Mass Media in India 1978

This is the first issue of an annual on Mass Media in India. It contains general information relating to the development

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The

Provided by

Library

of Congress

Special Foreign Currency Program

MASS MEDIA Tamed)

oman

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1976

Editorial Management RESEARCH AND REFERENCE

MINISTRY OF INFORMATION GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

PUBLICATIONS

DIVISION

MINISTRY OF INFORMATION GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

DIVISION

AND BROADCASTING

AND BROADCASTING

February

197%

©

1978 (Phalguna

1899)

PUBLICATIONS DIVISION 1978

PRICE

: Rs. 15.00

PUBLISHED BY THE DIRECTOR PUBLICATIONS DIVISION MINISTRY OF INFORMATION AND BROADCASTING GOVERNMENT OF INDIA PATIALA HOUSE NEW DELHI 110001.

Sales Emporia

: Publications Division:

Super Bazar Connaught Circus New Delhi 110001

Commerce House, Currimbhoy Road, Ballard Pier Bombay 400038

8 Esplanade East Calcutta

700001

Shastri Bhavan 35 Haddows Road Madras 600006

Printed by the Manager, Government of India Press, Coimbatore-641019

Gi€T- Gl

PL 180 SA C-1-79 Preface This is the first issue of an annual on mass media in India,

compiled and edited by the Research and Reference Division of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. The annual deals with various mass media organisations—both governmental and non-governmental—functioning in the country. It contains general information relating to the development of each medium of mass communication. A chronology of important events in the field of mass media and a few appendices containing statistical and other information are given at the end of the book. A comprehensive bibliography has also been appended for those seeking further details on specific subjects. In the governmental sector, information on media set-up in various states and union territories and in some selected public undertakings has been given. An attempt has been made to give sufficient reference material on the mass media largely in private sector like film advertising and book publishing. The last year represents a significant period in the field of mass media in the country. The press has been freed by repealing the Prevention of Publication of Objectionable Matters AAct and

by

reviving

the Parliamentary

Proceedings

(Protection

of

Publication) ‘Act of 1956. The Government introduced a Bill in Parliament in December 1977 to re-establish the Press Council. A working group has been set up to study the question of

converting

Akashvani

and

Doordarshan

into autonomous

ins-

titutions. The Government has also decided to restore the Status-quo ante of the four news agencies prior to their ‘voluntary merger’ into Samachar. For the first time, political parties were given an opportunity to use Akashvani and Doordarshan for election broadcasts, on the eve of the State Assembly Elections in June 1977. Similarly the leader of the Opposition in Lok Sabha made a broadcast to the nation, both on radio and television. Significant changes have been brought about in other areas like film censorship, news-print allocation and governMent advertisements so that the media are once again free. It is hoped the annual will be found useful by mediamen and others as a standard reference book.

Credits Editorial

P. B. Barthakur V. Patanjali P. Parameswaran

Written/Compiled by

awaep

Chapter/Article

Press

V. Patanjali

Radio

K. Ramachandran

Television

K. Ramachandran

Film

Jag Mohan

Advertising

N.N. Pillai

Outdoor

Seshagiri Rao

Publicity—Part I

Part II

M. D. Samant S. Parmar

Printing

V. Sankaran

Book Publishing

U.S. Mohan Rao

10.

Training and Research

N. Bhaskar Rao

11.

Central Media

P. Parameswaran

12.

States’ Media

P, Parameswaran and

13.

Public Sector Media

S. S. Sharma

14.

Professional Organisations

P. Parameswaran

15.

Doordarshan

P. V. Krishnamoorthy

16.

Non-aligned News Agencies Pool

K. S. Ramanathan



Traditional Media

G. L. Manchanda

CONTENTS

COMMUNICATION MEDIA

S

Ce

I.

Til.

RapDio

TELEVISION Fim

ADVERTISING OuTpoor PusLiciry TRADITIONAL MEDIA

SSSBu

nNnawrPr end

Press

59 69

Book PUBLISHING

11 87

TRAINING AND RESEARCH

98

PRINTING

MEDIA ORGANISATION 1.

CENTRAL MEDIA

107

2.

STATES’ MEDIA

3.

Pusic SecTOR MEDIA

142 181

4.

PROFESSIONAL ORGANISATIONS

196

SPECIAL

ARTICLES

1,

DOoRDARSHAN

2.

NON-ALIGNED News AGENCIES Poot

207 214

CHRONOLOGY

219

APPENDICES

227

BIBLIOGRAPHY

263 275

INDEX ADVERTISEMENTS

Communication

Media

Press TWO YEARS more and the press in India will be two centuries old. It was in the year 1780 that the first newspaper called the Bengal Gazette or Calcutta General Advertiser was started by one James Augustus Hickey, an ex-employee of the East India Company. Hickey’s Gazette, as it was popularly known, was a political and commercial weekly “‘opea to all parties, but influenced by none” and had to suspend publication within one year owing to the wrath and displeasure of the officials. However, the first attempt to publish a newspaper had been made by William Bolts some twelve years earlier but the Company’s authority frowned on him and sent him home by the first available ship. Messink and Reed who launched India Gazette, also in 1780, were benefited from Hickey’s experience and obtained prior consent of the Governor General by pledging to abide by any official regulations. Four years

later came

the Calcutta

Gazette with

assured government

patronage.

Notwithstanding the play-safe policy, neither the Calcutta Gazette, nor the

Bengal Journal, the Calcutta Chronicle and the

Calcutta Armasement could survive for long.

Oriental

Magazine

of

The Madras Courier (1785), The Bombay Herald (1789), The Courier

(1790) and The Bombay Gazette were, unlike their Calcutta counterparts of that time, vying with one another to secure official favour but they were not

free from trouble either.

Newspapers were mostly run in those days for the European officers "

working in India, and the editors were mostly those who had grievances against the Company and left its service. The papers were “useless vehicles of local information of any value; they were filled with indecorous attacks upon private life and ignorant censures of public measures” and run by those who had neither literary pretensions nor political scruples. The production of the papers was shoddy and their circulation did not exceed a bundred or two hundred copies. The press growing more vocal admonishing Governors of their duties and warning them furiously of their faults, the East India Company issued the Amherst circular in 1826 prohibiting the servants of the Company from having connections with the press in any way. However, Sir Charles Metcalfe,

who succeeded Lord William Bentinck, and his Law

member

Macaulay introduced a new phase in the history of the Indian press by bringing in the Act No. XI of 1835 which repealed the laws circumscribing the liberty of the press.

4

MASS

MEDIA

IN INDIA

1978

Then came the first war of independence of 1857. The Government felt jittery about the complaints of inflammatory writings in the press. A new Act was, therefore, enforced to regulate and restrain the circulation of printed books and papers. This Act put the clock back and gratified “a grudge of ancient standing”. Eleven years later came the notorious Vernacular Press Act which discriminated against one section of the Indian press. The Government again showed its ruthlessness by making prosecution easier in respect of “sedition and defamation”. The journalistic scene at that time was dominated by Raja Ram Mohan Roy who launched papers for the twin purposes of propagation of the

Brahmo Samaj and upholding the cause of a free press in the country. Roy’s main preoccupation in publishing Sambad Kaumudi in Bengali (1821) and Mirat-ul-Akhbar in Persian (1822) was to create the atmosphere

and the conditions for an all-embracing reformation around him.

Perhaps

inspired by Roy’s example, the eminent leader Dadabhai Naorojee started Rast Goftar, an Anglo-Gujarati paper, which proved to bea_ fearless champion of the people’s opinion. Close on the heels came Harish Chander Mukherji’s Hindoo Patriot (1853), Iswarchandra Vidyasagar’s Shom Prakash, W. C. Bonnerji’s The Bengalee, the Ghosh brothers’ Amrita Bazar Patrika, With the publication of these papers, journalism in India was able to establish organic links with the people of the country for the first time in its history. Newspapers became mouthpieces for expression of national aspirations and consequently became victims of official indignation. With

the Indian people’s urge

for freedom

growing like wildfire, more

and more intellectuals among public men turned journalists and used their

pen as sword to fight the alien administration.

writings

in Indu

Prakash

and

Bal

Gangadhar

Mahadev Govind Ranade’s Tilak’s

in Mahratta and Kesari and Sisir Kumar Ghose’s white rulers in Amrita Bazar Patrika were notable.

powerful

salvos

indictments of the It was a tribute to

journalist-leaders of that era that the first editor of The Hindu had been

given the privilege to move the very first resolution of the first session of the Indian National Congress.

The Press made considerable progress during the last quarter of the nineteenth century. It was during this period that a number of nationalist weeklies emerged as dailies. The Amrita Bazar Patrika and The Bengalee

in Calcutta and The Hindu in Madras were among these. and

As the freedom movement gained momentum, the press in India grew expanded

to

keep

pace

1907 to 1914 during which

with

it. Particularly

during

the

period

from

the Government experimented with the dual

policy of introducing political reforms and repressive measures, there was increasing consciousness in the country which helped create a more conducive climate for starting new newspapers with national bias. The.Leader in

a

PRESS

Allahabad and the Bombay

founded

by Pandit Madan

C. Y. Chintamani

Chronicle in

Mohan

Bombay

were the two

Malviya and Sir Phirozeshah

and B. G. Hornima

papers

Mehta.

Sir

were editors of these papers.

An event of significance in language

journalism

was the founding of

the Swadesamitran in Tamil. Of equal importance was the appearance of Searchlight (Patna), the Independent (Allahabad) and The Sind Observer (Karachi). Again on the high tide of the Gandhian movement, some of the

popular leaders started publishing daily newspapers. In Calcutta, Chittaranjan Das started Forward (under the editorship of Subhas Chandra Bose),

while in Madras

man

T. Prakasam

of great imagination

sponsored Swarajya, himself as the editor.

and drive, Sadanand

organised

what could

A

be

called the first national news service, Free Press of India News Agency, and started Free Press Journal (Bombay). However, very soon the Free Press

mews

agency

collapsed.

Before the decade

under the guidance of the Prime appearance in Lucknow.

closed,

the National

Minister-to-be Jawaharlal

Nehru,

Herald,

made

its

Alongside the development of daily newspapers, periodical journalism also registered consistent growth. G. A. Natesan’s Indian Review, Sachidananda Sinha’s Hindustan Review, Ramananda Chatterjee’s Modern Review and Tej Bahadur Sapru’s Twentieth Century were some of the periodicals which gave a new sense of direction to journalistic writing in India. The advent of Gandhiji as a journalist through his Young India and Harijan was a significant landmark

Commonweal,

Lala

in the development

Lajpat

of Indian Press.

Rai’s People and

Natarajan’s

Reformcr were some of the other journals which great editors.

Annie

Indian

Besant’s

Social

bore the impress of their

During the period 1939-1945, there was little or no journalistic activity because of the World War II. Two years after the war ended, the country

became free. The historic role of the press in the fight for India’s freedom came to a close, winning glowing tributes from many the world over includ-

ing Lord Listowell, the last Secretary of State gathering of Indian journalists in London on 18 Indian Independence Bill received the assent of “The Indian newspapers have every reason to

for India. Addressing a July 1947, shortly after the the King, the Lord said be proud of the part they

have played in the great constitutional change and of the good influence they have exercised on Indian opinion.”

It is necessary to pause here for a kittle while and see the growth of the language press in India prior to independence. The language press wielded considerable influence on the people and made significant contribution to our freedom struggle by awakening the masses.

6

,

Growth Munshi

of the Wazid

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

Language Ali

Khan’s

Press Zoodut-Col-Ukhber

in

Persian

was

one

of

the earliest language papers published in the first half of the 19th century. Thirteen years later in 1846, one Fink started Sudder-Ool-Akhbar as a co-

operative venture mainly to enlighten the students of the Agra College. In the following years, many papers started publication in Agra, Meerut, Delhi and other places. Those were mostly in the Persian language, theie circula-

tion in most cases never crossed a two digit figure.

According to an official

report of 1848, there were three weekly papers published at Banaras—one in Urdu and two in Nagari script. In 1853, there were in all 35 papers while five years later only 12 were officially listed of which only 6 survived. The reasons for the collapse of the press at a rate faster than its growth

are not far to seek. of public

grievences

Lack of interest in political matters and the exclusion

were among

the chief factors.

An

instance was cited

to illustrate the indifference of the press to public opinion. In the summer of 1815, a legislation was enacted for levying tolls on the high roads which was resented by the people. The press made no reference to this public resentment. The editors were over cautious not to displease the officials. Almost about the same time as the Persian newspaper, the first AngloMarathi paper, the Bombay Darpan came out first as a fortnightly and a few

months

later as

a weekly.

The

object

of

Darpan

was

to

“convey

information on passing events and to point out the means and opportunities for improvement......Personality shall not disfigure nor servility stain the pages of the Darpan which the conductors actuated by the honest intentions will steadily, temparately and firmly endeavour to render deserving of the goodwill and support of every lover of truth and virtue”. The paper carried on

its mission

of educating

and

enlightening

the

public

for a period

eight years at the end of which it was converted into the United

Gazette and Literary Chronicle. vity by bringing out a monthly

of

Service

Jambhekar, its editor, continued his actiMarathi magazine Dig Darshan (1840).

This magazine contained short essays and articles on history, geography, science and philosophy with illustrations in lithograph. In Bombay, Ahmednagar and other places papers started publication, some of them in lithographic process. Harinarayan Apte started a weekly Dnyan Prakash in Pune which was popular throughout its five decades of existence. The paper was converted into a daily in 1904 and played leading role in the dissemination of news and views. It later became the daily Marathi organ of the Servants of India Society. Chiploonkar, Mahajan, Ranade and others started their own papers which played a dominant role in the social life of the Marathi speaking region. The press expanded to such an extent that at the turn of the century every zila town and nearly every taluka town had one or more

PRESS

7

papers. On the staff of some of the papers were employed men of high literary merit who imparted to their work a high degree of language profici-

ency.

Gujarati language had a newspaper perhaps a decade before North India witnessed the birth of papers in Persian. Mumbaina Samachar began its long career on 1 July 1822 with a full-fledged printing press. It was a weekly under the captaincy of Marzban

who

steered clear of all sectional

contro-

versies. Another Nauroji Chandaru started the weekly Mumbai Vartaman which following instant initial success turned into a bi-weekly and expanded the title Mumbaina Halkaru Ane Vartaman. The Marzban family took over Jame Jamshed which was started as a weekly in 1831 and converted it into a Parsi-Gujarati daily. The paper still owned by the Marzban family is popular with the reading public. Both the Hindu and Parsi sections of

the Gujarati Press notably, Vartaman (Ahmedabad) and Bombay did yeoman’s

service to their communities

as well as others.

Samachar

In Tamil, the first attempt to publish a paper, the Tamil Magazine, was made by the Religious Tract Society in 1831. The first newspapers in Tamil and Telugu were brought out in 1833. Run exclusively by Christian missionaries, the papers never engaged themselves in social or political affairs. In Malayalam, the first newspaper Vijnana Nikshepam was published in 1840 from Kottayam. Although the beginnings of language press were hazy in the other regions, their role in the awakening of public opinion in favour of freedom from alien rule was considerable. In fact, in spite of its chequered history it was the language press which carried the message of liberty and freedom to the people because the English language press was patronised only by the educated urban elite. Many of the leaders of the national movement started newspapers

people.

in languages and

used the columns

to rouse the feelings of the

The Anand Bazar Patrika started in early 1920s by Mrinal Ghosh, Prafulla Kumar Sarkar and Suresh Chandra Mujamdar, is known for its extensive coverage of news and enjoys today the largest circulation for any daily newspaper in any language published from one centre. C. R. Das’s Atma Sakti and Banglar Katha, Nazrul Islam’s Bangal, Ramananda Chatterji’s Prabasi are among the prominent Bengali papers which played a dominant role in the freedom movement of the country by rousing public opinion on important public issues. The influence exercised by some of these papers on the masses was not palatable to the officials who imposed heavy punishments on the publishers. Political movements as well as social reform campaigns activised and also adversely affected the life of Gujarati newspapers. Gandhiji’s influence

8

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

1978

on the Gujarati press was evident soon after he took over the Navijivan. Gandhiji used the paper as a veritable instrument for the spread of the message of truth, non-violence and civil disobedience. In less than one year,

the circulation of the Navjivar rose from 9,000 to 20,000. It was converted into the Harijan Bandhu and continued publication till 1940 when it ceased publication as a protest against the Government's repressive policy. In 1943 Janmabhoomi started publication from Bombay and,

nurtured

by able editors, continues to be issued as a popular Gujarati daily till today. Ahmedabad had its first daily Swarajya in 1921 but Vadodara figured on the

daily newspaper map of India only in 1930 when Ujatan publication.

Prabhat

Jugal Kishore Sukul’s Udunt Martand (1826) and Raja

Ram

started

Mohan

Roy’s Bangadoot (1829) were among the first newspapers to be published in

Hindi. Later there were many attempts to publish papers in Hindi, not necessarily in the Devanagri script, in the North West Provinces. In the second half of the last century many papers in Hindi started publication from Jammu, Varanasi and Sikandarabad. Hindi Pradeep edited by Bal Krishna Bhat, described as the father of political journalism in Hindi, wielded consi-

derable influence. The first daily newspaper in Hindi, the Hindustan, came out in 1883. It was published as a tri-lingual—Hindi, Urdu and English— paper first from London and later from Kalakankar under the patronage of Raja

of Kalakankar.

Bharatendu

Harishchandra

started

three journals

in

1873-74 which exercised a decisive influence on both style and content of Hindi newspapers and set a high literary standard. Bharatendu was a man of vision and drive and is regarded as the father of Hindi Journalism. During the following decades came the other outstanding

Mahabir Prasad Mitra and Ganesh

journalists,

Dwivedi of Saraswati, Bal Mukund Gupta of Bharat Shankar Vidyarthi of the Pratap. The Aaj of Varanasi,

regarded as an institution in Hindi journalism, was started in 1920 under the editorship of Sri Prakasa. In Kannada, the first newspaper Karnataka Prakasika was published in 1865. Between 1880 and 1908, a number of newspapers were started but nearly all of them ceased publication following the repressive action taken by the Government. One of these was the first Kannada daily, the Bharati, edited by the noted writer D. V. Gundappa. However, under Sh M. Visvesvarayya, State Prime Minister, the newspapers in Mysore acquit:

ed a new impetus and even during the complex situation of the first World War, the Kannada press expanded. Again under the administration of Sir

Mirza Ismail, a number of Kannada dailies, which continue to publish till this day, started publication. Men like Jayarao Deshpande and H. R. Moharay contributed considerably to the development of the press in Kannada during its early decades.

PRESS

9

R. R. Diwakar started the Karmaveera in 1921 which advocated extreme views in Indian politics. This and the Samyukta Karnataka were responsible for rousing patriotic sentiments among the people of the region. Although the first newspaper in Malayalam was started earlier, it was not till 1884 that the political newspaper, Kerala Patrika was started in Calicut by C. Kunhirama Menon, an independent and public spirited editor. The Malayala Mancrama of Kottayam, a leading daily in Kerala today, was founded in 1888 by Kandathil Verghese Mappilai. Among the papers which championed the cause of social justice were T. K. Madhavan's Desabhimani, Ayyappan’s Sahodaran and Kalikat Krishnan’s Mitavadi. During the struggle for independence a number of dailies were started, thé most important of them being the Mathrubhoomi (which had started as a triweekly). Great journalists of Kerala such as P. Ramunni Menon and K. P. Kesava Menon were associated with the Mathrubhoomi. Another paper which still enjoys considerable influence is the Kerala Kaumuedi. The press in Orissa was a late development.

in Oriya was started as late as 1928.

The first daily newepaper

The Asha which

had

been

started

earlier as a weekly by Shashi Bhushan Dutt was converted into a daily newspaper. The Samaj founded by Gopabandhu Das, as a weekly, began its daily

edition in 1931.

These two

papers are

popular

to

this

days.

The

Gandhian ideology of non-cooperation brought several men of letters into the field of journalism. The Prajatantra started by Harikrishna Mahtab was converted into a daily.

The birth of newspapers in Punjab can be traced back to the years 1850 —1860. In 1854 the Mission Press in Ludhiana cast Gurumukhi type for the first time and started publishing the first newspaper to propagate Christianity.

Munshi Harinarayan’s Akhbar Shri Darbar Saheb started publication from Amritsar in 1867. With the founding of the Singh Sabha in 1873 began a new phase in Punjabi journalism.

Gurmukhi Akhbar (1880)

and

Khalsa

Akhbar (1885) founded by Bhai Gurmukh Singh under the auspices of the

Singh Sabha also started a number of jourmals from Lahore and Amritsar for the propagation of both the Sikh faith and the Punjabi language. However, there was no political journalism till about 1912 when the progres: sive group in Punjab started the Panth Sevak, Shahid and Punjab Soorma as a protest against the demolishing of the wall of Gurudwara Rakabganj and the ban on carrying Kirpan. In 1944 when, on the outbreak of war, the government made peace with the people of Punjab by accepting their demands, it proved a shot in the arm for the Punjabi journalism. The Akali movement of 1920 which was started to reform the gurudwaras marked yet another phase in the progress of Punjabi journalism. Many important papers which helped to revitalise the national movement such as Dharamvir, Akali, Ranjit, Nirol Khalsa and Quami Dal started publication during this period. Accord3—3 M ofI & B/ND/77

10

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

1978

ing to one report during the early years of 1920s, there were 23 dailies, 67 weeklies, 4 fortnightlies and 25 monthly journals in the Punjabi language. The newspapers in Punjabi wrote inspiring articles t0 awaken people into participating in the struggle for freedom. As elsewhere in the country,

the press

in Punjab

also came

under

heavy

official

repressive

measures.

During and after the 1942 movement the press received even harsher treat-

ment.

The Tamil newspaper, The Swadesamitran, started in 1882 as a weekly, converted into a tri-weekly in 1897 and into a daily two years later, brought sobriety in Tamil journalism. The Tamil Nadu (1926) and the Jayabharati (1933) and Dinamani (of the Free Press group) were popular newspapers which had tremendous influence on the people. Till about 1942 daily journalism

in Tamil Nadu had been confined to the City of Madras. The Daily Thanthi (1942) started simultaneous editions from Madurai, Salem and Tiruchira-

ppalli.

Tamil can claim an outstanding position among the Indian languages

for its weeklies.

The best known

of which

are the Ananda

Vikatan

(192A)

and Kalki (1941). Mention should be made of a weekly paper, The India, edited by Subramania Bharati, the wellknown Tamil poet and patriot. In Telugu the first newspaper owed its inception to the Christian missionaries. The Hitavadi (1863), which was published as a weekly, ceased

publication

after a few

years.

The

Canadian

Baptist

Mission

started the

weekly Ravi from Kakinada mainly for religious propaganda. It also devoted some space for news of public interest. However, a newspaper worth its name, Vivekavardhani, was first published by the scholar, educationist and social reformer, K. Veeresalingam Pantulu. Soon came two other

papers, Andhra Bhasha Sanjivini and Andhra Prakasika (188%).

The

last

of the

well-

named paper championed the cause of national movement and supported the National Congress. The early years of Telugu journalism saw the publication of a number of papers devoted to literature, social welfare and social reform. The credit for starting the first daily mewspaper in Telugu, Desabhimani, goes to Devagupta Seshachalarao. The first successful daily paper in Telugu, The Andhra Patrika, which is still publishing, was started as a weekly from Bombay in 1908 by K. Nageswara Rao. The paper was shifted to Madras in 1914 and after a few years was converted into a daily. The paper is now published from Vijayawada and Hyderabad. In 1939 under the editorship of Khasa Subba Rao the Andhra Prabha was first published. Later when V. R. Narla, an able writer and a keen student of public affairs, became the editor, the daily acquired great popularity and influence. These two dailies dominated the Telugu daily journalism for decades. The Communist Party published the Prajashakti which has now been succeeded by Vishalandhra.

The

Meejan

(Hyderabad),

under

the editorship

Andhrabhumi, known writer A. Bapiraju had a brief existence. Now, Andhra Janata and Eenadu are the dailies published from Hyderabad. V. R.

PRESS

,

11

Narla, who left the Andhra Prabha, started the Andhra Jyoti, a daily from Vijayawada, in 1960 which opened up new vistas in Telugu journalism. Weekly and monthly journalism

seem to be more steady

in Andhra.’

The weekly illustrated publications of the Andhra Prabha, Andhra

Patrika

and Andhra Jyoti and a few other political weeklies are among the widely circulated journals. In fact, weekly journalism may be said to sustain itself

on the strong and healthy foundation laid by Mutnuri Krishnarao through his famous weekly Krishna Patrika,

Nearly every part of the country contributed to the growth of Undu journalism. The beginnings of journalism in India were in a way the beginnings of Urdu (or Persian) journalism too.

The introduction of lithography in

exponent of the Muslim nationalist cause.

The daily Pratap from Lahore and

1837 gave a great fillip to the growth of Urdu journalism. The developments in the post-rebellion period led to a change in the content and form of Urdu papers. Western knowledge began to be presented in simple language which helped steady growth of the press. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and his powerful weekly U/ Hilal (1912) grew up together. The paper struck a new line in journalism by including pictorial illustrations. It made no secret of its political objective nor its aim to reform certain social and religious practices. Hamdard edited by Maulana Mohamad Alj proved to be a powerful

the daily Hakiket from Lucknow and Bandemataram founded by Lala Lajpat Rai helped to mould public opinion in favour of the national movement.

The Pratap and the Milap founded in 1923 by Mahashai Kushal Chand were

Arya Samaj mouthpieces.

in 1923.

Swami

Shraddhanand founded the Tej in Delhi

The paper became a vigorous champion of nationalism and social

reform. In Calcutta the daily Rozana Hind and the daily Anzam were founded in 1930 and 1936 respectively. In Bombay the Khilafat, the Hilal, the Ul Hilal and the Ajmal, all dailies with a definite political bias, were among the popularly circulated Urdu newspapers. Biswin Sadi (1937) and Shama (1939), both monthlies from Delhi, have gained good circulations over the

years. The Prabhat which started publication from Lahore in 1942 was the

first paper in the Punjab to be started as a co-operative venture of the working journalists. The Qawmi Awaaz which was founded by Jawaharlal Nehru

in 1945 is still being issued from Lucknow.

Perhaps no other regional press in India was as adversely affected as the Urdu press owing to the partition of the country. Many of the Lahore papers found a new home in Delhi, Amritsar and Jullundur.

Post-independence

Period

It was the endeavour of the national government headed by Jawaharlal Nehru to promote newspapers as a medium of communication and also to enable it to play its role in building a new India. And the growth of the press in India

12

MASS

MEDIA

IN INDIA

1978

since independence has been consistent and healthy. As long as the press suffered from the political, physical and other limitations it could not be equal to its responsibilities and when there has been free growth, there have appeared

certain

unhealthy

trends

also.

In

1951, the government

felt that

there was a need to introduce a Press Bill which would be free from the objectionable features of the 1931 Act and be in consonance with the Constitution of Free India. The government, therefore, brought forward the Press (Objectionable Matter) Bill which was directed against the encouragement of violence or sabotage and certain other very grave offences and against the pub-

lication of scurrilous matters. associated with newspapers

The object of the Bill was to allow

to carry an their work without detriment

persons

to the

dignity, prestige, influence or position of the press. The Press (Objectionable

Matter) Act of 1951 which came into force on 1 February 1952

abolished

pre-censorship and demand for security and provided for judicial trial instead of executive action against erring newspapers. In September

the same

year the government

appointed

a Press

Com-

mission to enquire into the state of the press and to indicate the lines of its development in future. In pursuance of the recommendations of the Press Commission, a Press Council was set up in 1966 charged with the responsibility of regulating the press and censuring units of the press which violate the regulations. With the appointment of the Press Council, the Press (Objectionable Matter) Act 1951 was allowed to lapse.

The

New

Role

The press has been playing an increasingly significant role in giving shape to social and economic changes. It has been educating the public, shaping and moulding public opinion and awakening to do its duties for the collective good of the people. As press had maintained contact with the public by discussing popular issues, it became a mouthpiece of public opinion. Naturally, therefore, the press received abundant attention and importance from all sections

of the society as well as the government whose leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru

were zealous about guarding the freedom of the press. No effort was spared to. create conditions in which newspaper men could function freely and effectively. The Parliamentary Proceedings (Protection of Publication) Act 1956 had virtually extended to the press the immunity enjoyed by the mem-

bers of Parliament and state legislatures for free expression of views on the floor of the House. With the spread of literacy bringing in increasing readership, newspapers

became a profitable commercial proposition. Capital and big business which entered the world of journalism in a big way turned journalism from a missionary effort into a vested commercial enterprise. The press Commissioni, therefore, recommended that the Indian press should develop on the basis of a widely diffused ownership if it is to serve the needs of a democratic

PRESS

13

society.

The

concern

should

be not only

with

growth

but growth

in the

might direction. The growth of the press must reflect the socio-economic processes in operation in the country. Freedom of the press should not mean freedom of the press barons to function only to further their own interest. Freedom of the press must take into account ‘freedom from and freedom for’. The greater the freedom the greater should be the sense of responsibility. The government’s keenness to help the Indian press to grow in the right direc-

tion was evidenced in the appointment of the two important bodies, the Press Commission and the Small Newspapers Enquiry Committee. While the first body, as already stated, was to take care of the healthy growth of the press by regulating all matters ranging from press laws to working conditions

of journalists, the other committee was to look into the soundness of structure, both professional and economic of the small newspapers. At the time of independence, there were about 3,000 newspapers and periodicals including 300 dailies. In less than six years, the number rose to

8,134 which at the end of 1975 stood at 12,423.

In 1953, out of a total of 8,134 newspapers, as many as 6,800 were Indian language newspapers. The figure rose steadily along with their circulation. In 1960 there were 392 language dailies with a combined circulation of 36.45 lakh whereas in 1971 the number of newspapers rose to 704 and the aggregate circulation hit 68.62 lakhs. In 1960 only one language daily, Malayala Manorama

(circulation:

92,464) figured among

the top four dailies of

the

country; in 1971 however, all the four top places were held by the language dailies. These papers were Ananda Bazar Patrika (Bengali, 3,08,316), Malayala Manorama (Malayalam, 2,11,050), Jugantar (Bengali, 2,10,849) and Nav Bharat Times (Hindi, 1,82,300). The increase in the circulation of language dailies during the period taken separately was more than 88.3 per cent. This increase was both due to the increase in the number of dailies as well as the increase in the circulation of the existing dailies. The sharpest increase was in the case of Tamil dailies—an increase from 26 to 97, an increase of over 273 per cent. The

number of dailies in Assamese, Bengali

and Malayalam either doubled or more than ween 1960 and 1971. The maximum increase of Assamese dailies—from 5,000 in 1960 to 400 per cent. There has been similar increase the language dailies in the country.

doubled during the period betin circulation was in the case 25,000 in 1971, an increase of in the circulation of nearly all

In spite of the phenomenal growth since independence the language press

suffers from inadequacies of editorial direction, organisation and management. Many of the language newspapers are either medium or small in size and circulation. They face stiff competition from the bigger ones which makes them somewhat ineffective in their reach and impact. The government has, therefore, moved in this direction to see that these medium and

14

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

small newspapers are given greater attention in not only more

liberal news-

print allocation but also in the issuance of government advertisements.

The press in English continues to play an important role in India. It is significant that a number of English dailies have been started in the postindependence period. In 1952, there were 70 dailies published in English. By 1971 the figure rose to 78. Of the national dailies four—The Hindustan Times,

The

Statesman,

The

Times

of India

and

The

Indian

Express

are

published from Delhi of which the second and the third named dailies are

also issued from Calcutta and Bombay—Ahmedabad and the fourth daily is published

from nine. other centres.

The

other national daily—The

Hindu

(1876) is published from Madras.

There are 2,559 English newspapers in the

Times

The

country of which of India,

85 are dailies.

Bombay

(1838),

Six of

Pioneer

these are

Lucknow,

centenarians—The (1865),

The

Mail,

Madras (1867), The Amrita Bazar Patrika, Calcutta (1868), The Statesman,

Calcutta (1875) and The Hindu, Madras (1876).

Daily newspapers in English are published from many metropolitan centres and state capitals. Although the largest number of papers, 3,142, are

published in Hindi, in circulation English dailies top the list with a circulation of 22.30 lakh in 1973. The same year the circulation of Hindi dailies

numbering 255 came to 16.99 lakhs. The number of dailies in Urdu in 1973 was 92 but their circulation was only 3.91 lakhs whereas Malayalam with 65 dailies commanded a circulation of 11.12 lakhs. Of all the newspapers published from one centre, Delhi

enjoys

the

distinction of publishing newspapers in as many as 13 out of the 15 languages

enumerated in the Constitution, besides English. Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu come next with newspapers and periodicals in 12 languages each follow-

ed by West Bengal with 10 and Uttar Pradesh with 9, excluding

English.

(1,557), Delhi (1,517), West Bengal (1,232), Tamil Nadu (869) and Pradesh (802).

Andhra

State-wise the largest number of newspapers (1,805) continues to be published from Maharashtra, followed. as in the previous years, by Uttar Pradesh

The largest number of dailies is published in Uttar Pradesh (134) followed by Maharashtra (123), Kerala (88), Madhya Pradesh (76), Karnataka (70) and Tamil Nadu (61). Uttar Pradesh also has the largest number of weeklies while West Bengal leads in fortnightlies. Most of the newspapers in India are in private hands and the predo-

minant form of ownership is individual.

There are of course societies and

associations owning some of them. The popularity of newspapers, as already stated, has encouraged capitalists, into entering the newspaper world with a business motive. This is the reason for starting chain newspapers and satellite

publications.

An official study estimates that an overall capital investment

PRESS

15

in terms of total assets of the order of Rs 55 crores has been made in the daily press. With their readership covering the urban educated elite the newspapers owned by big business have been able to corner a bulk of the advertisement investment in the country. In some cases the advertisement revenue is as high as 75 per cent. The advertisement space in a 10 page newspaper

was estimated to be over 60 per cent of the total space. These

problems

invited

the

attention

of

the

government

which

has

taken adequate steps to not only check the growth of monopoly press but also to restrict the maximum space that could be given for advertising. A price-page schedule was also enforced. However, the schedule was defeated by the Supreme Court judgement preferred by the management of a

newspaper. The

case for price-page

larger papers would

schedule rested mainly on the fear that the

out-sell the smaller papers by offering a larger number

of pages or by selling at a low price. The fear was particularly great in non-metropolitan towns where existing local papers were threatened by the entry of new editions of strong metropolitan papers. At present, particularly because of large increase in price and shortage of newsprint, there is no danger of a larger paper trying to out-sell a smaller paper by charging a low price. The government had, therefore, to analyse the whole situation to provide adequate measures not only to check the monopolistic tendencies but also to help the struggling small newspapers. The study of the economics of newspapers has been rendered complex not only by the existence of different types of ownership but also of the inter-links of different types. The Fact Finding Committee on Newspaper Economics which submitted its report to the government in January 1975

discussed

the problem

in detail

and

came

to the conclusion

that

several

factors like professional competence and technical skill the small newspapers could command was found to be inadequate which again depended on the economic resources and viability of the newspapers. The government's keenness to assist small newspapers both _professionally and technically was evident in the number of measures it has taken. Preference is now being given to small newspapers in respect of buying space for government

advertisements,

in the allocation of newsprint

and

in

The papers have been benefited

by

giving favoured treatment for acquiring printing machinery. The introduction of slow speed bulletin over All India Radio for the benefit of small newspapers

is another significant step.

these daily bulletins and started picking up latest news go in for expensive news agency services.

without having to

16

MASS MEDIA

Periodical

IN INDIA

1978

Journalism

The beginnings of Indian press were also the beginnings of periodical journalism in India, for daily journalism registered consistant growth only in the 1920s. The philosophical outlook and social conduct that characterised Indian life became a living force in the form of crystalised political thought as ideas began to be expressed in print. With the entrance of Gandhiji in the political life of the country and his publication of journals to inform the people on the twin idealogies of non-violence and non-cooperation, the periodical journalism which had till then been confined to the educated elite became a mass movement. The press became a second front to voice the aspirations of the people. In 1952 out of a total number of 6,762 newspapers, as many as 6,166 were weeklies and other periodicals. At the end of 1975, out of 12,423 newspapers, 11,518 were periodicals. The total circulation commanded by 7,237 periodicals for which data were avail-

able was 243.25 lakh copies in 1975. Hindi, English, Urdu, Bengali and Marathi claim in that order large number of periodicals. English language periodicals which lost the top position in 1974 regained it in 1975 with a

circulation of 56.98 lakhs. copies. Marathi

Hindi comes

close

second

with

56.81

Periodicals in six languages—Malayalam, Bengali, Gujarati, and Telugu claim circulation exceeding 1 million copies.

lakh

Urdu,

The first half of 1970s witnessed what may be described as the magazine

explosion. A number of periodicals in English and languages started publication, with a particular interest catering to various sections of readership.

News. Agencies The

white-owned

distributed news

news

agencies—Reuter

and

Associated

press—which

to the newspapers in India became heavily British oriented

in policy and the Indian leaders felt the need for an agency with national spirit to disseminate news and views of the Indian conditions not only

inside the country but also outside it. Thus came into existence the Free Press Of India News Agency in 1927. The agency which was subjected to

Official pressures and vested interests had to close down in 1935. The United Press of India which started functioning from Calcutta a couple of years earlier continued its services into free India. In 1949 newspapers in the country joined hands

and formed

the Press Trust of India with the ob-

ject of establishing a co-operatively owned internal news agency. The UPI and the PTI between them served the Indian press by making arrangements for the purchase of world news from the internationals.

It was found that the world news services purchased from foreign agen-

cies could not satisfy the requirement of the Indian newspapers. The Indian agencies could not maintain their own men in world capitals either. In

PRESS the

early

17 1950s,

Hindustan

Samachar

and

one

or

two

other

small

news

agencies were started with the object of filling in the many gaps in news coverage. Later came the Samachar Bharati to cater to Hindi newspapers.

Press During Emergency The country has recently emerged out of a dark tunnel in the history of our democratic tradition. The main factor responsible for the traumatic experience was the total prevention of free flow of information. When

internal emergency was

imposed

in June

1975, the then Govern-

ment ordered press censorship also. It all started with the prevention of information ‘harmful’ to the then regime. Later the Government persuaded and, in many cases, forced newspapers to indulge in propaganda not only for the benefit of the then Government but also for certain outside individuals. Immediately after the imposition of censorship many newspapers were forced to close down

and a number of journalists detained under emergency

regu-

lations. Even very mild protests were not tolerated. A few of the national news-

papers and a number of small newspapers alone stood firm and refused to oblige the ruling clique. In December 1975, the then Government also promulgated three ordinances to (i) prevent the Publication of Objectionable Matters;

(ii) repeal

Parliamentary

Proceedings

(Protection

of Publications)

Act; and (iii) repeal the Press Council Act. These ordinances virtually razed to the ground the already roofless fourth estate. In the process the then Government also isolated the Parliament from the people: since its deliberations were beyond the knowledge of the public. Not satisfied with the damage

already done with censorship and several ordinances, the then government forced the management boards of the four national news agencies for a ‘voluntary’ merger and later policed it to become a propaganda agency for the government.

The

.

freedom of the press has deeper and wider significance than just

restoring to the press right to voice dissent. The democratic structure is built

on the will of the people, which must take shape by itself through a. free flow of information and not through a doctored or induced system. It is here that the line is drawn between a democratic system and an authoritarian regime. Under the authoritarian set up, information media including the press are prominent and very dominating. The state has full control over them and through them full grip on the minds of the people. The intellectual slavery that results is a negation of freedom and provides a monolithic support to the regime in power. Thus, while the state excercies the monopoly

right

to inform or to misinform, the people are made to forgo their right to information—adequately

and truthfully. In such a

situation, people lose their

Tight to change a political system peacefully. During the period of internal emergency the country was being pushed towards such an end. 4-3 M ofI & B/ND/77

18

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

A New Life Came the Lok Sabha election of March 1977. At the polls, the people gave expression to their resentment of the curbs on fundamental freedoms.

Thus

the

people

saved

the

country

from

authoritarian

rule

and

restored

Government

also introduced

democracy. This also meant a new life to the press. One of the first acts of the new government was to lift to its feet the crippled Indian press. The new government moved with speed and repealed the Prevention of Publication of Objectionable Matter Act and restored the Parliamentary Proceedings (Protection

of Publications)

Act.

the Rajya Sabha on 23 December Council.

The

in

1977 a bill seeking to establish a Press

These enactments restored smooth functioning of democratic institutions in the country and the privilege of the press to publish true reports of the proceedings of the Parliament without being exposed

minal action.

The Government

has considered

to any civil or cri-

the question of the future set-up

news agencies in the country in all its aspects.

of

In doing so the recommen-

dations made by the Kuldip Nayar Committee on news agencies and also the public reaction to its recommendations were taken into account. The Government

has

then

decided

to restore

the

status quo

agencies prior to their ‘voluntary merger’ into Samachar. announced

ernment

of the

four

It has also been

that in the event of restoration of the Status quo ante, the Gov-

will

employees.

ante

help

to

protect

the

present

emoluments

of

the

Samachar

The Government has appreciated the need for India’s participation in the news agencies pool of non-aligned countries. The Government announced its willingness to consider financial help to the news agencies for participation in the pool. The Indian press has often been described as a developing giant. The spectrum of newspapers available to the Indian readers is a very wide and colourful one. With the passage of each year and with the increase in the

percentage

added.

of literacy,

more

The country’s demands

and

more

journals

and

newspapers

are

being

of newsprint have been growing over the years

as an indication of growing readership. The Government has to intervene and regulate imports/supplies of newsprint in order to effect fair distribu-

tion.

The

Newsprint

time lays down

policy

the broad

announced

framework

by the

within

Government

which

from

allocations

time

to

are made.

In 1975-76, the country’s requirement of newsprint was of the order of 2.16

PRESS

19

lakh tonnes, of which 55,000 tonnes could be met by indigenous production. On account of the steep rise in the price of newsprint, the off-take slowed

down considerably which eased the position of acute shortage. The Governmeat, therefore, reviewed the position and decided to permit newspapers to claim newsprint to meet their full requirements. In October 1975, in view

of huge bufferstock, the Government decided to suspend further imports of newsprint. Efforts are also being made to augment availability of news-

print by setting up new newsprint manufacturing units in the country.

The printing machine industry in the country has been given a further fillip to give indigenous production of all kinds of machinery required by

the industry. However during 1975-76, import of sophisticated printing machinery worth about Rs 1.22 crores was recommended to different categories of newspapers. The Indian press began as the press of a colony. It participated in the country’s struggle for freedom from foreign rule. It is now the press of a developing country poised to meet its many challenges. The Indian press has

never

been

wanting

in professional

competence;

given

the opportunity

it can rise to a level of any national press in the world. This has been proved whenever there was any opportunity for the Indian journalists to show their professional acumen. And India as a partner in the nonaligned development

venture has been sharing its knowledge and experience

with many Afro-Asian neighbours. At the into the third century of existence the Indian tentment and pride and look forward with increasingly significant role in international

time of celebrating its entry press can look back with conhope to be able to play an affairs.

Radio THE STORY of the development of broadcasting in India began -with the pioneering efforts of the Madras Presidency Radio Club which started a broadcasting service in 1924. Its transmitting range, though restricted to a radius of about

8 kms

was

a miraculous

achievement

in those

days.

The experiment, however, could not continue beyond three years for want of funds. Another notable effort was made by the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) through a small station at Lahore. But the move towards a regular broadcasting service was made possible by the Indian Broadcasting Company, a commercial undertaking, which chose for its operations the two premier cities of Bombay and Calcutta. The Bombay station was inaugurated on 23 July 1927 and the Calcutta station on 26 August

1927.

Both

the stations

used

1.5 kw

transmitters which

could

be

heard only within a distance of 50 kilometers. Soon broadcasting turned out to be quite a costly affair and the company had to face a lot of Gifficulties. In 1929, the licences in force were 7,775; there was no means of

collecting the licence fees. In January 1930 the Company approached the Government of India for direct monetary assistance and on 1 March 1930 it

went into liquidation.

A month later, in April 1930, the Government of India took over broadcasting under its direct control and called it the Indian State Broadcasting Service but closed it down on 9 October 1931. It was only in May 1932, after a period of trials and tribulations, bring broadcasting under state management.

The period of four years from

history

of broadcasting

in India.

the Government

decided

to

1932 to 1936 is quite important in the

A

separate

office of the Controller

of

Broadcasting was set up; the government made a special grant of Rs 40 lakhs for the development of broadcasting, in addition to the existing radio stations at Delhi, and fold. The clature, All the country

Bombay and the number Indian State India Radio made rapid

Calcutta, a third radio station was commissioned in of broadcasting receiver licences increased threeBroadcasting Service was given its present nomen(AIR), on 8 June 1936. Since then broadcasting in strides and the number of licences increased from

10,872 in 1933 to 92,782 in 1939.

While the first phase of AIR’s development programme was on, the second world war broke out and AIR had to gear itself to the demands of an entirely new situation. As the Government’s war effort intensified, so

did AIR’s role as a vital source of news and views covering events

at home

RADIO

21

and abroad.

Additional

short wave

transmitters were installed, including two

transmitters—probably

the world.

100 kw

the first of their kind in this part of

A special unit for the broadcast of external services was orga-

nised, the news

services were expanded,

transmission

hours were increased,

and a wide variety of talks and features analysing the day to day situation were introduced. The partition of the country and the exodus of vast number of people also cast heavy responsibilities on AIR. The country was left with six broadcasting stations out of nine, the other three going to Pakistan. Many important developments of historic significance, which followed later, contributed to the growth of broadcasting in the country and added new dimensions to AIR’s working. Prior to Independence, some of the princely states were also running

broadcasting stations.

With

the integration of these states, the Government

of India took over five broadcasting stations and, with the acquisition of the Mysore Akashvani station in 1950, the All India Radio acquired the new name of ‘Akashvani’ which has since become quite popular.

Reach and Impact All India Radio, in its reach and impact, today constitutes perhaps the most powerful medium of mass communication in India. This is particularly so since the reach of the printed word

is limited, with only about 30 per cent

to a survey

years

of the population

literate and

conducted

only

a few

were nearly 40 crore potential

All

80 per cent living in villages. ago,

it was

listeners to All India

estimated

Radio

According that

there

programmes.

As a national service, catering to the complex needs of a vast country, India Radio seeks to reflect through its national and regional pro-

grammes,

the

attitudes,

vast Indian community

scene.

aspirations

and

attainments

of all sections

of the

and attempts to project the richness of the Indian

Progress under the Plans In 1947, when India attained Independence, All India Radio’s network consisted of only six stations. The attainment of freedom gave a new impetus to the task of developing broadcasting as a medium of mass communication. It was a twofold task: to provide an effective country-wide service which would bring the radio within easy. reach of the entire population, and, to devise programmes which would satisfy the needs and urges of a newly independent nation and at the same time provide media support to the tasks of national reconstruction.

22

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

1978

With the launching of the first Five Year Plan in 1951, the development

of broadcasting was brought within the framework of planned progress. In 1951, the primary service on medium wave was available to only about

20 per cent of the population of the country. Covering about 12 per cent of the geographical area, AIR had then a network of 25 broadcasting centres with 46 medium-wave and short-wave transmitters functioning. By the end of the decade, 55 per cent of the population were brought within the reach of the primary service.

Present Network The present broadcasting network in the country consists of 77 stations (as on 31 October 1976) covering 69 per cent of the geographical area and There are, in all, 145 transmitters. 81 per cent of the population.

As against only

were over

2,76,000 broadcasting

168 lakh licences in the country at the end of December

Commercial

service was

started as an experiment

and Nagpur stations in 1967. Madras

and

Tiruchirapalli

Hyderabad-Vijayawada

from

Bombay-Pune

It was later extended to Calcutta in 1968;

lore-Dharwar, Ahmedabad-Rajkot,

and

there

1975.

Services

The commercial Dethi,

receiver licences in 1947,

in

in

1971.

1969;

Chandigarh-Jullundur,

Kanpur-Lucknow-Allahabad

casting commercials as on 31 December

The

total number

1975 was 28.

in

of centres

Banga-

1970

broad-

The time on the air for commercial broadcasts is sold through accredited and recognised advertising agencies as well as through canvassers. Individual advertisers, can also book their broadcast time direct. The gross

revenue from commercial service since its inception stood at Rs. 25.46 crores in March 1975.

Programme

Pattern

The broadcasting centres of All India Radio cover almost all the important cultural and linguistic regions of the country. The programme pattern re-

flects also a wide variety. In the home service programmes, 40.8 per cent of the broadcast time is claimed by music and 23.3 per cent by news broad-

casts. As much as 9.4 per cent of the broadcast time is allotted to talks and discussions, followed by 6.1 per cent for rural programmes. The table es below gives an idea of the percentage of time taken by different pro grammy 1975: broadcast during

RADIO

23

Composition and Doration of Home Service Programmes 1975 Duration Types of

Hrs

Classical Vocal

:

:

Classical Instrumental.

ApproxiMts

centage

:

:

:

24,721

2

8.3

.

.

.

22,376

18

75

Folk Music Vocal Folk Instrumental Light Vocal .

. . .

: . .

. . .

: . .

. . .

9,354 99 25,768

14 3 46

3.1 0.1 8.7

Light Instrumental Devotional Music

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

3,485 13,862

56 2

1.2 4.7

Film Music. . : ‘Western Music . : Talks, Discussions, etc. Drama . . .

: : . :

: . . .

. : . .

16,176 5,444 28,070 11,605

23 32 57 42

Religious Children

382 3,695

1

5.4 1.8 9.4 3.9

52 52

23.3

29 30 36 47

1.3 6.1 1.4 1.5

49 26

2.3 2.0

News

.

2...

we

69,245

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

+ .

‘Women . . Rural. : Industrial . Armed Forces

: . : .

: . . .

: . . .

. . . :

. . . .

4,142 18,096 4,257 4,352

Educational Publicity

: .

. :

. .

. .

. :

7,077 5,979

Vividh Bharati .

:

.

.

.

Trbl

2.

Others. Toa

Granp

. .

www

2. 2.

TOTAL

7. ww ww .

.

.

.

4,531

48

14,754 29,748

41 46

1,41,198

14

4,38,680

00

0.3 1.2

1.5

5.0 100.00

Along with the large expansion of broadcasting in terms of radio stations and in listenership, there has also been a significant reorientation of the programmes for purposes of carrying the message to listeners on vital issues of national

importance.

For example,

in the sixties, the deve-

lopment of the new high-yielding varieties of seeds brought about a breakthrough

in the field of agricultural

research

for the benefit of the country.

This new knowledge had to be carried to the people and in accomplishing this task All India Radio through its special programmes for the farmers was of great help.

Farm and Home Broadcast In 1966, Farm and Home units were started in ten selected AIR stations to provide educational and information support to agricultural programmes in

the Intensive

Agricultural

Districts

and

Areas.

More

such

Units

were

24

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

added in subsequent years—six 70 and

eleven

casting

Farm

in

and

1971-72 and

Home

in 1967-68, four in 1968-69, seven in 1969-

at present

programmes.

38 of them

During

are regularly

broad-

the Fifth Plan period

23

More units are proposed to be set up, bringing the total of such units to more

than sixty.

These Farm and Home units, in addition to broadcasting agricultural programmes, put out programmes relating to small scale industries for audiences in rural areas. They also provide active support to such projects as farmers’

training and functional

literacy, Small

Farmers

Development

Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Scheme, Development of Drought-Prone Areas Schemes.

Agency,

Dry Farming

and

Youth Programmes In order to provide a forum for the self-expression of the youth of the country who form about 16.6 per cent of the country’s population (those who

are in the age group

programmes

for the youth.

ever, broadcast,

wherever

of 15-24 years), over 50 AIR

Exclusive

possible

like Delhi, Calcutta, Hyderabad,

on

Yuva

separate

Jammu

and

Vani

stations broadcast

programmes

transmissions,

Srinagar.

The

are, how-

from

stations

Yuva

Vani

programmes provide ample scope for youth participation in the entertainment programmes and also include programmes relating to academic

studies and information talks.

For Special Audiences The programmes for special audiences and occasions include programmes for the armed forces, women and children, tribal people and industrial

workers.

Fourteen

stations

broadcast

daily

programmes

for

the

armed

forces, while 42 stations present programmes twice or thrice a week in regional languages for women with the objective of providing entertainment and imparting information on household topics. There are now 36 family planning programme units functioning at various stations which broadcast programmes on the subject. Almost all the stations broadcast programmes for the children twice or thrice a week in Indian languages. Such programmes are also broadcast in a few foreign languages like Burmese, Nepali and Tibetan. The Bangalore, Bombay and Madras stations broadcast a 30-minute weekly programme in English

for children.

Programmes consisting of both music and spoken word are put out in more than 100 tribal dialects for the Adivasis from various stations. For the industrial workers, 23 stations present special programmes of 20 to 35

minutes duration on 4 to 6 days a week.

RADIO

25 Special

occasions

like the Republic

Day,

Independence

Day,

visits of

foreign dignitaries or the visits of Indian dignitaries abroad and anniverSaries are extensively noticed by presenting special programmes on the national hook-up of AIR.

Sports events in India and abroad are covered by reviews, running commentaries and voice despatches. Four metropolitan centres of Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi and Madras present a daily sports service of 95 minutes that covers all the important sports events. Besides, two news bulletins, one in English and the other in Hindi, of 5 minutes duration are also broadcast. A 10-minute sports news-reel is broadcast every Monday at 8.15 p.m.

Music Programmes

of music broadcast from AIR consist of classical, light classi-

cal, light folk, tribal and film music.

A number

of stations also broadcast

Western music. Classical music, which was largely a preserve of some ‘gharana’ and princely courts in the pre-broadcasting period, has now be-

come

popular

through

AIR

programmes

and

has evoked

a lot of interest

in forms and styles of India’s ancient musical traditions among the listeners.

Classical music programmes include a weekly national programme of music, started in 1952, which presents to a nation-wide audience the leading exponents of both Hindustani and Karnatak systems of music. A festival of music, known as Radio Sangeet Sammelan, is also organised

every year. Renowned artistes of both vocal and instrumental music, parti. cipate in the concerts which are held before an invited audience, in selected places in different parts of the country. The recordings of these concerts are broadcast on AIR network. The sammelan is preceded by a music competition with the objective of discovering new talent from among the 16-24 age group musicians. In all 51 concerts—27 of Hindustani and 24 of Karnatak music—were held during the Radio Sangeet Sammelan 1975. In April 1974, a programme of classical music by young musicians was started. It consists of concerts in Hindustani music which are broadcast from Delhi every Tuesday and are relayed by other stations of Northern India, while concerts of Karnatak music are broadcast from Madras every Friday and are relayed by other stations of Southern India. The aim of this programme of classical music is to discover young talent for the national programme of music. A

national programme of regional music was also started in January 1973, which brings to the listeners the rich traditions of folk and light music of the various regions of the country. The programme is broadcast on the first Thursday of every month from Delhi and is relayed by all other stations of AIR. 5—3 M ofI & BJND/77

26 The

Hindustani

national

and

orchestra,

Karnatak

known

as Vadya

instrumentalists,

was

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

1978

Vrinda,

both

consisting

started in

1952

of

at the

Delhi station and a sizeable repertoire of compositions based on traditional

ragas and tunes has been built.

Plays and Features Outstanding

plays

from

Indian

Languages

are

broadcast

on

the

fourth

Thursday of every month in the national programme of plays, started in 1956. ach station broadcasts at least two plays a week. The national programme of features, which was also started in 1956, presents various facets of economic development as also of cultural and social life. The original script may be in English or Hindi, but is invariably translated into regional

News

languages

and

and

is broadcast

from

all

the

regional

stations.

Current Affairs

The News Services Division of AIR attempts comprehensive and speedy coverage of news and views through its news bulletins, commentaries and

discussions on current affairs. economic, social, cultural and

Besides noticing major trends in political, scientific fields, it gives adequate attention

to parliamentary proceedings, rural development and sports activities. News

is broadcast daily through 243 bulletins in 19 Indian and 24 foreign languages and 34 local dialects. Of these, 70 bulletins are beamed in the ‘home service’ from Delhi and relayed by other AIR stations, 117 regional bulle-

tins are

broadcast

classical

languages,

from

regional

stations and

56

bulletins are beamed

to

listeners abroad. The regional bulletins were first introduced in April 1953. Specialised news bulletins carrying world news, sports news and state and development news were introduced in 1974. News bulletin in one of the When

as Hindi ‘Question specialists broadcast ‘Samayiki’ specialists

Sanskrit,

Parliament

is being

broadcast

since

is in session, daily commentaries

1974.

in English

as well

review the day’s proceedings in the Houses. A special bulletin on Hour in Parliament’ is also broadcast. Commentaries by in various fields and scripts from AIR’s correspondents are in English and Hindi in the programmes called ‘Spotlight’ and respectively. In the ‘Current affairs’ programme every Sunday, take up live issues for a thread-bare discussion. Eye-witness ac-

counts, interviews with important persons and the reactions of the common man to the happenings around him are presented through radio newsreels in

both English and Hindi.

AIR gathers its news mainly by subscribing to news agencies and by monitoring major broadcasting stations of the world. Besides, nearly a third of news

coverage

is accounted

for by AIR’s own corps of about

170

27

.

RADIO

correspondents in India and abroad. Full time AIR correspondents are functioning from Beirut, Tehran, Dacca and Hong Kong and part-time correspondents from important world capitals like London, Bonn, Moscow, Washington, New York, Kathmandu, Nairobi and Adis Ababa.

External Services Programmes for listeners abroad broadcast by the External Services Division of All India Radio consist of news, daily commentary and press reviews, talks, discussions and music, mainly light—classical, light, film and folk. These are broadcast in two major services: general overseas service and the Urdu service. The former is beamed for 9 hours and 45 minutes daily to East, North-East and South-East Asia, Australia, New Zealand, East,

West

and

North

Africa,

while

the

latter is presented

for

10 hours

daily to Urdu-loving listeners of the Indian sub-continent. The West Asia service broadcasts programmes in Arabic, Baluchi, Dari, Persian and Pushtu. East African countries are served by the Swahili Service while the French service is directed to North and West Africa. Other overseas services are in Burmese, Chinese, Indonesian, Nepali, Russian, Sinhala, Thai and Tibetan languages. Composite programmes comprising news, press reviews, commentaries, talks, music and features are broadcast in Indian languages—Bengali, Guja-

rati, Hindi, Konkani, Punjabi, Sindhi, Tamil and Urdu. The object of these

programmes

is to entertain

Indians

the events and developments in India.

abroad

and

keep

them

in touch

with

AIR supplies taped programmes to broadcasting organisations of various foreign countries, including 20 countries with which India has entered into cultural agreements. They use these programmes for their home audiences with a view to acquainting them with the cultural and social aspects of life in India. Visiting correspondents of foreign broadcasting organisations are provided with studio and recording facilities.

Vividh Bharati Popular entertainment programmes are broadcast mostly on the mediumwave for 12 hours and 50 minutes daily from 36 centres in the Vividh Bharat

service, which

was

started on 3 October

1957.

Film music, humo-

tous skits, short plays and features are presented in these programmes. Leading Indian film personalities present their favourite songs, recount their experiences in ‘Jayamala’ programme, which is broadcast for the

Armed Forces.

28

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

1978

Transcription and Programme Exchange The

programme

exchange

and

transcription service of AIR

helps

different

stations to exchange outstanding programmes, transcribes the speeches eminent personalities and maintains the Library of Sound Archives.

of

The collection consists of tape-recordings, discs and stampers of a large variety of programmes. The Archives’ most valuable possession consists of over 51 hours of recorded voice of Gandhiji. Nearly, 3,000 tape-recording of about 800 hours’ duration of Jawaharlal Nehru’s speeches and the voice tapes of Tagore, Netaji, Rajagopalachari and Sardar Patel have been preserved.

Among other valuable items preserved are: (i) recitation from the Vedas

in Sanskrit

in the traditional

style;

(ii) poetry

recitation

by

eminent

poets

in Hindi and other languages; (iii) recitals by old masters of music, both Hindustani and Karnataka; (iv) selected items of music by eminent musicians Tepresenting different ‘gharanas’; and (v) representative pieces of folk music,

devotional

music

and

stage songs.

Some

masters of music have been commercially released.

of the recordings

of old

Programme Journals All India Radio brings out eight programme journals. These are Akashvani (English), Akashvani (Hindi), and Awaz (Urdu) published from Delhi; Betar Jagat (Bengali) and Akashi (Assamese) published from Cal-

cutta; Vanoli (Tamil) and Vani (Telugu) published from Madras and Nabhovani (Gujarati) published from Ahmedabad. Akashvani (English)

is a weekly, while the rest of the journals are fortnightlies. The External Services Division of AIR also brings out quarterly programme folders intended for overseas listeners, one French, Indonesian, Nepali, Persian,

each in Arabic, Burmese, Chinese, Pushtu, Swahili and Tibetan. The

Journal in English ‘India Calling’ is a monthly.

Audience Research The

Audience

Research

Unit

undertakes

regular surveys and

analyses

of

listeners’ reactions to various types of programmes broadcast on the AIR

It provides data for determining the rates of ‘spots’ and sponnetwork. sored programmes in the commercial service, and also surveys the Teception quality of various stations.

Hardware Manufacture Bharat

Electronics

Limited,

a

other things, produces a whole

Government

of India undertaking,

range of communication

equipment

among

from

RADIO

29

transreceivers to high power transmitters, audio and video broadcast transmitters and studio equipment and UHF radio relay systems. The factory’s components division produces many types of specialised components like transistors, integrated circuits, receiving and transmitting tubes, TV picture tubes

etc.

In fact,

BEL

is so

far the only

ving valves and TV picture tubes in the country. Manufacture

of radio

scale industrial units.

receiver

manufacturer

sets is mainly

of radio

in the hands

recei-

of small

There are a number of industrial units manufactur-

ing radio receiver sets and spare parts.

Among the state government undertakings is the Radio and Electricals Manufacturing Company Limited (REMCO), Bangalore. Incorporated on 2 February 1946, REMCO manufactures, among other electric products, loudspeakers, stereo amplifiers, radio receiver sets, capacitors and band switches. The company is also producing TV sets on a commercial basis since January 1973 under an industrial licence for manufacture of 5,000 sets per annum. The Government of Karnataka holds about 78 per cent of the capital.

In

1973-74,

the company

manufactured

Sets against an installed capacity of 40,000 sets.

12,000 radio

receiver

Television TELEVISION AS part of All India Radio, made a beginning in this country on an experimental basis on 15 September 1959 when the first television centre was commissioned at Delhi. However, the seeds for this were sown much earlier at the General Conference of UNESCO held in New Delhi in 1956, where it was proposed to set up a pilot project to study the use of TV as

a medium of education, rural uplift and community development. New Delhi was chosen as the venue and UNESCO made a grant of $ 20,000 for the purpose and the US Government helped by providing some equip-

ment.

A

500

watts

transmitter

was

reduced price and the experimental sion was limited to a 24 km

radius

purchased

from

Philips

and

programmes

service was thus born. two

duration each were telecast per week for some years.

(India)

at a

The transmis-

of one hour

These programmes

were mainly meant for urban community viewing centres known as teleclubs. UNESCO provided the funds for the TV sets around which these

teleclubs were organised.

Experimentation During the experimental

hence

social

education

phase,

the accent

programmes

was

designed

mainly

on education

primarily

for

and

community

viewing were telecast. AIR installed 20 TV sets at selected community centres in and around Delhi and 150 to 200 people viewed the programmes

in each

centre.

