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AL-FARABI KAZAKH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
Z.Kh. Salkhanova S.E.Tapanova
THE LANGUAGE AND STYLE OF MASS MEDIA Educational manual Stereotypical publication
Almaty «Qazaq University» 2020
UDC 070 LBC 76.01 S 17 Recommended for publication by the decision of the Academic Council of the Faculty of Philology and World Languages, Editorial and Publishing Council of Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Protocol №6 dated 04.05.2018)
Reviewers: Doctor of philology, professor L.V. Safronova Doctor of philology, professor B.U. Dzholdasbekova
Salkhanova Z.Kh., Tapanova S.E. The language and style of mass media: educational S 17 manual / Z.Kh. Salkhanova, S.E. Tapanova. – Ster. pub. – Almaty: Qazaq Univer-sity, 2020. – 171 p. ISBN 978-601-04-3558-2 It is shown general information about style and language of educational methodology of press. The ability of making sense in newspaper materials’ differentiating and style’s peculiarities. As well as language they look through the structure of the style. This studying book for students of journalism faculty are devoted to the students of universities and masters. Published in authorial release.
UDC 070 LBC 76.01 ISBN 978-601-04-3558-2
© Salkhanova Z.Kh., Tapanova S.E., 2020 © KazNU after al-Farabi, 2020
There are proposed materials for the students of 5V050400 “Journalism” faculty studying in the sphere of “the language of the media and style” which are made due to credit system including methods and studio materials. The purpose of these educational materials is to give deep knowledge for future journalists in use publicist genre and style, having the ability to see the peculiarity of language style, being able to use appropriate words in the right way. It is important to encourage students in order to pay attention to master in choosing right words, also we will show the main principal rules and obligations with lexical, grammatical, syntaxes sight as well as in written and oral way. Every newspaper has its own rules. Language skill, peculiarity of the style improve the quality of the magazine and clearly distinguish you from other journalists. So it is vitally important to pay attention to the language and style for future journalists. The subject “ language of the media and style” is considered to be the continuation as well as of “Introduction in journalism”, “publicist genre” and “literary-journalistic satire and genres” which justify future journalists in theory and practice. In the process of studying future journalists should differentiate the peculiarity the genre and style of the language. While writing the material every journalist should be able to choose an appropriate word using special methods. You may use proverbs and idioms but keeping the meanings, also studying phrasal words and lexicon of our mother tongue language. Competence of the discipline: ‒ You will criticize by practical skills and writing peculiarity. ‒ During studio lessons you will learn to use appropriate words in journalistic genre in compliance with the style. Having recognized by foreign and local literature such as “The independent Kazakhstan”, “Almaty evening”, “Astana evening”, 3
“Zhash Alash”, “Aikyn”, “Turkistan”, republican policy, history, agriculture, economy, analyze the materials which were published daily on the state of the market determines the conditions that affect on the formation of individual style. Education materials were collected for the students of High educational institutions, undergraduates, as well as the young scientists who did research in this area and for the majority of readers. Abstracts of lectures according to the subject of discipline and guidelines on the course: Guidelines for preparation of lecture notes: ‒ It should be given a common understanding in studying the outline. ‒ It should be focused not on the facts of lecture contents but on the developing of science and on the methodology of the discipline. ‒ It should be given the reference that reveal the contents of the lecture and textbooks. ‒ Abstract guidelines should be focused on the student's individual work. ‒ The lecture should be expressed on scientific style, using scientific terms, logic, evidence and specific definitions and should avoid concepts uncertainties. ‒ The content of the lecture must be compact, because it is based by making reference to the list of additional literature and on the Internet materials so the student’s independent work is carried out. ‒ Each lecture on the topic should be organize according to following information: title, purpose, a list of questions, a list of basic concepts, a list of literature for independent work of students and at the end of the lecture it abstract conclusions are given.
Purpose: To master the language and style of the newspaper. Plan: 1. The development of the Kazakh language (press). 2. The language of printing sheets and peculiarity of original literary language. 3. According to the scientists, style and definitions. The basic concepts: Language (press), style (scientific, official papers, journalistic), newspapers, magazines, media, journalism, basics of language, articles, borrowed words, translation. References: 1. Balakayev M., Syzdykova P., Zhanpeisov E. The history of Kazakh literary language. – Almaty, 2000. 2. Abylkasimov B. The first Kazakh language newspapers. – Almaty, 2001. 3. Isayev S. The issue of Kazakh linguistics. – Almaty, 2008. 4. Momynova B. The lexicon of newspaper. – Almaty, 1999.
Success came to the light for the first time when “Turkistan Ualayati gazeti” in 1870 year in Tashkent, also “Dala ualayati gazeti” in 1888 in the city Omsk, also “Independent Kazakhstan”, “The Kazakh literature”, “Star”, “Jalyn” were pressed having deep history in development. 5
The history of pressing of Kazakh language came before the revolution, and their peculiarity were observed like an object from the each point. The language of the press is the written language. In any century the language of the print media not only use the language of the simple nation but also influence on its developing and wealth. Vocabulary of nationwide language, understanding lexicon of separate words, using words according to the level considered to be the language of the press. Kazakh language of the print media not formed and appeared for the first time. and it can not happen without any evidence. Even if the language of the print media is connected with the birth of newspapers and journals on Kazakh language it can not be deviated from the norms of written language of ancient periods. At the beginning of the end of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century you could come across with the current total non-literary standards in the print media, which were characterized by elements of the language and spoken language like elision phenomena which lead to a certain extent, and it is not by chance. (Eliziya on Latin elision n – reset repression. For example, bara almadi-baralmadı). There were masterpiece in the nationwide language which can demonstrate the various features of the genre before the birth of the Kazakh-term national press that are primarily rich oral versions, different creations of poets-zhyrau and also medieval "Turkic literary language" which keep main traditions any of various recording options (annals, official records, letters, etc.) that would be considered. On the one hand because of these point, on the other hand it is the influence of oral speech on the press. The language does not create by one person. The language is closely related to the history of the whole population of the historical category. If so, the language of individual writers, ideological orientation and "bookish language" should not confuse the concepts. When it comes to book the tradition of the language often does not meet the standards of modern literary language from lexical and phonetic and grammatical points. The rest, many of them ancient and under the influence of foreign languages, such as language elements. These materials came to the light before the revolution but these phenomena doesn’t suit to Kazakh literary language, Arabian, Iran 6
languages couldn’t penetrate in character of national words, going out with the use of archaic words, the neighboring Turks (Uzbeks, Tatars, etc.) those specific languages, grammar and language models are defined as the bookish language. There are many opinions about the character of written letters which rely to ancient times especially books and some letters which came to the light before the revolution. For instance, S.E. Malov consider the language of the book "bookish Muslim Tatar slang" but academician W.Radloff "Kazakh literary language didn’t exist before the revolution, and books written in the Kazakh language" much varied with numerous mixture language" (3). Scientists A. Qurısjanov added his points above all: “Having found the way to heart of ordinary people mullah encouraged them penetrating suffixes to oral language. In addition, the Tatar language with other Turkic languages such as “The Wall”, “holly” caused by a mixture of the language with no test, scientist, critic of literature B. Kenzhebayev: ‘Even educated Muslim people didn’t get properly not saying about society’ said so (3). The journalist-scientist R.Sizdikova said that sometimes this language didn’t seem to be literary language, there weren’t any kept language rules and normal, there are many samples which came from Arabic-Persian languages, Tatar languages which invaded their construction on the language before Abai’s century (3). In conclusion, it worth to say that the Kazakh language works came to the light with the field of access languages “medieval Turkic literary language” before the revolution, and it is scientifically proven that Kazakh language include itself a large numbers of Turkish elements. To this day, “Qissas-ul-Anbiyasi by Rabguzi”, “Baburnama” by Babur, “Shezhire-and-Turki” by Abilgazi and others many ancient heritage came to the nation named “Turkish works”. In other words, all the Turkic speaking nations will be able to get and read. The language of Kazakh media press loan worded some words from in Arabic, recording some of the words from the Iranian languages in some ancient letters were used insignificantly, the language was not absorbed to literary language, but newspapers and magazines tried to adapt such kind of elements to literary language. In a certain period of periodic press some borrowed words were used by the majority of individuals, some of them infiltrated to literary lan7
guage, and in the further they were used in the media press. Such borrowed words from Arabic, Iranian languages has been changed while printing on the press. There has been used such kind of words depending on political and social life: nizam, the crowd, interests, ideals, statements, education, medicine, words depending on the day-to-day life: law, conscience, order, matbugat (newspaper, magazine press), science, conference, tabіb (doctor), qіraat, nіsaap, oil, marhaba. There is a connection between media press and literary language although the first one not only use ready structure of the language but gives as well and influence on the language like a phenomena. Changing in language happens when new words has been used in the daily speech. But these news are not absorbed by the usage of one person. It needs some time before it is absorbed to literary language and needs to take stable place. Only after such testing language is used between people who are in daily relationships gradually stopping to be news. This process goes through all steps of society development. Because with the development of society the language develops as well. This language become firmly established in the literary language at a later stage, serving the needs of the linguistic, like a phenomena found the place in the media press after normalizing and founding transfers to literary language. There are many such linguistic elements and even signs in the modern literary language. It does not matter what nation to point but no one use full vocabulary. As well as invasion of certain words and grammatical forms, which cannot transfer a national features such words are used only in the written literary language. Sometimes you may come across with other options in the daily speech. The whole vocabulary is not always used in the daily speech, even you may not meet the synonyms of these words in other languages because they are not used or direction are different that’s why you cannot get the meaning of grammatical points as well as parts of the speech. So such kind of words and grammatical points are called “bookish language”. In general, the issue of media press in improving the culture of the language, and written forms should be not only right from grammar points and vocabulary also should be competent in using the correct style. 8
Today’s press start adapting to globalization, it should be write not only good current news but the truth with no exaggeration and importance of reader’s opinion. Thus, freedom of speech is modern nowadays. Despite on short existence, media press , especially the journal “Aikap” reflects the Kazakh literary language, further developments of its best traditions, the formation of a national language in some style points creating huge vocabulary with terms. Obviously, the relationships between Kazakh and Russian started many years ago as well as switching and interchanging the words. Many elementary Russian words absorbed to our language because of close relationships from the one point as well as in the written form. For example, education stuff, science and technology, cultural affairs: a student, a school, a microscope, a doctor, music, newspapers, journals, electricity and others. Related to the administrated management of the country: the region, the Commission, ministers, advisers so on. In addition, the meaning of such words like an article, a chairman, the commission, an income is not used in the speaking. Not all grammar and phonetic of Russian borrowed words are uniform. It is possible to see some phonetic differences in some Russian words. In Kazakh you may meet such words like: “tauar”, “nesie”, “kamesie”, “istatie”, “botelke”, “boshke”, “kureshke”, “kalosh” , “kartishke”, “kilonke”, “otek”, “lampishke”, “panar”, “paner”, “partpel”, “romke”, “sarapan”, “tarelke”, “shapke”, “shainek”, “ishkap”, “unkagaz”, “unzhariya”. Media press try to transfer the meaning of these borrowed words to national language. The words like : “zauit” are naturally formed not because of getting rid of the sound “v”. “Zauit, fabrika” are Kazakh workers which were used during Tsar’s Russia. But the word “Tauar” is ours definitely. We are today’s generation only remind these words to others. Such words like “minot”, “nomir”, “sotke”, “somke”, “ustel”, “shopir”, “sheneunik” are used orally and at the same time in the written form. The twentieth century were pushed to wake up the spirit of Kazakh country. During this period, a wide variety of social and political changes had led to a lot of news in public life. Along with people's consciousness the publishing developed widely as well. The history of the Kazakh press seem to be the evidence of this process. It is known that language play an important role in the life of society 9
influencing on interactions, both understandings. Therefore, in order to learn the language and express an acute thought you have to be familiar with stage of its development, with the current status, wealth, with the basic principles. Therefore, there are some issues that should not be left outside of the main ones like the formation of the language in the press, comprehensive analysis of the grammatical structure, the process of creation of the same vocabulary and etc. Every newspaper has its style and language. Style it is the author himself. Style is formed according to natural talent of the writer. There are many opinions and definitions of scientists about the language and style by A.Baitursynov, Q. Jumaliev, K.Zhubanov East, T.Amandosov T.Qojakeyev P.G.Pwstovoyt É.D.Rozental, A. Blok, M.Balakaev, R. Syzdykova etc. Many researchers give the meaning of the style in different concepts: the language style and the style of speech. In this connection, depending on the type of language researchers differentiate them in written language – written style, speaking language– speaking style or literary language style. According to the words of K. Zhumaliev “Style is the peculiarity of art. Style shows the peculiarity of the work and his own sign. There are 2 types of the style: 1. Scientific style give the objective information about the nature, human beings and society. They are used widely in scientific works and stories. There are two type of functions: а) the supply of scientific information but that information should proof the reality of the news: b) to increase logical thinking of the reader and listener 2. The official paper of the style include international treaties, acts, regulations, instructions speaking style. There are 3 mini style in the style of the paper: a) clean style of a small law (law and order, civil and criminal acts); b) administrative and consulting services for small, formal style (judgment, order, statement, biography, power of attorney, receipts); b) a small diplomatic official style (summaries, convention, agreement). 3. Journalistic style serve as a social style has the effect of making the reader or listener. Media reports of the meeting of the Meeting sentence refers to the language of this style. Journalistic style serves the following: a) information; b) an explanation of the message to the customer; informative and educational. 10
4. Fiction style description of the phenomena and objects displayed in the reader's emotions. This style is a mix of styles. 5. Speaking style shows the relationships of the words and phrases used in free style. After taking the independence "The information about mass media" was published by Kazakh publications which rose from the ruins after the adoption of the new law. Attaches great importance to the language and style of the newspaper. Much attention was paid to meet the needs of the audience. Kazakh studied the wealth of updated grammatical structure , sounds and words of the language and considered to be literary language. Although it still needs a lot of research to make a sense of spiritual culture. Conclusions concerning the approval or lecture: 1. What are the specific features of the language and literary language of the periodical 2. Name the scientists who defined the meaning of the style. 3. What are the features of journalistic style? Task: Write the lecture to the work of S. Isaev, "The issues of Kazakh linguistics", "The development of media press language".
Purpose: Newspaper genres and their linguistic, stylistic details about the features. Plan: – Newspaper linguistic features of the genre. Newspaper genre and stylistic features. The daily requirements of materials on the theme. The basic concepts: Language (press), style, newspapers, magazines, media, journalism, language norm, missing, reports, statements, interviews, letters, correspondence, articles, review, review, description, essays, satire, pamphlet. References: 1. Baimen S. Media genres. – Almaty, 2007. 2. Bayaliyeva D.S. Media language and style. – Almaty, 2006. 3. Zhumaliyev. Art Style feature. – Almaty, 2006. 4. Karatayev M. Style research principles. – Almaty, 2004. 5. Sındaliyeva M. Journalism genres and formats. ‒ Astana 2012.
Newspaper genres is not only limited to the transfer of information, different circumstances, different price phenomena taking place in society. Therefore, employers wear at the price of the property. Newspaper genres have such property in the language, understanding the stylistic differences. Words are often met with a stamp because of the limited amount of journalistic genres standard phrases. Not only to provide information as well as genres, but also social events, and thus captures the history of the paper today. Now give priority to international journalism from four different genres: Information – Provides information about the incident: expert 12
information and expertise includes: an essay to events in the author's own views, outlook and summary: Review Comment kit. Today domestic scientists conditionally divide into three genres: a) Information genres: missing, reporting, interviews, stories, comments, replica, history, expanded information, a short note. b) analytical genres: letters, correspondence, articles, reviews, etc., b) the artistic and journalistic genres: art sketch, photograph, feleton pamphlet, essays, analytical novel (novel), Realty, question-andanswer -korkem -adebi competition, etc. . New genre is something new in communication. That is, the genre of political, social and cultural importance of news, opinions, messages and database. Information genres considerably influence on public opinion and on the formation of public consciousness. This popular genres magazine than newspapers, television and radio is worthy of the materials. Information on the genre of the modern newspaper journalism is one of the main genres that make up more than half of the materials. Most of the materials as well as television are written in this genre. You may meet something new genre information, evidence and arguments and using special tools. Daily report on the facts. If the location of the genre, you know how properly use their unlimited possibilities. Information genres objective point of view, the world is free from the point of view of an individual's self-journalism researchers called in a form of publication. Chronic dry language and literary style of the information are written in an official note. Information genres "telegraphic style" of the information contained in the context of real-time data transmission methods which differ. Analytical genres of personal data, event, phenomenon are the main goals. Considering the comprehensive data in the analytical basis of the genre, without losing the essence of its main author, express their views. This information is not only given, the phenomenon is widely covered and analyzed in the study. It is often characterized by the public media. Nearly every modern editions the vast majority of the materials expert "title sauce" or "topic" tag opinion of politicians or other professionals. Analytical genres in the hands of the author who write any database. Because they are not systematically analyze the group, highlighting the mutual need to find because of communication. As well as the targeting of thought and 13
should increase only upon the data. If the system clearer arguments, the material structure will be reasonable. The second largest group of artistic and journalistic genres efficiency. On the contrary, art images, figurativeness, emotional impact through the reader in the first place. Using literary style, the reality of life in different methods. As for the newspaper lexical features of the genre are estimated mainly in the genre of the newspaper according to vocabulary. The information provided in the text to read the newspaper on the importance of adaptation to the reader not to cause any difficulty in smooth style. Synonyms apply equally to all kinds of style. The official, scientific styles depending on the individual components of synonyms. In two or three synonyms for the same style of speech and journalistic use, as well as unique art style. A certain sense to complement the synonym used to specify what to say. Synonyms could be found flexible in any language. Determine the similarities and differences between them all genres of journalism. Such features can be called typical features of genres. Humanitarian industry category, as well as newspaper genres do not have a clearly defined border. In many cases, the work cannot be considered as only one genre. Subscription and the issue of the nature of the material because there are two or more of the same genre. Enriched in terms of content or themes, wide and deep in the process of transferring to another genre. For example, in-depth articles written voluminous correspondence, and could be extended correspondence on the contrary. Reading material is effective, and the reader needs to take every journalist with a great achievement. Therefore, this issue will depend on the style of the material. Each style has its own peculiarities. For example, synonyms and antonyms apply equally to all kinds of style. The official, scientific styles depending on the individual components of synonyms. In two or three synonyms for the same style of speech and journalistic use, as well as typical art style. Determine the similarities and differences between them all genres of journalism. Such features can be described as typical symptoms of genres. A lot of influence has also resulted in the formation of stylish themes and language. Developing creative skills due to the rigid principles of the journalists will not develop as well. However, there are a number of criteria: 1) The ability to choose the theme; 2) language journalist; 3) Data and reality; 4) Wit skills. 14
Theme Herald newspaper first. Kazakh concept, two word title. One of the large-scale "theme", the second "header". According to the journalist Kakimzhan Kozybayev: "Some news article or topic by the end of reflecting the theme take the information from the storage box. This is wrong. Title of the article will lose a certain direction. Call one of the identity of all things, the opening of the secret of the need for the reader. Subject to think earlier in the day. In short, the kind of plan. Not only the name of the newspaper, including a summary of the word. " Theme works of art are the cornerstone of journalistic knowledge, can be said to be one of the defining ideological evidence. There are 3 system title: 1. The main theme of the whole page , the whole double page. 2. Topic is called like the name of each material. 3. The advertising theme topic in order to determine the contents of the supplement. Short contents. As well as the subject requires a 5 to respond. They are: 1) Self-control; 2) seduction; 3) Sharpness; 4) Literacy; 5) compactness. Among the topics it is likely to see: Word of the people: "Minbalaga tunde bar!" by Asiya Bagdauletqızı; Astana magazine: "Kazakh toyi. Dagaris zhok, "Asiya Bagdauletqızı; Astana magazine: "Zhana kazakh v novom svete", "New Kazakh New Light"; People’s speech: "Gete durisin aitipti " Orken Kenzhebek: Good eye on the site: "Ya dushu gotov diavolu prodat’ ..." we may present other materials of Murat Eszhan. As a result, the genre is not frozen phenomena. It will be on constant movement and change. Violations of the mix of genres trend itself is a manifestation of innovation in journalism. The ability to mix genres exceed the price of the material which was clearly not a watering down. However, it was mixed with initials, negative, should avoid making unnecessary the world. First of all, note the emphasis on the need to mix genres. Conclusions concerning the approval or lecture: 1. How are newspapers genres classified? 2. How do you get the meaning Intermediate genre? 3. What is the daily language of genres and styles? Task: Make an analysis on the language and style of "Turkistan ualayaty "a newspaper, and "Aikap" magazine.
Purpose: to give a complete picture of the linguistic and stylistic features of the article. Plan: ‒ Features of the language of the article. – Stylistic peculiarities of the article. The basic concepts: Language (press), written language, writing style, speech, language, style, newspapers, magazines, media, journalism, language norm, articles, news articles, problem-analytical articles, theoretical (scientific) papers, journalistic articles. References: 1. Baimen S. Media genres. – Almaty, 2007. 2. Bayalieva D.S. Media language and style. – Almaty, 2006. 3. Shindalieva M. Journalism genres and formats. ‒ Astana, 2012. 4. The experience of Journalists of Kazakhstan. – Almaty, 2008. 5. Randall D. Universal journalist. – M., 2000.
Articles and journalistic genre. He defined the development of thought. Articles represent an important social issue relating to the birth of the idea of a documentary journalistic genre. The article on the basis of the data and on the subject to a separate event, which is regarded as a large-scale phenomenon. Evidence that led to the birth of the phenomena. The author's view, based on actual database nodes and holds a wide range of general assembly. Today the article is divided into the following groups: 1. Information articles. 2. The problem of expert articles. 3. Theoretical (scientific) papers. 4. Journalistic articles. 16
The process of writing articles: 1. The choice of the theme. Its relevance and importance of choosing a theme, focusing on the public's view of the topic. Depth study of the topic. 2. The definition of the concept of recording. "What will be the structure of the article?" Question. 3. A variety of database sources relevant to the topic grouping, ordering them. People are involved in discussions on the topic. 4. Stringing arguments. The accumulation of arguments based on the facts, weighting different opinions. 5. The general idea of comprehension of core conclusion of the article, strip search, prognosis. Keep the balance. "Halyk sozi" published in the newspaper of Zhangeldi Qarjannın "Ondai ondai akemde de bolip tyradi" Karlyga Ibragimova "Aytıstagı zhana erezhe ...", it is published in the Abai news portal "myth of the state: more than 150 of the nation!" As an example, the article of Orken Kenzhebek. American journalist Margaret relies on certain articles and reference person's opinion carefully following rule: 1. How did you get the information? 2. Who is the fact that you say? 3. How does the reader know that information is true? 4. Check again the information! Try to identify the second source of information. As well as the American journalist Charles Raiz must comply the information with the following features for articles of interest to the reader. C. Rayz try to answer the following questions: Is this issue is new and surprising? Is the person who heard about it delighted? – Does it affect on him? Are they admired? In general, the situation in writing should be considered the following: – Define the reason and purpose of writing the article; – Identify the audience; – To search what the reader need; – Ability to interest in writing; – An art article should be new and undiscussed; – Selected case studies; – Writing style, structure and timing. 17
The author of the article consists of the following tasks: 1. Open the meaning of the relevance and importance of the topic of the article; 2. Ways to solve the problem, analysis; 3. Avoid slandering false information. Article: 4. The relationship between different phenomena. 5. Compare, evaluation, interpretation, forecasts and additions to the application. 6. The use of communication tools. 7. Link relative to the past and present events. 8. Created uncertainty of the article, from simple to complex. All these rigid rules cannot amend. Feature article: one is to develop a real sense of loss. Expediency and logical arguments, phrases and will focus on the accuracy of the nodes. The value of the article is an association created and hosts the author of the game. Gradually, with the thesis that the author will draw the reader issues. Then give a logical chain of evidence, the author is trying to convince us of the correctness of his opinion on the reader. However, the author not only attaches the logic of the evidence also it will use the emotional impact. In addition to expert articles 7 to answer the questions of assistance should be pure facts. Writing and expert journalist should avoid unilateral point of view without emotions. Serve your media examination of the influence of any forces or the state will be onesided. Main core of the expert article include: 1. a topic or issue that is relevant and important event of the period. 2. Idea. 3. The need to have a different set of views. "Zheti notanin zhanzhali nemese an bilgansa, zhan bilganadi" by Asiya Bakdauletkızı modern Kazakh composers' songs about going to pursue music can be discussed in a comprehensive analytical article. "16 reasons of December 16" by Orken Kenzhebek analytical article on the events in Zhanaozen, the cause of what happened in the country by 16 experts and by relying on the opinion of politicians. Orken Kenjebek "Zhaksi koz" on the "ush olshemnen ureilenbeniz!" Expert on the requirements of the author of the article 1. "Bugan kinali Kameron emes" 2. "Avatar" after the chaos "3."The advantage of 3D: 3D disadvantage" installments about this study, a number of film professionals wrote an article based on the opinion of an expert. 18
Taking into account the expert article: 1. Find the core analytical articles. Of course, first of all, who, what, where, when, why, looking for answers to their questions. 2. Different approaches rely set. Of course, according to a person involved in the event and rely on evidence and facts. Also, you need to be an expert not involved in the incident neutral. So you have not had the unilateral opinion, the equilibrium has been saved. 3. Avoid recognition of your position. When the article and to end mandatory password use. The main thing is that the reader never think characters. 4. We should pay special attention to the importance of the topic. Depth research before writing the article theme. 5. Do not forget to create a link. First of all, pay attention to the sources of information from which has been removed. If you have not received specific information sources to verify its true lies the main problem. For information or if you have information on the Internet websites or agents should be a link. 6. Avoid slander. Journalist never cut his own vision of the form. That is, it is the words of the journalist, according to the name of the person or persons with the use of a combination of the word, according to a forecast of what may be the final. 7. Ordinary follow that persist from the page. The principle of American journalism "keep asking questions". 8. A journalist must keep personal emotions inside. A big mistake to allow a prudent emotions. To study the problems of journalism and journalists who are involved in the preparation of the Poynter Institute, Peter Clark. 1. article in its opinion ingredient mixture! 2. Reader ahead! 3. around in front of the reader! -. In the article the following terms and conditions: The simplicity of the language, clear (non-fiction journalism). Good stuff fast and easy to read. Therefore, it is desirable that the 1 7-8 word sentences. The material is interesting report language. – Avoid tracing the stereotypical words. – Avoid fashionable terms. Enter quotations, 2-3 sentences suspended. 19
Moral read. – After recording repeatedly read. Article vocabulary or linguistic features: – The use of language is often a group of words that make up the bulk of the newspaper, but the nature of the estimated accumulated by many names a; – That is a frequent words will be ignored; Each representing the picture of the face of the world and the number of words; The most frequently used words in the texts of the newspaper can be divided into 2 groups: General words in newspapers. Those are the words of a certain theme or genres of newspapers, shall not be linked to a specific newspaper. For example, country, folk, country, democracy, politics, cooperation, nation, group, society, and the international situation, opinion, contribute to the achievement of the crisis, etc. All the words in the newspapers frequent phenomenon. A certain topic, the group treated with a certain type of genre. These words are used to the idea that the text of a number of names on the rim. For example, if scientific articles on the subject, the term has a number of words. Reportedly, this group of spoken language vocabulary elements, the elements of social dialect. Articles written about public issues and social work of nonfiction genres. Today, there is a research work in this area by scientists (N.M. Xlınov D.G. Bekasov V.D. Pelt Kazakh literature. Encyclopedic Reference: Article (Russian. Article English article; entry clause) – Internet newsgroups ; Description of the form of objects, etc.) in accordance with the definition of the genre of the article, students studio following examples are given to them, such as analyzes resulted in the collection of materials on the job. Article keeps time priorities set by the government, political, economic, and cultural problems explained, directing; To solve the problematic articles that require theoretical and practical study raises a number of questions; Propaganda articles on science are technology, art news in line with the modern life of today's practical problems; Journalistic articles shows the importance of social and political events and phenomena, breath era of high tone, says poetically. 20
General Article "Egemen Kazakhstan" Good meetings in Moscow Authorities 09.05.2015 President Nursultan Nazarbayev met with Russian President Vladimir Putin in Moscow, the press service of the President. Source: http://egemen.kz/2015/05/09/61698 In this article, N. Nazarbayev is on a visit in Moscow. He Vietnam, Egypt and held an official meeting with the heads of the Russian Federation to discuss the problem. General Article "Egemen Kazakhstan" What is worthy of respect and Veterans Etjendi 09.05.2015. Source: http://egemen.kz/2015/05/09/61637 Anniversary of the actions outlined in the President's congratulatory speech and respect for the veterans. Problem articles Mangystau out of the open sea fishermen rescued Source: http://egemen.kz/2015/05/13/62160 Cotton production (author: Karla Zarıkkhankhızı) http://alashainasy.kz/economica/makta-ondrs-matalyip-tur-68682/ There is written criticism of the law. Cotton production decreesed 2.5 times the volume of the former cotton fields only a few plants. In the opinion of the expert economist and lawyer. Problem articles Russia animal suffering Release Date: Zhas Alash 39 (16017) Tuesday, May 19, 2015 Author: A.Esim (http://zhasalash.kz/olke/14717.html) Last Saturday was a storm on the day in Almaty. A monthly amount of rain flooded the city. Some social network users launched from Baikonur natural character that day, 9 minutes and fell to the ground after the "Proton" rocket bind. After soaring into the sky in this article written about 9 minutes after the rocket crashed. "Roscosmos" according to an official statement made by the representatives trying to determine the cause of the accident. In other words, the rocket engines that have not been repaired for 2 years, non-technical inspections. Roscosmos representatives of the "sentence crisis, the financial deficit" to give. This is more evidence that the harm to the environment. 21
Articles that spoke up international problem. Evidence, information, event, correspondence study. Therefore, the problem is the article. Propaganda articles Published spiritual books brought to perfection. Honored Artist of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the President's Award, journalist-writer Kaisar Haji World's "My Mecca, Madina! " Book was published. Source: http://egemen.kz/2015/05/13/62146 Shokhan Walikhanov show a documentary film on the way passed by STV channel http://alashainasy.kz/culture/shokan-ualihanov-jurp-otken-joljonnde-stv-arnasyi-derekt-film-korseted-68691/ Journalistic articles The city rising from the ashes For reconstruction of Stalingrad "Labor Front" about the fate of the Kazakh women who went under the motto Source: http://egemen.kz/2015/05/09/61738 A new approach to the formation of the Kazakh Khanate Author: B. B. Karibayev, corresponding member of National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan http://alashainasy.kz/kazak_tarihy/kazak-handyigyinyinkuryiluyina-jana-kozkaras-68533/ Information and articles "Events" heading. Front-line oil 500 thousand tenge in Atyrau region. Secretary of State met with the Ambassador of Japan. Akmola region detained two workers paramen. "Alash Information" heading. Two men stealing cards with 35 million tenge in Shymkent. Chinese choir fell under the stage. Karaganda fire, three people were injured. Information and articles Zhas Alash 39 (16017) Tuesday, May 19, 2015 UNT issues updated. Author: Pearl Khusainova (http://zhasalash.kz/ruhaniyat/ 14721.html) 22
Starting this year, the price of the UNT system changes. This information was reported by the Ministry of Education and Science. Now not only obtained the certificate test points, year-round price between UNT and Ball arithmetic. This news article. Shemimen signed by the Minister of Education and Science. Changes to the order says. In other words, a change in UNT 30-35 percent of the questions, evaluation system, and a test period of the UNT. No problem with information only rise. However, explained that the action of the Ministry. Theoretical proverbs. (Zhas Alash 39 (16017) Tuesday, May 19, 2015. MK Works Kozybayev thus truth and imagination (Maken EZ, Ibraev, of NKSU named MK Kozybayev, SI). Cork Frost about the culture of the continuity of Kazakh epos (Adilali Zhabykbayevich). 12 years of education – the need for a radical renovation of educational content and efficiency (Abykenov Zharkynbek Korkyt Ata KSU, Senior Lecturer). The structure of the article (inverted pyramid) 1. Take a quick look at the first sentence of a story with a newspaper page, the reader, the headlines . 2. Thinks that online articles pointing to the fast scan "surfing" word-free if not mentioned. 3. The most important thing is the culmination of that certainly. He must appear at the beginning of the article or in the preamble. The most important database of the first paragraph describes succinctly as possible, understandable language. It will begin only after the presentation of the material. 4. Free distribution of the roads. 5. A successful introductory sentence of 25-40 words. 6. Ask that the discussion. 7. The last sentence should be only a light. 8. Question 6: Who, What, When, Where, Why, How? Finally, the article requires a big responsibility. Therefore, the journalist went to explore the likely audience will be fruitful if a pen. Therefore, it is important to know about the article before the above theories in practice. The purpose of the article is the most important phenomena of life, their analysis and evaluation, to explain to its readers regularities. 23
Article – the most serious form of the genre expertise. Currently, it is not exposed to the surface of the high-quality periodicals value has become a genre. It is room "anchor" in the article. In conclusion, the article considers important to study the problems of the society into the most direct way to find a solution to his side. The idea of journalists not only socially significant public interest, will discuss topics of concern to the reader for a long time. The author of the article, editor and publisher to determine the views of genre. The purpose of the article is characterized by generalized views. Distinction in public relations and journalism articles. For example, any official visits to senior officials and what is being accomplished is considered to be a PR article in Egypt. Therefore, such funds should be paid only by published articles. We on the contrary, senior officials do business daily, which is the first page trends. This trend should be avoided. What is the condition of his official visit to the officials, the officials can be as articles. This is at the state level, national interests as regards the actions to be resolved. And any minor officials for the actions of an article from the newspaper regularly, should not forget that it will serve only to his political image (the experience of Journalists of Kazakhstan., 2008. ‒ 94 p.). Conclusions concerning the approval or lecture: 1. What kind of article? 2. Write articles based on the principles of differentiation? 3. Which similarities and differences between information articles and expert articles? 4. What are the characteristic features of the article? Task: 1. Features of the content (articles, problem-solving, expert) analysis of the language and style of writing articles. 2. Newspapers , magazines analysis found mixed genres.
