou$ al (xiv), which presumably descends from OK. pèah . . eal (recorded once in ‘Beowulf’ 680); ME. al ( i)iff ( i)if al were similarly used ; for the use of al cf. ALBEIT. altitude æ-ltitjüd height, xiv (Ch., in astron. sense). - L. altitûdo, f. altus high; see OLD, -TUDE.

alto æ*ltou highest male voice, counter­ tenor. xviii. - It. alto high (sc. canto song) L. altu-s high (cf. prec.) altogether 5 ltoge*(taj fthe whole together (now usu. all together); in every respect, entirely, xn. Early ME. al togedre, i.e. a l l (sb. the whole, adv. in every way), t o g e t h e r . altruism æ*ltruizm devotion to the welfare of others, xix. - F. altruisme (A. Comte, 1830), f. It. altrui somebody else, what is another’s (cf. F. autrui) Kom. *alteri huic ‘to this other’ ; prob. suggested by the legal use of F. Vautrui for le bien or le droit d*autrui the welfare or the rights of others. Hence a*ltruiST, altrursnc. aludel ædjudel sublimating vessel, xvi (alutel xiv). - F . aludel - Sp. - Arab, al-uthdl ‘the apparatus’ (pi. of athla utensil), see AL-*.

AMANUENSIS alum æ*tam astringent whitish mineral salt, used (e.g.) F dressing skins, xiv. — O F. alum (mod. aiun) L. alümen, rel. to alûta tawed leather. aluminium æljùmi*nbm (chem.) metallic element, xix. Alteration (in imitation of potassiumt sodium, etc.) of aluminumy Hum­ phrey Davy’s modification (1812) of the form first suggested by him, viz. alumium (1808). Aluminum is parallel to alumina (xviii), modL. formation on the type of magnesia, potassa, soda, for the ‘earth of alum’, aluminium oxide ; f. L . alûmin-, alümen a l u m , whence L. alüminôsus (F. alumineux), the source of aluminous aljirminos xvi. alumnus a b o n n a s pu pil o f a school, etc. xvii. L., f. alere nourish, bring up (cf. a l im e n t ), w ith en d in g rel. to Gr. p p . suffix -ômenos. alveolus ælvralas small cavity, toothsocket, etc. x v iii . L., dim. of alveus cavity (cf. alvus belly, beehive, rel. to Gr. aulos long narrow* channel, flute, aulôn valley, canal, O S 1. ulijt Lith. aulys beehive). Hence a lv e o lA R æ lvrôbj, ædviôlai x v i i i . S o a l v i n e æ-lvain pert, to the belly, x v i i i . - modL. alvinus, f. alvus ; see -INE1. a l w a y 5 *lwei, (formerly) 5lwer all the time, every time. OE. alne weg, acc. o f all a l l and weg w a y , prob. orig. denoting extent o f space or distance, but at its first appearance already transf. to extent o f time. Super­ seded in ordinary prose by alw ays 5 *lweiz, 5 *lwiz, ME. ailes 1vets xm (see -s), later alleiceyes, alway(e)s. alyssum alrsam, æriisam genus of cruci­ ferous plants, xvi. modL., for L . alysson (Pliny) - Gr. dlusson. am see b e . amadavat æ:mdddvæ*t; also avadavat. Indian song-bird, waxbill. xviii. f. name of the city of Ahmadabad (Gujerat, India), whence the birds were orig. brought; the place-name is found in Pg. as Amadava (xvi), in Du. as Amadabat (xvn), in Eng. as Amidavad (xvii). amadou æ*madü German tinder prepared from fungus, x v iii . - F. amadou - modPr. amadou lit. ‘lover’ (so called from its quick kindling) L. amdtôrem (see a m a t e u r ). amain am ei-n (arch.) w ith m ain force ; at fu ll sp e e d ; exceed in gly, x v i. f. a - 1 + m a i n 1, rep lacin g earlier f with main.

amalgam omæ-lgam mixture of a metal with mercury xv ; intimate mixture or com­ bination xvn. - F. amalgame or medL. amalgama, prob. ult. f. Gr. mdlagma emolli­ ent, f. maids rein soften, through some Arab, form with prefixed a l -*. S o amadgamATE* xvn ; fa m a lgam vb. xiv (Ch.). - medL. amalgamdre. amalgamATiON. x v ii; so F. amanuensis amænjue*nsis clerk who writes from dictation, xvn. - L. dmanuensis

AMBO

AMARANTH (Suetonius), f. à manu in servus à manu ‘slave at hand*, secretary -f -ënsis belonging to (cf. -ESE). (Cf. MANUAL.) amaranth æ*marænp mythical fadeless flower; genus of ornamental, plants with' coloured foliage, xvn (earlier in L. form). - F. amarante or modL. amaranthus, altera­ tion after names in -anthus (Gjr. dnthos flower) of L. amarantûs -.Q r. amdrantos, f. a- A-*-\-maran-t stem of marainein to wither (f. base mmar- #m or-; see m o r t a l ). So amaranthine æmaræ-nÿain. xvii (amarantin Milton). — modL. ; see - ine1. amaryllis æmarHis genus of bulbous plants, xviii. modL. (Linnaeus) use of L. Amaryllis, Gr. Amarullis typical name for a pretty country girl in Theocritus, Virgil, and Ovid. amass omæ’s collect in a mass, heap up. xv. - (O)F. amasser i- Rom, * admassare, f. L . ad a d - -f- massa m a s s 3. amateur æ*m3tjuw, -tjuaj, æ*mot5j one who is fond of ; one who is not a specialist or professional, xviii. - F. - It amatore - L. amâiôrem, nom. -âtor^f. amàre, love. i

• n

amatory æ-matQri pert, to love-making. x v i. - L. amâtôrius, f. amâtor Ipver, f. amàt-, p p . stem o f amàre lo v e ; see - o r y . So a-matiVE d isp osed to : lo v in g , x v i i . - medL. \ amaurosis æm5 rou*sis (med.) loss of sight. xvii. modL. — Gr. amaurosis, f. amauroûn darken, f. amauros dark, dim. amaze dmei*z fstun, bewilder ^OE. ; over­ whelm with wonder xvi. OE. dmasian, pp. âmasod, -whence ME. amased; not fre­ quent till xvi; f. A-*-fbase *mas-, perh. as in Norw., Da. mase be busy or active (Norw. dial, masast lose consciousness), Sw. masa warm, refl. bask. Aphetic m a z e . A m azon æ*mozon one of a race o f female warriors, xrv. - L. Amàzon - Gr. Amaz&n, -duos, expl. by the Greeks as meaning ‘breastless* (as if 1* a- a -4+maz6s breast), but prob. of foreign origin. Hence AmazoniAN æmazou*nian. xvi. f. L. amazonius.

ambassador æmbæ-sadaj official messen­ ger of a sovereign or state, xrv. M E. ambass(i)atour, embassatour, -dour, later with different combinations of the vars. of the ini­ tial and final sylls. (am-, em-, im-, and •tour, tor, -dour, •dor) and alternations between -s-, -x- followed by a, e, or t; the present sp. ambassador, U.S. embassador, date from xvi. orig. - various Rom. forms, (O)F. ambassadeur, \ambaxateur, Pr. ambassador - It. ambasdator, Sp. ambajador ; all ult. resting on Rom. *ambactiâtârem (-or), f. *ambactiâre go on a mission, f. medL. ambactia, ambaxia (Salic and Burgundian Laws), f. Gertn. *ambaxta2 (Goth. andbahts, OE. ambeht servant, messenger, O H G. ambaht, G . amt) —L . ambactus servant, vassal (Ennius, Cæsar), a Gaulish word, mam-

bactos (cf. W. amaeth husbandman, serf), prob. f. *amb- around-f**ag- drive; see AMBI-, act; -or1. Cf. embassy. Hence amba*S8adress xvi; see - ess1 ; forms in -drice, -trix, -trice occur in xvii.

am ber æunbaj yellow fossil resin, xiv. M E. aumber - (O)F. ambre *= Pr., It. am­ bra, Sp. ambar, medL. ambar(e), ambrum - Arab. *anbar (orig.) a m b e r g r is , (later) am b er. In M E., OF. Vambre, w ith d ef. art. p refixed , was ad op ted as flamber (x iv ). am b ergris, -grease æ-mbajgris wax-like ashy-coloured substance, xv. — (O)F. ambre gris ‘grey amber* ; this is the orig. sense of amber, which was later used by some con­ fusion for the yellow resin ; this latter being afterwards distinguished in F. as ambre jaune yellow amber, ambergris received its distinctive designation of ‘grey*. Various early sp. show assim. to grease. (Milton has gris-amber.) am bi- æmbi L . ambi-, comb, form of ambô both = Gr. dmphô, corr., with variation of initial syll., to O S 1. oba, Lith. abù, Skr. ubhau, the second el. being repr. also in BOTH. •

am bid exter æ’mbidekstai able to use both hands equally, xvi. - late L. ambidexter, f. ambi- on both sides (see prec.) -4- dexter righthanded (cf. dexterous). (In xvii often ambo-, after L. ambô both.) So am bide*xtrous. xvii. am bient æ'mbiant moving or lying round. xvi. - F. ambiant or L. ambient-, -ëns, prp. o f ambire go round, f. amb-, ambi—f- ire go ; see - ent. Cf. itinerant. am biguous æmbi'gjuds of double meaning, xvi. f. L . ambiguus shifting, doubtful (whence F. ambigu), f. ambigere go round, wander about, argue, f. - amb- both ways -f agere drive ; see ambi-, act, -uous. So am biguity -jü-lti. xv. - (O)F. or L. am b it æ*mbit circuit, precincts, bounds, xvi. - L . ambitus circuit, compass, f. ambire (see

ambient).

am bition æmbi* Jon ardent desire to attain distinction or success, xrv. - (O)F. ambition - L . ambitiô(n-) going round to canvass citizens for votes, excessive desire to please, adulation, desire for honour or power, ostentation, f. ambit-, ambire go round (cf. ambient, ambit); see - ition . S o ambi*tious. xiv. - (O)F. or L. am ble æ*mbl sb. and vb. denoting distinc­ tive pace of a horse, xiv. - (O)F. amble sb. and its source ambler vb. - Pr. amblar (It. ambiare, Rum. umbla) L. ambuldre (pop. word) walk, f. amb- ambi- + base *el- go, repr. also in L . ex\ul exile. al\acer (see alacrity), W. el that he may go; cf. perambulate.

am bo æ*mbou pulpit, reading-desk. xvii. - medL. ambô(n-) - Gr. dmb&n ridge, rim, (medGr.) pulpit (Paulus Silentiarius vi).

bo]



AMBROSIA

AMICE

ambrosia æmbroirzia, -jia (Gr. myth.) fabled food of the gods. xvi. - L. ambrosia - Gr. ambrosia immortality, elixir of life, f. dmbrotos immortal, f. a- a-*+*mbrotos (brotos) mortal. So ambro-siAL immortal, divine, xvi. f. L. ambrosius - Gr. ambrôsios. ambs-ace, ames-ace æ-mzeis, ermzeis double ace (the lowest throw at dice), xm . r OF. ambes as :- L. ambo both, as ace ; see AMBI-, ACE. ambulance æ’mbjülans moving hospital accompanying an army ; vehicle to convey injured, xix. - F . ambulance (1796), replac­ ing hôpital ambulant (1762) ‘walking hos­ pital*, earlier hôpital ambulatoire (1637); F. ambulant - prp. of L. ambuldre walk; see AMBLE, -ANCE, -ANT. ambulatory æ’mbjübtori pert, to or adapted for walking; sb. a place (covered way) to walk in. xvn. - L. ambulàtôrius (in medL. ambuldtorium as sb.), f. ambuldt-, ambuldre walk ; see amble, -ory. ambuscade æmbAskerd ambush, xvi. - F. embuscade - It. imboscata or Sp. emboscaday Pg. embuscada, pp. deriv. of imboscare, etc.; in xvi-xv..1 also fambuscado; see AMBUSH, -ADE, -ADO. ambush æ*mbuj dispose troops, etc. so as to take an enemy by surprise. xiv. - OF. embusckier — It. imboscarey Sp. embuscar Rom. *imboscdre lit. ‘put in a wood*, f. in im-l +*boscus wood, bush. So a*mbush sb. xv. - OF. embuschey f. the vb. Earlier a*mbushMENT. xiv. - O F . embuschement. ameer, amir æmiau, æ*miaj ruler o f Scinde and Afghanistan, xix. - (through Pers. and Urdu) Arab, amir commander, f. amara tell, command. Formerly used for emir. amelcorn æ*m3lk5jn the larger spelt, French rice. xvi. - Du., G. amelkom, f. L. amylum ( - Gr. amulon) starch -\-horn corn. ameliorate amHiareit improve, xvm . Alteration of earlier meliorate after F. améliorer, refash, after L. melior of OF. ameillorery f. a- AD- -f meillorer, f. meilleur better. amen eimem, âme*n. xm . - ecclL. âmën - Gr. dmén - Heb. dmèn certainty, truth, f. dman strengthen, confirm; used advb. as in affirmation or ratification of what is said by another, ‘certainly’, ‘verily*, and taken into Christian liturgical use from the Bible (cf. Deut. xxvii 15-26, 1 Kings i 36) as a conclusion to prayers or confessions of faith. am en able omrnabl liable to be brought before any jurisdiction ; answerable or responsive (to), xvi. Earliest form amesnableypresumably - legal AN. *ame(s)nabley f. (O)F. amener bring to, f. a- AD -+ mener bring, lead (pop.) L. mindre drive (ani­ mals), for L . mindri threaten, f. minæ threats ; see menace, - able.

