A Seleukid Prosopography and Gazetter 9789004107991, 9004107991

533 100 29MB

English Pages [845] Year 1997

Report DMCA / Copyright


Recommend Papers

A Seleukid Prosopography and Gazetter
 9789004107991, 9004107991

  • 0 0 0
  • Like this paper and download? You can publish your own PDF file online for free in a few minutes! Sign Up
File loading please wait...
Citation preview





This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Library of Coagr.s Calalogiag-iD-Pablic:atioa Daca

Graingcr,John D., 1939A Sdeukid prosopography and gazetteer / by John D. Grainger. p. an. - (Mnemosyne, bibliochccaclassicaBatava. Supplcmentum, ISSN0169-8958; 172) Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 900ll0799I (doth : alk. paper) I. Syria-History-To 333 B.C-Biography. 2. Sdcucids. I. Tide. D. Series. DS96.G73 1997 939'.43-dc21 97-29995 CIP

Die Deutac:heBibliotbek - CIP-Eiabeitaafa•hrne

[Maemosyae / Sapplemeatam) Mnemosyne: bibliothcca classica Batava. Supplcmentum. - Leiden ; New Yori; Kolo : Brill Flilhcr Schriftcnmhc: Rcihr Supplrmcntum zu: MIICfflOl)'II"

172. Graingcr,John D.: A Sdeukid prosopography and ,r-izcttccr.1997



A Sclcukid prosopography and gazetteer / by JohnD. Grainger. Leiden; New Yori; Kolo: Brill, 1997 (Mnrmmynr : Supplrmcntum ; 172) ISBN !I0-«--10799-1

ISSN 0169-8958 ISBN 90 04 10799 I

C CoJr.Jri,rt 1997

~ ~

B,iJJ,Lnda,, TlwNtllvrlatls

AU,;,,,tsrwrwd. NoJllltlof~ Jtublia,lia1111!1 6. rrfntl,,ud, lraltslalld,stand lit a nbvtJaJg.dm, or ""1urlfilta lit 111!1 fonn or ~ 111!1 -. IUCtrtJlal. lfllCNlllia,J, JJl,d,oco/lfag, r,corrJliti 0, 1111,nu,w,,,,;1/to,,tJri,r ruitta pm,,issio,, j,o,n •





Introduction ................................................................................ vii Abbreviations .............................................................................. xvii Prosopog,aplry ..•......•...••....•••..•••...•................••....•..•........................ I I. Kings and their Families ................................................ 5 II. The Officials of the Kingdom ...................................73 III. Subjects of the Kingdom ............................................... 125 IV. Foreigners Affecting the Kingdom ................................ 633 671 I. Places of the Kingdom ................................................... 673 II. Institutions of the Kingdom ........................................... 795

Ga.ztt/Nr ........................................................................................

Genealogical Tables ................................................................... 819

1. The Early SeleukidDynasty.............................................. 820 2. The Later Seleukid Dynasty ..............................................


Maps ................................................................................................ill l. The Regions of the Seleukid Kingdom ............................ 825 2. Western Asia Minor............................................................ 826 3. Syria and Palestine ............................................................. 827 4. Babylonia ............................................................................. 828


An attempt has been made here to list all the people who were subjects of the kingdom ruled by the kings of the family of Sclcukos I, and those places which comprised that empire. The ideological justification for such a list, if that is the correct term, is a belief that it is only in the actions of individuals, in their lives and behaviour, that true history resides. Many of the actions noted here arc extremely minor, and affected only a few people at the time, and none since, but the accumulation of such actions is what we study. And one of the prime reasons for history as a subject is to preserve the record of what people did, and, even more basic, who they were. That means recording their names, and their deeds. This is what this book consists of. The people of the Prosopography subdivided themselves readily into rulers and ruled, and 'rulers' breaks down into members of the royal family and their officials. In addition those people who affected the kingdom's history in some way from outside arc listed under the heading of Foreigners. However, as soon as any attempt at classification is made, problems arise. Some officials became kings-Molon, Timarchos, Achaios, Tryphon-and many of the kings, beginning with Scleukos the Founder himself, operated as officials. And then there arc officials of civic competence, but whose office may be seen as one, at the least, inspired by the inclusion of their city in the kingdom. For example, the royal cult had local priests in each city. In these disputed classifications no particular rule has been followed, other than common sense. The officials who became kings have been regarded as kings, for, after all, they were so treated by large numbers of their subjects. But those officials who became kings in order to break away from the kingdom and form a separate state, arc listed as officials, which is what they were when they were inside the kingdom. The civic priests have been treated as subjects, for their office was filled by local election and not by royal appointment, but those appointed by the kings arc treated as officials.



Limits The temporal and geographical limits to be observed are a problem. Just when, for example, did Baktria cease to be a Seleukid province? Was Bahrain, under the name Tylos, ever under Seleukid rule? And, most difficult of all, what about Asia Minor, its various sections and cities? These awkward areas became even more difficult when the records of people there are undated. In the end the decision was made that people who are recorded as possibly Seleukid subjects should be included, which is unsatisfactory, but less so than excluding likely subjects simply because they are doubtful. So for each region a cut-off date has been devised, and people who are known of only before or after these dates are excluded. The various dates are as follows (all dates throughout the work arc BC): Baktria, 303-256. Media, 311-141. Babylonia, 320-129. Susiana, 311--c. 140.

Syria, 301-64. Phoenicia and coastal Palestine, 200-c. 100. Judaea, 200-129. Kilikia, 294-64. Asia Minor, 281-188. However, individual cities and sub-sections will vary. These rough guides mean that certain places and periods are included which strictly should not be. The first period of Parthian rule in Babylonia ( 139-131) is taken as Seleukid: after all, people alive in those years were Seleukid subjects before and after, but any person recorded only after 129 is excluded. This is not logical, since a person adult enough in 128 to be recorded then had been a Seleukid subject the year befo~ut at least the rule is more or less clear. Similarly in Syria, the period of rule by Tigranes is treated as Seleukid. The real difficulty is Asia Minor, because the cities of the western coast are particularly productive of names, because of their wellresearched epigraphy. And, of course, these cities flitted in and out of the kingdom as its power locally ebbed and flowed. In many cases the exact dates at which any particular city was in the kingdom are not known. In these circumstances guesses have to be made, and doubtful cases have been included rather than excluded. On the other



hand people whose names arc known only because their children arc known-that is, they appear as patronymics-arc excluded. They arc, of course, included as patronymics, but they have not been listed separately.

The Kmgs The names of kings, queens, and princes arc generally well enough known, though there arc several persons listed who arc not usually noted in the text-book genealogies. No attempt has been made to rectify the numbering system of the kings, even though it is clearly unsatisfactory. As already noted, 'usurpers' (Molon and company} arc included, as arc the two Alexanders, who arc as much or as little, usurpers as the others. Also noted arc wives and children of kings, but not more distant relatives, who arc, in fact, very little known. For example, the father of a queen is not listed as such, though he may get into one of the lists by some other means. This limits the number of people who can be listed as royals, but in compensation much more is known about them. Here the aim has been to provide a succinct account of their lives without any speculations or explanations, and all details arc sourced. References arc included for further reading, but these lists arc not by any means comprehensive, and arc biased towards material written in the relatively recent past. The habit of researchers of including all references back to the beginning of time means that the articles and books noted generally include extensive bibliographies.

Officials An 'official' was a person who did a job for which he was appointed by a king, or by another official. Thus the list includes governors of provinces and local tax collectors, generals commanding armies and officers commanding minor units, clerks in offices and commandants of citadels. These men (there is only one woman) tum out to be surprisingly numerous, though perhaps the number is not so large as might be expected for a kingdom which covered the whole Middle East and lasted in some parts for over two centuries. The lower down the scale of power and responsibility, of course,



the fewer names arc known. No more than a handful of tax collectors, and only one archivist, arc listed, but a large number of provincial governors arc known. Virtually all provinces have at least one governor known by name and date of office, yet this only emphasises the large number who arc clearly not known. For example, in the great province of Media, five strategoi are known by name (two of whom tried to make themselves king). But these six men can only account for twenty years in the history of the Seleukid rule of that province, which lasted for 170 years. Even if the longest tenure known is taken as the norm-Diogenes seems to have held the office for twelve years--the minimum number of governors for this one province is fourteen. And in fact there were surely many more than that. Of the six men known, only one was in office more than three years. If tJuuis the norm, there were over fifty governors of Media. And there were well over twenty provinces, perhaps up to fifty. A conservative estimate would therefore suggest that there were getting on for a thousand men who acted as provincial governors during the kingdom's existence. And that is not counting sub-governors. The obvious contrasts with such a situation are with the preceding Achaemenid empire, which lasted as long and covered the same ground, but whose records arc even worse, with the Parthian Empire, which was smaller but lasted longer, and whose prosopography of kings and officials comprises a relatively small book, and with the Roman Empire, whose records are infinitely better. In all these cases the hereditary element is strong. The Parthian governors seem to have had some sort of family expectation of succession, and the Roman empire's oligarchic system presupposed that a governor's son would have a good chance of becoming a governor himself. At the same time the possibility was always open for recruitment into the oligarchy from below. The Seleukid system is closer to the Roman than the Achaimenid and Parthian, but only in a couple of cases can any family succession be noted: the best example is that of the family of Ptolemaios · son of Thraseas, where four or five generations can be observed. There arc undoubtedly other such families, but the necessary family links arc not clear, as yet. (The fact that the succession of Ptolemaios Thrasea has only recently been worked out, after a good century of research, is a sign of the scarcity of records, but also that persistence brings rewards.) The Asia Minor dynasts-the Lysiads, the Attalids, the decendants of Lysimachos, the family of Achaios, to which may be added the descendants of Laomedon of Mitylene,



domiciled at Priene-can also be included, thus boosting the hereditary element in the 'official class'. These families arc the ancestors, perhaps in some cases the direct ancestors, of the oligarchic families who arc well known in the area in Roman times. It is notable that in both Seleukid and Roman periods, these families combined personal wealth based on landholding with state service. The other element in the Roman system was promotion through a graded series of position. This is an element in the Seleukid system which is near-invisible. It is extremely difficult to discover a man whose career began in a subordinate office, and continued into higher offices. Partly this is because of he comparative shortage of evidence, but it is perhaps partly due also to the possibility that a career structure, even in a primitive way, did not exist. The only likely candidate for promotion through a hierarchy of offices is Heliodoros, who may be the official noted at Dura-Europos as a tax collector, then as dioiketesin Palestine, and finally as chief minister for Seleukos IV. The sequence has the merit of a consistent involvement with finance, but such a career cannot be proved, and it is based here only on the names of the three officials, and a reasonable chronology. But, it is clearly possible. Whether it actually happened that way to anyone else is unclear, and whether such a career was common is perhaps unlikely. For the way men were appointed to official posts was not by promotion through the ranks, but by selection by the king from among those who attended him at court. It was thus quite possible for a young man to hold a high position. It was also possible for a man to hold a succession of posts which, to our bureaucratic and hierarchical notions, represents a mixture of promotion and demotion. It was therefore possible for a man to go only so far by means of promotion: over a certain level he had to gain the eye of the king, and once he did, almost any job might come his way. The best example is Zeuxis, originally appointed to Babylon by Seleukos III, but taken up by Antiochos III and used as military commander, governor of Asia Minor and diplomat. Other men had similar lives.

Subjects Very few of the people classified as merely subjects have much beyond their names and a single fact about them known. But where a



substantial quantity of information on individual actions survives, then that on the individual persons accumulates. There are two areas which have produced the great majority of names in the subjects list: Babylonia, and western Asia Minor. In Babylonia most names arc found in the clay tablets on which records of business transactions were kept at the single city of Uruk. These have produced about a thousand names, which provides a good record of the wealthy stratum of Uruk society over a century and three quarters. A sizeable number. But let us be clear. This was a large city, and the great majority of the people have left no records at all. Yet had the same proportion of names survived in other Babylonian cities, we would have approaching ten thousand names, which would still only comprise the wealthy set of Babylonian society, and perhaps no more than one per cent of the total population. In lonia the reason for recording names is different, and most names arc those of men (and women, in some cases) undertaking religious duties, honouring others, holding civic offices, acquiring civic citizenship, or dying. But once again the proportion of names surviving to those of whom no record exists, or was ever made, is very small. Yet the different purposes of the records in the two areas applies to the same part of the population-the wealthy. Further, the records arc only of those who, in Uruk, bought and sold land and temple prebends, and acted as witnesses: a family which simply owned land or prcbends, or a shop, but was involved in no transactions, may not be in the record, no matter how wealthy. In lonia, a family not involved in any of the local civic or religious offices would not be recorded. So we have records of only a part of a fraction of the population. Nevertheless, bearing these qualifications in mind, certain conclusions may be drawn. The most obvious one is that there is remarkably little connection between these subjects and the royal and official individuals listed. There arc very few cross-references between sections of the prosopography. This is largely a record of individuals involved in single acts, but it is still the case that the relationship between governors and subjects seems a distant one. At the same time, if other records had survived, a different conclusion could have been drawn. Had records of military recruitment survived, for example, it could be clearly and statistically shown that this same class of wealthy people provided the recruits for the army, and were thus



intimately involved in the control of the kingdom, and so in supporting its existence. That is to say, as one must in all historical research, the conclusions we draw from the evidence are dependent on the evidence. Other aspects may be highlighted. The importance of northern Syria to the empire is obvious, yet its dense concentration of new cities, populous and wealthy, scarcely impinge on these records. The same may be said of the rich Phoenician cities. Media is scarcely represented, as is inland Asia Minor. And, of course, it must be said that, had these places been represented in the same way as the better known areas, the quantity of names would be overwhelming. It would also become very statistical, whereas the people listed here are best seen as individuals performing individual acts, the atoms which produce a society.


It is only to be expected that the majority of people who affected the Seleukid kingdom from outside should be its enemies. So included here are the Ptolemies and the Attalids, and plenty of Romans. But there were also many others, Greeks principally, whose actions had an effect, often small, on the kingdom. And the history of a state, cannot be compiled only from the actions of its own people. Foreigners are the contrast which demonstrates that the state exists.

Tht ~tu«r

The various communities which comprised that kingdom are here listed, with a brief account of their place in the kingdom. In addition, even briefer notes are included on places outside the kingdom, but only, as with the foreigners, on the basis of their contact with the kingdom. So the entry for Egypt relates only to the invasions by Antiochos IV and Demetrios II, and a single paragraph deals with Rome. But there is a substantially longer section on each of the provinces. The purpose of the list must be kept in mind. The list of Institutions may be seen as complementary to those of the kings and officials, the fragments of the system in which they worked, but it is


very difficult to define any general government system in the Scleukid state, and these institutions are by no means necessarily complete or permanent.

Nanvs The order in which the entries herein arc listed must be determined in a regular consistent way. This is not always as easy as it seems, and differing methods appeal to different people. Since I have used the English alphabetin this work, that must be the basis, even though the majority of names are originally Greek or Babylonian. Greek names could have been used, but then it is as difficult to apply the Greek alphabet to Latin and Babylonian names as to apply the English. I have, however, transliterated the Greek names as consistently and literally as possible, which involves ignoring the conventional method used in Britain of an intermediate Latin transliteration. Hence 'Scleukos' rather than 'Scleucus'. Transliterating Babylonian names is even more difficult since no two researchers in that field appear to adopt the same method. I have therefore adopted the simplest system. In all cases I have ignored diacritical marks, which arc of little importance in names. Putting the entries into order also requires consistency. The Gazetteer is no problem, since there are few places with similar names, and therefore a simple alphabetical system is used. In the case of people, however, problems arise. The names of individuals in the ancient world usually contained three elements, a personal name, a patronymic, and a place of origin. So 'Seleukos, son of Antiochos, of Europos', would describe the founder of the dynasty. But in the case of kings this is too cumbersome, so the kings are distinguished by numbers as well, with their epithets added, so 'Scleukos I Nikator'. Other people arc ordered first by their personal names, so all men called Apollodoros arc listed as a group, and are numbered for ease of cross referencing. Within that group, those with a full set of names arc listed first, alphabetically by patronymic, then by origin. Then come those with only partial set of names, first by patronymic, then by origin, and finally those with only a personal name. This is thus straightforward so far as Greek names go. Latin names arc listed by nomen,followed by cognomen, and then p,aenomm,in the usual way. They are numbered according to their order, as with



Greek names. These are, or course, concentrated in the section listing foreigners. Babylonian names, while conforming generally to the usual pattern, have a distinct slant of their own. The name-formula is: personal name, followed by patronymic, then possibly by one or two or even more generations, followed by a clan name. This serves in place of the city or nation names for Greeks. The strictly limited availability of names in Babylonia-not quite so limited as Latin pramomi,,a, however-requires such elaboration. Again the entries arc numbered by personal name. I have made as many identifications across sources as possible. This has been a particular issue amongst the Babylonian names, where, since most are from one city, and deal with a select group of transactions, it is inevitable that many transactions will involve the same people. The principle adopted has been to locate three identifying elements-name, patronymic, clan, for example-plus a reasonable time-frame. I have assumed that a man will be active for about thirty years, so if the names fit, the dates are then the test. But this rule has not been applied rigidly, and two instances twenty-nine years apart have been listed as separate people. In all cases where there is more than one person with the same name, and set of names, they are listed chronologically.

Refermces There arc two systems of reference used in these lists. Within each entry a small-case letter refers to the sources at the end of the article. No other footnotes are used. There arc also cross-references to other entries. These arc indicated by capital letters, numbers and asterisks. A number or an asterisk indicates that the reference is to a person listed in the same section-asterisks are for unique names, numbers for multiple examples. Capital letters indicate to which section reference is being made-R for Kings, 0 for Officials, S for Subjects, F for Foreigners, followed if necessary by numbers. In the Kings section only, the kings themselves are distinguished by Roman numerals, in the usual way, without adding Arabic numbers. Others listed in this section are distinguished by Arabic numbers.



An Appeal There will be mistakes in this compilation. It will also be gradually rendered out-of-date as more discoveries are made and more documents published. There are, for example, a large number of Babylonian documents I have been unable to use because they are not translated. I would be grateful, therefore, if students would, first, be charitable, and, second, be forthcoming in pointing out mistakes, and in suggesting further inclusions.


AAA~Les AnnalesArr:~

A,abes~~Acta Anbl/fUJ Academia, &imlarumHun,a,ieae. Aelian, VH--Aelian YanaeHisllmal. Aelian, Anim-Aelian, In Animalimn. Allen-R. E. Allen, The AttalidKintdom, a Constibditmal Histo,y,Oxford 1984. ANSMN-AmmUIII Nllfflismali& ~. MuseumNow. A.NRW-A,gsti« ll1lllN~ tierRmnisd,m Welt. App. Milla-Appian, MiJJmdali&Wan. App. ~Appian, ~ Wan. Athenaios-Dapnosop/listai.

All, Milt-M~

usDealschlllArr:lliiowgischlll lnstiblls,Athmisc!MAhllibmg.

Austin-M. M. Austin, The Hdlmistit:Worldfa,m AlaatuJI,to 11,e&ma,, Conq,ust, Cambridge, 1981.

&«M Bciheft 2-j.

van Dijk and W.R. Mayer, Texleas dem Ra-Heili,wm in Unt!-Warka,/JapdadlrMiJJlil,,ap,, Bcihcft 2, Berlin 1980. BCH-BuBetin de Corrrspondmee Hil/Jnupll.

BE-'Bulletin Epigraphique', annually included in REG. Bcaulieu-P.-A. Beaulieu, 'Tcxtcs Administrativcs incdits d'cpoque hcllcnistique provcnant des archives du bit Res', /leorl6~. 83, 1989, 53-81. Bellinger, 'End of the Sclcucids'-A. R. Bcllinger,'The End of the Sclcucids', Transadions ef11,eConn«titulAcf1Mfr!1 efArts andScimus, 1949. Bengtson-ff. Bengtson, Die Slrallp in der hellmistisdllt, Zeit, Munich 1944. Bcrvc-H. Bcrvc, Das AIDcandmtidlas Prosopog,a/Jl,isd,n GnwJJai,, Munich 1926. Bcvan-E. R. Bevan, The HauseefSeleuau,2 vols., London 1902. Bikcnnan, lnslibditms-E. Bikennan, /nslibdums Siliwidu, Paris 1938. BIN-J. B. Nies and C. E. Kaiser, Hisllmull,&lipus andEconami& Ttzls and Anliquilie.r, Babylonian Inscriptions in the Collection of James B. Nies, 2, New Haven 1930. Blumcl and Malay-W. Blumcl and H. Malay, 'Inscriptions from Aydin Museum', E.4 21, 1993, 129-140. BMC-Brilish Muse11111 Cal.aJDg,u. Boehringer, 'Antiochos Hierax'-C. Boehringer, 'Antiochos Hierax am Hellcspont', M.J. Price, A. Barnett and R. Bland (eds.), Ess9s in HUIIOIII' ef RDbtrtCarsonandJetdcins, London 1993, 37-47. Boehringer, ChronologiC-C. Boehringer, ZurCJ,,,,nowgi, MilldMl/arislisd,n MIDIQfflffl 220-160 v. Clu-.,Berlin 1972. Boissier, 'Contrat'-A. Boissier, 'Conttat de l'Epoque de Scleucus IV (Philopator)', BabylDniaea 8, 1924, 27-35. Bouchc-uclm:q----A. Bouche-1..eclcn:q, Hislt1indesSiliueides, 2 wls., Paris 1914. Broughton-M. R. R. Broughton, The Mflf)stralaef11,e&ma,, lufnd,li&, New York 1951-1952 and 1960.




Bruneau-Bruneau, &thmhes sur /,es Cultn de DdDsa l'tp c. 207 (a). Sourcey. (a) I Mognesia-ad-Maiandros 33. Z O PY R O S (2), son o f M innion, granted citizenship at Miletos, 201/200 (a)· Sourcey. (a) M ilet I, 3, 51. ZO PY R O S (3), son o f Neon, steward (tomios) at Didyma, 275/274 (a)· Searotr (a) Didyma 427.



