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REVISED AND UPDATED 2014 EDITION Magnesium is an essential nutrient, indispensable to your health and well-being. By a
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U A DICTIONARY
NORTHERN NIGHT MONKEY
DAINTY GREEN TREEFROG Brown phase
AFRICAN RED KNOB SEA STAR
AMERICAN BLACK BEAR
INSECT ANATOMY HUMPBACK WHALE
Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2018 with funding from Kahle/Austin Foundation
METRO BOOKS NEW YORK
© 2004 by Weldon Owen Pty Ltd This 2008 edition published by Metro Books, by arrangement with Weldon Owen Pty Ltd All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Metro Books 122 Fifth Avenue New York, NY 10011 ISBN-13: 978-1-4351-0662-8 ISBN-10: 1-4351-0662-8 Printed and bound in Thailand 10 987654321
4 2 2
LIVING WORLD Living World
CHANGING HABITATS Changing Habitats
TROPICAL RAINFORESTS Tropical Rainforests
SAVANNAS Savannas v.
TEMPERATE REGIONS Temperate Regions
WOODLANDS Woodlands A
ALPINE REGIONS Alpine Regions
Living World 2L
WORLD CLIMATES Tropical
Desert and semi-desert
Oceans The oceans' climates change with latitude, and warm and cool currents.
Deserts and semi-deserts
Tropical climates and rainforests are found in equatorial regions.
Savanna grasslands are found across tropical and subtropical latitudes.
Many arid zones lie downwind of mountains, resulting in dry conditions.
DIVERSE ECOSYSTEMS Planet Earth's weather systems have created a range of habitats. Within each habitat is a community of plants and animals, called an ecosystem. To survive, individuals must adapt to their environment, making the most of the resources it has to offer.
Alpine and polar regions These regions are typified by their harsh climates and barren landscapes.
Dry temperate climates are found in mid-latitudes, and produce grasslands.
Wet temperate climates are found in mid-latitudes, and produce forests.
Northern temperate (or boreal) climates occur in the northern hemisphere.
CTl C CTl
360-286 million years ago
EVOLUTION OF HABITATS Plants began to grow on Earth about 550 million years ago, creating the first environments for animal life. At first spore-bearing mosses and ferns dominated. Then seed-bearing conifers and flowering plants emerged. As plants evolved so did the animals that ate them, resulting in the complex ecosystems of today.
(&. " leopard
Asian golden cat
There are usually one, but often two related dominant
Up to three generations of females can live in one pride, which can hold as many as 30 individuals.
Lion cubs nurse for up to six months, before weaning. Cubs are the last to feed from kills.
Lionesses are the primary hunters of the pride, and hunt together to provide
Females breed from the age of four, and mate every 20 minutes for five days when on heat.
PUMA Puma concolor
LION AND LIONESS Panther a leo
TIGER Panther a t
Great Cats CLOUDED LEOPARD
LEOPARD AND GIRAFFE
Leopards often rest in trees, and will stow a kill on a branch to keep it out of reach of competitors and scavengers.
MARBLED CAT Pardofelis marmorata
HARP SEAL Phoca groenlandica
Breastbone (keeled sternum)
Tibiotarsus (upper leg) on Q cc CO
Tarsometatarsus (lower leg) Toes or claws
Birds have a keel-shaped breastbone that anchors large pectoral muscles. These give the bird enough strength to fly.
HOLLOW BONES Most bones in a bird's body are thin-walled and hollow, with struts and braces providing maximum strength for minimum weight.
Crop (temporary food storage)
Liver Gizzard grinds food to a pulp.
LEG MUSCLES All birds have powerful leg muscles in the top of the leg, near their center of gravity. These are connected to the toes by long tendons.
HEART CROSS-SECTION Body
Semitendinosus muscle jV A —-
Flexor muscle Right side
Flightless Birds BROWN KIWI Apteryx australis
Location ■ Flightless birds
EMU AND CHICKS Dromaius novaehollandiae
Female great tinamou head
Ostrich tail feather
Penguins EMPEROR PENGUIN ANATOMY Feathers
■ Penguins Scaly, oily tips
EMPEROR PENGUINS SWIMMING
Emperor penguins are swift, agile swimmers, and can swim up to 20 miles (32 km) per hour. They dive through a hole in the ice and use their stiff, flipperlike wings to chase their prey.
=3 CD C CD CL.