am en d 3me*nd tmend(clothes)xm (AncrR.) ; correct, reform, improve, xm . - (O)F. amender = Pr., Cat. amendar, It. ammendare !— Rom. *admenddre, alteration by prefixsubstitution of ëmendàre emend. Aphetic mend. So ame-ndMENT. xm (RGlouc.). - OF. amendement. ame*nds compensation for loss, etc. xm (Cursor M.). - O F. amendes pecuniary fine, penalties, pi. of amende reparation, f. amender. am enity amrnïti, -en- pleasantness, xiv. - (O)F. aménité or L . amcenitds, f. amcenus pleasant, rel. to amdre love. am e rce dmâ'js impose a fine on. xiv. M E. amercy - AN . amerciery orig. in estre amercié be placed at the mercy of another (as to the amount of a fine), f. phr. à merci at (the) mercy. S o ame-rceMENT. xiv. - A N . amerciment. am e*rciam ent. xv. - medL. amercidmentum, f. amercidrey latinization of AN . amercier. American ome'rikan pert, to America, xvi. - modL. Americanus, f. America, which appears first, as an alternative suggestion to Amerigeyin ‘Cosmographiae Introductio . . . Insuper quattuor Americi Vespucii nauigationes’, 1507; f. L. form, Americas Vesputius, of the name of the It. navigator Amerigo Vespucci (xv); see - an. Hence Ame-ricaniSM, AmericanizE xvm . A'xnerind, AmeruNDiAN xix. f ames-ace var. of ambs- ace. a m eth yst æ-mïjrist precious stone, xm . M E. amatist(e)y ametist - OF. amatiste, ametiste - L. amethystus - Gr. améthustosy sb. use (sc. llthos stone) of adj. f. a- a- 4+ *méthustosyf. methüskein intoxicate, f. mèthu wine, mead1 ; the stone was so named because it was supposed to prevent intoxica­ tion. In xvi thé sp. was remodelled with -th- after later F. and L. So a m e th y s tin e , xvn. - L. - Gr. ; see - ine1. am iable ermiabl friendly (no.w only of temper, etc.) xiv; flovable xiv; likeable xvm . - (O)F. amiable :- L. amicdbilemy -is friendly, amicable. Later infl. in sense by F. aimable lovable, likeable (OF. amable) 2L. amdbilemyf. amdre love ; see - ble . Hence amiaBDLiTY xix. (‘ It is quite painful to look at such terms as womanizedy amiability . . .*, ‘Edinburgh Review*, 1807, p. 439.) am ianthus æmiæ‘nî>3s variety of asbestos. xvn. - L. amiantus - Gr. amiantos, f. a- a- 4 *\-miainein defile; so called because it is freed from all stains by being thrown into fire. For the sp. with th cf. amaranth. (Earlier f amiant - F. amiante.) a m ica b le æ-mikobl friendly, xv. - late L . • amïcâbilis, f. L. amicus friend (rel. to amdre > love) ; see - able, amiable. am ice æ’mis (eccl.) linen vestment cover­ ing neck and shoulders, xv (xiv in Wycl. Bible tr. Vulg. amictus). Earlier antisyames(i) - medL. amiciay-isiat of obscure formation ; superseding the var. garnit (xiv) - O F. am t

[3*1

AMID (mod. amict) L. amictu-s outer garment, cloak, sb. use of pp. of amicire wrap round, f. am-, shortd. form of ambi-, am b-A*-icthrow (cf. inject). Formally not distinct from the word denoting the tippet or hood, usually ftrred, worn in choir (xv omisse of gris) - OF. aumusse, corr. to Pr. almussa, Sp. almucio (cf. mozzetta) - medL. almücia, -ium, which has the appearance of a formation with Arab, al-* (but no such Arab, form is known). The latter word is now often dist. as a lm a ce æ’imjüs with assim. to medL.

AMOUNT

wrong analysis of la munition the supplies (see munition ) as Vamunition. amnesia æmnrsia, -zia (path.) loss of memory, xix. - modL. - Gr. amnesia, f. aa- 4-f •»/«£- (base *men- *mon-\ see mind ). amnesty æ*rr.nîsti act of oblivion, authorita­ tive pardon of offences, xvi. — F. amnestie or L. amnèstia - Gr. amnëstiâ oblivion, f. dmnêstos not remembering, f. a- A- 4 + *mne- ; see prec. and -Y3. amnion æ-mnion (anat.) caul. xv ii . - modL. - Gr. amnion, dim. of amnôs lamb. amoeba amrba (zool.) microscopic animal­ amid amrd in the middle or midst of. OE. cule of the class Protozoa, the shape of which on middum, on middan, on midre, i.e. ON (in) is perpetually" changing, -xix. -m o d L . with obi. case of mid in concord with a sb. - Gr. amoibi change, alternation. ME. amidde (x iii ) was later extended with -s to amiddes, whence amrdst (xvi), by am œ bæ an æmibran alternately answering. addition of parasitic f, as in against. xvii . f. late L. amœhœus - Gr. amoibaios interchanging, f. amoibe ; see prec. and -AN. amide æ*maid (chem.) xix. f. am]monia + - ide. The present application, dating from am o n g oitlvîj in the midst of. OE. onge1863, differs from the original. So amine mang, -mong, i.e. on, gemang mingling, aeunain 1863 ; see - ine6. Cf. vitamin . assemblage, crowd (cf. gemengan minglf ), prop, a phi. used as a prep with dative ; later amir see ameer. ontnang, -mong, whence atnang, among ; cf. amidships amrdjips in the middle of the a -1. The simple OE. gemang was also used ship. xvii . Alteration, by assoc, with amii>, as a prep., later f Imong, aphetic mong, of midships (xvii), prob. of L G . origin (Du. which was freq. spelt fmong as if for among. midscheeps, f. mid mid , scheeps, g. of schip Extended with advb. -s to amonges x i i i , s h ip ; cf. G. mittschiffs). whence amongest, am on gst (xvi); cf. AMIDST, AGAINST. amiss ami-s erroneously, badly, x iii . ME. a mis, on mis, prob. - ON. d mist so as to Amontillado amontil’â'dou variety of miss or not to meet, i.e. d on, a- 1, mis, sherry", xix. Sp.t f. M outilla town in Spain, identical in form with the prefix mis- m is -1 after aframtscadv Frenchified, etc. and rel. to missa, missir loss, missa lose, amoral æmo'roî, eirmrral non-moral, xix miss 1, lienee adj. (R. Stevenson), f. a- 44 moral. amity æ'mïti friendliness, xv. - (O)F. amorce dmVjs cap for a toy pistol. \x. amitié = Pr., Cat. amistat, It. amislà, Pg. - (O)F. amerce, orig. amorst, sb. use of amizade Rom. *amïritâtem, -tas, f. ami­ fern. pp. of f amurdre bite on, attract, f. acus friend ; see amicable, - it y . AD-d mordre Uf. mordant). am m on ia amou'nia nitrogen hydride amorous a-msrr.' inclined to love; en­ xvni ; aqueous solution of this xix. - modL. amoured. xtv. - HF. amorous (mod. amou­ ammonia (Bergman, 1782', so named as reux) - med 1 /. amtjro' us, f amor love ; see -01 ;s. being obtained from sal ammoniac, L. sa! am o rp h o u s grnô-jfos shapeless, xvh i . f. ammôniacus. S o am m o nisc. xiv. ÎYrhYst modL. amotphu* - Cir. amorph e, f. a- a -4-P form armoniak - medL. arm-miacus, -vvt, rnorf hé shape M morviiia); see -OUS. alteration of ammôniacus, -urn - Gr. ammôniakôs, -kôn, applied as sb. to a salt and a a m o rt air-.*-.:? Eu* h.) lifeless, spiritless*. gum obtained from a ugion in I bya m r XV1 orig u i .■ .vi'vt - (with assim. to a il ) the temple of Jupiter Ammon (Amv-.ôn, C i. F. 0 / : t n o r r to the death; the unqualified (•.*V% ‘*•I i ? form of the name of the Egyptian deity apnvr * u apptarance of bc«ng Amitn). Also ammoniAC al æmônuivksl —K « %' m u -. xvni. am m onium amoumiam radical ,f »w:0 py* :• .it.y ileg.) aiiei. ve in moitsalts of ammonia. xi\\ - modL. omm oit , • 1. ..“-h fa Ji’ht) XIX f. t Berzelius, 1808), f. ammonia ; see - ium . :u. of (*• V-*F. a m o r t i t 1 ÜIf! ' ’ % 4 r ammonite armonait f >sd! M ier* [ Pr a h t - ’f i. ; • . hi o U > e t.-fn. * a d t n r,r iopods. xvni. -m o d i , an.ntômirs (Bru- ! : :re, f. .: /»ita , m o t . death f n c \*i Ai i '• ) * : gutère). f. medL. name cci nu A mm*,' *h is '.me to medL. ■ Im r ‘horn of Ammon’ giv n to these f > :ls f-mn - fori:., d f>M the Pom. , f \\ ~ 1 • < \T tht-ir resemblance to ihe invc luted. , , f• of » ' ? vi;. H ina- am ortizA *« *i Jupiter Ammon; see prec an i -ut •» a d , } < ■ > } x â t t ô . A' , , up as* end ; ris* t a

AMOUR Hence amou nt sb. xvm . amour smusu flove xin ; (illicit) loveaffair xvr (pi., Barbour). - (O)K. a m our s— L. am ôrem ynom. am or love, rel. to am dre vb. love. The F. word was reintroduced in xvi, when the early anglicized am our had become obs. or was replaced (temporarily) by the L. form am or (x u — xvn). Cf. paramour. ampère æ*mpedj unit of electric current, xix. f. name of André Marie Ampere, French physicist (d. 1836) ; adopted by the Congrès Électrique at Paris, 1881. abbrev. am p. ampersand æmpajsæmd xix. For and per se and, name of the character & as it appears at the end of the alphabet in a primer or hornbook ; ‘and (standing) bv itself, and’ ; see per . Current dial, in many var. forms, e.g. ampnssy (and)t ampusand, amsiatn. (‘O f all the types in a printer’s hand Commend me to the Ampersand’, Punch,T 7 April 1869.) am phi- ae*mfi repr. Gr. amphi-, prefix used in the senses of dmphô both , of both kinds, and amphi on both sides (of.) am p h ib iu m æmfrbiam creature that lives in water or on land. xvii . modL. (sc. a n im a l) - Gr. amphibion (sc. zôion), sb. use of n. of adj. amphibios (bios life; see quick ); pi. Amphi’bia division of animals variously defined since Linnaeus xvm. So amphi*-^ blAN, -ious XVII. am p h ib ole æ*mfiboul fambiguity xvii ; (min.) hornblende, so named by 1 iaüy, 1801, on a :count of the protean variety of its composition. - F. - L. -b o lu m -iji. -bolon (ballein throw). amphibo*LOGY amphiboly, xiv (Ch.). - (O)F. - late L. (-bologiat for h.-bolia, whence am phi-holy xvi). a mphibrach -braçk metrical foot O V. I xvi. - L. -yst -us ‘short at both ends’ - Gr. amphibrakhus (cf. brachy-). amphimacer aemfrmasaj (pros.) metrical foot xvi. — L. amphimacrus - Gr. amphimakros (sc. pous foot) long at both ends (makros long; cf. magnitude). am phisbæ na æmfisbrna fabled serpent writh a head at each end. xvi. L. - Gr. amphisbaina, f. amphis at both ends, amphi+ base of bainein go (cf, come). amphitheatre æmifiphtaj oval or circular building built round, an arena xiv. - L. amphithedtrum - Gr. amphithédtron ; see amphi-, theatre. S o F. amphithéâtre. am p h o ra armfaro two-handled vessel ; liquid measure xvii (cited earlier as L. ; and anglicized f a m jor, fa m fe r , or - F. am p hore). L. - Gr. amphoreuSy for #a m p h ip h o t eus lit. ‘borne on both sides’, f. a m p h i - amphi— (mp h o r - * p h e r - bear8. am p le æ*mpl spacious, copious, quite enough. xV. - (O)F. ample - L. amplus. So amplivTiON enlargement xvi. a-mpliFY xv. a*mplificA*TiON*. xvi; (rhet.) tr. Gr. avisais. a*mpÜTUDE. ampi.Y* armpli. xvi. am p u lla æmpu*L vessel for holy oil, etc. xvi (earlier umpul(le) xii - (0)1 L., twoparamount.

ANA handled big-bellied flask or pot, dim. of amporay var. of amphora. am p u tate æ*mpjuteit lop or cut off. xvii. f. pp. stem of L. amputdret f. am- for ambaround, ambi- 4-putdre prune, lop ; see - ate8. So amputA*TiON. xvii. - F. or L. am u ck , am ok 3mA*k in frenzied thirst for blood ; also fig. xvii . - Malay dmoq fighting furiously, in homicidal frenzy. Appears first in xvi in forms (pi. amochyt amocchi> amouchi) repr. Pg. amoucOy amucot in the sense of ‘frenzied Malay* ; otherwise chiefly in phr. run amuckt also (wrongly divided) a mucky w'hence the treatment of muck as a sb., e.g. ‘to run an Indian muck* (Dryden). am u let æ*mjùlét object worn as a charm. xvii . - F. amulette - L. amulêtum (Varro) ; a proposed .Arabic origin is unsupported. am u se omjCuz fbeguile, delude xv; fdistract, bew’ilder; divert with entertaining matter xv ii . - (O)F. amuser fdeceive, enter­ tain, f. à AD--f muser muse1 (which is earlier) ; recorded only occas. before 1600 (not in Sh.). amu'seMENT. xvii. - F. am ygdaloid amygdaloid almond-shaped ; rock containing almond-shaped nodules. x v jii . f. Gr. amugddlê almond-f-OiD. am y l- æ*mil (chem.) f. L. am\ylum starch (- Gr. a'mulon) -f-YL. an 1 an, (emph.) æn reduced form of OE. an one, due to loss of stress ; now a var. of A1 retained before vowel sounds and before unstressed syllables having initial (h) (e.g. an historical) and occas. before (j), as an uniqueyand arch, in such an one. a n 1 an reduced form of and, recorded from xii and in colloq. use since then. For for sense ‘if* (x iii ) see and. a n -1 an assim. form of ad- before n ; cf. ac-. a n -8 an, æn repr. Gr. privative an- not, without, lacking, orig. form of A-4 retained before vowels, as in words taken from Gr., e.g. anarchyt anonymous, and hence in mod. technical terms, e.g. aruilgestCy anallagmatic, analphabetic, anharmonic, anhydroust anisomerous. -an an repr. L. -ânust -dna, -dnum of or belonging to, as in urbdnus urban, f. urbs city, 'silvdnus silvan, f. silva wood. The F. form -ain, -aine was at first retained in some adoptions, but was later superseded by -an. In german yge^maney human, humaney urban, urbanet there is differentiation of meaning by the use of different forms of the suffix. See also - ean, - ian. ana 1 æ*na xiv, medL. - Gr. and ana-, used in recipes for ‘of each, of every one alike*. a n a 2 ci*na, Tuna collection of miscellaneous w ritings or sayings of or concerning a per. son. xvm . A detached use (prob. after F.) of L. -druiy n. pi. of -anus - an, used in titles of such collections, more usu. in -iansi, e.g. ‘Scaligeriana, sive exccrpta e*: ore Josephi Scaligeri’ (1666).

