The Metrology of the Roman Silver Coinage Part II: from Nerva to Commodus 9780904531688, 9781407338613


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Table of contents :
Front Cover
Copyright
Table of Contents
LIST OF FIGURES
ABBREVIATIONS
INTRODUC'I1ON
CHAPTER 1: THE DENARIUS COINAGE
CHAPTER 2: THE CISTOPHORUS COINAGE
CHAPTER 3: GREEK-LEGEND SILVER COINAGES
CHAPTER 4: ALEXANDRIA
APPENDIX
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The Metrology of the Roman Silver Coinage Part II from N erva to Commodus D. R.Walker

BAR Supplementary Series 22 1

977

British Archaeological R�ports 122, Banbury Road, Oxford OX2 7BP, England

GENERAL EDITORS A. C. C. Brodribb, M.A. Mrs. Y. M. Hands

A. R. Hands, B.Sc., M.A., D.Phil. D. R. Walker, M.A.

B.A.R. Supplementary Series 22, 1977: "The Metrology of the Roman Silver Coinage Part II" © D. R. Walker, 1977. The author’s moral rights under the 1988 UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act are hereby expressly asserted. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be copied, reproduced, stored, sold, distributed, scanned, saved in any form of digital format or transmitted in any form digitally, without the written permission of the Publisher. ISBN 9780904531688 paperback ISBN 9781407338613 e-book DOI https://doi.org/10.30861/9780904531688 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library This book is available at www.barpublishing.com

CONTENTS Page List of Figures Abbreviations Introduction

1

CHAPTER 1:

THE DENARIUS COINAGE

CHAPTER 2:

THE CISTOPHORUS COINAGE

CHAPTER·3:

GREEK-LEGEND SILVER COINAGES

i) ii) iii) iv) v)

vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi) CHAPTER 4:

Nicopolis Crete Amisus Provincia Asia Lycia Caesarea Cilicia Syria-Phoenicia Palestine-Arabia Mesopotamia Cyrene ALEXANDRIA

3 61

65 65 66 69 70 71 86 91 106 111 112 114

Appendix

117

Notes

117

LIST OF FIGURES Page

Figure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

12

Denarii of Rome, A. D. 96-108 Denarii of Rome, A.D. 109-125 Denarii of Rome, A. D. 126-141 Denarii of Rome, A.D. 142-159 Denarii of Rome, A.D. 159-172 Denarii of Rome, A.D. 172-192 Denarii of Rome, A.D. 90-192 Percentage silver, Caesarea and Syria, A.D. 98-100 Weight of silver, Caesarea and Syria, A.D. 98-100 Tetradrachms of Trajan, A.D. 10 �117 Fineness of Arabia Coinages Fineness of coins of Cyrene and Caesarea, A.D. 98-100

48 49 50 51 52 53 54 100 100 103 108 113

ABBREVIATIONS 1. Collections AM BM Baldwin Clay Walker

Collection of the University of Oxford, Ashmolean Museum Collection of the British Museum, London Stock of A. H. Baldwin and Sons, Ltd., London Private collection of C. L. Clay Private collection of D. R. Walker

2. Published works ANS Museum Notes

American Numismatic Society Museum Notes

BMC, BMCRE

British Museum Catalogue of Greek Coins, and Coins of the Roman Empire; always BMC when the context is obvious.

Metrology I

D. R. Walker, The Metrology of The Roman Silver Coinage, Part i, from Augustus to Domi tian (B.A.R. Supplementary Series no. 5.)

NC

Numismatic Chronicle

NNM

American Numismatic Society Numismatic notes and Monographs

RIC

Roman Imperial Coinage, Ed. Mattingly, Sydenham, Sutherland and Carson Revue Numismatique

RN Sydenham

E. A. Sydenham, The Coinage of Caesarea in Cappadocia

Wruck

W. Wruck, Die Syrische Provinzialpr!tgung von Augustus bis Traian

Z .f.N.

Zeitschrift ftir Numismatik

INTRODUC'I1ON

The first volume of this series (British Archaeological Reports Supplemen­ tary Series 5, 1976) dealt with the silver coinages of the Roman Empire during the period from Augustus to Domitian, and also examined some of the earlier coinages out of which the imperial coinage evolved. The present volume con­ siders the coinages of the Empire from the accession of Nerva to the death of Commodus. A third volume, to be published in 1978, will cover the period from the accession of Pertinax to the death of Aemilian, and will contain concluding chapters on the debasement of the silver coinage of the early Empire as a whole. Fourth and fifth volumes will cover the silver coinages of the Roman Republic and the period from the reform of Carausius to the end of the western Empire. We are rather better served for published analyses for this period than was the case in the earlier one. All those of the denarius coinage published before 1956 have been collected by Bolin, while 11 further ones have been published by Cope, 5 by Reece and a considerable number for the period after A.D. 177 by Guey. The eastern coinages have been neglected, as ever. One or two analyses were published by Hammer, and the only analyses since his time are of 5 tetradrachms performed by van Zelst. For Alexandria the evi-­ dence before 1944 is collected (misleadingly) by West and Johnson and there is additional evidence provided by Caley and Schwartz . 1 Despite the relatively large number of analyses of denarii available, scholars have been unable to do more than point to a steady decline in the fineness of the currency during the second century; this is because with the abandonment of the Neronian standard the silver coinage was never again struck at a uniform fineness, but at a very variable 'standard' with perhaps as much as 15-20% of silver between the finest and most debased coins in a single year. The result of this is that it becomes essential to examine large samples before variation can be detected; samples which would, ideally, be very much larger than those used in this work. The same is even more true with the eastern coinages where, despite gathering material from many sources, the samples used here are often quite inadequate. As a result, al­ though it has been possible to detect most of the changes in the fineness of the Roman denarius fairly exactly, problems remain, while in the east the history of some of the coinages remains very obscure. As before, the analyses were carried out by X-ray fluorescence spectro­ metry at the Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art at Oxford University, and I must renew my thanks to Professor E. T. Hall and Dr. R. E. M. Hedges for providing the facilities. The University of Oxford's collection of coins was supplemented by material lent to me by the British Museum and Messrs A. H. Baldwin and Sons, to whom I am most grateful, while my friend Curtis Clay kindly lent me his eastern denarii of Hadrian.

1

Dr. M. A. Glasby gave freely of his time to help me with the tedious task of performing the calculations. British Archaeological Reports, January, 1977. 1.

s.

Bolin, State and Currency in the Roman Empire, 210-11; L. Cope, Metallurgical Analysis of Roman Coinage, in E. T. Hall and D. M. Metcalf (eds.), Methods of Chemical and Metallurgical Investigation of Ancient Coinage, 40ff. One of Cope's coins (no. 15) is probably a forgery, combining a blundered reverse legend and exceptionally high lead content. R. Reece, Analyses of some denarii of the Later Republic and early Empire, NC IV (1964) 233; ibid. NC V (1965) 195; J. Guey, L 'Aloi du denier Romain de 177 a 211, RN IV (1962) 17; J. Hammer, Der Feingehalt der griechischen und rtlmischen Mtinzen, ZfN XXVI (1908) 110ff; L. van Zelst, Syrische Muntvondst, De Geuzen Penning, July 1970, 34; L. C. West and A. C. Johnson, Currency in Roman and Byzantine Egypt, 172; E. R. Caley, Chemical composition and chron­ ology of Alexandrian tetradrachms, ANS Centennial Publication, 172ff; J. Schwartz, Reflexions sur les tetradrachms d'Alexandrie, Chronique d'Egypt, XLl (1966) 371ff.

2

CHAPTER 1 THE DENAR IUS CO INAGE

Nerva- M in t o f Ro me 1 .

Co inage o f A .D . 9 6

We igh t

We igh t o f

No.

Reference

( g )

% s i lver

Au

1 496

A M-R IC 1

3 .00

9 4.00

t r

1 497

AN I-BJC

2 .97

9 2.00

t r

1 498

A M-R IC 3

3 .44

9 3.00

1 499

A M-R IC 3

3 .07

9 3.50

1 500

A M-R IC 4

2 .88

Pb -

s i lver ( g ) 2 .82

0 .50

2 .73

t r

0 .25

3 .19

t r

t r

2 .87

9 3.00

t r

0 .25

2 .67

1 501

A M-R IC 6

3 .35

9 3.50

t r

0 .25

3 .13

1 502

A M-R IC 7

3 .52

9 2.00

t r

t r

3 .23

1 503

A M-R IC 9

3 .11

9 2.75

t r

t r

1 504

AN I-RIC 9

3 .45

9 4.00

t r

Mean ( 9 c o ins )

3 .20

9 3.08

2 .97

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .23

0 .71

0 .21

2 . 1 505

A M-R IC 1 3

1 506 1 507

-

2 .88 3 .24

Co inage o f A . D. 9 7

3 .19

9 3.25

t r

t r

A M-R IC 1 4

3 .34

9 3.25

t r

t r

A M-R IC 1 4

3 .45

9 4.00

1 508

A M-R IC 1 4

3 .40

9 4.25

1 509

A M-R IC 1 4

3 .21

9 3.00

1 510

AN I-RIC 1 5

3 .31

9 3.50

1 511

A M-R IC 1 6

3 .32

9 3.00

1 512

A M-R IC 1 6

3 .40

9 3.50

1 513

A M-R IC 1 6

3 .38

9 3.75

1 514

A M-R IC 1 6

3 .27

9 2.50

1 515

A M-R IC 1 7

3 .10

9 2.75

1 516

A M-R IC 1 9

3 .10

9 3.50

t r t r t r t r -

2 .97 3 .11

-

3 .24

-

3 .20

t r

2 .98

t r

3 .09

t r t r t r -

3 .08 3 .17 3 .16 3 .02 2 .87 2 .89

1 517

A M-R IC 2 0

3 .18

9 2.75

t r

t r

2 .94

1 518

A M-R IC 2 4

3 .36

9 1.50

t r

t r

3 .07

1 519

A M-R IC 2 5

3 .29

9 1.25

t r

-

3 .00

1 520

A M-R IC 2 5

3 .57

9 2.50

t r

t r

3 .30

1 521

A M-R IC 2 6

3 .17

9 2.75

t r

t r

2 .94

t r

1 522

A M-R IC 2 7

3 .02

9 4.50

t r

1 523

A M-R IC 2 8

3 .37

9 4.50

t r

-

3 .18

1 524

A M-R IC 2 8

3 .01

9 3.75

t r

-

2 .82

3

2 .85

We igh t No.

Reference

( g )

We igh t o f •% s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

1 525

A M-R IC 3 1

3 .21

9 2.50

t r

t r

2 .96

1 526

AM-R IC 3 1

2 .60

9 3.50

t r

t r

2 .43

1 527

A M-R IC 3 4

3 .09

9 3.50

-

1 528

AM-R IC 3 4

3 .24

9 2.75

-

1 529

AM-R IC 4 1

3 .22

9 3.25

Mean ( 25 c o ins o f2 UD.97 )3.23

9 3.19

3 .01

0 .08

0 .17

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .19 3 .

t r

t r

-

2 .88 3 .00 3 .00

Co inage o f A . D. 9 8

1 530

AM-R IC 4 3

2 .96

9 2.50

1 531

AM-R IC 4 3

3 .16

9 3.75

t r

1 532

AM-R IC 4 8

2 .86

9 3.25

Mean ( 3 c o ins o f A . D.98 )

2 .99

9 3.16

Mean ( 37 c o ins o f Nerva )

3 .20

9 3.14

2 .98

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .20

0 .83

0 .19

t r

t r t r

2 .73 2 .96 2 .66

Corrected mean we igh t ( 90 c o ins )

3 .26

3 .03

Tra jan- M in t o f Ro me 1 .

Co inage o f A . D. 9 8-99

1 533

AM-R IC 1

3 .55

9 3.25

-

t r

3 .31

1 534

AM-R IC 1

3 .55

9 2.75

t r

-

3 .29

1 535

AM-R IC 6

2 .91

9 3.75

t r

-

2 .72

1 536

AM-R IC 6

2 .99

9 3.25

t r

t r

2 .78

1 537

AM-R IC 6

3 .31

9 4.00

t r

t r

3 .11

1 538

AM-R IC 9

3 .46

9 3.25

t r

-

3 .22

1 539

AM-R IC 1 0

3 .26

9 6.00

t r

-

3 .12

1 540

AM-R 1C 1 0

2 .79

9 4.25

-

t r

2 .62

1 541

AM-R IC 1 0

2 .90

9 3.75

t r

t r

2 .71

1 542

AM-R IC 1 1

3 .09

9 4.25

t r

t r

2 .91

1 543

AM-R IC 1 1

3 .15

9 0.50

-

-

2 .85

1 544

AM-R IC 1 2

2 .94

9 3.75

t r

-

2 .75

1 545

AM-R IC 1 2

3 .35

9 3.00

t r

-

3 .11

1 546

AM-R IC 1 3

3 .61

9 3.00

t r

-

3 .35

1 547

AM-R IC 1 7

3 .16

9 2.75

t r

t r

2 .93

1 548

AM-R IC 1 7

3 .57

9 4.75

t r

t r

3 .38

1 549

AM-R IC 1 7

3 .37

9 2.75

t r

-

3 .12

1 550

AM-R IC 2 1

3 .27

9 3.75

t r

t r

3 .06

1 551

AM-R IC 2 1

3 .56

9 4.25

t r

-

3 .35

1 552

AM-R IC 2 2

3 .30

9 3.50

-

-

3 .08

1 553

AM-R IC 3 0

3 .78

9 3.25

t r

t r

3 .52

1 554

AM-R IC 3 0

2 .84

9 4.25

t r

t r

2 .67

1 555

AM-R IC-B MC 4 7

3 .50

9 3.75

t r

-

3 .28

Mean ( 23 c o ins )

3 .27

9 3.55

3 .05

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .28

0 .98

0 .26

4

Tra jan- M in t o f Ro me 2 .

Co inage o f A .D . 1 00

We igh t No.

Reference

( g )

We igh t o f % s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

1 556

A M-R IC 3 2

3 .33

9 0.00

t r

t r

2 .99

1 557

AM-R IC 3 2

3 .00

9 3.75

t r

t r

2 .81

1 558

A M-R IC 3 3

3 .20

9 2.50

t r

t r

2 .96

1 559

A M-R IC 3 3

3 .30

9 4.00

t r

-

3 .10

1 560

A M-R IC 3 3

3 .31

9 2.50

t r

-

3 .06

1 561

A M-RJC 3 7

2 .73

9 4.50

t r

t r

2 .57

1 562

A M-R IC 3 8

3 .22

9 1.50

t r

-

2 .94

1 563

AM-R IC 3 8

3 .50

9 3.50

t r

t r

3 .27

1 564

AM-R 1C 4 0

3 .17

9 1.50

-

t r

2 .90

1 565

A M-R IC 4 1

3 .39

9 0.00

t r

t r

3 .05

Mean ( 10 c o ins )

3 .22

9 2.38

2 .97

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .21

1 .52

0 .18

3 .

Co inage o f A . D. 1 01-102

1 566

A M-R IC 4 6

3 .07

9 2.50

t r

-

2 .83

1 567

A M-R IC 4 9

3 .23

9 5.00

t r

t r

3 .06

1 568

A M-R IC 4 9

3 .47

9 3.00

t r

t r

3 .22

1 569

A M-R IC 4 9

3 .40

9 2.75

t r

t r

3 .15

1 570

AM-RIC 4 9

3 .16

9 2.50

-

t r

2 .92

1 571

A M-RIC 5 2

3 .15

9 4.50

-

t r

2 .97

1 572

AM-R IC 5 3

2 .90

9 4.50

t r

-

2 .74

1 573

AM-RJC 5 4

2 .61

9 4.50

t r

-

2 .46

1 574

A M-R IC 5 8

3 .46

9 3.25

-

t r

3 .22

1 575

A M-RIC 5 8

3 .26

9 4.25

t r

t r

3 .07

1 576

AM -,R IC 5 8

2 .76

9 1.00

t r

t r

2 .51

1 577

A M-R IC 5 8

3 .19

9 1.25

-

-

2 .91

1 578

A M-RIC 5 9

3 .35

9 3.75

t r

t r

3 .14

1 579

AM-R IC 5 9

3 .06

9 2.75

t r

t r

2 .83

1 580

AM-RJC 6 0

3 .15

9 2.50

t r

t r

2 .91

1 581

AM-RJC 6 0

3 .36

9 2.75

-

t r

3 .11

1 582

AM-R IC 6 0

3 .11

9 1.50

t r

t r

2 .84

1 583

AM-RJC 6 4

2 .81

9 2.75

-

-

2 .60

1 584

AM-RJC 6 5

3 .27

9 2.75

t r

t r

3 .03

1 585

A M-R IC 6 5

3 .22

9 2.75

t r

t r

2 .98

1 586

AM-R IC 6 6

3 .30

9 4.25

t r

-

3 .11

1 587

A M-R IC 6 7

2 .92

9 1.50

-

t r

2 .67

Mean ( 22 c o ins )

3 .15

9 3.01

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .22

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .22

2 .92 2 .99

1 .11

5

0 .21

Tra jan - Min t o f Ro me 4 .

Co inage o f A . D. 10 3

We igh t No.

Reference

We ight o f

( g )

% s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

AM-R IC 8 0

2 .98

9 3.25

t r

t r

2 .77

1 589

AM-R IC 8 5

3 .21

9 0.75

t r

t r

2 .91

1 590

AM-R IC 8 9

2 .74

9 4.25

-

-

2 .58

Mean ( 3 c o ins )

2 .97

9 2.75

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .21

1 588

5 .

2 .75 2 .98

Co inage o f A . D. 1 04

1 591

AM-R IC 2 02

2 .90

8 2.50

-

1 .75

2 .39

1 592

AM-R IC 2 02

3 .26

9 0.50

t r

t r

2 .95

1 593

AM-R IC 2 12

2 .84

9 3.00

t r

0 .75

2 .64

1 594

AM-R IC 2 13

3 .20

8 6.50

-

0 .50

2 .76

1 595

AM-R IC 2 16

3 .29

8 6.50

-

t r

2 .84

1 596

AM-R IC 2 18

3 .46

9 1.50

-

t r

3 .16

1 597

AM-R IC 2 19

3 .03

9 2.50

-

-

2 .80

1 598

AM-R IC 2 19

3 .44

9 2.50

-

t r

3 .18

1 599

AM-R IC 2 22

3 .42

8 7.00

-

0 .50

2 .97

1 600

AM-BIC 2 22

2 .95

9 2.75

-

1 .00

2 .73

1 601

AM-R IC 2 23

3 .29

9 3.50

t r

0 .25

3 .07

3 .18

8 9.89

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .21

3 .48

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .26

Mean ( 11 c o ins )

6 .

2 .86 0 .22 2 .93

Co inage o f A . D. 1 05

1 602

AM-R IC 1 77

3 .30

9 2.25

t r

t r

3 .04

1 603

AM-R IC 1 91

3 .04

9 2.25

-

t r

2 .80

1 604

AM-R IC 1 93

3 .13

9 2.75

t r

t r

2 .90

1 605

AM-R IC 2 26

2 .82

9 1.75

-

1 .00

2 .58

1 606

AM-R IC 1 90 (a )

3 .29

9 2.75

-

t r

3 .05

1 607

AM-R IC 1 90 (a )

3 .24

9 0.50

-

t r

2 .93

Mean (6 c o ins )

3 .14

9 2.04

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .17

0 .77

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .21 7 .

2 .88 0 .15 2 .95

Co inage o f A . D. 1 06

1 608

AM-R IC 1 57

3 .27

9 2.25

t r

0 .75

3 .01

1 609

A M-R IC 2 03

3 .32

9 2.75

t r

0 .25

3 .07

1 610

AM-R IC 2 04

3 .21

8 8.00

-

0 .50

2 .82

1 611

AM-R IC 2 04

2 .90

9 5.50

t r

t r

2 .76

1 612

AM-R IC 2 17

2 .83

9 2.00

t r

0 .50

2 .60

1 613

A M-R IC 2 20

3 .29

9 3.50

t r

-

3 .07

6

We igh t No.

Reference

( g Y

We igh t o f % s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

0 .50

2 .74

t r

0 .50

2 .76

1 614

AM-R IC 2 21

3 .01

9 1.25

1 615

AM-R IC 2 23

2 .99

9 2.50

Mean ( 8 c o ins )

3 .10

9 2.22

2 .85

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .18

1 .99

0 .16

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .21

8 .

2 .96

Co inage o f f irst p ar t o f A . D. 1 07

1 616

A M-R IC 1 51

3 .28

9 1.50

-

0 .50

3 .00

1 617

AM-R IC 1 54

2 .85

9 3.00

-

0 .75

2 .65

1 618

A M-R IC 1 58

3 .32

9 1.75

-

-

3 .04

1 619

A M-R IC 1 62

3 .32

9 1.50

-

t r

3 .03 2 .81

1 620

A M-R IC 1 63

3 .08

9 1.50

-

t r

1 621

A M-R IC 1 65

3 .01

9 3.00

-

t r

2 .79

1 622

A M-RIC 1 66

2 .95

9 3.00

t r

-

2 .74

1 623

AM-R IC 1 67

3 .02

9 2.75

-

0 .50

2 .80

1 624

A M-R IC 1 69

3 .22

9 1.50

t r

0 .50

2 .94

1 625

A M-R IC 1 74

2 .91

9 2.00

t r

t r

2 .67

1 626

A M-R IC 1 76

2 .98

9 0.25

-

t r

2 .68

1 627

A M-R IC 1 81

3 .35

9 2.75

-

0 .25

3 .10

1 628

A M-R IC 1 83

3 .23

9 0.75

-

t r

2 .93

1 629

A M-R IC 1 83

3 .50

9 3.00

t r

0 .50

3 .25

1 630

A M-R IC 1 83

3 .43

9 0.75

-

0 .50

3 .11

1 631

A M-RDC 1 85

3 .47

9 3.75

t r

t r

3 .25

1 632

A M-R IC 1 87

3 .26

9 3.00

-

t r

3 .03

1 633

AM-R IC 1 88

3 .35

9 1.50

-

0 .25

3 .06

1 634

A M-R IC 1 88

2 .93

9 2.75

-

t r

2 .71

1 635

AM-R IC 1 89

3 .18

9 2.50

t r

t r

2 .94

1 636

A M-R IC 1 90

2 .63

9 3.75

t r

t r

2 .46

1 637

A M-R IC 1 94

3 .29

9 3.00

t r

-

3 .05

Mean ( 22 c o ins )

3 .16

9 2.23

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .22

0 .96

Correc ted mean we igh t

3 .27

9 .

2 .91 0 .20 3 .01

Co inage o f l ater p ar t o f A . D. 1 07

1 638

A M-R IC 1 00

2 .92

9 3.50

-

0 .50

2 .73

1 639

A M-R IC 1 00

3 .11

9 2.50

t r

t r

2 .87

1 640

A M-R IC 1 00

2 .73

9 0.50

t r

0 .25

2 .47

1 641

A M-R IC 1 14

2 .81

9 2.75

t r

1 .00

2 .60

1 642

A M-R IC 1 14

2 .93

9 3.00

-

0 .25

2 .72

1 643

AM-R IC 1 14

2 .93

9 4.00

-

t r

2 .75

1 644

A M-R IC 1 15

2 .81

9 2.00

t r

t r

2 .58

1 645

A M-RIC 1 15

2 .94

9 0.25

t r

0 .50

2 .65

1 646

A M-R IC 1 15

3 .23

8 2.50

t r

t r

2 .66

1 647

A M-R IC 1 15

3 .34

9 0.50

t r

0 .25

3 .02

7

We igh t No.

Reference

( g )

We igh t o f % s i lver

Au

P b

s i lver ( g )

1 648

AM-R IC 1 16

3 .22

9 0.50

-

0 .25

2 .91

1 649

AM-R IC 1 16

3 .08

9 0.50

-

0 .50

2 .78

1 650

AM-R IC 16

3 .06

9 1.50

t r

0 .25

2 .79

1 651

AM-R IC 1 27

2 .92

9 2.00

-

0 .50

2 .68

1 652

AM-R IC 1 27

3 .26

8 9.50

t r

0 .75

2 .91

1 653

AM-R IC 1 28

2 .74

8 8.50

-

0 .50

2 .42

1 654

AM-R IC 1 28

3 .44

8 4.75

t r

0 .50

2 .91

1 655

AM-R IC 1 28

3 .01

9 1.50

-

1 .00

2 .75

1 656

AM-R IC 1 31

3 .28

9 1.50

t r

t r

3 .00

1 657

AM-R IC 1 39

2 .97

9 0.75

t r

0 .25

2 .69

1 658

AM-R IC 1 39

3 .32

9 2.50

t r

0 .25

3 .07

1 659

AM-R IC 1 47

2 .97

9 2.75

-

0 .75

2 .75

1 660

AM-R IC 1 47

3 .18

8 7.50

t r

0 .50

2 .78

1 661

AM-R IC 1 47

3 .31

8 1.50

t r

0 .50

2 .69

1 662

AM-R IC 1 47

2 .97

8 7.75

t r

0 .50

2 .60

1 663

AM-R IC 1 47

3 .46

8 3.50

-

0 .50

2 .88

1 664

AM-R IC 1 47

3 .34

8 7.50

-

0 .25

2 .92

1 665

AM-R IC 1 47

1 666

AM-R IC 1 47

2 .95 3 .35

9 3.25 9 1.00

-

0 .25 0 .50

2 .75 3 .04

Mean ( 29 c o ins )

3 .09

8 9.99

2 .77

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .21

3 .28

0 .16

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .20 1 0.

2 .87 Co inage o f A .D. 1 08

1 667

AM-R IC 9 6

3 .20

8 9.00

-

0 .25

2 .84

1 668

AM-R IC 9 6

2 .93

7 9.50

1 669

AM-R IC 9 6

2 .93

9 3.50

t r

1 .75

2 .32

t r

0 .25

2 .73

1 670

AM-R IC 9 6

3 .33

9 1.50

1 671

AM-R IC 1 18

3 .42

8 1.50

-

0 .25

3 .04

t r

0 .25

2 .78

1 672

AM-R IC 18

3 .23

9 3.50

t r

0 .25

3 .02

1 673

AM-R IC 1 18

3 .30

8 1.50

t r

0 .25

2 .68

1 674

AM-R IC 1 19

3 .21

9 3.25

t r

0 .25

2 .99

1 675

AM-R IC 1 19

2 .97

8 4.00

-

0 .50

2 .49

1 676

AM-R IC 1 21

3 .08

9 2.00

t r

0 .75

2 .83

1 677

AM-R IC 1 21

3 .00

8 4.00

t r

0 .75

2 .52

1 678

AM-R IC 1 21

2 .83

9 0.00

-

0 .50

2 .54

1 679

AM-R IC 1 21

3 .33

9 1.50

-

0 .50

3 .04

1 680

AM-R IC 1 22

3 .31

9 2.00

-

t r

3 .04

1 681

AM-R IC 1 22

3 .34

8 9.50

-

0 .25

2 .98

1 682

AM-R IC 1 22

3 .23

9 0.00

t r

0 .25

2 .90

1 683

AM-R IC 1 29

3 .41

9 2.50

t r

0 .50

3 .15

1 684

AM-R IC 1 29

3 .34

9 2.25

-

0 .50

3 .08

1 685

AM-R IC 1 30

3 .41

8 9.00

-

0 .50

3 .03

Mean ( 19 c o ins )

3 .20

8 8.95

2 .84

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .18

4 .39

0 .23

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .22

2 .84 8

1 1.

Co inage o f A .D. 1 09-111

We igh t No.

Reference

1 686 1 687 1 688

We ight o f

( g )

% s i lver

AN II iIC 9 1

3 .05

9 2.75

-

0 .25

2 .82

A M-R IC 9 1

3 .17

9 0.00

-

t r

2 .85

A M-RIC 9 8

3 .32

9 2.50

t r

0 .75

3 .07

1 689

AM-R IC 9 8

3 .24

9 2.75

t r

0 .25

3 .00

1 690

AM-R IC 9 8

3 .22

8 9.50

-

0 .25

2 .88

1 691

A M-RIC 9 8

3 .31

8 9.25

-

0 .75

2 .95

1 692

AM-R IC 9 9

3 .09

9 0.50

-

0 .25

2 .79

1 693

AM-R IC 1 02

3 .13

9 2.50

-

t r

2 .89

1 694

AM-R IC 1 02

3 .25

9 1.50

t r

0 .50

2 .97

1 695

AM-R IC 1 04

3 .14

9 2.75

t r

0 .25

2 .91

1 696

A M-R IC 1 07

3 .17

8 2.50

t r

t r

2 .61

1 697

A M-R IC 1 08

3 .20

8 7.50

-

0 .50

2 .80

1 698

AM . -RIC 1 20

3 .30

8 7.00

t r

0 .50

2 .87

1 699

A M-R IC 1 20

3 .12

8 6.50

t r

0 .25

2 .69

1 700

A M-R IC 1 20

3 .45

8 6.75

t r

t r

2 .99

1 701

AM-R IC 1 42

3 .26

7 8.50

t r

0 .25

2 .55

1 702

A M-R IC 1 42

2 .87

9 3.25

-

0 .50

2 .67

1 703

A M-RIC 1 42

3 .00

8 9.50

t r

0 .50

2 .68

1 704

A M-R IC 1 26

3 .32

9 4.00

t r

0 .25

3 .12

1 705

A M-R IC 1 26

3 .24

8 9.00

-

0 .25

2 .88

1 706

AM-R IC 2 29

3 .22

7 7.50

-

0 .75

2 .49

1 707

A M-R IC c f 2 29

3 .07

8 0.25

t r

0 .50

2 .46

Mean ( 22 c o ins )

3 .19

8 8.47

2 .82

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .12

4 .73

0 .18

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .21 1 2.

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

2 .83

Co inage o f A . D. 1 12-113

1 708

AM-R IC 2 41

3 .09

9 0.00

-

0 .75

2 .78

1 709

AM-R IC 2 43

3 .17

9 2.75

t r

0 .50

2 .94

1 710

A le -R IC 2 43

3 .17

8 8.00

-

0 .50

2 .78

1 711

AM-R IC 2 45

3 .34

8 0.50

t r

0 .25

2 .68

1 712

A M-R IC 2 45

3 .30

8 6.75

-

-

2 .86

1 713

AM-R IC 2 45

2 .6 i1

9 3.25

t r

-

2 .42

1 714

AM-R IC 2 45

3 .38

8 9.00

t r

-

3 .00

1 715

AM-R IC 2 60

3 .12

9 1.00

t r

0 .25

2 .83

1 716

AM-R IC 2 62

2 .76

9 2.75

t r

0 .75

2 .55

1 717

AM-R IC 2 64

3 .42

9 4.25

t r

-

3 .22

1 718

AM-R IC 2 66

2 .79

9 3.25

t r

0 .50

2 .60

1 719

AM-RIC 2 66

3 .57

8 2.00

-

0 .75

2 .92

1 720

AM-R IC 2 66

2 .98

9 0.00

t r

0 .25

2 .68

1 721

AM-R IC 2 66

3 .17

8 7.25

t r

0 .50

2 .76

1 722

AM-R IC 2 66

2 .91

9 1.25

0 .50

2 .65

1 723

AM-R IC 2 79

3 .28

9 3.75

t r

t r

3 .07

1 724

AM-R IC 2 91

3 .12

9 3.00

-

0 .25

2 .90

9

We igh t No.

Reference

( g )

1 725

AM-RIC 2 91

3 .24

1 726

AM-R IC 2 91

1 727

AM-R IC 2 91

We igh t o f '% s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

9 3.50

t r

0 .25

3 .22

9 0.00

-

0 .25

2 .89

3 .26

8 8.50

-

0 .25

2 .88

3 .02

1 728

AM-R IC 2 94

3 .20

9 2.25

t r

0 .50

2 .95

1 729

AM-R IC 2 94

3 .13

9 1.50

-

0 .25

2 .86

1 730

AM-R IC 2 95

3 .10

9 0.50

-

0 .25

2 .80

1 731

AM-R IC 2 95

3 .22

7 9.00

-

0 .50

2 .54

1 732

AM-RIC 2 96

3 .35

8 9.50

t r

0 .50

2 .99

1 733

AM-R IC 2 96

3 .23

8 8.50

t r

1 .50

2 .85

3 .16

8 9.69

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .21

3 .92

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .25

Mean ( 26 c o ins )

1 3.

2 .82 0 .18 2 .91

Co inage o f A . D. 1 14

1 734

A dd-RIC 2 69

3 .38

8 9.00

t r

0 .25

3 .00

1 735

A dd-RIC 2 69

3 .17

9 0.50

-

-

2 .86

1 736

A dd-R IC 2 69

3 .31

8 8.00

-

0 .75

2 .91

1 737

AM-R IC 2 70

3 .41

8 8.50

-

0 .25

3 .01

1 738

AM-R IC 2 71

3 .10

8 8.50

t r

t r

2 .74

1 739

AM-R IC 2 72

2 .68

9 2.50

t r

0 .25

2 .47

1 740

A dd-RIC 2 75

3 .01

9 0.25

t r

t r

2 .71

1 741

A dd-RIC 2 75

3 .27

8 1.00

t r

t r

2 .64

1 742

AM-RIC 2 75

3 .25

9 4.25

t r

0 .25

3 .06

1 743

AM-R IC 2 71

3 .21

9 1.25

-

0 .50

2 .92

1 744

A dd-RIC 2 88

3 .14

9 0.25

t r

0 .50

2 .83

1 745

AM-RIC 2 88

3 .13

8 9.25

t r

-

2 .79

1 746

AM-R IC 2 92

3 .17

9 1.25

t r

0 .50

2 .89

1 747

A dd-RIC 2 92

3 .02

8 8.00

-

0 .75

2 .65

1 748

A dd-RIC 2 93

2 .76

9 3.00

-

0 .50

2 .56

1 749

A dd-RIC 2 93

2 .98

9 3.25

-

0 .25

2 .77

Mean ( 16 c o ins )

3 .12

8 9.92

2 .80

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .19

2 .98

0 .16

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .21 1 4.

1 750

AM-R IC 2 52

3 .24

2 .88 Co inage o f A . D. 1 15 9 2.25

-

0 .50

2 .98

1 751

A dd-RIC 2 52

2 .61

9 2.75

-

0 .50

2 .42

1 752

AM-R IC 2 55

2 .90

9 3.00

t r

0 .50

2 .69

1 753

AM-R IC 2 76

3 .02

9 0.25

-

0 .50

2 .72

1 754

AM-R IC 3 03

3 .34

8 8.25

t r

0 .50

2 .94

1 755

A dd-RIC 3 03

2 .70

9 4.00

t r

0 .25

2 .53

1 756

A dd-RIC 3 18

3 .44

8 9.00

t r

0 .50

3 .06

1 757

A dd-RIC 3 19

2 .70

9 3.00

-

0 .50

2 .51

1 758

AM-R IC 3 37

3 .19

9 0.00

t r

0 .50

2 .87

1 0

We igh t No.

Reference

1 759

We igh t o f

( g )

% s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

A M-R IC 3 37

3 .50

7 9.00

t r

1 .25

2 .76

1 760

A M-R IC 3 37

3 .47

8 3.00

-

0 .25

2 .88

1 761

A M-R IC 3 38

2 .99

9 0.25

-

0 .50

2 .69

1 762

A M-R IC 3 43

3 .02

9 3.00

t r

1 .25

2 .80

1 763

A M-R IC 3 43

3 .44

9 0.50

t r

0 .25

3 .11

1 764

A M-R IC 3 44

3 .01

8 9.00

-

t r

2 .67 2 .90

1 765

A M-R IC 3 47

3 .26

8 9.00

t r

0 .25

1 766

A M-R IC 3 47

3 .11

9 0.00

-

0 .75

2 .79

1 767

A M-R IC 3 47

2 .78

9 0.00

t r

0 .75

2 .50

1 768

A M-R IC 3 47

3 .11

8 7.50

-

0 .25

2 .72

1 769

A M-R IC 3 47

3 .13

8 6.50

t r

1 .00

2 .70

1 770

A M-R IC 3 55

3 .08

9 0.25

t r

0 .50

2 .77

1 771

A M-RIC 3 55

3 .27

8 8.00

t r

0 .75

2 .87

1 772

A M-R IC 3 55

3 .08

9 2.50

-

0 .25

2 .84

1 773

A M-R IC 3 56

3 .03

8 8.50

-

0 .50

2 .68

1 774

A M-R IC 3 56

2 .80

9 3.00

-

0 .25

2 .60

1 775

A M-R IC 3 56

3 .32

9 0.50

t r

0 .25

3 .00

1 776

A M-R IC 3 56

3 .32

8 3.00

t r

0 .75

2 .75

3 .11

8 9.48

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .24

3 .41

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .25

Mean ( 27 c o ins )

1 5.

2 .77 0 .17 2 .90

Co inage o f A .D . 1 16

1 777

A M-R IC 3 17

3 .41

8 1.00

t r

0 .25

2 .76

1 778

A M-R IC 3 40

3 .18

9 2.75

t r

0 .50

2 .94

1 779

A M-R IC 3 40

2 .87

9 4.00

t r

t r

2 .69

1 780

A M-R IC 3 45

3 .05

9 2.75

t r

t r

2 .82

1 781

A M-R IC 3 45

3 .18

9 0.50

t r

0 .25

2 .87

1 782

A M-R IC 3 48

2 .71

8 7.00

t r

0 .25

2 .35

1 783

A M-R IC 3 49

3 .42

8 4.00

-

0 .50

2 .87

1 784

A M-R IC 3 53

3 .66

8 3.25

t r

1 .00

3 .04

1 785

A M-R IC 3 53

3 .50

9 0.25

t r

0 .50

3 .16

1 786

A M-R IC 3 64

3 .20

8 3.00

t r

0 .25

2 .65

1 787

A M-R IC 3 64

3 .09

9 2.75

t r

0 .25

2 .86

1 788

A M-R IC 3 65

2 .97

8 3.00

t r

0 .50

2 .46

Mean ( 12 c o ins )

3 .19

8 7.87

2 .79

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .26

4 .59

0 .22

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .26 1 6.

2 .86 Co inage o f A . D. 1 17

1 789

A M-R IC 3 15

3 .09

8 6.00

0 .25

2 .65

1 790

A M-R IC 3 15

2 .99

8 8.00

0 .75

2 .63

1 791

A M-RIC 3 16

3 .27

8 6.50

t r

0 .75

2 .82

1 792

AM-R IC 3 26

3 .38

8 9.00

t r

0 .50

3 .00

1 1

We igh t No.

Reference

1 793

We igh t o f

( g )

% s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

A M-R IC 3 29

3 .43

9 0.00

t r

0 .75

3 .08

1 794

A M-R IC 3 29

3 .43

9 2.25

t r

0 .50

3 .16

1 795

A M-RIC 3 31

3 .21

9 0.00

-

-

2 .88

1 796

A M-R IC 3 31

2 .96

8 9.00

t r

1 .00

2 .63

1 797

AM-R IC 3 31

2 .65

9 0.50

t r

0 .50

2 .39

1 798

AM-R IC 3 32

3 .39

8 8.00

t r

0 .75

2 .98

1 799

A M-R IC 3 32

3 .59

8 2.50

t r

0 .50

2 .96

1 800

A M-R IC 3 34

2 .95

8 9.50

t r

0 .25

2 .64

1 801

AM-R IC 3 34

2 .98

9 3.25

t r

0 .25

2 .77

1 802

AM-RIC 3 34

3 .36

8 9.50

-

0 .50

3 .00

1 803

AM-R IC 3 41

3 .01

9 1.00

-

1 .25

2 .73

1 804

AM-R IC 3 42

2 .91

9 1.00

t r

1 .75

2 .64

1 805

A M-RIC 3 61

3 .18

9 2.25

t r

0 .50

2 .93

1 806

AM-R IC 3 61

3 .48

7 9.00

t r

t r

2 .74

1 807

AM-RIC 3 63a

2 .98

9 2.75

t r

0 .50

2 .76

3 .17

8 8.95

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .24

3 .44

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .20

Mean ( 19 c o ins )

1 7. 1 808

A M-R IC 7 96

2 .81 0 .19 2 .84

' Restored ' d enar i i

2 .59

9 5.00

t r

t r

9 1.75

t r

1 .00

( worn ) 1 809

AM-R IC 7 97

2 .30 ( worn )

1 810

AM-R IC 8 09

2 .28

9 2.00

0 .75

( broken ) 1 8. 1 811

AM-R IC 4 3-

Qu inar i i

1 .44

9 0.25

t r

t r

1 .29

1 .51

9 2.75

t r

t r

1 .40

1 .27

9 3.50

t r

-

1 .18

A . D. 1 00 1 812

AM-R IC 5 1A . D. 1 01-2

1 813

AM-R IC 7 4A . D. 1 03

1 814

AM-R IC-A. D .103

1 .53

9 3.75

t r

t r

1 .43

1 815

AM-R IC 1 33-

1 .65

8 9.50

-

0 .25

1 .47

1 .86

9 0.75

t r

0 .25

1 .68

1 .06

9 0.50

-

t r

0 .95

1 .48

9 2.25

-

1 .00

1 .36

1 .57

9 3.00

-

0 .25

1 .46

A .D . 1 07 1 816

AM-R IC 1 34A . D. 1 07

1 817

AM-R IC 2 81A . D. 1 15

1 818

AM-R IC 2 81A . D. 1 15

1 819

AM-R IC 3 52A . D. 1 16

1 2

We igh t No.

Reference

1 820

AM-R IC 3 35-

( g )

We igh t o f •% s i lver

Au t r

Pb 0 .50

s i lver ( g )

1 .35

9 0.00

1 .21

Mean ( 10 c o ins )

1 .47

9 1.63

1 .34

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .21

1 .51

0 .19

Corrected mean we igh t

1 .51

A . D. 1 17

1 .38

( 30 c o ins ) 2 .76

We igh t o f s i lver i n t heoret ica l d enar ius

Hadr ian - Min t o f Ro me 1 .

Co inage o f A . D. 1 17

1 821

AM-R IC 2 (a )

3 .37

9 0.00

-

0 .75

1 822

AM-R IC 2 (c )

3 .53

8 2.00

-

0 .25

3 .03 2 .89

1 823

AM-R IC 3 (a )

3 .34

9 0.00

-

0 .50

3 .00

1 824

AM-R IC 3 (c )

3 .27

8 7.50

-

0 .25

2 .86

1 825

A M-R IC 3 (e )

3 .17

8 5.00

t r

-

2 .69

1 826

AM-R IC 4 (a )

3 .21

9 0.25

-

0 .25

2 .89

1 827

AM-R IC 5 (a )

3 .28

8 4.50

-

0 .50

2 .77

1 828

AM-RIC 5 (c )

2 .69

9 1.50

t r

1 .00

2 .46

1 829

AM-R IC 6 (a )

3 .00

9 1.50

-

t r

2 .74

1 830

A M-R IC 6 (c )

2 .77

9 3.25

-

0 .50

2 .58

1 831

A M-RIC 6 (c )

3 .33

8 7.00

t r

0 .25

2 .89

1 832

A M-R IC 7 (b )

3 .18

9 2.25

-

0 .50

2 .93

1 833

A M-R IC 9 (a )

3 .24

9 2.25

t r

1 .50

2 .98

1 834

AM-R IC 9 (c )

3 .39

8 0.50

t r

1 .25

2 .72 2 .64

1 835

A M-R IC 1 0 (a )

3 .41

7 7.50

-

-

1 836

A M-R IC 1 0 (a )

3 .16

7 9.00

t r

0 .75

2 .49

1 837

A M-R IC 1 1(a )

3 .20

9 1.50

-

0 .50

2 .92

1 838

A M-R IC 1 2(a )

2 .89

9 0.00

t r

0 .75

2 .60

1 839

A M-R IC 1 7 (a )

3 .24

9 0.75

t r

t r

2 .94

1 840

A M-R IC 1 9 (a )

3 .34

8 1.50

t r

0 .75

2 .72

Mean ( 20 c o ins )

3 .20

8 7.39

2 .79

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .21

4 .83

0 .17

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .23 2 .

1 841

A M-R IC 3 8

2 .82

Co inage o f A .D. 1 18

3 .10

9 2.00

t r

0 .50

2 .85

1 842

A M-R IC 3 9

3 .38

9 1.50

t r

0 .50

3 .09

1 843

A M-R IC 3 9 (b )

3 .32

8 3.00

-

0 .50

2 .75

1 844

A M-R IC 4 0 (c )

3 .09

8 6.75

t r

0 .50

2 .68

1 845

A M-R IC 4 1(a )

3 .26

8 8.50

t r

0 .25

2 .88 2 .64

1 846

A M-R IC 4 1(c )

3 .08

8 6.00

-

0 .50

1 847

A M-R IC 4 2 (a )

3 .36

7 9.00

-

0 .50

2 .65

1 848

A M-R IC 4 2 (a )

3 .20

9 0.75

-

0 .25

2 .90

1 3

We igh t No

Reference

We ight o f

( g )

% s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

1 849

AM-R IC 4 2 (a )

3 .13

9 3.75

t r

0 .25

2 .93

1 850

AM-R IC 4 2 (a )

3 .02

8 1.50

t r

t r

2 .46 2 .13

1 851

AM-R IC 4 4 (a )

2 .45

8 7.00

-

0 .50

1 852

AM-R IC 4 4 (a )

3 .30

9 0.50

-

-

2 .98

1 853

AM-R IC 4 4 (c )

2 .86

9 0.50

-

-

2 .58

1 854

AM-R IC 4 5 (a )

3 .35

7 9.00

t r

0 .50

2 .64

1 855

AM-R IC 4 6

3 .13

9 3.00

-

0 .75

2 .91

1 856

AM-R IC 4 6

3 .38

8 0.50

t r

t r

2 .72

1 857

AM-R IC 4 7 (a )

3 .41

8 8.50

t r

0 .50

3 .01

1 858

AM-R IC 5 0 (a )

2 .54

9 3.75

-

0 .75

2 .38

1 859

AM-R IC 5 0 (a )

3 .02

7 6.50

-

0 .25

2 .31

1 860

AM-R IC 5 1(a )

3 .93 [s ic ]

8 6.00

-

0 .50

3 .37

Mean ( 20 c o ins )

3 .17

8 6.90

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .31

5 .22

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .24 3 .

2 .74 0 .28 2 .81

Co inage o f A . D. 1 19-120

1 861

AM-R IC 8 1(b )

3 .38

9 2.75

t r

0 .25

3 .13

1 862

AM-R IC 8 2 (h )

2 .84

9 2.25

t r

0 .25

2 .61

1 863

AM-R IC 8 2 (b )

3 .33

8 2.00

t r

0 .50

2 .73

1 864

AM-R IC 9 6 (h )

2 .68

9 2.50

t r

0 .50

2 .47

1 865

AM-R IC 9 6 (b )

2 .99

8 8.50

t r

0 .50

2 .64

1 866

AM-R IC 9 7 (h )

2 .80

9 7.00

t r

t r

2 .71

1 867

AM-RIC 9 8 (h )

3 .36

9 1.00

-

0 .50

3 .05

1 868

AM-R IC 1 15 (b )

2 .83

9 2.50

t r

0 .25

2 .61

1 869

AM-R IC 1 15 (b )

2 .92

7 7.00

t r

0 .25

2 .24

1 870

AM-R IC 1 15 (b )

2 .60

9 0.50

-

t r

2 .35

1 871

AM-R IC 1 15 (b )

3 .12

9 2.50

t r

t r

2 .88

1 872

AM-R IC 18 (a )

3 .44

9 0.50

t r

0 .25

3 .11

1 873

AM-R IC 1 18 (b )

2 .97

9 1.50

-

0 .25

2 .71

1 874

AM-R IC 1 18 (b )

3 .29

8 5.00

t r

0 .50

2 .79

1 875

AM-R IC 19 (b )

2 .58

9 2.75

-

0 .25

2 .39

1 876

AM-R IC 1 21(b )

3 .48

8 8.25

-

0 .50

3 .07

1 877

AM-RDC 1 21(b )

3 .34

8 5.00

t r

0 .25

2 .83

1 878

AM-R IC 1 39 (b )

3 .27

8 8.25

t r

0 .25

2 .88

1 879

AM-R IC 1 41(b )

2 .88

9 2.00

t r

0 .25

2 .64

1 880

AM-R IC 1 41(b )

2 .90

7 9.75

-

0 .50

2 .31

M (hu l ( 20 c o ins )

3 .05

Mean f ineness

8 9.08

2 .71

8 8.65

( exc lud ing n o. 1 866 ) S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .28

Corrected mean w Edgh t

3 .21

4 .87

0 .26 2 .84

1 4

4 .