Bend at the base
Long toenails to grip the ice
Grebes and Divers GREAT CRESTED GREBE Podiceps cristatus
■ Grebes and dabchicks ■ Divers (loons)
■ Grebes, dabchicks and divers
c 03 in CD _Q CD
GROUP OF DIVERS (LOONS) COMMON LOON
EARED GREBE Podiceps nigricollis
HORNED GREBE Podiceps auritus
WESTERN GREBES 'RUSHING' Rushing involves two or more grebes running upright across the water as part of a ritualistic courtship display.
Lakeside vegetation Necks are arched with slightly bowed.
Wings are drawn back and flexed.
Males use this display to defend their territory.
Albatrosses and Petrels GRAY-HEADED ALBATROSS Thalassarche chrysostoma
■ Albatrosses, petrels and shearwaters
SHEARWATER Puffinus sp.
> c o
Q O CC u
GRAYLING Thymallus thymallus
ALASKA BLACKFISH Dallia pectoralis
SOCKEYE SALMON Oncorhynchus nerka
ATLANTIC SALMON Salmo salar
Dragonfishes and Lanternfishes DRAGONFISH Family Stomiidae
Location Dragonfishes, lanternfishes and lizardfishes on
BRISTLEMOUTH Family Gonostomatidae
CROSS-TOOTHED PERCH Order Stomiiformes
VARIEGATED LIZARDFISH Synodus variegatus
LANTERNFISH Family Myctophidae
VIPERFISH Family Stomiidae
PACIFIC VIPERFISH Chauliodus macouni
HATCHETFISH Family Sternoptychidae
TRANSFORMATION The larval forms of the black dragonfish have elongated stalks supporting their eyes. These stalks are absorbed as the fishes grow, until the eyes
retreat into sockets.
BLACK DRAGONFISH Idiacanthus fasciola
Cods and Anglerfishes
■ Cuskeels, toadfishes and anglerfishes h Cods and troutperches ■ Cuskeels, toadfishes, anglerfishes, cods and troutperches
PIRATE PERCH Aphredoderus sayanus
SPLENDID TOADFISH Sanopus splendidus
PAXTON'S WHIPNOSE ANGLER Gigantactis paxtoni
CIRCUMPOLAR BURBOT Lota lota
Male anglerfishes are tiny compared to females, with toothless jaws and no baits to lure prey. Males sometimes attach themselves to females and live as parasites.
Bottom-dwelling anglerfishes blend in with their environment to snare prey. Frogfishes can change color and hide among coral.
Spiny-rayed Fishes EVOLUTION OF SPINY-RAYED Clown FISHES
I Tiger rockfish
PLIOCENE MIOCENE OLIGOCENE
Million years ago
STICKLEBACK COURTSHIP Male uses his bright colors to attract a passing female.
Male entices female to a nest he has built.
The pair begins a courtship dance.
Thick-lipped gray mullet
Clingfishes, Flyingfishes, Killifishes, Ricefishes and Silversides MANDARIN FISH Synchiropus splendidus
■ Killifishes, ricefishes and silversides Clingfishes and flyingfishes ■ Killifishes, ricefishes, silversides, clingfishes and flyingfishes
The male swordtail is smaller than the female, and has a swordlike extension to its tail. Females sometimes turn into males, even after giving birth.
MALAYAN HALFBEAK Dermogenys pusilla
CLOWN KILLIFISH Aplocheilus annulatus
JAVANESE RICEFISH Oryzias javaniaus
STEEL-BLUE KILLIFISH Aphyosemion gardneri
MADAGASCAR RAINBOWFISH Bedotia geayi
CUATRO OJOS Anableps anableps
Oarfishes, Squirrelfishes and Dories FLASHING ON AND OFF Flashlight fishes have light organs which contain luminous bacteria. To hide from predators, the fish covers the light organ with a type of eyelid called a melanphore.
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■ Oarfishes and squirrelfishes ■ Oarfishes, squirrelfishes and dories
OARFISH Regalecus glesne
RIBBONFISH Trachipterus sp.
SOUTHERN ROUGHY Trachichthys australis
OPAH Lampris guttatus
AUSTRALIAN PINEAPPLEFISH Cleidopus gloriamaris
SPOTTED OREO Pseudocyttus maculatus
Pipefishes, Swampeels and Scorpionfishes POT-BELLIED SEAHORSE Hippocampus abdominalis
Swampeels Pipefishes and scorpionfishes Swampeels, pipefishes and scorpionfishes
BANDED PIPEFISH Doryrhamphus dactyliophorus
WHITE SPOTTED SPINY EEL Mastacembelus armatus
CARIBBEAN TRUMPETFISH Aulostomus maculatus
SEAHORSE REPRODUCTION The female lays eggs in the male's marsupial-like pouch, leaving them
LUMPSUCKER Cyclopterus lumpus
in his care. The eggs are incubated in his pouch until they hatch.