Purpose: missing (note) information about the linguistic features of the genre. Plan: – Missing (note) linguistic features of the genre – Missing (note) of the genre and stylistic features. Basic concepts: Language (press), written language, writing style, speech, language, style, newspapers, magazines, media, journalism, language norm, missing text, resume the lead. References: 1. Shindalieva M. Journalism genres and formats. ‒ Astana 2012. 2. Baimen S. Media genres. – Almaty, 2007. 3. Jaqıpov B. The formation of the Kazakh journalism, development of the road. – Almaty, 2004. 4. Randall D. Universal journalist. – M., 2000. 5. Bayalieva D.S. Media language and style. – Almaty, 2006. 6. The experience of Journalists of Kazakhstan. – Almaty, 2008.
Note is the most rapid dissemination of information simple "method". Missing information agencies and Internet media is the main genre. Periodicals note – the main genre of news and information. It is best to avoid such errors when missing: Never note figures if they are not recorded. For example, "Gorky Russian Drama Theatre in Astana on May 18," the first day of peace "performance was". The name of the person, the material of the main character, who participated in the event, experts are always in front of the tag name. It will be seeing more than six figure digits. Because the human brain remembers the most important figures. Making notes is the shortest form of news or news. 25
Press note-looking small messages. Features of notes: – The fact that the incident promptly about the phenomenon, but does not analyze price, – Instant mobile quickly written and published operational. The event was a recent note or aware of the fact that the phenomenon. The content of the note who, what, where, when, to answer questions. – Press for publication in the practice note there is a common form of the following models: 10,20,30 personal messages with the subject line; – Devoted to a particular topic or theme, not a small gear; News reports; – A small private event messages . Written note, a variety of forms one of its kind note, there are two types of personal note. There are basically two types of extended and critical press in personal note. The main topic of it the independent newspaper. Reported a wider issue than similar notes. It will be expanded to personal note. Presents a wide range of topic in the form of extended notes, sometimes comparing the facts, proceedings, meet briefly summarizing the issue. Notes are reported in critical defect in the form of a specific object, but not the author of the analysis of the deficiencies which does not open its causes. Based on the notification took place in the form of a written notes there is a desire to correct the deficiency. One such note usually have several ways, each of which will be a main topic, will be the theme of a common group or similar to each other. Written in the context of criticism in the press of the same origin can be found in notes . What is missing short message communicated data journalism genre. Sometimes missing "news" is called. Written chronicle of historical events in chronological system. Chronicle of journalism – a summary of the data message, ie, missing words and chronicles synonyms. The genre of oral communication and video on the TV missing. The news report are called freedom of documentary film and video messages. The event is the most important, and made a video, the ideal is not ready for oral delivery. 26
It is necessary to distinguish the features of spoken language in written wordwhen you write the text. For example, we are trying to accept a stylish and professional scientific terminology. It will not trouble to provide timely information of periodicals, newspapers in different amounts on the surface, there may be any picture . Also, there are a lot of newspaper reporters genre limitations. Journalist witnessed the event, will be released in the report, the information received from official sources. Prints collection of materials make it easier to search for news of interest to readers. Site news genre missing information, reporting, expanded information, news and interviews recorded in the genre. According to David Randall there is classification "Universal Journalist" to lids in the book "Lead concept" component. In other words, "a journalist, including his game, adds a word of a concept missing". Instructing their students on this topic, missing a few examples (note) analyze linguistic characteristics of the genre. Referred to as the head of a missing lead. It is written in simple, clear, first of all, the first two sentences. Its purpose is attracted the attention of the reader, "the article oqïınşı" awakening enthusiasm. There are many ways of writing Lid: 1. Summary or in the form of a summary of the event. There is a type of news materials in Lid. He had a brief word introduces the reader immediately meaningfully event. 2. The individual lid. This form can highlight one important aspect of the event. 3. Descriptive, episodic lead. It was talked about in any given episode. Lid typical descriptive article. 4. Lid the citation. 5. Lid in the form of request . How to Lid? Which of the six first survey article as an individual that should be part of the name, which is the basic need to understand. In this regard, there are general six lead. Lid from the answer to the main question, the article must be further organized. Who? The person in the first place in this case. Usually it is a wellknown person – the President, the well-known politician, etc. 27
What? This lead the event is important persons. And if you notice, what happened in the first place. When? Post-Soviet journalism is very popular in lid . Such lids like "Today", "say" begin to be formed. In the event of such information lead time, timing is important that comment. Where? This type of Lid draws attention away from the scene. Why? Says that such a lid because is the special. How? You must be careful what you write in Lid? Universal know anything about lid – "Again", "continues", "previously reported" as lid. – In lead one should not use the name of unknown person before having introduced him. – The lead, which points to the reader how to receive the lead should be avoided. Note – the topic consists of information, the text contains facts. Chronicle – information message the volume of what consists of only one or two sentences. Analytical note – information message the text of what contains maximum information, the facts and the information written comments are given to the appropriate people. The style of the note does not describe the incident, it delivers the information. While writing a note, the main thing to point is to understand that author’s task is not to describe an event, it is to note the fact. For example, "Yesterday, the Attorney General of the Republic of Kazakhstan Askhat Daulbayev met with US Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Kazakhstan George Krol" But in the message this data are not analyzed. They are not assessed. The nature is not disclosed. The message should be posted urgently, be published quickly subscribed fastly, otherwise they will be priceless. A note may be started awith the words of famous people, it can also be started with the interesting data connections. For example, "according to French scientists conclusion, the more a man eats in his childhood the more intellectual development he has in the future" ("Aykin" newspaper. 2011.17.04). 28
In the end, the most important feature of the report is a specific event notification given by pointing out specific arguments. A note does not analyse an event, and does not disclose the nature of the species. Note style is based on expressing thoughts. Unless you describe whatever you see and know by express your thoughts, a note taking will be invaluable! Assumptions or questions concerning the approval or lecture: 1. The main features of the report genre? 2. What kinds of reports are there? 3. What are the language, style features? Task: Making analysis on the language and style of report genre in editions "Egemen Kazakhstan", "Astana akshamy", "Zhas Turkestan", etc.
Purpose: To provide full information about the features of the linguistic style of the interview Plan: – Interview feature as a newspaper genre. ‒ Language and style features used up to the interview specification. Basic concepts: Language (press language), written language, writing style, speech, language, style, newspapers, magazines, media, journalism, language norm, missing, reports, statements, interviews, letters, correspondence, articles, reviews, review, description, essays, satire, pamphlet. References: 1. Jakhyp B. Ways of the Kazakh journalism formation and development. Monograph. – Almaty, 2004. 2. Baimenshe S. Genres system in the Press. – Almaty, 2007. 3. Barmankulov M.K. Understand the contemporary: Sketch in the newspaper, on televisual, radio, cinema dokumental film. – Almaty, 1985. 4. Pelt VD Theory and practice of the Soviet Periodic printing. ‒ M., 1980. 5. Shindalieva M. Publicism genres and formats. ‒ Astana 2012. 6. Randall D. Universal journalist. – M., 2000. 7. The experience of Journalists of Kazakhstan. – Almaty, 2008. 8. Tertichniy A.A. Genres of Periodic printing: manual. – M.: Aspect Press, 2000. 9. Bayalieva D.S. Media language and style. – Almaty, 2006.
Interview "interview" in English the word "interview" means "meeting, talking". It is the journalistic genre based on a talk of a journalist with specific individuals on political, social or other issues. Interview hears information directly from the sources of information, so this is a very valuable genre. Information responsibility is also on the interviewee. Before the interview, the interviewee's name, 30
position, date and time of the interview, the place is) must be completely written on a tape (disk recorder. Another issue: it is a form of copyright interviewed by two authors: an interviewee and a journalist. Of course, before its publication and further use the interview must be fully agreed upon with the rules. Mutual story or dialogue between a journalist and a politician have been also counted as the expert genre. The interview also has the core such as the core of the story. It is the opinion of the people involved in the same event on the occasion of the event, which happens in the story or the person who responded eternal themes. The volume of dialogue is also different. It depends on the complexity of the topic being expected, if the interview is urgent, it may be in the range of 50-100. However, the expert on this subject, only need to squeeze the juice. Multi periodical press try to win a lot of deep content interviews. Therefore, the interviewer and the interview, interviews and try to come prepared very carefully. It is for a journalist to gather preliminary data about the conversation up to entering it. Unlike other genres like interview 2's story, a journalist and a question and answer created the character. "Interview – multi-faceted genre. This news genre, and analytical evidence belonging to the genre. Interview certain difficult subject to certain strategy and tactics, regardless of genre. If we pay attention to the semantics of the word "inter" If the meaning is in the direction of mutual relations, "view" views and opinions on the word" . "Interview is one of the oldest widespread practice of the press genre. It is the author's skill to be solved between the journalist and the reader, mutual trust and promote genre. We shouldn’t perceive the interview as only increasing dialogue between the interviewee and the interviewer. In many cases, foreign journalists use the interview as a source of information" . Professor M.K. Barmankulov divided the interview into two groups: "According to the description of the interviewer – interviewer reporter an according to the descriptions of the questions interviewer-character. The first group includes: information and interviews, interviews approach; as for another group – interview and an interview with a sense and with social questions" [3.56]. 31
According to the researcher V.D. Pelt: "Interview-monologue, the story is based on interviewee's thoughts and contemplation; interview message are the type of interview that delivers the context of the conversation as a report of a journalist. Interview-dialogue is conducted in a form of a question-and-answer interview and photograph, reported adding a talk with the content of the conversation. Interview views and opinions on a particular topic to consider. Interview questionnaire is reporting about any issue important to society as a certain audience feedback" [4.34]. Professor MB Shindalieva: "Dialogue is the main method of obtaining information. The main principle of the conservation laws is to o btain a clear answer to a specific question. The His impressive outing knowledge of the interviewer, journalist needs to know how to choose a topic worthy of conversation with character. The same question can be found in the interview. Can affect communication with other people. Such stories conversational style. The reported conducted the interview process, psychological, psycho-physical and logical factors related to the application” [5.24.]. Interview dialogue is a widespread practice of the press, journalists frequently used. Interview signs of dialogue: – the whole of the answer to the questions, and the full text of the conversation behind closed doors is reported; – the question of a journalist, usually typed in boll;. – the contents of the response will be dictated by the revival of the question. There can be the type where can be several interviewees for one topic. Interview monologue – the character responds clearly to the question of a particular topic. The conversation is based on the interviewee’s thoughts and reflections and suggestions. There is not as many questions as in traditional interview, usually the conversation is held around one question. This type of conversation has similarity with correspondence according to its content and aim. Message interview – is not only an important part of the story behind closed doors. The journalist reports the answers of the hero or uses excerpts from the responses of the interviewee to retell the story. In journalism there is a practice of referring to the responses of the hero and retell the conversation. 32
Survey interview – a genre which has been used since ancient times in the press. The main point of its revised preliminary personal questions developed and distributed to the people, then publish the responses to the questionnaire. Perspective interview – this type of interview is conducted when it is aimed to know the opinion of several people on a particular topic. Thus, there are perspectives are determined on a particular social and political facts, events. Briefing interview – the exact meaning of this is a meeting to be held on a particular issue is a brief informational meeting. Now press the general public is concerned about certain officials to journalists on the issue, and a short message, in the form of answers to the question of journalists have been met. Interview of the genre are kind of formal and informal use of language in newspapers. Newspaper specifies the interview as a genre. The most interview must have the following basic principles: 1. Introduce with the interviewee in advance. 2. Make sure that the questions are understandable and interesting. 2. Give special attention to the clothes. 3. It is better to come to the interview alone. 4. Try to arrive no later than the time of consent. 5. During the visit, don;;t forget to smile, shake hands and say that you are glad to see him or her. 6. Do not play the role of a subordinate. 7. Always keep the same level with the person you give an interview. 8. Do not forget to express warm expressions about him/her. 9. Speak with great pride about the achievements of the character. 10. Be noticeable. 11. Always be polite and express confidence.. 12. In an interview conducted before quitting, do not forget to express your gratefulness. This advice is not followed by each journalist. Today, there are other ways to get an interview. When you put paper in an interview with the game correctly identify the journalist by its artistic enrichment. The idea of real 33
beauty, is carried out in the course of the interview rather than writing. If you want to give an interview created a good idea to call who can answer questions, have a place in society as an individual, you will be pleased. Even so, the agreement will give an interview to the next. Interview-dialogue language and style requirements: Interview-style dialog will be very easy to learn the language; However, "easier to read", "liquid" should be abandoned. Interview dialog "language of light, heartwarming" It should be said to be deep philosophical thoughts; Interviews are conducted in the form of a conversation behind closed doors, so put the information in accordance with the theme to the interviewer's questions, the interview should give guidance to the customer. This type of dialogue, requires a comprehensive knowledge and skills of a journalist; Interview mood during the conversation with the customer, to deliver emotions (eg brackets) is effective for the reader; Interview image. Interview image language and style requirements: Interview illustrates the main language. Language happens to be literary conversation. Sometimes playful, not more than a place that meets humor. What is the condition of the interview, where and what time, interview's mood, emotion interview's observations, is described as a master of precision, the reader is to be effective. During a question-and-answer may not be important to all of the events happening around. Therefore, the most interesting to the reader, and in accordance with the sketches on the theme will be successful. For example: Come dressed warm. In the interview with impunity. – Well ... It was very cold. "One of the things I ask are you cold" I thought. – To work. Said again that I will be away for half an hour. – My dear water pipe had burst, and we're working on fixing it. I do not sweat, I cannot go out enter the home, he said. I was glad. The same freezing conditions at the end of 15 minutes, I would like to stand as a snowman. 34
I arrived exactly on time. The outer door open. Mites, which make the voice of the boy crying wan bay house raises his head. In the room door closed a little "war" is going on. "Heroes" seems to throw toward the subject from the hands of children. Haven’t heard crying children for a long time, could become a brain in a short period of time in the mouth of the summer. Many intellectuals in the country before I went to the house of uncle for interview. To be honest, I was faced for the first time following situation. Always used to know to make a woman, which is normal. Almaty got the woman and the child was weeping and crying, or, on the contrary, seemed to flee as a child crying. I do not know, this child had an impact on me. Bitter voice sounds pleasant to the ear gradually, my stomach did not feel warm. – Grandson. In our hands. The mother of the capital. "Eat Food", but do not eat. Father and mother does not recognize. "He quickly go home", is out of the. Grandfather to his son, he signed a tender was walking from my hotel room. ("Ak Zhelken" magazine, April 8, 2015). Interview views. Interview reviews from language and style requirements: Interview opinion is the official language and style often; The presence of one or more of the interviews and opinion; One or more questions among the public is likely to be asked questions in order to clarify some of the facts; abide by the views of the interview, to be brief; In addition to interviews and opinion experts "know do" as additional information that may be incurred; Unlike TV and press interviews: Enough to write the newspaper quoted the question and answer must be recorded in accordance with the requirements, according to the logic of the game. Should be finished in the opinion of the journalist and literary material for publication, and the need to do all these things in the course of an interview on the TV, the degree of preparation of this work is uneven. During the TV interview in advance and write. Now, some newspapers announced who conducted the interview with the method of asking readers to send in their questions. Readers are helping to raise the issue only contributes to the identification of the topic. In addition, the newspaper will offer them. 35
What the meeting will be held next regular headings whom wants to know what the problem is oylandiratini announces the call on what topics interested. For example: "Dear Reader," minister of the five-question "header, Sauat Mynbayev, Minister of Oil and Gas of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the next issue, we will send the request. E-mail inquiries as usual newspaper that the minister ([email protected]) can send. " "Halyk sozi" newspaper, 12.05.2013. Interview as a genre does not stay in one place, it is up-to-date trend with access to a new type of newspaper, TV and will continue to develop. Conclusions concerning the approval or lecture: 1. What kind of interview? 2. TV and radio interview feature interviews with the press? 3. What are the principles in the course of the interview? Task: "Transparent", "Zhas Alash" newspapers interviews analysis of language and style.
Purpose: To provide a more complete understanding of the language and style of the genre of reporting Plan: ‒ Report language of the genre. – Report of the genre or style. Basic concepts: Language (press), written language, writing style, speech, language, style, newspapers, magazines, media, journalism, language norm, missing, reports, statements, interviews, letters, correspondence, articles, reviews, review, description, essays, satire, pamphlet. References: 1. Amandosov T. Kazakh Soviet media genres. ‒ Almaty, 1968. 2. Baimen S. Press genres system. ‒ Almaty, 2007. 3. Shindalieva M. Journalism genres and formats. ‒ Astana, 2012. 4. Bayalieva D.S. Media language and style. ‒ Almaty, 2006. 5. Randall D. Universal journalist. – M., 2000.
"Report" is translated from the Latin word which means "warning". The period of its development coincided with the development of the media. There is a genre of the first signs of its note. Story happened in the first place, there was a statement about the phenomenon from beginning to end. Today, it is one of the most widespread genres in the field of journalism. Reports efficiency requires the genre. Will never be the same number of events during the reporting journalist, and brings the reader to the true reality. The report has a special place in the history of journalism. Because it is close to life, different image of the reality of the phenomenon.. Professor T.S. Amandosov: "Reports will happen when the dust of the earth. Therefore, the report is the event itself "[1.57], but 37
Serikkali Baimen:" The report is one of the silk cascading media genres. Because it is not easy to write a report. Journalists usually report using various forms of writing. For example, for an incident in which the author monolog can be created. In such a case, the author is not himself, but the feel is relevant to the reader how the author, find out, "said the [2.78]. "Publics genres and forms," the author of the textbook, Professor M. Shindalieva: "The report is a special genre. Here the plot and visual style, evidential, which is very important to have copyright relations with the incident. Operational comprises elements of information and journalism genres. Records analyzed by the present report, conducted by a journalist, "says [3.24]. A report which will be operational from the events and artistic genre. The key feature of the genre "effect" – the reader, listener, viewer reporters with eyes to see and hear what happened. A direct participant in the event the author himself all readers, listeners and viewers represented. Report: events, thematic. The event represents an event with the value of the report public immediately in chronological event (as well as event and provides post-incident reports). An example of an event report: international issues were discussed at the meeting. Kuwait on May 27-28, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) Council of Foreign Ministers (OIC CFM) held its 42nd session. Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan Askar Musin Kazakhstani delegation headed. Journalists report the accident to the image of a true emergency switch. "Egemen Kazakhstan", May 30 (journalist Saulebek Nurzhan's report) Thematic report. Topic is from the point of any event, it expanded and the real situation is allowed to read and comment, unplanned incident report. Example topic: Kostanay were required to close the KazakhTurkish lyceum cuisine. Event unexpected and unplanned report provided specific comments. "Egemen Kazakhstan", May 29 (journalist Yelena Zharimbetova report). 38
Report the problem. This genre headings "problem report" type publications, broadcasts often occurs. In addition to those events or other problems, the author obligation. Why talk about the events and problems related to the reader what is absolutely necessary. Reporters modern problematic lines, uses more problematic periods. Problem is the author of the report or other attempts to study the problem. Promoting this genre. Other newspapers and publications, are going to take the mutual influence between genres and sunset. The most important thing in the preparation of a report by newspaper reporters and literary ability to speak the language, complementing the text of the interview in the collection. But differ on radio reporter speech. Newspaper journalists to thoroughly written materials, the ability to think more deeply and then read every word, the TV program will not be such opportunities. It is a program of "live" the same viewers as well as various unexpected situations, as well as the audience was surprised and difficult time, sadly. Reporting on the preparation for the first event data collection, as well as the opening theme to package stored in a quick mind and sharp points. Newspapers and radio reporter short description of the function of the event takes place in the newspaper or radio reporter creative. Report typological features of the event are divided into thematic and actual. Situational it really shows what happened. He Reporter. Most importantly, it provides specific information only. Thematic report author and journalist, has been working on behalf of a television program. In other words, captures the location of the event and presentation on the subject. So it plays a role in this production, and the organizer of the event report. Case report and the most important event in its further development. Reporters will not be anything without the word coordinate the event. But in the end of the event. As reported by staff reporters very difficult and responsible work. Situational play information reporting function, and the topic to study the phenomena of life, cultural, educational, social and pedagogical side were presented in the report can challenge an expert to solve the problems inherent in the journalistic genre. Researching a topic that has long been known as a reporter who sought to uncover those not familiar with aspects of the public sector. 39
You can write to plan in advance of such reports. Thematic and educational nature of the efficiency of the reporting is not required. The inherent features of the report: – The timely deployment of the events. – Events in prior periods. ‒ Affection environment. ‒ Through detail work. ‒ Remarks and episodes (in this report), which is a fast impact. ‒ Author of "I" feeling. ‒ Attempts to rhythm. – The image of the end of the event. The most important thing in the preparation of a report by newspaper reporters and literary ability to speak the language, complementing the text of the interview in the collection. And characterized over radio reporter speech. It is subordinate to the radio all the weapons. Documentary sounds, music, spoken words to combine all of this, is the fruit of the art of casting channel journalist. Earlier, experts had put information report genre. But now, due to a change in the form of transfer, the report did not meet the elements of different genres. In the expert report, information, and elements in the artistic and journalistic genres began to unfold. Lead the reader to an incident report, the author of the story is a genre supervisory functions. "Fundamentals of journalists creative activities" collection Ph.D., professor at the University of Vornej L. E. Kroychik report journalistic genres as one. Here, the first issue of data analysis plans. The genre of "expertise – is not the purpose or the result of the comments in the premises of the accident to happen." The style and language of the report. The language of the report is clear and dogmatic rather than subscribing to the principles of journalism, there is an understanding that should be symbolic. Imagery is considered reality shows and visibility. "Report journalist thought and attention to an incident on findings by the window," comments. Here is a way of writing, to direct the conversation, expressive exceptions, the exceptions to build the historical behavior of the characters, etc. methods will be used. Consequently, all genres through the elements of the report that was obvious. In conclusion, the report language and style can be both: authenticity and beauty. They should be a balance between the art, the story 40
becomes only if you list only documentary report will be dry and boring. In publicity any flow of information is an efficient form of information supplied by genres. His reportage in the press reports, photo, radio, television coverage is divided. Conclusions concerning the approval or lecture: 1. Press, radio and television reports common sign. 2. What is the reporting of information? 3. The language and style of reporting requirements. Task: Industry publications reports gathered, the analysis of language and style.
Purpose: The correspondence details about the features of the language. Plan: – Correspondence language features. ‒ Features of the correspondence style and genre. Basic concepts: Language (press), written language, writing style, speech, language, style, newspapers, magazines, media, journalism, language norm, missing reports, statements, interviews, letters, correspondence, and articles. References: 1. Kozhakeev T. Young Journalists satellite. ‒ Almaty, 1991. 2. Amandosov T. Kazakh Soviet media genres. ‒ Almaty, 1968. 3. Shindalieva M. Journalism genres and formats. ‒ Astana, 2012. 4. Karatayev M. Foreword // nature of the genre. ‒ Almaty, 1971. 5. Baimen S. Press genres system. ‒ Almaty, 2007. 6. Bayalieva D.S. Media language and style. ‒ Almaty, 2006. 7. Randall D. Universal journalist. – M., 2000.
Correspondence in French "respondent" and "reply to". T. Professor called T. Kozhakeev correspondence exciting. As well as, in her opinion, "traffic event to the public development. A certain coverage. His coverage of the organization, said the events in the area. Traffic accident, rather than the presentation by the fact that the analysis of the gap, raising the question of priority, the facts should be reported repetitive deep differentiation . Correspondence should be constantly modernized and a new stroke. Permanence, in the sequence is not it. On the contrary, the language of this genre of proverbs and sayings, winged words, label, leveling characteristic agreed. Thus, the "time and correspondence related to life events and phenomena to study a certain object, a person with his line of work, 42
such as arising from the facts on the basis of the analysis and synthesis of journalistic work. To keep correspondence language, art, expression, must be written in journalistic style. Correspondence reviews evidence and arguments. By this evidence, carried out as a result of their analysis and reporting. Examples of writing correspondence, themes of transparency, efficiency and accuracy will play an increasingly important role. Correspondence to the idea of "natural life of the company's new facilities, we deem it to the attention of the majority of the phenomena. According to the correspondence message genres extensive written and recorded events and phenomena that will make the final price. Correspondence is a real fact of the genre. The main thrust of writing it's a fact. Professor T. Amandosov about it: "The fact is that construction materials such as correspondence," however, the main feature of the genre: "The filing is based on the fact that any of the object based on the facts and the typical phenomenon," he concludes . This genre developed with the advent of the mass media. The first in the genre of the nineteenth century Kazakh media correspondence materials periodicals began to see the light. "Dala ualayaty", "Turkistan province", "Kazakh", etc. newspapers and correspondence logs formed as a separate heading in the genre. It is difficult to visualize the newspaper correspondence. This plays an important role in the genre of the newspaper article. Correspondence, mainly in the press is a separate social event. It is important not to be in the middle of the scene of the journalist, who saw the incident, near the head, witnesses will be writing on the conversation or data sources. Professor M.B. Shindalieva: "Today correspondence involves two groups of researchers, information and analysis. Information found correspondence in the analytical elements of the genre. So be recognized analytical genre of correspondence, "said [3,137 p.]. Correspondence journalists about the issue of social value creation, time-limited journalistic genre. General correspondence will be characterized by the following tasks: The current study to determine the legality of the truth; – Connection to the events taking place in society. – A detailed physical phenomena. 43
Research experience on a certain topic. What traffic? Where? When? lack of reporting by answering the questions that need to replenish and expand the contents of the data. There are three types of correspondence in the practice of the media. Information related to the time and place of the event or phenomenon correspondence shows the contents of the message. Advanced information correspondence article. "What? Where? When? "Before and after the event to answer questions about the character of the event data information. Analysis and conclusions do not play a very important role in the traffic. The main requirement is linked to a real event, the timely delivery. Along with a message correspondence expert analyzes. "What? Where? When? "question for what purpose? How? to answer questions. Events, suggestions, although an estimation, it may not be real. May be restricted by time and place of the event. At the same time, provides for the setting of the problem. Expert correspondence may be the reason for writing the article. Description correspondence (sketch) the time and place of the event will be limited by the author's picture and description. From second place in the analysis of the correspondence rare. The author of the material content of the event will have an opportunity to express their own point of view. This type of correspondence literary language and require the use of artistic and journalistic language. Journalists engage in correspondence, striving for the study of a specific event (if the event go on business trips to meet with the hero of the Board of experts). Description correspondence should be easy to describe the style. Operational correspondence today I tried to keep up with the demands of life, time and depending on the situation with the core facts of a specific object genre specific operational type written correspondence. Problem correspondence – correspondence of the newspaper complex than other types of genres. If the correspondence became a part of life, but the problem correspondence raises the question that if any and problems of life. Description correspondence. The future of the country known to the younger generation. On June 1, International Children's Day, "Nur Otan" party "Young Otan" 44
youth wing of the Almaty branch of "Seven is you see the arrows," incidentally, is No. 1 on May 28 orphans "Happy Baby" followed by a concert. The festive evening of "Nur Otan" party first deputy chairman of the regional branch of Liberty N. Maulenov, "Young Otan" youth wing chairman of the city branch of A Halbekov and "Sunkar" active youth, students and members of the city. The most popular singers of the country in celebrating John Kermenbayev Eiger Kalmuratov, "Ayala" and "Salamat" group, participated in the youth of the city as well as other talented young pupils and guests gave a festive mood status. During the event, the children from the orphanage, we love marten saw that. Young guests from the children against their brothers and sisters, singers sang and dance. So sweet to the kids saw the affection and respect, as well as worse, 80% of parents of children growing up there, as in life, is the source of two of their four parents Helping Hand heard are long, the eyes involuntarily young . The pictures on the memory of the teenagers at the end of the event, and prizes were awarded. Operational correspondence. By the autumn of gasoline rise again. "" Business magazine predicts, "Alash Mirror," referring to the portal site kaz.tengrinews.kz. According to the Chairman of the Board of the Association of Customs Brokers Gennady Shestakov, AI-92 gasoline may rise to 120-140 tenge autumn. According to him, such expensiveness Kazakhstan's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as Russia's fuel market, namely on north expensive fuel will affect the neighboring country. And oil and gas industry analyst Sergei Smirnov told interesting. "In March 2013, when the $ 109 cost of a barrel of oil, the price of gasoline AI-92 110 tenge, when it is $ 102 and the price of oil, gasoline, on the contrary, increased by 128. Currently, the cost of a barrel of oil is 65 dollars, the price of gasoline and 108 tenge approved. Therefore, due to the increase in gasoline prices for oil, "said Smirnov. Recall that before AI-92 petrol price was raised to 108 tenge. A similar situation was in August 2014, when it was one liter of AI-92 45
gasoline will be 141 tenge said. According to experts, such a practice can be done in order to test public opinion. Problem correspondence. The economy of the country since independence, we are proud to tell invested about US $ 130 billion. However, the experts, "that foreigners invested 130 billion has found a doubling of earnings," he said. For example, the money invested abroad during the last ten years, the country exceeded $ 140 billion. All quyğani to invest in the country, all the major domestic businessmen abroad show that a majority of the money earned in the country. Thus, the country's wealth, found success through the use of the resource, and not just foreigners who are found to carry the internationally successful only, and even the success of our domestic entrepreneurs committed to comply with the foreign banks into the blue paper. "That gives strength to the economy through their foreign" experts say. Zhumadil Bayakhmetov, scientist-economist: Over the last ten years to think that exceed the 140 billion US dollar foreign world. For example, in Turkey and overseas financial dealt with at the state level that exceeds $ 1 million. The US now local entrepreneurs, businessmen introduces certain restrictions in this regard. We are entrepreneurs and that only in our country and in neighboring Russia, which are joint ventures with entrepreneurs of the country. Cancer will successfully penetrate the market within three years, and then go into the income earned blue paper, Russia or other foreign banks will. Those who are in the field, such as oil and gas, uranium production in the field of engineering and technology businessmen who knows the source of the case is filled with businessmen and others who maintain the income of citizens abroad. They are doing this after suspicious of the country's economy. And by income from abroad, they have no idea what they were improving the economy of other countries. So this would be the publication of Amnesty capital we need. This tendency of the missing embed financial restrictions. Henceforth, such as Turks, we export more than $ 1 million for alarm. Thus, experts believe that Outflow of capital Amnesty us to not ruin the place. According to local experts, the future financial "amnesty" should have a significant positive impact on the development of the national economy. 46
We often say that future of the country's economy depends on the industry medium-sized businesses. And if we talk about the development of business in this country in recent years, the share of small and medium-sized businesses in the economy has stayed at 17 percent of GDP. In this regard, experts argue this would promote the destination through the amnesty of capital Expert correspondence. In addition to this type of correspondence message, analyzes it. "What? Where? when? "questions," for what purpose? How? "for answers. Events, suggestions, although an estimation, it cannot be real. Time school to the location of the event. At the same time, provides for the setting of the problem. Expert correspondence may be the reason for writing the article. Expert correspondence. Tomorrow at 15:00 in the Museum of the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan painter English Azhibekovich the city of Astana. UNESCO Children's art school students "Still Life" master classes. This information was reported by the press service of the MFP. In its activities, the museum pays great attention to work with children of different ages. Children's Museum "approach to childhood" socially important part of the project will take place in all events (exhibitions, competitions, festivals, master classes). English Azhibekuly master classes, the pupils of the museum's permanent partners in the children's art school provides a unique opportunity to communicate directly to the artist's creative. Master introduces the basics of academic art works of young artists. Master classes in English Azhibekuly "noble dream", a solo exhibition in the large exhibition hall of the museum. Exposure stored in the Museum of the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the artist created the first chronicle of the people and their art work of the Company's and master outlook enables you to tell us about the development of new products. In terms of their ability to self-Q.Ajibekuli monumentalist. Alibai Bapanov since 1986, and a disciple of Kenzhebai B.Dyusembayev republican, union and international exhibitions. Currently, the style Q.Ajibekuli author, a member of the Artists' Union of Kazakhstan, winner of many prizes, including B. The Kasteyev Special Prize (1999). Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan "Daryn" State 47
Youth Prize winner (2001).. "Astana-Baiterek", "capital of Kazakhstan sprouting sprouting" the winner of many competitions, such as the Presidential Scholarship (2009). State scholarship (2010). Winner. In 2012. Azhibekuly "Kazakh folk epic. Kazakh people, history and traditions, "the winner of the Republican contest proved once again its commitment to the principles of creative. Astana official website astana.kz Analytical data with traffic reporter reader a number of analyzes, estimates are also compared. The structure of the article he chooses, the traffic is heading, introduction, and the end of the main section. These initiatives of each type of genre: narrative, informative and issues. Analytical correspondence. The last two months increased by 2.5 times in the world in the context of the "white gold" price at the end of this year may also provide a 40 percent increase. Today, the cotton-growing international experts forecasts the same reports. There is no doubt that this trend in the price of the product in the field of light industry to help qimbatawina is fundamentally known. Given this "backward country" is no longer trying to cotton growing upward rolling stone. Even in some countries in the field of light industry production of cotton to meet domestic needs squashed into a bus prosperity of competitive enterprises have realized the necessity. And our attention to the works being carried out in this context? The ability to communicate in the development of the cotton industry? "Alash Aynasy," was the analysis of these factors. According to the data of the total, 20 million of wheat in the country. hectares planted, only about 170 thousand hectares of cotton will be planted. The difference is 100 times commensurate with regard to the income they say. For example, cotton plants in the country of "white gold" to buy 45 thousand tenge per ton, sent 1 thousand 300 dollars export earning three times. Unfortunately, in the nineties, there are 21 cotton plants, now there is none. 160 thousand tons of raw cotton in the country in the dirt, not long ago, in 2008, to 222 thousand hectares shaped shield North, 466 thousand tons of "white gold" harvest reached a record level. The current "income poor" allegedly cotton fields were able to reduce the volume of 2.5 times. Even so, the experts, "in the future volume of 170 thousand hectares 48
of cotton fields Risk of around 90 thousand hectares," they concluded. Information events correspondence with any data. Egemen Kazakhstan. May 6. Today the President to the number of state awards (awards) instructed. Nursultan Nazarbayev, the participants in the award ceremony Defender of the Fatherland Day and the 70th anniversary of the Victory in the Great Patriotic War. President recommended the award and all the hard work, frankly noted that people with activity. "This year, independent of the Great Patriotic War and veterans of the country-specific awards will be given. Son of today's generation of senior loans always lead to victory. As head of state and would like to thank you on behalf of thousands of veterans across the country, the President said. Nursultan Nazarbayev was born male citizen over the protection of sacred peace of the country to protect the independence of the Fatherland said that there is no privilege (Elaman Konyr). Roll out the information Konyr Elaman, wrote that camera stolen information had been stolen when he says those who distributed the information which the institution that information. Now it is achieved at what level of the criminal case. May 4. Abandoned at the airport of Astana camera woman was arrested on suspicion of theft. Zakon.kz about it. According to the press service of the Transport Department of the Interior, linear 29year-old woman complained to the police department at the airport. It is on the second floor while waiting for the flight time camera left. Immersed in women due to the loss of 140 thousand loss of property. Network employees of the police department, 49-year-old woman was arrested as a result of operational search actions. During the search of the lost item is found. By his own admission, he found the camera. Today, this data according to the article 188 of the Criminal Code (theft) of the pre-trial investigation is underway (Elaman Konyr). Correspondence is written in a narrative style. Event realities, in fact, a kind of logical connection with the case. The researchers closer to a report by scientists to prove correspondence, as well as articles and essays along with the elements. But the circle of its own subscription system with the use of the word. 49
Correspondence language features: – Type of analyzes and summarizes the facts. ‒ Explores the life events and phenomena. ‒ A network of human labor. – To keep the language, art, expression, journalistic style. Conclusions concerning the approval or lecture: 1. What is the correspondence genre? 2. Content correspondence to the specifics of how many types? 3. what is the obligation of the Correspondent? 4. What is the correspondence style fit in? 5. The correspondence has its own peculiarities? Task: Specific examples of newspapers found correspondence with the language, style features to make sure.