The

one

hour

programme

comprised

40 minutes

of live

telecast and 20 minutes of films. At the end of 1961, the number of community viewing sets rose to 66. In order to evaluate the impact of these programmes, UNESCO sponsored a study under which 20 special programmes were broadcast from 23 December 1960 to 6 May 1961. More than 400 people from 20 teleclubs viewed these shows. The subjects chosen

the

for telecast were:

community,

and manners

traffic and

adulteration

of a citizen.

An

of

food,

road sense, dangers

encroachment

on

to the health of

public

property

evaluation of the degree and nature of the

impact of these programmes was done by the National Fundamental Centre,

New

Delhi,

and the Indian

Adult

Education

Association,

New

Delhi.

The

tesults, scientifically measured and evaluated, were both positive and encouraging. During January to March 1960 another project was also taken

up on an experimental basis. It was the telecasting of educational school programmes for 10 weeks on every Tuesday for one hour in the afternoon. But the in-school television programmes for the students was started on a re-

gular basis from 23 October 1961.

TELEVISION

31

Regular Transmission From

the very beginning

in this country

it was declared

as a medium

of social

that television was to be used

education

and

its development

was

to make it an instrument to support the strategy and programmes of social and economic development. Specifically, the object was to use it as a weapon against illiteracy and ignorance. It was stated, time and again, that it would not be allowed to become the rich man’s toy—as it is in certain countries—but would be used almost exclusively for the benefit of the comMonman. With these objects in view, the duration of the programmes which were telecast twice a week mainly for teleclub members was in-

creased

to four days a week

from

1 June

1965.

Later from

1965, a daily general service of one hour duration was programmes designed and directed for teleclubs became

15 August

started and the a part of this.

Besides the teleclub programmes, the general service included programmes for women, children, youth and magazine programmes both in English and Hindi. News, news commentary, light musical entertainment and plays were also telecast. In addition, a feature film edited to 90 minutes duration was shown once a month. Thus from 15 August 1965, television acquired a firm footing in the country to become a dominating and powerful medium of mass communication. Slowly but steadily the success of the experimental

country.

project

made

way

for further expansion

of television service in the

Television Network and Transmission Range The first television centre which started as an experimental service at Delhi with a 500 watts transmitter had a range of 24 km. The transmitter was Teplaced by a 5 kw transmitter in September 1962 and the range increased to 40 km. This was again replaced by a 10 kw transmitter on 7 May 1975. At present the range of the Delhi centre is 68 km and it covers an

area of 14,300 sq km in and around Delhi. The duration of the daily general service of the Delhi television increased from two hours in May

1969 to three hours in July 1970, to three and half hours in December 1971 and to four hours in November 1973. At present, the Delhi centre, besides the regular evening transmission, telecasts programmes in the morning for general viewers on Sundays,

Special occasions. The

second

television

centre

for schools on week days and on other

inaugurated

at Bombay

on

2 October

1972 has a range between 70 km and 100 km and covers an area of 10,000

sq km.

Its transmission

tower of 300 metres is one of the tallest in Asia,

second only to the Tokyo tower of Japan. The duration of programmes of this centre which was 2 hours 15 minutes per day in the beginning was increased to 2 hours 30 minutes from January 1973 and to3 hours from April 1973.

32

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

1978

At present, the centre transmits programmes for 4 hours in the evening on

all the days of the week and for 2 hours in the morning on Sundays.

The

television

year

1973

witnessed further improvement

in the country.

An

experimental

TV

in the development

service was

of

commissioned

at Srinagar on 26 January 1973. This service, operated with a low power temporary antenna, provided coverage to Srinagar and some adjoining areas. It became a regular service with the commissioning of the transmission tower at Shankaracharya Hill to full power from 6 November 1973. At present this centre has a range between 30 km

and 70 km depending on

the direction and weather conditions and it covers an area of 4,000 sq km. To start with, programmes were telecast thrice a week on alternate days for one hour in the evening and for 2 hours 30 minuteson Sundays. A regular daily service of 4 hours duration has been in operation since 13 July 1973. In addition, there is a special morning transmission for 2 hours on Sundays.

One television centre at Amritsar and a television relay centre at Pune were also commissioned during 1973. The Amritsar centre commissioned on 29 September 1973 has a range of 65 km and telecasts programmes for 4 hours and 30 minutes daily in the evening which are viewed by people on both sides of the International

border. It covers an area of 8,000 sq km

in

the Indian territory. The Pune relay centre inaugurated on 2 October 1973 telecasts programmes of the Bombay centre and covers an area of 15,000 sq km around Pune. It has a range between 52 km and 90 km. Three more centres were added to the television network during 1975. The Calcutta centre initially with a range of 50 km and covering an area of 7,900 sq km was started on 9 August 1975. It is possibly the only

station in the world, operating a daily three hour service from an outside broadcasting van. The Madras centre with a temporary tower of 30 metres and a range of 10 km was inaugurated on 15 August 1975. The centre got a 10 kw transmitter in July 1976, and the transmitting antenna has been mounted on a 175 metre self-supporting tower. At present it transmits pro-

grammes for 3 hours and 30 minutes daily in the evening and for one hour and 30 minutes in the morning on Sundays. It now has a range of 80 km and covers an area of 12,000 sq km. The Lucknow centre commissioned on 27 November 1975 has, at present, a range of 60 km. This is the first

centre in the TV network to serve the hinterland. It presents programmes daily for a duration of 2 hours to 2 hours and 30 minutes in the evening except on Sundays when the duration is 4 hours. It covers an area of 11,300 sq km. The

seven

.

television

centres

and

one relay

centre

at Pune

now

cover

83,000 sq km area and 490 lakh population in the country. Programmes in nine languages and some local dialects are telecast to about 5,00,000 television homes all over the country.

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CUCATERIA ERTS QIN TH

[ ators fe? ofc aren marta eee eta crf ferft J The first Bengali language paper was published in 1818 from Calcutta. Here is a facsimile of the front page of the first issue of Samachar

India entered the broadcasting

era in 1924. The first broadca-

Sting transmitting set used by Madras Presidency Radio Club.

Speed

and

efficiency

are

the

hallmarks of news dissemination.

Picture shows a view of the General News Room of All India

Radio

during

1977

Lok

See Poll.

AIR

introduces eminent people from

recording

an

interview

by

all walks

Ahmedabad-Vadodara

of life

station

to its listeners.

Picture

whose painting was selected for a postage stamp issued on Children’s Day 1977.

A yisual record of the great posterity— for occasion

National and

International

the Units covering Film with ceremonies connected on Day Republic the 1950. January 26

shows

of Master Nikur Dilipbhai Modi,

Films Division produces a number of films every year on agricultural and rural development. Here is FD’s unit picturising a scene for a rural based documentary film.

Vadya Vrinda, A/R’s National orchestra, received guidance from Ravi Shankar during its initial stage. Picture shows the Sitar Wizard conducting an orchestral

composition

in

1963.

TELEVISION

33

Composition of Programmes Television medium in India is utilised in the developmental process and as an instrument of social change and national cohesion. Each television centre follows its own

programme

format which

is reviewed and chan-

ged periodically to suit the expectations of the viewers. A film camera unit attached to every centre visits the urban and rural areas of the city and films various important activities. In addition, the various television centres also exchange programmes with each other on a regular basis. Film units are also sent outside the country to cover important évents. Every

centre

telecasts

atleast

one

news

bulletin

and

also

a current

affairs

programme where specialists take up live issues for a threadbare discussion.

Eye-witness accounts and interviews with important persons and reactions of the common man to the happenings around him are presented through TV news-reels in English, Hindi and other regional languages. A general content of programmes telecast by the various centres is given below:

Dethi Centre The Delhi centre telecasts programmes for four hours daily in the evening on week days and the viewers have a wide range of choice in their programmes.

magazines Feature

and

News

in Hindi

current

affairs

and

are

also

have

presented

their

daily

in Hindi

share.

and

Sports

activities inside and

News

English.

films in Hindi are telecast on Sundays and regional language

and old Hindi films on Saturdays. dance sequence from feature films Darshan’, the programme for farmers to community viewing centres in 86 Pradesh.

English

films

‘Chitrahaar’, a programme of song and is presented twice a week. ‘Krishi is presented four times and is directed villages in Delhi, Haryana and Uttar outside

the country

are shown

regu-

larly. Other programmes for special audiences include those for children, youth and housewives. Programmes are mainly telecast in Hindi and English. In-school instructional programmes based on the curricula of the schools are telecast regularly. An analysis of the programme time shows that news and current affairs claim 21.5 per cent of the transmission time, entertainment films 27 per cent, while 16 per cent of the time is devoted to special audience programmes. Source-wise, 84 per cent of the programmes of the Delhi centre originate from its own studios, 2 per cent are exchange programmes received from other TV centres in India, while 14 per cent are imported. Bombay

Centre

The Bombay centre telecasts programmes in English, Gujarati, Hindi, Marathi and Urdu. The programmes are designed to meet the aspirations and 6—3 M ofI & B/77

34

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

needs of multilingual society of a cosmopolitan city like Bombay

1978

and per-

tain to rural audience, industrial workers, children and youth.

Three

commentaries

programmes

bulletins one each in English, Hindi and Marathi are telecast daily. are also presented

in Hindi

and

Marathi.

The

news

News

for the industrial workers called ‘Kamgar Vishwa’ is telecast twice a week. A film unit stationed at Pune, visits rural areas and prepares variety programmes for the rural audience, including programmes on agricultural operations,

which

views and week.

are then

film coverage

Regional

language

telecast

both

from

Bombay

and

Pune.

of sports activities elsewhere are shown films

or English

films

are

shown

on

Sports

twice

re-

a

Saturdays,

while Hindi films are telecast on Sundays. Children films are shown once a month. School programmes are telecast on three days a week which are relayed by the Pune centre also. Pune Centre

The relay centre at Pune transmits programmes of the Bombay centre. Srinagar Centre Programmes

mainly

in

Kashmiri

and

Urdu

are telecast by this centre.

The main emphasis in the programmes is on a broad-based social education. Programmes for the special audiences include those for the youth, women, children and the rural community. Plays in Kashmiri and Urdu are shown once a week and a feature film is shown on Sundays. Interesting scenes and song and dance sequence from films are shown regularly. News in Kashmiri and Urdu are telecast daily. Sports activities are widely coveted. This centre telecasts programmes in Dogri also. Agricultural programmes for rural viewers are telecast on four days a week and educational programmes for school children twice a week. Amritsar Centre The

Amritsar centre telecasts

programmes

in

English,

Hindi,

Punjabi

and Urdu for 4 hours and 30 minutes daily in the evening. The programmes are produced and recorded in Delhi and video-tapes are sent to Amritsar. A camera crew at Amritsar prepares film material on social, cultural and other activities of Punjab ence, a programme

for inclusion in the programmes. For the rural audispecially prepared in Punjabi is telecast once a week.

Cartoons and documentary films for children, Punjabi plays and English film serials have their share in the programmes that are presented from this centre. Programmes for family and youth are also shown regularly. Two Hindi feature films are shown every week and in addition song and dance

sequence from films are shown thrice a week. and fed from

News in English is prepared

Delhi on teleprinter to the Amritsar centre where

lated into Punjabi and read.

it is trans-

TELEVISION

35

Calcutta Centre The Calcutta centre puts out programme daily in Bengali, Hindi and English. Two news bulletins, one in English and the other in Bengali are

telecast daily. Programmes for rural audience are presented once a week and for industrial workers twice a week. Feature films in Bengali/Hindi

are shown twice a week and ‘Chitramala’ a programme based on film songs is presented once a week. Other programmes for the special audiences include those for youth, family and children. Plays in Bengali/Hindi and sports events in and outside the country are also presented regularly. Madras Centre The

Madras

centre

telecasts

programmes

mainly

in Tamil

and

English.

Programmes in other southern languages and Hindi are also shown. Sanskrit programmes are also telecast occasionally. News bulletins in Tamil and

English are telecast every day. A full length play is shown in the morning transmission on Sundays and two short plays are presented every week. Two fea-

ture films, one in Tamil and the other in Hindi or a regional language are telecast per week and song and dance sequence from films are presented twice a

week. Other programmes include those for rural and industrial community, children, youth and for housewives. Sports and sports activities are also shown regularly. Programmes for primary school children are telecast twice a week in the morning. Lucknow Centre

A major part of the programme of this centre is rural-oriented. Programmes specially prepared for rural audiences are telecast every day for 30 minutes except on Wednesdays and Sundays. Special programmes for family, youth, children and industrial community are shown once a week. News

in Hindi

is telecast daily.

Sports programmes

are presented twice a

week and Hindi feature film and a play once a week. health, hygiene and science are shown regularly.

Programmes

on

Special Programmes The television medium is used to disseminate information about specific aspects of science and technology, agriculture, health, hygiene and family planning. There are programmes of formal and non-formal education. Programmes for farmers are telecast regularly from all the television centres, while educational telecast for school children are made from most of the centres on a regular basis. Community

Viewing

In order to ensure that the television programmes are viewed by a large number of people, who cannot afford television sets, the Government

36

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

1978

formulated the community viewing scheme. Television sets are made available at selected community centres and teleclubs are organised for viewing the programmes

community

and

discussing

their contents.

At

present

Delhi

viewing sets located in the rural teleclubs around

has

Delhi,

951

Har-

yana and Uttar Pradesh and in the urban teleclubs in Delhi. Srinagar has 550 sets located in the valley, Lucknow 150, Bombay 443, Madras 39,

Calcutta 81 and Amritsar 120. Farm Programmes The

programme

for

the

diffusion

of

information

on

agriculture

among

the farmers living around Delhi was started on 26 January 1967. These programmes known as ‘Krishi Darshan’, produced in close cooperation with the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, the Delhi Administration and the Atomic Energy Commission are telecast four times a week and are directed to community viewing centres in 86 villages in Delhi, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. At present all the television centres present programmes for the farmers on a regular basis in Hindi as well as other regional lan-

guages.

School Programmes For students, in-school instructional programmes were started in 1961 in col-

laboration with the Ford Foundation. Initially about 150 schools in Delhi were provided with TV sets and lessons in four subjects directly related to the school curriculum

equipped

with

TV

were telecast. In a short while the number

sets

grew

and

presently

schools under the Delhi Administration

about

are provided

400

of schools

higher-secondary

with TV

sets. Lessons

in English, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Biology are telecast. From 3 March 1975, non-formal lessons are being telecast by the Delhi centre for children of primary school-going age on two days a week. For the first time a morning transmission during summer vacation for the benefit of the students of different age groups was introduced in 1975. The Bombay centre presently telecasts two programmes of 20 minutes each in the afternoon in English and Science. These are enrichment programmes and are relayed by the Pune centre also. They are telecast three times a week. Educational programmes are telecast from the Srinagar and Madras centres also. Srinagar centre presents one programme of 20 minutes duration on two days a week.

The

Madras

centre telecasts one

nutes duration in Tamil for primary

programme

of 20 mi-

school children twice a week.

Satellite TV Experiment A major space application project, the year-long Television Experiment (SITE) using the Application

(ATS-6) was started on 1 August 1975.

Satellite Instructional Technology Satellite-6

This was made possible following

TELEVISION an

37

agreement

between

the

Department

of

Atomic

Energy

and

National

Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States of America. The satellite was made available for beaming instructional programmes for four hours daily to selected cluster areas comprising 2,400 villages in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan. Apart from this, about 400 villages in Gujarat also received these programmes through a transmitter set up by the Indian Space Research Organisation at Pij. The programmes were transmitted to the satellite from two earth stations at Ahmedabad and Delhi. In all 2,400 special television Teceivers to receive TV signals directly from the satellite were provided in the village clusters. Three base production centres were opened at Cuttack, Delhi and Hyderabad to produce specific programmes for telecast. The SITE programmes were telecast on the basis of a systematic programme production plan which was devised to meet the target of a total 1,326 hours of programmes required to be telecast during the entire period. These telecasts were in four languages. The satellite was withdrawn

from

1 August

1976

and the Government

decided to establish at least six terrestrial transmitters to serve 40 per cent of

the

SITE

villages.

Accordingly,

six

television

transmitters

one

in each state, ate to be located at Jaipur, Hyderabad, Raipur, Gulbarga, Sambalpur and Muzaffarpur. All these centres are expected to become operational during 1977. These would provide television coverage to a total of over 9,000 villages including about 1,000 SITE villages. The special augmented television sets earlier installed for receiving satellite programmes would

be converted

Tespective

villages.

for conventional

Programmes

operational

pre-recorded

use and

deployed

in their

in tapes are to be supplied

to these transmitters from the existing base production centres. It is expected

that eventually, programme production facilities would be provided at all the centres to give live items and topical programmes and associate local talents and culture in the preparation of programmes.

Doordarshan Television

was

delinked

from

All

India

Radio

on

1

April

1976.

The

New organisation known as ‘Doordarshan’ under a Director General is now Tesponsible for the operation and administration of TV. service, its personnel and implementation of programme policies. The research and training establishment of All India Radio, however, continues to be responsible for the research and training work relating to Doordarshan.

Commercial Telecasts Commercials were introduced on Television from 1 January 1976. To begin with, only sponsoring of programmes is being permitted. The sponsor

38

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

of a programme

can

utilise time

for introduction

1978

of advertising captions

with or without sound only at the beginning and at the end of a programme;

No interruption of programmes is allowed. Certain programmes, such as programmes for children, programmes for viewing in schools, newscasts and programmes on current affairs are not made available for sponsorship. The gross revenue earned from commercial advertising upto 31 March 1977 amounted to Rupees one crore and thirty-one lakhs.

Training The Central Government established a television training centre in collaboration with UNDP/UNESCO in 1971 for providing trained manpower required for the expanding TV network in the country. The centre originally situated in Delhi shifted to its permanent complex within the Film and Television Institute of India, Pune, on 6 July 1974. Till November 1975, 492 persons were trained in production and other technical departments to meet the needs of television stations and SITE base production centres. The institute has also started specialised in-service training for TV personnel in various categories such as for news, children’s programme, community viewing, drama and plays, educational telecast, films, graphic, designs etc.

Production and Ownership of T.V. Receivers Television

sets

were

mostly

imported

till

1970.

Indigenous

production

from

1973

has shown steady growth with the expansion of TV network in the country. The

number

of manufacturing

in 1974 and to 50 in 1975.

units has

increased

26

in

to 40

Majority of the units are in the small scale

sector. The production has increased from 75,000 sets in 1974 to 96,000 sets in 1975. Presently there are more than 300 models varying from single

channel to multi-channel sets.

In order to effect a reduction in the price

of TV sets, and to encourage the production of low cost sets, a differential

excise duty system for TV 1976-77.

The

import

duty

sets was introduced in the Union Budget for

on TV

glass-shell was also reduced

from

186

per cent to 75 per cent. As a result of these concessions, the price of TV sets have come

down

by about 25 per cent, and are within the reach of a

larger section of the population.

The number of television sets in the country has been virtually doubl-

ing every year over the past ten years. The growth of television receiver licences in the country since 1963 is shown in the following table.

TELEVISION

39 Growth of Television Receiver Licences

Year

No. of Licences

1963. 1964. 1965 .

1966

.

1967 .

1968 .

1969. 1970

1971.

1972.

1973.

1974. 1975.

.

oe

ee

-

ee

ee .

eee

eee

:

oe »

oe

551 650 700

4,500

6,200

7,000

12,303

24,833

37,600

84,114

163,446

275,424

4,55,430

Film FOR

OVER

3,500

years,

India

has

preserved

a

continuity

in

its

ho-

mage to the Six Arts and the Nine Muses. Its heritage in the performing, plastic and graphic arts as well as literature has been sustained by the practitioners and the public. It was an Indian sage, Bharata, who had given

the

world

Shastra.

one of the earliest

Though

primarily

compendiums

concerned

on

with dance

with the other arts and aesthetics in general.

aesthetics,

and drama,

entitled

Natya

it also dealt

Other Sanskrit scholars con-

tributed to the world of art the Rasa and the Dhwani theories of art appreciation.

Then, one day, eighty two years ago, the Film arrived in India. On 7 July

1896, at the Watson’s Hotel, in

what

is

now

the

Army

and Navy

Store

Building opposite the Museum in Bombay, the Film made its debut in India.

One of the touring agents of the Lumiere Brothers, the French pioneers of “Cinematographs”, organised the screening of “living photographic pictures”,

pictures

of men

and

women

who

“breathed,

moved

and

danced”.

This

“marvel of the century” as it was then described was shown to European and American audiences only a few months earlier. The people who paid one rupee for entrance were entranced and bewitched by the films showing

the arrival of a train at a station, workers leaving a factory, people bathing

at a beach

these early

they were

and

by

films

women

were

and

the railways,

India’s cinema

soldiers riding bicycles.

intrigued and

electricity,

connection

started

flabbergasted

The Indians who

by motion

and

telephone

and

from

that day, eighty

pictures

saw

as

the gramaphone. two

years

ago.

Though we can never pinpoint and say when exactly the other arts started in India

as elsewhere

also,

in the case of the Cinema,

now

accepted

as

the

Seventh Art and the Tenth Muse, one can fix the date of origin with certitude. With the early film came the art of the cinema and during the following years a

radical transformation took place here too as in the other parts of the world. Our ancient country with millenia-old continuing civilization took to the

Cinema science

with

and

easy

adaptability.

technology

This

art-cum-industry

was easily mastered

by Indians.

and

a product

of

India’s Pre-eminent Position Today, India is the largest film producing country in the world, with the United States and Japan ranking after it. During 1975, India produced 470 films of which 223 were in colour and 247 were in black and white. India also

produced

180

documentaries,

over

60

newsreels

and

innumerable

films

FILM used

41 in television and

educational

SITE

programmes,

for family planning campaigns,

institutions, agricultural extension centres and

defence forces.

Though the bulk of films produced in India are in Hindi, films are made

in Bengali, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada,

Malayalam

and other regional langua-

ges. Newsreels and documentaries produced by the Films Division are dubbed in 15 languages including English.

But in a vast country like ours, which is a subcontinent, in 1975 there were only 8,734 cinema theatres, of which 5,468 were permanent buildings and the rest were touring cinemas—with a total seating capacity of 70,00,000. According to experts in mass communications, India should have ten times the number of cinema theatres to cater to its vast population. More than 60,000 persons were employed in three branches of this artcum-industry, production, distribution and exhibition. The gross annual earnings of this industry, which comes within the first ten industries of the country, reached the astounding figure of Rs 225 crores during 1975. The foreign exchange earnings amounted to Rs 7.5 crores. Films were exported to as many as 82 countries of the world. The “mills” of this industry are 60 studios and 38 laboratories—scattered mostly in Bombay, the “‘film capital of India”, Calcutta and

Madras.

What is more, India is one of the six countries in the world manufacturing cine film. The public sector enterprise, Hindustan Photo Films, manufactures black and white cine film sufficient for the domestic needs of Positive

mm

and sound

negative film.

India

also manufactures

film projectors and film processing equipment. However,

India’s

greatest asset in films

35 mm

is undoubtedly

and

16

Satyajit Ray

who has been acclaimed as one of the ten most significant film-makers of the history of World Cinema, ranked alongside Griffiths, Chaplin, Eisenstein, Welles and others. And Satyajit Ray has won the largest number of top

awards, trophies, medals, and cash prizes, from international film festivals, and national agencies. This redounds to the glory of India. All this constitute

a phenomenal

achievement

for India,

even

at first

glance and more so after going into details, set out in the rest of this chapter. India’s easy and quick adaptability to this imported art from the West can be easily explained. The Art of the Cinema is called the Art of all Arts since it has absorbed the other arts ranging from dance and drama to novels and short stories, from art to architecture. India has had a distinguished tradition in most of the arts. What Sage Bharata said about dance and drama so long ago is applicable to the cinema as well. We have sculptors in our ruined temples in which we can see the evidence of these sculptors

7—3 M ofI & B/77

42

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

having understood the principles of motion. The series of successive stances of dance figures in Chidambaram or Khajuraho can come to life when filmed and edited properly. The painters of manuscript illustrations have indicated the progressive stages of motion. And what is Film? It is an improvement of the static arts by the addition of motion. Our tradition of songs and dances are fitted in with the Cinema. Even the erotic strain of our plastic

and graphic arts admirably

ianaed

ema.

then that India

lent itself to the needs of the Cinema.

is occupying

a predominant

It is no

role in the world

of

Homage to the Pioneers Even in this short chapter, homage must be the Cinema in India. Among those who saw the Hotel in July 1896 was a Maharashtrian still name—Harischandra Sawe Bhatvadekar. More Dada,

it did not take long for him

to lear

paid to the pioneers of films screened at Watson’s photographer with a long popularly known as Sawe

the mechanics of the new

art.

He first took to exhibition of foreign films. Then he decided to produce films on Indian subjects with which the people could identify themselves. Sawe Dada was the pioneer to import a camera with which he covered a wrestling match in the “Hanging Gardens” of Bombay. The next subject that interested him was the training of monkeys. By early 1899, these early films shot

by

Sawe

Dada

were

screened

to Bombay

audiences,

who

were

thrilled to see familiar shots on the “silver screen”. In Calcutta, Dhiren Ganguly produced the early newsreels, which in those days were known as the “topicals”. In course of time, one of the early feature films from the West entitled

Life of Christ reached India and it cast a spell over a remarkable Maharashtrian pandit, who dabbled in the fine arts. For a while, he never missed

a show of this film. He discovered the potentialities of the Cinema. He argued with himself why if the Westerners could make a film on Christ, Indians could not make films on their gods and goddesses. It was thus Dhundiraj Govind Phalke, more famously known as Dadasaheb Phalke, who was inspired to take to feature film making. Though he had originally planned to make a film on Lord Krishna, he postponed this project and made the first feature film based on the story of Harish-

chandra, the great votary of truth. This Puranic story had all the elements of a box-office hit of today. In spite of many handicaps and difficulties,

Dadasaheb

Phalke made

the feature film, Harishchandra,

In those early

days no woman would dare to act in films and Dadasaheb Phalke had to engage a versatile man to done the sari and enact the role of Taramati, wife

of Harishchandra.

This first feature film was screened on 3 May 1913 in Bombay—and with that started the story of the Indian film industry. The latest of the

FILM

43

arts held the people spell-bound.

The people mobbed the cinema hall. And

in the nights, there was so much money in the cash-box, it had to be car-

tied

in a bullock-cart.

Right

India have been cinema-stuck.

from

that

day, 64 years

ago,

the people

of

The next landmark in the history of the Indian cinema was the release of the first Indian “talkie” on 14 March 1931—within two years of the

screening of Universal Pictures ‘Melody of Love’, the first foreign talkie screened here with new projection equipment. Produced by Ardeshir Irani, the

first talkie entitled Alam Ara featured Zubeida, Vithal, Prithviraj Kapoor, Jagdish

Sethi and

others.

It was

advertised

as “the

living, breathing

100

per cent Indian Talking Film”. From that day the sound barrier was broken and in course of time the language films came to be made in various centres

as far flung as Lahore (then in India) and Madras, Calcutta and Kolhapur. Songs began to dominate films. The operatic tradition in Indian drama and

folk theatre was suitably adapted by the cinema. And Madan Theatres’ Indra Sabha had as many as 59 songs. By and by, the playback singers emerged. The music directors became more important than the actors. And India evolved

its own

style of films, with

songs

predominating.

The next landmark was also provided by Ardeshir Irani, who produced India’s first colour film, KiSan Kanya. It became a sensation and Ardeshir Irani added a second feather to his cap. During the last half century, the Indian film industry has had its “Golden Age” too when New Theatres in Calcutta, Prabhat in Kolhapur/Pune,

East India Company, Gemini Studios and others produced some fine films. J. F. Madan, Chandulal Shah, Himansu Rai, V. Shantaram, P. C. Barua, Debaki Bose, K. Subramanyam, H. M. Reddy and other producer-directors made some memorable films. Gohar, Sulochana, Devika Rani, Durga Khote, Kanan Devi, Kamalesh Kumari, T. P. Rajalakshmi, S. D. Subbulakshmi

and several other “stars” blazed the way for the next generation that inclu-

ded Nargis, Madhubala, Meena Kumari and others. Ashok Kumar, K. L. Saigal, K. C. Dey, Pahari Sanyal, Chandramohan, Jagirdar, M. K. Thyagaraja Bhagawathar and others were succeeded by Dilip Kumar, Raj Kapoor, Sivaji Ganesan, Balraj Sahni, Dev Anand and others. The

fascinating

story of the Indian

chronicled by Erik Barnouw

and

cinema

industry

S. Krishnaswamy

has

been

ably

in Indian Film and

Feroze Rangoonwala in 75 Years of Indian Cinema, It is an impossible task to compress this story in a few paragraphs, which will read like a catalogue

of cinema names and titles.

Suffice it to say here that the Indian feature films are as good or bad Or indifferent as the films produced in Hollywood or Japan. The majority

44

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

of our films provide escapist fare as is being done elsewhere—excepting

the ideology-dominated socialist countries.

in

Over the years our films have developed certain characteristics that are truly our own. Mythologicals are our special contribution—as much “Westerns” are the American contribution—as to world cinema. The playback singers, who dominate our industry, are a special phenomenon only here.

The Indian film industry is not confined to the feature film industry.

We have one of the largest short film producing agencies in the world—the

Films Division of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.

Films Division Started in 1948, on the model of the Information Films of India of the pre-Independence days, the Films Division has been rendering a great service by interpreting contemporary India, its artistic heritage, its aspirations and

hopes

through

the medium

It is compulsory that a film upto 20 minutes’ duration) must This has been made mandatory it was felt that in a developing

of the film to Indians

approved by be shown at for the grant country like

and

foreigners.

the Film Advisory Board (of every show in every theatre. of licence to cinemas because ours with dimensions of sub-

continent, peopled by still predominantly illiterate inform, educate, motivate and integrate the nation.

masses,

the

film

could

The Films Division produces films on its own and through independent

producers. Scores of its films have won over 500 awards and certificates in-

cluding top awards at international film festivals. These and other films are distributed throughout the country through

offices.

its own

net-work

of distribution

During 1975-76, Films Division produced 94 black and white documen-

taries,

35

colour

documentaries,

52

newsreels,

eight compilations

and

50

regional newsreels adding upto 239 films. These are impressive figures indeed.

Films Division provides the Directorate of Field Publicity hundreds of

prints each year and the DFP’s field units go to remote villages with mobile

projectors to screen films. The Films Division also supplies prints of its films to our embassies and high commissions abroad for screening through

non-theatrical and theatrical circuits.

here and abroad.

The

FD

also sells prints of its films

During 1975-76, the FD supplied 25,893 prints to the theatres and 13,284

prints free to the Directorate of Field Publicity and our diplomatic missions.

It sold 10,523 prints of its films (total 49,700).

FILM

45

The Children’s Film Society, sponsored by the Government of India, has been in existence since 1955. .It has produced a wide range of films, both features and shorts, intended for juvenile audiences. Special screenings

are arranged

for children

through

theatrical and

the CFS films, dubbed in several languages. won international awards.

non-theatrical circuits for

Some

of its films have also

State Awards Realising the importance of the film medium, the Government of India set up a Film Enquiry Committee in 1949. Ever since it submitted its Teport in 1951, most of the recommendations have been implemented. One of the recommendations was the institution of annual State Awards for films in order to promote the production of better films. The Government instituted the State Awards

in 1954 for films with high

aesthetic

standards

and technical perfection. Apart from medals and are also given as incentives to producers, directors film-making. Juries are constituted both at regional the selection of films. The award winning films are

certificates, cash awards and others involved in and national levels for publicised and screened

Through

to film-makers

at special shows.

Quite often entertainment-tax is exempted to such films.

these incentives

encouragement

is given

to break

away from formulae and cliches of the box-office hits and to produce offbeat films with social significance.

Film Finance

Corporation

The

the

prise

starting

in

of

1960 with

Film

Finance

an authorised

Corporation

capital

of Rs

positive move designed to encourage fresh and new pastures in film-making. In order to break

as

a public

1 crore was

sector

enter-

yet another

old film talent to explore the set pattern of feature-

film making and to encourage low-budget films based on themes normally spurned by the feature film industry, the FFC was started. loans advanced by the FFC running to several lakhs of

Thanks to the rupees—at the

modest rate of 9 per cent per annum as against 10 to 15 per cent per month in the

feature

film

industry—there

known as “New Wave” films. ugh

the FFC

films—Basu

Shahani and others.

was a good

crop

of what

came

to be

Several new directors made their debut thro-

Chatterji,

Kantilal

Rathod,

Mani

Kaul,

Kumar

Though

some of these films turned out to be too sophisticated, they

and abroad.

But the real nexus has been in regard to commercial distribu-

were still worthwhile cinematic experiments that have won recognition here tion of these films In this respect too, the FFC has made an attempt to-

wards starting and running “Art Cinemas”. of worthwhile films from abroad.

It is also involved in the import

46

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

1978

Film and TV Institute One more recommendation of the Film Enquiry Committee which the Government implemented in 1961 was the starting of the Film Institute of India,

Pune

(now

renamed

as the Film

and

Television

Institute of India).

Situated in the one-time headquarters of the Prabhat Studios, the FTI

is

one of half-a-dozen institutions of its kind in the world. Students are taught motion picture direction, cinematography, sound recording, editing and acting.

Well equipped with a studio, auditoriums,

editing rooms, a library of

books and another of films, and even a laboratory, the FTII has been training students in various branches of film making. Since such training facili-

ties are not available in Asia and Africa, foreign students also come from near and far. The syllabus is comprehensive. Apart from the regular teaching staff, guest lecturers from here and abroad broaden the scope of the specialised education. The students have to make diploma films and also write a dissertation. The FTII also has arranged seminars and workshops. It has contributed

much towards better film appreciation also. The television wing training ground for the new generation needed for Doordarshan. The

FTII

is the alma

mater

for directors

like Adoor

is the

Gopalakrishnan,

Mani Kaul, Kumar Shahani, thespians like Shatrughan Sinha, Jalal Aga, Jaya Bhaduri and Rehana Sultan. Cameramen, sound recordists and editors have been contributed by the FTII to the industry. Through the FTII also fresh ideas, radical concepts and technical innovations are seeping through slowly and transforming the Indian film industry.

National Film Archive The National Film Archive of India is also housed within the compound of the FTII in Pune. Set up by the Government in 1964, NFAI is doing to the Tenth Art what museums and archives have been doing to the other

arts.

It has been slowly and steadily acquiring the early newsreels, the film

classics, both Indian and foreign, posters, photographs, synopsis books and related material.

Working in concert with similar organisations abroad and here, it has now an enviable collection. All award winning films are also deposited there. This is a veritable treasure of film material for students of the cinema. Every possible care is taken to preserve the films for posterity since the film is the most potential medium for the preservation of the past and the pre-

sent for the future.

The NFAI

is also engaged in research work and it has

published some books—monographs on Guru Dutt and Dr. P. V. Pathy.

FILM

Film

47

Festivals

There is now a separate Directorate for Film Festivals which is responsible for arranging competitive International Film Festivals, retrospective festivals from foreign countries, for adjudging films for the national awards and for sending Indian films to foreign festivals. India organised the first International film festival in 1952 at which 23 countries participated and the Italian neo-realist film Bicycle Thieves and the Japanese classic, Rashomon were shown. These films had a big impact on Indian film makers. The subsequent film festivals brought films from various parts of the world. Seen by the members of the industry and the public, the contemporary film classics from abroad have considerably helped in improving the tastes of the film-going public and in inspiring film-makers here to venture into making off-beat films.

Film Societies The

Federation

of

Film

from

France, Sweden,

Societies

in

titution that has contributed much to to the consideration of cinema as a Founded in December 1959, the FFSI all over India, was mainly responsible Poland

India

has

been

the

pioneering

ins-

film apprecation in the country and serious art with its own aesthetics. which has over 120 member societies for the screening of outstanding films

and Japan in the early days. It also arranged

Tretrospective film festivals of famous directors, both Indian and foreign.

The FFSI emerged as a result of the efforts made by the Calcutta Film Society (founded by Satyajit Ray and Chidananda Das Gupta), the Bombay Film Society and the Delhi Film Society. Satyajit Ray has guided its activities all through the years. Through its three regional offices and member societies, the FFSI has promoted film awareness in the country. The University Film Council set up with the aid of the University Grants Commission has promoted film appreciation among college youth.

Indian Motion Picture Export Corporation The Indian Motion Picture Export Corporation was set up in 1963 to streamline exports, avoid underhand dealings, prevent piracy of prints and to promote cultural relations through films. The IMPEC has entered into bilateral relations with the governments of several countries. The IMPEC has been mainly responsible for the international exchange of films on a wide scale sending the best films made

bringing the best films of the world here.

in India 1o foreign countries and for

48

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

Censor Board The Central Board of Film Censors, based in Bombay with regional boards in Calcutta and Madras, certifies all films shown for public exhibition in India. The CBFC

to the Censor

was set up in independent India in 1950 as the successor

Board

set up by the erstwhile

British rulers under the India

Cinematograph Act of 1918 and amendments of 1919 and 1920. At that time due to political considerations of the rulers, censorship was a provincial subject

and

it came

under police jurisdiction. After Independence,

the

Cinematograph Act of 1952 repealed the earlier act of 1918. Subsequently other amendments were incorporated.

The Chairman of the Board, assisted by the members of the Board and regional panels, decides which films are for universal exhibition and which are to be restricted to adults. The Board is responsible for excisions and modifications of the films in the interests of the public. Since films are seen by the widest possible public, great care is taken that the security

of the state, friendly relations with other states, public order, decency and morality are not jeopardised. Defamation and contempt of court are other considerations. The film industry being a vast enterprise there are several organisations

which look after the various interests. The Film Federation of India is an apex organisation to which several other organisations like the Indian Motion Picture Producers’ Association, the Indian Documentary Producers’ Association, the Bengal Motion Picture Association, the Cinematograph Exhibitors Association of India, the Southern India Film Chamber of Commerce etc. are affiliated. film producers, directors, The

seeds

sown

by

Besides, there are trade union organisations for music directors, editors and for the “Extras”.

Sawe

Dada,

Dada

Saheb

Phalke,

Ardeshir

and others have given an abundant yield over the years—providing hood

to thousands,

throwing

up rich talent, enriching

quer, entertaining and educating India abroad.

the millions and

the country’s

Irani

liveli-

exche-

projecting the image of

Advertising THE HISTORY of advertising in our country remains unwritten and the known past, even to the most enthusiastic student, does not go beyond a couple of years. The state of advertising today can be appreciated only in the back-drop of the past, and, therefore, it may be worthwhile to have a glimpse of the origin and evolution of advertising in various media before we

look at the present.

Press

Advertising

Press advertising in India will be 200 years old in 1980. ‘Bengal Gazette or Calcutta General Advertiser’ which appeared on 29 January 1780 had devoted one of its four pages for advertisements. As the readership of

the paper was mostly among the British citizens, then working and living in India, they were the target audience of the advertisers. Understandably, the items advertised were Yorkshire ham, cheese, grocery, hats, shoes, Irish linen, wines, horses, carriages, etc. Arrivals and departures of ships and of Britishers, ‘elopement’ of British wives, ‘running away’ of slave boys, investments,

‘Wanted’,

and ‘Lost and found’ were among

the other classifications

of advertisements. The weekly newspapers that followed Bengal Gazette— there were a number of them—had the same pattern of advertising, because all of them had drawn their model from the British newspapers.

‘Sangbad Kaumudi’, the Bengali weekly started in 1821, which was the first Indian language newspaper edited and published by Indians also carried advertisements mostly on books and medicines. The oldest language news-

paper in India today, ‘Bombay Samachar’ (Gujarati), started in 1822, devoted 10 to 15 per cent of its space to advertisement, mostly on medicines, books and theatre. ‘Udant Martand’, the first Hindi weekly which appeared

on

30 May

1826, had

to be closed

down

after two years because,

as the

editor himself had explained in his farewell editorial, there was not enough advertising support.

This

creased

born-dependence

of

newspapers

on

in course of time. The advertising business,

the beginning, consisting of buying space in to advertisers, changed itself gradually until, the creative and planning roles came to be of the century, it was the advertiser who was

advertising

there only

to arrange

its placement.

A

a middle

steadily

man’s

in-

job in

newspapers and fanning it out with the coming of the agency, its main concern. Till the turn wrote the copy and the agent few papers like the Statesman

had their own copy department to assist their advertisers. 8—3 M of I & B/77

has

The advertising

50

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

agency

system, which

had

become

prevalent

in Western countries

by then,

made its debut in India in the early nineties. The years of the first world war witnessed a remarkable growth in the circulation of English and Indian language

newspapers.

With

the return of peace, a struggle for the market

in India developed among foreign manufacturers which was reflected in the expansion of press advertising. Alliance Advertising Association of Bombay started by the British India Corporation at Kanpur for advertising their manufactured

goods

and

their

artist

L.

A.

Stronach,

who

later

founded the agency L. A. Stronach & Co., were the pioncers in the field of scientific advertising and campaign planning in our country. Foreign

agencies like J. Walter Thompson came in the twenties making the beginning

of the era of modern advertising in India. Soon appeared on the scene a number of Indian agencies which were professionally not inferior to the foreign agencies. Competition

standards

between

of layout

and

the

different

printing

agencies

and

the demand

led to improvements

writing, art and designing, block making

and

printing.

for high

in planning,

copy

World War II had initially an adverse impact on advertising as the import of foreign goods, which was the mainstay of the industry, was drastically reduced. The government’s war-time publicity, however, expanded in a big way, and the leading foreign and Indian agencies associated

them-

selves with the government in what was known as the creative publicity unit for planning, creation and placing of advertisements. Also the enginecring industries which

came

into being

owing

mised a bright future for advertising.

Outdoor The

to the exigencies

of the war

pro-

Advertising

importance

of outdoor

publicity

in a country, where

the printed word

reached only a small section of the population, was realised even during the first world war. Though posters and bill boards have been employed for publicity purposes for a long time, an organised effort to utilise them and other media such as trams and kiosks in a planned and professional manner, came only with the Publicity Society of India, established in 1926. The thirties and the forties witnessed the birth of a number of outdoor publicity agencies specialising in inter-state operations in transit, hoarding,

kiosk, neon

signs

and

other

visual advertising.

With

the dawn

of freedom

and planned development, rural India came in for the special attention which was its due and manufacturers were eager to reach the vast population with their commercial messages. Government publicists assigned top

priority to communicating with the rural masses and involve them in the

nation-building programmes. Outdoor publicity, thus, got the biggest boost in recent years. However, the outdoor advertising agencies in India

ADVERTISING

i

are yet to have an organisation like the Outdoor Contractors’ Associations of Western countries, which lay down business ethics.

Film Advertising Static

and

position

media

such

as

bill

boards,

posters,

kiosks

and

pop

advertisements have a disadvantage as they merely announce the existence of a product or service or just supplement the knowledge gained through the press. A person who is not already familiar with the product or service hardly gets anything out of them. Cinema advertisements overcome this handicap through an intimate audio-visual presentation of the uses of the product

or service.

It is, therefore, natural

that advertisers make

increasing

use of this medium which has no equal in popularity and coverage. Cinema coverage

in India is the highest in big towns and decreases as the towns get

smaller just on the same pattern as normal selling and distribution efforts of manufacturers. The number of theatres in the country today stands at nearly 9,000 with a seating capacity of nearly 70 lakhs. About one-third of these cinema theatres are touring

areas.

Radio

and operating in rural and semi-urban

Advertising

Commercial

advertising was introduced in India in 1967 from

Bombay-Nag-

pur-Pune channels of Vividh Bharati and extended to Calcutta the following year. At present 28 radio stations have commercial services. The duration

of

commercial

Bharati

variation.

broadcasts

is restricted to

service at the Commercial

10

per cent of the total

centres with

Advertisements are accepted

some

amount

Vividh

of regional

in any recognised language as tape

recorded spots of 7, 15, 30 or 60 seconds duration. Commercial broadcasting became so popular with advertisers that soon after its introduction all the available time was sold out. “Sponsored programmes” of 10 and 15 minutes duration were introduced in 1970. Time on air is sold through accredited and recognised advertising agencies, canvassors and individuals. The category of time

according

to

listenership

is determined

by

the

Listener

Research

Unit and rates are fixed on the basis of the areas covered by the transmitters, buying capacity of the consumers, the number of licenced radio sets in the region, etc. Government departments are also employing radio advertising for the publicity of various services and development programmes.

Television Advertising Though

limited in coverage at present, television also joined the family of

advertising media since January

1976. For the present, only sponsoring is

allowed. A few programmes like sports, commentary, youth programmes, feature films, dance and music are available for sponsoring and the sponsor

52

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

1978

is allowed to introduce advertising messages at the beginning and end of the programme. Only 10 per cent of the telecast time is allowed for advertising.

Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity The Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity (DAVP) handles Gov-

ernment advertisements at the national level. Its origin goes back to the

years of World War II when Government sought to mobilise public participation in the war efforts and formed the creative unit. Today it is one of the largest advertising agencies in the country, handling multi-media national campaigns and has a budget exceeding Rs 4 crores.

The budget of

the DAVP has increased by about two hundred times since Independence. The growth of Government advertising reflects the increasing recognition by the State of its responsibility to keep the people informed of its programmes and policies and

also to involve them

in the gigantic

nation-building

acti-

vities launched in the form of five-year plans. Five-year plans have repeatedly emphasised that such national tasks as family welfare, adult literacy, stepping up of agricultural production, avoidance of wastage of food, increase in the rate of savings, checking the rise in prices, slum clearance and improvements, and a host of other programmes crucial to the develop-~ ment of the economy and the society, can be executed only through the enlightened support and willing co-operation of the people. The Vidyalankar Committee which went into the working of Five-Year Plan Publicity in their report

in

1964

observed

that the “concept

of democratic

planning

implies

that citizens and local committees should be enabled to make their own decisions for the realisation of the national aims and that all sections of the population should be closely involved in the work of social and economic development”. The Committee recommended that the publicity should be 80 directed and produced as to persuade and inspire people into accepting the

social and national change. The DAVP has grown into one of the largest government agencies to ensure public involvement and participation through national campaigns. Being the only agency equipped with a nationwide

network

of exhibition

has launched media.

several

units and

campaigns

outdoor

to reach

advertising

millions

facilities,

of people

the

DAVP

through

all

Two aspects of the DAVP’s contribution to Indian advertising deserves special mention. One is that, unlike other advertising agencies, DAVP is engaged in the promotion of ideas and services, not products. This is the most difficult area of communication as it deals with attitudes, beliefs and values to bring about behavioural changes in people, 70 per cent of whom are unlettered and resistant to any change. The second aspect is the encouragement it gives to regional language newspapers and the fluence it exerts in evolving a system which would give due

healthy inimportance

to language newspapers as advertising media. Medium and small newspapers

in Indian languages have been starving for advertisements. Even the leading

ADVERTISING

53

language newspapers which have more circulation than English papers used to get poorer rates for their space. Advertisers spent more money on English papers for less space and less coverage in spite of the fact that the language papers are increasingly read also by the educated and affluent class. The DAVP’s contribution during the last 10 years to the breaking of this disparity is really admirable. In 1963-64, the DAVP spent Rs 56.8 lakhs on press advertising, out of which Rs 31.8 lakhs went to English papers for 6 lakh column centimeter of space and Rs 25 lakhs on language news-

papers for 11 lakh column centimeter. Today, more than SO per cent of the DAVP’s budget for press advertisement goes to the regional language papers. Not only have the rates of the language newspapers improved but it has been proposed to bring about parity of rates between English and language newspapers. When this policy comes into effect other advertising agencies also would need to restructure their rate system, thus enabling the language Papers to get what has been their due for years.

Professional

Bodies

Growth in the number of agencies and competition amongst newspapers for advertisements led to the need for bringing about some kind of systematisa-

tion in agency small-newspaper relationship. The Indian and Eastern News-

Papers Society was formed

in 1939 to promote the general business interests

of the newspapers and to deal with the government advertisers and agencies.

The formation of the IENS helped to standardise advertising agency practice in

the country.

and

resources

It presented the minimum required

for an

qualifications of ability, experience

advertising

agency

to be accredited

by

the

Society and to be eligible for a uniform rate of commission for its members.

Another significant step in the history of Indian advertising was the formation of the Advertising Agencies Association of India in 1945. The (AAAD) strives to ensure high professional standards and practices on the Part of the agencies. The dawn of freedom saw the advertising agency system well established

and the agency-newspaper relationship well-defined.

The Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC) which came into being in 1948 and the Indian Society of Advertisers formed in 1952 further improved the professional practices of the agencies. The Commercial

Artists’ Guild (1949), the Society of Advertising Prac-

titioners (1958) and the Advertising Council of India (1959) are among the Other professional bodies which have been contributing to the advancement of advertising profession in our country.

54

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

The State of Advertising Today Though advertising has been an organised industry in India for quiet some time, it still presents the problem of lack of information and data to appreciate correctly the volume and value of advertising in various media, and of different goods and services. In fact even the total value of advertising in the country is a matter of guess based on some limited surveys. There has not been any serious effort to understand the state of advertising in India since the Press Commission appointed by the Government of India studied. in a limited way the condition of press advertising in 1951-52. Ninety per cent of the growth of advertising, however, took place in our country after that

year.

Advertising Outlay In 1951-52, the total advertising outlay in the country was about Rs 10 crores of which Rs 5 crores went to the press. Now, as at the time when the

Press Commission

studied the state of advertising, there is an unorganised

sector of the industry which

is estimated to be handling advertising amount-

ing to 20 to 25 per cent of the total.

This sector comprises agencies and

enterprises not accredited or recognised by the IENS. There are more than 350 agencies in our country of which only about 143 are accredited. Also

there is a large number of newspapers and publications which are not members of the IENS. The volume and value of advertising handled by the unorganised

agencies

and

survey of accredited

non-member

advertising

agencies conducted

that a sum of Rs 75 crores was 74. Another survey of the same sector of agencies and non-IENS of Rs 123 crores was spent on the basis of these two studies and

country media.

is spending

newspapers can

only be guessed.

by the IENS

showed

spent on press and other media in 1973period, taking into account the unorganised member newspapers, showed that “a sum advertising in India during 1973-74”. On subsequent surveys, it is estimated that the

today about Rs

120 crores on advertising

in various

The following is the approximate break-up: Advertising media

Advertising outlay (Crores rupees)

Press Advertising (Private sector, DAVP, public sector undertakings and state governments)

Outdoor

Film

.

.

oe

.

.

.

.

ee

.

.

.

.

.

.

see

.

:

.

:

Se

:

.

.

:

.

.

:

.

.

65

:

23

ee

‘Commercial Broadcasting (Vividh Bharati, TV, Radio Ceylon)

Direct mail

A

:

18 .

:

8

6

ADVERTISING

55

Why

Spend on Advertising ?

There

is a general misconception that vast amounts of money

spent on advertising. Firtsly, spending ly, Rs 120 crores are not vast sums advertising in our country. Starch India’s expenditure on advertising is

proportion to the gross national product.

Indonesia and advertising as quired to reach economic and

are needlessly

on advertising is not needless. Secondof money compared to the need of INRA Hooper’s analysis shows that among the lowest in the world in Pakistan, Zambia,

Egypt, Kenya,

many other developing countries are spending much more a percentage of GNP. Compared to the gigantic efforts a message all over the vast sub-continent and the magnitude social development we have already achieved, it can

Tightly contended

that we may need to invest more in advertising. We

on reof be

must

Temember that the economic and social stagnation that our country had been experiencing has now come to an end. We are in a state of continuous flux. A sizeable section of even the rural population has started having some little disposable income and a tremendous desire for a better life. This desire, if properly shaped and channelised, is going to be the positive force to accelerate the pace of our country’s progress. Advertising, as it happened in several other countries, can play a constructive role in motivating people towards greater achievements

desirable

in all fields of life and also in bringing about

changes in their behaviour,

Advertising

is a cost-saving device

attitudes and

norms.

as it brings increased

demands

for

products and services which lead to increased production. At this juncture of our development, advertising has to help increase production, promote New ideas and practices conducive to progress and bring about economic and

social transformation so that the nation moves towards its declared goal.

Also, we should not forget the economics of press advertising as a factor

of newspaper industry. The Press Commission in its report in 1954 had suggested that advertisements

paper paper reader ments

should not cover more than 40 per cent of news-

space as that much advertisement was considered enough with reasonable economic stability. “This would ensure gets an adequate proportion of news and views and that the are not reduced in effectiveness because there are too many

to run a that the advertiseof them”,

the Press Commission observed. “In fixing the maximum limit on advertisements at 40 per cent of total space”, they added, “‘we have taken into con-

sideration not merely the future tendency

the present practice, but what

once

a price

page

schedule

we expect would

is introduced.

We

be

expect,

however, that when newspapers are forced either to reduce the number of pages or to increase the price of copy, there would be a strong temptation to condense news and editorial matter so as to accommodate all advertisements they have booked. As a consequence, the ratio of advertisement space to reading matter would increase and we are of the opinion that it should be kept within the definite limit that we have prescribed.”

56

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

1978

Time has proved that the Commission's apprehension was well founded.

A ratio of 40:60

between

advertising

and

editorial

space

recommended

the Commission has been reversed in some newspapers.

by

The Fact Finding Committee on Newspaper Economics (1975) observed that there was an increasing trend among all the newspapers to devote more space

to

advertisement.

more

than

40

space

ratio

and

The

trend

was

English papers. In 1971, among the leading there were two with even 60 per cent of and there were a number of others with devoted to this. In the case of medium per

cent

space

to

more

pronounced

in the

case

of

dailies, studied by the Committee, space devoted to advertisement, 50-60 per cent or 40-50 per cent circulation papers, none devoted

advertisement.

The

majority

of

them

devoted space between 25 and 40 per cent. Likewise, among the small category papers, most of them devoted space only below 25 per cent. After 1971, with the cut in the newsprint quota, most of the papers, for which data were available with the Fact Finding Committee, increased their advertisement also

the

rates.

According

to the Committee

the

cost

of

production of a single copy of a 10-page newspaper of normal size of approximately 2,500 sq cms in 1973 was 33 paise and the average net realisation 36.3 paise of which contributions from advertisement and sales were 19.6 and 16.7 paise respectively. About 55 per cent of the revenue, thus, comes from advertisements. If the price per copy has to be proportion of advertisement has necessarily to go up.

brought

down,

the

The press perhaps gets 60 per cent of the total advertising money today.

What is needed is a better distribution of press advertising among more newspapers instead of a few papers being allowed to corner most advertisements leaving a very large number to starve. In fact, 90 per cent of the total space and money in press advertising now goes to 120 publications;

10 per cent is what is shared by the others.

This situation will change when the importance of the small and medium papers in carrying the advertisers’ messages to the rural markets is more fully appreciated. The media planning of the advertising agencies has already begun to reflect this realisation. Besides using small newspapers which have local influence, they are now employing folk media such as puppetry and regional theatre forms. To have puppetry and TV, the two extremes, on the media list for the same campaign is the sign of the mature media planning of our national advertisers and agencies.

Increase in Advertising Space and Revenue Another

and

TV

contrary,

interesting fact is that, contrary to an earlier apprehension, radio advertising

has

not

encroached

in spite of the periodical

hikes

on

press

advertisements.

in advertising

On

the

tariff, newspapers

ADVERTISING

57

have been able to increase their advertising space. For instance, in 1971-72 newspaper advertising registered a 5 per cent increase in volume though the rates

had

gone

up

by

10 per cent

that

year.

This

is because

the

media

planners have started assigning different roles to each medium with correct perspective of their supplementary and complementary functions. and

the

The increasing volume of advertising is an indicator of the diversification

expansion

of our economy.

While

consumer goods (general consumer

goods and consumer durables) and miscellaneous items had occupied 80 per cent of space in national dailies in 1947, their share had decreased to 70 per cent in 1971 and got reduced further since then. The space vacated by con-

sumer and miscellaneous items went over entertainment/cultural items. Loss of space

to industrial by consumer

machinery and goods does not

mean that there was any decrease in the volume and value of such ‘advertisements. On the contrary, the value and volume had increased due to the

increase in newspaper pages and the rates.

The credit for the most phenomenal growth in advertising registered by a single category during the last twenty five years goes to textiles and readymade garments. The press commission report of 1954 had recorded: “there are some products where at present no efforts in sales promotion by advertisement is needed, but in a competitive market advertising would be necessary. Textiles would appear to be one of such products”. With the arrival of the competitive market and producers, textiles have come to occupy the most dominant position in advertising today, catering to all media. But bulk is not all. .

Waste is There The basic objective of all advertising is to move people into a desired action pattern. If advertisements do not serve that purpose, they will not only be a waste but a bad social influence. A study of Indian advertising especially of textiles, cosmetics and other consumer items would show that there is much that is inane and purposeless. More than selling the product, they sell certain attitudes and ideas which cannot be called healthy, especially in the

context

of our

country

trying

to move

forward

preserving

its own

individuality and distinct culture. It may be this sort of wasteful exercise which made many to believe that prices of many articles can be brought down if indiscriminate brand advertising is banned. The appeals used in some advertisements

range

from

trite

to

vulgar.

“Trivia

pays

larger

dividends,

therefore trivia must be what is wanted” seems to be the creative principle

behind such advertisements. Indiscriminate advertising, no doubt, should not be encouraged. In scientific advertising there is no place for such advertisements

which as a side-effect inspire or reinforce impulses which are socially undesirable. Do we have to employ undesirable appeals to sell desirable goods? The creators of such advertisements do injustice to the advertisers and to the 9-3 M ofI & B/77

58

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

public. The trite and the inane may attract instant attention of the reader, but attracting attention is not the only purpose of advertising. The advertised product or service or idea should sell. Advertisements which do not serve that function, whatever be its attention-getting qualities, are waste. This happens very often because of the unfortunate tendency to imitate the West

blindly.

A Catalyst of Change Though advertising came into being in our country to cater to the needs and tastes of the British-oriented audiences, it had acquired an amount of Indianness during the freedom struggle, right from the turn of the century. In many cases the appeal, the visual and the copy approach were all in tune

with the patriotic values which were held high at that time. It may sound paradoxical that the dependence on the creative approach of western advertising has increased since independence. A deliberate effort to make Indian advertising more

Indian and

perhaps the voluntary observance of a code

of

ethics will bring about a quality control which seems to be necessary. Also the advertisers and the agencies have to set apart more funds for research to ascertain whether their campaigns do work and if they don’t, why. Even those who invest lakhs in advertising do not care to know how their promotional efforts have been faring. This, however, is not new. Most developed countries have passed through this stage and similar problems. We may pass them quicker as, with all its drawbacks, advertising in our country has been a better catalyst of social and economic changes. It has a still greater role to play.

Outdoor Publicity OUTDOOR

ADVERTISING

is not new

to India. Apart from

word of

mouth, it is the oldest form of advertising known to this country. Emperor Ashoka, long ago, had utilised the media of Outdoor Publicity for communicating

government

evidence of this fact.

policies.

Ashoka’s

rock

edicts

are

monumental

Broadly speaking Outdoor Advertising includes all forms of advertising exposed to people out of doors. These forms may be written, pictured or

spoken.

Outdoor is different from all other media in several respects. Firstly, it does not circulate a message to a market. The market circulates around

the

message

exposed message

and because of this, outdoor

is truly a mass

medium.

It is

to all economic and social groups. Secondly, outdoor delivers the to a market in motion, to people on their way to work, to play,

to shop; making it a unique advertisement media. Thirdly, because outdoor speaks to a market in motion, it must speak quickly, memorably and repeatedly. There is no time for argument or step by step persuasion, thus outdoor advertising requires a special technique of presentation. The role of the press as an advertising medium is considerably limited in our country—firstly by its poor circulation and secondly by the predominant illiteracy. In this context the outdoor media of publicity has a special significance for us, Outdoor displays appeal both to the literate as well as the illiterate people. With outdoor media you reach with an unusual impact—

the impact of strategic location—location in high traffic areas where your message

reaches

customers

moments

before

they

buy.

It has

the

impact

of larger size—bigness, i.e., bigger than life with wide screen dramatic effect. It has the impact of full colour, i.e., it shows a product as it really appears in the store, delivers a message with all the realism and appearance that only full colour can give. It has the impact of frequency—exposes the message so often that it is estimated to be on an average

21 times a month

to 94

out of every 100 people in the market. With outdoor, one gets the audience, no wonder therefore, that more and more

through

types of products are being sold

the media of outdoor advertising; from lipstick to lollipops, from

telephones to trucks, from caramels to clothing, from sugar to shavers, from beer to bras. With outdoor one does not use ready-made circulation zones,

on the other hand, one makes one’s own zones to match ones own distribution. Latest researches abroad indicate that in some marketing plans outdoor in their media mix can mean the difference between success and

60

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

failure. For long term hard selling, outdoor is successful. An advertisement in newspapers may escape notice, a folder may remain unread, an outdoor object of publicity will be read since it compels attention by its very size, strategic location and colourful pleasing design. In urban areas it is an adjunct to other media and in rural areas it has hardly any rival. Outdoor advertising is a salesman round the clock serving with amazing constancy day in and day out. It is the shortest distance between telling and selling, be it an idea or a product. A readership survey on the power of

outdoor

media

revealed that 8 out of 10 above the age of 10 remember

outdoor poster display.

the

The outdoor medium is one of the most economical

forms of advertising.

In some developed countries outdoor publicity is well planned and systematic. Display ranges from 16 sheet poster to 48 sheet poster. Research is also conducted and what is called OTS (Opportunity To See) is assessed and hoardings are rated according to OTS. OTS is assessed by the ‘Traffic

Audit

Bureau’ which

carries out regular surveys of the importance of diffe-

rent sites for outdoor display.

The Traffic Audit Bureau audits circulation

values of structures and space positions and publishes its findings in ‘Audited circulation values of outdoor advertising’. Thus TAD helps advertiser to plan

his outdoor programme with a knowledge of what circulation coverage and Tepetition he can expect from his advertising budget. Let us now

see in some detail what

are the different media

that could be and are being organised in our country:

of outdoor

Hoardings A hoarding has come to be accepted as a display board of a large size at

prominent

command

The

all

road

junctions

the attention

inclusive

with

of even

rentals

for

a brief

slogan

and

the fast moving 10’ x 20’

hg.

striking

illustration

to

traffic in a split second.

range

from

approximately

Rs 2,100 per annum in small town to Rs 30,000 or more per annum in cities like Bombay, Delhi or Calcutta depending on location prominence of sites.

Transport Advertising Hoards There is hardly or other. These hoardings but back of buses,

roof

spaces

any bus these days which does not carry some advertising are display panels made of similar material as in regard to in different sizes according to the space available on the on the top side roofs, the side walls as well as interior side

of buses.

Transport

buses

offer

an

excellent

medium

of

publicity to reach the remotest corners of the villages and should be advantageously used to the largest extent possible. The rentals are very remarkable. The cost of production is likely to be about Rs

5 per sq foot. Railways

61

PUBLICITY

OUTDOOR

are also accepting display of these panels at stations and inside coaches. Railways and Post Offices offer at reasonable rental tariffs excellent protected space for permanent display of posters/display panels, hoardings at railway stations, level crossings, approach roads and post offices and in postal stationery.

Enamel Boards These boards are made in the process of permanent (Vitreous) enamelling. These are meant for such purposes where the display of a permanent nature is required and no change of design is desired. These are manufactured by a limited number of firms in the country and are extremely useful wherever messages of permanent nature are to be communicated. These boards are used for the display of Family Planning advertisement at the These boards are rather expensive and would various Railway Stations. normally cost up to Rs 9 to Rs 10 per sq ft.