Co inage o f A . D. 1 21

We igh t No.

Reference

1 881 1 882

We ight o f

( g )

% s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

AM-R IC 6 7 (b )

2 .90

8 8.00

-

0 .25

2 .55

AM-R IC 6 7 (b )

2 .98

9 0.25

-

0 .25

2 .68 3 .05

1 883

AM-R IC 8 5 (b )

3 .30

9 2.50

-

0 .25

1 884

AM-R IC 8 6 (a )

3 .20

8 9.00

t r

0 .25

2 .84

1 885

AM-R IC 8 6 (b )

3 .04

9 2.50

-

t r

2 .81

1 886

AM-R IC 8 6 (b )

3 .32

9 0.50

t r

0 .25

3 .00

1 887

AM-R IG 9 4 (a )

3 .27

8 7.00

-

0 .25

2 .84

1 888

AM-R IG 9 4 (b )

2 .70

9 2.75

-

0 .50

2 .50

1 889

AM-R IG 9 4 (b )

3 .03

9 0.00

-

0 .25

2 .72

1 890

AM-R IC 1 29 (a )

3 .15

8 2.00

-

0 .25

2 .58

1 891

A M-R IC 1 29 (b )

2 .93

9 3.00

-

0 .50

2 .72

1 892

A M-R IC 1 31(c )

2 .98

8 8.50

-

0 .50

2 .63

1 893

AM-R IG 1 32 (a )

3 .13

9 0.00

t r

t r

2 .81

1 894

A M-R IC 1 32 (b )

3 .45

9 1.50

-

0 .50

3 .15

1 895

AM-R IC 1 34 (a )

3 .19

8 7.00

t r

0 .50

2 .77

1 896

AM-R IC 1 34 (b )

3 .30

9 2.00

t r

0 .25

3 .03

3 .12

8 9.78

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .19

2 .79

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .14

Mean ( 16 c o ins )

5 .

2 .79 0 .18 2 .81

Co inage o f A .D . 1 22

1 897

A M-R IG 6 9 (a )

2 .96

9 2.50

t r

0 .50

2 .73

1 898

AM-R IG 7 1

3 .31

9 2.00

t r

-

3 .04

1 899

A M-RIG 7 5 (c )

3 .14

9 2.75

-

0 .75

2 .91

1 900

AM-R IG 7 6

3 .22

9 2.00

t r

0 .25

2 .96

1 901

AM-R IG 7 6

3 .10

7 7.00

-

0 .50

2 .38

1 902

A M-R IG 8 8 (b )

3 .23

8 7.00

t r

0 .25

2 .81

1 903

A M-R IG 9 0 (a )

3 .04

9 2.25

t r

0 .75

2 .80

1 904

AM-R IG 9 0 (a )

3 .19

9 0.50

-

0 .75

2 .88

1 905

A M-R IG 9 0 (c )

2 .99

9 3.00

-

0 .25

2 .78

1 906

A M-R IG 1 00 (b )

3 .24

9 2.50

-

0 .25

2 .99

1 907

AM-R IG 1 13 (b )

3 .38

8 5.50

t r

0 .50

2 .88

1 908

A M-RIG 1 13 (c )

2 .69

9 3.00

-

0 .25

2 .50

1 909

A M-R IG 1 13 (b )

3 .14

8 4.00

-

0 .25

2 .63

1 910

A M-RIG 1 13 (c )

3 .35

9 2.00

t r

0 .50

3 .08

1 911

A M-R IG 1 13 (c )

2 .82

9 0.00

-

0 .50

2 .53

Mean ( 15 c o ins )

3 .12

8 9.73

2 .79

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .19

4 .39

0 .20

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .18 6 .

2 .85

Co inage o f A . D. 1 23

1 912

A M-R IG 7 7 (a )

2 .97

8 9.50

1 913

A M-R IG 7 7 (b )

2 .70

9 2.75 1 5

t r

0 .25

2 .65

0 .75

2 .50

We igh t No.

Reference

We ight o f

( g )

% s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

1 914

AM-RIC 7 7 (b )

2 .94

9 2.00

t r

0 .50

2 .70

1 915

AM-RIC 7 7 (b )

3 .14

8 8.50

-

0 .75

2 .77

1 916

AM-R IC 7 7 (h )

2 .85

9 3.75

-

0 .25

2 .67

1 917

AM-R IC 7 7 (c )

2 .58

9 2.50

-

0 .75

2 .38

1 918

AM-R IC 8 0 (a )

3 .42

8 6.00

-

0 .50

2 .94

1 919

AM-R IC 8 0 (b )

2 .95

9 2.50

-

0 .25

2 .72

1 920

AM-R IC 8 0 (b )

2 .27

9 3.00

t r

0 .25

2 .11

1 921

AM-R IC 8 0 (b )

2 .83

9 2.00

-

0 .75

2 .60

1 922

AM-R IC 8 0 (b )

3 .33

9 2.00

t r

0 .25

3 .06

1 923

AM-R IC 9 5 (a )

3 .07

9 1.50

-

0 .50

2 .80

1 924

AM-RPC 9 5 (a )

3 .08

9 2.50

t r

0 .25

2 .84

1 925

AM-R IC 9 5 (c )

3 .39

8 2.00

t r

0 .25

2 .77

1 926

AM-R IC 9 5 (c )

2 .92

9 2.25

t r

0 .25

2 .69

1 927

AM-R IC 1 01(a )

3 .27

9 0.25

-

0 .25

2 .95

1 928

AM-R IC 1 01(a )

3 .52

7 8.00

-

0 .25

2 .74

1 929

AM-R IC 1 01(a )

2 .98

8 8.00

-

0 .25

2 .62

1 930

AM-R IC 1 01 (a )

2 .74

9 1.00

-

0 .50

2 .49

1 931

AM-R IC 1 01(b )

2 .92

9 3.00

t r

0 .50

2 .71

1 932

AM-R IC 1 01(c )

3 .30

8 6.50

t r

0 .75

2 .85

1 933

AM-R IC 1 01(c )

3 .54

8 9.50

-

0 .50

3 .16

1 934

AM-R IC 1 27 (a )

3 .14

7 9.00

-

0 .25

2 .48

1 935

AM-R IC 1 27 (b )

3 .00

8 8.00

-

0 .75

2 .64

1 936

AM-R IC 1 27(b )

2 .87

8 1.50

-

0 .75

2 .33

1 937

AM-R IC 1 27 (c )

2 .60

8 0.50

t r

0 .25

2 .09

1 938

AM-R IC 1 27 (c )

3 .38

8 4.00

-

0 .50

2 .83

1 939

AM-R IC 1 27 (c )

3 .06

9 0.00

-

0 .50

2 .75

1 940

AM-R IC 1 37 (a )

3 .07

8 6.50

t r

0 .50

2 .65

1 941

AM-R IC 1 37 (a )

3 .44

8 3.50

t r

0 .50

2 .87

1 942

AM-RIC 1 37 (b )

2 .70

9 3.00

t r

0 .25

2 .51

1 943

AN I-R IC 1 37(b )

3 .46

9 2.25

t r

t r

3 .19

1 944

AM-R IC 1 37 (c )

3 .34

7 8.25

t r

0 .50

2 .61

1 945

AM-R IC 1 37

3 .38

8 8.00

t r

1 .00

2 .97

3 .06

8 8.34

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .30

4 .73

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .18

Mean ( 34 c o ins )

7 .

2 .70 0 .25 2 .80

Co inage o f A . D. 1 24

1 946

AM-R IC 1 10 (a )

3 .18

9 1.00

t r

0 .50

2 .89 2 .84

1 947

AM-R IC 1 10 (c )

3 .06

9 3.00

-

0 .25

1 948

AM-R IC 1 10 (c )

2 .95

9 1.00

-

0 .25

2 .68

1 949

AM-R IC 1 16 (a )

3 .10

9 3.50

-

t r

2 .89

1 950

AM-R IC 1 16 (c )

3 .22

9 3.25

t r

t r

3 .00

1 951

AM-R IC 1 17 (a )

3 .12

9 1.25

t r

1 .50

2 .84

1 952

AM-R IC 1 20 (a )

3 .17

9 2.00

-

0 .25

2 .91

1 953

AM-R IC 1 20 (b )

2 .92

8 4.50

-

0 .75

2 .46

1 6

We igh t No.

Reference

1 954

We igh t o f

( gY

% s i lver

AM-R IC 1 20 (c )

3 .27

8 8.50

t r

0 .50

2 .89

1 955

AM-R IC 1 26 (b )

3 .30

8 1.50

t r

0 .50

2 .68

1 956

AM-R IC 1 26 (b )

2 .86

7 9.50

t r

0 .50

2 .27

Mean ( 11 c o ins )

3 .10

8 9.00

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .14

4 .70

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .18 8 .

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

2 .76 0 .21 2 .83

Co inage o f A . D. 1 25

1 957

AM-R IC 1 28 (a )

3 .21

8 8.00

t r

0 .25

2 .82

1 958

AM-R IC 1 28 (b )

3 .33

8 8.50

-

0 .25

2 .94

1 959

AM-R IC 1 28 (c )

3 .07

9 0.00

t r

0 .75

2 .76

1 960

AM-R IC 1 35 (a )

2 .99

9 2.50

-

0 .25

2 .76

1 961

AM-RIC 1 35 (b )

3 .16

8 8.50

t r

-

2 .76

1 962

AM-R IC 1 61(c )

3 .34

8 8.50

-

t r

2 .95

1 963

AM-RIC 1 61(d )

3 .30

9 2.50

-

t r

3 .05

1 964

AM-R IC 1 64 (d )

3 .14

7 9.00

-

0 .75

2 .48

1 965

AM-R IC 1 75 (d )

3 .24

8 7.75

-

0 .25

2 .84

1 966

AM-R IC 1 76(d )

3 .18

9 1.25

-

0 .50

2 .90

1 967

AN I-RIC 1 76 (d )

3 .81

9 1.50

-

1 .00

3 .48

1 968

AN I-R IC 1 76(d )

3 .15

8 7.00

t r

1 .50

2 .74

1 969

AM-R IC 1 81(c )

3 .43

7 6.00

-

0 .25

2 .60

1 970

AM-R IC 1 81(d )

3 .27

9 2.00

t r

t r

3 .00

1 971

AN I-R IC 1 81(d )

2 .74

9 3.00

t r

0 .25

2 .54

Mean ( 15 c o ins )

3 .22

8 8.40

2 .84

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .22

4 .71

0 .23

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .26 9 .

2 .87

Co inage o f A . D. 1 26

1 972

AM-R IC 1 47 (d )

3 .41

7 6.00

t r

0 .50

1 973

AM-R IC 1 47 (d )

3 .24

9 0.00

-

0 .50

2 .59 2 .91

1 974

AM-R IC 1 48 (d )

2 .57

9 3.25

-

0 .50

2 .39

1 975

AM-R IC 1 49 (d )

2 .81

9 3.00

-

0 .25

2 .61

1 976

AM-R IC 1 49 (d )

3 .23

7 8.00

-

0 .25

2 .51

1 977

AM-R IC 1 54 (d )

3 .39

8 9.00

t r

0 .25

3 .01

1 978

AM-R IC 1 55 (d )

2 .96

9 1.00

-

0 .50

2 .69

1 979

AM-R IC 1 55 (d )

3 .22

7 7.50

-

0 .75

2 .49

1 980

AM-R IC 1 56 (c )

3 .46

8 6.50

-

0 .50

2 .99

1 981

AM-R IC 1 57 (d )

3 .17

9 2.75

t r

0 .50

2 .94

1 982

AM-R IC 1 58 (d )

2 .70

9 2.50

t r

0 .50

2 .49

1 983

AM-R IC 1 59 (d )

2 .28

9 2.50

t r

0 .50

2 .10

1 984

A M-R IC 1 60 (d )

3 .04

8 8.00

t r

0 .25

2 .67

1 985

AM-R IC 1 60 (d )

3 .09

8 9.75

t r

0 .25

2 .77

1 986

A M-R IC 1 72 (d )

2 .77

9 2.75

t r

t r

2 .56

1 987

AM-R IC 1 72 (d )

3 .34

8 2.00

-

t r

2 .73

1 7

We igh t No.

Reference

1 988

AM-R IC 1 95 (c )

( g )

We ight o f •% s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

2 .98

9 4.25

Mean ( 17 c o ins )

3 .04

8 8.16

2 .66

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .32

5 .87

0 .23

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .25 1 0.

t r

0 .25

2 .80

2 .86

Co inage o f A . D. 1 27

1 989

AM-R IC 1 69 (d )

3 .15

9 1.00

-

0 .50

2 .86

1 990

AM-R IC 1 69 (d )

2 .49

9 2.75

-

1 .00

2 .30

1 991

AM-R IC 1 73 (d )

2 .65

9 2.75

t r

0 .25

2 .45

1 992

AM-R IC 1 73 (d )

3 .28

8 7.50

t r

0 .25

2 .87

1 993

AM-R IC 1 73 (d )

2 .77

8 9.75

-

0 .25

2 .48

1 994

AM-R IC 1 82 (d )

3 .11

9 1.00

-

0 .75

2 .83

1 995

AM-R IC 1 82 (d )

3 .15

9 0.00

t r

0 .50

2 .83

1 996

AM-R IC 1 82 (d )

2 .74

8 8.50

t r

0 .50

2 .42

1 997

AM-R IC 1 98 (d )

3 .07

8 7.50

-

1 .00

2 .68

1 998

AM-R IC 1 99 (d )

3 .27

8 4.50

t r

0 .50

2 .76

2 .97

8 9.53

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .27

2 .45

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .17

Mean ( 10 c o ins )

1.

2 .65 0 .20 2 .83

Co inage o f A .D. 1 28 ( f irst p ar t )

1 999

AM-R IC 1 46 (c )

3 .00

9 1.00

t r

0 .50

2 .73

2 000

AM-R IC 1 46 (d )

2 .98

9 0.00

t r

0 .50

2 .68

2 001

AM-R IC 1 46(d )

2 .98

8 7.00

t r

1 .25

2 .59

2 002

AM-R IC 1 63 (c )

3 .07

8 6.50

-

0 .50

2 .65

2 003

AM-R IC 1 63 (d )

3 .47

8 6.00

t r

0 .75

2 .98

2 004

AM-R IC 1 70 (d )

3 .32

8 4.50

t r

0 .25

2 .80

2 005

AM-R IC 1 71

3 .01

8 4.50

-

0 .25

2 .54

2 006

AM-R IC 1 84

3 .29

8 7.50

-

0 .75

2 .87

2 007

AM-R IC 2 00 (c )

2 .83

9 1.50

t r

-

2 .58

2 008

AM-R IC 2 00 (d )

3 .23

8 6.00

-

t r

2 .77

2 009

AM-R IC 2 01(c )

3 .22

9 1.50

-

0 .50

2 .94

2 010

AM-R IC 2 01(d )

3 .43

9 0.00

t r

0 .50

3 .08

2 011

AM-R IC 2 01(d )

3 .19

8 8.00

-

1 .00

2 .80

2 012

AM-R IC 2 01(d )

3 .01

8 6.50

-

0 .75

2 .60

2 013

AM-R IC 2 02 (c )

3 .12

8 9.50

-

0 .50

2 .79

2 014

AM-R IC 2 02 (d )

3 .51

7 3.50

-

1 .00

2 .57

2 015

AM-R IC 2 02 (d )

3 .01

9 0.00

-

0 .75

2 .70

2 016

AM-R IC 2 02 (d )

3 .50

8 8.50

-

0 .75

3 .09

Mean ( 18 c o ins )

3 .18

8 7.33

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .20

4 .00

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .22

2 .76 0 .17 2 .81

1 8

1 2.

Co inage o f A .D. 1 28 ( second p ar t ) We igh t

We igh t o f

( g )

% s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

2 .89

9 2.50

-

0 .25

2 .67

No.

Reference

2 017

R IC- ( B MC

2 018

R IC 3 57 (a )

2 .68

9 3.50

t r

0 .25

2 .50

2 019

R IC 3 30 (c )

3 .27

8 7.50

t r

1 .25

2 .86

p l. 7 0,13 )

2 020

R IC 3 30 (c )

3 .01

9 0.75

-

1 .00

2 .73

2 021

R IC 3 30 (a )

3 .14

8 7.00

-

1 .75

2 .73

2 022

R IC 3 32(c )

3 .23

8 9.00

-

1 .00

2 .87

2 023

R IC 3 32 (d )

3 .14

9 1.50

-

0 .50

2 .87

2 024

R IC 3 34(c )

3 .40

8 9.50

-

0 .50

3 .04

2 025

R IC 3 38(c )

2 .84

8 7.50

-

1 .00

2 .48

2 026

R IC 3 38(d )

2 .33

9 8.00

t r

-

2 .28

2 027

R IC 3 39 (c )

3 .22

9 2.75

-

t r

2 .98

2 028

R IC 3 39 (c )

3 .27

8 0.00

t r

0 .50

2 .61

2 029

R IC 3 43(c )

2 .99

8 4.00

-

0 .50

2 .51

2 030

R IC 3 45 (c )

3 .39

9 2.25

t r

0 .50

3 .12

2 031

R IC 3 53 (c )

2 .88

9 2.25

t r

1 .00

2 .65

Mean ( 15 c o ins )

3 .05

8 9.87

2 .73

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .28

4 .18

0 .22

Corrected f ineness

8 9.28

( exc lud ing n o. 2 026 ) Corrected mean we igh t

3 .18 1 3.

2 .83

Co inage o f A . D. 1 29-131

2 032

AM-R IC 2 06(g )

3 .47

8 7.50

t r

0 .50

3 .03

2 033

AM-R IC 2 07(c )

3 .44

7 9.50

t r

0 .50

2 .73

2 034

AM-R IC 2 08(c )

2 .96

9 3.00

-

0 .25

2 .75

2 035

AM-R IC 2 09 (a )

3 .25

8 8.00

-

0 .75

2 .86

2 036

AM-R IC 2 12 (c )

3 .13

8 4.00

t r

0 .50

2 .62

2 037

AM-R IC 2 12 (g )

3 .36

8 8.00

t r

0 .25

2 .95

2 038

AM-R IC 2 13 (c )

3 .16

9 2.50

t r

0 .25

2 .92

2 039

AM-RIC 2 15 (a )

3 .19

9 1.50

-

0 .50

2 .91

2 040

AM-R IC 2 17 (d )

3 .09

9 2.50

t r

0 .25

2 .85

2 041

AM-R IC 2 19 (a )

2 .77

9 2.50

-

0 .50

2 .56

2 042

AM-R IC 2 19 (g )

2 .93

9 2.50

-

0 .50

2 .71

2 043

AM-R IC 2 20 (c )

2 .94

9 2.50

t r

t r

2 .71

2 044

AM-R IC 2 20 (e )

3 .15

9 3.00

t r

0 .25

2 .92

2 045

AM-R IC 2 20 (e )

3 .49

9 3.00

t r

0 .25

3 .24

2 046

AM-R IC 2 21(a )

3 .24

8 5.00

-

0 .25

2 .75

2 047

AM-R IC 2 22 (a )

3 .55

7 9.00

-

0 .25

2 .80

2 048

AM-R IC 2 22 (b )

3 .37

8 0.00

t r

-

2 .69

2 049

AM-R IC 2 22 (c )

3 .34

8 7.25

t r

0 .75

2 .91

2 050

AM-R IC 2 23

2 .88

9 1.75

t r

0 .75

2 .64

2 051

AM-R IC 3 60 (c )

3 .06

9 4.50

t r

-

2 .89

2 052

AN T-RIC 3 61

3 .29

9 0.00

-

0 .75

2 .96

1 9

We igh t

We igh t o f

No.

Reference

2 053

AM-R IC 3 61(e )

3 .35

9 0.00

-

0 .50

3 .01

2 054

AM-R IC 3 63(b )

3 .29

9 0.50

t r

t r

2 .97

2 055

AM-R IC 3 67(c )

3 .32

8 6.50

-

0 .50

2 .87

Mean ( 24 c o ins )

3 .21

8 8.94

2 .84

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .20

4 .49

0 .15

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .25

( g )

1 4.

% s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

2 .89

Co inage o f A .D. 1 32

2 056

AM-R IC 2 38 (a )

3 .49

8 7.50

-

0 .25

3 .05

2 057

AM-R IC 2 40 (d )

3 .32

8 2.50

-

0 .25

2 .73

2 058

AM-R IC 2 40 (d )

3 .28

9 1.75

-

1 .25

3 .00

2 059

AM-R IC 2 47 (d )

2 .92

9 2.00

t r

1 .00

2 .68

2 060

AM-R IC 2 47 (d )

3 .37

9 0.50

t r

t r

3 .04

2 061

AM-R IC 2 60 (d )

3 .43

8 1.50

-

0 .75

2 .79

2 062

AM-R IC 2 60 (d )

3 .06

8 8.50

-

0 .75

2 .70 2 .84

2 063

AM-R IC 2 60 (e )

3 .22

8 8.50

-

0 .50

2 064

AM-R IC 2 64 (d )

2 .90

9 0.00

-

0 .50

2 .61

2 065

AM-R IC 2 64 (d )

3 .23

8 9.50

-

0 .75

2 .89

Mean ( 10 c o ins )

3 .22

F '.23

2 .83

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .19

3 .40

0 .15

1 5.

Co inage o f A . D. 1 33

2 066

AM-R IC 2 34 (a )

3 .12

9 2.50

t r

0 .25

2 .88

2 067

AM-R IC 2 34 (a )

3 .29

8 2.50

-

0 .50

2 .71

2 068

AM-R IC 2 34 (d )

3 .08

9 1.50

-

0 .50

2 .81

2 069

AM-R IC 2 44 (a )

3 .23

9 2.00

-

0 .25

2 .97

2 070

AM-R IC 2 44 (a )

2 .99

9 4.00

-

t r

2 .81

2 071

AM-RIC 2 57 (a )

3 .42

8 9.75

-

0 .25

3 .06

2 072

AM-R IC 2 57 (a )

3 .42

8 7.00

-

0 .50

2 .97

2 073

AM-R IC 2 57 (d )

3 .18

9 2.00

t r

0 .25

2 .92

2 074

AM-R IC 2 76 (a )

3 .04

9 2.25

-

0 .75

2 .80 2 .98

2 075

AM-R IC 2 76 (a )

3 .30

9 0.50

-

0 .25

2 076

AM-R IC 2 76(d )

3 .03

9 1.50

t r

0 .50

2 .77

2 077

AM-R IC 2 76 (d )

3 .11

9 3.00

t r

0 .25

2 .89

2 078

AM-R IC 2 76(d )

2 .98

9 3.00

-

0 .50

2 .77

2 079

AM-R IC 2 76 (g )

2 .99

9 0.00

t r

t r

2 .69

Mean ( 14 c o ins )

3 .16

9 0.82

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .15

2 .85

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .18 1 6.

2 .86 0 .11 2 .88

Co inage o f A . D. 1 34

2 080

AM-R IC 2 25 (a )

3 .23

9 1.50

2 081

AM-R IC 2 25 (c )

2 .52

9 3.00 2 0

t r

0 .75

2 .95

0 .25

2 .34

We igh t No.

Reference

We igh t o f

( gY

% s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

2 082

A M-RIC 2 37 (a )

3 .20

9 3.00

t r

0 .50

2 .97

2 083

A M-RIC 2 37 (a )

3 .48

9 0.50

-

0 .50

3 .14

2 084

A M-R IC 2 37 (d )

3 .34

9 1.25

-

0 .25

3 .04

2 085

A M-R IC 2 48(d )

3 .21

8 9.50

-

1 .00

2 .87

2 086

A M-R IC 2 48(f )

3 .44

8 9.75

-

1 .00

3 .08

2 087

A M-R IC 2 86(a )

3 .19

9 1.25

-

0 .50

2 .91

2 088

A M-R IC 2 86 (b )

3 .37

8 4.00

-

t r

2 .83

2 089

A M-R IC 2 86 (b )

3 .04

8 9.50

-

0 .50

2 .72

2 090

A M-R IC 2 86 (d )

3 .22

8 4.50

t r

0 .25

2 .72

Mean ( 11 c o ins )

3 .20

8 9.80

2 .87

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .25

2 .86

0 .21

1 7. 2 091

A M-R IC 2 28 (a )

Co inage o f A . D. 1 35

2 .72

9 1.00

t r

0 .50

2 .47

2 092

A M-R IC 2 30 (a )

2 .97

8 8.00

-

-

2 .61

2 093

A M-R IC 2 30 (a )

3 .31

9 1.50

-

0 .75

3 .02

2 094

A M-R IC 2 30 (a )

3 .09

9 0.75

t r

0 .25

2 .80

2 095

A M-R IC 2 30 (b )

3 .19

9 2.50

t r

0 .25

2 .95

2 096

A M-R IC 2 30 (b )

3 .15

8 7.00

t r

0 .25

2 .74

2 097

A M-R IC 2 30 (d )

3 .09

9 2.50

t r

0 .50

2 .85

2 098

A M-R IC 2 61(a )

3 .25

8 9.00

-

0 .25

2 .89

2 099

A M-R IC 2 62 (d )

3 .04

9 0.00

t r

t r

2 .73

2 100

A M-R IC 2 68(a )

3 .36

9 0.50

-

0 .25

3 .04

2 101

A M-R IC 2 68 (a )

3 .37

8 6.00

-

0 .25

2 .89

2 102

A M-R IC 2 68(d )

2 .89

9 0.50

t r

0 .25

2 .61

2 103

A M-R IC 2 68 (d )

3 .05

9 0.50

t r

0 .25

2 .76

2 104

A M-R IC 2 82 (a )

3 .29

8 4.00

-

0 .50

2 .76

2 105

A M-R IC 2 82 (b )

3 .02

9 2.00

t r

t r

2 .77

2 106

A M-R IC 2 82 (b )

3 .39

8 8.00

-

0 .25

2 .98

2 107

A M-R IC 2 82(d )

3 .43

9 1.75

-

-

3 .14

2 108

A M-R IC 2 82 (d )

3 .33

7 9.50

t r

0 .75

2 .64

Mean ( 18 c o ins )

3 .16

8 9.17

2 .81

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .19

3 .26

0 .17

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .21 1 8.

2 109

A M-R IC 2 97 (a )

2 .86 Co inage o f A . D. 1 36

3 .15

9 2.50

t r

t r

2 .91

2 110

A M-R IC 2 97 (a )

3 .43

8 8.00

-

-

3 .01

2 111

A M-R IC 2 97 (a )

3 .34

9 1.00

-

t r

3 .03

2 112

A M-R IC 2 97 (b )

3 .29

9 4.00

t r

t r

3 .09

2 113

A M-R IC 2 97 (d )

2 .87

9 2.50

t r

0 .25

2 .65

2 114

A M-R IC 2 97 (d )

3 .26

9 1.50

-

t r

2 .98

2 115

A M-R IC 2 99 (d )

3 .17

9 1.75

t r

t r

2 .90

2 116

A M-R IC 2 99 (d )

3 .20

9 3.00

-

0 .25

2 .97

2 1

We ight No.

Reference

2 117

AM-R IC 2 99 (d )

2 118

AM-R IC 2 99 (d )

2 .57

2 119

AM-R IC 2 99 (d )

2 .92

2 120

AM-R IC 2 99 (g )

3 .19

We ight o f

( g )

% s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

3 .32

9 0.00

t r

0 .25

9 2.50

t r

t r

2 .37

9 0.00

t r

1 .00

2 .62

9 2.75

t r

t r

2 .95

2 .98

2 121

AM-R IC 3 00 (a )

3 .32

8 7.50

t r

0 .75

2 .90

2 122

AM-R IC 3 00 (c )

3 .07

8 4.00

t r

t r

2 .57

2 123

AM-R IC 3 01(a )

2 .98

9 4.00

t r

t r

2 .80

2 124

AM-R IC 3 01(a )

3 .06

9 1.50

t r

0 .25

2 .79

2 125

AM-R IC 3 01(c )

3 .39

8 8.00

-

0 .25

2 .98

2 126

AM-R IC 3 01(d )

3 .10

9 0.00

t r

0 .25

2 .79

2 127

AM-R IC 3 02 (d )

3 .12

9 0.50

t r

1 .00

2 .82

2 128

AM-R IC 3 03 (a )

3 .24

9 2.50

-

0 .25

3 .00

2 129

AM-R IC 3 03 (a )

3 .38

9 0.75

-

0 .50

3 .07

2 130

AM-R IC 3 05 (a )

3 .22

8 8.00

-

0 .50

2 .83

2 131

AM-R IC 3 05 (a )

3 .32

9 2.00

-

0 .75

3 .05

2 132

AM-R IC 3 05 (d )

2 .96

8 8.50

-

0 .50

2 .62

2 133

AM-R IC 3 06(d )

2 .59

9 2.50

t r

0 .25

2 .39

2 134

AM-R IC 3 06(f )

3 .37

9 3.25

t r

0 .50

3 .14

2 135

AM-R IC 3 07 (a )

3 .12

9 0.00

-

0 .50

2 .81

2 136

AM-R IC 3 07 (a )

2 .92

8 1.50

-

0 .75

2 .38

2 137

AM-R IC 3 07 (d )

3 .06

8 9.50

-

0 .75

2 .74

2 138

AM-R IC 3 10 (a )

2 .99

9 2.00

-

0 .50

2 .75

3 .13

9 0.52

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .21

2 .76

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .18

Mean ( 30 c o ins )

1 9.

2 .83 0 .21 2 .88

Co inage o f A . D. 1 37

2 139

R IC 2 41(A )

3 .03

9 2.25

-

0 .50

2 .79

2 140

R IC 2 41(A )

3 .24

8 8.00

-

0 .25

2 .85

2 141

R IC 2 41(A )

3 .43

9 0.50

-

0 .25

3 .10

2 142

R IC 2 41(A )

2 .91

9 3.50

t r

t r

2 .72

2 143

R IC 2 41(A )

3 .17

9 0.75

-

1 .00

2 .87

2 144

R IC 2 45A (c )

3 .10

8 7.50

t r

0 .25

2 .71

2 145

R IC 2 45A(d )

3 .13

8 8.00

t r

t r

2 .75

2 146

R IC 2 53(d )

3 .25

8 7.50

-

0 .50

2 .84

2 147

R IC 2 53(d )

3 .52

8 5.00

t r

0 .25

2 .99

2 148

R IC 2 56 (a )

3 .22

9 0.00

-

0 .50

2 .89

2 149

R IC 2 56 (a )

3 .26

8 8.00

t r

0 .50

2 .86

2 150

R IC 2 56 (b )

3 .32

8 9.00

-

1 .00

2 .95

2 151

R IC 2 56 (b )

3 .17

8 5.50

-

0 .50

2 .71

2 152

R IC 2 56(d )

3 .35

9 0.50

-

0 .75

3 .03

2 153

R IC 2 56(d )

3 .31

9 2.50

t r

t r

3 .06

2 154

R IC 2 67(a )

3 .36

9 1.50

t r

0 .25

3 .07

2 155

R IC 2 67(b )

3 .24

8 1.50

t r

0 .50

2 .64

2 156

R IC 2 67(d )

3 .30

9 0.50

t r

0 .25

2 .98

2 2

No.

Reference

Weigh t ( g ) .

2 157

R IC 2 67(d )

3 .42

9 1.25

2 158

R IC 2 70 (b )

3 .33

9 0.00

-

0 .25

2 .99

2 159

R IC 2 74 (a )

2 .87

9 2.75

t r

t r

2 .66

2 160

R IC 2 74 (d )

3 .29

8 8.50

t r

0 .25

2 .91

2 161

R IC 2 90 (a )

3 .14

9 0.00

-

t r

2 .82

2 162

R IC 2 90 (a )

3 .29

9 2.50

t r

t r

3 .04

2 163

R IC 2 90 (a )

3 .04

9 0.00

t r

0 .25

2 .73

2 164

R IC 2 90 (b )

3 .03

9 3.75

t r

t r

2 .84

2 165

R IC 2 90 (c )

2 .65

9 3.75

t r

0 .25

2 .48

2 166

R IC 2 90 (d )

3 .32

8 5.00

-

0 .25

2 .82

2 167

R IC 2 90 (d )

3 .50

9 2.50

t r

0 .50

3 .23

2 168

R IC 2 90 (e )

3 .20

9 3.25

t r

0 .25

2 .98

3 .21

8 9.84

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .19

2 .93

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .23

Mean ( 30 c o ins )

2 0.

% s i lver

Au t r

Pb 0 .25

We igh t o f s i lver ( g ) 3 .12

2 .88 0 .16 2 .90

Co inage o f A . D. 1 38

2 169

AM-R IC 2 62A

3 .32

8 9.50

-

0 .50

2 .97

2 170

AM-R IC 2 65 (a )

3 .35

9 0.50

-

0 .25

3 .03

2 171

AM-R IC 2 65 (a )

3 .11

8 1.00

t r

0 .50

2 .51

2 172

AM-R IC 2 66 (a )

2 .70

9 2.50

-

0 .75

2 .49

2 173

AM-R IC 2 66 (c )

2 .85

9 2.25

t r

0 .50

2 .62

2 174

AM-R IC 2 66 (d )

3 .33

8 8.50

t r

0 .25

2 .94

2 175

AM-R IC 2 66 (d )

2 .62

9 4.50

t r

0 .25

2 .47

2 176

AM-R IC 2 66B(c )

3 .50

9 2.25

t r

t r

3 .22

2 177

AM-R IC 2 66B(d )

3 .37

8 7.50

-

0 .75

2 .94

2 178

AN I-R IC 2 66B(d )

3 .39

9 1.50

t r

0 .25

3 .10

2 179

AM-R IC 2 66B(d )

3 .54

9 0.00

-

t r

3 .18

2 180

AM-R IC 2 80 (a )

3 .45

8 2.00

t r

t r

2 .82

2 181

A M-R IC 4 47 (a )

3 .09

9 2.75

-

0 .50

2 .86

2 182

AM-R IC 4 49

3 .01

8 7.50

-

0 .50

2 .63

2 183

A M-R IC 4 52 (a )

3 .42

8 1.50

t r

0 .25

2 .79

2 184

AM-R IC 4 52(a )

3 .19

8 5.50

t r

0 .75

2 .73

2 185

AM-R IC -

3 .33

8 4.50

t r

0 .75

2 .81

Mean ( 17 c o ins )

3 .21

8 8.46

2 .83

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .27

4 .12

0 .23

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .25 2 1.

2 186

R IC 3 7 (c )-

2 187 2 188

2 .87

Qu inar i i o f A . D. 1 18-120 1 .70

9 2.50

R IC 5 4-A. D.118

1 .82

9 0.00

R IC 1 03 (b )-

1 .45

9 1.00

0 .50

1 .57

A . D. 1 18

A . D. 1 19-20

2 3

1 .64 t r

0 .75

1 .32

We igh t

We igh t o f

( g )

% s i lver

Au

1 .37

9 2.00

t r

0 .50

1 .26

1 .77

8 9.50

t r

0 .25

1 .58

1 .70

9 3.00

-

0 .50

1 .58

1 .50

9 2.00

-

0 .25

1 .38

1 .55

9 0.25

-

0 .25

1 .40

1 .61

9 1.28

1 .47

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .15

1 .20

0 .13

Corrected mean we igh t

1 .56

No.

Reference

2 189

R IC 1 03 (c )-

2 190

R IC 1 04(b )-

2 191

R IC 1 05-

2 192

R IC 1 06-

Pb

s i lver ( g )

A .D. 1 19-20 A .D. 1 19-20 A . D. 1 19-20 A . D. 19-20 2 193

R IC 1 08 (b )A . D. 19-20

Mean ( 8 c o ins )

1 .42

( 26 c o ins ) 2 .84

We igh t o f s i lver i n t heoret ica l d enar ius Hadr ian - Eastern d enar i i 2 2.

Denar i i o f A . D. 17-120 , p robab ly o f An t ioch

2 194

AM-R IC 3 (c )

3 .63

7 4.50

t r

1 .50

2 .70

2 195

AM-R IC 3 (c )

2 .79

8 6.25

-

2 .00

2 .41

2 196

AM-B MC 1 022

2 .58

7 9.00

t r

t r

2 .04

2 197

AM-B MC 1 023

2 .80

7 7.50

t r

1 .00

2 .17

2 198

AM-B MC p l. 6 8,4 3 .13

6 9.50

t r

0 .25

2 .18

2 199

C lay-B MC-

3 .08

8 1.00

-

0 .50

2 .49

3 .00

7 7.95

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .34

5 .21

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .05

Mean ( 6 c o ins )

2 .33 0 .22 2 .37

( 9 c o ins ) 2 3.

Denar i i o f c . A . D. 1 25 - p robab ly o f Prov inc ia As ia 9 0.50

t r

0 .50

3 .37

3 .05

9 0.50

t r

0 .50

2 .76

3 .45

9 4.00

-

t r

3 .24

2 .84

9 0.50

-

0 .25

2 .57

Mean ( 4 c o ins )

3 .26

9 1.37

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .14

2 200

AM-B MC p l. 7 1,2 3 .73

2 201

AM-B MC-

2 202

C lay-B MC 6 42

( th is c o in )

( but n ot Ro me ) 2 203

C lay-B MC( Sab ina )

2 .98 2 .87

( 24 c o ins )

2 4

An ton inus P ius - Min t o f Ro me 1 .

Co inage o f A . D. 1 38 We ight o f

We ed ( g )

% s i lver

Au

A M-R IC 5 (3 )

3 .32

8 1.25

t r

No.

Reference

2 204

Pb 0 .50

s i lver ( g ) 2 .70

2 205

A M-R IC 7 (c )

2 .74

9 3.50

-

0 .50

2 .56

2 206

A M-R IC 8

3 .37

8 6.50

-

0 .75

2 .91

2 207

A M-R IC 9 (a )

3 .26

9 2.00

-

0 .75

3 .00

2 208

A M-R IC 9 (c )

3 .13

8 7.50

-

0 .25

2 .74

2 209

A M-R IC 1 0 (a )

3 .38

7 8.00

-

0 .25

2 .64

2 210

A M-R IC 1 0 (a )

3 .15

8 8.00

t r

0 .50

2 .77

2 211

A M-R IC 1 1(a )

3 .26

9 2.00

t r

0 .25

3 .00

2 212

A M-RIC 1 2 (a )

3 .12

9 1.50

-

0 .50

2 .85

Mean ( 9 c o ins )

3 .19

8 7.81

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .18

4 .97

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .25 2 .

2 .80 0 .15 2 .85

Co inage o f A .D. 1 39

2 213

A M-RIC 2 2(a )

3 .31

9 1.75

2 214

A M-R IC 2 2(a )

3 .55

8 2.50

2 215

A M-R IC 2 5

3 .38

8 7.00

t r

0 .75

3 .04

-

0 .75

2 .93

t r

0 .50

2 .94

2 216

A M-R IC 2 6(a )

2 .89

8 9.00

-

t r

2 .57

2 217

A M-R IC 2 6(a )

3 .25

8 5.50

-

0 .50

2 .78

2 218

AM-R IC 2 7 (a )

3 .28

8 0.50

-

0 .75

2 .64

2 219

A M-R IC 2 8 (a )

2 .79

9 3.00

-

0 .75

2 .59

2 220

A M-R IC 2 8 (c )

3 .21

8 3.50

-

0 .50

2 .68

2 221

A M-R IC 3 0

3 .52

8 8.50

-

0 .50

3 .12

2 222

A M-R IC 3 2

3 .29

8 0.75

-

0 .25

2 .66

2 223

A M-R IC 3 5

2 .53

9 3.50

t r

0 .50

2 .37

2 224

A M-R IC 4 2 (a )

3 .35

9 2.50

t r

0 .50

3 .10

2 225

A M-R IC 4 3(a )

2 .82

9 2.50

-

1 .00

2 .61

2 226

A M-R IC 4 5(a )

3 .45

8 7.00

-

1 .50

3 .00

2 227

A M-R IC 4 6

3 .42

8 9.75

-

0 .75

3 .07

2 228

A M-R IC 4 6

3 .55

8 7.50

-

0 .75

3 .11

2 229

A M-R IC 4 7(a )

3 .34

8 7.50

-

0 .75

2 .92

2 230

A M-R IC 4 8(a )

3 .36

8 8.00

-

1 .00

2 .97

2 231

A M-R IC 4 9 (a )

3 .24

8 8.50

-

0 .75

2 .87

2 232

A M-RIC 5 0 (a )

3 .44

8 4.50

-

1 .00

2 .91

2 233

A M-R IC 5 0(b )

2 .92

8 6.00

-

0 .75

2 .51

2 234

A M-R IC 5 4 (a )

3 .28

8 0.00

-

0 .50

2 .62

2 235

A M-R IC 5 4(b )

3 .00

8 9.50

-

0 .50

2 .68

2 236

A M-R IC 5 6 (a )

3 .51

9 1.00

-

0 .50

3 .19

2 237

A M-R IC 5 6(a )

2 .99

9 2.75

-

1 .00

2 .77

2 238

A M-R IC 5 8(a )

3 .63

8 9.50

t r

0 .50

3 .25

2 239

A M-R IC 4 11(b )

3 .09

9 2.00

t r

t r

2 .84

Mean ( 27 c o ins )

3 .24

8 7.93

2 .84

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .27

3 .92

0 .23

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .27

2 52 .87

3 .

Co inage o f A . D. 1 40

We igh t No.

Reference

2 240

AM-R IC 7 3 (c )

2 241

AM-R IG 7 3 (c )

2 242

AM-R IG 8 4 (c )

2 243

AM-R IC 8 5(a )

We igh t o f

( g )

% s i lver

Au

Pb

2 .95

8 7.00

-

3 .10

8 9.25

t r

0 .25

2 .77

3 .74

8 3.00

-

0 .25

3 .10

3 .24

8 8.50

-

0 .25

2 .87

0 .50

s i lver ( g ) 2 .57

2 244

AM-R IC 9 5 (c )

2 .79

8 7.50

-

t r

2 .44

2 245

AM-R IC 9 8(c )

3 .38

7 9.00

-

0 .50

2 .67

2 246

AM-R IC 9 8(c )

3 .17

8 9.50

-

0 .50

2 .84

2 247

AM-R IC 4 17 (a )

3 .46

7 6.50

t r

0 .50

2 .65

Mean ( 8 c o ins )

3 .23

8 5.03

2 .74

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .28

4 .65

0 .19

4 .

Co inage o f A . D. 1 41

2 248

AM-R IC 6 1(a )

3 .09

9 2.25

_

0 .50

2 .85

2 249

AM-R IG 6 1(c )

2 .93

7 8.50

-

0 .25

2 .30

2 250

AM-R IG 6 1(c )

3 .36

8 9.00

-

1 .25

2 .99

2 251

AM-R IG 6 1(c )

3 .31

9 1.50

-

0 .25

3 .03

2 252

AM-R IG 6 4 (a )

3 .69

9 1.50

-

0 .25

3 .38

2 253

AM-R IG 6 4 (a )

3 .69

8 8.00

-

5 4

3 .25

2 254

AM-R IG 6 4 (c )

3 .02

8 8.75

-

0 .50

2 .68

2 255

AM-R IG 6 5(c )

3 .37

7 9.00

-

0 .25

2 .66

2 256

AM-R IG 6 5(c )

3 .09

8 3.00

-

0 .50

2 .56

2 257

AM-R IC 7 0 (a )

3 .31

8 8.50

-

0 .50

2 .93

2 258

AM-R IC 7 0 (a )

2 .91

9 2.25

-

0 .50

2 .68

2 259

AM-R IC 7 1

2 .63

9 2.50

-

0 .25

2 .43

2 260

AM-R IG 4 15 (b )

2 .58

9 3.25

-

0 .50

2 .40

2 261

AM-R IG 4 17 (a )

3 .14

9 2.50

-

0 .25

2 .90

2 262

AM-R IG 4 17 (b )

2 .86

9 3.00

-

0 .50

2 .66

2 263

AM-R IG 4 17 (b )

2 .83

9 2.00

-

0 .75

2 .60

2 264

AM-R IC 4 17 (b )

3 .35

8 9.00

-

0 .25

2 .98

2 265

AM-R IG 4 17 (a )

3 .24

8 7.50

-

0 .50

2 .83

2 266

AM-R IG 4 17 (a )

3 .22

8 4.00

-

0 .25

2 .70

2 267

AM-R IG 4 17 (a )

2 .78

9 2.25

-

0 .50

2 .56

2 268

AM-R IG 4 17 (f )

3 .32

7 7.50

-

0 .50

2 .57

Mean ( 2 1 c o ins )

3 .13

8 8.37

2 .80

Mean ( 29 c o ins o f

3 .16

8 7.43

2 .75

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .30

4 .93

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .21

1 40-141)

5 .

0 .26 2 .81

Co inage o f A .D. 1 42

2 269

AM-R IC 6 3B (a )

3 .04

8 9.50

0 .50

2 .72

2 270

AM-R IG 6 3B(a )

2 .72

9 2.50

0 .25

2 .52

2 6

We igh t No.

Reference

2 271

We igh t o f

( g )'

%s ilver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

AM-R IC 6 3B (c )

3 .44

8 7.25

-

0 .25

3 .00

2 272

AM-R IC 6 3B (c )

3 .23

8 2.50

-

0 .50

2 .66

2 273

A M-R IC 6 6

3 .47

8 2.50

-

0 .75

2 .86

2 274

AM-R IC 6 9(a )

3 .37

9 2.50

-

0 .25

3 .12

2 275

A M-R IC 6 9 (c )

3 .18

9 0.50

-

0 .75

2 .88

2 276

A M-RIC 8 0 (c )

3 .22

9 1.00

-

0 .75

2 .93

2 277

AM-R IC 1 05 (c )

3 .10

9 1.50

-

0 .50

2 .84

2 278

A M-R IC 1 05 (d )

2 .94

9 2.75

-

0 .25

2 .73

2 279

AM-R IC 4 21(c )

2 .85

9 0.00

t r

0 .25

2 .56

2 280

AM-R IC 4 24 (a )

3 .32

8 4.50

-

0 .50

2 .80

2 281

AM-R IC 4 24 (a )

3 .61

8 9.25

-

0 .75

3 .22

2 282

AM-R IC 4 24 (a )

2 .90

8 9.50

-

0 .25

2 .59

2 283

AM-R IC 4 24 (b )

3 .11

8 0.00

-

0 .50

2 .49

2 284

A M-R IC 4 24 (e )

2 .28

9 3.00

-

0 .50

2 .12

Mean ( 16 c o ins )

3 .11

8 8.67

2 .75

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .32

4 .00

0 .26

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .19 6 .

