Library and Information Science in the Middle East and North Africa 9783110341782, 9783110341720

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Table of contents :
About IFLA
List of Tables, Figures, and Appendices
1. Arab Book Publishing
2. For a Morocco that Reads: The Crisis of Reading and Recent Initiatives to Revive Libraries and Reading in Morocco
3. A Bird’s Eye View of Two Open Access Experiences in Algeria: CERIST’s Webreview and Dépôt numérique de l’Université d’Alger I
4. Academic Librarianship and Coercion: A Case Study in the Occupied Palestinian Territories
5. American-style Academic Libraries in the Gulf Region
6. Information Literacy in the Middle East: A Case Study of the American University in Cairo and the American University of Sharjah
7. Aligning Library Services to the Emerging Online Capability of Emirati Students
8. Correlating Information Centers to Emerging Knowledge-based Economies
9. Education for Library and Information Science in the Arab States
10. Library and Information Science Research in the Arab World: A Systematic Review 2004–2013
11. Addressing Bias in the Cataloging and Classification of Arabic and Islamic Materials: Approaches from Domain Analysis
12. Library Collaboration in the Middle East and North Africa
13. The State of Manuscript Digitization Projects in Some Egyptian Libraries and Their Challenges
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Library and Information Science in the Middle East and North Africa

Global Studies in Libraries and Information

 Edited by Ian M. Johnson Editorial Board Johannes Britz (South Africa/U.S.A) Barbara Ford (U.S.A.) Peter Lor (South Africa) Kay Raseroka (Botswana) Abdus Sattar Chaudry (Pakistan/Kuwait) Kerry Smith (Australia) Anna Maria Tammaro (Italy)

Volume 3

Library and Information Science in the Middle East and North Africa  Edited by Amanda B. Click, Sumayya Ahmed, Jacob Hill, and John D. Martin III

ISBN 978-3-11-034172-0 e-ISBN (PDF) 978-3-11-034178-2 e-ISBN (EPUB) 978-3-11-039641-6 ISSN 2195-0199 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A CIP catalog record for this book has been applied for at the Library of Congress. Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data are available on the Internet at © 2016 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston Typesetting: Lumina Datamatics Printing and binding: CPI books GmbH, Leck ♾ Printed on acid-free paper Printed in Germany

About IFLA IFLA (The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) is the leading international body representing the interests of library and information services and their users. It is the global voice of the library and information profession. IFLA provides information specialists throughout the world with a forum for exchanging ideas and promoting international cooperation, research, and development in all fields of library activity and information service. IFLA is one of the means through which libraries, information centres, and information professionals worldwide can formulate their goals, exert their influence as a group, protect their interests, and find solutions to global problems. IFLA’s aims, objectives, and professional programme can only be fulfilled with the co-operation and active involvement of its members and affiliates. Currently, approximately 1,600 associations, institutions and individuals, from widely divergent cultural backgrounds, are working together to further the goals of the Federation and to promote librarianship on a global level. Through its formal membership, IFLA directly or indirectly represents some 500,000 library and information professionals worldwide. IFLA pursues its aims through a variety of channels, including the publication of a major journal, as well as guidelines, reports and monographs on a wide range of topics. IFLA organizes workshops and seminars around the world to enhance professional practice and increase awareness of the growing importance of libraries in the digital age. All this is done in collaboration with a number of other non-governmental organizations, funding bodies and international agencies such as UNESCO and WIPO. IFLANET, the Federation’s website, is a prime source of information about IFLA, its policies and activities: Library and information professionals gather annually at the IFLA World Library and Information Congress, held in August each year in cities around the world. IFLA was founded in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1927 at an international conference of national library directors. IFLA was registered in the Netherlands in 1971. The Koninklijke Bibliotheek (Royal Library), the national library of the Netherlands, in The Hague, generously provides the facilities for our headquarters. Regional offices are located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Pretoria, South Africa; and Singapore IFLA also has four Language Centres whose role it is to contribute to more effective communication within the relevant language communities – Arabic, Chinese, French (in Africa), and Russian.

Acknowledgements The editors appreciate the support of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Information and Library Science. We would also like express our gratitude to Dr. Barbara Moran, Louis Round Wilson Distinguished Professor and leader of the ELIME-21 program, for her invaluable guidance throughout the process of creating this volume. Thank you also to Boyd Holmes, for his expert indexing.

Contents List of Tables, Figures, and Appendices  IX Amanda B. Click Introduction  XI Christof Galli 1 Arab Book Publishing  1 Sumayya Ahmed 2 For a Morocco that Reads: The Crisis of Reading and Recent Initiatives to Revive Libraries and Reading in Morocco  28 Samir Hachani 3 A Bird’s Eye View of Two Open Access Experiences in Algeria: CERIST’s Webreview and Dépôt numérique de l’Université d’Alger I  46 Anaïs Salamon 4 Academic Librarianship and Coercion: A Case Study in the Occupied Palestinian Territories  63 Daphne Flanagan and Frieda Wiebe 5 American-style Academic Libraries in the Gulf Region  87 Meggan Houlihan, Christine Furno, and Jayme Spencer 6 Information Literacy in the Middle East: A Case Study of the American University in Cairo and the American University of Sharjah  113 Janet Martin 7 Aligning Library Services to the Emerging Online Capability of Emirati Students  138 Patricia A. Wand 8 Correlating Information Centers to Emerging Knowledge-based Economies  156 Evelyn H. Daniel, Lokman I. Meho, and Barbara B. Moran 9 Education for Library and Information Science in the Arab States  173



Amanda B. Click, Josiah Drewry, and Mahmoud Khalifa 10 Library and Information Science Research in the Arab World: A Systematic Review 2004–2013  235 Blake Robinson 11 Addressing Bias in the Cataloging and Classification of Arabic and Islamic Materials: Approaches from Domain Analysis  255 Jordan M. Scepanski and Yaşar Tonta 12 Library Collaboration in the Middle East and North Africa  270 Walid Ghali 13 The State of Manuscript Digitization Projects in Some Egyptian Libraries and Their Challenges  302 Contributors  319 Index  325

List of Tables, Figures, and Appendices Table 1.1 Table 1.2 Table 1.3 Table 1.4 Table 1.5 Table 1.6 Table 1.7 Table 1.8 Table 1.9 Table 1.10 Table 3.1 Table 3.2 Table 4.1 Table 4.2 Table 4.3 Table 4.4 Table 4.5 Table 4.6 Table 4.7 Table 8.1 Table 8.2 Table 8.3 Table 8.4

Table 9.1 Table 10.1

Number of records for books in Middle Eastern languages from OCLC/WorldCat, –   Reading habits of Arab publics   National book production, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Egypt, –   National book production, Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia, –   Percentages of Dewey subject classes of legal deposit totals in Tunisia, –   Number of publishers in selected Arab countries,    Book pricing ranges, selected categories   Membership of Arab States in international copyright treaties   Arab states’ IDI rankings and values,    IT Indicators for Arab countries   World Internet usage and population statistics from Internet World Stats   Ratio of open access articles in each journal in Webreview   Library, date of foundation, and location   Collections, floor area, staff, and number of students   Geographical mobility and job stability   Gender repartition   Degree(s) earned and position held   Academic trajectory of Palestinian library professionals   Daily tasks and duties, and position held   Knowledge Economy Index (KEI) for eight Gulf countries, comparing  and    Number of information centers (libraries and museums), Gulf Countries   Number of persons per information center, Gulf Countries   Comparing Gulf Countries to select Western knowledge-based economies regarding the number of people per information center   LIS programs in the Arab States offering at least a bachelor’s degree in the field   All journal titles included in the systematic review  

X 

List of Tables, Figures, and Appendices

Table 10.2 Table 10.3 Table 10.4

Figure 8.1 Figure 8.2 Figure 9.1 Figure 10.1 Figure 10.2 Figure 10.3 Appendix 4.1 Appendix 12.1 Appendix 12.2 Appendix 12.3 Appendix 12.4 Appendix 12.5 Appendix 12.6

Number of Arab world-related articles, top and international journals   Research by geographical location, top and international journals   Most common research topics, top and international journals   Four interactive pillars of Knowledge Economies   Comparing number of information centers, Gulf Countries   Number of LIS programs founded per decade, -present   Number of Arab world-related articles by year, top and international journals   Author country affiliations, top and international journals   Author country affiliations, Arab journals   Survey Instrument   Library Consortia Questionnaire   Library Associations Questionnaire   Library Cooperation Questionnaire   Library Consortia in the Middle East and North Africa   Library Associations in the Middle East and North Africa   Other Organizations and Institutions Promoting Library Collaboration in the Middle East and North Africa  

Amanda B. Click

Introduction In 2011, the School of Information and Library Science at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill admitted the first of four doctoral fellows funded by a grant awarded by the U.S. Institute of Museum and Library Services. This grant, titled ‘Educating Librarians in the Middle East: Building Bridges for the 21st Century (ELIME-21)’, focused on creating professional development and educational opportunities for information professionals interested in the library and information services in or focused on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). As the fellows pursued our own research interests related to library and information science (LIS) in this region, we felt that a new volume raising awareness of the state of the field in the 21st century would be a valuable addition to the English-language LIS literature. We proposed Library and Information Science in the Middle East and North Africa as part of the IFLA/De Gruyter ‘Global Studies in Libraries and Information’ series. The volume is edited by the ELIME-21 fellows, and contains the work of 21 authors with regional expertise. We are delighted with the range and quality of the contributions in this volume. These 13 chapters provide thorough investigations of key topics from cataloging to information literacy to library cooperation, written by experts in the field from the Middle East, North Africa, and North America. From individual country case studies to research covering the whole region, this volume contributes to a “big picture” understanding of LIS in the modern Middle East and North Africa. Defining this region is a complex task, and the authors whose work is included in Library and Information Science in the Middle East and North Africa chose to do so in different ways. Some included all the members of the League of Arab States: Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, and Syria (although it is currently suspended from the League). Other authors chose to include Turkey, Iran and Afghanistan, or exclude sub-Saharan African countries. Some chapters focus on a specific country or sub-region, such as the countries that make up the Gulf Cooperation Council. Several chapters offer in-depth regional overviews. Christof Galli covers book publishing in the region, including issues of pricing, censorship, distribution, and copyright. His chapter, “Publishing in the Middle East and North Africa,” closes with a discussion of the fledgling Arabic e-book market. “Education for Library and Information Science in the Arab States,” by Evelyn


Amanda B. Click

Daniel, Lokman Meho, and Barbara Moran, provides in-depth information about LIS education by sub-region. The authors note that remarkable growth has taken place since LIS education became widespread in MENA fewer than fifty years ago. The chapter includes historical detail and a comprehensive list of the LIS programs that offer at least a bachelor’s degree. Jordan Scepanski and Yaşar Tonta explore library collaboration, including consortia, associations, and other institutions and organizations that promote library cooperation. Collecting data via literature review, personal communications, and online questionnaires, the authors were able to compile a directory of LIS consortia, associations, and other organizations in MENA. Other chapters use country case studies to explore the state of LIS in the region, including topics such as information literacy, knowledge-based economies, manuscript digitization, and open access. Editor Sumayya Ahmed tackles the “crisis of reading” in Morocco, and describes several organizations and programs designed to promote reading. She points out that reading in public is not a common activity in Moroccan culture and these inspired initiatives strive to change this perception, focusing on populations including children in rural areas and urban commuters on public transportation. “Information Literacy in the Middle East: A Case Study of the American University in Cairo and the American University of Sharjah,” by Meggan Houlihan, Christine Furno, and Jayme Spencer, outlines the development of information literacy programs at two respected American-style universities in the Middle East. These programs might serve as models for other regional universities wishing to implement or improve information literacy training in their libraries. Daphne Flanagan and Frieda Wiebe’s “American-style Academic Libraries in the Gulf Region” provides a detailed exploration of both branch campuses of U.S. universities, and private universities accredited by U.S. agencies. The chapter includes information about universities and libraries in Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia, countries in which this education model has become particularly popular. Patricia Wand’s chapter on information centers and knowledge-based economies focuses on the Gulf countries as well. Following a discussion of the foundations of knowledge-based economies, she makes the connection to information centers and uses this framework to consider the current situations in Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. In “A Bird’s Eye View of Two Open Access Experiences in Algeria: CERIST’s Webreview and Dépôt numérique de l’Université d’Alger I,” Samir Hachani gives an overview of open access with an emphasis on issues in the developing world. The chapter includes detailed information about two open access initiatives in Algeria. Based on his own experiences and a survey of local experts, Walid Ghali covers manuscript digitization projects in Egyptian libraries.



The chapter discusses bibliographic and image databases, manuscript portals, and specific projects at institutions like Al Azhar Mosque and Bibliotheca Alexandrina. This volume contains original research on topics as varied as the overall state of recent LIS research in MENA, and the use of digital technologies by Emirati students. Josiah Drewry, Mahmoud Khalifa, and I conducted a systematic review of the LIS literature to explore the research conducted about MENA, and by authors affiliated with institutions in the region. The study revealed interesting issues related to language, author collaboration, and the effects of political and social upheaval on research. Anaïs Salamon surveyed academic library professionals working in the occupied Palestinian Territories. Her chapter, “Academic Librarianship and Coercion: A Case Study in the Occupied Palestinian Territories,” profiles Palestinian academic library staff and explores the impact of the occupation on academic libraries and librarianship. “Aligning Library Services to the Emerging Online Capability of Emirati Students,” based on Janet Martin’s doctoral thesis research, looks at the extent to which Emirati students use digital technologies and how skillful and confident they are in the use of these technologies. Martin shares her findings and outlines the implications for library services. Blake Robinson’s chapter provides a thorough analysis of bias in the cataloging and classification of Arabic and Islamic materials. He discusses Edward Said’s Orientalism and Sanford Berman’s Prejudices and Antipathies, and offers Birger Hjørland’s theory of domain analysis as a framework in which to address bias. We hope that LIS educators and practitioners from an Arabic cataloger in Toronto to a LIS professor in Tunis will find something of value in Library and Information Science in the Middle East and North Africa, but this volume will also provide new insights for anyone throughout the world who has an interest in how this dynamic region is developing.

Christof Galli

1 Arab Book Publishing Introduction In a 1975 article in MELA Notes, David Partington, then Middle East librarian at Harvard College, attempted to estimate the number of publications produced in the Middle East (all the Arabic-speaking countries and Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan). In one of his tabulations (Partington, 1975, p. 17) he estimated that an average of “about 30 percent of total Middle Eastern production is in subjects outside of a liberal collecting policy. By liberal collecting policy I mean most of the books in literature, linguistics, humanities, and the social science works applicable to the native countries” (Partington, 1975, p. 15). He “regard[s as] ‘non-collectable’ subjects: generalities, trade, transport, mathematics, natural sciences, medical sciences, industries, agriculture, domestic science, commercial techniques, games & sports” (p. 15). Today, very few collection policies for academic libraries, especially not at a tier – one research institution like Harvard, would systematically exclude materials in these fields from their Middle East collections. Whereas area studies, during the first two thirds of the twentieth century, became a way to support the “universalization of the social sciences” by providing “concrete data to bear on generalization and theory” (Mitchell, 2004, p. 85), paradigmatic shifts which occurred under the influence of poststructuralist and postcolonial theoretical developments have increasingly eroded these disciplinary strictures and limitations. The goal is a reconfigured and “re-envisaged, cosmopolitan area studies that seeks to provincialize universal western knowledge claims to become more inclusive of, as well as relevant to, the concerns of people in the majority world” (Hörschelmann & Stenning, 2008, p. 355). This approach has triggered increased demand for the acquisition of a broader thematic palette of published materials from the Global South, and consequently, the Arab Middle East, in order to document and make accessible the cultural and scientific output of this region. The scope of this endeavor clearly goes beyond the above-mentioned “liberal collecting policy” of 40 years ago to include publications covering the whole gamut of life experience reflected in the published output. Hazen (2009) writes of today’s scholarship: [c]ross-disciplinary inquiry, participatory learning, an obsession with primary resources and original documentation in all formats, and hybrid methodologies are increasingly the norm…. Newly minted centers, institutes, programs, and initiatives today provide homes for interdisciplinary scholarship, even as traditional departments remain strong (pp. 5–6).

2  Christof Galli

Amid these trends, which apply closely to the field of Middle Eastern studies, librarians will have to find ways, financial restrictions notwithstanding, to acquire materials to build research-level collections of materials from markets such as the Arabic publishing arena, which ranges from the Arabian Peninsula to the western reaches of North Africa. To live up to the challenge of efficiently capturing the materials to ‘feed’ the emerging methodological trends in scholarship and teaching, we have to understand the workings of the regional book publishing and distribution sector. Previous studies have examined Arab publishing from the perspective of libraries with the intent to determine at which level relevant materials of the available output from the region was to be acquired. Hopwood (1972) and Partington (1975) both found that production of “collectable” materials was increasing and that budgets should be increased to acquire more comprehensively from all countries in the Middle East. Hirsch (2007) notes the emergence of varying levels of need for core collections which address immediate curricular and instructional requirements on the one hand and for research collections which are geared towards long-term, primary-source-oriented faculty- and graduatelevel research on the other hand. Reflecting sustained scholarly and policy interest in the Middle East both pre- and post-September 11, 2001, Arabic book holdings in U.S. libraries have doubled between 1992 and 2007 (see Table 1.1). Even so, in 2007, the number of books from Arab countries was about half of those from regions with comparable populations (200–600 million): about one eighth from Western Europe (even excluding those from the United Kingdom); 40% of Eastern Europe; and about half of Latin America. Arabic books slightly exceeded those from Southeast Asia and their number was about twice as high as the one for books from Sub-Saharan Africa (Kurzman, 2014). Tab. .: Number of records for books in Middle Eastern languages from OCLC/WorldCat, – (Kurzman, ). Year

1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

Arabic Records

Hebrew Records

Persian Records

Turkish Records

All Languages Records

      

      

      

      

, , , , , , ,

1 Arab Book Publishing


Tab. 1.1: (continued) Year

Arabic Records

Hebrew Records

Persian Records

Turkish Records

All Languages Records

1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

 , , , , , , , ,

        

        

        

, , , , , , , , ,

This chapter proposes to provide a snapshot of book publishing in the Arab world at the beginning of the second decade of the 21st century, which for the purpose of this study includes Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen. The goal of this chapter is to provide academic librarians with an understanding of the industry, its challenges and emerging trends. The chapter begins with descriptions of the number and types of books published, and then describes the particular challenges in the areas of distribution, pricing, censorship and copyright that negatively affect book publishing. It ends with a brief description of nascent Arabic e-publishing initiatives. The Arabic language, one the United Nations six official languages (United Nations, 2015), constitutes a powerful unifying force which has produced a measure of cultural cohesion in an otherwise geographically and politically fractured region. In fact, in the region’s sociopolitical quest to define and build national and state identities, Arabic has formed an important “cornerstone” (Suleiman, 2006, p. 125) and has been championed as a “bond of identity, over religion” by sociopolitical movements and activists (p. 126). With its over 300 million speakers,¹ the Arabic speaking demographic seems to harbor formidable potential for both producing and consuming cultural output in considerable quantities. Increasingly, users of online social media services in the Arab region, such as Twitter and Facebook, use Arabic as their language of choice. The number

1 Lewis et al. (2014) give a total of 273 million speakers. Internet World Stats (2014) gives 379 million.

4  Christof Galli

of tweets in Arabic and originating in the Arab world increased from 62.1% in 2012 to 75% in 2014 in the Arab region, and postings on Facebook and the use its Arabic interface is on the rise (Mohammed Bin Rashid School of Government [MBRSG] 2012, 2014a). Arabic, then, continues to function as a major world language, and the Arab book markets with their base in more than 300 million speakers has enormous potential for both print and digital publications.

Reading Awareness of socio-economic and educational indicators and behaviors help in determining the parameters of the market which librarians have to probe in order to cover the areas and subjects in which relevant societal discourses take place, thereby allowing for successful documentation of cultural and scientific output of Arab societies. Furthermore, reader behavior and attitudes are of interest to publishers and help them shape their programming and marketing strategies. Two such indicators are literacy, and, closely related, reading behavior. Low literacy rates have been a scourge in the region for many years and progress in remediating the situation has been difficult. At the beginning of the 21st century, there were “over 70 million illiterates out of a population of 280 million” in the Arab region, and this is the situation even after a concerted effort which reduced illiteracy from 48.7% in 1990 to 38.5% in 2000 (UNESCO-Beirut, 2003, p. 12). For 2015, UNESCO projects a 79.2% combined male/female literacy rate for the Arab States, leaving an illiterate adult population (15 years+) of 47.6 million, 66.8% of which are female (UNESCO, 2013, pp. 27–28). The reading habits of literate populations have only been studied scantily (see Table 1.2). The unprovable claim (Caldwell, 2012) that Arabs read “6 minutes a year,” spread by, among others, the Arab Thought Foundation (Arab Thought Foundation, 2011, p. 500) is hardly a ‘real’ measure for the reading habits of a 300-million-people public. A recent survey by the NextPage Foundation presents a more detailed and richer (but not an entirely reliable or clear) picture of the reading public in Egypt, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and Morocco (NextPage, 2007a) and Algeria, Jordan, Palestine, and Syria (NextPage, 2007b). Both surveys focus on literate adults aged 15–65 in a variety of socio-economic groups. The survey has found that, with the exception of Egypt and Saudi Arabia, a larger share than expected of literate people do not read (Harabi, 2007, p. 14). In addition, any readers read for only an hour a day or less, reading is limited to school without aiming to turn pupils into life-long readers, and once they complete school, adults stop reading at age 19 or earlier and often do not read significantly again (Harabi, 2007, p. 14).

1 Arab Book Publishing


The findings indicate that solid portions of surveyed readers read books, albeit to a lesser degree than newspapers and magazines which serve as source for information on current events, politics, and news (NextPage, 2007a, 2007b). The preferred reading language is Arabic for books and serials. Saudi and Egyptian readers indicated that they equally liked Arabic for reading books and reading online; Algerian, Moroccan and Tunisian readers indicated their preference for French when reading online whereas Lebanese readers preferred English for online reading. English is the second most read language in Syria, Jordan and Palestine, an activity mostly undertaken with the goal of improving language competency. Readers in Lebanon, Tunisia, and Morocco indicated a higher incidence of reading French books than other countries. The majority of book-readers are interested in (Islamic) devotional literature (Qur’an, tafsir, sirah, etc.), but also in literature. Responses indicate that a majority of readers who bought books during the 12 months preceding the survey did not purchase translated titles. Surprisingly, a relatively small portion of surveyed readers attend book fairs. One cannot help but note the rather narrow spectrum of reading preferences mentioned by survey participants. One commentator of the survey attributes this paucity of topics to a poor variety in the supply of titles from other Arab countries caused by lack of trade in publishing rights between Arab publishers, high tariffs, and distribution problems (Habeeb n.d.). A second commentator notes the same narrow range of interests and similarly attributes it, on the one hand, to insufficient variety in the supply and marketing strategies of Arab publishers, but also, on the other hand, to lack in broad-based literacy (Wile n.d., p. 16). Tab. .: Reading habits of Arab publics (NextPage, a, b).

Algeria Egypt Jordan Lebanon Morocco Palestine Saudi Arabia Syria Tunisia

Read During Past Year

Newspapers/ Magazines


Attended Book Fair (% Readers)

% Readers who bought book(s), but not translation(s)

% % % % % % % % %

% % % % % % % % %

% % % % % % % % %

% % % % % % % % %

% % % % % % % % %

6  Christof Galli

Challenges to Statistical Assessments of Arabic Book Publishing There are currently no unified reporting mechanisms which would allow the systematic tracking of the production of books, and Arab publishing as a whole has been notoriously under-studied and under-documented. Although some local/ national markets have been examined more closely and more extensively than others, consistent historical and current statistical documentation and analysis for all the countries or the region are not available. Overall, Arab publishing remains hard to assess and quantify. There are no reliable mechanisms to gather figures which could be used to describe the Arab publishing. Available disparate sources often provide unreliable and contradictory information. It has long been known that the Arab publishing arena and its target markets are fragmented along national borders (Abou Zeid, 2014). Despite a unified language there is no system to create a regional catalog of materials in print. Recent studies derived figures for the number of books accessible in one online bookseller’s catalog (Abou Zeid, 2013; Wischenbart & Jarrous, 2012a). This catalog with about 400,000 entries in 2012 is estimated to represent about 80% of all available Arabic titles published in the region, and covering the production of Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia, but excluding Arabic publications from the Maghreb, Mauretania, Sudan, Iraq, and Yemen (Wischenbart & Jarrous, 2012b). Recent new additions to this catalog are estimated to break down as follows: – 2011: 18,000 new titles, including 2700 translations into Arabic – 2012: 17,000 new titles, including 2,400 translations into Arabic – 2013: (till August): 9,700 new titles, among which 1,150 in translation (Abou-Zeid, 2013, p. 2) No single source validates these figures independently. The ISBN system might constitute one way of gathering more precise publishing statistics. The legal deposit registries in several countries are another possible source of information. Unfortunately, the implementation of and adherence to the ISBN numbering system varies widely from country to country. Although acquiring ISBN numbers is free in most Arab countries, the limited scope for distribution and high shares of direct sales cause many publishers to see ISBNs as superfluous because they do not produce any significant advantage for the publisher. The absence of an ISBN, which would help with large-scale categorization and market assessment, also makes cross-border book distribution difficult. Furthermore, the lack of systematic ISBN numbering impedes the creation of a unified, functioning book distribution system (Eschweiler & Goehler, 2010, pp. 196–197). Some publishers shun

1 Arab Book Publishing


ISBNs because they fear that increased market transparency could “facilitate the control of official entities over the flow of books and the publishing business in the Arab world” (Eschweiler & Goehler, 2010, p. 197). Especially in countries with strict censorship regimes, ISBN numbers are often only issued after the books have been scrutinized and approved (Al Qasimi, 2011, p. 339). Some local book distributors have developed their own, often competing and incoherent, coding systems, but overall these attempts have created additional complications and cannot serve as a trusted basis for the intra- and inter-country trade of Arabic books (Eschweiler & Goehler, 2010, p. 197) or the creation of a supra-national or regional book tracking system.

National Depositories Several countries in the region have legal deposit regulations which could serve as a source for data on publishing in the respective country. While only a small number of countries have consistently collected deposited materials and published the bibliographies, they do provide a source of reliable statistical information for parts of the Arab World. Tab. 1.3 summarizes figures which were obtained directly from the countries’ culture ministries’ agencies which monitor publishing or oversee the legal deposit organizations. Tab. .: National book production, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Egypt, –.²

Egypt Jordan Lebanon Syria U.A.E.³






, , ,  n/a

, , ,  n/a

, , , , n/a

, , ,  

, , , , 

Three North African countries, Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco have legal deposit regulations (Lajeunesse & Sène, 2004). Morocco and Tunisia have published their national bibliographies consistently and have made them accessible, albeit in different form and to a different extent, on the Web portals of their national

2 Figures collected by Salah Chebaro, CEO of neelwafurat, obtained from Dr. Ruediger Wischenbart in personal communication, 9 September 2014 3 U.A.E. numbers (Wischenbart, 2012a)

8  Christof Galli

libraries. Morocco’s national bibliography is available in searchable form back to 2007; Tunisia’s is available back to 1984 in PDF format, with each issue containing summary tables for Arabic materials and materials in other languages. The figures in Tab. 1.4 below have been extracted from two online sources from the Moroccan National Library and the Tunisian National Library respectively.⁴,⁵ Recent figures for Algeria, the third North African country with a legal deposit law, were only available for January to March and May to June of 2011.⁶ Tab. .: National book production, Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia, – (DKWT , a, f, ; Algerian National Library, N.D.; BNRM ). 2010 Algeria–Arabic Algeria–Other Morocco–Arabic Morocco–Other Tunisia–Arabic Tunisia–Other

– –   , 

2011 ,  ,   

2012 – – ,   

The Subject Profiles of Arabic Book Publishing It is hard to assess what subject categories dominate in the overall Arab publishing arena (see Table 1.6 for the number of publishers in selected countries). National bibliographies often offer a rough subject breakdown. Tunisia’s summary tables break down the legal deposit statistics by top-level Dewey classes and also indicate the number of school and children’s books. Tab. 1.5 shows these groups as percentages of the annual totals.

4 Morocco ; searches were conducted in the Bibliographie nationale segment of the database using ‘year-of-publication’ AND Fascicule=tout AND Langue (‘Arabe’ and combined ‘Français/ Anglais/Espagnol’): 2014090800350518409&skin=bnrm&lng=fr&inst=consortium&function=EXTERNAL_CONTENT& 2fsearch_screens%2fsearch_screen_bibliography_form.html 5 Tunisia: ; individual files for annual national bibliography compilations contain summary tables. 6 Algeria: 2011-03-01-18-47-48&Itemid=126

1 Arab Book Publishing


Tab. .: Percentages of Dewey subject classes of legal deposit totals in Tunisia, – (DKWT , a, f, ). 1992–2003⁷ All Children’s Books School books Generalities Philosophy/Psychology Religion Social Sciences Languages Natural Sciences/Maths Applied Sciences Arts Literature Geography, History

2010 Arabic


2011 Arabic


2012 Arabic


n/a .% .% .% .% .% .% n/a .% .% .% .% .% .% % .% .% .% .% .% .% % .% .% .% .% .% .% % .% .% .% .% .% .% % .% .% .% .% .% .% – .% .% .% .% .% .% % .% .% .% .% .% .% % .% .% .% .% .% .% % .% .% .% .% .% .% % .% .% .% .% .% .% % .% .% .% .% .% .%

Studies have shown that, throughout the Arab world, religious books constitute 17% of all books published in Arab countries, compared to about 5% worldwide. This has been attributed to subsidies from mosques and pious foundations that may promote their production and make them more affordable for low-income readers (Schwartz et al. 2009, p. 8). The second-highest sellers are novels, with original titles selling better than translations. Third-best are children’s books with educational, non-fiction content. Lebanese children’s books sell well in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries, but not in North Africa where, at an average price of $4 per copy, children’s books are too expensive for most residents. Largest sales are to educational institutions (e.g., schools, ministries), and original publications are preferred over translations. Cookbooks and original astrology sell well also. Numbers for translated selfhelp books are on the rise (Abou-Zeid, 2014, pp. 100–101).

Translations The dearth of statistics makes it difficult to provide a clear picture of the current state of Arabic translation activities in the Arab world. However, the statistics

7 Source: ; Languages counted in Literature.

10  Christof Galli

which exist indicate that Arabic translations of foreign language books constitute a small portion of the publishing output in the region. A 2007 mostly attitudinal survey of publishers and translators in five Arab countries (Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Syria) examined the production of, and demand for, translations in the countries in the survey as well as the industries and corporate and public strategies and policies related to translation activities (Harabi, 2007, p. 6). A lack of qualified translators in four of the surveyed countries is one main reason for a sparse output of translations. Of the five countries, only Lebanon has institutions of higher learning which offer translation degrees, among them St. Joseph University and the Lebanese University which have separate schools for translation studies (Harabi, 2007, p. 52). Morocco is home to the École Supérieure Roi Fahd de Traduction in Tangier which offers complete translation training. In addition, some professional associations have started to address the formation of specialized translators (Harabi, 2007, 75, p. 84). On the other hand, Morocco lacks up-to-date publishing equipment, and public financial support and private funding are sparse (Harabi, 2009, p. 210). In Egypt, there is no scarcity of translators, but there is a significant lack of quality and absence of specialization (Harabi, 2007, pp. 29–30). Deterioration of Egypt’s system of higher and professional education has led to a situation where the profession of translator has become “a job without clear criteria” (Harabi, 2007, p. 32). Translations produced in Lebanon are generally considered as being of superior quality (Harabi, 2007, p. 42). In most countries, private publishers decide what translations get marketed. The weak state of the Arabic translation industry is also attributed to weak domestic demand in all the surveyed countries except Saudi Arabia (Harabi, 2009, p. 211). In Saudi Arabia, many institutions of the public sector as well as financial, commercial and health-related entities produce documentation in English but need to translate it into Arabic to be able to maintain effective communication with the public. Since the language of instruction in Saudi universities for the natural sciences, medicine, and engineering is English, these subjects need very little Arabic translation. Subjects like accounting, economics, law, and agriculture are taught in Arabic and thus require more Arabic translation (Harabi, 2007, p. 103). In Lebanon, the government does not have a program to foster or promote the translation of foreign works. In several countries, cultural centers of foreign countries fund translations of works by authors from their countries. In Lebanon, for instance, the French Cultural Center promotes translations as part of its Programme d’Aide à la Publication (PAP) (Harabi, 2007, p. 48). In Morocco, French, German, and American and other cultural centers promote and sponsor novels and other books from their respective countries for translation into Arabic, a practice, which according to experts interviewed for the survey, might be considered a “form of post-colonialism” [sic] as the decision about what to

1 Arab Book Publishing


publish is not sufficiently democratic (Harabi, 2007, p. 81). The French Cultural Center also subsidizes 6–7 translations per year in Syria (Harabi, 2007, p. 148), empirically selecting titles designated by local publishers and educational institutions⁸ (Harabi, 2007, p. 154). In Morocco, the decision about what to translate is often taken by researchers and authors (Harabi, 2007, p. 81). It is noteworthy that in Morocco, during the period for which the researchers gathered data (1980–2002), about one third of all translations are of works written by authors of Moroccan origin. This is attributed to the fact that many Moroccan writers writing in French live in France and, if successful, target the readership in their country of origin with an Arabic translation (Harabi, 2007, p. 77). In Saudi Arabia, commercial publishers as well as public institutions and non-profits produce translations. The publishing of Arabic translations in Saudi Arabia is highly concentrated among private publishers (Obeikan Bookshop, Mars Publishing House, Jarir, and Knowledge for Humanities Development) with 600 books between 1992–2004; and two public sector publishers, King Saud University and the Institute of Public Administration with 157 books during the same period (Harabi, 2007, p. 124). Whereas Arabic translation activities are often geared towards the domestic market, publishers in Egypt or Lebanon especially target foreign markets, particularly the Gulf economies. In all countries, the highest share of translations occurs in subjects like history, politics, and religion (Islam). Only in Morocco does the highest number (about 25%) of translations falls to literary works (Harabi, 2007, p. 78). In Lebanon, publishers usually acquire world Arabic rights for a title together with the digital rights. Royalties for translated titles are between 5–8% of the local retail price (children’s books 5%–6%). The seller of the rights obtains the royalties of the first print run as an advance. E-book rights for the translation are 25% of the retail price (Abou-Zeid, 2014, p. 102).

Scientific Publishing The establishment of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia, Education City in Qatar with campuses of several major US universities, and Abu Dhabi’s Masdar Initiative have changed the context for science research in the Arab Middle East. A research report by Thomson Reuters (Adams et al. 2011) studies a group of countries including Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, UAE,

8 Since this survey was conducted before the outbreak of the Syrian civil war, this practice may no longer be applied today. Ay data cited here about Syria may just serve historical purposes.

12  Christof Galli

and Yemen. These countries increased their scientific publication output from less than 2% to more than 4% of the Thomson Reuters-indexed output between 2000 and 2009. Total world output indexed in the same source increased from 760,000 to 1.16m publications in the same period. During this period the output of the Middle Eastern group was growing faster than the one of the Asia-Pacific group. A more recent tally which examined the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) shows that Qatar has increased its output from 41 articles in 2000 to 576 in 2012 (The Royal Society, 2014). By comparison, Iran published 1,343 articles in 2000 and 23,885 in 2012; Turkey netted 24,562 publications in 2012. In comparison, global output indexed by Thomson Reuters increased from 931,000 in 2000 to 1.27 million. Within the OIC, Iran, Turkey, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Pakistan account for 77% of articles published in this group. If we compare the impact of the region’s publications in all fields as measured by Thomson Reuters’ calculations⁹ we find that none of them reaches parity with what would be considered the global top 1% for 2000–2009: Iran reaches .48%, Turkey .37%, Jordan .28%, Egypt .26% and Saudi Arabia .25%. Only in the field of mathematics do Iran (1.7%), Saudi Arabia (1.5%), Jordan (1.5%), and Egypt (1%) reach or surpass this threshold. In engineering, Turkey (1.5%) and Iran (1.3%) produced significantly cited output. The recent Royal Society study indicates that in 2012, Lebanon and Saudi Arabia had impact factors of 1.05% and .95% respectively, thus leading the way in OIC before Indonesia with .91% but below the world average of 1.23% (The Royal Society, 2014). Lebanon’s score may be reflective of the fact that smaller countries engage in more internationally collaborative research ventures whose output gets cited more frequently.

Distribution Most titles are produced in print runs of 1,000–3,000 copies (Abou-Zeid, 2013, p. 2). In Jordan, publishers release between 10–20 titles per year with runs of 1,000 copies. About 3,000 new trade titles are released in Lebanon every year with print runs of 1,000–3,000 copies, rarely 5,000 for some expected bestsellers. In the Lebanese book industry, local sales represent only 10% of the total production. Lebanon and Egypt produce together about 80% of the total of Arabic books published annually in the Arab world.

9 Publications which rank in the top 1% by citations for their field and year of publication are considered ‘highly cited’ (Adams et al. 2011)

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Tab. .: Number of publishers in selected Arab countries,  (Ittihad al-Nashirin al-Arab, ).

Egypt Iraq Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libya Mauritania Palestine (Gaza Strip) Tunisia Saudi Arabia Syria




          

          

          

Small print runs are the result of one of the Arab publishing arena’s greatest challenges: the lack of a uniform book distribution system. A 2005 study analyzed the reach and size of 150 print titles on various topics by well-known and little known authors in the Egyptian book market. This study found that the top 10% of the titles got distributed widely and could be located at most points-ofsale; the bottom 10% of the titles could not be located anywhere in the market; the remaining 80% were only available within a 5 kilometer radius of the publisher’s domicile or the author’s home (Al Qasimi, 2011). International book distribution in the Arab Middle East takes place in a highly fractured commercial environment, and has none of the advantages of a unified market. Different tax codes in each country, varying shipping methods, and widely differing demand in the regions of this wide-ranging market make it impossible to develop an infrastructure which would allow for the effective diffusion of books through one distributor. Rather, there are publishers and distributors operating in every national market. Publishers who sell their books in several countries have to employ individual distributors in every market. This lack of distribution infrastructure also has disadvantageous effects for authors who publish their books in their own country. These books often do not reach other markets. (Schwartz et al. 2009, pp. 11–15). This continuing lack of an effective distribution system is seen as a result of the poor performance of the Arab book market. Since book prices remain low, they are offered with little “retailing finesse” and often arrive in poor condition. Due to low prices, authors’ incomes are low and publishers’ profit margin is slim. Low prices also reflect limited buying power. Publishers have little room for capturing margins and re-investing in retailing value added. As a result, book industry participants tend to use shortcuts where possible to save transaction costs. Publishers form mutual agreements

14  Christof Galli

for distribution of their titles, taking over, in many cases, assortments from partnering publishers. Small retailers buy directly from publishers or authors from whom they can obtain better discounts (Eschweiler & Goehler, 2010, p. 196). Drawing a distinction between publishers, distributors and retailers becomes impossible. The only publishers with strong export connections to other countries in the region are from the Levant, with those from Lebanon in the lead, followed by those from Syria and Jordan (Eschweiler & Goehler, 2010, p. 199). Distribution to end-users is equally problematic. Largely limited to urban areas, bookstores are scarce and unevenly distributed in the Arab world. There is no “reasonable relationship between the degree of urbanization and rural book sales: Even in countries where large portions of the population still live outside big cities, the availability of books is limited to metro areas” (Eschweiler & Goehler, 2010, p. 197). Although telecommunications infrastructures in many Arab countries are equipped for online retailing, book sales over the Internet are very low. Credit cards are not widely available and the public’s resistance to e-commerce hinder significant developments of online distribution. Neelwafurat, one of the leading e-commerce bookshops, handles only about 6,000 orders per year which do not add up to a critical mass (Escheweiler & Goehler, 2010, p. 200). Bookstores in urban areas can be divided into three main categories: – International retail chains (e.g. Virgin, W.H. Smith): Type I – National chain store (e.g. Jarir, Mutanabbi): Type II – Small, family-owned bookstores: Type III (Eschweiler & Goehler, 2010, p. 198) In Type I stores, books are only one of many types of products sold as part of a whole spectrum of entertainment products. Many books for sale in chain stores are in English. A limited assortment of Arabic books in the categories of self-help, political literature, fiction, and children’s books are also available. The market-leader Type II bookstore, Jarir in Saudi Arabia, evolved from a stand-alone store to a chain with multiple sales outlets. Jarir also publishes its own titles and, if successful, exports them. However, other Type II bookstores, according to a recent study, often carry relative high debt (Eschweiler & Goehler, 2010, p. 198). Type III, family-owned and operated bookstores, typically suffer most from inadequate book distribution because they end up with large stocks of unsold books and cannot get access to new and trendy issues in a timely manner because distribution channels are non-existent (Eschweiler & Goehler, 2010, p. 198). The only market with a relatively satisfactory bookstore network is Lebanon. One study finds 40 point-of-sales in Lebanon which specialize in books or cultural goods and about 100 point-of-sales with a separate book department. A second study counts 321, however this figure includes stores which, besides books, also sell stationary, electronics, etc. (Abou-Zeid, 2014,

1 Arab Book Publishing


p. 96). In the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, Bahrain has five bookstores, Saudi Arabia about 100 small point-of-sales and three chain stores, Kuwait seven bookshops, Oman three, Qatar five, and UAE about 60 small units and 3 chain stores (Abou-Zeid, 2013). Many of these stores also offer foreign-language books, often in much larger numbers than Arabic books (Abou-Zeid, 2013). Confronted with a fractured regional legal environment, the absence of a “panArab distribution infrastructure,” and insufficient retail outlets, publishers are hard-pressed to identify different distribution channels in every national market if they want to sell their books outside their home country. Book fairs have proved to be the only efficient way to distribute and market books in the Arab world (Eschweiler & Goehler, 2010, p. 197). The fairs constitute a market place where publishers can meet local booksellers, collect their orders, and, in addition, directly sell their books to schools, libraries, and the public. For individual buyers, book fairs represent the most efficient way to buy books in the absence of bookshops in their local settings. In addition, publishers may offer a broader set of titles because books can reach the fairs without passing through the hands of the censor (e.g., in the GCC).

Pricing Book prices in all Arab markets are below the average for more developed markets (see Table 1.7 for selected pricing ranges). Publishers will multiply their production costs by 6 or 7 to determine the selling price. Books in more developed markets sell at 8–10 times the production costs (Abou-Zeid, 2013). Market studies attribute low Arab book prices to three factors: – Low-interest commodity status: “Due to inefficient and high-cost distribution structures books are doomed to become low-interest items,” often delivered in “poor product condition” and “with little retailing finesse” (Eschweiler & Goehler, 2010, p. 195). Prices are 60%–70% lower than in more developed economies where the average price is estimated at $17 (Eschweiler & Goehler, 2010, p. 195). – Low purchasing power: Low prices also reflect low purchasing power; higher-priced books would exceed affordability in even larger segments of the regional population. – Piracy: Piracy affects book prices because if book prices are too high, pirating becomes more likely. Low prices and attempts to keep production costs low lead to economize on editorial expenses. Arab publishers in general cannot afford the salaries for qualified book editors and traditionally have not reviewed submitted texts to

16  Christof Galli

improve or correct them. Publishers see themselves as intermediaries between authors and printers, an attitude which impinges on the quality of literary production and potentially on the sale of foreign rights (Abou-Zeid, 2013). Hard covers are uncommon in general literature, and various paperback formats are the rule. The exceptions are religious books which are often hardbound and frequently leather-bound. Other hard-bound categories include children’s picture books, dictionaries, cookbooks, and coffee-table books. Tab. .: Book pricing ranges, selected categories (Abou-Zeid, , p. ). Type Fiction (over 200 pp) Fiction (under 200 pp) Nonfiction Cookbooks (small) Cookbooks (large paperbacks or hardcover) Children’s books (hardcover) Children’s books (paperback) E-books

Price $– $– $– $– $– $– $– –% of printed price

Censorship Censorship is exercised for moral, religious and political reasons throughout the Arab World. Arab censors can impact the trajectory of a publication at its origin by impeding its printing, by banning it and preventing its distribution, or by blocking it from entering a country. In many countries, books have to be submitted to the censorship authority before they are printed (Abou-Zeid, 2013). Sexual impropriety is a frequent reason for banning a book. In the case of Salwa Nu’aymi’s Burhan al-asal,¹⁰ an advance review in the press caused it to be banned from several Middle Eastern book fairs without the censors having seen it (Schwartz et al. 2009, p. 4). Religious authorities, such as al-Azhar in Egypt, sometimes recommends books to be banned (Schwartz et al. 2009, p. 4). Saudi Arabia and Kuwait implement strict censorship regimes, and on various occasions have banned significant portions of publishers’ output from being exhibited at the Riyadh and Kuwait book fairs (Schwartz et al. 2009, p. 5).

10 The narrator of the novel (translated into English as The Proof of the Honey) interweaves folktales, personal memories, and stories from friends into an exploration of female sexuality, desire, and love in the context of Arab culture and society.

1 Arab Book Publishing


Coping with censorship can take three forms: the publisher accepts that a work is banned in certain markets; the publishers attempt to modify sensitive details in the book; or the publisher rejects publication of the work outright. Lebanese publishers tend to take the risk of censorship with works of famous authors, knowing that if the book is banned in one market it will sell more copies in another. With less-known or new authors, and with common titles, they might suggest modifications but give the author the final say. Lebanese publishers also cannot ignore the strict censorship regimes imposed in their major markets, especially in Saudi Arabia and other GCC countries. The existence of different censorship regulations forces Lebanese publishers to heed a variety of criteria if they want to introduce their publications in other Arab countries. Further complicating this issue is the fact that censorship criteria are rarely clearly set. A special case is children’s literature. With its 28 million people, Saudi Arabia represents one of the most important markets for this genre. To avoid losing this market, publishers exclude from their publications any content that could lead to a ban in Saudi Arabia, even if the content is allowed or relevant in Lebanon (Abou-Zeid 2013). Lebanese publishers do not submit to censorship review before publishing, but printed books with sensitive political content that is perceived to potentially raise sectarian tensions may subsequently be banned.

Copyright and Intellectual Property Rights Tab. .: Membership of Arab States in international copyright treaties (adapted from Houissa, ) Arab Berne Convention Convention

UCC Geneva Rome


June , 

April ,  January ,  –

Iraq Jordan

Signed Signed

n/a July , 

– –

– –



December , 



Bahrain Signed

April ,  August ,  March ,  –



January ,  June ,  Observer April ,  January , 

December ,  – – April ,  – (continued)

18  Christof Galli

Tab. 1.8: (continued) Arab Berne Convention Convention

UCC Geneva Rome


October ,  –



Morocco Signed

September ,  September ,  June , 

July , 



July , 



July , 

Saudi Arabia Syria


July ,  –


March ,  June , 

January ,  November ,  January ,  December ,  Observer



December ,  July , 

June ,  –

January , 

March ,  April , 

July , 

June ,  –

Lebanon – Libya


United Signed Arab Emirates Yemen –

August ,  –

May ,  –

May ,  –

September ,  October ,  – –

July , 

Most Arab countries have signed the Arab Convention for the Protection of Copyright, which was ratified by the conference of Arab Ministers of Cultural Affairs in Baghdad in 1981. The Convention’s goal was to create a “unified Arab system of copyright protection” (Houissa, 2014, p. 295). Granting a general copyright protection over the duration of the author’s life plus 50 years after the author’s death, the Arab Convention contains commonly stipulated principles and rules found in international treaties, but leaves three major determinants to the member states’ national laws: – The copyright registration rules; – the criminal penalties for infringement; and – the protection of the rights of national authors against infringement in their own countries. Many Arab states have a viable legal framework in place to effectively prosecute copyright infringement (for a detailed listing of national copyright legislation, see Houissa, 2014, p. 305), a fact borne out by an increasing number of cases and precedents (Houissa, 2014, p. 297). See Table 1.8 for summary of copyright legislation in Arab countries.

1 Arab Book Publishing


Most Arab states have become parties of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (Berne Convention). In addition, many countries in the region have joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) and consequently are under obligation to shape their copyright laws such that they conform to international standards (Harabi, 2009, p. 213). Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), which introduced intellectual property rights into the international trading system in 1994, integrates all aspects of the Berne Convention and adds enforcement mechanisms through trade sanctions if national laws fail to address intellectual property and copyright protection adequately or if they vary too much from the minimum standards laid down by the Berne Convention and TRIPS (Kevin Smith, email to author, 12 September 2014).¹¹ The Universal Copyright Convention (UCC) was developed by UNESCO in 1952 (revised 1971, effective 1974) as an alternative to the Berne Convention. The Rome Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations (effective 1961) aims to protect works produced with new audiovisual technologies. Lastly, the World Intellectual Property Organization Copyright Treaty (WIPO) (adopted 1996, effective 2002) provides additional protections for works involving information technologies such as computer code, databases, etc. (Houissa, 2014, pp. 295–296). Despite this evolving judicial framework, piracy remains an endemic problem affecting the viability and development of the Arab book publishing sector. Although the loss of revenue because of piracy is not clearly and systematically documented, existing estimates indicate that it is significant. Smith (1996, p. 566) puts the loss to the book publishing industry in the Middle East and the Mediterranean (including Turkey) at $65.7 million. The International Intellectual Property Alliance (IIPA) has compiled estimates of losses caused by piracy. For 2007, Egypt reported an estimated loss of $32 million due to book piracy, Lebanon’s estimate for 2005 was $4 million, and KSA’s loss for the same year was put at $10 million (The International Intellectual Property Alliance, 2014). Piracy harms publishers twofold: Firstly, when books are pirated in a different regional market as a result of the absence of a functioning international distribution system. A network of pirated publications and academic texts, which brings these items into other markets in the Arab world, profits from the absence of legal distribution channels. Secondly, local publishers suffer when foreign publishers with whom they enter into partnerships regard the region, because of excessive piracy, with mistrust and consequently impose harsh con-

11 The author would like to thank Kevin Smith, J.D., Scholarly Communications Officer at Duke University Libraries, for his clarifications.

20  Christof Galli

ditions on local partners (Abou-Zeid, 2014, p. 98). Often, piracy not only affects the external markets. Pirated works are also present in the original markets. This occurs frequently in Egypt and may reflect the public’s low purchasing power.

Arabic e-Publishing Driven by an impressive demographic and a rapidly evolving communication infrastructure, Arab e-publishing is perceived as an emerging economic opportunity. Kulesz (2011b) points out that: In the Arab World digital publishing is highly incipient. The Arabic language represents a very powerful cohesive force, which may give rise to electronic platforms with transnational reach, but which at the same time […] involves numerous challenges. Of course, none of these challenges is unsurmountable; in fact, the proliferation of blogs and the eagerness of digital content demonstrated by a section of the population indicate the potential that exists (p. 58).

Organizations like the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and market research firms have been watching the development of the necessary infrastructure to deliver e-commerce services in the Arab region. In a regional analysis of the ITC Development Index (IDI),¹² the Arab States rank fifth out of six world regions, with an average IDI value of 4.55 (Tab. 1.9). They fall below the world average of 4.77, as do Asia/Pacific (4.57) and Africa (2.31). Other regions are above the world average (Europe 7.14; CIS Region 5.33; Americas 4.86) (International Telecommunications Union [ITU] 2014, p. 84). Tab. .: Arab states’ IDI rankings and values,  (ITU, , p. ).

Bahrain UAE Qatar Saudi Arabia Oman Lebanon

Regional Rank 2013

Global Rank 2013

IDI 2013

     

     

. . . . . .

12 The Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) Development Index (IDI) is designed to create a globally valid measure for “the level and evolution over time of ICT developments in countries and relative to other countries” as well as the digital divide between countries with different levels of ICT development (ITU, 2013, p. 17). It is composed of three sub-indexes, the access sub-index, the use sub-index (both weighted at 40%) and the skills index (weighted at 20%) (ITU, 2013, p. 21).

1 Arab Book Publishing


Tab. 1.9: (continued)

Jordan Egypt Morocco Tunisia Palestine Syria Algeria Sudan Yemen Djibouti Mauritania

Regional Rank 2013

Global Rank 2013

IDI 2013

          

          

. . . . . . . . . . .

The intra-regional ranking of Arab states reflects the income disparities in the region. The top-ranking country of the 166 countries for which the IDI has been calculated is Denmark with an IDI value, in 2013, of 8.86, closely followed by the Republic of Korea with 8.85 (ITU, 2014, p. 42). In the country rankings of the Arab countries, Bahrain is at the top with an IDI of 7.4 (see Tab. 1.9), followed by UAE, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Oman, all oil-rich, high-income economies, and UAE (+14 ranks), Qatar (+8 ranks) and Oman (+9 ranks) recorded the largest improvements in global rankings (ITU, 2014, p. 88). The ITU states that “affordability remains the main barrier to Internet access at home in many developing countries” (ITU, 2014, p. 107) Both fixed and mobile broadband services are essential for delivering access to today’s information offerings. Fixed broadband remains a critical service for high-capacity, high-speed, reliable Internet access. Only 3% of global IP traffic was on mobile networks at the end of 2013 (ITU, 2014, p. 114). Prices of fixed-broadband plans fell from an average of 94.5% of gross national income per capita (GNI p. c.) in 2008 to 18.2% of GNI p.c. in 2013. In the Arab States region, the average price for entry-level fixed broadband amounts to 4.1% of GNI p.c., compared to 1.4% in Europe and 135.8% in Africa (ITU, 2014, pp. 114–116). The differences inside the region are wide, however, with the GCC countries and Tunisia (1.68% of GNI p.c.) having the most affordable fixed-broadband prices. Kuwait has the most affordable plan with 0.37% of GNI p.c. and Mauritania has the highest, corresponding to 23.7% of GNI p.c in 2013 (Tab. 1.10). Mobile-broadband prices are on average below the 5% of GNI p.c. in the Arab States (ITU, 2014, p. 129). This makes this service relatively affordable and an expected 25% expected penetration rate for the Arab States by the end of 2014 is not surprising (ITU, 2014, p. 129).

  

. no data . . . . . .  .

. . . no data .

           

. . . no data . . . no data . . . . no data . . no data

Fixed Broadband Prices as % of GNI p.c. no data ./. ./. ./. ./. ./. ./. ./ ./. ./. ./. ./. no data ./. ./. ./.

Prepaid Mobile Broadband (500MB/1GB) as % of GNI p.c.ᵃ

ᵃ The 500MB option is handset-based, the 1 GB option is copputer-based.

Algeria Bahrain Egypt Iraq Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libya Morocco Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Syria Tunisia United Arab Emirates Yemen

Adult literacy rate

GNI p.c.

Tab. .: IT Indicators for Arab countries (ITU, ).

  . no data . . no data  . . . . . . .

. no data  . . . . . . .

% households computer 2013

.  . no data .

% households Internet 2013

. no data  . . . . .  

.  . no data .

% using Internet

 no data . . . . . . . .

. . . no data .

% Wired Broadband Subs

22  Christof Galli

1 Arab Book Publishing


A further component to be considered in a successful e-publishing ecosystem is the presence of reliable devices. For books this would be smartphones, tablets, laptops and desktop computers, in combination with software and applications to facilitate reading e-books. Some of the initial difficulties with rendering and displaying Arabic fonts on a broad range of devices (Kulesz, 2011b, p. 61) have been mostly eliminated but ownership of devices suited to read e-books is limited to the wealthiest group of consumers (Kulesz, 2011b, pp. 62–63). Furthermore, the events of the Arab Spring have elevated the Arab public’s awareness, and, where possible, use of online social media services in their Arabic interfaces and for communication in Arabic. Their level of use can thus serve as an indicator of readiness for the acceptance of electronically delivered publications, including books. Qatar has the highest Facebook penetration (60%) (MBRSG, 2014a, p. 27), followed by UAE, Jordan, Lebanon, Bahrain, and Tunisia. Egypt, with a penetration of 22.4%, has the highest number of users in the region (24%). About three quarters of these users post in Arabic (MBRSG, 2014a, p. 31). The highest number of users for Twitter is from Saudi Arabia and Egypt: 40% of ‘tweets’ from the Arab region are from KSA, 17% from Egypt. Whereas Saudi Arabia’s Twitter penetration is one of the highest in the region (8.07%), Egypt’s rate is only 1.26%. Kuwait has the highest penetration (11.38%), but produces only 10% of the ‘tweets’ (MBRSG, 2014a, p. 32, p. 34). An additional factor in assessing the ecology of ITC is the acceptance of e-commerce transactions by consumers. Arab consumers are unwilling or reluctant to conduct online purchases: only 32% of Arab consumers habitually buy things online, compared to 62% in the United Kingdom (Kulesz, 2011b, pp. 63–64). A more recent survey confirms these finding (MBRSG, 2014b, p. 8): 64% of respondents say that they have never purchased a book online. Whether these behaviors are because of the limited availability of credit cards or a general reluctance on the part of consumers to conduct e-commerce transactions remains to be seen. There are companies which are starting to distribute Arabic e-books on a broader scale. Examples are al-Manhal and Rufoof. There also attempts to develop reader apps for Arabic e-content on smartphones. One example is Sanabil Med (Kulesz, 2011b, p. 65). The fundamental challenges of inefficient distribution and censorship in the region could to some extent be mitigated through electronic technology. Although there were some early entrants into the arena of electronic publishing in the Arab world, there still remain issues to be addressed. Arabic e-books have been available since 2011 in Lebanon. Many publishers have a good number of their catalogs available in digital format, although print editions of a title still outsell digital editions by at least a factor of 10, and piracy of electronic books is not less severe than the piracy of printed items (Abou-Zeid, 2014). The most

24  Christof Galli

widely used platform seems to be the iPad, followed by Android, then PC. Ereaders such as Kindle and Nook do not support ePub3 for Arabic which means that only Arabic books in pdf format can be read on these devices (Abou Zeid, 2013, p. 99). Kindle may apply the Unicode, which is compatible with the Arabic script starting in 2014.

Conclusion The persistence of print publishing means that librarians must continue to collect and pay attention to publishing developments in this type of material. The fractured environment and lack of unified distribution mechanisms, a situation that is only exacerbated by ongoing turmoil in the region will require libraries to maintain a presence in several markets to capture relevant output. Relationships with local vendors and publication houses will continue to be necessary for the foreseeable future. On the other hand, improvements to infrastructure in parts of the Arab world, and interest among Arab publishing houses in developing their e-publication divisions suggest that there may be significant changes to the publishing industry in the years to come.

References Abou-Zeid, S. (2013). The Arab book market: General presentation with a focus on Qatar. Frankfurt, Germany: Frankfurter Buchmesse. Abou-Zeid, S. (2014). A report from Lebanon on publishing in the Arab world. Publishing Research Quarterly, 30(1), 93–103. doi: 10.1007/s12109-013-9341-4 Adams, J. C., King, D., Pendlebury Hook, D., and Wilsdon, J. (2011). Global research report: Middle East: Exploring the changing landscape of Arabian, Persian and Turkish research. Leeds, UK: Evidence/Thomson Reuters. Al Qasimi, B. (2011). Digital publishing and its impact on the publishing industry in the Arab world. Publishing Research Quarterly, 27(4), 338–344. doi: 10.1007/s12109-011-9236-1 Arab Thought Foundation. (2011). Fourth Arab report for development. Beirut, Lebanon: Arab Thought Foundation. ‫ ﺇﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻳﺪﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ‬- ‫[ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺍءﺮﻳﺔ‬Algerian National Library. N.D. Publication Statistics] (accessed 3/28/2016) Bibliothèque National du Royaume du Maroc (BNRM). (2008). [Catalogue BNRM/Bibliographie nationale.] nid=2016032817332715352&skin=bnrm&lng=fr&inst=consortium&function=EXTERNAL_ CONTENT&

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html%2fbnrm%2ffr%2fsearch_screens%2fsearch_screen_bibliography_form.html (accessed 3/28/2016) Caldwell, L. (2012, January 10). The Arab reader and the myth of six minutes. Al Akhbar English. Dar al-Kutub al-Wataniyah (Tunisia) [DKWT]. (2011). 2010 ‫ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺒﻠﻴﻮﻏﺮﻓﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻧﺴﻴﺔ‬Tunisian National Bibliography 2010. Tunis: Bibliothèque Nationale de Tunisie. (accessed 13 September 2014) Dar al-Kutub al-Wataniyah (Tunisia) [DKWT]. (2011). Bibliographie Nationale Tunisienne 2010. Tunis: Bibliothèque Nationale de Tunisie. bibliographies/10-fre.pdf (accessed 13 September 2013) Dar al-Kutub al-Wataniyah (Tunisia) [DKWT]. (2012a). 2011 ‫ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺒﻠﻴﻮﻏﺮﻓﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻧﺴﻴﺔ‬Tunisian National Bibliography 2011. Tunis: Bibliothèque Nationale de Tunisie. (accessed 13 September 2013) Dar al-Kutub al-Wataniyah (Tunisia) [DKWT]. (2012f). Bibliographie Nationale Tunisienne 2011. Tunis: Bibliothèque Nationale de Tunisie. bibliographies/11-fre.pdf (accessed 13 September 2013) Dar al-Kutub al-Wataniyah (Tunisia) [DKWT]. (2013). 2012 ‫ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺒﻠﻴﻮﻏﺮﻓﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻧﺴﻴﺔ‬Tunisian National Bibliography 2012. Tunis: Bibliothèque Nationale de Tunisie. (accessed 13 September 2014) Eschweiler, J-C., and Goehler, A. (2010). Book distribution in the Arab world. Publishing Research Quarterly, 26(3), 193–201. doi: 10.1007/s12109-010-9167-2 Habeeb, R. (n.d). Arab readership: The failures and future of the Arabic publishing industry. Harabi, N. (2009). Economic performance of the Arabic book translation industry in Arab countries. The Journal of North African Studies, 14(2), 203–219. doi: 10.1080/136293808 02343673 Harabi, N. (2007). Performance of the Arabic book translation industry in selected Arab countries: Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi-Arabia and Syria. Munich, Germany: Munich Personal RePEc Archive, (MPRA Paper No. 6707). Hazen, D. (2009). Rethinking collections in the Harvard College Library: A policy framework for straitened times, and beyond. tent_strategy.pdf Hirsch, D. (2007). From parchment to pixels: Middle eastern collection development in academic libraries. In D. Hazen and J. H. Spohrer (Eds.), Building area studies collections (pp. 81–107). Wiesbaden, Germany: Harrassowitz Verlag. Hörschelmann, K., and Stenning, A. (2008). Ethnographies of postsocialist change. Progress in Human Geography, 32(3), 339–361. doi: 10.1177/0309132508089094 Hopwood, D. (1972). The Islamic Near East. In B. C. Bloomfield (Compiled and with a Foreword and an Afterword), Acquisition and provision of foreign books by National and university libraries in the United Kingdom: Papers of the Morecambe conference 16 April 1972 (pp. 77–80). London, UK: Mansell. Houissa, A. (2014). Copyright laws in the Arab world: A shifting predicament in the digital era. Libri, 64(3), 293–306. doi: 10.1515/libri-2014-0022 International Intellectual Property Alliance (IIPA). (2014). Country reports. International Telecommunications Union (ITU). (2013). Measuring the information society 2013. Geneva, Switzerland: International Telecommunications Union.

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International Telecommunications Union (ITU). (2014). Measuring the information society 2014 report. Geneva, Switzerland: International Telecommunications Union. Internet World Stats (IWS). (2014). Arabic speaking internet users statistics. Accessed October 19, 2014. http://www. Ittihad al-Nashirin al-Arab. (2013). 2011 ‫[ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬Report on the Publishing Enterprise in the Arab World in 2011]. Giza, Egypt: Ittihad al-Nashirin al-Arab, 2013. Kulesz, O. (2011b). Digital publishing in developing countries. International Alliance of Independent Publishers. Kurzman, Charles. (2014). “Shifts in Scholarly Attention among World Regions.” Unpublished research supported by the National Science Foundation (Award Number 1123509). Kurzman, Charles. (2015). Email communication from author with attached data file. Lajeunesse, M., and Sène, H. (2004). Legislation for library and information services in Frenchspeaking Africa revisited. The International Information and Library Review, 36(4), 367–380. doi: 10.1016/j.iilr.2004.03.002 Lewis, M. P., Simons, G. F., and Fennig, C. D. (Eds.). (2014). Ethnologue: Languages of the world, 17th ed. Dallas, TX: SIL International. Available online at Mitchell, T. (2004). The middle east in the past and future of social science. In D. Szanton (Ed.), The politics of knowledge: Area studies and the disciplines (pp. 74–118). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Mohammed Bin Rashid School of Government. (2012). Arab social media report: Social media in the Arab world: Influencing societal and cultural change? 4th ed. http:// The-Fourth-Arab-Social-Media-Report-Influencing-So.aspx Mohammed Bin Rashid School of Government. (2014a). Arab social media report: Citizen engagement and public services in the Arab world, 6th ed. PUBLICATIONS/Research-Report-Research-Paper-White-Paper/Citizen-Engagement-andPublic-Services-in-the-Arab.aspx Mohammed Bin Rashid School of Government (MBRSG). (2014b). The Arab world online 2014: Trends in the Internet and Mobile Usage in the Arab Region. research-report-20422/ NextPage. (2007a). What Arabs read: A Pan-Arab survey on readership: Phase 1: Egypt, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, Morocco. Paris, France: Synovate. NextPage. (2007b). What Arabs read: A Pan-Arab survey on readership: Phase 2: Algeria, Jordan, Palestine and Syria. Paris, France: Synovate. Partington, D. (1975). Book production in the Middle East. MELA Notes, 5, 14–18. The Royal Society. (2014). The atlas of Islamic world science and innovation: Final report. London, UK: Royal Society. final-report Schwartz, L., Helmus, T. C., Kaye, D. D., and Oweidat, N. (2009). Barriers to the broad dissemination of creative works in the Arab world. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. Smith, E. H. (1996). Worldwide copyright protection under the TRIPS agreement. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 29, 559–578. Suleiman, Y. (2006). Charting the nation: Arabic and the politics of identity. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 26, 125–148. doi: 10.1017/s0267190506000079 UNESCO-Beirut, Regional Office for Education in the Arab States. (2003). Literacy and adult education in the Arab world.

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UNESCO Institute for Statistics. (2013). Adult and youth literacy: National, regional and global trends, 1985–2015.–2015.pdf United Nations. (2015). Official languages. Wile, J. M. (n.d.). What Arabs read: A Pan-Arab survey on readership. article63.html Wischenbart, R., and Jarrous, N. (2012a). Book publishing in the United Arab Emirates: A survey and analysis. Sharjah, UAE: Emirates Publishers Association. http://www.epa. Wischenbart, R., and Jarrous, N. (2012b, November 7). An Arab publishing panorama. BookBrunch.

Received: 16th November 2014 Final version received: 2nd September 2015 Accepted: 22nd September 2015

Sumayya Ahmed

2 For a Morocco that Reads: The Crisis of Reading and Recent Initiatives to Revive Libraries and Reading in Morocco Introduction The North African country of Morocco has been called the “Arab exception” to the revolutionary changes that took place throughout North Africa and the Middle East because of the ability of its government to have diminished, so far, the potency of protests with cursory reforms (Dalmasso, 2012; Lalami, 2011). It could be argued, however, that an energy similar to that which went into deposing dictators in its neighboring countries is now being leveraged in Morocco for the cause of reading and libraries. This is evidenced by the presence of five active pro-reading initiatives in the country that seek to re-engage the Moroccan public with books. While reading may seem far away from revolution, Barton (2009) argues that literacy is “at the heart of much of current social change” because it “structures knowledge and enables communication,” and that studies of literacy provide “a powerful lens because literacy is bound up in identity, in power and in how we act in the world” (pp. 38–39). A concerted effort is currently underway in Morocco to create and multiply “literacy events” through social campaigns and grassroots mobilization which is worthy of study because “literacy and society are bound together and evolve together” (Wagner, 1993, p. 268). Morocco has had a sense of itself as a distinct cultural and political entity since the pre-modern period (Wyrtzen, 2008). It simultaneously nurtures an identity as an African, Muslim, Arab, Berber, and Mediterranean country. Colonization by France in the early twentieth century (1912–1956) and its close proximity to Europe has also resulted in an intimate understanding of European customs by large sections of the population. Morocco is a multilingual country in which at least two varieties of Arabic (standard and dialect), Berber and French are used throughout the society. However, geographic location (i.e. rural vs. urban) and level of educational attainment generally determine the degree to which any one individual is multilingual (Ezzaki, Spratt & Wagner, 1999). As a country of nearly 33 million people with a median age of 28 (Central Intelligence Agency, 2014), Morocco struggles with high levels of unemployment, even amongst educated degree-holders. Its economy, based primarily upon

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agriculture and tourism, is “increasingly challenged by globalization” (Wyrtzen, 2008, Independent Morocco section). Moulaison (2011) described Morocco as a place where “poverty, limited access to education, limited resources, and a fundamentally oral culture contribute to a society rich in traditional social networks” based primarily around the extended family unit (p. 550).

The Crisis of Reading A “crisis of reading” has been used to describe the current situation in Morocco, where low levels of reading and the absence of a culture of reading permeates almost every strata of society. The relatively high levels of illiteracy which are found in the country are not the main cause of the crisis of reading. Bougroum, Diagne, Kissami, & Tawil (2007) found a continuing reproduction of youth illiteracy in North Africa, noting a reduction in the total percentage of illiterate people since independence, but an actual overall increase in the “absolute number of illiterate adults [which] has grown from six to nine million persons” (p. 4), assumedly because of population growth. However, they believe that Morocco has actually made progress in battling illiteracy in the past few decades, and reference the high number of participants in government sponsored literacy programs as proof. Agnaou (2004), whose research focus is Moroccan efforts to reduce female illiteracy, describes the efforts made on the part of the government in the battle against illiteracy as “great” (p. 1). In 1956, the year Morocco gained its independence from France, and 1957, the Moroccan government began two literacy campaigns that “involved more than three million beneficiaries and led to the publication of Manar al-Maghrib, a specialized newspaper for the neo-literates.” From 1961 to 1963, selective adult literacy programs targeting rural girls (10 to 15 years old) and agricultural workers were managed by the Ministry of Youth and Sports and the Ministry of the Interior respectively and benefitted approximately 53,000 people primarily in the Beni Mellal area. The Ministry of the Interior’s program with agricultural workers was sponsored by UNESCO and supplemented literacy schools with local radio broadcasts. Agnaou (2004) characterizes this as a time in Moroccan history where literacy was seen as inherent to building a new post-colonial social order. Literacy would later be iterated as necessary for economic development, and then by the 1970s adult illiteracy in Morocco would cease being “regarded as a disease to be eradicated within a specific time, but was rather considered as a social phenomenon with multi-facets.” From 1981 to 1985 funds were given to support adult literacy programs that reached 81,000 people. This was followed up in 1986 by a two-year program that was carried out

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in five major cities (Agadir, Casablanca, Fez, Marrakech, and Oujda) and benefited an estimated 50,000 people. By the 1990s literacy was being connected to gender inequalities and rural–urban disparities in the country. In 1997, the Adult Literacy Directorate was established as a body “responsible for the execution of the government’s adult literacy policy” (Agnaou, 2004, pp. 49–52). In 2004 Morocco adopted what was termed a “literacy and non-formal education strategy” that aimed “to integrate literacy programs within all poverty reduction interventions” (Bougroum et al. 2007, p. 5). Seven years later, a royal decree, Dahir 1-11-142, brought into creation the National Agency for the Battle against Illiteracy (l’Agence nationale de lutte contre l’analphabétisme) (Kingdom of Morocco, 2011). Some of its most recent initiatives have included carrying out literacy programs in workplaces with illiterate employees of notable Moroccan companies (Sakhi, 2012). In 2013 the Directorate highlighted the accomplishments of literacy work in Morocco stating that six million Moroccans have benefitted from literacy programs in the country, with approximately 735,000 having benefited between 2011 and 2012 alone. The Moroccan government’s literacy efforts have been supported by technical and financial assistance from UNESCO, the European Union and numerous non-governmental organizations (Binoual, 2013). Yet, with only an estimated 56 to 62% of its population being literate (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2014), illiteracy is a significant challenge to the ability of Morocco to make serious strides towards being a knowledge economy. Significantly, UNESCO’s 2014 Education for All Global Monitoring Report listed Morocco as one of 21 countries in the world with a “learning crisis,” whereby less than half of children attending school do not progress enough to learn the requisite basic skills. This is rendered even more significant in light of the fact that Wagner (1993) has shown that in the context of Morocco, early reading had a positive effect on “subsequent reading achievement and on staying in school” (p. 137). Among Bougroum et al.’s (2007) suggestions for improving literacy outcomes in Morocco was “the strengthening of post-literacy environments that encourage the use of reading and writing skills in daily life” (p. 22), i.e. creating a culture of reading and writing whereby skills could be utilized and further developed, or at the very least, not lost. In order for this to happen, literacy campaigns would have to encourage “pleasure” reading by weakening reading’s tight coupling with practical everyday life matters as currently happens in literacy campaigns. For example, Bougroum et al. (2007) note that literacy manuals in Morocco are developed for very specific populations with the goal of providing know-how relevant to daily chores and occupations. These have included literacy manuals that focus on agriculture, dairy farming, and fishing.

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In some literacy programs literacy is also tightly coupled with religious instruction (Dardour, 2000). The tight coupling of reading with the practical, or with school work, is one aspect of the Moroccan crisis of reading. In a survey done by El Yazami (1998) in order to develop a better understanding of Moroccan readers, the author called students, teachers, and others who read by necessity of their social situations, “readers of the State.” El Yazami’s (1998) Enquête sur la lecture au Maroc [Survey of reading in Morocco] was carried out in several cities across Morocco (Fes, Casablanca, Tangier, Oujda, Tetouan, Taza, Marrakech, Agadir, and Meknes), with a sample population of people ranging from age fifteen years and older who could read and understand French. It excluded monolingual Arabic speakers, although 97% of the sample spoke Arabic at home amongst their families. 50% of them said that they preferred to read in French (as opposed to Arabic) and it should be noted that 60.5% of the sample were males. El Yazami’s (1998) survey offered early insight into the problem of reading in Morocco and highlighted certain trends that still reverberate in discussions about the reading crisis today, among them: – The weakness at the state level to address the problem; specifically the small budget allotted to the Ministry of Culture for this purpose, which leads to an inability to take a leading role in promoting reading at a national level. – The fierce “competition” between reading and television viewing in Moroccan daily life. – A frail circulation chain (from publisher to bookstore and library) for books which contributes to reduced availability. – The existence of an informal network (family and friends) by which Moroccans learn about and procure reading materials. – The lack of reading resources for children, from children’s literature to children’s space in existing libraries. – The near absence of a culture of Moroccans giving or receiving books as gifts. – The relative high cost of books: Only 14% of the sample found the price of the book to be “acceptable” (convenable) with 82% calling the price either “expensive” or “very expensive” (p. 67). – The absence or weak state of public libraries across the country. – The importance of Moroccan literature in attracting Moroccan readers. – The lack of places to read in public (81% of the sample read at home followed by 6% who read in the library or in a café) (p. 64). The lack of public places for reading is intimately linked to the absence or impotence of public libraries in Morocco. Although there are a multitude of archives and private libraries for historical and academic research in the country, especially

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collections of Arabic and Islamic manuscripts (Hendrickson, 2008), they tend to cater to well-educated Moroccans and foreign researchers. The National Library of Morocco (BNRM) acts as the main public library in the country. Founded in 1926 by the colonial French administration and formerly known as the General Library and Archives of Morocco (Itayem, 2004), its new, modern building in Rabat was inaugurated in 2008. As of 2011 there were only 313 public libraries in the country, and 15.4 million dirhams (1.8 million USD) allotted annually in the national budget (Guessous, 2012). This number of public libraries, in a country of 33 million people, is considered to be extremely inadequate. Almost ten years after El Yazami’s survey, The Next Page Foundation’s panArab study, What Arabs Read (2007) sampled 1,000 Moroccans and found 51% of Moroccans to be “non-readers,” having read neither a newspaper, nor book, nor magazine in the 12 months before being surveyed. Nonreaders were not illiterate, but people who “used to read” (p. 270). Amongst the Moroccans who were active readers, the survey found that 85% of them read books (as opposed to just newspapers and magazines), with the majority of readers saying they read at home. 91% of the Moroccan readers said they learned to read in school and 40% of them said that they read for pleasure. The subject matters Moroccans reported reading in the Next Page survey were primarily religious books (39%), the Qur’an, Islam’s sacred text (35%), contemporary novels (22%), newspapers (22%) and cookbooks (13%). The Next Page survey highlighted the phenomena of Moroccan literate non-readers. It noted that 28% of this population had stopped reading between the ages of 19 to 25. This is seen as the transition age from school to work (or unemployment), as well as the transition time to more adult responsibilities such as marriage and child-raising. Indeed, 68% of survey respondents who had stopped reading gave as their reason a lack of time. Other reasons given for not reading were lack of money (8%) or the unavailability of interesting books (either in general or in the Arabic language) (p. 286). It should be noted that the age range of 19 to 25 was also the time when some non-readers began to read again with 36% of people who took up reading having done it at that time. These people mentioned having more time for reading as well as having found more interesting books as their motivations for having returned to reading. It appears that both the availability of time and interesting reading material are relative and fluctuating. With regard to attending reading focused events, 70% of the readers said that they had not attended any such events. Of those who had attended such events, lectures, book discussions, book clubs, literary festivals, book signings, religious sessions in the mosque, and book fairs were the kinds attended.

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Of non-readers, a higher percentage, some 92%, had never attended a readingfocused event. While El Yazami (1998) noted an impotence on the part of the Ministry of Cultural Affairs to address the crisis of reading in Morocco, the current Ministry, headed by Mohamed Amine Sbihi, has shown initiative in encouraging reading through the active promotion of cultural events tied to reading. One such event is the Salon International de L’Edition et du Livre (SIEL) (International Book and Publishing Fair) which was begun in 1987 as a biannual event and held its twentieth session in February 2014. According to Abou-Zeid (2014) book fairs that take place in the Arab world, such as the SIEL in Morocco, “are the only efficient way to distribute and market books in the Arab world” because of the lack of an alternative pan-Arab book distribution structure and to the opportunity the fairs provide for publishers to collect orders from local booksellers and to make direct sales to schools, libraries, and the general public, all while avoiding government censorship (p. 97). SIEL highlights Morocco’s connection to the overall Arab book market. Rashad (2013) says that this market has undergone significant changes in the last five to ten years. He notes a changing demographic for readership, with the target age range now falling between 25 to 40 years old. He also cites the appearance of chain bookshops in the Gulf, increased translation projects, public initiatives to increase reading, as well as the establishment of “prestigious awards in the Arab world that encourage authors, illustrators and publishers,” for example the Arab Booker Prize (p. 386). Abou-Zeid (2014) is less optimistic and notes that publishers in the Arab world “cannot reach the sales figures one would expect in a region of more than 362 million people” (p. 93). He argues that because Lebanon’s publishing industry is “mainly turned towards export to the Arab market,” and combined with Egypt, produces approximately 80% of all Arabic books published in the Arab world, his findings can be used to generalize about the “state of publishing in the Arab world” (p. 93). Among them: low book sales explained by low literacy rates and lack of readers; “relatively low purchasing power;” book piracy as a common distribution practice (p. 98); and the fact that English language bestsellers rarely sell well once translated into Arabic (p. 102). Although the author never mentions Morocco by name, he says that in North Africa “light” (as opposed to “deeper and more analytical”) religious books are bestsellers and that Lebanese children’s books do not sell well because of their relative high price of approximately 4 USD. He says that the selling price for such books in North Africa would be about 1 USD (p. 101). Morocco’s internal book market has actually been described as two markets, one for Arabic language books in which the market is sometimes “flooded by

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cheap, poor quality books from Eastern Arab lands,” and the other for French language books. A few dozen publishing houses operate in the country, in a complementary rather than competitive nature. Co-publishing of some titles is not unheard of amongst the companies in order to lower the cost of production, the cost of books, and to widen distribution (“L’edition litteraire,” 2001). On average, the total annual number of books published in the country is 1,000 (Davison, 2014, p. 8). If in some years it goes beyond this amount, it “barely exceeds 1,400 titles” (Ouassat, 2014) with an average print run of 1,000 to 2,000 copies. One Moroccan publisher described the situation in Morocco as one of “books without readers,” and called for public policy measures to address the crisis of reading in the country (Ayoub, 2013). Self-publishing by authors is common in Morocco, and while one source estimated that it accounted for approximately 20% of the market, Hassan El Ouazzani, the current Book Director at the Ministry of Culture says that the number of books self-published by authors in Morocco “far exceeds” those published by professional publishing houses and he considers this to be “unnatural” (Ouassat, 2014). Davison (2014) attributes this phenomenon to a lack of transparency in publishing decisions at existing houses, the fact that most authors are usually personal acquaintances of the owner, and the inability of the current system to promote new authors to refresh the author base (p. 13). The 2014 edition of the SIEL Book Fair attracted 800 publishers from 54 countries (Ouassat, 2014), and received wide media attention, sparking a discussion on national prime-time television regarding the crisis of reading in Morocco. On 20 February 2014, the roundtable discussion show Mubashir màkom (Live and Direct with You) conjoined a panel of authors, professors, and activists to discuss the reading crisis in Morocco and Moroccans’ relationship with the book. The panelists discussed the need to inculcate among Moroccans a sense that reading is a necessity (Golhassan, 2014). One participant, a professor by the name of Latifa Lbasir, noted that the reading crisis was not a new problem in Morocco, and she called for initiatives that would increase the amount of “regular” (adiyoun) readers, not just “cultured readers.” Another guest on the show, Rachida Roky, is the President of the Reading Network of Morocco (Réseau de la lecture au Maroc), an organization that will be discussed later in this chapter. Roky told the nation-wide audience that she believed that many Moroccans did not read because they did not want to have their thoughts disturbed or ideas challenged; that they felt comfortable just “following the group”. She commented that the new pro-reading initiatives being carried out around Morocco were “a good start” which represented the “voice of the Moroccan reader,” but that more pro-reading events were needed besides those that were being done by the Ministry of Culture.

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The Moroccan Ministry of Culture consciously promotes the book and reading through its Network of Public Reading Initiative. The Network of Public Reading (Réseau de la Lecture Publique) is composed of heritage libraries, multimedia libraries, prison libraries, public libraries, and mobile libraries (bookmobiles), whose mission is to promote reading amongst the Moroccan public (Moroccan Ministry of Culture, 2014). As Touzani (2003) explained, in Morocco “culture as a domain is less clearly defined than other areas,” therefore “its conception and objectives depend enormously on the personality of the minister in charge” (p. 15). Minister Sbihi hails from an elite family that maintains its own foundational library of rare manuscripts that is open to the public. Sbihi has continued to serve as the library’s conservator, even after taking office. It is understandable then that the current administration at the Ministry has shown strong support for the grassroots proreading initiatives that have taken root in the last few years across the country.

Initiatives to Promote Reading Five pro-reading initiatives are attempting to counter both the reality of poor readership in Morocco, and the generally accepted sentiment amongst Moroccans that they themselves are not readers. Each initiative began in unique circumstances, but with the same ultimate goal of increasing the quantity and quality of reading by the general Moroccan public. For these initiatives, reading is valued both in itself and for its ability to contribute to the building of a knowledge society.

La Caravan du Livre La Caravan du Livre (the Caravan of Books/ ‫)ﻗﺎﻓﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ‬, began in 2006 as an initiative of Jamila Hassoune, who – as a second-generation bookseller in Marrakech – was struck by the lack of familiarity with pleasure reading among the university students who visited her store. Many of these students were originally from rural areas where, as they told her, there was limited exposure to libraries and therefore to reading outside of school work. In 1999, Hassoune (2003) surveyed 1,000 youth, primarily university students (ages 18 to 26) from rural areas about their reading habits. She found that the youth were hungry for information and for books, but lacking access to books either because of the paucity of libraries or the relatively high cost of available books. Many, she noted, turned to the Internet as an alternative. They

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used the Internet as an information source and as a way to consult online library catalogs even if they did not have full access to the books. The Caravan of Books was born out of Hassoune’s desire to address the reading needs of rural Moroccan youth. As an annual caravan, it travels to different villages in the rural High Atlas Mountain areas of Morocco for three days of events centered on books. The events are coordinated with local schools, women’s organizations, and other non-governmental organizations in the area in order to increase the impact of the Caravan, not only on the youth, but also on their surrounding community, including parents and elders. The intention is to begin thought-provoking discussions amongst the entire community. Each caravan has a theme and through consultation is designed to address the needs of the community it is visiting. For example, the 2011 Caravan took place in Imarighen, a salt producing region and so the theme of salt permeated the reading, writing, and drawing workshops. In 2012, when the Caravan took place on Akka, the rich history of that region itself was the theme of the workshops. Hassoune believes that books are developmental tools that can help youth express themselves, develop critical analysis skills, as well as “self-definition” and that in order for Moroccan youth to become interested in them, books have to be animated through discussion and lectures (Jamila Hassoune, in discussion with the author, December 2013). The Caravan introduces rural youth to artists and authors both from within Morocco and abroad, while also allowing the youth to participate in the running of the activities. Open air readings of books are also held with Arabic and French language donated titles being distributed to the participants free of charge. The caravan has gained a positive reputation to the extent that Hassoune now fields requests from villages for the caravan to visit their community. She welcomes these opportunities because she feels that books need to be endeared to children and youth who can grow to admire authors as much as they admire soccer (football) players. Her prescriptive advice regarding the reading crisis in Morocco is that schools need to teach children pleasure reading, and that this can be done through school libraries (which are rare in Morocco) where the person in charge (not necessarily a librarian) is actually enthusiastic about reading.

The Bouquineurs and Ylla Nkraw The Ylla Nkraw public reading event was developed by the group Bouquineurs (book lovers), a Facebook group, started in 2010, by Aziza Benchekroun, a graduate of the only Information Science school in Morocco, l’ École des Sciences de l’Information. Bouquineurs has approximately 78,000 members (at the time of

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this writing), of which 90% are Moroccans. The mission of the group is to “campaign for the dissemination of the culture of reading in Morocco.” To this end, it shares information about books in the form of synopses as well as about bookrelated events throughout the country, and positions itself as an information resource for Moroccan readers. The Bouquineurs hold a monthly book discussion in Rabat which, as of January 2014, had read twenty-three books together in either French or Arabic, including titles such as La Confrérie des Eveillés (The Brotherhood of the Awakened) by Jacques Attali, Thus Spoke Zarathustra by Friedrich Nietzsche, Le Passe Simple (The Simple Past) by Driss Chraibi, and The Portrait of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde (Bouquineurs, 2014). Benchekroun says that the group has received a lot of positive feedback from people who said that the Bouquineurs site has encouraged them to take up reading. Ylla Nkraw ( ‫) ﻳﻼﻩ ﻧﻘﺮﺍﻭ‬, which is Moroccan Arabic for “Let’s Read,” was an attempt by the Bouquineurs to share their love of books with the larger Moroccan society. Specifically, according to Aziza Benchekroun (in discussion with the author, February 2014), the group wanted to push back against the cultural stigma of public reading which manifests itself in Morocco as laughing or mocking a person who reads in public. In addition, the group wanted to change the image that Moroccans do not read by showing that there is a large group of people in the country who do read and enjoy reading for pleasure. Ylla Nkraw was initially conceived of as a public reading event, but through coordination with some key actors in civil society and government, it grew to become a festive cultural event that took place in front of the National Library of Morocco in Rabat. The inaugural Ylla Nkraw event that took place in May 2012 drew 800 people including vulnerable elderly persons and people with disabilities. The schedule of literary events included workshops, children’s storytellers, meet-theauthor programs featuring Moroccan authors. The following year (May 2013), they added a book exchange, as well as Berber poetry recitation. The group is working to revamp Ylla Nkraw in light of the popularity of other similar public reading events sponsored by other pro-reading groups discussed in this chapter. The sense of competition between the groups has sent the Bouquineurs back to the drawing board in order to develop a different method of encouraging reading in Morocco. (Aziza Benchekroun, in discussion with the author, February 2014).

Initiative la Lecture pour Tous Among the other new initiatives that are working to bring reading to the forefront of the Moroccan public’s attention is The Reading for All Initiative (Initiative la Lecture pour Tous/ ‫[ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﺓ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬LLPT]), begun in the summer of 2013 by a

38  Sumayya Ahmed

group of Moroccans (some living in France) who were frustrated with the cultural situation in Morocco, especially the poor levels of reading. Mohammed Kharchiche, one of the founders of the group and its current President, said that LLPT began with a simple call for people in the northern city of Tangier to gather together at a designated park to read books. That first impromptu public reading event drew approximately 70 people, and was meant to challenge the absence of reading in the Moroccan public sphere. Kharchiche and his group believe that seeing people read in public should not be out of the ordinary. Quite the opposite, what is not normal, according to Kharchiche, is a society where people do not read. The absence of reading, he believes, is more profound than a “crisis of reading,” and is linked to major problems at the cultural and educational level. It is a cultural crisis in that people have little interest in the Arts; and it is an educational crisis in that a poor quality educational system does not inculcate an appreciation for reading or even teach students the basic skills they need (he cites the UNESCO report as evidence). In an effort to “wake people up,” and without “waiting for the government to do something” LLPT established branches in cities across Morocco, each with its own character, target groups and priorities. While each chapter tailors their activities to its local environment, they all share the belief that reading is intricately connected with changing and improving Moroccan society. Often within their Youtube videos the members of the group will iterate that the goal of LLPT is “a Morocco that reads” (Initiative La Lecture Pour Tous, 2014). With more than 20,000 members the group organizes public readings and uses podcasts, YouTube videos, Twitter and Facebook to advertise the dates and locations of public readings and book discussions or to discuss the benefits of reading in general. In addition, some branches work with school children regularly to discuss and animate books. The group also tries to encourage parents when possible to read to their children and to take them to visit libraries. One of its ongoing programs is “A Tramway that Reads.” It is an invitation to commuters in either Rabat or Casablanca to bring a book along with them and read during their commute. At the end of the tramway line, commuters are then welcome to a neighboring café for a discussion about reading. Kharchiche hopes that the government will use its power to reduce the price of books in Morocco similar to the way that it currently subsidizes sugar and other staples that are considered mandatory for Moroccan life. (Mohammed Kharchiche, in discussion with the author, March 2014). In fact, according to Davison (2014), the Ministry of Culture already subsidizes 50% of the cost of printing for 45 books per year as well as for “journals deemed of cultural importance” (p. 9).