Metallic Printed Posters These are colourful posters printed through line and half tone off-set printing process. The base is tin or aluminium instead of paper. Production is organised through a limited number of quality printers available for this purpose in Madras, Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi and Agra. Posters can be of different sizes such as 20” x 30”, 20” x 15” etc. These posters can be displayed at Railway Stations/Railway Coaches, Post Offices, Banks and at various public offices. The poster of 20” x 30” would cost approximately Rs 15 while a poster of 20” x 15” would be approximately Rs 8.50, total quantity per order being at least 10,000.

Kiosks These

are panels

mounted

of 30” x 40”

on wooden

frames

and

generally

size

fitted to telephone,

made

of

telegraph

steel

and

sheet

electric

or tram poles all over the country. The display is double sided because the painting is carried on either side of the panel and the board is so

fitted to the electric poles that traffic in either direction can see the adver-

tisement. Sometimes two boards are displayed facing opposite directions on the same pole. For temporary display we can paste printed posters while for long term display we can either paint the kiosks or periodically change the display

of

posters.

To

reach

the

semi-urban

regions

and

rural

areas,

the kiosks offer a very convenient medium. The average rate of rental is between Rs 12 to Rs 15 per month for upcountry towns. For cities like Madras, Calcutta, Bombay and Delhi, the rates range from Rs 15 to Rs 55 per month. Cost of painting is however extra at about Rs 30 to Rs 40 per kiosk. The painting carries a guarantee for a year. Various surveys have shown the effectiveness of publicity through kiosks.

62

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978 Display of single sheet paper posters of different sizes in an extensive

manner can campaign.

be very

effective anywhere

for the immediate

launching

of

a

Rear Illuminated Plastics These are advertisements displayed/manufactured out of acrylic plastic sheets with super imposed individually cut out plastic letters according to the message required to be displayed. The display normally is in the shape of a box presenting solid surface in the front. Behind the display inside the box are flourescent tubes fitted and the light reflects from inside out through the plastic sheets which are transparent. The display of Coca-Cola

known.

advertisement

through

such

rear

illuminated

plastic box

is well

This has been used for publicising the scheme of National Savings.

Spot News Boards Government has used this medium for the display of large size hoardings for the communication of spot news both in Calcutta and in Delhi. In Calcutta there are four such boards in size of 6’ X 20’ and 9’ X 20° at such prominent locations as Howrah, Sealdah Station, Garihat Market Junction and Chowringhee. The headline news provided by the Al] India Radio is displayed on these boards by a manual operation three times a day normally and at

more

frequent

intervals

General Elections.

during

occasions

of

national

importance

like

the

Match Box Advertising Space on match boxes is offered by the labels given by advertisers and their organised agents in the languages of space is approximately Rs 16 per of printing the labels is approximately medium to carry the message to the

some firms who undertake also distribute the boxes of the market concerned. case of 7,200 boxes and Rs 1 for 1,000. This is village level in a big way.

to paste through The cost the cost an ideal

Neon Signs These are illuminated signs on hoardings which can be displayed whenever the advertisement is required to be on display day and night. These are however expensive. A sign or a hoarding of 10’ x 20’ would cost approxi-

mately Rs 6,000 to Rs 8,000 for the initial production apart from rental and maintenance. It is desirable to put them up only manufacturers are readily available for servicing them.

in places

where

OUTDOOR

PUBLICITY

63

Cinema Slides A cinema slide is an effective medium of display to remind the public about any message or product. The message should necessarily be brief since the slide can be exhibited at a time only for a few seconds. The cast is around Rs 60 per dozen. Cinema houses charge a monthly rental which varies from Rs 6 in a small town to Rs 250 or more in major towns.

The exhibition of slides produced by DAVP on subjects of national importance is organised on rent free basis through State Governments.

Advertising Films Similarly, Advertisement Films also could be displayed through commercial circuits of the cinemas and agencies engaged in this service at tariff rate of approximately 50 to 75 paise per foot per week. This is apart from cost of production of the film and copies thereof. Tt needs to be emphasised here that Outdoor Publicity work is of a highly specialised nature. The different media used are completely different from each other. In this medium a job has to be first implemented and then serviced, watched, inspected, maintained and billed again and again, month after month, and sometimes even more frequently, till it lasts.

Message ‘Fhe question of what sort of a message should be displayed on the hoarding is very important. The message displayed on a hoarding and the manner of its display is an important factor determining the return which an outdoor advertiser can expect for the money invested in the medium. Simplicity of idea and brevity of message are essential characteristics of outdoor advertising. Because the audience is an advertiser must talk fast and must talk clearly. Colours

used

should

be bright.

Usually

audience

in

motion,

an

colours are to be in contrast

such as dark against light ones. Excessive variations of tone, too much delicacy of patterns, use of tints or indefinite illustrations should be avoided. Good, straight, sans Serif, lettering of a little beter than average weight of thickness is the best for copy. Straight horizontal lettering is best. The size of letters should be as big as possible, of course it varies with the importance of message.

of colour will be much realistic human face.

A cartoon type illustration using lines and masses

more satisfactorily reproduced

than a full colour

Apart from the above, it is also necessary to keep in mind the sociolo-

gical background of different regions of our country where we might put up a display. In an Insurance Company’s campaign the illustration showed a widow sitting on string cot telling the agent how helpful her husband’s

64

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

insurance money

was.

disastrous in Bengal.

Advertisement

Because

1978

was a hit in the northern zone but

the advertising

people

discover. that no one sits on string cot in Bengal. the dead.

had

not bothered

to

They are used to carry

Yet another thing that is extensively used abroad is ‘Scotch Lite’. This

is an adhesive tape which

used

in different messages.

fall on such

is cut according to the size and shape of Jettering

messages during

When

the head

lights of the cars and trucks

the night the message

and the message is clearly readable

as though

gets brightly

it is illuminated.

luminous

‘Scotch

Lite’ is an item which we have to import and we need foreign exchange for

this purpose.

We cannot obviously afford on a large scale.

Outdoor is still a disorganised industry mostly in the hands of people without proper background until recently. This is, however, not to say that there are no imaginative members in this profession. High-way advertising is being developed and is already developed in some of the cities. ‘Head-on view sites’, ‘Solus sites’ and ‘Long view sites’ have become popular. Still sale of sites is done site by site. Vacancy arises only one by one and there are no groups of sites to be brought at one stretch. A campaign of hoardings in India means we have to create almost all the sites anew which

entails

considerable

time’ and

skill.

For long years, the outdoor medium was the victim of vandalism in parts of the country. By its very nature this medium which is fully exposed to the public for twenty four hours of the day is highly vulnerable. It has been reported that in recent past nearly half the hoardings displayed on ground sites in Calcutta were stolen. On the highways also some unscrupulus pilferers covered their huts with the hoards pertaining to the agencies which they dismantled and some times lifted even the structural materials though these were firmly embodied in the ground. Posters were clandestinely pasted overnight on these hoardings. Cloth banners were hung obstructing the licensed hoardings. However,

it

is

gratifying

to

Government this menace has abated.

note

that

due

to

the

directive

of

the

Need for Coordination There is an urgent need for a national outdoor advertising bureau in our country as they have in USA. If such an organisation is created, it would be able to introduce a measure of self-discipline, to establish a healthy code

of

conduct,

and

to

standardise

specifications

and

trade-practices.

While it is cooperatively owned abroad and is utilised by several advertising agencies for servicing poster and painted display advertising campaigns, it is perhaps necessary in our country that the initiative may have to be

OUTDOOR taken

PUBLICITY

65

by the Government

to create this organisation

in collaboration

with

the established outdoor and general advertising agencies in order to effectively develop and utilise this medium of mass communication to reach the vast millions of our country living in the remotest villages.

II COMMUNICATION

THROUGH

EXHIBITION

Just as each of the five human senses of vision, sound, smell, touch and taste performs a vital function of communication with the brain, so do the media of press, film, photography, radio and exhibitions orchastrate for a

total

communication

impact

for

imparting

information

and

ideas.

Just

as the human senses orchastrate to impart an experience so do these media help to create an experience.

An exhibition because of its three diamensional space, which creates an environment, helps to project a given subject by incorporating actual objects, graphic visual presentations, and audio effects to bring to bear and influence audiences for effective communication. This multi object three dimensional combination at the same time makes exhibition one of the most expensive media per cubic unit of space utilised. Nevertheless, the extendable size and space coverage enables exhibition to cater to large audiences of diverse intellectual capacities and tastes. This makes the per head outlay insignificant in relation to the total effect achieved. Possibly, exhibition is one of the oldest form of communication, apart from the spoken word. The weekly bazars in the far-flung villages in India and elsewhere could perhaps be categorised as one of the most rudimentary forms of exhibition. Keeping in step with civilization and progress, the exhibition medium has absorbed the fine arts of museum conservation, the developments in the fields of engineering and new materials and the complicated electronic technology of the space age, providing a dynamic communication media. For

centuries,

exhibition

as a medium

of

immediate

mass

communi-

cation has been accepted. This has helped to chronicle the progress in every field of human endeavour, to project achievement and promote inventive spirit.

Some

of the world’s greatest inventions

and landmarks

of

progress and civilization have emerged and gained world wide receptivity by their presence in exhibitions The steam engine, the Bell telephone,

the Edison

lamp,

the

Marconi

radio,

the radar,

the television and

engines have all been projected and the list can be sive indeed. Whether it is presenting the exuberance form, in all its glorious reality, or the complicated earth samples from the surface of Mars, millions of by remote signals, the exhibition can do it. 10 —3 M ofI & B/77

the jet

exhaustive and impresand beauty of human processes of scooping miles away, controlled

66

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

1978

Because of possibilities for integration of various techniques to create

a wider impact, exhibitions have continued to be a vital media of mass communications. Exhibitions have proved an effective medium to create con-

fidence and credibility of national policies, promoting economic and fiscal measures, war efforts and enlisting cooperation of the people in national and international spheres. Utilising developments and sophistication in other media of mass communications, exhibition has added greater vitality

and efficacy.

In National Development Since

independence

in India,

we

have

increasingly

exploited

this

medium

of mass communication for the programmes of national development, health and social welfare and to present our export capabilities. In the course of these efforts it has been possible to develop considerable experience and expertise and groom new talent in the art of display audio visual techniques and construction technology. To obtain the widest coverage at a fast pace, exhibition was the important medium used in order to reach the masses. Exhibitions have helped to bring to the hearths of vast populations the awareness of independence and progress, education and achievements. The opportunities for participation in the nation’s

development

the organisations and use exhibition

for creating

agencies

a better

standard

of living

made

responsible for delivering this message

at the district, state and

national

levels.

to

Non-governmental

and private industry have also enthusiastically adopted this medium, in spite of heavy costs, because of inherent efficiency of mass contact provided by it. This has helped it to take a secure place in every central, state, industrial or commercial organisation as an important medium of mass communication. The major public sector, industrial, financial and other institutions are making intensive use of exhibitions in their effort to reach a wider spectrum of audiences to popularise their services and new opportunities that are being offered for utilisation by the commonman. The advantage of this

medium in explaining in a more easily intelligible and assimilable combination of the word, picture, object and sound to gain and rouse enthusiastic

participation is widely exploited. The popularity of this medium is also due to subtle combination of working gadgetery, personal demonstration and filmshows which helps to lend a “mela” atmosphere to which the people are easily attracted enabling ease of communication even in unorthodox subjects like family planning. Exhibitions have been effectively used for widespread promotion and education in the field of agriculture. The presentation coupled with demonstrations have convincingly helped towards acceptance of new farming technique and education in the use of the wide variety of farm inputs available.

OUTDOOR

PUBLICITY

67

The role of exhibitions in national programmes,

indeed

considerable.

Even

before

gress sessions sometimes provided the objective of self reliance and

independence,

efforts and drives is

the Indian National

Con-

venues for exhibiting and propagating swadeshi. They tried to project the

Gandhian philosophy and the importance of the role of village industry. These exhibitions were the fore-runners of the Khadi and Village Industries

Exhibitions after independence.

Some Major Exhibitions One of the earliest major national exhibitions after independence was to celebrate the centenery of Indian Railways. This helped to focus attention on the most heavily depended mass transportation system. The role of railways in the development of the country and passenger services could be more effectively demonstrated by seeing and experiencing the actual items in

exhibitions.

An

exhibition

was

also

effectively

organised

to celebrate

the 2,500th birth anniversary of Lord Buddha and to focus attention on his teachings. The exhibition on the occasion of birth centenary of Gandhiji were witnessed by millions of people and they provided an insight into the life and teachings of Gandhiji especially to the younger generation. ‘The Nehru and New India’ exhibition helped to highlight Nehru’s life and philosophy and carry the message to many countries of the world. The Industrial and agricultural progress since independence was projected in the ‘India 1958 Exhibition’. The ‘World Agriculture Fair’ focussed attention and helped to present on Indian soil a cross section of the development, progress and modern technology in the field of agriculture in various countries of the world. ‘The Indian Industries Fair’, later with international participation, benefited to enlarge scope, develop collaborations and exchange technology. The celebration of ‘25th anniversary of India’s Independence’ was complemented by the ‘Third Asian International

Trade Fair 1972’.

It is remarkable that the medium

come to mark some milestones of progress.

of exhibition

has

Exhibitions as a medium of mass communication was used extensively to bring home an awareness and educate the commonman the objectives, developments, achievements and targets of the Five Year Plans. A widespread network of exhibition teams with transportable mobile van units

and exhibition on rails were pressed into service for motivation and participation in the national plans. Many campaigns have been effectively propagated through the medium of exhibitions like national savings, emotional integration, cooperation movement and International Women’s Year.

Another important and effective role, exhibitions played, was in war effort. During the 1962 India-China War, exhibitions helped to inform

68

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

1978

large audiences about the boundary problems and arouse the people to secure cooperation in the war efforts and civil defence measures in

larger cities.

Similarly,

during

the

India-Pakistan

wars,

important centres helped to boost the morale of the people. actual

enemy

tanks

and

planes

captured

at

the

fronts

exhibitions

in

The display of

attracted

large

crowds and applaud giving a sense of pride and instilling greater confidence to partake more generously in the total war effort.

In World

Exhibition

In the International arena, exhibitions play a vital and important role to project a true image of the country and help to demolish prejudiced and ill-conceived impressions. Because of its inherent possibilities, exhibition medium enables efforts which can result in effective communication and complement spread of the message through other media. India’s participation in World Expositions helped to provide a jolt to “the snake charmer” —Bengal tiger image” perpetuated in developed countries. That India today is one of the industrially and technologically advanced countries with modern sophisticated infrastructure could be convincingly brought home due to these presentations. India’s participation in recognised World Trade Fairs and Exhibitions and specialised commodity fairs have established permanently the image of a fast developing modern and sophisticated nation able to provide and to compete

with goods of comparable

petitive commercial

world.

quality in a fast selling highly com-

The high standard of research development and ability to plan and produce complete range of plants for manufacture of a wide range of manufactures has been in no small measure created from the small, yet convincing, presentations in professional international exhibitions. They helped to establish the rapport required for promotion of export capabilities which is the result of being able to show the actual product in multiple facets to carry conviction and establish credibility, the ability to produce and deliver quality products, and the plants and the technology. The presence in international exhibitions has helped to establish the nation’s technical maturity

thus contributing to the expansion of our export capabilities.

Realising the importance of this medium India has for the first time established an infrastructure of permanent exhibition pavilions, buildings, facilities and services of a comparable international standard for. hosting or holding major national and international exhibitions in the country. Such established exhibition complexes exist in almost all the major centres of commerce and industry throughout the world, from San Francisco to Tokyo and Nairobi to Leningrad. Delhi has joined this fraternity

of world exhibition centres, in the service of mass communication, for promotion of trade and commerce and international understanding.

Traditional Media THE

COMMUNICATION

needs

in

India

are

much

greater

than

the

Fesources we have today to meet them. With the growth of mass media during the last few decades, one would imagine that the traditional media Ought to have vanished. On the contrary, they have geared up to function more effectively along the electronic media. The reasons being the awareness that came about their potential use among the media planners and the realisation of their impact as cultural media. Traditional media are the indigenous channels of communication. They are not simply old-fashioned forms of entertainment. As media they are alive and receptive to new ideas. They have no grammar or literature, yet they are nurtured through oral and functional sources. In totality, traditional

media

provide channels for expressing

socio-ritual,

tional needs of the language groups to which they belong.

moral

and

emo-

So long as the contents of traditional media provide entertainment and fulfil communication needs of the groups, they will retain their worthiness as expressive agents. The more the traditional media prove their acceptability to new ideas, the more they will be regarded useful as media of communication. In this process, the contents may change, but without disturbing

their structural

characteristics.

This

is what

makes

them

relevant

to the society. For example, alha of Uttar Pradesh, powada of Maharashtra and burrakatha of Andhra Pradesh—all ballads—have survived for many centuries in their singing styles, but in contents many new themes have

been

infused

in them.

They

are used direct by their reciters and also

extended through electronic media. even beyond their cultural regions.

Their use has widened their impact

Although traditional media exist on their own devices and continue

to function on account of their inherent capacity to effortless communication,

they

are different from

technology-based

mass

media.

way they support the mass media as their extension arms. based

mass

media

forms,

transmitted

disseminate

messages

to

heterogeneous

In their own

The technologyaudiences;

the

traditional media usually cater to the ethno-rural communities through the function role of folklore. This folklore phenomenon provides means of communication by employing vocal, verbal-musical and visual folk art to a society or group of societies

from

one generation

to another. They have served the society as indigenous tools of interpersonal, inter-group and inter-village communication for ages.

70

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

Studies have stressed that no mass media can exist in cultural vacuum. After all, communication is fully realised when it passes through the attitudes and behavioural modes of the people. It is often said even today

that mass communication in India is conducted to some extent through non-

mass media which obviously The

diverse

media.

audiences

in cultural

generally

fabric

include the forms of traditional folk media. covered

by

like the audiences

the

traditional

media

are

of the technology-based

not

mass

They are local, regional and ethno-linguistic groups, though in the

wider dissemination process of mass media they are not sliced out of the vast heterogenous

audiences.

Two important factors that obstruct communication in the country are the high rate of illiteracy and the alien nature of mass media. Even if radio acts as the first source of information to 80.9 per cent of the country’s population (including 29.45 per cent literates), the act of inter-personal communication through chaupal charcha or exchange of views in baithaks is needed for effective dissemination of the messages.

Categorisation of Traditional Media Traditional folk media include the following: 1. Action-oriented folk arts and verbal-musical forms like rural theatre and puppetry; discourses like harikatha and kathakalashepam; folk songs, ballads, story telling, kabi-gan and poetic symposia. 2. Audience monial

situations like fairs and festivals; social, ritual and cere-

gatherings; market occasions and rural meets.

3. Social institutions like the ghotul of the Mudias

or dhumkuria of the Oraons of like village heads, teachers, etc.

4. Rural

Bihar,

of Madhya

baithaks;

opinion

arts and crafts, traditional designs and miscellaneous

Pradesh

leaders motifs.

Folk Theatre

For the past many centuries,

folk

theatre

forms

in

India have been

associated with the social needs of the rural communities. Even today they continue to hold their most distinctive features because of their builtin capacity to adjust with the changing situations. For example, jatra (West Bengal), nautanki (Uttar Pradesh), manch (Madhya Pradesh), bhavai (Gujarat),

yakshagan

(Karnataka),

therukoothu

(Tamil

have tremendous communication potential.

Nadu)

and many

other forms

During the British regime, the

TRADITIONAL

71

MEDIA

countryside theatre of Maharashtra, called tamasha,

mass movement. With the upsurge of nationalism for mobilising public opinion.

was effectively used for

it was again employed

Some of the contemporary playwrights like V. D. Madgulkar, Vijay Tendulkar, Habib Tanvir, Utpal Datt and Girish Karnad have made intelligent use of the elements of folk theatre for topical subjects. Cultural troupes throughout the country are making full use of folk threatre forms for disseminating developmental ideas for the last two decades. There are about sixty folk theatre forms, some of them are most effective and lively.

Magic of Puppetry

Puppetry is an ancient art form, yet it is very close to theatrical performance. In India, we find four types of puppets: string puppet, rod puppet,

shadow puppet and glove puppet. Usually puppet theatre comprises members of a family. If a family fails to compose a troupe, close relations are

invited to join it.

To encourage the illiterate rural people to make small savings, it occurred to the Union Bank of India in 1971 to engage a team of puppeteers to tour selected areas in the country. The idea was to entertain the people through puppetry and inform them how their money would be safe with the nationalised bank. A puppet play was accordingly produced by the Indian Institute of Mass Communication

(IIMC).

The shows proved

a great success in a cluster of two hundred villages. Within two months the branches of the Union Bank of India in areas where the performances took place brought rural deposit sources into the banking fold. A pilot study was made by the IIMC in 1973 to evaluate the effectiveness of puppetry and film. The study was conducted in two villages near Delhi. The main objective was to find out to what extent a common theme, containing some kind of information, is comprehended by: the people through puppetry and film medium. Findings show that both puppet play

and film have their own areas of appeal.

However,

among

the uneducated

audience puppetry proved more communicative in as much as its techniques

were simple and easy to follow.

With the growing interest in puppetry, the

idea of ‘theatre in a bag’ is becoming village teachers and young people.

popular

among extension workers,

Harikatha

The day Professor Milton Singer met Shrimati C. Saraswati Bail, a veteran

exponent of harikatha in Madras, news appeared in a local newspaper that the Government of India was going to use harikatha for educating the

72

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

masses about the Five Year Plan projects. her views

people

whether

to dig wells

the form

and

she promptly replied.

could

make

really

roads.

Singer asked Shrimati Bail for

be used

“This

as a medium

to get the

is a matter of patriotism”,

The use of harikatha is traditionally associated with bhakti—adoration

or devotion

to God—which

has been

the performing art forms in India.

moral

change is not new

the inspiring element behind

many

of

Its use as an instrument of social and

or unfamiliar in Indian society.

Kabir, Tukaram

and many saint poets used this form to preach their doctrines in medieval times. Mythology provided them a comfortable structure in harikatha in which they found sufficient scope to keep the culture rotating for sustenance along the changing values. The

songs

presentation of harikatha

which

make

involves

a sequential performance

many

with

akhyans (stories) and

mono-dramatic

delinea-

tion. The form is a kind of discourse and it is identified by other synonyms like katha-path, kirtan, kathakalakshepam, pravachan and kathakata. Reli-

gious discourses have always been regarded supreme for reaching the people. By employing this form Government has made it highly secular. The attempts have further allowed the form to incorporate democratic values in its thematic

his close

kirtankar’.

content.

friends: He

had

“Had

Lokamanya

Bal

I not been

rightly

recognised

Gangadhar

a journalist, the

Tilak

I would

communication

used

have

to say

been

worthiness

to

a

of

this form. In recent times, T. C. Bharde and Dr Govind Khare are counted among the renowned kathakars. The form is widely popular throughout the country. Ballads and Folk Songs A

good

stock

of

ballads

and

folk

songs

exists

in

India.

Although

the

ballad form sings of historical events, love and heroism, it is basically aimed at infusing the zest for life. Subordinate to music, the form is flexible in content which may be substituted by the singer himself or a poet who knows the form. Types of ballads like alha, powada and vaara hold tremendous appeal in field situations. While outlining the Community Development Project and the National Extension Service in the initial stage certain norms were laid down for social workers to make use of these forms. Folk songs ‘having a direct bearing on one aspect or another of development work’ were improvised by talented field workers as one of the techniques. This approach not only made the new song-texts popular but also proved an effective device to

retain

the

existing

musical

modes.

Village

poets

have

exploited

the

formats of the ballads and folk songs and brought forth many compositions of patriotic and developmental bent after independence.

Vividh Bharati, AIR’s popular entertainment channel, invites noted artists to present programmes. Picture shows the late Meena Kumari presenting

Manoranjan.

The Silver Jubilee A good picture is worth a thousand words, they say. generation of present of Independence in 1972 was an occasion to tell the the role of the press in the freedom struggle.

Communication hardware are an important aspect of the country's technological progress. India has been manufacturing, and exporting too, some of the sophisticated electronic communication equipment. Communication coupled with

thing of beauty. excellence

of

artistic elegance makes printed

Ministry of Information and Broadcasting

designing

and printing

by

awarding

prizes

material a

encourages annually.

Indian

cinema

comes

celluloid medium Here

has

is a still from

of

age—authentic

given

the

Indian

the-celebrated ‘Do

social

cinema

Bigha

documentation

some

Zamin’.

memorable

through

films.

Film is the most powerful of all mass media of communication—Exhibitions on the growth of Indian Cinema are popular too.

Satyajit Ray earned for Indian films world recognition by winning a number of international awards. His film ‘Mahanagar’ won Golden Bear at the Berlin International Film Festival 1964. India has staged six International Film Festivals so far. The Golden Peacock Award for the best feature film entry has become a coveted prize all over the cinematic world. Here isa still from the Japanese film ‘Mon and Ino’ which was adjudged the best entry at the Sixth International Festival held in January 1977.

TRADITIONAL MEDIA

3

Story Telling

Radio

and

television

the print media a new

have

lease.

given In

the story-telling inter-personal

forms

a new

communication

life

and

the story-

teller commands a great impact in rural India. Sometimes he assumes the role of a ‘living newspaper’ for diffusion of information. He continues to be an entertainer, as also a propagandist in his own style. With all sorts

of embellishments, he, as a performer, uses the story as the tool of his trade and subsequently provides a liaison between the non-literates and lite-

Tate elites.

Among

the unlettered

societies, it is easier for the story-teller to moti-

vate a target group just by injecting the intended message at an appropriate place in a story already popular in the society. Story-telling works as a device in his hands in the society whose ethos and language he knows well. Poets’ Meet As one of the traditional media and audience collecting devices, poets’ meet, called kavi-sammelan or mushaira has never failed to make an impact on the language audiences. Efforts have been made in the recent past to bring poets nearer to the masses. Village poets have been encouraged to write on developmental subjects. Both Central and State Governments have been successfully using this device for diffusion of messages. Even on radio or television a kavi-sammelan or mushaira helps reaching more people.

” Fairs and Festivals Fairs, festivals, ceremonial gatherings and folk dances often provide audience-situations in which members of the society enjoy together. They establish new contacts, renew old friendships, exchange views on mundane matters and participate in group activities like community singing and

country games.

India, with her variegated population, has a list of innumerable fairs and festivals. An ordinary village fair or a weekly market usually becomes a sort of inter-cultural and inter-village meet and particularly acts as a ‘clearing house’ for information.

Rural and Tribal Youth Clubs Social institutions like village dormitories or tribal youth clubs have an important place in the lives of young boys and girls. These institutions serve many purposes, the most significant being the training about community life which a rural or tribal youth gets within its premises as a

11—3 M of I & B77

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

74 member.

An

institution

like the ghotul

of the Murias

of Bastar

or

the

dhumkuria of Oraons of Bihar helps him in acquiring knowledge about old customs, rituals and taboos of his society and aspects of folklore concerning traditional practices. Such institutions function as a social service centre at the local level and, from time to time, gear up for socio-cultural commu-

nication in the society to which

they belong.

Even for the developmental

tasks, village elders call for the services of the members

of a dormitory

or

youth club. Such activities mostly bring to focus some of the would-be opinion leaders from among the young tribal and rural youths. In sharing of common ethos and diffusion of information to motivate the people, the tole of such institutions is quite remarkable. Whenever these agencies are used the results have been found significantly fruitful. Traditional Motifs and Designs

Traditional patterns.

motifs

and

their varied colour schemes

have unfolded

several

They have provided bases for many new visuals, fresh designs for

posters, book covers and greeting cards. It is interesting to note that several things in vogue in folk life started making their impact even on the aesthetic sensibility of the urban people. A communicator, intending to teach the people through visual aids, cannot afford to ignore this area of non-verbal

communication

as most

of the motifs

and

symbols

continue

to

be comprehended by the members of the groups or societies to which they belong. India has not ignored this area of communication too for her developmental publicity.

Users of Traditional

Media

The Directorate of Field Publicity is the biggest user of traditional media

in the country.

The

Song

media of communication

and

Drama

Division

complements

the modern

by live programmes, most of which are arranged

in the rural areas by the mobile units of the Directorate of Field Publicity.

The field publicity techniques involve direct contact with the masses through multiple

media.

The

mass

contact

is maintained

not

only

through

film

shows, exhibitions and printed literature, but also through traditional media

of entertainment. Realising the potential of folk media, some state governments and non-official organisations make imaginative use of these vital

forms. Folk theatre and folk songs, for instance, have attracted the media experts in all the states. The Song and Drama Division has made several efforts

since it came

into

existence

in

1954

to publicise

planned

develop-

ment through traditional media. Initially, the Division was set up as a small unit for ‘organising programmes of village theatre parties’ through the field publicity units and Block Development Officers. In course of time the Division expanded its activities. It utilises ‘private troupes, artistes and

other professional and amateur talent for presenting stage performance with

message

through

dramas,

ballads

and

other

popular

media

in

regional

TRADITIONAL MEDIA languages’.

15

In 1973, the organisation had

361 private troupes on its roster,

which accounted for 11,673 performances. In 1975, private troupes on the roster presented 12,266 performances through regional media. Media-wise break up of the programmes contributed by these troupes, as shown below, will give a general idea of the use of traditional media by the Division under different categories. . Category

Drama (including folk plays) Poetic symposia (kavi-sammelan, kavi-darbar etc.)

mushdira,

Composite programmes (music concerts, folk dances, etc.)

Folk and mythological epics (including

1973

1974

1975

1,253

1,064

894

95

14

54

2,404

2,494

2,608

910

903

1,028

1,708

1,719

1,540

burrakatha, kathaprasangam, etc.)

Folk recitals (like qawwalis, palla,

villuppatu, ras kabigan, etc.) Puppet shows

Ballads (alha, powada etc.) bhagwat-katha, etc.)

Programmes on no-cost basis

tales and

in drama

2,152

2,292

1,861

1,904

1,758

11,673

12,074

12,266

427

Total

folk

1,070

1,706

Religious discourses like (harikatha,

The next great user organisation that made of 41.4 per cent of the goes to folk music. In

1,309

.

1,305

694

787

of folk forms is All India Radio. It was the first special efforts to draw upon the folk music. Out broadcasting time devoted to music, 3.2 per cent other programmes, story-telling includes bulk of efforts

have

been

made

to integrate

folk

theatre

forms like jatra, tamasha, bhavai, nacha, nautanki, yakshagan, therukuthu and others. Kavi-sammelan and mushaira on radio and television lead to an effective device for diffusion of messages. Programmes broadcast in more than 100 tribal dialects for Adivasis, from various stations of AIR, consist of both tribal music and folklore.

Future of Traditional Media Modern means of communication will seldom replace the existing means. Each new mode of communication is superimposed upon the old. It takes over certain functions, but basic functions are retained by the former mode. Thus we find a constant interaction between the two sets of media. Traditional and modern mass media are complementary to one another. The radio translates them into auditory experience. Television

their reach.

and

film multiply

The camera adds a fourth dimension to traditional media. For

16

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

effective bridging of the gap which exists between new technology and its use by unlettered masses for dissemination of socio-political and cultural information, marriage of technology-based mass media and traditional modes of communication is essential. In total communication net work, folk media contributes in a manner which is rather difficult to measure in terms of figures. Communication pattern of any society is part of its total culture and it can only be understood in the context of its social organisations and institutions. Thus the heritage, caste and creed-based barriers and cultural complexities with the high illiteracy percentage of the country furnish a backdrop with which the communicators and electronic media have to reckon with while working together. They call for effective blending of mass media and field publicity through traditional channels of communication. Studies have proved that vital forms of traditional media are bound to survive.

Printing THE ADVENT of printing has changed the face of the world. The modern world owes a great deal to the print medium through which new ideas spread among people, bringing in its wake changes in all spheres of human life. The print medium was accepted as an instrument of social change— when the first books and documents came off the press. It became a weapon for men in power and also a weapon of revolution. The first news sheets became

tools of business, the first books

Magazines and pamphlets indulged in politics.

became

The

tools of education.

American

and

the

French revolutions would have been unlikely, if not impossible, without this medium. Political democracy, economic opportunity, free public education, the industrial revolution and the print medium were woven together in the periods bygone to make a great change in human life and national

as well as international affairs.

In India, this medium was an instrument for our national leaders during the struggle for freedom. They could arouse the sentiments of the people and whip up the patriotic fervour of the masses through their writings in newspapers and journals. The potency of the medium was so great that the then British Indian Government resorted to banning a number of newspapers and periodicals from time to time. After independence,

socio-economic changes.

this medium

is being used as a tool to bring about

Apart from the press, the Directorate of Adverti-

sing and Visual Publicity (DAVP) of the Union Ministry of Information and Broadcasting is now the single largest producer of printed literature in-

tended for public consumption. There are also several other ment organisations which bring out this kind of literature.

Govern-

History of Printing Printing began in China and the earliest extant book was produced in 868 A.D. Even in those days it advanced to such an extent that in 932 A.D. the

Chinese

could

undertake

collection of the classics.

an immense ‘and. ambitious They could complete

project of printing a

the work

in hundred

thirty volumes by 953. They used a process called block printing which books were printed later in Europe during the fifteenth century. 1041, Pi Shang made types of China-clay which were fitted frame. Later in 1314, Wang Chang prepared wooden types.

77

and

by In

into an iron The Korean

78

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

1978

King General Yi is said to have started a foundry of metal types in 1392. With Korean bronze-types, a book was printed in 1409. Although block printing was known in Europe much earlier, printing with movable types began only in the fifteenth century. Johannes Censfleisch Zu Gutenberg invented movable type in Strassberg in 1430 and later in Mainz, he printed 42 line Vulgate Bible consisting of 643 leaves, followed by Astrological Almanacs for 1448 and 1456-57. However, the credit for the invention of movable types is ascribed to Coster of Haarlem in Holland, Johannes Brito of Bruges in Belgium and Pamfilo Castalde of Feltre in Italy. The first available book, with the date of printing, was printed

in

1457

by Fust

and

Schoeffer.

During

the next

hundred

years,

printing spread all over Europe. It was introduced in Italy in 1465; in France in 1470; in Spain in 1474; in England in 1477; in Denmark in 1482; in Sweden

in 1483; in Portugal in 1495 and in Russia in 1553. In 1640, the

first book ‘Bay

Psalm Book’

was printed.

Invention of the point system by Pierre Simon Fournier in 1737 was a landmark. A wooden screw press was used in the 15th century followed

by Earl Stanhope’s lever press and cylindrical impression by William Nicholson in 1790. Koenig made the first power operated cylinder machine 1812-14, followed by Applegath and Cowper's four cylinder press

1827 and two revolution presses of Napier. Linotype was invented Ottmar Merganthaler in 1886, monotype by Talbot Lanston in 1898

Ludbow in 1906.

in in

by and

In 1725, stereotyping was invented by William Ged and Cowper cast semi-circular stereos for web presses in 1829. Electrotyping was invented by Jacobi in 1839. Niepce and Deguere experimented photographic adoption in printing, followed by wet collodion plates, lines, and halftones including colour halftones by Baxter in 1835. Letter-press printing was supplemented by processes like Litho, invented by Alois Senefelder in 1795, offset, gravure, collotype by Poitfein in 1855 and screen printing by Samuel Simon in 1907.

Printing in India Printing was introduced in India on 6 September

1556 by the Christian mis-

sionaries who used it as an aid to proselytisation. The first printing press was started in Goa to help missionary work in Abyssinia. The first book printed

in Goa

was

probably

the Doutrina

Christa

by

St. Xavier.

It was

printed in 1557. The pioneer in the field in India was Joao de Bustamante, a Spaniard, who came to India with a printing press. An Indian was also sent to help Bustamante in setting up the press by the King of Portugal. The first types of an Indian script were prepared

another

Spaniard,

who

accompanied

Bustamante

to

by Joao Gonsalves,

Goa.

According

to

PRINTING

79

Father Souza, these types were of Malabar letters which were used for the printing of Doutrina Christa in 1578. This book was published at Quilon in Tamil (Lingua Malabar Tamil). During the early days, the programme of religious education gave much impetus to the development of the printing industry in India. Christian missionaries produced religious literature in local languages for the benefit of converts. Thus Father Stephens, Croix, Saldanha and others produced Christian Puranas and other works in the languages of Goa. But these were printed in Roman script. The printing press was established in Southern India as early as 1578 by the missionaries for printing religious literature. But the printing activity came to a halt due to gradual decline in the religious zeal of successive

generations of missionaries. Later on there were a few attempts aimed at the revival of the printing industry, but they proved short-lived. The Danish missionary, Bartholomew Ziegenbalg and his colleagues were repeatedly demanding for a printing press for the propagation of Christianity. In 1711, Knowledge, London, sent a press the Society for Promoting Christian with Pica type and other accessories and a printer. After facing some hurdles on its way to India, the printing press reached India the following year. It started functioning with the help of a German printer-cum-compositor. Initially, printing was confined to the Portuguese language and later on types of Malabar characters were obtained foundry of Malabar types was also set up.

from

London.

Soon

after a

In Goa, as well as in the then Madras Presidency the printing press worked as an aid to proselytisation. But political considerations were responsible for its advent in Bengal. The first book, a grammar of the Bengali language prepared by Nathaniel Brassey Halhed, a civil servant of the East India Company, was printed in Bengali. This was printed at

Hooghly in 1778. by Charles

For this purpose, types of Bengali characters were cast

Wilkins, who also prepared

In 1796, Hindustani Grammar

types of the Devanagari

of Amir Khusru

alphabet.

was published from Chroni-

cle Press, Calcutta. Devanagari script was used for this publication. Though East India Company resisted setting up presses, Andharas and J. A. Hicky set up a press at Hooghly in 1778 and published an English weekly ‘Hicky Gazette’. In 1800, William Carey set up a press at Serampore and printed a

vernacular

magazine

Digdarsan,

and

in

1818

Samachar

Darpan.

In

1802, Devanagari types were used for the printing of a thesis prepared by the students of the Serampore College. Another important achievement of the Serampore mission was the preparation of the first movable metal types of Chinese characters. This was the first time that block-printing was

replaced by real typography. In

1761,

the

printing

equipment

in

the

possession

of

Pondicherry

Governor was brought to Madras when the place was captured by British. Fabricious, the great Tamil scholar, printed in this press

the his

80

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

hymn-book

and

also

his Tamil-English

Dictionary

in

1779.

1978

The

Gov-

emment subsequently established large presses and developed them. The first Government lithographic press in Calcutta was set up in 1823 under James Rind, followed by one in Bombay in 1824, and Jean Baptist Tassin’s

Press in 1835.

By the beginning of the twentieth century, the transition of printing from craft to technology was complete. Subsequent decades ushered in automation, large scale mechanisation and stream-lined production. After

independence,

the

printing

industry

adopted

modern

methods

printed

material.

of production by offset and gravure. The Five Year Plans aimed at increased industrialisation

and

literacy

placing

greater

demand

for

Now bus tickets are printed, numbered and stitched into books at 3 lakhs an hour and so on. Newspapers have electronically operated line

casters.

Electronic

photo

phone directories, web puter forms

engraving

computer-aided

offset printing for text book

and automised binding

photo

setting for tele-

production

are the order of the day, The

and com-

industry

is taking advantage of such process as electronic and stroboscopic scanNers, automatic sprayers, infra-red heaters, state electricity neutralisers, aerodynamic feeders and delivery, electromagnetic sheet control, tireless electronic

vices.

counters,

colour

correction,

auto

lubrication

and

wash-up

de-

Rapid Growth The

growth

of the

printing

industry

has

been

particularly

rapid

during

the last twenty years. During this period, several small presses have expanded and some of the bigger presses have renovated and increased their

equipment. The Government helped them to import and install new equipment both for replacement and for expansion. Several new resourceful entrepreneures have entered the printing field.

Present Status According

to the study by the Indian Academy

of Printing and

Graphic

Arts on the Indian Printing Industry for the year 1973, there were in that year about 46,000 printing presses in the country—39,850 small, 4,800 medium and 1,350 large. The total capital invested in printing presses was estimated by the survey at Rs 270 crores and total employment at 3.5

lakhs, of which 60 per cent were skilled, 25 per cent semi-skilled and 15 per cent unskilled. About 87 per cent of them were in urban areas and

the rest in rural areas. The survey reveals that 75 per cent of printing units were proprietary concerns, 15 per cent partnerships and the remaining 10 per cent limited companies and government presses. About 75

per cent of the total printing units were concentrated in five states, namely,

PRINTING

81

Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil gal. Tamil Nadu led in total number Bengal (6,050), Maharashtra (5,950) the large presses were concentrated Nadu, West Bengal and Delhi (200 and Madhya Pradesh (75 each). The

Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Benof presses (6,550), followed by West and Uttar Pradesh (5,200). However, mainly in Maharashtra (210); Tamil each); and Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat pattern of distribution between large,

medium and small presses among the various states more or less reflected the pattern of distribution of the total number of presses. There

were

about

3,500

composing

machines,

about

72,000

platen

about

25,000

printing machines, about 24,000 cylinder printing machines, about 300 rotary printing machines and about 5,000 offset printing machines. There were about 2,600 processing cameras serving the printing industry in 1973. In

binding,

cutting

machines

led

with

42,000,

followed

by

stitching machines. The total capital invested in machinery installed in the binding sector was estimated at Rs 180 crores. A sample survey conducted

recently by the All India Federation of Master Printers on the Indian print-

ing industry reveals that letter presses accounted for 95.5 per cent of the total presses in the country and offset 1.8 per cent. The remaining 2.7 per cent of presses are both offset and letter presses. The total turnover of the Indian printing industry in 1973 was Rs 325 crores. This included turnover on printing of newspapers on newsprint. At

present

around

four

lakh

All

India

tonnes

of

printing

paper

other

than

news-

print are used by the printing industry. Paper usually accounts for a substantial proportion of total printing costs, about 60 per cent. The total value of printing done in India in 1973, other than printing on newsprint, was Rs 180 crores. The

survey

of

Federation

of

Master

Printers

reveals

that

about 88 per cent of the printing units have specialisation, Of these 19.7 per cent of the units specialise in book printing, 9.9 per cent in printing of packaging material, 0.4 per cent in publicity material and the remaining

70 per cent in printing balance sheets of companies, letter heads, visiting

cards, invitation cards and office stationery.

Small Presses About 90 per cent of the printing presses are small-scale units employing five to ten persons. These presses are spread all over the country. They have one or two printing and cutting machine. Composing is done by hand only. Small jobs which do not involve large-scale setting-up of matter and which do not demand any special kind of lay-out or a particularly high standard of printing are accepted by these presses. Almost all of them

find such jobs profitable and feel no particular advantage in taking up

the work of book production. 12—3 M of I & B/77

82

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

1978

Medium Presses The number of medium size presses in the country is estimated at anything between 3,000 and 4,000. These presses employed 50 to 100 workers. Although some of them depended upon hand composing, many have their own Lino or Mono printing equipment.

machines

for mechanical

composing

and

also modern

Big Presses There

are only

100 to

150 big

printing

establishments

in the entire coun-

try. By and large, these presses employ 150 or more persons. But a few have over 400 persons in their rolls. These presses have facilities for large and modern mechanised composing, printing and binding. Such units are concentrated in big cities like Bombay, Delhi, Calcutta and Madras.

Government Presses Besides the presses in the private sector, there are some large presses in the public sector. The Central government has big presses in Calcutta, Coimbatore,

governments

Delhi,

Nasik,

Simla

and

a few

other

places.

also have printing presses for their work.

Most

of the

state

Government presses are mainly preoccupied with Governmental printing such as the printing of official stationery, reports of various ministries and departments, parliamentary and legislative debates and routine pub-

licity literature. Book printing constitutes an insignificant part. Almost the whole of the Government's ‘quality’ printing work, which requires high

production private

standards

sector.

The

and special

Directorate

of

expertise, is entrusted to printers in the Advertising

and

Visual

Publicity

alone

gets job work valued at more than one crore rupees annually done by private printers.

Composing Capacity The composing capacity available in the country is enormous. There are about 3,000 monocasting and setting machines. In addition, there are 2,000 lino setting machines,

On

an average, one machine

demy octavo size in one shift of eight hours made

two shifts it can set up in a month, one mono 10,000 to 12,000 pages. This would mean that

can set up 20 pages in

ready for printing. In

40 pages. On this basis, during 25 working machine can set up 1,000 pages and in a The capacity of a lino machine is slightly the aggregate mechanised annual composing

days year more. capa-

city in the country is about five crore pages, working in two shifts. This is over and above the hand-composing capacity which it is not possible to estimate.

PRINTING The

83 printing capacity

of the presses is more

or Jess equal to their

composing capacity. In recent years many presses have considerably increased their printing capacity by adopting offset process. At present, there

are about thousand offset printing machines in the country.

Ancillary Industries Ancillary

industries,

producing

in printing, have also expanded

printing industry. in the country.

raw

material

and

equipment

required

to meet the increasing demands of the

At present hardboards used in binding are manufactured

Besides

a large

number

of paper

manufacturing

factories

in the private sector, there is a big newsprint factory in the public sector. Still production of paper is not sufficient to meet the total requirements of the country. Huge quantities of newsprint and certain kinds of printing

paper have, therefore, to be imported. The Government has undertaken a crash programme for increasing the production of newsprint as well as

paper of various qualities.

regarding

the

uneven

quality

Our presses and publishers have a complaint of

the paper

produced

in the country.

A

stricter control over the quality of paper is considered necessary for raising the standards of book production. In the matter of printing inks, the

country

is almost

self-sufficient.

industry which tries to meet matter of display types.

There

is also a flourishing

the requirements

type-founding

of printing presses

in the

Though the development of printing machinery is of comparatively recent origin, it has made considerable headway. At present there are seven units producing various types of printing machinery like offset printing machinery, platen presses and paper cutting machines of different ranges.

The Hindustan Machine Tools, a public sector undertaking, has been producing cylindrical (letter press) and offset printing machinery since 1969. Total

registered

approved

capacity

in this industry

is Rs

176 crores

and

installed capacity Rs 26 crores. The estimated value of production is over Rs 15 crores. In the Fifth Plan the value target of capacity and production has been fixed at Rs 16 crores and Rs 11 crores respectively. Range-wise

and type-wise, there are a number of items like composing

machines, binding and block-making machines, photo mechanical equipment and multicolour offset printing machines where there is a gap in production and technology. To cover the gap, schemes for a total capacity

of Rs 17 crores have also been approved.

By

and

indigenously.

large, The

the demands

country

of small

depends

highly sophisticated printing machinery.

on

and

import

medium only

presses are met

for very

big and

Stop-cylinder and Wharfedale printing machines as also Clamshell type platen presses are being manufactured in India. The machine tool factory

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

84 at Bangalore has a phased

programme

for manufacturing up-to-date letter-

press and offset machines in collaboration with the well-known Italian firm,

Nebiolo

of Turin.

Automatic

letterpress printing machines

are already

in

the market. So are process cameras and allied photo-litho and photo-engraving equipment as also paper-cutting guillotines, wire-stitching machines and paper folding machines.

Capacity Utilisation It is not enough

for the country

to have

an enormous

printing capacity. The capacity should also be utilised.

composing

and

The smaller presses

utilise their capacity by handling jobs of small local indentors.

The medium

presses, which are considerable in number, handle such jobs along with a certain measure of book printing. They also print university-level books

and higher science and technical books. But many of them are not able to do full justice to these jobs because of lack of adequate expertise and Tesources at their command. Therefore, the need for improvement of existing resources and facilities is most acutely felt in the case of medium

presses. The bigger presses are busy handling the vast inflow of big print order jobs coming from commercial and industrial houses, as well as from central and state governments in the form of publicity literature and nationalised school-level text-books. They handle very little book production

work. The volume of school-level text-book production alone is colossal and it has been growing rapidly. A school level text-book has fewer pages and very large print orders, running into lakhs. Big presses, with their fastmoving printing apparatus, find these jobs easier to handle and more profitable. The big strides in industry and commerce have multiplied the

demand

for printed

printing manifold. Another

class

publicity

of

houses is governmental

jobs

literature

flowing

printing work.

into

ature, including tourist promotion books

pictorial albums,

and

and

our

by CSIR

bigger

and

and

better

industrial

printing

This work includes publicity literand folders, brochures

prestigious books on art

agriculture produced

for commercial

and

and posters,

and culture, books on science

ICAR,

nationalised

school-level

text-books produced by the NCERT and the state governments, telephone directories, and a very large number and volume of state lottery tickets. Besides a large number of public undertakings like the Railways, the two Airlines and the big public sector organisations also go to the big presses for meeting their publicity and commercial printing requirements.

The

printing industry draws

its sustenance and

impetus for growth

mainly from this type of work for which it is best organised, equipped and

willing.

The work of this kind has also been growing very rapidly. Apart

from huge and quick profits there are a few other reasons for the industry’s preference for such work.

PRINTING

85

This type of work, for instance, is not as time-consuming as the print-

ing of high-level technical

composed

and

books.

A folder of four or eight pages can be

printed of in two or three days, a school level text-book

of 80 pages within two or three weeks; while a 300 or 400-page book on science or engineering can take anything between three and six months

because of the elaborate and complicated

composing,

proof-reading involved in such jobs.

page-making

and

The print orders for commercial publicity literature and school-level text-books run into lakhs. This keeps the machines constantly and pro-

perly fed and utilised.

It is much easier and more profitable for a printing

Press to produce a brochure of 16 pages with a print order of 25,000 to 50,000 or a school-level text book with a print order of two lakhs than to

undertake

the printing of a technical book

order of 2,000 or 3,000.

of 300 pages with a printing

The printing industry has been experiencing a few difficulties. Nonavailability of paper both in terms of quality and quantity has been the

main problem for the printers. Lack of availability of paper of suitable quality, process copper and zinc sheets and certain chemicals is coming in

the

way

of good

quality

books, printers sometimes and lino casting machines. tion

There are not many of scientific

Another

special

In the case

matrices

for

of highly

technical

use in monotype

presses which have the facilities for the produc-

literature.

is not really print-ready

production.

require

The

and the

copy,

author

before

being

sent

to the

indulges in heavy

difficulty is that the flow of work on the production

printer,

corrections.

of scientific

and technical literature to the presses is not steady and sufficiently regular and big.

Awards for Excellence in Printing In

order

to

encourage

quality

production,

the

Central

Government

insti-

tuted in 1955 National Awards for Excellence in Printing and Designing

of Books and other publications. These awards represent the highest Tecognition for outstanding work in the field of designing and printing in the country. The competition for the Awards, held on national level, has

evoked enthusiasm among printers, publishers, advertisers and others associated with the graphic arts to improve the quality of their work. Consequent

hawa Committee

upon the acceptance of the recommendations

of the Rand-

appointed by the Government of India to rationalise the

categories, the number of awards was increased from 26 to 44 with effect from the Awards announced in 1973. Prizes are awarded in each category to

printers,

publishers,

advertisers

and

designers.

In

the

case

of

Best

86

MASS

MEDIA

IN INDIA

1978

Bound Books and Devanagari Type Faces, the binder, the designer of the type face and of the type foundry, respectively, get awards. The presentation of the awards every year is followed by an exhibition of selected entries which shows the latest advances made in the fields of designing and

printing.

In the Eighteenth Awards announced in 1976, a total 404 awards were given to 135 winners under 44 categories. The list of the Awards in different categories is given in Appendix No. 18.

Training A beginning has been made in the training of personnel required by the industry. The Industrial Training Institutes all over the country impart

training for craftsmen in printing technology.

Besides, printing units covered

by the Apprenticeship Act also provide training in the trade. 1972,

5,659 seats were

filled. In the offset For

training

located

section,

personnel

in the

in letter press

188

seats

supervisory

section of which

By March

2,341

were

were located and 46 were filled. cadre,

there

schools of printing technology, one each at Allahabad, and Madras.

are

four

Bombay,

regional

Calcutta

Book Publishing BOOKS

ARE

of knowledge.

the foremost

vehicles

for

dissemination

and preservation

To some extent, a country’s development can be judged by

the strength of its book industry. Publications in Indian languages, especially religious literature, can be traced back to the seventeenth century, but publishing took firm roots only in this century. However, it was only after

independence that the book industry has grown phenomenally. According to the latest Directory of the Indian Book Industry there are over 11,000

book publishers in the country. The publishers of books in Hindi are the largest, numbering about 2,500. Next come those who publish books in the

English language, about 1,700, followed by those in the Bengali language, about 1,400. Most of these are booksellers-cum-publishers. Publishers who exclusively

do

comparatively

languages.

ing

the publishing

few—not

more

business

in the strict sense of the term

than 3,000 covering English

are

and all Indian

During 1975-76 India published 22,096 books compared to 16,096 dur1974-75, and 17,600 in 1973-74. Books in the English language conti-

nue to dominate the Indian publishing scene with compared

11,020 titles in 1974-75

to the previous two years’ figures of 8,171 and 7,318 respectively.

Among the Indian languages during 1974-75, 3,210 titles were published in Hindi, 1,599 in Marathi, 1,044 in Tamil, 979 in Bengali, 974 in Kannada,

699 in Gujarati, 640 in Malayalam, 355 in Urdu, 250 in Assamese, 170 in Oriya and 346 in Punjabi. The production of children’s books has been on the increase. A total of 455 children’s books were published during

1975-76 compared

to 347 during the previous year.

It was 231 in 1971.

Most of the books published dealt with literature, political science, economics,

religion and sociology. Books on science and technology were comparatively few. Roughly about 65 to 70 per cent of India’s book production is on social sciences and

religion.

India is today one of the largest book-producing countries in the world.

Yet Indian publishing remains underdeveloped and the average standard of Indian books both in content and get up is comparatively poor, although

some of the books produced in India do compare favourably with the best produced: in the more advanced countries. The still less

low level of literacy and the extremely limited book-reading and book-purchasing public, inadequacy of production expertise, lack

of high quality printing facilities (although a handful of printing presses in the cities do turn out excellent work) and appropriate raw materials are

88

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

mainly responsible for this. the country

and

In consequence, in the context of the size of

its population,

the returns which

an author

gets from

his

books are not commensurate with the time and energy he puts into them. Print orders for books of general interest, with a few exceptions, are still limited to 1,000 to 2,000 copies and a publisher feels happy if he sells them in two or three years. The average printing per title in India is very much lower than the world average of about 10,000 copies. Besides, there seems

to be an element of “overpublishing” in this country. Because of the uncertainty in both the size and quality of our readership, the publishers generally are anxious to get hold of many MSS which are offered to them without much discrimination, and print a larger number of copies of the book

than can be reasonably expected to sell over a period of one or two years.

Thus

they dissipate their limited resources which

Many

Indian

publishers

functions and responsibilities.

are,

unfortunately,

they can ill-afford to do.

not

fully

aware

of

their

There still are instances where a publisher

thinks he has done his job after accepting a manuscript for publication and fixing up a press for printing. The poor author, who is not a book produc-

tion expert, is made to supervise all the stages of printing of his book. The

result is a badly produced book. Fortunately, in recent years, more and more publishers are becoming aware of their special responsibilities which

start with the acceptance (or rejection) of a MSS and continue through all the stages of production and sales of the book, the salient features of which are

dealt

with

here.

The

result has

been

a substantial

improvement

in

standards both in content and get-up of a large number of books published

by them and greater attention to distribution and sales.

During the last decade, Indian publishing in spite of the many handicaps, has made rapid progress and many good books on a variety of sub-

jects including children’s books and books of general interest are being pub-

lished and have found acceptance. The standards both in content and getup are showing marked improvement. There is more organized publishing

in India today. Publishers

in the Indian

languages

too have

made

rapid

strides after

Independence, especially in the publication of fiction, books of general interest on art, culture, history, economics

and

religious literature, and

even

text-books at the university level in arts, science and humanities to meet the requirements of students at some of the universities which have introduced

Indian

languages as the medium

of instruction

in place of English.

The publication of digests and guides meant to cater to students at various levels in school and college is a special feature of Indian publish-

ing. Some publishers who deal exclusively in such books have built up a prosperous business. It must be said that while such books might help students to pass in the examinations, they curb the students’ capacity of under-

BOOK PUBLISHING

89

standing and limit their field of vision. As such these publications must be discouraged. Unfortunately, our present system of education with its emphasis on passing examinations has put a premium on these books. With the contemplated changes in the system of education

they will outlive their utility.

it is to be hoped

that

Sales Promotion and Marketing Indian publishers have not developed the same degree of expertise and professionalism in the marketing and distribution of books as they have done in other branches of the book industry. They expend most of their energy and resources in producing books and not enough for making the

books reach the readers.

Thousands of potential book-buyers are not even

aware of the existence of a large number of titles.

Because of this, many

Indian publishers have come to grief and they tend to put the blame for this state of affairs on the people for their lack of interest in reading. A publisher might bring out a really worthwhile book with an excellent

get-up, but to make it sell he has to employ a number of sales promotion media. It is a duty he owes to himself, for he must make a profit to keep his business going; it is also a duty he owes to the author who has invested

time and effort in writing the book, and finally it is also a duty he owes to the reading public. The first and the most important target of the publisher’s sales promo-

tion effort must, of course, be the book trade.

Generally speaking, over

50 per cent of the published books are sold through book-sellers—the whole-

salers and retailers; the rest reach the readers through institutions which buy

them, and through direct sales to individuals. Booksellers play an role in the promotional effort of the publisher. They are now an ing community and they would be happy to collaborate with any who serves them fairly and promptly. The bookshops serve as

important enterprispublisher the pub-

lisher’s display cases spread in the farthest corners all over the country.

It

is through contact with the booksellers that the publisher is able to assess the probable demand

The second tions. They are Their number is make publishing

for a particular type of book more accurately.

target of the publisher is libraries and educational institubecoming increasingly important as purchasers of books. growing and in many cases the books purchased by them profitable.

Then there are the book clubs which serve as avenues of sales outside the bookshops and libraries. Some of the book clubs have a large membership and enjoy enormous prestige. The choice of a title by a major book club can

bership.

have

a marked

13—3 M of | & B/ND 77

effect on its general

sales

even

outside

its mem-

90

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

Lastly there is the hard core of regular book-readers spread all over the country whom the publisher should seek to inform and influence. This hard core must be the object of the publisher’s sales promotion effort. In

the process, he is likely to attract a much

and book-buyers from the general public. Many

publishers cannot

larger circle of occasional readers

afford to have

their own

network of distribu-

tion centres, nor is it possible for them to approach all the booksellers in-

dividually. The only alternative for them is to arrange for the distribution of their books through the wholesalers. The wholesalers perform a very

important function in the distribution system by maintaining a supply line from the publisher to the retail bookseller. Not only small publishers but even some of the bigger publishers may find it profitable to take advantage of the wholesaler in spite of the extra discount they will have to give him.

For the bookseller as well, it is advantageous and economical to obtain his supplies from the wholesaler instead of ordering different titles from a number of different publishers, for the wholesaler is in a position to fulfil his demands for books of many publishers from his own warehouse. All the ingredients of a book have to be paid for by publishers imme-

diately after publication whether the book sells or not. The profits, if any, do not come in until most of the edition is sold out. The publishers’ investment in books remains partly a dead investment till then. Effective marketing

of books

on a national

scale is a most

urgent challenge

to Indian

publishers and their survival will depend upon how speedily and effectively they meet this challenge. In order to reach the ultimate book-buyers—edu-

cational institutions, libraries, students and the general public—the publisher

has to propagate the books through appropriate sales promotion efforts like advertisements, book reviews and circulars and by approaching the wholesalers and retailers through his salesmen as well as through trade circulars. Special pre-publication offers would

attract both book-sellers and

book-bu-

yers to order their requirements in advance and help the publisher to realise part of his investment immediately on publication his margin of profit would be slightly lower.

of the

book

although

In cities like Bombay, Delhi, Calcutta and Madras, there are a few good booksellers who serve the book-buyers reasonably well, but by and

large there is a great dearth in the country of professionally managed bookshops with well-informed staff. During the last few years, a few bookselling agencies specializing in organized book distribution have entered the field. But much. needs to be done in this branch which is of vital importance to the book industry.

A serious handicap to the Indian publishing industry is that even today book-mindedness and the book-reading habit is confined to a very small section of the community. Whereas 25,000 to 50,000 copies is a modest

BOOK PUBLISHING

91

print order for a popular book

in the USA

or UK,

we in India still think

in terms of 2,000 of a maximum of 5,000 copies of a popular title. In spite of the increase in literacy and the purchasing power of the people in recent

years, the book-reading and book-buying habits have not increased in the same proportion. This is particularly true of the more prosperous section

of the educated people who have the money to purchase books. Since books play an important role in moulding the minds of the people, the inculcation of the habit of reading and buying books is a national necessity.

Public Sector Publishing A special feature of the book industry in India is that the public sector publishing is conducted on a fairly large scale. The government is very much in the picture as a publisher with a large number of books on a variety of topics being brought out through its agencies like the Publications Division of the Government of India, the publishing units of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, the National Council of Educational Research and Training, the National Book Trust, the Sahitya Akademi and the State Academies and the publica-

tion departments of the state governments. Besides, the publishing of school

text-books has been nationalised in many States and the State governments have set up full-fledged publication units exclusively for this purpose.

The largest public sector publishing organization is the Publications Division which produces about 200 titles annually providing the public with authentic and up-to-date books and pamphlets of informative and cultural

value

and

of general

interest.

The NCERT

prepares textbook

material

which the textbook agencies of the States are free to adopt or arrange for their translations in the respective languages. The National Book Trust publishes books of national interest and of educative value. It has so far

published over 1,000 titles.

In recent years it has undertaken to publish a

series of books of national importance like Nehru Bal Pustakalaya (for children) and Aadan Pradan scheme (for promoting inter-regional under-

standing and emotional integration of the diverse linguistic population of the country). The Sahitya Akademi produces informative material about literary activities in English and Indian languages, and also arranges transla-

tions of classics both Indian and foreign into Indian languages. The Akademi

also periodically organises literary seminars. Every year it gives awards to the most outstanding literary works in each of the Indian languages. The

ICAR and the CSIR bring out books and research monographs on science and technology. There

are historical reasons

tor the governmental

large scale in Indian publishing today.

About

presence

on such

a

the time India attained In-

dependence and for many decades prior to that, the publishing scene in India was dominated by a handful of British publishing houses which held a vir-

92

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

tual monopoly in the production and distribution of books, both textbooks for schools and colleges as well as books for general reading, particularly

in the English language.

Most of these books were printed and published

by the publishers in England

and distributed through their offices in India.

Only a few pioneering Indian entrepreneurs had entered this field, primarily

in the Indian languages, but they were not able to make any significant im-

pact.

They

suffered

Tronage, especially

from

lack of resources

from

as much

the government and

as from

lack of pat-

were consequently

unable to

compete with the more resourceful and better patronised foreign publishers operating in India. In

the

pre-independence

period,

the

government

cerned with the growth of Indian publishing.

educational

books

and

books

for general

the

credit

of some

Indian

publishers

they strove to compete

that

with

not

much

con-

The limited requirements of

reading

British publishers and it suited the government

frustrations,

was

were

well.

inspite

being

It must

met

by

of these handicaps

the strongly

the

be said to

entrenched

and

foreign

vested interests by producing several series of textbooks eminently suited for Indian students and getting them approved by the powers that be.

During this period, government publishing was confined mainly to the printing of blue books, official reports, gazetteers and a few research monographs of the Archaeological Department. It was not interested in informing and educating the people beyond what was dictated by the needs of gover-

nance and maintenance of law and order.