Purpose: Essays on the language, style details about the features. Plan: – Linguistic features essays. ‒ Essays style features. Basic concepts: Language (press), written language, writing style, speech, style, newspapers, magazines, media, journalism, language norm, missing, reports, statements, interviews, letters, correspondence, articles, reviews, review describe the sketch. References: 1. Baytursinov A. Guide to literature. ‒ Almaty, 1999. 2. Idirisov T. Reflections on the essay. ‒ Almaty, 1999. 3. Shindalieva M. Journalism genres and formats. ‒ Astana, 2012. 4. Kabdolov Z. Theory of Literature. ‒ Almaty, 1990. 5. Amandosov T. Kazakh Soviet media genres. ‒ Almaty, 1968. 6. Bayalieva D. Media language and style. ‒ Almaty, 2006.
Sketch of fiction and nonfiction complex and multi-faceted genre. Sketch of truth, the study of the socio-political context of smelting genre. Sketch of the art in the field of literature. A necessary condition for essays and journalistic äserliliginin artistic impression logical point of view, generally recognized today. Sketches of the best examples of changes that are happening in life, a new phenomena in cash and answer the most pressing issues valuable knowledge to bear in a timely manner. Artistic sketch to other genres of journalism colleagues, even if its features. Among its artistic genres, and can be seen outside. Essays approximate the lie to the truth of life on the basis of research, a symbolic description of the truth, art has become a collection of literary writing. Fiction essays that begin once a new model. 51
In most cases, the review of the work of art that will be born after him, "food". Sketch art as a genre-ideological evidence developed in the course of the properties and certain social phenomena and scientific research, and publications, and that was like in terms of different genres of art. The purpose of the artistic essays about the whole world, especially through the images reflect his appearance. Essays that described the reality of life, what is truth, so only a sketch of the realities of his time. This, of course, cannot be a reason to leave the essays on art. For example, the master made a beautiful jug in the day-to-day use, and therefore a work of art. Changes in other genres, such as a sketch of journalism, the newly born, there is a growing. Some species existing sketch, was a pioneer of the time, which caused the modern story come to life. In some cases, raised the essays dedicated to the theme, "Agricultural essay", "home essay", "political essay", "social story", "Economic Review" that threatens to turn into a class to build a separate process. This essay on the genre unable to reach one of the researchers themselves, to tell you the various thoughts and conclusions. Of A.Baitursynov his "Literature guide" Sketches "melodic" said Kleiman, modern writing, biography, reference, history, historical narrative is divided into species. 19201930 artistic sketch provided depending on the species. At that time, the newspapers, the magazine "agricultural sketch", "sociological essay", "lyrical essay", "Economic Review", "political essay", "collective essay", "production sketches", "behavioral essay" and growing. Idrisov Toleubay: "Road trip", "a sketch-portrait", "adventure story", "persuasive essay", "bad review" will conduct species. Kazakh journalism and journalistic stories, memoirs, lyric and philosophical passage, portraits, ethnographic, cyclic type. Kazakh ocherk language and style of each writer a unique and creative differences. Style birth, puberty, maturity and pen essays every way, then the general outlook, education, philosophy, thoughts and knowledge, the route is visible. Kazakh fresh from ocherk B. Mailin`s humor, M. deep game, based on the specific facts of S. Mukanov skills, G. Musrepov, lyricism, see the simple truth G. Mustafin see style one day, one month, one year, convinced What each exercise, practice, can be achieved by learning. 52
Place in mixing genres essays. Widespread review of Soviet journalism, journalistic genres, including artistic and journalistic purpose is known that the nature of the genre. To subscribe to the journalistic genres including essays on the use of images of nature and art, art and literature together. Essay documentary colorful language to describe the main facts in mind, the subject of literature at the imaginary obtained. Tension sketch of a person's life, dynamic light episodes. Essays in philosophical discussions and dialogue with the portrait, there are exemplary details. The distinctive feature of essays – a symbolic moment of narration of the life of the characters. There is coverage of the events journalistic sophistication. Sketches of the total rare or typical character. Essays feature is not only based on data from reporting the truth, as well as creative thinking labor used artistic techniques. The composition of the event not contradict the logic judgment. Review of trends in view of a certain period of time, so there is the impression of the past. Essays on the plans for the first incident, a man appears. Sketch of incremental political and socio-economic analysis, is rarely used in the description of what happened. The Soviet Union fell apart, the previous dogmatic ravaged essays and journalism at the shade. However, in the present transfer attention to the emerging trends, essays still a viable genre that has been determined. Moreover, a new type of reader essays began to offer English journalism ficherz. Ficherz and lay scientists and specialists from one genre to see some signs of essays, some of the features of essays as a completely different genre. Essays Fishers own opinion is that of a journalist, literary and artistic language. There used to communicate with signs featuring genres. For example, the expert essays can be attributed to Fishers. The method of analysis of a specific event information, and there are also the method of using the language of art. It is a modern story – a report about the artistic language and expertise extract. Essays will be a wide. However, readers should consider whether bothering. What must be considered when writing an essay? – fact analysis, on balance it is important not to; – should be relied upon more literary approach, each data paint thickness can be emotional, mental nodes. 53
It does not matter the time of -events – in sketch science, art, literature face of the elements of his art synthetic wax. You can enter a new kind of nonfiction and methods – such important event, not a person; – volumes are not limited to, editor-in-chief, it is difficult to reduce it. The structure of the essays: – News – step-by-step presentation of the event. – Determine the cause of the incident. To subscribe to remember the context of the values of the freebreakthrough. His thoughts are at the level of the person. So, What is an essay? This report tells an interesting story through the use of art, and I can say that the symbiosis of analysis. You do not have to express an opinion essay or report the news to the latest developments. It is not instantaneous, "chronic" problems suitable for the genre. The theme of the essays fails. However, this is designed for areas of the genre: a biography, social issues, the environment, health care, etc. – An article written in this genre broader than the information or information, artistic and there is a lot more information. But the article also should remember that it can become a bore. A concept that information and make it interesting for the purpose, effect of interest to the reader by sharing. The reader will consider the event your eyes. It is dry feel on the outskirts of the journalists held a rethink of the facts, and requires access hearts. In most cases, the attention of the reader or entertainment, not even worth trying to learn something. According to a report by correspondence and essays semi-hot, is a semi-cold product. Accordingly, essays and recipes and chef, will vary based on the level of a journalist. Sketch of the heat is not news, because it will think only after receiving information about the author. Then the journalist what the facts to readers citing that the lack of truth. Sketches other features: He reported a neutral analysis of the facts from the – The facts are in turn converted. – the fact that develops in the direction of artistic, literary and can translate. 54
– The time factor is not so important here. – The mixed nature of the genre, it is in close contact with literature, art and science. – Always artistic and journalistic analysis of the new methods will be developed. – Reading material is the main faces of the people, the feeling created around the line. – reduction of essays editor for always difficult. The main types of essays: Portrait sketch– external account in the form of an interview on a specific person, it's not only the inner-world features, focuses on the anniversary of his biography; Railway travel stories about where the author article; – The study of various phenomena and interviews to explore the secret of human activity, please contact. – More detailed news article illustrated with a large extended information. Version prove whether certain events gradual accumulation of materials. Problem essay – open conflict and human relations. Household sketch of the reconstruction of the crime, it is not a legal conscience in terms of price. The task of the human phenomenon of conspiracy and help determine the circumstances which led to this crime. As a result, Conclusions concerning the approval or lecture: 1. What is the difference between fiction essays and journalistic essays? 2. What is the language and style of essays? 3. What types of essays? Task: "Kazakh literature" newspaper and "Star," published in the journal essays analysis of language and style.
Purpose: To learn more about the language and style of satirical genres. Plan: – Satirical genres Language – Satirical style genres. Basic concepts: Language (press), written language, writing style, speech, language, style, newspapers, magazines, media, journalism, language norm, missing, reports, statements, interviews, letters, correspondence, articles, reviews, review , description, essays, satire, pamphlet. References: 1. Kozhakeev T. Satirical genres. ‒ Almaty, 1983. 2. Kozhakeev T. Satire basis. ‒ Almaty, 1996. 3. Kabdolov Z. The word art. ‒ Almaty, 1992. 4. Kwiatkowski A. Poetical prediction. – M., 1965. 5. Shindalieva M. Journalism genres and formats. ‒ Astana, 2012.
To study the history of the Kazakh satire genre and artistic features of the radical left an indelible mark on Kazakh journalism, science, scientist T. Qojakeev. For the path of development of the Kazakh satire "Kazakh satire" (1970), "Abai satire" (1970), "Kazakh Soviet satires" (1975), "and the era of Satire" (1976), "The problems of the Kazakh satire" (1978) "Man, Society, Satire" (1980), "a satirical genres" (1983), "Satire – the strongest weapon" (1985), "Satire" (1996) wrote the most complex and high-quality publications. T. Kozhakeev: "Satire – a realistic aesthetic features of participating themselves to the study of the phenomena of life assessment methods and tools, the inherent nature of the secret nature of the personal names of literature," said if the reference , "Word Art" 56
Z. Kabdolov scientist in his work entitled: "Satire – a pledge of strength and spiritual power of the population. It is an ambitious literary development, as progressive pursue the strong force, "said . "Poet prediction" work A.Kvyatkovskiy: "satire – reality of adverse events of mercury exposure, aims to smile or song written literature," said . T. Kozhakeev satirical genres classified as follows: – Satirical poetry genres (for example, epigrams, satire and parody, song, Cartoon). – Satirical fiction and nonfiction genres (feleton pamphlet). – Satirical prose genres (satirical stories, satirical stories, satirical novel). For example at the beginning of the individual or society is unpleasant for some, defect, unacceptable behavior tests, tests figuratively. Mostly person and not another bird illustrates that happened at the beginning or something. As an example: ("Kazakh literature", 30/01/2009. I.Krilovtan translated Abdrahman noble "Frogs and bull"). Still see the water pinch of oxen It was Teneskisi Frogs The basis would Ishtar Title swollen had dried off. "See, my friend, I have to be a bull?" "From where the bull to get it too far" "Look how tolistim? Do not covered belly? " "If there is still little style!". I am a bull frog ishqinip You need to go ventricle, Tarsus said in a rush end of the Pacific. Author and some have slammed the behavior of the people in the society through the bull frog. Here are not able to hold on to the world, does not know surely. Epigram certain people, things, being that mocking assess the phenomenon in the context of a joke or a smile, if necessary, would be open to expose satirical poetic 2-8 sweep small genre. As an example: 57
("Kazakh literature" (1992). 27. 03. Ashirbek Sigay known epigram). No – ZAM, nor rector, Once he is on everything. Or returning to the effort, What a pile of heart! Would critic thinking, language, sharp, Theater criticism exhaustion. Out of the hands of the authorities, Asheke a moment forearm species. It was born of good intentions, chase A. Sigay governor's offices, referred to the wishes of humor epigram. A travesty against the concept of written work. Post piece is considered to be a parody of the language, style of speech, Bunageneration, to use the bass response. The form of the original species, are similar in format, content will be mainly directed against him, the plaintiffs say. For example, (the "Kazakh literature", 20.11. 2009. Umit Zulharova, Kairat Nurtas performance of "Dream" music song: How do you remain You initiate bias To keep you up to cry my heart out of you. Chorus: Time is to ask me to mislead Bank to take me. Tenge could not save you. Ahead of me again ahead of the market. Hard to find the money Brought to life Funny away Create life such as this. It is a parody of view. The text of the song form as a whole has been completely different. That material needs at the beginning of the song, everyone was added. That's a travesty. Caricature of negative life events, and individuals for the purpose of exposing faults humor, satire and criticism, away method used in the form of a fun-art visual art (mostly graphics) genre. Cartoony humor, satirical divided into two parts. Humor cartoon laugh at some of the only people shortcomings. 58
Satirical cartoon harmful to society exposes the shortcomings anger and aversion. French cartoon "clips" concept. It has two facets of image and text. Cartoon often generous life pleasant people intended to demonstrate the good news of their good qualities. Sometimes you just hang their own imperfections and condemnation, and a desire to get rid of. Sharjah language requirements. He is playful, bright ideas, should be made transparent, reasonable. Satire and propaganda, journalistic genre. His time, his time raises the issue of critical importance. To subscribe to the nature of journalistic response, a statement of motives. Satire and fiction genre. The image of the types of people the beginning of the episode, sharpening, climax, resolution, dialogue, description concessions. Satire and satirical, humor genre. Satire artistic language, literary finish the contract. Journalistic genres satire written: correspondence satire, satire articles, review satire, satire report, divided into satire review. Satire correspondence happened a separate operational life, and the fact that, analyzes it. It will address the event, the people, were accurate. Its order is as the report. Action is presented attractive. Feet would be pierced with a sharp cut stones node appears to be the culprit. Style attractive, sharpen pleasure in a lot of correspondence. Feuilleton – article accurate and specific address does not exist. This idea develops personal facts. The fact itself is not used to, select either the most important thing to implement trust and make sure of the correctness of the facts. There's an image, description and presentation comes together. The idea is transmitted with a special attitude, satirical way and journalistic manner. Feuilleton-report is a means to report or to report what is happening in the world, in different sports. It's all included in the report and written in the same genre and style. Feuilleton – survey is a survey of the shortcomings in everyday life and about unpleasant facts. Here to talk about work and personal materials known newspapers, magazines. In the press the very first skit-examination made І.Zhansugirov. On released in '20 skit titled "Gazet emes, consert". As a result, this means that Feuilleton – in literature, journalism, including satirical and humor in the language style of the same genre 59
desired. Compatibility three genres has great influence, and celebrated feature of the genre. The pamphlet– is from the Greek word means Pam (all) Phleqo (burn). As skit, this journalistic genre. The topic for today, this solves the problem at the time. The pamphlet is written mainly based on single public buildings and the entire system. And all this, all the staff and the purpose of exposing and social order, all the rules that were to be denied. And in the end, journalism satirical genres in the description of the features that they are true and accurate. All that is described disadvantages of life. Closing Provisions lectures: 1. T. Kozhekeev which groups shares satirical genres? 2. In this time, the satirical genre as seen in the press? 3. What requirement for language and style of the satirical genre? Task: The newspaper "Kazakh adebietі" each year in this newspaper published materials such as humor "Kalzhyn Kalta", "Kozhanasyr қorzhyny", "Bүyenbaydyn pushpagy" to analyze all of these materials.
Purpose: Tell about the materials that are designed for children's reading. Plan: – Requirements for the articles and children's literature. – Language which is designed for children's articles. Basic concepts: Language (language of the press), writing, writing style, conversational style, newspaper, magazine, media, journalism, language norm, news, reportage, interview, letter, correspondence, articles, reviews, surveys, descriptions, essays, satires, pamphlet. References: 1. Baymenshe S. Genre system in the press. ‒ Almaty, 2007 2. Bayalieva D.S. Language and style in the media. ‒ Almaty, 2006 3. Shyndalieva M. Genres and forms of journalism. ‒ Astana, 2012. 4. Rendall D. Universal journalist. ‒ M., 2000.
For children's literature and the article should be stringent. There is first of all, we should note the age of the children. The article must be of an educational nature, have to influence the children's feelings, a young psychology. Literature should be easy to understand children, accurate and understandable. In works not only a good hand, but also disadvantages, too, need to write. In the children's newspaper, the one who writes the stories they write a reduction, it is necessary to know it. In the article the author of the children in a beautiful way, commonly used methods: a comparison, description, allegory (eg: changes in the verses in the people, behavior). All material that did not matter, then transformed into more important and necessary for all. For example: cunning, malice can be explained but it is impossible to see. All this speaks in allegories Sabit Donentaev "Auyrgan Arystan" there: King of beasts Lion ill, all the 61
animals got together and came to pay a visit to him, and there was not among them Fox, blabbed about it to Leo Wolf attacker. And then Fox cheated, and said that too unwell, barely a cured, because he ate the back, legs tendon Wolf. Leo calmed down and immediately called the Wolf, and cut off his tendon ... In this story, it is said that cunning– compulsion – Fox and Lion and Wolf malefactor – so this is an allegory. In those cases when the words in a figurative sense, we must be careful. For example, "Bad", "Good" such a great deal. Oral words and their spelling is also necessary to explain. Today's youth should be protected from levity. Their selection is very large and we must not forget about this. So we should be very alert to what is published in newspapers and magazines for children. In the article which is intended for children the amount should not be too large. Proposals should be brief and preferably with pictures. We all know that the world's children have their own characteristics. Written, given the peculiarity of the concept and the assimilation of each child, materials arouse interest. It is necessary to write so intelligently that interested them, that is what is written in their hearts left good. Everyone knows that mankind should pay special attention to the education of their children and instill in their subconscious only good. Literary researchers themselves often say that at the moment cannot meet the needs and requirements of a new generation of children. Many besides writers who write for children, do not pay attention to this topic, and it aggravates all. Often, due to the fact that in a society, still developing rapidly, and the flow of information is very high that children cannot learn on their own good works. Because all hang in computers, game machines, and around foreign films about the war, about the shooting, cartoons, and of course all sorts of colorful books, it's a big influence on young people. and Youth is not currently aware of Kazakh national games, and who knows may be they are ashamed of their language, they no longer speak their native language, and will diligently study other languages. It would be desirable to say that all need MASS-MEDIA it is a fact. MASS-MEDIA it is our ears, eyes and language. We will dis62
cuss the state of child's publishing houses presently. Above all duty of MASS-MEDIA to hold people in a course all what be going on. Journalism very influences on it. In Kazakhstan publishing houses for children in Kazakh language is a few. Under watching over the state there are a newspaper "Ulan" "Baldirgan" and "Аkzhelken" and private publishing houses. "Аigolek", "Zhil on yeki ay", " Мoldir bulak", spread on the republican level. The magazine of "Baldirgan" was produced in 37000 copies. "Аkzhelken" is 64000. In Russia publishing house under the name "Tram people" is produced about 2118000 copies of magazins. "Мurzilka" is 75000, the Ukrainian magazine "Mishka Toptishka" is 50000. Except these magazines there are also separately over one hundred other magazines. Comparing our magazines with other magazines, it is important to say that our children need more information. Our magazines fall behind foreign issues in design, but value and level of knowledge not worse than others. If to pay attention to the Russian and Ukrainian magazines, then it is possible to say that: – drawing magazines they use many bright colours, they are charming, but there is sense in them; – they anymore use personages from fairy-tales and animated cartoons, and yet beasts; – do not pay much attention on historical works; – there are puzzles, different games for development of thinking; – magazines "Zoo Magazine", patriotic "Naphanya". And in many Kazakhstan magazines we can mark the following: – publishing many stories and fairy-tales.
Purpose: to complete information about style of MASS-MEDIA. Plan: – Types of style of MASS-MEDIA. – Peculiarities of style. Basic concepts: A language is writing style, colloquial style, newspaper, magazine, MASS-MEDIA, publicism, language norm, report, news, reporting, note, interview, letter, correspondence, article, review, inspection, description, essay, satirical article, pamfit. References: 1. Balakayev М., Sizdikova P., Zhanpeisov Е. The history of Kazakh literary language. ‒ Almaty, 2008. ‒ 130 p. 2. Isayev С. The history of the Kazakh language. ‒ Almaty, 2010. 3. Subhanberdina U. And. ‒ Almaty, 2003.
Stylistics and types of style. Stylistics – is one of the industries of language. An aim is style. Term style concepts deep enough. This word is used in architecture, work, literature and in linguistics. In linguistics the correct use of principles of vocabulary, grammar and phonetics behaves to style. The order of words and sounds are associates with style. Style in society is divided by two types: writing and colloquial style. Norm of style depends on position, for example: officiallybusiness, publicistic, artistic, scientific, colloquial. Officially-business style – is that takes place with one person, in a singular, is the first form of declension. Publicistic style. To publicistic style is: radio of transmission, newspaper, magazines. Social and political themes are examined in publicistic style. 64
This style helps to work out publicly-social problems and reports to the people. Features of this style: – the usage of emotional elements, near to artistic style; – describing anything near to scientific style. Publicistic genres are the main article, informative news, essay, news of television and radio. Colloquial type in publicistic style is public speaking, ancient centuries of Greece and Rome. This work of culture and life of people. The creative public speaking and eloquence are connected, but have different concepts: public speaking is social responsibility having a goal theory, category, history. Eloquence is responsible for such requirements as: – has a sense, pronounced in a certain circle; – using exact arguments. Officially-business style and business style are different. Business style is used in offices and documents, and officially business are the orders of organizations, management. Documents such as a resume, biography is announcement certificate, labor book and so on. And certainly documents of citizens such as: warrant, agreement, orders explanatory. There are standards and signs in business style. In business style such words are used as: I ask, declare, testify, report. Business style is used mainly use for physical persons. Officially-business style on the face of it is standard, lexically and grammatically, both require an orthographic norm, as forms. In business style maintenance has the special grammatical form. For example written with order tone from the third person: let built, done and a statement is begun with words I ask and so on. Scientific style is functional style. Scientific style and scientific materials are written by people from different professions. Logic and right thinking most important in scientific to force. Scientific materials must contain well-proven and exact facts. As well as all styles, scientific style is written in folk-literary style. Scientific style is subdivided into types, for example academic. 65
The main feature of the chosen words – the concept of the name specified in the field of science and technology, the definition of special (definitions) logical semantics and specific, based on the system of concerted action wishes. That is the name of a fully logged chosen words, for spending acts systematically and consciously, it agreed with the Commission and approved by the chosen words. What is peculiar to find words in nature – one sense, but not in all cases be the same storage sense. Since the content of language units and other value-chosen words: content chosen words – another the right word its concept, meaning – as a character the right words. The meaning and content in accordance with the chosen word to each other and to identify, discover meaningful sense. Creating a system – chosen words in Kazakh: – Youngsters across the grounds chosen words; – On the basis of the alternative selected by virtue of the words of a foreign language (vellum) by transfer of selected words. – No change in strength of foreign chosen words – can be divided into. Language – the human consciousness of the global recognition of the image, identification mark being. Human nature, learn through language, and gives the names of the phenomena of matter in it. Contact the national language and national unity of knowledge, and there is also overlap. Language – a set of accumulated spiritual treasures of the people, all of the storage "warehouse", the "stock" in the expenditure for various brands, including the story of listeners and speakers, scientific, artistic works, congratulated the holiday and the action in the official documents. Wish – in the language of the speech units in the course of the action, spending, in writing or orally during a certain period of time in a different, become a tool for each type of information. wishes word, each according to its own discretion, cognitive, skills for, applied depending on the level of education to express their point of view, the general meaning of the concept of mark units in the language. Communication response among the people), so wish in oral vote, rhythm, tempo, timbre, intonation ID relations Wishing a person feeling horizon, reflection, world, glance looks Only logged in Elementary wish only the sample, and any text contained in the 66
written information (scientific, cultural, official) Is recognized as the coffee. Specific features of spoken language, creating a special mark – depending on the situation of speech, especially the use of language units, depending on the emotions. The language spoken monologue, a dialogue is created. Speech by one person to the public, presentations, consultation, transfer. The second sign of speaking and culture of speech" – his motive Spoken dialect in the language of words, reversible, tab, words are often found Attraction – style conversation, often used methods description Unlike other manifests the originality of style and spoken language, parsing... style construction offers an example. In addition, a dialogue established and phrases without random states. Book-writing style in a variety of fields, depending on the position: paper and official, journalistic, artistic, scientific and literary style is classified as Book and writing styles of science, bills, paperwork, official documents fully covered by issues of public importance. It is in the language of official papers and documents with an indication of the facts, are systematically recorded on one track Scientifically proved scientific style is characterized by the object of study smooth presentation of ideas, references, proof, and is based on a formula. Requirements for the journalistic style – written on a topic which, logically, should be reasonable Journalistic works on the subject, sorted by content and prepositions words and be able to apply the word Major journalistic phrases, words often used cliche. In addition, all journalistic methods of artistic speech – idioms, proverbs, sayings, aphorisms, are used. The main question the accuracy of the language press thought, knowledge of language place, using the fact style features Translation and meaning of the term, the concept is to provide each offer Specific requirements for raising issues of culture signed by the press of a common language, written work correctly in terms of grammar and lexical presence, language, style parties must be competent. Language of normal simple word recognition that word depending on the specific location – in the speech is part, takes in the structure of speech as a dialect Features professional vocabulary speech-language, defined as simple. 67
Book language – (language book A. Baitursynov), A perfect record since the Middle Ages. Previously existing linguistic traditions Writers himself. IX-X centuries until the early twentieth century, many Turkic languages in terms of grammar, there is a common tradition. Scope of the literary language to the other youngsters. N. Sauranbaev "between work competent Kazakh poets, stories in this language that some Eastern traditions (Chagatai language – the author) wrote, but the introduction of the Kazakh language, a lot of features. So, Mashkhur Zhusup Kopeyev Nurjan Naushabaeva, that Sakura language such works "Mashһүr Zhusypa into operation. It is a literary term, introduced in turn. Radloff, Vasiliev "Chagatai language" pure literary language, sometimes – "Book language" and say. A.Kryshzhanov "Chagatai language" and "literary language" category does not say R. Syzdykova: "Kazakh language Chagatai his own words" broke "took advantage" – said In our opinion, "Book language" Russian Yaroslav the Wise in the transition, the term "book learning" with the wording of the Charter of church. Book Vocabulary – words used in embodiments of the ancient Turkic peoples of the entire record. Book norm characteristic vocabulary, form certain traditions, written in the wake of the ancient Turkic language, have found application Record monuments of the ancient literary language and options entirely in the Kazakh language, the people of a strange language. He's base language – ancient Turkic language, this language is not alien to the Kazakh people, closer to seven languages. Samples proizvideny language literary language Contents of life and the second half of the XIX century The first – a classic zhyrlanғan samples proizvideny literary east by kissa – epics ("ZhusupZyliha", "horseman Boz") Eagle Mountain is a theme – the freedom of the individual principal, love, moral premises Second – Islam and the Prophet Muhammad will reward a poem ("Sal-Sal", "Rab-Friday", "Malikazhdar", "Ker-child in the desert") Writing in the XIX century, expanding the language, the language in the act of receiving the second half of this century can not be considered only in the book, looking at the floor. Can (book form SAF) meaning of the word can not completely clean, so it (can) not use Pav, everyone now uses the base word. For example, cultural, political, literary, religious, scientific, that official 68
even many, regardless of their affiliation words book vocabulary settled that Of course, only in the fact that the book vocabulary of Arabic, Persian words that do not understand where the Arab-Persian word, his stylistic only one sign. It is found in the works of the elements of language, language is a record of one approach; Abay bream traditions deeply feel to know that his secure storage. Book and writing styles, such as the style of speech, the analysis concluded previously with the use of language in specific areas of life known recognized nationalities They work in various fields of activity (function) is the official papers and style, journalistic style, scientific style and the style of artistic expression are classified allocated books – writing styles, so each other unconscious due to the high public opinion beginning to share. Most public opinion, with the value will increase in the nation, language At the same time, in everyday speech, and a book-writing styles from each other, defined features. Speech in the literary language, write demand is increasing Because "only the form of the voice recording – a language that is ignorance." In his speech in the society depending on their position, within certain limits, should be used. Book – entry style only takes place and stylistic elements of art speech writing journalistic purposes only, especially Book-written language styles is based on the general form of the national accounts, the book character. It is often used in the form of written communication, language means of styles that are used here, the book-record speech, styles of communication styles directly in the development of sight. Therefore, considered a science, bills, paperwork, public interest issues and other official documents as they are comprehensively covered in a logical sequence, breaking unneeded items are not, in nature, with accuracy, such a requirement is a book -stavitsya entry for all styles In what sphere of life, but he spent styles strict as to which services, taking into account the use of conserved patterns specific to them the word. For example, if the priority of science terms, use, political journalism, socially important legal phenomenon frequently used words These characteristic features of each style with the use of linguistic resources, their common features. Such common features, formal, scientific and journalistic styles observed Folk remedies, the general style rules and regulations of the literary 69
language he And in Kiev is not so artistic speech, the richness of the language used by a maximum of the total population in them. Book and conversational style styles are closely records Paperwork and formal style and journalistic, scientific, artistic styles together in the word "books and writing styles that name, first of all, their" origin "indicates that the basis of the formation, and secondly, it is the book style (book culture) It speaks volumes. A book – style set forth in the writings of the mark on the style of the Russian language "functional styles are called" man. Here the "art therapy" reflects, in what field of activity it performs a word style. For example, paper style in the office, scientific style – ie in the field of science. b. And also in Russian "style" system ("the system of styles"), "the styles of the literary language" ("style of literary language") terms are used. it was said that in writing is. It's like styles, and recording, either orally, in writing, for example, "o" or an article is written, that the report on this subject, committed: article writing, an oral report is based. Despite the fact that these two styles or in journalistic form. The scientific style of a form of the two countries. However, it is observed only in some cases. Because of the development of scientific style of speech, of becoming laws Whenever he patterns of development, different Mother before the October Revolution are written brightest scientific works, previously known And in modern society, including the imminent spirit of science has evolved and less. Now scientists are increasingly Kazakh, bright papers, books and monographs reached record levels. This style is based on scientific publications in the Kazakh language recording is now started to develop. But, in the Kazakh language it has the features of scientific style. It is an exception – their scientific works of research in two languages; Kazakh and Russian. For example, the social sciences, the doctor of psychological sciences, including in particular: literature, linguistics and literature in Kazakh language is recorded, as a recognition of research areas. And mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology and others in Russian, as well as in the field of exact sciences are studied. It still points to the facts of scientific style falls develops and improves. Scientific Official Theme securities and similar hand there First of all, this similarity is observed from the use of language. Features of the language of documents and official papers, indicating the fact that exactly in the tracks of the recording system 70
focus. Since record keeping, it is a means of communication in the official documents. Scientific works, such as those mentioned above, and the types of securities that are used in both languages. Now, however, most often in relation to securities and official documents in the office, in Russian. Among them government posts, the Supreme Council, decrees, regulations, other documents with Russian translation into Kazakh state, as they are published in the newspaper. Therefore, the majority of districts established under the influence of operating in the Kazakh language, the word of the Russian language: the approval of heating, heating pace, household, services, service delivery, implementation, support, uphold, achievements, wide, open, run, problem increase, thanks , ie a reprimand b The windings of the word is such a thing-go and in official documents as a linguistic unit of finished paper, office paper, it is the nature of the samples. The windings that are registered in the word in the current report are now institutions, administrative published in the newspaper, in a report of the newspaper and Chronicle, the report found, and more. For example, a "major overhaul of tractors", "elector running system", "warmly endorsed" .b But the meaning of the phrase, formed at different times in the newspapers is not the correct use of:.. In various repeated too much, they are in the language of the newspaper to him include the following examples: "the school was overhauled at home", "crop" four water "or" put into operation of housing ... ", "... the ways language launch", " Murat Ospanov take into account the difficult conditions, Murat dual sovereign his brother a job, said "or" assumed the commissioning of a new plant ... ". Styles are closely related to each other speech style, the bookwriting style and the book-in recording This is especially common in the art of Kiev was more. People in common language, in oral, written, used all kinds. Previous examples of the official letter, the second – order. Literary works, artistic means of language Make up a picture of life as a whole, cherez.V canvas of the big picture, many colors, styles and literary forms of speech, given in Kiev, an art piece is used as a whole, creates a picture Therefore, the essence of a work of art, rather than individual words in it, and the content of the picture, rich words. He is above – mentioned record is compared to total some features of speech styles, style. As well as a book -record styles seem 71
unrelated examples Here, books and language, formed on the basis of records and records management style, scientific, journalistic, artistic expression briefly to the style description provided. In the end, what kind of style, which, in turn, the subject of a separate study. Therefore, the full audio lectures cover all styles, a comprehensive analysis is impossible. 1. Reference and encyclopedic (genres: dictionaries, reference books, etc.). 2. Research and evaluation (genres: review, review, expert opinion, polemical speech). 3. Research and Training (genres: textbooks, manuals, lecture). 4. Research and guidance (instruction manual, memo, recommendations). 5. Scientific-business (genres: patent, copyright certificate specification, application, act, regulation, decision, report) "A scientific style in the Kazakh language is conditionally divided into: Pure scientific style, scientific-style tutorial, scientific and popular style. Signs of scientific style. With regard to the scientific style are: scientific works written in various fields of science. Results of the system of logical thought – the main feature of the text is a scientific style. Types of scientific style: style of purely scientific, research and academic style, popular scientific style. Substantial scientific style attributes: precision, objectivity, consistency. The terms of science and technology, art and politics, the specific names, representing the phrase or word terms used in a particular area. The terms, sect oral, cross – sect oral and general regarded as scientific. Home lexical features of scientific style – terms. Scientific style – one kind of inveterate style. This includes scientific works in the Kazakh language of each sphere. The object of study in a scientific style – a substance or phenomenon is characterized on a scientific basis, it requires evidence. And, here, to prove the correctness of the views must be based on the need to rely on the law of logic, the law is correct, that is, thinking .Therefore, the logic is very important in scientific style. – The style of fiction in the press. Concepts: Language (language of the press), voice recording, voice recording style, language, style, newspaper, magazine, media, journalism, language norm, most importantly, report, report, interview, letter, correspondence, articles, reviews, charts, sketch , essays, satires, pamphlet. 72
Purpose: Literature about the use of language in the press. Plan: – Fiction of the language of the literature. – Style of the literature in pressing. References: 1. Duysebaeva M. Some problems of the Kazakh language. ‒ Almaty, 2003. 2. Mukanov S. Selected Poems. ‒ Almaty, 1974. 3. Auezov M. Karash-Karash. ‒ Almaty, 1960. 4. Isaev S. The history of the Kazakh language. ‒ Almaty, 2010. 5. Bayalieva D.S. Media language and style. ‒ Almaty, 2006.