ANARCHY

ANACîiîi- æ-na» onæ\ before a vowel a n - æn, m repr. Gr. and up (in place or time), back, cgain, anew (see on ), as in Anabaptist, analysis, anatomy. '.nahaptist æn?bæ*ptiî>c one who reaptizes (German sect) ; Baptist xvi. - F. a lubaptiste or modL. anabaptista, f. eccJL. i rabaptismus (Augustine), ecdGr. anabdptii ma, f anabaptizdre, anabaptisein \ sec* ANA-, BAPTIZE, - 1ST. Anabasis onæ’basis military advance (^pec. that of Cyrus the Younger into Asia, related by Xenophon), xvm - Gr. arAbasis ascent, ■. nabainein walk up ; see ana-, BASIS. an ach ron ism anæ’kmnizm chronological error or discrepancy, xvn. - F. anachro*tisme or Gr. anakhronùm*ïs, f. anakhronizestkai refer to a wrong time, f. and back -f khrànos time ; see ana-, chronic, - ism . unacoluthon ænakôUü’^on lack of gram­ matical sequence, xvm . - late L. - G r. ana holouthon, n. sg. of adj. ‘lacking sequence*, f. an-1-f-akdlouthos following (cf. acolyte). anaconda ænakomda large S. American boa. xvm . First applied to an alleged large snake of Ceylon, app. as an (unexpl.) altera­ tion of anacandaia (Ray 1693), which is for Sinhalese henacanddya ‘lighting-stem*, whip-snake; by some blunder transf. by Daudin to the aquatic boa Eunectes murinus (Boa ariacondo). an acreon tic onækriomtik resembling the poems of the Greek lyric poet Anacreon (vi B.c.) ; also sb. xvii (Cowley). - late L . anacreonticus, f. Gr. Anacreont-, Anacréon ; see -ic. an acru sis ænakrü-sis (pros.) introductorysyllable^) at the beginning of a line. xix. - modL. - Gr. andkrousis prelude, f. ana kroûein, f. and up, ana - -f- kroûein strike. anadem æ*nadem wreath, xvii (Drayton). - L. anadema - Gr. anadêma head-band, f. ana dein, f. and up, ana- -f detn bind (cf. djadem). anadromous anardramas (zool.) ascend­ ing rivers to spawn. xvm . f. Gr. anddromos, f. and up, AtiA--j-drom-, as in dromos course (dramein, corr. toSkr. drdmati run); see -ous. anaemia anrmia morbid lack of blood, xix. - modL. - Gr. anaimid, f. an- a-**F haima blood (cf. hæmato-). Hence anœ*mic. xix. anaesthesia ænîspi'zio loss of feeling or sensation, xix. — modL. - Gr. anaisthêsid, f. an- A-*+ aisthesis sensation, f. base of aisthdnesthai feel, perceive, rel. to aiein hear, L. audire (see audience). So anaes­ th etic -pe*tik. xix. f. Gr. anaisthêtos insensible (cf. æsthetic ). Both introduced by Oliver Wendell Holmes in 1846. Hence anaesthetiST, - ize ænï-spïtist, -aiz. xix. anaglyph æmaglif embossed ornament. x v ii . - Gr. anagluphé work in low relief, f. and ana- -\-glüphein carve (cf. cleft ). an agogic ænago*d3ik mystical, xiv (Wycl. Bible ; rare before xvii) (of biblical exegesis). *

- medL. anagôgicus - Gr. anagogikos, f. anagôgë (religious or ecstatic) elevation, mystical sense, f. andgein lift up, elevate, f. an- ana--\~dgein lead (cf. act) ; see -ic. So anagO’giCAL. xvi (Tindalc). anagram æ*nogræm transposition of the letters of a word or phrase to make a new one. xvi. - F. anagramme — modL. anagramma, f. Gr. and ana—b grdmma letter (see grammar), after anagramrr.atizein transpose letters. anal ei*nal see anus. analects æmolekts iiterarv gleanings, xvii . - L. analecta - Gr. andiekta (n. pi.) thmgs gathered up, f. analègein, f. and up, ANA--r légein gather (cf. collect). analogue æ*nabg analogous word, thing, etc. xix . - F. analogue - Gr. andlogon (used in Eng. somewhat earlier), sb. use of n.sg. of andlogos (f. and-f logos ratio, proportion), whence, through L. analogus, analogous anæ-bgos similar, parallel, xvn. See ANA-, LOGIC. analogy anæ*bd3i proportion xv ; simi­ larity, parallelism xvii . - (O)F. analogie or L. analogia - Gr. analogid equality of ratios, proportion (orig. math.), f. andlogos ana­ logous. So analogic ænab*d3ik xvii , analo giCAL xvi. f. F. analogique or L. analogicus - Gr. analogikôs< analyse æmalaiz fdissect ; ascertain the elements of; examine minutely, xvn. First recorded in the title ‘The Phoenix Analysde* (1601), by B. jonson : perh. orig. f. f analyse, Canalise (xvii-xvm ), anglicized form of analysis, and later infl. by F\ analyser. Early forms such as analize, analyze show assimn. to verbs in - iz e ; the second of these forms prevails in U.S. So analyst æ*nalist. xvii. - F. analyste, f. analyser, by assocn. with pairs in -iser, -iste (- ize, - ist ). analysis anseriisis resolution into elements, xvi. - medL. analysis - Gr. andlusis, f. analüein unloose, undo, f. and up, back, ana- + lüein loose, an alytic ænali-tik. xvi. - late L . analyticus — Gr. analutikds, f. analüein ; earliest use as sb. pi. (title of Aristotle's treatise on logic). Also analytiCAL. xvi. ananas anà-næs pine-apple, An an assa sativa. xvi. - F. or Sp. ananas, anana - Guarani andnd fruit of the tree, under which name it was first described by André Thevenet in 1535. anapaest æmapîst (pros.) the foot ^ ^ . xvii (earlier in L. form). - L . anapæstus - Gr. andpaistos reversed, lit. ‘struck back* (sc. pods foot), f. and a n a - f paiein strike; so called because it is the dactyl (—ww) reversed. So anapaestic. x v n .- la t e L .- G r . anaphora anæ'fara (rhet.) repetition xvi; (liturg.) Eucharistic canon xvm . — L . — Gr. anaphord carrying back, repetition (Longi­ nus), offering (LX X ), f. anaphérein carry up or back, f. and ana--Fpkérein bear1. anarchy ærnàjki absence of government, xvi. - medL. anarchia - Gr. anarkhid, f.

[34]

ANARTHROUS

ANCIENT

dnarkhos without a chief or head, f. anA-l + arkhos leader (cf. arch-); so (O)F. anarchie. Hence ana-rchic xvin, - ical xvi ; cf. F. anarchique, anarch æ-nâik leader of revolt, xvii (Milton). - Gr. dnarkhos. anarchiSM, - ist . xvii ; in more recent use dependent on F. gnarchisme, -iste. anarthrous ænà*j)?n>s (gram.) used with­ out the article, xix. f. Gr. an- a - x+drthron joint, definite article (see arm1) 4 -ous. anastatic ænostæ*tik printed from plates in relief, xix. f. Gr. andstalos, ppl. forma­ tion on anasta-, anistdnai set up, f. and up, KXA-+*Sta- (cf. STAND, STATIC). anastomosis anæstÔmou*sis cross con­ nexion of arteries, etc. xvi. modL. — Gr. anastomosis, f. anastomoûn furnish with a mouth or outlet, f. and ana- 4- stoma mouth (cf. stomach) ; see -osis. anathema znæ’pïma curse; accursed thing, xvi. - ecclL. anathema excom­ municated person, sentence of excom­ munication - Gr. anathema thing offered or devoted, (later spec.) thing devoted to evil, accursed thing (see Rom. ix 3); orig. var. of anathema offering, f. anathe-, anatithénai set up, f. and up, ana- -f tithénai place (see do1). So ana-thematiZE. xvi. - F. - ecclL. - Gr. anatomy anæ’tami dissection of the body ; science of organic structure ; fskeleton. xiv (in early use often anath-, anoth~). - F. anatomie —late L. anatomia — Gr. anatomid, f. and up, ana- 4 *tom- cut (cf. - tomy ). 'I'hrough identification of an- with the indef. art. a1, an1, aphetic forms natomy, atomy, otamy came into use, esp. in the sense ‘skeleton*; e.g. ‘Thou atomy, thou!* (Sh. ‘2 Hen. IV* v iv 33), ‘withered atomies of teaspoons* (Dickens). So ana*tomiST. xvi. — F. -iste or medL. *anatomista, i. *anatomizdre, whence ana*tomiZE. xvi. anbury, ambury æ*n-, aeunbori tumour in cattle ; disease of turnips, etc. xvi. perh. f. ang- in OE. angnægl agnail, angseta carbuncle, pimple 4 berry in the sense of red mark or pustule; cf. Sc. pangilberry (xvi), north, dial, angleberry. -an ce ans suffix repr. F. -ance L. -antia, f. -ant- - ant 4 -ia -Y8. Through such pairs as appear, appearance, it became to some extent a living suffix and was appended to vbs. of non-Rom. origin, e.g. forbear, for­ bearance, hinder, hindrance, rid, riddance, utter, utterance. Cf. - ancy. ancestor æmsistai, -ses- forefather, xin. Early forms are of three types : (i) auncetre, surviving xvii in latinized sp. auncitor ; (ii) ancestre, antecedent of the present form through ancestour, by assim. to -tour, - to r ; (iii) ancessour (rare). - OF. ancestre (mod. ancêtre) orig. nom. L. antecëssor, and OF. ances(s)our acc. L. antecëssorem pre­ decessor (cf. Pr. ancestre, ancessor), f. antecëdere precede, f. ante before 4 cêdere go

(cf. cede). M F. antécesseur was also repr. by f antecessor (xv-xix). So a ’ncestRY descent, line of ancestors, xiv. Modifica­ tion, after ancestre, of OF. ancesserie, f. ancessour ; see -Y8, -RY. a n ch o r1 æ’ qkaj appliance for mooring a vessel to the bottom. OE. ancor, -er, ancra - L . ancora — Gr. dgküra (see angle 1). The L . word was adopted early in the L G . area, hence it passed eastwards and north­ wards; cf. OFris., (M )LG., (M )Du. anker, late O H G. anchar (G. anker), O N . akkeri. The OE. word was reinforced in M E. by (O)F. ancre (= It., Pr., etc. ancora). The present sp. follows corrupt L . anchora. So a*nchor vb. xm . -(O )F . ancrer, m edL. ancorare. Hence a*nchorAGE xvii ; after F. ancrage. a n ch o r2 æ'qkaj (arch.) anchorite. OE. ancra, ancor, -er - OIr. anchara, shortened - ecclL. anachorëta anchorite ; used by Sh. (‘Hamlet* m ii 229). Hence anchor-hold anchorite’s retreat xvii ; see hold *. Hence a-nchoress, a ncress xiv ; see - ess1. anchorite, anchoret æ-qkarait, -et reli­ gious recluse occupying a cell. xv. — medL. anc(h)orïta, ecclL. anchorëta - ecclGr. anakhôrëtês, f. artakhôreîn retire, retreat, f. and back, AXA--\-khôreîn give place, withdraw, f. khôrâ, khôros space, place. (Cf. F. ana­ chorète.) Superseded anchor*. an ch ovy æmtfouvi, æmtjavi small fish of the herring family, xvi (Sh.). Earlier forms usu. pi. anchoves, anchovas, anckioves, later anchovees. — Sp., Pg. anchova. anchoa (It. acciuga, dial, anciova) ; has been supposed to be î - Rom. *apiu(v)a — Gr. aphüë some small fish ; but G. anschovis (- Du. ansjovU) has been referred to Basque anchu. (F. anchois is — modPr. anchoio — Sp.) anchusa ænkjCrza, æntjirza boraginaceous plant alkanet. - L. anchüsa (Pliny) - G r. dgkhousa (Theophrastus), égkhousa (Aristo­ phanes). anchylosis asijkilou’sis formation of a stiff joint, xvin. - modL. - Gr. agkülôsis, f. agkuloûn crook, f. agkulos crooked ; see -osis. The normal repr. of the G r. form would be *ancylosis ; h has been inserted to denote the &-sound (cf. F. ankylosé). Hence, . by back-formation, a-nchylose vb. x v m ; prob. after F. ankyloser. ancient1 ernjant of times long past, very old xiv ; sb. xiv. ME. auncien, -ian - A N . auncien, (O)F. ancien, corr. to Pr. ancian, Sp. anciano, It. anziano, repr. Rom. *antidnu-s, *antednu-s, f. ante before, ante- 4 -anus -AN. The addition of homorganic t to final n (xv) is paralleled in pageant, pheasant, tyrant, and the pronunc. of the first syll. in angel, chamber, change, manger. Hence a ncientRY. xvi. fa n c ie n ty . xiv. - A N . auncienté, (O)F. ancienneté; see -Y8. ancient* eimjant. xvi. (arch.) corruption of ensign by assocn. of such forms as ensyne with ancien, ancient 1 ; in senses (i) standard

[ 35 ]