Perches, Groupers and Seabasses SPLENDID LICORICE GOURAMI Parosphromenus dreissneri
■ Perches ■ Perches, groupers and seabasses on CD
REMORA Echeneis naucrates
GIANT GROUPER Epinephelus lanceolatus
SOUTH-EAST ASIA PIKEHEAD Luciocephalus pulcher
Cichlids, Damselfishes, Wrasses, Parrotfishes and Blennies MUDSKIPPERS The male protects eggs laid by the female by wrapping his body around them.
■ Cichlids, damselfishes, wrasses and parrotfishes ■ Cichlids, damselfishes, wrasses, parrotfishes and blennies
CHANGING COLOR AND SEX c
As they mature, highfin parrotfishes (Scarus altipinnis) travel through three color phases, which also indicate changes to gender.
Juvenile: usually asexual female
Initial phase: usually female
BLACK-HEADED BLENNY Lipophrys nigriceps
Terminal phase: always a mature male
RAINBOW CALE Odax acroptilus
LAKE MALAWI ZEBRA CICHLID Pseudotropheus zebra
Gobies, Flatfishes and Triggerfishes OCEAN SUNFISH Mola mola
■ Gobies ■ Flatfishes and triggerfishes
■ Gobies, flatfishes and triggerfishes
DORIA'S BUMBLEBEE GOBY Brachygobius doriae
RIGHT-EYED FLATFISH The left eye of right-eyed flatfishes (flounders) moves toward the right eye. The front of the skull twists to bring the jaws sideways.
PEACOCK FLOUNDER Bothus lunatus
SURVIVAL TECHNIQUES The mimic filefish (Paraluteres prionurus) has evolved to look like the toxic blacksaddled puffer
FIGURE-EIGHT PUFFER Tetraodon biocellatus
CLOWN TRIGGERFISH Balistoides conspicillum
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1 1 1
Scorpions, Mites and Ticks
Centipedes and Millipedes 514
Invertebrate Chordates, Sponges and Cnidarians
Dragonflies, Mayflies and Mantids
Squids and Octopuses
Crickets and Grasshoppers
Bugs, Lacewings and Thrips
Flies, Fleas and Mosquitoes
Butterflies and Moths
Bees, Wasps and Ants
Wasps and Ants
Classifying Invertebrates EVOLUTION OF INVERTEBRATES
PRESENT PLEISTOCENE PLIOCENE
C u Z3
Million years ago
CAMBRIAN 550 PRECAMBRIAN
Invertebrate Chordates, Sponges and Cnidarians
c o CL
CORAL REEF ECOSYSTEM Corals thrive in the shallow waters of the tropical Pacific and Indian oceans. Thousands of individual coral polyps, each protected by a limestone exoskeleton, group together to form living colonies; these in turn form coral reefs.
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o U CD
The crown-of-thorns starfish attacks and eats corals by disgorging its stomach over a colony, then absorbing the liquefied tissues.
Coral reefs provide shelter, food and breeding territory for thousands of species of plants and animals, such as fish, sharks and turtles.
Within certain coral communities, individual polyps have specialized functions—feeding, breeding or defense.
COLONIAL SEA SQUIRT
SEA SQUIRT Class Urochordata
Portuguese man o'war
Inside a coral polyp
Corals with fish
NUDIBRANCH Order Nudibranchia
Gills (pseudobranchia) allow the nudibranch to breathe.
They can be aggressive when meeting others of their species, fighting and biting each other.
Tentacle (rhinophore) senses chemicals.
NAUTILUS Nautilus sp.
Outer shell cn LU
Shell chambers used to regulate depth
'Pinhole' eye Gonads
Funnel, where water is expelled for propulsion
Periwinkle (marine snail)
Limpet displaying muscular foot
Arachnids EVOLUTION OF ARACHNIDS
#r Trapdoor spider
African signature spider
ipK> St? ■%; Harvestman
Million years ago
PLEISTOCENE PLIOCENE MIOCENE OLIGOCENE EOCENE PALEOCENE