The style of fiction or art speech – a special way of reflecting the thoughts and feelings through arts. Language. Language-man covers his actions from all sides. Action language is infinite. Man is not only to speak their mind, but also the mood and emotions, but also expresses the influence of the consciousness of others. The concept of speech influence the speaker has a vivid oral expression and artistic works of the writer – a recognition of life report feelings, emotions. In our speech bright word for a long time spent in the usual form, and in the artistic differentially presented words identified stylistic purposes. The literary work written word art – facts of life, full, deep, containing a living organism. In which both man and beast and bird and nature – all participate. Life-customs, agriculture, the economy, appear on the path of development. Presents many artistic characters. They are grouped in the pleasant and unpleasant images ,. In turn, each of them has its own unique appearance, portrait drawn, action, vision, knowledge of life is described. It features characters 73
language. Thus, the prepared sample form. Works of people are in the nature of the fence. The works of the ideological content, artistic features, plays an important role in the definition. Works of art, paintings and images expressed through the properties of the various phenomena of life, for example: Klyki – Almas, and language – poison Dark thoughts, gray flag Mouth wide, wide stomach, For a made hand, It was the wolf, jackal – "Jean," 58 2 S. Mukanov, wanted to bring the student to the history of the vast, depicts the brutal treatment of the people, carrying out unscrupulous representatives of modernity, uses a rational look comparisons, epithets, comparisons. Another example of such a description of the M Auezov: "The Red and green houses warm blanket, dear people sitting on the chairs, as if they were mad dogs," or, "This is a fantastic and strong ... Kokyshtar, Sarsender are in the thick-thick clothes. In the examples, there is a special shaped words. However, the use of words here, this proposal is even – express. To context that the writer describes a student feels as if sees with his own eyes. By master of emotional ways to use. The student is keenly aware of all the virtues of truth, which the writer described visually. That negative image of figurative language techniques, using expressive. Thus, the word, images, committed with the use metaphor made quickly, is long-lasting in the mind, word, action stabilized, obtained shaped sample. There are ways a metaphor for the perfect image of the application form and more. It can be seen from the example below: "Baktygul sat on the horse saying" let`s, eat! "– Set off. On the steed had all the tools they were given various cracks, short sounds and galloping steed tipped over. It reflects the author through all the different sounds. And students feeling as if all heard with our ears. Language of a work of art – a problematic issue. Commits an artwork – writer. Features works of the writer, skill, style observed. The works, the problem of language, cannot be considered separately. Master Language issues. Therefore, speaking about the art of the writer, it should first of all start with the language. 74
Skill formations – is the ability to take good care of in a narrow range, including the image of a man, nature, painting, action, action as well as words that need to create different literature. Word images, thoughts and images must be clear, aesthetic only if they are appreciating. Such thoughts are attending enrich the figurative meaning of words and new shades become more aesthetic side. Imaginative ideas, describes the phenomenon and the ability to conduct all. Fiction – "the art of this description through words, a nice way" .u writers, journalists, when they speak the language of art, the main object of both being literary work. In a literary work, a basic tool – language. The builders constructed elegant tall tower made of brick, built considering all the beauty in life. And in the life of the various writers, create a knowledge and skill artistic images. The image of the master, the art of the writer, knows the common language of the national wealth, the ability to describe, using figurative speech. The writer's style – artistic, folding into a unique style of each writer on the composition, method of application. The style of the writer is his own, recognition of the life, the ideological treasury of the national language as a whole. Language ways to use the tool of writers are not the same. As people's lives are not like their views on each other, as well as similar discrepancy records in a manner that is not in the style of writers. Each writer independent features. Writers, poets, individual style and features, handwriting formed on the basis of the national language as a whole. The style of the writer, especially the popular language is an important part of the literary language as a whole, it will be developed as an extension. The language of the writer, independent (individual) style – it is a system of linguistic techniques characteristic of fiction, aesthetic development, people work on their own, using their age. The individual style of the writer, the problem of literary skill, first of all, the problem of national literature. Therefore ways of development of the literary language, learning a language for understanding the process of formation of individual creativity of writers and their words to the selection, application methods, ownership and enrich the literary language as a language model in common folk instrument, a new word in connection defines a comprehensive analysis of the provision in the style, artistic expression has a great value. 75
On the language of art, until now I studied what I said on this occasion academician V.Vinogradov we learn in "The language of fiction." The author in his work, that to learn the language of art of the Soviet era, with indication of the shortcomings and success, learning the language of art to say good reviews. On the research and writings in connection with style, located in articles, most of its object of study, attention is allocated depending on how the study works of language. Today, it is undoubtedly an important issue in the field of artistic style. But the main style in the art of speech and other issues are not disclosed. Difficulties encountered in the study of the language of art – his prose, drama and poetry, as well as covering the genres is more modern genre. Various genres, language features, characteristics, certain methods of investigation that is difficult to say anything. Depending on the specifics of the work, genre, language, identity and literature of linguistic theory in textbooks, in some works, said gas is avoided. A specially written labor is almost ready. Style unlike other competitions, Olympiads, broad artistic style. There are elements of all styles. Objectives spent language of artistic techniques. Frequently used shaped words. A feature of each writer his tongue to taste, method of application. He especially with each other in a ratio other than style fiction, unique, exclusive system. Not only literature as an art word. Knowing the realities of life, which contributes to knowledge. The artistic style of fiction language and concepts are not identical, the use of language elements of artistic style language materials, establishing language literature, as well as others, are subject to style elements in each language version of periodicals. It is printed in the press, as well as the nature of the material. Specific to the journalistic style of language elements, materials, establishing, in particular, and even in the official language characteristic of the art style of language elements, depending on the nature of the material that is being spent. She was born and the need for certain periodicals language, linguistic stamps, which are formed, it shows the constructive personal designs and models continuously. Periodicals language – on the one hand, these properties are characteristic of the style elements of the language system, .the 76
action on the basis of official, scientific literature, official papers close to the language, the language of literature, applications are present on the other hand, through fiction character that is characteristic of the art style of language elements, based on the application of the system, by contrast, the scientific literature, official papers isolated language, is getting closer to the literary language. From here, the use of certain linguistic units and elements of the periodic printing language, depending on the position, sorted paradoxical, but now we are seeing a process resulting in complex language. Particular attention should be paid to the peculiarities of the language and the language of literature, periodical press. Fiction Language: 1. The language of works of art, he in some societies, in particular the practical everyday language, the language of literature and literary language in this sense is the history of language the subject of history. 2. The text of the prose and poetic language that underlie their preparation and okyluynyң provisions. These are the rules, vocabulary, grammar, even if the specific provisions of the common language phonetics. In this sense, as a manifestation of the national language, the language of fiction aesthetics, including history, literature is the subject. Daily treatment in dialect, realized in speech, language fiction. Literary language in the whole society "dialect" as a species. It is an ancient Indian language of poetry in Europe, there is a view on the monuments of ancient Turkic language. I every literary method in the direction of the new time (classicism, romanticism, realism, naturalism, various modern, avantgarde currents) in their programs of design techniques in a new way at looking poetic language, tried characteristics. Along with the process of literary language development, his theory began to develop. The simplicity of the language to be understandable – the main one of the principles of journalism. Journalism – not fiction. Do not bother, in search of rare beautiful words. To that shines out, incidentally, not a fact. Use the picture of exactly the strong verbs. You yourself, being in the center of events, what impressions? The states, as well as reading. 77
– Good stuff, easy to read and quick. Sentence – should be long. It is advisable to offer seven or eight words wrong. – Interesting presentation of language material. "Use Humor. Of course, if it is not a terrible tragedy. Use fewer adjectives." The brutal murder "and, detail, providing the harm caused by his character. – From Kalki and avoid stereotypes. Kazakh youth against newspapers "black-eyed, we" meet a lot of ice insignificance. Source, depending on the color – it's not a cultured person. "People are paying", "ascetic nation" is mainly used in the determination impractical. – Avoid buzzwords. As make use of author to provide more often they experience. Not clear from the large number of heavy terms Intelligence, material quality. – Cite, so it was two or three sentences. It happens a lot not understood citations. – Morals do not read. Remember, judgments, estimates, preparation of conclusion – the task of another material. – Read a few times after discharge. The findings in a lecture questions or propositions: 1. The language of fiction? 2. Press the expression style of fiction? The task: Elements of the style of fiction, essays, analyzes occurring genres. The concepts of artistic style and language of fiction preparing abstracts.
Purpose: Newspaper language genre, style, requirements. To learn more about the requirements to the genre. Plan: ‒ Requirements language newspaper genre. ‒ To the style of newspaper genres requirements. Basic concepts: Language (language of the press), voice recording, voice recording style, language, style, newspaper, magazine, media, journalism, language norm, most importantly, report, report, interview, letter, correspondence, articles, reviews, charts, sketch , essays, satires, pamphlet. References: 1. Duysebaeva M. Some problems of the Kazakh language. ‒ Almaty, 2005. 2. Sauranbayev H. Phonetics Kazakh Studies. ‒ Almaty, 2000. 3. Kenesbay I., Musabaev H. Modern Russian language. Vocabulary, phonetics. ‒ Almaty, 2005. 4. Isayev S. The history of the Kazakh language. ‒ Almaty, 2010.
The newspaper is not limited to the transfer of information, genres, the price is different, depending on the circumstances of the various phenomena that occur in society. Therefore, the priority word permissibility price character. Such characteristic linguistic, stylistic differences, should be understood. The volume of journalistic genres as standard with a limited phrases, words, often die. As for the lexical peculiarities of the genre newspaper, the newspaper fund, used mainly in the genre estimated lexicon dictionary. The insertions are many words make little sense. Read the information provided in the text of a newspaper reader acquainted with the smooth adaptation of style without any problems. Synonyms style equally not apply to all types. 79
The official, depending on the circumstances, sometimes used separately synonyms scientific style. Only two or three of the same synonym, as well as speech and journalistic style, literary and artistic styles and characteristics. Thought complement word synonym of certain revenues, adding it is used for the purpose of the story. Synonyms of the language, as developed, its efficiency will know will know. Synonyms in the language shows the national identity of each nation. The impact of language and style in the formation of the engaged. Similarities and differences between them, determines all genres of journalism. You can call such features typical features of the genre. Like all sectors of humanitarian categories, in fact the mark in the genres of newspapers. In case of referring to the genre of the product can only be one, no more. The reason, in the nature of the material and two or more of the features of the genre to subscribe for an equal encounter. According to the research scientist D. Litch foreign language advertising may be "advertising simple language interpreter emotional representative rather than the nature of the character." Speaking of being emotionally expressive construction representative disclose the benefit to be used in advertising activities. It must be close to many of the readership. The research proved that the journalistic style of speaking elements are met, the readers are connected with a good reception. Using of simple sentences in advertising text make them expressive emotions, affects the perception of dynamics readers quickly. Simple sentences, incomplete sentences will open semantic advertising tone of the inversions. Advertising must comply with the norms of the literary language, literary language should be exemplary. A literary language and words used in the advertisement to be used in the sense of dictionaries. During writing advertising must focus on the scope and extent of their choosing. Sometimes, the total readership is unclear terms are used in an advertisement. Small groups of dictionary words and certain professional uses, are not effective for use in advertisements. The text of the advertising trust, must be understood in terms of the creation of the logic and vocabulary. Advertising language requires constant innovation because the words begin to sound mechanical. 80
Speaking on the text of the advertising lexicon of the Kazakh language common lexical units lexis. Depending on the nature of the application of the meaning of the word in the vocabulary of the language of the meaning of the word of features, depending on the features of the stylish types of studies. Consequently, in the text of the advertising terms, access can be found in the words synonymous and homonym phraseologisms. This specific feature is characteristic to vocabulary of advertising. Language is used in various spheres of science and technology lexis special words. They called terms. Used in various industries in terms of advertising possibilities. Conclusions or approval questions of lecture: 1. Which kind of genre is advertising? 2. Role of advertising in press service? 3. Item the features of advertising text 4. What is the style of subscription advertising Assignment: Find, analysis the examples of mistakes which found in advertising language. Methodical instructions 1. The education system of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Professional education programs. The main provisions. SOSESRK. 5.03.007 - 2006. 2. Nurmanbetova D.N., Nefedova L.V., Q.Q. Sarekenova Guidelines for the development of the syllabus. – Astana: L.N. Gumilyev ENU, 2011. ‒ 33 p. 3. The provisions of the credit technology in the educational process. MES RK order № 152 from 20 April of 2011. 4. SOSESRK. Higher education. Bachelor degree. Main rules. – Astana, 2011. 5. The current progress of students in higher education institutions, model regulations for the control of the interim and final. Approved in 18.03.2008. Has been changed in 2010 and 2011.
Course teaching seminars, workshops and studio sessions, if they work, you will need to plan for curriculum The purpose of the lesson plan should be clearly identified, teaching theoretical knowledge (seminar) or practical skills (practical and studio) and was sent to the formation of competence, professionalism or the course of a lesson plan based on the relevance of the need for skills development and what teaching methods are used. Seminars, practical or studio conducted in accordance with the structure of the lesson plan. Not only to the lesson plan, which is the process for the preparation of students as well as teaching the necessary knowledge, skills and a set of skills, and sources should be specified in guidelines. Credit system of training practical (studio) training of university teachers in case stairs, business games, individual and group presentations, reasoned essays, discussions and debates, comments, and others, such as portfolio remind referred to the use of active learning methods. Studio №1. Theme of studio lessons: The concept of language and style of mass media. Language and style of the scientific conclusions. Methods which will be used: persuasive narrative essays, questions and answers. Forms of organization: team, group, individual student. Plan: ‒ The development of the Kazakh language periodicals. ‒ Literary language styles and language of the press. ‒ Periodical language and literary language features. ‒ According to the scientists about the style and the style and definitions. 82
References: 1. Bayalieva D.S. Language and style of mass media. ‒ Almaty, 2004. 2. Abylqasymov B. Language of the first Kazakh newspapers. ‒ Almaty, 2001. 3. Isayev S. Problems of knowledge in Kazakh language. ‒ Almaty, 2008. ‒ 624 p. 4. Kenesbayev I., Mousabaev G. Kazakh language nowadays. Vocabulary, phonetics. ‒ Almaty, 2005. Studio №2. Theme of studio lessons: Genres of newspapers and their language, style. Methods which will be used: persuasive narrative essays, questions and answers. Forms of organization: team, group, individual student. Plan: ‒ the linguistic features of the newspaper genre. ‒ The stylistic features of the newspaper genre. References: 1. Baimenshe S. The system of press genres. – Almaty, 2007. 2. Bayalieva D.S. Language and style of mass media. – Almaty, 2004. 3. Zhumaliev Q. Style – feature of the art. – Almaty, 2006. 4. Qarataev M. The principles of research of style. – Almaty. 2004. 5. Shyndalieva M. Genres and formats of journalism. – Astana, 2012. Studio №3. Theme of studio lessons: Articles language, linguistic features and stylistic peculiarities of its importance. Methods which will be used: persuasive narrative essays, questions and answers. Forms of organization: team, group, individual student. Plan: – The linguistic features of the articles. – The stylistic features of the articles. References: 1. Baimenshe S. The system of press genres. – Almaty, 2007. 83
2. Bayalieva D.S. Language and style of mass media. ‒ Almaty, 2004. 3. Zhumaliev Q. Style – feature of the art. ‒ Almaty, 2006. 4. Qarataev M. The principles of research of style. ‒ Almaty, 2004. 5. Zhaqyp B. The formation and development of the Kazakh journalism. ‒ Almaty, 2004. 6. Shyndalieva M. Genres and formats of journalism. – Astana, 2012. Studio №4. Theme of studio lessons: The linguistic features of the note (missing) genre. Methods which will be used: persuasive narrative essays, questions and answers. Forms of organization: team, group, individual student. Plan: ‒ The linguistic features of the note (missing) genre. ‒ The stylistic features of the note (missing) genre. ‒ Future journalists public teaching skills. References: 1. Baimenshe S. The system of press genres. ‒ Almaty, 2007. 2. Bayalieva D.S. Language and style of mass media. ‒ Almaty, 2004. 3. Shyndalieva M. Genres and formats of journalism. – Astana, 2012. 4. Rendall D. Universal journalist. – M., 2000. Studio №5. Theme of studio lessons: Features of the style in the interview. Methods which will be used: persuasive narrative essays, questions and answers. Forms of organization: team, group, individual student. Plan: – A newspaper interview as a genre feature. – Interview language used depending on the types of the genre, style features. References: 1. Baimenshe S. The system of press genres. ‒ Almaty, 2007. 84
2. Bayalieva D.S. Language and style of mass media. ‒ Almaty, 2004. 3. Shyndalieva M. Genres and formats of journalism. – Astana, 2012. 4. Rendall D. Universal journalist. – M., 2000. 5. Shostak M.I. Reporter professionalism and ethics. – M., 2001. 6. Magrachev L.E. Stories, composed life. ‒ M., 1972. 7. Revenko A.G. Forbidden word. – M., 1975. Studio №6. Theme of studio lessons: Language and style of report genre. Methods which will be used: persuasive narrative essays, questions and answers. Forms of organization: team, group, individual student. Plan: – Language of report genre. – Style of report genre. References: 1. Baimenshe S. The system of press genres. ‒ Almaty, 2007. 2. Bayalieva D.S. Language and style of mass media. ‒ Almaty, 2004. 3. Shyndalieva M. Genres and formats of journalism. – Astana, 2012. 4. Rendall D. Universal journalist. – M., 2000. Studio №7. Theme of studio lessons: Features of correspondence language. Methods which will be used: persuasive narrative essays, questions and answers. Forms of organization: team, group, individual student. Plan: – The linguistic features of correspondence. – Correspondence is popular genre in publicism. References: – Baimenshe S. The system of press genres. ‒ Almaty, 2007. – Bayalieva D.S. Language and style of mass media. ‒ Almaty, 2004. 85
– Shyndalieva M. Genres and formats of journalism. – Astana, 2012. – Rendall D. Universal journalist. – M., 2000. Studio №8. Theme of studio lessons: Style and benefits of essays on language. Methods which will be used: persuasive narrative essays, questions and answers. Forms of organization: team, group, individual student. Plan: – The linguistic features of essay. – Style of essay. References: 1. Baimenshe S. The system of press genres. ‒ Almaty, 2007. 2. Bayalieva D.S. Language and style of mass media. ‒ Almaty, 2004. 3. Shyndalieva M. Genres and formats of journalism. – Astana, 2012. 4. Rendall D. Universal journalist. – M., 2000. 5. Ydyrysov T. Reflections on the essay. ‒ Almaty, 1999. Studio №9. Theme of studio lessons: Language and style of satire genre. Methods which will be used: persuasive narrative essays, questions and answers. Forms of organization: team, group, individual student. Plan: – Language of satire genre. – Style of satire genre. References: 1. Baimenshe S. The system of press genres. ‒ Almaty, 2007. 2. Bayalieva D.S. Language and style of mass media. ‒ Almaty, 2004. 3. Shyndalieva M. Genres and formats of journalism. – Astana, 2012. 4. Qazhakeev T. Language and style of newspaper. ‒ Almaty, 2007. 5. Qozhakeev T. Basics of satire. ‒ Almaty, 2004. 86
Studio №10. Theme of studio lessons: Publications for children with language-specific. Methods which will be used: persuasive narrative essays, questions and answers. Forms of organization: team, group, individual student. Plan: – Requirements for publication of children's literature. – Language publications for children. References: 1. Baimenshe S. The system of press genres. ‒ Almaty, 2007. 2. Bayalieva D.S. Language and style of mass media. ‒ Almaty, 2004. 3. Shyndalieva M. Genres and formats of journalism. – Astana, 2012. 4. Rendall D. Universal journalist. – M., 2000. 5. Altynsarin Y. Kazakh literature. ‒ Almaty, 1979. 6. “Baldyrgan”, “Aigolek”, “Moldir Bulaq” journals. Studio №11. Theme of studio lessons: Manifestations of the style press. Speaking style. Methods which will be used: persuasive narrative essays, questions and answers. Forms of organization: team, group, individual student. Plan: – The concept of spoken style. – Features of spoken style. References: 1. Baimenshe S. The system of press genres. ‒ Almaty, 2007. 2. Bayalieva D.S. Language and style of mass media. ‒ Almaty, 2004. 3. Qazhakeev T. Language and style of newspaper. ‒ Almaty, 2007. Studio №12. Theme of studio lessons: Literary use of language in the press. Methods which will be used: persuasive narrative essays, questions and answers. Forms of organization: team, group, individual student. 87
Plan: – Literary style. – Features of language and literary language of Periodical Press. References: 1. Bayalieva D.S. Language and style of mass media. ‒ Almaty, 2004. 2. Zhumaliev Q. Style – feature of the art. ‒ Almaty, 2006. 3. Vinogradov V.V. On the language of fiction. ‒ M. 4. Sergaliev M. Literary style. ‒ Almaty, 2010. 5. Fedin K.O. On the skill. About the writer's work. ‒ M., 1998. Studio №13. Theme of studio lessons: Newspaper genres of language, in terms of style requirements. Methods which will be used: persuasive narrative essays, questions and answers. Forms of organization: team, group, individual student. Plan: – Newspaper genres of language and style requirements, – The culture of the language in the press, References: 1. Baimenshe S. The system of press genres. ‒ Almaty, 2007. 2. Bayalieva D.S. Language and style of mass media. ‒ Almaty, 2004. 3. Zhumaliev Q. Style – feature of the art. ‒ Almaty, 2006. 4. Qaratayev M., The principles of Style. ‒ Almaty, 2007.
History of the media America's earliest media audiences were quite small. These were the colonies’ upper class and community leaders – the people who could read and who could afford to buy newspapers. The first regular newspaper was the Boston News-letter, a weekly started in 1704 by the city's postmaster, John Campbell. Like most papers of the time, it published shipping information and news from England. Most Americans, out in the fields, rarely saw a newspaper. They depended on travelers or passing townsmen for this news When rebellious feelings against Britain began to spread in the 1700s, the first battles were fought in the pages of newspapers and pamphlets. Historians consider the birth of America's free-press tradition to have begun with the 1734 trial of John Peter Zenger. Zenger, publisher of the New York Weekly Journal, had boldly printed stories that attacked and insulted Sir William Cosby, the colony' unpopular royal governor. Cosby ordered Zenger's arrest on a charge of seditious libel. As the King's representative, royal governors had the power to label any report they disliked – true or not – "libelous," or damaging to the government's reputation and promoting public unrest. Zenger's lawyer, Andrew Hamilton, argued that "the truth of the facts" was reason enough to print a story. The American jury agreed, ruling that Zenger had described Cosby's administration truthfully. Perhaps one of America's greatest political journalists was one of its first, Thomas Paine. Paine's stirring writings, urging independence made him the most persuasive "media" figure of the American Revolution against Britain in 1776. His pamphlets sold thousands of copies and helped mobilize the rebellion. By the early 1800s, the United States had entered a period of swift technological progress that would mark the real beginning of 89
"modern media." The inventions of the steamship, the railroad and the telegraph brought communications out of the age of windpower and horses. The high-speed printing press was developed, driving down the cost of printing. Expansion of the educational system taught more Americans to read and sparked their interest in the world. Publishers realized that a profitable future belonged to cheap newspapers with large readerships and increased advertising. In 1833 a young printer named Benjamin Day launched the New York Sun, the first American paper to sell for a penny. Until then, most papers had cost six cents. Day's paper paid special, attention to lively human interest stories and crime. Following Day's lead, the press went from a small upper class readership to mass readership in just a few years. It was a time that shaped a breed of editors who set the standard for generations of American journalists. Many of these men were hard-headed reformers who openly sided with the common man, opposed slavery and backed expansion of the frontier. They combined idealism with national pride, and their papers became the means by which great masses of new immigrants were taught the American way of life. Competition for circulation and profits was fierce. The rivalry of two publishers dominated American journalism at the end of the century. The first was Joseph Pulitzer (1847—1911), a Hungarian immigrant whose Pulitzer prizes have become America's highest newspaper and book honors. His papers, the St. Louis Post-Dispatch and the New York World, fought corporate greed and government corruption, introduced sports coverage and comics, and entertained the public with an endless series of promotional stunts. By 1886 the World had a circulation of 250,000, making it the most successful newspaper up; to that time. The second publisher was William Randolph Hearst (1863^^951), who took Pulitzer's formula to new highs – and new lows – in the San Francisco Examiner and the New York Journal Hearst's brand of outrageous sensationalism was dubbed "yellow journalism" after the paper's popular comic strip, "The Yellow Kid." Modern media critics would be horrified at Hearst's coverage of the SpanishAmerican War over Cuba in 1898. For months before the United States declared war, the Journal stirred public opinion to near 90
hysteria with exaggerations and outright lies. When Hearst's artist in Cuba found no horrors to illustrate, Hearst sent back the message: "Please remain. You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war." Pulitzer and Hearst symbolized an era of highly personal journalism that faded early in this century. The pressure for large circulation created one of today's most important press standards: objective, or unbiased, reporting. Newspapers wanted to attract readers of all views, not drive them away with one-sided stories. That meant editors began to make sure all sides of a story were represented. Wider access to the telephone helped shape another journalistic tradition: the race to be first with the latest news. The swing to objective reporting was the key to the emergence of The New York Times. Most journalists consider the Times the nation's most prestigious newspaper. Under Adolph S. Ochs, who bought the paper in 1896, the Times established itself as a serious alternative to sensationalist journalism. The paper stressed coverage of important national and international events – a tradition which still continues. Today the Times is used as a major reference tool by American libraries, and is standard reading for diplomats, scholars and government officials. The New York Times is only one of many daily newspapers that have become significant simpers of public opinion. Among the most prominent are The Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times, the Boston Globe, and the Christian Science Monitor. The Miami Herald, for instance, responded to the needs of its city's influx of Spanish-speaking residents by presenting extensive coverage of Latin America and printing a separate Spanish edition. Satellite technology has made possible the first genuinely nationwide newspapers – from the sober, thorough business paper, the Wall Street Journal, to the bright colors and personality orientation of USA Today. Another recent phenomenon is the proliferation of supermarket tabloids, weeklies sold chiefly at grocery store check-out lines. Although they look like newspapers, these publications carry little hard news and stress items about celebrities, human interest stories about children and pets, and diet and health tips. The leading tabloid, the National Enquirer, claims a circulation of more than 4,000,000. The total number of daily newspapers in the United States is shrinking – from 1.748 in 1970 to 1,642 in 1988. In 1923, there were 91
503 communities with more than one daily newspaper. By 1988, only 49 cities had more than one paper. There are several reasons for this trend. The movement of people from cities to suburbs led to the demise of some city dailies and the creation of weekly suburban newspapers that emphasized local community happenings and drew revenues from local advertisers. And members of busy households in which both husband and wife worked outside the home found they had less time to read and often stopped buying an afternoon newspaper. But the most important reason was probably the growing popularity of television. While newspapers are read in 62 million of the nation's 91 million households, 98 per cent of all American homes are equipped with at least one television. And a Roper Organization poll found that 65 per cent of Americans use television as their primary source of news. Since newspapers cannot report the news as quickly as radio and television, many papers have changed their emphasis, concentrating on features, personality profiles and indepth news analysis rather than fast-breaking headline stories.