2 .83

Co inage o f A . D. 1 43

2 285

A M-R IC 1 07 (3 )

3 .43

7 8.75

t r

0 .50

2 .70

2 286

AM-R IC 1 11(b )

3 .22

8 8.75

-

0 .25

2 .86

2 287

AM-R IC 1 11(b )

3 .27

8 6.00

-

0 .25

2 .81

2 288

AM-R IC 1 11(b )

3 .49

8 2.50

t r

t r

2 .88

2 289

A M-R IC 1 11(c )

2 .91

9 2.75

-

0 .50

2 .70

2 290

AM-R IC 12

2 .90

8 6.00

-

0 .25

2 .49

2 291

A M-R IC 4 23(a )

3 .30

9 2.00

-

0 .25

3 .04

2 292

A M-RIC 4 23(a )

3 .39

9 0.00

-

0 .75

3 .05

Mean ( 8 c o ins )

3 .24

8 7.09

2 .82

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .21

4 .48

0 .17

7 .

Co inage o f A . D. 1 44

2 293

A M-R IC 6 2(a )

3 .25

8 7.00

-

0 .75

2 .83

2 294

A M-R IC 6 2 (c )

2 .84

9 0.25

-

0 .50

2 .56

2 295

AM-R IC 6 2 (c )

2 .75

9 0.00

-

0 .50

2 .48

2 296

AM-R IC 6 2(c )

2 .89

8 9.50

-

1 .00

2 .59 2 .64

2 297

A M-R IC 7 8 (e )

3 .00

8 8.00

-

0 .50

2 298

AM-R IC 7 8 (b )

3 .15

8 2.00

-

t r

2 .58

2 299

A M-R IC 1 02 (d )

2 .78

9 2.50

t r

0 .25

2 .57

2 300

A M-R IC 1 02 (d )

3 .43

8 4.50

-

0 .25

2 .90

2 301

AM-R IC 1 17

3 .16

8 9.50

-

0 .25

2 .83

2 302

A M-R IC 1 18

3 .52

9 0.50

-

t r

3 .19

2 303

A M-R IC 4 22

3 .17

9 0.25

t r

0 .25

2 .86

2 304

AM-R IC 4 22

2 .92

8 8.00

-

0 .50

2 .57

2 305

AM-R IC 4 26

3 .30

8 7.50

-

0 .50

2 .89

2 7

We igh t No.

Reference

2 306

AM-R IC 4 26

We igh t o f

( g )

% s i lver

2 .91

8 2.50

3 .08

8 8.00

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .23

2 .99

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .15

Mean ( 14 c o ins )

8 .

Au

Pb 0 .25

s i lver ( g ) 2 .40 2 .71 0 .21 2 .77

Co inage o f A . D. 1 45

2 307

AM-R IC 1 54

3 .54

8 3.50

-

0 .25

2 .96

2 308

AM-R IC 1 55 (c )

3 .50

9 0.00

-

0 .25

3 .15

2 309

AM-R IC 1 55 (c )

2 .96

8 4.00

-

0 .25

2 .49

2 310

AM-R IC 1 56 (c )

3 .19

8 7.50

t r

0 .25

2 .79

2 311

AM-R IC 1 56 (c )

2 .98

8 7.50

t r

0 .25

2 .61

2 312

AM-R IC 1 56(c )

3 .27

9 1.75

-

0 .25

3 .00

2 313

AM-R IC 4 31

3 .07

8 6.50

-

0 .50

2 .66

2 314

AM-R IC 4 31

3 .50

9 1.50

-

0 .50

3 .20

Mean ( 8 c o ins )

3 .25

8 7.78

2 .86

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .22

2 .94

0 .24

9 . 2 315

Co inage o f A . D. 1 46

AM-R IC 1 27 (c )

3 .17

8 8.00

-

0 .25

2 .79

2 316

AM-R IC 1 27 (c )

3 .27

9 2.25

-

0 .25

3 .02

2 317

AM-RIC 1 36

3 .05

9 2.00

-

0 .25

2 .81

2 318

AM-R IC 1 36 (c )

3 .30

8 4.00

-

0 .50

2 .77

2 319

AM-R IC 1 36 (c )

3 .05

7 4.25

-

0 .50

2 .26

2 320

AM-R IC 1 36 (c )

3 .13

7 8.25

-

0 .50

2 .45

2 321

AM-R IC 1 37 (c )

3 .30

8 1.50

-

t r

2 .69

2 322

AM-R IC 1 37 (c )

3 .07

7 8.50

-

0 .25

2 .41

2 323

AM-RIC 1 37 (c )

3 .06

9 2.50

-

0 .25

2 .83

2 324

AM-R IC 1 37 (c )

3 .47

9 0.00

-

0 .50

3 .12

2 325

AM-R IC 4 29 (a )

2 .98

9 3.25

-

0 .25

2 .78

2 326

AM-R IC 4 29 (a )

2 .94

8 9.00

-

0 .50

2 .62

2 327

AM-R IC 4 29 (a )

3 .36

9 0.50

-

0 .25

3 .04

2 328

AM-R IC 4 29 (a )

3 .07

7 8.50

-

0 .50

2 .41

3 .16

8 5.89

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .15

6 .29

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .18

Mean ( 14 c o ins )

1 0.

2 .71 0 .25 2 .73

Co inage o f A .D. 1 47-148

2 329

AM-R IC 1 29 (c )

3 .29

8 8.25

-

0 .25

2 .90

2 330

AM-R IC 1 30 (c )

3 .22

9 3.00

-

0 .25

2 .99

2 331

AM-R IC 4 36

2 .60

8 7.00

t r

1 .00

2 .31

2 332

AM-RIC 4 37

3 .12

9 1.50

-

0 .50

2 .85

2 333

AM-R IC 1 62

2 .77

8 8.50

t r

0 .50

2 .45

2 334

AM-R IC 1 62

2 .95

8 9.50

-

0 .50

2 .64

2 8

We igh t No.

We igh t o f

Reference

( g )

2 335

AM-RIC -

2 336

AM -R IC 1 67

2 337

AM-RIC 1 68

3 .37

8 9.25

2 338

AM-R IC 1 72

2 .88

9 2.50

2 339

AM -R IC 4 38(b )

2 .83

2 340

AM-R IC 4 38(b )

% s i lver

Au

3 .11

8 8.50

-

3 .51

9 1.00

Pb

s i lver ( g )

0 .50

2 .75

0 .25

3 .19

t r

0 .25

3 .01

t r

t r

2 .66

8 4.50

t r

0 .50

2 .39

3 .29

9 2.50

-

0 .50

3 .04

3 .08

8 9.67

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .26

2 .43

Correc ted mean we igh t

3 .18

Mean ( 12 c o ins )

1 1.

2 .77 0 .27 2 .85

Co inage o f A .D. 1 48-149

2 341

A M-R IC 1 75

2 .82

9 1.50

-

0 .25

2 .58

2 342

AM -R IC 1 75

2 .90

8 8.50

-

0 .50

2 .57

2 343

A M-R IC 1 75

3 .26

9 0.50

-

0 .50

2 .95

2 344

A M-R IC 1 77 (d )

3 .37

7 9.75

-

0 .75

2 .69

2 345

A M-RIC 1 77 (d )

2 .88

8 9.50

-

0 .50

2 .58

2 346

A M-R IC 1 77 (d )

3 .37

7 9.00

t r

0 .25

2 .66

2 347

A M-RIC 1 78

2 .94

8 9.00

-

1 .00

2 .62

2 348

A M-RIC 1 78

3 .58

7 8.50

-

0 .75

2 .81

2 349

AM . :RIC 1 79

3 .34

7 8.50

-

0 .50

2 .62

2 350

A M-RIC 1 80

3 .21

9 0.50

-

0 .75

2 .90

2 351

A M-RIC 1 80

3 .35

8 1.00

-

0 .50

2 .71

2 352

A M-R IC 1 81

3 .04

8 9.00

-

0 .50

2 .70

2 353

A M-R IC 1 81

3 .14

8 9.00

-

0 .25

2 .79

2 354

A M-R IC 1 83

3 .61

7 8.50

-

0 .75

2 .83

2 355

A M-R IC 1 83

3 .58

8 8.00

-

0 .50

3 .15

2 356

A M-R IC 4 44

2 .95

9 1.75

-

0 .75

2 .71

2 357

A M-RIC 4 44

3 .43

7 9.00

-

0 .25

2 .71

2 358

A dd-RIC 4 44

3 .09

9 0.00

-

0 .50

2 .78

2 359

A dd-R IC 4 44

3 .25

7 8.50

-

0 .50

2 .55

2 360

A M-R IC 4 46

3 .52

8 9.00

-

0 .75

3 .13

2 361

A M-R IC 4 48 (b )

3 .19

7 8.00

-

0 .75

2 .49

2 362

A M-R IC 4 48(d )

3 .64

7 7.50

-

1 .00

2 .82

Mean ( 22 c o ins )

3 .25

8 4.75

2 .74

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .25

5 .51

0 .17

12. Co inage o f A .D . 1 49-151 2 363

AM-R IC 1 87

3 .21

8 8.00

0 .50

2 .82

2 364

AM-R IC 1 88

3 .20

8 1.00

1 .50

2 .59

2 365

A dd- WC 1 88

3 .20

8 8.00

2 .25

2 .82

2 366

A M-R IC 1 89

3 .37

8 6.50

1 .25

2 .91

2 367

AM-R IC 1 93

3 .31

7 8.50

1 .75

2 .60

2 368

A M-R IC 1 94

3 .04

9 2.00

1 .00

2 .80

2 369

A dd-R IC 1 96

3 .11

9 1.75

1 .50

2 .85

2 9

1 _

We igh t No.

Reference

( g )

We ight o f % s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

2 370

AM-R IC 2 01

3 .12

7 7.50

-

1 .25

2 .42

2 371

AM-R IC 2 02 (b )

3 .53

8 3.25

-

1 .50

2 .94

2 372

AM-R IC 2 02 (b )

3 .43

7 8.00

-

2 .25

2 .67

Mean ( 10 c o ins )

3 .25

8 4.45

2 .74

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .15

5 .28

0 .16

1 3. 2 373

AM-R 1C 2 03

Co inage o f A . D. 1 51-152 3 .14

8 6.00

_

1 .50

2 .70 2 .74

2 374

AM-R IC 2 04

3 .49

7 8.50

-

2 .00

2 375

AM-R IC 2 05

3 .38

7 5.75

-

1 .00

2 .56

2 376

AM-R IC 2 09

3 .23

8 1.00

-

1 .00

2 .62

2 377

AM-R IC 2 16 (a )

2 .53

9 2.50

_

0 .75

2 .34

2 378

AM-R 1C 2 16 (a )

2 .91

7 8.50

-

0 .75

2 .28

2 379

AM-R IC 2 17

3 .23

7 8.00

-

2 .75

2 .52

2 380

AM-R IC 2 18

2 .68

9 1.25

-

1 .50

2 .44

2 381

AM-R IC 2 18

3 .28

7 5.50

-

2 .00

2 .48

2 382

AM-R IC 4 53 (a )

3 .42

9 1.50

-

0 .75

3 .13

2 383

AM-R IC 4 53(a )

3 .23

7 7.50

t r

0 .25

2 .50

2 384

AM-R IC 4 53(d )

2 .88

9 0.00

-

0 .75

2 .59

2 385

AM-R IC 4 56 (a )

3 .24

8 4.00

-

0 .75

2 .72

3 .13

8 3.08

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .28

6 .19

Correc ted mean we igh t

3 .17

Mean ( 13 c o ins )

1 4.

2 .59 0 .21 2 .63

Co inage o f A . D. 1 52-153

2 386

AM-R IC 2 19

2 .80

9 0.50

1 .50

2 .53

2 387

AM-R IC 2 19

3 .12

7 6.50

1 .00

2 .39

2 388

AM-R IC 2 19

3 .32

7 7.75

1 .75

2 .58

2 389

AM-R IC 2 21

3 .05

8 7.50

1 .75

2 .67

2 390

AM-R IC 2 21

3 .07

8 7.00

2 .00

2 .67

2 391

AM-R IC 2 22

3 .42

8 0.00

2 .25

2 .74

2 392

AM-R IC 2 28

3 .30

7 6.50

0 .75

2 .53

2 393

AM-R IC 2 29 (a )

3 .46

9 1.50

1 .00

3 .16

2 394

AM-R IC 2 29 (b )

3 .52

7 7.00

1 .25

2 .71

2 395

AM-RDC 4 58

3 .41

9 2.00

0 .75

3 .14

Mean ( 10 c o ins )

3 .25

8 3.63

2 .71

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .22

6 .32

0 .24

1 5. 2 396

AM-R IC 2 31

Co inage o f A . D. 1 53-155 2 .26

8 0.00

t r

t r

1 .81

2 397

A M-R IC 2 31

2 .97

9 1.00

-

1 .75

2 .70

2 398

AM-R IC 2 32

3 .39

8 1.50

-

0 .75

2 .76

2 399

AN I-RDC 4 59 (a )

3 .31

7 6.50

-

1 .25

2 .53

3 0

We igh t No.

Reference

2 400

A M-R IC 4 59 (a )

We ight o f

( g )

% s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

3 .73

8 9.25

0 .75

3 .33

2 401

A M-R IC 4 61

2 .86

8 9.00

0 .50

2 .54

2 402

A M-R IC 4 61

3 .23

7 5.50

0 .50

2 .44

2 403

A M-R IC 2 38

2 .72

9 0.00

0 .75

2 .45

2 404

A M-R IC 2 38

2 .62

9 2.75

0 .50

2 .43

2 405

A M-R IC 2 39

2 .92

9 0.00

0 .50

2 .63

2 406

A M-R IC 2 40

3 .20

9 1.50

0 .25

2 .93

2 407

A M-R IC 2 40

3 .54

8 7.50

0 .50

3 .10

2 408

A M-R IC 4 63(a )

3 .41

7 5.50

0 .50

2 .57

2 409

A M-R IC 4 63 (a )

3 .14

8 9.50

0 .50

2 .81

3 .09

8 5.68

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .38

6 .17

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .16

Mean ( 14 c o ins )

1 6.

2 .65 0 .34 2 .71

Co inage o f A .D. 1 55-156

2 410

A le -R IC 1 56A(a )

3 .06

9 3.00

-

0 .50

2 .85

2 411

A M-R IC 1 56A(a )

3 .15

9 0.00

-

0 .75

2 .83

2 412

A M-R IC 1 56A(a )

3 .54

7 9.00

-

1 .25

2 .80

2 413

A l V 11 UC 1 56A(a )

3 .24

8 0.00

-

0 .75

2 .59

2 414

A M-R IC 1 57

3 .11

8 7.50

-

1 .75

2 .72

2 415

A M-R IC 2 44 (a )

3 .56

8 8.00

-

0 .25

3 .13

2 416

A M-R IC 2 48

3 .51

9 0.00

-

0 .50

3 .16

2 417

A l V 1-1 1 1 10 2 49

3 .09

7 8.50

-

0 .25

2 .43

2 418

A M-RIC 2 49

3 .23

8 9.50

-

0 .75

2 .89

2 419

A M-R IC 2 50

2 .82

8 1.50

-

0 .75

2 .30

2 420

A M-R IC 2 51

2 .97

7 6.50

-

0 .50

2 .27

2 421

A M-R IC 2 52

3 .14

7 8.75

-

0 .50

2 .47

2 422

A M-R IC 2 52

3 .30

7 8.00

-

0 .50

2 .57

2 423

A M-R IC 2 53 (a )

3 .09

8 7.50

-

0 .75

2 .70

2 424

A M-R IC 2 53 (a )

3 .31

7 4.00

-

0 .50

2 .45

2 425

A M-R IC 2 54

3 .79

7 3.00

-

1 .00

2 .77

2 426

A M-R IC 4 66(a )

2 .45

8 2.50

-

0 .75

2 .02

2 427

A M-R IC 4 67 (b )

3 .23

8 4.50

-

1 .00

2 .73

2 428

A M-R IC 4 67 (b )

3 .29

7 5.50

_

0 .75

2 .48

2 429

A M-RIC 4 68

3 .14

7 5.50

-

1 .25

2 .37

Mean ( 20 c o ins )

3 .20

8 2.14

2 .63

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .28

6 .00

0 .28

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .22 1 7.

2 .66

Co inage o f A . D. 1 56-157

2 430

A M-R IC 2 57

3 .51

8 6.50

-

1 .00

3 .04

2 431

AM-R IC 2 59

3 .26

8 2.00

-

t r

2 .67

2 432

A M-R IC 2 60

2 .78

9 3.00

_

0 .75

2 .58

2 433

AM-RIC 2 62

3 .43

9 3.00

t r

0 .25

3 .19

3 1

We igh t No.

Reference

2 434

We ight o f

( g )

% s i lver

Au

Pb

AM-R IC 2 62

3 .38

8 3.50

t r

0 .75

s i lver ( g ) 2 .82

2 435

AM-R IC 2 64

3 .27

7 6.00

-

0 .50

2 .48

2 436

A M-R IC 2 64

2 .85

8 1.50

-

0 .50

2 .32

2 437

A M-R IC 2 65

3 .20

7 9.50

-

0 .75

2 .54

2 438

A M-R IC 4 70

3 .22

7 6.50

-

0 .75

2 .46

2 439

AM-R IC 4 73

3 .52

9 1.75

-

1 .25

3 .23

2 440

AM-R IC 4 73

3 .04

8 4.00

_

1 .25

2 .55

3 .22

8 4.30

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .24

5 .86

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .26

Mean ( 11 c o ins )

1 8.

2 .72 0 .30 2 .75

Co inage o f A . D. 1 57-158

2 441

AM-R IC 2 71

3 .15

8 1.00

-

0 .75

2 .55

2 442

AM-R IC 2 72 (a )

3 .23

9 1.50

-

1 .25

2 .95

2 443

AM-R IC 2 72

2 .96

9 1.00

-

0 .50

2 .69

2 444

AM-R IC 2 74

2 .78

7 9.00

-

0 .25

2 .20 2 .27

2 445

AM-R IC 2 75

3 .05

7 4.50

-

0 .50

2 446

A M-R IC 2 75

2 .45

7 5.00

-

0 .50

1 .84

2 447

AM-BIC 2 75

3 .38

7 4.00

_

0 .75

2 .50

2 448

AM-R IC 2 75

3 .17

8 6.50

-

0 .75

2 .74

2 449

AM-R IC 2 75

3 .05

7 1.50

-

0 .50

2 .18

2 450

AM-R IC 2 82

2 .62

9 3.00

-

0 .75

2 .44

2 451

AM-R IC 2 83

2 .83

8 9.00

-

1 .00

2 .52

2 452

AM-R IC-B MC

3 .46

8 6.50

-

0 .75

2 .99

p . 1 35 , n ote 2 453

AM-R IC 4 75 (a )

3 .31

7 5.00

-

1 .25

2 .48

2 454

AM-R IC 4 75 (a )

3 .22

7 6.50

-

0 .75

2 .46

2 455

AM-R IC 4 76

3 .34

7 6.50

-

1 .00

2 .56

3 .13

8 1.37

Mean ( 15 c o ins ) S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .29

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .16 1 9.

2 456

2 .49

7 .1 9

0 .29 2 .57

Co inage o f A . D. 1 58-159

AM-R IC 2 85

3 .14

9 3.25

-

0 .25

2 .92

2 457

AM-R IC 2 86 (a )

3 .25

8 8.50

-

1 .25

2 .88

2 458

AM-R IC 2 88

3 .30

7 8.00

-

0 .50

2 .57

2 459

AM-R IC 2 90 (a )

2 .90

8 7.00

-

1 .00

2 .52

2 460

AM-R IC 2 90 (a )

2 .96

8 9.00

-

1 .75

2 .63

2 461

AM-R IC 2 91 (a )

3 .17

7 7.00

-

0 .50

2 .44

2 462

AM-R IC 2 91(b )

2 .87

8 4.00

-

1 .25

2 .41

2 463

AM-R IC 2 92 (a )

3 .52

7 8.50

_

0 .75

2 .76

2 464

AM-R IC 2 94b (a )

2 .88

9 1.50

_

1 .00

2 .72

2 465

AM-RIC 2 94b (b )

3 .19

8 6.50

-

0 .50

2 .76

2 466

AM-R IC 4 79 (a )

3 .43

7 4.00

-

1 .00

2 .54

3 2

We igh t No.

Reference

We ight o f

( g )

% s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

2 467

AM-R IC 4 80 (c )

3 .46

7 4.25

0 .75

2 .57

2 468

AM-R IC 4 80 (c )

3 .41

7 6.50

1 .25

2 .61

3 .19

8 2.85

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .22

6 .41

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .19

Mean ( 13 c o ins )

2 0.

2 .64 0 .15 2 .64

Co inage o f A .D. 1 59-161

2 469

AM-R IC 2 96

3 .00

9 0.50

-

2 .00

2 .72

2 470

AM-R IC 2 97

3 .45

7 3.00

-

1 .00

2 .52

2 471

AM-R IC 2 98

3 .24

7 6.50

_

1 .25

2 .48

2 472

AM-R IC 2 99

3 .30

7 7.50

2 473

AM-R IC 3 00 (a )

2 .98

9 1.75

_

1 .00 1 .00

2 .56 2 .73

2 474

AM-R IC 3 00 (a )

3 .43

9 2.75

-

0 .75

3 .18

2 475

AM-R IC 3 01

3 .31

8 3.50

-

0 .75

2 .76

2 476

A M-R IC 3 01

3 .33

9 0.00

-

0 .50

3 .00

2 477

AM-R IC 3 03

3 .33

7 4.50

-

0 .75

2 .48

2 478

A M-R IC 3 04

3 .22

7 4.50

-

0 .75

2 .40

2 479

AM-R IC 3 05

3 .35

8 9.50

-

1 .00

2 .99

2 480

AM-R IC 3 05 (a )

2 .51

9 2.00

-

2 .25

2 .31

2 481

A M-R IC 3 05 0»

2 .82

9 2.50

-

1 .25

2 .61

2 482

A M-R IC 4 82

3 .39

7 8.00

2 483

AM-R IC 4 82

3 .35

7 4.25

_

0 .50 0 .50

2 .64 2 .49

2 484

AM-R IC 4 83

3 .28

8 6.50

-

0 .75

2 .84

2 485

AM-R IC 4 83

3 .32

8 3.50

_

0 .50

2 .77

2 486

A M-R IC 4 86

3 .19

8 6.50

-

0 .50

2 .76

2 487

A M-R IC 3 08

3 .36

7 4.25

2 488

AM-R IC 3 13 (c )

3 .19

7 6.50

_

0 .50 0 .50

2 .49 2 .44

2 489

A M-R IC 3 14

3 .33

8 2.50

-

0 .75

2 .75

2 490

AM-R IC 4 90

2 .90

9 2.00

-

1 .25

2 .67

Mean ( 22 c o ins )

3 .21

8 3.30

2 .66

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .23

7 .17

0 .21

Marcus Aure l ius - Min t o f Ro me 1 . 2 491

AM-R IC 1 v ar.

Co inage o f A . D. 1 61

3 .24

7 4.00

-

0 .75

2 .40

2 492

AM-R IC 2

3 .25

7 6.00

t r

0 .50

2 .47

2 493

AM-R IC 5

3 .11

7 4.75

-

0 .25

2 .32

2 494

AM-R IC 2 2

3 .36

8 0.00

-

0 .50

2 .69

2 495

AM-R IC 2 2

3 .35

7 4.75

-

0 .50

2 .50

2 496

AM-R IC 2 3

3 .28

7 5.50

-

0 .75

2 .48

2 497

AM-R IC 2 3

3 .19

7 7.50

-

0 .50

2 .47

2 498

A M-R IC 2 4

3 .42

8 0.00

t r

0 .50

2 .74

2 499

A M-R IC 2 5

3 .04

7 4.50

-

0 .25

2 .26

3 3

We igh t No.

Reference

2 500

AM-R IC 3 1 v ar.

2 501

A M-R IC 4 47 v ar.

( g )

We igh t o f % s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

3 .23

7 8.50

t r

0 .75

2 .54

2 .87

8 3.50

-

0 .75

2 .40

2 502

AM-R IC 4 63

3 .37

7 3.00

-

0 .25

2 .46

2 503

A M-R IC 4 63

3 .12

8 9.50

_

0 .50

2 .79

3 .22

7 7.81

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .15

4 .43

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .25

Mean ( 13 c o ins )

2 .

2 .50 0 .15 2 .53

Co inage o f A . D. 1 61-162

2 504

AM-R IC 3 3

3 .21

8 3.00

-

0 .50

2 .66

2 505

AM-R IC 3 5

3 .40

8 4.00

_

0 .75

2 .86

2 506

AM-R IC 3 5

3 .16

8 0.75

_

0 .50

2 .55

2 507

AM-R IC 3 7

3 .35

7 8.50

2 508

AM-R IC 3 7

3 .33

7 8.50

_

0 .50 0 .75

2 .63 2 .61

2 509

AM-R IC 4 9

2 .70

8 4.50

_

0 .25

2 .28

2 510

AM-R IC 5 0

3 .44

8 0.00

_

0 .50

2 .75

2 511

AM-R IC 5 1

3 .24

8 1.00

2 512

AM-R IC 4 82

3 .54

8 3.50

_

0 .75 -

2 .62 2 .96

2 513

AM-RJC 4 83

3 .02

8 7.00

-

1 .00

2 .63

2 514

AM-R IC 4 83

3 .41

7 3.25

-

0 .50

2 .50

3 .25

8 1.27

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .22

3 .57

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .28

Mean ( 1 1 c o ins )

3 .

2 .69 2 .67

Co inage o f A . D. 1 62-163

2 515

AM-R IC 5 9 v ar .

3 .28

8 0.50

-

1 .25

2 .64

2 516

AM-R IC 5 9

3 .18

7 9.50

-

0 .75

2 .53

2 517

AM-R IC 5 9

2 .95

8 4.25

-

1 .00

2 .50

2 518

AM-RIC 6 2

3 .19

7 0.00

-

0 .50

2 .23

2 519

AM-R IC 6 4

3 .27

7 1.50

-

0 .75

2 .34

2 520

AM-R IC 6 7

3 .22

7 7.50

-

0 .50

2 .50

2 521

AM-RIC 6 8

3 .39

7 4.00

-

1 .00

2 .51

2 522

AM-R IC 7 0

3 .30

7 4.75

_

1 .00

2 .47

2 523

AM-R IC 7 1

3 .46

7 4.50

-

0 .75

2 .58

2 524

AM-R IC 7 3

3 .56

7 3.75

-

1 .00

2 .63

2 525

AM-RIC 4 91

3 .29

7 3.00

-

0 .75

2 .40

2 526

AM-R IC 4 91

3 .36

7 8.25

-

0 .50

2 .63

2 527

AM-RIC 4 91

3 .00

7 4.50

-

0 .50

2 .23

2 528

AM-R IC 5 01

3 .30

7 3.25

-

0 .50

2 .42

2 529

AM-R IC 5 01

3 .54

8 8.00

t r

0 .25

3 .12

2 530

AM-B IC 5 01

3 .44

7 3.25

-

0 .75

2 .52

Mean ( 16 c o ins )

3 .30

7 6.28

2 .52

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .16

4 .65

0 .20

3 4

4 .

Co inage o f A . D. 1 63-164 We igh t

No.

Reference

( g )

We igh t o f % s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

2 531

A M-R IC 8 0

3 .20

9 0.25

-

0 .75

2 .89

2 532

A M-R IC 8 1

3 .06

8 3.00

t r

0 .25

2 .54

2 533

A M-R IC 8 1

3 .18

7 5.25

-

0 .75

2 .39

2 534

A M-R IC 8 1

3 .49

7 5.50

-

1 .00

2 .63

2 535

A M-R IC 8 1

3 .08

9 2.00

-

1 .25

2 .83

2 536

A M-R IC 8 5

3 .30

8 3.00

-

0 .75

2 .74

2 537

A M-R IC 8 7

3 .30

7 3.75

-

1 .00

2 .43

2 538

A M-R IC 9 1

3 .20

7 7.00

-

0 .75

2 .46

2 539

A M-R IC 9 2

3 .34

8 1.50

-

0 .50

2 .72

2 540

A M-R IC 1 04

3 .30

7 5.50

-

0 .50

2 .49

2 541

A M-R IC 1 06

2 .93

7 5.50

-

t r

2 .21

2 542

A M-RIC 1 10

3 .41

6 8.50

-

0 .75

2 .34

2 543

A M-RIC 1 12

3 .03

9 1.50

-

1 .25

2 .77

2 544

A M-R IC 1 12

2 .90

7 4.00

-

0 .75

2 .15

2 545

A M-RJC 5 09

3 .48

8 2.50

-

0 .75

2 .87

2 546

A M-R IC 5 14

3 .32

7 7.50

-

0 .75

2 .57

2 547

A M-R IC 5 14a

3 .05

8 5.50

-

2 .00

2 .61

2 548

AM-R IC 5 15

2 .61

9 0.00

-

1 .25

2 .35

2 549

A M-R IC 5 15

3 .17

8 7.50

-

0 .50

2 .77

2 550

AM-R IC 5 15

2 .86

9 1.00

-

1 .25

2 .60

2 551

A M-R TC 5 15

3 .01

7 9.50

-

0 .75

2 .39

2 552

A M-R IC 5 16

3 .34

8 4.25

-

0 .50

2 .81

Mean ( 22 c o ins )

3 .16

8 1.41

2 .57

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .21

6 .61

0 .21

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .19 5 .

2 .60

Co inage o f A . D. 1 64-165 3 .54

7 8.50

A M-R IC 1 23

3 .10

A M-R TC 1 24

3 .57

2 556

A dd-RIC 1 25

3 .20

7 8.50

_

0 .50

2 .51

2 557

A M-RTC 1 31

3 .12

7 8.50

_

0 .75

2 .45

2 558

A M-R TC 1 32

3 .12

6 5.00

-

0 .50

2 .03

2 559

AM-R IC 1 32

3 .20

7 4.50

-

0 .50

2 .38

2 560

A M-R IC 1 38

3 .63

8 0.50

-

0 .50

2 .92

2 561

AM-R IC 1 42

3 .24

7 7.50

-

0 .50

2 .51

2 562

AM-R IC 1 42

3 .30

7 0.00

-

0 .75

2 .31 2 .74

2 553

A M-RIC 1 22

2 554 2 555

_

0 .75

2 .78

7 3.00

-

0 .50

2 .26

7 2.00

-

0 .25

2 .57

2 563

A dd-R IC 5 28

3 .32

8 2.50

-

0 .50

2 564

AM-R IC 5 29

3 .53

7 6.00

-

t r

2 .68

2 565

A M-R IC 5 37

3 .26

8 1.25

-

1 .00

2 .65

2 566

A M-R TC 5 37

3 .11

7 4.00

_

0 .75

2 .30

2 567

A M-R TC 5 40

2 .73

9 0.00

-

1 .25

2 .46

2 568

A M-R IC 5 40

3 .42

8 2.50

-

0 .50

2 .82

3 5

We igh t

We ight o f

No.

Reference

2 569

AM-R IC 5 40

3 .61

7 8.50

-

0 .25

2 .83

2 570

AM-R IC 5 40

2 .96

9 0.00

-

0 .75

2 .66

2 571

AM-BIC 5 42

3 .15

8 5.50

t r

0 .50

2 .69

Mean ( 19 c o ins )

3 .27

7 8.33

2 .55

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .23

6 .19

0 .23

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .27

( g )

6 .

% s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

2 .56

Co inage o f A .D . 1 65-i 6 6

2 572

AM-R IC 1 46

3 .35

2 573

AM-RIC 1 48

2 574

AM-R IC 1 48

2 575

8 0.00

_

0 .50

2 .68

3 .39

7 5.50

-

0 .50

2 .56

3 .41

8 0.00

-

0 .50

2 .72

AM-R IC 1 49

2 .80

8 8.00

-

0 .50

2 .46

2 576

AM-R IC 1 59

3 .07

7 0.50

_

1 .00

2 .16

2 577

AM-R IC 1 59

3 .18

8 3.50

-

0 .25

2 .66

2 578

AM-R IC 1 63

3 .26

7 8.00

-

0 .25

2 .54

2 579

AM-R IC 1 63

3 .29

6 6.00

-

t r

2 .17

2 580

AM-R IC 1 63

3 .20

7 7.50

-

0 .75

2 .48

2 581

AM-R IC 1 64

3 .05

7 3.75

-

1 .00

2 .25

2 582

AM-R IC 5 48

3 .21

8 9.25

-

0 .75

2 .86

2 583

AM-R IC-

3 .10

7 7.50

-

t r

2 .40

BMC 4 12 2 584

AM-R IC 5 53

3 .46

8 2.00

-

0 .25

2 .84

2 585

A M-R IC 5 55

3 .09

8 2.50

-

0 .25

2 .55

2 586

AM-R IC 5 56

3 .34

8 2.25

-

1 .00

2 .75

2 587

AM-R IC 5 61

3 .71

7 3.75

_

1 .00

2 .74

2 588

AM-R IC 5 61

3 .04

9 1.50

-

0 .50

2 .78

2 589

AM-R IC 5 66

2 .98

7 9.50

-

0 .50

2 .37

2 590

AM-R IC 5 66

3 .48

7 5.50

_

0 .25

2 .63

Mean ( 19 c o ins )

3 .23

7 9.30

2 .56

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .21

6 .16

0 .21

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .25 7 .

2 .58

Co inage o f A .D . 1 66-167

2 591

AM-R IC 1 70

3 .50

7 7.50

_

0 .50

2 .71

2 592

AM-R IC 1 70

3 .05

8 8.75

_

0 .50

2 .71

2 593

AM-R IC 1 70

3 .03

8 8.00

-

0 .75

2 .66

2 594

AM-R IC 1 71

3 .03

7 5.50

_

0 .25

2 .29

2 595

AM-R IC 1 71

3 .35

8 0.00

-

0 .50

2 .67

2 596

AM-BIC 5 74

3 .08

7 6.00

t r

0 .25

2 .34

2 597

A M-R IC 5 74

3 .16

8 2.00

-

0 .25

2 .59

2 598

A M-R IC 5 76

2 .74

8 8.00

-

0 .75

2 .41

2 599

A M-R IC 5 76

3 .18

8 7.00

-

0 .50

2 .77

Mean ( 9 c o ins )

3 .12

8 2.53

2 .57

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .20

5 .19

0 .17

3 6

8 .

Co inage o f A . D. 1 67-168 We ight

No.

Reference

2 600

We igh t o f

( g )

% s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

A M-R IC 1 78

3 .48

8 0.00

0 .50

2 .78

2 601

A M-R IC 1 85

3 .65

8 6.50

1 .50

3 .16

2 602

A M-R IC 1 86

2 .97

7 5.50

0 .50

2 .24

2 603

A M-R IC 1 91

3 .49

8 2.75

1 .75

2 .89

2 604

A M-R IC 1 92

3 .06

8 3.00

1 .00

2 .54

2 605

A M-R IC 5 78

2 .86

8 2.00

0 .25

2 .35

2 606

A M-R IC 5 81

3 .13

8 5.50

0 .50

2 .68

2 607

A M-R IC 5 86

3 .07

7 5.00

0 .50

2 .30

2 608

A M-R IC 5 89

3 .07

7 5.00

0 .25

2 .30

2 609

A M-R IC 5 95

2 .93

8 7.00

0 .50

2 .55

2 610

A M-R IC 5 95

3 .39

8 1.50

0 .75

2 .76

Mean ( 1 1 c o ins )

3 .18

8 1.25

2 .59

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .25

4 .24

0 .27

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .21 9 .

2 .61

Co inage o f A .D . 1 68-169

2 611

A M-R IC 1 98

3 .28

8 0.50

1 .00

2 .64

2 612

A M-R IC 2 05

3 .66

8 6.50

0 .75

3 .17

2 613

A M-R IC 2 06

3 .37

8 0.00

0 .50

2 .69

2 614

A M-R IC 2 07

3 .18

8 4.00

0 .50

2 .67

2 615

A M-R IC 2 09

3 .12

8 2.50

0 .75

2 .57

2 616

A M-R IC 2 09

3 .01

9 2.75

0 .75

2 .79

2 617

A M-R IC 5 96 (a )

2 .94

8 7.00

0 .50

2 .56

2 618

A M-R IC 5 96(a )

3 .22

7 6.50

0 .75

2 .46

2 619

A M-R IC 5 96 (a )

3 .40

7 7.50

0 .75

2 .64

Mean ( 9 c o ins )

3 .24

8 3.02

2 .69

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .21

4 .86

0 .19

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .27

1 0.

2 .71

Co inage o f A .D . 1 69-170

2 620

A M-R IC 2 11

3 .36

8 2.25

-

1 .50

2 .76

2 621

A M-R IC 2 12

3 .01

8 2.75

_

1 .00

2 .49

2 622

A M-R IC 2 12

3 .30

8 0.50

-

0 .25

2 .66

2 623

A M-R IC 2 12

3 .23

7 5.00

-

0 .75

2 .42

2 624

A M-R IC 2 15

2 .99

7 6.50

-

0 .50

2 .29

2 625

A M-R IC 2 16

3 .00

8 2.25

-

1 .00

2 .47

2 626

A M-R IC 2 16

3 .36

7 8.75

-

1 .00

2 .64

2 627

A M-R IC 2 22

3 .12

8 2.25

-

1 .00

2 .57

2 628

A M-R IC 2 22

2 .55

9 3.50

-

0 .75

2 .38

2 629

A M-R IC 2 25

2 .78

9 0.00

t r

0 .50

2 .50

3 .07

8 2.38

2 .52

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .25

5 .36

0 .13

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .18

Mean ( 10 c o ins )

2 .62 3 7

1 1.

Co inage o f A . D. 1 70-172

We igh t No.

Reference

( g )

We igh t o f % s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

2 630

AM-R IC 2 29

3 .40

7 5.50

-

0 .50

2 631

AM-R IC 2 31

2 .86

7 4.50

-

1 .75

2 .57 2 .13

2 632

AM-R IC 2 31

3 .30

7 5.50

-

0 .75

2 .49

2 633

AM-R IC 2 33

3 .63

7 9.00

-

0 .75

2 .87

2 634

A dd-R IC 2 37

3 .19

7 6.50

-

2 .00

2 .44

2 635

A M-R IC 2 40

3 .44

7 6.50

-

2 .00

2 .44

2 636

AM-R IC 2 45

3 .30

7 7.00

t r

0 .75

2 .54

2 637

AM-R IC 2 45

3 .30

7 4.50

t r

1 .00

2 .46

2 638

AM-R IC 2 51

3 .57

8 0.50

t r

0 .50

2 .87

2 639

AM-R IC 2 52

3 .58

7 8.00

-

0 .50

2 .79

2 640

AM-R IC 2 55

3 .39

7 9.50

-

1 .00

2 .69

2 641

A dd-R IC 2 59

3 .39

7 6.50

-

1 .00

2 .59

2 642

AM-R IC 2 61

3 .21

7 7.50

-

0 .75

2 .49

Mean ( 13 c o ins )

3 .35

7 7.00

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .19

1 .79

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .35

1 2.

2 .57 0 .20 2 .58

Co inage o f A . D.

1 72-174

2 643

AM-R IC 2 71

2 .94

7 9.50

0 .50

2 .34

2 644

AM-R IC 2 71

2 .76

8 0.00

1 .00

2 .21

2 645

AM-R IC 2 73

3 .10

8 0.75

2 .25

2 .50

2 646

AM-R IC 2 74

3 .26

8 6.00

1 .50

2 .80

2 647

AM-R IC 2 77

3 .40

7 6.00

1 .75

2 .58

2 648

AM-R IC 2 80

3 .44

7 3.00

1 .75

2 .51

2 649

AM-R IC 2 82

3 .08

7 0.50

1 .25

2 .17

2 650

AM-R IC 2 85

3 .34

7 0.50

1 .50

2 .35

2 651

AM-R IC 2 86

3 .44

7 8.25

1 .00

2 .69

2 652

AM-R IC 2 89

3 .17

7 9.00

1 .25

2 .50

2 653

AM-R IC 2 91

3 .40

8 4.50

2 .00

2 .87

2 654

AM-R IC 2 97

3 .17

7 8.25

1 .00

2 .48

2 655

AM-R IC 2 97

3 .86

8 5.50

0 .75

3 .30

2 656

AM-R IC 2 99

3 .51

8 1.25

1 .00

2 .85

2 657

AM-R IC 3 00

3 .01

8 9.00

0 .50

2 .68

2 658

AM-R IC 3 01

2 .96

7 5.50

0 .75

2 .23

2 659

AM-R IC 3 02

3 .05

8 6.00

1 .00

2 .62

2 660

AM-R IC 3 04

3 .52

7 8.00

0 .50

2 .75

2 661

AM-R IC 3 07

3 .25

7 9.00

1 .50

2 .57

Mean ( 19 c o ins )

3 .25

7 9.50

2 .58

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .25

5 .02

0 .27

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .25

2 .58

3 8

13. Coinage of A.D. 174-176 No.

Reference

2662 2663 2664 2665 2666 2667 2668 2669 2670 2671 2672 2673 2674 2675 2676 2677 2678 2679 2680 2681 2682 2683 2684

Weight (g)

% silver

Au

AM-RIC 310 var. 3.70 3.34 AM-RIC 312 3.39 AM-RIC 316 3.26 AM-RIC 326 2.89 AM-RIC 327 3.28 AM-RIC 341 3.25 AM-RIC 343 3.34 AM-RIC 346 2.84 AM-RIC 352 AM-RIC 353 3.27 AM-RIC 354 2.98 AM-RIC 356 2.34 AM-RIC 359 3.33 AM-RIC 606 3.26 3.25 AM-RIC 611 3.40 AM-RIC 611 3.17 AM-RIC 611 3.23 AM-RIC 613 3.07 AM-RIC 616 2.69 AM-RIC 616 2.79 AM-RIC 617 3.34 AM-RIC 619 3.06 AM-RIC 622

74.00 76.50 78.00 79.00 80.00 74.00 75.00 82.00 84.00 87.00 78.50 93.00 90.50 82.00 74.00 86.50 78.50 75.00 76.00 88.50 80.00 78.00 79.50

tr

3.15 0.28 3.20

80.41 5.37

Mean (23 coins) Standard deviation Corrected mean weight

tr tr

Pb

0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 1.50 0.75 0.50 0.50 1.25 0.75 0.50 1.25 1.25 0.75 0.75 0.50 0.75 1.25 0.50 tr 0.75 0.75

Weight of silver (g) 2.74 2.56 2.64 2.57 2.31 2.43 2.44 2.74 2.39 2.84 2.34 2.18 3.01 2.67 2.40 2.94 2.49 2.42 2.33 2.38 2.23 2.60 2.43 2.53 0.21 2.57

14. Coinage of A.D. 176-179 2685 2686 2687 2688 2689 2690 2691 2692 2693 2694 2695 2696 2697 2698 2699

AM-RIC 363 AM-RIC 367 AM-RIC 373 AM-RIC 374 AM-RIC 375 AM-RIC 377 AM-RIC 626 AM-RIC 628 AM-RIC 638 AM-RIC 640 AM-RIC 640 AM-RIC 384 AM-RIC 385 AM-RIC 390 AM-RIC 649

3.54 3.46 2.81 3.67 2.37 3 .16 3.42 3.18 3.27 3.46 3.44 3.58 2.69 2.75 3.24

84.00 75.75 85.50 77.00 91.00 74.00 75.00 82.00 84.00 76.25 82.00 77.50 74.00 73.00 75.25 39

0.25 1.00 0.75 0.25 0.25 0.75 0.50 0.25 0.50 1.00 0.25 1.00 tr 1.00 1.00

2.97 2.62 2.40 2.83 2.16 2.34 2.56 2. 61 2.75 2.64 2.82 2.77 1.99 2.01 2.44

Weigh t No.

Reference

2 700

We igh t o f

( g )

% s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

AM-R IC 6 49

3 .51

7 7.25

t r

1 .00

2 .71

2 701

AM-R IC 6 49

3 .31

8 4.50

t r

0 .75

2 .80

2 702

AM-R IC 6 49

2 .90

7 2.50

-

1 .00

2 .10

2 703

AM-R IC 6 52

2 .76

9 2.00

-

1 .00

2 .53

2 704

AM-R IC 6 54

3 .48

7 6.50

-

0 .75

2 .66

2 705

AM-R IC 6 55

2 .60

8 4.00

-

1 .25

2 .18

2 706

AM-R IC 3 99

3 .43

9 0.00

-

0 .75

3 .09

2 707

AM-R IC 4 01

3 .27

7 3.00

-

0 .25

2 .39

2 708

AM-R IC 4 02 (a )

3 .36

8 5.00

-

0 .50

2 .86

2 709

AM-R IC 4 03

3 .16

7 2.75

-

0 .50

2 .30

2 710

AM-R IC 4 06

2 .76

7 3.00

-

t r

2 .01

2 711

AM-R IC 6 66

2 .53

7 6.50

-

0 .50

1 .94

2 712

AM-R IC 6 66

2 .87

7 9.00

-

0 .25

2 .27

Mean ( 28 c o ins )

3 .14

7 9.36

2 .49

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .36

5 .81

0 .32

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .23

2 .56

Co m modus - Min t o f Ro me 1 .

Co inage o f A .D. 1 79-181

2 713

AM-R IC 2 (c )

2 .90

8 3.00

0 .25

2 .41

2 714

AM-R IC 2 (e )

3 .01

7 4.00

0 .25

2 .23

2 715

AM-R IC 2 v ar.

3 .09

8 4.00

0 .25

2 .60

2 716

AM-R IC 7 (a )

2 .91

8 6.00

0 .50

2 .50

2 717

AM-R IC 9 (a )

3 .12

7 5.25

0 .75

2 .50 2 .36

2 718

AM-R IC 9 (c )

3 .09

7 6.50

0 .50

2 719

A M-R IC 1 0

3 .05

7 7.50

0 .25

2 .36

2 720

A M-R IC 1 2

2 .77

7 6.25

1 .00

2 .11

2 721

AM-R IC 1 2a

2 .78

7 3.50

0 .50

2 .04

2 722

AM-R IC 1 4A

2 .85

7 5.00

0 .50

2 .14

2 723

AM-RIC 1 5A

2 .76

7 4.00

0 .25

2 .04

2 724

AM-R IC 1 7

2 .86

7 2.75

0 .50

2 .08

3 .55

7 3.00

0 .25

2 .59

Mean ( 13 c o ins )

2 .98

7 6.98

2 .30

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .21

4 .28

0 .20

Corrected mean w e igh t

3 .00

2 725

AM-R IC 2 2

2 .

2 .31

Co inage o f A . D. 1 81-182 7 2.00

0 .75

2 .09

2 .76

8 7.00

0 .75

2 .40

2 .73

7 5.00

0 .50

2 .05

A M-R IC 2 8

3 .08

7 3.50

0 .50

2 .26

2 730

AM-R IC 2 9B

3 .43

9 2.00

0 .75

3 .16

2 731

AM-R IC 3 2

3 .17

7 8.00

0 .25

2 .47

2 726

AM-R IC 2 5A

2 .90

2 727

AM-R IC 2 6B

2 728

AM-R IC 2 8

2 729

4 0

We ight No.

Reference

2 732 2 733

We igh t o f

( gr

% s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

A M-R IC 3 6A

3 .67

7 6.00

0 .25

2 .79

AM-R IC 3 6A

3 .43

7 3.50

0 .50

2 .52 2 .04 2 .29

2 734

AM-R IC 4 3

2 .77

7 3.50

0 .75

2 735

AM-R IC 4 5

3 .11

7 3.50

0 .75

Mean ( 10 c o ins )

3 .10

7 7.40

2 .41

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .31

6 .35

0 .34

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .14 3 .

