Classical Syriac 9781463239800

The Syriac language is one of the classical tongues of early Christian thought, and, as such, garners a lot of interest

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Classical Syriac

Gorgias Handbooks

Gorgias Handbooks provides students and scholars with reference books, textbooks and introductions to different topics or fields of study. In this series, Gorgias welcomes books that are able to communicate information, ideas and concepts effectively and concisely, with useful reference bibliographies for further study.

Classical Syriac

Arman Akopian

gp 2019

Gorgias Press LLC, 954 River Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA www.gorgiaspress.com Copyright © 2019 by Gorgias Press LLC

All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise without the prior written permission of Gorgias Press LLC.

‫ܙ‬

1

2019

ISBN 978-1-4632-3979-4

ISSN 1935-6838

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A Cataloging-in-Publication Record is available from the Library of Congress. Printed in the United States of America

TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS .....................................................................................................................V PREFACE ...................................................................................................................................... XI A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE HISTORY OF THE SYRIAC LANGUAGE .................................................. 1 LESSON I ....................................................................................................................................... 29 SYRIAC SCRIPT: THE BASICS ........................................................................................................ 29 LESSON II ...................................................................................................................................... 31 VOWELS AND VOWEL-SIGNS ........................................................................................................ 31 CONSONANTS ............................................................................................................................... 32 LESSON III .................................................................................................................................... 37 VOWEL-SIGNS .............................................................................................................................. 37 STRESS ......................................................................................................................................... 38 CONSONANTS ............................................................................................................................... 38 LESSON IV..................................................................................................................................... 42 VOWEL-SIGNS .............................................................................................................................. 42 CONSONANTS ............................................................................................................................... 42 LESSON V ...................................................................................................................................... 46 THE SCHWA.................................................................................................................................. 46 CONSONANTS ............................................................................................................................... 47 LESSON VI..................................................................................................................................... 52 CONSONANTS ............................................................................................................................... 52 LESSON VII ................................................................................................................................... 58 CONSONANTS ............................................................................................................................... 58 SYRIAC ALPHABET (SERTO) ......................................................................................................... 63 LESSON VIII ................................................................................................................................. 64 SUMMARY AND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ................................................................................ 64 LESSON 1 ....................................................................................................................................... 69 PARTS OF SPEECH OF THE SYRIAC LANGUAGE ............................................................................. 69 THE CONCEPT OF “STATE” ........................................................................................................... 69 GENDER ....................................................................................................................................... 69 THE GENDER OF NOUNS ............................................................................................................... 69 THE GENDER OF ADJECTIVES ....................................................................................................... 70 THE CONJUNCTION ‫ ܘ‬.................................................................................................................... 71 EXPRESSION OF POSSESSION ........................................................................................................ 71

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LESSON 2 ...................................................................................................................................... 75 THE NUMBER OF NOUNS.............................................................................................................. 75 THE NUMBER OF ADJECTIVES ...................................................................................................... 76 DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS ...................................................................................................... 77 THE PREPOSITION‫ ܒܙ‬.................................................................................................................... 78 LESSON 3 ...................................................................................................................................... 81 THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS .......................................................................................................... 81 PRONOMINAL ENCLITICS ............................................................................................................. 81 PRONOMINAL ENCLITICS WITH INTERROGATIVE AND DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS .................. 84 ܰ THE NEGATIVE PARTICLE ‫ ܠܘ‬...................................................................................................... 84 THE ABSOLUTE STATE OF ADJECTIVES ....................................................................................... 85 ‫ ܕ‬AS A RELATIVE PRONOUN .......................................................................................................... 87 LESSON 4 ...................................................................................................................................... 90 PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES ............................................................................................................... 90 PREFIXED PREPOSITIONS WITH PRENOMINALS SUFFIXES ............................................................. 92 THE PREPOSITION‫ ܠܙ‬.................................................................................................................... 92 ’TO HAVE’ ................................................................................................................................... 93 DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS (CONT.) ......................................................................................... 94 LESSON 5 ...................................................................................................................................... 98 POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS ............................................................................................................... 98 SPECIAL CASES OF ATTACHMENT OF PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES..................................................... 99 PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES WITH STAND-ALONE PREPOSITIONS .................................................... 101 THE WORD ‫ ܟܠ‬.......................................................................................................................... 102 DEGREES OF COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES ............................................................................... 103 NOUNS THAT ARE USED ONLY IN THE PLURAL .......................................................................... 103 THE PARTICLE ‫ ܶܕܝܢ‬....................................................................................................................... 103 LESSON 6 .................................................................................................................................... 107 THE VERBAL SYSTEM OF THE SYRIAC LANGUAGE VERBAL ROOTS AND THEIR VARIETIES ...... 107 VERBAL STEMS.......................................................................................................................... 108 THE PӘˁAL STEM ........................................................................................................................ 108 ACTIVE PARTICIPLES OF THE PӘˁAL VERBS ................................................................................ 109 THE PRESENT TENSE OF THE PӘˁAL VERBS ................................................................................ 111 DIRECT OBJECT ......................................................................................................................... 112 LESSON 7 .................................................................................................................................... 116 INFINITIVE OF THE PӘˁAL VERBS ................................................................................................ 116 THE VERBS WITH 3RD WEAK RADICAL IN PӘˁAL ....................................................................... 116 THE “PLURAL” PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES .................................................................................... 117 THE ADVERBIAL USE OF ADJECTIVES ....................................................................................... 121 LESSON 8 .................................................................................................................................... 125 THE VERBS II-‫ ܘ‬IN PӘˁAL ............................................................................................................ 125 THE VERBS I-‫ ܝ‬IN PӘˁAL ............................................................................................................ 125

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LESSON 9 ..................................................................................................................................... 131 THE ABSOLUTE STATE OF NOUNS .............................................................................................. 131 THE USE OF THE ABSOLUTE STATE OF NOUNS ........................................................................... 132 PRONOMINAL ANTICIPATION...................................................................................................... 133 ܳ ‫ ܶܒ‬............................................................................................................. 133 THE PREPOSITION ‫ܠܥܕ‬ LESSON 10 ................................................................................................................................... 137 THE VERBS II-‫ ܐ‬IN PӘˁAL ............................................................................................................. 137 PASSIVE PARTICIPLES ................................................................................................................. 137 LESSON 11 ................................................................................................................................... 144 THE PAST TENSE ........................................................................................................................ 144 THE PAST TENSE OF THE I-‫ ܐ‬VERBS ............................................................................................ 146 LESSON 12 ................................................................................................................................... 150 THE III-‫ ܝ‬VERBS IN THE PAST TENSE .......................................................................................... 150 ܳ ............................................................................................................................. 151 THE VERB ‫ܗܘܐ‬ OBJECT CLAUSES WITH PARTICLE ‫ ܕ‬............................................................................................ 151 ܶ ..................................................................................................................... 152 THE PARTICLE ‫ܓܝܪ‬ LESSON 13 ................................................................................................................................... 155 THE II-‫ ܘ‬VERBS IN THE PAST TENSE ........................................................................................... 155 THE II-‫ ܐ‬VERBS IN THE PAST TENSE ............................................................................................ 155 LESSON 14 ................................................................................................................................... 159 THE I-‫ ܝ‬VERBS IN THE PAST TENSE............................................................................................ 159 PAST TENSE VERBAL ENCLITICS ................................................................................................ 160 ܺ ܰ VERBAL ENCLITICS WITH THE PARTICLES ‫ ܐܝܬ‬AND ‫ ܠܝܬ‬............................................................. 160 THE “PAST CONTINUOUS” TENSE ............................................................................................... 162 LESSON 15 ................................................................................................................................... 166 PLURAL NOUNS IN THE ABSOLUTE STATE .................................................................................. 166 CARDINAL NUMERALS ............................................................................................................... 166 INTRODUCTION OF SECONDARY ACTION WITH ‫ ܰܟܕ‬....................................................................... 168 LESSON 16 ................................................................................................................................... 171 THE FUTURE TENSE.................................................................................................................... 171 OTHER USES OF THE IMPERFECT ................................................................................................ 173 CARDINAL NUMERALS USED WITH FEMININE NOUNS ................................................................ 173 THE FEATURES OF THE WORD ‫ ܐ̱ ܳܢ ܳܫܐ‬.............................................................................................. 174 LESSON 17 ................................................................................................................................... 178 THE III-‫ ܝ‬VERBS IN THE FUTURE TENSE .................................................................................... 178 THE CARDINAL NUMERALS 11–19 ............................................................................................. 179 ܺ ADVERBS FORMED WITH THE SUFFIX ‫ܐܝܬ‬.................................................................................... 179 ܳ THE PREPOSITIONܰ ‫ ܰܒܝܢܬ‬.............................................................................................................. 179 ܳ THE PRONOUN ‫ܐܝܢܐ‬....................................................................................................................... 180

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LESSON 18 .................................................................................................................................. 184 THE I-‫ ܐ‬VERBS IN THE FUTURE TENSE ........................................................................................ 184 THE I-‫ ܝ‬VERBS ܳ ܶ IN THE FUTURE TENSE ...................................................................................... 185 THE VERB ‫ ܐܬܐ‬.............................................................................................................................. 185 PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES WITH NUMERALS ................................................................................. 186 LESSON 19 .................................................................................................................................. 190 THE I-‫ ܢܢ‬VERBS IN THE FUTURE TENSE ...................................................................................... 190 THE CARDINAL NUMERALS 11–19 (CONT.) ............................................................................... 192 INDICATION OF DIRECT SPEECH................................................................................................. 193 LESSON 20 .................................................................................................................................. 196 THE II-‫ ܘ‬VERBS IN THE FUTURE TENSE ...................................................................................... 196 THE II-‫ ܐ‬VERBS IN THE FUTURE TENSE....................................................................................... 197 THE IMPERATIVE OF THE PӘˁAL STEM ........................................................................................ 197 THE IMPERATIVE OF THE III-‫ ܝ‬VERBS ....................................................................................... 198 THE IMPERATIVE OF THE I-‫ ܐ‬VERBS............................................................................................ 199 THE IMPERATIVE OF THE I-‫ ܝ‬VERBS .......................................................................................... 199 SPECIAL FORMS OF THE IMPERATIVE ......................................................................................... 199 POSTPOSITIVE PRONOMINAL ATTRIBUTION ............................................................................... 199 LESSON 21 .................................................................................................................................. 203 THE PAˁˁEL STEM ....................................................................................................................... 203 THE PARTICIPLES OF THE PAˁˁEL STEM AND THEIR USE IN TENSES ........................................... 204 SPECIAL CASES OF THE STRONG VERBS IN PAˁˁEL ..................................................................... 205 WEAK VERBS IN THE PAˁˁEL STEM ............................................................................................ 205 ORDINAL NUMERALS................................................................................................................. 206 LESSON 22 .................................................................................................................................. 211 THE PAST TENSE OF THE PAˁˁEL VERBS ..................................................................................... 211 ܺ THE VERB ‫ ܰܫܪܝ‬........................................................................................................................... 212 TENS, HUNDREDS, AND OTHER NUMERALS ............................................................................... 212 LESSON 23 .................................................................................................................................. 217 THE FUTURE TENSE OF THE VERBS OF THE PAˁˁEL STEM ........................................................... 217 THE IMPERATIVE OF THE VERBS OF THE PAˁˁEL STEM ............................................................... 218 LESSON 24 .................................................................................................................................. 223 QUADRILITERAL VERBS............................................................................................................. 223 THE USE OF PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES WITH VERBS .................................................................... 224 LESSON 25 .................................................................................................................................. 230 GEMINATE VERBS (III=II) ......................................................................................................... 230 PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES WITH THE PAST TENSE PLURAL VERBS ............................................... 232 OF THE PˁAL STEM ..................................................................................................................... 232 ADDITIONAL READING .............................................................................................................. 236 LESSON 26 .................................................................................................................................. 238 THE ʼAPˁEL STEM ...................................................................................................................... 238

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ix

THE PARTICIPLES OF THE ʼAPˁEL STEM ...................................................................................... 238 SPECIAL FORMS OF THE STRONG VERBS IN ʼAPˁEL .................................................................... 239 THE WEAK VERBS IN ʼAPˁEL ...................................................................................................... 239 THE CONSTRUCT STATE ............................................................................................................. 241 LESSON 27 ................................................................................................................................... 248 PAST TENSE OF THE VERBS OF THE ʼAPˁEL STEM ....................................................................... 248 PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES WITH THE PˁAL VERBS OF THE FUTURE TENSE ..................................... 249 THE ABSOLUTE INFINITIVE ........................................................................................................ 250 LESSON 28 ................................................................................................................................... 254 THE FUTURE TENSE OF THE ʼAPˁEL VERBS................................................................................. 254 THE IMPERATIVE OF THE ʼAPˁEL VERBS ..................................................................................... 255 ܳ ............................................................................................................................. 256 THE VERB ‫ܚܝܐ‬ THE CONSTRUCT STATE OF ADJECTIVES .................................................................................... 258 THE PAˁˁEL AND ʼAPˁEL VERBS WITH PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES ................................................... 259 LESSON 29 ................................................................................................................................... 263 THE ʼETPˁEL STEM ..................................................................................................................... 263 THE ACTIVE PARTICIPLES OF THE ʼETPˁEL STEM........................................................................ 263 SPECIAL FORMS OF THE ʼETPˁEL STEM ....................................................................................... 264 THE WEAK VERBS IN THE ʼETPˁEL STEM .................................................................................... 264 LESSON 30 ................................................................................................................................... 269 THE PAST TENSE OF THE ʼETPˁEL STEM ..................................................................................... 269 THE NUMERALS IN THE CONSTRUCT STATE AND THEIR OTHER FORMS ..................................... 270 THE PARTICLE ‫ ܰܡܢ‬....................................................................................................................... 271 ADDITIONAL READING ............................................................................................................... 276 LESSON 31 ................................................................................................................................... 279 THE FUTURE TENSE OF THE ʼETPˁEL VERBS ............................................................................... 279 THE IMPERATIVE OF THE ʼETPˁEL VERBS ................................................................................... 280 PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES WITH THE III-‫ ܝ‬VERBS ......................................................................... 281 LESSON 32 ................................................................................................................................... 286 THE ʼETPAˁˁAL STEM .................................................................................................................. 286 THE ACTIVE PARTICIPLES OF THE ʼETPAˁˁAL STEM .................................................................... 286 THE WEAK VERBS IN THE ʼETPAˁˁAL STEM ................................................................................ 287 PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES WITH THE IMPERATIVE FORMS ............................................................. 287 LESSON 33 ................................................................................................................................... 293 THE PAST TENSE OF THE ʼETPAˁˁAL VERBS ................................................................................ 293 PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES WITH INFINITIVES ................................................................................. 294 LESSON 34 ................................................................................................................................... 299 THE FUTURE TENSE OF THE ʼETPAˁˁAL VERBS ........................................................................... 299 THE IMPERATIVE OF THE ʼETPAˁˁAL VERBS ................................................................................ 300 THE “PLUPERFECT” TENSE ......................................................................................................... 300

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LESSON 35 .................................................................................................................................. 306 THE ʼETTAPˁAL STEM ................................................................................................................ 306 THE ACTIVE PARTICIPLES OF THE ʼETTAPˁAL STEM .................................................................. 306 THE WEAK VERBS IN THE ʼETTAPˁAL STEM .............................................................................. 307 EXPRESSION OF AN ACTION IN THE NEAR FUTURE .................................................................... 307 ADDITIONAL READING .............................................................................................................. 313 LESSON 36 .................................................................................................................................. 315 THE PAST TENSE OF THE ʼETTAPˁAL VERBS .............................................................................. 315 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES ......................................................................................................... 315 EXPRESSION OF A REPEATING ACTION ...................................................................................... 316 LESSON 37 .................................................................................................................................. 320 THE FUTURE TENSE OF THE ʼETTAPˁAL VERBS .......................................................................... 320 THE IMPERATIVE OF THE ʼETTAPˁAL VERBS .............................................................................. 321 LESSON 38 .................................................................................................................................. 324 DOUBLE WEAK ROOTS .............................................................................................................. 324 ARCHAIC FORM OF MARKING THE DIRECT OBJECT ................................................................... 326 LESSON 39 .................................................................................................................................. 329 OTHER VERBAL STEMS.............................................................................................................. 329 DESCRIPTIVE WAY OF EXPRESSING A REPETITIVE ACTION ....................................................... 331 LESSON 40 .................................................................................................................................. 335 THE CONCEPT OF NOMINAL STEMS ........................................................................................... 335 THE GENERAL OVERVIEW OF THE NOUN- AND ADJECTIVE-FORMING AFFIXES ......................... 336 ADDITIONAL READING .............................................................................................................. 341 APPENDICES .............................................................................................................................. 343 ESTRANGELA SCRIPT ................................................................................................................. 344 EAST SYRIAC (“NESTORIAN”) SCRIPT ....................................................................................... 348 A SUMMARY TABLE OF ARAMAIC-SYRIAC SCRIPTS .................................................................. 351 LIST OF MOST FREQUENTLY USED FEMININE NOUNS WITHOUT FEMININE GENDER MARKERS .... 352 THE BOOKS OF THE SYRIAC BIBLE ............................................................................................. 353 PARADIGMS............................................................................................................................... 354 1. STRONG VERBS ...................................................................................................................... 355 2. VERBS WITH FIRST RADICAL ĀLAP (I-‫ )ܐ‬................................................................................. 356 3. VERBS WITH FIRST RADICAL NUN (I-‫ )ܢܢ‬................................................................................. 357 4. VERBS WITH FIRST RADICAL YOD (I-‫ )ܝ‬................................................................................. 358 5. VERBS WITH SECOND RADICAL ĀLAP (II-‫ )ܐ‬............................................................................ 359 6. VERBS WITH IDENTICAL SECOND AND THIRD RADICALS (III=II)........................................... 360 7. VERBS WITH SECOND RADICAL WAW (II-‫ܘ‬, “HOLLOW”) ........................................................ 361 8. VERBS WITH THIRD RADICAL YOD (III-‫)ܝ‬.............................................................................. 362 9. PˁAL STRONG VERBS WITH PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES .............................................................. 363 10. PˁAL III-‫ ܝ‬VERBS WITH PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES .................................................................. 364 KEYS TO EXERCISES .................................................................................................................. 365

PREFACE The Syriac language is one of the classical tongues of early Christian thought, and, as such, garners a lot of interest particularly from theologians, historians, and culturologists. As an Aramaic dialect, it is also of considerable interest to scholars of Semitic languages. The Syriac language produced a rich body of original literature and served as a medium through which the most valuable writings of Antiquity were passed on to the Arabs, who in turn returned them to medieval Europe. Since the 13th century AD, Syriac declined as a language of active literary activity, but it continued to serve as the liturgical language of several Middle Eastern churches called “the Churches of the Syriac tradition.” Today, it is a source of great pride and an object of admiration for the Syriac / Aramean / Assyrian / Chaldean people scattered throughout the Middle East and the diaspora. Syriac can be found in the curricula of many leading universities and theological schools. International symposia and numerous scholarly publications deal with the language along with the rich cultural and spiritual heritage it produced and served. Since the late Middle Ages, many Syriac textbooks and grammars have been published, but their number remains relatively small compared to the impressive volume of literature devoted to, for example, Arabic and Hebrew, which are languages related to Syriac. This manual1 is conceived as an academic one and is primarily intended for college and theological academy students; it can also be used as a “self-teaching” grammar book. An introductory course of eight lessons presents the Syriac phonology and script, followed by the basic course of 40 lessons. The book is specifically designed to fit into one academic year. Every effort has been made to present the grammar simply and concisely, using grammatical terms that should be familiar to students from high school language courses. The paragraphs explaining grammar and the sentences in the reading sections are numbered for the sake of convenience. The Syriac texts of the basic course contain letter-marked footnotes that refer to the sections containing relevant grammatical material. This is done for students to be able to revisit the already-studied grammatical phenomena, refresh them in memory, and better assimilate them through new examples. It is common knowledge that foreign grammar is mastered more through examples than exposition. Therefore, the examples engaging the new words and 1

The Armenian original of this manual was published by the Yerevan State University in 2005.

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expressions of the current lesson have been extended as far as possible. It should be remembered that new words are easier to remember in word combinations and short phrases, rather than separately, as a list. The reading material is widely borrowed from the Syriac translation of the New Testament, which left a strong impact on the general style of the Syriac language, as well as from fables, fairy tales, the “Book of Laughable Stories” by the great Syriac polymath of the 13th century Gregory bar Hebraeus, and other works of Syriac literature. At the same time, it was not considered obligatory to borrow every possible sequence of words from an existing old text. Mastering a language as an adult is not unlike mastering a musical instrument, which starts with the playing of scales and simple etudes. That is why the introductory lessons contain texts and dialogues that were composed specifically for this manual in order to make the introduction to the language more comfortable. They are also intended to present Syriac as a living language as much as possible. For the same reason, some texts were taken from the “Lessons in Reading” by Abdel-Masih Qarabashi, who treats the language in the same manner. Still, Syriac is usually viewed as a dead language. Although efforts to restore it as a means of daily communication never cease1, opportunities to converse in it do not present themselves very often; classical texts and comparative linguistics remain the main incentives for the study of the language. Therefore, the manual does not contain exercises aimed at the development of communication skills. Exercises of a mechanical nature are also reduced to the necessary minimum. Instead, the main emphasis is placed on translation from English to Syriac, as it is the most effective exercise, enabling students to engage in active and creative “language building” and better utilize the accumulated grammar and vocabulary2. It is recommended to “play” with the sentence in the translation process—to change the gender and/or the number of the subject, try different attributes, switch to a different tense, turn it into a question, try to transform it into a simple dialogue, etc. The act of translating itself should matter more than arriving at an im1

The Syriac language intended for modern usage is referred to as Kthobonoyo, or “the written (language).” Its main features include numerous neologisms, resemanticized words, and a simpler syntax (for more see George A. Kiraz, Kthobonoyo Syriac: Some Observations and Remarks, Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies, Vol. 10.2, pp. 129–142). 2 The bulk of Syriac literature that scholars of Syriac usually deal with is either religious in nature or heavily influenced by religious imagery and ways of thinking. That is why the English sentences for translation inevitably contain religious themes and expressions. This in no way should be regarded as propaganda for a particular religion or an assault on the secular principles of education.

PREFACE

xiii

peccable translation. It is important to note that some semantic and syntactic distortions were deliberately made in the English sentences in order to hint at the right word and correct syntax in Syriac. In certain cases, the right Syriac word or optional “hinting” English words or word combinations are included in brackets. The English-Syriac dictionary contains all the necessary words for the translations, as well as those that are not used in them but are among the most frequently used in general. Unlike other Semitic languages, Syriac has a fairly free syntax, so the book is not overloaded with excessive descriptions of syntactic features. It is anticipated that the more students interact with the language, the easier it will be for them to fix certain syntactic phenomena in their minds, derive patterns, and come to appropriate generalizations and conclusions on their own1. As previously indicated, the book can be used for self-study. For this purpose, it does not presuppose familiarity with other Semitic languages or contain comparisons or parallels to them (except for several cases in the phonology section). This, however, seems quite appropriate when using the book in Oriental departments, where Syriac is often studied as a second or third Semitic language. In order to facilitate self-study, the first twenty lessons contain transcriptions, which are relatively simplistic and do not pretend to be strictly scientific in nature. In the final section of the book, in which the language becomes more complex, the footnotes indicate the relevant book and chapter of the Bible from which the text originates. Since the correct perception and translation of the text may present certain difficulties for those unfamiliar with the stylistic features of biblical narrative, these references provide an opportunity to check the text against translations in other languages. After lessons 25, 30, 35, and 40, texts for additional reading are included, and it is strongly recommended not to skip them. The readings after lesson 35 contain the Lord’s Prayer and the Nicene Creed, which students are encouraged to learn by heart. The Reader contains a selection of Syriac texts of various genres and degrees of complexity. Some texts contain vowel-signs, while others do not. The Syriac-English dictionary2 contains the entire vocabulary of the Reader, as well as 1

For a more detailed analysis of the syntax it is recommended to consult the Compendious Syriac Grammar by Theodor Nöldeke or the Syrische Grammatik by Carl Brockelmann. 2 The Reader, the Syriac-English and English-Syriac dictionaries are available for free download at https://www.gorgiaspress.com/arman-akopian-classical-syriac-download.

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CLASSICAL SYRIAC

the entire vocabulary of the New Testament with the exception of rare words and names1. At the end of the book, students will find the keys to the reading exercises of the introductory course and the first ten lessons of the basic course. Syriac script has three varieties—Estrangela, Serto, and East Syriac (“Nestorian”). The book starts with Serto because of its more relaxed vocalization system. Later on, Estrangela and the East Syriac varieties are also introduced2. It is necessary to peruse the relevant sections of the “Appendices” when these scripts first appear in the lessons. It should be remembered that a good command of the Syriac language implies equal mastery of all three varieties of its script. Along with the differences in the script, there are also two traditional systems of reading in Syriac that have some minor differences—Western (Syriac Orthodox and Catholic Churches, Maronite Church) and Eastern (Assyrian Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic Church). This book follows the academic pronunciation, which is believed to reflect the original Aramaic dialect of Edessa upon which Classical Syriac is based3. Academic pronunciation is closer to the Eastern system of reading, but the main features of West Syriac are also properly addressed to ensure an adequate familiarity with them. The territorial and denominational fragmentation of the Syriacs resulted in the absence of a unified standard of spelling, vocalization, and punctuation, even within the same variety of script. Those who choose this book for studying Syriac, even though it inevitably reflects this lack of uniformity, should be prepared to encounter other spelling and vocalization options for familiar words, especially those that are borrowed. Arman Akopian

1

The original Syriac-Armenian dictionary was converted into Syriac-English with the use of the Sedra lexical tools of the Beth Mardutho Syriac Institute. 2 This book uses the Meltho Unicode OpenType fonts and the Estrangelo Edessa font of the Microsoft Windows operating system. 3 Combining Serto, a West Syriac script variety, with the academic pronunciation results in some artificiality in several cases, which can be safely ignored.

A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE HISTORY OF THE SYRIAC LANGUAGE The Syriac language belongs to the Semitic group of the language family formerly known as “Semito-Hamitic.” The term “Semito-Hamitic” was coined by German linguist Karl Richard Lepsius (1810–1884). The origins of these terms are found in the biblical genealogy of peoples, according to which two of Noah’s sons, Shem and Ham, were the progenitors of the Asian and African peoples, respectively. In 1950, American linguist Joseph Harold Greenberg (1915–2001) proposed the term “Afro-Asiatic,” and it was largely adopted by the scientific community. The Semitic group is represented by a large number of extinct and living languages. There are several classifications of these languages, the most common of which is based on geographical criteria; it divides the Semitic language group into three subgroups: Northeastern, Northwestern, and Southern. The Northeastern (or East Semitic) subgroup includes the oldest recorded Semitic language, Akkadian. It was the official and spoken language of two powerful states, Assyria (in North Mesopotamia) and Babylon (in South Mesopotamia), and is known from numerous cuneiform inscriptions. Another language of the Northeast subgroup is Eblaite, named after the ancient city of Ebla in Syria. Neither of the two Northeastern languages has living descendants today. The Northwestern subgroup (West Semitic) includes the so-called “Canaanite”1 languages. They included the Canaanite language proper, Phoenician, which is almost identical to Canaanite, and Hebrew, which originated from Canaanite. Closely related to them were the languages of Transjordan of the first millennium BC (the territory east of the Jordan River and the Dead Sea)—Moabite, Ammonite, and Edomite. Canaan and Phoenicia are believed to be the birthplace of the first alphabetical script in the history of mankind, which was consonantal in nature (reflecting mostly the consonants). Known as “Phoenician,” this script was spread by the Phoenician colonists all over the Mediterranean, where it was developed into the Greek and Latin scripts. Two other languages, Ugaritic and Amorite,

1

Canaan is the ancient name of the combined territories of modern Israel and Lebanon.

1

2

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

share many common features with the Canaanite languages and are often combined with them in the same group. Aramaic, with its numerous dialects, represents another branch of the Northwestern Semitic languages (see below). Unlike East Semitic languages, which have no living descendants, the West Semitic languages are currently represented by the official language of the State of Israel, Modern Hebrew, as well as modern Aramaic dialects. The South subgroup of the Semitic languages includes Arabic, the most widespread Semitic language today, with close to 300 million speakers. Arabic is known for its many dialects, one of which developed into an independent language, the Maltese. Arabic uses a script that descends from the Aramaic script of the ancient kingdom of Nabatea, at the south of the Dead Sea. The South Semitic group also includes the ancient “South Arabian” languages (Sabaic, Minaic, Qatabanic, and Hadramitic), and several living languages in the south of the Arabian Peninsula with a small number of speakers (Soqotri, Mehri, Shehri). Ancient South Arabian languages used a consonantal script, with many varieties, related in nature to the Phoenician script Closely related to the South Arabian languages are the Semitic languages of Ethiopia or Ethio-Semitic languages. The oldest is Ge‘ez, the official and spoken language of the ancient Kingdom of Aksum, and the current official language of the Ethiopian Orthodox and Catholic Churches. There are more than a dozen living Ethio-Semitic languages in Ethiopia and Eritrea. The most important is Amharic, the official language of Ethiopia, followed by Tigrinya (Tigray), Tigre, and several smaller languages. Amharic and Tigrinya use the Ge‘ez syllabary, which is believed to have descended from the South Arabian script. *** The ancient history of Arameans is known from ancient written sources, which can be divided into three main groups: a) Assyrian, Babylonian, Egyptian, and others; b) biblical; and c) Aramean proper (a few inscriptions discovered during archaeological excavations). In the last quarter of the second millennium BC, nomadic and seminomadic Aramean tribes occupied the northeastern edges of the Arabian Peninsula. From there, they moved to the northwest, mainly along the Euphrates. Despite the fierce resistance of the Assyrians, they gradually established themselves on the Syrian steppe, the right bank of the Middle Euphrates, and in Upper Mesopotamia,

OVERVIEW

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which appears in the Old Testaments as Aram-Naharayim, or “the Aram of the Two Rivers (presumably Euphrates and its tributary Khabur). Several Aramean tribes settled in the south of Mesopotamia. Known as “Chaldeans,” they soon became the domineering ethnic group of this region. In the 10th century BC, the Arameans established several states in North Mesopotamia and Syria, such as Beth Bahyani, Beth Zammani, Laqe, Beth Adini, Sam’al, Beth Gush, Hamath, and finally Aram of Damascus, the most powerful Aramean state ever to exist; its confrontation with ancient Israel is recorded in the Old Testament. In the 9th–8th centuries, Assyrians destroyed all these Aramean states and deported parts of their population to the hinterland of Assyria. As a result, the already large number of Arameans in the overall population of Mesopotamia grew even more. To the Old Testament sources and, to a lesser extent, Assyrian sources, “Aram” is also a personal name. At least four people are mentioned by that name, including Shem’s younger son, who is also Noah’s grandson. The presence of men named “Aram” in Hebrew genealogies, particularly within the family of Abraham, is an important evidence of the kinship between the Hebrews and the Arameans. It is obvious that, due to the strengthening hand of the Arameans in the Middle Eastern geopolitics of the period, the biblical authors tried to emphasize this kinship. Not only did they keep “Arams” in their genealogies, but they also did not find it necessary to revise the story of Abraham’s descendants travelling from Canaan to their relatives in the areas inhabited by the Arameans in search of wives. Isaac married Rebecca, “the daughter of Bethuel the Aramean of Paddan-Aram” (Gen. 25:20), and Jacob married Leah and Rachel, daughters of “Laban the Aramean” (Gen. 31:20). Moreover, Jacob, who was the progenitor of the twelve tribes of Israel, is called the “wandering Aramean” in the Old Testament (Deut. 26:5). Centuries after the fall of their ancient states, Arameans managed to restore their statehood at least twice, but national unity always remained beyond their reach. Throughout the 3,000 years of their history, Arameans remained a divided people, and as a result, Aramaic manifested itself in numerous dialects, some of which have become full-fledged and well-developed literary languages. The large number of extant texts and their dialectal diversity and dispersion over time and territory, stand in the way of creating a generally accepted periodization of the history of the Aramaic language. In 1966, American biblical scholar and semitologist Joseph Fitzmyer (1920–2016) proposed a periodization that is based on a chronological approach and considers Aramaic in cultural, religious, socio-linguistic, and historical contexts. According to Fitzmyer, the history of Ar-

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amaic is divided into the following “phases”: Old Aramaic (925–700 BC), Imperial Aramaic (700–200 BC), Middle Aramaic (200 BC–200 AD), Late Aramaic (200–700 AD), and Modern Aramaic (modern Aramaic dialects). German semitologist Klaus Beyer (1929–2014) developed another periodization, purely based on linguistic criteria, by considering the language in the context of comparative and historical linguistics. According to him, the history of the Aramaic language consists of three large periods: Old, Middle, and Modern. The dialects of each of these periods are genealogically divided into eastern and western groups, whereas in Fitzmyer’s classification such divisions are clearly fixed only for Late and Modern Aramaic. The majority of the Old Aramaic inscriptions were discovered on the territories of the above-mentioned Aramean states. In the late second to early first millennium BC, Arameans, alongside Hebrews, began using the Phoenician script. It was Arameans who preserved and developed that script after the demise of Phoenicians and Canaanites. Later, they spread various modifications of this script to Central Asia and China, just as Phoenicians had spread it across the Mediterranean basin. With the drastic increase in the number of Arameans in the population of Mesopotamia, Aramaic gradually began to oust the Akkadian language, which dominated Mesopotamia for a millennium and a half. Eventually, Aramaic received an equal status with Akkadian as an official language of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (8th–6th centuries BC). This was the result of the mass Aramaization of the population and also the simplicity of the Aramaic script with its 22 characters as opposed to the bulky Akkadian cuneiform script, which required years to master. The same was true of the situation in the south of Mesopotamia, in Babylonia, where, in 627, a Chaldean Nabu-apla-usur, better known as “Nabopolassar,” came to power and established the Neo-Babylonian Empire under the rule of the Chaldean Dynasty. Because of the dominance of Aramaic in Mesopotamia, it also became the lingua franca, i.e. the main language of communication, throughout the entire Middle East and the main language of diplomatic correspondence. The Aramiazation of Mesopotamia became irreversible after the Babylonians and Medes destroyed the Assyrian state in 612 BC, and eliminated most of the Assyrian political and intellectual elite, the last guardians of the traditions of the Assyrian national identity and statehood. In Babylonia, the same process was accelerated when Nabonidus seized power in 556. He relied largely on the Aramean tribes of Mesopotamia, and, with the assistance of the Aramean priesthood, encouraged the cult of the Aramean lunar god Sahar (Sin) at the expense of the head

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of the Babylonian pantheon, Marduk. Nabonidus’ policies were aimed, in essence, at eliminating the last Akkadian elements in Babylonia and its total Aramaization. When the Neo-Babylonian Empire, in turn, fell under the blows of the Achaemenid King Cyrus of Persia in 539, the dominance of Aramaic in Mesopotamia left Persians no other choice but to make it the official language of their western provinces, including Egypt, and later, of all of the Achaemenid Empire. The use of Aramaic as the official language of three empires, Neo-Assyrian, NeoBabylonian and, especially, Achaemenid, gave reason to call the language of this period “Imperial.” A year after his conquest of Babylon, Cyrus issued a decree allowing Jews who had been deported to Babylonia and spoke the Aramaic language of their captors to return to Judea. Upon their return to Palestine, Jews discovered that Hebrew had been replaced by Aramaic as a spoken language there as well. When reading the Torah (Pentateuch, the first five books of the Old Testament, or Tanakh) and other sacred texts, the priests had to simultaneously translate them into Aramaic since the common people did not understand Hebrew very well despite its similarity to Aramaic. The main specimens of Imperial Aramaic come from Aramaic-speaking Jews. They are divided into two main groups. The first consists of the Aramaic fragments of the Old Testament Books of Ezra and Daniel, written in pure and well-developed Aramaic, which is usually called “Biblical.” The second group contains the papyrus archive of the Jewish mercenaries who served in a Persian garrison on the Nile island of Elephantine in Egypt. The texts include the Aramaic translation of the renowned Behistun inscription of the Achaemenid King Darius I and the “Tale of Akhiqar the Sage,” believed to be the oldest surviving specimen of Aramean folklore. It contains the story of Akhiqar, the secretary of the Assyrian kings Sennacherib and Esarhaddon, and the words of wisdom attributed to him. In addition to Jews, there were also Aramean mercenaries in Egypt, who left behind their own archive. Other Aramaic texts from Egypt include the archive of Arsham, the Achaemenid governor of Egypt, and Aramaic fragments written in the Egyptian Demotic script. The language of all these texts is sometimes called “Egyptian Aramaic,” but it is, in essence, the same as Imperial Aramaic. In addition to Judea and Egypt, samples of Imperial Aramaic also came from Mesopotamia, the Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Central Asia, and Anatolia. The Middle period of the history of Aramaic began in the 3rd century BC after the fall of the Alexander the Great’s empire, when two Hellenistic kingdoms emerged on its ruins in the East—the kingdom of the Seleucids in Syria and Mes-

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opotamia, and the kingdom of the Ptolemies in Egypt. In these countries, Greek replaced Aramaic as the official language, but, by that time, Aramaic had almost completely replaced all the Semitic languages of the Middle East as a spoken language, with the exception of Arabic in Arabia and some parts of Mesopotamia, and Phoenician, which resisted Aramaic until approximately the 2nd century AD. Most Semitic peoples were either completely Aramaized, such as the peoples of Mesopotamia, or spoke mostly Aramaic while maintaining their national identity, like Jews and some Arab tribes of northern Arabia and Mesopotamia. Aramaic’s division into two big dialectal groups, Eastern and Western, became more pronounced during this period. The dialects of Mesopotamia belonged to the Eastern group and those of Syria, Palestine, and Transjordan to the Western. The differences between the two groups were particularly noticeable in comparison with Imperial Aramaic, with its homogeneity and high degree of standardization. The Eastern Aramaic group included the dialect used as an official language by Parthian Arsacids of Iran (“Arsacid Aramaic”), and small kingdoms in Mesopotamia which were incorporated into the Arsacid Empire—Hatra, Adiabene (Hedhayab), and Mesene (Mayshan). Samples of Aramaic, close to the Arsacid standards, were also found in Armenia and Georgia, where, prior to the creation of local scripts, Aramaic was widely used in state chancelleries. Aramaic began to yield its position as the official language to Parthian by the end of the 2nd century AD, that is, at the end of the Parthian era itself. The Parthian language used a script that originated from Aramaic. The Parthian-Aramaic script later developed into the scripts of other Iranian languages, namely Pahlavi (Middle Persian), which had become the sole official language of Sasanian Iran, and Sogdian in Central Asia by the middle of the 3rd century AD. The latter was borrowed by Uyghurs, a people of Turkic origin, and from them by Mongols, evolving into the Mongolian vertical script that is still in use in Chinese Inner Mongolia. The most notable representative of the Eastern dialects is the Aramaic of Edessa (Urhai), the capital of a small Aramean state of Osrhoene in North Mesopotamia (132 BC—243 AD). More than a hundred epigraphic inscriptions and several non-epigraphic texts made in the local Aramaic cursive called Estrangela (from the Greek στρογγύλη, “roundish”) survive from Osrhoene. Bordering on the Aramaic dialects of Mesopotamia and sharing many common features with them, was Palmyra: the spoken and written language of the most famous of all Aramean states. Under Queen Zenobia (267–273), Palmyra acquired a political and economic might unprecedented for the Arameans since the

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fall of Aram of Damascus, but it fell under the Roman blows, outlasting Osrhoene by thirty years. The Aramaic script used in Palmyra had two varieties— monumental, used in lapidary inscriptions, and cursive, known from the graffiti inscribed or scratched on rocks and walls by ordinary citizens. A dialect close to Palmyrene Aramaic was used in Dura-Europos, a Hellenistic city on the middle Euphrates. The Aramaic of Palmyra and Dura-Europos is the only Middle Aramaic dialect of Syria that was reduced to writing. Virtually nothing is known of other Syrian dialects, namely those of Damascus and Aleppo. This is largely due to the fact that the position of the Greek language was very strong in central and western (coastal) Syria, and Aramaic was rarely used for official records until the 4th century AD. Arameans who lived in these regions, like many Jews in Palestine, had been Hellenized since the time of the Seleucids. Nothing is known about the dialect of one of the main centers of Hellenized Arameans, the city of Emesa, where a local Aramean-Arab dynasty ruled from the 1st century BC until the middle of the 3rd century AD. In the central regions of Transjordan, located to the south of Syria, a dialect similar to the Aramaic dialects of Palestine has been attested. However, better known is the Aramaic dialect of the southern regions of Transjordan, part of the Nabatean Kingdom. Nabatea was primarily known for its magnificent capital, Petra, a city located in the crevices of mountains and mostly carved out of their rocky slopes. Unlike Osrhoene and Palmyra, Nabatea was not an Aramean state, as its population was mostly of Arabic origin. Aramaic, however, was used as an official language, and the local Aramaic script is believed to be the prototype of the Arabic Kufi script, from which the modern Arabic script evolved. The Western group is presented by the Aramaic dialects of Palestine— Galilean, and Judean, which only slightly differed from each other and are collectively known as the “Palestinian Jewish Aramaic.” It was not only a spoken but also a written language, widely used in Jewish religious schools, called yeshivas. It was also the official language of Judea during the reign of the Hasmonean dynasty (147–34). Of the Jewish religious texts, the translations of the books of the Tanakh, known as the Targums (Aramaic “translation”), go back to the oral interpretations and paraphrases in Aramaic used by the Jewish priesthood to convey Hebrew Scriptures to the postexilic Aramaic-speaking Jews. In addition to the two main Targums, those of Onkelos and Jonathan, there are several other minor translations.

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There are other texts in Palestinian Jewish Aramaic that go beyond the Jewish canon—Apocrypha or Pseudepigrapha. They include the writings of the Jewish sect of the Essenes that are of great historical, religious, and linguistic value. The remnants of an Essene library, known as the “Dead Sea Scrolls,” were found in the 1940s in the caves northwest of the Dead Sea, near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Qumran. There are more than 600 parchment manuscripts sealed in jars. Most of the texts are in Hebrew and only a small part is in Aramaic. Both languages are written in the Aramaic script that resembles that of the Elephantine archive; because of the shape of its letters, this variety of Aramaic script is known as “square”. Other specimens of Palestinian Jewish Aramaic include the documents from “Babtha’s archive”, a Jewish woman from Nabatea, inscriptions on the walls of synagogues and ossuaries (small limestone sarcophagi, in which the Jews buried their dead), graffiti on ostraca (pieces of pottery). Palestinian Jewish Aramaic was apparently the original language of the “Jewish War” by Josephus Flavius, which tells the history of Judea since the capture of Jerusalem by the Seleucids in 164 BC until the defeat of the first anti-Roman Jewish revolt of 70 BC. Christianity was born in the linguistic environment of Palestinian Jewish Aramaic, a language presumably spoken by Jesus and his Apostles. The Galilean dialect was spoken in the cities of Nazareth and Capernaum, where Jesus is believed to have spent most of his life. Several Aramaic sayings of Jesus are woven into the Greek fabric of the Gospels, such as the famous Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani (“My God, My God, why have you forsaken me?”). Many New Testament scholars adhere to the “Aramaic primacy theory,” according to which the Gospels, or at least their earlier textual sources, such as the possible records of Jesus’ sayings (the so-called “Q source,” or “Q Gospel”), were originally written in Aramaic and only later translated into Greek. In the late period, the division of Aramaic dialects into two large groups— Eastern and Western—became more pronounced. Western Aramaic dialects were spoken in Syria, Palestine, Transjordan and, partly, North Arabia and Egypt—the regions that were ruled by the Seleucids and Ptolemies, and then became part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire. The Eastern dialects were spoken in Mesopotamia, in the regions under Iranian control by the Parthian Arsacids and then the Sasanians. The Late West Aramaic dialects are mostly represented in the writings of three different religious groups: Jews, Samaritans, and Christians.

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A notable Jewish piece of writing from this period is the Jerusalem Talmud (“doctrine”), a major religious, philosophical, and legal treatise, with many sections written in Palestinian Jewish Aramaic. The Talmud consists of the Mishnah, which is the written redaction of the Jewish oral tradition, or oral law, and the Gemarah (Aramaic “study”), which is a set of discussions and commentaries on the treatises of the Mishnah. The Jerusalem Talmud is written in post-biblical Hebrew, known as “Mishnaic” (mostly the Mishnah), and the Galilean dialect of the Palestinian Jewish Aramaic (mostly the Gemarah). In addition to the Jerusalem Talmud, several new Targums were created in the Late Aramaic period. These Targums are usually divided into three groups: a) Targums of Proverbs, Psalms, and the Book of Job; b) Targums of Ruth, Esther, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Songs; and c) Targums of the Chronicles. Late Western Aramaic is also represented in the literary heritage of Samaritans, an ethno-religious group that still exists today. After the conquest of the Kingdom of Israel in 722 BC, Assyrians deported the Jews who lived in Samaria and its environs to Mesopotamia and repopulated those areas with people from Mesopotamia. Samaritans apparently emerged as a result of the intermixing of these migrants with the remaining locals. They practice a unique form of Judaism which recognizes only the Torah and rejects all of the other books of the Tanakh, as well as the “oral law” of the Mishnah. After the return of the Babylonian exiles, Samaritans offered to help rebuild the country and restore the temple in Jerusalem, but Jews refused to recognize Samaritans as fellow tribesmen and co-religionists and rejected their help. This marked the beginning of a long feud, the echoes of which appear in the New Testament. Today, Israel is home to nearly 800 Samaritans who live in Holon and Nablus. In addition to the Torah in the original Hebrew, Samaritans also used its very literal Aramaic translation, known as the “Samaritan Targum;” it survives in an extremely distorted redaction that is difficult to understand. The 4th century AD was the “golden age” of Samaritan Aramaic literature, which produced prolific authors like Marqa, Amram Dara, and Nonna, who mostly distinguished themselves in the field of hymnography. Samaritans used their own script, which is different from the other varieties of the Aramaic script and constitutes a parallel branch of the development of the Phoenician alphabet. The Late Western Aramaic dialects also include “Palestinian Christian Aramaic,” which was spoken by Orthodox Christians of Palestine and Transjordan, known as Melkites, beginning in the 3rd century AD. In terms of grammar and vo-

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cabulary, this dialect is very close to the language of Palestinian Jews and Samaritans. Its literature is mostly translated from Greek and is almost exclusively religious. The Late East Aramaic dialects were spoken in Mesopotamia and, like the Western dialects, were the languages of the sacred texts of several religious communities, namely Mandeans, Manicheans, Jews, and Christians. Mandeism was a Gnostic1 religious teaching, widespread among Arameans of Mesopotamia. Its name is derived from the Aramaic word manda, “knowledge,” which corresponds to the Greek gnosis. It is thought to have originated in the 1st century AD in the merger of Chaldo-Aramean pagan beliefs derived from the ancient Mesopotamian religions and early Judeo-Christian concepts, with strong influences from Iranian dualism. The most important figure in Mandeism is John the Baptist. Different rituals and sacraments play an important role in the religion and everyday life of Mandeans. Many of them are centered on running water, or a special reservoir connected to running water. To this day, Mandeism survives in Iraq and Iran, and is the only living Gnostic teaching. From approximately the 3rd century AD, Mandeism produced an impressive body of literature, written in a variety of Aramaic cursive. The main holy text of the Mandeans, written in Aramaic, is the Ginza Rabba (“Great treasury”), also called Sidra Rabba (“Great Book”). Other important books are Qolasta, Sidra d-Yahya, or Drasha d-Yahya (“John’s Book”), the “Book of Zodiac,” and several others. In addition to Mandeism, another dualistic doctrine, created by the Parthian Mani (216–273), emerged in the Eastern Aramaic linguistic milieu. The new religion was called “Manichaeism,” from the Greek μανιχαιος, which originates from the Aramaic mani hayya, or “living Mani.” Since Aramaic was the dominant language of Mesopotamia and all of the Middle East at the time, it also became the language of Mani’s preaching and the original language of his doctrine. Of the seven books by Mani, six were written in Aramaic. During Mani’s lifetime, his teachings went beyond the Aramaic-speaking world and began spreading rapidly among Persians. Mani is even believed to have converted members of the ruling Sasanian dynasty, namely the brothers of King Shapur I (241–272). Upon being granted access to the king, Mani wrote his seventh and final book for him in the 1

Gnosticism is a body of religious and philosophical doctrines of early Christianity, based on the gnosis—the knowledge—that reveals the secrets of life and shows the soul the path to salvation. It is a mixture of Christian religious dogma and Greek idealistic philosophy with some elements of Eastern religions.

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Pahlavi (Middle Persian) language, “Shabuhragan,” setting out the tenets of his teachings. Another significant body of literature in a Late East Aramaic dialect was created by Babylonian Jews. This is primarily the Babylonian Talmud. In volume, the Babylonian Talmud is several times larger than the Jerusalem Talmud and it also enjoys a greater authority in the matters of religious law. The proportion of Aramaic is much greater in the Babylonian Talmud than in the Jerusalem Talmud, which is explained by its Gemarah’s lengthier commentaries. The Aramaic language of the Babylonian Talmud is practically the same as that of the Mandean literature, but for understandable reasons, it contains a large number of Hebraisms. In addition to servicing the Talmudic tradition, Aramaic was actively used by Babylonian Gaons1 of the 7th–11th centuries to record their official resolutions and draw up the so-called responsa, the responses to written inquiries from other Jewish communities or individuals on the matters of Jewish law. In the context of Jewish intellectual activities in the Late Aramaic period, the Masorah (Hebrew “tradition”) was an important system of knowledge that ensured the preservation of canonical texts. Around the 7th century, this laborious and time-consuming work was undertaken by scholars called Masoretes, who worked and taught in Palestinian and Babylonian yeshivas. The Masoretes created special signs to indicate vowel sounds and rules of pronunciation and recital and introduced them into the sacred texts in both Hebrew and Aramaic. The idea of vocalizing the consonantal texts was borrowed from Christian Arameans, and was later also borrowed by Arabs. “Square” Aramaic-Hebrew was the dominant script during this period; it remained so throughout the following centuries and was naturally inherited by Modern Hebrew, together with the Masoretic system of vocalization. Since the days of the Babylonian captivity, Aramaic was the main language of the Jewish Diaspora. However, by the beginning of the second millennium, only a small part of Jews spoke Aramaic, while the rest adopted the languages of the surrounding peoples, like Arabic, Persian, and European languages. Nevertheless, even after the intellectual decline of Babylonian Jewry and the relocation of the centers of Jewish learning to Europe, most Jews preserved the centuries-long traditions of using Aramaic, and, in the late Middle Ages, religious and philosophical 1

Gaons were the heads of prominent Jewish yeshivas in the Babylonian cities of Sura and Pumbeditha. They also acted as the spiritual leaders of the Jews of Babylonia. Gaons were considered the highest authority in the interpretation of the sacred texts of Judaism and the application of the principles contained therein in dealing with everyday life.

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works were still being composed in it. The best-known medieval Jewish work in Aramaic is the “Book of Zohar”, which contains the fundamentals of Kabbalah, the Jewish mystical teachings. To some extent, Aramaic was involved in the process of modernization and the revival of the Hebrew language, as the Aramaic material, especially the vocabulary of the Babylonian Talmud, was widely used in the creation of new Hebrew words, particularly scientific and legal terms. To this day, Aramaic remains an important part of Jewish religious education, and its mastery is mandatory for Rabbis. It is still used by Jews as the language of marriage contracts, known as ketubas, and several prayers. Many Jewish communities have preserved the tradition of reading excerpts from Targums along with the readings of the Torah in Hebrew. Aramaic idioms and whole proverbs are often used by Modern Hebrew speakers. Several Modern Aramaic dialects are still spoken by the “Kurdish Jews,” the last remnants of the once-thriving Jewish community of Adiabene. The most significant Late East Aramaic dialect was that of Osrhoene, a small Aramean kingdom that emerged in North Mesopotamia in 132 BC after the fall of the Seleucid state. Osrhoene, with Edessa (Urhai) as its capital, was the second Aramean state, after Palmyra, which was formed after the fall of the ancient Aramean kingdoms. Its geographical proximity to Palestine and Antioch contributed to Osrhoene’s becoming one of the first countries where Christianity spread in the eastern direction. The Eastern Christian church tradition claims that King Abgar V of Osrhoene, who ruled during Jesus’ lifetime, was among the first converts to Christianity. According to legend, King Abgar, who was suffering from an illness, wrote a letter to Jesus asking him to come to Edessa and heal him. In his reply, Jesus rejected the invitation, but promised to send one of his disciples instead. After the Resurrection, Apostle Thomas sent its native Addai to Edessa, where he healed the king, converted him to Christianity, and established the Church of Edessa. Although the legend itself has no historical value, it is an established fact that, by the end of the 3rd century, Christianity had become the dominant religion in Osrhoene. The spread of Christianity among Arameans resulted in a rather remarkable phenomenon, namely the transition to a new self-appellation. This is usually explained by the fact that the word “Aramean” gradually began to be associated with the word “pagan.” In the Aramaic translations of the New Testament, the “Hellenes,” or pagans, are called aramaye—“Arameans.” As a result, Christian Arameans of Osrhoene started calling themselves suryaya—“Syrian.” This was

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not an artificial innovation since the words “Syria” and “Syrian” were widely used by Greek authors as synonyms for “Aram” and “Aramean.” This practice was entrenched in the Septuagint, as well as in translations of the Bible into other languages. The fate of the word “Chaldean” was somewhat different; it remained in the active vocabulary of Christian authors in the Middle East and Europe, but with several different connotations. Pagan Arameans of Mesopotamia, in particular, were called “Chaldeans,” especially those who followed the ancient cults of the celestial bodies and had Harran in Osrhoene as their center. In a narrow sense, “Chaldean” was the common name for their priests, who had a thorough knowledge of astrology and other occult sciences and often earned a living by composing horoscopes and predicting the future. Therefore, various types of astrologers, oracles, soothsayers, and sorcerers were often collectively called “Chaldeans,” as is recorded in the Old Testament Book of Daniel. Because “Chaldeans” (in this case, interpreters of dreams) spoke to the Babylonian king Belshazzar in Aramaic, a practice of calling the Aramaic language “Chaldean” began in Europe and survived until the 19th century. In the pre-Christian era, the dialect of Edessa was inferior to major Aramaic dialects in terms of its scope of use and degree of development. The city’s rise as a major regional center of Christianity, from where it spread to neighboring regions and countries, significantly affected the status of its dialect, which very quickly developed into a full-fledged literary language. Christian Arameans extended their new endoethnonym to their language, which came to be known as leshshana suryaya, the Syriac language1. In a relatively short period of time, the Syriac language of Edessa became the written and canonical-liturgical language of almost all Christian Arameans, spreading across their vast homeland. Although Christianity became the main religion of Arameans/Syriacs, it did not contribute to their ethnic consolidation, as they grew divided into several competing denominations. A part of them favored Nestorianism, a Christological doctrine developed by Theodore of Mopsuestia and later associated with Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople from 428 to 431. Nestorianism was so widespread 1

In the English-language terminological tradition, the word “Syriac” was initially used only as an adjective to refer to the language and realities related to it but became increasingly applied to Christian Arameans as a noun, “Syriacs.” There is a tradition in scholarly literature of calling not only the literary language of the Christian period “Syriac,” but also the written language of pagan Osrhoene. To distinguish between these two historical phases, the language of the pagan period is called “Old Syriac,” while the language of the Christian period is “Classical Syriac.”

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among Syriacs that it even became the main doctrine taught at the “School of Persians” of Edessa, the main Syriac institution of higher education. The Third Ecumenical Council of 431 condemned Nestorianism as heresy and its followers became subject to persecution. In 489, the “School of Persian” was closed, and Nestorian Syriacs fled to Sasanian Iran, where a large Christian Aramean community had existed since the days of King Shapur I (243–273). In Iran, the Iranian, or Eastern Syriacs, were occasionally persecuted by the Sasanian authorities because of their Christian faith, but in the first half of the 5th century, they managed to institutionalize themselves into an independent church— the Church of the East. This Church was headed by Catholicoi, who resided in Seleucia-Ctesiphon, but it was the city of Nisibis that became the main center of Iranian Christianity largely because of the highly prestigious school established in the city by the former professors of the “School of Persians.” As Nestorianism became dominant among Iranian Christians, the Church of the East eventually declared the teachings of Theodore of Mopsuestia its official doctrine, thus securing its doctrinal and canonical independence. Another part of Syriacs rejected both Nestorianism and the official imperial doctrine based on the decrees of the Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon of 451. Together with Copts and Armenians, they formed a new Christological branch— Miaphysitism (also known as Monofisitism). Miaphysite Syriacs mostly lived in the Byzantine Empire and, therefore, were called “Western Syriacs.” In the 6th century, mostly as a result of the activities of Jacob Baradaeus, the Bishop of Edessa, Miaphysite Syriacs were united into their own independent church—the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch. The followers of this Church became known as “Jacobites.” In contrast to “Nestorians” and “Jacobites”, a small group of Syriacs accepted the decisions of the Council of Chalcedon. Non-Chalcedonian Syriacs called them “Melkites” (from Aramaic malka “king”), thereby connecting them to the Byzantine Emperor’s denomination. Melkite Syriacs were mostly concentrated around Antioch and adjacent regions of northern Syria and used Syriac as their literary and liturgical language. The Melkite community also included the Aramaicspeaking Jewish converts to Christianity in Palestine and the Orthodox Christians of Transjordan. During the 5th–6th centuries, they were engaged in literary work (mainly translation) in Palestinian Christian Aramaic, a Western Aramaic dialect, using a script closely resembling the Estrangela cursive of Osrhoene. Syriac/Aramaic-speaking Melkites did not form a church of their own and, in time, were absorbed and assimilated into Greek Orthodox communities.

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Under the Arab rule, the Greek Orthodox communities of the Eastern Mediterranean gradually became Arabic-speaking, and Arabic became dominant in the liturgy of their church—the Greek Orthodox Church (Patriarchate) of Antioch. An overwhelming majority of the followers of this Church eventually adopted an Arab identity; today they are considered Christian Arabs. In late Middle Ages, a part of the Greek Orthodox community adopted Catholicism and formed the Melkite Greek Catholic Church; today, the designation “Melkites” is only applied to the followers of this Church. Another religious community that originated in the Syriac milieu was that of the Maronites. It was presumably established by a Melkite Syriac recluse named Maron, who lived in the 4th–5th centuries in the vicinity of Antioch. In the 7th century, the Maronites moved further south and eventually established themselves in the Lebanese Mountains, where they formed their own Church. For several centuries, the Maronites were loyal to the official Byzantine Orthodox Church but became inclined to Monothelitism, a Christological doctrine which states that Jesus had two natures but one will. During the Crusades, Catholicism began to spread among the Maronites, and the Maronite Syriac Church eventually entered into a full communion with the Roman Catholic Church. The territorial and political fragmentation of Syriacs along with their constant interdenominational rivalry greatly influenced their writing and scribal practices. The “Nestorians” and “Jacobites” developed their own distinct varieties of script based on Estrangela. The “Nestorian,” or East Syriac script, is closer to Estrangela in shape. To indicate vowels, it employs a system of vocalization based on dots and short dashes. In the Jacobite script, which is called Serto (“line”), the vowel-signs mimic the corresponding Greek letters. Serto is also used by the Maronites. The Syriac language never developed a unified standard of spelling, punctuation, and vocalization, even within the same variety of script. In addition, the inevitable impact of local eastern and western Aramaic dialects on literary Syriac led to the development of two systems of pronunciation: Eastern (“Nestorian”) and Western (“Jacobite”). Although the differences between them are negligible, it is believed that the Eastern pronunciation reproduces the dialect of Edessa, which is the basis of the standard Classical Syriac, more faithfully. The constant intellectual rivalry between the Syriac denominations contributed to the development of an educational system that remained the best in the Middle East for several centuries. Syriacs had a large number of primary schools, which were predominantly parish or monastic schools. They could be found not

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only in the cities but in almost every village that had a big church. There were also many secular schools where the teachers were laymen. This extensive network guaranteed a high level of literacy and knowledge of the Scriptures among the common people. After graduating from primary schools, young men could continue their education in higher schools, such as the “School of Persians” in Edessa, the renowned School of Nisibis, the School of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, or the medical school in the Iranian city of Gundishapur, operated mostly by Syriacs, who held the dominant position in medicine in Sasanian Iran and later, in the Abbasid Caliphate. Many Syriac monasteries, especially the Syriac Orthodox ones, functioned as centers of learning and education. Syriacs created a rich literature that, in volume, surpassed everything written in other Aramaic dialects put together. Translation activity, especially from Greek, was essential for the development of the original Syriac literature. The process of translation from the Greek language was continuous and intense until the end of the 9th century and, eventually, covered almost all important works of the Greek-language authors of antiquity and the Byzantine period. A large number of Greek words, mostly philosophical and religious terms, made their way into the Syriac language. Active translations from Greek also influenced the syntax of Syriac, which is the most flexible of all the Semitic languages. Translations of the Scriptures were particularly important for the development of the Syriac literary standard. Despite the denominational fragmentation of Syriacs, there exists a full canonical translation of the Bible that is recognized and used by them all. This translation is known as the “Peshitta” (“Simple”). The Peshitta, in its current form, had developed by the beginning of the 5th century, before the ecclesiastical schisms of the Syriacs, which explains its recognition by all the denominations. The Syriac tradition has not preserved any information on the history of the Peshitta, except that which is purely legend. It is believed that the Old Testament of the Peshitta was translated in the second half of the 2nd century AD and that the translation was not made from the Septuagint, like the majority of early translations, but from the Hebrew original. The earliest translations were supposedly made by Mesopotamian Jews and the latest by Christians of Jewish origin who knew Hebrew. The first known translation of the Gospels into Aramaic (currently lost) was made in the 2nd century by Tatian of Adiabene, who combined all four Gospels into one continuous narrative called the “Diatessaron”. After the “Diatessaron,” the next translation seems to have been made in the 3rd century. There are

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two manuscripts, presumably from the 5th century, that contain these translations. The first is a palimpsest1 from Dayr al-Suryan (“Monastery of the Syriacs”) in Egypt, which was published in 1858 by British Orientalist William Cureton (1808–1864); this Gospel is called the “Curetonian.” The second manuscript, a 358–page palimpsest with the Syriac translation of the four Gospels, was discovered in 1892 in the monastery of St. Catherine in the Sinai Peninsula by British sister-scholars Agnes Smith Lewis (1843–1926) and Margaret Gibson (1843– 1920); it is known as the “Codex Sinaiticus.” The original Syriac literature can be divided into two main bodies, religious and secular, but the boundary between them is not always easily detectable. Religious literature includes the fundamental writings in patristics, hagiographic works, or the description of the lives and deeds of the saints, church statutes and canons, letters and messages of Church authorities, and so on. This layer of Syriac literature is highly valuable; it is the reason that Syriac is considered the third most important language of early Christian thought, after Latin and Greek, and has a strong place not only in Oriental but also theological curricula. Syriac secular literature includes works of philosophical, historical, medical, geographical, astrological, alchemical, and general encyclopedic nature as well as some fiction. Classical Syriac literature extends over the period between the 3rd and the 13th centuries and then almost completely fades away. This millennium of Syriac includes more than 200 authors and about 10,000 extant manuscripts. Classical Syriac literature begins with Bardaisan (154–222). He was born pagan but converted to Christianity at the age of twenty-five. Later, without formally renouncing Christianity, he leaned more toward Alexandrian Gnosticism. He is considered the first major Syriac philosopher, and his views are contained in the “Book of the Laws of Countries.” Bardaisan was also famous for being a talented poet, who greatly influenced future generations of Syriac poets. His poetic legacy consisted of 150 religious and philosophical hymns which imitated the biblical Psalms. The next prominent representative of early Syriac literature was Aphrahat (†350), nicknamed “the Persian sage” because his parents were Zoroastrian Persians. In his adulthood, he converted to Christianity, assimilated into the Syriac community, and led an ascetic life. His legacy consists of 23 sermons, or homilies, better known as “demonstrations” (Syriac tahwitha). They cover virtually all as1

Palimpsests are the manuscript pages (mostly parchment) that were cleaned of the original text and reused. The original text on some of them is visible and can be read.

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pects of the Christian doctrine and contain valuable factual material on early Syriac theology and Christology, the state of Christians in Iran during the reign of Shapur II (309–379), the Syriac ascetic practices, and many more. The 4th century was a crucial period in the history of Christianity; classical philosophy and pagan gnosis were being re-examined, dogmas and tenets of Christianity were being formulated, Christological controversies were being hardened, and monasticism and asceticism were beginning to emerge. In the second half of the century, Syriac Christianity, which had previously been of the predominantly Semitic type (Tatian, Bardaisan, Aphrahat), began showing signs of convergence with the Greek-Byzantine church tradition. The person who best embodied all these tendencies and transitions was Ephrem the Syrian (†373). Ephrem the Syrian is the recognized pinnacle of early Syriac literature and one of its most famous representatives. His work is permeated with lyricism, emotionality, vivid imagery and the symbolism inherent to Eastern Christian thought. His writings are often linked to biblical subject matter, but he also drew inspiration from his own spiritual experiences, personal impressions, and feelings. He became famous first and foremost as a religious poet, whose heritage is mainly expressed in the two most popular forms of Syriac poetry—memra (in plural memre) and madrasha (madrashe). A memra is a narrative poem, a speech, or a homily, consisting of couplets with a certain number of syllables per line (the Syriac poetic meters are based on the number of syllables). A madrasha is a strophic poem or a liturgical hymn, often with a short refrain called onitha, with lines of either a fixed number of syllables or various combinations thereof. Unlike memre, which were supposed to be recited, madrashe were intended to be sung accompanied by a female choir. A soghitha is a type of madrasha with four-line stanzas, each consisting of seven or eight syllables. A soghitha is often a polemic dialogue between two people, which has been a poetic form typical of Mesopotamia since ancient times. Other poetic forms originating from madrashe are bautha, a prayer-poem, and teshbokhta, a liturgical ode based on biblical verses or sacred texts. Ephrem’s writings in prose include commentaries on the Scriptures in the spirit of the Antiochian school, a commentary on Tatian’s Diatessaron, and polemical writings against Mani, Marcion, and Bardaisan. A significant part of Ephrem’s work has survived only in its Armenian translations. In addition to the works of known authors, early Syriac literature features a number of anonymous writings that echo the spread of Christianity in North Mesopotamia. The earliest is the “Odes of Solomon,” which consists of 42 short po-

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ems. Early Syriac literature also includes several books of the Apocrypha. Almost all of the Old and New Testaments Apocrypha are in Greek, so those composed in Aramaic are very notable. The most valuable among the Syriac Apocrypha is the “Teaching of Addai,” which deals with the spread of Christianity in Osrhoene, followed by the “Acts of Thomas,” which tells the story of the mission and martyrdom of the Apostle Thomas in India. Incorporated into the text of the “Acts of Thomas” is the “Hymn of the Pearl,” which antedates the main narrative, displays some folkloric features, and is sometimes ascribed to Bardaisan. There are also several other Syriac Apocryphal books that were not widely known outside of the Syriac milieu. The harsh persecutions that Christians had to endure in the Roman Empire and Sasanian Iran gave rise to a very rich body of hagiographic literature. The most widely known piece of early Syriac hagiography is the “Acts of the Persian Martyrs,” which relates the lives of persecuted Christians in Iran under Shapur II. This work is usually associated with the name of Marutha, Bishop of Maypherqat (†420). Syriac thought and literature reached its golden age in the 5th-7th centuries. This period includes notables personalities, both “Jacobites” and “Nestorians,” such as Sergius of Reshaina (medicine, philosophy, translation activity), Severos Sebokht (astronomy, cosmography, mathematics), Jacob of Edessa (philology), Jacob of Serugh (religious poetry), Philoksenos of Mabbogh (exegesis, philology), Stephan bar Sudaili (philosophy), Isaac the Syrian (exegesis, monastic and ascetic writings), Joseph Huzaya (philology), Catholicos Mar Aba I (philosophy, exegesis), Paul the Persian (philosophy) and many others. In the 7th century, 2,000 years after the Arameans, another Semitic people came out in masses from the Arabian Peninsula—the Arabs. Under the banner of a new monotheistic religion, Islam, they conquered the entire Middle East and North Africa and created the vast Arab Caliphate. Sasanian Iran was unable to withstand the onslaught of the Arabs, and, in 652, it fell under their blows, losing its role as the Caliphate’s rival to the Byzantine Empire. The initial period of the Arab domination proved to be more bearable for Syriacs than the Byzantine and Persian rule. To a large extent, this was due to their developed educational system, thanks to which they were able to provide Arabs with valuable intellectual and professional services, the need for which Arabs were still unable to satisfy on their own and had to largely rely on the conquered civilized peoples. Syriacs, who spoke a language closely related to Arabic and knew Arabs quite well, had an obvious advantage in this respect. Under the Umayyad

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and Abbasid Caliphs, Syriacs maintained a very high percentage among public officials of all ranks. They also preserved their dominance in medicine, as was the case in Sasanian times, and were very close to monopolizing the position of the court physician. The seat of the Catholicoi of the Church of the East was transferred from Seleucia-Ctesiphon to Baghdad. Under the Arabs, Syriacs distinguished themselves once again as prolific translators. They virtually translated the bulk of the Greek-language works on philosophy, medicine, and other branches of knowledge anew, this time from Syriac into Arabic. Syriacs maintained a visible presence in the “House of Wisdom” founded by al-Mamun in 830, which, apart from being an educational institution, was a major center of translations into Arabic. Thus, Syriacs played an important role in transmitting antique thought and literature on to Medieval Europe through the Arabs. The most prominent figure among the Syriac intellectuals of the Arabic period was Hunain ibn Ishaq, who, despite being a renowned physician, acquired fame as a prolific translator. Under the Arab rule, Syriacs occasionally used their script to write in Arabic; this system of writing is called Garshuni. In the Ottoman period, the Syriac script was also used to write in Ottoman Turkish. There are also samples of Armenian, Persian, Greek and other languages written in it. However, Muslim domination eventually resulted in very dire consequences for Syriacs. The religious, legal, social, and economic discrimination and the growing sense of insecurity combined with numerous benefits for new converts, made more and more Syriacs convert to Islam. Cases of forced Islamization became frequent. The confiscation of churches and their conversion into mosques became a common phenomenon. Unlike Persians, for example, who did not compromise their national identity and language when adopting Islam thanks to their large numbers, well-defined area of habitation, rich traditions of statehood, economic self-sufficiency, and other factors, the second generation of converted Syriacs became Arabic-speaking, and the third fully Arabized, losing their last traits of Syriac identity. The Arabic language also became dominant among those Syriacs who had managed to preserve their Christian faith, such as the Syriac Melkites. As mentioned above, together with their Greek co-religionists, the Syriac Melkites completely switched to Arabic and even adopted an Arab identity. Most “Jacobites” who lived in large cities, such as Damascus, Aleppo, and Beirut, also became overwhelmingly Arabic-speaking, while rural residents in several areas continued to speak various Aramaic dialects. Of those, the most significant was the region of

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Tur Abdin in Northern Mesopotamia (today in Turkey, east of Mardin), and the area around Mosul. From 1160 to 1932, the Dayr al-Zaafaran monastery in Tur Abdin housed the Patriarchate of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch. Until approximately the end of the 17th century, the Lebanese Maronites spoke a local Western Aramaic dialect. Their isolation and defensive mentality did not protect them against full Arabization through language, although they did significantly slow down the process. Today, the Maronites are entirely Arabicspeaking, and most of their liturgy is performed in Arabic. However, Syriac is still used as a liturgical language of the Maronite Church, which officially calls itself “the Syriac Maronite Church.” Among Syriacs, the least Arabized were the “Nestorians,” who after the catastrophic invasion of Tamerlane in the 1390s were mostly concentrated in the area between Mosul, Lake Van, and the western shores of the Lake Urmia. The town of Alkosh to the north of Mosul housed the Catholicosate of the Church of the East. The sharp decline in the number of speakers of Aramaic dialects and the narrowing scope of their use triggered the gradual decline of the Syriac literature starting from the 8th century. Nevertheless, literary undertakings in Syriac continued until the 13th century. Moreover, in the 12th–13th centuries, the Syriac literature experienced its last revival, the “Syriac Renaissance,” producing brilliant figures like the historian Michael the Syrian (1126–1199), author of the highly valuable “Chronicle,” and polymath Grigorios bar Ebraya (Bar Hebraeus, 1226–1286). Bar Ebraya authored numerous works in various fields of knowledge, but is known mostly for his “Book of Laughable Sories,” a collection of anecdotes and aphorisms, perhaps the best-known work of the Syriac literature. Literary activity in the Syriac language never completely ceased, even though almost nothing worth mentioning was written after the Syriac Renaissance. After Tamerlane’s invasion, the number of Aramaic-speaking Christians dwindled even more, and they could only be found in several isolated enclaves. From this period onward Classical Syriac, deprived of its feeding soil of living Aramaic dialects, was used primarily as a liturgical language of the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Church of the East, the Maronite Syriac Church, and several other churches. All of these Churches are collectively referred to as the “Churches of the Syriac tradition.” Syriacs were known for their strong missionary zeal. From the very beginning, the propensity for missionary work was a feature inherent in Syriac Christianity, especially for the Church of the East. Missionary work took Syriacs to coun-

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tries thousands of kilometers away from their homeland. Their main activities unfolded in the north (the Caucasus, southern regions of modern Russia), the south (Arabian Peninsula), the northeast (Central Asia, East Turkestan, Mongolia), and the east (India and China). Impressive material evidence, including a large number of Syriac inscriptions, confirms the Syriac presence in these territories. Of those, the most important is the Xia’an Stele in China, dated 781, which contains details of the first mission of the Church of the East to China. Not only did the “Nestorians” and “Jacobites” evangelize in the vast territories of Asia, but they also established dioceses of their Churches there. By the end of the 13th century, the Church of the East had 30 Metropolitan Sees and 200 dioceses, which covered a vast territory from the Eastern Mediterranean to the Far East. Under Catholicos Timotheos I (780–823), the Church of the East had the largest canonical territory of all the Christian Churches of the world and held this primacy for several centuries. The Roman Catholic Church managed to extend its jurisdiction over a territory greater than that of the Church of the East only with the spread of Christianity in the Western hemisphere. The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch also experienced a period of prosperity and the greatest territorial expansion. Like the Church of the East (although not as successfully), it was actively involved in missionary outreach in Central Asia and, by the end of the 13th century, had 20 Metropolitan Sees and 103 dioceses. Tamerlane’s invasions put an end to this impressive expansion, reducing Syriacs to several isolated pockets throughout the Middle East. In no other country was Syriac missionary activity as successful as in India. It was focused on the coastal area of the modern Indian southwestern state of Kerala, known as Malabar, where a Christian community had existed from the first centuries AD. According to local legends, the Apostle Thomas was the first to have preached in Malabar, and the Malabar Christians are known as the “St. Thomas Christians,” under his name. In the 4th and 9th centuries, two large groups of Eastern Syriac migrants settled in Malabar. The influx of Syriacs to Malabar meant the strengthening of the Christians’ presence in the region and contributed to the renewal and revitalization of their spiritual and religious life. The shared apostolic tradition related to St. Thomas (Thomas was the Apostle who sent Addai to Edessa, and, according to church tradition, after Thomas’ death, his remains were transferred from India to Edessa) contributed to the Syriac-Malabar rapprochement. As a result, the Malabar Christians, while retaining their own apostolic tradition and the unique features of their religious practices, ended up under the jurisdiction of the Church of the East and embraced its rite and doctrine.