American magazines The same developments that spurred newspaper circulation –faster printing methods, lower prices, the lure of advertising money – also marked the beginning of mass appeal for American magazines. Several types of magazines emerged. The late 1800s saw the start of opinion journals still influential a century later, including the Atlantic Monthly, the Nation and Harper's. But the largest readerships were won by magazines that catered to Americans' increasing leisure time and appetite for consumer goods, such as Cosmopolitan, the Ladies Home Journal and the Saturday Evening Post. Publishers were no longer just selling reading material; they were selling readers to advertisers. Because newspapers reached only local audiences, popular magazines attracted advertisers eager to reach a national audience for their products. By the early 1900s, magazines had become major marketing devices. At the same time, a new breed of newspaper and magazine writer was exposing social corruption. Called "muckrakers," these writers sparked public pressure for government and business reforms. In 92
1902, for example, McClure's magazine ran a series of articles highly critical of the powerful Standard Oil Company by muckraking journalist Ida Tarbell. Yet magazines did not truly develop as a powerful shaper of news and public opinion until the 1920s and 1930s, with the start of the news weeklies. The first, Time, was launched in 1923 by Henry Luce (1898-1967). Intended for people too busy to keep up with a daily newspaper, Time was the first magazine to organize news into separate departments such as national affairs, business and science. Newsweek, using much the same format, was started in 1933. Other prominent news weeklies are Business Week and U.S. News and World Report.
Magazines There are over 11,000 magazines and periodicals in the United States. More than 4,000 of them appear monthly, and over 1,300 are published each week. They cover all topics and interests, from art and architecture to tennis, from aviation and gardening to computers and literary criticism. Quite a few have international editions, are translated into other languages, or have "daughter" editions in other countries. Among the many internationals are National Geographic, Reader's Digest, Cosmopolitan, Vogue, Time, Newsweek, Scientific American, and Psychology Today. The weekly newsmagazines – the best known are Time, Newsweek, and U.S. News & World Report – serve as a type of national press. They also have considerable international impact, above all Time. This newsmagazine appears each week in several international editions. There are some for various parts of the United States, for the Far East, for Australia, for Europe, and so on. Time claims that although the advertising changes in each edition, the content remains the same internationally. This is not quite true: in the U.S. editions, for instance, there is no section called "European Notes." In any case, no other single news publication is read so widely by so many people internationally as is Time. There are two other reasons why Time has such international influence. First, several other newsmagazines were modeled on 93
Time. Among these are the leading newsmagazines in France, Germany, and Italy. Secondly, Time also sells news, news features, interviews, photographs, graphics, and charts to other publications throughout the world. Feature stories that first appear in Time are therefore echoed in many other publications in many other countries. The newsmagazines are all aimed at the average, educated reader. There are also many periodicals which treat serious educational, political, and cultural topics at length. The best known of these include The Atlantic Monthly, Harvard Educational Review, Saturday Review, The New Republic, National Review, Foreign Affairs, Smithsonian, and, of course, The New Yorker. Such widely read periodicals, along with the hundreds of professional journals, provide a broad and substantial forum for serious discussion. Again, a lot of what first appears in these publications is often reprint internationally or in book form. Many of the long The New Yorker essays, for example, have later appeared in shortened form in publications such as England's The Observer Magazine or Germany's Die Zeit. There is a strong market for such serious publications. National Geographic has an average circulation of over 10 million, Consumer Reports some 3 million, Smithsonian (published by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington D.C.) over 2 million copies, Scientific American (U.S. edition) over 700,000, and Saturday Review– and The New Yorker over half a million each. More popular and less demanding publications, such as Family Circle, Woman's Day, or National Enquirer, of course, have a huge readership and sell over 4.5 million copies of each issue. Altogether, there are about 60 magazines in the United States that sell over 1 million copies per issue each, and roughly the same number with more than 500,000 copies per issue.
MIT's multimedia marvels The personalized newspaper is just one among a dazzling list of projects ranging from audience-reactive films to computer-generated holography developed with state-of-the-art communication technologies in MIT’s Media Lab. In the following selection, David Nyhan reports on his investigation of the lab as well as its critics, and voices 94
some "humanistic reservations" over the MIT scientists' vision of the media of the future. Nyhan is a columnist and editor at the Boston Globe. Formerly a White House correspondent for the Globe, Nyhan authored The Duke (Warner Books, 1988), a book on Michael Dukakis and the 1988 presidential election. I have seen the future, and it's weird. It's loaded with gimmicks. The people calling the shots are not like you and me, in that we earn our living by doing journalism. And to be perfectly frank, I'm not sure it works, or will work, the way the brainy people at МГГ think it will. That said, they've got a helluva toy shop at MIT. If some future historian of media breakthroughs writes a book, MIT's Media Laboratory might one day be cited as the Los Alamos of postmodern media; that is, if they still use books. If there were such a thing as a mission control for media Star Wars, a sort of SDI [Strategic Defense Initiative] for journalists-advertisers-entertainers, this would probably come closer than anyplace else. What do they do in the Media Lab? Anything they сan get away with, using computers, video, print, and bundles of money from media mega-corporations from everywhere in the Free World. They play with TV sets that let viewers customize their own plotlines. Movies that measure the audience and alter plots depending on the boredom factor. Newspapers that function like a rifle, instead of a scatter-gun; that is, the reader orders up his own combination of stories. If USA Today is McPaper, then the version here is Burger-Paper as in, "Have it your way, at M-I-T!" The key is the computer, which can function as a travel agent, bank teller, personal cartoonist, disc jockey-composer-arranger, video librarian, and personalized researcher оn any topic. You can do just about anything with it, except eat from it or sleep with it. And they may be working оn that – I was there for only a couple of hours. Every media person who takes a pass at the lab is struck by the breadth and reach of the joint. The project titles alone are mindboggling: movies of the future; computer-generated holography; music and cognition; school of the future; child as epistemologist; paralinguals; knowledge-based kinematics; asynchronous television. 95
Some of the lab's projects are further along than others: – The "personalized newspaper," whose menu is generated by a computer that culls news stories from wire-service bins, depending upon the individual reader's tastes and predilections. – The holography special, a combination of techniques that allows creation of a computer-generated image, using lasers, a mirror, fiber optics, and film, resulting in an image that can be viewed as if in three dimensions from a 180 – degree viewing field. This is said to have applications in everything from auto design to surgery on humans. – A smart-ass personalized life-organizer and message service called "Phoneslave" that performs some of the kinds of programmable chores that-butlers, secretaries, nannies, and others do for those who can afford all kinds of help. – A computer-driven video teaching machine that can take, say, a repair manual for an automobile and break down the repair process into simple, step-by-step functions that a would-be mechanic can follow at his/her own speed, and repeat, if necessary, till the damn carburetor is fixed right. As fascinating as the place is – running through it is like hitting F.A.O. Schwarz before Christmas – they seem to be preoccupied with money. In my normal line of work (politics), that is usually a warning sign. My experience is that any time an institution – academic, religious, social-service, military, artistic, whatever – starts paying more attention than the bare minimum to the old cash flow, you better watch out. It is hard for any kind of meat-and-potatoes workaday journalist to drift through the operation without coming away with the suspicion that this is a very slick operation they've got going here. I don't pretend to understand it, any of it, but if I had to bet, I'd say 50 per cent of it is probably blue-sky science fooling-around, 25 per cent is probably very sound research that is going to mean something shortly, and the rest is Grade A unadulterated persiflage of the academic variety. My only problem is I can't tell which is which. It's part Disney World, part Las Vegas, and then you throw in all the movies about little kids hacking their way into somebody's computer. The raw material here is the current state-of-the-art in three basic info-industries: motion picture and broadcast, print and publishing, and computers. 96
The operating premise here is that by the year 2000, or thereabouts, three different industries that began life as very separate and distinct tributaries will by then have combined, or very nearly overlapped, into a giant river of information transfer. This figurative Mississippi of megabytes will, in theory, drain the watershed of modern knowledge and spew out its product into the Delta where print, light, and sound interact, resulting in a Gulf of new knowledge, efficiency, and creativity. Or something like that. And MIT would like to be the New Orleans of this metaphor, and the guys and gals at the Media Lab would be the mayor, the city council, and the barons of Bourbon Street in this brave new world of mega-media. The way MIT operates, academic entrepreneurs of the type drawn to enterprises like the Media Lab are exhorted to solicit money from corporations that might one day be interested in the fruits of the research. It sounds a little like an academic version of strip poker, or a peep show: you pays a little more, and you sees a little more. This is why there is a "sponsor's room." Ideas may take or break the lab, but money is what has to come in before anything goes out. According to Time, only one corporate sponsor (Toshiba Corp.) has refused to renew its funding. Through the alchemy of grantsmanship, whiz-bang technological gimmickry, and a little of the old You-better-get-on-boardnow-before-the-train-leaves-the-station salesmanship, the Media Lab has learned how to turn grant applications into gold. The sponsor list is dazzling. Name a category, and the best-andbrightest from the private sector are here: high-tech firms (IBM, Apple, Kodak, Zenith, Polaroid, Wang); entertainment conglomerates (Columbia Pictures, HBO, Paramount, Warner Bros.); networks (the usual suspects); media outfits (Time Inc., Times Mirror, Washington Post, Dow Jones); Japanese mega-corporations (Sony, Hitachi, Nippon Gakki), and some entries that seem odd at first glance (Hughes Aircraft Co.). But there are lingering doubts salted around Cambridge about the emphasis on computers, and the easy-breezy fashion; in which terms like "inventing the future" are tossed around. One old-timer on the Cambridge scene, a genuine pioneer in the linking of humans to 97
computers, is skeptical but resigned about the kinds of claims that spew from the Media Lab. "I've heard some about them, but I don't take it all that seriously," he shrugs. "That's the kind of thing you have to say to get funded these days." They can talk all they want about their grants-manship, and their CADCAM [computer aided design camera] at the Media Lab, says a younger critic, "but that has very little to do with the way we live, with our level of comfort, with the fact that America is still ugly. Computers have got goddamn little to do with that solution, of making a more compatible environment." This argument, which might be called the humanistic reservation about the Media Lab, goes something like this: A man with nothing more high-tech than a pencil and a piece of paper, if he is merely thinking about how he can be part of his community, can do more to envision a solution for our living conditions, or making us better as individuals or groups or in toto, can increase our chances of, and pleasure in, living together on this tiny spaceship we inhabit, so long as his values come out of a sense of community, and never stray too far from the issues of the options of living. Cambridge has lots of people who prize computers. But it has some who don't like them, too. "The computer," says a landscape artist with disdain. "People use it to try and ape painting. They ape the texture and tonality of great chiaroscuro, the light and the shadow of a great painting; but it's a sort of a poor joke, a very primitive appreciation of what painting is, what art is." Carrying this dissent from the computer revolution over to the realm of journalism, or reportage of history-in-the-making, of trendidentifying and trend-explaining, the parallel argument goes something like this: Judgment, commitment, and leadership – these are the human qualities that the media need, arid they are the very qualities that the computer cannot give you. The lurch of recent civilization, the twosteps-forward, one-step back fandango we've danced since the Industrial Revolution, exhausted us. We discovered technology is a two-edged sword. Progress-boasters point to the car, the television, and the computer as three epochal inventions that ushered out one age and 98
ushered in another. But the car isolates suburban man from his city and his fellow-citizens. The TV traps humanity in its five-hour-a-day glare, isolates even adults from spouse, children, neighbors. The computer, which has made some things so much harder as some things become so much easier, has also contributed to the profound sense of dehumanization that afflicts twentieth-century existence. I don't want to belabor this point. But there have been a halfdozen suicides among the 11,000-strong MIT family in less than two years. A recent graduate told a New York Times reporter: "I think the problem has gotten worse in recent years because of the widespread use of computers. They're very isolating." I'm not giving you some raving Luddite's anti-computer rap; I own one, use two more, and fully appreciate all they've done for us. All I'm saying is that searching amongst the bits and bytes for clues to the next generation of media metamorphosing should not be the only way media managers look when they think about the future. Doing something about the underclass, for example, should be every bit as important to newspaper publishers, worrying about flattened or falling circulation, to magazine editors shuffling the same deck of cards to come up with enticing advertiser demographics, and broadcasters serving up our image of ourselves, as is the stuff at MIT's Media Lab. I'm just not sure it is. And that, in the end, is not the fault of the media researchers here, but of our keepers in the media biz. Without question, the smart minds at MIT and in оur media corporations feel the Media Lab is a wise investment of their time and effort and cash. But I harbor doubts. I have a longtime friend, John Lees, a designer in Cambridge with a nice little business and a twenty-year record of going around the world to improve the look оf things. He is a pencil-and-paper guy, still, though his younger cohorts are buzzing around the computer he's just installed at work. I ask him if he believes that computers can help craft better media. "The answers lie in the educational system," says Lees. "In awareness, and human sensitivity, aesthetic values, and the community meaning of architecture, in the balance between public and private space – these are not the values that the computer can teach you." 99
They are the values you learn with and through other people. Lees: "The computer cannot help you make good judgments, either from the human point of view, or the aesthetic point of view. The computer is only a new tool, it cannot give you the answers. The computer cannot make you a good designer – that takes knowledge – and human experience." I believe him. The same Time magazine (August 31, 1987) that carried a slightly breathless compendium of what's happening at the MIT Media Lab carried a full-page profile of the New York Times' semiretiring James Reston, under the we'll-beat-any-price headline: "The Best Journalist of His Time." Now, whether you agree with Times' evaluation of Reston or not, my point is that Reston's contributions had nothing to do with his mastery of media technology. I don't know the man, but I'd be very surprised if he, like virtually all others of his generation, did not have to be dragged kicking and cursing to the keyboard of the elementary word processors– we all use these days. Further, if Reston is anything like me, he swears under his breath each time he has to hook up the VCR to record some program that will likely never be watched again, and, again if he's like me, normally stabs three or four wrong buttons before hitting the right ones. So whether Scotty Reston was the best journalist of his time, or just the best in Time, or whether he was second best or ninth best or 267th, what made him influential and won him his big rep was what he typed and how he handled himself in the clinches in D.C., in Manhattan, in the Sulzbergers' salons, and so forth. Being a media mechanic, a computer whiz, a video cadet, and so on, had nothing to do with his success. Leadership, judgment, character, these are the hallmarks of superior journalists, and will remain so, no matter what they invent over here. The expert should be on tap, yeah, for sure; but the expert should never be on top, that, too. The top journalists should never be experts; in a world of specialization, now more than ever we need generalists, all-round guys and all-round women. Don't fence us in, please. And since that's my point, I leave it at that. But the last note on my yellow legal pad, half-consumed by a whirlwind tour of the Wiesner Building, cries out for inclusion. Let it 100
be recorded that, outside the main entrance to the MIT campus, and in contravention of the work going on inside the Media Lab, there appear daily, as seemingly permanent fixtures, one pretzel vendor's cart, one ice-cream truck, and five, count "cm, five, newspaper boxes, peddling the wares of the Gutenbergera technology of the Boston Globe, Neiu York Times, Boston Herald, Cambridge Chronicle, and USA Today. They may be inventing the future here, as they claim, but by God or by McLuhan, it ain’t| here yet. News agencies American newspapers get much of their news from the same sources which serve about half of the people in the world, that is, the two U.S. news agencies AP (Associated Press) and UPI (United Press International). These two international news agencies are the world's largest. Unlike some others – the French news agency AFP or the Russian TASS, for example – neither is owned, controlled, or operated by the government. AP is the oldest agency internationally (founded in 1848) and the largest. It maintains reporters and cameramen at 122 domestic and 65 foreign news bureaus. It has some 10,000 subscribers – newspapers, radio and television stations and other agencies which pay to receive and use AP news and photographs – in 115 countries. UPI is the second largest, with 92 domestic and 81 foreign bureaus in over 90 countries. It is estimated that altogether, around 2 billion people get most of their news directly or indirectly through AP and UPI. It is also said that one reason why there seems to be so much "American" news internationally is that both agencies have their headquarters in the U.S. A basic characteristic of the American press is that almost all editors and journalists agree that as much as possible news should be very clearly separated from opinion about the news. Following tradition and journalistic ethics, young newspaper editors and reporters are taught that opinion and political viewpoints belong on the editorial and opinion pages. They are aware that the selection of what news is to be printed can cause a bias, of course. But an attempt must be made to keep the two separate. Therefore, when a news s4ory appears with a reporter's name, it means that the editors consider it to be a mixture of fact and opinion. 101
There is also a very good economic reason for this policy of separating news and opinion. It was discovered in the late 19th century that greater numbers of readers trusted, and bought, newspapers when the news wasn't slanted in one direction or another. Today, it is often difficult to decide if a paper is republican or democrat, liberal or conservative. Most newspapers, for example, are careful to give equal and balanced news coverage to opposing candidates in elections. They might support one candidate or the other on their editorial pages, but one year this might be a Republican, and the next a Democrat. AP and UPI owe their international reputation and success to this policy. Only by carefully limiting themselves to the news – who said what and what actually happened how, when, and where – are they trusted and consequently widely used. To protect their reputations for objectivity, both AP and UPI have strict rules. These prevent newspapers from changing the original/AP and UPI news stories too much and still claiming these agencies as their source. In addition to selling news, AP and UPI make available a dozen or so photographs and political cartoons for any major story each day. These give different views and show anything from praise to ridicule. Subscribers are free to choose and print those which suit them best. Just as there is no official or government-owned news agency in the U.S., there are no official or government-owned newspapers. There is no state censorship, no "official secrets act," nor any law that says, for example, that government records must be kept secret until so many years, have passed. The Freedom of Information Act allows anyone, including newspaper reporters, to get information that elsewhere is simply "not available." Courts and judges cannot stop a story or newspaper from being printed, or published. Someone can go to court later, but then, of course, the story has already appeared. Government attempts to keep former intelligence agents from publishing secrets they once promised to keep – from "telling it all," as the newspapers say – have been notoriously unsuccessful. One of the best-known recent examples was when The New York Times and The Washington Post published the so-called "Pentagon Papers." These were "secret documents" concerning U.S. military policy during the war in Vietnam. The newspapers won the Supreme Court 102
case that followed. The Court wrote (1971): "The government's power to censor the press was abolished so that the press would remain forever free to censure the government." The tradition of "muckraking" – digging out the dirt and exposing it for all to see – is still extremely strong, and investigative reporting is still a large part of a journalist's work. This is one reason why so many younger Americans are attracted to careers in journalism as a way of effecting change in society. Even small-town newspapers employ reporters who are kept busy searching for examples of political corruption,' business malpractice, or industrial pollution. They are assisted by court decisions which make it harder for "public figures" to sue for libel or slander. Almost anyone who is well known is a public figure, whether they be politicians, judges, policemen, generals, business leaders, sports figures, or TV and movie personalities. Needless to say, some Americans are not happy with this strong tradition of investigative reporting. They say that it has gone too far, that it gives a false impression of the country, that it makes it almost impossible to keep one's private life private. The press, they say, is not and should not be part of government. The American press responds by quoting their constitutional rights and proudly repeating Thomas Jefferson's noble words: "Our liberty depends on freedom of the press, and that cannot be limited without being lost." They perform a public service that is necessary for a healthy democracy, they claim. Less nobly, they also know, of course, that when something which has been hidden behind closed doors is moved to the front pages, it can sell a lot of newspapers.
NEWSPAPERS When it comes to American newspapers, a lot of people outside the United States think of that slender, serious paper, the International Herald Tribune, said to be on the daily reading list of many world leaders. The Herald Tribune, however, is not really an American paper. It is published in Paris (and printed simultaneously in Paris, London, Zurich, Hongkong, Singapore, The Hague, Marseille, and Miami) as an international digest of news, most of it taken from 103
its much-larger parents. The New York Times and The Washington Post. Many people in America have never heard of it. And few Americans would read it when they can get the real thing, that is, the full-sized daily newspapers. In 1986, a total of 9,144 newspapers (daily, Sunday, weekly, etc.) appeared in 6,516 towns in the United States. Most of the daily newspapers are published rain or shine, on Christmas, Thanksgiving, or the Fourth of July (Independence Day). Including the 85 foreignlanguage newspapers published in 34 different languages, the daily newspapers in the United States sell over 63 million copies a day. The 762 Sunday papers are usually much larger than the regular editions. The record for a Sunday paper is held by The New York Times. One issue on a Sunday in 1965 contained 946 pages, weighed 36 pounds, and cost 50 cents. Reading the Sunday paper is an American tradition, for some people an alternative to going to church. Getting through all of the sections can take most of the day, leaving just enough time for the leisurely Sunday dinner. The Sunday newspapers have an average circulation of 57 million copies. There are also more than 7,000 newspapers which are published weekly, semi-weekly or monthly. Most daily newspapers are of the "quality" rather than the "popular" (that is, non-quality) variety. Among the twenty newspapers with the largest circulation only two or three regularly feature crime, sex, and scandal. The paper with the largest circulation, The Wall Street Journal, is a very serious newspaper indeed. It is often said that there is no "national press" in the United States as there is in Great Britain, for instance, where five popular followed by three quality newspapers dominate the circulation figures and are read nationwide. In one sense this is true. Most daily newspapers are distributed locally, or regionally, people buying one of the big city newspapers in addition to the smaller local ones. A few of the best-known newspapers such as The Wall Street Journal can be found throughout the country. Yet, one wouldn't expect The Milwaukee Journal to be read: in Boston, or The Boston Globe in Houston. There has been one attempt to publish a truly national newspaper, USA: Today. But it still has only a circulation of 1.2 million and, in its popular form, can only offer news of general interest. This is not enough in a country where state, city, and local 104
news and political developments most deeply affect readers and are therefore especially interesting to them. In another sense, however, there is a national press, one that comes from influence and the sharing of news. Some of the largest newspapers are at the same time news-gathering businesses. They not only print newspapers, they also collect and sell news, news features, and photographs to hundreds of other papers in the U.S. and abroad. Three of the better-known of these are The New York Times', The Washington Post's, and the Los Angeles Times' news services. In one famous example, an expose of the CIA published in The New York Times also appeared in 400 other American papers and was picked up or used in some way by hundreds more overseas. "Picked up" is not quite right. Such stories are copyrighted and other newspapers must pay for their use. Often newspapers try to avoid paying for this news by using the original newspaper's story and quoting the story indirectly ("The Washington Post reported today that..."). Because so many other newspapers print (or "borrow") news stories from the major American newspapers and magazines, they have great national and international influence. This influence spreads far beyond their own readers. Largest Daily U.S. Newspapers (1986) Newspaper circulation The Wall Street Journal 1,985,000 (New York) Daily News 1,275,000 USA Today 1,168,000 Los Angeles Times 1,088,000 The New York Times 1,035,000 The Washington Post 781,000 The Chicago Tribune 760,000 The New York Post 751,000 The Detroit News 650,000 The Detroit Free Press 645,000 The Chicago Sun Times 631,000 The Long Island Newsday 582,000 The San Francisco Chronicle554,000 The Boston Globe 514,000 105
In addition, these newspapers and others such as The Christian Science Monitor, The (Baltimore) Sun, the St. Louis Dispatch or The Milwaukee Journal are frequently mentioned among papers of international excellence. In a large international survey of newspaper editors, The New York Times was ranked by most as "the world's top daily." Syndicated columnists, journalists whose articles are sold by an agency for simultaneous publication in a number of newspapers, have much the same effect. Serious editorial columnists and news commentators from the major newspapers appear daily in hundreds of smaller papers throughout the nation. This allows the readers of a small town daily to hear the opinions of some of the best national and international news analysts. Many newspapers also use syndicated columnists as a way of balancing political opinion. On the so called op-ed pages (opposite the editorial page) оf newspapers, columns from leading liberal and conservative commentators are of ten printed side by side. Political and editorial cartoons are also widely syndicated. Wellknown political cartoonists such as Oliphant or MacNelly are known to most American and many foreign newspaper readers. Comic strips from Jules Feiffer, Garry Trudeau, or the creator of "Garfield" are similarly distributed. Satire and humor columns often have international reputations as well. The humor of Art Buchwald or Erma Bombeck is enjoyed from New Mexico to New Delhi, although the first writer is at home in Washington, D.C., the latter in Arizona.