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BiblioTram Reading on the tramway is the focus of another new initiative, BibilioTram, whose goal is to “bring the library to the people,” specifically, to the commuters on Casablanca’s newly established tramway rail system. Using the motto, “Read and Arrive,” the group Young Leaders of Morocco (JLM) dispersed books, magazines, and newspapers inside of Casablanca’s tramway cars for one week in December 2013. Young Leaders of Morocco is a Moroccan non-profit organization, based out of the University of Hassan the First in Settat, whose goal is “the creation, implementation and management of projects for socio-economic and sustainable development.” They want to encourage and facilitate reading and create habitual readers through the distribution of reading materials which would allow the general Moroccan public to experience the benefits of reading (Anwar Mohamed, in discussion with the author, February 2014). The initial response by riders of the Casablanca tramway was positive and supportive. Riders were aware of the lack of a reading culture in Morocco and therefore welcomed the project while expressing hopes that that it would be repeated on a continual basis. One commuter commented that the project was proof that a new generation in Morocco was “on the move,” and that he as a teacher was pleasantly surprised (JLM, 2013). The first iteration of BiblioTram had the support of the Ministry of Culture as well as substantial support from private sponsors including book publishers. JLM intends for BiblioTram to be a repeated project, and have reached out to the Moroccan public for support by way of donations of books to make reoccurring BibiloTrams possible. In late 2014, they followed up the initial success of BiblioTram by placing small lending libraries of books and magazines on the platforms of tramway stations throughout Casablanca for a week in December (JLM, 2014b). JLM’s leader Anwar Mohamed says that one of the goals of the BiblioTram project is to change Moroccan culture (JLM, 2014a).

Ktabi Ktabek Ktabi Ktabek (My Book is Your Book/ ‫ )ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻚ‬works to put books into the hands of the average Moroccan, through neighborhood-based book exchanges. Badri (2014) called the project, “a very original step towards spreading the culture of reading in Morocco” (Badri, 2014). Ktabi Ktabek was begun by the Association of Young Citizens (Association des Jeunes Citoyens [AYC]) who connect reading to “good citizenship and democratic values” and who also want

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to create a “more educated society in Morocco” (Association des Jeunes Citoyens [AYC], 2013). AYC believes that one part of the reading crisis is an issue of access. Bassin Khaber, leader of the organization, explained that there are many potential readers in Morocco whose circumstances don’t facilitate access to books. One reason for this is the small number of libraries and the other is the financial reality of the country where families with minimal resources will choose to buy other necessities before buying books (Gabari, 2013). Based on the premise of bringing books to Moroccans instead of waiting for them to visit libraries and bookstores, AYC installs mini-libraries in apartment complexes in neighborhoods of varying economic statuses across Morocco. Each mini-library, a small 2 shelf wooden structure with a glass door, contains one-hundred books; an equal ratio of Arabic to French and of adult to children’s books (Gabari, 2013). The Ktabi Ktabek mini-library project runs on the premise that those who take a book will also leave a book, so that the endeavor continues. The first mini library was erected in January 2013 in Casablanca, with additional libraries placed in Mohamadia, Rabat, Fez, and Beni Mellal (Badri, 2014). The project depends on donated books and has received some from the Ministry of Culture as well as private individuals. In general, they ask that donated books be either children’s book so that young Moroccans can be initiated into the world of reading or that the adult books be short, so that new readers will not be discouraged by the volume of a lengthy book. The eventual goal of the Ktabi Ktabek project is to install 3,000 of its libraries all across Morocco (AYC, 2013).

Réseau de la Lecture au Maroc The Reading Network of Morocco (Réseau de la lecture au Maroc/ ‫)ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ‬, mentioned earlier in this chapter, was born out of a realization that the high illiteracy rate in Morocco means that parents cannot always be depended upon to convey the skills and culture of reading to their children. In fact, Wagner (1993) showed that in Morocco, primary school children who learn to read “often become the literacy experts for the entire family” (p. 111). Rachida Roky, the President of the Reading Network, is a university professor in Casablanca who noticed over the years how few of her students had exposure to reading outside of school work. The Reading Network of Morocco is the result of Roky working with some of these very same students to do on-the-ground advocacy for reading with Moroccan youth and children. The group began work in the summer of 2012 before receiving official government recognition as an organization. Today, the organization works on the multiple fronts of advocacy, training, and staging events to meet its stated

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goal of “raising awareness of the importance of reading as a gateway to form an informed citizen” (Réseau de la lecture au Maroc, 2014). This means that in addition to carrying out activities such as promoting daily pleasure reading for children or holding a public reading event in a garden or park, the organization also works to train others about the importance of reading and encourages them to return to their communities to carry out activities such as book discussions with local Moroccan authors, for example. For Roky, a solution to the crisis of reading is difficult, but not impossible. Among the major steps that her organization believes has to happen is the incorporation of reading as a taught subject in the national school curriculum. In addition, school classrooms should develop small collections of books for their own library, and each school should have its own central library. Amongst its activities, RLM coordinates with the Minister of Youth and Sports to train young people on the benefits of reading, however, at the same time Roky believes that the people who work in libraries in Morocco, who are often para-professionals without formal library science education, need to be trained to put the book in the hands of the reader (Rachida Roky, in discussion with the author, March 2014). This has not been the case historically in Morocco where the most common word used for library in Arabic, khazana, has a meaning akin to a safe with its root verb meaning to store or safe-keep (Wehr, 1994). The internalization of this meaning has been reflected in the mentality in many Moroccan libraries up to now where keeping books “safe” has often resulted in library policies that limit or inadvertently discourage patron access to collections, for example by not allowing patrons to remove books from the library or having very stringent borrowing policies.

Reading the Future It may be that we are seeing a veritable reading movement in Morocco that safely harnesses the enthusiasm and activity that elsewhere in the Arab World was associated with radical political change. Their sharp criticism is aimed at the culture and society itself, instead of at the political leaders. All of the initiatives discussed in this chapter are working to create a public space for the book and the reader in a society where the person who reads may be seen as “showing off” in public (Badri, 2014). They believe that public reading is and should be a regular habit that is connected with human development and good citizenship. Much like the mass political mobilizations that gained momentum across North Africa and the Middle East in 2010 and 2011, Morocco’s pro-reading ventures make great use of the Internet and social media to organize group public readings, share book synopses and to communicate personal reflections about

42  Sumayya Ahmed

reading in general and its importance for Moroccan society. All of the initiatives have a Facebook page and most take advantage of Youtube to share videos that highlight their events or allow an author to discuss their latest book for example. Morocco’s Internet penetration rate is one of the highest in Africa at 33% (Moulaison, 2011), and cyber cafes and cell phones which are owned by approximately half of the population facilitate Internet access for people lacking their own computers. The initiatives have found and reached an important target group of urban youth, teenagers and young adults who have been extremely receptive to this form of literacy activism. They have found a channel for self and group expression that is generally unavailable in the autocratic monarchy. It remains to be seen however if the trend is truly a movement or just a passing fad. Each initiative seems to be aware of some long-term national-level policy issues that need to be addressed in order to further the(ir) cause of reading in Morocco and create a true knowledge society, be it the price of books, the defunct education system, or library policies and librarian training. They are also pushing for changes on the cultural level, to elevate the value and status of the book and of course, to normalize the practice of reading in public.

Conclusion It is clear that holistic measures need to be taken in order to create a new culture of reading in Morocco. While all of the initiatives discussed in this chapter are promising and have had measured success in habituating portions of the Moroccan public to the value of reading, they also point to a dire need for Library Science education in the North African kingdom. As stated earlier, the high levels of illiteracy means that parents cannot be depended upon to provide an environment of reading in the home. The onus then falls upon schools, which in most cases lack school libraries or the qualified personnel needed to animate and inculcate a love of books in young people. The work of the organizations discussed in this chapter could make great use of the knowledge base of the established field of information and library science. After parents and older siblings, ideally, the people to bring books to life and stimulate reading among youth are librarians. This is challenging however because of the existence of only one school of information science in Morocco, which does not have a focus on school libraries although it recently (in 2014) carried out trainings on topics in library science in conjunction with the Ministry of Culture for the staff of Ministry-run libraries (L’École des Sciences de L’Information, 2014). While “a Morocco that reads,” the banner cry of several of the pro-reading initiatives discussed herein seems more within reach because of

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their attempts to create of public space for reading, and its normalization at the grassroots level, such efforts are not in themselves sufficient for the progression towards a complete knowledge society in Morocco.

References Abou-Zeid, S. (2014). A report from Lebanon on publishing in the Arab World. Publishing Research Quarterly, 30(1), 93–103. doi: 10.1007/s12109-013-9341-4 Agnaou, F. (2004). Gender, literacy, and empowerment in Morocco. New York, NY: Routledge. Association des Jeunes Citoyens (AYC) [Association of Young Citizens]. (2013). Comment soutenir l’action Ktabi Ktabek? [How to support the work of Ktabi Ktabek?]. Retrieved from March 13, 2014, from Ayoub, A. (2013, October 18). L’édition au Maroc: Encore des efforts pour sortir de la crise [Publishing in Morocco: More efforts to overcome the crisis]. Le Retrieved March 12, 2014, from Badri, M. (2014, February 5). ‘My book is your book’ this is how Moroccans do it. Morocco World News. Retrieved March 12, 2014, from 02/121773/my-book-is-your-book-this-is-how-moroccans-do-it/ Barton, D. (2009). Understanding textual practices in a changing world. In M. Baynham and M. Prinsloo (Eds.), The future of literacy studies (pp. 38–53). New York, NY: Palgrave. Binoual, I. (2013, January 8). Morocco literacy project reaches milestone. Magharebia. Retrieved October 15, 2014, from tures/2013/01/08/feature-04 Bougroum, M., Diagne, A. W., Kissami, M. A., and Tawil, S. (2007, March). Literacy policies and strategies in the Maghreb: Comparative perspectives from Algeria, Mauritania and Morocco. Paper presented at the Arab Regional Conference in Support of Global Literacy, Doha, Qatar. Retrieved from Bouquineurs. (2014). In Facebook [Events page]. Retrieved March 8, 2014, from https://fr-fr. Central Intelligence Agency. (2014). Morocco. In The World Factbook. Retrieved from https:// Dalmasso, E. (2012). Surfing the democratic tsunami in Morocco: Apolitical society and the reconfiguration of a sustainable authoritarian regime. Mediterranean Politics, 17(2), 217–232. doi: 10.1080/13629395.2012.694045 Dardour, M. (2000). The literacy campaign in rural Morocco: Drawing some lessons. Prospects, 30(1), 125–142. doi: 10.1007/bf02754052 Davison, P. (2014). University publishing in Morocco. Logos, 25(2), 7–15. doi: 10.1163/18784712-11112040 El Yazami, A. (1998). Enquête sur la lecture au Maroc [Survey on reading in Morocco]. Rabat, Morocco: Association Marocaine des Professionals du Livre and Ambassade de France. Ezzaki, A., Spratt, J., and Wagner, D. (1999). Childhood literacy acquisition in rural Morocco: Effects of language differences and Quranic preschooling. In D. Wagner (Ed.), The future of literacy in a changing world (pp. 183–198). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

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Gabari, G. (2013, December 23). Interview with Bassim Khaber of Ktabi Ktabek [Interview]. Retrieved from 2013/12/allo_les_jeunes_23_12_2013.mp3 Golhassan, J. (Host/Producer). (2014, February 19). ‫[ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻣﻌﻜﻢ‬Live and Direct with You] [Television broadcast]. Rabat, Morocco: 2M. Guessous, S. (2012, January 20). Une bibliothèque dans le coin? Ah bon? [A library in the neighborhood? Really?] La Vie Eco. Retrieved from–21179.html Hassoune, J. (2003). Internet et les jeunes: Enquête 2003 dans les cyber-cafés du quartier universitaire de Marrakech [The Internet and youth: 2003 Survey in the cyber cafes of a University neighborhood of Marrakesh]. Retrieved from ety/portraits/jamilahassoune.html#Internet Hendrickson, J. (2008). A guide to Arabic manuscript libraries in Morocco, with notes on Tunisia, Algeria, Egypt, and Spain. MELA Notes 81, 15–88. Retrieved from Initiative La Lecture Pour Tous (LLPT). [Initiative LLPT]. (2014, January 26). Flash info 2M – Initiative la lecture pour tous ouarzazate [Ouarzazate Reading for All Initiative] [Video file]. Retrieved from Itayem, M. A. (2004). National libraries in the Arab World. In M. Wise and A. Olden (Eds.) Information and libraries in the Arab world (pp. 12–25). London, UK: Library Association Publishing. Jeunes Leaders Marocains (JLM) [Young Leaders of Morocco]. [JLM FSJES SETTAT]. (2013, December 12). Bibliotram: Les échos de ‘Qra Twsel.’ [The Echoes of ‘Read and Arrive’] [Video file]. Retrieved from Jeunes Leaders Marocains (JLM) [Young Leaders of Morocco]. [JLM FSJES SETTAT]. (2014a, February 27). Bibliotram appel aux dons [Bibliotram Appeals for Donations] [Video file]. Retrieved from Jeunes Leaders Marocains (JLM) [Young Leaders of Morocco]. [JLM FSJES SETTAT]. (2014b, December 15). Reportage BiblioTram sur 2M Maroc [Report on BiblioTram on 2M Maroc] [Video file]. Retrieved from Kingdom of Morocco. (2011, October 6). Bulletin officiel no. 5984 [Official bulletin]. Retrieved from Lalami, L. (2011, August 24). The Moroccan ‘exception.’ The Nation. Retrieved from http:// L’École des Sciences de L’Information. (2014). Formation continue en bibliothéconomie [Continuing education in library science]. Retrieved from “L’edition litteraire.” (2001, December 7). L’edition litteraire au Maroc [Literary publishing in Morocco]. Aujourd’hui le Maroc. Retrieved October 15, 2014, from http://www.aujourd Moroccan Ministry of Culture. (2014). Le réseau de la lecture publique [The public reading network]. Retrieved from tent&view=article&id=1045&Itemid=124 Moulaison, H. (2011). Morocco. In G. Barnett (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social networks (pp. 550–551). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. doi: 10.4135/9781412994170 Next Page Foundation. (2007). What Arabs read: A pan-Arab Survey on readership, phase one: Egypt, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and Morocco. Retrieved from http://www.npa

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Ouassat, M. (2014, February 13). Hassan El Ouazzani: Notre expérience dans le domaine de l’édition reste assez élémentaire [Hassan El Ouazzani: Our Experience in the publishing field is still fairly elementary]. Libération. Retrieved from Rashad, A. (2013). Exploring licensing translation rights in the Arab World. Publishing Research Quarterly, 29(4), 383–390. doi: 10.1007/s12109-013-9337-0 Réseau de la lecture au Maroc. (2014). In Facebook [About page]. Retrieved March 10, 2014, from Sakhi, H. (2012). Synthese des actes du seminaire: Alphabetisation en milieu de travail, un enjeu pour le developpement de l’entreprise et de ses salaries [Seminar proceedings: Literacy in the workplace, a challenge for the development of a company and its employees]. Moroccan Ministry of Education and the European Union. Retrieved from Touzani, A. (2003). La culture et la politique culturelle au Maroc [Culture and cultural politics in Morocco]. Casablanca, Morocco: Editions La Croisée des Chemins. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (2014). Education for all global monitoring report, 1st ed. Paris, France: UNESCO. Wagner, D. A. (1993). Literacy, culture, and development: Becoming literate in Morocco. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Wehr, H. (1994). A dictionary of modern written Arabic, 4th ed. Ithaca, NY: Spoken Language Services. Wyrtzen, J. D. (2008). Morocco. In P. N. Stearns (Ed.), Oxford encyclopedia of the modern world. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acref/9780195176322.001.0001

Received: 1st August 2014 Final version received: 11th March 2015 Accepted: 23rd March 2015

Samir Hachani

3 A Bird’s Eye View of Two Open Access Experiences in Algeria: CERIST’s Webreview and Dépôt numérique de l’Université d’Alger I Introduction In spite of the fact that it is relatively new (ArXiv, the first open archive was launched in 1991), open access has remarkably supported, in terms of timing, the advent and development of the Internet. Created in the sixties for a military use, it became known to the general public in its present form during the nineties. This quasi simultaneity of occurrence has also coincided with an acute serials crisis (Dingley, 2006; Panitch & Michalak, 2005; Sample, 2012; U. K. House of Commons Science and Technology Committee, 2004) that made libraries cancel some subscriptions and unable to adequately respond to their patrons’ needs. Many authors and associations concerned with the issue (such as the Association of Research Libraries) reached the same conclusion: something had to be done to alleviate the burden libraries could no longer bear. One could schematically describe the situation as follows: the library, which by definition embodies knowledge for free, cannot offer subscriptions to its users for access to research that is financed by taxpayer money (the user). Instead, research is locked down by copyright laws not acceptable in today’s networked world. These two occurrences (the serials crisis and the Internet) have hurried the arrival of open access as one of today’s most debated issues in the scholarly world. This paper presents two Algerian experiences with open access: CERIST’s Webreview and Algiers’ University Digital repository (Dépôt numérique de l’Université d’Alger). The projects, which represent an encouraging undertaking will be discussed and analyzed with regard to the Algerian (and MENA) context. It is necessary to present a short overview of open access and the reasons for its inception, its situation in the developing world and its different uses. Then, the situation in Algeria will be examined through a number of data (open access, Internet, bandwidth). Lastly, the two initiatives mentioned above will be presented as examples highlighting both their advantages and shortcomings.

3 A Bird’s Eye View of Two Open Access Experiences in Algeria


Open Access: A Short Overview It is not possible to discuss open access in its totality in the few lines that follow. It could be said that it has greatly revolutionized today’s scholarly communication. For example, Nature, Science, The Scientist, and The Wall Street Journal all ranked open access among their top science stories in 2003 (Willinsky, 2006). “Free for All” was the punning headline for Nature’s “2003 in Context” coverage on open access. The magazine dared to ask, with its own future potentially hanging in the balance, “Will the scientific literature in future be dominated by journals that do not charge their readers?” Nature placed the open access movement alongside the big stories on genetically modified foods, the elusive subatomic Higgs boson, the prospect of human cloning, and global access to clean water (“2003 in Context,” 2003). The statistics from the most important references in the field confirm the importance of this issue: The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), inventories approximately 10,639 Journals, 6,401 of which are searchable at article level, from 134 countries. It contained a combined total of 1,918,665 articles as of June 14th 2015 (Directory of Open Access Journals, 2015). Open DOAR (Directory of Open Access Repositories, 2015) boasts at the same date 2,892 repositories, while ROAR (Registry of Open Access Repositories, 2015) held some 4009 items as of June 14th 2015. On the other hand, The Arab World does not seem to contribute greatly to these numbers. For example, on the same date, in the DOAJ only Egypt with 97434 articles from 531 publishers manages to be with the top 10 countries producing science being at the 6th rank while Algeria with 6 publishers and 1104 articles is ranked 79th. For DOAR, it is basically the same outlook: only Algeria, Saudi Arabia and Egypt with respectively 12, 7 and 5 repositories have undertaken efforts to promote and implement open repositories. Lastly, in ROAR the same countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Algeria) seem to give importance to this new manner to disseminate science with respectively 11, 7 and 7 repositories. If, as pointed out, the bulk of the experiences is in the developed world with the developing and Arab world lagging far behind, these numbers are, nevertheless, the result of awareness by the community of scholars at large that the Internet allows a new outlook, a new manner by which science is done, a new sort of Weltanschauung. This awareness has resulted, in the early years of the twenty first century, in a number of actions all geared toward “freeing” information. Among the multitude of initiatives, there have been the “three B’s” (Budapest, Bethesda and Berlin) which have founded the movement and laid the ground for the movement as it is now.

48  Samir Hachani

The Budapest Open Access Initiative On 14th February 2002, The Budapest Open Access Initiative¹ was the first statement to lay the ground for the development of open access. It is considered the cornerstone of open access. It begins with these words: “An old tradition and a new technology have converged to make possible an unprecedented public good. The old tradition is the willingness of scientists and scholars to publish the fruits of their research in scholarly journals without payment, for the sake of inquiry and knowledge. The new technology is the Internet.” The Budapest Open Access Initiative also defined two concepts that have become central to open access: self-archiving and open access journals (also known BOAI I and BAOI II). The Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002) defined self-archiving as when “scholars need the tools and assistance to deposit their refereed journal articles in open electronic archives…When these archives conform to standards created by the Open Archives Initiative, then search engines and other tools can treat the separate archives as one. Users then need not know which archives exist or where they are located in order to find and make use of their contents” (para. 5). This Initiative also explains the importance of open access journals: …scholars need the means to launch a new generation of journals committed to open access, and to help existing journals that elect to make the transition to open access. Because journal articles should be disseminated as widely as possible, these new journals will no longer invoke copyright to restrict access to and use of the material they publish. Instead they will use copyright and other tools to ensure permanent open access to all the articles they publish. Because price is a barrier to access, these new journals will not charge subscription or access fees, and will turn to other methods for covering their expenses. There are many alternative sources of funds for this purpose, including the foundations and governments that fund research, the universities and laboratories that employ researchers, endowments set up by discipline or institution, friends of the cause of open access, profits from the sale of add-ons to the basic texts, funds freed up by the demise or cancellation of journals charging traditional subscription or access fees, or even contributions from the researchers themselves. There is no need to favor one of these solutions over the others for all disciplines or nations, and no need to stop looking for other, creative alternatives. (Budapest Open Access Initiative, 2002, para. 5)

These two definitions are very important for the future of open access because the two roads have not had equal success. If publishing in open access journals is prized by scientists for the immediate reward it gives (instant exposure in the Budapest Open Access Initiative, among other things), self-archiving on the

1 More information available at

3 A Bird’s Eye View of Two Open Access Experiences in Algeria


other hand has not succeeded for a number of reasons including ignorance and misconceptions about the concept, as has been cited by researchers.

The Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing On 11th April 2003, what has come to be known as the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing² was issued at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. This second major open access meeting was meant to “stimulate discussion within the biomedical research community” and was focused on four major sections: Definition of Open Access Publication, Statement of Scientists and Scientific Societies Working Group, Statement of the Libraries and Publishers Working Group and Statement of the Institutions and Funding Agencies Working Group. Each group endorsed the open access model and declared its full adherence to its philosophy (Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing, 2003).

The Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities On 22nd October 2003, a third meeting was held at the Max Planck Society in Berlin. Along the lines of the previous conferences, statements and initiatives, it called upon the scientific community to adhere to the idea of open access (Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities, 2003). The Berlin Declaration³ has since become an annual forum where researchers, scientists, academics convene to discuss, enrich and implement open access. One could summarize these three initiatives of open access as a sort of development and coming of age that went from initiatives supported by individuals (Budapest) then organisations (Bethesda) and finally by governments (Berlin) that enacted various policies favourable to open access. It may sound overly optimistic but one can say that open access has become the way by which information is sought and the future of scholarly communication will not be made without it.

2 More information available at 3 More information available at

50  Samir Hachani

Open Access in the Developing World If open access in its two variants “gold” and “green” has reached in the Western world a development that was impossible to fathom just one or two decades ago, the developing world (to which Algeria belongs) lags behind because of a number of problems including: weak bandwidth, a persistent digital divide, an anachronistic communication system, and a dire financial situation to cite just a few reasons. Data from Internet World Stats, a site that surveys Internet data around the world, is shown in Tab. 3.1. Tab. .: World Internet usage and population statistics from Internet World Stats (). World regions Population (est. )

Internet users (Dec )

Internet users latest data

Africa ,,, ,, ,, Asia ,,, ,, ,,, Europe ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, Middle East North America ,, ,, ,, Latin America/ ,, ,, ,, Caribbean Oceania/ ,, ,, ,, Australia World Total ,,, ,, ,,,

Penetration Growth Users (% of Popu- – % of lation) table .% .% .% .% .% .%

,.% ,.% .% ,.% .% ,.%

.% .% .% .% .% .%





.% .%

One notices, right away, the imbalance in the numbers especially those pertaining to the ratio between population and penetration (Tab. 3.1). For example, Africa which represents 15.94% of the world population has a penetration rate of 27.5 % and only 10.3% of the users worldwide. At the other end of the spectrum, North America whose population represents only 4.91% of the world population has a penetration rate of 86.9% and represents 10.1% of the users worldwide. These numbers show the big divide existing between what is also called the global North and the global South. The only optimistic point in Tab. 3.1 is the growth between 2000 and 2015 which has recorded an increase of a little over sixty nine (69.58) folds for Africa, while North America records only a little over one and a half (1.87) fold increase. On the other hand, the sites previously cited confirm this tendency. For example, on June 14th 2015, of the 2,892 repositories in DOAR, only 118 (4.08%) are from Africa while 1,281 (44.29%) and 568 (19.64%) are respectively from

3 A Bird’s Eye View of Two Open Access Experiences in Algeria


Europe and North America. The same numbers could be said about DOAJ, the reference in journals in open access, where similar numbers are displayed. For example for Africa, 688 titles (of which 6 are from Algeria) are included, while the United States and Brazil alone published respectively 1,254 and 989 titles. It should be pointed out that Brazil has been at the forefront of open access. SciELO⁴ (Scientific Electronic Library Online), led by Brazil, has encouraged South American countries (both Portuguese and Spanish speaking) to get their scientific output known the world over. Speaking of open access means speaking of the Internet and, perhaps more importantly, bandwidth which is the conveyor by which information travels. Net Index (, now known as, is a site among the most trusted for information on global bandwidth. It provided substantial data pertaining to the subject including download index, upload index, quality index, value index and promise index. All these indexes calculate bandwidth under different forms. We will focus on two, download index and upload index, as they are of importance to our topic. Download is defined as the “transfer (data or programs) from a server or host computer to one’s own computer or device” (The Free Dictionary, n.d.-a). Upload is defined as the “transfer (data or programs), usually from a peripheral computer or device to a central, often remote, computer” (The Free Dictionary, n.d.-b). Download and upload are therefore the speed by which information travels on the Internet whether one sends or receives information. A quick look at this index shows how much the developing world is behind in both data areas. The first developing country in terms of download is Madagascar which ranks 64th out of 202 countries listed (the last 50 places on the scale are occupied by developing countries). The other MENA countries do, relatively, fare well as the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait are respectively 44th, 55th, 66th, 89th, 93rd and 99th. The situation is a little bit better for upload: Ethiopia is listed as 37th country out of 202 countries while the MENA countries are present in the top 100 countries of the world with Qatar, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Iraq and Jordan ranking respectively 46th, 51st, 52nd, 63rd, 77th, and 85th. (Netindex June 14th 2015). One should notice the same outlook for the countries with the weakest upload: practically the same countries whose download index is weak are those that have a weak position in the upload index, which could be explained by a weak Internet infrastructure hampering the flow of information and penalizing research.


52  Samir Hachani

The data pertaining to open access (open archives, electronic journals, bandwidth, etc.) in the developing world reveal the difficulties that these countries encounter in their quest for information. Open access, instead of being a boon to countries lacking access to information, has in fact accentuated and stressed an already incapacitating digital divide. In other words, beside the fact that it allowed authors to regain control over their own work, open access also represented a golden opportunity for the developing world to be able to have access to information. This has not been, to a certain extent, achieved not because of the philosophy of the movement but as a result of numerous dysfunctions. If, in the paper world, the main dysfunction lay in the quasi impossibility to acquire information, the digital world has compounded the difficulties because of the significance of Internet connectivity which, as seen before, is far from being efficient and reliable.

Open Access in Algeria Global and centralized references about open access in Algeria are rather scarce as a result of the newness of the concept. As a result, the UNESCO’s Global Open Access Portal is the most reliable site pertaining to the subject. Every country’s policies on open access are presented in the site. Concerning Algeria, the site identifies one open access repository (Algiers University I) and five open access journals (International Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Sciences, Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Journal of New Technology and Materials, LARHYSS Journal and Synergies Algerie) (Global Open Access Portal, 2013). In addition, the site also inventories a number of Algerian scientists publishing in BioMed Central. Le CERIST⁵ (Research Center of Scientific and Technical Information), a key player in the Algerian scene of technical and scientific information, has launched a number of programmes. Among the most important are: – Algerian Scientific Abstracts (ASA), an analytical, multidisciplinary and multilingual national bibliographical database. – Portail National de Signalement des Thèses (National Portal for Reporting Theses), which is a portal providing information about theses defended in Algerian universities and research centers. – Système National de Documentation en Ligne (SNDL – National System of Online Documentation), which is a national program aimed at giving local researchers and graduate students access to a number of scientific databases.

5 More information at

3 A Bird’s Eye View of Two Open Access Experiences in Algeria

– – –


Free Soft (portail des logiciels libres et open source), a portal dedicated to free software and the open source community. CERIST Digital Library, a beta version of a digital repository of CERIST’s scientific output. Catalog collectif d’Algérie (CCDZ), a national catalog of resources in the higher education sector. It gives access to the holdings of 50 libraries and repositories with approximately 528,151 records BiblioUniv Algérie: le portail des bibliothèques universitaires algériennes (BiblioUniv Algérie: the Algerian academic libraries portal) which gives the Algerian academic community an opportunity to participate in the promotion of libraries and their services. For example, the portal offers a variety of services such as access to databases, catalogs, portals and attending workshops. It also features a “scientific events” link that reports different colloquia, conferences and scientific gathering nationwide.

All these programmes are hampered by a persistently weak Internet. Algeria has a penetration rate of 17.2% which ranks it 27th Africa with the number of its Internet users being about 6,669,927 as of June 30th 2014 (Internet World Stats, 2014). In addition, Algeria’s bandwidth is among the worst worldwide. Netindex (2015) puts Algeria at the 181st ranking out of 202 countries for download and at the 182nd ranking for upload (June 14th 2015). Despite these numbers, two experiences worth describing were launched and they will be presented in the following sections of this paper.

Webreview Webreview⁶ is one of the most successful programmes CERIST operates. CERIST being a public institution, Webreview is funded by public money through the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research and receives endowments from the CERIST budget. It defines itself as “a federated site for scientific journals” that “provides users with access to 36 titles all published in Algeria spanning all fields” (Webreview, n.d.). The site allows for searching using different search options such as latest article, authors, title, publisher, and keywords. It also has a “useful links” option which provides links to open access databases and journals. Users of the site have access to abstracts, metadata and full text articles. For each of the

6 Available at:

54  Samir Hachani

36 journals included on the site, the user is provided the title, the ISSN, the publisher, the web site, address, short abstract about the journal, its coverage, goals, etc., as well as a table of contents. By way of example, the first title in the list (Archives de l’Institut Pasteur d’Algérie) is displayed in the following manner: “Archives de l’Institut Pasteur d’Algérie – ISSN : 0020-2460 – Éditeur : Institut Pasteur d’Algérie – Site web : C’est une revue éditée par l’Institut Pasteur d’Algérie. Elle publie des comptes rendus de travaux de recherches, articles originaux, revues d’articles faisant le point des connaissances actuelles sur un sujet donné, des mises au point techniques, des notes, des correspondances, lettres à l’éditeur, réflexions faisant état d’opinions sur les aspects de la santé, éditoriaux, etc.” [It is a journal published by the Institut Pasteur d’Algerie. It publishes research reports, original articles, reviews articles related to current knowledge on a given subject, technical development, notes, correspondences, letters to the editor, thoughts and opinions related to aspects of health, editorials, etc.] Webreview currently gives access to 36 journals in the following 14 fields: – agronomy (2 titles) – archaeology (1 title) – chemistry (1 title) – economy, trade and management (2 titles) – education, psychology (1 title) – geography (1 title) – computer science, information science and library science (2 titles) – language and literature (1 title) – religions (1 title) – earth science, water and environment (4 titles) – science and technology (8 titles) – legal, administrative and political studies ( 2 titles) – medical sciences (2 titles) – social and human sciences (8 titles) The 36 titles in Webreview currently total 1,862 articles of which 1,468 are open access and 394 are not, giving a ratio of 79% of the articles being open access (Hachani, 2012) as can be seen in Tab. 3.2.

3 A Bird’s Eye View of Two Open Access Experiences in Algeria


Tab. 3.2: Ratio of open access articles in each journal in Webreview (Hachani, 2012). Title

Annales de l’Institut National Agronomique El-Harrach (...) Recherche Agronomique Lybica Journal of the Algerian Chemical Society La Revue des Sciences Commerciales Les Cahiers du CREAD Cahiers de l’INRE Bulletin des Sciences Géographiques RIST Majallat Al Maktabat Wa El Maâloumat ( ‫)ﻣﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ Al-Lugha Wal Adab (‫)ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ‬ Les Etudes Islamiques (‫)ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬ Ecosystem Edil.InF-Eau LARHYSS Journal Le Journal de l’Eau et de l’Environnement COST Courrier du Savoir Journal of Electrical Systems NATURE & TECHNOLOGIE Revue des Energies Renouvelables Sciences et Technologie Synthèse Technologies Avancées IDARA Revue Algérienne des Sciences Juridiques, Economiques et Politiques Archives de l’Institut Pasteur d’Algérie Journal de Neurochirurgie El – Tawassol Insaniyat Revue Algérienne du Travail Sciences Humaines Revue Académique des Etudes Sociales et Humaines (‫)ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺩﻳﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ El Bahith Al-Ijtimai (‫)ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺍﻹﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ Revue des Sciences Humaines et Sociales (‫)ﺍﻹﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻣﺠﻠﺔ‬ Revue des Sciences Humaines (‫)ﻣﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ Total

Number of articles

Full text


Open access percentage





84 10 17 07 11 03 78 248 19

31 00 00 06 00 03 63 228 19

53 10 17 01 11 00 15 20 00

36% 00% 00% 86% 00% 100% 81% 92% 100%

04 08 09 15 76 06 14 117 14 54 402 38 13 10 25 26

00 04 00 06 74 06 10 117 14 53 389 37 13 10 23 01

04 04 09 09 02 00 04 00 00 01 13 01 00 00 02 25

00% 50% 00% 40% 97% 100% 71% 100% 100% 98% 97% 97% 100% 100% 92% 04%

08 43 35 17 14 143 37

00 00 33 06 00 40 37

08 43 02 11 14 103 00

00% 00% 94% 35% 00% 28% 100%

07 09

07 01

00 08

100% 11%

232 1862

228 1468

04 394

98% 79%

56  Samir Hachani

One should notice that out of the five Algerian journals in the DOAJ, only LARHYSS Journal (with a ratio of 97% open access articles) is also in Webreview. Despite the encouraging ratio of 79% of the articles being open access, Tab. 3.2 needs some clarification. For example, it should be noted that there are a limited number of articles in several journals and, in some cases, a limited number of papers in any given issue. There exists extreme irregularity both in the number of issues of each journal and in the number of articles in issues of different titles (at least with regard to those journals on the web site). There is also irregularity in the implementation of open access within a single journal which offers for certain articles open access and then paywall access to others. This is done, apparently, without clear access policies by those in charge. Publications do not obey any criteria of continuation and sustainability with regard to open access policy. The ratio of papers that are freely available on the electronic site of each journal are very variable. Most of the journals have weak ratio of articles in open access (Revue Algérienne des Sciences Juridiques, Economiques et Politiques 4%, Revue des Sciences Humaines et Sociales 11%, Sciences Humaines 28%) and sometimes do not have any articles freely accessible (Al-Lugha Wal Adab, Ecosystem, Journal de Neurochirurgie). The apparently high percentage of open access articles (bordering up on 80%) is misleading because different journals contain quite a different numerical range of articles which can vary from 03 to 402 articles.

Dépôt numérique de l’Université d’Alger I The “Dépôt numérique de l’Université d’Alger I” (Algiers’ University I Digital Repository) defines itself as a “library of digitized documents by the university library dealing with Algeria and its civilization, territory and history from the beginning of time up to the present in all fields; seen from every angle covering the period ranging from the beginning of printing up to 1930 for the book in Arab typesetting, and from the beginning of printing up to 1811 for the Latin typesetting” (Dépôt numérique de l’Université d’Alger I). The site allows a number of ways to search its contents. For example when, one puts “Algerie” in a search box, the results yields nine articles. All nine articles are open access and could be downloaded using the ‘View/Open’ button. Another manner to search the site is through “Communities in DSpace”. The only community is “Université d’Alger.” When clicking on it, one obtains a page wherein they can search by “old theses”, “articles”, “books”, “periodicals”, and “Arabic theses.” One could also search by inserting a keyword in the ‘search for’

3 A Bird’s Eye View of Two Open Access Experiences in Algeria


box (which does not give any results) or browse by subject, title, and author or issue date. As of January 2014, the following search results were available: Old theses


– – – –

– – – –

102 items by subject 60 items by title 63 items by author 60 items by issue date

29 items by subject 21 items by title 16 items by author 21 items by issue date


Arabic theses

– – – –

– – – –

335 items by subject 3039 items by title 1725 items by author 3039 items by issue date

6116 items by subject 6734 items by title 9157 items by author 6734 items by issue date

Books – – – –

474 items by subject 613 items by title 486 items by author 613 items by issue date

The same numbers were produced using a different manner of browsing yielded the same result nine months later (January–September 2014) which apparently shows that either the number of items stayed steady, the site did not add new items, or – more likely – it does not add them in a regular manner. A ‘recent submissions’ feature provides information on new items on the site. It seems that the site’s developer is considering recent submissions not by date of creation, but by date of inclusion on the site, the items included being older when it comes to date of creation. The last search feature is the ‘browse’ button on the left hand side of the page. It is the most comprehensive tool and at the same times the most reliable of the entire site. One can browse by Communities and Collections, Issue Date, Author, Title, or Subject.

58  Samir Hachani

Communities and Collections Searching by communities and collections gives the same number of items and collections (Old Theses, Articles, Books, Periodicals, and Arabic Theses) that have been seen before in community D Space “Université d’Alger.”

Issue date Searching by issue date could only be done by looking at the 10467 items in the site. All the other features (such as ‘Jump to a point in the index’ or ‘Type in a year’, etc….) are not operational, or at least are not clear enough as to what for example ‘Type in a year’ would change the result of the research. For example ‘Sort by’ gives: – issue date – title – submit date These three features are not clear enough as to what they pertain to. For example, we tried by ‘submit date’ and the result was a number of items with issue date from 22 November 2012 to 16 May 2013. When the research was done by ‘issue date’, the result was a number of items with an issue date of 22 November 2012. The research by ‘title’ gave results that are similar to the two previous criteria with items whose issue date was between 25 February 2013 and 22 July 2013 with an item issued on 5 June 2013 in between. All three ‘sort by’ (submit date, issue date and title) do give different results but what these results pertain to is unclear. On the other hand, the button ‘Authors/Record’ which displays results from 1 to 50 (with increments by 5 ) does not seem, along the lines of ‘sort by’, to have any function, the result being the same whether one displays 1 or 50 ‘Authors/Record.’

Author There are 11,299 items classified from 0 to 9 then A to Z. The search could either be done from an ascending or descending manner, clicking on a letter or entering first few letters of the author’s name. One notices the strange manner of sorting that associates Arabic and Latin type taking into account the extreme difference in the two alphabets. One wonders how would someone who does not know

3 A Bird’s Eye View of Two Open Access Experiences in Algeria


Arabic would be able to use this system with its search criterion associating two different alphabets in one set of titles which is neither practical nor logical.

Title There are 10,467 titles from 0–9 then A to Z. The same scheme applies regarding the manner by which the site can be searched. Despite the fact that searching by author and title should be different, there is a striking similarity in the different manner by which one can search by title. For example, the button ‘sort by’ gives the same features (‘issue date’, ‘title’, and ‘submit date’) and also the same results seen in the issue date.

Subject There are 7037 items in the site when searching by subject. It could be done either from 0 to 9 or from A to Z or entering the subject’s first few letters. Again one notices the strange manner by which Latin and Arab type are mixed in the same search. The other functions offered by the site such as ‘Sign on’, to ‘Receive email updates’, ‘My DSpace (authorized users)’, and ‘Edit profile’ do not seem to function. We tried to connect to the above mentioned functions but to no avail. It seems that the site is still new and some functions have been added by the webmaster because they come as a package with the DSpace software.

Conclusion Open access has made progress that would not have even been thinkable two or three decades ago. It resulted from the overly discussed serial crisis that crippled libraries in the late eighties and early nineties, and rendered them unable to meet their users’ needs. At about the same time, the Internet began to become the worldwide phenomenon it is today. Its advent, or rather explosion, has profoundly affected our everyday lives, but more importantly our scientific research habits. One does not approach research the way she or he did just twenty years ago. The Internet is a part of our way of doing research and, though studies are still too new to be conclusive as to what has changed, we have undoubtedly entered a new era in scientific research. This is especially true in the western world where the open access movement originated, but it is far from taking hold

60  Samir Hachani

in the developing world. Numerous reasons have been evoked in respect to this situation (lack of financial means, ignorance of and misconceptions about open access, weak Internet infrastructure, digital divide, etc.). However, these countries are slowly catching up as the Internet is steadily becoming more and more available and in better terms (bandwidth, connectivity, infrastructure, etc.). As a result, the developing world has been able to launch a number of programmes, all geared at catching up with the developed world and also launching its own infrastructure. Despite the fact statistics in different fields show an increasing and widening difference, the awareness that open access is the way of the future has made these programmes more and more numerous and also more and more responding to international criteria and standard. Algeria, whose GNP puts it in the upper middle income countries, according to The World Bank, has launched a number of programs with Webreview and Dépôt numérique de l’Université d’Alger I being the most notable and successful. Put in a worldwide context, they may seem too few (one should note that, up to 2015, five other Algerian institutional repositories have been launched in ROAR: Université AbouBakr Belkaid – Tlemcen,⁷ Université M’hamed BougaraBoumerdes,⁸ Theses et memoires, Université de Biskra,⁹ Dspace Université de Biskra,¹⁰ and CERIST Digital Library;¹¹ and the number of titles in CERIST’s Webreview has risen to 40 titles), but they may be considered as a good start. Despite some shortcomings as the description of the two programmes showed in this paper, they may signal an ever growing awareness by the national community of scientists in Algeria of the inevitability of implementing a clear policy of open access at the national level. The two cases mentioned that were launched by two of the most prominent institutions at the national level should not hide the fact that more could be done. The statistics regarding Internet bandwidth and penetration rate (that ranks Algeria 27th in Africa and practically the last compared to MENA countries) are the most crucial points to be taken care of. All these, rather disappointing, statistics ought to push those in charge to implement a comprehensive open access policy that would reflect the capacities the country has. For example, a programme that would impose on the academic institutions a mandate to create and provide open repositories with the indigenous scientific and institutional output is

7 8 9 10 11

3 A Bird’s Eye View of Two Open Access Experiences in Algeria


more than needed. If at the MENA level, Algeria could be considered as having respectable statistics regarding open repositories compared to other countries that should not hide the potentialities the country has. The two main problems lie in the fact that open access is not well known nor promoted and, more than that, the centralised system inhibit personal initiative that would come from researchers or managers of information systems (Hachani, 2015). If the developing world and Arab world have “missed the printing and the scientific and technological revolutions” (Gdoura, 2009), they cannot afford to miss this umpteenth revolution which, at the exponential speed it is developing, leaves little chance to those who do not undertake the right measures.

References Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities. (2003). Retrieved from Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing. (2003). Retrieved from ~peters/fos/bethesda.htm Budapest Open Access Initiative. (2002). Retrieved from http://www.budapestopenaccessinitiative. org/read Dépôt numérique de l’Université d’Alger. Retrieved from Dingley, B. (2006). U.S. periodical prices – 2005. Retrieved from sites/ The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). (2015). DOAJ homepage. Retrieved April 18, 2015, from Directory of Open Access Repositories (DOAR). (2015). DOAR search or browse for repositories webpage. Retrieved April 18, 2015 from The Free Dictionary. (n.d.-a). Download. Retrieved from The Free Dictionary. (n.d.-b). Upload. Retrieved from Gdoura, W. (2009, August). Le Libre accès dans les universités arabes: Opinions et pratiques des chercheurs et des éditeurs. Paper presented at the IFLA World Library and Information Congress, Milan, Italy. Retrieved from Global Open Access Portal (GOAP). (2013). Access by region: Algeria. Retrieved December 30, 2013 from Hachani, S. (2012, October). Webreview: Un exemple de libre accès du Sud. Centre National de Recherches Préhistoriques, Anthropologiques et Historiques, Algiers, Algeria. Available at: Hachani, S. (2015, May). Algerian universities’ open repositories: An output for indigenous science made by academic institutions in Algeria in creating and managing open repositories. Paper presented at Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in Libraries (QQML), Paris, France.

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Internet World Stats. (2014). World usage an population statistics. Retrieved June 16, 2014 from Netindex. (2015). Maps – Algeria. Retrieved June 2, 2015 from Panitch, J. M., and Michalak, S. (2005). The serials crisis: A white paper for the UNC-Chapel Hill Scholarly Communications Convocation. Retrieved from dig/whitepapers/panitch-michalak.html Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR). (2015). ROAR homepage. Retrieved April 18, 2015 from Sample, I. (2012, April 24). Harvard University says it can’t afford journal publishers’ prices. The Guardian. Retrieved from 2003 in context. (2003, December 18). Nature, 426(755). Retrieved from http://www.nature. com/nature/journal/v426/n6968/full/426755b.htmlf U. K. House of Commons Science and Technology Committee. (2004). Scientific publications: Free for all? Tenth report of session 2003–04. Retrieved from http://www.publications.par Webreview. (n.d.). Webreview homepage. Retrieved from Willinsky, J. (2006). The access principle: The case for open access to research and Scholarship. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Available at: files/titles/content/9780262512664_Download_the_full_text.pdf

Received: 17th July 2014 Final version received: 22nd February 2015 Accepted: 19th July 2015

Anaïs Salamon

4 Academic Librarianship and Coercion: A Case Study in the Occupied Palestinian Territories Introduction This chapter traces the evolution of the profession of academic librarianship in the occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT), examines the current state of the profession and explores the impact of social, economic and political factors on its definition and daily practice. It also outlines the strengths and limitations of some solutions put forward by the professional community to counter severe political constraints. The main objective of this study is to understand the development of academic librarianship in Palestinian society and the organization of training and daily professional practice. It seeks to shed light on the challenges resulting from the authoritarian political context that is stifling university libraries in the occupied Territories. Very few publications cover this dimension of the occupied Territories, and none discuss the profession in university settings; therefore, this research also aims to fill a gap in the professional literature. The chapter begins by explaining why Palestinian academic libraries are entrusted with the mission to ensure survival of the nation, and analyzing their geographical fragmentation and disparity. Next, it explores at a general level university library operations and everyday professional practice in the OPT coercive context and finally, it analyzes the difficulties inherent in defining the profession of academic librarianship, and discusses some characteristics of library personnel in the Territories. This research is based on the collection and analysis of questionnaire data and primary sources related to libraries. First, I systematically examined scientific articles; reports from professional associations, non-governmental organizations and the Palestinian Authority; and university library websites. Then, in 2013, I surveyed¹ a random selection of active academic library professionals and examined the résumés of working professionals published on the Internet.

1 The survey, in Arabic, was created with SurveyMonkey and sent by email to a cohort of active academic library staff, between November 10 and December 1, 2013. The questionnaire consisted of ten questions covering the current staff positions, qualifications, daily tasks and level of mobility in the Territories. The survey instrument can be found in Appendix 4.1.

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Because of the difficulty of differentiating between librarians and other academic library professionals, the only criterion used to select the participants in the study was that they must work in a university library² in the occupied Palestinian Territories. Even though 121 professionals were identified on Internet sites,³ the final cohort was only comprised of 67: despite being listed under a role or department, a number of professionals could not be reached. As such, the group of professionals contacted represents only a portion of the academic library personnel that is active in the occupied Palestinian Territories. Last, I am well-acquainted with the region, given my professional experience in the Territories from 2000 to 2002 and fluency in Arabic.

University Libraries at the Heart of Palestinian National Survival Since the first Palestinian expulsions in 1948, Palestinians have been grappling with a massive loss of land that threatens to wipe out their culture, history and memory (Brunner, 2012). It is therefore legitimate to ask how Palestinian society views scientific knowledge and higher education in which academic libraries and librarians play a central role. In a context where occupation and oppressive military administration drastically limit the control that Palestinians have over their society, the foundation, development and longevity of their universities – and university libraries – is baffling (Romani, 2008, p. 63). After 1948, the former Mandatory Palestine was partitioned into three: the newborn Israel; the Gaza Strip, occupied and administered by the Egyptian military; and the West Bank, occupied and annexed by Jordan in 1950. In 1967, the Israelis invaded the West Bank and Gaza, reunifying the three zones under the exclusive control of Israel. Over the course of several harsh battles, Palestinians from the West Bank and Gaza Strip – otherwise known as the occupied Palestinian Territories⁴ – won, in 1994, very limited administrative authority⁵ over the

2 In truth, this research examines the profession of “academic library professionals,” not the profession of “academic librarianship” as it is commonly defined in the West. 3 It appeared challenging to compile a list of all library professionals through the Internet search, as some libraries neither have websites nor publish staff contact information. 4 The term “occupied Territories” was first used in the United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 following the Six-Day War in 1967; “Occupied Palestinian Territory, including EastJerusalem” has become a common appellation since the Security Council Resolution 58/292 adopted in 2004.

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Gaza Strip and a few areas in the West Bank. Administratively divided in sixteen Governorates – eleven in the West bank and five in Gaza – the Territories remain today under the military occupation and legal policies of Israel, and Jewish settlements are continually being established in the West Bank. Adding to the equation an oppressive government like the Palestinian Authority, it is not unreasonable to state that Palestinians are subjected to two forms of authoritarian political constraints: domestic and Israeli. Following the 1967 invasion, which isolated Palestinians from the rest of the world and subjected them to Israeli economic exploitation, a few academic and independent research institutions began to appear in the OPT, and they have continued to develop ever since. The most rational hypothesis to explain how they emerged – despite Israeli occupation and colonization, – is that they are a calculated political move by the Israeli military administration: allowing Palestinian academic institutions to develop in the Territories benefited the Israelis in two ways. First, it allowed them to directly control Palestinian youth who, without universities, were likely to join the Palestinian Liberation Army beyond the borders and therefore out of Israeli control; second, it allowed them to comply, inexpensively, with their obligation to provide higher education services to the occupied civilian population which is a requirement of any occupying power (Romani, 2005). Bill 11, enacted in 1998 by the Palestinian Ministry of Education and Higher Education, recognizes three different statuses for institutions in higher education: governmental, public,⁶ and private institutions. Most higher education institutions in the OPT are public, but all, regardless of their status, must comply with the rules enacted by the Council of Higher Education as they receive “partial support and funding” from “the Palestinian Ministry of Education and Higher Education” (European Commission, 2012, p. 3). Although Palestinian higher education budgets have increased significantly in the past ten years, going from USD 20 million in 2002 to USD 90 million in 2011, between 60 to 70 percent of the operating budgets of higher education institutions are covered by tuition fees (European Commission, 2012, p. 5). Currently, in the Territories, there are 53 higher education institutions – 34 in the West Bank, 18 in Gaza, and one distance education institution, housing roughly 60 university and college libraries. The total population in the OPT is 4.4 million – 2.7 million in the West Bank and 1.7 million in the Gaza Strip – of whom 213,581 are students (Ministry of Education and Higher Education, 2013, p. x) – 80,587 enrolled in the West Bank, 71,402 in the Gaza Strip, and 61,592 as

5 Named Palestinian Authority, but remaining under Israeli control. 6 Established by nongovernmental organisations (NGOs).

66  Anaïs Salamon

distance learners. One of the questions arising is how academic libraries are distributed, staffed, and used across the OPT.

Numerous and Unequal University Libraries According to Bill 11,⁷ there are sixteen “universities” in the OPT including fifteen “traditional” universities, and the Open University,⁸ which between them house 25 libraries. In September 2012, 86.6 percent of the student population was enrolled in these higher education institutions. The analysis will focus on the professionals working in the 25 academic libraries operating in these sixteen universities, as presented in Tab. 4.1. The data in Tab. 4.1 were compiled from Bill 11, statistics issued by the Palestinian Ministry of Education and Higher Education (Ministry of Education and Higher Education, 2013), and University libraries’ websites. Tab. .: Library, date of foundation, and location. #

Name of the library

University Status⁹

Date of establishment

Location (City)


TulkaremKadoorie Hebron Ramallah (Birzeit)

West Bank

Traditional Universities 1

Palestine Technical University Library 2 Hebron University Library Birzeit University Libraries 3 Montesquieu Law Library 4 Said Khoury Development Studies Library 5 Yusuf Ahmed Alghanim Main Library




   


West Bank West Bank


7 Bill 11 distinguishes Traditional universities, Polytechnic University, the Open University, and other types of Higher Education Institutions such as “University Colleges and Community Colleges” (European Commission, 2012, p. 2); but only Institutions granting BA and higher degrees are considered “Universities”. 8 Al-Quds Open University is an online university only, and thus all students are distance education students. 9 According to the Palestinian Ministry of Education & Higher Education (Ministry of Education & Higher Education, 2011, p. 6). 10 Date of establishment, according to the library’s website: libfactsnum.htm (accessed 7 April 2016).

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Tab. 4.1: (continued) #

Name of the library

University Status⁹

Al-Azhar University Libraries 13 The Central Library Jawaher Lal Nehrow 14 Faculty of Agriculture Branch Library 15 Faculty of Engineering and Technology Branch Library 16 Islamic University of Gaza (IUG) Library 17 Arab-American University Library 18 Al-Aqsa University Library 19 Gaza Women University Library 20 University of Palestine Library

Location (City)




West Bank



West Bank

Jerusalem, Abu Dis, al-Bireh Gaza

West Bank

Gaza Strip



Institute of Women Studies Library 7 Bethlehem University Library Al-Najah National University Libraries 8 Diana Tamari Sabbagh Main Library (DTSL) 9 The New Campus Branch Library 10 Hisham Hijjawi College of Technology Library 11 Faculty of Agriculture Branch Library 12 Al-Quds University Library

Date of establishment


 Public

 ¹¹ ¹²



  Public   Public



Gaza Strip




West Bank

Governmental Private

 

Gaza Strip Gaza Strip



Rafah North Gaza North Gaza

Gaza Strip


11 Uncertain date. 12 Uncertain date.

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Tab. 4.1: (continued) #

Name of the library

University Status⁹


Al-Istiqlal University¹³ Atatürk Library Gaza University Central Library Palestine Polytechnic University Library


22 23

Date of establishment

Location (City)




West Bank




Gaza Strip




West Bank


Distance education

 

Ramallah Gaza

Open University al-Quds Open University of Jerusalem Libraries 24 West Bank Branch 25 Gaza Branch

Public West Bank Gaza Strip

The presence of 25 academic libraries in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip shows a strong concentration of university services in very limited spaces – a land of less than 3,500 square kilometers.¹⁴ Moreover, libraries are unevenly distributed on the territory: the Gaza Strip occupying only 5.5 percent of the total surface of the OPT houses 40 percent of the university libraries, when the Ramallah/al-Bireh Governorate (West Bank) covering 12 percent of the territory houses 24 percent of the university libraries. This seemingly irrational redundancy of university libraries across the Occupied Palestinian Territories needs to be put into perspective by looking at two elements: firstly, the number of students who use the services and collections of these establishments, and secondly, the way in which these libraries are managed. The libraries dotted across the occupied Palestinian Territories each serve 37,000 students on average; there were 185,076 students enrolled in traditional universities and the open university in September 2012 (Ministry of Education and Higher Education, 2013, pp. 36-120), and using 25 academic libraries. Logically, a large number of university libraries should be an advantage because they could provide ample access to resources and knowledge.

13 In 2013, the former “Palestinian Academic Security College” became a traditional University by the name of “al-Istiqlal University” ( 14 According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS), the West Bank is 6,655 square kilometers large, and Gaza 365 square kilometers large. Sixty percent of these areas is classified “Area C”, on which Israeli have full civilian and security control. The land under effective Palestinian authority is less than 3,500 km². See: default.aspx#Geography&ClimateConditions (accessed 7 April 2016).

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Yet the uneven distribution of these establishments and the limited mobility of the student and professional bodies, resulting from Israeli colonization, have reduced university libraries to serving only the people living in the immediate vicinity when collaborative efforts would have offered Palestinian students the possibility to take advantage of resources located in any academic library. In addition, academic libraries, at least the ones operating in the largest universities: – Birzeit, al-Najah and al-Azhar libraries, – seem to be managed by the College or Faculty they serve, rather than by a centralized administration. Operating independently though located on the same campus introduces a degree of duplication in collections and inefficiency for library employees on one hand, and of confusion for library users on the other hand. The duplication of efforts can be observed on the Internet, where each library has its own website, including a distinct catalog, and one can assume this reflects the situation on the ground. Also, it can be surmised that funding so many institutions is probably responsible for the paucity of resources, which has a direct impact on the collections and services. Palestinian academic libraries are unevenly staffed. The data in Tab. 4.2 were gathered from Internet sites, the statistics of the Palestinian Ministry of Education and Higher-Education (Ministry of Education and Higher Education, 2011) and via email with the invaluable help of professionals working in these institutions. Though incomplete, this data help to paint a picture of the work environment of Palestinian academic librarians. Tab. .: Collections, floor area, staff, and number of students. #

Name of the library

Collection (# of titles)

Floor area (in m²)

Number of library staff

Enrolled students

Traditional Universities 1 2

Palestine Technical University Library¹⁵ Hebron University Library¹⁷



At least ¹⁶




, (continued)

15 (accessed 7 April 2016). 16 The website provides an organizational chart including six Departments, managed by a director and a coordinator: I assumed at least one person worked in each Department. 17 (accessed 7 April 2016).

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Tab.4.2: (continued) #

Name of the library

Birzeit University Libraries¹⁸ 3 Montesquieu Law Library 4 Said Khoury Development Studies Library 5 Yusuf Ahmed Alghanim Main Library 6 Institute of Women Studies Library 7 Bethlehem University Library¹⁹ Al-Najah National University Libraries²⁰ 8 Diana Tamari Sabbagh Main Library (DTSL) 9 The New Campus Branch Library 10 Hisham Hijjawi College of Technology Library 11 Faculty of Agriculture Branch Library 12 Al-Quds University Library²¹ Al-Azhar University Libraries²² 13 The Central Library Jawaher Lal Nehrow 14 Faculty of Agriculture Branch Library 15 Faculty of Engineering and Technology Branch Library 16 Islamic University of Gaza (IUG) Library²³

Collection (# of titles)

Floor area (in m²)

Number of library staff

Enrolled students

30,8040 ,

11,066 

35 









, ,

















, 

18 7 April 2016). 19 (accessed 7 April 2016). 20 (accessed 7 April 2016). 21 7 April 2016). 22 (accessed 7 April 2016). 23 (accessed 7 April 2016).

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Tab.4.2: (continued) #

Name of the library


Arab-American University Library²⁴ Al-Aqsa University Library²⁵ Gaza Women University Library²⁶ University of Palestine Library²⁷ Al-Istiqlal University Atatürk Library Gaza University Central Library²⁸ Palestine Polytechnic University Library³⁰

18 19 20 21 22 23

Collection (# of titles)

Floor area (in m²)

, ,


Number of library staff

Enrolled students


























Open University al-Quds Open University of Jerusalem Libraries³¹ 24 West Bank Branch 25 Gaza Branch TOTAL




For the purposes of this research, I will look only at the numbers related to personnel. Across the OPT, the ratio of academic library staff to students is approximately 1 to 772; in the West Bank, 1 to 730; and in Gaza, 1 to 641. Locally speaking, the academic library with the most staff is Bethlehem University, a

24 (accessed 7 April 2016). 25 A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D9%82%D8%B5%D9%89%D8%B9%D9%85%D8%A7%D8%AF%D8%A9% D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%83%D8%AA%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%AA (accessed 7 April 2016). 26 No website. 27 (accessed 7 April 2016). 28 (accessed 7 April 2016). 29 The library website doesn’t provide exact figures. 30 (accessed 7 April 2016). 31 (accessed 7 April 2016).

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public institution, with 13 employees for 3,130 students (1 to 241). In contrast, the library with the least staff is that of Hebron University, another public institution, with only 5 professionals for 7,118 students (1 to 1,424). How are these academic librarians organized? How do they face the challenges brought by unequal staffing? And is there any individual or institutional collaboration between libraries? Founded in 2005, the Palestinian Library and Information Consortium (PALICO), comprising seventeen university and college libraries, is the perfect example of a collaborative effort between libraries across the Occupied Palestinian Territories and beyond. Although it has not been made official because of the political situation in the Territories, PALICO is associated with Electronic Information for Libraries (EIFL), a foundation working with libraries in developing countries to improve access to digital information, as an independent organization. On EIFL’s website,³² the PALICO’s activities are described as follows: “electronic content licensing, advocacy for open access, intellectual property advocacy, use of open source software, education and training, digital services, union catalog services.” In 2009, PALICO launched a website,³³ to which access is sporadic; in addition, it contains very little information on ongoing activities, if there are any. A third party website states that on 23 April 2012, PALICO held its first meeting for the 2011–2012 academic year, but this information could not be validated.

Problematic Definition(s) of the Profession of Academic Librarianship It is hard to define the profession of librarian, let alone that of the academic librarian in the occupied Palestinian Territories. Defining librarianship, including academic librarianship, and the role of librarians is a challenging question that has been mobilizing the professionals around the world for years. In North America and Europe, although the question remains intact, professional associations determined a required set of skills and competencies (ALA Executive Board, 2009), commonly gained by obtaining a Master of Library Science or equivalent. In the Occupied Palestinian Territories, there does not seem to be a consensus among the professional community regarding the minimum skills or certifications required. Yet in neighboring countries like Jordan and Egypt, the standardization of the

32 (accessed 7 April 2016). 33 (accessed 7 April 2016).

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profession through criteria modeled on European and North American standards (Halwagy, 1992; Younis, 1992) began approximately at the end of the 1950s. Though a professional association (PLIA³⁴), with its own University Libraries Committee, does exist in the Territories, the research revealed no definition or criteria related to the profession of academic librarianship. And it would have been impossible to refer to foreign norms as indicators of the state of the profession in the Territories. Both the analysis of the websites and the survey answers revealed that even the term “librarian” itself was rarely used as a job title. And when used, “librarian” did not seem to refer to a clearly defined role. The Bethlehem University Library is the only institution using terminology similar to that of North America in reference to employee job titles.³⁵ Incidentally the number of librarians with a degree in library and information science, whether bachelor’s or master’s, is particularly high there compared with the number of graduate librarians in other institutions. The library director has a PhD in education and a Master’s of Library and Information Science (MLIS). Among the heads of services, two have an MLIS, and the reference librarian, librarian, instructional technology and digital services librarian and acquisitions librarian all have bachelor’s degrees in literature (English literature most commonly) or business/accounting. The majority of the staff in this library studied abroad,³⁶ which could possibly explain the more obvious attempts at standardization (Bergan, 2000, p. 7). On the other hand, the Library Facts and Figures page of Birzeit University’s Yusuf Ahmed Alghanim Main Library Internet site³⁷ specifies that four out of 27 employees are “professional librarians,” but there is no indication as to what this means, and therefore no conclusions can be drawn from this. In addition, among the questionnaire responses, only one job title includes the term “librarian,” and the respondent works at the Bethlehem library. While the above may show that the profession is in the process of being standardized in the OPT, Bethlehem and Birzeit are currently exceptions, and it would have been inappropriate to apply their standards to the 21 other libraries.

Non-Standardized Training In neighboring countries such as Egypt and Jordan, the emergence of professional associations coincided with the integration of library and information science (LIS) courses into the university curriculum (Halwagy, 1992; Younis, 34 35 36 37 (accessed 7 April 2016). (accessed 7 April 2016). In the Philippines, in the United Kingdom and in Jordan. (accessed 7 April 2016).

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1992) at the bachelor’s and master’s levels.³⁸ In the Territories, still today, LIS modules are seldom offered at university level. Only two universities offer courses in this discipline: in 1998, the Al-Aqsa University created the Faculty of Library Science, which was merged with the Faculty of Arts and Human Science in 2004, and offers 40 accredited modules as part of a Bachelor of Arts (BA) program³⁹; the Palestine Technical University-Kadoorie offers a 3-year technical diploma in library science.⁴⁰ In 2000, Bergan mentioned a study, led by the Palestinian Ministry of Education and Higher Education, that examined the possibility of developing an LIS program in a Palestinian university. Recommendations for the creation of a diploma at the Al-Quds University (Bergan, 2000, p. 7) were to be formulated, but it seems that the project never materialized. Because of the rarity of local training in library and information science, and of the limited mobility of students, Palestinians opt to study abroad, returning with very diverse professional cultures, which affect everyday practice and possibly the standardization of the profession as well. Palestinian libraries would undoubtedly benefit from the creation “of an institution that could develop a library and information science adapted to their needs” (Bergan, 2000, p. 7).

Revival of the Palestinian Library and Information Association Because of the occupation, university libraries in the occupied Palestinian Territories have never benefited from complete institutional autonomy. Despite this, it seems that a group of academic library professionals came together independently in 1960 to found the Palestinian Library and Information Association (PLIA),⁴¹ in Nablus. Though the institutional development of the profession

38 In Egypt, library and information science start developing with the foundation of the Egyptian Library Association (created in 1944), and of the High Institute of Archives and Library Sciences (created in 1951), and the development of library training and education evening courses over four years giving students a specialty in archives or library sciences (Halwagy, 1992). In Jordan, the Ministry of Education had developed, even before the creation of the Jordan Library Association (JLA), a curricula addressed to librarians however limited to cataloging and classification. It kept developing until 1985, when the Library and Information Sciences curricula integrated the one of the Consultation Center, Technical Services and Studies (CCTSS) at the University of Jordan (Younis, 1992). 39 (accessed 7 April 2016). 40 Three years technical degree. 41 (accessed 7 April 2016).

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of librarian in the West Bank and in East Jerusalem, which was at the time annexed and administered by the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,⁴² is comparable to the development of the profession in Jordan⁴³ (Younis, 1992, p. 16–17), the 1967 Israeli invasion resulted in the dissolution of the PLIA which stopped this evolution. It was not until 1994 that a new decree for the organization was enacted, but in reality the association was forbidden to hold any meetings or professional gatherings (Bergan, 2000) until the beginning of the twenty-first century. Today the PLIA has a website where it advertises professional training, and publishes a list of members,⁴⁴ including 68 academic librarians.⁴⁵ In June 2012, a University Libraries Committee was created, composed of seven members from university libraries located primarily in the West Bank. One member works at the Palestine Technical University, one of the two universities offering a bachelor’s degree in information and documentation science. As of February 2014, there was no news on the committee’s page, which suggests that there are currently no projects underway. Efforts to contact the committee president for further information were unfruitful, and it is impossible to confirm whether the committee is active.

The Impact of the Occupation on the Running of Academic Libraries and Everyday Professional Practice This final section focuses on how Palestinian university libraries manage to function and provide services to users despite the coercive context, and how professionals do their jobs.

Isolation and Distribution of Academic Libraries The fragmentation of university zones located along the geopolitical divisions imposed by Israel has resulted in the isolation and disjunction of university

42 In 1948, Transjordan annexed the West Bank and East-Jerusalem, and controlled administratively both Territories until 1988. 43 In Jordan, library and information science start developing when students are sent to the U.K. for training (1956), the Jordan Library Association (JLA) is founded (1963), a professional journal entitled Risalat al-maktabah is launched (1965), and library and information science courses become a specialization at the Teachers Institute in Amman (1966–67) (Younis, 1992). 44 370 members in December 2013. 45 See: data is dated 2012 (accessed 7 April 2016).

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libraries, which not only restricts user and staff access (Montague, 2002, p. 1; Safi, 2012, p. 9), but also limits the purchase of materials, work of professional associations and interlibrary collaboration, including interlibrary loan.

Immobilization of People and Goods Tab. .: Geographical mobility and job stability. Works where born

Has been in the current position for




 years or less

– years

more than  years







Tab. 4.3 documents the answers to survey questions 3 and 4 covering place of work and job tenure. Results show that exactly half of the professionals work in the governorate where they were born; the other half have changed governorates. The study does not reveal whether professionals chose their place of work or if it was imposed. Conducting further research on the issue would be valuable. Tab. 4.3 also shows that there is considerable job stability in the profession – the majority of respondents (p. 14) have held their position for more than 10 years. Once hired, professionals seem to remain in their positions for a long time. Restricted mobility could explain this finding, but further investigation would be necessary to confirm the hypothesis. Impeding people’s mobility has another consequence, which can be observed in Tab. 4.3. The inconsistency between enrolment numbers from one university to another is so extreme that it cannot be ascribed to population density alone. The inability to move freely prevents a significant number of students from attending the university of their choice (Montague, 2002, pp. 1–3). And the fact that study programs offered in the West Bank and Gaza “were planned as one integrated system (…) based on the assumption that programs that exist in Gaza and the West Bank will serve both Palestinian populations” (Gisha – Legal Center for Freedom of Movement, 2006, p. 2) accentuates the disruption caused by this lack of mobility. Furthermore, the phenomenal success of distance learning – in 2011, distance students represented almost a fourth (22.69 percent) of the total students population – seems to confirm that access to higher-education institutions is fettered. Also, banned from travelling, library professionals cannot attend professional development training courses or visit book fairs in neighboring countries, such as Egypt and Jordan (Safi, 2012, p. 4).

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Restricting freedom of movement also affects goods, and Safi (2012) notes that the Gaza blockade of 2003 is the perfect example. Between 2006 and 2012, the development of collections in Gaza libraries came to a halt because of the blockade Israel imposed on all deliveries. Several construction and renovation projects were also suspended because of a lack of materials and a spike in prices because of the delivery of goods via the underground tunnels. Finally, the Islamic University of Gaza (IUG) reported that some projects, such as the development of their website and the binding of ancient books, were postponed, and that blackouts affecting everyday operations and effectiveness of services caused a significant drop in user attendance (Safi, 2012).

Israeli Censorship Until the mid-1990s, which marked the end of the 1987 revolt, and the implementation of a Palestinian administrative authority over the Occupied Territories, Israelis directly repressed Palestinian university libraries in various ways including the publication of a list of banned books. More recently, in 2000, a report on the state of direct censorship imposed on Palestinian libraries since 1967, mentions that approximately 1,600 publications were still banned in Palestinian libraries, primarily works considered to “express or arouse Palestinian national feelings” (Bergan, 2000, p. 6).

Limited Funding The funding challenges faced by academic libraries in the occupied Palestinian Territories are well documented, in the Gaza Strip at least. The 2003 Gaza blockade caused a drastic drop in international funding, the consequences of which were outlined in a report by PalThink⁴⁶ (Safi, 2012, pp. 5–6). Following the blockade, Turkey withdrew an offer of funding for the construction of the Al-Aqsa University library on the Khan Younis campus. Moreover, the reconstruction of the Islamic University of Gaza’s main library, which was partly destroyed by a fire caused by an Israeli bomb, was only made possible through a charitable donation from

46 ‘PALThink for Strategic Studies’ is an independent non-profit, non-governmental and nonsectarian organization that aims to stimulate and inspire rational public discussions and consensus, and to promote innovative development solutions for the well-being of the Palestinians and the Region.

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the United Arab Emirates (Safi, 2012, pp. 4–5). The struggling economy has obvious repercussions on academic libraries as well as on their operation and professionals.

Destruction or Confiscation of Documents, Resources, Archives, etc. Many examples of destruction or confiscation of documents in Palestinian libraries, public and academic, were documented. The International Responsibilities Task Force of the American Library Association (ALA) reported the destruction caused by the Israeli army at the Sakakini Cultural Centre, in Ramallah, on April 14, 2002 (Twiss, 2002). The International Committee of the Blue Shield (ICBS) also reported on the damage to two Gaza university libraries, IUG and Al-Aqsa in 2009 (Anfrus, 2009, p. 1). These examples illustrate the desecration of Palestinian culture and memory at the hands of the Israeli occupying forces. The pillage of the Sakakini Cultural Centre is described as being “part of a systematic campaign to obliterate the cultural tools and institutions that represent the minority or dominated population” (Civallero, 2007, p. 7). In a context where the population is being robbed of its culture and memory, it is clear that librarians, including those in the university setting, play a crucial role in national survival: “the profession of librarian can no longer be viewed as a purely technical, librarians are now the guardians of the collective memory.” (Civallero, 2007, p. 10)

Perceptions and Profiles of Palestinian Academic Library Staff This section focuses strictly on the survey answers to better grasp how respondents define and experience their profession.

A Relatively Male-Dominated Sphere? As described in Tab. 4.4, although approximately the same number of men and women were surveyed,⁴⁷ more men responded than women. On the total popula-

47 In six cases the questionnaire was sent to general library email addresses instead of a specific person.

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tion of academic library professionals identified through the Internet, men were slightly higher in number. Moreover, the majority of respondents were university library directors or staff in similar positions.⁴⁸ Professionals in these positions are likely to have Internet access, an email address, a private office and spare time to complete a survey, which could explain the above results, but other factors surely come into play. However, without the means to identify these factors, the large number of managers among respondents remains an observation. By crossing the two variables above, results show that three out of the nine women in the cohort, and ten out of the fifteen men are directors or the equivalent, i.e. 33 percent of women and 67 percent of men. Tab. .: Gender repartition. Sample Academic library professionals who received the questionnaire Academic library professionals who participated to the survey Total academic library professionals




  

  

  

Relative Internationalization of Training and Diplomas Most respondents have at least one university degree, but few have a degree in information and library science. Tab. .: Degree(s) earned and position held. Library and information science Degree(s) earned Degree(s) earned PhD MLS/MLIS Bachelor or equivalent in LIS Diploma in LIS Other Degree(s) Doctorate Master of Arts (MA)




Other library Professional

   

   


48 Includes director, head, interim head, assistant head.

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Tab. 4.5: (continued) Library and information science Degree(s) earned


Degree(s) earned Master of Science (MSc) Master of Business Administration (MBA) Bachelor of Arts (BA) Bachelor of Sciences (BSc) Diploma TOTAL DEGREES EARNED



Other library Professional

   

   

    




Tab. 4.5 shows that fourteen out of 24 respondents have a degree in library and information science, the vast majority of whom are in management positions (p. 12). Similarly, few directors are graduates in other disciplines, so it can be assumed that having a degree in LIS opened the door to these executive positions. The majority of the library personnel have a bachelor’s degree (15 out of 24), degrees in arts subjects (p. 6) being more common than sciences (p. 4). In terms of their university education, Palestinian university library professionals with degrees in LIS were, for the most part, trained abroad (Tab. 4.6). Tab. .: Academic trajectory of Palestinian library professionals. Country where Other Degree(s) Degree was earned

Degree(s) in library and information science


PhD Master Bachelor Diploma PhD MLS/ Bachelor Diploma MLIS Palestinian Territories: Bethlehem Birzeit Gaza Kadoorie Nablus Distance education Middle Eastern Countries: Iraq



    




 -

 -

     








4 Academic Librarianship and Coercion


Tab.4.6: (continued) Country where Other Degree(s) Degree was earned

Degree(s) in library and information science


PhD Master Bachelor Diploma PhD MLS/ Bachelor Diploma MLIS Jordan Sudan Lebanon Turkey Other Countries: Ex-USSR: Azerbaijan United States United Kingdom


 -

  -



 

 -

 -

   


 



  -

 -

   

One respondent has a bachelor’s degree, and one a technical diploma⁴⁹ in LIS obtained locally, but all the MA and PhD degrees were obtained abroad. The résumés of these professionals confirm this observation.⁵⁰ In sum, out of 15 degrees in LIS, 9 were obtained in the Middle East, 3 in Arab-speaking countries including Jordan, 2 in the Palestinian Territories, 2 in Iraq, 1 in Sudan, and 1 in Turkey. Other locations mentioned by respondents were the former USSR (p. 2), the United Kingdom (p. 2) and the United States (p. 1). Despite the large number of universities and higher-education institutions in the OPT, professionals who earned diplomas in disciplines other than LIS also chose to train in roughly the same locations. The 3 master’s degrees were obtained abroad: one each in Jordan, the United Kingdom and the former USSR; 6 bachelor’s degrees were obtained in the OPT; and 4 were obtained abroad: 2 in Jordan and 2 in Lebanon. This begs a valid question: why were so many bachelor’s degrees earned abroad when the same degrees are offered locally? Moreover, the majority of international degrees were obtained between 1971 and 1996 (2 master’s and 3 bachelor’s) while only one master’s and 2 bachelor’s were obtained between 2007 and 2011. The most credible hypothesis is that international institutions were rated higher than local ones until the latter became more recognized: a similar phenomenon was observed for social scientists (Romani, 2008).

49 Three year technical diploma. 50 Two examples are the Head of Bethlehem University, and the acting Director of al-Najah New Campus Library.

82  Anaïs Salamon

Job Titles and Everyday Professional Practice: Inadequate Specialization Data reveal that the job title of one respondent is “secretary,” yet the daily tasks associated with this position include circulation, shelving and reference. This example serves to illustrate that a job title is not necessarily congruent with daily tasks. Other responses suggest that aside from administrative management, which is exclusively the directors’ responsibility, all professionals are expected to participate in the daily tasks that are essential to the running of the library, such as circulation, shelving, ordering materials and cataloging. Out of thirteen directors, two consider that the shelving and circulation of materials are part of their everyday tasks. Tab. 4.7 shows the answers to question 10, addressing daily tasks. The list of tasks used in the questionnaire was established by crossing a list of services offered in university libraries (Alire & Evans, 2010, pp. 241–260) and two lists outlining the responsibilities of academic librarians (Alire & Evans, 2010, pp. 241–260; Langley, Gray, & Vaughan, 2003) in the West. Respondents were given space to include additional tasks if necessary, but only three respondents appended a total of five tasks related to the initial categories; there was no need then to extend the list. Tab. .: Daily tasks and duties, and position held. Tasks Administration and management Collection development Information literacy Reference Cataloging Circulation Interlibrary Loan Shelving Scholarly research Other⁵²

Director or equivalent

Other library Professional


         

        

      ⁵¹   

51 Only one professional listed interlibrary loan as part of his daily tasks which raises the question of the existence of an ILL network. 52 Other included: – administrative tasks such as “staff management”, “strategic planning”, and “cooperation with peer-institutions” – subject expertise such as “government documents”, and “serials cataloging” – “help to students with disabilities” – “website and library catalog design and maintenance”

4 Academic Librarianship and Coercion


The most common daily activities listed by respondents were administration, collection development and reference. As for task distribution between managers and other professionals, the survey revealed that managers are largely responsible for collection development and information literacy. Although infrequent, scientific research falls primarily under the everyday responsibilities of managers rather than other professionals. Conversely, reference, circulation and cataloging are assigned primarily to staff other than managers. Based on a cohort of 24 professionals, this analysis provides an initial interpretation of the distribution of daily tasks among professionals in Palestinian academic libraries, and consequently of professional practice in the Territories. The poor institutionalization of the profession, the uneven training of professionals, and the unequal geographic distribution of university libraries result in a lack of specialization of tasks.

Conclusion The main purpose of this exploratory research was to seek a better understanding of the development of academic librarianship and its professional practice in the OPT. Because of the instability of the region, any discourse on Palestinian libraries is bound to be a challenge (Lefebvre-Danset, 2009, p. 325). The analysis of questionnaire data and primary sources related to libraries has helped to shed light not only on the profession and on academic library professionals but also on the challenges faced by professionals working in a coercive context like that of the OPT. The notion of professional institutionalization is a key factor, which allows for a comparison with other library settings and histories. This research demonstrates that the limitations stemming from a coercive context, it appears that enforced confinement is the most harmful. In an era where in other professional communities, such as those in North America and Europe, the trend is toward unrestricted collaboration, restricting the freedom of movement of goods and people contributes to creating a library system that is quasi-self-sufficient. This study also reveals that the profession is not standardized like it is in other professional communities in the Middle East and the West, making it impossible to distinguish between librarians and other library paraprofessionals and staff. This is corroborated by the reality that aside from administrative tasks, the daily tasks essential to the running of the libraries are indiscriminately distributed among all staff members. The training for librarians and professionals is not fully standardized, and is mostly obtained abroad, which results in the presence of very diverse aptitudes and work cultures in the professional community and affects not only everyday practice but also the

84  Anaïs Salamon

standardization of the profession as well. Finally, the study demonstrates that the role of academic libraries in the OPT and of Palestinian academic library professionals assumes special meaning given the issues of cultural and national survival that affect the OPT and their people. The Palestinian situation addresses the issues of political coercion, institutional history, and the transformation of the roles of librarians and libraries in their social and academic settings.

Appendix 4.1: Survey Instrument 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

[Are you a man or a woman?] [What is your exact job title?] [How long have you been in this position?] [Do you work in the governorate where you were born?] [How long have you been in librarianship?] [Do you have a University degree?] [What/where did you study? And what is your highest degree?] [Do you hold a library degree?] [When did you get your first and last University degree(s)?] [Which tasks does your daily duties include? – Administrative work (management) – Collection development – Information literacy – Reference and help to users – Cataloguing – Circulation (loans/returns) – Interlibrary Loan – Shelving – Research – Others (please specify)]

‫ﻫﻞ ﺍﻧﺖ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺃﻡ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ؟‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﺒﻮﻃﺔ؟‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺬ ﻣﺘﻰ ﻭﺍﻧﺖ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ؟‬ ‫ﻫﻞ ﺗﺸﺘﻐﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﻟﺪﺕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ؟‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺬ ﻣﺘﻰ ﻭﺍﻧﺖ ﺗﺸﺘﻐﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ ؟‬ ‫ﻫﻞ ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺗﺒﺔ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ ؟‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﻭﺃﻳﻦ ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ؟ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ؟‬ ‫ﻫﻞ ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺗﺒﺔ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ؟‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻰ ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺗﺒﺘﻚ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ؟‬ ‫ﺃﻱ ﻣﻬﻨﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﺔ ؟‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﺘﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻊ ﻭﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺋﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺮﺍﺽ ﻭﻋﻮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻮﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﯽ‬ (‫ﻣﻬﻨﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ )ﻋ ّﻴﻦ ﻟﻮ ﺳﻤﺤﺖ‬

– – – – – – – – – –

4 Academic Librarianship and Coercion


References Alire, C. A., and Edward Evans, G. (2010). Academic librarianship. New York, NY: Neal-Schuman Publishers. American Library Association (ALA), Executive Board. (2009). ALA’s core competencies of librarianship. American Library Association. educationcareers/files/content/careers/corecomp/corecompetences/finalcorecomp stat09.pdf. Anfrus, J. (2009). Cultural Heritage in Gaza damaged and in great danger. Blue Shield Organization. Bergan, E. (2000). Libraries in the West Bank and Gaza: Obstacles and possibilities. In 66th IFLA Council and General Conference Programme and Proceedings, Jerusalem, Israel, August 2000. Brunner, B. (2012). The great book robbery. Directed by Benny Brunner. 57 minutes. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: 2911 Foundation; Xela Films, DVD. Civallero, E. (2007). When memory turns into ashes... Memoricide during XX century. Information for Social Change, 25, 1–13. European Commission. (2012). Higher education in the occupied Palestinian territory. Education, audiovisual and culture executive agency (EACEA) Unit P10 – Tempus and bilateral cooperation with industrialised countries. ting_countries/overview/oPt.pdf. Gisha – Legal Center for Freedom of Movement. (2006). Limitations on access to higher education for Palestinian students. Publications_and_Reports_English/Position_Paper_Dec_06.pdf. Halwagy, A. S. (1992). Recent changes in library education in Egypt. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 33(3), 255–259. doi: 10.2307/40323230. Langley, A., Gray E. G., and Vaughan, K. T. L. (2003). The role of the academic librarian. Oxford, UK; Rollinsford, NH: Chandos. Lefebvre-Danset, F. (2009). Libraries in Palestine. IFLA Journal, 35(4), 322–334. Accessed 3 March 2014, Montague, B. (26 July 2002). A rocket in a university library... Times Higher Education. Accessed 25 February 2014, Palestinian National Authority, Ministry of Education and Higher Education. (2011). Palestinian higher education statistics. [doc. #12] Romani, V. (2005). Quelques Réflexions à Propos des Processus Coercitifs dans les Territoires Occupés [Some Thoughts about Coercive Processes in the Occupied Territories]. Études Rurales, 173–174, 251–272. Romani, V. (2008). Sciences Sociales et Coercition: Les Social Scientists des Territoires Palestiniens entre Lutte Nationale et Indépendance Scientifique. [Social Sciences and Coercion: Social Scientists in the Palestinian Territories between National Struggle and Scientific Independence]. PhD thesis, Université Aix-Marseille I. Safi, K. M. (2012). The impact of the Gaza blockade on the higher education sector. Pal-Think for Strategic Studies.

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State of Palestine, Ministry of Education and Higher Education. (2013). ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺣﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﻱ‬ ‫ ﺍﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ‬Higher Education Institutions Statistical Yearbook: 2012–2013. http:// [doc. #3] Twiss, T. (2002). Damage to Palestinian libraries and archives during the spring of 2002. International Responsibilities Task Force of the American Library Association’s Social Responsibilities Round Table. Younis, A. R. (1992). Professional library development, manpower education and training in Jordan. International Information and Library Review, 24(1), 15–43. doi: 10.1016/s10572317(05)80022-0

Received: 1st October 2014 Final version received: 8th March 2015 Accepted: 10th March 2015.

Daphne Flanagan and Frieda Wiebe

5 American-style Academic Libraries in the Gulf Region Introduction Over the past few decades there has been a marked increase in American-style education in the Arabian Gulf region. A number of factors contribute to the impetus for American universities to expand into the global arena. According to the American Council on Education, institutions want to achieve specific objectives such as “advancing their internationalization efforts, providing international exposure for their faculty, generating new revenue and diversifying revenue streams, enhancing prestige and contributing to nation-building by helping meet educational needs of other countries” (Green, 2007, p. 5). There has also been an increased global demand for education and most nations see “higher education as an indispensable strategic tool for shaping, directing, and promoting economic growth” (Brody, 2007, para. 2). Additionally, the globalization of trade and business helps to make U.S. degrees more valuable. The wide-spread use of English as a teaching medium in non-English speaking countries is another contributing factor. Studying for a U.S. education in their home countries is appealing because of lower tuition costs, elimination of travel expenses, and the avoidance of obstacles in obtaining a U.S. visa. It also allows students to remain close to their families (Green, 2007). Traditional centers of education in the Middle East such as Baghdad, Beirut, Cairo, and Damascus are facing upheaval because war and political strife there are making them less desirable academic locations. The Gulf region countries do not have a rich history of educational development. The 2003 United Nations’ Arab Human Development Report noted that most universities in the region have been established very recently and that many of them lack autonomy from the ruling regime (United Nations Development Programme, 2003, p. 56). Similarly, a World Bank report emphasized the need for educational reform in the region (World Bank, 2008, p. 8). In 2002 Mohammed Fathy Saoud, the former president of Qatar Foundation, noted that few of the Gulf region’s higher education institutions were of high quality (Mangan, 2002). These reasons led to the aggressive effort to import high-quality programs (Krieger, 2008). With the impetus to export education coming from the western world and the desire to import coming from the Gulf region countries (along with their considerable economic capacity to do so), it is not surprising to see the rise of

88  Daphne Flanagan and Frieda Wiebe

American-style education in the Gulf region. Characterized by a liberal arts core, a focused major, and an emphasis on effective pedagogy, American-style educational institutions are in demand in the region. Among the dozens of private universities established recently many have either formed a partnership or an affiliation with an American university. Some governments of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries have initiated large scale projects to attract reputable Western universities. Such projects include Education City in Qatar and Dubai International Academic City. The Emirate of Sharjah has established a University City comprised primarily of locally developed institutions. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has opened the research intensive King Abdullah University of Science and Technology. Using institutional examples from Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates, this chapter will examine three academic models and their libraries – branch campuses of major U.S. universities, private universities accredited by U.S. agencies, and national public universities modeled on western institutions. Of course, there are numerous variations within these models and they revolve around the definition of private versus public institutions and around the matter of program accreditation. Additionally, while some institutions model an ‘American style’ at the outset, over time they tend to reflect a mixed approach taken from British, European, Australian, Canadian, and other western styles as a result of hiring diversity in faculty, administrative, and staff appointments. We will note these variations in our discussion of some individual institutions and their libraries.