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After the Portuguese arrived on the west coast of India in 1498, the local Christians were forcefully subjected to the Roman Catholic Church. However, in 1653, a part of the “St. Thomas Christians” decided to break away from the Vatican and restore their ties with Syriac Christianity. The Church of the East, which was in a deep decline, was unable to reclaim its former position in India or anywhere else. The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch intercepted the initiative, and, with its assistance, a new Church, called the “Malankara Church,” was formed in Malabar, but later experienced a series of splits. The “St. Thomas Christians” who preferred to remain under the Vatican’s jurisdiction, formed two Churches, one of which follows the rite of the Syriac Orthodox Church, and the other the rite of the Church of the East. In the beginning of the 20th century, the Church of the East also eventually managed to get its share of post-Portuguese Malabar Christianity with the formation of the Chaldean Syrian Church of India in the city of Trichur. There are currently eight Churches of both Syriac rites serving the “St. Thomas Christians,” including two reformed ones. At some point in history, Syriacs themselves became the object of foreign missionary activity. It began with the Crusaders who brought Catholicism to the Eastern Mediterranean, and the Maronite Church eventually came under the Vatican’s jurisdiction but preserved its ancient rite, which shares many common features with the rite of the Syriac Orthodox Church. In 1450, Catholicos Shemon IV, who was residing in Alkosh, made the Catholicosate of the Church of the East hereditary by a special decree, with the supremacy passing on to the deceased Catholicos’ nephew or, more rarely, his younger brother. In 1552, a part of the clergy that was dissatisfied with this practice elected the Abbot of the Rabban Hormizd monastery, Yohannan Sullaqa (1510–1555), as the Catholicos. Under the advice of the Franciscan missionaries stationed in Mosul, Yohannan Sullaqa traveled to Rome to formalize a union with the Roman Catholic Church. In 1553, he was consecrated as bishop in the Basilica of St. Peter and received the title of “Patriarch of the Chaldeans” from Pope Julius III. Thus, the new Uniate Church became known as “Chaldean” (not to be confused with the Chaldean Syrian Church of India) and its followers as “Chaldeans” (in medieval Europe, the term “Chaldean” was usually preferred over the term “Aramean”). The union of the Chaldean Catholic Church with the Vatican was formally finalized in 1830. The Syriacs of the Mosul area, including the Catholicosate of Alkosh itself, eventually came under the jurisdiction of the Chaldean Catholic Church, while those living further north, in the isolated mountainous enclave of Hakkari and on the western shores of the Lake Urmia, remained under

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the watchful eye of the Church of the East with its new Catholicosate in the village of Kudshanis in Hakkari. The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch experienced its Catholic schism in 1620 in Aleppo, where, under the influence of the local Jesuit and Capuchin missionaries, a part of “Jacobites” converted to Catholicism and elected a “parallel” Patriarch, who became the first Patriarch of the breakaway Uniate Syriac Catholic Church of Antioch. The Syriac Catholic Church preserved the rite and main practices of its “mother” Syriac Orthodox Church. As previously mentioned, two Catholic Churches following traditional Syriac rites emerged in India among the “St. Thomas Christians.” In 1834, American Presbyterians established their first mission among the “Nestorians” of the Urmia region. The mission lasted 100 years and was abolished in 1934 by the decree of Shah Reza Pahlavi. The American Protestant missionaries were also active in the Ottoman Empire, particularly in the big cities of Western Armenia, such as Kharberd (Kharput) were Syriacs lived side by side with Armenians. The American mission in Urmia did not originally intend to spread Protestantism among the local Christians, but to help revive the former glory of the Church of the East. However, the number of Syriacs who converted to Protestantism grew every year, and, in 1855, the first Protestant community separated from the Church of the East, transforming, in time, into an independent Evangelical Church. In 1841, the French Lazarist monks opened their own mission in Urmia. Then in 1886, the Archbishop of Canterbury established an Anglican mission there, which lasted until 1914. From 1898 to1918, a Russian mission was active in Urmia, attracting a large number of local Christians into the jurisdiction of the Russian Orthodox Church. Foreign missionaries opened numerous schools in Urmia and its surrounding villages, spread literacy among the adult population, and sent the most talented young people to continue their education in America, Europe, and Russia. They also established printing presses and published religious and secular literature in Classical Syriac and the local modern Aramaic dialect using the East Syriac (“Nestorian”) script. As a result, they, most notably the American missionary Justin Perkins (1805–1869), played a key role in the formation and development of the modern literary Aramaic language. The “Nestorians” of the Urmia region were not the only community that had preserved Aramaic as a spoken language. Aramaic dialects, which in scholarly

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usage are referred to as “Modern” or “Neo-Aramaic,” were also preserved by the “Nestorians” of Hakkari and various communities of Chaldeans, “Jacobites”, Syriac Catholics, and Melkites. Aramaic has also survived in small Jewish and Mandean communities in Iraq and Iran. The division of Late Aramaic into Eastern and Western groups is generally true for the modern dialects as well, which means that both Late Aramaic groups are represented today by their living descendants. The modern dialects are not the continuation of any of the ancient and medieval literary forms of Aramaic but of the dialects that existed in parallel with those upon which the literary standards had been developed. All modern dialects have preserved the basic Aramaic vocabulary, but they have been expanded with numerous loanwords from Arabic, Persian, Kurdish, and Turkish languages. In terms of grammar, they have significantly departed from the earlier dialects. In contrast to the ancient and medieval Aramaic dialects that were very close to each other and did not pose any particular difficulties for communication, the modern dialects moved further away from each other, which resulted in a lower degree of mutual comprehensibility. The only modern Western dialect is that of the villages of Maalula, Bakh‘a and Juba‘din, located not far from Damascus. It descends from a Western Aramaic dialect that was spoken in the middle of the first millennium AD in the coastal regions of Syria and remained the spoken language of the Maronites until the late Middle Ages. The inhabitants of Maalula are Melkites, followers of the GreekCatholic Church. The inhabitants of the villages of Bakh‘a and Juba‘din were also Christian in the past but converted to Islam under the pressure from the Ottoman authorities in the 19th century. The total number of speakers of the Maalula is estimated at 5,000–8,000. UNESCO included the Maalula dialect in the list of the world’s endangered languages, and the dialect is expected to be extinct by the mid21st century. The Maalula dialect is officially unwritten, although a large number of its samples are published in scientific phonetic transcription. The Eastern group of the modern Aramaic dialects far exceeds the Western both in the number of the dialects themselves and the number of speakers. It is divided into three sub-groups; the one designated as “western” or “central,” is represented by the dialect of Tur Abdin, called Turoyo (“mountainous”). The natives of Tur Abdin, who are mostly followers of the Syriac Orthodox Church, also call it Suryoyo, or Surayt (“Syriac”). As a continuation of the dialects that were closely related to the medieval dialect of Edessa, Turoyo is the modern Aramaic dialect that is closest to Syriac.

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Before the Genocide of 1915, there were about 90 villages with a total Christian population of 40,000–50,000 in Tur Abdin. The population of a third of those villages was Turoyo-speaking, while others spoke Kurdish, along with some Turkish and Arabic. By the 1970s, the number of Turoyo speakers in Tur Abdin was estimated at 20,000. By the end of the 20th century, as a result of increased emigration of Christians from Turkey, the number of villages with an Aramaicspeaking population was less than a dozen, and the number of Turoyo speakers themselves barely exceeded one thousand. Virtually all remaining Syriacs in Tur Abdin, as well as some of those who moved to Istanbul, are the speakers of Turoyo. The language is also common in the northeast of Syria, in the area between the Khabur and Euphrates rivers, known as Jazeera (“Island”). The city of Qamishli, located at the border with Turkey in close proximity to Nusaybin (ancient Nisibis), had become home to many refugees from Tur Abdin who were forced to flee their homes because of the anti-Turkish uprising of the Kurds in 1924. Despite the presence of large communities of Turoyo speakers in Istanbul and Syria, they are the most concentrated in Germany, Sweden, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Austria. In Europe, attempts have been made to introduce Turoyo into schools and publish in it using both the Serto and Latin scripts. It is also used in TV and radio broadcasts. Nevertheless, Turoyo has not yet reached the status of a full-fledged literary language and remains endangered. There is another Neo-Aramaic dialect belonging to the same sub-group as Turoyo. In the mid-20th century, it was still spoken in the village of Mlahso near Diyarbakir (Turkey) and is known by the name of that village. Mlahso is currently considered extinct. The second sub-group of the Eastern Modern Aramaic dialects, sometimes called “Southeastern,” is represented by the dialect of Mandeans (today known as Sabians) of Iraq and the Khuzestan province of Iran. It is mostly spoken by the Iranian Sabians of the city of Ahwaz. The Iraqi Sabians still spoke it in the mid20th century but later almost entirely switched to Arabic, although they continue to use old Mandean Aramaic and its script for religious purposes. The third, largest and most well-studied sub-group of dialects within the Eastern Group are the Northeastern Neo-Aramaic dialects (NENA). They descend from the Eastern Late Aramaic dialects, which means that they are related to the language of the Babylonian Talmud and Mandean literature. They are numerous (nearly 150) and differ significantly from each other, often making communication between their speakers quite difficult.

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The majority of NENA speakers are followers of the Church of the East and the Chaldean Catholic Church, and, therefore, these dialects can be heard in the north of Iraq and its major cities, in the northwest of Iran (to the west of Lake Urmia), the northeast of Syria, in some areas in the southeast of Turkey, as well as in expatriate communities in America, Europe and elsewhere. NENA dialects are also spoken by the followers of the Syriac Orthodox and Syriac Catholic Churches living in the Mosul area. The generic name for these dialects is Sureth (“Syriac”), although numerous other designations are also in use. In addition to Christians of various denominations, the NENA dialects were spoken by “Kurdish Jews,” who lived mainly in Iraqi and Iranian Kurdistan and to the west of Lake Urmia. After the establishment of the State of Israel, almost all of them emigrated there. Today, Israel is home to about 200,000 Kurdish Jews, of whom only about 10,000, mostly the elderly, can converse in Aramaic. As mentioned above, because of the activity of foreign missionaries in the Urmia region, the local Neo-Aramaic dialect was developed into a literary language used in education and the press. The first periodicals were published by the missionaries themselves, then, in 1906, a group of intellectuals began publishing the Kokhva (“Star”) newspaper, which was the first periodical in Neo-Aramaic unrelated to the missionaries, in Urmia. Modern literary Aramaic, sometimes called “Modern Syriac,” also produced an impressive body of literature, mostly poetry. As for Classical Syriac, it, along with the rich Syriac intellectual heritage, remains an important factor that brings together the otherwise highly fragmented communities of the followers of the six churches of Syriac tradition (not counting the eight functioning among the “St. Thomas Christians”). The Church of the East and its offshoot, the Ancient Church of the East, established in 1968, are the only churches that refuse to use any language other than Syriac for liturgies, although, today, their followers prefer to call themselves “Assyrians.” For Assyrians and Chaldeans, however, the main objective is to preserve and develop the modern Eastern Aramaic literary language, especially in the Diaspora. In the communities that are related to the West Syriac tradition, including the Maronites, the Syriac language provokes an interest that goes beyond its ecclesiastical applications. It is taught in Sunday schools, many of which are run by churches or monasteries, often as a living, spoken language. Many enthusiasts in the Middle East and Diaspora try to speak Syriac at home and pass it on to their children. The second half of the 19th and the 20th century produced several authors who wrote in Classical Syriac. Classical Syriac occasionally appears in periodicals, primarily the journals published in the Diaspora. The use of Syriac in

28

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journalism and the attempts to revive it as a spoken language created the necessity for neologisms. Classical Syriac that is intended for modern usage is referred to as Kthobonoyo (“written”). Publishing in Syriac greatly benefited from the creation of Syriac computer fonts and the inclusion of Syriac in Microsoft Windows and other operating systems. The development of computer technologies for Syriac made it significantly easier to create websites and digital archives, perform textual analyses of the works of Aramaic-language literature, compile various kinds of word-lists and concordances, and so on. Syriac language and literature are studied in many leading universities and theological institutions worldwide and are the subject of various international symposia, most notably the authoritative Symposium Syriacum, which has been held every four years since 1972.

iI

LESSON I SYRIAC SCRIPT: THE BASICS I.1. As mentioned in the preface and the outline of the history of the Syriac language, there are three varieties of Syriac script—Estrangela (from Greek στρογγύλη ‘rounded’), Serto (‘line’ in Syriac), also known as the “Jacobite script,” and East Syriac (“Nestorian”). Of these three, the most ancient is Estrangela, from which the other two originated. Currently, the Serto script is mostly used by the followers of the Syriac Orthodox, Syriac Catholic, and Maronite Syriac Catholic Churches. They preserve Classical Syriac as a liturgical, and, to a much lesser extent, literary language. The East Syriac script is used by the followers of the Assyrian Church of the East (Assyrians) and Chaldean Catholic Church (Chaldeans), who also use Classical Syriac as the liturgical language. It is also the script of the Modern Eastern Literary Aramaic language (sometimes called “Modern Syriac”) used by Assyrians and Chaldeans. Unlike these two, Estrangela, which was in use before the split of Syriac Christianity, does not have a denominational affiliation and remains the neutral script, common for all followers of the Churches of Syriac tradition. Due to its decorative appearance, Estrangela is often used in texts written or printed in the Serto or East Syriac script for headings, page numbering, and other purposes. Today, Estrangela is widely used in scholarly publications (manuals, dictionaries, reprints of classical texts etc.) This textbook starts with Serto as it is the easiest one for beginners, then the Estrangela and “Nestorian” scripts are introduced. It should be remembered that an adequate knowledge of the Syriac language assumes an equal mastery of all three varieties of its script. I.2. Like other Semitic languages, the Syriac script runs from right to left. The manuscripts and books in Syriac have their spines on the right side, and the pages are turned over from left to right. 29

30

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

I.3. The Syriac alphabet has 22 letters representing consonants and a few of the vowels. The majority of the vowels are designated by special vowel-signs added above or beneath the letters. The use of these signs is called vocalization. In Serto, several vowel-signs schematically represent the corresponding Greek letters. The Nestorian vowel-signs are composed of dots or short dashes; they descend from the simple system of vocalization used in Estrangela. This system, however, was used randomly and inconsistently, and Estrangela, as a rule, appears without vowel-signs, which makes reading it more difficult. I.4. In addition to vowel-signs, there are several diacritical signs, which denote phonetic and grammatical features. They are especially important in Estrangela, which, as mentioned above, is rarely vocalized. I.5. The Syriac script is cursive, which means that, with a few exceptions, the letters are connected to each other. The same letter can be written differently depending on its position in the word and whether it is connected with the preceding or following letter. Thus, all the letters connect on the right side with the preceding letter, but only fourteen letters out of twenty-two connect with the following letter forward on the left. I.6. There is no upper or lower case in the Syriac script. The difference between cursive and print is negligible. In order to develop a good hand, students are advised to imitate the printed fonts as accurately as possible. The Syriac language has no hyphenation, but words can be extended to fit the line. I.7. The Syriac script has its own set of punctuation marks which will be presented in lesson VIII of the Introductory Course. However, there was no mutually accepted standard, and the use of punctuation marks differed from scribe to scribe, even within the same script variety. Modern publications widely use the European punctuation system with an inverted comma and question mark (، ‫)؟‬. This textbook also mostly uses European punctuation marks, but in the final lessons and some texts of the Reader, the traditional Syriac punctuation system is preserved.

iI

LESSON II VOWELS AND VOWEL-SIGNS II.1. Classical Syriac has five vowels – [a], [e], [i], [o], [u]1, represented by vowelsigns or combinations of letters and vowel-signs. II.2. Traditional Syriac grammar distinguishes between two varieties of the [a] sound – long and short, although the differences in articulation between them are negligible. The longer [a] (ā in transcription) is represented by a vowel-sign called zqafa2 (the dotted circle can stand for any letter of the alphabet):

ܳܳ ܳ

The vowel-sign can be placed both above and bellow the letter (as a rule). When reading, the letter is first pronounced, and then the vowel indicated by the vowelsign. II.3. The vowel [e] is represented by the vowel-sign rvasa, which can also be placed both above and below the letter:

ܶ ܶܶ ܶ

This vowel-sign reproduces the Greek letter ε. Although this sound is also believed to have had two varieties, long and short, there is only one vowel-sign for it (e in transcription).

1

As in the English words cut, bet, big, dog, moon respectively. In the West Syriac reading tradition of the Orthodox Syriacs and Maronites, zqafa is pronounced [o]; hence the vowel-sign itself is called zqofo.

2

31

32

CLASSICAL SYRIAC CONSONANTS1 Alaph2

II.4. This letter has two shapes – stand-alone (unconnected) and connected on the right. At the beginning of a word the unconnected alaph has the following shape:

‫ܐ‬ II.5. In the middle and at the end of a word, the unconnected alaph loses its curvature:

‫ܘܐ‬ II.6. Alaph connects on the right like this:

‫ܢܐ‬ II.7. Alaph belongs to the group of “guttural” sounds. It stands for a specific Semitic sound, a consonant, called a “glottal stop.” It is produced by a quick superficial contraction of the vocal cords with a simultaneous pushing of air through them, which causes vowels, especially at the beginning of the word, to be pronounced with certain tension3. In Syriac, however, the glottal stop became practically inaudible except for a few cases in the middle of a word where it causes a brief interruption in the flow of speech. It can be safely said that alaph, especially at the beginning of a word, does not represent any particular sound (it will be nevertheless shown in transcription as ’), but rather acts as a carrier for a vowel-sign. It should be remembered that the words that sound like they start with a vowel actually start with a glottal stop (alaph carrying a vowel-sign), as a word, in theory, cannot start with a vowel (except for several cases).

1

The letters will be presented in alphabetical order. In the Introductory Course, the names of letters and vowel-signs will appear in an approximate transliteration. The same names in a more accurate transcription can be found in the table containing the Syriac alphabet (after lesson VII). 3 In English, the glottal stop is common in Cockney and several other dialects (bu’er instead of butter), or in Uh-Oh. 2

LESSON II Thus, the combination alaph-zqafa –

33

ܳ ‫ ܐ‬or ‫ܐ‬

is read as an [a], and the combination alaph-rvasa –

ܶ ‫ ܐ‬or ‫ܐ‬

is read as an [e]. II.8. In the middle and at the end of a word, the alaph without a vowel-sign is silent.

Beth II.9 The stand-alone form:

‫ܒ‬ Unlike alaph, beth connects both on the right and on the left: connected on the left: connected on the right : connected on both sides:

‫ ܒܐ‬for example, with alaph – ‫ܒܐ‬ ‫ܛܒ‬for example, with another beth – ‫ܒܒ‬ ‫ ܝܒܐ‬for example, with two letters beth – ‫ܒܒܒ‬

II.10. Beth represents two alternating consonants – a stop [b], as in ‘big,’ and a spirant [v], as in ‘voice’ (shown henceforth in transcription as ḇ)1. The letter is read [b] at the beginning of a word and in the middle, after another consonant (postconsonant position). The b-reading may be indicated by a special dot, called qushaya (‘hard’), which is placed above the letter:

‫ܒ‬ 1

In the West Syriac tradition, the letter is always pronounced [b].

34

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

II.11. In the post-vocal position, i.e. after a vowel, the letter is pronounced [ḇ]. The ḇ-reading may be indicated by a dot under the letter, called rukakha (‘soft’):

‫ܒ‬ II.12. It should remembered that qushaya and rukakha are not always indicated, and that both alternate b-ḇ readings can be represented by the letter beth without a dot. In such cases, special attention should be given to the preceding sound, for a proper pronunciation of the letter.

 Read and copy the following, trying to reproduce the printed font as accurately as possible: 1 a

 ܶ‫ܳܐ ܶܐ ܐ ܐ ܳܒ ܒ ܳܒ ܶܒ ܳܒܐ ܒܐ ܒܐ ܶܒܐ ܳܐܒ ܐܒ ܳܒ ܶܒ ܒ ܳܒ ܳܐܒܐ‬ ܶ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܳ ‫ܐܒܐ ܒܐܒܐ ܒܐܒܐ ܒܒܐ ܐܒܒ܀‬ a

a

a

2

a

a

a

a

a

a

see II.8.

Gamal II.13. The stand-alone form:

‫ܓ‬ for example, with alaph –

‫ܐܓ‬

Gamal connects on both sides: connected on the left –

‫ܓܐ ܓܒ‬ 1

‫ܓܐ‬



The “Keys to Exercises” contain the transcriptions of the reading exercises of the Introductory Course. 2 This Syriac punctuation mark is usually seen at the end of a paragraph.

LESSON II

35

‫ܝܓ‬

connected on the right –

‫ܒܓ‬ connected on both sides –

‫ܒܓ ܐ‬

‫ܒܓܐ ܒܓܒ ܓܓܓ‬



II.14. Gamal represents two alternating consonants – a stop [g] as in ‘good,’ and a spirant [g], which is the French [r] or the Arabic ‫غ‬. The letter is read as a [g] at the beginning of the word and in the middle, after another consonant. This reading may be indicated by a qushaya – ‫ ܓ‬. II.15. After a vowel, gamal is pronounced [g], and it may be indicated by a rukakha – ‫ܓ‬. Again, the qushaya and rukakha are optional, and both interchanging sounds may appear as the same gamal without a dot.

 Read and copy the following, trying to reproduce the printed font as accurately as possible:

 ܶ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܶ ܳ ܳ ‫ܳܓܐ ܶܓܐ ܓܒ ܒܓ ܐܓ ܶܓ ܳܓܐ ܳܓܒܐ ܐ ܳܓܒ ܐ ܶܓܒ ܒܒܓ‬ ܳ ܳ ܳ ‫ܶܒܐܓܐ ܐ ܶܒܓ ܐ ܳܒܓ ܐ ܶܒܓ܀‬ a

a

a

II.8.

Dalath II.16. The stand-alone form:

‫ܕ‬

‫ܐܕ‬

36

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

Dalath connects only on the right:

‫ܝܕ‬

‫ܒܕ ܓܕ‬



Note that the connected dalath is smaller than the unconnected:

‫ܕܝܕ‬ II.17. Dalath represents two alternating sounds – a stop [d], as in ‘dog,’ and a spirant [ḏ], as ‘th’ in ‘this.’ The rules of interchange are the same as those for the letters beth and gamal. II.18. Dalath with qushaya and rukakha:

‫ܕܕ‬   Read and copy the following, trying to reproduce the printed font as accurately as possible:



ܶ ‫ܳܕܕ ܳܕ ܶܒܐ ܶܒ ܳܕܐ ܳܓ ܶܕܒ ܶܓ ܳܓܕ ܳܕ‬ ‫ܐܒܓ ܒ ܶܐܕ ܓ ܶܓ ܳܓ ܶܕܐ ܳܒ ܳܒ ܳܓܐ‬ ܳ ܳܶ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܳ ‫ܓܒܕܐ ܐܒܓܕ ܕ ܓܒܐ ܕܒܓܐ ܒܕܒܕ ܓܕ ܓܕ܀‬ a

a

II.8.

iI

LESSON III VOWEL-SIGNS III.1. The “short” [a] sound is represented by a vowel-sign called ptaha, which imitates the Greek letter A:

ܳܳ ܳ

ܰ ܰ ܰ ܰ ‫ܓ ܕ ܱܕ‬ ܱ ‫ ܐ ܐܱ ܒ ܱܒ ܓ‬ III.2. Since in Classical Syriac the difference between long and short vowels became negligible, the zqafa and ptaha vowel-signs essentially represent the same vowel [a]. This, however, does not mean that any of these vowel-signs can be used for the [a] sound. As a general rule, it should be remembered that closed syllables, i.e. syllables ending with a consonant, usually have a ptaha, whereas open syllables, those ending with a vowel – a zqafa. A Syriac syllable cannot have more than one vowel and, except in a few cases, cannot start with two consonants. For examܳ ‫ ܰܒܒ‬baḇ-gā, the first syllable is closed (ends with ḇ), therefore ple, in the word ‫ܓܐ‬ it contains a ptaha. The second syllable is open, so its [a] sound is represented with a zqafa. In some words, mostly borrowed ones, the ptaha may be followed by an ܰ ‫ ܰܒ‬bagdad. alaph, like in ‫ܓܕܐܕ‬

ܰ , the dalath that follows the gamal-ptaha III.3. In some cases, like in the word ‫ܓ ܳܕܐ‬ combination has a zqafa, which makes the first syllable open – ga-ḏā. In such cases, the closedness of a syllable is enforced by the doubling (gemination) of the following consonant, in this case dalath, so the word is pronounced gaddā (gad-dā). ܳ gāḏā in which the zqafa on gamal does not require a Compare with the word ‫ܓ ܳܕܐ‬ closed syllable, and there is no need to double the following dalath1. ܰ will be voiced gaḏō, Gemination is not observed in the West Syriac reading tradition, where ‫ܓ ܳܕܐ‬ ܳ ܳ and ‫ – ܓܕܐ‬gōḏō (on reading zqafa as ō see the footnote to paragraph II.2.). 1

37

38

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

III.4. In the example above, gemination changed the sound [ḏ] to a [d] because consonants with an interchanging stop-spirant pronunciation (beth, gamal, dalath and three others to be presented later) can be doubled only in their stop variety – bb, gg, dd, and never ḇḇ, gg, ḏḏ. The Syriac script has no way of indicating gemination, but in the case of interchanging consonants gemination may be hinted ܰ ). at by a qushaya (‫ܓ ܳܕܐ‬ III.5. These rules are in no way absolute, and there are exceptions to them. Thus, the initial alaph is usually vocalized with ptaha, but the following consonant may ܰ remain undoubled: ‫ ܐ ܳܒܐ‬a-ḇā1. Zqafa may occasionally be found in closed syllables, and ptaha in open ones. Ptaha in an open syllable is often followed by an alaph, ܳ which “hints” at the openness of the syllable with no need for gemination –‫ܰܒܐܕܐ‬ ba-ḏā. This shift is particularly frequent in borrowed words and some grammatical forms. It should be noted here that the spelling and vocalization of borrowed words was often arbitrary, and no strict rules were ever developed. On the other hand, the spelling and vocalization of proper Syriac words often reflect the earlier phonetic patterns of the language, which were no longer observed in the era of Classical Syriac. STRESS III.6. Words that end in consonants are usually stressed on the last syllable. Words that end in vowels, especially those consisting of two syllables, also seem to have been stressed on the last syllable, but under the influence of Modern Aramaic dialects it became conventional to stress all words ending in vowel on the penultimate syllable. In some cases, stress will be indicated in transcription with an accent (á, ā, é, ó etc.). CONSONANTS Heh III.7. The stand-alone form (first, from top to bottom, write the tail on the right side, and then, clockwise, the circle): 1

Gemination was observed in other Aramaic dialects (Palestinian, for example), in this case producing abbā ‘father,’ a word present in this form in the Gospels and borrowed into English as ‘abbot.’

LESSON III

39

‫ܗ‬

‫ܐܗ ܗܒ ܕܗ ܗܓ‬



Heh connects only on the right:

‫ܝܗ‬ ‫ܒܗ ܓܗ‬



Heh represents the [h] sound as in ‘house’1.  Read and copy trying to reproduce the printed font as accurately as possible:

 ܶ ܶ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܶ ܶ ܳ ܶ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܳ ‫ܳܗܕܐ ܗܕܐ ܰܓܒܐ ܐܒܐ ܐܒܗܐ ܐܒܐ ܐܒܕ ܐ ܰܓܗ ܐܕ ܓ ܐܗܐ ܒܒ ܳܓܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܒܓܐ ܰܕ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܒܓ ܰܕܐܕ ܰܒ ܳܐܕܐ ܰܓ ܳܕܐ ܶܕ‬ ܳ ‫ܐܒܐ ܶܕ‬ ‫ܗܒܐ ܳܗܒܒ ܰܗ ܶܒܒ ܰܗܒ ܳܒܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܗ ܶܓܓ ܰܗ‬ ‫ܓܓܐ ܰܗ ܳܓ ܳܓܐ ܳܗ ܳܓ ܳܓܐ܀‬ b

a

b

a

a

a

b

a

a

a

b

III.3. III.5.

Waw III.8. The stand-alone form:

‫ܘ‬

‫ܐܘ ܕܘ ܗܘ‬



Waw connects only on the right:

‫ܝܘ‬ ‫ܒܘ ܓܘ‬



Waw represents the “long” vowels [o] and [u], as well as the consonant [w] as in ‘wit.’ 1

In Greek borrowings, this letter also sometimes stands for the Greek letters α and ε.

40

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

III.9. To indicate the vowel [o], a dot is placed above waw:

‫ܘ‬

‫ܒܘ ܓܘ ܕܘ ܗܘ‬



III.10. A waw with a dot can only be seen in the middle or at the end of words. The [o] sound heard at the beginning of a word is written ‫ ܐܘ‬1. III.11. For the vowel [u], a vowel-sign called esasa is placed above waw or the preceding letter:

ܳ

ܽ ‫ܓܘ ܽܕܘ‬ ܽ ‫ܒܘ‬ ܽ )‫ܗܘ ( ܽܒܘ ܽܓܘ ܽܕܘ ܽܗܘ‬



III.12. The waw-esasa combination can occur only in the middle or at the end of ܽ . words. The initial [u] is written ‫ܐܘ‬ III.13. Thus, esasa, except for several cases, is always used with waw, and is the only vowel-sign that cannot be placed beneath a letter. III.14.1. In all other cases, waw is read as [w], forming diphthongs, such as ‫ ܰܘ‬wa, ܰ ‫ ܶܘ‬we, ‫ ܐܘ‬aw and others. ܳ III.14.2. The zqafa-waw combination (‫)ܶܘ‬, as indicated in the footnote to paragraph III.10., is red o, and not aw.

1

In West Syriac, the original [o] of the Edessan dialect and later East Syriac is usually replaced with an [u], and waw with a dot does not actually appear. However, this combination is traditionally used in Syriac grammars that employ Serto. The vowel [o] in West Syriac can be seen mainly in ܳ borrowed words where it is represented by the zqafa-waw sequence (‫)ܶܘ‬. It is used also in this book and should be properly mastered.

LESSON III

41

 Read and copy trying to reproduce the printed font as accurately as possible:

 ܳ‫ܗܘ ܽܗܘ ܰܗܘ ܐܘܗ ܽܐܘܗ ܰܘܘ ܰܘܐܘ ܳܗ ܳܘܐ ܰܓ ܳܘܐ ܽܐܘ ܳܕܐ ܰܐܘܒܕ ܽܕܘܕܐ‬ ܽ ‫ܗܘ‬ ܳ ‫ܘܒܐ ܽܓ‬ ܳ ‫ܘܓܐ ܽܕܘ ܳܓܐ ܰܓ‬ ܳ ‫ܕܘ ܳܕܐ ܳܕ‬ ܳ ‫ܘܕܐ ܽܐܘ ܳܓܐ ܰܕ‬ ܳ ‫ܘܕܐ ܓܘ ܳܕܐ ܰܕ‬ ܳ ‫ܘܓܐ ܳܕ‬ ‫ܘܕܐ‬ ܽ ‫ܗܘ ܳܓ ܳܓܐ ܰܒ‬ ܽ ‫ܒܘܗ ܳܒܐ‬ ܽ ‫ܘܓܐ ܰܐ ܽܕܘ ܳܓܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܓܒ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܐܒ ܽܘܒܐ ܰܐ ܽܓ‬ ‫ܘܓܐ܀‬ c

b

a

d

d

a

b

c

d

III.10. III.12. III.3. III.14.2.

Zayn III.15. The stand-alone form:

‫ܙ‬

‫ܐܙ ܕܙ ܗܙ ܘܙ ܙܙ‬



Zayn connects only on the right:

‫ܝܙ‬

‫ܒܙ ܓܙ‬



Zayn represents the consonant [z] as in ‘zoo.’  Read and copy trying to reproduce the printed font as accurately as possible:

 ܳ‫ܙܒܐ ܰܐܙ ܳܓܐ ܶܒ ܳܙܐ ܳܒ ܽܙܘ ܽܙܘ ܰܒ ܳܙ ܳܙܐ ܰܓܘܙܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܘܓܐ ܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܳܙܗܐ ܽܙܘ ܳܙܐ ܰܙ ܳܓܐ ܰܙ ܶܘܓ ܰܙ‬ ܳ ‫ܳܓ ܽܙܘܙܐ ܽܓ‬ ܳ ‫ܘܙ ܳܙܐ ܶܙ‬ ‫ܒܕܐ ܳܙ ܓܘ ܳܓܐ܀‬ a

a

a

III.3.

iI

a

LESSON IV VOWEL-SIGNS IV.1. The vowel [i] is represented by the vowel-sign hvasa, which imitates the Greek letter H:

ܳܳ ܳ

ܺ ܺ ܺ ܺ ܺ ܺ ܺ ‫ܓ ܕ ܻܕ ܗ ܻܗ ܘ ܻܘ ܙ ܻܙ‬ ܻ ‫ܐ ܻܐ ܒ ܻܒ ܓ‬ CONSONANTS Heth IV.2. The stand-alone form:

‫ܚ‬ ‫ܐܚ ܕܚ ܗܚ ܙܚ‬



connected on the left –

‫ܚܐ‬

Heth connects on both sides:

‫ܚܐ ܚܒ ܚܓ ܚܕ ܚܗ ܚܘ ܚܙ‬

‫ܒܚܐ‬

connected on both sides –

‫ܒܚܐ ܓܚܕ‬



‫ܝܚ‬

connected on the right –

‫ܒܚ ܓܚ‬ 42







LESSON IV

43

IV.3. Heth was originally pronounced like a deeper, “nosier” [h] (Arabic ‫)ح‬1 but it became conventional to pronounce it like German ch2. Heth will be presented in transcription as [ḥ].  Read and copy trying to reproduce the printed font as accurately as possible:

ܳ ‫ܶܒ‬ ‫ܙܚܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܙ‬ ‫ܘܚܐ‬

 ܶ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ‫ܘܚܕ ܰܚ ܳܓܐ ܰܚܕܒܐ‬ ܳ ܶ ‫ܶܚܙܐ ܕܚܐ ܳܚܐܐ ܐ ܳܚܐ ܻܐ ܶܚܐ ܐ ܶܚܒ ܰܚܘܐ ܰܚ ܳܚܐ ܶܚܐܙܐ ܐ‬ ܽ ‫ܚܘ ܳܒܐ ܐ ܳܚ ܳܕܐ ܳܐ‬ ܽ ‫ܚܘܕ ܚܘ ܳܚܐ ܶܚ ܳܙܘܐ‬ ܽ ‫ܕܗܘ ܰܐ‬ ܽ ‫ܕܘܐ ܰܚ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܚ‬ ܳ‫ܚܘ ܳܕܐ ܰܓܘܚܐ‬ ܽ ‫ܒܘ ܳܒܐ ܳܚ‬ ܽ ‫ܚܘܓܒܐ ܰܚ‬ ܽ ‫ܕܘ ܳܓܐ܀‬ a

a

a

a

III.3.

Teth IV.4. The stand-alone form:

‫ܛ‬

‫ܐܛ ܕܛ ܗܛ ܙܛ‬



Teth connects on both sides:

‫ܛܐ‬

connected on the left –

‫ܛܐ ܛܒ ܛܓ ܛܕ ܛܗ ܛܘ ܛܙ ܛܚ‬

‫ܒܛܐ‬

connected on both sides –

‫ܒܛܐ ܓܛܕ ܚܛܗ‬ connected on the right –

‫ܒܛ ܓܛ ܚܛ‬ 1 2



‫ܝܛ‬ 

And is still pronounced like that in the West Syriac traditional reading. This is how the same letter is pronounced in Modern Hebrew.



44

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

IV.5. Teth represent an emphatic [ṭ] sound which is close to English ‘t’ but without aspiration (Arabic ‫)ط‬. It should be pronounced with some tension, with the middle of the tongue close to the palate.  Read and copy trying to reproduce the printed font as accurately as possible:

ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܽ ܳ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܶ ܳ ܶ ‫ܛܐܒ ܛܐܒ ܐܛܒ ܛܘܐ ܛܘܒ ܒܛܐ ܒܛܐ ܓܛܐ ܛܐܒܐ ܛܒܚܐ ܗܛܛܐ‬ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܽ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܽ ‫ܛܘܛܐ ܰܚܛܛܐ܀‬ ‫ܚܘܛܐ ܚܛܗܐ ܚ‬ Yodh IV.6. The stand-alone form:

‫ܝ‬

‫ܐܝ ܕܝ ܗܝ ܘܝ ܙܝ‬



Yodh connects on both sides:

‫ܝܐ‬

connected on the left –

‫ܝܐ ܝܒ ܝܓ ܝܕ ܝܗ ܝܘ ܝܙ ܝܛ‬



‫ܒܝܐ‬

connected on both sides –

‫ܒܝܐ ܓܝܕ ܛܝܚ ܚܝܗ‬ connected on the right –

‫ܒܝ ܓܝ ܛܝ‬



‫ܝܝ‬



ܰ

ܽ yu, ‫ ܝܘ‬yo, ‫ܐܝ‬ IV.7. Yodh represents the consonant [y] as in ‘yellow’: ‫ ܳܝ‬ya, ‫ ܶܝ‬ye, ‫ܝܘ‬ ay, and so on.

LESSON IV

45

ܺ is pronounced [i] and can appear at the beIV.8. The yodh-hvasa combination (‫)ܝ‬ ginning of a word. IV.9. Yodh preceded by a hvasa and ܺ not carrying a vowel-sign of its own, repreܺ 1 sents a “long” [i] : ‫ ܒܝ‬bi, ‫ ܻܗܝ‬hi, ‫ ܐܝ‬i. Hvasa itself usually appears in combination with the following yodh.

ܶ

IV.10. The rvasa-yodh combination (‫ )ܶܝ‬represents the “long” [e]2, the “short” [e] ܶ being the rvasa alone. In certain words and grammatical forms the ‫ ܶܝ‬sequence is read as ey.

 Read and copy trying to reproduce the printed font as accurately as possible:

 ܶܳ ܺ ܰ ܺ ܽ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܰ ‫ܝܐܐ ܚܝܛ ܗܘܝ ܝܚܛ ܐܝܕܐ ܒܒܝ ܒܘܒܝܐ ܓܕܝܐ ܓܕܝܕܐ ܕܘܝܕ‬ ܽ ‫ܕܝܘ ܳܛܐ ܰܗ ܳܕܝ ܳܝܐ‬ ܽ ‫ܰܕ ܺܚܝܚ ܰܕ ܳܝܘܐ ܰܗ ܳܓ ܳܝܐ ܶܗ‬ ‫ܗܘ ܽܝܘ ܰܚ ܺܒܝܒ ܰܚ ܺܓܝ ܳܚ ܳܙ ܳܝܐ‬ ܺ ܳ ‫ܝܕ ܳܝܐ ܺܝ ܽܗ‬ ܽ ‫ܘܕܐ ܺܝ‬ ܽ ‫ܒܝܐ ܰܝ ܳܕܝ ܳܕܐ ܳܝ‬ ܳ ‫ܗܘ ܳܒܐ ܺܝ ܺܚ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܚ ܳܛ ܳܝܐ ܰܛ‬ ‫ܗܘ ܳܕ ܳܝܐ ܐܝܙ ܰܓ ܳܕܐ ܀‬ c

c

a

b

b

b

a

b

c

III.3. IV.8. IV.9.

iI

1 2

In grammars, the “long” [i] can be transcribed as [ī]. Also transcribed as [ē].

b

a

LESSON V THE SCHWA V.1. A characteristic feature of Syriac phonology is its tendency toward reduction and a loss of vowels. The vowels are usually reduced or lost as a result of the attachment of suffixes. Another characteristic is “historic devocalization” where a fully vocalized word loses some of its vowels with time. V.2. The reduction of vowels in Syriac manifests in the transition of a full vowel to a reduced, short sound called a schwa or shwa. In English, it is the ‘a’ sound in ‘aloud’ or ‘about.’ In Syriac, the schwa is not represented by any letter or vowelsign, but will be represented in transcription as ә. The schwa is never stressed. V.3. In order to pronounce a word with a schwa correctly, it should be remembered that:  

the schwa is present between two consonants at the beginning of a word: ܳ gәzā, ‫ܓܙܐ‬ in a combination of three consonants, between the second and third consonants: maḏnә ā, kawkәḇā1.

V.4. The [ḇ] sound in kawkәḇā means that the schwa, like full vowels, causes the spirantization of the following consonant with alternating stop-spirant varieties. V.5. The affiliation of the schwa with the vowels is also evident in its ability to form a syllable: gә-zā, maḏ-nә- ā, kaw-kә-ḇā2. As the schwa cannot be stressed3, in the examples above the stress moves to the last syllable.

1

Sounds k, m, n presented further in the lesson. The syllable-forming quality of schwa may be overlooked in the Syriac poetry, which is based on a strict number of syllables in a verse. 3 This rule does not strictly apply in traditional Western and Eastern readings. 2

46

LESSON V

47

CONSONANTS Kaph V.6. The stand-alone form:

‫ܟ‬

‫ ܐܟ ܕܟ ܗܟ ܘܟ ܙܟ‬ Kaph connects on both sides:

‫ܟܙ‬

connected on the left –

‫ܟܐ ܟܒ ܟܓ ܟܕ ܟܗ ܟܘ ܟܙ ܟܚ ܟܛ ܟܝ‬ 1



‫ܒܟܐ‬

connected on both sides –

‫ܒܟܐ ܓܟܕ ܛܟܚ ܚܟܗ‬ connected on the right –



‫ܝܟ‬

‫ܒܟ ܓܟ ܛܟ ܚܟ ܟܟ‬



V.7. Kaph represents two alternating sounds – a stop [k], like both of the consonants in ‘cake,’ and a spirant [ḵ], like the German ch. The rules of interchange are the same as those for the letters beth, gamal, and dalath. Like these letters, kaph can take qushaya and rukakha.  Read and copy trying to reproduce the printed font as accurately as possible:

ܳ ‫ܰܟܕ ܽܘ ܰܟ ܶܒܕ ܳܓ ܶܚܟ ܶܐ‬ ‫ܟܕ ܳܝܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܟܒ ܳܝܐ ܺܟ‬ ܳ ‫ܝܒܐ ܟ ܻܚܝܕ‬

a

a



ܽ ‫ܰܟܝ ܳܛܟ ܰܙ ܳܟܝ ܳܚܒܟ ܳܚܐܟ ܚ ܳܟܐ ܰܒ ܳܟܐ ܳܗ ܳܟܐ‬ ‫ܗܘܟ‬ ܶ ܰ ܳܳܰ ܳ ‫ܽܕܘ ܳܟ ܳܝܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܚܕܐ ܻܟ‬ ܳ ‫ܟܛܟ ܰܐܟ‬ ‫ܐܒܐ‬ ‫ܚܒ ܳܟܐ ܚܘܟܐ ܛ‬ ‫ܰܟܘܟ ܳܒܐ ܀‬ a

a

a

a

V.3.

1

Note the differences between beth and kaph.

48

CLASSICAL SYRIAC Lamadh

V.8. The stand-alone form (first, from the bottom up goes the right stroke, then, in the same direction – the left one):

‫ܠ‬

‫ ܕܠ ܗܠ ܘܠ ܙܠ‬ Lamadh connects on both sides:

‫ܠܙ‬

connected on the left –

‫ܠܒ ܠܓ ܠܕ ܠܗ ܠܘ ܠܙ ܠܚ ܠܛ ܠܝ ܠܟ‬

‫ܒܠܙ‬

connected on both sides –

‫ܒܠܙ ܓܠܕ ܛܠܚ ܚܠܗ‬



‫ܝܠ‬

connected on the right –

‫ܒܠ ܓܠ ܛܠ ܚܠ ܟܠ‬



V.9. Lamadh represents the consonant [l] as in ‘love.’ V.10. At the beginning of a word, alaph and lamadh combine like this:

‫ܠܐܢ‬ but may also combine like this –

‫ܐ ܠܙ‬ V.11. The reversed combination – lamadh-alaph:

‫ܐܠ ܝܐܠ‬



LESSON V

49

V.12. Two letters lamadh at the beginning and in the middle of a word:

‫ܝܠܠܙ‬ V.13. The same lamadh-lamadh combination at the end of a word:

‫ܝܠܠ‬ V.14. The lamadh-lamadh-alaph combination:

‫ܝܠ ܐܠ‬ V.15. If a word ends with a lamadh, and the following word starts with an alaph, these two letters can combine in a ligature,

‫ܐܠ‬t‫ܝ‬ which means that in writing the two words combine into one.  Read and copy trying to reproduce the printed font as accurately as possible:

ܰ ܶ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܶ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܰ ܶ ܶ ܰ ܰ ‫ܠܐܝ ܒܝܠ ܐܙܠ ܓܐܠ ܰܠܠ ܓܠܠ ܗܠ ܗܠܟ ܐܒܐܠ ܐܘܟܠ‬ ܻ ‫ܐܠ ܐܐܠ‬ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܳܰ ܶ ܳ ܶ ܺ ܶ ‫ܒܛܝܠ ܰܓ‬ ‫ܠܓܠ‬ ‫ܐܝܐܠ ܐܝܠܠ ܐܟ ܽܘܠ ܰܒܕܐܠ ܰܠ ܳܝܐ ܠܐ ܽܘܠ ܳܒ ܶܒܝܠ‬ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳܳ ܶ ܳܽ ܺ ‫ܠܗܙ‬ ܺ ‫ܠܝܠ ܳܘܠ ܳܝܐ ܰܙ‬ ܺ ‫ܰܓܠ ܐܠ ܰܕ‬ ܶ ‫ܠܝܠ ܰܙ‬ ‫ܠ ܐܠ‬ ‫ܚܠܝܐܠ ܚܠ ܘܐܠ ܛܠܠ ܝܐ ܝ‬ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܽ ܰ ‫ܰܠ ܽܘ ܰܝܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܠܗ‬ ܳ ‫ܠܓܠ ܽܘ ܳܓܐ܀‬ ‫ܠ ܳܝܐ ܒܘܠܟܐܠ ܗ‬ ‫ܟܠܝܐܠ‬ ܻ ‫ܰܟܠ ܳܘܐ‬ e

d

d

b

f

c

b

a

a

b

b

e

b

1

a

b

c

d

e

f

IV.10. V.3. V.12. V.13. III.3. V.14.

1

The ‫ ܰܝܐ‬combination stands for the Greek suffix -ια.

b

50

CLASSICAL SYRIAC Mem

V.16. The stand-alone form:

‫ܡ‬

‫ܐܡ ܕܡ ܗܡ ܘܡ ܙܡ‬



Mem connects on both sides: connected on the left –

‫ܡܙ‬

‫ܡܒ ܡܓ ܡܕ ܡܗ ܡܘ ܡܙ ܡܚ ܡܛ ܡܝ ܡܟ‬



‫ܝܡܙ‬

connected on both sides –

‫ܒܡܐ ܝܡܕ ܛܡܚ ܚܡܗ‬



‫ܝܡ‬

connected on the right –

‫ܒܡ ܓܡ ܚܡ ܛܡ ܝܡ ܟܡ ܠܡ ܡܡ‬



V.17. Mem represents the consonant [m] as in ‘man.’  Read and copy trying to reproduce the printed font as accurately as possible:

ܶ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܺ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܰ ‫ܠܐܡ ܐܕܡ ܡܐܠ ܓܐܡ ܒܠܡܐ ܒܟܡܐ ܡܠܟܐ ܝܡܝܐ ܒܛܡܐ ܡܚܕܐ ܐܗܡܝ‬ ܺ ‫ܝܡܐ‬ ܺ ‫ܡܘ ܳܡܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܛܙ‬ ܳ ‫ܝܡܐ ܰܚ ܺܟ‬ ܳ ‫ܙܡ‬ ܳ ‫ܡܘ ܳܡܝܐ ܰܡ‬ ܽ ‫ܝܡܐ‬ ܽ ‫ܰܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܙܡܟܐ ܰܡ‬ ‫ܚܠܒܐ ܰܡܟܚܐܠ‬ ܳ ‫ܡܠܚ ܠ ܽܘ‬ ܰ ‫ܚܠ‬ ܰ ܺ ‫ܡܠܡܐ‬ ܰ ‫ܠܗܝܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܡ‬ ‫ܙܡܝܠ ܳܝܐ ܀‬ ‫ܡܡܙ ܳܓܐ ܰܡܕܒܚܐ‬ a

b

b

b

b

a

b

b

b

a

b

III.5. V.3.

b

b

LESSON V

51

Nun V.18. The stand-alone form:

‫ܢ‬

‫ܐܢ ܕܢ ܗܢ ܘܢ ܙܢ‬



Nun connects on both sides: connected on the right –

‫ܢܙ‬

‫ܢܐ ܢܒ ܢܓ ܢܕ ܢܗ ܢܘ ܢܙ ܢܚ ܢܛ ܢܝ ܢܟ ܢܠ ܢܡ‬ connected on both sides –

‫ܒܢܙ‬

‫ܟܢܙ ܠܢܡ ܛܢܓ ܝܢܗ ܡܢܠ‬ connected on the right – 1





‫ܝܢ‬

‫ܒܢ ܓܢ ܚܢ ܛܢ ܝܢ ܟܢ ܠܢ ܡܢ ܢܢ‬



V.19. Nun represents the consonant [n] as in ‘net.’  Read and copy trying to reproduce the printed font as accurately as possible:

ܶ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܺ ܺ ܳ ܳ ܽ ܽ ܳ ܳ ‫ܐ ܳܢܐ ܢܘܚ ܢܛܢ ܢܘܢܐ ܢܢܝܐ ܐܡܢܐ ܘܙܢܐ ܒܢܝܐ ܚܢܢܐ ܓܢܢܐ ܠܓܢܐ ܢ‬ ‫ܝܢܓܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܗܘ‬ ܶ ‫ܡܗ‬ ܳ ܳ ‫ܝܡܢ ܰܝ ܺܡܝܢܳܐ ܰܟ‬ ܽ ‫ܕܡܢܳ ܳܝܐ‬ ܳ ܰ‫ܡܗܘ ܳܢܐ ܡܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܠܟܢܐ ܽܢܘ ܳܘ ܳܓܐ‬ ܰ ‫ܠܢܝ‬ ‫ܓܒܢܳܐ‬ ܳ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܳ ‫ܟܘ‬ ܽ ‫ܒܕ ܳܢ ܳܝܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܛ‬ ܳ ܶ‫ܠ ܢܳ ܳܝܐ ܢ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܟ‬ ‫ܐܒܢܳܐ‬ ‫ܡܡܠܠ ܢܳܐ ܰܕܗܒܢܝܐ ܶܗܓܡܘܢܐ ܡ‬ ‫ܒܗܢܝܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܚܘ‬ ܳ ܰ‫ܚܘܠܛܢܳܐ ܡܢ‬ ܽ ‫ܝܟܢܳܐ ܶܡ ܰܙܕܘܓܢܳܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܗܡ ܳܢܐ ܰܕ ܺܐܕ‬ ܽ ܰ ‫ܠܡ ܳܢ ܳܝܐ‬ ‫ܡܗܝܡܢܺܝܢܰܢ ܀‬ a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

ac

b

a

b

a

c

V.3. III.5. III.6.

1

In dictionary headings and other listings, the stand-alone nun sometimes appears as ‫ܢܢ‬.

LESSON VI CONSONANTS Semkath VI.1. The stand-alone form:

‫ ܣ‬or ‫ܤ‬ 1

‫ܐܣ ܕܣ ܗܣ ܘܤ ܙܤ‬ Semkath connects on both sides:

‫ܣܙ‬

connected on the left –

‫ ܣܐ ܣܒ ܣܓ ܣܕ ܣܗ ܣܘ ܣܙ‬ ‫ܣܚ ܣܛ ܣܝ ܣܟ ܣܠ ܣܡ ܣܢ‬

‫ܒܣܙ‬

connected on both sides –

‫ܢܣܢ ܡܣܡ ܛܣܕ ܚܣܝ ܝܣܠ ܠܣܐ ܣܣܟ‬



‫ܝܣ‬

connected on the right –

‫ܒܣ ܓܣ ܚܣ ܛܣ ܝܣ ܟܣ ܠܣ ܡܣ ܢܣ‬



VI.2. Semkath represents the consonant [s] as in ‘son.’

1

This is the shape the letter usually takes in borrowed words, standing for the consonant [s] like the Greek ending -ς and Latin -us.

52

‫‪LESSON VI‬‬

‫‪53‬‬

‫‪ Read and copy trying to reproduce the printed font as accurately as possible:‬‬

‫ܳ‪ܶ ‬‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ ‪ܳ ܳ a‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ ‪a‬‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܟܡܣ‬ ‫ܣܐܡ ܣܓܝ ܣܛܠ ܟܣܣܐ ܣܛܢܐ ܟܣܚܐ ܱܚܡܣܢ ܡܣܣܐ ܢ ܱ‬ ‫ܳ ܽ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܣܘ ܳܒܐ ܺܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܓ ܳܣܐ‪ܰ b‬ܓ ܳܝ ܳܣܐ ܰܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܣܛܐ ܳܢ ܽ‬ ‫ܢܶ ܰ‬ ‫‪c‬‬ ‫ܣܘܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܠܘܣ‬ ‫ܣܒܣ ܐܣܘܛܐ ܒܠ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܠܣܡܐ ܽܢܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ ‪a‬‬ ‫ܚܣܢ ܰܒܠܣܡܘܢ‬ ‫ܣܘܛܡܐ‬ ‫ܣܟܐ‬ ‫ܰܓܘܣܢܐ ܳܢܡܘܣܐ ܛ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܘ ܳܣܐ ܰܛ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܡܓܣܐ ܰܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܣܛ ܺܣܝܤ‪ܽ d‬ܕܘܡܣܐ ܺܣܝܣܢܳܐ ܰܚ ܽ‬ ‫ܟܣܝܤ‬ ‫ܓܣܢܳܐ‬ ‫ܶ ܳܳ ܳ ܽ ܳ ܶ ܰ ܺ ܶ‬ ‫ܠ ܺ‬ ‫ܟܣܝܤ ܶܓ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܘ ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܢܣܢܳ ܳܝܐ ܰܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܒܘ ܳܣܐ‬ ‫ܣܘܣ ܠܣܛܝܐ ܟܣܘܚܐ ܣܒܣܛܐ‬ ‫ܽ ܰ ‪ܰ ܶ e‬‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܣܛ ܺܣܝܤ‪ d‬ܡ ܱܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܣܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܠܣܠܣܐ‬ ‫ܣܕ ܳܢܐ‬ ‫ܠܓ ܳܣܐ ܣܘܠܛܐܢ ܐ‬ ‫ܢܶܣܝܘ ܳܢܐ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܣܛ ܰ‬ ‫ܒܠܛ ܺܕܝܡܘ ܺܣܝܘܢ܀‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫‪e‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪V.3. V.4. III.14.2. III.5. III.2.‬‬

‫‪Eh‬‬ ‫‪VI.3. The stand-alone form:‬‬

‫ܥ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐܥ ܕܥ ܗܥ ܘܥ ܙܥ‬ ‫‪Note the difference in height between eh and lamadh:‬‬

‫ܥܠ‬ ‫‪Eh connects on both sides:‬‬

‫ܥܙ‬

‫– ‪connected on the left‬‬

‫‪ ‬ܥܐ ܥܒ ܥܓ ܥܕ ܥܗ ܥܘ ܥܙ‬ ‫ܥܚ ܥܛ ܥܝ ܥܟ ܥܠ ܥܡ ܥܢ ܥܣ‬

54

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

‫ܒܥܙ‬

connected on both sides –

‫ܠܥܡ ܚܥܢ ܛܥܟ ܝܥܐ ܒܥܙ ܣܥܕ ܟܥܓ‬



‫ܝܥ‬

connected on the right –

‫ܒܥ ܓܥ ܚܥ ܛܥ ܝܥ ܟܥ ܠܥ ܡܥ ܢܥ ܣܥ ܥܥ‬



VI.4.1. Eh stands for a laryngeal consonant that is deeper than the glottal stop (Arabic ‫ع‬, in transcription ˁ). It is formed by a strong tensing of the vocal cords and the muscles of the larynx with simultaneous articulation of the following vowel reܶ ܺ ܰ ܳ ܽ ˁu; ‫ ܳܥ ܳܒܐ‬ˁāḇā; ‫ܳܥܢܶܐ‬ sulting in a kind of gagging sound: ‫ ܥܙܥܙ‬ˁa;‫ ܥܙܙ‬ˁe; ‫ ܥܝ‬ˁi; ‫ܥܘ‬ ܶ ܳ ܽ guzˁā; ‫ ܰܒ ܳܥ ܳܝܐ‬baˁˁāyā. ˁāne; ‫ ܳܒܥܐ‬bāˁe; ‫ܓܘܙܥܐ‬ VI.4.2. Note the doubled eh in baˁˁāyā (to close a syllable with ptaha) for which the laryngeal tension with the simultaneous pronunciation of the vowel should last a bit longer. VI.5. If a word starts with a non-vocalized eh, resulting in two consecutive initial consonants, then, according to the rule presented in V.3., a schwa is pronounced ܰ ˁә-ḇaḏ. ܳ ˁә-ḏā; ‫ܥܒܕ‬ after eh, forming a syllable: ‫ܥܕܐ‬ VI.6. If there is a non-vocalized eh in the middle or at the end of a word, then the pronunciation of the preceding vowel must be completed with a sharp contraction of the vocal cords and the muscles of the larynx, as if “lowering” the vowel into ܰ ܳ ‫ ܳܒ‬bāˁyā. the larynx: ‫ ܕܥ‬daˁ, ‫ܥܝܐ‬  Read and copy trying to reproduce the printed font as accurately as possible:



ܳ c ܳ ܳ ‫ ܰܥ‬cd‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ‬ ܰ c‫ܥܕ ܳܝܐ‬ ܳ ‫ ܶܥ ܳܐܕܐ ܰܥܘܐܠ ܰܥܝܢܳܐ‬d‫ ܰܥ ܳܡܐ‬ba‫ܒܠܥ‬ ‫ܒܕܐ‬ ‫ ܥܢܐ‬b‫ ܕܥܟ‬a‫ܰܕܥ‬ ܰ ܳ a‫ܕܡܥ‬ ܳ ‫ܕܥ ܳܟܐ‬ ܳ ‫ ܳܥ‬e‫ܕܥܐ ܰܢ ܳܥ ܳܡܐ‬ ܰ ܶ‫ ܢ‬a‫ܥܒܐ‬ ܳ f‫ܠܡܐ‬ ܳ ‫ ܡܢܳ ܳܥܐ ܰܡ‬a‫ܒܠ ܳܥܐ ܰܝܥܢܳܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܠ‬ c ܳ ‫ܥܣܣܐ‬ ܺ ܳ ‫ ܽܕܘ ܳܥ ܳܟܐ ܶܕ‬e‫ܥܘ ܳܝܐ ܰܓ ܶܥܡ‬ ܳ ‫ܓܠ‬ ܳ ‫ܓܘ‬ ܽ ‫ܝܥܐ ܳܓ‬ ܽ ܽ e‫ܥܕܐ ܰܒ ܳܥ ܳܝܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܶܣ‬ ‫ܡܥܐ‬ ‫ܙܥܐ‬ ‫ܥܘ ܳܕ ܳܕܐ‬

LESSON VI a

55

ܳ ‫ܛܘ‬ ܳ ‫ܡܕ‬ ܽ ‫ ܰܡ‬a‫ܥܘ ܳܢܐ‬ ܽ ‫ܠ ܳܥܐ‬ ܽ a‫ܛܒܥ‬ ܳ ‫ܛܘ ܰܥܣ ܰܛ‬ ܰ ‫ܙ ܽܘ ܳܥ ܳܡܐ ܶܡ‬ ܳ ‫ ܰܡ‬a‫ܥܟܢܳܐ‬ ܰ ‫ܒܘ ܳܥܐ‬ ‫ܥܡܕܢܐ‬ ܳ ܽ ܰ ܰ ‫ܡܥܠ ܶܡ ܰܙܕ‬ ܰ ‫ܡܘ ܳܕܐ‬ ܰ ‫ܡܣ‬ ܽ ‫ܣܥܘ ܳܢܐ ܳܥ‬ ܽ ‫܀‬a‫ܥܙܥ‬ ‫ܥܘܛܐ‬ ‫ܢ‬ a

b

c

d

e

f

VI.6. V.3. VI.5. III.3. VI.4.2. III.5.

Peh VI.7. The stand-alone from:

‫ܦ‬

‫ܐܦ ܕܦ ܗܦ ܘܦ ܙܦ‬



Peh connects on both sides:

‫ܦܙ‬

connected on the left –

‫ ܦܐ ܦܒ ܦܓ ܦܕ ܦܗ ܦܘ ܦܙ ܦܚ‬ ‫ܦܛ ܦܝ ܦܟ ܦܠ ܦܡ ܦܢ ܦܣ ܦܥ‬

‫ܒܦ ܙ‬

connected on both sides –

‫ܓܦܢ ܥܦܟ ܢܦܡ ܟܦܣ ܠܦܛ ܒܦܗ ܥܦܚ‬



‫ܝܦ‬

connected on the right –

‫ ܒܦ ܓܦ ܚܦ ܛܦ ܝܦ‬ ‫ܟܦ ܠܦ ܡܦ ܢܦ ܣܦ ܥܦ ܦܦ‬ VI.8. Peh represents two alternating sounds – a stop [p], which is close to the consonant ‘p’ in ‘put’ but with less aspiration1, and a spirant [ꝑ], like ‘f’ in ‘fee.’2 The rules of interchange are the same as those for beth, gamal, dalath, and kaph. 1

Medieval Syriac grammarians also spoke of a more heavily aspirated and abrupt [p] sound, which was analogous to the Greek π. In some manuscripts, this variety was distinguished by a dot on the ‫ ܦ‬, while in Syro-Palestinian Melkite manuscripts this sound was represented by left side of peh – ݀ a reversed peh – ‫ ܧ‬. 2 In the West Syriac reading tradition peh is always pronounced [ꝑ], and in East Syriac it is, with some exceptions, pronounced [p].

56

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

VI.9. The rules of [p]↔[ꝑ] interchange are not observed in borrowed words, which can start with a [ꝑ] and have a [p] after a vowel.  Read and copy trying to reproduce the printed font as accurately as possible:

ܶ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܳ‫ܥܛܦܐ‬ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܽ ܶ ‫ܐܦ ܓܐܦ ܐܘܦܠ ܢܐܟܦ ܠܐܦܐ ܦܣܥܐ ܢܛܦܐ ܚܠܦܐ ܠܦܛܐ‬ ܰ ‫ ܶܙ‬b‫ܓܦ ܳܦܐ‬ ܳ ܳ ‫ܛܦܚ ܰܣ ܳܦ ܳܝܐ ܰܗܦܟܐ ܰܗ‬ ܰ ܶ‫ܣܦܐ ܢ‬ ܳ ‫ ܶܟ‬a‫ܦܠܢ ܥܢܳ ܳܦܐ‬ ܽ ‫ܦܘ ܳܢܐ‬ ܽ ‫ܘܦܐ ܶܓ‬ ‫ܛܘ ܳܢܦܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܠܚܢܳܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܓܘܦܢܳܐ ܢܶܓܠ ܘܦ ܽܙܘ‬ ܳ ‫ܦܣܢܐ ܽܝܘ‬ ܳ ‫ܛܠ‬ ܽ ‫ܠ ܳܦܐ‬ ܽ ‫ܓܕ ܳܢܦܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܚ ܽܙܘ ܳܦܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܦܘ‬ ‫ܠܦܢܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܘܦܢܳܐ ܰܣ‬ ܳ ‫ܦܝܢܳܐ ܰܣ‬ ܳ ‫ܡܙ‬ ܰ c‫ܶܦܠܦܐܠ‬ ܰ ‫ܘܦܐ‬ ܽ ‫ܥܘ ܳܦ ܳܦܐ ܳܦ‬ ܽ ‫ܦܝܢܳܐ‬ ܽ ‫ܚܦ ܳܣܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܥܘ‬ ܳ ‫ܡܥ‬ ‫ܓܘ ܳܥܐ‬ ܺ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܶ ܳܳ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܺ ‫ܓܘ‬ ܽ ܽ d ܰ ‫ܦܣܝܢ‬ ܳ ‫ܚܛܘ‬ ‫ܛܠܦܚ ܽܘ ܳܢܐ‬ ‫ܡܚܦܛܢܐ‬ ‫ܦܝܐ‬ ‫ܠܣܛܝܢ‬ ‫ܦܚܡܢܝܐ ܐܙܕܝܦܢ ܦ‬ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܶ ed ܰ ܺ ܰ ܰ ܺ ‫ܣܛ‬ ܽ ‫ܦܠܝܢ‬ ‫܀‬e‫ܣܘ ܺܦܝܣܛ ܳܝܐ ܐܦܘ ܳܦ ܺܣܝܤ‬ ‫ܦܢܛܣܝܐ ܐ‬ a

a

b

c

d

e

VI.5. V.4. V.3. III.5. VI.9.

Sadheh VI.11. The stand-alone form:

‫ܨ‬

‫ܐܨ ܕܨ ܗܨ ܘܨ ܙܨ‬



Sadheh connects only on the right:

‫ܝܨ‬ ‫ܒܨ ܓܨ ܚܨ ܛܨ ܝܨ ܟܨ ܠܨ ܡܨ ܢܨ ܣܨ ܥܨ ܦܨ‬



VI.12. Sadheh represents an emphatic [ṣ] sound (Arabic ‫)ص‬, which is more tense than the [s] of the semkath. There is also a habit of pronouncing this letter as [ts], the way the same letter is pronounced in Modern Hebrew, but it is strongly discouraged.