The government of free India has had to expand the area of government publishing to cover many other fields. This was necessary and inevitable in a developing country which had just attained independence, where

the scope of the functions and activities of the government has been pro-

gressively

expanding

of the people.

and

affecting

the economic,

social

and

cultural

lives

There was also the need for bringing out suitable literature

for foreign readership in order to correct the wrong notions about India created during the pre-independence era. Much had to be done to interpret India and Indian life and culture in its correct perspective. To serve this purpose, over the years, the various government agencies have brought out books, pictorial albums, research monographs, pamphlets and journals, covering a wide range of subjects. The massive effort of the government not only helped to develop expertise in production, editing and printing but also enabled many printing presses to improve their standards of production and place their improved services at the disposal of private publishers as well.

In recent years, with these facilities available, the more enterprising

among Indian publishers in the private sector, in addition to publishing a wide range of textbooks for schools and colleges, have extended

their acti-

vity to cover books on Indian art, culture and history and topical books cn

BOOK PUBLISHING social, economic

of resources,

93 and political problems.

greater

enterprise

among Indian publishers.

and

There is now better mobilisation

larger

awareness

of

the

social

needs

To improve standards of book production, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting also instituted annual awards for excellence in printing and production of books alongwith those for newspapers. The explosion in education at all levels, the rise in literacy generating a

general thirst for knowledge and information, the renaissance in literary and cultural activities and the increase in the number of libraries in the country have all contributed towards creating a greater demand for books.

After Independence the government took steps to provide opportunities to a progressively increasing number of students for higher education parti-

cularly in science and technology. New universities, engineering and medical colleges and institutes of technology as well as colleges of arts, science and

commerce were established in all parts of the country. The enrolment of stu-

dents at all levels increased from year to year.

At this time there was a large and urgent demand for a great variety of

books to meet the growing needs of the students. There was a paucity of good standard university-level books, but the Indian publishers with their limited resources were not able to cater to this ever-increasing demand for scientific, technical and medical books, although the time was opportune for them to enter the field.

Steps Taken By Government A decade later in 1965 the Government started taking steps to encourage

the all round growth of the indigenous book industry.

A special Book Pro-

motion Wing was created in the Ministry of Education and Social Welfare.

In 1967, the Government established the National Book Development Board as an advisory body to lay down guidelines for the development of the book industry in the context of the overall requirements of the country. The Board

is composed of representatives of all interests in the book industry and has proved a useful forum for discussing the various problems faced by the au-

thors,

publishers, pginters, booksellers

industry.

and others

connected

with

the book

The Board was reconstituted in 1970 with some additional functions.

After considering the various problems

facing the book industry as a

whole, the Board has made, among others, following recommendations: (1) Recognition of book publishers as manufacturers or producers of books for

purposes of the Income Tax Act and classification of book publishing as an

essential industry, (2) Tax concession to Indian book publishers as an incentive for the development of the Indian book industry. (3) Inclusion of book

94

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

publishing in the priority sector for purposes of obtaining loans from banks,

(4) Establishment of a Book Information Centre to compile, collate, analyse and

disseminate

information

on

various

aspects

of

the

book

industry,

(5)

Setting up of a training institute for publishing and bookselling in cooperation with the industry, (6) Introducing book publishing as an optional subject for

the BA degree course and instituting a diploma course in publishing by a few

selected

universities,

(7)

Launching

a massive

programme

of original

textbooks in the regional languages by mobilising local talent and granting

adequate facilities to authors for writing original books in their mother tongue, (8) Setting up of an Export Promotion Council for books, and (9) Partici-

pation by India in all international book exhibitions. The most important achievement

of the Board has been to focus the

attention of all concerned on the significant role of books in the social, economic and cultural development of the country.

Arising out of the recommendations of the National Book Development Board, a comprehensive survey of the Book Industry in India was taken up in September 1972 by the National Council of Applied Economic Research. The survey which was completed in 1975 is the first attempt to collect information about various aspects of the book industry in the country. Book

publishing is no longer treated like any other trade.

There

is an

increasing awareness that education is the basis for all development and that books are the most effective medium of education. It is now accepted that

money spent on book promotion should be regarded as outright expenditure and an essential investment for human development which will pay the nation high dividends in the long run. Without government’s involvement and

encouragement it would be difficult for the industry alone to meet the country’s urgent requirements for more and better books. A joint effort was

needed on the part of the government, autonomous bodies and the private sector to put the Indian book industry on a sound footing. The National Book Development Board has set a pattern for such cooperative endeavour.

In 1970, the Ministry of Education and Social Welfare entrusted U.S. Mohan Rao with the work of carrying out “a survey of the present and pros-

pective needs for books on

science

and

technology

required

for national

purposes.” In the report which he submitted in 1971, it was observed that

there was a feeling among many of our scientists, science Teachers and science

administrators that collaboration arrangements entered with American, British and other Governments to bring out low-priced foreign books had outlived their original purpose. It was also observed that in the context of the efforts that were being made by the Government of India as well as the Indian Publishing Industry in the direction of creation of suitable Indian books on science and technology it would be possible to replace a reasonable number

of foreign titles by Indian books.

BOOK PUBLISHING

95

In recent years, the Government has initiated several schemes for the creation of suitable books by Indian authors within the country itself. One of those, “subsidised publication of university level books in English”, being operated by the National Book Trust, is intended to produce lowpriced

standard

text-books,

The scope of the National

reference

Book

books

or

other reading material.

Trust has also been enlarged to include

activities like holding of national book exhibitions and regional book exhibitions, participation in book exhibitions in foreign countries, and organising

seminars and symposia of writers and publishers both on an all-India and

regional basis with a view to fostering book-mindedness among the people. The Trust has so far organised seven national exhibitions and more than seventy regional book exhibitions. In March-April 1972 the Trust, in colla-

boration with the Indian book industry, organised the first World Book Fair in New Delhi. Thirty countries participated. The Second World Book Fair was held again in New Delhi in January 1976.

The University Grants Commission has initiated a programme for production of textbooks on a large scale through inter-university collaboration and

involvement

of outstanding

teachers and

researchers.

Some of the other measures taken by the Government are the setting up

of the Raja Rammohun Roy National Educational Resources Centre in 1972 with a Textbook Reference Library Wing, a Central grant of rupees one

crore spread over a period of six years to each state government for the production of university level books in Indian languages (about 4,000 titles have been published so far under this scheme), the Core Book and the Fellowship programmes.

Training Another experiment being conducted in India is the introduction of book publishing and book distribution as a subject of study in the university curticulum. The University of Delhi has already introduced this as an optional subject for the BA

degree and a two-year post-graduate diploma

course in

the subject. The University of Madras has started a BA course in the book industry.

The professional associations of publishers and booksellers, like the Fe-

deration of Booksellers and Publishers Association in India, which represent 90 per cent of India’s book industry, also organise periodically training courses, seminars and workshops to feed the industry with the latest developments in the skills and techniques of book production and distribution.

Foreign Books Another handicap to the Indian publisher is that he has to face unequal competition from the branches and subsidiaries of foreign publishers establi-

96

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

shed in the country. In spite of the efforts being made to produce books on science and technology indigenously, we are still largely dependent on

imported books for our needs. The situation has not improved over the years. The import of books in 1975-76 increased by 38 per cent to Rs 9.60 crores as compared to the previous year, and by 78 per cent compared to the annual average imports of Rs 5.60 crores during the preceding three years.

This does not mean that free flow of knowledge and ideas from the more advanced countries into our country should be interrupted. A certain mea-

sure of influx of foreign books at the post-graduate and research and reference level is, therefore, both inevitable and desirable. The same holds good with

Tegard

to outstanding

books

of general

interest written

by great thinkers

and scholars. Within certain limits, however, the flow of foreign books will have to be controlled in the interest of development and encouragement of

Indian authorship and Indian publishing and in the larger interests of expansion of higher education in the country.

Exports Exports of Indian books has been progressively increasing in recent years. It was about Rs 2 crores in 1975-76, compared to, Rs 1.78 crores in 1974-75 and Rs 1.55 crores in 1973-74. Most of the books exported are

in the English language, and about 50 per cent of the total exports comprise text-books including imprints of imported

books. Books in Indian languages,

like Tamil (to Sri Lanka, Mauritius and Singapore) and Gujarati (to some of the African

published countries.

countries)

are also exported.

School

and

college text-books

in

demand

in India are increasingly in demand in some of the developing General books exported include those on religion, philosophy,

Indian art and culture and

USA, UK, West Germany

yoga. These

and USSR. If

are

one considers

in countries like

the large number

of titles Indian publishers bring out in the English language, the rate of increase in exports should be regarded as rather low. There is great scope

for increasing our

exports

considerably

through

sustained efforts. To step

up exports of books the Government has been encouraging the participation of Indian publishers in important book fairs in various parts of the world,

organising book exhibitions and sending delegations abroad to explore the possibilities of expanding the exports.

Paper Backs The publication of paper-backs is a significant development in Indian publishing during the last decade. Generally ten to thirty-thousand copies

of titles are printed and several titles go into a second

impression within a

couple of years. A few titles are sold over a lakh of copies. In the con-

text of the massive world production of paper-backs, Indian paper-backs,

BOOK PUBLISHING however,

public.

have

97

still to go a long

way

to make

an impact

on the reading

By and large imported paper-backs still dominate the Indian market.

The major reasons for this are the non-availability of the right kind of printing and binding equipment and facilities to do this type of work on a mass scale and the inadequate supply position of indigenous paper both

in quality and quantity and its high price.

The The and

Future future for Indian

the increase

publishing

in the number

is indeed bright.

of enrolment

in our

The growing schools

and

literacy

colleges

ensure an expanding market for books. The magnitude of the demand for books in the coming years would be evident from the expansion of educa-

tion at all levels in the country. The number of educational institutions increased from 1,65,000 in 1947 to 7,00,000 in 1975 with a corresponding in-

crease in student population from 2.35 crores in 1950-51 to about 9.5 crores in 1975. The literacy percentage has also more than doubled. In 1974-75

the total enrolment in the universities was 24 lakh students, excluding

those

who attended pre-university and intermediate classes. The number of science students was 4.63 lakhs. There were nearly 2 lakh students studying engineering and medicine (91,000 in engineering and 1.06 lakh in medicine).

Moreover, thousands of students after finishing their education are engaged in teaching and research and are working with various departments in

administration, large-scale industries and agriculture. This large body of essential book-buyers and book-users would primarily be interested in standard reference books. Another opening in the demand for books is the in-

creasing number

of libraries maintained

by Central/state

governments,

uni-

versities, colleges, science and technological institutes, industrial establishments and municipalities and panchayats. Further, the trend among all classes of people is to know more and there is likely to be greater demand for books of general interest if these are reasonably priced. The Indian book industry can, therefore, confidently expect a constantly

growing potential readership and outside the country.

14—3 M of I & B/ND/77

for books—books

of all categories, both inside

Training and Research TECHNICAL

SKILL

and a sound professional base are significant factors

in the process of effective mass movement of ideas through communication media. This underscores the vital importance of training of personnel, research

and

evaluation

of the communication

media

development.

Training

and research will be meaningful to the extent they are responsive to specific developmental

and

needs and values and aspirations of the country.

If the mass media become

future

media

an effective

system

in the country has to meet national needs

instrument

professionals

must

of

be given

socio-economic

more

technical

development

and

the

specialised

training. They must have a sense of commitment in terms of wider purpose, aspirations of the people and a sense of respect to them besides being

conscious of changing values in the overall global context. There

are

today

well

over

10,000

mass media and related activities which competence.

people

in the

country

engaged

in

require some kind of professional

Four different kinds of training facilities are available in the country

today in subjects related to mass media: (a) in academic institutions like universities, agricultural colleges, etc, aimed at imparting basic knowledge; (b)

professional bodies in both basic and advanced technical skills for specialised

application;

(c) those

available

at re-orientation in-service

within

training;

primarily in providing the basic skills.

the respective

and

media

(d) commercial

agencies

agencies

aimed

engaged

Academic Institutions A number of universities offer bachelor or post-graduate diploma/degree courses, mostly in journalism and related subjects. A few of them also give

masters

degree.

Besides,

most

agricultural

universities

have

master

and Ph D programmes in agricultural extension and information diffusion. Farm universities have independent teaching facilities. There

are several

private

schools in India

which

offer regular courses

in journalism, advertising, public relations, book production, publications, etc. Notable among them is the Bharatiya Vidya Bhawan which runs ten

such schools in different parts of the country.

TRAINING AND RESEARCH

99

Professional Bodies The

institutions

falling

in this category

include

the Film

and

Television

Institute of India (FTII) at Pune, the National School of Drama at New Delhi, the National Institute of Design at Ahmedabad, the Central Health

Education

New

Delhi.

Bureau

and

the Indian

Institute of Mass

Communication

at

Film and Television Institute of India offers courses in film direction, screen play writing, motion picture photography, sound recording, sound engineering, film editing and film acting. Every year some 150 students, including

around

15

from

abroad,

attend

these

courses.

This

Institute

is

equipped with most modern gadgets available in cinematography. Students are given the opportunity to produce some 30 documentary and experimental films every year besides song picturisation and advertisement films.

The trainees from in the country.

the Institute have made an impact on the film industry

They

have not only competed

with

the old guards

in the

commercial sector but also have won national acclaim. Some state governments

vision.

and

Tele

Some such institutes also are being operated by private individuals.

The

Indian

Institute

professional journalism

number

also have set up Institutes of Films

of government

of

and

Mass

Communication

(IIMC)

public

sector

information

serves as a nucleus

and

of training

industry

emphasise

on

for the large personnel.

Besides serving as a staff training school to the officers of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, it offers regular courses in basic professional

functions like photography, news editing, public relations, etc. It also conducts a post-graduate diploma course in journalism for developing coun-

tries. In the last couple of years, practitioners and media planners from several African and Asian countries have been trained at the Institute. They come either under Colombo Plan or under special Commonwealth African Assistance Programme. The

Press

Institute

of

India,

in

cooperation

with

some

publishers, sponsors workshops at different levels periodically ing journalists in various disciplines of the professions. There

are five leading

institutes which

printing

offer courses

schools

in printing.

and

These

several

newspaper

for re-train-

industrial

five professional

training

printing

schools—two in Madras, and one each in Bombay, Calcutta and Allahabad— Tun composite degree courses for three years in all aspects of printing.

The National Institute of Design at Ahmedabad and the National Institute of Drama at Delhi are two reputed agencies engaged in imparting professional training and expertise in the areas of design, graphic arts and

100

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

dramatics

respectively.

term courses.

They

run

post-graduate

courses

as

well

as

short

In-service Training Organisations

like Times of India, Hindu

and some

advertising agencies

in

the private sector and A.I.R. and the Ministry of 1&B have “staff training institutions”. The Television Wing of the Film and TV Institute, started in 1971, trains manpower required for the expanding TV net work in the country. Every year it conducts two intensive courses of three to five months each in programme production for television and technical opera-

tions.

All

India

Radio

has

two

staff Training

Schools—one

production staff and the other for radio engineers.

for programme

There are several “commercial” institutions offering basic areas like film direction, cinematography, TV production and ing, radio engineering, etc.

training in programm-

No systematic analysis concerning the usefulness and impact of training institutions is yet available. Similarly there are no efforts to find out what the trainers/ex-students have been doing after getting out of the institutions.

By and large the teaching/training continues to be text book oriented and

that too books of yester years. Several new approaches like simulation, roleplaying and case-study methods are yet to be used for imparting training.

Research No mass media system can be relevant without relying upon research and evaluation, particularly when it is geared for purposeful developmental communication. Research and evaluation help not only in optimising the meagre resources available but also in formulating pragmatic information strategies. Until a few years ago, bare circulation figures for newspapers, number

of radio receiving sets and the number of cinema seats were the only criteria available for planning media strategies. But now more sophistication is possible in media planning with the help of research techniques.

New

Emphasis

Mass media research, however, on a systematic basis is a recent phenome-

non in India and it has a long way to go to meet the current needs.

Poten-

tialities, to a large extent, are yet to be tapped. Whatever little was tapped in this area until recently was in the field of commercial advertising. The

TRAINING AND RESEARCH

101

major breakthrough in this area has been the first ever conducted “National Readership Survey” by Operational Research Group (ORG) of Vadodara a couple of years ago with a large sample of 54,000 respondents, representing all parts of the country and covering all the three major mass media. There are

several

market

research

agencies,

small

and big,

undertaking

oriented media research” primarily for advertising agencies.

“service

Most of the research related to mass media conducted in the academic world was primarily in the farm front. The area of interest has been limited to

the role of media

in increasing

knowledge

levels and

in the

adoption

process of farm practices. The Journalism Department of Bangalore University recently made a beginning towards making research an integral part of its curricula. At other places it is only an ad hoc activity.

The National Institute of Community Development at Hyderabad, the

Central

Family

Management,

work

Planning

among

other

Institute at New such

in the area of mass media

institutions,

Delhi and have

done

Indian

some

Institutes of preliminary

research at one time or other but their

primary interest was not mass media per se. The Institute of Economic Growth has recently done pioneering effort in the economic feasibility of

television in the Indian context. Over the years, the Indian

Institute of Mass

Communication

also has

undertaken studies mostly on an ad hoc basis in one or other area related to mass media. Despite the vastness of cinema in the country, very few research studies

have been undertaken on the content and effectiveness aspects and on the structure, growth and utilisation of the medium.

Policy Oriented Research Elsewhere in a few other countries two trends are evident in the media research over the last few years—first, the tendency towards a more holistic

frame work and secondly the tendency towards policy oriented research. Hearteningly,

these are the recent developments

in India too.

The recent Satellite television experiment should be given the credit for creating general interest in media research in the country including the academic circles and among the schools of journalism. ISRO has recently set up a research cell to undertake field based studies on the impact of Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) in general and particularly programmes for children and farmers.

102

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

Holistic studies on a large scale in the field of media research are the tesult of SITE project. The policy oriented research is the result of the initiatives taken by the Department

of Information and Broadcasting.

of Evaluation on behalf of the Ministry

This Department has also opened new vistas in media research by effectively evincing the potentialities of “operational research” studies on

media agencies and their activities, The other pioneering work initiated by this

Department is the establishment of a continuous feed back system both from the audience and field units of various media units of the Ministry of

Information and Broadcasting.

Unless such a feed back system is in opera-

tion no research and evaluation studies are feasible. planning for social campaigning adopted by this Department.

and

media

Research based media

utilisation are the other

areas

Listeners’ Research A Listeners’ Research Unit is in operation in All India Radio for several years, Besides the headquarters at New Delhi all the major radio stations

have Listeners’ Research Cells.

These units conduct periodic field surveys on the extent of listening to

various kinds of programmes and timings and on other programming dimen-

sions.

Audience Research Units are attached to TV also.

Research Based Prototypes The

Film

new

vistas

and

TV

Institute of India

at Pune

has a prototype

research

for TV

unit

exclu-

sively engaged in TV programming research. They make experimental programmes and test them out in simulated situations. This project has opened by

undertaking

haps nowhere else among

formative

programming.

Per-

the third world countries such a research based

prototype production is being attempted.

ence

Research surveys like readership surveys, listenership studies and audisurveys

for evaluating the performance

and

impact

of various media/

campaigns are meaningful to the third world countries in the process of development.

These

are

important

strategy and programming.

for

media

planning

and

communication

Empirical research has yet to take roots in India more so in the context

of media research.

that direction.

It is only recently that some efforts have been made

One reason for the slow development

researchers from other disciplines.

in this area is non-involvement

in

of

TRAINING AND RESEARCH

103

Conclusion The field of training and research in the context of mass media needs to be strengthened. There is immediate need for specific task oriented programmes. Among others these should include: (i) assessment of the manpower requirements in various media operations in the country now and in the year 2001 and the skills needed for each of these kinds of operation; (ii) evolving a more pragmatic and case study based curricula; (iii) avoiding duplication of efforts and wastage of resources between agencies; (iv) bringing out “quality control” efforts between and among schools/institutions; (v) imparting orientation to audience in utilising media; (vi) engaging each training place/ Tesearch team in designing at least a couple of socially purposeful “prototypes” of media content which could help in setting new and qualitative trends in our media system; (vii) conducting case studies on the existing

operations

at various levels in the media

system

to provide the basis for

training and research; and (viii) undertaking review of various methodological experimentations so far made in media research and identifying the untapped challenges and priority tasks in the field of media research. Perhaps all these programmes call for a unified, determined and timebound effort. A high level coordination council for mass media education

and research might help in expediting these and many other challenges before the country in this important field of mass communication.

Media

15—3 M ofI & B/77

Organisation

Media

15—3 M of I & B/77

Organisation

Central Media! SINCE INDEPENDENCE, India has built up an extensive network of mass media facilities and carried out some interesting experiments in the utilisation

of

traditional

media

in conjunction

with

modern

mass

media.

In fact what is remarkable is the coordinated manner in which the modern

and

the traditional have worked

ing the behaviour economic

hand

in hand with the object of influenc-

and attitudes of people

transformation

under colonial rule.

of a society

which

in the interest of rapid had

suffered

socio-

terrible ravages

The basic approach has been not only to inform and educate the people but to secure their participation in the developmental programmes in the field of agriculture, industry, education, health and family planning

and, above all, in the democratic administration of the country. The media have also played a notable part in promoting national cohesion, civic consciousness and social well-being.

To that end, not only the modern mass media—radio, press, film, television—but also the traditional media of folk music, dance and drama and

inter-personal

communication

through

groups

have

been

employed

to

has

The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (Government of India) a huge set up of mass communication with the regional and branch

carry the message of development, unity and modernisation to the six hundred million of our people living in more than five and half lakh villages spread over nearly 3.3 million sq km of area.

offices as well as mobile units, spread all over the country..

All India Radio* All India Radio’s network consisted of six radio stations at the time of

Independence in 1947.

Now there are 82 stations.

In addition, there are

three auxiliary studio centres at Vadodara, Bhubaneswar and Shantiniketan and two Vividh Bharati/commercial centres, one at Chandigarh and the other at Kanpur. These cover all the important cultural and linguistic regions of the country. AIR’s ‘home service’ programmes are transmitted for 2.97 lakh hours every year (more than 815 hours per day), excluding 1.41 lakh hours of Vividh Bharati programmes. The programmes which are beamed

from 145 transmitters of which 113 are medium cover 69 per cent of the geographical area and 81 per cent of the population of the country. There 1§ee Chapter on RADIO,

Also see Appendices for list of RADIO STATIONS

108

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

are also ‘external foreign

languages

service’ transmissions,

and

8 Indian

India’s viewpoint on important

the cultural heritage economic advance.

of the

which

languages

for

present programmes 50

hours

in

17

daily

to

project

music

and

socio-

issues to listeners abroad and also project

country,

its art,

literature,

In the ‘home service’ programmes, 40.8 per cent of the broadcasting time is claimed by music and 22.9 per cent by news, talks and discussions get 9.4 per cent of the time followed by 6.1 per cent for rural programmes.

Budget estimates for 1976-77:

Rs 26.88 crores.

News Services Division: The

News

Organisation

of All India Radio

is the biggest

of its kind in a

democratic country, east of Suez. It had a modest beginning in 1936 when the first news bulletin was broadcast from Delhi in January that year. A regular news service took time to grow. Although 1937,

it started

the Central News functioning

Organisation came

in an organised

manner

into being on for the

1 August

first time under

the impact of the Second World War. By 1939-40, AIR was broadcasting 27 bulletins of the total duration of more than 34 hours. There were five bulletins in English, four in Hindustani and three each in Tamil, Telugu, Marathi, Gujarati, Bengali and Pushtu. Immediately after the War, All

India Radio assumed direct control of all broadcasts began pruning them down to peace-time needs.

to the Far-East and

Direction came with Independence. The Home and External broadcasts of the Central News Organisation at once acquired a specific purpose: increasingly to reflect what India stood for, her role in foreign affairs, the

first stirrings of her economic rebirth.

.

At the time of Independence, All India Radio was broadcasting 74 news bulletins—43 in home and 31 in external services. During the following

years, the number of bulletins steadily increased. More emphasis was on home bulletins: the number of external bulletins was reduced in April 1953, and in 1954-55 regional news units were set up. Thus, in 1954-55, AIR was broadcasting 80 bulletins—44 home, 28 external and 8 from re-

gional stations. By 1959-60, the number of bulletins was increased to 90—48

home, 29 external and 13 regional. In the next five years, the number of bulletins went up to 132—100 home (including regional) and 32 external. In another five years, the number of bulletins increased by almost 100 per cent. The total number of bulletins went up to 201—155 home (including

regional) and 46 external. During the Bangladesh crisis, the number of bulle-

tins touched the figure of 271.

109

MEDIA

CENTRAL

Regional Units: To ensure wide coverage of regional news, bulletins were introduced from the stations in the early fifties. The first bulletins to be broadcast in regional languages were started from Lucknow and Nagpur from 15

April 1953. During 1954-55, bulletins were introduced from Bombay, Madras and Calcutta. In the next year, three more stations were added—Bangalore, Hyderabad and Bhopal. In 1957 news bulletins were introduced

from

Jaipur.

Gauhati

and

During

and Kohima.

ages were

Trivandrum

1961-62

and

news

during

1959-60

from

broadcast

bulletins

were

in 1971.

At present, AIR

The latest news bulletins to be introduced

started from

Jammu

Ahmedabad

number

of News:

of sources.

The

News

It subscribes

Jullundur

in regional langu-

gional news from 33 stations in 23 languages and 33 dialects.

Collection

from

broadcasts re-

Division collects information

to the

“Samachar”,

and

from

a

the integrated news

agency and to a couple of other agencies. It has correspondents in Delhi and

all the state capitals and the more important towns. Ninetynine districts in the country have part time correspondents serving the AIR. Besides, some Field Publicity Officers of the Directorate of Field Publicity feed the news-

room.

We

Dacca

have

full time

correspondents

and part-time correspondents

Moscow,

Washington,

Singapore,

in Hongkong,

in Paris, New

Kathmandu,

Beirut, Teheran,

York,

London

and

and

Berlin, Nairobi, Belgium.

Parliament Reporting: The News Division entirely relies on its own correspondents for coverage of Parliament. An important part of the cover-

age by the News Division are two Parliamentary Commentaries—“Today in Parliament” in English and ‘“Sansad Sameeksha” in Hindi. Commentary and Current Affairs: AIR every day broadcasts from Delhi commentaries on the main event of the day in English, Hindi, Urdu, Dogri, Kashmiri and Nefa-Assamese. Some of the scripts are written by the members of the staff but generally attempt is made to associate independent journalists in making an assessment of events in the light of national policies. In addition, a half hour programme of discussion ‘Current Affairs’ is broadcast every Sunday where issues of topical importance are dis-

cussed in depth.

The daily programme “Spotlight” and weekly Affairs” were conceived and introduced in 1967. Newsreel:

Started

in

1955,

frequency

programme

of newsreels

has

been

“Current progres-

sively increased to one everyday—four days in English (All India Hookup)

including one on Monday which is devoted to sports highlights and three days in Hindi (mainly Hindi network).

110

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

Monitoring Service: A Monitoring Unit was set up in India in 1940 under the Defence Department. After the war, it was placed under the

newly constituted Ministry of Information was made a part of News Services Division. At present languages, The

Azad

and

Broadcasting.

we are monitoring 35 world broadcasting thirty five broadcasting systems monitored

Kashmir,

Addis

Ababa,

BBC,

Bangladesh,

Belgrade,

In

1961,

it

stations in 12 are Australia,

Cairo,

GDR,

Japan, Jerusalem, Johannesburg, Jeddah, Kabul, Kuwait, Moscow, Manila, Netherlands, Nepal, Pakistan, Peking, Prague, Radio Moscow (Peace and Progress), Rangoon, Rumania, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, Teheran, Voice of Malaysia, Voice of America, Voice of Germany, Voice of Vietnam, Sweden, Budapest, Vienna and Tirana. Languages monitored are English,

Hindi,

Urdu,

and Nepali.

Bengali,

Russian,

Burmese,

Punjabi,

Persian,

Pushtu,

Dari

Number of Bulletins : AIR now broadcasts 243 bulletins every day. The total duration of the news broadcasts is 33 hrs and 7 mts. The break-up

of the bulletins is as follows:

In the Home Services from Delhi:

70 bulle-

tins in 19 languages for 10 hrs and 30 mts., in the External Services from Delhi: 56 bulletins in 24 languages for 7 hrs 13 mts, from Regional Ser-

vices:

117 bulletins in 20 languages and 34 dialects for 15 hrs and 24 mts

every day (including 1'V news bulletins).

Regional Units: With the setting up of new units, the number of Re gional News Units has now gone up to 32. The Regional News Units are located at Ahmedabad, Agartala, Bangalore, Bhopal, Bhuj, Bombay, Cal-

catta, Calicut, Chandigarh,

Cuttack,

Gauhati,

Dibrugarh,

Imphal,

Hydera-

its news

bulletin

bad, Jammu, Jaipur, Madras, Kohima, Nagpur, Lucknow, Patna, Panaji, Shillong, Pondicherry, Silchar, Simla, Trivandrum, Srinagar, Aizawl, Pune, Ranchi and Port Blair. During 1975-76, new regional units were opened

at Pune, Port Blair, Ranchi and Aizawl.

The Calcutta Station of All India in Santhali from 30 November 1975.

Radio

launched

TV Bulletins: With the opening of TV Stations at Calcutta, Madras and Lucknow, news bulletins were also introduced from the centres, besides

from Delhi, Bombay and Srinagar.

Budget for this Division is provided in AIR’s overall budget.

Doordarshan? A part of All India Radio

earlier, the television set up in India got de-

linked from All India Radio and earned the status of a fulfledged Directorate 4See also chapter on TELEVISION

CENTRAL

MEDIA

111

of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting under its mew name ‘Doordarshan’ on 1 April 1976. The creation of Doordarshan headed by a Director General as a separate department is meant for full development of the medium of specialised skills peculiar to television medium. Doordarshan now has eight broadcasting centres (Doordarshan Kendras) situated at Delhi (with a relay centre at Mussoorie), Bombay (with a relay

centre at Pune), Madras, Calcutta, Srinagar, Ahmedabad, Amritsar. and Lucknow, besides three Site on-going Transmitters at Jaipur, Raipur and Gulbarga. Budget

for

1976-77:

Press Information

Rs

25.97 crores.

Bureau*

The Press Information Bureau is the centralised agency handling the press and public relations of the Government of India. Its principal functions are: to disseminate information to the Press and other publicity media in the country; act as clearing house use by all the publicity media, and

to the Government

Programmes.

on press and

for official data and information for to provide a reliable feedback service

public reactions to official policies and

History The beginning of the Press Information Bureau may be traced back to a small cell set up on 1 June 1919 in the old Home Department, assigned

with the main task of preparing an annual volume called “India” for presentation to Parliament in London. Next year its functions were amplified to supervise “the distribution of correct information upon all-India ques-

tions”

and

tions on tion is Bureau in 1935

to inform

departments

of Government

about

“particular

ques-

which public opinion is exercised, and on which further informaneeded”. Towards the end of 1920 the cell became the Central of Information under a full-fledged Director. A study undertaken and again in 1936 of the problems and needs of the Indian press

led to the re-organisation of the Bureau into a modern publicity organisation in 1936. The designation of the head of the organisation was also changed from Director to Principal Information Officer. The new organisation became a channel to give factual information to the press. In

October 1941, the Bureau was placed under the newly-formed Department of Information and Broadcasting. In 1946 it assumed its present name, the Press Information Bureau. *See Appendices for list of Regional/Branch offices

112

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

Organisational Set up

With its Head

Office at New

at Bombay, Calcutta, Madras

Delhi, the Bureau has four Regional offices

and New

Delhi, and a net-work of 28 Branch

Offices. These offices look after the press publicity requirements of Central Government offices located in their respective areas and for liaison with

the local press on the one hand

and the state government

publicity organi-

sations on the other. They provide simultaneously publicity material the regional press, particularly the Indian language newspapers. At New

to

Delhi, the Bureau is organised on the lines of the Central mi-

nistries and departments and to achieve publicity coordination within the set up, it is divided into Divisions—Political and General Division, Transport Division, Social Services Division, Health Division, Publicity Planning Division, Language Services Division, Press Relations Division, Photos and Features

Division.

Division,

Agriculture

Division,

Defence

Division

and

Economic

Information Centres For

the

dissemination

of

information

to

the

public,

the

Bureau

is at

present running five Information Centres at New Delhi, Srinagar, Jullundur,

Imphal and Aizwal (Mizoram). Each of these Centres provides reading and Teference

facilities

for

about

200

persons

at a time.

Activities Departmental Publicity: Officers attached to the Union ministries or departments act as their publicity advisors. Besides day-to-day publicity to the

policies and activities of the Ministry concerned, they are responsible advance

publicity, planning and press liaison work.

Press

Conferences/ Briefings:

To

supplement

the

for

uni-linear commu-

nication with the press through press releases and articles, the Bureau arranges hundreds of press conferences. The accredited pressmen are also provided with in-depth briefings on important occasions by Ministers and senior officials. Press Conferences are also organised by PIB for visiting

Heads

of States and VIPs.

General Services: In pursuance of its principal aim of widening the area of understanding between the Press and the Government and between

the latter and the public through

number of services.

the press medium,

the Bureau

provides a

Among the new services started recently, mention could be made of the “Do you know’ and ‘Newsletters’ on various subjects. These services are issued

CENTRAL

MEDIA

113

in English and Hindi from the Head Office and in all regional languages from Branch Offices. Success stories from the field and tral and state development projects is effected by the

Offices.

Brief ebonoid

newspapers

who

newspapers

cannot

features

and ebonoid

afford

blocks are supplied

the expenditure

on

blocks.

printed by the litho process, Oharbas are issued.

Photo and Feature Services:

casions,

reporting on cenRegional/Branch

the Bureau

the year and on

to small

the

Urdu

special oc-

releases feature articles, most of which are illustrated.

Besides this, factual data called ‘Do you know’. Language

Throughout

For

Services:

on

The

a variety

of subjects

Bureau’s

main

are given

thrust in the

in the series

recent

past has

been in the field of Language services. A separate language cell headed by a senior officer of the rank of a Deputy Principal Information Officer has been created at the Head Office. From the Head Office releases are issued simultaneously in English, Urdu and Hindi and with the utmost expedition they are sent to Regional Branch offices through teleprinters for release into the Regional languages. In the recent past, accreditation

Tules have been liberalised to enable two or more small papers to join together

and

have

a common

Press Facilities:

acoredited

The Bureau

correspondent

gives

at Delhi.

accreditation to

senior

pressmen

on behalf of the Government. However, the conditions for such accreditation and the final decision to give it vests with an independent body viz., the the

Central Press Accreditation Committee comprising editors, working journalists, cameramen and the

sides, permanent

extended

accreditation,

to foreign

journalists

temporary

visiting New

professional Delhi.

representatives of Government. Be-

facilities

are

also

Conducted Tours: In order to enable pressmen to make a personal assessment of events and developmental projects, a number of tours are arranged. Here the guiding principle is to let journalists of one region visit another region. Clearing

House

of Information:

The

Bureau represents the vast gov-

ernmental machinery in a miniature form and it is freely accessible to the press.

As most governmental activities cut across the official boundaries of

several ministries, the PIB serves as a place to coordinate publicity policy

on

the one hand

and

enables the journalist to cross-check his information

under a single roof on the other.

Feed-Back: The Bureau has a Research Cell which provides an analysis of press and public reactions. This takes the form of daily roundups, special analysis of press comments on topical subjects and a daily

clipping service.

16—3 M ofI & B/77

114

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

PIB and Public Sector Undertakings: Besides maintaining close contact with the PR set-ups of the Central public sector undertakings, the Bureau is in a unique position to disseminate information relating to them as a ‘single sector’. It also undertakes special publicity measures sometimes on their behalf. The regional and branch offices also coordinate their PR

efforts with the PR wings of the public sector undertakings in their areas. Wall Newspaper: The Bureau lish, Hindi, Urdu, Marathi, Tamil, Lushai

to focus

attention

on

publishes a Wall-Newspaper in EngBengali, Malayalam, Khasi, Garo and

the country’s

progress

and

achievements

in

diverse fields. It is proposed to publish Wall-newspapers in additional tribal languages. Budget estimates for 1976-77:

Rs. 1.41 crores.

Photo Division Photo Division, headed by a Director, is the biggest production unit in this field in the country. The Division aims at preparing photographs both black and white and colour for publicity purposes and supplying:

(a) black and

distribution

white

photographs

to the newspapers

to the Press in India;

Information

Bureau

in

for

(b) topical photographs and photographs pertaining to the developmental projects to the Ministry of External Affairs for publicity abroad; (©) exhibition

size

photographs

to

the

Directorate

of

Advertising

Visual Publicity for their exhibitions in the country; and

(d) photographs of cultural and tourist interest to the DPD tion in their journals.

black

and

for publica-

In addition to the above, the Division also prepares colour as well as and

white

photo

albums

for presentation

to the

foreign

dignitaries

visiting the country, assists the Department of Family Welfare in the matter of photographic work for family planning publicity; supplies photographs on payment under ‘Pricing Scheme’ to the non-publicity organisations

and members of public. A full fledged colour unit is functioning in the Division. It is equipped with modern machinery to handle all kinds of colour jobs required for internal and external publicity. Photo Section in

the Directorate of Public Relation, Ministry of Defence, is also functioning under

the Division.

With

the

help

of

‘PAKO’,

automatic

photo

printing

machine, which can turn out 1,500 enlargements per hour, the Division is

in a position to meet the demands for larger number quired for press publicity at a short notice.

of photographs

re-

CENTRAL MEDIA

11s

Activities During 1975 During

the year

signments,

1975,

processed

the Division

covered

3,375

223 colour films and handled

news

1,49,274

and

feature

negatives.

as-

The

Division prepared 5,99,626 black and white prints, 155 colour prints and

2,441 colour transparencies. Ties and delegations

tant events

were

who

Extensive photo coverages of foreign dignita-

visited the country, conferences

undertaken

during

and other impor-

the year.

The Division has a Plan scheme, viz., ‘Wire Photo Service’. With the implementation of this scheme four metropolitan cities, namely, Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta and Madras, are being linked up with the wire photo network so that the photographs of the same function could be given simulta-

neous

publicity

centres

at all

these centres. Setting

is in the final stage and it is expected

full operation shortly. Budget estimates

up

of dark

rooms

that the scheme

for 1976-77:

at these

will be in

Rs. 23.00 lakhs.

Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity The

Directorate of Advertising

& Visual

Publicity undertakes

advertising

and visual publicity campaigns on behalf of various ministries (excluding Railways), departments and autonomous bodies under the Government.

History After the outbreak of World felt the need

for propagation

War

II,

of its views

the

then Government of India

and this led to the appointment

of a Chief Press Adviser. Advertising was one of the responsibilities of the Chief

Press

Adviser.

In June

1941,

a post of Advertising

created under the Chief Press Adviser. On

vertising

1 March

1942,

Branch

of the

the

Advertising

Department

Following the expansion of its Branch

was declared

Consultant's

of

Consultant

Office became

Information

and

functions and activities, the

the

was

Ad-

Broadcasting.

Advertising

an attached office of the Ministry of Information and

Broadcasting with effect from

1 October

1955. It was

Directorate of Advertising & Visual Publicity.

also designated

as

Organisational Set-up The

Directorate,

headed

by

a Director,

has

officers

trained

in different

fields of activity such as printing, advertising, outdoor publicity, exhibi-

tions and art work.

116

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978 The Directorate has three Regional

Bombay,

Calcutta and Madras—and

Distribution Centres—one

each at

34 Field Exhibition Offices all over

India, including five mobile vans and two exhibition coaches.

Functions Broadly

speaking,

the

main

functions

of the Directorate

(1) Planning, production and release issue of classified advertisements; (2) Planning,

production

material,

e.g.,

calendars, etc. 3)

Production

and

posters,

and

folders,

display

signs, multi-colour slides.

metal

of display

distribution

pamphlets,

of outdoor

tablets,

advertisements

of

printed

booklets,

publicity

painted

are:

material,

hoardings

and

publicity

broadsheets, e.g.

and

neon-

cinema

(4) Planning and organising exhibitions. (5) Pretesting and evaluation of selected and distributed by the Directorate. (6) Display

of news

on

‘Spot News

publicity

Boards’

material

in a few

produced

major

cities.

(7) Production and distribution of wall-newspapers and four regional languages.

in English,

(8) Production of a weekly journal machar’ in six languages.

News/Rozgar

(9) Regulating These

Directorate.

accreditation

functions

‘Campaign

are

Wing:

carried

The

of

advertising

out

primary

‘Employment

through

agencies

the

in

following

the

Hindi Sa-

country.

wings

responsibility of the Campaign

of

the

Wing

is to plan, coordinate and implement the various publicity campaigns. The Wing plans the implementation of the campaigns by selecting the media most suitable for each campaign and by providing the necessary copy material. It keeps continuous watch on the progress of the publicity campaigns and also on the budgetary position in respect of each campaign and client. Copy

Wing:

Final

copy

writing

is

the

responsibility

of

the

Copy

Wing which has a team of Copy Writers and Assistant Editors, each ex-

pert in one of the various regional languages. Visualisation : DAVP

Art Executives

has a large Studio staffed by a Chief Visualiser,

and Senior Artists. All visualisation

and art-work for the

CENTRAL MEDIA

117

different media is done in the Studio. The Photo Division of the Ministry of

Information

and

Broadcasting

provides

vices to the Studio and the Exhibition

photographic

facilities

Wing.

and

ser-

Printed Publicity Wing: The Printed Publicity Wing has five sections responsible for the production of all printed publicity material. DAVP entrusts the printing of its material to private printing presses on its panel drawn up

by expert committees.

Awards for Excellence in Printing and Designing! : The Directorate orga-

nises every year the ‘National Awards

for Excellence in Printing and De-

signing’, in order to generate healthy standards

in printing and

lay-out. In the

competitive

endeavours for higher

18th Awards, announced

in all, 404 awards were given to 135 winners under 44 categories. Distribution

Branch:

headquarters at New

The

Distribution

Branch

of DAVP,

both

in 1976,

at the

Delhi and at Regional Centres is responsible for the

distribution of publicity

material

produced

The Distribution Branch has a huge —for distributing the publicity material. cipients is included in the mailing list. officials, individuals and organisations, urban and rural schools, professional channels.

by the Directorate.

library of addresses—about 6 lakhs A wide variety of categories of reThey cover both officials and nonnon-resident Indians living abroad, bodies, and rural communication

Outdoor Publicity Wing: Publicity through outdoor media is handled by the Outdoor Publicity Unit. The Unit comprising seven sections, handles

a wide range of outdoor publicity media for the various campaigns undertaken by DAVP. These include painted hoardings, publicity boards on pas-

senger buses, cinema

slides,

boxes, enamel

suburban metallic

trains and

tablets

and

boards, neon-signs

at railway

shelf-strips,

and

stations, spot news metal

calendars,

advertising on kiosks.

boards, savings

Advertising Wing: Press advertisements of all the Ministries and departments of the Government of India (excluding railways), a number of

public sector undertakings, banks, autonomous bodies, etc., are released to

the press through

the DAVP.

While

tisements, special consideration is

selecting newspapers

given

to

medium

for these adver-

and small newspapers

keeping in view the requirements and the audiences to reach.

The

concerned

Media, with

Rates and Coordination Section of Advertising Wing

considering

the suitability of newspapers

1See Appendices for List of Awards,

is

for government

118

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

advertisements and settlement of rates. The Wing also advises state governments and public sector undertakings, about the use of various categoTies of newspapers

for advertising.

Accreditation': Some of the undertakings employ commercial advertising agencies for their publicity. Only those advertising agencies can solicit business from

the undertakings

which

are accredited to DAVP.

Exhibition Wing' : To publicise the Five Year Plans through the medium of exhibition, an Exhibition Division was set up under the Planning

Commission in 1953. In 1955, the Exhibition Division was made a part of

DAVP.

Since then the Division has considerably expanded

its scope of ac-

tivities and is today not only publicising the Plans but also projecting all

the

various

aspects

of government

policies, programmes

and

performance.

The Division is staffed by technical personnel and is also equipped with

a workshop.

It designs

all the exhibits

it requires

and

also prepares

their

prototypes. The prototypes are got duplicated through any of the 30 commercial agencies on DAVP’s

panel.

DAVP

organises not only pavilions in

larger exhibitions but also independent exhibitions. A large number of exhi-

bitions are put up in non-metropolitan ceatres. This Division has 34 Field Exhibition Units which conduct exhibitions in interior areas. In addition,

there are five Mobile Van Units and two Exhibition Coaches. On an average

DAVP

organises about 700 exhibitions every year.

Research Unit : The Research Unit, though small in size at present,

undertakes selective pretesting and post-release evaluation, providing useful

feed-back for improving the form and content of the publicity organised by

this media unit.

Employment

News:

To

help young graduates

and other qualified per-

sons to get information about job opportunities from a single source, DAVP has started a weekly journel called ‘Employment News/Rozgar Samachar’. The first issue was brought out on 29 March

vertisements

on job opportunities

sector undertakings, autonomous

1976. The weekly carries ad-

available in Central government,

bodies and others. The

public

weekly also carries

information on scholarships and job opportunities for Indians in other coun-

tries.

The weekly

is being published

English, Hindi, Urdu,

simultaneously

Bengali, Tamil, Assamese

tion now exceeds 3,30,000.

1See Appendices for List of Accredited Advertising Agencies.

*See Appendices for List of Field Exhibition Units.

in seven

and Telugu.

languages—

The circula-

CENTRAL MEDIA

119

Budget: DAVP’s budget is a composite one, being the sum total of the publicity grants approved by the client departments and ministries. Finance for publicity is provided also by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare for the family planning and Nirodh campaigns. A third source of funds is the advance deposits made by autonomous bodies for meeting the expenditure on their advertising/publicity work. The budget grant figures for the year 1976-77 are: DAVP’s Grant

3

Rs 3,55,75,000

Family

Planning

:

Rs

21,39,000

Nirodh

Campaign

:

Rs

18,61,000

:

Rs

24,00,000

Advance deposits expected from autonomous bodies Total:

Rs 4,19,75,000

Directorate of Field Publicity! The Directorate of Field Publicity, headed by a Director, is one of the mass communication media which works in the field in direct contact with the people. It functions through its 216 units spread all over the country and grouped under 17 Regional Offices. The organisation was set up in 1953 for integrated plan publicity with 34 mobile units, some mounted on carts and

country-crafts.

Organisational Set-up The Field Publicity Directorate is a three-tier organisation—the Directorate, the Regional Offices and the Field Units. The Directorate maintains overall

control and issues policy guidelines, while the Regional Officer maintains administrative, financial and programme activity supervision of the units. Total number of staff on Directorate’s roll at present is 1,785. Of the 216

units, 67 units are located

in border areas of the country.

Thirty units are financed by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Functions The

main

task of the Field

Publicity Organisation

is to carry

the Govern-

ment’s policies and programmes and to interpret them to masses through their own language aided by audio-visual means. This helps in mobilising 1$ee Appendices for List of Regional and Field Publicity Offices.

120

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

Mass support and also motivating the people for action in their own sphere of

activity.

Main

themes

of

publicity

comprise

democracy,

secularism,

national integration, communal harmony, planned development with emphasis on people’s participation and family planning.

It also provides a feed-back by supplying public reactions on Government’s policies and programmes. The Field Publicity Organisation thus functions for Government

ears.

not only as its communicator but also as its eyes and

The basic approach is

programmes

organised

communication at human

consist of film shows,

level. The

live programmes

publicity

using

tradi-

tional media like folk plays, puppet-performances, ballads etc., oral communication such as public meetings, group discussions, question-answer sessions, seminars/symposia, and elocutions, debates and other competitions. In addition, photo exhibitions, posters, publicity literature, radio and tapeTecorders are used to convey the message.

Specially commissioned

material,

at times translated in tribal dialects, is used in border areas. The Directorate is thus a unique organisation using multi-media channel. For

channellising

non-official

participation

and maintenance

of conti-

nuous flow of information to people, Citizens’ Information Forums with welfare organisations and prominent non-officials as members, have been formed The

at unit

headquarters

field publicity

and

important townships.

activity of the organisation

is now

concentrated

in

tural areas, with emphasis on far flung and interior villages. Where means

of communication are not available, such as areas with mountainous terrain or dense forestry, foot marches are undertaken. Field units are located from Poonch and Kargil in Kashmir to Kavarathi in Lakshadweep, Bhuj in Gujarat

in the West to Kalishahar in Tripura and Tezu in North-East and down to

the Islands of Car Nicobar in the coverage of two to three districts.

Bay

of Bengal.

Each

unit

is assigned

Each field publicity unit is equipped with a jeep, 16 mm projector, generator, and a transistorised radio-receiving set besides adequate number of documentary films on a variety of subjects, mini photo-exhibition set, posters and publicity literature. A few feature films on national subjects are also available. The units normally tour for twenty days a month and strive to cover at least two villages a day. To enable field officers to present an authentic picture in their oral communication programme, Talking Points on a variety of subjects are issued

from the Directorate Officers.

and

on

subjects of local relevance

by the

Regional

Book production in India is as old as printing in the country. India produces books not only in regional languages but also in several world languages. Tryst with destiny. There was a.set-back to the nation’s commitment to freedom and democracy. The cherished values were thrown to winds and freedom was locked up behind bars.

bY

Late

sine

|

Television

for schools—lessons

Developmental journalism

in science,

sociology

cnd

telecast

within the reach of literate masses.

and Broadcasting publishes

Wall Newspaper

other

from

subjects

are

Doordarshan

regularly

Kendras.

The Ministry of Information

‘Hamara

Desh’

in 10 languages.

CENTRAL MEDIA

121

Also, in order to highlight contributions of commonman in the Nation’s march to self-reliance, success stories on individual achievements in various activities were collected from the grass root and publicised through

press, radio and oral communication.

To enable opinion leaders from remote and interior areas to see for themselves, the land and the people and changes taking place in rest of the country,

a few Bharat

Darshan

tours are organised

every year by the Di-

rectorate.

Budget:

The sanctioned budget grant for the Directorate of Field Publi-

city (Headquarters The

and its Regional

Ministry of Health

Offices) for 1976-77 is Rs

and Family

Welfare

grant of Rs 20,50,000 for the year 1976-77.

1,65,96,000.

also sanctioned

a budget

Publications Division The Publications Division is a centralised publishing house for the prepatration, production, distribution and sale of non-technical literature—books,

pamphlets, booklets, illustrated albums and journals. At present, it is the country’s largest publishing enterprise in the public sector.

History The

Division

has grown

out

of the

nucleus

of what

in January

1941

was the Foreign Branch of the Bureau of Public Information. It was renamed as Information Office (Foreign) and transferred to the External Affairs

Department in April 1941. In another three months was renamed as Publicity Office (Foreign). It produced printed

publicity

material

as well as films in Afghanistan,

time, the office and distributed Iran

and

West Asian countries. It also exercised policy control over AIR’s casts to West Asia.

other

broad-

In October 1943, the office was transferred to the Department of Infor-

mation and Broadcasting. In December 1944, it was renamed as the Publications Division. Then the Division was bringing out not only propaganda pamphlets but also a number of periodicals in many foreign languages, in-

cluding English, Pushtu, French, Persian and Russian.

After the end of World War II, the functions of the Publications Division were redefined. From propaganda against the Axis Powers in countries abroad, it switched over to constructive Government

publicity through

the written word. The Division was reorganised with a view to streamlining

its work.

17—3 M ofI & B/77

122

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

In tune with this objective, the Division has, over the years, diversified the range and quality of its publications, including journals. A good many of the journals, particularly those published in foreign languages, were discontinued and instead, journals seeking to project the various facets of Indian life and culture and policies and programmes of the Government were

launched.

In the beginning, the Division had its own

Press.

Housing

press, known

as the United

In July 1952, the press was transferred to the Ministry of Works, and

Supply.

In October 1953, it was made responsible for the popularisation of the

Five Year Plan under what was then known as the Integrated Publicity Programme. In February 1956, the work of compilation and publication of ‘Col-

lected Works of Mahatma Gandhi’ was entrusted to the Division. The Division was also asked to produce a large number of titles on behalf of the National Book Trust. In 1962, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting defined the functions of the Division, which were to be as follows:

(i) to publish books and pamphlets like ‘India—A

cative types;

which impart factual information

Reference Annual’, or information of a general edu-

(ii) to publish literature which is

types;

designed

for

publicity of various

(iii) to publish literature of national significance like ‘Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi’, ‘Builders of Modern India’ series, etc., and

Children’s books;

(iv) to publish speeches of national interest, such as those of the Presi-

dent, the Vice-President and the Prime Minister;

(v) to publish pictorial albums; (vi) to publish books on behalf of the National Book Trust. (The NBT is now bringing out its own publications.)

Organisational

Set-up

The work of the Division, headed by a Director, is organised functionally

into

four main

Administration. Editorial

wings:

Wing:

(1) Editorial,

The

(2) Production,

(3) Business, and

functions of the Editorial Wing

are—writing

(4)

and

preparation of manuscripts, editing of manuscripts sent by the sponsoring ministries or written by outside authors, preparation of books and pamphlets in regional languages,

publications of journals, and

advising

ministries and

other offices regarding the preparation and production of publicity material.

CENTRAL

MEDIA

123

The Editorial Wing is further sub-divided into (i) English Unit, (ii) Hindi

Unit, (iii) Regional Language Units, and (iv) Journals.

Production Wing: The Production Wing handles the post-editorial operations, including the printing of all the books brought out by this Divi-

sion. It has three sections—Production, Business

Wing:

Art and Photo Sections.

The distribution,

sales,

publicity and

space-selling

(securing of advertisements) are under the care of the Business Wing. Its work is divided broadly into (i) Sales Promotion, (ii) Space selling, (iii) Sales through booksellers to other departments, (iv) Ad hoc sales, (v) Regular subscriptions, (vi) Free distribution, (vii) Stocks, and (viii) Despatch. The Business Wing consists of three Sales Emporia at Bombay, Delhi and Calcutta, a Regional Distribution Office in Madras and a Feeder Store

at Faridabad.

Activities and Programmes The

Publications

Division

is today

responsible

for

publicity

through

the

printed word, books, pamphlets, journals and illustrated albums on the poli-

cies and programmes of the Government. Since its inception the Division has

brought out more than 5,000 titles. The total number of titles that it brings out every year is about 200.

An important function of the Division is to bring out journals on behalf of different ministries apart from its own. The journals brought out by the Division are as follows: 1, Ajkal (Hindi):

a publicity-cum-cultural monthly.

2. Ajkal (Urdu): a publicity-cum-cultural journal (monthly) cial emphasis on developments in the field of Urdu. 3, Bal Bharati:

with spe-

a children’s monthly magazine in Hindi.

4. Indian and Foreign Review: a fortnightly sponsored by the Ministry of External Affairs presents Indian and world events from the Indian point of view. 5. Kurukshetra:

brought

6. YOjana:

mission

a fortnightly

in

English

out on behalf of the Ministry

a fortnightly brought

in English,

(Payohhari),

Marathi.

Tamil

Hindi,

and

a monthly

of Agriculture.

in

out on behalf of the Planning

Bengali

(Thittam),

(Dhan

Malayalam,

Dhanya),

Telugu,

Hindi Com-

Assamese

Gujarati

and

124

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978 On

special occasions, the Division undertakes

the publication of lite-

rature suitable for the purpose. To mention a few the Division brought out a series of 20 pamphlets written by experts in their own fields, reviewing from a personal angle, the developments during the first quarter century in connection with the 25th anniversary of India’s Independence.

The Division has brought out Dr Tara of Freedom

Movement

(4 volumes), Story

(for children) and D. G. Tendulkar’s

Chand’s monumental History of

Our

monumental

Freedom

8 volume

Movement

biography of

the Mahatma. Among the important projects which the Publications Division has in hand is the publication of the Collected Works of Mahatma

Gandhi, carrying all his writings and speeches.

It may also be mentioned that in connection with Gandhi Centenary, the Division brought out about 20 publications, including Mahatma Gandhi by Romain Rolland, Mahatma Gandhi—A Great Life in Brief by Viscent Sheean, M. K. Gandhi—An Indian Patriot in South Africa by J. J. Doke, Bapu Ki Vani and a revised edition of Gandhi Album in all languages.

Builders of Modern India:

The object of the

Division’s

‘Builders of

Modern India’ series is the publication of biographies of eminent Indians who have been instrumental in our national renaissance during the last 150 years and the struggle for Independence. Till now 35 biographies have

been brought out. Many

on

States of Our Union:

more

are under various stages of production.

Under the ‘The States of our Union’ series, titles

16 States have already been brought out. About

ten other books

in the

series are in different stages of production or editorial progress. These books

deal with the life of the people, language and literature, developmental acti-

vities, etc., of the State.

Cultural Leaders of India: ‘The Cultural Leaders of India’ series aims at bringing out a series of fourteen volumes giving the life and work of the

great figures since the earliest times who have contributed to the evolution

of culture and thought of

India. Two of the volumes,

namely the Social

Philosophers and Six Schools of Philosophy are already in the press. Speeches of Leaders : The Division has brought out the

national

leaders,

including the Presidents,

Prime

Ministers,

speeches

of

Vice-Presidents

ete.

Five Year Plans: Another very important activity of the Publications Division is to project the broad pattern of social and economic developments under the Five Year Plans. A number of publications have been brought out from time to time.

CENTRAL

MEDIA

Books

125

for Children:

The

Publications

Division

was

among

the ear-

liest organisations which produced books for children. The Division brought out a number of books including Panchatantra, The Children’s Ramayana,

The Last Tiger, The Elephant, Children’s History of India, The Gandhi

Story and The Story of Jawaharlal Nehru in different languages.

Art Books: The Division has been pioneer in bringing out art books. More than 15 years ago, it brought out a book on Kangra Valley Painting and latter Basohli Painting, Garhwal Painting and Heritage of Indian Art. The

Division has now on hand a publication on the Wall Paintings in the Hima-

layas.

During the period from April 1975 to March 1976, the sales emporium in New Delhi Super Bazar earned a revenue of over Rs 52 lakhs through the sale of various publications as against the annual lakhs envisaged under the scheme.

Budget

estimate

for

sale

1976-77:

target of Rs

Rs

4

1.18 crores,

Song and Drama Division The Song and Drama Division, headed by a Director, is entrusted with the task of utilising live shows of major and minor theatrical forms for

the purpose of communication.

The main function of the Division is to create awareness and motivation about various national policies and social objectives of the nation,

through live entertainment media which include both and folk forms covering all regions of the country.

urban The

caters partly to the entertainment of jawans in forward areas. The

Division’s programme

work

is carried

theatre forms Division also

out through departmental

troupes as well as through private performing parties which are screened and registered for this purpose. A few programmes are also arranged

through

established theatre groups and

regular work.

In the general

programmes

of the

artists who

Division,

are not registered for

the audience

aimed

at is

mainly in rural and border areas of the country. However, attention is provided to urban audiences also according to requirements of publicity among opinion makers, students, workers, etc.

History The Song and Drama Division was started in 1954 as a small unit under the Directorate General, All India Radio, for organising programmes of

village theatre parties through units of the Directorate of Field Publicity,

Block Development Officers, etc., with the purpose of publicising various developmental programmes under the Five Year Plans.

126

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978 The Division was separated from All India Radio in 1960 and was esta-

blished as an independent media unit of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. It also expanded the scope of its programmes to general themes of national

importance,

besides publicity of programmes

under

the

Five Year Plans. At this time the Division did not have any field offices. In 1964, the report of the Study Team for Five Year Plan Publicity (Vidyalankar Committee) made it clear that though the stage medium was an important vehicle of communication, the programmes of the private

parties in the field would not come upto the mark unless they were controlled by technically qualified staff of the Song and Drama Division. The stress from then onwards was on the creation: of field offices and depart-

mental troupes of the Division, ced in theatrical arts.

manned

by technical

personnel

experien-

The Division’s headquarters in Delhi and its nineteen offices in diffeTent parts of the country are responsible for preparation of publicity pro-

grammes in theatre forms and their presentation in the field.

At present the policy control, accounts and administration of the Division are centralised in the headquarters at Delhi and the field offices

are

mainly

responsible

for

devising

and

presenting

programmes.

The first field offices of the Division were set up in 1966 at Srinagar, Simla (now partly shifted to Jullundur), Jodhpur, Nainital, Darbhanga, Gauhati and "mphal when it undertook the Border Publicity Scheme. At each

ining

of

these

offices

departmental

staff of producers

and

performing

instructors

were

parties

stationed.

with

adequate

The

tra-

performers

were recruited locally and they presented programmes in the local dialects and folk idiom, in small civilian pockets along the international border.

Closely

following on

the heels of the Border

Publicity

Offices,

six

Lucknow

that Department in the

Offices headed by technical officers were opened in 1967-68 at Zonal Headquarters of the Regional Directorates of the Department of Family Welfare viz. Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Bhopal (shifted to Patna in 1973),

Calcutta, Chandigarh and intensive

publicity

of

family

for

assisting

planning.

These

offices

departmental troupes under their control but organised

mes

through

registered

private

parties.

They

provided

did

not

have

any

publicity programthe much

needed

control including toning up their performance quality on the registered private parties in the country at local level. These offices which were supported by the budget

of

the

Department

of

Family

been taken over in the budget of the I & B Ministry.

ment

Nine

In

Welfare

have now

1967, a wing in the headquarter office was created for entertainof Armed Forces in forward areas through departmental troupes.

composite

programme

troupes

comprising

actors, actresses,

dancers,

CENTRAL MEDIA

127

singers, instrumentalists and stage assistants with a complement of production staff dealing with all the troupes were created. In 1973, these troupes were decentralised from Delhi and at present two troupes are located in

Delhi, three in Jullundur, two in Bareilly and one in Siliguri (this troupe

is now stationed temporarily in Madras).

There are now six departmental drama troupes—two perform in Hindi and are located in Delhi and Patna—and four in regional languages troupes and are stationed at Srinagar (Urdu and Kashmiri), Bhubaneshwar (Oriya), Pune (Marathi) and Hyderabad (Telugu).

From 1969, the Division also experimented with the new medium of Sound and Light shows with live action. These programes will now be

put on a regular footing under Fifth Plan scheme.

Programmes of Departmental Troupes The departmental Border

Publicity

troupes

offices

are

(Srinagar,

of

various

Simla,

types.

Jullundur,

The

28 troupes

Jodhpur,

at

Nainital,

Darbhanga, Gauhati and Imphal) are small performing parties of 10 performers each. The performers are of multipurpose talent and can present a composite programme of songs, dances, skits, etc. in the local dialects and folk forms. The strength is small as these units have to travel in interior and

difficult areas along the international border.

A Departmental Drama Troupe consists of 10 actors, -four actresses, three

instrumentalists, one stage decorator and four stage assistants. There are six

such troupes.

A composite

:

.

programme

troupe

of the Armed

Forces

Entertainment

Wing consists of three actors, two actresses, three male dancers, three female dancers, two female singers, five instrumentalists, one stage decorator, one make-up man-cum-dresser and one stage assistant, besides production staff.

The

figures of the performances

of various

troupes

are

as follows:

Programme Statistics 1. 2.

3.

Programmes through private troupes

Programmes through

departmental troupes Sound and Light

programmes

Grand Total

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

8,854

10,960

11,673

12,074

—-:12,191

3,314

3,900

2,693

2,730

2,863

-

52

93

175

141

14,912

14,459

14,979

15,195

12,168

128

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

Programmes of Registered Private Parties

The

Song

and

Drama

Division

depends

on

the

registered

private

par-

ties for the bulk of the programmes in different parts of the country. Publicity oriented

which

entertainment

are familiar

programmes

to the target audience,

have

to be presented

for easy

in forms

acceptability.