Branch Campuses of Major U.S. Universities Among the current topics in the higher education landscape is that of international branch campuses (IBCs). In its 2012 report on this topic, the Observatory on Borderless Higher Education (OBHE) defines an IBC as “a higher education institution that is located in another country from the institution which either originated it or operates it, with some physical presence in the host country, and which awards at least one degree in the host country that is accredited in the country of the originating institution” (Lawton & Katsomitros, 2012, p. 2). Of the 200 degree-awarding IBCs in operation worldwide in 2011, the U.S. provided 78, the greatest number provided, and the UAE hosted 37, the greatest number hosted. Eight of the 37 IBCs hosted by the UAE were provided by the United States. Qatar hosted ten universities, of which six are American. Bahrain was the only other GCC country to host an American higher education institution. These numbers have, however, decreased since 2011. In the UAE, both Boston

5 American-style Academic Libraries in the Gulf Region


University School of Dentistry and Duke University Business School closed in 2012. In Bahrain, the New York Institute of Technology closed in January 2014. According to the campus dean, the university was not allowed to admit new students after a review by the National Authority of Qualifications and Quality Assurance for Education and Training (NAQQAET), which is the Scottish Qualifications Authority selected by Bahrain to implement its quality standards. “The NAQQAET gave us a poor review despite the accreditation that was given to us from bodies that came from the US, who gave us a good review.” (“The end of an era,” 2013). George Mason University shuttered its campus in Ras al Khaymah, UAE, after its local government partner sought to make midstream changes in their agreement, demanded to hire a chief academic dean, and reduced its financial commitment (Fischer, 2012). Additional reasons for international branch campus closures have included over-optimistic enrollment targets and failure of students to meet academic standards (Bollag, 2006). Such closures along with recent increases in student mobility from the Middle East to the U.S.A. (Farrugia, Bhandari & Chow, 2012, p. 46), concerns about successful recruitment of home campus faculty (Mangan, 2002), and the general shift in IBC activity to the Far East may account for the slower IBC growth rate in the Gulf region over the past few years. According to the OBHE report, there are no new American IBCs planned for the Middle East (Lawton & Katsomitros, 2012, p. 24). Here we will discuss only those U.S. provided international branch campuses in the GCC countries that offer a physical library space and provide library services. They are the six American universities operating in Qatar and New York University and Rochester Institute of Technology in the UAE.

Qatar Qatar hosts branch campuses of six prestigious U.S. universities (Virginia Commonwealth, Weill-Cornell Medical College, Texas A&M, Carnegie Mellon, Georgetown, and Northwestern) under the umbrella of Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development, a non-profit organization established in 1995 by the Emir of the country. Qatar’s Education City represents a ground-breaking initiative in the field of IBCs – that of establishing a ‘hub’ for a variety of universities, all hand-picked for one or more specialized programs of study. The universities are situated near each other and in close proximity to the Qatar Science and Technology Park, the Sidra Medical and Research Center, Reach Out to Asia, a charitable agency, Al Shaqab Equestrian Center, and other organizations. These universities, research facilities, and other organizations are sponsored by the Qatar government representing

90  Daphne Flanagan and Frieda Wiebe

another new phenomenon in the international education arena that blurs the line between private and public education. Jane Knight of the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education argues that education hubs “represent a new generation of cross-border education activities” (Knight, 2011, p. 1) progressing from the movement of people in its first generation and the branch campus phenomenon in its second, to planning and building a “critical mass of local and international actors strategically engaged in cross-border education, training, knowledge production and innovation initiatives” (Knight, 2011, p. 1). She notes that countries such as Qatar are investing significant resources to become known as education hubs (Knight, 2011, p. 3). Each of the six American universities currently established in Qatar’s Education City offers a select and limited range of programs. The programs were chosen because of their pre-eminence in the U.S. higher education rankings. Virginia Commonwealth University, the first to establish a campus in Qatar in 1998, offers undergraduate degree programs in fashion, graphic, and interior design. It has subsequently added painting and print-making as well as a bachelor’s degree in art history and a Master of Fine Arts degree in design studies. WeillCornell Medical College opened in 2002 with pre-medical and medical studies. Texas A&M University started in 2003, offering degree programs in chemical, electrical and computer, mechanical, and petroleum engineering. It has subsequently added several graduate programs in chemical engineering. Carnegie Mellon University opened in 2004 with business administration, computer science, and information systems programs. Subsequent additions have been undergraduate degrees in biological sciences and computational biology. Georgetown University opened in 2005 with an undergraduate program in international relations from its School of Foreign Service. The latest U.S. branch campus to open in Qatar in 2008 is Northwestern University, offering communications and journalism programs. Because the curricula offered and the degrees conferred at the branch campuses are those of the parent campus, each of the Qatar-based branches aims to ensure that students are provided with the equivalent, if not the same, educational experience. Student admission standards are the same as those at the parent campus; many of the professors come from the main campus; course and degree requirements are the same; and access to the same or equivalent resources is promised. In an article on library development for Texas A&M at Qatar, Charles Gilreath addresses the challenge of establishing a new library in Doha that would “function as much as possible as if it were a branch library of the campus at College Station” (Gilreath, 2006, p. 52). Each of the universities developed library resources and services at the outset of their operations and have persisted in those developments, albeit with

5 American-style Academic Libraries in the Gulf Region


a primary focus on their core subject areas. One might ask if equivalent access to academic and research resources could not have been achieved by developing a central library. The answer is ‘maybe’ – a central library serving Education City and the wider community was planned. Those plans have since evolved into a new National Library for Qatar, which has begun offering online resources and programmatic events. However, the building is still under construction and it remains to be seen whether it will become a destination library for students and faculty. While the national library serves broad interests, students will still require curriculum-focused resources that are provided by the branch campus libraries. The library at Virginia Commonwealth University in Qatar (VCU-Q) was founded in 1998 when the school opened in the Qatar Academy building; however, it was only loosely affiliated with the parent campus in Richmond, Virginia until 2001 when its name was changed from Shaqab College of Design Arts to Virginia Commonwealth University in Qatar. The library started with one staff person who was hired locally. By 2003, when a Library Director was appointed, the branch campus was in its own building, the library staff had grown to three, and the recruitment process involved the parent campus. Subsequent library appointments at the professional level have been handled by the Qatar campus, but have also included main campus librarians on the search committees. The library was relocated and expanded in 2010 and grew to include a computing lab and several media studios in 2013. Physical collections have grown to over 30,000 books and other items, along with electronic resources shared with the parent university library. In 2002 the Voyager integrated library system, which operated independently from the Richmond campus, was installed at VCU-Q. However, by 2004, the VCU-Q library catalog was merged with that of the main campus on the Aleph system. Weill-Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q) decided at the outset to establish an electronic library that would be distributed throughout the building; the e-distributed library would not rely on print materials or on a physical library space. The library has since then developed a small print collection and established a reading room. It continues, however, to be heavily devoted to the provision of electronic resources and distributed services. WCMC-Q operates its own Innovative Interfaces Incorporated integrated library system, replicating access to jointly licensed databases from the parent campus. For the first semester of its operation in 2003, the library at Texas A&M University in Qatar (TAMU-Q) was housed in the WCMC-Q building, while the Liberal Arts and Sciences (LAS) building at Education City was being completed. Later that academic year, the TAMU-Q programs moved to the LAS building and the library shared space with the Academic Bridge Program, a new foundational

92  Daphne Flanagan and Frieda Wiebe

program also housed in the LAS building. The Library Director was appointed and transferred from the main campus in College Station, Texas. In 2007, the library moved to its location within the new TAMU-Q building. It continues to operate in close relation to its parent campus with a joint database of holdings, shared electronic resources, and main campus involvement in the selection and hiring of librarians. The Library Director reports to both the Dean of the campus in Qatar and to the Dean of the library at the parent campus. Carnegie Mellon University (CMU-Q) began its library development at the Qatar branch campus in 2004 with a call for one librarian position that would handle both library and bookstore operations. Plans for a physical library space, a small local collection, and the position posting were handled by the main campus library in Pittsburgh. Similar to TAMU-Q, the CMU-Q campus was housed in temporary locations, initially within the WCMC-Q building and then in the LAS building, until a dedicated building was opened in 2008, which currently also houses Northwestern University in Qatar (NU-Q) and its library. The CMU-Q library has grown in both space and staffing with two librarians and four assistants now providing library and bookstore services for over 300 students. By the time Georgetown University’s School of Foreign Service was considering its options for a branch campus in Qatar, it had the luxury of visiting and interviewing four precursors on this journey. As the first university to offer a social sciences and humanities curriculum, Georgetown took note of the lack of library, bookstore, or even news-stand resources in Qatar and decided to place greater emphasis on the supply of reading materials in all formats. While focusing on materials to support the curriculum and provision of space for research and study, the library at Georgetown University in Qatar (GU-Q) quickly gained a reputation in the community for its growing collection of books on international relations, Middle East studies, history, English and Arabic literature, economics, philosophy, theology, and other core subject areas for its undergraduate degree. The library welcomed members of the public and received considerable press coverage as a result (Caraian, 2008; “Georgetown opens new library,” 2011; Krug, 2007). Library space grew year on year through summertime renovations within the university’s temporary LAS building location. When the library re-opened in 2011 in the new GU-Q building, designed by the architects Legoretta & Legoretta, it was the largest branch campus library in Qatar’s Education City at over 3,000 square meters with a print collection capacity of 140,000 volumes and 250 reading and study spaces. The library is arranged on three floors, with the ground floor housing a computer commons area, computer classroom, print reference and periodicals collections, a map and atlas room, the writing center, group study rooms, reading tables, study carrels, comfortable lounge areas, copier and printing area, and circulation and reference service

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counters. The first floor is devoted to collections, quiet study space, group study rooms, and offices. The top floor currently houses the library of the University College London Qatar (UCL-Q), which is integrated with the GU-Q library. Georgetown’s monograph collection has grown by approximately 10,000 print volumes per year, currently comprising over 80,000 volumes; the DVD collection holds 8,000 titles. The library shares its electronic resources of nearly one million e-books, over 500 licensed databases, and thousands of streaming media titles with the main campus. The library staff consists of eight professional librarians and six staff members serving a university population of approximately 500 faculty, students, and staff as well as the larger community. The library director reports to the Dean of the Qatar campus, but again, there is a close relationship with the Washington, DC campus in areas of collection development, systems infrastructure, librarian recruitment, and service delivery. Northwestern University followed the tradition of visiting and checking with precursor campuses to determine library development for their campus. While still small, the library has grown within its temporary location in the CMU-Q building. Since 2008 the campus has had two Library Directors, both jointly hired by the branch and parent campus, and they have recently appointed a Library Director from the main campus, who began managing the library in Doha in August 2014. Construction is currently underway on the new NU-Q building, which will house both a library and a media gallery, based on the idea of the ‘newseum’ in Washington DC, which is an interactive museum of news and journalism.

United Arab Emirates New York University Abu Dhabi (NYUAD) officially opened a temporary Downtown Campus in December 2009. NYUAD is a branch of NYU New York and is a result of a partnership between NYU and the government of Abu Dhabi. Both partners have a shared commitment to build an American-style research-focused university that “consists of a highly selective liberal arts and sciences college and a world center for advanced research and scholarship” (New York University Abu Dhabi, n.d.). As of February 2014, student enrolment was just over 670 with the intention to grow to a steady-state of 2,000 to 3,000 students (V. Danielson, personal communication, February 2, 2014). A two-story library is located in the temporary Downtown Campus and it offers group study space, information technology assistance, and access to all of the online resources available in the NYU Libraries collections. The NYUAD library has acquired more than 10,000 print titles and plans to house 100,000 items and up to 50,000 special collection items.

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Virginia Danielson, Director of the NYUAD Library, says “As the curriculum grows, our focus will expand with it,” (“NYUAD: One Year Later,” 2011–2012, p. 2). The staff complement for the library is currently 10 librarians, all of whom have the equivalent of an accredited Master’s Degree in library science and most of whom have a second Master’s Degree in an academic subject. The library also employs five professional administrative and technological staff, seven library assistants, five technology assistants and one administrative assistant. The university opened its permanent campus on Saadiyat Island in the fall of 2014. The new library will be purpose-built and preparations are underway for the move. The Rochester Institute of Technology based in Rochester, New York has a Dubai campus in Dubai Silicon Oasis. This branch campus offers programs in engineering, business, information technology, and service leadership and innovation. A small on-site library of 3,000 print items is augmented by access to all resources available at the main campus library in Rochester. The library is staffed by one librarian and student assistants. Dubai International Academic City (DIAC) is a large commercial complex aspiring “to be the regional destination for higher education providers that serves the development of the UAE and regional work force” (Dubai International Academic City, n.d.). By bringing together businesses and educational partners, it allows students and faculty members from different nationalities to interact. While they are not strictly branch campuses of their parent institutions, the universities that have offices here include Heriot-Watt University, Middlesex University, University of Exeter, University of Bradford, Manchester Business School, University of Wollongong, the Saint-Petersburg State University of Engineering and Economics, and others. DIAC is also home to Dubai Men’s College, one of the Higher Colleges of Technology (HCT) and the Dubai campus of Zayed University. The educational institutions operating here, as elsewhere in the UAE, require approval from the country’s Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research to do so. These institutions also undergo a review by the Commission for Academic Accreditation which provides Standards for Licensure and Accreditation. The standards follow along the lines of those published by American accreditation agencies and include guidelines for the provision of library services and professionally qualified staff (Commission for Academic Accreditation, 2011).

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Private Universities Accredited by U.S. Agencies United Arab Emirates Established in 1997, University City in Sharjah comprises nine colleges and universities, including the American University of Sharjah (AUS), the University of Sharjah, and the Sharjah campuses of the Higher Colleges of Technology (HCT). University City owes its existence to His Highness Dr. Sheikh Sultan Bin Mohammed Al Qasimi’s dedication to establishing an infrastructure of educational and cultural institutions in Sharjah. The flagship campus is the AUS, a not-for-profit, co-educational university that initially had contracted with the American University in Washington, DC to oversee management of the institution. It is now a completely self-governed university, and has been granted accreditation by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education. AUS was founded in 1997 by His Highness Sheikh Dr. Sultan Bin Mohammad Al Qasimi, Member of the Supreme Council of the UAE and Ruler of Sharjah, who envisioned the university as a leading educational institution in the Gulf region. AUS serves students from the region and from around the world. Fall 2014 fulltime equivalent enrollment figures show 5,509 undergraduate and 478 graduate students (American University of Sharjah, n.d.). The American University of Sharjah (AUS) offers Bachelor of Science degree programs in chemical, civil, computer, electrical and mechanical engineering that are accredited by the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology). The Bachelor of Science degree program in computer science also offered by the College of Engineering is accredited by the Computing Accreditation Commission of ABET. The Bachelor of Architecture program of the College of Architecture, Art and Design is accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board of the United States. The Bachelor of Science in Business Administration as well as the Master of Business Administration and Executive Master of Business Administration degrees offered by the School of Business Administration are accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. Development of the library started in October 1997 with the opening of the university. Initial stages of development (1997–1999) included provision of a core collection of monographs, periodicals, and databases along with the establishment of essential services such as collection development, circulation, instruction, document delivery and interlibrary loans and library technical services. The preparation of the physical library space was also part of the development. Subsequent development included the introduction of reference services,

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expansion of the instruction program, and further planning of the facility and services, including the preparation of a “General Development Plan” which projected space, staff, collection, and budget requirements for a five-year period. The original plan was developed in October of 1999 and updated December of 2002 (Ritchie, 2002). In 2001, the American University of Sharjah initiated its accreditation process with the Middle States Commission on Higher Education, and around this same time the Ruler of Sharjah announced that a new library would be constructed at the American University of Sharjah (Ritchie & Ray, 2008). Opening its doors to the campus four years later, the library was deliberately designed to support and enhance student learning through offering a variety of study and work spaces (Ritchie & Ray, 2008). The library building is central to the campus with a total of 8,750 square meters of usable space on three floors. The facility houses an “information commons” computer environment; two computer classrooms for teaching information literacy and research skills; book, periodical and media collections; study spaces including group study and presentation rooms; media preview rooms; circulation/reserves and reference desks; RFID self-check stations; university archives; library technical services; and library administration offices. The seating capacity is over 800 with nearly 135 computer workstations providing students with “one-stop” technology convenience including full Internet access, Microsoft Office products, electronic research materials, library resources, and specialized academic software. There are also 40 laptops available for checkout and wireless coverage extends throughout the building. Scanners, printers and photocopying equipment are available for use. Other facilities in the library building include a faculty development center, videoconference classroom, bookstore, café, writing center, and testing center. The library’s print and media collections grow by approximately 7,000 items per year, and online resources are added as required for program support. As of January 2014, the collection comprises approximately 140,000 print items, 90,000 e-books and more than 50 online databases. An e-book patron-driven acquisition plan is offered through Coutts’ MyiLibrary service. The library provides 24-hour remote access to a wide range of information sources electronically, and provides links to all resources through its home page. The online library catalog provides detailed information regarding all resources owned, whether print or electronic, and in the case of the latter, provides direct links to full-text materials available online. Off-campus access to all electronic library resources is assured through an authentication proxy server that verifies users as members of the AUS campus community. The AUS library staff consists of 10 professional librarians, 13 full-time staff, a part-time Archives Assistant, and three part-time library assistants. The library

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also employs 30 student assistants. All AUS librarians and library administrators hold master’s degrees in library and information science from institutions accredited or recognized by the American Library Association. The University Librarian reports to the Provost of the University.

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Opened in 2009 the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) is a graduate-level research university near Jeddah in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. KAUST contracted with Stanford University and the University of California at Berkeley to help it design an academic curriculum and hire faculty members (Fischer, 2008). Positioned around three academic divisions and seven research centers it “has built itself quickly through academic partnerships with top universities, including Cornell, Stanford, Texas A&M, the University of Oxford, Institut Français du Pétrole, the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, and the American University in Cairo” (Lindsey, 2011, para. 9). Unique in many respects, the development of KAUST represents one of the most ambitious American-style higher education projects in the Gulf region. While KAUST is a private university funded by an endowment and modeled on American and other western research universities, it differs significantly from the other American-style institutions that we are examining in this chapter. Firstly, KAUST offers only graduate level programs. Its current population of about 700 students and 300 faculty members is heavily devoted to research. Secondly, the University is not accredited by a U.S. agency and although there has been talk of accreditation, no formal process is underway as of yet. The university does, however, have an International Advisory Council, whose members are widely-respected scholars, researchers and academic leaders from a variety of research universities in Asia, Europe and the United States (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, n.d.). Faculty members choose students based on compatible research interests. Students choose KAUST because they will be paired with leading researchers in their chosen field and will be provided with research funding. Once students have been accepted, they receive a very generous stipend which includes registration fees, housing, and annual airfare for home leave. (J. Tyhurst, personal communication, March 9, 2014). The library at KAUST was initially planned under the guidance of librarians at Saudi Aramco as part of Aramco’s management of the KAUST construction project. An award winning state-of-the-art 14,000 square meter building with ample study space and electronic infrastructure, the library, which opened in 2009, is central to the University in terms of location. McClure (2011) claims the

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building designers focused on the social and technological sides of learning to bring the library to life and notes that sustainability was a key feature with the KAUST library being the world’s largest LEED Platinum facility at the time of its construction. This certification comes from the Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) green building certification program. To receive platinum, the highest level of certification, a building must achieve at least 80 points for building design, interior design, construction, maintenance, and neighborhood development (Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design, n.d.) The KAUST library facility offers 150 public workstations, seating for 400, quiet and group study areas, a computer lab, a meeting room, copy center, and café. The first library director, Joseph Branin, former Director of the Ohio State University Libraries, oversaw the initial development of the library, its staffing, and service provision. In March 2014 a new Library Director, Molly Tamarkin, was hired from Duke University. Like other American-style academic libraries in the Gulf region, KAUST recruits most of its professional librarians internationally. Support staff are hired locally along with a few staff members who have been appointed under short-term contracts reserved for spouses and other dependents of KAUST employees. With a current staff complement of 27, nine of whom hold a master’s degree in library science and one a PhD, the library provides research assistance, library skills training, digital archiving, document delivery, and other services. It is open 24 hours per day. The library’s collections and information services primarily support KAUST’s graduate programs and scientific research in the physical and biological sciences, computer science and applied mathematics, and related engineering fields. At present, the library collection comprises over 15,000 print books, nearly 200,000 e-books, and 24,000 online journals. With subscription to over 100 electronic databases in science and technology, the library provides access to most of the science and technology databases that are currently available. KAUST librarians have worked closely with faculty to manage their research data and to provide access to the research output via an institutional repository. The library’s digital archive program collects, preserves, and shares faculty and researcher works and scientific data, student theses and dissertations, and the institution’s historical and business records. Like AUS and other private university libraries, the library at KAUST did not have the advantage of gaining access to electronic resources in conjunction with a parent university. Its partner university relationships do not give it the benefits of a branch campus arrangement whereby licenses are renegotiated to add the branch campus IP range. Instead, the collections at KAUST have been developed based on the subject area knowledge of reference librarians and requests from faculty and students. The library has acquired limited print resources, partly because it has little need to do so, given the current

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web-intensive environment, but also because its acquisitions procedures model those of many libraries in the Middle East whereby price quotations are requested of at least three suppliers before a title is purchased (J. Tyhurst, personal communication, March 9, 2014).

National Public Universities Modeled on Western Institutions United Arab Emirates In the United Arab Emirates, there are three national public institutions of higher education that are modeled on western institutions. They are Zayed University, the Higher Colleges of Technology, and Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research. Zayed University was founded in 1998 when it offered undergraduate programs to Emirati women only. It has since expanded to two campuses, the main one in Abu Dhabi and the other in Dubai, and it now offers undergraduate and graduate programs to both men and women in the subject areas of Arts and Sciences, Business, Education, IT and Media. The university is modeled on the American-style of higher education and is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education. Student enrolment is approximately 9,500 undergraduate and 1,000 graduate students. The Library and Learning Commons is comprised of libraries and learning enhancement centers at each campus. The total employee complement is approximately 11 librarians all with American Library Association (ALA) accredited master’s degrees, four learning center professionals, and 13 staff. Founded in 1988 the Higher Colleges of Technology (HCT) were modeled on the community college system of the Canadian province of Ontario, and many of the initial administrators were recruited from Canada (Higher Colleges of Technology-Fujairah, n.d.). These colleges, unlike their US counterparts, were heavily devoted to technical trades training at the diploma level and were not university transfer colleges. Over time, however, the HCT colleges adopted a more broadly based western-style community and technical college style and curriculum because administrative and faculty recruitment took place in all parts of the world, but especially in Canada, the United States, the UK, and Australia. Approximately 20,000 students attend 17 men’s and women’s campuses in Abu Dhabi, Al Ain, Dubai, Fujairah, Madinat Zayed, Ras Al Khaimah, Ruwais

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and Sharjah. HCT offers a variety of work-relevant, English-taught programs in Applied Communication, Business, Computer and Information Science, Engineering Technology, Health Sciences and Education at different levels (Higher Colleges of Technology, n.d.). While some programs within the HCT system received accreditation from program specific accrediting agencies (e.g., ABET), the system as a whole has not attained accreditation from any US-based accreditation commission. Library services were centralized from the outset, with acquisitions, technical services, and systems being handled at the central headquarters on behalf of men’s and women’s campuses in the various Emirates. The shift from centralization to decentralization occurred gradually as the system hired qualified librarians to manage library and learning services at most of the campuses. While collections budgets, acquisitions procedures, database licensing, and coordination of activities were handled centrally, the campus libraries managed selection of materials, faculty liaison, instructional services, and all learning support services. Each campus has a library or learning center and the full staff complement is approximately 16 librarians most of whom have an ALA accredited master’s degree or equivalent, 14 learning center professionals, and 44 staff. Most libraries within the HCT system are currently being directed and managed by non-librarians. Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research (KUSTAR) was founded in 2007 with campuses in Abu Dhabi and Sharjah. KUSTAR offers nine undergraduate programs and five graduate programs in engineering. Student enrolment has reached over 1,300 (Khalifa University, n.d.). While the university is accredited by the UAE Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, it is not accredited by an American commission. There are four librarians, two with ALA accredited master’s degrees or equivalent and two with master’s degrees not accredited by ALA, and one staff member covering both locations with plans to hire three more librarians (D. Furber Byers, personal communication, April 20, 2014).

Library Purpose and Structure The libraries that are described in this chapter are modeled on their western counterparts. However, they operate within different cultural, economic, educational, political, and societal contexts. These factors have an impact on library structures and functions, and sometimes necessitate reframing the approach to library service delivery. However, it is important to keep in mind that the desire for American-style education in the Gulf region arose from the recognition that

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critical thinking and enquiry based learning skills are needed. Libraries are central to meeting this need, and therefore their structures, functions, services, and spaces must be developed and maintained according to recognized professional standards if they are to be successful. It is not enough for libraries to provide access to resources; they must also help researchers and students make the best use of those resources, and they must add value to the learning outcomes of the institution. To be recognized as the leading library in the Middle East for the study of international relations is the bold vision of GU-Q’s library. Like the other American university branch campus libraries in Qatar, Georgetown’s library mission focuses on the academic goals of the university – “by providing preeminent collections, services, and spaces, the GU-Q Library establishes the foundation for learning and research and facilitates the ongoing creation and pursuit of knowledge” (Georgetown University in Qatar, n.d.). The vision and mission are underpinned by guiding values of integrity, quality, diversity, leadership, collaboration, lifelong learning, and service to others, which stem from the parent institution and from the standards for libraries in higher education developed by Association of College and Research Libraries (2011). The resources and services of the AUS library have been developed in accordance with the library’s mission statement, which emphasizes the library’s commitment to further “the educational mission of the University by connecting students and faculty to the world of information and ideas. Librarians, in curricular partnership with the faculty, provide instruction, resources and services that strengthen student research skills, promote critical reflection and foster academic excellence” (American University of Sharjah University Library, n.d.). In keeping with their purpose the reporting structure of both the AUS and Georgetown libraries bespeaks their close relationship to the academic mission of the universities. The libraries report to the chief academic leader of the university. In his 1997 article on university library development in the Arab Gulf region, Mohamed Zehery noted that most state university libraries in the Gulf region were established as administrative units, reporting to a Vice-President or a Secretary General for Administrative Affairs. He argues that “this has affected the status of the university library and minimized its ability to support the educational process, and stifled student use of library resources and services” (Zehery, 1997, p. 22). American-style libraries differ from their state university counterparts in this respect. Librarians are generally considered academic staff, often are represented on the faculty Senate and sometimes in tenured faculty positions.

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Collections In his personal overview of the books market in the Middle East, Bill Kennedy noted that “well-endowed libraries often find themselves in a paradox having handsome budgets to spend on acquisitions but lack of funding to process the book into ‘shelf-ready’ form” (Kennedy, 2010, p. 189). He concluded that because there were no local companies that provided this service, libraries used international jobbers. We would add that libraries also prefer to purchase from major international jobbers because common institutional procurement methods in the region are often too cumbersome for efficient and timely purchase of library books. Branch campus libraries typically select and acquire materials either in conjunction with, or in a manner similar to their parent campus. They select materials according to established subject profiles based on curriculum needs, faculty requests, and a written collection development policy. They acquire items directly from one or several major vendors without going through a process of requesting price quotations (RFQ) from competing vendors for each title, which is the standard Gulf region institutional procurement practice for purchase of any asset, including books and other library resources. Moving away from this standard practice has been more difficult for private and public academic libraries that are modeled on western institutions, but are not branch campuses. The KAUST library purchases physical items from local vendors based on an RFQ model for each item. The HCT libraries arranged for direct purchase through a contract with one major vendor for most items. However, many books and materials are purchased through the competitive title-by-title pricing model. Fortunately this challenge is being overcome through the much more prevalent acquisition of e-books or subscription to electronic resources from ‘sole source’ suppliers where negotiation occurs, but not among competing suppliers. The AUS library acquires most materials directly from two major book vendors, YBP and Coutts. Arabic language materials are purchased primarily through the Sharjah International Book Fair and individual book vendors supplemented by the Cairo-based Library of Congress Middle East Cooperative Acquisitions Program (MECAP). As with most libraries, the AUS library’s Collection Development Policy guides the selection of material so that adequate support is provided to all information needs of the university. Library resources provide direct support for student research at the undergraduate level, faculty teaching, basic graduate student and faculty research in program areas, and general information,

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readership and lifelong learning needs of the university community. In order to ensure that students are exposed to a range of information and learning formats, the library has developed a blended collection of traditional print materials, multimedia, and digital resources. Librarians consult regularly with faculty and department chairs to ensure that program resource and access needs are met. Occasionally faculty request materials that may be controversial or are anticipated to be culturally sensitive. Examples of this include books that are critical of the politics or ruling families of GCC countries, books on Islam and sexuality, or more explicitly, Islam and homosexuality. Books and media containing graphic images sometimes require special handling. The Special Collections Room at the AUS library was established to store these items. Students using the Special Collections Room must sign in and agree to the policies governing access prior to using the collections. Branch campuses at Qatar’s Education City have been promised that there will be no restrictions on academic freedom. However, their libraries are facing delays in receiving print and audio-visual materials as many shipments of materials are being reviewed by the Ministry of Culture and Information before being released.

Library Services It is in the delivery of library services that American-style libraries in the Gulf region have distinguished themselves most prevalently. In his criticism of academic libraries in the Middle East, Lawrence Thompson noted that they were characterized by a “poor rapport with the basic programs of instruction and research” (Thompson, 1954, p. 160). In a survey and analysis of six state university libraries in the Arab Gulf region, Mohamed Zehery focused on circulation and interlibrary loan transactions while noting that three of the six universities did not report reference transactions and only four of the six provided statistics on library presentations to user groups. Zehery (1997) concluded that “library services need thorough investigation to study all aspects of student and faculty use of library collections and service programs in order to identify the strengths and weaknesses in these critical areas and to make recommendations for future improvements” (p. 34–35). Harriett Green, in her survey of international branch campus libraries, agrees that there are limited studies on how comprehensive library services are delivered at these campuses. One of the key themes that emerged from her survey was “the increased intensity and embedded interactivity of the librarians’ work at international branch campuses” (Green, 2013, p. 17).

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Information Literacy Teaching information literacy (IL) skills is a foundational element of most libraries in universities offering a western-style curriculum. It is no different in the Gulf countries. Each library featured here offers an array of instructional services. NYUAD offers instruction at the request of faculty. While information literacy is not part of the curriculum, librarians have provided instruction to all first year writing classes and subject-specific instruction for the capstone courses. Librarians are also available for individual consultations and have provided orientation sessions in conjunction with the parent campus (Brown & Barr-Walker, 2013). Like its neighboring international branch campus libraries, the GU-Q library embraced its educational role within the university. When the first cohort of 25 students began classes in August 2005, only three months after the university had signed its contract with Qatar Foundation, the library did not exist as a physical space or collection of materials. Nonetheless a librarian had been appointed and she worked from a room that was designated for research and writing support. Her role was to engage with faculty and students to assist them in identifying and locating resources using the main campus website, its licensed online databases and e-resources, and open access web resources. She worked with individuals and small groups to provide information literacy and research skills training. By the time the library space had been developed and the first books arrived, the library’s research skills instructional program was well underway and the students had become accustomed to consulting with their librarian and writing center staff to assist them in the research to writing process. The library has continued to evolve its learning support agenda by hiring additional librarians and including reference and research skills development in each of their portfolios. The student and faculty population has also grown over the intervening years, but the university is still small enough so that librarians are able to establish personal connections with students and faculty. The IL program has been formalized to include research skills classes in the core curriculum courses as well as many of the upper year courses. The program also includes a variety of open workshops on specific resources, citation management, and research methods. In 2011, the library initiated an information literacy assessment program. Using the Madison Information Literacy Assessment Tool, all incoming students were assessed during orientation week. This testing has been repeated with each succeeding freshman class and the intention is to test the graduating class of 2015 with the same instrument in order to measure any difference in IL skill

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level from initial enrollment to graduation. Diversity of student experience and background before entering college or university is perhaps one of the greatest challenges faced by librarians in any college or university. This challenge is multiplied in the American-style libraries that we are examining. Over 45 nationalities are represented in the student population of 250 students at Georgetown University in Qatar. These students come from the greatest range of high schools in Qatar and in the rest of the world. Many report that their prior learning was restricted to rote learning and memorization in preparation for exams. Others come to the university with well-developed learning and research skills, often as a result of attending international schools of high caliber. Almost all of the students are non-native English speakers. Their knowledge of academic integrity and experience in using information in an ethical and legal manner varies. Once at GU-Q it is the small class sizes and the individual engagement with peers, professors and librarians on their research projects that helps to level the playing field amongst them and allows them to achieve success. At AUS information literacy is recognized as an essential requirement of the General Education program of the university. In helping students develop these skills, the AUS library provides a range of programs designed both to introduce library services and to promote information literacy at the curriculum level. Each semester, guided library orientation tours are conducted for new students and faculty at the beginning of the semester. Tours are supplemented by an online Library Survival Guide available through the library’s homepage and a self-guided library audio tour developed for use with mobile phones and QR code technology. This audio tour is used by faculty in first year writing classes as a course component and runs in conjunction with a library coordinated online quiz completed upon concluding the tour. The library is responsible for delivery of course-integrated information literacy skills instruction sessions within three required General Education courses which all students must complete before graduating. Classes and assessments are designed to scaffold students’ IL skills within the framework of the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education. These standards provide performance indicators and outcomes for assessing student progress towards information literacy, and form the basis of the library’s overall instruction program. Sessions are developed to meet different pedagogical approaches including active and problem based learning strategies, and various technologies including ‘clickers’, online student polling and classroom management software are regularly utilized. Library instruction is also provided by liaison librarians, at an undergraduate and graduate level across all disciplines upon faculty request. These sessions are often developed and

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supplemented by online librarian-designed subject guides (LibGuides) linked to course management system courses. In the UAE all national public universities modeled on western institutions have libraries that include information literacy instruction as a core service. Zayed University includes information literacy as part of their required Colloquy program; Khalifa University offers information literacy instruction workshops and activities for first year students; and HCT provides in-class information literacy instruction. As a graduate institution, KAUST librarians offer specialized subject specific research skills instruction.

Resource Sharing and Document Delivery All libraries mentioned in this chapter offer a form of interlibrary loan and document delivery. The branch campus libraries at Qatar’s Education City operate an interlibrary loan system amongst themselves. Most of these libraries also share print and electronic resources with their main campus counterparts as does NYUAD. The AUS library provides access to information beyond its own collection through cooperative agreements with regional and international libraries and document service providers. These agreements serve primarily to augment access to research materials. There are local informal arrangements between libraries such as the United Arab Emirates University and Sultan Qaboos Library in Oman and more formal arrangements with OCLC and the British Library. Most print resources are borrowed from the British Library and electronic resources through OCLC’s automated end-user based document delivery service, iLLiad. Worth noting is a local UAE consortium of three libraries, the United Arab Emirates University, Zayed University and the HCT that have developed an enduser interlibrary loan service provided through a shared catalog called LIWA (Library Information Web Access). Even though this service offers access to over 350,000 items (Library Information Web Access, n.d.), the amount of use it has received is disappointingly low, and has not exceeded 1,000 items borrowed over the past three years. This may be because of the increasing use of electronic resources.

Library Spaces Cultural considerations are important aspects of design. Of the models discussed in this chapter, the branch campus libraries and the private universities offer co-educational spaces. This represents a radical departure from the design of

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traditional Gulf region academic libraries. The libraries at HCT and Zayed University follow a form of gender separation. At Georgetown University a variety of reading and study spaces are provided, including a ‘majlis’ style group study room where students can sit on large floor cushions with their laptops. Study tables are more prevalently used than individual study carrels, although the usage pattern changes as final exams approach each semester. Noise control is a factor; while libraries need to be inviting places for reading and research, they also quickly become social hubs, especially in an oral culture that places a high value on social interaction, such as the Arab Gulf region. As James Reardon-Anderson, the founding Dean of Georgetown’s campus in Qatar remarked “a university at its best is a great library surrounded by people who know how to use it” (“Georgetown University library is inaugurated,” 2006). Librarians, architects and faculty worked together to develop a purposebuilt library for the American University of Sharjah. The library was opened in 2006 and has been considered a success. With an average weekly gate count of 19,000 “the library has become one of the most dynamic learning spaces on campus, providing the academic community with a variety of opportunities to work together, explore new means of teaching and learning, and hone the information skills and strategies that form the basis of academic success” (Ritchie & Ray, 2008).

Challenges and Opportunities Library Staffing American-style libraries in the Gulf region suffer from some of the same concerns that have plagued libraries in the broader Middle East region. As noted by Lesher & Abdel-Motey (2009), “many of the problems in librarianship in the Middle East can be traced to issues related to library personnel and their qualifications. Generally, the Bachelor’s Degree in library and information science (LIS) is regarded as professional qualification; however, in spite of this relatively low standard, many libraries are forced to hire non-professionals, which include college graduates with or without some library training” (p. 448). Hiring staff without the requisite qualifications and experience therefore increases the amount of time and effort required for training. Preparing staff to carry out the numerous routine but complex tasks vital to high quality and contemporary library services requires training with foresight and rigor. Most training is

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provided in-house although some staff members are able to enroll in online library technician training. Turnover among staff and librarians is another consideration. Most library employees in American-style libraries are not native to the Gulf region and will, regardless of the nature of their contracts whether time-limited or not, inevitably return to their home countries. Current recruitment issues in the Gulf region are not dissimilar to those faced by libraries in the West. Library administrators are interested in hiring librarians and staff who are experienced in data management, digitization, teaching, first year students’ experience, and academic technologies. In addition, libraries in the Gulf region need more librarians who have these emerging skills along with Arabic language proficiency in order to handle the myriad issues related to selecting, acquiring, organizing and providing access to Arabic language materials. While the language of instruction at American-style institutions is English, the libraries typically need to include Arabic language materials. Lesher & Abdel-Motey (2009) warned that the attempt to replace expatriate staff with local citizens was unlikely to occur in GCC institutions until specialized education programs, employment standards, and the professional image improve. This situation has not changed appreciably. A number of attempts have been or are being made to provide library education in the region. However these programs are either in the early stages of development or they have been discontinued. The HCT introduced a Library Technology program in 2002, but it closed in 2010. UCL-Q introduced a Master’s of Arts program in library and information studies in 2013 with an initial cohort of seven students. The program will continue with more students and an increased number of course offerings in Fall 2014. While employment standards are high and librarians are valued as professionals in the libraries discussed here, this treatment and perception has not progressed as strongly to other libraries in the region.

Student Development and Experience One of the greatest opportunities for academic libraries in the GCC countries is to assist in the development of students and to enhance their learning experience. Many students in the Gulf region have not had the opportunities to learn about using libraries prior to attending institutions of higher learning. “In general, students lack the proper training in the use of bibliographic tools, reference sources, and search techniques required to develop a good research paper” (Zehery, 1997, p. 23). As noted by Lesher & Abdel-Motey (2009), “unlike developed countries in the West whose information industry is highly developed the Middle East does not have a ‘book culture.’ Although standards of literacy are relatively

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high, people do not generally rely on books to meet their information needs” (p. 442). Walker & Click (2011) note that “for students attending an American-style university in their native country, they may remain immersed in their culture, only venturing outside of it while on campus” (p. 20). They also emphasize the especially important issues related to working with ESL students, who may have excellent spoken English, but who may not be as competent at identifying keywords or synonyms. A further sign of this may be found from the results of a reference services survey at AUS that indicates repeatedly that students prefer to interact with librarians face-to-face rather than via chat or email. It is possible that students may find it easier to convey their needs in person rather than through the written word. NYUAD librarians have found their students to be very open and receptive to learning. For example, one librarian said that during information literacy instruction she does not encounter “blank faces.” However, another librarian commented that when it comes to the provision of specialized instruction such as geographical information services (GIS) the students have little or no background, unlike their western counterparts. The first graduating class at GU-Q honored librarian Susan Fahy as ‘staff member of the year’ in 2009 because she relieved their anxiety and intimidation about libraries, did not take anything for granted, and guided them through the research process with personalized understanding and humor. Anecdotally, it can be said that students in the Gulf region are generally polite and grateful for the assistance and service provided to them by libraries. Many students prefer to work together in groups and noise can be a major factor. It is crucially important for librarians not to make assumptions and to be able to deal with differences. As Walker and Click point out, students may not know what to make of librarians – are they at the reference desk to assist or will a question distract them? Alternatively they may “see the reference desk as akin to a fast food drive through window, where they can wait and chat with friends while the librarian scurries into the stacks to fetch a book” (Walker & Click, 2011). An ethnographic study done by AUS librarians concluded that “students have significant obligations and responsibilities to family and friends and there are times when academic activities do not take priority. Students at AUS also spend a significant amount of time and effort helping each other….It is not unusual for a student to do library research for a friend…If a parent, friend or close family member needs their assistance they will help regardless of the impact it may have on their academic responsibilities” (Click et al., 2012, p. 8).

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Conclusion The results of this examination reveal that American-style academic libraries in the Gulf region have many commonalities. They include: building collections in their core subject areas; offering extensive access to electronic resources (especially if operating as a branch campus); directly reporting to the chief academic leader; recognizing that critical thinking and enquiry based learning skills are needed; offering research skills instruction; and considering librarians as academic staff. These libraries also face particular challenges that are unique to the region such as differences in students’ educational backgrounds and previous experiences with libraries; materials procurement issues; and problems hiring qualified staff and librarians. This chapter has used specific institutional examples from Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. One area of focus for future study may be to expand the region to include Bahrain, Kuwait and Oman, or to further expand geographically to the MENA region. Another area for future study may be to enlarge the analysis to include all academic libraries in the Gulf region in order to provide further comparisons and contrasts. The principal aim of this chapter has been to analyze libraries in the Gulf region in order to provide insight and to guide the future development of academic librarianship in a global context. We believe the globalization of higher education will continue at an accelerated pace and academic libraries are an integral part of the expansion.

References American University of Sharjah. (n.d.). Fast facts – fall 2014. Retrieved January 9, 2015 from American University of Sharjah University Library. (n.d.). General library policies – AUS library mission statement. Retrieved December 14, 2014 from policies/ Association of College and Research Libraries. (2011). Standards for libraries in higher education. Chicago, IL: Association of College and Research Libraries. Bollag, B. (2006, February 17). America’s hot new export: Higher education. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 52(24), A44–A47. Retrieved from Brody, W. R. (2007, March/April). College goes global. Foreign Affairs, 86(2), 122–133. Retrieved from Brown, N. E., and Barr-Walker, J. (2013). Collaboration and innovation “across land and sea”: Developing global library orientations. College and Research Libraries News, 74(9), 484–487. Retrieved from

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Caraian, O. (2008, March 31). Georgetown varsity library: Something on offer for everyone. Qatar Tribune, p. 19. Click, A., Stöpel, M., Alam, M. T., Kreidieh, S., Flanagan, D., Foster, N. F., and Ray, K. (2012). Studying students across borders: An ethnographic study of research behavior. International Journal of Library Science, 5(1), 1–13. Retrieved from index.php/ijls/index Commission for Academic Accreditation. (2011). Standards for licensure and accreditation 2011. Retrieved from Dubai International Academic City. (n.d.). Vision and mission statement. Retrieved January 21, 2014 from The end of an era: NYIT to exit Bahrain’s educational scene. (2013, September 11). Albawaba. Retrieved from Farrugia, C. A., Bhandari, R., and Chow, P. (2012). Open doors 2012: Report on international educational exchange. New York, NY: Institute of International Education. Fischer, K. (2008, March 5). Berkeley and Stanford sign deals with new Saudi university, despite some professors’ misgivings. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from Fischer, K. (2012, February 19). American colleges’ missteps raise questions about overseas partnerships. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from Georgetown opens new library for public. (2011, January 9). The Peninsula, p. 2. Georgetown University in Qatar. (n.d.). Mission, vision and values. Retrieved January 10, 2015, from Georgetown University library is inaugurated. (2006, January 17). Gulf Times, p. 3. Gilreath, C. L. (2006). Library development for Texas A&M at Qatar: Maximum access/minimum holdings. Collection Building, 25(2), 52–55. doi: 10.1108/01604950610658856. Green, H. (2013). Libraries across land and sea: Academic library services on international branch campuses. College and Research Libraries, 74(1), 9–23. doi: 10.5860/crl-259 Green, M. F. (2007). Venturing abroad: Delivering U.S. degrees through overseas branch campuses and programs. Washington, DC: American Council on Education. Higher Colleges of Technology. (n.d.). HCT overview. Retrieved April 20, 2014 from http:// Higher Colleges of Technology – Fujairah. (n.d.). A–Z of Fujairah. Retrieved April 20, 2014 from Kennedy, B. (2010). The Middle East books market: A personal overview. Publishing Research Quarterly, 26(3), 187–192. doi: 10.1007/s12109-010-9171-6 Khalifa University. (n.d.). KU at a glance. Retrieved April 20, 2014 from pages/ku-at-a-glance King Abdullah University of Science and Technology. (n.d.). President’s International Advisory Council. Retrieved December 13, 2014 from tional-advisory-council.html Knight, J. (2011). Three types of education hubs: Student, talent and knowledge. Are indicators useful or feasible? London, UK: The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education. Krieger, Z. (2008, March 28). An academic building boom transforms the Persian Gulf. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 54(29), A26–A29. Retrieved from Krug, M. (2007, December 1). ‘Flying’ books at Education City library. Qatar Tribune, pp. 1, 16. Lawton, W., and Katsomitros, A. (2012). International branch campuses: Data and developments. London, UK: The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education.

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Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design. (n.d.). LEED overview. Retrieved December 13, 2014 from Lesher, T. M., and Abdel-Motey, Y. (2009). Middle East: Academic libraries. In I. Abdullai (Ed.), Global library and information science : A textbook for students and educators, with contributions from Africa, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, Europe, Latin America and the Carribean, the Middle East, and North America (pp. 440–456). Munich, Germany: K. G. Saur. Available at Library Information Web Access. (n.d.). LIWA home. Retrieved April 20, 2014 from Lindsey, U. (2011, June 26). Saudi Arabia’s $10-Billion experiment is ready for results. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 57(40). Retrieved from Mangan, K. (2002, September 6). Qatar courts American colleges. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 49(2), A55–A59. Retrieved from McClure, M. (2011, May 3). KAUST library wins AIA/ALA library building award. Life at HOK. Retrieved from New York University Abu Dhabi. (n.d.). FAQs – What is the vision of NYU Abu Dhabi?. Retrieved March 24, 2014 from NYUAD: One year later. (2011–2012, Fall/Winter). Progressions: New York University Libraries Newsletter, 21(2), 1–3. Retrieved from progsF11W12.pdf Ritchie, L. (2002, December). Library development plan. Unpublished internal document, American University of Sharjah Library, Sharjah, UAE. Ritchie, L., and Ray, K. (2008). Incorporating information literacy into the building plan: The American University of Sharjah experience. Reference Services Review, 36(2), 167–179. doi:10.1108/00907320810873039. Thompson, L. S. (1954). Awakening library consciousness in the Middle East. The Library Quarterly, 24(2), 154–168. doi: 10.1086/618074 United Nations Development Programme. (2003). The Arab human development report 2003: Building a knowledge society. New York, NY: United Nations Development Programme, Regional Bureau for Arab States. Walker, C., and Click, A. (2011). Meeting the reference expectations of ESL students. College and Research Libraries News, 72(1), 20–23. Retrieved from World Bank. (2008). The road not travelled: Education reform in the Middle East and North Africa. Washington, DC: World Bank. Zehery, M. (1997). University library development in the Arab Gulf region: A survey and analysis of six state university libraries. International Information and Library Review, 29(1), 13–44. doi: 10.1006/iilr.1997.0030

Received: 5th May, 2014 Final version received: 10th January 2015 Accepted: 14th January 2015

Meggan Houlihan, Christine Furno, and Jayme Spencer

6 Information Literacy in the Middle East: A Case Study of the American University in Cairo and the American University of Sharjah Introduction The American University in Cairo (AUC) and the American University of Sharjah (AUS) are two well respected private universities located in the Middle East, which, very early on, recognized that the library played a pivotal role in helping students enhance and develop their critical thinking skills. Both institutions had early faculty-librarian collaborations, primarily informal one-shot library instruction session arranged at the request of the professor. With the publication of the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education, both institutions realized that a scattering of one-shot instruction sessions was not an effective way to teach information literacy skills (Association of College and Research Libraries, 2000). Although each institution created very different information literacy programs, the successful programs at both institutions have been shaped by librarians who have been willing to experiment with active learning approaches and technology, faculty who have facilitated student learning extending beyond the classroom, and other stakeholders (e.g., university administrators) who share a mutual belief that information literacy skills are essential for academic achievement. These ongoing efforts have transcended the humble beginnings of the rudimentary library session to become robust information literacy programs poised for their next iterations. Already underway is an extensive revision of the ACRL Information Literacy Standards for Higher Education. Ideally, these updated standards will help to enhance and improve the existing information literacy programs at AUC and AUS and reinforce information literacy as a key component in the path towards academic excellence. Although the future of information literacy at AUC and AUS is promising, the future of information literacy in the Middle East will likely be affected by political stability within the region. Egypt, like many other Middle Eastern countries, has been beset with continued protests and political instability following the 2011 Arab Spring, which has hindered the development of educational programs. Most Middle Eastern universities struggle with issues also faced by American

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institutions, such as the lack of funding, stakeholder buy-in, and staffing. This region also faces geographical and cultural issues related to access to training and professional development opportunities, library education (Abdullahi, 2009), the need for curricula reform along with growing numbers of students and limited public school spaces (Cochran, 2008), widespread academic dishonesty (Click, 2014), and continued political unrest (Mendelsohn, 2011). Based on the experiences of the authors, if information literacy is to flourish in the Middle East, educators must agree to provide outreach efforts to school librarians, establish a culture of academic integrity, prepare for any new information literacy developments, and embrace the importance of critical thinking and information literacy skills.

Literature Review Current literature on information literacy in Egypt, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) or the broader Middle East is limited, although growing in scope. An English language textbook on international librarianship was published as one of the International Federation of Libraries Associations and Institutions (IFLA) series in 2009 with chapters covering Africa and the Middle East (Abdullahi, 2009). In each chapter information concerning academic libraries and, often, information literacy is discussed and assessed. This book placed Egypt in the chapter with the rest of Africa thus the data concerning Egypt is mainly lost to generalities summarizing all of Africa. At that time the analysis of the state of libraries in the Middle East (defined as countries east of the Suez Canal and those in the Arabian Peninsula) in general and information literacy in particular was hopeful: “...many librarians are shifting their focus from the general library orientation and course related instructions using traditional learning methods to a set of critical thinking skills involving the use of information” (Lesher & Abdel-Motey, 2009, p. 445) One study published in English looks at the problems of information literacy awareness among Arabic speakers, concluding that although this population has been slow to adopt information literacy and develop content for teaching and learning, it is now growing (Fahmy & Rifaat, 2010). A major reason for this shift are rapid technological developments making the use of Arabic script as easy as other languages in cyberspace. UNESCO recently published a guide to information literacy sources worldwide and for the first time, Arabic is included (Horton, 2013, pp. 39–46). Most of the English-language literature on information literacy focusing on the Middle East is in the form of articles directly related to specific programs or techniques used in a variety of countries. Lesher (2002) looked at information

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literacy throughout the Kuwaiti school system (public, private, K-12 and university) through the lens of cultural relevance. The survey concluded that, in both Arabic- and English-language schools, information literacy should be a more integrated instructional program and that on the tertiary level it should be a required freshman course (p. 307). A later study observed that many students at the American University of Sharjah equate computer literacy skills with information literacy skills (Deakin, Furno & Ritchie, 2004). Al-Daihani & Rehman (2007) explored the professional applications of computing and information literacy skills of Kuwaiti policemen, and found both skill-sets to be lacking (p. 623). A recent survey of students at Sultan Qaboos University, designed to determine information literacy competencies using a questionnaire in line with specific elements of the Big6 model, concluded there was a high rate of competency but recommends further research (Al-Aufi & Al-Azri, 2013, p. 345). An important component of the study is the detailed literature review which includes similar studies in a number of Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries. Many of the sources listed are originally in Arabic. The authors’ summary is rather bleak: “Most of the cited Arabic literature indicated low levels of information literacy among university students because of lack of standardization, domination of traditional educational systems, linguistic barriers, and lack well as weaknesses in ICT infrastructure” (p. 339). Birks & Eula (2011) detailed the Information Literacy Network (ILN), created in 2005 to promote information literacy in the Gulf Region and beyond. The ILN organized conferences, workshops and other ways of promoting information literacy: “The common objective was to provide opportunities to discuss regional challenges and best practices in information literacy and to share relevant theory and activities which participants could apply in their own institutions” (Birks & Eula, 2011, p. 2). In recent years, the organization has been restructured and continues to host conferences and workshops. Another valuable source of studies and papers focusing on information literacy in the Middle East is the annual conferences of the American International Consortium of Academic Libraries (AMICAL), which began in 2002 (Gima, 2008). Collaboration in resource sharing, information literacy, staff training and other library services are a major focus for this group. From their conference proceedings in 2006, a survey of the state of the institutions regarding information literacy programs was presented. Of the sixteen members only four had established information literacy programs (Information Literacy Special Interest Group, 2006). AMICAL conferences always have a strong information literacy presence including workshops, papers and presentations. Unfortunately, their full conference proceedings are not available online but have resulted in a number of publications in other places (e.g., Click et al., 2012). Beyond the annual conference, AMICAL members receive information

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literacy training through webinars and online discussions, as well as keep abreast with the latest information literacy trends through the AMICAL Information Literacy Facebook page (available for members only). A pivotal moment in the development of information literacy throughout the Middle East region was the 2008 Training-the-Trainers in Information Literacy meeting held at Bibliotheca Alexandrina in Alexandria, Egypt (Wastawy, 2009). Sponsored by UNESCO, these sessions brought together 92 participants from 7 countries and 35 institutions. For most of the attendees, the concept of information literacy was a new one, and this opportunity to participate with other professionals helped to establish the importance of information literacy in the region. One of the more interesting results of this meeting was the discussion about using Arabic language content for teaching information literacy in an Arabic context (Chouit, Nfissi & Fahmy, 2013; Fahmy & Rifaat, 2010). Studies comparing information literacy programs vary widely in scope and methodology, especially those done on an international scale. Boekhorst & Britz (2004) compared school information literacy programs in the Netherlands and South Africa by analyzing a comparative description of the two educational systems. The findings helped point the way to improving the teaching of information literacy in South Africa and highlighted that “both countries focus much more on computer literacy” (Boerkhorst, 2004, p. 70). Another study which looked at private universities in Jordan using questionnaires (Klaib, 2009), found that information instruction was not comprehensively taught in the selected universities and made a variety of recommendations for improvement. A study of three African universities (Rasaki, 2009) analyzed course outlines and measured them against the ACRL Information Literacy Standards for Higher Education, finding that all three were deficient in one aspect or another (Rasaki, 2009, p. 6). The most recent study also compared information literacy programs but crossed several international borders by examining university libraries in Nigeria, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Designed to compare developed and developing countries this study used an online questionnaire, and the findings pointed to ways to “ university libraries in developing countries to implement new techniques to equip undergraduate students with information literacy skills” (Baro, Doubra & Godfrey, 2013, p. 283). A critical study related to information literacy programs that should be mentioned is a comparison of the ethnographic studies undertaken at four American-style universities, all AMICAL member institutions (Click et al., 2012). Conducted at the American University of Paris, the American University in Cairo, the American University of Sharjah and the Lebanese American University, this study was based on Nancy Fried Foster’s groundbreaking 2007 work on the study habits of students at the University of Rochester (Foster & Gibbons, 2007).

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With the assistance of Foster, this study highlighted the “...differences and commonalities between individual students and the specific cultures in which they are situated” (Click et al., 2012, p. 1). Most of the other studies surveyed have a direct relationship to improving library services, information literacy being only one of them. The articles included in this literature review provide examples of information literacy comparisons across countries and types of schools. The current study builds upon this by examining two very similar information literacy programs in two Middle States Commission on Higher Education (MSCHE)-accredited universities located in the Middle East. To understand the students of AUC and AUS a brief overview of the system of education in the two countries must be included in this review. The literature regarding Egypt is vast in both English and Arabic materials. For our purposes only a few of the latest English studies will be surveyed. An early work by Cochran (1986) found the Egyptian educational scene to be one in flux, influenced by political changes. Prior to the 1980s education had been free through the doctoral level and Egypt exported teachers to the rest of the Arab world. There were few private foreign language schools and there were more students than public schools could accommodate, so a system in which the school day was made up of three shifts was tried for a number of years (Cochran, 1986, p. 1). By the late 1990s, things were changing in a very different direction, as the “number of experimental language schools grew from 195 in 1991–1992 to 898 schools in 2005–2006, an increase of 360.5 percent” (Alayan, Rohde & Dhouib, 2012, p. 89). Cochran (2008) again documented those changes, concluding that years of educational reform and the addition of more private schools and universities had made no difference in the quality of education in Egypt (p. 138). AUC draws most of its incoming freshmen from these private sector schools. They are considered a cut above the free public schools but also have problems: many children need tutors, and there is lack of a standard curriculum as well as differences in teaching styles and expectations. Certainly, they are better than the overcrowded public “free” schools where the emphases are on completion of the national curriculum and passing the national exit examination, leaving little time for critical thinking skills and liberal arts. Alayan, Rohde & Dhouib (2012) note that “reforms that support active learning and problem solving skills among people are regarded as crucial factors for influencing the quality of education in MENA countries, widely criticized for clinging to an outdated tradition of rote learning methods and teacher oriented didactics that prevent the emergence of pupils who are capable of independent and critical thinking” (p. 4). It is also interesting to look at a specific example such as the study conducted by Taie and Mohamed in 2010. This study examined student attitudes

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and expectations in the nursing and education faculties of five Egyptian universities toward using the Egyptian University Digital Library (EUDL) provided by their respective schools/universities. Given the overcrowding and the lack of technological support at the lower school levels one would expect the usage of digital libraries to be a challenge. Taie and Mohamed found that more than half of the students in nursing used the digital materials easily and often; indeed, they valued the knowledge gained beyond the school requirements. The education faculty used these materials significantly less (p. 54). Most interesting are the five barriers to full usage of the digital items identified in the study: (1) restrictions in accessing the EUDL as a source of information for research and education, (2) insufficient Internet access, (3) lack of search skills, (4) insufficient computer labs, and (5) the cost of using the available labs (Taie & Mohamed, 2010, p. 40). For academic librarians, the third barrier stands out – information literacy. At AUC and AUS computer labs are free, bandwidth adequate, and information literacy classes are embedded in the curricula. In the last few years, the Gulf Region has also seen educational reform as a necessity. The UAE was formed in the early 1970s as a collective of seven small principalities: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah, and Umm al-Quwain. Before the oil boom, the population of these areas was small and relatively uneducated. As recently as 2007, the Vice President and Prime Minister of the UAE, HH Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum expressed the concern that “that Emiratis could not take over jobs without the qualifications and expertise to compete in both the public and the private sector” (Raven, 2011, p. 137). The education system, set up after the formation of the UAE, was a free four-tier one aligning itself with the country’s new economic interests designed to “diversify the economy and reduce dependency on oil and gas” (Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research, 2011). Thus was born the process of “Emiratizing” – educating UAE citizens for local positions instead of relying on foreign labor. Raven (2011) acknowledged that there may be conflict between culture and necessary education, noting that “traditional Bedouin values, for instance, may conflict with educational pressures towards promoting learner autonomy and openness” (p. 138). The Gulf Region in general is known for the large number of foreign educational institutions. The UAE (mainly Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Ras al Khaimah, and Sharjah) “has the largest number of foreign branch campuses (37) of any country in the world” (Knight, 2013, p. 190). In a recent broadcast on the educational vision for the future, the UAE government website Vision 2021 announced that a first rate education system for its citizens was a significant outcome to be achieved (Stephenson & Harold, 2011). It is worth noting that Saudi Arabia, Oman, Kuwait, and Qatar also have collections of foreign universities and schools, part of their attraction being

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location and education of local populations. These cross-border educational institutions are an interesting development, but Knight questions if they are sustainable. She feels the institutions may not be able to keep pace with the demand as “meeting the academic and language requirements continues to be a challenge for local students” (Knight, 2013, p. 192). AUS would appear to reflect her feeling, as only 17% of the student body are citizens of the UAE (American University of Sharjah [AUS], 2013).

Introduction to AUC The American University in Cairo was founded in 1919 by members of American United Presbyterians, with the intention of providing Egypt and the Middle East with access to an American style of education (Murphy, 1987). The establishment of AUC provided Egyptians and citizens of the wider Middle East with an alternative system to the already established and prominent British and European based educational systems. Since its establishment, AUC has grown from 50 students to the current enrollment of approximately 6,000 students annually (American University in Cairo [AUC], 2013a). AUC is widely considered amongst the best universities in the Middle East and prides itself on offering outstanding academic programs and quality education. AUC offers 36 undergraduate majors, 45 graduate programs and two doctoral programs through the Schools of Business, Humanities and Social Sciences, Global Affairs and Public Policy, Sciences and Engineering, and the Graduate School of Education. Programs at AUC are accredited through MSCHE and the National Authority for Quality Assurance and Accreditation of Education (NAQAAE), which is “a body created by the government in 2007 to establish quality standards for its educational institutions” (American University in Cairo [AUC], n.d., para. 1). Details about the student body and faculty at AUC can be found in the AUC Factbook (AUC, 2013a). In the 2012–2013 academic year, AUC enrolled 5,554 undergraduate and 1,394 graduate students, most of whom were Egyptian. There were only 782 foreign students in the fall of 2012, most of whom came from the United States and other Middle Eastern countries. There has been a significant drop in the number international and study abroad students since the Egyptian Revolution of 2011. There are 500 faculty members at AUC; approximately 51.2% are Egyptian, 31% are American and 17.8% are of another nationality (AUC, 2013a).

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AUC Library The Libraries of the American University in Cairo are composed of the Main Library and the Rare Books and Special Collection Library, both of which seek to enhance the educational experiences of faculty, staff, and students by providing access to innovative and unique electronic resources and print materials. The Main Library, located in the heart of the New Cairo campus, is home to the largest collection of English-language materials in Egypt (American University in Cairo Main Library, n.d., para. 2), and provides access to over 130 databases and 673,103 print and electronic books (P. Phillips, personal communication, January 26, 2014). The Main Library was designed to meet the information and study needs of all users, and, throughout the four-level library, one will find quiet study spaces, technology, and an abundance of resources. Students and faculty members have access to over 340 computers, a multimedia lab, and collaborative learning facilities, where students can work on group projects. By far one of the most popular places on campus, the plaza level of the Main Library serves as a multi-faceted Learning Commons, where students are able to receive writing, technical, research, and educational technology assistance. Every day, up to 4,000 faculty, staff and students enter the library (R. Shalaby, personal communication, January 9, 2014). Throughout the years, the Main Library has placed a great deal of emphasis on user engagement within the library and utilization of library resources. As a result, the Main Library has developed robust collections and pioneered many innovative instructional techniques, in order to better prepare students for college level research. The library staff is composed of twelve faculty librarians, nine of whom have an American Library Association accredited degree (S. Sobeih, personal correspondence, July 6, 2014). Currently, there are five instruction-related positions, including: the Coordinator of Instruction, Reference/Instruction Librarian, Instruction/Reference Librarian, and Head of Research and Information Services. Several other faculty librarians engage in instruction, in addition to those whose positions focus primarily on instruction. Through the generous support of the AUC faculty grant program, instruction librarians have attended numerous international conferences and workshops that have allowed them to significantly develop knowledge of information literacy concepts and trends.

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Information Literacy at AUC In response to the growing body of literature, emphasis in accreditation documents, and the need for information literacy skills, the AUC Main Library established the Department of Bibliographic Instruction in the fall of 1995. The department was to address and promote the importance of information literacy concepts and skills at AUC for undergraduate and graduate students (Spencer, 1995). The department was later renamed to the Department of Information Literacy in the fall of 1996, in order to clarify the goals of creating an innovative information literacy program using various assessment methods to assess student learning, and to create a holistic information literacy program (Spencer, 2002). During the commencement of this new program, librarians focused on collaborating with the Freshman Writing Program to create a more efficient and seamless information literacy program. Together, librarians and writing instructors created a series of six required workshops that focused on teaching information literacy skills to incoming freshman who were enrolled in the Freshman Writing Program. These skills included identifying scholarly sources, evaluating sources, search strategies, proximity and field searching, and utilizing the library’s databases, to incoming freshman students who were enrolled in the Freshman Writing Program (Spencer, 1997). Since all freshman students were required to complete the Freshman Writing Program, it seemed like the perfect opportunity to require information literacy training to ensure all students were equipped with basic knowledge of information literacy concepts. While pursuing these newly formed relationships, librarians continued to deliver and promote one-shot library instruction sessions with various academic departments to undergraduate and graduate students.

AUC’s Information Literacy Course After several years of experimentation with methods of delivery, primarily in tandem with the Freshman Writing Program, the Department of Information Literacy decided to pursue the establishment of a credit-bearing information literacy course that would aim to equip students with knowledge and skills needed to complete university-level research. In 2000, librarians designed Libraries and Learning Technologies 101 (LLT 101), which was designed to teach all of the ACRL information literacy standards to freshman, through a semester-long onecredit course that would meet once a week for 50 minutes. After numerous revisions to course content related to faculty input and information literacy best

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practices, the Faculty Senate approved LLT 101 in the Spring 2003 and made it a mandatory Core Curriculum requirement, but failed to allot one-credit to the course (Senate Academic Affairs Committee, 2000), thus making it a required pass/fail course. Class topics included effective use of reference sources, evaluation techniques, periodical indexes, and the online catalog (Course Syllabus: LLT 101, 2002). Because of the large number of incoming students and the fact that some of them were already equipped with adequate information literacy skills, the department gave students the option to complete an exemption exam. Although the course was originally designed to serve as an innovative credit-bearing information literacy course for freshman, in reality it became a required course that a students could take any point in their academic career, thus losing some of its value and potential impact on student learning. Within the first five years of LLT 101, there were three major iterations of course content and delivery, based on better aligning the course with the ACRL information literacy standards and to encourage student engagement. For the first two years, the syllabus mapped all weekly lessons to specific standards, but class time was devoted to lecture and demonstrations by librarians, and students were asked to apply skills through a series of assignments. LLT 101 lessons were linked to the Freshman Writing Program’s course content, in order to better prepare students for research in the freshman year, and allow the application of transferable skills. Lesson topics ranged from basic use and knowledge of indexes, databases, Boolean operators, and ethical use of information. During the second iteration of LLT 101, the course was renamed LALT 101 and was redesigned to incorporate active learning techniques into course content to engage students in the learning process. Instructors also utilized new technologies, such as wikis, Flickr, and Blackboard, to improve student learning and interest in information literacy (Bussert, Brown & Armstrong, 2008). Although numerous improvements were made to improve the quality of LALT 101, the library still faced some challenges with the course, since many students completed it late in their academic career, and enrolled students did not necessarily have an information need. Realizing that LALT 101 was not achieving its overarching goals, librarians sought meaningful new ways to teach information literacy skills, thus the third iteration of LALT 101 worked towards achieving an embedded information literacy Freshman Program and making LALT 101 a freshman year requirement. This type of program would ensure that students would learn information literacy skills and concepts at points of need in their undergraduate career. To ensure that information literacy best practices were at the forefront of the new information literacy program, librarians completed the ACRL Immersion Program’s

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Teacher, Program and Assessment tracks. Stemming from months of training, education, and preparation, information literacy was listed as one of the five programmatic learning outcomes of the newly established Freshman Program in the fall of 2013 (AUC, 2013b, para. 21). All freshman year courses must teach and assess information literacy skills, which is monitored by the Freshman Year Steering Committee (C. Clark, personal communication, March 4, 2013). Looking to the future, LALT 101 administrators are collaborating with faculty and administrators to make LALT 101 a required freshman year course. Course content will reflect themes and research topics located in the newly established Common Reading Program (D. Jones, personal communication, June 5, 2013).

Subject Specific Instruction To complement LALT 101 and to provide a more comprehensive information literacy program, the AUC Library has increased their offerings of subject specific one-shot information literacy instruction sessions and engaged in numerous assessment activities. Prior to the establishment of the Department of Bibliographic Instruction, the library offered one-shot library instruction sessions on an ad hoc basis, and the library has continued and grown these efforts to deliver subject-specific sessions to undergraduates, graduates, and faculty members. In the 2010–2011 academic year, instruction librarians created an assessment plan to measure teaching effectiveness and improve the quality of teaching in the library to ensure effectiveness in one-shot sessions (Houlihan & Click, 2012). In order to do so, librarians participated in peer-evaluations, in which they were asked to assess their colleagues’ ability in the classroom. Faculty and instructors were also asked to provide feedback regarding the success of librarians in the classroom. Students were also asked to complete a plus/delta form, in which they listed one thing they learned and one thing about which they were still confused. The Coordinator of Instruction then compiled all of the results and gave all instruction librarians a feedback form which highlighted their strengths and areas to be improved upon. Common areas of improvement included incorporating active learning activities into sessions, eliminating library jargon in the classroom and speaking more clearly. Librarians have also continued to provide one-shot instruction sessions and have worked closely with faculty members to create information literacy focused assignments and rubrics. For example, the history liaison librarian and a history professor collaborated to design a rubric to assess information literacy skills in History 420: Historical Research Methods. Students worked with the professor and librarian to improve their papers based on the rubric. Overall, the students felt the rubric provided solid feedback for

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improvements and allowed them to better construct a historical research paper (Houlihan & Tokic, 2013). As The American University in Cairo has set the standard as a key player of higher education in the Middle East, other institutions have demonstrated their interest in becoming just as significant in the region. The American University of Sharjah is one example of a successful American curriculum academic institution that has emerged and has established itself in the UAE.

Introduction to AUS The American University of Sharjah, located in the Arabian Gulf in the United Arab Emirates, is an independent, not-for-profit coeducational institution based upon American institutions of higher education. AUS was founded in 1997, by The AUS Strategic Communication and Marketing Department requires us to use: His Highness Sheikh Dr. Sultan Bin Mohammad Al Qassimi, Supreme Council Member, Ruler of Sharjah, and President of American University of Sharjah, who envisioned the university as a leading educational institution in the Gulf region and part of a larger process of the revitalization of intellectual life in the Middle East (Ritchie & Ray, 2008). The university is based on a US model of education, and is recognized as a leading university in the region, serving over 6,000 students from 92 countries (AUS, 2013). AUS offers 26 undergraduate and 14 master’s degrees programs through the following academic divisions: College of Architecture, Art and Design, College of Arts and Sciences, College of Engineering, and the School of Business and Management. In less than two decades AUS has achieved licensing and accreditation from significant agencies that include MSCHE and Commission for Academic Accreditation of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in the United Arab Emirates (CAA) (AUS, n.d.).

AUS Library The AUS Library started as a small academic unit located in the university’s administrative building with the majority of its services occupying one floor. Several years in the making, a new stand-alone library building, specifically designed to support and enrich student learning, welcomed a growing AUS academic community in 2006. With over 192,000 print and electronic items, including access to over 50 online databases and indexes, the AUS Library is one of

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the largest of its kind in the UAE. According to the library’s entry/exit gate statistics for the Fall 2013 semester, the AUS academic community visited the library nearly 20,000 times weekly, on average (M. Collins, personal communication, February 6, 2014). An Information Commons optimally equipped with 174 computer workstations, laptops, printers, and scanners provides ample workspace for student computing. Public access service desks are situated in high patron traffic areas so that students can receive assistance at their point of need. Numerous research workstations, group study, presentation, media, and quiet study rooms were incorporated into the new library design offering students multiple choices of workspace possibilities. To ensure that the information literacy program, critical to the library’s mission, could be delivered more effectively, key to the design of the new library was inclusion and placement of two library classrooms. This deliberate attempt to incorporate information literacy principles into the planning of the facility has proven to be a successful step in facilitating a thriving information literacy program (Ritchie & Ray, 2008). Ten ALA accredited librarians work with 14 library staff and 30 student assistants to ensure that the various library collections and resources are made available to the academic community. Two instruction librarians teach a majority of the information literacy and instruction sessions. Not only has the design and staffing facilitated the growth of the information literacy program, but professional development support from library administration has also significantly contributed over time. Instruction librarians have participated in several of the highly esteemed ACRL Immersion programs, attended both the ACRL and Workshop for Instruction in Library Use (WILU) conferences, presented at Librarians’ Information Literacy Annual Conference (LILAC) (Ross & Furno, 2010a), American International Consortium of Academic Libraries (AMICAL) (Furno, 2013), and regional conferences for Special Librarians’ Association, Arabian Gulf Chapter (SLA-AGC) (Furno, 2005), and the Information Literacy Network of the Gulf Region (ILN) (Ross & Furno, 2010b). This support has provided instruction librarians with the opportunities to further develop and stay current professionally, as well as implement skills and strategies not widely available in the region.

Information Literacy at AUS Early on, library instruction was considered an integral component of library services. As the university continued to grow, so did the library collections and the need for instruction. Faculty and students needed to learn how to effectively

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use existing print and online resources to support their research. Hence, an emerging information literacy program was forthcoming. In 2001, AUS began its accreditation process with the MSCHE; this initiative became a driving force in establishing a formal information literacy program (Deakin et al., 2004). Guidelines from the Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education set by the ACRL provided the framework; librarians collaborated with faculty and piloted an introductory information literacy program in early 2002. Information literacy modules were incorporated into two required sequential academic writing courses and faculty from each course section scheduled a one-shot session in the library classroom. Consequently, a newly created Information Literacy Librarian position was filled and the information literacy program was fully implemented (Ritchie & Ray, 2008). Within a decade, AUS experienced rapid growth in student population, academic building construction, faculty hires, research opportunities, and increased academic and student services. This development set forth a domino effect that launched a new library building replete with new and improved library services, increased access to growing collections, additional librarians and staff, and set the stage for the information literacy program to flourish. One significant factor to this the program’s boon was a revision of the AUS General Education Program. Now included is an information literacy specific outcome that proposes that students should be able to, “identify and access information resources efficiently and effectively based upon the Association of College and Research Libraries standards” (AUS, 2012). This requirement coupled with the acknowledgement that the ACRL information literacy standards serve as the guiding framework, has helped the information literacy program keep pace with the demands of the institution’s accrediting bodies and chief stakeholders.

Information Literacy Program Overview The AUS information literacy program is incorporated into two required sequential academic writing courses. Faculty from each course section schedule a librarian-taught one-shot, one hour session held in a library classroom. Preclass homework is assigned, select information literacy competencies are taught and practiced in class via active learning activities, and in-class and post-class assessments are frequently administered. In the 2012–2013 academic year, instruction librarians taught 181 information literacy classes to over 3100 students. Beyond the compulsory information literacy session, liaison librarians have collaborated with faculty and designed tailor-made instruction sessions or created

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course-specific libguides to support upper-level course research. Follow-up library instruction typically occurs when students voluntarily visit the Research Help Desk where they receive expert research assistance at their point of need. Initiatives such as the established General Education requirements and librarian-faculty collaboration coupled with assessment efforts have provided the data and the motivation for continuing improvement of the information literacy program. This on-going review of the program has helped identify existing gaps in the program. Outreach efforts to new students, those who receive no formal information literacy instruction until later in college, have been boosted so that even these students can enjoy a positive library experience as they navigate the plethora of new academic opportunities.

Assessment Evolving assessment strategies have been experimented with over the last several years. Summative and formative assessments have been implemented throughout the tenure of the program and have provided valuable insight into students’ learning and reflections on their library classes. In 2003, a bibliographic analysis of final research papers from a second year writing course was the first notable assessment attempt. Findings revealed that students relied heavily upon websites and few library resources for their research. As the library collection was gradually growing, these findings served as a useful collection development tool and helped the information literacy team develop a web evaluation module for subsequent information literacy classes. As there are no formal information literacy components embedded in the upper level courses, an information literacy assessment of graduating seniors was conducted. It was essential to review this cohort’s skill set as they moved beyond their undergraduate studies. Three competencies for improvement were identified: citation recognition, website evaluation, and Boolean operator application. Findings from this project and additional assessment initiatives funneled back into the design of the information literacy program, and subsequent library classes incorporated enhanced active learning activities, a suite of learning modules were developed, and a research log was mandated into the required second year writing course. One study assessed students’ retention of information literacy skills weeks after their one-shot library class. Results revealed that students struggled with appropriate application of Boolean operators and citation composition as related to resource recognition (Furno & Flanagan, 2008). An exploratory study

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of clicker¹ use in the classroom set out to assess the impact of active learning strategies on student learning. Although findings were unable to confirm that clickers had a positive effect on student learning, this study contributed to the growing body of literature that examines the impact of technology in the library classroom (Ross & Furno, 2011). Recently, the information literacy program administered a year-long study of AUS students using the Higher Education Data Sharing Consortium (HEDS) Research Practices Survey which explored the experiences and opinions of undergraduate students’ academic research. Findings identified methods to improve the ways that the library helps students develop their research skills as well as determined the evolution of their research abilities as they progress through General Education information literacy program (A. Ross, personal communication, February 6, 2014). Assessment of students and the information literacy program has helped determine if students are in fact, learning and has identified areas for program improvement. Joining forces with faculty open to collaboration has pushed these assessments initiatives even further. Library-faculty collaboration sits at the forefront of the AUS information literacy program. The information literacy librarian has collaborated with faculty in one course to pilot an introductory rubrics project as a method to assess information literacy skills within this course. Outcomes of this pilot project have been encouraging as invaluable faculty-librarian dialogue has transpired. Participating faculty and the information literacy team have a clearer picture of the how information literacy impacts the success of the information literacy program, the writing courses, and the institutional goals of AUS (Ross, 2012). Moreover, writing faculty and the library have taken steps to embed information literacy competencies into a required junior-level language and communication engineering course. This initiative has helped to ensure that information literacy plays a prominent role in this course, prompting the development of three innovative practices: a citation resource, assessment materials for the citation resource and an enhanced course Libguide (A. Alwan, personal communication, February 8, 2014). Finally, another collaborative project recently explored the intersection of academic writing and information literacy instruction, in particular, students’ experiences with information and the elements which contribute positively to students’ gradual acquisition of information literacy competence. The study investigated the challenges undergraduate students face as they negotiate com-

1 Interactive hand-held student response systems that allow teachers to capture real-time assessment data to gauge student comprehension and engagement.

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peting sources of information and the ways in which second language writers represent their knowledge gains. Findings will assist writing faculty and instruction librarians as they design, integrate, and assess writing and research tasks that challenge and encourage complex and critical ways of thinking (A. Ross, personal communication, February 6, 2014). In an effort to provide more opportunities for learning, and moving beyond the limited time constraints of the one-shot information literacy class, librarians have developed a suite of information literacy learning modules and strategies from which faculty can choose and incorporate into their courses, which includes outside examples of best practices strategies. The faculty-librarian relationship continues to strengthen as follow-up outreach has facilitated ongoing discussions, librarian-led faculty workshops have been held, new course-specific Libguides have been published, and faculty surveys have been administered. These quality-driven partner initiatives and assessment opportunities continue to develop and shape the existing information literacy program. They reinforce the power of the faculty-librarian partnership situated within the context of information literacy initiatives, and also foster continuous improvement of the information literacy program, which in turn supports a comprehensive assessment culture at AUS.

Information Literacy Challenges and Opportunities The information literacy programs at AUC and AUS faced numerous challenges during their development but continue to prosper. Although recent assessment projects at AUS have grown the information literacy program, pre-class quizzes and assignments have little consideration among the students and faculty. Furthermore, librarians remain distanced from course assessment participation. AUC currently lacks a holistic assessment program, since it has continually placed an emphasis on assessing the effectiveness of LALT 101, rather than other information literacy activities and initiatives. The AUC University Senate voted in May of 2014 to have students complete LALT 101 within their first three semesters, which will hopefully provide a more unified information literacy program. AUS has no imminent plans for a required credit-bearing library course, leaving students at a disadvantage. Most AUS students will meet with a librarian face-to-face twice during college when they are required to attend their course one-shot library classes. This interaction culminates to less than two hours out of a four year academic program.

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Both universities have expanded their reference services since they are not always able to reach students and faculty at points of need. Campus-wide promotion of the Research Help Desk, the ‘Ask a Librarian’ email service, research consultation sessions, subject and course-specific LibGuides, and optional library workshops have been increasingly seen as an important public service efforts by both institutions. In the case of AUC, virtual reference and subject guides played a critical role in providing library services to students during the student strike during the fall of 2012, which closed the AUC main campus for two weeks (El-Sharnoubi, 2012). One major challenge for both universities is to expand the information literacy program into all academic disciplines and grade levels, thus creating a holistic information literacy program. Faculty buy-in is crucial to the future success of both programs. AUC has established an information literacy embedded Freshman Year but has made little headway into should reaching all senior capstone courses, which require students to utilize all of the skills and knowledge they have gained in their discipline and complete a major research project, as originally planned. Instruction librarians are asked to present one-shot information literacy sessions in capstone course and upper level undergraduate course on an ad hoc basis, but there are not enough librarians to personally reach all students multiple times throughout their academic career. AUS’ recent initiatives addressing discipline-specific writing within the Writing across the Curriculum program have been outlined, but few outcomes are evident to date. Again, faculty accepting the value of incorporating information literacy competencies into their courses is slow- going, however, some seem open to exploring the initiatives that the information literacy program can support. Like many universities across the globe, AUC and AUS share concerns as to how their information literacy programs can best deliver relevant content to those who may never step foot into a library classroom. With only two primary instruction librarians at AUS, it remains impossible to meet all students. These are missed opportunities for English as a second language (ESL) students and those newly enrolled: from exchange to transfer to graduate students. Outreach attempts to connect with these departmental faculty have been made via liaison librarian updates, promotion of course-specific Libguides and survival guides, new student orientation tours, and ‘train-the-trainer’ sessions. With the support of core services such as reference along with appointment-based research consultations, students who fall outside the compulsory information literacy program can still empower themselves with the skills and techniques to become information literate. AUC has also had missed opportunities with reaching ESL students who are enrolled in the English Language Institute and graduate students, in the past there have been few interactions with these populations. Next year, the

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English Language Institute will adopt information literacy as a programmatic learning outcome, and students will complete IL focused assignments including annotated bibliographies, research logs, and source evaluation worksheets. Improvements are currently being made to better serve the graduate student population by offering information literacy workshops and creating online information literacy tutorials that will become a graduation requirement (P. Glavanis, personal correspondence, March 12, 2014). Because of the political instability of Egypt, AUC has suffered numerous financial and personnel losses that have caused setbacks to the development of the information literacy program. Since the 2011 Egyptian Revolution, AUC has encountered financial difficulties because of lack of international student revenue and the decline in value of the Egyptian Pound, which led to hiring freezes and materials budget cuts (L. Anderson, personal communication, February 2, 2014). Large turnovers in library personnel have caused the information literacy program to just stay afloat rather than increase in size and scope. Three positive developments stemming from the Egyptian Revolution are the library’s increased online presence, opportunity to archive revolutionary materials, and the opportunity to instruct students how to utilize primary and secondary sources when researching the revolution. As a result of continued upheaval in Cairo, AUC faculty learned to incorporate blended learning into course content, and the library increased its online presence to adjust to the students’ new learning environment. Librarians created videos using Panopto and Camtasia, and online subject guides to assist with teaching information literacy skills in an online learning environment.² In the fall of 2013, the AUC Library purchased 24/7 chat software to provide reference services around the clock.³ Librarians also proactively archived materials related to the Egyptian Revolution and taught library instruction sessions on how to research issues related to the Arab Spring (Runyon & Houlihan, 2013). Many challenges, and consequently, opportunities, lie ahead for the information literacy programs at AUC and AUS. With solid foundations now established at both campuses, these information literacy programs will strive to improve teaching opportunities for faculty and librarians in order to maximize improved student learning experiences and outcomes specifically geared toward the development of their critical thinking skills.

2 Panopto and Camtasia are examples of software used to create, edit and record videos. Used in a library setting, they allow librarians and educational technologists to create online learning objects that help explain and assess information literacy concepts. 3 24/7 Chat allows students to chat with a librarian 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

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The Future of Information Literacy in the Middle East The authors believe that by seeking collaborative opportunities with local high schools, increasing information literacy awareness through professional development organizations, improving the quality of library education programs, and continuing research on Middle Eastern students, a more comprehensive information literacy program in the Middle East can be developed. AUC, AUS, and all regional colleges and universities would benefit from these activities. Collaboration with local high schools would improve the information literacy skills of incoming college students and better prepare them for college level research, while also increasing awareness of information literacy skills. Librarians at AUC and AUS, as well as other academic librarians can play a crucial role in disseminating knowledge and programmatic ideas to school librarians. These relationships can range from simple activities, such as inviting school librarians and students into academic libraries for the day to hosting workshops for school librarians within their own work environment. Wastawy (2009) showed that collaboration amongst librarians in Egypt could provide a broad knowledge of information literacy and increased awareness within the library and education communities, through the Training-the-Trainers in Information Literacy workshop at Bibliotheca Alexandrina. Expanding and increasing the number of information literacy workshops in the Middle East will provide school librarians and administrators with the knowledge to create and assess information literacy programs at their home institutions. By utilizing resources, such as speakers and promotional materials, regional institutions including AUC and AUS can become leaders of information literacy awareness in the Middle East. Stemming from collaborations with schools, proper utilization of local resources with the assistance of international library associations could help develop cohesive professional development programs that emphasize information literacy training to public and special collections librarians. Librarians and educators would be able to increase their knowledge and skill level of information literacy trends through local publications, workshops, and informal connections. No longer limited to academic libraries, the ILN recently expanded its networking base to include school librarians who are interested in working with current ILN academic librarians. Although many primary schools do not support a formal information literacy program, there has been resounding response for participation from librarians in private and public schools who remain committed to their profession, who value information literacy throughout the educa-

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tional trajectory, and strive to be better connected to the emerging world of resources available to them in the Middle East. As mentioned previously, ILN and AMICAL are two very active library organizations, but they do not collaborate. The Cybrarians and the Egyptian National Library Association are two local organizations in Egypt that promote library resources and services including information literacy in Arabic. Outreach from these organizations to the few public libraries in the region may better connect communities to school and academic library information literacy initiatives. And finally, further development of library and information science programs in the Middle East would allow the regional libraries and schools to be staffed with highly trained local information literacy professionals to ensure that the profession’s best practices are applied throughout information literacy programming. Continuing research across all student age groups in the Middle East is essential. Fortunately, AUC and AUS librarians receive support from their respective institutions to launch studies and surveys from international organizations such as AMICAL, Educause, and the international Project SAILS. Yet, there is no evidence that such support exists for research applicable to the local school systems. Projects that examine library and information literacy initiatives across the education continuum may identify ways to better prepare students for college.

Conclusion As AUC and AUS assert themselves as key academic institutions in the Middle East, both libraries continue to demonstrate their capability of providing qualitydriven information literacy programming. Firmly established information literacy programs accompanied by accreditation requirements, library-faculty collaboration initiatives, assessment reporting, and multiple outreach opportunities will hopefully garner continuing support from key institutional stakeholders. Longitudinal studies that examine and surveys that gauge user experiences and satisfaction not only within the information literacy program, but across the library’s core services may shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of existing service models. Findings may reveal the best approach to helping students develop their critical thinking skills as they move through their academic career and assisting them where it matters: at their point of need. Despite ongoing circumstances that may hinder progress of our respective information literacy programs, diligent librarians at AUC and AUS still envision the ideal information literacy program. Embedding and assessing information literacy competencies at all levels will emphasize the necessity of these vital

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life-long skills. Assuring meaning and value through authentic assessment will better connect students to these essential life-long skills. And, incorporating enhanced blended learning activities across the curriculum will reinforce these essential life-long skills. For students at AUC and AUS, the outlook is promising for them to develop into successfully competent and information literate global citizens.