\NCILLARY

ANGEL

xvi and (ii) standard-beaier xvi (Sh.), for memoirs ( v i i ) of the private life of th e f ancient-bearer. Emperor Justinian and Theodora. Hence a-necdotAGE anecdotes collectively xix ancillary æmsitari subsidiary. xvn. - L. (De Quincey); garrulous old age xix (attri­ anciîîâris, f. ancilla handmaid, fem. dim. of buted to John Wjikes) assoc, with d o t a g e . anculus servant; see - ary. Cf. capillary . a n e le onifl (arch.) anoint, xiv. f. an-, OE. ancona ænkoirno altar-piece consisting of on- - f ME. elien, f. OE. ele - L. oleum o i l . panels, xix. - It., medL. ancona, prob. Preserved in unaneled not having received - Gr. eikôna, acc. of eikon image, icon , perh. extreme unction (Sh. ‘Hamlet’ 1 v 77). blended with Gr. ankon (modGr. ankôné) corner, sacred images being often at street a n e m o - æmimou, ænimo* repr. anemo-, comers in Italy. comb, form of Gr. anemos wind, rel. to a n im u s ; e.g. anem o-M ETER x v i i i . -a n cy ansi repr. L. -antia - ance. a n e m o n e sne’m^ni genus o f ranunculaand and, an, n, (cmph.) ænd along with, ceous plants (the flowers were said to open in addition to. OE. and, ond, corr. to Ol'ris. under the influence of wind) xvi ; name of and(a), ande, end{a), en, OS. ande, endi certain bright-coloured zoophytes with (Du. en), OH G. anti, cnti, inti, unti (G. und), expanded disks x v i i i . - L. anemone - Gr. and Skr. dtha (:- *ntha) thereupon, also. anemone, f. anemos wind (cf. a n im a t e ) + (OE. ænd, end, showing mutation, if it sur­ suffix -one. It has been suggested that the vived, would, owing to lack of stress, co­ Gr. word is an etymologizing perversion of incide with and\ see an2.) Connexion with Heb.-Aram. Na'amdn, name of Adonis, OE. and- (as in andszvaru answer), ON. from whose blood the plant was fabled to ami-, Goth, anda-, and Skr. anti over against, have sprung. Gr. anti against, L. ante before, and OE. endc end, etc. is no longer gen. accepted. a n e n t anemt fin company with OE. ; A special development of meaning is that ffacing, towards; concerning xiv. OE. of ‘if’ (xm), which was a common use also phr. on efen, efn. or emn, M E. onevent, o f M H G. unde; it may have arisen out of anont, anentes, (dial.) anenst, from xiv anent ; such constructions as OE. gelice and just as i.e. ON, efen even, on a level (w ith), side by if, and have been reinforced from Scand. side (with), beside, opposite, against, to­ (cf. ON. enda and if, even if, en if). Now usu. wards, in view of ; = OS. an eban, M H G . spelt an, arC in this sense; formerly often enehen, nebent, (also mod.) neben. T he coupled with if, whence dial, nif, for an if. suffix -es, -s and parasitic / appear c. 1200. andante ændæmti (mus.) moderately slow, a n e r o id æ-naroid kind of barometer, xviii. It., prp. of arniare go *ambitdre, xix. - F. anéroïde, f. Gr. a- a -* + nerds wet, alteration of L. ambulâre (cf. amble). S o damp -oide - o id (used arbitrarily) ; so andantino -i-nou. xix. called because the pressure of the air is not measured by means of a column of fluid. andiron æ*ndai;un fire-dog. xiv. ME. aundyre, aundyrne, -erne - OF. andier (mod. a n e u r y s m , a n e u r i s m æmjurizm morbid landier for Vandier) with assimn. of the dilatation of an artery, xv. - Gr. aneiisecond svll. to iron (ME. ire, irett) ; ult. rusma dilatation, f. aneurdnein widen out, origin unkn. Cf. -\landiron (xv-xvn). f. and ana- -f* euribtein v/iden, f. earus wide. Cf. F. anènrisme. The unetymological sp. androgynous ændra-djinas hermaphro­ with i is the commoner. dite; spec, in bot. xvii. f. L. androgynus - Gr. androgunos male and female in one, a n e w anjü* flately, recently; afresh, xiv. f. andro-, aner man, male (f. base meaning M E. of nerve, of the nerve, o nerve, i.e. o f , a - 2, ‘strong’) -\-gunê woman, female (cf. quean) ; Ne w , prob. after OF. de neuf, de nouveau, see -ous. Also androgyne æ-ndrod.^ain L . dé novô ; replacing OE. niwe, nirvan, hermaphrodite xvi ; androgynous plant ednirve, ednitvan newly, recently (OMercian x v iii . - (O)F. androgyne - L. ofniovee, tr. L. dènuô, is isolated). The form aneio was established xvi. -a n e 1 see - an. a n f r a c t u o s i t y æ:nfræktjuo*sîti circuitous-a n e 2 ein (chem.) in the systematic nomen­ clature of Hofmann (1866), the termination . ness, intricacy, xvi. - F. anfractuosité, f. late L. anfractudsus winding, f. L . anfractus for names of the hydrocarbons called paraf­ bending,' f. anfract-, pp. stem of anfringere, fins, e.g. ethane ; devised to introduce with a f. amb- AMBi- - f frangere b r e a k . So a n f r a c ­ the vowel series already in vogue, -ene, -ine, tuous circuitous xvn ; cf. F. anfractueux. -o«c(repr. Gr. -ênë, -inc, -ônê), in the nomen­ clature of other classes of hydrocarbons. a n g a r y æ*rjgori right of a belligerent to use or destroy neutrals’ property, xix. - F. anecdote æmikdout f (pi.) secret history xvii ; story of a detached incident x v iii . i angarie - It. angaria - late L. angaria forced service — Gr. aggareid office of an dngaros orig. pi. — inodL. anecdota (or its dcriv. F. anecdotes) —Gr. anëkdota things unpub- j (Persian word, perh. rel. to dggelos a n g e l ) mounted courier liable to be impressed for lished, n. pi. oîanékdotos, f. an- A- A-\~ékdotos, carrying royal dispatches; see -Y3. f. ekdidônai publish, f. ek out-\~didonai give (see donation). Derived primarily from the angel erndsal messenger of God ; guardian title Anékdota of Procopius’ unpublished | spirit XII ; in full angel noble, gold coin w ith *

ANIMADVERT

ANGELICA

A n g lo - æqgloumod. comb, form of L. Anglus E nglish , as in modL. Anglo-Americanus xvm , Anglo-puriianus xvi ; so AngloMA*nia mania for what is English xvm , after F. anglomanie’, AnglopHO*BiA xix; Anglo-American, Anglo-Catholic, AngloIrish, Anglo-Norman or -French variety of French current in England in the Middle Ages, Anglo-S axon. A nglo-Saxon æqglousæ'kson. xvii (P. Holland, tr. Camden’s ‘Britannia’). - modL. Anglo-Saxones pi. (see prec.), for medL. Angli Saxones (Paulus Diaconus, v iii ) designation of Continental origin for the ‘English Saxons* in distinction from tnc ‘ Old Saxons’ of the Continent; after OE. Angulseaxe, -seaxan, in hybrid form Angulsaxones. angostura æqgastjua’ ra bark used as a febrifuge and tonic, xvm (also angustura). f. name of a town on the Orinoco, S. America, now called Ciudad Bolivar. angry ae*ijgri see anger. anguish ae*i]gwij severe bodily or mental suffering, xm . - OF. anguisse (mod. angoisse) = Pr. angoisa, It. angoscia •— L. angustia straitness, pi. straits, distress, f. angustus narrow, tight, f. *ar)gh- in L. angere, Gr, dgkhein squeeze, strangle, OE. enge, OS., OH G. engi (G. enge), ON. çngr, Goth, aggwus narrow, and ON . angr (see anger). For the development -ish cf. - ish 2. angular æ’ qgjülai sharp-cornered, pert, to an angle, xv. - L . anguldris, f. angulus angle2; see - ar and cf. F. angulaire. anhungered anlwijgajd (arch, or obs.) hungry, xiv. Alteration of ahungered by substitution of an- A-1 for of- A-2. Hence fanhu-ngry. xvii (Sh.). anhydrous ænhardras (chem.) haying no water in its composition, xix. f. Gr. anüdros, f. an- a-* + hudr-, hüdôr water ; see -ous. anigh anai* (arch.) near. xvm . f. nigh , after afar ; cf. ME. aneh. anight onai*c (arch.) at or by night, xm . M E. a niht, OE. on niht, i.e. on, n ig h t ; cf. a-1. So ani*ghts. xv. anil æ*nil indigo plant ; indigo dye. xvi (anele, -ile, anill). — F. or Pg. anil —Arab. an-nil, i.e. al al- 2, Arab.-Pers. nil - Skr. mli indigo (nila dark blue) nil 1. Cf. lilac. anile ei*nail, æ*nail old-womanish, xvii . - L. anilis, i. anus old woman ; see - ile . aniline æ*nilain chemical base, the source of many dyes. xix. - G. anilin (C. J. Fritzsche, 1841); see anil, - in e 4. anim advert æ:nimædvô*jt to observe xvi ; pass criticism on xvii. - L. animadvertere, i.e. animum advertere turn the mind to (ad ad-, vertere (turn; see -wrARD. So anglicism æ*qglisizm English feature or a:n im ad ve rsiON. xvi. - L. or F. The idiom, x v ii . f. L. Anglicus; see prec. and unfavourable meaning seems to be due to - is m . Hence F. anglicisme. ISo a*ngliciZE assoc, with L. advenus adverse. xvm ; earlier (rare) f anglize x v ii (Fuller).

a figure of the archangel Michael xv. - OF. attgele = Pr. angel, It. angelo — ecclL. an­ gélus - Gr. dggelos messenger. Superseded OE. engel e#i)gel (which survived till xm ) == OFris. angel, engel, OS. engil, O H G . angil, engil (Du., G . engel), ON. engill, Goth. aggilus ; CGerm. - ecclL. angelus (in Goth, perh. immed.- Gr.); one of the earliest Germ, adoptions from L. Hence angelic ænd3e*lik xv. - (O)F. - late L. - Gr. ange-liCAL. xvi. angelica ænd3e*lika aromatic plant used in cooking, etc. xvi. -m e d L ., short for herba angelica ‘angelic plant’, so named on account of its reputed efficacy against poison and pestilence. angelus æ-ndsïlas devotional exercise com­ memorating the Incarnation, x v i i . Named from the first word of the first sentence, ‘Angelus Domini nuntiavit Mariæ’ the angel of the Lord brought tidings to Mary. anger æ*ijgaj ^distress, vex x i i (Orm); excite to wrath xiv. - O N . angra grieve, vex, f. angr grief, f. base *aijg- narrow, repr. also by ON. çngr, Goth, aggzvus, and OE. enge, OS., OH G. engi (Du., G. eng) narrow ; rel. to L. angere (see a n g u ish ). Hence anger sb. ftrouble, affliction ; hot dis­ pleasure. xiil. (Rare ME. ange (Orm) was a direct adoption of ON. angr.) Hence a*ngry ftroublesome ; troubled ; enraged xiv ; see -Y1. angina (prop.) æ*nd3ina, (usu.) ænd3ai*n9 fquinsy xvi ; short for angina pectoris ‘spasm of the chest’ xvm . - L . angina quinsy - Gr. agkhônë strangling, with assim. to angere (see a n g u ish ). angio-, first el. in many scientific terms, repr. Gr. aggeîon vessel, receptacle, dim. of dggos (agge-) chest, box. angle1 æ’ rçgl fishing-hook. OE. ang-d = OS., OHG. angul (G. angel), ON. çngull; f. Germ. marjg- (whence OE. anga sting, goad, M H G. ange fish-hook, hinge); cf. next. Hence a-ngle vb. fish for. xv. anglER1 xvi. angle 2 æ’Qgl space between two meeting lines or planes, xiv (Ch.). - (O)F. angle or L. angulu-s comer, dim. of mangus (cf. Gr. dgkos bend, agkülos bent, arched, dgküra ANCHOR1). A ngle æ*i]gl one of a L G . tribe that settled in Britain, xvm . - L. Anglus, pi. Angli, in Tacitus Anglii - Germ. *Arjgli- (whence O E. Engle\ cf. E nglish ) the people of Angul district of Slesvig so called from its shape (mod. Angeln), the same word as a n g le 1. Hence A*ngliAN. xvm . A n glican ae'qgiikan pert, to the Church of England, x v i i . - medL. Anglicânus (Anglicana ecclesia in ‘Magna Carta’), f. Anghcus, f. Anglus A n g l e ; see - ic , - an . Hence E .anglican.



[37]

ANNOY

ANIMAL æ-nimal now )( vegetable, mineral, (i) As adj. of limited use before xvi as with virtue, spirit; first in late ME. (xiv, Ch., Trev.) and applied to the faculties of sensa­ tion and intelligence )( vital and natural, a use fossilized in phr. animal spirits (orig.) principle of sensation or volition, (now) healthy vivacity, natural gaiety. - (O)F. animal, or L. animalis, in medL. bestial, f. anima vital breath; see a n i m a t e and - a l 1. (ii) As sb. (xiv, Trev.) ult. - L. animal, for animale, sb. use of n. of the adj. In attimal kingdom, after F. règne animal, the word is felt to be rather an attrib. use of the sb. Hence a * n im a liS M . xix (Carlyle). a n im a lc u le ænimæ'lkjül ft iny animal ; (biol.) microscopic animal, xvi. -m o d L . animalculum (whence also F. animalcule), dim. of animal ; s e e prec. and - c u l e . The L. form was formerly in Eng. use, with pi. animalcula, often irreg. animalculæ. a n i m a t e œ*nimeit give life to. xvi. f. pp. stem (see - a t e *) of L. animdre quicken, f. anima air, breath, life, soul, rel. to animus spirit, Gr. dnemos wind, Skr. dniti breathe, and in Germ, to ON. andi, çnd soul, spirit, Goth, usjanan breathe out. So a * n im A T E 2 endowed with life xv; )( i n a n i m a t e , a n i m A 'T IO N . xvi. - L. a n im o s ity œ n im o *sïti f s p ir it e d n e s s xv ; a c tiv e e n m it y xvn. - F. animosité o r la te L. animosités, f. animôsus s p ir ite d , f. animus

ann ates æ*neits first year’s revenue of benefice or see. xvi (in Sc. use in sg. form annat, -et). - pi. of F. annate - medL. anndta year’s space, work, or proceeds (whence F. année year), f. annus year (see a n n u a l ) - f -dta, pp. fern, ending used t o form sbs. a n n e a l onrl fkindle O E .; ffuse, fire xiv; bum in colours, temper, etc. with fire xv. OE. onælan, f. on+ælan kindle, bum, bake, f. dl fire, burning; rel. to æl(e)d fire, burn­ ing = OS. êld, ON. eldr *ailiÔaz. Aphetic (dial.) neal (xvi). a n n e l i d amalid (zool.) red-blooded worm, xix. - F. annélide or modL. annelida, n. pi. f. F. annelés ‘ringed animals’ (Lamarck, 1801), pp. of anneler, f. OF. annel (mod. anneau) ring L . armellu-s for dnellu-s, dim. of dnulus ; see ANNULAR, -ID . an n ex1. æ*neks something annexed xvi ; supplementary building (usu. annexe) xix. - F. annexe - L. annexum, sb. use of pp. of annectere (see next). annex* ane’ks join, add, attach, xiv. - (O)F. annexer, f. annex-, pp. stem of L . annectere, f. ad a n - + nectere bind (cf. n e x u s ). So annexA-TiON. xv (first in Sc.). - medL. an n ih ilate anai*(h)ileit bring to naught, xvi. Superseded fannihil - (O)F. annihiler - late L. annikildre (f. ad a d - -f nihil nothing, n i l ), from the pp. of which was derived the pp. f annihilate (xiv), whence the inf. form ; see - a t e *. So annihilA’TiON. x v i i . - F. a n n i v e r s a r y æniv5 'jsari sb. yearly return of a date, or its celebration xm (AncrR.) ; adj. xv. - L. anniversdrius, f. annus year-p versus turning-f -drius ; used sb. in medL. anmversdria (sc. dies day) and anniversdrium (sc. festum feast) ; cf. (O)F. anniversaire and see a n n u a l , v e r s e , - a r y . A n no D o m in i æ*nou do-minai in the year of the Lord, i.e. of the Christian era xvi ; (joc.) advancing age xix. L., abl. of annus year, and g. of dominas lord; see a n n u a l

a n im a l

s p ir it, m in d ; se e p r e c . a n d - o s i t y . a n im u s

æ *n im a s h o s tile s p ir it, s p ir it ; s e e a n i m a t e .

xix. - L.

animus a n i o n ærnaion (electr.) electro-negative ele­ ment. xix (Faraday). - Gr. anion, n. prp. of aniénai go up. a n i s e æ*nis umbelliferous plant with aro­ matic seeds, xm . - (O)F. anis L. antsum - Gr. dnison, prob. of foreign origin. Hence a * n i s e e d seed of this, xiv (annes, aneys sede), a n k l e , a n c l e æ*i)kl joint connecting the foot with the leg. xiv (ankel). - ON. *ankul- (OSw. ankol, Olcel. çkkla), corr. to OFris. ankel, M L G . enkel, M Du. ankel (Du. enkel), OH G. anchal, enchil (G. enkel) ; f. *aiyk- IE. *arjg-, as in L. angulus a n g l e *. (Superseded OE. anclêow, whence ME. anclow, anclee (Ch.) = M Du. anclau, O H G. anchldo; perh. f. Germ. *aykal--\-*kldwac l a w .) Hence a n k l e t æ*qldit ring for the ankle xix ; after bracelet, a n k y l o s i s se e

a n c h y l o s is .