Early newspapers in Britain and America Britain. The British press made its debut – an inauspicious one – in the early 17th century. News coverage was restricted to foreign affairs for a long time, and even the first so-called English newspaper was a translation by Nathaniel Butter, a printer, of a Dutch coranto called "Corante, or news from Italy, Germany, Hungary, Spain and France" dated Sept. 24, 1621. Together with two London stationers, Nicholas Bourne and Thomas Archer, Butter published a stream of corantos and avisos, including a numbered and dated series of 106
"Weekly News", be§ in 1622. But a number of difficulties confronted a prospective publisher: a license to publish was needed; regular censorship of reporting was in operation from the earliest days; and foreign news no longer appeared because of a Star Chamber decree (in force from 1632 to 1638) completely banning the publication of accounts of the Thirty Year's War. Between the abolition of the Star Chamber in 1641 and the establishment of the Commonwealth in 1649 publishers enjoyed a short spell of freedom from strict official control. Publication of domestic news began to appear more regularly, shedding the original book form. News and headlines increasingly replaced the old title page. The Civil Wars (1642—1651) acted as a stimulus to reporters and publishers, and 300 distinct news publications were bought out between 1640 and 1660, although many of these were only occasional reports from the battle front. The Parliamentarian victory brought strict control of the press from 1649 to 1658, and the restored monarchy was even more absolute, with the press being restricted to just two official papers. The Revolution of 1688 produced a return to more permissive publishing laws and the first provincial presses were set up starting with the "Worcester Post Man" (1690) and in, Scotland, the first "Edinburg Gazette" (1699), although the British press was to remain principally a national one, centered on Fleet Street in London. Appearing briefly was Lloyd's News (1696), issuing from Edward marine insurance. The subsequent "Lloyd's List and Shipping Gazette" (from 1734), with its combination of general and shipping news, exemplified both the importance of the City of London's financial activities to the newspapers and the importance of a reliable and regular financial press to business. In the early years of the 18th century the British newspaper was approaching its first stage of maturity. After 1691 improvements in the postal system made daily publication practical, the first attempts at doing so being the singlesheet "Daily Courant" (1702— 35), which consisted largely of extracts from foreign corantos. Henry Muddiman had gained eminence as the "journalist" who edited the "London Gazette" (from 1666). John Milton had edited the "Mercurius Politicus" under Oliver Cromwell, and Sir Richard Steel, and Joseph Addison "The Spectator". "The Spectator" and "The Tatler" are commemorated in the modern magazines of the same name. 107
Sales of popular "Spectator" sometimes ran as high as 3000 copies, and already this circulation level was enough to attract advertising. An excise duty on advertisements was introduced by the Stamp Act (1712), along with other so-called taxes on knowledge aimed at curbing the nascent power of the press. North America. In N. America, publication of newspapers was deterred during colonial times by the long arm of the British law, but after independence the US could boast one of the world's least restricted sets of laws on publication. A first attempt at publishing, albeit aborting was made in Boston by a radical from London, Benjamin Harris, 1690. His "Public Occurrences, Both Foreign and Domestic", intended as a monthly series, was immediately stopped by the Governor of Massachusetts. It was clear that free speech and a nonofficial press were not to be tolerated in the colonies. Boston was also the site of the first official newspaper, the "Boston Newsletter" (1704), with which the authorities replaced the proclamations, pamphlets, and newsletters previously used to convey news from London. In 1719, the original title was replaced by the "Boston Gazette" printed by Benjamin Franklin's elder brother, James, who soon produced the first independent American newspaper, the "NewEngland Courant of 1721". William Bradford founded the first NewYork City newspaper, the "New-York Gazette", in 1725, and his son Andrew was the first newspaper proprietor in Philadelphia. Further expansion of the colonies created 37 different titles by the outbreak of the War of Independence. The first Amendment to the US Constitution specifically guaranteed "the freedom of speech of the press". The right to criticize the government had been established as early as 1735, however, "New-York Weekly Journal", was acquitted of criminal libel. After the temporary Alien and Sedition Acts (1798—1801), which included censorship clauses, were repeated, newspapers in the US returned to polemics and public campaigns and set off on a course that was to help shape the modern character of popular newspaper worldwide. Next picture show The revolutionary technology that made television possible may itself be outmoded – by high-definition television (HDTV), which 108
offers more than just a sharper, clearer picture. "We're talking about a different language, says one producer of HDTV programming, a different way the television medium will communicate." In the following selection, Steven Levy examines the unique features of, HDTV and speculates about the "high-definition world" it may usher in. Leiy is an award winning journalist who has written for Rolling Stone and many other magazines, and who now writes a column for Macworld. He is the author of the best-selling book Hackers and of The Unicorn's Secret: Murder in the Age of Aquarius. He is also the author of Artificial Life (Pantheon, 1992). Your current television is a pathetically obsolete artifact of a dead technology. A charmless antiquity. Those who know the future of video are amazed at your tolerance for its faults. It is the guest who came to dinner and stayed way past his welcome, growing old right there at the table, nose hairs and big ears and bad teeth – but people keep serving it meal after meal, making small talk as if the guest were Cary Grant in his prime. In this day of electronic wizardry, your set is an embarrassment. How you can sit for hours watching it – with its ghosts, its snow, its tinny sound, its tiny screen, its runny color, and its fuzzy picture – is beyond comprehension. But lately some strange new video signals have been transmitted. Some have been beamed from antennas, others bounced off satellites, still others shot through coaxial cables. You didn't see any of them. Your current television, that one-eyed joke, doesn't begin to know what to do with them. But if you could receive these new signals, and see them as they were intended to be seen, you would finally understand what TV can be. The world – your world – is now on a collision course with a revolutionary video technology. And it's going to change nearly everything. The technology, of course, is high-definition television, or HDTV. Years before earning its inevitable status as a household item, hi-def is quickly becoming a household word. This is not due to the virtues of HDTV as much as its political, financial, and even military implications. People are calling it the economic battleground from which the victorious economy of the next century will emerge. Doom sayers predict that if the Japanese beat us here, we're down for the count. The American Electronics Association, one of a slew of self-interested organizations that have flacked tirelessly on the issue, 109
has told Congress that if we lose out on this bonanza, "future improvements in our standard of living and maintenance of the balance between the leading economies of the world are threatened." For lack of hi-def patents, we will be plunged into the Third World! You would think that HDTV represents as potent an advance as the atomic bomb. Actually, the technology itself isn't that revolutionary. It's not just a souped-up television set but a system of video advances. You can explain the differences in two words: better television. Some use a different shorthand, describing hi-def as a cinema experience at home. As Larry Carlson, an HBO vice-president, says, "People sitting in movie theaters are really watching HDTV." This becomes apparent with a single glance at a hi-def monitor. Unlike the almost-square rectangle of a normal picture tube (the ratio of width to height is four to three), the HDTV monitor is wider, about five to three. Roughly the same shape as a movie screen. This is no coincidence. Studies conducted by NHK, the Japanese television network that pioneered hi-def, discovered that the "wideaspect ratio" engaged the eye and the mind to the fullest extent. This particular shape apparently spurs not only a visual but also a psychic connection. "Five to three is the golden aspect ratio – the Greeks used it to build the Parthenon," says Bronwen Jones, a scientist and FCC consultant who has done extensive psycho-visual televisionwatching studies. A second unmistakable trait of HDTV is its razor-sharp images. Television is transmitted by a series of horizontal lines (if you look closely at your screen, you can see them). Our current standard, called NTSC, uses 525 of these, not really enough to bring out details. And when you watch television with a large-screen monitor, the lines become all too visible, especially at close range. But HDTV commonly has more than 1,000 lines. Combined with advanced circuitry, the denser, more plentiful lines give television images the clarity of thirty-five-millimeter film. The colors are true and vivid, so good that "a lot of people attribute a 3-D quality to it," says Corey Carbonara, the head of the New Video Technologies Project at Baylor University. Alan Levy, an HBO executive, is one of those people. "It's like looking out your window," he says. "It's got the immediacy of video with the clarity and intensity of a color transparency." 110
Even if you sit close, HDTV looks great. (The recommended distance for viewing HDTV is three times the screen height; with NTSC, anything less than five times the height looks awful.) The picture is so sharp that hi-def can be used for sensitive military applications (the Department of Defense has sunk $30 million into HDTV research) or detailed medical work. Individual frames can be isolated and printed as quality photographs. And the image can be blown up even to wall-size displays without losing its uncanny crispness. In fact, the experts say you don't really have HDTV unless you are watching a big screen, something like five feet by three feet. Or something the size of your wall. The coup de grace is aural. Everybody agrees that HDTV will deliver the sound quality of a top notch compact disc player. Put this stuff together and you have a couch potato's wet dream. Movies will look as good at home as they do in theaters. Sports events will drop fans in the center of courts, fields, and gridirons. Roseanne Barr will be enormous. And as Jim Carnes, an executive at the David Sarnoff Research Center, says, "MTV on HDTV is going to be dynamite." "High-definition television is an unstoppable force," says Sam Bush, the editor of a trade publication called HDTV Newsletter. "It catches our fancy and makes us feel we're leaping into the twentyfirst century with a powerful information tool." Every segment of the entertainment industry is gearing up for the change. Hardware manufacturers are busily preparing designs for HDTV systems. Cable programmers like HBO are already experimenting with hi-def sports and entertainment productions. The film industry is awakening to the idea that HDTV might eventually displace film as its medium; two movies (though flops) have already been shot in the new form. And the television networks are preparing for a change even more jarring than the transition from black and white to color. "We see HDTV as the viewing medium of the next century," says Rupert Stow, director of production-systems analysis at CBS. Indeed, the assumption is that once viewers get a look at highdefinition television, they will realize the pitiful inadequacy of the current standard, adopted a decade before Milton Berle hit the airwaves. "Television is now stuck in the 1950s," says Mikhail Tsin111
berg, a research-department head at Philips Laboratories in Briarcliff Manor, New York. "Now it's time to upgrade the quality. "A generation used to technological innovation – the same folks who gobbled up compact-disc players in the eighties – will have a new battle cry in the nineties: I want my HDTV. They will see it, compare it with what they have now and buy it. Even if they have to pay thousands of dollars more for it. True, some commentators wonder whether the rising hype for HDTV is not an example of "technology push," when marketers assume that just because an invention is technically dazzling, people will want it. The great Consumer Electronics Show in the sky is littered with the remains of such alleged sure things, from quadraphonic stereos to picture phones. "We've been doing consumer tests of certain HDTV systems," says Russell Neuman, a director at MIT’s Media Lab. "And it doesn't blow their socks off." But this is a minority opinion. Most people in the field, for obvious reasons, harbor no doubt that this is the future. So much so that they sometimes are stunned that anyone would even bother to question its manifest destiny. "Is it inevitable?" asks one expert. "It's more than inevitable." [To] David Niles ... "What's really important is that HDTV is a new style of picture that will change the face of the world." As one of the few people involved in full-time production of HDTV programming – he runs Captain Video Studios in Paris and 1125 Productions in New York City – David Niles is one of the few people who can comment intelligently on the real future significance of hi-def. HDTV transmogrifies the cool medium of television into a sizzling, mesmerizing experience – one engaging the senses in a way that television never could. "We're talking about a different language, a different way the medium will communicate," Niles says. "It's a wonderful chameleon in that it can imitate video and film V but cinema and video cannot imitate HDTV. Nothing can." Niles uses as an example the 1987 Mike Tyson-Tyrell Biggs fight. As an experiment, HBO taped the fight (which it telecast live to subscribers using standard video) in hi-def. Unlike regular video, which needs all sorts of multicamera close-up and slow-motion shots and replays to maintain excitement, the HDTV version uses only a single camera, which occasionally zooms close to the two fighters 112
but more often shows a substantial portion of the ring. But the intensity is terrific – the sorts of bone-jarring details that Martin Scorsese worked so hard to achieve in Raging Bull are easily realized in the rich, highly detailed color of high definition. Combined with highquality stereo sound, the experience of sitting ringside is perhaps even a little too close for comfort. It's easy to see how other sports will be covered on HDTV. "The increased field of view gives you more options," says Corey Carbonara of Baylor University. "In baseball, for instance, a shot behind home plate сад reveal all the players on base with extreme clarity. You'll see the event like a spectator." Rock videos will change, too. "When you film a concert in high definition, you can capture the whole stage," says Barry Rebo, president of Rebo High Definition Studio. "You can sit on shots longer, look at relationships between players." You can also use special effects that make traditional rock videos look somnambulant. Mind-bending visuals are much more easily performed with video than with film: Now they can easily and cheaply be done with the quality of film. (In fact, largely because of the savings involved, film-makers like Niles, Rebo, and Zbigniew Rybczynski are already using HDTV to make commercials and rock videos. Mick Jagger's video for "Let's Work" was one of the first.) When shown on HDTV equipment, effects can have incredible impact. "With normal television, I can show yoi anything and you wouldn't be scared," says Niles. "But with HDTV, I can scare the crap out of you in one shot." Ultimately, HDTV will change the look of all television. Much of what we see on TV today is tailored to compensate for the medium's limitations. "The videography is done with that in mind," says William Scmeiber, director of the Advanced Television Research Program at MIT's Media Lab. "You're not going to line up a hundred dancing girls on-screen [because you wouldn't be able to see them]." So instead of dancing girls, we have the situation comedy, with its endless close-ups, its monotonous standard sets. But according to Corey Carbonara, "HDTV will cause a real significant change in those shows. The sets will have to be more carefully dressed. You can do story lines with past and future events, splitting the screen to do experimental narratives." 113
But some television shows may never go HDTV, some argue. "You don't want a theatrical situation every time you turn on the TV," says MIT's Schreiber. "Lots of television doesn't require high definition, like soap operas or news. Do you think people are going to turn on a ballet at three in the afternoon?" Even ultrabooster David Niles admits, "I don't want to see "Wheel of Fortune" in hi-def." But the probability is that "General Hospital," Dan Rather, and Vanna White are all destined to be wall-size. "If broadcasters are to remain competitive, we'll have to do it," says Rupert Stow of CBS. Advertisers, in particular, will demand that television use HDTV to the fullest – it is an adman's dream to have a commercial played across someone's wall with the message blasted in digital stereo. Unlike regular television, a tiny box in a room, HDTV cannot be ignored. Who can read a magazine in a movie theater? Ultimately, says Stow, "the whole experience of watching television is going to be different. It will be a cinema experience." Will HDTV, with its ability to match the local Cineplex, keep the movie audience glued to the home viewing room to the exclusion of filmgoing? Most experts don't think so, citing previous Chicken Littles in Hollywood who hit the panic button when television arrived and then wrongly tolled doom when cable hit the scene. The social experience of going out to a communal screen has always prevailed. But while HDTV will not destroy the movie theaters, it will affect the movies. "It may well change the kinds of films made," says John Dykstra, who supervised the creation of special effects for Star Wars. "We'll see an incredible increase in special effects, and films will more easily be able to portray fantasy." These predictions won't be fulfilled until the next century. Meanwhile, plenty of people are eager to lie back to a wide-screen home viewing of E.T. now. When will they get their HDTV? How will they get it? Everybody's got a different timetable. The industry associations have published reports predicting that HDTV won't reach a significant audience (about one-fourth of the viewing public) until around the year 2000. They note that color TV was around for well over ten years before a majority of viewers bought a color set. But HDTV Newsletter's Bush says that HDTV will be-here "sooner than 114
the decade that everyone talks about." And go-go advocates like David Niles have no problem cutting that schedule in half. "HDTV in five years? Absolutely!" he proclaims. After all, Sony and other Japanese manufacturers are readying equipment for worldwide consumer sale within two years. And HBO is already planning its first broadcasts for the early nineties. There will be no problem in finding programming material. "Movies are HDTV," says HBO's Carlson. A likely progression emerges. Early in the nineties will come the first HDTV monitors, accompanied by videocassette and videodisc players. "The first sets," says HBG's Alan Levy, "are going to be high end, very expensive, and bought by people who used to be called "the lunatic fringe." Now we call them "early adapters." These gadget freaks will invite envious friends over to see Lawrence of Arabia or the new Madonna video in hi-def. The seed will be planted." Around 1992 or so, some cable systems will begin transmitting hi-def programming. Services like HBO will show not only movies but certain high-profile sports events in wide screen and stereo. Some producers of network television, protecting themselves for the future, will begin making their shows in hi-def. It might not be until the middle of the decade that the system that the FCC chooses for HDTV broadcast is finally implemented. But at that point, production lines of HDTV components will begin to run full steam, and prices will start to drop. Eventually an HDTV set will cost only about 25 per cent more than today's state-of-the-art set. But it will still be expensive, because HDTV watchers will need very large tubes or projection televisions, which cost a few thousand dollars now and won't be getting any cheaper. By the end of the decade, though, that cost problem may be solved. Several companies are working on flat-panel monitors, which will hang on your wall like a framed poster. William Glenn, director of the science and technology research center of the New York Institute of Technology: Dania, Florida, predicts that flat-panel: displays like the one he has invented will be plentiful before the turn of the century. The one he has in mind will be three feet by five feet and will cost only $1,500. When not in use as television receiver, it will display a vivid facsimile of you favorite painting. 115
By then this will be a high-definition world. Your living room will have the flavor of "The Jetsons," as the basic item of home furnishing will be something out of science fiction. "We believe HDTV is more than a television set," J. Richard Iverson, president of the American Electronics Association, said recently. "We think it is the beginning of the home information center – the home work station." Yes, the prognosticators envision that our mindless entertainment will be mixed with enriching data, covering our walls and our consciousness. The line between compute and television will be as indeterminable as one of those 1,000 scan lines on the screen itself. The latest movie and the monthly phone bill will arrive at your house via that, same fiber-optic cable. It will be a future where kids no longer do homework while the TV drones, because the homework will be on the TV; where the local news rushes into our home with hi-def immediacy, infusing the usual fire-victim interviews with the impact of The Sorrow and the Pity; where we order our sports events like takeout Chinese food; where wall-size commercials and rock videos hold our senses hostage hour after hour, until we devote a corner of the screen to balancing our checkbook. The banks themselves will probably be owned by the Japanese. If history is any indicator, they will dominate the consumerelectronics market no matter what roadblocks the FCC constructs. But who will care? Well have our HDTV.
Public concerns Despite enjoying a period of unsurpassed wealth an influence in the 1970s and 1980s the American media is troubled by rising public dissatisfaction. Critics complain that journalists are unfair, irresponsible or just plain arrogant. They complain that Journalists are always emphasizing the negative, the sensational, and the abnormal rather than the normal. President Reagan's science adviser expressed the irritation of many when he accused the press of "trying to tear down America." Some observers link the criticism to rising standards in journalism. "The press is more professional, more responsible, more 116
careful, more ethical than it ever has been," said David Shaw, media critic for the Los Angeles Times. "But we are also being far more critical toward other institutions, and people are asking, "Why don’t you criticize yourselves?" In fact, the rise of ombudsmen (spokesmen for groups with a grievance), "opinion-editorial" pages in newspapers, television time for statements of opinion and media review journals suggest that ways are being found for individuals and groups to present their views. During the early 1980s, a number of organized groups from both sides of the political spectrum were formed to monitor and critique the news media. Political balance in news reporting became an issue of debate and controversy. Surveys show that the American public – on both sides of the political fence – holds strong opinions about the press. According to a 1984 Galiup poll (survey of public opinion), 46 per cent of Americans believe the news media's bias is liberal, while 38 per cent said it is conservative. In contrast, most journalists – 59 per cent – described their political views as "middle of the road." Reporters are, sometimes seen as heroes who expose wrongdoing on the part of the government or big business. In the early 1970s, for example, two young reporters for the Washington Post, Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, investigated a break-in at the headquarters of the Democratic Party in a Washington building known as "the Watergate." Their reporting, along with an investigation by a Congressional committee and a court trial, helped implicate high White House officials in the break-in. Woodward and Bernstein became popular heroes, especially after a film was made about them, and helped restore some glamour to the profession of journalism. Enrollments in journalism schools soared, with most students aspiring to be investigative reporters. But there is a feeling that the press sometimes goes too far, crossing the fine line between the public's right to know, on the one hand, and the right of individuals to privacy and the right of the government to protect the national security. In many cases, the courts decide when the press has overstepped the bounds of its rights. Sometimes the courts decide in favor of the press. For example, in 1971 the government tried to stop the New York Times from publishing a secret study of the Vietnam War known as the Pentagon Papers, claiming that publication would 117
damage national security. But the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that since the government had not proved that the damage to national security would be so great, the newspapers should be free to publish the information. One growing pressure on reporters and editors is the risk of being sued. Even though the First Amendment protects the press from government interference, the press does not have complete freedom. There are laws against libel and invasion of privacy, as well as limits on what reporters may do in order to get a story. Libel is any false and malicious writing or picture that exposes a person to public ridicule or injures his reputation. If a broadcast or published story falsely implies that a private citizen committed a crime or is mentally incompetent, for example, the victim would probably win a libel suit. But Supreme Court decisions have made it much harder for public officials or well-known public figures to prove libel. Such persons must prove not only that the story is wrong, but that the journalist published his story with "actual malice." The right of privacy is meant to protect individual Americans' peace of mind and security. Journalists cannot barge into people's homes or offices to seek out news and expose their private lives to the public. Even when the facts are true, most news organizations have their own rules and guidelines on such matters. For example, most newspapers do not publish the names of rape victims or of minors accused of crimes. Americans' right to a fair trial, guaranteed by the Constitution, has provoked many a media battle. Judges have often ordered journalists – many times unsuccessfully – not to publish damaging information about a person on trial. Also, in most states journalists may be jailed for contempt of court for refusing to identify the sources for their story if demanded by a court. TV newspeople operate under an additional restriction called the Fairness Doctrine. Under this rule, when a station presents one viewpoint on a controversial issue, the public interest requires the station to give opposing viewpoints a chance to broadcast a reply. In recent years, more news organizations are settling cases out of court to avoid costly – and embarrassing – legal battles. Editors say that major libel suits which generally ask for millions of dollars in damages, are having a "chilling effect" on investigative reporting. 118
This means that for fear of being involved in a costly libel suit, the reporter or news organization may avoid pursuing a controversial story although revelation of that information might be beneficial to the public. Most affected are small news operations which do not have large profits to finance their defense. Press critics, however, say the chill factor also works the other way – against people who feel they have been wronged by publication of false information about them, but cannot afford to sue. In short, the United States confronts a classic conflict between two deeply held beliefs: the right to know and the right to privacy and fair treatment. It is not a conflict that can be resolved with a single formula, but only on a case-by-case basis. A study released in 1985 by an impartial panel of prominent representatives, journalists and media observers found reasons for optimism. "The press is responding to the invisible hand of public pressure" said the panel, sponsored by the National Chamber of Commerce. "The journalist who has not struggled with...questions of ethics...is increasingly rare today." Radio and television The 1920s also saw the birth of a new mass medium, radio. By 1928, the United States had three national radio networks – two owned by NBC (the National Broadcasting Company), one by CBS (the Columbia Broadcasting System). Though mostly listened to for entertainment, radio's instant, on-the-spot reports of dramatic events drew huge audiences throughout the 1930s and World War II. Radio also introduced government regulation into the media. Early radio stations went on and off the air and wandered across different frequencies, often blocking other stations and annoying listeners. To resolve the problem, Congress gave the government power to regulate and license broadcasters. From then on, the airwaves – both radio and TV – were considered a scarce national resource, to be operated in the public interest. After World War II, American homes were invaded by a powerful new force: television. The idea of seeing "live" shows in the living room was immediately attractive – and the effects are still being measured. TV was 119
developed at a time when Americans were becoming more affluent and more mobile. Traditional family ways were weakening. Watching TV soon became a social ritual. Millions of people set up their activities and lifestyles around TV's program schedule. In fact, in the average American household, the television is watched 7 hours a day. Television, like radio before it focused on popular entertainment to provide large audiences to advertisers. TV production rapidly became concentrated in three major networks – CBS, NBC and ABC. A 30-second commercial on network television during prime evening viewing time costs $100,000 or more. A single half-hour show costs hundreds of thousands of dollars to produce. Viewers also have the option of watching noncommercial public television, which is funded by the federal government, as well as by donations from individuals and corporations. Television has emerged as the major source from which most Americans get the news. By its nature, TV has proved most effective in covering dramatic, action-filled events – such as man's walk on the moon and the Vietnam War. As TV viewers become direct witnesses of events. The focus of TV news is the network news shows watched by an estimated 60 million Americans every night. These huge audiences have made newscasters such as Walter Cronkite, Dan Rather, John Chancellor, Barbara Walters and Peter Jennings into national celebrities, far better known than print journalists. At first it was thought that the popularity of TV and its advertiser support-would cause declining interest in the other media. Instead, TV whetted the public's appetite for information. Book publishers found that TV stimulated reading. Though some big-city newspapers closed others merged and new ones opened in the suburbs. And while a few mass circulation magazines failed, hundreds of specialized magazines sprang up in their place. Technology continues to change the media. Computers are already revolutionizing the printing process. Computer users also have access to on-line newspapers for up-to-the-minute information on general or specialized subjects. Cables and satellites are expanding ТV. Already half of American homes subscribe to cable TV, which broadcasts dozens of channels providing information and entertainment of every kind. 120
In addition to the 1,140 television stations offering programming in 1990, there were 9,900 cable operating systems serving 44 million subscribers in 27,000 communities. These subscribers paid an average fee of $15 per month to watch programs not offered on commercial channels. One cable network offers news 24 hours a day. Some communities have publicly controlled cable television stations, allowing, citizen groups to put on programs. Still, the long awaited dream of a home completely "wired" with computer and cable TV links is a long way off. Cable TV, for instance, has not provided significantly better programming, only more of the same. The reason critics say, is economics – the relentless pressure of seeking large audiences in order to attract advertisers. This pressure for profits has caused concern over one оf the most important trends in the media today: The ownership of the news media, experts say, is being concentrated in fewer and fewer hands. Chains – companies that own two or more newspapers, broadcast stations or other media outlets – are growing larger. They are forcing out independent, often family-owned news media. That means that most American communities are served by news media owned by outsiders.
American radio and television The problem of describing American radio and television is simply this: there's so much of it, so many different types, and so much variety. In 1985, there were over 9,000 individual radio stations operating in the United States. Of this number, over 1,000 were non-commercial, that is, no advertising or commercials of any type are permitted. These public and educational radio stations are owned and operated primarily by colleges and universities, by local schools and boards of education, and by various religious groups. At the same time, there were close to 1,200 individual television stations, not just transmitters that pass on programs. Of these TV stations, just under 300 were non-commercial, that is nonprofit and educational in nature and allowing no commercials and advertising. Like the non-commercial radio stations, the non-commercial television stations are supported by individual donations, grants from 121
foundations and private organizations, and funds from city, state, and federal sources. In short, if someone wanted to describe what can be heard and seen on American radio and television, he or she would have to listen to or watch close to 10,000 individual stations. There are similar types of stations, but no one station is exactly the same as another. All radio and television stations in the United States, public or private, educational or commercial, large and small must be licensed to broadcast by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), an independent federal agency. Each license is given for a few years only. If stations do not conform to FCC regulations, their licenses can be taken away. There are several regulations which should be noted. Although the FCC regulates radio and television transmissions, it has no control over reception. As a result, there are no fees, charges, taxes, or licenses in the United States for owning radio and television receivers or for receiving anything that is broadcast through the air. This also means that, for example, anyone who wishes to build his or her own satellite receiving antenna – that metal dish now seen in many gardens or on rooftops of houses – may simply do so. No permission is needed and no fees are paid. Laws prohibit any state or the federal government from owning or operating radio and television stations (stations such as Voice of America may only broadcast overseas). There is also no governmental censorship or "reviewing" on programs and content. There are no governmental boards or appointed groups which control any radio or television broadcasting. Rather, the FCC ensures that no monopolies exist and that each area has a variety of types of programming and stations. It also regulates media ownership: no newspaper, for example, may also own a radio or TV station in its own area, nor may a radio station also have a television station in the same area. No single company or group may own more than a total of 12 stations nationwide. These and other FCC policies work to prevent any single group from having too much influence in any area and to guarantee a wide range of choices in each. Another FCC regulation, the so-called Fairness Doctrine, requires stations to give equal time to opposing views at no charge. Likewise, all commercial stations are required to devote a certain 122
percentage of their broadcasting time to "public service" announcements and advertising. These range from advertisements for Red Cross blood drives and for dental care to programs on Alcoholics Anonymous and car safety. This broadcasting time given to public service messages is free of charge. With this "something-for-everyone" policy, even communities with only 10,000 or so people often have two local radio stations. They may broadcast local stories and farming reports, weather and road conditions in the area, city council meetings, church activities, sports events and other things of interest to the community. They also carry national and international news taken from the larger stations or networks and emphasize whatever might be the "big story" in the small town. The big cities, by contrast, are served by a large number of local radio stations, often by more than 25. People who live in cities such as New York, Chicago, or Los Angeles, for instance, have a choice of up to 100 AM and FM stations and many different "formats." Most commercial radio stations follow a distinctive format, that is, a type of programming that appeals to a certain listening audience. Some of the most common radio formats are given below with the approximate number of stations in the U.S. for each type (some stations have more than one format). To change from one format to another, stations need permission from the FCC. Formats Format Number of stations Middle-of-the-road/contemporary music about 3,000 Country-and-Western about 2,500 Top-40 hits about 1,200 Progressive, hard rock about 680 Light instrumental music about 600 Golden oldies, hits from the past about 320 Classical music about 300 Rhythm & blues, soul music about 280 Jazz about 250 Religious, religious music about 900 Talk, interviews, discussions, phone-in, etc.about 400 123
All news Agricultural and farm news Big Band, Swing
about 300 about 200 about 130
There is also a great variety among television stations although there are fewer overall. Smaller cities and areas have one or two local stations, and the larger cities ten or more. In Los Angeles, for example, there are 18 different local television stations. Ninety percent of all American homes can receive at least six different television stations and more than 50 per cent can get 10 or more without cable, without paying a fee, or any charges of any type. In Louisville, Kentucky, for example, there are 16 local radio stations and seven local television stations for a population of about 300,000 people. Three of the TV stations are affiliated with one each of the three major commercial networks, ABC (American Broadcasting Company), CBS (Columbia Broadcasting System), and NBC (National Broadcasting Company). These networks are not television stations or channels or programs: they are not licensed to broadcast. Rather, they sell programs and news to individual television stations which choose those they want to broadcast. These affiliated stations, of course, also create some of their own programming, produce their own state and local news programs, purchase films from other sources, and so on. Two of the TV stations in Louisville are "independents." As their name suggests, these are commercial stations which take their programs from a wide variety of sources, but also produce their own programs. The other two local television stations are educational. They stress cultural programs and features, including local, state, and national as well as international news and current affairs. There are also two cable systems serving the city. Allowing just about everyone "a piece of the air" has resulted in a tremendous variety. It has meant, for example, hundreds of foreignlanguage radio stations including those broadcasting in Chinese, French, Japanese, Polish, and Portuguese. About 160 radio stations throughout the U.S. broadcast only in Spanish. About half a dozen or so radio stations are owned by American Indian tribes and groups. There are some 400 radio stations operated by university students. Many of these stations are members of a nationwide university broadcasting network which enables them to share news and views. 124
The National Public Radio network (NPR) is an association of public radio stations, that is, of noncommercial and educational broadcasters. NPR is known for its quality news and discussion programs. Another public radio network, American Public Radio (APR), created The Prairie Home Companion. This commentary and entertainment program quickly became a national cult program, and a book growing out of this series, Lake Wobegone Days, was an enormous best seller in 1985. The largest television network is not CBS, NBC, or ABC. Nor is it one of the cable networks such as CNN (Cable News Network), which carries only news and news stories, ESPN, the all-sports cable network, or even MTV, which is famous for its music videos. Rather, it is PBS (Public Broadcasting Service) with its over 280 nonprofit, non commercial stations sharing programs. The growth of public television in the past two decades has been dramatic. This is especially noteworthy when one considers that these stations must often survive on very limited budgets, on viewers' donations, and on private foundations. Their level of quality, whether in national and international news, entertainment, or education, is excellent. Children, and parents in many parts of the world are familiar with Sesame Street, a series that was a breakthrough in children's programming, The Muppet Show, or Reading Rainbow. The majority of commercial television stations receive most of their programming, roughly 70 per cent, from the three commercial networks. The networks with their financial and professional resources have several advantages. They are able to purchase the distribution rights, for example, to the most recent films and series. They can attract the best artists and performers. Above all, they are able to maintain large news-gathering organizations throughout the nation and throughout the world. They also have a considerable income from selling news and video material to other international television systems. All of the networks have nationwide news programs which also stress feature stories in the mornings, throughout the week. All have regularly scheduled news series. Among the most popular are CBS's Sixty Minutes and PBS's The MacNeil/Lehrer Newshour. The world's most durable TV show is NBC's Meet the Press which has been aired weekly since 1948. This show, in which important 125
political figures or leaders are interviewed by journalists, now has imitators in virtually every other country. Local television stations also have their own news teams, reporters and film crews. Usually, local television stations will offer between half an hour to two hours of local, city, and state news, weather and business information in addition to the national network news programs. In a city where there are three stations, for example, viewers will also have a choice of three local, city, and state news reporting programs and series. The local stations are also in competition with one another for getting the most recent news. If their programs are watched by many people, they are more likely to attract more money from advertisers. Numerous books, studies, and popular articles have been, written about American commercial television and its programs, their quality or lack of it, their effects, real and imagined, their symbols, myths, and power. There are enough pressure groups in the U.S., however, – religious, educational, and those representing advertisers – so that what does appear on commercial television programs probably represents what the majority of people want to see. Most of the commercial series and programs which have been successful in the United States have also been successful internationally. They have been regularly purchased and shown even in nations that only have government-financed or controlled television systems. No commercial network in the U.S. thinks that Dallas, for example, is fine drama. But they've watched foreign television companies such as the BBC and ITV fight over the broadcast rights, and others hurry to make their own imitations. They conclude, therefore, that such popular entertainment series are in fact popular. There is less concern today than there once was about how much influence advertisers might have on television programming. The U.S. liquor industry did not stop the commercial stations from voluntarily banning all liquor advertising and commercials from TV in the early 1950s. And the strong tobacco lobby could not stop cigarette ads being banned either. All three commercial networks gave extensive, and strongly critical coverage to the war in Vietnam. The Three Mile Island nuclear accident was widely reported in depth, as were and are airplane crashes or industrial pollution stories. The commercial networks have discovered what the newspapers did 126
earlier: good critical investigative reporting on important issues will attract viewers. If one advertiser is offended, another will not be. Commercials take up about ten minutes of every 60 minutes during "prime-time" viewing. This is the period in the early evening when most viewers are watching television. Commercials range from those that are witty, wellmade, and clever to those that are dull, boring, and dumb. Advertisers have learned that unless their comercials are at least amusing, viewers will either switch to another channel or use commercial "breaks" to get up and do something else. With the rising popularity of public television and commercial-free cable TV, viewers can, if they wish, turn to stations that do not have commercials. Experience in those countries which lead in the amount of television programs available – Canada, the United States, and Japan, in that order – seems to indicate that even with other choices available, commercially-produced programs are still popular with many people. Here it is interesting to note that Britain's commercial ITV channel now attracts more viewers than does the BBC. Many Americans, who pay no fee for either commercial or public TV, simply accept commercials as the price they have to pay if they choose to watch certain programs. At present, no one seems quite sure what will come out of the cable television, video, and satellite or pay television "revolutions." There is no nationwide system or policy on cable television. Local communities are free to decide whether or not they will have cable television. There are many different types of schemes, systems, and programs. Some offer top-rate recent movies on a payas-you-watch system, some offer opera and symphonic music. All are willing to provide "public access" channels where individuals and groups оf citizens produce their own programming. It does not appear, however, that the hopes once voiced for cable television will be realized. Cable firms must be able to offer something special get many people to pay for what they can normally see free of charge through regular public and commercial stations. It will also be difficult to get people receiving satellite programs with the help of dish antennas to pay for all the programs they simply grab out of the air. A few remarks on how much television that "typical American" watches should be added. Obviously, there is a lot to watch and a 127
great variety of it. Live sports events are televised at full length and attract a lot of viewers. Recent full-length movies are popular and there is always at least one station that has the "Late Late Movies," often old Westerns or Japanese horror films that start after midnight and go on until 3 or 4 a.m. And quite a few viewers in the United States and elsewhere enjoy the many television series and made-fortelevision specials which seemingly never end. Statistics show that the number of hours spent watching television are highest for women over 55 years of age, and lowest for young men between 18 and 24 years. The popular press is often not very careful when reporting statistics of television-viewing times. The U.S. statistics published each year tell how long a television set in a typical American household is, on the average, turned on each day (and night), not how long an American is actually watching television. Such differences are important. The household might include parents who watch the local and national news programs each evening. The older children might watch a program, say the Bill Coshy Show, the most popular show in 1986. The teenager might then switch to the cable MTV, the famous channel featuring rock and modem music videos. What is counted, then, is the total time the TV set is turned on (now just over 6 hours a day). In fact, the number of hours of television the socalled average American watches has been stable for the past three years at around 4.5 hours a week. Furthermore, a Galiup poll found that while 46 per cent of Americans chose television as "their favorite way of spending an evening" in 1974, only 33 per cent did in 1986. Television sets in America are turned on in much the same way and for the same reasons that radios are, as background music and noise. Life does not stop in either case. Many morning and daytime programs are only viewed intermittently, while other things are going on and demand one's attention. The television set is only watched!,, in other words, when something interesting is heard. If our typical Americans were actually "glued to the tube" an average of six or seven hours a day, seven days of the week, very few would be going to school, earning university degrees, raising families, working, running businesses, or even getting much sleep. And few would have time to read all those newspapers, magazines, and books. 128
Media and communications The public's right to know is one of the central principles of American society. The men who wrote the Constitution of the United States resented the strict control that the American colonies' British rulers had imposed over ideas and information they did not like. Instead, these men determined, that the power of knowledge should be placed in the hands of the people. "Knowledge will forever govern ignorance," asserted James Madison, the fourth president and an early proponent of press freedom. "And a people who mean to be their own governors must arm themselves with the power knowledge gives." To assure a healthy and uninhibited flow of information, the framers of the new government included press freedom among the basic human rights protected in the new nation's Bill of Rights. These first 10 Amendments to the Constitution of the United States became law in 1791. The First Amendment says, in part, that "Congress shall make no law ... abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press ... That protection from control by the federal government meant that anyone – rich or poor, regardless of his political or religious belief – could generally publish what he wished. The result, Madison declared, was that the power to decide what was harmful behavior "is in the people over the Government and not in the Government over the people." Ever since, the First Amendment has served as the conscience and shield of all Americans who reported the news, who wished to make their opinions public, or who desired to influence public opinion. Over the past two centuries, however, the means of communication – what we now call the "media" – have grown immensely more complex. In Madison's day, the media, created by printing presses, were few and simple – newspapers, pamphlets and books. Today the media also include television, radio, films and cable TV. The term "the press" has expanded to refer now to any news operation in any media, not just print. These various organizations are also commonly called the "news media." This media explosion has created an intricate and instantaneous nerve system shaping the values and culture of American society. 129
News and entertainment are beamed from one end of the American continent to another. The result is that the United States has been tied together more tightly, and the media have helped to reduce regional differences and customs. People all over the country watch the same shows often at the same time. The media bring the American people a common and shared experience – the same news, the same entertainment, the same advertising. Indeed, Americans are surrounded by information from the time they wake in the morning until the time they sleep at night. A typical office worker, for instance, is awakened by music from an alarmclock radio. During breakfast, he reads the local newspaper and watches an early morning news show on TV. If he drives to work, he listens to news, music and traffic reports on his car's radio. At his office, he reads business papers and magazines to check on industry developments. Perhaps he helps plan an advertising campaign for his company's product. At home, after dinner, he watches the evening news on TV. Then he flips through the over 20 channels offered by cable TV to find his favorite show or a ballgame or a recent Hollywood movie. In bed, he reads himself to sleep with a magazine or a book. Our typical office worker, like most Americans, takes all this for granted. Yet this dizzying array of media choices is the product of nearly 300 years of continual information revolution. Technological advances have speeded up the way information is gathered and distributed. Court cases have gradually expanded the media's legal protections. And, because the news media in the United States have been businesses which depend on advertising and sales, owners have always stressed appealing to the widest possible audiences.