2 .43

Co inage o f A .D. 1 83

2 736

AM-EJC 4 7

2 .75

7 0.50

-

0 .50

1 .93

2 737

A M-BIC 4 9

3 .56

7 0.50

2 738

AM-BJC 5 4

2 .39

7 0.00

-

0 .75

2 .51

-

0 .50

1 .67

2 739

AM-R IC 5 4

2 .65

7 3.00

-

0 .75

1 .93

2 740

AM-BaC 5 6

2 .96

8 8.50

-

t r

2 .62

2 741

A M-BdC 5 8

2 .77

7 6.00

-

0 .50

2 .10

2 742

A M-R IC 5 9

3 .58

7 2.00

-

0 .25

2 .58 1 .82

2 743

AN I-BaG 6 1

2 .42

7 5.00

-

-

2 744

AN I-BJC 6 4

2 .56

7 5.00

-

1 .00

1 .92

2 745

A d41 9JC 6 5

3 .43

7 6.00

-

0 .75

2 .61

2 746

AM-R IC 6 5

2 .78

7 6.00

-

0 .25

2 .11

2 747

AN I-BJC 6 5

3 .43

7 1.00

-

1 .00

2 .44

2 748

A ld-BJC 6 7

2 .82

6 9.75

-

0 .50

1 .97

Mean ( 13 c o ins )

2 .93

7 4.09

2 .17

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .41

4 .78

0 .32

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .01 4 .

2 .23

Co inage o f A . D. 1 83-184

2 749

AM-R IC 7 1

3 .00

7 4.50

-

0 .25

2 .46

2 750

A J NI-EJC 7 2

3 .15

8 2.00

_

1 .50

2 .58

2 751

AM-R IG 7 3

2 .84

7 8.00

-

0 .50

2 .21

2 752

AM-R IG 7 4

3 .35

7 9.00

-

1 .00

2 .65

2 753

AM-R IG 7 5

3 .16

8 0.00

_

0 .50

2 .53

2 754

A JW- M IC 7 5

3 .52

7 0.00

-

0 .25

2 .46

2 755

A JW-BJC 7 5

3 .15

7 4.50

_

0 .50

2 .35

2 756

AM-R IG 7 6

2 .90

8 2.50

-

0 .50

2 .39

2 757

A 24-BJC 7 9

2 .85

8 1.00

-

1 .75

2 .31

2 758

AM-R IG 8 1

3 .49

7 3.00

-

t r

2 .55

2 759

AM-R IG 8 2

3 .31

7 0.00

-

1 .75

2 .32

2 760

AM-R IG 8 3

2 .74

8 3.25

-

1 .00

2 .28

2 761

AM-R IG 8 4

3 .09

7 2.50

-

0 .50

2 .24

2 762

A 24-BIG 8 7

3 .13

8 2.50

-

2 .00

2 .58

3 .12

7 7.34

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .23

4 .63

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .14

Mean ( 14 c o ins )

2 .42 0 .14 2 .43

4 1

5 .

Co inage o f A .D . 1 84-185

We ight No.

Reference

2 763

We igh t o f

( g )

% s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

AM-R IC 8 9B

3 .04

7 9.00

-

1 .00

2 .40

2 764

AM-R IC 9 0B

3 .41

7 9.50

-

0 .75

2 .71

2 765

AM-R IC 9 1C

2 .62

7 9.00

-

1 .00

2 .07

2 766

AM-R IC 9 4B

2 .56

7 3.00

-

1 .00

1 .87

2 767

AM-R IC 9 4B

2 .69

7 6.00

-

0 .25

2 .04

2 768

AM-R IC 9 4B

3 .63

7 3.50

-

0 .75

2 .67

2 769

AM-R IC 9 5B

2 .68

7 3.75

-

0 .50

1 .98

2 770

AM-R IC 9 8a C

2 .92

7 6.00

-

1 .00

2 .22

2 771

AM-R IC 9 9c

3 .26

7 3.50

-

0 .75

2 .40

2 772

AM-R IC 1 01

3 .45

7 2.25

-

1 .00

2 .49

2 773

AM-R IC 1 02

2 .80

7 9.50

-

0 .75

2 .21

2 774

AM-R IC 1 04

2 .73

7 1.50

-

0 .75

1 .95

2 775

AM-R IC 1 06c

2 .60

8 1.50

-

0 .75

2 .12

2 776

AM-R IC 1 08

3 .04

6 7.50

t r

0 .25

2 .05

2 777

AM-RIC 1 09

3 .41

7 2.50

-

1 .00

2 .47

2 778

AM-R IC 1 12

2 .80

7 8.50

-

0 .75

2 .20

2 779

AM-R IC 1 12

4 .04

7 0.50

-

0 .75

2 .85

Mean ( 17 c o ins )

3 .04

7 5.11

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .41

3 .77

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .08 6 .

2 .28 0 .28 2 .31

Co inage o f A .D . 1 86

2 780

AM-R IC 1 17a

2 .65

6 5.00

-

0 .50

1 .72

2 781

AM-R IC 1 17a

2 .66

7 3.00

2 782

AM-R IC 1 20

2 .70

7 3.25

-

0 .75

1 .94

-

0 .75

2 783

AM-R IC 1 22a

3 .02

1 .98

7 7.50

-

0 .75

2 .34

2 784

AM-R IC 1 22a

2 785

AM-R IC 1 24

2 .86

7 8.00

-

0 .75

2 .23

2 .91

7 4.50

-

0 .50

2 .17

2 786 2 787

AM-R IC 1 24

3 .42

7 2.50

-

0 .75

2 .46

AM-R IC 1 26

2 .85

7 2.25

-

1 .00

2 .06

2 788

AM-R IC 1 26

2 789

AM-R IC 1 29

2 .98

7 5.75

-

1 .00

2 .26

2 .73

7 4.00

1 .25

2 .02

2 790

AM-R IC 1 30D

2 .51

8 3.25

-

1 .00

2 .09

2 791

AM-R IC 1 31

3 .25

2 792

AM-R IC 1 31

3 .10

7 2.25

-

1 .00

2 .35

7 2.25

-

1 .00

2 .24

2 793

AM-R IC 1 31

2 .84

2 794

AM-R IC 1 33

2 .97

6 8.50

-

0 .75

1 .95

7 3.00

-

1 .75

2 .17

2 795

AM-R IC 1 34

2 .62

2 796

AM-R IC 1 35

2 .80

7 8.00

-

0 .75

2 .04

8 4.00

-

1 .25

2 .35

2 797

AN I-R IC 1 36D

2 .95

2 798

AM-R IC 1 40

2 .68

7 1.50

-

0 .75

2 .11

7 2.50

t r

0 .75

1 .94

Mean ( 19 c o ins )

2 .87

7 4.26

2 .13

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .22

4 .39

0 .18

Correc ted mean we igh t

2 .93

2 .18 4 2

7 . .

Co inage o f A .D . 1 86-187

We igh t No.

Reference

2 799

A M-R IC 1 43

Weigh t o f

( g )

% s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

2 .61

7 3.00

0 .75

1 .90

1 .00

2 .28

2 500

A M-R IC 1 46

2 .81

8 1.25

2 801

A M-R IC 1 46

2 .58

8 9.00

1 .75

2 .30

2 802

A M-R IC 1 46 v ar .

2 .84

7 5.25

1 .00

2 .14

2 803

A M-R IC 1 50 (a )

2 .91

7 8.00

1 .25

2 .27

2 804

A M-R IC 1 52

2 .46

7 8.75

0 .50

1 .94

2 805

A M-R IC 1 55

3 .16

7 4.00

1 .50

2 .34

2 806

A M-R IC 1 55

2 .73

7 2.00

1 .00

1 .97 2 .47

2 807

A M-R IC 1 55 (a )

3 .45

7 1.50

0 .50

2 808

A M-R IC 1 57

2 .76

7 2.50

1 .25

2 .00

2 809

A M-R IC 1 60

2 .77

7 4.00

1 .50

2 .05

2 810

A M-R IC 1 60

3 .19

8 2.00

0 .75

2 .62

2 811

A M-R IC 1 61

3 .50

7 6.00

0 .50

2 .66

2 .90

7 6.71

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .31

4 .82

Corrected mean we igh t

2 .94

Mean ( 13 c o ins )

8 .

2 .23 0 .24 2 .25

Co inage o f A .D. 1 87-189

2 812

A M-R IC 1 63

3 .44

7 8.00

1 .50

2 .68

2 813

A M-R IC 1 64 (a )

2 .44

7 6.00

1 .75

1 .85

2 814

A M-R IC 1 64 (a )

3 .66

7 5.50

1 .50

2 .76

2 815

A M-R IC 1 67

2 .77

7 2.00

1 .00

1 .99

2 816

A M-R IC 1 68 (a )

2 .97

7 7.75

1 .00

2 .31

2 817

A M-R IC 1 69

2 .74

7 2.50

0 .75

1 .99

2 818

A M-R IC 1 72

3 .11

8 2.75

1 .00

2 .57

2 819

. A M-R IC 1 73

2 .93

7 5.00

1 .75

2 .20

2 820

A M-BJC 1 75

2 .73

7 6.00

2 .00

2 .07

2 821

A M-RTC 1 76

2 .57

7 3.00

1 .25

1 .88

2 822

A M-R IC 1 77

2 .71

7 2.50

1 .75

1 .96

2 823

A M-R IC 1 79

2 .85

7 2.25

2 .00

2 .06

2 824

A M-BIC 1 86

3 .15

7 7.00

1 .25

2 .43

2 825

A M-R IC 1 88

3 .05

7 1.25

1 .00

2 .17

2 826

A M-R IC 1 90

3 .44

7 6.00

1 .00

2 .61

2 827

A M-R IC 1 90

2 .65

7 6.00

1 .50

2 .01

2 828

A M-R IC 1 97B

3 .09

7 2.50

1 .00

2 .24

2 829

A M-R IC 1 99

3 .28

7 4.00

1 .25

2 .43

2 830

A M-R IC 2 01

3 .40

7 5.00

1 .25

2 .55

2 831

A M-R IC 2 01

2 .79

7 1.50

1 .00

1 .99 2 .00 2 .25

2 832

A M-R IC 2 02 (a )

2 .76

7 2.50

1 .00

2 833

AM-R IC 2 03

2 .55

8 8.25

0 .50

Mean ( 22 c o ins )

2 .96

7 5.33

2 .23

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .32

3 .88

0 .27

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .02

2 .27

4 3

9 .

Co inage o f A . D. 1 90-191

We ight No.

Reference

2 834

We igh t o f

( g )

% s i lver

AM-R IC 2 05

2 .18

7 3.50

2 835

AM-R IC 2 05

2 .83

2 836

AM-R IC 2 08

2 .35

2 837

AM-R IC 2 08

2 838 2 839

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

2 .00

1 .60

7 1.00

1 .50

2 .01

7 0.00

1 .00

1 .64

3 .77

7 4.00

1 .75

2 .79

AM-R IC 2 09

2 .60

7 3.25

1 .25

1 .90

AM-R IC 2 12

2 .96

7 0.75

2 .25

2 .09

2 840

AM-R IC 2 18

2 .78

6 7.00

1 .75

1 .86

2 841

AM-R IC 2 18

2 .66

7 0.00

1 .25

1 .86

2 842

AM-R IC 2 18

2 .34

7 2.50

1 .00

1 .70

2 843

AM-R IC 2 19

2 .82

8 1.50

2 .00

2 .30

2 844

AM-R IC 2 20

3 .14

6 9.50

2 .00

2 .18

0 .25

1 .81

2 845

AM-R IC 2 20

2 .44

7 4.00

t r

2 846

AM-R IC 2 22a

2 .22

7 1.50

t r

2 847

AM-R IC 2 22a

3 .42

6 8.00

1 .00

2 .33

2 848

AM-R IC 2 23a

3 .53

7 2.50

1 .00

2 .56

2 849

AM-R IC 2 24

2 .55

7 4.50

0 .75

1 .90

2 850

AM-R IC 2 24a

2 .91

7 7.50

1 .00

2 .26

2 851

AM-R IC 2 27

3 .04

7 1.00

1 .50

2 .16

1 .59

2 852

AM-R IC 2 27

2 .58

7 0.50

2 .00

1 .82

2 853

AM-R IC 2 27

2 .42

7 1.00

1 .50

1 .72

2 854

AM-R IC 2 28

2 .89

7 1.00

1 .50

2 .05

Mean ( 21 c o ins )

2 .78

7 2.12

2 .01

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .42

3 .09

0 .31

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .02 1 0.

2 855

2 .18

Co inage o f A . D. 1 92

AM-BJC 2 33

2 .89

8 1.50

-

1 .00

2 .36

2 856

AM-R IC 2 33

2 .34

2 857

AM-R IC 2 34

2 .45

6 7.50

-

0 .25

1 .58

7 0.50

-

1 .00

1 .72

2 858

AM-R IC 2 34

2 859

AM-R IC 2 34

2 .57

7 1.00

t r

0 .25

1 .82

2 .63

7 1.00

t r

0 .25

1 .87

2 860

AM-R IC 2 35

2 861

AM-R IC 2 35

2 .56

7 1.00

-

1 .50

1 .82

2 .61

6 8.00

-

1 .50

1 .77

2 862

AM-EIC 2 35

2 .23

8 4.00

-

1 .25

1 .87

2 863

AM-RIC 2 36

2 .76

7 4.00

-

0 .75

2 .04

2 864

AM-BJC 2 36

2 .98

6 1.00

-

0 .75

1 .82

2 865

AM-R IC 2 36

3 .04

7 1.00

-

1 .25

2 .16

2 866

AM-R IC 2 37

2 .86

7 0.50

-

2 .00

2 .02

2 867

AM-BJC 2 37 (a )

2 .70

7 8.50

-

0 .75

2 .12

2 868

AM-R IC 2 39

3 .29

7 4.00

t r

t r

2 .43

2 869

AM-R IC 2 39

2 .03

8 2.00

-

0 .50

1 .66

2 870

AM-R IC 2 40

2 .74

7 7.00

-

1 .25

2 .11

2 871

AM-R IC 2 41

2 .51

6 6.50

-

0 .25

1 .67

2 872

AM-R IC 2 41

2 .85

7 2.00

-

0 .75

2 .05

4 4

' We igh t

We igh t o f

No.

Reference

2 873

A M-RIC 2 49

2 .48

7 4.25

-

0 .50

1 .84

2 874

AN I-RIC 2 51

3 .28

9 0.00

-

0 .75

2 .95

2 875

A M-RJC 2 51

2 .34

7 2.75

t r

-

1 .70

2 876

A M-R IC 2 53

2 .73

7 7.00

t r

0 .50

2 .10

( g )'

% s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

2 877

A M-R IC 2 54a

3 .38

6 1.50

-

1 .00

2 .08

2 878

A M-R IC 2 54a

3 .29

6 2.50

-

0 .50

2 .06

2 879

A M-R IC 2 55

2 .58

7 3.00

-

0 .25

1 .88

2 880

A M-R IC 2 55

2 .58

7 6.25

-

0 .50

1 .97

2 881

A M-R IC 2 55

3 .61

7 9.00

-

0 .50

2 .85

2 882

A M-R IC 2 55

2 .43

7 9.00

-

0 .50

1 .92

Mean ( 28 c o ins )

2 .74

7 3.44

2 .01

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .37

6 .60

0 .32

Corrected mean

3 .01

7 2.83

2 .19

Note :

n o. 2 874 , w ith o bverse b ust o f Co m modus i n l ion 's-sk in , s tands o ut i n

t h is g roup ;

i ti s p oss ib ly f a lse , a nd i s i n a ny c ase c er ta in ly n ot a s ubs tan t ive

i ssue. 1 1. 2 883

A M-R IC 6 8(b )

1 .56

Qu inar i i 7 3.00

1 .14

( A. D. 1 83 ) 2 884

A M-R IC 8 0 (? )

1 .15

9 3.25

1 .00

1 .07

2 885

A M-R IC 1 70

1 .50

8 0.50

2 .50

1 .21

Mean ( 3 c o ins )

1 .40

8 2.25

Corrected mean we igh t

1 .42

1 .15 1 .17

( 14 c o ins )

4 5

S u m mary .Denar i i o f Ro me Mean we igh t I ssue a nd d a te

Mean w e ight

( g )

Mean % s i lver

o f s i lver ( g )

3 .20

9 3.08

2 .97

Nerva 1 , 9 6 2 , 9 7

3 .23

9 3.19

3 .0 1_

9 6-98

3 .26

3 3.14

3 .03

1 , 9 8-99

3 .27

9 3.55

3 .05

2 , 1 00

3 .21

9 2.38

2 .97

Tr a ja n

3 1 01-102

3 .22

9 3.01

2 .99

4 1 03

3 .21

9 2.75

2 .98

5 1 04

3 .26

8 9.89

2 .93

6 1 05

3 .21

9 2.04

2 .95

7 1 06

3 .21

9 2.22

2 .96 3 .01

8 1 07 ( ear ly )

3 .27

9 2.23

9 1 07 ( l a te )

3 .20

8 9.99

2 .87

3 .22

8 8.95

2 .86

1 0 , 1 08 1, 1 09-111

3 .19

8 8.47

2 .82

1 2, 1 12-113

3 .16

8 9.69

2 .91

1 3, 1 14

3 .21

8 9.92

2 .88

1 4 , 1 15

3 .25

8 9.48

2 .90

1 5 , 1 16

3 .26

8 7.87

2 .86

1 6, 1 17

3 .20

8 8.95

2 .84

1 , 1 17

3 .23

8 7.39

2 .82

2 , 1 18

3 .24

8 6.90

2 .81

3 , 1 19-120

3 .21

8 8.65

2 .84

4 , 1 21

3 .14

8 9.78

2 .81

5 , 1 22

3 .18

8 9.73

2 .85

6 , 1 23

3 .18

8 8.34

2 .80

7 , 1 24

3 .18

8 9.00

2 .83

8 , 1 25

3 .26

8 8.40

2 .87

Hadr ian

9 , 1 26

3 .25

8 8.16

2 .86

1 0 , 1 27

3 .17

8 9.53

2 .83

1 1, 1 28 ( ear ly )

3 .22

8 7.33

2 .81

1 2, 1 28 ( l a te )

3 .18

8 9.28

2 .83

1 3, 1 29-131

3 .25

8 8.94

2 .89

1 4 , 1 32

3 .22

8 8.23

2 .83

1 5 , 1 33

3 .18

9 0.82

2 .88

1 6 , 1 34

3 .20

8 9.80

2 .87

1 7, 1 35

3 .21

8 9.17

2 .86

1 8, 1 36

3 .18

9 0.52

2 .88

1 9 , 1 37

3 .23

8 9.84

2 .90

2 0 , 1 38

3 .25

8 8.46

2 .87

4 6

Mean we igh t I ssue a nd d ate

Mean we igh t

( g )

Mean % s i lver

o f s i lver ( g )

1 , 1 38

3 .25

8 7.81

2 .85

An ton inus

2 , 1 39

3 .27

8 7.93

2 .87

3 , 1 40

3 .23

8 5.03

2 .74

4 , 1 41

3 .21

8 7.43

2 .81

5 , 1 42

3 .19

8 8.67

2 .83

6 , 1 43

3 .24

8 7.09

2 .82

7 , 1 44

3 .15

8 8.00

2 .77

8 , 1 45

3 .25

8 7.78

2 .86

9 , 1 46

3 .18

8 5.89

2 .73

1 0 , 1 47-148

3 .18

8 9.67

2 .85

1 1, 1 48-149

3 .25

8 4.75

2 .74

1 2, 1 49-151

3 .25

8 4.45

2 .74

1 3, 1 51-152

3 .17

8 3.08

2 .63

1 4, 1 52-153

3 .25

8 3.63

2 .71

1 5 , 1 53-155

3 .16

8 5.68

2 .71

1 6, 1 55-156

3 .22

8 2.61

2 .66

1 7, 1 56-157

3 .26

8 4.30

2 .75

1 8, 1 57-158

3 .16

8 1.37

2 .57

1 9, 1 58-159

3 .19

8 2.85

2 .64

2 0 , 1 59-161

3 .21

8 3.30

2 .66

1 , 1 61

3 .25

7 7.81

2 .53

Marcus Aure l ius

2 , 1 61-162

3 .28

8 1.27

2 .67

3 , 1 62-163

3 .30

7 6.28

2 .52

4 , 1 63-164

3 .19

8 1.55

2 .60

5 , 1 64-165

3 .27

7 8.33

2 .56

6 , 1 65-166

3 .25

7 9.30

2 .58

7 , 1 66-167

3 .12

8 2.53

2 .57

8 , 1 67-168

3 .21

8 1.25

2 .60

9 , 1 68-169

3 .27

8 3.02

2 .71

1 0, 1 69-170

3 .18

8 2.37

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In the middle of A. D. 85, after a brief period when the standard of Augustus was restored, Domitian's government returned to the standard which had been established by Nero for the striking of denarii. This Neronian standard gives a mean silver fineness of just over 93%. producing a denarius containing very slightly over 3.00 g of silver, and it was adhered to with great accuracy, with a standard deviation well under 1. 00% (Metrology I, 115). This restored standard continued in use until well into the reign of Trajan (figs. 1, 7). The 37 coins of Nerva which have been analysed give a percentage fineness and silver content for the denarius exactly equal to that of Domitian's coins, and this is also true of the 2 3 coins of Trajan struck in 98-99, although the standard deviation is very slightly increased. It should be remembered that in 99 the weight of the gold aureus, which had been raised by Domitian at the same time that he raised the fineness of the denarius, was reduced to the Neronian weight; in other words there was a change in this year in the ratio of gold and silver. There is a very slight falling away from the Neronian standard in 100, but this does not seem to be significant, and might be corrected by a larger sample; certainly in 101-102 the standard is again over 93.00% fine, and the three coins of 103 do not suggest any change in that year. It is not until the year 104 that serious problems begin. The chronology of the period of Trajan's fifth consul­ ship is very difficult, and although Hill, whose valuable work has been used for the whole of this period, 1 is clearly correct in outline it is probable that he is incorrect in detail in places. In particular, the separation of issues of 104 from those of 106 is difficult and is based on style of obverse portraiture alone, with the same reverse types continuing in use. It is very unfortunate that it is exactly in this period 104-107 that we are most anxious that our chronology should be correct, for it is in this period that the abandonment of the Neronian standard, this time for good, took place. Even if, however, some of the coins of the period before the reform of 107 have been misplaced there are certain points upon which we can be quite clear. Firstly the change in the obverse and reverse legends which took place in 107, and which has been associated with Dio' s account of the calling in of old and worn coinage, 2 with Trajan's 'restored' issues and also with a possible rise in the price of gold, is indeed a significant event in the history of the coinage. A comparison of the coins issued before and after the change of legends in 107 (fig. 1) shows that the coins of the first half of the year are clearly struck on exactly the Neronian standard, possibly with the slight falling away of about 0. 75% which has been noticeable since the start of Traja.n' s reign. The coins of the second half of the year are on a new standard, in which a significant minority fall to as low as 80% fine. Comparison with the coins struck at Rome between A.D. 70 and 8 2 makes it clear that this is a return to the reduced standard which had been introduced at the beginning of the reign of Vespasian (Metrology I, figs. 10-1 2 ), and which had usually given a mean % silver of just under 90%. The mean % silver of Trajan's coins of the second half of 107 is 89.90%, with a standard deviation of 3. 2 8%, giving a denarius contain­ ing 2 . 87 g of silver. All these figures compare closely with those of the coinage of 70-8 2 .

55

T he r eform o f 1 07 , t hen , t ook t he f orm o f t he a bandonmen t o f t he s tandard o f Nero a nd a r e turn t o t he r educed •s tandard o f V espas ian.

Un for tuna te ly t he

s i tua t ion i s n o t q u ite a s c lear a s t h is , f or i t wou ld s ee m t ha t c hanges h ad b egun t o t ake p lace a s e ar ly a s 1 04.

As w e h ave s een , t he c o ins o f t he f irs t h a l f o f

1 07 a re s truck o n t he N eron ian s tandard , a nd o ur s amp le i s s uf f ic ien t ly l arge f or i tt o b e u n l ike ly t ha t c o ins o f l ow f i neness h ave s imp ly b een e xc luded b y c hance.

T he n u mber o f c o ins i n t he s a mp les o f 1 05 a nd 1 06 a re sma l l , b u t

t hey t oo s ee m t o b e s truck o n t he N eron ian s tandard , w ith t he e xcep t ion o f o ne c o in o f 1 06.

However , o f t he 1 c o ins o f 1 04 a na lysed n o l ess t han 4 a re s truck

a t b e low 9 0% f i ne s o t ha t t he s pread o f f i nenesses , t he mean % s i lver a nd t he s tandard d ev ia t ion a re c lose t o t ha t w e w ou ld e xpect f ro m c o ins s truck o n t he s tandard o f V espas ian .

We h ave a lready men t ioned t ha t w e mus t b e w ary o f

p re tend ing t ha t o u t d at ing o f t he c o inage o f t hese y ears i s e xac t , b u t t here i s n o d oub t t hat a t l eas t s o me o f t he c o ins i n t h is g roup ( nos. 15 95 a nd 1 599 ) c annot p oss ib ly b e d ated a f ter 1 04 s ince t he ir s ty le o f o bverse p or tra iture i s v ery c lose t o t ha t o f c o ins o f 1 03. C lear ly t he p er iod f ro m 1 04 t o 1 07 i s c ruc ia l , a nd more a na lys is work mus t b e d one t o make i tc learer , b u t t he s i tua t ion w h ich w e s ee m t o b e f aced w ith i s o ne i n wh ich t he N eron ian s tandard w as f i rs t a bandoned i n 1 04 , w as t hen r estored a ga in , t hough p erhaps n ot e n t ire ly , b efore b e ing p ermanen t ly r ep laced i n 1 07 b y t he s tandard o f V espas ian , a s p ar t o f t he r eform wh ich w as a ccompan ied b y ' restora t ion ' i ssues , c hanges i n b oth o bverse a nd r everse l egend a nd p erhaps a lso t he c a l l ing i n o f t he o ld c urrency w h ich i s r ecorded b y D io. T hat d ebase men t s hou ld h ave s tar ted a s e ar ly a s 1 04 i s v ery i mpor tan t i n a ny d iscuss ion o f t he c auses o f t he r eform o f 1 07 a nd o f t he d ebase men t , a nd i n p ar t icu lar o f t he r o le o f t he ' Dac ian g o ld ' wh ich , i th as b een s ugges ted , w as b rough t b ack f ro m t he s econd D ac ian w ar i n s uch q uan t it ies t ha t t here r esu l ted ar educ t ion i n t he p r ice o f g o ld i n r e la t ion t o s i lver , r ecorded i n a n Egyp t ian p apyrus , a nd wh ich i n t urn , b y r a is ing t he p r ice o f s i lver , b rough t a bou t t he c a l l ing i n o f t he e x is t ing s i lver c urrency . Th is may h ave b een o ne o f t he f ac tors i nvo lved , b u t i tc anno t h ave b een t he o n ly o ne i f , a s w e h ave s een , t he d ebasemen t s tar ted n o t i n 1 07 b u t i n 1 04 , e ven i ft he e xper i men t o f 1 04 w as s oon a bandoned. F ur ther more , t here i s e v idence t ha t a t l eas t o ne m in t r educed t he f i neness o f i t s s i lver c o inage l a ter t han a t Ro me , s ugges t ing ( as i s a lso e v ident f ro m t he c on t inua t ion o f e ar l ier c o ins i n c ircu la t ion ) t ha t ar ise i n t he p r ice o f s i lver c annot h ave b een v ery g rea t ( be low ,

p•1 0 3 )•

I t s hou ld b e n oted t ha t n one o f t he t hree ' res tored ' d enar i i a na lysed ( nos . 1 808-1810 ), wh ich s hou ld d a te t o j ust a f ter t he r eform o f 1 07 , s how e v idence o f d ebase men t .

One o f t he m h as a p ar t icu lar ly h igh s i lver c on ten t , b ut a

l arger s a mp le w ou ld b e n eeded b efore t he e v idence c ou ld b e c ons idered s ign if i can t. As c an b e b es t o bserved i n f i g . 7t he s tandard i n troduced b y T ra jan i n 1 07 c on t inued i n u se a t Ro me f or 4 0 y ears.

T he c harac ter is t ics o f t he i nd iv idua l

y ears c an b e s een i n f i gs. 1 -4. A s w as t he c ase d ur ing t he p rev ious u se o f t h is s tandard u nder V espas ian , T itus a nd t he e ar ly y ears o f Do m it ian i ti s d ist ingu ished b y av ery w ide s pread o f f i nenesses , w ith many c o ins a ctua l ly s truck a t t he s a me f ineness a s c o ins o f t he a bandoned Neron ian s tandard b ut w ith

5 6

considerable numbers at between 85 and 90% fine and a scattered tail of fine­ nesses down to about 77-78%, with exceptional coins even lower than this. The means and standard deviations of the individual years are, given the small size of the samples, very uniform. The mean is almost always between 87% and 90%, sometimes a little higher than 90% and once slightly below 87%. Standard deviations are almost always between 2.50% and 5%. When worn coins are excluded from our samples it can be seen that the mean weight of silver in the denarius in individual years is almost always between 2. 80 and 2.90 g, and it is clear that we can safely say that the denarius during the period 107-148 contains a mean weight of silver in the denarius of about 2.85 g of silver, compared with 3.00 g of silver or slightly above for the standard of Nero. Trajan's reform, in other words, represents a reduction in the silver content of the denarius of about 5% from the standard of Nero. Little needs to be said about the quinarii of Trajan (nos. 1811-1820) or Hadrian (nos. 2186-2193). In the case of those of Trajan the weight seems to be a little less than that of half a denarius, but those of Hadrian, containing a mean weight of silver of 1.42 g per coin, (i.e. giving a denarius containing 2.84 g) shows that they contain exactly half the silver of the denarius. The only denarii during this period struck at mints other than Rome are during the reign of Hadrian. The first series, group 22, nos. 2194-2199, belongs to the first years of Hadrian and is assigned to Antioch on grounds of style, which is indeed very similar to that of the tetradrachms struck at that city. Their metrology is quite distinct from that of Rome, and they are con­ siderably more debased. Although they may be struck on a standard slightly higher than that of the tetradrachms (below, nos. 3340-3344), it is clear that they are close to it, and the weight of silver in the Antiochene denarius is 2. 37 g, compared with 2.42 g in the Antiochene drachma of Hadrian' s tetradrachm coinage. When the values of silver in the Antiochene drachma of the post­ reform period of Trajan in general are compared to these figures it becomes clear that the silver in the Antioch denarius and the Antioch drachma was in­ tended to be exactly the same. The denarii of Hadrian struck at Antioch are therefore overvalued against the contemporary 1denarii; of Rome by about 17%. The second group of denarii of Hadrian can easily be grouped together with the cistophori (group 23, nos. 2200-2203), for they are very close to them in style; they can therefore be assigned to Provincia Asia. This group of denarii was struck on a standard very close to that of the cistophori (below, nos. 29022933, and Metrology I nos. 392-411). Indeed, they are probably struck from the same metal as the cistophori, that is to say, the cistophoric tetradrachms of Antonius and Augustus. They give a mean fineness of 91.37%, which would suggest that they are struck on a standard rather higher than that of Rome. However, the weights of known specimens seem to suggest that they weigh rather less than the denarii of Rome, with the result that the mean weight of silver in denarii of this group is exactly that of denarii of Hadrian struck at Rome. For the cistophori, see below pp. 63-64. The next reduction in the fineness of the denarius of Rome took place at about the start of the 12th tribunician year of Antoninus Pius (£. February 148). The change is as precise as we can expect in a coinage where individual coins 57

v ary v ery w ide ly a bou t a mean , a s c an b e s een f rom f i g . 7 . T he mean o f t he 1 2 c o ins a na lysed o f A .D . 1 47-148 ‘ ' v as 8 9.67% , i n t he u pper r ange o f t he v ar ia t ion wh ich w e f i nd i n t he c o ins o f t he r es tored s tandard o f V espas ian .

The

2 2 c o ins o f A .D . 1 48-149 h ave a mean s i lver c on ten t o f 8 4.75% wh ich i s w e l l b e low t he l owest r ecorded mean f or t he who le o f t he p er iod o f t he s tandard o f V espas ian . T he n ew s tandard t hus e s tab l ished i s t hen c on t inued u n t i l t he e nd o f t he r e ign o f An ton inus. 7 .

I t s c harac ter ist ics c an b e s een f rom f igs . 4 , 5a nd

Co ins c on t inue t o b e s truck a t a bove 9 0% f i ne b u t t he p ropor t ion a s f i ne a s

t h is i s s ign if ican t ly r educed . I ns tead t here i s ac ons iderab le i ncrease i n t he n u mber o f c o ins a t t he b o t to m e nd o f t he r ange , s truck a t b e tween 7 5 a nd 8 0% f ine , wh ich h ad o n ly b een r epresen ted p rev ious ly b y af ew c o ins.

T he r esu l t

i s as tandard w ith a mean f ineness g enera l ly b etween 8 2 a nd 8 5% , w ith s o me v ar ia t ion o u ts ide t hese l im its.

T he mean w e igh t o f s i lver i n t he d enar ius i s

r educed t o b e tween 2 .63 a nd 2 .75 g o f s i lver . I f2 .70 g o f s i lver i s t aken a s t he t rue mean w e igh t t hen t he r eform o f An ton inus r epresen ts a r educ t ion i n t he s i lver c on ten t o f t he d enar ius o f c . 5 % f rom t he r estored s tandard o f Vespas ian a nd o f 1 0% f ro m t hat o f N ero. T h is s tandard e nded a brup t ly w ith t he d eath o f An ton inus i n A .D. 1 61.

T he

s i tua t ion i n t he r e ign o f Marcus A ure l ius i s much more c on fused t han t ha t wh ich w e h ave e ncoun tered h ither to , f or a t f i rs t s ight w e h ave c eased t o f i nd t he n ea t s tepped d ec l ine i n t he f i neness o f t he d enar ius wh ich w e h ave s o f ar b een a b le t o d etect ( f ig . 7 ) . C lear ly more c o ins o f t h is r e ign w il l h ave t o b e a na lysed b efore t he p icture w il l b eco me c learer , b u t w e c an a t l east d raw s o me t en ta t ive c onc lus ions. T here w as a q u ite d ra ma t ic c hange i n t he f i neness o f t he d enar ius i m med ia te ly o n t he a ccess ion o f Marcus. Wha t s ee ms t o h ave h appened , j udg ing f rom t he c o ins a na lysed , i s t ha t t he s tr ik ing o f c o ins a t o ver 9 0% f ine , wh ich h ad c ont inued u n t i l t h is d ate w ithou t i n terrup t ion , was a l mos t e n t ire ly a bandoned , a nd a l mos t t he who le o f t he c o inage o f t h is y ear was s truck a t b e tween 7 5 a nd 8 0% f ine.

T he r esu l t i s t ha t t he mean f i neness o f c o ins o f t h is y ear was , a t

7 7.81% f ine , v ery c ons iderab ly l ower t han t ha t o f t he s tandard o f An ton inus. T he s ix i ssues b etween 1 61 a nd 1 65-166 v ary w ide ly i n mean f i neness , f ar more t han w as t he c ase w ith t he s tandards o f An ton inus o r V espas ian , b u t i t i s c lear t ha t t he s tandard o f An ton inus w as n o t r eturned t o.

No c o ins o f o ver

9 0% f i ne a re r ecorded i n e i ther 1 61-162 o r 1 62-163 , b u t c o ins a s h igh a s t h is s tar t t o b e r ecorded a ga in i n 1 63-164. I n t wo y ears , 1 61-162 a nd 1 63-164 t he mean f ineness r eaches 8 0% a ga in , b u t i n a l l t he o ther y ears t he mean i s w el l b e low 8 0% , s ink ing i n 1 62-163 t o a s l ow a s 7 6.28% .

F ig . 5s uggests t ha t t he

p ropor t ion o f c o ins b e ing s truck a t d i f feren t f inenesses was a l tered f rom y ear t o y ear d ur ing t h is p er iod ; b u t what i s c lear i s t ha t ar educt ion i n f i neness t ook p lace i m med ia te ly o n t he a ccess ion o f Marcus . T here f o l lows a c en tra l p er iod i n t he r e ign when i tw ou ld s ee m t ha t t he s tandard o f An ton inus was r es tored , o r a t l east s ome th ing n ear t o i t .

T he

f our i ssues b etween 1 66-167 a nd 1 70 a l l g ive a u n iform r esu l t , w ith n o c o ins f a l l ing b elow 7 5% f ine , i n marked c on tras t t o t he p reced ing p er iod. A s a r esu l t t he mean f i neness r eturns t o al eve l w e l l a bove 8 0% f i ne , r is ing i n o ne c ase t o a s h igh a s 8 3% f ine , wh ich w ou ld f i t n icely i n to t he s tandard o f An ton inus.

5 8

T h is m idd le p er iod l as ts o n ly u n t i l 1 70, when a no ther d ra ma t ic f a l l i n f i neness t akes p lace , w h ich s ee ms t o b e e xac t ly s im i lar t o t he f a l l o f A .D. 1 61.

A l l t he c o ins a na lysed o f t he p er iod b etween 1 70 a nd 1 72 w ere s truck

a tb e tween 7 4.50 a nd 8 0.50% f i ne , g iv ing a s tandard d ev ia t ion w h ich i s c ons iderab ly l ower t han h as b een s een f or a l ong t ime. T he p a t tern o f t h is g roup o f c o ins c an b e s een t o b e v ery s im ilar t o t ha t o f t he i ssue o f 1 61 ( f ig . 5 ) . A s was t he c ase i n 1 61 t here i s ar ise i n t he mean f i neness a f ter t h is y ear b u t t he o vera l l p a t tern o f t he c o ins o f t he l ast y ears o f Marcus r evea ls t ha t t he mean f ineness d oes n o t r each t ha t o f t he m idd le y ears , b u t r ese mb les more c lose ly t ha t o f t he e ar ly y ears o f t he r e ign. We s ee m , t here fore , t o h ave t hree p hases w ith in t he r e ign o f Marcus. T he f i rst , f ro m t he a ccess ion t o 1 66 , s hows a d ec l ine f rom t he s tandard o f A n ton inus wh ich i s p ar t icu lar ly d ra ma t ic i n t he y ear 1 61 i t se lf , a l though t he n ew s tandard p oss ib ly v ar ies f ro m y ear t o y ear . T he s econd p er iod , f ro m 1 66 t o 1 70 , s hows a p robab le a t te mpt t o r eturn t o t he s tandard o f An ton inus. T he t h ird p er iod , f rom 1 70 t o 1 79 , a ga in s hows a d ec l ine o nce more p ar t icu lar ly marked i n 1 70-172 a t t he s tar t o f t he p er iod.

I ti s e asy t o l i nk t hese c hanges

t o t he p o l it ica l e ven ts o f Marcus ' r e ign , a nd t h is w i l l b e d iscussed i n t he n ex t v o lu me. With t he a ccess ion o f Co m modus w e e n ter c learer w a ter a ga in .

T he e igh t

i ssues o f C o m modus s truck b etween 1 79 a nd 1 89 r epresen t as ing le s tandard a nd t he v ar ia t ion b e tween t he means o f i nd iv idua l y ears i s r a ther l ess t han i s t he c ase w ith t he s tandards o f V espas ian a nd An ton inus. T h is s tandard o f C o m modus r epresen ts a d is t inct d rop f ro m t ha t u sed b y Marcus A ure l ius , a lt hough i to ver laps w ith t ha t o f t he t hree l as t y ears o f Marcus.

O n ly o ne c o in

i s r ecorded a t o ver 9 0% f i ne , a nd o n ly a v ery f ew a re o ver 8 3% f i ne.

T he g rea t

ma jor ity f a l l b etween 7 0 a nd 8 0% f i ne , a nd a v ery f ew f a l l b e low 7 0% f i ne. T he mean f ineness o f i nd iv idua l y ears r anges f rom 7 4% a nd 7 7.50% , w ith a s tandard d ev ia t ion o f b etween 3 .00 a nd 7 .00.

T he w e igh t o f t he d enar ius w as a lso r e-

d uced a t t he t ime o f t he a ccess ion o f C o mmodus t o a bou t 3 .00 g , s o met i mes a l i t t le more o r l ess.

T he w e igh t o f s i lver i n t he d enar ius d ur ing t h is p er iod

t herefore v ar ies b e tween 2 .18 a nd 2 .43 g o f s i lver .

I fw e t ake t he t rue mean

w e igh t o f s i lver i n t he d enar ius a s b e ing a bou t 2 .30 g , t hen t h is r epresen ts a r educ t ion i n t he s i lver c on ten t o f t he d enar ius o f a bout 1 4.80% f rom t he s tandard o f An ton inus o r 2 3.30% f ro m t he s tandard o f N ero. The p ro l if ic c o inages o f Co m modus ' l as t t hree y ears , A .D . 1 90-192 , s how af ur ther r educt ion i n s i lver c on ten t . V ery f ew c o ins a re n ow f ound a bove 8 0% f ine , a nd t he ma jor ity c luster b e tween 7 0 a nd 7 5% f i ne , w ith a s ign if ican t n u mber , f or t he f i rs t t ime , b e low 7 0% f i ne , i n t wo c ases a s l ow a s 6 1 %. T he mean f ineness o f t he t wo i ssues i nvo lved a re v ery c lose t o o ne a no ther a t 7 2.12% a nd 7 2.83% , g iv ing a d enar ius c on ta in ing 2 .18-2.19 g o f s i lver . Th is r epresen ts a r educ t ion i n s i lver c on ten t o f 5 .20% b e low t he f i rs t s tandard o f C o m modus a nd 2 7.30% f ro m t he s tandard o f N ero. T he t hree q u inar i i o f C o m modus a va ilab le f or a na lys is ( nos. 2 883-2885 ) r epresen t t oo sma l l as a mp le t o b e s ign if ican t , a l though t he mean o f t he t hree f i ts n icely i n to t he f i rs t s tandard o f Com modus.

5 9

T he h istory o f t he d enar ius a t Ro me d ur ing t he p er iod 9 6-192 c an t heref ore b e s u m mar ised a s f o l lows : ( i )

9 6-107.

S tandard o f N ero. c . 3 .00 g s i lver .

( i i )

1 07-148.

D enar ius C . 9 3.00% f i ne , c on ta in ing ( con fus ion i n 1 04 )

S tandard o f Vespas ian r es tored .

D enar ius w ith mean f i ne-

n ess o f C . 8 7-90% , c onta in ing c . 2 .85 g o f s i lver . ( i i i )

1 48-161.

S tandard o f An ton inus.

D enar ius w ith mean f ineness o f

c . 8 2-85% , c on ta in ing c . 2 .70 g o f s i lver . ( i v )

1 61-179.

P er iod o f c on fus ion , b u t w ith a r educ t ion i n f ineness i n 1 61-166 , a n i ncrease i n 1 66-170 a nd a r educ t ion a ga in i n 1 70-179.

( v )

1 79-189.

F irs t s tandard o f Co m modus.

D enar ius w ith mean f i neness

o f C . 7 4-77.50% , c on ta in ing c . 2 .30 g o f s i lver.

T he d enar ius

i t se l f was r educed i n w e igh t i n A .D. 1 79 f ro m c . 3 .25 g t o c . 3.0 0 g. ( v i )

1 90-192.

S econd s tandard o f Co m modus.

D enar i i w ith mean f i neness

o f c . 7 2-73% , c on ta in ing c . 2 .18 g o f s i lver .

6 0

CHAPTER 2 THE C ISTOPHORUS CO INAGE

1 .

Nerva

We igh t No.

Reference

2 886

B MC 8 0

2 887

AM ( obv. d ie a s

We ight o f

( g )

% s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

1 0.26

9 0.00

-

-

9 .23

9 .90

8 8.00

t r

t r

8 .71

1 0.28

9 0.50

-

-

9 .30

l ast ) 2 888

BMC 8 1 ( obv. d ie a s l ast )

2 889

BMC 8 2

9 .73

9 3.50

-

-

9 .09

2 890

BMC 8 3

9 .95

9 1.50

-

1 .00

9 .10

t r

2 891

AM -a s l ast

2 892

BMC 8 4

8 .72

9 3.00

-

1 0.11

8 7.00

-

2 893

BMC 8 5 ( obv. d ie

8 .10

9 .46

9 4.00

-

Mean ( 8 c o ins )

9 .79

9 0.93

8 .90

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .48

2 .39

0 .36

Corrected mean we igh t

9 .99

8 .79 -

8 .89

a s l ast )

9 .00

( 28 c o ins ) We igh t o f s i lver i n t heore t ica l d rach ma

2 .25

We igh t o f s i lver i n t heoret ica l d enar ius

3 .00

2 .

Tra jan , A .D . 9 8-99

2 894

BMC 7 07

9 .96

9 2.00

-

0 .50

2 895

BMC 7 08

1 0.08

9 2.50

-

-

9 .16 9 .32

2 896

A M- a s l ast

8 .71

9 4.00

t r

t r

8 .18

2 897

BMC 7 09

9 .89

8 1.25

-

-

8 .03

2 898

AM- t ype a s l as t

9 .71

8 3.00

t r

t r

8 .05

2 899

AM- a s l ast

1 0.49

7 5.50

t r

t r

7 .91

( obv. d ie a s l ast ) 2 900

BMC 7 10

9 .78

9 0.50

-

0 .75

8 .85

2 901

BMC 7 11

9 .60

8 7.50

t r

t r

8 .40

Mean ( 8 c o ins )

9 .77

8 7.03

8 .48

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .48

6 .10

0 .51

Corrected mean we igh t

1 0.00

8 .70

( 21 c o ins ) We igh t o f s i lver i n t heore t ica l d rach ma

2 .17

We ight o f s i lver i n t heoret ica l d enar ius

2 .90

6 1

3 .

Hadr ian - C istophor i w ithout t races o f u nder type We igh t

No.