ærnlas (hist.) short two-edged knife, xm . ME. aunlaz, anla{a)s, of unkn. origin ; recorded by Matthew Paris (xm) as a verna­ cular word, in latinized form anelacius, a n n a sema tV of a rupee, xvm . - Hind. and (Panjabi dnnd) ; cf. Skr. anus small. a n n a l s æ*nalz pi. chronicle of events year by year. xvi. - F. annales or L. annales m. pi. (sc. libri books) of anndlis yearly, f. annus (see a n n u a l ). Hence a -n n a iliS T xvi ; after F. annaliste. a n la c e

d o m in ic a l .

V

a n n o t a t e æ * n ô te it fu r n is h w ith n o t e s , xvm . f . pp. s te m o f L. annotdre, f. ad a n - 1 + nota m a r k , n o t e . S o f a n n o t e x v . a n n o tA * T iO N . xv. - F. o r L.

snau*ns make publicly known, xv (Caxton ; rare before xvm ). - (O)F. anoncer L. annuntidre, f. ad an -1-}-nuntins message, messenger (cf. a n n u n c i a t i o n , n u n c i o ). Hence a n n o u * n c e M E N T . xvm . For the vocalism cf. denounce, enounce, pro­ nounce, renounce, and ounce. annoy onoi* vexation, annoyance, x m (AncrR.). ME. anui, anuy, anoy - OF. anui, anoi, enoi (mod. ennui) — Pr. enoi, enoc, Cat. enutg, Sp. enojo, O lt., Pg. nojo Rom. *inodio, from the L. phr. mihi in odiô est it is hateful to me (cf. o d i u m ). S o a n n o y vb. xm (La3.). - OF. anuier, anoier (mod. ennuyer) = Pr. enojar, Cat. enujar, It. an-

[38]

announce

ANNUAL

ANTECEDENT

noiare; cf. late L. inodiàre make loathsome, f. *inodio. So annoy*ANCE. xiv (Ch.). - OF. anoiance, f. anoier. annual æ*njual yearly, xiv (Wycl. Bible). Earlier annuel - (O)F. annuel - late L . unnudlis, for L . annum and anndiis, f. annus year matnos (cf. Oscan g. pi. acurtum, Umbrian arm* solemn festival), rel. to synon. Goth. (d. pi.) apnam, (g. sg.) at\apnjis, and prob. to Skr. dtats go, wander ; see - al1. annuity anjü-ïti yearly grant xv; invest­ ment securing annual payment xvii. - F. annuité —medL. annuitàs, f. annum annual ; see -ITY. Hence annudtANT one who holds an annuity, xvm . annul anA’l reduce to nothing, make null, xrv. - OF. anuller, adnuller (mod. annulet) 2 -late L. (Vulg.) annullâre, f. ad an- 4 * nullum nothing, n. sg. of nullus none, null , after Gr. exoudeneîn, f. oudén nothing. annular æ-njüfoj ring-shaped, ringed. xvi. - F. annulaire or L. annularis, f. annulus, late form of dnuius, dim. of anus ring ; see anus, - ule, - ar. annunciation anAnsier/an announcement (spec, of the Incarnation).. xiv. - (O)F. armondation - late L. annuntidtid(n-), f. annuntidre announce ; see - ation. anode æ*noud (electr.) positive pole, xix (Faraday). - Gr. dnodos way up, f. and up, ana-+hod6s way (cf. hodometer) ; applied orig. to the path by which an electric current leav ; the positive pole. Cf. cathode, electrode. anodyne æmôdain (medicine) assuaging pain. xvi. - L. anôdynus (Celsus) - Gr. an6dunos free from pain, f. an- a- 4-f odüné pain. Cf. F. anodin, -ine, perh. the immed. source. anoint anornt apply ointment to. xiv (R. Mannyng). f. anoint anointed - OF. anoint, enoint, pp. of enoindre L. inungere, f. in in -14 -ungere anoint (cf. ointment). Aphetic t noint (xiV-XVll). Replaced OE. smerian smear in special senses. T h e (L ord ’s) A nointed, the C hrist, xvi. anomalous ano*mabs irregular, abnormal. xvii. f. late L. anômalus - Gr. anômalos un­ even, f. an- a- 44- homalés even, f. homos same ; see -ous. So ano maly, xvi. - L. anômalia - Gr. anômaliâ ; see -Y*. anon ano*n fhito or in one body, state, course, etc. ; fat once OE. ; soon, shortly ; now again xvi. OE. on an into one, on âne in one, i.e. on, and acc. and dat. of an one. anonymous anomimas nameless, un­ named. xvii. f. late L. anônymos, -us - Gr. anônumos, f. an- A-A+onuma, onoma name. The earliest exx. are in Gr. or L. form. Cf. paronymom, synonymous. Hence anonymiTY ænanrmïti. xix. . another anA’dsj an additional (one), xm . ME. an other (in two words as late as xvi), i.e. an1, other second, remaining, different ; superseded the simple ôper of OE.

j

anserine ansertnm,

æ m s a r a in g o o s e - lik e . xix. f. anser g o o s e ; s e e - i n e 1.

-

L.

answ er à-ns3J reply. OE. andswaru, corr. to OFris. ondser, OS. antswôr, ON . andsvar Germ. *andswarô, f. *and- against, oppo­ site (see a n t i - ) -f- *swar-, base of OE. swerian s w e a r , ON. svara, Goth, stvaran answer; orig. a solemn affirmation in re­ butting a charge (cf. Gr. apokrinesthai answer, f. apô off +krinein judge, lit. get oneself off from judgement, L . respondère r e s p o n d ). Hence a*nswer vb. OE. andswarian — OFris. ondswera, O N . andsvara. a nswerABLE responsible, accountable; suit­ able, agreeable xvi ; that can be answered (cf. unanswerable) x v i i . an t ænt emmet, pismire. OE. æmet(t)e = M L G . dmete, êmete, OHG. âmeiça (G. ameise) WGerm. *àmaitjôn, maimaitjân, f. *ai- off, away + *mait- cut, hew (OH G. meiçan, ON. meita, Goth, maitan). The OE. forms gave two ME. types, (i) am(e)te, whence ampte (cf. the place-name AmpthiU), ante, ant (the prevailing standard form), and (ii) emete, e m m e t (widespread dial, var., occurring also as a surname). an t- æ n t v a r . o f a s antacid (xix),

a n t i-

u s e d b e f o r e v o w e ls , e a r lie r antiacid ( x v m ) .

-an t ont repr. (O)F. -ant L. -antem, nom. -dns, under which all prps. were levelled in French; rarely used as a living suffix and only on some spec, analogy, as in anæsthesiant, annuitant. antagonist æntæ*gonist opponent, ad­ versary. xvi (Jonson). - F. antagoniste or late L. antagônista (Jerome) - Gr. anta­ gonistes, f. antagônîzesthai struggle against, vie with ; see a n t i -, a g o n i z e . S o anta*gonis m x ix ; prob. after F. anta goniZE oppose, counteract x v i i (rare before xix); make hostile xix. - Gr. antagônîzesthai.

A n ta rc tic æntâ*jktik opposite to the Arctic, xiv (Maund., Ch.). Late ME. antartik, later conformed (like the F.) to the Gr. form - OF. antartique (mod. -arctique) — Pr. antartic, It. antartico or their source L. antarcticus - Gr. antarktikos opposite to the north ; see a n t i -, A r c t i c . ante æ*nti (in poker) stake put up by the player before drawing new cards, xix. - L. ante before (see next). an te- æ*nti repr. L. adv.-prep, ante in comps., corr. to Gr. acc. dnta over against, and loc. anti a n t i -, Skr. dnti opposite (adv.), with the sense ‘before* in place or time, as in a n t e c e d e n t , etc. below ; also a% nte-chapel xvm , antedate xvi, antenatal xix, a:ntepemi’ltimate xvm , a*nte-room xvm . antecedent

[39]

æ n t is i’ d s n t a t h in g p r e c e d in g a n o th e r , o r ig . in g r a m m a r a n d l o g ic , x i v (PPL). - (O)F. antécédent o r L. antécédent-, -ins ( u s e d s b . in n . p i.) , p r p . o f antecëdere. f. ante a n t e - - f cédere g o , c e d e .

ANTECHAMBER

ANTIMONY

an tech am b er asmtitfcimbaj chamber lead­ ing to the chief apartment, xvn (before xix usu. anti-). - F. antichambre - It. anti­ camera ; see ante-, chamber. antediluvian aerntidillirvian before the Flood, xvn. f. ante ante- -f L. diluvium deluge -f- - an. Cf. F. antédiluvien ( xv iii ). antelope æ*ntiloup fsavage horned beast of Asia Minor xv (Lydg.) ; deer-like rumi­ nant of the genus Antilope xvn. - OF. antelop (once, Brunetto Latini) or medL. ant{h)alopus - medGr. anthôlops} of which the source and orig. meaning are unkn. Ç The generic name Antilope is due to Pallas, c. 1775 î F. antilope, used by Buffon, is from Eng. antenna ænte-no horn or feeler of insects, xvn. — L. antenna, prop, antemna sail-yard, used in pi. to tr. Aristotle’s Kcpaloi ‘horns* of insects. antependium æntipe-ndbm altar frontal, xvn (earlier \antepend xvt). medL., f. ante ante--\rpendëre hang (see pendent). an terio r æntb*rioj earlier, prior, xvii . - F. antérieur or L. anterior, f. ante before, after posterior ; see ante-, - ior. anthelion ænprlion, ænthï-lion luminous ring surrounding the shadow of an ob­ server’s head projected opposite to the sun. xvii . — Gr. anthêlion, n. of anthélios, earlier antêlios opposite to the sun, f. anti anti-4" hélios sun. anthem æ-npzm (hist.) antiphon OE. ; composition in unmeasured prose to be sung; song of praise, etc. xvi. OE. antefn, antifne —late L. antrphona, for antipho'na antiphon. The forms indicate the foil, development of pronunc. : ante*vne, ante*m(ne), a*ntem, arnthem (the last from xv; cf. OF. anthaine; perh. infl. by hymne hymn) ; the sp. with th finally affected the pronunc., as in author. an th er æ*npaj (bot.) part of a stamen con­ taining the pollen, xvm (earlier in L. form). • - F. anthère or modL. anthèra, in cl. L. medicine extracted from flowers - Gr. anthêrd, fern, of anthërôs of flowers, f. anthe-, dnthos flower. As these medicines often consisted of the internal organ of flowers (e.g. saffron was the stigma), anthera was applied to these parts by early pharmacists, and was later by herbalists restricted to the pollen-bearing organs, a use sanctioned by Linnaeus. anthology aenfio4ad3i collection of literary ‘flowers*, xvn. - F. anthologie or medL. anthologia (cf. L. anthologica) - Gr. anthologtd, f. dnthos flower. an th racite æ*nf>rasait non-bituminous coal, xix (Davy). - Gr. anthrakitis kind of coal, f. anthrak-, anthrax, see next and - ite b. a n th ra x æ*n£>ræks carbuncle ; splenic fever of sheep and cattle ; malignant pustule. [40]

Hardly in naturalized use before xix. - late L . - Gr. anthrax coal, carbuncle. an th rop o- ænhrou*pou, æmj^rôpô, -po* comb, form of Gr. dnthrôpos man ; e.g. Gr. anthrôpolôgos (Aristotle) treating of man, whence modL. anthrdpologia, Eng. anthro­ pology (xvi), the science of man ; ecclGr. anthrôpomorphîtai sect ascribing human form to God, whence Eng. anthropomo*rphiTE ( x v i ) ; so a n t h r o p o m o r p h i s M ( x v m ) , - i s t ( x v i i ) , - i c ; Gr. anthrôpophagoi man-eaters,

whence L. anthropophagi ; and in many mod. formations on these models. a n ti- æ*nti before a vowel a n t-, before h a n th -, repr. Gr. anti-, anti opposite, against, instead of, rel. to OE. and- (as in a l o n g 8, a n s w e r ), OS. and-, ant-, OH G. ant-, int-, ent-, ON. and-, Goth, and along, above, OLith. anta on, towards, L. ante before ( a n t e -), Skr. anti before, in the presence of, near. Used in many words adopted from Gr. comps, and in words modelled on these, and, as a gen. living formative, very freely prefixed to (i) sbs., on the pattern of A n t i c h r i s t , antipope (xvi; medL. antipdpa), (ii) adjs., the prefix governing the sb. implied, as anti-national, anti-Semitic; (iii) sbs. in attrib. phr., as anti-aircrajt (defences), anti-church (politics), anti-slavery (committee). an tic æ*mik (arch.) grotesque or fantastic (form, gesture, person) ; sb. ffantastic or grotesque figure; fclown, buffoon; ludi­ crous gesture or posture, xvi (freq. antike, antique x v i - x v i i ). - It. antico ancient, a n t iq u e , used as synen. with grottesco g r o t e s q u e ; orig. applied to the fantastic figures found in ancient Roman remains, and subsequently to anything grotesque. A n tich rist arntikraist opponent of Christ or Christianity, x i i (Vesp. D. Horn.). ME. ante-, aniicrist (later assim. to L. and Gr.) - OF. antecrist (mod. antéchrist) - ecclL. antichristus - Gr. antikhristos (1 John ii 18), f. anti anti - 4- K/iristos C hrist . Hence an tic h r is tia n . xvt ; now treated only as anti- 4Christian. an ticip ate æntrsipeit take up beforehand. x v i . f. (partly after F. anticiper) pp. stem of L. anticipâre, f. ante a n t e - 4-dp-, var. of base of tapere; see c a p t u r e , - a t e 3. antidote æmtidout medicine to counteract poison, xv. - F. antidote or L. antidotum - Gr. antidoton, sb. use of n. of antidotos, f. anti a n t i - -\-do-, stem of didonai g iv e (see d o n a t i o n ), x v i also in Gr. or L. form. a n tim a ca ssa r æ :n tim a k æ *s3 J c o v e r in g f o r c h a ir - b a c k s , e t c ., o r ig . to p r o te c t th e m fr o m g r e a s e in th e h a ir . xix. f. a n t i - 4 - m a c a s s a r .

an tim o n y æmtimoni trisulphide of anti­ mony xv ; (chem.) metallic element (Sb) xix (earlier regulus of a. xvi). - medL. antimônium (Constantinus Africanus of Salerno, xi), of unkn. origin. Conjectured to be latinization of Arab, uthmud, ithmid, perh.