‫‪LESSON VI‬‬

‫‪57‬‬

‫‪ Read and copy trying to reproduce the printed font as accurately as possible:‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫ܥܡܘܨ‪ܰ b‬ܨ ܳܕܘܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܨܐ ܰܨ ܳܝܕܢ ܶܦ ܳܨܚܐ ܨܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܥܡܨܐܳ‬ ‫ܚܨ ܳܨܐ ܰܡܘܨܐܳ‬ ‫ܢܥܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܨܶܝܕ‪ܰ a‬ܨ ܨܶܨ ܰܒ ܺܨܝ ܳܢ ܶܦܨ ܺܨ ܳܨܐܠ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܒܝܢܳܐ ܺ‬ ‫ܒܘ ܺܨܝܢܳܐ ܶܒܠ ܳܨܐ ܳܒ ܽܨܘ ܳܝܐ ܰܓܠܨ ܢܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܒܐ ܢܶܐܠ ܘܨ ܳܠܐ ܳܨ ܳܝܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܨܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܒ ܺܨܝܨ ܨܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܓܥܨ‬ ‫ܚܘ ܳܡ ܳܨܐ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܨܐ ܰܚ ܺܨܝܢܳܐ ܶܚ ܳܨܦܢܳ ܳܝܐ ܰܝ ܺܨ ܳܝܨܐ ܰܝ ܽܨܘ ܳܦܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܒ ܳܨܐ‪ܽ c‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܨܐ ܶܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܨܥܢܳܐ‬ ‫ܚܘܨܦܐ ܻ‬ ‫ܡܨ ܳܕܝܢܳܐ ܶܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܦܨ ܳܢܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܽ ܳ ‪b‬‬ ‫ܨܥ ܳܝܐ ܽܢܘ ܳܨܦܐ ܽܢܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܥ ܳܨܝܢܳܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܢܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܦܨܐ ܺܢܨܝܒܢܳ ܳܝܐ ܢܶ ܳܨܚܢܐ ܳܥ ܽܨܘ ܳܒܐ ܥܨܘܨܐ‬ ‫ܠܚ‪ܶ e‬ܐܨ ܰܛ ܺ‬ ‫ܒܥܢܳ ܳܝܐ ܽܨܘ ܳܨܝܢܳܐ ܶܐܨ ܰܛ ܰ‬ ‫ܦܘ ܳܢܐ ܺ‬ ‫ܨܥ ܳ‬ ‫ܨܒܘܥ‪ d‬ܨܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܝ‪ܰ e‬ܨ ܽ‬ ‫ܥܨ ܳܨܐ‪ b‬ܢܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܥܐ܀‬ ‫‪b‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪IV.10. VI.5. V.4. VI.6. III.3.‬‬

‫‪iI‬‬

LESSON VII CONSONANTS Qoph VII.1. The stand-alone form:

‫ܩ‬

‫ܐܩ ܕܩ ܗܩ ܘܩ ܙܩ ܨܩ‬



Qoph connects on both sides:

‫ܩܙ‬

connected on the left –

‫ ܩܐ ܩܒ ܩܓ ܩܕ ܩܗ ܩܘ ܩܙ ܩܚ‬ ‫ܩܛ ܩܝ ܩܟ ܩܠ ܩܡ ܩܢ ܩܣ ܩܥ ܩܦ ܩܨ‬ connected on both sides –

‫ܒܩܙ‬

‫ ܥܩܕ ܣܩܠ ܡܩܢ ܓܩܙ ܟܩܚ ܒܩܥ ܦܩܨ ܝܩܗ‬

‫ܝܩ‬

connected on the right –

‫ ܒܩ ܓܩ ܚܩ ܛܩ ܝܩ ܟܩ‬ ‫ܠܩ ܡܩ ܢܩ ܣܩ ܥܩ ܦܩ ܩܩ‬ VII.2. Qoph represents a consonant that is close to an unaspirated [k] with the tongue in the same position to pronounce the [g] and [ḥ] sounds (Arabic ‫ق‬, in transcription [q]).

58

‫‪LESSON VII‬‬

‫‪59‬‬

‫‪ Read and copy trying to reproduce the printed font as accurately as possible:‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫‪b ܶ ܺ a‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳܩܐܢ ܩܕܡ ܩܛܠ ܩܐܠ ܢ ܱܩܦ ܣܠܩ ܙܝܩܐ ܣܦܩ ܝܢܩ ܦܣܩ ܩܨܥܐ ܥܩܩܐ‬ ‫ܩܘܩ ܒܕܩܐ ܰܥܣܩܐ ܰܩܠܩܠ ܰܩ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܝܠ ܩܢܘ ܳܡܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܩܐ ܰܡ ܽ‬ ‫ܩܝ ܳܡܐ ܰܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܩܘ ܳܩ ܳܝܐ ܥܢܳ ܳܩ ܳܝܐ‬ ‫ܩܘ ܳܨ ܳܥܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܩܣ ܰܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܽ‬ ‫ܥܘܡܩܐ ܰܝܥܩܘܒ‪ܽ c‬‬ ‫ܩܒܩ ܰܚܩܐܠ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܦ ܰ‬ ‫‪c‬‬ ‫ܦܘ ܳܩ ܳܚܐ ܠ ܽܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܣܩ‬ ‫ܶ ܺ‬ ‫ܰ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܕܣܘ ܳܩܐ ܰܕܩܕܩܐ ܰܕ ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܩܛܘܛܐ ܠܩܛܝ ܻܩܝܢ‬ ‫ܩܘ ܳܩܐ ܢܶܚܩܘܛ ܠ ܽܘ ܳܩܛܐ ܠ‬ ‫ܢܶܒܠ ܽܘܩ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܦܝܐ ܰܐ ܺ‬ ‫ܩܢܥܢܳܐ‪ܰ d‬ܢ ܺܩ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܩܛܐ‪ܰ d‬ܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܩܐ ܳܦ ܽ‬ ‫ܣܩܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܝܕܐ ܰܣ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܡ ܽ‬ ‫ܩܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܣܘ ܳܩ ܳܝܐ‬ ‫ܩܘܒܐܠ‬ ‫ܝܩܘ ܳܢܐ ܰܡ‬ ‫ܠܣܢܳܐ ܽܢܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܩ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܩܠ ܽܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܩ ܰ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܳܢܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܦܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܙ ܳܢ ܳܝܐ܀‬ ‫‪d‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪V.4. IV.8. VI.6 V.3.‬‬

‫‪Resh‬‬ ‫‪VII.3. The stand-alone form:‬‬

‫ܪ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐܪ ܕܪ ܗܪ ܘܪ ܙܪ ܨܪ ܪܪ‬ ‫‪Resh connects only on the right:‬‬

‫ܝܪ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܒܪ ܓܪ ܚܪ ܛܪ ܝܪ ܟܪ ܠܪ ܡܪ ܢܪ ܣܪ ܥܪ ܦܪ ܩܪ‬ ‫‪Note that the connected resh is smaller than the stand-alone form:‬‬

‫ܪܝܪ‬ ‫‪VII.4. Resh represents a rhotic [r] consonant as it appears in Arabic, Italian, Span‬‬‫‪ish and other languages.‬‬

‫‪60‬‬

‫‪CLASSICAL SYRIAC‬‬

‫‪ Read and copy trying to reproduce the printed font as accurately as possible:‬‬

‫ܳ ܰ‪ܶ ܳ ܳ a ܶ ܳ ܺ ‬‬ ‫ܽܳ ܰ ܳ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܐܕܪ ܐܝܪ ܓܝܪ ܪܐܙܐ ܪܓܐܠ ܕܝܪܐ ܝܪܚܐ ܟ ܻܪܝܗ ܛܘܪܐ ܟܪܡܐ ܦܐܪܐ ܥܦܪܐ ܟܪܣܐ ܚܡܪܐ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܒܪܐ ܰܛ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܓܐ ܰܦ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܦܐ ܶܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܪܐ ܳܡ ܳܪܝܐ ܰܡ ܰܪܝܡ ܰܣ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܪܐ ܶܗ ܳ‬ ‫ܓܪܐ ܰܕ ܳܪܕܐ‬ ‫ܪܚܡܐ ܒܣܪܐ ܚܒܪܐ ܢܘ‬ ‫ܩܪ ܳܒܐ ܰܩ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܕܐ ܰܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܪܐ ܺ‬ ‫ܛܪ ܓ ܰܨ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܓ ܳ‬ ‫ܒܪܝܟ ܰܕ ܶܪܕܣ ܽܪܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܒܪܐ ܳܣ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܪܩ ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ‪b‬‬ ‫ܓܙܐ ܰܕܪܕܪܐ‬ ‫ܥܝܢܳܐ ܰܚ ܳܪܕ ܳܢܐ ܳܦܪܘ ܳܩܐ ܺܐ ܳܝܩ ܳܪܐ ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܣܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܦܪܝܡ‪ܳ a‬ܒܪܘ ܳܝܐ ܰܕ ܳܝܪ ܳܝܐ ܪ ܳܨ ܳܨ ܳܝܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܳܪ ܽܕܘ ܳܝܐ ܙܥܘ ܳܪܐ ܶܪ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܪ ܳܢܐ‬ ‫ܟܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܒܢܳܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܦܝܐ ܰܡܙܡܘ ܳܪܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܪܣ ܳܝܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܙܡܪ ܳܓ ܳܕܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܦܘ ܳܪܩܢܳܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܥܘ ܳܕܪ ܳܢܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܣܘ ܳܪܝ ܳܝܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܩܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ‪b‬‬ ‫ܪܕܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܘܩܒܪܐ‬ ‫ܪܡܢܳ ܳܝܐ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܩ ܳܪܨܐ ܺܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܪ ܶܐܝܠ‪ܶ a‬ܩܢܛܪܘ ܳܢܐ‪ܰ b‬ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܩܐ ܳܐ ܶܟ ܰ‬ ‫ܶܗ ܶܪ ܺܛ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܣܛܝܢܳܐ‪b‬܀‬ ‫ܟܪ‬ ‫‪b‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪IV.10. V.3.‬‬

‫‪Shin‬‬ ‫‪VII.5. The stand-alone form:‬‬

‫ܫ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐܫ ܕܫ ܗܫ ܘܫ ܙܫ ܨܫ ܪܫ‬ ‫‪Shin connects on both sides:‬‬

‫ܫܙ‬

‫– ‪connected on the left‬‬

‫‪ ‬ܫܐ ܫܒ ܫܓ ܫܕ ܫܗ ܫܘ ܫܙ ܫܚ ܫܛ‬ ‫ܫܝ ܫܟ ܫܠ ܫܡ ܫܢ ܫܣ ܫܥ ܫܦ ܫܨ ܫܩ ܫܪ‬

‫ܒܫܙ‬

‫– ‪connected on both sides‬‬

‫‪ ‬ܩܫܪ ܡܫܠ ܠܫܢ ܦܫܕ ܚܫܙ ܥܫܒ ܓܫܥ ܝܫܨ‬

‫‪LESSON VII‬‬

‫‪61‬‬

‫ܝܫ‬

‫– ‪connected on the right‬‬

‫‪ ‬ܒܫ ܓܫ ܚܫ ܛܫ ܝܫ ܟܫ‬ ‫ܠܫ ܡܫ ܢܫ ܣܫ ܥܫ ܦܫ ܩܫ ܫܫ‬ ‫‪VII.6. Shin represents the ‘sh’ sound, as in ‘sheep’ (in transcription [š]).‬‬ ‫‪ Read and copy trying to reproduce the printed font as accurately as possible:‬‬

‫‪‬‬ ‫ܳܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܳܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܠ ܳܫܢܐܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫‪a‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳܗܫܐ ܫܒܥ ܚܡܫ ܫܐܠ ܫܐܠ ܐܫܟܚ ܻܒܝܫܐ ܫܘܪܐ ܫܠ ܝܐ ܟܠ ܢܫ ܫܪܪܐ‬ ‫ܪܫ ܳܥܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܚܐ ܶܟܢܫܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܶܝ ܽ‬ ‫ܫܘܥ ܺ‬ ‫ܡܫ ܳܫܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܫܐ ܶܫ ܳܐܕܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܒܫܠ ܺܪ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܘܫܐ ܢܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ‪b‬‬ ‫ܡܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܠ ܳܡܐ ܫܡܝܐ‬ ‫ܺ ܳ ܰ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܡܐ ܰܡܫܟܢܳܐ‪ܰ c‬ܥ ܺܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܓܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܫܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܫܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܕܫܐ ܰܩ ܺܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܢܐ ܰܩ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܪܐ ܐܫܟܦܐ‬ ‫ܒܚܐ ܫܠܝܚܐ ܫܦ‬ ‫ܳ ܽ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܳܳ ܳ ܽ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܳ ‪ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ a‬‬ ‫ܫܛܚܐ ܰܦ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܦ ܳܫܐ ܩ ܻܪܝܫܐ‬ ‫ܓܫܘܫܐ ܕܒܫܢܝܐ ܚܫܘܫܐ ܟܫܛܐ ܡܫܡܫܢܐ ܢܦܐܫܐ ܢܩܫܝܐ ܦ‬ ‫ܺ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܳܳ ܶ ܳܳܳ ܰ ܰ ‪ܶ c‬‬ ‫ܓܫ ܳܓܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܫܘ ܳܟ ܳܝܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܫܠܝܡܘܢ‪ܶ d‬ܚ ܽ‬ ‫ܛܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܫܢܳ ܳܝܐ ܽܐܘܪܫܠܡ܀‬ ‫ܪܫܝܢܐ ܢܫܝܢܝܐ ܫܗܛܪ ܓ‬ ‫‪d‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪V.4. III.3. V.3. IV.10.‬‬

‫‪Taw‬‬ ‫‪VII.7. The stand-alone form:‬‬

‫ܬ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ܐܬ ܕܬ ܗܬ ܘܬ ܙܬ ܨܬ ܪܬ ܬܬ‬ ‫‪Taw connects only on the right:‬‬

‫ܝܬ‬

‫‪ ‬ܒܬ ܓܬ ܚܬ ܛܬ ܝܬ ܟܬ ܠܬ ܡܬ ܢܬ ܣܬ ܥܬ ܦܬ ܩܬ ܫܬ‬

62

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

VII.8. Taw represents two alternating sounds – a stop [t] as in ‘take,’ and an interdental spirant [ṯ] like the ‘th’ in ‘think.’ The rules of interchange are the same as those for the letters beth, gamal, dalath, kaph, and peh.  Read and copy trying to reproduce the printed font as accurately as possible:

ܳ ܶ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܺ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܽ a ܶ ܺ ‫ܚܬܐ ܝܪܬ ܠܝܬ ܦܪܬ ܝܬܝܪ ܬܡܘܙ ܟܬܒܐ ܣܬܘܐ ܒܝܬܐ ܥܠܬܐ ܡܬܐܠ ܠܬܚܬ‬ ܺ ܳ ܽ ܳ ܰ ܰ b ܶ ܶ ܳ ܰ ܶ ܳ ܰ ܰ ‫ܶܕ‬ ܳ ‫ܦܬ‬ ܶ ‫ܩܠܬ ܰܩ‬ b ‫ܒܘܪܟܬܐ‬ ‫ܪܡܠܬܐ‬ ‫ܟܪܐ ܨܠ ܘܬܐ ܐܓܪܬܐ ܐܬܩܛܠ ܐ‬ ‫ܬܩܬ ܰܫܬ ܳܝܩܐ‬ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܶ ܶ ܳ ܶ ܶ ܳ ܳܽ ܰ ܰ ܳ ܺ ܰ ܳ ܺ ‫ܝܬܐ ܰܬ‬ ‫ܪܣܝܬܐ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܬܐ ܳܥܪܘܒܬܐ ܫܬܐܣܬܐ ܬܫܡܫܬܐ ܬ‬ ‫ܫܥܝܬܐ ܡ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܠܡܝܕܐ ܬܪܥ‬ ܻ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܰ a ܺ ܳ ܺ ܳܽ ܺ ܰ ܳ ܺ ܳܽ ܽ ܳ ܳ ‫ܚܬܐ ܰܬ‬ ‫ ܬܫܒܘܚܬܐ‬b‫ܪܓܡܢܳܐ‬ ‫ܝܩܘܬܐ ܣܬܝܪܐܝܬ ܦܪܫ‬ ‫ܡܘܬܐ ܦܫܝܛܬܐ ܥܬ‬ ‫ܩܨܘ‬ ܳ ܽ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܽ ܳ ܺ a ܺ ܳ ܺ ܰ ܳ ܽ ܳ ܳܳ ܰ ܶ ‫ܓܘܠܬܐ܀‬ ‫ܡܬܬܘܝܢܐ ܟܪܘܙܘܬܐ ܝܬܝܪܐܝܬ ܬܠܝܬܝܘܬܐ ܬܪܢ‬ a

b

IV.8. V.3.

iI

 SYRIAC ALPHABET (SERTO) Name in Syriac

ܰ ܳ ‫ܠܐܦ‬ ‫ܶܒܝܬ‬ ‫ܳܓ ܰܡܠ‬ ܰ ‫ܳܕ‬ ‫ܠܬ‬ ‫ܶܗܐ‬ ‫ܰܘܘ‬ ‫ܰܙܝܢ‬ ‫ܶܚܝܬ‬ ܶ ‫ܛܝܬ‬ ‫ܝܘܕ‬ ‫ܳܟܦ‬ ܳ ‫ܠ ܰܡܕ‬ ‫ܶܡܝܡ‬ ‫ܽܢܘܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܶܣ‬ ‫ܡܟܬ‬ ‫ܶܥܐ‬ ‫ܶܦܐ‬ ‫ܳܨ ܶܕܐ‬ ‫ܩܘܦ‬ ܶ ‫ܪܝܫ‬ ‫ܺܫܝܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܬܘ‬

Name transcribed

Sound/ transcription

Standalone

ālaꝑ



beṯ

b↔ḇ

gāmal

g↔g

dālaṯ

d↔ḏ

he

h

waw

w,o,u

zayn

z

‫ܐ‬ ‫ܒ‬ ‫ܓ‬ ‫ܕ‬ ‫ܗ‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫ܙ‬ ‫ܚ‬ ‫ܛ‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫ܟ‬ ‫ܠ‬ ‫ܡ‬ ‫ܢ‬ ‫ܣ‬ ‫ܥ‬ ‫ܦ‬ ‫ܨ‬ ‫ܩ‬ ‫ܪ‬ ‫ܫ‬ ‫ܬ‬

eṯ ṭeṯ



yoḏ

y,i,e

kāꝑ

k↔ḵ

lāmaḏ

l

mem

m

nun

n

semkaṯ

s

ˁe

ˁ

pe

p↔ꝑ

ṣāḏe



qoꝑ

q

reš

r

šin

š

taw

t↔ṯ

ܳ ܶܽ ‫ܥܨ ܳܨܐ‬

ܳ ܶܺ ‫ܚܒ ܳܨܐ‬

ܳ ܶܶ ‫ܪܒ ܳܨܐ‬

Connected on the left

Connected on both sides

‫ܒܙ‬ ‫ܓܙ‬

‫ܝܒܙ‬ ‫ܝܓܙ‬

‫ܚܙ‬ ‫ܛܙ‬ ‫ܝܙ‬ ‫ܟܙ‬ ‫ܠܙ‬ ‫ܡܙ‬ ‫ܢܙ‬ ‫ܣܙ‬ ‫ܥܙ‬ ‫ܦܙ‬

‫ܝܚ ܙ‬ ‫ܝܛ ܙ‬ ‫ܝܝ ܙ‬ ‫ܝܟܙ‬ ‫ܝܠ ܙ‬ ‫ܝܡܙ‬ ‫ܝܢܙ‬ ‫ܝܣܙ‬ ‫ܝܥ ܙ‬ ‫ܝܦܙ‬

‫ܩܙ‬

‫ܝܩ ܙ‬

‫ܫܙ‬

‫ܝܫܙ‬

ܳ ‫ܰܶ ܦܬ ܳܚܐ‬

‫ܝܐ‬ ‫ܝܒ‬ ‫ܝܓ‬ ‫ܝܕ‬ ‫ܝܗ‬ ‫ܝܘ‬ ‫ܝܙ‬ ‫ܝܚ‬ ‫ܝܛ‬ ‫ܝܝ‬ ‫ܝܟ‬ ‫ܝܠ‬ ‫ܝܡ‬ ‫ܝܢ‬ ‫ܝܣ‬ ‫ܝܥ‬ ‫ܝܦ‬ ‫ܝܨ‬ ‫ܝܩ‬ ‫ܝܪ‬ ‫ܝܫ‬ ‫ܝܬ‬ ‫ܳܶ ܳܙܩ ܳܦܐ‬

The letters of the alphabet are conventionally divided into six groups:

ܰ ‫ܠܡܢ ܰܣ‬ ܰ ‫ܒܓܕ ܰܗ ܰܘܙ ܰܚ ܺܛܝ ܰܟ‬ ܰ ‫ܥܦܨ ܰܩ‬ ܰ ‫ܰܐ‬ ‫ܪܫܬ‬ 63

Connected on the right

LESSON VIII SUMMARY AND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION VIII.1. As indicated in previous lessons, the letters ‫ܒ ܓ ܕ ܟ ܦ ܬ‬, known as the “begad-kepat group,” have a double, stop-spirant, pronunciation, respectively – b↔ḇ, g↔g, d↔ḏ, k↔ḵ, p↔ꝑ, t↔ṯ 1. The stop varieties (b, g, d, k, p, t) appear at the beginning of words, as well as in the middle after a consonant. The spirants (ḇ, g, ḏ, ḵ, ꝑ, ṯ) appear after vowels, including schwa. It should be noted that in numerous Greek and other borrowings, the rules of interchange may be disregarded, and a foreign word can retain its original pronunciation, for example, with an initial [f]. It should also be remembered that gemination (doubling of consonants) occurs only in stop varieties (bb, gg, dd, kk, pp, tt).

ܰ

ܳ ‫ܕ‬ VIII.2. In some words, the spirants appear after the consonants, like in ‫ܗܒܐ‬ ܳܳ ܰ dahḇā or ‫ ܡܠܦܢܐ‬malꝑānā. This is explained by the fact that these words used to have an additional vowel or a geminate consonant followed by a schwa (dahāḇā, mallәꝑānā). Eventually, these sounds were lost, but the spirants somehow survived. VIII.3. The rules of traditional grammar require that the begad-kepat consonants be spirantized at the beginning of a word, when the preceding word, if not separatܳ ed by a punctuation mark or a logical pause, ends with a vowel. For example: ‫ܰܒܝܬܐ‬ ܳ baytā, but ‫ ܳܗܐ ܰܒܝܬܐ‬hā ḇaytā. In the first five lessons, two such words will be joined by a dash in transcription (hā-ḇaytā), while in Syriac script the initial spiܳ rant will be marked with a rukakha (‫) ܳܗܐ ܰܒܝܬܐ‬. VIII.4. As it was mentioned in previous lessons, the syllables in Syriac are either open (ending with a vowel), or closed (ending with a consonant). A syllable can start with only one consonant (those that seemingly start with a vowel, actually 1

In the first five lessons, a stop or a spirant variety inside of a word (in some cases also at the beginning and the end) will be indicated by qushaya or rukakha. In subsequent lessons, these signs will be used when needed.

64

LESSON VIII

65

start with a glottal stop, which is a consonant) followed by a vowel or a schwa. The schwa is present and forms a syllable when a word starts with two consonants, ܳ ܳ like in ‫ ܫܠܡܐ‬šә-lā-mā1, or when a word contains three consonants in a row; in such cases the schwa is pronounced between the second and third consonants: ܳ ‫ ܰܡ‬maḏ-bә-rā. Like other vowels, the schwa causes spirantization of the begad‫ܕܒܪܐ‬ ܳ ‫ ܰܡ‬maḏ-rә-ḵā-nā. ܳ rә-ǥā, ‫ܕܪܟܢܳܐ‬ kepat consonants: ‫ܪܓܐ‬ VIII.5. In some words, there are letters that are no longer pronounced; they are marked below with a special short line (linea occultans)2. The consonant which ܳ ܺ ә follows the silent letter is usually doubled: ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ܬܐ‬ m ḏittā (from the older mәḏintā), ܳ‫ ܰܓܢ ܳܒܪܐ‬gabbārā (‫ܗܘ‬ ̱ >‫ܗܘ‬ ̱ 3 >‫ܗܘ‬ ̱ 4 >‫ܗܘ‬ ̱ 2

‫ܳܡܢܰܐ‬ ‫ܰ ܰܡܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܐ‬. Both forms – ‫ܝܟܐ ̱ܗܘ‬ ܰ ‫ ܰܐ‬and ‫ܝܟܘ‬ ܰ ‫ – ܰܐ‬are used. ‫ܝܟܐ‬ ‫ܳܗ ܰܢܐ‬

LESSON 3

85

ܰ

ܰ law saggi ܰ ‫ܠܘ‬

ܺ ‫ܣ‬ 3.14. ‫ ܠܘ‬can be used in various negative combinations, like ‫ܓܝ‬ ‘not (very) much.’ THE ABSOLUTE STATE OF ADJECTIVES

3.15. As it was previously indicated, an adjective denoting an attribute remains in the emphatic state. When used as a nominal predicate, it switches to the absolute state (status absolutus). In this state, adjectives assume the following forms (in the ܳ ‫ ܺܒ‬bišā ‘bad, wicked, evil’: emphatic state ‫ܝܫܐ‬ masculine

singular plural

biš ‫ܺܒܝܫ‬ ܺ ‫ܺܒ‬ bišin ‫ܝܫܝܢ‬

feminine

ܳ ‫ܺܒ‬ bišā ‫ܝܫܐ‬

bišān ‫ܺܒܝ ܳܫܢ‬

ܳ

The masc. sing. is formed by dropping the emphatic ending ‫ܶܐ‬, and the fem. sing. ܶ by dropping the fem. formant ‫ܬ‬. In the plural form, the ending ‫ ܶܐ‬is replaced with ܳ ‫ ܺܶܝܢ‬-in, and ‫ ܳܶܬܐ‬with ‫ ܳܶܢ‬-ān. 3.16. Note that a) the fem. sing. absolute is the same as the masc. sing. emphatic – ܳ ‫ ; ܺܒ‬b) the fem. plur. displays sәyāme, while the masc. plur. does not. ‫ܝܫܐ‬  Construct the absolute forms of the following adjectives: ܳ ܳ ‫ ܰܚ ܺܟ‬. ‫ ܶܚ ܳܘܪܐ‬،‫ ܰܫ ܺܪ ܳܝܪܐ‬،‫ܝܡܐ‬

ܰ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܰ ،1‫ ܪ ܳܒܐ‬،‫ ܛ ܳܒܐ‬،‫ܝܪܐ‬ ‫ܫܦ‬

ܳ

3.17. If the dropping of the ending ‫ ܶܐ‬results in two consonants at the end of the word, then a revocalization of that word may occur. These and other specific manifestations of the absolute state (but not the regular forms) will be included in the glossaries and the main Syriac-English dictionary of this manual. 3.18. The absolute adjectives, standing for the nominal predicate, combine with pronominal enclitics in the same way as the noun predicates, and agree with the subject in gender and number:

1

Remember that this adjective has special forms for plural.

86

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

‘I am beautiful’

ܳ ‫ ܰܫ ܺܦ‬/‫ܶܐ ܳܢܐ ܰܫ ܺܦܝܪ ܐ ܳܢܐ‬ ‫ܝܪܐ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ‬ ̱ ܰ ܺ ܰ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬ ܫܦܝܪ ܐܢ̱ܬ‬ ܰ ܳ ܺ ܰ ܰ ‫ܝܪܐ ܐܢ̱ܬܝ‬ ‫ܐܢܬܝ ܫܦ‬ ܽ ‫ܗܘ ܰܫ ܺܦܝܪ ̱ܗܘ‬ ܳ ‫ܺܗܝ ܰܫ ܺܦ‬ ‫ܝܪܐ ̱ܗܝ‬

’enā šappir-nā/šappirā-nā

‘You are handsome’

’att šappir-att

‘You are beautiful’

’att šappirā-att (šappirā-tt)

‘He is handsome’

hu šappir-u

‘She is beautiful’

hi šappirā-y ә

‘We are beautiful’

nan šappirin-nan/šappirān-nan

‘You are beautiful’

’atton šappiri-tton2

‘You are beautiful’

’atten šappirā-tten3

‘They are beautiful’

hennon šappirin-ennon

‘They are beautiful’

hennen šappirān-ennen

1

ܺ ‫ܚܢܰܢ ܰܫ ܺܦ‬ ܳ ‫ ܰܫ ܺܦ‬/‫ܝܪܝܢ‬ ‫ܝܖܢ ̱ܚܢܰܢ‬ ܺ ‫ܰܐܢܬܘܢ ܰܫ ܺܦ‬ ‫ܝܪܝܢ ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ‬ ̱ ܶ ܳ ܺ ܰ ܶ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝܢ ܫܦܝܖܢ ܐܢ̱ܬܝܢ‬ ܶ ܺ ܺ ܰ ‫ܝܪܝܢ ܐܢܘܢ‬ ‫ܶܗܢܘܢ ܫܦ‬ ܶ ܳ ܺ ܰ ܶܶ ‫ܝܖܢ ܐܢܶܝܢ‬ ‫ܗܢܝܢ ܫܦ‬

3.19. In some cases, the adjective and pronominal enclitic can merge into a single word, which sounds almost the same as the regular form: šapp ratt šappirátt šappir nan šappiritt n šappirāttén

ܰ ‫ܰܫ ܺܦ‬ ‫ܝܪܬ‬ ܰ ‫ܰܫ ܺܦ‬ ‫ܝܪܬܝ‬ 4 ܰ ܺ ‫ܰܫ ܺܦܝܪܝܢܢ‬ ܺ ‫ܰܫ ܺܦ‬ ‫ܝܪܝܬܘܢ‬ ܶܳ ܺ ܰ ‫ܝܖܬܝܢ‬ ‫ܫܦ‬

← ← ← ← ←

ܰ ‫ܰܫ ܺܦܝܪ ܐܢ̱ܬ‬ ܰ ܳ ܺ ܰ ‫ܝܪܐ ܐܢ̱ܬܝ‬ ‫ܫܦ‬ ܺ ‫ܰܫ ܺܦ‬ ‫ܝܪܝܢ ̱ܚܢܰܢ‬ ܺ ‫ܰܫ ܺܦ‬ ‫ܝܪܝܢ ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ‬ ܶ ܳ ܺ ܰ ‫ܝܖܢ ܐܢ̱ܬܝܢ‬ ‫ܫܦ‬

3.20. As nominal predicates, the adjectives the display tendency to start the senܳ ‫ ܰܪܒ ̱ܗܘ ܰܗܝܟ ܳܐܠ ܕ ܳܡ‬rabb-u haykәlā-ḏә-māryā ‘Grand is the temple of the tence: ‫ܪܝܐ‬ ܳ ܺ ܶܳ ܳ ܳ ‫ ܺܒ‬bišā-y malkәṯā-ḏә-hāḏe mәḏittā ‘Wicked is ‫ܝܫܐ ̱ܗܝ ܰܡܠܟܬܐ ܕܗܕܐ‬ Lord’; ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ܬܐ‬ ܺ ‫ ܰܚ ܺܟܝ ܳܡܢ ܶܐܢܶܝܢ ܶܡܐܠ ܰܕ‬akkimān-ennen melle-ḏa-nәḇiyā the queen of this city’; ‫ܢܒ ܳܝܐ‬ ܶ ܺ ܺܰ ܰ ܶ ܳ ܶ ‫ ܠܘ ܩܕ‬law qaddišin‘The words of the prophet are wise’; ‫ܝܫܝܢ ܐܢܘܢ ܳܗܠܝܢ ܟܬܒܐ‬ ә ennon hālen k ṯāḇe ‘These books are not holy.’ 1

When ‘we’ indicates females only. Note the dropping in pronunciation of the consonant [n] and vowel [a], which can be rendered in ܺ ܺ writing as ‫ ܰܫܦܝܪܝܢ ܐ̱ܢ̱ܬܘܢ‬. It is not, however, considered wrong to say šappirin-atton. 3 Same as above. ܰ ܺ ܺ ܰܳ ܺ 4 The fem. form ‫ ܰܫܦܝܖܢܢ‬is usually replaced with masc. ‫ ܰܫܦܝܪܝܢܢ‬. 2

LESSON 3

87

ܰ

ܳ ‫ ܺܒܝܫ ܡ‬bis malkā ‘Wick3.21. In the 3rd person, the enclitic is often dropped: ‫ܠܟܐ‬ ܺ ‫ ܰܫ ܺܪ ܳܝܖܢ ܶܡܐܠ ܰܕ‬šarrirān melle-ḏa-mәši ā ‘The words of Christ ܳ ‫ܡܫ‬ ed is the king’; ‫ܝܚܐ‬ are true.’ ܳ

3.22. Absolute forms of adjectives in combination pronoun ‫ ܡܐ‬ma ܺ ܳ ܳwithܳ the ܳ ܳ ܳ ‘what?,’ ‘how?’ produce exclamatory phrases: ‫ ܡܐ ܪܡ ܗܢܐ ܐܝܠ ܢܐ‬mā rām hānā ’ilāܰ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܺ ܳ nā ‘How tall is this tree!’; ‫ ܡܐ ܰܫܦܝܪܐ ܡܠܟ ܽܘܬܐ ܕܫܡ ܳܝܐ‬mā šappirā malkuṯā-ḏašәmayyā ‘How beautiful is the kingdom of heaven!’

‫ ܕ‬AS A RELATIVE PRONOUN 3.23. ̈In addition to the expression of possession, the particle ‫ ܕ‬serves as an allpurpose relative pronoun standing for the English pronouns ‘which,’ ‘that,’ ‘who’ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܶ ܺ ә and the like: ‫ܗܝܟܐܠ‬ ‫ ܢܒܝܐ ܕ ܰܒ‬n ḇiye-ḏa-ḇә-haykәlā ‘prophets, who are in the temple’; ܳ ܺ ܶ ‫ ܬܫܥ ܳܝܬܐ ܕ ܶܒ ܰܐܘ‬tašˁәyāṯā-ḏә-ḇ-ewwangéliya ‘stories, that are in the Gospels’; ‫ܢܓܠ ܰܝܐ‬ ܰ ‫’ ܰܐ ܳܒܐ ܕ ܰܒ‬aḇā-ḏә-ḇa-šmayyā ‘father, who is in heaven.’ ‫ܫܡ ܳܝܐ‬

iI  Read, translate, and copy:

ܶ ܳ ܰ .‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ ܳܬܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܗܘ ܽܝܘ ܰܡ‬ ܽ ‫ܰܡ ܽܢܘ ܳܗ ܳܢܐ؟‬ ܺ ‫ܠܟܐ ܰܚܕ ܳܬܐ ܕ ܳܗ ܶܕܐ‬ ‫ܘܡܢ ̱ܗܝ ܳܗ ܶܕܐ؟ ܺܗܝ ̱ܗܝ ܐ ܳܡܐ ܰܚ ܺܟܝܡܬܐ‬ ܽ .‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ ܳܬܐ‬ ܽ ‫ܠܟܐ؟‬ ܳ ‫ܝܟܘ ܳܗ ܳܫܐ ܰܡ‬ ܰ ‫ ܰܐ‬.‫ܠܟܐ ܰܚܕ ܳܬܐ ܳܗ ܳܢܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܕ ܰܡ‬ ܺ ‫ܗܘ ܳܗ ܳܫܐ ܒ ܰܗܝܟ ܰܐܠ ̱ܗܘ ܰܪ ܳܒܐ ܰܕ‬ ‫ܗܘ‬ ܳ ‫ܠܟܐ ܳܗ ܳܢܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܝܫܐ ܰܐܢ̱ܬ ܳܬܐ ܕ ܰܡ‬ ܳ ‫ ܳܡܐ ܺܒܝܫ ܰܡ‬.‫ܝܫܐ‬ ܰ ‫ܰܡ‬ ܳ ‫ܘܡܐ ܺܒ‬ ܳ ‫ܠܟܐ ̱ܗܘ ܰܣ ܺܓܝ ܺܒ‬ ‫ܠܟܐ܀‬ ܶ ܳ ܳ ‫ܗܘ ܽܝܘ ܰܡ‬ ܳ ‫ܗܘ ܰܡ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܡ ܽܢܘ ܰܓܒ ܳܪܐ ܰܫ ܺܦ‬ ܽ .‫ܠܦܢܰܐ ̱ܗܘ ܒ ܳܗ ܳܢܐ ܰܗܝܟ ܳܐܠ‬ ܽ ‫ܝܪܐ ܳܗ ܳܢܐ؟‬ ‫ܠܦܢܳܐ ܰܚܕܬܐ ܕܠ ܳܫܢܳܐ‬ ܶ ܶ ܽ ܽ ܶ ܽ ‫ܠ ܳܫܢܳܐ‬ ܽ ܳ ‫ܘܠ ܳܫܢܰܐ ̱ܗܘ ܰܩ ܺܕ‬ ܳ ‫ܠ ܳܫܢܳܐ ܰܩ ܺܕ‬ ‫ܝܫܐ‬ ،‫ܝܫܐ ܕ ܳܦܪܘ ܳܩܐ‬ ‫ ܗܘܝܘ‬.‫ܣܘ ܳܪܝ ܳܝܐ‬ ‫ ܳܡܐ ܰܫ ܺܦܝܪ‬.‫ܣܘ ܳܪܝ ܳܝܐ‬ ܺ ‫ܕ ܰܬ‬ ‫ܠܡܝ ܶܕܐ ܕ ܳܦܪܘ ܳܩܐ܀‬ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܰ ‫ ܰܐ‬.‫ܶܐ ܳܢܐ ܰܐ ܳܒܐ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ ܕ ܳܗ ܳܢܐ ܰܛܠ ܳܝܐ ܙܥܘ ܳܪܐ‬ ‫ܠܦܢܺܝܬܐ‬ ‫ܝܟܐ ̱ܗܘ ܳܗ ܳܫܐ؟ ܬ ܳܡܢ ̱ܗܘ ܒܒܝܬܐ ܪܒܐ ܥܡ ܡ‬ ܳ ܺ ܳ ܰ ܶܳ ܳ ܺ ܰ ܳ ܳܳ ܽ ܶ ܳ ‫ܘܡܐ ܰܫ ܺܦ‬ ܳ ‫ܝܬܐ‬ ‫ܝܪܐ ܀‬ ‫ ܡܐ ܚܟܝܡܐ ܗܕܐ ܡܠܦܢ‬.‫ܕܠ ܳܫܢܳܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ‬ d

a

c

b

e

a

1

a

2

a

f

f

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g

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ܶ ܰ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܶ ܺ ‫ܘܡܐ ܰܫ ܺܦ‬ ܳ ‫ܗܪܐ ܶܚ ܳܘ ܳܪܐ ܳܗ ܳܢܐ‬ ‫ܝܪܝܢ ܳܗܠܝܢ ܰܟܘܟ ܶܒܐ ܪܘܖ ܶܒܐ‬ ‫ ܳܡܐ ܪܒ ܣ‬.‫ܳܡܐ ܰܫ ܺܦܝܪ ܳܗ ܳܢܐ ܰܠ ܳܝܐ‬ ܰ ܳ ܺ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܳܳܶ ܳ ܽ ܰ ‫ܕ ܰܒ‬ ܳ ‫ ܰܐܢ̱ܬܝ ̱ܗܝ ܶܫ‬.‫ܗܪܐ‬ ‫ܘܣܗܪܐ‬ ‫ܡܫܐ‬ ‫ܝܪܐ ܐܢ̱ܬܝ ܒܢܘܗܪܐ ܚܘܪܐ ܕܣ‬ ‫ ܘܡܐ ܫܦ‬.‫ܫܡ ܳܝܐ ܽܐܘ ܳܟ ܳܡܐ‬ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܰ ܳ ܺܰ ܳ ܽ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܰ ܳ ܰ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ܬܐ ܳܗ ܶܕܐ ܺܒܝܫܬܐ܀‬ ‫ܘܟܘܟܒܐ ܕ‬ ‫ ܐܢ̱ܬܝ ̱ܗܝ ܢܘܗܪܐ ܫܪܝܪܐ ܒ‬.‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ܬܐ ܺܒܝܫܬܐ ܳܗ ܶܕܐ‬

j

f

m

3

f

l

f

k

4

88

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

ܽ .‫ܝܫܐ ܳܗ ܳܢܐ‬ ܺ ‫ܠܒܐ ̱ܗܘ ܰܣ ܺܓܝ ܰܪ ܳܒܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܗܘ ܽܝܘ ܰܟ‬ ܰ ‫ ܰܟ‬.‫ܠܒܐ ܽܐܘ ܳܟ ܳܡܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܳܡܢܰܘ ܳܗ ܳܢܐ؟ ܳܗ ܰܢܘ ܰܟ‬ ܳ ‫ܘܒ‬ ‫ܠܒܐ‬ ܳܽ ܽ ‫ܕ ܳܗ ܳܢܐ ܰܛܠ ܳܝܐ‬ ‫ܙܥܘܪܐ܀‬ ‫ܣܘ ܳܪܝ ܳܝܐ‬ ܳ ܺ ܺ ܳܽ ܳܳ ܺ ܺ ܳܽ ܺ ܳ ܳܽ ‫ ܐܝܬ‬،‫ܛܘܪܐ؟ ܐܝܢ‬ ‫ܛܘܪܐ؟ ܐܝܬ ܐܝܠܢܶܐ ܰܥܠ‬ ‫ ܳܡܢܳܐ ܐܝܬ ܰܥܠ ܗܢܐ‬.‫ܛܘܪܐ ܰܣ ܺܓܝ ܪ ܳܡܐ‬ ‫ܳܗ ܰܢܘ‬ ܳ ܺ ܳܽ ܳܳ ܶ ܺ ܶ ܳ ܺ ‫ ܳܡܐ ܰܫ ܺܦ‬.‫ܠܝܢ ܰܗܒ ܶܒܐ‬ ܶ ‫ܘܗܒ ܶܒܐ ܰܫ ܺܦ‬ ܰ ‫ܝܠܢܶܐ ܳܖ ܶܡܐ‬ ‫ܝܪܝܢ‬ ‫ ܶܚ ܳܘܪܝܢ ܐܢܘܢ ܗ‬.‫ܝܖܐ‬ ‫ܰܥܠ ܗܢܐ ܛܘܪܐ ܐ‬ ܺ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܳܳ ܳ ܽ ܶ ܶ ܰ ܶ ܶ ‫ ܳܡܐ ܪܘܖ ܺܒܝܢ ܳܗܠܝܢ ܰܚ ܽܙܘܖܐ‬.‫ܣܘܡ ܶܩܐ‬ ‫ܝܠ ܢܳܐ ܪ ܳܡܐ ܐܝܬ ܰܚ ܽܙܘܖܐ‬ ‫ ܰܥܠ ܗܢܐ ܐ‬.‫ܳܗܠܝܢ ܰܗܒ ܶܒܐ‬ ܳ ܶ ܳܽ ܰ ،‫ܘܥ ܳܕ ܳܬܐ؟ ܳܐܠ‬ ܶ ‫ܛܘ ܳܪܐ ܳܐܦ ܳܒܬܐ‬ ܽ ‫ ܺܐܝܬ ܰܥܠ‬.‫ܣ ܽܘ ܳܡ ܶܩܐ‬ ‫ܘܥ ܳܕܬܐ܀‬ ‫ܛܘܪܐ ܳܗ ܳܢܐ ܳܒܬܐ‬ ‫ܠܝܬ ܰܥܠ‬ n

a

5

n

6

l

j

ܶ ܶ ܶ ܳ ܺܰ ܳ ܶ ܺ ‫ܢܓ‬ ܰ ‫ ܰܫܖܺ ܳܝܪܢ‬.‫ܝܪܬܐ ܕ ܳܡ ܳܪܝܐ‬ ܶ ‫ܘܚܟܝ ܳܡܢ ܶܡܐܠ ܕ ܶܒ ܰܐܘ‬ ‫ ܳܗܠܝܢ ܐܢܶܝܢ ܶܡܐܠ‬. ‫ܠܝܘܢ‬ ‫ܳܗ ܳܕܐ ̱ܗܝ ܡܠܬܐ ܫܪ‬ ܳ ܳ ‫ܘܚ ܺܟܝ ܳܡܢ ܰܬ‬ ܺ ‫ܫܥܝ ܳܬܐ ܰܕ‬ ܳ ‫ܕ ܳܦܪܘ ܳܩܐ ܰܩ ܺܕ‬ ܳ ‫ܡܫ‬ ܰ ‫ ܰܩ ܺܕܝܫ ̱ܗܘ ܳܗ ܳܢܐ ܟ ܳܬ ܳܒܐ‬.‫ܝܫܐ‬ ‫ܝܚܐ ܰܥܠ ܰܡܠܟ ܽܘܬܐ‬ ܰ ‫ܰܕ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܳܝܐ܀‬ k

o

n

o

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d

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o

3.11. 3.8.1. 2.10. 3.8.2. 3.4. 3.22. 2.15. 3.3. 3.5. 2.9. 3.23. 3.18. 3.9. 3.12. 3.21.

iI  Translate: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

I am the teacher of this little boy. I am the new instructress of the Syriac language. This is the sacred book of the Lord. I am the king of this holy city. These are the new wives of the king. What is this language? – (It) is Syriac. These wise words are in the stories of the Gospel. How wise the stories of the Gospel are and how true! What is the language of this small town? The language of this small kingdom is Syriac. There are wise stories in the Gospel about the kingdom of heaven. How beautiful is the kingdom of Lord that is in heaven! How beautiful you are in the light of the moon, how beautiful these black eyes are! The Sun, that is in heaven, is a big star. The pupils are now in this new house with the teachers. These are big red apples. There are big red apples on this tree. How wicked this little dog is!

iI

7

LESSON 3

89

ܺ ‫ܢܓ‬ ܶ ‫ܢܓܠܝܘܢ ( ܶܐ ܰܘ‬ ܶ ‫ܶܐ ܰܘ‬ )1‫ܠ ܰܝܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܐ‬ where? ’aykā ‫ܝܟܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܺܒ‬ bad, wicked, evil bišā ‫ܝܫܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܗ ܳܒ‬ flower habbāḇā ‫ܒܐ‬ ܳ temple, palace, church haykәlā ‫ܰܗܝܟܐܠ‬ ܳܽ ܰ apple azzurā ‫ܙܘܪܐ‬ ‫ܚ‬ ܳ ܺ wise, sage, clever akkimā ‫ܰܚܟܝܡܐ‬ ܰ ܶ ܳ child, boy ṭalyā (ṭәlāye) )‫ܛܠ ܳܝܐ (ܛܠ ܝܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܟܘܟ‬ star kawkәḇā ‫ܒܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܟ‬ dog kalbā ‫ܠܒܐ‬ ܳ ܶ tongue, language, speech leššānā ‫ܠ ܳܫܢܐ‬ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܰ kingdom, reign, rule malkuṯā (malkәwāṯā) )‫ܡܠܟ ܽܘܬܐ (ܡܠܟ ܳܘܬܐ‬ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܺ ܳ ܰ female teacher, instructress malꝑāniṯā (malꝑānyāṯā) )‫ܢܝܬܐ‬ ‫ܡܠܦܢܝܬܐ (ܡܠܦ‬ ܰ who? man ‫ܡܢ‬ ܳ ‫ܳܡ‬ Lord, lord, master māryā ‫ܪܝܐ‬ ܺ prophet nәḇiyā ‫ܢܒ ܳܝܐ‬ ܳ ܽ light nuhrā ‫ܢܘܗܪܐ‬ ܳ ܽ red ummā ā ‫ܣܘܡ ܳܩܐ‬ ܳ ܳ world, eternity ˁālmā ‫ܥܠܡܐ‬ ܰ with, along ˁam ‫ܥܡ‬ ܳ savior, deliverer pār ā ‫ܦܪܘ ܳܩܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܩ ܺܕ‬ holy, sacred, saint addišā ‫ܝܫܐ‬ ܳ ܺ true, valid, sound, solid šarrirā ‫ܰܫܪܝܪܐ‬ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܺ ܰ story, account, narration, history tašˁiṯā (tašˁәyāṯā) )‫ܬܫܥܝܬܐ (ܬܫܥ ܳܝܬܐ‬ Gospel ’ewwangélyon (’ewwangéliya)

݀

1

ܰ

iI

Note the Greek plural ending ‫( ܶܐ‬2.7.2.).

LESSON 4 PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES 4.1. Pronominal suffixes perform a possessive function, indicating the belonging of an object to this or that person. They are, in essence, the equivalents to the English possessive pronouns ‘my,’ ‘your,’ ‘his,’ ‘our’ and others: singular

plural

ܰ

݀(silent)‫ܝ‬

-an ‫ܶܢ‬

2nd m.

-āḵ ‫ܶܟ‬

-ḵon ‫ܟܘܢ‬

2nd f.

-eḵ ‫ܶܟܝ‬

-ḵen ‫ܟܝܢ‬

3rd m.

-eh ‫ܶܗ‬

-hon ‫ܗܘܢ‬

3rd f.

-ah 1‫ܶܗ‬

-hen ‫ܗܝܢ‬

1st

ܳ

ܶ

ܶ

ܳ

ܶ

ܶ

ܽ

(The suffixes ‫ ܟܘܢ‬and ‫ ܗܘܢ‬are spelled ‫ ܟܘܢ‬and ‫ ܽܗܘܢ‬in West Syriac.) Since these suffixes attach to the singular nouns of both genders, they are conventionally called “singular pronominal suffixes.’

ܶ

4.2. Regardless of the preceding sound, the suffixes ‫ ܟܘܢ‬and ‫ܟܝܢ‬, , are always pronounced -ḵ n and -ḵen (except for one case which will be discussed later). 4.3 By attaching onto a noun, the pronominal suffixes replace the emphatic ending ‫ ܳܶܐ‬:

1

ܳ

Notice the dot above letter ‫ ܗ‬in suffix ‫ܶܗ‬, which is there to distinguish this suffix in unvocalized ܶ texts from the masculine suffix ‫ܶܗ‬.

90

LESSON 4

1st 2nd m.

91

plural

singular

bayt ‫ܰܒܝܬܝ‬

báytan ‫ܰܒܝܬܢ‬

‘my house’

‘our house’

‘your house’

baytәḵ n ‫ܰܒܝܬܟܘܢ‬ ‘your house’

báyteḵ ‫ܰܒܝܬܟܝ‬

baytәḵén ‫ܰܒܝܬܟܝܢ‬

‘your house’

‘your house’

báyteh ‫ܰܒܝܬܗ‬

baytәhón ‫ܰܒܝܬܗܘܢ‬

‘his house’

‘their house’

ܳ báytāḵ ‫ܰܒܝܬܟ‬

ܰ

ܶ

2nd f.

ܶ

ܶ

3rd m. 3rd f.

ܳ báytah ‫ܰܒܝܬܗ‬

baytәhén ‫ܰܒܝܬܗܝܢ‬

‘her house’

‘their house’

ܶ

 Attach pronominal suffixes ܶ to the following words:

ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܶ ܳ ‫ ܰܟ‬،‫ܪܬܐ‬ ‫ ܰܡܠܟ ܽܘܬܐ‬،‫ ܰܚ ܽܙܘܪܐ‬،‫ܠܒܐ‬ ‫ ܐܓ‬،‫ܠ ܳܫܢܳܐ‬. ܶ

ܳ ܳ ‫ ܺܐ‬،‫ܟܬ ܳܒܐ‬ ،‫ ܳܦܪܘ ܳܩܐ‬،‫ܝܠ ܢܳܐ‬

ܶ

4.4. With the pronominal suffixes ‫ ܗܝܢ‬،‫ ܗܘܢ‬،‫ ܟܝܢ‬،‫ ܟܘܢ‬،‫ ܝ‬the schwa in triconsoܳ ܺ ܰ ܰ ‫ ܰܡ‬malkaṯ ‘my queen’; ‫ܝܪܬܐ‬ ܰ ‫ܰܡ‬ ‫ܠܟܬܟܘܢ ܫܦ‬ nantal sequences is restored to [ā]: ‫ܠܟܬܝ‬ malkaṯḵ n šappirtā ‘your beautiful queen.’ A similar revocalization, accompanied ܳ ܶ ܶ by the gemination of dālaṯ, occurs in the word ‫ܥܕܬܐ‬: ‫ ܥ ܰܕܬܝ‬ˁeddaṯ ‘my church’; ܳܰ ‫ ܶܥ ܰܕܬܟܘܢ ܚܕܬܐ‬ˁeddaṯḵon әḏattā ‘your new church.’

ܳ

ܶ ،‫ ܰܐܢܬ ܳܬܐ‬،‫ ܰܗܝܟ ܳܐܠ‬،‫ܟܘܟ ܳܒܐ‬.ܰ ̱

 Attach pronominal suffixes to the following words: ‫ܡܠܬܐ‬

ܳ ܺ

4.5. In the word ‫ܡܪܝܢ̱ܬܐ‬, the attachment of the 1st person pronominal suffix ‫ ܝ‬reܰ ܺ mәḏinaṯ ‘my cisults in the restoration in pronunciation of the silent nun: ‫ܡܕܝܢܬܝ‬ ܳ ܳ ܺ ә m ḏināty.’ With the rest of the suffixes, both pronunciations are possible: ‫ܡܕܝܢܬܟ‬ ܳ ܺ ә ṯāḵ and ‫ ܡܕܝܢ̱ܬܟ‬m ḏittāḵ ‘your city.’ 4.6. In possessive constructions with the particle ‫ܕ‬, the first word – the possessed – may take a pronominal suffix that in gender and number with the second ܶ agrees ܳ ܰ ܰ word – the possessor: ‫ ܒܝܬܗ ܕ ܓܒܪܐ‬bayteh dә-ǥaḇrā ‘the house of the man’ (litܳ ܰ ܳ erally – ‘his house [that is] of the man’); ‫ ܰܒܝܬܗ ܕܐܢ̱ܬܬܐ‬baytah dattәṯā ‘the house of ܶ ܰ ‫ ܰܒܝܬܗܘܢ ܕ‬baytәhon dә-gaḇre ‘the house of men’; ‫ܰܒܝܬ ܶܗܝܢ ܕܢܶ ܶܫܐ‬ the woman’; ‫ܓܒܖܐ‬

92

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

baytәhen dә-nešše ‘the house of women.’ The use of pronominal suffixes in possessive constructions is optional; it is more of a stylistic device, rather than a grammatical requirement. It may be used, for example, to give the possessed the shade of definiteness, as with the definite article. PREFIXED PREPOSITIONS WITH PRENOMINALS SUFFIXES 4.7. The prenominal suffixes can attach onto prepositions in the same way they attach onto nouns. In the case of the preposition‫ ܒܐ‬the following forms are produced: plural 1st 2nd m. 2nd f. 3rd m. 3rd f.

bi

singular

‫ܺܒܝ‬

ban

‘in/by/with me’ bāḵ

‫ܳܒܟ‬

‘in/by/with you’

ܶ

beḵ ‫ܒܟܝ‬ ‘in/by/with you’ beh

‫ܶܒܗ‬

‘in/by/with him, it’ bāh

‫ܳܒܗ‬

‘in/by/with her, it’

‫ܰܒܢ‬

‘in/by/with us’ bәḵ n

‫ܒܟܘܢ‬

‘in/by/with you’

ܶ

bәḵen ‫ܒܟܝܢ‬ ‘in/by/with you’ bәhon

‫ܒܗܘܢ‬

‘in/by/with them’ bәhen

ܶ ‫ܒܗܝܢ‬

‘in/by/with them’

Note that in ‫ ܺܒܝ‬the y ḏ is pronounced, as it is the only vowel in the word. THE PREPOSITION

‫ܠܙ‬

4.8. ‫ ܠܙ‬lә- is one of the most frequently used Syriac prepositions. One of its nuܶ ܽ lә-muše ‘[to merous functions is to mark the direct and indirect objects1: ‫ܠܡܘܫܐ‬ ܶ ܳܳ ܰ see] Moses,’ ‘[to give] to Moses’; ‫ ܠܡܠܦܢܐ‬lә-malꝑānā ‘(to the) teacher’; ‫ ܠ ܢܫܐ‬lәnešše ‘(to the) women.’ It also stands for ‘in the direction of,’ ‘to the,’ and ‘for’: ܳܽ ‫ܠܛܘܪܐ‬ lә-ṭurā ‘[walking] to the mountain.’ 1

The preposition‫ܠܙ‬, marking the direct object, in European grammars is usually called nota accusativi, and the indirect object, nota dativi.

LESSON 4

93

4.9. The preposition ‫ ܠܙ‬undergoes and causes the same phonetic changes as the ܰ ܰ ܰ lә-ḵalbā; ‫ ܰܐܠܢ̱ܬ ܳܬܐ‬l-attәṯā. ܳ ‫ܠܟ‬ preposition ‫ܒܙ‬: ‫ ܠܫܡ ܳܝܐ‬la-šәmayyā; ‫ܠܒܐ‬ 4.10. With pronominal suffixes, the preposition‫ ܠܙ‬produces the following forms, which are in essence pronominal objects or object pronouns: plural 1st

ܺ li ‫ܠܝ‬

‘to/for me’

ܳ

2nd m.

‘to/for you’

‘to/for you’

leḵ ‫ܠܟܝ‬ ‘to/for you’

lәḵen ‫ܠܟܝܢ‬ ‘to/for you’

leh ‫ܠܗ‬

lәhon ‫ܠܗܘܢ‬

‘to/for him, it’

‘to/for them’

ܳ

3rd f.

‘to/for us’ lәḵ n ‫ܠܟܘܢ‬

ܶ

3rd m.

ܰ

lan ‫ܠܢ‬

lāḵ ‫ܠܟ‬

ܶ

2nd f.

singular

ܶ

ܶ

lah ‫ܠܗ‬

lәhen ‫ܠܗܝܢ‬

‘to/for her, it’

‘to/for them’

’TO HAVE’ 4.11. ܺ Syriac has no ܰ verb ‘to have’ and uses instead descriptive combinations with ‫‘ ܐܝܬ‬there is’ or ‫‘ ܺܠܝܬ‬there is not,’ and preposition ‫ ܠܙ‬with pronominal suffixes: ܺ ‫ ܐܝܬ‬iṯ li aṭṭu ʼukkāmā ‘I have a black cat’ (‘There is to/for me a ܽ ‫ܠܝ ܰܩ‬ ‫ܛܘ ܽܐܘ ܳܟ ܳܡܐ‬ ܺ ‫ܠܝܬ‬ ܰ layt li kalbā ‘I do not have a dog’ (‘There is not to ܳ ‫ܠܝ ܰܟ‬ black cat’); ‫ܠܒܐ‬ ܺ ܳ ܺ ܳ ܶ ܰ me a dog’); ‫ ܐܝܬ ܠܢ ܠ ܳܫܢܐ ܰܫܦܝܪܐ‬iṯ lan leššānā šappirā ‘We have a beautiful lan-ܺ ܰ ‫ܠܝܬ‬ ܰ layt lan malkā ‘We have no king’; ‫ܡܪܝܢ ܳܬܐ‬ ܺ ‫ܐܝܬ ܠܗܘܢ ݀ ܰܒ‬ ܳ ‫ܠܢ ܰܡ‬ guage’; ‫ܠܟܐ‬ ̱ ܳ ܳ ‫ ܰܗܝܟܐܠ ܶܚ ܳܘܪܐ‬iṯ lәhon ba-mәḏittā haykәlā ewwārā ‘They have a white temple in the ܰ ܳ ܳ city’; ‫ ܠܝܬ ܠܗܘܢ ܢܡܘܣܐ‬layt lәhon nāmosā ‘They have no law.’  Translate: I have a father and a mother. I have no house in this town. You (plur.) have a wicked dog. You (sing.) do not have a pen. He has a beautiful wife. She has a

94

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

wealthy husband. He has no wife. She has no husband. We have the law of Moses. We do not have servants in our house. You (plur.) have holy fathers and spiritual books. We do not have a teacher of Syriac language. They have a new church. There is no kingdom of heaven for them. 4.12.1. If the possessor is not a personal pronoun, a noun or a personal name, the ܺ but ܰ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܳ following combinations are used: ‫ ܐܒܪܗܡ ܐܝܬ ܠܗ ܒܪܐ‬aḇrāhām iṯ leh bәrā ܺ ‘Abraܳ ܳ ܰ ‫ܰܡ‬ ham has a son’ (literally – ‘Abraham, there is to him a son’); ‫ܪܝܡ ܐܝܬ ܠܗ ܨܶܦܪܐ‬ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܰ ‫ܠܝܢ‬ ‫ ܶܙܥܘ ܳ ܳܪܬܐ‬maryam iṯ lah ṣeppәrā zәˁortā ‘Mary has a small bird’; ‫ܠܝܬ‬ ‫ܛܠ ܝܐ ܗ‬ ә ә ә ‫ ܠܗܘܢ ܐܡܗܬܐ‬ṭ lāye hālen layt l hon ʼemm hāṯā ‘These boys have no mothers.’ 4.12.2. The following constructions with preposition‫ܠܙ‬, attaching ܺ directly ܰ to the ܳ ܳ ܳ noun or name, are also possible, but lessܶ frequently used: ‫ ܐܠܒܪܗܡ ܐܝܬ ܒܪܐ‬l-aḇrāܳܳ ܰ ܳ ܰ hām iṯ bәrā ‘Abraham has a son’; ‫ ܠܛܠ ܶܝܐ ܠܝܬ ܐܡܗܬܐ‬la-ṭәlāye layt ʼemmәhāṯā ‘The boys have no mothers.’ DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS (CONT.) 4.13. Unlike pronouns ‘this’ and ‘these,’ pronouns ‘that’ and ‘those’ have separate forms for masculine and feminine in both singular and plural: masculine

singular plural ‘Who is that man?’

haw ‫ܰܗܘ‬ hānon 1‫ܳܗܢܘܢ‬

feminine

hāy ‫ܳܗܝ‬

ܶ

hānen ‫ܳܗܢܝܢ‬

man-u haw gaḇrā

‘Who is that woman?’

man-i hāy ’attā

‘Who are those men?’

man-ennon hānon gaḇre

‘Who are those women?

man-ennen hānen nešše

‫ܰܡ ܽܢܘ ܰܗܘ ܰܓܒ ܳܪܐ؟‬ ܳ ܰ ‫ܰܡܢ ̱ܗܝ ܳܗܝ ܐܢ̱ܬܬܐ؟‬ ܶ ‫ܰܡܢ ܐܢܘܢ ܳܗܢܘܢ ܰܓܒ ܶܖܐ؟‬ ܶ ܶ ‫ܰܡܢ ܐܢܶܝܢ ܳܗܢܶܝܢ ܢܶܫܐ؟‬

These pronouns too can be placed before and after the noun.

iI 1

‫ܳܗ ܽܢܘܢ‬

in West Syriac.

‫‪LESSON 4‬‬

‫‪95‬‬

‫‪ Read, translate, and copy:‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬

‫ܰ ܺ ܶ‬ ‫ܕܡܘ ܶܫܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܝܬ ܳܐ ܰܣ ܳܘ ܳܬܐ ܰܣ ܺܓܝ ܶܐܐ ‪ܽ .‬‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܡܘ ܶܫܐ ܳܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘ ܽܝܘ ܰܓܒ ܳܪܐ ܰܣ ܺܓܝ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܳܬܗ‬ ‫ܣܝܐ ̱ܗܘ ‪ .‬ܒ‬ ‫ܽ ܺ‬ ‫ܺ ܺ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܫ ܺܦ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܕܬܐ ܕ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ ܰܪ ܳܒܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܪܐ ܰܥܠ ܰܝܕ ܶܥ ܰܕܬܗܘܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܣܘ ‪ .‬ܐܝܬ‬ ‫ܣܘܖ ܳܝ ܶܝܐ ܐܖܬܕܘܟ‬ ‫ܰܥܬ ܳܝܪܐ‪ .‬ܐܝܬ ܠܗ ܒ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‪ܳ ܺ ܰ 1‬‬ ‫ܘܒܗ ܺܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܝܪܬܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܠ ܢܐ ܰܣ ܺܓܝܐܐ‬ ‫ܠܗ ܐܦ ܰܚܕ ܰܥܒ ܳܕܐ‪ܰ .‬ܥܠ ܰܝܕ ܰܒܝܬܗ‬ ‫ܕܡܘ ܶܫܐ ܐܝܬ ܓܢܬܐ ܫܦ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܺ ܳ ܶ ܺ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܰ ܺ ܳܳ‬ ‫ܳܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܝܖܬܐ ܒ ܰܓܢܬܗ‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ݀ ܳܗܢܘܢ ܐ‬ ‫ܝܠ ܢܐ ܐܝܬ ܨܶܦ ܶܖܐ ܰܣ ܺܓܝܐܬܐ ‪ܳ .‬ܡܐ ܰܣ ܺܓ ܳܝܐܢ ܨܦܖܐ ܫܦ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܳܶ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܢܬܐ ܳܐܦ ܶܥ ܳ‬ ‫ܣܒܐ ܰܝܪܘ ܳܩܐ ܰܥܡ ܰܗܒ ܶܒܐ ܕ ܓ ܽܘܢܐ ܰܣ ܺܓܝܐܐ‪ܳ .‬ܡܐ‬ ‫ܕܡܘ ܶܫܐ ‪ .‬ܐܝܬ ܒܗܕܐ ܓ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܽܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܓܘܢܐ ܕ ܳܗܢܘܢ ܰܗܒ ܶܒܐ܀‬ ‫ܰܣ ܺܓܝܐܝܢ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܽ ܺ‬ ‫ܽ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܳܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ ̱ܗܝ ܶ‬ ‫ܒܒܝܬ ܶܣܦ ܳܪܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܘ ܶܫܐ ܐܝܬ ܠܗ ܺܝ ܰܩܪܬܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ‪ .‬ܐܢ̱ܬܬܗ ܕܡܘܫܐ ‪ ،‬ܡܪܝܡ‪ ،‬ܡܠܦܢ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܣܘ ܳܪܝ ܳܝܐ‪ܺ .‬ܐܝܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܒܒܝܬ ܶܣܦ ܳܪܐ ܰܬ ܺ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠ ܳܫܢܳܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܕܐ ܰܣ ܺܓܝܐܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܗ‬ ‫ܠܦܢܺܝܬܐ ܕ‬ ‫ܺܗܝ ̱ܗܝ ܡ‬ ‫ܰܣ ܺܓܝ ܺܐܝܢ ܶܐܢܘܢ ܰܬ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܡܝ ܶܕܐ ܳܗܢܘܢ ܀‬ ‫‪bc‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪j‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪m‬‬

‫‪l‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪n‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪n‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪o‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪p‬‬

‫‪q‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪r‬‬

‫‪s‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪o‬‬

‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܰܪܝܡ ܺܐܝܬ ܠܗܘܢ ܰܚܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܘ ܰܬ ܺ‬ ‫ܡܘ ܶܫܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܒܪܐ‪ܰ ،‬ܐܒ ܳܪ ܳܗܡ‪ܽ .‬‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܠܡ݀ܺ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܕܐ ̱ܗܘ ܒ ܶܒܝܬ ܶܣܦ ܳܪܐ‪ .‬ܐܒ ܳܪ ܳܗܡ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܩ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܒܐ ܽܐܘ ܳܟ ܳܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܗ ܰܟ ܳ‬ ‫ܛܘ‬ ‫ܒܒܝܬ ܶܣܦ ܳܪܐ ܶܗܖ ܶܓܐ ܰܣ ܺܓܝܐܐ‪ .‬ܐܒ ܳܪ ܳܗܡ ܐܝܬ‬ ‫ܐܝܬ ܠܗ‬ ‫ܶܚ ܳܘ ܳܪܐ‪ܳ .‬ܡܐ ܳܛܒ ܰܗܘ ܰܟܠܒܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܺܒܝܫ ܰܗܘ ܰܩ ܽ‬ ‫ܛܘ܀‬ ‫ܽ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܰ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܥܠ‬ ‫ܫܥܝܬܐ ܰܣ ܺܓܝܐܬܐ ܰܥܠ ܶܥܕܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ ܐܪܬܕܘܟܣ‬ ‫ܰܒܟܬ ܶܒܗ ܕܐܒܪܗܡ ܐܝܬ ܬ‬ ‫ܽ ܳܳ ܺ ܶ ܳ ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܢܒ ܳܝܐ‪ܰ ،2‬‬ ‫ܕܡܘ ܶܫܐ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ ܰܐ ܺܪܝܟ ܳܬܐ ܰܥܠ ܳܢܡܘ ܶܣܗ ܽ‬ ‫ܫܪܪܐ‬ ‫ܘܥܠ‬ ‫ܠ ܳܫܢܳܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ‪ .‬ܐܝܬ ܒܗ ܐܦ ܬܫܥ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܕ ܶܒܗ ‪ܰ ،‬‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ܽ‬ ‫ܦܘܩ ܳܕܢܶܐ ܰܕܠܐ ܳܗܐ܀‬ ‫‪a‬‬

‫‪p‬‬

‫‪p‬‬

‫‪n‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪o‬‬

‫‪o‬‬

‫‪n‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪l‬‬

‫‪tlu‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪j‬‬

‫‪u‬‬

‫‪t‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪q‬‬

‫‪p‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪3.4. 4.3. 4.5. 4.6. 2.6. 2.11.2. 3.8.1. 4.11. 4.4. 2.10. 2.7.2.‬‬ ‫‪s‬‬

‫‪r‬‬

‫‪o‬‬

‫‪n‬‬

‫‪m‬‬

‫‪4.7. 1.6.3. 3.22. 4.13. 4.12.1. 3.3. 3.8.2. 3.18. 3.23. 3.21.‬‬

‫‪l‬‬

‫‪iI‬‬ ‫‪ Translate:‬‬ ‫‪The many churches of your town are beautiful.‬‬ ‫‪Those holy books are in the Syriac language.‬‬ ‫?‪Who is that beautiful woman who is in the garden‬‬

‫ܳ‬

‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ܰ ganṯā.‬‬ ‫ܓܢܬܐ ‪The correct form is‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪As a qualifier, the word ‘prophet’ should be placed after ‘Moses’ (‘Moses the Prophet’).‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬

96 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

CLASSICAL SYRIAC Prophets of the Lord are servants of peace1. Peace in the world is the commandment of God. Your teacher is a very wise woman. The woman is wise.2 Those commandments of the Lord are wise and true. Who are those numerous women, who are beside the temple? In the city of that great king, beautiful churches and temples are many. This is the word of the prophet that )‫ (ܕ‬there is no kingdom of heaven for the rich. Behold the star of the Lord in the sky, beside the moon. Their queen is beautiful, but she has no husband and she has no sons. This great Messiah is the Son of God. We are the children of God in this world. The law of God is in the words of Moses the Prophet. There are many red and white flowers on that green grass. Mary, the mother of our Savior, is now in the temple, with the servants of rich men. That long letter is in the Syriac language. How beautiful are those flowers that are on that high mountain! Who is the physician in your little town?

iI ܳ ܰ

Abraham ’aḇrāhām ‫ܐܒܪ ܳܗܡ‬ ܳܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܳ physician, doctor ’āsyā (āsawwātā) )‫ܣܝܐ (ܐܣܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ orthodox ’artaḏoksā (’artaḏoksaytā) )‫ܐܪܬܕܘܟܣܐ (ܐܪܬܕܘܟܣܝܬܐ‬ ܳ ܶ ܶ school beṯ seꝑrā ‫ܒܝܬ ܣܦܪܐ‬

ܰ

ܳ

son bәrā (bәnayyā) )‫ܒܪܐ (ܒܢ ܳܝܐ‬ ܳ ܰ ( ‫ܓܘ ܳܢܐ‬ ܽ color gunā )ᵂ‫ܓܘܢܐ‬ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܰ garden gantā (ganne) )‫ܓܢܐ‬ ( ‫ܓܢܬܐ‬ one aḏ (masc.) ‫ܰܚܕ‬

ܳ ‫ܺܝ ܰܩܪܬܐ‬ ܽ ‫ܰܝܪܘ ܳܩܐ ( ܰܝ‬ green yar ā )ᵂ‫ܪܘ ܳܩܐ‬ ܶ ܽ Moses muše ‫ܡܘܫܐ‬ ܰ ‫ܰܡ‬ Mary maryam ‫ܪܝܡ‬ ܳ ܽ ‫ܳܢܡܘ ܳܣܐ ( ܳܢ‬ law, custom nām ā )ᵂ‫ܡܘܣܐ‬ family i

1

artā

Keep in mind that the pronominal enclitic should follow the nominal predicate or else there may be confusion as to which noun in the sentence is the subject, and which is the predicate. 2 Remember that the first ‘wise’ is an attribute, and the second is a predicate; use the appropriate state in each case.