References Abdullahi, I. (Ed.). (2009). Global library and information science: A textbook for students and educators, with contributions from Africa, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East, and North America. Munich, Germany: K. G. Saur. doi: 10.1515/9783598441349 Al-Aufi, A., and Al-Azri, H. (2013). Information literacy in Oman’s higher education: A descriptive-inferential approach. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 45(4), 335–346. doi:10.177/0961000613486824 Alayan, S., Rohde, A., and Dhouib, S. (Eds.). (2012). The politics of education reform in the Middle East: Self and other in textbooks and curricula. New York, NY: Berghahn. Al-Daihani, S. M., and Rehman, S. U. (2007). A study of the information literacy capabilities of the Kuwaiti police officers. The Electronic Library, 25(7), 613–626. doi: 10.1108/ 02640470710829587 American University in Cairo. (n.d.). NAQAAE accreditation. Retrieved September 29, 2014, from American University in Cairo. (2013a). AUC Factbook 2012–2013. Retrieved February 23, 2014, from American University in Cairo. (2013b). A guide to designing freshman year courses. Retrieved October 14, 2014 from signing_Freshman_Year_Courses American University in Cairo Main Library. (n.d.). About AUC Main Library. Retrieved February 23, 2014, from American University of Sharjah. (2012). General Education Program. Retrieved February 23, 2014, from American University of Sharjah. (2013). Fall 2013 – Fast Facts. Retrieved February 23, 2014, from American University of Sharjah. (n.d.). Accreditation – American University of Sharjah. Retrieved February 23, 2014, from Association of College and Research Libraries. (2000). Information literacy competency standards for higher education. Retrieved from standards/standards.pdf Baro, E., Doubra, S., and Godfrey, V. (2013). Information literacy programmes in university libraries: A case study. Libri: International Journal of Libraries and Information Services, 63(4), 282–294. doi: 10.1515/libri-2013-002

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Birks, J., and Eula, I. (2011). A journey towards sustainability: Viewing the information literacy network of the Gulf region through the lens of P.M. Senge. Library Leadership and Management, 25(4), 1–17. Retrieved from Boekhorst, A. K., and Britz, J. J. (2004). Information literacy at school level: A comparative study between the Netherlands and South Africa. South African Journal of Libraries and Information Science, 70(2), 63–71. doi: 10.7553/70-2-666 Bussert, K., Brown, N. E., and Armstrong, A. H. (2008). IL 2.0 at the American University in Cairo: Flickr in the classroom. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 13(1), 1–13. doi: 10.1300/J136v13n01-01 Chouit, D., Nfissi, A., and Fahmy, E. (2013). List of selected information literacy resources available in the Arabic language. In W. F. Horton (Ed.), Overview of information literacy resources worldwide (pp. 39–42). Paris, France: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc. Click, A. B. (2014). “Taking something that is not your right”: Egyptian students’ perceptions of academic integrity. Libri: International Journal of Libraries and Information Services, 64(2), 109–123. doi: 10.1515/LIBR.2000.129 Click, A., Stöpel, M., Alam, M. T., Kreidieh, S., Flanagan, D., Foster, N. F., and Ray, K. (2012). Studying students across borders: An ethnographic study of research behavior. International Journal of Library Science, 5(1), 1–13. Retrieved from index.php/ijls/index Cochran, J. (1986). Education in Egypt. London, UK: Croom Helm. Cochran, J. (2008). Educational roots of political crisis in Egypt. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. Course Syllabus: LLT 101. (2002). Public Services/Library Papers, American University in Cairo’s Rare Books and Special Collections Library, (Box 1), New Cairo, Egypt. Deakin, P., Furno, C., and Ritchie, L. (2004). Building the AUS information literacy program: Issues and challenges. AAICU Journal, 1(3), 18–29. El-Sharnoubi, O. (2012, October 1). AUC’s bitter strike ends as agreement is reached. Ahram Online. Retrieved from tics-/AUCs-bitter-strike-ends-as-agreement-is-reached.aspx Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research. (2011). Education in the UAE: Current status and future developments. Abu Dhabi, UAE: Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research. Fahmy, E. I., and Rifaat, N. M. (2010). Middle East information literacy awareness and indigenous Arabic content challenges. International Information and Library Review, 42(2), 111–123. doi: 10.1016/j.iilr.2010.04.00 Foster, N. F., and Gibbons, S. (Eds.). (2007). Studying students: The undergraduate research project at the University of Rochester. Chicago, IL: Association of College and Research Libraries. Furno, C. (2005, March). Partnering with faculty to improve student research. Paper presented at the Special Libraries Association, Arabian Gulf Chapter (SLA-AGC) conference, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. Furno, C. (2013, June). The X-CLASS factor: Using classroom management technology to enhance the library class experience. Presented at the annual meeting of the American International Consortium of Academic Libraries, Rome, Italy. Furno, C., and Flanagan, D. (2008). Information literacy: Getting the most from your 60 minutes. Reference Services Review, 36(3), 264–271. doi: 10.1108/00907320810895350

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Gima, J. (2008, Fall). AMICAL: Building bridges within and across international “American” universities. AUPMagazine: Knowledge, Perspective, Understanding, 2008(09), 3–6. Retrieved from gazine.pdf Horton, W. F. (2013). Overview of information literacy resources worldwide. Paris, France: UNESCO. Retrieved from Houlihan, M., and Click, A. (2012). Teaching literacy: Methods for studying and improving library instruction. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 7(4), 35–51. Retrieved from Houlihan, M., and Tokic, M. (2013, June). A rubric approach to historical research. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American International Consortium of Academic Libraries, Rome, Italy. Information Literacy Special Interest Group. (2006, May). Information literacy at AMICAL institutions. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American International Consortium of Academic Libraries, Cairo, Egypt. Klaib, F. J. (2009). Provided information literacy instructions at private university libraries in Jordan and trends of Zarqa Private University students towards its objective achievements. International Information and Library Review, 41(3), 173–183. doi: 10.1016/j.iilr.2009.02.002 Knight, J. (2013). Crossborder education in the Gulf countries: Changes and challenges. In G. Donn and Y. Al Manthri (Eds.), Education in the broader Middle East: Borrowing a baroque arsenal (pp. 171–201). Oxford, UK: Symposium Books. Lesher, T. M. (2002). Information literacy instruction for Kuwaiti students and the role of cultural relevance (Doctoral thesis). Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK. Retrieved from Lesher, T. M., and Abdel-Motey, Y. (2009). Middle East: Academic libraries. In I. Abdullahi (Ed.), Global library and information science: A textbook for students and educators, with contributions from Africa, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East, and North America (pp. 440–456). Munich, Germany: K. G. Saur. doi:10.1515/9783598441349 Mendelsohn, H. (2011). Civil unrest affects libraries in Cairo, Egypt. International Leads, 25(1). Retrieved from hive/201103.pdf Murphy, L. R. (1987). The American University in Cairo, 1919–1987. Cairo, Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press. Rasaki, O. E. (2009). A comparative study of credit earning information literacy skills courses of three African universities. Library Philosophy and Practice. Retrieved from http://digital Raven, J. (2011). Emiratizing the education sector in the UAE: Contextualization and challenges. Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, 4(2), 134–141. doi: 10.1108/17537981111143864 Ritchie, L., and Ray, K. (2008). Incorporating information literacy into the building plan: The American University of Sharjah experience. Reference Services Review, 36(2), 167–179. doi: 10.1108/00907320810873039 Ross, A. (2012). Information literacy outcomes assessment using rubrics: A library pilot. In C. L. Gunn (Ed.), Enhancing teaching and learning in higher education in the United Arab Emirates: Reflections from the classroom (pp. 200–213). Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

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Ross, A., and Furno, C. (2010a, March). Active learning strategies in the IL classroom: Evaluating methods, comparing results and measuring ‘real’ impact. Paper presented at the Librarians’ Information Literacy Annual Conference (LILAC), Limerick, Ireland. Ross, A., and Furno, C. (2010b, March). Opening up the rhetorical dimensions of research: Situating information literacy within the context of a first year academic writing course. Paper presented at the Information Literacy Network (ILN) of the Gulf Region Conference, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Ross, A., and Furno, C. (2011). Active learning in the library instruction environment: An exploratory study. Portal: Libraries and the Academy, 11(4), 953–970. doi: 10.1353/ pla.2011.0039 Runyon, C., and Houlihan, M. (2013). Revolutionary libraries: Building collections and promoting research about the January 25th uprising in Egypt. Alexandria, 23(2), 73–77. doi: 10.7227/ALX.23.2.6 Senate Academic Affairs Committee. (2000, November 15). Adoption of new courses. Public Services/Library Papers. American University in Cairo’s Rare Books and Special Collections Library, (Box 1), New Cairo, Egypt. Spencer, J. (1995, December 15). [Letter to Shahira El Sawy]. Public Services/Library Papers. American University in Cairo’s Rare Books and Special Collections Library, (Box 1), New Cairo, Egypt. Spencer, J. (1997, January 12). [Letter to Lammert Holdjik]. Public Services/Library Papers. American University in Cairo’s Rare Books and Special Collections Library, (Box 1), New Cairo, Egypt. Spencer, J. (2002, October 3). [Letter to Shahira El Sawy]. Public Services/Library Papers. American University in Cairo’s Rare Books and Special Collections Library, (Box 1), New Cairo, Egypt. Stephenson, L., and Harold, B. (2011). Emergent leadership development through undergraduate research in UAE classrooms. In C. Gitsaki (Ed.), Teaching and learning in the Arab world (pp. 94–117). New York, NY: P. Lang. Taie, E. S., and Mohamed, K. A. (2010). The role of digital libraries in Egyptian higher education. Digest of Middle East Studies, 18(2), 40–56. doi: 10.1111/j.1949-3606.2009.tb01104.x Wastawy, S. (2009). Report of the UNESCO training-the-trainers (TTT) workshop, Alexandria, Egypt, 4–6 November 2008. The International Information and Library Review, 41(4), 231–245. doi: 10.1016/j.iilr.2009.09.009

Received: 13th July 2014 Final version received: 30th January 2015 Accepted: 17th March 2015

Janet Martin

7 Aligning Library Services to the Emerging Online Capability of Emirati Students Introduction This chapter outlines recent empirical research into the access to and use of digital technologies by Emirati (national Arab) youth, contextualizing the impact of technology within the complex and fast changing culture and society of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The findings from this research are particularly relevant to the development of library services in the UAE. That is, analysis of documented characteristics of Emirati youth shows a marked difference in their technological use compared with that identified by their peers in other developed countries. The increasing availability of digital technologies in the latter years of the twentieth century has had a major impact on the amount of information available at our fingertips, and on the way that we can communicate, socialize, contribute to and assimilate information. International research in recent years has documented the access to and use of digital technologies by young people, largely in developed countries, and in the process, many of the claims made in an international digital natives debate have been challenged. The digital natives debate has argued that because this younger generation (born after 1985) has grown up at a time when the influence of digital technologies has grown rapidly worldwide, they have become a fundamentally different generation from those of the past, possessing sophisticated skills to effectively use these technologies, and displaying new preferences for learning and engagement with activities which have been molded by use of these technologies. (Palfrey & Gasser, 2008; Prensky, 2001a, 2001b; Tapscott, 1998). The literature review which begins this chapter however, highlights the paucity of empirical research into the impact of technology on the young Arab population of the Middle East, and the UAE in particular, positioning this newly reported research as a significant contribution to a more worldwide perspective. Just as international research conclusions into the engagement of young people with digital technologies cannot be uncritically applied to the UAE, so concomitant recommendations for education and library services of the future should be based upon an empirically based understanding of this population. Substantial research has been reported on the impact of a much more ‘wired’ young generation upon library services in more developed countries of the world, but analysis

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of these implications in countries of the Middle Eastern region is sparse. Certainly research conclusions from this study lead to reservations when adapting international directions in libraries, where Emirati experiences with technologies, as well as unique cultural and socio-economic differences, are substantial.

Context and Significance of the Research A wide discussion relating to young people today and their competence with digital technologies (as a reasonably homogenous generation), has been challenged by recent research in many developed countries of the world, such as in the UK (Livingstone & Bober, 2005), the USA (Dahlstrom, deBoor, Grunwald & Vockley, 2011; Ito et al., 2009; Rideout, Foehr & Roberts, 2010), European Union countries (Pedro, 2009), Canada (Bullen, Morgan, Belfer & Qayyum, 2009), Singapore (Cheong & Martin, 2010), South Africa (Czerniewicz, Williams & Brown, 2009; Thinyane, 2010), and Australia (Bennett, Maton & Kervin, 2008; Kennedy, Judd, Churchward, Gray & Krause, 2008). However, empirical research into young people and their use of digital technologies in the UAE, and indeed in the wider Middle East region, is almost non-existent. There has been no systematic or widespread documentation of the access to and use made of digital technologies by Emirati young people in the UAE, to add to a worldwide perspective of this topic. This current research provides insight into the access and use made of digital technologies specifically by Emirati tertiary students in the UAE (Martin, 2013). Insight into issues of engagement with digital technologies by youth in similar situations, such as using English as a second language, attendance at more traditional schooling, or poor exposure to digital technologies prior to tertiary education, are also important considerations. This research thus lays an important foundation for further research into youth and their engagement with technology in the Middle East region. The data underpinning this research were collected from several tertiary education institutions that had a very high level of participation by national Emiratis. Specific research questions relevant to this chapter were: (1) the extent to which Emirati tertiary students accessed and used digital technologies, and (2) the extent to which Emirati tertiary students regarded themselves as skillful and confident in their use of digital technologies. The responses to these questions have provided a snapshot of technology access and use by students in the UAE, clarifying possible assumptions or variations in use and skill levels of Emirati students. Further, the outcome of this research has laid an important foundation to inform the future planning of UAE higher education teaching and learning, especially with regard to the delivery of library and information services.

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Review of the Literature UAE Background The development of oil reserves in the UAE from the mid-1960s, together with stable and visionary leadership, kick-started a period of great economic and social development for the country which has changed the landscape from scattered villages to super-highways linking modern cities and industries, within a few decades. The government has strongly supported a liberal education for both males and females through to post-graduate levels, and many Emiratis now have the opportunity to travel widely. With rapid economic and social development, the Emirati population has been exposed to a wide range of western ideas and influences such as consumerism, popular music and entertainment, world news, drugs and alcohol, and the Internet with a myriad of information and communication options. The UAE has a well-developed and technologically advanced telecommunications infrastructure with the highest Internet penetration rate in the Middle East in 2011 (70.9%), although the proportion of Emiratis within these figures cannot be determined (Internet World Stats, 2011). Mobile phone penetration in the UAE is extremely high at over 200%, a result of multi-SIM ownership to take advantage of various offers and deals, and a large expatriate population providing a pool of constantly changing potential new subscribers (Paul Budde Communication, 2011). The UAE also has the highest use of social media in the Middle East region, particularly amongst young people (Dubai School of Government, 2011a). Against this backdrop of very progressive and extensive Internet availability in the UAE however, is the desire by the government to regulate aspects of the Internet which are deemed to be inconsistent with religious, cultural, political and moral values of the country. To this end, Internet sites thought inappropriate for the community are blocked through a nationally imposed Internet filter monitored by the government. A recent Arab Social Media Report also noted that 32% of respondents in the UAE were concerned about being held accountable by authorities for their online expression of social/political views using social media (Dubai School of Government, 2011b). Numerous public media reports within the UAE discussing both government and religious warnings about possible repercussions for the publication of anti-authority viewpoints (for example, Al Sadafy, 2012; Broomhall, 2012; Dajani, 2012), point to the likelihood of a curtailment of Internet liberalization in the foreseeable future.

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Massive changes have been implemented in the UAE educational system at both school and tertiary education levels since federation in 1971. In the early 1970s, the average length of schooling in the UAE was 2.87 years, and illiteracy rates were nearly 50% (World Bank, 2008). By 2009/2010 however, the average length of schooling in the UAE had risen to 12 years (Central Intelligence Agency, 2011), and the illiteracy rate had fallen to 7% for Emiratis (National Bureau of Statistics, 2009, p. 34). Opportunity now exists within the UAE for both male and female Emiratis to undertake tertiary study in almost all disciplines, as well as post-graduate and doctoral research, often as the first generation to attend higher education. Nevertheless, work is still ongoing in the development of quality education for the majority of Emirati students who attend government-funded public schooling. For many historical reasons, as well as insufficient resourcing, most public schools continue to reflect a more traditional teaching and learning model, featuring a teacher-centric focus, rote learning and memorization, and very limited formats for learning resources (Mawgood, 1999; McNally, 2003; Ridge, 2009; United Nations Development Programme, n.d.; World Bank, 2008). This traditional system of education for many remains a significant problem for students subsequently enrolling in western-style universities available in the UAE, or overseas. While there is a dearth of published research into the availability and use of digital technologies in the UAE government schools attended by the majority of Emirati students, several small studies do report very low availability of Internet connectivity and computer hardware, even in recent years (Alghazo, 2006; Almekhlafi & Almeqdadi, 2010; DiPrete, McConnaha, Norton & Brittingham, 2004; McNally, 2003; Piecowye, 2003). By contrast, the UAE has been very progressive in introducing digital technologies into teaching and learning in public higher education institutions to which all Emiratis have access. This trend is exemplified by the implementation of well supported technology infrastructures, universities where all teaching faculty and students are provided with and utilize laptops, and unrestricted access to the Internet, through to a widespread introduction of tablets and mobile technologies within the last couple of years.

Regional Research There is scant research to date into the actual access and use made of the Internet by youth in the UAE, and whether young Emiratis exhibit any of the characteristics

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attributed to young people in the wider digital natives debate, such as constant engagement with, and high levels of confidence and skill when dealing with a wide variety of digital technologies. Several discussion papers have been published in recent years, which give an insightful view into youth, digital technologies and culture in the Arab world (Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2007; Fandy, 2000; Hashem, 2009; Kraidy & Khalil, 2008; Lynch, 2007; Wheeler, 2000, 2003). Some papers reflect a fear of dilution of traditional authority and Arabic culture with the rise of ubiquitous digital technologies, but discussion is also often tempered by the reality that change to a wide array of societal issues have similarly affected the Middle Eastern region, including a huge increase in the youth population, high youth unemployment rates, changes to educational opportunities, and in particular, changes in the role of, and opportunities for, females, as well as the influence of the Internet and technological changes. Several research studies have been reported, often addressing the relevance and likely success associated with the introduction of online and blended learning courses for Emiratis in UAE tertiary education. Identified inhibitors to success within these studies have included drawbacks associated with the traditional schooling experienced, previous lack of exposure to digital technologies, and language barriers that Emirati students have encountered when engaging with digital technologies (Almekhlafi & Almeqdadi, 2010; Brown, Walsh & Webb, 2003; Burt, 2004; Clarke & Otaky, 2006; Mahrous & Ahmed, 2010; Martin, Birks & Hunt, 2010; Mynard, 2003; Richardson, 2004). Where empirical research has been published, however, it has often been small scale, and difficult to reproduce or generalize from the results. In recent years, several researchers have documented the high importance of the Internet in the lives of young Emirati students (Hashem, 2009; Schvaneveldt, Kerpelman & Schvaneveldt, 2005; Shakir, Shen, Vodanovich & Urquhart, 2008; Shen & Shakir, 2009; Sokol & Sisler, 2010; Walters, Quinn & Walters, 2005). Shen & Shakir (2009), for example, completed a preliminary study into Internet usage among Arab adolescents, based on a selective group of UAE tertiary education students. Limited to 74 students in a convenience sample, the authors concluded that while Internet usage patterns were diverse, Internet use had become a daily routine for the students involved, all students had at least two years experience in using the Internet (most with over six years of Internet experience), and that “the young generation in the UAE ha[d] passed the initial stage of Internet adoption and [were] moving to the intensive usage of Internet” (p. 7).

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Methodology This research was undertaken from a realist standpoint, and employed mixed methods to improve its quality. This combination of methods has synergy with the realist philosophical stance, where more scientific and quantitative exploration of the topic is complimented by a qualitative inquiry into important social, cultural and educational factors, to explore and better explain the research findings. In social research such as this study, implementation of mixed methods “conveys magnitude and dimensionality as well as results that portray contextual stories about lived experiences” (Greene, 2008, p. 7). Adopting the quantitative method of surveys together with the qualitative method of interviews enabled this research to focus not only on what experiences Emirati students had with digital technologies, but on how their experiences were impacted by the socio-economic, cultural and educational environment in which they lived. Use was made of an adapted survey instrument used in other universities (so far in Australia and South Africa), which provided internationally comparative data, together with a follow-up series of interviews to verify and clarify responses to the survey given by Emirati students. The cross-sectional survey participants were selected by either a stratified random sampling, or a stratified convenience sampling (depending on the educational institution surveyed) from male and female Emirati nationals between the ages of 18 and 25 years who currently attend a tertiary educational institution in the UAE. Interview participants were selected as a purposive sample from student volunteers who had completed the online survey, to ensure representation from different institutions, genders, ages, disciplines and geographical locations. Pilot testing of both instruments followed ethical clearance in all participating universities in the UAE, and in Australia. In late 2011 and early 2012, a total of 587 online surveys were completed by Emirati students attending four different tertiary educational institutions, with representation from this sample group including 85% females and 15% males, seven regional areas of the UAE, and all academic disciplines as defined by the Commission for Academic Accreditation (CAA) Annual Report 2011 (Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research [MOHESR], 2011). In the UAE in 2011/12 there were nearly 70 tertiary education institutions licensed and accredited by the CAA, although most of these largely enrolled students from the expatriate population. There were several tertiary institutions however, which educated entirely or almost entirely Emirati students, and these institutions were all approached to participate in this research. Of those approached, four institutions agreed, and their participation formed

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the basis for this survey sample. Surveys were disseminated by the participating institutions through their academic email systems, and all participation reflected informed consent. The method of sampling varied between institutions, as invitations to participate relied upon dissemination and promotion by faculty and management located within the different institutions, though all were initially encouraged by the researcher to utilize either full population or random sampling to select invited participants. Within three institutions, a stratified random sample was taken, but in one institution a convenience sample was taken, largely based upon class groups. An overall response rate of 20.95% was achieved from the students invited to participate. Based upon an estimated population in the UAE of approximately 67,000 Emirati students in tertiary study in 2010/11 (MOHESR, 2011), this survey response rate enabled a 4% error rate expected at 95% confidence level. During May 2012, a total of 15 follow-up interviews were completed in Dubai and Abu Dhabi, including representation from three tertiary educational institutions, 66% females and 33% males, seven cities and towns within the UAE, and six disciplinary areas. Semi-structured interview questions were used with individuals; responses were recorded on audio tape and later transcribed. An Arabic speaking Emirati research assistant was involved in interviews, to encourage culturally appropriate questioning, as well as to facilitate more frank responses. The majority of female participants in this research is proportionate to 70% of Emirati tertiary students being female in 2011 (Abdulla & Ridge, 2012, p. 34). Descriptive and inferential statistical data analysis of survey responses was undertaken to determine patterns of engagement and use of digital technologies by Emirati students, possible relationships or correlations between the variables, and the significance and strength of findings. Semi-structured interview questions were used with individuals, based largely upon the responses received in the survey. All interviews were audio-recorded, with permission from the students, and the recordings then transcribed, manually coded, and themes highlighted. Qualitative analysis of interview data was designed to reveal convergence of results, or to highlight contradictions or fresh perspectives when compared to survey responses both within the UAE, and similar research recently completed internationally. Interview analysis focused on the possibility of cultural factors which may have unforeseen implications for the survey results in this part of the world.

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Findings and Discussion Research data confirmed that most Emirati tertiary students have almost comprehensive access to broadband Internet, both from home and their place of study, using mobile technologies such as tablets or mobile phones, as well as laptops or desktops. The UAE has a well established technological infrastructure, and tertiary Emirati students are generally well connected at home (80% broadband) and at university (100% broadband). Digital technologies are used very frequently – over 90% of Emirati students use their mobile phone daily, and an average of nearly 60% undertake basic Internet activities on a daily basis. The following was a typical interview response: I am always wired – I used to carry a BB [BlackBerry], iPod, iPhone. I haven’t bought the iPad yet. The BlackBerry has Internet as well. I have laptop… everything. (F8, May 16, 2012)

However, several students reported not being connected to the Internet at home, and over 10% do not regularly use the Internet, computers, or mobile phones in their daily lives. Educational improvements in the UAE have been pivotal as an impetus for technological changes, with digital technologies now ubiquitous within tertiary education institutions, as well as in the homes and communities of families with Emirati tertiary students. This was reflected in interview comments such as: I didn’t use a computer before I came here [to university]. In my last year of high school I started using a computer. Before that we didn’t have, because we didn’t need it, so my parents thought that. (F9, May 22, 2012)

While Internet access and use is established at tertiary institutions in the UAE, however, in the majority of cases it was not widely available or integrated into the curriculum of Emirati students in primary and secondary school. Nearly 45% of students in this study reported not having good Internet or computer facilities at their high school, and nearly 60% indicated that they did not use the Internet in their lessons or classrooms in either government or private high schools. Interview comments revealed the surprise of some students at digital technology use when they reached tertiary education: [Some students] could not even move the mouse (F3, May 7, 2012). Somehow we knew about the laptops but we didn’t know that we were going to use it that much. We didn’t know that we have to use it every day!! (M3, May 20, 2012)

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Transitional problems for some students were clear: What happens when students who haven’t had a computer come to university? They fail and they leave. They were like… What is this? It’s a completely new thing for them. (F3, May 7, 2012)

In the UK, Livingstone (2012) reported a similar problem with the integration of technology into the school curriculum, concluding that “schools [were] proving slower to change their lesson plans than they were to fit computers in the classroom” (p. 9). In the UAE both school computer and Internet access, as well as curriculum redesign in secondary schools, appears to be slowly, albeit unevenly, introduced across the country. As noted by Evans, chief executive officer of “Project Tomorrow” in the US, “most of the students in college right now probably weren’t connected to the Internet at school until almost the seventh grade… And among these students, some had Internet access at home, and some didn’t. There’s going to be a difference between a student who didn’t take his first test online until the seventh grade and a student who started taking online tests in the first grade” (Waters, 2011, para. 25). For UAE tertiary students, the beginning of engagement with digital technologies appears to have often been much later than seventh grade, although the majority of students have become avid consumers of technologies within a few short years. Interview data in this research indicated that younger generations of Emiratis are likely to be increasingly connected at an earlier age to technologies, both at home and study, as the current generation of tertiary students begins to draw technology into their families and communities. Emirati students involved in this research were very often the first in their family to attend tertiary education. While regularly using digital technologies however, Emirati students have usually engaged with technologies in a largely unsophisticated way, biased towards consumption and simple, regular access and use, rather than a high level of competence with a range of technology tools. This research revealed little use of Web 2.0 tools or of content creation, with interview responses discussing the impact of government and community dissuasion from posting inappropriate comments as a possible influence on this behavior. In strong contrast, Emirati students self-identified their own skill and confidence level with a range of activities using computers, the Internet and mobile phones, very highly. This disconnect between the self-perceived high skill level and confidence of young Emiratis in their use of digital technologies, and their documented engagement with more basic technologies, is important to acknowledge if an overestimation of technological competence is not to be made, especially as students transition from school to tertiary education.

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This research documents Emirati tertiary education students placing a high value upon digital technologies, and viewing the Internet unquestionably as the primary source of academic and non-academic information. The survey conclusions were reinforced by many interview comments, such as: Live without the Internet? I could not do that. (M1, May 6, 2012) It’s really important for me I think. The life without the Internet is like, … I don’t know how to tell you,… is like the car without wheels! (F10, May 22, 2012)

In this study, survey and interview results confirmed a diversity of use and engagement with technology across the Emirati student population, including significant diversity between students living in urban as opposed to more rural areas, and significantly more engagement by females than males. Together with the documented lack of engagement of a percentage of Emirati students with digital technologies at all, these findings flag the inappropriateness of assuming homogenous levels of engagement with technologies by all Emiratis in tertiary education.

Implications for Library Services With a digital revolution that shows no signs of slowing, information resources are increasingly varied and digitized, and as Hendrix (2010) points out, “to remain relevant, any institution, including... libraries, must evaluate its place in a world increasingly lived online” (p. 3). Library users are not identical the world over however, as discussed previously in this chapter, which necessitates effective and relevant library services being guided by their users rather than by technological advances alone. Substantial research has been reported on the impact of a much more ‘wired’ young generation on library services in more developed countries of the world (e.g. Connaway, Dickey & OCLC Research, 2010; Hendrix, 2010; Zickuhr, Rainie & Purcell, 2013; Zimerman, 2012). These studies document a fall in people physically visiting the library, a demand for immediate access to information from the desktop, and a trend in information seekers to be looking for more functionality in library systems which will give them seamless access to a range of resources, as they assume search engines to be providing. In this UAE research, tertiary students too reportedly placed a similarly high value on the Internet as their primary source of information, although their views need to be balanced against their apparently uncritical reliance on major search engines when undertaking research. A tendency for Emirati students to

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be reasonably uncritical and reliant on major search engines such as Google for a range of information needs was revealed through interviews. For example: I have everything Googled… You just can’t live without Google, and whatever you want to know, just type it (F8, May 16, 2012)

This quick, ‘satisficing’ search characteristic of Emirati students requires more in-depth research in the future, but is an important finding with implications for library services. In light of their very high confidence when engaging with digital technologies, Emirati tertiary students are also likely to overestimate their academic research skills. In the UAE, as in many other countries, there is a likely confusion between a wider digital competence of young people, and their regular but basic communications and entertainment engagement. This perceived overconfidence in academic research skills has also been identified as the subject of important research in other parts of the world (Combes, 2008, 2009; Michalko, Malpas & Arcolio, 2010), and would usefully be the subject of further detailed research within the context of the UAE and the Middle East.¹ Certainly in the US, Zimerman (2012) commented that “[students] will have had to use the wide variety of databases and resources available to them during their latter school years” (p. 179), and according to Smith and Caruso (2010) 81% of tertiary students in the US consider themselves very skillful in searching, evaluating or utilizing the Internet. In a major UK report, Connaway et al. (2010) noted that “students are very aware of the difference between formal research and basic Internet content” (p. 22). The documented lack of any Internet access available to a high percentage of Emirati schools in this research supports several reports which give an indication of poor Emirati student experience with independent and critical learning skills (Johnston, 2013; Martin, 2006; Martin et al., 2010; Mynard, 2003; Vrazalic, MacGregor & Behl, 2010). This evidence suggests that many Emirati students do not have experience with investigating a wide range of digital information resources, nor indeed have an understanding of critical evaluation and differentiation between academic and non-academic information resources, identified as characteristics of students in other countries. A UAE case study within the United Nations Development Programme’s Arab Knowledge Report 2010/2011 (n.d.) also supports this conclusion. This particular study concluded that Emirati

1 Research is emerging for a doctoral thesis, currently unpublished: “How do higher education Emirati students experience information use?” by Helen Weston. Correspondence to [email protected]

7 Aligning Library Services to the Emerging Online Capability of Emirati Students


students’ information searching skills were well below the required minimum score to enable them to become involved in a knowledge society, with only 0.4% of students assessed as possessing adequate information searching skills (pp. 335–337). Around 10% of Emirati students in the current Martin (2013) research were also identified as very reluctant and inexperienced users of any digital technologies – a digital divide which should not be ignored. Despite a very high reported self confidence with technologies and a plethora of online information resources therefore, Emirati tertiary students are likely to require more information literacy (IL) support than ever before, if they are to become successful academic and life-long learners and researchers. Given that Emirati students in this research identified the Internet as their most important source of information and communication, the challenge for academic libraries in this region will be to continue to make library resources more easily accessible online, underpinned by a persuasive and continually reinforced IL program. The aim of IL programs must be to achieve credibility amongst the Emirati student body that convinces them of the potentially added value that an understanding of different information resources can provide. For students to seek out and engage with better IL skills, they must first acknowledge that their current information seeking behavior is inadequate, especially in an academic environment, a difficult task that cannot be accomplished without close partnership between the library and teaching faculty. Some recommendations in recent US library reports focus on the opportunity for libraries to collaborate with students on a range of activities (e.g. Hendrix, 2010), most of which assume student involvement in content creation. In the US there is an identified trend for student collaboration, and for young people to contribute content to the Internet. Lenhart and Madden (2005) found that some 57% of online teenagers created content for the Internet in the US; the Digital Youth Project similarly identified significant amounts of online creative activity among US teenagers (Ito et al., 2009), and the ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2010 in the US found that between 36% and 42% of students had engaged in content creation activities (Smith & Caruso, 2010). In a UK study, over 60% of students regularly used social networking websites and used wikis, blogs or online networks (Joint Information Systems Committee [JISC], 2007), though the use appears to be almost exclusively in non-academic settings. As discussed in this research however, Emirati students have generally not embraced more advanced technology applications, and few are avid content contributors to the Internet. Reasons for this include the potential threat of government intervention in the posting of controversial information by citizens, and the perceived change in family and community authority posed by ready sources

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of global information on the Internet. The following interview comment is indicative of potential challenges to societal norms and authority, which are regarded cautiously in the traditional culture of the UAE: Before, the older people in my family controlled the access to information in my family. They knew more. There was no other access to information… and now that I am exceeding their knowledge it’s kind of undermining their authority. (F6, May 7, 2012)

As a result, international trends in libraries towards collaboration with students on a range of activities (most of which assume student involvement in content creation), are less applicable in the UAE, but are likely to increase in importance as the influence of the Internet becomes more common within families and communities.

Conclusions This chapter outlined recent empirical research into the access to and use of digital technologies by Emirati youth, and argued that these findings signal potential directions for future school and academic library services, if they are to make a significant contribution towards the development of a knowledge economy in the UAE. This is the first extensive, multi-institutional research project to address the topic of the access and use of digital technologies by Emirati students, in a region which includes a very high population of young people who are increasingly well connected and educated, at a time of remarkable change and challenges in the Middle East. This is a topical and important area for current research and debate, as the UAE moves quickly towards a knowledge economy and a far more educated young population. The desire by the UAE government to aspire to a “diversified and flexible knowledge-based economy” (UAE Vision 2021, 2011, section 3) is clearly stated, and as pointed out by Hargittai & Shafer (2006) with reference to the international community, “as more and more services move online, the ability to navigate the web’s content efficiently becomes increasingly crucial for maintaining a competitive edge and guaranteeing equal opportunity. As such, web-use skills have become an important component of people’s human capital” (p. 443). The UAE has an excellent technological infrastructure, and the Emirati population generally has the income capacity to purchase both good bandwidth and a range of devices. Several major findings from this research conclude that Emirati tertiary students are ‘wired’, accessing digital technologies very regularly, but generally using more basic applications and rarely participating in content creation. This study has highlighted a hitherto unacknowledged diversity

7 Aligning Library Services to the Emerging Online Capability of Emirati Students


within the population of young Emirati students, flagging the need to avoid generalizations about whole groups of people which could otherwise easily become the cornerstones of social and educational inequity. It is important to empiricize and understand Emirati library users, to be able to develop the right services and programs to serve them, and the country. This chapter has also provided indicative information relating to other Arab youth in the Middle East, in places that have recently experienced similarly fast development, high Internet connectivity, and very high proportions of young people within society. This paper thus lays a foundation for further research into the important topic of the relevance of library services of the future to Arab youth in the Middle East region, with a recommended concentration in research on users, rather than the latest technology. Further research could make a valuable contribution to understanding more about how Emirati students are actually undertaking academic research, and what steps academic libraries in the region can take to ensure that digital information collection and accessibility will be seamlessly available to younger generations, who will expect no less.

Note This chapter is based on a PhD thesis completed in 2013 at the University of Queensland, Australia. In accordance with standard research procedure, to maintain the confidentiality of all participants in the interviews, neither the educational institutions nor the interviewees have been identified, except with brief pseudonyms. Educational institutions have been referred to simply as Institution 1, Institution 2, etc, and individuals involved in interviews have been referred to in the following format: (F7, May 16, 2012). There were five male students interviewed, and ten female students, so the coding for each interviewee simply starts with F for female or M for male, followed by the consecutive number allocated to that interviewee, and the date on which the interview was conducted. For example, in the above format, female #7 was interviewed on May 16, 2012.

References Abdulla, F., and Ridge, N. (2012). Where are all the men? Gender, participation and higher education in the United Arab Emirates. Dubai, UAE: Dubai School of Government. Al Sadafy, M. (2012, April 19). Need to regulate social networking sites in UAE stressed. Emirates 24/7. Retrieved from

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Alghazo, I. (2006). Quality of Internet use by teachers in the United Arab Emirates. Education, 126(4), 769–781. Almekhlafi, A., and Almeqdadi, F. (2010). Teachers’ perceptions of technology integration in the United Arab Emirates school classrooms. Educational Technology and Society, 13(1), 165–175. Bennett, S., Maton, K., and Kervin, L. (2008). The ‘digital natives’ debate: A critical review of the evidence. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(5), 775–786. Broomhall, E. (2012, April 5). Dubai police to snoop on social media sites. Retrieved from Brown, L., Walsh, J., and Webb, J. (2003). Online teaching: A pilot project at Zayed University, Higher Colleges of Technology and the United Arab Emirates University. Teachers, Learners and Curriculum, 1, 63–65. Bullen, M., Morgan, T., Belfer, K., and Qayyum, A. (2009). The net generation in higher education: Rhetoric and reality. International Journal of Excellence in eLearning, 2(1), 1–13. Burt, J. (2004). Impact of active learning on performance and motivation in female Emirati students. Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: Gulf Perspectives, 1. Retrieved from Central Intelligence Agency. (2011). United Arab Emirates. In The World Factbook. Retrieved January 11, 2011, from geos/ae.html Cheong, P., and Martin, J. (2010). Online outsiders within. In F. Sudweeks, H. Hrachovec, and C. Ess (Eds.), Seventh International Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication, June 15–18 2010, Vancouver, Canada (pp. 42–44). Murdoch, Australia: Murdoch University. Clarke, M., and Otaky, D. (2006). Reflection ‘on’ and ‘in’ teacher education in the United Arab Emirates. International Journal of Education Development, 26(1), 111–122. Combes, B. (2008, August). The Net Generation: Tech-savvy or lost in virtual space? Paper presented at the International Association of School Librarianship Annual Conference and International Forum on Research in School Librarianship, Berkeley, CA, USA. Combes, B. (2009, September). Digital Natives or digital refugees? Why we have failed Gen Y? Paper presented at the International Association of School Librarianship Annual Conference and International Forum on Research in School Librarianship, Abano Terme, Padua, Italy. Connaway, L., Dickey, T., and OCLC Research. (2010). The digital information seeker: Report of the findings from selected OCLC, RIN, and JISC user behaviour projects. Bristol, UK: Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC). Czerniewicz, L., Williams, K., and Brown, C. (2009). Students make a plan: Understanding student agency in constraining conditions. ALT-J, 17(2), 75–88. Dahlstrom, E., deBoor, T., Grunwald, P., and Vockley, M. (2011). ECAR national study of undergraduate students and information technology 2011. Boulder, CO: EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research. Dajani, H. (2012, May 3). Don’t spread Facebook rumours, urges sermon. The National. Retrieved from Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (2007). World Youth Report 2007: Young people’s transition to adulthood: Progress and challenges. New York, NY: United Nations.

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DiPrete, C., McConnaha, W., Norton, S., and Brittingham, B. (2004). Developing school libraries in the Abu Dhabi Educational Zone. Unpublished report. Abu Dhabi, UAE: Abu Dhabi Educational Zone. Dubai School of Government. (2011a). Facebook usage: Factors and analysis. Arab Social Media Report (Vol. 1). Dubai, UAE: Dubai School of Government. Dubai School of Government. (2011b). The role of social media in Arab women’s empowerment. Arab Social Media Report (Vol. 3). Dubai, UAE: Dubai School of Government. Fandy, M. (2000). Information technology, trust, and social change in the Arab world. Middle East Journal, 54(3), 378–394. Greene, J. (2008). Is mixed methods social inquiry a distinctive methodology? Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 2(1), 7–22. Hargittai, E., and Shafer, S. (2006). Differences in actual and perceived online skills: The role of gender. Social Science Quarterly, 87(2), 422–448. Hashem, M. (2009). Impact and implications of new information technology on Middle Eastern youth. Global Media Journal, 8(14). Retrieved from sp09/gmj-sp09-hashem.htm Hendrix, J. (2010). Checking out the future: Perspectives from the library community on information technology and 21st century libraries. Washington, DC: American Library Association. Internet World Stats. (2011). Top 58 countries with the highest Internet penetration rate. Retrieved March 12, 2012, from http://www. Ito, M., Horst, H., Bittanti, M., Boyd, D., Herr-Stephenson, B., Lange, P., . . . Robinson, L. (2009). Living and learning with new media: Summary of findings from the Digital Youth Project. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Johnston, N. (2014). Understanding the information literacy experiences of EFL (English as a foreign language) students. (PhD dissertation). Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. Retrieved from sis.pdf Joint Information Systems Committee. (2007). Student expectations study: Key findings from online research and discussion evenings held in June 2007 for the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC). London, UK: Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC). Kennedy, G., Judd, T., Churchward, A., Gray, K., and Krause, K. (2008). First year students’ experiences with technology: Are they really digital natives? Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 24(1), 108–122. Kraidy, M., and Khalil, J. (2008). Youth, media and culture in the Arab world. In K. Drotner and S. Livingstone (Eds.), The international handbook of children, media and culture (pp. 336–350). Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications. Lenhart, A., and Madden, M. (2005). Teen content creators and consumers. Washington, DC: PEW Internet and American Life Project. Livingstone, S. (2012). Critical reflections on the benefits of ICT in education. Oxford Review of Education, 38(1), 9–24. Livingstone, S., and Bober, M. (2005). UK children go online: Final report of key project findings. London, UK: UK Children Go Online Project. Lynch, M. (2007). Blogging the new Arab public. Arab Media and Society. Retrieved from Mahrous, A., and Ahmed, A. (2010). A cross-cultural investigation of students’ perceptions of the effectiveness of pedagogical tools: The Middle East, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Journal of Studies in International Education, 14(3), 289–306.

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Martin, J. (2006). Online information literacy in an Arabian context. Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: Gulf Perspectives, 3(2). Retrieved from lthe03_02_03_martin.htm Martin, J. (2013). Technology, education and Arab youth in the 21st century: A study of the UAE. (PhD dissertation), University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Retrieved from http:// Martin, J., Birks, J., and Hunt, F. (2010). Designing for users: Online information literacy in the Middle East. Portal: Libraries and the Academy, 10(1), 57–73. Mawgood, E. (1999). United Arab Emirates education ‘Vision 2020’: An overview. In G. Welch and E. Mawgood (Eds.), Educational reform in the United Arab Emirates: A global perspective: Proceedings of the first International Conference on Educational Reform in the UAE, 13–15 April, 1999 (pp. 5–37). Dubai, UAE: Ministry of Education and Youth. McNally, P. (2003). An evaluation of school libraries in the United Arab Emirates. Unpublished report. Dubai, UAE: Ministry of Education and Youth. Michalko, J., Malpas, C., and Arcolio, A. (2010). Research libraries, risk and systemic change. Dublin, OH: OCLC Research. Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research (MOHESR). (2011). Commission for Academic Accreditation: Annual report 2011. Retrieved from AnnualReport2011.pdf Mynard, J. (2003). Synchronous computer-mediated communication and learner autonomy in female Emirati learners of English. (EdD dissertation), University of Exeter, Exeter, UK. National Bureau of Statistics. (2009). Analytical report on economic and social dimensions in the United Arab Emirates 2009. Abu Dhabi, UAE: National Bureau of Statistics. Palfrey, J., and Gasser, U. (2008). Born digital: Understanding the first generation of digital natives. New York, NY: Basic Books. Paul Budde Communication. (2011). United Arab Emirates – Telecoms, Mobile and Broadband. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from rates-Telecoms-Mobile-and-Broadband.html Pedro, F. (2009). New millennium learners in higher education: Evidence and policy implications. Paris, France: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved from Piecowye, J. (2003). Habitus in transition? CMC use and impacts among young women in the United Arab Emirates. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 8(2). Retrieved from Prensky, M. (2001a). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5), 1–6. Prensky, M. (2001b). Digital natives, digital immigrants, Part II: Do they really think differently? On the Horizon, 9(6), 1–9. Richardson, P. (2004). Possible influences of Arabic-Islamic culture on the reflective practices proposed for an education degree at the Higher Colleges of Technology in the United Arab Emirates. International Journal of Education Development, 24(4), 429–436. Rideout, V., Foehr, U., and Roberts, D. (2010). Generation M2: Media in the lives of 8– to 18year-olds. Menlo Park, CA: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Ridge, N. (2009). Privileged and penalized: The education of boys in the United Arab Emirates. (EdD dissertation), Columbia University, New York, NY. Schvaneveldt, P., Kerpelman, J., and Schvaneveldt, J. (2005). Generational and cultural changes in family life in the United Arab Emirates. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36(1), 77–91.

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Shakir, M., Shen, K., Vodanovich, S., and Urquhart, C. (2008). Exploring UAE women’s experiences with IT. Paper presented at the European and Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems, Dubai, UAE. Retrieved from Proceedings/Refereed%20Papers/Contributions/C%2016/EMCIS%202008%20IT%20&% 20Women%20Shakir%20et%20al%20REVISED.pdf Shen, K., and Shakir, M. (2009). Internet usage among Arab adolescents: Preliminary findings. Paper presented at the European and Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems, Izmir, Turkey. Retrieved from Refereed%20Papers/Proceedings/Presenting%20Papers/C2/C2.pdf Smith, S., and Caruso, J. (2010). The ECAR study of undergraduate students and information technology, 2010. Boulder, CO: EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research. Sokol, D., and Sisler, V. (2010). Socializing on the Internet: Case study of Internet use among university students in the United Arab Emirates. Global Media Journal, 9(16). Retrieved from Tapscott, D. (1998). Growing up digital: The rise of the Net Generation. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Thinyane, H. (2010). Are digital natives a world-wide phenomenon? An investigation into South African first year students’ use and experience with technology. Computers and Education, 55(1), 406–414. UAE Vision 2021. (2011). Retrieved 9 October, 2012, from United Nations Development Programme. (n.d.). Arab Knowledge Report 2010/2011. Dubai, UAE: Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum Foundation (MBRF) and The United Nations Development Programme/Regional Bureau for Arab States (UNDP/RBAS). Vrazalic, L., MacGregor, R., and Behl, D. (2010). E-learning barriers in the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary results from an empirical investigation. IBIMA Business Review. Retrieved from Walters, T., Quinn, S., and Walters, L. (2005). Media life among Gen Zeds. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 8(1), 63–82. Waters, J. (2011). Will the real digital native please stand up? Campus Technology. Retrieved from Wheeler, D. (2000). Globalization and Kuwaiti national identity. Middle East Journal, 54(3), 432–444. Wheeler, D. (2003). The Internet and youth subculture in Kuwait. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 8(2). Retrieved from World Bank. (2008). The road not traveled: Education reform in the Middle East and North Africa. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Zickuhr, K., Rainie, L., and Purcell, K. (2013). Library services in the digital age. Washington, DC: PEW Research Center. Zimerman, M. (2012). Digital natives, searching behavior and the library. New Library World, 113(3/4), 174–201.

Received: 23rd June 2014 Final version received: 10th November 2014 Accepted: 11th November 2014

Patricia A. Wand

8 Correlating Information Centers to Emerging Knowledge-based Economies Data is found in unexpected places Nothing seems more basic than soil but even ‘simple’ soil contains valuable data. Only when the soil is collected, though, and the data is extracted and analyzed, does the data about something as simple as soil become available to inventors and researchers. Between 2007 and 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey collected 5,000 bags of soil, one every 600 square miles from all regions of the lower 48 states. The headline reads: “U.S. soil survey helping researchers dig into nature’s mysteries.” The article announces a project begun in 2001 and discusses the three-year effort to gather soil samples across the U.S. The analysis report, leading to a “snapshot of minerals and chemicals in the ground,” was made available in 2013. The soil data is already being used to solve murder mysteries, map organic carbon and nitrogen levels in certain regions, track acid rain damage to forests, and locate black carbon residue from both ancient forest fires and modern day industrial smokestacks. Even questions about climate change may be partially answered by studying soil (Smith, 2014, p. A4).

Introduction What is the relationship between the number of information centers in a country and its ability to become a knowledge-based economy? Data forms the underpinnings of a knowledge-based economy and without it researchers can’t find answers to questions, citizens can’t know about their government, students can’t learn about their country, scholars can’t generate new knowledge, creative minds can’t innovate; and the rich, cultural resources of a country remain invisible to the world. This chapter focuses on developing sustainable, knowledge-based economies in the Arabian Gulf and examines the role of information centers in those economies. The phrase ‘information center’ refers to any location or repository where information is collected, described, organized, stored, preserved and disseminated; examples are documentation and research centers, digital libraries, archives, libraries, museums, historical centers, archaeological or World Heritage sites. The discussion first lays out the four pillars of a knowledge economy as defined by the World Bank and compares the Knowledge Economy Index for the Gulf States. Expanding the framework to another metric, the study compares the number of information centers in each of the countries and correlates that

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number with its population. The comparison of information centers to size of population is proposed as a measure of the degree to which a country is prepared to contribute as a knowledge economy. The chapter covers the functions of information centers and the value of networking centers, and offers a few cultural considerations. The paper concludes with a case for a developing country to gather information about its own residents, culture and landmass.

Foundations of Knowledge-Based Economies Knowledge-based economies are those societies that derive a large portion of their export income from services they provide rather than from tangible goods they deliver to the world. This paper focuses on the Gulf States, many of which are aspiring to diversify their mineral-based economies and become service and knowledge-based economies. As developing countries shift their base in the global economy from natural resources and agriculture to industry and, increasingly, to knowledge-based services, questions arise regarding factors that lead to economic success in knowledge environments. According to the World Bank Institute: Knowledge and innovation have played a crucial role in development from the beginnings of human history. But with globalization and the technological revolution of the last few decades, knowledge has clearly become the key driver of competitiveness and is now profoundly reshaping the patterns of the world’s economic growth and activity. Both developed and developing countries should therefore think, with some urgency, about their future under a [knowledge economy] heading (2007, p. ix).

Furthermore, the World Bank (2007) points out, “…because their institutions are weak, many developing countries are struggling to find ways to produce relevant knowledge and transform it into wealth, as well as to adapt and disseminate existing knowledge for their development” (p. ix). Much has been written about the information and communication technology infrastructure and the capacity within each of the countries to meet demand in delivering information electronically (Burkhart, Older & National Defense Research Institute, 2003; Calhoun, Drummond & Whittington, 1987; Hundley et al., 2001). There is wide-spread recognition of the role of education and many countries are investing in their human capital to increase the skill sets that lead to employment and higher productivity in the service sector (Cassidy, 1990). But less visibility is given to the importance of data-gathering and of information centers and their roles in the infrastructure of knowledge economies. Knowledge itself is being put to work to accelerate and deepen the development

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process and is a major resource for generating wealth and jobs. All types of knowledge, including indigenous and the most traditional, form a ‘world bank’ of intellectual capital, but only if they are recorded, preserved and utilized.

Four Pillars Provide the Framework for a Knowledge-Based Economy Researchers at the World Bank focused on factors leading to success in knowledgebased economies and produced a report that serves as a theoretical and practical guide to this discussion (World Bank Institute, 2007, p. 27). Four pillars undergird a knowledge economy:

Political and economic systems are stable and credible The government is stable and the macroeconomic system includes incentives for developing business, competing fairly in the market place and complying with regulatory policies. The environment is conducive to risk-taking. Citizens respect and engage in the institutions that govern their political and social lives (Government of Qatar Planning Council, 2007, p. 14).

A modern, reliable infrastructure of telecommunications and information technology is established High-tech, high-speed infrastructure of information technology and telecommunications can process, store and deliver information when it is needed. Policies and legal frameworks exist to protect its users; professionals and skilled workers design and maintain it. A variety of stakeholders are mobilized to assure success of this pillar: government, business, individual users, skilled personnel, telecommunication and information service providers, to name a few (Government of Qatar Planning Council, 2007, p. 34).

Labor force is educated and skilled A well-educated work force is critical for productivity, creativity and disseminating knowledge effectively. The work force has diverse skills and is open to

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learning. “Education is a fundamental enabler of the knowledge economy” and improving the quality of education at every level is a priority (Government of Qatar Planning Council, 2007, p. 20).

Effective innovation system protects, fosters and supports creativity, innovation and intellectual freedom Firms, research centers, universities, and policies are part of a broad, vibrant sector that collects data and makes knowledge available to support learning and research. The system uses existing knowledge to develop the country on all levels and generates new knowledge for the global information exchange. Information centers are key to this pillar. According to the Government of Qatar Planning Council (2007): The innovation system plays an important role in acquiring, adapting, and disseminating knowledge… . The actors of the innovation system include private enterprises, universities, research institutes, consulting firms, think-tanks, and others. The innovative performance of a country depends to a large extent on how these actors relate to each other as elements of a broader system e.g. in the form of joint R & D, personnel collaboration, cross-patenting, licensing of technology, etc. (p. 28).

The World Bank depicts the inter-relationship of the four pillars in a Boolean diagram (Fig. 8.1).

Education An educated and skilled population can use knowledge effectively

Innovation system Asystem of organizations that can tap into global knowledge to assimilate and adapt it, as well as create local knowledge

Information infrastructure Facilitates the effective communication, processing and dissemination of information

Economic and institutional regime Provides incentives for the efficient creation, dissemination, and use of existing knowledge

Fig. 8.1: Four interactive pillars of Knowledge Economies (World Bank Institute, 2007, p. 27).

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At the bottom of the diagram and underpinning all is the first or foundation pillar: the economic and institutional regime. The other three pillars are formed and sustained by stable government institutions and economic systems that are consistent and in place over time. Sitting on top of the government/economic foundation is the information technology and telecommunications infrastructure, which includes the electronic hardware and software that delivers information but does not include the information itself nor the knowledge generated from information. And on top of both are the third and fourth pillars: education of the populace and an innovation system. Education emphasizes high levels of literacy and strong schools from pre-K through graduate education as well as opportunities for life-long learning. The education sector is closely related to its partner pillar, the innovation system, which is the focus of the remainder of this paper. The innovation system pillar encompasses the data, information, and the intellectual content upon which learning, knowledge, innovation and creativity are based. The World Bank measures the health of the innovation system in large part by its output (i.e., the research that is conducted within a country and the country’s scholarly output). This study also considers the input – the availability of basic information and accumulated knowledge in information centers – necessary for research and new knowledge to be generated.

Emerging Knowledge Economies in the Gulf Using this theoretical backdrop as a lens, the study focuses on eight of the nine nation states that surround the Arabian/Persian Gulf or occupy the Arabian Peninsula; namely, Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.¹ All countries are developing in various ways and several are already emerging knowledge-based economies. The World Bank Institute, using the Knowledge Assessment Methodology (KAM), has formulated the Knowledge Economic Index to evaluate the extent to which an environment in a country or region is ready for knowledge to be used effectively for economic development (Tab. 8.1).

1 Iraq is not included because recent data regarding all components of this study were not available for Iraq.

8 Correlating Information Centers to Emerging Knowledge-based Economies


Tab. .: Knowledge Economy Index (KEI) for eight Gulf countries, comparing  and . Country

Bahrain Iran Kuwait Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Yemen

Knowledge Economy Index (KEI)

Pillar 1 Economic Incentive and Institutional Regime

Pillar 2 Information and Communication Technology

Pillar 3 Education

Pillar 4 Innovation System



 



 



. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . .  .

 . . . . . .

. . . . . . .











The Knowledge Economy Index (KEI) is an aggregate index calculated from the average of normalized performance scores of a country in all four pillars.² The score is based on comparative performance and the variables are normalized on a scale from 0 to 10 (10 being the most desirable) relevant to the four possible comparison groups. A basic scorecard of 14 variables is used to calculate the KEI and is derived from a total of 148 sources that factor into the scores of the four pillars. Tab. 8.1 offers a comparison between the 1995 scores and ‘recent’ scores from data released between 2005 and 2011. Between 1995 and 2011, the KEI increased for Iran, Oman and Saudi Arabia and decreased for the other countries. If a country performs worse over time on a certain normalized variable, this may be because it actually has lost ground in absolute terms, or because it improved slower than its comparative group. Looking beyond the KEI itself, the scores in the innovation pillar increased for Iran, Qatar and Yemen. While the scores in some countries have gone down during a time when those countries are improving their knowledge infrastructure, it may be because the scores of other countries around the world have risen more quickly.

2 For more background on the Knowledge Economy Index, see World Bank Institute (2007), Building Knowledge Economies, pp. 23–32.

162  Patricia A. Wand

The factors of particular importance in the scorecard for the innovation system pillar are: – Number of researchers in research and development (R & D), per million population – Patent applications granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office, per million population – Number of scientific and technical journal articles from the country, per million population (World Bank Institute, 2007, p. 29) – Amount of money invested annually in research by the government. These are quantitative measures that do not address the quality of the factors being counted (e.g., the output of researchers counted, the effectiveness and practicality of the patents, the significance of the journal articles in their fields and the productivity stimulated by the money invested annually in research). Those qualitative factors do not figure into the scorecard for the innovation system leading to the KEI and hence are not addressed in this paper.

Historic Look at Knowledge and Data Centers Knowledge emerges when human creativity builds on data or facts or figures; otherwise known as information. Human creativity generates innovations to solve problems and make things work better. Creativity occurs in all aspects of the human endeavour (e.g. artistic renderings, music compositions, scientific explanations, technological improvements and entertaining moments). Historically over millennia, information centers have evolved because political leaders and nations want to preserve the records of society and the knowledge it creates and they decide to systematically promote learning and research. Information and recorded knowledge, once gathered, classified, described, organized and preserved, reside in centers that support government functions, business development, artistic creativity, learning and the generation of new knowledge. Information centers increase in cultures where governments are stable, public policies are in place to promote universal education, priority is given to collecting data about the country and its population, residents are encouraged to participate in government and where research productivity feeds economic, social and political development. Innovation and creativity are dependent upon a web of interconnected information hubs that store and disseminate data just in time for an inventor to solve a knotty problem or to inspire a scholar to write the seminal article.

8 Correlating Information Centers to Emerging Knowledge-based Economies


Different Types of Information Centers Data centers, digital libraries, documentation and research centers, archives, libraries, and museums have one thing in common; they all collect information and create metadata to aid in organizing and retrieving data. “Metadata” literally is ‘data about data,’ coming from Greek and Latin words, meta and data. Metadata describes the intellectual content and is used to retrieve it within an information package. Metadata may be in the form of keyword descriptors; a citation with author, title, publisher, date, etc.; an abstract; a classification symbol; a footnote or endnote. Primarily information centers distinguished themselves by the format of the information they collect, which also dictates their names (e.g., data center, archive, library, museum, archaeological site). Digital libraries is a term often used today but technically, every contemporary information center must be digital, at least in part. Examples of information packages or formats are bits and bytes in the computer world, books, sound recordings, films and videos, text-based reports, periodicals and newspapers, artifacts from archaeological sites, microfilm and microfiche. Even archaeological and World Heritage sites are information centers in that they hold the data of ancient societies and preserve the context of lost cultures. Archaeological sites store information about a society but the information may not be totally organized and made retrievable yet; it may be unprocessed facts and figures that are without metadata. In that way, an archaeological site is similar to the raw data collected in a population census. The facts and figures are recorded but they have not yet been analyzed and made available in comprehendible ways for further use. All information centers need skilled professionals – archaeologists, archivists, librarians, researchers, statisticians, information professionals – to analyze and make the content retrievable and to preserve it for learners and scholars. Most information centers are two-way distribution points. In the 21st century, the metadata created by these centers is digital and increasingly part if not all of the content is digital and can be distributed electronically. By gathering and collecting local data and knowledge, information centers provide unique sources to researchers and practitioners inside and outside the region. And, conversely, they bring the latest research to local users and scholars.

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Information Centers as Indicators of Preparedness Interestingly, the Knowledge Assessment Methodology (KAM) developed by the World Bank is silent on the existence, role or importance of information centers per se in the infrastructure supporting research and innovation. Access to information by entrepreneurs, researchers, scholars and students is essential in all disciplines and in every enterprise, industry and in the arts. The importance of information in development has been noted by a few scholars. For example, thirty years ago El Fathaly & Chackerian (1983) emphasized the important role of reliable data in the administration and development of Arab nations. But beyond a few references in scholarly research, the concept has not been widely discussed in the international development field nor incorporated into measures of political and economic progress. This chapter is predicated on an assumption that the number of information centers is one of the indicators of a country’s preparedness to support a knowledge-based economy. More information centers collecting data means more information and knowledge can reside in more places and thus more people can access them. One challenge in examining information centers globally is the availability of statistics. No single international agency collects statistics about information centers and those that do so, traditionally record statistics about libraries and museums but not about archives, documentation centers, data centers, archaeological sites, etc. Statistics about the number of libraries and museums in each country are collected by several entities including the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA), UNESCO Institute for Statistics, OCLC and various publishers of reference sources.³ A second challenge is ascertaining the quality of the collections and services offered by the libraries and museums that are counted. The quality issue falls outside the scope of this paper even as the author acknowledges that libraries and museum, evaluated among themselves, operate within a wide spectrum of quality measures. Looking more closely at the number of information centers in the Gulf countries, Tab. 8.2 shows a huge range in the availability of information centers among the eight countries.

3 Source for library and museum statistics: OCLC’s Global Library Statistics. Retrieved May 21, 2014 from School libraries, of particular importance in the education pillar, are not included in this study primarily because of lack of reliable data.

8 Correlating Information Centers to Emerging Knowledge-based Economies


Tab. .: Number of information centers (libraries and museums), Gulf Countries (OCLC, ). Country

Academic, Public, Special, National Libraries

Bahrain Iran Kuwait Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Yemen


Total Information Centers (Libraries plus Museums)

 ,     

      

 ,     




Iran has by far the largest number of information centers at 4,588 and Yemen the least at 24. A bar chart (Fig. 8.2) helps compare the number of information centers – multi-type libraries and museums – for which there is data in the Gulf countries. 0









180 200

Bahrain Iran


Kuwait Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Yemen Academic, Public, Special, National Libraries Museums Fig. 8.2: Comparing number of information centers, Gulf Countries (OCLC, 2013).

This study now looks at the population of each country and correlates that to the number of people per information center (i.e., the aggregate of libraries and museums). Tab. 8.3 gives the numbers for populations and information centers, enabling the correlation to be made, and further verifies a diverse information landscape in the region. Country population numbers are taken from The World Factbook (Central Intelligence Agency, 2014).

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Tab. .: Number of persons per information center, Gulf Countries.⁴ Country


Bahrain Iran Kuwait Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Yemen

,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,,

Total Information Centers  ,      

Persons per Information Center , , , , , , , ,,

In this metric, the lower the number of people per information center the more favorable is the environment for providing access to information. Conversely, higher numbers mean more people compete for fewer information centers. The number of people per information center in the Gulf States ranges from 17,600 in Iran to one million in Yemen, with a cluster formed by three countries: Bahrain at 46,900, United Arab Emirates at 47,300 and Kuwait at 48,900. Broadening the comparison, Tab. 8.4 includes two smaller Western countries, Finland and Ireland, where knowledge economies have been developing over the past several decades. Statistics for the United States are also given, thereby looking at another mature knowledge-based economy and linking this discussion to the box above entitled “Data is found in unexpected places.” Collecting information and making it available through public, special and academic libraries, archives and museums were activities promoted by the founders of the United States since the 18th century. In the comparative group, the number of people per information center in Finland, Ireland and the U.S.A. ranges from 2,700 (Ireland) to 8,800 (U.S.). In these Western countries, there are fewer people per information center than one finds in the Gulf States. Again, the number of people per information center is an indicator of the degree to which residents in a country have ready access to information, either local or global, through physical locations and/or electronic means.

4 Population data from The World Factbook (Central Intelligence Agency, 2014). Information centers data from OCLC’s Global Library Statistics. Retrieved May 21, 2014 from global-library-statistics.en.html. Number of People per Information Centre is a calculated metric based on population and information centers.

8 Correlating Information Centers to Emerging Knowledge-based Economies


Tab. .: Comparing Gulf Countries to select Western knowledge-based economies regarding the number of people per information center.⁵ Country

Bahrain Iran Kuwait Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Yemen COMPARE Finland Ireland United States


Total Information Centers

Persons per Information Center

Academic, Public, Special, National Libraries


,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,,

 ,     

, , , , , , ,

 ,     

      






,, ,, ,,

, , ,

, , ,

 , ,

  ,

Information Centers in the Gulf Examples of information center development in the Gulf are numerous and varied. Libraries and museums abound in Iran where two libraries, the Library, Museum and Document Center of Iran Parliament and the National Library of Iran (NLI), are among the largest. A unique collection dating to 974 AD is held in the Central Library of Astan Quds Razavi, adjoining the Shrine of Imam Reza. Digitization projects are underway in information centers like the historic Library of Ayat Allah Marashi Najafi in Qum with a collection of unique books and manuscripts in Persian, Arabic and Turkic languages. In Saudi Arabia in November 2006, the King Abdulaziz Public Library in Riyadh, under the auspices of King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, founded the Arabic Union Catalog to collect in one database the metadata describing Arabic materials in collections around the world.

5 Population data from The World Factbook (Central Intelligence Agency, 2014). Information centers data from OCLC’s Global Library Statistics. Retrieved May 21, 2014 from global-library-statistics.en.html. Number of People per Information Centre is a calculated metric based on population and information centers.

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The Qatar National Library, arising from Dar Al Kutub Qatar public library founded in 1962, announced in 2009 its plan for a state-of-the-art facility with a multi-function operational mission to serve as the National Library, a University and Research Library and a Metropolitan Public Library. In the United Arab Emirates, governments of Abu Dhabi, Dubai and Sharjah are growing public library systems within each Emirate. In Abu Dhabi the National Centre for Documentation and Research collects material covering the history of the region, acquires material pertaining to the country’s founding in 1971, builds the National Archives and manages an oral history project to capture Bedouin and local stories before they disappear. The Juma Al Majid Center for Culture and Heritage in Dubai was founded by a private business man who saw the need in 1989 to begin collecting material for a public library.

Relevant Cultural Considerations The people in the Gulf States, like people in many developing nations, have a rich tradition of storytelling in which stories and local knowledge are passed orally through generations. A tradition of storytelling means oral expressions and creative art and design are widely practiced but not recorded. These local societies have elaborate and valuable heritages that could be captured, thus preserving indigenous knowledge and making it accessible to the world. In this age of globalization, many of these unique and precious stories are already being lost. When cultural heritage is transmitted orally and not committed to text, when government records are not recorded locally and when business transactions are few and simple, there is little need for archives, libraries or repositories. With the notable exception of Iran with its 4,588 libraries and museums, most societies in the Arabian Gulf have traditionally not built libraries, archives or museums in large numbers and hence along with improving their education and research efforts, they must address collecting the intellectual heritage and data about their residents, enabling that information to become a more recognizable and accessible component of their innovation infrastructures. Government control over information may be a determining factor in the type and number of information centers in some countries. By policy, some governments prohibit access to certain kinds of information because they fear political dissent, religious fanaticism, moral decadence or open dialog of controversial topics. A certain level of trust in people’s ability to discern fact from fiction and to hone critical thinking skills must be assumed if information is freely accessible.

8 Correlating Information Centers to Emerging Knowledge-based Economies


Types of Data Needed for Knowledge-Based Economies Writing about the innovation pillar, the World Bank calls it “a system of organizations that can tap into global knowledge to assimilate and adapt it, as well as create local knowledge.” (World Bank Institute, 2007, p. 27). This last point, “create local knowledge,” is a fundamental component of this study and worthy of emphasis. The unique characteristics of the developing region, whether it is the Middle East, Asia, Africa or the Americas, must be preserved even as the region participates in the global marketplace. Data about countries is unavailable to local users, domestic and international researchers and to the entire world if those countries have limited information centers. Whether the data are from the natural or social sciences or from the humanities, information about the countries is invisible to the world if it has not been collected locally, thus plugging them into the world-wide knowledge loop. For developing nations, the value of investing in information centers may not be readily apparent nor easily articulated to decision makers. The politicians and scientists making those decisions, however, are often the ones aspiring to build a knowledge-based society that can sustain itself, become more attractive to foreign business investors and compete in the world economy. Hence, convincing those leaders to support data gathering and information center building is essential. In the field of international development, scholars and activists alike are advocating for countries themselves to take charge of their development programs so that the projects reflect local culture, engage the people in meeting their own needs and are sustainable over time (Easterly, 2007). Investing in knowledge capital and the infrastructure for research, including public policy that affect research, are being mentioned in the mainstream development literature (de Haan, 2009; Sachs, 2006). But how is a country able to design its development projects if it is without local data to inform its leaders of what is actually happening on the ground and to provide benchmarks on which they can measure progress? Ideally to enter the global knowledge-based economy, a country must: – Record birth and death data for each resident/citizen – Collect census and statistical data about its population – Commit to open government – Record laws and make them accessible to everyone – Record judicial decisions and make them accessible to everyone

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– – – – –

Collect and preserve local history, stories, original artifacts and master copies Establish metadata and classification systems that make sense to the region while meeting international standards Work locally and collaboratively among information professionals Digitize artifacts to disseminate the content Develop cooperative arrangements among data centers, archives, libraries and museums in the region.

Convincing decision makers to fund information centers is part of the challenge. Sharing resources among stand-alone information centers is a longer-term effort that in some situations is counter to cultural values but is part of the innovation pillar of a knowledge-based economy.

Conclusion Briefly, we have discussed the four pillars of a knowledge-based economy, the role of information centers in innovation systems, the importance of collecting local data to inform the world of regional cultures, and information centers as two-way distribution points. In closing, then, four pillars provide the framework for a knowledge-based economy 1. Stable, credible, respected political and economic systems 2. A modern, reliable infrastructure of telecommunications and information technology 3. An educated, skilled, flexible labor force 4. An effective innovation system, including firms, research and information centers, universities, and policies. Returning to the opening question: What is the relationship between the number of information centers in a country and its ability to become a knowledge-based economy? The study compares the number of two types of information centers (i.e., libraries and museums) that presumably collect and disseminate information locally, and correlates that number with its population size as one measure of the degree to which a country is educating and preparing its residents to contribute through creativity and innovation to a knowledge economy. Information hubs and knowledge economies are inextricably linked but decision makers who aspire to building knowledge-based economies may not immediately see that relationship. Even scholars themselves may carry out their research without giving a second thought to the organizational infrastructure

8 Correlating Information Centers to Emerging Knowledge-based Economies


that keeps information at their fingertips or makes it available to them upon request. Some may argue that the widespread use of the Internet decreases the need for information centers. On the contrary, information centers are important sources of data to Internet users. The fact that information can be so readily shared through electronic transmittal using the Internet actually increases the demand for reliable, well-organized and retrievable information about every country and region. If an area of the world is not gathering data about itself and its cultures, the society remains uninformed about itself, and the region and its people remain invisible to the world even though the Internet gives the illusion of being a comprehensive source of information. The challenge to researchers, archivists, librarians and information professionals in the 21st century is to convince the public and private sector stakeholders in evolving economies of the essential role played by information centers. A two-way information exchange is essential for the innovation system in a global, knowledge-based economy.

References Burkhart, G. E., Older, S., and National Defense Research Institute. (2003). The information revolution in the Middle East and North Africa. Santa Monica, CA: Rand. Calhoun, C., Drummond, W., and Whittington, D. (1987). Computerised information management in a system-poor environment: Lessons from the design and implementation of computer system for the Sudanese Planning Ministry. Third World Planning Review, 9(4), 361–379. Cassidy, T. J. (1990). Data for decisions in developing education systems: An analysis of a computerbased education management information system in the Arab Republic of Egypt (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Proquest Dissertations and These database. (UMI No. 9032477). Central Intelligence Agency. (2014). The World Factbook. Retrieved from library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html de Haan, A. (2009). How the aid industry works: An introduction to international development. Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press. Easterly, W. (2007). The white man’s burden: Why the West’s efforts to aid the rest have done so much ill and so little good. New York, NY: Penguin Books. El-Fathaly, O., and Chackerian, R. (1983). Administration: The forgotten issue in Arab development. In I. Ibrahim (Ed.), Arab resources: The transformation of a society (pp. 193–209). London, UK: Croom Helm. Government of Qatar Planning Council. (2007). Turning Qatar into a competitive knowledgebased economy: Knowledge economy assessment of Qatar. Retrieved from http://sitere Hundley, R. O., Anderson, R. H., Bikson, T. K., Botterman, M., Cave, J., Neu, C. R.,…National Defense Research Institute. (2001). The future of the information revolution in Europe: Proceedings of an international conference. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.

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OCLC. (2013, March 1). Global library statistics. Retrieved May 21, 2014, from global-library-statistics.en.html Sachs, J. (2006). The end of poverty: Economic possibilities for our time. New York, NY: Penguin Books. Smith, S. (2014, April 7). U.S. soil survey helping researchers dig into nature’s mysteries. The Washington Post, p. A4. World Bank Institute. (2007). Building knowledge economies: Advanced strategies for development. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Received: 10th June 2014 Final version received: 11th March 2015 Accepted: 3rd August 2015.

Evelyn H. Daniel, Lokman I. Meho, and Barbara B. Moran1

9 Education for Library and Information Science in the Arab States Introduction This chapter provides an introduction to library and information science (LIS) education in the 22 countries that comprise the League of Arab States.2 These countries have a total population of 393.5 million people (World Bank, 2016). The population of the member countries varies tremendously; from Egypt with almost 90 million people to Bahrain with less than a million inhabitants (UN Development Program, 2014). Although on the whole these countries share a common language, religion, and cultural history, they vary greatly in other factors such as political structure and socioeconomic conditions. Their gross domestic product per capita ranges from $1,361 in the Comoros to $101,057 in the United Arab Emirates (UN Development Program, 2014). Because of space constraints, this chapter provides only a brief overview of the rich and complex state of LIS education in the region, focusing on programs that offer or have offered at least a bachelor’s degree in the field. Information about LIS education in the Arab world is fragmented and sometime contradictory; there is no one single source that provides even the names of all the existing programs in the region. The latest (2007) IFLA World Guide to Library, Archive and Information Science Education compilation of LIS programs is out of date and has very incomplete and inconsistent information about the programs in the Arab countries. This source lists only 16 programs in these countries (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, 2007). In 2012, Aufi and Lor identified 36 LIS academic departments in the region (Aufi & Lor, 2012). In an attempt to compile a more comprehensive list for this chapter, the authors first searched the LIS literature in English, Arabic and French, and identified a number of programs. The preliminary list was

1 The three authors contributed equally to this work. Moran is the corresponding author. 2 The current members of the League are Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. The overview will also include Syria which is currently suspended as a member of the League of Arab States. In this paper the terms “Arab states” and “Arab world” will be used synonymously.

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circulated to individuals and to listservs, and more programs were discovered. All of the available websites from the programs were searched to gather additional information. The resulting list of the LIS programs in the Arab world is presented in this chapter (Tab. 9.1). Seventy-one current programs of LIS education were identified plus an additional six programs that have ceased to exist. Unfortunately the list contains only the most basic facts about each program because there is no central source of more comprehensive information. Unlike the Association for Library and Information Science/American Library Association (ALISE/ALA) statistics which provide easily comparable and comprehensive data about all the accredited LIS programs in North America (Library and information science education statistical report 1983–), a similar source of information about factors such as budgets, number of students, number of faculty or length and types of curricula in the LIS programs in the Arab states is not available, and perhaps will not be until some form of regional or international accreditation makes it a requirement. The chapter begins with a brief look at the history and development of education for librarians and information specialists in the Arab states. Then LIS education in different parts of the Arab world is examined separately because of the variation of LIS programs across the region. The chapter closes with a discussion of current trends and some of the challenges that LIS education in the region faces in strengthening the preparation of future information workers.

History of LIS Education in the Arab World Higher learning is deeply rooted in the history and societies of the Arab Middle East (Herrera, 2004). After the spread of Islam in the 7th century, religious schools known as madrasas were established and became the main institutions of higher learning in the Middle East (Makdisi, 1981). Examples of these institutions include the University of al-Qarawiyyin in Fez (859) and al-Azhar in Cairo (970) – both considered among the oldest universities in the world. During the same period, other institutions of the Arab world such as hospitals, libraries, observatories, and private homes known as “academies” undertook the development of the non-religious sciences, inspired by the ancient Greeks (Romani, 2009). The most famous of these academies was the Beit al-Hikma (House of Wisdom) which was founded in the early 9th century in Baghdad and by the middle of the century had become an unrivaled center for the study of humanities and science in addition to being one of the largest repositories of books in the world. Under the Ayyubids and Mamluks, many madrasas and other information centers were founded, playing a fundamental role in the relatively high

9 Education for Library and Information Science in the Arab States


literacy rates of the medieval Islamic world. As the balance of power and intellectual vitality shifted away from the Middle East to Europe after the sixteenth century, the place of the Arab Middle East in the academic world underwent a dramatic reversal. The Middle East became an importer of knowledge from Europe.3 From the mid-19th century on, a variety of foreign schools and colleges were established in Egypt, Syria and Lebanon, many of which still exist today. These schools were established by religious missions, foreign governments, local communities, and private associations from France, Great Britain, Austria, Greece, Germany, the United States, and Italy (Herrera, 2004). The missionary schools, supported by French Catholic and later British, German, and American religious denominations provided a European and American type of education. Examples are the Syrian Protestant College which was founded in 1866 and renamed in 1920 to American University of Beirut and Saint Joseph University [Université SaintJoseph] which was founded in Beirut in 1875 by the Jesuits (Donohue, 2004). Foreign colonial powers also established research centers that included some of the region’s best libraries and library collections, for example, the French Institute for Arab Studies in Damascus (Institut français d’études Arabes de Damas) which was established in 1922. Institutions of higher education continued to grow during the first half of the 20th century. By 1950, there were 12 universities in the Arab world. Despite the existence of several modern universities, research centers, and private schools in the region since the 19th century, the earliest calls for establishing an LIS program in the Arab world to support such institutions were made only in the mid-1940s. Yusuf As’ad Daghir, then Director of the Lebanese National Library, was among the first to make such calls. He advocated that the Arab governments work together for the establishment of an LIS institute that would help in the advancement of the region and help bridge the gap between the Arab countries and the West. (Daghir, 1947, pp. 164–174) This early vision was fulfilled in 1951 with the establishment of the LIS department at Fouad I University (currently Cairo University). However, it was not until the mid-1970s that LIS education became widely available in the Arab world. In 1963, in an article in an issue of Library Trends devoted to international library education, Nasser Sharify reported that in the Middle East “professional training of librarians is still in its infancy” (Sharify, 1963, p. 227). He describes

3 For historical background and further details on the history of education in the Middle East, see Makdisi, 1981. For a brief summary of the history of higher education in the Middle East to current times, see Herrera (2004); al-Rashdan (2009) and Romani (2009).

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various UNESCO efforts and the efforts of local library associations to provide training for librarians but at the time this article was written the library program at the University of Cairo was still the only one in the region. Sharify differed from Daghir in that he did not advocate a pan-Arab approach to LIS education but recommended that each individual country examine the question of the establishment of a library school and consider carefully the factors about the level of program, the availability of faculty, teaching facilities, and library laboratories. He states that ideally a graduate school would be the solution, but taking into consideration the existing university patterns of the regional universities, an undergraduate program might be more feasible at the present. Sharify closes by stating, “Not only is library education a matter of national concern for each country, but in the last analysis, nationals must accept responsibility for development of libraries and library service” (Sharify, 1963, p. 255). From the mid-1940s until the mid-1970s, Arab countries relied heavily on training, courses and workshops provided by local library associations, ministries of culture and education, national and academic libraries, UNESCO and other regional and international organizations (Bouazza & Nimer, 1986; Itayem & al-Akhras, 1984; Sharify, 1963). They also relied on sending their citizens overseas to pursue degrees in the field, especially to Egypt, France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. One of the barriers that impeded the development of LIS was that the profession of librarianship was neither recognized nor understood in the region. The concept that librarians needed academic training to be effective in their work was an alien idea to all but a few specialists who had received professional library training abroad (Sharif, 1981). Another major impediment was the lack of indigenous faculty to provide a sufficient number of full time instructors to teach in library education programs. In addition, there was also a lack of professional literature including teaching material in Arabic (Bouazza & Nimer, 1986, p. 12). During the 1950s and 1960s, UNESCO, in particular, played a significant role in the growth of interest in education for librarians not just in the Arab states but throughout the developing world. Between 1966 and 1972, UNESCO sponsored thirteen regional meetings and seminars across the world, which were very significant in developing LIS programs internationally. Hundreds of key librarians from all continents joined in a “collective search for ways and means to promote library education” (Keresztesi, 1982, p. 374). In 1959, UNESCO sponsored a Regional Seminar focused on the development of libraries in the Arab world which identified the “lack of adequate library training facilities as the largest single factor retarding library development in the area” (Sharif, 1981). A UNESCO Expert Meeting on the National Planning of Documentation and Library Services in the Arab Countries, held in Cairo in February 1974, once

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again highlighted the importance of indigenous professional education for librarians. The delegates recommended “that national institutions and programs of professional education be established, developed and maintained as the principal means of supplying adequate numbers of professional staff for documentation and library services as an integral part of the national educational structure at universities or other institutions of higher education, and that they be provided with ready access to appropriate library and information resources” (Kent, 1967 quoted in Sharif, 1981). In addition to these conferences, UNESCO also fostered national initiatives through its willingness to provide significant financial resources and to deploy field representatives to provide the most up-to date professional expertise available. LIS education in the Arab world finally came to fruition with the founding of a number of new programs in the 1970s. Among the first were two programs located in Iraq. In 1970 al-Mustansiriyah University established a Department of Library Science within the University Libraries. This program initially offered a diploma but added a bachelor’s degree in 1974. In 1972 with the help of UNESCO, a one year postgraduate library science program was started at the University of Baghdad (Itayem & al-Akhras, 1984). In the same year, the program at Omdurman Islamic University in the Sudan was reactivated (it was deactivated three years after it was originally founded in 1966). Then the action shifted to Saudi Arabia where in 1973 an LIS program was begun at King Abdulaziz University and in 1974 at Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (Sharif, 1981). In the mid-1970s, a number of programs in Northern Africa and the Levant were established. The first school in French speaking North Africa, the School of Information Sciences [L’École des sciences de l’information], opened in 1974 in Rabat, Morocco. Once again UNESCO under the United Nations Development Program provided aid and contributed $1,445,750 over a five year period from 1975–1980 (Sharif, 1981, p. 93). Over the next five years, three library programs were founded in the region, including the programs at the University of Algiers (Algeria) in 1975, the University of Tripoli (Libya) in 1976, and the Institute of Press and Information Sciences [Institut de presse et des sciences de l’information] in Tunisia in 1979. The first library program in the Levant was founded in Lebanon in 1975 at the Lebanese University and afterwards one was started in 1977 at the University of Jordan. During the 1980s, the momentum to institute LIS programs continued. As can be seen in Fig. 9.1, 17 programs in the region were opened in that decade including programs in countries where none existed before (i.e., Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and Syria). New programs were added in Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and Tunisia (see Tab. 9.1 for more specific information). This growth accelerated during the 1990s with the establishment of 26 additional programs. There were 18 new programs established in the first decade of the

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21st century and four more have opened since 2010. At present, the only Arab states without LIS programs are Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, and Somalia. Number of LIS Programs Founded per Decade: 1950-Present 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1950s







Fig. 9.1: Number of LIS programs founded per decade, 1950–present.

The increase in LIS programs in the Arab world in the past 20 or so years is not surprising given that modern universities were relatively recent arrivals in the region. As mentioned earlier, there were only 12 universities in the 22 Arab nations in 1950. That number has ballooned in the past few decades; in 2010 there were approximately 400 universities in these countries not including over 1,000 other institutions of tertiary education such as community colleges and teacher training institutions. The number of students enrolled in higher education in the region rose from 2.967 million in 1998–1999 to 7.607 in the 2007–2008 academic year, a jump of 256% (UNESCO, 2010). The growth in the number of LIS programs reflects not only growth of higher education, but also the increase in the number of libraries and information centers that needed to be staffed by trained LIS graduates. It is also interesting to note that two of the programs that have opened in the past 10 years were founded in private institutions located on campuses of US or British universities that offer a westernized form of LIS education: the Graduate Program in Library and Information Science in the College of Computer Information Technology at the American University in the Emirates and the Library and Information Studies MA program at the University College London Qatar (UCL-Q). At the present time there are 71 LIS programs in the Arab region that provide at least a bachelor’s degree, and there has been a move in the past few years to

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upgrade many of these programs to the master’s and doctoral degree levels. In 2016, more than half of these programs offered a master’s or postgraduate degree (usually in addition to the bachelor’s) and 31% offered a doctoral degree. However as Aufi and Lor point out, while most LIS programs in the US and England offer graduate level programs only, there has only been one LIS school in the Arab world that has discontinued its bachelor’s program (Aufi & Lor, 2012, p. 481). We began our research thinking we would find uniformity in LIS education across the countries in the Arab world, but soon discovered there were more differences among the programs than similarities. The impact of factors such as political structures, socioeconomic conditions, and continuing conditions of civil unrest, terrorism and war had resulted in vast differences in the way programs in the region had developed. For instance, the disparity between the programs in the Gulf area and those in Iraq were huge. So, rather than deal with each country individually, we decided to follow a regional approach to explore the variations in LIS education across the Arab world and thus organized the chapter to focus upon the LIS programs using the following geographical divisions: Egypt (a single country grouping listed first because the first LIS school in the Arab world opened here), the Maghreb (Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia), Gulf States and Yemen (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen), Iraq (a single country grouping because of recent conflicts), the Levant (Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria), and Northeast Africa and the Comoros (Comoros, Dijbouti, Somalia, Sudan). The development of LIS education in countries within each group are discussed in the next section.

Egypt Egypt was not only the site of the first LIS program in an Arab state, but currently is also the country with the most programs. Nearly a third of all of LIS programs in the region are located in Egypt. The program at University of Cairo was the first LIS program in the region. It started as a four-year evening program leading to the bachelor’s degree. It became a department in the College of Arts in 1954. The master’s and PhD programs began in 1956, and the postgraduate in 1969 (Itayem & al-Akhras, 1984). Because LIS education developed earlier in Egypt than anywhere else in the region, the school at Cairo University played an important role in the spread of LIS education across the area. Halwagy, writing in 1992, claimed:

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“One can hardly find a single department of library science in the Arab world established without one or more of the staff members who graduated from Cairo University. Moreover, most, if not all, similar departments in other Arab countries have followed the example of the Egyptian department in regulations and curricula” (Halwagy, 1992, p. 259). The Supreme Council for Egyptian Universities and Institutions has the responsibility for setting standards for LIS education, in addition to endorsing fields of specialization, approving higher education plans and priorities and accrediting fields of study (Mikhail, 2010). It is likely the presence of this central coordinating organization that has led to the homogeneity in programs and curricula reported by Aufi and Lor in the Egyptian universities (Aufi & Lor, 2012, p. 479). For example, all the statefunded Egyptian programs except for the one at al-Azhar are located in the same university administrative unit: the College of Arts. LIS programs in Egypt have proliferated over the past two decades. In 1992, Halwagy reported there were five LIS programs in Egypt: Cairo, Alexandria, Beni-Suef, Tanta and Menoufia (p. 256). Thirteen more programs opened before the decade closed, and another four have opened since 2000. Except for the program at October 6 University, all of the LIS programs in Egypt are in publicly supported institutions. There was an attempt about 15 years ago to open a LIS school in the new Bibliotheca Alexandrina; this school was expected to have a western style curriculum with an integration of technology throughout the program (Aman, 1999). However, despite the fact that UNESCO approved the proposal and funding for the school, the first director of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina decided not to include the school as part of the new library (Aman, 2014). To enrol in an undergraduate Egyptian LIS program a student must have a secondary school certificate. The undergraduate program takes four years to complete; students who successfully complete the program are awarded the BA (Abdel-Hady & Shaker, 2006). There has been a rapid rise in the enrolment in all levels of LIS programs over the past decade. In 1992–1993, there were 900 students in the undergraduate LIS program at Cairo and a total of 750 undergraduates in all the other programs (Abdel-Hadi & Bouazza, 1994). Mikhail reported a vastly expanded undergraduate population in 2010. The largest program was at Tanta University with 1,781 undergraduate LIS students in 2009–2010: at that same time the program at Alexandria reported 1,562 undergraduates, and the one at Cairo 1,278 (Mikhail, 2010). The number of postgraduate students is also soaring. By 2010 the number of LIS dissertations reached 1,264 with 854 (68%) for the master’s degree and 410 (32%) for the PhD degree. However, part of this enrolment surge is likely a result of the fact that in Egypt, as in some other parts of the Arab world, admission to LIS programs is easier than admission to more prestigious academic programs such as medicine or

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engineering, and some students enrol in LIS programs as a way of earning a university degree. LIS does not seem to be a first choice for many students. According to Mikhail, those who get a degree usually prefer to get a job abroad rather than stay in Egypt (Mikhail, 2010). The enrolment figures alone would indicate a thriving LIS education sector in Egypt. However, as in many other parts of the world, the Egyptian LIS programs face problems. Some of the major historical problems and challenges include (1) inclusion of archival studies and records management with LIS studies; (2) the founding of several new LIS departments in regional universities in the 1980s and 1990s without good planning and preparation and without consideration of the specific needs of the LIS programs; (3) the presence of LIS programs in Colleges of Arts, Education, and Humanities which impose on students coursework that has little or nothing to do with LIS; and (4) academic restrictions that impede improving and updating curricula and programs, thus, prohibiting programs from staying current with developments in the field and staying on par with international and even with other Arab LIS programs (Mahmud, 2014). Mahmud states that these challenges continue to exist even today and nothing seems to be planned to deal with them. Isma’il (2013) surveyed a sample of 635 (or 56% of all) undergraduate LIS students at Alexandria University, and found that more than two-thirds of the students never heard of or knew anything about LIS before enrolling in the program. The five most important reasons for enrolling in an LIS program were: belief in LIS degree providing many job opportunities after graduation in and outside the country and in both the public and private sectors; ease of study; coursework requires less effort in comparison to other fields; and parents’ recommendation. Similarly, Mikkawi (2011) reported on a survey of a sample of 335 freshman and senior students at three LIS programs in Egypt (Cairo, Tanta, and Assiut). He found that nearly one-third of the students had not wished to enroll in an LIS program, and half of the students had neither heard of nor knew anything about LIS before enrolling in their programs. In terms of current problems facing the LIS sector in Egypt, one of the most commonly voiced complaints is that the curricula of the programs have not kept pace with the changing needs of the modern library. LIS programs in Egypt often did not provide students with hands on training or courses in digitization, online information services, and electronic documents and their management (Amin, 2009). As a result, the graduates often find they cannot cope with the job demands of the modern library (Magdy, 2011). According to ‘Abd al-Rahim (2014), only 40% of the LIS programs in the country have their own labs (e.g., computer labs and/or bibliographic labs). The others rely on central labs of the colleges of arts. Mahmud (2014) reports the following additional problems:

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(1) mismatch between skills gained in the program and job market needs; (2) lack of jobs or job opportunities; (3) poor personal, professional, and research skills of the graduates; (4) lack of accreditation standards; (5) lack of diversity in curricula among the programs – nearly all LIS programs in the country follow the same curriculum; and (6) lack of enough faculty members. The recent political turmoil in Egypt has only led to less funding for LIS programs resulting in overcrowded classrooms, poorly paid faculty, and outdated equipment. However, this lack of funding is not confined to LIS education. In Egypt, students pay no tuition fees to attend the public universities. While there is strong support to continue to keep tertiary education free, institutions of higher education are not being funded sufficiently to be able to keep current with those in the rest of the world, especially in the rapidly changing fields of science and technology. At present, there is a move to establish more private institutions to offer an alternative to the poorly performing state funded system. Private education, which often features western style curricula, is costly and out of the reach of most students. Despite the call for systematic reform of the educational system, the present economic and political insecurity make it difficult for changes to be enacted (El-Awady, 2013).