Reference

( g )

We igh t o f % s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

2 902

BMC 1 052

8 .68

8 6.00

t r

1 .00

7 .46

2 903

BMC 1 053

1 0.63

9 2.25

-

0 .75

9 .80

2 904

AM- a s l ast

8 .60

9 3.00

t r

1 .00

7 .99

2 905

AM- a s l ast

1 0.33

9 2.00

t r

t r

9 .50

2 906

BMC 1 054

1 0.28

9 2.75

-

1 .50

9 .53

2 907

BMC 1 057

1 0.52

9 4.00

-

-

9 .88

2 908

BMC 1 058

1 0.17

9 0.50

-

-

9 .20

2 909

BMC 1 060

8 .46

9 2.50

-

2 .50

7 .82

2 910

BMC 1 063

9 .36

8 9.75

t r

0 .75

8 .40 9 .47

2 911

BMC 1 067

1 0.22

9 2.75

-

1 .50

2 912

BMC 1 068

1 0.08

9 5.50

-

-

9 .62

2 913

BMC 1 072

1 0.60

9 3.00

-

1 .00

9 .85

2 914

BMC 1 073

9 .86

9 4.25

-

-

9 .29

2 915

BMC 1 072b is

8 .45

9 4.50

t r

t r

7 .98

2 916

BMC 1 076

1 0.10

9 3.50

-

-

9 .44

2 917

BMC 1 076b is

1 0.95

9 4.50

-

-

1 0.34

2 918

BMC 1 076ter

1 0.87

9 3.50

t r

0 .75

1 0.16

2 919

BMC p .391

9 .39

9 3.50

-

t r

8 .77

2 920

BMC 1 079

1 0.87

9 2.75

-

-

1 0.08

2 921

BMC 1 080

1 0.45

9 3.75

-

t r

9 .79

2 922

BMC 1 082

9 .82

9 3.25

-

-

9 .15

2 923

BMC 1 084

1 1.07

9 3.25

-

-

1 0.32

Addenda

2 924

BMC 1 087

9 .77

9 3.25

-

0 .75

9 .11

2 925

BMC 1 088

1 0.68

9 1.25

-

2 .50

9 .74

2 926

BMC 1 090

1 0.11

9 2.25

-

1 .50

9 .32

2 927

AM- a s l ast

1 0.22

9 2.00

-

-

9 .40

2 928

Ba ldw in- a s l ast

1 0.00

9 0.00

t r

t r

9 .00

2 929

BMC 1 095

9 .54

9 2.50

-

t r

8 .82

2 930

BMC 1 096

9 .56

9 4.50

t r

-

9 .03

2 931

BMC 1 098

1 0.51

9 3.50

-

-

9 .82

2 932

BMC 1 099

1 0.48

9 0.50

-

t r

9 .48

2 933

BMC 1 100

1 0.62

9 2.75

t r

t r

9 .85

1 0.03

9 2.60

9 .29

0 .71

1 .77

0 .71

Mean ( 32 c o ins ) S tandard d ev ia t ion

We igh t o f s i lver i n t heoret ica l d rach ma

2 .32

We igh t o f s i lver i n t heoret ica l d enar ius

3 .10

Un t i l t he r e ign o f C laud ius t he c istophorus was a c o in o verva lued b y b etween 6 a nd 1 1% a ga inst t he d enar ius (Metro logy I , 3 5 ).

A r educt ion i n t he

we igh t a nd f ineness o f t he c is tophorus c an b e s een i n t he sma l l F lav ian i ssue o f c is tophor i, wh ich p ar t ly , b ut n ot e n t irely , c o mpensated f or t he r educt ion i n t he s tandard o f t he d enar ius u nder taken b y Nero , s o t hat t he we ight o f s i lver i n o ne t h ird o f ac istophorus was n ow a l most e xact ly t hat o f t he N eron ian

6 2

d enar ius. S ince , h owever , t h is i ssue o f c is tophor i t ook p lace d ur ing t he p er iod when t he N eron ian s tandard h ad b een t e mporar i ly a bandoned a t Rome , t hese c istophor i w ere , i nf act , s l igh t ly o verva lued a ga ins t t he d enar ii a ctua l ly b e ing s truck a t Ro me d ur ing t h is t ime. T he s tr ik ing o f c is tophor i w as r esu med s oon a f ter t he a ccess ion o f Nerva , a nd t here was a c ons iderab le a nd c on t inuous p roduct ion f rom A .D. 9 6 t o A .D . 9 9. 4

T hese t wo i ssues o f Nerva a nd T ra jan a re c lear ly o n t he s ame s tandard

a s t ha t u sed f or t he F lav ian c istophor i , w ith t he r esu l t t ha t t he N ervan i ssue p roduces a t heoret ica l d enar ius o f 3 .00 g a nd t ha t o f T ra jan o ne o f 2 .90 g . I n o ther words t he c is tophorus c on t inues t o b e ac o in c on ta in ing a l most e xac t ly t he s i lver o f t hree N eron ian d enar i i , w ith p erhaps a v ery s l igh t o verva lua t ion o f t he c istophorus u nder T ra jan , F or t he sma l l g roup o f Greeklegend c o ins t o b e a t tr ibu ted t o P rov inc ia As ia s ee b elow p . 6 9. D ur ing t he r e ign o f H adr ian , a nd p robab ly t o b e a ssoc ia ted w ith t he Emperor 's v is it t o t he a rea i n 1 23, t here w as a ma jor r eco inage o f c is tophor i, w h ich t ook t he f orm o f t he r estr ik ing o f a l l t he c is tophor i o f An ton ius a nd Augustus. I t s ee ms c lear t ha t a l l t he c is tophor i o f Hadr ian a re o vers truck i n t h is way , e ven i ft races o f t he u nder type a re n o l onger v is ib le , f or t here d oes n ot s ee m t o b e a ny d i f ference i n t he meta l o f t hose wh ich s how d ist inct t races o f t he u nder type a nd t hose wh ich d o n o t , n or a re t here n ot iceab le d i ff erences i n f abr ic. T he a na lyses o f t hose c istophor i o f H adr ian where t he u nder type i s r ec ogn isab le h ave a lready b een p ub l ished ( Me tro logy I , 2 8 a nd 3 0 ) b u t t hey c an b e c ons idered a longs ide t hose wh ich d o n ot h ave a c lear u nder type , a nd w h ich a re p ubl ished h ere. A l l t hese c o ins h ave l ost a c ons iderab le amoun t o f w e ight d ur ing t he ir l ong p er iod o f c ircu la t ion p r ior t o o vers tr ik ing , b u t t hey r evea l ac o in wh ich c on ta ins b etween 9 .60 g o f s i lver ( co ins o verstruck o n A ugustus ) a nd 9 .10 g ( co ins o vers truck o n An ton ius ) w ith t hose s how ing n o u nder type f a l l ing b etween t he t wo a t 9 .29 g o f s i lver . Th is r esu l t g ives r i se t o c ons iderab le p rob le ms.

I f w e s ay t hat t he mean

s i lver c on ten t o f t he c istophorus p roduced b y Hadr ian w as 9 .30 g t hen t he t heoret ica l d enar ius u pon wh ich i ti s b ased c on ta ins 3 .10 g o f s i lver , i ft he c is tophorus c on t inues , a s was c er ta in ly t he c ase e ar l ier , t o b e ac o in v a lued a t 3d enar i i.

The p rob le m i s t ha t t h is means t ha t t he c is tophorus i s n ow

u nderva lued a ga ins t t he Ro man d enar ius , wh ich a f ter A .D . 1 07 i s ac o in c ont a in ing o n ly 2 .85 g o f s i lver . T h is w ou ld b e au n ique s i tua t ion ; a s w e s ha l l s ee , mos t o ther e as tern c o inages r eac ted s harp ly t o t he f a l l i n t he s i lver c ont en t o f t he Ro man d enar ius , s o t ha t t he t rad it iona l o verva lua t ion o f t he p rov inc ia l c urrenc ies c ou ld b e ma in ta ined o r e ven i ncreased . I t i s t rue t ha t t he c istophorus was n o t i n t he p ast o verva lued a ga ins t t he d enar ius t o t he s a me e x ten t a s t he o ther e as tern c urrenc ies , a nd i n t he F lav ian p er iod i th ad e ven b een s l igh t ly o verva lued , a l though o n ly a ga ins t t he s tandard wh ich h ad b een t e mporar i ly a dop ted a t Ro me a nd w as s oon t o b e a bandoned a ga in , b u t i tw ou ld b e v ery r e markab le i f Hadr ian p roduced a l arge i ssue o f c istophor i w h ich wen t a ga inst t he t rend o f a l l t he o ther c o inages o f t he p er iod .

6 3

T he mos t l ike ly e xp lana t ion i s t ha t t he who le p urpose o f Hadr ian 's o vers tr ik ing , w h ich w as i n i t se lf a u n ique e ven t i n t he i mper ia l p er iod , w as t o r eva lue t he c istophorus a ga ins t t he d enar ius , mak ing i t ac o in wor th 4 r a ther t han t hree d enar i i.

I tp rov ides a n ea t e xp lana t ion o f t he who le e xerc ise

u nder taken b y Hadr ian , f or i ti s h ard ly t o b e b e l ieved t ha t t he imper ia l g overnmen t o rdered t he w ho le c ost ly o pera t ion p ure ly t o i mprove t he a ppearance o f t he c o inage ;

o n t he o ther h and , i ft he n orma l p rocedure h ad b een f o l lowed ,

t hen t he c o ins w ou ld h ave b een me l ted d own , b ase meta l a dded a nd t he c o inage r es truck t o t he p rof it o f t he s ta te.

T he s ta te 's p rof its wou ld h ave b een a l l

t he g rea ter i ft he e xpense o f me lt ing c ou ld b e a vo ided a nd t he c o ins t urned i n to c o ins w or th 4 d enar i i i n t he p rocess. I f t h is i s t he t rue e xp lana t ion t hen t he t heoret ica l d enar ius o n wh ich t he n ew c o ins a re b ased c on ta ins a bou t 2 .32 g o f s i lver , i .e. a q uar ter o f t he s i lver o f t he c istophorus. T h is i s v ery c lose t o t he s i lver c on ten t o f t he n orma l A t t ic Greek-legend d rachmas ( i .e. c o ins w or th o ne d enar ius ) s truck i n t he e as t a f ter t he r e form o f t he d enar ius i n 1 07. I n o ther w ords t he c is tophor i o f H adr ian c ease t o b e t rue c o ins o f t he c istop hor ic s tandard ( accoun t ing i n wh ich , e qua l l ing o ne c istophor ic d rachma t o 1 2 a sses , c er ta in ly d id n ot c ease ) b u t c o ins w or th 4 d enar i i , e qua l i n v a lue a nd i n s i lver c on ten t , t hough n o t i n t o ta l w e igh t , t o t he t etradrach ms o f A t t ic s tandard o f S yr ia.

T he c is tophor i o f Hadr ian b ecome c o ins o verva lued

a ga ins t t he d enar ius t o more o r l ess t he s ame e x ten t a s t he G reeklegend s i lver c o inages o f t he e as t i ns tead o f b e ing d angerous ly u nderva lued , a s t hey w ere r ap id ly b eco m ing a s c o ins o n t he o ld e xchange r a te o f o ne c is tophorus t o 3 d enar i i.

As c o ins o f 4d enar i i t hey w ou ld b e o verva lued a ga ins t t he c on te mporary

d enar ius , c on ta in ing 2 .85 g o f s i lver , b y a bout 1 9% . I ft h is w as t he t rue p urpose o f Hadr ian 's e xerc ise t hen i tw as v ery p rof itab le t o t he s tate o r t o t he c i t ies i ft hey w ere a l lowed t o t ake a s hare. al arge n umber o f c i t ies w ere i nvo lved i n t he o pera t ion .

Cer ta in ly

I ndeed , i t may w e l l

h ave p layed a p ar t i n p rov id ing t he f unds f or t he e normous b u i ld ing p rogram mes wh ich t ook p lace i n As ia a t t h is t ime , a s w el l a s p roduc ing a g enera l , a lbe i t t e mporary , i ncrease i n t he l eve l o f p rosper ity . We c an , p erhaps , g a in s o me i dea o f t he s ums i nvo lved f ro m S u ther land 's c a lcu la t ions o f t he t ota l s i ze o f t he c istophorus-co inage o f Augustus. 5 I fw e i gnore t he c o ins o f An ton ius wh ich w ere a lso o vers truck a nd a lso a ssu me t he t o ta l s urv iva l o f t he A ugus tan i ssue t hen w e a re d ea l ing , a ccord ing t o S u ther land , w i th a t o ta l o r ig ina l c o ina ge o f a bou t 1 0 m il l ion c o ins , w or th b efore r e-co in ing 3 0 m i l l ion d enar i i a nd a f ter r eco in ing 4 0 m i l l ion d enar i i , an et i ncrease o f 1 0 m il l ion d enar i i.

T h is

f igure c annot p retend t o a ny s or t o f a ccuracy , b u t g ives s o me i dea o f t he s or t o f s um wh ich m igh t b e i nvo lved .

6

Av ery r are s er ies o f d enar i i w as a lso s truck i n P rov inc ia As ia u nder Hadr ian , a l most c er ta in ly , j udg ing f ro m t he s ty le , a t t he s ame m ints a nd a t t he s a me t ime a s t he c istophor i.

As h as a lready b een n oted t he ir me ta l i s

v ery s im ilar t o t ha t o f t he c istophor i , t he r esu l t ing d enar ius c on ta in ing a bou t 2 .87 g o f s i lver ( above p .57 ) .

I n o ther w ords , j ust a s u nder Augustus w e

f ound t he m in t o f P erga mu m p roduc ing d enar i i o f f u l l v a lue a t t he s a me t ime a s i tp roduced c is tophor i wh ich w ere o verva lued ( Me tro logy I , 2 4 , 3 5 ) s o a lso u nder Hadr ian we s ee m t o h ave a s i tua t ion i n wh ich d enar i i w ere s truck w h ich c orrespond e xact ly i n s i lver c on ten t t o t hose b e ing s truck a t Ro me a t t he s ame t ime a s o verva lued c is tophor i w ere b e ing p roduced.

6 4

CHAPTER 3 GREEK-LEGEND S ILVER CO INAGES

( i )

N icopo l is i n Ep irus

We igh t N o.

Reference

2 934 2 935

BMC 2 6 iM ( obv. d ie a s

We igh t o f

( g )

% s i lver

Au

1 .32 1 .56

9 3.50 9 4.00

t r t r t r

P b

s i lver ( g ) 1 .23

0 .50 t r

1 .46

l as t ) 2 936

BM ( d ies a s l as t )

1 .69

9 2.75

2 937

BMC 2 4

1 .77

9 4.00

2 938

AM ( d ies a s l as t )

1 .43

9 4.00

Mean ( 5 c o ins )

1 .55

9 3.65

C orrected mean we igh t

1 .55

1 .56 1 .66

t r

1 .34

t r

1 .45 1 .45 2 .90

We igh t o f s i lver i n t heoret ica l d rach ma

T h is t iny c o inage , s ee m ing ly p roduced f ro m o n ly 4 o bverse d ies , was s truck s hor t ly a f ter t he d ea th o f Faust ina I .

The s ty le i s q u ite u n l ike t ha t o f

t he b ronze c o inage o f N icopo l is b u t i s v ery s im ilar i ndeed t o t ha t o f t he m in t o f Ro me , where t hey may w el l h ave b een s truck , u n less d ies were s h ipped f rom Ro me t o N icopo l is.

The s tandard i s u n ifor m a nd h igh , b e ing v ery c lose

t o t ha t o f N ero a nd d is t inct ly h igher t han t ha t o f V espas ian .

The c o ins , h ow-

e ver , we igh r ather l ess t han h a l f ad enar ius , w ith t he r esu l t t ha t t he w e igh t o f s i lver i n t wo o f t he m ( 2 .90 g ) i s v ery n ear t o t he mean w e igh t o f s i lver i n t he d enar ius o f An ton inus P ius b efore t he r e form o f 1 48.

I t c an p resu mab ly

b e t aken a s c er ta in t ha t t hey a re e f fect ive ly q u inar i i , a nd t he ir p roduct ion i s t he more r e markab le w hen w e c ons ider t he a l most c o mp lete a bsence o f q u inar i i a t Ro me d ur ing t h is r e ign . ( i i )

Crete

Tra jan , A .D . 1 15-117 We igh t N o.

Reference

( g )

We igh t o f % s i lver

Au

P b

s i lver ( g )

2 939

BMC 1 5

2 .49

9 3.00

2 .31

2 940

BMC 1 6 ( obv. d ie

2 .24

9 5.00

2 .12

2 941

BM ( obv. d ie a s

2 .93

9 1.00

2 942

BM

2 .81

8 2.50

a s l ast ) 0 .25

2 .66

l as t

6 5

2 .31

We igh t No.

Reference

2 943

We igh t o f

( g )

% s i lver

Au

P b

s i lver ( g )

BM

2 .55

8 8.75

2 944

BM

2 .39

8 8.50

2 .11

2 945

AM ( obv. d ie a s

2 .46

7 9.00

1 .94

Mean ( 7 c o ins )

2 .55

8 8.25

2 .24

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .22

5 .27

0 .21

Corrected mean w e igh t

2 .85

0 .25

2 .26

l as t )

2 .51

( 17 c o ins )

Th is sma l l g roup o f c o ins 7 was s truck i n Crete i n A .D . 15-117 , a f ter t he g ran t ing o f t he t i t le PARTH ICVS t o Tra jan .

T hey a re u nusua l i n t he ir c o m-

b ina t ion o f L a t in o bverse l egend w ith G reek r everse l egend .

T he o bverse d ies

were p robab ly e ngraved b y t he s a me a r t is t who p roduced t he d ies f or T ra jan 's ' Arab ia ' d rach mas ( Arab ian m in t B , p . 1 09 b e low ), f or t he s ty le o f b oth s er ies i s r e markab ly u n iform.

T he m in t a t w h ich h e p rev ious ly w orked h ad c losed

i n 1 14. T he s tandard u sed b y t h is m in t i s v ery v ar iab le a nd r anges f ro m 7 9% t o 9 5% , as pread v ery s im ilar t o t ha t o f c on te mporary d enar i i ;

t he r esu l t ing

mean , a t 8 8.25% , i s e xac t ly r igh t f or d enar i i o f t he s tandard o f Vespas ian . The we igh t o f s i lver i n t he d rach ma , 2 .51 g ,i s much l ower t han t ha t o f t he d enar i i b u t a l mos t a l l t he c o ins a va ilab le a re s o w orn t hat i ti s imposs ib le t o g ive a n a ccura te f igure f or t he mean w e igh t o f t he s er ies.

I n a l l p robab i l ity

t he w e igh t o f s i lver i n t hese d rach mas w as o n ly s l igh t ly l ower t han t ha t o f t he d enar ius , w ith wh ich t hey u ndoubted ly c orrespond .

( i i i )

Am isus i n P on tus Hadr ian Tr idrachms

We igh t No.

Reference

2 946

We igh t o f

( g )

% s i lver

Au

P b

BMC 9 0

8 .78

8 7.50

-

2 947

BMC 9 2

8 .35

9 2.75

-

0 .25

7 .74

2 948

AM ( year 1 68 )

8 .30

6 0.50

t r

t r

5 .02

Mean ( 3 c o ins )

8 .48

8 0.25

Corrected mean we igh t

8 .60

6 .90

2 .87

2 .30

1 .50

s i lver ( g ) 7 .68

6 .81

( 17 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rachma

6 6

D idrach ms We igh t No.

Reference

2 949

BMC 8 5

2 950

BM ( t ype a s l as t )

2 951

BM ( obv. d ie a s

( g )

We igh t o f % s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

6 .03

9 4.00

t r

-

5 .67

6 .54

8 8.00

-

0 .50

5 .75

5 .62

9 2.00

-

t r

5 .17

l ast ) 2 952

BM ( year 1 64 )

5 .32

9 4.00

t r

0 .25

5 .00

2 953

BM ( year 1 64 )

4 .80

9 4.00

t r

0 .50

4 .51

2 954

Wa lker ( obv. d ie

3 .89

9 4.00

t r

0 .50

3 .66

2 955

BM ( year 1 65 )

6 .09

9 3.25

-

0 .75

5 .68

a s l ast ) 2 956

BM ( year 1 66 )

4 .91

9 8.50

-

t r

4 .84

2 957

BM ( year 1 68 )

5 .15

9 4.50

-

-

4 .87

2 958

BM ( year 1 69 )

5 .71

8 6.00

-

t r

4 .91

Mean ( 10 c o ins )

5 .41

9 2.82

5 .01

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .73

3 .34

0 .60

Corrected mean we igh t

5 .51

5 ,11

2 .75

2 .56

( 32 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rach ma Drach mas 2 959

BMC 8 6

3 .03

8 5.50

-

0 .50

2 960

BM ( d ies a s l as t )

3 .06

9 2.50

-

t r

2 .59 2 .83

2 961

Wa lker ( d ies a s

2 .72

8 8.00

-

-

2 .39

2 962

BM ( t ype a s l ast )

2 .72

8 8.50

-

-

2 .41

l ast ) 2 963

BMC 8 8

2 .38

8 8.50

-

-

2 .11

2 964

BMC 8 7

2 .69

9 0.50

t r

0 .50

2 .43

2 965

Wa lker ( t ype a s

2 .84

7 9.00

t r

t r

2 .24

2 .72

9 0.00

-

-

2 .45

3 .51

9 3.00

-

-

3 .26

l ast ) 2 966

Ba ldw in ( type a s

l as t ) 2 967

Ba ldw in ( type a s

2 968

BMC 8 9

2 .68

8 6.00

-

-

2 .30

2 969

Wa lker ( obv. d ie

2 .21

8 9.00

t r

t r

1 .97

2 .33

9 0.50

-

-

2 .11

-

1 .00

2 .64

l ast )

a s l ast ) 2 970

BM ( rev, d ie a s l ast )

2 971

BMC 9 1

2 .89

9 1.50

2 972

BM ( year 1 95 )

2 .57

9 4.25

-

0 .75

2 .42

2 973

BM ( year 1 96 ,

2 .98

8 3.50

t r

0 .25

2 .49

2 974

BM ( year 1 96 ,

2 .58

8 2.00

t r

-

2 .16

Hadr ian ) Hadr ian ) 6 7

No.

Reference

2975

BM (year 196, Sabina) BM (year 197, Sabina) BM (year 198, Hadrian) Walker (year 198, Hadrian) BMC 93 BM (obv. die as last) AM (type as last) BM (year 199, Sabina) BM (year 199, Aelius) BM (year 199, Aelius) BMC 94 BM (year 199, Antoninus) Walker (obv. die as last)

2976 2977 2978 2979 2980 2981 2982 2983 2984 2985 2986 2987

Mean (29 coins) Standard deviation Corrected mean weight (102 coins)

Weight (g)

% silver

2.70

77.00

2.51

87.25

2.51

93. 50

2.35

2.15

88.00

1.89

2.87 2.21

82.00 94.00

2.35 2.07

2.82 2.59

71.00 84.00

2.00 2.18

2.10

93.50

2.70

86.00

2.99 2.55

84.00 83.50

2.51 2.13

2.72

88.00

2.39

2.67 0.30 2.66

87.03 5.36

2.32 0.28 2.31

Au

Pb

Weight of silver (g) 2.08

0.25

tr

0.25

2.19

1. 96 tr

2.32

A large and varied coinage was authorised for Amisus in Pontus by Hadrian during his visit in 131. The series runs fr::>m the local �ra 163 (A.D. 131/2) to the very end of the reign, though not beyond.8 The fact that the issue ends so

abruptly suggests that the right of minting was in some way a personal grant by Hadrian which expired with the death of the Emperor and was not renewed by his successor. Amisus was a free city and emphasised the fact on all its coinage and it is possible that this issue is as near to being ar.. 'autonomous' silver coinage as we shall find in the imperial period; in other. words it is possible that in this case the mint retained the profits of minting. The coinage is carefully structured with three denominations, tridrachm, didrachm and drachma being struck in each year, and each denomination having its particular reverse type. Reverse types were changed annually, at the new year, and only one reverse type is found for any year and denomina­ tion, except when the mint was also striking for Sabina, Aelius or Antoninus, when they too had their own reverse types for each denomination. It is inter­ esting to note that the quantity of money coined declines progressively in each year, b'll.ggesting that Amisus may have only had the right to recoin a particular 68

c o inage ; c er ta in ly t here i s af ar g rea ter v o lume o f c o inage i n t he f i rs t y ear t han l a ter. T he s tandard u sed f or t he c o ins o f Am isus i s e x tre me ly v ar iab le , r ang ing f ro m a s h igh a s 9 4.50% f i ne t o a s l ow a s 6 0% , a l though i td oes n o t s ee m p oss ib le t o d etec t ad ec l ine d ur ing t he p er iod when t he m in t was a ct ive. Ca lcu lat i ons o f mean f i neness r ange f ro m 9 2.82% f or t he d idrach ms t o 8 0.25% f or t he t r idrachms , b ut a s o ur s a mp le i s l arges t f or t he d rachmas , wh ich w ere a lways t he mos t i mpor tan t d eno m ina t ion s truck , i ti s p erhaps b es t t o s ee t h is a s r epresen t ing t he t rue mean .

I ft h is i s s o t hen t he mean s i lver c on ten t o f

t he d rach ma , a t 2 .31 g , i s v ery c lose t o t ha t o f t he H adr ian ic c istophor i ( d iv ided ) b y 4 ) , t he c o ins o f T arsus s truck b y Hadr ian a nd t he An t ioch c o inages o f T ra jan a nd Hadr ian , b u t r a ther h igher t han t ha t u sed f or t he e xac t ly c onte mpora ry c o inages o f Caesarea a nd t he o ther C il ic ian c i t ies. I t s ugges ts t ha t t he c o ins o f Am isus w ere o verva lued a ga ins t t he d enar ius b y a bou t 1 9%. ( i v )

Prov inc ia A s ia

T ra jan - T r . p . 1 7 , C istophor ic t e tradrachms We igh t N o.

Reference

( g )

2 988

BM-Sydenha m 1 86

2 989

BM-Sydenha m 1 87

We igh t o f % s i lver

Au

P b

s i lver ( g )

1 0.24

7 9.00

t r

t r

8 .08

1 0.30

8 2.50

t r

2 .00

8 .49

Mean ( 2 c o ins )

1 0.27

8 0.75

C orrected mean w e igh t

8 .28

1 0.12

8 .17

( 7 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l

2 .53

2 .04

d rachma We igh t o f t heore t ica l

3 .37

2 .72

d enar ius

Av ery sma l l g roup o f ' t r idrachms ' d a ted t o Tra jan 's 1 7th t r ibun ic ian y ear h ave b een a t tr ibu ted t o C aesarea i n Cappadoc ia b y S ydenha m. T he t hree t ypes i nvo lved a re a l l o nes e i ther c op ied f rom o r r e la ted t o e ar l ier i ssues o f c istophor i , a nd i ti s c lear t ha t t hey mus t b e i ncorpora ted i n to t he c is tophor ic s er ies. A l l t hree t ypes a re o f u n iform s ty le a nd d iel inks e x ist b etween t he m. T he s ty le i s u ndoub ted ly n o t t ha t o f t he c on te mporary c o ins • o f Caesarea , f or t hey s how l arge a nd r a ther c oarse b usts , . r em in iscen t o f p or tra its f ro m e ar ly i n t he r e ign ; f ur thermore , t he d eno m ina t ion i s n ot o ne o therw ise k nown a t Caesarea , a l l o ther ' t r idrachms ' n ow b e ing r e moved f ro m t ha t m in t ( see Append ix ). Wh i le t he ir w e igh t s tandard d oes n o t e xc lude t he ir b e ing c o ins o f Caesarea ( i f t hey w ere t r idrachms o f Caesarea ) i ti s p oss ib le t ha t t hey d i f fer f ro m c o ins o f Caesarea i n f i neness , a l though i ti s i mposs ib le t o b e c er ta in o f t h is w ith o n ly t wo c o ins a va i lab le f or a na lys is. T hese c o ins n ot b e ing o f Caesarea , t he ir t ypes make i tr easonab le t o s earch f or a m in t i n t he a rea f ur ther w es t i n As ia M inor where t he c istophor i 6 9

c ircu la ted , p erhaps i n Prov inc ia As ia i t se lf .

A l low ing t he m t o b e c istophor ic

t e tradrachms , wor th t hree d enar i i , t hen t hey a re s l igh t ly o verva lued a ga inst t he d enar ius , c on ta in ing 2 .72 g o f s i lver p er d enar ius c o mpared w ith 2 .85 g f or t he d enar ius o f Ro me.

Th is sma l l d egree o f o verva lua t ion i s v ery c lose

t o t ha t f ound f or t he c is tophor i o f N erva a nd t he e ar ly y ears o f Tra jan .

( v )

Lyc ia

Nerva We igh t o f

We igh t No.

Reference

( g )

% s i lver

Au

9 3.75

2 990

BMC 8

2 991

Wa lker

2 .99 2 .64

9 4.50

Mean ( 2 c o ins )

2 .81

9 4.12

Corrected mean w e igh t

3 .14

t r

P b

s i lver ( g )

t r

2 .80

t r

2 .49 2 .64 2 .95

( 10 c o ins ) T ra jan - Cos I 2 992

BMC 9

3 .21

9 2.50

t r

0 .75

2 .96

2 993

BMC 1 0

3 .08

9 3.25

2 .87

2 994

BM

2 .53

9 0.50

2 .28

2 995

BM

2 .71

8 5.00

2 .30

2 996

AM

2 .95

9 0.50

2 .66

2 997

AM

3 .26

8 1.75

2 .66

2 998

AM

2 .96

9 0.00

2 999

BMC 1

2 .88

9 2.50

3 000

AM ( rev, d ie a s

2 .93

8 7.50

2 .56

3 001

l ast ) Wa lker ( obv. d ie

3 .37

9 0.00

3 .03

Mean ( 10 c o ins )

2 .99

8 9.35

2 .66

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .25

3 .44

0 .24

Corrected mean w e igh t

3 .05

2 .66 t r

2 .66

a s l as t )

2 .72

( 37 c o ins )

The min t ing o f d rach mas i n L yc ia , wh ich r esu med f or t he f irst h a lf o f A .D. 9 5 , was r es tar ted a ga in i n A .D. 9 7 , a nd c on t inued f ro m t hen u n t i l s o met i me b efore t he e nd o f A .D. 9 9.

T he c o inage was p ar t icu lar ly p ro l if ic

d ur ing t he p er iod o f Tra jan 's s econd c onsu lsh ip ( A.D . 9 8-99 ) w ith a n i ssue wh ich i s s uf f ic ien t ly l arge t o e c l ipse a l l t he o ther i mper ia l i ssues o f L yc ia. These c o ins a re t he o n ly G reeklegend s i lver t o h ave c ircu la ted w ide ly i n t he western p rov inces o f t he Emp ire a longs ide d enar i i i n t he s econd c en tury , when

t hey o f ten f or m s o meth ing l ike 1 % o f a l l t he s i lver c o ins o f T ra jan i n

h oards.

T he ir s urv iva l i s e xp la ined b y t he f act t ha t when s truck t hey were

o verva lued a ga ins t t he d enar ius , f or t he 1 0 c o ins o f T ra jan a na lysed p roduce

7 0

ad rach ma c on ta in ing 2 .72 g o f s i lver o n ly , c o mpared w ith 3 .00 g o r al i t t le more i n t he d enar ius o f t he Neron ian s tandard .

T h is means t ha t t hey c on t inued

t o c on ta in v ery s l igh t ly l ess s i lver t han t he d enar ius e ven i n t he p er iod o f t he r estored s tandard o f V espas ian ( A. D. 1 07-14 4 , a nd o n ly c o me t o c on ta in t he s a me amoun t o f s i lver a s t he d enar ius d ur ing t he p er iod o f t he s tandard o f An ton inus. s ured.

T he ir c ircu la t ion i nto t he e ar ly t h ird c entury was t herefore a s-

( v i )

Caesarea i n Cappadoc ia Nerva - D idrachms We igh t

N o.

Reference

3 002

BMC 4 1 ( Sydenha m 1 43 )

3 003

Wa lker

( g )

We igh t o f % s i lver

Au

P b

s i lver ( g )

6 .55

6 7.50

-

1 .00

4 .42

7 .04

5 2.50

-

t r

3 .70

5 .98

6 9.00

-

1 .00

4 .13

( Sydenha m 1 43 ) 3 004

BMC 4 4 ( Sydenha m 1 40 )

3 005

AM ( Sydenha m 1 41 )

6 .39

5 7.00

t r

t r

3 .64

3 006

B MC 3 9

6 .76

6 8.50

-

-

4 .63

5 .46

9 0.50

-

-

4 .94

6 .64

6 4.50

-

-

4 .28

6 .35

6 5.50

-

0 .25

4 .16

5 .92

9 3.00

-

-

5 .51

( Sydenha m 1 44 ) 3 007

B MC 4 0 ( Sydenha m 1 45 )

3 008

BM ( obv. d ie a s l as t , r ev. S ydenh am 1 48 )

3 009

B MC 4 2 ( Sydenha m 1 47 )

3 010

Ba ldw in ( Sydenha m 1 47 )

3 011

BM ( Sydenha m 1 49 )

6 .85

7 5.50

-

-

5 .17

3 012

BM ( Sydenha m 1 49 )

6 .38

9 2.50

-

-

5 .90

3 013

Ba ldw in ( Sydenha m 1 51 )

6 .33

6 5.00

-

-

4 .11

3 014

Ba ldw in ( Sydenha m

6 .67

5 0.00

-

-

3 .33

3 015

Wa lker ( obv. d ie a s 6 .98

6 0.50

t r

-

4 .22

6 6.00

-

-

4 .40

1 45 , Cos I I ) l as t , r ev. S ydenh am 1 53, Cos I I I ) 3 016

BM ( obv. d ie a s

6 .67

l as t , S ydenha m 1 52 ) 3 017

AM ( Sydenha m 1 51)

6 .50

9 2.00

t r

t r

5 .98

3 018

B MC 4 3

6 .45

5 8.00

-

1 .00

3 .74

6 .41

6 2.25

-

1 .00

3 .99

6 .46

6 9.43

( Sydenha m 1 54 ) 3 019

BM ( Sydenha m 1 52 )

Mean ( 18 c o ins )

7 1

4 .46

We igh t No.

Reference

( g )

We igh t o f % s i lver

Au

P b

1 3.40

s i lver ( g )

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .38

Correc ted mean w e igh t

6 .70

4 .65

3 .35

2 .32

0 .74

( 48 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heore t ica l d rach ma Tra jan - ( a ) D idrach ms o f COS I 3 020

Wa lker ( Sydenha m

7 .09

8 2.00

6 .55

8 5.00

7 .02

4 6.00

6 .21

8 9.00

6 .91

6 4.50

6 .55

7 1.00

6 .61

6 9.00

t r

6 .35

8 6.50

t r

6 .66

7 4.12

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .30

1 3.58

Corrected mean w e igh t

6 .81

5 .04

3 .40

2 .52

t r

t r

5 .81

1 31) 3 021

BMC 4 5

5 .56

( Sydenha m 1 51) 3 022

Wa lker ( Sydenha m

3 023

BMC 5 2

3 024

BMC 4 8

t r

3 .22

1 62 ) 5 .52

( Sydenha m 1 62 ) t r

4 .45

( Sydenha m 1 60 ) 3 025

Wa lker ( Sydenha m

4 .65

1 61) 3 026

BMC 4 9

4 .56

( Sydenha m 1 64 ) 3 027

BMC 5 0

1 .50

5 .49

( Sydenha m 1 64 ) Mean ( 8 c o ins )

4 .93 0 .81

( 40 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heore t ica l d rach ma T ra jan - ( b ) Drach mas o f COS I 2 .83

8 1.00

BM ( t ype a s l ast )

3 .42

7 2.50

Wa lker ( t ype a s

3 .67

6 2.00

3 028

BMC 5 3

3 029 3 030

2 .29

( Sydenha m 1 72 ) t r

2 .47 2 .27

l ast ) 3 031

AM ( t ype a s l ast )

3 .01

6 4.00

3 032

BMC 5 1

2 .97

7 6.00

3 033

BM ( Sydenha m 1 66 )

3 .67

7 3.50

3 .26

7 1.50

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .34

6 .61

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .33

t r

t r

1 .92 2 .25

( Sydenha m 1 70 )

Mean ( 6 c o ins )

t r

2 .69 2 .31 0 .23 2 .38

( 22 c o ins )

7 2

Trajan - (c) Hemidrachm of COS III � Weight (g)

No.

Reference

3034

Walker(Sydenham-) 1.65

% silver

Au

Pb

90.00

Weight of silver (g) 1.48

Trajan - (d) Didrachms of COS VI, 112-115 3035 3036 3037 3038 3039 3040 3041 3042 3043 3044 3045 3046 3047 3048

BMC 77 (Sydenham 203) BMC 78 (Sydenham 203) AM(Sydenham 203) Baldwin (Sydenham 203) Baldwin (Sydenham 203) BMC 81 ( Sydenham 214) BM(Sydenham 214) BMC 82 (Sydenham 215) BMC 69 (Sydenham 196) BMC 70 (Sydenham 196) Baldwin (Sydenham 196) BMC 67 (Sydenham 192) BMC 80 (Sydenham 207) AM(Sydenham 207)

Mean (14 coins) Standard deviation Corrected mean weight (49 coins) Weight of theoretical drachma

6.56

84.50

tr

0.50

5.54

6.70

62.00

tr

tr

4.15

6.51 6.23

69.00 73.50

tr

4.49 4.57

6.52

63.00

6.71

62.50

7.03 6.74

52.00 69.00

6.28

63.50

6.00

62.00

6.49

57.00

3.69

6.52

83.00

5.41

6.30

51.25

0.75

3.22

5.97

67.50

tr

4.02

6.46 0.28 6.68

65.69 9.49

3050 3051

BMC 71 (Sydenham 198) Baldwin (Sydenham 198) Baldwin (rev. mountain)

tr tr

0.50

4.19

tr 0.75

3.65 4.65 3.98

1.00

3.72

4.24 0.63 4.38

3.34

Trajan - (e) 3049

4.10

2.19

Drachmas of COS VI, 112-115

2.98

82.25

3.07

64.50

1.98

3.61

56.00

2.02

73

tr

1.00

2.45

We ight No.

Reference

3 052

BM ( rev.

( g )

We igh t o f % s i lver

Au

P b

s i lver ( g )

3 .41

6 8.00

3 .64

6 1.25

2 .87

7 9.25

3 .31

6 6.00

Mean ( 7 c o ins )

3 .27

6 8.18

2 .21

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .28

8 .74

0 .15

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .26

2 .32

moun ta in ) 3 053

BM ( rev. c lasped

t r

0 .50

2 .23

1 .00

2 .27

t r

2 .18

h ands ) 3 054

BMC 8 3

3 055

BM (Sydenha m 2 16 )

( Sydenha m 2 16 ) t r

2 .22

( 15 c o ins ) Tra jan - ( f ) D idrach ms o f COS V I , 15-116 3 056

BMC 6 8

3 057

AM (Sydenha m 1 94 )

6 .15

6 6.50

-

-

4 .08

6 .38

6 4.00

-

t r

4 .08

( Sydenha m 1 94 ) 3 058

AM (Sydenha m 2 17 )

6 .62

5 1.50

-

t r

3 .40

3 059

AM (Sydenha m 1 99 )

6 .36

7 6.00

-

t r

4 .83

3 060

BMC 8 6

7 .27

6 4.00

-

1 .00

4 .65

6 .17

5 5.25

-

0 .75

3 .40

Mean ( 6 c o ins )

6 .49

6 2.87

4 .07

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .38

7 .91

0 .55

Corrected mean we igh t

6 .67

4 .19

3 .33

2 .09

( Sydenha m 2 21 ) 3 061

BMC 8 7 ( rev. d ie a s l as t )

( 20 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heore t ica l d rach ma Tra jan - ( g ) Drach ms o f COS V I, 15-116 3 062

AM ( rev. moun ta in ) 3 .06

7 2.00

-

t r

2 .20

3 063

BM ( rev .moun ta in )

2 .66

8 4.50

-

0 .50

2 .24

3 064

BMC 7 2

3 .13

5 6.75

-

0 .75

1 .77

2 .96

7 6.75

-

1 .00

2 .27

2 .97

7 6.75

-

1 .00

2 .27

( Sydenha m 2 20 ) 3 065

Ba ldw in ( Sydenha m 2 20 )

3 066

BMC 7 3 ( Sydenha m 2 20 )

3 067

AM (Sydenha m 2 23 )

3 .22

5 2.00

t r

-

1 .67

3 068

BM (Sydenha m 2 23 )

2 .65

6 3.50

-

0 .75

1 .68

3 069

BMC 8 4

3 .13

5 5.25

-

0 .50

1 .72

2 .97

6 7.18

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .20

1 1.19

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .24

( Sydenha m 2 18 ) Mean ( 8 c o ins )

( 13 c o ins )

1 .97 0 .27 2 .17

7 4

Hadr ian - ( a ) He m idrach ms o f y ears 4 a nd 5 We ight N o.

Reference

( g )

3 070

Wa lker ( rev. Tyche ) 1 .78

3 071 3 072

BM ( Sydenha m 2 54 ) Wa lker

3 073

BMC 1 43

3 074

BMC 1 44

We igh t o f % s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

8 2.00

t r

t r

1 .46

1 .48 1 .68

6 6.50 5 9.00

-

0 .25 -

0 .98 0 .99

1 .51

6 7.50

-

-

1 .02

1 .49

6 2.50

-

-

0 .93

1 .56

7 1.00

-

0 .25

1 .11

1 .75

6 5.00

-

-

1 .14

2 .00

6 1.00

-

-

1 .22

( Sydenha m 2 54 ) ( Sydenha m 2 57 ) ( Sydenha m 2 57 ) 3 075

BMC 1 45 ( Sydenha m 2 57 )

3 076

Ba ldw in ( Sydenha m 2 57 )

3 077

Wa lker ( Sydenha m 2 57 )

3 078 3 079

BM (Sydenha m 2 58 ) BM (Sydenha m 2 58 )

1 .79 1 .26

9 2.50 6 6.50

t r

t r -

1 .65 0 .84

3 080

BMC 1 40

1 .31

8 9.50

-

-

1 .17

3 081

BMC 1 41

1 .92

7 4.00

t r

-

1 .42

1 .64

8 3.00

-

-

1 .36

( Sydenha m 2 55 ) ( Sydenha m 2 55 ) 3 082

Ba ldw in ( Sydenha m 2 55 )

3 083

AM (Sydenha m 2 55 )

1 .84

5 2.50

t r

-

0 .97

3 084

AM (Sydenha m 2 55 )

1 .08

9 3.00

t r

t r

1 .00

3 085

Ba ldw in

1 .65

6 0.00

-

-

0 .99

3 086

B MC 1 42

1 .76

9 2.75

t r

-

1 .63

1 .71

7 8.50

-

-

1 .34

1 .75

6 5.00

-

-

1 .38

1 .01

8 2.00

-

-

0 .83

( Sydenha m 2 56 ) 3 087

Ba ldw in ( Sydenha m 2 56 )

3 088

Baldw in ( Sydenha m 2 56 )

3 089

Ba ldw in ( Sydenha m 2 56 )

3 090

AM (Sydenha m 2 56 )

2 .04

5 5.00

-

-

1 .12

3 091

B MC 1 46

1 .64

6 5.00

-

-

0 .91

3 092

AM (Sydenha m 2 60 )

1 .68

5 3.50

-

-

0 .90

3 093

BM ( Sydenha m 2 60 ,

1 .20

7 7.50

t r

-

0 .93

3 094

AM (Sydenha m 2 60 )

1 .53

3 8.50

-

-

0 .59

3 095

Wa lker ( Sydenha m 2 60 )

1 .49

6 8.50

t r

-

1 .02

3 096

Ba ldw in ( Sydenha m

1 .30

8 4.00

-

-

1 .09

( Sydenha m 2 60 )

d ies a s l ast )

2 60 )

7 5

We igh t No.

Reference

( g )

We igh t o f •% s i lver

Au

P b

s i lver ( g )

Mean ( 27 c o ins )

1 .59

7 0.58

1 .11

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .26

1 3.59

0 .25

Correc ted mean w e igh t

1 .65

1 .16

3 .30

2 .32

( 90 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heore t ica l d rachma Hadr ian - ( b ) D idrach ms o f COS I I 3 097

BMC 1 22

6 .65

6 0.50

-

-

4 .02

6 .61

6 2.50

-

-

4 .13

6 .94

5 4.00

t r

t r

3 .75

6 .68

5 0.50

-

0 .50

3 .37

5 .68

6 3.50

t r

-

3 .61

6 .19

6 5.50

t r

t r

4 .05

6 .01

7 2.00

t r

t r

4 .33

( Sydenha m 2 65 ) 3 098

Wa lker

3 099

BMC 1 36

3 100

BMC 1 37

3 101

BMC 1 26

( Sydenha m 2 65 ) ( Sydenha m 2 82 ) ( Sydenha m 2 80 ) ( Sydenha m 2 72 ) 3 102

BMC 1 23 ( Sydenha m 2 69 )

3 103

BMC 1 24 ( Sydenha m 2 70 )

3 104

AM (Sydenha m 2 70 )

6 .88

5 0.00

t r

-

3 .44

3 105

BMC 19

5 .47

6 5.00

t r

0 .25

3 .56

6 .23

5 9.50

-

t r

3 .71

6 .47

6 8.00

-

-

4 .40

5 .47

7 2.00

-

-

3 .94

6 .20

8 7.25

_

0 .25

5 .41

4 9.00

-

-

3 .11

( Sydenh am 2 63 ) 3 106

BMC 1 20 ( Sydenha m 2 64 )

3 107

Ba ldw in ( Sydenha m 2 64 )

3 108

BMC 1 17 ( Sydenha m 1 17 )

3 109

BMC 1 21

3 110

AM (Sydenha m )

6 .35

3 111

BM (Sydenha m 2 66 )

6 .63

7 0.50

t r

t r

4 .67

3 112

Wa lker

6 .55

4 3.00

-

-

2 .82

3 113

AM (Sydenha m 2 80 ,

6 .87

4 7.00

t r

t r

3 .23

3 114

BMC 1 35

6 .45

5 8.25

t r

1 .50

3 .76

3 115

BMC 1 38

5 .70

5 4.00

t r

t r

3 .08

3 116

BMC 1 27

5 .95

6 1.50

-

-

3 .66

3 117

BMC 1 28

5 .94

6 8.50

t r

-

4 .07

( Sydenha m 1 17 )

( Sydenha m 2 65a ) o bv. d ie a s l as t ) ( Sydenha m 2 80 ) ( Sydenha m 2 83 ) ( Sydenha m 2 53 ) ( Sydenha m 2 75 ) 7 6

We ight No.

Reference

3 118

Wa lker

( g )

Weight o f % s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

6 .33

5 5.50

t r

t r

3 .51

6 .91

6 0.00

t r

t r

4 .15

( Sydenha m 2 75 ) 3 119

Wa lker ( Sydenha m 2 83 )

3 120

AM (Sydenha m )

6 .34

5 5.50

t r

t r

3 .52

3 121

BM (Sydenha m )

6 .15

7 0.00

-

1 .00

4 .31

3 122

Wa lker (Sydenha m)

6 .14

5 1.00

-

t r

3 .13

3 123

BMC 1 29

6 .01

5 7.50

-

1 .00

3 .45

5 .02

6 6.00

t r

-

3 .13

6 .17

5 1.00

-

0 .50

3 .15

6 .24

6 0.29

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .48

9 .36

Corrected mean we igh t

6 .34

3 .82

3 .17

1 .91

( Sydenha m 2 77 ) 3 124

BMC 1 30 ( Sydenha m 2 77 )

3 125

BMC 1 31 ( Sydenha m 2 77 )

Mean ( 29 c o ins )

3 .74 0 .55

( 88 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rach ma Hadr ian - ( c ) Drach mas o f COS H I 3 126

BMC 1 18

3 .08

7 6.50

-

-

2 .36

3 .18

5 8.50

t r

0 .75

1 .86

3 .02

6 3.00

-

-

1 .90

( Sydenha m 2 62 ) 3 127

B MC 1 25 ( Sydenha m 2 71)

3 128

Ba ldw in ( Sydenha m 2 71 )

3 129

BM (Sydenha m 2 71)

2 .72

7 6.50

-

-

2 .08

3 130

Wa lker ( Sydenha m 2 71 )

3 .18

6 4.00

-

-

2 .03

3 131

B MC 1 32

2 .74

5 5.50

-

0 .50

1 .52

3 .25

5 8.50

-

-

1 .90

3 .25

6 0.00

-

t r

1 .95

2 .15

4 0.50

-

t r

0 .87

( Sydenha m 2 78 ) 3 132

B MC 1 33 ( Sydenha m 2 78 )

3 133

B MC 1 34

3 134

BMC 1 39

( Sydenha m 2 79 ) ( Sydenha m 2 74 ) Mean ( 9 c o ins )

2 .95

6 1.44

1 .83

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .34

1 0.30

0 .40

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .05

1 .87

( 16 c o ins )

7 7

We ight No.