The leisure empire The worldwide popularity of American films, television programs, and recordings has made mass entertainment products the nation's second-largest export during the last quarter of the twentieth century. In the following selection, Carl Bernstein examines the economic and political ramifications of our popular culture's apparent international hegemony – its effects on the growing ranks of 130
consumers in the world market as well as on the producers in U.S. media industries. Bernstein teamed with Bob Woodward to break the Pulitzer Prize – winning Watergate story for the Washington Post, where he also was the newspaper's rock music critic. He served as Washington Bureau Chief and senior correspondent for ABC Television, before joining the staff of Time as a contributor in 1990. His articles also have appeared in the New Republic, the New York Times, Playboy, Rolling Stone, Newsweek, and der Spiegel, among others. Just outside Tokyo 300,000 people troop through Japan's Disneyland each week, while 20 miles outside Paris a new city is rising on 8 square miles of formerly vacant land. Once Euro Disney Resort opens for business in 1992, forget the Eiffel Tower, the Swiss Alps, and the Sistine Chapel: it is expected to be the biggest tourist attraction in all of Europe. In Brazil as many as 70 per cent of the songs played on the radio each night are in English. In Bombay's thriving theater district, Neil Simon's plays are among the most popular. Last spring  a half-dozen American authors were on the Italian best-seller list. So far this year , American films (mostly action-adventure epics like Die Hard 2 and The Terminator) have captured some 70 per cent of the European gate. America is saturating the world with its myths, its fantasies, its tunes and dreams. At a moment of deep self-doubt at home, American entertainment products – movies, records, books, theme parks, sports, cartoons, television shows – are projecting an imperial self-confidence across the globe. Entertainment is America's secondbiggest net export (behind aerospace), bringing in a trade surplus of more than $5 billion a year. American entertainment rang up some $300 billion in sales last year, of which an estimated 20 per cent came from abroad. By the year 2000, half оf the revenues from American movies and records will be earned in foreign countries. But the implications of the American entertainment conquest extend well beyond economics. As the age of the military superpowers ends, the United States, with no planning or premeditation by its government, is emerging as the driving cultural force around the world, and will probably remain so through the next century. The Evil Empire has fallen. The Leisure Empire strikes back. 131
"What we are observing," says Federal Reserve Board Chairman Alan Greenspan, "is the increasing leisure hours of people moving increasingly toward entertainment. What they are doing with their time is consuming entertainment – American entertainment – all over the industrialize world." For most of the postwar era, hard, tangible American products were the measure of U.S. economic success in the world. Today culture may be the country's most important product, the real source of both its economic power and its political influence in the world. "It's not about a number, though the number is unexpectedly huge," says Merrill Lynch's Harold Vogel, author of the 1990 book Entertainment Industry Economics. "It is about an economic state of mind that today is dominated by entertainment". What is the universal appeal of American entertainment? Scale, spectacle, technical excellence, for sure: Godfather Part III, Batman. The unexpected, a highly developed style of the outrageous, a gift for vulgarity that borders on the visionary: a Motley Crue concert, for example, with the drummer stripped down to his leather jockstrap, flailing away from a calliope riding across the rafters of the Meadowlands Arena in New Jersey. Driving plots, story lines, and narrative: a Tom Clancy hero or one of Elmore Leonard's misfits. Indiana Jones's strength of character, self-reliance, a certain coarseness, a restless energy as American as Emerson and Whitman. "People love fairy tales," observes Czech-born director Milos Forman, "and there is no country that does them better than the United States, – whatever kind of fairy tales, not only princesses and happy endings. Every child dreams to be a prince; every adult has a secret closet dream to be Rambo and kill your enemy, regardless if it's your boss or communists or whoever." Donald Richie, the dean of arts critics in Japan, sees a broader appeal. "The image of America radiates unlimited freedom, democracy, a home of the people," says Richie: "This certainly appeals to the Japanese, who live in a very controlled, authoritarian society." Jack Valenti, president of the Motion Picture Association of America, concurs, * arguing that American entertainment – particularly movies, television, and rock – was a primary catalyst in the collapse of communism in Europe and the Soviet Union. On a recent visit to China, David Black, the supervising producer for Law and Order, watched young Chinese sell bootleg 132
copies of Chuck Berry and Jerry Lee Lewis tapes in Shanghai. "In Hollywood," says Black, "we are selling them the ultimate luxury: the fact that people don't have to live the life they're born into. They can be a cowboy, a detective, Fred Astaire – and that's what America is selling now. The hell with cars. Cars are just wheels and gears. People want to be able to play at being other people more than they want transportation." The process exacts a spiritual cost. At work sometimes in the iconography of American popular culture is a complex nostalgia for the lost American soul. Madonna is not Monroe, Stallone is not Billy Wilder. But they are cultural forces with an authority and resonance uniquely American. Such gilded presences radiate signals of material success and excess on a scale heretofore unknown in popular entertainment. Perhaps more important, their influence – as models for imitation, objects of media attention – far outweighs that of the traditional heroes and heroines in what may have been an earlier and more accomplished age. The very adulation that the global stars receive simultaneously diminishes and trivializes them, as if they were mere image and electricity. Money, lavish production, the big-budget blockbusters that only the American movie studios are willing to finance – these are part of the appeal. And of course the newness of it all, whether in music or film or TV. Only in the United States does popular culture undergo almost seasonal rituals of renewal. Giovanni Agnelli, the Italian automobile industrialist, adds another factor: quality. "What is unique about American movies and popular music and television?" asks Agnelli. "They are better made; we cannot match their excellence." Nor, it seems, can anyone else on the world stage right now. Matsushita's purchase of MCA, like Sony's ownership of CBS Records and Columbia Pictures, signals a recognition of the value of integrating the yin and the yang of leisure economics, the hardware of VCRs and DAT [Digital Audi Tape] and the software of music and programming. "Our entertainment is the one thing the Japanese can't make better or cheaper than us," says David Geffen, the largest single shareholder in the recent MCA-Matsushita deal. "That's why they are buying in. But they will have zero influence in the product. Companies don't decide what gets made; the content of American entertainment is inspirationally motivated." 133
Michael Eisner, chairman of Walt Disney Co., and other industry executives argue that the unique character of American entertainment is the result of the polyglot nature of the society itself – and the clash of cultures and races and traditions within it. The United States is the only country in the world with such a heterogeneous mix, uniquely able to invent rap music, Disney World, Las Vegas rock’n’roll, Hulk Hogan, Hollywood, and Stephen King. A whole school of traditional economists is worried, however, that infatuation with the entertainment business and its glitzy success is symptomatic of a self-indulgent, spendthrift society deep into selfdeceit. "The pre-eminence of entertainment is illusory success," warns Alien Lenz, economist for the Chemical Manufacturers Association. "It’s no substitute for manufacturing. We need balance in оur economy, not just the goods of instant gratification. The future of America is not in Michael Jackson records, $130 Reeboks, and Die Hard 2. The fact is, you can't make it on Mickey Mouse." Or can you? Disney's Eisner is part of a powerful cadre of modern-day Hollywood moguls who have acquired what their predecessors only hoped to have: real global power – economic, social, political. They exercise it through their stewardship of global entertainment conglomerates in the midst of a communications revolution that has changed the nature of the world. Eisner, Fox's Rupert Murdoch, Paramount's Martin Davis, Steve Ross of Time Warner (which owns the parent company of Time), Ted Turner of Turner Communications, record executive Geffen, super-agent Michael Ovitz, and others have an astonishing influence on what the world sees, hears, reads, and thinks about. "The most important megatrend of the century is the availability of free time," maintains Italian Foreign Minister Gianni De Michelis, who is working on a book about the new dynamics of global economy. "This is the reason the United States will remain the most important economy in the world – because its GNP is increasingly geared to entertainment, communications, education, and health care, all of which are about individuals 'feeling well,' as opposed to the nineteenth-century concept of services intended to protect the workplace and production." De Michelis's notion illustrates another aspect of today's entertainment business: the lines [among] entertainment, communications, 134
education, and information are increasingly blurred, and the modern U.S. entertainment company is uniquely positioned to provide software in all four areas. Just as the auto industry determines the basic health and output of a host of other industries (steel, plastics, rubber), the American entertainment business has become a driving force behind other key segments of the country's economy. As a result of this so-called multiplier effect, the products and profits of dozens of U.S. industries are umbilically tied to American entertainment: fast food, communications technology, sportswear, toys and games, sporting goods, advertising, travel, consumer electronics, and so on. And the underlying strength of the American economy, many economists believe, has a lot to do with the tie-in of such businesses to the continued growth and world dominance of the American entertainment business and the popular culture that it exports. "The role of entertainment as a multiplier is probably as great as, or greater than, any other industry's," observes Charles Waite, chief of the U.S. Census Bureau of Economic Programs. "Unfortunately, there's no exact way to measure its effect." But if the American entertainment industry's boundaries were drawn broadly enough to include all or most of its related businesses, some economists believe, it could be credited with generating more than $500 billion a year in sales. Though the business is increasingly global, the domestic entertainment industry is still the backbone, and it is still thriving. The enormous profits of the '80s are being reduced by the recession. But the amount of time and money the average post-adolescent American spends in the thrall of entertainment remains astounding: 40 hours and $30 a week, if industry statistics are to be believed. By the time U.S. culture goes overseas, it has been tried, tested, and usually proved successful at home. Americans this year  will spend some $35 billion on records, audio – and videotapes, and CDs, almost as much as they will spend on Japanese hardware manufactured to play them. In the air-conditioned Nevada desert, the opening of two gargantuan amusement centers dedicated to gambling and show business – the Mirage and Excalibur hotels – is leading Las Vegas toward its biggest year ever. In Nashville the country-music business is keeping 135
the local economy afloat amid a tide of regional recession. Felix Rohatyn, the fiscal doctor, says the only hope for New York City, laid low by the collapse of the boom-boom Wall Street economy of the '80s, is to turn it into a tourist attraction keyed to entertainment. But the industry is also undergoing profound change in its essential financial and cultural dynamic: moving toward the European and Asian customer as a major source of revenue while moving away from American network television as the creative and economic magnet. Rambo III earned $55 million at home but $105 million abroad. Another effect of globalization: rather than waiting months or years before being released outside the country, American movies and television programs are beginning I enter the foreign marketplace in their infancy and even at birth – and boosting profits. Universal opened Back to the Future II in the United States, Europe, and Japan simultaneously. The film made more than $300 million and the receipts were available months earlier than usual, accruing millions of dollars in interest. The pervasive American presence is producing a spate of protectionist measures around the world, despite vigorous protests by American trade negotiators. The twelve members of the European Community recently adopted regulations requiring that a majority of all television programs broadcast in Europe be made there "whenever practicable." Leading the resistance to the American invasion has been France and its Culture Minister, Jack Lang, a longtime Yankee basher who has proclaimed, "Our destiny is not to become the vassals of an immense empire of profit." Spurred by Lang, who has gone so far as to appoint a rock-'n'-roll minister to encourage French rockers, non-French programming is limited to 40 per cent of available air time on the state-run radio stations. But even Alain Finkelkraut, the highbrow French essayist and critic who is no friend of pop culture, concedes, "As painful as it may be for the French to bear, their rock stars just don't have the same appeal as the British or the Americans. Claude Francois can't compete with the Rolling Stones." In Africa, American films are watched in American-style drivein theaters to the accompaniment of hamburgers and fries, washed down with Coca-Cola. One of the biggest cultural events in Kenya in 136
recent weeks has been the' national disco-dancing championships. But in Nairobi last month [November 1990], two dozen representatives of cultural organizations held a seminar on "Cultural Industry for East and Central Africa" and concluded that something must be done to roll back Western (primarily American) dominance of cinema, television, music, and dance. "Our governments must adopt conscious policies to stop the dazzle of Western culture from creeping up on us," Tafataona Mahoso, director of the National Arts Council of Zimbabwe, told the gathering. In Japan too, where the influence of American entertainment is pervasive, the misgivings are growing. "Younger people are forgetting their native culture in favor of adopting American culture," says Hisao Kanaseki, professor of American literature at Tokyo's Komazawa University. "They're not going to see No theater or Kabuki theater. They're only interested in American civilization. Young people here have stopped reading their own literature." Though movie admissions cost about $12 in Japan, customers seem willing to pay that to stand in the aisles for American films. "To the Japanese, American movies are hip and trendy, and Japanese audiences would rather die than be unfashionable," says William Ireton, managing director of Warner Bros. Japan. Aside from the Islamic world, where laws based оn fundamentalist strictures often forbid access to any entertainment, there seem to be very few places where that is not the case. Even in secular Iraq, teenagers jam the half a dozen or so little shops in downtown Baghdad that sell pirated copies of American rock-'n'-roll tapes and where the walls are covered with posters of Madonna and Metallica. The exponential growth of the American entertainment industry since the late 1970s has taken place in an era of extraordinary affection and goodwill toward the United States in the industrialized world. In Europe, Asia, and even Latin America, anti-Americanism is lower than at any time since the Vietnam War. The phenomenon is in part self-fulfilling: to a large extent that goodwill can be traced to the projection of America as seen through its popular culture rather than to the nation's actual political or social character. If anything, there is an increasing dissonance between what America really is and what it projects itself to be through its movies and music. 137
"Even in Nicaragua, when we were beating their asses in the most horrible way, they had this residual love for us," observes author William Styron, who visited the country during the contra war. "They love us for our culture our books, our heroes, our baseball players, our sports figures, our comic strips, our movies, everything. They had this consummate hatred of Reagan, but underneath was enormous love and affection for us as a kind of Arcadia." The American entertainment business captures much that is appealing, exuberant – and excessive – about the American character. The fantasies and limitless imaginations of Americans are a big part of who they are. It is also, ironically, the source of America's moral authority. For it is in the country's popular culture – movies, music, thrillers, cartoons, Cosby – that the popular arts perpetuate the mythology of an America that to a large extent no longer exists: idealistic, rebellious, efficient, egalitarian. In the boom time of their popular culture, Americans have found new ways to merchandise their mythologies. This is what America manufactures in the twilight of the Reagan era. Christopher Lasch, the social historian who wrote The Culture of Narcissism, sees the development of an entertainment-oriented economy as the final triumph of style over substance in the United States. Lasch believes the most singular American psychological characteristic – the desire for drama, escape, and fantasy – has come to dominate not only American culture and politics but even its commerce. "It's all of a piece. Its effect is the enormous trivialization of cultural goods. Everything becomes entertainment: news, political commentary, cultural analysis," he says. "The most significant thing about the process is that it abolishes &Ц, cultural distinctions, good and bad, high and low. It all becomes the same, and therefore all equally evanescent and ultimately meaningless." Is the imperialism of American popcult smothering other cultures, destroying artistic variety and authenticity around the world to make way for the gaudy American mass synthetic? "It's a horrible experience to go to the most beautiful place in the world only to turn on Crossfire," says Leon Wieselthier, the literary editor of The New Republic. "I've always felt that the export of our vulgarity is the hallmark of our greatness," says Styron, who lived for many years in Paris and 138
whose books always sell well in Francev "I don't necessarily mean to be derogatory. The Europeans have always been fascinated by wanting to know what's going on with this big, ogreish subcontinent across the Atlantic, this potentially dangerous, constantly mysterious country called the U.S. of A." American popular culture fills a vacuum, vulgar or not. "French television is a wasteland; ours is a madhouse. But at least it's vital," says Styron. "'Dallas' and 'Knots Landing' and the American game shows are filling a need in France." Susan Sontag, whose 1964 essay "Notes on 'Camp'" broke new ground in interpreting American popular culture, expresses doubt that the vitality of European culture will be extinguished by America's onslaught. "The cultural infrastructure is still there," she says, noting that great bookstores continue to proliferate in Europe. Rather than regarding Americans as cultural imperialists, she observes wryly, "many Europeans have an almost colonialist attitude toward us. We provide them with wonderful distractions, the feeling of diversion. Perhaps Europeans will eventually view us as a wonderfully advanced Third World country with a lot of rhythm – a kind of pleasure country, so cheap with the dollar down and all that singing and dancing and TV." How long will the American cultural hegemony last? "I think we are living in a quasi-Hellenistic period," says Chilean philosopher Claudio Veliz, a visiting professor of cultural history at Boston University, who is writing a book on the subject. "In 413 b.c, Athens ceased to be a world power, and yet for the next three hundred years, Greek culture, the culture of Athens, became the culture of the world." Much as the Greek language was the lingua franca of the world, Veliz sees the American version of English in the same role. "The reason Greek culture was so popular is very simple: the people liked it. People liked to dress like the Greeks, to build their buildings like the Greeks. They liked to practice sports like the Greeks; they liked to live like the Greeks. Yet there were no Greek armies forcing them to do it. They simply wanted to be like the Greeks." If America's epoch is to last, the underlying character of American culture must remain true to itself as it is pulled toward a common global denominator by its entertainment engine. But danger signals are already present: too few movies characterized by nuance, 139
or even good old American nuttiness; more and more disco-dance epics, sickly sweet romances, and shoot-'em-up, cut-'em-up, blow'em-up Schwarzenegger characters; rock’n’roll that never gets beyond heavy breathing and head banging; blockbuster books that read like T-shirts. The combination of the foreign marketplace and a young domestic audience nourished on TV sitcoms, soaps, and MTV may be deadly. The strength of American pop culture has always been in its originality and genuineness; Jimmy Stewart and Bruce Springsteen, West Side Story and The Graduate, Raymond Chandler and Ray Charles, the Beach Boys and Howdy Doody, James Dean and Janis Joplin. It would be a terrible irony if what America does best – celebrate its own imagination – becomes debased and homogenized by consumers merely hungry for anything labeled "Made in the U.S.A." Another American century seems assured, though far different from the one now rusting out in the heartland. The question is. Will it be the real thing?
The press The Roman Empire. The urge to inform the public of official developments and pronouncements had been a characteristic of most autocratic rules. This urge was fulfilled in ancient Rome by the Acta Diurna ("Daily Events"), a daily gazette dating from 59 ВС and attributed in origin to Julius Caesar. Handwritten copies of this early journal were posted in prominent places in Rome and in the provinces with the clear intention of feeding the populace with official information. The Acta Diurna was not, however, restricted to proclamations, edits, or even to political decisions taken in the Roman Senate, the actions of which were reported separately in the Acta Senatus (literally "Proceedings of the State"). The typical Acta Diurna might contain news of gladiatorial contests, astrological omens, notable marriages, births and deaths, public appointments, and trials and executions. Such reading matter complemented the usual fare of military news and plebiscite results also given in the Acta Diurna and presaged the future popularity of such newspaper filler and horoscopes, the obituary column, and the sports pages. 140
Medieval Europe. In Europe, the impetus for regular publications of news was lacking for several centuries after the break up of the Roman Empire. The increased output of books and pamphlets made possible by the development of the printing press in the 16th century did not include any newspapers, properly defined. The neatest form was the newssheet, which was not printed but handwritten by official scribes and read aloud by town criers. News was also contained in the news^ pamphlet, which flourished in the 16th century as a means of disseminating information on particular topics of interest. One such pamphlet, printed in England by Richard Fawkes, and dated September 1513, was a description of the Battle of Flodden Field. Titled "Trew Encountre", this four-leaved pamphlet gave an eyewitness account of the battle together with a list of the English heroes involved. By the final decade of the 15th century, publication of newsbooks was running at more than 20 a year in England alone, matching a regular supply on the Continent. Authors und printers escaped official censorship or penalty by remaining anonymous or cultivating a certain obscurity for it took a long time before the pamphlets came to the attention of the authorities. In any case the topics most frequently chosen for coverage -scandals, feats or heroism or marvelous occurrences – were mainly nonpolitical and could not be> regarded as a threat to the powerful. Governments in various Countries were already in the vanguard of news publishing for propaganda purposes. The Venetian republic set a precedent by charging an admission fee of one gazeta (3/4 – three fourths of a penny) to public readings of the latest news concerning the war with Turkey (1563), this recognizing a commercial demand for news, even on the part of the illiterate. The term gazette was to become common among latest newspapers sold commercially. Another popular title was to be Mercury (the messenger of the gods). The Mercurius Gallobelgicus (1588—1638) was among the earliest of a number of periodical summaries of the news that began to appear in Europe in the late 16th century. Newspaper names like Mercury, Herald and Express have always been popular, suggesting the immediacy of freshness of the reading matter. Other names, such as Observer, Guardian, Standard and Argus stress the social role played by the newspapers in a democratic society. Newspaper development can be seen in three phases: first, the sporadic forerunners, gradually 141
moving towards regular publications; second, more or less regular journals but liable to suppression and subject to censorship and licensing, and, third, a phase in which direct censorship is abandoned but attempts at Control continue through taxation, bribery and prosecution. Thereafter, some degree of independence has followed.
Tomorrow's journalism new technology, new ethics? In the following selection, Jay Black ponders the ethical implications of new communication devices like mini-cams and portable VDTs, which may shift gatekeeping decisions into the hands of younger field reporters and so mitigate against careful decision making on the part of new staffs. Will newsrooms, as they adapt to more sophisticated communication technology, attract journalists who are less committed to factual reporting than they are to the style, glamour, and gimmickry of the profession in "this neovideo age"? Jay Black is chairman of the Department of Journalism at the University of Alabama. One ramification of the communications revolution we rarely hear discussed, but one we would do well to consider, is that the drastic alterations in how we communicate with each other in the future may quite possibly revolutionize the very definition of what it means to be a journalist. At base, some important ethical questions are raised. VDTs [video display terminals] and mini-cams are standard equipment for today's journalists. Satellite dishes adorn nearly every news outlet, print or electronic. Novel and intriguing in their own rights, they are merely the outward signs of a revolutionary system that will soon link almost all of us, everywhere, in a gargantuan electronic and computerized global village. Buck Rogers telecommunications devices are becoming increasingly commonplace in American and European homes. Satellite and cable-fed messages are now being received on microcomputers interfaced with television screens and printers. Dow Jones, Knight-Ridder, Warner-Amex, and other media companies are experimenting with two-way interactive systems that allow instantaneous and customer-controlled delivery of news, information, entertainment, banking, security, mail delivery, and direct marketing of a great many products. 142
The life of the journalist is already changing as a result of this electronically enhanced neovideo world. Who knows how many senior journalists are abandoning the frenetic profession, frustrated by a technologycally complex craft that some see as dehumanizing the product? Some computer phobics, slow to adapt to sophisticated newsroom technology, have suffered from psychic displacement. Some have retired early, some have changed jobs, some have taken their years of insights and journalistic experience and found themselves out of sorts in a newer faster-paced news world where mastery of technology may be replacing empathy and communication skills as determiners of success. Consider the ethical questions that arise in this new world of 24hour-a-day instant news. Younger, dexterous reporters, out in the field with minicams or portable VDTs, are ever closer to the finished news product, and thus, ever closer to their audiences. Given little time for reflection in this deadline-every-minute business, and given the added pressures of competition from broadcast and print outlets, the reporters will grow increasingly hungry for a "good story," one with graphic impact. Decisions about which stories are newsworthy, which ones can be told objectively, and which ones permit inferences or value judgments, will have to be made quickly and decisively by journalists whose decisions affect thousands if not millions of audience members, yet who are cutting their professional teeth in the field, learning while doing. As journalism grows inevitably to be a younger person's career, there will be an increasing number of scenarios in which field reporters will be forced into making the kinds of gatekeeping decisions previously handled only by grizzled veterans. Good intentions of youth notwithstanding, we are reminded of a truism from the literature of psychology and moral development: It is only with years of experience, of routinely working through professional and ethical dilemmas, that one develops an individual sense of social responsibility and empathy. A world of instantaneous news militates against careful, rational decision making. Numerous forces will push journalists to the limits of good sense, good taste, and decorum – not to mention standards of libel and invasion of privacy – in their eagerness to scoop the competition with instantaneous, live reportage of disasters, accidents, terrorist activities, politicos putting their feet in their mouth, etc. 143
What's to stop journalists from initiating negotiations with news sources on society's fringes – militants, terrorists, kidnappers, hijackers, drug runners, and the like – given journalists' ready access to the action and given that through the reporters, who are wired directly to their news media, the newsmakers are assured of a clear channel to the world's eager audiences? Because fewer gatekeepers will stand between the newsmakers and the news product, won't there be a tendency for journalists to begin behaving like common carriers? The more like television and radio the newspapers try to be, the greater the likelihood that such a situation will come about even in the traditionally slower print medium. After all, research and development people are already perfecting ink jet laser printing systems that will eliminate the need to stop the presses to update a story; hand-held portable VDTs will soon be linked to miniaturized, perhaps umbrella-sized satellite up-link antennas that are about to permit users to communicate instantaneously, with audio, video, and print, with anyone anywhere.(Of course, the linkage between the field reporter and newspaper readers will be streamlined enormously once the newspapers abandon their antiquarian belief that a newspaper must, by definition, be printed on expensive and nonrenewable paper and delivered through an incredibly cumbersome system that hinges ultimately on the working condition of a twelve-yearold's bicycle. But that, as they say, is another story.) Once the electronically blipped, direct-to-the-home newspaperless medium comes into widespread use, the responsibilities of the copy-desk – layout – typesetting – pasteup – proofreading – production gatekeepers will be greatly diminished, meaning the reporters will be drawn inexorably closer to the finished product and thus to their audiences. The cycle will be continued. This again will сall for more responsible, mature decision making on the part of the news gatherer. Indeed, the evidence we muster suggests that the merger of the print and electronic media, and the growth of the informationsociety, will demand more, not fewer, skilled journalists. Reporters and– editors will need ever greater empathy with news sources and news consumers, as the nature of the journalism business changes. When interactive, two-way telecommunications links between home and newsroom become commonplace, special interest consumers will be demanding specialized and in-depth news coverage, and general interest consumers will seek a more broadly based 144
daily news budget. Satisfying the needs of such disparate audiences will be difficult. At the same time, reporters and editors will have to be more highly skilled at rapidly recognizing and processing news according to the traditional 5Ws and H, but with more attention on the why, on explaining causes and effects of events and issues (even if the majority of news consumers seem quite satisfied to slide along on the surface of events). As indicated above, this will intensify the dilemmas of having to recognize when it is appropriate to not merely report, but also to pass judgment on the news. A very real danger is the possibility that the sexiness of this new communications environment, of this neovideo age, may mean that people entering the journalism field may be doing so for the wrong reasons. Instead of coming to a career in journalism with an old-fashioned commitment to communicating in depth, they may be attracted to the craft because they have been smitten by the technological marvels, the glamour, the hype, the ego rushes inherent in what is sometimes sarcastically called "The Star Syndrome" of being on television. We will all lose if some of the tyrannies endemic in television journalism – the golden throat, the bouffant, the orthodontic dazzle – are rewarded at the expense of substance. Once the local newspaper sees its task as competing for audiences with local and network and cable and – direct broadcast satellite television, the reporters might feel pressure to compete physically as well as journalistically with their video colleagues. If this is the case, there may logically emerge a new ethic in journalism, a value on form over substance. (In some strange way, it may already be seen in the case of USA Today. The satellite-fed national newspaper resembles the freshman student at a fraternity or sorority rush party, who tries desperately to be something for everyone, and, in the process, becomes very little for anyone. Sadly, too many local papers are indiscriminately imitating USA Today's showmanship and splashy use of color graphics, while forgetting that the Gannett corporation has invested millions in pinpointing its audience's needs and interests.) The stress on gimmickry, on electronic wizardry, on instantneous dissemination of news and opinion, may create new priorities in the education, training, and employment of journalists. At a 145
minimum, the new communications environment would appear to call for a back-to-basics movement in the classroom and newsroom, and a greater need for continuing education of mid-career journalists. From their freshman year, journalism students should be taking a substantial courseload in the arts, humanities, and social and physical sciences. Their cries for ever larger doses of journalism skills courses, especially courses in the use of the latest state-of-theart technology, should not sway educators from insisting that students have come to the university for an education and not for training in technologies that will be changing more rapidly than universities can possibly upgrade their facilities. In short, there should be an emphasis on coping with abstractions, not merely with hardware. Editors seeking to hire young journalists should continue to stress the values of a general education. Obviously – and recent statistics bear this out – prime jobs should be given to those capable students who have served internships and demonstrated their abilities to put theory into practice, who combine intellectual curiosity with craftsmanship. Once they have been hired, they should be rewarded for making good judgments, and not solely for meeting deadlines. The "system" should put technology in its proper perspective. A loyalty to readers, listeners, and viewers should take precedence over a love affair with equipment. Likewise, editors and publishers should make it easier for mature journalists to return to the classroom, both as teachers and as students, and media educators should pursue opportunities to return to newsrooms on professional internships. Values and priorities of both groups invariably get a worthwhile adjustment when occupational roles are reversed. The issues raised here are ethical ones at base, for they ask us to consider what it means to be a fully functioning member of the new information society. The communications revolution means much more than the deployment of new technology. It may very well mean that we have to redefine the place of journalism in society.
Independent work of students in the conditions of the credit system is an important form of the educational process. His teaching, research and professional services has a significant interest, they can be the basis for the development of theoretical knowledge helps to create the necessary competence to deepen. Independent work of the student's test, control work, colloquium papers, essays, etc. a controlled, methodical literature and instructions provided certain topics on the list provided by self-learning: students' independent work, depending on the category of students, undergraduates, doctoral candidates are divided into independent work. The entire volume of SSA approved by the student's day-today tasks that require independent work. SSA for the most common types of tasks ‒ Books – textbooks, reference books, the first set of information sources on the Internet and other sources of information and education, e-books, multimedia resources, etc. ‒ Products, process, display and analysis of phenomena in order to control ‒ "Actual knowledge" in order to develop skills and abilities to perform various exercises ‒ The creative use of knowledge and skills, research SSA of the major issues of the curriculum, homework, term papers, and provides advice on other tasks of SSA. The success of SSA teachers to pay attention to is the need to meet the following requirements: ‒ SSA have to understand ‒ Must be able to perform the tasks accessible ‒ The terms and conditions of SSA results should be known in advance 147
Lectures, practical lessons in order to deepen the knowledge of the independent paper. 1. S. Isayev "The knowledge of the Kazakh language" eñbegindegi "Periodicals language development," Language, the accumulation of scientific literature on the subject of scientific conclusions about the style, writing notes 2. Information, analytical, artistic and journalistic genres "province of Turkestan" newspaper and "obvious" analysis of the language and style of the magazine 3. Depending on the specific content of the "province of Turkestan" newspaper and "obvious" analysis of the language and style of the magazine. 4. "Sary-Arka", "Young Turkestan", etc. missing editions analysis of the language and style of the genre (oral). 5. "Transparent", "Jas Alash" newspapers interviews analysis of language and style (oral) 6. Taking into account the language and style of the genre of reporting requirements, "Astana akshamy" newspaper reports gathered, the analysis of language and style (oral). 7. "Egemen Kazakhstan" newspaper correspondence analysis of language and style (Colloquium). 8. On the basis of the development of the genre of literary journals essay "Kazakh literature" newspaper and "Star" magazine essay genre, language and style analysis (oral) 9. Analyse T.Kozhakeevs’ "satire basis" genre (oral) 10. Children transparent spring, "Aigolek", "Baldyrgan" magazine materials to create a language and style 11. Journalistic style and literary style differences and similarities, take a Venn diagram (oral) 12. Analysis of journalism in the style elements of fiction genres (oral). 13. Taking into account the requirements into the newspaper, "People's" newspaper to collect examples of linguistic and stylistic errors (oral) 14. "The language and style errors in the press" to make a presentation on the topic 15. In advertising to find an example of errors in the analysis (colloquium) 148
Literature: 1. Amanzholov S. Kazakh literature language. ‒ Almaty: Kazakhstan, 2004. 2. Abilqasymov B. The first Kazakh language newspapers. – Almaty, 1991. 3. Amirov R. Newspaper to face some of the phrases in the language. ‒ 114 p. Language and Culture Press 4. Bayalieva D.S. Language and style of mass media. ‒ Almaty, 1999. 5. Bylynskii K.I. Language of newspaper. MNU. – M., 1996. 6. Vuynik V.A., Titunin V.N. Information as newspaper genre. ‒ M., 1982. 7. Zhapbarov A. Fundamentals of the style of the Kazakh Language Teaching Methodology. ‒ Almaty, 1991. 8. Kenesbayev I., Mousabayev G. Kazakh language nowadays. Vocabulary, phonetics. ‒ Almaty, 1975. 9. Isayev S. Problems of knowledge in Kazakh language. ‒ Almaty, 2008. 10. Shyndalieva M. Genres and formats of journalism. ‒ Astana, 2012. Methodical instructions: 1. SOSES RK. The education system of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Professional education programs. The main provisions. SOSES RK. 5.03.007 - 2006. 2. Nurmanbetova D.N., Nefedova L.V., Sarekenova Q.Q. Guidelines for the development of the syllabus. – Astana: L.N. Gumilev ENU, 2011. ‒ 33 p. 3. The provisions of the credit technology in the educational process. MES RK order № 152 from 20 april of 2011. 4. SOSES RK. Higher education. Bachelor degree. Main rules. – Astana, 2011. 5. The current progress of students in higher education institutions, model regulations for the control of the interim and final. Approved in 18.03.2008. Has been changed in 2010 and 2011.