The Maghreb The Maghreb is the traditional name given to the area of North Africa west of Egypt encompassing the nations of Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia. There are currently 12 LIS programs in the region: five in Algeria, four in Libya and one each in Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia. The need for LIS education in this region became evident after the countries gained their national independence in the 1950s and 1960s. Before the creation of formal LIS programs, instruction in library science in the Maghreb was provided by institutions such as the Bibliothèque Nationale in Algeria and the Institute Ali Bach Hamba in Tunisia (Semra, 1994). Except for Libya, all the countries in this region are former French colonies, and LIS education in the Maghreb reflects the influence of that colonial history. All of the nations in the Maghreb had civilizations based on the printed text, and thus their library traditions are older than those in many other countries in the Arab world. Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia each has a national library inherited from their French colonial past. For example, legislation enacted in 1926 under the French Protectorate created the Moroccan National Library (Lajeunesse & Sène, 2004).

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The first LIS program in the Maghreb was the School of Information Sciences (L’École des Sciences de l’Information or ESI) established with the help of UNESCO in Rabat, Morocco in 1974. In 1975 the Institute of Librarianship and Documentation (Institute de Bibliothéconomie et Documentation) in Algiers was founded, followed by the establishment of a program at al-Fateh University (currently University of Tripoli) in Libya in 1976 (Gdoura, 2008). LIS education began in Tunisia in 1979 at the Institute of Press and Information Sciences. The first LIS program in Mauritania was not established until 2008. A brief overview of LIS education in each of the countries of the Maghreb follows.

Algeria In the Maghreb, Algeria is the country with the largest number of LIS programs. Libraries existed in Algeria before the French colonized the country, but there was no LIS education until 1975, – over a decade after the country won its independence from France. However, prior to the establishment of formal LIS education in Algeria, the Bibliothèque Nationale and afterwards the Ministry of Information and Culture provided training for librarians on a regular basis starting in 1964 (Dyab, 2002). The first program, the Institute of Librarianship [L’Institut de bibliothéconomie] was established at the University of Algiers in 1975, and started with 13 students; the programs at the University of Constantine and the University of Oran were opened in the early 1980s. Two new programs were opened in 2009: one at Université de Tébessa and the other at Université Badji Mokhtar – Annaba. There are also five universities that have LIS sections that altogether employ 22 faculty members and enrol or provide training to thousands of students, but they are not considered here because the highest LIS degree they offer is a two-year post-high school diploma rather than a bachelor degree (Sidhum, 2014). The programs in Algeria are offered in both Arabic and French (Bin al-Tayib, 2013). The LIS programs like the rest of the Algerian system of higher education are in the midst of a major change in structure as they transition from their previous degree structure to a new degree structure, the three-stage “licence, master’s, and doctorate (LMD)” system, based on the French model of higher education. The LMD model is one accepted by the Bologna Process, the European Union (EU) initiative designed to create a system of comparable and understandable degrees throughout the EU. The Bologna Process is intended to serve as a mechanism to permit students to transfer credit and establish degree equivalency between one university or national higher education system and another (Johnson, 2013). As is discussed later, not only Algeria but also Morocco

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and Tunisia have looked to the Bologna Process as a means of reforming their systems of higher education. (Croché & Charlier, 2012) Under the LMD model, the requirements for each degree level are as follows: – licence or bachelor’s degree: three years or six semesters of study; – master degree: two years or four semesters after the bachelor; and – doctorate degree: at least three years or six semesters of studies, fieldwork and/or research after the master. it is the highest degree in the LMD system. The LIS programs in Algeria began the process of implementing the LMD system in 2004 (Zahra, 2013). The five programs in Algeria currently employ 151 faculty members (70 females and 81 males; 40 with doctoral degrees, 30 who are doctoral students or ABDs, and 81 who hold master’s degrees). The program at the University of Algeria has the largest number of faculty members at 71 (or 47% of the total in the country), followed by the program at the University of Constantine with 27 faculty. The program at the University of Constantine currently enrols over 700 undergraduate students, 150 master’s students, 30 doctoral students in the new system, and another 80 in the old system (Bin al-Tayib, 2013). The program at Université de Tébessa has the smallest group of faculty at 14 (Sidhum, 2014). According to Sidhum, who surveyed 79% of all 151 faculty members in the five LIS programs, 40% of the faculty members’ time is spent on research and attending conferences, 33% on thesis and dissertation advising, 13% on teaching, and 5% on curriculum development. The 120 faculty members who were included in the analysis indicated that LIS is becoming more popular in the country, especially after the introduction of the LMD system that guarantees equivalency with degrees offered in most European countries. Some of the serious problems that LIS faculty members encounter in Algeria are lack of collaboration and low scholarly productivity. (Sidhum, 2014)

Libya Libya, the most easterly of the countries in the Maghreb, gained its independence from Italy in 1951. Before formal LIS education was established in Libya, education and training for librarians was offered from the late 1960s until the establishment of LIS programs by the Institute of Public Administration and by university libraries in Tripoli and Benghazi. Participants received a certificate of attendance at the conclusion of the programs, which usually lasted from one to three months. Those who attended the programs were predominantly people already working in school and/or public libraries or cultural centers (Dyab, 2002). Professional librarians in Libya then held degrees from other countries

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including Egypt, the United States and England. In 1976 undergraduate LIS study was begun at the University of El-Fateh (now the University of Tripoli) to meet an increasing need for professional staff for the growing number of libraries in the country (Dyab, 1997). Students from several Arab and African countries enrolled in the program, which was regularly revised to keep abreast with the new advances and trends in LIS studies. In 1995, the Department started a master’s degree program. In 1985, a second LIS program was opened at the University of Garyounis (currently the University of Benghazi) and in 1993 a third program was opened at al-Jabal al Gharbi University. The latter program depends heavily on staff members from the University of Tripoli and the curriculum is almost the same. Arabic is the language of instruction in all of these programs (Dyab, 2002). In 2001, the Libyan Academy for Graduate Studies founded the Department of Information in the School of Humanities which included a PhD program in Information and a master’s program in information which was composed of two divisions: Information Systems and Information Technology. In 2007, the Department was renamed to Information Studies and replaced the two master’s divisions with one in Information Management and another in Archives Management, offering PhD degree in Information Studies and master’s and postgraduate diploma degrees in Information Technology, Library and Information Science, and Archives and Documentation each focusing on five or more of the following areas: basics of information science, information and communication technologies, information management, information and material processing, research methods, information storage and retrieval, information use and users, and knowledge management (Bezan, 2014). In 2014, more than 30 students were admitted to these programs.

Mauritania The newest LIS program in the Maghreb is found in Mauritania. This largely desert country forms a bridge between the Arab Maghreb and western subSaharan Africa. Currently, Mauritania is among the poorest countries in the world, but as one of Africa’s newest oil producers, Mauritania hopes for a more prosperous future as its offshore reserves of oil and natural gas are developed. It was not until 1962 that a national library system was established, and the national library opened in 1965 (Diouwara, 1993). LIS education in Mauritania began in 2008 when a bilingual (Arabic/French) undergraduate program – Librarianship, Archives, and Documentation [Bibliothèques, archives et documentation] – was created at Nouakchott University.

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Morocco The sole provider of LIS education in Morocco is the École des Sciences de l’Information (ESI). After the establishment of the National Center for Documentation in 1968, it became clear that Morocco was suffering from a severe shortage of trained information workers. In 1974, ESI was founded with the aid of UNESCO and UNDP; and a group of promising Moroccan students were sent abroad to earn PhDs to provide an initial faculty for the new institution. ESI is another of the programs of LIS education in the Maghreb that is not located in a university. Instead it is a free-standing institute of higher learning operated under the auspices of the Ministry of Planning (Dyab, 2002). In Morocco, as in some other francophone countries, a distinction is made between librarians and documentalists, but in Morocco the education for both takes place at ESI in a program designed for “informatistes,” a term that is unique to francophone LIS (Moulaison, 2008). The education system at ESI has been modeled on LIS education in France, and until recently, when some courses have begun to be taught in English, all instruction at ESI has been in French. ESI is noted for the strength of its faculty, its building and its equipment (Dyab, 2002). Students are admitted to all the programs at ESI on the basis of a competitive exam. The number of students admitted is limited, and entry to the program is competitive because graduates are almost assured of finding work after the completion of their degrees. Since 2011, as a result of the Reform Act of Higher Education in Morocco, ESI has restructured its programs. Like other programs in the region, ESI has adopted the French style LMD (licence, master’s, and doctorate) degree structure. According to its website, ESI is making these curricular changes to “meet the needs of the current job market and major changes affecting the field of content management, information and knowledge” (École des Sciences de l’Information, 2014). When the reform is complete, ESI will offer the following undergraduate and graduate degrees: – specialized informatiste or “licence” (3 years) – master in information science (4 semesters) – specialized Master’s degrees (4 semesters) – PhD (3 years) As part of the reform, the teaching and research at ESI will be concentrated in four areas: 1) Library and Documentation; 2) Archival and Records Management; 3) Management and Management of Information Systems; and 4) Business Intelligence and Competitive Intelligence (École des Sciences de l’Information, 2014).

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ESI is at present one of the strongest LIS programs in the Arab world, and it has the potential to become even stronger as it attempts to expand its international perspective. ESI explicitly states that it has designed its new program to meet the requirement of the Bologna Process (École des Sciences de l’Information, 2014) in order to facilitate student mobility and degree equivalency for its graduates. In addition, ESI is exploring the possibility of becoming a member of the iSchool organization and already lists itself as an “i-School” on its website. ESI appears to have ambitions to be a player in the global LIS world.

Tunisia LIS education in Tunisia began in the 1960s (1964–1971) at the Institut Ali Bach Hamba. In 1979, the Institute of Press and Information Sciences [l’Institut de presse et des sciences de l’information or IPSI] was founded and provided the first LIS program in the country. From 1979 to 1992, IPSI offered a program in librarianship, documentation and archives, at first only at an undergraduate level, but beginning in 1988 a master’s [maîtrise] program was also offered. In 1981 a second program of LIS education was begun at the Higher Institution of Documentation [l’Institut supérieur de documentation de Tunis or ISD] and for about a decade Tunisia had two LIS programs. However in 1992, IPSI discontinued its LIS program and subsequently all LIS education in Tunisia has been centralized at ISD (Habchi, 2014). Although it is located on the campus of the University of Manouba, ISD is a public institution with legal and financial autonomy (Decree no. 81–63 of 11 July 1981) operated under the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research (L’Institut Supérieur de Documentation de Tunis, 2014). In 2008, ISD like the programs in Algeria and Morocco adopted the “licence, master’s, and doctorate (LMD)” degree sequence and began offering a professional master’s degree in Library Science and Documentation. Since inaugurating the LMD degree sequence, ISD has begun to offer several new master’s degrees and is working towards the establishment of a doctoral degree program in 2015 (Habchi, 2014). The LIS programs at ISD are offered in French and Arabic. Admission to the licence program is based on the results of a national competition run by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research (L’Institut Supérieur de Documentation de Tunis, 2014). ISD is modernizing its courses and bringing its degrees into line with those established by the Bologna Process.

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Gulf States and Yemen The Member States of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) comprise Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). We include Yemen in this group to encompass the entire Arabian Peninsula. Like the Maghreb region, LIS education is flourishing in the Gulf region where many governments appear to have an understanding of the important role information plays in the economy and in knowledge management (Rehman, 2009). This understanding has meant new national educational policies and calls for curricula reform, new goals for education and a shift in emphasis of the LIS degree. The Gulf States have invested their not inconsiderable resources into many new experimental forms of higher education, although the growth in new forms of educational institutions is not without its critics because the innovations come from outside and may have been imported without sufficient thought for cultural fit (Donn & Manthri, 2010). The rapid growth of extra-governmental investment in higher education is demonstrated through private and non-government institutions, foreign universities with local campuses, virtual universities and partnerships between local and foreign universities (Miller-Idriss & Hanauer, 2011). These often coexist somewhat uncomfortably with the more traditional government sponsored education programs. A key difference between them is that government sponsored programs are usually free or have very low fees attached.4 In addition, the extragovernmental programs are typically expensive; and non-government institutions are subject to fewer regulations. The driving force for change in higher education for the Gulf States is the economy and the issue of human workforce deployment, which has changed substantially in the last decade. Before the oil boom, the indigenous population held all manner of jobs in the economy. After it, they did not. Government jobs supported by oil revenues demanded skills not available in the indigenous population. After decades of population growth, a surplus of indigenous job seekers has been created. Prospects for the future suggest even higher unemployment until new employment opportunities are generated (Capelli, 2005). The Gulf has been seen as a region where everyone who wants to, can find work,5 but this is no longer the case. Oil revenues comprise a declining share of the economy.

4 Some programs offered outside of regular hours are offered on a fee basis to pay faculty for after-hours teaching. 5 A recent Economist article (April 19, 2014, p. 54) reports that the migrant population in the Gulf States makes up 44% of the population compared to 15% for North America and 12% for Europe.

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In all six Arab Gulf countries, but especially Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, dependence on foreign workers has increased. Eighty percent of the Kuwaiti work force is expatriate, as is 53% of that of Saudi Arabia (International Monetary Fund, 2008). Donn and Al Manthri (2010) assert that discussions of education policy are dominated by a belief that the sole role of higher education is to support the labor market. All six Gulf countries have a youthful population so that the issue of employment has become intricately interwoven with education. The World Economic Forum says that it is not just a question of creating new jobs but also a question of shifting jobs away from expatriate workers and towards natives (World Economic Forum, 2003). In most Arab Gulf countries, as is true of the Arab world generally, the state is the largest single employer providing around 40% of the jobs for the workforce. Nationals, after receiving a free education, expect guaranteed public employment at any level and profession they desire. Some employment procedures and practices to assist the speed at which nationals move into employment currently occupied by migrant workers include quotas, market-oriented inducements to employers, restructuring and redefining jobs (so that there are not “foreigner’s jobs” or “dirty jobs”), liberalization of the telecommunications market, privatization of state-owned assets (public transport, power generation) and opening up local markets to international trade (Zakharia, 2005). With the prospective of ever-higher unemployment, education and training have become central to successful economic diversification, which has implications for LIS education. We identified 14 LIS programs in this region, two of which began in the 1970s, six in the 1980s although one has closed, two in the 1990s and four in the new century for a total of 13 current programs. Nine of these 13 programs exist in government-sponsored universities within arts, humanities or social sciences faculties or colleges; three have institutional homes representing some of the newer university arrangements; and one is a program mainly for school and public librarianship in the Kuwaiti Public Authority for Applied Education and Training. The language of instruction for the older schools is Arabic or a combination of Arabic and English (Jabiri, 2009). An issue in this respect is the continued lack of current LIS literature in Arabic (Alqudsi-Ghabra & al-Ansari, 1998). Six of the programs offer only a bachelor’s degree; three schools offer only a master’s. Oman’s program offers both a bachelor’s and master’s, as does one of the programs in Saudi Arabia. Two schools offer the full suite of degrees: bachelor’s, master’s, and PhD – both of these are in Saudi Arabia and are housed in Computer and Information Science faculties. “LIS education is most influenced by the faculty members who run these academic departments,” said the authors in a study of the bio-bibliographic profiles of six library schools in the region (Ansari, Rehman & Yusuf, 2000).

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They examined the resumes of 49 of 65 faculty members and found that most received doctorates from Western countries during the 1980s and 1990s and that the majority of them had considerable professional and managerial experience. The faculty offered instruction in traditional areas of library operations and service but had weak research and publication records and few engaged in continuing education activities or were active in national or regional professional forums (Ansari, Rehman & Yusuf, 2000). Rehman, al-Ansari and others have been active in a series of subsequent studies of member LIS schools in the GCC Member States. A 2001 study of five programs in three countries reports that a four-year undergraduate degree, patterned on the credit hour-based semester system is the entry for professional practice (Rehman, al-Ansari & Yousef, 2002a). In an earlier work Rehman noted that the Gulf countries started four-year bachelor programs during the 70s modeled on the American and British models and on Egypt, added master’s programs in the 80s and one started offering a Ph.D. degree replicating the Egyptian tradition (Rehman, 2000). On the basis of his research, he claimed that employers and managers were “conscious of the inadequacies of their bachelor degree programs” and sent large numbers of students to the U.S. and U.K. for master’s and doctoral studies (p. 148). His book proposes an updated competency-based curriculum (Rehman, 2000). A 2002 study by Rehman and colleagues presents the results of a survey of 144 academics and professional leaders from North America, Southeast Asia, and the Arabian Gulf on what these competencies should be, and found that the curriculum should include: knowledge of information theory, information use and users, the social context of information, information needs, ethics, information resources development concepts and process, information organization and processing, information searching and retrieval, access services, automation and networking, web design and searching, research capabilities, planning and evaluation, human resource skills, and communication (Rehman, al-Ansari & Yousef, 2002b). In comparing responses from the three regions, surprisingly few significant differences were found. For example, national information policy was perceived to be highly important by participants of the Southeast Asian region, moderately important for those of the Arabian Gulf and less by North American participants (p. 210). A very high degree of importance for conservation and preservation was reported by the Southeast Asian group and significantly less by the other two (p. 211). Library automation, by contrast, was perceived as very important by the North American and Southeast Asian participants and less so by the Arabian Gulf group (p. 212). Participants from the Arabian Gulf placed competencies relating to the Internet and the virtual library at the highest level (p. 213).

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The need to conduct systematic reviews of significant aspects of the performance of LIS programs is important. Rehman investigated the evaluation strategies of nine of the Gulf programs (Rehman, 2008a). The schools were doing evaluation through self-study or external reviewer and all agreed that an accreditation system independent of higher education authorities should be in place although there was little agreement as to who the accrediting body should be. The most popular candidate was SLA/Arabian Gulf Chapter, perhaps based on the Association’s active role in the region. Seven programs favored certification and two proposed the Ministry of Education as an accrediting agent. A more recent study by Rehman examined in greater detail the practicalities of developing a proposal for accrediting LIS programs in the region (Rehman, 2012). He rules out SLA’s Arabian Gulf Chapter because SLA headquarters does not deal with the evaluation of academic programs. He also rules out the Ministries of Education because of their bureaucratic structure, which he considers inconsistent with academic practices; and national accrediting bodies like the American Library Association (ALA), which he believes will not accredit programs in other countries. As a result he suggests working through the GCC Universities Forum perhaps with the assistance of IFLA’s Education and Training Section. He states that Kuwait and Umm al-Qura (Saudi Arabia) Universities initiated a symposium on LIS education in 2006, a useful way to create wider awareness of the issue. Rehman concludes: “It is significant to note that all the nine schools favored the establishment of an accreditation system” (p. 71). A recent analysis of trends in LIS departments in Gulf universities points to a shift in affiliation from arts and humanities to science and technology colleges in order to attract students with high GPAs who prefer to enroll in science and technology and medical fields (‘Udah & Ma’tuq, 2011). With the exception of Yemen, the Gulf States stand out in the Arab world for their attention to, and investment in, higher education with interesting programs and advances in LIS. Each country is considered individually below.

Bahrain The Kingdom of Bahrain is a small island that is connected to the mainland by the King Fahd Causeway to Saudi Arabia. It was a British Protectorate until becoming an independent state in 1971, and was declared a kingdom in 2002. Bahrain is one of four Arab countries that did not have and still does not have an LIS program. Training of librarians, however, was provided in the mid-1970s by the British Council, and afterwards by several government and academic agencies (e.g., Inservice Training Center, the Ministry of Education, and the

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Department of Education at the University of Bahrain), especially for people interested in school and public librarianship. For people interested in academic and special librarianship, the country relies on foreigners or sends its students and staff to other countries for LIS education, especially Egypt, Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom, and the United States (Alian, 1994).

Kuwait The State of Kuwait was also a British Protectorate. It became an independent state in 1961, and since 1963 has been a constitutional monarchy. Early library training was offered in 1968 by the Bureau of Staff in coordination with the Ministry of Education and in 1971–73 by Kuwait University (Randi, 2013). There are currently two degree programs. One was founded in 1977 at the Public Authority for Applied Education and Training as a diploma program and updated to a bachelor’s degree program in 1986, focusing on school and public librarianship. The program was revised in 1998–1999 to include other types of librarianship. Today, it has 20 faculty members and four lecturers (Randi, 2013). The other program is in Kuwait University and, although initiated in 1977 as a diploma program, added a bachelor’s degree in 1987 and, representative of the new thrust in higher education in the Gulf States, started a master’s in LIS in 1996 after a long history of attempts to establish a program in different colleges and departments (Alqudsi-Ghabra & al-Ansari, 1998). It began in the College of Graduate Studies and later transferred to the College of Social Sciences as a science program. Its 1996 curriculum was rigorous and up to date including a fieldwork component in approved libraries and organizations that demonstrate all the major functions and services expected of a library or information agency, adequate resources, and at least one full time LIS professional willing to supervise the students (Alqudsi-Ghabra & al-Ansari, 1998). In 2005, it began to offer a minor for undergraduate studies and, by 2011, 188 students had graduated from the MLIS program and 235 had completed the minor. In 2012 there were 14 faculty members in the department (Randi, 2013). The Public Authority program is mostly taught in Arabic with some English while the newer program at Kuwait University is completely taught in English, perhaps responding to the call for a more universal language in the interests of globalization and international commerce. Despite a strong beginning, a 2006 evaluative study of the master’s program at Kuwait University identified curricular deficiencies that were believed to inhibit career opportunities, such as information and communication technology, business, LIS skills and soft skills like teamwork, presentation skills, public

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relations and marketing (Rehman, 2008b). The study technique used focus groups of professionals and employers from the public and private sector plus students and graduates of the program. Recommendations included the creation of career tracks and internships, strengthening technical capacity and encouraging a shift in the mindset of graduates to seek opportunities in diverse work settings, a name change for the department (the term “library” translates into Arabic as a low status organization), collaboration with the national professional association, the creation of information literacy initiatives, and a professional development program. There is a need for more faculty development and greater collaboration with IT, MIS and business degree programs on campus. One of the study authors (Rehman) on the basis of his earlier studies suggests the nine programs in the region would benefit from each other’s experiences and from examining two Saudi LIS programs (at King Saud and Umm al-Qura Universities) – schools that have shifted their focus toward the non-library employment market with good success. An earlier study of LIS professionals focused more specifically on information and communication technologies (ICT) skills and urged the now familiar litany of new coursework, new teaching and learning methods, use of external standards for professional associations for curriculum revision, greater collaboration with employers and development of internship opportunities beyond libraries (Buarki et al., 2009). The need for greater motivation for changes was also mentioned. The authors followed up their earlier study with a review of the specific ICT skills needed (Buarki, Hepworth & Murray, 2011). Rehman & Sumait (2010) identified some issues relative to the curriculum redesign taking place in the master’s program that Rehman directed: changing the name to “information management” in place of library and information studies, adding specialization tracks in librarianship, information management, information technology (IT) applications and knowledge management, and adding a project or thesis culminating requirement to strengthen the research and creation aspect of the program. They noted that changes in the curriculum caused some conflict with two other IT-related departments which were resolved through meetings and by cross-listing courses and allowing students to take courses in one another’s department.

Oman The Sultanate of Oman, an absolute monarchy, is ethnically diverse, with over 12 different languages spoken. The 2010 UNDP report ranked Oman as the most improved nation over the preceding 40 years (UNDP, 2002). In 1970, Sultan

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Qaboos came to power and gave high priority to education in order to develop a domestic workforce. A new university named for him opened in 1986, and in 1987 an Information Studies program began within the College of Arts and Social Sciences, offering coursework in both Arabic and English. The department offers three programs: the bachelor’s and a master’s in LIS, and a Higher Diploma in Medical Librarianship. A recent study of the curriculum found only two new IT-related courses added between 2002 and 2011, but found the program working to keep up with technological developments to better prepare students for jobs (Sleem & Al-Suqri, 2012).

Qatar The State of Qatar is an absolute monarchy that was a British Protectorate until 1971. It sits on a small peninsula surrounded on three sides by the Persian Gulf and by Saudi Arabia to the south. It is one of the world’s richest countries per capita and is currently undergoing a remarkable transformation under a National Vision 2030 plan in order to achieve an advanced, sustainable, and diversified economy. Qatar is an influential player in the Arab World and its news group, Al Jazeera, is internationally known and respected. Qatar has a population of 2.25 million people, but only 250,000 are citizens; the rest are foreigners who live and work in the State. Qatar is reforming its school education through a contract with the RAND Corporation, and has built an “Education City” which hosts a number of branches of well-known US universities offering a number of professional programs such as journalism, engineering, foreign service, Islamic studies, and medicine. Library science education in Qatar started in 1977 as a minor within a history major in the College of Humanities and Social Sciences at the University of Qatar. In 1988 the minor was upgraded to a 36-credit hour postgraduate diploma program and by 1996, 35 students had graduated from it. In 1998, the University decided to establish an LIS department and replaced the postgraduate program with a BA program. From 2001–2006, the department graduated 394 students, more than two-thirds of which ended up working in the public/ government sector and 13% in the private sector. The remainder were mostly females whose parents or spouses did not want (or did not allow) them to work. In 2004 the department was merged with the Department of Communication (Hasanayn, 2007). The LIS program finally closed in the late 2000s. In 2013, a new LIS program in Qatar was founded within the Qatar Education City. This program from University College London is taught in English, as are programs in most of the foreign university branches in the country.

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A brochure describing the program states that it will be “developed within the broader context provided by the Qatar Foundation, the Qatar National Library, and the growing cultural and information environment in Qatar” (UCL, Qatar, 2014a and 2014b). External accreditation is being sought through the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP) and, if received, this LIS program will be the first in the Arab world accredited by an outside agency.

Saudi Arabia The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, created in 1932, is the second largest Arab state by land area (after Algeria), with a population of 27 million Saudi nationals and 5 million foreigners. Its position as the world’s largest oil exporter makes it one of the 20 most powerful countries in the world and one of the wealthiest as well. It ranks as a regional power and maintains hegemony in the Arabian Peninsula. Education is free at all levels. Classes are separated by gender. Higher education has expanded rapidly with large numbers of universities and colleges founded since 2000. Saudi Arabia boasts two world class universities: King Abdulaziz and King Saud (Times Higher Education, 2014), both of which have LIS programs. We identified six LIS programs in the country. Most are in very large universities (more than 50,000 students). One is a woman’s program at the University of Dammam founded in 2010. The language of instruction is Arabic, as is true for most of the other programs. Two programs that describe themselves as Information Science programs are at King Abdulaziz University and King Saud University. These programs indicate that they offer courses in both Arabic and English. Riyadh, the capital, boasts four universities. In addition to King Abdulaziz University, the Imam Muhammed ibn Saud Islamic University, and King Saud University (only male students), the first woman’s university and the largest women-only university in the world, Princess Noura bint Abdulrahman University (formerly the Girls College of Arts), is also in Riyadh. It has an LIS program in the College of Art and an LIS bachelor’s program in the College of Computer and Information Science. Sources of information about LIS education in Saudi Arabia are limited and somewhat dated; the most recent article we retrieved was a brief summary from 1998 (Alsereihy, 1998). To tackle the twin problems of extremism and an inadequate university education for a modern economy, the government has initiated a program with a substantial budget of approximately two billion dollars US with the aim of moving teaching away from religion toward more secular subjects and from traditional Saudi methods of memorization and rote learning and toward encouraging

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a more analytic and problem-solving curriculum (Lindsey, 2010). In 2009 an expert on girls’ education, Princess Noura bint Abdulrahman, became the first woman minister in Saudi Arabia. Women comprise 60% of Saudi Arabia’s college enrollment but only 21% of its workforce.

United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federation of seven principalities ruled by hereditary emirs, which became independent of their status as British Protectorates in 1971. The first President of the UAE, Sheikh Zayed, set a policy of shifting revenues into healthcare, education and infrastructure. This policy has served the country well. The literacy rate is very high (90%). Demographically, the population is diverse with less than 20% identified as UAE nationals. Immigrants make up more than 80% of the total population according to UN data (2013). Because of the number of immigrants, the male/female ratio is also very high: seven males for every three females; the difference is particularly marked in the age range from 25–54 (61% of the population) with 2,639,018 males and only 820,915 females (Central Intelligence Agency, 2014). In 2008, Boumarafi pointed out that libraries and information centers in the Emirates largely depended on expatriates and foreign librarians. He urged the need for training and professional programs and described the early history of a diploma program for girls in the Higher Colleges of Technology in Sharjah and Al Ain, although neither program flourished. In 2006 the Community College at the University of Sharjah offered diploma programs to prepare semi-professionals but the programs lacked library resources, computer labs, and qualified instructors. He estimated that over 230 professionals were needed for academic library positions and nearly 1,300 for school libraries plus hundreds of public, special and departmental librarians. He urged the establishment of a master’s program (Boumarafi, 2008). Government-supported higher education institutions includes Zayed University, formerly a women’s university but now coeducational, and many Higher Colleges of Technology, plus research centers and institutes, and a dedicated education zone designated the Dubai Knowledge Village, where a substantial number of international universities including Tufts, George Mason, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, New York University, the Sorbonne, among others, have established local branches. Collaborative educational enterprises, like the Gulf Medical University and Dubai Knowledge Village, an educational free trade zone in Dubai, offer more educational opportunities with the goal of building the capacity of the local workforce and growing their own faculty.

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A feasibility study for a graduate program in Information Management was recently completed for Zayed University (Zayed University, 2013). Responding to a state directive, the emphasis was on opportunities for Emirati employment pointing to an Omani program as a model and citing three prior LIS program proposals from 2009–2010. The report from employers and potential students found great enthusiasm for the development of a high quality program but reservations were expressed based on “current poor experience of many Emirati students with library services” and a perception that “many Emirati would be unwilling to work in library and information management organizations where the working conditions are unlikely to be equivalent to those in government departments” (Zayed University, 2013, p. 27). No action has been taken on the program to date. An earlier design for a new private university, proposed by a group of nationals and expatriates, that would offer education for lower tuition than that at the other private universities, also failed to come into existence. Aman and Mika describe a design for an LIS bachelor’s program for this proposed university using model curriculum recommendations from the Information Resources Management Association and UNESCO’s framework for a curriculum in informatics and containing a rigorous evaluation and assessment process (Aman & Mika, 2004). However, one new LIS program has been established in 2012 in the College of Computer Information Technology of the American University in the Emirates, a private university. It offers both a Bachelor of Science in Information Technology Management and a 36-semester hour LIS master’s degree. The programs are offered in English and delivered on a full-time basis on the Dubai International Academic City campus. The undergraduate program is “web-centric and allows a wide usage of information technology” (American University in the Emirates, 2014a). The master’s program lists an array of career opportunities from library management to information analyst in both public and private sectors and includes a mandatory internship (American University in the Emirates, 2014b).

Yemen The Republic of Yemen occupies the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula and is the second largest country in the region. Yemen has a troubled history with a long civil war between North and South Yemen which was resolved in 1990 when the unified Republic of Yemen was proclaimed. Additional serious political upheaval occurred in 2011. The country is currently in a transitional period of political reforms (BBC News Middle East, 2014). Before LIS programs were

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founded in Yemen, library training was provided by local and foreign specialists under the auspices of the UNESCO, the British Council, regional organizations, the Ministry of Culture and Education, other government agencies, and the central libraries of local universities, among others. Yemen also relied heavily on sending its own library staff to Jordan, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Iraq, as well as the United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, and India to pursue bachelor’s and advanced degrees in the field and make up for the lack of LIS programs in the country. This was done occasionally from the 1970s until the first bachelor’s degree program was founded at the University of Sana’a in 1995. During its first five years, the LIS program at Sana’a University enrolled 624 students. Currently, it offers bachelor’s, master’s, postgraduate, and PhD programs in the field. The other LIS program in the country, which was established in 2001 at the University of Aden offers both the bachelor’s and master’s degrees. Both programs are housed in Colleges of Arts.6

Iraq The Republic of Iraq is bounded to the east by Iran, on the north by Turkey, on the west by Jordan and Syria and on the south by Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. In 1920 after the fall of the Ottoman Empire, the League of Nations determined the present borders of Iraq and placed the country under the authority of the United Kingdom. A monarchy was established in 1921 and the Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from Great Britain in 1932. In 1958 the monarchy was overthrown and the Republic of Iraq was created. The Ba’ath Party controlled Iraq from 1968 until 2003, when a multinational force led by the US and Britain invaded Iraq and Saddam Hussein and the Ba’ath Party were removed from power. The overthrow of Saddam and the invasion of the country were accompanied by devastating losses of human life plus the looting of many libraries and the burning of parts of the National Library and Archive. The already weak economy was almost completely destroyed by the 2003 invasion and the subsequent violence. Slowly, Iraq is rebuilding its society. Supplies of water, electricity and other necessities are still below what is needed. As Saad Eskander, director of the Iraq National Library and Archive, wrote, “We forgot a long time ago what situation constitutes normal and what situation does not. [Since the American troop withdrawal last year], life has not changed for the overwhelming majority of the

6 Translated and paraphrased from the blog of the Department of Library and Information Science, University of Sana’a – Accessed July 22, 2014.

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population, especially for the poor. Senseless atrocities, indiscriminate destruction, and blind hatred are always there; they are part of our lives” (Kniffel, 2012, p. 43). LIS education in Iraq is being treated individually in this chapter because the devastating impact of the recent conflicts on libraries and library education make it a special case; in effect, the knowledge infrastructure of this country has been destroyed (Mousawi, 2013). However, Iraq does not stand alone in having its cultural institutions ravaged by civil unrest, terrorism and war. In many other Arab countries, library education has been damaged by unrest of various types. For example, Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine, Somalia, Sudan, and Syria have all encountered disorder and instability. War, terrorism, and other acts of violence affect all sectors of society, and education is often one of the most affected. The physical destruction of libraries and universities and the ongoing impact of the conflict on infrastructure and the day-to-day life in Iraq continue to have grave after-effects on LIS education. Despite the ancient libraries that had existed there, Iraq did not begin developing modern libraries until the early 20th century. Its National Library originated in 1921. Library training started under the supervision of the UNESCO in 1953 with workshops that lasted from three months to two years. Almost immediately after it was founded in 1960, the central library of the University of Baghdad started to offer three month- and six month-long training workshops followed by longer ones which led to the establishment of a postgraduate LIS program in 1972. By the mid-1970s, there were 110 public libraries, three academic libraries, and almost 5,000 school libraries (Al-Kindilchie, 1977). A 1979 UNESCO report recounted a four-fold increase in the total number of libraries in the country since 1959–1960 (Kalia, 1979). However, that same report points out deficiencies in the libraries. There was no national coordinating agency to pool resources and services. In addition, existing resources were underutilized, for example public libraries did not lend freely but required any borrower to deposit an amount equal to the value of a book before it was lent (Kalia, 1979). Despite these problems, through the 1980s “Iraq’s largest libraries and archives were relatively well preserved, adequately if unevenly cataloged and administered by a trained cadre of employees” (Khoury, 2003). By the early-1990s, there were 489 public libraries, 117 academic libraries, and almost 11,000 school libraries in the country (Al-Kindilchie, 1994). During the war with Iran, and following the invasion of Kuwait, the Gulf War and the imposition of U.N. sanctions on Iraq, conditions in Iraqi libraries deteriorated. Funding to libraries was cut, and it became more difficult for them to function. The Saddam regime imposed censorship on collections. At the National Library, for instance, many publication and records were removed

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from the stacks and placed in restricted areas where readers had no access. For more than 20 years, the National Library was not able to purchase any publications from abroad (Kingley, 2013). The deteriorating conditions in Iraq were worsened by the events occurring after the overthrow of Saddam Hussein in 2003. The looting and burning of not only the National Library but other libraries and cultural institutions have been well documented. Although the libraries in Iraq have made some progress in the last decade they are still suffering the effects of long neglect and isolation with often limited collections and damaged buildings and equipment. Libraries have been low priority in the overall restoration and development of Iraq. To rebuild these libraries, Iraq needs well-educated librarians who are able to bring leadership to the rebuilding effort. Unfortunately, LIS education was just as hard hit as the libraries. Just as the libraries before 1980 seemed to be progressing and becoming modernized, so did library education. The first LIS program in Iraq was founded in 1970 in the Library of alMustansiriyah University in Baghdad. However, the program offered only a twoyear diploma degree; it started its bachelor’s degree program in 1974 (Itayem & al-Akhras, 1984). So, for the purposes of this chapter, the history of LIS education in Iraq can be traced back to 1972 when the University of Baghdad, with support from UNESCO and UNDP, started to offer a one-year postgraduate diploma in the field. This program, however, was transferred to al-Mustansiriyah University in 1977 and was finally closed in 1982. Soon after the transfer, the alMustansiriyah University changed the status of its LIS program from a section in the Library into a full-fledged department within the College of Arts with responsibility to run both the University of Baghdad and al-Mustansiriyah LIS programs (Itayem & al-Akhras, 1984). Then in 1983, the University of Basrah started to offer a bachelor’s degree in LIS and in 1996 the University of Mosul followed suit. All three programs had the same curricula. In 1992, al-Mustansiriyah began to offer both the master’s and doctoral degrees in LIS; these are still active today. At one time, both Basrah and Mosul offered master’s degrees but were forced to discontinue them because of lack of qualified faculty (Khairi, 2010). In addition to the three programs above, there are two technical institutes that offer a two-year diploma in library science. According to Johnson, the LIS education in Iraq was at one time among the best in the Arab world (Johnson, 2005, p. 254). In the quarter of a century since the invasion of Kuwait in 1990, Iraqi library education has lagged behind its counterparts in the rest of the Arab world. The isolation that followed the imposition of sanctions had a detrimental effect on both libraries and LIS education. As one observer wrote, “The whole library profession became slowly de-professionalized as faculty lost contact with new developments, particularly in automation, and as talented professionals – as happened across academia and the professions – chose to move abroad” (Spurr, 2005).

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Khairi, a faculty member from al-Mustansiriyah, described the grim conditions in the LIS schools. All lost furniture and equipment and many had their buildings damaged in the 2003 overthrow. Dangerous conditions existed in all the universities. For example, at al-Mustansiriyah University, one of the university’s professors (not from the LIS Department) was assassinated, two others were shot and survived, and many others were threatened. Many students and faculty left the universities because of the unsafe conditions (Khairi, 2010). A large number of the LIS faculty members left Iraq to teach abroad. It is difficult to find statistics about exactly how many students and faculty any of these programs have at present. According to Zubaydi as of 2001, there were 25 faculty members in these three programs, all graduates of institutions in Iraq (56%), United States (40%), and Egypt (4%). Only 16% of all 25 faculty members had doctoral degrees; the remaining faculty had either a postgraduate LIS degree (4%) or an MLS (80%). All of the faculty members had academic backgrounds in LIS or arts and humanities (i.e., none came from a technology, science, or medical background). According to these 25 faculty members, in 2001 the most significant problem of LIS education in Iraq was the quality and motivation of the students, who were admitted to the programs with low GPAs. To this problem are additional difficulties of lack of library and computing resources, lack of scholarly activities among the faculty, and lack of practicum and internship venues. The students enrolled in Iraqi LIS programs are usually those who have the lowest high-school GPAs accepted for admission to the Colleges of Arts and, by extension, the universities. With the lack of library and computing resources, both faculty and students are denied access to tools and materials that would keep them up-to-date with progress in the field (Zubaydi, 2001). LIS education in Iraq was essentially isolated from the rest of the world from the mid-1980s to recent times (Khairi, 2010). An entire generation in Iraq has never spent time abroad, attended international conferences or built connections with colleagues outside of their own country (Johnson, 2005). The war with Iran had drained the state budget, and funds for study abroad gradually dried up. The last students to take postgraduate courses in Britain and the U.S.A. probably completed them in about 1988, and many of the librarians who were trained abroad before then have since left Iraq for better-paid jobs or personal security elsewhere…. The calibre and enthusiasm of the Iraqi teachers of Librarianship and Information Sciences have been taxed to the full as they struggled to develop their courses while coping with declining resources. No books about Librarianship and Information Sciences were bought after about 1985, and all foreign journal subscriptions ceased in 1992 (Johnson, 2005, p. 253).

There have been a number of efforts to provide help to the struggling LIS programs in Iraq, but no systematic, long-term plans have been developed. However, if Iraq is to rebuild its libraries and archives and reconstruct its

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shattered knowledge infrastructure, it must at the same time develop a strong system to educate the information professionals who will make the rebuilding effort possible.

The Levant The Levant is a geographic and cultural region located on the Eastern Mediterranean. Today, it includes six countries or states: Cyprus and Israel, which are not included in this chapter, as well as the four Arab states of Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, and Syria. The Levant is one of the most ethnically and religiously diverse regions of the world. It is home to Arabs, Armenians, Jews, and Kurds, among many others. While Sunni and Shi’i Muslims make up the majority of the population, the region also includes millions of Christians, Jews, and sizeable numbers of people from many other religions and sects. Arabic, Hebrew, Kurdish, and Armenian are the predominant languages in the region. The region was under the rule of the Ottoman Empire from the 16th century until 1918. Following the collapse of the Empire after World War I, Lebanon and Syria were mandated to France until their independence in 1943. Jordan and the Palestinian territories were mandated to Great Britain until 1946 and 1948 respectively. With the announcement by Britain that it would unilaterally withdraw from the Mandate on 15 May 1948, Israel declared its independence on May 14, 1948, and on the following day the 1948 Arab-Israeli War began. With the exception of Lebanon which had several professionally trained librarians with LIS degrees from France and the U.S.A., interest in library training was almost non-existent in the Arab countries of the Levant until the 1950s. As in several other Arab countries, library training and education in the Levant during the three decades after independence was largely limited to attending short courses or workshops in European countries or those provided by local libraries or government agencies as well as attending and pursuing library science degrees at Cairo University. The first LIS degree programs in the Levant were founded in Lebanon in 1975 and Jordan in 1977. The first program in Syria was founded in 1984 and in the State of Palestine in 1997. The following is a brief overview of LIS education in each of the Arab countries of the Levant.

Jordan Jordan was founded under a British mandate after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire during World War I. It gained independence in 1946. Although its people

9 Education for Library and Information Science in the Arab States


are considered among the most educated in the Arab world, Jordan had no academic or major public libraries until the early 1950s. Awareness of the need for libraries began after a UNESCO visit to the country in 1955 which initiated the modern library movement there. Then in the first half of the 1960s, three major events helped solidify this movement, namely, the founding of the Amman Public Library in 1960, the University of Jordan in 1962, and the Jordan Library Association in 1963. The latter is one of the most active in the Arab world and one which has had profound influence in the country, especially through its library training programs and publications (Mansour, 1993) as well as the start of an LIS diploma program in 1965 at the Teachers College in Amman. The diploma program, however, graduated only one group of students and folded in 1967 because of lack of qualified instructors. Hundreds of small public and school libraries were founded in the country in the next decade or so. As a result of a huge shortage of trained library personnel for these libraries, the University of Jordan started a postgraduate diploma program in LIS in 1977. This program went through several revisions: in 1979 by a group of experts from the British Council and UNESCO, from 1982 to 1984 by faculty from al-Mustansiriyah University of Iraq, in 1986 by its own faculty upon their return from the U.S.A. after completing doctoral education in the field, and in 1992 when the program was down-graded from a 33-credit hour program to a one-year 24 credit hour “Vocational Diploma in Library and Information Science.” The program folded in 1995 because of lack of a sufficient number of qualified faculty members. Important to note here is that when the British and Danish faculty revised the program in 1979, they introduced an English exam as part of the admission requirements to ensure that admitted students had enough language proficiency to read assigned material which were largely in English because Arabic ones were lacking and out-of-date. However, as a result of student protest, the end of UNESCO’s support, as well as the departure of all British and Danish faculty members from the program, the English exam admission requirement was cancelled. According to Alian (2002) major problems that this program encountered included: unclear and unrealistic objectives, poor curriculum and inconsistency with the latest developments in the field, lack of stability in the curriculum, lack of any kind of admission criteria or restrictions, oversight of the market needs, and paucity of faculty members with advanced skills, expertise, and knowledge, as well as use of traditional and obsolete teaching methods. Nevertheless, the program graduated over 300 people who contributed significantly to the development of libraries and the library profession in Jordan. Many of the graduates of the program went on to pursue graduate degrees in the U.K. and the U.S.A. (Alian, 2002).

204  Evelyn H. Daniel, Lokman I. Meho, and Barbara B. Moran

After four years without an LIS program in the country, the Balqa Applied University founded the first full undergraduate LIS degree program in the country in 1999, followed by similar programs at Balqa’s satellite colleges: Princess Alia University College (2003), Irbid University College (2003), and al-Karak University College (2007). These three colleges, Balqa Applied University, and several other university colleges used to offer diplomas in LIS during the 1980s and 1990s. In 2000, both Philadelphia University Jordan and Zarqa Private University started to offer a bachelor’s degree in the field, and in 2006 al-Hussein Bin Talal University established its undergraduate program in LIS, which currently enrolls 300 students and has six full-time faculty members (four with PhDs). The public university of Balqa managed to enroll 162 students in its first two years, whereas the more expensive private universities of Philadelphia and Zarqa managed to attract only a total of 57 students (Philadelphia’s program ceased in 2011). Zarqa, however, currently enrolls nearly 400 students and has four full-time faculty members. The Higher Education Council has the responsibility for setting standards for LIS education in the country (Younis, 2002). Perhaps the most significant development in LIS education in Jordan was when the University of Jordan decided in 2006 to start a master’s program in the field, and postgraduate and undergraduate degree programs in 2007. According to the Department’s website, its master’s program has so far graduated more than 30 students, many of whom are now in key positions in Jordan and neighboring countries. The Department currently includes six full-time faculty members (four professors, one associate professor, and one lecturer). The bachelor’s degree in all LIS programs in the country requires the completion of 132 credit hours: 78–90 credits in LIS and information technology and 42–54 credits in general education. The MLS degree requires the completion of 33 credit hours without thesis or 24 credits with thesis (Younis, 2013).

Lebanon Modern librarianship in Lebanon started in the 18th century with monastic libraries and began to flourish in the 19th century with the founding of two of the oldest and most prominent universities in the Arab world: the American University of Beirut (1866) and Université Saint-Joseph (1875). Although several other libraries have been founded in the country since then (e.g., the Lebanese National Library in 1922 and many private and American and French school libraries), libraries started to emerge in significant numbers in Lebanon only in the 1960s – a trend that was hindered by a 15-year civil war that ended in 1989.

9 Education for Library and Information Science in the Arab States


Today, Lebanon is home to hundreds of public, school, and special libraries and over 50 academic libraries distributed among one public and over 40 private colleges and universities. College or professional level library training in Lebanon started in the 1960s. During a one-month visit in 1960, a UNESCO expert provided a training session in cataloging at the National Library in Beirut and submitted a proposal to UNESCO recommending the establishment of a library school in a university to include a graduate program. Between 1962 and 1965, the American University of Beirut Libraries offered six-week long summer courses in basic and medical librarianship, which were attended by nearly one hundred people from all over the Middle East. This was followed in 1968 by annual summer workshops given to local library staff at Beirut College for Women (later named Beirut University College and more recently the Lebanese American University). In 1970, these workshops were developed into a 2-year long Library Technician Program leading to an Associate degree in the field (Hafez, 1986). This program continued until the late 1990s. Then, just before the 1975–1989 civil war started in the country, the first bachelor’s degree program was founded, at the Lebanese University. Unlike in the great majority of Arab countries where the LIS programs are/ were affiliated within Colleges of Arts, Humanities, or Education, the program at the Lebanese University was established and continues to maintain full college or school status under the umbrella of the Faculty of Information and Documentation. While the focus was initially on the journalistic type of information, more LIS courses were introduced into the curriculum as time passed. By 1993, the program had graduated 200 students and is currently offering the bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees and enrolls more than 200 students. Given the popularity of the field in the country, two more programs were founded at private universities: in 1996 at the University of Balamand, and in 2005 at Beirut Arab University (Muhyiddin, 2004). In large part because these programs had to compete against a virtually tuition-free LIS program at the Lebanese University, the program at Balamand was frozen for over a decade before it reopened in 2012 under the name of the Faculty of Library and Information Studies with bachelor’s and master’s programs in LIS. The current program at Balamand is still inactive, however, because of lack of students. Until recently, librarians from prominent universities in the country had always considered the LIS programs in Lebanon to be weak, graduating educationally and professionally incompetent individuals who could not operate independently and had serious language deficiencies; this was largely because for

206  Evelyn H. Daniel, Lokman I. Meho, and Barbara B. Moran

nearly 30 years the curriculum at the Lebanese University did not change much, and that there was a lack of planning and mismatch between market needs and the LIS curriculum, lack of use of modern teaching and instruction technologies and methods, lack of modern computer labs and libraries, lack of training opportunities, poor educational level of enrolled students, and the ignorance of the society about the significance of the LIS profession (Muhyiddin, 2004). With the gradual improvement in the curricula of the LIS program at the Lebanese University over the past decade or so (revised twice in this period), the hiring of many faculty with doctoral degrees from France, the U.K., and the U.S.A., the engagement of students in many internships and training opportunities before graduation, and the significant improvement in the activities of the Lebanese Library Association, LIS graduates of the Lebanese University began to be more attractive to employers. Although they are yet to lead any major library in the country, LIS graduates of the Lebanese University today form a sizeable proportion of professional librarians in the main libraries in the country.

Palestine The State of Palestine is a sovereign state in the Levant that is recognized by the United Nations. Its independence was declared on 15 November 1988 by the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), and its government-in-exile was then located in Algiers. It claims sovereignty over the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, and has designated Jerusalem as its capital. Most of the areas claimed for the State of Palestine have been occupied by Israel since 1967 in the aftermath of the Six-Day War, with the Palestinian Authority exercising socio-political administration since 1993 in limited areas. In 2012, it was granted observer status by the United Nations. The tradition of libraries in Palestine is old with mosque and family libraries having played significant cultural and historical roles, but it was only as of the mid-1990s that the modern library movement started in the region. Following the Oslo Accords which were signed in 1993 and 1995, a number of universities and libraries started to emerge in Palestine, and so did the need for professional librarians. Despite the founding of an undergraduate LIS program in 1997 in al-Aqsa University and in 2001 at the Universal Studies Academy, both in Gaza City, Khader (2012) who provided a detailed account of the development of libraries in Palestine and their challenges and obstacles, recommended the founding of more LIS schools to train and produce much needed professional librarians.

9 Education for Library and Information Science in the Arab States


Syria Similarly to Lebanon and Palestine, LIS education in Syria has received little attention in the literature. According to Lahham (1993) and ‘Abd al-’Alim (1995), until 1984 Syrian librarians generally received their training abroad (mainly Egypt) because of lack of a library school in the country. In that year, when the country had 75 trained professional librarians and nearly 1,000 libraries, the first LIS program was founded at Damascus University and was affiliated with the Faculty of Arts and Humanities. The goal was to prepare the necessary specialized workforce to manage and lead the country’s libraries. By 1990, the program had 40 graduates and had enrolled 450 students. Admission was, and still is, limited to those students with a GPA at a certain level that changes from one year to the next depending on scores received by students in the national high school test. The degree requires the completion, over a period of four years, of courses in management of libraries and information centers, reference, collection development, technical services, indexing and abstracting, special libraries, digital libraries, databases, information storage and retrieval, knowledge management, and information economy. These are in addition to courses in research methods, statistics, cognitive science, information technology, English language learning, Arabic language learning, and a course on nationalist socialist culture, which was required in the first year of the program (Younis, 2013). A similar undergraduate program was established in Syria in 2007 at the University of Tishreen, Faculty of Arts and Humanities. Then in 2008, the University of Damascus started to offer the MLS degree in library management and information services as well as in information storage and retrieval. The master’s degree is a two-year program consisting of coursework during the first year and a thesis in the second year. According to ‘Assafin (1998, 2004), the undergraduate program at the University of Damascus suffers from the fact that it focuses so much on non-LIS courses (e.g., courses on the history of civilization, literature, and philosophy), theoretical or non-practice-based courses, library rather than library and information science-related courses, and on textbooks that are not only old but also overlap in content. The program also suffers from the following problems: only 10% of its LIS courses are in the area of information services; fewer than onefourth of its faculty members are holders of doctoral degrees (all from Russia and Egypt); the program admits such a huge number of students that makes it difficult to find training opportunities for them all, let alone jobs; and the LIS department lacks the library and computing resources necessary for providing quality LIS education. Muhanna (2011), however, claims that the LIS program at

208  Evelyn H. Daniel, Lokman I. Meho, and Barbara B. Moran

the University of Damascus is constantly improving and that its curriculum has gone through three major revisions, the last being in 2008. It is believed that the LIS program at the University of Tishreen has adopted the most recent curriculum of the program at the University of Damascus.

Northeast Africa and the Comoros The remaining countries in the Arab League are located in Northeast Africa and the Indian Ocean. Both the Comoros and Djibouti are small republics with fewer than one million inhabitants in each. They were colonized by France and became independent in 1975 and 1977, respectively. Arabic and French are the two predominant languages and Islam is their main religion. The countries have very few libraries and neither has a library professional association. A comprehensive survey of the literature did not identify any indications of library training or education there; however, both have national documentation centers. The Union of Comoros, a federal republic comprising an island archipelago between Madagascar and Tanzania, has a national library. Djibouti, in the horn of Africa at the mouth of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, does not have a national library, but has an academic library at the University of Djibouti and a few special and governmental libraries.

Somalia The Federal Republic of Somalia, has a population of approximately 11 million people; Arabic is the official language and Islam the official religion. The country was created in 1960 by the merger of a former British protectorate and an Italian colony. Since its independence, Somalia has encountered political, economic, and cultural instability and has undergone internal armed conflicts for almost three decades. Despite its past history of being in a near state of anarchy, the country is in the process of establishing a federal parliamentary republic. The country’s national library was established in 1976 but closed in the 1990s. At present there is an effort underway to rebuild the national library in Mogadishu. This library, which would also serve a public library for the city, is the first library to be built in Somalia since the civil war started in 1991 (Shepherd, 2013). Just as in the Comoros and Djibouti, there is no indication that any LIS programs exist in the country.

9 Education for Library and Information Science in the Arab States


Sudan The Republic of the Sudan is located in the Nile Valley. Its predominant religion is Islam. Almost one-fifth of its 40 million population lives below the international poverty line, which means living on less than $1.25 per day. Sudan was colonized by the British from 1898 to 1956. After independence it became known as the Republic of the Sudan. In 2005, and after several years of rampant ethnic strife and internal conflicts, a peace agreement between the north (largely Muslim) and the south (largely Christian and adherents of several African religions) was signed, and the south was split off and became independent in 2011 and named the Republic of South Sudan. The Republic of the Sudan is currently the third largest Arab country in terms of both area and population. Higher education in the country began in the 1940s at Gordon Memorial College which was originally founded as a primary school in 1902. In 1948, there were 262 students at the Gordon Memorial College. In 1951 it merged with the Kitchener School of Medicine (founded in 1924) and was renamed University College Khartoum with the University of London setting the examinations and awarding the degrees. When the country gained independence in 1956, the University College became the fully independent University of Khartoum which then enrolled a total of 1,633 students. Until the end of the 1980s, there were only five universities in the Sudan, enrolling less than 10% of the high school graduates of the country. In 1989, a higher education revolution was announced and by the end of the 1990s, there were over 30 new public and private universities established in the country. The 40 or so universities in the Sudan today enroll over 200,000 students annually. With the increase in the number of higher education institutions in the country, the number of LIS programs also increased: from one in the 1960s to three in the 1980s, six in the 1990s, and 10 in the 2000s. Until the early 1960s, library professional development and training in the Sudan benefited significantly from the British Council in Khartoum, which regularly organized seminars and workshops in the field and funded several relevant consultancies. From 1961 until at least the 1990s, the University of Khartoum’s Department of General Studies regularly offered training courses for employees in libraries and archives. In 1966 the first LIS program was established at Omdurman Islamic University. The goal of the program was to prepare professionals to work in different types of libraries, archives, and information centers. The program was closed after the University was converted in 1969 into a College of Arabic Language. The University reopened its doors in 1972 with all its previous Colleges and departments, including LIS. Initially, the program was run mainly by faculty from the University of Cairo with support from Sudanese

210  Evelyn H. Daniel, Lokman I. Meho, and Barbara B. Moran

faculty. In 1972, the Sudanese faculty took over and revised the program to meet the specific needs of the Sudanese libraries and society. The curriculum was last revised in 1995, introducing information science related courses, such as information storage and retrieval, and launching the first master’s degree program in the country. Despite graduating many librarians since 1972, by mid-1980s half of the country’s 14 higher education libraries still did not have professional librarians among their staff members. This was largely because librarianship was not an attractive career for young Sudanese, as the profession was rather obscure, and graduates of Omdurman University LIS program preferred to work in the libraries of the oil-rich Arab states where there is a better work environment and much higher wages (Abdel Karim, 1985). In 1986, a new undergraduate program was founded at the Omdurman Ahlia University, followed by one at the Neelain University (which was formerly the Khartoum branch of Cairo University), and a postgraduate diploma program at the University of Khartoum’s Centre for Information, Libraries, and Archives. The latter was merged in 1992 with the newly founded Department of Library and Information Science at the University of Khartoum, with degree programs at the bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral levels. By the year 2009, there were 10 active LIS programs in Sudan (seven in the state of Khartoum). In 2013, the total number of full-time faculty teaching at these 10 programs was 84 (65% with doctoral degrees and 35% with master degrees). Eight of the chairpersons of the programs held doctoral degrees and two held only a master’s degree. (‘Alim, 2013) In the early 1990s, when there were still only four LIS programs in the Sudan, Wesley (1994) argued that teaching in these programs depended too heavily on part-time input from practicing librarians. She further stated that the main problems of the LIS programs in the Sudan then included: (1) the scarcity of qualified staff; (2) poor library collections and scarcity of publications and teaching materials in Arabic; (3) poor resources and facilities; and (4) poor state of development of the national information infrastructure. According to Amin (2013), similar problems seem to persist today. Based on a field survey of six LIS programs in the state of Khartoum, Ahmad & Muhammad Ali (2013) found remarkable differences in the number of LIS credit hours that students complete in order to obtain their bachelor degree and that the number of required information technology courses was minimal (10–15% of the total).

Université Badji Mokhtar -Annaba Université Constantine 

Université d’Alger 

Université de Tébessa Université d’Oran Ain Shams University Al-Azhar University-Assiut Al-Azhar University-Cairo Al-Azhar University-Cairo

Al-Azhar University-Shbeen El-Kom, Al Minufiyah Al-Azhar University-Tafahna El-Ashraaf, Daqahlia Alexandria University

Assiut University

Benha University

Algeria Algeria


Algeria Algeria Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt












Arabic Language-Boys

Humanities and Social Sciences Humanities Arts Arabic Language-Boys Education-Boys Humanities-Girls

Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences Institut de Bibliothéconomie


Tab. .: LIS programs in the Arab States offering at least a bachelor’s degree in the field.

Summary of the Situation


     

Library, Archives, and Information Science LIS










  

Degree Programs

Year Founded*

LIS, and Instructional Technologies 


Library Science Bibliothéconomie et documentation LIS LAS LIS, and Instructional Technologies LAS

LIS Institut de Bibliothéconomie


9 Education for Library and Information Science in the Arab States



Beni-Suef University

Cairo University

Fayoum University Helwan University

Kafrelsheikh University Mansoura University Menoufia University

Minia University October  University

Sohag University

South Valley University Suez Canal University Tanta University

Al-Mustansiriya University

University of Baghdad

University of Basrah




Egypt Egypt

Egypt Egypt Egypt

Egypt Egypt


Egypt Egypt Egypt




Tab.9.1: (continued)

Higher Institute for Library and Information Studies Arts


Arts Arts Arts


Arts Social Sciences

Arts Arts Arts

Arts Arts





Year Founded* 

Libraries and Information Systems




LIS Libraries and Information Systems LIS

LIS Archives and LIS LIS






  

 

  

 

Library Science, Archives, and IT 



212  Evelyn H. Daniel, Lokman I. Meho, and Barbara B. Moran

University of Mosul Balqa Applied University

Al-Hussein Bin Talal University Philadelphia University Jordan University of Jordan

Zarqa University Kuwait University Public Authority for Applied Education and Training Beirut Arab University

Iraq Jordan

Jordan Jordan** Jordan

Jordan Kuwait Kuwait

Libyan Academy for Graduate Studies Al-Jabal al-Gharbi University University of Benghazi University of Tripoli

Libya Libya Libya Libya

Mauritania Université de Nouakchott

University of Balamand


Lebanon** Lebanese American University Lebanon Lebanese University




Tab.9.1: (continued)

Arts and Humanities

Arts and Sciences Faculty of Information and Documentation Faculty of Library and Information Studies School of Humanities Education Arts Arts


Educational Sciences Social Sciences College of Basic Education

Arts Administrative and Financial Sciences Educational Sciences

Arts Planning and Management


Bibliothèques, Archives et Doc.

Information Studies LIS LIS LIS

Knowledge Management and Informatics Program in LIS


LIS Library and Information Management Libraries and IT LIS LIS



  

  

    




 

  

Degree Programs

Year Founded*

9 Education for Library and Information Science in the Arab States


LIS Information Science

Arts and Humanities Arts Arts Social Sciences Arts-Girls Arts Arts Arts

King Saud University

Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University Umm al-Qura University

University of Dammam

El Imam El Mahdi University International University of Africa Neelain University

Neelain University Omdurman Ahlia University Omdurman Islamic University

Sudan Sudan Sudan

Computer Science Arts Arts

Information Science

Humanities and Social Sciences Computer and Information Sciences

Library Information Systems LAS LAS


Libraries and Information

Information Science

School of Information Science Information Studies Library Science LIS Library and Information Studies History and Librarianship Information Studies

Arts and Social Sciences Arts and Humanities Arts and Letters


École des Sciences de l’Information Sultan Qaboos University Al-Aqsa University - Gaza Universal Studies Academy University College London-Qatar University of Qatar Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University King Abdulaziz University


Morocco Oman Palestine Palestine Qatar Qatar** Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Sudan Sudan Sudan



Tab.9.1: (continued)


      

        



Degree Programs

Year Founded*

214  Evelyn H. Daniel, Lokman I. Meho, and Barbara B. Moran

University of Bahri

University of Dongola University of Gezira University of Khartoum

University of Khartoum

Tishreen University University of Damascus


Sudan Sudan Sudan**


Syria Syria

University of Aden




Institut Superieur de Documentation de Tunis Computer Information Technology

Arts and Humanities Arts and Humanities


Community Studies and Rural Development Arts and Humanities Education-al-Hasahisa Arts



 



Library Science







   

Degree Programs

Year Founded*

Bibliothéconomie et documenta-  tion LIS 

Library Science LIS

ILS LIS Center for LIS and Documentation LIS



** Denotes programs that ceased. ILS = Information and Library Science; IT = Information Technology(ies); LAS = Library and Archival Science; LIS = Library and Information Science(s)

* Refers to the year the bachelor, master, postgraduate, or doctoral degree program started.

Sana’a University

American University in the Emirates

United Arab Emirates Yemen

Tunisia** Institut de presse et des sciences de l’information Tunisia Université de la Manouba



Tab.9.1: (continued)

9 Education for Library and Information Science in the Arab States 


216  Evelyn H. Daniel, Lokman I. Meho, and Barbara B. Moran

We finished our absorbing and often exhilarating exploration of the development of LIS education in the Arab world with much admiration for what had been accomplished in the less than half century since LIS education became widespread there. Today the LIS programs across the region (and, one might add, around the world) are in a period of evolution as they attempt to change to meet the needs of modern information agencies. Although all of the programs share some similarities, they differ in certain national and regional characteristics. For each of the geographic divisions that we adopted, a brief summary of the current situation is provided below.

Egypt Egypt led the Arab world in the development of LIS education, and as a result of its pioneering role, it influenced the development of LIS in the rest of the Arab world, particularly in its focus on undergraduate education, the placement of the LIS program in the arts and humanities, and admission of students through a competitive national process that ranks school choice by examination outcome. Despite Egypt’s early leadership role in LIS education, at present, the political and economic problems confronting the country have impeded the Egyptian programs from keeping pace with some of the others in the region.

The Maghreb A number of the LIS programs in the Maghreb are well established and the programs in the area are diverse in scope, size, funding, and specializations. These programs display much more heterogeneity than those found in most other parts of the Arab world. For instance, unlike Egypt where all of the programs except one are situated in a College of Arts, the programs in the Maghreb have a variety of institutional homes and two of them, ISD in Tunisia and ESI in Morocco, are institutions that provide LIS education outside the organizational structure of a university. However, the major distinction that sets these programs apart is that, except for those in Libya, all the programs in the Maghreb are still influenced by their French colonial history, and in many ways the systems of higher education in these countries are more like the ones in France than they are like others in the Arab world. This continuing French influence is not surprising. After independence, France continued to provide both monetary and other types of support to the educational institutions in its former colonies.

9 Education for Library and Information Science in the Arab States


France sends one third of all its higher education aid to Northern Africa, and the two largest aid projects supported by the French Development Agency are in Morocco ($171.4 million) and Algeria ($141.5 million) (Bassett & MaldonadoMaldonado, 2009, p. 288) Many of the institutions in these countries have partnerships with French universities, and many faculty members in the LIS programs received their degrees in France. The LIS programs in Algeria, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia use French as a language of instruction. Their programs have been based on the French model of LIS education, and now most of them are transitioning to the LMD degree system to conform to the Bologna process. At present, Algeria, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia are all partner countries in the EU’s Tempus and Erasmus educational initiatives7; these partnerships also promote closer relationships and international cooperation (Croché & Charlier, 2012; Johnson, 2013). It is impossible to predict how this cross-Mediterranean alliance will progress, but indications are that interest is strong on both sides. Ironically, its colonial past has made it easier for the LIS programs in the Maghreb to overcome isolation and participate in the broader world of international LIS education.

The Gulf States and Yemen The Gulf Region countries clearly show growth and positive change in LIS education. Higher education is well-supported and there is hospitality to experimentation with a variety of extra-government institutions although one might remember earlier efforts to change conservative education practices that led to parallel education systems: one religious and classic and one secular and scientific (Cook, 1999). It would be a missed opportunity if parallel education tracks evolve again whereby one system is private, technical, expensive and focused on global issues, and the other system is government-supported, inexpensive and focused on more traditional and historic values. Although the authors found evidence of some inter-relationships among the schools in the region, Al-Suqri charges that there has been little collaboration among the LIS departments in the GCC region which he sees as a serious weakness for sustainability and long-term survival. He finds evidence of significant shortcomings in the schools in terms of technological

7 See European Commission Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA) for a further discussion of these programs –

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resources, expertise and facilities along with high drop-out rates of students. One barrier to effective collaboration that he identifies is the relatively weak IT infrastructure; another is the lack of government involvement and support for collaboration. He suggests that the regional chapter of the Special Libraries Association could act as a vehicle for the development of collaborative activities and mechanisms in the Gulf region (Al-Suqri, 2010).

Iraq The LIS programs in Iraq are still suffering the after-effects of over thirty years of war and civil unrest. The conflicts continue. In late July 2014, it was reported that the Department of Librarianship and Information Studies at the University of Mosul had been closed as a result of actions taken by terrorists in the area. Peace and stability must return to Iraq before the LIS programs will be able to progress and make up for the decades when they have been relatively isolated from the progress in LIS education that has occurred in most of the other programs in the area.

The Levant As echoed by Younis (2013), LIS programs in the Levant suffer from the fact that they are not up-to-date with their course offerings and content, and are lacking in areas related to information, computer, and communication technologies. The programs not only focus significantly on traditional practices (e.g., technical services), but they do so with little hands-on practice or training. Furthermore, most departments lack the necessary laboratories, computing equipment, and information technology infrastructure that would better prepare the students for the labor market. While internships are part of the requirements for graduation in many of the LIS programs in the Levant, most institutions that offer LIS degrees lack the library resources (from books to journals and databases) necessary to teach effectively. Moreover, many of the students who study LIS do so not because of their interest in the field but as a result of government policies that force students with certain high school GPAs (usually low scores) to enroll in LIS programs if they wish to attend college at all. Most students enroll in and graduate from these programs still lacking foreign language skills and the necessary computing skills to increase their chances of employment. Finally, LIS programs in the Levant suffer from the fact that many of their faculty members are graduates of other Arab LIS programs, and many do not hold doctoral degrees.

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This is not to mention the internal conflicts and wars in nearly the entire Levant region that must be taking a significant toll on the progress and development of these programs.

Northeast Africa and the Comoros There are no LIS programs in the Comoros, Djibouti, or Somalia. As for the Sudan, the programs there suffer from shortage of qualified staff, poor resources and facilities, and poor state of development of the national information infrastructure. As is true for several of the other Arab countries, many of the students in the Sudan enroll in LIS programs in the country because it is the only field for which they are eligible and many of the graduates do not find jobs after graduation because of the large number of graduates, the small number of libraries that can absorb them, and the difficulty of the graduates in finding non-library jobs because the programs did not prepare them for such jobs (Ahmad & Muhammad Ali, 2013; ‘Alim, 2013; Amin, 2013; ‘Uthman & Hasan, 2013). With respect to the last point, the LIS graduates are in constant competition for jobs with graduates of computer science, business administration, and journalism programs (Ahmad & Muhammad Ali, 2013).

Conclusions From our look at the individual countries and regions, it is clear that the LIS programs in the Arab states have made many advances in the last fifty years but, like LIS programs across the world, will need to continue to change to face the challenges of the new information world. Many of the writers we consulted (e.g., Abdel-Hady, Al-Suqri, Bouazza, Elayyan, Gdoura, Muhyiddin, Rehman, Sanabani, and Younis) provide often-overlapping recommendations for the future growth and prosperity of the Arab LIS programs. We heartily endorse these recommendations. These include curriculum revision to include more information science content; enhanced communication among students and faculty and practitioners through stronger professional associations; improved information technology infrastructure connecting libraries and information centers and LIS schools; stronger research programs and a more professional orientation for the programs; modern teaching methods; and attention to national information and records management policies; and, we would add, keeping up to date on the fast-changing information technology.

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This conclusion will summarize the strengths and weaknesses we found in the programs. Some programs are encountering great challenges, but we also found great promise in our overview of LIS education in the Arab world. One indicator of a healthy education sector is the opening of new programs. We count 20 active new programs since the turn of the century. Another is the successful graduation of large numbers of individuals, which appears to be the case, despite the fact that there is some question about how, or if, these graduates are being absorbed into the workforce. Many female graduates, who constitute the largest number of LIS students, end up staying at home after marriage. In other cases, the available number of graduates for library/information jobs may be less than the numbers suggest. In addition, there may be a mismatch between the knowledge and skills acquired in the educational program and those demanded in the workplace. We found substantial growth in the number and vitality of LIS programs in two regions: the Maghreb and the Gulf States. In the latter case, many of the countries in the Gulf region have made it a deliberate policy to invest in higher education and infrastructure. New universities both public and private, research centers, alternative institutions for delivering education, and more public libraries are opening.8 It is also clear that the curricular content of many programs is transitioning to a broader information-based, more professional orientation so that graduates are qualified to work not only in libraries but also in other information-intensive organizations, like banks, cultural institutions, mass media and large companies, particularly international corporations. The LIS programs we examined are still mainly at the undergraduate level, which means the LIS content is minimal as it must compete for a place in the curriculum with general knowledge and other content (often mandated). Undergraduate programs can be valuable if the content concentrates on technologically sophisticated skills,9 although the programs we examined seem to concentrate on technical skills for libraries of bygone days. Still, in most countries, graduate LIS programs exist and one might cautiously project a trend in the graduate direction where resources permit and where conflict and political unrest do not prevent forward movement. Although in some countries admission to an LIS graduate degree program requires a bachelor’s degree in that subject,

8 The number of universities active in the Arab region as of 2009 was 398 compared to 174 in 1998 (UNESCO, 2009). 9 There has been an upsurge in information science programs at the bachelor’s level in the United States.

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this does not appear to be a major pattern today. Today, the typical requirement to enter a Master’s in LIS is a BA degree in any field. As Johnson pointed out that “the last 20 years … have been turbulent times for [LIS education] throughout the world” (Johnson, 2013, p. 64). Technological and social changes in professional practice have put pressure for change on the curriculum, the resources requirements and the ways instruction is delivered. Higher education throughout the world has been undergoing a period of rapid expansion and change driven by neoliberal ideas of education that downplay nationalism and highlight the centrality of the private sector, the primacy of the job market in dictating what will be taught, and give great emphasis to accountability, testing and assessment (Miller-Idriss & Hanauer, 2011). Some theorists posit a growing convergence of educational systems gradually moving to a single uniform modern system (Anderson-Levitt, 2003), and certainly the LIS field, like most professional fields, has always emphasized a universal and inclusive approach. From the earliest times, libraries have sought standardization as an effective and efficient way of encouraging the free flow of information, whether in books, data sets, or in human expertise. Standardizing measures permeate LIS education through associations of practitioners and educators, professional publications, and published standards and guidelines for accreditation or certification. In the English-speaking world accrediting bodies like ALA (U.S.A. and Canada) or CILIP (U.K.) have had a powerful effect on upgrading faculty and facilities, revising curricula, and responding to the needs of the job market in order to place graduates in needed positions. More global efforts toward standardization include IFLA and UNESCO activities and the Bologna Process for the European Union. A pan-European association of LIS education and research, called EUCLID, was established as part of the Bologna Process in order to encourage comparable degrees, a standard system of credits, curricular guidance, student mobility (with attention to language skills), quality assurance and comparable student assessment schemes (Johnson, 2013). IFLA has promulgated a standard for LIS educational programs now in a second edition (Smith, Hallam & Ghosh, 2012). Despite these international efforts a continuing lack of information about the overall characteristics of the Arab region’s higher education institutions continues to make it difficult to make comparisons or to see progress. One promising project is attempting to develop a standardized system of classifying institutions of higher education in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) (Bhandari & Adnan El-Amine, 2012). The ministers of 57 Islamic states have called for the institutions of higher education in their countries to develop reliable and transparent indicators for measuring their performance in order to

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facilitate innovation and to enhance quality measures for successful international competition (Sawahel, 2011). Critics of an international system of measurement suggest that what is measured should reflect the values and objectives of the society. Academics in the developing world have long argued that education should be evaluated by its effect on the entire nation, for example in fostering a sense of cohesion based on pride in the country’s history and culture. Before Arab universities can start measuring success, the critics suggest they need to decide what it is they want to measure (Guttenplan & Wheeler, 2014). The lack of clear agreed-on success criteria for higher education has had an impact on the status of libraries. In a recent two part study of experts in the field, Sanabani and ‘Alaywi (2010a and 2010b) focused on reasons for the decline of the status of the library profession in the Arab world. Although many of the causes of this decline echo the problems reported by Johnson and others, one might argue that the status of the library profession in the Arab world was never high for socio-cultural reasons including the lack of a widely educated populace and a culture of reading. Add to this the protectiveness by some scholars of their knowledge sources, and the result is that active library programs are not high priority items. Attention at the national level to clarifying goals, revising educational programs, and reforming higher education should stimulate change toward a more hospitable culture that should enhance the status of the profession through a clearer understanding of the value of modern library services. Gdoura, in describing the characteristics of the North African library network, points out that many of the libraries and information centers have provided outstanding documentary services despite the lack of coordination and documentary policy (Gdoura, 2008). Although statistics are lacking, large libraries have begun to develop database management systems, digital libraries and online catalogs. Gdoura reiterates the problem of status described above and groups the difficulties of libraries and information science into economic, technical, managerial, and social issues. For the latter he identifies resistance to reading and “a worrying level of illiteracy” (p. 171). Further, he describes the political climate as “not favorable to freedom of expression and freedom of association and exchange” (p. 174), central concerns of libraries and LIS educational programs. Despite these problems Gdoura identifies research opportunities for LIS faculty at the Universities of Cairo, Alexandria, and Constantine. He cites six Arab associations that sponsor colloquia, seminars and public proceedings. He finds 11 specialized LIS periodicals in the North African region which publish research results despite problems of irregular publication and weak editorial policy and expertise. Gdoura’s analysis of the published research of these journals demonstrates a strong emphasis on practical and empirical aspects and little emphasis on theoretical and methodological issues. He suggests ways to

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stimulate theoretical research in information science through the creation of a bibliographic database, open archives, and publication of an Arab encyclopedia of information science. His summary and suggestions provide evidence of a healthy vitality in the Maghreb region clustered around the growth of information science education and research often in institutions outside the university system. As we did our research, we faced difficulties in finding information, but were fortunate in finding some excellent articles describing LIS programs in particular areas. One of the authors of this chapter is fluent in Arabic, and located and translated a substantial amount of material published in Arabic plus identified URLs for most of the programs on our list. The URLs, on the whole, however, lead to extremely limited websites, often with only cursory information. A recent World Bank report (2012) states that Arabic digital content amounts to just 0.162% of the total digital content available online; and the number of websites hosted in the Middle East and North Africa region amounts to only 0.198% of the global total (Gelvanovska, Rogy & Rossotto, 2014, p. 22). Although we found websites for most of the LIS programs, the information provided even in Arabic is often severely limited. Perhaps one project for the Arab LIS programs would be to take a leadership role in sharing information about their accomplishments by developing their websites to demonstrate how these tools can be effective vehicles for communication and promotion. More easily available information would be a step toward harmonizing the various programs to permit easier movement of LIS professionals across countries. It would also make collecting the kind of information required by an accreditation or certification program or other method of quality control easier. In 2004, Hafiz examined the content of websites of LIS departments in the Arab world and compared them to those in Canada and the United States. He found at that time that websites of many universities in the Arab countries were nonexistent or under construction, and that those universities which did have websites for individual colleges only included a listing but no website for the departments within the Colleges. Some LIS departments had websites, but these were often limited to contact information with only a few words about the program and its missions and goals. In many cases the websites were largely inactive, and did not include current information (Hafiz, 2004). His conclusion was that none of the LIS departments’ websites could be considered interactive, informative and up-to-date. He included recommendations and justifications for developing workable websites. Much can happen in a few years in the technology area but, even twelve years later, we might echo many of Hafiz’ findings. Involving students in the improvement of websites as an educational project might be one way to showcase their skills in web design and development and

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increase their job opportunities. Incorporating these skills into the curriculum could enable each school to create an information-rich web presence providing details about the faculty and their research, the strategic direction of the program, the achievements of and placement information about the graduates, affiliations with associations and other organizations. An informative website might act as an example to other higher education units. Of course, curricular emphasis in this area presupposes access to the necessary technical resources and expertise. These are not often found in abundance in Colleges of Arts and Humanities but are often more widely available in science and technology faculties. It appears that many schools are aware of this problem and are attempting to redress it by seeking different organizational alignments. We support this nascent trend. The institutional home where most of the programs are housed is often a barrier to progress. Most LIS programs in the Arab world are departments in a College of Arts and/or Humanities. While we do not share the devaluing of the humanities that seems to be a part of the “education for jobs” [and only jobs] movement, we do wonder if the placement of these programs contributes to their low status. For example, current curricula for Bachelor of Science in Information Science (BSIS) degrees often includes mathematics, analytical skills, systems design, database design/implementation, and evidence-based evaluation, i.e. coursework that is not often found in arts and humanities programs. Professional programs typically draw from disciplines across the humanities, science and social sciences, and are not wholly at home in any one discipline. Historically library science programs were closer to the humanities, but in the last forty years they have found greater compatibility in the social sciences because of the increased focus in the LIS field on understanding the user population using tools and concepts from psychology and sociology combined with a strong empirical/experiential research tradition which also uses methodologies developed in the social sciences. It is difficult to modernize a curriculum and attract research faculty if the program is not in a hospitable environment. Modern LIS programs train information professionals to go out into the community to analyze citizen needs and to work collaboratively with other community groups to respond to those needs and to strengthen community organizations. These programs use the tools of literature and reading, storytelling, collective memory and community gatherings and they encourage the development of outreach and leadership skills. There is an emphasis on capacity-building, preserving local heritage, rejecting stereotypes, and embracing a multi-cultural approach. These activities build social capital and strengthen local identity. These activities would also seem compatible with the Arab emphasis on humanistic and holistic education.

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Worldwide communities are discussing the issue of how to increase social capital and strengthen regional identity, often accomplished though cultural institutions like libraries, archives, and museums. In the Arab regional conference on higher education held in Cairo in 2009 a core issue was social responsibility in higher education and several papers addressed problems that universities face in assuming this responsibility (UNESCO Regional Bureau for Education in the Arab States, 2009). Some of these papers discuss disputes arising from the disparity between the culture acquired in the university and traditional social values; others spoke to the weak civic and political orientations of university students and their lack of organizing skills. Still others concentrated on how universities can exit their closed environments and become more involved in community affairs. Higher education programs that train social professions, such as teachers, historians, linguists, philosophers, sociologists, psychologists, and librarians are important for strengthening an intellectual and growth culture. Rebalancing the flow of resources in a more equitable manner, while still privileging science and technology, is called for in the report. Based on the evidence we examined in preparing this chapter, it appears that one of the greatest needs for the LIS programs in the Arab world is to work more closely with one another to increase the quality of LIS education across the region. In 1994 Johnson reported on a meeting in Morocco of representatives from LIS programs in the Arab speaking world. One of the topics discussed was the poor communication among the programs in the area, and one of the outcomes was an agreement to establish an Arab Association of Library and Information Science Education (Johnson, 1994). As far as we can tell, such an organization was never established, although we recognize the Arab Federation of Libraries and Information (AFLI) as a potential parent or affiliate organization. Having a regional organization, similar to the European Association for Library and Information Education and Research (EUCLID) or the Association for Library and Information Science Education (ALISE), would provide many benefits. A panArab LIS association could be a mechanism for sharing information and resources relating to LIS education among the region’s programs, all of which share linguistic and cultural similarities. Such an association could be a way to address many of the weaknesses we saw in the programs. It could strengthen Arab LIS education by serving as a proponent and advocate for the field, and thus give it a stronger public voice in shaping its future. It might provide a way for some of the stronger programs to help those which have fewer resources by sponsoring faculty and student exchanges and joint research projects. In addition, such an organization would be a strong candidate to maintain a current, up-to-date directory of Arab world LIS schools. Ultimately this proposed association might serve as a body to

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promote and coordinate accreditation efforts for the programs in the region. Rehman (2012) investigated the possibility of a regional accreditation agency for the LIS programs located in the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) nations. Although he reported that all the programs in the Gulf are engaged in some sort of evaluation process, none are presently accredited, although he states that “there is a general consciousness about the need for instituting accreditation programmes to ensure quality in LIS education in this region” (p. 66–67). Worldwide, there is a growing interest in methods of quality assurance in LIS programs and, with the caveat mentioned above about beginning with consensus on desirable attributes, some sort of regional accreditation would be a great step forward in having the programs in the Arab world recognized for their achievements and welcomed as part of the global LIS community. In conclusion, we have tried to provide a balanced overview of LIS education in the Arab states in the context of developments in higher education in the region. Not surprisingly, we found it impossible to provide the same level of information about each country because the amount of published material about the programs is uneven. For example, a great deal of information is available about new developments in LIS education in the Gulf States and in some of the countries of the Maghreb, but very little could be found about LIS education in several other Arab countries. We hope this chapter contributes forward progress toward what needs to be done to provide current and accurate information about LIS education in Arab world. We encourage others to build upon what we have done (as we built on others). We plan to put the list of LIS programs on the web and make it freely available so that it can be updated as programs change. Acknowledgements: The authors wish to thank the people who read and provided information on the current state of LIS education in the Arab states. Any mistakes or omissions in the chapter are solely the fault of the authors.

References There are different approaches to the Romanization of Arab names thus occasionally the same author may be cited in two different ways in this list of references because we used names as they were listed on the books and articles we consulted in preparing the chapter. When needed, we used the Library of Congress system of transliterating names from Arabic.

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‘Abd al-Rahim, M. (2014). ‫ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ‬:‫ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬. [Labs in Library and Information Science Departments in Egypt: A Field Study.] ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺗﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ [Modern Trends in Libraries and Information], 21(41), 237–258. In Arabic. Abdel-Hadi, M. F., and Bouazza, A. (1994). A survey of education for library and information science in Egypt, the Maghreb countries and sudan. In M. Wise and A. Olden (Eds.), Information and libraries in the Arab world (pp. 26–40). London: Library Association Publishing. Abdel-Hady, M. F., and Shaker, A. K. (2006). Cataloging and classification study in Egypt: Stressing the fundamentals while moving toward automated applications. Cataloging and Classification Quarterly, 41(3/4), 407–429. Abdel Karim, B. M. (1985). Higher education libraries in sudan: An overview. African Journal of Academic Librarianship, 3(2), 73–77. Ahmad, D. M. A., and Najwa, M. A., Muhammad Ali. (2013). ‫ﻣﺨﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﺗﺤﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﺳﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬. [Library and Information Science Graduates in Higher Education Institutions in the Sudan and the Job Market Challenges.] 2013 ‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬،‫ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻭﻥ ﻹﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬, [Proceedings of the 24th Conference of Arab Federation for Libraries and Information. Madinah, Saudi Arabia, 2013]. http://Arab-Afli.Org/Shared/Emad/Afli24/Session_8/AFLI24_Nagwa_2013.Pdf (Accessed June 1, 2014). In Arabic. Al-Kindilchie, A. I. (1977). Libraries in Iraq and Egypt: A comparative study. International Library Review, 9, 113–123. Al-Kindilchie, A. I. (1994). Libraries in Iraq: A short report. In M. Wise and A. Olden (Eds.), Information and libraries in the Arab world (pp. 96–103). London: Library Association Publishing. Al-Suqri, M. N. (2010). Collaboration in library and information science education in the Gulf Co-Operation Council (GCCD): Current status, challenges and future trends. Emporia State Research Studies, 46(2), 48–53. Alian, R. M. (1994). Library science programmes in the State of Bahrain. In M. Wise and A. Olden (Eds.), Information and libraries in the Arab world (pp. 68–80). London: Library Association Publishing. —— (2002). ‫ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﻲ‬. [The Jordan Experience in Teaching Library and Information Science at the College Level: Current Status and Problems.] ‫[ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬Arab Review for Information Science], 94–118. In Arabic. ‘Alim, ‘Imad ‘Abd al-. (1995). ‫ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﺸﺮﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ‬:‫ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‬. [Teaching Library Science in Syria: The Experience of Damascus University Over Ten Years.] ‫ﺍﻹﺗﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬ ‫[ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬Modern Trends in Libraries and Information], 2(3), 267–274. In Arabic. ‘Alim, W. A. I. (2013). ‫ﺗﺨﺼﺺ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻧﻴﺔ‬. [Information Science Specialization in Library and Information Science Departments in the Sudanese Universities.] 2013 ,‫ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬،‫ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬.‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻭﻥ ﻹﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ [Proceedings of the 24th Conference of Arab Federation for Libraries and Information. Madinah, Saudi Arabia, 2013]. wesal_2013.pdf (Accessed June 1, 2014). In Arabic. Alqudsi-Ghabra, T., and aI-Ansari, H. (1998). Education for library and information science at Kuwait University. Education for Information, 16(2), 145–152. Alsereihy, H. A. (1998). The status of LIS education in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 39(4), 334–338.

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Mousawi, A. (2013, September 8). Interview by Jacki Lyden. After Years of War, Rebuilding Iraq’s Libraries NPR. Muhanna, ‘Abd al-Majid. (2011). ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻫﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺩﻳﻤﻲ ﻷﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ‬. [Academic Qualifying of Library and Information Specialists in the Twenty-First Century.] ‫[ ﻣﺠﻠﺔ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‬Damascus University Journal], 27(3–4), 761–780. In Arabic. Muhyiddin, H. (2004). ‫ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ‬:‫ﺗﺨﺼﺺ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬. [Information Science Specialization in Lebanon: A Comparative Study Among Universities.] ‫ﺍﻹﺗﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫[ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬Modern Trends in Libraries and Information], 11(21), 175–190. In Arabic. Randi, Bashayir Sa’ud al-. (2013). ‫ﻧﺸﺄﺓ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺃﺧﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬. [The Origins and Development of Library and Information Science Education in Kuwait.] ‫[ ﺍﻹﺗﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬Modern Trends in Libraries and Information], 20(40), 197–209. In Arabic. Rashdan, Abdul-Fattah Ali al-. (2009). Higher education in the Arab world: Hopes and challenges. In New chapter of political Islam. World Security Institute. Rehman, Sajjad Ur. (2012). Accreditation of Library and Information Science Programmes in the Gulf Cooperation Council Nations. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 44(1), 65–72. —— (2008). Analyzing corporate job market for developing information and knowledge professionals; the case of a developing nation. Malaysian Journal of Library and Information Science, 13(1), 45–58. —— (2009). LIS education. In I. Abdullahi (Ed.), Global library and information science education (pp. 474–489). Munich, Germany: K.G. Saur. —— (2000). Preparing the information professional; an agenda for the future. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. —— (2008). Quality assurance and LIS education in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. New Library World, 109(7/8), 366–382. Rehman, S. U., and Sumait, H. (2010). KM modules: An analysis of coursework. Journal of Information and Knowledge Management, 9(4), 277–385. Rehman, S. U., al-Ansari, H., and Yousef, N. (2002a). Coverage of competencies in the curriculum of information studies: An international perspective. Education for Information, 20, 199–215. —— (2002b). A survey of the schools of library and information science in the GCC member nations. Education for Information, 20, 11–25. Romani, V. (2009). The politics of higher education in the Middle East: Problems and prospects. Middle East Brief, (36), 1–7. Sanabani, M. A., and ‘Awdah ‘Alaywi, M. (2010a). ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺇﺗﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ‬:‫ﻣﻬﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ‬ 1 ‫ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬:‫[ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‬Library Profession: Challenges and Future Trends in the Arab World: Prospective Study 1]. Cybrarians Journal, (24)., (accessed June 1, 2014). In Arabic. —— (2010b). 2 ‫ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬:‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺗﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‬:‫ﻣﻬﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ‬. [Library Profession: Challenges and Future Trends in the Arab World: Prospective Study 2] Cybrarians Journal, (22)., (accessed June 1, 2014). In Arabic. Sawahel, W. (2011, July). Plan to Measure University Standards. University World News, 180. Semra, H. (1994). Education and training of librarians in the Maghreb (Algeria, Morocoo, Tunisia). In M. Olden and A. Wise (Eds.), Information and libraries in the Arab world (pp. 41–54). London: Library Association Publishing.