Reference

( g )

We igh t o f

%s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

Anton inus P ius - ( a ) D idrach ms o f A . D. 1 38-140 3 135

BMC 1 54

7 .07

6 3.50

-

0 .75

4 .49

3 136

AM ( as l ast )

6 .34

3 137

BMC 1 50 ( COS I )

6 .14

7 5.00

t r

t r

4 .75

9 3.25

t r

-

5 .73

3 138

BMC 1 51 ( COS I )

5 .50

7 1.50

3 139

BM ( d ies a s l ast )1

6 .17

8 8.00

-

0 .50

3 .93

t r

t r

3 140

BM

5 .35

8 2.00

t r

5 .43

t r

4 .39

3 141

BM

5 .83

7 7.00

-

0 .50

4 .49

3 142

Wa lker

6 .46

5 4.00

-

t r

3 .49

3 143

AM (Sydenha m -

6 .33

7 3.00

-

t r

4 .62

Mean ( 9 c o ins )

6 .13

7 5.25

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .49

1 1.27

Corrected mean we igh t

6 .32

4 .76

3 .16

2 .38

COS I I ) 4 .59 0 .64

( 26 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rach ma Anton inus P ius - ( b ) Drach mas o f A .D . 1 38-140 3 144

BMC 1 52

3 .46

6 2.00

-

-

2 .15

3 145

BM

2 .98

7 3.00

-

1 .00

2 .17

3 146

AM

3 .10

6 5.00

-

t r

2 .01

3 147

Wa lker

3 .29

7 2.00

t r

t r

2 .37

Mean ( 4 c o ins )

3 .21

6 8.00

2 .17

An ton inus P ius - ( c ) D idrach ms o f cos I II 3 148

BMC 1 53

6 .05

8 2.50

3 149

BM ( barbarous

6 .26

3 9.50

0 .75

4 .99 2 .47

s ty le ) Marcus Aurel ius - ( a ) D idrach ms o f A .D. 1 63-166 3 150

BMC 1 66 ( Marcus )

5 .59

6 5.50

-

1 .25

3 .66

3 151

Wa lker

6 .59

4 9.00

-

t r

3 .23

3 152

Ba ldw in ( d ies a s

6 .84

5 7.00

_

-

3 .90

5 3.00

-

0 .50 ( t r S n )

3 .44

l ast ) 3 153

Wa lker

6 .49

3 154

AM

6 .26

5 7.50

-

t r

3 .60

3 155

AM

6 .69

4 7.00

-

t r

3 .14

3 156

BMC 1 68

6 .34

6 3.50

-

1 .25

4 .03

3 157

BMC 1 67

6 .72

5 3.00

-

0 .75

3 .56

3 158

BMC 1 65

6 .75

6 3.00

-

1 .75

4 .25

7 8

We igh t ( g )

We igh t o f % s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

No.

Reference

3 159

BMC 1 74

6 .23

3 160

AM

6 .85

3 161

Wa lker

5 .84

3 162

Wa lker

6 .59

6 0.00

-

0 .75

3 .95

3 163 3 164

B aldw in AM

6 .13 6 .46

5 9.50 7 0.00

-

-

3 .65 4 .53

3 165

Wa lker

6 .55

6 4.00

t r

1 .00

4 .19

3 166

Ba ldw in

6 .30

6 3.50

-

-

4 .00

3 167

BMC 1 73

6 .76

6 9.50

t r

1 .00

4 .70

3 168

BMC 1 69

5 .98

8 6.50

-

2 .00

5 .17

3 169

Ba ldw in

6 .37

6 3.50

-

1 .00

4 .04

3 170

Ba ldw in

6 .78

8 2.00

-

-

5 .56

3 171

Ba ldw in

6 .25

7 6.00

-

0 .75

4 .75

3 172

Ba ldw in

5 .68

9 2.50

-

-

5 .25

3 173

Ba ldw in

6 .37

7 1.50

-

-

4 .55

3 174

Ba ldw in

6 .35

9 0.00

-

0 .50

5 .71

3 175

BMC 1 72 ( obv. d ie

6 .68

6 6.50

-

0 .50

4 .44

3 176

AM

6 .80

5 2.00

-

t r

3 .54

3 177

Ba ldw in

6 .48

7 4.50

-

-

4 .83

8 0.00

-

1 .25

4 .98

5 9.00

-

t r

4 .04

6 8.00

-

0 .75

3 .97

a s l ast )

3 178

BMC 1 70

6 .68

8 0.50

-

0 .50

5 .38

3 179

BMC 1 92

6 .77

6 7.00

-

0 .75

4 .54

3 180

BMC 1 93

6 .56

6 5.00

-

1 .00

4 .26

3 181

BMC 1 94

6 .55

5 3.00

-

0 .50

3 .47

3 182

BMC 1 95

5 .85

7 1.00

-

1 .00

4 .15

3 183

Ba ldw in

6 .57

6 1.50

-

0 .50

4 .04

3 184

AM

6 .82

8 5.50

t r

-

5 .83

3 185

BMC 1 96 ( rev. d ie

6 .97

6 1.50

-

0 .75

4 .29

a s l ast ) 3 186

AM

6 .20

4 4.50

-

t r

2 .76

3 187

Ba ldw in

6 .29

7 7.00

-

0 .50

4 .84

3 188

AM

6 .67

4 9.00

-

-

3 .27

3 189

Ba ldw in

6 .43

4 8.00

-

-

3 .09

3 190

AM

6 .16

6 0.00

t r

t r

3 .70

3 191

Ba ldw in

6 .06

6 8.00

-

1 .25

4 .12

3 192

Ba ldw in

6 .39

7 9.00

-

1 .00

5 .05

3 193

Wa lker

6 .33

5 9.50

-

0 .50

3 .77

Mean ( 44 c o ins )

6 .43

6 5.61

4 .21

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .32

1 1.81

0 .73

Corrected mean we igh t

6 .43

4 .22

3 .21

2 .11

( 100 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heore t ica l d rach ma

7 9

Marcus Aurel ius - ( b ) Tr idrach ms o f A .D. 1 75/176 We ight No.

Reference

3 194

BMC 3 44

( g )

We igh t o f % s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

8 .83

5 8.50

9 .25

6 3.00

5 .83

Mean ( 2 c o ins )

9 .04

6 0.75

5 .50

Corrected mean we igh t

8 .89

5 .40

2 .96

1 .80

0 .75

5 .17

( Co m modus ) 3 195

Wa lker

( 7 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rach ma Marcus Aure l ius - ( c ) D idrach ms o f A .D. 1 75/176 3 196

BMC 1 77

6 .73

6 4.00

t r

0 .50

4 .31

3 197

BMC 2 02

6 .08

5 2.75

t r

0 .50

3 .21

3 198

AM ( Co m modus ,

5 .25

7 0.00

t r

t r

3 .67

6 .30

4 0.50

-

-

2 .55

Mean ( 4 c o ins )

6 .09

5 6.81

Corrected mean we igh t

6 .18

3 .51

3 .09

1 .75

r ev, moun ta in , o bv. d ie a s l ast ) 3 199

AM ( t ype a s BMC 2 02 )

3 .43

( 6 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rach ma Co m modus - Reduced we igh t d idrach ms ( ? ) o f A . D. 1 81-183 3 200

Wa lker ( COS I I ,

3 201

BMC 2 03

3 202

BMC 2 04 ( COS I I )

3 203

Ba ldw in ( obv. d ie

3 .07

7 8.00

-

-

2 .39

4 .28

5 6.50

-

-

2 .42

4 .51

6 8.50

t r

1 .00

3 .09

3 .33

8 8.00

-

-

2 .93

3 .56

8 7.00

-

-

3 .10

5 9.00

t r

0 .25

2 .46

r ev. c lub )

a s l ast , r ev. COS I II ) 3 204

Wa lker ( as BMC

3 205

BMC 2 05

4 .18

3 206

BMC 2 06

4 .55

5 8.50

t r

1 .50

2 .66

3 207

BMC 2 07

4 .61

6 0.00

t r

t r

2 .77

2 04 )

3 208

BMC 2 08 ( COS I I I )

4 .36

5 8.75

t r

0 .50

2 .56

3 209

BMC 2 09

4 .27

6 4.50

-

0 .25

2 .75

3 210

BMC 2 10

4 .54

6 2.50

t r

0 .75

2 .84

3 211

BMC 2 11

4 .54

5 4.00

-

t r

2 .45

3 212

Wa lker ( as l ast )

4 .21

6 6.50

-

-

2 .80

8 0

We igh t No.

Reference

We igh t o f % s i lver

( . g )

Au

P b

s i lver ( g )

4 .15

6 6.29

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .49

1.01

Corrected mean we igh t

4 .26

2 .82

2 .13

1 .41

2 .84

1 .88

Mean ( 13 c o ins )

2 .71 0 .23

( 36 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rach ma ( i f d idrach ms ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rach ma ( i f 1 d rachmas ) S U M MARY

Wt o f s i lver Mean w t Mean % ( g )

s i lver

Mean w t

i n t he

s i lver ( g )

d rachma ( g )

N erva-D idrach ms

6 .70

6 9.43

4 .65

2 .32

T ra jan - ( a ) D idrach ms o f COS I

6 .81

7 4.12

5 .04

2 .52

T ra jan - ( b ) Drach mas o f COS I

3 .33

7 1.50

2 .38

2 .38

T ra jan - ( d ) D idrach ms o f 1 12-115

6 .68

6 5.69

4 .38

2 .19

T ra jan - ( e ) Drach mas o f 1 12-115

3 .26

6 8.18

2 .22

2 .22

Tra jan

( f ) D idrach ms o f 15-116

6 .67

6 2.87

4 .19

2 .09

T ra jan

( g ) Drach mas o f 1 1 5-1 16

3 .24

6 7.18

2 .17

2 .17

1 .65

7 0.58

1. 16

2 .32

6 .34

6 0.29

3 .82

1 .91

3 .05

6 1.44

1 .87

1 .87

6 .32

7 5.25

4 .76

2 .38

Hadr ian - ( a ) He m idrach ms o f y ears 4 a nd 5 Hadr ian - ( b ) D idrach ms o f c . 1 31-138 Hadr ian - ( c ) Drach mas o f c . 1 31 1 38 An ton inus - ( a ) D idrachms o f 1 381 40 An ton inus - ( b ) Drach mas o f 1 38-140

3 .21

6 8.00

2 .17

2 .17

Marcus - ( a ) D idrach ms o f 1 63-166

6 .43

6 5.61

4 .22

2 .11

Marcus

( b ) T r idrach ms o f 1 75/76

Marcus - ( c ) D idrach ms o f 1 75/76 Co m modus 1 81-183

8 .89

6 0.75

5 .40

1 .80

6 .18

5 6.81

3 .51

1 .75

4 .26

6 6.29

2 .82

1 .41

D idrach ms ( ? ) o f

T he c o inage o f Caesarea i n Cappadoc ia i n t h is p er iod i s f i l led w ith p rob le ms , b oth o f me tro logy a nd min t-a t tr ibut ion .

Con fus ion i s p ar t icu lar ly g rea t i n t he

r e ign o f Tra jan , when l arge n u mbers o f c o ins h ave i n t he p ast b een wrong ly a t tr ibu ted t o Caesarea , o bscur ing t he o u t l ines o f t he m in t 's p roduct ion.

Our

r easons f or r e-a t tr ibut ing l arge n u mbers o f t hese c o ins a re g iven a t t he p o in t where we d ea l w ith t he d if feren t i ssues , b u t f or c onven ience a l l t he r e-a t tr ibut ions o f c o ins g iven b y S ydenha m t o C aesarea a re l i s ted i n a n Append ix ( p . 1 17 ). Here w e w i l l d ea l o n ly w ith t hose c o ins wh ich , o n t he b as is o f h oard e v idence , t ype a nd d iel inkage , we c an w ith c er ta in ty a t tr ibu te t o Caesarea .

8 1

As h as b een s hown b efore , t he d rachma o f Caesarea i n Cappadoc ia was c er ta in ly v a lued i n t he f i rs t c entury a t o ne d enar ius b y t he g overnmen t , a lt hough i t s s i lver c on ten t was a lways v ery much l ess t han t ha t o f t he d enar ius. T h is o verva lua t ion i s g enera l ly ma in ta ined i n t he s econd c entury , a nd w e s ha l l c on t inue t o a ssu me t ha t t he Caesarean d rachma p assed a s o ne d enar ius. I t mus t b e r eme mbered , h owever , t ha t t he s ta te may h ave h ad d i f f icu l ty ma in ta ini ng t h is r a te o f e xchange , wh ich made t he p roduct ion o f C aesarean c o inage s o p rof itab le , a nd t h is may e xp la in w hy t here s ee m t o h ave b een a t l east t wo a t te mp ts i n o ur p er iod t o i ncrease r a ther t han d ecrease t he s i lver c on ten t o f t he Caesarean d rachma , t ogether w ith a t temp ts a t o ther t imes t o r a ise t he d egree o f o verva lua t ion t o wha t must h ave b een a l mos t u nacceptab le l im its. C o inage a t Caesarea w as r esu med , a s a t many o ther m in ts , v ery s hor t ly a f ter t he a ccess ion o f N erva , a nd c on t inued a t ab r isk r ate f rom t hen u n t i l s hor t ly a f ter t he b eg inn ing o f t he t h ird c onsu lsh ip o f T ra jan ( ear ly A .D. 1 00 ). Excep t f or o ne v ery r are h em idrach m ( no. 3 034 , Cos B a l tered t o C os r) t he c o inage i s c on f ined t o d rach mas a nd d idrachms , w h ich , i n t he c ase o f N erva , c opy e xact ly t he t ypes i n troduced a t Rome f or h is d enar i i. C lear ly a t t h is p er iod a t l eas t t he m in t i s w ork ing u nder v ery c lose c en tra l c on tro l. T he c a lcu lated s i lver c on ten t o f t he d rachma d ur ing t h is p er iod i s s o mewha t v ar ia b le , r ang ing f ro m 2 .32 g f or t he d idrachms o f N erva t o 2 .52 g f or t he d idrachms o f T ra jan. T h is c o mpares w ith 2 .26 g f or t he d idrachms o f D om it ian o f A .D. 9 3-94 , a nd o n ly a bout 2 .14-2.17 g f or t he l arge i ssue o f V espas ian.

I n o ther

words t here i s ad ist inct u pward t rend i n t he s i lver c on ten t o f t he Caesarean d rachma , t he i ssue o f Do m it ian c on ta in ing marked ly more t han t hat o f V espas ian a nd t ha t o f N erva a nd T ra jan s o mewha t more t han t ha t o f Do m it ian . T he d egree o f o verva lua t ion a ga ins t t he d enar ius i s t herefore s omewha t r educed a t a bout 2 0%. T he m in t was c losed f ro m e ar ly i n 1 00 t o 12 o r s hor t ly a f ter , when i t p roduced a p ro l if ic c o inage i n c onnect ion w ith Tra jan 's P ar th ian w ar . I t c losed a ga in b efore T ra jan t ook t he t i t le o f PARTH ICVS i n 15/ 116. T he c o inage i s c on f ined e n t ire ly t o d idrachms a nd d rachmas o f f our o r f i ve b as ic t ypes , mos t o f wh ich r e la te d irect ly t o Caesarea o r g o b ack t o e ar l ier t ypes a t t he min t , a nd t hey c an b e s hown o nh oard e v idence t o h ave c ircu la ted i n A s ia M inor ( Append ix ).

The w e igh t o f s i lver i n t he d rachma h as f a l len n o t iceab ly s ince

t he i ssue o f T ra jan 's Cos I , o ur c a lcu la t ions g iv ing a f igure r ang ing f rom 2 .09 g f or t he d idrachms o f 15-116 t o 2 .22 g f or t he d rachmas o f 12-115. T h is l ooks v ery l ike t he s tandard u pon w h ich t he c o ins o f V espas ian w ere s truck , a nd p roduced a n o verva lua t ion a ga ins t t he d enar ius ( now 2 .85 g o f s i lver ) o f c . 2 5%. T here a re t wo d is t inct c o inages f or H adr ian a t Caesarea.

T he f i rs t c on-

s ists o f h em idrachms o f y ears 4 a nd 5 , t oge ther w ith a sma l l n u mber o f u nd a ted h em idrachms wh ich c an b e d iel inked i n to t he d a ted s er ies. i s q u ite l arge , a lthough c on f ined t o t he sma l les t d eno m ina t ion ;

T he i ssue

a nd r e mark-

a b ly , a l though many i nd iv idua l c o ins a re o f l ow f i neness , t he mean f i neness i s s uch t ha t t he we igh t o f s i lver i n t he d rachma , a t 2 .32 g , s ee ms t o s how a r evers ion t o t he s tandard u sed i n t he p er iod Do m it ian-Tra jan Cos I , r a ther t han t ha t o f T ra jan C os V I.

T hese c o ins a re s t il l , o f c ourse , c ons iderab ly

o verva lued , b u t , a t c . 1 9% , r a ther l ess s o t han t he l ater c o ins o f T ra jan .

8 2

T he s ame i s b y n o means t rue o f Hadr ian 's l a ter i ssue , b etween c . 1 31 a nd 1 38. L ike t he c o inage o f Am isus a nd t he l a ter c o inages o f t he C il ic i—a n c i t ies i tp robab ly s tar ted a s ar esu l t o f t he s econd i mper ia l v is it t o t he a rea.

I t

c ons is ts a l most e n t ire ly o f d idrach ms a nd d rachmas , w ith c ons iderab le d iel i nkage b etween r everse t ypes , a nd , d esp ite t he a bsence o f c o ins o f Ae l ius a nd An ton inus C aesar , i tp robab ly c on t inued u n t i l t he e nd o f t he r e ign .

T here i s

av ery marked r educ t ion i n t he f ineness o f t h is i ssue , n o t o n ly f ro m t he f irs t i ssue o f Hadr ian , b u t a lso f rom t he l ast i ssue o f T ra jan . T he d rachma n ow c on ta ins c . 1 .90 g o f s i lver o n ly , w h ich makes i t ab aser c o inage t han t ha t o f Am isus o r T arsus o r An t ioch. T he d egree o f o verva lua t ion a ga inst t he d enar iu s , s t il l a t t h is t ime c on ta in ing 2 .85 g o f s i lver , h as r isen t o a s h igh a s 3 3%. T h is i ssue c on t inued i n to t he r e ign o f An ton inus P ius , e nd ing w ith a r are c o in o f Cos I I , s ugges t ing t ha t t he m in t c losed e ar ly i n A .D . 1 40. We s ee m i n t he c o ins o f An ton inus t o s ee a no ther i mprove men t i n t he s tandard , t hough t he t wo f igures w e h ave , 2 .38 g o f s i lver f or t he d idrachm a nd 2 .17 g f or t he d rach mas , make i tu ncer ta in e xact ly wha t t he s tandard w as.

Wha t d oes s ee m

c lear i s t ha t t he l ow s tandard o f Hadr ian 's l as t i ssue was a bandoned i n f avour o f ah igher o ne , a nd t ha t t he Caesarean c o inage r eturns t o t he d egree o f o verv a lua t ion o ver t he d enar ius wh ich w as n orma l i n t he o ther e astern c o inages. I t may w el l b e t ha t t he d egree o f d ebasemen t o f H adr ian 's c o ins was s o g rea t t ha t t he g overn men t h ad d i f f icu lty e n forc ing t he e qua t ion o f t he Caesarean d rach ma w i th t he d enar ius. Excep t f or a v ery sma l l i ssue o f d idrachms d a ted t o An ton inus ' f our th c onsu lsh ip , many o f wh ich a re s usp ic ious ly b arbarous i n s ty le , Caesarea r ema ined c losed f or t he m in t ing o f s i lver f ro m 1 40 u n t il t he a ccess ion o f Marcus Aure l ius. T he n ex t i ssue was p robably t he l argest e ver p roduced a t Caesarea , a nd , i n t he a bsence o f a ny o ther ma jor i ssues i n t he e ast , i ts erved a s t he ma in s ource o f c urrency f or t he P ar th ian w ar waged i n t he n ame o f L uc ius V erus. T he c o inage i s e n t ire ly o f d idrach ms a nd t he s o le r everse t ype i s Moun t Argaeus. T he s ty le i s q u ite r e markab ly u n iform c ons ider ing t he s ize o f t he c o inage , wh ich c onsu med s o me h undreds o f o bverse d ies , a nd i s v ery c lose t o t ha t o f Ro me. A l most c er ta in ly Ro man d ies o r d ie-cu t ters w ere emp loyed , p ar t o f t he e laborate p repara t ions u nder taken f or t he c a mpa ign .

T he i ssue

p robab ly s tar ted i n 1 62 , a nd t he a bsence o f t he t i t le PARTH ICVS f ro m a ny o f t he c o ins s ugges ts t ha t t he c o inage e nded f a ir ly e ar ly . C er ta in ly i t was o ver b e fore t he e nd o f 1 66 s ince c o ins o f V erus a s C os I I a re a bsen t . The mean s i lver c on ten t o f t he d rachma o f t h is i ssue a t 2 .11 g i s l ower t han t ha t o f T ra jan , b ut i s s t i l l d is t inct ly h igher t han t ha t o f Hadr ian 's s econd i ssue. E f fec t ive ly , s ince t he s i lver c on ten t o f t he d enar ius w as n ow d own t o c . 2 .55 g o f s i lver , t he d egree o f o verva luat ion o f t h is i ssue , a t 1 7% , i s c ons iderab ly r educed c ompared w ith p rev ious C aesarean c o inages o f t he r ecen t p as t . Th is may r ef lec t t he f ac t t ha t t h is was v ery much a m il itary i ssue , i nt ended t o f i nance i mper ia l o pera t ions a nd a t l east i n p ar t t o p ay t roops.

Th is

w ou ld e xp la in why t he C aesarean c o inage was i mproved a t e xac t ly t he t ime w hen t he d enar ius w as u nder g rave p ressure , w i th t he g overnmen t h av ing c ons iderab le d i f f icu l ty ma in ta in ing i t s p ur ity . The s econd C aesarean i ssue o f I v iarcus i s v ery d i f feren t t o t he f i rst , b e ing a sma l l i ssue , c lear ly p roduced b y l oca l d ie-cu t ters , t he c rud ity o f whose

8 3

r everse t ypes s trong ly s ugges ts a n emergency . T he i ssue i s i n t he n a me o f b oth Marcus a nd Co m modus a nd h a ät o b e d a ted t o e i ther 1 75 o r 1 76 , b efore Co m modus b eca me Augustus. I t s ee ms r easonab le t o c onnect t h is sma l l g roup w ith t he v is it t o t he e ast w h ich Marcus u nder took i n g rea t h as te i n t he w in ter o f 1 75-76 , a f ter t he s uppress ion o f t he r evo l t o f Av id ius C ass ius. I t i n troduces t he t r idrachm t o t he c o inage o f Caesarea f or t he f i rst t ime , f or a lthough t wo o f t he r everse t ypes ( eag le , n o. 3 194 , g ar landed a l tar n o. 3 195 ) a re n ot o bv ious ly C aesarean t he t h ird , at e mp le w ith s ta tue o f A thena , i s a t ype wh ich h as a ppeared b efore u nder Hadr ian , a nd t he s ty le b o th o f p or tra it ure a nd r everse l e t ter ing i s q u ite c lear ly t he s ame a s t ha t o f t he d idrachms wh ich h ave t he c er ta in ly Caesarean r everse t ypes o f moun ta in ( no. 3 198 ), c lub a nd s tand ing Mars. One o r t wo c o ins o f Marcus wh ich a re o f e xact ly t he s a me t ype a s t he p rev ious i ssue c an b e a t tr ibu ted t o t h is i ssue b y t he ir s ty le. A lthough t he n u mber o f s pec i mens a va i lab le i s s o sma l l t hey a re o f av ery much l ower s tandard t han t he p rev ious i ssue , g iv ing a d rachma o f 1 .80 g a nd 1 .75 g o f s i lver .

T he o verva lua t ion a ga ins t t he d enar ius , n ow a bou t 2 .58 g o f

s i lver , i s t hus a bou t 3 2%. T he f ina l C aesarean i ssue o f t h is p er iod i s t he most p rob le ma t ic o f a l l . I t c ons ists e n t ire ly o f c o ins o f Co m modus C os I I a nd C os I V , a nd c o mpar ison w ith c o ins o f Ro me s ugges ts f ro m t he p or tra iture t ha t t he i ssue d id n o t c ont inue f ar

i n to t he f our th c onsu lsh ip .

I t c an p robab ly b e d a ted e n t irely t o t he

y ears 1 81-183. T he p rob le m i s t ha t t hese c o ins s ee m t o b e s truck a t a n e n t ire ly n ew w e igh ts tandard , g iv ing a mean w e igh t o f c . 4 .26 g . T h is i s f a ir ly n ear t o t he w e igh t o f 1 1 n orma l d rach mas , t hough a l i t t le o n t he l i gh t s ide , f or t he d rachma n orma l ly w e ighs c . 3 .20-3.10 g a nd t hese c o ins w ou ld g ive a d rachma o f c . 2 .84 g .

T he f i neness o f t he g roup , a t 6 6.29% i s n o l ess t han t ha t o f t he f i rs t

i ssue o f Marcus , a nd r a ther b et ter t han t ha t o f t he more r ecen t i ssue , s o t ha t t he we igh t o f s i lver i n t he d rach ma , a t 1 .88 g , w ou ld b e r a ther b e t ter t han t ha t o f Marcus ' l as t i ssue , t hough l ess t han t ha t o f Marcus ' f i rs t i ssue.

I ft hese

c o ins a re i ndeed p ieces o f 1 1 - d rachmas t hen t he d egree o f o verva lua t ion a ga ins t t he d enar ius h as d ecreased , s ince t he d enar ius , a f ter t he d ebasemen t a t t he s tar t o f t he r e ign o f C o m modus , n ow c on ta ins c . 2 .30 g o f s i lver . I t i s p er fec t ly p oss ib le t ha t t h is i s i ndeed wha t t hese c o ins a re , p ieces o f 1 ,2 1 d rachmas , b u t i tc ou ld b e a rgued t ha t i ti s u n l ike ly t ha t C o m modus ' a dm in istrat ion w ou ld s l igh t ly i mprove t he s i lver c on ten t o f t he C aesarean d rachma w hen t hey h ad , a t t he Emperor 's a ccess ion , r educed b o th t he w e igh t a nd t he f ineness o f t he d enar ius , a nd w ere t o r educe t he f i neness o f t he d enar ius a ga in l a ter i n t he r e ign .

I ti s r easonab le t o e xpec t ad ebasemen t o f

t he e astern c o inage a t l eas t a s g rea t a s t ha t o f t he d enar ius a nd p oss ib ly g rea ter .

I t may w e l l b e t ha t t hese c o ins a re i n f act i n tended t o p ass a s d i-

d rach ms , a l though o n ly w e igh ing a bou t 1 1-d rachmas.

I ft h is w ere s o i tw ou ld

b e o f t he h ighest i n teres t , s ince i ts ugges ts a p receden t f or Caraca l la 's i nt roduct ion o f t he a n ton in ianus , s im i lar ly w e igh ing f ar l ess t han t he 2 d enar i i f or wh ich i t was p robab ly t arr if fed .

I ft h is i s i ndeed t he c ase t hen t he n ew

t heoret ica l d rachma c on ta ins o n ly 1 .41 g o f s i lver , ar educ t ion o f 3 3% o ver t he

8 4

l as t ma jor i ssue o f C aesarea , t ha t o f 1 61-166 , a nd g iv ing a n o verva lua t ion o ver t he d enar ius o f C o m modus ' f i rs t s tandard o f n o l ess t han 3 9% . C lear ly t h is mus t r e ma in u nproven , b u t i te xp la ins a r a ther o dd s i tua t ion ; t he a lterna t ive i s t ha t t he c o ins a re 1 1 d rach mas , a nd i ti s h ard t o s ee what p oss ib le r eason t here c ou ld b e f or t he s udden i n troduct ion o f s o s trange a d eno m inat ion , a s w e l l a s mean ing a d ecrease i n o verva lua t ion a t at ime when w e might more r easonably e xpect a n i ncrease. I f i ti s t he c ase t hen i t was a n e xper i men t wh ich w as n ot r epea ted ; Caesarea 's n ex t i ssue i s u nder P esc enn ius N iger , when G reeklegend d rach mas a re o f n or ma l w e igh t a nd s o n ear t o b e ing d enar i i t ha t h ybr ids o ccur b e tween d rachmas a nd L a t inlegend d enar i i wh ich Caesarea p roduced a t t he s a me t ime. T o s u m mar ise a c onfused s i tua t ion , t he C aesarean c urrency , w h ich s ee ms t o h ave c ircu lated a l mos t e xclus ive ly i n t he l and o f i t s o r ig in a nd n or thwards , h ard ly e ver p enetra t ing w es t i n to w es tern A s ia M inor o r s ou th o f t he T aurus i n to S yr ia , w as a lways v ery h igh ly o verva lued a ga ins t t he d enar ius , a nd w as s truck o n av ery v ar iab le s tandard. We b y n o means f i nd a s i tua t ion i n wh ich t he C aesarean d rach ma d ecl ines c on t inuous ly a ga ins t t he d enar ius ;

r a ther

t he r everse i s s o me t i mes t rue , w ith t he d rachma a ctua l ly d ecreas ing i t s d egree o f o verva lua t ion . T hus t he i ssues o f A .D. 9 6-100 a re o f f i ner s i lver t han t he i ssue o f Do m it ian , w h ich i s i n t urn f i ner t han t he i ssue o f V espas ian , a nd a l though t he d ebasemen t o f t he d enar ius i n 1 07 p roduces a d ebasemen t o f t he d rach ma i n t he i ssue o f 12-116 i ti s f o l lowed i n t urn b y a n i ssue o f h em id rach ms i n 1 20-122 w h ich r everses t he t rend. S im ilar ly , t he v ery d ebased i ssue o f 1 31-138 i s f o l lowed b y a n i mprove men t i n 1 38-140 , c u lm ina t ing i n 1 61-166 i n a n i ssue w h ich i s a s p ure a s t ha t o f 12-116, d esp ite t he f ac t t ha t t he d enar ius h ad b een d ebased t w ice i n t he mean t i me.

I ti s h ard t o e xp la in

t he f i rst improve men t b u t t he s econd i s p robab ly t he r esu lt o f t he f act t hat t he i ssue i s i n tended f or m i l itary e xpenses.

F ina l ly i n 1 81-183 w e h ave a n i ssue

w h ich may h ave b een a n e xper i men t i n s pec tacu lar d ebase men t o f t he s or t wh ich w as t o b e f o l lowed i n t he t h ird c en tury . r eversed.

8 5

T h is e xper i men t w as , i n t urn , t o b e

( v i i ) C i l ic ia Aegeae - ( a ) Hadr ian , t etradrach m o f A .D. 1 17/118

We igh t o f No.

Reference

3 213

BM

We igh t

% s i lver

1 3.32

We igh t o f t heore t ica l

Au

7 7.50

Pb 1 .25

3 .33

s i lver ( g ) 1 0.32 2 .58

d rach ma Aegeae - ( b ) Hadr ian , t r idrach ms o f A .D. 1 17/118 3 214

BM Rev. b ust o f

9 .67

6 8.00

-

-

6 .57

9 .87

6 1.50

t r

-

6 .07

9 .26

6 5.00

-

-

6 .02

9 .68

5 6.50

-

t r

5 .47

Mean ( 4 c o ins )

9 .62

6 5.50

Corrected mean we igh t

9 .71

6 .07

3 .24

2 .02

A lexander 3 215

Wa lker. Obv. d ie

3 216

Ba ldw in Obv. d ie a s

3 217

Wa lker Rev. b ust o f

a s l ast ; Rev. A thena l ast ; Rev. Tyche A lexander 6 .03

( 7 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rachma Aegeae - ( c ) Hadr ian , t etradrach ms o f A . D. 1 32-134 3 218

Wa lker ( year 1 79 )

1 2.69

7 3.00

t r

t r

9 .26

3 219

BM ( year 1 80 )

1 3.32

7 7.50

-

1 .25

1 0.32

3 220

AM ( year 1 80 )

1 3.59

6 6.25

t r

t r

9 .00

Mean ( 3 c o ins )

1 3.20

7 2.25

Corrected mean we igh t

1 2.98

9 .38

3 .24

2 .34

9 .53

( 9 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rach ma Mopsus - ( a ) T etradrach ms o f Hadr ian 3 221

BMC 1 2= v . Au lock

1 3.56

6 0.50

8 .20

3 1 ( a ) 3 222

Wa lker ( as l ast )

1 3.25

6 4.00

3 223

BMC 1 4 =v . Au lock 1 2.52

7 2.00

3 224

AM

t r

8 .48 9 .01

3 3 ( a ) Weber 7 574

1 2.70

7 0.00

v.Au lock 3 3 ( b ) & ( c ) ; o bv. d ie a s l ast

8 6

t r

8 .89

Mean ( 4 c o ins )

1 3.01

Corrected mean we igh t

1 3.19

8 .78

3 .30

2 .19

We igh t o f t heoret ica l

6 6.62

8 .64

d rach ma Mopsus - ( b ) T etradrach m o f An ton inus P ius 3 225

BMC 1 5 =v .Au lock

1 3.50

0 .25

6 7.50

9 .11

3 6 ( a ) Corrected mean we igh t

1 3.47

9 .09

3 .38

2 .27

( 6 c o ins ) We ight o f t heoret ica l d rach ma

Mopsus - ( c ) Tr idrach m o f An ton inus P ius 3 226

Wa lker ( rev.

9 .68

Ar te m is )

( worn )

We igh t o f t heoret ica l

6 2.00

6 .00

3 .23

2 .00

d rachma S eleuc ia - ( a ) Tr idrach m o f Hadr ian 3 227

Wa lker ( rev.

1 0.76

5 3.00

t r

t r

5 .70

A thena ) Corrected mean we igh t

9 .62

5 .10

3 .21

1 .70

( 4 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rach ma S e leuc ia - ( b ) T etradrach ms o f An ton inus P ius 3 228

BMC 1 8

1 2.22

6 2.50

-

5 .00

7 .63

3 229

Wa lker ( obv. d ie

1 2.62

6 7.00

t r

t r

8 .45

3 230

BMC 1 9

1 2.83

6 1.25

-

0 .50

7 .85

a s l ast ) ( tr , As ) Mean ( 3 c o ins )

1 2.56

Corrected mean we igh t

1 2.56

7 .98

3 .14

1 .99

6 3.58

7 .98

( 4 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heore t ica l d rach ma S eleuc ia - ( c ) T etradrach m o f Marcus Aure l ius 3 231

Wa lker

Correc ted mean we igh t

1 2.80

5 6.50

t r

t r

7 .23

1 2.81

7 .24

3 .20

1 .81

( 2 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rach ma

8 7

Tarsus - ( a ) T etradrach ms o f Tra jan , Cos V We igh t o f No.

Reference

We igh t

% s i lver

Au

3 232

BM

3 233

BM = Weber 7 658,

3 234

AM

1 3.81

3 235

Wa lker

3 236

BM

Pb

s i lver ( g )

1 2.67

6 4.50

t r

0 .25

8 .16

1 4.38

4 9.00

-

1 .00

7 .04

7 5.00

t r

t r

1 0.36

1 3.49

6 0.50

t r

t r

8 .16

1.22

4 8.00

-

0 .50

5 .38

1 3.11

5 9.40

7 .82

1 .10

1 0.09

1 .63

o bv. d ie a s l ast

Mean ( 5 c o ins ) S tandard d ev ia t ion Corrected mean we igh t

1 3.68

8 .13

3 .42

2 .03

( 11 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rachma T arsus - ( b ) F irst c o inage o f Hadr ian , t r idrach ms , A . D. 1 17-118 3 237

BMC 1 49 ( L ion &

9 .84

7 0.25

-

-

6 .91

8 .76

8 7.00

-

-

7 .62

9 .48

8 8.00

-

-

8 .34

8 .91

7 3.50

t r

-

6 .55

b u l l ) 3 238

Ba ldw in ( L ion & b u l l )

3 239

Ba ldw in ( L ion & b u l l )

3 240

AM ( L ion & b ul l )

3 241

BM ( two f igures )

8 .89

7 6.00

-

-

6 .76

3 242

Wa lker ( L ion & b u l l )

9 .66

9 4.50

-

-

9 .13

3 243

AM ( Sandan )

9 .82

6 7.50

t r

-

6 .63

3 244

BMC 1 46 ( Sandan )

8 .74

7 4.00

-

0 .75

6 .47

3 245

Wa lker ( Sandan )

9 .08

6 3.50

t r

t r

5 .77

Mean ( 9 c o ins )

9 .24

7 7.14

7 .13

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .43

9 .82

0 .99

Corrected mean we igh t

9 .56

7 .37

3 .19

2 .46

( 36 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rachma T arsus - ( c ). 3 246

BM

We ight o f t heoret ica l

S econd c o inage o f Hadr ian , t etradrach m 1 2.96

7 2.00

3 .24

0 .25

9 .33 2 .33

d rachma

8 8

T arsus - ( d ).

S econd c o inage o f Hadr ian , t r idrach ms We igh t

We igh t o f

N o.

Reference

3 247

BMC 1 47

1 0.80

6 0.25

3 248

BMC 1 48

1 0.08

7 4.50

-

-

7 .51

3 249

Wa lker

1 0.22

7 9.00

t r

t r

8 .07

9 .53

7 7.50

-

-

7 .39

1 0.16

7 2.81

( g )

3 250 Ba ldw in Mean ( 4 c o ins ) C orrec ted mean we igh t

% s i lver

Au -

P b

s i lver ( g )

-

6 .51

7 .37

9 .82

7 .15

3 .27

2 .38

( 29 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heore t ica l d rach ma T arsus - ( e ).

T h ird c o inage o f Hadr ian , t etradrach ms

3 251

BMC 1 50

1 3.37

7 9.00

3 .00

1 0.56

3 252

BMC 1 53

1 3.56

7 0.50

0 .75

9 .56

3 253

BMC 1 54

1 2.41

7 4.50

0 .75

9 .24

Mean ( 3 c o ins )

1 3.11

7 4.67

C orrected mean we igh t

1 3.12

9 .80

3 .28

2 .45

9 .78

( 8 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rachma

No l ess t han f our C i l ic ian c i t ies s truck s i lver d ur ing t h is p er iod , t he b u lk o f i ti n t he r e ign o f Hadr ian a nd t o b e c onnected w ith t he t hree o ccas ions when t he Emperor was i n t he a rea.

Excep t a t T arsus t he i ssues a re a l l o f g rea t

r ar ity , w ith t he r esu lt t ha t a ny c a lcu la t ions o f f ineness a nd s i lver c on ten t must n ecessar ily b e v ery t en ta t ive. T here a re t wo c o inages f ro m Aegeae.

The f irst c ons is ts o f au n ique A t t ic

t etradrachm ( no. 3 213 ) a nd a sma l l s er ies o f t r idrach ms ( nos. 3 214-3217 ) w ith a v ar iety o f r everse t ypes , c losely d iel inked .

The c o ins a l l b ear t he

d a te 1 64 ( A. D . 17/118 ), a nd a re p erhaps t o b e c onnected w ith t he Emperor 's j ourney b ack t o Ro me a f ter t he d eath o f T ra jan.

T hey a re a l l v ery d ebased ,

t he t r idrach ms p ar t icu lar ly s o , p roduc ing a d rachma c on ta in ing o n ly 2 .02 g o f s i lver .



T he s econd g roup a re d a ted t o y ears 1 79 a nd 1 80 ( A.D . 1 32-134 ) a nd a re p resu mably a ssoc ia ted w ith t he s econd p rov inc ia l t our o f Hadr ian , wh ich a lso p roduced c o inages o f Am isus , Caesarea , Mopsus a nd T arsus.

T h is t ime t he

c o ins a re e n t ire ly A t t ic t etradrachms , s ee m ing ly l ess d ebased t han t he p rev ious i ssue , a nd g iv ing a d rach ma c on ta in ing 2 .34 g o f s i lver . A t Mopsus 1 1

t here i s n o s i lver c o inage f or t he e ar l ier p ar t o f t he r e ign o f

Hadr ian b ut a sma l l i ssue o f t e tradrach ms wh ich , t hough u nda ted , a re p robab ly

8 9

t o b e a ssoc ia ted w ith t he s econd i mper ia l v is it t o t he e as t a nd t he p er iod f o l lowi ng i t . Th is i s f o l lowed b y a n e qua l ly sma l l i ssue o f t e tradrachms i n t he n ame o f An ton inus P ius , wh ich i s l i kew ise u nda ted b u t wh ich i s s o s im i lar i n s ty le t o d a ted b ronze c o ins o f t he y ears 1 39/40 a nd 1 40/41 t ha t i tc an b e a sser ted w ith c on f idence t ha t t hey b e long t o t he v ery e ar ly y ears o f t he r e ign .

T o t he

s a me p er iod a lso b e longs a s ee m ing ly u n ique t r idrachm w ith r everse t ype o f a s tand ing Ar te m is ( no. 3 226 ). The who le o f t he s i lver c o inage o f Mopsus c an t herefore b e d a ted t o t he p er iod c . 1 32-141. D esp ite t he sma l lness o f o ur s a mp le i ti s c lear t ha t t he d rachma i s i n tended t o c on ta in c . 2 .20 g o f s i lver . T he c o inage o f S e leuc ia a d Ca lycaL lnu m i s e ven r arer t han t ha t o f Mopsus. Under Hadr ian t he s i lver c o inage s ee ms t o h ave b een t he p roduct o f o n ly t wo o bverse d ies. T he f irs t o f t hese l 2 i s p robab ly t o b e d a ted t o v ery e ar ly i n t he r e ign , t he s econd ( no. 3 227 ) t o t he m idd le 1 20s. T here i s a n e qua l ly r are s er ies o f t etradrach ms o f An ton inus P ius , r e markab le f or t he ir w ide f l ans a nd r everse t ype o f as ea ted Z eus wh ich s ee ms t o h ark b ack t o t he p osthumous s i lver o f A lexander t he G rea t .

T h is i ssue c anno t b e a ccura te ly d a ted.

F ina l ly

w ith in t h is p er iod t here i s av ery r are i ssue o f t e tradrach ms o f Marcus Aure l ius a nd L uc ius V erus o f s im i lar f abr ic a nd r everse t ype t o t hose o f An ton inus P ius.

T h is g roup c an b e a ccura te ly d a ted b y t he a ppearance o f t he

t i t le AR MEN IACVS o n t he c o ins o f Marcus , a pparen t ly a dded t o t he o bverse d ies a f ter t hey h ad b een made. T hey p robab ly b e long t o t he y ears 1 64-165. Our s amp les o f t hese c o inages i s s o sma l l t ha t l i t t le c an b e s a id a bou t t he ir metro logy , p ar t icu lar ly a s t here i s a n a bsence o f u nworn s pec i mens. The s tandard w ou ld s ee m t o b e g enera l ly l ower t han t ha t u sed a t t he o ther C il ic ian c i t ies , s o t ha t t he c a lcu la ted s i lver c on ten t o f t he d rachma i s n ever a bove 2 .00 g , w h ile a t t he o ther c i t ies t he s tandard i sn ever b e low 2 .00 g a nd i s n orma l ly c ons iderab ly h igher.

However , n o o ther C i l ic ian c i ty h as a

c o inage w ith in t h is p er iod l a ter t han c . 1 40. The o n ly C il ic ian c i ty t o s tr ike s i lver w ith a ny a bundance i s T arsus , w here a c t iv ity c eases b efore t he e nd o f t he r e ign o f Hadr ian . T here h ad b een a sma l l i ssue o f t etradrachms a t T arsus u nder Do m it ian , s truck a t av ery h igh s tandard , i ft he s ing le a na lys is a va i lab le i s t o b e r e l ied u pon ( Metro logy I1 30 ). Then t here f o l lows a n e qua l ly sma l l i ssue f or T ra jan i n h is t h ird c onsu lsh ip ( A.D . 1 00 ) f or wh ich n o s pec i mens a re a va i lab le f or a na lys is , a nd t hen a much l arger i ssue f or t he f i f th c onsu lsh ip ( nos. 3 232-3236 ). C o mpared t o t he c o ins o f Do m it ian t he d ebase men t i s v ery s tr ik ing , w ith a mean f i neness f or t he f i ve c o ins o f 5 9.40%.

T h is s tandard i s e ven l ower t han t ha t o f t he t e tradrachms

o f T ra jan i n S yr ia a f ter t he d ebase men t ( be low , p . 1 05 ), a nd i tc er ta in ly means t ha t t h is i ssue mus t b e d a ted t o a f ter t he r e form o f t he d enar ius i n 1 07.

T he

r esu lt i s ad rach ma w ith o n ly 2 .03 g o f s i lver , w e l l b e low t he s tandard o f t he l a ter c o ins o f Hadr ian . T he T arsan c o ins o f Hadr ian f or m t he o n ly ma jor i ssue o f s i lver f rom Ro man C il ic ia.

T he c o ins c an b e d iv ided i n to t hree d ist inct g roups.

T he

f irst c ons is ts o f t r idrachms w ith r everses o f al i on o n ab u l l , S andan s t and ing o n ag r if f in a nd Apo l lo a nd H erac les c lasp ing h ands , t he l as t much r arer t han t he o ther t wo.

A l l t hree t ypes a re f requen t ly d iel inked t o e ach o ther .

T he

c o ins a re o f ad ist inct ive s pread f abr ic , a nd t he s ty le o f p or tra iture s ugges ts ad a te v ery e ar ly i n t he r e ign , t he i ssue b e ing t en ta t ive ly d a ted t o 117/ 11 8.

9 0

The s econd g roup i s q u ite d ist inct f ro m t he f irs t .

I t c ons is ts o f as ing le

t e tradrachm a nd t r idrach ms w i th r everse t ype o f as ea ted Tyche.

The c o ins

a re o f a more d u mpy a nd l ess s pread f abr ic t han t he f i rs t i ssue , a nd t hey a re p robab ly t o b e d a ted t o t he midd le 1 20s. T he t h ird g roup c ons ists e n t ire ly o f t etradrach ms w ith r everse o f e ither a n e ag le o r ab ust o f S ab ina.

S o me o f t he c o ins s ee m t o b e ' meda l l ic ' i n

c haracter , w ith s uperb a nd c arefu l ly e ngraved d ies.

The s ty le o f t hese c o ins

p laces t he m l a te i n t he r e ign , c on te mporary w ith t he l a te t e tradrach ms o f Aegeae a nd Mopsus , t hose o f Aegeae b e ing d a ted t o 1 32-134.

T h is i ssue i s

d oub t less o f t he s a me p er iod , a nd i s t o b e a ssoc ia ted w ith t he i mper ia l p resence. A l l t hree o f t hese c o inages a re q u ite c lear ly s truck o n t he s a me w e igh ts tandard a nd f ineness , p roduc ing a mean f i neness wh ich v ar ies b etween 7 2 a nd 7 7% , a nd a d rach ma b e tween 2 .33 a nd 2 .46 g o f s i lver .

T h is i s av ery c lear

improve men t o n t he t e tradrachms o f T ra jan s truck a t T arsus a nd r a ther b et ter t han t ha t o f t he c o ins o f Hadr ian f ro m o ther C il ic ian m in ts.