ZOPYROS (4), son of Simon, of Erythrai, named in a list from the city, 270/260 (a). Sources: (a) I Erythrai, I, 160. ZOPYROS (5), son of Theophanos, of Andocheia, victor in the wrestling at games at Chalkis in Euboia, C2 (a). Sources:, (a) IG XII 9 952. ZOPYROS (6), son of Theutos, of Klazomenai, a judge honoured at Iasos for his services, at an unknown date (a). Sources·, (a) SEG XLI 930. ZO RO S, see Anu-uballit (29). ZURSU, son of Kiplunu (Kephalon), grandson of Zursu, patron (?) at Uruk in 151 (a). Sources: (a) Rutten VII. ZU[UR]SU, son of Niknuru (Nikanor), son of Nidintu-Anu, descendant o f Rum-Anu (?), named as a witness at Uruk in 315 (a). Sources: (a) Rutten VIII. f . . .jA-APLA-IDDIN, son of Suzubu, grandson of Murasu, descendant of Sin-lcqi-unnini, named in a deed of sale of a property at Uruk 164 (a). Sourcer. (a) Weisberg 29. [.. .j-ADAD, named in a deed of sale of property at Uruk, 230/229 (a). Sourcer. (a) Weisberg 21. [. . . A]GIOS, of Laodikeia, made a dedication to Isis, between 88 and 60 (a). Sourcer. (a) I Delos 2164. [.. .JAGORAS (possibly Pythagoras), son of Metrodoros, statue of, erected by order o f the demos of Erythrai, C3 (a). Sourcer. (a) I Erythrai, I, 54. [.. -]-AH, named in a deed of sale of a prebend at Uruk, 191 (a). Sourcer. (a) Weisberg 6. [.. .J-AH-IDDIN, son of Kidin-Anu, descendant of Lustammar-Adad, named in a deed of sale o f a plot of land at Uruk (date lost) (a). Sourcer. (a) Weisberg 17. [.. .] -ΑΗ-ΓΙΤANNU, a merchant who gave silver to the temple at Uruk (a). Sourcer. (a) Beaulieu 3. [.. JAIA, daughter of Iason, of Arados, noted on a statue at Delos, second half of C3 (a). Sourcer. (a) / Deìos 1203.




[. . .JAIOS, son o f [. . .Jtaios, o f Antiocheia, died and was buried in Athens, C 3 (a). Sources: (a) IG I l / l l l 8319. fA or S U ]-’LIK [or UJ-SANDAR, son o f Anu-aha-ittannu, named in an exchange o f property at Uruk, 169/168 (a). .Sources: (a) Me Ewan 58. [ .. .J-A N U (I), son o f A nu-ab-usur, descendant o f Lustammar-Adad, named in a docum ent recording the division o f property at Uruk, 220 (a). ■Sourcer: (a) Wcisberg 45. [. . .J-ANU (2), son o f Anu-ah-ittannu, oil-presscr at Uruk, recorded in an earlier division o f land, 224 (a). ■ftwm: (a) R utten IV (= M oore 240). References'. M cEwan, Priest and Temple, 47, [ .. .J-ANU (3), son o f Anu-ah-usabsi, descendant o f Kuri, witness in a sale o f land at Uruk, 274 /2 7 3 fa). Sources: (a) N C B T 1952. References·. W 492n. [. . .J-A N U (4), son o f Anu-balassu-iqbi, brother o f Nidintu-Anu (36), named in a docum ent concerning a plot o f land at Uruk (date lost) fa). Sourcer. (a) W eisberg 42. [. . .J-ANU (4a), son o f Ina-qibit-Anu, a neighbour nam ed in a transaction at Uruk in 315 (a). Sourcer. (a) R utten VIII. [ .. .J-ANU (5), son o f Ina-qibit-A nu, brother o f Sa-Anu-issu (8), devote^ the goddess Sarrahitu, listed as involved in the annual festival at U ’ 109 (a). Sourcer. (a) Joann es, Textes Économiques, 52. j f A of

[. . .J-ANU (6), son o f Labasi, descendant o f Ahutu, nam ed in a dec sale o f a doorkeeper’s p reben d at Uruk, 242 (a), .Sourcen (a) W eisberg 11.

«fer f . . .J-AN U (7), son o f Labasi, descendant o f H un 2 u, witness in a trai» p roperty at U ruk (date lost) (a). Sourcer. (a) /2? 16 8. [. . .J-ANU (8), son o f N id in tu -A n u , seliee a t Uruk, 185/184 (a). Sourcer. (a) M L C 2158. Referencer. W 958.



f. . J-ANU (9), son of Samas-ittannu, descendant of Ahtitu, named in a document concerning a plot of land at Uruk (date lost) (a). Sources', (a) Weisbeig 16. [.. .J-ANU (10), son of Usursu-Anu, named in a sale of a storehouse at Uruk in the time of a king Antiochos and Andochos his son (a). Sources, (a) Weisberg 37. [. . .J-ANU (11), descendant of Hunzu, named in a document concerning a plot of land at Uruk (date lost) (a). Sources (a) Weisberg 18. f . . .J-ANU (12), descendant of Sin-leqi-unnini, named in a document con­ cerning a prebend at Uruk (date lost) (a). Sources, (a) Weisberg 9. [.. J-ANU (13), brother of Sumuttu-Anu (16), named in a document re­ cording the relinquishment of a claim to land at Uruk 215/214 (a). Sources, (a) Weisberg 48. (. . .J-ANU (14), named in a sale of land at Uruk 260/246 (a). Sources, (a) NCBT 1970. References·. W 940. [.. .J-ANU (15), named in a deed of sale of a plot of land at Uruk, 230/ 229 (a). Sources, (a) Weisberg 26. [. . .J-ANU (16), named in a document concerning a division of property at Uruk, 220/219 (a). Sources, (a) Weisberg 45. (.. .J-ANU (17), named in a deed of sale of a storage hut at Uruk, 172/ 171 (a). Sources, (a) Weisberg 32. [. . J-A NU (18), witness in a sale of a prebend at Uruk, 150/149 (a). Sources, (a) Weisberg 12. References. W 972-FF. [. . .J-ANU (19), named in a document concerning a prebend at Uruk (date lost) (a). Sources, (a) Weisberg 9. ( .. JAS, son o f D o [.. -Jx[.. J, messenger (diohmos), a mercenary soldier recorded in an inscribed list at Ephesos (a). Sources, (a) SEG XJLI 1991, 963.



[.. .JASIA, of Selcukeia, wife of Antipatros (5; son οΓ Athenaios, of Scleukeia, died and was buried at Athens, C 2/I (at. Sources: (a) IG JI/IH 10257. [.. .J-BELTI ! 1), son of Anu-uballit, descendant of Lustammar-Adad, giver of real estate at Uruk, 245/223 (a). Sources: (a; Doty 247 50 denticf

B ouchj>osition to the Seleukid power. King Zipoetes I ) was an ally of Seleukos I against Lysimachus il'l, and when Sclcukos tried to enforce his hegemony, the people rose to defeat the army of Seleukos'general Hermogenes (Oj, 280. In 278 Zipoetes organized the transfer of the Galatians into Asia Minor across the Bosporus after they had been prevented from crossing at the Hellespont fa). Antiochos (R I) Hierax married I-aodike (R 13) the daughter of king Ziaelas. In 190 king Prusias (F) refused Antiochiis Ill’s invitation to become allied against the Romans (b). Sources: (a) Memnon 226a 227a. (b) Pol 21.11 1= Livy References: RE 2.507 538, esp. 515 519, and S I.252. BOIOTIA, Greece, the Boiotian council demanded Antiochos Ill’s physical presence before them before joining him; he obliged and the land was occupied by his troops in the winter of 191/190; they were driven from it by the Romans after the defeat at Thcmopylai (a). Sources: (a) Pol 20.2; 7.5; App. Syr 13; Livy 36.6.1 5. References: RE 3.637 663 Boiotia I. BORAMA, a fort in the I/-barton mountains controlled by ‘robbers’, who invaded the coastal plain in the 60s (a). Sources: (a) Strabo 16.2.18. BORSIPPA, Babylonia, one of the Babylonian cities, reported to be de­ serted in 324 (a), but it sent supplies to Antiochos I in his Syrian campaign (b), and Antiochos I is recorded to have built a temple to Nebo there, which was under construction in 268, and to have restored the Kzida temple, c. 269 (c). The city was given property and valuables by I^odikc, wife of Seleukos II, in 237 (d). The elements of the bargain between the Seleukid kings and the Babylonians arc thus clear. Antiochos III visited the city in 187 (e). It was the home of a distinct sect of Chaldaean philosophers, and a production centre of linen ff), and its gods were said to be Apollo and Artemis, which suggests strong Seleukid influence (g).



Sources, (a) Ju stin 12.13.4. ib) Sm ith, Babylonian Historical Texts, 1928, 150-159 Austin 141). (η Pritchard A N E T 317 (= Austin 189). (d) Sachs and Hunger, Astronomical Diaries, -237. (c) Sachs and Hunger, Astronomical Diaries, -187. if) S trabo 16.1.1-7. tg> Stephanos sv Borsippa. References:. Λ. K u h n and S. N. Sherwin-White, ‘Aspects o f Seieudd Royal Ideology': the Cylinder o f Antiochos I from Borsippa’, JH S 111, 1991, 71-86. R E 3.735 and S I.256. B O SO R A , G alaaditis, (also Bozrah, Bostra) captured and sacieed by the Jew s u nder Jud as (S), 166 (a). It was under Seleuldd rule from 200, and was eventually taken bv the Nabataians. Sources: (a) Jo s A J Ί 2.336, 340; I Mac 5.26, 28. References·. R E 3.740-741. B O TR Y S, Phoenicia, captured by Antiochos ΠΙ in 218 (a). Sources: (a) Pol 5.68.8. References·. R E 3.793 Botrys 1. H . Salamc-Sarkis, ‘Matériaux pour une histoire de Batrun’, Berytus 35, 1987, 101-119. B O T T IA , Syria, a village which is said to have existed on the site of the city o f Antiocheia-in-Syria (a). Sources: (a) Malalas, Chronicle 8.13. B R O C H O I, Biqaa Valley, a Ptolemaic fort vainly attacked by Antiochos HI in 221 and 219 (a). It formed part of the Ptolemaic defensive system for K oile Syria. Sources: (a) Pol 5.46.1; 61.8. References: R E 3.886. J. P. Rey-Coquais, ‘Notes de Geographie Syrienne: I, Le Forteresse de Brochoi’, M U SJ 40, 1964. BYBLOS, Phoenicia, a city which became Seleukid in 200; it was fortified in the C 1 (a), and freed by Pompeius (F) from Kinytas’ (F) tyranny in 64 (b). T h e city was the site o f a royal Seleukid mint in the C2, and produced its own coins in the C l, with a distinctive set o f types, showing Tyche, K ronos, Isis, and Harpokrates, for example (c). It claimed Kronos as founder (d), implying, correedy, great age. Sourcer. (a) M alalas 8.31. (b) Strabo 16.2.18. (c) H ead H N 791; BM C Phoenicia 97. (d) Stephanos sv Bybios. References: G rainger, Hellenistic Phoenicia. R E 3 .1099-1100 Byblos 1. R ouvier IV 35-66.


OAXKITKKR - PARI' ONI'. H. Scyrig, Ί α· grand prctrr de Dionvsi>s à Byhlos', Anliquitcs Syricnncs 55, Syria 31. 1954, (ifi 73.

ΒΥΖΑΝΤΙΟΝ, Thrace, a ηντηίκτ of tin- Northern league which was Conned against Seleukos I, with Hcraklcia Ponlikc. Chalcedon and Mithridates of Pontos in 281 (a;. It may have Ιχνη besieged by Antioehos II in his campaign in Thrace (b,. In 220 the city was allied with Aehaios R , Inn he reneged on this when war began hr, Antioehos III carefully conciliated the citv during his campaigns Id). Sources: fa, Memnon 226a. !b) Athenaios 442c. (e/ Pol 4.50.1 51.6. id; App. Syr 6. References: RE 3.1116 1158, csp. 1136 1138. and S I.264 Hyzuiuion I. CASPIAN SKA, said to have been explored by Patrokles (O) for Seleukos I, and his and Antioehos I's forces are said to have navigated it in the 290s; Strabo and Pliny refer to Patrokles’ account (ai. Sources: (a; Pliny 2.87.167 (= KGH III C 712); Strabo. GHAFARSABA (later Aniipairis), Palestine, the terminus of the fosse of Alexander (Fj Jannacus against the march of Antioehos XII (a). Sources·, (a) Jos AJ 13.370; Jos BJ 1.4.7; Stephanos sv Motho. References: RE 3.2017. CHAI.A, Apollonius, a place described as a 'Greek city’ by Isidore in the Parthian period (a); its foundation in the Seleukid period is thus assumed. Sources: (a) Isidore of Gharax 3. References: Tchcrikower, Hellenistische Städtegrundungen 97. Chaumont, ‘ViJIcs hclleniqucs’, 166 167. CHALKIDIKE (also Chalkidcnc), a region of Syria centred on Chalkis-adBelum, and bordering on the lands of Apamea; its precise status in the local administration is unclear, but it is probable that it was governed as the territory of the city (a). Sources: (a) Strabo 16.2.11. References: RE 3.2074 Chalkidike 3. CHALKIS, Euboia, Antioehos III captured the city in 192 (a), wintered there in 191/190, and married his second wife (renamed Euboia (R)) there at that time (b). Out of the wedding celebrations Roman historians wove a story of dissipation and the king’s weakening, belied by the facts. He had to abandon the city after the defeat at Thcrmopylai in 190 (c). Sources: (a) Livy 35.51.6-7. (b) Pol 20.3.1; 8.1-5; Athenaios 10.439e-f; App. Syr 16; Livy 36.11.1-4. (c) Livy 36.21.1. References: RE 3.2078-2088 Chalkis 1, esp. 2085.



CH A EK IS-A D -B ELU M , Syria, a city said to h aw been founded by Seleukos I ia). It was die centre οΓ the administrative district o f Chaliddike (or Chalkidcnc) (b). D iodotos' (R) arm y camped near the d ty at the start o f his rebellion in 145, and he was unsuccessfully attacked there by the forces o f D em etrios II (c). It was said to have had as its founder Monikos (S) the A rab, otherw ise unknown, and undated (d). Sources: ia) App. Syr 57. (b) Pliny X H 5.81. it) Diod 33.4a. I . (d) Stephanos sv Chalkis 5. References: G rainger, Seleukid Cities. P. M onccaux and L. Brosse, ‘Chalcis ad Belum, notes sur l’histoire et Ics ruincs de la ville’, Syria 6, 1925, 339-350. R E 3.2090-2091 Chalkìs 4. Tcherikow cr, Hellenistische Stndtegrundungen 56-57. C H A L K IS -U N D E R -L IB A N O S , Biqaa valley, Syria, ‘the acropolis o f M arsyas’ (a), one o f the forts o f the Ptolemaic line which were unsuccess­ fully attacked by Antiochos III in 221 and 219 (b). It was sufficiently large to be described as a city in 64, when it was visited by Pompeius (F) (c). It was then the capital o f the small state ruled by Ptolemaios (F) son o f Menneas, who coined there. It m ay also have issued a brief coinage in its own name using an era which com menced in 115 (d), which may be presumed to be the date at w hich Seleukid authority finally failed there. Sources: (a) S trabo 16.2.18. (b) Pol 5.45.10-46.5; 61.7-8. (c) Jo s A J 14.40; Jo s B J 1.185. (d) B M C Galatia Cappadocia Syria 279. References: G rainger Hellenistic Phoenicia. R E 3.2091-2092 Chalkis 2. Seyrig, ‘É re s\ 46-49. Tcherikow er, Hellenistische Städtegrundungen 64. E. Will, ‘U n vieux problème de la topographic de la Bega antique: Chalcis du Liban’, ZDPV 99, 1983, 141-146. C H A O N IA , Syria, a place o f unknown location (a). Sources: (a) Ptolem y 5.15.10. References: Tcherikow er, Hellenistische Städtegrundungin 52. C H A R A K E N E , capitai Charax, a successor state of the Seleukid kingdom in w hich the satrap Hyspaosines (O) made himself king after the occupation o f Babylonia by the Parthians. It was originally the Erythraian Sea province*, then Mescne*, an d became called Charakene once the king was settled at C harax. Sources: (a) Pliny 6.136; Strabo 17.769. References: S. A. N odelm an, ‘A Preliminary History of Characene’, Berytus 12, 1960, 83-121. R E 3.2116-2120.



CHARAX (I), Charakrnc, capital of Charakcnr, sec Antiochcia-of-thcErythraian-Sca. CHARAX 12), Media, a city in the region of Rhagai iai, which, from its name, was a fort commanding the high road to the east, and the approaches to the Elburz pass, the Caspian Gales. Sources: (aj Isidore of Charax 7. Referencesr. Tcherikower, Hellenistische Städtegrundungen 100. CHARIS, Parthia, a city, not otherwise known, or located, said to have been founded by Seleukos I a,. Sources', la; App. Syr 57. References: R ii 3.2145. Tcherikower, Hellenistische Städtegrundungen ΙΟΙ. CHASPHOMAKK, probably two places, Chasphor and Maked, Galaaditis, captured by the Jews, 166 (a;. Sources: I'd) Jos AJ 12.340; I Mac 5.25 and 36; 2 Mac 12.13. References: R ii 3.2195 2196 Chasphoma. CHA1TENIA, on the Arabian coast Persian Gulf; the third district belonging to the Gcrrhacans; it was presumably passed by or through by Amiochos III on his Arabian expedition, 205 (a). Sources, (a) Pol 13.9.2. References: RE 3.2198. CHERSONESOS, Syria, probably another name for Apamea (a); it was the place where Dcmctrios IE) Poliorkctcs was incarcerated after his cap­ ture, and where he died, 283 (b). Sources, (a) Strabo 16.2.10. (b) Plut Dem 50, 52. CHERSONESOS, Thrace. The scene of the murder of Seleukos I in 279. Lost to the Scleukids by 278, it was recovered by Antiochos II, who minted coins at Lysimachcia (b), but then lost again to the Ptolemies in c. 245. It may have been held for a time by Amiochos (R I) Hicrax, but not for long, if at all (c). Antiochos III conquered it in 196 (d), and fortified it against invasion from the north, but then abandoned it in the face of the Roman advance in 190 (e). Sources, (a) App. Syr 16, 28, 37. (b) Newell, WSM. (c) Boehringer, ‘Antiochos Hierax am Hellespont’. (d) Pol 18.51.3; App. % 21. (e) Livy 37.33.1-4. References: RE 3.2242-2251 Chersonesos 1, esp. 2150. CHOUTHAIANS, (i.e. Kutheans of Samaria) captured by John (O 2) Hyrkanos in his offensive after the death of Amiochos VII (a). Sources: (a) Jos A J 13.255.



C R E T E , a source o f recruitm ent for mercenaries into the Seieukid army (see Institutions). Cities in the island were the object o f Seieukid diplomacy at tim es - Lytcos in 249 (a) and in the centre o f the island in c. 204/203 (b). Sources: (a) 1 Crei 1 8. tbì l Crei C 27. 1, Il 1.21, 16.3. C Y P R U S, u n d er Ptolemaic rule from 312. Antiochos ΙΠ is said to have aim ed to conquer the island in 193 (a). Antiochos IV sent forces to conquer it, apparently successfully, in 168, for his troops were expelled from the island by R om an envoys in that year (b). Demetrios I bribed the Ptolemaic governor to h an d over the island to him, but the plot was betrayed (c). Sources: (a) App. Syr 4. (b) Livy 45.11.10-11. (c) Pol 33.5.1—1. D A HA I (or DAAE), a nom ad people from Central Asia (a), who provided recruits to the Seieukid army: they were light-armed infantry at Raphia, brigaded w ith two oth er groups, totalling 5,000 men (b); they were said to have been p art o f th e G reek expeditionary force in 191 (c), and a t Magne­ sia they were p a rt o f the mounted archers (d); p an of the tribe were led by Arsakes (F) into the invasion of Parthia (e). Sources: (a) Scrabo 11.7.2; 8.2. Ob) Pol 5.79.3. (c) Livy 35.48.5; 49.B. (d) App. Syr 32; Livy 37.38.3. (e) S trabo 11.9.2. References'. R E 4.1944-1945. D A M A SC U S, Syria, captured by Antiochos Π1 from Dinon (F), the Ptole­ maic governor, in a surprise attack in 202 (a). It had been taken by Seleukos II in his P tolem aic w ar in the 240s, but lost again (b). Jonathan (O) M accabacus was able to m arch as far as the city in 144, and sold as slaves his captives there after a raid against the Nabataeans (c). It was the scene o f defeat o f Dem etrios II by Alexander II Zabinas in 126 (d). Demetrios ΠΙ Akairos, was installed as king in the city by Ptolemy (F) Lathyros, and opposed by Antiochos X; Antiochos X II seized the city as king, but soon lost it to Philip I (e). It was renamed Demetrias by Demetrios III and coins were issued from a m int in the city in that name, showing royal heads and the city’s T yche o r Nike or Zeus; autonomous coins showed the head of T y ch e backed by various animals (f). Aretas ΙΠ (F) of the Nabataeans took the city after the death of Antiochos XII, thus effectively ending Seieukid control (g). T h e city’s oasis character made it always a famous place (h), an d explains in p art its turbulent history in the period after 150. Sources: (a) Polyainos 4.15. (b) P or F 32.8. (c) Jo s A J 13.153, 179; 1 Mae 12.32. (d) Por F 32.21. (e) J o s A 3 13.370, 387-388.