As

such

traditional media representing culture of a particular region have to be selected for this purpose. Secondly, during a particular campaign, different areas have to be covered simultaneously and this can be done only if different parties are available for simultaneous engagement. This

cannot be achieved through departmental troupes and dependence on private parties is unavoidable.

The private parties are considered for registration on the basis of recommendations made by the Regional Officers of the Directorate of Field Publicity and Deputy Directors of Song and Drama Division working in the field. Once registered they must not make any changes in the approved programme which they are expected to present in the field. The number of parties on the registration roll of the Division generally varies between 325 and 375.

Sound and Light Programmes During

1969, on the occasion

of the 50th anniversary

of Jallianwala

Bagh

massacre, the Division prepared a special feature entitled ‘Vision 1919’ and presented it at the site of the massacre. The programme was organised on an

experimental basis initially for 3 days but continued for more than a month due to overwhelming response of the audience. Encouraged by

this, another Hoya’,

was

programme presented

of Guru Nanak. ing

with

in

in

the

same

Amritsar

medium,

during

the

entitled ‘Jag Chanan 500th

anniversary

A third programme named ‘Asee Ass, Asee Asav’ deal-

the history

and

culture

of the Kashmir

valley was

presented

at

the Hari Prabat, Srinagar, in 1970. In the wake of the Bangla Desh war, a programme on ‘The People’s Struggle for Freedom’ was presented at the Old

Fort in New

Delhi

celebrations of 1972.

as part of the hurriedly

organised

Republic

Day

The programme ‘Badhte Qadam’, dealing with India’s

freedom struggle and developments after Independence, continued even after the silver jubilee celebrations and the latest programme was presented in Patna in the early part of 1976.

Meanwhile programmes of similar nature but of a smaller magnitude were experimented with in Bihar from 1972 onwards in order to try out the mobility of the programme. The show on the life of Maithili poet

‘Vidyapati’ proved quite popular and was shown in a number of towns.

Shows

were presented

on ‘Ghalib’

and ‘Bahadur Shah Zafar’

in Delhi.

CENTRAL MEDIA

129

This year a special show on

walon Ki Sair’ in poet ‘Subramania September 1976. bition in UP and Fifth

A

country,

will

Khusro’

was

presented in the ‘Phul-

New Delhi. A new programme on the life of the national Bharati’ was inaugurated in Madras towards the end of A show on ‘Jhansi Ki Rani’ has been prepared for exhiMP in the near future.

separate Sound

Plan,

‘Amir

be

and Light

Wing,

solely responsible

further developing

the medium

proposed

for

and

to be set up during

presenting

exploring

such

shows

its publicity

the

in the poten-

tialities. Rabindra Rangshala The prestigious open air theatre, Rabindra Rangshala, constructed in New Delhi as a part of the Rabindranath Tagore Birth Centenary celebrations, was transferred to the Song and Drama Division in April 1972

for management. As the theatre is rarely booked for big size stage shows, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting decided in 1974 to put it to an

additional use for screening films. After equipping it for this purpose, the Division started screening films in it during fair weather seasons from 1974. Popular films are shown there at nominal rates and this has proved quite

successful.

Republic Day

Folk

Dance

Festival

Since its inception, the Song

and

Drama

Division

has been lending a

helping hand in technical matters pertaining to the organisation of the Republic Day Folk Dance Festival. The entire responsibility of organising the

Republic

Division.

Day

Folk

Dance

Festival

has

now

been

passed

on

to the

Programme Highlights

As mentioned earlier the Division started with programmes on popula-

risation of Plan programmes. Of course, these included village uplift, eradication of superstition, scientific agriculture, etc. The themes of national integration, communal harmony, patriotism, eradication of untouchability and other social evils, etc. were added gradually. In the border areas

the stress was on self defence, civil defence, emotional integration with the Test of the country and preservation of local culture and heritage, programmes on themes of nation-wide interest were also tackled. The

Division

has

also been

responsible for arranging

grammes for foreign dignitaries and before gatherings ternational conferences. 18—3 M ofI & B/ND/77

while

prestigious pro-

in national and in-

130

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

Budget: Division

different

1978

Beginning with a small budget of about Rs 3 lakhs in 1954, the today controls a budget of more than one crore rupees under

schemes.

It also receives

some

budget

support

of Health and Family Welfare for some programmes. Budget estimates

from

for 1976-77:

the Ministry

Rs

1.09 crores

Registrar of Newspapers for India The office of the Registrar of Newspapers for India has been set up under

the Press and the PRB Act ed particulars in respect of

Registration of Books Act. The main functions defined under are: (i) to compile and maintain a register containing prescribabout all newspapers and the issue of Registration Certificates them, (ii) to clear and approve new titles of newspapers before

the declarations under the Act in respect of them are authenticated by the

District Magistrates,

(iii) to keep

a watch

on the regularity of newspapers

published within the country, (iv) to verify and check the circulation claims of newspapers and to see that newsprint is allotted to the newspapers and periodicals on the number of copies actually in circulation, and (v) to pre-

pare an Annual Report containing information and statistics about the Press in India, and in particular, circulation trends in different categories of newspapers and the trends in the direction of common ownership of more than one newspaper. The Report is submitted to the Central Government on 30 September every year. The Report is subsequently printed, laid before

the Parliament and made available to the public.

In addition to the statutory functions, Registrar of Newspapers for India has been entrusted with various other non-statutory functions. They

are:

(@® to assess the requirements

foreign

exchange

machinery;

(ii) to conduct

the same;

resources

negotiations

of the newspaper

for import

for the

of

purchase

industry

and to obtain

newsprint

and

printing

and

import

of newsprint

(iii) to examine and coordinate proposals with other Ministries for esta-

blishing Newsprint Mills and Printing Machinery;

(iv) to frame and announce

the Newsprint

Allocation

Policy

of the Go-

vernment of India every year under the Import Control Act;

(v) to distribute and

Allocation

allocate

newsprint

to actual users according

Policy of the Government;

:

to the

(vi) to examine and certify essentiality of the requirement of newspapers/

periodicals of printing, composing and other machinery;

CENTRAL MEDIA

131

(vii) to certify the essentiality of annual general requirements of consumable articles of newspapers for issue of import licences; and (viii) to study various aspects of development in the Press including circulation, number and periodicity on a continuing basis. The scopo

of the study is enlarged every year.

Performance

During

Newsprint:

1975-76

Following the easing of shortage

in

availability of news-

print, the Newsprint Policy for 1975-76 provided for an increase of 20 per

cent over the performance of newspapers and periodicals in 1974-75. The estimated demand of newsprint for 1975-76 was 2,16,000 tonnes. This in-

cluded 55,000 tonnes from the National Newsprint and Paper Mills, Nepa-

nagar. The Newsprint Policy announced in May 1975 did not fully restore the cut made in newsprint supply during the years 1973-74 and 1974-75, but

following availability of further quantities, the policy was amended permitting newspapers to claim newsprint to meet their full requirements. On

account of the high price of newsprint

and slow off-take, the posi-

tion of imports was reviewed and it was decided in October 1975 to suspend

further

imports

in

view

of

the

huge

buffer

stocks

with

the

State

of

total

value

Trading Corporation of India. As a result of this measure, stocks in the STC buffer as well as with the Nepa Mills were reviewed to safe levels. Rs

During

the

year

1975-76,

printing

122.02 lakhs was recommended

newspapers in the country.

machinery

the

of

by this office to different categories of

Verification of Titles: During 1975, the number of references received from the Magistrates for verification of titles for newspapers under Section

6 of the PRB Act, was 9,619.

5,111 refused.

Of these as many as 4,508 were cleared and

The number of declarations received for the same period was 7,583. Of these 3,214 were in respect of new newspapers and 4,369 in respect of

existing

newspapers.

The

work

relating

to

the declaration

has

gone

up

because of the cancellation of declarations of many newspapers under vari-

ous sections of the PRB Act by the concerned Magistrates.

Circulation Check: The number of papers checked during 1975 was 726. In addition, 16 old cases relating to the previous years were also

finalised during the year. This involved visit to 15 states and 53 stations. The circulation checks covered a total circulation of nearly 53.52 lakh

copies per publishing

22,000 tonnes.

day

involving a total newsprint

Budget estimates for 1976-77:

allocation of over Rs 16.34 lakhs.

.

132

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

Research and Reference Division The Research and Reference Division, headed by a Director, studies in depth problems of national significance and provides reference service to the media units of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting and others.

The Division’s regular services include ‘Background to the News’, ‘Reference

Papers’,

‘Biography

Service’,

Diary of Events’, and

‘Basic Statistics’,

The

Division compiles ‘India—A Reference Annual’ which is a standard work of reference and provides objective and authentic information on diverse aspects

of national life and activities and also ‘Mass Media in India’ which is the only publication

of

its

kind

in the country

giving

up-to-date

information

and

Statistics on different media of mass communication. The Division has a Re-

ference

Library

with

papers and periodicals.

more

than

45,000

A National Documentation

books—bound

volumes

of news-

Centre on Mass Communication

has been

set up as part of the Division with the broad objective of collecting and disseminating information relating to mass communication studies and pro-

blems.

of mass

This Centre will provide documentation service on different media communication—press,

films,

broadcasting,

television

and

audio-

visual publicity. The Centre brings out various services like ‘Media Memory’, ‘Bulletin on Films’, ‘Reference Information Service’, etc.

During 1976, the Division brought out more than 75 backgrounders and tesearch and reference papers on various subjects. Budget

estimates for 1976-77:

Rs

7.50 lakhs

as

a medium

Films Division Recognising

of mass

the

importance

communication

and

utility

and education,

of

motion

picture

the Government

of India

decided

towards the end of 1947 to set up a film organisation on the pattern of the defunct Information Films of India, which had functioned during the war

and disbanded

in

1946.

Thus

the

Films

Division, with headquarters

in Bombay, came into existence in 1948. With a modest production of 28 newsreels, it has been gradually expanding over the years and today the

Division editions

year.

produces

of

140 to 150 documentary

newsreels

and

an

equal

number

films in addition to about of

regional

It also acquires ready-made films from outside parties.

newsreels

50

every

Most of these

films are made in English and dubbed in 14 Indian languages. Films Division is now one of the largest short film producing organisations in the

world. It supplies over 50,000 prints of its films annually for commercial and non-commercial

distribution and about

mentaries and newsreels each week.

75 million people see its docu-

CENTRAL MEDIA

133

For the production of defence training films and the production of agricultural films there are special units of the Division located at New

Delhi. For the production of newsreels, 13 Newsreel tant Newsreel Officers have been posted in different

Officers and 5 Assisparts of the country.

Organisational Set-up The Films Division, headed by the Chief Producer, has three main wings —

@ Production Wing, (ii) Distribution Wing, and (iii) Administrative Wing. Production Wing: While

the

Division

undertakes

the

bulk

of its Production

programme

through its own units, about 40 films are also got done each year through approved private producers. These films are produced under the general guidance of the Films Division. Eminent producers from the Indian Film Industry make films for the Films Division.

Newsreel:

The

Division

produces

one newsreel every week.

Thirteen

Newsreel Officers, stationed at Bombay, Calcutta, New Delhi, Madras and other important cities in India, cover important news items for inclus ion in

the newsreels. Since January 1970, the Division is also producing a weekly

regional newsreel, in addition to its national edition. One of the four re-

gions is featured each week. Documentary:

films each year.

The

Division

is responsible

for completion of about

18

The unit located in Delhi is to supervise the production

of films on Food and Agriculture and the Calcutta unit is Tesponsible for production of films through outside independent Produc ers in the Eastern

and Southern regions. Production of Defence training films is looked after by one of the units in New Delhi. The work of assign ing films to private

Producers and their general guidance is looked after by one unit. Cartoon Film Unit looks after the production of cartoon films and also Prepares animation sequences for use in live-action about four cartoon films a year.

films.

The

Division produces

The Commentary Section looks after the dubbing of films into Indian and foreign languages. Most of the films are Produ ced in English and dubbed in the following fourteen Indian languages—Assamese, Bengali,

Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Marathi, Malayalam, Oriya, Punjabi; Tamil , Telugu, Urdu and Sindhi.

Distribution Wing: Distribution

Branc

h Offices at Bangalore, Bombay, Calcutta, Hyde rabad, Lucknow, Madras and Nagpur look after the distribution of films in their

Tespective territory.

134

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

Commercial Distribution: All the cinema houses are required to exhibit “approved films” of a length not exceeding 609 metres. Under this scheme,

579

prints of the latest documentary

films and latest newsreels

in

14 languages are released in 579 first run cinema houses in India each week. Each cinema house is getting either a newsreel or a documentary film. After the prints have completed their run of one week in the first set of 579 cinema houses, the same prints are passed on to second set of 579 cinema houses

and this process is continued.

In this way, nearly 8,000 cinema houses in

the country are continuously serviced by films either made by Films Divi-

sion or acquired by it.

Non-commercial Distribution: The Division supplies prints of its films free of charge for non-commercial exhibition to the mobile units of Central and State Government Exhibition Divisions and Railway zones. Besides

the

free supply

films at prescribed rates.

of prints, the Division

also sells prints of its

The Distribution Branch Offices maintain libraries of 16 mm prints of the films produced by the Films Division. The Branch Offices have also been provided with 16 mm projectors. The prints are loaned by them to

government

and

semi-government

departments,

and other charitable institutions free of charge.

educational

institutions

The Division also supplies prints of its films to the Television Centres

in India.

A few films are specially made for telecasting.

Non-commercial Distribution abroad:

Prints of films in 16 mm suitable

for exhibition abroad are also supplied to about 123 Indian Missions/ Posts. These Missions/Posts loan these prints to government and semi-government organisations, educational institutions, etc. for free exhibition. Some

of them also loan prints of our films for free telecasting abroad. Commercial

Distribution abroad:

Prints of newsreels are supplied for

screening in cinema houses in Fiji Islands. Newsreels are also screened by the Mauritius Broadcasting Corporation. In other foreign countries some of the documentaries and newsreels have been commercially exploited on

royalty basis in

cinema

fixed by negotiation.

houses

and

on

TV. The amount of royalty is

Apart from commercial and non-commercial distribution of films, Films Division also sells stock shots (picture, music, sound effects, etc.) for com-

mercial and non-commercial use at scheduled rates.

CENTRAL

MEDIA

135

Exchange of newsreel material: The Division has arrangements for newsreel organisations. international 21 with materials news of exchange free The exchange arrangement is informal. Statistical data are given during the year 1975-76.

below

about

documentary

Films produced by Films Division’s units.

Films produced by independent producers on

B&W

B&W _

25

(145 reels)

18

(47 reels)

(24 reels)

Colour

B&W _

10 (19 reels)

produced

Total

contract

Colour

76

films

Colour

94

35

(169 reels) (66 reels)

Besides wide distribution of the Films Division’s films through

cinema

houses and by the Ministries of Agriculture and Defence for specialised audiences, many films made by the Division are shown extensively in the tural areas by the Division’s sister organisation—the Directorate of Field Publicity.

This is a very important outlet because it is through this channel

that the vast population of the country

exposed to this vital medium

in the rural and tribal areas gets

of information and communication.

Another channel of introducing our films to important audiences con-

sisting of film-makers and likely customers in foreign countries is through participation in the various International Film Festivals and Film Weeks,

It is a measure of Films Division’s success and high standard of technical

and artistic quality of its films that every year on an average the Division receives recognition in the form of 30 to 40 awards and certifi-

cates of participation at the International Film Festivals.

During 1975-76 the Division participated in 44 International Film Festivals and won 10 awards. The films which received awards were (i) Incu-

bation and Hatching, (ii) The Golden Vine, (iii) Atoms, (iv) Land of Krishna, (v) Skin in the Bin, (vi) The Diary of a Cadet, (vii) Broiler—The Table Bird, (viii) Sarojini Naidu—The Nightingale of India, and (ix) Induced

Breeding.

Festival of International Films, Bombay The Festival of International Films was held in Bombay from 2-15 January 1976. During the Festival we had entered about 60 films in the market

section of the festival.

delegations. Budget

estimates

for

The prints of our films were screened to the various

1975-76:

Rs.

3,36,17,000.

136

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

1978

Directorate of Film Festivals The Directorate of Film Festivals, headed by a Director, was set up on 14 May

1973. The

Directorate’s

@ Planning

Film

and

functions

execution

Festival.

are as follows:

of work

in connection

with

(ii) Arranging festivals of foreign films in India and abroad under the Cultural Exchange Programmes rangements with foreign countries.

(ii) Organisation (iv) India’s

of International

participation

Film

in selected

Festivals

the

National

of Indian films and special ar-

in India.

international

film

festivals

abroad.

National Film Festival

National Film

Festival,

previously

called

National

Awards

for Films,

is an annual feature. The purpose of holding such festivals is to promote India’s film art by acknowledging outstanding achievements in different departments of film making. The scheme as constituted at present offers prizes for 28 different categories including the Dada for outstanding contribution to the cause of Indian

Saheb Phalke cinema.

Award

Festivals Under Cultural Exchanges Festivals of Indian films abroad and of foreign films in India are held under Cultural Exchange Programmes formulated by the Department of Culture. Such festivals are also held outside, the formal cultural exchange

programmes on reciprocal basis. The following cultural film festivals were held during 1975-76. Festival @

of Foreign Festival

Films

in India:

of films from

the German

Democratic

Republic

at Delhi,

Yugoslavia

at Bombay,

Cochin,

Bhopal,

Amritsar, Calcutta, Nagpur, Bombay and Hyderabad during March-

May

1975.

(ii) Festival

of films

from

Delhi, Patna, Cuttack

and

Calcutta

(iii) Festival of films from Czechoslovakia bad, Madras, Indore and Lucknow

1975.

during March-June

1975.

at Delhi, Bombay, Ahmedaduring September-December

(iv) Festival of children’s films from Britain organised in Collaboration with the Children’s Film Society (India) at Delhi from 21—25

December

1975.

CENTRAL MEDIA

137

(v) Festival of Hungarian films at Delhi, Madras, Jabalpur, Jaipur, Amritsar, Gauhati and Jamshedpur during January-April 1976. (vi) Festival of films from USSR at Delhi, Madras, Raipur, Cuttack and Ranchi during February-May 1976.

Festival of Indian Films Abroad Festival of Indian films have been held in Poland, in October 1975; Yugoslavia, in December 1975; Czechoslovakia, in February 1976; Tunisia, in February

1976;

and

USSR,

in March

1976,

International Film Festival of India

The last International Film Festival of India, which was the fifth in the series of such festivals, was held in New Delhi from 30 December 1974 to 12 January 1975. During 1975-76, two non-competitor festivals were organised, one in Calcutta

13-27 Nov.

1975 with cooperation of West

Bengal Government and the other in Bombay support of Film Finance Corporation.

2-15

Jan.

1976

with

the

Participation in International Film Festivals

India has been participating in international film festivals abroad. The * Directorate selects films for entry in different festivals with the help of three Regional Panels of Consultants at Bombay, Calcutta and Madras and the Central Panel of Consultants at Delhi. During 1975-76, India participated in 43 international film festivals held abroad and won awards. During

Canada,

1976-77, it is proposed to conduct

Australia, USA,

Algeria and Hungary.

Iran, Turkey,

festivals of Indian films in

Arab Republic of Egypt, Mauritius,

Films from Algeria, Arab Republic of Egypt, France, Bulgaria, Australia and Mexico will be shown in India. It is proposed to participate in

40 to 45 selected International Film Festivals abroad.

In collaboration with

Film Finance Corporation, the Directorate will organise VI International Film Festival of India. It is also planned to organise an international festival of short films for cinema and TV.

Budget for 1976-77:

Rs 30 lakhs

Film and Television Institute of India The Film and Television Institute of India, set up at Pune in 1960, by

the Ministry of I&B, offers training in the art and craft of TV and making. The FTII became an autonomous body in October 1974. 19—3 M ofI & B/77

film

138

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

Since August 1975, the Institute intoduced a two-year common course in cinema, After passing the common course a student will be allowed to specialise in any one of the following disciplines—film direction and screen play writing, sound recording and sound engineering, motion picture photography, film editing and film acting. Television training shan employees.

has so far been

an

in-service

training for Doordar-

Film Finance Corporation The Government of India set up the Film Finance Corporation in March 1960 with the objective of raising the standard of films in the country. Its authorised capital is Rs 1 crore, of which Rs 50 lakhs now constitutes the issued capital, wholly subscribed by the government. The

government has also given a loan of Rs 1 crore of which Rs 12.5 lakhs have been set apart for exhibition activities and Rs 5 lakhs for distribution

activities contemplated by the Corporation. As on 31 March 1971, the Corporation had paid back a sum of Rs 27.64 lakhs. The Corporation has so far advanced loans totalling Rs 2.59 crores for the production of 92

feature films and 33 documentary films.

The Corporation’s success in meeting its objectives of promoting good

cinema can be gauged

from

the fact that its films have so far won 41 na-

tional and other important awards.

country

The

boration

These films have also represented the

at various international festivals.

Corporation

with

the

organised

Directorate

an

of Film

International Festivals

Film

Festival

in January

1976.

in collaFuture

festivals, beginning with the VI International Film Festival, are also to be held under its auspices. All raw-stock for the film industry is channelised through the Corporation as is the export of Indian films. Since 1 January 1975, the Indian Motion Pictures Export Corporation was appointed as sub-agent for the latter activity. The Corporation earned a commission of Rs 69 lakhs upto 31 March 1976 on this account. The Corporation also imports foreign films for exhibition in India. So

far, 48

films

have

been

imported.

Recently

it has

the fields of distribution and exhibition of films.

made

a beginning

in

Children’s Film Society Films for the children are Society.

produced

It was set up in May

1955

as

mainly an

by

the

autonomous

Children’s body,

Film

registered

CENTRAL under

MEDIA

139

the Societies Registration Act,

1860, to undertake, aid, sponsor, pro-

mote and co-ordinate the production, distribution and exhibition of films suited

for children and adolescents. In the last 21 years, it has produced and acquired

157 features and shorts which include live action films, puppet films and cartoons. Of these, 12 films have won national and international awards. The expenditure of the Society is largely met from grants-in-aid given by the Central Government though it also earns revenue through affiliate membership fee realised from the state governments and union territories, sale

of prints, commercial

film shows and hire charges of 16 mm

films.

The films of the Society are regularly shown in many cities and towns. Many schools, social welfare centres and _ industrial establishments are members of the Society and regularly borrow films from the 16mm library of the Society for screening at their premises for the benefit of children. In 1975, a festival of films acquired from Children’s Film Foundation, London, was

held in Bangalore, Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi and festivals were also held in Jaipur and Lucknow.

Madras.

In

addition

National Film Archive of India The. National Film Archive of India was established in 1964 with the primary objective of acquisition and preservation of national and international cinema, film classification, documentation and research and encouraging film study and spread of film culture. Its collection as on 31 July 1976 totalled 1,416 titles consisting of 910 Indian and 506 foreign films. It also has ancilliary film material of 6,083 books, 186 magazines, 5,348 shooting scripts, 9,163 photographic

Important

Hindi

films

stills, 2,278 wall posters and 985 disc records.

acquired

during

1975-76

included

“Chhota

Bhai” (1949), “The Householder” (1963), “Shakespearewallah” (1965), “27 Down” (1972), “Padatik” (1973), “Garam Hawa” (1972), “Ankur” (1974), and four Marathi films—“Jiwacha Sakha” (1948), “Pudche Paul” (1950), “Pedgaonche Shahne” (1952) and “Oon Paus” (1954). The Archive is a

member of the International Federation of Film Archives.

This enables the

NFAI to acquire foreign films at nominal print cost or exchange films with foreign archives. Among foreign films the notable recent acquisitions were— Argentina—Hour of the Furnaces (Fernando Solanas), Brazil—Antonio Das Mortes (Glauber Rocha), France—Weekend (Jean-luc Godard), Hungary-Red

Psalm (Jansco), Italy—Paisa and Open City (Rossellini), Eight and a Half (Fellini) and Chaplin’s

Modern

Times.

A

monograph

on

third in the series of film pioneers, is under preparation.

Bimal

Roy,

the

As part of the

screen education activities, the Archive conducts refresher courses in film appreciation at Pune and other centres in collaboration with universities and film study groups.

It is also holding regular weekly screenings at Pune and

140

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

Bombay for interested public. of about

100 films (Indian and

The Archive maintains a distribution library Foreign) which

and film study groups throughout the country.

are loaned

to film

societies

Indian Institute of Mass Communication The Indian Institute of Mass

Communication

was

set up by the Minis-

try of Information and Broadcasting in August 1965 as a centre for advanced study and research in mass communication. It was made autonomous

in January 1966.

The Institute’s responsibilities are in the fields of research,

training and development of mass communication media. Its activities cover developmental journalism, the print media, visual and films, radio and tele-

vision, speech communication, traditional media, advertising and campaign planning and communication research. The

regular

training

courses

offered

at this institute

are:

(i) An

eight-

month post-graduate diploma course in journalism for foreign scholars with journalistic background from developing countries as well as Indian aspirants, who seek to make it their career, and (ii) A six-week refresher course (six in a year) for intermediate level personnel of the central and state information, publicity and public relations departments and public undertakings. Other training assignments undertaken include re-orientation courses for Field

Publicity Officers at regional centres, workshop-oriented specialised courses in

language

journalism,

photography

and radio newswriting.

and

puppetry

for mass

communication,

The Institute also endeavour to keep abreast of communication processes and undertakes studies of media activities and habits as well as infor-

mation needs. The integrated use of traditional and electronic media for mass communication as also the reach, impact, costs and timings of media

campaigns are studied. Increasingly the Institute’s training and research programmes have been oriented to meet the requirements of areas which

have special communication problems.

Directorate of Evaluation A Directorate of Evaluation has been set up under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting to study the relative reach, cost and impact of the various media and to conduct surveys aimed at providing information neces-

sary for programme improvement, policy planning and better cost-effectiveness. A Department of Evaluation Studies in the Indian Institute of Mass

Communication, headed by a visiting professor, serves as a base for initiating,

coordinating, and conducting evaluation studies of both immediate consequence and long-range interest to the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting as well as to other Ministries of the Government of India areas of media planning, campaign formulation evaluation.

in the

CENTRAL MEDIA

141

External Publicity Division The

External

Publicity

Division

of the

Ministry

of External

Affairs ex-

plains and interprets the policies of the Government of India to foreign audiences. It supplies publicity material to Indian Missions abroad for distribution. For quick transmission of developments at home, it maintains teleprinter link with several Missions, while material received from them is issued to the Indian press. Under the cultural exchange programmes, Indian jour-

nalists are sent abroad, while foreign journalists are provided with facilities in India. In 1975-76, 108 Indian journalists were sent abroad, while foreign

journalists who came to India were given assistance.

States’ Media’ Andhra Area:

2,76,814 sq.km.

Capital:

Hyderabad

AND

Organisational

Set-up

The

headed

Department,

Population :

PUBLIC

RELATIONS

by a Director,

Publication, (iii) Photo,

has

Telugu

DEPARTMENT

eight sections:

and

The Department has a big section with necessary man-power maintain community radio receivers in the villages.

to instal

and (viii) Radio Engineering.

At the field level there are six zonal

Budget:

1975-76:

Plan

(i) Press

(v) Art,

Public Relation other staff.

(iv)

& Urdu

Publicity,

(vi) Film, (viiy Song and Drama,

and

4,35,02,708

Principal Languages:

INFORMATION

Government, (ii)

Pradesh

Deputy

Directors and 21 District

Officers assisted by 22 Assistant Radio Engineers

Actual expenditure

in 1974-75:

Rs

Rs 2.53 crores. Proposals for 1976-77:

Press Publicity in 1975:

Press releases

1.32 crores. Estimates

Rs 2.95 crores.

issued:

3,440.

for

Feature arti-

cles issued: 83. Photographs released: 4,329. Press conferences 194, Press visit to project areas and industrial undetakings: 2.

Field Pubticity:

besides

arranged:

On an average 192 filmshows in various districts and

25 in Hyderabad city are arranged every month with

147 projectors.

About

112 public meetings are arranged every month throughout the State. There are 26 vehicles (including 8 vehicles at Headquarters). Besides, 29 tape recorders are available with DPROs alongwith audio-visual equipment and public address system. 1This does not include information about Sikkim.

STATES’ MDEIA

143

Song and Drama: The Department engages traditional performing troupes to give performances in the villages. The traditional media such as ‘Burrakatha’, ‘Harikatha’, ‘Jamukulakatha’, ‘Suddulu’, ‘Veedhibhagavatham’

“Keertans’ and playlets are engaged.

the

Advertising: There is an Advertisement Section through which all advertisements are routed to newspapers. An expenditure of Rs 29.5

lakhs was incurred on newspaper advertisements in 1975-76 and Rs

on outdoor

publicity.

Publications:

Besides

‘Andhra

Pradesh’,

a

monthly

12,900

published

in

English, Telugu, Urdu and Hindi, 44 pamphlets/booklets were also brought out during 1975. Printing of all the publications including ‘Andhra Pradesh’

journal is done

at the Government

Printing Press at Hyderabad.

Photos/Films: During 1975, the Department took up 1,268 photo coverage assignments and 7,684 prints were made. The Department has one

movie

cameraman

developing facilities. Exhibitions:

Department

and

Facilities

for preparing

three

photographers

including

1975-76, the Department conducted Information

Hyderabad

and

at New Delhi.

Centres:

Vijayawada

manpower

exhibits and for putting

There

with

all the

necessary

are

available

with

up exhibitions.

1,389 exhibitions.

are

two

State

Information

the

During

Centres

at

and one State Information and Tourist Bureau

Besides, Information Centres are also attached to all the 21

district headquarters.

Research

and Reference:

ence Library and a Research

The

and

Department

Reference

has

Section.

a full fledged

Refer-

Feed Back Services: Weekly and monthly press and public reactions are analysed and prepared and sent to the concerned departments for official

use.

Co-ordination: There are state level and district level Publicity Coordination Committees for co-ordination with the central media organisations. Some public sector undertakings have their own publicity wings and some departments have their own publicity set-up.

State Level Awards:

State

level awards

to the first three

best films

and for the first two best film-stories are given to films produced in Telugu

every year.

144

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

Assam Afea:

78,523 sq.km.

Capital:

Dispur

Population :

1,46,25,152

Principal Languages:

DIRECTORATE

OF INFORMATION

AND

Assamese and Bengali

PUBLIC

RELATIONS

Organisational Set-up The Directorate, headed by a Director, has seven sections: (i) Advertising and Visual Publicity, (ii) Advertisement Liaison, (iii) Field Publicity, (iv) Rural Broadcasting, (v) Cultural Affairs, (vi) Production, and (vii) Film Sections. At the district and sub-district levels, there are 23 District and

Sub-Divisional Officers to handle the work. Press Publicity:

Press notes are issued regularly.

Field Publicity: The Directorate has vehicles, public address system and cinema equipment alongwith the other facilities for field publicity in the

State.

Advertising : The Directorate has an Advertisement Liaison Section and

all the government

through this section.

advertisements and notifications

are sent for publication

Publications: Pamphlets and other publicity literature are produced by the Directorate. Two monthly journals—‘Assam Information’ in English

films.

and

‘Asoma’

Photos/Films:

in Assamese—are

The

Directorate

Exhibitions: The Directorate state-level and national exhibitions.

published

produces

prepares

by the Directorate.

feature

and

exhibits

and

documentary

participates

in

Information Centres: There are three Information Centres, one each at New Delhi, Calcutta and Gauhati, and 20 Centres at the district and subdivisional levels. Feed Back

Services:

periodicals of Assam for necessary action.

The

and other

Co-ordination: Liaison the Central Government.

Directorate

states and

is maintained

analyses the

sends

with

these

AIR

newspapers

and

to the Government

and

other media

of

STATES’ MEDIA

145

Bihar Area:

= 1,73,876 sq.km.

Capital:

Population :

Patna

5,63,53,369

Principal Language :

INFORMATION

AND

PUBLIC

RELATIONS

Hindi

DEPARTMENT

Organisational Set-up The Department, headed by a Director, has eight sections: (i) Press, (ii) Publication, (iii) Song and Drama, (iv) Periodicals, (v) Exhibition, (vi) Film Production, (vii) Maintenance, and (viii) Radio.

At the field level there are Deputy

Directors at six Divisional head-

quarters, District Public Relation Officers at 32 district headquarters and Assistant Public Relation Officers at certain sub-divisional headquarters.

for

Budget:

1975-76:

Actual Rs

expenditure

57.73

lakhs.

in

Press Publicity in 1975: Press issued: 10. Photographs released:

20.

1974-75:

Proposals

for

Rs

53.51 lakhs.

1976-77:

notes issued: 3,900. Press

Rs

81.15

Estimates lakhs,

1.412. Feature articles conferences arranged:

Press visits to project areas and industrial undertakings:

15.

Field Publicity: On an average 800 filmshows are arranged with 76 projectors. There are 76 publicity vehicles. Sets of public address equipment are available to all divisional and field units. Public meetings and group discussions are also arranged. On an average 350 intensive publicity campaigns are organised every year. Song and Drama: The Department has five troupes consisting of 135 artists. They conduct programmes both in traditional and modern forms. Advertising:

An

Advertising

Section

looks

after

this

work.

During

1975-76, the Department spent an amount of Rs 3 lakhs on advertisement. Other State Government departments spent Rs 17 lakhs for advertisements released

through

Publications: Hindi

and

the Department

The

‘Horsombad’

during

Department in

Santhali,

the same

publishes three

two

period.

weeklies ‘Adivasi’ in

fortnightlies

‘Bihar

Informa-

tion’ in English, ‘Bihar Samachar’ in Hindi and ‘Bihar ki khabren’ in Urdu and one wall newspaper ‘Yeh Bihar Hai’ in Hindi. During 1975-76, booklets, folders and pamphlets were brought out. ‘Bihar Diary 1975’ was the

only priced publication brought out by the Department. Printing of almost all the publications is done at the Government Press of Bihar Text Book 20—3 M ofI & B/77

146

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

Corporation. A few publications are also printed in private presses. An expenditure of Rs. 2.82 lakhs was incurred during 1975-76 on publications. Photos/Films: During 1975, the Department took up 3,900 photo coverage assignments and 39,000 prints were made. Five newsreels and

one feature film ‘Vidyapathi’ were produced during the same year.

There

are six photographers and one movie cameraman with the Department. Dark rooms and facilities for processing and print-making are available at state and divisional headquarters.

Exhibitions:

During

1975

within the State and two outside.

the

Department

conducted

49

exhibitions

The exhibition wing is well equipped and

also has two mobile exhibition units. Information

Centres:

There

is one

major

Information

state level and 32 Information Centres at district headquarters. Research and Reference:

Centre

Indexing and clipping services and

facilities are available at state headquarters.

Feed Back

Teactions

Services:

collected

partments for action.

Press

reactions ate analysed

by field officers are compiled

and

regularly.

at the

library Public

sent to concerned

de-

Co-ordination: Inter-media Co-ordination Committee at state level and District Co-ordination Committees at district level coordinate activities of Central and State agencies. Six departments and 17 public sector under-

takings

have their own

publicity

set up.

Gujarat Area:

—1,95,984 sq.km.

Capital:

Gandhinagar

DIRECTORATE

Population : Principal Language:

2,66,97,475 Gujarati

OF INFORMATION

Organisational Set-up The Directorate, headed by Commissioner of Information and Tourism, has eight sections: (i) Advertisement, (ii) News, (iii) Publications, (iv) Examiner of Books and Publications, (v) Films, (vi) Mobile Publicity Vans and Workshops, (vii) Exhibitions, and (viii) Rural Broadcasting. At the field level there is a District Information Officer in every district. Besides, to foster closer contacts with mofussil press, Assistant Directors are in position in Vadodara, Surat, Rajkot, Bhavanagar and Kutch.

STATES’ MEDIA Budget:

for 1975-76:

147 Actual

expenditure

in

1974-75:

Rs

Rs 82.60 lakhs. Proposals for 1976-77:

70.29

Rs

lakhs.

Estimates

102.45 lakhs.

Press Publicity in 1975: Press releases issued: 4,487. Feature articles issued: 48. Photographs released: 4,716. Press conferences arranged: 44. Press visits to project areas and industrial undertakings: 50. _ Field Publicity: On an average 450 filmshows are arranged in the State every month with 34 projectors. There are 24 mobile publicity vehicles. The Directorate has 24 sets of public address equipment and five taperecorders.

Advertising:

The

Advertising

Section

Directorate

publishes

1975-76 an amount of Rs Publications:

The

looks

after

this

work.

3.25 lakhs was spent on advertisement. one

fortnightly

During

“Gujarat”

in

Gujarati. Besides, 61 pamphlets/booklets were brought out in 1975. Printing is done at the Government Central Press and Government Photo Litho Press. Photos/Films:

During

1975,

the Directorate

took

up 524

photo

cove-

rage assignments and 5,040 prints were made. On an average 20-24 newsreels are produced every year. There are two photographers and two movie cameramen. Dark room and facilities for processing and print-making are available. Exhibitions:

During

1975, the

Directorate conducted

607

exhibitions

in the State. Most of them were on the life of Sardar Vallabhbhai whose birth centenary was celebrated during the year.

Patel,

Information Centres: Besides the Information Centre in New Delhi, the Directorate has five major ICs in Ahmedabad, Rajkot, Vadodara, Palanpur and Bhuj, and 13 ICs in district headquarters. ICs are also

functioning at taluk level in backward Vav-Tharad and Khavda. Research

and

Reference:

Nearly

areas, viz.

600

reference

Rajpipla,

Kalyanpur,

books

maintained.

are

Feed Back Services: There is a daily service in Gujarati “The Press Today” which gives important press comments and also grievances of the

people for use by the Cabinet and the Secretariat.

service containing

news

and views

from

small

papers

A weekly and

feed back

fortnightly sum-

mary containing editorial comments in daily newspapers are also prepared,

besides newspaper clippings for follow-up action by various departments.

148

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978 Co-ordination:

various

levels.

agencies.

The

Close

Directorate

links

are

co-ordinates

maintained

with

central

agencies

Six government departments have their own publicity set up.

State Awards: The State Government and their artistes including documentary

films

the publicity work

gives awards and children’s

at

of

all

to Gujarati films.

Haryana Area:

44,222 sq.km.

Capitali;

Chandigarh

Population : Principal

DEPARTMENT

OF PUBLIC

1,00,36,808

Language:

Hindi

RELATIONS

Organisational Set-up The Department is headed by a Director. He is also incharge of Cultural Affairs and Grievances Departments. The Department has five separate wings: (i) Film, (ii) Press, (iii) Publication and Exhibition, (iv) Field Publicity and (v) Technical. Besides, there are sections to look after cultural affairs,

photos and research and reference.

At the district level there is a District Public Relations Officer in every

district, assisted radio mechanics

munity

by, besides regular staff and drama and bhajan parties, to maintain radios distributed to panchayats under Com-

Listening Scheme.

Budget:

for 1975-76:

Actual expenditure in

Rs 68.61 lakhs. Proposals

Press Publicity

issued:

Field units at tehsil level are being set up.

in

1975:

Press

18. Photographs released:

1974-75:

Rs 57.58 lakhs.

for 1976-77:

Estimates

Rs 78.90 lakhs.

releases issued:

295. Feature

articles

2,520. Press conferences and press visits

to project areas and industrial undertakings:

50.

Field Publicity: On an average 131 filmshows are arranged every month with 25 projectors. There are 41 vehicles and eight taperecorders with the Department. Every district is provided with public address system. About 184 public meetings and 1,620 group discussions are arranged every month. Eight intensive publicity campaigns are also organised every year. Song and

Drama:

The

Department has ten

drama

parties consisting

of necessary staff equipped with musical instruments, stage and address equipment and drama vans in ten districts. Private bhajan

public parties

STATES’ MEDIA

149

are also engaged.

Traditional media

Department.

Advertising:

The

Department

techniques

has

are also adopted

an Advertisement

Section

by and

the a

copywriter has been employed to release the Government’s advertisements. Rs 15 lakhs were spent on newspaper advertisements during 1975-76.

Publications: The Department publishes two fortnightlies ‘Haryana Samvad’ and ‘Jai Haryana’, both in Hindi, a monthly ‘Haryana Review’ in English and a quarterly, pamphlets, 28 folders, 35

1975.

‘Tameer-a-Haryana’ in Urdu. Sixty booklets/ posters and five books were brought out during

Photos/Films: During 1975, the Department tions for photo coverage and 17,628 prints were made.

reels/documentaries

are produced.

Six cameramen

and two movie camera-

has

Exhibition

men are employed with the Department. Exhibitions:

The Department

Information

Centres:

conducted

18 exhibitions during

level, where

necessary

1975.

There

handled 252 funcIn a year, six news-

its

are 22

own

Information

Centres

facilities are available.

Research and Reference:

The

Department

Unit and it

has

a_

at district

research

which brings out reference and publicity books and backgrounders.

library,

Feed Back Services: Press clippings are analysed daily. Public reactions are collected by the field units and, based on this, consolidated Teports are submitted to the Government regularly. Co-ordination:

Inter-Media

Publicity

Co-ordination

Committee

at

state level and Co-ordination Committees at the district level co-ordinate the activities with the central agencies. Three Government Departments and © all Corporations have their own publicity set up.

Himachal Pradesh Area: Capital:

55,673 sq.km. Simla

DIRECTORATE

Population : Principal Languages

34,60,434. :

Hindi and

Pahari

OF PUBLIC RELATIONS

Organisational Set-up The Directorate, headed by a Director, has eight wings: (i) Public Relations, (ii) Information, (iii) Press, (iv) Publications, (v) Radio Rural Forum,

150

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

(vi) Song and Drama, (vii) Film and Photo, and (vii) Technical. there are sections to look after advertising and exhibition. At

the district level, there are

besides a DPRO Budget:

expenditure

in

1974-75:

Rs

Rs 44.40 lakhs. Proposals for 1976-77:

Press Publicity in 1975:

issued:

Relations

for Press liaison at Jullundur.

Actual

for 1975-76:

12 District Public

20. Photographs

Press releases

released:

34.12

issued:

Besides

lakhs.

Officers,

Estimates

Rs 75.21 lakhs.

1,550. Feature

articles

1,013. Press Conferences arranged:

20.

Field Publicity: On an average 150 filmshows are conducted with 50 projectors every month. In a month, 300-450 public meetings and 575 group

discussions

are

arranged.

About

77

intensive

publicity

campaigns

are

organised every year. There are 18 vehicles, 19 taperecorders and 12 public address sets with the Directorate. Song and Drama:

The

Directorate has two drama

troupes

stationed

Advertising Section has one Art Executive

and one

at Simla and Kangra. Advertising:

Copywriter.

The

During

1975-76

an amount

of Rs 2.75 lakhs

was

spent

newspaper advertisement. On outdoor publicity, an expenditure of Rs

was incurred.

on

18,000

Publications: One Hindi monthly ‘Himprastha’ is published. During 1975, 54 pamphlets/folders were brought out. Printing is done at Government Press. During 1975-76, an expenditure of Rs 17,106 was incurred. Photos/Films: During 1975 the Directorate took up 166 photo coverage assignments and 10,950 prints were made. In a year one documentary and

three newsreels are produced. photographers.

tions.

Exhibitions: Seven

The Directorate has necessary facilities to arrange exhibi-

exhibitions were

Information

Information

There are three movie cameramen and three

Centres:

Centres

with

arranged

There

during

are one

reference

state

facilities.

1975.

level

and

ten district level

STATES’ MEDIA

151

Jammu Area:

2,22,236 sq.km.?

Capital

: Srinagar (Summer)

and Kashmir Population

: 46,16,632?

Principal Languages

Jammu (Winter)

: Kashmiri, Dogri, Gojri, Balti,

Pahari Ladakhi.

DIRECTORATE

Urdu, Dardiro,

and

OF INFORMATION

Organisational Set-up The Directorate, headed by a Director, has five sections: {i) Press, (ii) Research and Reference, (iii) Photo and Films, (iv) Publications and (v) Exhibitions. The Directorate has two divisional offices, one each at Srinagar and Jammu. There are ten district offices at the district level headed by

District Information Officers.

Budget: Actual expenditure during 1974-75: Rs 37.75 lakhs, Estimates for 1975-76: Rs. 40.76 lakhs. Proposals for 1976-77: Rs. 44.28 lakhs. Press Publicity in 1975: Press releases issued: 8,073. Feature articles issued: 296. Photographs released: 14,000. Press conferences arranged: 20. Press visits to project areas and Industrial undertakings: 12. Field Publicity: On an average 43 filmshows are arranged every month with 19 projectors. Five public meetings and one group discussion every month and sixty intensive publicity campaigns every year are organised by the Directorate. The Directorate has 19 vehicles and five taperecor-

ders besides

public

address

equipment.

Song and Drama: The Directorate has its own drama troupe at Srinagar and Jammu with sufficient equipment for staging cultural programmes. It also utilises the services of local artistes whenever required for

various media like songs, qawalies, skits and dramas. Advertising:

by DAVP.

The

Directorate

appoints

All the State Government

this Directorate.

During

for the

classified

ments of the State.

advertisements

agencies

approved

are routed through

1975-76, an amount of Rs 29,800 was spent by the

Directorate on display advertisements

diture

advertising

advertisements

and

Rs

is borne

1,900 on hoardings. by the concerned

4Includes area under the illegal occupation of Pakistan and China. *Excludes population of area under the illegal occupation of Pakistan and China.

Expen-

depart-

152

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA Publications:

The

Directorate

addition to three monthly

During

1975,

journals,

15 publications and

publishes

‘Maktoob’,

‘Kashmir Today’,

1978

a fortnightly,

‘Tameer’

and

in

‘Itlaat’.

15 posters were also brought out.

All

the printing work is done at the Government presses at Srinagar and Jammu

and an amount of Rs 91,200 was spent on publications during

1975-76.

Photos/Films: During 1975-76, the Directorate handled 500 assignments at Srinagar and Jammu and 14,000 prints were made.

documentaries period.

and

four

newsreels

were

also

produced

during

the

photo Two same

Exhibitions: The Directorate is self-sufficient in producing and preparing exhibits for putting up exhibitions. During 1975, five exhibitions were or-

ganised.

Information

Centres:

At the

divisional

level,

besides

the

Information

Units, the Directorate has three centres—Youth Information Centre, Model Information Centre and Ladies Information Centre. The Directorate has Information Offices in all the districts apart from 25 Centres at Tehsil head-

quarters. The Centres organise debates, symposia, cultural programmes and film shows. There are also four State Information Bureaux, one each at New Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta and Jullundur. Research and Reference: There is a library with necessary facilities at Srinagar for the benefit of journalists, officials and scholars. Clipping and

indexing facilities are also available.

Feed Back Services: Press and people’s reactions are compiled month and submitted to the Government regularly.

Co-ordination:

every

There are three State-level Co-ordination Committees

at the state level, besides publicity Co-ordination Committees at the district level. Departments of Family Planning, Tourism, Agriculture, Education, Police, Horticulture and Animal Husbandry have their own publicity set-up.

Karnataka Area

Capital

:

:

1,91,773 sq. km.

Bangalore

DEPARTMENT

Population

: 2,92 99,014

Principal Language : Kannada

OF INFORMATION

AND

PUBLICITY

‘ Organisational Set-up headed by a Director, The Department, (iii) Song and Publicity, News, (ii) Field

(i) Press and has five wings: Drama, (iv) Exhibition, and (v)

STATES’ MEDIA Rural

153

Broadcasting.

at Bangalore, At

Besides,

Belgaum,

the district

Gulbarga

level,

after the publicity work.

the

Department

has

four

Information

and

Publicity

and Mysore.

District

Divisional

Offices

Officers

look

Budget: Actual expenditure in 1974-75: Rs 70.74 lakhs. Estimates for 1975-76 : Rs 85.02 lakhs. Proposals for 1976-77 : Rs 91.62 lakhs. Press Publicity

in 1975:

Press

releases issued:

4,365.

Feature

articles

issued : 20. Photographs released : 10,000. Press conferences arranged: 240. Press visits to project areas and industrial undertakings : 27. Field

publicity:

On

an

average

the State are arranged every month

450

filmshows

in various

with 28 projectors.

districts

of

About 450 public

meetings and 22 group discussions are organised every month. Forty-five intensive publicity campaigns are arranged every year. There are 34 publi-

city vehicles, 14 generators and 21 public address equipment available with the Department.

Song and Drama:

The Department has its own song and drama troupe.

There is one auditorium. The Department organises plays and cultural pro-

grammes.

Besides,

other

traditional

media

like

‘Harikatha;

and ‘Lavani’, local folk dancers are also employed. Advertising:

Though it has its own

‘Yakshagana’,

Advertisement Section, services of

advertising agencies are sometimes utilised for handling display advertisements. All the Government advertisments are routed through this Department. An amount of Rs 30 lakhs was incurred by the Department on newspaper

advertisements duriag 1975-76.

Publications: The Department publishes a weekly, “Janapada” in Kannada and a monthly, ‘March of Karnataka’ in English. Nine pamphlets/ booklets were brought out in 1975. Almost all the publications are printed at Government Printing Press. Sometimes the services of private presses are

also utilised.

Photos| films:

During 1975, the Department handled 450 photo coverage

assignments and 14,000 prints were made.

one documentary

the Department

are produced

On an average ten newsreels and

in a year. There is one photo laboratory in

and three photographers

are employed.

Exhibitions: The Department has a small Exhibition Unit consisting of three artists. During 1975, the Department conducted eight exhibitions. Information Centres : There are two state level at Bangalore and Hubli and 19 district level ICs. 21—3 M ofI & B/ND/77

Information

Centres

154

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

Research and Reference: There is a small library in the Department and only clipping facilities are available.

Feed Back Services:

Press reactions are analysed

by the Department.

Kerala Area;

Capital:

38,864 sq. km.

Population

Trivandrum

Principal Language:

1

2,13,47,375

Malayalam

PUBLIC RELATIONS DEPARTMENT

Organisational Set-up The Department, headed

by a

Director,

has

besides,

general

sections

to deal with different aspects of mass communication, (i) a Scrutiny Section to watch the reaction of the public as reflected in the columns of newspapers, (ii) a Radio Rural Forum Wing to organise and maintain radio

rural forums, (iii) a Cultural Development Section to manage cultural pro-

grammes and attend (iv) a Research and

to the work connected Reference Section.

with

State Film

At the district level, there are District Information eleven districts. Budget:

Actual expenditure in 1974-75:Rs

1975-76: Rs 23.67 lakhs.

Proposals

Press Publicity in 1975: Press issued :218. Photographs released:

for

1976-77:

Awards,

Officers in all the

21.41 lakhs. Estimates Rs

and

26.29 lakhs.

for

releases issued : 16,585. Feature articles 5,337. Press conferences arranged :77.

Press visits to project areas and industrial undertakings : 2.

Field Publicity: On an average 110 filmshows are arranged every month with -17 projectors. There are 13 publicity vehicles, 12 generators, 13 amplifiers and seven taperecorders with the Department. Sixty public meetings and

20 group discussions are arranged every month. Twelve intensive campaigns are organised every year.

Advertising: There is an advertisement section to handle the job. An expenditure of Rs 28 lakhs was incurred by various departments on newspapers advertisements routed through the Department during 1975-76. An

amount of Rs 61,478 was spent on display advertisements Publications:

by the Department.

A

monthly

journal

‘Janapadam’

(priced)

also.

is published

Pamphlets/booklets are brought out at the rate of one

per fortnight. Printing of all the publications is done at the Government presses.

STATES’ MEDIA

155

Photos/Films : During 1975, the

coverage assignments and 13,469 gtaphers with the Department.

Exhibitions:

There is a fullfledged

Information

Centres:

equipment with the Department. arranged.

five in the districts) which

There

During

Research and Reference Section:

Feed

Back

Services:

Press

made.

exhibition

There

unit

are two

photo-

with all necessary

1975-76 two large exhibitions were

are six ICs

provide

books, besides a clipping section.

Department took up 329 photo

prints were

(one in the State capital

information

on exclusive

topics.

and

There is a library with 5,000 reference

summary

is prepared

daily and

sent to all

Departments. Comments in periodicals are compiled every week. Press clippings are prepared and provided to the concerned departments daily for necessary action.

Coordination:

The Director at the State level and DIOs at the district

State Awards:

State awards for best

level coordinate the activities of the department with Central agencies and other State Government Departments. Ten departments and four State public sector undertakings have their own publicity set up.

tors, producers,

feature

singers, etc., are given annually

films,

best actors, direc-

to Malayalam

films.

Madhya Pradesh Area;

4,42,841

sq. km.

Capital : Bhopal

Population

:4,16,54,119

Principal Language:

Hindi

DIRECTORATE OF INFORMATION AND PUBLICITY

Organisational Set-up The Directorate, headed by a Director, has four wings: (i) Press Releases and Public Relations, (ii) Publications, (iii) Plan Publicity and Advertisements,

and (iv) Field Publicity.

At the divisional level, there are eight

Deputy

Directors to coordinate

the activities in the field. Besides, 20 Assistant Directors and PROs are heading the district offices.

17 District

156

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978 Budget:

Actual expenditure in 1974-75:

Rs. 71.12 lakhs. Estimates for

1975-76: Rs 78.35 lakhs. Proposals for 1976-77:Rs 93.85 lakhs. Press issued:79.

Publicity in 1975: Press releases issued :5,355, Feature articles Photographs released: 388, Press conferences arranged : 42.

Field Publicity: On an average 200 filmshows in various districts of the State are arranged every month with 37 projectors. Two or three inten-

sive publicity vehicles, four

campaigns are organised every year. Thirty-seven tape recorders, one strip projector and one slide

are available with Song

and

the Directorate.

Drama:

The

Directorate

arranges

programmes

publicity projector

both

in the

traditional as well as the modern media. It utilises the traditional media like ‘Mach Nakkal’ and ‘Alha Geet Kawwali’ Puppets.

Advertising: The Directorate has an Advertising Section, through which all the State Government advertisements are channelised to newspapers. An amount of Rs 27 lakhs was spent on newspaper advertisements

in

1975-76.

Publications:

The

Directorate

publishes

‘Madhya

Pradesh

Sandesh’,

a fortnightly in Hindi. Eighteen booklets, ten folders and 12 posters were brought out in 1975 for distribution. All the publications are printed at Government

Printing Press at Bhopal.

Photos/Films: During 1975, the coverage assignments and 4,692 prints

Directorate were made.

handled 346 photo On an average, four

documentaries and four newsreels are produced in a year. The Directorate has 11 photographers. Exhibitions; The Exhibition Unit has sufficient material to put exhibitions. It organised 153 exhibitions in the State during 1975. Information

Centres:

There

at Bhopal, Indore and New Delhi.

are

three

Information

Centres

one

up

each

Feed Back Services: The Directorate analyses the press reaction and the report is submitted to the Government every fortnight. Co-ordination: The Directorate co-ordinates publicity activities with all the Departments of State Government. Four Departments and two public sector undertakings have their own

publicity set up.

STATES’

MEDIA

157

Maharashtra Area:

3,07,762 sq. km.

Capital:

Bombay

Population

:

Principal Language :

DIRECTORATE

GENERAL

OF INFORMATION RELATIONS

5,04,12,235

Marathi

AND

PUBLIC

Organisational Set-up The Directorate General, headed by a Chief Director has three separate Directorates—(i) Directorate of Information, (ii) Directorate of Films,

and (iii) Directorate of Special Publicity and Publications.

The Directorate of Information consists of (i) an Information Wing, and (ii) an Administrative Wing. The Directorate of Films consists of (i)

Newsreel Section (ii) Administrative Section for film publicity, mobile publicity, preview theatre at Tardeo and Sachivalaya and Film library, and (iii) Photo Cell. The Directorate of Special Publicity and Publications consists of (i) Periodical

Wing

(ii) General

Publicity

Wing

(iii) Advertisement

Wing, and (iv) Exhibition Wing. In addition to these, a Public Relations

Cell, a Central Library and a Research and Reference Section are also func-

tioning. At

the

district

level,

there

is one

District

Publicity

Officer

in

every

district and one Senior Assistant Director each at the district headquarters

of Pune, Nagpur and Aurangabad. Budget:

.

Actual expenditure in 1974-75:Rs

99.69 lakhs. Estimates

1975-76: Rs 99.83 lakhs. Proposals for 1976-77:Rs Press Publicity in 1975:Press releases

103.52 lakhs.

issued:5,539.

Photographs

for re-

leased : 8,632. Press conferences and Committee Room meetings covered: 1,131, Press visits to project areas and industrial undertakings : 3.

Field Publicity:

On an average 330 filmshows in various districts and

40 in Bombay City are arranged every month with 27 projectors. About six intensive publicity campaigns are organised every year. There are 60 vehi-

cles (including 55 publicity vans). Advertising: expenditure of Rs 1975-76, Rs 1.92 TV commercials,

There is an Advertising Section to handle the job. An 5.95 lakhs was incurred on newspaper advertisement in lakhs on media of paid publicity (cinema slides, radio/ etc.) and Rs 30,516 on outdoor publicity.

158

MASS

MEDIA

IN INDIA

1978

Publications: Besides ‘Lokrajya’, 40 pamphlets and 45 booklets were brought out during 1975. ‘Shiva Raj Mudra’ a prestigious priced publication

on Chhatrapati

Shivaji

Maharaj

was

also brought

out.

Printing of all the

publications is done at the Government Central Press, Bombay, where facilities for block making ‘are also available.

An

was incurred during 1975-76 on publications.

expenditure of Rs

17 lakhs

Photos/Films: During 1975, the Department took up 1,429 photo coverage assignments and 16,594 prints were made. In a year 12 Newsreels and 24 documentaries are produced. There are seven photographers and four movie cameramen with the Department. Exhibitions: During 1975-76, the tions both in the State and outside.

Department

conducted

12 exhibi-

Information Centres: There are our major Information Bombay, Pune, Nagpur and Aurangabad. Besides, Information also attached to all the 22 District Publicity Offices.

Research and Reference: facilities are available. Feed Back Services:

Indexing and

Centres at Centres are

clipping services and library

The news units at head office and at district level

collect and analyse press and public

reactions and supply them

to the con-

cerned departments for necessary action.

Coordination: Chief Director is in overall charge of the activities of the Department including coordination with Central media organisations. The

Directorate General is responsible for publicity for all State departments. However, the Directorate of Agriculture and State public undertakings have their own publicity set up.

Manipur Area:

Capital:

22,356 sq. km.

Imphal

Population

:

Principal Language :

10,72,753

Manipuri

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLICITY AND INFORMATION

Organisational Set-up The Department, headed by a Director, has separate sections to handle press publicity, publications, field publicity, advertising, photos, films and song

and

drama.

At the district level, out of the five hill districts (total six districts) only

two have publicity units.

STATES’ MEDIA

159

Budget: Actual expenditure in 1974-75:Rs 8.09 lakhs. Estimates 1975-76: Rs 9.17 lakhs. Proposals for 1976-77: Rs 7.86 lakhs.

for

Press Publicity in 1975: Press releases issued:1,300. Feature articles issued: 130. Press conferences arranged : 80. Press visits to project areas and industrial undertakings: 10. Field Publicity: On an average 20 filmshows with two projectors. Public meetings and group

are arranged every month discussions are also arran-

ged every month. There are seven vehicles, four amplifiers and 2 generators with the Department. Song

and

Drama:

song and drama Advertising:

expenditure of Rs

The

Department

has

13 artists trained

programmes on various developmental There is an

Advertising Section to

5,800 was incurred

on newspaper

themes.

handle this job. An

advertisements during

1975-76. The Department also spent Rs 3,500 on outdoor Rs 43,500 on radio commercials. Publications: One weekly in Manipuri and one English are published by the Department. During 1975, pamphlets were brought out. Printing is usually done Press and occasionally private presses are also utilised. expenditure of Rs

Photos/Films:

to perform

publicity and

monthly journal in 24 booklets /leaflets/ at the Government During 1975-76, an

1.34 lakhs was incurred on publications.

During

1975, the Department took up 632 photo cove-

rage assignments and 95,198 prints were made. Work on a newsreel was also completed during the year. There are six photographers and one movie cameraman with the Department. Information Centres: There is one Information Centre in Imphal. formation Centres are also being opened in five district headquarters.

Research and Reference: vices are also available.

In-

Besides a library, clipping and indexing ser-

Feed Back Services: Press and views are compiled and analysed daily. They are provided to the concerned departments for suitable action. Coordination:

Activities

of Central

coordinated both at state and district

their own

publicity

set up.

and

State

levels. Two

media

organisation

State departments

are

have

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

160 Meghalaya’ Acea

:

Capital :

22,489sq. km.

Population

Shillong

:

Principal Languages :

10,11,699

Khasi, Jaintia, and Garo

DIRECTORATE OF INFORMATION AND PUBLIC RELATIONS

Organisational The

Set-up

Directorate, headed

by a Director, has six main

(ii) Publications, (iii) Photo, (vi) Community Listening. News

Section

keeps

liaison

(iv)

Field

with

for arranging departmental publicity. sed to the Press.

the

Publicity,

various

sections:

(v)

(i) News,

Advertising

Government

and

departments

News and feature articles are relea-

Besides, a journal “Meghalaya Chronicle” in English, Publications Section prepares brochures, pamphlets, booklets and other publicity material. Photo coverage of State functions and developmental activities is looked after by Photo Section. Field publicity work is looked after by a Deputy Director at the Head-

quarters and

DPRO

by the District Public Relation Officers in the districts. Every

is provided with a mobile cinema unit.

Advertisements are released by the Directorate on behalf of the concerned departments. Under the Community Listening Scheme, radio sets are provided to some of the villages. They are maintained by technical staff attached to the CLL. Section. The Directorate arranges song and drama programmes by engaging local

troupes.

Nagaland Area : Capital:

16,527 sq. km. Kohima

DIRECTORATE

OF

Population:

INFORMATION,

PUBLICITY

AND

5,16,449 TOURISM

Organisational Set-up The Directorate, headed by the Joint Director, has five sections: (ii) Technical—Cinema,

Radio

and

1Material for the Annual not received.

Photo,

(iii) Publications,

(iv)

(i) News, Research

Based on information received in 1974.

STATES’ MEDIA

161

and Reference, and (v) District There are three District Publicity

level Information and Publicity Work. Officers, one each at Kohima, Mokok-

chung and Tuensang and seven Sub-Divisional Information Officers one each at Dimapur, Peren, Phek, Mon, Zunheboto, Khiperi and Shorohoto. Budget: Actual expenditure in 1974-75: Rs 23.80 lakhs. Estimates for 1975-76:Rs 27.80 lakhs. Proposals for 1976-77:Rs 36.04 lakhs. 24.

Press Publicity in 1975: Besides press releases, feature articles issued: Press conferences arranged: 12. Press visits to project areas and in-

dustrial undertakings : 6.

Field Publicity: On an average 70 filmshows in various districts are arranged with seven projectors. The Directorate organises two public meetings and four group discussions every month and 12 intensive publicity campaigns every year. The Directorate has seven publicity vehicles fitted with public address equipment. Advertising : During

1975, the

Directorate

spent

Rs

1,656

on

news-

paper advertising, Rs 76,134 on hoardings and other outdoor publicity programmes and Rs 65,916 on paid publicity. ly

Publications:

in

English,

Besides the publication ‘Nagaland in the Press’, a week-

and

two

monthlies

in

English—‘The

Warrior’

and

‘Tho

Monthly Round Up’, ‘Nagaland is born’, “View Cards’ and ‘Greeting Cards’ are also brought

out by the

Directorate.

Fifty pamphlets/booklets

brought out during 1975 and Rs 23,425 were spent on publications. Photos/Films:

During

1975,

The

Directorate

covered

several

were

photo

assignments and prints were made. It has dark-room facilities. There are one movie-cameraman and three cameramen. On an average 30 docu-

mentaries

and newsreels

are produced

in a year.