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Sharif, A. (1981). The development of professional library education in the Arab countries. International Library Review, 13, 87–101. Sharify, N. (1963). United Arab Republic (Egypt), Iran, Iraq, Lebanon and Syria. Library Trends, 227–259. Shepherd, M. (2013, July 19). Somalia’s National Library Rises Amid the Ruins. Toronto Star. the_ruins.html (Accessed June 18, 2014). Sidhum, K. (2014). :‫ﺃﺳﺎﺗﺬﺓ ﺗﺨﺼﺺ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻣﻬﻨﻲ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻴﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ‬. [Library and Information Science Faculty in Algerian Universities between Professional Reality and Technological Future: Field Study of All Departments and Sections.] Cybrarians Journal, (34)., (accessed June 1, 2014). In Arabic. Sleem, Naifa al-, and al-Suqri, M. N. (2012). :‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﺑﻮﺱ‬. [The New Role of Departments of Library and Information Science in Changeable Technological Environment: A Case Study of the Department of Information Studies, Sultan Qaboos University.] ‫ﻣﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ [Arab Journal of Library and Information Science], 32(4), 5–50. In Arabic. Smith, K., Hallam, G., and Ghosh, S. B. on behalf of IFLA’s Education and Training Section. (2012). Guidelines for Professional Library/Information Educational Programs – 2012. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA). Note: A translation of these guidelines is available in Arabic – ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻬﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ Spurr, J. (2005, August 10). Indispensable yet vulnerable: The library in dangerous times. A report on the status of Iraqi academic libraries and a survey of efforts to assist them, with historical introduction. Middle Eastern Librarians Association. oi/iraq/mela/indispensable.html#TRAININ (Accessed April 30, 2014). Times Higher Education. (2014). World University Rankings 2013–2014. http://www.timeshigher–400 (Accessed June 24, 2014). UCL Qatar. (2014a). Library and information studies (UCL Qatar) MA. London: University College. —— (2014b). Library and information studies MA. grammes/library-and-information-studies (Accessed May 21, 2014). ‘Udah, ‘Abd al-Rahman bin Mahmud al-, and Khalid bin Sulayman Ma’tuq. (2011). ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬:‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‬. [Trends in Library and Information Science Departments at Universities in the Arabian Gulf Countries: An Analytical Study.] ‫[ ﻣﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬Arab Journal of Library and Information Science], 31(1), 37–50. In Arabic. UN Development Program. (2014). Arab statistics. 2014. (Accessed April 4, 2014). UNESCO. (2010). Towards an Arab higher education space: International challenges and societal responsibilities. Cairo, 17–18. UNESCO. Regional Bureau for Education in the Arab States. (2009). A decade of higher education in the Arab states: Achievements and challenges. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Regional Bureau for Arab States. (2002). The Arab Human Development Report 2002; Creating Opportunities for Future Generations. New York: United Nations Publications.

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‘Uthman, A. H. al-Sadig and Hasan, U. J. (2013). ‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺨﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ‬. [The Compatibility between the Education Output of Library and Information Science and the Job Market Requirements.] ‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻭﻥ ﻟﻼﺗﺤﺎﺩ‬ 2013 .‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬. [Proceedings of the 24th Conference of Arab Federation for Libraries and Information. 2013.] afli24_ahlam_2013.pdf, (Accessed June 1, 2014). In Arabic. Wesley, C. (1994). Library and information services in the Sudan. In M. Wise and A. Olden (Eds.), Information and libraries in the Arab world (pp. 181–189). London: Library Association Publishing. World Bank. (2016). World DataBank. (Accessed March 25, 2016). World Economic Forum. (2003). The Arab world competitiveness report 2002–2003. New York: Oxford University Press. Younis, A. R. M. (2002). Standards for library education in private universities in Jordan. International Information and Library Review, 34, 369–394. —— (2013). ‫ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬:(‫ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ )ﻓﻲ ﺑﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ‬. [Library and Information Science Curricula in Arab Universities (The Levant): A Comparative Analysis.] 2013 ,‫ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻮﺭﺓ‬. ‫ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻭﻥ ﻟﻼﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ [Proceedings of the 24th Conference of Arab Federation for Libraries and Information. Madinah, Saudi Arabia, 2013.] AbdulRazeq%20YOUNIS_2013.pdf. (Accessed April 4, 2014). In Arabic. Zahra, F. (2013). La Formation en Bibliothéconomie en Algérie. 5èmes Journées d’étude sur les Bibliothèques Universitaires Algériennes 29–30 Mai 2013 CERIST, Alger, Algerie. Zakharia, S. (2005). Confronting the challenges: Liberalization and reform in Bahrain. In The Arab world competitiveness report (pp. 112–127). New York: Oxford University Press. Zayed University. (2013). Feasibility study: The development of graduate programs in information management at Zayed University, UAE. Zubaydi, M. ‘Abd al-Hasan al-. (2001). ‫[ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ‬Library and Information Science Departments in Iraqi Universities.] ‫[ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬Arab Review for Information Science], 22(2), 25–46. In Arabic.

Received: 29th June 2014 Final version received: 29th September 2014 Accepted: 28th October 2014

Amanda B. Click, Josiah Drewry, and Mahmoud Khalifa

10 Library and Information Science Research in the Arab World: A Systematic Review 2004–2013 Introduction The field of library and information science (LIS) has a long and impressive history in the Arab world. However, the literature about LIS in the region – particularly literature published in English – is sparse and has become dated (e.g., Meho & Nsouli, 1999; Wise & Olden, 1994). Once-useful resources are now decades old, and it can be challenging for a researcher to develop an up-to-date understanding of the LIS field in the Arab world. New LIS research is particularly valuable now, because the region has experienced such political and social upheaval in recent years. Surveying published research can help LIS researchers and practitioners understand how the field has developed over the last decade and how recent uprisings have affected libraries, librarians, and other information professionals in the Arab world. This study utilizes a systematic review of the literature to paint a picture of the LIS field in the Arab world by highlighting the research being conducted in and about the region. As Booth & Brice (2004) note, this method allows a researcher to “keep up-to-date, [and] define the boundaries of what is known and what is not known” (p. 111). This study presented here examined the LIS literature from 2004 through 2013 in order to identify research both about the Arab world and conducted by researchers from the region, and to determine which issues these scholars study and with whom they collaborate. In addition, the study was designed to identify the ways that this published research reflects recent political and social changes. Top English-language LIS journals, internationally focused English-language journals, and journals published in the Arab world (in both English and Arabic) were all included in the systematic review. Defining the region, which is sometimes called the Middle East, MENA (Middle East and North Africa), or the Arab world can be complicated. For the purpose of this study, all 22 members of the Arab League were included: Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen. Although Syria was suspended from the Arab League in 2011, we chose to include it in the systematic

236  Amanda B. Click, Josiah Drewry, and Mahmoud Khalifa

review. Appropriate terminology for the political and social change in the region since 2010 is also difficult to determine. Here, we use the phrase ‘Arab Spring’ to refer to the revolutionary events of late 2010 through today, and “Arab world” as shorthand for the countries in the Arab League. Some form of Arabic is the prevalent language of most of these countries, and Islam is the dominant religion. Despite what they have in common, the countries in the Arab League are spread across two continents and thousands of miles, and encompass a variety of distinct cultures. These countries also vary widely in their political structures and their level of economic development, and, naturally, their production of published research. This study was designed to answer the following questions: – What are LIS researchers in the Arab world studying? Are LIS researchers outside of the Arab world studying issues in the region? – Do these researchers collaborate with scholars in the region and/or the rest of the world? – Are they addressing the recent political and social upheaval in the region through their research?

Literature Review The literature indicates that LIS research conducted in the Arab world is not often published in English-language journals outside of the region. Gdoura (2008) provided a detailed description of LIS research in North Africa, but the geographical scope of his work was limited to Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia. As recently as 2012, Al-Aufi and Lor analyzed the intellectual and social organization of LIS in the Arab world by examining Arabic LIS journals, educational institutions, professional societies, and scholarly communication channels. Zakaria’s (2014) study of the scholarly productivity of Arab LIS practitioners is of particular interest. He looked at each issue of eight Arabiclanguage LIS journals, between the years of 1981 and 2010, and found that 12.9% of the articles were authored by professional librarians. Ninety percent of the articles were written by a single author, and 117 of 197 were written by authors affiliated with Egyptian institutions. Similar studies have been conducted and the results published in Arabiclanguage journals by scholars in the region (Abdul-Hadi, 2001; Al-Amoodi & Jawhari, 2009). Abdul-Hadi (2001) expressed a concern that LIS researchers in the western world contribute to the field at a higher level than researchers in the Arab world, and cites a lack of institutional and financial support for research as a major obstacle. Al-Amoodi & Jawhari (2009) looked at the use of research

10 Library and Information Science Research in the Arab World


methods in the LIS literature, and found that 37% of the studies they included did not indicate use of a specific method. Mahmood (2005) explored research topics in the Egyptian LIS literature, and found that the most common topics fell under the categories of ‘information services’ and ‘information storage and retrieval.’ Some of the related literature focuses on intellectual output. Significant changes in the intellectual climate have taken place recently across the region, pre-dating the December 2010 events in Tunisia that sparked the ‘Arab Spring.’ For instance, in a review of core LIS journals between 1980 and 1999, Uzun (2002) found that the number of articles written by authors from Saudi Arabia and Kuwait increased considerably. More recently, according to the Global Research Report: Middle East, the Arabian, Persian and Turkish Middle East has increased its “share of world [research] output from less than 2% to more than 4% in the last decade” (Adams, King, Pendlebury, Hook & Wilsdon, 2011, p. 5), which exceeds growth seen in Latin America and Asia. Meanwhile, however, the research output of the African continent between 1999 and 2008 was 27,000 papers per year, which is “about the same volume of published output as The Netherlands” (Adams, King & Hook, 2010, p. 5).

Method The systematic review is not a method that is commonly used in LIS research, although it does appear in the literature upon occasion. In an effort to track and promote the use of the method, Koufogiannakis (2012) created a list of all known published LIS research that uses systematic review ( The majority of the studies cited here come from health science librarianship. For example, Cooper & Crum (2013) used systematic review to track the changing roles of health sciences librarians, Brettle (2003) to evaluate information skills training in health libraries, and Beverley, Bath & Booth (2004) to study the health information needs of the visually impaired. Outside of health science librarianship, systematic review has been used to compare computer-assisted and face-to-face library instruction (Zhang, Watson & Banfield, 2007), explore the best ways to teach information literacy skills to undergraduates (Koufogiannakis & Wiebe, 2006), and study graduate students’ information seeking behaviors (Catalano, 2013). This method was a good fit for our study because the main goal is to paint a broad picture of the LIS research in the Arab world. The systematic review “provides an overview of a particular field or issue by bringing together information from the literature relating to it,” and should include “what question(s) the review was trying to answer;

238  Amanda B. Click, Josiah Drewry, and Mahmoud Khalifa

the criteria used to decide which literature to include; how the search for the literature was carried out; the criteria used to judge the quality of the literature; and the outcomes and how they relate to the question(s)” (Harris & White, 2013, n.p.). In conducting this study, we used the steps of a systematic review as defined by Kelly & Sugimoto (2013): 1. Identify sources from which studies would be selected. 2. Develop and evaluate inclusion and exclusion criteria to guide the selection of articles from these sources. 3. Validate manual search and selection processes. 4. Develop a coding scheme for analyzing articles. 5. Apply coding scheme to articles (p. 750).

Identify Sources Three sets of LIS journals were selected for this study: top-rated journals, journals with an international focus, and journals published in the Arab world. The systematic review only included journals in the top and international journal categories that were published throughout the entire time range, 2004 to 2013. Some of the Arab journals were not published continuously throughout the decade. In 1985, Kohl and Davis published a study in which directors of Association of Research Library libraries and LIS graduate school deans ranked journals by prestige. In 2005, Nisonger and Davis replicated this study. A list of most prestigious LIS journals was compiled from their results, and these titles were included in this study. Some journals were removed because they could be considered trade magazines instead of scholarly journals (e.g., American Libraries) or for not being a true journal (e.g., Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, which was an edited volume published once annually). Conference proceedings from the Association for Information Science and Technology (ASIST) and the Association for Information Management (ASLIB) were included, however, because of the timely nature of conference topics. Throughout this chapter, these journals will be referred to as the “top” journals. Unfortunately, no such list exists for internationally-focused or LIS journals published in the Arab world. We identified journals in the international category as those having the words “international,” “global” or “world” in the journal title, subtitle or official description, which were published from 2004 through 2013. Note that Libri appeared on the top-rated list, but was categorized as international as a result of its focus. We will refer to these journals as the “international” journals. We compiled a list of LIS journals published in the Arab world

10 Library and Information Science Research in the Arab World


based on our own familiarity with the field. Once these journals were selected, we solicited feedback from several well-known regional LIS experts in order to finalize the list. These journals will be referred to as the Arab journals. Of course, most of the Arab journals publish almost exclusively in Arabic, but occasionally articles are published in English. All journal titles included in this study can be found in Tab. 10.1. Tab. .: All journal titles included in the systematic review.


2 

Top Journals

International Journals

Arab Journals

Association for Information Science and Technology (ASIST) Proceedings Aslib Proceedings Collection Management

Chinese Librarianship: An International Electronic Journal Cybermetrics Focus on International Library and Information Work IFLA Journal

Arab Libraries and Information Journal ‫ﻣﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ Cybrarians Journal Information Studies Journal ‫ﻣﺠﻠﺔ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬

College and Research Libraries

Government Information Quarterly

International Information and Library Review


Information and Culture

International Journal of Digital Curation

Information Processing and Management

Information Technology and Libraries Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology (JASIST) Journal of Academic Librarianship Journal of Documentation

International Journal of Information Science and Management International Journal of Knowledge Management International Journal of Legal Information


  

Journal of Education for Library and Information Science

Journal of King Fahd National Library ‫ﻣﺠﻠﺔ ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻚ ﻓﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ‬ Journal of the Arab Federation for Libraries and Information ‫ﻣﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ Maghreb Journal of Documentation and Information ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺎﺭﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺛﻴﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ New Trends in Libraries and Information ‫ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬

International Journal on Digital Libraries Journal of Library Metadata LIBRES


240  Amanda B. Click, Josiah Drewry, and Mahmoud Khalifa

Tab. 10.1: (continued) Top Journals

International Journals


Journal of Information Science


Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association Journal of the Medical Library Association

Libri: International Journal of Libraries and Information Services New Library World


16 

     

Library and Information Science Research Library Collections, Acquisitions and Technical Services Library Quarterly Library Resources and Technical Services Library Trends Reference and User Services Quarterly Reference Services Review School Library Research

Arab Journals

New Review of Children’s Literature and Librarianship School Libraries Worldwide

Develop Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria We looked at the titles, abstracts, and author affiliations in order to determine whether or not an article was about an LIS issue in the Arab world or written by an LIS scholar in the region. Because we wanted to find a broader range of contributions to the literature, editorials were included, although book reviews and brief news items were not. Articles about specific countries in the Arab League or about the region as a whole were included. In order for an article to be considered to be written by an LIS scholar in the region, the author had to be affiliated with a university or other institution in the included countries. An author that was a citizen of a country in the Arab world but affiliated with a university outside of the region was not included if he or she was not writing about the Arab world, but any author with a regional affiliation was included, regardless of citizenship or nationality.

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Validate Manual Search Process For each journal title selected, every issue published between January 2004 and December 2013 was examined. The use of keyword queries to identify relevant articles was not feasible in the initial review, for two reasons. First, a huge variety of subjects and geographic terms could fall under the umbrella of research about the Arab world or written by scholars in the region. It would be impossible to conduct exhaustive database searches to get an accurate sense of the literature. Second, searching by affiliation is not possible, because there are so many universities in the region and other types of research institutions. To ensure that we conducted a comprehensive search, instead of relying on keyword searching or sampling, we manually examined each article in each issue of each journal between 2004 and 2013.

Develop and Apply Coding Scheme For each article that met the established criteria, we recorded the author affiliations and country or countries for all authors, not just authors from the Arab world. Articles about countries in the region or the Arab world as a whole but with no regional affiliation were coded as such, and single author articles were noted as well. We were particularly interested in scholarly collaboration, and coded for whether authors worked with others in the same institution, at different institutions in the same country, or with scholars in other parts of the world. Finally, each article was coded with up to four keywords, which were topical and geographical if appropriate. For example, an article called “Developing a Library and Information Science Bachelor’s Degree Program in the United Arab Emirates” was coded with “UAE” and “LIS education.” Often these keywords were taken directly from the author or journal supplied keywords, but sometimes it was necessary to select appropriate keywords.

Results We examined 11,954 articles in the top journals, 3,155 in the international journals, and 769 in the Arab journals, appearing in each issue published between January 2004 and December 2013. Almost all of the articles in the seven Arab journals were related to the region by author affiliation. There were 78 articles in the top journals that were related to the Arab world, either by topic or author

242  Amanda B. Click, Josiah Drewry, and Mahmoud Khalifa

affiliation – only 0.65% of the total number of articles. In the international journals, we identified 91 articles that were related to the Arab world, or 2.89% of the total number of articles. Details about the number of Arab world-related articles can be found in Tab. 10.2 and Fig. 10.1. Tab. .: Number of Arab world-related articles, top and international journals. Top Journals

# of Arab World Articles

International Journals

# of Arab World Articles

Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology (JASIST) Government Information Quarterly Journal of Information Science


International Journal of Knowledge Management




 

International Journal of Legal Information


Information Processing and Management Association for Information Science and Technology (ASIST) Proceedings Aslib Proceedings

International Information and Library Review Libri: International Journal of Libraries and Information Services IFLA Journal


Information and Culture


Journal of Academic Librarianship Journal of Documentation Library and Information Science Research Reference Services Review

International Journal of Information Science and Management Focus on International Library and Information Work New Library World

 



Journal of Education for Library and Information Science Library Resources and Technical Services Library Trends

School Libraries Worldwide International Journal on Digital Libraries Chinese Librarianship: An International Electronic Journal Journal of Library Metadata


Collection Management

International Journal of Digital Curation LIBRES


2 3

4 5

9 10 11




  



10 Library and Information Science Research in the Arab World


Tab.10.2: (continued) Top Journals

# of Arab World Articles


College and Research Libraries


Information Technology and Libraries Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association Journal of the Medical Library Association Library Collections, Acquisitions and Technical Services Library Quarterly Reference and User Services Quarterly School Library Research




19 20

21 22 23

International Journals

# of Arab World Articles 

New Review of Children’s Literature and Librarianship

 

   91





0 2004











Top Journals

Fig. 10.1: Number of Arab world-related articles by year, top and international journals.

244  Amanda B. Click, Josiah Drewry, and Mahmoud Khalifa

Author Affiliation and Collaboration Of the 78 top journal articles, 32 (41%) of these articles were written by authors with no regional affiliation. For example, several articles were published about the fate of libraries and archives during the Iraq war, but the authors were mostly affiliated with universities in the United States. Authors from the Arab world represented 36 different universities and libraries in the region, from the National School of Computer Science in Tunisia to Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. Of the 91 Arab world-related articles in the international journals, only 25 (27%) of authors were not affiliated with an institution in the region. Combining the articles from both top and international journals, the top five countries of affiliation were Jordan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and the United Arab Emirates. Authors from 15 of the 22 Arab League countries (plus Syria) were represented. There were no articles by authors from Algeria, Comoros, Djibouti, Libya, Mauritania, Somalia, Syria, although there was research about some of these countries. See Fig. 10.2 for more information on top and international journal author country affiliations. In the Arab literature, only 3 of the 769 articles were written by an author affiliated with a university outside of the Arab world; these authors were from Norway, Germany and Nigeria. The top countries for author affiliation were Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Tunisia and Jordan. See Fig. 10.3 for more information on Arab journal author country affiliations. 40 34 30



19 15 12 10



6 4







Jo rd an Ku wa it KS A Eg yp t UA E Om Le an ba no Tu n ni si a Qa ta Ba r hr Pa ain le st i M ne or oc co Ye m en Su da n Ira q



Top Journals

Fig. 10.2: Author country affiliations, top and international journals.

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Egypt Saudi Arabia Algeria 56 Tunisia 28 Jordan 21 Oman 17 Libya 14 Iraq 13 Syria 12 Palestine 8 Sudan 8 Kuwait 7 Lebanon 6 Bahrain 5 Yemen 4 Qatar 1 0 50


365 210








Fig. 10.3: Author country affiliations, Arab journals.

Scholarly collaboration was common in the top and international journals. Thirty-six percent of the top journal authors collaborated with a co-author in their own institution, often from the same department but sometimes from another department in the same university. Twenty-one percent of the international journal authors worked with co-authors from the same institution. Thirteen percent of the top journal articles and 9% of the international journal articles showed collaboration between authors at different institutions in the same country. Most often, authors worked with scholars from other universities, and occasionally with co-authors from corporations or government agencies. In the international journals, collaboration with a co-author from a non-Arab country was the most common, representing 24% of the articles. In the top journals, 29% worked with a co-author from outside the region. The most common non-Arab world countries for collaboration were the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, and France. However, the vast majority of articles in the Arab journals were single author works. Only 10% of these articles demonstrated research collaboration by crediting more than one author. Researchers in the region have also identified the prevalence of single authorship in Arab LIS research (Abdul-Hadi, 2001; Mahmood, 2005; Zakaria, 2014).

Research Topics For the top journals, the most common research topics were information retrieval, Arabic language, and e-government. This group of articles did not have many clear themes; research topics tended to be widely varied. Research themes were more obvious in international journal articles, in part because this set of journals included titles devoted to specific subfields of library and information

246  Amanda B. Click, Josiah Drewry, and Mahmoud Khalifa

studies. For example, there were many articles about knowledge management, school libraries, and law librarianship because of the inclusion of journals such as the International Journal of Knowledge Management, School Libraries Worldwide, and The International Journal of Legal Information. Other common topics in the international journals included information behavior, and the LIS field and LIS education. Both the top and international journals included articles about the effects of war on Iraqi libraries and archives. Some research was focused on libraries or populations in specific countries, most commonly Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, and Kuwait. Tab. 10.3 shows the number of articles that demonstrated a research focus on specific countries or regions in the Arab world. The most common topics in the Arab journals were cataloging, digital libraries and repositories, LIS education, open access, and the Internet. Tab. .: Research by geographical location, top and international journals. Geographical Research Kuwait Arab World/MENA/North Africa/ Middle East Iraq Egypt Jordan Saudi Arabia Lebanon Somalia UAE Oman Sudan Palestine Arabian Gulf Morocco Libya Tunisia Syria Qatar Yemen

Top Journals

International Journals


 

 

 

            -

             

                

We expected to find scholars publishing research related to the ‘Arab Spring’ and the political and social change in the region. However, there was little published on this topic in the journals that we reviewed. This is discussed further in the following section. The most common research topics in the top and international journals can be found in Tab. 10.4.

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Tab. .: Most common research topics, top and international journals. Research Topics Information retrieval Arabic language Knowledge management E-government LIS field and education Information seeking Library services (reference, instruction, etc.) War in Iraq Legal information Scholarly communications School librarianship

Top Journals

International Journals


     

      

      

  -

   

   

Discussion One of our basic findings is that the LIS field and education, which includes human resources, recruiting and professional development issues, is important worldwide. Digital libraries and other high-tech functions of libraries were also well represented, especially among the Arab journals. What seems notable, given the scale of the turmoil in the region, is the relative lack of discussion of overtly political topics, especially about the ‘Arab Spring,’ and especially in Arab journals. Issues related to language and collaboration are interesting as well.

Language Because libraries, LIS departments, and faculty in the Arab world tend to use Arabic as the primary language for teaching and research, it may be that scholars in the region do not prioritize publishing their research in English or other foreign language journals (Al-Aufi & Lor, 2012). Certainly we expected to find more research by and about LIS in the Arab world published in Arabic than in English. Recent research suggests this is true; Zakaria (2014), for instance, conducted a similar study with eight peer-reviewed LIS journals in Arabic and found that 56 of the 769 Arab journal articles were written by Algerian scholars. We found no authors affiliated with Algerian institutions in the top and international journals. In addition, some authors in this region prefer to publish in other languages such as French. Some countries in the Arab world, such as

248  Amanda B. Click, Josiah Drewry, and Mahmoud Khalifa

Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia have close collaborative ties with France and still use French as a language of instruction and government. It is striking that a large number of the 169 articles we found in English were written by authors in smaller countries like Jordan and Kuwait, with populations of just 6.3 and 3.3 million, respectively. In contrast, there were no articles in the top or international journals written by researchers from Algeria, a country of 40 million. In the Arab journals, however, larger countries like Egypt, Algeria and Saudi Arabia are much better represented.

Collaboration In his study of intellectual productivity in the Egyptian LIS field, Mahmood (2005) found that only 10% of research was published by co-authors. Although a decade elapsed between their publications, Abdul-Hadi (2001) and Al-Aufi & Lor (2012) both emphasize the prominence of single-authorship in the Arab world. As Al-Aufi & Lor (2012) also note, around 80% of articles in LIS literature in Arabic are published by scholars, and only 20% by practitioners. Research output figures substantially in the careers of professional scholars, and there are rarely incentives to share publishing credit with someone else. On the other hand, it is possible that for some scholars in the Arab world, tenure and promotion are dependent on being published in the top journals or international English-language journals. This will lead some of them to seek out international partners because of their subject expertise, or for assistance in writing in a second or third language, or because of their prestige or experience in scholarly publishing in the targeted journals. There is much to be learned by studying the relationships alluded to by the cross-departmental, cross-institutional, and cross-national collaborations we have observed. Further research into the collaborative efforts of Arab scholars might address the following questions: How did the collaborators come into contact? What resources do Arab researchers need to form international partnerships with other scholars?

‘The Arab Spring’ We found very little original research about the effects of the ‘Arab Spring’ on LIS in the 46 journals we surveyed. Only two articles in the top journals addressed the ‘Arab Spring’ or its constituent uprisings since 2010 in significant ways. One is Abdelhay’s (2012) “The Arab Uprising 2011: New Media in the

10 Library and Information Science Research in the Arab World


Hands of a New Generation in North Africa,” which was published as a conference paper in the Aslib Proceedings. Abdelhay is one of many commentators across the disciplines to note the remarkable power of social media in mass political action. “Social media in Egyptian government websites: Presence, usage, and effectiveness,” by Abdelsalam, et al. (2013), is another, published in Government Information Quarterly. This study identifies a significant increase in the social media activities on government websites following the January 25th Revolution in Egypt, with much of the activity dedicated to announcing changes in government personnel as a direct consequence of the uprising. Of articles in the international journals, one article, Rizk & Kamel’s (2013) “ICT and Building a Knowledge-based Society in Egypt” does devote a section to the use of social media during the January 25th Revolution and the subsequent usage of it by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. There were some reviews of books about the ‘Arab Spring’ in top journals and international journals, but we did not include book reviews in this stage of our research. Surprisingly, there was only one article published in the Arab LIS journals related to the ‘Arab Spring’: Mansour’s (2012) article, “The Role of Social Networking Sites (SNSs) in the January 25th Revolution of Egypt.” All four of these articles are about social media or communication technologies more broadly. While they are published in library and information science journals, none of them are explicitly about library services, though there are certainly implications for public services. As promised by futurists and leaders in technology, information communication technology, and social media more specifically, have helped to democratize political discourse. They have brought greater speed and organization, and therefore power, to social movements across the Arab World. The relationship is in fact symbiotic: new technology has increased the visibility of social movements, and these movements have greatly increased the visibility of new technology. By enabling the politically marginalized, social media has itself moved from the margins to the very center of modern politics and culture. In order to determine whether we were missing research that fit the study criteria in the systematic review, we conducted test searches in three major LIS databases: Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA), Library Literature and Information Science, and Library, Information Science, and Technology Abstracts (LISTA). Searching the default fields for ‘Arab Spring’ returned 11, 43, and 80 results, respectively. Thirty-three of the 43 from Library Literature and Information Science were book reviews, as were 50 of the 80 from LISTA. The number of book reviews related to the ‘Arab Spring’ demonstrates that other disciplines, such as political science and sociology, were quick to publish on this topic.

250  Amanda B. Click, Josiah Drewry, and Mahmoud Khalifa

Using “Arab Spring” and other search queries, such as “Arab uprising,” “Arab revolution” and “Egyptian revolution,” we identified 25 unique articles on this topic. Six of them were published in 2014, and thus outside the scope of our study. All of them (except one from 2014 in a top journal) were published in journals not included in this study, such as Microform and Digitization Review and Library Review. In addition, many of the articles about the ‘Arab Spring’ that appeared in the search results were published in journals that are not core to the LIS field, like the Journal of Communication or International Review of Law, Computers and Technology. As we write this, Egyptians have recently elected Abdel Fattah el-Sisi to be their next President, which is only one of many significant political changes to occur in Egypt since early 2011. In academic inquiry, it is inevitable that research about major political and social upheaval will appear in a variety of formats over a number of years, and the ‘Arab Spring’ and its effect on LIS research in the Arab world will likely prove to be no exception. Perhaps it is simply too soon for a great deal of research to have appeared in the LIS literature, or perhaps there is another reason. Noori (2014) argued that the ‘Arab Spring’ “engendered a more repressive atmosphere for college campuses in the region,” which may have discouraged research on this topic. For Arab researchers publishing in the LIS literature, what has gone unsaid and why? Is it possible that these researchers do not feel free to publish about the ‘Arab Spring’ or other overtly political topics, either in Arab journals or elsewhere? Further research is needed to address these questions.

The 2003 Iraq War and Other Political Topics The 2003 American-led war in Iraq is an example of political and social issues appearing in the scholarly literature. Of the 169 articles we found in the top and international journals, eight of them were related to the severe damage sustained by Iraq’s National Library and Archive in Baghdad in 2003, or hardships in the LIS field as a result of the war. These articles began appearing in the literature we reviewed by 2004 and continued for the next four years. Examples include: – “Culture and the New Iraq: The Iraq National Library and Archive, ‘Imagined community,’ and the Future of the Iraqi Nation,” from Libraries and the Cultural Record (now Information and Culture) (Edwards & Edwards, 2008) – “The Destruction of a Cultural Heritage: With Reference to the Problems of Iraq,” from New Library World (Garcia, 2007)

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With the exception of Syria, the ‘Arab Spring’ has not brought wholesale destruction to libraries and cultural institutions like the 2003 war in Iraq, and we found no discussion of this in our investigation. Other articles illustrate the range of other political topics that we encountered in this study: – “Balancing the Protection of Civil Liberties During Wartime: How the Israeli Supreme Court Shaped Palestinian Freedom of Expression During the Second Intifada,” from Government Information Quarterly (Karniel, 2005) – “The Rights of Muslim Women in the Middle East: A Pathfinder,” from the International Journal of Legal Information (Schroeder, 2009) – “Legislation for library and information services in French-speaking Africa revisited,” from International Information and Library Review (Lajeunesse & Sène, 2004)

Conclusion While it is valuable to examine the 22 countries in our study together, choosing a different geographical scope would have led to very different results. We were compelled to ignore a large number of articles from Iran, Israel and others, for instance, which would all be included in broader definitions of the region. Clearly scholars in these countries contribute more regularly to the English-language LIS literature, and including them would have had a noticeable effect on our findings. Reducing a published article to selected keywords and other metadata is often necessary in order to identify broad trends in scholarship and collaboration. The goal of this systematic review of the LIS literature was to develop a big-picture understanding of the researchers and research linked to the Arab world. We found that Arab authors prefer to publish in regional, often Arabiclanguage, journals. These publications tend to be single-author efforts, by scholars from Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Scholars from Jordan and Kuwait top the list for Arab world-affiliated authors publishing in top and international journals in English. According to Abdelhay (2012), the level of Internet penetration is increasing faster in the Arab world right now than in any other region. This part of the world already had a very high rate of social media activity that pre-dated the first stirrings of the ‘Arab Spring’ in December 2010. As the Arab world’s population grows larger and more connected with other regions of the world, research output will continue to increase, in English, Arabic, and other languages. It is reasonable to expect much more inter-institutional and cross-cultural collaboration in the future. Almost all political, social and technological change is relevant for libraries and those who work in them. And many topics in LIS research can be considered

252  Amanda B. Click, Josiah Drewry, and Mahmoud Khalifa

to have political implications: remote access to previously inaccessible archives, the information seeking behavior of journalists, the choice to publish in English or French over one’s native tongue. However, a massive political event like the ‘Arab Spring’ appears to have had little effect on the LIS literature published up to 2013. As Al-Aufi & Lor (2012) note, research in the LIS field has been largely informed by research techniques and processes in other disciplines, especially the social sciences. A handful of articles address the use of social media and information communication technology in the context of the ‘Arab Spring,’ but for each of these there are many more published in journals in other disciplines such as political science, sociology, and other disciplines. LIS research does not yet reflect an interest in these events.

References Abdelhay, N. (2012). The Arab uprising 2011: New media in the hands of a new generation in North Africa. Aslib Proceedings, 64(5), 529–539. doi: 10.1108/00012531211263148 Abdelsalam, H. M., Reddick, C. G., Gamal, S., and Al-shaar, A. (2013). Social media in Egyptian Government websites: Presence, usage, and effectiveness. Government Information Quarterly, 30(4), 406–416. doi: 10.1016/j.giq.2013.05.020 Abdul-Hadi, M. F. (2001). ‫[ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺸﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‬Current situation of library and information science research in the Arab world]. ‫ﻣﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ [Arabic Journal of Information], 22(1), 52–73. Adams, J., King, C., and Hook, D. (2010). Global research report: Africa. Leeds, UK: Evidence/ Thomson Reuters. Retrieved from media/globalresearchreport-africa.pdf Adams, J., King, C., Pendlebury, D., Hook, D., and Wilsdon, J. (2011). Global research report: Middle East. Leeds, UK: Evidence/Thomson Reuters. Retrieved from http://sciencewatch. com/sites/sw/files/sw-article/media/globalresearchreport-aptme.pdf Al-Amoodi, H. M., and Jawhari, A. F. (2009). ‫ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬:‫ﻣﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫[ ﻟﻺﺫﺗﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ‬Research methods in LIS studies: Analytical study of research published in specialized journals]. ‫[ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻸﺭﺷﻴﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺛﻴﻖ ﻭﺍ ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬Arab Journal of Archives, Documentation, and Information], 13(25–26), 117–175. Al-Aufi, A. S., and Lor, P. J. (2012). Development of Arabic library and information science: An analysis utilizing Whitley’s theory of the intellectual and social organization of sciences. Journal of Documentation, 68(4), 460–491. doi: 10.1108/00220411211239066 Beverley, C. A., Bath, P. A., and Booth, A. (2004). Health information needs of visually impaired people: A systematic review of the literature. Health and Social Care in the Community, 12(1), 1–24. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2524.2004.00460.x Booth, A., and Brice, A. (2004). Appraising the evidence. In A. Booth and A. Brice (Eds.), Evidence based practice for information professionals: A handbook (pp. 104–118). London, UK: Facet. Brettle, A. (2003). Information skills training: A systematic review of the literature. Health Information and Libraries Journal, 20(s1): 3–9. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2532.20.s1.3.x

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Catalano, A. (2013). Patterns of graduate students’ information seeking behavior: A meta synthesis of the literature. Journal of Documentation, 69(2), 243–274. doi: 10.1108/0022041131 1300066 Cooper, I. D., and Crum, J. A. (2013). New activities and changing roles of health sciences librarians: A systematic review, 1990–2012. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA, 101(4), 268–277. doi: 10.3163/1536-5050.101.4.008 Edwards, J. B., and Edwards, S. P. (2008). Culture and the new Iraq: The Iraq National Library and Archive, ‘imagined community, ‘ and the future of the Iraqi Nation. Libraries and the Cultural Record, 43(3), 327–342. doi: 10.1353/lac.0.0021 Garcia, E. P. (2007). The destruction of a cultural heritage: With reference to the problems of Iraq. New Library World, 108(7/8), 354–369. doi: 10.1108/03074800710763644 Gdoura, W. (2008). North African research tendencies in library and information science: The theoretical and the empirical. IFLA Journal, 34(2), 169–179. doi: 10.1177/0340035208092175 Harris, J., and White, V. (2013). Systematic review. In A dictionary of social work and social care. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from Karniel, Y. (2005). Balancing the protection of civil liberties during wartime: How the Israeli Supreme Court shaped Palestinian freedom of expression during the second Intifada. Government Information Quarterly, 22(4), 626–643. doi: 10.1108/03074800710763644 Kelly, D., and Sugimoto, C. R. (2013). A systematic review of interactive information retrieval evaluation studies, 1967–2006. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 64(4), 745–770. doi: 10.1002/asi.22799 Kohl, D. F., and Davis, C. H. (1985). Ratings of journals by ARL library directors and deans of library and information science schools. College and Research Libraries, 46(1), 40–47. doi: 10.5860/crl_46_01_40 Koufogiannakis, D. (2012). The state of systematic reviews in library and information studies. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 7(2), 91–95. Retrieved from https://ejour Koufogiannakis, D., and Wiebe, N. (2006). Effective methods for teaching information literacy skills to undergraduate students: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 1(3): 3–43. Retrieved from https://ejournals.library.ual Lajeunesse, M., and Sène, H. (2004). Legislation for library and information services in French speaking Africa revisited. The International Information and Library Review, 36(4), 367–380. doi: 10.1016/j.iilr.2004.03.002 Mahmood, A. A. (2005). ‫ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬:‫[ ﺍﻹﺍﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬The Egyptian intellectual productivity in library and information 1992–2000: Analytical study]. ‫[ ﻣﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬Arabic Journal of Libraries and Information], 25(1), 5–26. Mansour, E. (2012). The role of social networking sites (SNSs) in the January 25th Revolution of Egypt. ‫[ ﻣﺠﻠﺔ ﺩ ﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬Information Studies Journal], 2012 (May), 2–55. Retrieved from Meho, L. I., and Nsouli, M. A. (1999). Libraries and information in the Arab world: An annotated bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Nisonger, T. E., and Davis, C. H. (2005). The perception of library and information science journals by LIS education deans and ARL library directors: A replication of the Kohl-Davis study. College and Research Libraries, 66(4), 341–377. doi: 10.5860/crl.66.4.341

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Noori, N. (2014). Does academic freedom globalize? The diffusion of the American model of education to the Middle East and academic freedom. PS: Political Science and Politics, 47(3), 608–611. doi: 10.1017/s1049096514000717 Rizk, N., and Kamel, S. (2013). ICT and building a knowledge-based society in Egypt. International Journal of Knowledge Management, 9(1), 1–20. doi: 10.4018/jkm.2013010101 Schroeder, L. E. (2009). The rights of muslim women in the Middle East: A pathfinder. International Journal of Legal Information, 37(1), 135–165. Retrieved from Uzun, A. (2002). Library and information science research in developing countries and Eastern European countries: A brief bibliometric perspective. The International Information and Library Review, 34(1), 21–33. doi: 10.1006/iilr.2002.0182 Wise, M., and Olden, A. (1994). Information and libraries in the Arab world. London, UK: Library Association Publishing. Zakaria, M. (2014). Scholarly contributions by professional librarians in the Arab world: A comparative analytical study. Paper presented at QQML 2014: 6th Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Libraries Conference, 27–30 May 2014, Istanbul, Turkey. Zhang, L., Watson, E. M., and Banfield, L. (2007). The efficacy of computer-assisted instruction versus face-to-face instruction in academic libraries: A systematic review. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 33(4), 478–484.

Received: 11th November 2014 Final version received: 10th February 2015 Accepted: 5th March 2015

Blake Robinson

11 Addressing Bias in the Cataloging and Classification of Arabic and Islamic Materials: Approaches from Domain Analysis Introduction Authors from the Anglo-American world have inveighed against bias in subject cataloging for decades (Berman, 1993; Knowlton, 2005; Olson, 1998). For their own part, authors from the Arab and Islamic world have argued that classification systems such as the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) reflect an English-language, Judeo-Christian bias that is ill suited for the information needs of most library users in the Arab and Islamic world (Al-Kindilchie, 1974; Aman, 1982; Sardar, 1979; Shenītī, 1962b; Siddiqui, 1988; Ul-Haq & Westwood, 2012). In addition, bias in descriptive cataloging standards such as the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR2) inhibits the description and access of Arabic-language materials both in Arabic script and in transliteration (Kamel, Eltalmas & Abubaker, 2005; Omoerha, 1973; Shenītī, 1962a, 1963, 1972; Tibbetts, 1959; Wien, 1998; Zuwiyya, 1957). These issues have two consequences. First, they hamper discovery of library materials cataloged in Arabic. Second, they hamper discovery of materials about the Arab and Islamic world in any language. Although these criticisms of bias in cataloging and classification have merit, they are insufficient alone to affect concrete change in the way users access materials from and about the Arab and Islamic world. Rather, the elimination of one set of biases in a knowledge organization (KO) system portends the introduction of another set by default (Olson, 1998). Although systems such as the Virtual International Authority File (VIAF) attempt to offer a degree of standardization (, they are mostly the province of librarians, specifically catalogers and subject specialists. Non-librarians may not even think to search for such a tool and instead may overlook crucial information. While bias in any human endeavor is impossible to eliminate, working to address it in a KO context has several benefits. By understanding how bias functions in KO, librarians can provide several benefits to users of KO systems. First, citizens of the Arab and Islamic world will have better access to their bibliographic heritage if librarians better understand the ramifications of the KO

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systems they employ. Second, researchers will be more productive if librarians understand their needs and can help them accordingly. Finally, librarians armed with this knowledge will help policymakers, business leaders, and other stakeholders access crucial information before making decisions of geopolitical significance. This chapter seeks to address bias in the cataloging and classification of Arabic and Islamic library materials by comparing several areas of scholarship. First, the chapter begins with an analysis of Edward Said’s Orientalism (1979), which serves as an overarching critique of the production of knowledge about the Arab and Islamic world. Second, the chapter discusses the impact of Sanford Berman’s Prejudices and Antipathies (1993), which indirectly employs critical theory to examine biases in subject classification. Next, the chapter analyzes cataloging and classification scholarship from the Arab and Islamic world, which demonstrates how Berman’s (1993) broad criticisms affect librarians and users in practice. Finally, I argue that Hjørland’s (2002) KO paradigm of domain analysis serves as both a theoretical and practical workaround to ingrained bias in KO systems, and I provide several approaches as they apply to ḥadīth¹ science.

Orientalism Orientalism is a theory derived from the work of Edward Said, beginning with Orientalism (1979) and expanded on in Covering Islam (1997). Of Palestinian origin, Said served as professor of English and comparative literature at Columbia University from 1970 until his death in 2003. In addition to his scholarship, Said was also an ardent supporter of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in its early days and of Palestinian rights in general (Darity, 2007). Said (1979) defined Orientalism as “a way of coming to terms with the Orient that is based on the Orient’s special place in European Western experience” (p. 1). In this context, “the Orient” refers to the Arab and Islamic world rather than East Asia, reflecting historical European rather than American usage of the term. Said was a literary critic rather than a social scientist. As a result, Orientalism uses examples ranging from medieval epic poetry to French romanticism. However, despite the work’s humanistic character, three component concepts

1 The ḥadīth literature comprises several compilations of oral reports of teachings, deeds and sayings attributed to the Prophet Muhammad that were in circulation in society around the time of their compilation, long after his death.

11 Addressing Bias in the Cataloging and Classification of Arabic and Islamic Materials


recur throughout that best describe Orientalism: the Other, hegemony, and genealogy. The late nineteenth-century German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (2000) distinguished between appearance and the thing-in-itself: “[B]oth sides overlook the possibility that the painting … has gradually evolved, indeed is still evolving, and therefore should not be considered a fixed quantity… it has acquired color, but we have been the painters” (pp. 37–38). While Nietzsche’s words may seem unrelated to library and information science (LIS) and KO at first glance, this passage raises questions of representation that librarians face every day. That is, what is the relationship between a subject heading and the document it seeks to represent? In relation to Orientalism, the concept of ‘the Other’ proposes that this relationship is ultimately self-referential; it is only possible to view an ‘Other’ with reference to oneself and not as it truly is (Darity, 2008b). This concept appears throughout the book in various ways. In the medieval French epic poem the Chanson de Roland (Song of Roland), “the worship of Saracens is portrayed as embracing Mahomet and Apollo” (Said, 1979, p. 61). Centuries later, the French leader Napoleon Bonaparte romanticized ancient Egyptian civilization during his short-lived invasion and occupation of the county from 1798 through 1801 (Said, 1979). Finally, in the late nineteenth century, the French writer Gustave Flaubert wrote of exotic seductresses in novels like Salammbô (Said, 1979). Yet at the same time, colonial administrators did not hesitate to dehumanize their subjects in order to justify their right to rule. As British colonial administrator Evelyn Baring wrote, “[t]he half-educated Egyptian naturally prefers the Frenchman’s system [of administration], for it is to all outward appearances more perfect and more easy of application” (as cited by Said, 1979, p. 212). According to the early twentieth-century Italian Marxist thinker Antonio Gramsci (2000), “[t]he relationship between intellectuals and the world of production is not immediate… it is ‘mediated,’ in different levels, by the whole social fabric, and by the complex of the superstructure of which the intellectuals are in fact the ‘officials’” (p. 39). Consequently, “[i]ntellectuals are the ‘officers’ of the ruling class for the exercises of the subordinate functions of social hegemony and political government” (Gramsci, 2000, p. 40). Thus, the concept of hegemony suggests that not only do political structures exercise hegemony, but so do cultural institutions and institutions of civil society, such as the university, the museum, and even the library (Darity, 2008a; Raber, 2003a). Moreover, these institutions all exercise hegemony in such a way that the general population accepts it as the status quo, whether consciously or not (Darity, 2008b).

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In the context of Orientalism, Napoleon’s campaign in Egypt serves to illustrate the concept of hegemony. As part of the campaign, Napoleon brought several Orientalist scholars to mediate between the French and the Egyptian population. In addition, he flattered the ‘ulamā’ (clerical establishment) of alAzhar University in Cairo by showing respect for Islamic learning while simultaneously framing the French as defending Islam from Egypt’s Mamluk rulers (Said, 1979). These two tactics made the general population more welcoming of the French. In Gramscian terms, the French represented the State in their attempts to monopolize the use of force in Egypt, while the ‘ulamā’ acted as “officials” that legitimized state power. The concepts of archaeology and genealogy refer to the exercise of power through knowledge and stem from the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault (Foucault, 2000; Gutting, 2012; Pryor, 2006). This knowledge in turn derives from socially constructed “truths” that take the form of epistemes or discursive formations. Together, these discursive formations govern the limits of possible discourse within particular systems, such as prisons, clinics, and universities (Gutting, 2012; Pryor, 2006). Foucault’s work proposes that the discursive formations of a particular system are intimately tied to that system’s power structures, and these power structures determine what constitutes acceptable discourses within that system (Gutting, 2012). To provide an example from higher education, discursive formations demarcate the epistemological and methodological boundaries of departments and disciplines across the university. While ignoring the scientific method is beyond the pale in the natural sciences, in the humanities the scientific method itself is often a subject of inquiry. Orientalism uses Foucault’s work to explain the discursive formations of Orientalist scholarly activity in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This activity was bound not only by discursive formations from universities themselves but also by concurrent imperialist enterprises from political powers such as Britain and France (Said, 1979). On the one hand, the work of scholars from the Arab and Islamic world legitimized European hegemony in the Orient. On the other hand, this hegemony made it difficult for these scholars to do anything other than lend their tacit support to the State, since existing discursive formations did not easily allow otherwise. These discursive formations led to further ‘Othering’ of the Arab and Islamic world, thus justifying subsequent hegemonic activity in the region. To extend Orientalism to cataloging and classification, one might argue that since libraries house scholarship about the Arab and Islamic world, their KO systems reflect the discursive formations of Orientalism as a discipline. Consequently, librarians cannot help but impose a Eurocentric bias on the description

11 Addressing Bias in the Cataloging and Classification of Arabic and Islamic Materials


of and access to these library materials. On the one hand, Said makes excellent points regarding the relationship between power, and knowledge as it relates to the Arab and Islamic world. Yet on the other hand, Orientalism can help deconstruct existing biases, but it cannot construct new ones unaided. One postcolonial critique of Eurocentric KO systems drew from Said and postcolonial literature, employing terms such as “Global North” and “Global South” (Ul-Haq & Westwood, 2012). However, the authors themselves acknowledge that these terms are not particularly rigorous. Moreover, their method of assessing “Northern” bias in KO literature is to divide the literature “by classifying authors as being either of Western or Non-Western ethnic backgrounds based on their names; recognizing this to be a potentially flawed procedure” (Ul-Haq & Westwood, 2012, p. 238). Furthermore, the authors come from a management background; their suggestions for localized KO systems are less applicable in a library context, where interoperability and standardization are key concerns (Aman, 1984). Thus, Orientalism serves as a useful starting point but does not itself solve this problem.

Prejudices and Antipathies The appearance of Prejudices and Antipathies (1993) by Sanford (Sandy) Berman set off a firestorm of controversy in the technical services community. First published in 1971, the book “effectively threw gasoline on the smoldering question of bias in library resource description” (Johnson, 2008, p. 19). Berman (1993) focused on bias in LCSH, as well as in their Sears counterparts. The Library of Congress (LC) took many years to make some of the changes that Berman (1993) suggested, and some controversial headings still remain today because of a combination of factors (Knowlton, 2005). Berman (1993) covered a wide spectrum of topics, including race, religion, organized labor, gender, national origin, sexual orientation, and historical narrative. Indeed, in his discussion of topics related to the Arab and Islamic world, Berman foreshadowed Orientalism by almost a decade even though he did not employ an explicit theoretical framework. Several subject headings he identified will serve to illustrate Orientalism in the context of the library catalog: the term “Mohammedanism,” headings related to colonialism, and the heading “Legends, Oriental.” “Mohammedanism” originated as a medieval European term to refer to Islam (Said, 1979). The term originates from medieval Christian views of Islam and Muhammad; “since Christ is the basis of Christian faith, it seemed – quite incorrectly – that Mohammed was to Islam as Christ was to Christianity” (Said, 1979,

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p. 60). However, Islam is not a Trinitarian religion, and Muslims do not worship Muhammad himself but rather acknowledge him as the Messenger of God. Thus, the term “Islam” (“submission”) foregrounds worship of God (Allah). By contrast, Merriam-Webster defines “Mohammedanism” and similar terms as “used predominantly by those outside the faith of Islam and usually taken to be offensive by the Islamic believer” (as cited by Berman, 1993, p. 37). An analogous situation occurred in the classification of topics related to European colonialism. Once a widely celebrated holiday in the United States, Columbus Day no longer enjoys the prominence it once did. This change is attributed in part to greater knowledge of the atrocities committed against Native Americans as well as the rise of the slave trade. Accordingly, Berman (1993) inveighed against the LCSH subdivision “– Discovery and exploration,” such as “America – Discovery and exploration” and “Africa – Discovery and exploration” (p. 82). He posed the question, “What are such concoctions as AFRICA – DISCOVERY AND EXPLORATION and AMERICA – DISCOVERY AND EXPLORATION if not colossal specimens of ethnocentrism? Cortez no more ‘discovered’ Mexico for the Aztecs than Livingstone did Victoria Falls for the Leya people” (p. 82). Along more controversial lines, Berman (1993) suggested that just as Great Britain and France had colonial empires, so, too, did the United States. However, the subject headings at the time read “U.S. – Insular possessions” and “U.S. – Territorial possessions” (p. 83). While many Americans do not often think of their country as a colonial power in the sense that Britain and France were, Berman (1993) argued that this difference in terminology is merely semantic and “nicely illustrates a transparent double-standard built into the scheme” (p. 83). As described by Said (1979), a large component of Orientalism consists of the systematic ‘Othering’ of nonwhite, non-Western, or non-European populations. Such ‘Othering’ can occur in the form of paintings, film, literature, or other media (Said, 1979). In 1971, LCSH had subject headings for civilizations such as the ancient Celts and Greeks, but used the term “Legends, Oriental” for the entire “East” (Berman, 1993, p. 108). Prejudices and Antipathies not only served as an impetus for changes at the Library of Congress, but it also gave rise to a body of scholarship both from practicing librarians and from scholars of cataloging and classification (de la tierra, 2008; Drabinski, 2013; Johnson, 2008; Knowlton, 2005; Olson, 1998; Weinberg, 2008). Gender and sexuality are two themes that have gained a particularly notable amount of coverage in the literature (de la tierra, 2008; Drabinski, 2013; Johnson, 2008; Olson, 1998). Similarly, race and ethnicity have also received treatment, ranging from Latinas to Native Americans (de la tierra, 2008; Little Bear, 2008).

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Yet Berman’s work is far from complete. Knowlton (2005) identified several problems that remained unchanged, such as “the persistence of the assumption that unglossed religious headings refer to Christian topics, and unglossed terms relating to United States history and geography, which may simply be confusing to users outside the U.S.” (p. 128). Subject terms such as “God,” “Salvation,” and “Resurrection” lack the qualifier “Christianity,” thus privileging a Judeo-Christian worldview (Knowlton, 2005, p. 131). While the heading “God – Christianity” now exists alongside “God – Islam” and “God,” other terms like “Primitive societies” and “Women in the professions” are alive and well. The work of Berman and his colleagues in “radical cataloging” has had wide-ranging implications for subject cataloging in the United States and, consequently, worldwide. However, if one were to take all of Berman’s proposals, one would be left with an LCSH that merely embodies a “radical” bias rather than the “institutional” bias that Berman started with. Certainly, headings such as “Anti-Arabism” and “Palestinian state (Proposed)” are welcome additions insofar as they more accurately represent concerns of Arabs and Muslims (p. 12). Yet who is to say that proposed headings like “New world economic order,” “New world information order,” and “Cultural imperialism” are any less biased than existing headings (p. 12)? Like Said’s work, these proposals must attempt to accommodate multiple viewpoints rather than simply “radical” ones.

Arab and Islamic Scholarship Scholarship from the Arab and Islamic world about bias in KO echoes many of the arguments of both Said and Berman. This scholarship tends to take three directions. First, several authors discuss bias in descriptive cataloging practices, particularly as it relates to Arabic names and titles (Kamel, Eltalmas & Abubaker, 2005; Omoerha, 1973; Shenītī, 1962a, 1963, 1972; Tibbetts, 1959; Wien, 1995; Zuwiyya, 1957). The second set of scholarship centers on improving subject cataloging practices in the Arab and Islamic world (Aman, 1968, 1982; Sardar, 1979; Shenītī, 1962b). Finally, several authors criticize Eurocentrism and Anglocentrism in KO systems as a whole (Sardar, 1979; Siddiqui, 1988; Ul-Haq & Westwood, 2012). As befits their name, the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR2) were primarily designed with English-language materials in mind (Siddiqui, 1988). Consequently, to adapt them to Arabic-language materials requires a great deal of effort on the part of the cataloger (Siddiqui, 1988; Tibbetts, 1959). Arabic names are particularly problematic in this regard (Kamel, Eltalmas & Abubaker, 2005; Shenītī, 1962a, 1963; Tibbetts, 1959).

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In most cases, it is a simple matter to create a personal name authority file for the author of an English-language work using the inverted format, such as “Wharton, Edith 1862–1937” ( However, Arabic names function quite differently than their English counterparts. Modern names typically consist of one or more parts: ism, nasab, kunya, and nisba (Omoerha, 1973; Shenītī, 1962a, 1963, 1972). Furthermore, treatment of names varies depending on whether the author is classical or modern (generally, post-1800 CE) (Omoerha, 1973; Shenītī, 1962a, 1963, 1972).² To illustrate the form of a classical Arabic name, this author uses the example of the medieval Muslim thinker al-Ghazālī. The second edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam gives his full name as “Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad b. [bin or ibn] Muḥammad al-Ṭūsī al-Ghazālī” (Watt, 1960, p. 1038). While he is almost universally known by “al-Ghazālī,” the British Museum’s cataloging system would require users to employ the extremely common ism “Muḥammad” to locate his works (Tibbetts, 1959, p. 114). This system is counterintuitive not only for native speakers of Arabic but also for researchers of the Arab and Islamic world. Symptomatically, al-Ghazalī’s name takes dozens of forms depending on the country (see: 31996761/#Ghazzālī,_1058–1111). Even in the Arab world there are differences; the Egyptian authorized form uses hijrī dates, while the Lebanese form uses Gregorian dates. To complicate matters, modern names in Arabic do not carry centuries of established usage behind them, so it is even more difficult to determine the correct form for these names than for their classical counterparts (Tibbetts, 1959). The recently deceased leader of Libya is known as “Qaddafi, Muammar” by the Library of Congress ( However, his surname is also spelt “Gadhafi,” “Kaddafi,” “Qadhafi,” and “El Kadhafi,” among dozens of other variants ( As a result of this complexity, the title of an Arabic-language work became the points of main entry rather than the author (Shenītī, 1972). Medieval Muslim authors often gave their works long, elaborate titles to facilitate access (Shenītī, 1972). Moreover, “early printed Arabic books possess no title pages” (Omoerha, 1973, p. 5). According to Omoerha (1973), “[t]his has come about as a result of the stages of printing of Arabic books which have developed from lithographed

2 The ism is the given name, while the nasab indicates ancestry on the father’s side. The kunya is an honorific that celebrates someone’s status as a parent. The nisba serves as an indicator of origin, whether geographic, professional, or otherwise.

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manuscripts, and which therefore have retained the layout of the early Arabic manuscripts” (p. 5). Shenītī (1972) posits that this situation came about as a result of “the inadequacy of subject classification” (p. 49), a problem that still plagues Arabiclanguage cataloging systems today. Classification systems such as Library of Congress Classification (LCC), Bliss, and Universal Decimal Classification are little used in the Arab and Islamic world (Handy, 1980). By contrast, DDC has received particularly strong attention in the literature thanks to its prevalence in the region (Al-Kindilchie, 1974; Aman, 1968, 1982; Sardar, 1979; Shenītī, 1962b). Melvil Dewey first published DDC in 1876 (Vizine-Goetz & Mitchell, 2009). Thus, it follows that the hierarchy of knowledge he employed reflects the values and mores of nineteenth-century America. Perhaps the most obvious example of this phenomenon is in the schedule for DDC Class 200 (Religion). Sections 220–289 all concern concepts or ideas from the Judeo-Christian tradition (Dewey, 2012). Only Sections 201–209 (Specific aspects of religion), Division 210 (Philosophy and theory of religion), and Division 290 (Other religions) fall outside this scope. Within Division 290, only Section 297 allows for classification of works about Islam, and even then Islam shares this section with Babism and the Baha’i Faith. This bias does a disservice both to Islam and to the Baha’i Faith. In a classification system with an emphasis on the Arab and Islamic world, there are many topics that merit more prominent places than they currently occupy. Examples include “sciences of Islamic origin such as the study of the Qur’ān, hadīth, and Fiqh, Lughah (linguistics), [and] Tarikh (history)” (Aman, 1968, p. 13). Aman (1968) also includes subjects such as Arabic poetry and literature (adab). Together, these categories represent the most problematic areas for “reorienting” DDC for a more culturally appropriate context. Librarians in the Arab and Islamic world have adopted several remedies to address these issues. Aman (1968) recommended inverted Arabic subject headings for terms involving nationalities and languages (e.g., al-lughat al-ʿArabbiya for “Arabic language”). Shenītī (1962b) suggested repurposing 210–219 for major religions, 410–419 for major languages, and 810–819 for major literatures. Yet these approaches, while suitable at the local level, impede universal description and access and ultimately make Arabic-language materials more difficult to locate as a whole. Finally, several authors propose “Islamizing” the library catalog in a more fundamental fashion than the more pragmatic approaches described above (Sardar, 1979; Siddiqui, 1988; Ul-Haq & Westwood, 2012). With the exception of Sardar’s focus on subject classification (1979), their criticisms are focused more on Western KO systems as a whole rather than any specific aspect of a given

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system (Sardar, 1979; Siddiqui, 1988; Ul-Haq & Westwood, 2012). Siddiqui (1988) laments that Western bibliographies such as Index Islamicus and the Encyclopaedia of Islam privilege Western conceptions of KO. Moreover, these sources privilege “Western” scholarship over “Islamic” scholarship (Siddiqui, 1988; Ul-Haq & Westwood, 2012). Terms such as shariʿa, often translated as “Islamic law” encompass not only conventional “Western” legal concepts such as criminal law and family law but also rules regarding prayer, fasting, and other matters of religious practice (Siddiqui, 1988). While these criticisms are valid, the solutions these scholars offer are problematic in a number of aspects. Sardar’s (1979) scheme privileges Sunni Islam: he lists Druze, Shīʿa Muslims, and Baha’is as “Minority Viewpoints” (p. 51). Moreover, he lists each of the rashidūn caliphs as an individual subject but not the Shīʿa Twelver Imams (p. 42). He also qualifies the heading “Rights of nonMuslims” with the phrase “in an Islamic state” (p. 37), and he puts the heading “converts” in quotation marks, echoing certain Sunni discourses that suggest one “reverts” rather than “converts” to Islam (p. 48). Finally, he substitutes the term “Zionism and the Jewish State” for “Israel” (p. 29) There are as many ways of practicing Islam as there are Muslims, and Islam in the Persian Gulf is quite distinct from Islam in the United States or Islam in Southeast Asia. Like Berman, these authors merely substitute one form of bias for another. Unlike Berman, their remedies are more subtle, for what the authors suggest are inherently “Islamic” reforms are actually manifestations of normative Sunni values.

Domain Analysis By this point it should be clear that no KO system is without its biases, however implicit. Yet how can librarians and other information professionals circumvent the challenges described above? LIS scholar Birger Hjørland’s theory of domain analysis, along with a selection of its possible applications, may offer a remedy. Domain analysis arose in the mid-1990s as a social response to several other theories or “paradigms” in LIS (Hjørland & Albrechtsen, 1995). On the one hand, it challenges the notion of the “physical paradigm” (Ellis, 1992) or “informationas-thing” (Buckland, 1991). In essence, this paradigm posits that information is a physical entity that exists independently of those who use it. Consequently, optimal system design to best represent the objective entity that is information is of the utmost importance under this paradigm, and much information systems literature falls under this approach (Raber, 2003b)

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On the other hand, domain analysis also challenges the “cognitive paradigm” (Ellis, 1992). This paradigm draws its influence from social sciences such as psychology and emphasizes the mental state of the user and how he or she processes and conceptualizes information (Raber, 2003b). Under this paradigm, optimizing user interfaces to reduce uncertainty is a key goal, and user studies are a representative research method under this approach (Raber, 2003b). By contrast, domain analysis is a “social” approach that tries to “find the basis for IS [information science] in factors that are external to the individualistic-subjective perceptions of the users” (Hjørland & Albrechtsen, 1995, p. 400). It posits that “the best way to understand information in IS is to study the knowledge-domains as thought or discourse communities, which are part of society’s division of labor” (p. 400). Moreover, the authors argue that subject knowledge is not the only route to be a competent information professional (1995). Rather, a thorough knowledge of the theories and methods of information science, such as KO, information retrieval, and other topics will allow the information professional to effectively analyze any domain he or she wishes (1995). The weakness in Hjørland and Albrechtsen’s (1995) discussion of domain analysis is its lack of terminological rigor. According to Tennis (2003), “what constitutes a domain both for domain analysis… and for the various researchers in this field stands as an open research question” (p. 191). Hjørland and Albrechtsen (1995) do not adequately define the terms “domain” or “discourse community.” In practice, the authors use the term “domain” to refer to “fields” or “disciplines” like music, psychology, or the natural sciences. Psychology, for example, might be a discourse community whose members include behavioralists, psychoanalysts, cognitive therapists, and so forth. In a subsequent article, Hjørland (2002) outlines eleven approaches to domain analysis, including discourse studies, thesaurus construction, and historical studies. Throughout his work, he is keen to prove IS’s credentials as a “science.” Thus, he heavily emphasizes the social and natural sciences at the expense of the humanities. Yet it is common in Islamic discourse to speak of the “Islamic sciences” even though they are not scientific in the natural sense. Several approaches show promise for the analysis of bias in cataloging and classification. These approaches include, but are not limited to: literature guides and subject gateways, bibliometrics, historical studies, documentary studies, and discourse studies. How do Hjørland’s approaches apply to the Islamic sciences, using ḥadīth science as an example? In Islamic studies, an example of what Hjørland terms “literature guides” would be Index Islamicus by Brill ( As Siddiqui (1988) mentions, the database has a heavy European focus. Consequently, librarians in the Arab and Islamic world could construct a

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subject gateway using a platform such as LibGuides ( In this way, librarians can add materials about Islamic science that are hard to find via the library catalog such as ḥadīth compilations. In a very real sense, ḥadīth science is a forerunner to today’s bibliometrics. Broadly speaking, in bibliometrics modern scholars judge the importance of a document based on the number of times it is cited (Hjørland, 2002). Similarly, medieval Muslim scholars judged the credibility of a ḥadīth based on the strength of its chain of oral transmission (isnad) and the ability to trace that chain back to a close companion of the Prophet Muḥammad. In turn, Muslim jurists of different legal schools (madhāhib) would use different criteria to determine whether that particular companion was trustworthy, much like modern scholars use an academic’s reputation to determine a work’s merit. Using bibliometrics, librarians with knowledge of data visualization techniques could use infographics to create visual maps of ḥadīth and their isnad. Finally, historical, documentary, and discourse studies are particularly valuable for ḥadīth science. Many key documents in Islam, such as the Qur’ān and the ḥadīth, were originally transmitted orally before acquiring a final written form centuries later. Even today, the Qur’ān is recited (hence its name) during Friday prayers, and its name in Arabic even means “recitation.” The ḥāfiẓ, one who has memorized the entire Qur’ān by heart, is highly honored in the Muslim community. Consequently, without a thorough knowledge of the history of how aḥadīth evolved, their documentary structure, and their mode of discourse, a Western indexer would inevitably struggle to catalog and classify a particular ḥadīth or compilation of ḥadīth.

Conclusion On the one hand, local cataloging and classification standards will continue to exist as long as standards such as AACR2 and LCSH do not adequately meet the needs of librarians in the Arab and Islamic world. On the other hand, standardization efforts such as Resource Description and Access (RDA) will continue to proceed apace as long as librarians worldwide continue to see standardization as a worthy goal. Yet by definition these efforts will be unable to address the needs of all possible stakeholders. Consequently, approaches such as domain analysis offer a way for librarians to work within the realities of existing KO systems while at the same time meeting the needs of their users as effectively as possible. If librarians take no action aside from working toward standardization, access to materials from and about the Arab and Islamic world will continue to

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pose a challenge for users. Misunderstanding and hostility is widespread between the West and the Arab and Islamic worlds, even if one disavows Huntington’s (1993) notion of a “clash of civilizations.” Improved access to this information can help ameliorate this misunderstanding. The Arab and Islamic world has a rich tradition of scholarship in science, medicine, theology, and philosophy, among other subjects (Burnett, 2009). Were it not for Islamic scholars and their Latin compatriots in medieval Toledo, much of our knowledge of Greco-Roman philosophy would be irretrievably lost. By using methods from domain analysis to assist users, librarians can serve as guides to the rich tapestry of commonalities and interdependencies between the scholarly traditions of the Western world on the one hand and the Arab and Islamic world on the other.

References Al-Kindilchie, A. I. (1974). Modification of Dewey Decimal Classification for libraries in Iraq and the Arab World. New York: n.p. Aman, M. M. (1968). Analysis of terminology, form and structure of subject headings in Arabic literature and formulation of rules for Arabic subject headings. PhD dissertation. University of Pittsburgh. Aman, M. M. (1982). The Arabic Dewey Decimal Classification. Paper presented at “Networks:” 48th IFLA General Conference, August 22–28, Montreal. The Hague: International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions. Aman, M. M. (1984). Use of Arabic in computerized information interchange. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 35(4), 204–210. Berman, S. (1993). Prejudices and antipathies: A tract on the LC subject heads concerning people. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. Buckland, M. K. (1991). Information as thing. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 42(5), 351–360. Burnett, C. (2009). Arabic into Latin in the Middle Ages: The translators and their intellectual and social context. Burlington, VT: Ashgate. Darity, W. A. (Ed.). (2007). Edward W. Said. In Encyclopedia of world biography. Vol. 27. Detroit: Gale. Accessed November 9 2014. Darity, W. A. (Ed.). (2008a). Hegemony. In International encyclopedia of the social sciences, 2nd ed., Vol. 3, 455–456. Detroit: Macmillan. Darity, W. A. (Ed.). (2008b). Other, the. In International encyclopedia of the social sciences, 2nd ed., Vol. 6, 82–83. Detroit: Macmillan. de la tierra, T. (2008). Latina lesbian subject headings: The power of naming. In K. R. Roberto (Ed.), Radical cataloging: Essays at the front (pp. 94–102). Jefferson, NC: McFarland. Dewey, M. (2012). Abridged Dewey Decimal Classification and relative index, 15th ed. Dublin, OH: OCLC. Drabinski, E. (2013). Queering the catalog: Queer theory and the politics of correction. The Library Quarterly, 83(2), 94–111.

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Ellis, D. (1992). The physical and cognitive paradigms in information retrieval research. Journal of Documentation, 48(1), 45–64. Foucault, M. (2000). Truth and power. In A. L. Macfie (Ed.), Orientalism: A reader (pp. 41–43). New York: New York University Press. Gramsci, A. (2000). On hegemony and direct rule. In A. L. Macfie (Ed.), Orientalism: A reader (pp. 39–40). New York: New York University Press. Gutting, G. (Fall 2012). Michel foucault. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Accessed November 9 2014. foucault/ Handy, N. (1980). Cataloging and classifying Arabic materials. In M. M. Aman (Ed.), Cataloging and classification of non-western material: Concerns, issues, and practices (pp. 269–296). Phoenix: Oryx Press. Hjørland, B. (2002). Domain analysis in information science: Eleven approaches – Traditional as well as innovative. Journal of Documentation, 58(4), 422–462. Hjørland, B., and Albrechtsen, H. (1995). Toward a new horizon in information science: Domainanalysis. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 46(6), 400–425. Huntington, S. P. (1993). The clash of civilizations? Foreign Affairs, 72(3), 22–49. Johnson, M. (2008). A hidden history of queer subject access. In K. R. Roberto (Ed.), Radical cataloging: Essays at the front (pp. 18–27). Jefferson, NC: McFarland. Kamel, I., Eltalmas, A., and Abubaker, M. (2005). On searching arabic records in electronic libraries. International Cataloging and Bibliographic Control, 34(2), 23–26. Knowlton, S. A. (2005). Three decades since prejudices and antipathies: A study of changes in the library of congress subject headings. Cataloging and Classification Quarterly, 40(2), 123–145. Little Bear, F. E. (2008). North American Indian personal names in national bibliographies. In K. R. Roberto (Ed.), Radical cataloging: Essays at the front (pp. 150–164). Jefferson, NC: McFarland. Nietzsche, F. (2000). Appearance and the thing-in-itself. In A. L. Macfie (Ed.), Orientalism: A reader (pp. 37–38). New York: New York University Press. Olson, H. A. (1998). Mapping beyond Dewey’s boundaries: Constructing classificatory space for marginalized knowledge domains. Library Trends, 47(2), 233–254. Omoerha, T. (1973). The cataloging of Arabic materials and the Anglo-American cataloging rules. International Cataloging, 2(4), 4–6. Pryor, B. (2006). Foucault, Michel (1926–1984). In D. M. Borchert (Ed.), Encyclopedia of philosophy (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 698–702). Detroit: Macmillan. Accessed November 9, 2014. Raber, D. (2003a). Librarians as organic intellectuals: A Gramscian approach to blind spots and tunnel vision. The Library Quarterly, 73(1), 33–53. Raber, D. (2003b). The problem of information: An introduction to information science. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. Said, E. W. (1979). Orientalism. New York: Vintage. Said, E. W. (1997). Covering Islam: How the media and the experts determine how we see the rest of the world, Rev. ed. New York: Vintage. Sardar, Z. (1979). Islam: Outline of a classification scheme. London: Clive Bingley. Shenītī, M. (1962a). Entry of Arabic names. In Regional seminar on bibliography, documentation and exchange of publications in Arabic-speaking states, 15–22 October 1962, Cairo. Paris: UNESCO. Doc. Code LBA/Sem.8/2.

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Shenītī, M. (1962b). Subject cataloging for Arab libraries. In Regional seminar on bibliography, documentation and exchange of publications in Arabic-speaking states, 15–22 October 1962, Cairo. Paris: UNESCO. Doc. code LBA/Sem.8/3. Shenītī, M. (1963). Treatment of Arabic names. [Working Paper No. 15] In A. H. Chaplin and D. Anderson (Eds.), Report/international conference on cataloging principles (pp. 267–276), 9–18 October 1961, Paris. London: International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions. Shenītī, M. (1972). Problems of standardisation in descriptive cataloging of Arabic materials. In E. Bishop and J. M. Waller (Eds.), International cooperation in orientalist librarianship: Papers presented at the library seminars, 28th international conference of orientalists (pp. 49–57), 6–12 January 1971, Canberra. Canberra: National Library of Australia. Siddiqui, R. (1988). The intellectual role of Islamizing librarianship. The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, 5(2), 275–278. Tennis, J. T. (2003). Two axes of domains for domain analysis. Knowledge Organization, 30(3/4), 191–195. Tibbetts, G. R. (1959). The cataloging of Arabic books. The Library Quarterly, 29(2), 113–132. Ul-Haq, S., and Westwood, R. (2012). The politics of knowledge, epistemological occlusion and Islamic management and organization knowledge. Organization, 19(2), 229–257. Vizine-Goetz, D., and Mitchell, J. S. (2009). Dewey decimal classification (DDC). In Encyclopedia of library and information sciences, 3rd ed, 1507–1517. Taylor and Francis. Accessed November 9 2014. Watt, W. M. (1960). Al-Ghazālī. In H. A. R. Gibb (Ed.), The encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed., pp. 1038–1041). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. Weinberg, B. H. (2008). Cataloging in non-roman Scripts: From radical to mainstream practice. In K. R. Roberto (Ed.), Radical cataloging: Essays at the front (pp. 28–39). Jefferson, NC: McFarland. Wien, C. (1995). Nine problems concerning Arabic. In J. D. Byrum and O. Madison (Eds.), Multiscript, multi-lingual, multi-character issues for the online environment: Proceedings of a workshop sponsored by the IFLA section on cataloging, Istanbul (pp. 25–38), 24 August 1995, Turkey. München, Germany: K.G. Saur. Zuwiyya, L. (1957). Arabic cataloging: A criticism of the present rules. Library Resources and Technical Services, 1(1), 31–35.

Received: 25th June 2014 Final version received: 6th January 2015 Accepted: 11th January 2015

Jordan M. Scepanski and Yaşar Tonta

12 Library Collaboration in the Middle East and North Africa Introduction The value of collaboration among libraries – intra country, regionally, and internationally, in the developed world, the developing world, or among those nations least advanced – is not disputed. It has been recognized for many years that working together is essential in dealing with the vast quantity of available information and the reality of insufficient financial resources. Enhancing services and facilitating sharing, achieving economic value, saving time and effort, and sharing experience and expertise are some of the compelling reasons for library collaboration (Al-Harrasi & Al-Aufi, 2012). Yet, there have been a number of obstacles hindering library collaboration in the developing world such as lack of personnel and education programs, limited resources, changing priorities, unstable governments, and centralized decision-making (Bouazza, 1986, pp. 374–375). If education, research, and scholarship are to be advanced, collaboration among the libraries that support universities, research institutes, and other cultural institutions devoted to the creation and use of knowledge must occur and indeed, must be enhanced. Many libraries throughout the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are demonstrating a willingness to establish collaborative connections that will take them beyond attempted self-sufficiency and destructive rivalry to programs that promise much more than can be done individually. Traditional associations for libraries and innovative arrangements among librarians, consortia, and cultural and governmental organizations are combining to advance a collaborative agenda. But progress is uneven, challenges are many, and much remains to be accomplished. This chapter presents an overview of the recent developments in library cooperation and collaboration in the Middle Eastern and North African countries. It is based on the findings of a comprehensive literature review, interviews and email correspondence with administrators and librarians knowledgeable about the region, and online questionnaires used to learn of major collaborative initiatives. It details cooperative efforts of library consortia, library associations and other types of organizations and concludes with a discussion of challenges and obstacles facing implementation of projects in MENA countries along with recommendations for collaborative possibilities in the region.

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The Middle East and North Africa: Definition Listings of countries and territories that constitute the region commonly known as the Middle East and North Africa vary considerably depending on source and perspective, and those tasked with defining the region find this to be a challenge. Tristam (2008) observed: “The ‘Middle East’ as a term can be as contentious as the region it identifies. It’s not a precise geographical area like Europe or Africa. It’s not a political or economic alliance. . . It’s not even an agreedupon term by the countries that constitute it.” The Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa defines the region as ranging from “Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkey to the Fertile Crescent (including Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestinian territories, and Egypt) and to North African states such as Libya, Algeria, and Morocco” (Mattar, 2004, p. x). For purposes of this chapter, the Middle East and North Africa includes the relatively large geographic area stretching from the Atlantic to the Indian Oceans encompassing the eastern and southern Mediterranean Sea. Countries included are: Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, and Yemen.

Literature Review Historically, a significant number of libraries deemed to be “great” existed in the area of the world now termed the Near and Middle East, starting with that in Giza, Egypt, dating back to as early as 2500 BC (Ali, 1985, p. 68). The Royal Library of Alexandria (Egypt), the Royal Library of Ashurbanipal (Iraq), the Libraries of Pergamum and Celsus (Turkey), the Theological Library of Caesarea Maritima (Palestine), and the Imperial Library of Constantinople (Turkey) are among them (Coqueugniot, 2013).¹ These libraries were built through extraordinary dedication to identifying and obtaining everything that could be found of a scholarly or educational nature. Consider how the library deemed to be pre-eminent at the time, the one at Alexandria founded by Ptolemy I in the third century BC, is said to have

1 Compilations of the great libraries of the ancient or classical world are interesting but give a somewhat incomplete historical record. A number of these can be found online. See, for example:;; and All accessed August 14, 2014.

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gathered its collections, which by one estimate numbered “as many as 700 000” (Ali, 1985, p. 68). Charged with obtaining all of the world’s knowledge, buyers were regularly dispatched to Rhodes, Athens, and other centers of scholarship and the book trade to get what they could of works in the sciences and mathematics, history, geography, engineering, anatomy, physiology, medicine, and many other subject areas. Reportedly every ship coming through the port of Alexandria was required to make available for copying any manuscripts on board (Canfora, 1987, p. 20). In perhaps one of the earliest examples of “interlibrary loan,” Ptolemy III Eurgetes asked to borrow from Athens original manuscripts of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. The Athenians agreed, after requiring an enormous fee to insure return of the documents. Ptolemy is said to have then had them copied but he retained the originals, unconcerned about loss of his silver and any impact on future cooperation of this sort (Barnes, 2000, p. 65; El-Abbadi, 1998; Phillips, 2010).² Not that collaboration among libraries and scholarly centers was the norm in ancient times. Competition would seem to more accurately describe the situation. One account has the Egyptians prohibiting export of papyrus as a way of “bringing the rival library (at Pergamum) to its knees” (Canfora, 1987, p. 48). Apparently competitiveness among libraries was not unknown in the ancient Middle East, something still evident today as they vie for scarce resources in order to survive and flourish, thereby creating tension (de Groot & Branch, 2009).

Defining Library Cooperation Yet, “no single institution has the resources . . . to go it alone. . . . [which] demands cooperation – not a diversity of weaknesses but a union of strengths,” as Herman B. Wells, President of Indiana University from 1932 to 1968, observed some decades ago (Wells, 1967, p. 355; see also Sandler, 2014). Practicalities and necessity are the main drivers of collaboration today. Libraries form collaborative partnerships in order to benefit from cost savings, efficiencies and expanded services. They even collaborate to survive. Inspired by Michael Walzer’s, 1994 book, Thick and Thin: Moral Argument at Home and Abroad, Gaetz (2012) uses these two labels to categorize collaboration. Thin collaboration often lacks financial commitment (e.g., simply being a member of a large consortium is seen to suffice) while thick collaboration requires a well-defined purpose along with significant

2 However, accounts that Ptolemy “played (such) a trick on the Athenians” are disputed, characterized as inventions of rival Pergamum. See Canfora (1987, pp. 48, 103).

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financial commitment and deeper involvement by participating members (e.g., planning joint service programs or sharing open source computing systems) (p. 83). Similarly, Horton (2013) characterizes collaboration with shared goals and financial commitment as “deep collaboration” and defines it as “two or more people or organizations contributing substantial levels of personal or organizational commitment, including shared authority, joint responsibility, and robust resources allocation, to achieve a common or mutually-beneficial goal” (p. 66). She lists the following characteristics of deep collaboration: – Clearly defined, shared vision among participants – Greater level of engagement, time commitments, and goal alignment – Higher levels of responsibility, risk, and commitment – Optimization of information resources and staff expertise – Significant imagination and perseverance – Ability to adapt and change as the process evolves and deepens – Reciprocity and congeniality, and staff skilled in negotiation and compromise – Shared power and decision-making. (p. 66) Horton (2013) observes that newer large collaborative efforts are too big to fail. Those that failed in the past did so because of lack of shared vision, goals, leadership, and resource commitment as well as unwillingness to give up autonomy. Deep collaboration can be demonstrated in what is termed “joint-use,” “dual use,” or “shared” libraries. Joint-use libraries are the “outcomes of formal agreements between two or more separate authorities which provide two or more groups of users with equitable access to resources, services and facilities” (Bundy, 1997, p. 1, as cited in Bundy, 2007). One of the oldest such initiatives in the United States of America was the Joint University Libraries in Nashville, Tennessee, which began operation in 1938 (Dedrick, 1994, p. 437) and continued until the institutional merger of two of its founding partners Vanderbilt University and George Peabody College for Teachers in 1979. Joint-use libraries are considered the “ultimate form of cooperation” (Bundy, 2003) and “libraries of the future” (McNicol, 2008). Some advantages of such libraries are: They encourage collaboration and partnership working; they have the potential to be more environmentally sustainable; they can be a forum to promote lifelong learning, especially within communities where education has not been traditionally valued; and, perhaps most importantly of all, they can help to combat social exclusion and promote community cohesion, creating a more equitable society. (McNicol, 2008, p. xix)

Dedrick (1994) surveyed joint-use academic libraries in the United States and concluded that they “provide significant cost savings and service enhancements”

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but also introduce, as expected, inherent administrative burdens such as “managing staff who operate under two separate payroll systems and institutional personnel policies” (pp. 440–441). McNicol (2008) reported more than 120 joint-use libraries worldwide as of 2007. A bibliography prepared by the American Library Association (2012) lists scores of journal articles and reports, along with the contents of entire issues of professional journals (e.g., Library Trends, vol. 54, no. 4, Spring 2006) featuring joint-use facilities.

Library Cooperation in MENA The literature on library cooperation and collaboration among libraries in the Middle East and North Africa is also relatively rich, covering opportunities, obstacles and problems. History and efficacy of library cooperation along with the barriers hindering collaborative efforts have been reviewed in both developed and developing countries (Hangsing, Saraf & Nath, 2003; Moghaddam & Talawar, 2009; Pathak & Deshpande, 2004), and the Middle East (Ahmed & Suleiman, 2012; Sheshadri, Shivalingaiah & Manjunatha, 2011). Articles on librarians working together in associations abound, among them those describing affiliations across the Arab world (Baha El Din, 2005; Bezan, 2013). Almost three decades ago Bouazza (1986) wrote that “no single library is able to purchase all the publications produced internationally” or even nationally, and detailed the obstacles faced by nine MENA countries³ in order to develop effective library collaboration programs (pp. 374–375). Brown and Blucker (1987) wrote of an early innovative approach to cooperative collections development among Saudi military hospital libraries. Sliney (1990) described collaborative activities of medical libraries in the Gulf States. Bukhari (1996) studied resource sharing in the Gulf from different perspectives. Khurshid (1997) emphasized the need for cooperation in bibliographic control of especially local materials, discussed the prospects for cooperation, highlighted the difficulties, and recommended that a cooperative cataloging program be developed by King Fahd National Library along with the goals, guidelines, rules and procedures for participating libraries. Israel and Turkey became the first MENA countries to set up consortia to share electronic resources (Adler, 1999; Tonta, 2001). Al-Ansari & Al-Enezi (2001) noted that the cooperation among health sciences libraries (with small collections) in Kuwait is limited. Al-Fahdli & Johnson (2006) reviewed

3 They were: Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Syria, and Tunisia.

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the attitudes towards resource sharing and interlibrary lending in the Gulf States and investigated the barriers to the adoption of electronic document delivery (EDD) systems based on a survey of 40 Kuwaiti librarians. Although they found general support for resource sharing, there was not great awareness of the availability of EDD systems. Of more recent vintage are assessments of consortium development and activity in individual MENA countries: the Academic Library Consortium in Jordan (Ahmed & Suleiman, 2012); the ANKOS collaborative in Turkey (Cukadar, Tuglu & Gurdal, 2013); Iranian information consortia (Naghshineh & Fahimnia, 2003); and attitudes about library consortia in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) (Sheshadri, Shivalingaiah & Manjunatha, 2011). Although descriptions of multinational library collaboration involving MENA countries is lacking in the literature, Al-Harrasi and Al-Aufi (2012) recently investigated the potential for cooperation among Omani academic libraries. They first discussed the objectives of collaboration under four categories (enhancing services and facilitating sharing; achieving economic value; saving effort and time; and sharing experience and expertise) and examined attitudes of library directors and key librarians in four libraries by means of semi-structured and face-to-face interviews. They found that Omani academic librarians consider collaboration as a must “to achieve their desired goals and to gain collective institutional and individual benefits” (p. 256). Al-Harrasi and Jabur (2014) carried out a similar qualitative study with twenty-three managers to identify critical factors contributing to successful collaboration among Omani academic libraries and found that coordination and communication; technical resources; financial resources; and policy and strategy are most crucial. Apart from the work of international entities such as the World Health Organization’s Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean countries (WHO EMRO) (Al-Shorbaji, 2006), no examples of deep collaboration among MENA countries were found in the literature. Perhaps, as Khafagi (1989, p. 249) observed some twenty-five years ago in the context of Arab countries, national borders keep them “unconnected in a way that hinder a real. . . achievement in the field of information.” Nor were joint-use libraries in the region discovered. Nevertheless, “de facto” collaboration exists among different types of libraries in MENA countries even if it is hard to describe such ventures as deep because of lack of formal agreements among the libraries involved. For instance, the National Library of Turkey provides study space and library and information services for high school and undergraduate students whose information needs cannot be satisfied more fully by their respective libraries.

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Methods The foregoing literature search on library cooperation in the Middle East and North African countries used both printed and online resources, as well as web sites of libraries in MENA countries and those of regional and international institutions. These efforts complemented the authors’ personal knowledge of libraries and librarianship in the region and revealed new examples of collaborative projects. In addition, fruitful conversations took place and extensive email messages were exchanged between the authors and prominent librarians conversant with developments about collaboration among MENA libraries. Managers of library associations and library consortia also were contacted to gather specific information about the nature of their collaborative efforts (e.g., the number of libraries involved, types of resources shared, activities engaged in, etc.). Comparison of findings obtained through the literature search and personal communications was then undertaken. Next, three versions of online questionnaires were constructed, with different forms designed for library consortia, library associations, and other types of collaborative organizations (see Appendices 12.1, 12.2, 12.3). These were sent to the institutions identified during the earlier research. SurveyMonkey versions of the questionnaires also were posted to various library lists in the region to increase response rate (see Appendices 12.4, 12.5, 12.6), which nevertheless proved rather low. Data gathered were keyed into Excel spreadsheets for analysis. Each consortium, association, and other organization was classified by country along with official names, contact persons, websites, founding dates, and other relevant information. The description and analysis that follows is the result of the extensive literature review, interviews, email correspondence, and survey data.

Findings Cooperation among libraries and librarians in the region takes the form of formal consortia, traditional library associations, involvement with international library and information technology organizations, digital library initiatives, integrated library system (ILS) vendor-based membership groups, activity led by ministries of culture or of higher education, participation in nation-wide communication and research networks, and informal physical and online gathering of local professional communities.