ANTINO MIA N - Gr. stimmid-, stimmi (whence L. stibium) ; cf. Egyptian sdm powder used for the eyes. an tin o m ian æntinou’mian. xvn. f. mcdL. Antinomi German sect which denied obliga­ tion of the moral law upon Christians, f. Gr. anti anti - 4 -ndmos law ; see nomad, - ian. antinom y æ*ntinomi contradiction, xvi. - L. antinomia - Gr. antinomid, f. anti anti-f nomos law; cf. prec., see -Y3. antip athy æntrpaju feeling against, aver­ sion. xvn. - F. antipathie or L. antipathia - Gr. antipdtheiay f. antipathes opposed in feeling, f. anti anti--\-pathe-, pathos \ see PATHOS, -Y3. So amtiPATHE'TIC. XVII. antiphon æ*ntifon (liturg.) short verse of Scripture recited responsively in connexion with a psalm, xv. - ecclL. antiphôna — Gr. (fà) antiphôna, n. pi. of antiphônos respon­ sive, f. anti ANTi--F/>/iowe sound (cf. pho­ netic ); see anthem. So an tip h on er æntrfonsa book of antiphons, xiv (Wycl., Ch.). - OF. antifenier, -phonier-ecclL. antiphônâriumy anglicized as anti*phonARY. xv. an tip h rasis æntrfrosis (rhet.) use of a word in a sense opposite to its proper mean­ ing. xvi (More). - late L. - Gr. antiphrasis, f. antiphrdzein express by the opposite; see ANTI-, PHRASE. antipodes æntrpadîz fpeople inhabiting the opposite side of the globe ; places on the earth exactly opposite to each other, xvi. - F. antipodes or late L. antipodes - Gr. antipodesy pi. of antipous having the feet opposite, f. anti anti -+poüs foot. For­ merly 3 syll. a-ntipodeSy with sg. antipode ; the 4-sylI. form shows reversion to L. and Gr. an tiqu ary æ*ntik\vari official custodian or recorder of antiquities (title bestowed by Henry V III on John Lcland), whence gen. student or collector of these, xvi. — L . aniiqudriuSy f. antiquus ; see next and - ary. So antiquARiAN -kwco'rian. xvn. antiqu e æntrk ancient; old-fashioned; also sb. xvi. - F. antique or L. antiquus, anticus (whence pop. OF. antify Pr. antic, etc.), f. ante before, ante- + -tens (as in posticus, f. post) ; orig. identical in form and pronunc. with antic, but finally differen­ tiated after 1700. So antiqu ity ænti-kwîti. xiv. - OF. - L. a ntiquated, xvn, orig. pp. of antiquate (xv). an tirrh in u m æntirarnam snapdragon, xvi. - L. - Gr. antirrhinon, f. anti opposite, counterfeiting, ANTi-i-rhin-, rh'is nose (cf. rhinoceros), from the resemblance of the flow'er to an animal’s mouth. antiseptic æntise*ptik counteracting putre­ faction. x v iii . -m o d L . antisepticus, f. Gr. anti KSTi-+ sêptikôs septic . an tistro p h e æntrstrafi answer to the strophe in a Gr. chorus, xvn. — late L. — Gr. antistrophe, f. antistréphein ; see anti-, STROPHE.

APantith esis ænti-Jusis opposition of ideas, xv. - late L. - Gr. antithesis, f. antithénai, f. anti anti- -|-tithénai set, place (cf. thesis ). So a n tith etic -J>e*tik xvii, - ical xvi. ult. - Gr. antithetikos. a n tle r æ-nttaj branch of deer’s horn. xiv. Late ME. auntelere - AN. var. of OF. an toillier , later ondoiUier, endoulier (mod. andouiller), with early vars. endoillee, andouillee, of unkn. origin ; deriv. from popL. *antoculdre (L. ante before, oculus eye) is not phonologically tenable. an ton om asia æntônômerzia (rhet.) sub­ stitution of an epithet for a person’s proper name; use of proper name generically. xvi. L. - Gr. antonomasia, f. antonomdzein, f. anti A'STi--\-onomdzein name, f. onoma name. antonym æ-ntônim antithetical term )( syn­ onym. xix. - F. antonyme, f. Gr. anti anti-, after synonyme synonym . anus ernas fundament, xvi. —L. anus orig. ring (cf. annular). Soa-nAL1. x v in .-m o d L . anvil arnvil block on which a smith shapes metal. OE. anfilte (earlier onfilti) m. or n., also anfeait fern., corr. to M D u. aenvilte, O IIG . anafalz (G. dial, afitts, amfilt, atiefilt), to which are parallel M L G . anebelte, - bolt , M Du. aen-y anebelt, -bilt (Du. aanbeald, aambeeld), and OHG. anabô? (G. amboss) ; all based on Germ. *ana on 4- vb.-stem meaning ‘beat’ (cf. felt ) and perh. all modelled on L. incus anvil, f. in in - x-\-cüd-, stem of cüdere beat (cf. iiew ). anxious æ’ rçkjas troubled in mind. xvn. f. L. anxius, f. pp. stem anx - of angere choke, oppress; see anguish, - ious. S o an x ieiY æqzaiuti uneasiness of mind xvi; (med.) distressful pain in the region of the heart xvii (so F. anxiété xvi). - F. or L. anxietds . any e*ni OE. ænig — OFris. ènich, OS. ênig, M L G . einich, M Du. ènich (Du. eenig), OH G. einag (G. einig), ON. einigr, Goth. ainah CGerm. *ainagaz, -igaz , f. *ainONK-|- *~ig— Y1 ; parallel formations are L . ünicus unique, O S 1. inokù monk, w'ild boar. In ME. two types were current, ani and eni ; the present sp. continues the first, the pronunc. the second (cf. dial. æ*ni). a n y ­ body. xiii. anyhow, xv iii . anything. OE. anyw here, xm (Cursor M.). Anzac æ*nzæk Australasian. 1915. Made up of the initials of Australian and New Zealand Army Corps. a o rist w rist (gram.) tense denoting past time (simply, without limitation), xvi. - Gr. aoristos undefined (sb. sc. khronos time, Dionysius Thrax), f. a- a- 4+ horistos de­ limited, f. horfzein define (cf. horizon). a o rta ei5*Jt3 (anat.) the great artery, xvi. modL. - Gr. aortê, by Hippocrates used pi. for the branches of the windpipe, by Aris­ totle for the great artery, f. *aor -, var. of *aer - of aeirein (î- *aerj-) raise; cf. artery . assim. form of ad- before p ; cf. ac-.

APACE apace 9pei*s with speed, xiv. - OF. a pas at (a considerable) pace, i.e. a (î- L. ad at), pas step, pace. apache £pæ*J ruffian of a type infesting Paris, xx (1902). - F. apache, a use of the name of a warlike tribe of N. American Indians. Cf. mohock. apart 3pa*jt to one side, aside, separately, xiv (PPL). - OF. apart (now à part) = It. a parte L. à parte at the side, i.e. à ab --F abl. of pars side, part. apa*rtheid -heit racial segregation as in S. Africa xx. apartment apautmant self-contained por­ tion of a house, etc. x v i i . - F. appartement - It. appartamento, f. appartare separate, f. a parte apart ; see - ment. apathy æ^papi insensibility xvii ; indo­ lence of mind xvm . - F. apathie - L . apathia - Gr. apdtheia, f. apathes without feeling, f. Armind (the Armenian name is Hayasdan or me-tikol. xvi. f. L. arithmêticus, Gr. arithHayq) ; see - ian. métikôs. arithm etrciA N . xvi. - F. a rm ig e r a*jmid33j esquire, xvi. - L. arithméticien. armiger bearing arms, f. arma arm *-}--ger, •a riu m eoTiom L. n. sg. of -drius - arious, gerêre bear, carry (cf. - gerous, gerund). - ary, in sb. uses of adjs., e.g. auctarium, a r m illa r y â'imifôri, aimi-tari formed with frigidarium, honorarium, sacrarium, and the (metal) rings or hoops, xvii (a. sphere). f. group aquarium, herbarium, vivarium. modL. armilldris, f. armilla bracelet, hoop, a rk aak fchest, coffer ; floating vessel built dim. f. armus shoulder; see arm1, - ary. by Noah (Gen. vi 14-16). OE. ærc (earc), A rm in ia n àimi-nian. xvii . f. Armimus, corr. to OFris. erke, O H G. archa (G. arche), latinized form of the surname of Jakob ON . çrk, ark-, Goth, arka ; CGerm. - L. Hermanns .or Harmensen, Du. Protestant area (whence also F. arche, which was theologian (d. 1609); see - ian. adopted in Eng. and current xiii - xvi), rel. to L. arx citadel, arcêre enclose, ward off. a rm istice àumistis cessation of fighting, a r m 1 aim upper limb of the body. OE. xvm . - F. armistice or modL. armistitium, arm («earm) = OFris. arm, erm, OS., OH G. f. arma arms (arm 2) + -stitium stoppage, (Du., G.) arm, ON. armr, Goth, arms îafter L. jûstitium cessation of legal business CGerm. *armaz (whence Finn, armas). (for the formation cf. interstice, solstice). Like several other names of parts of the A rm o ric a n aamo-rikon pert, to Brittany, body, e.g. eye, foot, heart, knee, nail, tooth, xv. f. medL. Armoricus (in Cæsar Armorieæ common to a large area of the IE. stock; northern provinces of Gaul), f. Gaulish cf. L. armus, O S 1. ramo, OPruss. irmo, Av. Aremorici ‘people living by the sea*, f. areardma-, Pers. arm, Skr. irmds, all meaning ( = L. præ in front of)-fmor sea (rel. to L . ‘shoulder* or ‘arm*; f. base *ar~ fit, join mare) ; see -ic, - an. (cf. ART, ARTICLE). a r m 1 âjm (pi.) weapons for fighting xm ; a rm o ry â’imori heraldry, xv. - (O)F. armoirie, f. armoier (= It. armeggiare) employment of these ; heraldic insignia xiv ; blazon, f. arme arm2; see -Y3. Hence sg. (after F. arme) any kind of troops, e.g. armoriAL àjnrô’rial heraldic, xvi ; cf. F. infantry xviii. - (O)F. armes — Pr. armas, armorial (xvii ). fern, pi., Sp., It. arme, Rum. armà, repr. L. arma n. pi. (no sg.), f. base *ar- fit, join (see a rm o u r, U.S. -o r aumoi defensive covering prec.). So a rm vb. furnish with arms. xm . (also f offensive arms) used in fighting, xm — (O)F. armer — Pr., etc. armar L. ar(RGlouc.). - (O)F. armure, earlier armêure mdre, f. arma. •— L. armdtüra armature. The present a rm a d a âjmerdo, -a*do fleet of ships of form showrs assim. to wrords of a different war. xvi. Early forms armado (see - ado), type, ending in - our. armada, and -ade, -ata - Sp. armada Rom. a rm o u ry â*jmori t arm°ur xiv (R. Manarmdta army. nyng) ; place for keeping arms xvi. prob. a rm a d illo âjmadrlou S. Amer, burrow­ orig. — OF. armoirie armory, with assim. ing animal writh a body cased in bony to armour (cf. the early forms armurie, armour, xvi. - Sp. armadillo, dim. of armery) ; see -Y3. armado armed man L. armdtu-s, pp. of a rm y âumi *farmed expedition xiv (Ch.); armdre (see arm2). armed force; (transf. and fig.) host xv; A rm aged d on âimoge’don place of the last (coll.) organized military forces of a state decisive battle at the Day of Judgement (see xvii. - (O)F. armée = Pr., Sp. armada (cf. Rev. xvi 16 A.V. ; R.V. Harmagedon); armada), It. armata Rom. armdta (x), (allusively) any final conflict on a grand sb. use of pp. fern, of armdre arm in the scale xix (Shelley). Taken to be the Gr. senses ‘armed force’, ‘army*, ‘navy*, ‘fleet’ ; equivalent of Heb. har megidddn mountain see -Y6. region of Megiddo, which had been a site of great battles (e.g. Judges iv 6, etc.). arn aou t âinau-t Albanian soldier, esp. in a rm a m e n t aumamant force equipped for . the Turkish army. xix. - Turk. - medGr. Arbanêtes, var. of Albanêtes, f. Albania', war xvii ; military equipment xvm . - L. see A lbanian. armdmentum, class, only pi., f. armdre; see ARM1, - ment, and cf. F. armement. a rn ica â'iniko genus of composite plants ; medicine prepared therefrom. xvm . a rm a tu re â'jmotjuoi farms, armour xv; - modL., of unkn. origin, but conjectured piece of iron placed in contact with the to be an alteration of modL. ptarmica - Gr. poles of a magnet, wrhich preserves and ptarmikê sneezewort, sb. use of fern, of increases the magnetic power xvm . - F. ptarmikos causing to sneeze, f. ptdrein armature - L. armdtüra, f. pp. stem of armdre ; see arm 2, - ure. sneeze.