(f; Head //.V 784; BMC. Calatia Cappadocia Syria 282, 289. (g) Jos 47 13.392. (h) Strabo 16.2.20. References·. Bellinger, ‘lind of the Selrurids’. RE 4.2042 2048. J. Sauvaget, ‘la· plan antique de Damas'. Syria 26. 1917, 314 358. Schürer II 127 130. Tcherikower, Hellenistische Slddlcgntndungm 65 67. DAPHNE, Syria, a sanctuary of Apollo and Artemis established by Sclcukos I dose to Antiochcia ia/, which absorbed a town called Herakleia, and provided an area of asylum ' b . In 166 it was the scene of Antiochos IV's great celebration !t'). A letter of Antiochos III on the appointment of a chief priest in 189 shows that the kings kept a firm grip on the place (d). There was a regular festival, normally attended by the king fej. Sources: (a) Pliny NH 5.79. /I)) Malalas, Chronicle 8.20; Strabo 16.2.6; Kustathius 916; Ubanius Or XI, 94 100; Justin 15.4.8. (c) Pol 30.25.1 26.9. (dj Welles RC 44. (c) Livy 33.49.6. References: RE 4.2136-2138. J. G. Bunge, ‘Die Feiern Antiochos’ IV Epiphanes in Daphne im Herbst 166 v. C hr.\ Chiron 6, 1976, 53 71. DARDANOS, Mysia, a city declared free by Rome at the peace of Apamea in 188; it had several times been synoccised and refounded by various kings (b). Sources: (a) Livy 38.39.10. (h) Strabo 13.1.28. References: RE 4.2163-2164. DELION, Boiotia, a sanctuary in which a Roman unit was attacked by Antiochos Ill’s forces in 191, providing Antiochos with a clear run in central Greece, and Rome with a good reason for the war (a). Sourcer. (a) App. Syr 12; Livy 35.51.1-6. References: RE 4.2443 Delium 5. DELOS, an island sacred to Apollo, and hence an obvious place in which the Seleukids could celebrate themselves. Seleukos I devoted a silver cup there (a); a statue of Antiochos III was put up by Menippos (O) (b); Antiochos IV was commemorated there (c). A temple o f the Syrian goddess Atargads was built there out of the offerings of devotees, and staffed by priests from Hierapolis of Syria. Sources: (a) Diti Syll (3) 588. (b) OGJS239. (c) OGIS 249, 250, 251. References. Bruneau. J.-P. Rey-Coquais, ‘Une prétendue “dynasde” syrienne dans la Delos héllénisdque’, M USJ 37, 1960-1961, 249-254.



D E L P H I, the sanctuary o f Apollo, but with only one Seieukid, Andochos III, h o n o u red there (a). T h e failure o f the Seleukids, with their devotion to Apollo, to cultivate this most famous o f Apollo’s sanctuaries, is odd. Sources: ia'· OGIS 241. D E M E T R IA S , Assyria, n ea r Arbela, a city presumably founded by Demetrios I. p erhaps in com m em oration o f his victory over the rebel Timarchos (,R) in 160 ui;. It produced an autonomous coinage in bronze, showing that its official n am e was Dcmetrias-by-the-Tigris, with the types o f Tyche and a T rip o d (bi. Sources: (ai S tra b o 16.1.4; Stephanos so Demetrias. (bl H ea d H A 817. References·. C h au m o n t, ‘Villes hélléniques’, 153-155. Tchcrikovver, Hellenistische Stadtegnmdmgm, 96-97. D IA D O C H O U P O L IS , Babylonia, a city referred to only in a late source as being 'n o t far from K tesiphon’ (a); its name presupposes a Greek settlement. Sources: (a) S tephanos sv Diadouchou. References·. T chcrikow cr, Hellenistische Städlegnwdugm 97. D (I)A T H E M A , G alaadids, a fortress used as a refuge by the Jews against T im othcos (F), a n d which was attacked by Judas (S) Maccabaeus (a). Sources: (a) Jo s A J 12.330; I Mac 5.9-15. References: R E 4.2226. D ID Y M A , a sanctuary of Apollo which was much favoured by the Seleukids, w ho claim ed descent from the god. Their connection supposedly began with a visit by Selcukos in 334, during Alexander’s conquest o f Asia Minor, though the tem ple was in ruins at the time, and the story is a patent inven­ tion (a). T h e first docum ented connection is in 300/299 when a great quan­ tity o f gifts w as m ade by Seleukos I and Antiochos I, a deed which was in p art a political gesture to an area recently under Antigonid control, and th en u n d er th a t o f Lysimachos (F) (b). It was followed by a gift o f incense in 2 8 6 /2 8 5 (c). After the acquisition of Asia Minor in 281, the temple was fu rth er patronised, a n d rebuilding went on for most of the next century. T he Seieukid connection d id not survive the loss of political control, suggesting th a t political control was the main object of the whole Seieukid purpose. Sources: (a) A pp. Syr 56. (b) QGIS 213 (= / Didyma 479 = Burstein 2). (c) W elles R C 5. References: C . B earzot, ‘Il santuario di Apollo Didimeo e la spedizione de Seleuco 1 a Babilonia (312 a.C.), Contributi deU'Instüuto de Storia Antica 10, 1984, 51-81. Didyma, I, ed. T . W iegand, II cd. H. Knackfuss, IQ, ed. A. Rehm, Berlin 1941-1958. J . Fonterose, Didyma, Apollo's Oracle, Cult and Companions, Berkeley, 1988. W . G u n th er, ‘Das O rakel von Didyma in hellenistischer Zeit’, Istanbuler Mitteilungen, Beiheft 4, Tubingen 1971.


CJAZKTTKKR - PART ONK B, Hausoullicr, Etudes sur l'hisloire de Milet et du Didvmeion, Paris 1902. B. Hausoullicr, ‘Offrami«* ä Apollon Didymccn', Delegation en Perse, Recherches Archeologfques, 2me Serie, i. 7, cd. f. de Morgan, Paris

1905. H. \V. Parke, The Orarlet o f Apollo in Asia Minor. I / mdon 1985, 33 68. R E 5.437 441 Didyma I. R oben, ‘D em odam as’. DIDYM A TKICHK, Mysia, a town captured by Attains I (I·-; front Achaios (R) faj. ft will have become Scleukid in 281. Its history otherwise is not known. Sources: (a/ Pol 5.77.8. References: R E 5.442. D IO N , Palestine, claimed to be a foundation o f Alexander the Great; its nam e is certainly M acedonian (a). It was captured by Alexander Jannacus (F) ibi, and visited by Pompeius (Fj in 63 Icj. Sources: (a) Stephanos sv Dion (7|. fb; Jos A J 13.393. f'cj Jo s ,47 14.47; Jos B J 1.132. References: R E 5.833 834 Dion 5. Schürer II 148 149. T chcrikow er, Hellenistische Städtegrundungen, 76, D O K IM E IÜ N , Phrygia, a city supposed to have been (bunded, c. 300, by Dokimos (F), the general o f Antiogonos (I'j M onophthalam os, whom Scleukos I had defeated in Babylon. It becam e Scleukid in 281, and ceased to be so in 188 (a). Sources: (a) Strabo 12.577. References: Tchcrikower, Hellenistische Städtegrundungen, 35. D O L IC H E , Syria, a city o f M acedonian origin (from the name), and thus probably founded in the late fourth century. It was taken into the Komm agenean kingdom during the Scleukid collapse (a). Its god developed into considerable, if tem porary, im portance in the R om an period. Sources, (a) Stephanos sv Doliche. References: F. Cum ont, ‘Doliche et le Zeus Dolichcnos’, Études Syriennes. D O R A , Palestine, attacked and besieged by Antiochos III, 218 (a) and again in 200; in 138 T ryphon (R) was besieged in the town by Antiochos VII (b). T h e city produced its own autonom ous coinage in the C l , showing Tyche on the obverse and A stane on the reverse (c), by which time it will have becom e independent. Sources: (a) Pol 5.66.1. (b) Jo s A J 13.223-224; 1 M ac 15.11-14, 25; Stephanos so Doros. (c) H ead H N 792. References: D. G era, ‘T ry p h o n ’s Sling Bullet from D o r’, IE J 35, 153-163. R E 5.1549-1550 D ora 2. Schürer II 118-120.



D R A N G E N E , a Scleukid province in eastern Iran; Antiochos H i's arm y wintered in the are a in 2 0 6 /2 0 5 (a). Sources: (a) Pol 11.39.13. D U R A , M esopotam ia, a place captured by Molon (R) in 221 (a). Sources: (a) Pol 5.48.16 an d 52.2. References: R E 5.18+6 D ura 1. D U R A -E U R O P O S , Babylonia, see Europos. D Y M E, A chaia, Antiochos IV and his family were commemorated there by a local resident (a). Sourcer. (a) OGIS 252. References: R E 5.1877-1878 D yme I. E B IR N A R I, the Babylonian nam e for Syria. EDESSA (also Antiocheia-by-Kallirhoe), Ostimene, a city said to have been founded by Seleukos I (a), and was renamed later probably by Antiochos IV ; the new nam e soon fell out o f use (b). Strabo by mistake calls it ‘Bambyke’ (c). It becam e the capital o f the kingdom of Ostimene, which existed from c. 132. T h e city produced coins o f Antiochos IV, but no others (d). Sourcer. (a) A pp. Syr 57. (b) Pliny AW 5.86; Stephanos son Antiocheia 8, Edessa. (c) S trabo 16.1.27. (d) H ead W A 814. References: R E 5.1933-1938 Edessa 2. J . B. Segal, Edessa■, the Blessed City, Oxford 1970. E G Y PT , the basis for Ptolemaic power. Antiochos IV invaded in 170 and 169/168 an d D em etrios II attem pted to do so in 128. It always remained ju st outside the Seleukid grasp. ‘E G Y P T IA N F O R T R E S S ’, a fortification near the lands o f Apamea, pre­ sum ably a relic o f the confrontations between Seleukids and Ptolemies in Syria (aj. It m ay have been a complex of forts, including Brochoi and Gerrha. Sourcer. (a) S tra b o 16.2.19. E K B A TA N A , M edia, the former royal M edian residence and palace, and the centre o f the great M edian satrapy. It is said to have been ‘founded’ by Seleukos I (a). Antiochos III collected silver and gold valued at 4,000 talents from the tem ple there to finance his eastern campaign, 211 (b). It was ren am ed an d perhaps reconstituted as the Greek city o f Epiphaneia by A ntiochos IV (c). It fell into Parthian control in 141 and definitively after foe d eath o f A ntiochos V II in 129 (d). Sourcer. (a) Pliny AW 5.42—43; Strabo 11.13.1. (b) Pol 10.27.4-13. (c) Isidore o f C harax 6; Stephanos sv Agbatana. (d) Ju stin 41.6.6-8.



References: ChaumoiU, 'Capitales π Residences', 21 6 217. RE b.2155 2158 Kkbataiia, (>.188 Epiphancia 7. T chcrikow er, Hellenistische Stadlegnimiungen,



ΕΙ,ΛΙΑ, Aiolis, tilt* port for Pergamon, which was developed l>y the Attalids as their naval station a.i. Antiochos 111 and his son Scleukos camped near the place with their army in 190 h . Sources: fa; Livy 35.13.6; 80.48.12: 87.87.4; Strabo 13.1.67; 8.5. (b; Pol 21.10.1 14: Livy 87.18.8. References: /Mien, 26. McShane 72 78. RE 5.2222 2228. ΕΙΛΜ, the Babylonian name for Klymais*. where Antiochos III died (a). Sources: fa; Sachs and Wiseman l= Austin 1881. EI.ATRIA, Phokis, a place which was a stage on the retreat of Antiochos III from his defeat at Thcrmopylai (a;. Sources: fa) App. Syr 20. References: RE 5.2236 2237. ELBURZ, Mountains, Iran. Antiochos III conducted a well-organised campaign against the local tribesmen of the mountains in order to reach Hyrkania, 210. Polybios’ account reveals a great deal about Antiochos’ mili­ tary abilities and about the composition of his army (a). .Sources: (a) Pol 10.29.3 31.4. References: Bar-Kokhva 142 145. ELEUSIS, Alexandria, the site of the fateful meeting of Antiochos IV and C. Popilius (F) I>acnas, 167, after which Antiochos evacuated Egypt (a). Sources: (a) Livy 45.12.3-6. References'. RE 5.2339-2342 Eleusis 4. ELEUTHEROS River, Syria, the boundary of the Sclcukid and Ptolemaic portions of Syria (a). Even after the Seleukid conquest of Koilc Syria and Phoenicia, it remained a major divider. Jonathan (O) Maccabacus escorted Ptolemy VI (F) as far as the river in 145, for example (b), and soon after Demetrios II’s army retreated to it after its confrontation with Jonathan, at which point it seems to have become safe from pursuit (c). Sources: (a) Strabo 16.2.12. (b) Jos 4 J 13.106-8. (c) Jos 4 7 13.179. References: RE 5.2354-2355 Eleutheros 1. ELIS, north-western Peloponnese; envoys from Elis contacted Antiochos III in Greece in 191 and formed an alliance with him; he sent them a garrison of 1000 men (a) which was still in place after Antiochos had left Greece in 190 (b).



Sources: m) Pol 2 0 .3 .1 -5 ; Livy 36.9.1-2. Iiv y 36.31.3. References: R E 5 .2 3 6 8 -2 4 3 2 Elis 1, esp. 2415. ELYM AIS, south-w estern Iran, the former Elam. M ounted archers from Elymais fought in the Seleukid arm y at Raphia in 217 and at Magnesia in 190 (a). T h e tem ple o f Bel o r Zeus was attacked by Antiochos ΠΙ in 187 for the sake o f its treasure; he was resisted by the people o f the area and killed in the process (b), in 164 Antiochos IV raided the temple o f Artemis (D iana o r V enus) (c). T h e Elymaians produced their own dynasty o f rulers from the early C 2, all called Kamnisktres (F). They were conquered by M ith rid ates (F) 1 o f P arthia c. 150 (d), and supported Demetrios Q in hits P arthian w ar in 139 (c). Sources: (a) A pp. Syr 31; Livy 37.40.10. (b) D iod 28.3.1; D iod 29.3.1; Por F 32.10; F 47; Justin 32-2.1-2; S tra b o 16.1.38. (c) Pol 3 1 .9 .1 -4 ; A pp. Syr 66 Diod 31.18a; Por F 53 and 56. (d) Ju s tin 41.6.9. (c) Ju s tin 36.1.4. References: A. A lizadch, ‘Elyntaean occupation of Lower Khuzestan during th e Scleucid and Parthian periods: a proposal', Iranica Antiqua 20, 1985, 175-189, J . H a rm a tta , ‘P arthia and Elymais in the 2nd century BC’, Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 29, 1981, 189-217. G . Le R id er, Suse sous Us Siléucides et les Perthes, 352-355. R E 5.2 458 -2 4 6 7 , esp. 2464-2465. E M E SA , a tow n w hich was ruled by Samsigeramus in the 60s as an inde­ p en d e n t p rincipality, w hich had possibly been independent by then for fifty years (a). Sources: (a) S tra b o 16.2.10. References: C . G ad d , Les Dynastes d’Émise, Beirut 1972. R E 5 .2 49 6 -2 4 9 7 . H . Seyrig, ‘C haracteres de l'Histoire d’Émése’, Andquités Syriennes 76, Syria 36, 1959, 184-192. E M M A U S , Palestine, Ptolem aios (O 2) son of Dorymenes with his army, and those o f G o rgias (O ) an d N ikanor (O), camped in 165; they were defeated by J u d a s (S) M accab aeu s (a). It was one o f the places fortified by Bakchides (O) in 160 (b). Sources: (a) I M ac 3.40; 4.12-15; J o s A J 12.298-308. (b) J o s A J 13.15. e m p h r o n (or E p h ro n , or G ephron), Galaaditis, a city which was cap­ tu red by A ntiochos III in 218 (under the name Gephros) (a). Its people (u n d er th e n am e E m phron, in Josephus, o r Ephron, in 1 Maccabees) blocked the ev a cu a tio n ro u te o f the Jew s from Transjordan in 166, it was then •uken by assault by Ju d a s (S) M accabaeus (b).




Sources: fa) Pol 5.70.12. fb) Jos /1J 12.346 7. ENKRANAI, Transjordan, see Kamaim. ENYDRA, a lown in Arados’ peraia, one of those Arados was always keen to control fa). Sources: fa) Strabo 16.2.12. References: RE 5.2653. J.-P. Rcy-Coquais, Arados el sa Eerie, Paris 1974. EPEIROS, envoys from Epciros contacted Antiochus III in (»recce in 191 with a view to obtaining an alliance a (. Sources·, fa) Pol 20.3.1 3. EPHESOS, Ionia, a major city which was in Scleukid hands intermittendy between 281 and 190. Even before the defeat of Lysimachos (F) the city had honoured Nikagoras (O) of Rhodes, who was an envoy ol both Dcmctrios and Seleukos, in 300/299 (a). In 281 it was captured by Menekratcs (O) for Seleukos I after a rising of Scleukid partisans against Arsinoe (F), the widow of Lysimachos (b). During the reign of Antiochos I Artemidoros (S) of Ephesos was an envoy of the Ionian Ixague to the king (c), though c. 260 it was briefly controlled by Ptolemy 'the son’, who died in a gory mutiny by his troops (d). It was then recovered by Antiochos II, and he died there (c). It was taken by Ptolemy III early in the Third Syrian War, though Antiochos (R) Hierax and his army are recorded there in c. 245 (f). It was apparently controlled by Hierax during his lifetime, c. 240-229, but then reverted to Ptolemaic control. It was from Ephesos that Achaios’ agents operated in conjunction with Ptolemy’s to try to rescue Achaios (R) from besieged Sardis in 214/213 (g), and it is thus not surprising that Antiochos III was keen to possess the city (h). He eventually captured it in 197 in alliance with the Rhodians (i). A letter to the city concerning Kymc may be from him, or from Antiochos II (j), but Antiochos III is more than once recorded at the city, as when he met Hannibal (F) there, and when he conferred with the Roman envoys in 193; it was also his naval base for the naval phase of the Roman war (k). It was lost after Magnesia (1). However, thirty years later it returned to affect Scleukid fortunes when it was the first base for Herakleides (O 2) in his plot with Alexander Balas against Demetrios I (m). The city had produced its own autonomous coinage all through the C3, showing the types of Artemis or a bee on the obverse, and a stag or a bow and arrow on the reverse (n). Sources, (a) I Ephesos, 1453. (b) Polyainos 8.57. (c) OGIS 222 (= Austin 143). (d) Athenaios 593a-b. (e) Por F 32.6. (f) SEC I 386 (= Austin 113). (g) Pol 8.15.9-16. (h) Pol 18.41a.




(i) Frontinus Str 3.9.10; Por F 46. (j) OGIS 242 (= Welles Ä C17 = l Ephesos, 1485). (k) Pol 21.11.13; App. Syr 4, 6, 12, 22, 24; Livy 33.38.1, 4, 8: 41.5; 49.7. (l) Livy 37.45.1-3. (m) Pol 33.16.14. (n) H ead H N 57-575; BMC Ionia 57-60. References·. Mastrocinque, Caria/lank. R E 5.2774-2822 Ephesos 1 {esp. 2793-2795) and S12 248-364 (esp. 257-259). Tcherikower, Hellenistische Städiegmndimgen 25. EPIPHANEIA (1), Kilikia, from its nante tins was a city founded by Antiochos IV on the site o f a place called Oeniandos (a). It was one o f the places where Pompeius (F) settled captured pirates (b). It minted coins after the resettlement, using an era beginning in 68 (c). Sources: (a) Pliny N H 5.93. (b) App. Mith 96. (c) H ead H N 720. References: R E 6.192 Epiphaneia 2. Tcherikower, Hellenistische Staitegnmäungen 41. EPIPHANEIA (2) (Hamath), Syria, a place named for Andochos IV and thus presumed to have become a city due to his promotion (a). It was per­ haps the site o f confrontation of Jonathan (O) Maccabeus and the Seleukids (b). Its era of autonomy began between 65 and 63 (c). Sources: (a) 1 Mac 12.25-30; Jos A J 13.174-176; Stephanos se Epiphaneia 1. References. H. Ingholt, Rapport préliminaire sur sept campagne! defomUes à Hama en Syrie (1932-1940), Copenhagen 1940. Morkholm Antiochos IV 116-118. G. Pioug, Hama III, I, The Graeco-Roman Totem, Copenhagen, 1985. R E 6.192 Epiphaneia 3. Tcherikower, Hellenistische Städtegnmdungen 63. EPIPHANEIA (3), a suburb of Antiocheia-in-Syria which was organised, and presumably walled, by Antiochos IV (a). Sources, (a) Malalas, Chron 89.205 Bonn. References. RE 6.193 Epiphaneia 5. Morkholm, Antiochos IV. EPIPHANEIA-IN-MEDIA, see Ekbatana. EPIPHANEIA-ON-EUPHRATES, Syria, a place named for Antiochos IV, who presumably made it a city (a). It coined briefly in the C2, with types showing Tyche backed by Zeus and Athena backed by Apollo (b). Sources, (a) Pliny N H 5.86. (b) Head H N 781; BMC Galatia Cappadocia Syria 242. References. R E 6.192, Epiphaneia 4. Tcherikower, Hellenistische Städtegmsuhmgm 52-53.




ΕΡΙΡΗΑΝΕΙΛ-ΟΝ- 1 IGRIS also Arkrsikarta,, Armenia, a citv founded by Antiochos IV, presumably as a check on /a riad ris ()■ of Armenia after Antiochos campaign there, 165 ac Sourcer. (a) Stephanos sv Epiphaneia (4’. References·. R E 6.193 Epiphaneia 6. ERIZA, Karia, a piace associateti with Moxmipolis and Krithiuei in an inscription concerning Macedonian colonists, who were not necessarily Selcukid colonists, but who would become Selcukid subjects in 2 8 1 (ai. It was taken by assault by the Rom an army under Manlius il·' 2) Vulso in 189 (b). Sources: fa; OGIS 238. fbj I ivy 38.14.1. References'. R E 6.469 470. E R V T H R A i, Ionia, besieged briefly by .Seleukos in 314 when he was in Ptolem y’s service fa;. It fell into Seleukos’ area in 281, and honoured Antiochos I, c. 270/260, who then confirmed its autonomous status (b), and this was reconfirmed by Antiochos II (e). O ne o f the tribes of the city was renam ed Scleukis id;. T he city was caught between Antiochos III and the Rom ans in the naval war o f 190, and eventually joined the Roman side (e). T h e city had produced a bronze coinage during the C3, showing Herakles backed by a club (f). Sources: (a; Diod 19.60.3 4. fbj OGIS 223 (= Austin 183). (c) Welles RC 15. (d) Ditt Sylt f3; 251. ic) Livy 37.8.5.; I 1.14; 12.10. (f) H ead H tf 576; BM C Ionia 128 133. References·. R E 6.575 -590 Erythrai 1, csp. 586 587. ER Y TH R A IA N SEA CO A ST, the land at the head of the Persian Gulf, southern Babylonia; it existed as a province in 22) when it was conquered by M olon (R) (a), but when it was originally formed is not clear; the region became called Mescne later, and after 140 it formed the successor kingdom o f Charakene. Governors: Pythiadcs, to 222. Tychon, from 221. Sources: (a) Pol 5.46.7; 48.13; 54.12. E TEN N EIS, a Pisidian people who were allied with Achaios (R) against Selge (a). Sources: (a) Pol 5.73.3. EUBOIA, Aegean island, Antiochos III sailed to it in 191 and it became his headquarters for the winter o f 191/190 (a). Sources: (a) App. Syr 12; Livy 35.51.6 10; 36.21.1. EUPANNESES, an area in the Hellespontine satrapy referred to in a de­ scription o f a boundary (a). Sources·, (a) Welles RC 20.