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Library Consortia The most obvious demonstration of libraries working together to advance a common agenda is the existence of consortia. Web-based and library research along with personal contacts with individuals knowledgeable about MENA libraries and the online questionnaires turned up references to library consortia in Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine, Syria, Sudan, Tunisia, and Turkey. The UAE is reported to have four functioning organizations of this type (Sheshadri, Shivalingaiah & Manjunatha, 2011, p. 370) and two additional Iranian cooperatives are identified by Moghaddam and Talawar (2009, p. 4). A white paper written for the publishing services group ACCUCOMS makes mention of consortia-like organizations in Saudi Arabia and Qatar, as well (Spaandonk, 2012, p. 9). It would appear, therefore, that at least fifteen consortia are functioning at some level in eleven out of twenty MENA countries. A list of the consortia by country can be found in Appendix 12.4. All appear to be of relatively recent vintage, most established since the turn of the 21st century. Three of these – the Anatolian University Libraries Consortium (ANKOS), the Lebanese Academic Library Consortium, and the Israeli Inter-University Center for Digital Information Services (MALMAD) – are members of the International Coalition of Library Consortia (ICOLC), an organization of some two hundred operations world-wide that facilitates discussions of common interest to library cooperatives of all types (International Coalition of Library Consortia, n.d.). The development of high-speed data and communication networks in individual countries prompted interest in the availability of information and scholarly digital resources and thus the founding of consortia such as the Israeli MALMAD and eFADA, the Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in the UAE. The latter was created “to enhance the education and research resources available to stimulate UAE’s knowledge economy by establishing a shared union catalog, engaging in cooperative collection development and developing a national digital institutional repository” (eFADA, n.d.) and is under the umbrella of Ankabut, the UAE’s Advanced Network for Research and Education. Most influential in bringing about cooperative arrangements in the Arab world has been EIFL or the Electronic Information for Libraries initiative, a notfor-profit organization founded in 1999 that enables “access to knowledge in developing and transition economy countries” (EIFL [Electronic Information for Libraries] (n.d.)). Among them are Algerian Consortium of Higher Education and Scientific Research Establishments, Egyptian Universities Libraries Consortium (EULC), Palestinian Library and Information Consortium (PALICO), and Sudanese Universities Library Consortium (SULC). EIFL was also active in Syria until

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it ceased its operations there in 2011 because of the civil war. In addition, EIFL has programs for licensing of information databases, open access to information, copyright issues as they affect libraries, and public library innovation. It licenses discounted e-resources to institutions in eligible countries, and advocated for open access (OA) repositories and policies to mandate OA to peerreviewed resources in Algeria (EIFL, n.d.). One of the major motivations behind the establishment of EIFL was the creation of consortia so that libraries could take advantage of the buying power represented by larger numbers, especially for licensing of commercial databases. MENA libraries, whether or not in consortia that are EIFL members, know that if they are to have good access to digital information, research, and scholarly resources at relatively reasonable costs, they must be collectively organized. The Jordanian Academic Library Consortium saved its ten members three hundred eighty thousand dollars in fees for a single database after it began coordination of subscriptions (Ahmed & Suleiman, 2012, p. 142). Every consortium identified engages in some sort of coordinated action to obtain electronic information. But while undeniably the major impetus for the formation of these groups, it is by no means the only one. Other activities and representative organizations that engage in such include: creation of union catalogs or lists of holdings (Lebanese Academic Library Consortium), interlibrary lending and document delivery among member institutions (Library Information Web Access [LIWA] in the UAE), staff development and continuing education in the form of workshops, conferences, and other training events (almost all of the consortia engage in some level of staff development and continuing education), and unified purchasing of library management systems (Bibliothèque des Ressources Universitaires [BIRUNI], the Tunisia cooperative). Additionally, there is coordinated collections development (Israel College Consortium), exchange of duplicate materials (Palestinian Library and Information Consortium), joint storage of certain types of materials (Egyptian Universities Libraries Consortium), and setting of standards (Algerian Consortium of Higher Education and Scientific Research Establishments). Each consortium in the region does not engage in all of these activities, but the range represents relatively common programming found in similar institutions worldwide. Two collaborative efforts – one that occurred more than a quarter century ago, the other more recently – are exemplary of valuable projects pursued by MENA consortia or consortia-like organizations. In the mid-eighties a group of Saudi Arabian military hospitals created a union list of serials and pursued active resource sharing. Committing to a “holder-of-record” system that assigned “each library the responsibility for specific (serial) titles . . . more complete journal holdings (were realized) within the kingdom” and “interlibrary loan

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requests (were distributed) more evenly” (Brown & Blucker, 1987, pp. 324–325). In 2005, Turkey’s ANKOS organization, arguably the most successful of consortia in the region, began considering the need for an electronic resource management system (ERM). Concluding it could better have its special needs met through local development of such a system, ANKOS built a sophisticated data management capability that is the basis for much of the sharing of digital resources in the country (Cukadar, Tuglu & Gurdal, 2013).

Library Associations Organization of libraries and librarians into formal associations addressing common issues and problems is among the earliest ways collaboration came about in the Middle East and North Africa. Thirty-three libraries, archival groups, or their equivalents were identified in MENA countries, and listed by country in Appendix 12.5. Undoubtedly there are more. Egypt is reported to have been the first country in the Arab world to form an association, in 1944. The Turkish Library Association (TLA) dates its founding to 1949. On the opposite end of the age continuum five others did not come into existence until this century. Numbers of members in these organizations range from a few hundred to approximately 4,000 in the Egyptian Association for Libraries and Information. Most of these associations have annual meetings. Among them are the Association of Jewish Libraries (AJL), the Turkish University and Research Libraries Association (ÜNAK), and the Lebanese Library Association (LLA). Some publish monographs and serials (TLA, JLA and ÜNAK), organize library weeks (TLA) and give out book awards (AJL). Their activities are typical of library associations everywhere. They engage in conference activity that is educational, sometimes political, and always social. Among events sponsored by Middle Eastern and North African library associations in 2014 were a gathering in April of the Saudi Library and Information Association marking World Book Day, the Jordanian Library and Information Association’s conference in the fall focusing on the status and future prospects of human resource development, and the 25th conference of the Arab Federation for Libraries and Information held in Tunisia with the theme “Quality Standards in Libraries, Information Centers, and Archives.” The associations represent the varied range of the profession: academic, national, public and special libraries, sometimes school libraries, and other more specialized constituents. Some are open to all who are interested in their missions, but most stipulate at least minimal requirements of working in a library or information organization or being a graduate of a program in library or information science. According to its survey response, the Iraqi Association of Information Technology requires “at

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least a B.A. degree (in) Library and Information Science” or computing with academic credentials in other fields acceptable for those working in a library or computer lab. There are two regional associations of note, the Arab Federation for Libraries and Information (AFLI) and the Special Libraries Association, Arabian Gulf Chapter. Founded in 1986 in Tunisia, AFLI is an independent, non-governmental and non-profit organization. Its goals include: strengthening “cooperation between libraries . . . in the Arab world;” developing and promoting “scientific research and studies in the field of libraries and information;” improving educational institutions that “prepare and qualify information specialists;” “standardizing terminology in the field;” encouraging “the establishment of national associations for librarians and information specialists;” and cooperating “with Arab and international organizations” (Arab Federation for Libraries and Information, n.d.). As the largest professional organization in the Arab World, it represents the interests of librarians in the region and organizes an annual conference each year in different Arab countries, which draws almost five-hundred librarians. AFLI also holds workshops, gives awards to outstanding librarians, and publishes a journal (IALAM) and a newsletter (Sada al Ittihad) (Soufi, 2010). The Special Library Association’s (SLA) Arabian Gulf Chapter was founded in 1992 and has as its objectives: developing professional relationships and libraries in the region; organizing meetings and conferences for libraries and information specialists; planning and preparing educational programs such as workshops, lectures, meetings and conferences; and generally seeking the advancement of libraries, information centers, and the profession (Special Libraries Association Arabian Gulf Chapter, n.d.). On the international scene the Arab Regional Branch of the International Council on Archives (ARBICA), the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA), and the Middle East Librarians Association (MELA) play important roles in promoting cooperation in the region. ARBICA has 56 members from sixteen Arab countries and operates under a constitution adopted in Seville in 1985. It carries out the policy and programs of the International Council on Archives (ICA) in the region and aims to strengthen cooperation within Arab countries (Arab Regional Branch of the International Council on Archives, n.d.). IFLA offers individual reports on libraries and library activities – though not specifically on library cooperation – for all but a few MENA countries through an interactive map on its web site (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions [IFLA], 2010). In 2007, IFLA established a Center for Arabic Speaking Libraries and Information Institutions at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina. The Center is the permanent representative of IFLA/HQ for the

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Arabic-speaking professional community and acts as a bridge between IFLA and all Arab libraries (Biblioteca Alexandrina, n.d.). It organizes regional conferences, for example the 2008 conference on the role of libraries in freedom of expression.⁴ IFLA also organized its first regional IFLA conference in the Arab region in 2013 in Qatar in cooperation with AFLI and Qatar’s Ministry of Culture, Arts and Heritage.⁵ MELA is a North American-based professional organization comprising mainly Middle East library specialists in the USA and Canada. MELA aims to facilitate communication and encourage cooperation among members with regards to the acquisition of Middle Eastern information resources and their bibliographic control. It publishes MELA Notes: Journal of the Middle East Librarians Association, and maintains a weblog called the MELA Notepad (Middle East Librarians Association, n.d.).

Other Organizations and Institutions Promoting Library Collaboration A number of international organizations play an important role in the development of library and information services in the MENA countries. Among them are the Arab League Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organization (ALECSO) and the World Health Organization. Founded in 1970 as “a Supra-Arab national body established to facilitate cooperation among various professional groups” (Ali, 1985, p. 69), ALECSO also aims to develop and promote documentation and library services in the region through its Department of Documentation and Information that serves as a depository of Arab publications with branches in almost all Arab countries (Ali, 1985, p. 70; Khafagi, 1989, p. 249). Through its Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean (EMRO) countries, WHO has been instrumental in facilitating access to information in 23 countries in the region by means of several initiatives. WHO EMRO has a library providing biomedical and public health information, and the Regional Office Library maintains a directory of medical libraries “in order to increase cooperation and collaboration among medical libraries in the Region as a prerequisite to develop and sustain the Eastern Mediterranean Medical Libraries Network (MedLibNet).”

4 Information about this conference can be accessed at 5 Information about this conference can be accessed at

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(World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, n.d.). In addition, it developed the Virtual Health Sciences Library (VHSL) that substantially increased information sharing among member states. The VHSL provides online library services and health and biomedical information resources for health care professionals and maintains a union catalog of holdings of 43 health sciences libraries.⁶ Thanks to the WHO’s Health Information Network Access to Research Initiative (HINARI), researchers in several Eastern Mediterranean countries can get free (or reduced rate) access to medical literature through the network of Health Sciences Libraries (Al-Shorbaji, 2006). The activities of associations and consortia are the most obvious demonstration of collaboration but there are numerous other national organizations in the Middle East and North Africa that promote and facilitate cooperation, listed by country in Appendix 12.6. Governmental entities, especially national libraries or ministries of culture and higher education, exert leadership for cooperative endeavors in many of the MENA countries. Turkey, for example, provides both high speed network and information services through its National Academic Network and Information Center (ULAKBIM), an R&D facility of the governmentsupported Turkish Scientific and Technological Research Council (TUBITAK). ULAKBIM licenses nation-wide online access to some key databases and e-journal packages such as Thomson Reuters’s Web of Science and Elsevier’s ScienceDirect on behalf of university libraries and research centers through its National Academic License for Electronic Resources (EKUAL) program (National Academic Network and Information Center, n.d.). More than half the total number of article downloads in Turkey come from e-journals licensed by ULAKBIM and the rest come through the ANKOS consortium.⁷ In some cases governments initiated or approved membership in EIFL to benefit from EIFL’s information services. Algeria, Egypt, and Sudan are among them. Members of the Sudanese Research and Education Network (SudREN or SUIN), for example, can get free access to commercial e-resources thanks to a governmental agreement with EIFL (Sudanese Research and Education Network, n.d.). SudREN also offers network services to its members. In addition to its EIFL membership, Egypt provides two other examples of organizations established by the government or related to it that are collaborative

6 7 Data on the download statistics are partially available from ULAKBIM’s annual reports (e.g., Ulusal, 2012). Nationally licensed resources by ULAKBIM through its EKUAL program cater to the 50%–55% of the needs of academia over the years. ANKOS reports its download statistics during its annual meetings.

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in nature but strictly speaking are neither associations nor consortia: The Egyptian Libraries Network and the Egyptian Society for Culture and Development (formerly the Integrated Care Society or ICS). The latter was established in 1978 and has twelve library members, including public and school libraries and one for special needs. It engages in cooperative development of collections and offers staff development workshops and other events. Other institutions that fall into the category of collaborative organizations that are government-related include the Iraqi Libraries Network, Jordan’s King Abdullah II Center of Excellence, the Qatar Foundation through the Qatar National Library programs, Qatar’s Hamad Medical Corporation, the Saudi Digital Library (SDL), and the collaborative efforts of King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Library. A relatively recent organization that focuses on a particular aspect of librarianship is the Information Literacy Network of the Gulf Region.⁸ The network provides professional development activities in the Gulf and has organized three conferences and numerous workshops since its founding in 2005. Another type of collaboration is less formal or functions largely in cyberspace. The Abu Dhabi Librarians Meetup⁹ is an example of individuals in one Gulf emirate connecting for professional development or social reasons, while the larger, more elaborate Cybrarians site (The Arabic Portal for Librarianship and Information)¹⁰ provides a vehicle for scholarly contributions and reports on library progress in the region. The acquisition of an online integrated library management system from a single vendor has prompted formation of networks of libraries, and even consortia. The Tunisian cooperative BIRUNI began with installation of VTLS software and now encompasses over 240 libraries. LIWA in the UAE had its genesis in the decision of the country’s three federal institutions – the Higher Colleges of Technology, United Arab Emirates University, and Zayed University – to purchase Innovative Interfaces Incorporated’s system. Khurshid (2003) studied the Arabian Gulf region marketplace for library automation systems and found that the Horizon system of Dynix had been installed in 59 out of 81 libraries surveyed, enjoying 73% market share (34 in Saudi Arabia, 11 in the UAE, 10 in Kuwait, and 2 each in Bahrain and Oman). The success of the Horizon system was attributed to its strong Arabic and local support capabilities, the two major requirements in the region (Khurshid, 2003, pp. 228–229). The proliferation of

8 9 10

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integrated library automation systems and the ability to cross-search several systems at once are likely to increase the demand for online access to the fulltexts of journal articles, books and newspapers. The use of electronic document delivery (EDD) systems in the region was quite low before the widespread adoption of electronic journals and books (Al-Fadhli & Johnson, 2006), and the demand will increasingly be satisfied by some other means (e.g., pay-per-view) than by EDD systems alone. The Arabic Union Catalog is an important regional collaboration that works across the entire region and engages in training and provision of technical assistance to libraries in a range of MENA countries. Established in 2006 by the King Abdulaziz Public Library with a commitment of funding for ten years, it is developing a unified index of holdings in Arabic through shared cataloging and the adoption of international standards (Arabic Union Catalog, n.d.). In November of 2011 the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) announced the addition of over a million records from the Arabic Union Catalog to its WorldCat database. According to OCLC (2011), providing links through WorldCat would expose “the resources of hundreds of Middle Eastern libraries to the worldwide community” (para. 4). Finally, international programs from outside the region, but to which Middle Eastern and North African organizations and institutions – and their libraries – contribute, help to advance the collaborative process. Twenty MENA countries are represented in the World Digital Library, and they have added 2,201 items to the site as of November 2014 (World Digital Library, n.d.).¹¹ The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization’s (UNESCO) Global Open Access Portal shows library organizations in a number of the region’s countries involved with its efforts to expand and enhance open access to information throughout the world (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, n.d.).

Challenges, Obstacles and Possibilities And yet, for all of the region’s association activity, consortia, and seemingly genuine interest among many librarians in working together, progress toward realization of the full promise of cooperation in most MENA countries has been slow and fitful. It is interesting to note that decades after librarians in other parts of the world wrote about the value of cooperative endeavors, two of the

11 The figure excludes 307 items added by non-MENA countries (i.e., Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan).

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more recent MENA treatments of the subject still were focused on “potential” (Al-Harrasi & Al-Aufi, 2012) and on “opinions” about consortia (Sheshadri, Shivalingaiah & Manjunatha, 2011). Surveys of individuals most involved with cooperative efforts in the Middle East and North Africa reveal continued concern with budgets, philosophical differences, organizational limitations, and discrepancies in academic training, skills, and workplace settings of staff. In some cases personal safety and security, given the wars in Iraq and Syria and civil unrest and rebellion in Algeria, Egypt, Lebanon, Libya, Israel, Palestine, Tunisia, Yemen and elsewhere, were understandably of paramount consideration. The current Archivist of the United States, David Ferriero, speaking from his experience in American libraries, observed that the problem with realizing meaningful creative collaborations is not technological barriers, but instead cultural, societal, and political ones. True collaboration, he suggested, is rare and there are huge obstacles to realizing it.¹² What are those obstacles? How might they be overcome? The authors have previously addressed these questions in separate presentations and publications. Scepanski saw distance, service orientation, funding sources, different types of clienteles, institutional and personal rivalries, and inertia as issues (Scepanski, 2001). Tonta, echoing Ferriero’s comments, has written of the need for development of a culture of cooperation. Commitment, mutual understanding, consensus building, and patience are necessary, as are planning, organizational, and administrative skills, and requisite human and monetary resources (Tonta, 2001). Library consortia, associations, and institutions with similar goals often face prodigious problems with bureaucracies in their countries. Associations, consortia, non-government organizations and other formal organizations in MENA nations, particularly in the smaller and younger countries of the Gulf, sometimes require a minimal number of citizens (not expatriates) as members before an entity can be officially recognized. With the dearth of trained librarians native to some of these countries, this is an almost insurmountable hurdle to legal establishment. Governmental approval recognizing an organization can take years. The three universities in UAE’s LIWA consortium began more formal collaboration in 2001 but did not become officially sanctioned until 2007. Rivalries, unfortunately, remain intractable. Spurr’s 2007 report on the Iraqi archival and library situation indicates that Dr. Saad Eskander, director-general of the Iraqi National Library, is not “sanguine about cooperation . . . saying that

12 Mr. Ferriero, Associate Provost for Libraries and University Librarian at Duke University at the time, conveyed these observations to Mr. Scepanski in conversation.

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the hierarchical-mindedness instilled under Saddam remains in place, and that lateral, cooperative action is nearly impossible,” and goes on to mention the view of Dr. Anis al-Rawi, Dean of the University of Baghdad’s Science College for Women, that “competition not cooperation is the order of the day for Iraqi universities” (Spurr, 2007, Assistance Required section, para. 4). Further down the Gulf, a proposal by one of the authors for innovative – even groundbreaking – sharing of technical services staff among three institutions with a common funding source was thwarted not by librarians, but by administrators who feared loss of prestige and power. Resource limitations always will be a reality for libraries, whether in the developed countries of the west, the emerging ones of the east, the wealthy of the Middle East, or the poor everywhere. Libraries and archival institutions always will have competition from elsewhere in society. While they should never cease to make the case for the importance of their work, they must band together and realize their greater strength in numbers. Complicating adoption of a collaborative culture among libraries is what Sloan (1998) has termed “Common Assumptions about Resource Sharing.” Among these common assumptions are that “smaller libraries ‘raid’ the collections of larger libraries” and that “smaller libraries are deluged by the volume of requests from larger libraries” (Sloan, 1998, p. 18). He subjected them and other strongly held beliefs to a detailed analysis of interlibrary loan activity among institutions who were members of a major resource sharing collaborative in the United States, the Illinois Library Computer Systems Organization (ILCSO). Among his surprising findings were that smaller libraries in the coalition were less likely to draw heavily on collections of the bigger members than were their brethren of similar size (Sloan, 1998). His study demonstrated that care should be exercised in assuming negative consequences of sharing resources among differing types and sizes of libraries. In the past distance of institutions from one another might have been an impediment to cooperation but now would seem to be less of an issue. Joining together to license e-resources, for example, is not dependent upon proximity and there are other ways libraries can engage with each other from afar. Even two decades ago there was demonstration that large-scale collaboration at longdistance was feasible when three large systems of higher education in the United States, one of them more than 5,000 kilometers away from the others, pursued common cause on issues of acquisitions and access, copyright, distance education and library services, and staff development (Scepanski & von Wahlde, 1998). MENA countries might pursue a similar approach. Electronic theses and dissertations can easily be shared through interoperable institutional repositories of universities in a fashion similar to the WHO’s Institutional

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Repository for Information Sharing (IRIS).¹³ Electronic resources can be licensed through national and/or regional consortia as is done by WHO’s HINARI program or the EIFL initiatives mentioned earlier. So beyond that which already is being accomplished in the region, what other activities might be pursued to advance a common cause? A program no longer a novelty among many western libraries but which has enhanced possibilities because of proven technology is sharing facilities for storage of print materials. With smaller numbers of books and journals in print form, and space on campuses perhaps at less of a premium than is the case with their western counterparts, devoting time, money, and effort to coordinating storage of publications may not be a priority for MENA institutions. But where library space might better be devoted to user services than to housing little used print material, it might be considered. For example, library space allocated to collections can be repurposed to what is commonly called “digital commons,” an area of public access to a variety of online resources. Automated storage/retrieval systems, proven cost effective many years ago in the United States, could be an attractive investment for libraries willing to partner on constructing them. Libraries in some MENA countries have approached technology implementation collaboratively. While surrendering some local autonomy and having to accept degrees of standardization, those willing to extensively integrate their processes and systems realize substantial gains in productivity. Others simply choose the same online system vendor to make sharing of catalogs and other functions simpler. An increasing number of libraries outside the region have turned to outsourcing their integrated library sytem ILS operations to realize greater efficiencies and financial benefit, something that might serve as example for some MENA libraries. Trained, knowledgeable and skilled staff is the most important resource a library has, and among the most expensive. To the extent libraries can find ways to share costs of personnel, additional or improved services can be put in place. Information technology specialists, catalogers and others involved in technical services, reference librarians working extended hours or offering assistance online, all might be candidates for groups of libraries to jointly fund. Centralization of various staffing operations could enhance services offered and lower costs. Distance education has existed in the region for more than a decade (Mohamed, 2005) and there are several open or virtual universities in MENA countries. Support of distance education through online library services might


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better occur in a collaborative rather than a competitive manner. Digitization of both course materials and valuable and rare information resources and the sharing of such via the web increasingly is one of the most important aspects of a library’s purpose. However, the expense of doing so – in equipment and in personnel – is not inconsequential and cries out for cooperation. In an area prone to both natural and man-made catastrophes, library planning for dealing with the impact of earthquakes, floods, wars and thievery on services, and how best to recover from such, is something eminently logical to do in coordination with other libraries. Disaster preparedness should be a major collaborative priority throughout the region. Another innovative possibility focusing on efficiency and service, but one that would require confidence, commitment to a common vision, and most especially a willingness to take risks is interlibrary loan that sends needed books and journals to requesting institutions and then have them remain with the borrowing library until they are required at another partner. While radically upsetting all notions of ownership, it would not be impossible to implement, particularly at libraries – such as those that are publicly funded – whose sources of income are the same. While scanning and digital sharing of material might be preferred to transport of physical items, copyright restrictions could make continued use of traditional interlibrary loan necessary for some time to come. Moving items only when they are necessary would make this age-old arrangement more efficient. In some places collaborative rethinking of libraries’ clienteles, and the kinds of buildings provided to best serve them, is taking place. As indicated earlier, jointly-used facilities is not a new concept, but more communities are asking why not have the general public use portions or all of a university library building. Why not have school and public libraries sharing space in the same place? The foregoing are but some suggestions and possibilities, unrealistic in some settings, bold in most, obvious in a few. To advance the cause of good library and information service, however, different thinking is essential. Critical questions need to be asked and answered if the promise of libraries working together is to be realized. Are libraries in the Middle East and North Africa willing to surrender some of their autonomy in the interest of the greater good of better and more comprehensive service? Are the publics the libraries serve and the authorities that fund those libraries willing to let them collaborate? Are the libraries willing to think broadly, viewing their constituencies more comprehensively and inclusively? Are the libraries of the Middle East and North Africa truly committed to collaboration?

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Forward Together or Falling Apart At the conclusion of his paper on the preservation of scientific and cultural heritage in the Balkans, Tonta (2009) observed that cooperation “should not be seen as countries and institutions with relatively more resources and services ‘helping out’ the less fortunate ones” (p. 428). Instead, cooperation involves “working together to provide more developed and varied services” so that institutions that “cannot usually provide such services satisfactorily if they act alone” are able to do so as a result of ‘interdependence’ (Tonta, 2009, p. 428). Are libraries willing to embrace interdependence? A 1998 article about academic library consortia opens with a famous quotation from the American statesman and revolutionary Benjamin Franklin: “We must all hang together,” it says, “or assuredly we shall all hang separately” (Allen & Hirshon, 1998, p. 36). A collaborative approach to addressing the myriad of issues, opportunities, problems, and possibilities being faced by libraries at the end of the twentieth century was deemed not just necessary for realizing success in the extraordinarily complex world of scholarly information and research, but as essential to the survival of the millennially old institution that is the library. That observation is even more relevant today, and especially so in the fractious and fragile world of the Middle East. If the libraries of the region are to build on the heritage of their illustrious predecessors and again be among the centers of world knowledge, they will only do so by moving forward together.

References Adler, E. (1999). University library cooperation in Israel: The MALMAD Consortium. Information Technology and Libraries, 18(3), 135–138. Ahmed, M. H., and Suleiman, R. J. (2012). Academic library consortium in Jordan: An evaluation study. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 39(2), 138–143. doi: 10.1016/j.acalib. 2012.09.021 Al-Ansari, H. A., and Al-Enezi, S. (2001). Health sciences libraries in Kuwait: A study of their resources, facilities, and services. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 89(3), 287–293. Al-Fadhli, M. S., and Johnson, I. M. (2006). Electronic document delivery in academic and research organizations in the Gulf States: A case study in Kuwait. Information Development, 22(1), 32–47. doi: 10.1177/0266666906060071 Al-Harrasi, N., and Al-Aufi, A. (2012). The potential of inter-state collaboration for Omani academic libraries. Library Review, 61(4), 240–260. doi: 10.1108/00242531211267554

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Al-Harrasi, N., and Jabur, N. H. (2014). Factors contributing to successful collaboration among Omani academic libraries. Interlending and Document Supply, 42(1), 26–32. doi: 10.1108/ ilds-02-2014-0015 Ali, S. A. (1985). Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO) and its contribution to Middle Eastern libraries. International Library Review, 17(1), 67–75. doi: 10.1016/0020-7837(85)90018-4 Allen, B. M., and Hirshon, A. (1998). Hanging together to avoid hanging separately: Opportunities for academic libraries and consortia. Information Technology and Libraries, 17(1), 36–44. Al-Shorbaji, N. (2006). Report: WHO EMRO’s approach for supporting e-health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 12(supp. 2), S238–S252. Retrieved from American Library Association. (2012). Joint-use libraries: A bibliography. Retrieved from http:// Arabic Union Catalog. (n.d.). Arabic Union Catalog homepage. Retrieved from Arab Federation for Libraries and Information (AFLI). (n.d.). AFLI homepage. Retrieved from Arab Regional Branch of the International Council on Archives. (n.d.). About Arab Regional Branch. Retrieved from about-arbica.html Baha El-Din, N. M. (2005). (‫ﺍﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ )ﺍﻋﻠﻢ‬. ‫ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬:‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‬ [Arab Federation for Libraries and Information and Arabic professional associations on the Internet: An evaluation study]. Cybrarians Journal, 4(2005). Retrieved from http://www.jour Barnes, R. (2000). Cloistered bookworms in the chicken-coop of the Muses: The ancient library of Alexandria. In R. MacLeod (Ed.), The Library of Alexandria: Centre of learning in the ancient world (pp. 61–78). London, UK: I.B. Tauris Publishers. Bezan, D. H. S. (2013). ‫ ﻗﺮﺍءﺎ ﺕ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬. ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺄﻃﻴﺮ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ‬ [Professional associations and cognitive societies: Analytical readings to frame an Arab vision of future]. Cybrarians Journal, 32(2013). Retrieved from http://www.journal.cybrar &Itemid=95. Biblioteca Alexandrina. (n.d.). About the IFLA Center. Retrieved from IFLA-libraries-tolerance08/Home/StaticPage.aspx?page=2&lang=en Bouazza, A. (1986). Resource sharing among libraries in developing countries: The gulf between hope and reality. International Library Review, 18(4), 373–387. doi: 10.1016/ s0020-7837(86)80035-8 Brown, P. L., and Blucker, D. (1987). Interlibrary cooperation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: The holder of record system. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 75(4), 323–325. Bukhari, A. A. (1996). Resource sharing in Gulf academic libraries ‘95. Library Hi Tech News, 130, 9–12. Bundy, A. (1997). Widened horizons: The rural school community libraries of South Australia. Adelaide, Australia: Auslib Press. Bundy, A. (2003). Joint-use libraries – The ultimate form of cooperation. In G. McCabe and J. Kennedy (Eds.), Planning the modern public library building (pp. 129–148). Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited.

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Bundy, A. (2007). Widening horizons: Joint use libraries and South Australia’s unique system of rural school community libraries. In A. Bundy (Ed.), Joint-use libraries, an international conference, proceedings (pp. 3–15). Adelaide: Auslib Press. Canfora, L. (1987). The vanished library. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Coqueugniot, G. (2013). Where was the royal library of Pergamum? In J. König, K. Oikonomopoulou, and G. Woolf (Eds.), Ancient libraries (pp. 109–123). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Cukadar, S., Tuglu, A., and Gurdal, G. (2013). New electronic resources management system for the ANKOS consortium. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 39(6), 589–595. doi: 10.1016/j.acalib.2012.11.011 de Groot, J., and Branch, J. L. (2009 March). Competition or cooperation in an era of change: Tensions between school and public libraries in Alberta, Canada. Paper presented at AsiaPacific Conference on Library and Information Education and Practice, Tsukuba, Japan. Retrieved from Dedrick, A. J. (1994). Shared academic library facilities: The unknown form of library cooperation. College and Research Libraries, 55(5), 437–442. doi: 10.5860/crl_55_05_437 eFADA. (n.d.). What is eFADA? Retrieved from EIFL [Electronic Information for Libraries]. (n.d.). Retrieved from El-Abbadi, M. (1998). The Library of Alexandria – Ancient and modern. Retrieved from http:// Gaetz, I. (2012). Thick and thin library collaboration. Collaborative Librarianship, 4(3), 83–84. Retrieved from Hangsing, R., Saraf, V., and Nath, S. (2003). Library consortium and contemporary scenario of North Eastern academic libraries. In T. A. V. Murthy and V. Saraf (Eds.), Proceedings of the first PLANNER convention on automation of libraries in north eastern region: Trends, issues and challenges (pp. 288–294). Ahmedabad, India: INFLIBNET. Horton, V. (2013). Going “all-in” for deep collaboration. Collaborative Librarianship, 5(2), 65–69. Retrieved from International Coalition of Library Consortia. (n.d.). About ICOLC. Retrieved from http://icolc. net/about-icolc International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions. (2010). IFLA world report 2010. Retrieved from Khafagi, M. T. (1989). ALECSO and its activities in the field of information. IFLA Journal, 15(3), 246–250. doi: 10.1177/034003528901500312 Khurshid, Z. (1997). Cooperative cataloging: Prospects and problems for libraries in Saudi Arabia. Library Resources and Technical Services, 41(3), 264–272. doi: 10.5860/lrts.41n3.264 Khurshid, Z. (2003). A survey of the Arabian Gulf library automation marketplace. Program: Electronic Library and Information Systems, 37(4), 226–233. doi: 10.1108/00330330310500702 Mattar, P. (2004). Introduction. In P. Mattar (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the modern Middle East and North Africa (pp. ix–xii). Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference USA. McNicol, S. (2008). Joint-use libraries: Libraries of the future. Oxford, UK: Chandos Publishing. Middle East Librarians Association. (n.d.). About MELA. Retrieved from Moghaddam, G. G., and Talawar, V. G. (2009). Library consortia in developing countries: An overview. Program: Electronic Library and Information Systems, 43(1), 94–104. doi: 10.1108/00330330910934138

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Mohamed, A. A. H. (2005). Distance higher education in the Arab Region: The need for quality assurance frameworks. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 8(1). Retrieved from Naghshineh, N., and Fahimnia, F. (2003). ACNET: The genesis of Iranian information consortia and its impact on national digital library development. In T. M. T. Sembok, H. B Zaman, H. Chen, S. Urs, and S. H. Myaeng (Eds.), Digital libraries: Technology and management of indigenous knowledge for global access, 6th International Conference on Asian Digital Libraries, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (p. 686). Berlin, Germany: Springer. National Academic Network and Information Center. (n.d.). National Academic License for Electronic Resources (EKUAL). Retrieved from Online Computer Library Center (OCLC). (2011, November 29). OCLC partners with King Abdulaziz Public Library in Saudi Arabia to make Arabic-language resources available through Retrieved from Pathak, S. K., and Deshpande, N. (2004). Importance of consortia in developing countries – An Indian scenario. The International Information and Library Review, 36(3), 227–231. doi: 10.1016/j.iilr.2003.10.003 Phillips, H. (2010). The Great Library of Alexandria? Library Philosophy and Practice. Retrieved from Sandler, M. (2014). How super-consortia saved our libraries from forces of evil . . . and themselves. Collaborative Librarianship, 6(1), 1–4. Retrieved from http://collaborativelibrarian Scepanski, J. M. (2001). Kütüphanelerarası işbirliğinin gerçekleştirilemeyen vaadi [The unfulfilled promise of library cooperation]. Türk Kütüphaneciliği, 15(2), 194–204. Retrieved from Scepanski, J. M., and von Wahlde, B. (1998). Megasystem collaboration: Cross-continent consortial cooperation. Information Technology and Libraries, 17(1), 30–35. Sheshadri, K. N., Shivalingaiah, S., and Manjunatha, K. (2011). Library consortia in United Arab Emirates: An opinion survey. In Asia-Pacific Conference Library and Information Education and Practice, 2011: Issues, challenges and opportunities (pp. 368–378). Lakeside, Malaysia: Pullman Putrajaya. Retrieved from Sliney, M. (1990). Arabia deserta: The development of libraries in the Middle East. Library Association Record, 92(12), 912–914. Sloan, B. (1998). Testing common assumptions about resource sharing. Information Technology and Libraries, 17(1), 18–29. Soufi, N. (2010). Arab Federation for Libraries and Information (AFLI). In J. M. Bates and M. N. Maack (Eds.), Encyclopedia of library and information sciences (3rd ed., pp. 115–120). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. doi: 10.1081/E-ELIS3-120043622 Spaandonk, R. (2012). Selling to libraries in the Middle East and North Africa: An ACCUCOMS white paper. Retrieved from Special Library Association’s Arabian Gulf Chapter (SLA-AGC). (n.d.). About Special Libraries Association (AGC). Retrieved from Spurr, J. B. (2007). Iraqi libraries and archives in peril: Survival in a time of invasion, chaos, and civil conflict. Retrieved from 2007.htm

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Sudanese Research and Education Network. (n.d.). Sudanese University Virtual Library. Retrieved from Tristam, P. (2008). What is the Middle East? About News. Retrieved from http://middleeast. Tonta, Y. (2001). Collection development of electronic information resources in Turkish university libraries. Library Collections, Acquisitions and Technical Services, 25(3), 291–298. doi: 10.1016/s1464-9055(01)00187-7 Tonta, Y. (2009). Preservation of scientific and cultural heritage in Balkan countries. Program: Electronic Library and Information Systems, 43(4), 419–429. doi: 10.1108/00330330910998066 Ulusal Akademik Ağ ve Bilgi Merkezi (TÜBİTAK ULAKBİM). (2012). Yıllık Raporu. [The National Academic Network and Information Center. Annual Report (2012)]. Retrieved from http:// United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (n.d.). Global Open Access Portal. Retrieved from mation/portals-and-platforms/goap/access-by-region/ Walzer, M. (1994). Thick and thin: Moral argument at home and abroad. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press. Wells, H.B. (1967). Case study on interinstitutional cooperation. Educational Record, 48(4), 355–362. Retrieved from cic.pdf?sfvrsn=0. World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean (WHO EMRO). Directory of medical libraries. (n.d.). Retrieved from World Digital Library. (n.d.). Middle East and North Africa. Retrieved from en/search/?regions=middle-east-and-north-africa

Received: 4th June 2014 Final version received: 27th February 2015 Accepted: 17th March 2015

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Appendix 12.1: Library Consortia Questionnaire Information about cooperation among libraries and librarians in the Middle East and North Africa is being sought for a book to be published next year under the editorial direction of faculty and students at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Information and Library Science. Your assistance in answering as many of the questions below as possible is requested. 1a. Name of Consortium (in Native Language) ______________________________ 1b. Name of Consortium (in English) _____________________________________ 2. Consortium web address _____________________________________________ 3. Year of establishment ___________________ 4. Number of library members ____________ 5. Requirements to be a member (if any) __________________________________ 6. Address of headquarters ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 7. Frequency of meetings (for example: quarterly, twice a year, annually) _____ 8. Types of activities (mark all that apply) ____ a. Maintenance of a union list of member holdings ____ b. Lending of books, journals, and other library material among members ____ c. Joint storage of books, journals, and other library materials ____ d. Joint licensing of digital databases ____ e. Staff development conferences, meetings, or workshops ____ f. Joint funding of staff shared among member institutions ____ g. Cooperative development of library collections ____ h. Other activities (please elaborate) ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 9. Contact person with email address _____________________________________ PLEASE RESPOND TO: Jordan M. Scepanski Jordan Wells Associates [email protected]

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Appendix 12.2: Library Associations Questionnaire Information about cooperation among libraries and librarians in the Middle East and North Africa is being sought for a book to be published next year under the editorial direction of faculty and students at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Information and Library Science. Your assistance in answering as many of the questions below as possible is requested. 1a. Name of Association (in Native Language) ______________________________________________________________________ 1b. Name of Association (in English) ______________________________________________________________________ 2. Association web address _____________________________________________ 3. Year of establishment ___________________________________ 4. Number of current members (individuals) ____________ 5. Number of current members (institutions) ____________ 6. Address of headquarters ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 7. Frequency of meetings (for example: quarterly, twice a year, annually) ______ 8. Types of activities ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 9. Contact person with email address _____________________________________ PLEASE RESPOND TO: Jordan M. Scepanski Jordan Wells Associates [email protected]

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Appendix 12.3: Library Cooperation Questionnaire Information about cooperation among libraries and librarians in the Middle East and North Africa is being sought for a book to be published next year under the editorial direction of faculty and students at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Information and Library Science. Your assistance in answering as many of the questions below as possible is requested. 1a. Name of Organization (in Native Language)_____________________________ 1b. Name of Organization (in English) ____________________________________ 2. Organization web address ____________________________________________ 3. Year of establishment ___________________ 4. Number of participants __________________ 5. Requirements to be a member (if any) __________________________________ 6. Address of headquarters ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 7. Types of activities (mark all that apply) ____ a. Maintenance of a union list of member holdings ____ b. Lending of books, journals, and other library material among members ____ c. Joint storage of books, journals, and other library materials ____ d. Joint licensing of digital databases ____ e. Staff development conferences, meetings, or workshops ____ f. Joint funding of staff shared among member institutions ____ g. Cooperative development of library collections ____ h. Other activities (please elaborate) ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 8. Contact person with email address PLEASE RESPOND TO: Jordan M. Scepanski Jordan Wells Associates [email protected]

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Appendix 12.4: Library Consortia in the Middle East and North Africa Country

Name of the Library Consortium


Algerian Consortium of Higher Education and Scientific Research Establishments Egyptian Universities Library Consortium (EULC) ACNET CONSIRAN Israeli College Consortium (ICC) Israeli Inter-University Center for Digital Information Services (MALMAD) Consortium of the Central Libraries of the Public Universities in Jordan Lebanese Academic Library Consortium (LALC) Palestinian Library and Information Consortium (PALICO) Syrian Library Consortium Bibliothèque des Ressources Universitaires (BIRUNI) Anatolian University Libraries Consortium (ANKOS) eFada, Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in UAE Library Information Web Access (LIWA) UAE Health Libraries Consortium (UAEHLC) EIFL (Electronic Information for Libraries)

Egypt Iran Israel

Jordan Lebanon Palestine Syria Tunisia Turkey United Arab Emirates



Note: Some consortia such as ACNET and PALICO listed above seem to have web sites available in the past but they were not accessible at the time of writing (September 2014).

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Appendix 12.5: Library Associations in the Middle East and North Africa Country/ Territory

Name of the Library Association


Algerian Association of Librarians, Archivists, and Documentalists Bahrain Library Association The Egyptian Association for Libraries and Information Egyptian Society for Libraries Association of School Libraries Iranian Library and Information Science Association (ILISA) Iranian Medical Library and Information Association The Union of Iranian Library and Information Science Student Associations (ADKA) South Iran Medical Library Association Iraqi Association of Information Technology Iraqi Committee for Libraries and Information Sciences Israeli Association of Libraries and Information Centers

Bahrain Egypt




Association of Jewish Libraries Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libya

Mauritania Morocco

Jordan Library and Information Association Library and Information Association of Kuwait (LIAK) Lebanese Library Association Libya Library Association Libyan Association for Libraries, Information, and Archives Mauritanien Association of Librarians, Archivists, and Documentalists Association Nationale des Informatistes (ANI)

Website post-.aspx php?option=com_content&task= view&id=&Itemid= main/ ?lang_id=&

12 Library Collaboration in the Middle East and North Africa


(continued) Country/ Territory

Name of the Library Association


Oman Palestine

Omani Library Association Palestinian Library and Information Association Saudi Library and Information Association (SLIA) Sudanese Association of Libraries and Information (SALI) Library Association of the Syrian Arab Republic Association Tunisienne des Documentalistes, Bibliothécaires et Archivistes (ATDBA)

Saudi Arabia Sudan Syria Tunisia




Tunisian Federation of the Associations of the Friends of Books and Libraries (FENNABIL) Turkish Librarians’ Association University and Research Librarians’ Association Association of School Librarians Turkish Archivists Association Yemeni Association for Libraries and Information Arab Federation for Libraries and Information (AFLI) http://puka.cs.waikato. -association-tunisienne-desdocumentalistes-bibliothecaires-etarchivistes-.htm?RH=REPAN_ ORGASSOS#sthash.bVSE.dpuf

http://www.kutuphaneci.; http:// //arab-federation-forlibraries-and.html

Libraries Associations Arabia Special Libraries Association, Arabian Gulf Chapter International

Arab Regional Branch of the International Council on Archives (ARBICA) International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) Middle East Library Association/aboutarab-regional-branch-arbica/ about-arbica.html

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Appendix 12.6: Other Organizations and Institutions Promoting Library Collaboration in the Middle East and North Africa Country/ Territory




Egyptian Libraries Network

Iraq Jordan Morocco

Egyptian Society for Culture and Development Egyptian Libraries Network King Abdullah II Center of Excellence Moroccan Catalog (Catalog du Maroc) Qatar Foundation Home.aspx


Hamad Medical Corporation

Saudi Arabia

Sudan Tunisia

Turkey United Arab Emirates Regional

Saudi Digital Library King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) MODA Hospital Library Cooperative Sudanese Research and Education Network (SudREN - fka SUIN) Tunisian Federation of the Associations of the Friends of Books and Libraries National Academic Network and Information Center (ULAKBIM) Abu Dhabi Librarians Meetup

Arab Federation for Libraries and Information (AFLI) Arabic Union Catalog Cybrarians (Arabic Portal for Librarianship and Information) mucsearch-fr/ heritage-centers/qatar-nationallibrary medical_resources/journals_ and_scholarly_publications/ journals_and_scholarly_ publications.aspx php/en/ Abu-Dhabi-Librarians-Meetup/

12 Library Collaboration in the Middle East and North Africa


(continued) Country/ Territory




Information Literacy Network of the Gulf Region

Arab League Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organization (ALECSO) World Health Organization, the Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean countries (WHO EMRO)

Walid Ghali

13 The State of Manuscript Digitization Projects in Some Egyptian Libraries and Their Challenges Introduction This chapter aims to shed light on the state of digitization projects that have been undertaken or are in the planning stages in manuscript libraries in Egypt: specifically, the Egyptian National Library (Dar al-Kutub), where many different manuscripts projects have already taken place; the Central Library of Islamic Manuscripts known as the “Awqaf Library”; the Bibliotheca Alexandria; and the Library of al-Azhar, known as the al-Azhar online project. The challenges faced by the respective project teams will be discussed with a particular focus on the administrative and technical aspects. In addition, this chapter discusses to what extent the infrastructure and funding is available to implement digitization projects. Since manuscripts are considered part of the cultural heritage of a country, they have been subject to both deliberate and unintentional destruction. Historically, large collections of manuscripts were destroyed during wars that took place in the Muslim world during the medieval period. However, the destruction that has happened in modern times because of wars and conflicts has been significant; consider the burning of manuscripts in Zanzibar in the sixties, then in Sarajevo during the nineties, and the destruction of cultural heritage in Iraq, Syria, Libya, and other countries during the “Arab Spring” upheavals; all are clear evidence of just how endangered manuscripts can be. For instance, there were two incidents that took place in Egypt during and after the January 2011 uprisings. The first incident was the setting fire to the Scientific Council’s building where many rare books burned, including a rare copy of Description de l’Égypt. The second incident occurred in 2014 near the Egyptian National Library in Bab al-Khalq, when a large amount of explosives were detonated near the Library. At the time of this writing, work was still underway to reconstruct the damaged parts of the building, as well as some minor damage to some of the collection. Besides the destruction of manuscripts that happens during wars and conflicts, there is another danger, which is the deteriorating condition of manuscripts because of poor storage and conservation. In Egypt, there are a few places that provide environmentally controlled storage for manuscripts. Generally, they

13 The State of Manuscript Digitization Projects in Some Egyptian Libraries


are not equipped with the most recent technology that is recommended by many international preservation agencies. A related issue to the storage problem is the way in which the manuscripts are handled for cataloging, reproduction, or for research purposes. Manuscript libraries in Egypt lack manuscript handling tools, such as spin support cushions, ribbons, or cotton gloves. Moreover, neither the staff who deal with manuscripts in these libraries nor the users received training or instruction on how to should deal with the physical manuscripts on a daily basis. Digitization has many positive impacts on manuscripts as part of the cultural heritage of Muslim countries, and as valuable primary resources that are used by scholars all over the world. This heritage was and still is vulnerable to many human and natural dangers. Thus, digitization is considered the most significant method to preserve this heritage and to make it available for wider audiences with a minimum of cost and time. All the above mentioned reasons, as well as the prevalence of natural catastrophes are reasons that digitization is not an optional or complementary need, but the optimum solution for manuscript preservation. Nevertheless, digitization projects have many challenges in developing countries in general, and in Egypt in particular.

Background Egypt is considered one of the countries with substantial wealth of manuscript and archival materials. The total number of Islamic manuscripts is approximately 132,000 (Information and Decision Support Center [IDSC], 2015), which puts Egypt in second place after Turkey with regard to manuscript holdings. One of the biggest challenges in Egypt is that the manuscript collection is scattered throughout many different libraries and institutions without the slightest amount of cooperation between them. In addition, there are at least two major governmental institutions staking claims to ownership of Egyptian manuscripts; the Ministry of Culture, and the Ministry of Antiquities. Lately, the Ministry of Endowments (Awqaf) has also joined this dispute after the establishment of the Central Library of Islamic Manuscripts to host all Awqaf manuscripts. The Egyptian National Library (established 1870) includes the largest collection of manuscripts in Egypt (approximately 60,000 volumes), including a large number of autographs, illuminated manuscripts, and a significant number of Qur’an manuscripts. This massive collection was generated primarily from numerous private collections that were donated by distinguished scholars or

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public figures. ¹ In addition to the manuscript collection, the library has a significant collection of papyrus, and historical archival documents from the Mamluk and Ottoman periods. The remaining manuscript collections in Egypt (totalling approximately 70,000) are distributed throughout many different institutions, such as the Library of al-Azhar (40,000), the library of the Ministry of Endowments (8,000), and various Egyptian universities. Another valuable collection of microfilmed manuscripts exists in the Institute of Arabic Manuscripts.² The 1990s was the period when many Egyptian researchers started to envisage manuscripts’ digitization and automated cataloging. A number of seminars and conferences were established, all of which focused on the use of technology with the large number of manuscripts in Egypt. As a result, many articles were published, and various projects emerged. Moreover, many researchers paid great attention to the study of manuscript library catalogs, which according to them had many drawbacks. The studies pointed to the advantages of the use of databases and digitization to overcome these problems and to enhance access to the manuscripts. Overall, the literature on manuscript digitization and cataloging can be divided into three main categories. The first includes studies that focus on the necessity of using information technology and its applications at manuscript libraries. The second deals with the different technological applications that could be exploited in the field of manuscripts; such as the databases and networks. The third category elaborates on technological experiments to catalog or digitize manuscripts in general and in the Egyptian context in particular.

Bibliographic/Image Databases With regard to database applications, one important research paper focuses on the plan to establish an integrated database for the manuscript collection at the National Library of Egypt. This project was initiated in 1992 by the Information

1 From 1915–1956, many private collections were donated to the library, or were collected from palaces after 1952 revolution. These collections belonged to scholars like Muhammad Abduh, or Zaki Mubarak who are well known scholars in the Middle East. 2 The Institute was established in 1946 as part of the League of Arab States. Since that year it has been making great efforts to microfilm manuscripts from different parts of the Arab world, including acting as a depository for those filmed by the UNESCO mobile microfilm unit. Available at:

13 The State of Manuscript Digitization Projects in Some Egyptian Libraries


and Decision Support Center (IDSC)³ as part of the development plan of the National Library. The project was meant to be a starting point to build a large scale network for digitized manuscripts in the Arab World. The plan was to include different types of databases, such as bibliographic database for all manuscripts, a full-image database for selected manuscripts (mainly those with illuminations), a biographical database, and finally a database for all critical editions (IDSC, 1992). After the database had been established, a team of catalogers worked to create metadata records for the manuscripts; while another team worked on digitizing the original manuscripts and uploading them to another server. This project lasted one year (1992–1993), during which the team managed to create about 37,000 records from the original register of the manuscripts as well as the card catalog. In his book The National Library Database, Sayyid (1999) criticized this project in general, and specifically, the way it used manuscript records without double checking for quality assurance. Another criticism was made by Muhammad (1995) who claimed that this database had many shortcomings, such as the inaccuracy of its metadata, the lack of access points, and the low quality of the scanned images because of using very basic scanning devices, which led to the whole project being considered a failure. A few years after that project, a group of IT experts from IDSC presented at the Annual Conference of the Arab Federation of Libraries and Information (AFLI). Their presentations addressed the stages of automating manuscripts catalogs, building the databases, and attaching the digitized manuscript to the metadata (IDSC, 1999). Nevertheless, and even considering all the above mentioned disadvantages, the IDSC developed from scratch new integrated software, known as the Advanced Manuscript Integrated System (AMIS), to store the metadata alongside the digitized manuscripts. It is worth mentioning that one of the major problems they encountered at that time was the data migration between the original databases and the integrated system; in addition to that, they were not able to retrieve a massive number of digitized manuscripts from the images server. Another study that pointed to the impact of bibliographic databases on manuscripts was done by al-Nashshar (1994) as part of his doctoral research at the University of Alexandria. He argued that the bibliographic database can be

3 IDSC was established in 1985 to act as the Egyptian Cabinet Think Tank. Its mission is to impartially support the government decisions through advice on best policy scenario in all fields including information technology and developments of Egyptian libraries.

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one of the best solutions to establish a cooperative cataloging project across Egyptian manuscripts libraries; he proposed MINISIS as a database management system to build this project, which would be known as the Manuscript Union Catalogue of Egypt. A major shift took place in the mid-90s, particularly in 1996 when the National Library of Egypt held an International Symposium on Manuscript pPreservation, which was organized in collaboration with the Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (ISESCO). A session was devoted to the discussion of the use of the latest technologies in the field of manuscripts, and the achievements of the various projects around the Muslim world. Managers of some of those projects demonstrated how technology enhanced the services and performance in their libraries and manuscript centers (Naqshabandi, 1996). Another key development happened in 1996 particularly when, at the celebration of its golden jubilee, the Institute of Arabic Manuscripts invited many libraries and manuscript centers to discuss the manuscript cataloging challenges in the Arab world. There were many recommendations intended to encourage other manuscript libraries and centers to use digitization and database technologies. However, as will be discussed later, the Institute did not succeed in implementing those very same recommendations with its own collection of microforms (Ma'had al-Makhtutat, 1996). In 1998, the Institute held another conference about challenges in the manuscript field. At this conference the Institute proposed the building of a website that would assist other institutions in following the project mandates; yet, none of these recommendations were achieved until almost ten years after the conference. Nevertheless, the Institute began to build a bibliographic database for its valuable collection of microfilmed manuscripts in 1998. This project had been tasked to the Regional Centre for Software Engineering and Information Technology (RITSIC). A relational database was designed with full cataloging template and a local authority file with the common name authorities from the biographical resources. This project was not completed because of budget reasons as well as some technical problems, such as the basic and archaic design of the database and the lack of a proactive search engine. Moreover, it was difficult to attach images to the manuscript metadata records. In 2012, the Institute revived this project and was able to migrate the old data into KOHA, the well-known open source library management software. Also in 1998, a paper was presented by A. F. Sayyid on the application of technology in the field of manuscripts. The author focused on the contents of a bibliographic database for manuscripts, listing all required information that should exist in any database or website. He declared that bibliographic information is

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not enough to create manuscript surrogates, but there is a need to record all codicological information that can be used to determine the uniqueness of the manuscript, distinguishing it from other copies (Sayyid, 1998).

Manuscript Portals There were many studies and seminars on the implementation of online manuscript portals between 1998 and 2000. An important one was the Annual Meeting of the Joint Authority for Heritage, where a group of manuscript experts meet to discuss the technological applications in cataloging and the digitization of manuscript collections in the Arab world. Four meetings were held during this period, and as a result of those meetings, the Institute of Arabic Manuscripts published a collective work that included various papers focused on networking, databases, and the digitization of manuscripts (Hafyan, 2002). In this collective work, there was a study by Tashkandi (1998) in which he discussed the feasibility of establishing a network between all manuscripts libraries and centers in the Arab world. He concluded that there are many justifications to adopt this network, such as the magnitude and quality of manuscript heritage, manuscripts being vulnerable to loss and smuggling, and the weakness of the traditional bibliographical tools. In his proposal, Tashkandi hinted at the practicality of digitizing manuscripts adding that this would help the libraries to make marginal profits from the services they provide to manuscript researchers. This would thereby allow libraries to maintain and enhance their services without relying on governmental funding on the one hand, and help in promoting the heritage on the other hand. Two more studies by Nabahan addressed the importance of technological tendencies in the field of manuscripts. The first study was entitled “Towards a comprehensive plan to establish a manuscript network” (Nabahan, 2001). In this study, in an echo of the plans for microfilming proposed by UNESCO and the Arab League in the 1950s, he presented a comprehensive plan to make manuscripts in the Arab World accessible, pointing to the necessity of digitization to facilitate manuscript access, especially for people who do not have the resources to travel across the world. In his second study he put forward his vision of a future technology and the magnitude of new horizons that could be employed and invested to serve documentary heritage (Nabahan, 2002). As a result of these meetings, it was recommended that “a website be created for the manuscript collections, and it should be managed in a way to facilitate cooperative cataloging” (Ma’had al-Makhtutat, 2000, p. 13). The plan was to establish a cooperative cataloging initiative between all manuscripts centres and

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libraries; however, this was not an easy goal because most of the libraries had neither the requisite infrastructure nor the trained personnel. In 2000, the Egyptian government established the Center for Documentation of Cultural and Natural Heritage (CULTNAT), which is now part of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina and supported by the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. CULTNAT is involved in a large number of documentation and heritage preservation projects. For example, the Center has produced four books and compact discs under the title The contributions of the Arab and Islamic civilizations to astronomy, chemistry and medical sciences in Arabic, English and French (Center for Documentation of Cultural and Natural Heritage, 2006). In order to prepare for these projects, the center established an annual seminar and round tables of experts in the field of heritage preservation. It invited experts from all over the world who were working on manuscript digitization projects to share their knowledge on digitization, cataloging, and editing.⁴ Another study that addressed a number of local and international projects in the field of digitization was done by Salih (2004). He investigated some international and local digitization projects as well as digital library initiatives. The Library of Congress and New Zealand Digital Library Project were studied as international bodies; and some other projects associated with manuscripts were elaborated upon such as the Egyptian National Library experience with the UNESCO Memory of the World project in 1997. One of the important studies, and basically the only one in its type, is a detailed literature review that was published in 2004. In this review, the literature in the field of information technology applications and manuscripts was surveyed and analysed. The review highlighted the significant gap in research and publication in the Arab world on the technological impacts on manuscript digitization and accessibility (Farahat, 2004). A detailed study investigated the efficiency of four manuscript databases by making a comparison between the international projects and local projects in Egypt (Ghali, 2005). The four databases studied were those of The National Library of Egypt, the Institute of Arabic Manuscripts, The Bibliotheca Alexandrina, and the American University in Cairo. One major conclusion was that there was a lack of cataloging, scanning, and programming standards that consequently affected the completion of those projects. The study had a practical component wherein the researcher built a MARC database using WINISIS for a group of manuscripts that included a scan of the manuscript that corresponded

4 More information about CULTNAT can be found at

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to each entry. It worth mentioning that many manuscript libraries have adopted this method in their cataloging projects. In 2006, IDSC established the Arabic Manuscripts Website. The main aim of the website is to publish information about manuscripts in Egypt, the state of cataloging, and any digitization project. It includes about 61,000 metadata records describing diverse manuscripts collections with thousands of scanned images attached to some of these records. It also includes a search engine which could be used for basic as well as advanced search (IDSC, 2006). Another study, carried out by the author, focused on the usage of metadata schemas to build a digitized collection of manuscripts in Egypt (Ghali, 2012). The study dealt with national and international digitization projects, and investigated the extent of using standards in general and metadata standards in particular. Furthermore, the study elaborated the lack of standardization in the digitization projects in Egyptian libraries. Although many metadata schemas had been analyzed, the study provided a prototype design of a metadata schema to be used with the digital manuscripts; the researcher used Stylus Software to create that schema. In conclusion, there have been a few studies focusing on manuscript digitization in Egypt and the preceding paragraphs were intended to give a glimpse of those studies. It also shows the lack of research being done on this subject, which is in fact one of the major problems in the field of digitization in Egypt. As a result, many projects have begun and ended without documentation, evaluation reports, or even research papers to explain their methods and results.

Methods This study is based on observational methods in which each digitization project has been studied and examined closely. In addition, a brief questionnaire was distributed to a particular group of experts who took active roles in the respective projects in order to learn about any challenges and problems they had encountered.

Manuscript Digitization in Egypt Observing digitization projects in Egypt, one can argue that these projects can be divided into two categories: a) digitization projects that cover all manuscript collections in a particular library or b) selective projects in which other institutions or organizations fund a digitization project to digitize a select group of manuscripts, such as manuscripts on a specific subject or language. Because of the limited number of manuscript projects in Egypt, there is often overlap

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between these two categories. In other words, some libraries work on their own project while also getting funding from other organisations to digitize a select group of their own manuscript holdings. With regard to the full digitization projects, one was launched at the Al Azhar Mosque in Cairo, which is one of the oldest and most prominent learning centers in the world. Its library, which is located some miles away from the mosque, contains over 42,000 manuscripts of scientific and historical significance. In 2000, the Al Azhar Online Project was begun to preserve these manuscripts with the intention of having a world-class search engine that would allow users to download rare manuscripts. After the project was launched, all of the manuscripts along with their metadata were made available online; later the manuscripts were only available for a monetary fee. Eventually the project was halted and the website disappeared. The initial aim of the project was to scan 42,000 manuscripts and make them available, yet for unknown reasons the project was not completed and the fruits of the project are not available to the public (Al Azhar online library, 2006). Another significant digitization project was an outcome of the revival of the Alexandria Library, where a section for heritage publishing was established as a part of the Manuscript Centre. This section’s mission is to release various publications of the Manuscript Centre in both electronic and printed forms within the framework of a number of ambitious endeavours; one of which was the Digital Archive Project. This initiative aimed to produce digital copies of the BA’s rare manuscripts on CDs using high-tech book scanners and state-of-the-art digital cameras as well as graphic specialists to process captured images. In the meantime, MARC records for all of those manuscripts were uploaded to the library online catalog ( The main manuscript scanning project was called the Digital Manuscript Library from which the Bibliotheca Alexandrina digitized about 6,000 manuscripts and made them available for users internally (Ghali, 2005). Moreover, the library published five groups of CD-sets; each set included seven manuscripts that covered different topics. The first CD-set that has was released in 2001 and is comprised of a collection of manuscripts on literary works. The second set represents some Arabic manuscripts that were kept in the Mosque of Abū al-’Abbās al-Mursī in Alexandria, and was published in 2003. The third set comprises a remarkable manuscript collection of the Religious Institute of Smuha in Alexandria and the fourth set features selected manuscripts from the Uppsala University Library’s collection. The fifth set is a collection of some of the Arabic manuscripts of St. Catherine’s Monastery in Sinai.

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In 2004, there was another major digitization project that took place in the Central Library of Islamic Manuscripts, also known as the Awqaf Library.⁵ The main objective of establishing this library was to collect manuscripts from mosques that fall under the Ministry of Islamic Endowments mandates. Consequently, there were two large collections of manuscripts added to the library, the first from the mosque of Abū al-’Abbās al-Mursī in Alexandria, and the second collection came from the al-Ahmady mosque in Tanta. After that a committee of experts travelled to collect other smaller manuscript collections from different Egyptian provinces, while a group of catalogers and conservation specialists were working on manual cleaning and cataloging the manuscripts. The last piece added to the library was one of the biggest Quranic manuscripts in the world that previously had been housed at the Hussain Mosque in Cairo. In addition to the four main projects that have been undertaken in Egypt, there are some digitization projects, which are relatively small and basically focused on select manuscripts. The first project has been undertaken in 1997 by UNESCO’s Memory of the World Programme in conjunction with the Egyptian National Library. In this project, a group of Arabic scientific manuscripts from within the library collections were digitized and published on a CD. The digitization and the development of this product was the responsibility of the Regional Information Technology and Software Engineering Center (RITSEC). Another significant project was carried out in 2006 by the National Library of Egypt in cooperation with the Library of Congress within the framework of the World Digital Library initiative (van Oudenaren, 2007). About sixty titles were digitized in a digitization center that was equipped by the Library of Congress. In addition, staff training was delivered by international experts in the digitization field. The Thesaurus Islamicus Foundation was founded with clear mandates of protecting Islamic manuscript collections and supporting those who work with them. Since the time of its establishment, the foundation has funded and participated in different projects for cataloging, digitization, and preservation of Islamic manuscripts in different countries.⁶ One of the Foundation’s major undertakings is that of the Dar al-Kutub Manuscript Project under which it has agreed to modernise the physical space

5 Waqf generally means the detention of specific thing in the ownership of a mosque, school, or family and devote its profit for the charity use. In the Islamic manuscripts context, some scholars or their families used to donate their manuscript to a specific school or mosque to be used by other scholars and/or their students. 6 More information about the Thesaurus Islamicus Foundation, can be found at http://www.

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for the entire manuscript division of the National Library of Egypt, and the imaging department has been outfitted with state-of-the-art digital equipment for high-quality imaging. Moreover, a thorough training is to be provided for the manuscript staff in preservation and digitization. Key components of the project are still in development, such as a fully functioning server network to host the catalog and digital repository. The initial project will focus on the Mamluk Qur’an Manuscript collection, which was entered into the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 2013. As the UNESCO (n. d.) document explains, the collection contains: One hundred and forty Mamluk Qur’an manuscripts and bindings that can be securely dated to the Mamluk period (1250–1517 CE) by colophons and endowment and dedicatory statements. During this time, Cairo became the cultural, religious, and intellectual center of the Islamic world. The manuscripts are almost unmatched for splendor, opulence, and size in the history of the Islamic arts of the book and they are key to our understanding of developments in Islamic calligraphy, illumination and bookbinding not only in Mamluk Egypt but throughout the Islamic world.

Challenges and Problems This section examines the problems and challenges of digitization projects in Egypt taking into consideration major projects as well as smaller initiatives. The traditional and modern methods for digitization will be examined, as they is one of the challenges. In addition, storage procedures for the digitized materials, and access to these digital materials will also be examined. Broadly speaking, digitization problems in Egypt could be divided into two main categories: a) general and administrative problems related to the libraries themselves; b) technical problems related to digitization processes, cataloging, metadata, and accessibility.

General and Administrative Problems The increasing cost of the manuscript digitization is one of the major problems faced by the manuscript libraries in Egypt. None of the libraries mentioned above have a dedicated budget for digitization. However, some of them have obtained grants from various institutions. As mentioned in the previous section, some of the projects that were undertaken in Egypt have been sponsored by either international bodies or local institutions with financial independence. For example, the Library of Congress and Thesaurus Islamicus Foundation

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funded different digitization projects at the National library of Egypt by granting the equipment and giving training to the staff. As yet, there is no information available about the total cost of these projects. Another example is the Awqaf Library, which received a donation from Juma’a al-Majid Center for Culture and Heritage⁷ in the form of equipment and staff training. The institutions that own manuscript collections in Egypt do not allocate funds for digitization projects in their budgets, or it may be that it is not one of their top priorities for spending. A temporary solution for this problem is provided by grants for participation in international digitization initiatives. Currently, there are many institutions that provide funds and technical support for manuscript digitization projects in order to make this heritage available to wider audiences and for research. For example, the British Library, the Library of Congress, the Islamic Manuscript Association (Cambridge), and UNESCO are all funding and managing manuscript digitization projects in many different countries. However, a long term solution could only be found by implementing a national strategy for manuscript digitization and preservation. This could only come out of collaboration between high level government representatives, experts in digitization, and manuscript curators. As a result of the absence of a national strategy for digitization in Egypt, there are no clear selection criteria to prioritize manuscript collections that are in urgent need of digitization. While this might be a difficult task because of the magnitude of the Egyptian collections, identifying where to start a digitization project and how money should be spent is one of the necessary steps. It was found that some digitization projects in Egypt focused on the content, such as the digitization of scientific manuscripts in the National Library as well as at the Awqaf Library which has about three hundred scientific manuscripts (1.9%) of the collection. However, there are a good number of autograph manuscripts, illuminated manuscripts, and severely damaged manuscripts which will be deteriorating in the course of time. All of these must be at the top of any digitization project’s priority list. One serious challenge is the resistance from curators and managers who are in charge of some manuscripts libraries or collections. They do not trust technology and digitization in particular. One of their major contentions with digitization is that there is a great possibility for forging a digital copy of a manuscript which might lead to fabricating part of Muslim history. Another

7 It was found in 1989 by Mr Juma al Majid who aimed to make it a culture and knowledge center to preserve Muslim heritage. Currently, the Center is considered one of the landmarks visited by all those who go to Dubai.

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reason to reject digitization projects, from their point of view, is the ownership and copyright issues of these manuscripts especially when it goes online and can be easily downloaded. This challenge can be easily tackled if an intensive training for curators and manuscript specialists is provided. The training should cover the importance of digitization and how they could use it to disseminate information about their manuscript collections which would clearly indicate that these libraries own the copyrights. Access presents technical and/or administrative challenges in some libraries in Egypt. The accessibility of the results of some projects is still not efficient as they are available only on multimedia disks. These valuable projects need to have an online access point so that a wider range of users can request and use them. Despite the fact that some libraries provide digital access to manuscripts, researchers are required to go through a long process of procedures and approvals in order to view the digitized manuscript. In the case of the Awqaf library, the digital copy is provided using reader software that was originally designed for the architectural display of Egyptian mosques.⁸ In other words, all digital images have to be attached to the very software that allows you to browse the manuscripts, and any problem that happens on the software hinders access to the images. Online access or at least making an online request portal to obtain manuscripts is the optimum solution for this problem. The libraries still will be able to request as much information as they need to identify the requester for the sake of record-keeping and statistical purposes. In summation, the lack of a national policy for manuscript digitization is a major problem for their future preservation and accessibility. Such a policy would be considered the optimum solution for most of the other problems mentioned previously in this chapter. This national policy should include a strategy for manuscript digitization and workflows that comply with each library’s resources.

Digitization’s Technical Problems in Egypt In general, the infrastructure for digitization projects is considered the main challenge that affects digitization projects in Egypt. Although digitization initiatives were discussed in the early 1990s in Egypt, only the National Library of Egypt has a well-equipped laboratory that was donated by the Library of Congress when they cooperated on a digitization project. Other libraries however

8 ‫ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻳﺔ‬،‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﺴﺎﺟﺪ ﻣﺼﺮ‬.

13 The State of Manuscript Digitization Projects in Some Egyptian Libraries


still lack the technical resources to implement a full digitization project. An explanation can be found in the cost of equipment and training and the strained financial resources of these libraries. With regard to storage options, some of the projects used multimedia disks (for example, the Bibliotheca Alexandrina and The National Library), or used external memory devices (the Awqaf Library). In both situations, there was still limited storage space, which meant in most cases that manuscripts could only be digitized per request which has long-term consequences. The libraries should consider servers with high capacities with digital archival plan including a backup policy. Regarding accessibility, only two projects have a website where they display some of the digitized manuscripts. However, in light of the open access attitude taken by other manuscript libraries in the world, Egyptian libraries need to consider an access plan for the digitized manuscripts. This plan should include even the un-catalogd manuscripts, as uploading some of these manuscripts on the official website of the institution would not only help in promoting the collections, but could also attract ‘crowd-sourced’ cataloging contributions from experts in other countries which would reduce the in-house cataloging and metadata costs. Another major problem is the differing cataloging practices and the lack of metadata standards within the implemented projects. There are many reasons for this tendency: firstly, the different cataloging practices amongst the institutions; secondly, the lack of qualified manuscript catalogers; and thirdly, the newness of the technological solutions such as bibliographic databases and metadata applications in the Egyptian libraries. The lack of qualified manpower in this field has two dimensions, both of which are considered a big challenge for digitization projects. The first challenge is the paucity of manuscript catalogers who are available in Egyptian libraries. Most individuals with these specialized skills often chose other fields to work in, not cataloging.⁹ The second challenge is a lack of specialists in digitization who are capable to work with the given nature of the manuscripts. This could be easily remedied by providing training to the previously mentioned specialists and by enhancing their awareness as well as their skills. It is worth mentioning that the number of qualified specialists in digitization has been increasing in the last few years, especially with the increased number of digitization projects.

9 Tanahi, Muhammad Mahmud. “‫”ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻬﺮﺱ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺪﻭﺓ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻮﻃﺎﺕ‬, (Cairo: The Institute of Arabic Manuscripts, 1998). 32 p.

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Another related aspect is the cataloging complexity of manuscript collective works, known as collection of codices or majami. These majami always include different pieces of work and are not necessarily on one single subject. Some of these works might include more than 100 titles that bound together for purposes of education or preservation, and the catalogr will need to create 100 records. For instance, to implement a digitization project for these collective works, we will need to know whether they will be accessed in groups or individually. Also, it should be clear how the metadata records will be linked to separate pieces inside the collective volume. It is worth mentioning that the Egyptian National Library has the largest collection of majami, which they started cataloging a few years ago after they received funding and training from Al-Furqan Heritage Foundation in London. With regard to metadata schemas, one could argue that 90 % of manuscripts libraries in Egypt have not been using the standard schemas of the field, not even MARC21. The adoption of new schemas will make it even more difficult for these libraries to catch up.

Conclusion Although Egypt is one of the richest countries in terms of manuscript collections, one can argue that there is lack of attention towards the digitization of these manuscripts. There have been a few studies that have focused on the impact of digitization as well as the planning for such projects. Researchers and practitioners should be encouraged to carry out more research on this topic, elaborating the importance of digitization, different techniques and strategies of digitization, and how to implement a successful digitization project. Also, on the practical level, only a few projects have been implemented in the Egyptian libraries, and there were many challenges and obstacles negatively affected these projects. Although improving accessibility to a wider range of researchers is one of the main reasons for digitization projects of manuscript, this is not the case with some of the Egyptian projects. There are many administrative and technical challenges that affect the undertaking of digitization projects in Egypt some of which are, budget, lack of planning, absence of infrastructure, and training. To overcome these challenges and problems a national strategy should be developed. In order to convince any grantors to finance one of the digitization projects, institutions should have a very clear vision of how they will make these manuscripts accessible. In conclusion, preparing a national digitization strategy is considered one of the key solutions to overcome the majority of the above challenges. To be suc-

13 The State of Manuscript Digitization Projects in Some Egyptian Libraries


cessful, this strategy needs to be developed by the government ministries concerned, with the advice of a group of experts working in the manuscripts field, including curators, catalogers, digitization experts, conservators, and researchers. The process of implementing this strategy should be delegated to the institutions that own the manuscripts. The plan should address the key challenges that face the digitization project, and find solutions for these problems. It should include information on the principles for digitization of any heritage collection, including the access policy for completed projects, and the development of the specialist manpower required, as well as identifying priority criteria to select manuscripts to be digitized.

References Al Azhar online library offers access to rare manuscripts. (2006, November 7). Khaleej Times. Available at: 2006/November/theuae_November165.xml§ion=theuae Al-Nashshar, S. (1994). :‫( ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻭﺗﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﺒﻠﻴﻮﺟﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﻄﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ‬Doctoral dissertation). University of Alexandria, Cairo, Egypt. Centre for Documentation of Cultural and Natural Heritage, CULTNAT. (2006). Contributions of the Arab and Islamic civilizations to science. Available at tage/About.aspx?id=12 Farahat, H. (2004). ‫ ﺩ ﻭﺭ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬:‫ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻱ ﻭﺇﺗﺎﺣﺘﻬﺎ‬ Majallat alMalik Fahd, 9(2), 5–87. Ghali, W. (2005). ‫ ﺩ ﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬:‫( ﺍﻟﺒﺒﻠﻴﻮﺟﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔﺍ ﻟﻤﺼﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﻄﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬Master’s thesis). Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. Ghali, W. (2012). ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺘﺎﺩﺍﺗﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻔﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﻄﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻗﻤﻨﺔ‬. (Doctoral dissertation). Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. Hafyan, F., (Ed.). (2002). ‫ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺿﺮ ﻭ ﺁﻓﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬:‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺛﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‬Cairo, Egypt: The Institute of Arabic Manuscripts. Information and Decision Support Center. (1992). Arabic manuscript information system in the National Library of Egypt. Unpublished report. Information and Decision Support Center. (1999). ‫ ﻓﻲ‬:‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻟﻼﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺛﻴﻖ ﺍﻵﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﻄﻮﻃﺎﺕ‬ Paper presented at the Arab Federation of Libraries and Information (AFLI) Annual Conference, Tunis, Tunisia. Information and Decision Support Center. (2006). “‫”ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬, (archival version). Retrieved from (March 20, 2013). Information and Decision Support Center. (2015). Arabic Manuscript Portal. Retrieved from (accessed via Internet Archive on March 19, 2015). Ma’had al-Makhtutatal-Arabiyah. (1996). ‫ ﻧﺪ ﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺬ ﻫﺒﻲ‬Majallat Ma’had al-Makhtutat alArabiyah, special issue, 40(1).

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Ma’had al-Makhtutat al-Arabiyah. (2000). ‫ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮ ﺍﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻬﺎ‬, Majallat Akhbar alTurath, 8(88), pp. 13–14. Muhammad, Shams al-Asil. (1995). ‫ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬:‫( ﻭﺗﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩ ﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ‬Doctoral dissertation). Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. Nabahan, K. A. (2001). ‫ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻮﻁ ﺁﻓﺎﻕ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‬Akhbar al-Turath al-Arabi, 8(89),18. Nabahan, K. A. (2002). ‫ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻮﻁ ﻧﺤﻮﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ‬London, UK: AlFurqan Foundation. Naqshabandi, U. (1996). ‫ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﻄﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ‬.‫ ﺍﻟﻨﺪﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﻄﻮﻃﺎﺕ‬:‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺬﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺤﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻴﺴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻬﻮﺩ‬Cairo: al-Hayah al-Ammah li-Dar al-Kutub. Salih, E. (2004). ‫ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺗﺎ ﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ‬Doctoral dissertation). Helwan University, Helwan, Egypt. Sayyid, A. F. (1998). ‫ ﻧﺤﻮﺍﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ‬Cairo, Egypt: The Institute of Arabic Manuscripts. Sayyid, A. F. (1999). ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻳﺔ‬. In ‫( ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻳﺔ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ‬pp. 157–161). Cairo, Egypt: al-Dar al-Lubnaniyah. Tanahi, M. M. (1998). ‫ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺪﻭﺓ ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻄﻮﻃﺎﺕ‬.‫ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻬﺮﺱ‬Cairo, Egypt: The Institute of Arabic Manuscripts. Tashkandi, A. S. (1998). ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔﻟﻼﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺗﻮﺍﻟﺤﻘﺎﺋﻘﻮﻣﺮﺍﺣﻼﻹﻧﺸﺎءﺒﺤﺜﻘﺪﻣﻠﻺﺟﺘﻢ ﺍﻋﺎﻟﺜﺎ ﻫﻠﺘﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻯ ﻻﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫( ﻧﻮﻓﻤﺒﺮ‬16–15 ‫ ﻟﺜﻠﻠﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺍﺙ‬:‫ )ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ‬Cairo, Egypt: The Institute of Arabic Manuscripts. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (n. d.). The National Library of Egypt’s collection of Mamluk Qur’an manuscripts. Available at http://www.unesco. org/new/en/communication-and-information/flagship-project-activities/memory-of-theworld/register/full-list-of-registered-heritage/registered-heritage-page-8/the-nationallibrary-of-egypts-collection-of-mamluk-quran-manuscripts/ Van Oudenaren, J. (2007). Digitization in Egypt. Library of Congress Information Bulletin, 66(3). Available at

Received: 20th October, 2014 Final version received: 25th May 2015 Accepted: 30th July 2015

Contributors Sumayya Ahmed received an M.A. from the Center for Contemporary Arab Studies (CCAS) at Georgetown University and was awarded a US State Department Fulbright grant for research in Morocco in 2007–2008. Currently a doctoral candidate in the School of Information and Library Science at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, her research interests are Arabic and Islamic manuscripts, digitization, and documentary cultural heritage in North Africa.

Amanda B. Click is a doctoral candidate in the School of Information and Library Science at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Her fellowship, ELIME-21 (Educating Librarians in the Middle East: Building Bridges for the 21st Century), focuses on developing library education in the Middle East and North Africa. She received her BS from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 2003, and her MLIS from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro in 2008. She then lived and worked in Egypt for three years. From 2008 to 2011, Amanda was an instruction and reference librarian and the Coordinator of Instruction at The American University in Cairo. Amanda’s research interests include academic integrity, information literacy in the Middle East, library services for international students, and library leadership.

Evelyn Daniel served as Professor and Dean of the School of Information and Library Science (SILS) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill between 1985 and 1990 with an additional term as Associate Dean from 2008–2010, and is currently an Adjunct Professor at SILS. Prior to this, she served as Dean for the School of Information Studies at Syracuse University from 1976 to 1985. She received an AB in history from the University of North Carolina at Wilmington, an MLS and PhD from the University of Maryland. She has worked as a practitioner in all types of libraries, and has taught at library/information science schools in Rhode Island, Illinois, Kentucky, California, and Washington. She teaches and writes in the areas of user education, management, organization theory, information policy, knowledge management, marketing and faculty life. She has presented papers and consulted in Russia, Siberia, China, Spain, Kazakhstan, Canada, Thailand, the Czech Republic, Serbia, Slovakia, Taiwan and Morocco. Dr. Daniel is active in a number of professional associations including ALA, SLA, ALISE (past President) and IFLA. She has served as trustee for several public library boards and is currently active in civic volunteer work for a local theater, parks and recreation, and libraries.

Josiah Drewry is the Librarian for Business, Economics, and Sociology at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (UNC). He received his MLS from UNC’s School of Information and Library Science in 2007, and his MBA from North Carolina State University in 2015. He has worked previously in reference and instruction roles at the National Humanities Center in North Carolina, at Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane, Morocco, and at the American University in Cairo, Egypt.

Daphne Flanagan is the University Librarian at the American University of Sharjah. She holds a Masters in Library and Information Science from the University of Western Ontario and a Masters in Public Administration from the University of Victoria. Her past positions have been in academic libraries in Canada including the University of New Brunswick and York

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University. She has worked in the Middle East since 2002. Her professional interests include library administration, international librarianship, assessment of libraries and user experience.

Christine Furno earned her Master of Library Science and Master of Information Science from Indiana University Bloomington in 2002. Six weeks later, she relocated to the United Arab Emirates to launch her career as Information Literacy Librarian at the American University of Sharjah (AUS). Now working as the Reference and Instruction Librarian, her professional interests include teaching and learning pedagogy, assessment initiatives, and reflective teaching practices. Implementing these acquired skills and knowledge, she has helped shape a thriving IL program at AUS. Extensive colleague collaboration has been highly rewarding and a key factor in developing engaging and effective active learning activities and assessment initiatives suitable for the AUS IL Program. Currently, as the AUS Library’s Reference and Instruction Coordinator, she continues to work with students in the classroom and through the research assistance services. Christine highly values these connections and strives to empower students and enhance their learning experiences through ‘teachable moments’ at the every opportunity. Christof Galli earned his MLIS and MA in Middle Eastern Studies from the University of California Berkeley. He was Middle East & Islamic Studies librarian at Duke University Libraries from 1999-2015 and is now retired. He is a member of the Middle East Librarians Association (MELA) and served as its President in 2012–2013.

Walid Ghali obtained his doctorate in Library and Information Sciences from Cairo University in 2012. The title of his dissertation was Descriptive Metadata and Digitization Projects of Arabic manuscripts in Egypt. He has worked in various librarian roles at the American University in Cairo for over 15 years and recently was appointed as the Head of the Joint Library for the Institute for the Study of Muslim Civilizations and the Institute of Ismaili Studies in London.

Samir Hachani holds a PhD in library science from Algiers University, and a Master’s Degree in library and information management from the School of Library and Information Management at the University of Southern California. He has participated to a number of national and international conferences around the world, and is involved in many organizations, including the Association Internationale Francophone des Bibliothécaires et Documentalistes. Samir served on the organizing committee for the FORCE11 2016 conference, and as a peer reviewer for the Journal of the University Librarians Association of Sri Lanka. He is also vice president of Association Science et Bien Commun, which promotes open science in Africa and Haiti. His main academic interests revolve around peer review, open access, digital divide, cultural crimes and open science.

Meggan Houlihan is the First-Year Experience and Instruction Librarian at New York University Abu Dhabi. In this role Meggan collaborates with the Office of First-Year Students to equip freshman with basic information literacy skills. She is a former instruction and reference librarian and coordinator of instruction at The American University of Cairo, where she handled instructional activity, assessment, and outreach. She is currently serving on the Information Literacy Network of the Gulf Region’s Professional Development Committee, and formerly



served as the Coordinator of Professional Development for the American International Consortium of Academic Libraries. Her research interests include information literacy in the Middle East, library outreach, and student learning. Meggan has an MLS from Indiana University, Bloomington and an MA in Modern History from the University of Reading in the UK.

Mahmoud Khalifa is the founder and CEO of Cybrarians: The Arabic Portal for Librarianship and Information, and a senior cataloger at the Library of Congress Cairo Field Office. He received both his MA and PhD in information science from Cairo University, where his dissertation work focused on collaborative digital reference services. Mahmoud is an accredited trainer in IFLA’s Building Strong Library Associations program. He is also the editor of Cybrarians Journals, the first electronic Arabic journal on librarianship and information science, and a board member of the Egyptian Library Association.

Janet Martin completed her doctoral thesis at the University of Queensland, Australia, based on educational experiences whilst living in the United Arab Emirates since 1999. The thesis documented the impact of technologies on the young and increasingly educated Emirati population of the UAE. Janet has travelled widely and worked in both Australia and the UAE as a librarian, before becoming interested in the use of technology in education, and in research. She has more recently worked for several years to establish and support the research of faculty and students, in a newly developed university in the UAE. Building upon her research and a Masters in Education which concentrated on online pedagogies, Janet has taken on the development and facilitation of online teaching and learning in tertiary education in the UAE. Janet remains involved in professional library organizations such as IFLA, ALIA, and the Information Literacy Network of the Gulf Region, and has been extensively involved in a push to develop a high standard, internationally accredited MLIS program in the UAE.

Lokman Meho received his PhD in Information and Library Science from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Before joining the American University of Beirut in 2009 as Director of the University Libraries, he was a tenured Associate Professor at the School of Library and Information Science at Indiana University Bloomington. Dr. Meho is the author of over 20 papers that were mostly published in the Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. His research focuses on the use of bibliometric and scientometric indicators for assessing research and for library collection development and management.

Barbara B. Moran is Louis Round Wilson Distinguished Professor and Director of International Programs at the School of Information and Library Science at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill where she served as Dean from 1990 to 1998. Her teaching and research interests focus on aspects of management, especially on leadership, organizational development and career progression. Dr. Moran is co-author of the widely used textbook, Management of Libraries and Information Agencies, the eighth edition of which was published in 2013, and is also the author of numerous articles, book chapters and three other books on various aspects of management and leadership. She has been very active in accreditation and evaluation of LIS programs and served as a member and chair (2013–2014) of the American Library Association’s Committee on Accreditation. She has had extensive international experience including serving as a Fulbright Senior Specialist in the Czech Republic, as an ALISE/H.W. Wilson Scholar in

322  Contributors

Russia, and teaching and lecturing in many locations in Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. She was the co-Prncipal Investigator on the IMLS-funded project, “Educating Librarians in the Middle East: Building Bridges for the 21st Century: ELIME-21.”

Blake Robinson is a librarian at the State Library of Florida and a doctoral student in Information Studies at Florida State University, both in Tallahassee. Prior to his current position, Blake worked in a variety of roles at the University of Central Florida (Orlando) and Florida State University. His professional background includes reference, outreach, and collection development. In addition to his degree in progress, Blake holds a Master of Science in Library and Information Studies from Florida State University, a Master of Arts in Arabic and Islamic Studies from the University of Sydney, and a Bachelor of Business Administration in Marketing from the University of Texas at Austin. At the University of Texas, Blake took a course in Spanish Civilization, which sparked his interest in Medieval Spain. He chose to write about Islamic Spain (al-Andalus) for his Master of Arts thesis, which kindled his interest in the Middle East and the Islamic world. His research focuses on the intersection between librarianship and information science and international/area studies. In addition to his interest in knowledge organization, his other research interests include critical theory in library and information science, library and information history, and information policy.

Anaïs Salamon graduated in Arabic and Islamic Studies from Aix-Marseille University (France), and in Library and Information Sciences from Paris 8 University, and has been a Middle East Librarian for the past seventeen years. Anaïs held positions in a number of academic and research institutions in France (Bibliothèque Universitaire des LAngues et Civilisations, BULAC), in Yemen (CEntre Français d’Archéologie et de Sciences Sociales de Sanaa, CEFAS), Syria (Institut Français du Proche-Orient, IFPO), the Occupied Palestinian Territories (École Biblique et Archéologique Française, EBAF), Egypt (Institut Dominicain d’Études Orientales, IDEO), as well as in the United States (Harvard University Open Collections Program). She joined McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada, as Head Librarian of the Islamic Studies Library in July 2010.

Jordan Scepanski is a principal and founding partner of Jordan Wells Associates, consultants in library and information issues and facilitators of organizational and staff development, located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, U.S.A. He is Dean Emeritus, California State University, Long Beach and former Dean of library and learning resources at Zayed University in the United Arab Emirates. His work in collaborative organizations dates from employment on the staff of the American Library Association in the 1970s and includes directorship of the central library of the Joint University Libraries system (later the Vanderbilt University Library), assignment as senior advisor for library affairs in the California State University Office of the Chancellor, and executive director of the Triangle Research Libraries Network. Mr. Scepanski has taught at California State University, Long Beach, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and at Hacettepe University in Ankara, Turkey, where he was a Fulbright Senior Lecturer. His research and writings have focused on library collaboration, personnel, change, and the future of libraries. He is a graduate of Manhattan College in New York City and holds a Master of Librarianship degree from Emory University and an M.B.A. from the University of Tennessee at Nashville.



Jayme Spencer is the Director of Public Services at the Main Library of The American University in Cairo. She joined AUC in 1972 as head of the retrospective cataloging unit. In 1993, while on a leave in the U.S.A., Jayme discovered the emerging field of information literacy and knew immediately she wanted to leave the cataloging area and combine two of her MA’s (MLS and TEFL) to create a program for AUC’s multilingual/multicultural students. For the next ten years, as Head of the Information Literacy department, she coordinated the development of a program of introductory library skills, subject-specific sessions and other types of instruction for all levels of student, faculty and staff needs in the field of information literacy. Jayme has an MA (1971) from the College of William & Mary in American History, an MLS (1969) from the University of Denver, and an MA (1976) in Teaching English as a Foreign Language from The American University in Cairo. She is an active member of several international professional associations including ALA, AMICAL, and TESOL International. She is co-author of Khan al-Khalili: a Comprehensive Mapped Guide to Cairo’s Historic Bazaar, and contributor to The Family Guide to Cairo. Yaşar Tonta is a Professor in the Department of Information Management of Hacettepe University in Ankara, Turkey. His areas of teaching and research are information retrieval, information architecture, information systems design, networked information services, electronic publishing, open access and bibliometrics. In the past Professor Tonta served as the founding director of the National Academic Network and Information Center (ULAKBIM) of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), the Chair of the Department of Information Management of Hacettepe University, the Chair-elect of the Information Management Committee (IMC) of NATO’s Research & Technology Organization (RTO) and Director of its Lecture Series on Electronic Information Management. He has been involved in the projects supported by the European Commission (most recently, MedOANet and PASTEUR4OA) and TUBITAK. His works appeared in a number of professional journals including JASIST and Journal of Informetrics. Professor Tonta is the recipient of Hacettepe University’s Science Award (2010). He is currently the Deputy Chair of UNESCO Turkey’s Memory of the World Committee. Professor Tonta received his graduate degrees in library and information studies from the University of California at Berkeley (PhD), the University of Wales (MLib), and Hacettepe University (MA).