Exhibitions: On an average five photo exhibitions are held every year and there are three exhibition halls located in three towns in the State. During

1975

five exhibitions were organised.

Information Centres: There are 25 Information Centres at State and District levels where the facilities of libraries are also available. Research

and

Reference:

The

Directorate

has

library

Information Centres of the State. Besides documentation also a clipping section.

Feed Back Services: Press reactions are analysed and sent to the Government from time to time. 22—3 M of I & BIND/77

facilities in all

facilities, it has

by the Directorate

162

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

1978

Co-ordination: Activities of both the Central and State media organisations are co-ordinated by Inter-media Publicity Co-ordination Commit-

tee at state

level,

and

by district-level

Publicity

Co-ordination

at the District level. Three State Departments—Agriculture, dustries have their own publicity set up.

Committee

Forest and In-

Orissa

Area:

Capital:

1,55,782 sq. km.

Population

Bhubaneswar

: 2,19,44,615

Principal Language:

Oriya

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC RELATIONS

Organisational Set-up The Department, headed by a Director, has five wings: (i) Press and Information, (ii) Production, (iii) Advertisement, (iv) Field and Audio Visual Publicity, and (v) Films Wing.

At the field level there are 13 District Public Relation Officers at district

headquarters, one DPRO in Rourkela and two regional organisations and seven zonal organisations for Radio Rural Forums. There are radio supervi-

sors to maintain community listening sets. Budget:

Actual expenditure in 1974-75:Rs

51.92 lakhs. Estimates for

1975-76: Rs 57.23 lakhs. Proposals for 1976-77: Rs 56.05 lakhs. Press

Publicity

in

1975:

Press

releases

issued:1,579.

issued: 6. Photographs released: 790. Press conferences visits to project areas and industrial undertakings: 1. Field Publicity:

Feature

arranged:6.

articles

Press

On an average 207 filmshows are arranged every month

with 62 projectors. Forty-five public meetings and 42 group discussions are

arranged

every month.

About 96 intensive publicity campaigns

are arranged

every year. There are 46 vehicles, 20 taperecorders, 62 generators and amplifiers with the Department.

113

Advertising: There is an Advertisement Section to handle this job. An expenditure of Rs 13.44 lakhs was incurred om newspaper advertisements during 1975-76 and Rs 3,120 on outdoor publicity.

Publications: Besides two monthly (English) and ‘Utkal Prasanga’ (Oriya),

pamphlets/booklets in 1975. view Monument Special’ and

Special’—were

also brought

priced journals ‘Orissa Review’ the Department brought out 81

Two other priced publications—‘Orissa Re‘Eastern India Cultural Convention Souvenir

out during the same period. Printing is done

STATES’ MEDIA

163

at the Government Press where block making facilities are also available. An amount of Rs 1.20 lakhs was spent on publications during 1975-76. Photos/Films: During 1975, the Department took up 1,295 photo coverage assignments and 9,718 prints were made. During the same period three newsreels and one documentary were produced. There are five photo-

graphers and three movie cameramen

equipment

and other facilities.

with the Department

with necessary

Exhibitions: There is an Exhibition Unit to look after this job. During 1975, 61 exhibitions were conducted. Information

Centres:

There

are 22 Information

level and 21 at district level—with library facilities.

Centres—one

at State

Research and Reference: Clipping and indexing services are available. Clippings are regularly submitted to the concerned departments.

Feed

Back

Services:

Press

and

and supplied to concerned departments.

public reactions

are compiled

daily

Fortnightly and monthly press ana-

lyses are also prepared and sent to State Government Departments and Central Government. Coordination:

The

State-level

Publicity

Inter-media Publicity Coordination Committee

Coordination

Committee

and

co-ordinate activities of State

and Central media organisations at the State level. At the district level, District Publicity Coordination Committee coordinates the activities. Six Government Departments and three public undertakings have their own publicity

set up.

Punjab Area:

Capital

:

50,362 sq. km.

Chandigarh

Population

Principal Language

:

:

1,35,51,060

Punjabi

PUBLIC RELATIONS DEPARTMENT

Organisational Set-up The Department, headed by a publicity, has also an Adviser. Production Material, (iii) Field tion, (vi) Song and Drama, (vii)

Films Division.

Director, responsible for information and It has nine wings: (i) Press Publicity, (ii) Publicity, (iv) Production, (v) CommunicaRadio and Press (viii) Television, and (ix)

164

MASS

MEDIA

IN INDIA 1978

Besides 12 DPROs in 12 different districts there is an ADPR at Fazilka

and nine APROs in nine sub-centres. Budget:

Actual

expenditure

in

1974-75:

Rs

60.46

lakhs.

Estimates

for 1975-76: Rs 66.16 lakhs. Proposals for 1976-77: Rs 78.09 lakhs.

Press Publicity in 1975-76: Press releases issued: 844. Feature articles issued: 159. Photographs released :78,980. Press conferences arranged: 131. Press visits to project areas

Besides 48 scheduled

and

industrial undertakings: 89.

publicity

talks recorded, 902 press messages

on

behalf of the ministers were prepared and 250 public meetings of the Punjab ministers were covered for the press from State headquarters.

Field Publicity:

arranged

every month

On an average ten filmshows with

30

projectors.

About

in various districts are

15 public

meetings

and

group discussions every month and three intensive publicity campaigns every year are arranged by the Department. The Department has 47 publicity vehicles and eight taperecorders. All the offices at the district and sub-divisional levels are provided with public address equipment. Song and Drama: The Department has its own troupes employing 12 song parties, four drama parties for which 108 artists are employed. The

Department also commissions local parties of folk and art and arranges tra-

ditional form of singing and folk style drama

leela and in melas.

in the villages, during

Ram-

Advertising: The Department has its own Advertising Section, and one copy-writer and one art-curm-lettering expert are employed. It also utilises the services of private agencies. It handles the advertisements of all the de-

partments and corporations of the

State

Government.

An

expenditure of

Rs 3,99,987 was incurred on newspaper advertising during 1975-76.

Publications: The Department brings out five journals. Besides, a fortnightly “Sada Punjab” in Punjabi, two monthlies “Jagriti” in Punjabi and Hindi and one monthly, “Pasban” in Urdu, the Department also publishes “Advance”, a quarterly in English. During 1975, 161 pamphlets/booklets were brought out. Printing of all the publications is done at Punjab Government Press, U.T. Press and some private presses, where facilities of block making are also available. Photos/Films: The Department has a Photo and Cinema Section. This Section maintains a photo library. During 1975-76, the Department covered 1,920 photo assignments and 29,716 prints were made. Three photo-

graphers are employed with the Department and it produces two documen-

taries and five newsreels in a year. During 1975, it handled 759 assignments

STATES’

MEDIA

165

of newsreels/documentaries

were made.

and

146

prints of the newsreels/documentaries

Exhibitions: The Department has one full-fledged Exhibition Section. The entire visual material is produced in the Section. During 1975 the Department

organised

31

one at all India level. Information

exhibitions

Centres:

at district

There

are

two

level, four

major

at State level

Information

and

Centres,

one

Research

and

each at Delhi and Jullundur. Besides 11 Centres at district level, there are 13 centres at sub-divisional level. Cinema shows are arranged at the Centres in addition to the necessary facilities available there. Research

and Reference:

The

Department

has

its own

Reference Section which maintains a library to cater to the needs of PR Department, Press correspondents and others. Clipping and indexing facilities are also available. Feed Back Services: The press reactions are analysed thoroughly and report is sent every day to the officials concerned. Special fortnightly reports on editorial comments are also sent to the Government for suitable action. Co-ordination:

The

Department

co-ordinates

with

the

Government

Forests, Education

and

Development

of India and other State Governments, for supplying material on development activities in the State. State Electricity Board and various other de-

partments

like Agriculture, Medical,

have their own

publicity set up.

Rajasthan Area:

3,42,214 sq.km.

Population

Capital:

Jaipur

Principal Languages:

DIRECTORATE

OF PUBLIC

:

2 57,65,806

Rajasthani and Hindi

RELATIONS

Organisational Set-up The

Directorate, headed

by a Director, consists of

12 Sections:

(i) News,

(ii) Scrutiny, (iii) Research and Reference, (iv) Press Registration, (v) Photo,

(vi) Publications, (vii) Films, (viii) Field Publicity, (ix) Exhibitions and Rangmanch, (x) Art, (xi) Advertisements and (xii) Technical. The Directorate has

Public Relation Officers in 23 districts.

Budget : Actual expenditure in 1974-75 : Rs 50.26 lakhs. Estimates for

1975-76: Rs

52.96

lakhs, Proposals

for

1976-77:Rs

52.66

lakhs.

166

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978 Press Publicity in 1975 : Press releases issued

: 8,435, Photographs re-

leased : 9,733. Feature articles issued :5. Press conferences arranged : 24. Press

tours conducted : 7.

Field Publicity : On an average 213 filmshows are arranged in a month with 23 projectors. About seven group discussions and eight publicity campaigns are organised every month. Besides, six slide projectors and ten ge-

nerators, the Directorate has radios,

14 transistors

and

15

gramaphones,

five car-radios.

seven

record players,

11

Advertising: The Directorate has an Advertisement Section and advertisements are released to newspapers through this section. An expendi-

ture of Rs 8.17 lakhs

was

incurred on this during

1975-76.

Publications: During 1975, the Directorate brought out 27 pamphlets/ booklets. Printing of all the material is done at the Government Printing Press at Jaipur and an expenditure of Rs 1.56 lakhs was incurred on this

in 1975.

Photos/Films:

During

1975,

the

Directorate

covered

1,897

photo

as-

signments and 49,879 prints were made. For this, six photographers are employed

with

the Directorate.

Exhibitions:

Exhibition facilities are available with the Directorate. It

Information

Centres:

organised 36 exhibitions in the State and two outside during 1975. at Bombay, State

Calcutta

Headquarters

and

Besides

(Jaipur).

New

with necessary facilities.

At

three

Delhi,

Information

the Directorate

the district

level, there

Centres,

one

each

has one Centre are

seven

Research and Reference: The Directorate compiles and records of different departments of the State Government and

at

Centres

maintains important

press releases of the Central Government.

Tamil Nadu’ Area

:

Capital:

1,30,069 sq. km.

Population

Madras

DIRECTORATE

:

Principal Language :

OF INFORMATION

AND

PUBLIC

4,11,99,168 Tamil

RELATIONS

Organisational Set-up The

Directorate, headed

by

a Director,

has six

sections : (i) Press, (ii)

Publications, (iii) Advertising (iv) Films, (v) Exhibition, and (vi) 4Material for the annual not received.

Based on information received

Photo-

STATES’ MEDIA

167

graphic Section. There are eight Regional tioning at eight important centres. Press

Section

handles

press

releases,

Public Relation feature

articles,

Officers funcdepartmental

publicity, photo coverage, press conferences, journalists’ tours, liaison with AIR and all matters concerning the press accreditation and Press Consultative Committee. A reference unit attached to this Section attends to indexing reference

matter and

preparing

press clippings.

Besides publishing “Tamil Arasu”, Publications Section brings out other publicity literature. Advertisements of all Government Departments, and statutory boards are released through this Section.

Corporations,

Boards

Films Section produces newsreels and documentaries. Exhibition Section tional exhibitions.

organises

local exhibitions

and

participates

Photo coverage of State functions and developmental looked after by the Photographic Section.

activities

in naare

All the villages in the State have been provided with radio sets.

Tripura Area

:

Capital:

10,477 sq. km.

Population

Agartala

Principal Languages :

DIRECTORATE OF

PUBLIC

RELATIONS

2

15,56,342 Bengali, Tripuri and Manipuri.

AND

TOURISM

Organisational Set-up The Directorate, headed by a Director, has four Sections: (i) Field Publicity, (ii) Publications, (iii) Exhibition and (iv) Rural Radio Forum. Besides, the

Directorate has three units: Photography, Drama and Puppet and Audiovisual. At the district level, there are three District Public Relation Officers. Budget: Actual expenditure: Rs 19.81 lakhs. Estimates Rs 18.83 lakhs. Proposals for 1976-77: Rs 21.55 lakhs.

for 1975-76:

168

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978 Press Publicity in 1975 : Press releases issued

issued:

10. Photographs

released:

1,064.

Press visits to project areas and Field Publicity:

On

an

Press

industrial

average

: 1,758. Feature articles

conferences

undertakings:

89

filmshows

6.

arranged:

are arranged

6.

with

14

projectors. The Directorate organises 121 public meetings and group discussions every month. On an average five intensive publicity campaigns are organised by the Directorate every year. It has 16 publicity vehicles, 14 taperecorders alongwith a good number of public address equipment and

generators. Song

and

Drama:

troupe

em-

ploying 16 regular artists. Besides, local professional artists, kathaks kaviwales are employed for dance/drama programmes on traditional modern themes and for kathakata, kavigan, etc.

and and

Advertising:

The

The

Directorate

Directorate

has

handles

the help of departmental artists and staff. was

spent

on

newspaper

advertising

commercials, TV, etc. Publications:

The

Directorate

and

its

the

own

drama

work of advertising with

In 1975 an amount of Rs 31,750

Rs

publishes

and ‘Gumati’, a monthly, both in Bengali.

300

on

cinema

‘Tripura

slides,

Barta’,

assignments and

During

10,641

1975,

prints

were

the

weekly,

There is one miniature printing

press with the Directorate. It brought out 21 booklets/pamphlets Rs 48,000 on publications during 1975. Photos/Films:

a

radio

Directorate

made.

employs two photographers. On an average produced by the Directorate in a year.

It

covered

and

284

has one dark room,

spent

photo

one documentary/newsreel

Exhibitions: The Directorate has one Exhibition Unit equipped mobile exhibition sets. During 1975, it organised two exhibitions. level

Information

and

screened

11

Centres:

There

at sub-divisional

at Agartala

Centre

are

level.

regularly.

three

Information

Newsreels

and

Centres

is

with

at district

documentaries

Feed Back Services: Public reaction reports are collected offices by the Directorate and sent to the Government.

and

from

are

field

Co-ordination: Activities of both the Central and State Media Organisations are co-ordinated by the Directorate at the State as well as of district levels. Some Departments like Education, Health and Family Planning, Industry, Agriculture, Forest, Panchayat and Co-operation have

their own publicity set up.

STATES’ MEDIA

169

Uttar Pradesh Area

:

Capital:

2,94,413 sq. km.

Population

Lucknow

DIRECTORATE

:

8,83,41,144

Principal Language :

Hindi

OF INFORMATION AND PUBLIC RELATIONS

Organisational Set-up The Directorate, headed by a Director, has six wings: (i) Press Publicity, (ii) Field Publicity, (iii) Exhibition, (iv) Films and Photography, (v) Publications, and (vi) Advertising. At the district level, there are 29 District

Information Officers.

Budget: Actual expenditure in 1974-75: Rs 67.07 lakhs. Estimates for 1975-76:Rs 1.30 crores. Proposals for 1976-77:Rs 1.44 crores. Press Publicity in 1975:

issued:

45.

260,

Photographs

Press releases issued:

released:

44,268.

Press

3,025. Feature articles conferences

Press visits to project areas and industrial undertakings:

6.

arranged:

Field Publicity: On an average 175 filmshows are arranged every month with 42 projectors. Besides, 169 public meetings and 72 group discussions are also arranged. There are 37 publicity vehicles, 41 PA sets, 42 generators and two taperecorders with the Directorate. Song

and

Drama:

The

Directorate

has

conduct S&D programmes. Qawwali, bhajan and nautanki are the items used.

eight

registered

troupes

mandalies, puppet

to

parties

Advertising: There is an Advertising Section with a Visualiser to handle the job. An expenditure of Rs 53 lakhs was incurred on newspaper advertisements in 1975-76, in addition to Rs 73,500 spent on outdoor publicity.

Publications: The Directorate publishes two monthlies, in Hindi and Urdu. During 1975, it brought out 22 pamphlets, 20 booklets and 15 sticker posters. Though normally printing is done at the Government Press, services of private presses are also utilised in some cases. An amount of Rs 5.46

lakhs was spent on publications during 1975-76.

Photos/Films: During 1975, the Directorate took up 810 photo coverage assignments and 44,268 prints were made. Four documentaries and three newsreels are produced in a year. There are five photographers and two movie cameramen with the Directorate, 23—3 M ofI & BIND/77

170

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

Exhibitions : During 1975, the Directorate conducted 32 exhibitions within the State. There are six Exhibition Units with necessary facilities.

Information Centres:

Information

Centres.

Research

and

There

Reference:

are There

reference material on various topics. Feed Back Services:

nightly

reports

prepared

Press

for use

one

State-level and 25 district-level

is a library in Lucknow

gives

regularly and

fort-

District Information

Off-

reactions are analysed by various

government

Co-ordination : Director at State level and

cers at district level coordinate

which

the activities of various

departments.

agencies.

West Bengal Area: Capital :

87,853 sq. km. Calcutta

DEPARTMENT

Population : Principal Language :

4,43,12,011 Bengali

OF INFORMATION AND PUBLIC RELATIONS

Organisational Set-up The Department, headed by a Director, has seven sections: (i) Press Publicity, (ii) Public Relations, (iii) Films, (iv) Rural Publicity, (v) Rural Broadcasting, (vi) Folk Arts, and (vii) Exhibitions. Besides, there is a Film Deve-

lopment Board to advise the Government for extending financial assistance

to producers of films, technicians and studios/laboratories. At the field level, there are three Regional Information and Public Relation Officers,

17 District IPROs,

two Labour IPROs

and 49 Sub-divisional IPROs.

Budget: Actual expenditure in 1974-75:Rs 1.45 crores. Estimates 1975-76: Rs 1.85 crores. Proposals for 1976-77:Rs 1.84 crores.

for

Press Publicity in 1975: Press releases issued:2,500. Feature articles issued:52. Photographs released:500. Press conferences: 200. Press visits

to project

areas

and

industrial

undertakings: 15.

Field Publicity: On an average 900 filmshows are arranged every month with 88 projectors, besides 81 public meetings and 594 group discussions. About 660 intensive publicity campaigns are also organised every year.

There

partment.

are

Song and

57

publicity

Drama

: There

vehicles,

and

five taperecorders

are five troupes with

with

the

De-

150 artistes to conduct

song and drama programmes. Drama, dance, music, tarja and magic are the art forms used.

STATES’ MEDIA

171

Advertising: There is an Advertising Section with three commercial artists/visualisers. Services of three private advertising agencies are also utilised. During 1975-76, an expenditure of Rs 49 lakhs was incurred on newspaper advertisements.

Publications:

ing

Two fortnightlies are published by the Department. Dur-

1975-76, an amount Photos/Films:

of Rs 4.00 lakhs was spent on publications.

During

1975,

the

Department

took

up

over

1,500

photo coverage assignments. There are five photographers with necessary developing facilities. On an average 12 newsreels and 10-12 documentaries

are

produced

through

empanelised

film-makers.

Exhibitions: At Headquarters, a Deputy Director heads the Exhibition Wing and there are Divisional Exhibition units at all Divisional headquarters.

During 1975, the Department arranged one big exhibition in Gauhati.

Information

Centres:

There

62 exhibitions within

the State and

are three State level Information Centres

one each at Calcutta, Durgapur and New Delhi. There is one Information Centre in every district besides Information Centres in six sub-divisions. Research

and

Reference:

level Information Centres. Feed Back Services: fortnightly

Co-ordination:

for

There

trict levels. Departments

city set up. State

the State.

annually.

Awards:

Capital:

:

are available

in all State-

Press reactions are analysed regularly and reports

use

by various

is machinery

of Agriculture

Yearly

awards

are

government

departments.

for coordination

at State and dis-

and Health have their own given

for

best

films

publi-

produced

in

Best Director, Best Actor and Best Actress Awards are also given

Andaman Area

facilities

Clipping and indexing facilities are available with

the Department. prepared

Library

and Nicobar Islands:

8,293 sq. km.

Population :

Port Blair

1,15,133

PUBLICITY SECTION

Organisational Set-up The Section functions under the Development Commissioner. It all matters relating to information, publicity and tourism.

1Material for the Annual not received.

handles

Based on information received in 1974.

172

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978 A daily newspaper

“Daily Telegrams”

is brought out by the Govern-

ment press. Photo coverage of developmental activities and State functions are attended to by the Section. It also publishes publicity literature. There

are two mobile cinema units, one each at Port Blair and Car Nicobar.

There are eleven information centres in the Islands. Under the community listening scheme, a number of villages have been provided with radio sets.

Arunachal Pradesh Area:

Capital:

83,578 sq. km.

Population:

Itanagar

4,67,511

DIRECTORATE OF INFORMATION AND PUBLIC RELATIONS

Organisational Set-up The

Directorate,

headed

by a Director,

has seven

sections:

(i) Projection

Cell, (ii) Community Listening Cell, (iii) Artist Cell, (iv) Publication Cell,

(v) Song and Drama Unit, (vi) Photographic Cell, and (vii) Film Production Cell. At the district level, there is one District Information Officer in each district with necessary technical and administrative staff. for

Budget:

Actual expenditure in

1975-76:Rs

19.99 lakhs.

1974-75:

Proposals

for

Rs

13.33 lakhs. Estimates

1976-77: Rs 22.25

lakhs.

Press Publicity in 1975: Press notes issued: 200. Feature articles issued: 200. Photographs released: 480. Press conferences arranged: 25. Press visits to project areas and industrial undertakings: 5.

Field Publicity: On an average 250 filmshows are arranged every month with 23 projectors, besides three public meetings in every district and sub-divisional headquarters. About five intensive campaigns are organised every month. There are seven publicity vehicles and four tape-recorders. Public address equipment/generating sets are also available. Song and Drama:

cultural programmes mental

themes.

Advertising:

The

Directorate

has

one

troupe

which, through

based on Iccal art forms, gives publicity to develop-

There

is an

Advertising

Section

to handle

the job

with

a commercial artist and an art-expert. During 1975-76, an expenditure of Rs 1.17 lakhs was incurred on newspaper advertisements besides Rs 14,000 spent on outdoor publicity.

STATES’

MEDIA

173

Publications:

A

monthly

‘Arunachal

News’

in English is published.

During 1975, three pamphlets/booklets were brought out. Rs 85,500 was spent on publications in 1975-76. Photo/Films:

During

1975

the

Directorate

took

An

up

23

amount

photo

of

cover-

age assignments and 4,800 prints were made. In a year two newsreels /documentary

movie

films

cameramen

are

produced.

There

with the Directorate.

are

three

Exhibitions: The Directorate has a small 1975, two exhibitions were arranged at Gauhati. level.

Information

Centre:

Co-ordination:

There

is one

photographers

exhibition

Information

and

unit.

Centre

at

two

During district

Coordination Committees exist in all the districts.

Chandigarh Area: Capital:

1148q. km. Chandigarh

Population :

2,57,251

DIRECTORATE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS

Organisational Set-up The Deputy Secretary (Finance) holds the additional charge of the post of

Director, Public Relations and Cultural Affairs. Publicity Officer, however, is the whole-time officer. It has three wings: (i) Press, (ii) Films, and (iii)

Photography. Budget:

1975-76: Rs

Actual

Press Publicity

leased:

77.

expenditure

95,000. Proposals in 1975:

in

1974-75:

for 1976-77:Rs

Rs 80,106.

Estimates

for

221. Photographs

re-

92,000.

Press releases issued:

The services of the accredited/recognised press correspondents of

Chandigarh Administration and the correspondents of local newspapers of repute are sometimes utilised to cover important functions. Field Publicity: On an average 15 filmshows are arranged every month with one projector. Besides one publicity vehicle, the Directorate has one taperecorder, two amplifiers, one record player and one transistor. The Directorate also assists in organising campaign.of other departments of the

Administration and publicity organisations of Government of India.

174

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978 Advertising:

The

Directorate

releases

advertisements of various de-

partments of the Chandigarh Administration to newspapers. It incurred an expenditure of Rs 1.68 lakhs for this during 1975-76. Publications:

The

Directorate

brought

out

45,000

copies

of ‘“Chandi-

garh Guide’ and 20,000 copies of ‘Map’ and distributed free of charge to the tourists and delegates visiting Chandigarh

during

1975. Printing of all pub-

lications is done at the Government Printing Press of the Chandigarh Administration and an expenditure of Rs 40,000 incurred on publications during 1975-76.

Photos/Films: During 1975, the Directorate covered 77 photo assignments and 1,267 prints were made. There is only one Assistant Photo Cinema

Officer with the Directorate. Exhibitions;

The Directorate organises exhibitions in collaboration with

the Exhibition Wing of the DAVP ReSearch

Directorate. and

and Reference:

Clipping

Feed Back Services: All the news concerning Chandigarh

Co-ordination:

A

the

Capital :

available

with

the

national/local newspapers are analysed are sent to the Administration.

activities.

Dadra :

facilities are

State-cum-District-level

Committee co-ordinates publicity set up.

Area

from time to time in the Union Territory.

The

and Nagar

Health

Publicity

Department

Co-ordination has

its own

Population :

74,170

Haveli

491 sq. km.

Silvassa FIELD PUBLICITY OFFICE

Organisational Set-up The

Office has only one Field

Publicity Officer assisted

for field publicity, advertisements to newspapers Press Publicity in 1975:

ged one press conference.

by four persons

and publications.

The Office released 50 photographs

and arran-

Field Publicity: On an average 15 to 20 filmshows are arranged every month with one projector. One publicity vehicle and one taperecorder are

also available with the Office.

175

STATES’ MEDIA Advertising:

FPO.

through

1975.

An

Advertisements

expenditure

government

of

23,000 was

of Rs

departments are routed

incurred on this during

Publications: Two fortnightlies, one in English and the other in Gujarati are brought out by the Office. Information

one

is

There

Information Centre:

Centre in the Union

Territory.

Delhi Area:

Capital:

1,485 sq. km.

Population:

40,65,689

Delhi DIRECTORATE OF INFORMATION

AND PUBLICITY

Organisational Set-up The

Directorate, headed by a Director, Information

and Publicity has five

sections: (i) Press, (ii) Publications, (iii) Field Publicity, (iv) Advertising, and (v) Exhibition.

Budget: Actual expenditure during 1974-75:Rs 15.49 mates for 1975-76:Rs 20.33 lakhs. Proposals for 1976-77:Rs Press Publicity in 1975:

issued: 102. Photographs

Press

visits to project

Field Publicity:

On

Press

released:

areas and an

releases

issued:512.

5,000. Press conferences

industrial

average

20

Feature articles

undertakings : 20.

filmshows

are

lakhs. Esti17.64 lakhs. arranged : 300.

arranged

every

month with five projectors. About 20 public meetings every month and four intensive publicity campaigns every year are organised by the Directorate. Besides slide carrier, booster and amplifiers, four taperecorders are available

with the Directorate.

Song and Drama:

The Directorate has

15 registered music parties.

It

engages private song and drama troupes and organises programmes in various auditoriums and on open stages in the urban and rural areas of the Union Territory. Advertising:

The

Directorate

has

an

Advertisement

Section

which

deals with the plan publicity and the publications of the other departments of the Administration. The Directorate sometimes utilises the services of advertising agencies. During 1975-76, it spent Rs 8.68 lakhs on newspaper advertisements. Besides Rs 1,000 on repainting of seven hoardings and

176

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

Rs 1,000 on outdoor publicity, the Directorate spent Rs 1,237 on other media

of paid publicity. Publications:

The

Directorate

publishes

three quarterlies,

“Dilli”

one

each in Hindi, Urdu and Punjabi. During 1975, six pamphlets /booklets were brought out and it spent Rs 1.08 lakhs on publications during 1975-76. Photos/Films: During 1975, the Directorate covered 611 photo assignments and 6,776 prints were made. Two photographers are employed for the

purpose

and

it has one dark

room

with

necessary facilities.

Exhibitions: The Directorate has an Exhibition Unit where exhibits are prepared through local firms dealing with designing and decoration of various display material. During 1975, it organised four small exhibitions on Plan

Development.

Research library.

and Reference:

The

Directorate has a clipping section

and a

Co-ordination: nter-media Publicity Co-ordination Committee and Public Relations Committee co-ordinate activities of Centre and State me-

dia organisations. The Directorate with other departments.

maintains

Goa, Daman Area:

3,813 sq. km.

Capital:

Panaji

close

publicity

co-ordination

and Diu

Population

:

Principal Languages :

DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION

8,57,771 Marathi, Konkani and Gujarati

AND TOURISM

Organisational Set-up The

Department, headed

by a Director, has two wings:

Public Relations Wing under the

(i) Information and

supervision of

Information

in

8.77

Officer, and

(ii) Publications Wing under the supervision of Publications Officer. Budget:

Actual

expenditure

1974-75:Rs

1975-76: Rs 12.43 lakhs. Proposals for 1976-77:Rs

lakhs.

Estimates

12.70 lakhs.

for

Press Publicity in 1975: Press releases issued: 987. Photographs released: 4,800. Press conferences arranged: 7. Press Tour to Bangalore and other parts in Karnataka arranged.

STATES’ MEDIA with

177

Field Publicity: On an average 20 filmshows are arranged every month six projectors. The Department organises National Weeks, Family

Planning

Fortnight

and

vehicles are available with Advertising : The

World

Health

Day

the Department.

Department

releases

every

year.

advertisements

Four

Publicity

to newspapers

published in Goa and outside. An expenditure of Rs 1.45 lakhs was incurred

on this during

1975-76.

Publications:

The Department

publishes

four

monthly journals, one

each in English, Devanagari, Konkani and Marathi. Printing of all the publications is done at Government Press and the services of Kala Academy are

also utilised for designing. An expenditure of Rs 1.94 lakhs was incurred on publications in 1975-76.

Photos/Films: During 1975, the Department covered 806 photo assignments and 4,800 prints were made. Besides other technical facilities available, two photographers are employed with the Department. It approaches the Films Division at Bombay for producing documentaries on special events. However, two documentaries were produced by the Department in 1975.

Exhibitions: During in the Union Territory.

1975, the Department conducted three exhibitions

Research and Reference:

There is a small reference unit which main-

tains records of important publications and journals.

Lakshadweep Area

Capital:

:

32sq

km

Population:

Kavaratti

31,810

INFORMATION OFFICE

Organisational Set-up Information Office is headed by an Information Officer. There are nine Information Units headed by Information Assistants in Kavaratti, Androth, Kalpeni, Minicoy, Agatti, Amini, Kadmat, Kiltam and Chetlat Islands. Budget:

1975-76:

Actual expenditure in 1974-75:

Rs 4.88 lakhs.

Rs 6.07 lakhs. Estimates for

Proposals for 1976-77:

Rs 6.32 lakhs.

Press Publicity in 1975: Press releases issued: 1,975. Feature articles issued: 18. Photographs released: 24. Press visit to project areas and industrial undertakings: 1. 24—3 M of I & B/ND/77

178

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA Field Publicity : On

arranged every month

an

with

average

180 filmshows

10 projectors.

About

by

the nine

1978

units are

36 public meetings

and

27 group discussions are arranged every month. About 45 intensive publicity

campaigns

are

organised

every

year.

The

Office

has

one

Song and Drama: The Office has two auditoriums at traditional songs and dance groups are engaged for giving

during media

campaigns

Publications:

in the islands.

Besides

“Lakshadweep

Fortnightly”,

Malayalam, the Office publishes ‘Lakshadweep

Annual’.

press at Calicut for the purpose.

ganisations.

Close

liaison

is maintained

Kavaratti and entertainment

published

in

Kavaratti 1975.

and

It has one printing

Exhibitions: The Office organised one exhibition at participated in a cooperative exhibition at Calicut during Co-ordination:

taperecorder.

with

Central

Media

Or-

Mizoram Area:

21,087 sq

Capital:

Aizawl

km

Population

Principal Languages:

:

3,32,390

Mizo and English

DIRECTORATE OF INFORMATION, PUBLIC RELATION AND TOURISM

Organisational Set-up The Directorate, headed by a Director, has four wings: and Reference, (iii) Photo, and (iv) Field Publicity.

(i) Press, (ii) Research At the district level,

there are District Information and Public Relations Officers, one each at

Aizawl, Lunglei Budget:

1975-76:

and Chhimtuipuri

Actual expenditure in 1974-75:

Rs 13 lakhs. Proposals for 1976-77:

Press Publicity in 1975:

leased:

Districts.

250.

Press

Press releases

conferences

Press visits to project areas:

4.

arranged:

Rs 11.62 lakhs. Estimates for

Rs 14.70 lakhs.

issued:

15.

Press

580.

tours

Photographs reconducted:

2.

Field Publicity: On an average 15 filmshows are arranged every month with eight projectors and about five public meetings are arranged

every month. Besides three vehicles and three taperecorders, the Directorate has provided public address equipment to the DIPROs. The Directorate has fixed loudspeaker system at 4 important towns and 198 transistorised receivers have been distributed to grouped centres,

STATES’ MEDIA

179

Song and Drama: Local artists are through songs, music and other audio-visuals.

engaged

for

entertainment

Advertising: The Directorate releases advertisements to newspapers in Mizoram and outside. During 1975, it spent Rs 20,000 on newspaper advertisement,

Rs 15,000 on hoardings,

of paid publicity.

Publication:

The

Directorate

etc. and

Rs

publishes

17,000 on other media

three

weeklies

in

Mizo

language—‘Tunlai Chanchin’ ‘Khawvel’ and ‘Kaladan’, one weekly ‘Mizoram Gazette’ in English and a quarterly ‘Mizoram Today’, both in English and

Mizo languages. During 1975, 25 pamphlets/booklets and coloured picture postcards in sets of 10 cards were brought out by the Directorate. Besides its own printing press, the Directorate utilises the private printing presses also. Photos/Films: ments

and

4,157

During

1975, the Directorate covered

prints

were

made.

two enlargers and dark ployed for the purpose.

room

facilities.

Exhibitions:

Exhibition

Union Territory and outside.

The

facilities

Directorate

One

with the Directorate. Feed

Back Services:

has

three

Photographer

are available

Information Centres: At State level, there Centres one each at Aizawl, Lunglei and Saiha, tural areas with necessary facilities. ReSearch and Reference:

146 photo assign-

Reference library

has

cameras,

been

em-

for displaying in the

are three Information besides seven centres in

facilities

are

available

Local papers are regularly scrutinised and daily

reports submitted to the Government. Coordination:

Coordination

is maintained

with

various

departments

and also at the Centre and at state and district levels. Agricultural, Medical,

Veterinary, Animal publicity set up. State-level

Husbandry

Awards:

and

The

Surendranath’s Trophy’ for the Best ning Trophy’

for Best Beat Group

Forest

Departments

Department

organises

Entertainer and

for music

have

their

‘Smt.

own

Gargi

‘Lt. Governor’s Run-

and dance

annually.

180

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

Pondicherry' Area

: 480 sq

Capital:

km

Population:

Pondicherry

4,71,707

Principal Languages: Tamil and French

DIRECTORATE

OF INFORMATION

AND

PUBLICITY

The Directorate, headed by a Director, has four sections (i) Press, Publications and Photographs, (ii) Films and Rural Publicity, (jij) Informa-

tion Centres, and (iv) Radio

Rural

Forums

The Directorate issues press releases.

and Community

Listening Sets.

It brings out a Tamil

monthly

and an English quarterly. Government advertisements are also released to the Press by the Directorate. Films and Rural Publicity Section arranges

field publicity programmes. There

is

a

State

Information

Centres, one each at Karaikal, Mahe

Centre

in

Pondicherry,

and Yanam.

besides

three

There are 94 Radio Rural Forums in the Union Territory. A large number of villages in the Territory have been provided with community listening sets.

Material for the Annual not received.

Based on information received in 1974.

Public Sector Media THE KINGS of ancient India, like the Pharaohs of Egypt, spared no pains to build up, through various means, their own royal reputation. This con-

scious

and

effort

rock

Public

was

carvings

Relations

not

of

made

(PR)

through

Ashoka

in India.

art and

is a good

In modern

literature alone.

The

times the concept

of PR

example

of

edicts

the beginning

of

can

boast of a history of quarter century and only in 1956 a professional organisation, the PR Society of India, was formed.

Since 1947, a number of key and basic industries came under Government ownership. Later other industries producing even some consumer articles were also started by the Government. Over a period of time a

number of public sector undertakings have come up, which produce varied articles from sophisticated electronic equipment to modern bread. A good amount of public money has been invested in these undertakings and naturally

it has

become

the duty

of the public

sector

undertakings

to in-

form the public of their activities and also to keep the policy-makers in these industries informed of public opinion about them. Public Relations, it is said, is ninety per cent doing good and ten per cent, talking about it. The justification of Government PR rests on two problems: (i) Democratic Government is obliged to report to its citizens, and (ii) Effective ad-

ministration requires citizens’ participation. The

objectives

classified as under:

of PR/Publicity

for public

(1) to distribute publicity material like PR among the clients; (2) to catch

berate,

and

hold

planned

and

the attention

sustained

sector news

undertakings

public

understanding;

(3) to counteract any false propaganda against the public takings through various communication channels;

(4) to issue regular, dependable internal and external use;

be

or other press releases

of the general

mutual

can

through

deli-

sector under-

information through house journals for

(5) to act as a “two-way street” and feed the management about the views of internal public and the general public outside the undertaking that affects the functioning of the undertaking.

182

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978 There are over 125 public sector undertakings in the country.

A large

number of these still do not have a separate Public Relations set-up though they do incur expenditure on PR. In this chapter, an attempt has been made

to describe

the

PR

set-up

in some

of the major

undertakings.

Air India The Public Relations Office of Air India, Bombay, is headed by a Public Relations Manager who deals exclusively with the public relations activities of the Corporation in India and abroad. Advertising

and sales promotion are handled by the Publicity Section of the Commercial Department. The PR Office maintains a library containing films, photo-

graphs, books and other reference material including newspaper

clippings.

Air India has two full-time officers in New York, two in London and one in Paris who are required to handle advertising and sales promotion as well as public relations, Public Relations Consultants on a part-time basis have been appointed in London, Sydney, Osaka, Hong Kong, Bangkok and Nairobi.

Perth,

Singapore,

Tokyo,

Eleven press conferences, 23 press visits, 4 TV interviews and 6 radio

programmes

were arranged during

1975.

House Journal An

eight-page

lished once

house

a month

journal

‘Magic

and distributed

Carpet’

(circulation

free to staff and

and press contacts in India and abroad.

16,000)

is pub-

business, commercial

Advertising Facilities for copy-writing and designing are not available with the Department. Advertisements are written and designed by advertising agencies employed in India and abroad. The Corporation’s Art Studio in Bombay handles the designing of window display, hoardings, posters, show cards, calendars, greeting cards, interior and exterior decoration of Air India air-craft, interior decoration of Air India offices and similar jobs. The Department torium with audio-visual equipment in Bombay.

maintains an audi-

Budget There is no separate budget for public relations.

The

budget

provided

for

advertising and sales promotion covers the expenditure incurred on public relations.

PUBLIC SECTOR MEDIA

183

In 1975-76, a total budget of Rs 10.50 crores was allocated, the major items of expenditure being—advertising and sales promotion Rs 7 crores,

displays

(indoor/outdoor),

direct

mail

(sales

letters,

pamphlets,

etc.)

and

presentation Rs 1.50 crores and public relations and tour promotion Rs 85 lakhs.

Bharat Heavy Plate and Vessels Limited,

Visakhapatnam

The

Public

PR

department

Nineteen

is headed

by an

press conferences

were

Assistant held

during

Relations

Officer.

1975.

The Company has a 16 mm projector, a 35 mm projector and an Epidioscope for screening films of educational value, feature films and training programmes.

The company

has documentation

and a public address system.

facilities, photo process

Budget The advertising budget is Rs 1.50 lakhs.

No copy-writing, layout and desig-

ning facilities are available.

Braithwaite and Company (India) Limited,

Calcutta

A very small PR cell exists in the company.

Press campaigns, exhibitions, etc. are arranged Company. One

press conference

was arranged

during

by the PR cell in the

1975.

There is no house journal. Copy-writing

and

designing

work

is done

with

Design and Drawing Department and advertising agent. The

Company

has

16 mm

projection equipment.

the

assistance

There

mentation facilities available except hiring local photographer.

from

are no docu-

Budget Annual budget is Rs 63,000.

Burn & Company Limited

Company Limited,

Calcutta

PR set-up of the Company one APRO.

and

consists

the Indian of one PR

Standard

Manager,

one

Wagon PRO

and

184

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978 Three press conferences were held during 1975.

House Journal House

English.

journal

is brought

Copy-writing No

Hyderabad The

PR

headed

department one

press

three

languages—Hindi,

Bengali

and

facilities are not available.

budget is fixed.

Corporation

by a Senior

Only

in

and designing

advertisement

Electronic

out

of

India

of ECIL

forms

conference

was

PRO

who

Limited,

part of the personnel

is assisted by a PRO held

during

and

Cherlapalli, group

and

four APROs.

the year

is

1975.

House Journal The

PR

department

publishes a

bi-monthly

house

journal

entitled

News’ (circulation 6,000). The journal is distributed free among employees of the Corporation, sister concerns, government officials

members of the Press.

‘EC

the and

The Department also publishes PR booklets which gives a graphic picture of the Corporation and its activities: ‘Performance Highlights’ which gives a statistical picture of the Corporation, ‘EC and You’ an introduction booklet to acquaint fresh employees with the activities of the Corporation. The Department maintains an extensive catalogue of news items clipped from the various dailies and journals, and also prepares and documents corporate literature, product literature and background information on the

Corporation.

Advertising and Audio-visual Equipment The Corporation conducts its advertising through Your advertising agencies. The PR department shares audio-visual equipment with the Corporation’s Training Department. Slide packages on the Corporation, its products and people are being compiled. The department coordinated a film on ECIL to be released by the Films Division.

PUBLIC

SECTOR

MEDIA

185

Budget The

PR

budget

for 1975:

Rs

1.75 lakhs.

Fertilisers and Chemicals Udyogmandal (Kerala)

Travancore

The PR department is headed Secretary at the head office.

1975.

Four

press

conferences

by

and

a PRO

three

Limited

who

press

(FACT),

reports to the Company

visits

were

arranged

during

House Journal A house magazine in Malayalam bution among the employees.

is published.

It is meant for free distri-

Advertising The advertising work is at present entrusted to two accredited advertising agencies. There is no commercial aftist attached to the Department to do designing work and no lay-out facilities are available. The audio-visual equipments are attached to the sales promotion wing under the marketing division and these are utilised mainly for product

promotional activities,

Budget The

publicity budget

employed

for 1976-77

are newspapers,

journals,

is Rs

2.6 lakhs.

publications,

Fertiliser Corporation of India Limited, The

PR

department

at the Corporation’s

The

important

exhibitions

and

media

fairs.

New Delhi

central office has four sections,

namely, Information, Publication, Exhibition and Administration. The Department has the following posts: Chief PR Manager, who coordinates the activities of all the sections; PR Manager, PRO, Assistant Editor, Assistant Information Officer, Exhibition Assistant-cum-Photographer, Information

Assistant and Publication Assistant. The Corporation arranged 25—3 M of | & B/77

25 Press Conferences during the year 1975.

186

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

1978

House Journal There

are

two

monthly

“Urvarak Sandesh’ (Hindi).

house

journals:

‘Fertiliser Digest’

(English)

and

Audio-visual Equipment The department’s audio-visual equipment consists of projectors, mobile vans and publicity vans, which are mainly deployed in villages all over India. The vans are equipped publicity literature.

with projectors, public address systems

and

Budget Budget

allocation

for 1975-76:

Rs

14.25 lakhs.

Heavy Engineering Corporation Limited, Dhurva (Ranchi) The

PRO.

PR

PRO.

department

of Heavy

Engineering

Corporation

is headed

He is assisted by a Junior Manager (PR), Deputy PRO

One press conference Corporation in 1975.

and

three

press

visits

were

and

‘HEC

News’

(in English)

by

a

and Assistant

organised

by

the

brought

out.

House Journal ‘HEC

Pariwar’

A visualiser advertisements. PR

(in Hindi)

in the Central Commercial

department

tape-recorder.

has

one

film

projector,

Division

one

are

prepares

slide

lay-outs

projector

and

for

one

Budget Budget for 1975-76 was about Rs 8.74 lakhs.

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited,

Bangalore

Presently there is no PR department at the corporate level in the head office. While there is a full-fledged PR department in the Bangalore complex, there is only a publicity department in the Nasik division. The other divisions at Hyderabad, Kanpur, Koraput and Lucknow do not have any

PR Department.

PUBLIC SECTOR Except launched. Two

MEDIA

for Basant

187 Agricultural

press conferences

were

Aircraft,

arranged

no

publicity

during

campaigns

are

1975.

House Journal The

Bangalore complex

News’.

(MIG

bad

‘MIG

PR

Department

News’ is published

and

Koraput.

out

a monthly

by the office of the Managing

complex) about the activities of the MIG

journal.

‘HAL

Director

divisions at Nasik, Hydera-

No other division is currently bringing out any house

Hindustan Antibiotics Limited, PRO,

brings

Pimpri,

Pune

who is responsible directly to the Chief Executive is assisted by one

Assistant PRO, two PR assistants, etc.

Three Press conferences were held during 1975.

House Journal House Journal ‘HAL simultaneously.

News’

is brought

out regularly

in English and

Hindi

Advertising copy-writing is departmentally handled. The assistance of Company’s artist-photographer is also taken for art-work. No advertising

agency is employed for this purpose.

The audio-visual equipment, including one portable slide projector, is used for company’s publicity during visits and in exhibitions.

Budget For the period April—November

1975, the actual expenditure was Rs 92,000.

Hindustan Cables Limited,

District Burdwan

PRO heads the PR department of HCL. HCL

cinema

hall, Guest

house

and

(West Bengal)

The PRO looks after the work of

all the junior

tion to projecting the image of the company.

basic

schools

in addi-

House Journal No

house

journal

is being

brought

Bengali and Hindi were brought out.

out now.

Previously

News

Letters

in

188

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

Budget Total budget is Rs

1.04 lakhs including entertainment and publicity expenses.

Advertisement budget for 1975-76 was Rs 20,000. The media employed for publicity include inter alia film, direct mail and literature, group discussions, seminars, etc. This is exclusive of advertisement charges on account of publication of tender notices and employment notices in the news-

papers, the budget for which

is Rs.

Audio-visual equipment all their equipments.

include

Hindustan Copper Limited,

1.80 lakhs. 16 mm

and

35

mm

projectors

with

Calcutta

The PR department consists of a Senior Manager (PR) at head office in Calcutta and PROs, one each at the Khetri complex and the Indian Copper Complex, Ghatsila, besides a Publicity Officer mainly to handle fertilizer publicity at Delhi. Ail these PR officials report directly to the respective Chief Executives. The Manager (PR) reports to the Chairman and Managing Director. In specified areas, the Manager (PR) coordinates PR activities

for the company as a whole.

tached to him.

Six press conferences

At Khetri, the PRO

has a photographer at-

and six press visits were arranged during

1975.

House Journal Two

separate editions in English and Hindi, ‘Copper Calling’ and ‘Tamra

Sandesh’

are brought

out from

Delhi and Calcutta

journals are brought out once in two months.

respectively.

The PR department has no facilities for copy-writing Advertising agencies are employed to do the work.

and

The

house

designing.

Budget A budget of Rs 1.50 lakhs per year is earmarked for PR purposes. The expenditure on institutional and PR advertisements was about Rs 50,000

a year.

Hindustan Insecticides Limited The PR section has a Senior PRO publicity and PR.

(HIL), New Delhi who deals with all matters relating to

PUBLIC

SECTOR

Eleven

MEDIA

189

press conferences/visits

were

The Company brings out two and ‘HIL Newsletter.’

arranged

during

tri-lingual house

1975.

journals—‘Rakshak’

Advertising, copy-writing, audio-visual, designing and lay-out are not available. No advertising agency is employed by HIL.

Hindustan Machine Tools Limited, PR

facilities

Bangalore

set up is headed by Manager (PR) at the Corporation’s head office in

Bangalore. He is assisted by a PRO. In addition, HMT has a PRO attached to each unit of HMT in Bangalore (Karnataka), Hyderabad (AP), Kalamassery (Kerala), Ajmer (Rajasthan), Pinjore (Haryana) and Srinagar

(J&K).

Eight

press conferences

were

held

during

1975.

House Journal The

corporate

PR

World’.

Various

Division

brings

units also publish

in their respective units.

out

a quarterly

monthly

house

journal

‘HMT

news digests for internal circulation

Budget PR

Division’s

budget

for

1976-77

is Rs

Hindustan Shipyard Limited,

8.5 lakhs.

Visakhapatnam

The PR department is headed by a PRO who is responsible directly to the general manager. PR department arranged twelve press conferences during

1975.

House Journal A quarterly and Telugu.

house

journal

‘Shipyard

Review’

is

brought

out

in

English

Budget Annual

budget allocation is Rs 3.02 lakhs, of which

lakhs is set apart for advertisements English, Hindi and Telugu.

which

an amount

are issued

of Rs 2.10

in three languages,

190

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

Hindustan Steelworks Construction Limited, Calcutta The PR department is headed by a PRO. The PRO Teports to the Chief Executive through his Secretary (Technical). He is assisted by two APROs/ Feature Writers, Photo Officer, two Editors, three Information Assistants, one Commercial Artist, one Assistant Photographer and one Translator and other staff. Two press conferences and two press visits were arranged during 1975. House Journal Two house journals namely ‘Hindustan Steel-works ‘Nirman’ in Hindi are brought out regularly.

Normally

copy-writing

for

employed by the Company.

advertising

is done

News’

by

in English

advertising

and

agency

The Company has a 16-mm projector.

Budget The total expenditure incurred during 1975-76 was Rs 3.86 lakhs. The amount was spent on advertisements through press, souvenirs, house journals

and folders and on exhibitions.

India Tourism New Delhi

Development

Corporation

Limited (ITDC),

ITDC’s PR department is headed by a PR Manager. The PR department is part of the Production and Publicity Division and depends on it for all

its requirements of editorial, design and photographic

ITDC

annual

normally

performance.

holds

facilities.

one regular press conference

every year on

its

House Journal No

house

journal

is brought

travel trade called ‘Yatri’.

out.

It however

publishes

a journal

for

the

ITDC has its own copy-writing and designing facilities. Audio-visual equipment includes film and slide projectors. A well-equipped photo library consists of several thousand transparencies and black and white photographs.

PUBLIC SECTOR MEDIA

191

Budget Total

expenditure

lakhs.

incurred

on

advertising during

1975-76

Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Limited,

was

over

Rs

18

New Delhi

The PR department is headed by the Chief of Publicity and Public Relations, who holds the status of a departmental head and reports directly to

the Chief Executive of the company and has full access to the top management and their decisions. The Chief PPR

at New

Delhi is assisted by PROs

at the Antibiotics

Plant, Rishikesh and Synthetic Drugs Plant, Hyderabad. ded with necessary staff at all the three places.

They

are

provi-

Two press conferences were held during 1975. House Journat A quarterly house journal ‘IDPL News’ is published from the head office at New Delhi and a monthly ‘Antibiotics News’ from the Antibiotics Plant,

Rishikesh.

Copy-writing

No

ment.

Facilities

copy-writing These

are

and

designing

being

arranged

The only audio-visual corder with accessories. Budget The

facilities

exist

through

equipment

at present

advertising

available

agencies.

with

IDPL

is a tape-re-

.

budget

is provided

allocation

for

for institutional

1976-77:

PR

and

Rs

52

lakhs.

publicity,

Rs

Of

38

tional PR and Publicity and Rs 1 lakh for internal publicity.

Jute Corporation of India Limited, PR department of Jute Corporation (Public Relations). One

in the depart-

press conference

lakhs

13

lakhs

for promo-

Calcutta

of India

was organised

this, Rs

in

is headed

by Office Manager

1975.

House Journal Jute Corporation of India is bringing out a ‘House Journal’ every month.

192

MASS

MEDIA

IN INDIA

1978

Budget Budget for 1974-75 was Rs 1.5 lakhs.

Life Insurance Corporation of India, Bombay The Publicity and Public Relations Department is headed by the PRO of Life Insurance Corporation. He is assisted by two Assistant Secretaries who look after the various sections in the department and report to him. The PRO himself plans and coordinates the publicity activities of the Corporation and maintains liaison with the press, radio, television and

other media of publicity.

The

following

sections

are working

under the PRO:

tion, (ii) Yogakshema (House Journal) Section, Section, (iv) Language Bureau and Production Publicity Section, (vi) Art Section, and (vii) Library.

Three press conferences were arranged during

(i) Media

Sec-

(iii) Accounts/Budget Section, (v) Out-door

1975.

House Journal LIC brings out a monthly journal titled “Yogakshema’. It is in its 19th year of publication. Production and distribution of the quarterly News Letter of the Corporation and-of the monthly house journal is looked after by Yogakshema Section. Copy-writing and

Designing

LIC has its own art section with a photographic cell. It helps in designing the house magazine, bringing out folders, booklets, posters and other publicity material. Advertising agencies are also employed and briefed about the requirements of the Organisation. The final copy is approved by the senior executives, like the Executive Director (Development), the Managing

Director and the Chairman. The

media

employed

Publicity, (ii) Commercial

for

advertising

Broadcasting,

and

publicity

(iii) Hoardings,

are

(iv) Bus

(i)

Press

Panels,

(v)

Neon Signs/Glow Signs, (vi) House Magazines and Divisional Newsletter, (vii) Film-slide Exhibition, (viii) Poster Frames, Insurance Week, Postal

letters, (ix) Puppetry, and (x) Fairs and Exhibitions. Audio-visual

Equipment

LIC has 48 publicity vans spread all over the country. All these vans are well-equipped with audio-visual and public address equipment.

PUBLIC SECTOR MEDIA

193

Budget

LIC

publicity budget is about half per cent of first year premium

Tt varies

from

year to year. For

Mogul Line Limited,

1975-76

the budget

was

income.

Rs 65 lakhs.

Bombay

The PR set up in the Mogul Line Limited is headed by the Secretary who is assisted by a part-time Editor and a PR assistant.

Howse Journal ‘The Mogul’ is brought out regularly in English. Budget

Tota] budget for 1975-76 was Rs 2 lakhs.

National Seeds Corporation Limited and Corporation of India Limited, New Delhi

State

Farms

The activities of the National Seeds Corporation and the State Farms Corporation of India having been integrated, the Publicity and PR Division of both the Corporations has been put under the charge of a PRO-cum-Chief Editor. He, in turn, is assisted by Editors and an APRO. Ten press conferences were held during 1975. House Journal A monthly journal ‘Seeds and Farms’ is being brought out in English regularly. A Hindi edition is also proposed to be started shortly. Two 16 mm projectors with films on quality seed production produced departmentally as well as with the help of Films Division are available. Budget

Annual budget is about Rs 8 lakhs per year.

National Small Industries Corporation Limited, New Delhi The Chief PRO

of the Corporation (part-time) is assisted by an Assistant

Manager (PR) (part-time) and a Superintendent (PR) on full time basis.

The PR department is a wing of the Administration Division under the head of the Personnel Department who is also designated as the Chief PRO.

26—3 M ofI & B/ND/77

194

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978 A house journal is brought out regularly by the Corporation.

Copy-writing work is attended to by the PR department though no copy-writer is employed for the purpose. Designing work is attended to by the Draftsman-cum-Artist of the Section. Budget Against average budget allocation of Rs 1.25 lakhs, average total expenditure

on

advertisement

and

publicity

are newspapers, magazines, etc.

comes

Oil and Natural Gas Commission,

to

Rs

80,000.

Media

employed

Dehra Dun

The PR set up is headed by a senior PRO at the headquarters level. There are five PROs, one each at Delhi, Vadodara, Nazira—Assam, Calcutta and

Bombay.

Three press conferences were arranged during 1975. House Journal Three

house

journals

are brought

out,

namely

‘ONGC

Reporter’

Dun), ‘Gasoil’ (Vadodara) and ‘Black Gold’ (Nazira). The department is equipped with a 16 mm jector and a tape recorder.

(Dehra

film projector, a slide pro-

Budget Total PR budget for 1976-77 was Rs 28.6 lakhs.

Shipping Corporation of India Limited, Bombay The PR department in the Shipping Corporation of India is headed by a Joint Manager. He is assisted by a Deputy Manager, an Assistant Manager and an Editor of house journal.

The department is known as Publicity and PR department.

is a full-fledged department

like any other department

and reports to Chairman directly. PR

set up coordinates

throughout

the

world

all PR

in different

in the Organisation

activities of the corporation.

parts

This unit

of the countries act as PR

Agents

repre-

sentatives and the master on board the ships of the Corporation also play

a vital role in the PR activities.

PUBLIC SECTOR MEDIA

195

House Journal A

house

journal

called ‘SCI

Sandesh’

published by the PR department.

is a regular

bi-monthly,

which

is

Advertisements PR department also handles publicity work of the Shipping Corporation and no advertising agency is employed for this job. Copy-writing, designing and visualisations are attended to by the PR department and commercial artists are also engaged to do the art work.

Media employed are the newspapers, radio, television, brochures, pamphlets and newsreels. Hoardings have also been used on some special occasions.

Professional Organisations OVER THE years the mass media in India have expanded considerably and have come to play a powerful role in shaping public opinion. And in this,

the role of the professional organisations on the different media has been significant. Today, these organisations devote a very considerable part of their time and resources to activities aimed at helping the profession to

serve the public interest better.

Here in this chapter, an attempt is made

to discuss the role of some of these organisations in India.

All-India Newspaper Editors’ Conference, New Delhi The All-India Newspaper Editors’ Conference, established in 1940, has been maintaining liaison between the Government and the Press. The Conference

has

the

following

(1) To (2) To (3) To

preserve represent

aims

and

and

objectives:

promote

the press

high

traditions

in India

of journalism.

in its relation

public institutions and the Government.

with

the

public,

set up committees which would act as liaison bodies between the Government and the press and to appoint delegations to repre-

sent the press. (4) To

establish and develop contacts with aims and objects in India and abroad.

Generally,

every member

journalists of standing

bers.

A

ference.

monthly

house

are

newspaper

invited

journal,

associations

is represented

to join the Conference

‘News

Letter’,

is brought

having

similar

by its editor, as special

out

by

the

but

mem-

Con-

All India Small And Medium Newspapers Federation, Kanpur The Federation was established on 9 April

1961 to promote and safeguard

the interests of small and medium newspapers published in any language in India. Any registered news agency can also be enrolled as a member

PROFESSIONAL ORGANISATIONS

197

by a special resolution of the Standing Committee. has the following chief aims and objectives:

The Federation inter alia

(1) To

promote and safeguard the interests of newspapers and dicals published and news agencies established in India.

perio-

(2) To

represent press in India jn its relations with public institutions and with the Government. And also to set up committees which

would act as liaison bodies between the Government and the Press. (3) To

establish and develop contacts with aims and objectives in other countries.

(4) To establish libraries and

reading

rooms

associations

having

similar

for the benefit of its mem-

bers. (5) To establish College of Journalism

in journalism.

to.

impart

education and training

(6) To establish printing presses and to purchase, hire or acquire buildings or lands for construction of buildings. A monthly

house

journal

‘The Editor’

is published

by the Federation.

Indian And Eastern Newspaper Society, New Delhi The

Indian

newspaper

and

and

Eastern

periodical

(1) Promoting

and

(2) Collecting and

Newspaper

Society is a national organisation

publishers.

safeguarding

It aims

members’

communicating

common

periodical

interest.

business

information

interest to members.

(3) Holding

at:

conferences

of

The Society was established on 27 February membership of 311 newspapers and periodicals. ‘Indian Press’, a monthly mass the Society.

interests.

on

members

communication

of

subjects to

of

discuss

1939.

journal

business matters

It has

now

is published

of

a

by

Indian Federation of Working Journalists, New Delhi The Indian Federation of Working Journalists was union lines at a national convention held in Delhi

organised on trade in October 1950. In

198

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

April 1951 a special session was held in Bombay

was adopted. jectives:

The

Federation

1978

at which its constitution

infer alia has the following aims

and

ob-

(1)

To promote and maintain the highest standards of professional con-

(2)

To

(3)

To build up and administer funds for the provision of legal aid, un-

(4)

To strive for the freedom of the press.

duct and integrity. strive for the

employment,

betterment

disablement,

of working retirement,

conditions

death

and

As a sequal to the report of the Press Commission,

representative

from

IFWJ,

the

Working

Journalists

of journalists. other

which

(Conditions

benefits.

included a of Service

and Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1955 was passed by Parliament empower-

ing the Government

to appoint

rent categories of newspapers

ing journalists The

Federation.

was

‘Working

a wage board to fix rates of wages

and periodicals.

the first statutory Journalist’?

wage

a monthly

The wage board

board in India.

in English,

Indian Language Newspapers Association, The ILNA of Indian

is the

in diffe-

for work-

organ

of the

Bombay

was established in 1941 to promote and safeguard the interests

language

newspapers.

The

present

membership

of the

Associa-

tion is more than 300, representing dailies and periodicals published in 17

languages.

The Association publishes a monthly journal ‘Language

Press Bulletin’.

Indian Rural Press Association, Delhi The

Indian

Rural

Press

Association

comprises

nearly

100 editors

of rural

journals published in six languages and spread over to 14 States. It aims to promote the quality of the rural press and also to help solve its problems.

The

Association

also

aims

to

carry

new

farm

awareness of the nation’s needs to the far-flung villages.

technology

and

National Union of Journalists (India), New Delhi The National Union of Journalists (India) is an all-India organisation of professional journalists. It was established in 1972 with the twin objectives of promoting the professional and trade union interests of its members.

PROFESSIONAL

ORGANISATIONS

199

The foundation convention adopted the Constitution down inter alia the following aims and objectives:

of the

NUJ()

laying

(1) To promote, safeguard and defend the professional interests, welfare and status of working journalists. (2) To promote

and maintain

duct and integrity.

the highest

standards

of professional

con-

(3) To

establish and maintain institutes of journalism at state and India level and libraries for the use of its members.

(4) To

encourage, promote, and invest in journalist cooperatives and run newspapers and news agencies.

all-

to start

The Union publishes a monthly journal—Inkword.

Press Guild of India, The

Press

Guild

Bombay

of India

objectives among others:

came

into existence

in 1955, with

the following

(1) to uphold the high ideals of journalism, work for exemplary standards of professional practice and conduct and enhance the dignity and prestige of the Fourth Estate.

(2) To establish and maintain cordial relations among all the sectors engaged in the newspaper industry and foster a desire for collec-

tive progress.

Press Institute of India, The

Press

Institute

of India

New Delhi (PII)

is a professional

institution

set

up

by

Indian newspapers in January 1963 as an autonomous body. Its membership is open to Indian daily newspapers, news agencies, periodicals and house journals. It is governed by a Board of Trustees, and its professional programme is guided by a Board of Management. The Institute holds seminars, workshops departments of newspapers and periodicals. The

Institute has been running

a Photo

and refresher courses for all Awards

on national

basis.

It

also selects newspapermen for training under the auspices of the Thomson Foundation, the Japan Newspaper Publishers and Editors’ Association and

Press Foundation of Asia.

Since 1974, PII, with the assistance of the United Nations Development Programme through the Press Foundation of Asia, is running two

200

MASS MEDIA

projects—(1)

a reference

service

which

records

IN INDIA

week

by week

all the

of fields largely

neglected

so far.

1978 vast

areas of India’s development economy from agriculture to wild life, and (2) Depthnews which carries indepth study of a variety of developmental activities

The

to strengthen

the coverage

Institute publishes

‘Vidura,’ a bi-monthly mass

media

journal.