EUPHRATES, River, bridged at Zeugma, where the cable sad to have been used by Dionysos to bridge it was preserved (a). The foundation of the city (Scleukeia-Zeugtna) implies that the bridge was also a Seleukid work. Sources: (a) Paus 10.29.2. References·. RE 6.11951215. EUROMOS, Karia, a small city which was occupied by Philip V (F) in his expedition to the area, and which was apparently ruled by a group of soldiers called the Philippeis after he retreated. These men made art agree­ ment with Zeuxis (O), acting on behalf of Antiochos IQ, which is recorded in an inscription (a). Sources: (a) M. Errington, 'Antiochos ΠΓ, Zeuxis und Eurem os’, EA 1986, 1-7. EUROPOS (1), Media, formerly and later Rhagai, founded by Selenio» 1 and named for his home-city in Macedonia, and later refounded as Arsakeia by the Parthians, having been taken by them in the mid-C2 (a). Sources: (a) Strabo 11.13.6; Justin 41.6.7. References. Chaumont, ‘Capitales et Residences’, 201-206. Tcherikower, Hellenistische Städiegnaidatgen, 100. EUROPOS (2), (Dura) Parapotamia, a city said to have been founded by Seleukos I (a). Papyri found in the excavations there throws a clear light on the process of planting military colonies (b). Sources, (a) App. Syr 55. (b) P Dura. References. A. R. Bellinger, ‘Seleudd Dura, the evidence of the coins’, Berytus 9, 1948, 51-67. F. Cumont, FouiUes de Doura-Europos, Paris 1926. RE 6.1309-1310 Europos 5. C. B. Welles, el a/.. The Excaoaticm at Dura-Euwpos, New Haven, from 1936. EUROPOS (3) (‘Oropos’), Syria, on the Euphrates, the former Carchemish, a city said to have been founded by Seleukos I (a). Sources, (a) App. Syr 57; Stephanos s» Europos. Tcherikower, Hellenistische Städtegnmdmgen, 54—55. EURYMEDON, river, Pamphylia, Ae mouth of which was Ae scene of con­ frontation between Ac Seleukid fleet under Hannibal (F) and the Rhodian fleet, which resulted in a Seleukid defeat (a). This was one of Ac decisive events of Ac Roman war. Sources, (a) Livy 37.23.4. GABALA, Syria, a small city in Ae Aradian peraia near Laodikeia-ad-Mare (a), which was left in independence after Arados established its own inde­ pendence. The evidence is primarily numismatic. The city coined in the G 1, wiA types of Helios backed by a galley, and a bearded head backed by a crab (b). It had a sanctuary of Ae Greek Nereid Doto (c).





Sources: fa) Strabo 16.2.12; Stephanos ir Gabala. (b) H ead //Λ" 781; BMC (lalatia Cappadocia Syria 243. (cj Paus 2.7. References: G rainger, Seleuhd Cities. G rainger, Hellenistic Phoenicia. R E 7.415 G abala 5 and S3..533. H. Seyrig, ‘Questions Aradiennes; I (Cabala', 7{V 1964. 9 28. GADARA, T ransjordan, a city captured by Antiochos III in 218. and again in 200 (a;. It was besieged an d taken by Alexander il-'i .Januariis ibi, and later freed by Pompeius ;T,, and adopted that moment as its dating era (c). It bad the distinction o f being nam ed both Antiocheia and Seleukeia (d). Sources: la) Pol 5.71.3; 16.39.3; Jos A J 12.136. lb/ Jos A J 13.356; Jos R J 1.4.2. (cj Jo s A J 15.15.4; Jo s R J 1.7.7. Id) Stephanos so G atlara an d Aniiot heia (:>). References: R E 7.436 437 G adara 1 and 2A.2560 2561 Seleukeia 11. S churer ΓΙ 132 136. Tcherikow cr, Hellenistische Städtegrundungen, 74 7.5. G A IA A D IT IS (Gilead), Transjordan, an area briefly conquered by Antiochos III in 218 217, and then again in 200. W hen the Maeeabaean rebellion began the Jew s o f the area were attacked by the forces under Timothcos (F). In response M accabcan forces under ju d a s {Si and Jonathan (O) cam­ paigned there in 163 (ay In 142 T ryphon (Rj retreated from Jerusalem through the area on his way towards Koile Syria (b). It ceased It) be under Seleukid rule by c. 100. Sources: (a) Jo s A J 12.330, 333, 335 347; I Mac 5.9 44. (b) J o s A J 13.209. Referencesr. R E 7.511 512 G alaad. G A LA TIA N S, the Keltic people who settled in central Asia Minor. They were originally prevented from crossing into Asia by the Seleukid governor o f Hcllespontine Phrygia (a), but then evaded his guard, and another group were helped across by Zipoetes o f Bithynia (b). Antiochos I fought against them , and finally defeated them in the ‘elephant battle’ (c). They took Ankyra an d settled in the area o f northern Phrygia in three tribes, the Trokmi, Tolistobogii and Tektosagcs (d). They took part in the w ar between Antiochos (R) H ierax and Seleukos II and defeated Sclcukos near Ankyra (e). Another group, who settled in T hrace, and formed the kingdom of Tylis, were allied with A ntiochos III in his conquest of that land in the 190s (Γ). Sourcer. (a) Livy 38.16.4 -6. (b) M em non FGrH F 11.1-7. (c) App. Syr 65. (d) Paus 1.4.5. (e) Polyainos 8.61, 9.46. (f) App. Syr 6. References: P. M oraux, ‘L’Établissement des Galates en Asie M ineure’, Λ* M itt 7, 1957, 56-75.



GALATIS, Transjordan, a place captured by Anriochos ΠΙ in 218 (a). Sources: (a) Pol 5.70.12. GALILEE (Galilaia), the northern part of Palestine which came under Sclcukid rule in 200. It was disturbed by the Maccabaean revolt, and mes­ sengers from the Jews of the area warned Judas (S) of his enemies gather­ ing; it was then successfully invaded by Simon (O 1), 163 (a); it is said, mistakenly, to have been a toparchy exempted from die Seleuldd poll-tax by Dcmetrios I (b). In 144 Jonathan (O) defeated an invasion of the area by Demetrios II (c), but next year Tryphon (R) was able to drive his army out (d). It fell under Hasmonaean rule under John (O) Hyrkanos. Sources: (a) Jos AJ 12.331; 1 Mac 5,14-15, 21-23. (b) Jos AJ 13.50; 1 Mac 10.30. (c) Jos AJ 13.154-162; I Mac 11.63-74. (d) 1 Mac 12.49-53. References. RE 7.603-605. GAMBREION, Mysia, a small city which fell to Seleukid authority in 281, but which was soon under Attalid influence, and probably part of Eumenes Vs territory after 262. It produced coins in the C3, showing Apollo and reverses of a bull, a star or a tripod (a). Sources, (a) Head HN 528; BMC Mysia 62-63. GARAMAEA, a district of Babylonia towards the Zagros mountains, prob­ ably the same as Arrapakhitis (a). References, (a) Chaumont, ‘Villes héllénkjues’, 150-151. RE 7.750-751 and 1.1225 Aiuaka. GARIZEIN (also Gerizim), Palestine, the holy place of the Samaritans (a). It was captured by John (O) Hyrkanos, c. 128 (b). Sources, (a) Jos AJ 12.257; 13.74-75; 2 Mac 6.2. (b) Jos AJ 13.255. References. RE 7.766-767 and S3.539. GAZA, Palestine, a notoriously strong city guarding the route between Egypt and Palestine. In a battle near the city in 312 Ptolemy I (F) defeated Deme­ trios (F) Poliorketes, after which Seleukos set off on his ride to recover Babylonia (a). Andochos III attacked it in 217 (b) and in 200 he captured the city after a famous, but now little known, siege (c). In the crisis of 145 tt was taken by Ptolemy VI (F) along with other coastal cities (d), and then when he was dead it rejected Demetrios Π, but did not join the cause of Tryphon (R), and thus was in effect declaring its independence. Thus it also resisted Jonathan (O) Maccabaeus, who was in theory operating on behalf of Tryphon, but after a siege the city submitted to him and gave hostages—that is, it was treated as an independent city (f). It was taken by Alexander Jannaeus (F) (e) and freed by Pompeius (F) in 63 (g). It coined for Demetrios I, but not again until after its autonomy was fully achieved, in 61 (h). Sources: (a) Por F 32.3; Diod 19.81.5; 83.1; 83.4; Plut Dan 4; App. Syr 54; Justin 15.1.2.



i'b,’ Poi 8.68.4. P o r F 46. i I Mod 29.16. References: M a stro c in q u c , C oria/Ionia. R E 10.1 9 4 3 -1 9 4 7 . J. a n d !.. R o b e rt, La Carie, Paris 1954. K A R M A N IA . so u th e rn Iran, an area o f indeterminate authority; K arm anian tro o p s fo ugh t in th e S clcukid arm y a t R aphia, in a group o f 5000 brigaded w ith IMihai a n d K ilikians, as light-arm ed infantry, another group, probably cav alry . w as b rig a d e d w ith M cdes an d others (a). A nnodi os I ll’s arm y w in te re d in the a re a in 2 0 6 /2 0 5 (b). H ow far Seleukid authority ran in the a re a is u n clea r. It w as certain ly out o f reach for long periods. Sources: Pol 5 .7 9 .3 a n d 7. tin Pol 11.39.13. References: R E 10.1955 1956. K A R R H A I (K arai), M esopo tam ia, a city where Seleukos collected troops on his w ay to B abylon in 311 (a). It is not mentioned again until Crassus* ill-fated ex p e d itio n in 53. Sources: (a) D io d 19.91.1. References: R E 10 .200 9-20 21 . K A R N A IM , T ra n sjo rd a n , a place which was taken and sacked by Judas (S) (a). Sources: (a) J o s A J 12.344. K A R N E , P h o en ic ia, th e naval station o f Arados in its perato, with a harbour (a). C o in s w ere issued from the place between 226 and 137, using Acadian types (b). Sources: (a) S tra b o 16.2.12. (b) H e a d A W 792; B M C Phoenicia 111-112. References: G ra in g e r, SeteiJàd Cities. R E 10.1968, K ä m e 1. J .-P . R ey -C o q u ais, Arados et sa Ferie, Paris 1974. K A R S E IA , M ysia, a place cap tured by Attalos I (F) from Achaias (R) (a). Sources: (a) Pol 5.77.7. K A S IA N E , a d e p e n d e n t town o f A pam ea known only from the fact that it w as th e b irth p la c e o f D iodotos-T ryphon (R) (a), location unknown. Sources: (a) S tra b o 16.2.10. References: R E 10.2263. K A S IO N , a place, otherw ise unknow n, to the south o f Seleukeia-in-Pieria (a). A m o u n ta in h a d th e sam e nam e, an d a festival, (bunded by Seleukos I, w as h eld th e re for T riptolem os (a). Sources: (a) S tra b o 16.2.5 and 8. References: R E 10.2264-2267 K asion 2.1.



K A S I O S , a m o u n ta in n e a r P e lu s io n , E g y p t, w h e r e A m io c h o s I \ ’ d e f e a te d th e P to le m a ic a r m y , 1 70 fa/. Sources: (a) P o r F 4 9 . K A S 7 A B A I A , s e c H i e r a p o lis - K a s ta b a la . Κ Α Τ Λ Ο Ν Ι Α , s o u th c e n tr a l A s ia M in o r , ta k e n b y S e le u k o s I in 2 8 1 , b u t a n d d o m in a te d b y th e S e le u k id s u n d e r A m io c h o s I I I s in c e it is t h e m a in r o u te c o n n e c tin g S y ria a n d w e s te rn A s ia M in o r . Its la te b e tw e e n th o s e tim e s is u n c le a r. It is r a re ly , i f e v e r , m e n tio n e d in th e s o u r c e s . References: RE 1 0 .2 4 7 8 2 4 7 9 . K A U K A S O S M o u n ta in s fH in d u K u s h /, a m a s siv e r a n g e c ro s s e d b v A m io c h o s I I I o n h is w a y fro m B a k tr ia to w a r d s ‘I n d i a ’, t h a t is, t h e P a r o p a m i s a d a i (al. Sources: (a) P o l 1 1 .3 9 .1 1 . K E B R E N , T r o a s , a refounded c ity a f te r th e p a r tia l d is s o lu tio n o f A le x a n d rc ia T r o a s . S in c e it to o k th e n a m e A n tio c h c ia th is w a s p r e s u m a b ly p a r tly th e w o rk o f A m io c h o s I. 'H i e c o in s s h o w a c l e a r c o n t i n u i t y o f ty p e f r o m th e C 4 , sh o w in g A p o llo b a c k e d b y a r a m ’s h e a d . It w a s th u s p r e s u m a b ly fa v o u re d b y th e S e le u k id s , b u t t h e c o n t e x t is m is s in g . Its g e o g r a p h ic a l p o s itio n im p lie s th a t th e o n ly tim e t h e S e le u k id s c o u ld h a v e b e e n in f lu e n tia l w o u ld b e in th e first h a l f o f th e C 3 , s a y 28 1 2 4 6 (a), a n d th u s t h e r e n a m i n g w o u ld b e b y A m tio c h o s I o r II. Sources: fa) H e a d / / A 5 4 3 ; BMC Troas Aeolis and lesbos 4 6 . References. T c h c r ik o w c r , Hellenistische Städtegrundungen, 16. K E L A I N A I , P h r y g ia , s e c A p a m e a K e la in a i. K H A R G , is la n d in t h e P e r s ia n G u lf , w h e r e tr a c e s o f a H e lle n is tic s e ttle m e n t h a v e b e e n fo u n d . References S . M a th c s o n , Persia,

an Archaeological Guide,

I x jn d o n 1 9 7 6 , 2 4 5 2 4 8 .

K I B Y R A (1), K a r i a , a c ity o f w h ic h M o a g e tc s w a s t h e t y r a n t in 1 8 9 , w h o w a s t e r r o r is e d b y M a n liu s (F 2) V u ls o (a). Sources (a) P o l 2 1 .3 4 .1 13; L iv y 3 8 .1 4 .3 14. References. RE 1 1 .3 7 4 - 3 7 7 K i b y r a 1. K I B Y R A (2) (‘M i n o r ’), K ilik ia , a s m a ll c ity w h ic h m i n t e d its o w n c o in s in t h e C 2 a n d C l , t h e ty p e s s h o w in g a v a r ie ty o f d e itie s (a). I t w ill h a v e b e e n u n d e r S e le u k id a u th o r ity in te r m itte n tly f ro m 2 9 4 t o 1 9 0 . Sources (a) H e a d HN 7 1 9 . K I D D I O S , L y d ia , v illa g e w h ic h , w ith N c o te ic h o s , h o n o u r e d B a n a b c lo s (S) a n d L a c h a r e s (S) f o r p r o m o ti n g t h e r e s c u e o f G a l a t i a n c a p tiv e s (a). Sources: (a) M . W o r r le , ‘A m io c h o s I , A c h a io s d e r A lte r e u n d d ie G a l a t e r , e in e n e u e I n s c h r if t in D e n i z l i ’, s te in 19).

Chiron 5 ,

1 9 7 5 , 5 9 -8 7 (= B u r ­



Κ Ι1 .ΙΚ ΙΛ . ta k e n b v S eleukos 1 from D em etrios (F) Poliorketes in 294 (a). P to lem y 111 l·' c la im e d to h av e c o n q u e red it in 246» a n d certainly cam ­ p a ig n e d th e re , (h o u g h so m e in la n d p arts rem ained u n d er Seleukid control (b): S eleuk os II Med to w ard s it after his defeat by A ndochos (R 1) H ierax (c) an d a S eleu k id g o v e rn o r is k now n to have been appointed by Seleukos ΙΠ , w hich im plies a su b sta n tia l d e g re e o f con trol (d). Kilikian troops fought in the S eleu k id a rm y a t R a p h ia as lig h t-arm ed infantry (e), an d a t M agnesia (f); at D a p h n e in Ititi a g ro u p o f 5 0 0 0 m a rc h ed in the parad e (g). T h e rem aining P to lem aic a re a s w e re ta k e n b y A nuochos III in 197 (h), an d the lan d re­ m a in e d u n d e r S ele u k id c o n tro l until first T igranes (F) ft) and then Pom peius 11·'· to ok it -, j . , h u t it h a d by th e n in p a rt becom e a piratical base. D em etrios II is said to bas e la n d e d th e re in his cam paign against A lexander I S alas (k . a n d A le x a n d e r h im s e lf re tre a te d into it before his final battle (1). Governors. A rib a z o s. in 246. A n tio c h o s, 2 4 6 /2 2 6 . Source*: (a) P lut. Dem 32; P o r F 32.2. ;b) O G ÌS 5 4 (= B u rstcin 99); P. G unb/P . Petrie (= F G rJi 160 = B urstcin 98). If) P o lv ain o s 9.46. ;d) P o r F 43. to) Pol 5 .7 9 .3 . if) L iw 37 .4 0 .1 3 . (gl Pol 3 0 .2 5 .4 . (h) P o r F 46. (i) A p p . Syr 48; A pp. M idi 46. (j) A p p . A tith 106. (k) J o s A 3 13.86. J o s A 3 13.113. References·. R E 11.385 389. K 1 N A R O A , A sia M in o r, a village n e a r T o balm o ura noted in a record o f a lo a n a n d m o rtg a g e c. 315, w hich was recorded in an inscription at Sardis o f c. 2 0 0 (a). Sources: (a) Sardis V II, 1, 1932, 1-7, no. 1 { - Austin 181). K I S S I O I , a n I ra n ia n trib e from Susiana, a contingent o f troops from w hich fo u g h t a t R a p h ia , b rig a d e d w ith M edes an d others, probably as cavalry (a). Possibly th e y w e re la te r subsum ed as Elymaians. Sources: (a) P ol 5.7 9 .7 . (b) S tra b o 15.32. References: R E 1 1 .5 1 2 -5 2 1 Kissia. K .IS T H E N E , A iolis, a sm all city w hich fell to Seleukid control in 281, b u t Vvh ic h , fro m its g e o g ra p h ic a l position, will have come u nder Attalid control s° o n a f te r E u m e n e s 1’s victory over Antiochos I in 262. It produced an ^ U to n o m o u s c o in a g e in b ro n ze in the C 3, showing the types o f D em eter p a c k e d b y a h o rse m a n (a). Purees: (a) H e a d H N 522-



K l -Λ /Λ ).Μ Κ Ν Λ Ι. Io n ia , a c ity w h ic h r e c o r d e d a d e c r e e ol llir I o n ia n I z a g u e w h ic h e s ta b lis h e d a fra s i l'or A n tio c h o s I a n d S i r a tn n i k c R 3 . 2bH ‘J IÌ2 a . Il w as d e c la r e d to h e fre e h y K o rn e in i h r P i a r e o f A p a m e a . IHM I r . In 170 tw o e n v o y s o f th e c ity w e n t to A n tio c h o s [Y a s p a r t o f th e jo in t G r e e k a tte m p t to m e d ia te p e a c e w ith E g y p t c . Sources: la) / Eiaznmerwi tin I Enthral II. ’>01 (XUS 222 . (h) Livy 3 8 .3 9 .9 . If) P o l 2 8 .1 9 .2 7. References: RE 11 .5 5 4 5 5 6 . K O I L E S Y R I A , th e n a m e a p p lie d t o th a t p a r t o f S v r i a - P a l e s t in r w h ic h w as u n d e r P to le m a ic r u le in t h e t h i r d c e n t u r y , s o m e tim e s a ls o d e l i n e d a s K o ile S y ria a n d P h o in ik e . It w a s s e iz e d b y P to le m y 1 F in 3 0 1 . a n d c la im e d hy S e le u k o s I, a n d w a s th u s th e basic c a u s e o f th e 'S y r i a n ' w a rs . T h e n o r t h e r n b o u n d a r y lay a lo n g th e E lc u th c ro s riv e r a . A n tio c h o s III d e lin e d th e S c lc u k id c la im in n e g o tia tio n s in '218 b . a n d finally c o n c |u e r c d it in t h e F ilth S y ria n W a r , 2 0 2 19Ó (e' Qursu-in 99 (= OCJS 54). Rc/emucs: Bevati I 258-291. J . Wolski, 'L ’Iran dans la politique des Séléurides’, AAH, 25, 1977, 149 156. M E G A R A , a dependent town of Apamea (a). Its name is probably a helleni/.ation o f an Aram aic word rather than a sign of a Greek city. Sm arts’, (a) S trab o 16.2.10. References: R E 14.205 M egara 4. T chcrikover, Hellenistische StàdUgmdungat, 63. M K LK .A G RO S, th e palisade of, a location in the Amuq basin (a). Sources: (a) S trab o 16.2.8. References: R E 15.489—490. T chcrikover, Hellenistische Städl^ruduage^ 56. M E L IA (M izpah), Galaadids, a town captured by Judas (S) Maccabaeus a n d b u rn t (a). Sources: (a) Jo s A J 12.340. M E M P H IS , Egypt, captured by Andochos TV in 168 (a); Kleon (O) was installed as governor by and for him (b). Andochos IV thus took possession o f Egypt in the Egyptian tradition, and must be assumed to have intended to an n e x die country (c). Sources: (a) J . D. Roy, The Archive o f Her, London 1976, 14-20 (= Austin 165). (b) C. Ord Ptol 32 (= Burstein 19). (c) P or F 49; Jos A J 12.243. References: R E 15.660-688. M E S E N E , the nam e used in the first half of the second century for the fo rm e r E ry thraian Sea Province, and the later kingdom of Charakene. A ntiochos IV refounded Antiocheia-Charax in the area, c. 165, and cam­ p aig n ed against the neigbouring Elymaians (a). Governors: Hypsaosines, 165-140 (later king). Sources: (a) Pliny N H 6.139. References·. R E 15.1082-1095. M E S O P O T A M IA , the land between the Euphrates and the Tigris, close to the A rm enian m ountains (the later al-Jazirah). It was acquired by Seleukos I as he passed through on his ride to Babylonia in 311 (a), and remained