Patricia A. Wand was Dean of Library and Learning Resources at Zayed University in the United Arab Emirates from 2006–2010. Before moving to the UAE, she served as University Librarian at American University in Washington DC, 1989–2006. Previously she held management positions at University of Oregon and Columbia University Libraries and worked at Staten Island Community College (City University of New York) and Wittenberg University (Ohio) libraries. Ms. Wand teaches international development, and frequently speaks on international higher education and library issues, marketing, advocacy, and information policy. She serves on the Board of Trustees for Antioch University New England and as Endowment Trustee of the American Library Association. She was Vice-Chair (2011–2013) of the National Peace Corps Association Board on which she served for eight years. Ms. Wand earned a BA (cum laude) in history from Seattle University, an M.A.T. in social sciences from Antioch University New England and the A.M.L.S. in Library Science from the University of Michigan. She was a Peace Corps Volunteer in Colombia 1963–1965. Amongst honors and awards, Ms. Wand received the Distinguished Service Award from the District of Columbia Library Association; Distinguished Alumna Award from the University of Michigan, School of Information; and a Fulbright Senior Lecture Award to Ecuador.

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Frieda Wiebe was the Director of the Library at the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service in Qatar from its opening in 2005 to 2015. She gained both her Masters in Library Science and Masters in Business Administration at the University of British Columbia in Canada. While managing a college library system in Vancouver she also provided consulting and training services to academic libraries in Vietnam during the 1980s and 90s. In 1998, Frieda moved to the United Arab Emirates where she managed Library and Learning Services for the Higher Colleges of Technology until 2005. Frieda is now living in San Miguel de Allende, Mexico.

Index Abduh, Muhammad, 304n1 Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, 182 academic libraries. See also specific academic and national libraries; national libraries – Algeria, 56, 60, 60n7–n9 – Bahrain, 167tab. – Djibouti, 208 – Egypt, 304 – Finland, 167tab. – Iran, 167tab. – Iraq, 177, 199, 200, 209 – Ireland, 167tab. – Jordan, 202–03 – Kuwait, 167tab. – Lebanon , 204–05 – Libya, 184 – Oman, 106, 167tab., 244 – OPT, 66, 66–68tab., 66n7–8, 66n10, 68n13, 69, 69n15, 69–71n17–24, 69–71tab., 71–75, 71n26–28, 71n30–31, 73n37, 77–78, 81n50 – Qatar, 88–93 passim, 101–08, 167tab. – Saudi Arabia, 97–99, 102, 106, 167tab. – Sudan, 177 – Sweden, 310–11 – Turkey, 275, 277, 279, 282, 282n7 – UAE, 93–110 passim, 167tab., 196, 283 – United States, 98, 167tab. – Yemen, 167tab. Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), 100, 110 Abū al-’Abbās al-Mursī (mosque) (Egypt) – Digital Archives Project, 310 Abu Dhabi (UAE), 133, 159, 183 Abu Dhabi Librarians Meetup (UAE), 301, 318 academic freedom. See freedom of expression Academic Library Consortium (Jordan), 275, 297. See also library collaboration; library consortia accreditation bodies, including certification and accreditation standards, 223, 225–26. See also specific

organizations; LIS education in Arab states and Middle East – and international branch campuses, 88 – of LIS master’s degrees, 94 ACCUCOMS (publishing services group), 277 acquisitions. See library acquisitions ACRL. See Association of College and Research Libraries Adult Literacy Directorate (Morocco), 30. See also literacy, including literacy rates Advanced Manuscript Integrated System (AMIS) (software), 305 Afghanistan, 1, 271 AFLI (Arab Federation for Libraries and Information), 225, 279–280 passim, 281, 305 Ain Shams University (Egypt), 211tab. AJL (Association of Jewish Libraries), 279 Al Ain (UAE), 99–100, 196, 134 Al Azhar Mosque (Egypt) – and Al Azhar Online Project, 310 Al Jazeera, 194 al Majid, Juma, 313n8 al-Ahmady Mosque (Egypt) – manuscript collection, 311 al-Aqsa University (OPT), 214tab. – library, 67tab., 71tab., 77 – LIS education, 74, 206 al-Azhar University (Egypt), 180 – Assiut, 211tab. – Cairo, 211tab., 258, 174 – libraries, 67tab., 70n22–23, 70tab. – Shbeen El-Kom, Al Minufiyah, 211tab. – Tafahna El-Ashraaf, Daqahlia, 211tab. al-Azhar University libraries (OPT), 69, 70n22–23, 70tab. al-Balqa Applied University (Jordan), 204, 213tab. al-Fateh University (Libya), 183 al-Furqan Heritage Foundation (UK), 316 al-Hussein Bin Talal University (Jordan), 204, 213tab. al-Istiqlal University Atatürk Library (OPT), 68, 68n13, 71

326  Index

al-Jabal al-Gharbi University (Libya), 185, 213tab. al-Karak University College (Jordan), 204 al-Mustansiriya University (Iraq), 177, 200–01, 203, 212tab. al-Najah National University Libraries (OPT), 67tab., 69, 70n20–21, 70tab., 81n50 al-Qasimi, Sheikh Sultan Bin Mohammed, 95 – unnamed, 96 al-Quds Open University (OPT), 66, 66n7–8 – West Bank and Gaza library branches (OPT), 68, 68tab., 71, 71n31 ALA. See American Library Association ALECSO (Arab League Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organization) (Tunisia), 281 Alexandria (Egypt), 272 Alexandria Library. See Bibliotheca Alexandrina Alexandria University (Egypt) – LIS education, 180, 181, 211tab. – LIS research, 222 Algeria, 173n2, 179, 182, 195, 235, 271, 274n. See also specific institutions – book deposit regulations, 7–8, 8n6, 8tab. – civil unrest, 285 – educational initiatives, 217, 217n7 – gross national product (GDP), 60 – higher education aid, 217 – international copyright treaties, 17tab. – Internet use, 60 – IT indicators, 22tab. – journals, 56 – library acquisitions, 274, 274n3 – library consortia, 277 – library collaboration, 274, 274n3 – LIS education, 177, 183–84, 187, 211tab. – LIS research, 236, 244, 244–45figs., 247–48, 278 – national library, 182, 183 – open access, including open access journals, 46, 47, 50–51, 52–56 passim, 60–61, 60n7–11, 278 – professional associations, 282 – publishers and publishing, including publication language, 3, 4, 247 – reading behavior, 5, 5tab. – relationship with France, 217, 247–48

Algerian Consortium of Higher Education and Scientific Research Establishments (Algeria), 277. See also library consortia Algerian Scientific Abstracts (ASA), 52. See also Research Center of Scientific and Technical Information Algiers University I, 52 Algiers (Algeria), 46, 183, 206 ALISE (Association for Library and Information Science Education) (US), 225 Amazigh (Berber) (language), 28, 37 American International Consortium of Academic Libraries (AMICAL), 115–16, 125, 133 American Library Association (ALA) – accreditation, 97, 99, 100, 120, 125, 191, 221 – International Responsibilities Task Force, 78 American University in Cairo (AUC) (Egypt) – and civil unrest, 131 – history and overview, 117–19 – information literacy, including program, 113, 121–23, 129–34 – library, 120 – manuscript database, 308 – subject-specific sessions, 113, 123–24 American University – in the Emirates (UAE), 178, 197, 215tab. – of Beirut (Lebanon), 175 – of Paris (France), 116 American University of Sharjah (AUS) (UAE) – history, including curricula, 95–96, 117–19, 124 – information literacy, including program, 105, 113, 115–17 passim, 125–34 – student profile, including librarian interactions, 109, 113, 125–31 passim, 131n3 – library, 96–98 passim, 101–05 passim, 107, 124–25 – library collaboration, 106 AMICAL (American International Consortium of Academic Libraries), 115–16, 125, 133 AMIS (Advanced Manuscript Integrated System) (software), 305


Amman (Jordan), 75n43 – Amman Public Library, 203 Anatolian University Libraries Consortium (ANKOS) (Turkey), 275, 277, 279, 282, 282n7. See also library consortia Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR2). See also bibliographic control; cataloging, including catalogers – adaptation to Arabic-language materials, 262–63 – bias, 255, 261, 266 Anglocentrism, 261. See also bias ANKOS (Anatolian University Libraries Consortium) (Turkey), 275, 277, 279, 282, 282n7. See also library consortia Annual Meeting of the Joint Authority for Heritage, 307 Arab Association of Library and Information Science Education (proposed), 225 Arab Convention for the Protection of Copyright, 17–18tab., 18. See also intellectual property, including copyright Arab Federation for Libraries and Information (AFLI), 225, 279–280 passim, 281, 305 Arab League, 208, 235–36, 240, 244. See also member countries – proposed manuscript project, 307 Arab League Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organization (ALECSO) (Tunisia), 281 Arab Regional Branch of the International Council on Archives (ARBICA), 280 Arab Spring, including aftermath, 236 – destruction of institutions and manuscripts, 250, 302 – Egypt, 113 – in LIS research, 237, 246–47, 248–50, 252 – and information literacy, 131 – and Morocco, 28 – and social media, 23, 251 Arab Thought Foundation, 4 Arab-American University Library (OPT), 67tab., 71tab., 71n24 Arabic (language), 1, 193, 202, 208, 236. See also specific countries; manuscript storage and preservation


– acquisitions, 108 – Arabic Union Catalog, 167 – automation system, 283–84 – book discussion groups, 37; distribution, 12–15, 13tab; fairs, 102; piracy, 33; readings, 36; records, 2–3tab.; publishers and publishing, 2–4 passim, 2–3tab., 6–8 passim, 8tab., 10–12 passim, 33–34 – bookstores, 14–15, 31, 40, 92 – cataloging and classification bias, 255–56, 261–63 – as cultural force, 3–4, 3n1, 20 – database searching, 58–59 – digital technology and social media, including Facebook and Twitter, 3–4, 23, 142, 223 – documents on Egypt, 117 – e-publishing, 20, 23 – information literacy, 114–116 passim, 133 – library collaboration, 283, 284 – library collections, 31–32, 40, 108 – LIS education, 183–89 passim, 192–95 passim, 207, 245–48, 247tab., 251 – LIS publications and teaching materials, 189, 194, 203, 210 – LIS research, including serials, 5, 235, 239, 251 – manuscripts, 167, 262–63, 310–11, 312 – professional organization, 280–81 – reading behavior, 5, 31–34 passim, 36 – translations into, 6, 10, 11; from English, 10, 33; French, 17, 10–11; German, 10–11 – websites, 223 Arabic Manuscripts Website, 309, 309n5 Arabic Portal for Librarianship and Information, 283, 283n10 Arabic Union Catalog, 167 – and Online Computer Library Center, 284 ARBICA (Arab Regional Branch of the International Council on Archives), 280 archaeology, including archaeological sites, 54, 156, 163, 164, 258 archives and archives management, 166, 168, 210, 225, 303, 304. See also specific institutions; LIS education in

328  Index

Arab states and Middle East; manuscript storage and preservation – academic archives and research, 31–32, 96 – archival collaboration, 285–86 – archival destruction, 78 – archivist positions, 96, 199 – cataloging of, 199 – digital archives and archiving, 98, 315 – education, 98 – Egyptian, 31 – as information centre, 156, 163 – information literacy, 98 – LIS education, 181, 185–87 passim, 201–02, 209, 211–13tab. – LIS research, 244 – national archives, 32, 168, 198, 199, 222–23 – open archives, 46, 48–49, 52 – as part of knowledge-based economies, 170 – professional organizations, 74n38, 279 – self-archiving, 48–49 – statistical data, 164 ArXiv (open archive) (Algeria), 46 ASA (Algerian Scientific Abstracts), 52. See also Research Center of Scientific and Technical Information Assiut University (Egypt), 181, 211tab. Association – des Jeunes Citoyens (Association of Young Citizens) (AYC) (Morocco), 39–40 – for Library and Information Science Education (ALISE) (US), 225 – of College and Research Libraries (ACRL), 105, 113, 127; Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education (report), 105, 113, 126 – of Jewish Libraries (AJL), 279 – of Research Libraries (Algeria), 46 – of Young Citizens (Association des Jeunes Citoyens) (AYC) (Morocco), 39–40 – to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, 95 AUC. See American University in Cairo AUS. See American University of Sharjah Australia, 88, 99, 143

Awqaf Library (Central Library of Islamic Manuscripts) (Egypt), 303, 311 – library digitization project, 302, 311, 313–15 passim, 314n9 AYC (Association of Young Citizens) (Association des Jeunes Citoyens) (Morocco), 39–40 Azerbaijan, 81tab., 284n11 Baghdad (Iraq), 18, 87, 174, 200 Baghdad University. See University of Baghdad Bahrain, 173, 173n2, 179, 188, 235, 271 – academic librarians and librarianship, 191–92, 110 – bookstores, 15 – Facebook, 23 – IDI rankings and values, 20tab., 21 – intellectual copyright treaties, 17tab. – international branch campus, 88–89 – Internet usage, 51 – IT indicators, 22tab. – as knowledge economy, including information centers, 160, 161tab., 165–67tabs., 165fig., 166 – library collaboration, 283 – LIS education, 178, 191–92, 244–45figs. – publishers and publishing, 3, 11–12 – special librarians and librarianship, 191–92 Balqa Applied University (Jordan), 204, 213tab. bandwidth, 46, 50–53 passim, 60, 118, 150. See also Internet Beirut (Lebanon), 87, 205 Beirut Arab University (Lebanon), 205, 213tab. Beirut College for Women (Lebanon), 205 Beirut University College (Lebanon), 205 Benchekroun, Aziza, 36 Benghazi (Libya), 184 Benha University (Egypt), 211tab. Beni-Suef University (Egypt), 180, 212tab. Berber (Amazigh) (language), 28, 37 Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities, 47, 49, 49n3


Berman, Sanford, 256, 259–61, 264 Berne Convention, 17–18tab., 19. See also intellectual property, including copyright Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing, 47, 49, 49n2 Bethlehem (Israel), 66–68tab. Bethlehem University Library (OPT), 67tab., 70tab., 70n19 – library staff, including head, 73, 73n35, 81n50 bias, 255–67. See also Orientalism Bibliographic Classification (Bliss), 263. See also classification and subject access bibliographic control, 274, 281. See also cataloging, including catalogers bibliographic instruction. See information literacy bibliometrics, 265 – relationship to ḥadīth science, 266 Bibliotheca Alexandrina (Alexandria Library) (Egypt), 116, 308, 315 – Center for Documentation of Cultural and Natural Heritage (CULTNAT), 308 – Digital Manuscript Library, 311 – information literacy, 132 – library digitization project, 301, 302, 310–11 – proposed LIS education program, 180 Bibliothèque des Resources Universitaires (BIRUNI) (Tunisia), 278, 283 Bibliothèque Nationale (Algeria), 182, 183 BiblioTram (reading program) (Morocco), 39 BiblioUniv Algérie (portal) (Algeria), 53. See also Research Center of Scientific and Technical Information Bin Mohammed Al Qassimi, 95, 124 BIRUNI (Bibliothèque des Resources Universitaires) (Tunisia), 278, 283 Birzeit University libraries (OPT), 66n10, 66tab., 69, 70n18, 70tab. – Internet site, 73 Blackboard (course management system), 122 Bliss Bibliographic Classification, 263 See also classification and subject access blogs (weblogs), 20, 149, 281 BNRM (National Library of Morocco), 32, 37


Bologna Process, 183–84, 187, 217. See also European Union – and EUCLID (European Association for Library and Information Science Education and Research), 221, 225 book depositories, 6–8, 7–8tabs., 281, 304n2 book discussion groups, 33, 37, 38, 41 book distribution, 2, 3, 5, 13tab., 34. See also book piracy; freedom of expression – and electronic technology, 23 – lack of uniformity, 13–15, 24, 33 – print runs, 12 – pro-reading initiatives in Morocco, 28–43 – relationship to ISSN, 6 book exchanges, 37, 39–40 – Ktabi Ktabek (My Book is Your Book) (Morocco), 39–40 book fairs, 5, 32–33, 76. See also book distribution – and freedom of expression, 16–17 – international in UAE, 102 – and reading behavior, including reading crisis in Morocco, 5, 5tab., 32–34 passim book piracy, 15, 19–20, 23, 33 book pricing, 13, 15–16, 16tab., 98–99, 102 – in Morocco, 31, 33–34, 38, 42 – in North Africa, 9 bookstores, 14–15, 92, 96 – categories, 14, – Morocco, 31, 40 Boolean operators, 122, 127 Boston University – School of Dentistry branch campus (UAE), 88–89 Bouquineurs (book lovers) (Morocco), 36–37 British Council, 191–92, 197–98, 203, 209 British Library, 106, 313 broadband, 21, 22tab., 145. See also Internet Budapest Open Access Initiative, 48–49, 48n1 Burhan al-asal (Proof of the Honey) (book), 16, 16n10 CAA (Commission for Academic Accreditation) (UAE), 94, 124, 143

330  Index

Cairo (Egypt), 87, 131, 312 – conferences in, 176–77, 225 – in Islamic history, 312 Cairo University (formerly Fouad I University). See University of Cairo, including Khartoom branch Camtasia (software), 132, 132n2 Canada, 139, 281 – and Higher Colleges of Technology (HCT) (UAE), 99 – and LIS education, 221, 223 – scholarly collaboration, 245 Caravan du Livre (Caravan of Books) (Morocco), 35–36 Carnegie Mellon University, Qatar branch (CMU-Q), 92, 93 Casablanca (Morocco), 29–30, 31 – and pro-reading initiatives, 38–40 passim – Virtual International Authority File (VIAF), 255 cataloging, including catalogers. See also specific catalogs; manuscript storage and preservation – Arabic-language materials, 261–64, 284 – authority files, 255, 306 – bias, 255–67 passim – and centralization, 287 – codices (majami), 316 – cooperative program, 274 – and digitization problems, 312, 315–16 – duplication of efforts, 69 – information literacy, 122 – library collaboration, including cooperative cataloging, 274, 284, 287, 304–08 passim – library consortia, 278 – LIS education, 74n38 – LIS research, 246 – Machine-Readable Cataloging, 308–09, 310, 316 – manuscript cataloging and catalogers 303–309 passim, 309n5, 311, 315–17 – regional catalog, 6 – serials, 83n52 – standards, including Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, 255, 261–63, 266, 308, 315

– union catalogs, 72, 277, 278, 282 Catalog collectif d’Algérie (CCDZ) (Algeria), 53. See also Research Center of Scientific and Technical Information censorship. See freedom of expression Center for Documentation of Cultural and Natural Heritage (CULTNAT) (Egypt), 308 Central Library Jawaher Lal Nehrow (OPT), 67tab., 70tab.; of Astan Quds Razavi (Iran), 167; of Islamic Manuscripts (Egypt), see Awqaf Library CERIST Digital Library (repository) (Algeria), 53, 60, 60n11. See also Research Center of Scientific and Technical Information Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP) (UK), 195, 221 children’s books, 14, 16 – Lebanon, including Lebanese, 11, 33 – Morocco, 31, 40 – Saudi Arabia, 17 – Tunisia, 8–9, 9tab. CILIP (Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals) (UK), 195, 221 classification and subject access, 74n38, 163, 170. See also specific classification schemes; cataloging, including catalogers – and classification bias, 255–67 passim CMU-Q (Carnegie Mellon University, Qatar branch), 92, 93 codices (majami), 316 Commission for Academic Accreditation (CAA) (UAE), 94, 124, 143 community colleges, 66n7, 99, 178 – college at University of Sharjah (UAE), 196 Comoros, 173n, 179, 208, 235 – gross domestic product (GDP), 173 – LIS education, 178, 208, 219 – LIS research, 244 consortia. See library consortia Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries (eFADA) (UAE), 277. See also library consortia Constantine University (University of Constantine) (Algeria), 183, 184, 222


continuing education, 190, 278. See also LIS education in Arab states and Middle East cookbooks, 9, 16, 16tab., 32 copyright. See intellectual property, including copyright – CULTNAT (Center for Documentation of Cultural and Natural Heritage) (Egypt), 308 curators 313–14, 317. See also museums Cybrarians (portal) (Egypt), 133, 283, 283n10 Dar al-Kutub Manuscript Project, 312 database and database management. See also specific databases, including catalogs and portals; cataloging, including catalogers; LIS education in Arab states and Middle East – cost, including licensing, 100, 278, 282 – digitization projects, including bibliographic databases, 304–07, 308–09 – information literacy, 104, 121, 122, 148 – intellectual property rights, 19 – joint databases, 91–92 – open access, 53–54, 93 – LIS education, including resources, 207, 218, 222–24 passim, 278, 315 definitions – clicker, 128n1 – collaboration, including deep collaboration, 272–73 – deep collaboration, 273 – domain, 265 – download, 51 – information center, 157 – information infrastructure, 159fig. – innovation system, 159fig. – international branch campuses (IBCs), 88 – joint-use libraries, 273 – knowledge economy, 157 – metadata, 163 – Mohammedanism, 260 – nonreader, 32 – open access journals (BAOI II), 48 – Orientalism, 256 – self-archiving (BAOI I), 48


– thin and thick collaboration, 272–73 – upload, 51 – Waqf, 311n6 Denmark, 21, 203 Dépôt numérique de l’Université d’Alger I (University I Digital Repository) (Algeria), 56–59 Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), 255, 263. See also bias; classification and subject access Dewey, Melvil, 263 DIAC (Dubai International Academic City) (UAE). See Higher College of Technology (HCT) campuses, including Men’s College and International Academic City Diana Tamari Sabbagh Main Library (DTSL) (OPT), 67tab., 70tab. Digital Archive Project (Alexandria Library) (Egypt), 310 digital libraries, including repositories and services, 156, 222, 284, 284n11. See also specific institutions and digital libraries – digitization projects, 308 – digital repository, 53, 60 – library collaboration, 277, 283 – LIS education, 207 – LIS research, 246, 247 – student attitudes and expectations, 117–18 Digital Manuscript Library (Bibliotheca Alexandrina) (Egypt), 311 Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), 47, 51 discourse communities, 265 discursive formations, 258 distance education – library collaboration, 286, 287–88 – Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT), 65–66 Djibouti, 174n, 208, 235 – IDI ranking and values, 21tab. – LIS education, 177–78, 208, 219 – LIS research, 244 DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals), 47, 51 document delivery, 95, 98, 106, 274–75. See also electronic documents and

332  Index

resources, including document management – electronic document delivery (EDD), 274, 284 – and library consortia, 278 Doha (Qatar), 90, 93 domain analysis, 264–67 – definition, 265 Dspace Université de Biskra (repository) (Algeria), 60, 60n10 DTSL (Diana Tamari Sabbagh Main Library) (OPT), 67tab., 70tab. Dubai (UAE), 118, 140 – Higher College of Technology (HCT) campuses, including Men’s College and International Academic City (DIAC), 88, 94, 99–100, 197 – Juma’a al-Majid Center for Culture and Heritage, 313, 313n8 – Knowledge Village, 196 – public libraries, 168 – Rochester Institute of Technology campus, 94 – Zayed University Campus, 94, 99 Duke University, 98 – Business School branch campus (UAE), 88–89 Dynix (automated library system), 283 e-books, 23, 30tab., 37, 93, 111, 113, 117. See also book publishing – piracy, 37 – translation rights, 25 e-commerce, 28, 34, 37 e-government – LIS research, 245, 247tab. e-publishing, 3, 20–24, 20–22tabs. e-resources. See electronic documents and resources, including document management EACEA (European Commission Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency), 217n7 Eastern Mediterranean Medical Libraries Network (MedLibNet), 281–82

École des Sciences de l’Information (Morocco). See School of Information Sciences economic and institutional regime (concept). See knowledge economies EDD (electronic document delivery), 274, 284. See also document delivery; electronic documents and resources, including document management education (concept). See knowledge economies; LIS education in Arab states and Middle East Educause (professional association), 133 Education City (Qatar), 11, 88–92 passim, 103, 106, 194 eFADA (Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries) (UAE), 277. See also library consortia Egypt, 64, 173n2, 179, 182, 235, 271, 274n3. See also specific institutions – academic libraries and librarianship, 72–73 – authority control, 262 – civil unrest, 113, 131, 199, 249–50, 285 – book fairs, 76 – book piracy, 19, 20 – hegemony towards, 257, 258 – digital collections and projects, 117–18, 302, 305–12 passim, 315, 316 – foreign schools, 175 – foreign training of faculty and librarians, 176, 201, 207, 208, 311–12tab. – foreign students in LIS, 184–85, 192, 198 – freedom of expression, 16 – historical, 271, 272 – IDI ranking and values, 21tab. – information literacy, 114, 116–17, 132 – intellectual copyright treaties, 17tab. – IT indicators, 22tab. – as knowledge economy, 249 – library acquisitions, 274, 274n3 – library consortia, 277, 278 – library collaboration, 132, 133, 274, 274n3, 285 – LIS education, 74n38, 177, 179–82, 190, 216


– LIS research, 236–37, 244, 244–45figs., 246, 246tab., 248, 251, 304–05, 305n3, 308 – open access, 47 – population, 173 – professional associations, 72–74 passim, 74n38, 133, 277–78, 282–83, 277–79 passim, 282–83, 287 – public libraries, 192 – publishers and publishing, 3, 6, 7tab., 11–13, 13tab., 33, 47 – reading behavior, 4, 5, 5tab., 10, 11 – school libraries, 192 – social media, including Twitter, 23, 249 – translations and translators, 10, 11 Egyptian – Association for Libraries and Information, 279 – Libraries Network, 282–83 – Library Association, 75n38, 133 – National Library, including Memory of the World. See National Library of Egypt – Society for Culture and Development, 282–83 – Universities Libraries Consortium (EULC), 277, 278. See also library consortia – University Digital Library (EUDL), 117–18 EIFL (Electronic Information for Libraries), 72, 277–78, 282–83, 287 EKUAL (National Academic License for Electronic Resources), 282, 282n7 192, 192n102 El Imam El Mahdi University (Sudan), 214tab. el-Sisi, Abdel Fattah (Sisi), 250 electronic documents and resources, including document management. See also e-books; digital technologies; document delivery; library collaboration – e-commerce, 28, 34, 37 – e-publishing, 3, 20–24, 20–22tabs. – electronic document delivery (EDD), 274, 284 – email, 59, 109, 130 – information literacy, 93, 104–06 – library collaboration, 274–75, 286 – LIS education curricula, 181 Electronic Information for Libraries (EIFL), 72, 277–78, 282–83, 287. See also


Palestinian Library and Information Consortium email, 59, 109, 130 EMRO (Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, World Health Organization, or WHO EMRO) 275, 281–82, 282n6 Encyclopaedia of Islam (bibliography), 262, 263–64 England. See United Kingdom English (language) – and bias in classification and subject access, 256, 261–62 – and bookstores, 14 – ESL speakers, including students, 105, 109, 130–31, 139 – and information literacy programs, 114–15 – as language of general instruction, 10, 87, 100, 108 – in LIS education, 186, 189, 192, 194, 195, 197 – language learning, 207 – language materials, 120, 203 – LIS journals, 235, 236, 239, 247–48, 251–52 – proficiency examinations, 203 – reading behavior, 5 – translation into Arabic, 10, 33 Erasmus and Tempus (educational initiatives), 217, 217n7 ESI (École des sciences de l’information). See School of Information Sciences Eskander, Saad, 198, 285–86 EU. See European Union EUCLID (European Association for Library and Information Science Education and Research), 221, 225 EUDL (Egyptian University Digital Library), 117–18 EULC (Egyptian Universities Libraries Consortium), 277, 278. See also library consortia European Association for Library and Information Science Education and Research (EUCLID), 221, 225 European Commission Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA), 217n7

334  Index

European Union (EU), 30, 139 – Bologna Process, 183–84, 187, 217 – Tempus and Erasmus (educational initiatives) 217, 217n7 Facebook, including Facebook pages, 3–4, 23, 36–37, 38, 42, 115–16 Faculty of – Agriculture Branch Library (Al-Najah National University) (OPT), 67tab.; (AlAzhar University Libraries) (OPT), 67tab. – Arts and Human Science (Al-Aqsa University) (OPT), 74 – Arts and Humanities (University of Damascus) (Syria), 207; (University of Tishreen) (Syria), 207 – Engineering and Technology Branch Library (Al-Azhar University Libraries) (OPT), 67tab. – Information and Documentation (Lebanese University), 205 – Library Science (Al-Aqsa University) (OPT), 74 – Library and Information Studies (University of Balamand) (Lebanon), 206 Fahy, Susan, 109 Fayoum University (Egypt), 212tab. Ferriero, David, 285, 285n12 Fez (Morocco), 29–30, 40, 174 Finland, 166, 167tab. Flickr, 122 Flaubert, Gustave, 257 Fouad I University. See University of Cairo Foucault, Michel, 258 France, 11, 37–38, 175, 183, 202, 208, 216–17, 247–48 – colonization of Morocco, 28, 29 – contribution to faculty, 202, 206, 217 – education of Arab librarians and faculty, 176, 206 – LIS education and, 186, 202, 245 – LIS publication and research, 245, 247–48 – school libraries in Lebanon, 204 Franklin, Benjamin – quoted, 289 Free Soft (portal), 53. See also Research Center of Scientific and Technical Information

freedom of expression, 3, 16–17, 16n10, 168, 222, 281 – American University of Sharjah (AUS), 103 – Arab Spring, 250, 302 – book fairs, 33 – Iraq, 199–200 – Israel and Occupied Palestinian Territories, 77–78, 251 – relationship to electronic technology, 23 – relationship to ISBN, 6–7 French (language), 11, 28, 33–34 , 208 – book discussions and readings, 36, 37 – LIS education, 177, 185, 186, 187, 217 – LIS publication, 173, 247–48, 251–52 – reading behavior and crisis in Morocco, 31, 36, 37, 40, 135 – translation into Arabic, 17, 10–11 French – Cultural Center (Lebanon), 10–11 – Development Agency, 217 – Institute for Arab Studies (Institut Français des Études Arabes à Damas), 175 Gaza Strip (OPT), 64–65, 206. See also specific institutions – academic libraries and librarianship, 66, 67–68tab., 68, 71, 76, 77 – blockade, 77 – LIS education, 80tab. – human mobility, 76–77 – population and territorial space, 65–66, 68n14 – publishers and publishing, 13tab. Gaza University Central Library (OPT), 68tab., 71n28, 71tab. Gaza Women University Library (OPT), 67tab., 71n26, 71tab. GCC. See Gulf Cooperation Council gender repartition, 78–79, 79tab. George Mason University branch campus (UAE), 89, 196 Georgetown University in Qatar (GU-Q), 90 – library, 92–93, 101, 104, 107 – students, 105, 109 German (language) – translation into Arabic, 10–11 Gordon Memorial College (Sudan), 209


Gramsci, Antonio, 257, 258 Great Britain. See United Kingdom GU-Q. See Georgetown University in Qatar Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), 9, 15, 21. See also specific countries and institutions – academic libraries, 89, 103, 108 – censorship, 15, 17, 103 – higher education in, 88 – LIS education in, 108, 188, 190, 217, 226 – Universities Forum, 191 Gulf Medical University (UAE), 196 ḥadīth literature, including ḥadīth science, 256, 256n1, 265, 266. See also Muhammad – relationship to bibliometrics, 266 Hassoune, Jamila, 35–36 HCT. See Higher Colleges of Technology Health Information Network Access to Research Initiative (HINARI), 282, 287 health sciences libraries and librarianship. See medical libraries and librarianship Hebrew (language), 2–3tab., 202 Hebron University (OPT) – library, 66tab., 69n17, 69tab., 72 hegemony, 256–58, 195. See also Orientalism Helwan University (Egypt), 212tab. High Institute of Archives and Library Sciences (Egypt), 74n38 Higher Colleges of Technology (HCT) (UAE), 94, 95, 99–100, 107, 196 – LIS education, 108 – libraries, 100, 102, 106, 283 Higher Education Council (Jordan), 204 Higher Institution of Documentation (Institut supérieur de documentation de Tunis) (ISD) (Tunisia), 187, 216 HINARI (Health Information Network Access to Research Initiative), 282, 287 Hisham Hijjawi College of Technology Library (OPT), 67tab., 70tab. Hjørland, Birger, 256, 264, 265 homosexuality and Islam, 103. See also sexuality


Horizon (automation system), 283 hospital libraries, 274 Hussain Mosque (Egypt) – collection of Quranic manuscripts, 311 ICA (International Council on Archives), 280 ICOLC (International Coalition of Library Consortia), 277. See also library consortia ICS (Integrated Care Society) (Egypt), 282–83 IDI (ITC Development Index), 20, 20n12 IDSC. See Information and Decision Support Center IFLA. See International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions iLLiad (document delivery service), 106 Illinois Library Computer Systems Organization (ILCSO), 286 illiteracy. See literacy, including literacy rates ILN. See Information Literacy Network of the Gulf Region Imam Muhammad ibn Saud Islamic University (Saudi Arabia), 177, 195, 214tab. Index Islamicus (bibliography), 263–64, 265 indexes, 124–25. See also specific indexes – LIS education, 207 Information and Decision Support Center. See National Library of Egypt information literacy, 104–06, 109, 113–34. See also specific institutions – in Arabic, 114–116 passim, 133 – assessment, 104–05, 121, 123, 126–29, 128n1, 133, 134 – computer-assisted, including social media, 122, 237 – conferences, 115–16, 125 – designated classrooms, 96 – electronic documents and resources, 93, 104–06 – in English, 114–15 – library administration and management, 88, 125 – as librarian position, 82tab., 83 – LIS education, 193

336  Index

– LIS research, 237 – professional associations, 105, 115, 125, 132–33, 283, 283n8 – public libraries, 132 – reference librarianship and services, 104, 122 – school system, including libraries, 117, 141, 145–46 – serials, 122 – special libraries, 132 – subject-specific guides, 105–06 – use of citation resources, 128 – virtual users and user services, 130, 190 – workshops, 104, 121, 129–32 passim, 283 Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education (report). See Association of College and Research Libraries Information Literacy Network of the Gulf Region (ILN) (Egypt), 115, 125, 132–33, 283, 283n8 information management – information policy, 190, – LIS education, 185, 193, 197 – professional association, 238 Information Resources Management Association, 197 information science, relationship to domain analysis, 265 information seeking – LIS research, 247tab. information storage and retrieval, 265 – LIS education, 207, 210, 237, 185 – LIS research, 245, 247tab. information technology and telecommunications. See also knowledge economies – as part of knowledge economies, 157–60 passim, 159fig., 160, 161tab., 170 – in LIS and archives education, 185, 192–93, 197, 207, 210 Initiative la Lecture pour Tous (Reading for All Initiative) (LLPT ) (Morocco), 37–38 innovation system (concept). See knowledge economies Innovative Interfaces Incorporated (software company), 91, 283 Inservice Training Center (Bahrain), 191–92

Institut – Ali Bach Hamba (Tunisia), 182, 187 – de bibliothéconomie (Institute of Librarianship) (Algeria), 183 – Français des Études Arabes à Damas (French Institute for Arab Studies) (Syria), 175 – de presse et des sciences de l’information (IPSI) (Tunisia), 177, 187, 215tab. Institute Ali Bach Hamba (Tunisia), 182 Institute of – Arabic Manuscripts (Egypt), 304, 304n2, 306, 307, 308–09 – Librarianship (Institut de bibliothéconomie) (Algeria), 183 – Press and Information Sciences (Institut de presse et des sciences de l’information) (Tunisia), 177, 183, 187 – Public Administration (Libya), 184; (Saudi Arabia), 11 – Women Studies Library (OPT), 67tab., 70tab. Institute for Statistics (UNESCO organization), 164 Institutional Repository for Information Sharing (IRIS), 286–87, 187n13 Integrated Care Society (ICS) (Egypt), 282–83 intellectual freedom. See freedom of expression intellectual property, including copyright, 17–18tab. See also book piracy; Palestinian Library and Information Consortium – and Berne Convention, 19 – and Budapest Open Access Initiative, 48 – book piracy, 15, 19–20, 23, 33 – digitization of manuscripts, 314 – information consortium, 72 – and interlibrary loan, 288 – library collaboration, 287 – and Occupied Palestinian Territories, 72 – open access journals, 48 – and World Intellectual Property Organization Copyright Treaty (WIPO), 17–18tab., 19. interlibrary loan services, 82n51, 95, 103, 106, 272. See also library collaboration – relationship to copyright, 288


– Illinois Library Computer Systems Organization, 286 – and library collaboration in MENA, 274–75 – Occupied Palestinian Territories, 75–76, 82tab. International – Coalition of Library Consortia (ICOLC), 277. See also library consortia – Council on Archives (ICA), 280 – Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA), 7, 114, 164, 221, 239tab., 242tab., 280–81, 281n4–5. Education and Training Section, 191; Center for Arabic Speaking Libraries and Information Institutions (Egypt), 280–81 – Standard Book Number (ISBN), 6–7 – Telecommuncations Union (ITU), 20 – University of Africa (Sudan), 214tab. internship programs – LIS education, 197, 201, 206, 218 Internet, 35–36, 46, 146 – academic libraries and librarianship, 63–64, 69, 141 – access and accessibility, 21, 42, 52, 53, 64n3, 79, 96, 118, 140, 145–46, 148, 150 – affordability and cost, 21, 22tab., 60 – broadband, including bandwidth, 21–22, 22tab., 46, 50–53 passim, 60, 118, 145, 150 – book sales, 14 – catalogs, 35–36 – creation of content, 149–50 – download and upload, 51 – evaluation of trustworthiness, 148, 171 – extent of usage, 22tab., 41–42, 50tab., 53, 140–51 passim – LIS education, 190 – LIS research, 246 – open access, 46, 51, 52 – regulation, 140 – relationship to information centers, 171 – scholarly communication and research, 47, 59 – World Stats, 50 Iran, 160, 271


– as knowledge economy, including information centers, 161, 161tab., 165–66, 165fig., 165–67tabs., 167, 168 – library acquisitions, 274, 274n3 – library consortia, 275, 277 – library collaboration, 274, 274n3 – LIS education, 198–202 – LIS research, 251 – publishers and publishing, 1, 11–12 Iraq, 3, 173, 235, 271, 274n3. See also specific institutions – civil unrest, 218, 247tab., 250–51, 302 – foreign training of librarians and faculty, 80tab., 81, 198, 201 – historical, 271 – intellectual copyright treaties, 17tab. – IT indicators, 22tab. – as knowledge economy, including information centers, 160n – library acquisitions, 274, 274n3 – library collaboration, 274, 283, 285–86 – LIS education, 177, 179, 198–202, 212–13tab., 218 – LIS research, 244, 244–45figs., 246, 247–48tabs., 250–51 – manuscript destruction, 302 – national library and archive, 198, 250 – professional associations, 279–80, 283 – publishers and publishing, 6, 11–12, 13tab. – upload indexes, 51 Iraq War, 198–99 – in LIS research, 244, 250–51, 247tab. Iraqi Libraries Network, 283 Iraqi National Library and Archive, 198–200, 250, 285–86 Irbid University College (Jordan), 204 IRIS (Institutional Repository for Information Sharing), 286–87, 187n13 ISBN (International Standard Book Number), 6–7 iSchool (organization), 187 ISD (Institut supérieur de documentation de Tunis) (Tunisia), 187, 216 ISESCO (Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), 306

338  Index

Islam, 28, 209, 236. See also specific institutions; ḥadīth literature, including ḥadīth science; Qur’ān – classification and subject access, 255–56, 259–67 passim – manuscripts, 31–32, 303–14 passim, 311n6, 312n8 – names, 261–62 – and Orientalism, 256, 258–59, 260 – reading habits, 5, 32 – sexuality, including homosexuality, 103 – Shi’i, 202 – Sunni, 202, 264 – translation, 11 Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (ISESCO), 306 Islamic Manuscript Association (UK), 313 Islamic University of Gaza (IUG) (OPT) – Gaza blockade, 77 – library, 67tab., 69n23, 70tab., 77–78 Israel, 75–76, 202, 271, 285. See also Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT) – blockade of Gaza libraries, 77 – colonization of OPT, 64–65, 68n14, 69, 206 – destruction of cultural center, 78 – freedom of expression in OPT, 77 – library collaboration, 75–76, 278 – library consortia, 274, 277 – LIS research, 251 – and professional associations, 74–76 passim Israel College Consortium, 278 Israeli Inter-University Center for Digital Information Services (MALMAD), 277. See also library consortia ITC Development Index (IDI), 20, 20n12 ITU (International Telecommunications Union), 20 IUG (Islamic University of Gaza) (OPT) – Gaza blockade, 77 – library, 67tab., 69n23, 70tab., 77–78

Jeunes Leaders Marocains (Young Leaders of Morocco) (JLM), 39 JLA (Jordan Library Association), 74n38, 75n43, 203 JLM (Young Leaders of Morocco) (Jeunes Leaders Marocains), 39 Joint University Libraries (US), 273. See also library collaboration Jordan, 3, 75, 173, 179, 198, 202, 235, 271 – academic libraries and librarianship, 64, 72–73, 202–03 – book fairs, 76 – Facebook, 23 – foreign students in LIS, 198 – foreign training of librarians, 75n43 – IDI ranking and values, 21tab. – information literacy, 116 – intellectual copyright treaties, 17tab. – Internet usage, 51 – IT indicators, 22tab. – library consortia, 275, 277–79 passim – LIS education, 73n36, 74n38, 75n43, 177, 202–04, 213tab. – LIS research, 244, 244–45figs., 246, 246tab., 248, 251 – professional associations, 74–75, 74n38, 75n43, 202–03, 278, 279, 283 – public libraries, 202–03 – publishers and publishing, 6, 7tab., 11–12, 13tab., 14 – reading behavior, 4, 5, 5tab. – school libraries, 203 – training of foreign librarians, 81, 81tab., 198 – upload indexes, 51 Jordan Library Association (JLA), 74n38, 75n43, 203 journals. See serials, including journals and periodicals Juma Al-Majid Center for Culture and Heritage (UAE), 168, 313, 313n8

Jarir (bookstore chain and publisher), 11, 14. See also bookstores Jerusalem, 67tab., 206 – East Jerusalem, 64n4, 74–75, 75n42

Kadoorie (OPT), 80tab. Kafrelsheikh University (Egypt), 212tab. KAM. See Knowledge Assessment Methodology


KAUST. See King Abdullah University of Science and Technology KEI. See Knowledge Economy Index Khaber, Bassin, 40 Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research (KUSTAR) (UAE), 100 Kharchiche, Mohammed, 38 King Abdulaziz Public Library (Saudi Arabia), 167, 284 King Abdulaziz University (Saudi Arabia), 177, 195, 214tab. King Abdullah II Center of Excellence (Jordan), 283 King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) (Saudi Arabia), 11, 88, 97 – library, 97–99, 102, 106, 283 King Fahd National Library (Saudi Arabia) – cooperative cataloging program, 274 King Saud University (Saudi Arabia), 195, 214tab. – LIS education, 193, 195 – as publisher, 11 Knowledge Assessment Methodology (KAM), 156–58 passim, 161n2, 164, 169 knowledge economies, 156–71 – definition, 157 – economic and institutional regime (concept), 158, 159fig., 160, 161tab. – education (concept), 157–60 passim, 159fig., 161tab., 162, 164n3, 168 – information technology and telecommunications (concept), 157–60 passim, 159fig., 160, 161tab., 170 – innovation system (concept), 157, 159–62 passim, 159fig., 161tab., 164, 168–71 passim – Morocco, 30 – UAE, 150, 277 Knowledge Economy Index (KEI), 156, 161n2. See also knowledge economies – ratings for Gulf countries, 161, 161tab. knowledge management – LIS education, 187, 188, 193, 207 – LIS research, 246, 247tab. knowledge organization (KO) systems, 257, 263–64


– bias, 255–56, 259, 261, 264 – and domain analysis, 265, 266 – relationship to Orientalism, 258–59 KOHA (software), 306 Koran. See Qur’ān Ktabi Ktabek (My Book is Your Book) (reading initiative) (Morocco), 39–40 KUSTAR (Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research) (UAE), 100 Kuwait, 110, 173n2, 179, 188, 198, 235, 271. See also specific institutions – book fairs, 16 – bookstores, 15 – electronic document delivery, 275 – foreign schools and universities, 118–19 – foreign workers, 189 – freedom of expression, 16 – health sciences libraries, 274 – information literacy, 114–15 – intellectual copyright treaties, 17tab. – Internet affordability and use, 21, 51 – invasion of, 199, 200 – IT indicators, 22tab. – as knowledge economy, including information centers, 160, 161tab., 165fig., 165–66tabs., 166, 167tab. – library collaboration, 274–75, 283 – LIS education, 177, 191, 192–93, 213tab. – LIS research, 237, 244, 244–45figs., 246, 246tab., 248, 251 – public libraries, 189 – public schools, 114–15 – publishers and publishing, 3, 11–12, 13tab. – school libraries and librarianship, Kuwait, 114–15, 189, 192 – Twitter, 23 Kuwait University, 192–93, 213tab. Kuwaiti Public Authority for Applied Education and Training, 189 labor market, 220 – Egypt, 181–82 – Gulf States, 188–89 – Iraq, 201 – Levant, 218 – Oman, 194

340  Index

– Sudan, 219 – Syria, 207 LCC (Library of Congress Classification), 263. See also bias; classification and subject access Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), 98 League of Arab States, 173, 173n2. See also specific countries Lebanese Academic Library Consortium, 277, 278. See also library consortia Lebanese American University, 116, 205, 213tab. Lebanese Library Association (LLA), 206 Lebanese National Library, 116 Lebanese University, 10, 177, 205–06, 213tab. Lebanon, 173n2, 179, 235, 271. See also specific institutions – book piracy, 19 – bookstores, 14–15 – civil unrest, 199 – e-books, 23 – Facebook, 23 – foreign schools, 175 – foreign training of librarians, 81, 81tab. – freedom of expression, 17 – IDI ranking and values, 20tab. – information literacy, 116 – intellectual copyright treaties, 18tab. – IT indicators, 22tab. – library acquisitions, 274, 274n3 – library consortia, 277, 278 – library collaboration, 274, 274n3, 285 – LIS education, 175, 177, 199, 202, 204–07, 213tab. – LIS research, 244–45figs., 246tab. – National Library, 175, 204, 205 – professional associations, 206, 277–79 passim – publishers and publishing, 6, 7tab., 9–12 passim, 13tab., 14, 17, 33 – reading behavior, 4, 5, 5tab. – school libraries, 204–05 – translations into Arabic, 10, 11 LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), 98

Levant, the, 202. See also specific countries – LIS education in, 177, 179, 202–08, 218–19 – publishers and publishing, 14 LibGuides (content management system), 265–66 Librarians’ Information Literacy Annual Conference (LILAC), 125 library acquisitions, 100–02, passim, 286. See also collections development and management library administration and management, 97 – academic libraries in OPT, 82tab., 83 – information literacy, 88, 125 – LIS education, 197, 207 – management systems, 278, 283, 305–06 library associations. See professional associations and societies Library of Celsus (Turkey), 271 library collaboration, 101, 113, 115, 270–89, 285. See also specific countries and institutions; distance education; interlibrary loan services; interlibrary loan services; library consortia – barriers, 75–76, 83, 285–87 – cataloging, 274, 304–05, 307–08 – deep collaboration, 273 – definition and description, 272–74 – digitization, including digital library, 277, 283, 284, 284n11, 287–88, 304–09 passim, 313 – disaster preparation, 288 – distance education, 287–88 – document delivery, 95, 98, 106, 274–75, 278, 284 – four categories of, 275 – government, 218, 313 – high schools, 132 – historical, 271–72, 272n1 – information literacy, 115, 132 – interlibrary loan, 274–75, 286, 288 – joint-use libraries, including public and school, 273–74, 288 – librarian-faculty, 113, 127, 128, 133 – library consortia, 275, 277–79, 285 – literature on, 274 – long-distance, 286–87 – national library, 306


– open and virtual universities, 188, 287 – professional library associations, 113, 277–84, 281–83n4–10, 285, 306 – staff training, 115 – storage facilities, 287 – student, 150 – technology implementation, 287 – thin and thick collaboration, 272–73 – union catalog, 167 library consortia, 270, 276–79, 282, 284–85, 289. See also specific consortia; library collaboration – digital or electronic resources, 76, 274, 277–79, 287 – and integrated library management systems, 283 – relationship to bureaucracies, 285 Library Information Web Access (LIWA) (UAE), 106, 278, 283–84, 285. See also library consortia library instruction. See information literacy Library of al-Azhar (Egypt), 304 – digitization project, 302 Library of Ayat Allah Marashi Najafi (Iran), 167 Library of Congress, 260. See also bias; classification and subject access; library acquisitions – authority control, 262 – cooperative acquisitions program, 102 – digitization projects, 308, 313, 214–15 – Subject Headings (LCSH), 255, 259 – Classification (LCC), 263 Library of Pergamum (Turkey), 271 library planning and strategy, 275, 288 – digitization projects, 314, 316–17 Library, Museum and Document Center of Iran Parliament, 167 Libya, 173n2, 179, 182, 235, 262, 271, 285. See also specific institutions – Arab Spring, 302 – archives education, 185 – educational initiatives, 217, 217n7 – intellectual copyright treaties, 18tab. – IT indicators, 22tab. – library acquisitions, 274, 274n3


– library collaboration, 274, 274n3 – LIS education, 177, 182–85 passim, 213tab., 216 – LIS research, 236, 244, 245fig., 246fig. – manuscript destruction, 302 – public libraries, 184 – publishers and publishing, 3, 13tab. – school libraries, 184 Libyan Academy for Graduate Studies (Libya), 185, 213tab. LILAC (Librarians’ Information Literacy Annual Conference), 125 LIS education in Arab states and Middle East, 173–226. See also specific countries and institutions, including organizations and universities – accreditation of LIS programs, 74, 97–100 passim, 120, 174, 181–82, 191, 195, 221–26 passim – admission requirements, 180–81, 187, 201, 203, 207, 216, 220–21 – archival studies, 181, 186, 211–14tab., – bachelor’s, 73–75 passim, 79–81tabs., 80–81, 107, 178–79, 210, 211–15tab., 220–21, 220n9, 224 – budgets, 174 – continuing education, 190 – curricula, including currency and reform, 74n38, 174, 180–97 passim, 200, 203–10 passim, 219–24 passim – diploma programs, 74, 79–81tabs., 81, 177, 183, 185, 192–200 passim, 203–04 passim, 210 – doctorates and doctoral, 79–81tabs., 81n49, 98, 178–80 passim, 184–90 passim, 198, 200, 205, 207, 210, 212–15tab., 305 – faculty, including exchanges and qualifications, 174, 176, 182–86 passim, 188n4, 189, 192, 193, 196, 200–01, 203–07 passim, 209–10, 217–25 passim, 247 – fieldwork programs and practica, 184, 192 – graduation rates, 217–18 – information management, 185, 193, 197 – informatiste (term), 186

342  Index

– internship and training, 193, 197, 201, 206, 218 – library technician, 107–08, 205 – “licence, master’s, and doctorate” (LMD) (degree sequence), 183–84, 186, 217 – master’s, 72–74 passim, 79–81tabs., 81, 94, 97–100, 178–200 passim, 204–07 passim, 210, 211–15tab., 221 – medical librarianship, 194, 205 – minor programs, 192, 194 – professional associations and workshops, 75, 115–16, 132, 175–76, 278–80 passim – records management, 181, 186, 219 – as research topic, 236–47, 247tab. – student exchanges, 225 – teaching methods, 195–96, 203, 206, 219 – textbooks, 114, 207 – thesis and dissertation programs, 180, 184 – tuition, 197, 205 – union catalog, 284 LIS research, 235–52. See also specific countries and institutions; academic libraries; digital libraries, including repositories and services; information literacy; knowledge economies, innovation system; library consortia; open access – author-country affiliations, 244–45figs. – collaboration, 244–45, 248, 281–84 – consortia, 277–79 – geographical, 246tab. – historical, 31–32 – language, 247–48 – political topics, including Arab Spring and Iraq War, 248–52 – professional and research associations, 279–81 – relationship to information centers, 162–64 passim, 170–71 – scientific, including publishing, 11–12, 59–60, 83, 98 – serials, 238–39, 239–40tab. – student research behaviors, 147–49, 151 – topics, 245–46, 247tab. literacy, including literacy rates, 4, 28, 222. See also information literacy

– female, 29–30 – as IT indicator, 22tab. – historical, 174–75 – illiteracy in Morocco, 28–31, 33, 40, 42, 222 – relationship to knowledge economy, 160 – pro-reading initiatives in Morocco, 28–43 – relationship to religious instruction, 31 – standards, 108–09 – UAE, 141, 196 LIWA. See Library Information Web Access LLA (Lebanese Library Association), 206 LLPT (Initiative la Lecture pour Tous) (Reading for All Initiative) (Morocco), 37–38 MAchine-Readable Cataloging (MARC) (standard), 308–09, 310, 316. See also cataloging, including catalogers madrasa (religious schools), 174–75 Maghreb, the, 179. See also specific countries – LIS research, 223 – LIS education, 182–88, 216–17, 220, 226 – publishers and publishing, 6 majami (codices), 316 MALMAD (Israeli Inter-University Center for Digital Information Services), 277. See also library consortia Mamluk Qur’an Manuscript collection project, 313. See also Memory of the World Mansoura University (Egypt), 212tab. manuscript storage and preservation. See also archives and archives management – Arabic, 167, 262–63, 310–11, 312 – cataloging and catalogers 303–309 passim, 309n5, 311, 315–17 – codices (majami), 316 – collection, 313 – database and projects, 302–07 passim – destruction, 302 – digitization and microforming, 167, 302–17, 304n2, 309n5, 314n9 – in Egyptian history, 272 – historical donations, 311n6 – institution, 304, 304n2, 306, 307, 308–09


– Islamic, including Qur’ānic, 31–32, 303–14 passim, 311n6, 312n8 – portals, 307–09, 314 – professional association, 313 – software, 305 – website, 309, 309n5 MARC (MAchine-Readable Cataloging) (standard), 308–09, 310, 316. See also cataloging, including catalogers Marrakech (Morocco), 30–31, 35 Masdar Initiative (Abu Dhabi), 11 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) – Dubai Knowledge Village, 196 Mauritania, 173n2, 235 – broadband, 21 – IDI ranking and values, 21tab. – library collaboration, 271 – LIS education, 179, 182–83, 186, 213tab., 217 – national library system, including national library, 185 – professional association, 298tab. – publishers and publishing, 13tab. – research in, 236, 244, 244fig. MECAP (Library of Congress Middle East Cooperative Acquisitions Program), 102. See also library acquisitions medical libraries and librarianship, 274. See also medicine – collection policies, 1 – LIS education, 194, 205 – electronic library, 91 – library collaboration, including MedLibNet and VHSL, 274, 281–82, 282n6 – LIS research, 237 – serial publication, 240tab., 243tab. medicine. See also medical libraries and librarianship – academic programs, 10, 89, 90, 100, 180–81, 191, 194 – medical corporations and institutions, 49, 90, 196, 209, 283 – publication and scholarship, 1, 54, 240tab., 243tab., 267, 272, 308 MedLibNet (Eastern Mediterranean Medical Libraries Network), 281–82


MELA (Middle East Librarians Association), 280 Memory of the World (digitization project), 308–12 passim, 314–15 Menoufia University (Egypt), 180, 212tab. metadata, 251. See also database and database management – and Arabic Union Catalog, 167 – definition, 163 – and knowledge economies, 170 – standards and digitization projects in Egypt, 305–10 passim, 312, 315, 316 – Webreview, 53 Middle East Librarians Association (MELA), 280 Middle States Commission on Higher Education (MSCHE), 96, 99, 117, 119, 124, 126. See also accreditation bodies, including certification and accreditation standards military hospital libraries, 274, 278–79 Minia University (Egypt), 212tab. MINISIS (software), 305–06 Minister of Youth and Sports (Morocco), 41 Ministry of – Antiquities (Egypt), 203, 211 – Communications and Information Technology (Egypt), 308, 308n4 – Cultural Affairs (Morocco), 33 – Culture (Egypt), 303; (Morocco), 31, 34, 35, 38–40 passim, 42 – Culture and Education (Yemen), 197–98 – Culture, Arts and Heritage (Qatar), 103, 281 – Education (Bahrain), 191–92; (Jordan), 74n38; (Kuwait), 192 – Education and Higher Education (OPT), 65, 66, 66n9, 69, 74 – Endowments (Egypt), 303, 304 – Higher Education and Scientific Research (Algeria), 53; (Tunisia), 187; (UAE), 94, 100, 124 – Information and Culture (Algeria), 183 – the Interior (Morocco), 29 – Islamic Endowments (Egypt), 313 – Planning (Morocco), 186 – Youth and Sports (Morocco), 29

344  Index

MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) – Dubai Knowledge Village, 196 Montesquieu Law Library (OPT), 66tab., 70tab. Moroccan National Library (BNRM), 8, 32, 37, 182 Morocco, 3, 8n4, 173n2, 225 – and Arab Spring, 28 – book deposit regulations, 7 – bookstores, 31, 40 – educational initiatives, 217, 217n7 – general description, 28–29 – IDI ranking and values, 21tab. – illiteracy, 28–31, 33, 40, 42, 222 – intellectual copyright treaties, 18tab. – IT indicators, 22tab. – library acquisitions, 274, 274n3 – library consortia, 277 – library collaboration, 274, 274n3 – LIS education, 36, 42, 43, 177, 179, 182–84 passim, 186–87, 214tab., 216–17 – LIS research, 235, 236, 244fig., 246tab., 271 – national library (BNRM), 8, 32, 37, 182 – national bibliographies, 7–8 – National Center for Documentation, 186 – pro-reading initiatives, 28–43 – public libraries, 31–32, 35 – publishers and publishing, 8tab., 10 – reading behavior, 4, 5, 5tab., 31–41 passim – relationship with France, 11, 28, 216–17, 247–48 – school libraries, 36, 41, 42 – translations into Arabic, 10–11, 33 mosques, 32, 311n6 – and manuscript digitization project, 310, 314 – and religious publication, 9 – libraries, 206, 311 MSCHE. See Middle States Commission on Higher Education Mubarak, Zaki, 304n1 Muhammad (Mahomet), 256n1, 260, 266. See also ḥadīth science museums, 163, 166, 167, 225. See also curators

– and hegemony, 257 – “newseum” (US), 93 – number of, 164–65, 165fig., 165tab., 168 – as part of knowledge-based economies, 156, 167tab., 170 – per population center, 166 – and statistical data, 164, 164n3 My Book is Your Book (Ktabi Ktabek) (reading initiative) (Morocco), 39–40 MyiLibrary (platform), 96 Nablus (OPT), 67tab., 74, 80 Napoleon, 257, 258 NAQAAE (National Authority for Quality Assurance and Accreditation of Education) (Egypt), 119 NAQQAET (National Authority of Qualifications and Quality Assurance for Education and Training) (UK), 89 National Academic License for Electronic Resources (EKUAL), 282, 282n7 192, 192n102 National Academic Network and Information Center (ULAKBIM), 282, 282n7 National Agency for the Battle against Illiteracy (Agence nationale de lutte contre l’analphabétisme) (Morocco), 30. See also literacy, including literacy rates National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB) (US), 95 National Archives (UAE), 168 National Authority for Quality Assurance and Accreditation of Education (NAQAAE) (Egypt), 119 National Authority of Qualifications and Quality Assurance for Education and Training (NAQQAET) (UK), 89 National Center for Documentation (Morocco), 186 National Centre for Documentation and Research (UAE), 168 National Library and Archive (Iraq), 198, 250 – Information and Decision Support Center (IDSC), 304–05, 305n3, 309, 309n5


– manuscript database and projects, 302–07 passim – Memory of the World (digitization project), 308–12 passim, 314–15 – World Digital Library initiative, 284, 311 national libraries, excluding Egypt. See also National Library of Egypt – Algeria (Bibliothèque Nationale), 182, 183 – Comoros, 208 – Iran (NLI), 117 – Iraq, 198–200, 250, 285–86 – Lebanon, 175, 204, 205 – Mauritania, 185 – Morocco (BNRM), 8, 32, 37, 182 – Qatar, 91, 168, 195, 283 – Saudi Arabia (King Fahd National Library), 274 – Somalia, 208 – Tunisia, 8, 126, 182 – Turkey, 275 National Portal for Reporting Theses (Portail National de Signalement des Thèses) (Algeria), 52. See also Research Center of Scientific and Technical Information National School of Computer Science (Tunisia), 244 National System of Online Documentation (Système National de Documentation en Ligne) (SNDL) (Algeria), 33, 52 Neelain University (Sudan), 210, 214tab. Netherlands, 116, 237 Netindex (website), 51 Network of Public Reading (Réseau de la Lecture Publique) (Morocco), 35 New Campus Branch Library (OPT), 67 tab., 70tab. New York Institute of Technology in Bahrain, 89 New York University Abu Dhabi (NYUAD) (UAE), 93–94, 104, 106, 109 New York University, New York (NYU) (US), 93 – Dubai Knowledge Village (UAE), 196 New Zealand Digital Library Project, 308 Next Page Foundation, 32 Nietzsche, Friedrich, 257 Northwestern University in Qatar (NU-Q), 89, 90, 92, 93


Nouakchott University (Mauritania), 185 NU-Q. See Northwestern University in Qatar NYU New York (New York University) (US), 93 – Dubai Knowledge Village (UAE), 196 NYUAD. See New York University Abu Dhabi Observatory on Borderless Higher Education (OBHE), 88, 89 Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT), including Palestine, 3, 4, 63–86, 173n2, 179, 202, 236, 272. See also specific institutions – academic libraries and librarianship, 63–86, 66–71tabs. – blockade, 77 – freedom of expression in OPT, 77 – IDI ranking and values, 21tab. – in Library of Congress Subject Headings, 261 – Israeli colonization of OPT, 64–65, 68n14, 69, 206 – library collaboration, 277 – library consortium, 278 – LIS education, 72–74, 199, 202, 206–07, 215tab. – LIS research, 244–45figs., 246tab. – population and territorial space, 65–66, 68n14 – professional library associations, 73, 73n34, 74–75, 74n41, 75n45, 277 – publishers in Gaza Strip, 13tab. – reading behavior, 5tab. OCLC (Online Computer Library Center), 106, 164, 284 October 6 University (Egypt), 180, 212tab. Ohio State University Libraries (US), 98 OIC (Organization of Islamic Cooperation), 12 Oman, 3, 110, 173n2, 188, 235 – bookstores, 15 – foreign schools and universities, 118–19 – IDI ranking and values, 20tab., 21 – intellectual copyright treaties, 18tab. – interlibrary loan services, 106 – Internet usage, 51 – IT indicators, 22tab. – as knowledge economy, including information centers, 160, 161, 161tab., 165fig., 165–67tabs.

346  Index

– library collaboration, 271, 275, 283 – LIS education, 177, 179, 189, 193–94, 197, 214tab. – LIS research, 244, 244–45figs., 246tab. – publishers and publishing, 11–12 Omdurman Ahlia University (Sudan), 210, 214tab. Omdurman Islamic University (Sudan), 177, 209, 214tab. online catalogs. See specific catalogs open access, 47, 52, 59–60. See also specific databases, repositories, and serials; Algeria, open access – Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities, 47, 49, 49n3 – Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing, 47, 49, 49n2 – Budapest Open Access Initiative, 48–49, 48n1 – Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), 47, 51 – Egypt, 47 – Global Open Access Portal, 52, 284 – Internet, 46, 51, 52 – LIS research, 47 – Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR), 47 – Saudi Arabia, 47, 98 open university. See al-Quds Open University OPT (Occupied Palestinian Territories). See Occupied Palestinian Territories Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), 12 Orientalism, 256–59, 260. See also bias; hegemony orientation tours, 105, 130 Oslo Accords, 206 Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), 206, 256 Palestine Polytechnic University Library (OPT), 71n30, 71tab. Palestine Technical University-Kadoorie (OPT), 74, 75 – library, 66tab., 69n15, 69tab. Palestinian Authority, 63, 65, 68n14, 206 Palestinian Liberation Army (PLA), 65

Palestinian Library and Information Association (PLIA), 73–75 passim, 73n34, 74n41, 75n45 Palestinian Library and Information Consortium (PALICO) (OPT), 72, 72n33, 277, 278. See also library consortia Palestinian Ministry of Education and Higher Education – academic libraries, 69 – Bill 11, 65, 66, 66n7 – LIS education, 74 PALICO. See Palestinian Library and Information Consortium PALThink for Strategic Studies, 77, 77n46 Panopto (software), 131, 131n2 PAP (Programme d’aide à la publication) (Lebanon), 10 periodicals. See serials, including journals and periodicals Persian (language) – digitization of documents, 167 – book records, 2–3tab. Philadelphia University Jordan, 204, 213tab. PLA (Palestinian Liberation Army), 65 PLIA. See Palestinian Library and Information Association PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization), 206, 256 Portail National de Signalement des Thèses (National Portal for Reporting Theses) (Algeria), 52. See also Research Center of Scientific and Technical Information portals, 52–53, 283–284, 314. See also specific portals; manuscript storage and preservation Prejudices and Antipathies (book) (Berman), 256, 259–61 Princess Alia University College (Jordan), 204 Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University (Saudi Arabia), 214tab. professional associations and societies, 177, 191, 285, 297–301. See also specific associations, countries, and societies; LIS education in Arab states and Middle East Programme d’aide à la publication (PAP) (Lebanon), 10


Project SAILS (information literacy assessments), 133 Proof of the Honey (Burhan al-asal) (book), 16, 16n10 Public Authority for Applied Education and Training (Kuwait) – LIS education, 189, 192, 213tab. public libraries, including specific libraries, 133, 278, 279, 288. See also LIS education in Arab states and Middle East – Bahrain, 191–92, 167tab. – Egypt, 283 – Finland, 167tab. – Gulf States, 220 – information literacy, 132 – Iran, 167tab. – Ireland, 167tab. – Iraq, 199 – Jordan, 202–03 – Kuwait, 167tab., 189, 192 – Lebanon, 205 – Libya, 184 – Morocco, 31–32, 35 – Oman, 167tab. – Qatar, 168 – Saudi Arabia, 167, 167tab., 284 – Somalia, 208 – UAE, 167tab., 168 – United States, 167tab. public schools, 114, 117, 132–33, 141. See also school libraries, including librarianship Qatar, 173, 179, 188, 235. See also specific institutions – academic libraries and librarianship, 88, 89–93, 101, 103–07 passim, 109, 110 – bookstores, 15 – Facebook, 23 – foreign schools and universities, 118–19. See also Qatar, academic libraries – foundation, 87 – government, including ministry, 103, 159, 281 – IDI ranking and values, 20tab., 21 – intellectual copyright treaties, 18tab.


– Internet usage, 51 – IT indicators, 22tab. – as knowledge economy, including information centers, 160, 161, 161tab., 165fig., 165–67tabs. – library collaboration, 106, 281, 283 – library consortia, 277 – LIS education, 177, 178, 194–95, 214tab. – LIS research, 12, 244–45figs., 246tab. – national library, 91, 168, 195, 283 – public libraries, 168 – school education, 194 Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development, 87, 89, 104, 195, 283 Qur’ān (Koran), 5, 263, 266 – reading behavior, 32 – manuscripts, 303, 312 Rabat (Morocco), 38, 40 – National Library of Morocco (BNRM), 32, 37 RAND Corporation, 194 Ras al-Khaimah (UAE), 118 – campuses, 118, 99–100 RDA (Resource Description and Access) (cataloging standard), 266 Reading for All Initiative (Initiative la Lecture pour Tous) (LLPT) (Morocco), 37–38 Reading Network of Morocco (Réseau de la lecture au Maroc) (reading initiative), 34, 40–41 records management, 181, 186, 219 reference librarianship and services. See also specific libraries – academic, 95, 98, 103, 130 – information literacy, 104, 122 – library collaboration, 287 – LIS education, 122, 207 – LIS research, 247tab. – physical space, 92–93, 96 – responsibilities and titles, 73, 82–83, 82tab., 120 – student knowledge of, 108, 109, 130 – transactions, 103 – virtual reference, 130, 131

348  Index

Regional Centre for Software Engineering and Information Technology (RITSIC) (Egypt), 306 Regional Information Technology and Software Engineering Center (RITSEC) (Egypt). See also Memory of the World Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR), 47 Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, World Health Organization (WHO EMRO), 275, 281–82, 282n6 religious books, 9, 9tab., 16, 32, 33. See also Qur’ān Religious Institute of Smuha (Egypt), 310–11 Research Center of Scientific and Technical Information (CERIST) (Algeria), 46, 52, 52n5, 53 – Algerian Scientific Abstracts (ASA), 52 – BiblioUniv Algérie (portal), 53 – Catalog collectif d’Algérie (CCDZ), 53 – CERIST Digital Library (repository), 53, 60, 60n11 – Free Soft (portal), 53 – Portail National de Signalement des Thèses (National Portal for Reporting Theses), 52 – Système National de Documentation en Ligne (National System of Online Documentation) (SNDL), 33, 52. See also Research Center of Scientific and Technical Information – Webreview (website), 46, 53–56, 53n6, 55tab., 60 Réseau de la lecture au Maroc (Reading Network of Morocco) (reading initiative), 34, 40–41 Resource Description and Access (RDA) (cataloging standard), 266 resource sharing. See library collaboration Regional Information Technology and Software Engineering Center (RITSEC) (Egypt). See also Memory of the World RITSIC (Regional Centre for Software Engineering and Information Technology) (Egypt), 306 Riyadh University (Saudi Arabia)

– LIS education, 197 ROAR (Registry of Open Access Repositories), 47 Rochester Institute of Technology, Dubai campus, 89 – library, 94 Roky, Rachida, 34, 40, 41 Rome Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations, 17–18tab., 19 Russia. See Soviet Union (USSR), including Russia Said Khoury Development Studies Library (OPT), 66tab., 70tab. Said, Edward, 256, 257, 259, 261 Saint Catherine’s Monastery (Egypt), 311 Saint Joseph University (Université SaintJoseph) (Lebanon), 175, 204 Sakakini Cultural Centre (OPT), 78 Salon International de L’Edition et du Livre (International Book and Publishing Fair) (SIEL) (Morocco), 33 Sana’a University (Yemen), 198, 198n6, 215tab. Saudi Arabia (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) (KSA) 173n2, 179, 188, 191, 194, 198, 235, 271. See also specific institutions – academic libraries and librarianship, 88, 97–99, 110 – book piracy, 19 – bookstores, 14, 15 – foreign schools and universities, 118–19 – foreign training of librarians, 192, 198 – foreign workers, 189 – freedom of expression, 16–17 – IDI ranking and values, 20tab., 21 – intellectual copyright treaties, 18tab. – Internet usage, 51 – IT indicators, 22tab. – as knowledge economy, including information centers, 160, 161, 161tab., 165fig., 165–67tabs., 167 – library consortia, 277 – library collaboration, 47, 278, 283 – LIS education, 177, 189, 191, 192, 195–96, 198, 214tab.


– LIS research, 237, 244, 245fig., 246tab., 248, 251 – military hospital libraries, 274, 278–79 – publishers and publishing, 3, 6, 7, 11–12, 13tab. – open access, 47, 98 – reading behavior, 4, 5tab. – translations into Arabic, 10, 11 – Twitter, 23 Saudi Digital Library (SDL), 283 Sbihi, Mohamed Amine, 33, 35 scanning and scanners, 96, 125, 288. See also manuscript storage and preservation – and Egyptian library system, 305, 308–10 passim school libraries, including librarianship, 114, 132–33, 164n3, 279, 288 – Bahrain, 191–92 – Egypt, 283 – information literacy, 117 – Iraq, 199 – Jordan, 203 – Kuwait, 114–15, 189, 192 – Lebanon, 204–05 – Libya, 184 – LIS research, 240tab., 242–43tab., 246, 247tab. – Morocco, 36, 41, 42 – UAE, 196 School of Foreign Service (Georgetown University) – Qatar campus, 92 School of Information Sciences (École des sciences de l’information) (ESI) (Morocco), 37, 177, 183, 186–87, 214tab., 216 SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online) (Brazil), 51, 51n4 ScienceDirect, 282 Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) (Brazil), 51, 51n4 scientific publishing and knowledge, 98, 11–12, 217. See also specific databases and portals – citation impact, 12 – digitization projects, 310, 311, 313


– open access, 47, 51, 52–53, 59–61 – Palestinian attitude toward, 64 – professional organization, 280 – publication output, 12 – relationship to Internet, 53, 59–60 – relationship to information centers, 162 – responsibility for, 83 – as subject of inquiry, 258 SDL (Saudi Digital Library), 283 Sears List of Subject Headings, 259 serials, including journals and periodicals, 92–93, 95, 96, 163 – Arabic, 5 – cataloging, 83n52 – e-journals, 282 – indexes, 122 – information literacy, 122 – innovation system (concept), 162 – interlibrary loan, 288 – library collaboration, 274, 278–79, 283–84, 287, 288 – library consortia, 282 – serials crisis in Algeria, 46, 59 – LIS professional serials, 75n43, 274, 279, 280, 281 – LIS research serials, 56–57, 58, 222, 235–52 passim, 239–40tab., 242–43tab., 243–45figs., 246–47tab., 248 – open access journals, including program, 46, 53–54, 56–57, 58 – storage, 287 – union list in Saudi Arabia, 278 sexuality, 16n10, 103, 261 Shaqab College of Design Arts (Virginia Commonwealth University in Qatar), 91 Sharjah (UAE), 88, 99–100, 118, 168 – system of higher education, 95, 124. See also specific institutions Sharjah International Book Fair (UAE), 102 Shi’i Islam, 202. See also Islam SIEL (Salon International de L’Edition et du Livre) (International Book and Publishing Fair) (Morocco), 33 SLA-AGC (Special Library Association Arabian Gulf Chapter), 125, 191, 280

350  Index

SNDL (Système National de Documentation en Ligne) (National System of Online Documentation) (Algeria), 33, 52 social media. See also Facebook; Internet – Arab Spring, 23, 249, 251, 252 – in LIS research, 171–72 – LIS education, including information literacy, 122 – Morocco reading programs, 41–42 – Twitter, 3, 23, 38 – YouTube, 38, 42 – UAE, 140 sociology, 224 – and Arab Spring, 249, 252 Sohag University (Egypt), 212tab. Somalia, 173n2, 235 – civil unrest, 199 – LIS education, 178, 179, 199, 208, 219 – LIS research, 244, 246tab. Sorbonne (university) (France) – branch in Dubai Knowledge Village, 196 South Valley University (Egypt), 212tab. Soviet Union (USSR), including Russia, 81, 81tab., 207 – training of Yemeni library staff, 198 special libraries, including special librarians, 166, 191, 196, 279 – Bahrain, 165tab., 165fig., 167tab., 192 – Djibouti, 208 – Finland, 167tab. – Iran, 165tab., 165fig., 167tab. – Kuwait, 165tab., 165fig., 167tab. – Lebanon, 205 – Oman, 165tab., 165fig., 167tab. – Qatar, 165tab., 165fig., 167tab. – Saudi Arabia, 165tab., 165fig., 167tab. – Syria, 207 – UAE, 165tab., 165fig., 167tab., 196 – United States, 167tab. – Yemen, 165tab., 165fig., 167tab. Special Library Association Arabian Gulf Chapter (SLA–AGC), 125, 191, 280 subject headings. See also bias; cataloging, including catalogers; classification and subject access – Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), 255, 259–61, 266

– Sears List of Subject Headings, 259 Sudan, 3, 173n2, 179, 235, 271. See also specific institutions – civil unrest, 199 – IDI ranking and values, 21tab. – library consortia, 277 – library collaboration, including professional association, 282 – LIS education, 177, 199, 209–10, 214–15tab., 219 – LIS research, 244–45figs., 246tab. – professional associations, 72, 277–78, 282–83, 287 – publishers and publishing, 6, 21tab. – training of foreign librarians, 81, 81tab. Sudanese Research and Education Network (SudREN or SUIN), 282 Sudanese Universities Library Consortium (SULC), 277. See also library consortia Suez Canal University (Egypt), 212tab. SULC (Sudanese Universities Library Consortium), 277. See also library consortia Sultan Qaboos University (Oman), 106, 115, 214tab., 244 Sunni Islam, 202, 264. See also Islam Supreme Council for Egyptian Universities and Institutions, 180 Syria, 173, 179, 198, 202, 235–36, 271. See also specific institutions – civil unrest, 11n8, 199, 251, 277–78, 285, 302 – foreign schools, 175 – foreign training of librarians, 198 – intellectual copyright treaties, 18tab. – IDI ranking and values, 21tab. – IT indicators, 23tab. – library acquisitions, 274, 274n3 – library consortia, 277 – library collaboration, 274, 274n3 – LIS education, 177, 198, 199, 202, 207–08, 215tab. – LIS research, 244, 245fig., 246tab. – manuscript destruction, 302 – professional associations, 277–78 – publishers and publishing, 3tab., 6, 7tab., 10–12 passim, 13tab., 14


– reading behavior, 4, 5, 5tab. – translations into Arabic, 11 Syrian Protestant College, 175 Système National de Documentation en Ligne (National System of Online Documentation) (SNDL) (Algeria), 33, 52. See also Research Center of Scientific and Technical Information TAMU-Q (Texas A&M University in Qatar), 89, 90, 91–92 Tanta University (Egypt), 180, 181, 212tab. teacher training institutions, 178 – Teachers College (Jordan), 75n43, 203 Tempus (educational initiative), 217, 217n7 tenure, 76, 101, 248 Texas A&M University in Qatar (TAMU-Q), 89, 90, 91–92 theology, 92, 267. See also Islam Thesaurus Islamicus Foundation (digitization projects), 311, 311n7, 313 Thèses et mémoires, Université de Biskra (repository) (Algeria), 60, 60n9 Thomson Reuters, 12, 282 Tishreen University (Syria), 207, 208, 215tab. TLA (Turkish Library Association), 279 Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), 17–18tab., 19 Training-the-Trainers in Information Literacy (workshops), 116, 132 TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights), 17–18tab., 19 TUBITAK (Turkish Scientific and Technological Research Council), 282 tuition, 65, 87, 182, 197, 205. See also LIS education in Arab states and Middle East Tunisia, 173n2, 179, 182, 235, 271, 274n3. See also specific institutions – book deposit regulations and totals, 7, 9tab. – book production, 8tab. – children’s books, 8, 9tab. – civil unrest, 237, 285 – educational initiatives, 217, 217n7 – Facebook, 23 – IDI ranking and values, 21tab.


– intellectual copyright treaties, 18tab. – Internet affordability and use, 21 – IT indicators, 21tab. – library acquisitions, 274, 274n3 – library consortia, 277 – library collaboration, 274, 274n3, 278, 283 – LIS education, 177, 183–84, 187, 215tab., 216–17 – LIS research, 236, 244, 244–45figs., 246tab. – national bibliographies, 7–8 – national library, 8, 8n5 – professional associations, 279, 280 – publishers and publishing, 3, 13tab., – reading behavior, 4, 5, 5tab. – relationship with France, 247–48 – children’s books, 8, 9tab. Turkey, 77, 198, 271. See also specific libraries – book piracy, 19 – historical, 271 – library association, 279 – library collaboration, 275, 282 – library consortia, 274, 277, 279, 282 – LIS research, 237 – manuscript holdings, 303 – professional associations, 279 – publishers and publishing, 11–12, 19 – training of foreign librarians, 81, 81tab. Turkic (language group), 167 Turkish (language), 2–3tab. Turkish – Library Association (TLA), 279 – Scientific and Technological Research Council (TUBITAK), 282 – University and Research Libraries Association (ÜNAK), 279 Twitter, 3, 23, 38 UAC. See American University in Cairo UAE (United Arab Emirates), 94, 118, 140, 179, 188, 235. See also specific institutions – academic accreditation, 94, 100 – academic libraries and librarianship, including branch campuses, 88, 93–97, 99–100, 110, 124

352  Index

– bookstores, 15 – digital technologies, including student use, 138–51 – document delivery, 106 – donation to Gaza Strip, 77–78 – Facebook, 24 – foreign students, 119 – gross domestic product (GDP), 173 – IDI ranking and values, 20tab., 21 – information literacy, 106, 114 – intellectual copyright treaties, 18tab. – interlibrary loan services, 106 – international branch campuses, 88–89, 118 – Internet usage, 51 – IT indicators, 22tab. – as knowledge economy, including information centers, 151, 160, 161tab., 165fig., 165–67tabs., 166 – library automation systems, 283 – library consortia, 106, 197, 275, 277, 285 – LIS education, 196–97, 215tab. – LIS research, 244, 244fig., 246tab., 277 – literacy, 141, 196 – professional organization, 277, 283 – public libraries, 168 – public schools, 141, 146 – publishers and publishing, 3, 7n3, 7tab., 11–12 – social media, including Internet, 140–42 passim, 145–48 passim, 150 UCC (Universal Copyright Convention) (UNESCO convention), 17–18tab., 19. See also intellectual property, including copyright; UNESCO UCL-Q (University College London-Qatar), 93, 108, 178, 214tab. UDC (Universal Decimal Classification), 263 ULAKBIM (National Academic Network and Information Center), 282, 282n7 ulamā (clerical establishment), 258 Umm al-Qura University (Saudi Arabia), 191, 193, 214tab. Umm al-Quwain (UAE), 118 UNDP (United Nations Development Programme), 148, 186, 193, 200. See also UNESCO

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). See also specific institutions – copyright convention, 17–18tab., 19 – information literacy, 114 – LIS education, 176–77, 180, 183, 186, 197–200 passim, 203, 205 – literacy project, 29, 30, 38 – manuscript microforming, 304, 307, 308–12 passim, 314–15, 316 – national libraries, 203 – open access, 52 – portals, 52, 284 – professional associations, 175–76, 203 – public libraries, 203 – standardization, 221 – union catalogs, 167 – workshops, 116 ÜNAK (Turkish University and Research Libraries Association), 279 United Arab Emirates. See UAE United Arab Emirates University, 106, 283 United Kingdom (UK), 202 – book purchases and purchasing, 2, 23 – as colonial power, 191–98 passim, 202, 208, 209, 258, 260 – digital technology in schools and universities, 146, 148, 149 – educational system in Egypt and Gulf countries, 119, 175, 190, 203 – foreign schools in Arab world, 175 – foreign training of Arab librarians, 73n36, 81, 81tab., 176, 192, 198, 201 – information literacy, 116 – library collaboration, 245 – LIS education, 178, 203 United Nations (UN). See also UNESCO – relationship to Palestine, 64, 206 – Development Programme (UNDP), 148, 186, 193, 200 United States (US), 113–14, 166, 264. See also specific institutions – academic libraries and librarianship, 87–110 passim, 273–74 – automated storage and retrieval systems, 287


– bias in classification and subject access, 256, 260–61, 263 – faculty recruitment from, 97, 99, 119 – foreign training of librarians, 81, 81tab. – information literacy, 116 – interlibrary loan, 286 – international branch campuses, 88, 175 – Internet usage, 51 – Iraq War, 198–99, 250–51 – as knowledge economy, including information centers, 167tab. – library collaboration, 273–74, 285, 286 – library consortium, 116, 125 – LIS education, 176, 184–85, 192, 198, 201, 120, 174–75, 190 – LIS research, 244, 245 – professional associations, 78, 87, 94, 97, 99–100 passim, 102, 124, 174, 191, 274 – school libraries in Lebanon, 204 – students, 119 – translation into Arabic, 10 – websites, 223 United States Patent and Trademark Office, 162 Universal – Copyright Convention (UCC) (UNESCO convention), 17–18tab., 19. See also intellectual property, including copyright; UNESCO – Decimal Classification (UDC), 263 – Studies Academy (OPT), 206, 214tab. Université – AbouBakr Belkaid-Tlemcen (Algeria), 60, 60n7 – Badji Mokhtar-Annaba (Algeria), 183, 211tab. – Constantine 2 (Algeria), 211tab. – d’Oran (Algeria), 211tab. – de la Manouba (University of Manouba) (Tunisia), 187, 215tab. – de Nouakchott (Mauritania), 213tab. – de Tébessa (Algeria), 183, 184, 211tab. – M’hamed Bougara-Boumerdes (Algeria), 60, 60n8 – Saint-Joseph (Saint Joseph University) (Lebanon), 175, 204


University City (UAE), 88, 95. See also specific institutions university colleges, 67n7 – al-Karak University College (Jordan), 204 – Beirut University College (Lebanon), 205 – Irbid University College (Jordan), 204 – Princess Alia University College (Jordan), 204 – University College Khartoum (Sudan), 209; London (Qatar), 194; London-Qatar (UCL-Q), 93, 108, 178, 214tab. – unnamed (Jordan), 204 University I Digital Repository (Dépôt numérique de l’Université d’Alger I) (Algeria), 56–59 University of – Aden (Yemen), 198, 215tab. – Algeria, 177, 184 – Algiers (Algeria), 177, 183 – al-Qarawiyyin (Morocco), 174 – Baghdad (Baghdad University) (Iraq), 177, 199, 200, 212tab., 286 – Bahrain, 191–92 – Bahri (Sudan), 215tab. – Balamand (Lebanon), 205, 213tab. – Basrah (Iraq), 200, 212tab. – Benghazi (Libya), 185, 213tab. – Cairo (Cairo University) (Egypt), including Khartoom branch (Sudan), 175–76, 179–81 passim, 202, 209–10, 212tab., 222 – California at Berkeley (US), 97 – Constantine (Algeria), 183, 184, 222 – Damascus (Damascus University) (Syria), 207–08, 215tab. – Dammam (Saudi Arabia), 195, 214tab. – Djibouti, 208 – Dongola (Sudan), 215tab. – Garyounis (Libya), 185 – Gezira (Sudan), 215tab. – Hassan the First (Morocco), 39 – Jordan, 74n38, 177, 203, 204, 213tab. – Khartoum (Sudan), 209, 210, 215tab. – London (UK), 209 – Manouba (Université de Manouba) (Tunisia), 187, 215tab. – Mosul (Iraq), 200, 213tab., 218 – Oran (Algeria), 183

354  Index

– Palestine Library (OPT), 67tab., 71n27, 71tab. – Qatar, 194, 214tab. – Sana’a (Yemen), 198, 198n6, 215tab. – Sharjah (UAE), 95, 196 – Tishreen (Syria), 207, 208, 215tab. – Tripoli (Libya), 177, 183, 185, 213tab. Uppsala University (Sweden), 310–11 USSR (Soviet Union), including Russia, 81, 81tab., 207 – training of Yemeni library staff, 198 VCU-Q (Virginia Commonwealth University Qatar campus), 90, 91 vendors, 24, 102, 276, 283, 287. See also collection development and management; library acquisitions VHSL (Virtual Health Sciences Library), 282, 282n6 VIAF (Virtual International Authority File), 255. See also cataloging, including catalogers Virginia Commonwealth University Qatar campus (VCU-Q), 90, 91 Virtual Health Sciences Library (VHSL), 282, 282n6 Virtual International Authority File (VIAF), 255. See also cataloging, including catalogers virtual universities, 188, 287 virtual users and user services, 130, 190 WCMC-Q (Weill-Cornell Medical College in Qatar), 91 Web of Science, 282 weblogs (blogs), 20, 149, 281 Webreview (website), 46, 53–56, 53n6, 55tab., 60. See also Research Center of Scientific and Technical Information Weill-Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q), 91 West Bank (OPT), 64–65, 75n42, 206. See also specific institutions – academic libraries and librarianship, 66, 66–68tab., 68, 71, 75 – human mobility, 76–77 – LIS education,

– population and territorial space, 65–66, 68n14 WHO. See World Health Organization wikis, 122, 149 WILU (Workshop for Instruction in Library Use), 125 WINISIS (software), 308–09 WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization Copyright Treaty), 17–18tab., 19. See also intellectual property, including copyright Workshop for Instruction in Library Use (WILU), 125 workshops – LIS education, 176, 199, 202, 205, 209 – information literacy, 104, 121, 129–32 passim, 283 – in library consortia, 278 – literacy and literary, 36, 37 – professional associations and networks, 280, 283 World Bank, 160 – Knowledge Assessment Methodology (KAM), 156–58 passim, 161n2, 164, 169 World Digital Library, 284, 284n11, 309. See also digital libraries, including repositories and services World Economic Forum, 189 World Health Organization (WHO) – Eastern Mediterranean Medical Libraries Network (MedLibNet), 281–82 – Health Information Network Access to Research Initiative (HINARI), 282, 287 – Institutional Repository for Information Sharing (IRIS), 286–87, 187n13 – Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean (WHO EMRO), 275, 281–82, 282n6 – Virtual Health Sciences Library (VHSL), 282, 282n6 World Intellectual Property Organization Copyright Treaty (WIPO), 17–18tab., 19. See also intellectual property, including copyright World Trade Organization (WTO), 17–18tab., 19 WorldCat (database), 284 WTO (World Trade Organization), 17–18tab., 19


Yemen, 173n2, 235. See also specific institutions – information centers, 165–66, 165fig., 165–66tabs., 165–67tabs. – IDI indicators, 21tab. – intellectual copyright treaties, 18tab. – IT indicators, 22tab. – as knowledge economy, including information centers, 160, 161, 161tab. – library collaboration, including professional association, 271, 285, 299tab. – LIS education, 179, 188, 191, 197–98, 198n6, 215tab., 217–18 – LIS research, 244–45figs., 246fig. – publishers and publishing, 3


Ylla Nkraw (public reading event) (Morocco), 36–37 Young Leaders of Morocco (Jeunes Leaders Marocains) (JLM), 39 YouTube, 38, 42 Yusuf Ahmed Alghanim Main Library (OPT), 66tab., 70tab., 73, 73n37 Zarqa (Private) University (Jordan), 204, 213tab. Zayed University (UAE), 99, 107, 196 – Dubai campus, 94, 99 – Library Information Web Access (LIWA), 106, 283 – information literacy, 106 – proposed information management program, 197