LESSON 4 1

97

ܳ )‫ ܰܣ ܺܓ ܳܝܐܢ‬/‫ ܰܣ ܺܓ ܺܝܐܝܢ‬،‫ ܰܣ ܺܓ ܳܝܐܬܐ‬/‫ܰܣ ܺܓ ܳܝܐܐ ( ܰܣ ܺܓ ܶܝܐܐ‬

many, much, numerous saggiyā (saggiye/saggiyāṯā, aggiyin/saggiyan)

‫ܰܥܒ ܳܕܐ‬ ܰ near, beside, next to ˁal yaḏ ‫ܥܠ ܰܝܕ‬ ܳ ‫ܶܥ‬ grass ˁe bā ‫ܣܒܐ‬ ܳ ܺ ܰ rich, wealthy, abundant ˁattirā ‫ܥܬܝܪܐ‬ ܳ ܳ ‫ܦܘ‬ ܽ commandment, order pu dānā ‫ܩܕܢܐ‬ ܳ small bird ṣeppәrā (fem.) ‫ܨܶܦܪܐ‬ ܳ ܳ ܽ ‫ܰܩ‬ cat attu, attā ( atte, atwātā) )‫ ܰܩܛ ܳܘܬܐ‬،‫ ܰܩܛܐ ( ܰܩܛܐ‬or ‫ܛܘ‬ ܳ ܳ peace, greeting, salutation šәlāmā ‫ܫܠܡܐ‬ ܳܳ truth šәrārā݀‫ܫܪܪܐ‬ ܽ ‫ܣܘܖ ܳܝ ܶܝܐ ܳܐܖ ܳܬܕܘܟ‬ ܽ Orthodox Syriacs (“Jacobites”) uryāye ’artaḏoksu ‫ܣܘ‬ ܺ ܰ 2ܳ ܳ ܳܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܽ ܳ ܶ ܺ ‫ܐܢܛ ܳܝ‬ ‫ܘܟ ܰܝܐ‬ ‫ܥܕܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ ܐܪܬܕܘܟܣܝܬܐ ܕ‬ servant, slave ˁaḇdā

Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch ˁeḏtā uryāytā ’artaḏ k aytā-ḏ-antiokíya

iI

1

The word usually appears in plural, agreeing with the noun it modifies ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ inܳ gender. In the name of the Syriac Orthodox Church the Greek word ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܝܬ‬ ‫ ܐܪܬܕܘܟܣ‬is often replaced with its ܺ ә ܽ ‫ܬܪ ܰܝܨܬ‬ t riṣaṯ šuḇ ā. Syriac equivalent – ‫ܫܘܒ ܳܚܐ‬ 2

LESSON 5 POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS 5.1. In addition to the attachment of pronominal suffixes, possession or relation can be expressed with possessive pronouns formed by attaching pronominal sufܺ fixes to the stem ‫ ܕܝܠܙ‬dil-: singular 1st 2nd m. 2nd f. 3rd m. 3rd f.

ܺ

dil ‫ܕܝܠܝ‬ ‘my’

ܳ ܺ

plural

ܰ ܺ

dilan ‫ܕܝܠܢ‬ ‘our’

ܺ

dilaḵ ‫ܕܝܠܟ‬

dilḵ n ‫ܕܝܠܟܘܢ‬

‘your’

‘your’

dileḵ ‫ܕܝܠܟܝ‬ ‘your’

dilḵen ‫ܕܝܠܟܝܢ‬ ‘your’

ܶ ܺ

ܶ ܺ

ܶ

ܺ

ܺ

dileh ‫ܕܝܠܗ‬

dilhon ‫ܕܝܠܗܘܢ‬

‘his’

‘their’

ܳ ܺ dilah ‫ܕܝܠܗ‬

dilhen ‫ܕܝܠܗܝܢ‬

‘her’

‘their’

ܶ

ܺ

These pronouns follow the noun to which they relate and agree in gender ܶ ܰ and ܳ ܰܺ ܳ ܺ ܺ number with the possessor(s): ‫ ܝܩܪܬܐ ܕܝܠܝ‬i artā-ḏil ‘my family’; ‫ ܓܢܐ ܕܝܠܟ‬ganܶ ܺ ܳ ܶ ܺ ܶܽ ܰ ‫ ܚ‬azne-ḏilāḵ ‘your gardens’; ‫ ܰܩܛ ܳܘܬܐ ܕܝܠܟܝ‬aṭwāṯā-ḏileḵ ‘your cats’; ‫ܙܘܖܐ ܕܝܠܗ‬ ܳ ܰ ܺ ܺ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܰ zure-ḏileh ‘his apples’; ‫ ܗܒܒܐ ܕܝܠܗ‬habbāḇā-ḏilah ‘her flower’; ‫ ܢܡܘܣܐ ܕܝܠܢ‬nāܺ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܺ ܰ m ā-ḏilan ‘our law’; ‫ ܒܢܬܐ ܕܝܠܟܘܢ‬bәnaṯā-ḏilḵ n ‘your daughters’; ‫ܒܢ ܳܝܐ ܕܝܠܟܝܢ‬ ܺ ܳ ܰ bәnayya-ḏilḵen ‘your sons’; ‫ ܡܠܟ ܳܘܬܐ ܕܝܠܗܘܢ‬malkәwāṯā-ḏilhon ‘their kingdoms’; ܶ ‫ ܰܓܒ ܶܖܐ ܺܕ‬gaḇre-ḏilhen ‘their husbands.’ ‫ܝܠܗܝܢ‬

98

LESSON 5

99

5.2.1. One of the stylistic devices of the Syriac language is the double indication of possession, i.e. the use of the possessive pronoun with a word that already has a ܶ ܺ ܶ ܰ ܺ ܽ ‫ ܰܡ‬malkuṯ dil ‘my kingdom’; ‫ܝܠܗ‬ ‫ ܚܝܠܗ ܕ‬ayleh pronominal suffix: ‫ܠܟܘܬܝ ܕܝܠܝ‬ ܺ ܰ ܶ dileh ‘his might’; ‫ ܚܟܡܬܗܘܢ ܕܝܠܗܘܢ‬eḵmaṯhon dilhon ‘their wisdom.’ 5.2.2. The possessive pronoun can also precede a possessive combination with the ܶ ܺ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܽ ‫ܝܠܗ‬ particle ‫ܕ‬, as if defining the possessor more precisely: ‫ܕܡܘܫܐ‬ ‫ ܳܗܐ ܟܬܒܐ ܕ‬haḵәṯāḇā-ḏileh dә-muše ‘Here is his, Moses’ book.’ SPECIAL CASES OF ATTACHMENT OF PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES 5.3.1. A number of nouns produce special forms with pronominal suffixes:

ܰ

5.3.2. ‫ ܐ ܳܒܐ‬aḇā ‘father’ singular

plural

āḇ ‫ܐܒܝ‬

aḇún ‫ܐܒ ܽܘܢ‬

‘my father’

‘our father’

aḇúḵ ‫ܐܒ ܽܘܟ‬

aḇuḵón ‫ܐܒ ܽܘܟܘܢ‬

‘your father’

‘your father’

aḇúḵ ‫ܐܒ ܽܘܟܝ‬

aḇuḵén ‫ܐܒ ܽܘܟܝܢ‬

‘your father’

‘your father’

ܳ

1st

ܰ

2nd m.

ܰ

2nd f. 3rd m. 3rd f.

ܰ

ܶ

ܰ

ܰ

ܰ aḇú ‫ܗܝ‬ ̱ ‫ܐܒ ܽܘ‬

aḇuhón ‫ܐܒ ܽܘܗܘܢ‬

ܰ

‘his father’

‘their father’

ܰ aḇúh ‫ܐܒ ܽܘܗ‬

aḇuhén ‫ܐܒ ܽܘܗܝܢ‬

‘her father’

‘their father’

ܶ

ܰ

ܰ

Note the silent letters he and y ḏ in ‫ܗܝ‬ preserved a more archaic ̱ ‫ ܐܒ ܽܘ‬aḇu, which ܳ Aramaic spelling. Note also the 1st person sing. ‫ܐܒܝ‬, in which, unlike other forms, the alaꝑ is vocalized with zә āꝑā.

ܰ

ܰ

 Using ‫ ܐ ܳܒܐ‬as a pattern, attach pronominal suffixes to the words ‫ ܐ ܳܚܐ‬aḥā ܳ ܳ ‘brother’ and ‫ ܚܡܐ‬ḥәmā ‘father-in-law.’ In ‫ ܚܡܐ‬the 1st person singular has rәḇāܽ (. ṣā )‫( ܶܚܡܝ‬, while other forms have no vowel-signs )‫ܚܡܘܟ‬

100

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

ܳ

5.3.3. ‫ ܒܪܐ‬bәrā ‘son’ singular

ܶ

1st

bәran ‫ܒܪܢ‬

‘my son’

‘our son’ berḵ n ‫ܒܪܟܘܢ‬

‘your son’

‘your son’ berḵen ‫ܒܪܟܝܢ‬

‘your son’

‘your son’

ܶ

bәreh ‫ܒܪܗ‬

berhon ‫ܒܪܗܘܢ‬

‘his son’

‘their son’

ܳ

3rd f.

ܶ ܶ

bәreḵ ‫ܒܪܟܝ‬

ܶ

3rd m.

ܶ

bәrāḵ ‫ܒܪܟ‬

ܶ

2nd f.

ܰ

ber ‫ܒܪܝ‬

ܳ

2nd m.

plural

ܶ ܶ

bәrah ‫ܒܪܗ‬

berhen ‫ܒܪܗܝܢ‬

‘her son’

‘their son’

ܳ

5.3.4. ‫ ܰܒܪܬܐ‬barṯā ‘daughter’ singular

ܰ

1st

barṯan ‫ܰܒܪܬܢ‬

‘my daughter’

‘our daughter’

barṯāḵ ‫ܰܒܪܬܟ‬

barṯәḵ n ‫ܰܒܪܬܟܘܢ‬

‘your daughter’

‘your daughter’

ܶ

2nd f.

3rd f.

ܶ

barṯeḵ ‫ܰܒܪܬܟܝ‬

barṯәḵen ‫ܰܒܪܬܟܝܢ‬

‘your daughter’

‘your daughter’

ܶ

3rd m.

ܰ

bәraṯ ‫ܒܪܬܝ‬

ܳ

2nd m.

plural

barṯeh ‫ܰܒܪܬܗ‬

barṯәhon ‫ܰܒܪܬܗܘܢ‬

‘his daughter’

‘their daughter’

ܳ barṯāh ‫ܰܒܪܬܗ‬

barṯәhen ‫ܰܒܪܬܗܝܢ‬

‘her daughter’

‘their daughter’

ܶ

LESSON 5

101

PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES WITH STAND-ALONE PREPOSITIONS 5.4.1. The pronominal suffixes can attach to stand-alone prepositions in the same ܰ way they attach to prefixed prepositions. Thus, with the preposition ‫ ܥܡ‬ˁam ‘with’ the following forms are produced: singular

plural

1st

ܰ

ˁamman ‫ܥܡܢ‬

‘with me’

‘with us’

ܳ ܰ

2nd m.

3rd m.

ˁammәḵon ‫ܥܡܟܘܢ‬

‘with you’

‘with you’

ܶ ܰ

ˁammeḵ ‫ܥܡܟܝ‬

ˁammәḵen ‫ܥܡܟܝܢ‬

‘with you’

‘with you’’

ܶ ܰ ˁammeh ‫ܥܡܗ‬

ˁammәhon ‫ܥܡܗܘܢ‬

‘with him’

‘with them’

ܳ ܰ

3rd f.

ܰ

ˁammāḵ ‫ܥܡܟ‬

ܶ ܰ

2nd f.

ܰ ܰ

ˁamm ‫ܥܡܝ‬

ܰ

ܶ

ܰ

ˁammāh ‫ܥܡܗ‬

ˁammәhen ‫ܥܡܗܝܢ‬

‘with her’

‘with them’

ܶ

5.4.2. The preposition ‫ ܡܢ‬men ‘from’ produce the following forms:

1st 2nd m. 2nd f. 3rd m. 3rd f.

singular

plural

menn ‫ܡܢܝ‬

mennan ‫ܡܢܢ‬

‘from me’

‘from us’

ܶ

ܳܶ

ܰܶ

ܶ

mennāḵ ‫ܡܢܟ‬

mennәḵon ‫ܡܢܟܘܢ‬

‘from you’

‘from you’

ܶܶ menneḵ ‫ܡܢܟܝ‬

mennәḵen ‫ܡܢܟܝܢ‬

‘from you’

‘from you’

ܶܶ

ܶ ܶ

ܶ

menneh ‫ܡܢܗ‬

mennәhon ‫ܡܢܗܘܢ‬

‘from him’

‘from them’

ܳܶ

ܶ ܶ

mennāh ‫ܡܢܗ‬

mennәhen ‫ܡܢܗܝܢ‬

‘from her’

‘from them’

102

CLASSICAL SYRIAC THE WORD ‫ܟܠ‬

ܽ

5.5. The word ‫ ܟܠ‬koll (note the absence of a vowel-sign, originally ‫ ܟܠ ;ܟܘܠ‬in West Syriac), depending on the context, translates as “all, whole, entire” or “every, each.” The latter two meanings will be discussed in subsequent lessons. For ‘all, the whole’ the word ‫ ܟܠ‬usually appears with pronominal suffixes, producing the following forms:

1st

singular

plural

koll ‫ܟܠܝ‬

kollan ‫ܟܠܢ‬

‘all of me, in my entirety’

‘all of us, in our entirety’

k llāḵ ‫ܟܠܟ‬

kollәḵ n ‫ܟܠܟܘܢ‬

‘all of you, in your entirety’

‘all of you, in your entirety’

ܳ

2nd m. 2nd f. 3rd m.

k

ܶ lleḵ ‫ܟܠܟܝ‬

‘all of you, in your entirety’

ܶ kolleh ‫ܟܠܗ‬

ܶ

kollәḵen ‫ܟܠܟܝܢ‬ ‘all of you, in your entirety’ kollәhon ‫ܟܠܗܘܢ‬

‘all of him, in his entirety’

‘all of them, in their entirety’

k llāh ‫ܟܠܗ‬

kollәhen ‫ܟܠܗܝܢ‬

‘all of her, in her entirety’

‘all of them, in their entirety’

ܳ

3rd f.

ܰ

Accordingly, in West Syriac: ܶ ‫ ܽܟ‬. ܶ ‫ ܽܟ‬،‫ܠܗܘܢ‬ ܽ ‫ ܽܟ‬،‫ܠܟܝܢ‬ ‫ܠܗܝܢ‬

ܶ

ܶ ܽ ܶ ܰ ‫ ܽܟ‬،‫ܠܗ‬ ܳ ‫ ܽܟ‬،‫ܠܗ‬ ܳ ‫ ܽܟ‬،‫ܽܟܠܝ‬ ܽ ‫ ܽܟ‬،‫ܠܢ‬ ،‫ܠܟܘܢ‬ ‫ ܟ‬،‫ ܽܟܠܟܝ‬،‫ܠܟ‬ ܳ

ܳ

ܶ

5.6.These forms can appear before or after the word: ‫ ܟܠܗ ܥܠܡܐ‬kolleh ˁālmā or ܳ ܶ ܶ ܳ ‫ ܳܥ‬ˁālmā-ḵ lleh ‘the entire world (the world in its entirety)’; ‫ܟܬ ܳܒܐ‬ ‫ܠܡܐ ܟܠܗ‬ ‫ܟܠܗ‬ ܳ kolleh kәṯāḇā ‘the whole book’; ‫ ܟܠܗܘܢ ܟܬܒܐ‬kollәhon kәṯāḇe ‘all the books’; ܳ ܶ ܶ ‫ ܟܠܗܘܢ ܰܡܠܟܐ ܳܗܠܝܢ‬kollәhon malke hālen ‘all these kings’; ‫ܟܠܗܝܢ ܳܗܢܶܝܢ‬ ‫ܰܡܠܟܬܐ‬ malkāṯā-ḵ llәhen hānen ‘all those queens.’  Translate: The entire city; all the cities; all the good doctors; all the commandments of God; the whole new church; all new churches; the sky in its entirety; all of us; all of you; all the spiritual fathers; all the fathers and the mothers.

LESSON 5

103

DEGREES OF COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 5.7. The comparative degree of adjectives is formed descriptively, usually with the ܳ ܶ ܶ ܳ ‫ܡܬܐ ܳܛ‬ preposition ‫‘ ܡܢ‬from,’ which in this case stands for English ‘than’: ‫ܒܐ‬ ܳ ܰ ܶ ܶ ‫ܳܚܟ‬ ә ‫ ̱ܗܝ ܡܢ ܚ ܶܝܐܠ‬eḵm ܶ ṯāܳ ṭāḇā-y ܶ ܶ men aylā ‘Wisdom is better݀than strength’; ݀ ‫ܗܠܝܢ‬ ܺ ܶ ܶ ܶ ܶ ܳ ܰ ‫ ܢܫܐ ܫܦܝܖܢ )ܐܢܝܢ( ܡܢ ܗܢܝܢ ܢܫܐ‬hālen nešše šappirān (ennen) men hānen nešše ‘Theܳܶ ܽ ‫ܗܘ‬ ܽ húyu akkim se women are (more) beautiful than those women’; ‫ܝܘ ܰܚ ܺܟܝܡ ܡܢܟ‬ ܺ ܰ mennāḵ ‘He is wiser than you.’ The adverb ‫ ܝܬܝܪ‬yattir ‘more’ can also be used in ܺ ܳ ܶ ܶ ܳ ܶ such sentences: ‫ܗܝ ܡܢ ܳܗܝ‬ aḏṯā-y men hāy ̱ 1‫ ܳܗ ܳܕܐ ܶܥܕ ܶܬܐ ܰܝܬܝܪ ܰܚܕܬܐ‬hāḏe ܺ ܰ ˁeḏta ܺ ܰ yattir ܳ ‘This church is newer than that (one)’; ‫ ܐܢܐ ܝܬܝܪ ܥܬܝܪ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܡܢܗ‬ʼenā yattir ˁattir-na menneh ‘I am richer than him.’

ܶ

5.8. The superlative degree is also formed descriptively with the use of the words ‫ܡܢ‬ ܳ ‫ܕܥ‬ ܳ ‫ܠܟܐ ܰܪܒ ̱ܗܘ ܶܡܢ ܟܠܗܘܢ ܰܡܠܟܐ‬ ܳ ‫ ܰܗܘ ܰܡ‬haw ‫ ܟܠ‬men koll ‘of (from) all’: ‫ܠܡܐ‬ malkā rabb-u men kollәhon malke-ḏә-ˁālmā ‘That king is the greatest of all the kings ܰ ܳ ܺ ܰ ܶ ܶ ܳ ‫ ܰܐܢܬܝ ܗܝ ܰܫ ܺܦ‬ʼatt-i šappirā men nešše-ḵ l‫ܝܪܐ ܶܡܢ ܢܶܫܐ ܟܠܗܝܢ ܕ‬ of the world’; ‫ܡܕܝܢܬܢ‬ ̱ ̱ ә ә l hen da-m ḏināṯan ‘You are (the most) beautiful of all the women of our city.’ NOUNS THAT ARE USED ONLY IN THE PLURAL

ܶ

5.9. There are a number of nouns that appear only in the plural form: ‫ ܰܚܝܐ‬ayye ܳ ܰ ܰ ‘life,’ ‫ ܡܝܐ‬mayyā ‘water’ (compare with the word ‫ ܫܡ ܳܝܐ‬šәmayyā that also displays ܶ ܳ the ‫ ܶܐ‬endingܶ instead of ‫)ܶܐ‬. The attributes to these words also should be put in their ܶ ܶ ܺ ܳ ܰ plural form: ‫ ܰܚܝܐ ܰܚܕܬܐ‬ayye aḏṯe ‘new life’; ‫ ܡܝܐ ܰܩܖܝܪܐ‬mayyā arrire ‘cold water.’

ܶ

THE PARTICLE ‫ܕܝܢ‬

ܶ

5.10. The Greek particle ‫ ܕܝܢ‬den ‘but, and, for, then,’ cannot be in the initial posiܶ tion in a sentence, but always follows the subject: ‫ ܺܝܫܘܥ ܕܝܢ‬... iš ˁ den ‘as for Jesus...’

iI

1

ܳ

ܶ The absolute forms of the adjective ‘new’– ‫ ܰܚܕܬܐ‬/‫ܚܕܬ‬

ә

ḏeṯ/ aḏṯā.

‫‪104‬‬

‫‪CLASSICAL SYRIAC‬‬

‫‪ Read, translate, and copy:‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬

‫ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܢܓ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܫܐ ܕܟܠܗܘܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܣܛܝܢܶܐ ܒ ܳܥ ܳ‬ ‫ܟܬ ܰܒܐ ̱ܗܘ ܰܩ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܟܖ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܐ ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܥܝܬܐ‬ ‫ܠܡܐ ܟܠܗ ‪ܳ .‬ܗ ܳܕܐ ̱ܗܝ ܬ‬ ‫ܠܝܘܢ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ ܕ ܳܦܪܘ ܳܩܐ ܕܟ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܚܐ‪ ،‬ܒ ܶܪܗ ܰܕܠܐ ܳ ܳܗܐ ‪ܰ ،‬‬ ‫ܕ ܰܚ ܶܝܐ ܰܥܠ ܳܗ ܶܕܐ ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܢ ܺܝܫܘܥ ܺ‬ ‫ܡܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܥܠ ܰܡܘܬܗ ܰܥܠ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ‪ܳ ܺܰ ܳ ܺ 1‬‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܝܫܬܐ ܕܟܠܗܘܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܗܘ ܳܕ ܶܝܐ‪ܰ ،2‬‬ ‫ܣܛܝܢܶܐ ܺܘ ܽ‬ ‫ܨܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܟܖ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܝܡܬܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܥܠ‬ ‫ܝܒܐ ܒܐܘܪܫܠܡ ‪ ،‬ܡܕܝܢ̱ܬܐ ܩܕ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܺܐܝܬ ܶܒܗ ܳܐܦ ܰܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܥܝ ܳܬܐ ܰܥܠ ܶܐ ܶܡܗ ܰܡ ܰܪܝܡ‪ܰ ،‬ܥܠ ܰܐܒ ܽܘܗܝ ܰܝ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܣܦ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܠ ܝ ܶܚܐ‬ ‫ܘܥܠ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܺ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܫܐ ܳܗ ܳܢܐ ܰܡܬ ܶܐܠ ܺܕܝܫܘܥ‪ܺ 3‬‬ ‫ܝܠܗ ‪ܰ .‬ܣ ܺܓܝ ܺܐܝܢ ܶܐܢܘܢ ܰܒܟ ܳܬ ܳܒܐ ܰܩ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܚܐ‪ ،‬ܘܪ ܳܒܐ‬ ‫ܟܠܗܘܢ ܕ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫̱ܗܝ ܶܚܟܡܬܐ ܰܕܒܗܘܢ ܀‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܺ ܳ ܳܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܢܓ ܺ‬ ‫ܠ ܳܫܢܶܗ ܶܕܝܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܠ ܳܝܘܢ ܰܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܘ ܰܩܢ ܶܝ ܽ‬ ‫ܕܦ ܽ‬ ‫ܠ ܳܫܢܶܗ ܶܕ ܰܐܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܚܐ ܐܪ ܳܡ ܰܝܐ ̱ܗܘ‪ .‬ܐܦ‬ ‫ܫܘܥ ܡܫ‬ ‫ܘܢ ܰܝܐ ̱ܗܘ‪،‬‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܺ‬ ‫ܽ ܺܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܳ ܳܳ‬ ‫ܩܪܝܬܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ ܕܠܫܢܐ ܕ‬ ‫ܝܠܗ ܐܪ ܳܡ ܰܝܐ ̱ܗܘ܀‬ ‫ܘܡܢܳܐ ܐܝܬ ܒܣܘܪܝܐ‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫‪a‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪iej‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫ܶ ܳ ܺ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܨܠ ܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܟܠܗܝܢ‬ ‫ܨܠ ܘܬܐ ܰܣ ܺܓܝܐܬܐ‪ .‬ܨܠ ܘܬܐ ܶܕܝܢ ܰܩ ܺܕܝܫܬܐ ܶܡܢ‬ ‫ܣܛܝܢܶܐ ܐܝܬ ܠܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܟܖ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܕܒܫܡ ܳܝܐ‪ܳ .‬‬ ‫ܣܛܝܢ ܳܝܬܐ ܨܠ ܘܬܐ ̱ܗܝ ܕܐܒ ܽܘܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܟ ܶܖ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗܐ ܡܐܠ ܰܩ ܺܕܝ ܳܫܬܐ ܡܢ ܳܗܝ ܨܠ ܘܬܐ‪ :‬ܐܒ ܽܘܢ‬ ‫ܰ ܽܳ ܰ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ܳ ܺ ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܳܝܐ ‪ܺ ،‬ܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܕܒ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܝܠܟ ̱ܗܝ ܡܠܟܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܠܡܝܢ ܐ ܶܡܝܢ܀‬ ‫ܘܚܝܐܠ ܘܬܫܒܘܚܬܐ ܠܥܠܡ ܥ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ ܰ ܺ ܰ‬ ‫ܽܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܐܚܝ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܘ ܳܗ ܳܫܐ ܰܥ ܰܡܢ ‪ ،‬ܗܘ ܒ‬ ‫ܛܘܪܐ ܪ ܳܡܐ‪ܶ .‬ܡܢܶܗ ̱ܗܝ ܳܗ ܶܕܐ‬ ‫ܘܢܝܬܐ ܕ ܰܥܠ ܰܗܘ‬ ‫ܩܪܝܬܐ ̱ܗܘ ܝ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ܳ ܰܺ ܳ ܶ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܬܐ ܶܕܝܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܕܡܢܳܟ ܰܝ ܺܬܝܪ ܰܐ ܺܪ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܬܗ ܳܕܐܚܝ‪ܳ .‬‬ ‫ܩܪܝܬܐ‬ ‫ܒܗܝ‬ ‫ܝܟܐ ̱ܗܝ ܡܢ ܐܓ‬ ‫ܐܓܪܬܐ ܐܪܝܟܬܐ‪ .‬ܐܓ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܗܢܐ ܕ ܰܒ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ ܺܐܝܬ ܳܟܗܢܶܐ ܰܝܘ ܳܢ ܶܝܐ ܰܣ ܺܓܝܐܐ‪ܶ ،‬‬ ‫ܘܡܢܗܘܢ ܗ ܽܘ ܐܦ ܳܟ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܪܝܬܐ ܺܕܝܠܢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܘܢ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫‪k‬‬

‫‪l‬‬

‫‪m‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪n‬‬

‫‪o‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫‪ip‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪p‬‬

‫‪q‬‬

‫‪p‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪5.5./5.6. 3.12. 5.3.3. 4.6. 4.7. 5.3.2. 5.1. 3.18.‬‬ ‫‪q‬‬

‫‪p‬‬

‫‪o‬‬

‫‪n‬‬

‫‪m‬‬

‫‪l‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪j‬‬

‫‪3.23. 3.21. 5.10. 4.12.1. 5.8. 3.13. 5.4.1. 5.4.2. 5.7.‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫‪iI‬‬ ‫‪ Translate:‬‬ ‫‪In the temple of Jerusalem, the sons and daughters of the Jews are many.‬‬ ‫‪His father is the wisest of the men of this city.‬‬ ‫‪With you today, my son, is the wisdom of the Lord and his might.‬‬

‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬

‫‪b-orešlem.‬‬ ‫‪ܺ sequence, as is the case with ālaꝑ, moves onto the prefixed‬ܝ ‪Note that the әḇāṣā of the initial‬‬ ‫’‪preposition or the particle – w-ihuḏāye ‘and the Jews.‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫’‪Same as above – d-iš ˁ ‘of Jesus.‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

LESSON 5 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

105

I have letters from you and from him. This land is a great kingdom, and numerousus are its cities and villages. This city is the biggest of all the cities of this land. How many the dogs and the cats on that high mountain are! This is a parable about the resurrection of the Lord and his new life in heaven with his father. Now, there are many Arameans and Greeks in Jerusalem, but there are not many Jews there (in it). The mother of the Savior is in the temple now, and, with her, the apostles of her son. Our brother is in the school now with all the pupils. Behold the holy books, my daughter! From them is all the wisdom of these spiritual fathers. Praise to the Son of God, deliverer of the world and all of us. What is the language of these long letters? In Syria, the language of the Lord’s Prayer of many Christians is Syriac. My daughter is more beautiful than all of your daughters. You, my father, are the light of heaven and spiritual strength. We are the servants of your law and the birds of your garden. Peace to you, brothers, and peace to your homes and families. All the wise parables of the Son of God are in this little book, which is with me now.

iI ܶ

ܺ

ܶ

ܶ

ܽ ( ‫ܐܘܪܫܠܡ‬ Jerusalem ’ rešlem )ᵂ‫ܐܘܪܫܠܡ‬ ܰ brother ’a ā ‫ܐ ܳܚܐ‬ ܶܰ ܺܰ Amen, verily ’amen )ᵂ‫ܐܡܝܢ (ܐܡܝܢ‬ ܳ ܳܳ Aramean, Aramaic ’ārāmāyā ‫ܐܪܡ ܳܝܐ‬ ܳ ܰ )‫(ܐܖ ܳܥܬܐ‬ ܳ ܳ daughter barṯā (bәnāṯā) )‫(ܒܢܬܐ‬

ܳ ‫ܰܐ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܒܪܬܐ‬ ܶ but, and, for, then den ‫ܕܝܢ‬ ܶ life, salvation ayye ‫ܰܚܝܐ‬ ܳ might, strength, power, army aylā ‫ܰܚܝܐܠ‬ ܳ wisdom, knowledge eḵmәṯā ‫ܶܚܟܡܬܐ‬ ܳ ܽ ‫ܺܝ‬ Jewish, Jew, Judean ihuḏāyā ‫ܗܘܕ ܳܝܐ‬ ܳܳ today yawmānā ‫ܰܝܘܡܢܐ‬

earth, land ’arˁā (’arˁaṯa) (fem.)

106

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

ܳ ‫ܰܝ‬ ‫ܘܢ ܳܝܐ‬ ܶ Joseph yawseꝑ ‫ܰܝܘܣܦ‬ ܽ ‫ܺܝܫܘܥ ( ܶܝ‬ ܺ )ᵂ‫ܫܘܥ‬ ܳ ‫ܡܫ‬ Jesus Christ iš ˁ mәši ā ‫ܝܚܐ‬ ܺ more yattir ‫ܰܝܬܝܪ‬ ܳ priest kāhnā ‫ܳܟܗܢܐ‬ ܽ all, the whole, every, each koll )ᵂ‫ܟܠ (ܟܠ‬ ܶ ܺ ( ‫ܣܛܝܢܳܐ‬ ܳܳ ܳ ‫ܟܪ‬ Christian (noun) kәrestәyānā )ᵂ‫ܝܣܛܝܢܐ‬ ‫ܟܪ‬ ܶ ܺ ( ‫ܣܛܝܢܳ ܳܝܐ‬ ܳܳ ܳ ‫ܟܪ‬ Christian (adjective) kәrestәyānāyā )ᵂ‫ܝܣܛܝܢ ܳܝܐ‬ ‫ܟܪ‬ ܳ ܰ death mawtā ‫ܡܘܬܐ‬ ܳ ܰ water mayyā ‫ܡܝܐ‬ ܳ ܰ proverb, parable, fable maṯlā ‫ܡܬܐܠ‬ ܺܽ Syria suriya ‫ܣܘܪ ܰܝܐ‬ ܳ ܰ ܳ prayer ṣәl ṯā (ṣәlawwāṯā) )‫ܨܠ ܘܬܐ (ܨܠ ܘܬܐ‬ ܺ ܳ ‫ܨܠ‬ cross ṣәliḇā ‫ܝܒܐ‬ ܳ ܳ resurrection qәyamtā ‫ܩܝܡܬܐ‬ ܳ ܺ cool, cold arrirā ‫ܰܩܪܝܪܐ‬ ܳ ܺ ܽ ،‫ܝܬܐ ( ܶܩܖ ܳܝ ܳܬܐ‬ village qәriṯā ( eryāṯā, uryā) )‫ܩܘܖ ܳܝܐ‬ ‫ܶܩܪ‬ ܶ ܳ ܳ praise, glory, canticle tešb tā (tešbә āṯā) )‫ܬܫܒܘܚܬܐ (ܬܫܒ ܳܚܬܐ‬ Greek yawnāyā

ܰ ‫ܠܥ‬ ܺ ‫ܠܡ ܳܥ‬ ܳ ‫ܠܡܝܢ‬ ܳ ܰ ‫ܕܒ‬ ܰ ‫ܨܠ ܘܬܐ ܰܕܐܒ ܽܘܢ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܳܝܐ‬

݀for ever and ever lә-ˁālam ˁālmin The Lord's Prayer ṣәloṯā-ḏ-aḇun dә-ḇa-šәmayyā

iI

LESSON 6 THE VERBAL SYSTEM OF THE SYRIAC LANGUAGE VERBAL ROOTS AND THEIR VARIETIES 6.1. The Syriac verbal system is based on the verbal root (√) that consists of three, more rarely – four consonants (radicals). In a language, the root does not have an independent function of its own, but is a grammatical abstraction that expresses the general meaning of this or that action. Thus, the root ‫ ܟܬܒ‬conveys the idea of writing, ‫ – ܙܡܪ‬singing, ‫ – ܐܟܠ‬eating, ‫ – ܐܙܠ‬going, ‫ – ܪܚܡ‬loving, ‫ – ܫܡܥ‬hearing, ‫ – ܥܒܕ‬working, ‫ – ܩܛܠ‬killing, and so on. 6.2. In Semitic studies, the first radical of a root is conventionally denoted as ‫ܦ‬, the second – ‫ܥ‬, the third – ‫ܠ‬. These letters are borrowed from the root ‫‘( ܦܥܠ‬to work, act”), and they are used to create “formulas,” or patterns, that represent grammatical forms of the same type. 6.3. The verbal roots are divided into two groups – “strong” and “weak.” Roots containing the consonants ‫ ܘ‬and ‫( ܝ‬in some cases – ‫ ܐ‬and ‫ )ܢ‬that are prone to falling out, are considered “weak.” Accordingly, the roots that do not contain these consonants are considered “strong.” 6.4. The weak roots, in turn, have the following subgroups: a) roots with݀1st weak radical, including:  the 1st radical nun (denoted I-‫)ܢܢ‬  the 1st radical ālaꝑ (I-‫)ܐ‬  the 1st radical y ḏ (I-‫)ܝ‬ b) roots with the 2nd weak radical (also called “hollow”), including:  the 2nd radical waw (II-‫)ܘ‬  the 2nd radical y ḏ (II-‫)ܝ‬ 107

108

CLASSICAL SYRIAC c) roots with the 3rd weak radical, including:  the 3rd radical y ḏ (III-‫)ܝ‬

6.5. Other subgroups include: a) “double weak” roots that contain two weak radicals; b) geminate root, in which the 2nd and 3rd radicals are the same consonant (III=II), c) quadriliteral roots (consisting of four consonants). VERBAL STEMS 6.6. The verbal root uses specific formants to produce several extended conjugation types, also called “verbal stems.” Each stem has its own semantic shade related to grammatical voice or aspect. Syriac has six main stems and twenty secondary ones that are very rarely used. 6.7. In theory, each root can appear in all stems, but in reality, the roots manifest themselves on an average of 3–4 stems. 6.8. Each stem is “represented” by the 3rd person sing. masc. form of the past tense – ‘(he) wrote, ate, killed, read’ and so on. This is the basic form of the stem, because all other forms are produced from it through various suffixes and prefixes. This is what makes the verbal system of Syriac and other Semitic languages differ from the majority of Indo-European languages, in which the infinitive is the basic form of a verb. Syriac also has an infinitive, but morphologically it is a secondary form, as no other form can be produced from it. This means that in Syriac the stem base is the de facto infinitive, and it is this form that stands for a verb in dictionaries. THE PӘˁAL STEM 6.9. The simplest of all the verbal stems, which can be considered a “prototype” for all others, is called Pәˁal. The base form of this stem consists of three consonants, of which the 2nd carries either pәṯā ā or rәḇāṣā, with a schwa after the 1st ܶ ܰ consonant (‫ܦܥܠ‬/‫)ܦܥܠ‬. Thus, the roots mentioned in paragraph 6.1. have the ܰ ܰ ܰ following base forms in Pәˁal: ‫ ܟܬܒ‬kәṯaḇ ‘he wrote’; ‫ ܙܡܪ‬zәmar ‘he sang’; ‫ܫܡܥ‬ ܰ ә ܰ ˁәḇaḏ ‘he made, worked’; ‫ܩܛܠ‬ ܶ rә em ‘he loved’; ‫ܥܒܕ‬ q ṭal šәmaˁ ‘he heard’; ‫ܪܚܡ‬ ‘he killed.’

LESSON 6

109

6.10. Since ālaꝑ cannot stand without ܶ a vowel-sign at the beginning of the word, ܶ ܰ ܰ ә as aܶ first radical it takes a r ḇāṣā: ‫ ܐܙܠ‬ʼezal ‘he went’; ‫ ܐܡܪ‬ʼemar ‘he said, told’; ‫ ܐ ܰܟܠ‬ʼeḵal ‘he ate.’1 ACTIVE PARTICIPLES OF THE PӘˁAL VERBS 6.11. The participle is the form of a verb that acts as an adjective. Syriac has active and passive participles. Active participles correspond to the English present participles )‘writing,’ ‘eating,’ ‘going’ and the like(. With this double, verb-adjective nature, participles in Syriac can act as both verbs and adjectives, and sometimes as nouns. Hence, they can have all three states – emphatic, absolute, and construct. 6.12. In the Pәˁal stem, the active participles of the absolute state are formed along the following patterns: masculine singular plural

feminine

ܳ ‫ܳܦܥܐܠ‬ ܳ ‫ܳܦܥ‬ ‫ܠܢ‬

‫ܳܦ ܶܥܠ‬ ܺ ‫ܳܦ‬ ‫ܥܠܝܢ‬

ܰ

According to these patterns, the verb ‫ ܩܛܠ‬qәṭal ‘to kill’ has the following active participle forms (note the similarities with adjectives): āṭel āṭlin

ܶ ‫ܳܩܛܠ‬ ܺ ‫ܳܩ‬ ‫ܛܠܝܢ‬

ܳ ‫ܳܩܛܐܠ‬ ܳ āṭlān ‫ܳܩܛܠܢ‬ āṭlā

All these forms are the equivalents of the English ‘killing.’

ܶ

ܰ ،‫ܪܚܡ‬ ܶ  Form the active participles from the verbs ‫ ܣܠܩ‬،‫ܥܒܕ‬ tention to the alternating forms of the begad-kepat consonants.

ܰ ،‫ܟܬܒ‬.

Pay at-

6.13. The active participles in the absolute state act as verbs (see below).

1

For the sake of convenience, the base form will be henceforth translated in the infinitive – ‘to write’, ‘to go’, ‘to kill,’ and so on.

110

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

ܶ

6.14. The verb ‫ ܐ ܰܟܠ‬ʼeḵal ‘to eat’ has the following forms of active participle: ʼāḵel ʼāḵlin

ܳ ‫ܐ ܶܟܠ‬ ܺ ‫ܳܐ‬ ‫ܟܠܝܢ‬

ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ ʼāḵlān ‫ܐܟܠܢ‬ ʼāḵlā ‫ܐܟܐܠ‬

ܰܶ

6.15. In the active participles of the verb ‫ ܐܙܠ‬ʼezal ‘to go,’ the consonant [l] is assimilated by the preceding consonant [z], which doubles in pronunciation as a result:

ܳܳ ‫ܐܙܐܠ‬ ܳ ܳ ʼāzzin ʼāzzān ‫ܐܙܠܢ‬ ܳܳ ܺܳ ܳܳ The assimilated forms can be also written ‫ܠܢ‬ ̱ ‫ ܐܙ‬،‫ܠܝܢ‬ ̱ ‫ ܐܙ‬،‫ܐܙ ̱ܐܠ‬. ʼāzel

ܳ ‫ܐ ܶܙܠ‬ ܺ ‫ܳܐ‬ ‫ܙܠܝܢ‬

ʼāzzā

6.16. If the 3rd radical is ‫ܪ‬/‫ܥ‬/‫ܚ‬/‫ܗ‬, then the 2nd radical in the masc. sing. form ܰ takes pәṯā ā (‫ ܫܡܥ‬šәmaˁ ‘to hear’):

‫ܳܫ ܰܡܥ‬ ܺ ‫ܳܫ‬ ‫ܡܥܝܢ‬

ܳ ‫ܳܫ‬ ‫ܡܥܐ‬ ܳ šāmˁin šāmˁān ‫ܳܫܡܥܢ‬ ܰ ܰܶ  Form the active participles from the verbs ‫ ܙܡܪ‬،‫ܐܡܪ‬. šāmaˁ

šāmˁā

6.17. As it was indicated above, the active participles can be in the emphatic state. ܰ The verb ‫ ܩܛܠ‬has the following forms in the emphatic state (note the similarities with adjectives):

ܳ

āṭlā ‫ܳܩܛܐܠ‬

ܶ

āṭle ‫ܳܩܛܐܠ‬

ܳ

ܶ

āṭeltā ‫ܳܩܛܠܬܐ‬

ܳ ܳ

āṭlāṯā ‫ܳܩܛܠܬܐ‬

Note that in the emphatic state the masc. plur. form displays sәyāme.  Form the emphatic state active participles from the verbs ܶ

ܶ ‫ ܐ ܰܟܠ‬،‫ܣܠܩ‬.

ܰ ܰ ،‫ܪܚܡ‬ ܶ ،‫ܟܬܒ‬ ،‫ܥܒܕ‬

6.18. In the emphatic state, the active participles usually act as adjectives and ܳ ܳ sometimes as nouns: ‫ ܪܚܡܐ‬rā mā ‘friend, lover’ (‘loving one’).

LESSON 6

111

THE PRESENT TENSE OF THE PӘˁAL VERBS 6.19. In earlier Aramaic dialects, verbs had aspect rather than tense attributes. There were two aspects – perfect and imperfect. In Syriac, the perfect essentially evolved into the past, and imperfect into the future tense. These are the only two morphologically true tenses; the others are formed through various analytical combinations. 6.20. The present tense is one of these analytical tenses. It is formed by combining active participles with pronominal enclitics (can be translated into English in both the simple present and present continuous tenses):

ܳ ‫ ܳܟ‬/‫ܶܐ ܳܢܐ ܳܟ ܶܬܒ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ‬ ‫ܬܒܐ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ‬ ܰ ܶ ܰ ‘You write’ ʼatt kāṯeḇ-att ‫ܐܢ̱ܬ ܳܟܬܒ ܐܢ̱ܬ‬ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܰ ‘You write’ ʼatt kāṯbā-att ‫ܬܒܐ ܐܢ̱ܬܝ‬ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝ ܟ‬ ܶ ܽ ‘He writes’ hu ḵāṯeḇ(-u) )‫ܗܘ ܳܟܬܒ ( ̱ܗܘ‬ ܳ ‫ܺܗܝ ܳܟ‬ ‘She writes’ hi ḵāṯbā(-y) )‫ܬܒܐ ( ̱ܗܝ‬ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܰ ‫ܬܒܢ‬ ܺ ‫ܚܢܰܢ ܳܟ‬ ә ‘We write’ nan kāṯbin-nan/kāṯbān-nan ‫ܚܢܢ‬ ‫ܟ‬/‫ܬܒܝܢ ̱ܚܢܢ‬ ̱ ܺ ‫ܰܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ ܳܟ‬ ‘You write’ ʼatton kāṯbi-tton ‫ܬܒܝܢ ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ‬ ܶ ܶ ܰ ܳ ‘You write’ ʼatten kāṯbā-tten ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝܢ ܳܟܬܒܢ ܐܢ̱ܬܝܢ‬ ܶ ܺ ‫ܶܗܢܘܢ ܳܟ‬ ‘They write’ hennon kāṯbin(-ennon) )‫ܬܒܝܢ (ܐܢܘܢ‬ ܶ ܳ ‘They write’ hennen kāṯbān(-ennen) )‫ܶܗܢܶܝܢ ܳܟܬܒܢ (ܐܢܶܝܢ‬ ܽ ܳ ‫ ܺܗܝ ܳܟ‬/‫ܗܘ ܳܟ ܶܬܒ‬ 6.21. In the 3rd person, the enclitics are usually omitted: ‫ܬܒܐ‬ ܳ ܶܶ ܺ ‫‘ ܶܗܢܘܢ ܳܟ‬they write.’ ‘he/she writes’: ‫ܗܢܝܢ ܳܟܬܒܢ‬/‫ܬܒܝܢ‬ ܳ ܳ ܳܶ ܰ ܳ ܶ 6.22. The negative forms use the particles ‫ ܐܠ‬or, more rarely, ‫ܠܘ‬: ‫ܐܢܐ ܐܠ ܳܟܬܒ ܐ̱ܢܐ‬ ‘I write’

ʼenā ḵāṯeḇ-nā/ḵāṯbā-nā

1

ʼenā lā ḵāṯeḇ-nā ‘I do not write.’

 Conjugate all the verbs presented in this lesson in the present tense. 6.23. Like adjectives, participles can combine with enclitics into a single word:

1

Note the similarities with English, literally – ‘I writing am.’

112

CLASSICAL SYRIAC ḵāṯéḇnā ḵāṯbānā kāṯbátt kāṯbátt kāṯb nan kāṯbānan kāṯbittón kāṯbāttén

ܶ ‫ܳܟܬܒܢܳܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܳܟ‬ ‫ܬܒܢܳܐ‬ ܰ ‫ܳܟ‬ ‫ܬܒܬ‬ ܰ ‫ܳܟ‬ ‫ܬܒܬܝ‬ ܺ ‫ܳܟ‬ ‫ܬܒܝܢܰܢ‬ ‫ܳܟܬ ܳܒܢܰܢ‬ ܺ ‫ܳܟ‬ ‫ܬܒܝܬܘܢ‬ ܶ ‫ܳܟܬ ܳܒܬܝܢ‬

← ← ← ← ← ← ← ←

ܶ ‫ܳܟܬܒ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܳܟ‬ ‫ܬܒܐ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ‬ ܰ ܶ ‫ܳܟܬܒ ܐܢ̱ܬ‬ ܰ ܳ ܳ ‫ܬܒܐ ܐܢ̱ܬܝ‬ ‫ܟ‬ ܺ ‫ܳܟ‬ ‫ܬܒܝܢ ̱ܚܢܰܢ‬ ‫ܳܟܬ ܳܒܢ ̱ܚܢܰܢ‬ ܺ ‫ܳܟ‬ ‫ܬܒܝܢ ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ‬ ܶ ‫ܳܟܬ ܳܒܢ ܐܢ̱ܬܝܢ‬

 Form the contracted versions of all the verbs presented in this lesson. DIRECT OBJECT 6.24. Among Semitic languages, Syriac is noted for its rather relaxed syntax. Among other things, it means that the direct object can both precede and follow the verbal predicate. If the direct object is perceived as indefinite, it is not marked in any way and should be identified either through context or secondary grammatiܰ ܰ ܶܳ ܶܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܰ cal indicators: ‫ ܛܠ ܳܝܐ ܐܟܠ ܠܚܡܐ‬ṭalyā ʼāḵel la mā and ‫ ܠܚܡܐ ܐܟܠ ܛܠ ܳܝܐ‬la mā ʼāḵel ṭalyā ‘The boy eats bread’ (the direct object is obvious from the context); ܳ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ‫ܬܬܐ ܳܪ ܶܚܡ ܰܓ‬ ‫ܒܪܐ ܪ ܶܚܡ ܐܢ̱ܬܬܐ‬ ‫ ܓ‬gaḇrā rā em ʼattā and ‫ܒܪܐ‬ ̱ ‫ ܐܢ‬ʼattā rā em gaḇrā ‘Man ܳ ܶ loves woman (the masculine predicate ‫ ܪܚܡ‬indicates the male subject). 6.25. If the direct object is perceived as definite or is a proper noun, then it may attach onto the prefixed preposition ‫ܠܙ‬, which, among its other functions, is a direct ܺ ܰ ‫ܡܫܝ ܳܚܐ ܳܪ ܶܚ‬ ܺ mәši ā rā em la-šәli e ‘Christ or indirect object indicator: ‫ܡ ܠܫܠ ܝ ܶܚܐ‬ ܶ ܳ ܰ ‫ ܐ ܳܢܐ ܪ ܶܚܡ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ‬ʼenā rā em-nā lә-malkā ‘I love the king’; ܳ ‫ܠܡ‬ loves the Apostles’; ‫ܠܟܐ‬ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܳ ܳ ‫ܚܡܐ ܐܢܬܝ ܐܠ‬ ‫ܒܪ ܳܗܡ‬ ̱ ܳ ‫ ܐܢ̱ܬܝ ܪ‬ʼatt rā mā-att l-aḇrāhām ‘You love Abraham.’ 6.26.1. With pronominal suffixes, ܳ forܳ ܶ direct obܶ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܶ the prefixed prepositionܳ ‫ ܳܠܙ‬stands ܳ ject pronouns: ‫ ܐܢܐ ܪܚܡ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܟܝ‬ʼenā rā em-nā leḵ or ‫ ܐܢܐ ܪܚܡܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܟ‬ʼenā rā mā-nā lāḵ ‘I love you.’ ܶ /‫ ܠܗܘܢ‬are usually substituted with pronom6.26.2. In the 3rd ܶܶ person ܶ plur., ܶ ܳ ‫ܠܗܝܢ‬ ܳ ܰ ܳܶ inal enclitics ‫ܐܢܝܢ‬/‫ܐܢܘܢ‬: ‫ ܐܢܐ ܠܘ ܪ ܶܚܡ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܐܢܘܢ‬ʼenā law rā em-nā enn n ‘I don’t love ܶ them.’ ‫ܠܗܝܢ‬/‫ ܠܗܘܢ‬as direct objects, however, can be frequently seen in the Syriac translations of the New Testament.

‫‪LESSON 6‬‬

‫‪113‬‬

‫‪iI‬‬ ‫‪ Read, translate, and copy:‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ ܳ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܩܬܐ‪ܶ .‬ܐ ܳܢܐ ܰܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܕܬܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܦܢܳܐ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ‬ ‫ܕܥܠ ܰܝܕ ܶܥܕܬܐ ܰܣ ܺܓܝ ܥܬ‬ ‫ܒܒܝܬ ܣܦܪܐ ܚ‬ ‫ܐ ܳܢܐ ܳܥ ܶܒܕ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ‬ ‫ܶ ܳܳ ܰ ܳܳ ܰ ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܦܪܐ ܶܐ ܳܢܐ ܰܘܐܢ ܰܬܬܝ ܳܐ ܺ‬ ‫ܟܠܝܢ ܚܢܰܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܒܨ ܳ‬ ‫ܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܕܥ ̱ܡ ܶܡܐ ܰܥ ܺܬܝ ܶܩܐ‪ܰ .‬‬ ‫ܕܠܫܢܐ ܝܘܢܝܐ ܘܕܬܫܥ‬ ‫ܚܡܐ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫̱ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܠܒܝܬ ܶܣܦܪܐܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܡܐ‪ܳ .‬ܒܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠܒܐ ܰܩܪܝܪܐ ܐܘ ܰܚ ܺܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܕܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܓܘܒܢܳܐ ܰܥܡ ܳܟ ܳܣܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܟܢ ܐ ܳܢܐ ܐܙܠ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܦܪܐ ܶܐ ܳܢܐ ܳܐ ܰܡܪ ܐ ܳܢܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܒܒܝܬ ܶܣ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܫܘ ܳܩܐ ‪ܶ .‬‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ ܠܟܘܢ ܠ ܳܝܠ ܽܘܦܐ‬ ‫ܺܕܝܠܝ ܰܘܐܢ̱ܬܬܝ ܐܙܐܠ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܒ ܰܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܕܬܐ ܰܥܠ ܠ ܽܘ ܳܚܐ‪ܶ ،‬‬ ‫ܘܗܢܘܢ ܳܟ ܺ‬ ‫ܺܕܝܠܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܗ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܟܢ ܳܟ ܶܬܒ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ ܶܗ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܓܐ‬ ‫ܬܒܝܢ‬ ‫ܪܓܐ ܚ‬ ‫ܒܟܖ ܶܟܐ ܺܕܝܠܗܘܢ ‪ܶ .‬ܐ ܳܢܐ ܰܣ ܺܓܝ ܳܪ ܶܚܡ ܐ ܳܢܐ ܠ ܳܝܠ ܽܘ ܶܦܐ ܰܣ ܺܓܝ ܶܐܐ ܺܕܝܠܝ‪ܳ ،‬ܘܐܦ ܶܗܢܘܢ ܳܐ ܺ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܡܪܝܢ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܚܡܝܢ ܺ‬ ‫ܳܕܪ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܝ ܀‬ ‫ܳܳ‬ ‫ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܒܨ‬ ‫ܣܘ ܳܪܝܝܬܐ ܰܣ ܺܓܝ ܰܥܬܝܩܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܛܘܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܐ‪ ،‬ܠ ܰܕ ܶ ܳܝܪܐ‬ ‫ܠܗܘ‬ ‫ܦܪܐ ܢܶܫܐ ܰܣ ܺܓܝܐܬܐ ܳܣܠܩܢ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܡܖܢ ܬܫܒ ܳܚܬܐ‪ ،‬ܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܬ ܳܡܢ ܶܗܢܶܝܢ ܳܙ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܫܡ ܳܥܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܖܢ ܨܠ ܘܬܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡܐܠ ܳܕܟܗܢܶܐ ܰܘܠܬܫܥ ܳܝܬܐ ܺܕܝܠܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܶ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܢܓ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܢ ܰܬ ܳܡܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܝܘܢ ‪ܶ .‬ܗܢܶܝܢ ܳܐܦ ܳܐܟ ܳ‬ ‫ܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܐܠ ܰܚ ܺܟܝ ܶܡܐ ܶܡܢ ܶܐ ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܡܐ ܰܥܡ‬ ‫ܥܠ ܚܝܐ ܕܦܪܘܩܢ ܘܠܡ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ܳ ܰܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܳܬܢ ܰܣ ܺܓܝ ܖ ܳ‬ ‫ܟܠܗܝܢ ܰܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܰܡ ܳܝܐ ܰܩ ܺܕܝ ܶܫܐ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܚܡܢ ܠܗܝ ܕܝܪܐ ܩܕܝܫܬܐ܀‬ ‫ܒܕ ܳܝܪܐ ‪ .‬ܢܶܫܐ‬ ‫‪b‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪gh‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪j‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪j‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪j‬‬

‫‪j‬‬

‫‪m‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪j‬‬

‫‪l‬‬

‫‪n‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪j‬‬

‫‪o‬‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܰܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܒܘܢ ‪ .‬ܚܢܰܢ ܳܟ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܟܬܐ ܰܐܠ ܽ‬ ‫ܶܐ ܳܢܐ ܳܘܐܚܝ ܳܟ ܺ‬ ‫ܬܒܝܢܰܢ ܠܗ ܰܥܠ ܰܚ ܶܝܐ ܰܚܕܬܐ‬ ‫ܬܒܝܢ ̱ܚܢܢ ܐܓܪܬܐ ܐܪ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܺ ܶ ܰ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܺܕܝ ܰ‬ ‫ܒܗ ܶܕܐ ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܥܐ‪ .‬ܚܢܰܢ ܳܥ ܺ‬ ‫ܩܪܝܬܐ‪ .‬ܐ ܳܢܐ ܳܥ ܶܒܕ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ‬ ‫ܒܕܝܢܰܢ ܠ ܘܬ ܚܕ ܡܢ ܓܒܖܐ ܥܬܝܖܐ ܕ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܒܓܢܬܗ ܪܒܬܐ‪1‬܀‬ ‫ܒܒܝܬܗ ܳܘܐܚܝ ܳܥ ܶܒܕ‬ ‫ܶܳ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܡܐ ܰܐܢܬܝ ܺ‬ ‫ܚܡܐ ܐ ܳܢܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܝ؟ ܺܐܝܢ‪ܰ ،‬ܣ ܺܓܝ ܳܪ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟ ‪ܳ .‬ܪ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟܝ ‪ܳ .‬ܘܐܦ ܶܐ ܳܢܐ ܳܪ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܡܢܳܐ‬ ‫ܐܢܐ ܪܚܡ ܐ̱ܢܐ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܳܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܳܶ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܠܟܝ‪ܶ .‬ܐ ܳܢܐ ܳܪ ܶܚܡܢܳܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܳܪܚܡܐܳ‬ ‫ܠܗ‪ܺ ،‬‬ ‫ܠܟ‪ܰ .‬ܘܐܢ̱ܬ‪ ،‬ܪܚܡ ܐܢ̱ܬ ܠܝ؟ ܐܝܢ‪ ،‬ܣܓܝ ܪܚܡܢܐ‬ ‫ܺ ܶܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘ ܳܪ ܶܚܡ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܝ‪ .‬ܚܢܰܢ ܳܪ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܗ‪ܳ ،‬ܘܐܦ ܽ‬ ‫ܚܡܝܢܰܢ ܰܚܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܚܕ܀‬ ‫ܠܝ‪ .‬ܐܢܐ ܪܚܡܢܐ‬ ‫‪a‬‬

‫‪p‬‬

‫‪q‬‬

‫‪p‬‬

‫‪m‬‬

‫‪r‬‬

‫‪q‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪q‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪q‬‬

‫‪q‬‬

‫‪q‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪6.20. 3.23. 4.4. 6.24. 4.8. 5.1. 6.15. 6.21. 6.16.‬‬ ‫‪r‬‬

‫‪q‬‬

‫‪p‬‬

‫‪o‬‬

‫‪n‬‬

‫‪m‬‬

‫‪l‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪6.25. 6.26.1. 5.4.2. 5.9. 5.5. 4.5. 5.3.2. 6.23. 4.10.‬‬

‫‪j‬‬

‫‪iI‬‬

‫’‪‘In his big garden.‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

114

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

 Translate: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

In the high mountains, the mornings are very cold. I am now writing all the new words of today’s lesson. In the morning, we go up to the monastery that is on the mountain, and listen to the prayers of the priests. All the pupils go to the school and write there their lessons. The history of our people is very ancient. You eat hot bread with a cup of cold milk. He tells me that he has a long letter from you. I write the new words on the tablet and my pupils write them in their scrolls. Jesus Christ ascends from the cross to the kingdom of heaven of his father. Praise to you, our father, who is in heaven, and praise to your son, the savior of us all. My daughter sings in the church with all the pupils of the school. I love that woman, but she does not love me. She tells me that she has many books full of (with) ancient stories. We love ancient Greek fables very much. I work with all my strength. The kings write laws for their peoples. The dogs and cats from the entire city go to the house of that rich man and eat there. The servant works in the garden since (from) morning, and afterwards eats his bread and cheese on the green grass near a tree. The priests chant canticles in the monastery, and we listen to them1. Hail to you, Mary, the Lord is with you.

iI

ܰ ‫ܶܐܘ‬ ܰ ݀to go ʼezal ‫ܐܙܠ‬ ܶ to eat ʼeḵal ‫ܐ ܰܟܠ‬ ܰܶ to say, tell, speak ʼemar ‫ܐܡܪ‬ ܶ ܰ afterwards, then baṯarken ‫ܳܒܬܪܟܢ‬ ܳ ܽ cheese guḇnā ‫ܓܘܒܢܐ‬ ܳܳ ܰ ܳ ܰ monastery dayrā (dayraṯa) (fem.) )‫ܕܝܪܐ (ܕܝܖܬܐ‬ ܰ to sing, chant zәmar ‫ܙܡܪ‬ or ʼaw

1

Note that the word “them” can refer to both “priests” and “canticles;” use the correct gender with each option.

LESSON 6

115

ܳ ‫ܰܚ‬ ‫ܠܒܐ‬ ܳ ܺ hot ammimā ‫ܰܚܡܝܡܐ‬ ܳ ܳ student, pupil yāl ꝑā )ᵂ‫ܳܝܠ ܘܦܐ ( ܳܝܠ ܽܘܦܐ‬ ܳ cup kā ā ‫ܳܟܣܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܶܟ‬ scroll, volume kerkā ‫ܪܟܐ‬ ܰ to write kәṯaḇ ‫ܟܬܒ‬ (writing-)tablet lu ā (fem.) ‫ܠ ܽܘ ܳܚܐ‬ to, toward, near lәwāṯ ‫ܠ ܳܘܬ‬ ܳ ܰ bread la mā ‫ܠܚܡܐ‬ ܶ to ascend, go up sәleq ‫ܣܠܩ‬ ܰ to do, make, work ˁәḇaḏ ‫ܥܒܕ‬ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܰ people, nation ˁammā (ˁamme) )‫ܥܡܐ (ܥ ̱ܡܡܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܥ ܺܬ‬ old, ancient ˁatti ā ‫ܝܩܐ‬ ܳ ܳ morning, dawn saꝑrā (saꝑrәwaṯa) )‫ܰܨܦܪܐ ( ܰܨܦܖ ܳܘܬܐ‬ ܶ ݀to love, delight in rә em ‫ܪܚܡ‬ ܽ market, bazaar, square šu ā ‫ܫܘ ܳܩܐ‬ ܰ to hear, listen, obey šәmāˁ ‫ܫܡܥ‬ milk alḇā

ܰ ‫ܰܚܕ‬ each other, one another aḏ lә- aḏ ‫ܠܚܕ‬ ܳ ܳ hello, hail šәlām lāḵ (lәḵon) )‫ܫܠܡ ܠܟ (ܠܟܘܢ‬

iI

LESSON 7 INFINITIVE OF THE PӘˁAL VERBS 7.1. The Pәˁal verbs form their infinitives with the prefix‫ ܡܙ‬along the common ܰ ܶ ܰ ܶ ܰ ‫ ܶܡ‬mezmar ‘to sing’; ‫ܩܛܠ‬ ܰ ‫ ܶܡ‬pattern: ‫ܟܬܒ‬ ‫ܦܥܠ‬ ‫ ܡ‬meḵtaḇ ‘to write’; ‫ܙܡܪ‬ ‫ ܡ‬meqṭal ܰ ܶ ܶ ܶ ܰ ܰ ‘to kill’; ‫ ܡܪܚܡ‬mer am ‘to love’; ‫ ܡܥܒܕ‬meˁbaḏ ‘to work, make, do’; ‫ ܡܐܙܠ‬mezal ܰ ܶ ‘to go’; 1‫ ܡܐܡܪ‬memar ‘to say.’

ܶ

7.2. In the infinitive form of the verb ‫ ܣܠܩ‬sәleq ‘to go up, ascend,’ the consonant ܰ ܶ [l] is assimilated by the consonant [s] producing the form ‫ ܡܣܩ‬messaq (with ܳܳ ܰ ܶ doubled [s]), instead of ‫ܡܣܠܩ‬. Note that, unlike the participle ‫ ܐܙܐܠ‬āzzā, which preserved in spelling the assimilated letter lāmaḏ, there is no lāmaḏ in the infiniܰ ܶ tive ‫ܡܣܩ‬. 7.3. The infinitiives are often used in combination with the preposition‫( ܠܙ‬similar ܰ ܶ ܰ ܶ to ‘to’ in English infinitives), like ‫ ܠܡܟܬܒ‬lә-meḵtaḇ; ‫ ܠܡܙܡܪ‬lә-mezmar and so on. In such cases, the infinitive acquires a notion of intention (‘so that’ or ‘in order ܳ ܳ ܰ ܶ ܰ ‫ܠܡ‬ to do something’): ‫ܥܒܕ‬ ‫ܠܚܩܐܠ‬ ‫ ܰܕ ܺܘܝܕ ܐ ܶܙܠ‬dawwiḏ āzelܳ lә- aqlāܶ lә-meˁbaḏܰ ܳ ܰ ‫ܙܡܪ‬ ܳ ‫ܐ‬ ܶ ‫ܠܛܘܪܐ‬ ܰ ‫ܠܡ‬ ܽ ‫ܒܪ ܳܗܡ ܳܣܠܩ‬ ‘David goes to the field (in order) to work’; ‫ܒܕܝܪܐ‬ aḇrāhām sāleq lә-ṭurā lә-mezmar bә-ḏayrā ‘Abraham is going up the mointain to sing in the monastery.’ THE VERBS WITH 3RD WEAK RADICAL IN PӘˁAL 7.4. This group mostly includes verbs with the 3rd radical y ḏ (III-‫)ܝ‬. However, in the base form of the Pәˁal stem, the transitive verbs (those requiring a direct object), as well as several intransitives, substitute yoḏ with ālaꝑ. Since ālaꝑ at the end of a word forms an open syllable, the second radical takes zәqāꝑā instead of ܳ әzā ‘to see’ (√‫ ܒܢܳܐ ;)ܚܙܝ‬bәnā ‘to build’ ܳ ṣәḇā ‘to want’ (√‫ܚܙܐ ;)ܨܒܝ‬ pәṭā ā: ‫ܨܒܐ‬ ܳ sә ā ‘to swim, bathe’ (√‫)ܣܚܝ‬. (√‫ܣܚܐ ;)ܒܢܝ‬ 1

ܰ ܺ

ܺ

ܰ ‫ܡ‬. In West Syriac – ‫ ܡܐܙܠ‬and ‫ܐܡܪ‬ 116

LESSON 7

117

7.5. The majority of intransitive III-‫ ܝ‬verbs retain the radical y ḏ in their base ܺ әḏí ‘to rejoice’ (note that the 2nd radical in this case takes әḇāṣā). As form: ‫ܚܕܝ‬ the previous paragraph indicated, some intransitive verbs can have a final ālaꝑ, ܳ әḏā. and so the verb ‘to rejoice’ may also appear as ‫ܚܕܐ‬

ܳ ‘to 7.6. The active participles of the III-‫ ܝ‬verbs have the following forms (‫ܨܒܐ‬ want’): ܶ ܳ ‫ܳܨ‬ ṣāḇé ‫ܳܨܒܐ‬ ṣāḇyā ‫ܒܝܐ‬ ṣāḇeyn

‫ܳܨ ܶܒܝܢ‬

ṣāḇyān ‫ܳܨܒ ܳܝܢ‬

These forms are the same both for transitive and intransitive verbs. 7.7. In the infinitive forms of the III-‫ ܝ‬verbs the second vowel-sign is zәqāꝑā: ܳ ‫ ܶܡ‬me zā ‘to see’; ‫ܨܒܐ‬ ܳ ‫ ܶܡ‬meṣbā ‘to want’; ‫ܣܚܐ‬ ܳ ‫ ܶܡ‬me ā ‫ ܶܡܒܢܳܐ‬meḇnā ‘to build’; ‫ܚܙܐ‬ ‘to swim, bathe.’

ܳ is usually prefixed with the preposition ‫ܠܙ‬: 7.8. The verb that follows the verb ‫ܨܒܐ‬ ܶ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܳ‫ܛܘ ܳܪܐ ܳܪܡܐ‬ ܰ ܽ ‫ܠܗܘ‬ ܰ ‫ ܐܢܐ ܳܨܒܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܡܣܩ‬ʼenā ṣāḇé-nā lә-messaq lә-haw ṭurā rāmā ‘I ܶ ‫ ܳܗܢܶܝܢ ܢܶ ܶܫܐ ܳܨܒ ܳܝܢ‬hānen nešše ܳ ܳ ‫ܠܡ ܰܐܙܠ‬ want to climb that high mountain’; ‫ܠܟܗܢܐ‬ ṣāḇyān lә-mezal lә-ḵāhnā ‘Those women want to go to a priest.’ ܳ form the active participles of and conjugate  Along the pattern of the verb ‫ܨܒܐ‬ ܳ in the present tense. ܳ ،‫ ܒܢܳܐ‬،‫ܚܙܐ‬ the verbs ‫ܣܚܐ‬ THE “PLURAL” PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES 7.9. The pronominal suffixes that attach to the plural nouns are the following: singular

1st 2nd m. 2nd f. 3rd m. 3rd f.

ܰ -ay ‫ܶܝ‬ ܰ -ayk ‫ܶܝܟ‬ ܰ -ayk ‫ܶܝܟܝ‬ ܰ -aw ‫ܘܗܝ‬ ̱ ܶ ܶ -eh ‫ܶܝܗ‬

plural

ܰ

-ayn ‫ܶܝܢ‬

ܰ

-aykón ‫ܶܝܟܘܢ‬

ܶ ܰ

-aykén ‫ܶܝܟܝܢ‬

ܰ

-ayhón ‫ܶܝܗܘܢ‬

ܶ ܰ

-ayhén ‫ܶܝܗܝܢ‬

118

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

7.10. These pronominal suffixes seemingly substitute the emphatic plural endings ܶ ‫ ܶܐ‬and ‫ ܳܶ ܳܝܐ‬, but in reality those endings are contained in the “expanded” forms of the suffixes (ay>e). singular

1st

kәṯāḇayn ‫ܟܬܒܝܢ‬

‘my books’

‘our books’

ܰ ܳ

2nd m.

‘your books’

‘your books’ kәṯāḇayken ‫ܟܬܒܝܟܝܢ‬

‘your books’

‘your books’

2nd m.

kәṯāḇayhon ‫ܟܬܒܝܗܘܢ‬

‘his books’

‘their books’

3rd m.

kәṯāḇayhen ‫ܟܬܒܝܗܝܢ‬

‘her books’

‘their books’

singular

plural

bәnay ‫ܒܢܝ‬

bәnayn ‫ܒܢܝܢ‬

‘my sons’

‘our sons’

ܰ

ܰ

ܰ

bәnayk ‫ܒܢܝܟ‬

bәnaykon ‫ܒܢܝܟܘܢ‬

‘your sons’

‘your sons’

ܶ ܰ

bәnayk ‫ܒܢܝܟܝ‬

bәnayken ‫ܒܢܝܟܝܢ‬

‘your sons’

‘your sons’

ܰ

ܰ

bәnaw ‫ܘܗܝ‬ ̱ ‫ܒܢ‬

bәnayhon ‫ܒܢܝܗܘܢ‬

‘his sons’

‘their sons’

ܶ

3rd f.