AROMA aroma arotrma spicy odour, sweet smell, xviii. - L. arôma - Gr. drôma (-at-). There was an earlier f aromat (xm -xvii) spice(s) - OF. aromat (mod. -ate) - L. pi. aromata. So aromatic ærÔmæ*tik. xiv. - F. - late L. - Gr. around araumd adv. and prep, in a circle (about), along the circuit (of), xiv. Not fre­ quent before xvi ; prob. of mixed origin ; in earliest use perh. after OF. à la reonde round about, lit. ‘in the round* (fem.) ; later f. a -1+ round ; cf. F. en rond in a circle, au rond de round about (xvi). arouse arau*z stir up. xvi (Sh.). f. a- * 4 rouse, after rise, arise, tvake, awake. a-row arou* jin succession; (dial.) in a row. xiii. ME. on or a rawe or reive, areawe, repr. OE. on gerætve ; later arotcj; see A-1, ROW1. arpeggio âjpe*d3iou (mus.) notes o f a chord played in rapid succession, xviii. It., f. arpeggiare play on the harp, f. arpa HARP. arquebus see harquebus. arrack æ*rak Eastern name for native spirituous liquor, xvii. Like F. arak, farach, Sp. arac, etc. derived from forms in Indian vernaculars, which are ult. - Arab. xaraq sweat, juice, esp. in 'araq at-tamr (fer­ mented) juice of the date. Aphetic rack (xvii). arrah æ*ra Anglo- Ir. int. expressing emotion, xviii (Farquhar). - Ir. ata. arraign arern f c a llt0 account ; indict xiv. - AN. arainer, areiner, OF. arais-, areisner -R o m . madratiônâre, f. ad KR--\-ratiô(n-) account, reason. Hence arrai-gn sb. indictment (now in clerk of arraigns) xvii . arrange arei* nd 3 fdraw up in battle array xiv ; put in order xviii. In xiv-xv in Eng. and Sc.; occas. in xvi (e.g. Spenser); not frequent before late xviii (Burke), when it was prob. readopted (cf. the date of de­ range) ; orig. - OF. arangier, arengier (mod. arranger), f. a- AD- -f rangier range. S o arra-ngeMENT. xviii. -(O )F . arrant æ*rant notorious, downright, thorough, xvi. First in knight arrant, arrant thief, in which arrant is a later form of errant vagabond, wandering ; in the colloca­ tion arrant thiej it acquired the sense ‘public, common*, and hence, when transf. to other nouns, ‘manifest, undisguised, notorious*. arras æ’ras rich tapestry fabric; hanging of this. XV. - arras in AN. drops d'arras ‘cloths of Arras', name of a town in Artois, France ; cf. It. (a)razzo. array arer (arch.) attire xiii (Cursor M.) ; arrangement, order xiv (1battle array xvi); arming of a force, military force xvii. - AN. arai, OF. arei (mod. arroi) — Pr. arrei, It. arredo; f. AN . arcàer, OF. areer = Pr.

ARROGANCE arezar, Sp. arrear, It. arredare Rom. *arrëdâre put in order, f. L. ad AR- 4 - Germ. *ræÔ- prepare (see ready and cf. curry1). So a r r a y vb. (arch.) attire,' dress x iii (RGlouc., Cursor M .); make ready, place in order xiv. - AN . araier. a r r e a r ariau phr. in arrear behindhand; sb. (chiefly pi. a rre a rs) duty or liability overdue, debts unpaid, x v iii . T h e phr. in arrear superseded the adv. -\arrear- behind, behindhand. - OF. orere, ariere (mod. arrière) = Pr. areire, Sp. arredro. It. addietro medL. adretrô, f. L . ad to (at) 4 retrô backward, behind (cf. rear*). A s sb. arrear(s) took the place of a r r e a :rAGE(s) xiv (now U.S.) - OF. arerage-s (mod. arrérage), f. arere; cf. AN . sb. aretes xiv. a rre s t ore*st cause to stop; capture, seize xiv (Barbour, Ch.) ; catch the attention xix. - OF. arester — Pr. arestar, Sp. arrestor, It. arrestare Rom. *arrestdre, f. ad AR—h restdre stop behind, rest. (Formerly used also intr. ‘stop, stay*, as in OF.) So arre*st sb. stoppage (in intr. and trans. sense), legal restraint. xiv. — OF. areste delay, and arest (mod. arrêt) act of arresting, f. the vb. a rriè re -b a n æ-riajbæn, |j aijêrbâ order summoning vassals to military service ; body of vassals, xvi, - F. arrière-ban, O F. ariereban, alteration of arban, herban - Germ. *hariban (OH G. heriban), f. hari, heri army 4- ban proclamation, ban. arrière-guard see rearguard. arris œ*ris sharp edge formed by the angular contact of two surfaces, xvii. Corruptly - early modF. areste sharp ridge, ARÊTE. a rriv a l ararval jxoming to land xiv (Ch.) ; act of arriving xvi. - A N . arrivaile, f. arriver ; see next and - al*.

arriv e arai*v fbring or come to shore, land x iii ; come to the end of a journey, a goal, etc. x iv ; freach (a port, etc.) xvi; fcome to pass xvii . - OF. ariver (mod. arriver arrive, happen) = Pr. aribar, Sp. arribar :- Rom. *arripdre come to land, f. ad AR-+ripa shore (cf. river). Formerly sometimes inflected f arove, fariven; cf. strive . a rro b a arou*ba weight used in Spain and Portugal, xvi. - Sp. arroba - Arab, arrub*, i.e. al-rub* ‘the quarter*, the weight being £ of the Sp. quintal; see AL-*. arrogan ce æ*rdgans aggressive presump­ tion. xiv (R. Mannying). - (O)F. arrogance - L. arrogantia, f. arrogant-, -dns, prp. of arrogdre\ see - ance. S o a-rrogANT. xiv (Ch.). - (O)F. arro g ate æ*rôgeit lay un­ due claim to. xvi. f. pp. stem of L . arrogdre claim for oneself, f. ad SR--\-rogdre ask; see ROGATION, -ATE*. So aiTOga’TION. - L . In the spec, legal sense of adopting a person who is sui juris, the forms a*drogate, ad roga tion (xvi) are used.

c

ARTICLE

ARROW æ*rou missile to be shot from a bow. Late OE. ar(e)we - ON. *arw-, nom. çr (g. sg., pi. çrvar), rel. to Goth, arhwazna arrow; the native OE. form was earh (re­ corded once, the usual names being stræl, fid,flan); Germ, base *arytv- !- IE. *arku-, whence also L. arcus bow, a r c (OL. g. arquï; arquitenêns bowman). a r r o w r o o t æ*rôrüt herb of the \V. Indies, Maranta arundinacea, the tubers of which were used to absorb poison from wounds, esp. those made by poisoned arrows xvn ; starch made from this xix. Perversion of Aruak aru-aru ‘meal of meals’, by assim. to a r r o w and r o o t . a r s e àjs fundament. OE. ærs (ears) = OFris. ers, M LG . ars, ers, MDu. aers, e(e)rs (Du. aars and naars), OHG. ars (G. arsch), ON. ars and rass :- CGerm. (exc. Goth.) marsaz IE. *6rsost whence also Gr. 6rros, Arm. or rump, rel. to Gr. ourd (:- *orsd) tail. a r s e n a l ausanal fnaval dock (in early use, of Venice) ; establishment for storage of weapons and ammunition xvi. Early forms arse-, arzenale, archynale - F. arsenal, f ar­ chenal or its source It. f arzanale, (mod.) arsenale (whence also Sp., Pg. arsenal), f. Venetian It. arzand, ult. (with unexpl. loss of d) - Arab, dâr-aççinâ' ah, f. dcr house, al al - 2, çinâ'ah art, mechanical industry’, f. çana'a make, fabricate (cf. Olt. tarcenale, whence F. "ftarcenal; Sp. atarazana, -al, Pg. taracena; Genoese It. darsena, whence OF. darse, darsine dock). a r s e n i c â-js(a)nik forpiment (yellow a., Pers. zirnikhi asfar) xiv (Ch.) ; j-realgar (red a., Pers. zirnikhi qirmiz) xv; white mineral substance (white a. trisulphide of arsenic) x v ii ; (chem.) semi-metallic element xix. - (O)F. arsenic - L. arsenicum - Gr. arsenikon, var. of arrenikon yellow orpi­ ment, lit. male (f. drrën m ale)-(w ith etymologizing alteration, to express its powerful properties) Arab, azzernikh, i.e. al al - 2, zernikh - Pers. zarni(k), zirntkh, f. zar gold. Also a r s e n i c aase-nik xix, a r s e n i c a l x v i i . adjs. a rsis a-jsis (pros.) unemphatic syllable xviii ; strong syllable x i x . -la te L. - Gr. arsis lifting, raising, f. airein (:- *drjein) raise; opposed to t h e s i s . By Gr. writers applied to the raising of the foot in beating time, which marked the unaccented ^ by later L. writers (followed by Bentley) referred to the raising of the voice, which marked the accented syllable ; there is consequently the same opposition of mean­ ing in thesis. arso n a*jsan wilful setting fire. x v i i . - legal AN., OF. arson :- medL. arsiônem, f. ars-, pp. stem of ardëre bum (see a r d e n t ).

tion to poetry’, music, painting, etc. xvii); learning of the schools (e.g. terms of art) ; pi. branches of learning (the seven arts, the liberal arts) xm /xiv; magic art, etc. x i v (Gower); artifice xvi (Sh.). — (O)F. art = Pr. art, Sp., It. arte :- L. artem, nom. ars, f. base *ar- put together, join, fit (cf. a r m 1 and 2, a r t i c l e ). Phr. art and part (orig. Sc. law xv), skill in contriving and active parti­ cipation. Hence a * r t f u l fskilful, dexterous ; fartistic xvii.; wily, craftily ingenious xviii ; see -FUL1.

arro w

.

a r s y - v e r s y a u siv a u si back-forem ost, u p ­ side-dow n. xvi. f. arse f L. versus turned (cf. - w a r d ), w ith -Y 1 added to both elem ents to m ake a jin gle. a rt jut skill or its application x m (in rela­

a r t se e

be.

also a r t i - âutifækt product of human art. 1821 (artefact, Coleridge), f. arte, abl. sg. of L. ars art -{-factum, n. pp. of facere make, DO1; cf. It. artefatto. a r t e r y autari any of the tubes conveying blood from the heart; ftrachea (L. artëria aspera). xiv(Trev.). —L. artëria-Gr. artëria, prob. f. base *ar- raise, repr. in a o r t a , a r s is . Cf. F. artère, w’hence Eng. f arter(e), ■\artir(e) (xvi-xvn). Hence a r t e r i A L ajtia-rial. xv. - F. f arterial (mod. artériel). (Referred b y the ancients to aër a i r in accordance with their notions of arterial functions.) a r te s ia n âitrzian, ajti*3?n. xix. - F. artésien, f. OF. Arteis (mod. Artois) name of an old French province; applied orig. to wells made there, in which water rises spontaneously when a small hole is bored into the water-bearing strata; see - i a n . a r t h r i t i s âjprartis inflammation of a joint, xvi. - L. arthritis - Gr. arthritis, f. drthron joint, f. #ar- fit (cf. L. artus limb, a r t i c l e ) ; see - iT is . So a r t h r i t i c -i-tik. xv. orig. artetik - OF. artetique - medL. arteticus, alteration of arthriticus - Gr. arthrïtikôs ; assim. later (through arthetick) to the L.-G r. form. The comb, form a r t h r o - of Gr. drthron is repr. in various scientific terms, e.g. arthropod (modL. Arthropoda). a r tic h o k e àutitfouk plant allied to the thistle, having edible parts xvi ; Jerusalem a. species of sunflower with edible tuberous roots XVII. Earliest forms archicokk, -choke, artechock, artichaugh - northern It. arti-, arciciocco, for arcicioffo, alteration of *alcarcioffo (cf. modlt. carciofo) - OSp. alcarchofa (mod. alcachofa, Pg. alcachofra) -A ra b , al-kharshôf, i.e. al a l - 3, kharshôf artichoke. (F. artichaut, G. artisckocke, Du. artisjok are also ult. - It.) The form arti­ choke (from xvi) show’s dissim. of ch . . ch to t . . ch, and assim. of the final syll. to choke. a r t i c l e âutikl clause of the Creed xm ; head or point of a contract, item xiri ; fnick of time, moment xiv ; fpiece of business xv ; detail, particular x v i i i ; commodity, chattel xix. - (O)F. article - L. articulas, dim. of artus joint, f. base *ar- join (cf. a r m , a r t ). In gram, sense (xvi) repr. the use of L. articuius by Quintilian, etc., tr. Gr. drthron joint, which, was applied by the Stoic grammarians to (i) the personal pronouns

a rte fa c t,

[5*]

ASCLFPIAD

ARTICULATE

A ry a n , A ria n w rw n, fnian Indo-Euro­ pean; also (restrictedly) Indo-Iranian. xix (Max Müller), f. Skr. drvas (Vedic dria) noble, applied earlier as a national name. Cf. L. Aridna, -ê eastern region of the Persian kingdom (Aridnï, -ënï its inhabi­ tants), Gr. /IV/oiMedes(Herodotus), Ariane (Strabo), Aridnui; cf. Av. Airyana, whence mod. Iran. Cf. F. arien, G. arisch, sb. pi. Atier. See -AN. aryten oid æritrnoid (anat.) epithet of two pyramidal cartilages of the lary’nx. xviii. - inodL. arytænoïdës - Gr. arutainoeidës, f. arutaina funnel, f. arû{t)ein draw (off, etc.) ;

(‘definite articles’) and (ii) other pronouns, and demonstratives (‘indefinite articles’). a r t i c u l a t e âjti-kjübt divided into distinct parts, jointed; of distinct utterance, xvi. - L. articulâtus jointed, f. articulus article . So a r t i * c u l a t e -eit v b . fformulate in articles (intr. capitulate) ; utter (vocal sounds) with distinctness x v i ; joint x v n ; see - a t e 2 and 3. a r t i c u l A 'T i o x jointing, joint x v ; utterance x v n . - F. - L., f. articulate joint. â’Jtifis f workmanship xvi ; skill, address; expedient, contrivance xvn. - (O)F. artifice - L. arttficium, f. arti-, ars art -j-fie-, v a r . of fac- of facert make, d o 1. So a r t i f i c i A L iutilvjal )( natural x i v (Wvclif, Ch.) ; *fskilful x v . - (O)F. artificiel or L. artificiâlis. a r t i f i c e r ajti’fisaj crafts­ man. x i v . - AN. artificer (cf. medL. artijicidrius), prob. after OF. artificien\ see -hr2.

a r tific e

aitrlari fmunitions xiv (Ch.); engines for discharging missiles xv. - (O)F. artillerie (whence It. artiglieria, Sp. artilleria)f f. artiller alteration (after art) of O F. atillier ( = Pr. atilhar) equip, arm, prob. by-form of atirier, f. à AD- + tire order ; see tier, -ery.

a r tille r y

âjtizæ*n handicraftsman ; f artist, xvi. - F. artisan - It. artigiana Rom. *artîtiànu-s, f. L. artitus, pp. of attire in­ struct in the arts, f. art-, ars art; see -an and cf. courtesan, Parmesan, partisan. a r t i s t â*jtist fone skilled in the (learned, useful) arts xvi ; one who cultivates any of the fine arts xvi. - (O)F; artiste - It. artista, f. arte a r t ; see - ist. Hence arti-stic. xvm . a - r t is t R Y . xix (Browning). a r tis a n

artiste à jt r s t p u b lic singer, dancer, etc. xix. F. (see p re c.); superseded artist in this use ( x v iii - x ix ).

ea*ram cuckoo pint, Arum maculaturn. xvi (in form aron xvi-xvm , w’hence mod. dial, aaron). - L. arum - Gr. aron.

aru m

a r u n d in a c e o u s

a rA in d in e i-fa s reedy, x v n .

f. L. arundindeeus, f. (h)arundin-, (h)arundô reed ; see - aceo u s .

ari suffix repr. L. -drius ‘pertaining to, connected with’ : formed on sbs., as elementdrius elementary’, honôrdrius honorary’, voluntdrius voluntary ; on adjs., as primdrius primary; on ad vs., as contrarias contrary, necessdrius necessary. Many of these adjs. were used as sbs.: in the masculine, as adversdrius adversary, commentdrius (sc. liber) commentary, Januârius (sc. mènsis) January, secrêtârius secretary; in the neuter, as avidrium aviary’, saldrium salary ; and occas. in the feminine, as Calvaria Calvary. Since in French L. -drius and -dris were repr. by -aire, it came about that, when F. words in -aire were adopted in modEng., they received the ending -ary, as capillaire capillary, militaire military (but in ME. and esp. in Sc. such adjs. commonly took -air, -ar, as contrair, contrar).