On t he o ther

h and i ti s q u i te c lear t ha t t hese c o ins a re i n tended t o h ave t he s a me s i lver c on ten t ( on a p er d rachma b as is ) a s t he S yr ian t etradrach ms o f t he p er iod a f ter t he r e form o f T ra jan , wh ich n or ma l ly g ive a s i lver c on ten t v ary ing b e tw een 2 .26 a nd 2 .42 g o f s i lver .

I f a ny th ing t hey may s how a s l igh t ly h igher

s i lver c on ten t t han t he c o ins o f S yr ia , a l though t h is may n o t b e s ign if ican t. I th as a lready b een n oted t ha t t h is s i lver c on ten t f or t he d rach ma i s v ery c lose i ndeed t o t ha t o f t he o verstruck c is tophor i o f Hadr ian , p rov ided t ha t t hey a re d ee med n ow t o b e c o ins o f f our d rach mas ( denar i i ) r a ther t han t hree ( above , p . 6 4 )•

( v i i i )

S yr ia - P hoen ic ia

Nerva

T e tradrachms

We igh t

We igh t o f

No.

Refei 'ence

3 254

BMC 2 67 ( year A )

1 5.59

8 5.50

3 255

Ba ldw in ( year A )

1 4.45

3 256

AM ( year A )

15.0 0

3 257

Wa lker ( year A )

1 5 .1 0

3 258

BMC 2 68 ( year A )

1 4.33

3 259

BMC 2 69 ( year B )

1 4.71

9 1.00

t r

-

1 3.39

3 260

AM ( year B )

1 5.05

9 0.50

t r

t r

1 3 .6 2

1 4.89

8 8.79

1

0 .40

2 .08

Mean ( 7 c o ins ) S tandard d ev ia t ion Corrected mean we igh t

( g )

% s i lver

Au

P b

s i lver ( g )

t r

-

1 3.33

8 7.00

-

-

1 2.57

8 8.00

t r

-

1 3.20

8 8.00

t r

-

1 3.29

9 1.50

t r

-

1 3.11

1 3.21 0 .30

1 4.78

1 3.12

3 .69

3 .28

( 25 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heore t ica l d rachma

9 1

Tra jan - ( a ).

T etradrach ms o f COS I , r everse e ag le ( ?Ant ioch ) We igh t

No.

Reference

( g )

3 261

BMC 2 88

1 4.26

3 262

BM

We igh t o f % s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

8 6.50

t r

-

1 2.33

1 5.44

7 4.50

-

-

1.50

Mean ( 2 c o ins )

1 4.85

8 0.50

-

-

Corrected mean we igh t

1 4.50

1 1.67

3 .62

2 .92

1.91

( 7 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rach ma Tra jan - ( b ). 3 263

T etradrach ms o f COS I & I l l, r everse Herac les ( ?Tyre )

BMC 9 ( Cos I )

1 4.15

8 8.00

t r

t r

1 2.45

3 264

BM ( Cos I I )

1 4.57

9 1.00

t r

t r

1 3.26

3 265

Wa lker ( Cos I I )

1 4.56

8 6.00

t r

-

1 2.52

Mean ( 3 c o ins )

1 4.43

8 8.33

Corrected mean we igh t

1 4.34

1 2.67

3 .58

3 .17

1 2.74

( 7 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rach ma Tra jan - ( c ).

Tr idrach m o f COS I I, r everse Herac les ( ?Tyre )

B l V IC 1 0

1 1.17

Corrected mean we ight

1 0.83

8 .80

3 .61

2 .93

3 266

8 1.25

0 .50

9 .08

( 4 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rach ma Tra jan - ( d ).

Tr idrach ms o f COS I l, r everse Ro ma

3 267

BM

1 1.04

7 6.50

3 268

Wa lker

1 0.04

8 9.50

t r

1 .50

8 .99

8 .45

Mean ( 2 c o ins )

1 0.54

8 3.00

8 .72

Corrected mean we igh t

1 0.45

8 .67

3 .48

2 .89

( 5 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heore t ica l d rach ma Tra jan - ( e ).

Tr idrach ms o f COS I , r everse b earded b ust r ight ( Sydenha m 1 73 )

BMC 4 6

1 0.70

Corrected mean we igh t

1 0.77

9 .69

3 .59

3 .23

3 269

9 0.00

9 .63

( 6 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rach ma 9 2

Tra jan - ( f ). D idrach ms o f COS I , r everse b ust o f Hera l ef t ( Sydenha m 1 74 ) We igh t ( g )

We igh t o f % s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

No.

Reference

3 270

BMC 4 7

7 .28

9 5.00

6 .91

3 271

AM

7 .34

8 8.00

6 .45

Mean ( 2 c o ins )

7 .31

9 1.50

6 .68

Corrected mean we igh t

7 .25

6 .63

3 .62

3 .31

( 11 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rach ma Tra jan - ( g ).

D idrach ms o f COS I I, r everse e ag le ( Sydenha m 1 81)

3 272

BMC 5 8

7 .80

8 1.50

3 273

Wa lker ( obv. d ie a s 7 .47

8 7.00

t r

t r

6 .36

t r

6 .50

l as t ) 8 4.25

6 .43

Mean ( 2 c o ins )

7 .63

Corrected mean we igh t

7 .27

6 .12

3 .63

3 .06

( 9 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rach ma Tra jan - ( h ). 3 274

AM

T etradrach m o f y ear 1 2, Wruck 1 54 1 5.30

Tra jan - ( i ).

0 .25

8 9.50

1 3.69

T etradrach ms o f COS V ,

r everse b us t o f Herac les w ith c lub i n f ield (Wruck 1 50 ) 3 275

BMC 1 1

1 5.02

3 276

AM

3 277

BM

3 278

8 1.00

t r

1 4.10

8 4.00

t r

-

1 1.84

1 5.68

8 4.50

-

-

1 3.25

AM

1 4.76

8 0.00

t r

t r

1 1.81

3 279

BMC 1 2

1 3.89

9 1.00

-

-

1 2.64

3 280

Ba ldw in

1 5.11

9 2.00

-

-

1 3.90

1 4.77

8 5.42

0 .61

4 .59

Mean ( 6 c o ins ) S tandard d ev iat ion Corrected mean we igh t

t r

1 2.17

1 2.61 0 .76

1 4.70

1 2.56

3 .67

3 .14

( 24 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rach ma

9 3

Tra jan - ( j ).

D idrach m o f COS V , r everse e ag le w ith c lub We igh t

No.

Reference

3 281

BMC ( Caesarea ) 7 9

( g )

We igh t o f % s i lver

6 .88

Au

Pb

8 5.00

s i lver ( g ) 5 .85

( Cos V n ot V I a s i n BMC ) Corrected mean we igh t

6 .88

5 .85

3 .44

2 .92

( 3 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rach ma Tra jan - ( k ).

T etradrach ms o f COS V , r everse b us t o f Herac les w ithout c lub i n f i eld , (Wruck 1 51)

3 282

AM

1 4.95

5 8.00

-

-

8 .67

3 283

BM

1 4.82

6 6.00

-

-

9 .78

3 284

1 4 24

1 4.21

6 2.00

t r

t r

8 .81

3 285

W IC 1 3

1 4.89

6 9.00

-

-

1 0.27

Tra jan - ( 1 ). 3 286

AM

T etradrach m o f COS V , r everse Tyche 1 3.92

Tra jan - ( m ).

7 6.00

-

-

1 0.58

T etradrach ms o f COS V , r everse e ag le

3 287

BMC 2 1

1 4.17

6 4.00

9 .07

3 288

Ba ldw in

1 3.63

6 4.00

8 .72

3 289

AM

1 5.14

5 5.00

8 .33

3 290

Ba ldw in ( d ies a s

1 5.12

6 9.00

1 0.43

1 4.54

6 4.78

9 .41

0 .53

5 .90

l ast ) Mean ( 9 c o ins o f k -m ) S tandard d ev iat ion Corrected mean we igh t

0 .81

1 4.42

9 .34

3 .60

2 .33

( 27 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rach ma Tra jan - ( n ). 3 291

BMC 1 4 ( Tr p 1 4,

T etradrachms o f Tr p 1 4-15

1 3.71

7 1.50

1 3.85

5 8.00

1 4.26

6 5.00

BM ( Tr p 1 4 , Tyche )14.83

5 9.00

t r

t r

9 .80

Herac les ) 3 292

BM ( Tr p 1 4 ,

8 .03

He 3 293

Wa lker ( Tr p 1 4 ,

t r

9 .27

He 3 294

9 4

8 .75

Weight No.

Reference

3 295

BM

3 296

BMC 1 5 ( Tr p 1 5,

Tr p 1 4 ,

' ( g )

We ight o f % s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

1 4.17

6 8.50

-

t r

9 .71

1 4.77

5 7.50

t r

t r

8 .49

1 4.34

6 8.00

t r

0 .75

9 .75

1 3.99

8 5.00

-

-

1 5.05

7 3.00

1 0.99

1 3.68

6 0.50

8 .28

Eag le ) Heracles ) 3 297

BMC 2 9 ( Tr p 1 5, Herac les )

3 298

Ba ldw in ( Tr p 1 5,

1 1.89

Heracles ) 3 299

Ba ldw in ( Tr p 1 5 ,

3 300

Ba ldw in ( Tr p . 1 5 ,

3 301

AM ( Tr p 1 5 ,

1 3.65

6 4.00

-

_

3 302

BM ( Tr p 1 5 , Tyche ,13.72

7 3.00

-

0 .25

1 0.02

3 303

BMC 2 9 ( t r p1 5 ,

1 4.34

6 8.00

t r

0 .75

9 .75

3 304

AM ( t r p1 5 , Tyche ) 1 4.15

6 2.00

t r

t r

3 305

Ba ldw in ( Tr p 1 5,

6 4.00

3 306

BM ( Tr p 1 5 , Tyche ) 1 4.09

6 5.50

t r

-

9 .23

3 307

BMC 2 2 ( Tr p 1 5,

1 4.80

6 3.00

-

-

9 .32

3 308

BMC 2 3 ( Tr p 1 5 ,

1 4.07

5 8.50

_

0 .75

8 .23

3 309

BM ( Tr p 1 5 , e ag le ) 1 4.54

6 4.00

-

t r

9 .30

3 310

BM ( Tr p 1 5 , e ag le ) 1 3.61

6 7.50

t r

0 .75

9 .19

3 311

Ba ldw in ( Tr p 1 5 ,

1 3.89

6 5.00

-

-

9 .03

1 3.96

7 0.00

-

-

9 .77

1 3.85

6 2.00

8 .59

1 3.81

6 1.00

8 .42

AM ( Tr p 1 5 , e ag le ) 1 3.39

6 0.00

1 4.10

6 5.34

9 .21

0 .42

6 .01

0 .88

Herac les ) Heracles ) 8 .74

Herac les ) o bv. d ie a s l ast ) Tyche ) 1 3.94

8 .77 8 .92

Tyche )

e ag le ) e ag le )

e ag le ) 3 312

Ba ldw in ( Tr p 1 5 , e ag le )

3 313

Ba ldw in ( Tr p 1 5 , e ag le )

3 314

Ba ldw in ( Tr p 1 5, e ag le )

3 315

Mean ( 25 c o ins ) S tandard d ev iat ion Corrected mean we igh t

t r

8 .03

1 4.10

9 .21

3 .52

2 .30

( 46 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rach ma

9 5

Tra jan - ( o ).

T etradrach ms o f Tr p 1 6

We igh t No.

Reference

3 316 3 317

BMC 1 6 ( Herac les ) BMC 1 7 ( Herac les )

( g ) 1 4.90 1 3.57

We igh t o f % s i lver 6 4.50 6 4.00

Au

Pb

-

t r 0 .25

s i lver ( g ) 9 .61 8 .68

3 318

BMC 3 0 ( Tyche )

1 3.97

7 7.00

t r

t r

1 0.76

3 319

AM ( Tyche )

1 3.45

6 1.00

t r

-

8 .20

3 320

BMC 2 4 ( eag le )

1 3.09

6 2.50

-

0 .25

8 .18

3 321

BMC 2 5 ( eag le )

1 3.45

6 1.00

-

0 .25

8 .20

3 322

BM ( eag le )

1 3.98

6 1.50

-

0 .50

8 .60

3 323

AM ( eag le )

1 4.33

6 2.50

-

-

8 .96

3 324

Ba ldw in ( eag le )

1 4.06

7 7.00

-

-

1 0.83

3 325

Ba ldw in ( eag le )

1 3.93

7 6.00

-

-

1 0.59

1 3.87

6 6.70

0 .50

6 .62

Mean ( 10 c o ins ) S tandard d ev iat ion Corrected mean we igh t

9 .26 1 .04

1 4.06

9 .38

3 .51

2 .34

( 16 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heore t ica l d rach ma Tra jan - ( p ). 3 326

BMC 1 8 ( Tr p 1 7 ,

T etradrachms o f Tr p 1 7-21

1 3.57

6 2.00

t r

t r

8 .41

1 3.86

6 0.50

t r

t r

8 .38

1 3.85

6 8.00

9 .42

1 4.22

7 7.00

1 0.95

1 4.73

6 9.50

1 0.24

1 4.56

6 7.75

1 4.66

6 1.50

9 .02

1 3.80

5 4.00

7 .45

1 3.10

6 8.50

1 4.01

5 6.00

1 3.38

6 3.50

t r

1 4.22

7 1.50

t r

AM ( Tr p 2 1, e ag le ) 1 4.82

6 3.00

He 3 327

AM ( Tr p 1 7, Heracles )

3 328

Ba ldw in ( Tr p 1 7, Heracles )

3 329

Ba ldw in ( Tr p 1 7, He

3 330

BMC 2 6 ( Tr p 1 7 ,

3 331

BMC 2 7 ( Tr p 1 7,

3 332

Ba ldw in ( Tr p 1 7,

3 333

BMC 1 9 ( Tr p 1 8,

e ag le ) 0 .25

9 .86

e ag le ) e ag le ) Heracles ) 3 334

BMC 2 0 ( Tr p 1 8,

3 335

Ba ldw in ( Tr p 1 9 ,

0 .25

8 .97

Herac les ) 7 .85

e ag le ) 3 336

AM ( Tr p 2 0 ,

8 .50

Heracles ) 3 337

BMC 2 8 ( Tr p 2 1,

0 .25

1 0.17

e ag le ) 3 338

9 6

t r

9 .34

We igh t No.

Reference

3 339

AM ( Herac les ,

' ( g )

We igh t o f % s i lver

Au

Pb t r

s i lver ( g )

1 3.76

5 7.50

7 .91

1 4.04

6 4.30

9 .03

0 .50

6 .18

0 .99

d ate u ncer ta in ) Mean ( 14 c o ins ) S tandard d ev iat ion Corrected mean we igh t

1 4.04

9 .03

3 .51

2 .26

( 35 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rach ma Hadr ian - T etradrach ms o f A . D. 1 18-120 3 340

BM ( eag le l ef t o n

3 341

BMC 3 04 ( Cos I )

1 4.04

7 2.00

-

-

1 0.11

1 4.50

6 2.00

-

-

8 .99

c lub ) 3 342

AM ( Cos I )

1 4.37

6 0.00

-

t r

8 .62

3 343

Wa lker ( Cos I )

1 3.99

7 4.00

t r

t r

1 0.35

3 344

BMC 3 05 ( Cos I I )

1 3.94

7 7.50

-

1 .25

1 0.80

1 4.17

6 9.10

9 .77

0 .22

6 .87

0 .83

Mean ( 5 c o ins ) S tandard d ev iat ion Corrected mean we igh t

1 4.01

9 .68

3 .50

2 .42

( 18 c o ins ) We ight o f t heoret ica l d rach ma Hadr ian - T etradrach m o f Laod icea a d Mare , A . D. 1 31 3 345

BM ( year 1 69 )

1 3.15

8 8.00

t r

-

1 1.57

M Aurel ius - T etradrach ms o f A . D. 1 78-179 3 346

BMC 3 43 ( Tr

1 2.79

8 8.00

1 1.26

3 347

BMC 3 45 ( Co m mo-

1 2.41

7 9.00

9 .80

1 3.49

7 3.00

9 .85

Mean ( 3 c o ins )

1 2.89

8 0.00

1 0.30

Corrected mean we igh t

1 2.66

1 0.13

3 .16

2 .53

p3 3 ) d us , Tr p 4 ) 3 348

Wa lker ( d ies a s l ast )

( 6 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rach ma

9 7

T he c o inage o f S yr ia-Phoen ic ia i n t h is p er iod i s v ery c o mp lex a nd h as p rev ious ly b een o bscured b y n u merous e rrors o f a t tr ibu t ion .

T h is h as ma in ly

b een d ue t o ar e luctance t o a t tr ibu te d enom ina t ions o ther t han .the t e tradrach m t o t h is r eg ion , w ith t he r esu l t t ha t u nder T ra jan a l arge b ody o f f ract iona l c urrency h as b een wrong ly a t tr ibuted t o Caesarea i n Cappadoc ia. S ince t he s ty l ist ic s im ilar it ies o f s o me o f t h is c o inage t o t he t e tradrach ms h as b een o bv ious t h is h as l ed t o t he l og ica l c onc lus ion t hat s o me s cho lars i n t he p as t h ave e ven b een l ed t o a t tr ibu te s o me o f t he t etradrachms t he mse lves t o Caesarea. H oard e v id ence a lone i s e nough t o d e monstra te t ha t t h is i s i ncorrect , b u t t he h oard e v id ence i t sel f h as b een o bscured b y t he m isa t tr ibu t ions. Wha t i s n ow b eco m ing c lear i s t ha t an eg l ig ib le q uan t ity o f s i lver c o inage f ro m C appadoc ia e ver c ircu la ted s ou th o f t he T aurus , a nd t he r eason f or t h is i s c lear ly t o b e s een i n i t s h igh d egree o f o verva lua t ion . S im ilar ly , p ract ica l ly n o t rue S yr ian c o inage c ircu la ted n or thwards i n to C appadoc ia a nd P ontus. T o t he h oard e v id ence w e c an n ow a dd t ha t o f t he metro logy , f or t he S yr ian m in ts w ere , a t l east u p t o 1 07 , u s ing a s tandard s o d ist inc t f ro m t ha t o f Caesarea , b oth i n we igh t a nd f i neness , t ha t t he s i lver c on ten t c an o f ten b e u sed a s a n a dd it iona l d ete r in in ing f actor . T here a re ma jor p rob le ms o f m in t a t tr ibut ion w ith in S yr ia-Phoen ic ia i t se lf more d i f f icu l t t o s o lve b ecause i ts ee ms t o b e t he c ase t ha t e i ther An t ioch i s u s ing t he H erac les r everse t ype wh ich w e w ou ld l i ke t o a t tr ibu te t o T yre , o r Tyre i s u s ing t he e ag le a nd T yche r everse t ypes w h ich o ugh t t o b e long t o An t ioch .

F ur thermore , s ince S yr ia-Pa les t ine f ormed a s ing le c urrency u n it

t he h oards f ro m t he r eg ion a re u n iform a nd d o n o t h e lp u s.

T h is d oes , h ow-

e ver , make c orrec t a t tr ibu t ion l ess i mpor tan t t han i t wou ld o therw ise b e a nd Ih ave t here fore n o t a t te mp ted , e xcep t i n s pec ia l c ases , t o d is t ingu ish t he v ar ious m in ts w ork ing i n t he r eg ion u nder T ra jan a l though i ti s c lear t ha t a t l eas t t wo , a nd p oss ib ly more , a re a ct ive. As e lsewhere , aS yr ian m in t b egan t o c o in s i lver f or N erva s oon a f ter h is a ccess ion , i n t h is c ase t e tradrachms. T h is w as n ot t he s a me m in t a s t ha t wh ich w as u sed b y Do m it ian f or h is l ast i ssue , t he c o ins b e ing t h icker i n f abr ic a nd i n ac oarse a nd u n f lat ter ing s ty le q u ite u n l ike t hose o f Do m it ian 's l ast y ears ( Wruck n os. 1 10-111 ). 1 3 T he s t if f a nd u nga in ly e ag le , t h ick f abr ic a nd l arge l e t ter ing s ure ly s ugges ts t hat t he s ame m in t a nd d ie c u t ter was u sed a s t ha t w h ich h ad p roduced Do m it ian 's t e tradrachms o f y ears 7 -9 ( Wruck n os. 1 07-109 ). T h is m in t c on t inued t o w ork , a lbe it w ith a r educed o u tpu t , a f ter b e ing v ery a ct ive i ndeed i n N erva 's f i rst r egna l y ear , u n t il j ust i n to t he s econd r egna l y ear o f T ra jan ( end o f A .D . 9 8 ). 1 4 No c o ins o f t he m in t f ro m a f ter t he d eath o f N erva w ere a va ilab le f or a na lys is. T hose o f Nerva s ho w t he u se o f a v ery h igh s tandard , g iv ing a d rachma c on ta in ing n o l ess t han 3 .28 g o f s i lver ; a s w e f ound a t Caesarea , t here d oes s eem t o b e ad is t inct i ncrease i n f i neness o ver t he F lav ian p er iod ( Metro logy I , 1 37 ).

I ti s r e markab le t ha t t he r esu l t

o f t h is i s ad rachma d is t inct ly o verva lued a ga ins t t he d enar ius. S hor t ly a f ter t he a ccess ion o f T ra jan a n ew m in t c o m menced a c t iv ity i n t he r eg ion .

I tp roduced c o ins i n af i ne n ew s ty le w ith a n e legan t r everse t ype

o f a n e ag le i n v ary ing p oses , w ith o r w ithou t ap a lm b ranch ( Wruck n os. 1 391 41, h ere

n os. 3 261-3262 ).

T he f abr ic o f t hese c o ins i s more s pread t han

t hose o f t he N ervan m in t a nd t he c o ins a re s ure ly f ro m t he s a me m in t w h ich p roduced t he e legan t t e tradrachms o f D om it ian 's l as t y ears.

9 8

T hese c o ins

a re a l l o f Tra jan 's COS I ( 98-99 ).

A t t he s a me t ime t here a ppears a no ther

g roup o f t e tradrachms w ith a r everse b ust o f H erac les a nd o bverse b us t o f T ra jan o n a n e ag le ( Wruck n os. 1 42-4 , 1 46-8, h ere n os. 3 263-3265 ). Th is g roup i s o f b o th C os I a nd o f C os I I ( 100 ). I t s hou ld b e r easonab le t o g ive t he f irs t g roup t o An t ioch a nd t he s econd t o Tyre , b u t t he s ty le , b oth o f p ort ra iture a nd l e t ter ing , a nd t he f abr ic o f b oth g roups , a re i nd is t ingu ishab le. A l though b oth t hese s a mp les a re sma l l t hey a re c lear ly s truck t o t he s ame s tandard , w ith mos t c o ins o ver 8 0% f i ne , g iv ing a mean f ineness o f 8 0.50 a nd 8 8% a nd a d rach ma c on ta in ing 2 .92-3.17 g o f s i lver . C onnected w ith t hese t e tradrach ms a re f i ve g roups o f t r idrachms a nd d idrachms , a l l o f wh ich h ave f rom t ime t o t ime b een a t tr ibu ted t o Caesarea i n Cappadoc ia : T ra jan g roup ( c ). T r idrachms w ith r everse b ust o f Herac les ( B MC 1 0 , h ere n o. 3 266 ). T h is c o in c lear ly must b e o f t he s ame min t a s t he t e trad rachms o f t he s a me r everse t ype , a nd t ha t m in t o ught t o b e Tyre.

S ty le

a nd f abr ic a re e xac t ly l ike t he t e tradrachms a nd t he f ineness , wh ich p roduces ad rachma c on ta in ing 2 .93 g o f s i lver , i s l i kew ise t ha t o f t he t e tradrachms. I n f ineness , w e igh t , a nd w e igh t o f s i lver t o t he d rach ma t h is c o in i s u n l ike t hose o f C aesarea ( above p . 8 1 a nd f i gs. 8 & 9 ) . a ny p rovenances f or t h is g roup .

T here d o n ot s ee m t o b e

T ra jan g roup ( d ). T r idrachms o f C os I I w ith r everse t ype Ro ma s eated l e f t ( Sydenha m , C aesarea 1 79-180 , h ere n os. 3 267-3268 ). T hese c o ins a re o f ad is t inct ive

s ty le , u n l ike t ha t o f Caesarea , a nd a re o f ad umpy f abr ic

a nd h igh r el ief w ith sma l l f l an d ia meters. T he t wo s pec i mens a na lysed a re o f ah igher f i neness t han w ou ld b e e xpec ted a t Caesarea ( t hough t here i s s o me o ver lap ) a nd t he c o ins a re a lso h eavy , p roduc ing a .s i lver c on ten t f or t he d rachma n earer t o t ha t o f S yr ia t han C aesarea. S yr ian , c er ta in ly n ot C appadoc ian . Europos.

T hey a re a l mos t c er ta in ly

On ly o ne f i nd-spot i s r ecorded , f ro m Dura-

There i s o n ly o ne g enu ine C aesarean s i lver c o in f ro m D ura , t he

r es t o f t he n on-denar ius c o inage b e ing e n t irely S yr ian/Pa lest in ian. 1 5 T ra jan g roup ( e ).

Tr idrach m o f C os I , r everse b earded b us t l e f t

( Sydenha m 1 73, n o. 3 269 ).

The s ty le o f t h is g roup i s v ery l i ke t he l as t t wo ,

t hough p erhaps t he w ider f l ans a re a l i t t le n earer t o g roup ( C ) t han g roup ( d ). T he w e igh ts o f t hese c o ins , g iv ing a d rachma o f 3 .59 g , a nd t he f ineness o f t he s ing le c o in a va ilab le f or a na lys is a re much t oo h igh f or Caesarea ( f igs. 8& 9 ) , a nd a t 3 .23 g p roduce a d rachma t ha t i s h igher e ven t han S yr ian t e tradrachms , a l though w ith o n ly o ne c o in a na lysed t oo much s hou ld n o t b e made o f t h is.

On ly o ne p rovenance i s k nown , f ro m E leuth .eropo l is i n

P a les t ine , a s c an b e s een i n t he v a luab le s u m mary o f Metca lf .1 6 T ra jan g roup ( f ). h ere n os. 3 270-3271). ( e ).

D idrach ms w ith r everse b us t o f H era ( Sydenha m 1 74 , T hese c o ins c lear ly b e long t o t he s a me m in t a s g roup

Aga in , t he s ty le i s d is t inc t ly d i f feren t f ro m t ha t o f Caesarea a nd c om-

p ared w ith g enu ine c o ins o f Caesarea t he c o ins a re d u mpy w ith much sma l ler f l ans t han Caesarea d idrachms , a nd t he b us ts a re i n h igher r e l ief .

T he

w e igh ts a re s tr ik ing ly d i f feren t f ro m t hose o f C aesarea - o n ly o ne o f t he 4 0 t rue C aesarean c o ins h as a w e igh t a s h igh a s t he mean o f t h is g roup , a nd t he mean w e igh t d i f fers b y 0 .44 g .

T he mean f i neness o f t he t wo c o ins o f t h is

9 9

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Caesarea , Cos I . F ig. 8 .

T etradrach ms , S yr ia , Cos

Fract ionals , g roups ( c )(g ).

P ercen tage s i lver , Caesarea a nd S yr ia , A .D. 9 8-100.

We igh t o f Ag i n g 4

3

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1

0 Caesarea ,

T etradrach ms ,

Cos I .

S yr ia , Cos II I I.

F ig . 9 .

Fract iona ls , g roups ( c )(g ).

We igh t o f s i lver i n t he d rach ma , Caesarea a nd S yr ia , A .D . 9 8-100.

g roup a na lysed i s 1 7.50% h igher t han t ha t o f t he t rue c o ins o f C aesarea . T he r esu lt o f t h is i s t ha t t he s i lvei. c on ten t o f t he d rachma i s f ar h igher t han i s f ound a t Caesarea , b u t v ery c lose i ndeed t o t he t r idrachms o f g roup ( e ). No c o ins o f t h is t ype a re k nown f ro m o uts ide S yr ia-Pa lest ine , b ut t here a re 3 s pec i mens f ro m Murabba 'ä t , o ne f ro m a n u npub l ished An t ioch h oard a nd a no ther wh ich w e c an p erhaps i nc lude w ith s afety f ro m a n I srae l i s a le c a ta logue .1 7 ( g ).

D idrach ms o f C os I l w ith r everse o f a n e ag le l e f t w ith p a l m-branch

b eh ind a nd c lub i n f ron t ( Sydenha m 1 81, h ere n os. 3 272-3 ). T hese c o ins c ou ld b e a t tr ibu ted t o S yr ia-Phoen ic ia o n g rounds o f r everse t ype a lone. T he s ty le i s v ery c lose t o t he ' Hera ' d idrachms a bove, a nd t hey may b e o f t he s ame m in t ; c er ta in ly t hey a re o f ad is t inct s ty le a nd f abr ic c o mpared t o c o ins o f Caesarea. T he o bserva t ions c oncern ing w e igh t , f ineness a nd w e igh t o f s i lver i n t he d rach ma made f or g roup ( f ) a bove a pp ly e qua l ly h ere a nd t he c o ins a re c lear ly s im i lar i n metro logy t o t he o ther S yr ian c o ins a nd d i f feren t t o t hose o f C aesarea.

T here a re t wo e xamp les o f t he t ype f ro m Murabba 'a t a nd f our f ro m

E leu theropo l is , b ut n one f ro m o u ts ide S yr ia-Pa les t ine. I n s u m mary , t here fore , t hese f i ve g roups o f f rac t iona l c urrency a l l h ave c ons iderab le s im i lar it ies t o o ne a nother , a l though a s y e t n o o bverse d ie-l inks b etween t he m h ave b een f ound .

T he s i lver c on ten t o f t he d rachma i s v ar iab le ,

r ang ing f ro m 2 .89 g t o 3 .31 g b u t t h is i s d oub t less d ue t o t he v ery sma l l s ize o f a l l o ur s a mp les.

Wha t i s i mpor tan t i s t hat a s ag roup t hey a re q u ite d ist inct

i n metrology f ro m t he c er ta in c o ins o f Caesarea , a s c an b e s een i n f i gs. 8 & 9 . When t he % s i lver o f t he c er ta in c o ins o f Caesarea i s p lo t ted a ga inst t ha t o f t he t e tradrachms o f S yr ia a nd t he f rac t iona l c urrency i tc an b e s een t ha t t he t wo l a t ter , a l though o ver lapp ing w i th t he v ery w ide s pread o f t he f or mer , a re c lus tered e n t ire ly a t t he u pper e nd o f t he r ange o f f inenesses , w ith s o me o f t he c o ins r each ing h igher t han t he h ighes t c o ins o f Caesarea. When t he s i lver c on ten ts o f t he c a lcu lated d rachmas a re p lot ted a ga ins t e ach o ther , t he e f fect i s s t il l more s tr ik ing , s ince t he c o ins o f S yr ia a re a lso o f h igher t o ta l w e igh t . T here i s n ow h ard ly a ny o ver lap a t a l l , w ith a l mos t e very c o in o f t he S yr ian g roups c on ta in ing more s i lver t o t he d rachma t han t he h ighes t c o ins o f t he Caesarean g roup .

T he d i f ference o f t he S yr ian t e tradrachms a nd t he f rac-

t i ona l c o ins f ro m t he c o ins o f Caesarea a nd t he s im ilar ity o f t he S yr ian t etrad rach ms t o t he f ract iona l c urrency c ou ld n ot b e b e t ter d e mons tra ted .

When

t he h oard e v idence w h ich i s n ow a va i lab le , s can ty a s i ti s , i s a dded , i tb ecomes c lear t ha t t he f ract iona l c o ins u ndoubted ly c ircu lated i n ad i f feren t a rea t o t he c o ins o f Caesarea , a nd i n t he s a me a rea a s t he t e tradrachms , a nd t ha t a rea i s S yr ia-Pa les t ine.

S ome o f t he f ract iona l c o ins mus t s urely b e o f T yre , b u t

o thers may b e o f o ther m in ts i n t he r eg ion , s trong ly i n f luenced b y T yre. T hey a nd t he t e tradrach ms a re s truck o n as ys te m p roduc ing a d rachma wh ich i s v ery c lose i ndeed i n w e igh t o f s i lver t o t he w e igh t o f s i lver i n t he c on te mporary d enar ius , s o t ha t i ti s c lear t ha t t h is c o inage was n o t i n tended t o c arry a ny o verva luat ion o ver t he Ro man d enar ius. T he i ncrease i n t he s i lver c on ten t o f t he d rach ma o ver t ha t o f t he F lav ian p er iod , wh ich w as e ven more marked u nder N erva , i s s tr ik ing a nd i n teres t ing , a nd i n t h is r espect c o mpar ison w ith t he s a me s i tua t ion a t C aesarea i s s ign if ican t . T he m in t ing o f s i lver i n t he r eg ion c eased e n t ire ly b efore t he e nd o f A .D. 1 00 a nd d id n ot r esu me f or s o me y ears. 1 01

When i td id t he c o inage was

a l mos t e n t ire ly i n t e tradrachms , w ith o n ly o ne sma l l i ssue o f f rac t iona l c urrency P robab ly t he e ar l iest c o in o f t he r esumed p roduct ion o f s i lver i s o ne o f t he mos t i n teres t ing a nd r e markab le o f t he who le G reek imper ia l s er ies. I t i s as trange c o in w ith t he t yp ica l S yr ian r everse t ype o f ab ust o f Herac les b u t w ith a d ate i n t he n orma l Egyp t ian f orm L IB -a l mos t u n ique o uts ide Egyp t . F ur thermore i th as l ong b een r ecogn ised t ha t t he c o in i s u nquest ionab ly t he work o f a n A lexandr ian d ie-cu t ter , f or t he c o in i s i n e xact ly t he s a me s ty le a s t he c on te mporary c o ins o f A lexandr ia . T h is c o in h as b een t he s ub jec t o f much s pecu la t ion . 18 Newe l l 's v iew , wh ich g rew o u t o f t he s im i lar o p in ions o f Vog t a nd Wruck , was t ha t t hese c o ins a re , b ecause o f t he ir s ty le , u nques t ionab ly Egyp t ian. He r ea l ised , h owever , f ro m t he ir a ppearance , t ha t t hey w ere o f b et ter s i lver c on ten t t han t he n orma l t e tradrachms o f A lexandr ia , a nd h e t here fore s ugges ted t ha t t hey r epresen t a n a bor t ive a t te mp t t o s tage a c o inage r eform a t A lexandr ia b y wh ich t he T yr ian s tandard w as t o b e i n troduced i n Egyp t t o r ep lace t he A lexandr ian.

H e e nds b y i n terpret ing t he c o ins a s ' i n tended a s t he b eg inn ing

o f a" new d ea l" f or t he l ong e xp lo ited a nd u nderpr iv i leged Egyp t ians '. Be l l inger , wr it ing more r ecen t ly , h as e choed t he v iew o f N ewel l. There a re a n u mber o f r easons why s uch a d rama t ic i n terpre tat ion , s ugg est ing t ha t T ra jan c on te mp la ted , b y g iv ing Egyp t ac o mmon c urrency w ith S yr ia , o verturn ing t he who le Augus tan s et t le men t o f Egyp t , c anno t p oss ib ly b e a ccep ted .

I ti s u nderstandab le t ha t N ewe l l 's t heory h as b een i gnored b y

s tuden ts o f Ro man Egyp t . We a re n ow i n ap os it ion , w ith 6 s pec i mens f ro m 2o bverse d ies a va i lab le , t o s ay r ather more a bou t t he me tro logy t han N ewe l l was a b le.

I n w e igh t t he c o ins a re q u ite d is t inct f rom t hose o f Egypt ;

Egyp t ian t e tradrachms r are ly w e igh more t han 1 3.50 g , a nd a l l t he k nown s pec i mens o f t h is i ssue w e igh t more t han t h is , o f ten b e ing o ver 1 5 g .

T he

v isua l o bserva t ion made b y N ewe l l t ha t t he c o ins a re o f h igher s i lver c on ten t t han u sua l i s s pectacu lar ly c on f ir med b y o ur s pec i men ( no. 3 274 ) wh ich h as as i lver c on ten t o f

8 9.50%. I n o ther words i ti s o n t he h igh s ide e ven f or t he

e ar ly t etradrachms o f T ra jan f ro m S yr ia , a nd t he s er ies wou ld s ee m t o c onf orm i n we igh t a nd f i neness t o t he S yr ian s er ies o f T ra jan s truck b efore t he d ebase men t w e a re a bou t t o d escr ibe. I ft hese c o ins a re A lexandr ian , t hen t hey d a te t o Aug .108-Aug . 1 09. T ra jan d ebased t he d enar ius o f Ro me i n m id 1 07, a s w e h ave s een ; a nd y et w e a re a sked t o b e l ieve t ha t , a t at ime when T ra jan h ad a lready b een f orced t o d ebase t he d enar ius , h e n o t o n ly r eformed t he Egyp t ian t e tradrachm t o i ncrease i t s f ineness f ro m a bou t 1 6.50% t o 9 0% b ut r a ised i tt o al eve l w h ich mean t t ha t ( i f i t was n ow a c o in o f 4d enar i i ) i tc on ta ined more s i lver t o t he d enar ius t han t he d enar ius i t se lf .

S uch a s i tua t ion i s c lear ly i mposs ib le.

T here i s o ne p iece o f e v idence wh ich was a va i lab le t o b oth N ewe l l a nd B el l inger b u t wh ich t hey s urpr is ing ly d id n ot u se.

One o f t he s ix c o ins k nown

o f t h is g roup was i n t he E leu theropo l is h oard f ro m P a les t ine.

1 9

Now i ti s

v ery we l l k nown t ha t A lexandr ian c urrency d id n o t c ircu la te o uts ide Egyp t , a t l east n o t a t t h is p er iod ;

y et t here i s as pec i men o f t h is c o inage f rom a

Pa lest in ian h oard a l though n one o f t he c o ins h ave b een f ound i n Egyp t .

1 02

I n

o ther words w e a re d ea l ing w ith a c o inage wh ich i s n on-Egyp t ian n ot o n ly i n w e igh t , f ineness a nd t ype b u t a lso i n c ircu la t ion a rea . L as t ly , t hough Iam o n s haky g round h ere , i ts ee ms t o me t ha t i n f abr ic , r ather t han i n s ty le , t he c o ins l ook more l ike t he work o f t he S yr ian m in t t han o f A lexandr ia. I n s u m mary , t here fore , a l l t he e v idence w ou ld s ee m t o p o in t t o t hese c o ins b e ing S yr ian-Phoen ic ian , p robab ly T yr ian , i n o r ig in .

T he f ac t s t il l r e ma ins ,

o f c ourse , t ha t Tyre b orrowed e i ther A lexandr ian d ies o r a n A lexandr ian d iec u t ter , a nd t h is i n i t sel f i s v ery i n teres t ing e v idence o f c o mmun ica t ion b etween t he f i nanc ia l o f f icers o f t he ' c losed ' p rov ince o f Egyp t a nd t he o uts ide w or ld ; b u t i ti s a t l east f ar l ess s tar t l ing t han t he o ther p oss ib i l it ies. When w e c o me t o c ons ider t he more c onven t iona l c urrency o f S yr ia d ur ing T ra jan 's f i f th c onsu lsh ip w e c an p erhaps p erce ive a p oss ib le o ccas ion f or t he b orrow ing o f ad ie-cu t ter b y t he S yr ian m in t. T he S yr ian c o inage c eased i n A .D . 1 00 a nd r esu med a t s o me t ime i n t he s econd h a lf o f T ra jan 's f i f th c onsu lsh ip , p robab ly a f ter 1 06.

T he p o in t i n t ime w hen i ts ee ms mos t r eason-

a b le f or t he S yr ian m in t t o w ish t o b orrow a d ie-cu t ter w ou ld b e t he momen t when i t was r eopen ing . C er ta in ly f or i tt o n eed t o d o s o a f ter t he m in t w as work ing s ee ms u n l ike ly .

I ft hey a re S yr ian r a ther t han Egyp t ian t hen t hese

c o ins c an b e d a ted t o l a te 1 07late 1 08, a nd i ti s r easonab le t o s uppose t ha t t h is i s t he d a te a t w h ich t he m in t r eopened.

T h is i s a t l eas t a n e ar l ier d ate

t han w ou ld h ave b een p oss ib le i ft hey h ad b een Egyp t ian a nd d a ted b y Egyp t ian r egna l y ears , b u t i ts t i l l means t ha t t hey d e monstra te t ha t t he S yr ian m in t

% Ag 1 00 9 0 •

8 0

I • •

7 0

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• 4 •

2 1

• • • • •

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• •

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" Alexandr ian" s ty le C os V

Cos V Cos V I ( A.D . 1 08-111 ) ( A.D . 12-117 )

( c lub b e fore b us t ) F ig . 1 0.

F ineness o f t e tradrachms o f T ra jan . A .D . 1 08-117.

1 03

d id n o t r educe i t s s tandard a t t he s a me t ime a s Rome , b u t r a ther l a ter . I t i s , t hough , much more r easonable t ha t 'a m in t s hou ld a dhere t o i t s p rev ious s tandard f or r a ther l onger t han w e m igh t e xpect t han t ha t am in t s hou ld i n it ia te a n u pward t rend j ust a t t h is t ime. T he e ar l ies t c onven t iona l t e tradrachms o f S yr ia d ur ing T ra jan 's f i f th c onsu ls h ip h ave a r everse b us t o f Herac les a nd a re d ist ingu ished b y h av ing a c lub u pr igh t b efore t he Emperor 's h ead o n t he o bverse ( Wruck n o. 1 50 , h ere n os. 3 275-3280 ). T hese c o ins a re a l l s truck o n t he s ame s tandard a s t ha t u sed f or t he c o ins o f A .D. 9 8-100. A lso t o t h is p er iod w e must a ss ign t he sma l l g roup o f d idrachms w ith r everse o f a n e ag le w ith a c lub p ro m inen t ly b efore i t( here n o. 3 280 ) s ince i ti s a lso o n t he o ld s tandard a nd c anno t t here fore b e l a ter . On ly a s l ight c hange i nd ica ted t he i n troduct ion o f t he n ew s tandard . The c lub i s moved f ro m i n f ron t o f t o b enea th t he emperor 's h ead ( Wruck 1 51, h ere n os. 3 282-3285 ) b u t s o f ar a s o ur s ma l l s amp les a l low u s t o b e s ure , t h is move c o inc ides e xac t ly w ith t he r educt ion i n s tandard ( f ig . 1 0 ). I t i s v ery s ign if ican t t ha t i ts hou ld h ave b een c ons idered n ecessary t o mark t he d ebasemen t i n s o me way o n t he c o ins , e ven i fi tw as h oped t ha t t he s ign if icance o f i t wou ld o n ly b e k nown t o s ta te o f f ic ia ls. A t t he s ame t ime a s t he d ebase men t o r p erhaps a l i t t le l a ter t wo n ew r everse t ypes were i n troduced , o ne a s ea ted Tyche , wh ich h ad n o t b een u sed s ince t he t ime o f Augustus , t he o ther a s tand ing e ag le. " B oth a re s truck o n t he n ew s tandard . F ina l ly i n t he f i f th c onsu lsh ip d a t ing b y y ears o f T r pw as i n troduced a nd c o ins w ere s truck f or Tr p 1 4 a nd 1 5. I n s u m mary t here fore , w e may s ketch t he f o l low ing t entat i ve c hrono logy f or t he s er ies i fw e a re c orrect i n p lac ing t he A lexandr ian s ty le c o ins a t t he b eg inn ing o f i t :

( a )

L ate 1 07-ear ly 1 08

T etradrachms o f ' Alexandr ian ' s ty le

O ld s tandard

( b )

C . 1 08

T etradrachms o f n orma l s ty le , c lub b efore b us t

O ld s tandard

D idrachms

O ld s tandard

T etradrachms w ith c lub u nder

Reduced

( c )

c . 1 08-109

b us t -H erac les , e ag le a nd Tyche ( d )

1 09-111

T etradrachms d ated t o T r p1 4 a nd 1 5

s tandard Reduced s tandard

T etradrachms w ere s truck i n e normous n u mbers a f ter t he d ebasemen t o f C . 1 08 a nd t he m in t wh ich s truck t he m c on t inued i n p roduct ion u n t i l t he e nd o f t he r e ign .

I ti s s ign if ican t , h owever , t ha t i tw as t he d ebase men t r a ther

t han t he P ar th ian War w h ich s t i mu la ted p roduct ion , f or t he g rea t b u lk o f t he c o inage was s truck i n t he y ears 1 09-112 w ith a c on t inuous d ec l ine f rom t hen u n t i l t he e nd o f t he r e ign . C o inage f or t he l as t y ears , when t he P ar th ian w ar was a t i t s h e igh t , i tc o mparat ive ly s carce.

1 04

T he p roduct ion o ft h is min t c on t inued i n to t he e ar ly y ears o f t he r e ign o f Hadr ian t hough i n f a ir ly sma l l' q uan t it ies. I t c eased e n t ire ly s hor t ly a f ter t he b eg inn ing o f t he t h ird c onsu lsh ip ( 1 19 ), a nd t here a re n o c o ins f or t he i mper ia l v is its t o S yr ia , a nd i ndeed n o s ubstan t ive c o inage a ga in f or n ear ly a c en tury.

T he c o inage o f Tra jan a nd Hadr ian f ro m c . 1 08 t o 19 was b y f ar

t he l arges t s o f ar p roduced i n Ro man S yr ia a nd d oub t less r epresen ts a ma jor r eco inage o f e ar l ier a nd f iner c o ins a f ter t he d ebase men t . T he p ro f its t o t he s ta te must h ave b een c ons iderab le , a nd t he n ew c o ins f or med a l mos t t he s o le s i lver c urrency o f t he Or ien t , o ther t han t he d enar ius , f or t he r es t o f t he s econd c entury . T he s tandard u sed f or t h is g rea t c o inage was u n iform f ro m b eg inn ing t o e nd ( nos. 3 282-3344 ), a nd a l though t here i s ag rea t v ar iat ion b etween i nd iv idu a l c o ins t hey p roduce a mean d rach ma c onta in ing a bou t 2 .30 g o f s i lver , t he l owes t c a lcu lated v a lue b e ing 2 .26 a nd t he h ighes t 2 .42. T hus t here i s a n o verva luat ion a ga ins t t he d enar ius o f a bout 1 9% , a nd a s w e h ave p o in ted o u t b efore t h is i s v ery c lose i ndeed t o t ha t o f mos t o f t he o ther e astern c o inages f rom t he p er iod when t he Ro man d enar ius c on ta ins a bou t 2 .85 g o f s i lver .2 1 T here r e ma in t wo o ther sma l l S yr ian c urrenc ies t o b e d ea l t w ith . L aod icea a d Mare , wh ich p roduced a sma l l c o inage u nder N ero , s tr ikes a ga in u nder H adr ian i n i t s y ears 1 69-172 ( A.D . 1 30-134 ). T he s ing le c o in o f t h is i ssue a va ilab le f or a na lys is i s o f v ery h igh s i lver c on ten t c ons ider ing i t s d a te b u t l i t t le s hou ld b e made o f t h is.

Ano ther c o in o f t h is i ssue h as b een

a na lysed a nd i tt oo h ad a s i lver c on ten t o f o ver 8 0%. 2 2

T he i ssue i s c lear ly

v ery sma l l i ndeed w ith o ne o bverse d ie l ast ing f or t he who le o f t he l as t t hree y ears . 2 3 F ina l ly t here i s av ery sma l l i ssue o f t e tradrachms o f Marcus Aure l ius a nd C o m modus a t An t ioch d a ted t o A .D . 1 78-179. I ti s h ard t o s ee t he r eason f or t h is i ssue wh ich a lso s hows a s urpr is ing ly h igh f i neness a nd p roduces a d rach ma c on ta in ing 2 .53 g o f s i lver , c ompared w ith a bou t 2 .56 g f or t he c on te mporary d enar ius .