ܶ ܰ ܳ

kәṯāḇeh ‫ܟܬܒܝܗ‬

ܰ

2nd f.

ܰ ܳ

kәṯāḇaw ‫ܘܗܝ‬ ̱ ‫ܟܬܒ‬

ܰ

1st

ܶ ܰ ܳ

kәṯāḇayk ‫ܟܬܒܝܟܝ‬

ܶ ܳ

3rd f.

ܰ ܳ

kәṯāḇaykon ‫ܟܬܒܝܟܘܢ‬

ܰ ܳ

3rd m.

ܰ ܳ

kәṯāḇayk ‫ܟܬܒܝܟ‬

ܰ ܳ

2nd f.

plural

ܰ ܳ kәṯāḇay ‫ܟܬܒܝ‬

ܶ ܰ

bәneh ‫ܒܢܝܗ‬

bәnayhen ‫ܒܢܝܗܝܢ‬

‘her sons’

‘their sons’

7.11. The masculine and feminine nouns that form their plural with “singular” pronominal suffixes:

ܳ ‫ ܳܶܬܐ‬attach the

LESSON 7 singular

ܳ

1st

2nd m.

‘my daughters’

‘our daughters’

ܳ ܳ bәnāṯāḵ ‫ܒܢܬܟ‬

bәnāṯḵ n ‫ܒܢܬܟܘܢ‬

݀‘your daughters’

‘your daughters’

bәnāṯeḵ ‫ܒܢܬܟܝ‬

bәnāṯḵen ‫ܒܢܬܟܝܢ‬

‘your daughters’

‘your daughters’

ܳ

ܶ ܳ

ܳ

bәnāṯeh ‫ܒܢܬܗ‬

bәnāṯh n ‫ܒܢܬܗܘܢ‬

‘his daughters’

‘their daughters’

ܳ ܳ

3rd f.

ܰ ܳ

bәnāṯan ‫ܒܢܬܢ‬

ܶ ܳ

3rd m.

plural

bәnāṯ ‫ܒܢܬܝ‬

ܶ ܳ

2nd f.

119

ܶ ܳ

bәnāṯāh ‫ܒܢܬܗ‬

bәnāṯhen ‫ܒܢܬܗܝܢ‬

‘her daughters’

‘their daughters’

ܰ

7.12. Some prepositions, such as ‫ܥܠ‬, are used with “plural” pronominal suffixes: singular

1st

ˁәlayn ‫ܥܠܝܢ‬

‘about/on me’

‘about/on us’

ˁәlayk ‫ܥܠܝܟ‬

ˁәlaykon ‫ܥܠܝܟܘܢ‬

‘about/on you’

‘about/on you’

ˁәlayk ‫ܥܠܝܟܝ‬

ˁәlayken ‫ܥܠܝܟܝܢ‬

‘about/on you’

‘about/on you’

ܰ

2nd m.

ܰ

2nd f. 3rd m. 3rd f.

plural

ܰ ˁәlay ‫ܥܠܝ‬

ܰ

ܰ

ܶ ܰ

ܰ ˁәlaw ‫ܘܗܝ‬ ̱ ‫ܥܠ‬

ˁәlayhon ‫ܥܠܝܗܘܢ‬

ܰ

‘about/on him’

‘about/on them’

ܶ ˁәleh ‫ܥܠܝܗ‬

ˁәlayhen ‫ܥܠܝܗܝܢ‬

‘about/on her’

‘about/on them’

ܶ ܰ

7.13. The “plural” pronominal suffixes also attach onto particle case acts as a link-verb (copula):

ܺ ‫ܐܝܬ‬, which in that

120

CLASSICAL SYRIAC singular

plural

‘I am’

ʼiṯayn ‫ܐܝܬܝܢ‬ ‘we are’

2nd m.

ʼiṯayk ‫ܐܝܬܝܟ‬ ‘you are’

ʼiṯayk n ‫ܐܝܬܝܟܘܢ‬ ‘you are’

2nd f.

ʼiṯayk ‫ܐܝܬܝܟܝ‬ ‘you are’

ʼiṯayken ‫ܐܝܬܝܟܝܢ‬ ‘you are’

3rd m.

ʼiṯaw ‫ܘܗܝ‬ ̱ ‫ܐܝܬ‬ ‘he is’

ʼiṯayh n ‫ܐܝܬܝܗܘܢ‬ ‘they are’

3rd f.

ʼiṯeh ‫ܐܝܬܝܗ‬ ‘she is’

ʼiṯayhen ‫ܐܝܬܝܗܝܢ‬ ‘they are’

1st

ܰ ܺ ʼiṯay ‫ܐܝܬܝ‬ ܰ ܺ

ܰ ܺ

ܰ ܺ

ܶ ܺ

ܰ ܺ

ܰ ܺ

ܶ ܰ ܺ

ܰ ܺ

ܶ ܰ ܺ

ܰ ܺ ܶ ܳ ܰ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܰ ‫ܠܗܝܢ ܐܝܬܝ‬ ‫ܕܗܠܝܢ ܐܖ ܳܥܬܐ ܟ‬ ‫ ܡ ܺܠܟ ܰܐ‬malkā ḏә-hālen ʼarˁāṯā ḵollәhen ʼiṯay ‘The king ܶ ܰ ‫ܕܗܢܘܢ‬ ܳ ‫ ܰܥܒܕܰܝܗܘܢ‬ˁaḇdayh n dә-hānon gaḇof all these lands am I’; ‫ܓܒܖܐ ܐܝܬܝܟܘܢ‬ ܰ ܺ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ ‫ܝܬ‬ ‫ ܰ ܦ‬pār ā re ʼiṯaykon ‘You are the servants of those men’; ‫ܘܗܝ ܕܥܠܡܐ‬ ̱ ܰ ܺ ‫ܪܘܩ ܰܐ ܐ‬ ܰ ܺ ܺ ә ܳ ʼiṯaw d -ˁālmā ‘He is the deliverer of the world; ‫ܘܗܝ ܐܝܬܝܢ ܕܡܫܝܚܐ‬ ̱ ‫ ܬܠܡܝܕ‬talmiḏaw ʼiṯayn da-mәši ā ‘We are the disciples of the Messiah.’

7.14. Accordingly, the pronominal suffixes with the particle gative forms of the same link-verb:

ܰ produce the ne‫ܠܝܬ‬

singular

plural

‘I am not’

laytayn ‫ܠܝܬܝܢ‬ ‘we are not’

2nd m.

laytayk ‫ܠܝܬܝܟ‬ ‘you are not’

laytaykon ‫ܠܝܬܝܟܘܢ‬ ‘you are not’

2nd f.

laytayk ‫ܠܝܬܝܟܝ‬ ‘you are not’

laytayken ‫ܠܝܬܝܟܝܢ‬ ‘you are not’

3rd m.

laytaw ‫ܘܗܝ‬ ̱ ‫ܠܝܬ‬ ‘he is not’

laytayhon ‫ܠܝܬܝܗܘܢ‬ ‘they are not’

3rd f.

layteh ‫ܠܝܬܝܗ‬ ‘she is not’

laytayhen ‫ܠܝܬܝܗܝܢ‬ ‘they are not’

1st

ܰ ܰ laytay ‫ܠܝܬܝ‬ ܰ ܰ

ܰ ܰ

ܰ ܰ

ܶ ܰ

ܰ ܰ

ܰ ܰ

ܶ ܰ ܰ

ܰ ܰ

ܶ ܰ ܰ

‫‪LESSON 7‬‬

‫‪121‬‬

‫ܰ ܳ ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܶܰ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܟܝܢ‬ ‫ܠܟܐ ܠ‬ ‫ܕܡ‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫ܘܗ‬ ‫‪dә-malkā laytayken ‘You are not the wives of the‬‬ ‫ܫ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫‪ܳ neššaw‬ܢ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܰ‬ ‫’‪ܽ hu hāšā hārkā laytaw ‘He is not here now.‬‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ;’‪king‬‬ ‫ܗܘ ܳܗܫܐ ܗܪܟܐ ܠܝܬ ̱‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫‪ can only be used with‬ܠܝܬ ‪ and‬ܐܝܬ ‪7.15. These extended forms of the particles‬‬ ‫‪nouns and adjectives, and not with active participles for the negative forms of the‬‬ ‫‪present tense.‬‬ ‫‪THE ADVERBIAL USE OF ADJECTIVES‬‬ ‫‪7.16. Some adjectives in the absolute state are used not only as nominal predicates,‬‬ ‫ܡܪܐ ܰܫ ܺ‬ ‫;’‪ܰ maryam zāmrā šappir ‘Mary sings nicely‬ܡ ܰܪܝܡ ܳܙ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܪ‬ ‫ܦ‬ ‫‪but also as adverbs:‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܒܠ ܳܫܢܳܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܣܘ ܳܪܝ ܳܝܐ‬ ‫‪ܺ biš kāṯeḇ-att bә-leššānā uryāyā ‘You write badly in‬ܒܝܫ ܳܟܬܒ ܐܢ̱ܬ‬ ‫‪Syriac.’ As these examples show, only masculine adjectives are used adverbially.‬‬

‫‪iI‬‬ ‫‪ Read, translate, and copy:‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬

‫ܽܳ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܶ ܺ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬܚܝܬ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܬܢ‪ܶ .‬ܡܢ ܰܬ ܳܡܢ‪ܶ ،‬‬ ‫ܫܡ ܳܝܐ ܳܙ ܳܪܩܐ‪،‬‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰܣܩ ܠܛܘܪܐ ܪܡܐ ܕܠܒܪ ܡܢ ܩܪ‬ ‫ܦܪܐ ܪ ܶܚܡܢܳܐ‬ ‫ܒܨ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ܺ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܝܬܢ‪ܺ ،‬ܐܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܠ ܢܶܐ ܰܝܖܘܩܐܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳܒܐܐܪ ܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܦܝܐ ܰܕܨܦܪܐ ܳܚܙܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܪ ܺܚܝܩ ‪ܳ .‬ܚܙܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܒܬܝܗ ܙܥܘܖܐ ܕܩܪ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܬܗ‪ܳ .‬ܚ ܶܙܐ ܐ ܳܢܐ ܳܐܦ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܒܢܰܝܢܳ ܳܫܐ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܕ ܰܓܢܝܗ ‪ܰ ،‬ܘܠܥܕܬܐ ܰܥܬܝܩܬܐ ܰܥܠ ܰܝܕ ܰܒܝܬܗܘܢ ܳܕܐܚܝ ܘܐܢ ̱‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܒܚܩ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ‪ܺ .‬ܐܝܬ ܶܡܢܗܘܢ ‪ܳ 1‬‬ ‫ܠܬܗܘܢ ‪ܺ ،‬ܘܐܝܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܒܓܢܰܝܗܘܢ ‪ܺ ،‬ܘܐܝܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܕܥ ܺ‬ ‫ܕܦ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܚܝܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܒܕܝܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܕܒܢܶܝܢ‬ ‫ܕ ܳܩܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܒܬܐ ܰܚܕܬܐ‪ .‬ܗܐ ܳܚܙܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܗܫܐ ܠ ܢܫܐ ܣܒܬܐ ܕܐܙܠܢ ܠܥܕܬܐ ܠܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܣܓܕ ܠܡ ܳܪܝܐ‬ ‫ܳ ܳܶ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܶ ܤ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܪܐ ܰܥ ܺܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܩܐ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܒܪ ܶܡܢ‬ ‫ܨܠ ܘܬܐ ݀ܠܗ‪ .‬ܘܗܐ ܚܙܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܛܠ ܝܐ ܕܣܚܝܢ ܒܢ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ‬ ‫ܺ ܺ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ ܺܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܠܢ‪ܳ .‬ܡܐ ܰܫ ܺܦܝܪ ܰܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܛܠ ܰ‬ ‫ܕܚ ܶܝܐ‬ ‫ܝܟܝܢ ܐܢܘܢ ܒܢܰܝܢܳ ܳܫܐ ܳܗܢܘܢ ܡ‬ ‫ܘܡܐ ܰܚܕܬܐ ܳܗ ܳܢܐ‪ .‬ܒܪ‬ ‫ܩܪ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܰ‬ ‫ܺܕܝܠܗܘܢ ܒܫܠܡܐ ܐܝܬܝܗܘܢ ܀‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܳ ܺ‬ ‫ܺ ܺ ܺ ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܝܬ ܽ‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ ܒܠ ܰܒܝܟ ܽܘܢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܡ ܽܢܘܬܐ ܐܝܬ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܰܕܠܐ ܳܗܐ ܶܡܛܠ ܕܗ‬ ‫ܝܟܘܢ‬ ‫ܒܪܝܟܝܢ ܐ‬ ‫ܒܥܝܢ ̱‬ ‫ܽ ܺ‬ ‫ܺ ܰ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܽܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܽ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܺ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܒܪ ܺ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܝܟܝܢ ܐܝܬܝܗܘܢ ܐܦ ܒܢܝܟܘܢ ܘܒܢܬܟܘܢ ܡܛܠ ܕܐܦ ܠܗܘܢ ܐܝܬ ܗܝܡܢܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܺ ܺ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܢ ‪ܰ .‬ܐ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܒܕܗ ܺ‬ ‫ܒܠ ܰܒܝ ܽ‬ ‫ܕܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܰܥ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܒܥܝܢ ̱‬ ‫ܝܫܐ ܒܪܝܟ ܐܝܬ ̱‬ ‫ܝܟܢܐ ܽܕܟܠ ܐ̱ܢܫ ܕܠܝܬ ̱‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܕܡ ܳܪܝܐ܀‬ ‫‪b‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪j‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪l‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫’‪‘there are (those) among (from) them.‬‬ ‫‪Note the use of West Syriac forms in this paragraph.‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

122

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

ܳ ‫ܫܠܡ‬ ܳ .‫ܠܟ‬ ܳ ܰ ‫ܫܠ ܳܡܐ‬ .‫ܘܫܝܢܳܐ‬ ܰ ܺ ܰ ܰ ‫ܝܟܢܳܐ ܐܝܬܝܟ ܰܝܘ ܳܡܢܳܐ؟‬ ‫ܐ‬ ܰ ܺ ‫ ܬ‬، ‫ܰܫ ܺܦܝܪ‬ ܳ ‫ܘܕܝ‬ .‫ܠܡ ܳܪܝܐ‬ ܶ ܺ ܰ ܰ ܳ ܰܺ ܳ ‫ܪܬܐ ܺܕ‬ ‫ܝܠܟ؟‬ ‫ܐܝܟܢܳܐ ܐܝܬܝܗ ܝܩ‬ ‫ܘ‬ ܰ ܺ ܰ ܽ ܺ ܰ ܳܳ ܳ ܳ ܽ .‫ ܟܠܢ ܐܝܬܝܢ ܒܚܘܠܡܢܐ ܛܒܐ‬،‫ܬܘܕܝ‬ ܰ ܺ ܳܰ ܰ ܽ ‫ܘܗܝ‬ ܳ ‫ܦܘ‬ ‫ܠܚܢܳܟ؟‬ ‫ܐ‬ ̱ ‫ܝܟܢܐ ܐܝܬ‬ ܺ ܳ ܺ ‫ ܐܝܬ‬.‫ܠܘ ܺܒܝܫ‬ ܰ ،‫ܰܫ ܺܦܝܪ‬ ܽ ‫ܠܝ ܳܗ ܳܫܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܦܘ‬ .‫ܠܚܢܳܐ ܰܣ ܺܓܝ ܛ ܳܒܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܦܘܫ ܰܒ‬ ܽ .‫ܫܠ ܳܡܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܶܙܠ ܰܒ‬ ݀‫ܫܠ ܳܡܐ܀‬ k

d

k

k

m

k

n

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

m

-

n

6.23. 7.2. 7.6. 7.16. 7.9. 5.4.2. 7.11. 6.15. 7.3. 7.1. 7.13. 7.14. 5.5. 3.14.

iI  Translate: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

I want to tell you that I love you very much. In this land there are many deep rivers and high mountains. All your pupils write in Syriac beautifully. Blessed is this land because the eye of the Lord is on it. All of God’s commandments are true and wise. The words, that you here from me, are the words of the Lord, because I am his prophet. Numerous are the old Greek scrolls in this Syriac monastery. How beautiful the churches and monasteries of your great city are! You are the Lord, because yours are all the wisdom and all the might. Blessed are you, Mary, and blessed is your son Jesus. In the morning I go to the field and cultivate it with my sons. You worship a god, who is not the true God. Everyone who has a garden works in it in the morning. What is he telling (tells) you about us? The air today is very clear, and, from this high mountain, I see even the distant villages.

LESSON 7

123

16 I want to bathe in this river, but that old man tells me, that the river is very 17 18 19 20

deep, and its waters are very cold. Today, my wife feels better (her health is better), and she does all domestic work (works of house). How beautiful your blue eyes are! You are in my eyes and in my heart. The people of this village say that there is a very ancient temple under their church.

iI ܰܳ

air ’ā’ar, ’āyar (fem.) ‫ܐܐܪ‬ ܳ ܰ ‫ܰܐ‬ how? ’aykannā ‫ܝܟܢܐ‬ ܳ to build bәnā ‫ܒܢܐ‬

ܺ ܳ ‫ܒܪ‬ ‫ܝܟܐ‬ ܳ ܰ ܳ human being, person barnāšā (bәnaynāšā) )‫ܰܒܪܢ ܳܫܐ (ܒܢܝܢ ܳܫܐ‬ ܳܽ ܳ ܰ faith, creed haymānuṯā ‫ܗܝܡܢܘܬܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܳܙ‬ blue zār ā ‫ܪܩܐ‬ ܳܳ ܽ health, recovery, convalescence ulmānā ‫ܚܘܠܡܢܐ‬ ܳ ܳ ܳ ݀field a lā ( a lāṯā) (fem.) )‫ܰܚܩܐܠ ( ܰܚܩܠܬܐ‬ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܳ day, day time yawmā (yawmāṯā, yawme) )‫ ܰܝܘܡܐ‬،‫ܰܝܘܡܐ ( ܰܝܘܡܬܐ‬ ܳ ܳ everyone k ll nāš ‫ ܟܠ ܢܫ‬،‫ܟܠ ܐ̱ܢܫ‬ ܳܳ ܰ ܶ ܶ ܶ ܶ ‫ ܠ‬،‫ܠ ܳܒܐ (ܠܒܐ‬ heart lebbā (lebbe, lebbawwāṯā) )‫ܒܘܬܐ‬ ܶ ܰ outside (of) lә-ḇār (men) )‫ܠܒܪ (ܡܢ‬ ܽ ܶ ݀because of, on account of, concerning meṭṭul ‫ܡܛܠ‬ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܳ ܰ river nahrā (nahrawwāṯā) )‫ܢܗܪܐ (ܢܗܖ ܳܘܬܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܳܣ‬ old man, elder, grandfather āḇā ‫ܒܐ‬ ܳ ܳ old woman āḇtā ‫ܣܒܬܐ‬ ܶ to worship, venerate sәǥeḏ ‫ܣܓܕ‬ ܳ to swim, bathe, wash sә ā ‫ܣܚܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܥ ܺܡ‬ deep, profound ˁammi ā ‫ܝܩܐ‬ ܳ ܳ ‫ܦܘ‬ ܽ ݀work, occupation, service, worship pul ānā ‫ܠܚܢܐ‬ ܰ to labor, work, cultivate, worship pәla ‫ܦܠܚ‬ ܳ to want, desire ṣәḇā ‫ܨܒܐ‬ blessed bәri ā

124

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

ܳ ‫ܰܪ ܺܚ‬ ‫ܝܩܐ‬ ܳ peace, tranquility šaynā ‫ܰܫܝܢܐ‬ ܳ ܶ ܺ ܳ ‫ܰܫ‬ clear, limpid, sincere šaꝑyā (šәꝑé/šәꝑiṯā) )‫ܫܦܝܬܐ‬/see 3.17. ‫ܦܝܐ (ܫܦܐ‬ ܺ ܰ thanks tawdi ‫ܬܘܕܝ‬ ܶ ݀beneath, below, under tә eṯ ‫ܬܚܝܬ‬ distant, remote, far ra

i ā

ܰ ‫ܰܐ‬ ‫ܝܟܢܳܐ ܕ‬ ܶ ܳ ܳ go in peace, good bye (to leaving person) zel ba-šәlāmā ‫ܙܠ ܰܒܫܠܡܐ‬ ܽ ܶ because, so that meṭṭul dә- ‫ܡܛܠ ܕ‬ ܳ ܽ ݀stay in peace, good bye (to staying person) puš ba-šәlāmā ‫ܦܘܫ ܰܒܫܠ ܳܡܐ‬ so that aykannā ḏә-

iI

LESSON 8 ‫ ܘ‬IN P ˁAL Ә

THE VERBS II-

8.1.1. In the Pәˁal stem, the verbs with the 2nd radical waw lose that radical and take zә āꝑā: ‫ ܳܩܡ‬ām ‘to arise, stand up’ (√‫ ܳܚܪ ;)ܩܘܡ‬ār ‘to look at, gaze’ (√‫;)ܚܘܪ‬ ‫ ܳܕܢ‬dān ‘to judge’ (√‫)ܕܘܢ‬. 8.1.2. Standing apart in this group is the verb “to die,” which has a әḇāṣā-y ḏ seܺ quence instead of zә āꝑā in the base form: ‫ ܡܝܬ‬miṯ (√‫)ܡܘܬ‬. 8.2. The active participles have the following forms (‫) ܳܩܡ‬: ā’em qāymin

ܶ ‫ܳܩܐܡ‬ ܺ ‫ܳܩ‬ ‫ܝܡܝܢ‬

ܳ ‫ܳܩ‬ ‫ܝܡܐ‬ ܳ āymān ‫ܳܩܝܡܢ‬

āymā

ܳ mә ām. 8.3. The infinitive – ‫ܡܩܡ‬  Along the pattern of the verb ‫ ܳܩܡ‬form the active participles and the infinitives ܺ ܳ of the verbs ‫ ܡܝܬ‬،‫ ܕܢ‬،‫ ܳܚܪ‬.

‫ ܝ‬IN P ˁAL Ә

THE VERBS I-

8.4. There are only a few verbs in this group. the 1st radical y ḏ ܶ ܺ In the base form, ܶ ә ܰ ܺ carries a ḇāṣā and sounds like [i]: ‫ ܝܬܒ‬iṯeḇ ‘to sit’; ‫ ܝܕܥ‬iḏaˁ ‘to know’; ‫ܺܝܠܦ‬ ܶ ileꝑ ‘to study’; ‫ ܺܝܠܕ‬ileḏ ‘to give birth.’

ܶ

8.5. The active participles have the following forms (‫) ܺܝܠܦ‬: yāleꝑ yālpin

ܶ ‫ܳܝܠܦ‬ ܺ ‫ܳܝ‬ ‫ܠܦܝܢ‬

ܳ ‫ܳܝ‬ ‫ܠܦܐ‬ ܳ yālpān ‫ܳܝܠܦܢ‬

yālpā

125

126

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

ܰ ܶ

8.6. In the infinitive, the 1st radical y ḏ changes to ālaꝑ: 1‫ ܡܐܠܦ‬melaꝑ.

ܶ

 Along the pattern of the verb ‫ ܺܝܠܦ‬, form the active participles and the infiniܶ tive of the verb ‫ ܺܝܠܕ‬.

ܶ

8.7. The verb ‫ ܺܝܬܒ‬forms active participles along the general rule, yāṯeḇ yāṯbin

ܶ ‫ܳܝܬܒ‬ ܺ ‫ܳܝ‬ ‫ܬܒܝܢ‬

ܳ ‫ܳܝ‬ ‫ܬܒܐ‬ yaṯbān ‫ܳܝܬ ܳܒܢ‬

yāṯbā

ܰ ܶ

but has a special form of the infinitive – ‫ ܡܬܒ‬mettaḇ. 8.8. The 3rd radical of the verb ‫ ܺܝ ܰܕܥ‬is guttural ‫ܥ‬, due to which rәḇāṣā is replaced with pәṯā ā in the masc. sing. active participle: yāḏaˁ yāḏˁin

‫ܳܝ ܰܕܥ‬ ܺ ‫ܳܝ‬ ‫ܕܥܝܢ‬

ܳ ‫ܳܝ‬ ‫ܕܥܐ‬ ܳ yāḏˁān ‫ܳܝܕܥܢ‬

yāḏˁā

ܶ

The infinitive – ‫ ܡ ܰܕܥ‬meddaˁ. 8.9.1. Standing apart in the I-‫ ܝ‬group is the verb “to give” with root ‫ܝܗܒ‬. In the Pәˁal base form, the radical ‫ ܗ‬is silent, which results in ‫ܗܒ‬ ̱ ‫ ܰܝ‬yaḇ. 8.9.2. In the active participles, however, the radical ‫ ܗ‬is restored, and the verb produces regular forms: yāheḇ yāhbin

‫ܳܝ ܶܗܒ‬ ܺ ‫ܳܝ‬ ‫ܗܒܝܢ‬

ܳ ‫ܳܝ‬ ‫ܗܒܐ‬ yāhbān ‫ܳܝܗ ܳܒܢ‬

yāhbā

ܰ ܶ

8.10. The infinitive of this verb is formed from another root – ‫ ܡܬܠ‬mettal.  Conjugate all the I-‫ ܝ‬verbs presented in this lesson in the present tense.

1

ܰ ‫ ܺܡ‬milaꝑ in West Syriac. ‫ܐܠܦ‬

‫‪LESSON 8‬‬

‫‪127‬‬

‫‪iI‬‬ ‫‪ Read, translate, and copy:‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܡܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܟܐ‪ܰ 2‬ܐܢ̱ܬܝ ܒܢܶ ܶܫܐ‪ܰ ،‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܟܝ‪ܰ ،‬ܡ ܰܪܝܡ‪ܳ ،‬ܡ ܰܪܢ‪ܰ 1‬ܥ ܶܡܟܝ ‪ܰ ،‬‬ ‫ܡܒ ܰܪܟ‪̱ 3‬ܗܘ ܶܦܐܪܐ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ‬ ‫ܰܕܟ ܶ‬ ‫ܪܣܟܝ‪ܳ ،‬ܡ ܰܪܢ ܺܝܫܘܥ ܺ‬ ‫ܡܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܚܐ܀‬ ‫‪a‬‬

‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܠܐ ܳ ܳܗܐ ܳܡ ܰܪܢ ܳܝ ܶܬܒ ܰܒ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܟܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܡܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܝ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܒ ܶܪܗ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܪܘ ܳܚܐ ܰܩ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܳܝܐ‪ܳ ،‬‬ ‫ܝܫܐ‪ .‬ܠܐ ܳܗܐ‬ ‫ܬܒܝܢ ܨܶ ܰܝܕ ̱‬ ‫ܗܘ ܳܝ ܶܗܒ ܰ‬ ‫ܳܚ ܶܐܪ ܰܒܢ ܶܡܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܝ ܰܕܥ ܟܠ ܶܡ ܶܕܡ‪ܽ .‬‬ ‫ܫܡ ܳܝܐ‪ܳ ،‬ܚ ܶܙܐ ܟܠ ܶܡ ܶܕܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܢ ܟܠ ܶܡ ܶܕܡ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܒܝܢܶܗ ܳܝܠ ܺܕܝܢ ܺܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܕ ܶܐܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܕܒܝܫ‪ܳ ،‬‬ ‫ܕܛܒ ܘܟܠ ܶܡ ܶܕܡ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܟܡܬܗ‪ .‬ܒܨܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܠ ܢܐ ܶܦܐܖܐ‪،‬‬ ‫ܒܚ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܺ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܳܩ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܠܗ ܳܝ ܺ‬ ‫ܗܪܐ ܶܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܒܡܠܬܗ‬ ‫ܘܣܗܪܐ‪،‬‬ ‫ܡܫܐ‬ ‫ܗܒܝܢ ܠܢ ܢܘ‬ ‫ܘܡܝܬܝܢ ܰܡܠܟܐ‪ ،‬ܒܚ‬ ‫ܝܡܝܢ‬ ‫ܶ ܳ ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܩܝܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܳܝܐ ܽܐܘ ܳܟ ܳܡܐ ܰܟܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܠ ܰ‬ ‫ܳܣ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܝܬ ܪ ܳܒܐ ܶܡܢܶܗ ܀‬ ‫ܟܒܐ ܕܰܠ ܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫‪c‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‬‫‬‫‬‫‬‫‬‫‬‫‬‫‬‫‬‫‬‫‬‫‬‫‪-‬‬

‫ܺ‬ ‫ܒܪܝܟ ܰܨ ܳ‬ ‫ܦܪܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܒܪܝܟ ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܒ ܰܪܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܟܢܳܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܟ‪4‬؟‬ ‫ܶܫܡܝ ܰܝܥܩܘܒ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ܳ ܳܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܟܐ ܐܬܐ ܐܢ̱ܬ؟‬ ‫ܡܢ ܐ‬ ‫ܳܶ ܳ ܶ ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܬܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܡܢ ܥܕܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܟܐ ܐ ܶܙܠ ܐܢ̱ܬ؟‬ ‫ܘܐܠ‬ ‫ܳܐ ܶܙܠ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܒܝܬܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܡܢܳܐ ܳܨ ܶܒܐ ܰܐܢܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܒܒܝܬܐ؟‬ ‫ܥܒܕ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ ܳ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܨ ܶܒܐ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ ܠܡܩܪܐ ܘܠܡܟܬܒ ܐܓܪܬܐ ܠ ܘܬ ܐܚܝ ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܟܬܒ ܠ ܳܘܬ ܰܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܚܘܟ ؟‬ ‫ܠܡܢܳܐ ܳܨ ܶܒܐ ܐܢ̱ܬ ܠܡ‬ ‫ܶ ܺ ܰ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ܰ ܺ ܳ ܶܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܳܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܪܬܐ‪ ،‬ܪ ܺܚܝܩ ܡܢ‬ ‫ܡܛܠ ܕܥܡܪ ܒܡܕܝܢ̱ܬܐ ܐ̱‬ ‫ܝܟܢܳܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܰܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܗ؟‬ ‫‪e‬‬

‫‪j‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪l‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪j‬‬

‫‪m‬‬

‫‪l‬‬

‫‪n‬‬

‫ܰ ܳ‬

‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳܡ ܳܪܝܐ ܺܕܝܠܢ =‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪ܰ .‬‬ ‫ܡܒܪܟܬܐ ‪Absolute state of‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪.‬ܡܒܪܟܐ ‪Absolute state of‬‬

‫ܫܡܟܝ‪ܶ ،‬‬ ‫ܫܡܟ‪ܶ ،‬‬ ‫ܫܡܢ‪ܶ ،‬ܫܡܟܘܢ‪ܶ ،‬ܫ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܟܝܢ‪ܶ ،‬ܫܡܗܘܢ‪ܶ ،‬ܫ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܡܗ‪ܰ ،‬‬ ‫ܫܡܗ‪ܳ ،‬‬ ‫ܶܫܡܝ‪ܳ ،‬‬ ‫ܡܗܝܢ‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

128

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

ܶ ‫ܫܡܗ ܰܐ‬ ܶ .‫ܦܪܝܡ‬ ܰ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬ ܳܥ ܶܒܕ ܐܢ̱ܬ؟‬ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ ‫ܒܒܝܬ ܶܣ‬ ܶ ‫ܠܦ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ‬ .‫ܦܪܐ‬ ‫ ܝ‬،‫ ܐܠ ܥܒܕ ܐ̱ܢܐ‬،‫ܐܠ‬ ܶ ܳ ܰ ܰ ‫ܦܪܐ ܺܕ‬ ܳ ‫ܒܒܝܬ ܶܣ‬ ܶ ‫ܠܦ ܰܐܢ̱ܬ‬ ‫ܝܠܢ؟‬ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬ ܝ‬ ܶ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܶ ‫ܦܪܐ ܐ‬ ܳ ܶ ܳ ‫ܒܒܝܬ ܶܣ‬ ܶ ‫ܠܦ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ‬ ܶ ‫ܠܦ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ‬ .‫ܚܪ ܳܢܐ‬ ‫ ܝ‬،‫ܦܪܐ ܺܕܝܠܟܘܢ‬ ‫ ܐܠ ܝ‬،‫ܐܠ‬ ̱ ‫ܒܒܝܬ ܣ‬ ܶ ܺ ‫ܳܝ‬ ܳ ‫ܒܒܝܬ ܶܣ‬ ܶ ‫ܠܦܝܢ ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ‬ ܽ ‫ܦܪܐ ܺܕܝܠܟܘܢ ܠ ܳܫܢܳܐ‬ ‫ܣܘ ܳܪܝ ܳܝܐ؟‬ ܺ ܶ ܺ ‫ܠ ܳܫܢܶܐ ܐܚܖܢܶܐ ܳܝ‬ .‫ܠܦܝܢ ̱ܚܢܰܢ‬ ‫ ܳܘܐܦ‬،‫ܐܝܢ‬ ̱ ܰ ܳ ܶ ‫ܠܡܫܬܐ ܶܡ ܶܕܡ ܰܥܡܝ ؟‬ ‫ܳܨ ܶܒܐ ܐܢ̱ܬ‬ ܺ ‫ܰܬ‬ .1‫ ܳܟ ܳܣܐ ܰܕܩܖܺ ܶܝܪܐ‬،‫ܘܕܝ‬ h

a

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

k

l

m

n

5.4.1. 8.7. 7.12. 8.2. 7.6. 8.8. 8.9.2. 8.5. 5.7. 7.3. 7.7. 5.3.2. 6.16. 7.16.

iI  Translate: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1

I know the story of the life and death of Jesus because I read the Gospels. In other lands live other people. Where do all the pupils go in the morning? In the morning, I drink a cup of hot milk or cold water. The pupils write the new words on their scrolls and then read them. He works in his field now, not in the garden of his brother. I know that you know that he knows. The king wishes to build a very large temple in his city. I want to know everything. She doesn’t want to sit near me, but near you. The pupils are seated under a tree, and their teacher is also seated with them. The one who )‫ ( ܰܡܢ ܕ‬reads the Gospels, knows the names of all the Apostles. The fruit, that is in your wife’s womb, is from the Holy Spirit. At (in) night, cold wind blows (comes) from those high mountains. This tree dies, because there is no water beneath it. I look at her, but she does not see me. By the will of God the earth gives birth to bread and fruits.

ܶ ܺ‫( ܰܡ ܳܝܐ ܰܩܖ‬5.9.). = ‫ܝܪܐ‬

-

LESSON 8 18 19 20

129

The one who reads many books, knows many stories. In this church the language of prayers is Syriac, in other churches it is Greek. Why do Jacob and Ephrem stand up, and where do they want to go?

iI other, another

ܳܶ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܳܶ )‫ܚܖ ܳܢܝܬܐ‬ ̱‫ܐ‬/‫ܐ̱ܚܖܢܐ‬/‫ܰܐ̱ܚܪܢܐ (ܐ̱ܚܪܬܐ‬ ܶ Ephrem ʼaꝑrem ‫ܐܦܪܝܡ‬ ܳܶ to come, arrive ʼeṯā ‫ܐܬܐ‬ ܳ to judge dān ‫ܕܢ‬ to look, gaze at, behold ār (bә-) )‫ܳܚܪ (ܒܐ‬ to know, understand iḏaˁ ‫ܺܝ ܰܕܥ‬ to give ya ‫ܗܒ‬ ̱ ‫ܰܝ‬ ܶ ܺ to give birth ileḏ ‫ܝܠܕ‬ ܶ to learn ileꝑ ‫ܺܝܠܦ‬ ܽ ‫ܰܝܥܩܘܒ ( ܰܝ‬ Jacob yaˁ ḇ )ᵂ‫ܥܩܘܒ‬ ܶ to sit, sit down, be seated iṯeḇ ‫ܺܝܬܒ‬ ܳ ܳ ܳ belly, womb karsā (karsāṯā) )‫( ( ܰܟܖܣܬܐ‬fem.) ‫ܰܟܪܣܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܐܠ‬ where to? laykā ‫ܝܟܐ‬ ܳܳ why? lә-mānā ‫ܠܡܢܐ‬ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܳ ‫ܡܒ‬ ܰ blessed mәḇarrәḵā (mәḇarraḵtā) )‫ܡܒܪܟܬܐ‬ ( ‫ܪܟܐ‬ ܶ ݀thing, something meddem ‫ܡ ܶܕܡ‬ ܺ to die miṯ ‫ܡܝܬ‬ ܰ to dwell, live ˁәmar ‫ܥܡܪ‬ ܳ ܺ ܳ ܶ fruit perā )ᵂ‫ܦܐܪܐ (ܦܐܪܐ‬ ܳ ܳ ܶ‫ܨ‬ will ṣeḇyānā ‫ܒܝܢܐ‬ to, towards, near ṣeḏ )‫ (ܨܶܐܕ‬1‫ܨܶܝܕ‬ to arise, stand up qām ‫ܳܩܡ‬ ܳ to call, summon, invite, read qәrā ‫ܩܪܐ‬ ܳ ܽ wind, spirit ru ā (ru e, ru āṯā) )‫ ܖ ܽܘ ܳܚܬܐ‬،‫( (ܖ ܽܘ ܶܚܐ‬fem.2) ‫ܪܘ ܳܚܐ‬

ә

renā ( әreṯā/ әrāne/ әrānyāṯā)

ܶ ܶ‫ ܨ‬،‫ܘܗܝ‬ This preposition is used with the “plural” pronominal suffixes: ،‫ܝܕܝܗ‬ ̱ ‫ ܨܶ ܰܝܕܝܟܝ ܨܶ ܰܝܕ‬،‫ܨܶ ܰܝܕܝܟ‬ ܶ ܶ ܶ ܶ ܶ ܶ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܰ ‫ ܨܝܕܝܗܝܢ‬،‫ ܨܝܕܝܗܘܢ‬،‫ ܨܝܕܝܟܝܢ‬،‫ ܨܝܕܝܟܘܢ‬،‫ܨܝܕܝܢ‬. ܳ ‫ ܽܪܘ ܳܚܐ ܰܩ ܺܕ‬ru ā qaddišā ‘Holy Spirit’, where ‫ ܽܪܘ ܳܚܐ‬is masculine. 2 With the exception of ‫ܝܫܐ‬ 1

،‫ܨܶ ܰܝܕܝ‬

130

CLASSICAL SYRIAC name šәmā (šәmāhe, šәmāhāṯā)

ܳ ܳ ܳ )‫ܫܡܗܬܐ‬ ،‫ܫܡܐ (ܫ ܳܡ ܶܗܐ‬ ܳ to drink šәṯā ‫ܫܬܐ‬

ܺ ܳ ‫ܒܪܝܟ ܰܨ‬ ‫ܦܪܟ‬ ܺ ܰ ܰ ‫ܒܪܝܟ ܰܘ‬ response to above bәriḵ wa-mәḇarraḵ ‫ܡܒܪܟ‬ ܶ everything koll meddem ‫ܟܠ ܡ ܶܕܡ‬ ܳ ܶܶ ܺ ( ‫ܕܛܒ‬ everything (that is) good (bad) koll meddem dә-ṭāḇ (dә-ḇiš) )‫ܕܒܝܫ‬ ‫ܟܠ ܡܕܡ‬ ܽ ܳ Holy Spirit ru ā qaddišā ‫ܪܘ ܳܚܐ ܰܩ ܺܕܝܫܐ‬ Blessed (be) your morning (greeting) bәriḵ ṣaꝑrāḵ

iI

LESSON 9 THE ABSOLUTE STATE OF NOUNS 9.1. The absolute state of nouns is formed in the same way as that of adjectives. Masculine nouns (as well as feminine ones that morphologically resemble the masܳ culine) switch to the absolute state by dropping the emphatic ending ‫ܶܐ‬. If it results in a single or doubled consonant at the end of the word, the absolute state has ܳ ә ܶ ܳ nām ; ‫ ܳܦܖܘܩ‬pār ; ‫ ܰܠܐܳܗ‬ʼallāh; ܳ‫ܠ‬ been produced: ‫ܟܬܒ‬ k ṯāḇ; ‫ܢ‬ ‫ܫ‬ leššān; ‫ܣ‬ ‫ܡܘ‬ ‫ܢ‬ ܶ ܰ ‫ ܽܪܘܚ‬ru ; ‫ ܐܒ‬āḇ; ‫ ܐܡ‬ʼemm, and so on. 9.2. If the dropping of the emphatic ending leaves more than one consonant at the end of a word, then an additional vowel appears between them, which in some ܳ cases can cause the revocalization of the entire word. Thus, the word ‫ ܒܪܐ‬bәrā in ܰ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܶ the absolute state is ‫ ܰܒܪ‬bar; ‫ ܫܡܐ‬šәmā is ‫ ܫܡ‬šem; ‫ ܥܠܡܐ‬ˁālmā is ‫ ܥܠܡ‬ˁālam or ܶ ܰ la mā ܶ šәmeš; ‫ܚܡܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܠ‬ ܳ ‫ ܶܫ‬šemšā is ‫ܫܡܫ‬ ‫ ܳܥܠܡ‬ˁālem (depending on the meaning); ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܡܫ‬ ܶ ܳ ‫ ܰܡ‬malkā is ‫ܡܠܟ‬ ܰ ‫ ܰܟ‬kawkaḇ; ܳ ‫ ܰܟ‬kawkәḇā is ‫ܘܟܒ‬ ܶ lә em; ‫ܠܟܐ‬ is ‫ܠܚܡ‬ mәleḵ; ‫ܘܟܒܐ‬ ܳ ܽ ‫ ܢܘܗܪܐ‬nuhrā is ‫ ܽܢܘ ܰܗܪ‬nuhar, and so on. 9.3. If a word contains the diphthongs aw or ay, in absolute state they, as a rule, ܳ ‫ܰܝ‬ ܽ /‫ ܝܘܡ‬yom/yum from ‫ܘܡܐ‬ are shortened to [o] (or [u] in West Syriac) and [e]: ‫ܝܘܡ‬ ܳ ܶ yawmā; ‫ ܒܝܬ‬beṯ from ‫ ܰܒܝܬܐ‬baytā. 9.4. There are many words that have irregular forms in the absolute state; the word ܳ‫ ܺܐܝܕܐ‬ʼiḏā, for example, becomes ‫ ܰܝܕ‬yaḏ. 9.5. The feminine nouns in the absolute state drop the feminine formant ‫ܬ‬, which produces forms that, like the adjectives, look like masculine nouns in the emphatic ܳ ܳ ܶ ܳܶ ܰ ܳ ‫ ܰܡ‬malkā; ‫ܠܬܐ‬ state. Thus, ‫ ܡܠܟܬܐ‬mlakәṯā becomes ‫ܠܟܐ‬ ‫ܡ‬ mellәṯā becomes ‫ܐܠ‬ ‫ܡ‬ ܳ ܺ ܳ ܰ ܶ ܳ ә ә ܺ mellā; ‫ ܶܡܕܝܢ̱ܬܐ‬m ḏittā becomes ‫ ܡܕܝܢܐ‬m ḏinā (with restored nun); ‫ ܐܓܪܬܐ‬ʼeggartā ܳ ܰܺ ܳ ܰ ‫ ܐ‬ʼeggarrā; ‫ܪܬܐ‬ ‫ ܝܩ‬iqqartā becomes ‫ ܺܝ ܰܩ ܳܪܐ‬i arrā, and so on. becomes ‫ܓܪܐ‬

131

132

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

ܳ

ܳ ܺ

9.6. The suffixes ‫ ܽܘܬܐ‬and ‫ ܶܝܬܐ‬in the absolute state drop both the ‫ ܬ‬formant and the ܳ ܺ ܰ ܳ ܽ ‫ ܰܡ‬malkú from ‫ܠܟܘ ܳܬܐ‬ ܺ ‫ ܰܬ‬tašˁ from ‫ܝܬܐ‬ ܽ ‫ܫܥܝ ; ܰܡ‬ ‫ ܬܫܥ‬and so on. The ending ‫ܶܐ‬: ‫ܠܟܘ‬ ܰ contracted form ‫ ܒܝ‬bay, which is sometimes viewed as a variation of the absolute ܳ state of the word ‫ ܰܒܝܬܐ‬, can also be included in this group

ܰ ܰ

ܳ ܰ

9.7. Some feminine words have irregular absolute forms, like ‫ ܐܢ̱ܬܬ‬ʼattaṯ from ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܬܐ‬ ܳ and ‫ ܰܒ ̱ܪܬ‬baṯ from ‫ ܰܒܪܬܐ‬. 9.8. As previously indicated, the absolute state was the regular, indefinite form of a word (like ‘a book’ in English) in the earlier Aramaic dialects, while the emphatic state was the definite form (‘the book’). In Syriac, the emphatic became the regular form, while the absolute became limited to several grammatical functions (see below). As the examples above show, the absolute state of a word is not always predictable, and it is recommended to verify the absolute form of each new word1. The absolute state of plural nouns will be presented in subsequent lessons. THE USE OF THE ABSOLUTE STATE OF NOUNS 9.9. In Syriac, the absolute state has a limited use. In particular, it is used with numerals, which will be discussed in subsequent lessons. 9.10.1. The nouns assume the absolute state in combination with the words ‫ܟܠ‬ ܳ ܰ ‫ ܟܠ‬koll gәḇar ‘every, each man’3; ‫ܟܠ‬ ‘each, every’ and ‫ ܕܐܠ‬dәlā ‘without’ܰ 2: ‫ܓܒܪ‬ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܶ ‫ ܡܠܟ‬koll mәleḵ ‘every king’; ‫ ܟܠ ܐܢ̱ܬܬ‬k ll ʼattaṯ ‘each woman’; ‫ ܕܐܠ ܠܐܗ‬dәlā ʼalܳܶ ܳ lāh ‘without God’; ‫ ܕܐܠ ܡܐܠ‬dәlā mella ‘without a word.’ ܳ 9.10.2. This rule, however, is not mandatory, especially for the word ‫ܕܐܠ‬, which can ܳ ‫ ܳܕܐܠ ܰܗ‬dәlā haymān and ܽ ‫ܝܡ‬ be followed by a singular noun in the emphatic state: ‫ܢܘ‬ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ә ‫ܝܡ ܽܢܘܬܐ‬ ‫ ܕܐܠ ܗ‬d lā haymānuṯā ‘without faith.’ 9.11. The absolute state can be found in many stable phrases and expressions, inܰ cluding those containing a repetition of a word: ‫ܒܟܠܙܒܢ‬ bә-ḵoll-zәḇan ‘always’; ܰ ‫ ܰܒ‬ba-zәḇan ‘sometimes, once upon a time’; ‫ܙܒܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܙܒܢ‬ ܰ zәḇan-zәḇan ‘often, fre‫ܙܒܢ‬ 1

In the Syriac-English dictionary, the irregular absolute forms are listed after the nouns in round brackets. ܳ 2 This word is a combination of ‫ ܕ‬and ‫ ;ܐܠ‬it also means ‘not to’, ‘in order not to.’ ܶ ܰ ‫ ܟܠ‬k ll gaḇre or ‫ܒܖܐ ܟܠܗܘܢ‬ ܶ ‫ ܰܓ‬gaḇre k llәhon “all the men.” 3 Compare with ‫ܓܒܖܐ‬

LESSON 9

133

ܳ

ܳ ܰ

ܳ

quently (all from the word ‫ ܙܒܢܐ‬zaḇnā ‘time’); ‫ ܫܠܡ ܠܟ‬šәlām lāḵ ‘peace to you, ܶ ܺ ܳ ܰ ܳ hello’; ‫ ܠܥܠܡ ܥܠܡܝܢ‬lә-ˁālam ˁālmin ‘for ever and ever’; ‫ ܝܩܡ ܡܢ ܝܘܡ‬yom men ܰ ܳ ܺ ‫ܡܕܝܢܳܐ ܠ‬ ܺ ‫ ܶܡܢ‬men mәḏinā la-mәḏinā ‘from town to yom ‘(from) day to day’; ‫ܡܕܝܢܐ‬ ܰ ‫ ܶܡܢ ܰܒܝ‬men bay lә-ḇay ‘from one house to another,’ and so on. town’; ‫ܠܒܝ‬ PRONOMINAL ANTICIPATION 9.12. One of the stylistic devices of the Syriac language is the so-called “pronominal anticipation”; the word with a prefixed preposition is preceded by the same prefix with a pronominal suffix, which agrees in gender and number with the ܰ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܰܳ ܰ ܶ ܶ noun: ‫ ܐܡܪ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܗ ܐܠܢ̱ܬܬܝ‬āmar-nā lāh l-attaṯ ‘I tell her, my wife’; ‫ܠܡܩܛܠ ܠܗ‬ ܳ ܰ lә-me ṭal leh la-mәši ā ‘to kill him, the Messiah’; ‫ܡܕܝܢܬܐ‬ ܺ ‫ܠ‬ ܳ ‫ܡܫ‬ ‫ܝܚܐ‬ ̱ ܺ ‫ ܳܒܗ ܰܒ‬bāh bamәḏitta ‘in it, in (this very) city,’ ‘in the city itself.’ In most cases, the pronominal anticipation may be safely ignored in translation.

ܶ

ܳ

THE PREPOSITION ‫ܒܠܥܕ‬

ܶ

ܳ

9.13. The preposition ‘without’ has another form in Syriac, ‫ ܒܠܥܕ‬belˁāḏ, which ܳ can combine with the “plural” pronominal suffixes (‫ ܕܐܠ‬cannot be combined with ܺܳ ܰ ܰ ܳ ܶ ܳ lә-yammā ḇelˁāḏay pronominal suffixes): ‫ܠܝܢ ܠ ܰܝܡܐ ܒܠܥ ܰܕܝ‬ ̱ ‫ ܐܚ ܳܝ ܐܙ‬aܳ ay āzzin ܳ ܶ ܳ ‫ܚܢܰܢ ܳܐܠ ܳܨ ܶܒܝܢ ̱ܚܢܰܢ ܠܡܩܪܐ‬ ‘My brothers go to the sea without me’; ‫ܠܗܢܐ ܟܬ ܳܒܐ‬ ܳ ‫ ܶܒ‬әnan lā ṣāḇeyn-nan lә-meqrā lә-hānā ḵәṯāḇā ḇelˁāḏaw ‘We don’t want ‫ܘܗܝ‬ ̱ ‫ܠܥ ܰܕ‬ to read this book without him.’

iI  Read, translate, and copy:

ܳ ‫ܒܡ‬ ܰ ‫ܳܩ ܳܐܠ ܳܕܩ ܶܪܐ‬ ‫ܕܒܪܐ‬

1

ܰ ܶ ܺ ‫ܦܘ ܰܡܝܗܘܢ ܰܕܢܒ ܰܝܘܗܝ ܳܘܐܠ ܳܢ‬ ܶ ‫ܡܥܝܢ ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ‬ ܺ ‫ܳܫ‬ ܽ ‫ܘܗܝ ܕ ܳܡ ܳܪܝܐ ܶܡܢ‬ ‫ܛܪܝܢ ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ‬ ̱ ܻ ̱ ‫ܠܗܝܢ ܠܡܠ‬ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܺ ‫ܫܡ ܳܝܐ ܳܘܐܠ ܳܕ‬ ܺ ‫ ܳܥ‬.‫ܚܠܝܢ ܐܢܬܘܢ ܶܡܢܶܗ‬ ܶ‫ܶܐܢ‬ ܶ ‫ܠܗ ܰܕܠܐ ܳ ܳܗܐ‬ ܺ ܰ ܳ ‫ܒܪܝܢ‬ ‫ܢ‬ ‫ܡ‬ ‫ܠܩ‬ ‫ܢ‬ ‫ܬܘ‬ ‫ܢ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܝܢ‬ ‫ܡܥ‬ ‫ܫ‬ ‫ܐܠ‬ . ‫ܢ‬ ‫ܝ‬ ̱ ̱ ܶ ܶ ܶ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܽ ܽ ܰ ܰ ܳ ܳ ،‫ ܐܘܪܫܠܡ‬،‫ ܐܘܪܫܠܡ‬.‫ܘܗܝ ܕܐܒܘܢ ܕܒܫܡܝܐ‬ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ‬ ̱ ‫ܒܟܠܙܒܢ ܥܠܝܗܘܢ ܥܠ ܦܘܩܕܢ‬ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܺ ܰ ܰ ܳ ܺ ܰ ܶ ܳ ܳ ‫ܛܐܠ ܐܢ̱ܬܝ ܠܢܒ ܶܝܐ‬ ‫ ܳܥܒܪܝܢ ܕܐܠ ܕܚܐܠ ܰܥܠ ܢܡܘ ܳܣܐ ܰܕܝܢܝܟܘܢ‬.‫ܕܫܠܚ ܠ ܳܘܬܟܝ ܠܐ ܳܗܐ‬ ‫ܩ‬ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܳ ‫ ܕܐܠ ܰܗ‬.‫ܺܒܝ ܶܫܐ‬ ، ‫ ܠܝܬ ܶܚܟܡܬܐ ܒܖ ܰܫܝܟܘܢ‬. ‫ܝܡ ܽܢܘ ܐܢܘܢ ܠܒܝܟܘܢ ܰܘܕܐܠ ܽܢܘ ܰܗܪ ܰܥܝܢܝܟܘܢ‬ b

b

b

a

c

b

a

ef

b

d

b

hf

b

gf

‫‪134‬‬

‫‪CLASSICAL SYRIAC‬‬

‫ܶ ܳ ܳ‪ܶ ܺ ܳ ܰ 2‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܕܒ ܰ‬ ‫ܰܗܘ‪ܶ 1‬ܕܝܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܳܝܐ ܰܝ ܰܡܐ ̱ܗܘ ܕܚܟܡܬܐ ‪ .‬ܕ‬ ‫ܗܒܐ ܐܝܬܝܗ ܟܠ ܶܡܐܠ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܕܠܐ ܳ ܳܗܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܠܝܬ ܠܟܘܢ ܰܣ ܳ‬ ‫ܒܪܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܕܦܘ ܳܪܩܢܳܐ‪ܰ .‬ܝܬܝܪ ܛܒ ̱ܗܘ ܰܡܘܬܐ ܶܡܢ‬ ‫‪i‬‬

‫‪ef‬‬

‫‪j‬‬

‫ܶܶ ܺ ܶ ܺ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܕܗ ܐܝܬܝܟܘܢ‬ ‫ܕܡܢܗ‪ .‬ܒ‬ ‫ܰܚ ܶܝܐ ܳܕܐܠ ܰ‬ ‫ܣܒܪ ܀‬

‫‪j‬‬

‫‪hf‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‬‫‬‫‬‫‬‫‬‫‪-‬‬

‫ܳ‬ ‫ܫܠܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟ ‪ ،‬ܐܘ ܰܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܒܪܐ! ܰܐܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܟܐ ܳܐ ܶܙܠ ܰܐܢ̱ܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܒܗ ܶܕܐ ܳܫܥܬܐ؟‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܠܫܘ ܳܩܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ ܶܙܠ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ‬ ‫ܳܡܢܳܐ ܳܨ ܶܒܐ ܰܐܢܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܒܫܘ ܳܩܐ؟‬ ‫ܙܒܢ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܨ ܶܒܐ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ ܠܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܙܒܢ ܰܩܠܝܠ ܦܐܖܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܒܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܒܫܘ ܳܩܐ؟ ܶܐ ܳܢܐ ܳܙ ܶܒܢ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ ܰܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡܢܳܐ ܳܙ ܶܒܢ ܰܐܢ̱ܬ ܰܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܒܐ‬ ‫ܒܚ ܽܢܘܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܒܐ‬ ‫ܘܡܐܟ ܳ‬ ‫ܒܚ ܽܢܘ ܳܬܐ‪ܳ .‬‬ ‫ܠ ܳܬܐ ܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܒܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘ ܽܝܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܪ ܳܪܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܙܒܢ ܳܐܦ ܶܐ ܳܢܐ ܳܙ ܶܒܢ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ ܰܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܺܐܝܢ‪ܰ ،‬ܒ ܰ‬ ‫ܚܖ ܳܢܝ ܳܬܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܕܣ ܺܓܝ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳܪ ܶܚܡ ܐ ܳܢܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܠܫܘ ܳܩܐ‪ܳ ،‬ܘ ܶܐܙܠ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ ܠܬ ܳܡܢ ܟܠ ܝܘܡ ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰܐܙܠ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܟܠ ܝܘܡ؟ ܺܘܐܝܬ ܠܟ ܰܙܒܢܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܠܫܘ ܳܩܐ ܟܠ ܝܘܡ؟‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰܐܙܠ‬ ‫ܽ ܳܳ ܰ ܺ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܝܬ ܺ‬ ‫ܡܫܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܒܪ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܫܘ ܳܩܐ ܰܥܡ ܒܢܰܝ‬ ‫ܙܒܢ ܐ ܶܙܠ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ‬ ‫ܠܝ ܦܘܠܚܢܐ ܣܓܝܐܐ‪ ،‬ܘܐܢܐ ܙܒܢ‬ ‫ܠܥ ܰܕܝܗܘܢ ‪ܳ .‬ܨ ܶܒܐ ܰܐܢܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܰܘܒܢܳܬܝ ‪ܰ .‬ܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܡܢܳܐ ܶܕܝܢ ܳܐ ܶܙܠ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ ܶܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰܐܙܠ ܰܥܡܝ؟‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠܥ ܰܕܝܗܘܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܠܫܘ ܳܩܐ ܶܡܛܠ ܺܕܐܝܬ ܬ ܳܡܢ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰܐܙܠ‬ ‫ܠܥ ܰܕܝ ‪ .‬ܐ ܳܢܐ ܐܠ ܪ ܶܚܡ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܒܟܠܙܒܢ ܒܢܰܝܢܳ ܳܫܐ ܰܣ ܺܓܝܐܐ܀‬ ‫‪l‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪m‬‬

‫‪l‬‬

‫‪m‬‬

‫‬‫‪-‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪l‬‬

‫‪n‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪o‬‬

‫‪o‬‬

‫‪o‬‬

‫‪n‬‬

‫‪m‬‬

‫‪l‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪j‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪9.12. 7.10. 6.26.2. 6.16. 9.5. 9.10.1. 9.6. 9.2. 5.10. 7.13. 9.1. 9.11. 7.1. 7.11. 9.13.‬‬

‫‪iI‬‬ ‫‪ Translate:‬‬ ‫‪Each morning, I eat my food with my wife and go to work.‬‬ ‫‪Jesus says that without him and without faith there is no redemption.‬‬ ‫‪The little boy climbs that high mountain without fear.‬‬ ‫‪Each language has its history.‬‬ ‫‪My friend and I want to go to the sea without them today.‬‬ ‫‪Blessed is this holy city, because it is in God’s hands.‬‬ ‫)‪There is no hope of salvation for a man in whom there is (that there is in him‬‬ ‫‪an evil spirit.‬‬ ‫’‪ܰ as a subject – ‘that (one), that who is, the one who.‬ܗܘ ‪Note the use of demonstrative pronoun‬‬ ‫‪Note the use of the word ‘wisdom’ in plural.‬‬

‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬

‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

LESSON 9 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

135

A true prophet he is not, because there is no truth in his words. We read the parable about the wicked judge and the old woman. Mary keeps all of these words in her kind heart. The people of this town want to kill their king and all his servants. The judges judge without law, and they fear (do not fear) neither king, nor God (king or God). I always gaze at your house, but I do not see you. They say that deep (far) in the desert there is a big beautiful city. I hear your beautiful voice from far away. There is no salvation without faith, without wisdom, and without hope. In the evenings, I love to go with my friends to the river that is beside our village. Each morning and each evening I drink a little milk. He crosses this great desert without fear. I want to go to the market and buy some gold for my wife and my daughters. Each kingdom has its laws, there is no kingdom without law.

iI oh (interjection) ʼo ‫ܐܘ‬ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܺ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܺ ܳܰ ܺ ܶ ܺ ܳ ‫ܺܐ‬ hand ʼiḏā (ʼiḏe, ʼiḏayyā, ʼiḏawwāṯā, ʼiḏahhāṯā) )‫ ܐܝܕܗܬܐ‬،‫ ܐܝܕܘܬܐ‬،‫ ܐܝܕܝܐ‬،‫( (ܐܝܕܐ‬fem.) ‫ܝܕܐ‬ ܰ ‫ܰܒ‬ sometimes ba-zәḇān ‫ܙܒܢ‬ ܰ always bә-ḵoll-zәḇan ‫ܒܟܠܙܒܢ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܕ‬ gold dahḇā ‫ܗܒܐ‬ ܶ ݀to fear, to be afraid, revere dә el ‫ܕܚܠ‬ ܳ ܶ fear, reverence, worship de lәṯā ‫ܕܚܠܬܐ‬ ܳ ܰ judge dayyānā ‫ܕ ܳܝܢܐ‬ ܰ to buy zәḇan ‫ܙܒܢ‬ ܳ ܰ time zaḇnā ‫ܙܒܢܐ‬ ܳ companion, friend, mate aḇrā ‫ܰܚܒܪܐ‬ ܳܽ ܳ booth, shop, stall ānuṯā ‫ܚܢܘܬܐ‬ ܶ ܳ sea, ocean yammā (yamme) )‫ܰܝܡܐ ( ܰܝ ̱ܡܡܐ‬ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܽ ܶ food, provisions meḵultā (meḵlāṯā) )‫ܐܟܘܠܬܐ (ܡܐܟܠܬܐ‬ ‫ܡ‬ ܳ ܰ ә wilderness, desert maḏb rā ‫ܡܕܒܪܐ‬ ܰ to guard, keep, watch, preserve, retain nәṭar ‫ܢܛܪ‬ ܳ ܰ hope, expectation aḇrā ‫ܣܒܪܐ‬ ܰ to cross, pass by, transgress, surpass ˁәḇar ‫ܥܒܪ‬

136

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

ܽ ‫ܦܘ ܳܡܐ‬ ܳ ܳ ‫ܦܘ‬ ܽ salvation, redemption purqānā ‫ܪܩܢܐ‬ ܰ to kill qәṭal ‫ܩܛܠ‬ ܳ voice, sound, tune qālā ‫ܳܩܐܠ‬ ܺ a little, few, some qallil 1‫ܰܩܠܝܠ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܪ‬ evening ramšā ‫ܡܫܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܶܪ ܳܫܐ ( ܺܪ‬ head rešā )ᵂ‫ܝܫܐ‬ ܰ to send šәla ‫ܫܠܚ‬ ܳ hour, moment šāˁtā (šāˁe) )‫ܳܫܥܬܐ ( ܳܫܥܐ‬ mouth, opening pumā

iI

1

ܳ ܺ

Adverbial use of the adjective ‫ ܰܩܠܝܐܠ‬qallilā ‘swift, light.’

LESSON 10 THE VERBS II-‫ܐ‬

Ә

IN P ˁAL

10.1. In earlier Aramaic dialects in which the glottal stop was stable, the verbs with the 2nd ālaꝑ radical did not differ much from the “strong” verbs. In Syriac, however, with its significantly reduced glottal stop, the verbs that contain ālaꝑ in the middle are quite different from the ܶ “strong” verbs. For example, the root ‫ܫܐܠ‬ in the Pәˁal base form initially was ‫ ܫܐܠ‬šә’el (‘to ask’), but then the glottal stop was lost, and the rәḇāṣā of ālaꝑ moved onto the 1st radical. Hence the existing ܶ form ‫ ܫܐܠ‬šel. 10.2. The glottal stop is partially restored in the masc. sing. active participle: šā’el šālin

ܶ ‫ܳܫܐܠ‬ ܺ ‫ܳܫ‬ ‫ܐܠܝܢ‬

ܳ ‫ܳܫܐܐܠ‬ ܳ šālān ‫ܳܫܐܠܢ‬ šālā

ܶ

10.3. The infinitive – ‫ ܡ ܰܫܐܠ‬mešal. PASSIVE PARTICIPLES 10.4. The passive participles in Syriac are essentially the same as the present participles in English (‘written,’ ‘gone,’ ‘done,’ etc.). 10.5. The passive participles in Pәˁal are formed along the following patterns: masculine singular plural

ܺ ‫ܦܥܝܠ‬ ܺ ‫ܦܥܝ‬ ܺ ‫ܠܝܢ‬

ܰ

feminine

ܳ ܺ ‫ܦܥܝܐܠ‬ ܳ ‫ܦܥܝ‬ ܺ ‫ܠܢ‬

The verb ‫ ܩܛܠ‬qәṭal ‘to kill’ has the following forms of the passive participles in the absolute state (“killed”): 137

138

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

ܺ ‫ܩܛܝܠ‬ ܺ ܺ qәṭilin ‫ܩܛܝܠܝܢ‬ qәṭil

ܳ ܺ ‫ܩܛܝܐܠ‬ ܳ ܺ qәṭilān ‫ܩܛܝܠܢ‬ qәṭilā

ܶ

ܰ

ܶ

ܺ ܺ

10.6.1. These forms are used as nominal predicates: ‫ ܩܛܝܠܝܢ ܐܢܘܢ ܡܠܟܐ‬qәṭilinennon malke ‘The kings are killed (or are being killed).’ 10.6.2. Passive participles are often accompanied ‫ ܶܡܢ‬or‫ܠܙ‬, ܶ ܶ ܳ byܺ theܶ ܳ prepositions ܳ ܰ ܶ which indicate the source of the action: ‫ ܐܓܪܬܐ ܗܕܐ ܟܬܝܒܐ ܡܢ ܐܡܝ‬ʼeggartā hāḏe ܰ ܺ ‫ܰܛܠ ܳܝܐ‬ kәṯiḇā men ʼemm ‘This letter is written by my mother’; ‫ܘܗܝ‬ ̱ ‫ܪܚܝܡ ̱ܗܘ ܐܠ ܽܒ‬ ṭalyā rә im-u l-aḇ ‘The boy is loved by his father (or rather is dear to his father).’ 10.7. The passive participles can act as attributes; as such, they appear in the emphatic state, in essence becoming adjectives:

ܳ ܺ ‫ܩܛܝܐܠ‬ ܶ ܺ ‫ܩܛܝܐܠ‬

qәṭilā qәṭile

ܳ ܺ ‫ܩܛܝܠܬܐ‬ ܳ ܳ ܺ qәṭilāṯā ‫ܩܛܝܠܬܐ‬ qәṭiltā

ܶ ܺ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܶ ܶ ‫ ܰܡܠܟܐ ܩܛܝܐܠ‬malke qәṭile ‘killed kings’; ‫ܠܬܐ‬ ‫ ܢܶܫܐ ܩܛܝ‬nešše qәṭilāṯā ‘killed women.’ 10.8. Passive participles in the emphatic state can also act as nouns, like the word ܺ šәli ā ‘apostle, messenger,’ which literally means ‘the sent (one).’ ܳ ‫ܫܠ‬ ‫ܝܚܐ‬

ܰ

 Along the patterns of the verb ‫ܩܛܠ‬, form the passive participles in the absoܰ ܰ ،‫ܟܬܒ‬ ܰ ܰ ،‫ܫܠܚ‬ . lute and emphatic states from the verbs ‫ ܫܡܥ‬،‫ܙܒܢ‬ 10.9. The I-‫ ܐ‬verbs ܶ form passive participles with vocalized ālaꝑ, exactly as in the ܰ base form (‫)ܐܟܠ‬: ʼaḵil ʼaḵilin

ܰ ‫ܐ ܺܟܝܠ‬ ܰ ‫ܐ ܺܟܝܠ ܝܢ‬

ܳ ܰ ‫ܐ ܺܟܝܐܠ‬ ܳ ܺܰ ʼaḵilān ‫ܐܟܝܠܢ‬

ܳ ܺܰ ܶ ܰ ‫ܐ ܺܟܝܐܠ‬

ܺܰ ܳ ܳ ܺܰ ʼaḵilāṯā ‫ܐܟܝܠܬܐ‬

ʼaḵilā

10.10. In the emphatic state: ʼaḵilā ‫ܐܟܝܐܠ‬ ʼaḵile

ܳ

ʼaḵiltā ‫ܐܟܝܠܬܐ‬

LESSON 10

139

ܶ

 Along the patterns of the verb ‫ܐ ܰܟܠ‬, form ܶ the passive participles in the absoܰ lute and emphatic states from the verb ‫ܐܡܪ‬. 10.11. The III-‫ ܝ‬verbs have the following forms of passive participles in the absoܳ lute state (‫)ܩܪܐ‬:

ܶ ‫ܩܪܐ‬ ܶ qәreyn ‫ܩܖܝܢ‬

‫ܰܩ ܳܪܝܐ‬ aryān ‫ܰܩܖ ܳܝܢ‬

qәré

aryā

10.12. In the emphatic state:

‫ܰܩ ܳܪܝܐ‬ ܰ qәrayyā ‫ܩܖ ܳܝܐ‬ aryā

ܳ ܺ ‫ܩܪܝܬܐ‬ ܳ qaryāṯā ‫ܰܩܖ ܳܝܬܐ‬ qәriṯā

ܳ

 Along the patterns of the verb ‫ܩܪܐ‬, form the passive participles in the absolute ܳ ܳ and emphatic states from the verbs ‫ ܒܢܐ‬and ‫ܫܬܐ‬. 10.13. The II-‫ ܘ‬verbs have the following forms of passive participles in the absolute state (‫) ܳܩܡ‬:

ܳ ‫ܺܩ‬ ‫ܝܡܐ‬ ܳ ܺ imān ‫ܩܝܡܢ‬

‫ܺܩܝܡ‬ ‫ܺܩܝ ܺܡܝܢ‬

qim qimin

imā

ܳ

10.14. In the emphatic state (‫)ܣܡ‬:

ܳ

ܳ ܺ ܶ ܺ sime ‫ܣܝܡܐ‬

imā ‫ܣܝܡܐ‬

ܺ

imtā ‫ܣܝܡܬܐ‬

ܳ ܳ ܺ

imāṯā ‫ܣܝܡܬܐ‬

ܳ

 Along the patterns of the verb ‫ ܳܩܡ‬and ‫ܣܡ‬, form the passive participles in the ܳ absolute and emphatic states from the verbs ‫ ܕܢ‬and ‫ ܳܚܪ‬. 10.15. The I-‫ ܝ‬verbs have the following forms of passive participles in the absoܶ lute state (‫) ܺܝܠܕ‬:

140

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

ܺ ‫ܺܝ‬ ‫ܠܝܕ‬ ܺ iliḏin‫ܺܝܠ ܝ ܺܕܝܢ‬ iliḏ

1

ܺ ‫ܺܝ‬ ܳ ‫ܠ‬ ‫ܝܕܐ‬ ܺ iliḏān ‫ܺܝܠ ܝ ܳܕܢ‬ iliḏā

10.16. In the emphatic state:

ܺ ‫ܺܝ‬ ܳ ‫ܠ‬ ‫ܝܕܐ‬ ܺ iliḏe ‫ܺܝܠ ܝ ܶܕܐ‬ iliḏā

ܳ ܺ ܳ ܺ iliḏāṯā ‫ܺܝܠ ܝ ܳܕܬܐ‬ iliḏtā ‫ܺܝܠܝܕܬܐ‬

ܶ

 Along the patterns of the verb ‫ ܺܝܠܕ‬, ܶ form the passive participles in the absolute and emphatic states from the verbs ‫ ܺܝܬܒ‬،‫ ܺܝ ܰܕܥ‬،‫ܗܒ‬ ̱ ‫( ܰܝ‬with restored he). 10.17. The II-‫ ܐ‬verbs have the following forms of passive participles in the absoܶ lute state (‫)ܫܐܠ‬: šil šilin

‫ܺܫܐܝܠ‬ ܺ ‫ܺܫ‬ ‫ܐܝܠ ܝܢ‬

ܳ ‫ܺܫܐܝܐܠ‬ ܳ šilān ‫ܺܫܐܝܠܢ‬ šilā

10.18. In the emphatic state:

ܳ

ܳ

šilā ‫ܺܫܐܝܐܠ‬

šiltā ‫ܺܫܐܝܠܬܐ‬

šile ‫ܫܐܝܐܠ‬

šilāṯā ‫ܺܫܐܝܠܬܐ‬

ܶ ܺ

ܳ ܳ

ܶ

10.19. Some verbs, like ‫ ܛܥܢ‬ṭәˁen ‘to carry, bear, endure, tolerate,’ use passive inܰ ܺ ܳܳ ܰ stead of active participles in the present tense: ‫ ܡܢܐ ܛܥܝܢ ܐܢ̱ܬ ܺܒܐܝܕܝܟ‬mānā ṭәˁin-att b-iḏayk ‘What are you carrying in your hands?’ with the passive particiܰ ܺ ܳ ܺ ܰ Compare ܶ ܺ ‫ ܶܦ ܳܐܪܐ ܰܕ‬peܳ ‫ܒܟ‬ ܽ ܰ ‫ܛܥܝܢ‬ ܳ ple of the same verb used as such: ‫ܘܗܝ‬ ̱ ‫ܪܣܗ ܡܢ ܪܘܚܐ ܩܕܝܫܐ ܐܝܬ‬ rā ḏa-ṭәˁin bә-ḵar āh men ru ā addišā ʼiṯaw ‘The fruit, that is being carried in her womb, is from the Holy Spirit.’