-a ry

see -OID.

as1 oz, (emph.) æz to that or such a degree ; in the manner or to the extent in which. ME. reduced form (xn) of ase or als, which are divergent developments of aise OE. alswd (ealswd) a l s o . Cf. OFris. asa, as(e), is, and G. ah as, than, reduced form of also (which survives in the sense ‘therefore’). a s 2 æs ancient Roman coin. xvn. - L. ds, of foreign (perh. Etruscan) origin. Cf. ace. a s- assim. form of ad- before s ; cf. AC-. asafœ tida, assa- æsafrtida resinous gum with a strong smell of garlic. XIV. — medL. (‘stinking asa’), i.e. dsa (— Pers. àzâ mastic), foetida, fern, of fœtidus fetid . asbestos æzbe*stos ffabulous unquench­ able stone xiv; fibrous mineral made into an incombustible fabric xvn. T he earliest exx. asbeston, abiston, albestone are — OF. abeston, albeston - L. - Gr. asbeston, acc. of asbestos, f. Gr. a- A-* + sbestâs, f. sbennünai quench. The present form dates from XVII. ascend a$e*nd go or come up. xiv (Ch.). - L. ascendere, f. ad as- + scandere climb (see scansion). So asce*ndL\NT first in astron. sense (xiv, Ch.) ; in the sense ‘superiority* (xvi- ) superseded by asce*ndancy xvm . - (O)F. ascendant - prp. used sb. of L. ascendere. See -ENT, -ENCY. ascension ase-njan ascent of Jesus Christ to Heaven xiv; rising of a celestial body xiv (Ch.). - (O)F. - L. ascensiô(n-), f. ascens-, pp. stem of ascendere. So asce*nt upward movement, rise, xvn (Sh., AV.). f. ascend, after the pair descend, descent. ascertain æsajtern make certain xv ; learn, find out x v iii . - OF. acertain-, tonic stem of acertener (later ass-, asc-, and so in Eng.), f. a ad- -f certain certain ; stressed ascertain till xvn. ascetic ase*tik exercising rigorous selfdiscipline. xvn (Sir T . Browne). — medL. asceticus or Gr. askêtikos, f. askétes monk, hermit (Philo), f. askeîn exercise; see -ic. ascititious var. of adscititious. asclepiad æsklrpiæd (pros.) specific verseform. xvn. — late L. asclëpiadëus - Gr. asklépiddeios, f. Asklêpiddês name of a Gr. poet. (Earlier in asclepiadics xvi (Sidney), asclepiaddcal xvi.)

[53]

ASCRIBE

ASPECT

ascribe askrarb assign, attribute, xv. sconce, which suggest a F. origin ; but cf. It. - L . ascribere enter in a list, enrol, impute, a, di, and per scancio obliquely. T he source, f. ad AS- 4 * scribere write. Preceded by which has been much disputed, remains t ascrive (xiv-xvn) - OF. ascriv-, stem unkn., as also that of the more or less synon. of ascrire — It. ascrivere - L. ascribere. So t askie (Gower), faskile (xvi rare), faskoye, ascriptiON askri-p/an. xvi. - L. • askoyne (xv-xvi). fj The adv. \ascaun$e{s) as if, as much as to say (xiv-xvi) is unrelated. aseptic eise*ptik non-putrefying, xix. f. A-4+ SEPTIC. askari æ*skarï native soldier of W . Africa, xx. — Arab. *askari soldier, f. *a$kar army. ash1 æj well-known forest-tree (family Fraxineæ). OE. æsé = OS. ask (Du. esch), askew askjü* obliquely, awry. .xvi. f. OHG. ask (M H G. asch; G . esche is from A-14*SKEW. the adj. eschen), ON. askr CGerm. (exc. aslan t aslà-ntfoblique, slanting xm (Cursor Goth.) *askiz. An IE. base with M .); prep, xvii (Sh.). Early M E. o slant ; various extensions, is repr. also by L . omus a later var. is f on slent, Sc. asklent, esklent, elm, Gr. oxtié, Alb. ah beech, Lith. Hosts, continued in mod. dial, on the slent; the O S 1. jaseni, OPruss. woasis, W. crnnen ash. relation of the forms is obscure (see slant). ash* œj powdery residue of combustion. asleep aslrp sleeping. OE. on slæpe, ME. OE. æsée, æxe = M L G . asche, Du. asch, o slæpe, o slepe, aslepe ; see A-1, sleep . OH G. asca (G. asche), ON. aska ; cf. Goth. aslope aslou’p sloping, obliquely, xiv. azgo ; perh. rel. to arid. Ash Wednesday Earlier than slope (xvi) ; of uncertain origin. first day of Lent x iii ; after ecclL. dies Or* formal grounds a proposed deriv. from cinerum ‘day of ashes* ; cf. F .jour or mercredi OE. *dslopen, pp. of âslüpan siip away, dis­ des cendres, G. aschermittiooch. appear, is appropriate ; but there are chrono­ ash am ed ajermd affected with shame. logical difficulties, and transference in sense OE. âséamod, pp. of dsiarman feel shame, from obliquity of motion to obliquity of f. d- a ** -f séamian (same sense), f. séamu position must be assumed. shame ; cf. OE. of seamed. asp 1 æsp tree of the popiar family, Populus a sh la r æ-Jlai squared stone for building tremula. OE. æspe — OH G. aspa (M H G. (which succeeded the wooden shingle), xiv. aspe; G . espe is from the adj. espen) ME. as{s)keler - OF. aisselier - L. axilla, dim. Germ. * aspon; and OE. æps (for *æsp) =* of L. axis, assis board, plank (whence F., ON. çsp x- CGerm. (exc. Goth.) *aspo ; Pr. ais, It. asse). rel. to OPruss. abse, Lith. âpuïe, êpuïè, Lett. ash ore a / o a u o n o r o n to th e s h o r e , x v i . apsa, -e, Russ, osina, Pol. osika. Superseded f. A-1+ s h o r e 1, o n t h e m o d e l o f t h ^ e a r l i e r by aspen. aland (xn). ! asp* æsp small venomous hooded serpent A sian ei*J'an, ei^ a n xrv (Trev.). - L. Asidnus o f N. Africa, xv. - OF. aspe or its source - Gr. AsidnSs ; see - i a n . So A s I a t i c eifiæ*tik, L . aspis - Gr. aspis, qspid-. The L- form ei3-. xvii. - L. Asiâticus - Gr. Asidtikds. was formerly current in Eng., as well as aside a sa i-d to o n e s id e . xiv. M E, on aspic (poet, in Addison, Tennyson) - F. syde, a syde, i.e . o n , a - 1, s i d e . aspic - Pr. aspic (prob. assim. to basilic basilisk) ; also faspide - OF. aspide (cf. Sp. asinine æ *sin a in a s s -lik e , xvi, - L. aspid, Pg., obs, It. aspide). asininus, f, asinus a s s ; s e e - i n e 1. -asis asis repr. L. -dm, Gr. -dsis, forming asp aragu s aspæTagas liliaceous plant names of diseases, prop, nouns of state or cultivated for its vernal shoots, xv. - L . process derived from verbs in -dein, -ân ; as asparagus - Gr. aspdragos, Attic aspkdragos. elephantiasis, phthiriasis, psoriasis. In polite use the L . form has supplanted the various altered or deriv. forms that have ask àsk call upon for information, inquire. been current: (i) sparagus, a medL. form, OE dscian, dcsian, dhsian, dxian — OFris. whence It. sparagio, G. sparge(n), spargel, âskia, OS. èscôn, OH G. eiscôn (M H G. M F. esperage, esparge (mod. asperge), Eng. eischen, G . heischen, with h after heissen) (ii) (a)sperage, sparage (xv-xvn) ; (iii) sparrowWGerm. *aiskqian; cogns. are found in grass (xvii), formerly sparagras, alteration OSl. ishati, Lith. ieskdti, Skr. icchdti seek. of sparagus by assoc, with grass (which is • Various types of development are repr. in the usual term with cooks and greengrocers). ME. and later; dscian gave asche, asshe, ‘The corruption of the word into sparrowbeside esche, esse from an OE. by-form grass is so general that asparagus has an air éêscian; retention of d with metathesis to of stiffness and pedantry* (Walker, 1791). dcsian gave local ME. oxy ; shortening of d before cs, x gave axy, axe, whence wide­ aspect æ*spekt way of looking ; appearance, spread mod. dial. ax. The standard form xiv (Ch., in astron. sense ; Gower, Trevisa). ask (c. 1200) resulted from metathesis of - L. aspectus (whence F. aspect, It. aspetto, aks-, ax-. The var. asse persists dial., with etc.), f. aspect-, pp. stem of asptcere look at, pt. and pp. ast. f. a- a d - + specere look (cf. spy ). T h e orig. askance a&kà’ns sideways, obliquely, xvi. stressing aspect continued till the time o f Early forms are a scanche, a sca(u)nce, a Swift, but a'sped is found in early xvii.

ASPEN

ASSAULT

Ç L. spec- and its var. spic- are repr. by many derivs., as (i) special, species, specious, spectacle, spectre, speculate ; aspect, circum­ spect, conspectus, expect, inspect, introspection, prospect, respect, suspect ; (ii) auspice, con­ spicuous, despicable (cf. despise), perspica­ cious, perspicuous, suspicion. aspen æ'span adj. of an asp-tree xiv; sb. aspen tree xvi. f. asp1-f- en1. The sb. arose from apprehending the adj., in such colloca­ tions as ojpew leaf (Ch.), as a sb. used attrib. asperges æsp5ud3îz (liturg.) (antiphon accompanying) the sprinkling of holy water before the principal mass on Sunday; first word of ‘Asperges me hyssopo et mundabor* Thou shalt purge me with hyssop and I shall be clean (Ps. l[i] 9). asperity æspe*rîti roughness, harshness. xvi. - L . aspérités, f. asper rough ; see -ITY. Earlier \asprete (xv) - OF. asprete (mod. âpreté). asperse ospâ'js besprinkle xv; calumniate xvii. f. aspers-, pp. stem of L. aspergere, f. a- ad- + spargere sprinkle (cf. sparse). So aspersiON ospô’jjon sprinkling ; calumnia­ tion. xvi. - L. asphalt æ*sfælt, (formerly) æsfæ-lt mineral pitch xiv; composition for paving made from bituminous limestones xix. The earliest exx. show adoption from various sources; aspaltoun, aspalt (xrv) from OF., aspallto from It. aspalto ; later the Gr. and L. forms were used, till more recent times, when asphalt(e) reproduces the F. asphalte ; ult. - L. asphalton, -um - Gr. dsphalton, -os, of alien origin. asphodel æ*sfôdel liliaceous plant, Asphodelus ramosus xvi (asphodil); used poet., after Homer’s âa^ofoAor Xetfjuuv asphodelcovered mead haunted by the heroes xvii (Milton). - L. asphodilus, -élus - Gr. aspho­ dèles ; the medL. var. affodilus was repr. by daffodil (xiv-xvn) ; cf. daffodil. asphyxia æsfrksio stoppage of the pulse, (hence) suffocation, xvin. modL. - Gr. asphuxid, f. a- A-4 -f sphuxis pulse (cf. SPHYGMO-). Hence asphyxiate (-ate3), -A'TION xix. aspic1 æ*spik savoury meat jelly, xvm . - F. aspic, a use of aspic serpent (see asp3), due to comoarison of the various colours of the jelly with those of the serpent (F. sauce or ragoût à Vaspic). aspic3 see asp3. aspidistra æspidrstra plant of the lilia­ ceous genus so named, xix. - modL., f. Gr. aspid-, aspls shield (with ref. to the shape of the leaves)+ -istra, after tupistra. aspire ospaia*j have a desire for some­ thing above one xv; rise up, mount xvi. - (O)F. aspirer or L. aspirdre breathe upon, favour, have an ambition, aspirate (cf. Gr. irpoorrveîv), f. ad AS- -f- spirdre breathe, prob. of imit. origin. So aspi*rANT one who -«

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aspires to high position xvin. - F. or L . prp. asp irate æ*sp!rot adj. aspirated x v ii; sb. consonant diphthong consisting of a stop followed by h ; sound of h xvm . — pp. of L. aspirdre; see -ate3. a*spirate -eit pronounce with an aspirate xviii ; see - ate8. aspirA’TiON action of aspirating, aspirated sound xiv; f favour, inspiration xv; drawing breath ; aspiring thought xvii. - (O)F. - L . aspirin æ’spîrin acetylsalicylic acid chemi­ cally prepared, used as a sedative drug, xix. - G. ; invented by Heinrich Dreser (‘Pfliiger’s Archiv* 1899); f. a-4-f- Spiraea+ - in (i.e. without the aid of Spiraea) and so named to distinguish it from the natural acid found in Spiraea ulmaria. asquint oskwrnt (arch.) to took to one side xiii (AncrR.); obliquely through a defect in the eyes, cross-eyed xiv (Trev.); with an unfavourable or furtive glance xv. perh. f. A -'+ a L G . or Du. form now repr. by Du. schuinte obliquity, slant, f. schuin oblique = Fris., L G . schiins. tôfcS apt to fall (*pt- mpet-, pipiein fall). asyndeton asi*ndatan (gram.) construction in which a conjunctive element is omitted. xvi. - modL. - Gr. asundeton, n. o f asündetos unconnected, f. a- A-4-f sûndetos, vbl. adj. of sundeîn, f. sun- SYN- + d