I tl ooks a s i ft he d rachma i n t h is i ssue was i n tended

t o h ave t he s a me s i lver c on ten t a s t he Ro man d enar ius , a l though n o t t oo much emphas is s hou ld b e p u t o n t h is w hen w e a re d ea l ing w ith s o sma l l ac o inage a nd s o sma l l a s a mp le.

1 05

( ix ) ( a )

Pa lest ine - Arab ia

Na t ive Naba tean c o inage We ight ( g )

We igh t o f % s i lver

Au

3 .84

5 8.00

t r

-

BMC p 1 1, 2

2 .85

6 1.00

t r

t r

1 .74

BMC p 1 1, 3

2 .87

6 0.75

t r

-

1 .74

3 352

BMC p 1 2, 1

3 .56

5 9.00

t r

t r

2 .10

3 353

BMC p 1 2, 2

3 .47

3 1.50

-

t r

1 .09

Mean ( 5 c o ins )

3 .32

5 4.05

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .39

No.

Reference

3 349

BMC p 1 1, 1

3 350 3 351

Mean ( exclud ing n o. 3 353 ) ( b )

Pb

s i lver ( g ) 2 .23

1 .78

1 1.33

0 .40

5 9.69

1 .98

Tro jan , T etradrach ms o f COS V , r everse Arab ia ( Sydenha m 1 89 )

3 354

BMC 5 9

1 1.33

9 0.50

-

0 .50

1 0.25

3 355

BMC 6 0 ( obv. d ie a s l ast )10.70

7 4.50

t r

1 .00

7 .97

3 356

Wa lker

1 1.79

8 0.00

-

-

9 .43

3 357

Ba ldw in ( obv. d ie a s l ast )11.03

8 1.00

-

-

8 .93

3 358

BMC 6 1

1 1.47

8 2.00

t r

1 .00

9 .40

1 1.26

8 1.60

9 .19

0 .37

5 .15

0 .75

Mean ( 5 c o ins ) S tandard d ev ia t ion Corrected mean we igh t ( 18

1 1.11

9 .07

( t r idrach m )

3 .70

3 .02

( t etradrach m )

2 .78

2 .27

c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rach ma

( c )

Tra jan , t etradrach ms o f COS V I

3 359

BMC 7 4 ( Sydenha m 1 90 )

1 0.01

8 1.50

t r

0 .75

8 .16

3 360

BM ( obv. d ie a s l ast )

1 0.73

7 7.00

-

t r

8 .26

3 361

BM ( Sydenha m 1 90 )

9 .37

8 5.00

-

1 .00

7 .96

3 362

BMC 7 5 ( Sydenha m 1 90 )

1 0.54

7 2.00

-

t r

7 .59

3 363

Wa lker ( Sydenha m 1 90 )

1 0.63

7 8.00

-

-

8 .29

3 364

AM ( Sydenha m 1 90 )

1 0.35

7 3.00

t r

t r

7 .56

3 365

Ba ldw in ( Sydenha m 1 90 )

9 .76

8 0.00

-

-

7 .81

3 366

AM ( Sydenha m 2 19 )

1 0.17

7 8.00

t r

-

7 .93

3 367

BMC 8 5 ( obv. d ie a s

1 0.17

8 3.00

t r

t r

8 .44

3 368

BM

9 .88

8 8.00

-

t r

8 .69

3 369

Wa lker

1 0.17

8 6.00

-

-

8 .75

3 370

BMC 8 9 ( Sydenha m 2 24 )

1 0.10

8 0.00

t r

-

8 .08

3 371

AM ( Sydenha m 2 24 , o bv. 1 0.15

7 5.00

t r

t r

7 .61

l ast )

d ie a s l ast ) 3 372

Ba ldw in ( Sydenha m 2 24 )

1 0.07

7 9.00

-

-

7 .95

3 373

Wa lker ( Sydenha m 2 24 )

1 0.17

8 5.50

-

-

8 .69

1 06

• We igh t

Weigh t o f

No.

Reference

3 374

Wa lker ( Sydenha m 2 24 )

1 0.31

8 4.50

3 375

BM ( Sydenha m 2 24 )

1 0.02

8 6.00

1 0.15

8 0.68

8 .18

0 .31

4 .67

0 .40

( g )

Mean ( 17 c o ins ) S tandard d ev iat ion C orrected mean we ight

% s i lver

Au

Pb

t r

s i lver ( g ) 8 .71

1 .00

8 .62

1 0.23

8 .25

( tr idrach m )

3 .41

2 .75

( t etradrach m )

2 .56

2 .06

( 62 c o ins ) We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rach ma

( d )

Tra jan , Drach mas w ith r everse Arab ia s tand ing ( Tr p 1 6-18, A . D. 1 12-114 )

3 376

B MC 6 2 ( Tr p 1 6,

3 377

B MC 6 3 ( Tr p 1 6,

3 378

Wa lker ( Tr p 1 6 ,

0 .75

1 .35

2 .63

5 1.25

2 .82

7 1.00

3 .33

6 1.50

3 .22

5 4.00

1 .74

3 .23

6 1.50

1 .99

3 .61

5 5.00

1 .98

3 .27

4 9.50

t r

t r

1 .62

3 .30

4 8.00

t r

t r

1 .58

Mean ( 8 c o ins )

3 .18

5 6.49

1 .78

S tandard d ev iat ion

0 .29

7 .22

0 .24

Corrected mean we igh t

3 .19

( Sydenha m 1 83 ) 2 .00

S ydenha m 1 83 ) t r

t r

2 .05

S ydenha m 1 83 ) 3 379

AM ( Tr p 1 6 , S ydenha m 1 83 )

3 380

Wa lker ( Tr p 1 6 , S ydenha m 1 83 )

3 381

B MC 6 4 ( Tr p 1 7, S ydenha m 1 85 )

3 382

AM ( Tr p 1 7 , S ydenha m 1 85 )

3 383

AM ( Tr p 1 8, S ydenha m 1 89 )

1 .80

( 58 c o ins ) ( e )

Tra jan , Drach mas w ith r everse c a mel ( COS V I )

3 384

AM ( Sydenha m 2 05 )

3 .04

4 7.00

3 385

Wa lker ( Sydenha m 2 05 ,

3 .59

6 8.00

3 386

B MC 6 6 ( Sydenha m 2 05 )

3 .21

6 6.00

3 387

B MC 6 5 ( Sydenham 2 04 )

3 .85

7 0.00

Mean ( 4 c o ins )

3 .42

6 2.75

Correc ted mean we igh t

3 .25

t r

_ 1

1 .43 2 .44

r ev, d ie a s l ast )

1 07

2 .12 0 .75

2 .69 2 .17 2 .04

T hese c o ins a re a l l g rouped t oge ther s ince Me tca l f h as n ow s uccessfu l ly d e mons tra ted t ha t t hey b e long t ogether a nd a re t o b e p laced s o mewhere i n Pa lest ine o r Prov inc ia Arab ia. Two d eno m ina t ions a re i nvo lved , d rachmas w ith r everses o f as tand ing f igure o f Arab ia c op ied f ro m t he Ro man d enar i i a nd o f a wa lk ing c a me l , a nd mu lt ip les, c o m mon ly c a l led t r idrachms , o ne o f wh ich s hares t he s tand ing Arab ia t ype. Metcal f h as c o l lec ted t he h oard e v id ence wh ich c lear ly s hows t ha t t hese c o ins b e long t ogether , 24 b u t t he s i tua t ion i s r a ther more c o mp lex t han w ou ld a ppear t o b e t he c ase a t f i rs t s igh t .

Two

s tandards o f f ineness a re i nvo lved a nd a l mos t c er ta in ly t wo m in ts. I ti s e as ies t t o s tar t where t he e v idence i s c learest .

T here i s l i t t le d oub t

t ha t t he who le p urpose o f t hese i ssues was t o r eco in t he d ebased a nd m iserab le c o inage o f t he N aba taean k ingdo m wh ich h ad b een a nnexed b y T ra jan i n 1 06. One g roup o f d rach mas , w ith r everse Arab ia s tand ing a nd d ated t o 1 12-114 , i s o vers truck o n t hese N aba taean c o ins. F ive c o ins o f t he l as t p er iod o f Naba taean r u le h ave b een a na lysed ( nos. 3 349-3353 ) a nd t hey s how a h igh ly d ebased c o inage , mos t ly a bou t 6 0% f ine, o ne r a ther l ess. The o vers truck i ssue o f T ra jan ( group ( d ), n os. 3 376-83 ) g ives a mean v ery c lose t o t ha t o f t he N aba taean c o ins a l though w ith a v ery much w ider s pread o f f i nenesses , u nders tandab le i fi ti s r e me mbered t hat t he c o ins o verstruck w il l n o t o n ly b e t hose o f t he l ast N abataean k ing , b u t w il l i nc lude e ar l ier i ssues ( f ig. 1) .

% Ag 1 00 •

9 0

• • • • • •

8 0

1 •



• • •

• • •

7 0

6 0

1

4 • • I . •

• • •

5 0



4 0 •

Naba taean

o vers truck

d rachmas

d rach mas

( reverse c a me l )

F ig . 1.

T etradrach ms C os V

F ineness o f " Arab ia" c o inages.

1 08

Cos V I

Th is g roup o f d rachmas a re o f aq u ite d ist inct a nd c oarse l u mpy f abr ic w ith l arge b us ts , u ndraped o r w ith d rapery o n ly o n t he f ar s hou lder . T he p or tra iture i s d is t inct ly s im i lar t o t ha t o f a much e ar l ier p er iod a t Ro me. T here i s a lso a s econd g roup o f d rachmas , t hose w ith a wa lk ing c a me l , wh ich a re q u ite d i f feren t t o t he f irst i n b o th f abr ic a nd s ty le.

None o f t he m i s o ver-

s truck a nd t he f abr ic i s more e ven w ith g enera l ly n ea ter a nd b roader f l ans. T he s ty le i s much f i ner , w ith a d raped a nd c u irassed o bverse b ust i n f a ir ly h igh r e l ief , v ery s im i lar t o t he c on te mporary c o inage o f Ro me.

T here i s

l i t t le d oub t t ha t t hey a re p roduced a t t he s ame min t a s t he mu lt ip les , wh ich a re l ikew ise i n af ine Ro man s ty le , a nd a re q u ite c lear ly n ot o f t he s ame m in t a s t he s tand ing Arab ia d rach mas.

T he o ne i ssue c anno t s ucceed t he o ther

w ith in t he s a me m in t , w ith t he f i ne wa lk ing c a me l d rachmas s ucceed ing t he c oarse s tand ing Arab ia o nes , s ince t he s tand ing Arab ia d rachmas w ou ld t hen b e c on te mporary w ith t he mu l t ip les ; a nd a ga in t hey a re c lear ly o f aq u ite d i f feren t s ty le a nd f abr ic. T here mus t b e t wo m in ts i nvo lved , t he o ne p roduc ing t he s tand ing Arab ia d rach mas ( t he d ie c u t ter may w e l l h ave moved t o Crete when t he m in t c losed , s ee a bove p .

6 6 )a nd t he o ther t he n on-

o vers truck d rach mas w ith wa lk ing c a me l , a nd a lso t he mul t ip les. However , b o th s er ies o f d rach mas w ere c lear ly s truck o n t he s ame s tanda rd ( f ig . 1), a nd d oub t less t he n on-overstruck o nes w ere p roduced f ro m N aba taean s i lver a s w e l l a s t he o verstruck o nes , w ithout a ny a t te mp t t o p ur if y t he s i lver .

A l l t hree o f o ur s a mp les o f d rachmas , N aba taean , o vers truck

N aba taean a nd wa lk ing c a me l c o ins , a re v ery sma l l b u t t hey a gree e nough f or u s t o s uggest a d rachma c on ta in ing b etween 1 .80 a nd 2 .00 g o f s i lver . I n o ther words t hese c o ins h ave v ery c ons iderab ly l ess s i lver i n t he m t han t he d rach ma o f t he Tyr ian s tandard b e ing s truck s imu l taneous ly b y T ra jan i n t he e as t , wh ich c on ta ined a bou t 2 .30 g o f s i lver o r more. T he ma jor p rob le m w ith t hese c o inages i s t o r ela te t he d rachmas w ith t he mu l t ip les c o m mon ly c a l led t r idrach ms.

F irs t a l l t he w e ight o f t he

‚ t r idrach ms '

i s q u ite c ons iderab ly more t han t he w e igh t o f t hree o f t he d rachmas.

T he

' t r idrachms ' t he mse lves a re s truck o n t wo q u ite d ist inct w e igh t s tandards. T he c o ins d ated COS V , a nd h av ing t he s tand ing Arab ia r everse , w e igh 1.11 g , g iv ing a d rach ma ( i f t he c o ins a re t r idrachms ) o f 3 .70 g .

T he c o ins o f

COS V I a re v ery d ist inc t ly l i gh ter , n ot o ne o f t hose r ecorded h av ing a w e igh t a s h igh a s t he mean o f t he COS V c o ins. Nonethe less t he d rach ma w ou ld s t i l l w e igh t , i ft he c o ins a re t r idrachms , 3 .41 g .

T h is i s o n ly t he s tar t o f

t he t roub le , f or t hey a re a lso s truck o n a n e n t ire ly d i f feren t f i neness t o t he d rachmas a s i s amp ly d e monstra ted b y f ig . 1. T he r esu l t i s t ha t i ft he c o ins a re t r idrach ms t hey c on ta in 3 .02 g o f s i lver p er d rach ma f or t he COS V c o ins a nd 2 .75 g f or t he COS V I c o ins c ompared w ith 1 .80-2.00 g o f s i lver i n t he d rach mas t he mse lves. Y et t hey a re c lear ly r e la ted . T he COS V mu l t ip le , a l though e ar l ier t han t he d rachmas , h as e xact ly t he s a me r everse t ype a s o ne g roup o f t he m wh i le t he o ther g roup o f d rach mas i s u nques t ionab ly f ro m t he s ame m in t a s t he COS V I mu l t ip les. T he c lue may p erhaps l i e i n t he s trange r everse t ypes c hosen f or t he COS V I mu lt ip les. A l l t hree t ypes , c orn e ars , s tandards a nd t e mp le o f D iana o f P erge , a re c lose ly a ssoc ia ted w ith t he c is tophor i o f Prov inc ia As ia s truck a s l a te a s t he s tar t o f Tra jan 's r e ign , a l though t here i s n o t t he s l igh tes t e v idence t hat t he c istophor i e ver a ctua l ly c ircu la ted i n to S yr ia l e t 1 09

a lone P a lest ine.

I n t he c ase o f t he t h ird t ype i ti s p os it ive ly i ncongruous.

Why were s uch t ypes c hosen? N ow t he c istophorus was ( un t i l t he c hange Ih ave s ugges ted u nder Hadr ian ) ac o in d iv ided b oth i n to f our a nd i n to t hree. I tw as w or th t hree d enar i i ( A t t ic/Tyr ian d rachmas ); b u t i t was a lso a c o in o f f our c istophor ic/Rhod ian d rach mas , a l though i n Imper ia l As ia t he c is tophor ic d rach ma was n orma l ly o n ly money o f a ccoun t .

T h is i s s urely t he a nswer .

I fw e l ook a t t he mu l t ip les

o f COS V I ( group ( c ), n os. 3 359-3375 ) w e f i nd t ha t i fw e t rea t t he m a s t e trad rachms t hey i n f ac t c on ta in 2 .06 g o f s i lver t o t he d rachma , w h ich i s v ery n ear i ndeed t o t he s i lver c on ten t w e h ave c a lcu la ted f or t he d rachma c o ins t he mse lves.

I fw e t rea t t he m a s t hree d enar i i t hen w e f ind t hat t hey c on ta in

t he s ame w e igh t o f s i lver i n t he d enar ius , a t 2 .75 g , a s t he a ctua l d enar ius o f Ro me d ur ing t h is p er iod , o r j us t al i t t le l ess. T he f igures f or t he c o ins o f COS V ( group ( b ) n os. 3 354-3358 ) a re , b ecause t he c o ins a re s l igh t ly h eav ier , al i t t le h igher t han t h is , a nd t h is may e xp la in why t he w e igh t w as s ubsequen t ly l owered . Wha t s ee ms t o h ave h appened i s t ha t t he Ro man a dm in istra t ion t ook o ver t he N aba taean c urrency , w h ich was much more d ebased t han t ha t o f t he p rov ince o f S yr ia , a nd t here fore t arr if fed t he d rachma a t o n ly t hree-quar ters o f t he T yr ian/At t ic d rachma ; i ndeed i tc annot h ave p assed a s t he e qua l o f t he T yr ian/ A t t ic d rachma b efore t he Ro man c onquest a nd may h ave a lready p assed a t t h is v a lue b e ing , i n e f fect , t he l as t s urv ivor o f t he o ld ' An t iochene ' s tandard n ow a bandoned w ith in t he p rov ince.

S o me o f t h is N abataean c urrency t he R oman

g overnmen t r eco ined w ithou t a lter ing t he a l loy , e i ther b y s imp le o vers tr ik ing o r b y r eco in ing p roper ly , b u t i n o rder t o f ac il ita te t he a bsorp t ion o f t he Nabataean c urrency-syste m i ta lso s truck mu l t ip le c o ins e qua l t o f our o f t he N aba taean d rachmas o r t hree T yr ian/At t ic d rachmas ( denar i i ). I n o ther words t he N aba taean d rachma w as w or th t he s a me a s t he c istophor ic d rachma a nd t he t e tradrachm was w or th t he s a me a s t he c istophor ic t e tradrachm , t o emp has ise wh ich i tw as g iven t he o therw ise t ota l ly a l ien t ypes o f t he c is tophorus. 2 5

I n s u m mary , t here fore , w e h ave t he f o l low ing s i tua t ion :

Date

I ssue

We ight o f s i lver i n t he d rachma

11

M in t A T etradrach rns ( reverse Arab ia s tand ing )

2 .27

12-114

T etradrachms ( c is tophor ic r everses )

2 .06

14-116

Drachmas ( reverse wa lk ing c a mel )

2 .04

M in t B 12-114

Drach mas ( reverse Arab ia , o vers truck )

10

1 .80

(x)

Mesopotamia Weight (g)

No

Reference

3388 3389 3390 3391 3392 3393 3394 3395 3396 3397 3398 3399 3400 3401 3402 3403 3404 3405

3.70 BMC 1 3.31 BMC 2 2.63 BM (type as last) BMC 3 (obv. die as last) 2.69 BMC 5 (rev. die as last) 3.19 3.10 BMC 4 6 2.66 BMC 2.40 BMC 7 3.28 BMC 8 Walker (obv. die as last) 3.32 3.51 BMC 9 2.87 AM (type as last) 3.53 BMC (Mannus) 5 2.17 BMC (Mannus) 6 3.03 BMC (Mannus) 7 2.01 BM (obv. die as last) BMC 8 (obv. die as last) 2.89 Walker (obv. and rev. dies 3.13 as last) BMC 9 ( obv. die as last) 2.78

73.00 73.50 71.50 70.50 58.00 74.25 70.00 79.00 71.00 74.00 77.50 76.00 73.50 73.00 84.50 93.00 78.50

2.96 Mean (19 coins) 0.45 Standard deviation Corrected mean weight (27 coins) 2.96

75.75 7.49

3406

% silver

78.00 90.50

Au

tr tr tr

tr

tr

Pb

Weight of silver (g)

0.75 0.50 1.00 0.75 1.25 tr 0.25

2.70 2.43 1.88 1.90 1.85 2.30 1.86 1.90 2.33 2.46 2.72 2.18 2.59 1.58 2.56 1.87 2.27

tr 1.25

2.44 2.51

1.00 1.50 1.25 0.50 0.50 1.00 0.25 1.00 0.75

2.23 0.33 2.24

There is confusion as to whether this small group of coins all belong to Edessa or should be split between Edessa and Carrhae, 26 and in the absence of die links it remains uncertain whether the coins bearing the title of king Mannus on the reverse and imperial heads on the obverse, which are certainly of Edessa, and those which merely celebrate the Roman victory on the reverse belong together. Stylistically and metrologically there does not seem to be any distinction between the two groups and they are considered together here. The connection between these coins and the Parthian war of Lucius Verus would be obvious even if it were not mentioned on the coins. The whole issue probably belongs to the very end of the Parthian war, pe:,:-haps falling entirely in the year 166, if Mannus was restored in that year. Although the standard of the denarius in the reign of Marcus Aureiius is confused the silver content of the denarius does not fall below 2.50 g, so that these coins, with a silver content of 2 .24 g are significantly overvalued if they are valued as denarrii, as presumably they are. They would, however, con­ tain only slightly less silver than one quarter of the tetradrachm of the great issue of Trajan, which still formed the bulk of the eastern currency, other than denarii, at this time. They would seem to contain slightly more silver than the drachma of the only other major coinage struck in connection with the Parthian war, that of Caesarea (above, pp. 78-9).

( x i )

Cyrene

Tra jan - Drach mas o f COS I I We igh t ( g )

We igh t o f Au

P b

9 3.00

-

0 .50

9 3.50

t r

3 .63

8 5.00

t r

t r

3 .08

3 .55

8 9.00

-

-

3 .15

Mean ( 4 c o ins )

3 .75

9 0.12

Corrected mean we igh t( 16 c o ins )

3 .60

No.

Reference

3 407

BMC 5 4

3 .90

3 408

BMC 5 5

3 .94

3 409

A 24

3 410

1 4 24

% s i lver

s i lver ( g ) 3 .62 3 .68

3 .38 3 .24

Tra jan - He m idrach ms o f COS I I 3 411

BMC 5 6

1 .75

9 2.00

-

-

1 .61

3 412

Wa lker

1 .69

9 0.00

t r

t r

1 .52

3 413

AM ( rev, d ie a s l ast )

1 .88

8 4.00

t r

t r

1 .58

3 414

BMC 5 7

1 .70

8 8.00

-

0 .50

1 .50

3 415

BM

1 .79

9 3.25

-

0 .25

1 .67

Mean ( 5 c o ins )

1 .76

8 9.45

1 .58

S tandard d ev ia t ion

0 .07

3 .26

0 .06

Corrected mean w e igh t( 32 c o ins )

1. 76

1 .58

We igh t o f t heoret ica l d rach ma

3 .52

3 .16

Tra jan - Drach ma 3 416

BM

Corrected mean w e igh t

3 .47

o f COS V I 9 2.00

3 .19

3 .34

3 .07

T h is q u ite p len t ifu l g roup o f d rach mas a nd h em idrach ms h as t rad it iona l ly b een a t tr ibu ted t o Caesarea i n Cappadoc ia , a l though t he r everse t ype o f ah ead o f Am mon h as a lways c aused u nease a s t o t he c orrec tness o f t he a t tr ibut ion , a nd a f ee l ing t ha t t he c o ins wou ld b e long f ar b et ter i n Cyrene.

T hey a re a l mos t

a l l d a ted t o T ra jan 's t h ird c onsu lsh ip ( A. D . 1 00 ) w ith a v ery r are g roup d a ted t o t he s ix th c onsu lsh ip . Tha t t he c o ins a re n o t o f Caesarea c an b e d e mons tra ted o n s ty l is t ic g rounds a lone.

The a ctua l p or tra iture i s c lose ly model led o n t ha t o f Ro me , b u t a l l

t he p rov inc ia l m in ts , Lyc ia , Prov inc ia As ia , Caesarea a nd S yr ia , h ave a u n if orm p or tra it s ty le a t t h is t ime.

More d is t inct ive i s t he s quare s ig ma , w h ich

i s a lways f ound o n t he Cos I I c o ins o f t h is g roup , a nd o n t he m a lone o f t he s i lver c o ins o f t he p er iod , a nd i s n ever u sed a t Caesarea.

Af ur ther n o t ice-

a b le f eature i s t he f abr ic, f or t he f lans a re b road a nd t h in , t he d rach mas h av ing a n o bverse d ia meter wh ich i s c ons iderab ly g rea ter t han t ha t o f Caesarean d rach mas , a nd s o met i mes a s g rea t a s t ha t o f Caesarean d idrach ms. We c an n ow a dd t he metro log ica l e v idence , wh ich r evea ls t hat t h is g roup o f c o ins n o t o n ly h as a d rach ma w ith a c ons iderab le h igher mean we igh t t han t he 1 12

% Ag 1 00 • •

••

9 0

8 0

• •

• • •

• •

• • •

7 0

• • • •

6 0

5 0

F ig . 1 2.

Caesarea

Cyrena ica

Cos I-I I I

Cos I I

F ineness o f c o ins o f Cyrena ica a nd Caesarea , T ra jan , C os

d rach ma o f Caesarea ( 3 .60 a nd 3 .52 g f or t he d rach mas a nd h em idrachms o f t h is g roup a s a ga inst 3 .40 a nd 3 .33 g f or t he d idrachms a nd d rach mas o f Caesarea ) b u t a re a lso s truck o n aq u ite d is t inct s tandard , f ar h igher t han t ha tu sed a t C aesarea , g iv ing a mean % s i lver f or t hese c o ins o f 9 0.12 a nd 8 9.45 a s a ga inst 7 4.12 a nd 7 1.50 f or t he Caesarean c o ins ( f ig. 1 2 ). T he r esu l t i s t ha t t hese c o ins p roduce a d rachma w ith a v ery h igh w e igh t o f s i lver , a nd f ar f ro m b e ing o verva lued t hey s ee m t o i n f act c on ta in r ather more s i lver t han t he Ro man d enar ius o f t he N eron ian s tandard . I n t h is r espect t hey a re v ery c lose t o t he S yr ian s i lver c o inage o f Tra jan 's e ar ly y ears. T hese c o ins a re c lear ly n ot o f Caesarea , a nd e nough e v idence h as n ow a ccumu lated t o make t he a t tr ibu t ion t o Cyrena ica u ndoub ted ly t he c orrect o ne. T ha t t hese s i lver c o ins a nd t he b ronzes o f s im i lar t ype c ircu lated e x tens ive ly i n C yrena ica h as l ong b een r ecogn ised 2 7 b u t i ti s a lso c lear t ha t t hey d id n o t c ircu la te e lsewhere. T he h oards a nd f i nds o f As ia M inor , s outh Russ ia , S yr ia a nd P a lest ine a re e qua l ly b arren o f t he m . O nly t wo f i nd-spo ts o u ts ide Cyrena ica a re k nown , a nd t hey a re b o th e qual ly s ign if ican t . The f irs t i s a g roup o f f i ve c o ins f ro m a r e markab le h oard , ma in ly o f d enar i i, f ro m S akha i n t he Egyp t ian De l ta. 2 8

T he s econd i s f rom Crete , wh ich f ormed a j o in t

p rov ince w ith Cyrene a nd wh ich m igh t b e e xpected t o s hare i t s c urrency . A t l eas t t wo h em idrach ms o f t h is g roup h ave b een f ound i n Crete .29 T he c o mb ina t ion o f s ty le , metro logy a nd c ircu la t ion a rea , t ogether w ith t he o bv ious ly l oca l t ype , makes i tc lear t ha t t hese c o ins a re o f Cyrena ica , a l though i ti s p oss ib le t ha t t he d ies w ere p roduced a t Ro me.

I t i s a lso c lear

t ha t t he b ronze c o ins wh ich s hare t he s ame t ypes a nd c ircu lat ion a rea a nd w h ich e x tend d own t o Marcus Aure l ius , mus t a lso b e p laced w ith t hem.

13

CHAPTER 4 ALEXANDR IA

( i )

Marcus Aurel ius , y ears 8 -10 We igh t ( g )

No.

Reference

3 417

Milne 2 579 ( year 8 )

1 5.59

3 418

Milne 2 580 ( year 8 )

We igh t o f % s i lver

Au

Pb

s i lver ( g )

1 1.00

-

t r

1 .71

1 2.99

8 .00

-

0 .50

1 .04

1 0.50

_

1 .50

1 .19

3 419

Milne 2 591 ( year 9 )

1 1.38

3 420

Milne 2 592 ( year 9 )

1 2.32

8 .50

-

t r

1 .05

3 421

Milne 2 597 ( year 1 0 )

1 2.79

2 2.00

-

t r

2 .81

3 422

Milne 2 598 ( year 1 0 )

1 0.21

9 .50

-

0 .50

0 .96

( t r S n ) 3 423

Mi lne 2 601 ( year 1 0 )

1 3.22

9 .50

-

0 .50

1 .26

3 424

Milne 2 603 ( year 1 0 )

1 3.68

1 4.00

-

t r

1 .91

3 425

Milne 2 604 ( year 1 0 )

1 1.93

1 8.50

_

-

2 .21

1 2.68

1 2.39

1 .57

1 .43

4 .58

0 .60

Mean ( 9 c o ins ) S tandard d ev iat ion ( i i )

Co m modus , y ears 1 7-22

3 426

Milne 2 611 ( year 1 7 )

1 1.69

7 .50

_

1 .00

0 .88

3 427

Milne 2 612 ( year 1 7 )

1 1.63

1 1.50

-

0 .50

1 .33

3 428

Milne 2 621 ( year 2 1)

1 2.63

9 .00

-

0 .50

1 .14

3 429

Milne 2 622 ( year 2 1)

1 2.37

8 .00

-

0 .50

0 .99

3 430

Milne 2 624 ( year 2 1)

1 3.22

9 .00

-

1 .00

1 .19

3 431

Milne -

1 2.12

5 .25

-

0 .50

0 .64

( year 2 1)

( tr S n ) 3 432

Milne 2 626 ( year 2 1 )

1 0.92

4 .75

_

1 .00

0 .52

( 4 .00 S n ) 3 433

Milne 2 625 ( year 2 1)

1 0.81

9 .00

-

0 .25

0 .97

3 434

Milne 2 628 ( year 2 2 )

1 2.86

5 .75

_

0 .50

0 .73

3 435

Milne 2 629 ( year 2 2 )

1 1.59

7 .00

_

_

0 .81

3 436

Milne 2 630 ( year 2 2 )

1 1.03

8 .50

-

0 .25

0 .94

1 1.90

7 .75

0 .92

0 .77

1 .88

0 .23

( 2 .00 S n )

( tr S n ) Mean ( 11 c o ins ) S tandard d ev ia t ion

1 14

( i i i )

Co m modus , y ear 4 2 We igh t ( g )

We igh t o f % s i lver

Au

P b

s i lver ( g )

N o.

Reference

3 437

Mi lne 2 703

1.59

7 .25

3 438

Mi lne 2 702

1 2.54

6 .75

0 .50

0 .85

3 439

Mi lne

1 2.81

4 .00

( t r S n ) 0 .75

0 .51

3 440

Mi lne

1 0.77

5 .50

0 .75

0 .59

3 441

M ilne 2 699

1.81

7 .50

( t r S n ) 0 .75

0 .89

0 .25

0 .84

( t r S n )

-

( t r S n )

( t r S n ) Mean ( 5 c o ins ) S tandard d ev ia t ion

1.90

6 .20

0 .74

0 .72

1 .30

0 .15

When t he A lexandr ian t etradrach m w as f ina l ly s tab il ised i n N ero 's f our th r egna l y ear i t was a bou t o ne s ix th f ine , h av ing a mean s i lver c on ten t wh ich v ar ied i n o ur c a lcu la t ions b etween a bou t 1 5% a nd 1 8%.

T h is mean t t ha t i t was a c o in

c on ta in ing a bou t 2 .19 g o f s i lver , a nd s ince t he Neron ian d enar ius c on ta ined a bou t 3 .00 g o f s i lver i t was o verva lued b y a bou t 3 7% ( Metro logy I 1 54 ).

S u f-

f i c ien t a na lyses h ave b een p er for med a lready t o s ugges t t ha t t h is s tandard was ma in ta ined u n t il t he r e ign o f Marcus Aure l ius. 3°

T h is means , o f c ourse , t ha t

t he d egree o f o verva lua t ion a ga ins t t he d enar ius p rogress ive ly d ec l ines ;

t he

t e tradrach m o f A lexandr ia c on t inued t o c on ta in a bou t 2 .19 g o f s i lver , b u t t he d enar ius c on ta ined o n ly 2 .85 g o f s i lver f ro m 1 07 a nd 2 .70 g f ro m 1 48.

The

d egree o f o ver-va lua t ion t herefore d ec l ines t o a bout 2 3% i n 1 07 a nd 1 9% i n 1 48. I n t he r e ign o f Marcus Aure l ius c o inage was c on t inuous u n t i l r egna l y ear 1 0 ( A .D . 1 69-170 ). By t he e nd o f t h is p er iod a t t he l a test t he t etradrach m h ad b egun t o d ec l ine i n f ineness , a nd 9 c o ins o f y ears 8 -10 ( nos. 3 417-3425 ) s how t ha t a l though s o me c o ins a re s t il l s truck a t aq u ite h igh f i neness , o thers a re a s l ow a s 8 % f ine , s o t ha t t he mean f ineness i s o n ly 1 2.39% , g iv ing a c o in w ith o n ly 1 .57 g o f s i lver .

T he s i lver c on ten t o f Marcus ' d enar ius a t Ro me

d ur ing t h is p er iod i s t aken a s b e ing 2 .65 g , s o t hat t he d egree o f o verva luat ion h as i ncreased a ga in t o a bou t 4 1%. T he s tr ik ing o f t etradrach ms s tar ted a ga in i n A .D . 1 76-177 , a nd a g roup o f 1 a na lyses f ro m t hen u n t il 1 81-182 r evea ls t ha t t he o ld s tandard h as n ow b een e n t irely a bandoned .

The mean f ineness o f 7 .75% s ugges ts t ha t t he o ld

s tandard o f o ne s ix th f ine may h ave b een h a lved t o o ne t we lf th f ine ( 1 h em iobo l t o t he d rach ma i nstead o f 1o bo l i n t he d rach ma ).

5a na lyses f ro m t he v ery

e nd o f t he r e ign o f Co m modus may s how a s l igh t d ec l ine f ro m t h is , b u t t h is may o n ly b e d ue t o t he sma l l s ize o f t he s a mp le.

Even i ft here was a d ec l ine

i t was n ot more t han a bou t 1 .50% , a nd i ti s c lear t ha t t he r ea l ly s ign if ican t c hange t ook p lace i n 1 76 when t he m in t r e-opened. Co ins c on t inued t o b e s truck o n t h is n ew s tandard u n t i l t he midd le o f t he t h ird c entury . 15

The r esu l t o f t he c hange was t o v ery d rama t ica l ly i ncrease t he d egree o f o verva luat ion o f t he t e tradrachm a ga ins t t he d enar ius , f or t he d ec l ine i n t he t etradrachm was f ar more t han e nough t o c o mpensa te f or t he d ec l ine i n t he d enar ius. The o verva lua t ion o f t he t e tradrachm a t t he t ime o f t he e stab l ishmen t o f t he n ew s tandard was a bou t 6 4% , s ince t he d enar ius c on ta ined a bout 2 .56 g o f s i lver .

T he r eforms o f Co mmodus r educed t h is d egree o f o ver-

v a luat ion t o 6 0% e ar ly i n t he r e ign a nd 5 8% b efore t he e nd o f t he r e ign , i fw e a ssume t ha t t he t e tradrachm r e ma ined c onstan t t hroughout .

T h is i s s t il l a

v ery c ons iderab le i ncrease f ro m t he p rev ious p er iod a nd t he d ebase men t o f 1 76-77 may w e l l b e c onnec ted w ith t he o ther s igns o f e conom ic d isrup t ion f or wh ich t here i s i ncreas ing e v idence i n Egyp t f ro m t he r e ign o f Marcus A ure l ius o nwards.

16

APPEND IX Correc ted a ttr ibu t ions o f c o ins o f Tra jan g iven t o Caesarea i n Cappadoc ia b y E . A . S ydenha m , Co inage o f Caesarea i n Cappadoc ia

M in t

S ydenham n u mbers 1 57-172

Caesarea

1 73-175

S yr ia-Phoen ic ia

1 76-178

Cyrene

1 79-181

S yr ia - Phoen ic ia

1 82-185

P a les t ine - Arab ia

1 86-188

Prov inc ia As ia ( ? )

1 89-190

Pa lest ine - Arab ia

1 91-201

Caesarea

2 02

Cyrene

2 03-205

P a les t ine-Arab ia

2 06 ( Cos V )

S yr ia-Phoen ic ia

2 07-218

Caesarea

2 19-220

P a les t ine - Arab ia

2 21-223

Caesarea

2 24-227

P a les t ine-Arab ia

NOTES

1 .

P . V . H il l , T he Da t ing a nd Arrange men t o f t he Unda ted c o ins o f Ro me , 1 970.

2 .

Cass ius D io l xv i i i. 1 5.3.

D io 's r eference i s n ot e xact ly d a ted b u t c o mes

i n X iph il inus im med ia te ly a f ter Tra jan 's r eturn t o Ro me.

I t d oes n o t

s pec if ica l ly men t ion s i lver c o inage. 3 .

T he p apyrus i s P .Bad .37 ( 107-11 ) wh ich s ays t ha t ' t he p r ice o f g o ld h as f a l len f ro m 1 5dr t o 1 1dr ' . Th is i s n o t t he p lace f or d eta i led d iscuss ion , b u t Id o n ot b e l ieve i n Dac ian g o ld f or t he f o l low ing r easons : ( a )

What modern Ro man ian a rchaeo logy h as t augh t u s a bou t p re-Ro man Dac ia d oes n o t s ugges t ac oun try s o r ich i n g o ld a s t o make a s ign if ican t impact o n t he g o ld-supp ly o f t he who le Ro man Emp ire.

( b )

T o c ause a r educt ion i n t he p r ice o f g o ld t he Dac ian g o ld must h ave c o me o n to t he market r ap id ly a nd t h is t he s ta te c ou ld h ave d one o n ly b y r e leas ing i ta s c o in ;

b u t t here i s n o s ign o f a mass ive

i ncrease i n t he g o ld c o inage i n 1 06-111.

1 17

Th is i s av ery d if feren t

s i tua t ion t o o ther a nc ien t o ccas ions when mass ive o utputs o f c o inage a re k nown t o h ave h ad a d is turb ing e f fect ( e .g. A lexander 's P ers ian s i lver , Caesar 's G a l l ic g o ld ).

( e )

I n

b o th c ases t he e f fec t i s d ra mat ica l ly o bv ious i n modern c o in c ab ine ts. The r educt ion i n t he w e igh t o f t he a ureus i n A .D . 9 9 a nd t he t e mporary r educ t ion i n t he f ineness o f t he d enar ius i n 1 04 b o th d e mons tra te t ha t t he c urrency-sys te m w as u nder s o me p ressure b efore t he s econd Dac ian war .

F or a n a l terna t ive e xp lana t ion o f P .Bad .37 s ee L . C . West a nd A . C . J ohnson , Currency i n Ro man a nd Byzan t ine Egyp t , 9 2. 4 .

F or t h is s er ies s ee A . M. Woodward , T he C is tophor ic S er ies a nd i t s p lace i n t he Ro man Co inage , i n Essays p resen ted t o Haro ld Mat t ing ly , 1 59.

It h ink t ha t t he f act t ha t a l l t he c o ins o f T ra jan h ave TR POT o n ly

d oes n o t p rec lude t he s er ies f ro m e x tend ing i n to A .D . 9 9 , b ut i tc ert a in ly e nded b efore t he e nd o f t ha t y ear .

I t w as q u ite v igorous w h i le i t

l asted , b u t o n ly o ne m in t s ee ms t o h ave b een i nvo lved . 5 .

C . H . V . S u ther land , T he C istophor i o f Augustus

6 .

S ee n ow W. E . Metcal f , T he Overs tr ik ing o f H adr ian 's C istophor i , i n Actes d u 8 e me Congrbs I n ternat iona l d e Num is mat ique . , 3 47.

Me tcal f

s ugges ts t ha t t he c is tophor i w ere o verstrUck b ecause t he ir l oss o f w e igh t mean t t ha t t hey wou ld n ot c ircu late -b u t i ti s s i lver c on ten t n ot t o ta l w e igh t t ha t ma ttered a nd o n t ha t g round t hey w ou ld h ave b een h igh ly v a lued.

Me tca l f i s c lear ly r igh t , h owever , t o emphas ise t ha t t he o ver-

s tr ik ing w ou ld h ave b een f or e cono m ic r a ther t han p o l i t ica l r easons , b ut Id o n ot s ee i th as h av ing a n r eference t o ' Hadr ian 's P anhel len ic p rogra m me '. 7 .

J -N. S voronos , Nu m is ma t ique d e l a Crbte Anc ienne , p l. =

CM , 2 3-24.

8 .

W. H . Wadd ing ton , Recue i l G engra l d es Monna ies Grecques d 'As ie M ineure , 6 2f f . T he s tructure o f t he i ssue i s c onfused b y t he f ac t t hat Wadd ing ton m isread a c o in o f An ton inus Caesar , y ear 1 69 , a s b e ing o f An ton inus Augustus , y ear 1 89.

Co mpar ison w ith o ther c o ins o f t he s a me d ies

makes h is e rror c er ta in .

T he i ssue t herefore e nds w ith c o ins o f An ton inus

Caesar ( Feb.-Ju ly 1 38 ). 9 . 1 0.

E . A . S ydenha m , T he c o inage o f Caesarea i n Cappadoc ia , n os . 1 86-188. O ne c o in , S . N . G . v . Au lock 5 449 , i s g iven a s b ronze , b u t i th as t he s a me r everse d ie a s o ur n o. 3 215 ;

p erhaps i ti s ap ar t icu lar ly d ebased

s pec i men . 1 1.

S ee H . v . Au lock , D ie M t inzprägung d er K i l ik ischen s tad t Mopsos , Archäo log ischer Anze iger , 1 963, 2 31f f.

1 2.

Revue N um is ma t ique , V I I ( 1903 ) p l XV I, 1 8.

1 3.

W. Wrick , D ie S yr ischer Prov inz ia lprägung v on Augustus b is T ra ian.

1 4.

T he t rans it iona l p er iod b e tween Nerva a nd T ra jan h as b een t he s ub ject o f t wo n o tes b y A . R . B e l l inger , ' Greek c o ins f ro m t he Ya le Num is mat ic Co l lect ion ', Ya le C lass ica l S tud ies , X I I , 2 53 ;

1 18

The B oston Co l lege Hoard ,

ANS Museu m N o tes , X , 4 3. Be l l inger b e l ieved t ha t t he e x istence o f c o ins o f Tra jan 's y ear B h ad t o mean t hat t hey were f ro m d ies o f N erva , s ince h e c ou ld n o t a ccep t t ha t t he i ssue e x tended b eyond S ep te mber 9 8.

When

l ater h e f ound a c o in o f y ear A h e s upposed t ha t i t was a n o ld d ie o f Nerva wh ich h ad b een ' dug o u t ' b y t he m in t o f f ic ia ls.

There i s , h owever ,

n o r eason why t he i ssue c ou ld n ot e x tend b eyond S ep t . 9 8 , e ven o verl app ing w i th t he o pen ing o f t he s econd m int . S ep t . 9 6-Sep t . 9 7

N erva y ear A

S ep t. 9 7-Jan. 9 8

N erva y ear B

J an . 9 8-Sep t. 9 8

Tra jan y ear A

S ep t . 9 8-la te 9 8

Tra jan y ear B

T he c hrono logy i s t herefore :

H . Ha mburger , A Hoard f ro m T iber ias , J . I srae l Dep t. o f An t iqu it ies , 2 , 1 40 , was t he f i rs t t o d iscover a c o in o f y ear A , wh ich h e t hough d a ted t o b e tween t he a dop t ion a nd a ccess ion o f Tra jan .

Bu t t h is i s h ard ly

n ecessary . 1 5.

A . R . Be l l inger , T he Excava t ions a t Dura-Europos , p t. V I t he c o ins , n o. 2 066.

1 6.

W. E . Metca l f , ' The T e l l Ka lak h oard ', ANS Museu m n o tes 2 0 , 9 4.

He

h as c o l lected a l l t he h oard e v idence k nown t o h im i n at ab le wh ich makes t he s epara t ion o f t he v ar ious t ypes e asy t o f o l low .

T he r eferences f or

t he v ar ious h oards c an b e f ound i n h is w ork . 1 7.

Bet ter Auct ion C o . L td ., 3 0.8.73 n o. 3 54. t o b e o f l oca l o r ig in .

1 8.

A l most a l l t he c o ins s ee m

The An t ioch c o in i s i n t he ANS c o l lect ion .

E . T . N ewe l l , ' M isce l lanea Nu m is ma t ica ', NN M 8 2 ( 1938 ), 7 5 ;

• A . R .

Be l l inger , 2 2.. c it ., 4 3. 1 9.

For t he E leu theropo l is c o in s ee I . N . S voronos , J IAN X ( 1907 ) p l. V I, 7 .

2 0.

I t s ee ms mos t l ike ly t ha t a l l t hese c o ins a re f ro m t he s a me m in t. Bel l inger was t he f irst t o n o t ice a n o bverse d ie-l ink b etween t he Herac les a nd Tyche r everses , a nd t hey a re i n f act q u ite c o mmon .

He

i s p robab ly r igh t i n t h ink ing t ha t t he e ag le c o ins a re o f t he s a me min t. Cer ta in ly t he metro log ica l e v idence i s n o t a ga ins t t h is.

" Co ins f ro m

An t ioch i n S yr ia ', ANS Museu m n o tes V ( 1952 ), 5 7. 2 1.

These t e tradrachms a re , o f c ourse , o f t he Tyr ian s tandard n o t o f t he An t iochene a nd a re wor th f our d enar i i.

S ee Me tro logy I , 7 Of f .

2 2.

v an Z e ls t , S yr ische Mun tvords t , De G euzen P enn ing , J u ly 1 970 , 3 4.

2 3.

Ih ave e xc luded BMC 5 4 ( year 1 70 ) wh ich c on ta ins t in a nd l ead b u t n o s i lver .

I t i s l igh ter t han a l l t he o ther s pec i mens b y 1 .50 g a nd i s

p robab ly f a lse. 2 4 .

Metca lf , 2 2 .c it . 9 if f .

2 5.

I n teres t ing ly t here a re T a l mud ic r eferences t o t he ' Arab ian d inar ' wh ich S perber s ugges ts r efer t o ' t he Naba taean s tandard ', a nd a lso t o at e trad rach m wor th 3 d enar i i wh ich h e s upposes t o mean t he c is tophorus. I t

1 19

i s u n l ike ly , h owever , t o mean t he r ea l c istophorus. t hese c o ins?

Cou ld t hey b o th mean

D . S perber , Rö man P a les t ine 2 00-400 , Money a nd P r ices ,

2 30 n ote 6 . 2 6.

S ee BMC Mesopota m ia x cv i i ff or d iscuss ion .

2 7.

Ange lo Me l iu , L a C irena ica r o mana e l e monete p rov inc ia l i d i T ra iano , Adr iano e Marco Aure l io , Rasse pa N um is mat ica XXX I I ( 1935 ) 1 82f f .

2 8.

S . H . Weber , An Egyp t ian Hoard o f t he s econd c en tury A . D., NN M 5 4.

2 9.

J . C . Myres , On s o me b ronze c o ins f ro m Crete , NC X IV ( 1894 ) 1 00 ; t he s econd c o in i s i n t he Ash mo lean Museu m .

3 0.

L . C . Wes t a nd A . C . J ohnson , Currency i n Ro man a nd Byzan t ine Egyp t , 1 72, c o l lect t he e v idence , b u t t he ir c a lcu la t ions f or Marcus Aure l ius a re u nre l iab le.

1 20