Specialised Publications Association, Bombay The Specialised Publications Association was established in 1959, modelled after

similar

associations

in

UK

and

USA.

It

is

a

body

representing

all the trade, technical, business and specialised publications in India with the sole objective of promoting and safeguarding the interests of its members. The Association has three categories of membership—ordinary, associate and honorary.

Sub-Editors’ Guild, New Delhi The Guild, one banner infusing in people and

set for its the

up in 1970, has been successful in bringing newsmen under the purpose of their professional welfare. It also aims at members a sense of journalistic discipline and duty to the nation.

Advertising Agencies Association of India, Bombay The Advertising Agencies Association of India was formed in September 1945 with a handful of members. Later the membership grew gradually and regional committees were formed in Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi and Madras.

The Association has a code of standard practices based on internatio-

nally accepted

norms.

It actively cooperated

nising the Advertising Council. ‘Promotion’,

the house

journal

of AAAI,

with

was

other

agencies

in orga-

started in 1958.

Audit Bureau of Circulations Limited, Bombay The

same

Audit

name

Bureau

of Circulations

operating

in different

is one

parts

of several

of the

world.

organisations of the

It is a non-profit

organisation consisting of publishers, advertisers and advertising agencies. ABC was established in India in 1948. From a modest beginning it has grown to present strength of 230 publishers of national and regional importance, 155 leading advertisers and advertising agencies. It covers more

than 50 major towns in India, and besides English and Hindi, regional languages. It has also been operating in Sri Lanka.

12 Indian

PROFESSIONAL ORGANISATIONS

201

The Bureau certifies audited ‘Net Paid’ circulation figures of publications enrolled with it for continuous and definite six monthly audit periods and supplies copies of the ABC certificates issued for such publications to each member. Facts and figures pass through impartial auditors and then

only

the ‘Certificate of Net Paid Circulation’

is issued.

Indian Society of Advertisers Limited, Bombay The

Indian Society of Advertisers, established on 9 July

1952, is an orga-

nisation representing the national advertisers, recognised by the Government and actively associated with the various Ministries in the promotion of advertising, marketing and export promotion. The Society has inter-alia the following objectives: (1) To

represent, protect, inform and guide the members in all matters relating to advertising.

of the society

(2) To formulate and promote laws and codes and standards of advertising practice, wherever these may be required.

(3) To

maintain good relations with all other advertising organisations and co-operate with them for the benefit of the advertisers,

(4) To collect, publish and circulate statistics and information which may assist or promote the objects of the Society. Starting with a mere 18 members, the Society has now a membership of 110, who form the leading national advertisers in the organised sector ac-

counting for about 75 per cent of all the advertising appropriations in the

country.

The Society holds conferences, seminars, conventions and workshops on subjects relating to press, advertising, marketing and export promotion at regular intervals.

Cinematograph Exhibitors’ Association of India, Bombay The Cinematograph Exhibitors’ Association of India was born as the Exhibitors Group’ of the Motion Picture Society of India on 1 July 1942 with the following objectives: (1) To

(2) To

(3) To

promote,

aid, help,

encourage

and develop

in all possible

ways

the trade of exhibition of motion pictures of every description.

co-operate with and make representations to the Central and State Governments with regard to matters which are of special or general interest to the exhibition trade. take conducive measures to secure the interests and well being of

its members.

27—3 M of I &B/ND/77

202

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA Since its inception, it has taken

several measures

1978

for better relations

among the various branches of Industry, to establish fair dealings in the trade and redressal of the grievances of its members. Its membership has been steadily growing and reached over 1,250, comprising almost all exhi-

bitors from Bombay Circuit. Since 1957, the CEAI in collaboration with the Indian Motion Pictures Distributors’ Association has evolved a scheme of self-regulation.

A

Joint

Tribunal

drawn

from

both

the

Associations

has

helped to settle many disputes since then.

Film Producers Guild of India Ltd., Bombay The Film Producers Guild of India Ltd. was formed as a separate body of producers to protect the interests of established and regular film makers in

the Film Industry.

From

a small beginning of seven producers, the Guild

today has a mebership of over 90 producers, most of whom are studio and equipment owners. _Membership of the Guild is by invitation and not by application and classification of members is done on the basis of their past

performance and future programmes. The Guild has established machinery for settlement of disputes arising -between workers and producers. Similarly, the Guild in conjunction with other associations of producers has been settling disputes arising between distributors and producers, through Joint Dispute Settlement Committees/

Tribunals.

Indian Film Exporters’ Association,

Bombay

The Indian Film Exporters’ Association was established in 1956 to promote

export

of Indian

films

to traditional

and

non-traditional

countries.

The

Association has been instrumental in bringing the viewpoint of the exporters and their difficulties before the authorities concerned. There are two Arbitration Committees, one for among members and. the other for resolving differences

ducers or foreign parties.

solving differences with the film pro-

Indian Motion Picture Distributors’ Association, Bombay The Indian Motion Picture Distributors’ Association was registered on 14 September 1939. The objectives of the Association are to promote, help and encourage the distribution branch of the Indian Film Industry and to encourage cooperation with the other sectors of the Film Industry. Distributors of feature films doing business within the territory of Association,

namely

Bombay

Circuit, are members

of the Association,

PROFESSIONAL ORGANISATIONS

203

The Association has set up Joint Tribunals with the two Exhibitors Associations—Cinematograph Exhibitors’ Association of India and Theatre Owners’ Association—and All India Films Producers Council, functioning in the territory. All disputes amongst the members of these associations are referred to the respective joint tribunals for adjudication in accordance with the rules and regulations jointly framed.

Indian Motion Picture Producers’ Association, Bombay The Indian Motion Picture Producers’ Association, established in 1937, has its registered office at Bombay. The territories to which the objects of the Association extend are the whole of India, Burma, Sri Lanka, Nepal and

Bhutan.

(1) To

The Association infer alia has the following aims and objectives:

promote, help, encourage and producing industry in India.

(2) To encourage co-operation gaged in the Industry. (3) To collect and

and their abroad.

(4) To

establish

develop the film or motion

between

furnish information

production, and

the members about

distribution

maintain

library

and

and

picture

and the persons en-

all matters

relating to film

exhibition in

museum

and

India

to

and

undertake

experimental and research work of all kinds relating to the Indus-

try.

(5) to correspond with and appear on behalf of the members of the film industry before all authorities. And also to settle disputes amongst

members.

Public Relations Society of India,

Bombay

The Public Relations Society of India was started as an informal but professional body of public relations practitioners in the country around 1956.

It became more actively engaged in promoting the professional activities of PR after 1965 and became a registered body a year later. In 1968, the PRSI organised the first All-India PR Conference in Delhi with ‘PR in a

Developing Economy’ as the theme.

The Constitution of the Society was redrafted in 1968 to provide for

autonomous chapters which arrange regular activities and meetings for their members for discussion, training, exhibition and other objectives aimed at

promoting the professional standards

and ethics of PR.

Today, the PRSI has more than 600 corporate and individual members all over the country. It also has facilities for admitting student or associate members.

Special

Articles

Doordarshan TELEVISION HAD a very modest beginning in this country. It began in Delhi as a pilot project with a grant given by UNESCO for carrying out studies in the use of this medium for imparting social education. This was

in September

1959.

Programmes

were

telecast

on

two

days

of the

week for urban community viewing and TV receivers were located in Community Centres and Tele-clubs were organised to encourage group discussions. Two years later, in August 1961, another programme was added by way of an Educational Television Service for Delhi schools. While the school

telecasts continued during the day, the programmes designed for and directed to Tele-clubs formed part of the expanded daily general service of one

hour duration.

The third important component which was added to Indian Television was a service for the farming community around Delhi. called ‘Krishi Darshan’. This service, started in January 1967, is still going on. Here again community receiving sets were installed in the rural areas and attempts were made to encourage people to watch and discuss. May 1969 saw extension in the duration of the daily general service at Delhi to two hours and within a year it was increased to three hours and by 1973 it became a four-hour service. Today it is four-and-half hour evening

service with an additional two-hour morning service on Sundays. This is in addition to the school telecasts which ate done in two shifts of 40 mts

duration each.

More than 600 schools with about 850 TV receivers watch

programmes in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geography, Mathematics English. More than three lakh students benefit from these telecasts. It was

only

the second TV While

Delhi

TV

13 years after the first pilot project started

station came into existence in Bombay Centre

had

only

a converted

in Delhi that

on 2 October

auditorium

and

for studio

1972. faci-

lities, Bombay had the first properly designed TV studio. Within a year two more stations were commissioned at Srinagar and Amritsar respectively and

in the same

year a Relay Centre

programmes originating at Bombay.

was

set up ut Pune to transmit the

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

208

In the history of Indian Television,

1975 was a momentous year. New

Stations were established in three other state capitals, namely,

cutta and Lucknow.

1978

Madras, Cal-

The Madras station has been specially designed as a

TV Studio and Calcutta, Lucknow and Jullundur will have specially de-

signed

studios too.

It was in the same year on 1 August that the now world famous Satellite

Instructional Television Experiment, the largest communication ment of the world,

periment:

was inaugurated.

the National

There

were three partners

Aeronautics and Space Administration

TV

experi-

in this ex-

of USA,

which provided the Satellite for a period of one year; the Department of Space, which provided the ground segment by way of the two earth sta-

tions and specially augmented TV receivers; and AIR which was responsible

for the software component. AIR also built three TV Programme Production Centres at Delhi, Cuttack and Hyderabad for the production of the special programmes totalling nearly 1,320 hours. The general objectives of SITE

were to gain experience

in the deve-

lopment, testing and management of the satellite based instructional television system, particularly in rural areas, to determine optimal system parameters and to stimulate national development with important managerial,

economic, technological and social implications.

In a seminar organised by AIR in February 1973, the software objectives of Indian TV were clearly defined. Among other things, it recom-

mended

that (a) Television must

be utilised

in the developmental

process

as an instrument of social change and national cohesion; (b) it should cater to both in-school and out-of-school education; (c) primary education should

be given priority; and

(d) TV

should disseminate

information

about speci-

fic aspects of science and technology, agriculture, health, family welfare and so on, with assistance from supporting units in the concerned departments. In formulating programmes for SITE these objectives were borne in mind.

Although

AIR

had

the primary responsibility for programme genera-

tion, the user agencies like the concerned Ministries at the Centre and at the state levels were fully involved both in the programming and in the provi-

sion of technical and other specialised inputs at the field level. In determining programme priorities separate committees advised AIR in the subject areas of education, health, family welfare and agriculture. These committees operated both at the Central and state level. SITE was planned vital inputs in designing sand and four hundred Tent states, each state

as a communication experiment which would provide and executing a nation-wide TV system. Two thoudirect-reception TV sets were deployed in six diffebeing allotted roughly 400 sets. The criteria of

DOORDARSHAN

209

choice was backwardness (as defined by the Planning Commission), availability of infrastructure, probability of continuity of TV reception after SITE and common agro-socio-economic conditions. Backwardness was kept as an important

criterion

because

we

were

anxious

to

in an area where few other media have penetrated. The insistance on common

study

the

impact

of TV

agro-socio-economic conditions between two

clusters was only to make full use of the one-video-two-audio facility available in the ATS-6 satellite transmission. It was felt that if the one video and

two

audio

experiment

succeeded

then

one

would

be

Pradesh

and

Karnataka

tempted

in

a

multi-lingual situation like India to go in for one video and multi-audio channels when our own satellite is launched. The studies conducted jointly by

UNESCO

and

AIR

in Andhra

have given encouraging results.

in this regard

Six clusters were chosen in the states of Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Bihar and Rajasthan. Selecting the villages for the chosen districts was itself a major exercise and the following criteria were used: (a) Availability of electricity. (b) Distance from the maintenance centre. (c) Population. (d) Educational, agricultural, health and family planning infrastructure. (e) Supporting facilities.

To ensure effective functioning of TV receivers in such remote areas, each cluster had a Main Maintenance Centre fully staffed with technicians and three sub-centres located in vantage areas. These four looked after the upkeep and maintenance of the 400 receivers within the cluster. Adequate mobility and spares were provided. . One of the most important inputs required for programme production

is knowledge of the audience. In response to the needs of TV

producers in

SITE programme, Audience Profile Studies were undertaken. Primary data were collected districtwise, on languages, food habits, dress, recreation, reli-

gion,

social

organisation,

education,

status

of women,

caste

ramifications,

agricultural practices, health, hygiene and family planning habits. The ‘Profiles’ have been of immense benefit to the producers.

Needs Assessment Studies were undertaken to determine audience prioTities with reference to specific planning and to investigate and analyse problem

areas that are amenable

Programmes.

28—3 Mof I&B/ND/77

to solution

via exposure

to appropriate

TV

210

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA Before approving the programme

types were pre-tested

for broadcast

purposes a few proto-

in different village locations in the cluster.

the feedback, guidelines were made available to producers. were then reshaped and an attempt made to test them conditions.

The

pre-test

findings

were

both

1978

Based

on

The programme again in village

interesting

and

useful.

In terms of numbers to be benefited and the urgent need to fulfil constitutional obligations, primary education was given the first priority. Inservice teacher education for the primary school teacher was made a part of this programme.

The primary school in the Indian village is more

often

than not a one-teacher operation. Taking the above factors into consideration SITE decided to concentrate its attention on primary and pre-primary

groups (age group 5-12). The programmes were not syllabus—oriented but tried to provide ‘core’ instruction in an entertaining and interesting manner.

The idea was to bring some breath of fresh air and laughter into the class foom

and attract children to go to school regularly. The programmes

for primary

and

pre-primary

schools were telecast in

the mornings for 220 working days of the year. A draft detailed syllabus was drawn up as a coordinated effort by AIR, the Ministry of Education, the National

Council

for

Educational

Research

and

Training,

the

Centre

for

Educational Technology and the Central Health Education Bureau and then discussed with representatives of the concerned states’ education depart-

ments.

Local

variations were

incorporated

The Centre for Educational Technology

in the schedule. also planned

to use the longer

holidays to conduct special telecasts for teachers. It was decided to conduct two 12-day multi-media package programmes designed to help the primary school teachers in equipping themselves better for teaching science. These 12 TV lessons were developed by the experts in the Department of Education in the science and mathematics with the assistance of UNESCO consultants.

TV

was

only

one

component

in

the

package,

radio

and

printed

materials being the other components. This was perhaps the first occasion when a multi-media approach was adopted for training village teachers, at

least in this country. The results of this multi-media have also been most encouraging. Another

interesting

aspect

of the

morning

package

programme

in

experiment

SITE

for

primary schools was the way we tried to introduce science to village kids. Luckily, we were not bound by the constraints of a text book syllabus. There were no laboratories and not even simple kits were available. This

seemingly difficult situation was really a blessing in disguise. Science was presented as a way of observing and understanding commonplace things and happenings. Immediate environment was the laboratory par excellence.

DOORDARSHAN

2ul

The Directorate of Extension in the Ministry of Agriculture, the Indian Council of Agricultural Research and the Departments of Agriculture in the

states all put their heads

together to formulate

the agricultural content of

SITE programme. The various research institutes throughout the country were intimately involved. So far as agriculture is concerned, there was very little studio production, the bulk of the programmes being shot on location in the farmers’ own fields. It was also emphasised that our attempt would be to reach the small farmer. Dry land farming and marginal farming had special emphasis since the bulk of the areas selected fell within this category. In the areas of health, hygiene and family planning the programmes were planned to stress the educational aspects in the principal fields of— (1) General health—preventive, promotive and curative,

(2) Maternal (3) Family

and child health,

including nutrition, and

planning.

Programmes on family planning were not exclusive but dealt with the entire gamut of experience of the family as a healthy social unit. In nutrition also, the accent was on what was readily available in the village kitchen or backyard. A total of 1,320 hours of programmes was required for the SITE year. The NASA Satellite had been made available for four hours per day.

This was

being

in the morning

utilised for one and half hours of primary

and two-and-half hours in the evening.

school telecasts

Out of the total of 915 hours for the evening telecasts 60 hours were given to a common programme in Hindi consisting of a simple news bulletin

and some items on national integration.

A Research and Evaluation Cell was set up in Ahmedabad. Leading social scientists were involved in the formulation of the Social Evaluation Plan. In Stage I, research inputs were made

available to the software plan-

nets by providing Audience Profiles and Needs Assessment Studies. In Stage

II, pre-testing of some programmes in the field helped to evaluate the relative merits of various formats of presenting programmes. The third

stage was during the actual SITE transmission when feed back information was made available on message impact and nature of viewing conditions. Four

language

knowing

social anthropologists

were

residing

in the villages

of each cluster. The fourth stage is now on. Summative evaluation is being done based on sample surveys and holistic studies undertaken during SITE. The resutls are awaited.

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

212

1978

On the basis of the encouraging feedback already received from the various studies Government decided to continue to give a rural oriented tele-

vision service to at least 40 per cent of the villages covered by SITE. Six transmitters are being established in these very areas at Raipur, Jaipur,

Muzaffarnagar, Gulbarga, Sambalpur and Hyderabad to provide this specialised service and it is planned that all these transmitters will start beaming

programmes during 1977. The duration of the programmes has been increased to about two-and-half hours per transmitter and the intention is to increase

the local content and local participation substantially to make

them

more

meaningful and to create a sense of belonging among the viewing public. These transmitters are likely to provide television coverage for 9,000 villages

comprising a total area of approximately 60,000 sq kms with a population of over 115 lakhs.

There has been world wide interest in SITE and two international teams, one sponsored by the United Nations and another by the Commonwealth Broadcasting Association, visited the country and toured extensively in the SITE areas to make on-the-spot studies. It is really gratifying that their

general reaction has been most favourable. Dr. Tunis of Sierra Leone summed up their cumulative experience in these words: “SITE is not just an

Indian

Indian

experiment,

problems.

although

it is being carried

out

by

Indians

to

Its real significance is that it is international, for

solve

its out-

come will have special relevance to many developing countries.” The Kenyan delegate added: “......... after observing SITE, I feel that India cannot be claseified as just a developing country......” The

SITE

project

be futile to imagine

is an

experiment

that our villages would

though have

a mammoth reached

some

one.

It

will

hypothetical

“developed” state as a result of one year exposure to TV. It will be hearten-

ing if SITE had helped to create the climate for development in these backward and under privileged areas.

The seven TV stations and one Relay Station at Pune now cover 83,000 sq. kms. area and 490 lakhs population. There are now nearly five lakh TV homes all over the country and programmes are being telecast in nine languages. In addition, cultural programmes in other languages are also being

telecast

Television

according

to local

requirements.

being a visual medium

having

its own

distinctive

Program-

me structure, production techniques and engineering requirements, it waS decided to separate it from All India Radio and Doordarshan became a separate entity on | April 1976. The Directorate of Doordarshan is headed by a Director General

and

the supporting

staff include

an Additional

Director

DOORDARSHAN

213

General, a Chief Engineer, two Deputy Directors General and a Deputy Chief

Engineer. Certain facilities like civil works, security and audience research are still being shared with All India Radio. Soon

second

guidelines

after

the

establishment

given

by

this team

seminar

was held

of

involving

Doordarshan

as

a szparate

top communication

entity

a

specialists. The

of experts are being implemented.

The main

objective of television in this country continues to be that it should be an aid in the socio-economic development of the country.

Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool A

LONG

gestation

period

is inevitable

when

international

to be pioneered. This is especially so if such moves hostility of entrenched interests representing powerful

concepts

have

meet the determined global forces. Non-

aligned countries are only too well aware of these difficulties.

these

Their

fears.

post-war

experience

It took several

provides

years

enough

evidence

to

of patient explanation

substantiate

and

determined

perseverence before even the validity and relevance of the concept of nonalignment could gain that degree of acceptance and recognition which it has been successful to get now. Even

though

non-alignment

has gained

universal

recognition

many

of

the consequential initiatives that the non-aligned group of countries had to take have not met with similar favourable responses. For example, their

persistent efforts to promote closer international co-operation still meet with cold response from highly industralised nations. The importance they attach to reducing the sharp international disparities in the matter of economic development, their emphasis on the urgency of preventing artificial depression of commodity prices, their pleadings for promoting an uninhibited flow of scientific and technological knowledge between nations and above all their insistence on making the fruits of international detente reach uniformly all parts of the globe—all these have fallen repeatedly on

unhelpful ears. Their faith in the efficacy of their approach and their determination to pursue the path have only been strengthened by this lack of appreciation and understanding. It is not due to any butable

to

any

blind

has deeper motivation.

in

its

very

essence,

want

spirit

of perception on their part, nor

of defiance.in

them.

Their

united

is it attri-

perseverence

They are convinced that the non-aligned movement,

represents

one

of

fundamental

forces

of

history.

It is

not, as its founding fathers Nehru, Nasser and Tito had repeatedly pointed out in several international forums, “anti-any country, much less, anti-any

people”.

It is “for”

something:

strives for establishing

every

country,

however,

a more small

in its application it is wholly creative.

just political order in the world will

be

free to judge

on their merit, uninfluenced by any big power.

just international

economic

order,

where

international

questions

It seeks to promote

there will be no

It

in which a more

exploitation of

one country by another and in which the fruits of scientific and technological advance are made available to every tate the social and cultural growth

nation. It is equally anxious to faciliof all countries, especially those that

NON-ALIGNED NEWS AGENCIES POOL attained their freedom

215

after years of imperial, colonial and racial domina-

tion. In essence, non-alignment of domination and exploitation. Just as the imperial

of all types of domination

is uncompromisingly

and colonial

era witnessed

opposed

to all forms

the expanding

incubus

and exploitation, so has the era of de-colonisa-

tion necessarily to proceed wiping out one form of exploitation and domina-

tion after another.

non-alignment

This is the relentless march

represents

in its very essence.

of historical forces which

The move of the non-aligned countries to organise a “News

Pool” of

their own has to be understood in this historical context. It is a response of the Third World to the chaotic situation that is obtaining in the present global arrangements for dissemination of information. The inter-locking web of imperial domination was so complete that the process of its untying has also necessarily to be many-faceted. The people

who has come under imperial and colonial yoke had no illusions about the long and ardous journey that lay ahead of them. It was not enough if political dominance alone was shaken off. Why, even that process which began immediately after the last war is far from

being complete.

Racist arrogance

still dares to stride parts of Southern Africa smug in its confidence that its continuing impertinence will continue to be connived at. Interference in the internal affairs of newly independent countries, subversion and economic overlordism have all rendered even the consolidation of political independence

a hard and full-time exercise, leaving little or no time for these countries to devote their energies and attention to the more important tasks of economic development.

If the task of consolidating political independence is as yet incomplete,

the struggle for economic independence Teasserting their cultural independence, has large sections of people for whom other such concepts are “aberrations of But the process of de-colonisation

is lagging farther behind. As for the former colonial countries still “Swadeshi” and “Self-reliance” and the hot-heads”.

is more than three decades old now

Why then is the struggle for complete emancipation still continuing? The answer lies in the continuing cultural domination by the former colonial

and imperial powers.

The nations that had thrown off foreign

able to develop that degree of self-confidence which

decide

to stand

on

their feet

firmly.

This

evidence more among the educated classes.

“cultural

One of the principal causes for this deplorable

inadequate

development

of effective communication

rule are un-

will enable them subservience”

is

to

in

state of affairs is the

capacities

in non-align-

ed countries. None of them possess such advanced and developed communication capacity as to compete successfully with the advanced countries

216

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

1978

in this crucial sphere of human relations. This again is a legacy of the colonial past. This has created a situation of dependance and domination in which the majority of the countries are reduced to being passive recipients of biased, inadequate and distorted information. The fuller identification

and affirmation of their national and cultural identity call for the rectification of this serious imbalance. In fact, the emancipation and development of national information media is an integral part of the overall struggle for political,

economic

and

social

independence

for

a

large

majority

of

the

people of the world who should not be denied the right to inform and to be informed objectively and correctly. Self-reliance in sources of information is as important as technological self-reliance. Dependance in the field of information retards the very achievement of political and economic

growth.

the

Non-aligned countries have been agitating this issue in the forums of UNESCO for some years now. One of the UNESCO sessions did

record the view that global efforts should be initiated to correct this imbalance and to obliterate what the Indian Delegate characterised “Information Imperialism”.

The fourth conference of heads of States/Governments of non-aligned countries held in 1973 at Algiers took the initiative and incorporated this

task in the Action Programmes of economic co-operation adopted by them.

This was further processed at the conference of the Foreign Ministers of non-aligned countries held at Lima in 1975. The international symposium held in Tunis in March 1976 considered in detail the question of developing

information between non-aligned countries.

conference

cognised

at New

the need

Delhi

held in July

1976.

Then came the Minsterial level

to liberate their information

This conference

and

mass

not only re-

media

from

the

colonial legacy but also decided on the question of constituting the non-aligned Press Agencies Pool including the setting up of the coordination committee charged with the task of making this Pool operational as soon as possible.

Non-aligned

countries

recognised

that they could

achieve

their

objective

only through their own efforts. There should be more active cooperation on bilateral, regional and inter-regional basis. They should also co-ordinate

their activities in the UN

and other international forums.

They were also

determined to strengthen their existing infrastructure and to take full advantage of the scientific and technological break-through already made in

the field. The aim was not only to disseminate objective information about themselves among themselves but also to provide such information to the

world

at large.

The non-aligned Press Agencies Pool is intended to achieve the broad and free circulation among themselves of news, informative reports, features

and photographs about each other and also provide objective and authentic

information relating to them

to the rest of the world. It was made clear that

NON-ALIGNED NEWS AGENCIES POOL the Pool

217

is not a supra-national news

Agencies

have the same

rights

in terms

each makes available to the Pool.

dominate the Pool.

agency.

participating

News

of the circulation of the material

None of the participating agencies will

Their co-operation is based on the agreements

on the basis of full respect for democratic member

All

countries

of

the

non-aligned

procedure

movement

and

and

those

reached

equality. which

All

enjoy

observer status can participate in the Pool. Even liberation movements and international organisations and professional bodies which have the same

objective of de-colonisation it.

of information

in the world

can

participate

in

The Pool will improve and expand mutual exchange of information and

further strengthen mutual co-operation among non-aligned countries. All decisions are to be taken jointly at the meeting of the non-aligned countries.

The basic premise of the pool is to provide objective information with em-

phasis on progressive, economic, socio-political and cultural development as

well as mutual co-operation and action. The pool will facilitate dissemination of correct and factual information about non-aligned countries, their mutual co-operation and other subjects of common interests among non-aligned countries as well as the international community in general. It will also supplement the existing facilities for providing information about the nonaligned countries and their policies. News items included in the pool will be made available to other news agencies, mass communication media and

other interested organisations. It will not substitute news exchange arrangements already existing among non-aligned countries. Each participating news agency will transmit and distribute news

within the frame-work of the pool. pared

All participating news

to act as regional centres of re-distribution of news

frame-work

of the pool, are welcome to do so.

items

agencies, pre-

items within the

They can send daily an

agreed wordage to one or more of the distributing agencies. All distributing news agencies will provide in their daily transmission a mutually agreed

duration of time to be devoted to distribution of news received from other participants. Each participating agency will itself prepare and select all their

information

on

the

basis

of

mutual

respect

and

common

interests

which will be offered to the pool. The credit line of originating news will indicate both the agency concerned and the pool. The modalities of collection and distribution is to be worked out through mutual agreement. Each news agency will endeavour to the full extent of its possibilities to promote utilisation of the items

by publications

and

other communication

media.

Participating countries will meet at the level of Government and national news agencies at the beginning of the each year in which a nonaligned summit is scheduled to be held. At such meeting, a co-ordination committee will be elected. on the basis of equitable geographic representation

by the participants.

29—3 M ofI & B/77

The coordination committee will meet at least once a

218 year.

with

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978 The

coordination

committee

the inter-governmental

aligned summit There

is

at Colombo

provision

will

coordination

in

for

also

1976.

supplementary

work

council

in close

set

arrangements

up

collaboration

by

to

the

non-

facilitate

the

exchange of features, photographs, specialised economic and cultural information as well as exchange of journalists and technical personnel and training facilities. All technical information regarding the facilities avail-

able to each participating news

all participants.

agency will be compiled

and distributed

to

The financing of the pool is based on the principal of self-financing. Each participating agency will bear the cost of its own participation. This means that the news agencies originating items, the agencies handling editorial and translating work and those which transmit such items will each bear the expenses of their work. The

non-aligned

news

agencies

pool represents

a major

break-through

in the determined efforts of the majority of the peoples of the world to regain in full measure their independence and to strengthen their resolve to enrich their freedom. If the seeds of war are held to be sown in the minds

of men so are the seeds of international understanding and cooperation, so indispensable to preserve peace and the progress of the world, are to be sown in the minds of men. The congenial atmosphere and the healthy environment for this all important task can be provided only when all the

media of communication between man and man throughout the world are cleaned of the existing distortions and cloggings. A free flow of objective information

is

understanding.

an

essential

pre-requisite

for

developing

universal

Chronology Mass Communication in India (1966-1976) Delegation from Radio Ceylon holds talks with representatives of the Indian film industry to sort out various issues including payment of royalty for the Indian film records broadcast over Radio Ceylon.

January

Bimal Roy, noted film director and producer, passes away.

March

Enquiry

April

Government’s newsprint policy placed before Parliament provides the most favoured treatment to small newspapers and allows them to increase their circulation freely up to 10,000 copies.

16

Committee

on Small Newspaper submits its report.

Report of the Chanda Committee on Broadcasting and Information Media on Radio

and Television presented to Parliament.

President Radhakrishnan awards gold medal to ““Chemmeen” (Malayalam)

RB

awa

the best feature film produced

in 1965.

Meeting of State Directors of Information held in New Delhi.

Aizawi station of All India Radio commissioned. Formation of the Press Council of India with

J.R. Mudholkar as

Chairman announced.

Conference of the State Ministers of Information held in New Delhi.

Government agrees to a temporary surcharge of 10 per cent in existing advertisement rates allowed to newspapers with effect from August 1,

President Radhakrishnan inaugurates platinum jubilee Malayala

September

Manorama,

a \eading

Vice President Zakir Hussian Printing

and Designing.

Malayalam

distributes

celebrations of

, at Kottayam.

State Awards for Excellence in

A three-day advertising conference of the Indian Society of Advertiser is inaugurated in New Delhi.

October November

Agreement for the

signed with USSR. i 15 16

import of 10,000 metric tonnes of newsprint reels

Gulbarga station of All India Radio commissioned.

President Radhakrishnan inaugurates

International Press Institute in

25-member

Press Council

15th General Assembly of the

New Delhi.

announced.

Report of the Chanda Committee on Broadcasting and Information Media on Documentary Films and Newsreels presented to Parliament.

Wage Board

for non-journalist

recommendations.

employees of newspapers announces its

12 First meeting of the Press Council opens in New Delhi, 18 Coimbatore station of All India Radio inaugurated. 19 Ministry of Information and Broadcasting accepts Chanda Committeo Feeommendation lio.

for introducing

commercial

broadcasts on

All India

220

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

January

Dr. Lanka Sundaram, a prominent journalist and former member of Parliament, dies.

Sapechar

Bharati’

Plu Bl

R

i.

March

1978

Krishi Darshan

a multi-lingual

news agency, inaugurated

in New

Programme in the Delhi Television Centre inaugurated.

Agartala Station of All India Radio commissioned. Mathura Station of All India Radio commissioned. Bhagalpur Station of All India Radio commissioned. Udaipur Station of All India Radio commissioned. Report of the Chanda Committee on Broadcasting and

Information

Report of the Chanda Committee on

Information

Media

on Press Information

Media on

and

Publicity presented

Broadcasting

Co-ordination of the Media of

in Parliament.

to Parliament.

and

Mass communication

April

Government

June

Government accepts in principle the recommendation of the Newspapers Inquiry Committee about the advertisement policy.

July

Excise duty on newsprint abolished.

liberalises newsprint

allotment

placed

for newspapers.

Small

Tezu Station of All India Radio commissioned. A five-member team to study steps for producing better films for children

set up.

Satyajit Ray, film director, receives the Magsaysay

Award.

India sends TV signals to Japan via satellite.

September

Pondicherry station of All India Radio commissioned.

Film “Teesri Kasam” (Hindi) gets National Award for 1966. ‘November

Commercial

of AIR.

16

17

advertising starts from Bombay, Pune and Nagpur stations

Indian winners of the Inter-Press-Photo exhibition held at Moscow

re-

ceive awards in New Delhi.

Second National Book Fair inaugurated in New

Delhi.

State Awards for Excellence in Printing and Designing are given away.

1968 January

19

A three-day seminar on Television concludes in New

February

10

Parbhani station of All India Radio commissioned.

July

August

Delhi.

National Labour Commission Study Group recommends single legislation concerning working conditions of journalist and non-journalist employees in newspaper industry.

23

‘Newspaper employees go on strike in Delhi, Bombay and Calcutta.

15

Duration

of television service increased

to two

hours on Sundays

and

one-and-half hours on other days. Agartala station of AIR begins originating some programmes directed mainly

to

rural

audience.

September

17

‘Newspaper employees’ strike ends.

October

15

Commercial Broadcasting

Service inaugurated in Calcutta.

221

CHRONOLOGY

November

20

December

23 25 19 21

Vice-Presidenct V.V. Giri declares open the Fifth Assembly of the Asian

Broadcasting Union in New Delhi. Fifth Session of Asian Broadcasting Union concludes in New Delhi. ‘Hatey Bazarey’ (Bengali Film) gets President’s Gold Medal for 1967,

National Awards for Excellence in Printing and Designing Presented New Delhi.

in

All India Newspapers Editors Conference inaugurated in Bangalore.

1969 Calicut Station of All India Radio starts daily service in Malayalam

January

February April June

Mahl for Lakshadweep

Islands.

15

Dibrugarh

14

Commercial Broadcasting service extendedto Delhi. AIR stations in Madras and Tiruchi begin commercial

13 17

July

Prahlad

Keshav

passes away.

of All

Atre,

India

editor

Radio

of

commissioned.

Maratha

and

broadcasting.

wellknown litterateur,

Government decides to extend the term of office of the Chairman and

members

UNESCO

21

station

and

Indian

of the Press Council

up to March

approves the Krishnaswami

musical

instruments.

Youth Programme, Yuv Vani,

1970.

Project for the development

inaugurated at Delhi station of AIR.

August

Khosla Committee Report on Film Censorship submitted to Parliament.

September

AINEC 18

October

of

submits memorandum to Prime Minister on freedom of the

India and USA sign an agreement under which India gets advantage of NASA Satellite for television experiment. i

begins at Srinagar.

wa

State Information Ministers’ conference

President inaugurates Fourth International Film Festival in New Delhi.

18

AIR

starts ‘dictation speed’ news

newspapers.

bulletins

for the

benefit of small

1970 January

14

Two Indian short films made from Vithalbhai Jhaveri’s prize winning

documentary

Mahatma

Ministry

Information and

of the

21 23

July

13

SSa

February

of

banned

by South Africa.

Broadcasting

brings out the first issue

wall newspaper ‘Hamara Desh’ in English and ‘Apna

Desh’

in

Twelfth plenary assembly of the International Radio Consultative Com-

mittee, inaugurated in New Delhi. Central Government to grant additional quota of newsprint to daily newspapers. President

V.V.

Giri

presents

National

Film

Awards

in

New

‘Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne’ (Bengali) gets President’s Gold Medal. Rajya Sabha passes Press Council (Amendment)

Press Council (Amendment)

Delhi.

Bill.

Bill passed by Lok Sabha.

A working group set up by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting prepares a multi-media campaign against communalism and political

violence.

August

Yuv Vani programme started on Calcutta station of AIR.

Government asks the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) to close

down

its operations

in India.

222

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA Government

stops advertisements

gommunal writings and

ism.

‘September

Deciding a writ petition

censorship

tion. November

16 18 21

of films,

to 10 newspapers

five others on charges of

filed by K.A.

including

1978

and journals

for

sub-standard journa-

Abbas, Supreme Court holds

restraint,

justified under the

Constitu-

Government decentralises administration of AIR. Seventh Asian Advertising Congress inaugurated

in New

Delhi.

‘Bhuvan Shome’ (Hindi) gets President's Gold Medal; First Dada Saheb Phalke Award goes to Smt. Devika Rani Roerich in recognition of

her contribution to Indian cinema.

1971 February

18 India establishes first satellite communication link via Arvi Earth Station with Goonbilly in Britain.

June

Leh station of AIR, one of the highest in the world, inaugurated.

August

10

December

21 Lok Sabha passes the Newspaper @rice Control) Bill seeking to em-

Television Training Centre established in New Delhi. power the Government to fix

Price of newspapers.

1972 January

India attains the

Position in film production in the world

with a record number of 433 feature films.

in

1971

Film Producer B.N. Sircar awarded the 1971 Dada Saheb Phalke Award.

‘Samskara’ (Kannada film) gets the President’s Gold Medal.

March

April

18 President Giri inaugurates World Book Fair in New Delhi. 31 Meena Kumari, a reputed artiste of the Indian screen, passes away. Rajya Sabha passes the Newspaper (Price Control) Bill.

10 Government sets up a committee to study the economics of newspaper

industry.

May

National Awards

for Films announced.

President’s Gold Medal; Prithviraj Kapoor.

Dada

Saheb

‘Simabaddha’ (Bengali) receives

Phalke Award

conferred

on

Veteran stage and screen actor Prithviraj Kapoor passes away.

August October

18

Silchar station of All India Radio commissioned. Bombay

TV

Centre

inaugurated.

— Gorakhpur Station of All India Radio commissioned. 19 India’s biggest text-book printing complex in the public sector commissioned in Patna.

1973 Srinagar Television Centre Inaugurated. a

January 10

April

13

July

29

All India Radio and GDR Television sign a three-year protocol on exchange of TV programmes, Foundation-stone of medium-wave radio station at Rewa

desh) laid. Balraj

Sahni,

well-known cine artiste, passes away.

National Awards for films for 1972 announced.

layalam) gets the President’s Gold Medal. given

to

(Madhya Pra-

Pankaj

Mullick.

Syayamvaram

Dada Saheb

(Ma-

Award

,

223

CHRONOLOGY

September

12

A two-day conference of chief executives and the public sector undertakings of the Central

India’s October

TV

fourth

Television

Centre

at

public relations officers of vernment opens in New

Amritsar

inaugurated.

relay station at Pune commissioned.

1974 February

10 u

March

15

Pahari Sanyal, veteran film artiste and musician, dies in Calcutta.

Ghantasala Venkateswara Rao, Telugu playback singer, passes away. AIR

and Deutsche

Well of West Germany

sign in New

Delhi a three

Supreme Court strikes down the Central Government order

implementing

year protocol for cooperation in the field of radio and television.

recommendation of the Second

a-vis the Press Trust of India. Frank

Wage Board for working journalists vis-

Moraes, eminent journalist, dies in London.

Twelfth Conference of State Ministers of Information held. Tawang

October

station of All India Radio commissioned.

President gives away the 1973 National Awards for films

‘Nirmalayam’

Fhalke

14

in New Delhi.

Medal; Dada Saheb

Award given to Smt. Ruby Meyers popularly known as Sulo-

chana, November

(Malayalam) gets President’s Gold

Abindra Choudhury, doyen of Bengali stage and film, passes away icutta. Mysore station of All India Radio commissioned.

December

in

India and Czechoslavakia sign in New Delhi an agreement providing for exchange of television and radio programmes on a regular basis. Kasturi Gopalan, publisher of ‘The Hindu’, passes away in Madras. Fifth International Film Festival opens in New Delhi.

1975 January

12

Fifth International Film

Festival concludes.

“Dreaming Youth” wins the Golden Peacock.

Hungarian feature film

Report of the Fact Finding Committee on Newspaper Economics presen-

ted

May

Commercial broadcasting services from Bhopal, Cuttack, Indore, Jaipur Jodhpur, Patna and Trivandrum begin. avnB®

June

to Parliament.

The first all-women printing press inaugurated in Delhi.

K. (Stalin) Srinivasan, Government

veteran journalist, dies at Ootacamund.

announces that the National Film

Awards function would

be known as the National Film Festival with ‘Lotus’, the national flower, as its smybol. Award will be known as ‘Kamal’ Award.

19 The Press Trust of India and Prensa Latina of Cuba start exchanging news, marking the first news exchange link between India and

Latin

With the proclamation of Emergency, Press Censorship introduced. July

14

Madan Mohan, film music director, dies in Bombay. Satellite

Instructional

inaugurated.

Television

Calcutta TV Centre inaugurated.

experiment

(SITE)

Programme

224 August

MASS 15 19

September

Ra

et

October

INDIA

1978

Madras TV Centre inaugurated. Pre-censorship relaxed on the understanding that the pressmen would exercise self regulation and adhere to the guideline framed in accordance

with Rule 48 under statutory orders.

B.G. Verghese, journalist, receives in Manila the’ 1975 Ramon Magsaysay Award for journalism, literature and creative communication art. S. Natarajan, former editor of the Free Press Journal, dies in Bombay.

A. Venkata Subba Rao, Telugu writer and film producer, popularly known as ‘Chakrapani’ dies in Madras. Telugu film director B. Narasimha Reddi selected for the 1975 Dada Saheb Phalke Award. Dr

10

MEDIAIN

D.V. Gundappa,

Kannada author and journalist, dies in Bangalore.

Satyajit Ray chosen by the British Federation of Film Societies as the most distinguished international film director of the last half century.

31 ‘November

19

Sachin Dev Burman, film music director and singer, passes away in Bom-

y-

All India Radio wins the

HOSO—Bunka

Foundation Radio Prize spon-

sored by the Asian Broadcasting Union General Assembly for 1975 for its entry ‘Ministrels of Karnataka’, a Radio feature based on the folk

27

music of Karnataka.

Lucknow TV Centre, the seventh in the country, goes on the air. India and France sign in New Delhi a protocol of cooperation

in

the

field of mass media and health.

December

Three

Ordinances

are

promulgated

to prohibit the publication of objec-

tionable matter with immediate effect, to withdraw the immunity

ferred by the Parliamentary Proceedings (Protection of Publication)

of 1956, and to repeal the Press Council Act

of

1965.

conAct

16

B. Shiva Rao, veteran journalist and Parliamentarian, dies in New Delhi-

19

President distributes the National Film Awards. the Swarna Kamal. Dada Saheb Phalke Award

‘Chorus’ givento

(Bengali) gets B.N. Reddi.

Vasant Desai, film music director, dies in an accident in Bombay.

1976 January

Commercial service on television inaugurated.

Press Council of India abolished. The Festival of Films International 1976 opens in Bombay. A week-long Hungarian film festival opens in New Delhi.

u

A factory to manufacture TV sets, in collaboration

with the Electronics

Corporation of India, inaugurated at Solan in Himachal Pradesh.

16

World Book Fair opens in New Delhi.

27

Multi-purpose studio of AIR

commissioned at Bhubaneswar.

Lok

of Objectionable

Sabha

passes Prevention

Matter

Bill.

225

CHRONOLOGY January

31

The first step towards

formation of a unified news

the four agencies “agreeing”

to

midnight tonight.

February

agency

taken

with

use one credit line—Samachar—from

Darbhanga station of AIR goes on the air. Parliament passes the Parliament Proceedings (Protection of Publication)

7

Repeal Bill. Ritwik Ghatak, well known film director, dies in Calcutta.

13 16

A week-long Soviet Film Festival opened in New Delhi. President gives away National Awards for Excellence in Printing and

21

Indian-made radio receivers and

March

Designing

in New

Delhi.

components earn Rs 45.80

in foreign exchange during 1974-75 compared the previous year.

to Rs

million

35.57 million

in

The fifth All India Public Relations Conference opened by the President

in New Delhi.

26

.

The three day annual

meeting of All India Newspaper

ference opens in Patna.

‘Employment News’ [English] information

on

all job

public sector undertakings April

and ‘Rozgar Samachar’ (Hindi) which give

opportunities

released.

Separate television organisation

inaugurated.

Veteran

Rohtak station of All India Radio

July

10

A conference

vy.

for

the

under Central

Government

and

country ‘Doordarshan—India’

in English and Hindi.

Ban

service

cy

“Samachar” starts

Editors Con-

of State Information

Ministers

held in New Delhi.

film producer, director and exhibitor Jayant Desai dies in Bomgoes on the air.

‘Harmonium’ and ‘Jatra’, made by Films Division win three at the 22nd Film Festival in Asia held in Seoul (South Korea).

awards

A six-day Ministerial-level Conference of the Non-Aligned on Press Agencies Pool inaugurated in New Delhi.

Nations

India

Nations

on

presents

in the

New

Delhi

Conference

of Non-aligned

Press Agencies Pool a draft declaration of commitment to make the

news pool project operational and to take other measures aimed

lective self-reliance in information media.

at col-

*Chomana Dudi’ (Kannada) and ‘Mausam’ (Hindi) get the ‘Swarna Kamal’ andthe ‘Rajat Kamal’ respectively in the National Films Awards. The best actor and best actress awards go to M. V. Vasudeva Rao (Chomana Dudi) and Sharmila Tagore (Mausam). The Dada Saheb

Phalke Award goes to Dhiren Ganguly.

13

The six-day Conference of Informatiion Ministers and media

heads from

21

India and Cuba signa

cooperation

60 non-aligned countries concludes in New Delhi. It agrees to set up a Committee headed by India to run it for the first three years.

cultural agreement

in New

Delhifor

in the fields of culture, education, sports and mass media.

The Newsprint

August

policy for 1976-77 increases the newspapers’ quota of

newsprint by 5 per cent over their consumption in the previous year.

Raipur office of Press Information Bureau opened.

3

Samachar begins exchange of news with a agencies

30—3 M ofI & B/77

in the non-aligned world.

number of

national news

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

226

September

Sombhu Mitra, dramatist and actor, receives the 1976 for journalism, literature and creative art. Chhatarpur station of All India Radio commissioned.

Magsaysay award

Jan-Nisar Bombay.

producer,

Akhtar,

Mukeshchandra

27

well-known

Urdu

Zoravarchand Mathur

Indian

have

Bo

27

in

Amritraj’

Station

awarded

(Mukesh),

dies

documentary films ‘King of Games” and “Advantage

been

inaugurated.

Diplomas

of merit at the XIV International

Film

A Festival of Indian films opens in Toronto, Canada.

Top film makers of India decide to make thematic films for television. Annual

12

film

playback

Festival held in Panama.

November

and

popular

Aurangabad AIR

23

October

poet

singer, dies in Detroit (USA).

19

1978

Report

Parliament.

of

Registrar

of

Newspapers

for

India

presented

to

President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed presents National Film Awards for 1975 and formally inaugurates the National Film Festival in New Delhi. Indian documentary “‘/t's All Water” receives honourable mention at the

14th review of technical, scientific and educational films, Techfilm °76 Pardubice, Czechoslovakia. Daay Shankar, noted dancer, appointed producer (emeritus) in All India 10.

28

UNESCO formally adopts a resolution laying foundation for a third world news agency pool to give developing countries “a louder voice”.

Government to allow concession of 15 per cent to the small scale industries_in the normal rate of advertisement charged by the Commercial

Broadcasting Service of All India Radio. An exhibition of Hindi dailies, weeklies and other books published during the last 150 years inaugurated in Lucknow.

oy

Manglaore

15

Satyajit Ray to head a nine-member international jury for Sixth International Film Festival opening in New Delhi 3 January

17 18

station of AIR

inaugurated.

1977,

the on

Sahitya Akademi announces awards for 1976. An eight-day festival of French films organised change programme begins in New Delhi.

under

the cultura

Subrata Patranobis, staff photographer of “The Statesman”

chosen as the “news india.”

photographer of the year” by

ex-

Calcutta,

Press Institute of

A five-day national workshop for farm journalists on methods and tech-

niques 25 30

of farm journalism and its role in communication of agricultural

technology inaugurated in New Delhi. AIR station at Ambikapur in Madhya Pradesh inaugurated. India exported films worth over Rs 7.5 crores during 1975-76.

227 69

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APPENDICES

231

4. Dailies under common ownership with a circulation

of over

50,000 copies each in 1975.

Hindi 1, 2.

Nav Bharat Times, Bombay and Delhi Hindustan, Delhi .

.

.

.

3.

Nav Bharat, Nagpur, Raipur, Jabalpur, Bhopal and Indore

4. 5. 6. 7.

Arya Varta, Patna. . Dainik Jagran, Kanpur, and Gorakhpur . Vishwamitra, Kanpur, Calcutta and Bombay Amar Ujala, Agra and Bareilly . .

8.

Aj, Varanasi and Kanpur

9.

Punjab Kesari, Jullundur

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. .

:

. .

. .

+ 2,83,805 - — 1,48,867

.

.

.

.

.

. .

.

.

. .

:

88,517

.

. .

. . 7

81,285 64,822, 61,034 56,306

.

.

.

.

.

56,285

.

.

:

.

.

54,199

Bengali 10. 11.

Ananda Bazar Patrika, Caluctta Jugantar, Calcutta’. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

+ — 2,90,086 - — 1,90,059

Sandesh, Ahmedabad and Vadodara. Gujarat Samachar, Ahmedabad . Jansatta, Ahmedabad and Rajkot .

. .

. . .

. . .

. . .

. 7

:

+ + .

— 1,34,044 1,03,160 68,857

.

.

.

+

1,03,024 65,510

Gujarati 12, 13. 14.

Kannada 15. 16.

Prajavani, Bangalore . Samyukta Karnataka, Hubli and ‘Bangalore

.

.

.

.

.

Malayalam 17.

Malayala Manorama, Kottayam

and Calicut

18.

Mathrubhumi, Cochin and Calicut.

.

.

.

.

.

.

:

.

.

3,00,165

.

+

2,63,341

~

1,49,818

+ .

1,15,190 97,051

Marathi 19.

Lok Satta, Bombay

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

20. 21.

Maharashtra Times, Bombay Sakal, Pune and Bombay

. °

. .

. .

: .

. .

. +

.

:

. :

Oriya 22.

Samaj, Cuttack .

.

.

.

.

.

51,033

Tamil 23.

Daily Thanthi, Madras, Tiruchirapalli, Coimbatore, Madurai, Vellore, Tirunelveli and Cuddalore.

24,

Dinamani, Madras and Madurai

26.

Dinamalar, Tirunelveli and Tiruchirapalli

25.

.

Malai Murasu, Coimbatore, Madras, Tirvchirapl Tirunelveli, Salem,

Madurai and Vellore.

.

.

.

.

- — 2,55,106

+

1,66,232

+ .

81,270

64,510

232

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

1978

Telugu 27.

Andhra Prabha, Vijayawada and Bangalore

.

.

.

.

.

1,04,677

.

:

:

:

:

50,672

Urdu 28.

Hind Samachar, Jullundur .

:

:

:

English 29.

Indian Express, Delhi, Ahmedabad, Bombay, Vijayawada, Madurai, Ban-

30.

Times of India, Delhi, Ahmedabad and Bombay

.

.

.

.

+

2,97,189

31.

Hindu, Madras, Coimbatore and Bangalore

.

.

.

:

.

2,23,144

32.

Statesman, Calcutta and Delhi

33. 34. 35. 36.

Hindustan Times, Delhi Amrita Bazar Patrika, Calcutta Deccan Herald, Bangalore Free Press Journal, Bombay

37.

Indian Nation, Patna

galore, Madras and Cochin.

.

4,31,146

.

.

.

.

.

.

+

1,84,625

. .

: : . .

. . . .

: . . .

. . . .

: . . .

. . . .

+ + . .

1,70,482 1,08,290 83,047 55,581

.

.

.

.

.

:

:

.

.

52,743

233 APPENDICES

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234

MASS MEDIA-IN INDIA

1978

6. Thematic Classification of Films Theme

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

273

305

268

313

Social

238

254 =. 283

Crime

64

80

83

82

102

98

89

Fantasy

Ml

13

8

9

1

5

7

Historical

2

2

5

2

5

4

7

Biographical

3

3

2

3

2

1

Mythological Legendary

17 27

18 18

16 12

16 5

1927 5 13

19 14

Devotional

3

1

8

6

8

12

Children

_

Stunt

2

7

1

13

2

1

6

_-

-

3

Sd

-

-

_

-

-

-

Political

-

-

1

2

Documentary

-

-

1

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

367

396

433

414

448

+

Scientific and Technical Total

_-

1

Adventure

Horror

14

1

1

1

7 1 -

2

1

_4 435

475

235 APPENDICES

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1978 IN INDIA MEDIA MASS

236

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237 APPENDICES

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euweg

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MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

238

8. Winners of National Film Awards—President’s (Feature Film) 1953:

Shyamchi Ai (Marathi)

1954:

Mirza Ghalib (Hindi)

1955:

Pather Panchali (Bengali)

1956:

Kabuliwala (Bengali)

1957:

Do Ankhen Bara Haath (Hindi)

1958:

Sagar Sangame (Bengali)

1959:

Apur Sansar (Bengali)

1960;

Anuradha (Hindi)

1961: 1962:

Bhagini Nivedita (Bengali) | Dada Thakur (Bengali) Aur Sapna (Hindi)

1963:

Shehar

1964:

Charulata (Bengali)

1965:

‘Chemmeen (Malayalam)

1966:

Teesri Kasam (Hindi)

1967;

Hatey Bazarey (Bengali)

1968:

Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne (Bengali

1969: | Bhuban Shome (Hindi) 1970: 1971: 1972:

1973:

| Samskara (Kannada) Simabaddha (Bengali) Swayamvaram (Malayalam)

Nirmalyam (Malayalam)

1974:

Chorus (Bengali)

1975:

Chomana Dudi (Kannada)

Gold

Medal

239 APPENDICES

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MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

240

1978

11. Broadcasting Stations in India There are 82 broadcasting zones as follows :—

stations in India.

These

are grouped

in

five

North zone: Ajmer, Allahabad, Aligarh, Bikaner, Chandigarh®, Delhi, Gorakhpur, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Jullundur, Kanpur*, Lucknow, Mathura,

Rampur,

Rohtak,

Simla,

East zone:

Udaipur

Agartala,

and

Aizawl,

Varanasi.

Bhagalpur,

Calcutta,

Cuttack,

Darbh-

anga, Dibrugarh, Gauhati, Imphal, Jeypore, Kohima, Kurseong, Ranchi, Pasighat, Patna, Sambalpur, Shillong, Silchar, Siliguri, Tawang and Tezu. West zone: Ahmedabad, Ambikapur, Aurangabad, Bhopal, Bhuj, Bombay, Chhatarpur, Gwalior, Indore, Jabalpur, Jalgaon, Jagdalpur, Nagpur,

Panaji, Parbhani, South zone:

Pune, Raipur,

Rajkot, Ratnagiri and Sangli.

Alleppey,

Bhadravati,

Bangalore,

Cuddapah, Dharwar, Gulbarga, Hyderabad, Madras, Pondicherry, Port Blair, Tiruchirappalli, Tirunelveli,

Vijayawada

and

Vishakhapatanam.

Kashmir zone:

Jammu, Leh and Srinagar.

* Chandigarh and Kanpur

are commercial stations only.

Calicut,

Coimbatore,

Mangalore, Mysore, Trichur, Trivandrum,

2A1 APPENDICES

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32—3 M ofI & B/77

242

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

13. List of Kendras'

Doordarshan

Kendras/Upgrah

Date of commissioning

Doordarshan

Service range (Kms)

A. TV STATIONS 1, Delhi

15-9-1959

68

2.

Bombay

2-10-1972

70-100

3. Calcutta

9-8-1975

50

4.

Madras

15-8-1975

5. 6. 7. 8.

Srinagar Amritsar Lacknow Ahmedabad

80

26-1-1973 29-9-1973 27-11-1975 1-8-1975

30-70 65 60 40

2-10-1973

52-90

B, RELAY CENTRES 1.

Pune

2.

Mussoorie

12-8-1977

165

C. SITE ON-GOING TRANSMITTERS 1.

Jaipur

1-3-1977

90

2.

Raipur

10-5-1977

40

3.

Gulbarga

3-9-1977

40

3As on 1 October 1977,

243 APPENDICES

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244

MASS

MEDIA

IN INDIA

15. Press Information Bureau List of Regional and Branch. Offices (As on 15 September

1976)

Location of Branch Offices/ Information Centres

EASTERN REGION, CALCUTTA

AAYaeyene

Region & Headquarters

WESTERN REGION, BOMBAY 10. 11. 12. 13, SOUTHERN

REGION, MADRAS

14. 15. : 16. 17. 18, 19.

NORTHERN REGION, NEW DELHI

21 23. 25.

27.

INFORMATION, CENTRES

yee pe

29.

Calcutta Cuttack GauhatiPatna Agartala Imphal

Shillong

1978

APPENDICES

245

16, Directorate of Field Publicity

List of Regional and Field Publicity Offices

Region & Headquarters

Location of Field Publicity Offices

Arunachal Pradesh, Shillong

RBBSESARESEE

Seen

Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad

1976)

ayaepe

(As on 1 August

Bihar, Patna

SSBRBNRRELE

.

Kakinada

Kurnool Nalgonda

Nizamabad Srikakulam

Visakhapatnam Warangal Along Anini

Bomdila

Daporijo

Khonsa Nampong Pasighat

Seppa

Tawang Tezu Ziro

Bhagalpur

Dhanbad

Daltonganj

Dumka Santhal Parganas District Forbesgani

Hazaribagh

Jamshedpur

32.

Monghyr

34.

Muzaffarpur

33.

Gujarat, Ahmedabad

Cuddapah Guntur Hyderabad

Motihari

37.

Ahmedabad

39. 40.

Vadodara Bhavnagar

38. Abwa (Dang)

41. Bhuj (Kutch)

246

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

Region & Headquarters

Location of Field Publicity Offices

Gujarat, Ahmedabad—Contd.

42. 43. 44. 45. 46.

Jammu & Kashmir, Srinagar

47. 48. 49. 50. ) 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61.

Karnataka,

62. 63. 64. 65. 6. 67. 68. 9. 70. nA.

Bangalore

Kerala, Trivandrum

72. 73. 74. 15. 76. 71. 78. 79.

Madhya Pradesh, Bhopal

80. 81. 82, 83. 4.

Godhra Junagadh

Palanpur Rajkot Surat

247

APPENDICES

Madhya Pradesh, Bhopal—Contd.

Location of Field Publicity Offices

BSRE

Region & Headquarters

89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94, 95. 96.

Maharashtra, Pune

Nagaland and Manipur, Kohima

North East, Shillong (Meghalaya)

Gwalior

Guna

Hoshangabad Indore Jabalpur

SJhabua Kanker Raipur

Rewa

Sagar

Ujjain

Jagdalpur

97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106.

Amravati Aurangabad

107. 108. 109. 110. 111, 112. 113,

Kohima

Bombay

Chandrapur Jalgaon

Kolhapur Nagpur

Pune

Sholapur

Panaji Mokokchung Tuensang Mon (Manipur) Imphal

Churechandpur Ukhrul

Assam ~ 114. Dhubri 115. Dibrugarh 116. Gauhati 117, Haflong 118. Jorhat 119. Nalbari 120. North Lakhimpur 121, Nowgong 122, Silchar 123. Tezpur

Meghalaya 124. 125. 126.

Jowai

Shillong Tura

248

MASS

Region & Headquarters North East, Shillong

(Meghalaya)—Contd.

MEDIA

IN INDIA

1978

Location of Field Publicity Offices Mizoram 127.

128. 129,

Aizawl

Lunglei Saiha

Tripura

130. North

West, Chandigarh

Kailashahar

131.

Agartala

132,

Chandigarh

Haryana 133. 134, 135. 136.

Rohtak Hissar Ambala Cantt Narnaul

Himachal 137.

138.

139, 140. 141,

Pradesh

Bilaspur

Dharamsala

|

Mandi Simla Kalpa

Punjab 142,

Ferozepur Cantt

143, 144,

Amritsar Jullundur City

145,

Ludhiana

146.

Orissa, Bhubaneswar

147,

Balasore

148.

Bhubaneswar

152.

Keonjhar

153, 154, 155. 156.

Phulbani Pharlakhemundi Distt Ganjam Puri Sambalpur

157. 158, 159, 160. 161.

Ajmer Alwar Barmer Bikaner Durgarpur

149, 150, 151.

Rajasthan, Jaipur

Pathankot

Bhawanipatna Cuttack Jeypore

|

|

.

249

APPENDICES

Region & Headquarters Rajasthan, Jaipur—Contd.

Location of Field Publicity Office 162.

163. 164. 165. 166. 167. 168.

Tamil Nadu, Madras

169, 170. 171, 172. 173. 174, 175. 176.

Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow

177. 178. 179. 180. 181. 182. 183. 184, 185. 186. 187, 188. 189.

Uttar Pradesh, Nainital

West Bengal, Culcutta

33 —3 Mof | &BI77

190. 191. 192. 193. 194, 195. 196. 197. 198.

Jaipur

Jaisalmer Jodhpur

Kota Sikar

Sriganganagat Udaipur

Coimbatore Madras Madurai Salem Tiruchirapalli Tirunelveli Vellore Pondicherry

Agra

Allahabad Bareilley Banda

Dehradun Gonda

Gopeshwar Gorakhpur Thansi

Kanpur

Lakhimpur-Kheri Lucknow Meerut Cantt. Nainital

Pauri

Pithoragarh Rae Bareli Ranikhet Sultanpur Uttarkashi Varanasi Aligarh

199, Asansol 200. Bankura 201. Barrackpore 202. . Berhampore (Murshidabad Distt.) 203. (2 Units) eateu & 24.

250

MASS

Region & Headquarters

MEDIA

205. 206. 207.

Chinsurah Cooch Behar Jalpaiguri

208.

Kalimpong

210.

Midnapore

209.

Malda

211. Raiganj 212. Ranaghat 213. Siliguri Sikkim 214. Gangtok 215. Jorethan Andaman & Nicobar Islands 216. Port Blair 217. Car Nicobar

17.

218.

New Delhi

Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity List of Field Exhibition

197

Location of Field Publicity Offices

West Bengal Calcutta—Contd.

Delhi Units, New Delhi

IN INDIA

Units LOCATION Calcutta (3 Units) Gauhati Bhubaneswar

Jorhat

Madras (3 Units) Bangalore (2 Units)

Hyderabad

Trivandrum Ambala Cantt (2 Units) Jammu Patna Lucknow (2 Units)

Jaipur (2 Units) Ahmedabad (3 Units) Bombay Indore Bhopal Chandigarh Simla Vijayawada

Agarthala New Delhi (3 Units)

251

APPENDICES

18.

And

Eighteenth Designing

National Awards For Excellence in Printing

(First Prizes Only)

Winner

Category 1.

Art Books

Title:

2.

Ghildren’s Books

Title: Peejoo

Nataraja

in Art,

Thought

and Lit-

erature. Printer: Sree "Saraswaty Press Ltd., Calcutta. Publisher and Designer: National Museum, New Delhi. Publisher

the Clever

and

(India) Ltd.,

3.

Books on Science @ Technology— English & Other Foreign Languages (Offset)

4.

Books on Science & Technology— English & Other Foreign Languages (Letter Press)

Pigeon.

Designer:

Printer,

Thomson

Faridabad.

Press

Not Awarded.

Title: 1 Quantum,Mechanics. Printer: Anand Press, Anand (Distt. Khaira). Publisher: The Macmillan Co. of India Ltd., Delhi.

Title: 2 Trends in Haematology. Printer: Press Ltd., Calcutta. Sree Saraswaty

© Memorial Publisher : J.B. Chatterjee Committee, The Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Calcutta.

5.

6.

Books

on

Humanities—English

Other Foreign Languages

Books

Other Press)

on

(Offset)

Humanities—English

Foreign

Languages

Books—Indian Languages (Offset)

8.