ܳ mәṣā 10.20.1. Among the verbs that use passive participles in the present tense, ‫ܡܨܐ‬ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܳܶ ܰ ܰ ‘to be able, capable’ is one of the most widely used: ‫ܐܢܐ ܡܨܶܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ (ܡ ܳܨܝܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ) ܠܡܣܩ‬ 1

ܺ

Can also be ‫ ܰܝܠܝܕ‬yalliḏ.

‫‪LESSON 10‬‬

‫‪141‬‬

‫ܚܢܰܢ ܳܐܠ ܡܨܶܝ ܢ ;’‪ܺ ʼenā mәṣé-nā (maṣyā-nā) lә-messaq l-ilānā ‘I can climb a tree‬ܐܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܠ ܢܳܐ‬ ‫‪ әnan lā mәṣeyn-nan la-mәpāš ˁammәḵ n ˁәḏam‬ܚܢܰܢ ܰ‬‫ܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܠ ܰܨ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܦܫ ܰܥܡܟܘܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܦܪܐ‬ ‫̱‬

‫’‪mā lә-ṣaprā ‘We can’t stay with you till morning.‬‬ ‫‪ may be used without personal pronouns, as ‘it is‬ܡܨܶܐ ‪10.20.2. The passive participle‬‬ ‫’‪possible.‬‬

‫ܶ‪10.21. Some verbs can use both participles as predicates in the present tense. Thus,‬‬ ‫ܫܡܝܥ ܺ‬ ‫ܐ ܳܢܐ ‪ܺ šәmiˁ li (literally – ‘it is heard to me’) has the same meaning as‬‬ ‫ܠܝ‬ ‫’‪ܳ yāḏaˁ-nā ‘I know.‬ܝ ܰܕܥ ܐ ܳܢܐ ‪ܺ iḏiˁ li and‬ܝ ܺܕܝܥ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܝ ;’‪ܳ ʼenā šāmaˁ-nā ‘I hear‬ܫ ܰܡܥ ܐ̱ ܳܢܐ‬ ‫̱‬

‫‪iI‬‬ ‫‪ Read, translate, and copy:‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬

‫ܺ ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܳܬܢ ܪܒܬܐ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܺ ܰ‬ ‫ܽܶ‬ ‫ܺ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰܪ ܳܒܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܘܖܝܗ‬ ‫ܕܢܚܐ‪ .‬ܪ ܺܡܝܢ ܐܢܘܢ‬ ‫ܟܠܗܝܢ ܡܕܝܢܬܐ ܕܡ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܺܣܝܢܳܐ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܳܬܢ‪ܰ .‬ܚ ܺܣܝܢܳܐ ̱ܗܝ ܶܡܢ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܺ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܺ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܝܐܝܢ ܳܦ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܐܝܢ ܶܐܢܘܢ ܰܓ ܶ‬ ‫ܒܖܐ ܰܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܚ ܳܘ ܶܬܗ ‪ܰ ،‬‬ ‫ܛܥܝܢܺܝܢ ܰܚܖ ܶܒܐ‬ ‫ܘܣ ܺܓܝ ܰܝܬܝܪ ܣܓ‬ ‫ܘܣܓ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܺܒܐܝܕܰܝܗܘܢ ‪ܺ .‬ܝ ܺܕܝܥ ܠܒܥܠ ܕܒܒܝܢ ܕܐܦ ܢܫܐ ܘܛܠ ܶܝܐ ܕܝܠܢ ܡܨܶܝ ܢ ܰܚܪܒܐ ܠܡܛܥܢ ‪.1‬‬ ‫ܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܶ ܳ ܶ ܰ ܺ ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܕܚܝ ܺ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܖ ܺܚ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܕܒ ܶܒܐ‪ܶ ،‬ܐ ܳܐܠ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܩܐ‪،‬‬ ‫ܠܝܢ ̱ܚܢܢ ܠܒܥܠܕܒܒܐ ܩܖܝܒܐ‬ ‫ܘܠܝܬ ܰܡܢ‪ܳ 2‬ܕܕ ܶܚܠ ܶܡܢ ܒܥ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܳܳ ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܓܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܫܡܐ ܰܚܕ ܐܢܘܢ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ܬܐ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܳܬܢ‪ .‬ܟܠܗܘܢ ܒܢܝܢܫܐ ܕ‬ ‫ܩܪܒ ܠ‬ ‫ܚܠܝܢ ܶܗܢܘܢ‬ ‫ܬܚܝܬ ܰ‬ ‫ܓܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܕܗܘ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܟܢ ܰܪ ܳܒܐ ܶܪ ܶܫܗ ̱ܗܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܐ‪ܰ .‬ܪܒ ̱ܗܘ ܶܡܢ ܟܠܗܘܢ ܰܡܠ ܶܟܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܡ ܳܝܐ‪ܳ ،‬ܘܐܦ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܳ ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܺܣܝܢ ܗܘ ܰܐܝܟ ܰܐ ܳܪܝܐ‪ܺ .‬‬ ‫ܒܪ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܠܝܡܘܢ ܰܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܟܐ ̱ܗܝ‬ ‫ܰܕ ܳܝܢܰܐ ̱ܗܘ ܶܟ ܳܐܢܐ‪ .‬ܐܝܬ ܠܗ ܚܟܡܬܐ ܕ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܽ ܳ‬ ‫ܺ ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܢܛ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܪܐ ̱ܗܝ ܶܡܢ ܰܡ ܰܐܠ ܶܟܐ ܺܒ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܝܡ ܳܡܐ ܰܘܒܠܠ ܳܝܐ‪،‬‬ ‫ܕܒܘܪܟܬܐ ܰܕܠܐ ܳܗܐ ܥܠܝܗ ܘ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܳܬܢ ܶܡܛܠ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܠܢ ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܐܒ ܶܗܐ ܺܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܛܖܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܠܗ ܢܰܦ ܳܫ ܳܬܐ ܰܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܨܠ ܘܬܗܘܢ ܀‬ ‫ܚܠ ܶܦܝܗ ܐܢܶܝܢ‬ ‫‪b‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪ef‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫‪j‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰܓܢܬܗ ܕ ܰܩ ܺܫܝܫܝ‬

‫ܰ ܶ ܺ ܶ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܝܬܗ‪ .‬ܒܟܠ ܰܨܦܪ ܳܪ ܶܟܒ ܰܥܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܩ ܺܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܡ ܳܪܐ‬ ‫ܝܫܐ ܺܕܝܠܝ ܐܝܬ ܠܗ ܰܓܢܬܐ ܪܒܬܐ ܠܒܪ ܡܢ ܩܪ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܘ ܳܐܠ ܡܨܶܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܢܬܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ ܳܕܐܠ ܽ‬ ‫ܡܫܐ‪ܽ .‬‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܠ ܰܪ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܦ ܶܐܫ ܰܬ ܳܡܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܦܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܚܢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܦܫ ܒܒ‬ ‫ܠܓ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܳ ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܽ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܽܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܒܓܢܬܗ ܐܝܬ ܐܝܠܢܶܐ ܖ ܶܡܐ ܰܘܥܠܝܗܘܢ ܚܙܘܖܐ ܣܘܡܩܐ‪ .‬ܗܘ ܣܠܩ ܥܠ ܐܝܠ ܢܐ ܐܝܟ‬ ‫‪l‬‬

‫‪m‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪n‬‬

‫‪o‬‬

‫‪Note the direct object preceding the verb.‬‬ ‫’‪‘There is no one.‬‬

‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

142

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

ܶ ܶ ܶ ܳ ܶܽ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܳ ‫ܠܣ‬ ܳ ‫ܒܣ‬ ܶ ‫ ܳܒ ܰܬ‬.‫ܠ ܳܬܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܠ ܳܬܐ ܰܥܠ‬ ‫ܚܡ ܶܪܗ‬ ‫ ܳܩܛܦ ܠܚܙܘܖܐ‬،‫ܛܠ ܳܝܐ‬ ‫ܪܟܢ ܳܣܐܡ‬ ‫ܘܣܐܡ ܐܢܘܢ‬ ܰ ܳ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܺ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܶ ܽ ‫ܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܳܘ ܶܐܙܠ‬ ̱ ‫ ܺܝ ܺܕܝܥ ܠܒܢܝܢ ܳܫܐ ܟܠܗܘܢ ܰܒܩܪܝܬܐ ܕܠܝܬ ܰܚ ܽܙܘܖܐ ܕܛ ܺܒܝܢ ܡܢ ܰܚ ܽܙܘܖ‬.‫ܠܫܘ ܳܩܐ‬ ‫ܕ ܰܩ ܺܫܝܫܝ܀‬ m

b

ef

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

m

n

o

3.21. 7.10. 7.11. 10.19. 10.15 10.21. 10.20.1. 7.3. 10.5. 10.6.2. 7.12. 9.2. 8.2. 8.3. 9.1.

iI  Translate: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

I ask you, why are you transgressing the Lord’s written commandments. I cannot mount this donkey, because it is very big. Your kingdom is bigger than other kingdoms, because it is not from this world. The prayers of the holy fathers are heard in the heaven. The boy, who is carried in her womb, is the savior of us all. I want to ask you about the killed attendants, what do you know about them? The (new)born boy is with his mother now. I see angels, who guard the city with swords in their hands. During (in) daytime hours the air in the desert is very hot. Lion is much stronger than donkey. My grandfather works in the field or in the garden from morning till evening. People come to this physician from all nearby villages and towns. King Solomon is known for his wisdom. Enemies cannot approach our town because it is guarded by )‫ ( ܶܡܢ‬many fearful soldiers. Every day, in the morning and in the evening, the queen goes up the city wall and gazes from there at the nearby monastery. This ancient Syriac Church is called Church of the East. All the plucked fruits are placed in these new baskets. I want to put these big baskets on my donkey. I cannot climb this tree and pluck its fruits, I am not a little boy. There is no just judge in the city, they all judge without law and without fear.

iI ܰ ‫ܺܐܝܟ‬ ܳ ܳ daytime ʼimāmā ‫ܐܝܡܡܐ‬ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܰ lion ʼaryā (ʼaryawwāṯā) )‫ܪܝܐ (ܐܖ ܰܝ ܳܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܐ‬ as, like, according to ʼaḵ

LESSON 10

143

ܳ ܽ ‫ܒܘܪܟܬܐ‬ ܶ ܳ ‫ܠܕܒ‬ ܳ ‫ܒܥ‬ enemy bәˁeldәḇāḇā ‫ܒܐ‬ ܳ ܽ body gušmā ‫ܓܘܫܡܐ‬ ܳ ܺ fearful dә ilā 1‫ܕܚܝܐܠ‬ ܳ instead of, because of, in place of, in favor of, on account of, for әlāꝑ 2‫ܚܠܦ‬ ܳܳ donkey әmārā ‫ܚܡܪܐ‬ ܳ ܺ mighty, strong, powerful assinā ‫ܰܚܣܝܢܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܚ‬ sword, destruction arbā (ma c./fem.) ‫ܪܒܐ‬ ܶ to carry, bear, endure, tolerate ṭәˁen ‫ܛܥܢ‬ ܳ ܺ ܳ ܶ just, upright kenā )ᵂ‫ܟܐܢܐ (ܟܐܢܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܡ‬ east maḏnә ā ‫ܕܢܚܐ‬ ܰܰ angel, messenger malaḵā ‫ܡܐܠ ܳܟܐ‬ ܳ to be able, capable mәṣā ‫ܡܨܐ‬ ܰ to guard, keep, watch, preserve, retain nәṭar ‫ܢܛܪ‬ ܳ ܰ ܳ ‫ܰܢ‬ soul naꝑšā (naꝑšāṯā) )‫( (ܢܦ ܳܫܬܐ‬fem.) ‫ܦܫܐ‬ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܰ basket sallā (sallāṯā) )‫ܣܐܠ (ܣܠܬܐ‬ ܳ to put, set, place sām ‫ܣܡ‬ ܳܰ until, up to ˁәḏammā (lә-))‫ܥܕܡܐ (ܠܙ‬ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܳ ‫ܳܦ‬ soldier, attendant, worshipper pāl ā (pal e, pāla wāṯā) )3‫ ܦܠܚ ܳܘܬܐ‬،‫ܠܚܐ (ܦܠ ܶܚܐ‬ ܳ to remain pāš ‫ܦܫ‬ ܰ to pluck, gather qәṭaꝑ ‫ܩܛܦ‬ ܶ to approach, come near qәreḇ ‫ܩܪܒ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܩ ܺܪ‬ ݀close, nearby; kinsman; neighbor arriḇā݀‫ܝܒܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܩ ܺܫ‬ grandfather; ancestor; priest; elder qaššišā ‫ܝܫܐ‬ ܶ to mount, ride rәḵeḇ ‫ܪܟܒ‬ ܶ to ask, inquire šel ‫ܫܐܠ‬ ܳܽ wall šurā ‫ܫܘܪܐ‬ ܶ Solomon šәlemon ‫ܫܠܝܡܘܢ‬ blessing burkәṯā

ܶ ‘to fear.’ Passive participle of the verb ‫ܕܚܠ‬ This preposition is used with “plural” pronominal ܳ ܰ ܳ suffixes. 3 ܶ ‫ ܳܦܠܚܐ‬is used with numerals up to ten, ‫ܠܚ ܳܘܬܐ‬ ‫ – ܦ‬higher than ten. 1 2

LESSON 11 THE PAST TENSE 11.1. The Past tense (originally, the Perfect) is formed by attaching the past tense suffixes onto the base form of the stem; the suffixes are the same for all the stems. In Pәˁal, the past tense is formed along the following patterns:

‫ܶ ܰܶܶܢ‬ ‫ܶ ܰܶܶܬܘܢ‬ ܶ ‫ܶ ܰܶܶܬܝܢ‬ ‫ܶ ܰܶܶܘ‬ ܶܶܰ ܶ

ܶ ܶ ܶ ‫ܐ ܳܢܐ ܶܶܶܬ‬ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬ ܶ ܰܶܶܬ‬ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝ ܶ ܰܶܶܬܝ‬ ܽ ܶܶܰ ܶ ‫ܗܘ‬ ܶ ‫ܺܗܝ ܶܶ ܰܶܬ‬

‫ܚܢܰܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ‬ ܶ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝܢ‬ ‫ܶܗܢܘܢ‬ ‫ܶܗܢܶܝܢ‬

ܰ

Accordingly, the verb ‫ ܩܛܠ‬has the following forms in the past tense: qәṭaln qәṭalt n qәṭaltén qәṭal qәṭal

ܰ ‫ܩܛܠܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܩܛܠܬܘܢ‬ ܶ ܰ ‫ܩܛܠܬܝܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܩܛܠܘ‬ ܰ 1 ‫ܩܛܠ‬

‫ܚܢܰܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ‬ ܶ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝܢ‬ ‫ܶܗܢܘܢ‬ ‫ܶܗܢܶܝܢ‬

eṭléṯ qәṭalt qәṭalt qәṭal eṭláṯ

ܶ ܶ ‫ܶܩܛܠܬ‬ ‫ܐ ܳܢܐ‬ ܰ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬ ܩܛܠܬ‬ ܰ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝ ܩܛܠܬܝ‬ ܰ ܽ ‫ܗܘ ܩܛܠ‬ ܰ ‫ܺܗܝ ܶܩ‬ ‫ܛܠܬ‬

In the past tense the personal pronouns are often omitted. 11.2. The Syriac past tense usually corresponds to the English Simple Past (‘I killed’), or the Present Perfect (‘I have killed’), but can also denote a continuous action like the English Past Continuous (‘I was killing’). 1

ܰ

In West Syriac, a separate form ‫ ܩܛܠܝ‬for the 3rd person fem. plur. is attested, which is read the same way – qәṭal.

144

LESSON 11

145

11.3. Note the following: a) in the 1st person sing. and 3rd person sing. fem. the vowel-sign is on the 1st ܰ ܶ ܶ ܶ radical instead of the 2nd.: ‫ ܩܛܠܬ‬،‫;ܩܛܠܬ‬ b) both the masc. and fem. forms in the 2nd person sing. have the same pronunܰ ܰ ciation: ‫ ܩܛܠܬܝ‬،‫ ܩܛܠܬ‬qәṭalt; ܰ c) the ‫ ܘ‬in the 3rd person masc. plur. is silent: ‫ ܩܛܠܘ‬qәṭal; ܰ d) the 3rd person fem. plur. is the same as the 3rd person masc. sing.: ‫ ܩܛܠ‬qәṭal. 11.4. Verbs, that have rәḇāṣā in the base form, conjugate along the same patterns ܶ (‫ )ܣܠܩ‬in the past tense: sәleqn sәleqtón sәleqtén sәleq sәleq

ܶ ‫ܣܠܩܢ‬ ܶ ‫ܣܠܩܬܘܢ‬ ܶ ܶ ‫ܣܠܩܬܝܢ‬ ܶ ‫ܣܠܩܘ‬ ܶ ܶ )‫ܣܠܩ (ܣܠܩܝ‬

‫ܚܢܰܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ‬ ܶ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝܢ‬ ‫ܶܗܢܘܢ‬ ‫ܶܗܢܶܝܢ‬

el éṯ sәleqt sәleqt sәleq el áṯ

ܶ ܶ ‫ܶܣ‬ ‫ܠܩܬ‬ ‫ܐ ܳܢܐ‬ ܰ ܶ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬ ܣܠܩܬ‬ ܰ ܶ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝ ܣܠܩܬܝ‬ ܶ ܽ ‫ܗܘ ܣܠܩ‬ ܰ ‫ܺܗܝ ܶܣ‬ ‫ܠܩܬ‬

11.5. The verbs with 2nd and 3rd begad-kepat radicals have the following forms in ܰ the past tense (‫)ܟܬܒ‬: kәṯaḇn kәṯaḇt n kәṯaḇtén kәṯaḇ kәṯaḇ

ܰ ‫ܟܬܒܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܟܬܒܬܘܢ‬ ܶ ܰ ‫ܟܬܒܬܝܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܟܬܒܘ‬ ܰ ܰ )‫ܟܬܒ (ܟܬܒܝ‬

‫ܚܢܰܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ‬ ܶ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝܢ‬ ‫ܶܗܢܘܢ‬ ‫ܶܗܢܶܝܢ‬

keṯbéṯ kәṯaḇt kәṯaḇt kәṯaḇ keṯbáṯ

ܶ ‫ܶܟܬ ܶܒܬ‬ ‫ܐ ܳܢܐ‬ ܰ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬ ܟܬܒܬ‬ ܰ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝ ܟܬܒܬܝ‬ ܰ ܽ ‫ܗܘ ܟܬܒ‬ ‫ܺܗܝ ܶܟܬ ܰܒܬ‬

ܰ ،‫ܣܓܕ‬ ܰ ،‫ܦܠܚ‬ ܰ ،‫ܪܚܡ‬ ܰ ܰ ،‫ܕܚܠ‬ ܰ ،‫ܙܡܪ‬ ܶ ،‫ܥܡܪ‬ ܶ ،‫ܥܒܕ‬ ܶ ،‫ܫܡܥ‬ ،‫ܢ‬ ‫ܙܒ‬ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܶ ܶ ،‫ ܫܠܚ‬،‫ܥܒܪ‬ ܶ ،‫ ܩܪܒ‬،‫ ܩܛܦ‬،‫ܛܥܢ‬ ܰ ،‫ܪܟܒ‬ ܰ ،‫ ܢܛܪ‬in the past tense. ‫ܫܡܪ‬  Conjugate the verbs

11.6. In the past tense, some forms have extended versions that are not different in meaning: ܰ ܰ ܰ a) the 1st person plur. ‫ ܩܛܠܢ‬qәṭaln can be extended to ‫ ܩܛܠ ܢܢ‬qәṯálnan; ܰ ܰ b) the 3rd person masc. plur. ‫ ܩܛܠܘ‬qәṭal can be extended to ‫ ܩܛܠ ܽܘܢ‬qәṭal n; ܰ ܶ ܰ c) the 3rd person fem. plur. ‫ ܩܛܠ‬qәṭal can be extended to ‫ ܩܛܠ ܝܢ‬qәṭalén.  Form the extended versions of the verbs presented in the previous exercise.

146

CLASSICAL SYRIAC THE PAST TENSE OF THE I-‫ ܐ‬VERBS

11.7. The verbs ofܶ this group are conjugated in the past tense the same way as the ܰ “strong” verbs (‫)ܐܡܪ‬:

ܶ ܶ ܶ ܶ ‫ܶܐ‬ )‫ܚܢܰܢ ܐ ܰܡܪܢ (ܐ ܰܡ ܰܪܢܢ‬ ʼemréṯ ‫ܡܪܬ‬ ‫ܐ ܳܢܐ‬ ܶ ܶ ܰ ܰ ʼemartón ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ ܐ ܰܡܪܬܘܢ‬ ʼemart ‫ܐܢ̱ܬ ܐ ܰܡܪܬ‬ ܶ ܶ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܰܶ ʼemartén ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝܢ ܐ ܰܡܪܬܝܢ‬ ʼemart ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝ ܐܡܪܬܝ‬ ܶ ܽ ‫ܶܗܢܘܢ ܶܐ ܰܡܪܘ ( ܶܐ ܰܡ‬ ܽ ʼemar (ʼemarún) )‫ܪܘܢ‬ ʼemar ‫ܗܘ ܐ ܰܡܪ‬ ܰ ‫ܺܗܝ ܶܐ‬ ܰܶ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܶ ‫ܶܗܢܶܝܢ‬ ʼemar (ʼemarén) )‫ܐܡܖܝ (ܐܡܖܝܢ‬/‫ܐܡܪ‬ ʼemráṯ ‫ܡܪܬ‬ ܶ  Conjugate the verb ‫ ܐ ܰܟܠ‬in the past tense. ܰܶ 11.8. In the verb ‫ܐܙܠ‬, the consonant [l] assimilates to [z] in those forms where theʼemarn (ʼemárnan)

se two consonants stand together without a vowel between them: ʼezaln (ʼezálnan) ʼezaltón ʼezaltén ʼezal (ʼezalún) ʼezal (ʼezalén)

ܶ ܶ )‫ܐ ܰܙܠܢ (ܐ ܰܙܠ ܢܰܢ‬ ܶ ‫ܐ ܰܙܠܬܘܢ‬ ܶ ܶ ‫ܐ ܰܙܠܬܝܢ‬ ܶ ܶ )‫ܐ ܰܙܠܘ (ܐ ܰܙܠ ܽܘܢ‬ ܶ ܶ ܶ )‫ܐ ܰܙܠ (ܐ ܰܙܠ ܝܢ‬

‫ܚܢܰܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ‬ ܶ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝܢ‬ ‫ܶܗܢܘܢ‬ ‫ܶܗܢܶܝܢ‬

ܶ ܶ ܶ ܶ ‫ܶܐ‬ )‫ܠܬ‬ ‫ܐ ܳܢܐ‬ ̱ ‫ܙܠܬ (ܐܙ‬ ̱ ܶ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬ ܐ ܰܙܠܬ‬ ܶ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝ ܐ ܰܙܠܬܝ‬ ܶ ܽ ‫ܗܘ ܐ ܰܙܠ‬ ܰ ܶ ܰ ‫ܺܗܝ ܶܐ‬ )‫ܠܬ‬ ̱ ̱ ‫ܙܠܬ (ܐܙ‬

ʼezzéṯ ʼezalt ʼezalt ʼezal ʼezzáṯ

iI  Read, translate, and copy: 1

ܺ ‫ܡܪܬ‬ ܰ ‫ܺܗܝ ܶܐ‬ ܶ ‫ܠܝ ܶܡ ܶܕܡ ܶܘܐܢܐ ܐܠ ܶܫ‬ ܶ ‫ ܳܐܦ ܰܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ ܶܐ ܰܡܪܬܘܢ ܶܡ ܶܕܡ ܠܗܘܢ‬. ‫ܡܥܬ‬ ‫ܘܗܢܘܢ ܐܠ‬ ܰ . ‫ܫܡܥܘ‬ ܰ ܺ ܶ ܰ ܶܶ ܰ ܳ .‫ܩܪܝܬܢ‬ ‫ ܪ ܺܚܝܩ ܡܢ‬2‫ܠܥܒܐ ܕܐܠ‬ ‫ܠܬ‬ ̱ ‫ܰܟܕ ܶܫܡܫܐ ܕܢܚ ܐܙ‬ ܳ ܶ ܰ ܺ ‫ܘܒ ܰܬܪ ܰܩ‬ ܰ ܶ‫ܠܝܠ ܰܝܘ ܳܡܬܐ ܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܠܕܒ ܶܒܐ ܠ ܳܦ‬ ܳ ‫ܠܚ ܳܘܬܐ ܟܠܗܘܢ‬ ܺ ‫ܦܠܬ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢ̱ܬܐ‬ ‫ܩܛܠܘ ܒܥ‬ ܺ .‫ܐܠܝܕܰܝܗܘܢ‬ a

b

a

1

b

c

b

b

ܳ

b

2 3

Starting form this lesson, in texts and examples, the zә āꝑā of the ‫ ܶܐ‬ending will be usually omitܳ ‫) ܰܡ‬. ted (‫ ܰܡܠܟܐ‬instead of ‫ܠܟܐ‬ 2 Pay attention to distinguish between the two meanings of ‫‘ – ܕܐܠ‬without’ and ‘that is not.’ 1

‫‪147‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬

‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬

‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪11‬‬ ‫‪12‬‬

‫‪LESSON 11‬‬

‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܰܥܠ ܽ‬ ‫ܢܛ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܚ ܽܙܘܪܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܦܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܪܘܢ ܳܐ ܳܕܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܕܚܟܡܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܩܕܢܶܗ ܰܕܠܐܗܐ ܶܘ ܰܐܟܠ ܽܘܢ‬ ‫ܐܠ‬ ‫ܘܚܘܐ ܥܠ ̱‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶܡܛܠ ܳܗܢܐ ܰܪܕܦ ܐܢܘܢ ܠܐܗܐ ܶܡܢ ܦ ܰܪܕܝܣܐ ܰܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܕܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܕܚܠܬܝ ܶܡܢ ܽܪܘܓܙܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܝܢ ܶܡܐܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ܰܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܰܐ ܰܪܐ ܐܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܒܩܐܠ ܳܪܡܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܕܒܚܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕܡܪܝܐ ܰܟܕ ܐ ܰܡܪܬܝ ܗ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܣܓܕܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܣܠܩܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܡܕܒܚܐ ܰܢܦܠܢ ܰܥܠ ܰܐ ܰܦܝܢ ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܡܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰܟܕ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠܡܠܟܐ ܰܥܠ ܰܗܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܪܒܐ ܰܚܕܬܐ‪ܶ ،‬ܡܚܕܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܪܟܒ ܰܥܠ ܽ‬ ‫ܣܘܣܝܐ ܰܥܡ ܰܚܪܒܐ‬ ‫ܰܟܕ ܐ ܰܡܪܘ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܢܘܪܐ ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܕܗ ܽ‬ ‫ܺܒ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܽܐܘ ܳܟܡܬܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܒܥܝܢ ̱‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠܗ ܶܡܢ ܰܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܒܗܢܐ ܰܟܪܡܐ‪ܳ ،‬‬ ‫ܠܡܢܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܝܬ ܶܥܢ ܶܒܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܪܡܠܬܐ ܰܥܬܝܪܬܐ؟‬ ‫ܙܒܢܬܘܢ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܪܚܡܬܝ ܺ‬ ‫ܶܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܒܝ‪ ،‬ܘܐܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܡܬ ܠܟܝ ܒܟܠܗ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶܫ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܚܬ ܠ ܳܘܬܟܘܢ ܢܒ ܶܝܐ ܰܣ ܺܓܝܐܐ ܰܘܩܛܠܬܘܢ ܠܟܠܗܘܢ ܕܐܠ ܶܕܚܐܠ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܘܣܐ ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܚܘܢ ܶܐܢܶܝܢ ܰܓ ܰ‬ ‫ܒܖ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠ ܽ‬ ‫ܥܒ ܶܖܝܢ ܳܗܢܶܝܢ ܢܶ ܶܫܐ ܰܥܠ ܳܢ ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܝܗܝܢ ܠ ܳܘܬ ܰܕ ܳܝܢܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܠܚ ܺ‬ ‫ܥܒܪ‪ܰ 1‬‬ ‫ܠܝ ܰܚܒܪܐ ܺܕܝܠܝ ܶܐ ܰܓܪܬܐ ܶܡܢ ܰܐܬܪܐ ܰܪ ܺܚܝܩܐ ܶܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܒܝܪܚܐ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܐܬܡܠܝ ܐܦ ܐܢܐ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܺ ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠܚܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܟ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܗ ܶܐ ܰܓܪܬܐ ܰܐ ܺܪܝܟܬܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫ ܶ‬ ‫ܩܪܝܬܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܗ݀ܥܡ ܚܕ ܡܢ ܒܢܝܢܫܐ ܕ‬ ‫ܬܒܬ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ ܶܶ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡܚܕܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܠ ܝܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܕܡ ܰܐܠܟܐ ܰܩ ܺܪܝܒ ܶܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܗ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܖ ܶܩܝܢ ܶܡܢ ܰܗܘ ܐܬܪܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܢܗܝܢ ܕܚ‬ ‫ܰܟܕ ܫܡܥܝܢ ܢܫܐ ܩ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܚܝܠܬܐ ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܪܗ ܰܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܡܠܬܐ ܺ‬ ‫ܪܗܛܘ ܳܒܬܪܗ‬ ‫ܰܟܕ ܰܢܦܩ ܰܡܠܟܐ ܶܡܢ ܰܗܝܟܠܗ ܪܗܛܬ ܒ‬ ‫ܰܥܒ ܰܕܘܗܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܟܠܗܘܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܕܡܠܟܐ ܶ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܦܠ ܰܚ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܳ ܶ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܠܬ ܐܢ̱ܬܬܐ ܗܝ ܠܡܕܝܢ̱ܬܐ ܘܗܠܝܢ ܡܐܠ ܐܡܪܬ ܠܒܢܝܢܫܐ ܕܒܗ܀‬ ‫ܶܘܐܙ ̱‬ ‫‪d‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪13‬‬ ‫‪14‬‬

‫‪15‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪11.7. 11.1. 11.8. 11.6. 9.12. 11.4. 11.5. 7.16.‬‬

‫‪iI‬‬ ‫‪ Translate:‬‬ ‫‪Adam and Eve were frightened of the God’s wrath and fell on their faces.‬‬ ‫?‪Did (whether) that rich widow buy this vineyard‬‬ ‫‪When the sun came up, I went out of my house and mounted my white horse.‬‬ ‫‪When the city fell into the hands of enemies, all the people fled from it to the‬‬ ‫‪nearby villages.‬‬ ‫‪We were keeping this fire all night.‬‬ ‫‪You heard the angel’s commandment, but you transgressed it.‬‬ ‫‪When the moon came up, we ran after him to the fields.‬‬ ‫‪They fled from their fearful enemies to their countries.‬‬ ‫‪‘last month’ (‘the month that passed’).‬‬

‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬

148 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

Why did you run after that man, is he the Lord’s Messiah? Last month we told you that there was no water in the field. When the queen heard about the death of her husband, she did not say anything. Why did you go up to that altar? Don’t you know that it is not an altar of the true God? When the people of the city heard about the war, they immediately ran to their king. I didn’t sing the canticles and didn’t say the prayers. God banished Adam and Eve from the garden of Eden because they transgressed his commandment. Where did you buy these beautiful apples and grapes. When the servants heard about king’s anger, they were afraid and immediately ran to the forest. The wrath of our Lord fell on your head, because you transgressed on all the laws of the people. Yesterday, my grandfather and I plucked all the big apples from that high tree. God’s fire fell from heaven and killed all the wicked people of the city.

iI ܳܳ

Adam, man ʼāḏām ‫ܐܕܡ‬ ܶܰ face ʼappe (plur. only/fem.) ‫ܐܦܐ‬ ܰܰ whether, therefore ʼara ‫ܐܪܐ‬ ܳ ܰ ܰ widow ʼarmaltā ‫ܐܪܡܠܬܐ‬

ܳ ‫ܶܐ‬ ‫ܬܡܠܝ‬ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܳ ܰ place, location, region, country ʼaṯrā (ʼaṯrawwāṯā) )‫ܐܬܪܐ (ܐܬܖ ܳܘܬܐ‬ ܰ after bāṯar 1‫ܳܒܬܪ‬ ܰ to rise (sun, moon) dәna ‫ܕܢܚ‬ Eve awwā ‫ܰܚ ܳܘܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܝ‬ month yar ā ‫ܪܚܐ‬ when, while kaḏ ‫ܰܟܕ‬ ܳ vineyard karmā ‫ܰܟܪܡܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܡ‬ altar, sanctuary maḏbә ā ‫ܕܒܚܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܶܡ‬ immediately, at once me dā ‫ܚܕܐ‬ yesterday ʼeṯmāl

ܰ

The preposition ‫ ܳܒܬܪ‬is used with the “singular” pronominal suffixes.ܶ With suffixes with ܶ ܳ that ܰ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ start ܳ ،‫ܬܪܟܝ‬ ܳ ،‫ܳܒ ܰܬܪܝ‬ ә ṯā ā of the preposition falls out: ،‫ܢ‬ ‫ܬܪ‬ ‫ܒ‬ ، ‫ܗ‬ ‫ܬܪ‬ ‫ܒ‬ ،‫ܗ‬ ‫ܬܪ‬ ‫ܒ‬ ‫ܒ‬ ،‫ܟ‬ ‫ܬܪ‬ ‫ܒ‬ a vowel, the p ܶ ‫ ܳܒ ܰܬ‬،‫ ܳܒ ܰܬܪܟܘܢ‬. ܶ ‫ ܳܒ ܰܬ‬،‫ ܳܒ ܰܬܪܗܘܢ‬،‫ܪܟܝܢ‬ ‫ܪܗܝܢ‬ 1

LESSON 11

149

ܳ ܺ ‫ܡܚܝܐܠ‬ ܳ ܽ ܳ fire nurā (nurwāṯā) )‫ܢܘܖ ܳܘܬܐ‬ ( (fem.) ‫ܽܢܘܪܐ‬ ܰ to fall, collapse, lie down nәꝑal ‫ܢܦܠ‬ ܰ to go out, depart nәꝑaq ‫ܢܦܩ‬ ܳܳ ܰ ܽ ܽ ܽ ( ‫ܣܝܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܣܘ‬ horse susyā (susye, susawwāṯā) )‫ ܣܘܣܘܬܐ‬،‫ܣܘܣ ܶܝܐ‬ ܳ ݀forest ˁāḇā ‫ܥ ܳܒܐ‬ ܶ Eden ˁәḏen ‫ܥܕܝܢ‬ ܶ ܶ grapes ˁenbe (plur. only) ‫ܥܢܒܐ‬ ܰ to escape, flee ˁәraq ‫ܥܪܩ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܦ ܰܪܕ‬ ݀Paradise, garden pardaysā ‫ܝܣܐ‬ ܳ before qәḏām ‫ܩܕܡ‬ ܳ war, battle qәrāḇā ‫ܩܪ ܳܒܐ‬ ܰ to pursue, chase, persecute, banish rәḏaꝑ ‫ܪܕܦ‬ ܶ to run rәheṭ ‫ܪܗܛ‬ ܳ ܽ anger, wrath ruǥzā ‫ܪܘܓܙܐ‬ weak, feeble, infirm mә ilā

iI

LESSON 12 THE III-

‫ ܝ‬VERBS IN THE PAST TENSE ܳ

12.1. The 3rd radical y ḏ, which turns into ālaꝑ in the Pәˁal base form (‫)ܒܢܝ nešelun), while in all other forms the vowel is [a]. THE IMPERATIVE OF THE PӘˁAL STEM 20.4. The imperative of a verb has four forms – singular and plural masculine and singular and plural feminine. The sing. masc. is the base form for the other three. It is produced by omitting the prefix ‫ ܬ‬with its vowel-sign from the 2nd ܶ person masc. sing. of the future tense form. Thus, the future tense form ‫ ܬܩܛܘܠ‬te ṭ l ‘you will kill’ produces the imperative ‫ ܩܛܘܠ‬qәṭ l ‘Kill!’ Accordingly, the future tense form ܶ ‫ ܬܟܬܘܒ‬teḵt ḇ ‘you will write’ produces the imperative ‫ ܟܬܘܒ‬kәṯ ḇ ‘Write!’ (notice the changes in the begad-kepat consonants). More examples of the imperative: ‘Come close!’ qәraḇ ‘Do! Make!’ ‘Buy!’

ˁәḇeḏ ә

z ḇen

‘Go out!’

poq

‘Stand up!’

qum

‘Put!’

sim

‘Know!’

daˁ

ܰ ‫ܩܪܒ‬ ܶ ‫ܥܒܕ‬ ܶ ‫ܙܒܢ‬ ‫ܦܘܩ‬ ܽ ‫ܩܘܡ‬ ‫ܺܣܝܡ‬ ‫ܰܕܥ‬

      

ܰ ‫ܶܬ‬ ‫ܩܪܒ‬ ܶ ‫ܶܬ‬ ‫ܥܒܕ‬ ܶ ‫ܶܬ‬ ‫ܙܒܢ‬ ܶ ‫ܬܦܘܩ‬ ܽ ‫ܬܩܘܡ‬ ܺ ‫ܬܣܝܡ‬ ܶ ‫ܬ ܰܕܥ‬

198

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

ܰ ،‫ܫܒܩ‬ ܰ ،‫ܕܚܠ‬ ܶ ܳ ،‫ܫܠܚ‬ ، ‫ܪ‬ ‫ܚ‬ ܰ ܶ ܰ ،‫ ܣܠܩ‬،‫ ܢܛܪ‬،‫ ܶܢܚܬ‬،‫ ܰܢܦܠ‬،‫ܢܣܒ‬ ܰ ،‫ ܰܢܩܦ‬،‫ ܳܕܢ‬،‫ ܶܫܐܠ‬. ܶ ،‫ܫܡܥ‬ ‫ܣܓܕ‬  Produce the masc. sing. imperative form of the verbs

20.5. The other three forms of the imperative sound the same, but each has its own spelling with silent suffixes:

‫ܩܛܘܠܘ‬ ‫ܩܛܘܠܝ‬ ‫ܩܛܘܠܝ‬

plur. masc. ‘Kill!’ qәṭol sing. fem.

‘Kill!’ qәṭol

plur. fem.

‘Kill!’ qәṭol

20.6. The plural forms of the imperative have extended versions:

‫ܩܛܘܠ ܽܘܢ‬ ܶ ‫ܩܛܘܠܝܢ‬

plur. masc. ‘Kill!’ qәṭolun plur. fem.

‘Kill!’ qәṭolen

 Produce all forms of the imperative from the verbs in the previous exercise. THE IMPERATIVE OF THE III-‫ ܝ‬VERBS 20.7. The verbs of this group that in the Pәˁal base form end in ālaꝑ, have the folܳ lowing typical forms of the imperative (‫‘ ܒܢܐ‬to build’): sing. masc. ‘Build!’ sing. fem.

bәni

‘Build!’

bәnāy

plur. masc. ‘Build!’

bәnāw

plur. fem.

‘Build!’ bәnāyen

‫ܒܢܺܝ‬ ‫ܒܢܳܝ‬ ‫ܒܢܰܘ‬ ‫ܒܢܳ ܶܝܢ‬

ܰ

ܽ ‫ ܒܢ‬bәnaun. 20.8. The plur. masc. has an extended version ‫ܐܘܢ‬ ܺ ܳ hәwā ‘to be’ produces regular forms of the imperative – ،‫ܗܘܝ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ‬ ܶ‫ܗܘܝܢ‬ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܶ ܰ ،‫ ܗܘܘ‬،‫ ܗܘ ܰܝ‬, butܰ they can be substituted by the past tense forms ،‫ܗܘܝܬ‬ ‫ ܗܘܝܬܝܢ‬،‫ ܗܘܝܬܘܢ‬،‫ܗܘܝܬܝ‬. 20.9. The verb

 Produce the imperative forms from the verbs

ܳ ܳ ܳ ،‫ܒܟܐ‬ ܳ . ‫ ܡܐܠ‬،‫ܫܕܐ‬ ،‫ܪܥܐ‬

ܳ ،‫ ܥܢܳܐ‬،‫ܡܚܐ‬ ܳ ܳ ،‫ܩܪܐ‬ ܺ ،‫ܒܥܐ‬ ܳ ،‫ܚܙܐ‬ ،‫ܚܕܝ‬

LESSON 20

199

THE IMPERATIVE OF THE I-‫ ܐ‬VERBS 20.10. Those verbs that are conjugated with [a] in the future tense, form the imperative following theܶ general rule, but with the vowel-sign of the prefix moving onto ܶ ܰ ܰ the 1st radical: ‫ ܐܡܪ‬ʼemar ‘Say! Tell!’ from ‫ ܬܐܡܪ‬temar ܰ . Those conjugated ܶwith [o], ә ә replace the r ḇāṣā of the prefix with p ṭā ā: ‫ ܐܟܘܠ‬ʼaḵ l ‘Eat!’ from ‫ ܬܐܟܘܠ‬teḵol.

ܶ

ܶ

 Produce the imperative forms from the verbs ‫ ܐ ܰܚܕ‬and ‫ܐ ܰܒܕ‬. THE IMPERATIVE OF THE I-‫ ܝ‬VERBS 20.11.1. These verbs appear in the imperative with the initial yod- әḇāṣā sequence ܰ ܰ ܰ ܰ (as is the case in the base form): ‫ ܺܝܠܦܝ‬/‫ ܺܝܠܦܘ‬/‫ ܺܝܠܦܝ‬/‫ ܺܝܠܦ‬ilaꝑ ‘Learn! Study!’ 20.11.2. The same forms can ܺ also appear with the initial ālaꝑ- әḇāṣā sequence: ܺ ܺ ܺ ܳ ‫ܐ‬/‫ܝܠܦܘ‬ ܰ ‫ܐ‬/‫ܝܠܦܝ‬ ܰ ‫ܐ‬/‫ܝܠܦ‬ ܰ ‫ܐ‬. ‫ܝܠܦܝ‬

ܶ

ܶ

 Produce the imperative forms of the verbs ‫ ܺܝܪܬ‬and ‫ ܺܝܠܕ‬. SPECIAL FORMS OF THE IMPERATIVE 20.12. Several verbs have irregular imperative forms. The most widely used are: ‘Come!’

tā/tāy/taw/tāyen

‘Go!’

zel/zel/zel/zelen

‘Sit!’

teḇ/teḇ/teḇ/teḇen

‘Give!’

haḇ/haḇ/haḇ/haḇen

ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ ‫ܬ ܶܐܝܝܢ‬/‫ܬܘ‬/‫ܬܝ‬/‫ܬܐ‬ ܶ ‫ܨܶܠ ܝܢ‬/‫ ܶܙܠܘ‬/‫ ܶܙܠܝ‬/‫ܶܙܠ‬ ܶ ܶ ܶ ܶ ‫ܬ ܶܒܝܢ‬/‫ܬܒܘ‬/‫ܬܒܝ‬/‫ܬܒ‬ ‫ ܰܗ ܶܒܝܢ‬/‫ ܰܗܒܘ‬/‫ ܰܗܒܝ‬/‫ܰܗܒ‬

   

ܳܶ ‫ܐܬܐ‬ ܶ ‫ܐ ܰܙܠ‬ ܶ ‫ܺܝܬܒ‬ ‫ܰܝ ̱ܗܒ‬

ܶ

ܰ 20.13. The verb ‫‘ ܪܗܛ‬to run,’ apart from the regular form of the imperative ‫ܪܗܛ‬ rәhaṭ, has an irregular version with metathesis (the switching of two adjacent sounds) ‫ ܰܗܪܛ‬harṭ, which sometimes appears with a silent reš – ‫ ܰܗ ̱ܪܛ‬haṭ. POSTPOSITIVE PRONOMINAL ATTRIBUTION 20.14. One of the stylistic devices of the Syriac language is the postpositive pronominal attribution, which is the addition of a pronominal object, agreed in numܳ ܰ ‫ܶܩ‬ ber and gender with the subject, to the verbs of motion and other verbs: ‫ܪܒܬ ܠܗ‬

‫‪200‬‬

‫‪CLASSICAL SYRIAC‬‬

‫ܠܟܘܬܐ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫‪ܰ erbaṯ lāh malkuṯā ḏa-šmayyā ‘The kingdom of heaven is near (ap‬ܡ ܽ‬‫ܫܡܝܐ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫‪ sәle leh ṭalyā lә-ṭurā ‘The boy climbed the‬ܣܠܩ ܠܗ ܛܠܝܐ‬ ‫ܠܛܘܪܐ ;’)‪proached‬‬ ‫‪mountain.’ As these examples show, the postpositive pronominal attribution can‬‬ ‫‪be safely ignored in translation.‬‬

‫‪iI‬‬ ‫‪ Read, translate, and copy:‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬

‫ܫܡܝܐ ܳܐܦ ܰܒܐܪܥܐ‪ܰ .‬ܗܒ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܟܘ ܳܬܟ‪ ،‬ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܕܒ ܰ‬ ‫ܕܒ ܰ‬ ‫ܒܝܢܳܟ ܰܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܝܐ‪ܶ ،‬ܬ ܶܐܬܐ ܰܡ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܟܢܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܒܘܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܨܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܢ‬ ‫ܘܡܢܐ‪ܰ ،‬ܘܫܒܘܩ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܕܣܘ ܳܢܩܢܰܢ ܰܝ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܚܡܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܢ ܰܚܘ ܰܒܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܫܡܥ ܶܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰܡܢ ܕܢܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܗ‪ .‬ܐܠ ܶܓܝܪ ܶܐ ܶܬܝܬ ܶܕ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܕܘܢ ܠܟܘܢ‪ ،‬ܐܐܠ‬ ‫ܠܗܝܢ ‪ ،‬ܐܢܐ ܐܠ ܐ ܽܕܘܢ‬ ‫ܠܝ ܘܐܠ ܢܶܛܪ‬ ‫ܶܕ ܶܐܬܠ ܠܟܘܢ ܽ‬ ‫ܦܘ ܳܪܩܢܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܚ ܶܝܐ ܳܥܠ ܶܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ܳܰ ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܗ‪ܺ :‬‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ ܺ‬ ‫ܩܘܡܝ ‪ܶ .‬‬ ‫ܣܡܝܬܐ ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܦܟܬ ܽܪܘ ܳܚܗ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܰ‬ ‫ܛܠܝܬܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܩ ܰܡܬ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܪ ܡܪܢ ܒܛܠ‬ ‫ܶ ܶܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܘܗܐ ܺܝܫܘܥ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܦܓܥ ܠܗ ܶܝܢ ܘܐܡܪ ܠܗܝܢ ܫܠܡ ܠܟ ܶܝܢ‪ .‬ܗܢܝܢ ܕܝܢ ܶ ܩܪܒ ܐܚܕ ܖ ܓܠ ̱‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠܗܝܢ‪ :‬ܐܠ ܶܬܕܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܢ ܐܐܠ ܶܙܠ ܝܢ ܐ ܰܡ ܶܖܝܢ ܐܠ ܰܚܝ ܕܢܶܐܙܠ ܽܘܢ‬ ‫ܣܓܕ ܠܗ‪ܳ .‬ܗ ܶܝܕܝܢ ܐ ܰܡܪ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܬ ܳܡܢ ܢܶܚܙܘܢ ܺ‬ ‫ܠ ܺ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܓܠܝܐܠ‬ ‫ܬܚܝܬ ܶܖ ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܥܕ ܳܡܐ ܶܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܒܥܠ ܕ ܳܒ ܰܒܝܟ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܬܒ ܶܡܢ ܰܝ ܺܡܝܢܝ ܰ‬ ‫ܓܠܝܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܐܣܝܡ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܒܚܠܡܐ ܠ ܰܝ ܶ‬ ‫ܰܟܕ ܺܡܝܬ ܶܕܝܢ ܶܗܪܘ ܶܕܣ ܰܡܠܟܐ ܶܐ ܳܬܐ ܰܡ ܰܐܠܟܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܕܡܪܝܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܒܡܨܪܝܢ ܰܟܕ ܐ ܰܡܪ ‪:‬‬ ‫ܘܣܦ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܙܠ ܰܐܠܪܥܐ ܺܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܐܠ ܶܡܗ ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܐܝܣܪܐܝܠ‪ܺ ،‬ܡܝܬܘ ܶܓܝܪ ܶܗܢܘܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܘܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܕܒ ܶܥܝܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܘ‬ ‫ܕܒܪ ܠܛܠܝܐ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܦܫܗ ܕܛܠܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܗܘܕ ܰܟܕ ܳܐ ܰܡܪ ‪ܽ :‬‬ ‫ܠܚܘܪܒܐ ܺܕ ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܒܝܘ ܳܡܬܐ ܳܗܢܘܢ‪ܶ 2‬ܐ ܳܬܐ ܝܘ ܰܚܢܳܢ ܰܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܒܗܢܘܢ ܶܕܝܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܘܒܘ‬ ‫ܥܡܕܢܐ‬ ‫ܪܒܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܬܐ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܗ ܰܡ ܽ‬ ‫ܶܩ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܳܶ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܒܡܕܒܪܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܘܥ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܟܕ ܳܨ ܶܐܡ ̱ܗ ܳܘܐ ܶܝ ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܒܪܗ ܐܢ̱ܬ ܰܕܠܐܗܐ ܐ ܰܡܪ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ‪ :‬ܐܢ‬ ‫ܩܪܒ ܠܗ ܐܟܠܩܪܨܐ ܘ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ ܺ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܝܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܦܐ ܢܶܗ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܚܡܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕܗܠܝܢ ܟ‬ ‫ܶ ܺܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܝܬܝܗܘܢ ܗ ܰܘܘ ܶܓܝܪ ܰܨ ܳܝܕܐܶ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܚܙܐ ܰܥܠ ܰܝܕ ܰܝܡܐ ܕ ܓܠܝܐܠ ܬܖܝܢ ܐܚܝܢ ܕܪܡܝܢ ܡܨܝܕܬܐ ܒܝܡܐ ܐ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܠܗܘܢ‪ܰ :‬ܬܘ ܳܒ ܰܬܪܝ ܶܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܥܒܕ ܠܟܘܢ ܕܬܗܘܘܢ ܰܨ ܳܝ ܶܕܐ ܰܕܒܢܰܝܢܳܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܕܒܪ ܬܖܝܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܠܣܡܝܐ ܐܢ ܢ‬ ‫ܫܒܘܩ ܠܗܘܢ‪ ،‬ܣ ܰܡܝܐ ܐܢܘܢ‪ܳ ،‬ܢܓ ܽܘ ܶܕܐ ܰܕܣ ܰܡܝܐ‪ܰ .‬ܣܡܝܐ ܶܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܒܓܘ ܳܡܨܐ ܢܶܦܠ ܽܘܢ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪cb‬‬

‫‪ab‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬

‫‪j‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪l‬‬

‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬

‫‪m‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪n‬‬

‫‪he‬‬

‫‪7‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪n‬‬

‫‪hj‬‬

‫‪o‬‬

‫‪8‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪9‬‬

‫‪p‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪10‬‬

‫‪q‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪r‬‬

‫‪s‬‬

‫ܰ‬

‫‪ܰ háḇlan.‬ܗܒܠܢ – ‪This combination can appear as a single word‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪) which is a kind of stylistic em‬ܒܗܢܘܢ ܕܝܢ ܰܝܘ ܳܡܬܐ ‪ (instead of‬ܒ ‪ܳ and‬ܗܢܘܢ ‪Note the double use of‬‬‫‪bellishment of the text.‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬

LESSON 20

201

ܺ ܳ ‫ ܶܡܢ ܐ‬،‫ܘܗܒ ܠܗܘܢ ܰܐܓܪܐ ܺܕܝܠܗܘܢ‬ ܳ ‫ܠܩ‬ ܰ ‫ܥܕܡܐ‬ ܰ ‫ܩܪܝ ܳܦܥ ܶܐܠ‬ ܰ ‫ܚܖ ܶܝܐ‬ .‫ܕܡ ܶܝܐ‬ ̱ ܺ ‫ܙܒܢܝ ܰܩ‬ ܰ ‫ܠܝܠ ܰܚ ܽܙܘ ܶܖܐ ܰܐܖ ܶܡܢܳ ܶܝܐ‬ ܶ ‫ܠܫܘܩܐ ܰܘ‬ ܽ ܳ ‫ܘܦ ܺܛ‬ .‫ܝܚܐ‬ ‫ܶܙܠܝ‬ ܳ ‫ܚܙܝ ܡܐ ܰܫ ܺܦܝܪ ܰܡܠܟܐ‬ ܺ ‫ܒܗܘ ܢܶܫܪܐ ܰܘ‬ ܽ ܰ ‫ܚܘܪܗܖ‬ .‫ܕܦ ܰܖ ܳܚܬܐ‬ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܺ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܰ ‫ܺܐ‬ .‫ܡܚܪ ܐܠܖ ܰܚܝܢ‬ ‫ܙܡܪܝܢ ܠܗ‬ ‫ܝܠܦܝ ܙܡܪܐ ܗܢܐ ܕܬ‬ ܶ ܰ ܺ ܰ ܳ ܺ ‫ܝܟܐ ܗܘ‬ ‫ܕܗܢܐ ܬܪܥܐ؟‬ ‫ܩܠܝܕܐ‬ ̱ ܰ ‫ܐ ܰܡܪ ܠܝ ܐ‬ ܰ ‫ܗܦܟ ܳܚ‬ ܰ ‫ܚܕ ܽܐܘܢ ܰܥ ܰܡܢ ܳܗܢܐ ܰܪܡܫܐ ܕ ܳܗܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܠܢ ܶܡܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܩܪܒܐ ܰܚܝܐ܀‬ d

t

j

d

t

u

k

v

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

q

r

s

i

j

k

18.9. 16.9.1. 17.3. 20.12. 20.4. 19.3. 6.26.2. 20.1. 19.6. 20.5. 20.10.

l

m

n

o

p

t

u

v

17.1. 20.2. 15.10. 20.14. 14.8.1. 16.7. 18.11. 19.4. 20.7. 20.11.2. 20.8.

iI  Translate: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Ask your father where he put the key to (of) this room. Come after me lest you fall into a pit in this darkness. Forgive us, Lord, our sins, as we have forgiven the sins of our enemies. Go to the desert and there seek for your live god. Eat these apricots and this melon, tomorrow we’ll buy some more (again). Dance for me and sing (from) your beautiful songs. The evil daughter told the king: “Kill John the Baptist and give me his head!” Behold the voice that calls in the desert: “Repent because the last day has come!” My uncle who returned from the war as a hero, is seated on the right side of the governor. Kill that eagle so that he may not hunt my lambs. If you do not throw your net in the sea, you will not catch fish. Ask the laborers what they want from me as a reward. Flee from the devil and do not listen to his false promises. Help that blind man cross the street. ܰ ( you into his kingdom. Be the guides of the blind so that God may lead )‫ܕܒܪ‬ On the road, a beggar happened upon me and asked for a bit (a little) bread from me. Be afraid of the Lord’s wrath and do not sin. Fast so that you may have (be to you) good health of body and soul. Who are the first among the last and who will be the last among the first? Strike the devil with your faith so that he may get lost in the fire of hell.

iI

11 12 13 14 15 16

202

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

ܰ ‫ܐ ܶܟ‬ ‫ܠܩ ܳܪܨܐ‬ ܳ ܽ pit gumāṣā ‫ܓܘܡ ܳܨܐ‬ ܺ Galilee gәlilā ‫ܓܠܝܐܠ‬ ܶ ‫ܳܗ‬ then hayden ‫ܝܕܝܢ‬ ܳܳ music, song zәmārā ‫ܙܡܪܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܚ‬ debt; sin awbā ‫ܘܒܐ‬ ܽ ܳ ‫ܚܘ‬ desert, wasteland urbā ‫ܪܒܐ‬ ܳ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܽ ‫ܰܚ‬ apricot azzurā ʼarmenāyā ‫ܙܘܪܐ ܐܪܡܢ ܳܝܐ‬ alive, living ayyā ‫ܰܚ ܳܝܐ‬ ܳ maternal uncle ālā ‫ܳܚܐܠ‬ ܳ ܺ right; right side; right hand yamminā ‫ܰܝܡܝܢܐ‬ ܳ ܺ net mәṣiḏta ‫ܡܨܝܕܬܐ‬ ܳ ܽ ‫ܳܢ‬ guide naǥuḏā ‫ܓܘܕܐ‬ ܳ ܶ eagle nešrā ‫ܢܫܪܐ‬ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܺ ܰ ܳ ‫ܰܣ‬ amyā (sәmayyā; sәmiṯā – amyāṯā) )‫ ܣܡ ܳܝܬܐ‬- ‫ܡܝܐ (ܣܡ ܳܝܐ؛ ܣܡܝܬܐ‬ ܰ ݀to meet, encounter, happen upon, befall pәǥaˁ ‫ܦܓܥ‬ ܺ ܳ ‫ܰܦܛ‬ melon, water melon, pumpkin paṭṭi ā ‫ܝܚܐ‬ ܳ ܳ laborer, worker pāˁlā ‫ܦܥܐܠ‬ ܳ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܳ bird; winged insect pāra tā (pāra āṯā) )‫ܦܪܚܬܐ (ܦܖ ܳܚܬܐ‬ to fast ṣām ‫ܳܨܡ‬ ܳ first, former aḏmāyā ‫ܰܩܕܡ ܳܝܐ‬ ܺ ܳ ‫ܩܠ‬ key qәliḏā ‫ܝܕܐ‬ ܳ put, place, cast (a net) rәmā ‫ܪܡܐ‬ ܳ to repent; to return tāḇ ‫ܬܒ‬ devil ʼaḵel arṣā

blind

ܳ ‫ܝܘ ܰܚܢܳܢ ܰܡ‬ ‫ܥܡܕ ܳܢܐ‬ ܳ ܺ ܰ ܳ Sea of Galilee (Lake Tiberias) yammā ḏa-ǥәlilā ‫ܰܝܡܐ ܕ ܓܠܝܐܠ‬ ݀John the Baptist y

iI

annān maˁmәḏānā

LESSON 21 THE PAˁˁEL STEM 21.1. The Paˁˁel stem differs from the Pˁal1 stem by the geminated (doubled) 2nd ܶ ܰ radical that carries rḇāṣā, while the 1st radical carries pṯā ā – ܶܶ ܶ. Thus, in the ܶ ܰ ܰ ܶ as ‫ ܰܪ ܶܚܡ‬ra em, and Paˁˁel stem, the verb ‫ ܩܛܠ‬appears as ‫ ܩܛܠ‬aṭṭel, the verb ‫ܪܚܡ‬ ܶ ܶ the verb ‫ ܩܪܒ‬as ‫ ܰܩܪܒ‬arreḇ. ܶ

21.2. As the Syriac script has no way of indicating the gemination of a consonant, particular care should be given to mastering the other characteristics of this stem in order not to overlook this important feature in pronunciation. 21.3. It should be remembered that the begad-kepat consonants can be doubled only in their stop (hard) varieties – bb, gg, dd, kk, pp, tt. In the Paˁˁel stem, the 2nd radical begad-kepat consonant often displays a ušāyā, which indicates the stop pronunciation and hints at gemination. If the 3rd radical is a begad-kepat consonant, then it has a spirant (soft) pronunciation being preceded by the vowel [e] or, in some forms, by a schwa. 21.4. The Paˁˁel stem usually denotes the repetitive or intensified nature of the acܰ tion of the Pˁal stem. Thus, the Pˁal verb ‫ ܩܛܠ‬means ‘to kill,’ whereas in Paˁˁel – ܶ ‫ ܰܩܛܠ‬aṭṭel – it means ‘to kill many people, to massacre.’ In the same manner, the ܰ ‘to kiss’ becomes ‫ ܰܢ ܶܫܩ‬našše – ‘to cover with kisses’ in Paˁˁel. verb ‫ܢܫܩ‬ 21.5.1. The intensification of an action is not always present. Quite often, in both Pˁal and Paˁˁel, the verb has the same meaning. It may also happen that the verb means something in Paˁˁel that has nothing in common with the meaning of the same verb in Pˁal.

1

From this lesson onwards, the schwa will no longer be reflected in the transcription.

203

204

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

21.5.2. In some cases, the Paˁˁel stem makes the intransitive Pˁal verbs transitive: ܶ ܶ ‫‘ ܫܠܡ‬to come to an end, be concluded’ – ‫ ܰܫܠܡ‬šallem ‘to finish, conclude, complete.’ ܶ ܰ 21.5.3. The verbs formed from nouns generally appear in the Paˁˁel stem: ‫ܠܒܒ‬ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܶ labbeḇ ‘to encourage, exhort’ (from ‫ ܠܒܐ‬lebbā ‘heart’); ‫ ܡܠܠ‬mallel ‘to speak, talk’ ܳ ܶ (from ‫‘ ܡܠܬܐ‬word’). 21.5.4. It should also be noted that many verbs appear in Paˁˁel, but do not have a Pˁal equivalent, and vice versa. THE PARTICIPLES OF THE PAˁˁEL STEM AND THEIR USE IN TENSES 21.6. The active participles in the Paˁˁel stem are formed with the‫ ܡܙ‬prefix along the following patterns: masculine

feminine

singular

ܶ ܰ ‫ܡܩܛܠ‬

ܳ ܰ ‫ܡܩܛܐܠ‬

m aṭṭel

plural

ܺ ‫ܡܩ‬ ܰ ‫ܛܠܝܢ‬

m aṭṭlā

ܳ ‫ܡܩܛ‬ ܰ ‫ܠܢ‬

m aṭṭlin

m attlān

Note the reduction of the vowel [e] into a schwa. 21.7. The infinitive of the Paˁˁel verbs is formed with the prefix‫ ܡܙ‬and ending ‫ ܽܘ‬: ܳ ܰ ܰ ‫ܡܩܛܠ ܽܘ‬ )‫( (ܠܙ‬la)mqaṭṭālú.

ܰ

ܰ m aṭṭal, that is, the vowel-sign of 21.8. The masc. sing. passive participle is ‫ܡܩܛܠ‬ the 2nd radical switches from rḇāṣā to pṯā ā. The other three forms are the same as the active participles and should be distinguished from them by the context. ܶ

 Form the participles and infinitives of the verbs ‫ܰܫܠܡ‬

ܶ ܰ ،‫ ܰܢ ܶܫܩ‬. ،‫ ܰܡܠܠ‬،‫ܠ ܶܒܒ‬

21.9. With the enclitics of both types, the active participles of theܶ Paˁˁel stem form ܰ ‫‘ ܐܢܐ‬I speak Syriac’; ܽ ‫ܡܡ ܶܠܠ ܐ̱ܢܐ‬ ܺ ‫ܣܘ ܳܪܝ‬ the present and “past continuous” tenses: ‫ܐܝܬ‬ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܰ ‫‘ ܶܗܢܶܝܢ‬They spoke aloud.’ ‫ܡܡܠܠܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܝ ܒܩܐܠ ܪܡܐ‬

LESSON 21

205

SPECIAL CASES OF THE STRONG VERBS IN PAˁˁEL 21.10.1. As is the case in Pˁal, the verbs with the 3rd guttural or reš radical, have pṯā ā instead of rḇāṣā in the infinitives and active participles of the Paˁˁel stem: ‫ܰܫ ܰܕܪ‬ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܰ šaddar ‘to send’ – ‫ ܡܫ ܰܕܪ‬mšaddar; ‫ ܫܒܚ‬šabba ‘to praise, glorify’ – ‫ ܡܫܒܚ‬mšabba . 21.10.2. All the active and passive participles forms of these verbs are the same: ܰ mšaddar ‘sending’ and ‘sent.’ ‫ܡܫ ܰܕܪ‬ WEAK VERBS IN THE PAˁˁEL STEM 21.11. The III-‫ ܝ‬verbs that end in ālaꝑ in Pˁal restore the 3rd y ḏ radical in the ܺ ܳ Paˁˁel base form: ‫‘ ܒܢܐ‬to build’ – ‫ ܰܒܢܝ‬banni ‘to restore.’ 21.12. The active participles of the verbs of this group have the following typical ܺ forms (‫ ܰܨܠܝ‬ṣalli ‘to pray’):

ܶ

ܰ mṣalle ‫ܡܨܐܠ‬

ܰ ‫ܡܨܠ ܳܝܐ‬ ܶ ܰ ܰ mṣalleyn ‫ܡܨܠܝܢ‬ mṣallyān ‫ܡܨܠ ܳܝܢ‬ ܰ ܰ mṣallay. The other three forms 21.13. The masc. sing. passive participle is ‫ܡܨܠܝ‬ mṣallyā

are the same as the active participles.

ܳ

ܰ

ܽ ‫ܡܨܠ‬ ܰ )‫( (ܠܙ‬la)mṣallāyú. 21.14. The infinitive is ‫ܝܘ‬ 21.15. In the II-‫ ܘ‬verbs, the 2nd radical waw turns into y ḏ: ‫‘ ܳܩܡ‬to stand up, arise’ – ‫ ܰܩ ܶܝܡ‬qayyem ‘to establish.’ This form serves as the base for all other forms along ܰ mqayyem, ‫ܡܘ‬ ܽ ‫ܡܩ ܳܝ‬ ܰ m ayyām and so on. the patterns of the strong verbs: ‫ܡܩ ܶܝܡ‬ 21.16.1. In the infinitives and participles of the I-‫ ܐ‬group, the pṯā ā of the ālaꝑ ܶ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܰ moves onto the prefix‫ܡܙ‬: ‫ ܠܐܨ‬alleṣ ‘to press, oppress’ – ‫ ܡܐܠܨ‬malleṣ, ‫ ܡܐܠܨ‬mallaṣ, ܳ ‫ ܰܡ‬mallāṣ . ‫ܐܠ ܽܨܘ‬ ܶ ܰ ܳ ‫ ܰܡ‬،‫ܠܨ‬ ܰ ‫ ܰܡ‬،‫ܠܨ‬ ܽ ‫ܠ‬ ‫ܡ‬. 21.16.2. In the forms above, the ālaꝑ may be omitted altogether: ‫ܨܘ‬ 21.17.1. The majority of the I-‫ ܝ‬verbs form the Paˁˁel forms along the general rule: ܶ ‫ ܰܝܠܕ‬yalleḏ ‘to help to give birth.’

206

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

ܶ ܰ

21.17.2. In some cases, however, the 1st radical y ḏ turns into ālaꝑ: ‫ ܠܐܦ‬alleꝑ ‘to ܶ teach, instruct’ (from ‫) ܺܝܠܦ‬. The infinitives and participles may either retain ālaꝑ ܶ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܳ ‫ ܰܡ‬،‫ܐܠܦ‬ ܳ ‫ ܰܡ‬،‫ܠܦ‬ ܽ ‫ܐܠ‬ ܽ ‫ܠ‬ (‫ܦܘ‬ ‫)ܡ‬, or, more often, lose it (‫ܦܘ‬ ‫)ܡ‬.