The current achievements of students in the control of the credit system, and final, interim and final certification of the classified types During the period of the current academic performance of students held according to the schedule in accordance with the program of the classroom and outside the classroom to check student's education system The purpose of the current control of theoretical knowledge and understanding of educational material, the use of theoretical knowledge and practical tasks and knowledge, etc. verification system. Current control methods: oral (surveys, interviews, reports, Create, read the text on a given topic, etc.); Written tests (written examinations, essays, papers, a written statement of a material of a given topic, etc.); mixed control; SSA presentation was practical control (practical tasks, etc.); control method – a type of supervision; graphic control; programmed control; laboratory control; problem situations, etc. Step-by-step control of one particular part of the discipline (module) educational achievements of students after the completion of control. The purpose of the periodic monitoring of academic discipline to go to read the next section to determine the level of educational material. To the stage as a form of control, the authors offer to hold the colloquium, students enter the educational-methodical complex questions prepared in advance of this type of control. At the same time, we have the theoretical knowledge is widespread in foreign universities control the type of writing (essays, written tests, etc.). 150
Final intermediate certification exam in the form of discipline to the quality of the evaluation of student achievement assessment, if the subject of several academic trained in control of the final period will be trained by the department during the academic period. The purpose of the final control study to determine possession of a full academic course material comprehension, the logic of the development of the relationship between the content of the training material. According to the student's individual final control plan will be in the form of exam. The order and type of examinations on each subject within one month of the beginning of the academic year of the university (faculty) approved by the decision of the Academic Council. If the oral exam educational complex will be discussed preparation for the oral exam: a written exam, testing exam form (blank check by testing, testing using computing devices and computer equipment), a comprehensive examination of the complex testing, etc. In the case of the credit system is one of the most common types of control over the final testing. Basic requirements for testing reliability, objectivity, significance. The current, interim and final questions 1. The concept of the language and style of the media 2. Language and style of the scientific conclusions 3. The development of the Kazakh language periodicals 4. Original language and literary language of Periodical Press 5. The process of creating a new word to the language and the development of the lexical Press 6. Some features of the use of the word in the press 7. Press the syntactic structure of the language 8. Genres of newspapers and their language, style 9. The main language of the article, style 10. Language and style of “Tyrkistan Ualayatinin gazeti” 11. Language and style of “Dala ualayatinin gazeti” 12. Language and style of “Aikap” 13. Language and style of “Qazaq” 14. Language and style of “Egemen Kazakshtan” 15. Language and style of “Ana tili” 16. Language and style of “Qazaq adebieti” 17. Language and style of “Parasat”
18. Language and style of children’s magazine (“Baldyrgan’, “Aigolek”, “Aq zhelken” journals and newspaper named “Ulan”) 19. Language and style of satire genre 20. Language and style of advertising 21. Language and style of “Zhuldiz”, “Zhalyn” 22. Language and style of methodical publications 23. Language and style of article 24. Language and style of essay 25. Book-entry style 26. Clerical style 27. Scientific style 28. Publicism style 29. The concept of interim genre 30. Literary, artistic styles 31. Literary use of language in the press 32. Requirements for language and style of the press 33. Newspaper language and how to effect the style of genres 34. The purity of the language, accuracy, and reliability 35. Issues of language, culture media 36. Missing (note) linguistic features of the genre 37. Features of the style of the interview 38. Language and style of interview 39. Features correspondence language 40. Manifestations of the style press. Speaking style. Methodical instructions: 1. SOSES RK The education system of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Professional education programs. The main provisions. SOSES RK 5.03.007 -2006. 2. Nurmanbetova D.N. , Nefedova L.V., Q.Q. Sarekenova Guidelines for the development of the syllabus. – Astana: L.N. Gumilev ENU, 2011. ‒ 33 p. 3. The provisions of the credit technology in the educational process. MES RK order № 152 from 20 april of 2011. 4. SOSES RK Higher education. Bachelor degree. Main rules. – Astana, 2011. 5. The current progress of students in higher education institutions, model regulations for the control of the interim and final. Approved in 18.03.2008. Has been changed in 2010 and 2011.
Anthony – one antipode, the opposite meaning of the word. Antithesis – Disclosure antithesis of the same type, called a set up. Antipodes phenomena, each party to the meaning of the concepts, what color each separate them by putting them face-to-face between the different phenomena, the notion of what art, paint and nature, to determine the appearance of the image, imagine. Author – a person who work in various fields. Literature, art, science, etc. The owner of the art. Aphorism – Quote proverbs Archaism – outdated today, going out with the normal use of old words Press language – language of writing. No matter what era periodicals not only using the language of the people it serves, it will keep developing rich influence. Main article – the number of newspaper and magazine articles, the first page is devoted to the most important issue. Today the situation in the revised articles to analyze their actions (quarterly, annual, five-year, etc.) to produce the results to create a plan for the future. Wide range of magazine articles written. In the first assessment of the events of the past year in the number of future plans, set goals and objectives of the publication is written on the basis of the report. Barbarism – there is no deficiency of language is so absorbed with the foreign language words. Inversion – The formation of the inversion of the usual words and grammatical procedure other than the one created by the expressions figure changed. Correspondence – popular genre in publics. This genre has evolved with the advent of the mass media. The basis of the correspondence in the press is a separate social event. The journalist is not important to be in the middle of the event, which was the beginning of the next witnesses, who saw the incident will be writing on the conversation or data sources. Book words – the idea that, obviously, for the written word literature and grammar normal individuals. Borrowed words – words into other languages. Each language is inherently self-development with the creation of other models to expand the field through the use of language elements. It is called in scientific language borrowed words. For example, a lot of elements in most European languages, Greek, Latin, Arabic, Persian and Turkish languages, there are words. This is due to historical circumstances. Turkish disposal 300 years is a very large number of words in Bulgarian and Turkish language. Complicated words – consists of two or more words that a whole dealt with the same enthusiasm lexical meaning of the word. For example, today (days) border,
sixteen, red, etc. archaic word meaning the method of execution, composition, depending on the scope of communication between components and stylistic internally divided into several types: a) at the joint (this year (this year), today (date)); b) double (needle and thread, children, woman-town); b) the word phrase (get out of the red, nine out of ten); c) abbreviated word (University, State University, collective farms). Capital is only the truest sense of the words of the word. But with self-generated models of each type of compound words. Article – journalistic genre. He defined the development of thought. Articles represent an important social issue relating to the birth of the idea of a documentary journalistic genre Metaphors, replacement – two things, the phenomenon of comparison, on the basis of the approach of the units illustration of the value of the figurative word or phrase. Metonymy – use one instead of one of the words substitute. Example – (fable) is one of a small satirical poetry genres. It is the beginning of the individual in society or in some trouble, defect, disease, unacceptable behavior, clear, accurate test have been criticized. That is an example of the gap, they are often an allegory of human and other animals, birds or to illustrate that happened at the beginning of something. Neologism – born pioneers linked to the general public related, in the sense of the word. spellings heard one, though, each party to the meaning of words Homonym – spellings heard one, though, each party to the meaning of words. Sketch – fiction and nonfiction complex and multi-faceted genre. Sketch of truth, the study of the socio-political context of smelting genre. Part of the review of literature Report – from the Latin word "warning" means. The period of its development coincided with the development of the media. Reports will happen when the dust of the earth. Therefore, the report is the event itself. One of the operational comprises elements of information and journalism genres Satire – from the Greek word "supplement" the real truth, in order to improve the means test. Satirical journalism genres truthfulness and accuracy of the data packets. Synecdoche – Because of replace words create meaning words Synonymous – there are different spellings heard with similar meaning about one another. Interview – in English "interview" of "meeting" means. Political, social or other issues created a specific conversation with a journalist about journalism genre. Style – mean different: the ancient Romans to write the word on the blackboard in the range of one to the tip of the tip of the blade pointed stick style, and then everyone's handwriting, write, expression, and not long ago, style of speech, speech skills and eventually writer became a characteristic feature of the style of art. Style talent and size. "The behavior of any style as well" (Plato), "No one has all the qualities of style" (Stendhal). Still in respect of all of the arts and science and the concept of the nature of each separate.
Comparing – other way to describe by comparing the observed phenomenon likened to. Standard language – spoken and literary language model, the language used is clear to all of the people all operations (the use of the word, sentence, etc.) set. The language of the literary language of the system will be the norm Missing (note) – newspapers, magazines, television and radio is one of the common practice of indigenous genre. Its most important feature of the genre data, event, inform about the phenomenon. However, this data cannot be analyzed. News fast, mobile, quick to join our fast should be published, otherwise, its value cannot be. Pamphlet – Such as satire, artistic and journalistic genre. Today's topics, beginning to interfere in the actual problems solved. Pamphlet often give us a whole social system will be based on the system as a whole. Why not the whole soul, content, and exposes the purpose of the general social order, it denies the skills of customs rules. Parody – the Greek para (against), edo (song songs) words combined, integrated word against that type of songs poem. Literature according to the researchers, the Cervantes Saavedran’s "Don Kikhot" novels written against the parody of knighthood. Publicity – one of the largest in the field of art. He was born with literature, emerging, growing, growing creativity of the original single item Purism – means from latin word “pure”. Feuilleton – Called satire into the experience of the press in the first half of the last century. France's "History of the Debate" newspaper published a separate application called satire. Satire pure journalistic genre, artistic and literary genre. The image of the types of people the beginning of the episode, sharpening, climax, resolution, dialogue, description concessions. Satire artistic language, literary finish the contract. They will not be in his satire. Satire and satirical are humor genre. Epithet – label product at the image to determine the quality of the special nature of the event Epenthesis – words to speak with a vowel between the two consonants. Epenthesis certain foreign words sound a shortcut to access the language, the language of development, in the course of the study appears. Elision – Latin “elision” means reset, wipe. Methodical instructions: The development of the contents of the subject the student must understand that the development of the conceptual apparatus. In this regard, the right to a glossary of basic concepts. Must be read to understand the definition of the concept several times. Unknown to learn terminology dictionaries, explanatory, it is necessary to appeal to the encyclopedia or dictionary of foreign words. When working with the notion of meaning to go to first understand its contents, and then you need to know the specific features of it. 1. SOSES RK The education system of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Professional education programs. The main provisions. SOSES RK 5.03.007 -2006.
2. Nurmanbetova D.N., Nefedova L.V., Q.Q. Sarekenova Guidelines for the development of the syllabus. – Astana: L.N. Gumilev ENU, 2011. ‒ 33 p. 3. The provisions of the credit technology in the educational process. MES RK order № 152 from 20 april of 2011. 4. SOSES RK. Higher education. Bachelor degree. Main rules. – Astana, 2011. 5. The current progress of students in higher education institutions, model regulations for the control of the interim and final. Approved in 18.03.2008. Has been changed in 2010 and 2011.
1. What style is the style of the press? A) journalistic style B) explanatory style C) narrative style D) speaking style E) only a literary style 2. What is characteristic of the genre note language and style? A) a small way, in a few words, a lot of opinion and facts and figures B) use a lot of Illustrative words C) general priority will be given an opportunity to speak D) Notify way of evidence will be given priority E) to appeal to a certain form 3. Correspondence style typical of a genre of parents: A) narrative style B) scientific style C) official style D) paper style E) speaking style 4. What are the ways to report on the language and style of the genre A) use of scientific evidence priority B) author explains through a dialogue with the reader his thoughts, emotions, writing C) only apply to the way the narrative D) only way to describe the appeal E) only way to describe the appeal 5. Press materials signing the title of the main principles and requirements? A) a significant choice of words B) Using signal words C) Using the political vocabulary D) attractive, clear, sharp, self-control, literacy, compactness E) Digital data set
D) interjection words E) up words 13. What should be the place of writing the text? A) must be text and information B) text should only report C) assessment of the nature of the information in the text and the accompanying language category D) the text of the propaganda feature E) the question should be raised in the text 14. How you understand in linguistic language word “style”? A) journalistic style B) architect style C) literature style D) recognized in the field of public life, in a certain system of historical linguistic methods E) official style 15. How you can understand the meaning of article in newspaper? A) from lexica B) from phonetic C) from theme D) from syntactic structure E) from the form which given in article 16. What does mean language culture? A) the correct use of phrases B) the correct translation of materials C) using words by correct way D) set of sentences E) use of dialect words 17. How we can scan culture of press? A) by literacy B) by structure of sentence C) by the topic D) solving of problem E) lean on fact 18. The main reason to be members of sentence A) orthography, orthoepy B) phraseology, complementary C) primary, verbal D) identification, circumstance E) addendum
19. What is the name that has served as the initial number? A) forearm could not backfire education to stumble. B) If you get six, mouth, and go C) tomorrow is endless to lazy D) dipped deep threatens more E) eating famine on the scalp so that it does not taste 20. The main vocabulary of press A) official business B) environmental, demographic C) book-entry D) scientific and technical E) economical 21. The reason of typing first newspapers? A) to announce royal decrees, judgments country B) The motto of the republic C) against Tsarist Russia D) To support the peasant E) for the establishment of Alash autonomy 22. What should be the advertising language and writing style means the article? A) to in-depth analysis and intended to describe each side of object B) adorned and colorful text C) depends of raising problems D) depends of naming topic E) depends on using phrases 23. Which is still in the context of a simple word style ranges? A) runny meet the water industry B) He drew water from the well C) body-earth nature, the soul is water. D) he spent his money like rain pours E) Even water has request 24. The theme of the advertising language between the role of the consumer A) it doesn’t matter role of topic language B) consumer should feel quality of good from the text C) article should be simple and exact D) the theme of the specifics of the language could not buy a thing must be observed E) language of topic should be simple 25. Find the words which used figuratively A) heavy load, heavy thing
B) heavy word, heavy character C) heavy tree, heavy air D) heavy bag, heavy life E) heavy book 26. What is the most common type of advertising? A) survey B) review C) article D) announcement E) essay 27. What character shows journalist’s individual creativity? A) raising a problem B) general review C) naming of topic D) by style E) using of numbers 28. The main requirement for the journalistic style? A) logic of the evidence must be reasonable B) There should be no artistic images C) must be one of the themes of the narrative D) write to appeal to certain forms E) dogmatic style should be a priority 29. Advertising essays on specific language and style A) inform a consumer B) interest a consumer C) the minds of the consumer, the treatment effects comprehensive display of art D) encourage customer’s object E) talk about object to consumer 30. What kind of problems you know about language and style faced in media? A) not properly portrait B) misuse of detailed C) long-windedness D) describing landscape E) wrong use of numbers 31. What is the Abay Kazakh literature style model? A) critical-realist style. B) folk style. C) the metaphorical style.
D) the historical style. E) environmental style. 32. Heroes warned of any journalistic motives? A) Elementary B) simply C) beautiful, lyrical D) journalistic E) of the cornea 33. Correspondence symbol of the basic language? A) scientific style C) the literary, artistic and journalistic C) official business D) in the style of the paper E) oral style 34.What is characteristic of the permanent phrase? A) actual B) problem C) the subject D) figurativeness E) digital 35. What is the nature of the press steel? A) verbal B) in writing C) figurative use of the word D) the idea of a parable E) the sustainable use of phrases 36. Speaking specific to the style of the parents? A) freedom of speech, style, emotion, voice, dialogue, monologues typical B) technical, social symbols C) the use of explanatory style D) environmental and demographic terms E) Using economic term 37. What is sketch communications classical prose? A) rich in emotion, language tools widely used. B) the laws of logic completely crushed artistic language. C) of the oral word widely used language. D) rich in the words of the official languages of the cornea. E) scientific evidence differentiated language.
38. The language of the press and the style of the most important requirement? A) to write a brief and created a real fact. C) use a lot of figures. C) want a wordiness D) hero language to be typical E) use of proverbs and sayings 39. What is the official paper of the specifics of the style? A) the indication of the fact that the current system of dogmatic special attention is being paid to write. B) using an emotional approach to testing. C) figurativeness describe the priority. D) increasing social problems, lyrical transmission. E) in the presence of a metaphor likened edition 40. What should be specific to the Youth press language? A) lyric, Excitement, inspiration B) to the image of high importance. C) rigor, dedication, strong D) sensory, cognitive, courage. E) simplicity 41. What is the language and style form? A) in the form of a report B) review C) through the regular headings D) a specific page or section. E) through special applications 42. What is the main direction of "Ana tili" newspaper published articles? A) national language, traditions, language, culture problems. B) purely economic issues. C) only in the political and social issues. D) has nothing to do with other environmental issues. E) domestic problems 43. What is the feature of problematical correspondence in the language and style? A) only disadvantages of writing. B) sees only success record. C) an invitation to the belief that trust, orientation, write to each side of the truth. D) a record of the idea. E) provide figures
44. What is the language of irony? A) most of praise B) of the irony C) of evil D) of the frame E) a statement of priority 45. Which part have a lexicon? A) department to investigate the meaning of the word B) department to investigate the structure of sentences C) to study the style of spelling section D) department to investigate the structure of the sentence E) department to investigate the properties of the sentence 46. "Language for the accuracy of the value is for the purity of the language to the exigencies of the struggle – the struggle for cultural tool," Who is the author? A) A.Baitursynov B) Altynsarin C) M. Gorky D) A.N.Tolstoy E) M. Ayezov 47. Who is the first research the term words in Kazakh newspapers? A) B. Baibosynov, S. Isayev B) Momynova, Tuimebayeva C) Barmanqulov, Baitursynov D) Omashev, Aljasova E) Adamova, Aidarova 48. The main component representing the newspaper: A) word B) Review C) heading D) the opinion of the author E) correspondence 49. The kinds of the style? A) official, journalistic style of speech, of the style of book-entry securities style, the style, the style of fiction B) journalistic style C) official style D) bookish-writing style E) writing style, bookish– writing style, the style of the securities, scientific style
50. What is the thesis? A) are formulated the basic principles of the premises specified content B) report C) text D) content E) no right answer 51. Modern prosperous developed many types of media? A) 1 B) 4 C) 2 D) 6 E) 3 52. What does the Publicism means? A) will be used in the definition of the discussion of important issues for society B) economics, politics C) people's civic identity and heritage of the artist D) and economic issues E) provides for the composition of literary and artistic works 53. what purpose using of the changing the external structure of the meaning of idioms and their approach? A) style B) editorial C) lexical D) creative E) In the context of improving 54. Types of archaisms? A) 2 B) 5 C) 3 D) 4 E) 6 55. “DUG” consisted of several parts? A) 2 B) 3 C) 4 D) 1 E) 5 56. "The Art of Language is illness" the principle of this author? A) Abay
B) Shakarim C) Ibrahim Altynsarin D) Ahmed Baitursynov E) Asan Caigy 57. What seems to be of the majority of words in the language? A) a certain style painting B) sounds, the typical signs C) modulation, repeat D) agreement E) using the phonetic units expressive patterns 58. What is lexica speech? A) Find simple words, euphemism B) terms C) terms, a variety of technical names D) just words E) euphemism 59. Where is the word used only in the sense of its main characteristics of style lexica? A) research B) journalistic C) official D) fiction E) securities 60. What is the socio-political lexicon? A) society, economy, politics and the literary language vocabulary with elements B) is not only a political newspapers vocabulary C) cultural lexicon D) used in the vocabulary of politicians E) only political phrases
Main references: 1. Amanzholov S. Kazakh’s literature language. – Almaty: Kazakhstan, 2004. 2. Abilqasymov B. The first Kazakh language newspapers. – Almaty. 1991. 3. Amirov R. Newspaper to face some of the phrases in the language. 4. Bayalieva D.S. Language and style of mass media. A, – 1999. 5. Vuynik V.A., Titunin V.N. Information as newspaper genre. – M., 1982. 6. Zhubanov Q. Researches about Kazakh language. ‒ Almaty, 1966. 7. Zhumaliev Q. Style – feature of the art. ‒ Almaty, 2006. 8. Zhapbarov A. Fundamentals of the style of the Kazakh Language Teaching Methodology. ‒ Almaty, 1991. 9. Isayev S. The development of the Kazakh language periodicals. ‒ Almaty, 1983. 10. Isayev S. Press-term face style error. ‒ Almaty, 1972. 11. Isayev S. The history of Kazakh literary language. Textbook for higher educational institutions. ‒ Almaty, 1989. 12. Kohtaeyv, Rozental. Language, style of advertising genre. – M., 1981. 13. Qabdolov Z. Art of word. – Almaty, 1982. 14. Qazybayev Q. Find a theme. Journalist and life. ‒ Almaty, 1967. – 213 p. 15. Kenzhebayev B., Qozybaev T. The word about word. ‒ Almaty, 1983. 16. Qozhakeev T. The language and style of newspaper. Journalist and life. ‒ Almaty, 1967. – 213 p. 17. Momynova B. Vocabulary of newspaper’s language. ‒ Almaty, 1999. 18. Pustovoit P. G. Word, style, manner. –M., 1968. 19. Sergaliev M. Style of literature. ‒ Almaty, 1995. 20. Solganik G.I. About language of newspaper. 21. Sokolov A.I. Theory of style. – M., 1968. 22. Syzdyq R. Magic of word. ‒ Almaty, 1997. 23. Subhanberdina U. Kazakh ex-media revolution in materials. ‒ Almaty, 2003. ‒ 37 p. 24. Subhanberdina U. Dauitov S. Aiqap. ‒ Almaty, 1995. 25. Turarbekov Z. Translation in periodical press. ‒ Almaty, 1967. – 253 p. 26. Tertychnyi A.A. Genres in periodical press. ‒ M., 2000. 27. Tom Volek. Ethic of journalism. Development of press institute. ‒ M., 2012. 28. David Rendall. Universal journalist. ‒ M., 2005. Additional: 1. Bolganbaiuly A. Irresponsibility or ignorance? // Kazakh literature, 1994, 28 October.
2. Bolganbayev A. How is your language, journalist? Kazakh literature, 1984, 13 jule. 3. Balakayev M. Culture of Kazakh language. ‒ Almaty, 1971. 4. Berkimbayev T. Painter, painter… // Kazakh literature. 1998, 13 January. 5. Baitikova Sh. Neologism in Kazakh language. ‒ Almaty, 1971. 6. Byliynskyi K.I. Language of newspaper. MNU. ‒ M., 1996. 7. Viynik V.A. Titunin V.N. Information as newspaper genre. – M., 1982. 8. Qydyrbekuly B. The word about word // Kazakh literature 1990, 2 February 9. From experience of Kazakhstan journalists. – Almaty, 2008. 10. Rendall D. Universal journalist. ‒ M., 2000. 11. A journalist during the search for information (from “Journalism and Law” series). ‒ M., 2007. 12. The media and the legal guidelines for journalists (Support regional television center), Karagandy, 2003. 13. Isayev S. translation of proverbs and sayings in “Aiqap” journal features. Kazakhstan’s teacher. ‒ 1975. 14. Isayev S. The effect of a combination of words in “Aiqap” language. Kazakh language and literature. ‒ Almaty, 1975. 15. Isayev S. Press-term face style error // Press on language, culture, scientific and practical conference. ‒ Almaty, 1972. 16. Isayev S. Abay and literature language of Kazakh. Zhuldiz, 1993. ‒ №10.
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................. 3 I ABSTRACTS OF LECTURES ON THE SUBJECT OF DISCIPLINE AND GUIDELINES ON THE COURSE Lecture №1. The concept of the language and style of the newspaper. Scientific conclusions on language and style ............................................. 5 Lecture №2. Newspaper genres and their language, style ......................... 12 Lecture №3. Article, linguistic, stylistic peculiarities, its meaning, and linguistic features ................................................................................ 16 Lecture №4. Note (missing) the linguistic features of the genre ............... 25 Lecture №5. Language and style features of the interview ....................... 30 Lecture №6. Report of the language and style of the genre ....................... 37 Lecture №7. The linguistic Features of correspondence ........................... 42 Lecture №8. The language and style of Essays .......................................... 51 Lecture №9. The language and style of satirical genres ............................ 56 Lecture №10. Materials which are intended for children’s reading ........... 61 Lecture № 11. Reflection of styles in mass-media ..................................... 64 Lecture № 12. Literary use of language in the press ................................. 73 Lecture № 13. Newspaper genres of language, in terms of style requirements .................................................................................. 79 II. PRACTICAL / SEMINARS AND STUDIO CLASSES PLAN AND GUIDELINES TO PREPARE FOR IT ........................................ 82 Studio №1. The concept of the language and style of the media. Language and style of the scientific conclusions ....................................... 82 Studio №2. Genres of newspapers and their language, style ...................... 83 Studio №3. Articles language, linguistic features and stylistic peculiarities of its importance .................................................................... 83 Studio №4. The linguistic features of the note (missing) genre ................. 84 Studio №5. Features of the style in the interview. ..................................... 84 Studio №6. Language and style of report genre ......................................... 85 Studio.№7. Features of correspondence language ..................................... 85 Studio №8. Style and benefits of essays on language ................................ 86 Studio №9. Language and style of satire genre .......................................... 86 Studio №10. Publications for children with language-specific. ................. 87 Studio №11. Manifestations of the style press. Speaking style .................. 87 Studio №12. Literary use of language in the press..................................... 87
Studio №13. Newspaper genres of language, in terms of style requirements .............................................................................................. 88 III PROFESSIONAL TEXTS ................................................................. 89 IV THE STUDENTS' INDIVIDUAL WORK TASKS AND GUIDELINES FOR THEIR IMPLEMENTATION ................... 147 V THE CURRENT, INTERIM GUIDELINES ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MATERIALS AND THEIR CONTROL ........................................................................ 150 The current, interim and final questions..................................................... 151 GLOSSARY OF SUBJECT .................................................................... 153 TEST QUESTIONS ................................................................................. 157 REFERENCES ........................................................................................ 167
Salkhanova Zhanat Khamarovna Tapanova Saule Esembekovna THE LANGUAGE AND STYLE OF MASS MEDIA Educational manual Stereotypical publication Typesetting and cover design G. Кaliyeva Cover design used photos from sites www.art-2026066_1280.com
IB №12181 Signed for publishing 31.07.2020. Format 60x84 1/16. Offset paper. Digital printing. Volume 10,68 printer’s sheet. 80 copies. Order №4597. Publishing house «Qazaq University» Al-Farabi Kazakh National University KazNU, 71 Al-Farabi, 050040, Almaty Printed in the printing office of the «Qazaq University» publishing house.
Новые книги издательского дома «ҚАЗАҚ УНИВЕРСИТЕТІ» Тaрaқов Ә. Aбaйдың aудaрмaшылық тaлaнты: оқу құрaлы / Ә. Тaрaқов – Aлмaты: Қaзaқ университеті, 2016. – 260 б. ISBN 978-601-04-3570-4 Ұлы aқынның Бaтыс әдебиетінен Гете, Шиллер, Бaйрон, A. Мицкевич, орыс клaссикaсынaн A. Пушкин, М. Лермонтов, И. Крылов, И. Бунин, Я. Полонскийден тәржімелеген туындылaры тaлдaнып, бaғaлaнaды. Қaзaқ поэзиясының клaссигі, ұлы aқын, ойшыл Aбaй Құнaнбaевтың көркем aудaрмaдaғы ізденістері мен шеберлігі бұдaн бұрын дa зерттеліп, жекелеген aудaрмaлaры тaлдaнып, бaғaлaнғaнымен, зaмaнaуи aудaрмaтaну ғылымы негізінде, түпнұсқaмен сaлыстырa қaйтa сaрaптaп, пaйымдaу – уaқыт тaлaбы. Филология ғылымының докторы, профессор Ә.С. Тaрaқов Aбaйдың Бaтыс және орыс aқындaрынaн aудaрғaн туындылaрын жaн-жaқты зерттеді. Клaс сиктердің шығaрмaшылық өмір жолы берілген. Сонымен бірге поэзиясының aудaрмaлaры теориялық тұрғыдaн терең тaлдaнaды. Әр aудaрмaдaғы Aбaйдың ізденісін, бaлaмa, сәйкестік тaбу шеберлігін, aудaру тәсілдері мен шешімдерін түпнұсқa мен aудaрмaны сaлыстырa aйқындaп, дәлелдейді. Әр aудaрмaны нaқты тaлдaп, сaрaптaп, Aбaйдың aудaрмaшылық тaлaнтын ерекшелейді. Шығыс пен бaтыс әдеби сaбaқтaстығын сaрaлaйды. Оқу құрaлы қaлың көпшілікке әрі aудaрмaшы мaмaндығындa оқитын студенттер мен мaгистрaнттaрғa, ізденуші жaс ғaлымдaрғa aрнaлғaн. Кітaп әдеби стильде, оқырмaнның қaбылдaп, түсінуіне бейімделіп жaзылғaн. Үмбетaев Мүбәрәк. Сүйінбaйтaну: оқу құрaлы. – Aлмaты: Қaзaқ университеті, 2018. – 290 б. ISBN 978-601-04-3511-7 Қaзaқ хaлқының ұлы aқыны, өлең сөздің пірі Сүйінбaй Aронұлының дүниеге келгеніне 2015 жылы 200 жыл толды. Осы aйтулы мерейтой құрметіне орaй дaңқты aқынның әдеби көркем шығaрмaлары жaнжaқты толық қaрaстырылып, егжей-тегжейлі тaлдaнғaн оқу құрaлын ұсынып отырмыз. Өйткені республикaмыздың бaрлық гумaнитaрлық бaғыттaғы университеттері мен педaгогикaлық институттaрының филология фaкультеттерінде ХІХ ғaсыр әдебиетінің тaрихы бойыншa Сүйінбaй aқынның ғұмырнaмaсы мен әдеби мұрaлaры және «Сүйінбaйтaну» aтты aрнaулы курс оқытылып келеді. Сондaй-aқ жaлпы білім беретін он бір жылдық ортa мектептердің де әдебиет пәндеріне aрнaлғaн оқу бaғдaрлaмaлaры мен оқулықтaрынa Сүйінбaй Aронұлының өмірі мен шығaрмaшылығы енгізілген. Кітапта жыр дүлдүлі Сүйінбaйғa қaтысты тыңнaн тaбылғaн әдеби-тaрихи деректер, ел aузындa жүрген әрaлуaн әпсaнa-aңыздaр мен естеліктер бүгінгі көз-қaрaс тұрғысынaн екшелді. Ұсынылып отырғaн бұл оқу құрaлы университеттер мен педaгогикaлық институттaрдың бaкaлaврлaрынa, мaгистрaнттaрғa, ортa мектептің қaзaқ әдебиеті пәні мұғaлімдеріне және көпшілік оқырмaн қaуымғa aрнaлғaн. По вопросам приобретения обращаться в отдел продаж издательства «Қазақ университеті». Контактные тел.: 8 (727) 377-34-11, 328-56-51. E-mail: [email protected], cайт: www.read.kz, www.magkaznu.com