Books—Indian

Press)

Title:

Brief_

@

(Letter

Communications, Vol.

Printer:

Thomson

Congress,

New

Publisher:

Faridabad.

(Letter

7.

Languages

@

Press

(India)

_1E

Ltd.

International Dairy

Delhi.

Title: Sri Aurobindo—A Centenary Tribute. Printer

Ashram

and

Press,

Aurobindo

Sri

Publisher:

Pondicherry.

This India (Bengali). Printer: N.KCo. Pvt. Ltd., Calcutta. Pub ossa&in Publications Division, Ministry fife of I&B, New Delhi.

Title

Title:

Printer: 1, Yakshagana (Kannada). Manipal. PubPower Press, Manipal lisher : University of Mysore, Mysore.

Title: 2. Rukmini

ter:

&

Vakil

Mangal

Sons

Pvt.

(Hindi). Prin-

Ltd.,

Bombay.

Publisher: U.P. State Lalit Kala Akademi, Lucknow.

9.

Best Bound Books

Title : | Nataraja in Art, cutta.

Title ; 2 Brief (French).

Daily Newspaper—English

Communications,

Binder:

Ltd., Faridabad.

10.

Thought and

rature. Binder: Bichitra Granthanee, Thomson

Press

Title : 1 The Tribune, Chandigarh. and Publisher:

The Tribune,

Title : 2 Deccan Herald The and “Publisher: Ltd., Bangalore. Pvt.

Lite-

Cal-

Vol. 1F (India)

Printer

Chandigarh.

Bangalore, Printer

Printers

(Mysore)

252

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

Category 11.

Winner

Daily

Newspapers—Indian Langu-

ages

Title: 1 Malayala

Manorama,

Printer and Publisher:

Kottayam.

Ltd.,

Co.

Title:2. Prajavani.

Kottayam.

Malayala Manorama

Printer

and

Publisher:

The Printers (Mysore) Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore. Title: 3 Udayavani. Printer and Publisher: Manipal Printers and Publishers Pvt. Ltd., Manipal. Title:4 The Bombay Samachar Printer and Publisher: The Bombay Samachar Pvt.

Ltd.,

Title :5

Bombay.

Nai Duniya. Printer and Publisher:

Shri Narendra

12.

News

Weeklies—English

Tiwari,

Indore.

Title: The Statesman Weekly; Nov. 16, 1974. Printer and Publisher: The Statesman Ltd., Calcutta,

13.

News

14.

Display papers)

15. 16.

Weeklies—Indian Languages Aavertisements

(News-

Title: Amruta—Cine Weekly; Feb. 5, 1975. Printer and Publisher: Jai Hind, Rajkot.

Title: Teksons series. Designer: Everest Advertising Pvt. Ltd., Bombay. Advertiser: Teksons

Display Advertisements—Magazines (Black @ White)

Pvt.

Ltd.,

Title: No, We Are No Saints! Designer @ Advertiser: Everest

Advertising

Bombay.

Display Advertisements—Magazines (Colour)

Bombay.

Title: 100%

Polyester

Pvt. Ltd.,

Saris by Bombay

Dyeing series. Designer : Hindustan Thompson Associates Ltd., Bombay. Advertiser: Bombay Dyeing & Mfg. Co. Ltd., Bombay.

17.

House

Magazines

Title: 1 Taj. Printer: Bolton Fine Art Litho Works, Hotels

Bombay.

Publisher:

Co. Ltd., Bombay.

Title: 2

Larsen & Toubro

Title: 3

Image.

The

Indian

Ltd., Newsletter,

Printer: Asian Printers Pvt. Ltd., Bombay. Publisher: Larsen & Toubro Ltd., Bombay.

Trust,

New

Airlines, New

18.

Art Magazines

Title:

Marg.

Printer:

Children’s

Delhi.

Publisher:

Printer:

Tata

Delhi.

Press

Book

Indian

Ltd.

Bombay. Publisher & Designer: Marg Publications, Bombay.

19.

Magazines—Weekly

(English)

20.

Magazine.—Fortnightly

21.

Magazines—Monthly

(English)

Title: JS; March 2, 1974. Printer and Publisher: The Statesman Ltd., Calcutta.

Title: Youth Times; April

and Publisher: The Times Delhi.

and Others

Title: 1 Chic.

Printer:

4, 1975. Printer of India Press,

Printwell, Bombay.

Publisher: _ Modi Spinning & Weaving

Co. Ltd., Bombay.

Title: 2 Span. Printer: Vakil & Sons Pvt. Ltd., Bombay. Publisher: United States Information Service, New Delhi.

APPENDICES

253

Category 22. 23.

24.

Winner

Magazines—Weekly guages) »

(Indian

Lan-

Title: Dharmayug; May 4, 1975. Printer and Publisher: The Times of India Press, Bombay.

Magazines—Fortnightly

(Indian

Languages)

Title: Lokrajya,

June 16,

Government

Central

1975.

Printer:

Press,

Bombay.

Publisher: Directorate General of Information & Public Relations, Govt. of Maharashtra, Bombay.

Magazines—Inditn )

(Monthly and Others)

Languages Title: 1 Vigyan Pragati (Hindip, June 1975. ‘inter:

i

Press,

New

i.

Pul

rr:

Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, iow

i.

Title: 2 Sahkarsetu, October 1974. Printer: Government Central Press, Bombay. Publisher: The Maharashtra State Cooperative Bombay.

25.

Annuals & Souvenirs

(Offset)

Marketing

Federation

Ltd.,

Title: Bombay Hospital—25 Years. Printer:

K.L. Bhargava & Co., Bombay. Publisher:

The Medical Research Centre, Bombay, Hospital Trust, Bombay. Designer: Shri Kishore Parekh, Bombay.

26.

Annuals

& Souvenirs

(Letter Press)

Title: Third Triennale—India. Printer: Children’s Book Trust, New Delhi. Publisher: Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi. Designer: Shri Jeram Patel, Vadodara.

27.

28.

Publicity Booklet.

(Offset)

& Annual Reports

Title: Gwalior Rayon. Printer: K.L. Bhargava

& Co., Bombay. Publisher: The Gwalior

Rayon Silk Mfg. (Wvg.) Co. Ltd., Birlagram, Nagda. Designer: Shri Kishore Parekh, Bombay.

Publicity Booklets & Annual Reports

(Letter Press)

Title: 1 Vcltas Design, Engg. & Mfg. Centre.

Printer: Vakil & Sons Pvt. Ltd., Bombay.

Publisker:

Voltas Ltd., Bombay.

Ogi'y

Bension

Bombay.

Tite: 2

Report,

State

1972.

&

Designer:

Mather

Bank

Printer:

Pvt.

of India

Thacker

Ltd.,

Annual &

Co.

Ltd., Press, Bombay. Publisher: State Bank

of India, Bombay.

vertising

Designer:

& Marketing

Aiyars Ad-

Pvt. Ltd., Bombay.

Title: 3 HAL Annual Report, 1973-74. (Hindi). Printer: The Eastern Press, Bangalore. Aeronautics

Publisher: Ltd., Bangalore.

Shri Jayant

29. 30.

Posters

(Silkscreen)

Posters

Other

than

than

Title:

Palanka. Printer: Silcreena, Calcutta.

Designer:

Silkscree;

Silkscreen

Rao, Bangalore.

Hindustan Designer:

Shri

O.C.

Title: India-Buddha. Pvt. Lt.,

Ganguly,

Calcutta.

Printer: Prasad Process

Madras. Designer: India Tourism

Development

Corpn.

Ltd., New

Delhi.

254

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1977

Category

Winner

31.

Title: 1

Folders (Offset/Photogravure)

India-Delhi.

Lithographing

Printer:

Co.

Pvt.

Publisher: “India

Tourism

The

Eagie

Ltd., Calcutta. Development

Corpn. Ltd., New Delhi. Designer: Advertising & Sales Promotion Co., New Delhi.

Title:

2 India-Kerala.

Printer: K.L. Bhar-

gava & Co., Bombay. Publisher: India Tourism Development Corpn. Ltd., New Delhi. Designer: Advertising & Sales Pro-

motion Co., New Delhi. Title: 3 India-Calcutta. Printer: Prasad Process Pvt. Ltd., Madras. Publisher: India

Tourism

Development

Coprn.

Ltd., New Delhi. Designer: Frank

Pvt. Ltd.,

Simos

Bombay.

Title: 4 India—A Land for the Young. Printer: Prasad Process Pvt. Ltd., Madras.

Publisher: India Tourism ‘Development Corporation Ltd., New _ Delhi. Designer: Shri Kuldip Jus, New Delhi.

32.

Folders (Letler Press)

Title: 1

The Coffee

Shop. Printer: Good

Impressions, Bombay. Publisher: Centaur Hotel, Bombay. Designer: Communication & Marketing Pvt. Bombay.

Title:

2

L&T

Direct-on-line

The Mass Ltd.,

Motor

Starters. Printer: Asian Printers Pvt. Ltd.,

Bombay. Publisher & Designer: Toubro Ltd., Bombay.

33.

Calendars

(Offset/Photogravure)

Larsen

&

Title:1 Navasari_ Cotton & Silk Mills 1975 Calendar. Printer: Bolton Fine Art Litho

Works,

Communication

Bombay.

&

Designer:

Mass

Marketing

Pvt. Ltd.,

Printer: K.L.

Bhargava

Bombay. Title: 2. The Century Spg. & Mfg. Co. Ltd.,

1975

Calendar,

& Co., Bombay. Parekh, Bombay.

Designer: Shri Kishore

Title: 3 India Foils Ltd. 1975. Calendar. Printer and Designer: India Foils Ltd., Calcutta.

34.

Calendars

(Letter Press)

Title: 1 Vazir Sultan Tobacco Co. Ltd., 1975 Desk Calendar Inserts. Printer: Good Impressions,

Bombay.

McCann = Advertising Calcutta. Title:2 American

Designer:

Clarion-

Services

Ltd.,

Express Banking Coprn

1975 Desk Calendar Inserts. Printer: Good

Impressions, Bombay. _ Designer: Ogilvy Benson & Mather Pvt. Ltd., Bombay.

35.

Diaries

Title: 1_ Engineering Export Promotion Council 1975 diary. Printer: Sree Saraswaty Press Ltd., Calcutta. Publisher: Engg. Export Promotion Council, Calcutta. Designer: Hindustan Thompson Associates

Ltd.,

Calcutta.

Title: 2 India 1975

Bombay. lopment

Diary. Printer: Grafika

Publisher: India Tourism Deve: Corpn.

Ltd,

New

Delhi

Designer: Chimanalals Pvt. Ltd., Bombay"

255

APPENDICES

Category

36.

Devanagiri Type Faces

37.

Labels

Winner Title: 14Pt. Sharad. Designer & Foundry: Prakash Type Foundry, Pune.

Title: Ricory Instant. Printer: Ajanta Offset &

Packagings

Ltd.,

Advertising New Delhi.

38.

Packaging (Paper Containers)

Delhi.

Consultants

Title: 1

Folk

Toys

Title: 2

Blackmail Record

Designer:

India

Ltd.,

of India Carton. Prin-

ter & Designer: The Metal Box Co. of India Ltd., Bombay. Cover. Printer:

Printwell, Bombay. Designer: Film Centre, Bombay. Title: 3 Premnagar Record Cover. Printer:

The Eagle Lithographing Calcutta. Designer:

Calcutta.

39.

Packaging (Tin Containers)

Title: 1

Co. Pvt.

Ltd.

Shri Anjan Das Gupta,

_Liril Talc Tin. Printer: Zenith Tin

Works

Ltd.,

Bombay.

Designer:

Lintas

India Ltd., Bombay. Title: 2 Dewkiss Air Freshner tin Printer & Designer: Metal Box Co. of India Ltd., Bombay.

Title: 3 _ Bafo Baby Cereal Food Tin. Printer : India Tin Industries, Bangalore.

Designer:

galore.

Title: 4

Graphic Arts Industries,

Ban-

400 g. Shangrila Assorted Biscuits

Tin. Printer & Designer: Zenith Tin Works Ltd.,

40.

Point of Sales

Bombay.

Title: Buy Sylvania with Confidence Hanger.Printer: Studio Printall, New Delhi. Designer:

Mass

Communication

Printwell, Bombay.

Bombay.

eting Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. Title: 2 Air-India Showcard. Designer:

& Mark-

Printer:

Air-India,

41.

Greeting Cards

Title: Vakils

42.

Picture Postcards

Title:1 Marble Screen Inside the Taj. Printer: Shuchi Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. Publisher: Colour Reproductions, New Delhi.

47-2516. Printer

and

sher: Vakil & Sons Pvt. Ltd., Bombay.

Title: 2

India-An

Gita Govinda.

Illustration From

Publi-

the

Printer: Vakil & Sons Pvt.

Ltd., Bombay. Publisher: India Tourism Development Corpn. Ltd., New Delhi.

43.

Direct Mail

Title: 1 Ultragin leaflet. Printer: Selprint, Bombay. Publisher: Geoffrey Manners & Co. Ltd., Bombay.

Title: 2. Eskazine Leaflet. Printer: Nandi Printers Pvt. Ltd., Bombay. Publisher:

Smith

lore.

Kline & French (India) Ltd., Banga-

MASS

256

Category

“4. Maps & Atlases

MEDIA

IN INDIA

1978

Winner

-

«Title: 1, Wall Map of India—Political

(Tamil). Printer and Publisher: Tamiland Printers & Traders Pvt. Ltd., Madras.

Title: 2.

Tourist

Road

Map

of Southern

India, Printer: Orient Litho Press, Sivakasi. Publisher: Joint Committee of the Directors

of Tourism of Southern States, Madras.

19. Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity Panel of Approved Advertising Agencies As (on 1 November A.

1976)

Government Advertising Agency

»

Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity, Samachar Bhawan, III Floor, Parliament Street, New Delhi-110001.

Indian Owned Advertising Agencies

FSyeravayvnn

Andhra Pradesh

12.

13. 14, 15.

Associated Advertisers, Hyderabad. Kiron Ads. (P) Ltd., Secunderabad, (Branch : Hyderabad). Ad Envoys Advertising & Marketing, New Delhi. Advertising Consultants (India) Ltd., New Delhi, (Branches

: Bombay and Madras).

Alfred Allan Advertising, New Delhi. (Branches : Bombay and Jullundur). Asian Advertising, New Delhi. B.D. Khanna Publicity, Delhi.

Continental Advertising & Marketing, New Delhi.

Gayways Publicity (P) Limited, New Delhi. Impact Advertising (P) Ltd., New Delhi. Interads Advertising (P) Ltd., New Delhi. (Branches : Bombay, Calcutta, Bangalore

Chandigarh, Amritsar, Bhopal, Ludhiana, Madras, Allahabad and Jupiter Publicity Company, New Delhi.

Jullundur.)

Mutual Advertising & Marketing (P) Ltd., New Delhi. National Publicity Service, New Delhi.

16.

Newfields Advertising (P) Limited, New Delhi. and Panipat). Pratap Advertising Agency, New Delhi.

17.

Publico Advertising, New Delhi.

18.

Intaglio Advertising Private Limited, New Delhi.

19. 20.

Reflection Advertising & Marketing, New Delhi. Sterling Advertising (P) Ltd., New Delhi. (Branches

21.

Swain Advertising, New Delhi.

Gujarat 22.

Bidhan Advertising and Marketing, Ahmedabad.

23.

Navnit Lal & Company, Ahmedabad.

(Branches: Calcutta, Chandigarh

: Bombay and Gorakhpur .

|

APPENDICES

257

Kerala 24,

Kerala Publicity Bureau, Cochin (Branch : Kottayam).

Karnataka 25.

Visual Communications, Bangalore.

Maharashtra 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34, 35.

36. 37.

38. 39, 40. 41. 42,

Advertising Private Ltd., Bombay.

Dattaram Advertising (P) Ltd., Bombay. Branch : Bangalore.) Chaitra Advertising (P) Ltd., Bombay (Branches : New Delhi and Bangalore). Concept Marketing and Advertising (P) Ltd., Bombay.

Da-Cunnha Pillai Associates (P) Ltd., Bombay. Everest Advertising (P) Ltd., Bombay. Focus Advertising (P) Ltd., Bombay. (Branches :

Madras

and Bangalore).

Frank Simees Advertising (P) Ltd., Bombay. Green’s Advertising Service Agents, Bombay.

Graphic Advertising (P) Ltd., Bombay. Hero’s Publicity Services Bombay.

(Branch: Calcutta).

Hindustan Thompson Associates Ltd., Bombay.

Madras and Bangalore). Impressions Advertising and Marketing, Bombay.

Inter Publicity (P) Ltd., Bombay.

(Branches: Calcutta, New Delhi, .

(Branch : New Delhi).

(Branches : Bangalore and New Delhi).

Incentive Marketing and Advertising, Bombay. Jaisons Advertising, Bombay. (Branches: Chandigarh and New Delhi). Marketing Advertising Associates (P) Ltd., Bombay. (Branches :

43. 44, 45, 46.

Mirat Advertising, Bombay. National Advertising Services (P) Ltd., Bombay . (Branches: Calcutta,

41.

NIMAS—New

48. 49." 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58.

New

Delhi,

Delhi

and

Madras, Bangalore, Calcutta and Secunderabad). Market Analyst and Product Promoters, Bombay.

Madison Advertising,

India

(Branch: Cochin). Mrs. P.N. Bharucha

Bombay.

International

Marketing

& Company,

Press Syndicate Ltd., Bombay.

&

Advertising

Services, Bombay.

Bombay.

(Brariches: New Delhi and Calcutta).

R.A. Advertising Services, Bombay. Radeus Advertising (P) Ltd., Bombay. Radical Publicity, Bombay. Ratan Batra (P) Ltd., Bombay. Ranjit Sales and Publicity (P) Ltd., Bombay. (Branches : Patna and Chandigarh). Rediffusion Advertising (P) Ltd., Bombay. (Branch: Madras).

Shilpi Advertising Ltd., Bombay. Sista’s (P) Ltd., Bombay.

New

Delhi,

Calcutta, :

(Branch: Ahmedabad).

(Branches: Madras and Bangalore).

Sobhagya Advertising Services, Bombay. (Branches : New Delhi, Madras, Bangalore, Secunderabad, Lucknow, Kanpur, Jaipur, Trivandrum, Chandigarh, Ahmedabad

and

Indore).

59, Stusa Advertising (P) Ltd., Bombay. 34—3 M ofI & B/ND/77

MASS

MEDIA IN INDIA

1978

Three Brothers and Fils, Bombay. Ulka Advertising (P) Ltd., (Branches: New Delhi and Calcutta). Vision Advertising and Marketing, Bombay. Pratibha Advertising, Pune. Tom and Bay Advertising (P) Ltd., Pune. (Branches : Bombay and Panaji). Adroit Advertising, Bombay. (Branch : Ahmedabad).

Punjab: Haryana

Union Advertising Service, Ambala Cantt. Tamil Nadu Adwave Advertising Pvt. Ltd., Madras. Aries Advertising Bureau, Madras. Criterion Publicity Pvt. Ltd., Madras. (Branch : Secunderabad). Easterns

1,

Advertising

Consultants,

Madras.

Efficient Publicities Pvt. Ltd., Madras. Elegant Publicities, Madras. F.D. Steward (P) Ltd., Madras.

(Branch

: Cochin).

(Branches: Bombay, Calcutta, Bangalore,

bad, Kanpur, Cochin and New Delhi). Madras Advertising Co. (P) Ltd., Madras. (Branch: Bangalore). Moulis Advertising Service, Madras. Ra Advertising Associates (P) Ltd., Madras. (Branches:

Hydera-

Bangalore, New

Uttar Pradesh Krishna Publicity Co. Pvt. Ltd., Kanpur.

West Bengal Adarts Advertising, Calcutta. (Branch : New Delhi). Adlink Advertising & Marketing (P) Ltd., Calcutta. .

Alpha

Advertising

Service, Calcutta.

Advertising & Sales Promotion Company, Calcutta. (Head Office: New Delhi) Granches: Bangalore, Bombay, Calcutta, Cochin and Hyderabad). Arghs Advertising & Marketing (P) Ltd., Calcutta. Clarion Advertising Services Ltd., Calcutta. (Branches: Bombay, Delhi and Madras). Communication Consultants, Calcutta. (Branch : New Delhi). Ideal Advertising Agency, Calcutta. Indian Publicity Bureau (P) Ltd., Calcutta. Medium Service, Calcutta. (Branch: Bombay). National Advertising Agency, Calcutta. Orient Publicity Service, Calcutta. Phoenix Advertising (P) Ltd., Calcutta. Pressman Advertising & Marketing (P) Ltd., Calcutta. Printadex Advertising, Calcutta. Press and Publicity Syndicate (P) Ltd. Calcutta. Progressive Publicity Service, Calcutta. (Branch : Patna). Sekai (P) Ltd., Calcutta.

(Branch

: New

Standard Publicity Society, Calcutta. 20th Century Publicity (P) Ltd., Calcutta.

Delhi).

259 APPENDICES

“Bug wos

“yssy

*sioou pur

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1978 MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

260

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261 APPENDICES

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| 1978 MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

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Amasira

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ASSOCIATION

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Index

A

History 115-116

Organisational Setup 115-116

Aaj 8 Aj Kal 123

Academic Institutions 98

Agricultural Universities 98 Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan 98 Accredited Advertising Agencies 118 Adivasi 145

Advertisement Films 99 ADVERTISING 49-58 Fact Finding Committee on Newspaper Economics 56 Film 51 Newspapers

56-57

Press 49-50, 54

Alliance Advertising Association of Bom53

J. Walter Thompson 50

Outdoor Contractors’ Associations 51 Society of Advertising Practitioners 53 Advertising and Visual Publicity, Directorate of (DAVP) 52-53, 77, 115-11 Accreditation 118

Advertising Wing 117-118

Awards for excellence in printing. and designing 117 Budget 119 Campaign Wing 116 Copy Wing 117 Distribution Branch 117 Exhibition Wing 118

Functions 116

Employment News 118

Alha (U.P.) 69

Alliance Advertising Association

All

Advertising Agencies 53, Accredited 118 Advertising Agencies Association of India 200 (AAAE) Advertising Council of India 53

Commercial Artists’ Guild 53 Indian Society of Advertisers 53, 201

Akhbar Shri Darbar Saheb 9 Alam Ara 43

of Bombay

All India Federation of Master Printers 81

Radio 51 Television 51-52

bay 50 Audit Bureau of Circulation(ABC)

Outdoor Publicity 117 Printed Publicity Wing 117 Regional Distribution Centres 116 Research Unit 118 Vidyalankar Committee 52 Visualisation 116-117 Agricultural Universities 98 Air India 182-183 Ajmal 11 Akashvani 21

India

Newspaper

Editors’

Conference,

All India Small and Medium Federation, Kanpur 196-97

Newspapers

New Delhi 196

Amherst Circular 3 Amrita Bazar Patrika 4, 14

Ananda Bazar Patrika 7, 13

Ananda Vikatan 10

Andhra Janata 10 Andhra Bhasha Sanjivini 10 Andhrabhumi 10 Andhra Jyoti 11

Andhra Patrika 10 Andhra Prabha 10, 11 Andhra Prakasika 10 Antibiotics News 191 Anzam 11 Appendices 227-262

Applegath 78

Arunachal News 173

Arunachal

Pradesh,

Directorate

mation and Public Relations Asee Ass, Asee Asav 129

of Infor-

172-173

Asha 9

Asoma 144 Assam, Directorate of Information and

lic Relations 144

Tuo-

°

276

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

Assam Information 144 Associated Press 16

Bxhibition 95 National Book Trust, 122, 23 Export 96

Astrological Almanacs 78

Atma Sakti 7 Audi Profileen Studiesce (TV) 209, 211

Foreign 95-96 Imports 96

Audience Research Unit: Radio 28, Television Audit

Bureau

of Circulation

200-201

(ABC)

53,

Auxiliary Studio Centres 107 Film 45, 136, 139 Printing and Designing 85-86, 117

Book Production 93

B Bal Bharati 123

Balladas 72

Brahmo Samaj 4

Braithwaite and Company (India) Ltd 183 British India Corporation 50 British Publishers 92

C

Bal Mukund Gupta 8 Bangadoot 8 Banglar Katha 7 Baithaks 70

Calcutta General Advertiser 3 Calcutta Chronicle 3

Bengal Gazette 3

Bengal Motion Picture Association 48 (The) Bengalee 4 +

Bharatendu Harishchandra 8 Bharat Mitra 8 Plate

and

Vessels,

Bharatiya Vidya Bhawan 98 Bihar, Information and Public Department, 145-146 Bihar Diary 145 Bihar Information 145 Bihar Ki Khabran 145

Bihar Samachar 145

Biswin Sadi 11 Black Gold 194 Block Printing 77 Bombay Chronicle 5 Bombay Bombay Bombay BOOK

Public Sector 91-93

Sales Promotion and Marketing 89-91

Burn and Company Ltd 183-184 Burrakatha 69

Bal Krishna Bhat 8

. Bombay

,

Broadcasting See Radio Builders of Modern India 122 Bureau of Public Information 121

Bal Gangadhar Tilak 4

patnam 183

Production 88

Training 95

Awards

Bhavai 70, 75 Bharat Heavy

Paper Backs 96-97

Darpan 6

Gazette 3 Herald 3 Samachar 7,49 PUBLISHING 87-97

Book Information Centre 94 Book Promotion Wing 93

Calcutta Film Society 47 Calcutta Gazette 3 Canadian Baptist Mission 10 Cartoon Films 134, 139

Central Board of Film Censors 48

Visakha-

Relations

Central Family Planning Institute 101 Central Health Education Bureau 99, 210 CENTRAL MEDIA 107-141 All India Radio 107-110

Children’s Film Society 138-139

Directorate

of Advertising

Publicity 115-119

and

Visual

Directorate of Evaluation 140

Directorate of Field Publicity 119-121 Directorate of Film Festivals 136-137 Doordarshan 110-111 External Publicity Division 141 Films Division 132-135 Film Finance Corporation 138

Film and Television 137-138

Institute of India

Indian Institute of Mass Communication

140

National Film Archives of India 139-140

Photo Division 114-115 Press Information Bureau 111-114

277

IN DEX

Publications Division 121-125

DOORDARSHAN

Research and Reference Division 132 Song and Drama Division 125-130

Doutrina Christa 78, 79 Drama Troupes 127

Registrar of Newspapers for India 130-131

COMMUNICATION MEDIA 3-103 Advertising 49-58

207-213

See

also

Television and Special Articles

Eastern India Special

162

Cultural Convention

Souvenir

EC News 184 EC and You 184

Book Publishing 87-97 Film 40-48 Outdoor Publicity 59-68

E

Press 3-19 Printing 77-86 Radio 20-29

Educational Television Service 207

Eenadu 10

Television 30-39

ElectronicCorporation of India Ltd 184-185

Traditional Media 69-76

Employment News

Training and Research 98-103 Community Viewing Centres (TV) 35-36 Copper Calling 188

116, 118

Evaluation, Directorate of 140

Exhibition, Communication through 65-68

Indian Industries Fair 67

Core Bookand the Fellowship Programmes95 Coster of Haarlem 78

Nehru and New India 67 Third

Courter 3

Cowper 78

Cultural Exchange Programmes (Film) 136-137 Foreign Films in India 136-137

Indian Films Abroad 137

Asian

International

Trade

Fair

World Agricultural Fair 67 World Book Fairs 95 Experimental Films 99 External Publicity Division 141 External Services (Radio) 27

F

D

Fact Finding

Dadabhal Naorojee 4 Dadasaheb Phalke 42, 48, 137

Fairs and Festivals 73

Dadra and Nagar Haveli,

Field Publicity Office 174-175 Datly Thanthi 10 Das, C.R.7

Delhi,

Directorate

of

Information

Farm and Home Broadcast 23-24

Federation of Film Societies 47 Federation of Booksellers and Publishers Assoand

Publicity 175-176 Desabhimani 9, 10 Devagupta Seshachalarao 10 Dharmvir 9 Dhiren Ganguly 42

Fertilisers Corporation of India Ltd 185-186

(FACT) 185

Chemicals,

Travancore

Fertiliser Digest 186 Field Publicity, Directorate of 119-121

Units

118

Budget 121

Digdarshan 6, 79 Dili 176

Dinamani 10

Directorate of Film Festivals 136-137 Documentaries

ciation 95

Feroz Shah Mehta 5 Fertilisers and

Dhumkuria (of the Oraons, Bihar) 70, 74

Diwarkar, R.R. 9

Committee on Newspaper Eco-

nomics (1975) 15, 57

44,

99,

148-150, 153, 150, 158, 171, 173, 177

121, 133, 139, 163-164, 167-169,

Functions 119-121 Organisational Set up 119

Festival of Foreign Films in India 136-137 FILM 40-48 See also Appendices Thematic Classification 234 Censor Board 48 Employment 41

Ltd

278

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

H

Earnings 41 Export

47

Hakikat 11 HAL News 187 Hamdard 11 Hardware manufacture 28 Harijan 5 Harikatha 70, 71, 72, 153

Equipment Import 239 Production 40, 233-234 Theatres and Seating Capacity 41, 239 Societies 47 State Awards 45, 136, 235-238 Film Advisory Board 44 Film Enquiry Committee 45, 46 Film Federation of India 48

Harinarayan (Munshi) Harinarayan Apte 6

Film Festival 47, 136-137 Film Festival, Directorate of 136-137 and

137-138

Television

Institute

Harishchandra Sawe Bhatvadekar 42 Heavy Engineering Corporation Ltd 186

100,99,

46,

HEC News 186 HEC Pariwar 186

Films Division 132-135 Administrative

Budget 135

Wing

Hicky Gazette 79

133

Hilal 11 Himachal Pradesh, Relations 149 Himansu Rat 43

Cartoon Film Unit 133 Documentary 133 Distribution Wing 133-134 Newsreel 133

of

Public

Hindi Pradeep 8 Hindoo Patriot 4 Hindu 4, 14 Hindustan 8

Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd 186-187 Hindustan Antibiotics Ltd 187

Folk Theatre 70-71

Bhavai (Gujarat) 70, 75

Hindustan Hindustan Hindustan Hindustan Hindustan Hindustan Hindustan Hindustan Hindustan Hindustan

Jatra (West Bengal) 70, 75

Mancha (Madhya Pradesh) 70 Nautanki (Uttar Pradesh) 70, 75 Tamasha (Maharashtra), 70, 75 Therukuthu (Tamil Nadu) 70, 75 Yakshagan (Karnataka) 70, 75 Foreign Titles 94

Free Press of India News Agency 16

Free Press Journal 5

Freedom of Press 13

Cables Ltd 187 Copper Ltd 188 Insecticides Ltd (HIL) 188-189 Machine Tools Ltd 189 Review 5 Samachar 17 Shipyard Ltd 189 Steel Works Construction Ltd 190 Steel Works News 190 Times 14

History of Freedom Movement 124

G

Hitavadi 10 MT World 189 Home Service Programmes (Radio) 107, 108 Hornima, B.G. 5

Shankar Vidyarthi 8 194 Studios 43 (of the Mudias) 70, 74

Goa, Daman & Diu, Department of Information and Tourism 176-177

Government Publishing 92 Gujarat, Directorate of Information Gundappa, D.V. 8 Gurumukhi Akhbar 9

Directorate

Himprastha 150

Production Wing 133 Film Festivals, Directorate of 136-137 Folk Dance Festival, Republic Day 129-130 Folk Songs 72

Ganesh Gasoil Gemini Ghotul

9

Harischandra 42 Harish Chander Mukherji 4

Film Finance Corporation 45, 138 Film Producers Guild of India 202 Film

1978

146-148

-I

Horsombad 145

IDPL News 191 Mlustrated Albums

(The)

India 10

India—A

123

Reference Annual

132

279

INDEX India Gazette 3 Indian and Eastern Newspaper Society 53, 54, Indian

and Foreign

Review

Jag Charan Hoya 128

123

Indian Broadcasting Company 20

Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) 91, 211 Indian Documentary Producers’ Association Indian Indian Indian

Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Express

Ltd 191

14

Federation

of

Working

Journalists

197-198 Indian Film 43 Indian Film Exporters Association Indian

Institute of Management

Motion

Picture

Export

(IMPEC) 47, 139

202-203

10!

Corporation

Indian Motion Picture Producers’ Association 48, 203

Indian

National

Indian Press 197 Indian Review 5

Congress

Jame Jamshed7

Jambhekar 6 Janmabhoomi 8 Jammu and Kashmir, Director of Information 151-152 Jawaharlal Nehru 5, 11, 12

Jatra (West Bengal) 70, 75

Jayabharati

10

Jayarao Deshpande

Indian Institute of Mass Communication (IIMC) 71, 99, 101, 140 Indian Language Newspapers Association 198 Indian

J

8

Joao de Bustamante 78

Joao Gonsalves 78

Johannes Brito of Bruges (Belgium) 78

Johannes Censfleisch Zu Gutenberg 78 Journalism

4-8, 98-99,

Jugal Kishore Sukul 8

140

Jugantar 13

Jute Corporation of India Ltd 191-192

K

4

Kabi-gan 70

Indian Rural Press Association 198

Indian Social Reformer 5 Indian Society of Advertisers Ltd 53, 201

Kalki 10

Indian

Kandathil Verghese Mappila 9

‘Space

Indian

Research

Standard

Kamgar

Organisation (ISRO)

Wagon

Company

Ltd

183-184 Indian State Broadcasting Service 20 India Tourism Development Corporation Ltd (TDC) 190-191 India Sabha 43 Indu Prakash 4 Information

107—141

&

Broadcasting,

Ministry

of

Inkworld 199

Institute of Economic Growth 101 Integrated Publicity Programme International (NFAT)

Federation

of

Archives

140

International Film Festivals of India 47, International

Newsreel

Organisations

Trani, Ardeshir 43, 48 Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar

4

Kapoor, Prithviraj 43 Karnataka, Department of Information and Publicity 152-154 Karmaveera 9

Karnataka Prakasika 8 Kathakalashepam 70 Kavi-Sammelan 73

Kerala Kerala Kerala, Kesava

Kaumudi 9 Patrika 9 Public Relations Department 154-155 Menon, K.P. 9

Kesari 4

122

Film

Vishwa 34

136 135

Khalsa Akhbar 9 Khasa Subba Rao 10 Khilafat 11 Kiosks

118

Kisan Kanya Koening 78

43

Krishi Darshan 33, 36

Krishna Rao, Mubinuri 11 Krishnan, Kalikat 9

280

MASS MEDIA

Kuldip Nayar Committee 18

Kunhirama

Menon

Kurukshetra 124

C 9

L Lajpat

Rai

5, 11

Lakshadweep Information Office 177-178

Language Press Bulletin 198 L.A. Stronach and Co 50 Leader 4, 5 Libraries 89, 90, 97 Library of Sound Archives 28 Life Insurance Corporation of India 192-193 Life of Christ 42 Listowel (Lord) 5

IN INDIA

1978

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad 11 Maulana Mohamad Ali 11 Media Memory 132 MEDIA ORGANISATION 105-204 Central 107-141 Professional Organisations 196-204 Public Sector 181-195 States’ 142-180 Meejan 10

ya, Directorate of Information and

Public Relations 160 Melody of Love 43

Lithographic Press 80

MIG News 187 Milap 11 Mirat-ul-Akhbar 4 Mirza Ismail (Sir) 8 Mitavadi 9

Ludbow

Mizoram, Directorate of Information, Publicity and Tourism 178-179

Low Priced Books 94, 95 78

Lumiere Brothers 40

Modern Review 5 Mogul Line Ltd 193

Moharay, H.R. 8 Monitoring Service 110 Motion Picture See Film

M Macaulay 3 Madan Mohan Malaviya 5

Madhya Pradesh, Directorate of Information :

and Publicity 155-156

Madras Courier 3

Mrinal Ghosh 7 Mumbai

Vartaman

7

Mumbaina Halkaru Ane Vartaman 7

Madras Presidency Radio Club 20

Mumbaina Samachar 7

Magic

Mumshi Wazid Ali Khan 6

Carpet

182

Mahabir Prasad Dwivedi 8 Mahadev Govind Ranade 4 Madhavan T.K, 9 Mahajan 6 Maharashtra, Directorate of Information and Public Relations 157-158

Mahatma Gandhi, Collected Works of 122

Mail 14 Mainz 78 Malayala

Manch

Mushaira 73 Music Programme (Radio) 25-26

N Nagaland, Directorate of Information, Publicity and Tourism 160-162

Manorama

9,

13

70

Manipur, Department

mation 158-159

of Publicity and Infor-

Mahratta 4

NASA

75 Satellite

National Book

211 Development

Mahashai Kushal Chand 11 Mass Media Research 101 9

Board

93

National Awards for Films 136 National Book Trust (NBT)

National Council

Marzban 7

Mathrubhoomi

Nacha

of

and Training (NCERT)

National

Educational 91

Documentation

Communication

132

122

Research

Centre on

Mass

National Film Archives of India 46,139

281

INDEX

National

National ment

Film Festival 136

Institute of Community

Develop-

101

National National

Institute of Design 99 Newsprint and Paper Mills

National

Programme

National School of Drama

99

National

Small

Corporation

193-194

of Plays

Industries

131

26 Ltd

New

(TV)

News Services Division (Radio) 26-27, 108-111 ‘New Wave Films

NON-ALIGNED 214-218

209-212

Signs

News

Agencies 16-17, 18

Cinema

Committee

18

Neon

Publication) Act 12, 17, is

and periodicity-

Ownership 231-32 Fact Finding Committee

15

Registrar for India 130-131

37—3 M ofI & B/ND/77

60-61

51

78

Parliamentary _ Proceedin,

Circulation 50,000 and above 231

Newsprint 19, 130-132 Policy 18 Allocation Policy 131 Imports 131

Advertising Board

Pamfilo Castable of Feltre

News letter 196 Newspapers 3-16, 227-232

16

62

P

United Press of India 16

Circulation Language wise 228-230

through

62 61

Outdoor Contractors’ Association

‘Samachar Bharati 17

Small

Communication

Signs

Transport

17, 18

Price Page Schedule Readership 15

101

59-68, 117

Rear Illuminated Plasters 62 Spot News Boards 62

214-219

Reuter 16

15, $7

(ORG)

65-68 Hoardings 60 Kiosks 61-62 Match Box Advertising Metallic Printed Posters

Press Trust of India 16

Economics

(Dehra

Slides 63

Exhibitions,

Non-aligned News Agencies Pool

Samachar

Commission

Coordination 64, 65 Enamel Boards 61

116, 118

Nayar

Gas

OUTDOOR PUBLICITY Advertising 50, 59-60

Associated Press 16 Free Press of India News Agency 16 Hindustan Samachar 17 Kuldip

Natural

Dun) 194 Operational Research Group Ottamar Merganthaler 78

43

Neon

NEWS AGENCIES POOL

Orissa, Department of Public Relations 162-163 Objectional Matter Act (Press) 12, 18

Television 110 Theatres

45

O Oil and

National Union of Journalists 198-199 Nautanki 70,75 Nav Bharat Times 13 Needs Assessment Studies Nehru Bal Pustakalaya 91 News Bulletins 110 Radio 26, 109

Newsreel: film 133, radio 109

on Newspaper

(Protection

of

Parliament Reporting (Radio) 109

Pasban 164 Performance Highlights (ECIL) Periodical Journalism 16 Phalke, Dhundiraj Govind 42

184

Photo and Feature Service 113

Photo Pica

Division 114-115 Type

Pierre

Pl

79

Simon

Shang

77

Fournier 78

Pondicherry, Directorate of Information Publicity 180 Posters 116, 149, 156 Powada

69, 72

Prabhat Studios 46

and

282

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA

PRESS 3—19 Act 3, 12,

History

Language

All India Film Producers’ Council 203 All India Newspaper Editors’ Confer-

17-18

3-5

Press,

Growth

Periodical Journalism

News Agencies 16-17 New role 12-16 Press Advertising 49-50

of 6-11

16

Press and Registration of Books Act Press Commission 12, 54, 55, 57

Press Conferences 112 Press Council 12, 17

199

Press Institute of India

99, 199

Press Information Bureau

130, 131

111-114

Association

Bharat

of

198

Ltd

201

198-199

Relations Society of India 203

SECTOR India 182

Heavy

MEDIA

181-195

Plate and Vessels

183

Braithwaite and Company (India) Ltd 183

Composing Capacity 82 Utilisation

84

Ltd

Indian

Wagon

Company

Ltd 183-184 Fertilisers and Chemicals, Ltd (FACT) 185

Travancore

Corporation

Standard

183

of India

Ltd

Fertiliser Corporation of India Ltd 185-186 Heavy

99

Central Health Education Bureau 99 Film and Television Institute of India 99

Indian Institute of Mass Communication National Institute of Design 99 National School of Drama 99 Press Institute of India 99 PROFESSIONAL ORGANISATIONS Agencies

Burn and Company

Electronic 184-185

History 77-80 Growth 80 Medium Presses 82 Present Status 80 Training 86 Small Presses 81

200

Advertisers

PUBLIC Air

PRINTING 77-86 Advent 77 Awards 85 Big Presses 83

India

Producers’

Specialised Publications Association 200 Sub-editor’s Guild 200

Press Trust of India 16 Price Page Schedule 15

Advertising

Indian Society

Public

147

Bodies

Picture

National Union of Journalists Press Guild of India 199 Press Institute of India 199

Press Facilities 113 Wall Newspapers 114

Professional

202-203

Indian Motion Association 203

Indian Rural Press Association

Photo and Feature Service 113

Capacity

202

Indian Langauge Newspapers Association 198 Indian Motion Picture Distributors’

Activities 112 Conducted tours 113 Conferences and Briefings 112 History 111 Information Centres 112 Langauge Service 113 Organisational Set up 112

Today

ence 196 All India Small and Medium Newspapers Federation 196-197 Audit Bureau of Circulation 200-201 Cinematograph Exhibitors’ Association of India 201 Film Producers Guild of India Ltd 202 Indian and Eastern Newspaper Society 19° Indian Federation of Working Journalists 197-198

Indian Film Exporters Association

Press Guild of India

Press

1978

Association

Engineering Corporation

Hindustan

Hindustan

Hindustan

Hindustan Hindustan Hindustan

196of

Hindustan

Aeronautics

Antibiotics

Cables Ltd

186-187

Ltd 186

Ltd 187

187

Copper Ltd 188 Insecticides Ltd (HIL) Machine Shipyard

Tools Ltd. 189 Ltd 189

188-

Hindustan Steelworks Construction Ltd 190 India Tourism Development Corporation Ltd (ITDC) 190-191

283

INDEX

Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Ltd 191 Jute Corporation of India Ltd 191-192

Life

Insurance

192-193

Corporation

Mogul Line Ltd 193 National Seeds Corporation

of India Ltd

and

State Farms Corporation of India Ltd 193 National Small Industries Corporation Ltd 193-194

Oil and Natural Gas Commission 194 Shipping 194-195

Corporation

of

India

Ltd

Publications Division 121-125 Activities and Programmes 123-124 Business Wing 123

Editorial

Wing

History 121-122

122-123

Organisational set up 122 Production Wing 123 Publicity Society of India 50 Punjab, Public Relations Department 163-165

Puppetry

71

R Rabindra Rangshala 129 RADIO 20-29, 107-111

Audience

Research

Broadcasting

Stations

22

Commentary

on Current

Affairs 109

External Services 27 Farm and Home Broadcasts 23-24 Hardware Manufacture 28 Monitoring Service 110 Music Programme 25-26 News Collection 109

Current

Affairs

Newsreels 109 News Services Division Parliament Reporting 109 Plays and

Features 26

Programme

Journals

Programme

Receiver Regional Research

Pattern

Armed

Children

Forces 24

24

Commentaries and Current Commercial 23, 107 External Services 21, Family Planning 24

Farm

and

Affairs 109

108

Home 23, 24

Home Service 107, 108 Industrial 24 Monitoring Service 110 National 21 News Bulletins 26

Parliament Proceedings 109

Programme exchanges 28 Regional 211, 109-110 Sansad Samiksha 109 Special 28 Speeches 25 Sports 24 Vividh Bharati 27, 107 Tribal 24 Youth 24 Yuvavani 24

240

Service

and

TV Bulletin 110 Yuva Vani 24 Vividh Bharti 27 Radio Programmes Agricultural 23, 24

Women 24

28

Commercial

News

Special Audience Programme 24 Transcription and Programme Exchange

26

22-23

Licences 241 Units 109-110 and Impact 21

26-27 108-109

Radio Sangeet Sammelan 25 Raja Ram Mohan Roy National Educational Resources Centre 95 Rajasthan, Directorate of Public Relations 165-166

Randhawa Committee 85 Rashomon 47 istrar of Newspapers

for India

Res Clearance of new titles 130

130-131

Statutory and non-statutory functions 130-131. Performance during 1975-76, 131

Republic Day Folk Dance Festival 129-131 Research and Evaluation Cell (Ahmedabad)

Research and Reference Division 132 India—A Reference Annual 132 Regular Services 132

MASS MEDIA IN INDIA 1978

284 National Documentation Centre on Mass

Communication, Regular Services Mass Media in India 132 Rozgar Samachar 118 Rural and Tribal Youth Clubs 73

132

Stanhope (Earl) 78 State Trading Corporation of India 131

Statesman 49 States of Our Union Series 124-125 STATES’ MEDIA

Andaman and Nicobar Islands 171-172 Andhra Pradesh 142-143 Arunachal Pradesh 172-173 Assam 144 Bihar 145-146 Chandigarh 173-174 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 174-175 Delhi 175-176

S Sahitya Akademi Samachar 18 Samachar Bharati Sangbad Kaumudi Sansad Samiksha

Satellite

91 17 49 109

Instructional

Goa, Daman and Diu 176-177

Television

Gujarat 146-148 Haryana 148-149 Himachal Pradesh 149-150

Experiment (SITE) 36-38, 208-212 School programmes (TV) 30, 34, 36 Samachar Darpan 19 Samayiki 26 Satyajit Ray 41, 47 SCI Sandesh 195

Jammu and Kashmir 151-152 Karnataka 152-154 Kerala 154-155 Lakshadweep 177-178

Scotch Lite 64

Madhya Pradesh 155-156 Maharashtra 157-158 Manipur 158-159 Meghalaya 160 Mizoram 178-179 Nagaland 160-162 Orissa 162-163 Pondicherry 180 Punjab 163-165 Rajasthan 165-166 Tamil Nadu 166-167 Tripura 167-168 Uttar Pradesh 169-170 West Bengal 170-171

Seventy five years of Indian Cinema 43 Shipping Corporation of

India Ltd 194-195

Shipyard Review 189 Shiv Raj Mudra

158

Instructional Television SITE See Satellite Experiment 208-212 Slow speed bulletin (Radio) 15 Society of Advertising Practitioners 53 Song and Drama Division 74, 75, 125-130 Budget 130 History 125-126 Programmes Departmental Troupes 127 Registered

Sound

Private

and Light

Parties 128

128-129

Srary of oy

Programme Statistics 127

Southern India Film Chamber of Commerce SPECIAL ARTICLES

205-218

Doordarshan 207-213 Non-aligned 214-218

140-180

News

Agencies

Special Audience Programmes 24

Specialised Publications Association 200

Speeches of Leaders 124 Sports Highlights (Radio) 110 Spotlight 26, 109 Staff Training Schools 100

Freedom

Movement

Strassberg 78 Stronach L.A. & Co. 50 Sub-Editors’ Guild (New Delhi) 200

Pooj

T Talbot Lanston 78

Tamasha 10, 75

Tameera Haryana 149

(for

Chil-

285

INDEX Tamil Nadu, Directorate of Information and Public Relations 166-167

In-service Training 100

Teleclubs 30-31 ‘TELEVISION 30-39 See also Doordarshan 207-214

Prototype Research 102 Traini itt wpining Insti tutes of

Listeners Reserach 102 Professional Bodies 99-100

Tamra Sandesh 188

Audience profile studies 209, 211

Community

Viewing Centres

30, 35, 36

Educational Television Service 207 Needs Assessment studies 209 Satellite Instructional Television

ment (SITE) 36, 208-212 Teleclubs 30-31

Experi-

Training 38

Advertising 51-52 Television Centres 33-35, 242 Anritsar 32, 34

Bombay 31, 33-34

Calcutta 32, 35 Delhi 30, 33 Lucknow

32, 35

Tourism

167-168

Udant Martand 49 United Press 122 United Press of India 16 University Film Council 47 University Grants Commission for Text Books Urvarak Sandesh 186 Utkal Prasanga 162

Uttar Pradesh, Directorate of Information and Public Relations 169-70.

Vadya Vrinda (Radio) 26 Verification of newspapers and periodicals 131

Vidura 200

Srinagar 32, 34

Television Programmes 33-38 Composition of 33-36

Commercial 37-38

School Programmes The Warrior 161

32, 34-36

Theatre Owners’ Association 203 Theatres (Cinemas) 239 109

Tilak, Bal Gangadhar 4

TRADITIONAL MEDIA 69-76 Categorisation of Traditional Media 70 Ballads 72 Folk Songs 72 Folk Theatre 70-71 Harikatha 70-72, 74 Motifs and Design 74

Puppetry 71 Poets’ Rural Story Youth

Tripura, Directorate of Public Relations and

Vv

Madras 32, 35 Pune 32, 34

Therukosthu 70,75 Today in Parliament

and

U

Licences 39, 243

Net-work and Range 31

chi,

Publishing

meet 73 Clubs 73-74 telling 73 Clubs 73-74

TRAINING AND RESEARCH 98-103 Academic Institutions 98



Vidyalankar Committee 126 Visualisation 117 Vividh Bharati 27

Vividh Bharati Commercial Centres 107

Vulgate Bible 78

Ww Wall newspaper 114 Walter Thompson, J 50 ‘Wang Chang 77

West

Bengal,

Department

of

and Public Relations 170-171

William Ged 78 William Nicholson 78 Wire Photo Service 115 World Book Fair 95 Working Jounalist 198

Y

Yakshagana 153 Yatri 190 Yeh Bihar hai 145

Yogakshema 192

Yojana

124

Yuva Vani 24

Information

PROGRESS Ie started with a magnificent vision Twenty-five years ago

A modern new city was founded...A futuristic city. A dy-

namic city—symbolic of the

freedom of India,

unfettered

by the traditions of the past..

an expression of the nation’s faith in the future”, Le Corbusier with a team of brilliant Indian Architects planned it To He had a great vision. build a great city. For man,

a beautiful place to

dwell. For India, planned growth.

a model That is

Chandigarh today... Brought about by integrated efforts and keeping nationaj objectives in the forefront, the

Union Territory

garh

marches

of

Chandi-

to a better

to-

morrow.

As Chandigarh takes each step

ahead, prosperity reaches all Sections of the people. All

villages are electrified and linked by metalled road. House sites have been allotted to the landless and weaker sections.

Transit sites and tenements in clean environs have been all-

otted to old Jhuggi dwellers, The Union Territory of Chandigarh

has

the

largest

lities in the country

today

educational and medical faci-

That's

Promising

Chandigarh

all,

better

life

for

the city of the future

SCIENTIFIC STORAGE — A MUST THE NEED OF THE HOUR, IN FACT A Mere increase in production will be of no avail unless the wastage at all levels is brought down to the irreducible minimum

IT’S OUR

JOB

We have a net-work of 70 well-equipped store houses spread over the state WE

ALSO

Shipping

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KERALA STATE WAREHOUSING CORPORATION P. B. No. 1727, COCHIN - 682016 Grams: KERWACOR

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-

fot ame ee Te MLD w a hase)

(errr Pour

eat eet) Loree uments Roe ed

AM ee F0R NATIONS PROGRESS

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A_LITTLE VARIOUS

ARUNACHAL

KNOWN ENCHANTING LAND AND ITS COLOURFUL TRIBES WITH AGE-OLD TRADITIONS READ

THE

FOLLOWING RECENT PUBLICATIONS, PROFUSELY ILLUSTRATED.

1,

Resarun 76 (Collection of research papers)

2.

Lik Pu Can-Lan

3.

The Singphos and their Religion by T.K.M.

4.

The Tangams

Rs. 16.75

by T.K. M. Baruah

Baruah

«»

Rs.

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..

Rs.

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by T. K. Bhattacharjee

Rs. 10.20

5. The Hill Miris by B. B. Pandey

Rs. 15.40

Other important publications: 1,

Art of the North-East Frontier of India by Verrier Elwin

2.

Democracy

3.

Dances of Arunachal by N. Sarkar

Rs. 12.85

4.

Aspects of Padam Minyong

Rs. 10.00

5.

A

6. 7.

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Study of Adi

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Among the Wanchos Discount

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1947-72

L. N. Chakrabarty 25%

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Rs.

Luthra

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Rs. 30.00 Rs.

Culture by S. Roy

Glimpses of Early History of Arunachal 9.

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by

Rs. 9.70

by L. R. N. Srivastava for

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below Rs. 25.00.

15%

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Kindly place orders with tho Director of Information and Public

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Issued by the Director of Information and Public Relations, 38—3

M

ofI & B/77

Arunachal Pradesh.

Parkinson might have been tempted to wri another book But then. managers shackled by time targets and budgets occasionally br legend would come true ss, when it comes to gearins Company to exploit. mi export Iron Ore Concent 1's, we wish we had Al adin s lamp which could produce a genie. We at Kudremukh would have rejoiced.

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HINDUSTAN ANTIBIOTICS LIMITED (A

Govt.

PIONEERS PIMPRI

of

India

Enterprise)

IN ANTIBIOTICS - PUNE - 411

oo

018.

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Almost every-

makes the widest range of machine tools in the world. And that HMT can specially design and tool up a machine tool to match your Production requirements exactly. But for most machine tool buyers, the ctucial factor is not merely obtaining a machine. It is the planning, the technical services, the finance, the trained

manpower. that are the major stumbling to stepping up production

and productivity.

HMT can help with all of this. That's

why we call ourselves the one stop shop

for machine tools. And this is the difference between just buying amachine tool and buying it from

Whether your industry

medium or large scale,

>

Provided by

body knows that HMT

blocks

Ap

sea Ci NE TOOLS

.

is small,

HMT can help

you right from project preparation and

evaluation, to training your men on its own shop floors. Or yours. HMT will

provide advice on work flow planning, and how to make optimum use of your machines.

If you have plans to expand, modernise, diversify or export, HMT can provide you a comprehensive plan that elps you.do it smoothly, and with the minimum fuss, bother and expense. And, at every stage, HMT can help you arrange finance through the IDBI and

other financial organisations. All you have to do is ask. “The resources of 6 machine tool factories

and 20,000 technicians are at your service. When you buy from HMT, you get the

cumulative experience and technological expertise of an organisation that has grown a hundredfold in its 23 years - of existence.

technological inputs

"s collaborators around

the world: companies like Oerlikon, Frits Werner, Gildemeister, Pegard, Buhler...

You get the kind of international quality

standards that HMT has to have in order to

sell its machines in the world’s most. competitive markets, like U.S.A., West

Germany, Switzerland, the U.K., Australia and New Zealand. And you get all of this virtually for the price of the machine -you buy. ‘The HMT range

70 value-engineered designs; 50 of them in collaboration with world's leading machine too] manufacturers; covering just about every machining process and level of technology.

In addition, HMT also manufactures

mechanical and hydraulic presses and

brakes, die casting and fic injection moulding ines, letterpress and offset printing machines, tractors, watches, lamps and lamp making machinery. Regional offices Bharat Yuvak Bhawan 1 Jai Singh Road, New Delhi 110 001 Phone: 312740, 381807, 312269 9/9A N S Patkar Marg Bombay 400036 Phone: 357671-72 31 Chowringhee Calcutta 700016: Phone: 240738-39 28-B Nungambakkam High Road Madras 600 034 Phone: 83574-76 Marketing Division

HMT Limited

36 Cunningham Road Bangalore 560 052

HMT-1416

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HINDUSTAN

ZINC

in ZINC.

From

a

of over

to

75,000

growth

eG

M. T.

a

bridges

production

the

of

gap......... 18,000

M. T.

400%

*Expansion of Debari (Udaipur) Smelter to 45,000 M.T. per annum (entirely based

on HZL’s

Zawar

Mines

Ore)

**New 30,000 tonnes Smelter at Visakhapatnam To the country a foreign Rs. 80 crores annually

exchange

saving

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HINDUSTAN

ZINC

LIMITED

(A Government of India Enterprise) Registered Office 6, New Fatehpura, Udaipur-313 001. (Rajasthan)

PR/10/78

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our main obligation to our policy-holders whose money we hold in trust, we also keep before us the interest of the community

at large.

Our investments help generate

and transmit electric power to millions of homes, supply piped water to hundreds of

villages and townships, Provide roofs to countless families and help

indus' ization, thereby creating myriad jobs for India’s growing

man-power.

A new India is making a stupendous effort to develop its resources and strengthen its economy. LIC is wholeheartedly

‘ or 2

Participating in this endeavour. \aapy gat’)

Life Insurance Corporation of India

dacunha/Lic |

PRODUCE

PRESERVE

PROSPER

With a network of over 1200 Central and State Warehouses in the country, we have an answer forall your storage problems. You can reduce your handling and warehousing costs and transfer your worries by entrusting us with all your problems relating to: *

STORAGE HANDLING AND TRANSPORT THE WAREHOUSE

TO

AND

FROM

SALE AND DISTRIBUTION SCIENTIFIC PRESERVATION OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE, HYGROSCOPIC AND DELICATE COMMODITIES BONDED WAREHOUSING FACILITIES FOR DUTIABLE AND EXCISABLE COMMODITIES IMPORT AND EXPORT GOODS WAREHOUSING DISINFESTATION OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE, FACTORIES, CONTAINERS, PREMISES AND CARRIERS PRE-SHIPMENT FUMIGATION You can avail of credit facilities from scheduled banks on security of Warehouse Receipt.

CENTRAL WAREHOUSING (A GOVERNMENT

CORPORATION

OF INDIA UNDERTAKING)

‘DEEPALI’, 92 NEHRU PLACE, NEW DELHI-110 024.

39—3 M ofI & B/77

SsOuatont

to endure the agony

GIVE THEM A CARING HAND

Give Help Donate

them:a them

hand

to mend

generously

in their dark their broken

hour. lives

for the Cyclone-hit.

INDIANOIL

A Unique Institution in the service of the Nation. Builds up a formidable small-scale sector extending assistance in many

avenues. @

Machinery on Easy Hire-Purchase terms.

@

Export assistance to small entrepreneurs & training of all categories and levels of employments

from

artisans

to managers

lopment Training Centres.

@

in Prototype

Deve-

Assistance in securing Government Orders under

its Central Store Purchase Programme.

N.S.I.C. is foremost in providing self-employment to technocrates and technicians by helping them establish small scale industries.

WE BUILD INDUSTRIES WHICH BUILD THE NATION

for details contact: THE NATIONAL SMALL INDUSTRIES CORPORATION LTD., NEAR OKHLA INDUSTRIAL ESTATE, NEW

DELHI-110 020.

It’s about time we came INDU Cine Positive. in the open and said so. out Paper. INDU Cine Sound Negative. Because, for the last three X-ray. INDU Polyester years, INDU’s been makin INDU Base X-ray. INDU Medium the entire range of photo- g Contra st Graphic Arts Film. graphic products. INDU Diapositive. INDU And HPF is much more than Document Copyi ng Paper. the only company in India Each product offering you to manufacture : itis qualit y you can trust — one of just six companies e it's from INDU. the world which has the in becaus INDU can make sophisticated technology to it onYes,its today make photo-sensitized film. better. own — and make it Which iswhy we Say What makes INDU so special with confid ence: INDU IS is this: there are only six

countries in the world which

INDU film, Photo. Cine. X-ray.

SAA/HPF/2214

manufacture their own film. And, India, thanks to INDU. is

FILM.

one of them.

INDU has slowly but steadily: absorbed technology and

know-how from its foreign collaborators, and is today making photo film to inter-

national standards. INDU—the leader with the leaders:

Top professional photographers, film-makers, cinematographers, and radiologists turn to INDU. They know that. today, the name INDU is synonymous with quality The INDU range—your Proof of quality: INDU Roll Film.

INDU Bromide

Hindustan Photo Films Mfg. Co. Ltd: (A Government of India Enterprise) Indunagar Ootacamund 643 006.

There’s more to

HINDUSTAN AERONAUTICS LTD.,

than just aircraft

@ Power

Plants

Orpheus 701

and

703 Jet Engines

and

collaboration

with

Dart Mark 531 Engine, manufactured in collaboration with Rolls Royce, UK;

Artouste

IIIB

in

Turbomeca, France; and R-11/F-2-300 in

collaboration with USSR.

@

Avionics

Communication direction

finders;

equipment; radio

automatic

altimeters;

and

radio beacons being developed by HAL.

VHF Radar; radio

compass;

radio

alti-

meter manufactured in collaboration with USSR, and other ground radar equipment in collaboration with Czechoslovakia and Italy.

@ Forgings and Castings — Forgings and Castings in a wide. range to aeronautic specifications, in light alloy and heat-resistant steel.

HINDUSTAN AERONAUTICS LTD. Factories at: Bangalore, Nasik, Hyderabad, Koraput, Kanpur and Lucknow Head Office: Post Box 5150 Bangalore 560 001, India.

@ And, of course, Aircraft and Helicopters. :

Kiran, Marut, Gnat, MIG, Basant, HS-748, Alouette-III and Cheetah.

@ Future Projects Development work on Microwave Antenna, a Procedure Trainer and on improved

engine best facilities is in progress.

EVEN THE POOREST HAVE A RIGHT TO KNOWLEDGE ..... THEY SHALL NOT BE DEPRIVED

© One lakh pre-matric students of Scheduled

Castes

and Scheduled Tribes will get scholarships along with another one lakh students from backward classes.

O Over thirty one thousand post-matric students getting Govt. of India Scholarships will get extra assistance up to Rs. 125/- p.m. for boarding and lodging.

© 50,000 students of Scheduled Castes and

Scheduled

Tribes and other backward communities have been accommodated in 1076 hostels both Government

and aided.

Karnataka—where development

welfare of the poor.

is a continuous

process for the

Issued by the Department of Information & Publicity, Government of Karnataka.

DSP SHARES THE GLORY OF THE NATION’S PROGRESS PARTICIPATIVE STYLE OF MANAGEMENT AND HAPPY INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS HAVE

MADE

THE

DURGAPUR HINDUSTAN

PLANT VIABLE

STEEL STEEL

ECONOMICALLY

PLANT LIMITED

(Subsidiary of the Steel Authority of India Ltd.)

33,000 people. Their families, homes, schools, parks, medical centres.

And the country’s largest steel plant.



Ina few short years Bokaro Steel has changed the face of the land

as

:

a a short ieee of une Bokaro Stee) brought

Seer

tremendous poe

about

rier eat the area.

unemployed are today’s skilled

Pectessonsle

that still retains much of the rural greencry. 7 By the end of the Fifth Plan, Bokaro

Steel will supply 4 million tonnes of ingot

Ignorance

as changed to mastery of

industrial techniques.

Struggiinz insanitary villages have become a planned city

steel-25 per cent of the country’s total output. More than anything else.

it will build into the Indian way of

life, the foundation of a new industrial

culture.

Bolaro Stee!

India’s largest steel complex

& Subsidiary of SAIL d

MSR

PC

care

M of I & B/ND/77—22-3-78—3,000,

5

kat

fing ntrys

ping =

way

pause

MASS

MEDIA

PUBLICATIONS

IN INDIA

1978

DIVISION

MINISTRY OF INFORMATION GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

AND

BROADCASTING

i