ܶ

ܰ 21.18. In the II-‫ ܐ‬verbs, ܶ ܰ all forms ܽ haveܳ ܰ a doubled glottal stop: ‫ ܫܐܠ‬ša’’el ‘to question, interrogate’; ‫ ܡܫܐܠ‬mša’’el; ‫ ܡܫܐܠ ܘ‬mša’’āl . ORDINAL NUMERALS 21.19. The ordinal numerals of the first decade are the following:

ܳ ܺ ‫ܫܬܝܬ ܳܝܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܫܒ‬ ܺ ‫ܝܥ ܳܝܐ‬ ܺ ‫ܬܡܝܢܳ ܳܝܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܬܫ‬ ܺ ‫ܝܥ ܳܝܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܥܣ‬ ܺ ‫ܝܪ ܳܝܐ‬

VI VII VIII IX X

ܳ ‫ܰܩ‬ ‫ܕܡ ܳܝܐ‬ ܰ ‫ܬܪ ܳܝܢܳܐ‬ ܳ ܺ ‫ܬܠܝܬ ܳܝܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܪܒ‬ ܺ ‫ܝܥ ܳܝܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܚ ܺܡ‬ ‫ܝܫ ܳܝܐ‬

I II III IV V

21.20. The ordinal numerals form the feminine forms in the same manner as the ܳ ܳ ܺ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܺ ܰ ܳ ܰ adjectives: ‫ ܬܠܝܬܝܬܐ‬،‫ ܰܩܕܡܝܬܐ‬. The feminine form of ‫ ܬܪ ܳܝܢܐ‬is ‫ ܬܪ ܳܝܢܝܬܐ‬trayyāniṯā. 21.21.1. Starting from the second decade, the cardinal numerals preceded by the ܶ particle ‫ ܕ‬serve as ordinal numerals, agreeing in gender with the noun: ‫ܰܠܝܐ‬ ܳ ‫‘ ܰܕ‬the 13th night’; ‫ܣܖܐ‬ ܳ ‫‘ ܨܠ ܘܬܐ ܰܕ‬the 13 prayer.’1 ܶ ‫ܬܠ ܰܬ ܶܥ‬ ܰ ‫ܬܠ ܰܬ‬ ‫ܥܣܪ‬ 21.21.2. In the same manner, the cardinal numerals of the first decade can also ܳ ܰ ܶ ܰ ‫‘ ܰܐܢ̱ܬܬܐ ܰܕ‬the fourth serve as ordinal numerals: ‫‘ ܗܪܓܐ ܕܬܠܬܐ‬the third lesson’; ‫ܐܪܒܥ‬ woman.’

iI  Read, translate, and copy:

ܰ ܶ ܶ ܽ ܳܰ ܰ ܰ ‫ܠ‬ ܰ ‫ܶܐ ܶܬܝܬ‬ ܽ ‫ܠܒ‬ ܺ ‫ܠܒܝ ܰܒ‬ ܽ ‫ܡܠ ܳܒ‬ .‫ܝܒܘܬܟܘܢ‬ ‫ܒܡܠܝ ܘܠܡܒܢܝܘ‬ ‫ܒܘ ܠܟܘܢ‬ ܶ ‫ܥܡܕܢܐ ܰܫ ܺܪܝܪܐ‬ ܰ ‫ܘܡܢܳܟ ܳܨ ܶܒܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ‬ ܰ ‫ܠܡܥܡܘ ܺܕܝܬܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܐܢ̱ܬ ̱ܗܘ ܰܡ‬ . ‫ܡܩ ܳܒܠ ܽܘ‬ b

a

a

1 2

ܶ ܳ ‫ܥܣ‬ ܳ ‫ܥܣ‬ ܺ ‫ܬܪ‬ ܺ ‫ܚܕ‬ ܰ ،‫ܝܪ ܳܝܐ‬ ،‫ܝܪ ܳܝܐ‬ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܳ ܰ ܺ ‫ܬܫ‬ ܺ ‫ܬܡܢ‬ ܺ ‫ܫܒ‬ ܺ ‫ ܫܬ‬،‫ܥܣܝܪ ܳܝܐ‬ ܺ ‫ܡܫ‬ ܺ ‫ܪܒ‬ ܺ ‫ܬܠܬ‬. ܳ ،‫ܥܣܝܪ ܳܝܐ‬ ܰ ،‫ܥܣܝܪ ܳܝܐ‬ ܰ ‫ ܐ‬،‫ܥܣܝܪ ܳܝܐ‬ ܰ ،‫ܥܣܝܪ ܳܝܐ‬ ܰ ‫ ܰܚ‬،‫ܥܣܝܪ ܳܝܐ‬ ܳ‫ܥܣܝܪܝܐ‬

1

In modern usage, the following artificial forms occasionally appear:

‫‪LESSON 21‬‬

‫‪207‬‬

‫ܡܩ ܺ‬ ‫ܘܚܟܝܡܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܣܦܖܐ‪ܶ .‬ܡܢܗܘܢ‪ܰ 1‬‬ ‫ܡܫ ܰܕܪ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠ ܳܘܬܟܘܢ ܺ‬ ‫ܗܐ ܶܐܢܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܢܒܝܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܛܠܝܢ ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳܘܙ ܺ‬ ‫ܩܦܝܢ ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ ܰܘܡܢܰܓ ܺܕܝܢ ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ ܰܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܟܢܘ ܳܫܬܟܘܢ ܟܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܓܕ ܺܦܝܢ ܰܥܠ ܠܐܗܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܒܕܘܟܬܐ ܚܕܐ‪ ،‬ܗܐ ܰܚܕ ܶܡܢ ܰܬܠܡܝ ܰܕܘܗܝ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܨ ܶܐܠ ̱ܗܘܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܟܕ ܽ‬ ‫ܗܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܪܒ ܠܗ ܳܫܐܠ ‪ܳ :‬ܡ ܰܪܢ‪،‬‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܨ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܘ ؟ ܶܐ ܰܡܪ ܠܗܘܢ ܶܝ ܽ‬ ‫ܠ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܝܢ ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ ܳܗ ܰܟܢܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܟܢܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܝܬܘܢ ܐܡܪܝܢ‪:3‬‬ ‫ܫܘܥ‪ :‬ܐ ܰܡܬܝ ܕܡܨ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟܘ ܳܬܟ‪ ،‬ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܕܒ ܰ‬ ‫ܒܝܢܳܟ ܰܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܝܐ‪ܶ ،‬ܬ ܶܐܬܐ ܰܡ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܒܘܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܨܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܡܝܐ ܐܦ ܰܒܐܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܝܟܢܐ ܕܒ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܟ ܰܥܠ ܰܝܕ ܰܝܡܐ ܰܕ ܺ‬ ‫ܬܖܝܢ ܰܨ ܳܝܕܺܝܢ ܶܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܠܗܘܢ ܬܘ ܳܒܬܪܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܟܕ ܡܗ‬ ‫ܓܠܝܐܠ ܚܙܐ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶܟ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܩ ܳܝ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܩܘܕܫܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܒܗ ܶܕܐ ܽܕܘܟܬܐ ܰܗܝܟܐܠ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܒܢܘ ܶܝܐ‪ܶ 4‬ܡܛܠ ܳܕܨ ܶܒܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܢܫܬ ܠܟܠܟܘܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܘ ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܕܡ ܽܢܘ ܰܐ ܳܟܪܐ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܫ ܶܐܠ ̱ܗܘܐ ܠܝ ܰܕ ܳܝܢܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܡ ܶܠܠ ̱ܗ ܶܘܝܬ ܰܥ ܶܡܗ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܒܗܘ ܰܠܝܐ‪.‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪j‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪l‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪8‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܕܚ ܰ‬ ‫ܒܒܝܬ ܶܣܦܪܐ ܶܥܕ ܳܬ ܳܢܝܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܕܒܫܒܐ‬ ‫̱‬

‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܣܘܪܝܝܐ ܠ ܳܝܠ ܘܦܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܕܠܫܢܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܕܒܝܬ ܶܣܦܪܐ ܶܥ ̱ܕܬܢܝܐ‬ ‫ܒܚܕ ܝܘܡ ܶܫܐܠ ܰܡܠܦܢܐ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠܡܢܐ ܳܙ ܶܕܩ ܕܢܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܕܒܫܒܐ‪ܳ :‬‬ ‫ܠܫܢܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܕܚ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܐܠܦ‬ ‫ܣܘܪܝܝܐ؟‬ ‫ܘܡܚܕܐ ܟܠܗܘܢ ܳܝܠ ܽܘܦܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܕܣܕܪܐ ܰܙܩܦܘ ܺܐܝܕܐ ܳܒ ܶܥܝܢ ܕܢܶܬܠ ܽܘܢ ܽ‬ ‫ܦܘ ܳܢܝܐ‪ܰ .‬ܚܕ ܶܡܢܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܐ ܰܡܪ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ܽܛܠ ܰ‬ ‫ܕܚܕ ̱ܗܘ ܡܢ ܠܫܢܐ ܰܩܕ ܶܡܐ ܰܥܠ ܐ ܰܦܝ ܐܪܥܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܪ ܳܝܢܐ ܶܐ ܰܡܪ‪ܶ :‬ܡ ܽܛܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܕܒܗ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܡ ܶܠܠ ̱ܗܘܐ ܳܡ ܰܪܢ ܺܝܫܘܥ ܟܕ ܰܒܐܪܥܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܕ ܰܝܪ ̱ܗܘܐ ‪،‬‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳܘܐܦ ܶܒܗ ܡܣܒܪܝܢ ̱ܗܘܘ ܫܠ ܝܚܐ ܕܝܠܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܕܠܫܢܰܐ ܗܘ ܶ‬ ‫ܣܘ ܳܪܝܝܬܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܕܝܠܢ ܽ‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫ܘܒܗ ܺܣܝ ܺܡܝܢ‬ ‫ܕܥ ̱ܕܬܐ‬ ‫ܬܠܝܬܝܐ ܐ ܰܡܪ‪ܶ :‬ܡܛܠ‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܟܠܗܘܢ ܛܟܣܐ ܕܨܠ ܘܬܐ‪ ،‬ܘܒܗ ܡܨܠܝܢ ̱ܚܢܢ ܘܡܫܒܚܝܢ ̱ܚܢܢ ܬܫܒܘܚܬܐ ܠܡܪܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܽ‬ ‫ܕܒܗ ܳܣܡܘ ܰܐ ܳܒ ܳܗ ܰܬܢ ܖ ܽܘܚܢܶܐ ܰܐܝܟ ܳܡܪܝ ܰܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܛܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܦܪܝܡ ܣܘ ܳܪܝܝܐ‬ ‫ܝܥܝܐ ܐ ܰܡܪ‪ :‬ܡ‬ ‫ܘܪܒ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܟܬܒܐ ܣܓܝܐܐ ܕܬܘܕܝܬܐ ܘܡܪܕܘܬܐ ܘܝܘܠܦܢܐ ܘܙܕܩ ܕܢܩܪܐ ܘܢܐܠܦ ܐܢܘܢ܀‬ ‫‪m‬‬

‫‪n‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪oc‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪p‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪q‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪m‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪21.7. 21.14. 21.10.1. 21.9. 21.6. 15.10. 21.12. 15.11.‬‬ ‫‪q‬‬

‫‪p‬‬

‫‪o‬‬

‫‪n‬‬

‫‪m‬‬

‫‪l‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪j‬‬

‫‪20.9. 20.12. 21.15. 21.18. 18.7. 19.6. 21.15. 10.13. 17.1.‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫’‪‘(some) of them.‬‬ ‫‪m aṭṭli-tton.‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪Literally ‘be saying’, i.e. – ‘Say!’ (20.9.).‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪ in this sentence.‬ܠܙ‪Notice the double usage of the preposition‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫’‪‘are set.‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

208

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

 Read the previous text in the Estrangela script and copy it 1.

ܶ ܶ ܶ ܰ ݀‫ܝܐ݀ܕܚܕܒܫܒܐ‬ ‫ܦܪܐ݀ܥ ̄ܕ ܳܬ ܳܢ‬ ‫ܝܬ݀ܣ‬ ‫ܒܒ‬ ݀ ܶ ̈ ܳ ܽ ̄ ܶ ܶ ܶ ܰ ݀‫ܡ݀ܫ݀ܐ‬ ܶ ܰ ܳ ݀‫ܦܪܐ݀ܥ݀ܕܬܢܝܐ‬ ݀ ‫ܠ݀ܡܠܦܢܐ݀ܕܠܫܢܐ݀ܣܘܪܝܝܐ݀ܠܝܠܘܦܐ݀ܕܒܝܬ݀ܣ‬ ‫ܒܚܕ݀ܝܘ‬ ݀ ܶ ܰ ܽ ܶ ܶ ܳ ܰ ‫ܕܚ‬ ܳ ܰ ݀‫ܩ݀ܕܢܐܠܦ݀ܠܫܢܐ݀ܣܘܪܝܝܐ؟‬ ݀ ‫݀ܠܡܢܐ݀ܙܕ‬:‫ܕܒܫܒܐ‬ ̈ ܽ ܽ ܶ ܳ ܺ ܶ ܶ ܳ ܰ ܳ ‫ܘܡܚܕܐ݀ܟܠܗܘ‬ ݀‫݀ ܰܚܕ‬.‫ܕܪܐ݀ܙܩܦܘ݀ܐܝܕܐ݀ܒ ܶܥܝܢ݀ܕܢܬܠܘܢ݀ܦܘܢܝܐ‬ ݀ ‫ܢ݀ܝܠܘܦܐ݀ܕܣ‬ ݀ ݀ ܶ ܰ ܽ ̈ ܶ ܰ ܰ ̈ ̄ ܶ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܰ ̈ ݀.‫݀ܢ݀ܠܫܢܐ݀ܩܕܡܐ݀ܥܠ݀ܐܦܝ݀ܐܪܥܐ‬ ‫ܕ݀ܗܘ݀ܡ‬ ݀ ‫݀ܡܛܠ݀ܕܚ‬:‫݀ܢ݀ܐܡܪ‬ ‫ܶܡܢܗܘ‬ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܽ ܶ ܰ ܰ ̄ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܺ ‫ܘܐ݀ܡܪ‬ ݀‫ܥ݀ܟܕ݀ܒܐܪܥܐ݀ܡܕ ܰܝܪ‬ ݀‫ܢ݀ܝܫܘ‬ ‫ܠ݀ܗ‬ ‫ܗ݀ܡܡܠ‬ ‫ܠ݀ܕܒ‬ ‫݀ ܶܡܛ‬:‫ܬܪ ܳܝܢܐ݀ܐ ܰܡܪ‬ ݀ ‫ܘ‬ ݀ ܺ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܳ ̄ ܶ ̈ ݀.‫ܝܢ݀ܗܘܘ݀ܫܠܝܚܐ݀ܕܝܠܗ‬ ݀ ‫݀ܘܐܦ݀ܒܗ݀ܡܣܒܪ‬،‫̄ܗܘܐ‬ ܶ ܺ ܰ ܰ ܳ ‫ܬܠ‬ ܽ ܶ ܺ ̄ ܺ ‫ܗ݀ܣ‬ ܶ ݀‫ܝܡܝܢ‬ ‫ܝܬܐ݀ܘܒ‬ ‫ܘ݀ܕܥ̄݀ܕܬܐ݀ܕܝܠܢ݀ܣܘ ܳܪܝ‬ ݀ܶ ‫ܫܢܐ݀ܗ‬ ‫݀ ܶܡ ܽܛܠ݀ܕܠ‬:‫ܝܐ݀ܐ ܰܡܪ‬ ‫ܝܬ‬ ‫݀ܘ‬ ݀ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܶ ܶ ̈ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܶ ̈ ܶ ܰ ̄ ܺ ̄ ݀‫ܫܒܘܚܬܐ‬ ݀ ‫݀ܚܢܢ ݀ܘܡܫܒܚܝܢ ݀ܚܢܢ ݀ܬ‬ ݀ ‫ ݀ܘܒܗ ݀ܡܨܠܝܢ‬،‫ܟܠܗܘܢ ݀ܛܟܣܐ ݀ܕܨܠܘܬܐ‬ ܰ ܳ ݀.‫ܠܡܪܢ‬ ܶ ܰ ܶ ‫ܢ݀ܖ ܽܘ‬ ̈ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܳ ܶ ܺ ‫ܰܘ‬ ܳ ܳ ‫ܪܒ‬ ݀‫ܪܝ݀ܐܦܪܝܡ‬ ‫ܝܟ݀ܡ‬ ‫ܐ݀ܐ‬ ‫ܚܢ‬ ‫ܡܘ݀ܐ ̈݀ܒ ܳܗ ܰܬ‬ ‫ܗ݀ܣ‬ ‫ܠ݀ܕܒ‬ ‫݀ ܶܡ ܽܛ‬:‫ܡܪ‬ ݀ܰ ‫ܝܐ݀ܐ‬ ‫ܝܥ‬ ݀ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܳ ܳ ܽ ܽ ܽ ܶ ܶ ܺ ܶ ܶ ܳ ܰ ̈ ܰ ܺ ̈ ܳ ݀‫݀ܘܢܐܠܦ‬ ݀ ‫ܣܘܪܝܝܐ ݀ܟܬܒܐ ݀ܣܓܝܐܐ ݀ܕܬܘܕܝܬܐ ݀ܘܡܪܕܘܬܐ ܘܝܘܠܦܢܐ ݀ܘܙܕܩ ݀ܕܢܩܪܐ‬ ܶ ‫ܐܢܘܢ܀‬

iI  Translate: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1

All the nations that you have created, Lord, worship you and glorify you in their languages. I speak a little Syriac, and also read because I learn that language at the church Sunday school. In those days, John the Baptist was walking in the desert and announcing to everyone about the kingdom of heaven that was near. Many people wanted to receive a baptism from John the Baptist, but he wanted to receive a baptism from Jesus. Jesus climbed the mountain and was praying there alone to his father. The prophets encouraged the soldiers who were going to battle. When the Romans crucified Jesus, many people came to his cross and reviled God, while others were praying. I rejoice when I sense (feel) the courage of our heroes and see swords in their hands.

The Serto vowel-signs are added to make the reading in Estrangela easier at this stage. As it was mentioned, Estrangela usually appears without vowel-signs, or with signs similar to the Nestorian ones. Before reading the text, it is necessary to peruse the chapter on Estrangela in the “Appendices.”

LESSON 21

209

9 On Earth, people praise the Lord in all the languages. 10 From the fifth grade the students study two foreign languages. 11 In the eighth grade we studied the history of religion, and in the ninth grade –

the history of culture. 12 When walking alone along the lake, he saw two brothers who were fishing

with their nets. 13 The kings build temples from stones, but I want to establish a temple in your

souls. 14 We do not know how to pray, tell us. 15 When I was a monk, I dwelt in a remote cave and ate only bread 16 We want to hear about the rites and prayers of the Holy Church of the East

from you. 17 In the church Sunday school, the students study the Syriac language and the

history of our Church. 18 Every Sunday, we go to church and say our prayers, praising the Lord. 19 The Aramaic language is one of the ancient languages that were spoken (that

they spoke it) in Jesus’ days. 20 On the fifteenth day, he sent one of his students to the governor, and the student was speaking with him about the teachings of our holy fathers.

iI ܺ

to restore; to exhort, encourage, edify (heart, soul) ‫ܰܒܢܝ‬ ܰ to revile, blaspheme ‫ܓ ܶܕܦ‬

ܳ

ܳ

ܳ

ܽ ،‫ܽܕܘܟܬܐ ( ܽܕܘܟ ܳܝܬܐ‬ place dukkṯā )‫ܕܘܟ ܳܘܬܐ‬ ܰ to dwell, inhabit, settle; to live a monk’s life ‫ܕ ܰܝܪ‬ ܶ to go, to walk up and down, proceed ‫ܰܗܠܟ‬ ܰ to lift up, erect, crucify ‫ܙܩܦ‬ ܳ ܶ

rite, rank, order, series ‫ܛܟܣܐ‬ ܳܳ ܽ learning, instruction; teaching, doctrine ‫ܝܘܠܦܢܐ‬

ܰ ‫ܠ ܶܒܒ‬ ܳܽ ܺ courage, fortitude ‫ܝܒܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܠܒ‬ ܶ ܰ to speak, talk ‫ܡܠܠ‬ ܳ ܺ ܰ baptism ‫ܡܥܡܘܕܝܬܐ‬ ܳܽ ܰ instruction, discipline; culture, civilization ‫ܪܕܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܡ‬ ܰ ܶ to scourge; to draw ‫ܢܓܕ‬ ܰ ‫ܰܣ‬ to hope, trust in; to announce, declare ‫ܒܪ‬ to encourage, exhort

210

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

ܳ ‫ܶܣܕܪܐ‬ ܳܳ ܺ ܳܳ ܶ belonging to church )ᵂ‫ܥܕܬܢ ܳܝܐ (ܥ ̱ܕܬܢ ܳܝܐ‬ ܳܽ reply, answer; return ‫ܦܘܢ ܳܝܐ‬ ܺ to pray ‫ܰܨܠܝ‬ ܶ to receive, accept ‫ܰܩܒܠ‬ ܳ early, ancient ‫ܰܩܕܡܐ‬ ܶ to murder, slay, massacre ‫ܰܩܛܠ‬ to establish ‫ܰܩ ܶܝܡ‬ ܶ to question, interrogate šaʼʼel ‫ܰܫܐܠ‬ ܰ ‫ܰܫ‬ to praise, glorify ‫ܒܚ‬ to send ‫ܰܫ ܰܕܪ‬ ܳ ܺ ܰ acknowledgement, thanksgiving; confession of faith, religion ‫ܬܘܕܝܬܐ‬ series; array; row, line; class, grade

ܶ ‫ܐ ܰܡܬܝ ܕ‬ ܶ ‫ܳܡܪܝ ܰܐ‬ ܽ ‫ܦܪܝܡ‬ ܳ ‫ܣܘ‬ St. Ephrem the Syrian ‫ܪܝ ܳܝܐ‬ ܳ ܰ ܰܰ ܰ on earth ‫ܥܠ ܐܦܝ ܐܪܥܐ‬ whenever, when

iI

LESSON 22 THE PAST TENSE OF THE PAˁˁEL VERBS 22.1. In Paˁˁel, the conjugation of verbs follows the same rules as in Pˁal in the past tense: aṭṭeln(an) aṭṭelt n aṭṭelten aṭṭel(un) aṭṭel(en)

ܶ ܶ )‫ܰܩܛܠܢ ( ܰܩܛܠ ܢܰܢ‬ ܶ ‫ܰܩܛܠܬܘܢ‬ ܶ ܶ ‫ܰܩܛܠܬܝܢ‬ ܶ ܶ )‫ܰܩܛܠܘ ( ܰܩܛܠ ܽܘܢ‬ ܶ ܶ ܶ )‫ ( ܰܩܛܠ ܝܢ‬1 ‫ܰܩܛܠ‬

‫ܚܢܰܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ‬ ܶ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝܢ‬ ‫ܶܗܢܘܢ‬ ‫ܶܗܢܶܝܢ‬

 Conjugate the following verbs in the past

ܰ . ‫ ܰܫ ܰܒܚ‬،‫ ܰܣ ܰܒܪ‬،‫ ܰܕ ܰܝܪ‬،‫ ܰܩ ܶܝܡ‬،‫ ܰܩ ܶܒܠ‬،‫ܠ ܶܒܒ‬

ܶ ܶ ‫ܰܩܛܠܬ‬ ‫ܐ ܳܢܐ‬ ܰ ܶ qaṭṭelt ‫ܐܢ̱ܬ ܰܩܛܠܬ‬ ܰ ܶ ܰ aṭṭelt ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝ ܩܛܠܬܝ‬ ܶ ܽ aṭṭel ‫ܗܘ ܰܩܛܠ‬ ܰ ‫ܺܗܝ ܰܩ‬ qaṭṭlaṯ ‫ܛܠܬ‬ ܶ ܰ ܰܰ ܰ ،‫ ܰܢ ܶܓܕ‬،‫ܠܟ‬ tense: ،‫ܓ ܶܕܦ‬ ‫ ܗ‬،‫ܫܕܪ‬ qaṭṭleṯ

ܺ

22.2. The III-‫ ܝ‬verbs have the following forms in the past tense (‫‘ ܰܨܠܝ‬to prey’): ṣallin(an) ṣalliyton ṣalliyten ṣalliw ṣalli

ܺ ‫ܠܝܢ ( ܰܨ‬ ܺ ‫ܰܨ‬ )‫ܠܝܢܰܢ‬ ܺ ‫ܰܨ‬ ‫ܠܝܬܘܢ‬ ܶ ܺ ܰ ‫ܠܝܬܝܢ‬ ‫ܨ‬ ܺ ‫ܰܨܠܝܘ‬ ܺ ‫ܰܨ‬ ‫ܠܝ‬

‫ܚܢܰܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ‬ ܶ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝܢ‬ ‫ܶܗܢܘܢ‬ ‫ܶܗܢܶܝܢ‬

ṣalliṯ ṣalliyt ṣalliyt ṣalli ṣallyaṯ

ܶ ܺ ‫ܰܨ‬ ‫ܠܝܬ‬ ‫ܐ ܳܢܐ‬ ܺ ‫ܰܐܢܬ ܰܨ‬ ‫ܠܝܬ‬ ̱ ܺ ‫ܰܐܢܬܝ ܰܨ‬ ‫ܠܝܬܝ‬ ̱ ܺ ܽ ‫ܗܘ ܰܨܠܝ‬ ‫ܺܗܝ ܰܨܠ ܰܝܬ‬

ܺ ܰ ،‫ ܰܫ ܺܪܝ‬،‫ ܰܒܢܺܝ‬in the past tense.

 Conjugate the verbs ‫ܦܢܝ‬

22.3. The verbs from the other groups do not display significant differences from the regular conjugation patterns presented in paragraph 22.1.2

ܶ

In West Syriac also ‫ ܰܩܛܠܝ‬aṭṭel. 2 Consult the verbal paradigms at the end of the book for the conjugation of a particular verb type. 1

211

212

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

ܺܰ

THE VERB ‫ܫܪܝ‬

ܺ

22.4. The verb ‫ ܰܫܪܝ‬šarri ‘to begin, start’ can be followed by both the infinitive and ܳ ‫ܡܨ‬ ܰ ‫ܰܫ ܺܪܝܬ‬ ܽ ‫ܠ‬ ܰ ‫ܠ‬ the active participle (note the similarity with English in this case): ‫ܝܘ‬ ܶܰ ܶ ܰ ܺ ‫‘ ܰܫ ܺܪܝܢ‬We ‘I began to pray’ and ‫‘ ܰܫܪܝܬ ܡܨܐܠ‬I started praying’ or, in plural, ‫ܡܨܠܝܢ‬ started praying.’

ܳ ‘to be able’: 22.5. The active participle can also follow the verbs ‫ܡܨܐ‬ ܳܶ ܰ ‫‘ ܳܫ ܶܒܩ ܠܚܛܗܐ‬Who is the one who can forgive the sins?’

‫ܰܡ ܽܢܘ ܰܕܡܨܶܐ‬

TENS, HUNDREDS, AND OTHER NUMERALS 22.6. The tens have a single form for both genders:

ܺ ܶ ܺ ‫ܐܫܬܝܢ‬/‫ܫܬܝܢ‬ ܺ ‫ܰܫ‬ ‫ܒܥܝܢ‬ ܳ ‫ܬܡܢܺܝܢ‬ ܺ ‫ܶܬ‬ ‫ܫܥܝܢ‬

60 70 80 90

ܺ ‫ܶܥ‬ ‫ܣܪܝܢ‬ ܺ ܳ ‫ܬܠܬܝܢ‬ ܺ ‫ܰܐ‬ ‫ܪܒܥܝܢ‬ ܺ ‫ܰܚ‬ ‫ܡܫܝܢ‬

20 30 40 50

22.7. The numerals from 1 through to 9 attach onto the tens with the conjunction ‫ܘ‬, ܺ ‫ܶܥ‬ ܺ ‫‘ ܶܥ‬21 men’ – ‫ܣܪܝܢ‬ ܺ ܰ ‫ܘܚܕ‬ ܰ ‫ܣܪܝܢ‬ agreeing with the noun by the general rule: ‫ܓܒܖܝܢ‬ ܶ ܺ ܺ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܺ ܳ ‫ܬܖܝܢ‬ ܳ ‘32 boys’ – ‫ܛܠ ܳܝܬܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܬܠܬܝܢ ܘܬܖܬܝܢ‬ ܳ ‘32 ‫’ ܺܰܘܚܕܐ ܢܶܫܝܢ‬21 women’; ‫ܛܠ ܶܝܐ‬ ‫ܬܠܬܝܢ ܘ‬ ܳ ܳ ‫ܪܒܥܝܢ ܰܘ‬ ܳ ܺ ‫ܬܠܬ‬ ܺ ܺ ܱ ‫‘ ܐ‬43 cities.’ girls’; ‫’ ܐܱܪܒܥܝܢ ܰܘܬܠܬܐ ܳܒܬܝܢ‬43 houses’ – ‫ܡܕܝܢܢ‬  Attach the following numerals onto the nouns of your choice: 23, 48, 96, 35, 89, 75, 24, 51, 62, 28, 95, 39, 84, 58, 45. 22.8. The numerals for the hundreds are formed from the word are common for both genders:

ܳ ‫ܪܒ‬ ܰ ‫ܰܐ‬ ‫ܥܡܐܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܚ ܶܡ‬ ‫ܫܡܐܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܬܡܢܶ ܳܡܐܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܬܫ‬ ܰ ‫ܥܡܐܐ‬

1

This numeral, like the numeral functional in Syriac.

400 500 800 900

ܶ ‫ܰܡܐܬܝܢ‬ ܳ ܳ ‫ܬܠ‬ ‫ܬܡܐܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܶܫ‬ ‫ܬܡܐܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܫܒ‬ ܰ ‫ܥܡܐܐ‬ 1

‫ܳܡܐܐ‬

mā ‘100’ and

200 300 600 700

ܶ ܰ ܶ ‫ܬܖܬܝܢ‬/‫ܬܖܝܢ‬, preserves the older dual ending -en ( ݀ܐܬܩܛܠ‬. This form serves as a basis for the other forms, which have the same pronunciation except for the extended forms in the brackets.

ܶ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝܢ‬ ܶ ܰ ܶ ܰ ‫ܶܐ‬ )‫ܬܩܛܠܝܢ‬ ‫ܬܩܛܠܝ (ܐ‬ ܰܶ ܶ ܰܶ )‫ܐܬܐܟܠܝ(ܐܬܐܟܠܝܢ‬ ܶ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܶ )‫ܐܫܬܐܠܝ (ܐܫܬܐܠܝܢ‬ ܶ ܶ )‫ܐ ܰܬܝܠܕܝ (ܐ ܰܬܝܠ ܶܕܝܢ‬ 1

ܰ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ‬ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝ‬ ܰ ‫ܬܩܛܠܘ ( ܶܐ‬ ܰ ‫ܬܩܛܠܝ ܶܐ‬ ܰ ‫ܶܐ‬ )‫ܬܩܛܠ ܽܘܢ‬ ܰܶ ܰܶ ܰܶ )‫ܐܬܐܟܠܝ ܐܬܐܟܠܘ (ܐܬܐܟܠ ܽܘܢ‬ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܶ )‫ܐܫܬܐܠܝ ܐܫܬܐܠܘ (ܐܫܬܐܠ ܽܘܢ‬ ܶ ܽ ‫ܶܐ ܰܬܝܠܕܘ ( ܶܐ ܰܬܝ‬ )‫ܠܕܘܢ‬ ‫ܐ ܰܬܝܠܕܝ‬

ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬ‬ ܶ ܶ ܰ ‫ܬܩܛܠ ܶܐ‬ 1 ‫ܬܩܛܠ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ܶ ܶ ܰܶ ‫ܐܬ ܶܐܟܠ ܐܬܐܟܠ‬ ܶ ܶ ܰ ܶ ‫ܐܫܬܐܠ ܐܫܬܐܠ‬ ܶ ܶ ܶ ‫ܐܬ ܰܝܠܕ‬ ‫ܐ ܺܬܝܠܕ‬

In pronunciation, the 2nd radical of the strong and weak verbs may be omitted: ܰ ‫ ܶܐ‬ʼeṯ alun and so on. ‫ܛܠ ܽܘܢ‬ ‫ܬܩ‬ ̱

ܰ ܶ ‫ܛܠ‬ ̱ ‫ܐܬܩ‬

ʼeṯ al;

‫‪281‬‬

‫‪LESSON 31‬‬ ‫‪ verbs have the following imperative forms:‬ܝ‪31.7. The III-‬‬

‫ܬܩܪܝ ‪ܶ -‬ܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܩܪܝ‪ܶ - 1‬ܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܩܪܘ ‪ܶ -‬ܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܩܖ ܶܝܝܢ‬ ‫ܬܒܥܝ‪ܶ ،‬ܐ ܺ‬ ‫ܬܬܚܕ‪ܶ ،‬ܐ ܺܬܝ ܶܗܒ‪ܶ ،‬ܐ ܺ‬ ‫ܶܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܦܫܛ‪ܶ ،‬ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܝ‪،‬‬ ‫ܬܕܢ‬ ‫‪ Formܶ the imperatives‬‬ ‫‪of‬‬ ‫‪the‬‬ ‫‪verbs‬‬ ‫ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬܕܡܝ‪ܶ ،‬ܐ ܺ‬ ‫ܬܒܪܝ‪ܶ ،‬ܐ ܺ‬ ‫ܬܬܘܝ‪ܶ ،‬ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܪܥܝ‪ܶ ،‬ܐ ܺ‬ ‫ܶܐ ܺ‬ ‫ܬܟܫܠ‪ܶ ،‬ܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܥܡܕ‪ܶ ،‬ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܚܙܝ‪ܶ ،‬ܐ ܺ‬ ‫ܫܬܠ ܶܡ‪،‬‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܥ‪،‬‬ ‫ܙܕܪ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܥ‪،‬‬ ‫ܫܬܡ‬ ‫ܶܶ ܰ ܶܶ‬ ‫ܐܣܪ‪ ،‬ܐܬܐܠܨ‬ ‫‪ .‬ܐܬ‬ ‫‪ VERBS‬ܝ‪PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES WITH THE III-‬‬ ‫‪ verbal forms along the‬ܝ‪31.8. The pronominal suffixes attach to most of the III-‬‬ ‫‪patterns presented in the previous lessons. In certain cases, specific combinations‬‬ ‫‪are formed, which are presented below:‬‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܠܗ‬ ‫ܠܟܝ‬ ‫ܠܟ‬ ‫ܠܝ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫ܝܗܝ‬ ‫ܚܙܟܝ‬ ‫ܚܙܟ‬ ‫ܚܙܢܝ‬ ‫ܚܙܐ‬ ‫ܚܙ ̱‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫ܚܙ ܽܐܘ ̱ܗܝ‬ ‫ܚܙ ܽܐܘܟܝ‬ ‫ܚܙ ܽܐܘܟ‬ ‫ܚܙ ܽܐܘܢܝ‬ ‫ܚܙܘ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫ܝܗܝ‬ ‫ܚ ܰܙܝ ܚ ܰܙ ܳܝܢܝ‬ ‫ܰܚܙ ܳܝܟ ܰܚܙ ܶܝܟܝ ܰܚܙ ܳܝ ̱‬ ‫ܰ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܬܝܟܝ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܬܝܟ ܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܬܝܢܝ ܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬܝ ܰܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܬܝܗ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܝܬܝܘܟܝ ܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܬܝܘܟ ܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܬܝܘܢܝ ܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܐܝܬܝܘ ܐ ܽ‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫ܝܬܝܘ ̱ܗܝ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܶ‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫ܝܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܢܚܙܐ‪ 7‬ܢܚܙܝܢܝ‪ 8‬ܢܚܙܝܟ ܢܚܙܝܟܝ ܢܚܙ ̱‬

‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ‪ܶ /‬‬ ‫ܠܟܝܢ‬ ‫ܠܢ‬ ‫ܠܗ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܚܙܟܘܢ‬ ‫ܚܙܢ‬ ‫ܚܙܗ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܚܙ ܽܐܘܟܘܢ‬ ‫ܚܙ ܽܐܘܢ‬ ‫ܚܙ ܽܐܘܗ‬ ‫ܚ ܰܙ ܳܝܗ ܚ ܰܙ ܳܝܢ ܚ ܰܙܝܟܘܢ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ‬ ‫ܝܬܝܗ ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܰܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܬܝܢ ܐܝܬܝܟܘܢ‬ ‫ܝܬܝܘܢ ܰܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܬܝܘܗ ܰܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܬܝܘܟܘܢ‬ ‫ܚܙܝܢ ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܙܝܗ ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܙܝܟܘܢ‬

‫‪iI‬‬

‫ܶ ܺ‬

‫‪.‬ܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܩܪܝ ‪Or occasionally‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪zay.‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪zā n.‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪zā .‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪zāyay.‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪āytyú.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫‪ܶ ending.‬ܐ ‪As well as other forms with‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪ne zen.‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪ne zew.‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬

‫‪282‬‬

‫‪CLASSICAL SYRIAC‬‬

‫‪ Read, translate, and copy:‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬

‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬

‫݀ܢܦܩܬܝ݀‬ ‫݀ܘܐܡܪ ݀ܕܠ ܐ ܰ݀‬ ‫ܐܛܪܘ݀ܢ ܶ݀‬ ‫݀ܒܬ ܰ݀‬ ‫ܶ݀‬ ‫݀ܕܚܝܪܐ‬ ‫ܐܳ݀ܢܫ ݀ܚܙܐ ݀ܐ݀ܢ̄ܬܬܐ ܳ݀‬ ‫ܦܝܠܘܣܘܦܐ ݀ ̄݀‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܚܙܝܢ‪.a‬‬ ‫ܐ݀ܕܬܬ ܶ݀‬ ‫݀‬ ‫ܝܢ݀ܐܠ‬ ‫ܶ݀‬ ‫ܕܬ ܶ݀‬ ‫ܚܙ‬ ‫ܶ݀‬ ‫ܡ‬ ‫ܠܓܒܪܐ ݀ܰ݀ܚܟܝܡ ܐ܇ ݀ܗ݀ܘ݀‬ ‫ܬܕܡܐ‪݀ܰ ݀ a‬‬ ‫ܕ݀ܠܗܝܢ܆ ݀ܶ݀ܢ ܶ݀‬ ‫ܶ݀‬ ‫ܠܝܢ݀ܘܥܶ݀‬ ‫ܒ‬ ‫ܳ݀‬ ‫ܥ݀ܡܰ݀ܠ̈݀ܝ ݀ ܳ݀‬ ‫ܗ‬ ‫ܶ݀‬ ‫݀ܕܫ ܰ݀‬ ‫ܟܠ݀ܗܟܝܠ ܳ݀‬ ‫ܳ݀‬ ‫ܝܬܗ݀ܥܠ݀ܫܘܥܐ‪݀1.‬‬ ‫ܽ݀‬ ‫ܰ݀‬ ‫ܐ݀ܒ‬ ‫ܰ݀ܕܒܢ‬ ‫݀‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠܩܒܪܐ‪݀2.‬‬ ‫ܗܝ‪݀ܰ ݀b‬‬ ‫ܚܙܳ݀ܝ ̈ܝ ̄݀‬ ‫ܡܗ݀ܡ݀ܢ݀ܓܠܝܠ ܐ܆݀ܰ݀ܘ ܰ݀‬ ‫ܥ ܶ݀‬ ‫ܐܬ̈݀ܝ݀ ܰ݀‬ ‫ܝܢ݀ܕ ܰ݀‬ ‫ܐ݀ܗܠ ܶ݀‬ ‫݀‬ ‫ܕܝܢ݀ܢ̈݀ܫ‬ ‫ܶ݀‬ ‫ܝܒܢ݀ ̄ܗ ܰܘ ̈ܝ݀‬ ‫ܩ̈݀ܖ ܳ݀‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܐܝܟ ݀ܛܠ ܶܝܐ ݀ܠ ܐ݀‬ ‫ܦܟܘܢ‪݀ c‬ܘܬܗܘܘܢ ݀ ܰ݀‬ ‫ܬܗ ݀‬ ‫݀ܬ ܰ݀‬ ‫݀ܕܐܠ ܐ ݀‬ ‫ܡܪܢܐ ݀ܠܟܘܢ ܶ݀‬ ‫݀ܐ ܰ݀‬ ‫ܐܡܝܢ ܳ݀‬ ‫ܰ݀‬ ‫ܬܐ݀ܕܫܡܝܐ‪݀3.‬‬ ‫ܰ݀‬ ‫ܢ݀ܠܡ ܽ݀‬ ‫ܠܟܘ‬ ‫ܰ݀‬ ‫ܬ ܽ݀‬ ‫ܥܠܘ‬ ‫ܶ݀‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܒܢ̈݀ܝ ܰ݀ܢܫܐ݀‬ ‫ܢܐ݀ܠ ݀‬ ‫ܗܰ݀ܟ ݀‬ ‫ܐ݀ܘܢ݀ܠܦ‪݀ܳ ݀ܶ d‬‬ ‫ܠܝܢ݀ܙܥܘ݀ܖ ݀‬ ‫݀‬ ‫ܳ݀‬ ‫ܐ݀ܗ‬ ‫ܢ݀ܦܘ̈݀ܩܳ݀ܕ݀ܢ‬ ‫݀ ݀‬ ‫ܐ݀ܚܕ݀ܡ‬ ‫ܰ݀‬ ‫ܕܢ ݀‬ ‫ܫܪ‬ ‫ܟܝܠ ݀ ݀‬ ‫݀ ܳ݀‬ ‫ܢ݀ܗ‬ ‫ܟܠ݀ܡ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݀ܪܒܐ݀‬ ‫݀ܗܢܐ ݀‬ ‫݀ܘܢ݀ܠܦ ݀‬ ‫ܥܒܕ ݀‬ ‫ܕܢ ݀‬ ‫݀ܕܝܢ ݀ ݀‬ ‫ܫܡܝܐ‪݀ .‬ܟܠ ݀‬ ‫݀ܕ ݀‬ ‫ܠܟܘܬܐ ݀‬ ‫ܒܡ ݀‬ ‫ܬܩܪܐ‪݀ ݀ a‬‬ ‫݀ܢ ݀‬ ‫ܒܨܝܪܐ ܶ݀‬ ‫ܺ݀‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܟܘܬܐ݀ܕܫܡܝܐ‬ ‫݀‬ ‫݀‬ ‫ܐ݀ܒܡ‬ ‫ܶ݀ܢ ݀‬ ‫ܬܩܪ‬ ‫ܬܦܬܚ‪݀ c‬ܠܟܘܢ‪݀ .‬ܟܠ݀‬ ‫݀ܘܢ ܰ݀‬ ‫ܩܘܫܘ ܶ݀‬ ‫ܫܟܚܘܢ‪݀ܽ ݀ .‬‬ ‫ܽ݀‬ ‫ܶ݀‬ ‫݀ܘܬ‬ ‫ܒܥܘ‬ ‫݀ܢ‪݀ܰ ݀ .‬‬ ‫ܗܒ‪݀ e‬ܠܟܘ‬ ‫ܬܝ ܶ݀‬ ‫݀ܘܢ ܺ݀‬ ‫ܫܐܠܘ ܶ݀‬ ‫ܰ݀‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫ܬܦܬܚ݀ܠܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܫ݀ܡ ܰ݀‬ ‫ܚ݀ܘܠܐܝܢܐ݀ܕܢܩ݀ ܶ݀‬ ‫ܰ݀‬ ‫ܐ݀ܡ ܰ݀‬ ‫ܫܟ‬ ‫݀ ܶ ܶ݀‬ ‫ܕܒܥ‬ ‫ܒ݀ܘ ܳ݀‬ ‫݀ ܰ݀‬ ‫݀ܠ݀ܢܤ‬ ‫ܓܝܪ݀ܕܫܐ‬ ‫ܶ‬

‫ܟܦܢܘܢ‪ܳ .‬ܘܝ ܠܟܘܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܤܒܝ ܶܥܐ ܕܬ ܽ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܠܕ ܳܓܚܟܝܢ‬ ‫ܳܘ ܶܝ ܰ ܠܟܘܢ‬ ‫ܘܬܬܐܒܠ ܽ‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫ܢ‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܕܬ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܡܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܐܢ ܰܡܘܙܦܝܢ ܐܢ ̱ܬܘܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܪܥܘܢ ܶܡܢܶܗ܆ ܰܐܝܕܐ ̱ܗܝ ܰܛ ܽ‬ ‫ܬܦ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܒܘܬܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕܤܒܪܝܢ ܐܢ ̱ܬܘܢ‬ ‫ܠܚ ܳܛܝܐ ܰܡ ܺ‬ ‫ܟܘܬ ܢܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܦ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܙܦܝܢ܆ ܰܕܐ ܳ‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫ܐܦ ܰܚ ܳܛܝܐ ܶܓܝܪ ܰ‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫ܢ‬ ‫ܪܥܘ‬ ‫ܳܶ‬ ‫ܟܠ ܶܓܝܪ ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܠܢܘܗܪܐ ܕܐܠ ܢܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܤܤܘܢ‬ ‫ܬܟ‬ ‫ܠܢܘܗܪܐ ܘܐܠ ܐܬܐ‬ ‫ܕܤܢ ܳܝܬܐ‪ܳ 9‬ܥ ܶܒܕ ܳܤܢܶܐ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫ܥܒ ܰܕܘ ̱ܗܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ܽ ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܢܡܠܠ ܽܘܢ ܰܘܚ ܰܘ ܳܘܬܐ ܢܶܫܩܠ ܽܘܢ ܶܘܐܢ ܰܤܡܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܒܠ ܳܫܢܐ ܰܚܕܬܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܕܡܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܒܫܡܝ ܫܐܕܐ ܢ ܶܦܩܘܢ ܘ‬ ‫ܢܶܫܬܘܢ ܐܠ ܰܢ ܰܗܪ ܐܢܘܢ‪ܺ .‬ܘܐܝ ܰܕܝܗܘܢ ܺ‬ ‫ܬܚ ܽ‬ ‫ܢܤ ܽ‬ ‫‪11‬‬ ‫ܝܡܘܢ ܥܠ ܟܖܝܗܐ ܘܢܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܡܘܢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܐܝܬܝܘܗܝ ܠ ܳܘ ܶܬܗ ܘܟܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܒܛܬܗ ܰܘ ܰܢܦܠ ܥܠ ܐܪܥܐ‬ ‫ܚܙܬܗ ܽܪܘܚܐ ܰܒܪ ܳܫܥܬܗ‬ ‫ܰܘ ܽ ̱‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܶ‬ ‫‪12‬‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܐ‬ ‫ܗ‬ ‫ܩ‬ ‫ܬܒܥ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܳ ܰ ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܠܝܢ ܕܐܠ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܬܢܝ ܰܗ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܡܢܬ‪ܽ .‬‬ ‫ܶܐܡܪ ܠܗ ܽ‬ ‫ܚܙ ܽܐܘܢܝ ܰ‬ ‫‪13‬‬ ‫ܝܡܢܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܛܘ ܰܒܝܗܘܢ ܐܠ‬ ‫ܝܫܘܥ‪ .‬ܗܫܐ ܕܚܙ‬ ‫‪6‬‬

‫ܳܗܫܐ ܕܬܒܟܘܢ‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬

‫‪gc‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪11‬‬ ‫‪12‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪Matthew 7:24.‬‬ ‫‪Luke 23:55.‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪Matthew 18:3.‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪Matthew 5:19.‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪Matthew 7:7–8.‬‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠܙ‪+‬ܕ‪ܳ +‬ܓ ܺ‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫ܚܟܝܢ‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫‪Luke 6:25.‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪Luke 6:34.‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪See the footnote to paragraph 28.17.‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪John 3:20.‬‬ ‫‪11‬‬ ‫‪Mark 16:17–18.‬‬ ‫‪12‬‬ ‫‪Mark 9:20.‬‬ ‫‪13‬‬ ‫‪John 20:29.‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

‫‪283‬‬ ‫‪13‬‬ ‫‪14‬‬

‫‪LESSON 31‬‬

‫ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܕܚܟܝܡܐܝܬ ܰ‬ ‫ܶܝܫܘܥ ܕܝܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܝܬ ܪܚܝܩ ܡܢ‬ ‫ܡܦܢܶܐ ܶܦܬ ܳܓܡܐ ܥܢܳܐ ܶܘܐܡܪ ܠܗ‪ .‬ܐܠ‬ ‫ܚܙ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܡܪܚ ܰܕ ܰܢܫ ܺ‬ ‫ܬܘܒ ܰܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܠܟܘܬܐ ܕܠܐܗܐ‪ .‬ܘܐܠ ܐ̱ ܳܢܫ ܽ‬ ‫‪2 1‬‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫ܗ‬ ‫ܝܘ‬ ‫ܐܠ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܳ ܶ ܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܡܐ ܳܕ ܶܐܬܐ ܕܝܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܒܚܗ‪ܽ :‬‬ ‫ܘܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܒܪܗ ܕܐ̱ ܳܢܫܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܒܫ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܗܘܢ ܰܡܐܠ ܰܟܘ ̱ܗܝ ܰܩܕܝ ܶܫܐ ܰܥ ܶܡܗ܆ ܶܗܝܕܝܢ ܢܬܒ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܩܕ ܰܡܘ ̱ܗܝ ܽܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܒܚܗ‪ .‬ܘܢܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܟ ܽ‬ ‫ܬܪ ܳܢܘܣ ܽ‬ ‫ܕܫ ܶ‬ ‫ܢܫܘܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܗܘܢ ܰܥ ̱ܡܡܐ ܰܘ ܰܢܦ ܶܪܫ ܐ ܽܢܘܢ ܚܕ ܡܢ‬ ‫ܥܠ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܚܕ ܐܝܟ ܪܥܝܐ ܕܡܦܪܫ ܥܖܒܐ ܡܢ ܓܕܝܐ܀‬ ‫‪b‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪31.5. 31.8. 31.1. 23.5. 31.4. 31.2. 29.6. 28.5. 24.14.‬‬

‫‪ Read and copy the last five paragraphs in the East Syriac script:‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪11‬‬ ‫‪12‬‬ ‫‪13‬‬ ‫‪14‬‬

‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܫܩܠܘܢ ܘ ܸܐ ܢ‪ܼ ܲ 5‬ܤܡܐ ܕܡܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܠܠܘܢ ܼܘܚܘܘܬܐ‪ܸ 4‬ܢ ܼ‬ ‫ܢܡ ܼ‬ ‫ܒܫܡܝ ܹܫ ܹܐܕܐ ܲ ܼܢ ܼ‬ ‫ܦܩܘܢ ܼܘܒ ܸܠܫ ܹܢܐ ܼ ܲܚܕ ܹܬܐ ܼ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܠܡܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܡܘܢ ܼܥܠ ܟܖ ܼܝ ܹܗܐ ܘܢܬܚ ܼ‬ ‫ܢܤܝ ܼ‬ ‫ܘܐܝ ܼܕܝܗܘܢ ܼ‬ ‫ܸܢܫܬܘܢ ܠܐ ܼܢ ܼܗܪ ܸܐܢܘܢ‪ܼ .‬‬ ‫ܸܲ ܼ ܲ ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܛܬܗ ܼܘܢ ܼܦܠ ܼܥܠ ܼܐܪܥܐ ܘ ܸܡܬܒ ܸܥܩ‬ ‫ܘܐ ܼ‬ ‫ܥܬܗ ܚ ܼܒ ܹ‬ ‫ܝܬܝܘܗ ܠܘ ܹܬܗ ܘ ܼܟܕ ܚܙ ܹܬܗ ܼܪܘܚܐ ܼܒܪ ܫ ܹ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫̄ܗܘܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܚܙܝܬܢܝ ܲܗܝܡܢܬ‪ܲ ܲ ܲ .‬‬ ‫ܐ ܲܡܪ ܠܗ ܝ ܲ‬ ‫ܚܙ ܼܐܘܢܝ ܲ‬ ‫ܠܐܝܠܝܢ ܕܠܐ ܲ‬ ‫ܫܘܥ‪ .6‬ܗܫܐ ܲܕ ܲ‬ ‫ܘܗܝ ܸܡܢܘ‪.‬‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼܲ‬ ‫ܼ ܸ‬ ‫ܸܼ ܹ ܼ‬ ‫ܛܘ ܼܒܝܗܘܢ ܼ ܸ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼܲ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܚܝܩ ܸܡܢ‬ ‫ܟܝܡ ܼܐܝܬ ܡ ܼܦ ܸܢܐ ܲ ܸܦܬܓܡܐ ܥܢܐ ܘ ܸܐ ܼܡܪ ܹܠܗ‪ .‬ܠܐ ܼ‬ ‫ܗܘܝܬ ܼܪ ܼ‬ ‫ܕܚ ܼ‬ ‫ܼܝܫܘܥ ܸܕܝܢ ܚܙܝܗ ܼ‬ ‫ܲܡܠܟܘܬܐ ܲܕܐܠܗܐ‪ .‬ܘܠܐ ܐ̄ܢܫ ܬܘܒ ܲܐܡܪܚ ܲܕ ܲ‬ ‫ܢܫܐܠ ܼܝܘ ̄ܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܼ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ ܼ ܼ ܼ ܼ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܒܚܗ ܘܟܠܗܘܢ ܼܡ ܼܠܐܟܘܗ ܼܲ ܼܕܝ ܹܫܐ ܼܥ ܹܡܗ܆ ܗܝ ܹܕܝܢ ܸܢ ܸܬܒ‬ ‫ܡܐ ܕܐ ܹܬܐ ܕܝܢ ܒ ܹܪܗ ܕܐܢܫܐ ܼ‬ ‫ܒܫܘ ܹ‬ ‫ܲܥܠ ܬܪ ܲܢܘ ܹܣ ܕܫܘܒܚܗ ܘܢܬ ܲܟܢܫܘܢ ܲܕܡܘܗ̄‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܟܠܗܘܢ ܼ ܲܥ ̄ܡ ܹܡܐ ܼܲܘܢ ܼܲܦ ܸܪܫ ܸܐ ܲܢܘܢ ܼ ܲܚܕ ܸܡܢ ܼܚܕܲ‬ ‫ܸ ܼ ܼ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܼ ܹ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܼܲܐܝܟ ܪܥܝܐ ܼܕܡ ܼܦ ܸܪܫ ܸܥܖ ܹܒܐ ܸܡܢ ܓ ܼܕܝܐ܀‬

‫‪iI‬‬ ‫‪ Translate:‬‬ ‫‪In the same way that the sheep and goats are gathered before the shepherd, all‬‬ ‫‪the souls will be gathered before the Lord’s throne, and he will judge them.‬‬ ‫‪Woe to those who are laughing now because, afterwards, they be will be weep‬‬‫‪ing and mourning.‬‬

‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪Notice that because of the attachment of the pronominal suffix, the rḇāṣā of the future tense pre‬‬‫‪fix was dropped.‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪Mark 12:34.‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪Matthew 25:31–32.‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪See “Appendices”, A.15.‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪w-ʼen, see A.14.‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪A.16.‬‬

284 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

So it was said by the prophets of Israel, that a boy will be born of a virgin and called Emmanuel. You shall be called unworthy in the kingdom of heaven, and your evil deeds shall be reproved. The demons curse the church, hate it, and do not dare to enter it. The evil spirit knocked the boy down to the ground, and he began to convulse and scream. If you lend something while waiting for a reward, you will be like the sinners who lend to each other. Blessed are those who did not see him but believed; woe to those, who saw him but did not believe. If you do not call a doctor, we will not get well and get out (raise from) the bed. If you get hungry, tell me, and I will give you bread and cheese. Knock on the heavenly doors, and if you are not sinners, they will be opened before you. He that seeks, will find, and he that asks, shall receive (it will be given to him). The wine will not harm your health if you do not drink more than one cup. Appear to me, angel of the Lord, so that his will will be known to me. He was seen when he was taking his accounts with the publicans. Give yourselves to God’s will and you will be like the saints. How did it become known to the Magi that the boy was born in Judea? What is this power that was given to him, wihth which he drives evil spirits out of people? Praise the Lord in joy and distress, and always walk his way without fear. ܽ ‫) ܶܡܣ ܶܟܢܶܐ‬, for theirs will be the kingdom of Blessed are the poor in spirit (‫ܒܪܘܚ‬ heaven.

iI ܶ ‫ܰܐ‬ ‫ܘܙܦ‬ ܳ ‫ܟܘܬ = ܳܗ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܐ‬ ‫ܟܘܬ‬ ܰ ܰ to dare, venture, be strong ‫ܐܡܪܚ‬ ܶܰ to bring out, produce ‫ܐܦܩ‬ ܶ ܶܶ to mourn, make lamentation ‫ܐܬܐܒܠ‬ ܶ ܶ to be torn, convulsed ‫ܐܬܒܥܩ‬ ܶ ܶ to be changed; to turn around ‫ܐܬܗܦܟ‬ ܶ ܶ to recover health, be cured, healed ‫ܐܬܚܠܡ‬ ܶ ܶ to be gathered ‫ܐܬܟܢܫ‬ to lend

LESSON 31

285

ܶ ‫ܶܐ‬ ‫ܬܟܣܣ‬ ܰ ܶ to be repayed, rewarded ‫ܐܬܦܪܥ‬ ܺ ܶ to be called, named; to be read ‫ܐܬܩܪܝ‬ ܳ ܺ defective, scanty, wanting, least ‫ܒܨܝܪܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܓ‬ kid (a young goat) )‫ܕܝܐ (ܓ ܰܕ ܳܝܐ‬ ܰ to knock down; to batter ‫ܚܒܛ‬ ܶ the Beatitudes ‫ܛ ܽܘܒܐ‬ ܶ to hunger ‫ܟܦܢ‬ ܳ ܺ full, satisfied, replete ‫ܣܒܝܥܐ‬ ܶܳ ܰ ܳ ܰ medicine, drug, remedy, poison )‫ܣܡܐ (ܣ ̱ܡܡܢܐ‬ ܳ to hate, dislike ‫ܣܢܐ‬ ܳ ܰ foul deeds, crimes ‫ܣܢ ܳܝܬܐ‬ ܳ ‫ܶܥ‬ sheep ‫ܪܒܐ‬ ܶ ܰ to distinguish ‫ܦܪܫ‬ ܳ ܳ ‫ܶܦ‬ expression, phrase, sentence, saying ‫ܬܓܡܐ‬ ܳ ܳ ܶ demon, evil spirit )ᵂ‫ܫܐܕܐ ( ܺܫܐܕܐ‬ ܽ ܳ ‫ܫܘ‬ praise, glory ‫ܒܚܐ‬ ܳ to violate, break (law) ‫ܫܪܐ‬ ܰܶ theater݀‫ܬܐܛܪܘܢ‬ ܳ throne; altar ‫ܬܪܢܘܣ‬ to be reproved, blamed

ܳ

ܶ

immediately, at the same hour ‫ ܰܒܪ ܳܫܥܬܐ‬or ‫ܰܒܪ ܳܫܥܬܗ‬ ܶ ܰ ܽ blessed are those, who ‫ܛܘ ܰܒܝܗܘܢ ܐܠܝܠܝܢ‬ ܳ ܳ ‫ܰܦܢܺܝ ܶܦܬ‬ to answer ‫ܓܡܐ‬

iI

LESSON 32 THE ʼETPAˁˁAL STEM

ܰ ܰ ܶ

32.1. The passive/reflexive of the Paˁˁel stem is the ʼEṯpaˁˁal stem (ܶܶ ܶ ܶ‫)ܐܬ‬, with a ܰ ܰ doubled 2nd radical ܰ ܶ radicals: ‫ ܐܬܩܪܒ‬ʼeṯ arraḇ ‘to ܰ ܶ and a pṯā ā on the 1st and 2nd ܰ ܰ ‫ ܐܬܪܚܡ‬ʼeṯra am ‘to have mercy on’; ‫ ܐܬܬܡܗ‬ʼeṯtammah ‘to be stupefied’; approach’; ܰ‫ ܶܐܬ ܰܕܡܪ‬ʼeṯdammar ‘to be amazed’; ‫ ܶܐܬ ܰܢ ܰܩܦ‬ʼeṯnaqqaꝑ ‘to cleave to, adhere.’ .

THE ACTIVE PARTICIPLES OF THE ʼETPAˁˁAL STEM

ܶ

32.2. The active participles of the ʼEṯpaˁˁal stem are formed with the prefix -‫ܡܬ‬ along the following patterns: masculine

ܰ ‫ܶܡܬ ܰܩܛܠ‬ ܺ ‫ܶܡܬ ܰܩ‬ ‫ܛܠܝܢ‬

singular plural

feminine

ܳ ‫ܶܡܬ ܰܩܛܐܠ‬ ܳ ‫ܶܡܬ ܰܩܛ‬ ‫ܠܢ‬

32.3. Notice that, except for the masc. sing. form, the other three forms are the same in writing as the same forms of the ʼEṯpˁel stem, but are different in pronunciation: meṯ aṭṭlā, meṯ aṭṭlin, meṯ aṭṭlān (in ʼEṯpˁel – meṯ aṭlā, meṯ aṭlin, meṯ aṭlān).

ܳ

ܶ

32.4. The infinitive is: ‫( (ܠܙ)ܡܬ ܰܩܛܠ ܽܘ‬l)meṯ aṭṭāl . 32.5. Since the ʼEṯpaˁˁal stem expresses a passive action, it does not form passive participles. The verbs in this stem are always intransitive; they cannot have direct objects and, accordingly, do not take pronominal suffixes.  Form ܶ the ܶinfinitives and active participles of the verbs

ܰ ܰ ‫ ܐ‬،‫ܬܪ ܰܚܡ‬ ‫ܬܩ ܰܪܒ‬ ‫ܐ‬.

286

ܶ ܰ ܶ ܰ ‫ ܶܐ‬،‫ܬܬ ܰܡܗ‬ ،‫ ܐ ܰܬܢ ܰܩܦ‬،‫ܬܕ ܰܡܪ‬ ‫ܐ‬

LESSON 32

287

32.6. With enclitics, the ʼEṯpaˁˁal active participles produce the present and “past continuous” tenses. 32.7. The metathesis phenomenon, inherent in the ʼEṯpˁeal stem, is also ܶ present in ܰ ܶ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܳ ܰ ܰ ܽ ܰ the ʼEṯpaˁˁal stem: ‫‘ ܐܫܬܢܩ‬to be tormented,’ (‫ ܡܫܬܢܩܘ‬،‫‘ ܐܙܕܒܢ ;)ܡܫܬܢܩ‬to be sold’ ܽ ‫ ܶܡ ܰܙܕ ܳܒ‬،‫ ) ܶܡ ܰܙܕ ܰܒܢ‬and so on. (‫ܢܘ‬ THE WEAK VERBS IN THE ʼETPAˁˁAL STEM 32.8. In the I-‫ ܐ‬verbs, ālaꝑ, being preceded by a pṯāܶ ā1 expends into a full vowel ܰ ܰ instead of becoming a distinct glottal stop: ‫ ܐܬܐܠܨ‬ʼeṯallaṣ ‘to be compelled’ ܳ ‫ ܶܡ ܰܬ‬،‫ܐܠܨ‬ ܰ ‫) ܶܡ ܰܬ‬. ܽ ‫ܐܠ‬ (‫ܨܘ‬ 32.9. The II-‫ ܐ‬verbs produce forms similar to those of the strong verbs, with douܰܰ ܶ ܳܰ ܶ ܰܰ ܶ bled glottal stop: ‫ ܐܫܬܐܠ‬ʼeštaʼʼal ‘to be interrogated, asked’ (‫ ܡܫܬܐܠ ܽܘ‬،‫)ܡܫܬܐܠ‬.

ܶ

ܰ ‫ܐ‬ forms like the strong verbs: ‫ܬܝ ܰܩܪ‬ 32.10. The I-‫ܝ‬, I-‫ ܢܢ‬and III=II verbs also produce ܶ ܶ ܶ ܶ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܽ ܳ ܰ ܽ ܰ ‫ ܡ‬،‫ܬܝܩܪ‬ ܰ ܰ ܳ ܰ ‘to beܶ honored’ (‫ܬܝܩܪܘ‬ ܳ ܰ ‫‘ ܐܰ ܰܬܢܚܬ ܶ;)ܡ‬toܶ lower oneself’ (‫ ܡܬܢܚܬܘ‬،‫;)ܡܬܢܚܬ‬ ܰ ܰ ܽ ‫‘ ܐܬܥܠܠ‬to be brought in’ (‫ ܡܬܥܠܠ ܘ‬،‫)ܡܬܥܠܠ‬. 32.11. In the II-‫ ܘ‬verbs, the 2nd y ḏ, and the verbs become ܶ radical waw turnsܽ into ܶ ܰ ܰ ܰ ‫) ܶܡ‬. ܰ ܳ similar to strong verbs: ‫‘ ܐܬܩܝܡ‬to be confirmed’ (‫ ܡܬܩܝܡܘ‬،‫ܬܩ ܰܝܡ‬

ܺ

ܶ

ܰ ‫ܐ‬ 32.12. The III-‫ ܝ‬verbs produce forms similar to the forms of the Paˁˁel stem: ‫ܬܒܢܝ‬ ܶ ܶ ܳ ܽ ‫ܬܒܢ‬ ܰ ‫ ܶܡ‬،‫ܬܒܢ ܳܝܢ‬ ܰ ‫ ܶܡ‬/‫ܬܒܢܝܢ‬ ܰ ‫ ܶܡ‬/‫ܬܒ ܳܢܝܐ‬ ܰ ‫ ܶܡ‬/‫ܬܒܢܐ‬ ܰ ‫) ܶܡ‬. ‘to be restored’ (‫ܝܘ‬ PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES WITH THE IMPERATIVE FORMS 32.13. The attachment of pronominal suffixes to the imperative forms results in the revocalization of the verb:

ܶ ܺ ܰ ܳ ‫ܠܢ‬ ‫ܠܗ‬ ‫ܠܗ‬ ‫ܠܝ‬ ܶ ܰ ‫ܠܝܗ ܩܛܘ‬ ܳ ܰ ‫ܠܝܢ‬ ‫ܝܗܝ ܩܛܘ‬ ̱ ‫ܩܛܘܠܝܢܝ ܩܛܘܠ‬ ṭ layn ṭ leh ṭ lāy ṭ layn ܺ ܺ ܺ ܺ ‫ܝܘܗܝ ܩܛܘܠܝܗ ܩܛܘܠܝܢ‬ ̱ ‫ܩܛܘܠܝܢܝ ܩܛܘܠ‬ ṭ lin 1

ṭ lih

See the footnote to paragraph 29.8.

