A Rasa Reader: Classical Indian Aesthetics 0231173903, 9780231173902

From the early years of the Common Era to 1700, Indian intellectuals explored with unparalleled subtlety the place of em

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Table of contents :
Table of Contents
Preface
Acknowledgments
English Translations of Sanskrit Titles
List of Abbreviations
Introduction: An Intellectual History of Rasa
1. The Foundational Text, c. 300, and Early Theorists, 650–1025
2. The Great Synthesis of Bhoja, 1025–1055
3. An Aesthetic Revolution, 900–1000
4. Abhinavagupta and His School, 1000–1200
5. Continuing the Controversies Beyond Kashmir, 1200–1400
6. Rasa in the Early Modern World, 1200–1650
English-Sanskrit Glossary
Notes
Bibliography
Index
Recommend Papers

A Rasa Reader: Classical Indian Aesthetics
 0231173903, 9780231173902

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Columbia University Press Publishers Since 1893 New York Chichester, West Sussex cup.columbia.edu Copyright © 2016 Columbia University Press Paperback edition, 2018 All rights reserved Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Pollock, Sheldon I., translator, editor. Title: A rasa reader : classical Indian aesthetics / translated and edited by Sheldon Pollock. Description: New York : Columbia University Press, 2016. | Series: Historical sourcebooks  in classical indian thought | Includes bibliographical references and index. | Includes  translations from Sanskrit. Identifiers: LCCN 2015020974 | ISBN 9780231173902 (cloth : alk. paper) |  ISBN 9780231173919 (pbk. : alk. paper) | ISBN 9780231540698 (e-book) Subjects: LCSH: Rasas—Early works to 1800. | Aesthetics, Indic—Translations into  English. | Sanskrit literature—Translations into English. Classification: LCC BH221.I52 R43 2016 | DDC 111/.850954—dc23 LC record available at http://lccn.loc.gov/2015020974 Columbia University Press books are printed on permanent and durable acid-free paper. Printed in the United States of America COVER DESIGN: Jennifer Heuer

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2. RASA IN THE POE T

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3. RASA SEEN, IN THE PLAY

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6. RASA AFTER THE RE VOLUTION

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CHAPTER ONE

7  KH)RXQGDWLRQDO7H[WF DQG(DUO\7KHRULVWV²

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CHAPTER TWO

7  KH*UHDW6\QWKHVLVRI%KRMD²

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CHAPTER THREE

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CHAPTER FOUR

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it is merely because of a formal congruity lying in the fact that those things familiar to us as causes when pertaining to a real-world stable emotion take on the designation of “factors” and so on when enabling the act of aesthetic relishing.151 That is to say, what kind of rasa can be held to exist in an inference of a real-world mental state? On the contrary, the savoring of rasa is in essence a supermundane rapture, completely different from the real-world awareness deriving from inference and memory. To explain:152 a person predisposed toward an aesthetic event by the practice of drawing real-world inferences does not apprehend a female character on the stage in some neutral manner. On the contrary, without in the least ascending the ladder of inference, memory, and the like but rather on the strength of his aesthetic receptivity (in essence, his heart’s concurrence), he apprehends her as the life breath of aesthetic relishing—something congruent with an act of identification— indeed, as the shoot of aesthetic savoring that is about to blossom into fullness. Such relishing does not arise from any other prior act of cognition, [279] whereby some memory might come into play during the aesthetic event; nor is any real-world act of cognition, such as perception, in operation here. On the contrary, the relishing is presented solely by virtue of the conjunction of the supermundane aesthetic elements. Accordingly, it is radically different from [1] awareness of a stable emotion produced by a real-world act of cognition, whether perception, inference, testimony, analogy, or other source of valid cognition; [2] knowledge of another’s mental state produced by yogic perception, which remains entirely indifferent; [3] the completely homogeneous experience of his own bliss on the part of a supreme spiritual adept, which is pure because it is free from all coloration of objective reality. The difference lies in the fact that those three forms of consciousness are variously impeded, [1] by the presence of this or that hindrance (such as the desire to actually possess the woman one sees);153 [2] and [3] by the absence of beauty—in [2] because of the indistinctness that accompanies the indifference, in [3] because one is possessed by the blissful object and thereby overpowered.154 In the theater, however, because the aesthetic event cannot possibly be restricted to oneself alone, such overpowering cannot take place; because the event cannot be restricted to someone else alone, given one’s own participation, that imprecision cannot arise; and because one’s congruent predispositions of desire (or other stable emotion) take possession of one when activated by force of the “commonization” of the aesthetic elements, none of the hindrances can come into play—this is something we have stated repeatedly. In view of this radical difference, the aesthetic elements cannot be viewed as normal phenomena. They cannot be causes for an actual “arising” of rasa,155 for that would lead to the absurdity that rasa could exist even after cognition of the aesthetic elements has ceased. But neither can they be causes of “knowing” rasa—which would [ 202 ]

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FROM LIGHT ON POETRY OF MAMMATA M, AND SELEC TIONS FROM COMMENTARIES Chapter 4: The Peaceful Rasa and “Emotion Poetry”

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CHAPTER FIVE

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