GAZETTEER - PART ONE Sclcukid until conquered by the Parthians about 125 bi. Ptolemy HI I' claimed to have conquered it in 245 'c . and Antioehos Hierax attempted to invade it after his rebellion id). It was in part the source of the Jewish mili­ tary families transferred to Asia Minor under Antioehos III m, and was tra­ versed by Dcmetrios II in his campaign against the Parthians in 140/139 (f). It is described as a satrapy by Strabo g , an its strategic position as a routeway always made it a vinti area to control. Governors: Xanthippos, from 24b. Dionysios the Mede c. 145. Sources: (a) App. Syr 55; Diod 19.91.1. fb| App. Syr 48. (c) OG/S 54 (= Burstcin 99|. fdj Polyainos 4.17. k) Jos A ] 12.1.148 153. if) Jos /i) 13.184. (g) Strabo 16.2.4. References: RE 15.1105 1163, esp. 1140 1145. L. Dillemann, Haute Misopotamie orientale et pays acljacenl.s, Paris 1962. METHONE, Persis, a city apparently named for a Greek original tat, but its location is not known. Sourcer. (a) Stephanos sv Mcthone. References: Tchcrikower, Hellenistische Stadtegrundungen 99. MICHMASH (also Machma), Judaea, Jonathan’s (O) headquarters in the period of peace between the two sections of the Maccabaean rebellion, 160 153 (a). Sources: la) Jos 47 13.34; 1 Mac 9.73. References: RE 15.1522. MILETOS, Ionia, a city which was especially important to the Selcukids because of its proximity to and control of the temple of Apollo at Didyma, yet which they did not control consistently. It honoured Antioehos son of Seleukos I in 299 (a) and received a letter concerning Scleukos I’s gifts to the Didyma temple in 288 (b), moves best seen as diplomatic marken for Seleukid ambitions. The city fell under Sclcukid control in 281, but only briefly: the list of stephanophoroi of the city shows Antioehos I in office in 280/279 and Ptolemy II the next year, a sign of the change of control (c); however, it was given a stoa by Antioehos I, which implies his recovery of the city later (d). Timarchos (F), a tyrant of Miletos who had seized the city from Ptolemy II (F), was killed by Antioehos II, c. 258 (e), and the city inscribed a letter from Scleukos II, c. 246 (f ), though it may have been lost again soon after. Its relation with Antioehos (R 1) Hierax is unknown, but it was seized briefly by Antigonos Doson in 227. The city had reinforced itself by enfranchising many mercenaries, mainly from Crete, in the 230s and 220s. The city made an isopolity agreement with Tralles in 213/2, and since Tralleis was Seleukid this may be a sign of the return of Sclcukid influence in Miletos, just when Antioehos III was suppressing Achaios’ (R 1) rebellion (g). The city was lost to the Seleukids after the battle of Magnesia.



Λ sign i't c o n tin u e d S cicukid favour is th at it was granted a remission o f im p o rt d u tie s b y A n tio c h o s IV (h). T h e city m inted coins with the h ead o f A p o ll“ b a c k e d b y a lion in th e C 3 (i). Sources: a O G IS 2 1 3 ,= /. Didyma 479 = Burstein 2). b W elles R C 5. c /. Didyma 123 (= Burst ein 25). p. Sri 69. Id) Jos AJ 13.4(41. ft·) BMC Lycaonia hauriti Cilicia, eix ex. (f) Head //Λ 724 72;>; BAH. I.reannui lutanti Citum 104. References: G. K. Jenkins, ‘A Seleueid Mint at Mopsus'. ,\C I I. 1051. 10 21. RE 16.243 250. MOXOUPOLIS, a place near, and associated with l.ri/a. perhaps basing received Macedonian colonies fa). Sources: fa) 0GIS 238. References: RE 16.409. MYGDONIA, a part of Mesopotamia, renameli by the Macedonians, anil centred on Antiocheia-in-Mygdonia 'Nisibis/ ia,. Pliny says it was the later Adiabene (bj. It is mentioned in Antiochos Ill’s march to the east in 221 iei. It was taken by Tigranes fF) in the 80s fd). There is no sign that it was esrr a separate political unit. Sources: fa) Strabo 11.14.2; 16.123. (b) Pliny M l 6.4. (c) Pol 5.51.1. (d) Strabo 11.14.15. References: RE 16.1000 1001. MYLASA, Karìa, a city which contested control of the shrine at laibraunda with the Scleukid satrap Olympichos (O) in the 240s and later (a). It came under Scleukid control once more about 203, but was lost again by the peace of Apamea in 188. A sign of a continued Scleukid connection is a decree passed by the city in honour of Dcmctrios II Nikator (b). Sources, (a) Labraunda III, parts 1 and 2. (b) A. W. Persson, BCH 46, 1922, 6 (= SEC II 541). References: Mastrocinquc, Caria/Ionia. RE 16.1046-1064. MYONNESSOS, Ionia, the scene of a Roman naval victory over die fleet of Antiochos III (a). Sources (a) Livy 37. MYRINA, Mysia, taken by Attalos I in 218; the place had thus been Scleukid until then (a). Sources (a) Pol 5.77.4 (reading ‘Smyrna’ as ‘Myrina’). References. RE S6.615-621.



M Y S IA , n o rth -w c sic m Asia M inor, cam e under Seleuldd control in 281. It c o n ta in e d tin- Annitrì state o f Pergam on, an d so was an area o f conflict be· ivvrrn tin· two. W hen Sclcukid pow er locally waxed, Mysia could b e said to lx- u n d e r th e ir contro l, b u t any weakening allowed Attalid expansion. U n der A ttains I I . therefore, m u ch o f Mysia remained outside Seleuldd control until 212. w hen the defeat o f Achaios’ (R 1) rebellion brought Antiochos 111 to S ardis a . H e had allied with Attalos to fight the w ar (b), and Attalos th u s re m a in e d in a subordinate situation for the rest o f his reign. It is just in th a t p erio d th a t th e only two governors a r t known. T h e area was h a n d e d o v e r com pletely to Eum enes II (F) in 188 (c). Mysians served in th e S clcukid a n u y bo th u n d e r Achaios (d) and Antiochos ÖI (e), and even in Ititi an officer in J u d a e a w as called the com mander o f the Mysians (f). r S i h t l o r k r ' 1“'" 1“««·', /Μ /ηιι,Μ , Stoll,(,«»,11,,,.,,, v


Him M / o j j u

ή, S ira /.., l O . l t - T

K ejcrcn"*.


\ t

.y o u

............ ............ ....

......................... "y

Λ ι,

Λ \0 .

Α.«ρρ;·Α·:· '. ί,ι,ι ... „tally in .Srh-ttkir) .S’sTM. tx -c u tO uiuteO tjy S e le u k o s I. a l t e r a v ic to rs ', a n d , g is o n d ie lo c a tio n , th e o b v io u s v ic to ry is th a t o v e r D e m e tr io s !■' P o lio rk o t'c s in d ie A m a n u s in 2 8 5 lay Sources: (aj A p p . Syr 5 7 . References·. G r a in g e r , Seteukid Cities. RE 1 7 .5 3 5 5 3 6 N ik o p o lis 7. K O y fJ J J f


/ / /A r m e n ia n e a r

so have

T c h e r ik o w e r ,

Hellenistische Stddtegrundungen


NIPPUR, a Babylonian city which is recorded as being provided svilii sus­ tenance by royal order in 272 (a). S Sources: (a) Sachs and Hunger, Astronomical Dianes, -27.3 NISA (Nisaiah Margiane a city said to be named for Nysa (R 2) a svile of Antiochos I, if so this is the only evident* frtr u to he a ‘nymph-namc’, of w h ic h X re , ? ! SlT c; 11 IS morT dence of the urbanizing work of Antiorhr r ” 1 ... of the first acquisitions of the Parthiam '', ι ' Π ΓΒΠ aft A p p . Syr 5 5 . (hi BMC Arabia Mesopotamia Persia, 193. (c S t r a b o I I .9 .2 : J u s t i n 4 1 .4 .5 .

(di Pol 10.27. (c! J u s t i n 4 1 .6 .7 . References·. D e b c v o is e . Political History. RJ-.: 1 8 .1 9 6 8 2 0 2 9 (e sp . Ì 9 6 9


P A R T H I A N S , t h e n a m e g iv e n to a p e o p le f o r m e d o u t o f s e v e ra l n o m a d tr ib e s , b y t h e i r first k in g , A r s a k c s (F). T h e y in v a d e d th e p r o v in c e o f P a r t h ia , c . 2 4 5 , w h e n it h a d m o v e d in to in d e p e n d e n c e u n d e r t h e g o v e r n o r A n d r a ­ g o r a s , c o n q u e r e d it. a n d to o k t h e i r n a m e f ro m it (a). T h e y w ith s to o d a c o u n t e r - a t t a c k b y S e le u k o s I I , c. 2 3 7 (b), b u t w e r e e v e n tu a lly d r iv e n b a c k n o r t h w a r d s b y A n tio c h o s I I I in h is e a s te r n c a m p a ig n , 2 1 0 - 2 0 8 (c). T h e y r e - i n v a d e d c . 171 a n d w e r e in c o n tr o l o f s o m e o f M e d ia b y 1 55 (d) a n d b y 141 M i t h r i d a t e s 1 (F ) h a d c o n q u e r e d B a b y lo n ia (e). T h e y w e r e a t ta c k e d b y D e m c t r i o s I I , w h o w a s d e f e a te d a n d c a p t u r e d in 1 3 9 (f), a n d b y A n tio c h o s V I I , w h o w a s in itia lly s u c c e s s fu l, t h e n w a s d e f e a te d a n d k ille d b y P h r a a t e s II (F ) (g). B y t h e 8 0 s th e y h a d a g o v e r n o r in p la c e in M e s o p o ta m ia (h). T h e i r s u c ­ c e s s w a s d u e , in p a r t , to t h e i r to le r a n c e o f t h e v a r io u s c o m m u n itie s — I r a n i a n , G r e e k , c itie s , tr ib e s , k i n g d o m s — w h o m th e y c o n q u e r e d . Sources: (a) J o s A] 1 3 .2 4 9 - 2 5 3 . (b) J u s t i n 4 1 . (c) P o l 1 0 .2 7 .1 3 1 .1 3 . (d) J u s t i n 4 1 .6 .7 . (c) J u s t i n 4 1 .6 .8 . ( f ) J o s AJ 1 3 .1 8 4 - 1 8 6 . (g) J o s AJ 1 3 .3 8 4 - 3 8 6 .



References·. K. Brodmon, ‘The Dali· of ihr Snrssion . A'/,w,.: RE 19-718 719 IVII.i I. Sehmer II 1*15 148. Teherikoun. HcHWll.



App. Syr 57.

PI .1Λ SION. Egypt. a Ibrtvoss giardini' the eastern approach to Egypt. which was raptured by Amioehos IV in 170. and which Ite will have surrendered in 160 a . It was the place to which Demetrios II reached in his invasion of Egypt in 128. at which point rebellion broke out in his rear, forcing his retreat -b. Sources: a· Jos AJ 12.243; Diod 30.14; Por 49a ',= Burstein 391 tv Por 32.21. References: RE 19.407 415 Pelusion I. PKRAIA, the exstern slopes of theJordan valley, north of the Dead Sea, said to be a toparchv exempted from the Selcukid poll-tax [ά\ an unlikelv claim. Sources: (a> Jos ,17 13.50. References: RE 14,585 586. PERGE, Pamphylia, an old Greek city on a high and defensible site v;0. where Amiochas’ Hi's guutxi commander (O Anon 4^ defied Munitus (F 2' Vulso successfully in 189 ibk Sources: [a\ Strabo 14.4.2. (b) Pol 21.41.1 5. References: RE 19.694 704 Perge 2 and S14.575 577. PERGAMON, Mysia, a city which Philctairos (O) seized control of, in defiance of Lysimachos in 282, and from which he appealed for help to Sclcukos (a). Philctairos founded his dynasty there (b), and minted coins in the name of Sclcukos Nikator, some showing Herakles and Zeus, others the divinised Sclcukos and Athene (c) and his nephew asserted his independ­ ence of the Selcukids (d). Philctairos, Attalos (F), and Eumenes (F), called citi­ zens of Pergamon, were honoured at Delphi (c). In a scries of battles between Attalos I and Amiochos (R) Hicrax and the Galatians near the city, Attalos maintained his independence (f). Inscriptions at Pergamon which note hon­ ours for Zeuxis (O) and Antiochos III, however, suggest that the city had once more been rendered a subject of Antiochos III (g). Sources: (a) Paus 1.9.10. (b) App. Syr 63. (c) Head HN 532-533; BMC Mysia 113. (d) Strabo 13.4.2. (e) FD 432 (= Burstein 54). (f) / Pergamon 22, 23 (= OGIS 274, 275 = Burstein 85). (g) OGIS 237, 240. References\ RE 19.1235-1263.




P E R IA S A S O S T R A , L y d ia , a v illag e in th e W a te r o f M o s tra * w h ic h w as n o te d in a lo a n a n d m o r tg a g e o f e . 3 1 5 . o f w h ic h a r e c o r d w a s in s c rib e d , c. 2 0 0 fa;. Sources: fa; A u stin 181 t= Sardis V I I. 1. 10 3 2 . 1 7, n o . 1 . References: RE 19.7 17 7 1 8. P E R I N T H O S , a city sa id to h a v e b e e n f o u n d e d in S v ria o r u p p e r A sia b v S c lc u k o s I (a;. Sources·, (a) A p p . Syr hi. References: RE 19.8 1 3 . T c h c rik o w c r, Hellenistische Slädtegnmdungen 6 3 6 4. P E R S IA N G U I .E fo r A r a b ia n G u l f ,, th e K r y th ra ia n S e a o f tile S c lc u k id s. B a b y lo n ia n re fu g e e s w e re s e n t th e r e in 311 Iaj. T h e re w a s a S e le u k id n a v y in th is se a m o re o r less c o n tin u o u s ly th r o u g h th e (13 a n d in to th e (12. w ith n a v a l o p e r a tio n s r e c o r d e d u n d e r S e le u k o s I a n d / o r A n tio c lio s I (In, A n tio e h o s I II (c;, a n d a n o t h e r k in g A n tio c h o s , w h o is p r o b a b ly A n tio c lio s III o r I V (dj. T h e is la n d o f Ik a ro s w a s a S e le u k id s e ttle m e n t (ci, th e r e a r e H e lle n is tic r e m a in s o n K h a r g is la n d if j, a n d A n tio c h o s III m a d e a v o y a g e a s f a r a s T y lo s , a n d a m ilita ry e x p e d itio n in to th e A r a b ia n m a in la n d a g a in s t th e tr a d in g c ity o f G e r r h a (g). A n tio c h o s I V ’s r e f o u n d a tio n o f A m io c h c ia o n - th c -E ry th r a ia n - S e a c a n o n ly h a v e h a d re fe re n c e to a c tiv ity in th e G u lf (h ) . Sources: (a; D io d 1 9 .1 0 0 .5 . ib j P lin y Mil 3 4 .7 0 . (c) P o l 1 3 .9 .2 5. fd) P lin y MH 6 .1 5 2 . (c) R o u e c h e /S h e r w in - W h ite , ‘F a ila k a ’. (fJ S . M a th e s o n , Perda, an Archaeological Guide, I / m d o n 1 9 7 6 , 2 4 6 . (g) P ol 13 .9 .2 5. (hj P lin y MH 3 .1 3 9 . References: J .- F . S a lle s, ‘T h e A r a b -P e r s ia n G u l f u n d e r th e S e lc u c id s ’, in S . M . S h c rw in -W h itc a n d A . K u h r t, Hellenism in the East, I x m d o n 1987, 7 5 109. P o tts, Arabian GulfW, 1 2 2 . G . W . B o w e rs o c k , ‘T y r e a n d T y lo s ’, B a h r a in in t h e G r a c c o R o m a n W o r ld , in S h a . H . A . a l- K h a lif a a n d M . R ic e , c d s ., Bahrain through the Ages th e A r c h a e o lo g y , B a h r a in 1 9 9 0 , 3 9 9 406. P E R S I S , th e h is to ric h o m e o f th e P e rsia n s ; its A n tig o n id s a t r a p w a s k ille d in b a ttle b y S e le u k o s I (a), w h o r u le d th e a r e a u n til h is d e a t h (b). T h e la n d m a y w ell h a v e b e c o m e effe c tiv e ly in d e p e n d e n t u n d e r its o w n r u le rs fro m th e n o n (c). P to le m y I I I (F) c la im e d to h a v e c o n q u e r e d it in 2 4 5 , b u t th is is n o t b e lie v a b le (d). A s a tr a p is r e p o r te d to h a v e b e e n a p p o i n t e d in 2 2 3 , b u t h e w a s a c tiv e in S u s a , n o t P e rsis (e). R e b e llio n s a t u n k n o w n d a te s p e r h a p s th e s a m e r e b e llio n r e c o r d e d in s e p a r a te w a y s - - a r e k n o w n (f). It s e e m s u n lik e ly t h a t th e S e le u k id s n e v e r e x e r c is e d c o n tr o l o v e r t h e a r e a in a n y s e rio u s w a y .



(memore. Siles. C3. Alexandros. 22:1 221. Agatlmklcs, C.2. /Mai Dynasts: Bagadat. 280s. Artaxerxes 1 C3. Autophradalcs, ( fi. OI)or/.as, C3. Darrins, (21. Snuro·.·,: a Diod I‘1.92.4. I) App. .Sir 5:1. c

P. N a s ic i.

N o te s d 'c p ig r a p h ic m o n c ta ir c d c P c rsid c : F r a ta k a r a .

Frataraka nu Fraladara?, Iranica Antiqua 6, 19, 74 80. d OCIS 54 = Burslcin 99'. ci Pol 5.40.7. 1' P o ly a in o s 7 .3 9 a n d 40. G . H . C h a s e , ' T h re e H e lle n is tic C o in s ', Bulletin oj the Museum of Fine Arts. B o s to n , 4 6 , 1 9 4 8 , 3 9 4 2 . J . d o M o r g a n , Ancient Persian .\umismatics: Elvmais, N e w Y o rk 1 9 7 6 . P. N a s te r, 'F ir e -a lta r o r F ire -to w e r o n th e C o in s o f P ersis?. Orientalia l/naniensia 1. 1 9 7 0 , 125 129. RE S I 2 .1 0 2 2 1038 esp . 1031 10331.


P E S S 1 N O S , P h ry g ia , th e site o f a n o ta b le te m p le , a n d a p la c e w h ic h b e ­ c a m e th e c e n tr e fo r th e T o lis to b o g ia n G a la tia n s yal; its p rie s ts w e lc o m e d th e R o m a n a d v e n t u n d e r M a n liu s (F ‘21 Y’u lso in 1 89 (b>. Sources: (a) M e m n o n FCrH F 11.1 7. (b) I i v y 3 8 .1 8 .9 ; P o l 2 1 .3 7 .5 7. References'. RE 1 9 .1 1 0 4 1113. P E T R A (1), K a r ia , a v illa g e n e a r th e L a b r a u n d a te m p le , m e n tio n e d i n a le tte r o f O ly m p ic h o s (O ) g r a n tin g th e s a n c tu a ry to M y la s a (al. Sources: (a) I/ibraunda III, 1, 4. P E T R A (2), M y s ia , a tilla g e o r e s ta te in H c llc s p o n tin e s a tr a p y c. 2 7 5 , w h ic h w a s th e s u b je c t o f le tte r s fro m A n tio c h o s 1 (a). Sources: (a) W e lle s RC 10, 11, 12. P H A R A T H O S , P a le s tin e , a p la c e w h ic h w a s fo rtifie d b y B a k c h id e s (O ) in 160 (a).

Sources: (a) J o s AJ 1 3 .1 5 . References: RE 1 9 .1 8 1 5 . P H A R N A K E , a v illa g e o n th e site w h e r e A p a m e a w a s b u ilt (a). Sources: (a) E u s ta th iu s 9 1 8 . P H I L A D E L P H I A (1), K ilik ia , a c ity f o u n d e d b y P to le m y 11 (F) a n d a c ­ q u ir e d , p r e s u m a b ly , b y A n u o c h o s I I I in 1 9 7 , o r p e r h a p s e a r lie r , th o u g h it is n o t sp e c ific a lly n o te d in th e s o u r c e s (a). Sources: (a) P to le m y 5 .8 .5 . References: T c h e r ik o w e r , Hellenistische Städtegmndungen 3 9 - 4 0 .



ΡΗΙΙΛΟΕΙ.ΡΗΙΛ '2 Rahhatamana . a rite founded on an old silt* 1)%' Plolcmy II d'jfaj, and raptured by Ληικκ luis III in 218 b\ It Iterante Srlrukid again in 200. It was ruled by a tyrant, /m oil Kntylas I·- , in 135 e. Sources·, fa) Stephanos e Philatlelpitia. fb) Pol 5.71.4 II. Icj Jos 47 15.235. References: RE 19.2094 2006. Schürer II 155 100. Tchcrikowcr, Hellenistische Sl/ultcgnindungm 77. PHILOMEI.ION, Phrygia, a town presumed to have been rounded by Philomelos fO 1?), a member of a dynastic family settled in Asia Minor in the aftermath of the Macedonian conquest a . References: faj Wilhelm, Neue Heitrage 48 54. PHII.OTERIA, Palestine, a place which was raptured by Antioebos III in 218 (a). Sources: fa) Pol 5.70.3 4. References: RE 20.181 182. Tchcrikowcr, Hellenistische Städtegrundungen 72 73. PHOENICIA, considered as part of Koilc Syria and governed along with it. Arados and its peraia were Scleukid from 301, and the rest of Phoenicia was conquered by Antiochos III in both the Fourth and Fifth Syrian Wars, and so was Scleukid from 200. The cities provided much of the Heel of Antiochos III which was defeated in the Aegean in 190. The various cities progressively detached themselves from the 120s, beginning with Arados in 129. Sources: (a) Strabo 16.2.12. References: Grainger, Hellenistic Phoenicia. F. G. B. Millar, ‘The Phoenician Cities: a Case-study in Hellenisation’, Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 1983, 55 71. RE 20.350- 380. PHOKAIA, Ionia, attacked by Seleukos I when he was acting for Ptolemy in 312 (a). The city’s political position in the C3 is unclear, though in the 220s the city adhered to Attalos (F), as against Achaios (R 1) (b). It was regarded as a Scleukid city during the Roman war, and was taken by the Romans (c). An intrigue with Antiochos Ill’s son Seleukos returned the city to Scleukid control (d), but the Romans again took it, violently (e). It was restored to autonomy by the terms of the Peace of Apamea in 188 (f ). The city minted coins in the C3 showing a head of Hermes or of Athene, backed by a griffin or fruit; it also minted for Antiochos II (g). Sources: (a) Diod 19.60.3-4. (b) Pol 5.77.4. (c) Livy 36.45.7-8. (d) Pol 21.6.1. 6; App. Syr 22, 25; Livy 37.9.1 4. (e) Livy 37.21.7-9, 31.7-32.14.

p i . \ c:k s .


a n d p e o p ijc s


t Livy m:w.i2. g Head //.V .ί Η9. Rtpm-tw. RE 20.M l HH. PHRMilA. crniral Asia Minor, riferirci to as ‘inland* in distinction to that part aloni* the Hellespont. It was taken by Selcukos I after Ipsos aO. but much ut it became settled by (Galatians alter 278. and from then it be­ comes little more than any geographical expression. In e. 212. after the revolt of Achaios R I . and Jewish families sent to settle there from Mesopotamia and Babylonia by Antioehos III \b\ It was a geographical term, not a political unit. Siiunry. a \pp. Syr .‘ιό. b j iis ,1/ 12.1. ΜΗ IäÜ. Ktjnaufv. RE 2l)‘.7HI H(H. PISIDIA, a mountainous region of central Asia Minor, the home of an independent and turbulent people. They were raided by Achaios 1' ia\ and in 193 In Antiorhos III t>; neither ol‘ whom seriously dented the independence of the area. Sources·. ia Pol "i.577 8; 72.1 7ti.ll. hi App. Syr 9.12: 1-ISA References·, ft/·,' 20.1799 1797. PI -ATANt )S. Syria, a defensive position on the Phoenician coast favoured l)y Nikolaus F , the Ptolemaic general commanding against Antioehos 111 in 21H; Antioehos defeated him in the subsequent baule tal. Sources·, la) Pol 5.68.6. References: RE 20.2338 2339. PORPHYRION, Syria the base for Nikolaos (FI, Ptolemy IV’s commander in 218; Atuioebos III won the victory there (a). Sources: (a| Pol 5.68.6 69.11. POSE1DEION, Syria, a small town on the coast south of Sclcukcia-in-Pieria (a). It was it fortress in 2+6 and was visited (but perhaps not taken') byPtolemy III (F) in his cruise in that year (b). Alexander II Zabinas took refuge there when fleeing from Antioch, and was captured (c). Sources: (a) Strabo 16.2.8, 12. (b) ft. Gurob/P. Petrie (= EGrH 160 = Burstein 98). (e) Diod 34/35.28.12. PRIAPOS, Troas, a small city which will have become subject to the Sclcukids in 281 ; it was under Attalid authority later; it produced an autono­ mous coinage, showing Apollo with by a crayfish or a shrimp on the reverse, in the C3 (a). Sources: Head ΗΛ 537; BMC Mysia 176. PRIENE, Ionia, a city which fell to Selcukid control after the battle of Koroupcdion in 281, and where either Seleukos I or Antioehos I confirmed



the status of the temple of Athene Polias a . The city honoured its eiti/ru Sotas (S) for his services against the Galatians. 1270s b . Gommi was prob­ ably lost in the 220s to Attains T, of Pergamon, but recovered by Antiochus III in 201 at the latest, to be lost definitively at the peace of Apamea in 188. The city minted a coinage in the G3 showing Athene or Poseidon hacked by a trident or an owl u‘. It has been extensive excavated, and provides a standard example of an ancient city. Sourcer. fa} OGIS 215. fbj OGIS 765 /= /. l*riene 17 = Hurstein 17 . fc/ Head US 590 501; UX/C fonia 220 251. References: Mastrocinque (lana/ fonia. RR S9.1181 1182. PTOLEMAIS-AKK, Palestine, a city which was handed over by T'heodolos fO 1) to Anliochos III in 218, and which was Antiochos Ill's winter cam}) in 218/217 fa}. It relumed to Seleukid rule in 200, with the rest of Pales­ tine. It contributed troops to the army sent against Judas (Sj in 166 ibi. In 152 its seizure by Alexander I ßalas marked the serious start of his usurpa­ tion (cj, and it was the place where the meeting between Ptolemy VI and Alexander I and the marriage of Alexander I and Kleopatra (R 3> Thea took place, and where Alexander I met Jonathan (O) Maeeabaeus id}. 1Vinetrios I assigned it to Jonathan in retaliation, to embroil his two enemies, though this was not a successful ploy fc). Alexander I and Ptolemy VI (F) met there later, when the city was being used by Alexander as his head­ quarters (f). It was held on behalf of Diodotos-Tryphon (Rj during his rebel­ lion, and it was close to the city that the giant wave destroyed Sarpcdon's (O) army fgj. Demctrios II and Jonathan met at the city, and later it was there that Jonathan was arrested fh). In 126 Kleopatra Thea was in the city, and at her orders the gates were shut and Demctrios II was refused admission (i). It was besieged by Alexander Jannaeus (F), when the city was acting independently fj). It was also besieged by Tigranes (F) in 69, at which time it was providing a refuge for Kleopatra (R 2) Selene. Tigranes had just captured it when he had to return to Armenia due to Lucullus* inva­ sion (k). The city housed a royal mint from the time of Antiochos IV to that of Antiochos XII, and it minted for Ptolemy VI (F) in 148. It also produced an autonomous coinage showing a variety of types of heroes and deities (I). It was a city of major importance in the Seleukid period, several times being used by one king or another as his capital, and was clearly regarded as a suitable place at which a king could be proclaimed. Sources: (a) Pol 4.37.5; 61.5 62.3, 71.12. (b) Jos AJ 12.331. (c) Jos AJ 13/35. (d) Jos AJ 13.81-86; I Mac 10.59. (e) 1 Mac 10.39 and 46. ff) Jos AJ 13.106-108. (g) App. Syr 25, 26. (h) Jos AJ 13.123, 187 -192; 1 Mac 12.48. (i) Jos AJ 13.268. (j) Jos AJ 13.324-333.



k Ins η l:UI9 41?I. I 1lead //.V 793; M tc Phoenicia 128. References·. Bellinger. 'End of tlu· Seleueids’. Λ. Houghton and (». 1/- Rider, ix* dcuxièmc fils d’Antiochos IV a Ptolemais’. \\R 64. 1993. 73 85. RE 20.1883 1886. Rouvier. IV 193 232. Sdniter II 121 127. l eherikower, HeilemstLsche Stadlegrundungen 77 78. Π I IlOKOMK. Mysia, a village near Pamuikome (?i in the Hcllcspontine satrapy a . Snurrev. a Welles RC 20. RABBATAMANA, Transjordan, see Philadcphia. RAMATHAIN. a toparchy delivered over to Jonathan (Ol by agreement with Demetrios II a . Sources: ai Jos AJ 13.123 129. RAMITHK, a village on the site of the city of Ixtodikcia-ad-Mare (ah Sources: ;ai Stephanos .«· Laodikcia y\\ RAPHIA, Palestine, the last sizeable place on the road from Syria to Egypt. A battle was fought nearby in 217 in which Ptolemy IV’s (Fl army defeated that of Antioehos III SEG 1 380 c= Austin 1131. Pol 5.77.1. Pol 7.15.1 18.10; 8.21.4 11. in P. Gauthier, Smmltes Imcnpliom de Sardes II (Pans 1989) I and 2. (gl (hi Pol 21.11.1 and 13.1; App. Syr 36. (i) Pol 21.16.1. (j) Welles RC 18. A . .... „ (k) Sardis VII, 1, 1932, 1 7, no. 1 (- Austin 81). References: G. M. A. Hanfmann and S. VV. Jacob (cds.), Archaeological Espioration of Sardis, I, Cambridge, Mass, 19 5. ~ , F. R. Mcrkelbach, 'Brief des Antiochos III an die Stadt Sardis, EA, F. Rejko^The Se,tleme.it of Sardis after the Fall of Achaios', AJ Phil 108, 1987, 707 728. RE 1A.2475 2478. S A * ™ ,O N I O N . - ra p r

Em pire after the defeat at Magnesia and m the Apam sta(t'd to be not passable by Selcukid warships (b).

Sources: (a) App. Syr 39. .

(b) Pol 2 1.42.14; L h y 38.38.9.

Preferences: RE 2A.48.




SELEUKEIA fl/ 'Karkh Djuddan , Babylonia, supposed, by its later name of Sloq, to have been originally named Seleukeia: it is only vaguely loc ated in Garamea. References·. Chaumont, ‘Villes héllénisés', Ibi 162. SELKUKKIA (2}t Gaulanilis, a plate which was raptured by Alexander E Jannacus in c. 83 (a,. Its name suggests a rcfoundalion; its position insists that this look plate in the C2, sinte the Seleukitls only rontrolled the Gaulanitis from 200. Sources', /a; Jos Ajf 13.393. inferences: RE 2Λ.256Ι Seleukeia 12. Tcherikowcr, Hellenistische Städtegrundungen 70. SELEUKEIA (3) fSloq), Mesopotamia, noted only as one of the cities of Mesopotamia by Pliny, one founded by the gathering of the local rural population into cities, and thus its foundation probably look place fairly early (a). Sources; fa) Pliny N il β. I 17. References: Chaumont, ‘Villes héllénisés", 157 Ibi. RE 2A.25bl 2562 Seleukeia 14. Tcherikowcr, Hellenistische Städtegrundungen 97. SELEUKEIA (4j ‘Sidera’, Pisidia, one of the cities planted close to the Pisidians, with the intention of controlling them (aj. References: RE 2Λ.1205 1206 Seleukeia 6. Tcherikowcr, Hellenistische Städtegrundungen 37. SRLEUKEIA-AD-BELUM, iScleukobelos; Syria, a place noted by Pliny (al It was a village recorded in the lands of Apamea in Syria, where Slavs were settled in the G7 AD fb). The name implies settlement and naming in the Scicukid period, and is of note as showing that sudi dynastic names were not confined to cities. Sources: fa) Pliny NH 5.82; Stephanos sv Seleukobelos. fb) Theophanes, Chronographia fed. Bonn) AM 6156. References: J. C. Baity, ‘Le Belus du Chalcis et Ics fleuves de Ba’al de SyricPalestinc1, Archeologie du Levant, Receuil R. Saidah, Lyon 1982, 287 298. RE 2A. 1200-1203 Seleukeia 3. Tcherikowcr, Hellenistische Städtegrundungen 57. SELEUKEIA-BY-THE-ERYTHRAIAN-SEA, a city which passed a decree recognising the festival of Artemis Leukophryene at Magnesia (a). Sources: (a) /. Magnesia 61 (= OGIS 233 - Burstcin 32). References'. RE S6.660 Seleukeia 16. T ch erik o w e r,

Hellenistische Städtegrundungen 98.




.SI'.I.KI'KI'.IA-IN-MARGIANK, a name applied. perhaps only temporarily, to a l ily originally i alini Alexandria and later Amiocheia ya>. .Wrrri: a I’lins V// Otti A/c/ihki: Rl\ 2.V25til I Seleukeia 10. SI'.I.KI KMIA-I.N'-I’A.MI’HVI.IA. a place whose origin is unclear. Its geo­ graphical position. In-tween Side and the Eurymedon, in an area which was generally under l’lolemaie control or influence, suggests that it was an attempt In the Seleukids to establish a foothold in Pamphylia, at some time in the Chi a. Sourcee a Sluduisitius Mart' Magna. R,jnnr is: A1/'. 2Λ 1205 Seleukeia 7. Tchcrikuwer. Ilellnmtiuhe Sladlrgrundungen 36. SEI.El KKIA-IN-PIERIA. Syria, a city founded by Seleukos I and named for himself, supposedly on the site of two earlier foundations called Palaiopolis and lopolis. though these are doubtful tal. It contained the necropolis of the Seleukitl kings b . It was captured by Ptolemy 111 (F) in 246 ycl and held until recaptured by Antiochus III in 219 (dl Anliochos HI is recorded at the city more than once a·1, and letters of Seleukos IV have survived, as have two lists of dynastic priests yfStrabo's description notes the main points: it was 120 iladia from Antioch, the Orontes reaches the sea there and it was called, perhaps poetically, 'hydatos-potamoi'. Its importance had faded with its capture in 246 ig). In the civil wars of the 140s the city mimed the adclphon demon'coins, suggesting brotherhood with Antiochcia, but more often the two were on opposing sides. It was held by Aischrion (Oj for Demetrius II against Tryphon (RI, and Kleopatra (R 3) Thca also took refuge there h . and it was where Antioehos VII came to and was made king in 13!) fli by marrying Kleopatra Thca. The city refused entry to the fleeing Alexander II ijl. Its autonomy was recognised by a decree of Antioehos VIII in 10!) ,kl. It held out against Tigranes (F) in die 70s (11. and in 64 it was made a free city by Pompeius (FI (m). In his inconsequen­ tial way, Athenaios notes that the sea nearby was the source of the best ribbon lish (n>. The citv was a royal mint, and produced an autonomous coinage in the C2 and Cl showing the Tychc of the city, Zeus or Apollo on the obverse, and a thunderbolt, a tripod or htrelts on the reverse (o). Sources·, (a) Strabo 16.2.4; App. Syr 57: Diod 20.47.6; Malalas, Chromele 8.12. (bl App. Syr 20. (c) P. Gurob/P. Petrie (= hXlrH 160 = Burstein 98). (dj Pol 5.58.3 61.2. (e) Pol 5.66.3 5; App. Syr 4. (Γ) Welles RC 45; OG/S 245 (= Austin 177). (g) Strabo 16.2.7 8. (h) Diod 33.28. (i) Jos .-1J 13.222 223. (j) Diod 34/35.28.1. (k) Welles RC 71.72. (l) Cicero Vereines (m) Strabo 16.2.8.



inj Athcnaios 326 a iMithaikos An of Cooking . foj Head //Λ 782 783; BMC Galatia Cappadocia Syria 269. References'. V. Ghapot, ‘Sclcucie dr Picric . Afemotres de la Societe de\ Anlitpiaires de France, 66, 1906, 149 226. Grainger, Seleukid Cities. A. Jahne, ‘Die “Syrische Frage ", Seleukeia in Pierini und die Ptolemäer’, filio Γ>6, 1974, 301 519. Λ. MaeNicoll, ‘Some Developments in Hellenistic Siege Warfare with Special Reference to Asia Minor'. !Oth International Congress of Classical Archaeologists, Ankara 1984, 403 420. RF, 2Λ.1184 1200 Seleukeia 2. K. J. Rigsby, Selcucid Notes: III. The Brother Peoples'. /.1 /31 110, 1980, 242 248. Seyrig, ‘Seleucus Γ, 298 307. H. Seyrig, ‘Décret de Séléucie et ordonnance de Seleucus IV . Anliquités Syriennes 7, .Syria 13, 1932, 255 258. Tcherikower, Hellenistische Städtegrundungen 59 60. SEIJvUKFiIA-ON-THE-KALYKAD.\OS, Kilikia Fradicia, a city (bunded by Selcukos I on the site of the former Olba and named for himself (a). Much of the population was recruited from the nearby town of Holmi, which it replaced (b;. The city coined in the C2 and CD, producing an autonomous series with obverses of Athene, Apollo and Artemis, and reverses showing Nike, a horse or Athene (cj, and a royal series from the reign of Antiochos III to that of Selcukos VI. Sources: (a) Alexander Polyhistor FGH 273 Kl 32; Suda, sv Seleukeia (= FGrlf II A 273 (Alexander Polyhistor;); Stephanos sv Seleukeia (I)· (b) Strabo 14.5.4; Pliny NH 5.93. Ic) Head H N 727; BMC Lycaonia lsamia Cilicia 128 130. References. A. Houghton, ‘The Royal Seleucid Mint o f Selcucia-on-theCalycadnus’, in G. lx: Rider, K. Jenkins, N. Waggoner, U. Westermark (cds.), Kraay-Morkholm Essays, Ixmvain 1989, 77 96. RE 2A. 1203-1204 Seleukeia 4. Tcherikower, Hellenistische Stadlegrundungen 39. SELEUKEIA-ON-THE-MAI ANDROS (Tralleis), Karia, a city called at various times Euanthia, Seleukeia, and Antiochcia, and locally simply Trallcis (a). The city made an isopolity agreement with Milctos in 212/211 (b), and received a letter from Antiochos III concerning Tcos (c). It supplied troops to the king for his army which fought at Magnesia in 190 (d), and surren­ dered rapidly after the defeat (c). It was expressly assigned to the Attalids at the Peace of Apamea (f). Sources, (a) Pliny N H 5.108. (b) I Tralles 20. (c) Welles RC 44. (d) App. Syr 32. (e) Livy 37.45.1. (f) Livy 38.39.12. References: RE 2A. 1205 Seleukeia 8, 6A.2099-2128 (esp. 2102-2103) Trallcis.





SKI.Kl’KEIA-ON-THE-TIGRIS. Babylonia, the first city with his name founded by Srleukos I and populated in part by Babylonians tat. It is called the "royal city" in Babylonian records. Its magistrates journeyed to Sardis to see Antiochiis I. and receives people from Babylon as settlers vb l It was the target of Molon R in his rebellion. It was defended by Zeuxis |0 ' but taken after Molon’s uctory over Xenoites tOV Alter Antiochos Ill's own vic­ tory it was lined hcavilv by Henneias O', and then reprieved by the king c . It was one of the great cities of its time, equal in size with Anliochcia .d'. The city passed a decree recognising the festival of Artemis Leukophryene tit Magnesia, e. 207 e . and one citizen. Ix-odamas ;S), was kitharoidos at the Great Asklepeia early C2 i f 1. It was taken by Timarchos iR'1 in his rebellion in 162, and it may have been possession of the royal city which permitted him to take the royal title igi. It changed hands three times in the Parthian wars, and was afterwards threatened with punishment by Phraates 11 Τ ' of Parthia after the death of Antiochos VU th). being ruled harshly by his governor Himeros FI til. Strabo makes the point that it was not the Parthian capital ( j 1, but Pliny notes that it was in his day. still a Macedonian city, with a huge population |k). The city produced coins at a royal mint, and its autonomous coins showed Tyche backed by Tyche or the Tigris or other symbols ill. Sources: tat App. Syr 57 58; Strabo 16.1.5; Paus 1.16.2. ibi S. Smith. Babylonian Historical Texts, 1924, 150 159 (= Austin 1411; Sachs and Hunger, Astronomical Diaries, -273. (cl Pol 5.45.3 4; 48.11 12; 54.9 11. (d) Strabo 16.2.5. (e) /. Magnesia 61 (= OCHS 233 = Burstein 32). (f 1 Sherwin White, ^PE, 47, 1982, 68. (g) Diod 31.27a. (hi Diod 34/35.19. (i) Athenaios 466b c. (j) Strabo 16.1.16. (k) Pliny A H 6.122. (l) Head HA 815; BMC Arabia Mesopotamia Persia 140 141. References: P. Bernard, ‘Epigraphic Cuneiforme et Histoire Hellcnistique’, BCH 114, 1990, 536-539. L. T. Doty, ‘A Cuneiform Tablet from Tell Umar’, Mesopotamia 13/14, 1978 1979, 91-97. Grainger, Seleukos Aikator. R. A. Hadley, ‘The Foundation Date of Selcuccia-on-the-Tigris’, Historia 27, 1978, 228fT. C. Hopkins (cd.), Topography and Architecture of Seleuceia-on-the-Tigris, Ann Arbor 1972. G. K. Jenkins, ‘Notes on Seleucid Coins’, MC 11, 1951, 1-21. RE 2A. 1149 1184 Seleukeia 1. S. M. Sherwin-White, ‘Babylonian Chronicle Fragments as a Source for Seleucid History’, JMES 42, 1983, 265-270. N. M. Waggoner, ‘The Early Alexander coinage at Seleuceia on the Tigris’, ANSMM 15, 1969, 21-29.

(; λ /. ι ί τ ι ·.κη


SKLKL KKIA-SOKOKK, a city 'near the llcdyplum rivrr' which was taken by the Partiiians fai. Il baci berli quoted as reeogni sing ihr festival t Artemis Ix-ukophrycnr al Magiicsia-on-lhe-Maiaiidros in 206 b . Sources: la) Strabo Ih. 1.78. fb; I. Magnesia til a"· Sources: fa) Santis VII, I, 1932, 1 7, no. ! (- Austin 181 TOCHOA, Judaea, a place fortified by Bakchidcs '(),i in IbO (a). Sources: (a) Jos AJ 13.15. TOLISTOBOGII, a Galatian tribe who were part of the original invaders in 278, and who settled in Galatia soon after, their centre being Tubai (a)· They were involved in the wars of the third century, but the .sources usu­ ally simply mention Galatians. They were defeated by Attains I tF) in balde near the sources of the Kaikos when allied with the Tektosagii and Antiochos (R I) Hicrax (b). Antiochos III had troops from the tribe in his army Magnesia (c), and they were attacked by Manlius (F 2) Vulso as allies of Antiochos in 189 (d). Sources, (a) Memnon FGrH F 11.1 7. (b) OGIS 275, 276 f= I. Pergamon 23, 24 = Burslein 85). (c) App. 32. (d) App. Syr 42. References: RE 6A.1673 1677. TRALLEIS, see Scleukeia-on-the-Maiandros. TRIERIS, Phoenicia, a town, a kind of stronghold (a) which was burnt by Antiochos III in 218 (b). Sources: (a) Strabo 16.2.15. fb) Pol 5.68.8. References: RE 7A. 119-120 Trieris 2.

p i j m :e $.





TRIPOLIS, Phoenicia, a city founded by the joint action of Tyre, Sidon and Aradns. c. 360 a . It was the landing place of Demetrius I when he returned from Italy in 162 b . and the destination of Antiochos IX Kyzikonos aft e e tu le d tr o n i tlie s e ttle r s S e le u k o s I ( e s p e c ia lly ', e n t i c e d t o t h e k in g d o m . p a r t i c u l a r i s a l l e r HIM). T h e y w e r e th e c itiz e n s o t t h e n e w c itie s , a n d th e m a in la n d o w n e r s , a llo tte d p lo ts o f l a n d fleroi' o n t h e le g n i r e q u i r e ­ m e n t t o s e rv e in th e a r m y w h e n c a lle d o n . 'H ie a r m y w h ic h c o u l d b e f ie ld e d h a d r e a c h e d a to ta l o f o v e r 70.01)0 m e n b y t h e tim e o f t h e b a t t l e o f R a p h i a in -’ I " f . w h ic h im p lie s a s u b s ta n tia l f u r t h e r n u m b e r left o n g u a r d e ls e ­ w h e r e in t h e k i n g d o m . S u c h a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f m e n w a s h ig h ly u n u s u a l , a n d n n l \ t o b e p r o d u c e d in t h e g i r a t e s i e m e r g e n c y . O t h e r a r m i e s w e r e stilis i.in ti.tlh less, f l u · l i n e e A n t i o c h o s 111 to o k t o t h e e a s t w a s a b o u t h a l f th a t siz e g . a n d t h e a r m y d e f e a t e d a t M a g n e s i a w a s a b o u t 4 0 . 0 0 0 il l '. B u t th e b e s t i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e a r m y 's q u a l i t y p e r h a p s c o m e s ill t h e a c c o u n t o f th e e r o s s in g o f t h e I'.llm rz r a n g e in M e d i a in 2 0 9 . w h e r e t h e a b i l i t i e s a n d skills o f t h e v a r i o u s c o n t i n g e n t s w e r e c a r e f u lly u tilis e d t o w in a c o n v i n c i n g tu tti c h e a p v ic to r y i . T h e t i n n y o n d is p la y a l t h e g r e a t p a r a d e a t D a p h n e in Itili w a s c o m p o s e d p r in c ip a lly o f s e le c te d u n its , c h o s e n f o r t h e i r p r e s t i g e a n d d is p la y p r o w e s s , a n d is n o t t o h e ta k e n a s ty p ic a l o r c o m p r e h e n s i v e y jl. In I T ) . A n t i o c h o s V I I w a s a b l e t o ta k e a n a r m y r e p u t e d a t 7 0 .0 0 0 e a s t ­ w a r d s f r o m ju s t t h e S y r i a n . K ilik ia n a n d B a b y lo n ia n s e c tio n s o f t h e k in g ­ d o m . k . T h e lo ss o f th is a r m y w a s t h e f in a l d is a s te r . W i t h o u t a n a r m y t h e S e le u k id s w e r e d o o m e d . Sources. a D io tl 1 9 .9 0 .1 : A p p .Vyr 5 4 . ili D io tl 1 9 .9 0 .1 4 : 9 2 . f 5. ici S t r a ll o I.5 .2 .9 . id · P in t A m 2 « ; D io d 112. i e i P a u s I . Iti. I. d 'i P o l 5 .7 9 . ig l P o l 1 0 .2 « 2 1 . d ii I . i w 2 7 .2 9 .7 10; A p p . i r r 2 1 . (i) P o f 1 0 .2 8 2 1 . t j ) P o l 2 0 .2 5 . (k) J u s t i n 2 8 .9 ; A p p . Syr 6 7 . Referencey. B a r - K o c h v a i eleurid .4m o . B i k c r m a n . Institutions e h . 2. S e e a ls o : A g e m a . A r c h e r s , C a t a p h r a c t s , C a v a l r y , C h a r i o t e e r s . A S Y I .I A . a s ta tu s to w h ic h c itie s o f te n a s p ir e d , p a r tic u la r ly in tim e s o f s v a r ia r e , w h i c h w a s s u p p o s e d to p r o v i d e a c e r t a i n d i v in e p r o t e c t i o n . T h e f a c t t h a t it w a s o f t e n p a r t o f a f o r m u l a , ‘h o ly a n d a s y lo s ’, a n d t h a t a l m o s t e v e r y c ity c l a i m e d t h e s t a tu s , s u g g e s ts t h a t it w a s o n ly p a r t l y s u c c e s s fu l. I t w a s n o t a s t a tu s m u c h f a v o u r e d in t h e i n n e r p a r t s o f t h e S e lc u k id k i n g d o m , b u t m a i n l y c o n c e n t r a t e d in t h e c itie s o f d ie A e g e a n b a s in . S e le u k e ia - in - P ie r ia w a s g r a n t e d it in 1 0 9 , b y o n e o f t h e f e u d in g k in g s A n t i o c h o s (a), a n d s e v e r a l S y r i a n c itie s c l a i m e d t h e s t a tu s s o o n a f t e r , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r c o i n a g e . Sources: (a) W e lle s RC 7 1 / 7 2 . References·. A. M a s t r o c i n q u c , 'C i t t a s a c re e “ a s y iia ” a ll fin e d e lla g u e r r a t r a R o m a e .A n tio c o I I I ’, Contributi dell’Istituto di Studi Antici 1 0 , 1 4 2 - 1 6 3 . H . S e y r i g , ‘L e s r o is S é lé u c i d e s e t la c o n c e s s io n d e l’a s y lie ’, A n t i ­ q u a r s S y r i c n n c s 2 4 , Syria 2 0 , 1 9 3 9 , 3 5 - 3 9 .




W . W irg in , 'O n th e R ig h t o f A s s iu m in H e lle n is m 148. B ik e rm a n , Institution.i 148 157.

S v ri.t'. 157

B U L I A E , d a y tu b e s fix ed to d o e u m e n is a t th e p o in t o f u lh c ia l re g is tr a tio n . T h e y a r c s ta m p e d w ith th e se al o f th e o flie c r p e r f o r m in g th e r e g is tr a tio n . T h e y a r c k n o w n a b o v e a ll fro m B a b y lo n ia , a n d s h o w th e existence o f office o f chreophylax, a n d giv e e v id e n c e o f tile ta x r e g im e th e r e . References·. D o ty ; VV; Μ . I. R o s to v t/.e ll. 'S e le u c id B a b y lo n ia '. ICS 4 . IO i j B I B L I O P H Y I A X , ‘a rc h iv is t’, a n o ilie r n o te d o n ly o n c e , a t S a r d is , c. 2.30 a . la) OCIS 2 2 5 1= A u s tin 185 .


C A T A P H R A C T S , a ty p e o f a r m o u r e d c a v a lry , w h ic h w a s a b s e n t f ro m th e field a t R a p h ia , b u t o f w h ic h A n tio c h o s III h a d a n i m p o r t a n t , b a ttle - w in n in g c o n tin g e n t a t P a n io n (a;, a n d 3 ,0 0 0 a t M a g n e s ia l> . T h e w e ig h t o f th e a r m o u r th e y c a r r ie d m e a n t th a t a sp e c ia lly p o w e r fu l b r e e d o f h o r s e s w a s n e e d e d , a n d it w as o n ly th e a c q u is itio n o f th e N is a e a n h o r s e - b r e e d in g g r o u n d s w h ic h g a v e A n tio c h o s III th e c a p a b ility o f ra is in g th is fo rc e . T h e n e w h o rs e s m a y th e r e fo r e h a v e b e e n b r e d o r ig in a lly b y th e P a r titio n s , w h o r e r ia itilv u s e d c a ta p h r a c ts e x te n s iv e ly la te r. T h e u n it A n tio c h o s III b a d a t M a g n e s ia w a s e x tr e m e ly su c c e ssfu l, a n d b r o k e a R o m a n le g io n c , in d ic tin g s u llii ie m c a s u a ltie s to p r o v o k e th e R o m a n s to lie a b o u t h o w g r e a t t h e i r lo ss e s w e r e in th e b a ttle . B u t A n tio c h o s lo st th e b a ttle e ls e w h e r e . Sources: (a) P o l 18.8, 1 9 .4 6. fb) L iv y 3 7 .4 0 .5 . (c; I j v y 3 7 .4 3 .1 5; A p p . Syr 3b. References: B a r- K o c h v a , Seleucid Army 7 4 7 5 . W . W . T a m , Hellenistic A'aval and Military Developments 7 7 . C A V A L R Y , a m a jo r p a r t o f t h e S c lc u k id a r m y , a n d o n e o f its p r e e m i n e n t a r m s . I t w a s r e c r u ite d fro m m a n y a r e a s . S e le u k o s I h a d 2 0 ,0 0 0 h o r s e in b is a rm y w h e n h e c a m e w e s t to j o in in d e f e a tin g A n ü g o n o s (F ) M o n o p h t h a la m o s a t Ip so s in 3 0 2 (a). T h e m a jo r ity o f th e s e m u s t h a v e b e e n M o d e s a n d B a k tr ia n s , r e c r u ite d in th e p r e v io u s te n y e a rs . A t R a p h i a t h e r e w a s a c o n ­ tin g e n t o f 6 ,0 0 0 c a v a lr y , u n d if f e r e n tia te d , p r e s u m a b ly o f M a c e d o n i a n ty p e (b); a t M a g n e s ia , th e r e w e re G a l a t i a n , M a c e d o n i a n ( th e agema), c a t a p h r a c t , a n d lig h t- a r m e d C o m p a n io n c a v a lry g r o u p s , a n d v a r io u s g r o u p s o f m o u n t e d a r c h e r s (c); a t D a p h n e th e r e w e r e c o n tin g e n ts c a lle d N is a e a n h o r s e , A n tio c h h o r s e , C o m p a n i o n c a v a lr y , F r ie n d s ’ c a v a lr y , t h e agema, a n d c a t a p h r a c t s , a m o u n t i n g t o 8 ,5 0 0 m e n in all (d). Sources: (a) D io d 1 1 3 ; P lu t Dem 2 8 . (b) P o l 5 .7 9 .1 2 , 8 2 .5 - 8 , 8 4 .8 . (c) A p p . Syr 3 1 ; L iv y 3 7 .4 0 .5 - 8 , 10 13. (d) P o l 3 0 .2 5 . References: B a r - K o c h v a , Seleucid Army 6 7 - 7 5 . C H A R I O T E E R S , a c o n tin g e n t o f s c y th e d c h a r i o t s f o u g h t in S e le u k o s l ’s fo rc e a t I p s o s (a), a n d a g a in s t D e m e tr io s I in K ilik ia (b ), a n d , in e ffe c tiv e ly *

lNSiriVriONS OK 'ΠIK KINGDOM ;»ι M .ig n rv i.i in tin S rlc itk id a r m y S e lr u k id ( le ie r m iiia lio n n r |> erh ap s ty p e s o f m ilita ry m a n p o w e r so u rc e s •Vmichyc a D in d Jt), 11.5.1; l ’lut D o n


c . T h e ir p re se n c e is a te s tim o n y to ju s t th a t o f A m io rh o s 111 to u se all in th e k in g d o m . 2 8 .3 .

I> Thu l)m IH.li. c I.iv\ 57.1 I ti -12.1. Rrfmwtrw B.ir-Koi hva. .Imp 83 8-1. C IIlf.T MINISTER. see tfn Ion ftragmntmi. ( II IRT.t tl’I 1Y1-W. a tax and registration ollicial. known from the bullae issued by him in Hahylonia. Whether the oilier was kingdom-wide is not known, but likely, though, apart from Babylonia it is attested so far only in a single reference at Susa a . /ie/ere/utv: Bikertnan, Intliluliono 208 209. D oty

; M.

1. R o s tm t/.e lf . ‘S e le u c id B a b y lo n ia '. i'C S

3. 1932.

(IITIKS, the master inslitution of the kingdom. Apart from the geographi­ cally small area of Babylonia, Srleukos 1 had no already-urbanised territo­ ries in his kingdom until his conquest of Asia Minor in the last year of his life and reign. But cities were essential, for a whole variety of reasons. He needed Greek tuie! Macedonian manpower, above all for his army, but also for his administration, and these men required cities to live in- they would scarcely leave their homes in order to become field-cultivating peasants. The c ities were fortified, and so acted as garrisons for the purpose of con­ trolling the surrounding lands, which were inhabited by potentially hostile Syrians. Modes. Baktrians. and so cm. In addition, each city had a garri­ soned acropolis, which ensured royal authority within the city. A land dot­ ted with cities became much more diflirult for an enemy -the Ptolemies, as an example to conquer. Equally, of course, it meant that a rebellious area became that much more likely to escape; it took Antiochos 111 four years to retake Asia Minor from Achaios (R I), and he never did succeed in recon­ quering Baktria.

The first city Selcukos I founded was Scleukeia-on-thc-Tigris, and it was one of a series, each founded by one of the new generals who were about to become kings Kassandros' Thcssalonike. Lysimachos’ Lysimacheia, Antigonos' Antigoneia. These cities were intended as capitals, royal cities, on the pattem of Alcxandria-by-Egypt. But after the destruction of Antigonos (F) Monophlhalamos, Selcukos adopted the practice of city-founding as a device for holding onto the fragment of Syria which he gained as his re­ ward for the victory of Ipsos. In that small area he founded ten cities, some on the sites of already existing Macedonian and Greek settlements which had developed in the past thirty years, but four of them were massive Alexandria-type cities. It was an enormous undertaking, and it was only just that they were named for members of his own family, and that the whole area became called the ‘Seleukis’. Other groups of these royal cities were planted in Media, and in Asia Minor, when he conquered it, and single cities were scattered liberally over



other areas. The existing urban sites were either permitted to nmtinue. if they were loyal and large, as in Babylonia, or were re-organised into a more-or-less standard pattern. «»Iteti being given a new name to symbolise their new status. So Bambyke became Hiernpolis. Nisibis Antio« heia-iuMygdonia, and so on. I he existing Greek and Macedonian settlements usu­ ally had names imported from home, and dies«· continued, but their loyalty was ensured by garrisons, by royal foundations being planted nearby, and perhaps by reinforcing the new inhabitants by newer. There wi le many of these places, and they arc a testimony to the determination of many settlers to plant themselves in the new lands, whoever was to be king, lor many had survived Alexander, the various t ivil wars, and Antigonus, to lie accepted by Selcukos. The (low of colonists to the eastern lands dried tip by the C.3. and later cities were places which were awarded a royal name. Often these were geographically small. This was the work, often, of Antiochus 1Y. but other kings were also addicted to the praelite. Sometimes a city gained isso ol these names, which prefigure the extensive practice ol hi moniti names in the Roman Umpire. Sec also Colonisation. References: M. Avi-Yonah, Hellenism and the Rast. Jerusalem I1I7H. eh. 8. Cohen, Seleucid Culonies. Grainger, Seleukid Cities. A. H. M. Jones, file Creek City from Alexander la Justinian, Oxford 1940, chs. I, 2, (i, and 10. E. Meyer, ‘Die Makedonischen Militärcolonicn’, Hermes Ti. 1898, 643 647. Λ. Schulten, ‘Die Makedonischen Militärcolonicn', Hermes 32, 1897, 523 537. Tchcrikower, Hellenistischer Städtegrundungen. E. Will, ‘Poleis hcllenistiqucs; deux notes’, Fehns du Monde Classique/ Classical Views, 32, 1988, 329 352. COLONISATION. A substantial number of settlements by Greeks and Macedonians in the conquered Asian lands were not urban, or at least not organised as cities. The evidence for these is concentrated in Asia Minor, and is often late, but there arc enough places with Macedonian names to suggest that this was an important clement in the Hellenic settlement of these new lands. Whether the movement extended further than Asia Minor is less clear. The likelihood is that it did not. The large number of cities founded in the early years in the eastern lands meant that there was less need for such settlement, and the low proportion of incomers to native inhabitants meant that the incomers would naturally congregate in cities for mutual protection. The settlers, whether in cities or not, were provided with land by order of the royal government. The allotment was called a kleros, and would typically consist of both urban and rural land, and the rural land would contain corn-land, vine-land, orchard-land, and perhaps woodland, so to enable the settler to live on the produce of his estate. It would also contain inhabitants to work it, for the settler was to be a rentier, not a peasant. The kleros was



ΙίΐιιΛ 'ΐι Ι>\ ihr n.unc 7 92. and lil. 1982. 83 98. ( l o h e n . 'S r l e i u id C o l o n i e s ’.

(i. M. (lohen. 'Katoikiai, Katoikoi and Macedonians in Asia Minor". Ancient Society 32. 1991, 41 30. Γ. I.. Holt. Alexander the Great and Bactria. part 4. CO M RANK )N. a temi given to certain units of die Seleukid army; at Raphia they fought close io ih«· king .a', as they did at Panion (bl; at Magnesia there was a li irre o f light-armed Companion cavalry (c), and at Daphne a unit o f 1000 Com panion cavalry paraded (dl It implied a special royal guard status for the units. T he title was no longer applied to elements o f the infant ry as in Alexander's army. Sources: o n P o l 3 . 8 3 . 1 2 . (hi Pol Iti.18.7. to App. Syr 32. (dl Pol 30.23. References·. Bar-Koch va. Seleucid Army 07 73. C U S T O M S D U TIES, see Taxes. DIOIKKTKS, a financial official, a term used both for a government official and for a m an on an estate (a). A letter o f Andochos III to the Plutonium at Nysa appears to refer to an official of this ride (b), but they are not otherwise attested. Sources: (a) Austin 113 (= SEG I 386). (b) Welles RC 43. References: Bikcrman, Institutions 129. EKJCLOGISTES, ‘accountant’; an official, recorded in a reference to an estate near Apollonia of Salbake, who may have been employed in a pri­ vate capacity, but whose existence as an official is very likely (a). Sources: (a) Austin 187 (= L. and J. Robert, La Carie, Paris 1954, 295-302, no. 106). ELEPH A NTS, a corps o f elephants was a permanent feature o f the Seleukid arm y from the time Seleukos I acquired 400 or 500 from Chandragupta (F) M aurya, and used them to help him to victory at Ipsos (a). At Raphia Antiochos III deployed 102 (b), at Magnesia 54 (c), and at the D aphne parade Antiochos IV had 42 (d). O ne o f Seleukos’ original contingent from



India lived on into his son's reign · More griirrally. tin· existenee at every Seleukid city which has been examined, ol .in aeropolis constructed to be separate from it and to dominate the city unpin s that every city had a garrison of soldiers both to dclend the i ity itself. and to control it. This would be part of the duties ol the normal peat e-time army, and the garrisons would presumably also partly consist of the inuscripts doing their period of compulsory military service. Sources: (a; I Magnesia ad Sipylm, I. (b; Sherwin-White, fJ ’E, 47, 11)82, öl 70. References·. Grainger, Seleukid Cities, 61 62. 86 87. HEGEMON, a military title used by two men who commanded the mer­ cenaries used as a garrison at Babylon. (Id. Sources: fa; Sherwin-White, 47. 1982. öl 70. References: Bar-Kochva, Seleucid Army 91 9.Ö. IONIAN LEAGUE, an old voluntary association of the Greek s ities of Ionia, which was apparently revived by I.ysimachos as part of his method of con­ trol. It continued in the Seleukid period, and an inscription front Kla/otnenai records a festival established by the league for Antiochus I, 268/262 a .·. Its effectiveness as a method of control and as a voluntary association was distinedy limited. Sources: (a) I Klagomenai, (in I Erythrai, II;, Ö04. JAVELINEERS, a contingent of 500 Lydians fighting with javelins fought at Raphia in the Seleukid army (a;; an unspecified javclinccr group fought at Magnesia (b). They arc an example of the Selcukids’ purpose in tapping all the military manpower sources of the kingdom as possible. Sources: (a) Pol 5.79.11. (b) Livy 37.41.4. References: Bar-Kochva, Seleucid Army 48 53. KINSMAN (syngennes), a title for exceptionally influential men at the royal court, apparently applied on a very individual basis. References: Bikcrman, Institutions 42 44. ‘MACEDONIAN’, was part of the titulature of the Seleukid kings, just as their predecessors had always called themselves ‘the Akhaimenid’. The Macedonian heritage was manifested also in other ways, by the use of the Macedonian shield as a symbol, for instance, and in certain Court prac­ tices, such as dances in which the king took part (a), in the same way as the pre-Alexandrian kings of Macedon did—for example Philip II after Chaironea. This was clearly deliberate on the part of the Selcukids, presumably for good reasons, which can only be a careful appeal to elements of their own people, and a differentiation from their gTeat compedtors, the Ptolemies. As such, it will have dated back to a decision of the Founder himself, an­ other good reason for retaining it. It was, of course, also very limiting. Sources, (a) Athenaios 155 a-b.

iN s m riio N s ο ι

τ ιικ

k in g d o m


Refercnees: C’.. K. Kelson. 'Imperium Macedonicum: (lie Seleueid Empirci and the literary Evidence'. (.7’ 52, 1958. 1'Vi 170. K. Iiampi. 'l)er Makedonische Schild als propagandistisches Mittel in der Hellenistischen /e il'. Meletamela. 10. 1990. 1:77 171. MACEDONIANS. troops of Macedonian type at Rapina in the Seleukid army as infantry 10.000 Argyraspides '.a : at Magnesia as horsemen tigenui ill ; at Daphnt' 20.000 marched in the parade vc . The description will he partly an identification of descent, as it was certainly for the knit's, and a description of the equipment which the troops had. in particular the smina. the quintcsscnlially Macedonian weapon. It was also applied to particular units, apparently descended from survivors of Alexander's campaigns. AIhivc all, however, it applied not just to troops but to all those who had or claimed descent from the Macedonian settlers of Alexander's time and that of his immediate successors, and that meant all the citizens of the many colonies of all types in the kingdom. O f course, not all later ‘Mace­ donians' were pure-bred Macedonians. The name had. that is, become a description of status, and a badge of pride rather than an accurate designa­ tion the same applied to the kings, of course, as well. Sources: (a) Pol 5.79.4. (b> law 57.40.2. (ci Pol'30.25. References·. Bar-Kochva, Seleueid Army 30 34. MEDES, a cavalry unit brigaded with Kissioi, Kadusoi. Kamianians at Raphia (a). Media was cavalry country, and these men will have been partly Median nobles who held their estates, whether inherited or given them by the king, on condition that they fought when called on, and partly Greeks from the cities of the land (a). Sources·, (a) Pol 5.79.7. References·. Bar-Kochva, Seleueid Army 48 53. MERCENARIES, soldiers, that is, from outside the Seleukid kingdom, who were recruited for pay. These featured in every Seleukid army of which details exist, and frequently the commanders of divisions and regiments were mercenaries, as would appear from their homelands. References·. Bar-Kochva, Seleueid Army 48 53. G. T. Griffith, The Mercenaries o f the Hellenistic World, Cambridge, 1935. M. Launey, Recherches sur les armies héllbustiques, Paris 1949 1950. MERIDARCHOS, a tide used by Josephos to denote the governor of Samaria (a). It is assumed to be an official tide, but is not recorded else­ where. Sources: (a) Jos A J 12.261. MINTS and MONETARY POLICY. Much study has gone into the exami­ nation of the coinage produced by the various authorities in the Seleukid state. This is partly because coins are apparendy such clear and unambiguous



e v id e n c e , p a r tly b e c a u s e th e y a r e c o n v e n ie n tly c o lle c te d in m use u m s , a n d p a r tly b e c a u s e th e y se e m to tille r a n e n tr y intei th a t m eist e lu s is i· a s p e i i o f th e a n c ie n t w o rld , e c o n o m ic s . S u c c e s s h a s b e e n m ix e d . T h e in itia l p r o b le m is m id e n tify t h e m in is fro m w h ic h th e c o in s a r e issu ed , a n d s u b s ta n tia l p r o g re s s h a s b e i-η m a ile o n th is a s p e c t, p a r tic u la rly , o f c o u rs e , fo r th e m o r e p ro lific m in ts . O n th e o t h e r h a n d , th e a tte m p t to g a in a c c e ss to a n c ie n t r i n u o m ie s h a s b e e n la rg e ly w ith little re su lt. T his is m a in ly d u e to th e fact th a t m o st people· in th e a n c ie n t w o rld h a d little o r n o th in g to d o w ith in o n e v . o n ly svilii g o o d s , sp e c ific a lly a g r ic u ltu ra l p r o d u c e . T h e n u m b e r o f c o in s fin ititi in e x c a v a tio n s o f H e lle n is tic villag es is tin y n in e a t 'J e ll R ifila i, fo r ex a m p le · t h o u g h th e s e w e re s u rfa c e fin d s;, a n d a t K a lh u , o v e r a p e r io d eif a c e n tu r y .

It has become dear, however, that kings minted coins for their own pur­ poses, w h i c h , in t h e c o n t e x t , w e r e m a i n l y m i l i t a r y , t h a t is. to pay t h e i r s o ld ie r s . T h u s t h e m a i n c o i n a g e was o f s ilv e r , d r a t h m s a n d tetrat/rae lints, with only occasional issues in gold. It is assumed that taxes were paiel in silver. Bronze was the coinage of everyday transactions. One attempt at economic warfare has been noted, by Antiochos IH in bis «listimi prepara­ tions for renewing the attempt to conquer Phoenicia and Palestine, where Arados was organised to issue coins of a Ptolemaic standard, clearly with the deliberate intention of softening up the Phoenician cities for luture conquest. Until the reign of Antiochos IV the sites of mints were largely in the western pans of the kingdom: in the old cities of Asia Minor, and in the new cities of Syria. To the east there was a scattering of mints in the major cities, usually the satrapal centres, a distribution whirh reflects the military needs of the kings and their governors. Antiochos IV however, extended the practice of minting coins to many more cities, but again they were distributed very largely in the west, and the coins they produced were very largely bronze. This will, no doubt, have helped to monetize the economy in these areas, but it is doubtful if this was the king’s aim. In the previous reign there had been a distinct reduction in the minting places, reflecting the reduction in the wealth of the kingdom consequent on the indemnity having to be paid to Rome as part of the terms of the Treaty of Apamea. So Antiochos lV’s decision to increase the number of mints was to some extent a revival, though it is perhaps characteristic of this king that he went much further than his predecessors. The issuing of coin became a sign of sovereignty, and it was thus one of the aims of a rebel to seize control of a minting city and issue his own coins. This provides evidence of rebels’ aims, and the extent of their authority, though not of their innate abilities. In the last decades of the kingdom it is only the coins which provide much information about the areas which kings controlled. Royal mints existed at the following cities: Abydos, Aigai, AlcxandrciaTroas, Antiocheia-in-Syria*, Antiocheia-on-the Kydnos*, Antiochcia-on-thcErythraian-Sea, Apamea*, Askalon, Babylon, Baktra, Bargylia, Damascus, Dura-Europos, Edessa, Ekbatana*, Ephesos, Hckatomplyos, Ilion, Karrhai, Kyme, Lampsakos, Laodikeia-ad-Mare*, Lysimacheia, Magnesia-ad-Maiandros, Magnesia-ad-Sipylos, Marathos, Mopsuhestia, Myrina, Nisibis*, Parion,

iN s rm -n o N s


t h k k in g d o m


Pergamon. Phokaia, Sardis*. .Sclrukcia-in-Picria. .Selcukeia-on-thc-Kulaios*. Nrlrnkria-tHi-tln -Kalvk.iniis. Nr Irukr la-on-thr-Tigris*. Sigcion , possibly’·. Skepsis. Smyrna. Soli. Those marked with an as[rrisk * were in use more or less enntinuotisly from reign to reign. Tile others were either in use intermittently, or onlv as an emergency measure, or eomrol of the eity was lost (as with I.ysimaeheia and liakii a Λ eonsiderable number o f coins have also not yet been assigned to a particular mint, so there may well be other eities to be noted as basing mints, though a major mint is very unlikely to be diseovered now. Referme(s\ Bikenuan. Institutions elt. (>. Λ. Houghton and \V. Moore. ‘Some Karlv Kar Northeastern Seleueid Minis-. .tVMUV 29. 1984. I 9. (1. lx· Rider, i - i Politique Monétaire des Séléucides en Coeli· Sirie et en Pluitieie aprés 200', BCH 119, 1995, 39111". G. ίχ· Rider, 'Ix-s Alexandres d’Argent en .Asie Mineure et dans ('Orient Séléncide au IIP siicele av. J.C. ir. 275 e. 225); Remar­ ques sur le sistemi· monétaire des Séléurides et des Ptolctnees. Journal des Savants. 198b. 3 51. ( ) Morkholm. Studies in the Coinage of Antiochos II oj Syria, Copen­ hagen 1963. O. Morkholm, 'The Monetary System of the Seleueid Kings until 129 BO.', Proeeedings oj the International .Xumismatic Convention, jemsalem 1963. Tel Aviv 1967, 75 87. O. Morkholm, ‘ The Monetary System in the Seleueid V.myiive ;\(tev 187 BC.’. .Vickie .Vumismatic Papers. 93 113. E. T. Newell, The Western Seleueid Mints. E. T. Newell, The Eastern Seleueid Mints. M. I. RostovtzefT, "Some Remarks on the Monetary and Com­ mercial Policy of the Selcucids and Attalids’, Anatolian Studies Buckler, 277 298. MYSIANS, a unit of 5000 men called Mysians fought at Rapina (a), and a mounted archers’ unit which fought at Magnesia (b); at Daphne a contin­ gent of 5000 marched in the parade (c). In theory the recruitment of troops in Asia Minor had been forbidden by the Treaty of Apamea in 188 (d), so either this unit at Daphne was named in this way for its peculiar arma­ ment, or the terms of the treaty had been ignored. It may also be that the men was refugees who had left Mysia out of loyalty to Antiochos III rather than face being subjects of the Attalids. The unit also appears at Jerusalem, where a commander is named as the commander of the Mysians (Mysiarchos) (e), though this interpretation has been disputed. The existence of the regi­ ment lends credibility to this interpretation, however, particularly if the unit could be described as particularly Seleukid loyalists. Sources: (a) Pol 5.76.7. (b) Livy 37.40.8; App. Syr 32. (c) Pol 30.25. (d) Livy 38.38.10. (e) 2 Mac 5.24. References: Bar-Kochva, Seleueid Amy 48-53.



NAUARCHOS, the title of the commander of the Seleukid fleet. An example is known at Ephesos, e. 275. in the person til Alkippox C) a . a naval commander called Diognetos Ο , of sufficiently hit'll rank to lie a suitable escort for the king’s bride, and who commanded in the Fourth Syrian Wat (b) and another in 150, in the person of Antigonos O ol Milrtos. who commanded for Alexander I Halas, and was one ol a number ol men lumi Miletos who served the Seleukids 'e,. Sources: luj I Ephesos, 28 'cl'. Pol 5.45.1 . fb) Pol 5.43.1. (C) P. Herrmann, ‘Milesier am Seleukidenhof. Prusnpngraphie Beit­ rage zur Geschichte Milets im 2 Jbdt v. Ohr.". (Mnm 17. 11IH7. 183 190. NAVY, a fairly obscure section of the Seleukid armed fortes. Λ naval eom­ mander is known in c. 275 faj, and a naval base commander a little earlier in the Hellespont fb;, but not then until the lime of Antiochus 111. who employed a small naval force in his Phoenician campaign in 218 c . It would seem that Antiochos deliberately built up the navy, and in 197 it was sufficiently large to frighten the Rhodians into co-operation, first with Antiochos, and then, with the Romans against him. The Seleukid navy made a good fight in the Roman war, before being defeated id), and was theo­ retically restricted to Syrian waters thereafter, and supposedly limited in size (e). But in 170 168, Antiochos IV deployed a naval force, and used it to conquer Cyprus (fj. Alexander I Baias had a naval commander in c. 150 (g), so presumably there were ships to command. In addition there are indications of a Seleukid naval presence in the Persian Gulf, and Antiochos III was able to sail as far as Tylos/Tyros (Bahrein;, in 205 (hj. An undated commander called Noumenios (O 2) is also reported to have won a notable naval victory in those waters (i). The navy was never the Seleukids’ primary concern, and only when control of the land was secured was it possible for them to develop a naval force. Sources: (a) I Ephesos 28. (b) Welles RC 12. (c) Pol 5.62.4; 68.7-11. (d) Thiel, Studies, 281-364. (e) Livy 38.38.8. (f) Livy 45.12.7. (g) P. Herrmann, ‘Milesier am Seleukidenhof, Prosopographic Beit­ rage zur Geschichte Milets im 2 Jhdt v. Chr.’, Chiron 17, 1987, 183-190. (h) Pol 13.9.2-5. (i) Pliny NH 37.40. References: Bikerman, Institutions 98-100. NEOCRETANS, a contingent of 1000 was in the Seleukid army at Raphia (a). They were, of course, mercenaries, from eastern Crete. Sources: (a) Pol 5.79.10. References·, Bar-Kochva, Seleucid Army 48-53.

l S S n U - r i O N S OF IHK K1NODOM


PAMPHYLIANS. .1 contingent light-armed troops I'ouglu in ilu· Sclcukid annv at Magnesia a · Presumably tlu-y had been recruited only in the few years hclbre the battle, since it was only from 197 that Aniiochos had direct access to Pamphvli.i. which had been an exclusively Ptolemaic preserve heliirehand. Sources: a I .ivy 37.40.1-I. References: liar-K ochva. Seieueid .Irmi 48 53. PF.I.IGANL.S, a group of citizens of laiodikcia-ad-Marc, attested in an in­ scription. The term is Macedonian, and is taken to refer to the oligarchic controllers of the city. Sources: a P. Roussel. Occrct des Pcligancs de I-aodiccc-, Sin«. PLRSIANS, a contingent of bowmen and stingere from Pcrsis. brigaded with the Agrianes and Thracians was in the Sclcukid army at Raphia Sauren: a Pol 5.70.ti. Referaten: H a r - K o c h v a . Seieueid .Irm i 4 8 5 3 . Ρ11Λ1.ΛΝΧ, the basis of the Sclcukid Anny, composed of citizens who served as a civic obligation. It was 20.000 strong at Raphia pi), and 16,000 at Magnesia tin. Sourcn: pn Pol 5.79.4. Ihi Livy 37.40.1. References: Bar-Korhva. Seleueitl .Inin 54 67. PHILOS, sec Friend. PHRYGIANS, a contingent of light-armed troops described thus were in the Sclcukid army at Magnesia (a). Sources: pi) Livy 37.40,11. References: Bar-K.ochva, Seieueid .Imp 48 53. P1SIDIANS, a contingent of light-armed troops described thus served in the Sclcukid army at Magnesia (a). Sources: (a) Livy 37.40.14. References: Bar-Kochva, Seieueid Anny 48 53. PROVINCIAL ADMINISTRATION. The Selcukids inherited the satrapal system of the Akhaimenids, which had been used with little alteration by Alexander. Scleukos Nikator himself had been a satrap, in Babylonia. As he expanded his power, so he appointed satraps of his own, such as Patrokles (O) in Babylonia. The tide of satrap does not seem to have been used, rather strategos appears as the preferred tide, if anything. In most cases, how­ ever, men in governing positions are referred to simply by name. This sug­ gests that the geographical limits of their authority were vague, and also that their personal power depended to a large extend on their character. A clear hierarchy can be discerned by the reign of Andochos III. For example in Mysia an inscripdon records that the king gave instrucuons to Zeuxis (O), who gave orders to Philotas (O 1), who passed the orders on to

ίίΛΖΚΊΤΚΚΚ - HART TWO Bithys t() 2). Zeuxis i.s known to have had authority over Sclcukid Asia Minor, and so it follows that Philotas was governor of Mysia, and Hnh\,, of a district of Mysia. The old satrapies, however, were heilig broken up. I rotti the reign of Antiochos HI there appear a whole new group of territorial names, which suggests that these had become the new governorates. and that the old satrapies were defunct. Mescne, for example, appears fin the first time as a term for the area at the head of the Pe rsian (hilf. In Syria, this pattern may have existed lor some time. No governor of Srlrtikid Syria is known, but there appear fleetitlgly lour other terms, based on the new cities estab­ lished by the Macedonians: Antiochene. Apamene, Chalkidcnc and Kytrhestike. At the same lime there existed some governorates ol gn at xi/.c. That of Zeuxis in Asia Minor had already been held by Achaios R I until he rebelled; Media was another, whose governor had a high status with a supervisory capacity over all the 'I'pper Satrapies', a vague term which seems to mean the Iranian plateau. But this great authority also produced rebellions, by Molon 'R, and Timarchos R . Palestine, referred to as Koile Syria and Phoenic ia, was another of the viceregal areas. I best· were all frontier areas, and this suggests that defence was one ol the· major consid­ erations, and with it the need for the governor to have control ol armed forces hence the liability to rebel, and, perhaps, the usual title ol strategos. These new, smaller provinces, tend to have names based on the name of the capital city, and end in -cnc or -ilis. Thus Antiochene Itom Antioc beta, or Apollonitis from Apollonia. Phis pattern is not, however, invariable, and no city-basis seems to exist for (»aramene, Mescne or Adiabene. The namepattern, however, imples a more or less regular system, and the early years of Antiochos III have been located as the moment when this was widely applied. It has to be said, however, that all this is inferential. There is no direct testimony on the Sclcukid system of government in the ancient sources. Reference.i: Bickerman, Institutum 197 207. Schmitt, Untersuchungen. W. VV. 'Jam, ‘.Scicukid-Parthian Studies, IV: Seleucid Adminis­ trative Subdivisions’, Proceedings of the lintish Academy, 1980, 120 135. REBELLION, a continual problem for the Selcukids, whose empire was so large and diverse that rebellion was relatively easy. The rebellions which took place can be classified as: (a) those by ambitious and powerful men aimed at putting themselves on the throne, these being, Molon (R), Achaios (R), Antiochos (R 1) Hierax, Timarchos (R), Alexander I Bahts, Antiochos VI, Diodotos-Tryphon, Alexander II Zabinas, and Antiochos IX. All of these succeeded to some extent, either over a geographical segment of the kingdom, or for a brief time of all of it. A second type of rebellion was by a provincial governor who aimed to make himself king over a fragment. Diodotos of Baktria (O 1) and Andragoras of Parthia (O) are early examples. The break-up of the kingdom in the late C2 produced many men of diis type, including Hyspaosines (O) of Charax and Ptolemaios (O 5) of Kommagene. The third type was the rebellion by a community aimed at securing inde-



prmlriK c lium tin· kingdom Anulos tried repeatedly io removed itself from Srlriikid rule, and finally succeeded in 13!·. 1'he Jews of Judaea were in elicci doing this from Ititi onwards. In the east it seems that the people of 1‘ersis attempted to scetire independence between e. 290 and e. 350, and in the santi· area, so did the people of Klymais from the Kills. In the last drearies of die kingdom the western eilies executed a saute qui fimi: in the east, the unit tended to he the small provinces. One unpleasant aspect of this movement was that the newly independent states turned at once into conquerors: so, Arados took user Marathos and Sintyra on to mainland, and the Jews conquered Palestine. In both eases the victims suffered expul­ sion from their homes, an ancient version of ethnic cleansing. Re/etencn: Γ. Bikennan. ‘ The Sclcucids and the Aehaemenids'. hi Persta e it Mondo (arco-Romano. 87 117. Schmitt. Ihlersuiiiunoen. liti 149, 1Ö8 174. ROVAI. COURT, the centre of the Seleukid system of government. It consisted of the king and his family, and his Friends of various grades and ranks. Out of these Friends men were appointed to the various offices, in the centrai administration and in the provinces, which constituted the sys­ tem. The court at first was clearly peripatetic, but by the time of Seleukos III, if not before, the administration was independent enough to need a head present when the king was absent so Seleukos III appointed Henncias tOi to run things while he campaigned in Asia Minor. Similarly Antiochos III appointed his eldest son. Antiochos, presumably under tutelage, as nomi­ nal head of the administration while he was absent on the eastern expedi­ tion. The same pattern can be seen in the time of Antiochos IV. It is clear that the system could not operate without the king to animate it, yet at the same time it had developed an institutionalised aspect which rendered it permanent and necessary. Just its the ranks of the king’s Friends were elaborated, so it seems wits the civil service aspect of the centriti ad­ ministration, and the offices into which the provincial governorships were subdivided. The essential function of the court was to provide administra­ tors, chosen by the king in person, in all probability, and to ensure of collection of the tax revenues with which to pay for the army and, of course, for the court and its administrative system. References: M. Avi-Yonah. Hellenism and the East, Jerusalem 1978. ch. 6. Bikcrman, Institutions ch. 2. ROYAL CULT, the worship of the current and preceding kings of the dynasty. This is attested in several places: Scleukeia-in-Picria, Asia Minor, Antiochcia-in-Persis, probably Scleukcia-on-the-Eulaios, Laodikeia-in-Media. These attestations are less in the form of temples—of which none is known— but more in the form of individuals holding offices as chief priest and priests. Thus one Nikanor (O 3), a high official, was installed as chief priest of the cult in Asia Minor in 209 (a), and Berenike (O), a descendant of Lysimachos, was appointed chief priestess of the cult of Queen Laodike in 193 (b). At Antiocheia-in-Persis and Seleukeia-in-Pieria there were cults of the deceased kings and one of the current ruler (c). The cult was not confined to directly ruled provinces and royally founded eines. A list survives of divinised Seleukids

(;λζκίίτ .ι·:κ - part riv o a t T c o s , o n ly in te r m itte n tly S c lc u k id . a p p a r e n tly still b r i n g o b s e rv e d in th e C 2 , o v e r a g e n e r a tio n a lte r th e S e lr u k id p o w e r r e tre .ile il b e y o n d th e T a u r u s id).

Sources: la) H. Malay, ‘Iz-tter of Antiorhos 111 with two covering letters', M 10, 1987, 7 Ιό. lb) M. Segrc, Tnsrri/ioni di I .aia. (.'Irmi Rhodos. ! 't ifi (C) O G lSW i 1= Austin 190·; WAV 245 ΛΪ/Λ 118-1 Austin 177. Id] Λ. Mastrorinque. ‘Seiet« idi divinizzati a l'eo'. HI 7. 1‘lli l, 8 3 8f> i= (XUS 2 4 h . References: M. Λνί-Yonah, Hellenism and die Rasi. Jerusalem ΙΊ7Η. 78 t r . Bikerman, Institutions eh. 7. SATRAP, a title not apparently used by the ollieial administration which seems to have preferred strategiis), but one which was applied to pruvineial governors in the literary sourees. Thus l imarehos R is t ailed satrap of Media la), and one functionary was described in an inscription bom Delos as ‘satrap of the Scleukis’, dearly a fanciful formulation which was due more to the lapicidc than to reality ibj. 'Die term was however used still in Babylonia, where the satrap was noted as collecting much wealth front Babylon and Selcukcia, and troops as well, which he took to Transpotamia. dated to 274/ 272, but this is equally a literary source, as is a mention ten years later c . Sources: la) Diod 31.27a.