ṭ liw

ṭ lin

‫ܩܛܘܠ‬ ‫ܩܛܘܠܝ‬

‫‪CLASSICAL SYRIAC‬‬

‫ܩܛܘܠܘ‬

‫ܺ‬ ‫ܠܝ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܩܘܛܠ ܽܘܢܝ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠܗ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܩܘܛܠ ܽܘ ̱ܗܝ‬

‫‪288‬‬

‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܠܢ‬ ‫ܠܗ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܩܘܛܠ ܽܘܢ‬ ‫ܩܘܛܠ ܽܘܗ‬

‫‪uṭlun‬‬

‫‪uṭl‬‬

‫‪uṭluh‬‬

‫‪uṭlun‬‬

‫‪ṭ lenān‬‬

‫‪ṭ lenāy‬‬

‫‪ṭ lenāh‬‬

‫‪ṭ lenān‬‬

‫ܳ‬ ‫ܩܘܛܠ ܽܘ ܳܢܗ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܗܝ ܽ‬ ‫ܩܘܛܠ ܽܘ ܳܢܢܝ ܽ‬ ‫ܩܛܘܠ ܽܘܢ ܽ‬ ‫ܩܘܛܠ ܽܘ ܳܢܢ‬ ‫ܩܘܛܠ ܽܘܢ ̱‬ ‫‪quṭlunān‬‬ ‫‪uṭlunāh‬‬ ‫‪uṭlunāy‬‬ ‫‪uṭlunān‬‬ ‫ܠܗ ܩܛܘܠܢܳ‬ ‫ܠܝܗܝ ܩܛܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܢܝ ܩܛܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܩܛܘܠܝ ܩܛܘ ܳ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫‪ṭ lān‬‬ ‫‪ṭ lāh‬‬ ‫‪ṭ lāy‬‬ ‫‪ṭ lān‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠܝܢܢܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܝܗܝ ܩܛܘܠܝܢܗ ܩܛܘ‬ ‫ܩܛܘܠܝܢ ܩܛܘܠܝܢܢܝ ܩܛܘܠܝܢ ̱‬ ‫‪32.14. Theܶ pronominal suffixes‬‬ ‫‪can also attach onto the negative imperative forms:‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫‪ and so on.‬ܐܠ ܬܩܛܘܠܝܢܝ‪ ،‬ܐܠ ܬܩܛܠ ܘܢܗ‬

‫‪iI‬‬ ‫‪ Read, translate, and copy:‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬

‫ܳ‬ ‫ܒܗܢܘܢ ܶܕܝܢ ܰܝܘ ܳܡܬܐ ܟܕ ܶܟܢܫܐ ܰܤ ܺܓܝܐܐ ܐܝܬ ̱ܗܘܐ‪ :‬ܘܐܠ ܐܝܬ ̱ܗܘܐ ܶܡ ܶܕܡ ܕܢܶܐܟܠ ܽܘܢ܆ ܩܪܐ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܪ ܰܚܡ ܐܢܐ ܥܠ ܶܟܢܫܐ ܗܢܐ܇ ܕܗܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܠܬܐ‬ ‫ܶܝܫܘܥ ܠܬܠܡܝܕܘ ̱ܗܝ ܶܘܐܡܪ ܠܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܡ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܰܝܘܡܝܢ ܰܩ ܺܘܝܘ ܠ ܳܘܬܝ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܠܝܬ ܠܗܘܢ ܳܡܢܐ ܢܶܐܟܠ ܽ‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫ܢ‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܒܡܕܒܪܐ ܰܝܘ ܳܡܬܐ ܰܐܖܒܥܝܢ ܟܕ ܶܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܰܘܗܘܐ ܶܝܫܘܥ ܰܬ ܳܡܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܢ ܶܤܐ ܡܢ ܳܤܛܢܐ‪ܺ .‬ܘܐܝܬܘ ̱ܗܝ ̱ܗܘܐ‬ ‫ܰܰ‬ ‫ܡܫܡܫܝܢ ̱ܗ ܰ‬ ‫ܥܡ ܰܚܝ ܳܘܬܐ ܰܘ ܰ‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܟ‬ ‫ܐܠ‬ ‫ܡ‬ ‫ܠܗ‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬܩ ܳܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܰܘܕܐܠ ܶܐ ܰ‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫ܒܘ ܠ ܳܘܬܗ ܶܡܛܠ ܶܟܢܫܐ ܤܠܩܘ ܠܗܘܢ ܐܠ ܳܓܪܐ ܰܘܐܪܝܡܘ‬ ‫ܚܘ‬ ‫ܫܟ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ ܰ ܰ ܺ ܰ‬ ‫ܒܘܗ ܰܥܪܤܐ ܰܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܫ ܽ‬ ‫ܪܡܐ ̱ܗܘܐ ܒܗ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܝܬܘ ̱ܗܝ ̱ܗܘܐ ܝܫܘܥ܆ ܰ‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫ܡܫܪܝܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬܛܠܝܐܠ ܕܐܬܪ ܕ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܬܕ ܰܡܪ ̱ܗܘܐ ܒܚܤܝܪܘܬ ܗܝܡܢܘܬܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܘܡܬܟܪܟ ̱ܗܘܐ ܒܩܘܖܝܐ ܟܕ ܡܠܦ ‪.‬‬ ‫ܥܒܕ ܕܢܶ‬ ‫ܘܝܬܝܪܐܝܬ ܶܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܚܖ ܶܫܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܕܡܪܝܢ ̱ܗܘܘ ܳܘܐܡܪܝܢ ܕܟܠ ܶܡ ܶܕܡ ܰܫܦܝܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܥܒܕ‪ܰ .‬‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܫܡܥܘܢ܆‬ ‫ܡܡܠܠܝܢ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܰܘܕܐܠ ܰ‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫ܢܡ ܶܠܠ ܽܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫‪a‬‬

‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫ܢ݀ܕܚܠܝܢ݀‬ ‫ܦܘ‪݀ c‬ܠܬܠܡ̈݀ܝܕܐ܆ ݀ܘܟܠܗܘ ܳ݀‬ ‫ܬܢܳ݀ܩ ܽ݀‬ ‫ܘܐ݀ܠܡ ܰ݀‬ ‫ܶ݀‬ ‫݀ܒܐ݀ ̄݀‬ ‫ܗ‬ ‫ܐܘܪܫܠܡ ݀ܘܨ‬ ‫݀ܙܠ݀ܠܗ݀ܠ ݀‬ ‫ܶ݀ܘܐ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘ ‪݀7 .‬‬ ‫ܘܘ݀ܕܬܠܡܝܕܐ݀ ̄݀‬ ‫݀‬ ‫ܐ݀ܡܗܝܡܢܝܢ݀ ̄݀‬ ‫ܗ‬ ‫ܰ݀‬ ‫ܘܘ݀ܡܢܗ݀ܘܠ‬ ‫݀‬ ‫̄݀‬ ‫ܗ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫݀ܬܠܬܡ ܐܐ݀‬ ‫݀ܢ ݀‬ ‫ܢܘ‪݀݀ gc‬ܝܬܝܪ ݀ܡ‬ ‫ܙܕ݀ܒ ݀‬ ‫ܠܡ ݀‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݀ܡܫܚܐ ݀ܗܢܐ ݀ ݀‬ ‫ܫܟܚ ݀ ݀‬ ‫ܡ݀‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ݀ܗܘܐ ݀ܕ ݀‬ ‫‪1‬‬

‫‪Mark 8:1–2.‬‬ ‫‪Mark 1:13.‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫’‪‘And because they could not.‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪Mark 2:4.‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪Mark 6:6.‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪Mark 7:37.‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫‪Acts 9:26.‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

‫‪289‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬

‫‪10‬‬

‫‪11‬‬ ‫‪12‬‬

‫‪LESSON 32‬‬

‫ܬܝ݀ ܳܗ݀ ܽ‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫ܠܡ ܺ‬ ‫ܗܘܘ݀ܒܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܙܕܥܦܝܢ‪݀̄ ݀h‬‬ ‫ܘܡ ܰ݀‬ ‫ܣ ܶܟ݀ܢܐ‪݀ܶ ܳ ݀.‬‬ ‫ܠܡ ̈݀‬ ‫ܒܘ݀݀ ܶ݀‬ ‫ܺ݀ܕܝܢ̈݀ܖܝܢ܆݀ ܰܘ݀ ܶ݀‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫݀ܐ݀‬ ‫ܗܳ݀ܘܬ‪݀݀ .‬ܘܐܬ‬ ‫ܩܒܠܗܘܢ ݀ ̄݀‬ ‫݀ܠܘ ܰ݀‬ ‫݀ܪܘܚܐ ݀ܓܝܪ ݀‬ ‫݀ܪ݀ܕܝܢ ݀‬ ‫ܫܬܢܩܝܢ‪݀ ܶ a‬ܟܕ ݀‬ ‫ܕܡ ݀‬ ‫݀ܐܢܘܢ ݀ ܶ݀‬ ‫݀ܐ ܶ݀‬ ‫ܰ݀ܘܚܙ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫ܟ݀ܥܠ݀ܡ̈݀ܝܐ܇݀ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܨܒܐ݀ܗܘܐ݀ܕܢܥܒܪ݀ܐܢܘܢ‪݀ .‬‬ ‫݀‬ ‫ܡܗ݀ܠ‬ ‫ܢ݀ܝܫܘܥ݀ܟܕ݀ ݀‬ ‫ܠܘܬܗܘ ܺ݀‬ ‫ܳ݀‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ݀ܠܗܘܢ݀‬ ‫ܐܘܪܫܠܡ܆ ݀ܗ݀ܘ ݀ܝܫܘܥ ݀ܰ݀ܩܺ݀ܕܝܡ ܶ‪݀̄ ݀ 3‬‬ ‫݀ܒܐܘܪܚܐ ݀ܠ ܶ݀‬ ‫ܽ݀‬ ‫ܗܘܘ ݀ܕܝܢ‬ ‫݀ܤܠܩܝܢ ݀ ̄݀‬ ‫ܟܕ ܳ݀‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫̄‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܘܫܪܝ݀‬ ‫ܪܬܗ܆݀ ݀‬ ‫ܥܤ ݀‬ ‫ܬܪ ݀‬ ‫ܪ݀ܠ ݀‬ ‫ܕܒ ݀‬ ‫ܗ݀ܟܕ݀ܕܚܝܠܝܢ‪݀݀.‬ܘ ݀‬ ‫݀‬ ‫ܘܘ݀ܒ ݀‬ ‫ܬܪ‬ ‫ܗ ݀‬ ‫ܘܘ݀ܘܐܙܠܝܢ݀ ݀‬ ‫ܗ ݀‬ ‫ܬܬܡܗܝܢ‪݀ ݀a‬‬ ‫ܘܡ ܰ݀‬ ‫ܶ݀‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫ܗܘܐ݀ܠܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܕܢ ܶ݀‬ ‫ܡܕܡ݀ ܶ݀‬ ‫ܕܢܐܡܪ݀ܠܗܘܢ݀ ܶ݀‬ ‫ܶ݀‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠܠܘܢ݀‬ ‫݀ܬܡ ݀‬ ‫ܡܢܐ ܶ ݀‬ ‫ܐܨܦܘܢ‪݀ ݀ i‬‬ ‫݀‬ ‫ܫܠܡܘܢܟܘ݀ܢ ݀ܠ ܐ ݀ ݀‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫݀ܕܢ ݀‬ ‫ܡܩܪܒܝܢ‪݀ a‬ܠܟܘܢ ݀ܕܝܢ ݀‬ ‫݀ܕ ݀‬ ‫ܡܐ ݀‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫‪j‬‬ ‫݀ܡ݀ܠܠܘ‪݀ .‬ܠ ܐ݀‬ ‫݀ܫܥܬܐ ݀ܗ݀ܘ ݀‬ ‫ܗܒ ݀ܠܟܘܢ ݀ܒܗ݀ܝ ݀‬ ‫ܬܝ ݀‬ ‫݀ܕܡ ݀‬ ‫݀ܡܕܡ ܶ݀‬ ‫݀ܐܠ ܐ ܶ݀‬ ‫݀ܢ ܶ݀‬ ‫݀ܬܪܢܘ‬ ‫ܘܠ ܐ ܶ݀‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫ܚܐ݀ܕܩܘܕܫܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܽ݀‬ ‫ܽ݀‬ ‫ܐ݀ܪܘ‬ ‫ܠܠܝܢ݀ܐܠ‬ ‫ܶ݀‬ ‫ܘܐ݀ܓܝܪ݀ܐ݀ܢ̄ܬܘܢ݀ ܰ݀‬ ‫ܡܡ‬ ‫ܶ݀‬ ‫̄݀‬ ‫ܗ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܕܚܠ ܘ ܰܫܪܝ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܟܕ ܚܙܐ ܪܘܚܐ ܕܩܘܕܫܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܛܒܥ ܰܘܐܪܝܡ ܳܩܶܠܗ ܶܘܐܡܪ ܳܡܪܝ ܦܪܘ ܰܩܝܢܝ ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ ‪7‬‬ ‫ܠܗܢܐ܇ ܳܕܩܪܝܢ ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ‬ ‫ܦܝܠܛܘܤ ܳܡܢܐ ܳܗܟܝܠ ܳܨ ܶܒܝܢ ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ ܐܥܒܕ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܠܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܬܘܒ ܰ‬ ‫ܰܡܠܟܐ ܺܕܝܗ ܽܘ ܳܕܝܐ‪ܶ .‬ܗܢܘܢ ܕܝܢ ܽ‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫ܩܥܘ ܙܩܘ ܳܦܝ ̱ܗܝ ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܟܠܗ ܶܟܢܫܐ ܳܘܐܡܪܝܢ ܫܩܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܗܢܐ‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫ܝܗ‬ ‫ܠ‬ ‫ܩܥܘ ܕܝܢ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܟܕ ܕܝܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܚܙ ܽܐܘ ̱ܗܝ ܖ ܰܒܝ ܳܟܗܢܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪܝܢ‪ .‬ܨܠ ܘ ܳܒܝ ̱ܗܝ ܨܠ ܘ ܳܒܝ ̱ܗܝ ‪ .‬ܐܡܪ ܠܗܘܢ‬ ‫ܩܥܘ ܳܘ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܦ ܰ‬ ‫ܩܦܘ ̱ܗܝ ‪ .‬ܐܢܐ ܶܓܝܪ ܐܠ ܶܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܙܘ ܽ‬ ‫ܕܒܪܘ ܐܢ ̱ܬܘܢ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܠܛܘܤ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܟܚ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܶܒܗ ܶܥܠܬܐ‪ .‬ܐܡܪܝܢ‬ ‫ܠܗ ܺܝܗ ܽܘ ܳܕܝܐ‪ܰ .‬‬ ‫ܠܢ ܳܢܡܘܤܐ ܐܝܬ ܠܢ‪ܰ .‬ܘܐܝܟ ܰܕܒܢܳܡܘ ܰܤܢ ܰܚ ܳܝܒ ̱ܗܘ ܰܡܘܬܐ ܰܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒܕ ܰܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܦܫܗ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫ܒܪܗ ܕܠܐܗܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܺ‬ ‫ܫܘ ܽ‬ ‫ܗܘ ܕܝܢ ܝܫܘܥ ܐܡܪ ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܗܪܝܢ ܐܢ ̱ܬܘܢ ܠܗ‪ܳ .‬‬ ‫ܥܒܕܐ ܰܫܦܝܪܐ ܶܥ ܰ‬ ‫ܒܕܬ‬ ‫ܒܩܘܗ ‪ .‬ܡܢܐ ܡ‬ ‫‪11‬‬ ‫ܠ ܳܘܬܝ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܦܝܠܘܣܘܦܐ ܰܚܕ ܐܫܬܐܠ ‪ܶ ،‬ܡ ܺ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܘܗܘ ܰܦܢܝ‬ ‫ܠܓܒܪܐ ܰܒܪ ܰܫܒܥܝܢ ܫܢܝܢ ܰܝܠܕܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬܝܠܕ‬ ‫ܫܒܒܐ ܰܒܪ ܳ‬ ‫ܺܕܐܝܢ‪ܰ ،‬ܟܕ ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܠܗ ܳ‬ ‫ܬܠܬܝܢ ܫܢܝܢ ܀‬ ‫‪6 k‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪13‬‬ ‫‪14‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪l‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪m‬‬

‫‪15‬‬ ‫‪16‬‬

‫‪n‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪o‬‬

‫‪p‬‬

‫‪j‬‬

‫‪p‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪p‬‬

‫‪o‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪j‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪32.2. 32.12. 32.4. 10.11. 29.2. 21.17.2. 32.7. 29.7.2.‬‬ ‫‪n‬‬

‫‪m‬‬

‫‪l‬‬

‫‪18.6. 29.11. 32.13. 31.8. 24.17. 26.25. 32.9. 26.35.‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪Mark 14:5.‬‬ ‫‪Mark 6:48.‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫’‪ܰ ‘to go before, precede.‬‬ ‫ܩܕܡ ‪Passive participle of the verb‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪Mark 10:32.‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪Mark 13:11.‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪Matthew 14:30.‬‬ ‫‪ܶ .‬ܐ ܶ‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫ܥܒܕ ‪ before the verb‬ܕ ‪Notice the absence of the presumed particle‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪Mark 15:12–13.‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪Luke 23:18.‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪John 19:6–7.‬‬ ‫‪11‬‬ ‫‪Mark 14:6.‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

290

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

 Read and copy the last six paragraphs in the East Syriac script:

ܲ ܲ ‫ܘܫܪܝ ܠܡܛ ܲܒܥ ܘ ܲܐܪܝܡ ܲܠܗ ܘܐ ܲܡܪ ܡܪܝ‬ ܲ .‫ܦܪܘ ܲ ܼܲܝܢܝ‬ ܼ ܼ ܼܸ ܹ ܸ ‫ܘ ܼܟܕ ܚܙܐ ܪ ܼܘܚܐ ܕܲ ܼܘܕܫܐ‬ ܼ ܸ ܼ ܼ ‫ܕܚܠ‬ ܲ ‫ܬܘܢ ܐܥܒܕ ܠܗܢܐ܇ ܕܲܪܝܢ ܐ ̄ܢ‬ ܲ ‫ܛܘܤ ܡܢܐ ܗܟܝܠ ܨܒܝܢ ܐܢ ̄ܢ‬ ܲ ‫ܠܗܘܢ ܦܝ ܲܠ‬ ܲ ‫ܬܘܢ ܲ ܼܡܠܟܐ‬ ‫ܸܐ ܲ ܼܡܪ‬ ܼ ܼ ܼ ܹ ܸ ܸ ܹ ̄ ‫ܙܲܘܦ‬ ܲ ‫ ܗ ܲܢܘܢ ܕܝܢ ܬܘܒ ܲܥܘ‬.‫ܕܝܗܘܕܝܐ‬ .‫ܝܗ‬ ܼ ܸ ܹ ܼ ܼ ܹ ̄ ܲ .‫ܡܪܝܢ ܫܩܘܠܝܗ ܠܗܢܐ‬ ܼ ‫ܲܥܘ ܹܕܝܢ ܟ ܹܠܗ ܸܟܢܫܐ ܘܐ‬ ܲ ̄ ̄ ܲ ܲ ܲ ܲ ܲ ܲ ܲ ̄ ܲ ‫ܲܟܕ ܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܦܝ ܼܠܛܘܤ‬ ܼ ‫ ܸܐ ܼܡܪ ܠܗܘܢ‬.‫ ܨܠܘܒܝܗ ܨܠܘܒܝܗ‬.‫ܡܪܝܢ‬ ܼ ‫ܚܙ ܼܐܘܗ ܼܲ̈ ܼܒܝ ܟܗ ܹܢܐ ܲܥܘ ܘܐ‬ ܼܲ ̄ ܲ ܹ ܲ ܼ ̄ ܲ ̄ ܲ ‫ ܼܠܢ‬.‫ܡܪܝܢ ܹܠܗ ܝܗ ܼܘܕ ܹܝܐ‬ ܼ ‫ܘܙܘ‬ ܼ ‫ܕ ܼܒܪܘ ܼܐܢܬܘܢ‬ ܼ ‫ ܐ‬.‫ ܸܐܢܐ ܹܓܝܪ ܠܐ ܸܡܫ ܼܟܚ ܐܢܐ ܹܒܗ ܸܥܠܬ‬.‫ܲܦܘܗ‬ ܲ ܲ ܲ ܲ ܲ ܲ ܲ ܲ ܲ ̄ ܲ .‫ܦܫܗ ܒ ܹܪܗ ܼܕܐܠܗܐ‬ ܼ ،‫ܢܡܘܤܐ ܼܐܝܬ ܼܠܢ‬ ܹ ‫ܘܐܝܟ ܼܕܒܢܡܘ ܼܤܢ ܼܚܝܒ ܗ ܼܘ ܡܘܬܐ ܼܕܥ ܸܒܕ ܼܢ‬ ܲ ‫ ܥܒܕܐ ܲܫܦܝܪܐ ܥ‬.‫ܬܘܢ ܠ ܲܗ‬ ܲ ܲ ‫ܐܢ‬ ܲ ̄ ‫ ܡܢܐ ܲ ܼܡܗ ܼܪܝܢ‬،‫ܒܩܘ ܲܗ‬ ‫ܒܕܬ ܠܘܬܝ܀‬ ܼ ‫ܫܘ‬ ܼ ‫ܗܘ ܹܕܝܢ ܼܝܫܘܥ ܸܐ ܼܡܪ‬ ܼ ܸ ܼ ܼ ܲ ‫ܣܘܦܐ ܲܚܕ ܐ‬ ܲ‫ ܟܕ‬،‫ ܘܗܘ ܲܦܢܝ ܕܐܝܢ‬.‫ܠܓܒܪܐ ܲܒܪ ܲܫܒܥܝܢ ܫܢܝܢ ܲܝܠܕܐ‬ ܲ ‫ ܡܬܝܠܕ‬،‫ܫܬ ܲܐܠ‬ ܲ ‫ܦܝܠܘ‬ ܲ ܼ ܼ ܼ ܼ ܼܼ ܸ ܼ ܼ ܼ ܸ ܼ ܸ ‫ܗܘܐ ܠܗ ܫܒܒܐ ܲ ܼܒܪ ܬܠܬܝܢ ܫܢܝܢ܀‬ ܸ ‫ܸܢ‬

11 12 13 14

15 16

iI  Translate: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

This ointment could be sold, and the money could be given to the poor. He is worthy of death because he cleaves to those who blaspheme the Lord. The farmers are tormented by the heat of the sun because they plough the field from the morning till evening, Heaven will not have pity on you, as your lack of faith harms your souls. All the deaf and blind wanted to approach him in order to get well. Forgive the debts to your debtors, and the Lord will forgive you your debts. ܰ , as the birds of the sky do ܳ ‫ܕܣܘ‬ ܽ ‫)ܠܚܡܐ‬ Do not care about your daily bread (‫ܢܩܢܟܘܢ‬ not care, and the Lords gives them theirs. Jesus remained in the desert for forty days to be tempted by Satan. The prophet was going from one village to another, preaching about the last days. You sank in your sins like the ships sink into the depths of the sea. Kill them because they serve Satan and are obedient to his will. Everyone wants to buy this house, but it is not for sale (is not sold). “Crucify him”, cried out the people that had gathered before the governor’s palace. When the priest put his hand on the paralytic’s shoulder, he immediately stood up straight and began to walk. All night long, he was telling the Twelve what was going to happen to him. Stay here tonight (this evening) and prey with me. The townsmen brought him to the judge, but he did not find a cause to send him to prison.

LESSON 32

291

18 Do not be angry and do not kill him. 19 The disciples lifted the ceiling from the place where Jesus was. 20 Come to me, all you crippled and sick, and your wounds will be healed.

iI ܶ ‫ܶܐ ܰܙܕ ܰܒܢ‬ ܶ to be indignant; to rail at ‫ܐܙܕܥܦ‬ ܰܰ ܶ to be questioned, interrogated݀‫ܐܫܬܐܠ‬ ܰܰ ܶ to be tormented; to be punished ‫ܐܫܬܢܩ‬ ܰ ܰ ܶ to wonder, marvel ‫ܐܬܕܡܪ‬ ܶ ܶ to go round, circle, surround; to wrap round ‫ܐܬܟܪܟ‬ ܺ ܰ ܶ to be tried, proved, tempted ‫ܐܬܢܣܝ‬ ܰ ܶ to cleave to; to unite with, be conjoined ‫ܐܬܢ ܰܩܦ‬ ܰ ܰ ‫ܶܐ‬ to approach; to touch; to be presented, offered ‫ܬܩܪܒ‬ ܰ ܶ ݀to have mercy on ‫ܐܬܪ ܰܚܡ‬ ܰ ܰ ܶ to be stupefied ‫ܐܬܬܡܗ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܚ ܳܝ‬ debtor; guilty ‫ܒܐ‬ ܳܽ ܺ ܰ want, lack, deficiency, scarcity ‫ܝܪܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܚܣ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܚ‬ deaf, dumb, deaf-mute ‫ܪܫܐ‬ ܰ to sink ‫ܛܒܥ‬ to take care, be careful; to be anxious about ‫ܺܝܨܶܦ‬ ܳ ‫ܶܡ‬ ointment, oil, unguent ‫ܫܚܐ‬ ܰ ܳ ‫ܡܫ‬ paralytic ‫ܪܝܐ‬ ܳܳ ܳ Satan ‫ܣܛܢܐ‬ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܳ ܶ cause, pretext; rationale; occasion; argument )‫ ܥܠܬܐ‬،‫ܠܠܬܐ‬ ̱ ‫ܥܠܬܐ (ܥ‬ ܰ to crucify ‫ܨܠܒ‬ ܳ to travel, proceed, journey; to instruct ‫ܪܕܐ‬ ܳ to think, reflect ‫ܪܢܐ‬ ܶ ݀to serve, attend, minister to ‫ܰܫܡܫ‬ ܳ ܺ ܰ ݀roof, ceiling ‫ܬܛܠܝܐܠ‬ to be sold

where

ܰܰ ‫ܐܬܪ ܕ‬

292

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

ܳ ‫ܰܚ ܳܝܒ ܰܡܘܬܐ‬ ܳܽ ܳ ܰ ܽ ܺ ܰ ݀lack of faith ‫ܢܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܚܣܝܪܘܬ ܗܝܡ‬ ܳ ܰ ܶ ݀the Twelve (twelve apostles) ‫ܬܪܥܣܪܬܐ‬

sentenced to death, worthy of death

݀ ݀

iI

LESSON 33 THE PAST TENSE OF THE ʼETPAˁˁAL VERBS 33.1. The strong verbs and most of the weak ones have the following conjugation in the ʼEṯpaˁˁal past tense:

ܰ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܶ )‫ܬܩܛܠ ܢܰܢ‬ ‫ܬܩܛܠܢ (ܐ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ܰ ܰ ܶ ‫ܐܬܩܛܠܬܘܢ‬ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܶ ‫ܬܩܛܠܬܝܢ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܰ ‫ܬܩܛܠܘ (ܐ‬ ܰ ‫ܶܐ‬ )‫ܬܩܛܠ ܽܘܢ‬ ܰ ܰ ܶ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܶ )‫ ܐܬܩܛܠܝܢ‬،‫ܬܩܛܠܝ‬ ‫(ܐ‬

‫ܚܢܰܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ‬ ܶ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝܢ‬ ‫ܶܗܢܘܢ‬ ‫ܶܗܢܶܝܢ‬

ܶ ܶ ܰ ܶ ‫ܬܩܛܠܬ‬ ‫ܐ ܳܢܐ ܐ‬ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܶ ‫ܬܩܛܠܬ‬ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬ ܐ‬ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܶ ‫ܬܩܛܠܬܝ‬ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝ ܐ‬ ܰ ܰ ܶ ܽ ‫ܬܩܛܠ‬ ‫ܗܘ ܐ‬ ܰ ‫ܬܩ‬ ܰ ‫ܺܗܝ ܶܐ‬ ‫ܛܠܬ‬

33.2. Notice that the 1st person sing. and the 3rd person fem. sing. forms are identical in writing with the same ʼEṯpˁel forms, but are different in pronunciation: ʼeṯ aṭṭǝleṯ, ʼeṯ aṭṭǝlaṯ (in ʼEṯpˁel – ʼeṯ aṭleṯ, ʼeṯ aṭlaṯ).

ܰ ܶ ܰ ‫ ܶܐ ܰܬ‬،‫ ܶܐ ܰܙܕ ܰܒܢ‬،‫ܫܬ ܰܢܩ‬ ܰ ‫ ܶܐ‬،‫ ܶܐܬܢܰ ܰܚܬ‬،‫ ܶܐ ܰܬܝ ܰܩܪ‬،‫ܐܠܨ‬ ܰ ‫ ܶܐ‬،‫ܬܥ ܰܠܠ‬ ܰ ‫ܬܩ‬ ،‫ܡ‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ܶ ܰܰ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܰ ‫ ܐ‬،‫ܬܬ ܰܡܗ‬ ܰ‫ܬܕܡܪ‬ ܰ ܰ ‫ ܐ‬،‫ ܐܬܪܚܡ‬،‫ ܐܬܩܪܒ‬،‫ ܐܫܬܐܠ‬in the past tense.  Conjugate ܶ ܶ the verbs ܶ

33.3. The conjugation of the III-‫ ܝ‬verbs is similar to the ʼEṯpˁel conjugation:

ܶ ܶ )‫ܐ ܰܬܢ ܺܣܝܢ (ܐܬܢܰ ܺܣܝܢܰܢ‬ ܶ ‫ܐ ܰܬܢ ܺܣܝܬܘܢ‬ ܶ ܶ ‫ܐ ܰܬܢ ܺܣܝܬܝܢ‬ ܶ ‫ܐ ܰܬܢ ܺܣܝܘ‬ ܶ ‫ܐ ܰܬܢ ܺܣܝ‬

‫ܚܢܰܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ‬ ܶ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝܢ‬ ‫ܶܗܢܘܢ‬ ‫ܶܗܢܶܝܢ‬

293

ܶ ܶ ‫ܐ ܳܢܐ ܐ ܰܬܢ ܺܣܝܬ‬ ܶ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬ ܐ ܰܬܢ ܺܣܝܬ‬ ܶ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝ ܐ ܰܬܢ ܺܣܝܬܝ‬ ܶ ܽ ‫ܗܘ ܐ ܰܬܢ ܺܣܝ‬ ܰ ‫ܺܗܝ ܶܐ ܰܬܢ‬ ‫ܣܝܬ‬

‫‪294‬‬

‫‪CLASSICAL SYRIAC‬‬ ‫‪PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES WITH INFINITIVES‬‬

‫‪33.4. The pronominal suffixes can be appended to the infinitives of the Pˁal, Paˁˁel,‬‬ ‫‪and ʼAꝑˁel verbs (‘to kill him,’ ‘to kill them,’ etc.). In the case of Pˁal, the suffixes‬‬ ‫‪ appears‬ܬ ‪attach directly onto the infinitive. With Paˁˁel and ʼAꝑˁel, an auxiliary‬‬ ‫‪between the infinitive and the pronominal suffix, and, in such cases, the infinitive‬‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫‪ܽ .‬ܘܬܐ ‪morphologically becomes similar to feminine nouns with the ending‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟܘܢ‬ ‫ܠܢ‬ ‫ܠܗ‬ ‫ܠܗ‬ ‫ܠܟܝ‬ ‫ܠܟ‬ ‫ܠܝ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶܡܩܛܠܟܘܢ‬ ‫ܩܛܠܢ‬ ‫ܶܡ‬ ‫ܩܛܠܗ‬ ‫ܶܡ‬ ‫ܶܡܩܛܠܗ‬ ‫ܶܡܩܛܠܟܝ‬ ‫ܩܛܠܟ‬ ‫ܶܡ‬ ‫ܩܛܠܢܝ‬ ‫ܶܡ‬ ‫ܶܡܩܛܠ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܩܛܠ ܽܘܬܟܘܢ‬ ‫ܡܩܛܠ ܽܘܬܢ‬ ‫ܡܩܛܠ ܽܘܬܗ‬ ‫ܡܩܛܠ ܽܘܬܗ‬ ‫ܡܩܛܠ ܽܘܬܟܝ‬ ‫ܡܩܛܠ ܽܘܬܟ‬ ‫ܡܩܛܠ ܽܘܬܢܝ‬ ‫ܡܩܛܠ ܽܘ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ܳ‬ ‫ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰܡܩܛܠ ܽܘ ܰܡܩܛܠ ܽܘܬܢܝ ܰܡܩܛܠ ܽܘܬܟ ܰܡܩܛܠ ܽܘܬܟܝ ܰܡܩܛܠ ܽܘܬܗ ܰܡܩܛܠ ܽܘܬܗ ܰܡܩܛܠ ܽܘܬܢ ܰܡܩܛܠ ܽܘܬܟܘܢ‬

‫‪ verbs, the following combinations are produced:‬ܝ‪33.5. In the case of the Pˁal III-‬‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܠܝ‬ ‫ܶܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܚܙܝܢܝ‬

‫ܶܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܙܐ‬

‫ܶ ܳ‬

‫ܳ‬ ‫ܠܟ‬ ‫ܶܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܙܝܟ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠܟܝ‬ ‫ܶܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܙܝܟܝ‬

‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠܗ‬ ‫ܶܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܙܝܗ‬

‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠܢ‬ ‫ܶܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܚܙܝܢ‬

‫ܳ‬ ‫ܠܗ‬ ‫ܶܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܙܝܗ‬

‫ܠܟܘܢ‬ ‫ܶܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܙܟܘܢ‬

‫ܶ ܳܶ‬

‫‪.‬ܡܚܙܟܘܢ‪/‬ܡܚܙܟܝܢ ‪Note that the 3rd radical y ḏ is present in all forms, except for‬‬

‫‪iI‬‬ ‫‪ Read, translate, and copy:‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬

‫ܰ ܺ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ܰ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܗ ܶܘܐܡܪ‪ܳ :‬ܡܪܝ ܦܪܘ ܰܩܝܢܝ ‪ܰ .‬‬ ‫ܦܫܛ ܐ ܶܝܕܗ‬ ‫ܘܒܪ ܳܫܥܬܗ‬ ‫ܩ‬ ‫ܪܝܡ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܘܟܕ ܰܫܪܝ ܠܡܛܒܥ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬܦ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܡܢܐ ܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܡ ܽܢܘܬܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܗ‪ .‬ܙܥܘܪ ܰܗ ܳ‬ ‫ܳܡ ܰܪܢ܆ ܰܘ ܶ‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫ܠܓܬ ؟‬ ‫ܐܚܕܗ ܶܘܐܡܪ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܪܤܘܤ ܺܕܩ ܺ‬ ‫ܗܘ ܳܕܝܐ܆ ܺܘ ܺ‬ ‫ܒܛ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܠ ܺ‬ ‫ܶܐܢܐ ܰܓܒܪܐ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܺܝ ܽ‬ ‫ܬܪ ܺܒܝܬ ܕܝܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܒܗܕܐ‬ ‫ܝܩ ܰܝܐ‪ .‬ܐ‬ ‫ܝܠܝܕ ܐ̱ܢܐ‬ ‫ܓܠܘܗܝ ܕ ܰܓ ܰܡ ܺ‬ ‫ܡܕܝܢܬܐ ܥܠ ܶܓܢܒ ܶܖ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܝܐ ܶܝܠ‪ܶ .‬ܘ ܺ‬ ‫ܐܬܪܕܝܬ ܓܡܝܪܐܝܬ ܒܢܳ ܽ‬ ‫ܡܘܤܐ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܰ ̱‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܺ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ̱ܳ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫ܕܐܒܗܬܢ‪ .‬ܘܐܝܬܝ ̱ܗܘܝܬ ܛܢܢܐ ܕܠܐܗܐ܆ ܐܝܟ ܡܐ ܕܐܦ ܐܢ ̱ ܰܬܘܢ ܟܠܟܘܢ ܐܝܬܝܟܘܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܓܘܫܡܝ܆ ܐܝܟ ܰܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܐܪܡܝܬ ܶܒܤܡܐ ܗܢܐ ܥܠ ܽ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫ܳܗܕܐ ܕܝܢ ܐܢ̱ܬܬܐ ܰܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܩܒܪܢܝ ܶܥܒܕܬ‪.‬‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܩܛܠܢܝ ‪ .‬ܥܢܳܐ ܶܟܢܫܐ ܳܘܐܡܪܝܢ‪ܰ .‬ܕܝܘܐ ܐܝܬ ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠܟ‪ܰ .‬ܡ ܽܢܘ ܳܒ ܶܥܐ‬ ‫ܠܡ‬ ‫ܡܢܐ ܳܒ ܶܥܝܢ ܐܢ ̱ܬܘܢ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫ܩܛܠܟ ؟‬ ‫ܠܡ‬ ‫‪a‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪Matthew 14:30–31.‬‬ ‫‪Acts 22:3.‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪Matthew 26:12.‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪John 7:20.‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

‫‪295‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬

‫‪6‬‬

‫‪7‬‬

‫‪8‬‬

‫‪LESSON 33‬‬

‫݀ܠܬ݀‬ ‫݀ܢ ݀ܠܡ݀ܩܛܠ݀ܢܝ‪f‬܆ ݀ܠܓ݀ܒܪ݀ܐ ݀ܕܫ݀ܪܝ݀ܪܬ݀ܐ ݀ܡ݀ܠ‬ ‫݀ܝܢ ݀ܐ݀ܢ̄ܬܘ‬ ‫݀ܥ‬ ‫݀ܐ ݀ܒ‬ ‫݀ܝܢ ݀ܗ‬ ‫݀ܐ ݀ܕ‬ ‫݀ܫ‬ ‫ܗ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫݀ܢ݀‬ ‫݀ܗ݀ܐ‪݀ .‬ܗ݀ܕ݀ܐ ݀ܐ݀ܒܪ݀ܗ݀ܡ ݀ܠ݀ܐ ݀ܥܒ݀ܕ‪݀ .‬ܐ݀ܢܬܘ‬ ‫݀ܠ‬ ‫݀ܢ ݀ܐ‬ ‫݀ܬ ݀ܡ‬ ‫݀ܡܥ‬ ‫݀ܐ ݀ܕܫ‬ ‫݀ܝܕ‬ ‫݀ܢ܇ ݀ܐ‬ ‫݀ܡܟܘ‬ ‫ܥ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫̈‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫݀ܟܘ݀ܢ‪݀ .‬‬ ‫ܐ݀ܕܐܒܘ‬ ‫݀ ݀‬ ‫݀ܕ‬ ‫ܥܒ‬ ‫݀ܢ݀ ݀‬ ‫݀ܢ݀ܐ݀ܢܬܘ‬ ‫݀ܒܕܝ‬ ‫݀ܝܢ݀ܥ‬ ‫ܕ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̄‬ ‫̈‬ ‫݀ܐ݀‬ ‫ܘܩܫ݀ܝܫ‬ ‫ܗܢ݀ܐ ݀ܕ݀ܝܢ ݀ܘܤ݀ܦ݀ܖܐ ݀ ݀‬ ‫݀ܝܟܠ݀ܐ‪݀݀ .‬ܖܒ݀ܝ ݀ܟ݀ ݀‬ ‫݀ܡ ݀ܒܗ‬ ‫݀ܐ ݀ܟܠ ݀ܝܘ‬ ‫ܗܘ‬ ‫݀ܦ ݀ ݀‬ ‫݀ܘ ݀ܡ݀ܠ‬ ‫ܘܗ‬ ‫݀ܗ‪݀.‬‬ ‫ܗܘ݀ܘ ݀ܡ݀ܢ݀ܐ‪݀ 2‬ܢ݀ܥܒܕܘ݀ܢ ݀ܠ‬ ‫݀ܗ‪݀ .f‬ܘܠ݀ܐ ݀ܡ݀ܫܟܚܝܢ ݀ ̄݀‬ ‫݀ܬ‬ ‫݀ܕܘ‬ ‫݀ܘ ݀ܠܡ݀ܘܒ‬ ‫ܗܘ‬ ‫݀ܝܢ ݀ ̄݀‬ ‫݀ܥ‬ ‫݀ܐ ݀ܒ‬ ‫݀ܡ‬ ‫ܕܥ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫‪3 f‬‬ ‫‪g‬‬ ‫݀ܗ݀ܠܡ݀ܫܡܥ݀ܗ ‪.‬‬ ‫݀ܐ݀ܒ‬ ‫ܗܘ‬ ‫݀ܐ ݀ ݀‬ ‫݀ܐ݀ܬܠ‬ ‫݀ܡ‬ ‫݀ܝܪ݀ܥ‬ ‫݀ܗ݀ܓ‬ ‫ܟܠ‬ ‫̄‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̄‬ ‫݀ܐ‪݀.‬‬ ‫ܫܢܝ݀ܢ ݀ܬ݀݀ܖܬ݀ܥ݀ܤܪ‬ ‫݀ܕܕܡ݀ܐ ݀݀‬ ‫ܗܘ݀ܬ ݀ܒܡ݀ܪܕܝ݀ܬ݀ܐ ݀‬ ‫݀ ݀݀‬ ‫݀ܝܗ‬ ‫݀ܬ‬ ‫݀ܐ ݀ܕܐܝ‬ ‫݀ܝܢ ݀ܚܕ‬ ‫݀ܐ ݀ܕ‬ ‫݀݀ܢܬܬ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫݀‪݀ :‬‬ ‫݀ܗ‬ ‫݀ܐ ݀ܤ݀ܓ ̈݀ܝܐ݀ܐ‪݀ :‬ܙܒܢ݀ܬ ݀ܟܠ ݀ܡ݀ܕ݀ܡ ݀ܕܐܝ݀ܬ ݀ܠ‬ ‫ܘܬ‬ ‫݀ ̈݀‬ ‫݀ܤ‬ ‫݀ܢ ݀ܐ‬ ‫݀ܬ ݀ܡ‬ ‫݀ܒܠ‬ ‫݀ ݀ܤ‬ ‫݀ܓܝ‬ ‫ܐܝܕܐ ݀ܕܤ‬ ‫݀ܢ݀‬ ‫ܐܠܨܬ‪ 4.h‬ܐ݀ܬܩ݀ܪܒ݀ܬ‪݀ b‬ܡ‬ ‫݀ܦ ݀ܝ݀ܬܝ݀ܪ݀ܐܝ݀ܬ ݀ܐ݀ܬ݀ ݀‬ ‫݀ܐ ݀ܐ‬ ‫݀ܠ‬ ‫݀ܬ‪݀ b‬ܐ‬ ‫݀ܕܪ‬ ‫݀ܬܥ‬ ‫݀ܐ ݀ܐ‬ ‫݀ܡ ݀ܠ‬ ‫݀ܕ‬ ‫ܘܡ‬ ‫݀ܝܢ݀‬ ‫݀ܕܕܡ݀ܗ݀‪݀ .‬ܟ݀ܕ ݀ܕ‬ ‫݀ܗ ݀ܘܡ݀ܚܕ݀ܐ ݀ܩ݀ܡ݀ܬ ݀ܡ݀ܪܕܝ݀ܬ݀ܐ ݀‬ ‫݀ܐܢ‬ ‫݀ܐ ݀ܕܡ‬ ‫݀ܢܦ‬ ‫݀ܬ ݀ܠܟ‬ ‫݀ܪܒ‬ ‫݀ܗ ݀ܘܩ‬ ‫݀ܤܬܪ‬ ‫ܒ‬ ‫݀ܝܢ݀‬ ‫ܐܡܪܬ ݀ܠܥ‬ ‫݀ܕ ݀ܪܐܬ݀ܐ ݀ܘܢ݀ܦܠ݀ܬ ݀ܤ݀ܓܕ݀ܬ ݀ܠ݀ܗ‪݀ .‬ܘ݀ ݀‬ ‫݀ܬ ݀ܟ‬ ‫݀ܬ‬ ‫݀ܗ܆ ݀ܐ‬ ‫݀ܬ‬ ‫݀ܐ ݀ܛܥ‬ ‫݀ܬ ݀ܕܠ‬ ‫ܚܙ‬ ‫݀ܪܒ݀ܬ܆݀ܘ݀ܐܝܟ݀ܢ݀ܐ݀ܡ݀ܚܕ݀ܐ݀ܐ݀ܬ݀ܐܤܝ݀ܬ‪݀5.c‬‬ ‫݀ܐ݀ܩ‬ ‫݀ܠܬ‬ ‫݀ܐ݀ܥ‬ ‫݀ܝܕ‬ ‫݀ܛܠ݀ܐ‬ ‫݀ܗ܇݀ܡ‬ ‫݀ܐ݀ܟܠ‬ ‫݀ܡ‬ ‫ܥ‬

‫ܘܕܤ ܕܝܢ ܟܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܶܗ ܳܪ ܶ‬ ‫ܚܕܝ ܳܛܒ‪ܳ .‬ܨ ܶܒܐ ̱ܗܘܐ ܶܓܝܪ ܠ ܶܡ ܶ‬ ‫ܝܗܝ ܠ ܶܝܫܘܥ ܺ‬ ‫ܚܙܝܗ ܳܡܢ ܰܙܒܢܐ‬ ‫ܚܙ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܕܡܕܡ‪ 7‬ܐܬܐ ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܡܤ ܰܒܪ ܗܘܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܠܘ ̱ܗܝ ܰܤ ܺܓܝ ܳܐܬܐ‪ܰ 6‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܕܫ ܰ‬ ‫ܰܤ ܺܓܝܐܐ ܶܡܛܠ ܳ‬ ‫ܚܙܐ‬ ‫ܘܐ‬ ‫ܗ‬ ‫ܥ‬ ‫ܡ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܰܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܰ ܺ ܳ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬܓܡܐ ܐܠ ܰܐ ܺܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܠܗ‪ .‬ܝܫܘܥ ܕܝܢ ܶܡܕܡ ܶܦ ܳ‬ ‫ܝܒܗ ‪.‬‬ ‫ܘܐ‬ ‫ܗ‬ ‫ܠ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܡܫ‬ ‫ܬܐ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫ܓ‬ ‫ܤ‬ ‫ܐܠ‬ ‫ܘܡ‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫ܢܗ‬ ‫ܡ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܳܩܝܡܝܢ ̱ܗܘܘ ܕܝܢ ܰܖ ܰܒܝ ܳܟܗܢܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܘܤܦܖܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܥܙܝܙܐܝܬ ܐܟܠܝܢ ̱ܗܘܘ ܰܩܖ ܰܨܘ ̱ܗܝ‪ܶ .‬ܗܪܘܕܤ ܕܝܢ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܗܘ ܳ‬ ‫ܡܒ ܰܙܚ܆ ܰܠܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܒܫܗ ܰܢܚܬܐ ܰܕ ܽ‬ ‫ܛܗ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܚܘ ̱ܗܝ‪ .‬ܘܟܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܘܦ ܰ‬ ‫ܘܫܕܪܗ‬ ‫ܙܚܘܪܝܬܐ‬ ‫ܡܫܛ ܫ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܒܗܘ ܰܝܘܡܐ ܗ ܰܘܘ ܳܖ ܶ‬ ‫ܦܝܠ ܳܛܘܤ‪ܰ .‬ܘ ܰ‬ ‫ܚܡܐ ܦܝܠܛܘܤ ܘܗܪܘܕܤ ܥܡ ܚ ܳܕ ܶܕܐ‪.‬‬ ‫ܠ ܳܘܬ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠܕܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܒܘܬܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܒܥ ܳ‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫ܗܘܬ ܶܓܝܪ ܡܢ ܩܕܝܡ ܰܒܝܢܳܬܗܘܢ܀‬ ‫‪j‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪l‬‬

‫‪l‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪j‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪k‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪32.13. 33.1. 33.3. 30.5. 27.2. 33.4. 10.11. 30.2. 31.8. 33.5. 28.22. 27.6.‬‬

‫‪ Read and copy the last six paragraphs in the East Syriac script:‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬

‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܒܠܬ‪ܸ 9‬ܡܢ‬ ‫ܒܡ ܼ‬ ‫ܼܐ ̄ܢܬܬܐ ܹܕܝܢ ܚܕܐ ܕ ܼܐܝ ܹܬܝܗ ̄ܗܘܬ ܼ‬ ‫ܪܕܝܬ ܼܕܕܡܐ ܫ ܼܢܝܢ ܼܬܲ̈ ܼܬ ܸܥܤ ܹܪܐ‪ܼ ܲ .‬ܐ ܲܝܕܐ ܕ ܼܤܓ ܼܝ ܸܤ ܼ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ ܲ‬ ‫ܬܝܪ ܼܐܝܬ‬ ‫ܬܥܕ ܼܪܬ ܸܐܠܐ ܐܦ ܼ ܲܝ ܼ‬ ‫ܓܝ ܹܐܐ‪ܼ :‬ܙܒ ܼܢܬ ܟܠ ܸܡ ܸܕܡ ܕ ܼܐܝܬ ܠܗ‪ :‬ܘ ܸܡ ܸܕܡ ܠܐ ܸܐ ܼ‬ ‫ܐ ܼܤܘܬܐ ܼܤ ܼ‬ ‫ܐܠܨܬ‪ .‬ܐ ܲ‬ ‫ܸܐ ܼ ܲܬ ܲ‬ ‫ܘܲܪ ܲ ܼܒܬ ܠ ܸܟܢܦܐ ܕܡܐ ܹܢܗ ܘ ܸܡܚܕܐ ܲ ܲ ܼܡܬ ܲ ܼܡܪ ܼܕܝܬ ܼܲܕܕܡ ܲܗ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬܲܪ ܲ ܼܒܬ ܸܡܢ ܸܒܤܬ ܹܪܗ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܸ‬ ‫ܼ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܲ‬ ‫ܦܠܬ ܤ ܲ‬ ‫ܓܕܬ ܹܠܗ ܘ ܸܐܡ ܼܪܬ ܠ ܹܥܝܢ ܼܥܡܐ‬ ‫ܼܟܕ ܹܕܝܢ ܚܙܬ ܲܕܠܐ ܛܥ ܹܬܗ‪ܸ ܲ ،‬ܐܬܬ ܲ ܼܟܕ ܲ ܪܐܬܐ ܘ ܸܢ ܼܲ ܸ ܼ‬ ‫ܘܐܝ ܼܟܢܐ ܸܡܚܕܐ ܸܐ ܼܬ ܼ ܲ‬ ‫ܐܤܝܬ‪.‬‬ ‫ܟ ܹܠܗ܇ ܸܡܛܠ ܼܐܝܕܐ ܸܥܠܬ ܸܲܪ ܼܒܬ܆ ܼ‬ ‫‪1‬‬

‫‪John 8:40–41.‬‬ ‫’‪‘Anything.‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪Luke 19:47–48.‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪Mark 5:25–26.‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪Luke 8:44, 47.‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪‘Many things’ (see the footnote to paragraph 28.17.).‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫’‪‘Any, some.‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪Luke 23:8–12.‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪See “Appendices”, A.11.‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

296

CLASSICAL SYRIAC

̄ ܲ ܲ ܲ ܲ ܲ ‫ܓܝܐܐ‬ ܼ ‫ ܨ ܹܒܐ ̄ܗܘܐ ܹܓܝܪ ܠ ܸܡܚܙ ܹܝܗ ܸܡܢ ܼܙܒܢܐ ܼܤ‬.‫ܠܝܫܘܥ ܚܕ ܼܝ ܛܒ‬ ܼ ‫ܸܗܪܘ ܸܕܤ ܹܕܝܢ ܼܟܕ ܚܙܝܗ‬ ܲ ܲ ܲ ܲ ̄ ‫ ܘ ܸܡ ܹܠܐ‬.‫ܡܤ ܲ ܼܒܪ ̄ܗܘܐ ܕ ܸܡ ܸܕܡ ܐܬܐ ܸܢܚ ܸܙܐ ܸܡ ܹܢܗ‬ ܼ ‫ܸܡܛܠ ܕܫ ܼܡܥ ̄ܗܘܐ ܥܠܘܗ ܼܤ‬ ܼ ‫ܓܝܐܬܐ ܼܘ‬ ܲ ܲ ܲ ‫ܲܤܓܝܐܬܐ‬ ‫ܝܡܝܢ ̄ܗܘܘ ܹܕܝܢ‬ ܼ ܲ .‫ ܼܝܫܘܥ ܹܕܝܢ ܸܡ ܸܕܡ ܸܦܬܓܡܐ ܠܐ ܼܐܬ ܼܝ ܹܒܗ‬.‫ܡܫ ܸܐܠ ̄ܗܘܐ ܹܠܗ‬ ܼ ܼ ܼ ܲ ̄ ܲ ܲ ܲܲ ̄ 1 ‫ ܗܘ‬.‫ܛܗ‬ ܼ ‫ܘܥ ܼܙܝܙ ܼܐܝܬ ܐ‬ ܼ ‫ܼܲ̈ ܼܒܝ ܟܗ ܹܢܐ ܘܤܦ ܹܖܐ‬ ܹ ‫ ܸܗܪܘ ܸܕܤ ܹܕܝܢ ܡܫܛ ܫ‬.‫ܟܠܝܢ ܗܘܘ ܼܲܖܨܘܗ‬ ܲ ܲ ‫ܘܫܕܪܗ ܠܘܬ ܦܝ ܲܠ‬ ܲ ‫ ܼܲܘܒܗܘ ܝܘܡܐ‬.‫ܛܘܤ‬ ‫ ܘ ܼܲܟܕ ܡ ܲ ܼܒܙܚ܆ ܼܲܐ‬.‫ܘܦܠܚܘ ̄ܗ‬ ܼ ‫ܠܒܫܗ ܲ ܼܢܚܬ ܼܕ‬ ܼ ܼ ܹ ܼ ‫ܙܚܘ ܼܪܝܬ‬ ܹ ܲ ܲ ܲ ܲ ‫ܲܕܝܡ‬ ܼ ‫ܘܗܪܘ ܸܕܤ ܼܥܡ ܚܕ ܹܕܐ ܒ ܸܥܠܕܒ‬ ܼ ‫ܒܘܬܐ ܗܘܬ ܹܓܝܪ ܸܡܢ‬ ܸ ‫ܦܝ ܼܠܛܘܤ‬ ܼ ‫ܗܘܘ ܲ̈ܚ ܹܡܐ‬ ܲ ‫ܲܒܝܢ‬ ‫ܬܗܘܢ܀‬ ܼ

8

iI  Translate: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

1

When the woman touched the hem of Jesus’ garment, her bleeding, from which she had suffered for fifteen years, stopped immediately. I was brought up by the laws of our ancestors and I have never transgressed their commandments. I came to you from far away to get cured of all my illnesses. Let us sell these ointments and give the money to the poor. I appealed to the governor, but did not receive any help from him. What are the causes of this enmity that exists between you? I was one of the zealous onrs of God; I was praying all day long in the temple. Herod ordered to clothe him in a scarlet mantle and sent him to the governor. You were slandering me and wanted to kill me because I was telling you the truth, and you did not want to hear it. He was brought and put in front of the palace to be scourged in the presence of all the people. How beautiful this vineyard is; I want to buy it, but it is not for sale. Blessed are those who are righteous in the eyes of the Lord because he will stretch out his hand and guide them into his kingdom. Woe to the sinners because they walk in darkness and do not see the light of hope. Why did you hesitate when you saw that salvation was beside you? We don’t want to kill you but the evil spirit that is inside you. You want to see me, but I don’t want to see you. I was studying in the school of Gamaliel, who was an ocean of wisdom The boy spilled the oil onto the ground, and his father got angry when he saw this because he wanted to sell it.

A.11.

LESSON 33

297

19 You cannot bury him in this cemetery because thieves and prostitutes are bur-

ied here. 20 Do not render contemptible those who are poor because the kingdom of heaven will be theirs.

iI ܺ ‫ܰܐ‬ ‫ܪܡܝ‬ ܺ ܰܶ to be cured, healed ‫ܐܬܐܣܝ‬ ܺܰ to answer ‫ܐܬܝܒ‬ ܰ ܶ to be helped, receive help; to be healed ‫ܐܬܥ ܰܕܪ‬ ܰ ܰ ܶ to be divided, be distributed; to separate; to hesitate ‫ܐܬܦܠܓ‬ ܰ ܶ to be brought up, grow ‫ܐܬܪ ܺܒܝ‬ ܺ ܶ to be chastised, disciplined, instructed ‫ܐܬܪܕܝ‬ ܳ ܶ incense; sweet spices, perfume ‫ܒܣܡܐ‬ ܳ ܶ back part, posterior ‫ܒܣܬܪܐ‬ ܳܽ ܳ ܶ enmity ‫ܒܥܠܕܒܒܘܬܐ‬ ܳ ܺ completely, perfectly ‫ܓܡܝܪ ܺܐܝܬ‬ ܳ ‫ܰܕ‬ demon, evil spirit ‫ܝܘܐ‬ ܶ ܰ to sell ‫ܙܒܢ‬ ܳ ܺܽ scarlet ‫ܙܚܘܪܝܬܐ‬ ܳܳܰ zealous; jealous ‫ܛܢܢܐ‬ ܳ ܳ ܶ ܶ ܶ ܳ ܶ wing; edge, side; border, hem; lap )‫ ܟܢܦܬܐ‬،‫( (ܟܢܦܐ‬fem.) ‫ܟܢܦܐ‬ ܶ ܺ in the sight of, in the presence of )ᵂ‫ܠܥܝܢ (ܠܥܝܢ‬ ܳ ܰ garment, clothing ‫ܢܚܬܐ‬ ܰ to carry, bear, suffer ‫ܣܒܠ‬ ܰ ‫ܰܣ‬ to hope, trust in ‫ܒܪ‬ ܳ ܺܰ vehemently, intensely ‫ܥܙܝܙ ܺܐܝܬ‬ ܰ ݀to stretch, extend, spread out ‫ܦܫܛ‬ ܰ to bury ‫ܩܒܪ‬ ܰ ݀to tremble, shudder ‫ܪܬ‬ to render contemptible ‫ܳܫܛ‬ ܳ ܺ ݀truth ‫ܰܫܪܝܪܬܐ‬ to throw, cast, put

298

CLASSICAL SYRIAC to lift up, to suspend, to hang; to remove

ܳ ‫ܬܐܠ‬

ܶ ‫ܐ ܰܟܠ ܰܩܖܨܶܐ‬ ܳ ܳ ‫ܰܐ ܺܬܝܒ ܶܦ‬ to answer ‫ܬܓܡܐ‬ ܳܽ ܳ ܰ of little faith ‫ܢܘܬܐ‬ ‫ܙܥܘܪ ܶܗܝܡ‬ ܳ ܳ it did not escape him ‫ܐܠ ܛܥܬܗ‬ ܶ ܶ ܶ ݀behind him ‫ܡܢ ܒܣܬܪܗ‬ ܺ ‫ܶܡܢ‬ before, before that ‫ܩܕܝܡ‬ ܳ ܰ ܺ ܰ bleeding, discharge of blood ‫ܡܪܕܝܬܐ ܕܕܡܐ‬ to slander

iI

LESSON 34 THE FUTURE TENSE OF THE ʼETPAˁˁAL VERBS 34.1. In the future tense of the ʼEṯpaˁˁal stem, the strong verbs and most of the weak ones are conjugated along the following model:

ܰ ‫ܢܶܬ ܰܩܛܠ‬ ܶ ‫ܬܬ ܰܩܛܠ ܽܘܢ‬ ܳ ‫ܶܬܬ ܰܩܛ‬ ‫ܠܢ‬ ‫ܢܶܬ ܰܩܛܠ ܽܘܢ‬ ܳ ‫ܢܶܬ ܰܩܛ‬ ‫ܠܢ‬

ܶ ܰ ܶ ‫ܐ ܳܢܐ ܐܬ ܰܩܛܠ‬ ܰ ܰ ܶ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬ ܬܬ ܰܩܛܠ‬ ܺ ‫ܰܐܢܬܝ ܶܬܬ ܰܩ‬ ‫ܛܠܝܢ‬ ̱ ܰ ܰ ܶ ܽ ‫ܗܘ ܢܬܩܛܠ‬ ܰ ܶ ‫ܺܗܝ ܬܬ ܰܩܛܠ‬

‫ܚܢܰܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ‬ ܶ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝܢ‬ ‫ܶܗܢܘܢ‬ ‫ܶܗܢܶܝܢ‬

34.2. Note that the forms with suffixes are the same in writing as the corresponding ʼEṯpˁel forms, but are different in pronunciation: teṯ aṭṭǝlin, teṯ aṭṭǝlun, neṯ aṭṭǝlān (in ʼEṯpˁel accordingly teṯ aṭlin, teṯ aṭlun, neṯ aṭlān).

ܰ ܶ ܰ ܰܶ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܰܶ ܰ ‫ܬܦ‬ ܰ ‫ ܶܐ‬،‫ܬܥ ܰܕܪ‬ ܰ‫ܫܬܢ‬ ܰ ‫ ܶܐ‬،‫ܬܬ ܰܡܗ‬ ܰ ‫ ܶܐ ܰܬܝ‬،‫ܠܓ‬ ،‫ܪ‬ ‫ܩ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ،‫ܨ‬ ‫ܐܠ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ،‫ܩ‬ ‫ ܐ‬،‫ܐܙܕܒܢ‬ ܶ ܰܰ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܰ ‫ ܐܬܢܩܦ‬،‫ ܐܬܕܡܪ‬،‫ ܐܬܪܚܡ‬،‫ ܐܬܩܪܒ‬،‫ ܐܫܬܐܠ‬in the future tense.  Conjugate ܶ ܶ the verbs ܶ

34.3. The III-‫ ܝ‬verbs have the following conjugation in the future tense:

ܰ ‫ܢܶܬܪ ܶܒܐ‬ ܰ ܶ ‫ܬܬܪܒܘܢ‬ ܰ ܶ ‫ܬܬܖܒ ܳܝܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܢܶܬܪܒܘܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܢܶܬܖܒ ܳܝܢ‬  Conjugate the verbs

ܶ ܰ ܶ ‫ܐ ܳܢܐ ܐܬܪ ܶܒܐ‬ ܰ ܰ ܶ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬ ܬܬܪ ܶܒܐ‬ ܰ ܰ ܶ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝ ܬܬܪ ܶܒܝܢ‬ ܰ ܽ ‫ܗܘ ܢܶܬܪ ܶܒܐ‬ ܰ ܶ ‫ܺܗܝ ܬܬܪ ܶܒܐ‬

‫ܚܢܰܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ‬ ܶ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝܢ‬ ‫ܶܗܢܘܢ‬ ‫ܶܗܢܶܝܢ‬

ܺ ‫ ܶܐ ܰܬ‬،‫ ܶܐ ܰܬܢ ܺܣܝ‬in the future tense. ‫ܐܣܝ‬ 299

300

CLASSICAL SYRIAC THE IMPERATIVE OF THE ʼETPAˁˁAL VERBS

34.4. In the imperative, the 2nd person masc. sing. form is identical with the stem base form, and the three other forms are produced regularly. As with the other stems, all forms of the imperative, except for the extended ones in brackets, are the same in pronunciation.

ܶ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝܢ‬ ܰ ܰ ܶ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܶ )‫ܬܩܛܠ ܝܢ‬ ‫ܬܩܛܠܝ (ܐ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ܰ ܶ ܰܰ ܶ ܰ ܶ )‫ܐܫܬܢܩܝ(ܐܫܬܢܩܝܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܐܠ ܨܝ ( ܶܐ ܰܬ‬ ܰ ‫ܶܐ ܰܬ‬ )‫ܐܠ ܨܶܝ ܢ‬ ܰܰ ܶ ܶ ܰ ܶ )‫ܐܫܬܐܠܝ (ܐܫܬ ܱܐܠܝܢ‬

ܰ ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܘܢ‬ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬܝ‬ ܰ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܶ )‫ܬܩܛܠ ܽܘܢ‬ ‫ܬܩܛܠܘ (ܐ‬ ‫ܬܩܛܠܝ ܐ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܰ ܰ ܽ )‫ܐܫܬܢܩܝ ܐܫܬܢܩܘ (ܐܫܬܢܩܘܢ‬ ܰ ‫ܠܨܘ ( ܶܐ ܰܬ‬ ܰ ‫ܶܐ ܰܬܐ‬ ܰ ‫ܶܐ ܰܬ‬ )‫ܐܠ ܽܨܘܢ‬ ‫ܐܠܨܝ‬ ܶ ܰܰ ܶ ܰܰ ܶ )‫ܫܬ ܱܐܠ ܽܘܢ‬ ܱ ‫ܐܫܬܐܠܝ ܐܫܬܐܠܘ (ܐ‬

ܰ ‫ܐܢ̱ܬ‬ ܰ ܰ ܶ ‫ܬܩܛܠ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ܰ ܶ ܰ ‫ܐܫܬܢܩ‬ ܰ ‫ܶܐ ܰܬ‬ ‫ܐܠܨ‬ ܰܰ ܶ ‫ܐܫܬܐܠ‬

34.5. The III-‫ ܝ‬verbs have the following imperative forms:

ܰ ܶ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܶ ‫ ܐܬܖ ܳܒ ܶܝܝܢ‬- ‫ ܐܬܪ ܰܒܘ‬- ‫ ܐܬܪ ܳܒܝ‬- ‫ܐܬܪ ܳܒܐ‬ 34.6.1. The ʼEṯpaˁˁal ܶ ܶ of the imperative can be substituted by the ʼEṯpˁel ܰforms ܰ ܰ forms: ‫ ܐܬܩܛܠ‬for ‫ ܐܬܩܛܠ‬and so on. 34.6.2. As it was indicated before, in the imperative forms, ܶ ʼEṯpˁel ܶ ܶ the 2ndܰ ܶ radical can ܰ ܽ ܰ ܰ ܰ ‫ܶܐ‬ be omittedܶ in pronunciation: ‫ܛܠܝ‬ ‫ܬܩ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ) ‫ܢ‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫ܠ‬ ‫ܛ‬ ‫ܬܩ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ( ‫ܠܘ‬ ‫ܛ‬ ‫ܬܩ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܠܝ‬ ‫ܛ‬ ‫ܬܩ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܠ‬ ‫ܛ‬ ‫ܬܩ‬ ̱ ̱ ̱ ̱ ̱ ܶ ܰ )‫ܛܠ ܝܢ‬ ‫ܬܩ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ( . ̱  Form the imperatives ܶ ܶ ܶ of the verbs

ܰ ‫ܬܦ‬ ܰ ‫ ܐ‬،‫ܬܥ ܰܕܪ‬ ܰ ‫ܐ‬. ‫ ܐ ܰܬܝ ܰܩܪ‬،‫ܠܓ‬

ܶ ܶ ܰ ܶ ܰ ܶ ܰܰ ܶ ܰ ‫ ܶܐ‬،‫ܬܪ ܰܚܡ‬ ،‫ ܐܬܬ ܰܡܗ‬،‫ ܐ ܰܙܕ ܰܒܢ‬،‫ ܐ ܰܬܢ ܰܩܦ‬،‫ܬܕ ܰܡܪ‬ ‫ ܐ‬،‫ܐܬܩܪܒ‬

THE “PLUPERFECT” TENSE 34.7. Along with the present tense, the “pluperfect” is another “analytical tense,” formed with the enclitics. In general, it refers to an action that had been accomplished prior to another action in the past and may be compared to the Past Perfect of the English language, but, depending on the context, may also be translated with other tenses. The Pluperfect is formed by combining the past tense verb of anyܶ ܶ ‫ܐ‬ ܶ ̱ ‫ܡܪܬ‬ stem with the verbal enclitic of the same person, number, and gender: ‫ܗܘܝܬ‬ ܶ ܰ ‘I had said’; ‫ܗ ܰܘܘ‬ ̱ ‫‘ ܐ ܰܡܪܘ‬they had said’; ‫‘ ܰܫ ܰܕܪܬܘܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܝܬܘܢ‬you had sent’; ‫ܐ ܶܚܒܢ ̱ܗ ܰܘܝܢ‬

‫‪LESSON 34‬‬

‫‪301‬‬ ‫‪‘she had be-‬‬

‫ܶܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܝܬ ̱ܗ ܳܘܬ‬

‫;’‪‘he had been brought up‬‬

‫ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܬܪ ܺܒܝ ̱ܗ ܳܘܐ‬

‫;’‪‘we had loved‬‬ ‫’‪come like.‬‬

‫‪iI‬‬ ‫‪ Read, translate, and copy:‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

‫ܠܟܘ ܳܬܟ‪ ،‬ܢܶ ܶ‬ ‫ܬܩ ܰܕܫ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܡܟ‪ܶ ،‬ܬ ܶܐܬܐ ܰܡ ܽ‬ ‫ܕܒܫܡܝܐ‪ ،‬ܢܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܐܒܘܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܨܶ ܳ‬ ‫ܒܝܢܳܟ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰܐܡܝܢ ܐ ܰܡܪ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܟܘܢ܆ ܶܕܐܢ ܬ ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ ܒܟܘܢ ܰܗ ܽ‬ ‫ܠܓܘܢ ܶ‪ :‬ܐܠ ܰܒܠܚܘܕ ܳܗܕܐ‬ ‫ܝܡܢܘܬܐ ܘܐܠ ܬܬ ܰܦ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ ܽ ܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܫܬܩܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܒܕܘܢ ܶܐܐܠ ܳܐ ܶ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܽ‬ ‫ܘܦܠ‪ܰ 1‬‬ ‫ܒܝܡܐ ܬܗܘܐ‪ .‬ܘܟܠ ܡܕܡ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܗܢܐ‬ ‫ܪܐ‬ ‫ܠܛܘ‬ ‫ܢ‬ ‫ܦ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܐܡܪܘܢ‪ :‬ܕ ̱‬ ‫ܰ ܰ ܽ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܕܬ ܶܫܐܠ ܽܘܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܽ ‪3 2‬‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫ܢ‬ ‫ܣܒܘ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܢ‬ ‫ܝܡܢܘ‬ ‫ܬܗ‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫ܬܐ‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫ܨܠ‬ ‫ܒ‬ ‫ܝܗܘܕ ܳ‬ ‫ܫܡܥ ܰܝ ܶ‬ ‫ܘܣܦ ܰܕ ܶ‬ ‫ܟܕ ܶܕܝܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܚܠܦ ܶܗܪܘ ܶܕܤ ܰܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܗܘܐ‪ܰ 4‬ܡܠܟܐ ܺܒ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܪܟ ܰܐܠܘܤ ܳ‬ ‫ܒܘ ̱ܗܝ‪ܶ ،‬‬ ‫ܕܚܠ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠܬ ܳܡܢ‪ܶ .‬ܘ ܺ‬ ‫ܒܚܠܡܐ ܕܢܶ ܰܐܙܠ ܰܐܠܬܪܐ ܰܕ ܓܠܝܐܠ‪ܶ ݀ .‬ܘܐܬܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܬܚܙܝ ܠܗ ܶ‬ ‫ܥܡܪ ܰܒܡܕܝܢ̱ܬܐ‬ ‫ܕܢܶ ܰܐܙܠ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܐܡܪ ܰܒܢܒܝܐ ܳܕܢܨܪܝܐ ܢܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬܡܐܠ ܶܡܕܡ ܶܕܐܬ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܩܪܝܐ ܳܢܨܪܬ ܐܝܟ ܕܢܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܕܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܶ ‪5‬‬ ‫ܬܩܪܐ ‪.‬‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܬܟ ܶܤܐ ‪ܶ ݀.‬‬ ‫ܐܡܪܘܢ܆ ܳܡܢܐ ܢܶܐܟܘܠ ܐܘ ܡܢܐ ܢܶܫܬܐ ܐܘ ܡܢܐ ܢܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܐܨܦܘܢ ݀ܐܘ ܬ ܽ‬ ‫ܐܠ ܳܗܟܝܠ ܬ ܽ‬ ‫ܟܠܗܝܢ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܠܗܝܢ‪ܰ .‬ܐ ܽ‬ ‫ܒܘܟܘܢ ܕܝܢ ܰ‬ ‫ܕܒܫܡܝܐ ܳܝ ܰܕܥ܆ ܕܐܦ ܠܟܘܢ‬ ‫ܶܓܝܪ ܗܠܝܢ‪ܰ 6‬ܥ ̱ܡ ܶܡܐ ܳܒ ܶܥܝܢ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܶܡ ܰ‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫ܟܠܗܝܢ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬܒ ܳܥ ܳܝܢ ܗܠܝܢ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܨܒܘܬ ܢܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܫܟܚ ܒܪܐ ܳܥ ܶܒܕ ܶܡܕܡ ܶܡܢ ܽ‬ ‫ܰܐܡܝܢ ܐ ܰܡܪ ܐ̱ܢܐ ܠܟܘܢ܆ ܕܐܠ ܶܡ ܰ‬ ‫ܦܫܗ‪ ،‬ܐܐܠ ܶܡܕܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܕܚ ܶܙܐ‬ ‫ܰ ܳ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܳ‬ ‫ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܰܐܠܒܐ ܳ‬ ‫ܟܘܬܗ ܳܥ ܶܒܕ‪ .‬ܐܒܐ ܶܓܝܪ ܪ ܶܚܡ‬ ‫ܕܥ ܶܒܕ‪ .‬ܐܝܠܝܢ ܶܓܝܪ ܰܕܐܒܐ ܳܥ ܶܒܕ ܳܗܠܝܢ‪ 8‬ܐܦ ܒܪܐ ܐ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠ ܶ‬ ‫ܶ‬ ‫ܘܟܠܡܕܡ ܳ‬ ‫ܗܠܝܢ ܳ‬ ‫ܥܒ ܶܕܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܕܥ ܶܒܕ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܚ ܶܘܐ ܠܗ‬ ‫ܡܚ ܶܘܐ ܠܗ‪ܰ ،‬ܘ ܰܕܝܬܝܪܝܢ ܡܢ‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫ܗ‬ ‫ܒܪ‬ ‫ܰܕܐܢ ̱ܬܘܢ ܶܬ ܰ‬ ‫ܝܟܢܐ ܓܝܪ ܕܐܒܐ ܡܩܝܡ ܡܝܬܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܡܪܘܢ ‪ܰ .‬ܐ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܕ ܽ‬ ‫ܘܡ ܶܚܐ ܠܗܘܢ܆ ܳܗ ܰܟܢܐ ܐܦ ܒܪܐ‬ ‫ܰܐܠܝܠܝܢ ܳܕܨܒܐ ܰܡ ܶܚܐ‪ .‬ܐܠ ܗܘܐ ܓܝܪ ܐܒܐ ܳܕ ܶܐܢ ܐܠ ܳܢܫ‪ ،‬ܐܐܠ ܟܠܗ ܕܝܢܐ ܰܝܗ ܶܒܗ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܒܪܐ ܕܟܠ ܢܳܫ‬ ‫̱‬ ‫ܰ ܰܰ ̱ ܰ‬ ‫ܰܰ ܰ ̱ ܰ ܶ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰܢܝ ܰܩܪ ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܠܒܪܐ ܐܝܟ ܕܡܝܩܪ ܐܠܒܐ‪ .‬ܗܘ ܕܐܠ ܡܝܩܪ ܠܒܪܐ ܐܠ ܡܝܩܪ ܐܠ ܶܒܐ ܕܫܕܪܗ ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬܦ ܰ‬ ‫ܠܟܘ ܕܬ ܰ‬ ‫ܫܒܬܗܘܢ ܶܘܐܡܪ ܠܗܘܢ‪ .‬ܟܠ ܰܡ ܽ‬ ‫ܝܫܘܥ ܕܝܢ ܺܝ ܰܕܥ ܰܡܚ ܳ‬ ‫ܠܓ ܥܠ ܢܰ ܳ‬ ‫ܦܫܗ‬ ‫ܰ‬ ‫ܚܪܒ‪ .‬ܘܟܠ ܰܒܝ ܰܘܡܕܝܢܐ ܕܢܶ ܰ‬ ‫ܶܬ ܰ‬ ‫ܬܦܠܓ ܥܠ ܰܢ ܶ‬ ‫ܦܫܗ ܐܠ ܽ‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫ܢܩܘܡ‪.‬‬ ‫‪a‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪b‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫‪e‬‬

‫‪d‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪g‬‬

‫‪h‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪i‬‬

‫‪6‬‬

‫‪j‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪j‬‬

‫ܰ‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫ܢܦܠ