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THE ANTIOCH BIBLE

The Syriac Peshiṭta Bible with English Translation

*HQHVLV

Ṣurath Kthobh

Editors George A. Kiraz Andreas Juckel

The Syriac Peshiṭta Bible with English Translation

*HQHVLV

English Translation by

Donald M. Walter Gillian English Translation by

Greenberg Text Prepared by

&UDLJ(0RUULVRQ

George A. Kiraz

Text Prepared by :LWKWKH$VVLVWDQFHRI

Joseph Bali George Anton Kiraz &ODXGLR%DO]DUHWWL 0LUNR3R]]RERQ



 201

Gorgias Press LLC, 954 River Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA www.gorgiaspress.com Copyright ©  2018 by Gorgias Press LLC All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise without the prior written permission of Gorgias Press LLC.

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1

201

ISBN 978-1-4632-0741-0

Printed in the United States of America

To Stephen Pisano Magister in sacra pagina in gratitude

Craig E. Morrison Claudio Balzaretti Mirko Pozzobon

TABLE OF CONTENTS Table of Contents .................................................................................... v Foreword to the Edition ....................................................................... vii By George A. Kiraz Making of the Text ................................................................................. vii Orthographic Diversions from Mosul ................................................ viii Text Organization ..................................................................................... x Acknowledgements................................................................................... x

Abbreviations .......................................................................................... xi Introduction ........................................................................................... xiii By Craig E. Morrison This Translation ..................................................................................... xiv The Book of Genesis............................................................................. xvi Noteworthy Readings .......................................................................... xviii A Final Word: The Genius of the Translator.................................. xxxii Translator’s Acknowledgements ...................................................... xxxiii

Appendix 1: Versification ................................................................. xxxv Appendix 2: Variant Readings ....................................................... xxxvii Appendix 3: Names ............................................................................... xli Replacements .......................................................................................... xlii Translations ........................................................................................... xliii Initial locations .......................................................................................... xliii Additions ................................................................................................ xliii Replacements ......................................................................................... xliii Transpositions ....................................................................................... xliv Medial Locations....................................................................................... xliv Additions ................................................................................................ xliv Deletions ................................................................................................ xliv Replacements ......................................................................................... xliv Transpositions ....................................................................................... xliv Final locations ............................................................................................ xlv Loss of final ! ........................................................................................ xlv Replacements .......................................................................................... xlv Transpositions ........................................................................................ xlv Qere/Ketib ............................................................................................. xlv V

VI

Table of Contents

Bibliography ......................................................................................... xlvii Lexica and Dictionaries ....................................................................... xlvii References ............................................................................................. xlvii

Text and Translation ............................................................................... 1

FOREWORD TO THE EDITION BY GEORGE A. KIRAZ The primary objective of this edition is twofold: to provide a reliable text for scholars and students who are looking for a fully vocalized Syriac text, and to make available to religious communities, for whom this text is sacred, an English translation that can be used in various religious and cultural settings. As such, one had to navigate carefully between rigid scholarly principles and practical editorial choices. Making of the Text The current edition provides a West Syriac version of the 1887–91 Peshiṭta Mosul text. 1 While the Mosul text was prepared based on second millennium manuscripts, its text is substantially attested by manuscripts belonging to the first millennium. As ancient MSS are hardly vocalized, our text relies on the vocalization of the Mosul edition. In addition to full YRFDOL]DWLRQ RXU WH[W LV VXSSOHPHQWHG ZLWK FRPSOHWH 5XNNĆNKĆ DQG 4XääĆ\Ć SRLQWLQJ DQG RWKHU RUWKRJUDSKLF Parkings, keeping in mind the general orthographic principles adopted by Pusey and Gwilliam in their 1901 Tetraeuangelium. 2 Hence, while the consonantal tier is substantially ancient, the vocalism and orthographic tiers are quite late. As the Mosul edition GLGQRWIXOO\PDUN5XNNĆNKĆDQG4XääĆ\ĆWKHVH points were added and a regular expression 3 was applied to the text to 1 Clemis Joseph David (ed.), The Syriac Bible According to the Mosul Edition, 3 volumes, with an introduction by Sebastian P. Brock (Piscataway, NJ, 2010), a reprint of the Mosul 1887–91 edition titled ŦƦźƀƤƘťſƢƟƦƉĪŦƦƠƙƉƅſĥħƦƃŁĿĭĽ. 2 P. E. Pusey and G. H. Gwilliam, Tetraeuangelium Sanctum, the Fourfold Holy Gospel in the Peshitta Syriac Version with Critical Apparatus, with an introduction by Andreas Juckel (Piscataway, NJ, 2003), a reprint of the 1901 edition. 3 In computing, a regular expression provides a mechanism with which strings of text can be matched with a search criterion. In most notations, a bracket expression matches a single character inside that bracket (e.g., [ab] matches a single a or b). The exclamation mark denotes negation. Hence, the expression [bgdkpt][!RQ] (where R and Q represent the

VII

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Foreword to the Edition

ensure that all EgĆdNSĆt letters are marked. When the consonantal orthography, and in many cases the vocalic orthography, of East and West Syriac diverged, use was made of Lee’s 1823 edition 4 as well as linguistic resources including Audo, 5 Brockelmann, 6 Margoliouth, 7 and Smith. 8 As IRU5XNNĆNKĆDQG4XääĆ\ĆSRLQWLQJDQDORJLHVZHUHPDGHLQWHUQDOO\ZLWKLQ other Mosul readings, and externally with the Pusey and Gwilliam New Testament text, making use of my Concordance 9 as a tool and the guidelines presented in my introduction to spirantization. 10 In some cases, 0DäOPĆQşWKĆ066 11 (hereinafter, Maš.) were consulted to determine P‛al vs. Pa‛‛el fricatization marking. The MbaṭṭOĆQĆ DQG 0DUKṭĆQĆ ZHUH DGGHG V\VWHPDWLFDOO\ IROORZLQJ FXUUHQW RUWKRJUDSKLF FRQYHQWLRQV EXW WKH 0KDJJ\ĆQĆ 1ĆJXGĆ, and MṭDSS\ĆQĆDOOXELTXLWRXVLQWKH0RVXOWH[WZHUHUHPRYHGDVWKH\DUHDOLHQ to West Syriac orthography. 12 The text was collated against the Leiden edition. The results appear in Appendix 2. Orthographic Diversions from Mosul In terms of the consonantal tier, the present text differs orthographically from the Mosul text in two ways. Firstly, it intentionally replaces early Syriac orthographic conventions, most of which are also preserved in the East Syriac Mosul text, with West Syriac ones. 13 Rukkākhā and Quššāyā points, respectively) will match a single EJćGNSćW letter that is not followed by a Rukkākhā or Quššāyā point. When this search fails, all EJćGNSćW letters have been pointed (regardless of accuracy of course). 4 S. Lee, Vetus et Novum Testamentum Syriace (London, 1823). 5 T. Audo, ťƀɖĿŴƏťƍƤƆĪŦƦƊƀƏ (Mosul, 1897). 6 C. Brockelmann, Lexicon Syriacum (2nd ed., 1928). 7 J. P. Smith (Mrs. Margoliouth), A Compendious Syriac Dictionary Founded upon the Thesaurus Syriacus (Oxford, 1903). 8 P. Smith, Thesaurus Syriacus (Oxford, 1879–1901). 9 G. A. Kiraz, A Computer Generated Concordance to the Syriac New Testament, 6 volumes (Leiden, 1993). 10 G. A. Kiraz, ,QWURGXFWLRQWR6\ULDF6SLUDQWL]DWLRQ5XNN¿ʪ¿DQG4Xxx¿\¿ (Losser, 1995). 11 We used Vat. Syr. 152 and BL Add. 12,178. 12 On these symbols, see C. J. David, Grammaire de la Langue Araméenne, 2 volumes, (Mosul, 2nd ed., 1896) §62, §67; G. Kiraz, TuUUćʜ 0DPOOć $ *UDPPDU RI WKH 6\ULDF /DQJXDJH, Volume I Orthography (Gorgias Press, 2012) §§205–208. 13 On orthography, see L. Van Rompay, ‘Some Preliminary Remarks on the Origins of Classical Syriac as a Standard Language. The Syriac Version of Eusebius of Caesarea’s

Foreword to the Edition

IX

As for the vocalic tier, the present text differs from the Mosul text in a number of ways. ő Ŏ was generally converted to the corresponding W. Syr. šł E. Syr. š except in lexemes where the E. and W. Syriac orthographies vary. In the Ņ Ŕ ųŏ Ōſ, Mosul always uses an E. Syr. º §ª while case of bdwl prefixes attaching to ŧ Īĭ ¥ Ņ Ŕ ųſŏ ĭŌ vs. M ŧĪŇ ĭųſ  is used as in ŧ Īĭ ĭőŎ (35:23). here a W. Syr. º Ŏ E. Syr. º   was generally converted to W. Syr.šŅ except when followed ł by ĭ in which case it becameš . This also applies to nominal forms when followed by an enclitic demonstrative pronoun. Ŋ was generally converted to W. Syr. šň except in lexemesł E. Syr. š Ň where the E. and W. orthographies vary; e.g. E. Syr. ŦĥĪŁŊ  vs. W. Syr. Ŧĥ ĪŅŔŁŔ (1:11). ŋ was mapped to either šň or šŌ depending on the phonoE. Syr. š logical, morphological or lexical context. E. Syr. IJ Ŏ was converted to W. Syr. IJšŌ , while E. Syr. ĭő and ĭŎ were ŏ collapsed into W. Syr.ĭš. The choice was made to place the vowel on the consonant preceding the matres lectionis. The MbaṭṭOĆQĆZDVDSSOLHGLQWKHSUHVHQWWH[WIROORZLQJWKH3XVH\DQG Gwilliam tradition but with further extensions following contemporary orthographic conventions. With regards to the vocalization of proper nouns, the BFBS was followed whenever possible. For cases not found in the BFBS, the vocalization was based first on the Maš. (primarily BL Add 12,178) and then on the Walton polyglot. Only a few readings in Mosul were rejected, most of which seem to be typographical errors: M Ņ Here Ņ łƕ Ņ łƕ 9:22 ŦŁŴŔ ƀŏ ˁŹƢ Ŕ ƀŏ ˁŹƢ ŁŴ ň Ņ Ņ œ Ƣň Ƙœ ŁŔ ĥň ŁŔ ǓŵŅ ŬŔ Ņ Ũœ ŀƢň Ƙœ ŁŔ ĥ 10:5 ŦŁŔ ǓŵŅ ŬŔ Ņ ŨŴƣ ň ň 10:18 IJô Ǔ űł œ Ũł œ ŁŔ ĥ ĭĿűł œ Ũł œ ŁŔ ĥ ň œ ĥł ň œ ĥł 24:14 ô ƃĿ Ɓƍ ƎƃĿ Ņ ƃł Ņ Ũ ł 36:27 ķųɤ ķųɤ

Ecclesiastical History’, in G. Goldenberg and S. Raz (eds.), Semitic and Cushitic Studies (Wiesbaden, 2004), 70–89; S. P. Brock, ‘Some Diachronic Features of Classical Syriac’, in M. F. J. Baasten and W. Th. Van Peursen (eds.), +DPOHW RQ WKH +LOO 6HPLWLF DQG *UHHN 6WXGLHV 3UHVHQWHG WR 3URIHVVRU 7 0XUDRND RQ WKH 2FFDVLRQ RI KLV 6L[W\-Fifth Birthday (Louvain, 2003), 95– 111.

Foreword to the Edition

X

43:27 49:22

ŏ ł ň ķĭŁƢœ Ɖĥ ĪŔ ł ô Ə ƁƠ 

ŏ ł ł ķĭŁƢœ Ɖĥ ĪŔ ł ơƏ 

Text Organization The division of the text into chapters and verses is a recent Western phenomenon. Note that the book of Kings is one book in Syriac. Early manuscripts divided the texts into chapters, called in Syriac ķĭƨƙƟ, abbreviated ƚƟ, or ťŷʖĽ, abbreviated įĽ. Having said that, ancient manuscripts do not always follow a systematic approach in these chapter divisions. The present text follows the recent Western division of chapters, naming each chapter in Syriac ķĭƨƙƟ. Ancient Syriac chapter divisions are Ņ (they given in the outer margin preceded by the abbreviation įĽ for ťŷŅ ʖĽ correspond to Roman numerals in the English translation). These were provided by Adam Kane and Joshua Falconer. The numbers are based on MS Pocock 391 (Oxford). The present edition follows the Mosul versification. Ancient manuscripts vary in the application of punctuation marks. The punctuation presented here follows the Mosul punctuation faithfully. Acknowledgements Andreas Juckel, my co-editor in the Ṣurath Kthob series, played a major role in setting the textual policies of the edition. Melonie Schmierer-Lee of Gorgias Press worked carefully on the production of this and other Antioch Bible volumes. I am personally grateful to my wife Christine and three children: Tabetha Gabriella, Sebastian Kenoro, and Lucian Nurono. It is hoped that the current edition will be a motivation for further texts and translations of the Syriac Biblical tradition, and will stimulate the use of the Peshiṭta in educational and religious settings.

ABBREVIATIONS ASV B. BCE CE com. ed. fem. GKC +$/27

Impf JPS LXX masc. MS MSS MT NJPS NRSV P part. pl. RPS sing. √

American Standard Version (1901) Brockelmann, Carl, Lexicon Syriacum. Göttingen: W.Fr. Kaestner, 1928. Before the Common Era Common Era common editor, edition feminine Gesenius, Kautzsch, Cowley, Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar (1910). Koehler, L., W. Baumgartner and J. J. Stamm (trans. and ed. M. E. J. Richardson), 7KH +HEUHZ DQG $UDPDLF /H[LFRQ RI WKH 2OG Testament (1994–1999). imperfect Payne Smith, Jessie, A Compendious Syriac Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1896. Septuagint masculine manuscript manuscripts Masoretic Text New Jewish Publication Society New Revised Standard Version Peshiṭta participle plural Payne Smith, Robert, Thesaurus Syriacus. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1879–1901. singular Root (see the appropriate dictionary listed in the Bibliography for citations such as √II)

XI

INTRODUCTION BY CRAIG E. MORRISON The emergence of the Old Testament in Syriac was an apex in early Syriac literature. Created in the late second or early third century, Syriac theologians and biblical scholars would for centuries base their theological inquiry upon this translation. 1 The Peshiṭta of the Old Testament witnesses to the earliest reception of the Hebrew Bible in the Syriac speaking world. A cursory comparison of this English translation of the Peshiṭta with other English Bibles, which are translated from the Hebrew text, will reveal different readings. While most of these differences are subtle, some are unmistakable departures from the Hebrew text. While the translators paid close attention to their Hebrew exemplar, a text that remains unknown to us, they also had to interpret the Hebrew, especially where it was difficult to understand. Their efforts reveal the nature of biblical translation among Syriac scribes and the reception of the Genesis stories in the Syriac speaking community in antiquity. The relationship of Peshiṭta Genesis to other biblical versions is beyond the scope of this translation. This question demands a careful and thorough study of each agreement between the Peshiṭta and the versions, such as the LXX, Targum and Vulgate. 2 Shared readings are patient of 1 Very little is known about the Peshiṭta’s origins and its earliest citations date to the fourth century. For the current debate on its emergence see Michael Weitzman, The Syriac 9HUVLRQRIWKH2OG7HVWDPHQW$Q,QWURGXFWLRQ (University of Cambridge Oriental Publications 56; Cambridge / New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999); Piet B. Dirksen, ‘The Old Testament Peshitta’, in 0LNUD7H[W7UDQVODWLRQ5HDGLQJDQG,QWHUSUHWDWLRQRIWKH+HEUHZ%LEOHLQ Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (ed. M. Jan Mulder; Assen / Maastricht / Philadelphia: Van Gorcum, 1988), 255–297; and Craig E. Morrison, ‘Peshitta’, in 7KH +HEUHZ %LEOH Pentateuch Former and Latter Prophets (ed. Armin Lange and Emanuel Tov; Leiden: Brill, 2017), 375–383. 2 Jerome Lund has written a thorough study of the relationship of the Peshiṭta and the LXX: ‘The Influence of the Septuagint on the Peshitta: A Re-Evaluation of Criteria in the Light of Comparative Study of the Versions in Genesis and Psalms’. Ph.D. diss., The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1988.

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Introduction

several explanations, such as, for example, the influence of the version on the Peshiṭta, a shared Hebrew Vorlage, shared traditions, or accidental agreement. A lengthy list of agreements can give the misleading impression of influence when each agreement is not investigated thoroughly. The relationship between the Peshiṭta and the Targums is especially complicated because their languages are closely related. A list of agreements could easily be mistaken to show influence. A meticulous methodology is necessary for identifying true agreements against the MT and then isolating those that illustrate contact between the Peshiṭta and another version. The Peshiṭta is a translation into good Syriac idiom. Rarely did the translator mirror aspects of Hebrew syntax in Syriac. Lexical choices are based primarily upon the meaning of the Hebrew term in its context and not upon their Syriac cognates. The translators, assuming that their audience would have no access to the Hebrew, aimed to provide a lucid, literary translation that was intended to be read without reference to the Hebrew. 3 This Translation No translator can escape the dilemma captured by the Italian expression traduttore-traditore (‘translator-betrayer’). At times, this translation reflects particular Syriac expressions to give the reader a taste of the Syriac idiom and to remind the reader of the original language behind this English translation. For example, Gen 13:1 is translated with ‘Abram went up from Egypt, he, his wife and everything that he possessed’. A more elegant English translation might be, ‘Abraham and his wife, along with everything he possessed, went up from Egypt’, but I have opted for the former because it expresses in English some of the Syriac syntax. The Syriac construction that expresses possession also appears in this verse: ‘everything that there was to him’. In this case, a literal translation is clumsy in English and so it is rendered, ‘everything that he possessed’. In Gen 15:15, ‘ripe old age’ might be a more elegant translation for ŦƦũŹŦŁŴũƀƐŨ, but I have reflected the Syriac idiom: ‘good old age’. Sometimes I have maintained the Hebrew/Syriac idiom to denote sexual relations: ‘to come/go into’ but other Semitic expressions, such as, ‘son of X number of years’ to report the age of a person, have not been translated literally.

3 The Peshiṭta’s Sitz im Leben differs from the Targums or the LXX, whose audiences approached these latter versions as translations of an original Hebrew.

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Some traditional English translation equivalents for Hebrew words have been followed in this translation so as not to give the impression that the Peshiṭta has a different reading. For example, the meaning of the very first word in the Hebrew Bible, ='f–   : — C ’ , is the subject of much discussion. The Peshiṭta translator followed the Hebrew with ƦƀƤſƢŨ and I have maintained the traditional translation, ‘In the beginning’. The NJPS translation of the Hebrew, ‘When God began to create’, may, in fact, be a better interpretation of the Hebrew/Syriac, but to employ that translation in this English edition could give the reader the mistaken impression that the Syriac departs from the Hebrew. Where the Syriac translation appears to follow the Hebrew but at the same time is patient of more than one interpretation, I have assumed that the translator intended to communicate the meaning of the Hebrew (though there is no basis for this assumption). I offer a list of the significant divergent readings and sometimes I suggest an explanation for the reading. But these explanations, tentative at best, should spur further research into the Peshiṭta of Genesis as a reception of a Hebrew exemplar in Syriac. Syriac lexemes are translated into English with consistency but not rigidity. The verb ĵĮĥ is rendered ‘he went’ even when long distances are intended (see Gen 13:3) and a more dynamic equivalent, such as, ‘he traveled’ or ‘he journeyed’, might be better. I normally translate the verb ƢƉĥ with ‘to say’ or ‘to speak’ unless the English becomes excessively monotonous, as in Gen 19:9. Other Semitic expressions, such as, ‘These are the days of the years of the life of Abraham, which he lived’ (Gen 25:7), have been preserved in translation, though a more dynamic translation such as, ‘Abraham’s lifespan was…’, would be possible. Semitic expressions, such as ‘to raise up one’s eyes’ (Gen 13:10), meaning ‘to look about’, have also been maintained. In Gen 17:2, the Hebrew expression '=' – :– ’ ! š1k’ ˜ ’# is rendered literally in Syriac, ƁƊƀƟ ĵŁĥĭ, and I have maintained the Hebrew/Syriac expression in English: ‘I will give my covenant’. The man seeking a wife for Isaac says to Laban, ‘I will not eat until I have spoken my words’ (Gen 24:33). A more elegant translation might be, ‘I will not eat until I have explained my mission’, but I have opted to remain close to the Syriac. In Gen 41:46, I have translated ‘when he [Joseph] stood before Pharaoh king of Egypt’ which is how the Hebrew/Syriac expresses Joseph’s new role in the Egyptian kingdom. A more idiomatic translation risks limiting the broad meaning that the Syriac conveys. But some Syriac expressions cannot be translated literally in English because they connote a different meaning. In Gen 17:3, the Hebrew/Syriac ò reads: IJĬŴƘDŽƕ ĶƢŨDŽƙƌĭ ‘Abram fell on his face’. Because a literal translation would suggest that Abram tripped and fell, it is rendered ‘Abram

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fell prostrate’. The cognate accusatives in Aramaic, such as ‘he vowed a vow’ (Gen 28:20), sound awkward in English and are not rendered literally. The term ŦĬ (!1!), traditionally translated ‘behold’, has a complex function in Syriac narrative and I have provided various English equivalents depending on the context. Similarly, the conjunction waw has a number of meanings beyond simply ‘and’. It can express adversative coordination (‘but’) as in Gen 37:22 (ŧűſĥĭ) or introduce a logical consequence (‘and so’) as in Gen 19:30 (ơƇƏĭ) where Lot’s choice to dwell in a cave is the result of his fear of dwelling in Zoar. It also can introduce a conclusion as in Gen 26:6, ‘So Isaac lived…’ (ħƦſĭ). English words in square brackets are not in the Syriac text and have been added for good English idiom. Some conditions in Syriac cannot be translated literally since they would make little sense in English (often because the apodosis of the condition is not expressed). In these cases, a more dynamic translation is required. On a few occasions I have observed the Syriac word order. In Gen 42:4 the Syriac reads, ‘But Benjamin, Joseph’s brother, Jacob did not send with his brothers’. The Peshiṭta, like the MT, focuses the reader’s attention on Benjamin with this particular word order and I have reflected it in translation. In Gen 17:22 a literal translation — ‘When he finished speaking with him, God went up from Abraham’ — could leave the impression that ‘he’ in the temporal clause is not the same person as ‘God’ in the main clause. My translation reads: ‘When God finished speaking with him, he went up from Abraham’. The footnotes present alternative English readings and note some of the readings in the MT that are different from what appears in the Peshiṭta. These footnotes are purely descriptive and do not imply a more original reading. The Peshiṭta is not a translation of the MT and its Hebrew exemplar is unknown. The Book of Genesis This short introduction cannot do justice to the elegance of the Peshiṭta translation of Genesis. A separate volume would be required. However, a few observations are offered here. 4 The Peshiṭta translator can choose more specific lexemes for some Hebrew words. For example, in 9:14 the Hebrew expression, 0 š14š ' –1 ’14™ C’ ! š'!š ’# (literally) ‘when my clouding with clouds’, is 4 Very few comments are offered on the many Peshiṭta readings in Genesis 49. These readings require a separate study.

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ò rendered ťƍƍƕťƌĥơƐƉĪťƉ ‘when I bring up clouds’. In 41:47 the Hebrew reads (translated very literally): ‘The land did [g4™ k™ ™#] in the seven years of plenty for Egypt’. The Peshiṭta reads: ‘During the seven years of abundance the land stored up [ƦƇƊŶ] grain in storehouses’. The broad meaning of the Hebrew term !g3 in this verse is given a more specific rendering with ƈƊŶ and the Peshiṭta adds the word ŧǓĽĭĥ. These departures from a literal rendering of the Hebrew provided Syriac readers with a lucid translation. The translator(s) is not always consistent in his lexical choices. In Gen 1:25 and 1:30, the Hebrew reads 7:˜ š !š = ™Q%.™ In 1:25 the Peshiṭta has ŦŁŴƀʖ ťƕĿĥĪ, imitating the MT, but in Gen 1:30, it has the more expected ŦƦſŴŶ ŧƢŨĪĪ. On occasion the Peshiṭta simply imports the Hebrew text into Syriac and the obscure meaning of the Hebrew is not clarified by the Peshiṭta. For example, Hebrew K!œ š# K!œ=, sometimes translated ‘formless void’, in 1:2 is rendered ĬŴŨĭ ĬĭŁ. Other examples appear in 1:2 ťƉĭĬŁ for -L!=;’ 1:6 ťƖƀƟĿĥ for µ'™ 9– :;š 1:21 ťƍƀƌŁ for - –1' –^k™ !.™ The precise meanings of these Hebrew phrases have received extensive exegetical discussion and the Peshiṭta does not offer an insight into their interpretation. Sometimes the translator imitates the Hebrew text and we cannot be sure if the translator understood it. For example, '+™ 4š has a particular meaning in Gen 48:7 (rendered in the NRSV with ‘alas’ and in the NJPS with ‘to my sorrow’). The translator borrowed the Hebrew consonants into Syriac (ƁƇƕ) resulting in the translation ‘by me’. The Syriac translator did not recognize the meaning of the Hebrew. In 32:28 (MT 32:29) the Hebrew š :– gš is charged with meaning (NJPS: ‘You have striven’). The Peshiṭta verb =' reading ŁĿĿƦƣĥ õ (‘you have proven yourself to be strong’) reflects some of the Hebrew consonants and offers a suitable meaning. But whether the translator recognized this Hebrew verb remains a mystery. The Peshiṭta witnesses a certain degree of freedom in lexical choices. For example, the Hebrew Bible employs the root !62 four times to describe the coming destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah. The Peshiṭta renders this root with the aSKel of űŨĥ in three cases (Gen 18:23,24; 19:17) but in 19:15 it reads ƗƇŨ. The word ƗƇŨ is certainly an adequate translation for !62, but why was the translator not consistent with his lexical choices within the same story? The translator does not opt for the Syriac cognate of a Hebrew verb when that cognate would make little sense in translation. For example, the verb +61 in 25:18 is not easily interpreted (‘he fell alongside all his kinsmen’) though it is easily translated with Syriac ƈƙƌ. But the Syriac translator preferred ŧƢƣ (‘to camp’), which is more suitable to the context. In 3:24 the Peshiṭta departs from the MT to provide an alliteration, ťŨĭƢƃĴƢƃĥĭ ZKLFKPD\H[SODLQWKHFKRLFHRIWKHYHUE¥ĴƢƃ to translate Hebrew 0)f.

Introduction

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Some lexical choices obscure the obvious metaphor in the Hebrew. The translator rendered !/š š ” !š with either ŦƦƉĪĥ or ťƕĿĥ. When Adam is created in 2:7, !/š š ” !š is rendered with ŦƦƉĪĥ so that the Peshiṭta readers observe that ‘Adam’ was drawn from the ‘adamah’. But in 3:19,23 the translator renders !/š š ” !š with ťƕĿĥ, obfuscating the imagery in the Hebrew text that Adam shall return to the ground (MT !/š š ” !) š from which he was taken because he is dust and to dust he shall return. Noteworthy Readings The major differences between the Hebrew text and the Peshiṭta are listed below. Particular Lexical Choices 1:27

ĶĪĥ: The Peshiṭta can distinguish two meanings for the Hebrew word -š š !:š (1) a reference to all humanity and (2) the personal name, ‘Adam’. The term -š š appears for the first time in 1:26 (without the definite article) and it is rendered ťƤƌĥ (‘humanity’). In the next verse -š š !š is rendered ĶĪĥ, a personal name. In 3:9 when God calls to Adam the Hebrew reads ‘Where are you?’ but the Peshiṭta adds the personal name, ‘Where are you, Adam?’ The Peshiṭta translator’s understanding of the two meanings of -š š !š is illustrated in 9:6: Whoever sheds a person’s blood [ťƤƌĥ; -š š !š ], his blood will be shed for that person [ťƤƌŤŨ; -š š C] š because in the image of God Adam [ĶĪĥ; -š š !š ] was made.

In general, Hebrew -š š !š when it refers generically to a person is rendered ťƤƌĥ, but when it refers to the person created by God it is ò rendered ĶĪĥ, ‘Adam’. However, in Gen 6:6–7a, it seems that ťƤƍƀƍŨ and ĶĪĥ are nearly interchangeable: The Lord regretted that he had made the person [ĶĪƧ; -š š !¡= š ] ˜ on the earth and he was sick at heart. [7] The Lord said, ‘I will blot out ò ; -š š !¡= humanity [ťƤƌĥƁƍũƆ š ] ˜ that I created from the face of the earth.

2:5

Again in 6:1 Hebrew -š š !š is interpreted as a reference to all ò but in 5:2 -š š (without the Hebrew humanity and is translated ťƤƍƀƍŨ article) also refers to humanity in general but the Peshiṭta reads ĶĪĥ, perhaps because the context records God ‘naming’ his creation. ťƍƇòſĥ ‘trees’; MT ´'™ g– ‘shrub’. This rare Hebrew term is rendered with the more common Syriac term for tree perhaps in anticipation of the tree that God plants in 2:9. In Gen 21:15 ´'™ g– is rendered with ťŷɚƏ ‘shrub’.

Introduction 2:6

2:8

2:12

3:15 3:16 5:22

6:14 13:11

13:12

XIX

ĺŴũƉ

‘spring’; MT — ‘mist’. The Hebrew term for the stream or mist that wells up from the earth is a KaSa[ legomenon. The Peshiṭta renders it with the more common term ĺŴũƉ, ‘spring’. ťƐſĪƢƘ ‘Paradise’; MT 0 ™E ‘garden’. In Genesis 1–3 the Hebrew word ‘garden’ refers to the garden planted by God and it is always translated with ťƐſĪƢƘ, ‘Paradise’. Often in the OT where the term 0 ™E alludes to the garden of Genesis (Gen 13:10; Isa 51:3; 58:11; Ezek 28:13; 31:8–9; 36:35), the Peshiṭta reads ‘Paradise’. The translator did not reach for the Syriac cognate ŦƦƍū. When 0 ™E does not allude to the garden of God (see 1 Kings 21:2; 2 Kings 21:18,26; 25:4; Jer 31:12; 39:4; 52:7 and Song 4:12) then the cognate ŦƦƍū appears. 5 Because of these distinct meanings for 0 ™E in the Peshiṭta, I have opted to render ťƐſĪƢƘ with ‘Paradise’ in order to draw the reader’s attention to this interpretation that would be lost by the translation ‘garden’. ťŷƆĭǔŨ ‘pearls’; MT %+œ™ C’ !™ ‘bdellium’. The Peshiṭta translator may have associated this rare Hebrew word with the Syriac term for pearl or this is an error in translation where an original Peshiṭta reading was ťŷƆĭűŨ and the present reading is the result of confusion between Ŀ and Ī during the Peshiṭta’s transmission. ŀĭűƌ ‘he will tread on’; MT U6Kf ’ ’' ‘he will strike’. The Peshiṭta offers a logical translation for this rare Hebrew word. ƎƀƍƘŁŁ ‘you will heed’; MT T=— 9Kf š k’ ‘your desire’ (see also 4:7). Ƣƙƣĭ ‘he pleased’; MT TX— !™ =’ –Q ™# ‘he walked’. The expression, ‘to walk with God’ also appears in 5:24, 6:9; 17:1 and 48:15 and is always rendered with ‘to be pleasing to God’ (see also Psalm 56:14). In 24:40 this Hebrew expression is rendered IJĬŴƉűƟƦŷƇƘĪ, ‘before whom I serve’. ťƟƢƕ ‘juniper’; MT :6œ˜ . The meaning of the Hebrew word is unknown. ťƕĿĥ ųɤƃ ñ ‘all the land’; MT :V™ V¡+ – Vš ‘all the plain’. The translator may not have understood the Hebrew word since in 13:12 he translates :V™ V– !™ as a place name: ƢƄƃ ‘Kakar’. ŁƢſĭ ‘he took possession’; MT +!™ “ ˜Q ™# ‘he pitched his tent’. This Hebrew verb occurs only three times in the Bible (Gen 13:18 and Isa 13:20). In Gen 13:18 it is rendered ŦŁĥĭ ‘he came’ and in Isa 13:20

5 In Deut 11:10 the Peshiṭta reads ťƐſĪƢƘ for Hebrew 0 ™E and there is no apparent allusion to Paradise. Perhaps the image of a ‘watered garden’ as in ‘the garden of the Lord’ in Gen 13:10 led the Peshiṭta translator to opt for the term ‘Paradise’ in this verse.

Introduction

XX

with ķĭƢƤƌ. The translator appears not to have recognized its meaning and therefore rendered it according to the context. 13:18 ŦŁĥĭ ‘he went’; MT +!™ “ ˜Q ™# ‘he pitched his tent’. See 13:12. 16:9 IJűũƕƦƣĥ ‘subject yourself’; MT ' –^4™ =’ !– ‘be oppressed’. The Peshiṭta opts for a less violent verb than the Hebrew !13. The verb !13 appears in 16:6 and is rendered with ƢƕĽ. 6 24:7 ƋƀƟĥ ‘he established’; MT 3C™ f’ –1 ‘he swore’. The Peshiṭta does not report that God swore an oath. The same Hebrew verb appears in 24:3, U4' ” C– f’ ™ ’#, ‘I will make you swear’, and the Peshiṭta has the expected reading, ƅƀƉĭĥĭ, but the subject is Abraham, not God. 24:22 ƨƟƦƉ ‘shekel’; MT 39™ C˜ ‘half a shekel’. This rare Hebrew word appears only here and in Exod 38:26. In both cases the Peshiṭta translates the Hebrew word with ‘shekel’. 24:40 ƦŷƇƘ ‘I have served’; MT 'k– )’ X™ !™ =’ !– ‘I have walked’. Abraham’s servant recounts his master’s trust in God. The Peshiṭta prefers a verb with a more explicit religious sense. 25:8,17; 35:29; 49:33 ĬƢƃŁĥĭ ‘became sick’; MT 3 ™# ’ –Q ™# ‘he passed away’ (often translated, ‘he breathed his last’). The Hebrew expression =/š šQ ™# 3 ™# ’ –Q ™# is translated ƦƀƉĭĬƢƃŁĥĭ in Genesis. 30:20 ƚƠƌƦƌ ‘he will cleave’; MT ' –1+— C’ ’$ –'. For this Hebrew KaSa[ legomenon HALOT suggests the gloss ‘to acknowledge (a woman) as one’s lawful wife’. Westermann 7 and Wenham 8 suggest that it refers to the honor a husband shows his wife. The Peshiṭta’s lexical choice reflects Gen 2:24: ĬŁƦƌƧƚƠƌĭųƉƧĭIJĬŴŨƧŧƢũūľŴũƤƌ. 36:24 The Hebrew word -/—Q – !™ is a KaSa[ legomenon (often glossed with ‘hot ò , reflects Hebrew - –']™ !.™ springs’). The Peshiṭta, ťƀƉ ò 37:3 ŦƦſűƘ ‘long sleeves’; MT -'_– a.™ The precise meanings of the Syriac ò appears only in Gen and Hebrew words are obscure. The word ŦƦſűƘ 37:3,23,32 to translate -'_– a.™ 41:47 ŧǓĽĭŤŨ ‘in storehouses’; MT -'8– /š 9’ +– ‘in handfuls’. This rare Hebrew word is rendered according to the context (see also Gen 41:56). 18F

The Hithpael of !13 is rendered with the Ethpa’al of ƢƕĽ in 1 Kings 2:26. C. Westermann, Genesis 12– $ &RPPHQWDU\ (trans. John J. Scullion; Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1985), 470. 8 G. J. Wenham, Genesis 16–50 (Word Biblical Commentary 2; Dallas: Word Books, 1994), 239. 6 7

Introduction 42:1

XXI

ķŴƇŶĪŁƧ ‘do not fear’; MT K:š =’ k– ‘you are looking at one another’.

The Peshiṭta interprets Hebrew K:š =’ k– from :' instead of from !:. 45:11 űŨĥŁ ‘you will perish’; MT f:— šKk– ‘you will be dispossessed’. This rare niSKal verb is translated according to the context. Clarifications The vague term, ‘clarification’ serves as a catch-all for readings that do indeed clarify the Hebrew, but this label does not explain the new meaning that the Peshiṭta lends to the text. Further study is necessary to provide a more detailed description of these readings and their impact on the passages in which they appear. Major clarifications are listed below while minor clarifications are registered in the footnotes. 1:11

3:8 4:4–5

8:17

14:14 47:21 47:22

ųŨ ĬƦŨƞƌĪ

‘which can reproduce on their own’; MT L¡L3:’ ™$ :f˜ ” ‘which has its seed in it’. The Peshiṭta underscores that God has created the plants to reproduce, a meaning implied in the Hebrew. ťƉŴſĪųƀƍƙƆ ‘early evening’; MT -LQ!™ ´K: ™ +’ ‘breeze of the day’. ƁũŹ Ľĥ ‘he delighted’; MT 3f™ –Q ™# ‘he looked at’. The Peshiṭta draws out the meaning in the Hebrew that God’s ‘gaze’, or lack thereof, implies that God was or was not pleased. ķĭűƆŴƌ ‘let them procreate’; MT K8:’ fš ‘let them swarm’. The ‘creeping things’ might ‘swarm’ but the Peshiṭta assumes that the subject of this verb is all the animals coming out of the ark. See also 9:7. ƎſĮĭ; ‘he equipped’; MT 9:˜ šQ ™# ‘he emptied’. The MT makes little sense in this context and the Peshiṭta offers a clarification. ŧƢƠƆŧƢƟƎƉ ‘from town to town’; MT -':– 4š +˜ ‘to cities’. ŧǔƉŴƄƆ ŁĭĬ ťƊƀƟ ŦƦƊƀƟ ‘fixed allowance that was established for the priests’; MT -' –1!œ” V+™ 9œ% ‘allowance for the priests’.

Divergent Readings 2:2

ťſƦſƦƣťƉŴƀŨ ‘on the sixth day’; MT '4'– – i’ !™

-LQC ™ ‘on the seventh day’. The Peshiṭta (and the LXX) ensure that the seventh day was a day of complete rest for God by noting that God rested on the sixth day. The Hebrew text could suggest that God worked on the seventh day before he rested. 3:6 ųŨƢŷƊƆ ‘to gaze at it’; MT +'V– g’ !™ +’ ‘to become wise’. 4:13 ơũƤƊƆ ‘to be forgiven’; MT œg ’^/– ‘to bear’. The Peshiṭta offers a theological interpretation of the Hebrew. ò ‘the sons of Elohim’; MT [6:2] -'!Y 6:1 ƋſĬŴƭ ƁƍŨ – “ !¡' š —1’ ‘sons of God’. The Peshiṭta transliterates the Hebrew word ‘God’ into Syriac

XXII

8:4

Introduction instead of translating it with the expected Ŧųƭ. This leaves the impression that Elohim is a personal name. The same expression ò . appears in Job 1:6 and 2:1 and is also translated ƋſĬŴƭƁƍŨ ĭĪƢƟIJǓŴŹƈƕ ‘on the mountains of Qardu’; MT &:š :š ” ':— !š +4™ ‘on the mountains of Ararat’. The Peshiṭta, together with Jewish tradition, has updated the name for the reader. 9 ĶƢŨĥűũƕĭ ‘Abraham did’; MT -:š ’ ™ T+˜ —Q ™# ‘Abraham went’. The Peshiṭta adds ŪŹĪ ŦŤūŴƏ ‘very many’. This addition explains why the next verse reports that Abram and Lot could not share the land together. ťƀʖIJĬűƃ ‘while she is living’; MT ! šQ%.™ The meaning of the Hebrew word is uncertain in this context. The Peshiṭta has interpreted it in reference to Sarah. ŦŁŴƊƀƇƕ ‘youthful vigour’; MT ! š1’ 4.˜ The Peshiṭta offers an interpretation for an obscure Hebrew KaSa[ legomenon. ŀƦƃŁĥĭ ‘he fought’; MT K:8’ 6’ –Q ™# ‘they pressed’. The Peshiṭta enhances Lot’s role in trying to stop those invading his house. ŦƦƀūƢūǔƣ ‘hallucinations’; MT -':– —# ’1_.™ HALOT glosses the Hebrew word with ‘dazzling, deception’. This word appears only one other time in 2 Kings 6:18 where it is again translated with ŦƦƀūƢūǔƣ. The translator of Peshiṭta Genesis may not have known its precise meaning. ƅƆŁűũƕťƍƉ ‘What have I done to you?’; MT K1Xš ='š g– 4¡! š /˜ ‘What have you done to us?’ The Peshiṭta renders the Hebrew to suit the context. ƁƆ ŧűŷƌŦƦŨĿ ŦŁĭűŶ ‘great joy…let him rejoice with me’; MT '+¡9 – %™ 8’ –'9œ%8’ ‘laughter…let him laugh with me’. The Hebrew noun 9%8 is a play on Isaac’s name. The only other occurrence of this noun appears in Ezek 23:32 where it is rendered with ťƄŶŴū, a noun from the verbal root that often translates the Hebrew verb 9%8 (see, for example, Gen 17:17; 18:12–15; 19:1; 21:9). The Syriac word ťƄŶŴū translates Hebrew $K (derision) in Gen 38:23. Were the translation equivalent ťƄŶŴū to appear in 21:6, it could suggest that Sarah invited others to deride her, a derogatory interpretation that the Peshiṭta has avoided. 21F

12:4 13:5

18:10

18:12 19:9 19:11

20:9

21:6

9 Sebastian Brock, ‘Jewish Traditions in Syriac Sources’, Journal of Jewish Studies 30 (1979): 213–14.

Introduction 21:33

22:2

XXIII

ŦƦŨƞƌ

‘plant’; MT +f˜ ˜ ‘tamarisk’. The Hebrew word appears two other times in the Bible (1 Sam 22:6 and 31:13) where it refers to the tree that Saul sits under and it is rendered with ŦĮŴƆ, ‘almond tree’. The Peshiṭta translator of Genesis may not have known this Hebrew word and so chose the generic word ‘plant’. ťſǓŴƉĥĪťƕĿƧ ‘to the land of the Amorites’; Hebrew ! šQ:œ– ]!™ 7:˜ ¡+ ˜ ˜ ‘to the land of Moriah’. The Peshiṭta of Gen 22:2 reads with the Peshiṭta text of 2 Chr 3:1, which reports that the temple was built on the mountain of the Amorites. 10 Abraham takes Isaac to where the future temple will be built. ŦƦƕǓĥ ‘lands’; MT :4™ f™ ‘gate’. ƁƆĽĭ ‘he prayed’. The Peshiṭta includes this addition just before the servant speaks to God. ñ ťƠŨƦƉĭ ‘he was studying her, waiting’; MT f':– %” /™ ‘he ĿƦƄƉĭ ųŨ was silent’. ťƌĥťƀʖťƍƊƆ ‘Why am I alive?’ MT ')œ– 1š ! ˜O !]š +š ‘Why am I here?’ ò ‘ringlets of hair’; MT :4š g— =:˜ G˜ ™ V’ ‘like a cloak of hair’. ŧƢƖƏĪŦƦƟŵƕ The term =:˜ G˜ ™ can mean ‘cloak’ and is normally translated as such in the Peshiṭta (see, for example, Josh 7:21,24; 1 Kings 19:13,19; 2 Kings 2:8). The expression :4š g— =:˜ G˜ ™ V’ is often glossed with ‘a hairy mantle’. The Peshiṭta is also not easily interpreted. R. Payne Smith recognizes this divergent reading and glosses it with cirri (‘ringlets’). ƁƇƕ ƎſƦſŁĭ ‘you will bring upon me’; MT '+™ 4š '= – — !— ’# ‘I will bring upon myself’. The Peshiṭta removes from Jacob the risk of bringing a curse upon himself and puts the responsibility on Raphka. This change coordinates with the logic of the text since the scheme to have Isaac bless Jacob is Raphka’s idea. ƁƉűƟĴųƭťſƢƉŪƀŹĪĶűƉ ‘It is something that the Lord your God provided in front of me’; MT ' š16š +’ U'!Y ˜ “ ! š#! ’' !:š 9’ !– 'V– ‘The Lord your God made it happen before me’. The Peshiṭta ensures that the reader knows that God provided the food that Jacob gives to his father Isaac. ħĭŁŁķĥĭ ‘if you repent’; MT ':– kš :f˜ ” V™ ! š'!š ’# ‘when you break loose’. The Hebrew word is rare and the Peshiṭta offers a moral interpretation. 2F

22:17 24:12 24:21 25:22 25:25

27:12

27:20

27:40

10 Craig E. Morrison, ‘Did the Dying Jacob Gather His Feet into His Bed (MT) or Stretch Them Out (Peshitta)? Describing the Unique Character of the Peshitta’, North American Syriac Symposium 2015, Washington DC. Forthcoming.

XXIV

30:8

30:27

31:20 31:39

31:49

31:53

32:9 32:28

33:20 34:7

Introduction

IJƦŶƋƕƦƙƤƃŁĥĭťſƢƉƎƉƦƀƖŨ ‘I have beseeched the Lord and I pleaded with my sister’; MT '=œ– %¡” 4– 'k– +’ k™ 6’ –1 -'!Y – “ '+Kk — 6’ ™1. The meaning of the Hebrew root +=6 is obscure. The Peshiṭta has two different verbs, both of which have the sense ‘to plead’. ƦƀƐƌ ‘I have come to know’; MT 'k– f’ %™ –1 ‘I learned by divination’. The Hebrew and Syriac verbs f%1/ƥŷƌ mean ‘to practice divination’. But the Peshiṭta does not report that Laban engaged in such practices, reporting instead that Laban had figured out that God had blessed him. ĵĮĥ ‘he was going’; MT ´™ :œ—  ‘he was fleeing’. Obviously, Jacob would not inform Laban of his intention ‘to flee’. ƦſĭĬ ƢźƍƉ ‘I would take [it] as my own’; MT ! š^P˜ %™ .” HALOT glosses the Hebrew verb with ‘to bear the loss of a thing’. The Peshiṭta offers its own interpretation. ƎƍƀƣƢƘ ‘we are separating’; MT :=— _š –1 ‘we are hidden’. The Peshiṭta translation suits the main theme of this chapter, the separation of Jacob from Laban. ķĭűƌ ‘may he judge’; MT K&a’ f’ –' ‘may they judge’. The Hebrew reads: ‘May the God of Abraham and the god of Nahor judge between us’ whereas the Peshiṭta reads: ‘May the God of Abraham, the God of Nahor, judge between us’. The Peshiṭta omits the waw in the Hebrew before ‘God of Nahor’ (ĿŴŷƌĪ Ĭųƭ :L% š1 '!Y — —#) so that the verb remains singular. As a result, the ‘God of Nahor’ becomes a second title for the ‘God of Abraham’ and not a different god. In this same ò verse -!' ˜ – ” '!Y — “ ‘gods of our fathers’ becomes ķŁųŨĥĪŦųƭ ‘God of our fathers’, which would confirm for Peshiṭta readers that the ‘God of Abraham’ and the ‘God of Nahor’ are the same God. ƁƆĽĭ ‘he prayed’; absent in the MT [32:10]. The Peshiṭta adds the verb ‘to pray’ which is more specific to the context. ťƃƨƉ ‘angel’; MT [32:29] -'!Y – “ ‘God’. The Hebrew -'!Y – “ is part of the word play in the Hebrew for the meaning of the name +— :š g’ –' (along with =' š :– g). š The Peshiṭta imagines that Jacob contended with an angel and not with God (see also 32:30 [MT 32:31]). The Peshiṭta adds ųƍƄƤƉƎƉŁƥƠƌĭ, ‘He pitched his tent there’, at the beginning of the verse. ĭƢƕĽ ‘they forced’; MT V™ f’ +– ‘by lying with’. The expected translation for )f is ƅƉĪ. The Peshiṭta’s lexical choice, ƢƕĽ, underscores that Dinah was raped and it is borrowed from 34:2: !š ˜^4™ ’' ™# / ĬƢƕĽ ñ . In 34:2 the verb V™ f’ –Q ™# is translated with the expected ƅƉĪ.

Introduction

XXV

35:29 When Jacob and Esau bury their father Isaac, the Peshiṭta adds ‘in the grave that Abraham his father had bought’ (ĶĬƢŨĥ ƎŨĮĪ ŧƢũƠŨ IJĬŴŨĥ). 38:5 ŁĭĬ ƦƠƐƘ ‘she stopped [giving birth]’; MT ' –$)’ – ! š'!š ’# ‘he was at Chezib’. The Hebrew place name Chezib appears only here in the Bible. The Peshiṭta translator, not recognizing the town ' –$),’ offers a translation that suits the context as Shelah is Shua’s last child before she dies. 38:14 ŦƦŶǓĭĥ ƦƤƇƙŨ ‘in the fork of the roads’; MT -–' ™1'4— %=™ 6˜ C’ ‘at the entrance of Enaim’. This rare Hebrew place name, which appears only here and in 38:21, may have provoked the translator to render this phrase according to the context. The Syriac expression, ƦƤƇƙŨ ŦƦŶǓĭĥ, appears in Ezek 21:26 (ŦƦŶǓĭĥƦƤƇƘĪťŶĿĭĥƥſĿƈƕ; ‘at the beginning of the road, which is the fork in the roads’) to translate the idiomatic expression -')– :š G’ !™ ' —1f’ fœ:C’ T:˜ G˜ !™ -¡+ — ˜ . 41:40 ƁƊƕ ųƇƃ ťƍſĪ ŪƐƌ ‘all my people will receive justice’; MT 9i™ –' ']– 4¡+ ™ Vš ‘all my people will kiss’. The Hebrew text, if correct, may preserve an idiomatic expression, which the Peshiṭta translator may not have understood. 41:43 ťźƀƇƣĭ ťŨĥ ‘father and ruler’; MT T:— ’ . ™ The Peshiṭta presents Pharaoh calling Joseph, ‘father and ruler’, whereas in the Hebrew text the people cry out ‘Abrek’, or ‘bend the knee’ (the Hebrew word is difficult to interpret). The Peshiṭta has borrowed the first two Hebrew consonants from T:— ’ ™ to arrive at ťŨĥ and the second lexical choice has been adapted to the context. The reading raises Joseph’s status beyond what appears in the MT. ò ‘because hidden things were 41:45 The Peshiṭta adds ųƆƎƀˁūŦƦƀ ò ƐƃĪ revealed to him’ after ŸƍƖƘ ƦƍƘĽ, ‘Zaphenath-paneah’. Similar interpretations of Joseph’s name also appear in Targum Neofiti (: !'+ #'+ =:'/& ‘The man to whom hidden things are revealed’) and Pseudo Jonathan (-2:6/ 0:'/& : ‘the man who reveals hidden things’). 42:9 ķĭƦſŁĥ ťƕĿĥĪ ųũŹ ñ ĭĬ ŦŵŷƊƆĭ; MT -= ˜ Cš 7:˜ š !š = ™#:’ 4¡= ˜ ˜ =L:’ . An unrecognized Joseph accuses his brothers of coming to Egypt ‘to see the nakedness of the land’. The notion of ‘nakedness’ in this context can connote barrenness, weakness, humility, or desolation. The Peshiṭta does not translate this Hebrew metaphor. Instead, it translates this expression with ‘to find out the news about the land’ since Joseph has just accused his brothers of being spies. 42:15–16 The Hebrew text introduces Joseph’s oath with the traditional formula: '% + the name. When this introductory formula contains the

Introduction

XXVI

45:23 47:31

48:15

50:16

Lord’s name, the Peshiṭta translates these introductions to the oath without difficulty: ťſƢƉĭĬƁʖ. But in this verse Joseph is swearing an oath by the life of Pharaoh. The expected translation would be Ɓʖ ķŴƕƢƘĭĬ ‘as Pharaoh lives’. The Peshiṭta translation avoids having Joseph swear on the life of Pharaoh as if Pharaoh were a god. Instead ò , ‘the life of Pharaoh’. it has the expression ķŴƕƢƘĪIJĬŴƀʖ ŧƢƊŶ ‘wine’; MT: -%˜ +˜ ‘bread’. ĬƢŹŴŶ ‘his staff’; MT !Pš ]– !™ ‘bed’. The Peshiṭta has read !Pš ]– !™ as !P˜ /™ (staff). The translator did not understand the meaning of the gesture in this scene. ƁƍƀƏĿŁĪŦųƭ ‘God who sustained me’; MT !4œ˜ :!š -'!Y – “ !š ‘God who shepherded me’. The Peshiṭta does not translate this Hebrew phrase literally. ŴŨƢƟĭ ‘they approached’; MT KK8™ ’' ™# ‘They commanded’. The Hebrew verb ‘to command’ makes little sense in this context and the Peshiṭta has a more logical reading.

Double Translations 8:21

ťŷɚƌĪťŷɖĿŦŁŴƏĪťŷɖĿ ‘the sweet fragrance, the fragrance of repose’;

50:13

IJĬŴƇŨĭĥĭIJĬŴƇƠƣĭ ‘They carried him and brought him’; MT Kg’ –Q ™#

MT ´œ™ %' –^!™ ´'™ :¡= — ˜ ‘the pleasing odor’. L=œ ‘They carried him’. Reinterpretations or Misinterpretations On occasion the Peshiṭta reinterprets or misinterprets the Hebrew text. One cannot really know if these readings illustrate the genius of the translator or his inability to interpret some Hebrew terms. In some cases, they could also be the result of a poor Hebrew exemplar or poor Peshiṭta exemplars during the transmission of the Peshiṭta. 16:2 and 30:3 ťƀŨŁĥ ‘I will be consoled’; MT ! ˜1Cš . – The meaning of the Hebrew verb is problematic; it could be a word play on the word ‘son’ (0) or, more simply, from the verb ‘to build’. The Syriac appears to have mirrored some of the Hebrew consonants while at the same time arriving at a suitable meaning for these verses. 16:13 ŦĭŵŶ ‘a vision’; MT -Y!” ‘here’. The Peshiṭta interprets -Y!” as ‘dream’. In 1 Kings 3:5 -L+%” is rendered with ŦĭŵŶ and in Isaiah 29:7 these two words are in apposition in Hebrew: !+š ’'+™ 0L$%” -L+%” V™ ! š'!š ’#; ƅſĥ Ŧĭųƌĭ ťƀLJĪŦĭŵŷŨťƊƇŶ. 18:23 ŦŵūĭĿűŷŨ ‘with a singular act of wrath’; MT 5™ !.™ The Hebrew word can be an adverb (‘also, even’) or a noun, ‘nose, anger’. While it is

Introduction

22:12

24:21

26:12 30:39 38:28 46:28

XXVII

most likely to be interpreted as an adverb, the Peshiṭta interprets it as a noun. ƦƕĪĭĥ; MT 'k– 4’ ™ š' ‘I know’. The Peshiṭta can be rendered ‘You have made known’ or ‘I have made known’. The Mosul MS opts for the second person. ťƠƤƉ ‘he gave to drink’; MT !— kš f’ /– ‘he was gazing’. The Peshiṭta interprets the Hebrew participle from the root !=f, ‘to drink’. The translator may not have known the meaning of this Hebrew KaSa[ legomenon. ŧǔƖƏ ‘barley’; MT -':– 4š f.’ This Hebrew KaSa[ legomenon has been read as -':œ– 3g’ (see Ruth 3:2). ŧǔƉĥ ‘lambs’; MT -'– +ž &’ ‘spotted’. The Peshiṭta interprets the Hebrew word as -'– +š &,’ ‘lambs’. ľŴƙƌ ‘this one should come out’; MT 8š š'. The translator interpreted this Hebrew verb as 8— —'. ŴſŵŶƦƊƆ ‘to appear’; MT =œ :L!+’ ‘to show’. The Peshiṭta reading normally renders Hebrew =L:š +.— The translator may not have understood the Hebrew or may have reinterpreted or misinterpreted the Hebrew consonants.



Errors The numerous differences between the Peshiṭta and the MT in the personal names in Gen 25:13–15,18 suggest that the first translation of the Peshiṭta did not have the distinguishing rĩsK/dĆlatK dot. Subsequent copyists added the distinguishing dot without reference to the Hebrew. It is also possible that rĩsK and dĆlatK were difficult to distinguish in the translator’s Hebrew exemplar.

ơũſĪŧƢŨűƊƆ ‘to the wilderness of Jabbok’; MT [32:23] 9œC ™' :™ 4” /™ =— ‘the ford of the Jabbok’. The Peshiṭta translator may have misread :3/ for :/. 38:2 ųƊƣ ñ ‘her name’; MT L/f’ K ‘his name’. The Syriac dot, indicating a 3rd fem. possessive suffix, may have been added by a later copyist who misunderstood the text. According to the Hebrew text, ‘Shua’ is the name of the Canaanite who had a daughter. The daughter remains unnamed. By adding the dot, a scribe attributed the name ‘Shua’ to Judah’s wife. This then conflicts with 38:12 when Judah’s wife dies and she is called ‘the daughter of Shua’ (ĺŴƣŁƢŨ). 48:4 ťƌĥĴƢũƉŦĬ ‘I will bless’; MT U:’ 6’ /™ ' –1 ’1!– ‘I will make you fruitful’. The Hebrew exemplar may have read (:/ or the translator wrongly

32:22

XXVIII

Introduction

associated the text with the common expression ‘to bless and make numerous’ (see Gen 22:17; 28:3 and 26:24). Inner-Syriac Corruptions In the course of transmission, once the copyists no longer consulted the original Hebrew, errors crept in. 24:27

Ƨĥ ‘rather’; MT ')œ– 1š ‘I’. The original Peshiṭta translation probably read ťƌĥ and the current reading is a result of a confusion between ÿƌ and ÿƆ

during the transmission of the Peshiṭta. ò 42:15 Ƨ1; Absent in the MT. The Peshiṭta has added Ƨ before ķŴƕƢƘĪIJĬŴƀʖ. This erroneous reading may have resulted from an inadvertent ò harmonization with 42:16: ķŴƕƢƘĪIJĬŴƀʖƧķĥĭ. ò ’ ‘the 45:10 ĴƦƀŨƁƍŨĭ ‘and the members of your household’. MT U' ˜1š ' —1K ò sons of your sons’. ĴƦƀŨ is a corruption of ƅƀƍŨ. This error could have been provoked by a harmonization with 45:11: ĴƦƀŨĭƦƌĥ. The 3HVKLʞWD Mirrors the Formal Character of the Hebrew 25:6

ťŷƌűƉĪťƕĿƧƦſŤƉűƟ… ķŴƌĥĿűƣĭ

And he sent them… at first to the land of the east. MT -˜ 9˜ 7:˜ ¡+ ˜ ˜ !/š ’ 9—  -%— X’ f™ ’' ™# He sent them…eastward to the land of the east. The Hebrew word !/š ’ 9,— ‘eastward’, is translated with ťŷƌűƊƆ in Gen 13:14 and 28:14. In Gen 25:6 it seems that the translator mirrored the Hebrew consonants (consciously or unconsciously) resulting in this Syriac translation. 32:28 ŁĿĿƦƣĥ ‘you have proven yourself to be strong’; MT [32:29] =' š :– gš ‘you have striven’. The Peshiṭta mirrors some of the Hebrew consonants, interpreting the Hebrew verb, which is not easily XQGHUVWRRGDVLIIURPWKH6\ULDFURRW¥Ƣƣ. 40:16 ŦŁǓŴŶĪƨƏò ‘baskets of white things’; MT ':œ– % 'X— 2™ ‘baskets of ?’. The Hebrew term ':œ– % is a KaSa[ legomenon that is sometimes glossed with ‘white flour’. The Peshiṭta translator has mirrored some of the Hebrew letters in Syriac to arrive at the translation ‘white things’. 2PLVVLRQV In most cases we cannot know if an omission in the Peshiṭta was conscious or unconscious. 31:18 The Peshiṭta does not translate the phrase f)™ :š :f˜ ” L1 š' ’19– ! —19’ /, – which, because it is repetitive, is easily omitted.

Introduction

XXIX

36:25 The Peshiṭta does not translate ! š14¡= ” C,™ ‘daughter of Anah’. 41:56 The Peshiṭta omits the last four words of the verse, 7:˜ ˜ C’ 4š :š !š 9 ™$%“ ˜Q ™# - –':š 8’ /– , ‘The famine was severe in the land of Egypt’. This phrase repeats the first part of the verse and the translator may have consciously eliminated this repetition. 42:2 The Peshiṭta omits :/ ˜ œ Q ™# and simply continues Jacob’s discourse. Perhaps the translator was prepared to eliminate superfluous words. Harmonization The harmonization of discordant details in the Hebrew text is the Peshiṭta’s most common translation technique. While some of these harmonizations are minor mechanical adjustments — a borrowing within the same verse or nearby verses — other harmonizations reveal how the translator understood the story. For example, at the beginning of the story of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, the Lord decides to go down to investigate ‘the cry that has reached [ƦƇƕ] me’ (Gen 18:21). Near the end of the episode the men tell Lot that the cities are about to be destroyed because, the MT reports, ‘their cry has become great [!+]’ (Gen 19:13). The Peshiṭta reads ‘because their cry has come up [ƦƠƇƏ] before the Lord’. This change of verb harmonizes 19:13 with 18:21. Perhaps the best example of this translation technique appears in Genesis 24. Abraham gives a detailed order to his servant regarding a wife for Isaac. As the servant fulfills Abraham’s command, the Peshiṭta text harmonizes the servant’s actions with Abraham’s original command so that the Peshiṭta reader observes that the command was precisely fulfilled. Listed below are the significant instances of harmonization. 1:11 1:26 1:28 8:19 11:6 12:3

ųƐƍŬƆ,

‘according to its own kind’; Absent in the MT. This addition harmonizes with 1:12. ñ ťƕĿĥĪŦŁŴƀʖ ųɤƄŨ ‘over all the wild animals’; MT 7:˜ š !¡+ š )š ’ ‘over all the earth’. The Peshiṭta has harmonized this verse with 1:24,25. ŧǔƀƖũŨ ‘over the domestic animals’; Absent in the MT. The Peshiṭta has harmonized this verse with 1:26. ñ ‘every domestic animal’; Absent in the MT. The Peshiṭta ŧƢƀƖŨ ųɤƃ has harmonized this list with 8:1,17. ŴũƤŶŁĥ ‘they have devised’; MT !Xš %– !™ ‘they have begun’. The Peshiṭta has harmonized with ŴũƤŶŁĥĪ later in this same verse. ƅƕĿŵŨĭ ‘and in your descendants’; Absent in the MT. This addition in the Peshiṭta harmonizes with the many times in the Abraham cycle that God’s promise to Abraham is extended to Abraham’s descendants (Gen 12:7; 13:15–16; 15:18; 17:7–10; 22:18; 24:7).

Introduction

XXX

13:18

ťſĿŴƉĥ

‘the Amorite’; Absent in the MT. This addition is a harmonization with 14:13: ťſĿŴƉĥŧƢƊƉ. ò ‘and the warriors who were in them’; MT: -' –$KO!¡= ™ ˜ ’# 14:5 ƎſųŨĪťƍƀƤƖƆĭ -!š C’ ‘and the Zuzim in Ham’. The Peshiṭta has accommodated its translation of -' –$KO!™ to its rendering of -'– 6š :’ !š with ŧǔũƍū in this same verse. š V– ‘because it is great’. The 18:20 ƁƉűƟ ƦƇƕ ‘has reached me’; MT !Cš :¡' Peshiṭta reading is a harmonization with 18:21: IJŁŴƆ ƦƇƕĪ ŦƦƖū ‘the cry that has reached me’. ò 21:25 The addition, ĶĬƢŨĥĪIJĬĭűũƕĭƢƙŶĪ ‘that the servants of Abraham had dug’, is a harmonization with Gen 26:15,18. 24:12 ŪƀŹ ‘prepare’; MT  š1¡!:— 9’ !™ ‘allow to happen’. The Peshiṭta has harmonized its translation with the servant’s speech to God in 24:14: ‘she is the one whom you have prepared [ƦũƀŹĪ kš %’ )œ™ !] for your servant Isaac’. 24:13,16,29 ŧƢŨ ‘well’; MT 0'4— ‘spring’. The Peshiṭta reading is a harmonization with 24:11. 24:14 The plus ŦƦƣŴƟ, ‘rightly’, is a harmonization with 24:27 (ĬŁŴũƀŹ ĬƦƣŴƟĭ) and 24:49. 24:27 The Peshiṭta has a lengthy addition: ĬƢũƆIJƢƉĪIJĬŴŶĥŁƢŨŪƐƊƆ, ‘in order to get the daughter of my lord’s brother for his son’, which coordinates with Abraham’s order to the servant in 24:4,7 (harmonization between a command and its fulfillment). 24:35 ŴƆ ĭĭĬĭ ‘He has’; MT L+¡0k˜ –Q ™# ‘[The Lord] has given him’. The Peshiṭta reading is a harmonization with the first list of Abraham’s wealth in 12:16 (ų ò ƆĭĭĬĭ L+¡'!– ’' ™#). 24:35 The addition ťƌŁĥĭ, ‘female donkeys’, is a harmonization with 12:16 where ‘female donkeys’ are included in the first list of Abraham’s wealth just before ‘camels’ as here. 24:39 The addition ťŨĽŁ, ‘She will [not] be willing’, is a harmonization with 24:5 (ťŨĽŁƧ ! ˜ œ =¡œ+). ò 24:45 The addition ƁƃƦƆŴƟƎƉťƀƉƈƀƇƟ , ‘some water from your jar’, is a harmonization with 24:17,44 [M 24:43]. 24:48 The addition IJƢƉĪIJĬŴŶĥƦƀũƆ, ‘to the house of my lord’s brother’, is a harmonization with 24:27: IJƢƉĪIJĬŴŶĥƦƀũƆťſƢƉƁƌƢŨĪťŶĿĭŤŨ, ‘the Lord has led me along the road to the house of my lord’s brother’. 24:54 The addition ĵĮĥ, ‘I will go’, is a harmonization with 24:56. ò 25:8 The addition ĬƦƉŴſ, ‘his days’, is a harmonization with Gen 35:29. 25:10 The addition ŧƢũƟĪ ťƌŁĿŴƀƆ, ‘as a burial site’, is a harmonization with 23:9,20; 49:30.

Introduction 30:29

32:9

34:15

35:12 35:27 36:6

39:14 40:13

40:14

41:56 41:57

45:19

47:3

47:29

IJƦƇźƉ

XXXI

‘because of me’; MT [30:30] '+– ’:™ +’ ‘corresponding to my foot’. The idiomatic expression in the Hebrew is rendered with a harmonization in the Peshiṭta with 30:27 (ĴƦƇźƉ). ƅſųŨĥĪťƕĿƧ ò ‘to the land of your fathers’; MT [32:10] U8’ :’ ™ +’ ‘to your land’. The Peshiṭta reads a harmonization with the original command in 31:3. The addition ƎſǔſŵūƎƍŶĪťƍƄſĥ, ‘just as we are circumcised’, at the end of the verse is a harmonization with 34:22: ƎſǔſŵūķŴƌĬĪťƍƄſĥ ‘just as they are circumcised’. The addition ƦƀƊſĪ, ‘which I swore’, is a harmonization with 26:3. The addition ƎƖƍƃĪťƕĿŤŨĪ, ‘in the land of Canaan’, is a harmonization with 23:19. ƢƀƖƏĪ ťƕĿƧ ‘to the land of Seir’; MT 7:˜ ¡+ ˜ ˜ ‘to the land’. The Peshiṭta names the land where Esau lives, a harmonization with Gen 32:3; 33:16 and 36:9. ŧűũƕ, ‘servant’; MT f'– ‘man’. The Peshiṭta reading is a harmonization with 39:17: ťſƢũƕŧűũƕ. ķŴƕƢƘĴƢƃĪƦƌ ‘Pharaoh will remember you’; MT Uf ˜ œ :¡=˜ !œ3:’ 6™ jš –' ‘Pharaoh will lift up your head’ (see also 40:21 [MT 40:20]). The Hebrew expression is not easily interpreted. The Peshiṭta translation is a harmonization with 40:14: ƁƍſƢƃĪŁĥ ‘remember me’. The addition ŦƦƣŴƟĭ ‘and truthfully’ is a harmonization to the common expression ‘loyalty and truth’ (=/˜ “ ˜# 2˜ %˜ ŦƦƣŴƟĭ ŦŁŴũƀŹ; especially with the verb g3/űũƕ) in Gen 24:49, Josh 2:14 and elsewhere. ŧǓĽĭĥ ‘storehouses’; MT -!˜ Cš :f˜ ¡+ ” V¡= š ˜ ‘all that was in them’. The Peshiṭta harmonizes (inner-Syriac) this verse with its reading in 41:47. The Peshiṭta adds ƎſĿƞƉĪ ‘of Egypt’ at the end of this verse. The addition may be an unconscious error of harmonization with the many ò times that the word ‘Egypt’ appears in Genesis 41. ƅƀʖƧƢƉĥõ ‘Say to your brothers’; Absent in the MT. The Peshiṭta ò has harmonized this verse with 45:17 where the phrase ƅƀʖƧ ƢƉĥ õ appears. ķŁŴƀƇŹ ƎƉ, ‘our youth’; Absent in the MT. The Peshiṭta has harmonized this verse with 46:34 where the phrase ķĭĬŁŴƀƇŹ ƎƉ appears. ťſƢƊŨ ƅƀƉĭĥĭ ‘I will make you swear’; Absent in the MT. The Peshiṭta has harmonized this verse with 24:2–3: IJƞŶƦƀʖŁĴűſĥƋƀƏ ťſƢƊŨƅƀƉĭĥĭ.

Introduction

XXXII

ĶĿĥĪ ķűƘ ƎƉ

48:7

‘from Paddan-aram’; MT 0Gš a™ /– ‘from Paddan’. The Peshiṭta has harmonized this name to its common form in Genesis (see Gen 25:20).

A Final Word: The Genius of the Translator We are in possession of the translator’s masterpiece and several interpretations testify to his ingenuity. Often Hebrew word plays are lost in the Peshiṭta, 11 though in Gen 9:27 the translator is able to preserve the word play on the name Japheth. In Gen 27:36 the Hebrew text explains the meaning of Jacob’s name: ‘Is he not called Jacob [93'], because he has supplanted me ['193'#] these two times’. The meaning of the verb 93 is discussed by biblical scholars. Sometimes glossed with ‘to betray’, Westermann suggests the meaning ‘to deceive’. 12 Modern English translations prefer the gloss ‘to supplant’. The Peshiṭta translates '193'# with the connotation ‘to deceive’, and shifts the word play to a different word (Gen 27:35–36a): His father said to him, ‘Your brother came deceitfully [ƨƄƍŨ] and he received your blessings’. [36] Esau said, ‘Rightly he is called Jacob because he has deceived [ƁƍƇƄƌĪ] me now twice’.

The Peshiṭta translation suggests to its readers, who have no access to the Hebrew text, that Jacob’s name means ‘to deceive’. Perhaps the translator had no idea as to the meaning of the Hebrew verb '193'#, 13 but he could recognize the word play in the Hebrew and shift it from 93 to ƨƄƌ. On occasion the Peshiṭta translator creates a word play not present in the Hebrew. In 26:33 the MT reads: He [Isaac] named it Shibah [!4š ’ f]. – For this reason the name of the city is Beer-sheba [3™ f˜ :— C] ’ to this day’. The Peshiṭta translates this verse: ‘He [Isaac] named it Saba [ťƖũƏ; Satiation]. For this reason, the name of the city is Beer-seba [ƗũƏƢŨ; Well of Satiation] to this day’. The translator can also introduce an alliteration into the Peshiṭta. The final phrase in Jacob’s accusation against Reuben is unclear in the Hebrew (Gen 49:4): !+š 4š '4K8 – –' kš +’ X™ %– $. š (NJPS: ‘You brought disgrace — my couch he mounted!’). The Peshiṭta reads: ƦƠƇƏĭIJƦſŴƣŁƦƣŴŹƦſĥƢſƢƣ, ‘Truly

11

See, for example, Gen 31:49 where the Hebrew word play on the name ‘Mizpah’ is

12

Westermann, Genesis 12–36, 442. See Wenham, Genesis 16–50, 211.

lost. 13

Introduction

XXXIII

you defiled my bed when you entered it’. By choosing the word IJƦſŴƣŁ to render the rare Hebrew word '4K8 – ’', the translator created an alliteration with ƦƣŴŹ. Translator’s Acknowledgements We do not know who created the Peshiṭta. But I would like to believe that the Peshiṭta emerged from a community of translators in dialogue with one another, even if there is no data to support this assumption, because a translator who works alone takes grave risks. Collaboration with other translators catches errors and greatly improves the final product. Claudio Balzaretti and Mirko Pozzobon have weeded out the errors in my original draft translation. They also offered helpful insights into difficult passages. Still, despite our communal effort, this translation, like the translation of any ancient text, remains provisional. I hope it will ease subsequent efforts to bring the Peshiṭta into English and other modern languages.

APPENDIX 1: VERSIFICATION Versification, the Mosul text compared with Leiden. Leiden 6:2 13:4 21:21 22:16 23:8 23:11 24:44 24:48 26:13 27:4 27:27 27:44 27:45–46 30:29 30:30 32:1 32:2–33 33:20 40:21 41:57 45:22 45:25 45:26–28 49:23 49:29

Begins with Mosul Last 7 words of 6:1 Last 11 words of 13:4 Last 2 words of 21:20 Last word of 22:15 Last 4 words of 23:7 2nd word of 23:11 6th word of 24:44 Last 3 words of 24:47 Last 2 words of 26:12 5th word of 27:4 Last 2 words of 27:26 12th word of 27:43 27:44–45 6th word of 30:28 30:29 31:55 32:1–32 4th word of 33:20 8th word of 40:21 5th word of 41:57 Last word of 45:21 9th word of 45:24 45:25–27 Last 2 words of 49:22 3rd word of 49:29

XXXV

APPENDIX 2: VARIANT READINGS Based on Collations by Paolo Lucca The following table gives the variants of Mosul against 7a1. The ultimate column indicates the support for the Mosul reading as follows: early first millennium up to and including the tenth century. late post tenth century making use of the Leiden apparatus. Lee Lee’s edition (1823) agrees with Mosul. Urmia The Urmia edition (1852) agrees with Mosul. no support Mosul’s reading is unique. Place 1:2 1:21 2:5 2:20 3:8 3:18 3:24 4:15 4:16 6:17 6:20 7:3 7:7 7:20 8:7 8:18 9:10 9:15 11:10 11:14

Mosul

ťƕĿĥĭ ťƐƍŬƆ ò ƁƘĥ ŧƢŨĪĪ ƅƆųƉĪ ťŨŴƃĭ ò ò ťƐſĪƢƘƁʛƌűƉ ƎſŤƟĪ ųŷƌűƉ ñ ò ťƀƉĪ ƎƉĭ(1°) ŦƦƀƃĪ ŴƇƕĭ ťƉǓ ò ƁƘĥ ò ĬŁƦôƌĥĭIJĬô ŴƍŨĭ ƈƃ(2°) ƢƃĪŁĥĭ ƎƀƆĬ ŸƇƣťƀʖĭ

Leiden om waw

ųƐƍŬƆ ñ

om

ťƕĿĥĪ

om GćODWK om waw

ťƐſĪƢƙƆŸƌűƉ

om GćODWK ųƀʛƌűƉ ñ om GćODWK om waw

ťƀƊƣĪ ƈƕĭ

om om tr

ųɤƃ ñ om waw pr waw tr XXXVII

Earliest support for M Lee, Urmia no support early late late early early Lee, Urmia Lee, Urmia Lee, Urmia early early no support early early early early early early early

Appendix 2: Variant Readings

XXXVIII

Place

Mosul

11:27 11:31 13:10 14:16 16:15 17:27 18:3 18:8 18:12 19:3 19:20 20:1 21:30 21:30 22:12 24:7 24:8 24:10 24:11 24:14 24:16 24:18 24:41 24:42 24:48 24:51 24:56 24:63 25:34 26:9 26:10 26:27 26:28 27:2 27:8 27:35

ƎƀƆĬ ơƙƌĭ Ŧųƭ ƅƘĬĥĭ om om

IJƢƉ ŦĭĬô ƎƉ om

IJĬ ƎƉŁƎƉĶĬƢŨĥ ŪƏŁĪ ŦŁĭĪųƐƆ ųƆ(1°) ƎƉĭ IJƦƉŴƉ ĵĮĥ ò ƦƀˁƉ ŦƦƣĥĪ ŦĭŵŷŨ ŦƦƆŴƟ IJƦƉŴƉ(bis) Ŧųƭ Ŧųƭ ĴƢƉ ƢƉĥ Ŏ ĭ ķűƖŨ ĵĮĥĭ ťƍƄſĥĭ ƢƉĥĭ Ŏ ťƍƊƆ ŦƦƉŴƉ ƢƉĥ ő ťƣĬĭ ƢƉĥŎ

Leiden pr waw

ŴƠƙƌĭ ťſƢƉ ŴƄƘĬĥĭ ųƆűƇſŁĥĪ ƎƉ ťſƢƉ om om

İŴƆ IJĬĭ ĶĬƢŨĥƎƉŁƎƉ om GćODWK om OćPDGK om om waw se\ćPH pr waw om se\ćPH om GćODWK

ĬĭŵŷŨ ñ ĬƦƆŴƟ ñ

se\ćPH

Ĭųƭ Ĭųƭ ƅſǔƉ ƢƉĥ ő om beth om waw om waw

ƢƉĥ

om OćPDGK se\ćPH

ƢƉĥĭ Ŏ  ťƣĬ ő  ƢƉĥ

Earliest support for M Urmia Lee, Urmia early early early Lee no support early early early Urmia early Urmia Urmia early early early ŦƦƉŴƉ early Lee, Urmia early early late Urmia Urmia Urmia early early late early Urmia early Urmia no support early early Urmia

Appendix 2: Variant Readings Place 28:3 28:6 29:14 29:17 30:30 30:41 31:14 31:29 31:52 32:9 (L 32:10) 32:28 (L 32:29) 32:28 (L 32:29) 33:2 33:5 33:8 34:26 35:1 35:2 35:15 35:20 36:10

36:23 37:2 37:11 37:19 37:30 37:31 39:6 39:22 39:23 39:23 40:10

Mosul

Leiden

pr waw IJűƤƇſĥ om GćODWK ƧĪ ő  ƢƉĥŎ ƢƉĥ om IJĭò Ĭô pr waw Ļĥ ťƍƣ ťƖƣ om ųƆ om ƅƆ ƁƇƕ ƈƕ om ħŴƠƖſ ƅƊƣħĭŁŧƢƟƦƌ ħĭŁŧƢƟƦƌħŴƠƖſ ħŴƠƖſ ƅƊƣ ƢƉĥő ƢƉĥĭ Ŏ  Ƣũƕĥĭ űũƕĭ Ŏ  om ħŴƠƖſųƆ om ħŴƠƖƀƆ om ķĭĬƦŶ Ŧųƭ ťſƢƉ ķŴƃƦƍƀŨƎƉ ķŴƃƦƍƀŨĪ om ĭĬ ŧƢũƟĪ ĬƢũƟĪ ñ @Bŵƙƀƭ ƦƊƐŨƢŨƈſĥŴƕĿ ƦƊƐŨ ŵƙƀƭŴƐƕĪĬŁƦƌĥ ŧűƕƢŨ ķŴƇƕ ķŴƭ ò òƁƍŨ  ƋƕĭŦųƇŨ ŦųƇŨƁƍŨƋƕĭťƙƆĮ ťƙƆĮ se\ćPH ťƊūƦƘ ƢƉĥĭ ĭƢƉĥĭ Ŏ om waw ťƌĥĭ ťƍſŁŴƄƆ ųƍſŁŴƄƆ om ŦĭĬ(3°) om ƦƀŨ om ƦƀŨ om ŦĭĬ(2°) ŴƇƕ ŴƖſ

XXXIX

Earliest support for M Urmia Urmia no support late early early early early Lee, Urmia early early early Lee, Urmia early early early early early early no support Lee, Urmia

Lee early early Urmia late early early early early early no support

Appendix 2: Variant Readings

XL

Place 40:13 40:15 41:8 41:28 41:34 41:36 41:38 41:44 42:11 42:15 42:36 43:6 43:7 43:25 43:31 44:5 44:11 44:32 45:5 45:23 46:17 46:22 47:3 47:9 47:11 47:15 47:17 47:18 49:25 49:30 50:3 50:14 50:16 50:18

Mosul

ƎƉĭ ŧǔƀƏĥƦƀŨ ƥƌôĥ ĭĬŎ űũƖƌĭ om

ťƌĬŧƢũū ųƇūĿĭĥ ƎƍŶƢũū ŦŁŤƌ ƢƉĥĭ ƢƉĥŎ ƎƆ ŧǔũū om

Ļĥ įƦƘĭ ķĥĪ ŀŤŨƦƌ ŧǔƊŶ ťũƤſĭ ƈƃ Ļĥ(2°) ƦƀŨ om

ťŶŤƌĭ om

ťƍƀƍƟųƇƃĭťƙƐƃ ŧƢƀƖŨĭ Ŧųƭ ĶĬƢŨĥƎŨĮĪƨƠŶ ŴƇƉĭ ƎƉ ŴŨƢƟĭ om

Leiden om

ťŨŴŬŨ om

ĭĬő ƢũƖƌĭ ųƇƃ tr

ųƇūĿĭ tr ŦŁĥ Ŏ om waw

ő  ƢƉĥ

om om

ķĭųƆ

pr waw

ŴŶƦƘĭ om GćODWK ƥŨĥƦƌ ƎſǔƊŶ ŦŴƤſĭ om pr waw om ťƕĿŤŨ om ťƍƀƍƠŨĭ(2°)

ťƍƀƍƟĭųƆŴƃťƙƐƃ ŧǔƀƖŨĪ Ĭųƭ ƨƠŶĶĬƢŨĥƎŨĮĪ ŴƀƇƉĭ pr waw ĭűƠƘĭ Ļĥ

Earliest support for M early early early Lee early early Urmia early Urmia Urmia early Urmia early early early early early early Lee early no support early early Lee no support early no support Urmia Urmia early early early early early

APPENDIX 3: NAMES The spelling of proper names in this translation follows that of the American Standard Version (ASV) of 1901. Proper names provided the translators and copyists with unique difficulties. When a particular letter in a common noun was difficult to read in their Hebrew or Syriac exemplar, they could guess at the unclear letter because they recognized the meaning of the noun. But in the case of proper names that occur rarely in the Bible, translators and copyists had to read the Hebrew/Syriac consonants as best they could. As a result, the Peshiṭta spells many rare names differently from the Hebrew Bible. This evidence raises questions about the quality of the manuscripts. Syriac readers of this edition will quickly note that the Syriac spelling and vocalization of many names is not reflected in the English text which, as noted above, follows the ASV. When a name differs significantly from what appears in the MT, I have followed the Syriac text and included a note with the name in the MT (ASV). These names are listed below as replacements. In cases where the Peshiṭta reflects the exact consonants of the MT, it usually does not reflect the Masoretic vocalization. In these cases the ASV spelling is followed in this translation. The Syriac translator often writes Hebrew names with matres lectionis. The Hebrew qibbûʜ can be written with a mater lectionis, such as ƈƀŨĭŁ for +š =ž in Gen 10:2. In many instances the Peshiṭta adds a medial IJ as a mater lectionis where the MT has a ʜĔrê: 29:6 ƈƀʖĿ +%— :;š 35:26 Ƣƀƣĥ :f— š and 38:3 Ƣƀƕ :4;— or a segol: 14:1 ƈƀƘƢƉĥ +6˜ :š /’ .™ The mater lectionis is sometimes optional as in the case of the names ƈƀƘƢƉĥ and ƈƀƕĿŁĭ in 14:1, where the Leiden Edition has ƈƘƢƉĥ and ƈƕĿŁ. There are many such cases where a medial ĥ is added. These expected variations in orthography are not listed below. 1 26F

1 For a thorough discussion of this feature, see Janet W. Dyk and Percy S. F. van Keulen, Language System, Translation Technique, and Textual Tradition in the Peshitta of Kings (MPIL 19; Leiden / Boston: Brill, 2013), 227–235. In the list below, only the first mention of a proper name is listed.

XLI

XLII

Appendix 3: Names

Replacements In these instances the Peshiṭta name differs widely from the Hebrew name. 10:3 ƢƙſĪ ‘Daypar’; MT =6' ™ :– ‘Riphath’. 10:13 ƋƀũƖſ ‘Jaabim’; MT -'/– š14” ‘Anamim’. ò 10:14 ťƀƟĪŴƙƟ ‘Kafodekites’; MT -':œ– k6’ V™ ‘Caphtorim’. 10:30 ƋſĭƢƙƏ ‘Sepharwim’; MT !:š 6š 2’ ‘Sephar’. 13:10 ƎƕĽ ‘Za’an’; MT :4œ™ 8 ‘Zoar’. The Peshiṭta harmonizes this name with 04œ™ 8 in Num 13:22 (-–':š 8’ /– 04œ™ 8 ' —16’ +– ) where, as in Gen 13:10, 04œ™ 8 is associated with Egypt. See also Pss 78:12,43; Isa 19:11,13. ò ‘Gelites’; MT - –'LE ‘Goiim’. 14:1 ťƀˁū ò 14:3 ťƀƉĭűƏ ‘Sodomites’; MT -'G– j– !™ ‘Siddim’. The Peshiṭta harmonizes this place name with the name Sodom in 14:2 (see also 14:10). ò 14:5 ťƍƉĥ ‘craftsmen’; MT -'/' – — !š ‘Emim’. 14:7 ƋƟĿ ‘Reqem’; MT f— 9š ‘Kadesh’. The Peshiṭta consistently reads ƋƟĿ for f— 9.š 14:7 űūƎƀƕ ‘En-gad’; MT :/š kš 0œ88’ %™ ‘Hazazon-tamar’. In 2 Chr 20:2 the name Hazazon-tamar is linked to En-gedi. 16:7 Ŀűū ‘Gadar’; MT :Kf ‘Shur’. This is a harmonization with 16:14 where Hebrew T:˜ Cš is rendered Ŀűū. The Hebrew name :Kf is rendered Ŀűū again in Gen 20:1. 16:14 Ŀűū ‘Gadar’; MT :˜ Cš ‘Bered’. 22:2 ťſǓŴƉĥ ‘Amorites’; MT ! šQ:œ– ]!™ ‘Moriah’. 22:23 ťƠƘĿ ‘Raphka’; MT !9š ’ :– ‘Rebekah’. 23:2 ŧǔũƍū ƦſĿŴƠŨ ‘in the city of warriors’; MT 3C™ :’ ™ = ™':’ 9– C’ ‘in Kiriath-arba’. The Peshiṭta translation here may be related to Josh 14:15 (ŧǔũƍū ťƤƌĥĪƗŨĿĥƦſĿŴƟ ‘Kiriath-arba of the warrior men’) where the city of Kiriath-arba is said to be the home of a strong man. 25:3 ƋƀƉĥĭ ‘Amim’; MT -']– ž +’ ‘Leummim’. The Peshiṭta has read the Hebrew +’ as if it were the Syriac direct object marker which is normally prefixed to proper names in the accusative. 28:9 ƦƊƐŨ ‘Basemath’; MT =+™ %” /š ‘Mahalath’. The name Mahalath appears only here. In Gen 26:34 Esau married Basemath the daughter of Alon the Hivite. In 28:9 the Peshiṭta replaces Mahalath with Basemath, harmonizing this KaSa[ legomenon with the more common name Basemath. Similarly, Targum Pseudo Jonathan ensures that its readers understand that Mahalath is just another name for Basemath. 46:16 IJĿĪĥĭ ‘Adry’; MT '+– — :’ ™ ‘Areli’.

Appendix 3: Names

XLIII

Translations On a few occasions the Peshiṭta translates a name. 14:5 ŧǔũƍū ‘giants’; MT -'– 6š :’ !š ‘Rephaim’. The Rephaim are first mentioned in the list of peoples whose lands will be transferred to Abram. The Peshiṭta translates this name with ‘giants’ (see also Gen 15:20). 14:7 ťƍſĪƎƀƕ ‘En-dina’; MT &aš f’ /– 0'4— ‘En-mispat’. 19:38 ƁƊƕ ƢŨ ‘Bar-amm’; MT ']– 4¡0 ™ C˜ ‘Ben-ammi’. Hebrew 0C˜ is translated into Syriac with ƢŨ. 23:9 ŦƦƙƀƕĥ ‘Double’; MT !+š a— )’ ]™ !™ ‘Machpelah’. 24:62; 25:11 ƁƌŵŶťƀʖĪŧƢŨ; 'œ– : '%™ +™ :— C’ ‘Beer-lahairoi’. The Peshiṭta loosely translates the Hebrew place name with ‘the Well of the Living One who saw me’. 26:33 ťƖũƏ ‘Saba’; MT !4š ’ f– ‘Shiba’. The Peshiṭta interprets !4š ’ f– as !4š ’ g– so that the name of the well can be associated with the idea of ‘satiation’. 26:33 ƗũƏ ƢŨ ‘Beer-seba’; 3™ f˜ :— C’ ‘Beer-sheba’. The Peshiṭta develops a word play based upon the translation ťƖũƏ ‘Saba’ for !4š ’ f– ‘Shiba’. Instead of the expected translation ƗũƣƢŨ for 3™ f˜ :— C,’ the Peshiṭta reads ƗũƏƢŨ, Beer-seba, meaning, ‘The Well of Satiation’. 31:49 ťƟĭĪ ‘lookout’; MT !aš 8’ ]– !™ ‘Mizpah’. The Hebrew consonants can be interpreted as a place name, Mizpah, or as a noun, ‘watchtower, lookout’. 35:8 ŦƦƄŨĪŦƦƊźŨ ‘Oak of Mourning’; MT: =K)Cš 0LX™ ‘Allon-bacuth’. The Peshiṭta, instead of borrowing the Hebrew name, translates the name into Syriac. ò 35:18 ƁŨŤƃ ƢŨ ‘son of my pains’; MT ' –1L¡0C˜ ‘son of my mourning’. The Peshiṭta has translated the name of Rachel’s son within the context of Rachel’s suffering during childbirth. Initial locations Additions P adds initial ĥ: 11:18 ŴƕĿĥ MT K3:;’ 16:11 ƈƀƖƊƤſĥ MT +4— /š f’ –'; 30:18 ƢƄƐſĥ MT :)< š jš –'; 36:40 ƦſƦſĥ MT ==— ’'; 46:21 Ƣũƃĥ MT :)˜ ;˜ 46:21 ŀĭĿĥ MT fœ:. Replacements P reads IJ for 1: 10:13 ƋƀʖĭƦƙſ MT -'%– kž 6’ ™1. P reads ÿƌ for ': 46:14 ƈſƨŷƌĭ MT +— +’ %’ ™'; 46:24 ƈſĥƞŷƌ MT +— 8’ %’ ™'. P reads ŀ for 2: 10:7 ťũƣ MT š 2.’ P reads ĸ for f: 10:10; 11:2; 14:1,9 ƢƖƍƏ MT :4š ’1f. –

XLIV

Appendix 3: Names

P reads Ī for : 14:1 ƢƐƕĪ MT :2š Xš . ˜ P reads ĥ for ': 25:2 ơũƣĥ MT 9Cš f’ –'. P reads į for 3: 25:4 ƢƙŶ MT :6˜ 4.— P reads Ŀ for : 25:14 ťƉĭĿ MT !/K. š P reads ÿƌ for ': 25:15 ĿŴźƌ MT :K& ’'. P reads Ĩ for 3: 35:21 Ŀűū MT :˜ 4;— 36:35 ĶƢƀū MT -:'š 4.–

ƦſŴū

MT =' –#4;” 36:43

Transpositions P transposes '/# 46:13 Ūſĭĥ MT L'. Medial Locations Additions P adds medial ÿƌ: 10:30 ťƤƍƉ MT fš /; — 25:1 ŧĿŴźƍƟ MT !:K& š 9.’ P adds medial ÿƕ: 46:16 ķŴƖŨĽĥ MT 0œC8’ . ˜ Deletions Loss of medial aphel: ťƉĭĿ 22:24 MT !/K š :.’ Replacements P reads Ŀ for : 10:7 ķĿĪ MT 0š ;’ 14:1 ƈƀƕĿŁĭ MT +4š ’ =– ’#; 22:22 ŀƢƇƘ MT fGš +’ a– ; ƚƆƢſ MT 5+š ’ –'; 25:3 ķĿĪ MT 0š G;’ 25:13 ƈŨĿĥĭ MT +— C’ ’ ; ™ 36:26 ķƢƊŶ MT 0Gš /’ %˜ ; 38:1 ťƀƊƆƢƕ MT '/– Xš ž 4.” – ; ™ 46:16 IJűƕ P reads Ī for :: 10:19 Ŀűū MT !:š :š ’; 25:3 ƋſĪŴƣĥ MT -:Ki MT ':– 4.— P reads IJ for 1: 10:10 ťƀƇƃ MT ! —1+’ );™ 36:32 ħųſĪ MT !š !š ’1G;– 41:45 ƦƀƏĥ MT = ™12’ ;š 36:23 Ƌſĭĥ MT - š1L#. P reads ÿƌ For ': 36:24 ťƌĥ MT ! šQ. š ò P reads ĸ for f: 10:16 ťƀƏŴūƢū MT 'f– šE:’ –E!;™ 14:5 ŁĭĿƦƐƕMT =œ :k’ f’ 4.™ P reads ħ for #: 46:17 ťũƤſ MT ! š#f’ –'. P reads IJ for : 14:2 ƢſŤƊƣ MT :˜ — /’ f. ˜ P reads Ļ for : 22:23 ťƠƘĿ MT !9š ’ :.– P reads ĭ for ': 32:30 ƈſĥŴƍƘ MT [32:31] +' — –1a;’ 36:22 ƋƉĭĬ MT -/' š !;— 36:23 ƈŨŴƕ MT +'š 4— ’#. P reads ÿƌ for +: 36:40 ŦŴƍƕ MT ! š#+’ 4.™ Transpositions P transposes /' 4:18 ƈſĥŴŷƉ MT +— š'K%/. ’ P transposes /: 14:1 ƢƊƖƆĪƢƃ MT :/œ˜ 3+š :’ š V.’

Appendix 3: Names

XLV

P transposes /) 46:21 Ƣũƃĥ MT :)˜ .˜ Final locations Loss of final ! 25:15 ĶűƟ MT !/š ’ 9;— 36:33 ĿĽŴŨ MT !:š 8’ C.š Replacements P reads ĵ for 0 29:32 ƈƀŨĭĿ MT 0K — :.’ P reads Ŀ for  10:10 Ƣƃĥ MT V™ ; ™ 10:22,24; 11:10–13 ƢƤƄƘĿĥĭ MT f™ )’ a™ :’ ; ™ 22:22 ƢƐƃ MT g˜ V;˜ 25:15 ĿűŶ MT ™ %;” 46:10 ĿĬĥ MT !œ™ ; 50:10 ƢŹĥ MT &š š !.š P reads Ī for : 25:18 ĪŴƣ MT :Kf; 36:39 ĪĪĬ MT :™ !.” P reads ķ for - 36:5 ƎƇƖſ MT -+š 4’ ™'. P reads Ŀ for # 36:23 Ƣƙƣ MT L6f’ . Transpositions š P transposes :/ 4:18 Ŀűƀƕ MT :'š 4;– 46:14 ĿűƏ MT :˜ 2;˜ 46:21 ĿĪĥ MT G’ :’ . P transposes /) 36:38 ĿŴƄũƕ MT :LC)’ 4.™ Qere/Ketib On occasion the Peshiṭta reads the qere. 14:2,8 Netib: -''8; qere: -' –'L8;’ P ƋſĥŴŨĽ. 30:11 Netib: ; qere:  š C;š P IJűūŦŁĥ. 36:5 Netib: f'3'; qere: fK3 ’'; P ŀŴƖſ.

BIBLIOGRAPHY LEXICA AND DICTIONARIES Brockelmann, C., Lexicon syriacum, 2nd ed. Halle, 1928. Koehler, L., Baumgartner, W., and Stamm, J. J., The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon RI WKH 2OG 7HVWDPHQW. Translated and edited by M. E. J. Richardson; Leiden: Brill, 1994–1999. (+$/27) Payne Smith, J., A Compendious Syriac Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1896. Payne Smith, R., Thesaurus syriacus. Oxford: Clarendon, 1879. Sokoloff, M. and Brockelmann, C., $ 6\ULDF /H[LFRQ $ 7UDQVODWLRQ IURP WKH /DWLQ &RUUHFWLRQ ([SDQVLRQ DQG 8SGDWH RI & %URFNHOPDQQ V /H[LFRQ Syriacum. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2009.

REFERENCES Brock, Sebastian P., ‘Genesis 22 in Syriac Tradition’, in Mélanges Dominique %DUWKÆOHP\¦WXGHV%LEOLTXHVRIIHUWHV½OpRFFDVLRQGHVRQHDQQLYHUVDLUH. Edited by Casetti, Pierre and Keel, Othman and Schenker, Adrian. Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis 38. Göttingen:Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1981, 1–30. Dyk, Janet W. and van Keulen, Percy S. F., Language System, Translation Technique, and Textual Tradition in the Peshitta of Kings. MPIL 19. Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2013. Heal, Kristian S., ‘Tradition and Transformation: Genesis 37 and 39 in Early Syriac Sources’. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Birmingham, 2008. Jansma, Taeke and Koester, Marinus D., eds., 7KH 2OG 7HVWDPHQW LQ 6\ULDF DFFRUGLQJ WR WKH 3HVKLWWD 9HUVLRQ 3DUW , IDVF  3UHIDFH *HQHVLV–Exodus. Leiden: Brill, 1977. Kooij, Arie van der, ‘Peshitta Genesis 6: ‘Sons of God’—Angels or Judges’, Journal of Northwest Semitic Languages 23:1 (1997): 43–51. Lund, Jerome A., ‘The Influence of the Septuagint on the Peshitta: A ReEvaluation of Criteria in the Light of Comparative Study of the Versions in Genesis and Psalms’. Ph.D. dissertation, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1988. XLVII

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Bibliography

Lund, Jerome A., ‘Genesis in Syriac’, in 7KH %RRN RI *HQHVLV &RPSRVLWLRQ Reception, and Interpretation. Edited by Evans, Craig A. and Lohr, Joel N. and Petersen, David L. Supplements to Vetus Testamentum 152. Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2012, 537–560. Levine, Étan, ‘The Syriac Version of Genesis IV 1–16’, Vetus Testamentum 26:1 (1976): 70–80. Maori, Yeshayahu, ‘The Relationship between the Peshitta Pentateuch and the Pentateuchal Targums’, in Targum StudLHV 9RO  7DUJXP DQG Peshitta. Edited by Flesher, Paul V.M. South Florida Studies in the History of Judaism 165. Atlanta, Georgia: Scholars Press, 1998, 57–73. Romeny, Robert Bas ter Haar, ‘Techniques of Translation and Transmission in the Earliest Text Forms of the Syriac Version of Genesis’, in 7KH 3HVKLWWD DV D 7UDQVODWLRQ 3DSHUV 5HDG DW WKH ,, 3HVKLWWD Symposium Held at Leiden, 19–21 August 1993. Edited by Dirksen, Piet B. and van der Kooij, Arie. Monographs of the Peshitta Institute Leiden 8. Leiden: Brill, 1995, 177–185. Weitzman, M. P., 7KH 6\ULDF 9HUVLRQ RI WKH 2OG 7HVWDPHQW $Q ,QWURGXFWLRQ Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999.

Ch. 



Joseph said to his brothers, “I am about to die. God will surely remember 1 you and will bring you up from this land that he swore to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.”



Then Joseph made the sons of Israel swear and he said, “God will remember you. Bring up my bones with you from here.”



So Joseph died at the age of one hundred and ten years. They embalmed him and they put him in a coffin in Egypt.

1

MT: ‘visit’.



ň ł ň ł ł ň Ņ ĭł :ťÿƌŅ ĥ ŁŔňŤƉť ŏ Ŕ ÿƃł Ŕ ĪœƦ :ķŴÿƄƆƢ œ Ɖ ň ĭƢŏÿƃŅ Ŕ ĪœƦ œ ƉŦ ň ųŅ ÿƆĥ Ņ ƌŅĥ :IJĬô Ŵò Ŷł Ƨ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ô Ō ł ł ł ŏ ŏ Ņ Ņ Ņ .ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ  ƀɞ ł ĭơ ł ŷƐſ Ņ ƧĭĶ  ĬŅ ƢŨŔ Ƨť  Ɗſ Ņ Īť ŌŔ ƕĿ  Ƨ :ŧ ĪňŔĬť Ņ ƕĿ  ĥ ƎƉķŴ ň ƄƆơ Ŕ ň Ɖ Ɛ ł ĭ ňŅ Ō łò ł ň ł Ō ł ł ŏ Ŕ ƃł Ŕ ĪœƦ :ŦųŅ ÿƆŅ ĥķŴ  ÿƄƆƢ œ Ɖ ň ĭƢŏƃŅŔĪœƦ œ Ɖ ň :ƢƉĥ ł ĭň ƈſĥƢƐſ ĥƁƍũŔ Ɔ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſ ƁƉĭĥ  ĭ ł ŏ Ņ ň ĥ .ķŴƄƊ Ŕ łƕť  Ƅœ Ɖ ň ƁƉ ł ǔū ł œ Ŵô ƠƏ ŏ ł Ņ ÿŨł œ ƚ ł ĭŦŤ ťÿƍŅ Ƙĭ Ŕ űŏŔŨœ IJĬô ŴÿƊŏ Əĭ Ņ IJĬô ŴÿźƍŶĭ  :Ǝÿƀò ɫƣ Ō ƢÿƐƕ ł ÿƉƢ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ÿłſ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ɖĭ Ō .ƎſĿƞň Ɗ ň ŨŔ

űƃ  ųƃ  Ŵƃ  



Ch. 



They carried him and brought him 1 to the land of Canaan. They buried him in the double cave, which was in the field 2 that Abraham had bought from Ephron the Hittite — the field, which is before Mamre — as a burial site.



Joseph returned to Egypt, he and his brothers and everyone who had come up with him to bury his father, after he had buried his father.



Joseph’s brothers saw that their father was dead and they became afraid saying, “Perhaps Joseph will harm us. Perhaps he will make us pay for all the wrong that we did to him.”



They approached 3 Joseph and said to him, “Before his death, your father ordered and said:



‘Thus you will say to Joseph, please forgive your brothers’ offence and their sins, because they treated you wrongly.’ So now forgive the offence of the servants of the God of your father.” Joseph wept as they spoke to him.



His brothers went and they prostrated before him and said, “See, we are your servants.”



Joseph said to them, “Have no fear, for I am under God. 4



You planned to do me wrong, but God planned the good so that the likes of this day might come about and this multitude of people might live.



So now have no fear. I will maintain you and your little ones.” He comforted them and consoled them. 5



So Joseph lived in Egypt, he and his father’s entire household.

LXXVII

Joseph lived one hundred and ten years. 

Joseph saw Ephrem’s sons to the third generation. The sons of Machir, son of Manasseh, were also born on Joseph’s knees. See the Introduction: Double Translations. ‘the double cave, which was in the field’ or: ‘in the cave which was in the double field’. See Gen 25:9. 3 MT: ‘They commanded’. See the Introduction: Divergent Readings. 4 MT: ‘Can I substitute for God?’ 5 The Syriac expression also appears in Gen 34:3. 1 2



ł Ņ ł ł Ņ ł łœ ł Ņ ŏ œ ł ŏ ł :ŦƦ œ ÿƙƀŔ Ōƕĥ  ƨƠ  ŷ ŨŔ ĪŦ Ŕ ŁƢ Ŕ ƖƊ  Ũ IJĬô ĭƢŏũŔ Ɵĭ ł :ƎƖƍłƃŔĪť łŔ ƕĿ Ņ ƧIJĬô ŴƇ Ũĭĥ  ĭIJĬô ŴƇƠ  ƣĭ  ŭſ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ŏ œ ň.ŧ ƢƊ ň Ņ Ņ ł Ŕ ɕŅƦ Ņ Ŕ Īť łŔ Īłœ  ƉĶ ł űƟ Ŕ ƀʖķĭ Ō ƢƙŔ ƕƎ  Ɖ ň :ŧ ƢũŔ Ɵł Īť Ŕ ɧŅŁĿŴ  ƀŏɞƨƠ  ŶĶ ł ĬŅ ƢŨŔ ĥ ƎŨĮ ň łœ ŏ Ŕ IJĬŴò ÿŶł ĥĭł ĭĬƎÿſ łœ Ɗ ƢÿũƠ ň ƆųÿƊň łƕ Ŵô ÿƠƇƏ  Ī ƈÿƃĭ ŏ Ŀƞň Ɗ ň Ɔ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ÿłſ ƅ Ŕ ƘĬ łŔ ĭł űſ ô ł ł łœ ł Ņ œ ň ł .IJĬŴ ô Ũŏ Ŕ ƧƢ  ũƟ Ŕ Ũ ƎƉ Ŕ Ī ĿƦ  IJĬô ŴŨŏ Ŕ Ƨ ł ł ł :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ÿłſķĿų ł ƌť ł ƊƆ Ņ Īłœ ƎſƢƉĥ Ō ĭŅ :ŴôƇŶň ĪŔĭķĭ ł ĬŴ ŏ Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ɖ Ō Īœ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſĪœIJĬô Ŵò Ŷł ĥ ĭŵŶ  ųſ Ņ Ņ ň ŏ łŔ .ųƆķ  űŔũƕ łŔ ĪŦ łŔ ƦƤƀ œ ŨŌœ ųñ ɤ  ƃœ ƎłƕƢ  ƙŔ ňƌ ťƊƆ Ņ Īĭ ňœ ł Ņ ň łœ ŏ ł ň Ŕ ŨŔ ĥ :ųƆ  ĭô ƢƉĥ ł ĭň ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſ ŁŔŴɝ Ņ Ŵô ŨŔ ƢƟ ň ĭł Ŵſ .ƢƉĥ ł ĭĬ ň ŁŴ  ƉĶ  űƟ Ŕ űŔƠ Ƙ ĴŴ Ō Ņł Ņ Ņ ł œò ł ł Ņ ŏ ł ŏ Ŕ ŴƖŏũŅ Ŕ Ũœ :ƚ :ķĭųŏ ÿſųł ź  ŷò Ɔĭ  ƅ ÿƀʖ  ƧŦ  ŁŴ Ŕ ÿƇƄŔ ƏľŴ  ũƣ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ƀɞķĭ ł ŏ Łť ƢƉĥ Ŕ ƍƃŔ Ĭ ŵſ ł łœ ò ł Ņ ŏ ł Ņ œ Ō œ Ņ ł łœ Ņ ŅťƄŔ ŨŔ ĭł .ĴŴ ň ŏ ŏ Ņ ł Ņ œ Ŕ ŨĥŔ Ī Ĭų Ɔ  Ũ ƅ Ŕ Ɔ  ĭűũƕ  Ī  ĥ IJűũŔ ƕĪŦ Ŕ ŁŴ Ŕ Ƈ ƄŔ ƏľŴ  ũƣť  .ŦƦƤƀ Ŕ ƣ Ĭĭ ňł ł œ ô Ŕ ň Ŕ ł ň . ųƆ  ĭô ƢƉ  ĥ űŔƃ ƚ ŔƏ  Ŵſ ł Ņ ł ň .ŧ űňœũòŔ łƕ ƅ Ŕ ƆƎ Ņ ƍŶŦ ł ĬŅ :ĭôƢƉĥ ł ĭň :IJĬŴ ô Ɖ ł űƟ ŅŔ Ŵô Ƈƙƌ łŔ ĭłIJĬô Ŵò Ŷł ĥ Ļ  Ŕ ĥŴô ƆĮĥ ĭ Ÿɖ ł ŏ ň ŏ ň Ņ ň ł ŏ .ťƌŅôĥŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ ʖ ň ŁŔĪłœ ƈź Ŕ Ƨ :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſķĭ  ųɝƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň Żſ Ɖ  :ķŴƇŶ  ĪŔŁ ň Ņ ł Ņœ Ōœ ł ň ŏœ ł ł ňœ ň œ Ņ Ņ ŏ  Ŕ ĥ űŔÿũƖ ƅÿſ ƌĪ .ŦƦ Ŕ ÿũŔ źƆ  ųñ ũŅ Ŕ ƤŶł ŁŔĥŦ  ųŅ Ɔĥ  ĭ :ŦƦƤƀ  Ũ ƁƇƕķĭ  Ʀ œ ũŔ Ƥł Ŷł ŁŔĥķĭ  Ʀ  ô ƌĥ Ĵ ł Ņ Ņ Ō Ņ ł Ņ ň Ō .ŦŤƀŬ  œ Əť  Ɗ  ƕť  ŶŤ  ƌĭ  :ťƍƉŴ  łſĪœ ň ł Ņ łň ň ŏ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ Ŕ Ƨť  ƣ Ĭĭ  ťƃ .ķĭųŏ ũœ ɢ ň ŨŔ ƨƉ  ĭł :ķŴƌŏĥť  ƀłŨĭ Ŕ .ķŴƃŏŔŁƢ œ Ơƀ ł ƆĭķŴ Ō ŏŔ Ə Ƅƀ Ō ĿŁœ ĥťƌŅĥ :ķŴƇŶ  ĪŔŁ ł ňœ ň ŏ ŏ ň ň œ ň ł ň Ō ťƀʖ Ņ ĭł .IJĬŴ ô Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũ ųƇ ƃĭ Ŕ ĭĬ :ƎſĿƞ Ɗ  Ũ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſ ħ  Ŕ Ʀſ Ŕ ĭ Ūƃ







 

  

 

ŵƕįĽ

.ƎƀòɫŌ ƣ ƢƐƕ ł ĭŦŤ ł Ɖ Ņ ƚ ŔƏ ň Ŵłſ Ņ Ņ Ō òŅ ł œ ň ł ň ł Ņ ł ł ÿŨł œ ƢÿƀƄŌ Ŕ Ɖ :ťÿƤň ƍƉƢ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſŦ  ŵŶ  ĭ ŭƃ Ņ ĪœIJĬô Ŵò ÿɩł Ũœ Ļ  Ŕ ĥ .ťÿňɕƦ Ŕ ƀòɞ  Łť Ŕ ÿƀɫ Ũ ƋÿſƢƘŔ Ƨ ƚ Ōň ň ł ł ŏ ň .ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  łſĪœIJĬô Ŵƃœ ǓŴŨœ ƈƕĭô űŔƇſ  ŁŔ ĥ





Ch. 

Chapter  

Joseph fell on his father’s face and wept over him and kissed him.



Joseph commanded his servants, the physicians, to embalm his father. So the physicians embalmed Israel.



It took forty days for such is the full period for embalming. The Egyptians wept for him for seventy days.



The time of mourning for him passed and Joseph spoke to those of Pharaoh’s house, “If I have found favor in your eyes, speak to Pharaoh [saying],



‘My father made me swear, saying to me, “See, I am about to die. You must bury me in my tomb that I bought for myself in the land of Canaan.” Now, let me go up and bury my father. Then I will return.’”



Pharaoh said, “Go up and bury your father just as he made you swear.”



So Joseph went up to bury his father. All the servants of Pharaoh, the elders of his household and all the elders of the land of Egypt went up with him.



Joseph’s entire house and his brothers and his father’s house went up with him. They left behind only their little ones, their flocks and their oxen in the land of Goshen.



Chariots and horsemen also went up with him. So the camp was well fortified.



They reached the threshing floor of Atar 1 which is on the other side of the Jordan. They mourned there with a solemn and profound lamentation. He mourned 2 for his father seven days.



The inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the mourning at the threshing floor of Atar and said, “This is a solemn mourning by the Egyptians.” For this reason, they named its Abel-mizraim, 3 which is on the other side of the Jordan.



His sons did for him just as he commanded them. MT: ‘Atad’. ‘mourned’: lit. ‘he made a place of weeping’. 3 ‘Abel-mizraim’: lit. ‘the mourning of the Egyptians’. 1 2





ňł

.Ǝƌ :ķĭŅ ƨƙ Ŕ Ɵň ł .ųƠƤ ň ƌĭ ł IJĬô Ŵł Ƈƕť  ƄŅŔ ŨŔ ĭł :IJĬŴ ô Ũĥŏ Ŕ ĪłœIJĬô Ŵò Ƙł œ ĥ ƈłƕ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſƈ  ƙƌ łŔ ĭł Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ł ň Ņ òŅ ł Ņ ŏ ł œ ũò Ŕ łƖɝ ƚ ŦŁŔ Ŵò ÿƏł ĥIJĬô ŴÿźƍŶł ĭ :IJĬŴ ô ÿŨŏ Ŕ ƧŻ  ÿƍŷ  ŦŁŔ Ŵ ÿƏĥIJĬô ĭűÿ ƊƆ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſ űŔƠň Ƙĭ łŔ ňŅ Ō Ƨ .ƈſĥƢƐſ ł ň ł ł ŏ ň ň Ņ Ņò ł .ťÿźƀòɫŌ ŶĪŦ łŔ Ʀ Ŕ Ɖ  Ŵ ÿɖƎÿƀƊɤ Ō ƣť Ņ ÿƍŅ ƃł Ŕ ĬŅ Īœ ƈÿźƉ  :ƎƀƉ Ō ŴòɖƎƀ ł ŌƖŨœ Ŀĥų  Ɔ  ŴƇƉ  ĭ ŏł ł Ņ Ō ò Ō ň ň ł ł .ƎƀƉ  ŴɖƎƀ  ƖũŔ ƣť  ɕǓƞƉ  IJĬô ĭŤƄŔ ŨŔ ĭ ň ň ŏ ňœ ň ł ň ł ł ň ň Ņ œ ł òł ł ł ň Ǔł Ʀ  ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ .ĬƦ Ŕ ƄŔ Ũ ƁƉ  Ŵ ɖĭô Ƣũƕ Ŕ ĭ ťÿƊŶ Ŕ ŷň Ƅƣ œ ĥķ  ĥ :ķŴƕƢ  Ƙ Ʀƀ Ŕ ŨŔ űŔƆ ň ň ŏ ŏ ł œ ł ò Ņ œ .ķŴƕƢ  Ƙ ĶűƟ Ŕ ĭô ƢƉ  ĥ :ķŴƄƀ  ƍəɳ ł ŨŔ ň Ņ Ņň Ņ Ō ł ň ł ł Ņ Ņ ŨłŔ ƁÿƆŌ Ʀ ťÿƕĿŤ Ŕ ÿňƍŨŔ ňĮĪœIJô ƢÿũŔ Ơł Ũœ :ťÿƌŅ ôĥ ŁŔŤÿƉť ÿƌĥŦ  Ĭ :ƁƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭƁô ƍƀƉĭ  ĥƁô ŨŔ ĥ Ņ ŏœ ň ł ň Ņ Ņ ł œ ň œ Ņ łœ ł ł ŏ ň œ  Ł :ƎƖƍƃŔĪŔ .ĴŴ Ŕ ƘĬĥ  ĭƁô ŨŔ ƧĿŴ  ũƟ  ĥơ  Ə  ĥť  ƣ Ĭ :Ɓƌ ô ƢũƟ  Ł ƎƉ ł ŏ ł ŏ ł ł .ƅ Ŕ ƀŅƉĭĥĪłœ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ĴŴ Ŕ ŨŔ ƧĿŴ  ũƟ  Ə  :ķŴƕƢ ŏ Ƙň œ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň Ŕ ĭơ ł łœ ň ň ł ň ł œ ÿũò Ŕ łƕķĭųÿ IJĬô ĭűÿ ŏ ÿɤƃŏœ ųÿƊň łƕŴô ÿƠƇƏ  ĭ :IJĬŴ ô ÿŨŏ Ŕ ƧƢ  ÿũƠ Ɔ ƚ Ɗ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ÿłſơÿƇƏĭł ň Ņ ŏ ŏ ň Ņ ň .ƎſĿƞň Ɖ ň Īť Ŕ ƕĿĥ Ņ ĪłŔ ťũò Ŕ Əķĭ  ųɤ  ƃĭĬ Ŕ Ʀƀ Ŕ ũò Ŕ Əĭ  :ķŴƕƢ ŏ ƘňŔ Īœ œ ŨłŔ Īť ł ň ŏ ł ĭł :ƚ ŏ Ũł œ .ųÿƊň łƕŴô ÿƠň ƇƏ Ŕ ÿŷɤ ĪŴ ňŔ IJĬô Ŵò ÿŶĥ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ÿłſ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũňœ ųƇ ƃĭ Ŕ  IJĬô ŴÿŨŏ Ŕ ĥ Ʀÿƀ Ŕ Ũĭ ł ł œ Ņ Ņ ò ŏ ŏ ŏ ł ł Ņ œ ň .ƎƤ ū Ŕ Īť Ŕ ƕĿŤ  ŨŴô Ơũƣ  Ơł Ōſ  ǓĭŁĭ Ŕ ķĭų ƍɯĭķĭĬ ŁƢ Ŕ :ķĭųſ Ņ Ņ Ō ł Œ Ņ ł ň Ņł Ņ Ņ œ ł Ņ ňł ň ł .Ū  Ŕ Ź ťƍƀŅ ƤŌ łƕĪŦ Ŕ Ʀſ Ŕ ƢƤ Ɖ  ŁŔ ĭĬ  ĭ :ťƣ ǔƘĭ Ŕ ŦƦ Ŕ ũŔ ƃ ǔƉ  Ļ  Ŕ ĥų  Ɗ  ƕŴô ƠƇƏ  ĭ ň Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ œ œ ŏ ł Ņ ł œ ň ł Ņ œ ŏ Ņ ň łœ ň ŦƦ Ŕ ÿŨœ ĿŦ  ŁĪŴ  ÿƟƢƉƎ  ÿƉŁĭô űŔÿƟĿĥĭ :ƎƌĪĿŴ  ÿſĪŧ Ŕ ƢÿũŔ ƖŨŔ Ī ƢÿŹĥĪŧ łŔ ǓĪœƧť  Ɖ Ņ űƕ łŔ ĭŁĥ Ŕ ĭň ň ł ł ł Ņœ Ōł .ƎƀƉ Ō Ŵò ɖť ł ƖŅũŔ ƣť ł Ƅò Ŕ ŨŅœ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũňœ IJĬô ŴŨŏ Ŕ Ƨ űŔũƕ Ŕ ĭ .ŦƦƍƀ  Ƥ ƕĭ  ň Ņ ł ň ň œ ň Ņ ň Ņ ò ł Ņ ł òł œ Ņ ł ł ł ĭň :ƢÿŹĥĪŧ ťÿƌŅ Ĭť Ņ ÿŨŅ œ Ŀł ĭĬô ƨÿŨŔ ĥ :ĭôƢÿƉĥ  ƀɫ Ɩɩƃť Ŕ ƕĿ  ĥ ƁŨƦŔ ſ ĭŵŶ  ĭ łŔ ǓĪŤ  ÿŨŔ ƨŨŔ Ƨť ł ŏ Ņ ň ň Ņ ł ň ň ň ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ł .ƎƌĪĿŴ œ ſŏĪŧ Ŕ ƢũŔ ƖŨŔ Īœ ƎſĿƞ Ɖ  ƈŨœ ĥ :ųƊƣ  ĭƢƟť  ƌĬƈ  ź Ɖ  :ťňɕǓƞƊƆ ň ň ł .ķŴƌŏĥ űŔƠň Ƙł Ŕ Īœ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ťƍŅƃłŔĬŅ IJĬô ŴòɩłŨœ ųƆ ň ĭô űŔũƕ łŔ ĭł



ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



į



İ



IJ  ťſ  Ūſ 

Ch. 



He blessed them and he commanded them. Their father said to them, “I am about to be gathered to my people. Bury me with my fathers



in the cave in the field of Ephron the Hittite in the double cave in the field, 1 which is before Mamre in the land of Canaan — the field that Abraham bought from Ephron the Hittite as a burial site.



They buried Abraham and Sarah his wife there. They buried Isaac and Raphka his wife there. I buried Leah there —



the field purchased from the Hittites and the cave that was in it.”

LXXVI



When Jacob finished giving orders to his sons, he stretched out 2 his feet in his bed and he became sick and died, 3 and he was gathered to his people.

See Gen 23:9,19. See Craig E. Morrison, “Did the Dying Jacob Gather His Feet into His Bed (MT) or Stretch Them Out (Peshitta)? Describing the Unique Character of the Peshitta,” North American Syriac Symposium 2015, Washington DC. Forthcoming. 3 The addition ‘and died’ is an inner Syriac harmonization with the expression that occurs in Gen 25:8,17; and 35:29. 1 2



ň ł ŏ ł ĭň .ķŴƌŏĥň űŔƠň ƘłŔ ĭ ķŴƌŏĥň ĴŔ ƢňŨłœ Żƃ ŁŔ Ŵÿɝť Ņ ÿƌŅ ôĥƥÿňƍƃœƦ Ŕ Ɖť ň ÿƌŅ ĥ :ķĭĬŴ ŏ ÿŨŏ Ŕ ĥķĭ  ųÿɝƢ  ÿƉĥ ł ł Ņ ô łƕ .IJųò ŨŅ Ŕ ĥ ŁŔŴɝ  Ɓô ƌĭƢŏŨŴ Ŕ Ɵŏ :ƁƊ ł Ņ ł ł Ņ ł łœ Ņ Ņ Ō ŏ ň Ņ ł ł Ņ ł łœ Ņ Ķűÿ ŅŔÿƟĪŦ łŔ Ʀ œ ÿƙƀŔ Ōƕĥ  ƨÿ  ÿƠŷ ŨŔ ĪŦŔ ŁƢ Ŕ ÿƖƊŨ :ťÿɕƦ Ŕ ƀʖķĭ  ƢÿƙŔ ƕĪ Ŕ ƨÿ  ÿƠŷ ŨŔ ĪŦ Ŕ ŁƢ Ŕ ÿƖƊŨ ĵ ŅŅ œ ŏ ŅŅ Ō ŏ ň ň Ņ Ņ ł ł ł Ņ ł Ņ ťÿɧŁĿŴƀɞ :ťÿɕƦ Ŕ ƀʖķĭ  ƢÿƙŔ ƕ ƎƉĶ  Ĭ ƢŨŔ ĥƎ  ŨĮ Ŕ ĪŔ ƨƠ  Ŷ :ƎƖƍłƃŔĪť ň Ɖ ł łŔ ƕĿŤ  ŨłŔ Īœ :ŧ ƢƊ .ŧ ƢŅũŔ Ɵł ĪŔ ň œ ł Ņ ł ł ŅŅ ł ł ł ł ł Ŕ ƎÿƉŅ Łĭ Ņ ƧŌĭô ƢÿũƟ  Ĭ ƢŨŔ Ƨĭô ƢũƟ Ŕ ƎƉ Ņ Łœ Ƨ ťÿƠŅ ƘŔ Ƣɝ ł ĭơ ł ÿŷƐſ Ŕ :ĬŁŔ Ʀÿ ô ƌĥŧ ƢÿƐƆĭĶ ň ł ł .ťƀŅ ˁň Ɔ ŁŔƢňũŔ Ɵň ƎƉ Ņ Łĭ Ŕ :ĬŁŔ Ʀœ ô ƌĥ ł ň ñ Ņ Ņ ł ł Ņ ł Ņœ Ō  ų ŨŔ ĪŦ Ŕ ŁƢ Ŕ ƖƉ  ĭ  ƨƠ  Ŷ ĪŦ Ŕ Ʀƍƀ  ŨŔ Į ŪƆ .Ʀƀ Ŕ ʖ Ō ƁòƍŨœ ƎƉ









ŴƕįĽ

ň ň ŏ łſƋ ł Ŕ ŭƆ Ņ łƖŨœ IJĬô Ŵÿł Ƈū .ťÿƏƢ Ŕ ǓŻÿƤł Ƙ œ :IJĬô Ŵò ÿɩł ũŔ Ɔ ł ĭűŏŔÿƠŅ ƙƊ łŔ Ɔ ł ħŴ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ  ÿ Ƈƣł űÿ Ŕÿƃĭ Ŕ ĭň . ųƊ ň łƕ ŁŔŴɝ Ņ ƥňƍƃœŁĥ Ŕ ĭň :Ʀƀ Ŕ ƉĭĬ Ō ƢłƃœŁĥ





Ch. 



May Zebulun dwell on the shores of the sea and on the best of ships. His border will reach Sidon.



Issachar is a warrior crouching between the roadways.



He saw his dwelling, which is lovely, his land, which is good. He lowered his shoulder for forced labor and became tribute.



May Dan judge his people like one of the tribes of Israel.



Dan will be a snake on the path and a serpent on the roadways that bites at the horse’s heel and throws its horseman behind it.



I have awaited your salvation, O Lord.



May Gad go out with a band of robbers and may he drag the heel.



Asher, whose land is good, shall provide provisions for kings.



Naphtali, swift messenger, will give a fine speech.



Joseph is a son of good rearing, a son of good rearing. Look up, O eye: the sturdy building rises along the wall. They contended with him.



They were many, and the lords of the bands envied him.



His bow turned back with force, and the arms of his hands were scattered by the hands of the Strong One of Jacob, by the name of the shepherd of the Rock of Israel.



May the God of your father help you. May Elshaddai bless you, the blessing of the heavens above and the blessing of the depths that crouch from below. The blessing of breasts and wombs.



The blessings of your father surpass the blessings of my ancestors, reaching confidently to the eternal hills. May they be on Joseph’s head, on the head of the crown of his brothers.



Benjamin is a ravenous wolf. In the morning he consumes plunder. In the evening he divides what he has seized.”



All these tribes of Israel were twelve. This is what Jacob their father said to them. He spoke to them, he blessed them, each according to each one’s blessing. 





łƕ ĭĬĭ ł Ŕ ƢŅƘŴ ųƉŴ ň ÿŶŏ ŁŔĭł :ťňƍəòƙƏ ŌŔ Īŧ Ŕ ƣƈ ŏ ŏ :ŧ ƢƤ ň ňƌ ťƊň Ɗòô łſ IJǔłƙƏ ŅŔ ƈłƕķŴ  ƆŴ ŏ ŨĮŏ Ŕ ŭſ Ņ űƕ łŔ .ķűſŅ œ ƞłɞ ťƉ ň Ō .ƨəòũƣ Ŕ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũňœ ƗƀŨĿ ŌŔ Īłœ :ŧ ƢŅũŅœ ôƍūŧ Ŕł ƢŅũŔ ū ł œ ƢƄŅŔ Ɛſ Ņ Ō ĥ űſ ň œ ĭł .ťÿũŅ Ŕ ŹŅĪœųÿň ƕĿĥĭł :ƢÿÿƀƙŌœ ƣł Īœ ųÿň ſƢƤƉŦ ł ŵÿŅÿŶĭł ųſ ŦĭĬ Ņ ĭł :ŧ űŅŔũƕŴ Ņœ ÿƤŏ ƆųÿƘň œ Ʀ Ŕ ƃłœ ƎÿƃĿĥ Ņ ł .ŦŁĥ Ŕ űłœƊ Ɔ ňŅ Ō ň ò ł ň ł ł ň ł .ƈſĥƢƐſĥ Ŕ ź Īť  ũŔ ƣƎ  Ɖ  űŔŶ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ųƊ  Ɩɝķĭ  űƌķ ŏŔ ĪŅœ Ŵſ ň Ō Ņ ƐƆ Ņ ŏ ĥ ƈÿłƕĪť ťÿƀƏŴ ŏ Ʀ Ŕ ÿƄň Ŕ ƌŅĪœ :ƨÿəò ũƣƈ Ŕ ÿłƕĪť Ŕ ÿƍŅ ƉƢ Ņ Ŷĭ ł :ťÿŶĿĭ Ŕ ɕŴ Ņ Ŷķ ň ĪŦ ŅŔ ĭų ň ňƌ ŵſ ň Ɖĭ ł :ųũƠ ňŔ ųũňœ ƃŔƢɝť ňœ ň ƖŨŔ Ņ ƉƢ .ĬĿňƦƐ œ ũƆ .ťɕƢ Ņ Ɖ Ņ Ʀƀ Ŕ ƄŌœ Ə ł ƅ Ŕ ƍŅƟĿŴ Ņ ƙƆ ŏŔ Ÿɖ Ņ Ŕ ň ƕ űŔŬň œ ňƌ ĭĬĭ Ņ ŬŔ ł Ũœ űŔū Ņ œ Żſ .ťũƠ ŏ :ľŴƙŏœ ňƌťƐƀ ŏ ł Ņ Ō Ņ ň .ťƄň œ ɤò Ɗł ƆťƀŅƏĿĭ Ņ Łœ ĵƦ œ ňƌ ĭĬĭ ŏ :ųň ƕĿ  ĥť  ũŅ Ŕ ŹƢƀ  ƣ ĥ Ĵ Ņ Ō ł Ņ ł Ō Ō Ņœ ł Ņ Ɖ Ō ħ  Ŕ ųň Ņſ :ƨƀ  Ƈ Ɵŧ  űŔ ū  œ ŵſĥ ƁƆ Ʀ  ƙŔ ƌ ťƃ .ŧ Ƣƀ Ņ ƙŌœ ƣł ŧ ƢƉŤ ł ł Ņ Ōœ Ņ œ ň ł Ņ Ōœ Ņ œ ň Ņ Ņ Ŕ ƊƏť ňŔ ÿƍƀŅ łƕ ƁƠ ô Ə ł :ŦƦƀ Ŕ ŨĿ  ŁŔ Īŧ Ŕ ƢŨ :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſŦ  Ʀƀ Ŕ ŨĿ  ŁŔ Īŧ Ŕ ƢŨ Ūƃ ơÿƇƏ  Īť Ŕ ÿƄƀ Ō ÿƍŅ əƍ Ņ Ũť Ō ł ň Ņ .ųƊ  ƕŴô ſƢŶ  Łĥ Ŕ ĭ :ŧ ĿŴ Ņ Ƥŏ Ũœ .ŧ ĪňœŴò ū ŏ œ IJǔłƉ Ņ IJĬô ĭƢƠ ŏ Əĭ ł Ŵô ƀŬƏ Ŕ Ō ĭł ŭƃ Ō ň ň Ņ ŏ œ Œ łœ ň Ō Ŕ ÿňƕǓŅĪœĭô ĿűłœÿŨł œ Łĥ  ÿƉň :IJĬĭ ô űłŔÿɖò ĥĪť ťÿƍƀŅ ƤŌ łƕ IJűłŔÿɖò ĥƎ Ŕ ĭň :ĬƦÿƤ  ƄƘŔ Ĭ ĭ űƃ œ Ɵť  ƍƣŴ  ƖŨ Ʀ ňŅ Ō Ņ Ō Ņ Ņ ň ň Ŕ ŏ ł .ƈſĥƢƐſĥĪť Ŕ ƃŔ Īť Ŕ ƀƕ  ĿƋ  ƣ ƎƉĭ  :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ  ſĪŔ Ŕ ƘŤ ł Ņ œ ŏœ Ņ Ŕ ũƌ łŔ Ʀ Ņ ĥ ųƃ Ŕ ƃĿŴ  ÿŨ :ƅ Ŕ ÿƃƢ łŔ IJűłœÿƤł ɤſĥĭŌ :ĴŔ ĿŅűÿƖ œ ƌł ĴŴ Ŕ Ũĥŏ Ŕ ĪłŔ ŦųŅ Ɔ :ƈÿňƖɝ ƎÿƉň ťÿƀŅ Ɗƣ ł ĪŦ Ņ œ ŏ Ņ ł Ņ œ ŏœ œ ł Ō Ŕ Īť .ťƊŶ ň ǓłĪŔĭť ł òɕĪł ŔŁœĪŦ Ŕ ƎƉť ň Ɩƀ Ņ ŨĿ Ŕ ƃĿŴ  Ũ :ƦŶ  ƦƆ łŔ Ɖĭ Ņ Ĭŏ ŁŔĪłŔ ŦƦ Ŕ ƃĿŴ  ŨŔ ĭ Ŕ Ʀ ň Ņ Ņ Ŕ ƢŅũŔ ƐƆť ł Ņ űƕ Ɖ łŔ :Ɓƌłűɝ ŅŔ Ŵò Ɖ ł ĪŦ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ ƃŅœ ǓŴŨŏœ ƈłƕ Ɓô òƍƤƕ ň ĴŴ Ŕ Ũĥŏ Ŕ Īłœ ĬƦ ŦƦ Ŕ ÿƉŅ ǓŅĪŧ Ŕ ƃŅœ ǓŴŨŏœ Ŵƃ ŅŌ .IJĬô ŴòŶł ĥĪłŔ ƨƀ  Ƈ ƃœ ƥſĿƈ Ō łƕĭ  :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſĪœ ųƤſ ň ĿŌ ƈłƕƎ  Ņſĭòųňƌ :Ƌł Ƈ ƕŅĪŔ ŏ Ņ Ņ Ōœ ň Ņ ň œ ň ł Ņ ł ł Ņ ňœ ŅŔ ź ĶűňœÿƉň ŭ  Ŕ ÿƇƙƌ Ŕ ťÿƤƉƢŨŔ ĭ :ŦŁŵ Ŕ ÿŨ ĵŴÿƃŤŏ Ŕ ňƌŧ  ƢŅÿƘŔ ƞłŨœ :ťÿƘŴ  Ŷť  ŨĥŔ Ī ƎƀƊ  ƀƍ Ũ ŵƃ .ŧ űƖ ňœ Ɖ ł Īœ ň ł ň Ņ ŏ ŏœ Ņ Īť ň ÿƌŅ Ĭĭ ł Īňœ ĶűňœÿƉť ł ĿňŁœ ƈÿſĥň ƢƐſĥ ķĭųÿɝƢ ŏ ÿƉĥ Ņ :ƢÿƐƕ ŌŔ ÿźũòŔ ƣƎƀ  Ɔ  Ĭķĭ  ųɤ  ƃ Ÿƃ ň ň ň ł ł ň œ ŏœ ł Ņ ŏ ŏ ŏ ŏ ł  ĥ :ķĭĬŴ  ŨŔ ĥ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ .ĬƦ Ŕ ƃĿ  ŴŨ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ƥƌôĥ :ķŴƌĥ ĴŔ ƢŨĭŔ ķĭųɝ  ƢƉ 



 

 

    

 









Ch. 

Chapter  LXXV



Jacob summoned his sons and said to them, “Gather around and I will show you what will happen to you at the end of days.



Gather round and listen, O sons of Jacob. Listen to Israel your father. 1



Rubel, you are my first born, my strength, chief of my might, the remaining burden, the remaining strength.



You went astray like water. You shall not remain because you went into your father’s couch. Truly you defiled my bed when you entered it.



Simeon and Levi, brothers, are instruments of anger by their very nature.



I myself have not entered into their council. I did not descend into their assemblies 2 from my glory because in their anger they killed men. In their rage they pulled down the fortification.



Cursed be their anger because it is fierce, and their rage because it is harsh. I will divide them in Jacob, I will scatter them in Israel.



Judah, your brothers will praise you. Your hand will be on the neck of your enemies. Your father’s sons will bow down to you.



Judah is a lion’s whelp. You have departed, my son, from slaughter. He knelt and crouched like a lion, like a lion’s whelp. Who can rouse him?



The scepter will not depart from Judah, nor the lawgiver from between his feet until the one to whom it belongs arrives. Let the peoples await him.



He will tie his colt to the vine, the foal of his donkey to the sprig. He will whiten his garment in wine, his cloak in the blood of grapes.



His eyes are red with wine. His teeth are whiter than milk. 



Many Hebrew words in Jacob’s blessing are obscure and it is difficult to be certain whether the Peshiṭta translator understood them. 2 The Mosul MS lacks VH\ćPH. 1



.ŻƉ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ň ŏ Ŕ ŴňŶĥ ň ÿƄſ ŀűňŔÿūŔŅ Īœ Ķűň œ ÿƉķŴ ł ĭňŴô ƤƍłƃłœŁŔĥ :ķĭųɝƢ ŏ ł ĭňIJĬô ŴòɩłũŔ Ɔ Ɖĥ ł ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſŧ  ƢƟ Ņ ĭł Ņ Ņòł Ņ ł œ ŏ .ŦƦ Ŕ Ɖ  Ŵ ɖĪŦ Ŕ ŁƢ Ŕ ŷ Ũ ķŴƄƆ Ŕ ň ň Ō ł Ņ ƧŴô ƖƊƣ .ķŴƃŴ ŏŔ Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ ƈſĥƢƐſ ł :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſĪœIJĬô ŴòɩłŨœ Ŵô ƖƊƣ ł ĭłŴô ƤƍłƃłœŁŔĥ ŏ Ō ł Ņ Ņ œ ƣł ĭ :ŦƦƆŴ Ņ œ ƣł :Ɓô ÿƙƟĭ ň Ŕ Ŀŏ ťÿƃƢ œ ÿƠŏ ƣĪť łŔ ÿƃƢ  Ɓô Ƈƀʖ ł :Ʀ œ ô ƌĥIJô ƢƃŴ Ŕ Ũŏœ ƈƀŨĭ Ŕ Łœ ƥſĿĭ .ťƍƣŴ Ņ ƕŏĪŔ ł Ō Ņ Ōł Ņ Ņ ł ł œ ł ň łœ œ ŴňÿŹ Ʀſ Ʀƣ Ŕ ĥƢſ  Ƣƣ :ĴŴ Ŕ Ũĥŏ Ŕ Īłœ ųũň Ŕ ƄƤ œ ƊƆ ł ƦƠ œ ƇƏ  Ī ŀŴƘŏŔ Ł  ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ Ʀƀ  ƖŹ  Ŕ Ƨ :ťƀò Ɖ ň ň ł Ō œ .ƦƠ  ƇƏ  ĭIJô Ʀſ Ŕ Ŵƣ  Łœ ň Ņ ňò ł Ō ň .ķĭųƍ ŏ ƀŅƃœ ƎƉŦ ň ŵŅūĭ Ŕ ĿŏĪť Ŕ òƌ ŤƉ  :ťŶ ĥ IJŴ ɝĭķŴ  ŏ ƣň ƖƊ Ņ Ņ ŏ ň ň ƈÿźƉ  IJô ƢÿƠſŅ Ō ĥƎ  ÿƉň ŁŔƦÿŷ ŒŔ ÿłƇň ƕ  Ƨķĭ  Ĭŏ ĮĿŅŤôŨœ œ ňƌ  Ƨķ  ĭųŏ ƀƣŌ Ŵÿƍŏ ƄŔ Ũĭ łŔ :Ɓô ÿƤƙŔ ƌł Ʀ ň ł ŏ .ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ƣŏ ĭô ƢƠƕķĭ ł Ĭŏ ƦƊ Ŕ ŷň ŨŔ ĭł :ŧ ǔňũŔ ū ł œ Ŵô Ƈź  Ɵķĭ  Ĭŵ  ūĭ Ŕ ƢŏŨŔ Īłœ ŏ ň ň ň Ņ ł œ ŏ ň Ɵ Ī ƈź  Ɖķĭ  Ĭŏ ƦƊ Ŕ Ŷň ĭ :ƎƀƤŌ łƕĪœ ƈź  Ɖķĭ  Ĭŵ ŏ ūĭ Ŕ Ŀŏ ĭĬŻƀ  Ŕ ÿƇƘł œ ĥ .ťÿƀƤ ŭ ô ŏ Ɔ Ō ň Ņ Ō œ ŏň łœ ł œ ň ň .ƈſĥƢƐſŤŨ ķŴƌĥĿ  űŨĥ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀłŨœ ķŴƌŏĥ  ĭ :ħŴ ł ŏœ ł Ņ Ņ ŏ Ō Ņ űŏŔÿŬƐ łƕ ĴŔ űſ ò œ ň ƖŨŔ Ī ł Ŕ ƧŅ űÿƟƈ œ ňƌ :ƅÿƀ ƅ Ŕ ÿƆķĭ  œ ũłŔ ŨŅ Ŕ űɤ ŅŔ ŅŔ Ō ĥ :ƅ œ ƀòʖ ł ĥķĭ  ĪŴ  ƌ ƅ Ŕ Ɔŧ  Īĭ Ŕ ų ſ .ĴŴ Ŕ Ũĥŏ Ŕ ĪłœIJĬô Ŵò ɩłŨœ Ņ ň ň Ņ ŏŌ Ņ ł Ņ ŏ ł ł ł ł ł œ œ ň ň Ŕ ƨź  ƟƎ  Ɖ  :ŧ Īĭ  Ŕ ĭł :ťɕĿ ƅÿſĥ Ņ ĥ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ƗŨĿ Ŕ ĭ ĴŔ ƢŨ .ƦƠ  ƇƏ  IJô ƢŨ Ŕ ų ſť  ɕĿĥ  Īť Ŕ ɕĿŴ  ū œ Ō Ņ ū .IJĬŴƀ ô Ɗ Ō ƀƠƌ  ŴƍŏƉĭ ł :ťɕĿĥ Ņ ĪłŔ ťɕĿŴ ŏ œ Ņ Ņ ň ň ňŁŤŔ ƌŌĪť Ŕ Ɖ Ņ űƕ łŔ :IJĬŴ ô ł Ƈ ū Ŕ Ǔ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũňœ ƎƉť ň ƍŅƟŅ űœũƉ łŔ ĭł :ŧ Īĭ ƎÿƉŦ ŅŔ ųŏ ŌſƎ  Ɖť ň ź  ũŔ ƣł űŔƍƖ ł ňƌ  Ƨ ň Ōœ ł Ɔĭ ň :IJĬų .ťƊň Ɗòô łƕķŴƄŏœ Ɛƌų ô Ō Ƈſ  ĪŔĪ Ņ ł ł Ņ ŏœł ł ň Ō Ņ œ ň łœ ŏ ň ŏ Ŕ ƢÿƊ :ųƣŴ ň ÿũƆŧ Ņ ŷł Ũœ ĿŴł ÿŷƌł .ųÿɧň Łœ ĥƢÿŨť  ũ Ƥ ŨŔ ĭ :ųƇƀ  ƕŦ  Ʀ  ƙŔ Ŭ  Ũ ĿŴƏŤ  ƌ Ŕ ƟŴ ň Ō ł ň ò ňŔ Ņ ł Ŕ  Īť Ŕ Ɖ  űŔŨĭ .ĬƦƀ Ŕ Ɛ  ƃŔŁť Ŕ ũŔ ƍɯ Ņ Ŕ ŶƎ .ťũɤ ł Ɖ ň IJĬô Ŵòɩłƣň ķǓŅŴŅ Ŷĭ ň :ŧ ƢƊ Ņ ŶƎ ł Ɖ ň IJĬô ŴƍłəòɯƎ ł ū Ņ œ Ǔ ĮŅ



ųƕįĽ ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



į



İ



IJ  ťſ  Ūſ 

Ch. 



Israel said to Joseph, “See, I am about to die. May God be with you and may he bring you back to the land of your fathers.



Now I have given to you one portion 1 more 2 than your brothers, which I took from the hand of the Amorites with my sword and with my bow.”

1 2

MT: ‘Shechem’ or ‘shoulder’. Absent in the MT.



ň Ņ Ņň Ņ ł ň ň ŏ Ŕ łƕŦ Ņ Ō ĥƢÿƉĥ ł ĭň ťƃ ł ƈÿÿſĥň ƢƐſ :ķŴÿƄƊ  ųŅ ÿƆŅ ĥŦ  ĭų  ÿƌĭ :ťÿƌŅ ôĥ ŁŔŤÿƉť ÿƌĥŦ  Ĭ :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ÿƀɞ ł Ņ ƧķŴ  ƄŏŔ ƄŔ Ƙų ň œ ƌłĭ .ķŴƄŏœ ɖòųł ŨŅ Ŕ ĥĪłŔ ťƕĿ Ņ Ōœł Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ň œ ňƌĪœ :ƅ œ ÿƀò ʖ ň œ ň ſŦĬť ŧ űÿſ ŅŔ Ō ĥƎ  ÿƉň Ʀ Ŕ ÿũƐ ł ĥ ƈÿłƕŦŁƢſ œ Ʀ  ſŧ  űŶŦ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ ƍƉ  ƅ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ Ʀ Ŕ Ũų Ņ ƌĥŅ ĭň Ūƃ ŏ ĪŅŔ .IJô ƦƤ œ Ơň ŨŔ ĭłƁô ƙƀ œ Ɛ ł ŨŔ ťňɕǓŅŴƉĥ







Ch. 



He removed them from his knees and they bowed down before him with their faces to the ground.



Joseph brought his two sons, Ephraim on his right, to the left of Israel, and Manasseh on his left, to the right of Israel. He brought them near to him.



Israel stretched out his right [hand] and he put it on the head of Ephraim, who was the younger, and his left [hand he put] on the head of Manasseh. He crossed his hands because Manasseh was the firstborn.



Jacob blessed Joseph his son and said, “May the God, before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac were pleasing, 1 the God who sustained 2 me from my youth 3 until today,



the Angel, who saved me from all harm, bless the youths. Let my name be remembered 4 in them, along with the name of my fathers, Abraham and Isaac. Let them increase and become numerous in the midst of the land.”



Joseph saw that his father had put his right hand on the head of Ephraim and he was displeased. He propped up his father’s hand in order to transfer it from the head of Ephraim and put it 5 on the head of Manasseh.



Then Joseph said to his father, “Not like that, Father. Rather this one is the firstborn. Put your right hand on his head.”



But his father was not willing and he said, “I know, my son, I know. Indeed, he will become a nation and will increase. Nevertheless, his younger brother will become greater than he. His descendants will become a multitude of nations.”



He blessed them on that day and said, “Israel will be blessed in you and they will say, ‘May God make you like Ephraim and Manasseh.’” And so he put Ephraim ahead of Manasseh. 



See the Introduction: Particular Lexical Choices. MT: ‘who shepherded me’. 3 MT: ‘since I am’. 4 ‘Let my name be remembered’: lit. ‘Let my name be called’. 5 Absent in the MT. 1 2



ň ł ł űƟ ŅŔ ĭô űŔŬƏ ƈÿłƕķĭųŏ ƀòƘł œ ĥ ƈłƕIJĬô ŴƉ Ŕň ĭł :IJĬŴ ô ƃłœ ǓŴŨŏ œ ĶűƟƎ ŅŔ ƉķŴ ň ƌŏĥ ľƢňƘĥ Ŕ ĭł Ūſ ł .ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ł ň Ņ ň ň ÿÿňƍƀƊ ųÿÿƇƊ Ə  ƎÿÿƉų Ō ƀłŨœ ƋÿÿſƢňƘŔ Ƨ :IJĬô Ŵò ÿÿɩł Ũœ ķĭųÿÿſ ŏ ǓłƦ Ɔ ł ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ÿÿłſ ƢÿÿŨł Ŕ ĪŔĭł ŭſ ňŏ ň ł ň Ņ Ō œ ň Ō ł ň ň Ņ ň œ ňŔ ł ł ň Ņ Ōœ ķŴÿƌĥ ħ  Ŕ ƢÿƟĭ :ƈÿſĥƢƐſĥĪ ųÿƍƀƊ  :ƈſĥƢƐſĥ Ī  ſƎ  ÿƉųÿƇƊ Ɛ  Ũ ťÿƤƍƊ  Ɔĭ ň Ņ  .ĬŁŔ Ŵɝ ň ŏ Ŵÿſĭ Ņ Ō ĥŻƣĭĥ ŏ ĬƋÿſ .ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ÿƕĮ ŏ ƢňƘĥ Ŕ Īłœ ųÿƤň ſĿƈ Ō ÿłƕ ųñ ÿƊŅ Əĭ Ņ :ųÿňƍƀƊ Ō łſ ƈſĥƢƐſ ň ĭł űſ Ō ň ŏ ň ł ň ł łœ ň Ō ł ň Ņ ň ŦĭŅĬť ô ÿƤň ƍƉ ł Īłœ ƈÿźƉ ň :IJĬĭ ô űłŔÿɖò ĥƎÿƀ  ň ƌĥ ƚ  Ŕ Ƈŷ  ƣ :ťƤ ƍƉ  Ī ųƤ ſĿƈ  ƕų  Ƈ Ɗ  Əĭ  Ņ.ŧ ƢƃŴ Ŕ Ũŏ Ŕ ł ł ň ň œ ň ł ł ł ł Ŕ ĪŦ IJųò ÿŨŅ Ŕ ĥIJĬô ŴÿƉł űƟ ŅŔ ĭô Ƣÿƙƣ łŔ ųŅ ÿƆŅ ĥ :ƢÿƉĥ  ƢÿŨ ƚ ĭĬ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ÿƀɞ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ ĴŔ ƢňŨĭ łŔ ųſ ł ň ł ł Ņ Ņł Ņ Ō ŅŅ ł .ťƍŅƉŴ Ņ ƀɞť ł Ɖ Ņ űƕ łŔ ĭłIJô ŁŴ Ŕ ƀˁ ŏ ŹƎ  Ɖ  Ɓô ƍƀƏĿ  ŁŔ ĪŦ Ŕ ų Ɔ  ĥ :ơŷƐſĥ  ĭ ĶĬ ƢŨŔ ĥ ň Ņ ł ň ł Ņ Ōœ ŏœ ň ł ł Ņł ł :ķĭųŏ ÿŨœ Ɓô ÿƊƣň ŧ ƢÿƟ ň Ʀ Ŕ ňƌĭ  .ťƀò ˁź  Ɔ  ĴŔ Ƣũƌ Ŕ :ťƤƀ  Ũ ƈƃ ƎƉ  Ɓô ƍƟƢ  ƘŔ Īť Ŕ ƃŔ ƨ Ɖ  Ŵſ ł ł ŏ ò Ņ Ņ.ťƕĿĥ Ō Ņ Ņ Ņ ň ň Ņ ł ł œ ŏ œ Ņ  Īœ Ĭñ ŴŬ Ŕ ł Ũ ķŴŬƐ  œ ƌĭķĭ  Ƣũ ƄŔ ƌĭ  :ơŷƐſĥ  ĭĶ  Ĭ ƢŨŔ ĥ IJų ŨĥŔ Īť Ŕ Ɗƣĭł ł Ņ œ ň ł Ņ ł ň Ŀƈ ŀŤÿŨň œ ŁĥŔ ĭň :ƋÿſƢňƘĥ Ŕ Īłœ ųÿƤſ Ō ÿłƕťÿƍƀŅ Ɗ Ō łſĪœ Ĭűÿſ ňŔ Ō ĥIJĬô ŴŨŏ Ŕ ĥƋ  Ə  Ī ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſŦ  ŵŶ  ĭ ŵſ Ņ Ō Ō Ņ ŏ ň ň ň ŏ Ņ ł Ņ ł ò ł ł ň ň œ :ƋÿſƢƘĥ Ŕ Īœ ųÿƤſĿƎ  ÿƉ Ĭñ Łĭ Ŕ ƢũƖ  Ɗ  ƆIJĬô ŴŨĥŔ Īœ Ĭűſ ł Ũœ Ŕ Ƨ ųñ ɝ  ƅ Ŕ Ɗ  Əĭ  .IJĬŴ ô ƍəɳ .ťƤň ƍƉ ł Īłœ ųƤň ſĿƈ Ō łƕ ųƀ ñ Ɗƀ Ō Ɛƌ Ō ĭł Ņ Ņň Ņ ł ň ł ł ň ƅŔ ÿƍƀŅ Ɗ Ō łſƋÿƀ  Ə Ō :ŧ ƢŅƃŴ Ŕ ÿŨŏ œ Ŵÿƌł Ĭ Ņ Ƨĥ :Ɓô ŨŔ ĥť  ƍŅƃł Ŕ ĬŦ Ņ ĭŅĬ ô Ƨ :IJĬŴ ô Ũŏ Ŕ Ƨ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ÿɖ Ō ň .ųƤ ſĿƈ  łƕ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ňŔ ƌŅôĥĺűłŔɖŅ :ƢƉĥ ł ĭň :IJĬŴ ô Ũŏ Ŕ ĥť  ŨĽ  Żſ  Ŕ ĥ :ťÿƊŅ łƖɝŦ Ļ  ĭų ň ňƌ ĭĬŏ Ļ  Ŕ ĥ :ťƌŅôĥĺűłŔɖŅIJô ƢŨť Ŕ Ƨĭ ň ň ň ň ł ł ł œ ł Ō ŏ Ņ ł ŏ ò ł ň ň Ō ň ŏ  ĭų  ƌų  ƕĿ  Įĭ  .ųƍƉ  ħ  Ŕ ĿŤ  ƌŧ  ĿŴ  ƕĮ  IJĬô ŴŶ ĥĶ  ƢŨ .ħ  Ŕ ĿŤ  ƌ ĭĬ .ťƊƊô ƕ ƨƉŦ ň Ņ Ō ł ł œ ň Ņ œ ł ň ł Ņ ł œ ŏň ň ł ĴŔ űŅŔÿũƖœ ňƌ :ķĭƢÿƉŤ ŏ ƌĭ Ō .ƈſĥƢƐſ ĥ ĴŔ ƢŨ Ʀ Ŕ ƌ ƅ Ŕ Ũ :ƢƉĥ  ĭ ĭĬť  ƉŴ  ƀŨ ķŴƌĥ ĴŔ ƢŨĭ Ŕ Ĵ ł ł Ņ Ņł ł ł ł ňł ň ň ł ł ň Ņ .ťƤ ƍƉĶ  űƟƋſ ƢƘŔ Ƨ űŔũƕ Ŕ ĭ .ťƤ ƍƉ  ƅſĥ  Ŕ ĭƋſƢƘŔ ĥ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ Ŧų Ɔ  ĥ Ŕ





















Ch. 

Chapter  LXXIV



After these events, Joseph was told, “Look, your father is sick.” He brought his two sons with him, Manasseh and Ephraim.



They informed Jacob and said to him, “See, your son Joseph has come to you.” Israel gained strength and sat up in bed.



Then Israel said to Joseph, “Elshaddai appeared to me at Luz in the land of Canaan and he blessed me.



He said to me, ‘I will bless you and I will make you numerous. I will give you a multitude of peoples and I will give this land to your descendants after you as a possession forever.’



Therefore, your two sons, who were born to you in the land of Egypt before I came to you in the land of Egypt, are mine. Ephraim and Manasseh will be mine, just as Rubel and Simeon will be mine.



The sons whom you beget after them will be yours. They will be called by the name of their brothers in their inheritance.



When I came from Paddan-aram, Rachel died by me on the way in the land of Canaan, about an hour’s journey 1 from entering Ephrath. I buried her there on the way to Ephrath” (which is Bethlehem).



Israel saw Joseph’s sons and he said to him, “Who are these?”



Joseph said to his father, “They are my sons whom God gave to me here.” He said, “Bring them to me and I will bless them.”



Israel’s eyes were dim from old age and he could not see well. He brought them near to him and he kissed them and embraced them.



Israel said to Joseph, “I did not expect to see your face but now God has shown me even your offspring.” 

1



‘about an hour’s journey’: lit. ‘about the journey of a parasang of land’.



.ŸƉ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ň ł ň Ņ ň œ ł Ņœ ň Ņ ł ł ňŁŔ ĥň :ƎÿƀƆ ł ƢÿƉĥ ň Ĭť Ņ ÿƊò ū Ŕ Ũ ƎƉŦ .ĬƢłÿƃœ ŁŔĥ ĴŴ Ŕ ÿŨŏ Ŕ ĥ ŦĬŅ Īœ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ÿƀɞ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ Ƙ ĿƦ  ĭĬ  ĭ ł ňł ł ň ò ň ł ł ň ł œ .ƋſƢƘŔ Ƨĭť  Ƥ ƍƊ  Ɔ  : ųƊ  ƕIJĬô Ŵ ɩŨ ƎſĿƦ Ŕ Ɔ  ƢŨł Ŕ ĪŔĭł Ņ Ņ Ņň ň ł Ņ ŏ ƀɞ Ō Ŷĭ ł ĭň ħŴ ł :ĴŔ ŁŔ ŴÿÿÿɝŦ  ŁŔ ĥ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ÿÿÿſ ĴŔ ƢÿÿÿŨŦ  Ŕ ÿÿÿƠƖ ł Ŵÿÿÿſ Ŵ Ŕ ĬŅ :ųÿÿÿƆň ĭô ƢÿÿÿƉĥ Ō ň ň Ņ DŽ .ťƏƢ Ņ łƕ ƈłƕ ħ  Ŕ Ʀſ Ŕ ĭŌ ƈſĥƢƐſ  ƀłʖ ł Łĥ Ŕ ĭň ň ňŅ Ō ł ň Ņ Ũłœ ĮŴÿŏƇŨœ ƁÿłƇƕ ƁŌ Ƈ ū .ƎÿƖƍłƃŔĪť łŔ ÿƕĿŤ  œ ŁŔĥ IJűłœƤł ɤſŌ ĥ :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ƀɞ ł ƈſĥƢƐſ ĥƢƉĥ  ĭ ł .Ɓƍ ô ƃƢ Ŕ Ũĭ łŔ Ō Ɖĥ Ņ ÿƌŅ ĥťÿŬƐ Ņ ÿƌŅ ĥ ĴŔ ƢňÿũƉ ł Ŕ ŦĬŅ :ƁÿƆƢ Ņ ƄƆ ňœ Ɖ ťÿƤƍ ňŔ ƅ Ŕ ÿƆŅ Łĥ œ ĭň :ƅ Ŕ ÿƆť ł ĭ ƅ Ŕ ÿƆť ł ĭň ô ô Ņ ŏœ Ņ Ņ Ņœ ň Ņ ł ň Ņ Ņ ł ňœ ň ň ò ł .Ƌł Ƈ Ɩɝ Ņ ŦŁĭ Ŕ ŁƢ  ſ :ĴŔ ĿƦ Ŕ Ũ ƎƉ  ƅ Ŕ ƕĿ  ŵɟŧ  ĪŔĬť  ƕĿ ǃ  Łĥ  ĭ .ťƊƊô ƕĪŔ Ō Ō Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ƨ ĴŔ ŁŔ ŴÿɝŦ Ņ Ũłœ ƅ Ŕ ÿƆŅ ĭô űŔň Ƈſ ťÿƕĿ Ņ ŁŔ ĥ  ƧűŔÿłƕ :ƎÿſĿƞň Ɖ ň Īť Ŕ ÿƕĿŤ Ŕ Īňœ ƅ œ ƀòɫł Ũœ ƎſĿňŁť Ŕ ƣŅ Ĭĭ Ņ  Łĥ ň ł ł ňŔ Ŀŏ ƅÿſ  Ŕ ĥķĭĭų ŏ ÿňƌ Ɓô ÿƇſĪť ŌŔ ÿƤň ƍƉ ł ĭƋÿſ ł ƢňƘŔ ĥķŴ  ÿƌŏ ĥ Ɓô ƇſĪŌœ :ƎſĿƞň Ɖ ň ĪŔ  Ŕ ĭłƈÿƀŨĭ ƅÿſĥ .ƁƆ Ō ķĭĭų ŏ ňƌ ķŴƖƊ ŏ ƣň ł òŅ ł ł ł Ņ ĬĿ Ņ ł Ŕ ÿƊƣƈ Ŕ ÿŨŅ œ űŔƆĭ ÿłƕ :ķĭĭų ŏ ÿňƌ ƅ Ŕ ÿƆķĭ ŏ Ʀ ň ŁŔ Īť Ŕ ƀɫ ŨŔ ĭ ķĭƢÿƟ ŏ Ʀ Ŕ ňƌķĭ  ųŏ ÿƀò ʖĥ ł Īť ŏ .ķĭĬŏ Łĭ Ŕ ŁƢ œ ƀŅŨœ ł Ō Ņ Ņœ Ņ Ņ œ ň Ņ ň Ņ ł Ņ ň :ťŶĿĭŤ Ņ Ũŏ œ ƎƖƍłƃŔĪť Ŕ ƌĥ ĭ łŔ ƕĿŤ Ņ Ũłœ ƈƀʖ Ŕ Ɖ  :ĶĿĥ Ī ķűŔ Ƙ ƎƉť  ƌôĥŦŁŔ ĥ űŔƃť ň ĿŅ Ɓł Ƈƕ  ŒŁŔ Ʀƀ łœ Ņœ ł ł ł Ņ ł ň ł ł Ņ ł ŏ Ņ ň Ņ ł Ņ œ Ņ œ :ŁŔƢÿƘĥŔ Īť  ũƟ  ƖƊƆť  ƕĿĥ  Īť Ŕ ÿŶĿĭŤŨ ƎÿƉŁ Ĭñ ŁƢ  Ƙŧ Ŕ ĪƢ Ɖ ł ƅſ Ŕ ĥ Ŕ ĭ :ŁŔƢƘŔ Ƨƈ Ŕ ŷƏƢ .ƋŷƆ ň Ʀƀ Ŕ ŨňŔ IJĬô Ō IJĬŌ ň ł ň ł ň ň ł œ òł ł ňŅ Ō Ņ ł .ƎƀƆ ň ĬķŴ Ņ ƌŏĥƎ  Ɖ  :ųƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſĪIJĬô Ŵ ɩũŔ Ɔ  ƈſĥƢƐſ ĥŦ ŵŶ  ĭ ň ň ł ł ň Ņœ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ō ň ł ł ň ł ł ň ô Ũŏ Ŕ Ƨ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ķŴƌŏĥ ħ  Ŕ ƢƟ :ƢƉĥ  ĭ .ťƃĿ  Ĭ Ŧų Ɔ  ĥ ƁƆ  ħ  Ŕ ųô łſĪœ ķŴƌŏĥ ƁòƍŨœ :IJĬŴ ň ň łœ ň Ņ ŏ .ķŴƌĥ ĴŔ ƢŨĥ  ĭIJô ŁŔŴɝ  ň Ņ Ōœ Ņ Ņ ŏœ ł ň ł Ō łœ Ɖ ň ňƌĪŦ Ŕ ĭŅĬŸ ô ÿƄƤ ň Ƨĭ  :ŦŁŴ Ŕ ÿũƀƏƎ  ƉƢ  Ơ ſ ƈſĥƢƐſĥ ĪIJĬô Ŵƍłəòɯĭ ł .ƢÿƀƙŌœ ƣł Ŧ ŵÿŷ ň Ņ ň ň ł ň ň ƌŏĥ ħ  Ŕ ƢƟĭ  .ķŴƌŏĥơ  ƙňœ łƕĭķŴƌŏĥơ  Ƥň ƌĭ ł :ĬŁŔ ŴɝķŴ ňŅ Ō ł ň Ņ Ņ ł ł ł Ņ ň ň Ņ œò ł œ ł Ņ ň Ŕ ĭŵ  ŷƆ  :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ƀɞ ł ƈſĥƢƐſ  ĥƢƉĥ  ĭ  Ŕ ĥŦ Ļ  ųŅ Ɔ  ĥƁô ƍſŴ  ŶŦ  Ĭĭ  :ŁŔƢũŔ Ə  Ƨ ƅ ƀƘĥĪŦ Ņ Įł .ƅ Ŕ ƕĿ 

űƕįĽ ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



į



İ



IJ  ťſ 

Ch. 



Only the land of the priests did he not buy because a fixed allowance was established for the priests by Pharaoh. They were consuming their fixed allowance that Pharaoh was providing for them. For this reason they did not sell their land.



Joseph said to the people, “Look, today I have bought you and your lands for Pharaoh. Here is seed for you to sow in the land.



When the harvest comes in, you must give one-fifth to Pharaoh. Four-fifths will be your own as seed for the field, for your food, for food for your households and food for your children.”



They said, “You have saved our lives. May we find favor in the eyes of our lord and become Pharaoh’s slaves.”



So Joseph established a law to this day over the land of Egypt: onefifth belongs to Pharaoh. Only the land of the priests did not become Pharaoh’s.



Israel dwelt in the land of Egypt and in the land of Goshen. They grew powerful there. They increased and multiplied greatly.



Jacob lived in the land of Egypt seventeen years. Jacob’s days, the years of his life, were one hundred and forty-seven years.



The days of Israel to die drew near and he called to Joseph his son and said to him, “If I have found favor in your eyes, place your hand under my thigh and I will make you swear by the Lord: 1 be faithful and true to me. Do not bury me in Egypt.



[When] I will lie down with my fathers, carry me from Egypt and bury me in their tomb.” Joseph said, “I will act according to your word.”



He said, “Swear to me.” And he swore to him. Then Israel bowed over the top of his staff. 2

1 2

See the Introduction: Harmonization. See the Introduction: Divergent Readings.



Ņ Ņ łœ ŏ ň ł Ņ ň ŏ Ņ ł ŏ ł œ ƎÿƉň ŧ ǔňƉŴƄƆ ŏŔ Œ ŁŔ ĭŅĬť ô Ɗƀ Ņ ƟŦ Ņ ƦƊ œ ƀƟ  Ī ƈź Ɖ  :ƎŨĮ Ŕ ƧĪŧ Ŕ ǔƉŴƃŔ Īť Ŕ ƕĿ  ĥ ĪŴ Ŕ ŷɤ  Ũ Ūƃ Ņ Ō ň ň ŏ ŏ ò :ķŴÿ ƕƢƘ œ ķĭųÿ ŏ ÿɝŦĭŅĬô ħ  Ŕ ųň ÿ ŅſĪœ :ķĭĬŏ Ʀ Ŕ ÿ ƊƀƟ Ņ ĭĭłĬƎÿ ô ÿƀƇ ƃĥ Ŕ ĭŅ .ķŴÿ ƕƢƘœ ŁŔŴÿ Ņ ÿɝ ł Ņ ŏ ň .ķĭųƕ ŏ ĿĥŴô ƍŨňœ Į ł Ƨť  ƌŅĬƈ Ņ ź Ɖ  ł ŏ ƙƆ ŏ Ŕ ƍŅƉŴ :ķŴÿƕƢ ňŔ ķŴÿƃŏ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ ƕŅǓƧĭķŴ  ÿƄƆť Ņ łſķŴ  ƃŏ Ŕ Ʀƍ œ ŨĮ łŔ ŦĬŅ :ťƊ Ņ łƖɝ  ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň ŭƃ ň .ťƕĿŤ Ņ Ũłœ ķŴƕŏĿĮŁŔ ĪŔ ťƕĿ Ņ ĮķŴ ł ƄƆŦ ŏŔ ĬŅ ŏ ł Ņ ł ŅŅ Ņ ŏ ƙƆ Ņ ŶƎ ł Ũų ƗÿŨł œ Ŀĥĭł .ķŴÿƕƢ ňŔ ťÿƤƊ ł ÿƉň űŔÿŶƎÿƀ Ōœ Ņſķĭ  Ʀſ œ ĭĬ  :ŦƦƇ Ŕ Ƈƕ  ƧŤ  ƕĪť Ŕ Ɖĭ  űƃ Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ Ņœ ò ò ŏ ŏ ŏ ŏ ň ň œ ň ł ł ł  ķŴÿ ƄƆƎ  Ŵÿ ɩƉ ŦƦƆŴ  ÿ ƃŔ ŤƊƆ  ĭķŴ  ÿ ƃŔ ƦƆŴ  ƃŤ Ŕ ƊƆ  ĭ :ƨÿ  ÿƠŶ Īť Ŕ ÿ ƕĿŵɟ Ŕ ÿ Ņſĭųƌķ Ņ ł .ķŴƃŏŔŁƢ œ Ơſ ł ĪŦ ŌŔ ƦƆŴ œ ƃŏŔŤƊƆ ň ĭł :ķŴƄŏœ ɖòƦ œ ŨŅ Ŕ ĪŔ Ņœ Ō ł ł ň .ķŴƕƢ ŏ ƙƆ ňŔ ŧ űňœũòŔ łƕŦ  ĭų ň ňƌĭ  :ķƢłƉ Ņ Ɓƍłəòɳ ł Ũť Ŕ ƊŶ ň ǓłŸƄƤ łœ ňƌ .ķƦƀ  ĥĭô ƢƉĥ ʖ  ĭ ųƃ ł ŏ ƙƆ ł ÿƕƢ űŔÿŶķŴ ňŔ :ƎſĿƞň Ɖ ň Īť Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ ĥ ƈłƕť  ƍŅƉŴ Ņ ƀɞť ł Ņ űƕ Ɖ łŔ ťƏŴ Ņ Ɗ ŏ ƌŅ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſų  Ɗ ň Əĭ Ņ Ŵƃ ł Ņ .ķŴƕƢ ŏ ƘňŔ Īœ ŒŁŔ ĭŅĬ ô ƧĪŧ Ŕ ǔňƉŴƃŏŔĪť Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ ĥ ĪŴ Ŕ ŷɤ ŏ Ũł œ .ťƤƊ Ņ Ŷł ƎƉ ň ňŅ Ō ň Ō Ņ Ũĭ ł Ŕ ƎÿſĿƞň Ɖ ĭô Ƣÿũł Ŕ ƃŔĭł :ųñ ÿŨŅ œ Ŵô ÿƍƤƕ ň ĭł :ƎÿƤŅ ū ňŔ Īť Ŕ ÿƕĿŤ ň Īť Ŕ ƕĿŤ Ņ Ũłœ ƈſĥƢƐſ ĥħ  Ʀſ  ĭ ŵƃ Ņ ŌŔ Ŕ ł .Ū  Ŕ ŹŴô ƀŬƏ Ŕ ĭ ŏ łſĪœIJĬŴÿƉł Ŵòɖł ĭĭĬ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ ħŴ ł ĭł .Ǝÿƀò ɫŌ ƣŧ ǔňÿƐň Ɩũƣ łŔ ƎſĿƞň Ɖ ň Īť Ŕ ƕĿŤ Ņ Ũł œ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſť  ƀʖ Ņ ĭł Ÿƃ ô ł .ƎƀòɫŌ ƣƗũƣ łŔ ĭł ƎƀŌƖŨœ ĿĥĭŦŤ ł Ɖ Ņ :IJĬô Ŵò əłŶł Ɓòƍƣ ň Ņ Ōœ ň ÿƉł ĥĭĬ :ųÿƆƢ ň ƢňŨœ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ƀɞŧ ł ƢƟ Ņ ĭł :Ʀ Ŕ ƊƊ Ņ Ɔ ł ƈſĥƢƐſĥ ĪIJĬô ŴƉ ł Ŵò ɖłŴô ŨŔ ƢƟ ň ĭł Żƃ ň ň Ņ Ɗ Ŕ ŷň Ƅƣ œ ĥķ  ĥ :ťÿɕƢ Ņ Ũœ ƅÿƀ  Ŕ Ɖĭĥ ň ĭł .IJô ƞÿŶł Ʀƀ Ŕ ʖ ň Łœ ĴŔ űſ ŅŔ Ō ĥƋƀ  Ə Ō :ƅƀ  œ ƍłəòɳ ł ŨŔ ťƊŶ ň Ǔł Ʀ ň Ņ Ņ œ ŏ Ņ ŏœ ł ňŔ ĭł  Ɵ ĭ ŦŁŴ Ŕ ũƀ  ŹƁô Ɗłƕ űŔũƕ Ŕ Ƨĭ  :ŦƦƣŴ .ƎſĿƞň Ɗ ň Ũœ Ɓô ƌƢłũƟ œ Ł ł ł ł ŏ Ŕ ĭƎſ ł ĭň .ķĭĬŏ ƢÿũŔ Ơł Ũœ Ɓô ƍſĿŴ ƢÿƉĥ ł ũƟ ł Ŀƞň ƉƎ ň Ɖ ň Ɓô ƍƀƆŴ ł Ơƣ ŏ ĭł :IJųò ŨŅ Ŕ ĥƋ  ƕ Ū  Ŕ Ƅƣĥ łœ ĭň ĵ ł ň œ ň Ņň Ņ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſ .ĴŔ ƦƇ Ŕ Ɖň ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ űŔũƕ  ĥť  ƌĥ :ƚ ňŅ Ō ň ł ň Ņ Ō Ō ŌŌ ł ň .ĬƢŹŴ ň Ŷƥſ ŏ Ŀƈ Ō łƕ ƈſĥƢƐſ ĥ űŔŬƏ Ŕ ĭ .ųƆť  Ɗſ  ĭ :ƁƆ  ƁƊ  ſƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ƨ









 











Ch. 



Joseph settled his father and his brothers and he gave them a holding in the land of Egypt among the best of the land of Rameses just has Pharaoh had commanded.



Joseph provided his father, his brothers and his father’s entire household with produce in proportion to the children.



There was no produce in the entire land because the famine was very severe. The whole land of Egypt and the land of Canaan was laid waste because of the famine.



Joseph collected all the money that was found in the land of Egypt and in the land of Canaan for the produce they were buying and Joseph brought the money to Pharaoh’s house.



The money from the land of Egypt and the land of Canaan ran out and all the Egyptians came to Joseph and they said to him, “Give us produce so that we might live and not die in front of you because the money has run out.”



Joseph said to them, “Give your livestock to me and I will give you [produce] for your livestock if the money has run out.”



So they brought to him their livestock and Joseph gave them produce in exchange for horses, flocks, cattle, and donkeys. He provided them with food in that year in exchange for all their livestock.



That year passed and they came to him the following year and said to him, “We hide nothing from our lord, for the money is spent and all the livestock and animals are with our lord. Nothing remains before our lord except ourselves and our lands.



Why should we die before you, both ourselves and our lands? Buy us and our lands in exchange for food. We and our lands will be slaves to Pharaoh. But give us seed and we can live and not die, and our lands will not be devastated.”

LXXIII



So Joseph bought all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh because each Egyptian sold his property as the famine upon them was severe. Thus [the land] became Pharaoh’s.



He relocated the people from town to town, from one end of the borders of Egypt to the other end. 

 

Ņ ŏœ Ņ ŏ ł ł ň ł ňœ ł Ņ ŨŦ :ƎÿſĿƞň Ɖ ň Īť Ŕ ÿƕĿŤ łŔ Łĭ Ŕ ŁƢ  ÿſķĭųÿɝ  ħ  Ŕ ųô łſĭ :IJĬô ŴòŶł Ƨĭ  IJĬô ŴŨŏ Ŕ Ƨ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſ ħ  Ŕ Łĭĥ  ĭ ťſ ł ň ł ł ŏ ň Ņ Ņ .ķŴƕƢ  Ƙ œ űŔƠ ƘŔ Īœ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ :ƑƀƐƊƕ Ō ĿĪť Ŕ ƕĿĥ  Īłœ Ĭñ ƢƘŴ Ŕ Ƥŏ Ũœ ł ł ň ł Ō ł ň ŏ ł ŏ Ŕ ŧ ĿŴ ŏ Ŕ Ũłœ IJĬô ŴŨŏ Ŕ ĥł Ʀƀ Ŕ ÿƙƆ ŁŴ Ņ ũƖ Ŕ Ũňœ ųƇ ƄƆ Ŕ ĭ :IJĬô ŴòŶł Ƨĭ  :IJĬŴ ô Ũŏ Ŕ Ƨ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſ ƁƏĿ  ŁŔ ĭ Ūſ Ņ .ŦŁƢ œ Ơł Ōſ Ņ ł Ņ ŏœ Œ łœ ň ŏ ň Ņ ł Ņ ŏ œ œ ł Ņ ŏ ł Ŕ ŨƢ  ƃ Ʀ  Ŷ ĭ :Ū  Ŕ Źť  ƍŅƙŔ ƃłœ ƎƤƕ ň Īłœ ƈź ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ųñ ɤ Ɖ  :ťƕĿ  ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƄŔ Ũ Ʀƀ  Ɔŧ  ĿŴ  ũƕ Ŕ ĭ ŭſ ň Ņ ł Ŕ ƕĿĥ Ņ Ŕ ƉƎƖ .ťƍŅƙŔ ƃłœ ĶűƟƎ ň ƍłƃŔĪť  ĭł :ƎſĿƞ Ɖ ň ĪŔ Ņ œ ƃňœ ųň Ƈ ƃŏœ ƚ Ņ Ũłœ Ÿÿƃł Ŕ Ʀƣ Ņ Ũĭ ň Īť Ŕ ÿƕĿŤ :ƎÿƖƍłƃŔĪť łŔ ÿƕĿŤ łŔ :ƎÿſĿƞň Ɖ œ ĥĪť ňŔ ÿƙƐ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſŻ  Ơň Ɔĭ ł űſ ŏ Ŕ Ũł œ ňŔ ťƙƐ Ņœ ƃňœ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſƈ  ň ƕĥ  ĭł :ĭĭłĬƎƀ ô ƍŌŨŔ ĮŅĪŧ Ŕ ĿŴ Ņ ũƖ .ķŴƕƢ ŏ Ƙň œ Ʀƀ Ŕ ũƆ ł ł ň ł ň ł Ņ ĥƎ ł Ŕ ÿƕĿ ťÿňɕǓŅƞƉķĭ ň ųÿɤ ŏ ƃŏœ ĭŁĥ Ŕ ĭň .ƎÿƖƍłƃŔĪť  ƉĭƎſ  Ŀƞň Ɖ ň Īť Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ ĥƎ  ƉƢ  Ɗ  ūť Ŕ ƙƐ Ņœ ƃĭ ňŔ ųſ Ņ ŏ Ƨĭť ŏ Ŕ ÿƆł ħ Ņ Ŕ ŁŴ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſ ŁŔŴŅ ɝ :ƅÿƀ œ Ɖ ł űƟ Ŕ ÿƊƌ  ÿŶň ŤƌŌĪœ :ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ÿũƕƎ  Ŕ Ĭł :ųƆƎſ ň ƢƉĥ Ō ĭŅ :ƚ ŏ ň ň Ɗ ł ū Ŕ Īłœ ƈź .ťƙƐ Ņœ ƃňœ ųƆƢ Ɖ  ň ň Ņ ŏ Ŕ ƀƍŅ Ơň Ũœ ķŴÿƄƆĵ ŏŔ ŏ Ŕ ƀƍŅ Ɵň ƁÿƆŌ Ŵô ÿŨŔ Ĭł :ƚ ķĥķŴ  ÿƄƍ œ ĭň :ķŴÿƄƍ Łĥ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſķĭ  ųɝƢ ŏ ł ĥ Ŵſ Ɖ .ťƙƐ Ņœ ƃňœ ƢƊ ł ū œ Ō ŏŔ ƚ ťÿƍŅ əƍ Ņ Ơň ŨŔ ĭł :ťÿƤŅ ƃŔǔłŨŧ Ŕ ĿŴ Ņ ÿũƕ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ÿłſ ķĭųŏ ÿɝ ħ  Ŕ ųô łſĭ :ķĭųƍ ŏ ƀƍŅ Ɵų ň Ɔ ň Ŵô ſƦſĥ œ ĭł ŵſ ň Ō ł Ņ ň ł ň ł œ òŅ Ņ Ņ ň  ĪŔ .ķĭųƍ ŏ ƀƍŅ Ɵų ň Ƈ Ƅŏ Ŕ Ũœ :ŦƦ œ ôƍƣł IJųŅ Ũť Ŕ Ɗŷ Ņ ł Ƈ Ũœ ķŴƌŏĥ ƁƏĿ  ŁĭŔ .ŧ ǔƊŶ ĪŔĭŧ  ǓĭŁŔ Ī :ťƍɯ ň Ņ Ō Ņœ ł œ Ņ ł Ņ ň ł Ņ ŒŔ Ɗɤ ł ƣň ĭ Ÿɖ  ĭŁĥ Ŕ ĭň :IJĬŅ ŦƦ œ ôƍƣł Ʀ Ǝƍƀł Ƥň źƉ  Ƨ :ųƆ  ĭô ƢƉĥ ł ĭň :ŦŁŔ ƢŶ  ôĥŦƦ  ôƍƤŨ ĬŁŔ Ŵɝ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ŏ ň  .ķƢÿƉ ŁŔŴÿɝŧ Ƨĭ  Ƣÿƀ Ņ ŌƖŨŔ ĭłťÿƍŅ əƍ Ņ Ɵň ųƇ ƃŏ Ŕ ĭťƙƐ Ņœ ƃňœ ƢƊ ł ū Ŕ Īłœ ƈź Ɖ ň :ķƢłƉƎ Ņ Ɖň ł ł ň Ņň ł Ņ Ņ ł œ ň ł Ŕ Ŷ Ʀƣ  ĥ Ŕ ƤŅ ƙòŔ ƌķ  ĥ Ƨĥ :ķƢƉĶ  űƟƢ Ŕ ƕŅǓĥĭł ķƦ . ķƦ Ņ Ņ ł ł Ō Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ł Ņ ł Ƈ Ũœ ķƦ Ŕ ƕŅǓĥ Ļ  Ŕ ĥ ƎƍŶ ł Ļ  Ŕ ĥ :ƅƀ œ Ɖ ł űƟƎ ŅŔ ƍſł Ʀƀ œ Ɖť  ƍƊƆ  Żſ ňŔ .ķƦ Ŕ ÿƕŅ ǓƧĭƎ  ƆƎ ł ŨĮ :ťÿƊŷ Ņ ň Ō ł ň ŏ ł ò Ņ Ņ ł ŏ ň ł ł ł ł ň Ŕ ƕǓĥĭ ƎƍŶŦĭų  ňƌĭ  :ŁŴ Ŕ ÿƊƌƧĭť  ÿŶŤƌĭ  :ťÿƕĿĮƎ  ÿƆ ħ  Ŕ Ĭĭ  .ķŴÿƕƢƙƆ Ŕ ŧ űœ ũŔ ƕķ  Ʀ ň Ņ Ņ ł ł Ŕ Ƨť  ƕĿĥ  ĭ .ħ  Ŕ ƢŶ  Ł ł Ņ ŏœ ň ł ł ł ŏ ň Ƣÿũł Ŕ ū Ŕ ťÿňɕǓŅƞƉ ň Ŵô ÿƍŨňœ ĮłĪœ ƈÿźƉ  :ķŴƕƢ ŏ ƙƆ ňŔ ƎſĿƞň Ɖ ň Īť Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƃ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſƎ  ŨĮŔ ĭ ł Œ Ņ ł Ņ łœ ŏ ł ŏ ň ň ŏ Ņ ň ł .ķŴƕƢ  ƘŔ Īť Ŕ ƕĿ  ĥ ŁŔ ĭĬ  ĭ .ťƍƙŔ ƃ ķĭųƀ  ƇƕƎ  Ƥƕ ň Īœ ƈź Ɖ  :ųƇ ƠŶł ň ł Ņł ł ŏ ÿƉň :ŧ ƢƠ ťÿƉŅ űƕ łŔ ĭł ƎÿſĿƞň Ɖ ň Īœ ųñ ƉŴ Ņ ÿŶŏ Łœ ĻŴ  Ŕ ÿƏƎ ň Ɔŧ ł ƢƟƎ ň ƉķŴ ň ƌŏĥ ƁƍŌƣť  Ɗ  Ɩɝ  ĭ Ņ œ  Ɛ ł Ɔ .ųñ ƘŴ 



















ŭƕįĽ Ĵ  ťƃ 

Ch. 

Chapter  LXXII



Joseph went and told Pharaoh. He said to him, “My father and my brothers, along with their flocks and oxen and everything they own, have come from the land of Canaan. Now they are staying in the land of Goshen.”



From among his brothers he brought five men and presented them to Pharaoh.



Pharaoh said to Joseph’s brothers, “What is your business?” They said to Pharaoh, “Your servants are shepherds, ourselves and our fathers from our youth.” 1



They said to Pharaoh, “We have come to sojourn in the land for there is no pasture for your servants’ flocks because the famine in the land of Canaan is severe. So let your servants settle in the land of Goshen.”



Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Your father and your brothers have come to you.



The land of Egypt stands before you. Settle your father and your brothers in the best of the land. Let them dwell in the land of Goshen. If you know that there are capable men among them, put them in charge of all my livestock.”



Then Joseph brought in his father Jacob and presented him to Pharaoh and Jacob greeted 2 Pharaoh.



Pharaoh said to Jacob, “How old are you?” 3



Jacob said to Pharaoh, “The years of my dwelling [on earth] are one hundred and thirty. The years of my life have been few and difficult. They do not total the years of the lives of my fathers in the days of their sojourning.”



Jacob gave a final greeting 4 to Pharaoh and Jacob went out from Pharaoh’s presence. See the Introduction: Harmonization. ‘greeted’: lit. ‘he blessed’. 3 ‘How old are you?’: lit. ‘How many are the days of the years of your life?’ 4 ‘gave a final greeting’: lit. ‘he blessed’. 1 2



ŵƉ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

Ņ Ņ ň ł ň ł :ķĭųſ ŏ ǓłĭŁĭķĭ Ŕ ųŏ òƍɯĭ Ņ :Ɓʖ ò ł ĥĭłƁô ŨŔ ĥ :ųƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ :ķŴƕƢ ŏ ƙƆ ňŔ IJŴŌ Ŷĭ ł ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſŦ  Łĥ Ŕ ĭň ł ň łň :ƎƤŅ ū ňŔ Īť Ŕ ƕĿŤ Ņ Ũł œ ƎſƢƣŦ ň Ĭĭ Ņ :ƎƖƍłƃŔĪť łŔ ƕĿ Ņ ĥƎ  Ɖ  ĭŁŔ ĥ :ķĭųɝ ŏ Ʀſĥ ŏŔ Ŕ ĪŌœ ƈƃĭ ň Ō ł Ō ł Ņ ł ł œ òłł ň ŅŔ .ķŴƕƢ ŏ Ƙň œ ĶűƟķŴ ƌŏĥƋƀ  Ɵĥ  ĭ :ƎſǔũŔ ūť Ŕ Ƥ ƊŶƢ  ŨŔ ĪIJĬô ŴŶ ĥƎ  Ɖ ĭ ł ŏ ňœ ł ň ŏ ƙƆ Ņ Ŕ ŴƍłƉ ł ĭň :ķŴÿƃŏ Ŕ űŔũƕ ł ǓŅ :ķŴÿƕƢ Ɓÿɚƕ ňŔ  ĭô ƢÿƉĥ Ņ :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſĪœIJĬô ŴòŶł ƧķŴ  ƕƢ  Ƙ ƢƉĥ  ĭ Ņ œ ł œ ò ł ŏ ň òŅ Ņ ł ŏ ł ň ł Ņł Ņ ł ò  .ķŁŴ Ŕ ƀˁ  ŹƎ  Ɖ  :Ǝſų ŨŔ ĥ Ļ  Ŕ ĥ :ƎƍŶ  Ļ  Ŕ ĥ :ƅ ſűũŔ ƕ ķŴƌĥťƍɯ ň ł Ņ łœ ł ň ŏ ň ŅŅ Ņ Ŀň Ʀÿƀ  ÿƀƕ œ Ɔ ł Īœ ƈÿźƉ  :ƎÿſŁŔ ĥťÿƕĿŤ Ũ ƢÿƊƖƊƆ ťÿòƍɳɝť  :ķŴƕƢ ŏ ƙƆ ňŔ  ĭô ƢƉĥ ł ĭň ŏ Ņ Ũłœ ƅ œ ÿſűł œ ũò Ŕ łƕķŴ ťÿƕĿŤ  Ũŏ Ŕ Ʀ œ ňƌť  ƣŅ Ĭĭ Ņ :ƎƖƍłƃŔĪť łŔ ƕĿŤ Ņ ŨłŔ ťƍŅƙŔ ƃłœ ƎƤƕ ň Īłœ ƈź Ɖ ň :ƅ œ ſűł œ ũò Ŕ łƕĪŔ .ƎƤŅ ū ňŔ ĪŔ Ņ Ņ łň ł ň ł .ĴŔ ŁŔ Ŵɝ  ĭŁŔ ĥ ƅ œ ƀòʖ ł ĥĭł ĴŴ Ŕ Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ƀɞķŴ  ŏ Ƙň œ ƢƉĥ ƕƢ ł ĭň ł ł ł ň œ ł Ņ łœ Ņ ŏ œ Ō œ ł Ņ œ ňƌ :ƅ œ ÿƀò ʖ ł Ƨĭ  ĴŴ Ŕ Ũŏ Ŕ Ƨ ħ  Ŕ Łĭ  ĥť  ƕĿĥ  Ī Ĭñ ƢƘŴ ķŴÿŨŏ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ Ƥ Ũ :IJĬô ƅƀ  Ɖ  űƟƎſ Ŕ Ŀƞň Ɖ ň Īť Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ ĥ ň ň Ņ ł ł Ņ ň ł ł Ņ Ũłœ Ņ ĭň .ƎƤŅ ūňŔ ĪŔ ťƕĿŤ  ʖ  IJǔƉŧ  ǔũŔ ū  œ ķĭųŏ Ũœ Ʀſĥ Ŕ ĪŌœ Ʀ œ ô ƌĥĺűłŔɖķĥ ķŴÿƌŏ ĥ űŔÿũƕ Ŕ :ƨÿƀ . ƁƆ Ō Ʀſĥ Ŕ ĪŌœ ƈƃŏœ ƈłƕť  ƍŅəƍ Ņ Ɵň IJǔłƉ Ņ ł ŏ łſ ĴŔ ƢňÿŨĭ ł Ŕ :ķŴƕƢ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ ħŴ ŏ Ƙň œ ĶűƟų ŅŔ Ɗƀ ň Ɵĥ Ō ĭł :IJĬŴ ô Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞ ł ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſƈ  ň ƕĥ  ĭł .ķŴƕƢ ŏ ƙƆ ňŔ ň Ņ œ ł ł Ŵò ɖķŴ ł ƌŏĥť  Ɗ  ƃ :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞķŴ ł ŏ Ƙň œ ƢƉĥ ƕƢ ł ĭň .ƅ œ ƀòəłŶł Ɓòƍƣ ƁƉ Ņ ł ł Ō Ņ ł Ņ ł Ŵòɖł :ķŴƕƢ ŏ ƙƆ ňŔ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň Ŕ Ɔ  ŁŔĭŦŤ  ÿƉ :IJô ŁŴ Ŕ ÿŨŏ Ŕ Łĭ œ Łœ Ɓÿòƍƣ ƁƉ :Ǝÿƀò ɫŌ ƣƎÿſƦ ł Ņ Ō ł ł ô ĿŴ Ō ƕĮ ŏ ł Ŵò ɖƎƀ ł ƤŌ ƀŨĭ ŌŔ ĭĭł ĬƎſ ł Ɓÿƍł Ƥò Ɔ ł Ŵÿƀź  Ɖ ł Ƨĭ  :Ɓÿɚò ł ʖ ł Ɓòƍƣ ƁƉ IJųò ÿŨŅ Ŕ ĥ Ɓÿɚò ł ʖ .ķĭĬƢ ŏ ƊƖ ł Ɖ ł Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũňœ ƁƉ ł ŴòəłŨœ .ķŴƕƢ ŏ Ƙň œ ĶűƟƎ ŅŔ Ɖ ň ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſơ  ƙƌ łŔ ĭł :ķŴƕƢ ŏ ƙƆ ňŔ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ ĴŔ ƢňŨĭ łŔ



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IJ 

Ch. 



All the persons who entered Egypt with Jacob, his own issue, except the wives of Jacob’s sons, were sixty-six people in all.



And Joseph’s sons who were born to him in Egypt were two persons. All the persons of Jacob’s house who came to Egypt were seventy.



He sent Judah ahead of him to Joseph to appear 1 before him at Goshen. Then they came to the land of Goshen.



Joseph readied his chariots and he went up to meet Israel his father at Goshen. He presented himself to him and he fell on his neck and wept on his neck for some time.



Then Israel said to Joseph, “Now I can die, having seen your face my son while you are still alive.”



Joseph said to his brothers and to his father’s house, “I will go up and inform Pharaoh and will say to him, ‘My brothers and my father’s house who were in the land of Canaan have come to me.



The men are shepherds, 2 because they are men who own cattle. They have brought their flocks, their oxen and everything they own.’



When Pharaoh calls you and says to you, ‘What is your business?’



then say to him, ‘Your servants have been owners of cattle from their youth until now, both ourselves and our fathers’ — so that you might settle in the land of Goshen, because all shepherds are despised by the Egyptians.”

1 2

See the Introduction: Reinterpretations or Misinterpretations. ‘shepherds’: lit. ‘shepherds of flocks’.



ò Ņ ł ň ŏœ ň ÿźł ƒĬňƞŶƎ ƎÿƉƢ ł Ɖ ň Ɓô Ơò ƙƌ łŔ Īłœ ƎſĿƞň ƊƆ ň ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſƋ  łƕ Ɓô Ƈ łƕĪŦ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ ƤŅ ƙòŔ ƌƎſ  ųɤ  ƃ Ŵƃ Ō Ņ ň ò ò ŏ ŏ .Ʀ Ŕ ƣĭƎſ ň ƦƣŦ œ Ʀ Ŕ ƤŅ ƙŔ ƌƈ ł ƃœ :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ  łſĪœIJĬô Ŵ ɩłŨŔ Īť łŔ Ƥò ňƌ Ņ ł ň ŏœ ň œ ł Ņ Ņ ò ł ň ň œ ň ň Ō ňœ ň ł ł ò ł  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſ ƁƍŨŔ ĭ ŵƃ Ŕ ƤŅ ƙòŔ ƌƎſ  ųɤ  ƃ ƎſŁĿ  ŁŦ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ Ƥ ƙŔ ƌƎſ  Ŀƞ Ɗ  Ũ ųƆ  ĭô űŔƇſ  ŁŔ ĥĪ ƚ Ŕ Ũň Ŕ ĪŔ ŦƦ Ʀƀ ň Ō łƕĪœ ħŴ .ƎƀƖũŔ ƣƎſ ł Ŀƞ ƊƆƈ ň  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ ŏ Ɔĭ Ņ Ŕ Ŵÿſŏ ŵŶ :ƎÿƤŅ ŬƆ Ŕň IJĬô ŴÿƉł űƟ Ņ Ʀ Ŕ ƊƆ ň :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ÿłſ ŁŔŴÿɝ Ņ IJĬô ŴƉ ł űƟĿ ŅŔ űłœƣł ŧ ĪĭŅ Ŕ ųƀ Ō Ÿƃ ł ł ň .ƎƤŅ ūňŔ Īť Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ ƧĭŁĥ Ŕ ĭ ň Ņ Ō Ņ ŏ ň ł ň Ņ œ ł ň ł ňœ ł ł :ƎÿƤŅ ŬƆ Ŕň IJĬô ŴÿŨŏ Ŕ ĥ ƈÿſĥƢƐſĥ ĪťÿƕĿĭƧơ  ƇƏ  ĭ :ĬƦ  ũƃ ǔƉ  ƚ  ƏŴ  ſ űŬ  Ƙĭ  Żƃ ŏœ ň ł Ŕ ł Ņ ł ň ł Ŕł Ŕ ł ł Ŕ ň ŔŌ Ŕň  IJŵŶ  Łĥ Ŕ ĭ  Ľƈ  ƕť  ƄŔ ŨŔ ĭ :ĬĿĭ  Ľƈ  ƕ ƈƙƌ Ŕ ĭ ųƆ .ħĭ  Ŕ Ł ĬĿĭ ň ňŅ Ō ł ň ł Ō łœ ł Ņ œ ň Ŕ ŵŶ  Ī ĿƦ Ŕ Ũ ƎƉƈƀ :IJô ƢÿŨň œ ƅ œ ÿƀò Ƙł œ ĥ Ʀſ  ƄŌœ Ɖ ň ŁŴ Ŕ Ɖ ŏ ĥ :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ƀɞ ł ƈſĥƢƐſ ĥƢƉĥ  ĭ ĵ łœ Ō ƃœ űƕ łŔ Īłœ .Ʀ  ô ƌĥ Ɓʖƈƀ ł ň łň ł ň ł òł ł ň ł ł ň ň ÿƉĥ ł ĭķŴ Ŕ ĭIJĬô Ŵ Ŷ Ƨ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ƨ :ųÿƆƢ Ō ƕƢ ŏ ƙƆ ňŔ ŦŴňŶł ĥơ  Ə  ĥ :IJĬŴ ô Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ ũƆ ň Ņ ł ł Ņ ňŔ Ɓʖò ł ĥ .IJô ŁŔŴɝ Ņ ĭŁŔ ĥ :ƎƖƍłƃŔĪť łŔ ƕĿŤ  Ũł Ŕ ĪœƁô ŨŔ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũĭ ň Ņ ň łò Ņ ň ł œ ŏ ň ň ŅŅ ł Ņ ň ł  Ɓɚƕ  Ǔ ŧ ǔũŔ ū Ŕ ĭ ŪƆ ķĭųŏ ÿòƍɯĭ Ņ :ķŴÿƌŏ ĥť  ÿƍŅ əƍ  Ɵ Ɓÿɚɫ Ɵŧ  ǔũŔ ū Ŕ Ī ƈź Ɖ  :ķŴƌŏĥť  òƍɯ ł Ōœ ł ŏ ł ŏ .ŴſƦſ  ĥķĭ  ųɝ  Ʀſĥ Ŕ ĪŌœ ƈƃĭķĭ Ŕ ųſ ŏ ǓĭŁĭŔ ŏ Ŕ ƉŤ ł Ŕ ŭƆ Ņ Ŕ ŴƍłƉķŴ .ķŴƃŏ Ŕ űŔũƕ Ņ ƄƆƢ ł ƌĭ Ō :ķŴƕƢ ŏ Ƙň œ ķŴƄſ ŏŔ ƢƠ ň ňƌ űŔƃĭ ň ł ň œ łœ ò ł ł Ņ Ņ ň ł Ņ ŏ ŹƎ :ťÿƣŅ ųɝť Ņ ÿƉŅ űƕ łŔ ĭł ķĭĬŏ ŁŴ Ŕ ÿƀˁ  Ɖ  :ƅſ  űũŔ ƕ ĭĭĬť  ƍəƍ  Ɵ IJǔƉ  : ųƆ ň  ĭô ƢƉ ł ĥ űƆ ň ŏ ň ŏ ň ł ł Ņ ł ň ł œ  Ŕ ĭƎƍŶ  Ļĥ  Ŕ ĭŅ ƎÿƀƇƐ  Ɖ  Ī ƈÿźƉ  :ƎÿƤŅ ū ňŔ Īť Ŕ ƕĿŤ Ņ Ũłœ ķŴŨŏ Ŕ ŁœŁŔ Īœ ƈź Ɖ  :Ǝſųò ŨŅ Ŕ ĥ Ļĥ ň ŅŅ ł Ņ ŏŔ ňɕǓŅƞƊ ň ƆķŴƌŏĥ  Ɓɚƕ  Ǔ ƈƃť .ťòƍɯ

















 

Ch. 



Zebulun’s sons: Sadar, 1 Elon, and Nahlael. 2



These are Leah’s sons whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan-aram including his daughter Dinah. All the people of his sons and daughters numbered thirty-three.



Gad’s sons: Ziphion, Haggi, Shuni, Ezbon, Adi, 3 Arodi, and Adry. 4



Asher’s sons: Imnah, Jashbah, 5 Ishvi, Beriah, and Serah their sister, and Beriah’s sons: Heber and Malchiel.



These are the sons of Zilpah whom Laban had given to his daughter Leah. She bore these sixteen people to Jacob.



The sons of Rachel, wife of Jacob: Joseph and Benjamin.



To Joseph in the land of Egypt were born Manasseh and Ephraim, whom Asyath, 6 the daughter of Poti-phera, the priest of On, bore to him.



Benjamin’s sons: Bela, Ahbar, 7 Ashkal, 8 Gera, Naaman, Ehi, Arosh, 9 Muppim, Huppim, and Adar. 10



These are the sons of Rachel whom she bore 11 to Jacob, fourteen people in all.



Dan’s son: Hushim.



Naphtali’s sons: Nahza’el, 12 Guni, Jezer, and Shillem.



These are the sons of Bilhah whom Laban had given to his daughter Rachel. She bore to Jacob seven people in all. 



MT: ‘Sered’. MT: ‘Jahleel’. 3 MT: ‘Eri’. 4 MT: ‘Areli’. 5 MT: ‘Ishvah’. 6 MT: ‘Asenath’. 7 MT: ‘Becher’. 8 MT: ‘Ashbel’. 9 MT: ‘Rosh’. 10 MT: ‘Ard’. 11 MT: ‘who were born’. 12 MT: ‘Jahzeel’. 1 2



ňŅ ł .ƈſƨŷƌĭ  :ķŴƆĥ ŏ ĭł :ĿűŅŔƏ Ņ :ķŴƆŴ ŏ ŨĮŏ Ŕ Ɓƍł Ũò Ŕ ĭł űſ ň ł Ņ Ō ł Ņ Ņœ Ņ Ņ œ ň Ŕ ĭ :ĶĿĥ Ī ķűŔ ƙŔ Ũ ħŴ ƈÿƃŏ œ .ĬŁƢŔ ÿŨť  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞ ł Œ ŁŔ űɤ łœ ň ſĪœ :ťƀŅ ɞň Īœ ųƀ ñ òƍŨœ ƎƀƆ ň ĬŅ ųſ Ŕ ƍſ űɝ Ō Ņ œ ň òŅ ł Ņ łŔ Ʀ Ŕ ƤŅ ƙòŔ ƌł Ŕ Ɔ  Ł ĬƦ Ŕ ƍŨŔ ĪĭŔ IJĬô ŴòɩłŨŔ ĪŦ .Ʀ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ ŁŔĭƎſ ł Ʀ .IJĿŌĪĥŔ ĭł :Īĭ Ŕ Ŀĥŏ ĭŅ :IJűŌœɯĭķŴ ł ƖŏŨĽĥ œ ĭł :ƁƌŴ Ō ƣĭƁ ŏ Ō œ Ŷĭ Ŭ ł :ķŴƀŏƘŔ Ľ ň űŔū Ņ œ Ɓƍł Ũò Ŕ ĭł Ŵſ Ņ ťƖſ Ņ ƢŌŨœ Ɓƍł Ũò Ŕ ĭł .ķĭĬŏ Ʀ Ŕ ŶįƢ Ņ ł Ɩſ Əĭť Ņ ƢŌŨŔ ĭł :IJŴƤ Ō łſĭť  ũŅ Ŕ Ƥłſĭ  :ťƍƊ Ņ łſ ƢƀƣŌ ĥ Ɓƍł Ũò Ŕ ĭł ŵſ ł ũŅ Ŕ ŶŅ .ƈƀƄɤ Ōœ ƉĭƢ ň ł Ņ ň ň Ŕ ŨŔ ťƀˁƆƎũŅ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ ħ  Ŕ ųô łſĪť Ŕ ƙƆ ŅŔ ĮłĪœ ųƀ ñ òƍŨœ ƎƀƆ ň ĬŅ Ÿɖ  Ŕ ƠƖ ħŴ ŏ ƀɞƎƀ ł ň ĬŅ ŒŁŔ űɤ Ɔ łœ ň ſĭĬŁƢ ł œň Ņ Ņ òł  ƣ ŦƦ Ŕ ƤƙŔ ƌ .ŧ ǔňƐň ƕŁœ Ʀ ň ł ň ňŔ ƚ ň ĿŅĪœ ųƀ ñ òƍŨŔ ĭł Żſ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſ :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſĪœ ĬŁŔ Ʀœ ô ƌĥ ƈƀʖ .ƎƀƊ ň ƀƍŅ Ũĭ ň Ō ň ł ĥłųÿƆň Œ ŁŔ űÿɤ ĺƢłƙƀ Ŕ ŌŹŴ  ÿƘŏ œ ŁŔƢôÿŨł œ Ʀ Ŕ ÿƀƏ łœ ň ſĪœ ƎÿſĿƞň Ɖ ň Īť Ŕ ƕĿŤ Ņ Ũłœ ƚ Ŕ ĭ Ĵ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ƀɞ ł ĭô űŔƇſ  Łĥ ł ňł ł ň Ņ ŏ .ƋſƢƘŔ Ƨĭť  Ƥ ƍƊ  Ɔ  :ķĭĥĪŧ Ŕ ƢƉŴ  ƃŏœ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ŕ ĭƗ Ņ ƌĭ :ŀĭĿĥŏ ĭŅ :ƁÿʖĥŌ ĭł :ƎÿƊƖ ł :ŧ ƢŅÿūĭ ł Ƈ ŨŅœ :ƎƀƊ ň ƀƍŅ Ũňœ Ɓƍł Ũò Ŕ ĭł ťƃ Ŕł :ƈƄœ ƣĥĭ :Ƣũœ ƃĥ .ĿĪĥłœ ĭň :ƋƀƙŌŔ Ŷĭ Ņ Ņ :ƋƀƙŌŔ Ɖĭ ł Ņ Ņ òł ň .ŧ ǔňƐň ƖŨĿ łœ ĥŦƦ Ŕ Ƥ ƙŔ ƌ ƈƃŏœ :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞ ł Œ ŁŔ űɤ łœ ň ſĪœ ƈƀʖ ň ĿŅĪœ ųƀ ñ òƍŨœ ƎƀƆ ň ĬŅ Ūƃ .ƋƀƣŴ Ō Ŷķ ŏ ĪŅœ Ɓƍł Ũò Ŕ ĭł ŭƃ ňŅ ł Ō Ņœ ł łò ł Ō Ņ ĿŅ Ņ .ƋƀƇ ƣĭ  :ƞŶĭƁ  ƌŴ Ō ūĭ Ŕ ŏ :ƈſĥƞŷ  ƌƁ  Ɔ Ʀ  ƙŔ ƌ ƁƍŨŔ ĭ űƃ ň ň Ŕ ÿŨł œ ƈÿƀʖ ƎÿƀƆ ň ĬŅ Œ ŁŔ űÿɤ łœ ň ſĭĬŁƢ ň Ƣɝ Ņ ƎÿũŅ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ ħ  Ŕ ųô ÿłſĪœ :Ŧųÿɤ Ņ ŨłŔ Īœ ųÿƀ ñ òƍŨœ ƎƀƆ ň ĬŅ ųƃ Ņ ł .Ɨũƣ łŔ ŦƦ Ŕ ƤŅ ƙòŔ ƌƈ  ƃŏ œ :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞ ł



 

 



 



   

Ch. 

Chapter  

Israel set out with everything he had and he came to Beer-sheba. He offered a sacrifice to the God of his father Isaac.



God spoke to Israel in a vision at night and he said, “Jacob! Jacob!” He answered, “Here I am.”



He said to him, “I am God, the God of your father. Do not be afraid to go down to Egypt because I will make you a great nation there.



I will go down with you 1 and I will bring you up. Joseph will close your eyes.” 2



Jacob set out from Beer-sheba and the sons of Israel put Jacob their father and their children and wives in the wagons that Pharaoh had sent to fetch him.



They took their animals and their possessions that they had acquired in the land of Canaan and Jacob with all his offspring came into Egypt:



his sons and his grandsons with him, his daughters and his granddaughters — all his offspring he brought with him to Egypt.

LXXI



These are the names of Israel’s sons who entered Egypt (Jacob and his sons): Jacob’s first born Rubel.



Rubel’s sons: Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi.



Simeon’s sons: Jemuel, Jamin, Ohar, 3 Jachin, Zohar, and Shaul, son of a Canaanite woman.



Levi’s sons: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.



Judah’s sons: Er, Onan, Shelah, Perez, and Zerah. Er and Onan died in the land of Canaan. Perez’s sons were Hezron and Hamul.



Issachar’s sons: Tola, Puvah, Iob, and Shimron. 



MT: ‘to Egypt’. ‘Joseph will close your eyes’: lit. ‘Joseph will set his hands on your eyes’. 3 MT: ‘Ohad’. 1 2



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.ŴƉ :ķĭŅ ƨƙ Ŕ Ɵň ňŅ Ō Ņ Ņ Ō Ŕ ŦŁĥ ł Ŕ ƢũƆ ŦƦ Ŕ ÿŷŨŔ Īňœ ŸŨł œ Īĭ łŔ :Ɨũƣ Ŕ ĭň :ųƆ ň Ʀſĥ Ŕ ĪŌœ ƈƃĭ ŏŔ ĭĬŏ ƈſĥƢƐſ ĥ ƈƠƣ ł ĭł ł .ơŷƐſ Ņ Ō ĥIJĬô ŴŨĥŏ Ŕ ĪŦ łŔ ųŅ Ɔ Ņ Ƨ ňŅ Ō Ņ Ņ ł ł ň ŦĬƢ Ņ Ɖĥ ł ĭň :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ :ƢƉĥ ł ĭň :ťƀˁ Ņ Ɔ Ō ĪŦ Ŕ ĭŵ Ņ ŷň Ũœ ƈſĥƢƐſ  ų Ɔ ƧŦ  ĥƢ  Ɖ  ĥĭ ň .ťƌŅĥ ł Ō Ņ Ņň ň ł ň ň Ņ ŏ ň ň ň Ŕ Ƨ :ĴŴ Ŕ Ũĥŏ Ŕ Īłœ Ĭųň Ɔ ƈź Ɖ  :ƎſĿƞ ƊƆ  Ʀ Ŕ ŷł ƊƆƈ ň Ŷł ĪŔŁ Ņ DŽſ  ĥť  ƌĥťƌĥ :ųƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ łŅ œ Ņ ô œ ň Ņ œ ł Ņ ł ł œ . ƎƉ  Ł ĴŔ űŔ ũƕ  ĥť  Ũ ĿťƊƖɝ  Ī Ō Ō ň ň ł łƕIJĬô ĭűłŔɖòĥƋƀ .ƅƀ  œ ƍłəòɯƈ ł  Ɛƌ  ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſĭ  :ƅ Ŕ ƠƏ Ņ ĥť  ƌĥŅ ĭň :ƅ Ŕ Ɗ Ņ łƕ ŁŴ Ŕ Ŷŏ ĥť  ƌŅĥ ň Ņ Ō òł œ ł ł ł Ō œ ň ł ŏ ƀɞ  ĭ :Ɨũƣ Ŕ ƢŨ ƎƉ  ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſƋ  Ɵĭ Ņ :ķĭĬŴ ŏ ÿŨŏ Ŕ ĥ ħŴ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ ł ƈſĥƢƐſ ĥ ƁƍŨ Ŵô ƇƠƣ Ņ Ņ ò Ņ œ ŏòłň ł ŏ œ ł Ō ň ň  ĭ ķĭĬ ŁƢ  Ơƀ  Ɔĭ  .ųƇƠƤ  ƊƆķŴ  ŏ Ƙň œ Ŀűłœƣł ĪŦ ƕƢ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ Ƈ Ŭ Ŕ ƖŨ :ķĭų ƀƤ ƍɞ ł ŏ łſ :ƎÿſĿƞň ƊƆ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ ħŴ ň ĭŁĥ Ŕ ĭň .ƎÿƖƍłƃŔĪłŔťƕĿŤ Ņ Ũłœ ŴƍƟ ł Īłœ :ķĭųƍ ŏ ƀƍŅ Ɵĭķĭ ň ŏ ŌƖŨœ  ĭô ƢŨł Ŕ ĪŔĭł ĬƢƀ ł ň Ƈ ƃĭ ŏŔ . ųƊ ň łƕ ųň ƕĿ  Įų ł Ņ ł ň òŅ œ ň ł ň ŏ  ƕIJĬô Ŵò ɩłŨœ Ɓƍł Ũò Ŕ ĭł :IJĬô Ŵò ɩłŨœ  Ʀ Ŕ ƍŨ :ųƊ  ÿňƕĿĮų ł Ƈ ƃĭ Ŕ :IJĬô Ŵò ɩłŨœ Ʀ Ŕ òƍŨŔ ĭĬ ƈÿňƕĥų .ƎſĿƞň ƊƆų ň ň łƕ Ɗ

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ťƕįĽ

ň Ņ Ō ł ò ł ňò Ņ ĬƢňƃŴ Ŕ Ũŏœ :IJĬô Ŵò ɩłŨŔ ĭł ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ :ƎſĿƞň ƊƆ ň  Ŵô ƇłƕĪœ ƈſĥƢƐſ ĥ ƁƍŨŔ ĪŦ Ŕ ų Ɗ  ƣƎƀƆ ň Ĭĭ Ņ į ň Ŕ Ŀŏ ħŴ ŏ łſĪœ  Ŕ ƠƖ .ƈƀŨĭ ŏ ł ň Ŕ Ŀŏ ƁòƍłŨœ İ ň :ŴƇ Ƙĭ Ŕ ĴŴ Ŕ ƍŶ ŏ :ƈƀŨĭ .ƁƉƢ Ō ƃĭ łŔ ķĭĿƞŏ Ŷĭ ň ŏ ƣň Ɓÿÿƍł Ũò Ŕ ĭł IJ Ņ :Ƣÿ ŶŅ ĽĭƎÿ Ƣÿ Ũł œ ĵĭŤ Ņ ÿ ƣĭ Ņ ÿƀƄŌ Ŕ ŅſĭĿ  Ĭĥ Ņ ĭŅ :ƎÿÿƀƊ Ō Ņſĭƈſ   ÿ Ɗŏ łſ :ķŴÿ ƖƊ ĥŴ Ņ .ŦƦƀ œ ƍŅƖƍłƃœ .IJĿŌƢƉ Ņ ĭł :ŁŔųŅ Ɵĭ Ņ :ķŴƣƢ ŏ ū ň œ :IJŴŌ ɝ ň Ɓƍł Ũò Ŕ ĭł ťſ ł Ŕ :ƨŅ ÿƣĭƎ Ņ Ũłœ Ǝÿƌĭĥ Ņ ĭƢÿƀ ň ƌĭĥ ťÿƕĿŤ ŏ Ōƕĭô Ʀÿƀ Ŕ Ɖĭ Ō .įĿĮĭĽƢ ł ÿƘĭ Ņ ĭƢƀ ŏ Ōƕ :ŧ Īĭ ŅŔ ųŏ Ōſ Ɓƍł Ũò Ŕ ĭł Ūſ ł ł ł ł ł Ŀƞŏ Ŷň :ĽƢƘł œ ƁòƍŨœ ĭĭĬ  ĭ .ƎƖƍƃŔĪŔ .ĵŴƊ ŏ Ŷĭķĭ Ņ ŏ Ņ ŏ .ķĭƢƊ ŏ ƣĭ ň :Ū  Ŕ łſĭĥ  ĭŌ :ŦĥŴ  Ƙĭ Ŕ :ƗƆĭ Ņ Łœ :ƢƄŅŔ Ɛſ Ņ Ō ĥ Ɓƍł Ũò Ŕ ĭł ŭſ 



 

 



Ch. 



He sent them off 1 and they went. He said to them, “Do not quarrel on the journey.” They went up from Egypt and came to the land of Canaan, to Jacob their father.



They informed him, saying to him, “Joseph is still alive. He is ruler over all the land of Egypt.” But he paid no attention to it 2 because he did not believe them.



They told him the whole speech that Joseph had said to them. Jacob saw the wagons that Joseph had sent to fetch him. Then the spirit of Joseph their father was assuaged.



He said, “This is great news for me — Joseph my son is still alive. I will go to see him before I die.”

1 2

MT: ‘his brothers’. ‘he paid no attention to it’: lit. ‘he disregarded it in his heart’.



ň ň ł Ņ ŏœ ŏň Ņ Ŕ Ƨ :ķĭųɝƢ ŏ ł ĭň .ŴôƆĮĥł ĭň ķŴƌŏĥĿ Ɖĥ  űłœƣł ĭ :ƎÿſĿƞň ƉƎ ň ÿƉň Ŵô ÿƠƇƏ  ĭ .ťÿŶĿĭŤŨ ķĭĽŁ ł ł ł ň ł Ŕ ƕĿ .ķĭĬŴ ŏ Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ ŁŔŴɝ Ņ :ƎƖƍłƃŔĪť Ņ Ƨ ĭŁĥ Ŕ ĭ Ō Ņ ĥł ųñ ɤ ťÿƕĿ Ņ ƄŏŔ Ũœ ŻƀƇ ƣł Ŵſĭ ŏ Ĭĭ ŏ :Ɓʖ ł ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſƈƀ  ƃŌœ űƕ ł ųƆ ň ĭƢƉĥ ł ĭňIJĬŴſŴ ŏ Ŷĭ ł ňŏ ň ł Ņ œ ŏ ň Ŕ ň œ ň ô Ō ł ô ň ň .ķŴƌĥƎ  Ɗſ  Ĭ  ƧĪ ƈź  Ɖų  ũ ɢ  ŨŔ ƁƉĬĥĭƎſ  Ŀƞ Ɖ  ĪŔ ň ňò ň ŏ œ Ņ Ņ Ŀűłœÿƣł ĪŦ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ Ƈ ŬŔò ƕŅ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſŦ  ŵŶ Ņ ĭł :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſķĭ  ųɝƢ ŏ ł Ī Ɖĥ ňŔ ƨ Ɖ  Ǝſųɤ  ƃIJĬô ŴſŴ ŏ Ŷĭ ł ł ň ň ŒŔ ŷɚ ł ɧŌŁœŁĥ œ ĭň :ųƇƠƤ  ƊƆ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſ .ķĭĬŴ ŏ Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſĪœ ųŶĭ ň Ŀŏ Ʀ Ō ł ňœ ň ł ň Ņ ƧűŔÿłƕIJĬô ŴÿſŵŶ ň ĥ ĵĮłĥ :Ɓʖ  IJô ƢŨ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſƈƀ  ƃŌœ űƕ łŔ Īŧ łŔ ĪňŔĬŅ ƁƆ Ō IJĬô ťŨŅœ Ŀł :ƢƉĥ ł ĭň ň .ŁŴ Ŕ Ɖŏ ĥ



űƃ  ųƃ  Ŵƃ  ŵƃ 

Ch. 



Now your own eyes and the very eyes of my brother Benjamin see that it is my own mouth that speaks with you.



Inform my father of all my honor in Egypt and everything that you have seen. Quickly bring my father down here.”



He fell on the neck of his brother Benjamin and wept while Benjamin wept on his neck.



He kissed all of his brothers and wept upon them. After that his brothers spoke with him.



The news was heard throughout Pharaoh’s house saying, “Joseph’s brothers have come.” The affair pleased Pharaoh and his servants.



Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Say to your brothers, ‘Do the following: load up your animals with produce and then go and bring it to the land of Canaan.



Then get your father and the members of your household and bring them to me. I will provide for you the good things of the land of Egypt. Eat from the richness of the land.’



You are put in charge. Say to your brothers, 1 ‘Do the following: take from the land of Egypt wagons for your wives and for your children. Get your father and come.



Do not be concerned about your belongings 2 for the goodness of all the land of Egypt is yours.’”



The people of Israel did so. Joseph gave them wagons on the word of Pharaoh’s mouth and he gave to all of them provisions for the journey.



He gave to each one a set of clothes but to Benjamin he gave three hundred pieces of silver and five sets of clothes.



He sent the following to his father: ten donkeys loaded with the good things of the land of Egypt and ten female donkeys loaded with produce, wine, 3 and provisions for his father for the journey. 



See the Introduction: Harmonization. ‘Do not be concerned about your belongings’: lit. ‘Let your eyes not have regard for your containers’. 3 MT: ‘bread’. See the Introduction: Divergent Readings. 1 2



ň ł .ķŴƄƊ ŏŔ łƕƈ  Ƈ ƊƉ  Ɓô ƉŴƘŏ Ŕ Īœ :ƎƀƊ ň ƀƍŅ Ũňœ Ɓô ʖĥĪŅœIJĬô Ŵƍłəòɯĭ ł :ƎŅſŵòŶķŴ Ņ Ƅƀ ŏœ ƍłəòɯŦ ł Ĭĭ Ņ Ūſ Ņ ňł ň ł Ņ ł ŏ ł łœ ŏ ň Ɓô ÿŨŔ Ƨĭô Ʀ Ŕ Ŷ ĥŴô ŨŔ ĬƢ  Əĭ  :ķĭƦſ œ ŵŶ  Ī ƈƃĭ ň ŨŔ ĪłœIJô ƢƠſ Ŕ :ƎſĿƞň Ɗ Ņ Ō ĥų  Ƈ ƃŏœƁô ŨŔ Ƨ ĭŴł Ŷĭ  ŭſ Ņ Ņ œ .ťƃĿ  ų ɝ ł ň Ņ ň œ ň ł ł  Ľƈ  ƕƈ  ƙƌ łŔ ĭł űſ ňŔ :ťƄŅŔ ŨŔ ĭł :IJĬŴ ô Ŷŏ ĥƎƀ  Ɗ  ƀƍ ŨŔ Ī ĬĿĭ .ĬĿĭ ň Ľƈ ł łƕť  ƄŅŔ Ũœ ƎƀƊ ň ƀƍŅ Ũĭ ł ŏ ŏ ł ň ł ňœ ł Ņ Ŕ ŨĭŔ .ķĭųƀ ŏ ł Ƈƕť  ƄŅŔ ŨŔ ĭł :IJĬô Ŵò Ŷł ĥķĭ  ųɤ  ƄƆơ Ŕ ł ĭł ųſ Ƥƌ . ųƊ ň łƕIJĬô ŴòŶł ĥŴô ƇƇ ƉƎ  ƃĿ Ʀ ň Ņ Ņ ł łň ł Ŕ ĭł :ƚ ŏ Ƙň œ Ʀÿ Ƣÿ ƙƣ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ÿ łſĪœIJĬô Ŵò ÿ Ŷł ĥ ĭŁŔ ĥ :ƎÿÿſƢƉĥ Ō ĪŅœ ķŴÿ ƕƢ Ŕ ÿƀŨňœ Ɨÿ Ɖł Ʀƣ œ ĥ  ƨ ÿ Ɵĭ Ŵſ ň ň ŏ ò ł ł ł Ņ ł œ œ ł ò ł ò .IJĬô ĭűł œ ũŔ ƕ Ɓƍəɳ  ŨŔ ĭ ķŴƕƢ  Ƙ Ɓƍəɳ  Ũť Ŕ Ɗū ŔŅ Ʀ Ŕ Ƙ ň ł ň Ņ ł Ņ œò ł ł ł ŏ Ŕ ķŴƃƢƀ  ƧƢ  Ɖ  ĥ :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ƀɞķŴ ł ŏ Ƙň œ ƢƉĥ ƕƢ ł ĭň ŵſ Ņ ũƕ ŏŔ ŌƖŨœ Ŵô ƍň ƖŹ  ĥ :ĭôűŔũƕ :ŧ ĿŴ Ŕ ťƍƃŔ Ĭ .ƅ ƀʖ ł ł .ƎƖƍłƃŔĪť łŔ ƕŅĿƧŴô ƇŨĭ ňœ ĥŴô ƆňĮĭ  ň ł ł ł ł ŏŔ Ņ Ŕ ŏŹķŴ ťÿŨŴ  ÿƄƆĵ Łĥ œ ŨŅœ ƁƤò ł ƌŅôƧĭł :ķŴƃŴ œ ĭň :IJô ŁŔŴÿɝ Ņ ĭƦÿſĥ œ ĭķŴ  ÿƄŏ œ ſƦ ŏŔ Ũŏ Ŕ Ƨĭô ƢŨł Ŕ ĪŔĭł Ÿɖ .ťƕĿĥ Ņ Īłœ ųñ ƍƉŴ Ņ ĪłŔ Ņ ƣŏ Ŵô ƆŴƃĥ ŏŔ ĭł :ƎſĿƞň Ɖ ň Īť Ŕ ƕĿĥ ł ň ł łň œ ł ł ł ŏ Ŕ ĭô ƢŨłŔ Īœ :ĭôűŔũƕ ň Ŕ ťƍŅƃłŔĬŅ :ƅ œ ƀòʖ ł ƧƢ  Ɖ  ĥ :Ʀ  ô ƌĥŻƇ ƤƉŦ  ĬŅ Ʀ œ ô ƌĥĭł Żſ ťÿƕŅ ĿĥƎ  ÿƉķŴ ÿƄƆ ł ł Ņ Ņ ò Ņ ň ň ŏ Ŕ Ũŏ Ŕ ƧŴô ƆŴƠƣ .ĭŁĭķŴ Ŕ ƃŴ ŏ ĭł :ķŴƃŏ Ŕ ŁƢ œ Ơƀ ł ƆĭķŴ Ō Ƅŏœ ɛò Ƥł ňƍɞŦ  Ʀ Ŕ Ƈ Ŭ Ŕ ƕƎ  ſĿƞ Ɖ  ĪŔ ł Ņ ŏ œ Ņ ŏ œ ŏ ň Ņ ŏœ łò ł łƕƎ ƎſĿƞň Ɖ ň Īť Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƃŔ Ī ųñ ŨŴŔ ŹĪƈź Ɖ  :ķŴƄŏœ ɛò ɧłŤƉƈ Ņ  Ə Ņ Ŵò ŷƌ ŏ ƧķŴ  Ƅƀ  ƍəɯĭ  Ĵ ŏ ŏ .ĭĬķŴ ô Ƅɤſ Ŕ ĪŌœ ň Ņ Ō òł Ņ ł Ņ ł ł Ņ Ņ Ŕ ƍƃŔ Ĭ ĭô űŔũƕ Ŕ ĭ ťƃ ƈÿłƕ :ŦƦ Ŕ ÿƇŬŔò ƕŅ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ÿłſ ķĭųÿɝ ŏ ħ  Ŕ ųô ÿłſĭ :ƈÿſĥƢƐſ ĥ ƁÿƍŨť ŏ Ņ ŏ ň ŏ ò ŏ ŏ ŏ ň ň œ Ŕ ł Ƈ Ɖ ň  ħ  Ŕ ųô łſĭ :ķŴƕƢ  ƘŔ Īœ ųƉŴ  Ƙ Ʀ .ķĭųɤ  ƄƆ Ņ Ƨŧ  ĪŔĭĮķĭųɝ Ŕ ťŶĿĭ ň Ņ œ ƃňŔĪŦŤ ňŔ ĭł :ŦƦ :ťÿƙƐ Ŕ Ɖ Ņ Ʀ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ Łœ ħ  Ŕ ųô łſƎƀƊ ň ƀƍŅ ũƆ œ ŷò ƌłĪť Ŕ ūĭ Ņ œ ĮłƢũłŔ ū  œ ƈƄƆ ŏŔ ħ  Ŕ ųô łſĭ Ūƃ ň Ņ Ŷĭ .Ŧ Ʀ œ ŷò ƌłĪœ Ǝƀū ł Ō œ ĭò Įł ťƤƊ ł Ņ Īłœ ųñ ŨŴ ň ƍƀŌ ŌƖŹ Ņ Ŕ ÿŏŹƎÿƉƎƀ :ƎÿſĿƞň Ɖ ň ĪŔ ťÿƕĿĥ  űŔƃłŔ ŧ ǔŅƊŶŧ ň ƢƐ Ņ ň ƕ :ťƍŅƃłŔĬĿ Ņ űłœƣł IJĬô ŴŨŏ Ŕ Ƨĭ  ŭƃ Ņł ł ł ŏ ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ŏ Ņò Ō .ťŶĿĭ Ņ ƧIJĬô ŴŨŏ Ŕ Ƨŧ  ĪňŔĭò Įĭł :ŧ ƢƊ  Ŷĭŧ  ĿŴ  ũƕƎ  űŔƃłœ ƎƀòɧŌŁœ ĥƢƐƕ ĭ Ŕ ƍəɳŹ



 

  















Ch. 

Chapter  LXX



Joseph was not able to restrain himself before all those who were standing in his presence. He said, “Make everyone leave me.” No one remained with him when Joseph revealed himself to his brothers.



He raised up his voice in weeping and the Egyptians heard him and it was heard in Pharaoh’s house.



Joseph said to his brothers, “I am Joseph, your brother. Is my father still alive?” His brothers were unable to answer him anything for they were terrified before him.



Joseph said to his brothers, “Come closer to me.” So they approached him. He said to them, “I am Joseph your brother whom you sold to the Egyptians.



Now then, do not be sad or disappointed in yourselves that you sold me here because it was for [your] sustenance that God sent me before you.



For there have been two years of famine in the land and there are still five more years without sowing or reaping.



God sent me before you to preserve a remnant for you and to keep you alive through a grand rescue in the land.



Therefore, it was not you who sent me here but God. He has made me a father to Pharaoh and lord over his entire household and ruler over the whole land of Egypt.



Go up quickly to my father and say to him, ‘Thus says your son Joseph, God has made me lord over all of Egypt. Come down to me. Do not delay.



Dwell in the land of Goshen. You should be near to me — you, your sons, the members of your household, 1 your flocks, your cattle and everything you have.



I will provide for you there because there are still five more years of famine coming — lest you, your household and everything you have perishes.’ 2 1 2

See the Introduction: Inner-Syriac Corruptions. MT: ‘you will be dispossessed’. See the Introduction: Particular Lexical Choices.



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ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ň Ņ ł ĭň :IJĬŴ Ņ Ŕ ĭĭłĬƎÿƀ ƢÿƉĥ ô ÿƉł űƟ ô Ɗƀ Ō ƟŅ Īœ ƈƃŏœ ƎƉ ň ŴƍŏƐƊ Ņ ŷƊ ł Ɔ ł ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſŸ  Ƅƣ łœ ĥ Ƨĭ  ł Ņ Ō œ ň łœ ň Ņ ŏ Ō ł ň Ņ ň Ņ Ņ ł ô ƄƆ Ŕ Ŵô ƠƘň œ ĥ  Ƨĭ  .IJô ŁŔŴɝƎ  Ɖƥ  ƌDŽ  Ŕ ƏŴ ƚ  ÿſ ƁÿƇū  ŁŔĥ űŔÿƃ ĬŁŔ Ŵÿɝƥÿƌôĥ IJŴ Ɵ ł .IJĬô Ŵò Ŷł Ƨ Ņ ň Ņ Ō ł .ķŴƕƢ ŏ Ƙň œ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũňœ ƗƉ ł Ʀƣĥ œ ĭň :ťňɕǓŅƞƉ ň Ŵô ƖƊƣ ł ĭł :ŦƦ Ŕ ƄŅŔ ũŔ Ũł œ ųƇ ƟƋſ  Ŀĥ ĭ ň Ņ ł Ņ ł Ƨĭ .ĭĬô ŏ Ɓÿʖł Ɓô ŨŔ ĥ ƈƀƃŌœ űƕ łŔ :ķŴƃŴ ŏŔ Ŷŏ ĥ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſť  ƌŅôĥťƌŅĥ :IJĬô Ŵò Ŷł Ƨ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň ł łœ ň ŏ ň Ņ Ņ ňœ ň ł ň .IJĬŴ ô Ɖ ł űƟƎ ŅŔ Ɖ ň Ŵô ƇŶň ĪŔĪłœ ƈź Ɖ  :ťƊ ū Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ Ƙ ųƆĵ  Ʀ œ Ɗ  ƆIJĬô ŴòŶł ĥŴô ŷƄƣ  ĥ ň ňŅ ł Ņ Ŵô ŨŔ ƢƟ ň ĭł .IJô ŁŔŴɝ Ņ Ŵô Ũĭ Ŕ ƢƟ ŏ :IJĬô Ŵò Ŷł Ƨ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň ťÿƌĥ :ķĭųÿɝƢ ŏ ł ĭň .ĬŁŔ Ŵɝ Ɖĥ ł ň ł Ņ ŏ .ťňɕǓŅƞƊƆ ň Ɓô ƍƌĭ Ņ Ʀƍ œ Ũłœ ĮłĪœ :ķŴƃŴ  ƌôĥ ŏŔ Ŷŏ ĥ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſť ň Ņ Ņ ŏ ŏ œ ƍłəòɳ ŏ Ŕ Ƣňÿ ƃŔ Ł Ŕ Ƨť  ÿ ƣŅ Ĭĭ Ņ :ťÿ ƃĿŅ œ ųŅ ɝƁô ÿ ƍƌĭ Ņ Ʀ œ ƍŨňœ ĮłĪœ ķŴÿ Ƅƀ ł Ũœ ŀŤÿÿŨň œ Ʀ Ŕ ňƌ  Ƨĭ  :ķŴÿ ƄƆŧ ł ŏ ň ŏ Ņ Ŕ ųŅ Ɔ Ŕ Īłœ ƈź .ķŴƄƀ ŏœ Ɖ ł űƟŦ Ņ ĥƁô ƌĿłűœƣł ĭĬô ťƀłƏĿĭ Ņ ƦƆ Ɖ  ŏ ň ł ŏ Ŕ :ťƕĿĥ Ņ Īłœ Ĭñ ŴŅŬ œ Ɔ Ʀÿƀ ł Īœ Ǝƀòɫƣƥ Ō ň Ŷł ħĭ Ɗ  Ŕ Łĭ Ŕ ł Ũť Ŕ ƍŅƙŔ ƃłœ ƎƀòɫŌ ƣƎſŁœ ĿŁŦ Ɖ ň Ŕ ĬŅ Īœ ƈź .ĪŔ ňƞŶŅ ĪŔĭĺ ł ĿłĮŅĪœ ł ŏ Ŕ Ŵÿƀŏ ʛ ŏŔ ŏœ Ɖ Ņ Ɔ ķŴÿƄƆ Ņ ƊƆ ł ĭł :ťÿƍŅ ƃƢ Ņœ ƣł ķŴÿƄƆƋ ÿƐƊ ł :ķŴÿƄƀ ł űƟŦ ŅŔ ųŅ ÿƆŅ ĥ Ɓô ƌĿłűœƣĭ ł Ņ Ņ ŏ Ŕ ƤƉ Ŕ Ũœ ĿŦ ł ŁŴ Ŕ ŨĮŴ ł .ťƕĿŤ Ņ ŨłŔ ŦƦ ŏ ł ł Ņň Ņœ Ņ Ņ Ņ ŏ ł ŏ ƙƆ :ķŴÿƕƢ ňŔ ťŨŅ Ŕ ĥƁô ƌűłœũŔ łƕĭ :ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥ  Ƨĥ :ťƃĿ  ų ɝƁô ƍƌĭ Ņ ŁĿ œ űłœƣł ķĭƦ œ ô ƌĥŦĭŅĬ ô Ƨť  ƣŅ Ĭĭ  ł Ņ ŏ Ņ Ō ł ň ň ň ŏ Ņ Ņ ł ň œ ł œ œ .ƎſĿƞ Ɖ  Īť Ŕ ƕĿ  ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƄŔ Ũť Ŕ źƀ  Ƈ ƣĭ  :ĬƦƀ  Ũ ųƇ ƃ ƈƕŧ  ƢƉĭ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ÿłſ ĴŔ ƢŅŨœ ƢƉ ł ĥť  ƍŅƃłŔĬŅ :ųƆ ň ĭôƢƉĥ ł ĭň :Ɓô ŨŔ ĥ ŁŔŴɝ   Ŵô ƠƏƈ ł ŬƖ Ŕ ł Ũłœ Ɓô ÿƌűłœũŔ łƕ :ƚ ł ł ň Ņ Ŕ Ƨĭ  IJô ŁŔŴɝ Ņ ŁŴ Ŕ Ŷŏ :ƎſĿƞň Ɖ ň ųñ ɤ Ņ ƃŏœ ƈłƕŧ  ƢŅƉŦ Ņ ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥ œ Ł .ƢŶĭ ł Ʀƣ ň ł Ņ :ĴŔ Ʀÿƀ œ Ũłœ Ɓÿƍł Ũò Ŕ ĭł ƅ œ ÿƀò ɫł ŨŔ ĭł Ʀÿ œ ô ƌĥ :ƁÿƆŌ Ūÿſ  Ŕ ƢŌƟł Ʀſ œ ĭĬ ł ĭł .ƎƤŅ ū ňŔ Īť Ŕ ƕĿŤ Ņ Ũłœ ħ Ŕ  Ŕ Łĭ ł Ņ ł Ņ ŏ Ņ ò Ō  .ƅ Ŕ Ɔ  Ʀſĥ Ŕ Īœ ƈƃĭ Ŕ ƅſ  œ ǓĭŁĭ Ŕ ƅ Ŕ ƍɯĭ Ō ŏ ł ł ŏ Ņ Īłœ :ťÿƍŅ ƙŔ ƃłœ ƋÿƀŅ ƟƎ Ŕ ÿƊƆ Ɖ ň :ƎƉ Ņ Łœ ķŴƄƀ ŏŔ Ə Ō ĿŁœ ĥĭň űŔÿŨĥł Ŕ Łť ł ƀòɫŌ ƣƥƊ ň Ŷł ħĭ  Ŕ ŁŔ Īœ ƈź ł Ņ .ƅ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ Ʀſĥ Ŕ ĪŌœ ƈƃĭ ŏŔ ĴŔ Ʀƀ œ ŨłŔ ĭ Ʀ  œ ô ƌĥ



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Ch. 



One son has left me and I said, ‘Surely he has been killed and I have not seen him until now.



Now you will take even this one from me. Adversity will befall him and you will bring down my old age in wretchedness to Sheol.’



Now, when we go to your servant our father without the youth — his life is as dear to him as his own —



and he sees that the youth is not with us, then he will die. Then your servants will bring down the old age of your servant our father in misery to Sheol.



For your servant pledged himself for the youth to our father and I said, ‘If I do not bring him back to you, then I will sin against my father forever.’



Now then, let your servant remain as a slave of my lord in exchange for the youth. Let the youth return with his brothers.



For how can I return to my father when the youth is not with me? Then I would see the wretchedness that would befall my father.”



Ō ň Ō Ņ ł ň œ ň ň ťÿƉŅ űƕ łŔ ĬƦÿſ Ŕ ŵŶ  :ƈÿƀźƟƈ Ƨĭ  ÿźƠƉ  Ī ŁŔƢÿƉĥ  ĭ :IJô ŁŔŴÿɝƎ Ņ ň űŔŶơ Ɖ ł ƙƌ łŔ ĭł Ÿƃ .ťƣŅ ųɝ Ņ Ņ ŏœ Ō ł Ņ ŏ ł ň Ŀĥł ĭŅ :IJ ŁŴÿɝƎ Ŕ Ɖĭ  :ƨŨŴ Ŕ ÿƠƏų  ÿƆĺ ÿƉň ťÿƌŅ ųɝ Ņ Ļ  Ŕ ĥķĭ  Ʀ  ÿôƌĥƎſƢŌŨŔ Īĭ ƎÿſƦŷ ŅŔ Żƃ ô Ŕ Ņ ŏ Ņ Ŕ ũŏœ ƀƏ ł ķĭƦ œ ô ƌĥ .ĵŴƀƤ ŏ ƆŦ ł ƦƤƀ œ ũŌŔ Ũœ IJô ŁŴ ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ŕ ũŌœ Ŷų ťÿũƀ ł Ƥň ƙŔ ƌĭ ł :ƎƊ ł łƕŦ  ĭŅĬ ô Ƨť  ƀˁ  ŹĭķŴ  Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ ĴŔ űŅœũŔ łƕ ŁŔŴɝƎƆ Ņ Įĥł Īť ňŔ Ɖť Ņ ƣŅ Ĭĭ Ņ ĵ ł ň  Ŕ ĥ ųƆ  .ųƤň ƙŔ ƌł ƅſ ň ŏ œ ł œ łœ ò ł Ō ł ň Ņ łł Ņ ł œ ł ňŅ Ņ Ŕ Ɖĭ  :ŁŔŤƉ  : ƎƊ  ƕť  ƀˁ  Ź Ʀƀ  Ɔ  ĪŦ Ŕ ŵŶ Īť Ŕ Ɖĭ  Ƨ  ƅſ Ə  űũŔ ƕƎſ  Ʀŷ ĴŔ űŅœÿũŔ łƕĪœ ĬŁŴŔ ÿũƀ ł ł .ĵŴƀƤ ŏ Ɔť  ƌŅĭŅĭűŏŔŨœ ķŴŨŏ Ŕ ĥ ł Ņ ŏ ň Ō ł Ņ ňœ ň ň ł IJĬô ŴÿſƦſ œ ĥ  Ƨķĥ  Ī ŁŔƢÿƉĥ  ĭ :ķŴŨŏ Ŕ ĥ ŁŔŴɝƎ  Ɖť ň ƀˁ Ņ ź  Ũœ ħ  Ŕ Ƣƕ ł ĴŔ űŅœũŔ łƕĪœ ƈź Ɖ  ŪƆ Ņ Ņ ò ł ŏ ŏœ Ņ ň ň Ņ  .Ŧ Ʀ Ŕ Ɖ  Ŵ ɖķĭ  ųɤ  ƃƁô ŨŔ Ƨť  źŶ  ĥ :ƅ Ŕ Ɔ ł Ņ Ņ űŅœÿũŔ łƕ :ťÿƀˁ Ņ Źĭ Ņ Źł ƚ ƋÿłƕơÿƐł ňƌť  ÿƀˁ  :IJô ƢÿƊƆŧ  Ŕ ƇŶ  ĴŔ űŅœũŔ łƕŀŴƙƌ ŏŔ ťƣŅ Ĭĭ Ņ ŭƆ ł .IJĬô Ŵò Ŷł ĥ ň Ņ łœ ň ł œ łœ ŏ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ŧ ŵÿŶ ň ĥť  ÿƊƆ Ī :ƁÿƊ ô łƕŦ  ĭŅĬ ô Ƨť  ÿƀˁ  :Ɓô ÿŨŔ ĥ ŁŔŴÿɝơ Źĭ  ÿƏł ĥť  ÿƍŅ Ƅſĥ  Ī ƈź Ɖ  űƆ Ņ łœ ň Ņ œ Ō Ŕ ƦƤƀ  ũŔ ŨŔ Ŕ ŁŔ ĪŦ .Ɓô ŨŔ Ƨŀ  űū

















Ch. 



Judah and his brothers went before Joseph who was still there. They fell to the ground before him.



Joseph said to them, “What is this affair that you have done? Do you not know that a man like me practices divination?”



Judah said, “What can we say to my lord? What can we tell? How can we be exonerated? Before God the sin of your servants has been discovered. Now we are my lord’s servants, both we and the one in whose hand the cup was found.”



He said to them, “Far be it from me that I should do this. The man with whom the cup was found shall become my slave. But as for the rest of you, go up in peace to your father.”



Judah approached him and said, “I beseech you, my lord, let your servant speak a word before you my lord. Let your anger not rise against your servant because you are like Pharaoh.



My lord inquired of his servants saying, ‘Do you have a father or a brother?’



We said to my lord, ‘We have a father, an old man, and a son, a son of his old age, the youngest. His brother is dead and so he alone remains for his mother. His father loves him.’



You said to your servants, ‘Bring him down to me and I will lay my eyes upon him.’



We said to my lord, ‘The youth cannot leave his father. If he leaves his father, [his father] will die.’



You said to your servants, ‘If your youngest brother does not come down with you, then you shall not see my face again.’



When we went up to your servant our father, we told him my lord’s words.



Your servant, our father, said to us, ‘Go back and buy a bit of produce for us.’



We said to our father, ‘We are not able to go down. If our youngest brother is with us, we will go down, for we will not be able to see the man’s face if our youngest brother is not with us.’



Your servant, our father, said to us, ‘You know that my wife bore me two sons. 

 

ł IJĬô ŴƉ ł űƟ ŅŔ Ŵô Ƈƙƌ łŔ ĭł :ƎƉ Ņ Łœ ƈƀƃŌœ űƕ łŔ ĭĬĭ ŏ :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſ ŁŔŴɝ Ņ IJĬô ŴòŶł ĥĭŧ ł ĪĭŅ Ŕ ųŏ Ōſƈ  łƕĭ  űſ ł ł Ņ.ťƕĿ  ĥ ƈƕ Ņ Ņ ŏ ł ł ŅŅ Ņ Ņ ŏ ŴÿƤŏ ŷŅ ƍƉ ł Īłœ :ķĭƦÿƀ œ ŌƕűŔŅſ  Ƨ :ķĭŁœ űœÿũƕ Ŕ ÿƌĬŧ  űŔ ÿũƕ Ņ :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſķĭ  ųɝƢ ŏ ł ĥ ųſ Ɖ Ŕ Īť Ŕ Ŵÿƍł Ɖ .IJô ŁŔŴŅ ƃĥ Ŕ Īŧ łŔ ƢŅũŔ ū ł œ ƥŷň ƍƉ ł ň ł Ņ Ņ ň œ ňƌť ĶűÿƟƎ ŅŔ ÿƉň :ťÿƃŵ  ÿƍŅ Ɗ Ņ ŨŔ ĭł :ƈƇ Ɗƌť  ƍƉĭ  :IJƢƊƆƢ Ņ ł ƌť ƉŤ Ō ƍŅƉ Ņ :ŧ Īĭ ŅŔ ųŏ ŌſƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň Ŵſ ň Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ ƎÿƉł Ļ  Ŕ ĥ :ƎƍŶ  Ļ  Ŕ ĥ :IJô ƢƊƆŧ Ņ űňœũò Ŕ łƕƎ  ƍŶŦ ł ĬŅ .ƅſ  œ űłœũòŔ łƖɝŦųŅ źŶŸ  ƃł Ŕ Ʀƣ œ ĥ ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥ ň .ĬűſŤ ňŔ Ũť ŌŔ ƙƠƏ ŅŔ ĥŸ  ƃłŔƦƣ œ ĥĪňœ ň Ņ ň Ņ ň Ŕ ƢŅũŔ ū  ƙƠƏ ŅŔ ĥŸ  ƃł Ŕ Ʀƣ œ ĥĪŧ ł œ .ŧ Īň ŔĬŅ űŔũƕĥ ňœ ĪňŔ ƁƆƑ Ō ŶŅ :ķĭųɝƢ ŏ ł ĥ ŵſ Ɖ ĭĬŏ :ĬŁŔ Ŵÿɝť ł Ņ ŏ .ķŴƃŴ ŏŔ Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ ŁŔŴɝť  Ɗ Ņ ɤƤ Ņ Ũłœ Ŵô ƠƏķĭ ł Ʀ Ō ĭų ň ňƌ œ ô ƌĥĭł :ŧ űŅ œ ũŔ łƕ ƁƆŦ ň Ņ Ņ ň ł ŦƦÿƇ Ŕ Ɖň ĴŔ űŅœÿũŔ łƕƈÿƇƊƌ  :IJô ƢƉ Ņ ƅ Ŕ ƍŅƉť ň ƌŅôĥťň ƖŨŅœ :ƢƉĥ ł ĭňŧ ĪĭŅ Ŕ ųŏ ŌſĬ  ħ  Ŕ ƢƟ ň ĭł Ÿɖ  ŁŔ Ŵɝ ł œ łœ Ņ ŏ ň Ņœ ł ŏ Ʀ ňƌ Ƨĭ ł Ŷł Ʀ  Ŕ ĥ Ʀÿ ƅÿſ  ô ƌĥĪ ƈÿźƉ ŅŔ  :ĴŔ űÿũŔ ƕƈÿłƕ ĴŔ ŵŅÿūĭ  Ŀ  ÿ Ɗ   :IJô ƢƉ Ņ ƅƀ œ Ɖ ł űƟ Ŕ Ŕ Ŕ .ķŴƕƢ ŏ Ƙň œ ň ł ł Ņł ŏ .ťŶŅ ĥ ĭĥť  ŨŔ ĥķŴ  ƄƆ Ŕ Ō ĥ .ƢƉĥ ł ĭňIJĬô ĭűł œ ũò Ŕ łƖɝĵŤƣł IJô ƢƉ Ņ Żſ Ŕ Ʀſ Ņ ŏœ ł ł Ņ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ł Ō ŏ ŁŴ IJĬô ŴÿŶĥŏ ĭł :ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ÿƕĮŦ Ŕ ÿũƀ  ÿŨŧ ƏƢ  ŨŔ ĥƎ  Ɔ  Ʀſ Ŕ ĥ :IJô ƢƊƆķƢ Ņ ł ĭň Ĵ Ɖĥ Ŕ ƢÿŨŔ ĭ :ťň ũŔ Əť ň .ųƆƋ ň Ŷň ĿŅIJĬô ŴŨĥŏ Ŕ ĭł :ųƉ ň ƧƢ  Ŷł Ʀƣ œ ĥIJĬô ĭĪŴ ŏ :Ʀƀ Ŕ Ɖ Ō łŔ ŷɤ ŏ Ũł Ŕ ĭĬĭ ŏ ł œ łœ ò ł œ ł ň Ŕ ĥ :ƅſ  űũŔ Ɩɝ  ŁƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ťƃ .IJĬŴ ô ł Ƈƕ  Ɓô ƍƀłƕƋƀ  Əĥ Ō ĭňIJô ŁŔŴɝ Ņ IJĬô ĭƦŶ ł łœ ň Ņ ł łœ ň ł Ņ ĭň IJĬŴ ô Ũŏ Ŕ Ƨơ  ũƤ  Ɗ  Ɔťƀˁ Ņ ŹŸ  ƄƤ  Ɖ  Ƨ  IJô ƢƊƆķƢ Ņ ł ĭň Ūƃ Ɖĥ IJĬô ŴÿŨŏ Ŕ Ƨơ  ÿũň Ŕ ƣķĥ ň Ņ .ŁŔŤƉ  ł Ņ ŏ ł Ņ ŏ ł ň Ņ Ņ ň œ œ łœ ò ł Ŧ ŵŷ Ņ ƊƆķŴ ň ƙƏĭ ŏŔ Ł Ŕ Ƨ :ķŴƄƊ  ĿŴ  ƕĮķŴ  ƃŴ ŏŔ Ŷŏ ĥ Ʀ Ŕ ŷ ƌ  Ƨķĥ  Ī :ƅſ  űũŔ Ɩɝ  ŁƢ œ Ɖĥ ł ĭň ŭƃ Ŕ ƕŧ łł .ƁƘò œ ĥ ł ň IJô ƢƉŅ ĪœIJĬô ŴòƊ ł ū ŔŅ Ʀ Ŕ Ƙň œ IJųô ƀƍſŅ ŴňŶĭ ł :ķŴŨŏ Ŕ ĥ ĴŔ űŅœũŔ łƕ ŁŔŴɝƎƠ Ņ  űŔƃĭ ƇƏ łŔ űƃ ň ł Ō ł ł ŏŔ .ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ũƕƈƀ Ƈ ƟƎ  Ɔ  ĭô ĿŴƉ ŏ Ŵô ƃŴ Ŕ ƘĬ ŏŔ :ķŴŨŏ Ŕ ĥ ĴŔ űŅœũŔ łƕƎƆƢ ł Ɖ ł ĥ ųƃ ł ňŅ ň ł ň Ņ ł ł ň ŏ Ņ łł Ņ ŏ :Ǝÿƍſł Ʀŷ œ ƌƎ  ÿƊƕŧ  ĿŴ  ƕĮķŴ  Ŷŏ ĥ Ʀ Ŕ ŷ ƌķ  ĥ .Ʀ Ŕ ŷ ƊƆƎ  ƍƀł ʛ Ō ƄƤ œ Ɖ ň Ƨ :ķŴŨŏ Ŕ ƧķƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ŵƃ ł ł œ Ņ ł œ ò ł œł Ņ ň Ņœ ŏ ň Ņ Ņ ŏ ň Ņ ł Ō ŏ œ Ɖ   ƊƆƎ  ƍƀ ʛ  ƄƤ  Ɖ  ƧĪ ƈź ŦĭĬ ô Ƨŧ  ĿŴ  ÿƕĮķŴÿŶĥ űŔÿƃ :ŧ ƢÿũŔ ū Ŕ ĪIJĬô Ŵ ÿƘĥŦ ŵŷ ł . ƎƊ  łƕ ł ŏ ł ł ł Ō Œ łœ ň ň łœ ŏ œ  œ ô ƌĥ ƁƆ  ŁŔ űɤ  ſƎſĿŁŔĪ ķĭƦ .IJô ŁŔƦ  ô ƌĥƎƀŌƕűŔŅſķĭ  Ʀ œ ô ƌĥ :ķŴŨŏ Ŕ ĥ ĴŔ űŅœũŔ łƕƎƆƢ ł Ɖĥ ł ĭň ŵƃ 











 

 



  



Ch. 

Chapter  

He commanded the head of his household and said, “Fill up the loads of the men with produce, as much as they can carry, and put each one’s money on top of his load.



Take my silver cup and put it on top of the youngest’s load along with his money for provisions.” The servant acted according to Joseph’s word.



When it was dawn, the men were allowed to go, both they and their donkeys.



They left the city. They were not far when Joseph said to his head of household, “Arise, pursue the men and overtake them. Say to them, ‘Why did you repay evil for good?



This is the cup from which my lord drinks and which he uses for divination. You have acted wickedly by doing this.’”



So he overtook them and spoke these words to them.



They said to him, “Let our lord not say such things. Far be it from your servants to do such a thing.



Look, the money that we found on top of our loads we brought back from the land of Canaan. How could we steal gold or silver from your lord’s house?



With whomever it is found from among your servants, that one will die and we will become slaves for our lord.”



He said to him, “Even so, according to your word, let it be: with whomever it is found, he will become my slave and the rest of you will be blameless.”



Each man quickly brought down to the ground his load and each opened his load.



They searched, beginning with the eldest and finishing with the youngest. The cup was found in Benjamin’s load.



They tore their clothes and then each one loaded his donkey and they returned to the city. 





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ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ł Ō ň ŏ Ŕ ǔňÿ ũŔ ū ł ĭĬ ťÿƊŅ ƃœ :ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ÿũƕŧ Ŕł Īœ ķĭųŏ ÿƀò ɫƖ ł Ź ƁÿƇƉ :ƢÿƉĥ ň Ʀÿ œ ÿƀŨłœ ħ  œ Ƣÿ łÿɝ űŔÿƠň ƘłŔ ĭ ĥ ł ň Ǝƀʛ .ųňƍƖ  ŹĶŴ  ƙŏ Ŕ Ũŧ Ŕ ƢŅũŔ ū Ŕł Īœ ųƙƐ ňœ ƃňœ ƋƀƏĭ Ō :ƈƠƤ ł ƊƆ Ō ƄƤ œ Ɖ ň ĪŔ ň ł ł Ņ ƚ :ĬƢňÿəƉ ŔƐ ň ƃŔĭł :ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ƕĮ ŏ Īłœ ųňƍƖ  ŹĶŴ  ƙŏŔ Ũœ ƋƀƏĭ Ō :ťƉŤ Ņ Ə Ō ĪœƁô ƇſĪť ŌŔ ƙƠƏ ŅŔ ĥ Ū  Ŕ Əĭ  ħ ł ň ł Ŕ ĭł .ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſĪœ ĬƦ Ŕ ƇƉň ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ŧ űŅœũŔ łƕ űŔũƕ ň .ķĭĬŏ ǔƊŶĭ ň ķŴƌŏĬň :ĵĮŤł ƊƆŧ Ō ǔňũŔ ū ł œ ŴſĿŌƦƣ œ ĥ :ŧ ƢŅƙŔ ƣŦ ł ĭĬ Ņ űŔƃĭ łŔ Ĩ ň ň ł ł Ņ Ņ Ō ň ň ĶŴÿƟŏ :ĬƦÿƀ œ Ũłœ ħ  œ ƢÿɝƢ ł ÿƉł ĥ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſĭ  :ŴôƠŶĿ ň ĥ  Ƨĭ  :ŦƦſ Ŕ ƢƟƎ  Ɖ  Ŵô Ơƙƌ łŔ ķŴƌŏĬň Ī ň ŏ Ņ ł Ŕ ŨŅœ Ļĭ  Ŕ ĪĿŏŔ ŦƦÿƤ œ ƀŨŌœ ķĭƦÿƕ œ ƢłƘť Ŕ ÿƍŅ ƊƆ Ņ :ķĭųÿɝƢ ŏ ł ĭň :ķŴƌŏĥ ĴŔ ĿňĪĥŔ ĭł :ŧ ǔňũŔ ūł œ ĿƦ Ɖĥ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ŕ ũŔ Ź ƚ  Ŕ ƇŶ  .ŦƦ ň Ņ ł ŏ ň ňŔ Ʀ Ŕ ƣŅ Īť Ŕ ƙƠƏ ŅŔ ĥť  ƌŅĬŅ Ĭ ł ŴƤŏ ŷŅ ƍƉ ł Ļ  Ŕ ĥ :IJô ƢƉų Ņ ŨŦ ĶűňœÿƊň Ũœ ķĭƦÿƣŤ œ ŨňŔ ĥ :ųŨňœ ƥŷň ƍƉ ŏ ł łœ Ŕ Ī .ķĭŁœ űœũƕ ň ňò ł ŏ ň .ƎƀƆ ň Ĭ Ņ ƨƉ  ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ķĭųɝƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň :ķŴƌŏĥ ĴŔ ĿňĪĥŔ ĭł ĭ ň ňò ł Ņ ł Ō Ņ ň Ō Ņ łœ Ɗ ťÿƊŅ ū ŔŅ Ʀ Ŕ Ƙň œ űŔÿũƖ ň Ɔ ƅſ  œ űłœũòŔ łƖɝƑŶŅ :ƎƀƆ ň Ĭ Ņ ƨƉ  ķƢƉƢ  ƉŤ  ƌ  Ƨ :ųƆƎſ  ƢƉ  ĥ Į .ťƌŅĬŅ ł ł ł ł Ņ ĥƎ ťÿƍŅ Ƅſ łœ ĥ :ƎÿƖƍłƃŔĪť łŔ ÿƕĿ  ÿƉň IJųô ÿƀƍŅƄŔ ƘĬ ň œ ĥ :Ǝÿƀò ɫƖ ł ŹĶŴ  ƙŏŔ Ũœ ƎŷƄƣĥ łœ Īť ňŔ ƙƐ Ņœ ƃŦ ňŔ ĬŅ į ł Ņ łœ Ņ Ņ .ťƉŤ Ņ Ə Ō ĭĥť  ŨĬ Ōœ ū ŔŅ  Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũňœ ƎƉƎſ ň ĭłĬƎƀ Ŕ Ī ĴŔ ƢƉ ô ũƍ ň Ņ  ƃłŔƦƤ œ ňƌĪœ ƎƉ ł İ ň ŁŔ ŴɝŸ .ķƢłƊƆ Ņ ŧ űňœũòŔ łƕŦĭų ň ňƌƎƍŶ ł ĭł :ŁŴ Ŕ Ɗƌ ŏ ƅſ  œ űłœũòŔ łƕƎƉĬ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ł  Ÿÿƃł Ŕ ƦƤ œ ňƌĪœ ƎÿƉł :ťÿƍŅ ƃł Ŕ ĬķŴ Ņ ƃŏŔƦ Ŕ ł Ƈ Ɖ ň ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ťƣŅ ĬŅ Ļ  Ŕ ĥ :ķĭųɝƢ ŏ ł ĥ IJ Ɖ ĭĬŏ :ĬŁŔ Ŵÿɝ ň ŏ œ ł Ņœ ł Ō ň ň .ƎƀɚŌ ƃŅœ Įķĭ ł ĭĬ ŏ Łœ ķĭƦ  ô ƌĥĭ :ŧ űũŔ ƕ ƁƆŦĭų  ƌ ł ł ł ł ł Ŕ ƘŔ ĭł :ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ƈłƕų  ňƍƖ  ŹƢ  ũłŔ ū  œ ĭô Ʀ Ŕ Ŷĥ ň ĭł :Ŵô ŨŔ ĬĿ ł ƦƏĥ œ ĭň ťſ .ųňƍƖ  ŹƢ  ũłŔ ū  œ įƦ ň ł ň ł Ņ ŏ ł ź  Ũť Ŕ ƙƠƏ ŅŔ ĥŸ  ƃłŔƦƣ œ ĥĭň .ƋƇ ƣŧ  ĿŴ  ƕŵ  Ũĭ Ŕ :IJƢŌƣť ł ŨŅœ ĿłƎƉ .ƎƀƊ ň ƀƍŅ ŨňŔ Īœ ųňƍƖ ň :ĭƞłŨŔ ĭł Ūſ Ņ Ō ł łƕƢ ŏ Ŕ ŴſĿŌĽĭ .ŦƦſ Ŕ ƢƠ  Ɔ  Ŵô ƄŔ ƘĬ łŔ ĭł :ĬƢňƊŶƈ Ņ  ũłŔ ū  œ Ŵô ƇƠƣ ł ĭł :ķĭųƀ ŏ ƣł ŴòũƆ ł ŭſ







 



 



 

  

Ch. 



The servant brought the men to Joseph’s house and gave them water and they washed their feet. He provided fodder for their animals.



The men prepared the gift before Joseph arrived at noon because they had heard that there they would eat the meal.



Joseph entered the house and they brought the gift in their hands to the house. They bowed down to the ground before him.



He asked about their welfare and said to them, “Is your father, the old man about whom you spoke to me, well? Is he still living?”



They answered, “Your servant, our father, is well.” They said to him, “He is still living.” They knelt and bowed down.



He raised his eyes and saw his brother Benjamin, his mother’s son. He said to them, “Is this your youngest brother about whom you spoke to me?” Then he said, “May God be gracious to you, my son.”



Joseph hurried away because his feelings of affection for his brother were stirred. He needed to weep so he went into a private room and wept there.



He washed his face, went out and controlled himself. Then he said that they should serve the meal.



They served him by himself, and them by themselves, and the Egyptians, who were eating with him, by themselves because the Egyptians could not eat a meal with the Hebrews, since that is an abomination for the Egyptians.



They sat before him. The eldest according to his seniority and the youngest according to his youth. Each of the men looked at each other with amazement.



They took portions for them from before him. Benjamin’s portion was five times larger than all their portions. Then they drank and became drunk with him.



Ņ ł ň ň Ŕ ŧ ǔňũŔ ūŧ Ŕł űŅœũŔ łƕƈň ƕĥ  ĭł űƃ  ħŔ ųô ÿłſĭ :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſ Ʀƀ Ŕ ũƆ :ķĭųÿƀ ŏ ł Ƈ ūŔ ǓŴô ÿŬƀ Ō ĭť ł ÿƀò Ɖ Ŕ ƣĥ Ņ .ķĭĬƢ ŏ ƀŌƖũŔ ƆŦ ł ƦƐ Ŕ ƃňŔ ƁƉĿĥ Ō ĭł ł ŏ ň Ņ ł œ ň ł ň Ņ ł Ņ Ņ œ ŏ ň łœ ň ł ł Īłœ ƈź ƎÿƉŅ ŁŔ ĪœŴô ÿƖƊƣ Ɖ  :ŧ Ŀų ź  Ũ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſĵ  Ťƕ űŔƕ :ťƍŨĿŴ  Ɵ ŧ ǔũŔ ū  Ŵô ƍƟ ŁŔ ĭ ųƃ Ō Ņ .ťƊŷ Ņ ƆƎƀ ł Ƈ ƃŔĥ Ō Ņ Ņ :ŦƦÿ œ ÿƀũłŔ Ɔ ķĭųÿ ŏ ÿſűłŔɖòŤŨŌŔ Īť Ŕ ÿ ƍŅ ŨĿŴ Ņœ Ɵŏ ųÿ Ɔň Ŵÿ ſƦſĥ œ ĭł :ŦƦÿ œ ÿƀũłŔ Ɔ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ÿ łſƈÿ łƕĭ Ŵƃ ł .ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ƈłƕų  Ɔ ň ĭô űŔŬƏ Ŕň ĭł ŏ ł ň Ņ Ņ ŏ ŏł ŏ Ņ Ņ łœ ň ł Ō ŁƢ .ƁÿƆķĭ œ Ɖĥ  Īť Ŕ ũŔ ƏķŴ  ƃŴŔ ŨŔ ĥ ĭĬƋ ô Ƈƣ  :ķĭųɝƢ ŏ ł ĭňķĭųƊ Ɖĥ ŏ ƇƤ  Ũ ĵŤƣĭ  ŵƃ Ō .ĭĬô ŏ Ɓʖ ł ƈƀƃœ űƕ łŔ Ņ ł ĭň :ķŴŨŏ Ŕ ĥł ĴŔ űŅœũŔ łƕ ĭĬƋ ł ĭô űŔÿłƖƟĭł :ĭĬô ŏ Ɓÿʖƈÿƀ ƃŌœ űƕ łŔ ųÿƆň ĭô ƢÿƉĥ ô ŏ Ƈƣ  ĭô ƢƉĥ ł ĭň Ÿƃ .ĭôűŔŬƏ Ŕň ĭł ň ł ň Ņ ň Ņ ł ł ĭň :ųÿƉň ĥƢ Ŵÿƌł ĬŅ :ķĭųÿɝƢ ŏ ÿƉĥ  ÿŨł œ IJĬô ŴÿŶŏ ĥƎƀ  ĭIJĬô ŴƍłəòɯƋſ ł ĿĥŌ ĭł Żƃ  Ɗ  ƀƍ ũƆ Ŕ ŏ Ŧ ŵŶ ł ł ł ň Ō Ņ ƕĮķŴ ŏ ŏŔ Ŷŏ ĥ ƃŴ .IJô ƢŨňœ ƅƀ  œ ł Ƈ ƕƋŶň ƢƌŦ ł ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥ :ƢƉĥ  ĭ .ƁƆķĭ  ŁƢ œ Ɖĥ ł Īňœ :ŧ ĿŴ ł ŏ ň ň ł ł łœ ň ł ǓłŴô ÿ Ƈū ťÿ ƖŅ ŨŔ ĭł :IJĬŴ ô ÿ Ŷŏ ĥ ƈÿ łƕIJĬô Ŵÿ ƊŶ ŔŅ Īœ ƈÿ źƉ  ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ÿſ ħ  Ŕ ĬĿ  Ʀÿ  ÿƏĥĭ ĵ łŅ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł łƕĭ Ŕ  :ťƄŅœ ũŔ Ɗ ň Ɔ . ƎƉ  ŁŔ ťƄŔ ŨŔ ĭť  ƌĭƦƆƈ ł .ťƊŷ Ņ ƆķŴ ł Ɗƀ ŏ Ɛƌ Ō Īłœ ƢƉĥ  Ŕ ƣĥ Ō ĭł Ƨ ł ĭň :ƎƐƊ ň Ŷĭơ ł ƙƌ łŔ ĭł :IJĬô Ŵò Ƙł œ ĥ ŭƀ Ō Ņ ňŅ ň ł ųÿƊň łƕƎÿƀ  Ƈ ƃĥ Ŕ Īť Ŕ ɕǓƞƊƆ  ĭ :ķĭųſ ŏ ĪŴ łŔ ŷɤ ŏ Ũłœ ķĭųɝ ŏ ĭł :IJĬĭ ô ĪŴ łŔ ŷɤ ŏ Ũłœ ųƆ ň Ŵô ƊƏĭ Ņ ŪƆ Ņ ŏ ň ŏ ĪŴ :ťÿňɕǔŅũŔ ň ƕƋ  ÿłƕťƊŷ Ņ Ɔ ł ƈƃŤł Ŕ ƊƆť ň ňɕǓŅƞƉƎƀ ň ʛ Ō ƄƤ œ Ɖ ň ƧĪœ ƈź Ɖ  :ķĭųſ łŔ ŷɤ ŏ Ũłœ Ņ ł ŏ ň .ťňɕǓŅƞƊƆ ň IJĬô ŦŁĭŤ Ŕ Ɗ ŏ ŹĪœƈź Ɖ  ň ŏ ŏ ł Ņ Ō ł ł Ņ ŏ ł ň ŏ Ō ł Ŕ ÿƤƀƤ Ɵ ƅÿſ  Ŕ ĥ ťÿƤƀ Ƥ Ɵ :IJĬŴ ô ÿƉł űƟ ŅŔ  Ŵô ƄŔ Ɖ ň ƦƏĥ œ ĭň ŭƆ  ÿƕĮ ƅÿſ  Ŕ ĥ ŧ ĿŴ  ÿƕĮĭ :ĬŁŴ :ĬŁĭŔ ĿŴ ł ŁŔĭł .ĬƢňũŔ ŷł Ũœ ƢũłŔ ūŧ Ŕ ǔňũŔ ū ł œ ĭô ųƉ ňŅ ň òŅ ň Ņ ň Ɗ ŏ Ŵô ƇƠƣ ł ĭł űƆ  ƁŬƏ Ŕ Ō ĭł :IJĬŴ ô Ɖ ł űƟƎ ŅŔ Ɖ ň ƨ Ơò ƣķĭųɝ ÿƉƎÿƀ ň ƀƍŅ Ũň Ŕ Īœ ųƇ Ơƣ ƨ ÿƠƣƎ Ō ň òŅ ł . ųƊ ň łƕ ŴſĭĿ Ō ĭł ŴſƦ ň Ŷł :ķĭųɤ ŏ ƃŏŔĪŔ œ ƣĥĭ  ķŴ ɩƉ ƥƊ

















 





Ch. 



Take double the money in your hands, and the money that was put back on top of your loads bring back in your hands. Perhaps it was an error.



Take your brother, get up and return to the man.



May Elshaddai grant you favor before the man and may he send your other brother and Benjamin with you. As for me, just as I was bereft, I am bereft.”

LXIX



The men took this gift and they took double the money in their hands. They brought Benjamin with them and they rose and went down to Egypt and they stood before Joseph.



Joseph saw Benjamin with them and said to the head of his household, “Bring the men to the house, slaughter an animal and prepare it because the men will eat with me at noon.”



The servant did as Joseph said. He brought the men to Joseph’s house.



They grew fearful as they brought them into Joseph’s house. They said, “It is because of the money that previously was put back on our loads that they have brought us here in order to dominate us and deal treacherously with us so that they might make us and our donkeys serve them.”



They approached Joseph’s head of household and they spoke with him at the door of the house.



They said to him, “O my lord, 1 we came down previously to buy produce.



When we went to our place of lodging, we opened our loads and there was the money of each one on top of his load. We have brought back our money in our hands in its full weight.



We have brought down other money in our hands to buy produce. We do not know who put our money on top of our loads.”



He said to them, “Be well, do not be afraid. Your God, the God of your father put your treasure in your loads. Your money reached me.” Then he restored Simeon to them. 1

‘O my lord,’: lit. ‘We are pleading, our lord,’.



ł Ņ œ ƃĭ Ņ œ ĥłťÿƙƐ Ņ œ ƃňŔĭ Ūſ ł Ŕ Īť ŏ œ űłŔɖòŤŨŌœ Ŵô ÿ ũŔ Əť :ķŴÿƄŏ œ ɛò ɫƖ ł ŹĶŴ  ÿƙŏ Ŕ Ũœ ƅŔ ÿƘĬ łŔ ÿƙƐ ňŔ .ķŴÿƄſ ł ÿƙƕ ł .IJĬô Ō ƁɚƕŴ ł ŏŹ ťƊƆ Ņ Īłœ :ķŴƄſ ŏœ űłŔɖòŤŨŌœ Ŵô ƄŔ ƘĬ ň œ ĥ ł .ŧ ƢŅũŔ ū ł œ ŁŔŴɝ Ņ Ŵô ƃŴ Ŕ ƘĬ ŏŔ ĭłŴô ƉŴƟĭ ŏ :ĭƢŨłŔ Īœ ķŴƃŴ ŏŔ Ŷŏ Ƨĭ  ŭſ ł ŏ ł łœ ł ł Ņ łœ Ņ ň ł ň ŏ Ŕ Ŷŏ ƧķŴ ťÿƌŅ ƢŶ Ō ôĥķŴÿƃŴ  ƄƊ  űƤ ƌĭ :ŧ ƢũŔ ū  ĶűƟť Ŕ ƊŶ  ǔɝķŴƄƆ ŏŔ Ʀ œ ňƌ IJűłœƤł ɤſĥĭŌ űſ Ŕ ƕĿ ł ňŔ ĭł .Ʀſ Ŕ ŵŌū ł œ Ʀſ Ŕ ŵŌū Ŕł Īœ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ťƌĥŅ ĭňƎƀƊ ň ƀƍŅ ũƆ



 

ŻƏįĽ

Ņ œ ƃňŔĪť Ņ œ ĭł :ťÿƌŅ Ĭť ĭô ƢÿŨł Ŕ ĪŔĭł .ķĭųÿſ ŏ űłŔɖòŤŨŌœ Ŵô ÿũŔ Ɛ ł ƌ ťÿƙƐ Ŕ ÿƙƕĥ Ņ ƍŅŨĿŴ Ņœ Ɵŏ ŧ ǔňũŔ ū ł œ Ŵô ũŔ Ɛƌ ł ĭł ųſ ňŔ ķĭųƊ ŏ łƕ .ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſĶ  űƟ ŅŔ Ŵô ƊƟĭ Ņ ƎſĿƞň ƊƆ ň ĭô Ʀ Ŕ ŷƌ ň ĭłŴô ƊƟĭ Ņ :ƎƀƊ ň ƀƍŅ ũƆ ł ň œ ł œ œł ł ĭň .ƎÿƀƊ ŧ ǔňÿũŔ ū ł œ ƈÿňƕĥ :ĬƦÿƀ  Ũ ħ ňŔ ķĭųÿƊ ŏ łƕ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ÿłſŦ ŵŶ Ņ ĭł Ŵſ  ƢÿɝƢ  ÿƉĥ ň ƀƍŅ ũƆ Ņ ł ŏ ł Ņ Ņ Ō œ ũłŔ Ɔ .ŧ Ŀų Ņ ź  ŨŔ ŧ ǔňũŔ ū ł œ ƎƀƇ ƃŔĥƁô ƊłƕĪœ ƈź Ɖ ň :ƎƟň Łĭ Ŕ ŦƦƐ Ŕ ƄŔ ňƌĸŴ  ƃĭ ŏŔ :ŦƦƀ ň ł ł Ŕ ĭł ŵſ ňŔ ŧ ǔňũŔ ŬƆ Ŕ ł ķŴƌŏĥ ƈň ƕĥ  ĭł :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſƢ  Ɖĥ ł Īňœ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ŧ űŅœũŔ łƕ űŔũƕ .ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſ Ʀƀ Ŕ ũƆ ŏ ň Ō ł łœ ň ł Ņ œ ƃňœ ƈź ł Ŕ Īť ƅ Ŕ ÿƘĬ ňŔ ķĭųɝƎƀ ŏ  Ɖ ƇƖ  űŔƃŴô ƇŶ ĪŔĭ Ÿɖ łŔ ÿƙƐ Ɖ  ĭô ƢƉĥ ł ĭň .ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſ Ʀƀ Ŕ ũƆ ł Ņ ŏ Ņ ň ł ł Ō ł Ņ ł ł œ Ɖ ò ź  Ũœ :ƎÿƀƇƕ  ŴƇ ƄŔ ƌƦ Ŕ ƊƆ  ĭ :ƎƀƇƕ  ŴŨŏ Ŕ Ŀĭ  ĿƦ Ŕ ƊƆ ň :ƎƆƎƀ  ƇƖ  ƉŦ ł Ʀƀ Ņ űŔƠł Ũœ Ǝƀƍłɳ .ķǔłƊŷƆ ň ĭł :ŧ űňœũò Ŕ łƕƎ  ƌĭ Ņ űŏŔũƖ œ ňƌĪœ ň Ņ ł ň ł Ŕ Ũœ ųƊ ň łƕŴô ƇƇ Ɖĭ  :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſĪœ ĬƦƀ .ŦƦƀ œ ŨłŔ Īť Ņ Ʀ œ Ũłœ ħ Ŕ ƕĿ  œ Ŀŧ ł ƢŅũŔ ū ł œ ŁŔŴɝ Ņ Ŵô ŨŔ ƢƟ ň ĭł Żſ Ņ Ņ ł œ ň ŏ Ŕ ƊƊ .ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ũƕƢ Ņ ƆŦ ł Ʀƀ œ Ɖ  űŔƠ Ũ ķƦ Ŕ ŷƌ  Ʀ Ŕ ŷł Ɖ ň :ķƢłƉ Ņ Ǝƍƀł ň ƖŨŅœ :ųƆ ň ĭô ƢƉĥ ł ĭň Ĵ ň ł Ņ ł ł ň œ ƃŦ Ŕ Ƙ œ :ŦŁŴ œ ÿŨł œ Ʀƀ ňŔ ƎƆĮłĥ űŔƃĭ Ŕ ťƃ ĶŴÿƙŏ Ŕ Ũŧ Ŕ ƢŅÿũŔ ū Ŕł Īœ ųÿƙƐ ňŔ Ĭĭ Ņ :Ǝÿƀò ɫƖ ł ŹƎÿŶ  Ʀ Ŕ ũƆ ł ň Ņ ł œ łœ ňœ ň ł ň Ō Ņ œ ł œ  Ź .ķűſŤ Ŕ Ũ IJųô ƀƍƄŔ ƘĬ  ĥ ųƇ Ɵ Ʀ Ŕ Ɗ  Ũ ƎƙƐ  ƃ :ųƍƖ ł Ō Ņ Ņ ŏ ł œ ƃňœ ƋÿƏŅ Ŵÿƍŏ ƉƎÿƕ ƎÿƙƐ ł űłŔɖ Ō Ƨ :ŧ ĿŴ  ÿũƕƢ Ņ Ɔķ ł űſŤ łŔ ŨŌœ ķƦ Ŕ Ŷň ĥť  ƌŅƢŶ  ôĥťƙƐ Ņœ ƃĭ ňŔ Ūƃ Ŕ ƊƊ ł ł ŹĶŴ  ƙŏŔ Ũœ .ƎƀòɫƖ Ņ ł ł ŏ ň Ņ Ņ ŏŔ ŏŔ Ɔ ŏ Ŕ Ũĥŏ Ŕ ĪŦ Ņ ÿƃŴ Ŕ Ƨ :ķŴÿƄƆƋ  :ķĭųɝƢ Ƈƣ ŏ ł ĥ ŭƃ Ɖ łŔ ųŅ ÿƆŅ ĥķŴ  ÿƃų Ņ ĥ :ķŴÿƇŶĪŔŁ ƋÿƏķŴ ł Ņ ň œ ĭł .IJ ŁŴÿɝƈ ķĭĬŏ ŁŔŴÿɝ Ņ ơÿƘĥ ÿłƕķŴƄŏŔ ƙƐ œ ƃňœ .ķŴƄŏœ ɛò ɫƖ ł ź  ŨŔ ŦƦƊƀ Ŕ ƏķŴ Ō ƄƆ ŏŔ ô Ŕ Ņ .ķŴƖƊ ŏ ƤƆ ň







 

  





Ch. 

Chapter  

The famine was severe in the land.



When they finished eating the produce that they had brought from Egypt, Jacob their father said to them, “Go down 1 and buy for us a little more produce.”



Judah said to him, “The man sternly charged us saying, ‘You will not see my face unless your brother is with you.’



If you will send our brother with us, we can go down and buy produce for us.



If you will not send [him], we will not go down because the man said to us, ‘You will not see my face unless your brother is with you.’”



Israel their father said to them, “Why have you treated me badly? You informed the man that you had a brother.”



They said, “The man interrogated us about ourselves and our family. He said, ‘Is your father still alive? Do you have a brother?’ We told him because of these questions. 2 How could we possibly have known that he would say to us, ‘Bring down your brother’?”



Judah said to his father Israel, “Send the youth with us. 3 We will rise, go and live. We will not die — both ourselves and you and even our children.



I pledge myself for him. From my hands demand him. If I do not bring him back to you and stand him before you, then I will have sinned against my father 4 forever.



If we had not delayed, perhaps we would have returned twice.”



Their father Israel said to them, “If it is so, do this. Take some of the best of the fruits of the land in your bags and bring down a gift to the man: a bit of balsam, a bit of honey, resin, pistachios, terebinth nuts and almonds. 



MT: ‘return’. ‘questions’: lit. ‘words’. 3 MT: ‘with me’. 4 MT: ‘you’. 1 2



ŭƉ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

.ťƕĿ Ņ ŤŨłœ ƎƤƕť ň ƍŅƙŔ ƃĭ łŔ ň Ō ł Ņ ŏ ŏ łſķĭ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ ħŴ  ųÿɝƢ ŏ ÿƉł ĥ :ƎÿſĿƞň ƉƎ ň Ɖ ň Ŵô ſƦſĥ œ Īŧ Ŕ ĿŴ  ũƕ łŔ ƊƆ ň ĭô ƢƊ ł ū ł œ űŔƃĭ łŔ Ŕ ƈƃŤ ł Ō ł ł ŏŔ Ŕ Ŷŏ :ķĭĬŴ ŏ Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ .ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ũƕƈƀ Ƈ ƟƎ  Ɔ  ĭô ĿŴƉ ŏ ĭô ŁŴ ň Ņ ł ň Ņ ł łœ ň ł ŏ Ņ ł Ņ ŏ Ō ň ł Ņ ł Ŕ ƧŅĥň :ƁÿƘò ł œ ĥłķĭŵÿŶ Ŕ Ƨ :ƢÿƉĥĭŧ  ƢũŔ ū  œ ƎŨ ĪŔų Ə ŏ Ł  ĭĪŔų ƐƉŧ  ĪĭŔ ų ſų űŔÿƃ  ƆƢ  Ɖ  ĥ ł ŏ ŏ ł .ķŴƄƊ Ŕ ƕ ķŴƃŴ Ŕ Ŷŏ ĥ ł œ ł łœ ł ň ŏ Ŕ ƆĿŴ .ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ũƕƎ ł Ɗƌ ŏ ĭł ŁŴ Ŕ ŷŏ ňƌ :ƎƊ ł łƕķŴ  Ŷŏ Ƨ Ʀ  ô ƌĥĿűƤ Ɖķĥ łò œ ł ŏ ň Ņ œ ł ł ň Ņ ł œ ŏ ň ł Ō œ Ņ Ņ œ ł ł œ ł Ņ ň  Ɖ  ĥŧ  ƢũŔ ū Ŕ Ī ƈź Ɖ  :Ǝƍſ Ʀŷ  ƌ  Ƨ :Ʀ  ô ƌĥĿűƤ ƉƧķĥ  ĭ  ŵÿŶ  ŁŔ ƧĪ :ƎƆƢ :ƁÿƘĥķĭ ł ł Ņň ŏ ŏ ł ŏ .ķŴƄƊ Ŕ ƕķŴ  ƃŴ Ŕ Ŷ ĥ űŔƃŔ Ƨĥ ň ň ł ł ŏ ł ŏ Ō Ʀ Ņ Ō ĥķĭųÿ  ÿ ƍŅ ƊƆ Ņ :ķĭĬŴ ŏ ÿ Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ ƈÿÿſĥƢƐſ ŏ ÿɝƢÿ Ɖł ĥ ķĭƦſ œ ŴŌ ÿ Ŷĭ :Ɓÿ Ɔķĭ œ ÿ ƣŤŨň Ŕ ĥť ň ł ŏ .ťŶŅ ĥķŴ  ƄƆ Ŕ Ʀſ Ŕ Ō ĥķ  ĥŧ  ƢŅũŔ ŬƆ Ŕ ł ň Ņł ł ł ĭķ Ŕ ÿŨƢœ ƣƈ ł ÿłƕĭƎÿƀł Ƈƕŧ  ƢŅÿũŔ ū ł œ ĵŤƣł ŴƆ ŏ ŤƤƉ  :ĭôƢƉĥ ł ĭň ƈÿƀƃŌœ űƕ łŔ :ƢÿƉĥ ň Ʀ ň ň ł ŏ ň ł :ťŶŅ ĥł ķŴƄƆ Ŕ ĭŌ :ƁʖķŴ ł ƃŴ ŏŔ Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ ĺűłœÿƉň .ƎÿƀƆ ň Ĭ Ņ ƨ ÿƉò ƈÿźƉ  IJųô ƀƍſŅ ŴŌ ÿŶĭ ŏŔ Ʀſĥ ł ň ł ł ł Ņœ ł .ķŴƃŏŔŴŶŏ Ƨĭô Ʀ Ŕ Ŷ ĥ ƎƆƢ  Ɖĥ  Ī ƎſĭĬƎƀ ô ŌƕűŔŅſ ňŅ Ō Ņ ŏŌ ł ň ł ł ťÿŶň Ťƌĭĵ Ō ĮŤł ƌĭĶŴ Ō ŏ ĭł :ƎƊ Ơƌ ł łƕť  ƀˁ Ņ ŹĿ  űłœƣł :IJĬŴ ô Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ ƈſĥƢƐſ  ĪĭŔ ų ſƢ Ƨŧ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ņ łœ ł Ō Ņ œ ł Ņ ł Ņ ŏ  Ŕ ĥ :ŁŴ Ŕ Ɗƌ  Ƨĭ   Ơ ſ Ļ  Ŕ ĥ :Ʀ  ô ƌĥ Ļ  Ŕ ĥ :ƎƍŶ Ļ .ķŁƢ Ō ň ň Ņ ň Ņ Ņň Ō ł Ņ ň  Ŕ Ƣɯť  ƌĥ IJĬô ŴÿƀƊƀ Ō Ɵĥ Ō ĭł :ƅ Ŕ ÿƆŅ IJĬô ŴſƦſ œ ĥ  Ƨķ  ĥ .IJųô ƀƖŅŨłŔ Łœ IJűłŔɖòĥƎ  Ɖ  :ųŨť Ŕ ƌôĥ ħ Ņ Ņ ò ł ŏ ŏœ Ņ ň ň œ ł Ņ .ŦƦ Ŕ Ɖ  Ŵ ɖķĭ  ųɤ  ƃƁô ŨŔ Ƨ ťź  Ŷĥ :ƅƀ  Ɖ  űƟ Ŕ ň ň ň ł Ņ ł ł Ŕ ƎſĪňœ ƢũłŔ ƃœ :ķƢŶĭ .ƎƀòɫŌ ŨŔ ĮƎſ ł Łœ ĿŁŔ Īœ ƎƄŔ ƘĬ ł Ʀƣ œ ĥ ƧŴ Ɔ ŏ ĥ Ļĥ  Ŕ ĭŅ ň ňŅ Ō ł ň Ŕ ŧ Īň ŔĬŅ :ĭĬť ô ÿƍł ƃłŔĬķ Ņ ĥ :ķĭĬŴ ŏ ÿŨŏ Ŕ ĥ ƈſĥƢƐſ ĥķĭųɝƢ ŏ ł ĭň Ɖĥ ƎÿƉň Ŵô ÿũŔ Ə ł :ĭôűŔÿũƕ Ō Ņ Īłœ ųñ ŨŴ Ņ Ŕ ÿ ŏŹ ň ĭł :ķŴÿ Ƅŏ œ ɛò ɧłŤƊ :ŦĭĿ Ņ Ľƈÿ ł ÿƀƇ Ɵł :ťÿ ƍŅ ŨŅœ ĿŴƟŏ ŧ ƢŅÿ ũŔ ŬƆ Ŕ ł ĭô Ʀ Ŕ ÿ Ŷĥ Ņ ŨŔ ťÿ ƕĿĥ ň ň ň Ņ ň ň ł Ņ ňœ Ō ł .ŧ űňœŬ Ŕò ƣň ĭ :ťƊ ò źŨĭ  :ťƍŹ  Ĭ Ǔĭ :ťƤ ŨŔ Ī ƈƀƇ Ɵĭ  Ŕ :ťƊò źƆĭ



ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



į



İ



IJ  ťſ 

Ch. 



One of them opened his sack to give his donkey fodder at the lodging place and he saw his money put on top of his load.



He said to his brothers, “My money has been returned. Look, it is on top of my load.” Their hearts quaked. Each one looked astonished at his brother and said, “What is this that God has done to us?”



They came to their father Jacob in the land of Canaan and they recounted to him everything that had happened to them and said to him,



“The man, the lord of the land, spoke with us harshly. He considered us spies of the land.



We said to him, ‘We are upright; we are not spies.



We are twelve brothers, sons of our father, but one is no longer. The youngest is with our father today in the land of Canaan.’



The man, the lord of the land, said to us, ‘By this I will know that you are upright: leave one of your brothers with me. Take the produce for the famished of your households and go.



Then bring your youngest brother to me and I will know that you are not spies, but that you are upright. I will give back your brother to you and you can do business in the land.’”



When they were emptying their sacks, there was the money-bag of each of them on top of their load. They and their father looked at their money-bags and became afraid.



Their father Jacob said to them, “You have left me destitute. Joseph is no longer. Simeon is no longer. You will take Benjamin. All these things end badly for me.”



Rubel said to his father, “You can put to death my two sons if I do not bring him back to you. Hand him over to me and I will return him to you.”



He said, “My son will not go down with you for his brother is dead. He alone remains for his mother. 1 Misfortune could happen to him on the way that you are going and you will bring down my old age in misery to Sheol.”

1

Absent in the MT.



Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ƆŦ Ņ ƊƆ Ŧ ŵÿŶ Ņ ĭł :ŦŁŴ œ ÿŨł œ Ʀƀ Ŕ ƘŔ ĭł ŵƃ ł ƦƐ Ŕ ƃňŔ ŴƀŏƉƢ ł :ųƠň Əķĭ ł ųƍ ŏ Ɖ ň űŔŶį ł Ʀ Ŕ Ũňœ ĬƢňƊŷ ł ňœ ƃňŔ .ųňƍƖ  ŹĶŴ  ƙŏ Ŕ Ũœ ƋƀƏŌ ųƙƐ ł ł ł ň œ ƃňŔ ƁÿƍŌ Ƙł œ ŁŔĥň :IJĬô ŴòÿŶł ƧƢ  ÿƉĥ ĭ Ÿƃ :ķĭųŏ ÿũœ Ɔĺ ň Įĭ Ņ .Ɓÿ ô ÿƍƖŹĶŴ  ÿƙŏ Ŕ ŨŔ ĭĬŦ ŏ Ĭĭ Ņ :Ɓô ÿƙƐ ł Ņ ł .ŦųŅ Ɔ  ĥƎ  Ɔ  űŔũƕ łŔ Īŧ łŔ Īň ŔĬŅ IJĬô ťƍŅƉ Ņ :ĭôƢƉĥ ł ĭň .IJĬŴ ô ŶŤ ŏ Ũłœ ƢũłŔ ūœ ĭô ųƉ ł ŁŔĭł ł ł ł :ķĭųɝŀ ŏ űłŔūŔ Īłœ ƈƃŏœIJĬô ŴſŴŌŶĭ ł :ƎƖƍłƃŔĪť łŔ ƕĿ Ņ Ƨ :ķĭĬŴ ŏ Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ ŁŔŴɝ Ņ ĭŁĥ Ŕ ĭň Żƃ ł ĭň : ųƆ ň ĭô ƢƉĥ Ō Ņ ł ł ł Ņ łœ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ł łœ ł ň ł .ťƕŅĿĥĪť łŔ ƣň ŴòƤŏ ū Ņ œ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ƎũƤ  Ŷ ĭ :Ʀſ Ŕ ŤƀƤ  ƟƎ  Ɗ  ƕť  ƕĿĥ  Ī Ĭñ ƢƉŧ  ƢũŔ ū  œ ƈƇ Ɖ  ĵ Ņ ł òŅ Ō œ ň  Ɖĥ ł ĭň Ƨ .ťƣň Ŵò Ƥŏ ū Ņ œ ƎſĭłĬ ô Ƨĭ  :ƎƍŶ  ťƌŤƃ :ųƆķƢ ł ł ł ň œ ł ł ł Ņ ł ł ł ŏ ĭł .IJĬĭ Ō ĥƎ  ƍŶƢ  Ɛƕ  ĿŁ ŪƆ ĭĬķŴ Ŕ Ɔ  űŔÿŶĭ :ķŴÿŨŏ Ŕ ĥ ƁòƍŨœ Ǝƀòʖ ô ŏ ÿŨŏ Ŕ ĥ ŁŔŴÿɝ  ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ÿƕĮ ô Ʀÿƀ Ņ ł ł ł œ .ƎƖƍƃŔĪť Ŕ ƕĿŤ  Ũ :ťƍŅƉŴ Ņ łſ ŏ ł ň œ ł œň ň Ņ œ Ņ ł œ ñ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł œ ł ł ň ŏ Ŕ Ŷŏ ĥł :ķĭƦÿ ł ÿƃŴ œ ô ƌĥ ťÿòƌ ŤƃŌ Ŕ Īĺ  Īĥŧ ĪŔų ÿŨ :ťÿƕĿĥĪ Ĭ ƢÿƉŧ ƢÿũŔ ū űŔÿŶķŴ  ƎƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ŭƆ łœ Ņ ł ň ò ł Ņ ŏ ł ŏ ŏŔ Ņ ň ł ò œ .ŴôƆĮĭ  Ŵô ũŔ ƏķŴ  Ƅ ɖƦ  ũŔ ŨŔ ĪŔ ťƍƙŔ ƄƆ  ũƕ  Ŵô ƟŴũƣ Ŕ ŧ ĿŴ Ŕ ĭ :IJô ŁŔŴɝ ň Ō Ņň ň ò ŏ Ņœ ŏ œ ł Ņ œ łœ ň ł ŏ ŏ Ŕ Ŷŏ Ƨł ĭƦÿ Ŕ Ƨĥ :ťÿ ƣŴ Ƥ ū  ķĭƦÿ  ÿſĭĬ  ƧĪĺ  Īĥ ĭ :IJô ŁŔŴÿ ťÿ òƌ Ťƃ Ņ ÿɝŧ ĿŴ Ņ ÿ ƕĮķŴ ÿ ƃŴ œ ÿſĥĭł űƆ ň œň ŏ ŏ ł łň Ņ ł ŏ ł  œ ô ƌĥ Ŕ ƕĿŤ  Ũĭ Ŕ :ķŴƄƆĵ ŏŔ ŁĥķŴ  ƃŴ Ŕ Ŷ Ƨĭ  .ķĭƦ .ķĭƢŏū  œ Łœ Łť ň œ ƃňŔĪŧ ĶŴÿƙŏ Ŕ Ũŧ Ŕ ƢŅÿũŔ ū Ŕł Īœ ųÿƙƐ Ŕ ĿŅĿĽŦ Ņ ĬŅ :ķĭųŏ ÿƀò Ơł Ə ł ƎÿƀƟƢ Ō ƐƉ ł ķŴÿƌŏ Ĭň űŔƃłŔĪŦ Ŕ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł ųƆ ł  Ź .ŴôƇŶň ĪŔĭł :ķĭĬŴ ŏ Ũĥŏ Ŕ ĭķŴ ł ƌŏĬķĭ ň ųŏ ƙƐ œ ƃňœ IJǓłĿĽŅ ĭŵŶ ł ĭł :ųňƍƖ ł ŏ ł Ō ł ł ň ł ķŴƖƊ ŏ ƣĭ ň :IJĬĭ ô Ʀƀ œ Ɔ  ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſ :ķĭƦſ œ ŵŌū Ŕ ƁƆ  :ķĭĬŴ ŏ Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſķĭ  ųɝƢ ŏ ł ĭň ŴƆ Ɖĥ ň ň Ņ ň ł ł ł ô Ʀƀ œ Ɔ  .Ǝſųɤ ň ƃŏœƁô Ɗ ò ɤƣ ň Ɓł Ƈƕ  :ķĭƢŏŨœ ĪŔŁœ ƎƀƊ  ƀƍ ũƆ Ŕ ĭ :IJĬĭ ň ł Ņ ł Ō ł ň Ŕ ĿƢ ł ĭň ŵƆ ŏ ÿ Ɖĥ Ŕ Ɔ ł :IJĬŴ ô ÿ Ũŏ Ŕ Ƨƈÿ  ÿƀŨĭ :ƅ Ŕ ÿ ƆŅ IJĬô ŴÿÿſƦſ œ ĥ  Ƨķĥ Ʀÿ Ŕ ÿƀƉ Ō Łœ Ɓÿ òƍŨœ ƎÿÿſĿňƦ ł ł Ō IJųô ƀƊ Ņ ɤƣ ň ĥ .ƅ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ IJĬô ŴƀƄŌŔ ƘĬ  œ ĥťƌĥŅ ĭň :ƁƆ Ņ ł ň ŏ ň ŏ Ũł Ŕ ĭĬĭ IJĬô ĭĪŴ łŔ ÿŷɤ ŏ :Ʀÿƀ Ŕ Ɖ Ō IJĬô ŴÿŶĥŏ Īłœ ƈź Ɖ  :ķŴƄƊ ŏŔ łƕIJô ƢŨňœ Ʀ Ŕ ŷň ƌ Ņ Ƨ :ƢƉĥ  ĭ ŸƆ Ō Ņ ŏ Ņ Ō ň łœ ň ň ł œ ň ŏ ł ň ŏ ŏ ł œ Ŕ ŶĿĭŤ  ŨŔ ťƏĿŤ  Ɵų  Ɔŀ  űŬ Ŕ ƌĭ :ųƉƧƢ  Ŷ Ʀƣ  ĥ Ŕ Łĭ Ŕ ķŴƆ ô Įĥ ŁŔ Īť IJô ŁŴ Ŕ ÿũƀƏķĭ  ƦŶ ł Ņ ŏ .ĵŴƀƤ  Ɔť  ƌĭ  ĭŏűłŔŨœ









  













Ch. 



Joseph said to them, “It is as I said to you. You are spies.



You will be put to the test in this way: not 1 on Pharaoh’s life you will not leave here unless your youngest brother comes here.



Send one of you and let him bring your brother. But you remain imprisoned. Then your words will be tested as to whether you have spoken 2 truly, if not, on Pharaoh’s life, 3 you are spies.”



He put them in prison for three days.



On the third day Joseph said to them, “Do this and you will live. I fear God.



If you are upright, let one of your brothers remain in your imprisonment, but you go and bring back the produce for the famished in your households.



Bring your youngest brother to me and your words will be confirmed and you will not die.” They did accordingly.



They said to one another, “We are truly guilty over our brother for we saw his anguish when he pleaded with us but we did not listen to him. This is why this distress has befallen us.”



Rubel answered and said to them, “Did I not say to you, ‘Do not sin against the youth’? But you did not listen and now his blood is avenged.”



They did not know that Joseph was listening because the translator was standing between them.



He turned away from them and wept. Then he returned to them and spoke with them. He took Simeon from among them and bound him before their eyes.



As they filled their containers with produce, Joseph gave orders to put back the money of each man in his sack and to give them provisions for the journey. They did so for them.



They loaded their produce on their donkeys and departed. 



The Peshiṭta adds the negator. See the Introduction: Divergent Readings. Absent in the MT. 3 The Peshiṭta has an awkward translation because Joseph swears on Pharaoh’s life, as if Pharaoh were a god. See the Introduction: Divergent Readings. 1 2



Ņ ŏ ł .ķĭƦ œ ô ƌĥťƣň ŴòƤŏ ū Ņ œ :ķŴƄƆ ŏŔ ŁŔƢƉĥ ň Īňœ ŴƌłĬŅ :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſķĭ  ųɝƢ ŏ ł ĥ űſ Ɖ ň Ņ ŏ ň œ òłł Ņ ŏ œň ňŅ œ ň Ņň ł ň ŏ Ŕ Ŷŏ ĥŦ Ŕ ĪŔų Ũ ųſ Ŕ Ƨ :ķŴƕƢ  ƘŔ ĪIJĬô ŴəŶ  Ƨ :ķŴƠ Ũ ŁŔŁŧ  Ƨĥ :ťÿƄŅ œ ƉķŴ ň Ơŏ Ƙ œ Ł ķŴÿƃŴ  ŁŤŔ ÿƌŌ ķĥ Ņ Ņ œ .ťƃĿ  ų ɝ ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ƕĮ ŏ ł ň ŏœ ł ł ķŴÿƄŏ œ ɛò ˁ  ł ƉƎ ň ÿƀŅ Ơò Ũłœ Ʀ Ŕ ňƌĭ :ĭôƢƏĥ ř ŁŔ ĥķĭ  Ʀ  ô ƌĥĭ :ķŴƃŴ ŏŔ Ŷŏ ƧƢ  Ũłœ űŔňƌķŴƄƍ ŏŔ Ɖ ň űŔŶł ĭô Ŀűłœƣł Ŵſ Ņň ŏ ň œ ò ł ł Ņ ň ŏœ ł ň Ņ œ ŏ œ ň ŏ ł .ķĭƦ œ ô ƌĥťƣň Ŵò Ƥŏ ū ŔŅ ƧĥķŴ  ƕƢ  ƘŔ ĪIJĬô Ŵ əŶ  Ƨķĥĭ :ķĭŁƢ Ɖ  ĥ ŦƦƣŴ  Ơ Ũ ķĥ ň Ō ł Ņ Ņ œ Ņ ŏ .ƎƀƉ Ō ŴòɖŦ ł Ʀ Ŕ Ɔ  Ł :ťƀƣŴ  ũŶ Ŕ Ũňœ ķŴƌŏĥ ƁƉĿĥ  ĭ ŵſ Ŕ Ʀƀ ł Ņ Ō Ņ ł œ ň ł ŏ .ťƌŅôĥ ƈŶň ĪŦ ňŔ ŧ Īň ŔĬŅ :ťɕŅƦƀ Ŕ Ɔ  Łť Ŕ ƉŴ  ƀŨ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſķĭ  ųɝƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň Ÿɖ ŅŔ ųŅ Ɔ Ņ Ƨ :Ŵƀʖ ł ĭłĭô űŔũƕ ň ł ŏ ł ň ŏ ł ŏ Ŕ ƣŴ ŏ Ŕ Ʀÿƀ ł Ʀ ł ƃŴ Ŕ ňƌ űŔÿŶķŴ ŏŔ Ŷŏ ĥ :ķĭƦ œ ô ƌĥťòƌŤƃŌœ ķĥ Żſ Ŵô ÿƆňĮķĭ  Ʀÿ œ ô ƌĥĭł :ķŴÿƄƀ Ō ũŶ Ŕ Ũňœ ƢÿƏĥ ł ł ŏ Ŕ Ŵô ƇŨĭ ňœ ĥ .ķŴƄŏœ ɖòƦ œ ũŅ Ŕ Ũœ Ʀſĥ Ŕ Īť ŌŔ ňƍƙòŔ ƄƆ łŔ ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ũƕ ŏ Ņ ł ł Ņ ŏ ŏ Ŕ Ŷŏ Ƨłĭ Ĵ Ņ ò ſĬł Ʀ Ŕ ƧĭķŴ  ÿ Ƅŏ œ ɛò ˁ  ł ƉƎ ň ÿ ƍƊ Ŕ ňƌĭ  :IJô ŁŔŴÿ Ņ ÿɝ ĭƦÿ œ ÿſĥŧ ĿŴ  ÿ ƕĮķŴÿ ƃŴ :ķĭŁŴŔ ÿ Ɖŏ Ł łŔ ĭł .ťƍŅƃłŔĬŅ ĭô űŔũƕ ł ł ŏ ťÿƘŅ Ŕ ĿŴ Ņ ź  Ũœ ƎÿſŵŶ ł Īłœ :ķŴÿŶŏ ĥ ƈÿłƕƎÿƍƀł ũŌŔ ƀŅʖ ł Ʀÿſ Ŕ Ō ĥƢſ Ņ ƢŌƣł :IJĬŴ ô Ŷŏ ƧƢ  ũł Ŕ ū  œ  ĭô ƢƉĥ ł ĭň ťƃ ň Ņ Ņ ŏ ł ĭŅĬ ƚ Ǝÿƀł Ƈƕ  ŒŁŔ ŁŔ ĥť  ÿƌŅ Ĭƈ Ņ ÿźƉ ň :IJųô ÿƀƍƖ Ņ Ɗƣ ł ƧĭƎ  ÿƆŦ Ŕ Ɖ ň űŔƃłœ :ųƤň ƙŔ ƌłĪŔ ô  Ŕ Ƥł ƃłœƦ Ņ Ņ ƦƠ Ŕ ƕŅ .ŧ ĪňŔĬŦ ň Ņ ŏ Ņ ł œ ŏ ň Ņœ ŏ Ŕ ŁŔƢÿƉ ň Ŕ Ŀť Ņ ź ŏ ƍƕ Ņ ĭł Ūƃ Ŕ ƧĪ :ķŴÿƄƆ ň ĥ  Ƨ .ķĭųɝƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭƈ ň ƀŨĭ  :ťÿƀˁ Ƨĭ  ŨķŴ  ÿźŶŁ ŏ ł Ņ Ɖ ň Īœ Ļĥ  Ŕ ĭŅ .ķĭƦƖ œ Ɗƣ  .ƗŨłŔ ŁœƦ œ ƉŦ ň Ĭų ň ł Ņ ŏ ŌƕűŔŅſ ŦĭŅĬĶ Ņ ūĿ  œ ŁŔ Īœ ƈÿÿźƉ ň :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ÿÿłſƗÿÿƊł ƣŅ Īœ ĭĭłĬƎÿÿƀ ô  ƧķŴ  ÿÿƌŏ Ĭĭ ň ŭƃ ô ŤÿÿƟŅ ťÿÿƍŅ Ɗ .ķĭĬŏ Ʀ Ŕ ƍƀŅ ŨłŔ ň ł ƢÿŨł Ŕ ĪŔĭł .ķĭųÿƊ ŏ łƕƈ  ÿƇƉĭķĭ  Ĭŏ ŁŔŴŅÿɝ ƅ Ŕ ƘĬ łŔ ĭł :ťƄŅŔ ŨŔ ĭķĭ ł Ĭŏ ŁŔŴɝƎ Ņ Ɖ ň ƁƍŌƘ œ Łĥ Ŕ ĭň űƃ ŏ ƤƆķĭ ň ŏ Ɖ ųƍ ň .ķĭųŏ ƀòɫł ŌƖɝĬ  ƢƏĥ ň ĭł :ķŴƖƊ Ņœ Ɗ œ ƃňŔ ŴÿƄŏ Ŕ Ƙų ŏŔ ł Ɔĭł :ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ÿũƕķĭ ųŏ ÿƀò ɧłŤƉ Ņ ŴÿłƇƉĭł ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſ űŔƠł ƘŔ ĭł ųƃ Ƣÿũł Ŕ ū  œ ķĭųŏ ÿƙƐ ŏ Ņ ł ň ł ň ł œ  Ũ .ťƍŅƃł Ŕ Ĭķĭ Ņ ųɝ ŏ ĭô űŔũƕ łŔ ĭł :ťŶĿĭ Ņ Ƨŧ  ĪňŔĭò Į ķĭųɝĵ ŏ Ʀ œ ƊƆ  ĭ :ųƠƐ łŅ œ ň łƕķĭĬĿŴ ŏ Ŕ Ŵô ƇƠƣ . ƎƉ  Ł ƎƉ  Ŵô ƆĮĥł ĭň :ķĭĬŏ ǔƊŶƈ ň ŏ ũƕ ł ĭł Ŵƃ



 



  















Ch. 

Chapter  

Jacob saw that there was produce in Egypt and Jacob said to his sons, “Do not fear. 1



See, I have heard that there is produce in Egypt. Go down there and buy [grain] for us from there and we can live and not die.”



Ten of Joseph’s brothers went down to buy produce from Egypt.



But Benjamin, Joseph’s brother, Jacob did not send with his brothers because he thought, something harmful could happen to him.



Israel’s sons went to buy [grain] with those who were traveling because the famine was severe in the land of Canaan.



Now Joseph was governor over the land and he was selling grain to all the people of the land. The brothers of Joseph came and they bowed down to him with their faces to the ground.



Joseph saw his brothers and he recognized them but he deceived2 them and spoke harshly with them. He said to them, “Where are you from?” They said, “We have come3 from the land of Canaan to buy produce.”



Joseph recognized his brothers but they did not recognize him.



Then Joseph remembered the dreams he had dreamt regarding them and he said to them, “You are spies! You have come to find out the news 4 about the land.”



They said, “No our lord. Your servants have come to buy produce.



All of us are sons of one man. We are upright. Your servants are not spies.”



Joseph said to them, “Not so. It is for news 5 about the land that you have come to find out.”



They said to him, “Your servants are twelve brothers, sons of the one man in the land of Canaan. The youngest is with our father today and one is no longer.” See the Introduction: Particular Lexical Choices. MT: ‘he acted as a stranger’. 3 Absent in the MT. 4 MT: ‘nakedness’. 5 MT: ‘nakedness’. 1 2



ňł

ŪƉ :ķĭŅ ƨƙ Ŕ Ɵň ŏ ň Ņ ŏ Ŕ Ʀſĥ ł ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň :ƎſĿƞň Ɗ ň Ũŧ Ŕ ĿŴ Ņ ũƕ Ŕ ĪŌœ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ Ŧ ŵŶ Ņ ĭł ĥ .ķŴƇ ŶĪŔŁŔ Ƨ :IJĬô ŴòɩłũŔ Ɔ ł ň ł ł ŏ Ɖ ŏ Ŕ Ʀſĥ Ŕ ĭô ŁŴ Ŕ Ŷŏ :ƎſĿƞň Ɗ ň Ũŧ Ŕ ĿŴ Ņ ũƕ Ŕ ĪŌœ Ʀ Ŕ ň ƖƊ  ƣŦ ň ĬŅ ħ :ƎÿƉŅ Łœ ƎÿƉƎ ÿƆĭô ĿŴÿƉĭƎ Ņ ƦƆ Ņ .ŁŴ Ŕ Ɗƌ ŏ Ƨĭť  Ŷň Ťƌĭ Ō ł ň ł ŏ Ŕ ƊƊ .ƎſĿƞň ƉƎ ň Ɖŧ ň ĿŴ Ņ ũƕƢ Ņ Ɔ ł :ŧ ƢƐ Ņ ň ƕ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſĪœIJĬô Ŵò Ŷł ĥĭô Ʀ Ŕ ŷƌ  ĭ Ĩ ł ł Ņ ŏ ň Ŕ ĭł Ī ł Īňœ ƈÿźƉ ƢÿƉĥ ň :IJĬô Ŵò ÿŶł ĥƋ  ÿłƕ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſĿ  űłœƣł Ƨ :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſĪœIJĬô ŴŶŏ ĥƎƀ  Ɗ ň ƀƍŅ ũƆ Ņ Īłœ .ťƏĿŤ Ņ ƟŌ ųƆŀ ň űłœŬ Ŕ ňƌťƊƆ ň Ņ Ō òł œ ł ň ň ł ł Ņ ł ň Īłœ ƈÿźŏ Ɖ ťÿƍŅ ƙŔ ƃłœ ƎÿƤƕ ň :ƎÿƀƆ ô ĮĥŌ ĪŅœ ƎÿƀƇſ  ĥƋ  ÿƕƢƊƊ  Ɔ  ƈſĥƢƐſ ĥ ƁƍŨ ĭŁĥŔ ĭ Ĭ .ƎƖƍł ƃŔĪť łŔ ƕĿŤ Ņ ŨłŔ ł ł Ō ň ŏ Ņ Īť ĭŁĥŔ ĭň .ťÿƕĿĥ łŔ ÿƊŅ łƕų  Ƈ ƄƆƢƀ Ō ĭĬĭ ƊƉ ŏ ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ƈłƕŻƀ  Ƈ ƣł Ŵſĭ ŏ Ĭŏ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſĭ  ĭ Ŕ ł ł ň ł ł ł ł ò Ņ.ťƕĿ ŏ ň ł ò œ ł ň  Ɔ  ĭô űŔŬƏ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſĪœIJĬô Ŵ Ŷł ĥ  ĥ ƈƕķĭ  ų ƀƘ ĥ ƈƕų Ŕ ĭ :ƚ ň łœ ł œ ň ł ň ł Ņ ł ň ł ň Ŕ ŁŔĥĭň :ķŴÿƌŏ ĥĺ ƈÿƇƉĭ  :ķĭųÿ ŏ ÿƀł Ƈƕƈ  ÿƄƌ  Īĭ  Ʀÿ  ÿƣĥĭ :IJĬô ŴòÿŶł Ƨ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ÿſŦ ŵÿÿŶĭ Į ŌŅ ł ŏ ł ł ň ŏœ ł Ņœ ň ł ň Ņ ŏ ň ň ł ł Ŕ ŤƀƤ  ƟķĭųƊ  ƕ ťÿƕĿĥƎ  ÿƉ :ĭôƢÿƉĥĭ .ķĭƦÿ  ô ƌĥťÿƄƊ  ſĥƎ  ÿƉ :ķĭųɝ  ƢƉĥ  ĭ .Ʀſ łň ł ł Ņ.ŧ ĿŴ ł ŏ Ņ  ũƕƢ  Ɔ  :ƎſŁŔ ĥƎƖƍƃŔĪŔ Ŕ ƊƊ ł ň ł łœ ł œ ň ł ň Ņ ŏň .IJĬŴ ô ƕŏĪĭ œ Ʀƣ œ ĥ ƧķŴ  ƌĬĭ  :IJĬô Ŵò Ŷł Ƨ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſĺ  Īĭ  Ʀƣĥ  ĭ į ł ŏ ł ĭň :ķĭųÿɝƋ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſƢ  ƃłŔĪœŁœĥĭň İ :ķĭƦÿ œ ô ƌĥťÿƣň Ŵò Ƥŏ ū Ņ œ :ķĭųÿɝƢ ŏ ÿƉĥ ŏ ÿłƇŶĪłŔ ťƊň ɤò Ŷň ƚ ŏ ł ň Ņ łœ ñ Ņ œ ň .ķĭƦſ œ ŁŔ ĥťƕĿĥ  Ī ų ũŹ ĭĬô Ŧ ŵŷ ł ƊƆ ň ĭł ł ň œ łœ ò ł ł Ņ Ņ ŏ Ŕ ƊƊ .ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ũƕƢ Ņ Ɔ ł ĭŁŔ ĥ ƅſ  űũŔ ƕ :ķƢƉ  Ƨ .ĭôƢƉĥ ł ĭň IJ Ņ ł ňò Ō ł ł œ ł ò ł œ ł ŏ œ .ƅſ  œ űłœũòŔ łƕťƣň ŴòƤŏ ū Ņ œ ĭĭłĬ ô Ƨĭ  :ƎƍŶť  ƌ Ťƃĭ Ŕ :ƎƍŶ ƢũŔ ū  űŔŶ ƁƍŨ ƎƇ ƃ ťſ Ņ ŏ ł ň Ņ ł ŏ ñ Ņœň Ņ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ ň ł ŏ .Ŧ ŵŷ Ņ ƊƆķĭ ň œ ŁŔ ĥťƕĿĥ Ʀſ  ĪŔ ĭĬô ų ũŹ :ťƍƃŔ ĬŦ  ĭĬ ô Ƨ :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſķĭ  ųɝƢ  Ɖ ł ĥ Ūſ ł ňł ł ł ň œ ň Ņ Ũłœ :űŔÿŶŧ ł ƢŅÿũŔ ū .ƎÿƖƍłƃŔĪť łŔ ÿƕĿŤ  œ űłœũòŔ łƕťŶò ĥƎ  ƍŶƢ  Ɛƕ  ĿŁ :ųƆ  ĭô ƢƉĥ ł ĭň ŭſ ł œ ƁÿòƍŨœ :ƅÿſ ł ł ł Ņ Ņ ł ŏ ŏł Ņ Ŕ Ɔ  űŔŶ ĭ :ťƍƉŴ  ſ ĭĬķŴ .IJĬĭ ô Ʀƀ ô ŨŔ ĥ ŁŔŴɝ  ŦĬŧ Ņ ĿŴ Ņ ƕĮ ŏ ĭł



 

 







 

   

Ch. 



Joseph stored the produce, which was so very abundant, like the sand of the sea, that he tired 1 trying to count it since it was without number.



Before the year of the famine arrived, two sons were born to Joseph whom Asyath, daughter of Poti-phera, priest of On bore to him.



Joseph named his first born Manasseh because [he said,] “God has allowed me to forget all my hardship and all of my father’s house.”



He named the other son Ephraim because [he said,] “God has made me fruitful in the land of my servitude.”

LXVIII



The seven years of abundance that happened in the land of Egypt were completed



and the seven years of famine began to come just as Joseph had said. There was famine in all the lands. There was no 2 bread throughout the land of Egypt.



The entire land of Egypt was hungry and the people cried out to Pharaoh for bread. Pharaoh said to all the Egyptians, “Go to Joseph. Whatever he tells you, you should do.”



The famine was over the face of the entire earth. Joseph opened the storehouses 3 and sold [grain] to the Egyptians. 4



The famine was severe in the land of Egypt. All the world came to Egypt to buy from Joseph because the famine was severe throughout the land of Egypt. 5

MT: ‘he ceased’. MT: ‘there was bread’. 3 The Hebrew is unclear. 4 The Peshiṭta lacks the MT sentence: ‘The famine was severe throughout the land of Egypt’. 5 The phrase ‘of Egypt,’ which is absent in the Hebrew text, is perhaps an unconscious harmonization with the expression ‘land of Egypt,’ which occurs twelve times in this chapter. 1 2



Ņ Ōł Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ ŏ Ņ Ɗ ťÿƍƊ ň Ɔ IJƧ Īť Ŕ Ɖűƕ Ŕ :Ū  Ŕ ŹĪœŦŤūŴ ŔŅ Əť ŏ Ɗ Ņ łſĪ Ŕ ƨ ŶŅ ƅſŔ ĥ :ŧ ĿŴ  ũƕ ň łſƈ  ƊŶ ł ĭł ŻƉ Ŕ ƚŔ ƏŴ Ņ ň ƧĪŔ .ťƍŅəƍŅ Ɖ ň Ņ ł òŌ œ ň œ ň ň Ō ň ň ł ł Ņ Œ ŁŔ űÿɤ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ƀɞ  ĭ Ǝƌ  ĭô űŔƇſ  ŁŔ ĥ ƚ Ŕ ƧűŔÿƕ :ƎƀƍŨ ƎſĿŁ ųƆ łœ ň ſĪœ :ťÿƍŅ ƙŔ ƃłŔĪŦ Ŕ Ʀÿ œ ôƍƣł ĵŴÿƕŏ Ł Ņ ŏ Ō ŏ Ņ .ķĭĥĪŧ ŏŔ ƢƉŴ  ƃœ ĺƢłƙƀ Ŕ ŹŴ  Ƙ œ ŁŔƢôŨłœ Ʀ Ŕ ƀƏ ł ĥųƆ ň ň ŏ Ņ Ņ ł ł łœ ŏ ň ň ł Ɓô ƇƊłƕ ųƇ ƃŦ Ŕ ų Ɔ  ĥƁô ƍƀƤƌĥ  Ī ƈź Ɖ  :ťƤ ƍƉĬ  ƢňƃŴ Ŕ Ũŏ œ ĬƢňŨœ Ƌƣň ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſŧ  ƢƟ Ņ ĭł ťƌ Ņ ňœ ň ŏ Ŕ .Ɓô ŨŔ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũ ųƇ ƃĭ ł ł Ņ Ņ Ō łœ ň ł ŏ ň .IJô űŔũƕŴ Ņœ ƣŏ Īť Ŕ ƕĿŤ Ņ ŨŦ łŔ ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥƁô ƍłſƢ  Ƙĥ Ŕ Īłœ ƈź Ɖ  :ƋſƢňƘŔ ĥŧ  ƢƟť  ƌƢŶ  ôĥĪ ųƊƣ  ĭ Ūƌ









ŸƏįĽ

Ņł ł Ŕ ƢƊ ň ĪŔ ťƕĿŤ Ņ Ũłœ IJĭłĬò Īť  ũƣ ł ū Ŕ ĭł ŭƌ .ƎſĿƞň Ɖ łŔ ƖŅũŔ Ə ł Īť Ŕ ƀò ɫƣƗ ł Ņ ň Ņ łŔ IJƢŌƣĭ ł űƌ Ǝſųɤ ň ƄŏŔ Ũť łŔ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł .ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſƢƉĥ ł Īňœ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ŦŁŤ Ŕ ƊƆť  ƍŅƙŔ ƃłŔĪť Ŕ ƀò ɫł ƣƗũƣ Ŕ ƍŅƙŔ ƃŦ ł Ņ ŏ ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ .ťƊŷ Ņ ƆŦ ł ĭŅĬ ô ƧƎſ  Ŀƞň Ɖ ň Īť Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƄŔ ŨŔ ĭ :ŦƦ Ŕ ƕǓĥ ł Ņ ŏœ Œ ł ň Ņ Ɔƈ Ŕ ƍƙŔ ƃĭ Ŕ ųƌ  Ɗ Ņ łƕƎƀ  ƍŌŬ .ťÿƊŷ ł ÿłƕķŴƕƢ ŏ Ƙň œ ƈłƕť  œ ũƉ łŔ ĭł :ƎſĿƞň Ɖ ň Īť Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƃ Ʀ Ņ ň ŏ ŏ ŏ ň :ƚ ł ĪŅœ ĶűňœÿƉĭ ķŴÿƄŔ Ɔ ƢÿƉĥ ł ĭň  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſ ŁŔŴɝ Ņ Ŵô ƆňĮ :ťňɕǓƞƉķĭ ň ųɤ ŏ ƄƆķŴ Ŕ  Ƙ œ ƢƉĥ ƕƢ ň .ķĭűŏŔũƕ œ Łœ ň ł ň ł ł ł Ņ ł ñ Ņ ŏ œ òł œ ł ł Ņ Ņ ł  ĭĬť  ƍƙŔ ƃĭ Ŕ Ŵƌ Ŕ ƘŔ ĭ :ťƕĿ  ĥ ų ɤ  ƃƁƘ ĥ ƈƕŦ .ťňɕǓŅƞƊƆƎ ň Ũňœ Įĭ ł :ŧ ǓĽĭĥ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſį  Ʀ łň Ņ ł Ņ ŏ :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ÿłſƎƉƢ ň ƊƊ Ņ ƆƎſ ł Ŀƞň ƊƆ ň ĭŁŔ ĥť  ƕĿ  ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƃĭ Ŕ :ƎſĿƞň Ɖ ň Īť Ŕ ƕĿŤ Ņ Ũť łŔ ƍŅƙŔ ƃłœ ƎƤƕ ň ĭł ŵƌ ł Ņ ŏ Ņ ł œ ň łœ ŏ ň .ƎſĿƞň Ɖ ň Īť Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƄŔ Ũť Ŕ ƍƙŔ ƃ ƎƤƕ  Ī ƈź Ɖ 



 



 

Ch. 



You will be over my house. All my people will receive justice 1 by the word of your mouth. Only with respect to the throne will I be greater than you.”



Pharaoh said to Joseph, “See, I have appointed you ruler over all the land of Egypt.”



Pharaoh took the signet ring from his hand and put it on Joseph’s hand. He clothed him in fine white linen and he put a gold chain around his neck.



He had him ride in another 2 of his chariots and he called out before him, “Father and Ruler.” 3 He made him ruler over all the land of Egypt.



Pharaoh said to Joseph: “I, Pharaoh, command that without you, no one shall raise his hand or his foot throughout the land of Egypt.”



Pharaoh gave Joseph the name Zaphenath-paneah because hidden things were revealed to him. 4 He gave to him Asyath, 5 daughter of Poti-phera the priest of On, as a wife. Joseph went forth over all the land of Egypt.



Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh king of Egypt. Joseph went forth from Pharaoh’s presence and traveled throughout the land of Egypt.



During the seven years of abundance the land stored up [grain] in storehouses. 6



He stored up all the produce of the seven years of abundance that happened in the land of Egypt. He put the produce in the cities, namely the produce of the fields of each city and its surroundings he stored in it. 



MT: ‘all my people will kiss’. MT: ‘second’. 3 The Hebrew is difficult. See the Introduction: Divergent Readings. 4 Absent in the MT. This interpretation of Joseph’s Egyptian name also appears in Targum Pseudo-Jonathan. 5 MT: ‘Asenath’. See the Introduction: Proper Names. 6 MT: ‘in handfuls’. See the Introduction: Lexical Choices. 1 2



ň œ ł ň ŏ Ņ Ōœ ł ň Ņ ŏ œ ł ň .ƁÿƊ ô łƕų  ÿƇƃť  Ŕ ÿƐƌ ƅ Ŕ ƉŴ  ÿƘ Ʀ Ŕ Ƈ Ɖƈ  łƕĭ  .IJô Ʀƀ œ Ũłœ ƈłƕŦ  ĭĬ ň Łœ Ʀ  ô ƌĥ Ķ Ŕ ÿƍſĪ Ū ň ł ŏ .ƅ Ŕ ƍŅƉ ň ħ  Ŕ Ŀĥť  ƀƏĿŴ Ņ ƃœ ĪŴ Ŕ ŷɤ ŏ Ũłœ ł Ņ ŏœ ł Ņ œ ň ł Ō ň Īť Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƃ ƈƕ ĴŔ Ʀź  Ƈ ƣĥĪŔ IJŵŶ  :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ƀɞķŴ ł ŏ Ƙň œ ƢƉĥ ƕƢ ł ĭň ťƉ .ƎſĿƞň Ɖ Ņ ň ŏ ňœ ł ł ųÿƤň ũœ ɝĥĭł :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ÿłſĪœ ĬűÿſŤ ňŔ ŨŌœ ųñ ÿƊŅ Əĭ Ņ :Ĭűÿſ ňŔ Ō ĥƎ  Ɖ ň ŦƦƟ Ŕ ŵłɯķŴ  ƕƢ  Ƙ ƈƠƣ  ĭ ŪƉ ň Ņ Ō ŏ ŏŔ Ō Ņ ł ł ł Ņ Ņ ł  ŨŔ Īť Ŕ ƣŴ  ũƆ .ĬĿĭ  ƞŨť Ŕ ŨĬ Ŕ Ƅƀ Ŕ ƍƉ  Ĭ ƁƉĿĥ  ĭ :Ŧ ĽŴ Ŕ ĪŔĪť ň Ņ Ō ł Ņł ň Ō Ņ Ō Ņ łœ ł œ ň œ ł  ĥĭ ŭƉ ųźƇ  ƣĥĭł :ťźƀ  Ƈ ƣĭť  ŨŔ ĥIJĬô ŴƉ ł űƟŧ ŅŔ ƢƟ Ņ ĭł :ųƇſ  ĪŦ Ŕ ŁŔ ƢŶ  ôĥ ŦƦ Ŕ ũŔ ƃƢƊ  Ũ ųŨŔ Łĭ ł Ņ ŏœ ł ň Ņ ň .ƎſĿƞ Ɖ  Īť Ŕ ƕĿ  ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƃ ƈƕ ň Ņ ňœ Ƙň œ ķŴƕƢ ŏ Ƙť ňŔ ƌŅĥ :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ƀɞķŴ ł ŏ Ƙň œ ƢƉĥ ƕƢ ł ĭň űƉ Ĭűÿſ ňŔ Ō ĥƋÿſ  Ƣƌ Ō Ƨƥ  ƌŅôĥ ƅſ  œ űłŔɳɤ Ņ ŨňŔ Īœ .ŁŔűƠ ł Ņ ŏ œ ň ň ł .ƎſĿƞň Ɖ ň Īť Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƄŔ Ũ ųƇ ū Ŕ Ŀ ĭĥ Ņ ò ł œ ł łœ ł ł Ŕ ƍƘŔ Ľ :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſĪœ ųƊƣķŴ ň ŏ Ƙŧ ƕƢ ňŔ ƢƟ Ņ ĭł ųƉ  Ŕ ųô łſĭ :ųƆƎ ħ ň ƀŅˁ  ò ūŦ Ŕł Ʀ Ŕ ƀŅƐ  ƃŔ Ī .ŸƍƖ  Ƙ Ʀ ł Ņ ň ł Ŕ ĭł .ŦŁŅƦÿ ƈÿłƕ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ÿłſơÿƙƌ ŏŔ ƢƉŴ Ņ ÿƃŏ œ ĺƢłƙƀ Ŕ ŌŹŴ  Ƙŏ œ ŁŔƢôŨłœ Ʀ  Ŕ ƀƏ ł Ƨų  Ɔ Ŕ œ ô ƌĥ :ķĭĥĪŧ ł ň Ņ Ņ .ƎſĿƞ Ɖ ň Īť Ŕ ƕĿ  ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƃŏœ Ō Ņ œ łœ ň ł ŏ Ƙň œ ĶűÿƟƋ Ņœ Ɖ ŅŔ Ŕ Ɔ  Ł ƢŨ ƚ .ƎÿſĿƞň Ɖ ň Īť Ŕ ÿƄɤ ł ķŴÿƕƢ ÿƟŅ űŔƃł œ :ƎƀòɫŌ ƣŦĭŅĬƎſ ô Ʀ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſĭ  ŴƉ ł ň ň Ņ ł ŏ ŏ Ņ ň łſơ  ƙƌ Ŕ ĭł .ƎſĿƞ Ɖ ň Īť Ŕ ƕĿ  ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƄŔ Ũœ Ƣũƕ łŔ ĭł :ķŴƕƢ  Ƙ œ ĶűƟ ŅŔ ƎƉ ň ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ł Œ ł ň ň ł Ņ ł òŅ ł ł Ŕ Ũť Ŕ ƇƊ  Ŷĭ  ŵƉ łŔ ƕĿ Ņ ĥ Ʀ .ŧ ǓĽĭŤŨť Ŕ ƖũŔ Ə  Īť Ŕ ƀɫ ƣƗũƤ Ņ Ņ Ũłœ IJĭłĬò Īť ŏ Ŕ ň Ƈ ƃŏœ ƈƊŶ łŔ ĿŴ Ņ ũƕų ł ĭł ŸƉ  Ŕ ųô ÿłſĭ :ƎÿſĿƞň Ɖ ħ ň Īť Ŕ ÿƕĿŤ łŔ Īŧ łŔ ƖŅũŔ Ə ł Īť Ŕ ƀò ɫł ƣƗũƣ ňŅ ł Ņ Ō ł Ņ Ņ ò ł Ņ ŏ Ņ ŏ Ņ ŏ .Ĭñ ŴŅŬ Ŕ ł Ũœ ƈƊŶ ł ųſ ñ ǓűŶ Ŕ ŦƦſ Ŕ ƢƟ  ĪŦ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ Ƈ Ơ Ŷ Īŧ Ŕ ĿŴ  ũƕ  ũƕ Ŕ .ťɕǓŴƠ ŨŔ ŧ ĿŴ Ŕ Ŕ Īĭ





 









 

Ch. 



The seven weak and ugly cows that came up behind them are seven years. The seven ears of wheat, small and blighted by a parching wind, will be seven years of famine.



This is the matter that I told Pharaoh. God has revealed to Pharaoh what he is about to do.



Look, seven years are coming of great abundance throughout the entire land of Egypt.



After them seven years of famine will arise. All the abundance will be forgotten throughout the land of Egypt. Famine will consume the land.



The abundance will no longer be known in the land because of that famine that will come later for it will be very severe.



The dream was repeated for Pharaoh twice because the matter has been prepared by God and God is hastening to do it.



Now then, let Pharaoh look to a wise and capable man and let him establish him over the land of Egypt.



Let Pharaoh act and appoint overseers over the land of Egypt. They should take one-fifth [of the produce] in the land of Egypt during the seven years of abundance.



They should gather all the produce of these good years that are coming and they should store the produce under Pharaoh’s authority. They should keep the produce in the cities.



The produce will be kept for the land for the seven years of famine that will be in the land of Egypt. The land will not perish by the famine.”



The plan pleased Pharaoh and his servants.

LXVII



Pharaoh said to his servants, “Could a man be found like this man in whom is the spirit of God?”



Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Since God has made known to you all this, there is no one wise and capable like you. 





ň ł Ņ Ō Ņ Ņ ò Ō Ņ Ņ łœ ł ł ł Ŕ ŨŅ œ ƎƠŅ ɤò ƏŅ Īœ :ŦƦ .Ǝÿƀò ɫŌ ƣƎÿƀň ƌĥƗ  ÿũƣ ň Ʀ Ŕ ƤŅ ƀòŨĭŦ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ Ƈ ƀʛƉŦ  ŁŔ ǓĭŁ Ɨũƣ Ŕ ĭ ŵƃ Ŕ :ƎÿſĬĿ ň Ō Ņ Ņ ŏ ò Ō ò .ťƍŅƙŔ ƃłœ ƎƀòɫŌ ƣƗũƣ łŔ ƎŅſĭųňƌ :ťŨŴ Ņœ ƣł Īť Ŕ Ŷĭ Ņ ƢɝƎ  ƙŔ ƀòƠƣ  ĪŦ łŔ Ʀ Ŕ ƍŅəòź  Ɵł ƨũœ ƣň Ɨũƣ łŔ ĭł ň ł ŏ ň Ņ ųŅ Ɔĥ Ņ Īłœ ƎƀƇſ .ķŴƕƢ ŏ ƙƆ ňŔ IJŴŌŶł :űŔũňŔ ƕŦ  ĥ .ķŴƕƢ  ƙƆ Ŕ ŁŔƢƉĥ ň Īť ňŔ Ɗ Ņ ū ŔŅ Ʀ Ŕ ƘňŔ ĭĬŏ Ÿƃ ł Ņ ŏ Ņ œ ł Ņ ł òŅ Ņ ò Ō .ƎſĿƞň Ɖ ň Īť Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƄŔ Ũť Ŕ Ũ ĿťƖũŔ Ə  :ƎſŁŔĥƎ  ƀɫ ƣƗũƣ łŔ ŦĬŅ Żƃ ł Ņ Ņ ł œ òŌ ň ŏ ň œň Ŕ Ũť łŔ ƎƉ Ņ Ŵò Ơƌ ŏ ĭł ĵ ųñ ÿɤŅ ƄŏŔ ŨŦ Ŕ ĭĬ Ņ Īť łŔ ƖŅũŔ Əų ł Ƈ ƃť Ʀ  ƌĭ  .ƎſĬĿ ň Ʀ Ŕ ƍƙŔ ƃŔ Ī Ǝƀɫ ƣƗũƣ Ŕ ƖŹ ł ł .ťƕĿ Ņ Ƨť  ƍŅƙŔ ƃłœ ƚƀ  Ŕ Ɛƌ Ō ĭł .ƎſĿƞň Ɖ ň ĪŔ ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ Ņ ŏ Ō ł œ ňœ ł Ņœ ň œ ł Ņ łœ ŏ ň Ņ ł Ņ ł ł Ō ň Ņ .Ū  Ŕ Ź ĭĬƎƀ Ŕ Ũ ƎƉ Ŕ ƌ  Ƨĭ  Ƨ ô Ƥ ƕĪ ƎƃĿ Ʀ  Ī ĭĬť  ƍƙŔ ƃ ƈź Ɖ  :ťƕĿŤ  Ũť Ŕ ƖũŔ Əĺ  űſ Ŕ Ʀ ň ł ł ň ÿƊŅ ū ĶűÿƟƎ ŅŔ ÿƉť ŔŅ Ʀ Ŕ Ƙň œ Ū  Ŕ ÿƀł źƉ  Īłœ :ƎƀòɫŌ ŨŔ ĮƎſ ł Łœ ĿŁŔ Īœ ķŴƕƢ ŏ ƙƆ ňŔ ťƊɤ Ņ Ŷň ƁɧŌŁœŁĥ œ ĪňŔĭ ŪƆ ł ň ł ł Ņ Ņł .ĬűňŔũƖ œ ƊƆ ň ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥ ħ  Ŕ ĬƢ  ƐƉ  ĭ :Ŧų Ɔĥ Ņ Ņ ĥł ƈÿłƕIJĬ ŴÿƀƊƀ ťÿƕĿ Ō ĭł :ťÿƌŅ ƦƆŴ Ŕ Ƅŏœ Əĭť ł Ɗƀ Ņ ƄŌœ Ŷŧ ł ƢŅũŔ ū ł œ ķŴƕƢ ŏ ƘŦ ňŔ ŵŷ ň ňƌť  ƣŅ ĬŅ ŭƆ ô Ō Ơƌ .ƎſĿƞň Ɖ ň ĪŔ Ņ ĥł ƈÿłƕ ťÿźň ƀòˁ ŏ Ŕ ňƌĭ ł ÿũƐ ƎÿƉň űŔÿŶķŴ  :ƎÿſĿƞň Ɖ ň Īť Ŕ ÿƕĿ  Ō ƣƋƀ ł Ơƌ Ō ĭķŴ ł ƕƢ ŏ Ƙň œ űŔũƖ ňœ ňƌĭ  űƆ Ņł ň Ņ.ťƖũŔ Ə Ņ ň ò ł ł ł ł Īť Ŕ ƀɫ ƣƗũƤ  Īť Ŕ ƕĿŤ  Ũť Ŕ ƤƊ Ņ Ŷł Ŕ Ũœ :ƎſĿƞ Ɖ Ņ Ņ Ņ òŅ Ņ ň Ņ òŅ ł ł Ņ ŏ ň ŏ œ ŏ ł ł ŏ Ŕ ŏƇƊ Ŕ ĿŴ  ũƕų  Ƅƌ Ŕ ĭ ųƆ Ŕ ʖ Ʀƀ ň ŁŔ ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ũƕķŴ  ŷňƌĭ  :Ǝò ſŁĥ Ŕ ĪŦ  Īŧ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ ũŔ ŹƎƀ  Ɔ  Ĭť  ƀɫƣ Ŕ Ƈ ƃ ķŴƤƍ Ņ ň ŏ ŏ ŏ ŏ ň .ķĭƢź  ƌ ťɕŅǓŴƠ Ũŧ Ŕ ĿŴ  ũƕ  ƘŔ Īŧ Ŕ űſ ŅŔ Ō ĥ Ŕ :ķŴƕƢ ł Ō Ņ ŏ ň ň Ņ Ņ Ũłœ ƎÿŅſĭųò ňƌĪť łŔ Ɔ .ƎÿſĿƞň Ɖ ň Īť Ŕ ÿƕĿŤ ł :ťƕĿ Ņ ƧƢƀ  źƌŧ  ĿŴ  ũƕŦ  ƌĭ  ŴƆ Ŕ ÿƍŅ ƙŔ ƃł Ŕ Īť Ŕ ÿƀò ɫł ƣƗũƤ Ŕ ĭų ł Ņ Ņ ł ŏ Ņ Ŕ Ə  Ł Ŕ Ƨĭ  .ťƍƙŔ ƄŔ Ũť Ŕ ƕĿ  ĥ ĻŴ .IJĬô ĭòűłœũŔ łƕ Ɓƍłəòɳ ł ŨŔ ĭł :ķŴƕƢ ŏ Ƙň œ Ɓƍłəòɳ ł Ũť Ŕ Ɗ Ņ ū ŔŅ Ʀ Ŕ Ƙň œ Ƣƙƣ łŔ ĭł ŵƆ



  

 











ŵƏįĽ

ł Ņ Īť Ņ ĿŏĪŔťƌŅĬŅ ŧ ƢŅ ũŔ ū łŔ ÿŶĭ ł œ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ŸƃłŔƦƤ œ Ɖ ň :IJĬô ĭòűłœũŔ łƖɝķŴƕƢ ŏ Ƙň œ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň ŸƆ Ŕ Ō ĥŦ Ʀÿſ  ųŅ ÿƆĥ .ųŨňœ ł ł ŏ Ŕ ĪňŔĬŦ œ Ɔ ł :ųñ ɤ Ņ ƃŧ Ņ ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥ ƅ Ŕ ƕŅĪĭĥ œ Īłœ ĿƦ Ŕ ŨŅ œ ƎƉ ƋƀƄŌœ Ŷł Īœ Ʀƀ ň :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ƀɞķŴ ł ŏ Ƙň œ ƢƉĥ ƕƢ ł ĭň ŻƆ Ņ ł Ņ .ĴŔ ŁŔ ŴŅƃŔĥķ  ƦƆŴ Ŕ Ƅŏœ Əĭ ł







Ch. 



Just as he interpreted to us, thus it happened to us. He restored me to my position and the other he hanged.”



Pharaoh sent and called Joseph. They drew him out of the dungeon quickly. He shaved and changed his clothes and went before Pharaoh.



Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I have had a dream but there is no one to interpret it. I have heard about you that you hear a dream and you interpret it.”



Joseph answered and said to Pharaoh, “Perchance you suppose that without God one could answer Pharaoh perfectly.”



Pharaoh said to Joseph, “In my dream I was standing on the bank of the Nile.



Seven cows with robust bodies and lovely in appearance were coming up from the Nile and they were grazing in the meadow.



Seven other cows, thin and ugly in appearance, their bodies were very weak, were coming up behind them. I had never seen such ugly cows as these in all the land of Egypt.



The weak and ugly cows ate the first seven robust cows.



They consumed them 1 but no one could tell that they had consumed them. Their appearance remained as ugly as before. Then I awoke.



Again I saw in my dream seven ears of wheat, full and healthy, growing on a stalk.



Then seven ears of wheat, small and blighted by a parching 2 wind, were sprouting up after them.



The small ears of wheat swallowed up the seven full ears of wheat. I told it to the magicians but no one was able to explain it to me.”



Joseph said to Pharaoh, “Pharaoh’s dreams are but one. God has showed to Pharaoh that which he is about to do.



The seven healthy cows are seven years. The seven healthy ears of wheat are seven years. It is the same dream.  1 2

 ‘They consumed them’: lit. ‘They [the fat cows] entered into them [the thin cows]’. See Gen 41:6.



ł Ō ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł ł łœ ł :IJô ŁŔűłœƣň ƈłƕ ƅ Ŕ ƘĬ ň œ ĥ ƁƆ  :ƎƆŦ  ĭĬť  ƍƃŔ Ĭ :ƎƆƢ  Ƥ ƘŔ Ī ƅſĥ  Ŕ ĭ ŭſ :ťŨŴ Ņœ ū ŏ œ ƎƉ ň IJĬô ŴŏŹĬĿĥ  ĭł .ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ƀɞ ł IJųô ſƢƟ Ņ ĭķŴ ł ƕƢ ŏ Ƙň œ Ŀűłœƣł ĭ űſ ł .ķŴƕƢ ŏ Ƙň œ ĶűƟ ŅŔ ƈłƕĭ :IJĬô ĭƦ œ ŷò ƌł Ŕ ň ƖƊ Ʀ  ƣť ň ƌĥŅ ĭň :ųƆ ň Ʀƀ œ Ɔŧ ł ĿŴ Ņ Ƥŏ Ƙĭ ŅŔ Ʀ Ŕ Ɗɤ ň Ŷť ň Ɗɤ Ņ Ŷň :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ƀɞķŴ ł ŏ Ƙň œ ƢƉĥ ƕƢ ł ĭň ųſ ł Ņ Ņ ň œ ł ł Ņ œ œł  ƣ Ī :ƅƀ  Ƈ ƕ . ųƆ ň Ʀ œ ô ƌĥƢƤł Ƙĭ  Ŷ Ʀ  ô ƌĥƗƊ Ŕ ťƊɤ ł Ņ ň œ œ ł ł Ņ Ņ łœ ŏ ň  ô ƌĥƢũŔ Əť  ƊƆ  Ī :ķŴƕƢ ťÿƊŅ ɤƣť Ņ ňƍƖ  ňƌŦ  ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥ űŔƖɤ  ŨŔ Ī Ʀ  ƙƆ Ŕ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſť  ƍƕ Ņ Ŵſ .ķŴƕƢ ŏ ƙƆ ňŔ ň Ņ Ņ .ŧ Ŀų Ņ ƌł Ʀ Ŕ ƙłŔ Ə ň ƈłƕť  ƌŅôĥĶŤƟŦ  Ĭ :ƁƊƇ ô ŷň Ũœ :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ƀɞķŴ ł ŏ Ƙň œ ƢƉĥ ƕƢ ł ĭň ŵſ Ņ ł ł ò Ō ƣŦ ł ŁŔ ǓŅĭŁœ Ɨũƣ Ņ ƌƎ ł ƉŦ ň Ĭĭ Ņ Ÿɖ :ƎÿſĬĭ ň ŵŶƢÿƀ ň ƙŌœ ƣł ĭ :ƎÿſĬň ƢƐũň Ŕ Ũœ ƎÿƍŅ əòƊ Ŕ ƎƠŅ ɤƏŅ ŧ Ŀų .ťūƢ Ņ œ Ɗ ł Ũœ Ǝƀƕ Ņ ǓŅĭ ł ł Ņ ł Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎƠŅ ɤò ƏŅ ƎƀƌŅ ǔŅŶôĥķǓŅĭŁœ Ɨũƣ ƈƀʛƉ Ō ĭł :ƎſĬĭŵ ň Ŷƥƀ ň ŌŔ ǔŅſƞŌŨœ :ƎſĬĿ Ũĭķ ň Ʀ  ŦĬĭ  Żſ Ņ Ŕň ňœ ł Ņ ŏ œ ň Ņ ł ŅòŌ œ Ō Ņ ň Ņ ň  .Ū  Ŕ ŹƎſ  ĬƢƐ  Ũ .ƎſĿƞ Ɖ  ĪŔ ťƕĿ  ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƄŔ Ũ ƎſĬ ŁŔŴƃŔĥƎ  Ƥ ƀŨŔ Ī Ʀſ Ŕ ŵŶ  Ƨĭ Ņ Ņ ł ł ò łœ ň Ņ Ō ł Ņ òŅ Ņ ł Ņ œ ł ł Ņ Ņ ò Ō Ņ Ņ ò Ō  űŔƟŦ  ŁŔ ǓĭŁ ƗũƤ Ŕ Ɔ  :ŦƦ Ŕ Ƥ ƀŨŔ ĭŦƦ Ŕ Ƈ ƀʛƉŦ  ŁŔ ǓŅĭŁœ ƁƇ ƃĥ  ĭ Ĵ .ŦƦ Ŕ ƍŅəòƊ  ƣŦ  Ʀ Ŕ ƀƉ Ō ň ł Ņ ò ł ò ł  Ƨĭ  :ƎſĬŴ ň ÿ ŬƆ  ťƃ  Ŕ ÿſĥ ƥÿÿƀŨŌœ ƎÿÿſĬĭŵ ƅÿ ň Ŷĭ ň :ƎſĬŴ ň ÿ ŬƆ łŔ ÿſŁŔ ĥ Ŕ ł Ņ Ɓô ÿ Ƈƕĭ Ŕ ł Ɓô ÿ ƇƕĪœ ĺűÿ œ œ ň Ō ł ň œ Ņ  ƀƉ  űŔƠ ŨŔ Īłœ .ŁŔƢƀ  ƕŁŁĥ  ĭ .ŦƦ ŏ Ņ ł ł Ņ ł œ Ņ ò Ņ Ō òœň ł Ņ Ŕ Ūƃ  űŔÿŶťÿƀƍƠ Ũ ƎÿƠɤƏ ƎÿƀƇũƣƗũƣ Ŕ ŦĬĭ  :ƁƊƇ ô ŷň Ũœ Ʀſ Ŕ ŵŶ Ō ħĭ  Ŕ Łĭ Ǝÿƀò ˁƉ Ņ Ņ .Ǝũò Ŕ Źĭ  Ō ł Ō Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎƀŅɳ .ƎſĬĿ ň Ʀ ò ɖť Ņ ŨŴ Ņœ ƣł Īť Ŕ Ŷĭ Ņ ƢɝƎ ŏ ƙŅŔ ƀò Ơƣ Ō ĭƎ ł ƍŅəòź  Ɵł ƎƀƇũò œ ƣň Ɨũƣ łŔ ŦĬĭ Ņ ŭƃ Ņ Ņ Ņ ň Ņ Ō ł ň òœň ò ł ł łŔ Ɔ œ Ɔĭť Ʀÿƀ ł ÿƣň ǔŅŷƆ ł ŁŔƢÿƉĥ ň ĭň :ŦƦ Ŕ ÿũò Ŕ Źƨÿũò œ ƣň ƗÿũƤ ł ŦƦ Ŕ ƍŅəòź  Ɵ ƨũƣ Ɓô Ɩɤ  ŨŔ ĭ űƃ Ō .ƁƆŦ  ŴňŷƉ ł Īłœ Ņ Īłœ ĶűňœƉ Ņ ųŅ ÿƆĥ IJŴŌ ÿŶł űŔÿũň Ŕ ƕŦ ň :ĭĬô ŏ űŔŶķŴ ł ƕƢ ŏ Ƙť ňŔ Ɗɤ Ņ Ŷň :ķŴƕƢ ŏ ƙƆ ňŔ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň ųƃ .ķŴƕƢ ŏ ƙƆ ňŔ ň ł ň ł Ņ òŅ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł œ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ ň ł Ŕ ĭł .ƎƀòɫŌ ƣƎƀň ƌĥƗ Ǝÿƀň ƌĥƗ  ÿũƣ Ŕ ÿũò Ŕ Źƨÿũò œ ƣň Ɨÿũƣ  ũƣ Ŕ ŦƦ Ŕ ũŔ ŹŦ  ŁŔ ǓĭŁ Ɨũƣ Ŕ Ŵƃ Ŕ :ŦƦ .ĭĬô ŏ űŔŶł ťƊɤ Ņ Ŷň .ƎƀòɫŌ ƣ .ƚ  Ŕ ƟĮ ł ĭųɝ ł ĭł ň ł  Ŕ ÿƇŶĭĺ ƚ  ƢłÿūŔ ĭł



 





 



 



 





Ch. 

Chapter  

After two years, Pharaoh had a dream that he was standing by the Nile. 1



Seven cows, lovely in their appearance, were coming up from the Nile. Their bodies were robust and they were grazing in the meadow.



Now seven other cows were coming up from the Nile behind them. They were ugly in appearance and their bodies were weak. They were standing beside the cows on the bank of the Nile.



The cows that were ugly in appearance and their bodies weak ate the seven cows that were lovely in appearance and their bodies were robust. Then Pharaoh woke up.



He fell back to sleep and dreamed a second time. Seven ears of wheat, full and healthy, were growing on a stalk.



Then seven ears of wheat, small and blighted by a parching 2 wind, were sprouting up after them.



The seven small ears of wheat swallowed the seven robust and full ears of wheat. Then Pharaoh woke up and it was a dream.



In the morning Pharaoh’s spirit was vexed. He sent out and called all the magicians and sages of Egypt and Pharaoh recounted to them his dreams. There was no one who could interpret them for Pharaoh.



Then the chief cupbearer spoke to Pharaoh saying, “I am reminded today of my fault.



Pharaoh became angry with his servants and he put me and the chief baker in prison with the captain of the guards.



We dreamed dreams on the same night, he and I, each one having its own interpretation of the dream we dreamed.



A Hebrew youth was there with us, the servant of the captain of the guards. We recounted [them] to him and he interpreted our dreams for us. He interpreted for each of us according to each one’s dream. 



1 The MT reads ‘Nile,’ which is normally translated in the Peshiṭta with ‘river’. In this context, the ‘river’ can only refer to the Nile. 2 The MT has ‘East,’ which would suggest a dry hot wind. The Peshiṭta makes this explicit.



ňł

ťƉ :ķĭŅ ƨƙ Ŕ Ɵň ň ł ł Ņœ ň Ņ ł ň Ņ Ņ Ŕ Ũ ƎƉŦ .ŧ Ŀų Ņ ƌƈ ł łƕĶ  ŤƟŦ  Ĭĭ  :ťƊɤ Ņ ŶƋ ň ł ƇŶķŴ  ƕƢ ŏ Ƙĭ ňŔ :ƎƀòɫŌ ƣƎſŁœ ĿŁœ ĿƦ  ĭĬ  ĭ ł ł Ŕ ƎƠŅ ɤ ò Əŧ Ņ Ŀų Ņ ƌƎ ł ƉŦ ň Ĭĭ Ņ Ō ƣĭ ł :ƎſĬĭŵ ň ŷň Ũœ ķǔŅƀƙŌ œ ƣł :ķǓŅĭŁœ Ɨũƣ :ƎÿſĬƢƐ ň ũňŔ Ũœ ƎƍŅəòƊ .ťūƢ Ņ ǓŅĭ Ņ œ Ɗ ł Ũœ Ǝƀƕ Ņ ł ł Ņ Ņ ł ň ĬĿ ł ÿƉƎÿſ Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎÿƠŅ ɤ ƎÿſĬĭŵ ň ŷň Ũœ ƎÿƤŅ ƀòŨŌœ :ŧ Ŀų Ņ ÿƌƎ ň Ʀ ò ƏŦ Ņ Ʀ Ŕ ƀƌŅ ǔŅŶôĥŦŁŔ ǓŅĭŁœ Ɨũƣ Ŕ ŦĬĭ  Ņ Ņ łœ œ ň ň Ņ Ņ.ŧ Ŀų ł ò Ņ ł ł ň ň ň ò ł Ō œ  ĭł  ƈƕŦ  ŁŔ ǓĭŁ Ū  ôƍū  œ ƈƕ ƎƀƊ  ƌ Ʀ Ŕ ƙŔ Ə  Ɵĭ  :ƎſĬ ƢƐũŔ Ũ ƎƇ ƀʛƉ Ņ ł ł ł Ņ Ō ł ň ň œ Ņ ò Ō Ņ Ņ łœ ò ł ň  ĭƎſ  Ĭĭ  ŵŷ Ũ ƎƤ ƀŨŔ ĪŦ Ŕ ŁŔ ǓĭŁ Ɓô Ƈ ƃĥ Ŕ ĭ Ŕ Ɔ  :ƎſĬň ƢƐũň Ŕ Ũœ ƎƇ ƀòʛƉ ķǔŅƀƙŌœ ƣł ĪŦŔ ŁŔ ǓŅĭŁœ ƗũƤ ň œ œ ŏ Ō Ō ň ň ň ň Ņ œ ò ł œ  ƣĭƎſ  Ĭĭ  ŵŷň Ũœ .ķŴƕƢ  Ƙ ƢƀƕŁŁĥ  ĭ .ƎſĬ ƢƐũŔ Ũ ƎƍəƊ ň ł ł Ŕ ŦĬĭ ł ÿƀƍŅ Ơł Ũœ ƎÿƠŅ ɤò ƏŅ ƎÿƀŌƇũò œ ƣň Ɨÿũƣ :űŔÿŶť Ņ :Ǝÿƀò ɫŌ ŨŔ ĮƎÿſ ł Łœ ĿŁŔ Īœ ƋÿłƇŶĭł ƅ Ŕ Ɖ ň ĪŔĭł Ņ Ņ Ņ ò ł  Ɖ  .Ǝũò Ŕ ŹĭƎ  ƀˁ Ō ł Ō Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎƀŅɳ .ƎſĬĿ ň Ʀ ò ɖŅ :ťŨŴ Ņœ ƣł Īť Ŕ Ŷĭ Ņ ƢɝƎ ŏ ƙŅŔ ƀòƠƣ Ō ĭƎ ł ƍŅəòź  Ɵł ƎƀƇũò œ ƣň Ɨũƣ łŔ ŦĬĭ Ņ Ņ Ō ł ň òœň ł ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ņò Ō ł ň òœň łŔ Ɔ  Ʀ Ŕ ÿƍəƊ  ƣ ƨÿũƣƗÿũƤ ł :ŦƦ Ŕ ÿƍŅ əòź  Ɵ ƨÿũƣƗƇ ŨŔ ĭ ƢÿƀŌƕŁœŁĥ œ ĭň .ŦƦ Ŕ ÿƀò ˁƉĭŦ .ĭĬť ô Ɗɤ ł ŶŦ ň ĬĭķŴ Ņ ŏ Ƙň œ ƕƢ ł œň Ņ ł Ņ ł ŏ ƘňŔ Īœ ųÿŶĭ ň Ŀŏ Ʀ ŒŔ ƘƢ łŔ ŹŁĥ  ĭ :ŧ ƢƘŔ ƞŨŦ Ŕ ĭĬ  ĭ :ťÿƣň ǔŅŶķĭ ł ųÿɤ ŏ ƄƆŧ ŏŔ ƢÿƟĿ Ņ űł œ ÿƣł ĭ .ķŴÿƕƢ łœ ň ň ň œ ñ ň ò Ōœł ŏ ŏ ł ň ò ŏ Ō ł ŏ œƦƀ ł œ ň Ŕ ĭ  Ɔĭ  :IJĬô ŴƊɤ  Ŷ ķŴƕƢ  Ƙ ķĭųɝ  ƁƕƦƣĥ  ĭ :ƎſĿƞ Ɖ  Ī ųƀ  Ɗ  ƀƄ Ŷ ķĭųɤƄƆ Ņ ň ŏ ŏ ł  Ƥ ƘŔ Īœ ƥƌŅôĥ Ŕ ķĭųɝƢ .ķŴƕƢ  ƙƆ Ņ Ņ ň ł .ťƍŅƉŴ Ņ łſť  ƌŅôĥƢƃłœűŔƉ ł Ɓô ƍŶĿŴ Ņ Ə ŏ :ƢƉĥ ł ĭķŴ ň ƕƢ ŏ Ƙň œ ĶűƟŦ ŅŔ ŁŔ Ŵò Ơł ƣŅ ħ  œ Ŀƈ ł Ƈ Ɖĭ  ł ƁÿƆŌ :ťÿƤň Ŷò Īłœ ħ ňŔ ǔňƀƏ Ō ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũňœ Ɓô ƍƀƉĿĥ ł ĭł .IJĬô ĭűł œ ũò Ŕ łƕƈłƕŵ  ūĿ ňŔ ķŴƕƢ ŏ Ƙň œ  œ Ŀł Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũŧ ŏ ł ĭł .ťƉ ň ĭòƦ œ ŷƌł ħœ Ƣɝ ň ł Ņ Ō ł .ƎƊł ƇŶų  Ɗɤ ň ŶƢ ň ƤŅ Ƙ œ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ƢũłŔ ū  œ :ĭĬĭť ł ƌŅĥ űŔŶť  ƀˁ  Ƈ ŨŔ ťƊň ɤò Ŷň ƎƊł ƇŶ  ĭł ł ł ň ň ƕƦƣĥ ł ÿƤł ƘŔ ĭų ƎÿƆƢ ł ÿƆƎƀ œ ĭň .ťƤň Ŷò Īłœ ħ  œ ĿłĪŔŧ űŅœũŔ łƕ :ťɕŅƢŅũŔ ň ƕť  Ɗƀ Ņ ł ƇƕƎ  Ɗ ł łƕƎ  Ɖ Ņ ŁŔ ĭ ł .ƢƤł Ƙ œ ųƊɤ ň Ŷň ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ƥƌŅôĥ .ƎƀƊ ł ɤò Ŷň



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IJ  ťſ  Ūſ 

Ch. 



But the chief baker he hanged just as Joseph had interpreted for them.



The chief cupbearer did not remember Joseph. He forgot him.



ł ł ň ò ŏ œ ł œł ł .ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſķĭ  ųɝƢ ŏ Ƥł ƘŔ Īłœ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ :ƚ  Ŕ ƟĮť  Ɖ  ĭƦ  ŷƌ ħ  Ƣɝ  ĭ Ūƃ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ .IJųô ƀƖŹ Ņ ĭł :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ƀɞŦ ł ŁŔ Ŵò Ơł ƣŅ ħ  œ ĿƢ ł ƃłŔĪœŁœĥ  Ƨĭ  ŭƃ



 

Ch. 



After three days Pharaoh will remember you 1 and he will return you to your office. You will place Pharaoh’s cup in his hand 2 just like you used to do 3 when you were cupbearer to him.



Only remember that I was with you 4 when it goes well for you. Deal kindly and truthfully 5 with me and remember me to Pharaoh and get me out of this prison. 6



I was kidnapped from the land of the Hebrews and I did not do anything here for them to put me in prison.” 7



The chief baker saw that he had interpreted it accurately and he said to Joseph, “Indeed, I in my dream saw three baskets of white things 8 on my head.



In the uppermost basket was some of all of Pharaoh’s food — the products of the baker. Birds of prey were eating them from the basket above my head.”



Joseph answered and said to him, “This is the interpretation of your dream: the three baskets are three days.



After three days Pharaoh will take your head off you. He will hang you on a pole and the birds will eat your flesh.”



It happened that on the third day, which was Pharaoh’s birthday, Pharaoh prepared a feast for all his servants.



He remembered 9 the chief cupbearer and the chief baker among his servants. He restored the chief cupbearer to his position and he put the cup in Pharaoh’s hand. 



The MT: ‘Pharaoh will lift up your head’. See the Introduction: Harmonizations. ‘You will place Pharaoh’s cup in his hand’: lit. ‘you will give the cup to Pharaoh in his hand’. 3 ‘just like you used to do’: lit. ‘according to the former custom’. 4 ‘remember that I was with you’: lit. ‘remember me with you’. 5 MT lacks ‘and truthfully’. See the Introduction: Harmonizations. 6 MT: ‘house’. 7 MT: ‘pit’. 8 The Hebrew word is a hapax legomenon. See the Introduction: The Peshiṭta imitates the formal character of the Hebrew. 9 See 40:13. 1 2



ňň Ņ ň Ņ Ņ œ ł Ņœ ň  łƕ ƅ Ŕ ƄŅŔ Ƙų  œ ƌłĭķŴƕƢ ŏ Ƙň œ ĴŔ ƢŅƃŔĪłœƦ Ŕ Ũ ƎƉ ĵŁœ ŁĭŔ :ĴŔ ŁŔ űœƣƈ œ ňƌ :ƎƀƉ Ō Ŵò ɖŦ ł Ʀ Ŕ Ɔ  Ł ĿƦ  ĭ ŭſ ł ň ň ŏ ň Ŕ ťƐ Ņ ƃŅœ . ųƆ  Ʀſ œ ĭłĬť ô ƠƤ  Ɖ ł Īť Ŕ ƀŅƉ Ņ űŔƟť ł ƏŴ Ņ Ɗ ŏ ƌŅ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ :ĬűſŤ ňŔ ŨŌœ ķŴƕƢ  ƙƆ ň Ņň Ņ ŏœ ł ł Ņ ň Ŕ ĭł :ƅ Ŕ ÿƆŅ ħŤ  Ŕ ÿźňƌ űŔÿƃł œ ƅ Ŕ ÿƊŅ łƕƁô ÿƍſƢłƃŔĪłœŁœĥ Ƨĥ űſ :ŦƦƣŴ œ ÿƟŏ ĭŦŁŴ Ŕ ÿũƀ ŹƁô ÿƊłƕ űŔÿũƕ ł ňœ ň .ťƌŅĬŧ Ņ ǔňƀƏ Ō ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũ ƎƉ  Ɓô ƍƀƠł Ƙĥ ň œ ĭł :ķŴƕƢ ŏ Ƙň œ ĶűƟ ŅŔ Ɓô ƍſƢłƃłœĪłœŁĥ œ ĭň Ņ ň Ņœ Ņ Ņ ň Ņ ň Ņ ł ň Ņ ŏ ň ŁŔűň œ ÿũŔ ň ƕ  ƧĶ  űňœƉť  ƃĿ  Ĭ Ļĥ  Ŕ ĭ :ťɕǔũŔ ƕĪť Ŕ ƕĿ  ĥƎ  Ɖť  ƌôĥ Ūƀ  Ŕ ƍŌū œ Ū  Ŕ ƍłŬ Ŕ Ɖ ň Īœ ƈź Ɖ  ųſ łŌ ň.ŧ ǔƀƏ ŏ Īłœ  ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũňœ Ɓô ƌŴƀƉĿĥ ň Ņ ŏ Ŕ Ɖ ň ĭòƦ œ ŷƌł ħ  œ ĿŦ ł ŵŶ Ņ ĭł Ŵſ ŦĬĭ Ņ :ƁÿƊƇ ô ŷň Ũť Ŕ ƌŅĥ Ļĥ  Ŕ ĭ :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ƀɞƢ ł ł ĭň :ƢƤł Ƙ œ ƢƀƙŌœ ƣł Īť Ɖĥ ň Ņ ł Ņ Ņ  ŁŔ ò ŦƦŔ Ɔ .ƁƤ ô ſĿƈ Ō łƕŦ  ŁŔ ǓŅŴŅ Ŷň ĪŔ ƨƏ Ņł ł ŏ ň ň Ņ Ŕ :ķŴƕƢ ťƙƍ ŅŔ ƃňœ ŁŔŴƀ ł ʖĭ ł :ťƉĭ Ņ Ʀŷ œ ƌłĪŧ Ŕ űŅŔũƕ ŏ ƘňŔ Īœ ųƇ ƃŤ Ŕ Ɖƈ  ƃŏœ ƎƉť ň ƀŅˁ  Ņ ň ƕ  ƨ Ɛ  ŨŔ ĭ ŵſ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ō ň .ƁƤ ô ſĿƎ  Ɖƈ ň  Ɖ ƖɝƎ ň ƨ ƏƎ ł Ɖķĭ ň ųɝ ŏ ƨ ƃŔĥ ň Ņ Ņ œ ò Ō ł Ņ Ņ œ Ņ ň œ ňŅ œ łŅ ň ł ň ň ł Ņ ķŴÿƌŏ ĥ ŦƦ Ŕ Ɔ  Ł Ǝƀˁ  ƏŦ  Ʀ Ŕ Ɔ  Ł :ƅ Ŕ Ɗɤ  Ŷ Ī ĬƢƤ Ƙ ŴƌĬ :ųƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſť  ƍƕ  Ÿɖ ò .ƎƀƉ Ō Ŵ ɖł Ņ Ņ œ ł Ņœ Ņ Ŕ ňƌĭ ŏ Ƙň œ Ū Ņ Ɵƈ Ŕ Ũ Żſ :ťÿƐƀ ł ÿłƕ ƅ Ŕ ÿƙƟŵ  :ƅ Ŕ ÿƍŅ Ɖ ň ƅ Ŕ ÿƤŅ ſĿķŴ Ō ÿƕƢ  ŔƐ ł ňƌƎƀ  Ɖ Ō Ŵò ɖŦ ł Ʀ Ŕ Ɔ  Ł ĿƦ ň Ņ Ņ ŏ Ņ Ŕ Ŕ Łĭ Ŕ ƢłƘ œ ĵŴƃĥ .ƅ Ŕ ƍŅƉ ň ĴŔ ƢƐ  ŨňŔ ŦƦŶ Ņ Ō ŏ Ƙň œ űŔÿũƕ ŏ ƘňŔ Īœ Ĭűÿ Ņ ƀłŨœ :ťÿɕŅ Ʀƀ Ņ ƀłŨŦ ł Ŕ :ķŴÿƕƢ ň œ ÿɤłſ Ʀÿ Ŕ ÿƉŴ Ŕ Ɔ  Łť Ŕ ÿƉŴ Ŕ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł Ĵ ķŴÿƕƢ Ŕ ÿƀŨň Ŕ Īť ŏŔ ɕŅƦƤ œ Ɖ ł .IJĬô ĭűł œ ũò Ŕ łƕ ķĭųɤ ŏ ƄƆť Ņ Ņ ŏ ł œ ũò Ŕ łƕ ŴÿŬŔ ł Ũť  œ ƢÿɝƋÿƀ ħ ł Ō ĭł :IJĬô ĭűÿ Ɵĥ Ŕ Ɖ ň ĭòƦŷ œ ƌł ħ  œ Ƣɝ ł ĭŦ ł ŁŔ Ŵò Ơł ƣŅ ħ  œ ƢɝƢ ł ƃłŔĪœŁœĥĭň ťƃ ň Ō Ņ Ņ  ŁŔ Ŵò Ơł ƣŅ .ķŴƕƢ ŏ Ƙň œ IJűłŔɖòĥ ƈłƕť  Ɛ Ņ ƃŅœ ħ  Ŕ ųô łſĭ ĬŁŔ űœƣň ƈłƕŦ





















Ch. 

Chapter  LXVI



After these events, the chief cupbearer of the king of Egypt and the chief baker offended their lord, the king of Egypt.



Pharaoh became angry with his two officials, with the chief cupbearer and with the chief baker.



He put them in prison, in the house of the captain of the guards where Joseph was imprisoned.



The captain of the guards put Joseph in charge of them and he attended to them. They passed many days in prison.



The two of them — the cupbearer and the baker of the king of Egypt who were confined in prison — had dreams. Each had his dream on the same night, each one having its own interpretation. 1



Joseph went to them in the morning and he saw them; they were troubled.



He asked the officials of Pharaoh who were with him in the prison of his master’s house and he said to them, “Why are your faces troubled today?”



They said to him, “We have dreamed a dream but there is no one to interpret it.” Joseph said to them, “Interpretations belong to God. Tell them to me.”



The chief cupbearer recounted his dream to Joseph. He said to him, “In my dream there was a vine in front of me.



Three branches were on the vine. When it sprung up, its leaves grew and its grape clusters ripened and the grapes appeared.



Pharaoh’s cup was in my hand and I took the grapes and I crushed them in Pharaoh’s cup and I placed the cup in Pharaoh’s hands.”



Joseph said to him, “This is the interpretation of your dream: the three branches are three days. 



‘each one having its own interpretation’: lit. ‘each one according to the interpretation of his dream’.

1





ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

Ņ Ņ ň Ņ ň œ ł Ņœ ň Ņ ł ł Ŀƞň Ɖ  œ ĿĭƎÿſ ħ ł ň Īť Ŕ Ƅɤ Ņœ Ɖ ł ĪŦ Ŕ ŁŔ Ŵò Ơł ƣŅ ħ  œ Ŀł ŴźŶ  :ƎƀƆ ň Ĭť Ņ Ɗ Ŕ Ũ ƎƉŦ ò ū Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ Ƙ ĿƦ  ĭĬ  ĭ ŏ ň ò Ņ ŏ ň ň Ņ ł œ .ƎſĿƞ Ɖ  Īť Ŕ Ƅɤ  Ɖ  ķĭĬƢ  ƊƆť  Ɖ  ĭƦ œ ŷƌł Ņ Ņ ŏ Ƙň œ ŵūĿ ł ò ſųƉƎÿſ  œ Ŀƈ ħ ł ÿłƕĭ :ŦŁŔ Ŵò ÿƠł ƣŅ ħ  œ Ŀƈ ł ÿłƕ :IJĬŴ ô ÿƍƊ ł ĿňŁœ ƈÿłƕķŴÿƕƢ ňŔ ĭł ŏ .ťƉ ň ĭòƦ œ ŷƌł ł ł ň ł Ņ ł œ ň ò ł œ œł ň œ ň Ō ł ň œ ŏ ň Ō ł Ņ Łœ ƢƀƏŌ ĥ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſĪŧ Ŕ ĿŁŤ Ŕ Ũ :ťƤ Ŷ Ī ħ . ƎƉ  Ŀ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũ :ŧ ǔƀƏ  ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũ ķŴƌĥ ƁƉĿĥ  ĭ ň Ņ Ņòł ł ł ŏ ň ł ň ł ňŔ Ʀ Ŕ Ɖ  Ŵɖ ĭĭĬ  ĭ .ķŴƌĥƥ  Ɗ  ƣĭ  :ķĭųƀ ŏ ł Ƈƕ  ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ƀɞť ł Ƥň Ŷò Īłœ ħ Ŕ ŨŦ Ʀÿƀ  œ ĿŻ ł Ƈƣĥ  ĭ ł .ŧ ǔňƀƏ Ō ĥ ł Ō ł ƀˁ ƢÿƤŅ Ƙ œ ƅÿſ  Ŕ ĥ Ƣÿũł Ŕ ū  œ :űŔÿŶť Ņ Ƈ Ũœ ųƊɤ ň ŶƢ ň ũłŔ ū  œ :ķĭųſ ŏ ǓłŁŔ ťƊň ɤò Ŷň Ŵô Ɗł ƇŶ  ĭł ł ŏ ł Ņ Ņ .ŧ ǔňƀƏ Ō ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũňœ ƎſƢƀ Ō Əĥ Ō Īłœ :ƎſĿƞň Ɖ ň Īť Ŕ Ƅɤ Ņœ Ɖ ł ĪŔ ťƉĭ Ņ Ʀŷ  ƀƠ  ƣ :ųƊɤ ň Ŷň œ ƌĭť ň Ņ ł Ņ ł œ ň ł ŏ Ņ łƕĭ .ƎſƢƀ Ō Ɗ Ō ƃŦ Ŕ ĬĭķŴ Ņ ƌŏĥŦ  ŵŶ  ĭ :ŧ ƢƘŔ ƞŨ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſķĭ  Ĭ ŁŔŴɝƈ   ňł ŏ Ŕ Ũłœ ųƊ ł ĭň :ĬƢňƉ ňŔ ƀƣŴ Ņ ũŷ :ķĭųÿɝƢ ŏ ÿƉĥ Ņ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũť ň łƕĪœ ķŴƕƢ ŏ Ƙň œ ƁƍƊ ł ò ſųƊ ł Ɔĵ ł Ťƣĭ  ł Ņ ł ŏ Ō ƃť Ŕ ƍŅƊƆ Ņ .ťƍŅƉŴ Ņ łſķŴ  Ƅœ ɛò Ƙ œ ĥ ķǔƀƊ Ņ ň œ ł Ņ ŏ Ņ ŦĬŅ :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ÿłſ ķĭųɝƢ ŏ ł ĥ .ųƆ Ɖ  Ʀƀ  Ɔŧ  ĿŴ  Ƥ Ƙĭ Ŕ :ƎƊł ƇŶť  Ɗɤ Ņ Ŷň :ųƆ ň ĭô ƢƉĥ ł ĭň ň ň ł  ųŅ Ɔĥ Ņ ĪłŔ . ƁƆ Ō ŴłƕƦƣ œ ĥ :ŧ ǔňƤŅ Ƙ œ ķŴƌŏĥŦ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ŦƦ œ ƙňŔ ūŦ Ŕ ĬŅ :ƁƊƇ ô ŷň Ũœ :ųƆƢ ň Ɖĥ ł ĭň :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ƀɞų ł ň ŶŦ Ɗɤ ň ŁŔ Ŵò Ơł ƣŅ ħ  œ Ŀł ƁŌƕƦƣĥ œ ĭň . ƁƉ ł űƟ ŅŔ ł Ō Ō Ņ ŒŔ ÿłƕƢƘň œ űŔÿƃł Ŕ IJĬĭ Ō .ƎÿſƦ œ Ƥò ũƣ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ ÿƆŅ ŁŦ Ŕ Ʀ œ ƙňŔ Ŭ Ŕ Ũĭ łŔ Ŵô ÿƇƤň ŨŔ ĭł :ųÿƀ ñ ƘňŔ ǔŹ ŴÿłƇƕ :Ʀ Ŕ ŏ Ə ň ĭĭĬ ł ĭł ųƀ ñ Ɔ ň Ŵò Ŭ .ťũňŔ òƍɯ ŏ ƘňŔ Īœ ųÿƐň ƄŅŔ Ũœ Ǝÿƀň ƌĥň ŁŔĿƞň ÿňƕĭťÿũň Ŕ òƍɯ ň œ ňƌĭ ň Ʀ Ŕ ÿũƐ  :IJűłŔÿɖò ŤŨŌœ ķŴƕƢ ŏ ƘňŔ Īť Ŕ Ɛ Ņ ƃĭ ŅŔ :ķŴÿƕƢ Ō Ņ Ņœ ňœ ň .ķŴƕƢ ŏ Ƙň œ IJűłŔɖòƧ ťƐ  ƃ Ʀ Ŕ Ũųſĭ ň Ņ Ņ œ Ņ Ō Ō Ņ Ŷň Īœ ĬƢňƤŅ Ƙ œ ŴƌłĬŅ :ƚ ķŴÿƌŏ ĥŦ Ʀ Ŕ ÿƆŁ :ƎÿſƦ œ Ƥò ũƣ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ ÿƆŅ Łœ :ƅ Ŕ ÿƊɤ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſų  ƆƢ ň Ɖ ł ĥ .ƎƀƉ Ō Ŵò ɖł



ŴƏįĽ ĥ



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IJ  ťſ  Ūſ 

Ch. 



She grabbed his coat and she said to him, “Lie with me.” But he left his coat in her hands and fled, going outside.



When she saw that he had left his coat in her hands and fled outside,



she called her household staff and said to them, “See, he brought us a Hebrew servant 1 to ridicule us. He came to me to lie with me but I cried out with a loud voice.



When he heard that I raised my voice and cried out, he left his coat in my hands and fled, going outside.”



She kept his coat with her until his master came home.



She spoke to him with these words: “The Hebrew servant whom you brought to us came to me to ridicule us. 2



When I raised my voice and cried out, he left his coat in my hands and fled, going outside.”



When his master heard the words that his wife spoke to him, “This is the way your servant treated me,” he became angry.



His master took him and put him in prison, where the prisoners of the king were imprisoned and so he stayed there in prison.

LXV



But the Lord was with Joseph and he bestowed favor upon him and he gave him favor in the eyes of the chief jailer.



The chief jailer entrusted Joseph with all the prisoners in the prison and he was doing everything that was done there.



The chief jailer paid no attention to anything in Joseph’s charge because the Lord was with him. The Lord gave success to whatever he did.

1 2

MT: ‘a man’. See the Introduction: Harmonizations. MT: ‘me’.



ŅŔ Ņ Ŕ Ũłœ ĬňŁŔ űŔŶł ĥĭň :ųÿſ ñ űňŔɖòŤŨŌœ ųÿƤň ũƆų ÿƠň ũŔ ƣĭ ł :ƁÿƊ ô łƕ ƅŔ Ɖ ł Īœ :ųƆ ň Œ ŁŔ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň :ųƤň ũɤ .ťƟŴ Ņ ƤƆ ŏ ųƆơ ň ƙƌ łŔ ľƢƕ ł ĭł ŅŔ .ťƟŴ Ņ ƤƆľ ŏ ł ĭł :ųſ Ƣƕ ñ űňŔɖòŤŨŌœ ųƤň ũƆų Ơň ũŔ ƣł Īœ ŒŁŔ ŵŶ Ņ űŔƃłŔĪŦ Ŕ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł Ō Ņ Ŕ ƊƆť ň ɕŅƢŅũŔ ň ƕŧ  űŅœũŔ łƕƎƆ ł IJƦſĥ œ Īłœ ĭŵŶ ƅ Ŕ ŷł Ŭ ł :ķĭųɝ ŏ Œ ŁŔ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň Ĭñ Ʀƀ œ Ũłœ ƁƤò ł ƌŅôƧ Œ ŁŔ ƢƟ Ņ Ņ .ťƉ Ņ Ŀ Ņ ƨ ƠŅ Ũœ Ʀƀ Ŕ ŌƖƟ  ĭł :ƁƊ ô łƕ ƅ Ŕ Ɖ ł űŔƊƆ ň Ɓł Ƈƕ  ƈłƕ .Ǝƀł Ƈƕ  ł Ŕ ľƢÿƕ ŅŔ ơÿƙƌ ł ĭł :IJűłŔÿɖò ŤŨŌœ ųƤň ũƆų Ơň ũŔ ƣł :Ʀƀ Ŕ ŌƖƟ  ĭłƁô ƇƟŅ Ʀ Ŕ Ɗſ ň ĿĥŌ Īłœ ƗƊƣ ł űŔƃĭ łŔ Ņ ƤƆų ŏ ň Ɔ .ťƟŴ Ņ Ņ ň Ņ Ņ łƕĪť Ņ Ŕ ƦƊ .ŦƦƀ œ ũł Ŕ Ɔ ĬƢňƉƈ Ņ Ŕ Ɖ Ņ űƕ łŔ :Ĭñ ŁŔ Ŵɝų  Ƥň ũƆĬ œ Ə ĭ ň ł ň Ō ł Ņ Ņ ň Ņœ ł ł ƎÿƆł Ʀÿſ œ Ʀſĥ œ Īť Ŕ ÿɕƢũŔ ƕŧ  űÿũŔ ƕ ƁÿƇƕƈÿłƕ :ƎÿƀƆ ň Ĭ Ņ ƨ ÿƉò ƅÿſ  Ŕ ĥ ųƆ ň ŒŁŔ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň Ŕ ł Ɔ ł .ƎŨłŔ ŴƄŏŔ ŷŅ ŬƊ ł ł ň ÿƙƌ ł Ŕ ľƢÿƕ ŅŔ ųÿƆơ ł ĭł :IJűłŔÿɖò ŤŨŌœ ųÿƤň ũƆų ÿƠň ũŔ ƣł :Ʀƀ Ŕ ŌƖƟ  ĭłƁô ƇƟŅ Ʀ Ŕ Ɗſ ň ĿŌĥ űŔƃĭ Ŕ Ņ ŏ .ťƟŴ  ƤƆ  ň ň ň ň ň ò ň Ņ ł ƁÿƆŌ űŔũƕ łŔ ƎƀƆ ň Ĭ Ņ ƨƉ ò ƅſĥ  Ŕ Īłœ :ųƆ ň Œ ŁŔ ƢƉĥ ł Īňœ ĬŁŔ Ʀœ ô ƌĥĪłœ ųƀ ñ Ƈ Ɖ  ĬƢƉƗ  Ɗƣ  űŔƃĭ łŔ ň .Ĭŵňūĭ Ŕ Ŀŏ Ʀ Ŕ Ɗ ł Ŷł ŁŔĥ :ĴŔ űŅœũŔ łƕ ł Ņ œ ł ł Ō łœ ł œł ň Ō ł :ĭĭłĬô ƎÿſƢƀ Ō Ə Ō ĥť  ÿƄɤ  IJǔÿƀƏĥ Ɖ  ĪĿ łŔ  Łĥ :ŧ ǔÿƀƏ  ĥ Ʀÿƀ Ŕ Ũňœ ųƀƉĿĥ ň ĭĬ ł ƢňƉĬ Ņ ƢňŨŔ Īĭ ł ňœ Ņ ł Ņ ł .ŧ ǔňƀƏ Ō ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũ ƎƉ  ŁŔ ŦĭĬ  ĭ

Ūſ  ŭſ  űſ  ųſ  Ŵſ  ŵſ  Ÿɖ  Żſ  Ĵ  ųƏįĽ

ň ǔłɝųŨňŔ ųô łſĭ :ŧ űƐ ŅŔ Ŷň IJĬô Ŵł Ƈƕ  ƁƉĿĥ Ō ĭł :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſƋ  łƕť  ɕƢ Ņ ƉŦ Ņ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł ťƃ Ɓÿƍł əòɳ ł Ũť Ŕ ÿƊŶ ł ň œ œł Ŕ Ũ ħ  Ŀ .ŧ ǔňƀƏŌ ĥ Ʀƀ ł ŏ ŏ œ ň ł ł ň Ō ł ň œ œł ň ł ł łŔ ǔňÿƀƏ Ō ĥķĭ  ųÿɤ  ƃ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ÿſ űŔÿƀŨŧ Ŕ ǔƀƏ  ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũ ħ  ĿƋ  Ƈƣĥ  ĭ Ūƃ .ŧ ǔňÿƀƏ Ō ĥ Ʀÿƀ Ŕ ũňŔ ŨŔ Īŧ ł œ Ņ Ņ ŏŔ Ņ Ł ĭĭłĬô ƎſűŌœũŔ ƕĪœ ƈƃĭ .ŦĭŅĬô űŔũň Ŕ ƕ ĭĬŏ :ƎƉ ŏ ň ň Ō œ ň œ ň Ņ ň Ņ Ņ ň Ō ł ň œ œł Ņ Ɖ .ųÿƊň łƕŦ  ĭĬť Ņ ÿɕƢ Ņ Īœ ƈÿźƉ  :ĬűÿſŤ Ŕ Ũ ĶűÿƉŦĭĬŦ ô ŵŶ  Ƨŧ  ǔƀƏ  ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũ ħ  Ŀĭ  ŭƃ ł Ņ ň ƈƃĭ ŏŔ .ŸƆƞ  Ɖť ł ɕƢ Ņ Ɖ Ņ :ŦĭŅĬô űŔũň Ŕ ƕĪœ ĶűňœƉ









Ch. 

Chapter  LXIV



The Midianites 1 brought Joseph down to Egypt. The official Potiphar, captain of Pharaoh’s guards, an Egyptian, bought him from the hand of the Arabs who brought him down there.



The Lord was with Joseph and the man became prosperous in the house of his Egyptian lord.



His master saw that the Lord was with him and that the Lord gave success through him in everything that he was doing.



Joseph found favor in his eyes and he served him. He set him in charge over his house and everything that he had he put in his hands.



From the moment that he put him in charge over his house and over everything that he had, the Lord blessed the Egyptian’s house because of Joseph. The Lord’s blessing was over everything that he had in the house and in the field.



He left everything he had in Joseph’s hands. He paid no attention to anything with him there except the food that he was eating. Joseph’s appearance was handsome and his face was lovely.



After a time, his master’s wife cast her eye on Joseph and she said to him, “Lie with me.”



But he was unwilling and he said to his master’s wife, “Look, with me here, my master pays no attention to anything in his house. Everything that he has he has put in my charge.



There is no one greater in this house than me. He has not withheld anything from me except you, because you are his wife. How could I do this most wicked act? I would sin against God.”



She was speaking to him day after day, but he was not listening to her to lie with her and to be with her.



It happened on one particular day that Joseph went into the house to do work and no one from the household staff was there in the house. 

1



The term ‘Midianites’ is not in the MT.



ŻƆ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ŏ ł ň ł ł ň Ņ ųƉƢ Ŕ ĥ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ƀɞ  ĭ  œ Ŀť ħ ł ÿƍƊſ ł ŅŔ ŌŹŴ ƙƀ  ÿƘŏ œ ųÿňƍŨŔ Įĭ ł :ƎÿſĿƞň ƊƆť ň ÿƀò ɫŅ ɗŅ űŔƉ ň IJĬô ĭƦŶ ŏ ł ň Ņ ł Ņ Ō ň Ņ Ņ ň Ņ łœ ŏ ň ň ò łœ ł Ņ Ŕ Ƥ Ŷ Ī Ŕ Īť Ŕ ƀŨŔ ǔƕĪŧ Ŕ űſ Ŕ ĥƎ  Ɖ  :ťɕĿƞ Ɖŧ  ƢũŔ ū  :ķŴƕƢ  ƘŔ Īť Ŕ IJĬô ĭƦŶĥ . ƎƉ  ƦƆ .ťɕŅĿƞŅ ƉĬ ň ƢňƉ Ņ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũňœ ŸƆƞ ł Ɖŧ ł ƢŅũŔ ūŦ Ŕł ĭĬ Ņ ĭł :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſƋ  łƕť  ɕƢ Ņ ƉŦ Ņ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł ŏŔ :ųƊ ň łƕť  ɕƢ Ņ Ɖ Ņ Īœ ĬƢňƉŦ Ņ ŵŶ Ņ ĭł .ĬűſŤ ňŔ ŨŌœ ŸƆƞ ł Ɖť ł ɕƢ Ņ Ɖ Ņ űŔũňŔ ƕŅĪœ ƈƃĭ ň ň ƈƃĭ ŏŔ :ĬƦƀ œ Ũłœ ƈłƕų  źƇ  ƣĥĭł :ųƤƊ ň ƣĭ ł IJĬô Ŵƍłəòɳ ł Ũť Ŕ ƊŶ ň Ǔł ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſŸ  Ƅƣĥ łœ ĭň .IJĬĭ ô űłŔɖòŤŨŌœ ħ  Ŕ ųô łſųƆ ň Ʀſĥ Ŕ ĪŌœ ň ň ťɕƢ Ņ Ɖ Ņ ĴŔ ƢňŨł œ :ųƆ ň Ʀſĥ Ŕ ĪŌœ ƈƃŏœ ƈłƕĭ  :ĬƦƀ œ Ũłœ ƈłƕų  źƇ  ƣĥĪť łŔ ƍŅŨŔ ĮƎ ł ƉŦ ň ĭĬ Ņ ĭł ŏ ň ŅŅ ň œ ňœ ł ň œ ŏœ Œ Ņ ł Ņ Ɖ Ŕ ĪŌœ ƈÿƄŏ Ŕ Ũť Ʀÿſĥ Ŕ ÿɕƢ Ņ Īœ ĬƦ Ŕ ƃĿ  ŴÿŨ ŁŔ ĭĬ  ĭ :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſ ƈź  Ɖť  ɕĿƞ Ɖ  Ī ĬƦƀ  ũŔ Ɔ Ņ ł ł Ņœ ł œ ň .ƨƠ  ŷ ŨŔ ĭŦ  ũŔ Ũ ųƆ   Ʀƀ ň Ņň ňœ ň Ņ ł Ŕ ĭł Ō Ƨĭ ķĥ  Ƨĥ :ĶűÿƉųÿƊň łƕĺ  űłŔÿɖ  :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſ űŔƀłŨœ ųƆ ň Ʀſĥ Ŕ ĪŌœ ĶűňœƉ ň ƈƃŏœ ơũƣ ň ň  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſĭ  .ŦĭŅĬô ƈƃĥ ňŔ Īť Ņ Ɔ ł .ųƇ Ƈô ŨŴ Ŕ ƟŦ ŏ Ťɕĭ Ņ Ĭĭŵ ň ŶŦ ň ĭŅĬƢƀ ô ƙŌœ ƣł ƚ ŅŔ Ɗŷ ł ł Œ ł ł ň Ņ ňò Ņ ň œ ł Ņ œ ň Ņ ł Ŕ ƀƉĿ  ĥ :ƎƀƆ  Ĭ ťƊ Ŕ Ũ ƎƉŦ :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ÿłſƈłƕ ųñ ƍƀŅ łƕĬ  ƢňƉ Ņ ŁŔƦ  œ ô ƌĥ Ʀ ū Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ Ƙ ĿƦ  ĭĬ  ĭ ň Œ ł ł ł .ƁƊ ô ƕ ƅ Ŕ Ɖ  Īœ :ųƆ  ŁŔ ƢƉĥ  ĭň Ņ Ņ Ņ ň Ņ łœ ł ł ň Ņ Ņ ň :ĬƦÿƀ œ ũłŔ Ũœ Ʀÿſ Ŕ Ō ĥť  ÿƍŅ Ɖ Ņ Ɓô ÿƊłƕĺ  űłŔɖ Ņ ƧIJô ƢƉŦ  Ĭ :ĬƢƉ  ŁŔƦ  ô ƌƧƢƉĥ  ĭ .ťŨĽ  Ŕ Ƨĭ ł ň ň Ō Ō ò ŏŔ .IJűłŔɖŤŨœ ŻƇƣ  ĥ ųƆ  Ʀſĥ Ŕ Īœ ƈƃĭ ň ň Ņň Ņ Ņ ĬŁŔ Ʀœ ô ƌĥĪłœƁô ƄŔ Ɔķ ň ĥ  Ƨĥ :ĶűňœƉ ň Ɓô ƍƉ ň ƅ Ŕ ƐŶ ł Ƨĭ  :Ɓƍ ô Ɖť ň ƌŅĬŦ Ņ Ʀƀ œ ũłŔ Ũœ ħ  œ ĿłĪœ Ʀƀ œ Ɔĭ ł ł ł ň ň Ņ œł ň Ņ Ņ œ Ō œ ň œ ň Ņ ł œ ł .ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ Ƨť  źŶĥ  ĭ :ŦƦ Ŕ Ũ Ŀŧ  ĪŔĬŦ  ƦƤƀ  Ũ űŔũƕ  ĥ ťƍƄſĥ  ĭ .IJô Ʀœ ô ƌĥ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ĭŅĬƗ Ĭñ ŁŔ Ŵÿɝ  ƅ Ŕ ÿƉł űŔƊƆ ň :ųñ ÿɝŦ ô ÿƊł ƣŅ Ƨĭ :ĶŴſŏ ƈƃŏœ ųƆ ň ŒŁŔ ĭŅĬŧ ô ƢƉ Ņ ĥ űŔƃĭ Ŕ ł ň Ņ Ņ  ƊƆ  ĭł .ųñ Ɗ  ƕ Ŧĭų Ņ Ņ Ņòł ň ł Ņ ł Ņ Ŕ űŔÿũƖ łœ Ɗ œ Ɔĭ Ʀÿƀ ł :ŧ űŅŔÿũƕ ň ƆŦƦÿƀ œ ũłŔ Ɔ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſƈ  łƕĭ  :ŦƦ Ŕ Ɖ  Ŵ ɖƎ  Ɖ  űŔŷ ŨŦ Ŕ ĭĬ  ĭ Ņ œ ł œ Ņ ł Ņ œ ł œ òł Ņ ň Ņ .ŦƦƀ  ũŔ Ũ ƎƉ  ŁŦ Ŕ Ʀƀ  Ũ ƁƤƌôĥƎƉ  ƥƌôĥ



űƏįĽ ĥ



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IJ  ťſ 

Ch. 



As they were bringing her out she sent word to her father-in-law, “By the man to whom these things belong I am pregnant.” She said, “Take note: whose signet-ring, cloak, and staff are these?”



He acknowledged them and Judah said, “She is more right than I, because I did not give her to Shelah my son.” He did not lie with her again.



When the time came for her delivery, there were twins in her womb.



As she was giving birth, one sent out his hand. The midwife took a scarlet thread and she tied it on his hand. She said this one should come out 1 first.



After he brought his hand back in, his brother came out. She said, “What a breach has been made upon you.” She called him Perez.



Afterward his brother came out, on whose hand was the scarlet thread. She called him Zerah.

1

MT: ‘came out’. See the Introduction: Reinterpretations or Misinterpretations.



ň Ōœ ň Ņ Ņ łœ ň ñ ŏ ł Ņ Ņ ñ Ņ Ō œ ł ŏ ň ł ųÿňƍƉų ň Ƈſ  Ī ƎƀƆ  Ĭ ĪŔ ŧ ƢũŔ ū  ƎƉ  :ĬŴ  Ɗŷ  Ɔť  ŷɤ  ƣ :ų ɝƎƀ  Ơ ƙ Ɖ  ķŴƌĬ űŔƃĭ Ŕ ųƃ ň Ņ ł Ņ ň ň Ņ œ .ƎƀƆ  Ĭŧ Ņ ƢŹŴ  Ŷĭť ŏ ƙ ƣň ŴƣĭŦ ŏ ƦƟ Ŕ ŵłɯ  IJĬƎ ô Ō Ɖ ł Īœ ĺĪĭ Ņ Ũł œ łœ Ʀƣ œ ĥ :Œ ŁŔ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň .ťƌŅôĥ ťƍź Ņ Ņ ŏ ň Ņ ł ň ŏ Ĭñ Ʀÿ œ ŨŔ ųłſ Ƨť  ÿƌŅ Ĭƈ  ÿźƉ  :Ɓÿƍ ô Ɖ ň IJĬô ťÿƀŅ ƃŅœ Įł :ŧ ĪĭŅ Ŕ ųŏ ÿŌſƢƉĥ ł ĭň :ĺĪĭ łœ Ʀƣ œ ĥ ĭĬĭ  Ŵƃ ŏ Ņ ł Ņ œ Ņ ňŔ ƨƤƆ Ō  Ŕ Əĭ ň ĥ Ƨĭ  :IJô ƢŨ .ųƕűœƊƆ ň ħĭ  Ŕ Ł ƚ ň Ņ Ņ .ųñ ƏƢ Ņ ƄłŔ ŨŔ ťƉ ò ĥŁŦ Ŕ Ĭĭ  :Ĭñ űŅŔɝŴ Ņ ƉƎ ł ŨĮ łŔ ŦĭŅĬĭł ŵƃ Ņ Ō ŏ ł Ņ ŏ Ņ ł Œ łœ ň ň Ō Ŕ ũƐ  ƌ :Ĭűſ Ŕ ĥ ħ  Ŕ ųô łſŧ űɤ Ņœ Ņſ űŔƃłŔĪŦ Ŕ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł Ÿƃ ƈÿłƕ Œ ŁŔ Ƣź ł Ɵĭ ň :ŦƦſ Ŕ ĿŴ  ŶĮ  Īť  ŶŦ  Ʀƀ Ŕ ʖ  Ʀ Ŕ ŹŴ ł ĭň :Ĭűſ ňŔ Ō ĥ .Ʀ Ŕ ƀłƉ Ņ űŔƟľŴ ł ƙŏœ ňƌťƌŅĬŅ ŒŁŔ ƢƉĥ ŏ œ ł Œ ł ł œ œň Ņ Œ ł ň ł ł ňŌ ňœ ł ł Ņ Ŕ ÿƕĿŁŁĥťÿƉ .ŁŔ ƢÿƉĥ  ĭ :IJĬŴ ô ÿŶŏ ĥơ  ƙƌ Ŕ Ĭűſ Ŕ ĥ ƅ Ŕ ƘĬ  ĥ űŔƃĭ Ŕ Żƃ :ŦƦ Ŕ ÿƕĿĭŁœ ƅÿƀ  Ƈ ƕ Ʀ ł Ņ Œ ň œ  ŁŔ ƢƟ  ĭł .ĽƢƘ ųƊƣ ł ł ňœ ł Ņ Ņ Ō ŏ ł Ņ ŏ ňŌ Ŕ ŨĭŔ ĵ .įĿĮų ł Ɗƣ ň ŒŁŔ ƢƟ Ņ ĭł :ŦƦſ Ŕ ĿŴ  ŶĮ  Īť Ŕ ŹŴ  ŶĬ  űſ Ŕ ĥ ƈłƕĪœIJĬô ŴŶŏ ĥơ  ƙƌ Ŕ ƎƃĿ Ʀ







 





Ch. 



She took off her widow’s clothing, covered herself with a veil and made herself look lovely. Then she sat in the fork of the roads 1 which is on the way to Timnah, because she realized that Shelah was grown up and that she was not yet given to him.



Judah saw her and he thought her to be a prostitute because she had covered her face.



He turned aside to her along the road and said to her, “Come, let me sleep with you,” 2 for he did not know that she was his daughter-inlaw. She said to him, “What will you give me that you will sleep with me?”



He said, “I will send you a kid goat from the flock.” She said, “Only if you will give to me a pledge until you send it.”



He said, “What pledge can I give to you?” She said, “Your signetring, your cloak, 3 and the staff in your hand.” He gave them to her and he slept with her. She conceived by him.



She got up and went. She removed the veil from on her and she put on her widow’s clothes.



Judah sent the kid goat through his friend the Arlemite, to retrieve the pledge from the hands of the woman but he did not find her.



He asked the people of the area and said, “Where is the prostitute that was sitting at the fork in the roads?” 4 They said, “There is no prostitute here.”



He returned to Judah and said, “I did not find her and the people of the area were saying, ‘There is no prostitute here.’”



Judah said, “Let her keep [the things] for herself lest I 5 become an object of ridicule: I sent this kid goat but you did not find her.”



After three months passed Judah was informed and they said to him, “Tamar your daughter-in-law has been a prostitute and now she is pregnant by prostitution.” Judah said, “Bring her out and let her be burned.” MT: ‘at the entrance to Enaim’. See the Introduction: Divergent Readings. ‘Come, let me sleep with you’: lit. ‘I will come to you’. 3 MT: ‘your cord’. 4 See 38:14. 5 MT: ‘we’. 1 2



ł ł ň Ņ Ō łœ Œ ł łœ ň ñ Ņ ň ñŅ ŏ ł ł ò ŏ Œ ł œ ł ŒŔ ÿŨł œ Ʀ Ŕ ũœ Ź Ľĥĭŧ  űſŔ ĪƢ Ŕ Ũ Ʀ Ŕ ƀƐ  ƃŁĥ Ŕ ĭ :ų ƍƉ  Ĭ ŁŴ Ŕ ƇƉĿ  ĥ Ɓƣ ŴũƆ  ĭ űſ Ʀ Ŕ ň ſĭ .Œ ŁŔ Ʀ Ŕ ŏ ŁŔ Ƣũƕĥ ł Ņ Ō Ņ ň Ņ łœ Œ Ņ łœ ŏ ň Ņ ł ŁŔ Īť Ņ Ũŏ Ŕ ĪŦ Ƨ IJĬĭ  :ƨÿƣťÿŨĿŔ Ī ŁŔ ŵÿŶ  Ī ƈÿźƉ  :Ʀ Ŕ ÿƍƉ Ŕ ÿŶĿĭŤ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ ÿŶŅ Ǔĭĥ Ʀ Ŕ Ƥɤ ł ƙŅŔ Ũœ .ųƆť ň ŨŅ Ŕ ųłſƦ Ŕ Ɖ ň ł Œ ł ł œ ŏ ň Ņ Ō Ņ ł Ņœ ł Ņ ŏ Ō Ņ ł Ŕ ƀƐ  ƃŔ Ī ƈź Ɖ  :ŦƦƀ Ŕ ƌĮ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ųñ ũƤ  Ŷ ĭŧ Īĭ .ųñ ƀòƘň œ ĥ Ʀ Ŕ ų ſ Ĭñ ŵŶ  ĭ ųſ ň Ņ ň Ņ ŏ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ƧŅĪœ ƈÿźŏ Ɖ  ƕŏĥ IJŁœ :ųñ ɝƢ Ņ Ɖĥ ł ĭň :ťŶĿĭ Ņ Ƨ Ĭñ ŁŔ Ŵɝť  ź  ƒĭł Ŵſ ĺűłŔÿɖ ň :Ɓô ƃŔŁŔ ŴɝĵŴ ł ň ł ňŅ Ņ Ņ ň Œ ł ň Ō ň ł Ņ .IJô ŁŔŴɝ Ņ Ʀ œ ô ƌĥ ĵŤƕŅĪœ Ʀ  œ ô ƌĥ ħ  Ŕ ų ſť  ƍƉ  : ųƆ  ŁŔ ƢƉĥ  ĭ .IJĬ ĬƦƇ Ŕ ƃŔ ĪŦ Ŕ ĭĬô ň œ ň œ ň Œ ł ň ò Ņ Ņ ň ňò ň Ņ ł ł œ ł ň Ņ ň ł ň Ō  ÿƉŦ ŵÿɯĪť Ŕ ɕűŔū  œ Ŀűƣ ĥť  ƌĥ :ƢƉĥ  ĭ ŵſ ťÿƍŅ ƄƤ Ņœ Ɖ ň ƁÿƆĵ ŁŁ ķĥ .ŁŔ ƢÿƉĥ  ĭ .ťÿƍɯƎ łœ ł œ ł ł Ņ ł .Ʀ  ô ƌĥ ĿűƤ ƉĪť Ŕ Ɖ  űƕ Ŕ ň œň Ņ Ņ œ ň Ņ Ņ ł ň Ņ ň Œ ł ň ŏ ƅ Ŕ ƙŅ œ ƣň Ŵÿƣĭ ŏ ĴŔ ƦÿƟ ĴŔ ƢŹŴ Ņ ÿŶĭ Ŕ ŵłɯ  :ŁŔ ƢÿƉĥ  ĭ :Ɓô ÿƄŔ Ɔĵ ň Łĥť  ƍƄƤƉ  ťƍƉ  :ƢƉĥ  ĭ Ÿɖ Ņ Ņ ňŔ :Ĭñ ŁŔ Ŵɝ Ņ ƈłƕĭ  ųñ ɝ ħ  Ŕ ųô łſĭ .ĴŔ űſŤ ŅŔ ŨŌ Ŕ Īœ .ųňƍƉ ň Ʀ ŒŔ ƍź ł Ũĭ Ņ ŏ ł ł ò ŏ Œ ł ň ŒŔ Ɗ ł Ɵĭ Ņ Żſ ŒŔ Ɔô Įłĥĭň Ʀ Ŕ Ƥ ũŔ Ɔĭ  :ųñ ƍŅƉŧ ň űſ ŅŔ ĪĿŌŔ ŒŁŔ Ƣłũƕĥ œ ĭł :Ʀ .Ĭñ ŁŴ Ŕ ƇƉĿ  ĥ Ɓƣ ŴũƆ Ŕ Ʀ ň ň Ņ ł Ņ ŏ Ō łœ ł ň ÿƍŅ ƄƤ ň ĿŅ űŔÿƀł ŨŦ ƎÿƉť Ņœ Ɖ ň Ū  Ŕ ÿƐł ƊƆ ň :ťÿƀŅ Ɗ Ņ ƆƢ Ō łƕų  ÿƊŶ Ŕ ŵò ɯ  Īť Ŕ ɕűŔūŧ  Īĭ  ų ſĿ  űƣ ĭ Ĵ ň Ņ Ŕ Ņ œŔ ł œ ň ò Ō œ Ņ .ųñ ŷ Ƅƣ  ĥ Ƨĭ  :ŦŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥĪ ųſ ñ űŔ ɖĥ ŏ ł Ņ ňł ł Ņ Ņ Ņ œ ĥł :ƢÿƉĥ ł ĭŧ .ŦƦ Ŕ ÿŶŅ Ǔĭĥ Ʀ Ŕ ÿƤɤƙŔ Ũť Ŕ ÿŨŅ œ Ʀ Ŕ ŅſĪŦ Ŕ Ʀÿƀ Ŕ Ō ƌĮŅIJĬô ťÿƄſ ň ĿŅŁŔĥ ƁÿƤò ł ƌŅôƧĵŤƣĭ  ťƃ Ņ Ō Ņ Ņœ Ņ œ ł ł .ŦƦƀ Ŕ ƌĮť  ƃĿ  Ĭ Ʀƀ  Ɔ  ĭô ƢƉĥ  ĭň Ņ ł Ņ łœ ň Ņ ł ň Ņ ŏ Ō Ņ œ Ɔ Ʀÿƀ ł :ƎÿſƢƉ Ō ĥŧ  ĿŅŁŔĥ ƁÿƤò ł ƌŅôĥ Ļĥ  Ŕ ĭŅ .Ĭñ Ʀÿŷ œ Ƅƣ  ĥ ƧƢ  ÿƉĥĭ :ŧ Īĭ Ŕ ų ſ ŁŔŴɝ  ƅ Ŕ ƘĬ łŔ ĭł Ūƃ Ņ Ņ Ņœ Ņ .ŦƦƀ Ŕ Ō ƌĮť  ƃĿ  Ĭ ň Ņ ŏŌ ł ň ň Ņ łœ Ņ Ņ œ ūŦ ł ĬŅ .ťÿƄŶŴ :ťÿƌŅ Ĭť Ņ ÿɕŅ űŔū ł œ ŁŔĿňűœÿƣŦ Ŕ ŏ ĭĬ ň ĥť  ÿƊƆ Ī :ųñ ɝ  Ū  ŔƏ ł Łœ :ŧ Īĭ Ŕ ų ſƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ŭƃ Ņñ œ ł œ ň Ņ œ ł .Ĭ Ʀŷ  Ƅƣ  ĥ Ƨ Ʀ  ô ƌĥĭ Ņ Œ ł ł ň Ņ Ņ œ ł Ņœ ň Ņ ł ŏ Ɔ Ŕ ÿƀƌĮ :ųƆ  ĭô ƢƉĥ ł ĭŧ ň Īĭ Ŕ Ũ ƎƉŦ ƢÿƉŅ Łœ Ʀ ŅŔ ųƀ Ō IJŴŌ Ŷł Łĥ Ŕ ĭň :Ǝƀʖ Ō ǔɖŦ ł Ʀ Ŕ Ɔ  Ł ĿƦ  ĭĬ  ĭ űƃ Ō ł Ņ ŏŌ ł ň Ņ ł Ņ ŏ Ņ ň Ņ Ņ ŏ ł œ Ŕ ĬŴ ñ Ơ Ƙ ĥ :ŧ Īĭ .űŔƟĥ  Łĭ Ŕ ų ſƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ .ťƍź  ŨŦ Ŕ ŁŴ Ŕ ƀƌ ĮƎ  ƉŦ  Ĭĭ  :ĴŔ ƦƇ Ŕ ƃłœ





 





 









Ch. 

Chapter  LXIII



At that time Judah went down from his brothers and he stopped at a certain Arlemite. 1 His name was Hirah.



There Judah saw the daughter of a Canaanite. Her 2 name was Shua. He married her and he went in to her.



She conceived and she bore him a son and he named him Er.



She conceived again and she bore a son and he 3 named him Onan.



She bore yet another son and he named him Shelah. She stopped 4 [giving birth] after she bore him.



Judah took a wife for Er his first born. Her name was Tamar.



Er, Judah’s first born, was wicked before the Lord and the Lord killed him.



Judah said to Onan his son, “Go in to the wife of your brother and fulfill your duty as a brother-in-law and raise up offspring for your brother.”



Onan knew that the offspring would not be his. So when he would go in to the wife of his brother, he would destroy [his semen] on the ground in order not to raise up offspring for his brother.



The Lord was displeased by what he did and he killed him too.



Judah said to Tamar his daughter-in-law, “During your widowhood, stay at your father’s house until Shelah, my son is grown,” because he thought that he too would die like his brothers. Tamar went and she stayed in her father’s house.



Many days passed. The daughter of Shua, Judah’s wife, died and Judah was consoled. He went up to his sheepshearers at Timnah, he and Hirah the Arlemite, his friend.



They informed Tamar saying to her, “See, your father-in-law is going up to Timnah to shear his sheep.” MT: Adullamite. See also 38:12,20. MT: ‘his’. See the Introduction: Errors. 3 MT: ‘She’. 4 MT: ‘He was in Chezib’. See the Introduction: Divergent Readings. 1 2



ŸƆ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ł Ņ Ņ ň ĪĭŅ Ŕ ųŏ Ōſ Ʀ ŧ ƢŅÿũŔ ū ł œ ŁŔŴÿɝť Ņ ÿźƒĭł :IJĬô Ŵò ÿŶł ĥ ŁŔŴÿɝƎ  ÿƉŧ Ŕ ŷƌ ň ĭł :ĭĬť ł ƍŅŨŔ ŵłŨŦ Ŕ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł Ņ łƕ .ŧ Ƣƀ Ņ ʖ Ō ųƊƣ ň ĭł :ťƀŅ ƊƆƢ ł Ņ ł Ņ ĭł :ťÿƀŅ ɫƖ Ņ œ ƌłĭ .ĺŴÿƣŏ ųñ ÿƊƣ ł Ŕ Īĭ ƈÿłƕĭ ųñ ÿũƐ Ņ ƍłƃŧ Ŕ ƢŅÿũŔ ū ł œ ŁŔƢôÿŨŧ ŅŔ ųŏ ŌſƎ  Ɖ Ņ ŁŦ Ŕ ŵŶ  ĭ Ņ Ņ .Ĭñ ŁŔ Ŵɝ  ňŔ ŒŔ ƍź ł Ũĭ .ƢƀŌƕų  Ɗƣŧ ň ƢƟ Ņ ĭł :ŧ ƢŅŨœ ųƆ ň ŒŁŔ űɤ łœ ň ſĭ Ʀ ŏ Œ ł ň Ŕ Ŕ ƍź  Ũĭ .Ǝƌĭ Ņ ŏ ĥų  Ɗƣŧ ň ƢƟ Ņ ĭł :ŧ ƢŅŨœ ŒŁŔ űɤ łœ ň ſĭ ħĭ  Ŕ Łœ Ʀ ŏ Œ ł ň ň Ņ ň ň Ņ ł Ņ œ Œ łœ ň Ŕ ƙƏĭ Ŕ ĥĭł ŒŔ ƠƐ ł Ƙĭ ňŔ .ƨ ƣų  Ɗƣŧ  ƢƟ  ĭ :ŧ ƢŨ ŁŔ űɤ  ſĭ ħĭ  Ŕ Łœ Ʀ .ĬŁœ űœƇ Ōſ űŔƃłœ ŒŁŔ ĭŅĬô Ʀ Ņ Ņ ł ň ŏœ Ō Ņ œ ł Ņ ŏ Ō ł ł .ƢƉ Ņ Łœ ųñ Ɗƣ  ĭ :ĬƢƃŴ Ŕ Ũ ƢƀƖɝŦ  ŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥŧ Īĭ Ŕ ų ſ Ū  Ŕ Ɛƌ  ĭ ň Ō ł Ņ Ņ Ņ .ťɕƢ Ņ ƉĬ Ņ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ɖĥ  ĭ :ťɕƢ  ƉĶ  űƟƥƀ Ŕ ŌŔ Īĭ Ũŧ ŅŔ ųſŏ ĪŌœ ĬƢňƃŴ Ŕ Ũŏœ ƢƀŌƕŦ  ĭĬ Ņ ĭł ŏ Ņ ŏŌ ł ň ł łœ ł ł Ņ ĮƋÿƀ ťÿƕĿ ł Ō ĭł :ųƀ Ɵĥ ñ Ɗ ň ũňœ ɖĭ ł ĴŴ Ŕ Ŷŏ ĥ ŁŔƦ  ô ƌĥ ƈƕ ĵŴƕŏ :ĬƢňŨœ Ǝƌĭ Ņ Ƨŧ  Īĭ Ŕ ų ſƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ł .ĴŴŔ Ŷŏ Ƨ ň Ņ ł łœ ł Ņ Ņ ĮŦ :IJĬŴ ô ÿŶŏ ĥ ŁŔƦÿ  ô ƌĥ ƈÿłƕŦĭŅĬĵ ô ŤÿƕĪť Ŕ ÿƉŅ ĭťÿƕĿ ł ĭňĬ Ņ Ƨų  ÿƆň Īœ ƎÿƌĭŅ ŏ ĥĺ  űſ łŔ ĭŌ ł Ņ ł ô ũňœ ŷƉ ł .IJĬŴ ô Ŷŏ Ƨť  ƕĿ Ņ ĮƋƀ ł Ơƌ Ō ƧĪœ :ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ƈłƕŦĭŅĬƈ Ņ ň Ō ł ł łœ ňœ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ . ųƆ ň Ļ  Ŕ ĥĬ  Ʀ Ŕ ƀƉĥ  ĭ :űŔũƕ Ŕ Ī ĶűƉť  ɕƢ  ƉĶ  űƟ Ŕ ŀŤŨň œ ŁĥŔ ĭň ň ň łœ Ņ Ņ ł ň Ņ ŏ ň œ ňƌĪť Ŕ ŁŴ Ŕ ƇƉ  ĿŤŨłœ Ɓô ŨŔ Łœ :ĬƦƇ ťÿŨƢ Ŕ Ɖ Ņ űƕ łŔ :Ɓô ƃŴ Ŕ Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ ŨŦ Ŕ ƃ ƢƉ  ƦƆŧ Ŕ Īĭ ŅŔ ųŏ ŌſƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň Ņ Œ ł ň ł ł ŏ Ņ ŏ Ņ łœ ł ňœ ŏ ň ň Ŕ ƨŅ ƣň ƢÿƉŅ Łœ Ʀ Ŕ ÿƆĮĥĭ .IJĬô ŴòŶł ĥ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ĭĬ Ļ  Ŕ ĥ ŁŴ Ŕ Ɗƌť  ƊƆ  Ī ƢƉĥ  Ī ƈź Ɖ  .IJô ƢŨ ł ňœ Œ łœ ň .ĬŴ ñ Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũ Ʀ Ŕ ŨƦ Ŕ ſĭ ň ł Ō Ņ Ņòł Ō ł ŏ ĪŌœ ĬŁŔ Ʀÿ œ ô ƌĥłĺŴÿƣŏ ŁŔƢÿŨł œ ŒŁŔ Ʀƀ .ŧ Īĭ ŅŔ ųŏ ÿŌſťÿƀł Ũłœ Łĥ Ŕ ĭň .ŧ Īĭ Ŕ Ɖĭ  :ŦƦ Ŕ Ɖ  Ŵ ɖŴô ƀŬƏ Ŕ ĭ ŅŔ ųÿſ ô ň ł ň ł Ņ Ō Ņ Ņ ò ł ŏ ň Ņ Ņ ł Ŕ ťƀŅƊ  ƆƢ  ƕų  ƊŶ  Ŀŧ  Ƣƀ  ʖĭ Ō ĭĬ :ųƍɯ  IJò ŵłū Ņ œ ŁŔŴɝơ   ĭ ƇƏ .Ʀ Ŕ ƍƉ  ƦƆ ň Ņ łœ ň Ņ ł ň Ņ ł Ŕ ơƇ Ə  Ɓô ƃŴ Ŕ ƊŶŦ ŏ ĬŅ :ųñ ɝ Ņ ĭô ƢƉĥ ł ĭƢ ň Ɖ Ņ ƦƆ Ŕ ŴſŴŌ Ŷĭ .ųòƍɯŵ  ŬƊ Ɔ Ʀ Ŕ ƍƉ ł ƦƆ



ŭƏįĽ ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



į



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IJ  ťſ 

Ūſ  ŭſ 

Ch. 



They took him and threw him in the well. Now the well was empty. There was no water in it.



They sat down to eat a meal. Raising their eyes, they saw a caravan of Arabs coming from Gilead. Their camels were laden with resin, gum and terebinth berries. They were going along, bringing them to Egypt.



Judah said to his brothers, “What gain is there if we kill our brother and conceal his blood?



Come, let us sell him to the Arabs and our hand will not be on him because he is our brother and our flesh.” His brothers consented.



Midianite merchants came by. They drew Joseph up from the well and sold Joseph to the Arabs for twenty pieces of silver and they brought him to Egypt.



Rubel returned to the well and saw that Joseph was not in it and he rent his garments.



He returned to his brothers and said to them, “Where is the boy? 1 Where am I to go?”



They took Joseph’s tunic and they slaughtered a goat and they sprinkled the tunic with its blood.



They sent the tunic with long sleeves and brought it to their father and said, “We found this. Can you recognize the tunic? Is it your son’s or not?”



He recognized it and said, “It is my son’s tunic. A savage beast has devoured him. My son 2 Joseph has been torn to pieces.”



Jacob rent his garments, wrapped sackcloth on his loins and mourned over his son for many days.



All of his sons and daughters arose to comfort him but he could not be comforted. He said, “I will descend to Sheol in mourning over my son.” His father wept for him.



Meanwhile the Midianites sold him in Egypt to the official Potiphar, captain of Pharaoh’s guards.

1 2

MT: ‘The boy is not [here]’. Absent in the MT.



Ņ ł ňœ œ ł Ņ  Ũ Ʀƀ  ƆĭŦ  ĭĬơſ ô ƢƏť Ō ŨŴ .ťƀò Ɖų Ņœ ūĭ Ŕ ŏ :ťŨŴ Ņœ ŬŔ ŏ Ũœ IJĬô ŴƀƉĿĥ Ō ĭłIJĬô ŴũƐ ŏœ ƌĭ ł űƃ Ņ ň ťÿƀň ŨŅ Ŕ ǔłƕĪŦ Ŕ ŁƢ œ ÿƀŅ ƣŦĬĭ Ņ :ƎÿſŵňŶĭķĭ Ņ ŏ ƍłəòɯ ųƀ ł Ŵô ƊſĿĥŌ ĭł .ťƊŷ Ņ Ɔ ł ƈƃŤ łŔ ƊƆ ň Ŵô ŨŔ Ʀſ Ŕ ĭŌ ųƃ Ņ ň ň Ņ ł ƎÿƀƆ ô ĮĥŌ ĭŅ :ťÿƊò źŨĭ Ŕł :űŔƖɤ Ņ ū ň œ ƎƉň ťɕŅŁŔĥ Ŕ ŦĭĿ  Ľĭ  :ťÿňƍŹĬň ǓƎÿƀƍƀŌ ŌƖŹķĭ  ųÿƀ ŏ ł Ƈ Ɗ ò ūĭ ŏ Ņœ ł .ƎſĿƞň ƊƆ ň ŴƇ ŨŴ  Ɗ Ɔ ł ł Ņ ŏŌ ł ň ŏ . ųƉ ň Īť Ŕ Ɛ ň Ƅƌł Ŕ ĭł :ķŴŶŏ ƧĵŴ   ňƌĪť źƠ Ŕ ƌŅĿŅŁŴ Ŕ ſť ŏ ƍŅƉ Ņ :IJĬô Ŵò Ŷł Ƨŧ  Īĭ Ŕ ų ſƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ŵƃ ł ŏ ň ň ň ň Ņ ł Ō ňŅ ł ňŔ ĭĬķŴ Ŕ Ƨķ  űſĥ Ŕ ĭ :ťƀŨŔ ǔƖɝ  IJĬô ŴƀƍŌŨœ ŵƌł ĭŁœ ŵƃ .ķƢÿƐ ł Ũĭ ô ŏ ÿŶĥŏ Īłœ ƈÿźƉ Ŕ ĭĬ  Ł  :ųŨŦ ł ł ĭł .IJĬô ŴòŶł ĥ ųňƍƉň Ŵô ƖƊƣ ł ł ł ňò Ņ Ņ ň ň Ņ ł ň ł Ņœ ū ł IJĬô ŴƠƏ .ťÿŨŴ ŏ œ ƎÿƉň ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ÿƀɞ ŏ ĥĭô űŔŬƌ Ŕ ĭ :ťƀɫ ɗ űŔƉŧ  ǔū  œ Łŧ Ŕ ǔũŔ ū  œ ĭô Ƣũƕ łŔ ĭł Ÿƃ Ō .ƎſĿƞň ƊƆ ň IJĬô ŴſƦſĥ œ ĭł :ťƙƐ Ņœ ƃňŔĪœ ƎſƢƐ Ō ň ƖŨť Ŕ ƀňŨŅ Ŕ ǔłƖɝ  ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ƀɞ ł IJĬô ŴƍŏŨœ Įĭ ł ŏ Ŕ IJĿŌĽĭ ň Ŕ Ŀŏ ƅ Ŕ ƘĬ .IJĬŴ ô ƣł ŴòũƆ ł :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſų  Ũňœ Ʀƀ œ ƆŦ ł Ĭĭ Ņ :ťŨŅœ ŴŬƆƈƀ Ũĭ łŔ ĭł Żƃ Ŕ ŏ Ņ Ņœ ł Ņ ň ł Ņ ł ł Ņ .ťƌŅôĥ ĵňĮĥť  Ƅſ  Ƨť  ƌĥ ĭ  ĭĬť ô Ƅſ łœ ĥťƀˁ  Ź :ķĭųɝƢ ŏ ł ĭň :IJĬô Ŵò Ŷł ĥ ŁŔŴɝ Ɖĥ  ƅ Ŕ ƘĬ łŔ ĭł ĵ Ō ŏ Ō ŏ ŏ œ ł ňò ň Ņ Ņ ň ťÿƍſŅ ŁŴ œ ƄƆ Ŕ ĬŴ ñ Ƈ ƙˁ  ƘĭŔ :Ŧ ŵɯ  Īť Ŕ ɕƢƘŔ Ľ Ŵô ƐƄƌ łŔ ĭł :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſĪŔ ťƍſŅ ŁŴ œ ƄƆ Ŕ ĬŴ ñ ũƐ ŏœ ƌĭ ł Ƨ . ųƉ ň űŔŨłŔ Ō ŏ ň ł Ņ ł ĭň .ķĭĬŴ ł ŪƆ .ƎÿÿŷƄƣ łœ ĥŧ ĪňŔĬŅ :ĭôƢÿƉĥ ŏ ÿŨŏ Ŕ Ƨ ĬŴ ñ ÿſŏ Ʀſĥ œ ĭł ŦƦ Ŕ ÿŅſ űòŔƘŌŔ ĪŔ ťÿƍſŅ ŁŴœ ƄƆ Ŕ Ĭĭ ñ Ŀŏűœÿƣĭ Ņ ł Ō Ņ łœ ň Ņ Ō œ ŏœ łœ ł œ ň .Ƨ ĭĥ IJĬô ĴŔ ƢŨŔ Ī ķĥ :ťƍſ ŁŴ  ƃ ĺĪĭ  Ʀƣ  ĥ Ō ň Ņ ň Ņ ł ƢÿŨł œ Ʀ Ŕ Ɖ ň :ĬƦÿƇ Ŕ ƃł Ŕ ĥŦƦÿƤƀ œ ŨŦ ŌŔ ŁŴÿ Ŕ ƀŏ ʖł :IJĬô Ō IJô ƢÿŨň Ŕ Īť Ŕ ƍſŅ ŁŴ œ ƃŏœ :ƢƉĥ ł ĭň ųñ ƕŅĪĭ œ Ʀƣĥ œ ĭň ŭƆ .IJô ƢŨňœ ƚ ŔƏ ň ŴłſƢƀ  ŨŌŔ Łœ ň ň ŏ Ŕ ħŴ Ŕ ĭ  IJĬô ĭòƞłÿŷł Ũť Ŕ ÿƠŅ ƏƢ ł Əĥ ł ĭň :IJĬŴ ô ƣł ŴòũƆ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ IJĿŌĽĭ ł űƆ ĬƢňÿŨœ ƈÿłƕ ƈÿŨň Ŕ ĥŁĥ ň Ōœ ł Ņ Ņ ò ł  Ŵ ɖ .ŦŤƀò Ŭ  ƏŦ  ƦŔ Ɖ ň ŏ ł ł ň òŅ œ Ņ ŏ Ŕ :IJĬ Ŵòÿÿɩł Ũœ ķĭųÿÿɤ Ņ Ŕ Ƨĭ ň ƃĭ ŏ ƃŏœŴô ÿÿƊƟĭ Ņ ųƆ  ĬƦ Ŕ ÿÿƍŨ Ǝÿÿſųɤ ťÿÿŨĽ  :ĬŁĭŔ ŤÿÿƀŅ ũƊ Ŕ Ɔ ô ň ł ň ŏŅ łœ ň ł ŏ Ɔť IJųô ÿƀƄŅŔ ŨŔ ĭł :ĵŴÿƀƤ ł ÿƌŅ ôĥ ƈƀŨŌŔ ĥ űŔƃł œ IJô ƢŨňœ ƈłƕ ŁŴ Ŕ Ŷŏ ĥ :ƢƉĥ  ĭ .ĭŤƀŨ Ʀ Ŕ Ɗ Ɔ ł .IJĬŴ ô Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ ň ŏ Ŕ ƎſĿƞň Ɗ .ķŴƕƢ ŏ ƘňŔ Īť Ŕ Ƥň Ŷò Īłœ ħ  œ Ŀł :ťƍƊſ Ņ ųƉƢ ł ƙƀ ŅŔ ŌŹŴ  ƙƆ ň Ũœ IJĬô ŴƍŏŨœ Įť ł ƀò ɫŅ ɗŅ űŔƉĭ ň ŴƆ



 

 



  











Ch. 



His brothers were jealous of him, but his father kept the subject in mind.

LXII



Joseph’s brothers went to pasture their father’s flocks in Shechem.



Israel said to Joseph, “See, your brothers are pasturing in Shechem. Come, I will send you to them.” He said to him, “Here I am.”



His father said to him, “Go and see how your brothers are doing 1 and how the flocks are doing and bring me back word.” So Jacob sent him from the valley of Hebron and he came to Shechem.



A man found him while he was wondering in a field. That man asked him, saying to him, “What are you looking for?”



He said, “I am looking for my brothers. Tell me where they are pasturing.”



The man said to him, “They departed from here. I heard them saying, ‘let us go to Dothan.’” So Joseph went after his brothers and he found them in Dothan.



They saw him from a distance and before he approached them, they plotted against him to kill him.



They said to one another, 2 “Look, the dreamer of dreams is coming.



Come, let us kill him and throw him in one of the wells. We can say that a savage beast devoured him. Then we will see what will become of his dreams.”



But Rubel heard and he rescued him from their hands.



He said to them, “Let us not take his life.” 3 Rubel said to them, “Do not shed blood. Throw him in this well in the desert. Do not lay a hand on him” (so that he might rescue him from their hands and return him to his father).



When Joseph came to his brothers, they stripped him of the tunic with long sleeves that he was wearing. 



‘see how your brothers are doing’: lit. ‘see the welfare of your brothers’. ‘They said to one another’: lit. ‘Each one said to his brother’. 3 ‘Let us not take his life’: lit. ‘Let us not kill the life’. 1 2



ł ł ł .ťƊ Ņ ū ŔŅ Ʀ Ŕ ƘŦ ňŔ ĭŅĬƢ ô źƌ  IJĬô ŴŨĥŏ Ŕ ĭł :IJĬô Ŵò Ŷł ĥų  Ũňœ Ŵô ƍŹĭ 

ťſ  ŪƏįĽ

ł ł Ŕ òƍŅɯť Ņ ƕƢ Ņ ƊƆ ň :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſĪœIJĬô Ŵò Ŷł ĥŴô ƆĮĥł ĭň Ūſ .ƋƀƄŌ Ŕ ƤŨłœ ķĭĬŴ ŏ Ũĥŏ Ŕ Īť ň Ņ ňŅ Ō ł ň ł Ō Ŕ Ũłœ Ǝƀň ƕĿŅ ƅ œ ƀòʖ .ķĭĬŏ ŁŔŴÿɝ Ņ ĴŔ ĿŅűœƣł ĥŦ  Łœ :ƋƀƄƤ ł ĥŦ  ĬŅ :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ƀɞ ł ƈſĥƢƐſ ĥƢƉĥ  ĭ ŭſ ňŅ Ņ ň ł ň .ťƌĥŦ  Ĭų  ƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ō ł ň ł ň ŅŅ Ņ ĭł ƅ œ ÿƀò ʖ ňĮ :IJĬŴ  Īť Ŕ ÿƊŅ ɤƣ ł ĥĪť łŔ Ɗ Ņ ɤƣ Ņ IJŵŶĵ Ō ô Ũŏ Ŕ ĥų  ƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ űſ Ŕ ĭł :ťÿòƍɯ Ɓô ÿƍƀũſ łŔ Łĥ Ņ ň ŏ ň Ņ ŏ ň ň Ō ł ŏ Ņ ū ŔŅ Ʀ Ŕ Ƙň œ .ƋƀƄƤ  ŦŁĥ Ŕ ĭ :ķĭƢũŔ Ŷ ĪŔťƠƉŴ  ƕƎ  Ɖ  ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ  łſ ĬĿűœƣĭ ł .ťƊ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ ł Ņ ł ň œ ň Ņ Ņ Ŕ ƍŅƉ ťň ƖŨť Ņ .ųƆƢ ň Ɖĥ ł ĭň ĭĬŧ ł ƢŅũŔ ū ł œ ųƆŤ ň ƣĭ ł :ƨƠ  ŷł Ũť Ŕ ň ƖŹ űŔƃŧ Ŕ ƢũŔ ū  œ ųŷ Ƅƣĥ  ĭ ųſ ł  œ ô ƌĥ .Ʀ ł ł ł ň .Ǝƀň ƕĿť Ņ Ƅſ Ņœ ĥƁô ƌŴŅ Ŷł :ťƌŅôĥťň ƖŨŅœ Ɓʖò ł Ƨ :ƢƉĥ  ĭ Ŵſ Ņ ŏ Ņ .ķŁĭ Ŕ űÿɝĵ Ŕ ĮŤł ÿƌŌ ƎÿſƢƉĥ Ō ĪŅœ Ʀ Ŕ ň ƖƊ  ƣĭ ň :ťƄŅœ Ɖ ň ķĭųɝ ŏ Ŵô ƇƠƣ ł :ŧ ƢŅũŔ ū ł œ ųƆƢ ň Ɖ ł ĥ ŵſ ň łœ ň Ņ ł ł Ņœ ň ł ł ň Ŕ Ũ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſ ĵĮĥ ĭ .ķŁĭ Ŕ űŏŔŨœ ķŴƌŏĥŸ  Ƅƣĥ  ĭ :IJĬô Ŵò Ŷł ĥĿ  Ʀ Ņ IJĬô ŴÿłƇƕ ĭĭłĬƎÿƀ ô ũƤ ŌŔ Ŷł Ʀ Ŕ Ɖ ň :ķĭĬŏ ŁŔŴɝ Ņ ħ  Ŕ ƢłƟł Ʀ Ŕ ňƌ  ƧűŔłƕĭ  .ťƠŶĭ Ņ ĿƎ ŏ Ɖ ň IJĬô ĭŏ ĥŵŶ ł ĭł Ÿɖ ň .ųƇźƠ  ƊƆ ň ňŅ ł ň Ņ Ņ  Ĭ :IJĬŴ ô Ŷŏ ƧƢ  ũłŔ ū  œ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň Żſ .ŦŁŔ ĥ ĭĬł ťƊň ɤò Ŷň ƋƇ ŶŦ Ņ ł Ņ Ō Ō Ŕ ŁŴÿ ł ƌĭ ŦƦÿ œ ÿƤƀŨŦ Ŕ ƀŏ ʖł Īœ ƢÿƉŤ Ō :ťÿŨň œ Ŵòū ŏ œ ƎÿƉň űŔÿŷł Ũœ IJĬô ŴÿÿƀƉƢ ň ƌĭ ł IJĬô ŴÿƀƇ źƠňƌ ĭŁœ Ĵ ň ň  .ĬƦƇ Ŕ ƃłŔĥ .IJĬô ŴòƊ ł ɤŷƆŦ ň ĭňĬŅ ťƍŅƉŦ Ņ ŵŷ ň ňƌĭ Ō ň ň ł ň Ŕ ĿƗ ŏ Ɗƣ ł ĭł ťƃ .ķĭųſ ŏ űłŔɖòĥƎ  Ɖų  ſƞ Ƙĭ Ŕ :ƈƀŨĭ ň Ņ Ņ ŏ ŏ ňŔ Ŀķĭ ŏ ųɝƢ ŏ ł ĭň .ťƤŅ ƙŔ ƌĵŴ Ɖĥ ł  ňƌ źƠ  Ƨ :ķĭųɝƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň Ūƃ :ťÿƉŅ Īœ ķĭűÿƣĥ ŏœ ŁŔ Ƨ :ƈƀŨĭ ŏ ł ł Ņ ŏ ƎÿƉň IJĬô Ŵÿſňƞƙƌ łŔ Īłœ .ųÿŨň œ ķŴźƣĭ  Ł Ŕ Ƨŧ  űſĥ ŅŔ ĭŌ :ŧ ƢŅŨœ űŔƊ ł ŨŔ Īť Ņ ŨŴ łŔ ƌŅĬť Ņœ Ŭ Ŕ ŏ Ũœ IJĬô ĭŤƉĿ ł ĥ Ō ł  œ ƌłĭķĭųſ ŏ űłŔɖòĥ .IJĬŴ ô Ũŏ Ŕ ƧIJĬô ŴƀƄŌŔ Ƙų Ō Ņň ł ł ł Ņ .ŦĭŅĬƥƀ ŌŔ ĪłŔ ŦƦ Ŕ ŅſűòŔƘŌŔ Īť Ŕ ƍſŅ ŁŴ œ ƃŏœIJĬô Ŵŷŏ ɤƣĥ :IJĬô Ŵò Ŷł ĥ ŁŔŴŅ ɝ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſŦ  ŁŔ ĥ űŔƃĭ Ŕ ŭƃ ô ũƆ



 





 



 

 



Ch. 

Chapter  LXI



Jacob dwelt in the land of his father’s sojourning, in the land of Canaan.



These are the descendants of Jacob. Joseph at the age of seventeen was shepherding flocks with his brothers. He was growing up with the sons of Bilhah and with the sons of Zilpah, the wives of his father. Joseph brought a bad report about them to their father.



Israel loved Joseph more than all his sons because he was the son of his old age and he made for him a tunic with long sleeves. 1



His brothers saw that their father loved him more than all of them. They hated him and were unable to speak with him peaceably.



Joseph dreamed a dream and he told it to his brothers and they hated him all the more.



He said to them, “Listen to this dream that I dreamed.



There we were binding sheaves in the field and my sheaf arose and stood upright and your sheaves were gathering around and bowing down to my sheaf.”



His brothers said to him, “Will you really be king over us? Will you really rule over us?” They hated him even more because of his dreams and because of his words.



He dreamed yet another dream and he recounted it to his brothers. He said to them, “See, I have had a dream 2 again. The sun, the moon and eleven stars were bowing down to me.”



He recounted [it] to his father and to his brothers and his father chided him and said to him, “What is this dream that you have dreamed? Are we, I, your mother and your brothers, going to come and bow down to the ground to you?” 

1 2



See the Introduction: Lexical choices. ‘I have had a dream’: lit. ‘I have dreamed a dream’.



ŵƆ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ň .ƎƖƍłƃŔĪť łŔ ƕĿŤ Ņ Ũłœ :IJĬŴ ô Ũĥŏ Ŕ Īłœ ĬƢƊ ň ƖƉ ł Īť Ŕ ƕĿŤ Ņ Ũłœ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ ħ  Ŕ Ʀſ Ŕ ĭŌ ň Ņ ò łœ ň Ņ ƋÿłƕŦĭŅĬť ô ÿňƕĿŅ :Ǝÿƀò ɫŌ ƣŧ ǔňÿƐň Ɩũƣ łŔ ƢÿŨł œ ƚ Ŕ ĭŁ ƎƀƆ  Ĭĭ   Ŕ ƏŴ ň ÿłſ :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſĪœ ĬŁŔ űɝ ł Ņ ł ł Ņ Ņ ò ò Ņ ò ò ò ł ł ŏ ň Ņ Ņ ň ł  IJĬô ŴŶł ĥ  :ťƍɯ  ĭĬô ťŨŔ Ŀ ĭĬĭ IJĬô Ŵ ÿƤł ƌť  ÿƙŔ ƆĮł ƁÿƍŨœ Ƌÿƕĭ ŦųÿɤŨœ ƁÿƍŨœ ƋƕŦ ł Ņ Ōœ ŏ œň ň ł Ōœ ł .ķĭĬŴ ŏ Ũŏ Ŕ Ƨť  Ƥƀ  Ũ ķĭų ũ Ź ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ſ IJƦſĥ  ĭ :IJĬŴ ô Ũĥŏ Ŕ Īłœ ňŅ Ō ŏ ň Ō ƈÿźƉ  :IJĬô Ŵò ÿɩł Ũœ ķĭųɤ ŏ ƃŏœ ƎƉƢſ ň Ʀ œ łſ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ƀɞų ł ň ĭŅĬƋ ƆŦ ô Ŷň ĿŅ ƈſĥƢƐſĥ ĭ Ņ Ņ ò Ō Ņ Ōœ ŏœ ň ł ł ň Ņ Ņ ŏœ ł ł œ  ŁŴ Ŕ ũƀ  ƏƢ  ŨŔ Ī  ƃ ųƆ  űŔũƕ Ŕ ĭ .ųƆ  ŦĭĬŦ .ŦƦ Ŕ ſűŔ ƘŔ Īť Ŕ ƍſ ŁŴ ŏ ł ł ł ł ł ł Ņ Ō ň Ʀ  IJĬô ĭŤÿƍƏĭ :ķĭųÿɤ Ƨĭ ŏ ƃŏœ ƎÿƉƢſ œ łſķĭ  ĬŴ ŏ Ũŏ Ŕ ĥŦ  ĭŅĬƋ ô Ŷň Ŀų Ņ Ɔ ň ĪœIJĬô Ŵò Ŷł ĥ ĭŵŶ  ĭ ň ŏ Ņ ł ł Ņ ł ł ň Ņ  Ŵô ŷƄƣ œ ĥ .ťƊ  ɤƣų   ƕ ŴƇ Ƈ ƊƊ Ɗ  Ɔ ł .ųƀƍƐ ň ƊƆ ň Ŵô ƙŔ Əĭĥ ň ĭł :IJĬô ŴòŶł Ƨų  ň ſŴ  Ŷĭ ł :ťƊɤ Ņ Ŷň ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſƋ  ł ƇŶ  ĭł .Ʀ Ŕ Ɗɤ ň Ŷň Īť Ŕ ƌŅĬť Ņ Ɗɤ Ņ Ŷň Ŵô ƖƊƣ ł :ķĭųɝƢ ŏ ł ĭň Ɖĥ ň Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł œ ĪĮĥ ŦĬĭ Ņ .Ʀ ŒŔ ÿƙƟ ŒŔ ÿƊł ƟŦ Ņ Ĭĭ Ņ ƨÿƠ  Ŷł ŴÿŬŔ ł Ũť Ŕ ƙò œ ƃłœ ƎƍłŶƎſƢƏ Ō ĥƎ  ƍŶŦ  Ĭ łœ ĭňƁô ÿƙœ ƃłœ Ʀ ł ŏ .Ɓô ƙœ ƄƆ łŔ ķűŅ œ Ŭ Ŕò Ə Ņ ĭķŴƄœ ɛò ƙœ ƃł œ ķǓŅűŔŶŅ ł ň ł ŏ Ņ ł ł ŏ Ņ łœ ň ł ł ĭň Ŵÿ źƆ  ƦƤ  Ɖ  ĭĥ :Ǝÿÿƀł Ƈƕ  Ʀÿ œ ÿôƌĥ ƅ Ŕ ÿ ƇƊƉ  Ŵÿ ƄŔ ɤƊ  Ɖ  :IJĬô Ŵò ÿ Ŷł ĥų  ÿ Ɔň ĭô Ƣÿ Ɖĥ ŏ ł ł łœ ň ł Ŷƈ ƈÿłƕĭIJĬô Ŵò ÿƊɤ ň ÿłƕųÿƀň ƍƐƊƆ ň ħĭ  Ŕ Łœ Ŵô ÿƙŔ Əĭĥ ň ĭł .ƎŨłœ Ʀ œ ô ƌĥŻƆ  ƦƤ  Ɖ  ò ł .IJĬô ŴƊ ū ŔŅ Ʀ Ŕ Ƙň œ ŏ ł ň łœ ň ŅŌ Ņ ŶŦ ťÿƊɤ ň ĬŅ :ķĭųÿɝƢ ŏ ł ĭň :IJĬô Ŵò Ŷł Ƨų Ɖĥ  ƀƕ  Ʀƣĥ  ĭť  ƌƢŶ  ôĥťƊɤ Ņ Ŷň ħĭ  Ŕ Łœ Ƌł ƇŶ  ĭł ŏ ň Ĭĭ Ņ :ħĭ  Ŕ Łœ Ʀ Ŕ Ɗɤ ň Ŷň .ƁƆƎſ Ō űŌœŬ Ŕ ƏƎƀ Ņ ũŌŔ ƃœŴò ƃłœ ƢƐƕ ł űŶ łŔ ĭł ŧ Ŀų Ņ Əĭť ł ƤƊ Ņ ƣŦ ł ň Ņ ł òł ł ł łœ ň Ŕ ŤƃŔĭIJĬô Ŵ Ŷ Ƨĭ  IJĬô ŴŨŏ Ŕ Ƨ ƁŌƕƦƣĥ  ĭ ťƌŅĬť Ņ Ɗɤ Ņ Ŷň ŴƍłƉ Ņ :ųƆƢ ň Ɖĥ ł ĭňIJĬô ŴŨŏ Ŕ ĥų  ŨŦ ň ň Ņ ł ł Ņ łœ ň Ņ.ťƕĿ ň ň œ Ņ Ō ł Ņ ò  ĪłŔ Ŕ ƌ ŦŁŤ Ŕ Ɖ  :ƦƊł ƇŶ  ĥ ƈƕ ƅ Ŕ Ɔ  űŔŬƐ  Ɗ  Ɔ ƅ œ ƀʖ ł ĥĭ ƅ Ŕ Ɖĥ  ĭť  ƌĥŦ  ŁŤ



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IJ 

Ch. 



Baal-hanan, son of Ebakkor, died and Hedad 1 reigned after him. The name of his city was Pau. His wife’s name was Mehetabel, daughter of Matred, son 2 of Me-zahab.



These are the names of Esau’s chiefs, according to their generations and their descendants and by their names: chief Timna, chief Anwa, 3 chief Ithith, 4



chief Oholibamah, chief Elah, chief Pinon,



chief Kenaz, chief Teman, chief Mibzar,



chief Magdiel, and chief Giram. 5 These are the chiefs of the Edomites among their dwellings in the land of their inheritance. Esau is the father of the Edomites.

MT: ‘Hadar’. MT: ‘daughter’. 3 MT: ‘Alvah’. 4 MT: ‘Jetheth’. 5 MT: ‘Iram’. 1 2



ň Ō ł Ņ ł Ņ ň Ņœ ň ł Ŕ ƢƟ Ŕ Ɗƣ Īť  ĭ :ĪŔĪĬĬ :ŴÿƖŏ ƘŅ œ ĬƦÿſ Ŕ ĿƦ Ŕ Ũ ƅ Ŕ ƇƉĥ  ĭ :ĿŴƄŏœ ũƕ łŔ ƢŨł œ Ǝƍŷ Ņ Ƈň ƖŨœ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ɖĭ Ō ŻƆ ň ň Ņ ł .ħ  Ŕ ĬŅ ŵƀŅ ƉƢ Ō Ũłœ űſ Ŕ Ƣź Ō Ɖ ł ŁŔƢôŨłœ ƈſŤũŹų Ņ ĭł  ĬŁŔ Ʀœ ô ƌĥĪť łŔ Ɗƣ Ŕ Ɖ ň Ņ ł Ņ Ŕ ĭòƦƆ .ķĭųŏ ò ſųł Ɗ Ņ ƤŨłœ :ķĭĬŏ ŁŔűɝ Ŕ :ķĭĬŏ Ʀ Ŕ ŨŅ Ŕ ǔƤƆ ł :ŴƐ ŏ ŌƕĪť Ŕ ňƍŨŅ Ŕ ǓĭĿłĪŦ Ŕ ųò Ɗ  ƣƎƀƆ ň Ĭĭ Ņ Ķ ł ł .Ʀ Ŕ łſƦſ œ ĥť  ŨŅœ Ŀł :ŦŴŅ ƍłƕťŨŅœ Ŀł :ƗƍƉ ł Łť Ŕ ŨŅœ Ŀł Ņ ł Ņ œł Ņ Ō ł Ņ œł .ķŴƍƀŏ Ƙť ŌŔ ŨŅœ Ŀł :ƨſ  ĥť  Ũ Ŀ :ťƊ  ũƀ Ŕ ƆĬ  ĥť  Ũ Ŀ ťƉ ł .ĿƞłũŔ Ɖť ł ŨŅœ Ŀł :ƎƊſ Ņ Łť Ŕ ŨŅœ Ŀł :ŵƍƟť ł ŨŅœ Ŀł ŪƉ ň Ŕ ÿƀň Ɖ ł Ɖ ł Ŕ ÿňƍŨŅ Ŕ ǓĭĿƎÿƀ Ņ ĭòĪŏŔĥĪť ł Ɔ ň ĬŅ .ĶƢƀ ł ūť :ķĭĬƢ ŏ ÿƊƖ ł Ʀÿƀ Ŕ Ũť ŔŌ ŨŅœ Ŀł :ƈſűŌ œ Ŭ Ŕ Ɖť ł ŨŅœ ĿłŭƉ ŏ ł ŏŌ ŏ ŏ .ťƀňƉ Ņ ĭòĪŏŔĥĪłœ ķĭĬŴ Ņ Ũłœ ŏ Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ ŴƐ  ƕ Ŵſĭ  Ĭ .ķĭĬŏ Łĭ Ŕ ŁƢ œ ŅſĪŔ ťƕĿŤ







  

Ch. 



These are the children of Anah: Dishon and Oholibamah. 1



These are the sons of Dishon: Hamran, 2 Eshban, Ithran, and Cheran.



These are the sons of Ezer: Kalhan, 3 Zaavan and Akan.



These are the sons of Dishan: Uz and Aran.



These are the chiefs of the Horites: chief Lotan, chief Shobal, chief Zibeon, chief Anah,



chief Dishon, chief Ezer and chief Dishan. These are the chiefs of the Horites according to their chiefs in the land of Seir.

LX



These are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before a king reigned over the children of Israel.



Bela son of Beor reigned in Edom and the name of his city was Dihab. 4



Bela died and Jobab son of Zerah from Bozar 5 reigned after him.



Jobab died and Hushom, from the land of Tamena, 6 reigned after him.



Hushom died and Hadad son of Bedad, who killed the Midianites in the fields of Moab, reigned after him. The name of his city was Gewith. 7



Hadad died and Samlah from Masrekah 8 reigned after him.



Samlah died and Shaul from the river Rehaboth reign after him.



Shaul died and Baal-hanan son of Ebakkor 9 reigned after him. 



MT reads: ‘Oholibamah daughter of Anah’. MT: ‘Hemdan’. 3 MT: ‘Bilhan’. 4 MT: ‘Dinhabah’. 5 MT: ‘Bozrah’. 6 MT: ‘Temanites’. 7 MT: ‘Avith’. 8 A linea occultans under the simkath indicates the pronunciation ‘Marrekah’. 9 MT: ‘Achbor’. 1 2



ł .ťƊ Ņ ũƀ Ŕ ƆĬĥ Ō ĭķŴ ł Ƥſ ŏ Īłœ :ťƍŅɯ ň Ĭĭ Ņ ųƃ ł ƁòƍŨœ ƎƀƆ ł .ķƢŅƃĭ łŔ :ķĿŅƦ Ŕ łſĭ  :Ǝũƣĥ Ņœ ĭł :ķƢƊ Ņ Ŷł :ķŴƤſ ŏ Īłœ ƁòƍŨœ ƎƀƆ ň Ĭĭ Ņ Ŵƃ Ņ ł ň Ĭĭ Ņ ŵƃ .ƎƠŅ łƕĭ  :ķŴƕ Ņ Įĭ ł :ķųɤ Ņ ƃłœ :ĿĽŅĥ ƁòƍŨœ ƎƀƆ ł .ķĿĥŅ ĭŅ :ĽŴƕŏ :ƎƤſ Ņ Īłœ ƁòƍŨœ ƎƀƆ ň Ĭĭ Ņ Ÿƃ Ņ ł Ņ œł ň Ņ ł ň Ņ ł ň Ņ Ņ Ŕ ƣť ł ťŨŅœ Ŀł :ķŴƖŏŨŔ Ľť .ťƍŅɯ ň ŨŅœ Ŀł :ƈŨŴ ŏ ŨŅœ Ŀł :ƎʥŴ  Ɔť  Ũ Ŀ :ťɕǓŴŶ Īť Ŕ ƍŨŔ ǓĭĿƎƀ  Ɔ  Ĭĭ  Żƃ Ņ Ņ Ũłœ ķĭųƀ ťÿƕĿŤ ŏ ƍłŨŅ Ŕ ǓĭƢɝ ł ťňɕǓŅŴŶł Īť Ŕ ňƍŨŅ Ŕ ǓĭĿƎƀ ł Ɔ ň ĬŅ :ƎƤſ Ņ Īť łŔ ŨŅœ Ŀł :ĿĽŅĥť  ŨŅœ Ŀł :ķŴƤŏ ſĪť łŔ ŨŅœ Ŀł ĵ .ƢƀŌƖƏ Ņ ĪŔ

     

ĸįĽ

ň Ņ Ũłœ Ŵô ÿƄŔ ň ƇƉĥ Ņœ Ɖ Ņ Ŕ :ĶĭĪĥŏŔ Īť łŔ ÿƕĿŤ Ɓÿƍł ũò Ŕ Ɔł ťÿƄɤ ł ƅ Ŕ ÿƇƊƌłĪœ ĶűÿƟ ň Ĭĭ Ņ Ƨ  ĪłŔ ťÿÿƄň œ ɤò Ɖł ƎÿƀƆ ňŅ Ō .ƈſĥƢƐſĥ ň Ō ł Ņ ł ŏ œ łœ Ņ Ņœ ŏ łœ ň ł .ħ  Ŕ ųſ ł ĪŌœ ĬƦſ Ŕ ƢƟ  ĪŔ ťƊ  ƣĭ :ĿŴƖŨ ƢŨ ƗƇ Ũ ĶĭĪŤ Ŕ Ũ ƅ Ŕ ƇƉ  ĥ ŪƆ ň ł Ņ Ņœ Ō Ņ Ŕ ſĬ .ĿĽŴŨŏœ ƎƉįĿ ň ĮƢ ł Ũłœ Ū  Ŕ ŨŴ ŏ ĿňƦ Ŕ ŨŅ œ ƅ Ŕ ƇƉĥ  ĭ :ƗƇ Ũ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ɖĭ  ŭƆ ł Ņ ł ň ň ł Ō űƆ Ņ Ŕ ſŏ Ʀƀ .ťƍƊſ Ņ ŁŔ Īť Ŕ ƕĿ  ĥƎ  ƉĶŴ  ƤŶĬ ŏ ĿňƦ Ŕ ŨŅœ ƅ Ŕ ƇƉĥ  ĭ :Ū  Ŕ ŨŴ Ŕ Ɖĭ ň Ņ Ņ ň ň ł ŦƦ Ŕ Ƈ Ơò ŷł Ũť Ŕ ƀò ɫŅ ɗŅ űŔƊƆƈ ň  Ɵł Īœ ĪŔűŅŔŨœ ƢŨłœ ĪŔĪĬĬ ź ŅŔ ĿňƦ Ŕ ŨŅœ ƅ Ŕ ƇƉĥ  ĭ :ĶŴƤŶ ŏ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ɖĭ Ō ųƆ ň Ō ł Ņ ł Ņ ŏ .Ʀſ Ŕ ŴŌū  œ ĬƦſ Ŕ ƢƟ  ĪŔ ťƊƣ  ĭ :ħ  Ŕ ĥŴ Ɖ  ĪŔ Ņ ň ł Ņ .ťƟƢƐ Ņ ƉƎ ł Ɖ ň ƨƊ  ƏĬ ł ĿňƦ Ŕ ŨŅœ ƅ Ŕ ƇƉĥ  ĭ .ĪŔĪĬ Ŕ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ɖĭ Ō ŴƆ Ņ Ņ ň Ņœ ň ł Ņ ł .ŧ Ŀų Ņ ƌł ŁŴ Ŕ ũŶ ŏœ ĿƎ ł Ɖĵĭ ň ŤƣĬ  ĿƦ Ŕ Ũ ƅ Ŕ ƇƉĥ  ĭ :ƨƊ  Ə  Ʀƀ Ŕ Ɖĭ Ō ŵƆ Ņ ň ł ł Ŕ ƢŨłœ ƎƍŷƇ .ĿŴƄŏœ ũƕ Ņ ň ƖŨœ ĬĿňƦ Ŕ ŨŅ œ ƅ Ŕ ƇƉĥ  ĭ :ĵĭŤƣŅ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ɖĭ Ō ŸƆ





   

  

Ch. 



These are the sons of Oholibamah, daughter of Anah, son 1 of Zibeon, wife of Esau. She bore Jaosh, Jalan, and Korah to Esau.



These are the chiefs of the sons of Esau, the sons of Eliphaz, the first born of Esau: the chief Teman, the chief Omar, the chief Zepho, the chief Kenaz,



the chief Gatam, the chief Korah, the chief Amalek. These are the chiefs of Eliphaz in the land of Edom. These are the sons of Adah.



These are the sons of Reuel, Esau’s son: the chief Nahath, the chief Zerah, the chief Shammah, the chief Mizzah. These are the chiefs of Reuel in the land of Edom. These are the sons of Basemath, Esau’s wife.



These are the sons of Oholibamah, Esau’s wife: the chief Jaosh, the chief Jalan, the chief Korah. These are the sons of Oholibamah the daughter of Anah, Esau’s wife.



These are the sons of Esau and these are their chiefs (Esau is Edom).



These are the sons of Seir, the Horites, the inhabitants of the land: Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah,



Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan. These are the chiefs of the Horites, the sons of Seir in the land of Edom.



The sons of Lotan were Hori and Homam. 2 Timna was Lothan’s sister.



These are the sons of Shobal: Alvan, Manahath, Obal, 3 Shaphar, 4 and Ojam. 5



These are the sons of Zibeon: Anna 6 and Anah. It was Anah who found water 7 in the desert when he was shepherding the donkeys of Zibeon his father. 



MT: ‘daughter’. MT: ‘Hemam’. 3 MT: ‘Ebal’. 4 MT: ‘Shepho’. 5 MT: ‘Onam’. 6 MT: ‘Aiah’. 7 See the Introduction: Particular Lexical choices. 1 2



ň œ ł ł ł ŏ ň ÿŨť ŒŁŔ űÿɤ ł Ŕ ÿƍŅ ɯ ł ŁŔƢôŨłœ :ťƊ ň Ĭĭ Ņ űſ łœ ň ſĭ :ŴÿƐŏ ŌƕĪœ ĬŁŔ Ʀÿ Ņ ũƀ Ŕ ƆĬ Ō ĥ ƁòƍŨœ ƎƀƆ ô ƌĥ :ķŴÿƖŨŔ ĽƢ Ņ ł ł .įĿŴƠƆ ŏ ĭł :ƎƇƖ  ƀɞĭ :ŀŴƖŏəɞ ł ŴƐ ŏ ŌƖɝ  ň ł ł Ņ Łť ťÿŨŅ œ Ŀł :ƎÿƊſ Ŕ ÿŨŅ œ Ŀł :ŴƐ ŏ Ōƕ Ɓƍł Ũò Ŕ Īť łŔ ňƍŨŅ Ŕ ǓĭĿƎƀ ł Ɔ ň Ĭĭ Ņ ųſ ŏ ŌƕĪœ ĬƢňƃŴ Ŕ Ũŏœ ŵƙƀ ŅŔ Ɔ Ō ĥ ƁòƍŨœ :ŴƐ .ŵƍƟť ł ŨŅœ Ŀł :ŴƘŏ œ ĽňťŨŅœ Ŀł :ƢƉĭ Ņ ŏ ĥ ł ł Ņ œł Ō Ņ Ņ œł Ņ Ŕ Ɔĥ Ņ Ũłœ ŵÿƙƀ ťÿƕĿŤ Ō Īť ňŔ ÿňƍŨŅ Ŕ ǓĭĿƎÿƀ ł Ɔ ň ĬŅ .ơÿƀƇ Ɗƕť  Ũ Ŀ :įĿŴƟť ŏ ŨŅœ Ŀł :ĶƦƖ œ ūť Ŕ Ũ Ŀ Ŵſ ň ň ò ł Ņ ĶĭĪĥŏŔ ĪłŔ .ŧ űŅœɯ  Īœ ųƀ ñ ƍŨœ ƎƀƆĬ ň ŏ òł œ ň Ņ .Ŧ ŵŅƉť ł ŨŅœ Ŀł :ťƊ Ņ ƣť ł ŨŅœ Ŀł :įĿĮť ł ŨŅœ Ŀł :Ʀ Ŕ ŷŅ ƌť Ņ ŨŅœ Ŀł :ŴƐ ŏ ŌƕƢ  Ũłœ ƈſĥŴ  Ĭĭ  ŵſ  ƕĿ  ƁƍŨ ƎƀƆ ň œ ł ň ň ł ň ň ŏ Ņ ò ł Ũň Ŕ Īœ ųÿƀ ñ ƍŨœ ƎÿƀƆ  Ĭ Ņ ĶĭĪĥŏŔ Īť łŔ ÿƕĿŤŨłœ ƈſĥŴ ĬŁŔ Ʀÿôƌĥ Ʀ Ŕ ÿƊƐ  ÿƕĿĪť łŔ ňƍŨŅ Ŕ ǓĭĿ ƎƀƆ  ĬŅ .ŴƐ ŏ ŌƕĪœ ň ł Ņ Ō ł òł œ ň Ņ Ņ ł Ņ œł :įĿŴƟŏ ťŨŅœ Ŀł :ƎƇƖ  ſť  Ũ Ŀ :ŀŴƖŏɖť  Ĭĭ  Ÿɖ ł ŨŅœ Ŀł :ŴƐ  ũŔ ƀƆ  Ĭĥ ƁƍŨ ƎƀƆ ŏ ŌƕĪœ ĬŁŔ Ʀœ ô ƌĥťƊ ň ł ł ł Ō ň Ō ò ł Ņ œ ŏ Ņ ł  ĬŅ  ŁŔƢôŨť Ŕ Ɗ  ũƀ Ŕ ƆĬ  ĥ ƁƍŨœ ƎƀƆ .ŴƐƕĪœ ĬŁŔ Ʀôƌĥťƍɯ ł ŏ ŏ ŏŌ ł ň ĬŅ Żſ .ĶĭĪŏŔĥ Ŵſĭ  Ĭ ŴƐ  ƕ :ķĭųƀ ŏ ƍłŨŅ Ŕ ǓĭĿƎƀ ł Ɔ ň Ĭĭ Ņ :ŴƐ ŏ Ōƕ ƁòƍŨœ ƎƀƆ Ņ ł Ņ ł òł œ Ņ ň Ņ ł Ō Ņ òł œ ň Ņ Ņ Ŕ ƣĭ  Ĭĭ  Ĵ .ťƍŅɯĭ ł :ķŴƖŏŨŔ Ľĭ ň :ƈŨŴ ŏ :ƎʥŴ  Ɔ  :ťƕĿ  ĥ ƁŨƦŔ ſ ťɕǓŴŶƢƀ  ƖƏ  ƁƍŨ ƎƀƆ ł ňŅ ł ňŅ ł ň Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ .ĶĭĪĥŏŔ Īť łŔ ťƃ Ŕ :ĿĽĥ ĭ :ķŴƤſ ŏ Īĭ łŔ ƕĿŤ Ņ Ũłœ ƢƀŌƖƏ Ŕ ɕǓŴŶ Īť Ŕ ƍŨŔ ǓĭĿƎƀ  Ɔ  Ĭ :ƎƤſ  Īĭ Ņ ƁòƍŨť Ņ ł òł œ ł ł ł Ņ ł œ ň Ņ  ĭ Ūƃ .ƗƍƉ ł Łœ ƎʥŴ  Ɔ  Ī ĬƦ Ŕ Ŷĭ  .ƋƉĭ Ņ Ĭĭ ŏ :IJĿŴ Ō Ŷŏ :ƎʥŴ  Ɔ  ƁƍŨ ĭĭĬ ŏ Ņ Ŕ ƕĭ Ņ Ŕ ƣŏ ƁòƍłŨœ ƎƀƆ ň Ĭĭ Ņ ŭƃ .ƋŅſĭĥ  ĭŏ :ƢƙŅŔ ƣĭ Ņ :ƈŨŴ ŏ :Ʀ Ŕ ŷł ƍƉ ł ĭ :ķŴƇ łƕ :ƈŨŴ Ņ ł ň ł œ ň Ņ ł ł Ņ ł Ņ ł ŏ ň òł œ ň Ņ  Ĭĭ  űƃ  ƆŸ  Ƅƣĥ  Īť Ŕ ƍɯ  ĭĬ  ťƍɯĭť  ƌĥ :ķŴƖŨŔ Ľ ƁƍŨ ƎƀƆ űŔÿƃł œ :ŧ ƢŅÿŨœ űŔƊ ł ŨŔ ťƀò Ɖų łŏ ŏ ň Ņ ň Ņ ň Ņ .IJĬŴ ô ŨŔ ĥķŴ  ƖŨŔ ĽĪŧ Ŕ ǔƊŶŦ  ĭĬť ô ƕĿ













     

Ch. 

Chapter  LIX



These are the descendants of Esau (Esau is Edom).



Esau took wives from the daughters of Canaan: Adah, the daughter of Elon the Hittite, Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah son of Zibeon the Hivite,



and Basemath, Ishmael’s daughter, the sister of Nebaioth.



Adah bore to Esau Eliphaz, and Basemath bore Reuel.



Oholibamah bore Jaosh, 1 Jalan, 2 and Korah. These are the sons of Esau that were born to him in the land of Canaan.



Esau took his wives, his sons, and his daughters and all the members of his house and all his animals and all his possessions that he had acquired in the land of Canaan and he went to the land of Seir 3 opposite Jacob his brother,



because their possessions were too many for them to dwell together. The land where they were dwelling was not able to sustain them because of their possessions. 4



Esau dwelt in the hill country of Seir (Esau is Edom).



These are the descendants of Esau, the father of the Edomites in the hill country of Seir.



These are the names of Esau’s sons: Eliphaz, son of Adah, Esau’s wife and Reuel, son of Basemath Esau’s wife.



The sons of Eliphaz were Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam and Kenaz.



Timna was the concubine of Eliphaz, son of Esau. She bore Amalek to Eliphaz. These are the sons of Adah, wife of Esau.



These are the sons of Reuel: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah. These are the sons of Basemath, wife of Esau. 



The Peshiṭta reads the qere. See the Introduction: Qere/Ketib. MT: ‘Jalam’. 3 The Peshiṭta adds ‘Seir’. See the Introduction: Harmonization. 4 ‘possessions’ or ‘cattle’. 1 2



ŴƆ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň ŻƌįĽ

ł ŏ ŏ ŏ Ō ŏ Ō œ ň Ņ ò łœ ň Ņ Ŕ ĭŁ ƎƀƆ  Ĭĭ  ĥ .ĶĭĪŏŔĥ Ŵſĭ  Ĭ ŴƐ  ƕ :ŴƐ  ƕĪ ĬŁŔ űɝ ł Ņ Ņ Ō ł Ŕ űŅœÿ ɳł ɝ :ƎÿÿƖƍłƃœ Ʀ ł Ŵÿ Ɛŏ Ōƕ ħ  Ŕ ÿ Ɛƌ :ťÿ ɕŅ Ʀ Ŕ ƀʖķŴ  ÿ Ɔŏ ĥ ŁŔƢôÿ Ũŧ Ŕ ÿ òƍŨœ Ǝÿ Ɖň IJĬô Ŵò ÿ Ƥł ňƌ Ū ł łŔ Ɗ Ŕ ƆĬ Ō Ƨĭ  .ťɕŅŴŅ ŶķŴ ł ƖŏŨŔ ĽƢ ň Ũł Ŕ ťƍŅɯ ł ŁŔƢôŨť Ņ ũƀ ň ň Ŕ ĭł Ĩ .ŁŴ Ŕ ƀŏũƌ ŌŔ Īłœ ĬƦ Ŕ ŶŅ :ƈƀň ƖƊƤſ Ņ Ō ĥ ŁŔƢôŨłœ Ʀ Ŕ ƊƐ ł ũƆ ň ŏŌ ň ŏ ł Œ łœ ň ł ň ŅŔ Ɔ Ō Ƨ :ŴƐ  Ɩɝŧ  űŅœɯ ł ŒŁŔ űɤ łœ ň ſĭ Ī .ƈſĥŴ  ƕƢ Ɔ  ŁŔ űɤ  ſ Ʀ Ŕ ƊƐ  ŨĭŔ .ŵƙƀ Ņ ł ł ŴÿƐŏ ŌƕĪœIJĬô Ŵò ÿɩł Ũœ ƎÿƀƆ ň ĬŅ :įĿŴƠƆ ŏ ĭł :ƎƇƖ  ƀɞ  ĭ :ŀŴƖŏəɞ ł ŒŁŔ űɤ łœ ň ſťƊ Ņ ũƀ Ŕ ƆĬĥ Ō ĭł Ĭ ň Ō ň .ƎƖƍłƃŔĪť łŔ ƕĿŤ Ņ Ũłœ ųƆ Ŕ ĪŔ ň ĭô űŔƇſ  Łĥ ň ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ŏ Ŕ : ĬƦ ųñ ÿɤŅ ƃĭĬ ŏŔ Ʀÿƀ ŏ Ōƕ ƢŨł Ŕ ĪŔĭł ĭ œ ŨłŔ ĪŦ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ ÿƤò ƙŔ ƌƈ  ÿƃĭ Ŕ òƍŨŔ ĭł :IJĬô Ŵò ɩłŨŔ ĭł :IJĬô ŴòƤł ňƌ ŴƐ ł ň ŏ ň Ō œ ŌƖƏ Ņ Ƨĵ ň ł Ŕ ƍƟ ĶűÿƟƎ ŅŔ ÿƉƢÿƀ Ņ Īť Ŕ ÿƕĿ  Įĥł ĭň :ƎƖƍłƃŔĪť łŔ ƕĿŤ Ņ Ũť Ņ Īłœ ųňƍəƍ Ņ Ɵų ň Ƈ ƃĭĬ Ŕ Ƣƀ  ƖŨ łŏ .IJĬŴ ô Ŷ ĥ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ ł łœ ň Ņ ŏ ň Ņ ĥł Œ ŁŔ ĭŅĬť ťÿƕĿ ô ÿƀŅ ƘŴ œ Ɖ ł Ƨĭ  :ŧ űŅ Ŕ ÿŷƃŔĥ ħ  ŔƦ  ÿƊƆķĭųÿƍ ŏ ƀƍŅ ƟŦ ň ĭŅĬô ƁÿŬŌ œ Ə ł Īœ ƈź Ɖ  Į ň ŏ ŏ ł ň Ņ Ŕ ƐƊ ł Ɖ ł ĪŔ .ķĭųƍ ŏ ƀƍŅ Ɵƈ  ź Ɖ ň :ķŴƌŏĥ ĭƢũƀ ł Ɔķĭ  ĬƢ ŏ ƊƖ ł ŏ ŏ ŏŌ Ō Ņ Ņ ŏ ň .ĶĭĪŏŔĥ Ŵſĭ  Ĭ ŴƐ  ƕ :ƢƀƖƏ  Īŧ Ŕ ĿŴ ź  ŨŔ ŴƐ ŏ Ōƕ ħ  Ŕ Ʀſ Ŕ ĭŌ į ł ŏ Ō œ ň Ņ ò łœ ň Ņ ŏ .ƢƀŌƖƏ Ņ Īŧ Ŕ ĿŴ Ņ ź  Ũœ :ťƀňƉ Ņ ĭòĪŏŔĥĪłœ ķĭĬŴ Ŕ ĭŁ ƎƀƆ  Ĭĭ  İ  ƕĪ ĬŁŔ űɝ ŏ Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ ŴƐ ň ň ň ł ň ƢÿŨł œ ƈſĥŴ ł ƢŨłœ ŵƙƀ  ƕĿ ŏ ĭł .ŴƐ ŏ ŌƕĪœ ĬŁŔ Ʀœ ô ƌĥ ŧ űŅœɯ ŅŔ Ɔ Ō ĥ :ŴƐ ŏ Ōƕ Ɓƍł Ũò Ŕ ĪŦ łŔ ųò ƊƣƎƀ Ņ ň Ĭĭ Ɔ Ņ IJ ň ł Ŕ ƊƐ ł Ũň œ . ŴƐ ŏ ŌƕĪœ ĬŁŔ Ʀœ ô ƌĥ :Ʀ ł Ņ Ō ňœ ò ł œ ł ł ł ł .ŵƍƟĭ ł :ĶƦƖ œ ūĭ Ŕ :ŴƘŏ œ Ľňĭ :ƢƉĭĥ Ņ ĭŏ :ƎƊſ ł Łœ :ŵƙƀ Ŕ Ɔĥ  ĪIJĬô ŴɩŨ ĭĭĬ  ĭ ťſ ň ň ł Ņ ŏœŒ Ņ Ō Ņ ł Ņ Ō Œ łœ ň ƎƀƆ ň ĬŅ .ơƀƇ ƊƖ  Ɔŵ  ƙƀ Ŕ Ɔ  Ƨ ŁŔ űɤ  ſĭ :ŴƐ ŏ ŌƕƢ  Ũłœ ŵƙƀ ŅŔ Ɔ Ō ƧŦ  Ʀ œ ƃĭ Ŕ ĿĪ ŁŔ ĭĬƗ  ƍƉ ł ŁŔ ĭ Ūſ ň ł ł œ ňò œ  Ī ųƀ ñ ƍŨ . ŴƐ ŏ ŌƕĪœ ĬŁŔ Ʀœ ô ƌĥŧ űŅœɯ ň ł ł Ũňœ Ɓÿòƍł Ũœ ƎÿƀƆ ň Ĭĭ Ņ ŭſ ň ĬŅ :Ŧ ŵŅƉĭ ł :ťƊ Ņ ƣĭ ł :įĿĮĭ ł :Ʀ Ŕ ŷŅ ƌŅ :ƈſĥŴ  ƕĿ ŏ ƁòƍŨœ ƎƀƆ Ŕ ÿƊƐ Ʀ ň ł . ŴƐ ŏ ŌƕĪœ ĬŁŔ Ʀœ ô ƌĥ



 

  





  

 



Ch. 



The sons of Zilpah, Leah’s maidservant: Gad and Asher. These are Jacob’s sons who were born to him in Paddan-aram.

LVIII



Jacob came to Isaac his father, to Mamre, the city of warriors, 1 which is Hebron in the land of Canaan, 2 where Abraham and Isaac had lived.



The days of Isaac were one hundred and eighty years.



Isaac became sick 3 and died and he was gathered to his people. He was old and full of days. Esau and Jacob, his sons, buried him in the grave that Abraham his father had bought. 4

See 23:2. See the Introduction: Harmonization. 3 See the Introduction: Particular lexical choices. 4 MT lacks: ‘in the grave that Abraham his father had bought’. 1 2



Ņ ł Ņ ł œ ñ ňò ł ŏ łſĪœIJĬŴò ÿɩł Ũœ ƎÿƀƆ ħŴŔ ÿƠƖ ň Ĭ Ņ Ƣÿƀƣĥ Ō ĭŅ :űŔÿūŅ œ :ťÿƀŅ ɞň Īœ Ĭñ ƦÿƉ Ŕ ĥť  ÿƙƆ  ƍŨŔ ĭ Ŕ ĮĪ ųƀ ô ň Ō ňœ Ņ Ņ ň .ĶĿĥ ĪŅœ ķűŅŔƙŔ Ũœ ųƆ  ĭô űŔƇſ  ŁĥŔ Ī Ņ ł Ņ Ō Ņ ŏ ƢÿƊ IJĬô Ō IJĬŌ :ŧ ǔňÿũŅ œ ôƍū ł œ Ʀ Ŕ łſĿŴ  ÿƟŧ ň ƊƆ ł :IJĬŴ ô ÿŨŏ Ŕ ĥơ  ÿŷƐſ ĥ ŁŔŴɝ  ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſŦ  Łĥ Ŕ ĭň ł Ņ ł œ ł łœ ł ł Ņ ł œ ŏ ň .ơŷƐſĥ Ņ ĭĶ Ō ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥƎ  Ɖ  Ł ƢƊƕ  Ī :ƎƖƍƃŔĪŔ ťƕĿŤ  ŨŔ Ī ķĭƢũŔ Ŷ .ƎƀòɫŌ ƣƎſŤƍŌƉ Ņ ŁŔĭŦŤ ł Ɖ Ņ :ơŷƐſĥ Ņ ĪŌœIJĬô ŴƉ ł Ŵòɖł ĭĭĬ ł ĭł ň Ņò ł ňƍƃœŁĥ ł Ŕ ĭł ħŤ :ĬƦ Ŕ Ɖ  Ŵ ÿɖƗÿũƏ  Ŕ ÿƏň .ųƊ ň łƕ ŁŔŴɝƥ Ņ Ŕ ĭň :Ʀƀ Ŕ Ɖĭơ Ō Ņ Ō ĥĬ ŷƐſ  ƢłƃœŁĥ Ŕ ĭň łŏ Ņ Ņ ł ł ł Ņ ł œ ł IJĬŴ ô ŨŔ ĥĶ  Ĭ ƢŨŔ ĥ ƎŨĮ Ŕ Īŧ Ŕ ƢũŔ Ơ Ũ :IJĬô ŴòɩłŨœ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſĭ  ŴƐ ŏ ŌƕIJĬô ĭƢŏũŔ Ɵĭ



Ŵƃ  ŸƌįĽ ŵƃ  Ÿƃ  Żƃ 

Ch. 



The land that I swore 1 to Abraham and to Isaac I will give to you. I will give the land to your descendants who come after you.”



Then God went up from him at the spot where he had spoken with him.



Jacob set up a pillar in that place where he had spoken with him, a stone pillar. He poured over it a drink offering and he poured oil on it.



Jacob named the place where God had spoken with him Bethel.



He set out from Bethel. He was still traveling — about an hour’s journey 2 from reaching Ephrath — and Rachel gave birth. She endured a hard labor as she gave birth.



While she was in hard labor, the midwife said to her, “Do not fear for you are having this son.”



As her spirit was leaving her and she was dying, she named him “Son of my Pains.” 3 But his father named him Benjamin.



Rachel died and she was buried on the way to Ephrath, which is Bethlehem.



Jacob set up a pillar over the tomb of Rachel. It is the pillar of Rachel’s tomb to this very day.



Israel set out

LVII

and he pitched his tent from there at the tower of Gadar. 

While Israel was dwelling in that land Rubel went and he lay with Bilhah the concubine of his father and Israel heard about it.



The sons of Jacob were twelve. Leah’s sons: Rubel (Jacob’s first born), Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar and Zebulun



Rachel’s sons: Joseph and Benjamin.



The sons of Bilhah, Rachel’s maidservant: Dan and Naphtali. 



Absent in the MT. See the Introduction: Harmonization. ‘about an hour’s journey’: lit. ‘about the journey of a parasang of land’. 3 ‘Son of my Pains’ or ‘Bar-kibay’. MT: ‘Ben-oni’. See the Introduction: Proper Names. 1 2



ň Ō ł Ņ ŵɟ Ņ ƧĭĶ ĴŔ ĿŅƦ Ŕ ÿŨŅ œ ƎÿƉň ƅŔ ÿƕĿ ł ĭł :ųÿƀ ñ Ɔ Ō Łœĥ ƅ Ŕ ÿƆŅ :ơÿŷƐſ  ĬŅ ƢŅÿŨŔ Ƨ Ʀƀ Ō Īť ŌŔ ƕĿĥ Ņ ĭł Ūſ Ŕ Ɗſ ł Ō œň  Łĥ .ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ųƀ ñ Ɔ ň ł Ņ łœ Ņ Ņ ł ň ň Ō œ œ ň . ųƊ ň łƕƈ  Ƈ Ɖ  Īŧ Ŕ ĿŁŤ Ŕ Ũ :Ŧų Ɔ  ĥų  ƍƉƋſ  ĿŁŁĥ  ĭ ŭſ Ņ ň ł Ņ ł Ņ ň Ņ Ņ Ŕ ƃŌĪŦ ƁÿƠŌ ƌĭ ł :ťÿƘŤ Ŕ ƀňƟŅ :ųÿƊň łƕƈ  ÿƇƉ  ĪŔ ŧ ĿŁŤ Ŕ ÿŨŦ Ŕ ƀƟ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſƋƀ  Ɵĥ Ō ĭł űſ Ŕ Ŕ ƦÿƊ Ŕ ƦÿƊ ň ň Ņ ƌŏ ųƀ ñ Ƈƕ  .ťŷƤ Ņ Ɖ ň ųƀ ñ Ƈƕ  ƅ Ŕ Ɛƌ ł ĭł :ťƀŅƟŴ ł Ņ ł œ ň ł ň ł œ ł Ņ łœ ň .ƈſŌ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũňœ :ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥƎ  Ɖ  Ł ųƊ  ƕƈ  Ƈ Ɖ  Ī ĭĬ :ŧ ĿŁĥ Ŕ Ī ųƊƣ  ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſŧ  ƢƟ Ņ ĭł ųſ ł ŏ Ņ ł ł Ŕ ĪƢ Ņ Īť Ņ Ƙŧ Ŕ ĪĿŔ ĭ :ƈſŌ ĥ Ʀƀ ƈÿłƖƊƆ ň :ťÿƕĿĥ łŔ ÿŷƏƢ ňœ Ɖ ł ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ħĭ  Ŕ Łŧ Ŕ Ũňœ ƎƉƈ ň ł ĭł Ŵſ Ơƣ Ņ ŒŔ ƍƐ ł Ŷĭ ň :ƈƀʖ ň ĿŅ Œ ŁŔ űɤ łœ ň ſĭ .ŁŔƢłƘŔ Ƨ .ŧ űɤ Ņœ Ņſ űŔƃłœ Ʀ ŏ ň Ō ň Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Œ ł ň Œ ł ň ł Ņ ł Ŕ ƍƐ  Ŷ űŔƃŔ ĪŦ Ŕ ĭĬ  ĭ ŵſ ŧ ƢłÿŨť  Ŕ ĪŅœ ƈÿźƉ Ŕ Ƨ :ŦƦƀ Ŕ ʖ  ųñ ɝ  ŁŔ ƢƉ  ĥ :Ʀ  :ƎƀƇ ŶĪŔŁ Ŕ ÿƌŅ ĬŅ Ļĥ ň .Ɓô ƄŔ Ɔ  ĭĬô Ņ Ņ ñŅ ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł ò ł Ŕ ƃŌœ ƢŨł œ ųƊƣ IJųô ÿſƢŅƟIJĬô ŴÿŨĥŏ Ŕ ĭł :ƁÿŨŤ ň ŒŁŔ ƢƟ Ņ :ŦƦƀ œ Ɖ  ĭ ų Ƥ ƙŔ ƌť  Ơ ƙŔ ƌ űŔƃŔ ĪŦ Ŕ ĭĬ  ĭ Ÿɖ ň .ƎƀƊ  ƀƍŅ Ũňœ ł Ō .ƋŷƆ ň Ʀƀ Ŕ ŨňŔ IJĬô Ō IJĬŌ :ŁŔƢłƘĥ Ŕ Īť Ŕ Ɖĭ  Żſ ŅŔ ŶĿĭŤ Ņ Ũŏœ ŒŁŔ ƢłũŔ Ɵł Łĥ Ŕ ĭň :ƈƀʖ ň ĿŅ Œ ŁŔ Ʀƀ Ņ Ņ ŧ ƢŅÿũŔ Ɵł ĪŦ Ŕ ƦÿƊ Ŕ ƀňƟŅ IJĬô Ō IJĬŌ :ƈÿƀʖ ň ĿŅĪœ Ĭñ ƢŅÿũŔ Ɵƈ ł łƕŦ  ƦƊ Ŕ ƀňƟŅ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſƋƀ  Ɵĥ Ō ĭł Ĵ ł Ŕ ƈƀʖ .ťƍŅƉŴ Ņ ƀɞť ł Ɖ Ņ űƕ ň ĿŅĪŔ ňŅ Ō :ƈſĥƢƐſ ĥ ƈƠƣ ł ĭł ťƃ



 

 





 



ŵƌįĽ

ł ň ň œ ł ł ł Ņ ł .ĿűŅŔū ŔŅ Ī Ŕ ƧűœŬ Ŕ ƊƆ  : ƎƉ Ņ Łœ ƎƉų  ƍƄƤ  Ɖ  ƥƠƌ  ĭ ň ň Ņ Ō ĥŧ Ƣƣ ň Ŕ Ŀĵ :Ŧųÿɤ Ņ Ũłœ Ƌÿłƕ Ū ŏ Įłĥ :IJĬť Ņ ƕĿŤ Ņ Ũłœ ƈſĥƢƐſ  Ŕ Ƅƣ ňŔ ĭł ƈƀŨĭ Ņ űŔƃłŔĪŦ Ŕ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł Ūƃ ňŅ Ō ł ł ň ŏœ .ƈſĥƢƐſĥƗƊƣ  ĭ .IJĬŴ ô Ũĥŏ Ŕ Īłœ ĬƦ œ ƃĭ Ŕ ĿĪ ň ŏ łſĪœ ĬƢňƃŴ ň Ŕ Ŀŏ :ħŴ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ Ŕ Ũŏ Ŕ ťƀŅ ɞň Īœ ųƀ ñ òƍŨœ .ƢƐƕ ł ĿňŁœ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſĪœIJĬô ŴòɩłŨœ ĭĭĬ ł ĭł ŭƃ :ƈÿƀŨĭ .ķŴƆŴ ŏ ŨĮŏ Ŕ ĭł :ƢƄŅŔ Ɛſĥ Ņ ĭŌ :ŧ Īĭ ŅŔ ųſŏ ĭŌ :IJŴŌɝĭ ň :ķŴƖƊ ŏ ƣĭ ň ň ň Ŕ :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſ :ƈƀʖ ň ĿŅĪœ ųƀ ñ òƍŨŔ ĭł űƃ .ƎƀƊ ň ƀƍŅ Ũĭ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł œ ñ ňò ł .ƁƆ Ō Ʀ œ ƙŔ ƌłĭ :ķĪŅœ :ƈƀʖ ň ĿŅĪœ Ĭñ ƦƉ Ŕ ĥŦ  ųɤ  ŨŔ Ī ųƀ  ƍŨŔ ĭ ųƃ







 

Ch. 

Chapter  

God said to Jacob, “Arise, go up to Bethel and dwell there. Make an altar there to God who appeared to you when you were fleeing from Esau your brother.”



Then Jacob said to the members of his house and everyone who was with him, “Remove the foreign gods from your midst. Purify yourselves and change your clothes.



Arise, let us go up to Bethel. I will make an altar there to God who answered me on the day of my distress and who was with me on the way that I went.”



They gave to Jacob all the foreign gods in their hands and the rings in their ears and Jacob buried them under the oak that was near Shechem.



Then they set out. The fear of God fell upon the cities that surrounded them and they did not pursue Jacob or his sons.



Jacob came to Luz in the land of Canaan — that is Bethel — he and all the people with him.



He built there an altar and he named the place Bethel, 1 because God had appeared to him there when he was fleeing from Esau his brother.



Deborah, Raphka’s nurse, died and she was buried below Bethel under the oak, and he named it The Oak of Mourning. 2

LVI



God appeared again to Jacob while he was coming from Paddanaram and he blessed him.



God said to him, “You will no longer be called by the name Jacob. Rather your name will be Israel.” So he was called Israel.



God said to him, “I am Elshaddai, God. 3 Be fruitful and increase. A nation and a company of nations will come from you. Kings shall come forth from your loins.

MT: ‘El-bethel’. MT: ‘Allon-bacuth’. 3 The Syriac transliterates the divine title and adds ‘God’. 1 2



ųƆ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ł ň ł Ņ łœ ň ł ł ň ňŔ ơƏĶŴ ł Ɵŏ :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞŦ ł ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ŕ :ƈſŌ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ ũƆ Ŕ ĭ :ƎƉ  Ł ħ  Ŕ Łĭ ƎÿƉŅ Łœ űŔũƕ Ō Ņ œ ł łŏ ŏ Ō Ņ ň œ ł ň Ņ ł œ œ ł Ō œ ňœ  .ĴŴ Ŕ Ŷ ĥ ŴƐ  ƕĶ  űƟƎ  Ʀ  ô ƌĥľƢɯ  űŔƃ :ƅƀ  Ƈ ƕ ƁƇ ū  Łĥ Ŕ Ī ƈſƧ ťŷ Ũ űŔƉ Ŕ Ɖ ň ł łœ ł ň ł œ ŏ ł ň œ łœ ł ò ł ň ÿňɕǔŅƃŴ ƎÿƉť Ŕ ƌŦ ŏ ųò ÿƆŅ ĥĭô Ƣũƕ  ĥ :ųƊ  ƕĪ ƈƄƆ Ŕ ĭ :ĬƦƀ  Ũ ƁƍũŔ Ɔ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň ł ň ł .ķŴƄŏœ ɖòƦ œ ŷƌłŴô ƙŔ Ƈ Ŷĭ  :ŴƃłœĪłœŁĥ œ ĭň :ķŴƃŏŔƦ Ŕ ƍƀŅ Ũłœ ł ňœ ň ł Ņ ƀłŨœ Ɓô ÿƍƍƕ ňŔ ơƐ ł ňƌŴô ƉŴƟĭ ŏ ťÿƉŴ Ņ ĪŦ łŔ ųŅ ÿƆŅ Ƨť  ÿŷŅ Ũœ űŔƉƎ ł Ɖ Ņ Łœ űŔũƕĥ  ĭ :ƈſŌ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ ũƆ ô ƞɞĭĥ Ņ ĪŏŔ .Ʀ Ŕ Ɔô ňĮĥĪť ňŔ ŶĿĭŤ Ņ Ũŏœ Ɓô Ɗłƕ ŦĭĬ Ņ ĭł :Ɓƌ ň Ņ ł ŏ ŏœ Ņ ŏ ƌłĪòŔŤŨňŔ Īť Ŕ ƣň űò Ŕ Ɵĭł .ķĭųſ ŏ űłŔɖòŤŨŌŔ Īť Ŕ ňɕǔŅƃŴ Ŕ ƌŦ ŏ ųò Ɔ :ķĭųÿƀ  ĥķĭ  ųɤ  ƃ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞ ł Ŵô ŨŔ ųô łſĭ ň ł ł Ņ .ƋƀƄƣ ŌŔ ƋłƕĪŦ Ŕ ƦƊź Ŕ Ũňœ Ʀƀ Ŕ ʖ ň Łœ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſķŴ  ƌŏĥƢ  ƊŹ  ĭ Ņ ň ł Ņ Ŕ ŨłŔ Īť Ŕ ÿŨŅ œ Ŵô ÿƘŔ ĪĿłŔ Ƨĭ ĿƦ  :ķĭųſ ŏ Ǔłűŷ Ŕ ɕŅǓŴƟƈ ŏ łƕŦ  ųŅ Ɔĥ Ņ Īłœ ĬƦƇŶ Ŕ Īňœ ŒŁŔ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł :ŴôƇƠƣ ł ĭł ł ł Ņ Ŕ ŨĭŔ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ .IJĬŴ ô òƍŨœ ĿƦ Ņ ŏ ň ŏ ŏ łŔ ƕĿŤ Ņ ŨłŔ Īœ ĮŴLJ  ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſŦ  Łĥ Ŕ ĭň ťÿƊŅ łƕų  ÿƇƃĭ Ŕ ĭĬ :ƈÿſŌ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ ŨňŔ IJĬô Ō IJĬŌ :ƎƖƍłƃŔĪť .ųƊłƕĪŔ ł ł Ō œ ň Ņł œ ŏ ň ƁÿƇū  ŁŔĥƎ  Ɖ  ŁŔ Ī ƈź Ɖ  :ƈſŌ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũňœ ĭĬŧ ł ĿŅŁŔƧIJųô ſƢƟ Ņ ĭł :ťŷŅ Ũœ űŔƉƎ ł Ɖ Ņ Łť Ŕ ƍŅŨŔ ĭł ł ŏŌ Ņ ň Ņ ł .IJĬŴ ô Ŷŏ ĥ ŴƐ  ƕĶ  űƟƎ  ĭĬľ ô Ƣňɯ Ņ űŔƃłœ :ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥIJĬô Ŵł Ƈƕ  Ŕ ƉŦ Ņ ł Ō ł Ŕ Ɖĭ  Ŕ Œ ŁŔ ƢłÿũŔ Ɵł Łĥ Ŕ ĭň :ťÿƠŅ ƘŔ ĿłĪœ Ĭñ ƦƠ Ŕ ƍƀł Ɖŧ ł ĿŴ Ņ Ũŏ Ŕ Īňœ Œ ŁŔ Ʀƀ :ƈÿſŌ ĥ Ʀÿƀ Ŕ Ũňœ ƎÿƉň ƦÿŶ œ ƦƆ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ .ŦƦ Ŕ ƄŔ ŨŔ ĪŦŔ ƦƊź Ŕ Ũňœ ųñ Ɗƣŧ Ņ ƢƟ  ĭł :ŦƦƊź Ŕ Ũňœ Ʀƀ Ŕ ʖ ň Łœ ňŅ ł ŏ Ō  œ Łĥ Ŕ ĭň  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſƈ  łƕŦ  ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥ ħĭ  Ŕ ŁŔ ƁƇ ū .ųƃƢ ňŔ Ũĭ łŔ :ĶĿĥŅ ĪŅœ ķűŅ Ŕ ƘŅ œ ƎƉŦ ň ŁŔ ĥ űŔƃłœ :ħŴ ŏ ň ł ň Ņ Ņň ŏ łſ ƅ Ŕ ÿÿƊƣ Ņ Ŧĭų Ņ ħĭ ł ĭň Ŕ ƢÿÿƟ  Ʀ Ŕ ňƌ  Ƨ :ŦųŅ ÿÿƆŅ ĥų  ÿÿƆƢ ÿÿƉĥ ƅ Ŕ ÿÿƊƣ ň ÿÿňƌƧĥ :ħŴ  Ŕ ÿÿƠƖ  Ŕ Łŧ ňŅ Ō ňŅ Ō ň Ņ ł  ƢƟ  ĭ .ƈſĥƢƐſĥ .ƈſĥƢƐſĥ ųƊƣŧ ň ł ł ň ł ň Ņ ƃĭ ťÿƤƍ ňŔ ťÿƊŅ łƕ :ƁÿŬƏ ł ÿũł Ŕ ƃœ :ŦųŅ ÿƆŅ ĥ IJűłœÿƤł ɤſŌ ĥť  ÿƌŅ ôĥťƌŅĥ :ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥų  ƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ŕ Ō ĭƢ ò ŏ ň œ ŏ ň ň ň ň ň ł Ņ  Ɗòô łƕĪŔ .ķŴƠ ƙ ƌ ĴŔ ƞŅŶƎ ł Ɖ  ťƄœ ɤƉĭ :ķĭĭų  ƌ ƅ Ŕ ƍƉ  ťƊ



ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



į



ŴƌįĽ İ



IJ  ťſ 

Ch.  LV



On the third day when their pain was still fierce, two of Jacob’s sons, Simeon and Levi, Dinah’s brothers, took, each one, his sword and they came upon the city secretly and they killed every male.



They killed Hamor and Shechem his son with the sword 1 and they took Dinah their sister 2 from Shechem’s house and went away.



Jacob’s sons came upon the slain and they plundered the city, because they had violated Dinah their sister.



They took their flocks, their oxen and their donkeys in the city and in the field.



They captured all their wealth, all their children and their women. They plundered everything that was in the city. 3



Jacob said to Simeon and Levi, “You have brought me trouble by damaging me among the inhabitants of the land, among the Canaanites and the Perizzites. I am few in number. They will gather against me and attack me and I and my house will perish.”



They said, “Our sister was treated like a harlot.”

‘with the sword’: lit. ‘with the mouth of the sword’. Absent in the MT. 3 MT: ‘in the house’. 1 2



ųƌįĽ

Ņ Ō ł ł :ķĭųŏ ƀòŨłŔ ŤƃŌœ Ŵô ƍƐŶ ł űŔƃť łŔ ɕŅƦƀ Ŕ Ɔ  Łť Ŕ ƉŴ Ņ ƀłŨŦ Ŕ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł ųƃ :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſĪœIJĬô ŴòƍŨœ ƎſĿňŁœŴô ũŔ Ɛƌ Ņ Ō ňł łƕŴô Ƈłƕĭ Ņ Ƥň ŨŦ :ťÿƀˁ Ŕ Ʀÿſ Ŕ ƢƟƈ   :ųŨƢ ňœ ŶƢ ł ũłŔ ū  œ :ťƍſŅ ĪŌŔĪœ ųƀ ñ ʖ ò ĥ IJŴŌɝĭ ň ķŴƖƊ ŏ ƣň ň ł .ŧ ƢŅƃŔĪňœ ƈƃŏœŴô Ƈź  Ɵĭ  ł ķĭĬŏ Ʀ Ŕ Ŷť Ņ ƍſŅ űɝ ŌŔ Ĭĭ ñ ƢŏŨŔ Īĭ łŔ :ťŨƢ Ņœ Ŷł Īť Ŕ ƉŴ Ņ ƙŏ Ŕ Ũœ Ŵô ƇźƟĬ  ƢňŨœ ƋƀƄƤ ŌŔ Ɔĭ ł ĿŴƊŷ ŏ Ɔĭ ł Ŵƃ ŌŔ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũňœ ƎƉ ň .ŴôƠƙƌ łŔ ĭł :ƋƀƄƣ ł Ō Ņ Ō ł ł Ŕ :ƨňəòź ťÿƍſŅ űɝ ŌŔ ĭŤÿƊł ŹĪœƈÿłƕ :ŦƦÿſ Ŕ ƢƠ  Ɔ   ĭɈ ŵÿŨĭ  Ɵƈłƕ Ŵô Ƈłƕ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ Ɓƍł Ũò Ŕ ĭł ŵƃ .ķĭĬŏ Ʀ Ŕ ŶŅ Ņ ł Ņ Ō ł œ ŏ ň ł .ĭôƢŨłŔ ĪŔ ƨƠ  ŷł ŨŔ Īĭ Ŕ ŦƦſ Ŕ ƢƠ  ŨŔ Ī ķĭĬ ǔƊŶĭ  :ķĭųſ ŏ ǓłĭŁĭ Ŕ :ķĭųŏ òƍɯĭ Ņ Ÿƃ Ŕ ĪŌœ ƈƃŏœĭɈ ŵŨłŔ ĭ .Ŵũƣķĭ Ʀſĥ łŔ ųŏ ƀòƤł ňƍɞ  ĭł :ķĭĬŏ ŁƢ œ Ơł Ōſ ųñ ɤ Ņ ƃĭķĭ ŏŔ ųŏ ƀòƐ ł ƄŔ ňƌķĭ  ųɤ ŏ ƃĭ ŏŔ Żƃ Ņ Ō łœ  Ũ .ŦƦſ Ŕ ƢƠ ŏ ł ł ň ŏŅ ô ƌĭ Ņ ŁĿ œ Ĭł ĥ .IJŴŌ ɤƆ ň ĭķŴ ł ƖƊ ŏ ƤƆ ň ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň ĵ Ō ƣŤ ŏ ŨňŔ ŁŔ Īœ :Ɓƍ ñ ǓŴƊ ųſ  ƕ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũň Ŕ ƁƆķŴ Ō ł Ņ ň ň Ņ ł œ ň ň Ņ ò ł œ ň œ Ņ łœ  Ī Ŕ ťƀɫ Ɩɩƃ Ʀƀ  Ũ :ťƕĿĥ  Ũĭ ƎÿƀƤƍ Ō ƃłœƦ Ŕ Ɖ ň ĭ .ťƍŅəƍ Ņ Ɗ ň Ũť Ŕ ƌŅôĥ ƈƀƇ Ɵť  ƌĥ ĭ .ťɕĮǔƘ Ʀƀ ň ŅŔ ň Ņ Ō Ŕ ň Ņ ł œ Ņ ł  ʛ  Ɖĭ  ƁƇƕ .IJô Ʀƀ  ŨŔ ĭ ťƌĥť  ƌôĥ űŔŨŔ ĥĭ :ƁƆƎƀ ň Ņ ŌŅ ł ł ň ł Ņ ň Ŕ ŁŔĥŦ  Ʀƀ Ŕ ƌĮ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥĭô ƢƉĥ  ĭ Ƨ Ŕ ŷƆ  űŔũƕ . ķƦ









 





Ch. 



Jacob’s sons answered Shechem and Hamor his father and they spoke to him deceitfully because they had violated Dinah their sister.



They said, “We are not able to do this thing, to give our sister to a man who is uncircumcised, because it would be shameful for us.



However, we will be persuaded by you in this way: if you will become like us and you will circumcise every male just as we are circumcised. 1



Then we will give to you our daughters and we will take your daughters for ourselves. We will live with you and become one people.



But if you will not listen to us and be circumcised, then we will take our daughter and go.”



Their words pleased Hamor and Shechem his son.



The youth did not delay in doing the deed because he delighted in Jacob’s daughter. Now he was the most important in his father’s house.



Hamor and Shechem his son came to the gate of their city. They spoke with the men of their city and said to them,



“These men are at peace with us. Let them live in the land and let them do business in it. See the land is spacious before them. Let us take their daughters for ourselves as wives and let us give our daughters to them.



Only in this way the men will be convinced by us to dwell with us and we will become one people: once we will have circumcised every male just as they are circumcised.



Then their wealth, their property and all their animals will be ours. Only let us be persuaded by them and they will dwell with us.”



Each one who went out of the gate of his city obeyed Shechem and Hamor his father. They circumcised every male, each one who went out of the gate of his city.

1

The MT lacks, ‘just as we are circumcised’. See the Introduction: Harmonization.



Ņ ł ŏ ł ł ł ł  ĭ ŭſ ƈÿłƕ :ƨ ÿƄŔ ňƍŨœ ųÿƆň ĭô ƢƉĥ ł ĭň :IJĬŴ ô Ũŏ Ŕ ĥĿŴ  Ɗŷ  ƆĭƋƀ  ŌŔ Ɔ ƄƤ ł ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ ƁòƍŨœ Ŵƍƕ ł ŌŔ ĭŤƊ ł ŹĪœ .ķĭĬŏ Ʀ Ŕ Ŷť Ņ ƍſŅ űɝ Ņ ł Ņ ł Ŕ ÿŶĵ Ʀ œ ÿƊň Ɔ :ťƌŅĬť Ņ Ɗ Ņ ū ŔŅ Ʀ Ŕ Ƙň œ űŔũƖ łœ Ɗ ň ƆƎƍƀł ʛ Ō ƄƤ œ Ɖ ň Ƨ :ĭôƢƉĥ ł ĭň űſ ŧ ƢŅÿũŔ ŬƆ Ŕ ł ķƦ ŏ ň Ņ ŏ ŏ ň  Ʀſĥ Ŕ ĪŌŔ .ƎƆ ł ĭĬô ŧ űƐ łœ Ŷň Īœ ƈź Ɖ  :ŦŁŴ Ŕ ƆĿŴ  ƕų  Ɔ ň ł ł ŏ ň ŏ ň ŏ Ōœ Ʀ œ ňƌŧ  ĪňŔųŅ Ũœ ĶƢłŨœ ųſ  ƄƆƑƀ Ŕ ƙŹ Ŕ :ķŁŔ ŴŅ ƃŔĥķĭ  ĭĬ  ŁŔ ĪŔ ĭĬ ķĥķŴ ŧ ƢŅÿƃŔ Īňœ ƈƃŏœ ķĭĿŵŏ ū Ŕ Łĭ ł .ƎſƢſ Ō ŵŌū  œ ƎƍŶ ł Īť łŔ ƍŅƄſ łœ ĥ Ņ ň ň ł Ņ ŏ Ŕ łƕ ħ ŏŔ Ʀ Ŕ òƍŨœ ķŴƄƆĵ œ ňƌ Ŵſ ťÿƊŅ łƕŦ  ĭų ň ÿňƌĭ :ķŴƄƊ  ŔƦ œ ňƌĭ  : ƎƆ ł Ū  ŔƐ ł ňƌķŴ  ƃŏ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ òƍŨŔ ĭł :ķƦ .űŔŶł ň Ņ ň ł .ĵĮŤł ƌĭķ Ō ŁƢ Ŕ Ũłœ ƢŨłœ űŔňƌ :ĿŵłŬ Ŕ Ƨ ķĥĭ ŵſ Ŕ ƊƆƎ ň Ņ ƖƊ ƌŴ ŏ ƣŁ .ĬƢňŨœ ƋƀƄƣ ŌŔ Ɓƍłəòɳ ł ŨŔ ĭĿŴ ł ƊŶ ŏ Ɓƍłəòɳ ł Ũœ ķĭųŏ ƀòˁ  ł ƉƢ ň ƙƣ łŔ ĭł Ÿɖ Ņ œ Ō ł Ņ œ ň ł ł ł Ņ Ō Ŕ ĽĥĪňœ ƈÿ źŏ Ɖ Ņ ŹƢ ŁŔƢôÿ ũł Ŕ ŨŦ Ŕ ĭŅĬô Ɓÿ ũŹ ň :ŦŁœ űÿ ÿƀũŔ ƖƆ  Ĭñ űŔ ÿ ũƖƊƆť  ÿ ƀˁ  ŶŴ  ÿ ƣƧĭ  Żſ ł ň œ ň ŏœ ň Ņ ŏ Ō ŏ ŏ ł  :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ  łſ .IJĬŴ ô ŨŔ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũ ųƇ ƃ ƎƉŦ  ĭĬô ƢƀƠ ſ ĭĬĭ Ņ ł ň ł Ņ ƦƆ ŏ Łĥ Ŕ ĬƢňÿÿŨœ ƋÿÿƀƄƣ ŌŔ ĭł ĿŴÿÿƊŶŦ Ŕ ĭň Ĵ łŔ ÿÿƕĿ ťÿÿƤŅ ƌŅôĥƋÿÿłƕŴô ÿÿƇƇ Ɖĭ  :ķĭĬŏ Ʀÿÿſ Ŕ ƢƟ Ō Īť .ķĭųɝ ŏ ĭô ƢƉĥ ł ĭň :ķĭĬŏ Ʀſ Ŕ ƢƟ Ō ĪłŔ ł œ ň Ņ ł œ ŏ œ ň ł ł ŏň Ō Ņ ň Ņ ň ł Ņ ĭł :ųñ ÿŨŅ œ ķĭƢŏū ťÿƕĿĥ  œ Łœ Ʀ  ƌĭťƕĿŤ  Ũ ķŴŨŔ Ʀ  ƌ :ƎƊ  ƕķŴ  ƌĥƎƀ  Ɗɤ  ƣƎƀ  Ɔ  Ĭŧ  ǔũŔ ū  œ ťƃ Ņ ň œ ň ł ò Ņ ł ňò ň ł Ņ Ŕ ĭĿŦ ł ĬŅ ŏ Ɖ ł űƟť ŅŔ ɕŅűłŔɖòĥĪŌŔ ŦƦŶ  ÿƆ Ū  Ŕ ÿƐł ňƌķĭ  Ĭŏ Ʀ Ŕ òƍŨœ .ķĭųƀ ĵƦ Ŕ ÿƍŨŔ ĭ :ťÿƤƌƎ  ÿƌķƦ .ķĭųɝ ŏ ł ÿƊŅ łƕŦ Ōœ Ʀ œ Ɖŧ ň ĪňŔųŅ Ũœ ĶƢłŨœ Ūƃ ťÿƉŅ :űŔÿŶť  ĭų ň ňƌĭ  : ƎƊ ł łƕķŴ  Ũŏ Ŕ Ʀ œ ňƌĪŧ Ŕ ǔňũŔ ūł œ ƎƆƎƀ ł Ɛƀ Ō ƙŹ ł Ŕ ĪłŔ .ƎſƢſ Ō ŵŌū  œ ķŴƌŏĬň Īť Ŕ ƍŅƄſ łœ ĥ ŧ ƢŅƃŔĪňœ ƈƃŏœ ķĿŵłū ň Ōœ Ʀ œ ňƌĶ  ƢłÿŨœ .ķŴÿƌŏ ĥƎ  ÿłƇſĪŌ ŔŦĬŅ :ķĭĬƢƀ ŏ ŌƖŨœ ųñ ɤ Ņ ƃĭķĭ ŏŔ ųƍ ŏ ƀƍŅ Ɵĭķĭ ň ųŏ ƀòƐ ł ƄŔ ňƌ ŭƃ ƑÿƀƙŹ œ ňƌĭ  :ķĭųɝ ŏ . ƎƊ ł łƕ ķŴŨŏ Ŕ Ʀ ł ň Ō ł Ņ łœ ł ò Ņ ŏ Ɖ ĬƦÿſ Ŕ ƢƟ  Īť Ŕ ÿƕĿŁ ƁÿƠƙŔ ƌƈ  ÿƃŏ œ :IJĬŴ ô ÿŨŏ Ŕ ĥĿŴ  ÿƊŶƎ ň ĭ ƋƀƄƣ ŌŔ ƎƉ ň  Ŵô ƖƊƣ ł ĭł űƃ ň Ō ł Ņ łœ ł ò Ņ .ĬƦſ Ŕ ƢƟ  ĪŔ ťƕĿ Ŕ ĭł  ƃŧ ŏŔ ƢŅƃŔĪňœ ƈƃŏœĭô Ŀŵłū  Ł ƁƠ ƙŔ ƌƈ











  











Ch. 

Chapter  

Dinah, the daughter whom Leah had borne to Jacob, when out to see the daughters of the area.



Shechem, the son of Hamor, the Hivite, chief of the country, saw her. He took her, slept with her and abused her.



His soul pursued Dinah, the daughter of Jacob. He loved the girl and he comforted the girl. 1



Shechem said to Hamor his father, “Get this girl for me as a wife.”



Now Jacob heard that they 2 had defiled Dinah his daughter. His sons were with the animals in the field. Jacob remained silent until they came.



Hamor, the father of Shechem went out to Jacob to speak with him.



The sons of Jacob came from the field and when they heard, the men were upset and greatly displeased that they had committed the outrage in Israel. They had violated 3 the daughter of Jacob. Such a thing is not done.

LIV



Hamor spoke with them and said to them, “Shechem my son longs for your daughter. 4 Give her to him as a wife.



Intermarry with us and give us your daughters and take our daughters for yourselves.



Stay with us. See the land before you. Stay, engage in business and take possession of it.”



Shechem said to her father and her brothers, “Let me find favor in your eyes. I will give whatever you might tell me.



Demand a very great marriage gift and presents from me and I will provide whatever you tell me, but give to me this girl as a wife.” This Hebrew expression also appears in Judges 19:3, Ruth 2:13 and Isaiah 40:2 and the Peshiṭta has a similar translation. We have followed the gloss suggested by RPS: puellam consolatus est. 2 The Peshiṭta reads the plural subject consistently. The Hebrew has the singular. 3 MT: ‘by sleeping with’. 4 ‘Shechem my son longs for your daughter’: lit. ‘Shechem my son, his soul delights in your daughter’. 1



űƆ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ł òŅ Ņ ň ł Ŕ ƍſŅ ĪŌœ Ʀ ŒŔ Ơł ƙŔ ňƌĭ  łœ łſŁĥ Ŕ ĪňŔ ťƀŅ ɞň ŁŔƢôŨť Ŕ ŵŷ  ƊƆ  :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞ ł ŒŁŔ űɤ .ŧ ĿŅŁŔĥ Ʀ Ŕ ƍŨŦ .Ĭñ Ƣƕ Ņ Ľĭ ł ųñ Ɗ Ņ łƕ ƅ Ŕ Ɖ ň ĪŔĭł Ĭñ ƢŅŨŔ Īĭ łŔ ťƕĿĥ Ņ Īť łŔ ŨŅœ ĿłťɕŅŴŅ ŶĿŴ ł ƊŶƢ ŏ Ũłœ ƋƀƄƣ ŌŔ Ĭñ ŵŶ Ņ ĭł Ņ Ņ Ō ł ñ Ņ ł ł Ŕ ŨŅœ ųƤň ƙŔ ƌł Ʀ ŒŔ Ơł ƙŔ ňƌĭ  ň Ũ Ŕ ƨƉ  ĭł :ŦƦƀ Ŕ Ƈź  Ɔ  ų ƊŶ  Ŀĭ  :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ ŁŔƢôŨť łŔ ƍſŅ ĪŌœ ĿƦ ųñ ÿũŅ œ ɢ Ņ Ō łœ Ŕ ƇŹ  Ī .ŦƦƀ Ņ œ ł ňŅ Ņ Ō ł .ŦŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥŧ ĪŔĬŦ  Ʀƀ Ŕ ƇŹ  ƁƆ Ō Ū  ŔƏ ł :IJĬŴ ô Ũŏ Ŕ ĥĿŴ  Ɗŷ ŏ ƆƋƀ ł Ƅƣ ŌŔ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň ň ł Ņ Ō ł Ņ Ŕ Ũť Ŕ ƍſ űɝ Ŕ ĭô ŤƊ ł ŹĪœƗƊƣ ł ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſĭ  :ƨÿƠ  ŷł Ũœ ĭĭĬŧ ł Ƣÿƀ Ņ ŌƖŨœ ƋÿłƕIJĬô ŴòɩłŨŔ ĭł .ĬŁƢ ł ň Ņł ň ŏ .ĭŁŔ ĥĪť Ŕ Ɖ  űƕ Ŕ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ  łſ ľƦƣ Ŕ ĭł ł ŏ ŏ Ņ ł ł . ųƊ ň łƕ ŴƇ Ƈ ƊƊ  Ɔ  ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ ŁŔŴɝ Ņ :ƋƀƄƣ ŌŔ ĪłœIJĬô ŴŨŏ Ŕ ĥĿŴ  ƊŶơ  ƙƌ łŔ ĭł Ņ ł ň łň ŏ łſ Ɓÿÿƍł Ũò Ŕ ĭł ł Ŕ :ƨÿ ŒŔ ÿłſƢƃňœŴô ÿ ƖƊƣ ł űŔÿ ƃĭ  ÿƠŶƎ  ÿ Ɖ ĭŁŔ ĥ ħŴ  Ŕ ÿ ƠƖ :ŧ ǔňÿ ũŔ ŬƆ ŏ ÿɝ Ʀ Ŕ ł ķĭųÿ Ņ ň Ņ ŏ ł ł łœ ŏ ň Ņ ŨŦ ŁŔƢôũƆ łŔ  ĭô ƢłƕĽĭ ł :ƈſĥƢƐſŤ ŌŔ ŁĭŤ Ŕ Ɗ  Ź ĭô űŔũƕ Ŕ Ī ƈź  ųɝ ŏ .ŀŤŨň œ ŁĥŔ ĭň Ɖ  :Ū  Ŕ Źķĭ Ņ ňŔ Ʀ Ŕ Ɖ ň Ƨť  ƍŅƃłŔĬĭ Ņ .ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ .űŔ ũƕ ň ł ŏ Ņ Ŕ IJô Ƣÿ Ũň œ ƋÿÿƀƄƣ ł ĭķĭ ŒŔ ÿ ŨĽ ŌŔ :ķĭųÿ ŏ ÿɝƢÿ Ɖĥ ň ųÿ ŏ ÿƊłƕĿŴ  ÿ ƊŶƈ ÿ ƇƉĭ  ųÿ Ƥň ƙŔ ƌł Ʀ Ņ œ ł ň ŏ ŏ ł  ô ƌĥ ųƆ  ĬŴ ñ ŨŔ Ĭ .ķŴƃŔ ŁƢ Ŕ ũłŔ Ũœ .ŦŁŔ Ʀ Ņ ł ł Ņ ŏ Ŕ Ŵô ũŔ Əķ ł łƕŴô ƌƦ œ Ŷł Łĥ Ŕ ĭň ł Ŵô ŨŔ ĬķŴ ł ƃŏŔƦ Ŕ òƍŨœ :ƎƊ Ŕ òƍŨŔ ĭł :ƎƆ .ķŴƄƆ ł Ʀ ň łł ł œ ň ňœ ŏœ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ ł .ųñ ŨŅœ ĭô ŁŔƢſ ł ĭŌĭô Ƣū ł œ Łœ Łĥ  ĭŴô ŨŔ Ł :ķŴƄƀ Ɖ  űƟ Ŕ ŦĬť  ƕĿĥ  ĭ :ŴôŨŔ Łœ ƎƊ  ƕĭ  Ō ň ł ł Ō ŏ Ŕ :ķŴÿƄƀ ŏ œ ƍłəòɳ ł œ ĥ :ųñ ƀòʖ ł Ũť Ŕ ƊŶ ň ǓłŸƄƣ ň Ƨĭ  ĬŴ ñ Ũŏ Ŕ ƧƋƀ  Ƅƣ Ŕ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň ķĭƢÿƉĥ ŏ ŁŔ Īœ ƈÿƃĭ ň œň Ō  .ĵŁĥ ƁƆ Ō ň Ņ ł ł Ņ Ō ƢÿƉĥ Ŕ ƍŅƄſ łœ ĥ ĵŁĥ œ ĭň :ŦƦ Ŕ ŨŅ Ŕ Ĭò ŴƉĭŧ ł Ŀų Ņ Ɖ ł Ū  Ŕ Ź Ɓł Ƈƕ  ŴŬƏ ł œ ĥ Ŵô ÿŨŔ Ĭĭ ł :ƁÿƆķĭ ŏ ŁŔ Īť Ņ œ ł ňŅ Ņ Ō Ŕ ƇŹ  ƁƆ Ō .ŦŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥŧ ĪŔĬŦ  Ʀƀ



ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



űƌįĽ į



İ



IJ  ťſ  Ūſ 

Ch. 



Jacob said to him, “My lord knows that the children are very young and that the flocks and oxen, which are nursing, are a care to me. If I drive them in a single day, all of the flocks will die.



Let my lord pass in front of his servant and I will travel gently, following the property in front of me and following the children until I come to my lord at Seir.”



Esau said to him, “I will leave with you some of the people who are with me.” Jacob said, “How has this happened to me! Should I find favor in the eyes of my lord?”



Esau turned back that day on his way to Seir.



Jacob journeyed to Succoth and he built a house for himself, and he made shelters for his animals. For this reason the name of that place is Succoth.

LIII



Jacob came to Shalim, a city of Shechem in the land of Canaan. When he came from Paddan-aram, he camped in front of the city.



He bought a part of the field from the sons of Hamor, Shechem’s father, for one hundred ewes. 1



He pitched his tent there 2 and he set up an altar. He called it God, God of Israel.

1 2

The meaning of the Hebrew word is uncertain. See the Introduction: Divergent Readings.



Ņ ň ł òŅ Ņ ň ňò Ņ ł œ ł Ņ Ņ  :ƎƀƇŹť  ƀˁ  ŹĪ ĺűŔ ɖIJô ƢƉ .ƁÿłƇƕƎÿƠŅ òƍƀƉŧ ł ǓĭŁĭť Ŕ ÿƍɯĭ  :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſų  ƆƢ ň Ɖ ł ĥ ŭſ Ņ Ņ ñ Ņ ŏ Ņœ Ņ  Ŕ ĪňŔĿķĥ Ņ ĭň  ų ɤƃŦ Ŕ Ʀƀ  Ɖ  :ĶŴſŏ űŔŶķĭ ł ųɝť ŏ ƌŅôĥ Ļ .ťòƍɯ Ņ Ņ Ō Ņ Ō œł ň ł ň Ņ ň ň œ ł Ņ :ƁÿƉł űƟ ŅŔ ĪŦ łŔ Łœ űœũƕ ňŔ Ɔ ł :Ʀſ Ŕ ŤƄƀ Ŕ ƃĿ ƅ Ŕ Ɔ  Ĭ ĥť  ƌĥ ĭ :ĬűũŔ ƕĶ  űƟ Ŕ IJô ƢƉƢ Ņ ũƖ łœ ňƌ űſ Ŕ ƈūƢ ň ň Ņ Ŕ ĪŌŔ ťƉ Ņ űƕ łŔ :ťƀò ˁ  Źƈū ňŔ ƢƆ ł ĭ .ƢƀŌƖƐƆ Ņ IJô ƢƉ Ņ ŁŔŴɝŦ Ņ Łĥ ň ŏŌ ň łŅ Ņ Ņ ŏ łſƢ ł ĭň .ƁƊ ťÿƍŅ ƊƆ Ņ ħŴ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ  ÿƉĥ ô łƕĪť Ŕ Ɗ Ņ łƕƎ  Ɖ ň ĴŔ ŁŔ ŴɝľŴ  ŏœ ĥ :ŴƐ ũƣ  ƕų  ƆƢ  Ɖ  ĥ ųſ ň ł Ō łœ ĥ :ƁƆ  ŦĭňĬŅ IJô ƢƉŅ Ɓƍłəòɳ ł Ũť Ŕ ƊŶ ň ǓŸƄƣ ŏ ł Ņ ł .ƢƀŌƖƐƆų Ņ ň Ƨ ĭĬť ŶĿĭ  ƉŴ  ƀŨŔ ŴƐ ŏ Ōƕ ƅ Ŕ ƘĬ łŔ ĭł Ŵſ Ņ Ņ ł Ŕ ĬƢÿƀ :ƨ ÿˁź ł űŔÿũƕ ň ŌƖũŔ Ɔĭ ł :ŦƦƀ œ Ũłœ ųƆť ň ƍŅŨŔ ĭł :ŁŴ Ŕ ƄŏŔ Ɛ Ņ Ɔ ƈƠƣ ł ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſĭ  ŵſ ô Ɖ ŏ ň Ņ ŏ Ņ ň Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł œ .ŁŴ Ŕ ƄŔ Ə  ĭĬŧ  ĿŁĥ Ŕ Ī ųƊƣŧ  ź Ɖ   ƢƟťƌĬƈ Ņ Ņ Ō Ō Ņ Ņ ŨłŔ Īœ :ƋƀƄƣ ň ŁŅŔĥň űŔÿƃł œ :ƎÿƖƍłƃŔĪť ł Ŕ ÿƕĿŤ łŔ Ʀſ Ŕ ƢƟƋƀ  Ƈ ƤƆ  ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſŦ  Łĥ Ŕ ĭň ŌŔ ĪŦ ķűŅŔÿƘŅ œ ƎÿƉŦ Ņ Ō łœ ñ Ņ ŏ Ņ ł Ņ Ņœ .ŦƦſ Ŕ ƢƟ  Ī ų ɤ  ŨŴ Ŕ ƠƆŧ  Ƣƣ  ĭ :ĶĿĥ Ī ł ŏ òł œ ň Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł ł Ņ ł Ņ œ Ō łœ .ķŴò ƠƌŦŤ  Ɗ  Ũ ƋƀƄƣ  ƨƠ  Ŷ ĪŦ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ ƍƉƎ  ŨĮŔ ĭ  ƊŶ  ƁƍŨ ƎƉ Ŕ ĪIJĬô ŴŨŏ Ŕ ĥĿŴ ł Ō ł ł ŦųŅ ÿÿƆŅ DŽſ  ĥIJųô ÿÿſƢƟ Ņ ĭł :ťÿÿŷŅ Ũœ űŔƉƎ ł ÿÿƉŅ Łœ ƋÿÿƀƟĥ Ō ĭł :ųÿÿňƍƄƤ œ ƉƎ ł ÿÿƉŅ Łœ ƥÿÿƠƌł ĭł ňŅ Ō .ƈſĥƢƐſ ĥĪŔ









 

ŭƌįĽ Ÿɖ  Żſ  Ĵ 

Ch. 

Chapter  LII



Jacob raised his eyes, looked, and there was Esau coming with four hundred men. He divided the children among Leah, Rachel and the two maidservants.



He made the maidservants and their children pass to the front, Leah and her children were behind them, then Rachel and Joseph at the back.



He himself crossed over in front of them. He bowed to the ground seven times until he came near his brother.



Esau ran to greet him, embraced him and fell on his neck. He kissed him and they wept.



Then Esau raised his eyes and saw the women and children and said, “Where did you get these?” Jacob said to him, “They are the children that God has given 1 to your servant.”



The maidservants and their children approached and bowed down.



Leah and her children also approached and bowed down. Afterwards Rachel and Joseph approached and they bowed down.



Esau said to Jacob, “Where did you get this whole company that has met me?” Jacob said to him, “Because I have found favor in the eyes of my lord.”



Esau said to him, “I have mine own and plenty. My brother, hold onto your own.”



Jacob said to him, “If I have found favor in your eyes, then take my gift from my hands because now I have seen your face which is like the appearance of the face of an angel and you have been pleased with me.



Receive my blessing, which I have brought for you, because God has been merciful to me and because I have everything [I need].” He urged him and he accepted.



Then Esau said to him, “Let us set out and go. I will go before you.”  1

 MT: ‘has favored’.



ŭƆ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ł ňł ňŅ ŏŌ Ņ Ņ ł .ƎÿſǔŌũŔ ū Ŕł ŦŤÿƉŅ ƗŨĿ  ƕŦ  Ĭĭ  :Ŧ ŵŶ  ĭIJĬô Ŵƍłəòɯ ł ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſƋſ  ĿĥŌ ĭł łœ ĥųƊ  ƕĭ  :ŦŁŔ ĥ ŴƐ Ņ ň ň ł ň Ņ ň ł .ŦŁŔ ųŅ Ɖò ĥƎſŁœ ĿŁœ ƈłƕĭ  :ƈƀʖ ň Ŀƈ Ņ łƕĭ  :ťƀŅ ɞň ƈłƕť  ƀò ˁ  Ź ŭŔ Ƈ Ƙĭ Ŕ ň Ņ ł ñ ňò ł Ņ Ɖò Ƨ Ƣÿÿũƕ ł œ ĥĭł Ŕ ŨŅœ ųÿÿƀ :ƎÿÿſĬĿ ň Ʀ  ƍũŔ Ɔĭ  ťÿÿƀŅ ˁň Ɔĭł :Ʀ Ŕ ÿÿƀł Ɖ Ņ űŔƟƎÿÿſ ł ųň ƀòɫł ũŔ Ɔĭ ł ŦŁŔ ųÿÿ Ņ ʖň Ƣɝ Ņ ĭł .ŦŁƢ Ŕ ŷł Ũœ ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ƀɞ ł ĭƈƀ ł ł ŁŔŴÿɝ Ņ ħ  Ŕ ƢƟ ň Īť łŔ Ɖ Ņ űƕ łŔ :ƎƀƍŌŨòŔ ĮƗ ł ũƣ łŔ ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ƈłƕ űŔŬƏ Ŕň ĭł :ķĭųƀ ŏ Ɖ ł űƟƢ ŅŔ ũƕ łŔ ĭĬĭ ŏ ł .IJĬŴ ô Ŷŏ ĥ ŏ ŏŌ ň ł .ŴƄłŔ ŨŔ ĭł :ųƠƤ ň ƌĭĬ ł Ŀĭ ň Ľƈ ł łƕƈ  ƙƌ łŔ ĭł ųƠň ƙŔ łƕĭ  :ųň ƕĿĭ  Ƨ ŴƐ  ƕİ  ĬĿ  ĭ ł ł ň ňò Ņ ł ňò ň Ņ ł ƢƉĥ ł ĭň .ƎƀƆ ň ĬŅ ƅ Ŕ Ɔť Ņ ƄŅœ Ɗ ň ſĥƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ :ťƀˁ  Źĭť  Ƥ ƌŦ  ŵŶ  ĭ :IJĬŴ ô ƍłəòɯ ł ŴƐ ŏ ŌƕƋſ  ĿĥŌ ĭł ň ň Ņ ł ň .ĴŔ űŅœũŔ łƖɝŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥ ħ  Ŕ ųô łſĪœ ķŴƌŏĥť  ƀò ˁ  ŹħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſų  Ɔ Ņ ň ň ł .ĭôűŔŬƏ Ŕň ĭƎſ ł ųň ƀòɫł ŨŔ ĭƎƀ ł ňƌĬň ŦŁŔ ųŅ Ɖò ĥ ħ  Ŕ ƢƟ  ĭ Ņ Œ łœ ň ňœ ł Ņ Ņ Œ łœ ň ň Ŕ ŨƢ Ŕ ŨĭŔ .ĭôűŔŬƏ Ŕ ŨƢƟ ĭ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ÿłſĭƈƀʖ ň ĿŅ Ļ  Ŕ ĥ Ʀ  Ɵ ƎƃĿ Ʀ Ŕň ĭł ųƀ ñ òƍŨŔ ĭł ťƀŅ ɞň Ļ  Ŕ ĥ Ʀ ƚ .ĭôűŔŬƏ Ŕň ĭł Ņ Ō ł ñ Ņ ŏ ň Ņ Ņ Ņœ ň ł .ƁÿŨŌ œ Ʀ ŒŔ ÿłƖŬ Ŕ ƘňŔ ĪŦ Ŕ Ʀÿſ Ŕ ƢƤ Ɖ  ų ÿɤƃŧ  Ƅ Ɗ  ſĥ :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞ ł ŴƐ ŏ ŌƕƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň Ŕ ĪŔĬ ƅ Ŕ Ɔť ŏ ň ł ĭň IJô ƢƉŅ Ɓƍłəòɳ ł Ũť Ŕ ƊŶ ň Ǔł Ʀ Ŕ ŷň Ƅƣĥ œ Īňœ ƈź Ɖ  :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſų  ƆƢ ň Ɖĥ Ņ Ō Ōœ ł Ņ Ō Ņœ ł .ƅ Ŕ Ƈſ  Īŧ Ŕ űƟ Ɓô ʖĥ :ƁƆ  ƁŬ  Əĭ  ƁƆ Ō Ʀſ Ŕ Ō ĥ :ŴƐ ŏ Ōƕų  ƆƢ ň Ɖĥ ł ĭň Ō ň ň Ņ :IJűłŔÿɖò ĥƎ  ÿƉň Ɓô ƍŨĿŴ Ņœ Ɵŏ Ū  ŔƏ ł :ƅƀ  œ ƍłəòɳ ł Ũť Ŕ ƊŶ ň Ǔł Ʀ Ŕ ŷň Ƅƣ œ ĥķ  ĥ :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſų  ƆƢ ň Ɖ ł ĥ ł òł œ ł Ņ ň ł œ òł œ ł Ō Ņ Ņ œ ŏ ň Ɖ  ĪŦ Ŕ ŵŶť  ƣ Ĭ Ī ƈź .ƁŨŌœ Ʀƀ œ ũŹ ŌŔ Ľĥĭň .ťƃŅŔƨƉł ƁƘĥ Ŕ ĭŵ  Ŷ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ :ƅƀ  Ƙ ĥ Ʀſ ł ŏ ň ŏ ň Ō Ŕ ĪŌœ ƈÿźƉĭ Ʀÿſĥ  :ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥ Ɓł ƇƕƋ  Ŷň ĿłĪœ ƈź Ɖ  :ƅ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ Ʀſ Ŕ Ʀſĥ œ ĪłœIJô Ʀ Ŕ ƃĿŴ łœ Ũŏœ Ū  ŔƏ ł Ō .ƈũňœ ƟĭĬ ł ňƞɞĥ  ĭł .ƈƃŏŔ ƁƆ Ņ Ņ ŏ .ƅ Ŕ Ƈ ŨŴ Ŕ ƠƆĵ  Įĥł ĭŌ :ĵĮŤł ƌĭĵŴ Ō ŏ ňƌ :ŴƐ ƠƤ ŏ Ōƕų  ƆƢ ň Ɖ ł ĥ



ŪƌįĽ ĥ



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IJ  ťſ  Ūſ 

Ch.  LI



He took them and brought them over the valley and he brought over everything that he had.



Jacob remained alone and a man contended with him until the rising of the early dawn.



When he saw that he could not prevail, he touched his hip socket and Jacob’s hip socket was dislocated as he contended with him.



He said to him, “Send me away for the early dawn has risen.” He said, “I will not send you unless you bless me.”



He said to him, “What is your name?” He said “Jacob.”



He said to him, “No longer will you be called Jacob, but Israel, because you have proven yourself strong 1 with the angel 2 and with the man, 3 and you have prevailed.”



Then Jacob asked and said, “Tell me your name.” He said to him, “Why are you asking my name?” He blessed him there.



Jacob named that place Penuel 4 [saying], “Because I have seen the angel 5 face to face and my life was saved.”



The sun rose as he passed by Penuel and he walked haltingly because of his hip socket.



Because of this the children of Israel do not eat the sinew of the hip in the hip socket of the thigh to this very day, because he touched the hip socket of Jacob’s thigh at the sinew.

See the Introduction: Divergent Readings, Formal Character. MT: ‘God’. 3 MT: ‘men’. 4 MT: ‘Peniel’. 5 MT: ‘God’. 1 2



ťƌįĽ

Ņ ł ŏň ł œ ł ŏň ł ł . ųƆ ň Ʀſĥ Ŕ ĪŌœ ƈƃŏœ Ƣũƕĥ łœ ĭł :ƨŷ  ƌķŴ  ƌĥƢ  ũƕĥ  ĭķŴ  ƌĥ ƢŨŔ ĪŔĭ ŭƃ ł ň ł Ņł .ŧ ƢŅƙŔ ƣơ ł ƇƏ  Īť Ŕ Ɖ  űƕ Ŕ :ųƊ ň łƕŧ  ƢŅũŔ ūł œ ŀƦ œ ƃłœŁŔĥĭň .IJĬĭ ô ĪŴ łŔ ŷɤ ŏ Ũłœ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſƥ  Ƙĭ ŅŔ űƃ ň ŏ ł ň ł ň ł ň Ņ Ņ ł ŏ łſĪœ ĬňŁĭ Ŕ Ƣŷ Ɔ  ħ  Ŕ ƢƟ  ĭ :ųƇƀ  ʖŦ  ƞƉ  Ʀ Ŕ Ɖ ň ƧĪŦ Ŕ ŵŶ  ĭ ųƃ ŒŔ ƍƣ Ņ ĭł :ĬŁĭ Ŕ ƢÿŶ ŏ Ʀ űŔÿƃł œ ħŴ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ ň ł .ųƊ ň łƕŀ  Ʀ œ ƃł œ ŁŔĥ ň Ņň ň Ņ ł ň Ņ ł ŏ ň ň ň ÿ Ɖĥ ł ĭň Ŵƃ ķĥ  Ƨĥ :ĴŔ ĿŅűœÿ ƣł ĥ  ƧƢ  ÿ Ɖĥĭ :ŧ Ƣÿ ƙŔ ƣơ  ÿ ƇƏĪłœ ƈÿ źƉ  Ɓô ÿ ƍſĿłűłœƣł :ųÿ ƆƢ Ņ .Ɓƌ ô Ʀ œ ƃŔƢňŨłœ ł ň ł ň .ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ .ƢƉĥ ł ĭň :ƅ Ŕ Ɗƣť Ņ ƍŅƄſ łœ ĥ :ųƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ŵƃ ŏ ň ň Ņ Ō Ņň Ņ ŏ ň ň ÿ Ɖĥ ŏ łſ ƅ Ŕ ÿ Ɗƣ Ņ ħĭ ł ĭň Ÿƃ Ŕ Ƣÿ  ÿƟƦ Ŕ ňƌ  Ƨ :ųÿ ƆƢ ƈÿ źƉ  :ƈÿÿſĥƢƐſ ĥ Ƨĥ :ħŴÿ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ  Ŕ Łŧ Ņ ł œ Ō ň Ņ ł ł ł ł œ ĿłƦƣĥ œ Īňœ .ƨƀ ʖ  Ʀſ  ƞƉ  Łĥ Ŕ ĭ :ŧ ƢũŔ ū  œ Ƌƕĭ  :ťƃŅŔƨƉł Ƌłƕ ŁĿ Ņ Ņ ł ňŅ Ņ Ņ ƈÿłƕ Ʀÿ œ ô ƌĥ ĵŤƣť  ƍƊƆ  :ųƆƢ ň Ɖ ł ĥ .ƅ Ŕ Ɗƣ  Ɓô ƌŴŅ Ŷł :ƢƉĥ ł ĭň ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſų  ƆŤ ň ƣĭ ł Żƃ ł ň ł Ŕ Ũĭ Ŕ .ƁƊƣň . ƎƉ Ņ Łœ ųƃƢ Ōł ň ł ŏ ň ŏ łſŧ ň ħŴ Ŕ ŵŶ Ō Īłœ ƈÿźƉ ƎÿƀƘò œ ĥťÿƃŅ Ŕ ƨƉł Ʀÿſ  :ƈſĥŴ  ÿƍŏ Ƙ œ ĭĬŧ ł ĿŅŁĥ Ŕ Īłœ ųÿƊƣ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ  ƢƟ Ņ ĭł ĵ Ōł ł ŏ Ŕ Ɔ Ŕ ĭň :ƎƀƘò œ ĥ ƈũƟŴ .Ɓô ƤƙŔ ƌł Ʀ ŒŔ łſƞ Ƙł œ Łĥ ň ŏ ň Ņ ň ł ŏ ň ł ł ł Ņ ň ň Œ ł ň Ŕ ŷƌ  Īĭ Ŕ Ƨ  ƎƉŦ  ĭĬť ô ƊƐ  Ɖ  ĭĬĭ  :ƈſĥŴ  ƍŏƙŔ ƆƢ  ũƕ Ŕ űŔƃť Ŕ ƤƊ  ƣų  Ɔ  Ʀ .ĬŁĭŔ ƢŶ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ŏ Ņ Ō ĥ ƁòƍłŨœ ƎƀŌ Ƈ ƃŔĥ Ņ łƕĪŦ Ņ ňƍū  Ƨť  ƌŅĬƈ Ņ ź Ɖ ň ŪƆ ťÿƊź Ŕ Łĭ Ŕ Ƣÿŷ ŏ ŨłŔ Īť Ŕ ÿƀƤ ňŔ Īŧ Ŕ űŅ Ŕ ÿəŅ ū  œ ƈſĥƢƐſ Ņ ŏ ł ň łœ ŏ ň Ņ Ņ ł .ťƀƤ Ņ ňƍŬƆ Ŕň ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſĪœ ųƊź ň łƕĪŦ Ŕ Łĭ Ŕ Ƣŷ Ɔ  ħ  Ŕ ƢƟ  Ī ƈź  Ɖ Ņ űƕ łŔ Ɖ  :ťƍƉŴ  ƀɞť



  



 





 

Ch. 



Save me from the hands of Esau my brother for I am afraid of him that he will come and strike me [and] a mother with her sons.



You said, ‘Truly I will treat you well. I will make your descendants like the sand of the sea, which are too numerous to be counted.’”



He spent that night there. Then he took some of what he had brought in his hand as a gift for Esau his brother:



two hundred goats, twenty he-goats, two hundred ewes, twenty rams,



thirty milch camels and their colts, forty cows, ten oxen, twenty female donkeys and ten colts.



He put them in the hands of his servants in separate flocks and he said to his servants, “Pass in front of me and keep a space between one flock and the other flock.”



He ordered the one in front and said to him, “When Esau my brother meets you and he asks you and says to you, ‘Who are you? where are you going? And whose are these [animals] that are ahead of you?’



Say to him, ‘[They belong] to Jacob your servant as a gift which he has sent to my lord Esau. Look now, he is coming behind us.’”



He ordered the second and also the third and also all those going behind the flocks saying, “Thus 1 you will say to Esau when you find him.



You must say to him ‘Look, your servant Jacob is behind us,’” for he thought, 2 “I can calm his anger 3 with this gift that goes before me. Afterwards I shall see his face. Perhaps he will receive me.”



The gift passed ahead of him and he passed that night in the camp.



He arose early in the night and he took his two wives and his two maidservants and his eleven children and he brought them over to the wilderness of Jabbok. 4

‘Thus’: lit. ‘According to this word’. ‘thought’: lit. ‘said’. 3 MT: ‘I can appease him’. 4 MT: ‘he crossed over the ford of Jabbok’. See the Introduction: Errors. 1 2



ň Ō Ņ łœ ň ň Ņ Ō ň Ņ łœ Ņ ŏŌ œ ŏ ň ÿƊƆĪ :ųÿƍƉť ŦŁŤŔ ÿƌť  ÿƌôĥ ƈÿŶň ĪŅŔĪœ ƈÿźƉ  :Ɓʖ ô ĥ ŴƐ  ƕĪIJĬô ĭűłŔɖòĥƎ  Ɖ   Ɓô ƌƞƘ ťſ ňò œ ł Ņ ň  .ųƀ ñ ƍŨ Ƌƕť  Ɖ  ĥ :Ɓƍƀ ô ʛƊ ň ňƌĭ ňł ŏ Ņ ł œ œ łň œ ł Ņ Ņ ł ŅŅ ł Ņ ł ňœ ň Ņ ťÿňƍƉƦ Ŕ Ɖ ň ƧĪť Ŕ Ɗ  ſĪ Ŕ ƨŶ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ƅ Ŕ ƕĿ  Į űŔũƕĥ  ĭ :ƅ Ŕ Ɔ  ħŤ  Ŕ Źĥ ŴŨŤ Ɖ  Ī ŁƢ Ɖ  ĥ Ʀ  ô ƌĥĭ Ūſ Ŕź .ĬŤūŴ ňŔ ƏƎ ŏ Ɖ ň ł Ņ Ō Ō ŴÿƐŏ ŌƖɝť  ƍŅŨĿŴ Ņœ Ɵŏ ĬűſŤ ňŔ ŨŌŔ IJƦſĥ œ Īłœ ĶűňœƉƎ ň Ɖ ň Ū  Ŕ Ɛƌ ł ĭł :ĭĬť ł ƀˁ Ņ Ƈ Ũœ ƎƉ Ņ Łœ Ʀ Ŕ ŨĭŔ ŭſ ł .IJĬŴ ô Ŷŏ ĥ ň ł ňò ň ň ł Ņ òŅ ł ł Ŕ ƉŦ  ŵɯ  űſ Ŕ ƉŦ  ŁŔ Ŵ Ơƌ  :ƎſƢŌƐň ƕť  Ƥňò ſŁĭŔ :ƎſŁŤ .ƎſƢƐ Ō ň ƕŧ  ǔňƃŔĪĭ ňŔ :ƎſŁŤ ł Ņ ł ňŅł Ņ ň ň ł Ō Ņ œ ň ò ł ł Ņ Ņ ò ł ň ò łœ Ŕ Ɔ  Ł Ǝÿſų ƀɫ ŨŔ ĭŦ  Ʀ Ŕ ÿƠƍƀƉ  ƨ Ɗ ū  ųſ ťÿɧò Łœ ĥ :ŧ ƢÿƐ  ƕŧ  ǓĭŁĭ Ŕ :ƎÿƀŌƖŨœ ĿĥŦ  ŁŔ ǓŅĭŁœ :ƎÿſƦ ňò Ō Ō ň Ņ.ŧ ƢƐ  ƕ  ƨəɯĭ  :ƎſƢƐ  ň ƕ ł ĭň .ĪŴ ł Ŕ ĿŅŵŅūŧ ł Ŕ :IJĬô ĭűł œ ÿũò Ŕ łƖɝƢÿƉĥ ŏ Ũŧ Ŕ űſŤ ŅŔ ŨŌ œ ħ  Ŕ ųô łſĭ Ŵſ Ŕ ÿŷɤ Ŕ ĿŅŵŅū  œ :IJĬô ĭűł œ ũò Ŕ łƕĪŧ ĭô Ƣÿũƕ Ņ ł ł łŅ ňŔ ŦƦŶ Ŕ ĭĿ  ĭ :ƁƉ  űƟ Ŕ .ŧ ĿŅŵŅŬ Ŕ Ɔŧ ł ĿŅŵŅū  œ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũň œ ĭô űŔũƕ Ņ ŏ Ō Ņ œ łœ ň ł œ ň ł ň Ņ Ņ ł ł ƌĭ Ō ƅ Ŕ ƆŤ Ņ Ƥƌ ł ĭł :Ɓʖ ô ĥ ŴƐ  ƕ ƅ Ŕ Ũ ƗŬ ƢÿƉŤ  ƙŔ ƌ űŔƃŔ Ī .ųƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭť  ƀƉ  űŔƠƆ űŔƠň Ƙĭ łŔ ŵſ Ņ Ņœ ł œ ł ł œ Ņ ł .ƅƀ œ Ɖ ł űƟ ŅŔ Īłœ ƎƀƆ ň ĬƎ Ņ Ɖ ł ĪŔĭł :Ʀ œ ô ƌĥ ĵňĮĥť  Ƅſ  Ƨĭ  :ƦôƌĥƎƉ  Ī :ƅ Ŕ Ɔ  ňŅ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ űłœÿƣł Īť Ņ œ Ɵŏ :ħŴ  Ŕ ĥŦ  Ĭĭ  :ŴÿƐŏ Ōƕ IJô ƢÿƊƆĿ Ŕ ƍŅŨĿŴ ŦŁŔ ĥ ĭĬŏ Ļ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ ĴŔ űŅœũŔ łƕĪœ ųƆƢ ň Ɖ ł ĥ Ÿɖ .ķĿłƦ Ŕ ŨŅ Ŕ ň Ņ Ō ł ł ň ŏ Ŕ Ļĥ Ŕ ÿ ŨŅ œ ƎÿÿƀƆ ŧ ǓŵŅÿ ūœ ĿƦ ô ĮĥŌ ĪŅœ ƈÿ ƄƆ  Ŕ ĭŅ :ťÿ ɕŅ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ɔ Ʀ Ŕ Ɔ  Ļĥ  Ŕ ĭŅ :ťÿ ƍŅ əƌŅ ƦƆ Ŕ űŔÿ Ơň Ƙĭ łŔ Żſ Ō Ņ Ņ Ņ ňœ ł ł Ō ŏ łœ ň Ņ ŏ Ō  .IJųô ƀƌĭ Ņ Ʀŷ œ Ƅƣĥ  Īť  ŴƐ  Ɩɝķĭ  ŏ Łœ :ťƌŅĬť ƢƉĥ  Ɗ  ūŔ Ʀ Ŕ Ƙ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ :ƢƉŤƊƆ Ŕ Ɖ Ō Ņ ň ƢƉĥ ŏ łſ ĴŔ űŅœÿũŔ łƕ Ļ ł Īňœ ƈÿźŏ Ɖ ŸÿɚŌ ƌĥ Īłœ ƢÿƉĥ ň :ķĿłƦ Ŕ ÿŨŅ œ ħŴ Ŕ Ĵ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ  Ŕ ĥŦ  ĬŅ Īœ :ųÿƆķĭ ŏ Łĭ ł ň ň ňœ ł Ņ ò ł œ Ũłœ Ū ňĮĥ ĪŅŔ ťƍŅŨĿŴ Ŕ ŨĭŔ :ƁƉ ł űƟĵ ŅŔ  ĥƎ  ƃĿ Ʀ .ƁƘŤ  ŔƐ ł ňƌƢ  ũłŔ ƃœ :IJĬô ŴòƘł œ ĥŦ ŵŶ Ņœ Ơŏ Ũœ Ĭŵňūĭ Ŕ Ŀŏ Ņ Ō ł œ ł Ņ Ō œ Ņ ŏ .ŦƦſ Ŕ ƢƤ Ɗ  Ũ ĭĬť  ƀˁ  Ƈ Ũ Ʀ Ŕ ŨŔ ĭĬĭ  :IJĬŴ ô Ɖ ł űƟť ŅŔ ƍŅŨĿŴ Ņœ Ɵŏ Ƣũƕ łŔ ĭł ťƃ ň ň ł ň ň ł Ō ł űŶ Ŕ IJĬô Ŵò Ƥł ňƌ ƎſŁœ ĿŁœ ƢŨł Ŕ ĪŔĭł :ťƀˁ Ņ Ƈ Ũœ ĶűňœƟĭ ł Ūƃ łŔ ĭł :ĬŁŔ ųŅ ÿƉò ĥ ƎſŁœ ĿŁĭ :IJĬô Ŵò ÿɩł Ũœ ƢÿƐƕ ň łœ ł .ơũŅ Ŕ ŅſĪŧ Ŕ ƢŅŨœ űŔƊƆķŴ ł ƌŏĥƢ  ũƕĥ  ĭ









 











 

Ch. 

Chapter  

Jacob too went on his way.

L

The angels of God met up with him. 

When he saw them, Jacob said, “This is the encampment of God.” He named that place Mahanaim.



Jacob sent messengers before him to Esau his brother, to the land of Seir, to the field of Edom.



He ordered them, saying to them, “Thus you will say to my lord Esau, ‘Thus says your servant Jacob, I have been living with Laban and I have remained there until today.



I have oxen, donkeys, flocks, male servants and female servants. I have sent word to inform my lord so that I might find favor in your eyes.’”



The messengers returned to Jacob and said to him, “We went to Esau your brother. Now he is coming to meet you and four hundred men are with him.”



Jacob was afraid and very distressed. 1 He divided the people who were with him, and the flocks, oxen and camels, into two camps.



Jacob said, “If Esau my brother will come against one camp and destroy it, then the camp that remains will escape.”



Jacob prayed 2 and said, “O God of my father Abraham, God of my father Isaac, O Lord who said to me, ‘Return to the land of your fathers 3 and your kindred and I will treat you well’:



I am the least worthy of all your kindnesses and of all your fidelity 4 that you have accomplished through your servant, for with my staff I crossed this Jordan. Now I have become two camps. 



MT: ‘Jacob was greatly afraid and distressed’. MT: ‘Jacob said’. 3 See the Introduction: Harmonization. 4 ‘fidelity’: lit. ‘truth’. 1 2



ŪƆ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň ň ŏ :ųŶĿĭ ň Ƨĵ  Įłĥ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ Ļĥ  Ŕ ĭŅ

ł .ŦųŅ Ɔĥ Ņ ĪłœIJĬô ŴòƃłŔƨƉł ųŨňœ Ŵô ƖŬ Ŕ ł ƘŔ ĭł ň Ņ łœ Ņ Ō ł Ņ ĪłœIJĬŦƦſ ň ƢÿƟ ŧ ĿŅŁĥ Ŕ Īłœ ųÿƊƣŧ Ņ ĭł .ŧ Īň ŔĬŦ Ņ ųŅ ÿƆĥ Ɖ  :ķŴƌŏĥŦ  ŵŶ  űŔƃ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň ô Ŕ ƢƤ ł ĭĬł .Ƌƀƍŷ Ō Ɖ Ņ ł ł ŏŌ Ņ ł  ŷƆ ƨƠ  :ƢƀŌƖƏ Ņ Īť Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ Ƨ :IJĬŴ ô Ŷŏ ĥ ŴƐ  ƕ ŁŔŴɝ  IJĬô ŴƉ ł űƟŧ ŅŔ űňœū ł œ ŵòſŌ ĥ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſĿ  űłœƣł ĭ .ĶĭĪĥŏŔ ĪłŔ Ō ň ł Ņ Ŕ ƍŅƃł Ŕ ĬŅ :ķĭųɝƢ ŏ ł ĭķŴ Ɖĥ ň ƌŏĥ űŔƠň Ƙĭ Ŕ ĴŔ űŅœÿũŔ łƕƢÿƉł ĥť  ƍŅƃłŔĬŅ :ŴƐ ŏ ŌƕIJô ƢƊƆķĭ Ņ ŏ Łť ƢƉĥ Ņ ň ň ŏ ň  łſ .ťƍŅƉŴ Ņ ƀɞť ł Ɖ Ņ űƕ łŔ ŁŔƢŶĭĥ  ĭł :ŁŔƢƊ  ƕƎ  ũŅ Ŕ Ɔ  Ƌłƕ :ħŴŔ ƠƖ Ņ ò ň ň œ ò ł òŅ Ņ ň ł Ō ł ł  :ŧ ǔŅƊŶĭ ň :ŧ ǓĭŁŔ ƁƆ  ĭĭĬ  ĭ IJô ƢƊƆ Ņ ŴſŏŴŅŷƊ ł Ɔ ł ŁŔĿňűœƣĭ ł .ŦŁŔ ųŅ Ɖ  ĥĭ :ŧ űũŔ ƕĭ  :ťƍɯĭ ł .ƅƀ  œ ƍłəòɳ ł ŨŔ ťƊŶ ň ǓŸƄƣĥ łœ Īňœ ň ň ł ŏŌ Ņ ŦĬĭ Ņ :ĴŴ Ŕ Ŷŏ ĥ ŴƐ  ƕ ŁŔŴɝƎƆ  Įłĥ :ųƆ  ĭô ƢƉĥ ł ĭň :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ ŁŔŴɝŧ Ņ űňœū ł œ ŵòſŌ ĥŴô ƄŔ ƘĬ łŔ ĭł ň Ņ ŏ Ņ . ųƊ ň łƕƎſ  ǔŌũŔ ūŦŤ Ŕł Ɖ Ņ ƗŨł œ Ŀĥĭł :ƅ Ŕ ƕĿĭ  Ŕ ĥ Ņ Ƨ ŦŁŔ ĥ ĭĬŏ Ļ Ņ ň Œ łŅ ŅŅ ň ł ň ł Ŕ Ơ ƕĭ  :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſƈ  Ŷň ĪŔĭł  :ųÿƊň łƕĪť Ŕ ÿƊŅ łƕ ŭ  Ŕ ÿƇƘĭ Ŕ :Ū  Ŕ Źų  Ɔ  Ʀ :ŧ ǓĭŁĭ Ŕ :ťÿòƍɯĭ ňò ł ň ł  ūĭ Ŕ Ŕ :ƨƊ .ƎŅſǔƤƉƎſ ł Łœ ĿƦƆ Ņ ŏŌ ň Ō ň Ņ Ō ł ñ Ō ň Ņ Ņ Ō ł Ŕ ƌķ  ĥ :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň ŦƦÿſ Ŕ ƢƤ Ɖ  :ųƀ  ŨƢ Ŕ ŷƌĭ  ŧ űŶŦ Ŕ ƢƤ  Ɖƈ  łƕƁô ʖĥ ŴƐ  ƕŦ  ŁŤ Ŕ Ʀſ Ņ ł ň Ŕ Ɖň ŧ ƢŶ Ņ ƦƤ œ Ɖ  ĪŔ .ťźƇ  Ƙł œ Ʀ ł ł ł ł ň Ņ Ɖ Ņ Ō ĥƁô Ũĥ ťÿɕƢ Ņ :ơÿŷƐſ Ŕ ĪŅœ Ĭųň Ɔ Ņ ĥ :ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥƁô Ũĥ Ŕ ĪŅœ Ĭųň Ɔ Ņ ĥ :ƢƉĥ  ĭ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ ƁƆ Ō Ľĭ ł ň Ņ Ņ ò ł ł œò ł Ņ ł Ņ ł ŏ Ŕ ĭ :ƅ ſų ŨŔ ĥĪť .ƅ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ ħŤ  Ŕ Źĥ  ĭł :ĴŔ ŁŔ űɝ Ŕ ƕĿ  Ƨ ĴŴ Ŕ ƘĬ Ŕ ƁƆƢ Ō Ɖĥ ł ĪňŔ Ŕ ĭƦƆ Ņ òœ ł ň ŏœ ň Ņ Ō œ Ņ ł Ŕ ĪŦ ł Ŕ ƦƣŴ œ ÿƟŏ ųñ ɤ Ņ ƃŏœ ƎƉĭ ň :ĴŔ ŁŔ ŴŅ ũƀ  ŹƎſųɤ  ƃ ƎƉť  ƌôĥƢſƞŨ :ĴŔ űŅœÿũŔ łƕƋÿłƕ Łœűœÿũƕ ň ŏ ň ł œ ň ň Ŕ Ʀſ Ŕ ĭĬť Ō ƣŅ ĬŅ ĭťƌŅĬƎ Ņ ƌŅĪĿŴ œ ſŏ ŁŔƢũŔ ƕIJô ƢŹŴŷŏ ŨŔ Īłœ ƈź .ƎŅſǔƤƉƎſ ł ŁĿƦƆ Ɖ 



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IJ 

Ch. 



and Lookout, 1 because he said, “May the Lord see between me and you because we are separating 2 from each other. 3



If you treat my daughters badly and you take wives besides my daughters (there is no one with us now), then see that God is a witness between me and you.”



Laban said to Jacob, “See this heap [of stones] and this pillar which I have established between me and you:



this heap [of stones] is a witness and this pillar is a witness that I must not go beyond this heap against you and you as well must not go beyond this heap and this pillar against me to do harm.



May the God of Abraham, the God of Nahor — the God of our 4 fathers — judge 5 between us.” Then Jacob swore by the Fear of his father Isaac.



Jacob offered a sacrifice on the mountain and he invited his kinsmen to eat a meal. They ate the meal and they passed the night on the mountain.

 6

Laban rose early in the morning and kissed his sons and his daughters and blessed them. Then Laban turned and went home.

See the Introduction: Proper Names. See the Introduction: Divergent Readings. 3 ‘from each other’: lit. ‘each one from his kinsman’. 4 MT: ‘their’. 5 See the Introduction: Divergent Readings. 6 MT 32:1. 1 2



ł ň ł ŏ ň .IJĬŴ ô Ŷŏ ĥƎ  ƉƢ  ũŔ ū  œ Ǝƍƀł ƣƢ Ō ƘŅŔ Īœ ƈź Ɖ  :ƅ Ŕ Ɔĭ Ņ Ɓƍƀł Ũť łŔ ɕƢ Ņ ƉŦ Ņ ŵŷ ň ňƌƢ  Ɖĥ ł Īňœ :ťƟĭ Ņ Īĭ łŔ ŻƉ ň Ņ ł łł œ ň Ņ ň  ƕĽŁ ķĥ Ǝƌ  Ƥò ňƌ Ū  ŔƏ ł Łœ ķĥĭň :IJô Ʀ Ŕ òƍũŔ ƆƢ IJŵÿŶ Ō :ƎÿƊł łƕƥ  ÿƌŅ ôĥ Ʀÿƀ œ Ɔ ł :IJô Ʀ Ŕ ÿòƍŨœ ƈłƕť Ņ ł ł œ .ƅ Ŕ Ɔĭ  Ɓƍƀ Ũ ĪŔųň ƏŦ Ņ ųŅ Ɔĥ Ņ ĪłŔ Ņ ň Ɵĥ Ɓÿƍƀł Ũłœ Ʀ Ŕ ÿƊƀ Ō Īŧ łŔ Īň ŔĬŦ Ņ ƦÿƊ Ŕ ƀňƟŦ Ņ Ĭĭ Ņ :ťƌŅĬŅ ŧ ƢŅŬ Ŕ łſŦ  ĬŅ :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞƎ ł ũŅ Ŕ ƆƢ Ņ Ɖĥ ł ĭň ťƌ .ƅ Ŕ Ɔĭ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņœ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ň Ņ ł œ ĥň Ƨť :ťÿƌŅ Ĭŧ Ņ ƢŅÿŬŔ łſ ƅÿƀ  œ ł Ƈ ƕƢÿũƕ  ÿƌĥŅ Īňœ :ŧ Īň ŔĬŦ Ņ ƦƊ Ŕ ƀňƟŧ  Īų Ə  ĭ :ťƌĬŧ  ƢŬ  ſ Īų Ə  Ūƌ ň Ņ Ŕœ ł Ŕ Ņ Ņœ Ō ň Ņ Ņ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ł ł œ  ô ƌĥ Ļĥ  Ŕ ĭ .ŦƦƤƀ  ũŔ Ɔŧ ĪŔĬŦ  ƦƊ Ŕ ƀƟĭ  :ťƌĬŧ  ƢŬ Ŕ ſƁƇƕƢ  ũƕ  ŁŔ Ƨ Ʀ ł ł Ņ ł œ ŏ ŏ Ņ œ ň Ņ ł Ņ Ņ łœ ň Ņ ł Ņ ĭŌ .ķŁł Ŕ ųò Ņ ŨŅ Ŕ ĥĪŦ Ŕ ƍƀ Ũ ķĭűƌĿŴ łŔ ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥ :ķƦ Ŕ ŷ ƌĪ Ĭų Ɔ  ĥ :ĶĬ ƢŨĥ Ŕ Ī Ĭų Ɔ  Ŕ ƠƖ ħŴ ŏ łſť  Ɗſ  ĥ ŭƌ Ņ ň œ Ō ŏ ł Ņ .ơŷƐſ  ĥIJĬô ŴŨĥŔ ĪŔ ŦƦƇ Ŕ ŶűŔ Ũ ł Ņ ł Ņ ŏ Ņ ňœ Ņ Ɔ Ŵô ÿƇƃĥ łŔ ĭň .ťÿƊŷ ł ƈÿƃŤł Ŕ ƊƆ ň IJĬô Ŵò Ŷł Ƨŧ  ƢƟ  ĭ :ŧ ĿŴ ź  ŨŦ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ ŷŨŔ Ī ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſŸ  Ũłœ ĪłŔĭ űƌ ŏ Ņ Ŕ Ɗŷ .ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ź  Ũœ ĭô Ʀ Ŕ Ũĭť Ņ Ɔ ł ň ł ň Ņ ł  IJĬô ŴòɩłũŔ Ɔơ ł Ƥň ƌĭ ł :ŧ ƢŅƙŔ Ƥł Ũœ ƎũŅ Ŕ ƆĶ Ņ űňœƟĭ ł ųƌ ƎũŅ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ ƅ Ŕ ƘĬ łŔ ĭł .ķŴƌŏĥ ĴŔ ƢňŨĭ Ŕ :ĬƦ Ŕ òƍũŔ Ɔĭ ł .ĬĿňŁŔƧĵ  Įĥł ĭň



 











Ch. 



I was with you twenty years. Your sheep and your goats were not sterile. I did not eat the rams from your flocks.



I did not bring you one that was torn apart. I would take it as my own 1 for you would make me pay for it, 2 whether it was stolen by day or stolen by night.



I was consumed by scorching heat by day and frost by night. Sleep fled from my eyes.



See, I was twenty years in your house. I served you fourteen years for your two daughters and six years for your flocks, and you changed my wages ten times.



If the God of my father, the God of Abraham and the Fear of Isaac had not stood with me, then you would have sent me away with nothing. God saw my toil and the weariness of my hands and he rebuked you in the evening.”



Then Laban answered and said to Jacob, “The daughters are my daughters. The sons are my sons. The flocks are my flocks. Everything that you see belongs to me. What can I do for my daughters today or for their sons that they have borne?



Now come, let us make a pact, you and me. Let it be a witness between you and me.”



Jacob took a stone and he set it up as a pillar.



Jacob said to his brothers, “Pick up stones.” They took stones and they made a heap [of stones] and ate there by the heap.



Laban called it The Heap of Witness 3 and Jacob called it Gilead. 4



Laban said, “This heap [of stones] is a witness between me and you today.” For this reason he called it Gilead 



See the Introduction: Divergent Readings. ‘you would make me pay for it’: lit. ‘you would exact it from my hands’. 3 ‘The Heap of Witness’ or ‘Jegar-sahdutha’. 4 MT: ‘Galeed’. 1 2



Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ŅŅ ň ň  Īŧ Ŕ ǔÿƃŔ Īĭ Ŕ :ŵÿƀň ū Ŕł Ƨ ƅœ ÿòſ ŵłɯĭ ň ĴŔ ŁŔ Ŵò ÿƠƌ ťÿƌŅ ôĥ ƅ Ŕ ÿƊŅ łƕƎ  ÿƀò ɫƣ Ō ƎſƢƐ Ō ň ƕŦ  ĬŅ ŸƆ Ƨ ƅŔ ÿòƍɯ ň ň .Ʀ Ŕ Ƈ ƃŔĥ Ō ň œ Ņ Ņ Ō ł Ņ Ņ Ō ł ł ł Ņň Ņ œ ĭłĬƗ Ʀÿſ ô ÿŨł Ŕ Łœ IJűłŔÿɖò ĥƎ  Ɖ  Ī ųñ ɝ  Ʀſ Ŕ ĭŌĬƢ ô ź  ƍƉť  ƌĥ .ƅ Ŕ Ɔ  Ʀſ Ŕ Ʀſ œ ĥ  Ƨŧ  Ƣƀ  ŨŔ ŁŔĪĭ Ŕ ŻƆ Ō .ťƀˁ Ņ Ƈ Ũœ Ū  Ŕ ňƍū œ Ʀ Ŕ Ɖ ň ĪŔĭť ł Ɗ Ņ ƊſŤ Ņ ŨŌœ Ū  Ŕ ňƍū œ Ʀ Ŕ Ɖ ň Īœ :ųñ ɝ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ Ōœ Ō Ō ł Ņœ ł Ņ Ō Ƈ Ũŧ ƎÿƉň IJô Ʀ Ŕ ÿƍł ƣň ŒŁŔ ĪƢ łœ ÿƘň œ :ťÿƀˁ Ŕ űÿƀ ŅŔ Ƈ ū Ŕ ĭ :ťÿŨŴƣ Ɓô ÿƍł Ƈ ƃŔĥť  Ɗ  ƊſŤ  Ũ Ʀſ Ŕ ĭĬ  Ķ ł .Ɓƍł əòɯ Ņ Ņ ň ł œ ò Ō ň ň łœ ł Ņœ ł œ Ņœ ł œ ò Ō Ŕ Ũ Ǝƀɫ ƣŧ ǔƐƖŨ Ŀĥ ĴŔ Ʀŷ  Ƈ Ƙ :ĴŔ Ʀƀ  ũŔ Ũ Ǝƀɫ ƣ ƁƆƎſ Ō ƢƐ Ō ň ƕŦ  ĬŅ ťƉ :ĴŔ Ʀ Ŕ òƍŨœ ƎſŁœ ĿƦ ł œ ň ł ŅŅ œ òŌ  Ũ Ǝƀɫ ƣ Ʀ Ŕ ƣĭ ň .ƎƀƍŌŨò Ŕ Įł ƢƐƕ ł IJô Ƣū Ŕ ĥ Ʀ  ƙŔ Ƈ Ŷĭ  .ƅ Ŕ òƍɳ ł ł Ņ ŏ ň ň ň ťƣŅ ĬŅ :ƁƆƋ Ō Ɵơ Ņ ŷƐſĥ Ņ ĪŌœ ĬƦ Ŕ ƇŶĪĭ :ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨĥ Ŕ Īłœ Ĭųň Ɔ Ņ ĥ :Ɓô Ũĥ Ŕ ĪŅœ Ĭųň Ɔ Ņ ĥ  Ƨ ŴƆĥ ĭ ŪƉ Ŕ ň Ņ Ō ł Ō Ņ Ō Ņ Ō Ŕ Łĭ ƅ Ŕ ÿƐŅ ƃĥ œ ĭł :ŦųŅ ÿƆĥŦ  ŵÿŶ Ņ IJűłŔÿɖò ĥĪŦ  Ŕ Ƨĭ  Ɓô ÿƇƊłƕ :ƁƆ  Ʀſ œ ĭłĬô ĿűłœƤł Ɖ Ʀſ Ŕ ŤƠſƢƏ .ťƤƉ Ņ ƢłŨœ Ņ Ņ òŅ œ ŅŅ ł òŅ ł ł  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞƢ ł ł ĭƎ Ɖĥ ň ũŅ Ŕ Ɔť Ņ ƍƕ Ņ ĭł ŭƉ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ ÿƍŨ :ħŴ Ŕ ÿòƍŨŦ Ŕ ÿƀɫ ŨŔ ĭ :IJô Ʀ  :ƁÿòƍŨť :Ɓô ÿòƍɯť Ņ ÿòƍɯĭ ň ł Ņ Ņ ł ň ł Ņ ł ŏŔ  .ĭĬô ŏ Ɓô ƇſĪŌœ Ʀ ĭĥť  ÿƍƉŴ  ſƎſ  ųɝ  űŔũƕ ňœ ĥť  ƍŅƉ Ņ :ƎƀƆ ň ĬŅ IJô Ʀ Ŕ òƍũŔ Ɔĭ œ ô ƌĥ Ŧ ŵňŶŅ Īœ ƈƃĭ ł .IJô űòŔɤſ ň ĪŌœ Ǝſųň ƀòɫł ũŔ Ɔ ň ŅŅ Ņ .ƅ Ŕ Ɔĭ Ņ Ɓƍƀł Ũŧ łŔ Īų Ņœ Ə Ņ Ŧĭų ň ňƌĭ  :Ʀ œ ô ƌĥĭłťƌŅĥť  Ɗ  ƀƟƋƀ  ƠƌŦ Ō Łť Ŕ ƣŅ Ĭĭ Ņ űƉ Ņ .ŦƦƊ Ŕ ƀňƟŅ ųñ Ɗſ Ņ ĿĥŌ ĭł :ťƘŤ ŅŔ ƃŌœ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ Ū  Ŕ Ɛƌ ł ĭł ųƉ ňò Ō œ ł ł ňò Ō œ ň ł ł ňŔ ĭł ťƘŤ  ĭ :ťƘŤŔ ƃ ŴôźƠ Ɔ  :IJĬô Ŵò Ŷł Ƨ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň ŴƉ Ŵô Ƈƃĥ łŔ ĭň :ŧ ƢŅŬ Ŕ łſĭô űŔũƕ Ŕ ƃŴô ũŔ Ɛƌ ł .ŧ ƢŅŬ Ŕ łſ ƈłƕƎ  Ɖ Ņ Łœ Ņ ŏœ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ .űŔƖɤ Ņ ū ň œ IJųô ſƢƟ Ņ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſĭ  :ŦŁĭ Ŕ Īų Ə  Īŧ Ŕ ƢŬ Ŕ ſƎ  ũŔ Ɔ  IJųô ſƢƟ Ņ ĭł ŵƉ ŏ ň Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł łœ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł ň ň ƢÿƟť ųÿƊƣŧ Ņ ƌŅĬƈ Ņ ź Ɖ  :ťƍƉŴ  ſ ƅ Ŕ Ɔĭ  Ɓƍƀ Ũ ĪŔų Əť  ƌĬŧ  ƢŬ Ŕ ſ :ƎũŔ ƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ŸƉ Ņ .űŔƖɤ  ūň œ















  

 

Ch. 



Laban said to Jacob, “What have I done to you that you deceived me. 1 You took my daughters like those held captive by the sword.



Why did you conceal your flight, steal away from me and not inform me? I would have sent you off in joy, with song, harps and tambourines.



You did not allow me to kiss my sons and my daughters. Now then, you have acted foolishly in what you have done.



I was able to do you harm, but the God of your father said to me in the evening, ‘Beware lest you say anything good or bad to Jacob.’



Now you are going because you deeply long for the house of your father. Why did you steal my gods?”



Jacob answered and said to Laban, “Because I was afraid and I thought that you would take away your daughters from me.



With whomever your gods are found, that one shall not live. In the presence of our kinsmen, point out what belongs to you. Whatever I have [of yours] take it.” Jacob did not know that Rachel had stolen them.



Laban entered Jacob’s tent, Leah’s tent and the tent of both maidservants but he did not find them. He came out of Leah’s tent and entered Rachel’s tent.



Rachel had taken the idols and put them in the camel saddle and she was sitting on them. Laban searched the entire tent but did not find them.



Rachel said to her father, “Let my lord not take offence that I am not able to stand in your presence because I am in the manner of women.” He searched and did not find the idols.



But Jacob took offence and he quarreled with Laban. Jacob responded and said to Laban, “What is my transgression? What is my crime that you have pursued me?



You have searched all of my belongings. What have you found from any of the belongings of your household? Set it here in front of my kinsmen and your kinsmen and let them decide who is guilty between the two of us.

1

‘that you deceived me’: lit. ‘that you stole my heart’.



Ņ ł œ ł ł œ ň œ ł łœ Ņ ňœ ň Ņ Ņ  ŁƢÿŨŔ ĪŔĭ :Ɓô ũ Ɔ  Ʀ  ũŔ ƍū Ŕ Ī ƅ Ŕ Ɔ IJô Ʀ Ŕ ÿƍò ũŔ Ɔ  ŁŔűũŔ ƕť  ƍƉ  :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞƎ ł ũŅ Ŕ ƆƢ Ņ Ɖĥ ł ĭň Ŵƃ ł Ņ Ņ .ťŨƢ Ŕ ĥ Ņœ Ŷł ĪŦ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ ƀò ũŔ ƣł ƅſ Ņ ł ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ƎÿſĪňœ ĴŔ ŁĿ œ űłœÿƣł .Ɓƌ ô Ʀſ Ŕ ŴŌ ÿŶ  Ɓô ÿƍƉ Ƨĭ ň Ʀ œ ÿũŔ ňƍū ł œ Łĥ Ŕ ĭň :ľƢÿƖ ł ƊƆ ň Ʀÿƀ œ ƤŌ ŹŁœĥť  ƍƊƆ  ŵƃ Ņ ł ò ň ň Ņ .ťŬ ň œ Ƈ ƙŔ Ũĭ łŔ :ŧ ǔɩŅƄŔ ŨŔ ĭł :ŧ ƢƉŵ Ņ Ũĭ łŔ :ŦŁĭ Ŕ űŏŔŷł Ũœ ł Ņ ł łò ł ŏ Ņ ł ł Ņœ ł Ņ .Łœűœũƕ łŔ Īłœ ĶűňœƊ  ƁƍũŔ Ɔ ŴƠ Ƥ ƍƊ  Ɔ  Ɓô ƌƦƠ  ũƣ  Ÿƃ ň Ũœ ƦƇ œ ƄƏ ňœ ĥť  ƣŅ ĬŅ :IJô Ʀ Ŕ òƍũŔ Ɔĭ Ŕ Ƨĭ ň Ņ ł œ ŏ ŏ ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņœ Ōœ ŏ ň Ņ ƢÿƉł ĥť  ÿƤƉ ƢŨ ķŴÿƃŴŔ ŨĥŔ ĪŦ Ŕ ų ÿƆĥĭ :ŦƦƤƀ  Ũ ķŴƄƆ Ŕ űŔũƕĥ ňœ Īňœ IJűłŔɖòŤŨŦ ŌŔ ĭŅĬť ô ź Ɖ  Żƃ Ņœ Ō Ņ Ņ ň ň ł Ņ łœ Ņ ř łœ ň Ō ŏ ł Ņ ł ł ł .ŦƦƤƀ  ũŔ ƆťƉ  űƕ Ŕ ĭ ŦƦ Ŕ ũŔ ŹƎ  Ɖ  ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ  ſƋ  ƕƈ  Ƈ Ɖ  Łť Ŕ ƊƆ  Ī ƅ Ŕ Ɔ  ĿĬ ĪĮ ĥ :ƁƆ  ň ŏ ň œ ł ňŅ ł Ō Ņ Ņ ňŔ Ʀ œ ÿūŔ Ƣłū Ŕ ĿłŁŔĥ ŴÿūŔ ŏ ƢŅū Ŕ ũƆ Ʀÿƀ Ŕ ĿłƦ Ŕ Ɖ ň Īœ ƈÿźƉ  :Ʀÿ  ô ƌĥ ĵĮĥ ĵĮŤ Ɖť  ƣ Ĭĭ  ĵ ł ł Ņł œ ł ò Ņ Ņ Ŕ Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ .IJų Ɔ  ĥ Ʀ  ũŔ ƍūť Ŕ ƍƊƆ  :ĴŴ ň Ņ ł œ ň ň ň ň œ ŏ ň ŅŅ Ņ Ņ  ĭ Ʀ Ŕ ƇŶ  ĪŔĪ ƈź Ɖ  :ƎũŔ LJƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſť  ƍƕ Ņ ĭł Ƨ ĴŔ Ʀ Ŕ ÿòƍŨœ ƢÿŨł œ ĪŔŁť Ŕ ÿƊƆĪŔĪ ŁŔƢƉĥ .Ɓƍ ô Ɖ ň Ņ œ òł Ņ ł ŏ ł œ ň œ ł Ņ ł ň łł Ņ Ņ Ņ :ƅ Ŕ ÿƇſĪŌœ ĺĪĭ ťÿƍŅ Ɖ łœ Ʀÿƣ œ ĥƎƀòʖ  ĥĶ  űƟ Ŕ :ťŶň Ťƌ Ō Ƨ ƅſ  ų Ɔ  ĥķŴ  ŷ ƃŔƦƤ  ƌĪ ƎƉ  ŁŔŴɝ  ŪƆ ň Œ łœ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ŏ Ņ ŏ ł ň Ō ł ł œ  œ ƈƀʖ  ĿĪ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ  ſĺ  űŔ ɖ  Ƨĭ  .ƅ Ŕ Ɔ  Ū  Ŕ Əĭ  IJô ŁŔŴɝ  Ʀſ Ŕ Ō ĥ .ķŴƌĥ Ʀ Ŕ ũƍ ū ň ł Ņ œ ł ł Ņ ň Ņ œ ł ł ŏ łſĪť ƎÿÿſŁœ ĿŁŔ Īť Ŕ ÿƍƄƤ  ƊƆ  ĭ ťÿƀɞĪť Ŕ ÿƍƄƤ  ƊƆ  ĭ ħŴ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ Ŕ ÿƍŅ ƄƤ œ ƊƆƎ ł ÿũŅ Ŕ Ɔƈ Ņ ÿłƕĭ ŭƆ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ òň łƕĭ  :ŦŁŔ ų Ɖ  ĥ .ƈƀʖ ň ĿŅĪť Ŕ ƍŅƄƤ œ ƊƆƈ ł  ťƀŅ ɞň Īť Ŕ ƍŅƄƤ œ ƉƎ ł Ɖơ ň ƙƌ łŔ ĭł .ŸƄƣ łœ ĥ Ƨĭ Ņ ł Ņ Ō ł œ ŏň Œ ł Ņ ł œ ňƌƈÿÿƀʖ ŒŔ ÿ Ũł œ Ʀ Ʀ ŒŔ ÿ ũƐ ň Ŀĭ Ņ űƆ Ŕ ň ſĭ :ƨÿ  ÿƊū Ŕ Īť Ŕ ÿ źƀũƖ Ŕ Ũ ķŴÿ ƌĥ Ʀ Ŕ ÿ ƊƏĭ  :ťÿ Ɗň Ɔ ò Ľł Ʀ ň Ņ Ņ œ ł ň ŏœ Ņ Ņ Ņ Œ ł Ƈƕ  .ŸƄƣ łœ ĥ Ƨĭť  ƍƄƤ  Ɖ  ųƇ ƃ ƎũŔ Ɔƥ  Ɖĭ :ķĭųƀ Ņ Ņ ł ŏ ň ťÿƌŅ ôĥťÿŷŅ ƄƤ œ Ɖ ň ƧĪœ ƈÿźƉ  IJô ƢƉ Ņ Ɓƍłəòɳ ł Ũœ ŀŤŨň œ Ʀ Ŕ ňƌ  Ƨ .ĬŴ ñ Ũŏ Ŕ Ƨƈƀ  ʖ ň ĿŅ Œ ŁŔ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň ųƆ ň Ņ Ņ ł ňò ň Ō Ņ ŏ œ ŏ ň œ ł Ņ ň Ņ ł  Ɔ  .ťƊň Ɔò Ľł ŸƄƣ łœ ĥ ƧĭŦ  ƞŨŔ ĭ :ťƤ ƌĪŔ ƁƆť  ŶĿĭĥ  Ī ƈź Ɖ  :ƅƀ  Ɖ  űƟ Ŕ ƎƉƋ  ƠƊ Ņ ł ĭň ħŴ IJĬô ťÿƍŅ Ɖ Ņ :ƎÿũŅ Ŕ LJƢ  ÿƉĥ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſť  ƍƕ Ņ ĭł :ƎũŅ Ŕ ƆƋ Ņ łƕŦ  ƞƌŅ ĭł ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞ ł ŀŤŨň œ Łĥ Ŕ ĭň ŴƆ ł ŏ ł Ŕ ŨŅœ Ʀ .IJô ĿƦ œ ƘŔ ĪĿłŔ ĪłœƁô ƍŶĿŴ Ņ Ə ŏ ŴƍłƉĭ Ņ IJô ŁŔŴƇ ƄŔ Ə  Ņ ł Ņ ŏ ŏ œ ň œ ł œ ň Ņ Ņ òł Ņ ŏ ŏ œ œ Ņ Ņ  ųɤ  ƃ ƦƤ  ƉŦ  Ĭ ŵƆ ƋÿƀƏ Ō :ĴŔ Ʀƀ œ Ũłœ ƁòƌŤƉķĭ  ųɤ  ƃ ƎƉ  Ʀŷ  Ƅƣ  ĥťƍƉ  :ƁƌŤƉķĭ ň œ ň œ ŏ œ ł œ ò ł ł òł ł Ņ Ņ œ Ņ .ƎſǓŁ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũ ķŴƐ  Ƅ ƌĭ  :ƅ ƀʖ  ĥĭ ƁʖĥĶ  űƟť Ŕ ƃĿ  Ĭ







 

















Ch. 



Rachel and Leah answered and said to him, “We no longer have 1 a share or inheritance in our father’s house.



We are regarded as strangers by him 2 because he has sold us and also used up our price.



Because all the wealth that God has separated from our father belongs to us and our children, do now everything that the Lord has said to you.”



Jacob rose and put his children and his wives on camels.



He led all his cattle and all his property that he had acquired 3 in Paddan-aram to go to Isaac his father, to the land of Canaan.



Now Laban had gone to shear his sheep and Rachel stole her father’s idols. 4



Jacob deceived Laban 5 the Aramean, because he did not inform him that he was going. 6



So he fled, he with everything that he owned. He set out and crossed the river and he headed 7 to Mount Gilead.

XLIX



Laban was informed on the third day that Jacob had fled.



He took his kinsmen with him and he pursued him a distance of seven days, and he overtook him at Mount Gilead.



God came to Laban the Aramean in a dream during the night and said to him, “Be careful not to say anything to Jacob, either good or bad.”



Laban overtook Jacob. Now Jacob had pitched his tent on the mountain and Laban had his kinsmen camp on Mount Gilead. 



MT: ‘Have we still a share?’ The MT has a rhetorical question. 3 The Peshiṭta omits f)™ :š :f ˜ ” L1 š' ’19– ! —19’ /– . See the Introduction: Omissions. 4 ‘idols’: lit. ‘images’. 5 ‘Jacob deceived Laban’: lit. ‘Jacob stole Laban’s heart’. 6 See the Introduction: Divergent Readings. 7 ‘he headed’: lit. ‘set his face’. 1 2



ŏ Ņ ŏœ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ňŔ Łĭ Ŕ ŁƢ  ÿſĭŦƦ Ŕ ÿƍƉƎƆ ł Ʀƀ œ Ɔł ħĭ  Ŕ Łœ :ųƆķ ň ǔŅƉĥĭŅ ťƀŅ ɞň ĭƈƀʖ ň ĿŅ Ɓòƍƕĭł Ʀÿƀ Ŕ ŨŦ ł .ķŴŨŏ Ŕ ĥ ň Ņ ł œł œ ŏ ň ł Ņ .ƎƙƐ łœ ƃƈ ňœ ƃł Ŕ ĥ Ļ  Ŕ ĥƎ  ƍŨ ĮĪ ƈź Ɖ  :ųƆƎ ň ƍłŶƎũŅ Ŕ ƀòƤŶŦ Ō Ʀ Ŕ ŅſǔŅƃŴ Ŕ ƌŏ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ŦĬŅ ł ŏ ň ň ťÿƣŅ Ĭĭ Ņ .Ǝÿƀƍł Ũò Ŕ Īĭ łŔ ĭĬƎ ô ŏ ÿłƇſĪŌœ :ķŴÿŨĥŏ Ŕ Īłœ ƎƉŦ ň ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥŀ  ƢłƘŔ Īŧ łŔ ĿŅŁŴ Ŕ ƕų ŏ Ƈ ƃŏŔĪœ ƈź Ɖ  Ņ ň Ņ ł Ņ Ņ œ Ɖ  ƅ Ŕ ƆƢ  Ɖĥ  Ī ƈƃŏŔ .űŔũƕ Ŕ ťɕƢ ňò ł .ƨƊ  ūœ ƈłƕIJĬô ŴòƤł ňƍɞ  ĭł :IJĬô Ŵò ɩłũŔ Ɔƈ ł ł ĭł ħŴ Ơƣ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſƋ  Ɵĭ Ņ Ņ ň ň ơŷƐſ Ņ Ō ĥ ŁŔŴɝŦ Ņ ŁŤ Ŕ ƊƆ  :ĶĿĥŅ ĪŅœ ķűŅŔƙŅŔ Ũť Ŕ ƍƟ Ņ Īłœ ųňƍəƍ Ņ Ɵų ň Ƈ ƃŏŔĭĬƢƀ ň ŌƖŨœ ųñ ɤ Ņ ƃŏœ ƢŨł Ŕ ĪŔĭł ł ł .ƎƖƍłƃŔĪť łŔ ƕĿ Ņ ƧIJĬô ŴŨŏ Ŕ ĥ ň Ņ ň Ņ łœ ň łŔ Ɗ ŒŔ ũƍ łœ ūĭ ňŔ :ųòƍɯŵ  Ŭ Ɗ  ƆĵĮłĥƎ  ũŅ Ŕ Ɔĭ  .ĬŴ ñ Ũĥŏ Ŕ Īť ň Ɔ ò Ľƈƀ ł ň ĿŅ Ʀ ʖ Ņ Ņ ŏ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ œ ňœň .ĵňĮĥ ĪŅœ ųň ſŴ  Ŷ ł ƧĪœ ƈź Ɖ  :ťƀƉ  ĿĥƎ  ũŔ Ɔ  Ī ųũ Ɔ  ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ Ū  Ŕ ƍłū Ŕ ĭł ł Ņ Ņ ł ł ł Ņ ŏ :ŧ Ŀų  ÿƌƢÿũƕ ň Ʀ Ŕ ſĥĪŌœ ƈƃĭ ŏŔ ĭĬľ ŏ Ƣƕ ł ĭł ĿŴÿźƆIJĬô Ŵò ÿƘł œ ĥƋÿƏĭ Ŕ ĭ ƋÿƟĭ :ųƆ .űŔƖɤ Ņ ū ň œ

űſ  ųſ  Ŵſ  ŵſ  Ÿɖ  Żſ  Ĵ  ťƃ 

ŻƉįĽ

ň Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł œ ŅŅ ł ŁĥŔ ĭň Ūƃ .ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſų  Ɔľ ň Ƣƕ ł Īłœ :ŦƦ  ƀŨ ƎũŔ LJ  ƢƉĥ Ŕ Ɔ  ŁŔĪŔ ťƉŴ ł ŏ ł ÿƖŅ ũŔ ƣŧ ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ÿźŨœ ųÿƃň Ŕ ĿĪĥŔ ĭł :ƎƀƉ Ō Ŵò ÿɖť ł ĪƢ ňœ ƉĬ ł ĿňƦ Ŕ ŨŅœ Ļ ň łƕIJĬô ŴòŶł Ƨ ƢŨł Ŕ ĪŔĭł ŭƃ  Ŕ ĪĿłŔ ĭł :ųƊ .űŔƖɤ Ņ ū ňŔ ĪŔ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ň ň ÿƉĥ Ņ Ĭř ĪĮłœ ĥň :ųÿƆƢ ł ĭň :ťÿƀˁ Ņ Ɔ ƅ Ŕ ÿƆĿ Ō Īť Ŕ Ɗɤ Ņ ŷň Ũť Ŕ ƀŅƉ Ņ ĿŅĥƎ  ũŅ Ŕ Ɔƈ  łƕŦ  ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥŦ  Łĥ Ŕ ĭ űƃ Ņ Ņœ Ō Ņ ň ŏ ł ň Ņ Ņ ł ł Ŕ ƊƆ  Īłœ .ŦƦƤƀ  ũŔ ƆťƉ  űƕ łŔ ĭ ŦƦ Ŕ ũŔ ŹƎ  Ɖ  ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ  łſ Ƌƕƈ  Ƈ ƉŁť ł ŏ ŏ łſĭ IJƢÿƣ Ō ĥƎ  ÿũŅ Ŕ Ɔĭ Ņ :ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ÿźŨœ ųÿňƍƄƤ œ Ɖƥ ł ÿƠƌł ħŴ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ  :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞƎ ł ũŅ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ ĴŔ ĿňĪĥŔ ĭł ųƃ ł ŏ  Ũœ IJĬô Ŵò Ŷł ĥ ňŔ ĪŔ ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ź .űŔƖɤ Ņ ū



 





Ch. 

Chapter  

Jacob 1 heard the words of Laban’s sons who were saying, “Jacob has taken everything that belonged to our father. He acquired all this property from our father.”



Jacob saw that Laban’s face was not with him as it had been previously.

XLVIII



The Lord said to Jacob, “Return to the land of your fathers, to your kindred. I will be with you.”



Jacob sent word and called Rachel and Leah to the field by his flocks.



He said to them, “I see that your father’s face is no longer with me as it was previously. But the God of my father has been with me.



You know that with all my strength I served your father.



Your father deceived me. He changed my wages ten times, but God did not allow him to harm me.



If he would say thus, ‘The speckled will be your wages,’ then all the speckled sheep would give birth. If he would say, ‘The spotted will be your wages,’ then all the spotted sheep would give birth.



God has separated some of your father’s livestock and given [it] to me.



At the time when the flocks were in heat, I raised my eyes and saw in a dream speckled, spotted and mottled he-goats mating with the flocks.



The angel of God said to me in a dream, ‘Jacob,’ and I said, ‘Here I am.’



He said to me, ‘Raise your eyes and see all the speckled, spotted and mottled he-goats mating with the flocks because I have seen everything that Laban did to you.



I am the God of Bethel, where you anointed for me a pillar and you made a vow to me. Now then, rise and go from this land and return to the land of your kindred.’”  1

 Absent in the MT.





ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

Ʀſĥ ŏ łſ Ū  Ŕ Ɛƌ ł :ƎſƢŌƉĥĪŅœ ƎũŅ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ Ɓƍł Ũò Ŕ Īłœ ķĭųŏ ƀòˁ ł Ɖ ň ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſƗ  Ɗƣ ł ĭł Ŕ ĪŌœ ƈƃŏœ ħŴŔ ƠƖ ł ň ŏ ŅŅ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ .ųƇ ƃť  Ɵť  ƌĬť  ƍƟķŴ  Ũĥŏ Ŕ Īłœ ƎƉĭ  ĭŅĬô ň :ķŴŨŏ Ŕ ƧŦ Ŕ ƍəƍ ł ł Ņ œ Ņ Ņ œ ò ł œł ŏ łſŦ  Ŕ ÿÿƠƖ  ŵÿÿŶ Ņ ĭł  Ŕ ĭłƁô ÿÿƇƉ ƅÿÿſĥ Ņ Łĥ Ŕ Īňœ ƅÿÿſ  Ŕ ĥ ųÿÿƊň łƕ IJĭò Ĭ ô ƧĪ :ƎÿÿũŔ Ɔ  ĪIJĬô ŴÿÿƘĥ ħŴ .ƁƇ ô Ɖ Ņ ƦŔ ƍƉ Ņ Īłœ

ĥ



ħ



ŸƉįĽ

Ņ Ņ ò ł ł œò ł Ņ ł Ņ ł ŏ Ŕ ƕĿ  Ƨ ĴŴ Ŕ ƘĬ Ŕ :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞť ł ɕƢ Ņ ƉƢ Ņ Ɖĥ ł ĭň Ĩ Ŕ ĭ ƅ ſų ŨĥŔ Īť .ƅ Ŕ Ɗ Ņ łƕŦ  ĭĬĥ ň ĭň :ĴŔ ŁŔ űɝ Ŕ ĭƦƆ Ņ ł Ņ ň ł ň Ņ Ņ .ųòƍɯ  ŁŔŴɝ  :ƨƠ  ŷƆ  ťƀˁƆĭƈƀ  ʖ ň Ƣɝŧ Ņ ƢƟ Ņ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſĿ  űłœƣł ĭ Ī ł Ņ ł ł Ņ ƅſĥ Ņ Łĥ Ŕ Īňœ ƅ Ŕ ſĥIJô ŁŔŴɝ  IJĭò ĬƧĪœ ƎƀƃňŔŴŨĥŏ Ŕ ĪłœIJĬô Ŵò Ƙł œ ĥťƌŅôĥŦ ŵňŶŅ :ƎſųɝƢ ň ł ĭň Ĭ Ɖĥ Ŕ ĭłƁô ƇƉ .ƁƊ ô łƕŦ  ĭĬ Ņ Ɓô Ũĥ Ŕ ĪŅœ Ĭųň Ɔĥ Ņ ĭł :ƁƇ ô Ɖ Ņ Ʀ Ŕ ƍƉ Ņ Īłœ ł ň ňœ ň ň ň .ƎƀƃňŔŴŨŏ Ŕ Ƨ Ʀ Ŕ ŷɤ  Ƙ Ɓô Ƈƀʖų ł Ƈ ƄŏŔ ŨŔ Īłœ :ƎſƦ œ ô ƌĥƎƕŅűòŔɖƎſ Ņ Ʀ œ ô ƌĥĭł ĭ ł Ņ ň ł ł IJô Ƣÿūĥł ƚ ŦųŅ ÿƆŅ ĥų  ÿƠň ũŔ ƣ ł Ƨĭ  :Ǝÿƀò ɫŌ ŨŔ ĮƢ ł ÿƐƕ  :ƁÿŨŌ œ ƈū ň œ Īłœ ƎƀƃňŔŴŨĥŏ Ŕ ĭł Į Ŕ  Ŕ ÿƇŶĭ ũň Ŕ ƌłĪŔ .ƁƆŀŤ Ō Ņ Ņ ň ŏ œ Ņœ ò Ņ Ņ ł ň ň ň Ņ łœ ł Ō Ņ ł Ņ ň ł ƌķĥ  ųɤ  ƃ ķűɤſ :ĴŔ Ƣū Ŕ ĥŦ  ĭų  ƌť  Ŷ ǔƟĪ ƢƉŤ ƢÿƉŤ Ō ĭň .ťÿŶň ǔŅƟťÿòƍɯƎſ  ƌť  ƍƃŔ Ĭķ  ĥ į ł ň ň ňŅ ò ł œ ł Ŕ òƍŅɯƎſ Ņ ųɤ ò ƀƘť ň ƃŏœ ķűŅ œ ɤò Ņſ :ĴŔ ƢŅū ň.ťƀƄŅŔ Ɛ Ŕ ĥŦ  ĭų  ƌ ťƀƄŔ Ɛ  ƀƘŔ Ī ł łŔ ƍŅəƍ Ņ ƟƎ ň ƉŦ ň ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥŀ  ƢłƘŔ ĭł İ . ƁƆ Ō ħ  Ŕ ųô łſĭ :ƎƀƃňŔŴŨĥŏ Ŕ Īť ł ŅŅ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ł ł Ņ Ņ ŷň Ũœ Ʀÿſ  Ɗ  Ŷ Īť Ŕ ƍŨŔ ŵŨŔ ĭ IJ ƎÿƀƠɤ Ō Əť Ņ ÿƤň ò ſŁŦ Ŕ Ĭĭ  :ťÿƊɤ Ŕ ŵŶ Ō ĭł Ɓƍłəòɯ ł Ʀ Ŕ Ɗ ň ſĿŌĥ :ťòƍɯť łŔ :ťŶň ǔŅƟ :ťòƍŅɯƈ ò ƀƘĭ łƕ Ņ Ŕ :ťƀňƄŅ Ŕ Ɛ ň.ŧ Īœ ǔŨĭ Ņ ň ł .ťƌŅĥŦ  ĬŅ ŁŔƢƉĥ ň ĭň .ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ :ťƊɤ Ņ ŷň ŨŦ Ŕ ųŅ Ɔĥ Ņ Īłœ ųƃň Ŕ ƨƉł ƁƆƢ Ō Ɖĥ ł ĭň ťſ ł Ō ł ň ł ŅŅ  ÿłƕƎÿƀƠɤ Ō Ə Ņ Īť Ŕ ÿƤň ò ſŁœ ƈƃŏŔ IJŵŶ Ō ĭł ƅƀ  œ ƍłəòɯƋſ ł ĿŌĥ :ƁƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ūſ :ťÿŶň ǔŅƟ :ťÿòƍɯƈ ŏ Ņ Ņ ŏ Ņ ò ň Ņ Ņ ň ł Ō ł ł .ƎũŔ Ɔ  ƅ Ŕ Ɔ  űŔũƕ Ŕ Īœ ƈƃœ Ʀſ Ŕ ŵŶ  Īœ ƈź  ƀƘĭ łŔ Ɖ  :ŧ Īœ ǔŨĭŔ :ťƀňƄŔ Ɛ ň ł ł Ō œ ł łœ ł Ņ ƎÿƉŅ ŁŔ ƁÿƆŌ ŁĿ œ űÿƌ łŔ ĭł :ŦƦÿƊ Ŕ ƀňƟƎ Ņ Ɖ Ņ ŁŔ ƁƆ  Ʀŷ  ƤƉ  Ī :ƈſŌ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥť  ƌŅôĥťƌŅĥ ŭſ Ŕ Ũň Ŕ ĪŦ Ņ Ņ òł Ņ ł ŏ ł ň Ņ Ņ ł ň .ĴŔ ŁŔ űɝ Ŕ ĭŁŔ Īť Ŕ ƕĿ  Ƨ ĴŴ Ŕ ƘĬ Ŕ ĭ :ŧ ĪŔĬť  ƕĿ  ĥƎ  ƉľŴ  Ƙŏ œ ĶŴƟť ŏ ƣŅ ĬŅ :ŧ ĿŅűŔňƌ



  

 



 

 



Ch. 



He separated on that day the speckled and the spotted male goats, all the speckled and spotted female goats, any white one among them, 1 and every dark one with some white hair, and he put them into the charge of his sons.



He put a distance of three days between himself and Laban. 2 Jacob was shepherding the flocks of Laban that were remaining.



Jacob took moist white shoots of an almond tree and a plane tree and he peeled the white bark on them and exposed the white on the shoots.



He fastened the shoots that he had peeled onto the watercourses between the troughs. When the flocks were coming to drink opposite each other, they went into heat as they were coming to drink.



The flocks were in heat beside the shoots and the flocks gave birth to speckled and spotted lambs. 3



Jacob separated and set the speckled and spotted lambs before the flocks. All the dark ones were among the flocks of Laban. He made a sheepfold for himself alone and he did not mix 4 them with Laban’s flocks.



Every year 5 when the flocks that were born early went into heat, 6 Jacob set shoots before the flocks on the watercourses so that they would mate by the shoots.



He did not set [them] with those flocks born late. 7 The ones born late belonged to Laban. The ones born early belonged to Jacob.



The man became very very rich. He had numerous flocks, servants, maidservants, female donkeys, camels and he-asses. 8

MT: ‘any with white on it’. MT: ‘Jacob’. 3 See the Introduction: Reinterpretations or Misinterpretations. 4 MT: ‘He did not set’. 5 Absent in the MT. 6 RPS glosses the phrase with oves quae primo concipiunt. 7 MT: ‘with the feebler flocks’. 8 MT: ‘camels and donkeys’. 1 2



Ņ ň ň ł Ŕ ťÿÿŶň ǔŅƟťÿÿƤň ò ſŁłœ ĭĬť Ņ ƀłŨœ ŀƢłÿÿƘŔ ĭł ųƆ ŦƦ Ŕ ÿÿŶŅ ǔŅƟŦ ŵò ÿÿɯƎÿÿſ ň ƃĭ ųɤ ŏŔ :ťÿÿƀň ƄŅŔ Ɛ ò ƀƘĭ ł ÿÿƉŴ Ņ Ņ ò ł űŔÿƀł Ũœ ħ  Ŕ ųô ÿłſĭ :ŦŁŔ ǓŅŴŅŷň Ũœ Ƌƃĥ ňŔ ĪŅœ ƈƃĭ ŏŔ :ŧ ĿŅŴŅ ŶƎſ ň ųň Ũœ Ʀſĥ Ŕ ĪŌœ ƈƃĭ  ƀƘĭ Ŕ ŏŔ :ŦƦ Ŕ ƀŅƄŅŔ Ɛ ò .IJĬô Ŵɩł Ũœ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ňœ ł ł ł Ņ IJĬƎ Ņ ũŅ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ Īœ ųòƍɯ  ťƕĿ  ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſĭ  .ƎũŅ Ŕ LJ  IJĬô ŴƍłəòŨł œ ƎƀƉ Ō Ŵò ɖŦ ł Ʀ Ŕ Ɔ  Łŧ Ŕ ĪƢ Ɖ  űŔũƕ Ŕ ĭ ŴƆ ł œ ňœ Œ.ŁŔ ƢŶ ł Ʀƣĥ  Ī Ņ Ņ Ō ł Ņ ŅŅň ňœ òň Ǝſųň Ũœ ƚ  Ŕ ł ƇƟ  ĭł :ťũɝĭ Ņœ ĪŏŔĪœĭŦ ł ĮŴ Ņ Ɔ ŏ Īœ :ŦƦ Ŕ ũƀ  Ʀ  Ɵ Į ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſų  Ɔ ň Ū  Ŕ Ɛƌ ł ĭł ŵƆ Ŕ ŹǓŦŁŔ ǓŴŶŦ ň Ņ ň ł Ŕ ĿŅŴŅ ŶĿ .ŦƦ œ Ɵò ŵňŨŔ Īŧ ň Ŵŷ ł Ɖĭ ł :ŦŁŔ ǓŅŴŅŶň ťƙò Ŕ ɤƟ Ņ ň Ņ Ņ òŅ Ņ œ ł œ Ņ œ ł Ņ ł ň Ņ œ ł ł ňœ òň  ÿſŁĥ Ŕ Ī Ƣÿƃ :ťÿɕƦƤ  Īť Ŕ ŹĬ  ǔŨ ƚ  Ŕ ƇƟ  ĪŦ Ŕ Ʀ  Ɖ  Ʀÿƀ Ŕ Ũňœ :ťƀò Ɖ  Ɵ ŵɟƎ  ƀň ƌĥƞ  łƕĪŔĭł ŸƆ ťÿòƍɯƎ Ņ ň òŅ Ņ Ņ òŅ Ņ òŅ Ņ Ņ ň .ŦƦƤ œ Ɗ  ƆƎſŁĥ Ŕ Īť  ƈũƟŴ łŔ Ɔŏ ŦƦƤ œ Ɗ Ɔ Ŕ ƉƎ  Ɗ  Ŷĭ  :ťƍɯ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ œ ò Ņ ň œ ò ň ł òŅ Ņ òŅ Ņ ł Ŕ ťŶň ǔŅƟŧ ǔňƉĥť  ķűɤ  ſĭŦƦ  Ɗ  Ŷĭ  ŻƆ .ťƀňƄŅŔ Ɛ ò ƀƘĭ  òƍɯ  Ɵ Įƈ  ƕť  ƍɯƎ ň ŅŅ Ņ ł Ŕ ťÿŶň ǔŅƟŧ ǔňÿƉĥť ŏ Ŕ ÿƀň ƄŅŔ Ɛ Ƌÿƃĥň Ŕ ĪŅœ ƈÿƃĭť  űƟ Ŕ ħ  Ŕ ųô łſĭ ħ  Ŕ ŴƠƖ ŏ łſŀ  ƢłƘŔ ĭł Ķ ò ƀƘĭ  ÿòƍɯĶ ň Ņ ňŅ œ ŏ ňŅ œ ł Ŕ ĭł :ƎũŅ Ŕ Ɔ ŏ Ũŧ ųÿòƍɳ  Ũ ķŴÿƌĥŻ  ÿłƇŶ Ƨĭ  :IJĬĭ ô ĪŴ  Ũ łŔ ÿŷɤ łŔ ĿŅŵŅÿūœ ųÿƆň űŔÿũƕ Ņ Īœ ųòƍɳ Ņ .ƎũŔ Ɔ Ņ Īœ ň ň Ņ Ņ œ Ņ Ō òŅ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ňœ òň  űƟŦ  Ɗ  Ŷ ĪŔ ťƍƣƈƄŏŔ ŨŔ ĭł ťƉ ťÿŹĬǔŅŨŔ ťòƍɯĶ  Ɵ Į ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſĶ  ŤƏ  :ŦƦſ  ƢƀƄŔ Ũť Ŕ ƍɯť Ŕ Ʀ ň .ŦƦ œ Ɵò ŵňŨœ ƎƀŅƊ ò ŷňƌĪŔ ň Ņ Ņ òŅ Ņ Ņ  Īť Ŕ ÿÿƀň ƤŅ ƀòƠɤ Ō ŨłŔ ĭ ŪƉ ťÿÿňɕǔŅƀƄŌŔ ŨŔ ĭł :ƎÿÿũŅ Ŕ LJť  ÿÿƀň ƤŅ ƀòƠƆƎÿÿſ Ō ĭňĬĭ Ņ .ŦĭŅĬĶ ô ŤÿÿƏ  ÿÿƍɯ Ƨť  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞ ł .ħŴ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ō œ ł òŅ Ņ ł Ŕ ĭł ŭƉ  ÿƆň ŒŁŔ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł :Ū  Ŕ ÿŹ Ū  Ŕ ÿŹŧ ƢŅũŔ ū ł œ ĿƦƕ :ŦŁŔ ųŅ ÿƉò ĥĭň :ŧ űňœÿũò Ŕ łƕĭ  :ŦŁŤÿƀ Ŕ Ŭ  Əť  ÿƍɯų ňò ł ňŅ .ŧ ǔŅƊŶĭ ň :ƨ Ɗ  ūĭ Ŕ :ťɧò Łœ ĥĭł











 







Ch. 



Give me my wives and my children for whom I served you and I will go because you know the service that I provided you.”

XLVII



Laban said to Jacob, “If I have found favor in your eyes, then I have come to know 1 that the Lord has blessed me because of you.”



He said, “Indicate 2 your wages due from me and I will give [them to you].” Jacob said to him, “You know the service that I did for you and how your livestock fared with me.



For you had little before my coming 3 and it has become very much. The Lord has blessed you because of me. 4



Now then what can I do for my own house as well?”



Laban said to him, “What can I give you?” Jacob said to him, “You need not give me anything if you will do for me what I tell you. Then I will again shepherd and keep your flocks.



I will pass through your entire flock today and will separate for myself 5 from there every lamb that is speckled 6 and spotted, every lamb that is dark with some white hair, 7 and the spotted and speckled goats. They will be my pay.



Let my honesty witness on my behalf from today onward when you consider my wages. 8 Any that is not speckled or spotted or dark with some white hair among the goats has been stolen by me.”



Laban said to him, “So shall it be done according to your word.” 



MT: ‘I learned by divination’. See the Introduction: Divergent Readings. ‘Indicate’: lit. ‘Separate’. 3 ‘before my coming’: lit. ‘before me’. 4 See the Introduction: Harmonization. 5 Absent in the MT. 6 B. glosses this Syriac word on the basis of the Hebrew: ‘maculatus’. RPS suggests the gloss ‘cornibus carens’. 7 MT: ‘among the lambs’. 8 ‘when you consider my wages’: lit. ‘when you enter concerning my wages before you’. 1 2



ŏ ň Ņ œ ô ƌĥł ĺűłŔÿɖŅ Ʀÿ Ʀÿ œ ô ƌĥĪłœ ƈÿźƉ  :ĵĮĥł ĭķĭ Ō ųŏ Ũœ ĴŔ Ʀŷ œ ł ƇƘŔ Īłœ :Ɓƍł Ũò Ŕ ĭł ƁƤò ł ňƌ ƁƆ Ō ħ  Ŕ Ĭł Ņ .ĴŔ Ʀŷ œ ł Ƈ ƘŔ Īť łŔ ƍŅŷƆŴ Ņ Ƙŏ œ

Ŵƃ  ŵƉįĽ

ň ň Ņ Ɖ ťÿɕƢ Ņ Ɓô ƍƃƢ łŔ ŨłŔ Īœ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ɛ Ō ƌł :ƅƀ  œ ƍłəòɳ ł Ũť Ŕ ƊŶ ň Ǔł Ʀ Ŕ ŷň Ƅƣ œ ĥķ  ĥ :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞƎ ł ũŅ Ŕ ƆƢ Ņ Ɖĥ ł ĭň ŵƃ Ņ Ņ ŏ ň .ĴŔ Ʀ Ŕ Ƈ źƉ  ň Ņ ł ł ł ň ÿƉł ĥ .ĵŁĥ ŏ łſų œ ô ƌĥĺűłŔÿɖŅ Ʀÿ Ʀÿ œ ô ƌĥ :ħŴ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ  ÿƆƢ œ ĭň Ɓł Ƈƕ  ĴŔ ƢŅū Ŕ ĥŀĭ  ƢŏƘ œ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň Ÿƃ Ņ łŔ ƍŅŷƆŴ Ņ Ƙŏ œ .ƁƊ ô łƕ ƅ Ŕ ƍŅəƍ Ņ ƟŦ ň ĭĬ Ņ Īĭ łŔ :ĴŔ Ʀŷ œ ł Ƈ ƘŔ Īť Ņ ŏ ň Ō Ō Ņ ĭŅĬ Ʀÿſ Ņ Ŕ Ũĭ Ņ Ɖ ŌŔ ĭł ƁÿƉł űƟ ťÿɕƢ Ņ ƅ Ŕ ÿƃƢ łŔ :Ū  Ŕ ÿŹ ƁÿŬƏ ŅŔ ƅ Ŕ ÿƆŦ Ɖ  Żƃ ô Ŕ ĥ ƈÿƀƇ Ɵł Īœ ƈź Ņ ŏ ň Ŕ Ƈ ź Ɖ  .IJô Ʀ ň ň Ņ .IJô Ʀƀ œ ũłŔ Ɔ ťƌŅĥ Ļ  Ŕ ĥ űŔũƕ ňœ ĥť  ƍŅƉ Ņ ťƣŅ ĬŅ ĭ ĵ ňň Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ň łŅ ň œň Ņ Ņ Ņ Ō ŏ łſų  Ŕ ÿƠƖ  ƆƢ ň Ɖ ł ĥ .ƅ Ŕ Ɔĵ  Łœ ĥť  ƍƉƎ  ũŔ Ɔų  ƆƢ  Ɖ  ĥ Ƨ :ĶűňœÿƉň ƁÿƆĵ ŁŁŔ Ƨ :ħŴ ł ň òŅ Ņ ň ň ŏ œ ň Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ ň Ō ň œ ň œ ň  ƕĿ  ĥ ĴŴ Ŕ ƘĬ  ĥ :ƅ Ŕ Ɔť  ƌôĥ ƢƉ  ĥĪť .ƢŹĥ  ĭ ƅ Ŕ ƍɯť Ŕ Ɗ ū Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ ƘŔ ƁƆ űŔũƕ  Ł ķĥ ň ł Ņ Ņ ñ Ņ ŏ œ łœ ň  ų ɤ  ƄŔ Ũ Ƣũƕ  ĥ ŪƆ įƢÿƟ Ņ Īŧ łŔ ƢÿƉ Ņ ĥ ƈÿƃŏ œ ƎÿƉŅ Łœ ƎÿƉň ƁƆŀĭ Ō ƢŏƘĥ Ŕ ĭň :ťƍŅƉŴ Ņ łſ ƅ Ŕ òƍɯ ňò ň œ Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ ň œ ň Ņ Ņ ň ŏ Ņ ň ň Ŧĭų  ÿƌŦ ŵÿɳŨ įƢÿƟ  ĭ ƁÿƄƐƀ  ĥ ƈÿƃĭŔ .ƁƄƐƀ Ŕ Ƙĭ łŔ Ŕ ƘĭŔ :ŦŁŔ ǓŴ ÿŷŨ ƋÿƃĥŔ ĪŔ ŧ ƢÿƉ ł .IJô Ƣū Ŕ ĥ ň ň ł ł œ Ɖ ł űƟ ŅŔ IJô Ƣū Ŕ ĥ ƈłƕĵŴ  ƕŏŁœ űŔƃłœ ƢŷƉ :ƅƀ Ņ Īłœ :ťƍŅƉŴ Ņ łſĪœ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥIJô ŁŴ Ŕ ƃŏŔĮŅ Ɓł Ƈƕ  ĪŔųƏ ł ŁŔ ĭ ŭƆ Ņ Ņ ňň œ Ņ ł . ƁƆ Ō ĭĬô ťũƀ łŔ ƍŌū  œ :ŦŁŔ ǓŅŴŅ ŷň Ũœ Ƌƃĥ ňŔ ĭŅ :Ŧ ŵò ɳ  Ũ ƁƄƐƀ Ŕ Ƙĭ Ŕ įƢƟŦ Ņ ĭŅĬ ô ƧĪœ ƈƃŏœ ł ň ň Ō Ņ Ņ ň łŅ Ņ .ĴŔ ƦƇ Ŕ Ɖň ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ Ŧĭų  ƌƎſ  ĥ :ƎũŔ Ɔų  Ɔ  ƢƉ  ĥ űƆ









 







Ch. 



In the days of the wheat harvest Rubel went out and found mandrakes in the field and he brought them to Leah his mother. Rachel said to Leah, “Give me some of your son’s mandrakes.”



Leah said to her, “Is it not enough for you that you took my husband? Will you also take my son’s mandrakes?” Rachel said, “For this reason he will sleep with you tonight in exchange for your son’s mandrakes.”



Jacob came in from the field in the evening and Leah went out to meet him. She said, “You are going to have relations with me because I have actually hired you with my son’s mandrakes.” He slept with her that night.



God heard Leah and she conceived and bore a fifth son for Jacob.



Leah said, “God has given me my reward because I gave my maidservant to my husband.” She named him Issachar.



Leah conceived again and she bore a sixth son to Jacob.



Leah said, “The Lord has endowed me with a good dowry. This time my husband will cleave 1 to me because I have borne him six sons.” She called him Zebulun.



After that she bore a daughter and she named her Dinah.



God remembered Rachel and God heard her and opened her womb.



She conceived and she bore a son and she said, “God has taken away my shame.”



She named him Joseph and said, “May God 2 add another son for me.”



After Rachel bore Joseph, Jacob said to Laban, “Send me off and I will go to my place and to my land. 

1 2



See the Introduction: Lexical Choices. MT: ‘Lord’.



ň Ō œ ł Ņ ł ň ŏ ł ł œ ň ň ňò Ņ Ņ ň Ŕ Ŀĵ ķŴƌŏĥ IJƦſĥ  ĭ :ƨƠ  ŷ Ũť Ŕ Ŷĭ  ǔũŔ ſŸ  Ƅƣĥ  ĭ :ťź  Ŷ ĪŔŧ ĪŔ ƞŶ ŏ Įĥł ĭň űſ  ƁƉ ł Ŵò əłŨœ ƈƀŨĭ ň .Ɓô ƃŔƢňŨŔ Īť łŔ Ŷĭ ň ǔŏũŔ łſƎ  Ɖ ň ƁƆ Ō Ɓô ŨŔ Ĭł :ťƀŅ ˁň Ɔƈƀʖ ň ĿŅ ŒŁŔ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň .ųƉ ň ĥ ťƀŅ ˁň Ɔ ň Ņ Ņň Ņ ň ǔŏũŔ łſƎÿƀ  Ŕ ĥ  Ƨĥ :ƁƇƖ ô Ũłœ IJô ŁƢ  ũƏ ŌŔ ŁŔ Īœ Ļ œ Ũł œ ĪŔĪłœƁô ƄŔ Ɔ ťÿŶĭ ň ĭűŏœƃ łŔ Ƨ :ťƀŅ ɞň ųñ ɝ Ņ ŒŁŔ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň ųſ ŏ ň Ņ Ņ Ō Ƈ Ũœ Ɓô ÿƄŔ Ɗ ƚŔ ÿƇŶťÿƌŅ Ĭť Ņ ÿƀˁ ň łƕ ƅ Ŕ ÿƉł űŔňƌť  ƌŅĬƈ Ņ ź Ɖ  :ƈƀʖ ň ĿŅ ŒŁŔ ƢłƉĥĭň .IJô ƢŨňŔ ĪŔ .Ɓô ƃŔƢňŨŔ Īť łŔ Ŷĭ ň ǔŏũŔ łſ ŏ Ņ ł ň ŒŔ Ơł ƙŔ ňƌĭ  :ťƤƉ Ņ ƢłŨ Ŕ ƨƠ  ŶƎ  Ɖ  ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſƈ  łƕĭ  Ŵſ IJô ŁŔŴÿɝ Ņ :Œ ŁŔ ƢÿƉĥ ł ĭň :ųÿňƕĿĭƧ ťƀŅ ɞň Ʀ ň Ņ ň ł ŏ ŏ œ ł ň ň ň œ ň Ņ ł ň ǔũŔ ƀłŨœ ĴŔ ŁƢ  ÿôƌĥ ĵŤÿƕŅ Ŕ ÿŶĭ  ÿūł œ ĥƢÿūŤ  Īœ ƈÿźƉ  Ʀÿ ųñ ÿƊƕ ƅ Ŕ ÿƉĪŔĭ .IJô ƢÿŨŔ Īť Ŕł Ɖ Ō .ĭĬť ł ƀˁ Ņ Ƈ Ũœ ł Ņ ł ňŔ :ťƀŅ ˁň ƆŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥ ųñ ƖƊ  ƣĭ  ŵſ ŒŔ ƍź ł Ũĭ .ťƤƊ Ņ Ŷł Īŧ Ŕ ƢŅŨœ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞ ł ŒŁŔ űɤ łœ ň ſĭ Ʀ ł ňœ ň œ ł Ņł ň Œ ŁŔ ƢÿƟ ųÿƊƣ Ņ ĭł :ƁÿƇƖ ô ũƆ łŔ  IJô Ʀ Ŕ Ɖ ł ĥ Ʀ Ŕ ŨųſĪ IJô Ƣū Ŕ ĥŦ  ųŅ Ɔ  ĥ ħ  Ŕ ųô łſ :ťƀŅ ɞň ŒŁŔ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň Ÿɖ Ņ Ō ĥ .ƢƄŅŔ Ɛſ ŏ Œ ł ň Ņ ň Ņ œ Œ łœ ň Ņ ň Ŕ Żſ Ŕ ƍź  Ũĭ .ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀłɞŦƦƣ œ Īŧ Ŕ ƢŨ ŁŔ űɤ  ſĭ :ťƀɞ ħĭ  Ŕ Łœ Ʀ Ņ ł :ƁÿƇƖ ô ŨłŔ ƁÿƆŌ ƚ ł ĭň Ĵ  Ŕ ÿƠł ƌłƦ Ŕ ňƌť  ÿƌŅ Ĭť Ņ ÿƍŅ ŨŔ Įł :ťÿũŅ Ŕ Źŧ  űŅ œ ÿŨŔ ňĮŦ  ųŅ ÿƆŅ ĥƁô ƌűłœŨŔ Įł .ťƀŅ ɞň ŒŁŔ ƢƉĥ ŏ ň Ņ ŏ Ŕ Ɗƣ .ķŴƆŴ ŏ ŨĮų ň ŒŁŔ ƢƟ Ņ ĭł :ƎƀòɫŌ ŨŦ Ŕ Ʀƣ  œ ųƆ ň ŁŔűɤ ňœ ň ſĪœ ƈź Ɖ  Ņ ł Ņ .ťƍſŅ ĪŌœ ųñ Ɗƣ Ņ ŒŁŔ ƢƟ Ņ ĭł :ŦŁƢ Ŕ Ũłœ ŒŁŔ űɤ Ŕ Ũĭ łœ ň ſƎƃĿ ňœ Ʀ Ŕ ťƃ ł Ņ ł ł ł Ŕ ƘŔ ĭł :ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥ ųñ ƖƊ  ƣĭ  :ƈƀʖ ň ƢɝŦ Ņ ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥ Ĭñ ƢŅƃŔĪłœŁĥ .ųñ ƖŅŨƢ œ Ɖį ł Ʀ œ ĭň Ūƃ ł ł œ ł Œ ł ň Ņ œ Œ łœ ň Œ ł ň Ŕ ƍź  ŨĭŔ ŭƃ .IJô űƐ œ ŶŦ ň ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥƢ  ũƕ  ĥ ŁŔ ƢƉĥ  ĭ :ŧ ƢŨ ŁŔ űɤ  ſĭ Ʀ ł Ō ň ł Œ ł ň .ťƌŅƢŶ Ō ôĥŧ ƢŅŨŦ Ŕ ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥ ƁƆ  ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ  ƌ :ŁŔ ƢƉĥ  ĭ :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň łſų  Ɗƣ ň ŒŁŔ ƢƟ Ņ ĭł űƃ Ō ň ł Ņ ŏ łſƢ  ħŴ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ  ÿƉł ĥ :ƚ  Ŕ ƏŴ ň ƀɞƈƀ ł ň ĿŅ Œ ŁŔ űɤ ʖ łœ ň ſ űŔƃĭ łŔ ųƃ IJô ĿŁŔƧĵ  Įłĥ Ɓô ÿƍſĿłűłœƣł :ƎÿũŅ Ŕ LJ ł .ƁƕĿ ô Ƨĭ 









 

 

    

Ch. 

Chapter  

Rachel saw that she was not bearing children to Jacob. She became jealous of her sister and said to Jacob, “Give me children. If not, I will die.”



Jacob became angry with Rachel 1 and said to her, “Can I replace God, 2 who has withheld from you the fruits of the womb?”



She said to him, “See my maidservant Bilhah. Go into her. She will bear children on my knees and I too will be consoled 3 by her.”



She gave to him Bilhah her maidservant as a wife and he 4 had relations with her.



Bilhah conceived and she bore a son to Jacob.



Rachel said, “God has judged me. He has heard my voice and given me a son.” Because of this, she named him Dan.



Bilhah, the maidservant of Rachel, conceived again and she bore another son to Jacob.



Rachel said, “I have beseeched the Lord 5 and I pleaded with my sister and I have proved capable.” She named him Naphtali.



Leah saw that she had stopped bearing children. She took Zilpah her maidservant and she gave her to Jacob as a wife.



Zilpah, the maidservant of Leah, bore a son to Jacob.



Leah said, “My good fortune has come.” 6 She called him Gad.



Zilpah, Leah’s maidservant, bore a second son to Jacob.



Leah said, “In praise of me, because the daughters sing my praise.” 7 She called him Asher. 



‘Jacob became angry with Rachel’: lit. ‘The anger of Jacob was burning against Rachel’. 2 ‘Can I replace God?’: lit. ‘Instead of God am I?’ 3 See the note in 16:2. 4 MT: ‘Jacob’. 5 MT: ‘God’. 6 The Peshiṭta reads the qere. See the Introduction: Qere/Ketib. 7 MT: ‘in my happiness. For daughters have called me happy’. 1





ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ň Ņ ŏ ƀɞ Ņ œ Ņſ ƧŅĪœ ƈƀʖ ŒŔ ƍł Źĭ  ħŴŔ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞŧ ł űɤ ň ĿŅ ŒŁŔ ŵŶ Ņ ĭł ĥ ł ĭň :Ĭñ Ʀ Ŕ ŷŅ Ũœ Ʀ ħŔ Ĭł :ħŴ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ ł ŒŁŔ ƢƉĥ Ņ Ņ Ņ ň òŅ ł Ō .ťƌŅôĥŦƦƀ œ Ɖ  Ƨķĥĭ :ťƀɫ ŨŔ ƁƆ ł Ņ :ťÿƌŅ ôĥŦųŅ ÿƆŅ ĥ ƚ  Ŕ ÿƇŶ :ųñ ÿɝŅ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň :ƈƀʖ ň Ŀƈ Ņ łƕ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſĪœ Ĭŵňūĭ Ŕ Ŀŏ Ʀ Ŕ Ɗ ł Ŷł Łĥ Ŕ ĭň ħ Ņ ň .ťƏƢ Ņ ƃłŔĪŧ Ŕ ǓŤƘŌ œ Ɓô ƄŔ ňƍƉ ň ƨƃŔĪłœ Ō ł ň ł Łĭ Ŕ :ųÿƀ ñ ƇƕĵŴ  ÿƕŏ :Ŧųÿɤ Ņ Ũłœ IJô Ʀ :Ɓƃłœ ǓŴÿŨŏ œ ƈÿłƕ űŔÿƆĥ Ŕ ÿƉł ĥŦ  ĬŅ :ųƆ ň ŒŁŔ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň Ĩ ň Ņ  Ŕ ĥť  ƀłŨłœ Łĥ .ųñ ƍŅƉ ň ťƌŅĥ Ļ Ŕ ĭň Ņ œ ł Ņ ł Ņ ł ň łƕĭ ł œ ň ſĭ Ī .ųƀ ñ Ƈƕƈ   :ŦŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥ Ĭñ ƦƉ Ŕ ĥŦ  ųɤ  ũƆ ň Ʀ ŒŔ Ũų Ŕ ųƆ ňŔ Ĭ .ŧ ƢŅŨœ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞ ł ŒŁŔ űɤ łœ ň ſĭ :Ŧųɤ Ņ Ũłœ Ʀ ŒŔ ƍź ł Ũĭ ł ŏ ň Ņ ƈÿźƉ  :ŧ ƢŨŔ ƁƆ Ō ħ  Ŕ ųô łſĭ :ƁƇ ô ƠŅ Ũœ ƗƊƣ ł Ļĥ  Ŕ ĭŅ :ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥƁô ƍƌł ĪŅœ :ƈƀʖ ň ĿŅ ŒŁŔ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň ĭ .ķĪŅœ ųƊƣ ň Œ ŁŔ ƢƟť Ņ ƌŅ ĬŅ Ņ ł Ņ łœ ŏœ Œ ł ň Ŕ Į .ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞť ł ƌŅƢŶ Ō ôĥŧ ƢŅŨœ ŒŁŔ űɤ łœ ň ſĭ :ƈƀʖ ň ĿŅĪŔŦƦƉ Ŕ ĥŦ  ųɤ  Ũ ħĭ Ŕ ƍź  Ũĭ  Ŕ Ł Ʀ ň Ņ ÿłƕ Ʀ .Ʀ Ŕ ÿŷň Ƅƣ œ ĥ Ļĥ  Ŕ ĭŅ :IJô Ʀ Ŕ ÿŶƋ Ŕ ƙƤ ňŔ ƃłœŁĥ Ŕ ĭň :ťɕƢ Ņ ƉƎ Ņ Ɖ ň Ʀƀ Ŕ ŌƖŨœ :ƈƀʖ ň ĿŅ Œ ŁŔ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň į Ņ Ņ ĭł . ƁƆ Ō Ʀ œ ƙŔ ƌłųƊƣ ň ŒŁŔ ƢƟ Ņ œ ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł Œ ł ł Ņœ ł ň Œ ł Ņ Ņ ň Œ Ņ ł Ŕ Ɗ  Ɵ Īť Ŕ ƀɞ  ŁŔ ŵŶ  ĭ İ ŦŁŔ Ʀÿ Ŕ :ŧ űɤ  ſƎƉ  Ʀ  ô ƌĥ Ĭñ Ʀ Ŕ ÿŨŔ ųô łſĭ :Ĭñ ƦÿƉ Ŕ ĥť  ƙƆ Ŕ ŵɟ ŁŔ ƢŨŔ Īĭ ŏ .ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ  ƀɞ ł Ņ ł Ņ ł Œ łœ ň .ŧ ƢŅŨœ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞť ł ƀŅɞ ň Īœ Ĭñ ƦƉ Ŕ ĥť  ƙƆ Ŕ Į ŁŔ űɤ  ſĭ IJ Ņň .űŔū ł œ ųƊƣ ň ŒŁŔ ƢƟ Ņ ĭł :IJô űœūŦ Ŕł ŁŔ ĥ ťƀŅ ɞň Œ ŁŔ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň ťſ Ņ ł Ņ ł Œ łœ ň ł Ŕ ƢŅŨŔ ťƀŅ ɞň Īœ Ĭñ ƦƉ Ŕ ĥť  ƙƆ Ŕ Į ŁŔ űɤ  ſĭ Ūſ .ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞ ł ƎſĿň ŁŔĪŧ ŅŌ ň Ņ Ņ œ ũƣ ŏœ Ʀ Ŕ Ũœ :ťƀŅ ɞň Œ ŁŔ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň ŭſ .Ƣƀƣ ĥų  Ɗƣ ň ŒŁŔ ƢƟ Ņ ĭł :ŦƦ Ŕ òƍŨœ Ɓô ƍŷò Ņ ũœ ƣł ĪœIJô ƦŶŴ









  

 



   

Ch. 



Laban said to Jacob, “It is not done thus in our area — giving the younger before the elder. 1



Finish this one’s marriage feast 2 and I 3 will also give you that one for the service that you will render to me for yet another seven years.”



Jacob did so. He concluded [Leah’s] marriage feast 4 and he gave him Rachel his daughter as a wife.



Laban had given Bilhah his maidservant to Rachel his daughter as a maidservant.



He also went into Rachel. 5 He loved Rachel more than Leah and he served him for yet another seven years.

XLVI



The Lord saw that Leah was detested and he opened her womb. But Rachel was barren.



Leah conceived and she bore a son. She called him Rubel. 6 She said, “Because God has seen my subjection. Now my husband will love me.”



She conceived again and she bore a son. She said, “Because the Lord heard that I was detested he gave me also this [son].” She named him Simeon.



She conceived again and she bore a son. She said, “This time my husband will accompany me because I have borne him three sons.” Because of this, she named him Levi.



She conceived again and she bore a son. She said, “This time I will praise the Lord.” Because of this, she named him Judah. Then she stopped giving birth.

MT: ‘firstborn’. MT: ‘week’. 3 MT: ‘we’. 4 MT: ‘week’. 5 ‘went into’ or ‘had relations with’. 6 MT: ‘Reuben’. See the Introduction: Proper Names. 1 2



Ņ Ņ ł ň ň Ŕ ƦŔ Ɖ ň Ƨ :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞƎ ł ũŅ Ŕ ƆƢ Ņ Ɖĥ ł ĭň ĶűŅŔÿƟ ŦŁĿŴ œ ÿƕŏ ĮĵƦ œ Ɗ  Ɔ :ķĿłŁŤ Ŕ Ũť łŔ ƍŅ ƃłŔĬŅ űŔũƕ Ņ .ŦƦƤƀ œ ƤŌ Ɵł ňœ ň ň Ņ œ Ņ ŏœ ň ň ł ŏ ň ŅŅ ŏ œ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ŕ ÿƍŷƆŴ  ƙŔ Ũ :IJĬ Ļ  Ŕ ĥ ƅ Ŕ Ɔĵ  Łĥ  ĭ :ŧ ĪŔĬ Ī Ĭñ Łĭ Ŕ ƦƤ  ƉƋ  Ƈ ƣ Ɓô ÿƊłƕįŴ  ÿƇƘŔ ŁŔ Īť ŏ Ņ ł Ŕ ħĭ .ƎƀƌŅ ǔŶôĥ ƎƀòɫŌ ƣƗũƣ  Ŕ Łœ ň Ņ ŏœ ň Ō ł Ņ ł Ņ ĬŁƢŔ Ũłœ ƈƀʖ ň Ƣɝų Ņ ň ħ Ɔ  Ŕ ųô łſĭ :IJĬŅ Īœ Ĭñ Łĭ Ŕ ƦƤ  Ɖ  ƁƇ Ɖĭ  :ťƍƃŔ Ĭ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ űŔũƕ łŔ ĭł Ņ œ ł .ŦŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥ ň Ņ ł ň ł Ņ ł .ŦƦƉ Ŕ ĥ ĬƦƉ  ũƆ ň ƢɝƎ Ņ ũŅ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ ħ  Ŕ ųô łſĭ Ŕ ĬŁƢŔ Ũłœ ƈƀʖ Ŕ ĥŦųɤ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ųÿƊň łƕŸ  ÿłƇƘŔ ĭł :ťƀŅɞƎ ň Ɖƈƀ ň ň Ƣɝ ʖ Ņ Ļ  Ŕ ĥ ųñ ƊŶ  Ŀĭ  :ƈƀʖ ň Ŀƈ Ņ łƕ Ļ  Ŕ ĥ ƈłƕĭ  ŏ Ņ Ō ò ł Ņ Ŕ ħĭ  Ŕ Łœ .Ǝƀƌ ǔŶôĥ Ǝƀɫ ƣƗũƣ

Ŵƃ  ŵƃ  Ÿƃ  Żƃ  ĵ  ŴƉįĽ

Ņ ł ł Ŕ ƘŔ ĭł :ťƀŅɞ ň IJĬô ťƀƍŅ Ə ł Īť Ŕ ɕƢ Ņ ƉŦ Ņ ŵŶ Ņ ĭł Ƨ .ŦŁƢ Ŕ Ơƕƈƀ  ň Ŀĭ ʖ Ņ .ųñ ƖŅŨƢ œ Ɖį ł Ʀ ŏ ň Œ ł ň ň Ŕ ŪƆ ň Ŕ Ŀų ł Ũĭ ł œ ň ſĭ :ťƀŅɞ ŒŔ ƍź Ŧ ŵÿŶ Ņ Īłœ ƈÿźƉ ŏ Ɗƣ ň ŒŁŔ ƢƟ Ņ ĭł :ŧ ƢŅŨœ ŒŁŔ űɤ ň Ʀ  :ŁŔ ƢÿƉĥ  ĭ :ƈƀŨĭ ł .ƁƇƖ ô Ũłœ Ɓô ƍƊŶƢ Ņ ĥ ł ňƌť  ƣŅ ĬŅ :IJô űŔũƕŴ Ņœ ƣŏ ŦųŅ Ɔ ŏ Œ ł ň ł Īłœ ƈÿźŏ Ɖ Ņ ƉƗ Ŕ ƍźŨĭŔ ŭƆ .ťÿƌŅ ôĥťÿƀƍŅ Ə ł Īť Ŕ ÿɕƢ Ņ ÿƊƣ ň :ŒŁŔ ƢÿƉĥ ł ĭň .ŧ ƢŅŨœ ŒŁŔ űɤ łœ ň ſĭ ħĭ  Ŕ Łœ Ʀ Ņ ŏ Ņ Ō ħ  Ŕ ųô łſ .ķŴƖƊ  ƣų ň Ɗƣ ň ŒŁŔ ƢƟ  ĭł :ťƌŅĬŅ Ļ  Ŕ ĥ ƁƆ ŏ Œ ł ň Ņ ł Œ ł ň Ņ œ Œ łœ ň Ō Ŵň ÿɝł Ʀ Ŕ ƍźŨĭŔ űƆ :Ɓÿ ô ÿƇƖŨłŔ ƁÿƆŦ Ŕ ňƌŧ  Īň ŔĬŦ Ņ Ʀ œ ÿôƍŨĮ Ŕ :ŁŔ Ƣÿ ÿƉĥĭ .ŧ ƢÿŨ ŁŔ űÿɤ  ſĭ ħĭ  Ŕ Łœ Ʀÿ ŏ ŏ ň Ņ ň ň Ņ œ Ņ .IJŴŌɝų  Ɗƣ ň ŒŁŔ ƢƟť  ƌŅĬƈ Ņ ź Ɖ ň :ƎƀòɫŌ ŨŔ ŦƦ Ŕ Ɔ  Ł ųƆ  ŁŔűɤ ňœ ň ſĪœ ƈź Ɖ  ŏ Œ ł ň ŏ ň Ņ Ņ ň œ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Œ ł ň Ņ œ Œ łœ ň Ŕ ųƆ Ŕ ƍź  Ũĭ ťÿƌŅ ĬŅ ƈÿźƉ  :ťÿɕƢƊƆŧ  Īĭ  ĥť  ƌĬť  ƍŨŔ Į :ŁŔ ƢƉĥ  ĭ :ŧ ƢŨ ŁŔ űɤ  ſĭ ħĭ  Ŕ Łœ Ʀ Ņ ŒŔ Ɗ ł Ɵ ĭŧ Īĭ Ņ .ŧ űɤ Ņœ łſƎƉ ň Ʀ ŅŔ ųŏ Ōſ ųƊƣ ň ŒŁŔ ƢƟ



 







Ch. 



When Laban heard the news of Jacob, his sister’s son, he ran to meet him. He embraced him, kissed him and brought him to his house. [Jacob] recounted to Laban the whole affair. 1



Laban said to him, “Truly you are my bone and my flesh.” [Jacob] stayed with him for a month.



Laban said to Jacob, “Truly you are my kinsman. Should you work for me without recompense? Tell me what should be your wage.”



Laban had two daughters. The name of the elder was Leah and the younger was Rachel.



Leah’s eyes were soft but Rachel was beautiful in appearance and her countenance was fair.



Jacob loved Rachel and he said, “I will serve you seven years for Rachel your younger daughter.”



Laban said to him, “Better that I give her to you than that I give her to another man. Stay with me.”



Jacob served [him] for Rachel for seven years. They seemed like a few days to him because he loved her.



Then Jacob said to Laban, “Give me my wife because the days 2 are completed and I will go into her.” 3



Laban gathered all the people of the area and made a feast.



When it was evening, he took Leah his daughter and he brought her to him and he went into her.



Laban had given Zilpah his maidservant to Leah his daughter as a maidservant.



When it was morning and he saw that she was Leah, he said to Laban, “What is this that you have done to me? I served with you for Rachel. 4 Why have you deceived me?” 



‘the whole affair’: lit. ‘all these words’. MT: ‘my days’. 3 ‘I will go into her’ or ‘I will have relations with her’. 4 The rhetorical question in Hebrew is not expressed in Syriac. 1 2



ŏ ň ň Ņ łœ ŏ łſĪť Ņ ƣƎ ł Ŕ ŭſ ł űÿ ųÿƠň ƙœ łƕĭų  ÿň ƕĿĭƧİ  ĬĿ  :ĬƦ Ŕ ÿŶƢ ÿŨ ħŴ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ Ŕ ÿƖƊ ň ÿũŅ Ŕ ƆƗ Ņ ÿƊƣ Ŕÿƃĭ ň ň ň ŏœ ŅŅ ň ł .ƎƀƆ ň Ĭ Ņ ƨƉ ò Ǝſųɤ  ƃ ƎũŔ LJ  ƁŌƕƦƣĥ œ ĭň :ĬƦƀ œ ũłŔ Ɔ ųň ſƦſĥ œ ĭł :ųƠƤ ň ƌĭ ł ň ł ň ň Ŕ Ʀÿ Ō ňŁŔ Ŵÿɝ œ ô ƌĥƁô ÿƉƢū ł œ Ʀſ Ŕ Ō ĥƢſ Ņ ƢŌƣł :ƎũŅ Ŕ Ɔų Ņ ƆƢ ň Ɖ ł ĥ űſ Ņ ħ  Ŕ Ʀÿſ Ŕ ĭŌ .IJô ƢÿƐŨĭ įƢłÿɕĬ .ƎƀƉ Ō Ŵòɖł ň œ ł Ņ Ō Ņ Ōł Ŵÿƍł Ɖ Ņ Ɓô ƌŴŅŶł :ƎŬŅ œ Ɖ ł Ɓô ƍŷł ɤƘŔ Łœ .Ʀ  ô ƌĥƁô ʖĥ Ʀſ Ŕ ĥƢſ  Ƣƣ :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞƎ ł ũŅ Ŕ ƆƢ Ņ Ɖĥ ł ĭň ųſ ł .ĴŔ ƢŅū Ŕ ĥ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ĭł :ťÿƀŅ ɞŦ Ņ .ƎÿòƍŅ Ũœ ƎÿſňŁœ ĿŁłœ IJĭò ł Ĭô Ʀſ ŦŁĿŴ œ ÿƕŏ ĮĪłœ ųñ ÿƊƣ Ŕ Ō ĥƎ  ũŅ Ŕ LJ  ĭ Ŵſ ň ƦÿƤƀ œ ƤŌ Ɵł Īœ ųñ ÿƊƣ .ƈƀʖ ň ĿŅ ň Ņ Ņ ň œ Œ Ņ Ņ Ōœł ł Ņ Ŕ ƃŌœ ǓłťÿÿƀŅ ɞ ň Ŀĭ Ņ :IJĭò ĬƎ ô ÿÿƄƀ ň Īœ ųÿÿƀ ñ ňƍəòɯĭ ł ŵſ ŦŤÿÿɕĭ Ĭñ ĭŵ  ÿÿŷŨ ŁŔ ĭĬŧ ô Ƣÿÿƀ  ƙ ƣ ƈÿÿƀʖ Ņ ŏ Ŕ Ɵ .ųñ ɤ  Ƈô ŨŴ ň ł ň Ņ ĴŔ ŁƢ Ŕ ÿŨł œ ƈÿƀʖ ň ƢŅŨœ Ǝÿƀò ɫŌ ƣƗũƣ łŔ ƅ Ŕ ŷŅ ɤƘŔ ĥ .ƢƉĥ  ĭ :ƈƀʖ ň Ƣɝ Ņ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſƋ  ŶĿ ň ĭł Ÿɖ Ņ .ŦŁĿ œ ŴƕŏĮ ň Ō Ņ Ņ ƆƢ ň Ɖ ł ĥ Żſ .ƁƊ ô łƕ ħ  Ŕ Łœ :ƎſƢŶ  ôĥƥƌŅôƧ ųƀ ñ Ɔ Ō Łĥ œ Īňœ ƎƉ ň ƅ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ ųƀ ñ Ɔ Ō Łĥ œ Īňœ ŸƠŅ Ƙł œ :ƎũŅ Ŕ Ɔų ł ł Ņ Ņò ł ł Ŕ ƈƀʖ ŦƦ Ŕ Ɖ  Ŵ ÿɖ ƅÿſ  Ŕ ĥIJĬô Ŵÿƍł əòɳ ł Ũœ IJĭò Ĭĭł :Ǝÿƀò ɫŌ ƣƗÿũƣ ň ƢŅŨœ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſŸ  ł Ƈ ƘŔ ĭł Ĵ ŏ ň ň ŏ  .ųñ ɝŦ Ņ ĭŅĬƋ ô Ŷň ĿŅĪœ ƈź Ɖ  :ŧ ǓŴƕĮ Ņ Ņ ò ł ň łœ ŏ ň ł ł Ō ł ŅŅ ŏ ĭŦ ĵŴÿƕĥ ň Ʀ Ŕ Ɖ  Ŵ ɖŴô ƊƇƣ  Ī ƈź Ɖ  :IJô ŁŔƦ  œ ô ƌĥ ƁƆ  ħ  Ŕ Ĭ .ƎũŔ LJ  ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň ťƃ Ņ Ņ  .Ĭñ ŁŔ Ŵɝ ł .ťɕŅƦƤ œ Ɖ ł űŔũƕ łŔ ĭł :ŧ ĿŅŁŔĥ ƁƤò ł ƌŅôĥķĭųɤ ŏ ƄƆƎ ŏŔ ũŅ Ŕ Ɔƥ Ņ ňƍƃĭ łŔ Ūƃ ň ł Ņ ň ň Ņ ň łƕĭ Ŕ Ũť Ŕ ƀˁƆƢ  ŨłŔ Īœ :ťƤƉ Ņ ĿŦ ł ĭĬ Ņ űŔƃĭ łŔ ŭƃ  ųñ ɤƕĥ Ņ ĭĬ ł ŁƢ .ųƀ ñ Ƈƕƈ   :ĬŁŔ Ŵɝ ň ł Ņ ň Ņ ł ň ł Ņ ł Ŕ Ũť Ŕ ƀˁƆƎ  ũŅ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ ųñ ɝ Ņ ħ  Ŕ ųô łſĭ űƃ .ŦƦƉ Ŕ ĥĬ  ƦƉ Ŕ ĥťƙƆ Ŕ ŵɟ :ĬŁƢ ň Ņ ł Ŕ Īť łŔ ÿƌŅ ĬŅ Ŵÿƍł Ɖ Ņ :ƎũŅ Ŕ LJƢ  Ɖ ł ĥ :IJĬť ô ƀŅɞ ň ĪŦ Ŕ ŵŶ Ņ ĭł :ŧ ƢŅƘŔ ĽŦ ł ĭĬ Ņ űŔƃĭ łŔ ųƃ ŦĬŅ :ƁÿƆŌ Łœűœÿũƕ Ņ .Ɓƌ ô ƦƇ œ ƄłŔ ƌ ťƍŅƊƆ Ņ :ƅ Ŕ Ɗ Ņ łƕ Ʀ Ŕ ŷɤ ň Ƙň œ ƈƀʖ ň ƢŅŨŔ















 



   

Ch. 

Chapter  XLV



Jacob set out on a journey 1 and he went to the land of the people of the east.



He looked, and there was a well in the field. Three flocks of sheep were lying by it because the flocks were drinking from that well. A large stone was over the mouth of the well.



All the flocks used to gather there and they would roll away the stone from the mouth of the well and water the flocks. Then they would return the stone to its place to the mouth of the well.



Jacob said to them, “My brothers, where are you from?” They answered him, “We are from Haran.”



He said to them, “Do you know Laban, son of Nahor?” They said to him, “We know [him].”



He said to them, “Is he well?” They said to him, “[He is] well. Look, Rachel his daughter is coming with the flocks.”



Jacob said to them, “Look, it is still daytime. It is not time to gather the animals. Water the flocks and go pasture [them].”



They said to him, “We are not able to until all the flocks are gathered and they roll away the stone from the mouth of the well. Then we water the flocks.”



While he was still speaking with them, Rachel came with her father’s flocks for she was a shepherdess.



When Jacob saw Rachel, the daughter of Laban, his mother’s brother, and the flocks of Laban, his mother’s brother, Jacob approached and rolled away the stone from the mouth of the well and watered the flocks of Laban his mother’s brother.



Then Jacob kissed Rachel and he raised his voice and wept.



Jacob informed Rachel that he was her father’s kinsman and that he was Raphka’s son. She ran and told her father. 

1



‘Jacob set out on a journey’: lit. ‘Jacob raised his feet’.



.Żƃ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ł ň .ťŷƌ Ņ űŔ Ɖ ł Ɓƍł Ũò Ŕ Īť łŔ ƕĿ Ņ Ƨĵ  Įĥł ĭň :IJĬŴ ô ł Ƈ ū Ŕ Ǔ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſƋſ  ĿĥŌ ĭł ŏ ň Ņ Ņ œ ŌŅ Ņ Ņ œ Ņł Ņ ł Ņ Ō Ņ Ņ ł ň  Ī ƎſǓŵūŦ  Ʀ Ŕ Ɔ  Ł ƎƉ  Łĭ Ŕ :ƨƠ  ŷ Ũŧ Ŕ ƢŨŦ Ŕ ĬĭŦ  ŵŶ  ĭ ƈÿźƉ  :ųÿƀ ñ ƇƕƎƀ  ŌƖƀ  ŨŌŔ Ŀťòƍɯ Ņ Ŕ œł Ņ Ō ň Ņ œ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ Ō œ ň œ Ņ.ŧ ƢŨŌŔ Īœ ųñ ƉŴ Ņ Ƙŏ œ ƈłƕŦƦ Ŕ Ũ Ŀť  ƘŤ Ŕ ƃĭ Ŕ :ŧ Ǔŵū  ƎſƦ Ŕ ƣ IJĬŧ  ƢŨ ƎƉ  Ī Ō œ ł ł ň Ņ œ ŏ ŏœ Ņ ł ň ƘŤ Ŕ ƎƀƤƍ Ō ƃłœƦ Ŕ Ɖ ň ĭ .ŧ ƢŅÿŨŌ Ŕ Īœ ųñ ƉŴ Ņ ÿƘŏ œ ƎÿƉť ŅŔ ƃŌœ ƎƀƇ Ŭ  ƖƉ  ĭ :ŧ Ǔŵū  ķĭųɤ  ƃ ƎƉ  ƦƆ ŅŅ ň ł Ņ œ ŏ ŅŌ œ ñ Ņ ŏ   ƎƀƠƤ  Ɖĭ .Ĭñ Ʀ Ŕ ƃĭ  űɝ Ŕ ŧ ƢŨŔ Ī ų ƉŴ  ƙƆ Ŕ ťƘŤ ŅŔ ƃŌœ ƎƀƄŌŔ Ƙų œ Ɖ ł ĭ :ťòƍɯ Ņ ŏ œ ł Ņ œ ň ł òł ł Ņ .ƎƍŶķ ł ƢŅŶƎ Ņ Ɖų ň ƆƎſ ň ƢƉ Ō ĥ :ķĭƦ  ô ƌĥťƄ Ɗ  ſĥ Ɓʖĥ  ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſķĭ  ųɝƢ ŏ ł ĥ Ɖ Ņ Ņ ŏ Ņ .Ǝƍƀł ŌƕűŔŅſų  ƆƎſ ň ƢƉ Ō ĥ :ĿŴŷŏ ƌƢ Ņ Ũłœ ƎũŅ Ŕ LJķĭ  Ʀ œ ô ƌĥƎƀŌƕűŔŅſ .ķĭųɝƢ ŏ ł ĥ Ɖ Ņ ň Ņ ŏ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ƌÿłƕ ťÿɕŅ ŁŔĥĬ  ŁƢŔ ÿŨł œ ƈƀʖ ň ĿŦ Ņ Ĭĭ Ņ .ƋƇƣų  ƆƎſ ň ƢƉ Ō ĥ :ĭĬƋ ô Ƈƣ  :ķĭųɝƢ ŏ ł ĥ Ɖ ŅŅ  .ťòƍɯ Ņ Ņ ŏ łſķĭ Ņ łſƈÿƀ ƥÿƍł ƄŔ ƊƆť ň ÿƍŅ ŨŔ ĮŦ ł ĭŅĬ ô Ƨ :ƋÿƀŅ Ɵť ł ÿƉŴ  ƃŌœ űƕ łŔ ŦĬŅ :ħŴ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ  ųÿɝƢ ŏ ł ĥ Ɖ ŅŅ ł ł Ņ Ō œ  ŴƠƣ  ĥ :ŧ Ƣƀ  ƖŨ .ŴłƕĿ  Ŵô ƆňĮĭť  òƍɯ Ō œ ł ł ň Ņ œ ŏ ŏœ Ō łœ ň Ņ ł ł Ō œ ň Ņ ň Ō Ņ ƎÿƀƇ Ŭ  ƖƉ  ĭ :ŧ Ǔŵÿū ķĭųÿɤ  ƃ ƎƀƤƍ  ƃƦ Ŕ Ɖ  Īť Ŕ Ɖ  űƕ Ŕ Ǝƍƀ ʛ  ƄƤ  Ɖ  Ƨ .ųƆƎſ  ƢƉ  ĥ Ņ ƍłƀƠƤ ň Ɖĭ ò.ťƍŅɯƎ ň ƘŤ Ņ Ƙŏ œ ƎƉť ł :ŧ ƢŅŨŌŔ Īœ ųñ ƉŴ ŅŔ ƃŌœ ŏ ň Ņł ł ŒŅň Ņ ň ł  ƕ ŁŔ ŁŔ ĥ ƈƀʖ ň ĿŅ :ķĭųƊ ŏ łƕƈ  Ƈ ƊƉ  ĭĬŏ űŔłƕĭ  łŔ òƍɯƋ ŦƦƀ Ŕ ŌƕĿŅĪœ ƈź Ɖ  :ĬŴ ñ Ũĥŏ Ŕ Īť .IJĬô ł Ņ òŅ Ņ ł ň ň œ ŏ ł Ņ Ņ ł œ  ĭ :ųƉĥ  Ī ĬŴ ñ Ŷ ĥƎ  ũŔ Ɔ  ŁŔƢôŨ ƈƀʖ ñ Ŷŏ ĥƎ ĬŴ  ũŅ Ŕ Ɔ  Īť Ŕ ƍɳɝ ň Ƣɝ Ņ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ Ĭñ ŵŶ Ņ űŔƃĭ łŔ ŅŅ Ō ĭł :ŧ ƢŅÿŨŌ Ŕ Īœ ųñ ƉŴ ň ƘŤ ň œ łƕĭ  ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ ħ  Ŕ ƢƟ ň :ųƉĥ ň Īňœ  ƁÿƠƣĥ Ņ ÿƘŏ œ ƎÿƉť ŅŔ ƃŌœ ƈŬ ťÿòƍɳɝ ł Ņ .ųƉĥ ň Īňœ ĬŴ ñ Ŷŏ ĥƎũŅ Ŕ Ɔ  ĪŔ ň .ťƄŅŔ ŨŔ ĭų ł Ƈ ƟŅ ƋſĿĥŌ ĭł :ƈƀʖ ň Ƣɝ Ņ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ ųñ ƠƤ Ņ ƌĭ ł ł ň ł Īłœ :ƈÿƀʖ ŒŔ ÿŹĬĿĭ Ʀ  :ĭĬť ô ÿƠł ƘŔ ĿƢ ł ÿŨł Ŕ ĪŔĭł :ĬŴ ñ ÿŨĥŏ Ŕ Īłœ ĭĬô ťÿŶĥ ň Ƣɝ Ņ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ IJŴŌ Ŷĭ ł ł Œ ł ł Ŕ ſŴ  Ŷĭ  .ĬŴ ñ Ũŏ Ŕ Ƨ Ʀ



ųƉįĽ ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



į



İ



IJ 

ťſ  Ūſ 

Ch. 



The Lord was standing above it and he said, “I am the Lord God of Abraham your father and the God of Isaac. The land on which you are lying I will give to you and to your offspring.



Your offspring will be like the dust of the earth. You will become numerous to the east to the west to the north and to the south and all the families of the earth will be blessed in you and in your offspring.



I will be with you and I will protect you wherever you go and bring you back to this land. I will not leave you until I will have done what I have said to you.”



Jacob awoke from his sleep and said, “Truly the Lord is in this place and I did not know it.”



Jacob was afraid with great fear 1 and he said, “How terrifying is this place today. 2 This is none other than the house of God. This is the gate of heaven.”



Jacob rose early in the morning and he took the stone that he had set for his pillow and he set it up as a pillar and poured oil on top of it.



Jacob 3 called the name of that place Bethel. However, Luz was previously the name of that place. 4



Jacob vowed a vow and said, “If God will be with me and will protect me on this way that I am going and will give me food to eat and clothing to wear



and I will return safely 5 to my father’s house, then the Lord is God for me.



This rock, which I have set up as a pillar, will be the house of God. Of all that you give to me, I will surely return a tenth to you.”

Absent in the MT. Absent in the MT. 3 MT: ‘he’. 4 MT: ‘city’. 5 ‘safely’: lit. ‘in peace’. 1 2



ň Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ł Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņň ł Ņ Ņ ň :ĴŴ Ŕ ÿŨŏ Ŕ ĥĶ  ĬŅ ƢŅŨĥ Ŕ Īłœ Ĭųň Ɔ Ņ ĥť  ɕƢ  Ɖť  ƌôĥťƌĥ :ƢƉĥ  ĭ :ųñ ƍƉƈ  ň ƖɝĶ  ŤƟť  ɕƢ  ƉŦ  Ĭĭ  ŭſ ň ł ł ň Ō Ņ Ņ œ Ņ Ņ .ƅ Ŕ ƕĿ  ŵɟ ł ĭł ųƀ ñ Ɔ  Łĥ ƅ Ŕ Ɔ  :ųƀ ñ Ƈƕ  Ʀ œ ô ƌĥ ƅ Ŕ Ɖ ň ĪŅŔĪť  ĭł Ŕ ƕĿ  ĥ .ơŷƐſĥ Ņ ĪŌœ Ĭųň Ɔĥ ł Ņ ł ň ň Ņ Ŕ ƖƊƆ ň œ ňŁĭ Ŕ .ťƕĿĥ Ņ Īŧ łŔ ƢŅƙŔ łƕ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ƅ Ŕ ƕĿ  ĮŦ  ĭų  ƌĭ  űſ :ťÿƀŅ ŨƢ œ ŬƆ Ŕ ł ĭł :ťŨƢ ł ĭł :ťŷƌ Ņ űŔ ƊƆť ł ŬƏ Ņ ł ŏ Ņ Ņ Ņ łŔ Ʀ .ƅ Ŕ ƕĿ  ŵłŨŔ ĭł :ťƕĿĥ  ĪŦ Ŕ ŨŅ Ŕ ǔƣƎſ ł ųɤ ň ƃœ ƅ Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎƃŔ ǔŨłœ Ʀ Ŕ ĭł Ņ ƦƆ Ŕ ňƌĭ :ťƍƊſ Ō ň Ņ ň Ņ ňŅ Ņ ł Ņ œ ł Ņ œ Ƨł ĴŔ ƢÿŹĥ Ŕ ÿƄſ Ņ ĭň :ƅ Ŕ Ɗ Ņ łƕť  ƌŅĥŦ  Ĭĭ  ųſ ƅ Ŕ ÿƠŅ ũƣ œ ĥ  Ƨĭ  :ŧ ĪŔĬť  ÿƕĿƧ ƅ Ŕ ÿƄŔ ƘĬĥ  ĭ :ĵĮĥł ŁŔ Īť Ņ ň .ƅ Ŕ Ɔ  ŁŔƢƉĥ  Īňœ ĶűňœƉ łŔ ň űŔũƕĥ ňœ Īť ňŔ Ɖ Ņ űƕ ň ťÿƌĥŅ ĭň :ťƌŅĬŧ Ņ ĿŅŁŤ Ŕ ŨłŔ ťɕƢ Ņ Ɖ Ņ Ʀſ Ŕ Ō ĥ Ʀſ Ŕ Ō ĥƢſ Ņ ƢŌƣƢ ł Ɖĥ ł ĭň :ĬƦƍ Ŕ ƣň ƎƉ ň ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſƢƀ  ŌƕŁœŁĥ œ ĭň Ŵſ Ņ .Ʀ Ŕ ň ƕűŔň ſ Ƨ ł ŏ Ņ ł Ņ ňœ ŏ ł ň ł :ťÿƍŅ ƉŴ Ņ łſ ťÿƌŅ Ĭŧ Ņ ĿŅŁŔĥ ĭĬƈÿƀ ô Ō Īť ʖ Ŕ ÿƉŅ :ƢƉĥ ł ĭň :ŦƦ Ŕ Ũœ ĿŦ  ƦƇ Ŕ ŶĪ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ  ſƈ  Ŷ ĪŔĭ ŵſ ň ň ł Ņ ň ł ł Ņ œ Ņ .ťƀŅƊƣ ł Īłœ ųñ ƕĿ  Ł ŴƌłĬĭ Ņ :ŦųŅ Ɔĥ  Īłœ ĬƦƀ Ŕ Ɔ  œ Ũłœ ķĥ  Ƨĥť  ƌŅĬŅ IJĬô ĭƦƀ ň Ņ ň Ņ ñ Ņœ ł :ŦƦÿƊ  ÿƏŅ ĪŔ ťƘŤ ŅŔ ƃŌœ Ū  Ŕ Ɛƌ ł ĭł :ŧ ƢŅƙŔ Ƥł Ũœ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſĶ  űňœƟĭ ł Ÿɖ Ŕ ƀƟ Ĭ űÿũŔ ƕĭ :IJĬô ĭòűłŔÿƏŅ ĥƋ .ųñ ƤŅ ſƢŌŨť Ŕ ŷƤ Ņ Ɖ ň ƅ Ŕ Ɛƌ ł ĭł ł ŏ łſŧ ĭĬł ŧ ĿŅŁŔƧ ŦĭŅĬų ô ƊƣĮŴ ň ŏ ƢłŨœ :ƈſŌ ĥ Ʀƀ ƆĶ Ŕ Ũňœ ĭĬŧ ł ĿŅŁĥ Ŕ Īłœ ųƊƣ ň ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ  ƢƟ Ņ ĭł Żſ .ƋſűƟƎ ŌŔ Ɖ ň ł ň ň ň ł ň Ņ ň ĵňĮĥ Īŧ ŅŔ ĪňŔĬŅ ťŶĿĭŤ Ņ Ũŏœ Ɓô ƌƢź ł ƍƌł ĭł :ƁƊ ô łƕŦ  ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥŦ  ĭų  ƌķ  ĥ :ƢƉĥ  ĭŧ  ĿűŔƌ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſĿ  űƌłŔ ĭł Ĵ ň ŏ Ŕ ĭłƈƃŤł Ŕ ƊƆť .ƥũɤ łœ Ɗ ň ƆťƣŴ Ņ ũƆ ň Ɗŷ Ņ Ɔ ł ƁƆĵ Ō Ʀ œ ňƌĭ  :ųñ ŨŅ Ŕ ťƌŅôĥ Ņ ň ł Ņ Ņ Ō ň ň Ŕ ťƊ Ņ ɤƤ Ņ Ũłœ ĴŴ .ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥť  ɕƢ Ɖ  ƁƆŦ  ĭų  ƌ :Ɓô ŨŔ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ ũƆ Ŕ ƘĬĥ ŏ œ ĭň ťƃ ňň ň Ņ ň Ņ ňœ ň ň Ņ Ņ Ō ň Ņ Īłœ ĬƦÿƀ ŏ Ŕ .ŦųŅ ÿƆĥ ƁÿƆŌ ĵŁœ ŁŔ Īœ ƈÿƃĭ œ ŨłŔ ŦĭĬ ň Łœ :ŦƦÿƊ Ŕ ƀƟ ŁŔűÿũŔ ƕĪŧ Ŕ ĪŔĬť  ÿƘŤŔ ƃĭ  Ūƃ ň ŏ ŅłŔ Ņ ł ł .ƅ Ŕ ƆƢ  Ɛ  ƕĥĭ  ƢƐ  ƖƉ 



















 

Ch. 

Chapter  

Isaac summoned Jacob and he blessed him and gave orders to him. He said to him, “Do not take a wife from among the daughters of the Canaanites.



Rise and go to Paddan-aram to the house of Bethuel, your mother’s father and get a wife for yourself from there from among the daughters of Laban your mother’s brother.



May Elshaddai bless you and multiply you and make you numerous. May you become a company of nations.



May he give you the blessings of Abraham, to you and to your offspring with you. May he give you as an inheritance the land where you are sojourning, which God gave to Abraham.”



Isaac sent Jacob away and he went to Paddan-aram to Laban, son of Bethuel the Aramean, the brother of Raphka, the mother of Jacob and Esau.



Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob his brother and had sent him to Paddan-aram to get from there a wife for himself. After he blessed him, he gave him orders, saying to him, “Do not take a wife from among the daughters of the Canaanites.”



Jacob listened to his father and his mother and went to Paddan-aram.



Esau saw that the daughters of the Canaanites were unpleasant in the eyes of Isaac his father.



Esau went to Ishmael and took as a wife Basemath, 1 daughter of Ishmael, son of Abraham, sister of Nebaioth in addition to his other wives.

XLIV



Jacob left Beer-sheba to go to Haran.



He came to a place and spent the night there because the sun was setting. He took some stones of the place, he set them as his pillow and he lay down in that place.



In his dream he saw a ladder standing on the earth. The top of it was reaching to the heavens and the angels of God were ascending and descending on it. 1

MT: ‘Mahalath’. See the Introduction, Proper Names.



ňł

.Ÿƃ :ķĭŅ ƨƙ Ŕ Ɵň Ņ œ ł ł ň Ņ ň ł ň ňœ ł Ŕ Ƨ :ųƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭĬ  űƠ  Ƙĭ Ŕ ųƃƢ ňŔ Ũĭ łŔ :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞơ ł Ņ Ō ĥŧ ŷƐſ  ƢƟ Ņ ĭł ƎƉŦ ň ŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥ Ū  Ŕ ƏŁ Ņ Ŕ òƍŨœ .ƎƖƍłƃœ Ʀ ň ŏ œ ň ł ňĮĶŴ Ŕ :ĶĿĥŅ ĪŅœ ķűŅŔƙƆ Ŕ Ũ Ʀƀ Ŕ ũƆ ŅŔ ƅ Ŕ Ɔĵ Ņ  Ɵŏ ƅ Ŕ ÿƆŅ Ū  Ŕ Əĭ ł :ƅ Ŕ Ɖĥ Ņ Īňœ ĬŴ ñ Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ ƈſĥĭ Ʀ ł Ņ òŅ œ ň Ņ œ ł Ņ ł œ ň   :ŦŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥ ƎƉ  Ł ƎƉ .ƅ Ŕ Ɖĥ Ņ Īňœ ĬŴ ñ Ŷŏ ĥƎ  ũŅ Ŕ Ɔ  Ʀ Ŕ ƍŨ ƎƉ ň ň œ ƌĭ ł ĴŔ ƢŅũœ ƄŔ ƌĭ ł :ƅ Ŕ ƃƢ ŅŔ ũƌ łŔ IJűłœƤł ɤſŌ ĥ Ŕ :ƅƀ  Ŕ ŬƐ .ťƊň Ɗòô łƕĪť Ŕ Ƥƍ Ņ ƄƆ ňŔ ŦĭĬ ň Łĭ Ņ ň ň Ņ ĥł ĴŔ ŁĿ Ņ ŵɟ ťÿƕĿ Ŕ Ŵÿƌĭł :ƅ Ŕ ÿƊŅ łƕ ƅ Ŕ ÿƕĿ ł ĭł ƅ Ŕ ÿƆŅ :ĶĬŅ ƢŅÿŨĥŔ Īłœ ĬƦ Ŕ ƃŅœ ǓŴÿŨŏ œ ƅ Ŕ Ɔĵ Ņ Ʀ œ ňƌĭ  ł Ņ Ņł Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ł œ  ĪŔ .ĶĬ ƢŨŔ Ƨ Ŧų Ɔ  ĥ ħ  Ŕ ųô ſĪ ĴŔ ƢƊ  ƖƉ ň ŏ œ łœ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ŕ Ũ ƢŨ ƎũŔ Ɔ ƈſĥĭ Ʀ  ŁŔŴɝ  :ĶĿĥŅ ĪŅœ ķűŅŔƙƆ ŅŔ ĵĮĥł ĭň :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞơ ł Ņ Ō ĥĬ ŷƐſ  Ŀňűœƣĭ ł ň ł Ņ ŅŅ  Ŀĥ .ŴƐ ŏ ŌƕĪŔĭł ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſĪœ ųƉ ň ĥť  ƠŅ ƘŔ ĿłĪœ ĬŴ ñ Ŷŏ ĥ :ťƀŅ Ɖ ł Ņ Ŕ ĬĿňűœÿƣĭ ŏ ƀɞơ ň Ŕ ŨłŔ ĪŔ ŴÿƐŏ ŌƕŦ ł :IJĬŴ Ņ Ō ĥų ĶĿĥŅ ĪŅœ ķűŅŔÿƙƆ ô ÿŶŏ ĥ ħŴ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ ł ÿŷƐſ  ÿƃƢ  ŵÿŅÿŶĭł ň Ņ œ ň ł ň ňœ ł Ņ œ ł Ņ łœ ň ň Ŕ ƧĪ :ųÿƆƢƉĥ  ĭĬ  űƠ  Ƙĭ Ŕ ųƃƢ ňŔ Ũłœ űŔƃł œ :ŦŁŔ Ʀ  Ɔ  Ū  ŔƐ ł ƊƆ ň  Ŕ ÿƏł Ł Ū  ô ƌĥ ƎƉ  Ł ƎƉų Ņ ň Ņ œ ł  ŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥ .ƎƖƍłƃœ Ʀ Ŕ òƍŨœ ƎƉŦ ň ł .ĶĿĥŅ ĪŅœ ķűŅ Ŕ ƙƆ ŅŔ ĵĮĥł ĭň :ųƉ ň Ƨĭ  IJĬô ŴŨŏ Ŕ Ƨ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſƗ  Ɗƣ ł ĭł ł Ņ Ō ł ò ł œ ł œ òŅ œ Ņ ò Ō ŏ Ō Ņ ł  ƕŦ  ŵŶ  ĭ .IJĬŴ ô Ũŏ Ŕ ĥơ  ŷƐſ  ĥ Ɓƍəɳ  Ũ ƎƖƍƃ Ʀ Ŕ ƍŨ ƎƤ ƀŨŔ ĪŔ ŴƐ ňŔ Ū ł ũƆ ł ĭł :ƈƀň ƖƊƤſ ƢÿŨł œ ƈÿƀň ƖƊƤſ Ņ Ō ĥ ŁŔƢôÿŨł œ Ʀ  Ŕ ÿƐƌ Ņ Ō ĥ ŁŔŴɝ Ņ ŴƐ ŏ ŌƕĵĮĥł ĭň Ŕ ÿƊƐ Ņ œ ł ň ł ň .ŦŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥųƆ  IJĬô ŴƤò ł ňƌ ƈłƕ ŁŴ Ŕ ƀŏũƌ ŌŔ Īłœ ĬƦ Ŕ ŶŅ :ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥ

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űƉįĽ

.ķƢŅŷƆĵ Ņ ĮŤł ƌŌĪœ Ɨũƣ łŔ ƢŨŌœ ƎƉ ň ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſơ  ƙƌ łŔ ĭł ňò Ō œ ň ŏ ň Ņ łœ Ņ Ņ łœ ł ł ł œ ň ƕĪœ ƈź Ņ ƣň Ʀ ťÿƘŤ  Ŕ ÿƐł ƌĭł .ťÿƤƊ Ŕ ÿŨƢ Ɖ  : ƎƉ  Ł Ʀ Ŕ Ũĭŧ Ŕ Ũ ƗŬ Ŕ ƘŔ ĭ Ŕ ƃ ƎÿƉ Ū Ŕ Ŀň ŁŤ Ņ.ŧ ĿŁĥł ĭųł Ũœ ƅ Ɖ ò ň ł Ņ Ņ ł  ĥ ƋƏĭŧ  ĿŅŁĥ Ŕ ĪłŔ Ŕ  ĪŔĭ :IJĬô ĭűŔ Ə Ŕ ň Ņ Ņ Ō Ņ Ņ Ũť ŦĬĭ Ņ :ťÿƀŅ ƊƤ ł Ɔť ł ÿźƉ  ųñ ÿƤſĿĭ  :ťÿƕĿŤ łŔ Ɗƀ Ņ ƟŅ ŦƦƇ Ŕ ũňœ ƏŦ ň Ĭĭ Ņ :ųƊɤ ň ŷň ŨŦ Ŕ ŵŶ Ņ ĭł ł Ō Ņ .ųñ ŨŅœ ƎſƦŷ œ ƌĭƎƀ  Ơɤ Ō Ə Ņ ŦųŅ Ɔĥ Ņ ĪłœIJĬô Ŵò ƃłŔƨƉł



IJ  ťſ  Ūſ 

Ch. 



Isaac answered and said to Esau, “I have made him chief over you. All his brothers too I have given to him as servants. I have sustained him with crops and wine. Therefore, what can I do for you, my son?”



Esau said to his father, “Do you have but one blessing, father? Bless me as well, father.” Esau raised his voice and wept.



Isaac his father answered and said to him, “In 1 the fatness of the land and from the dew of the heaven above will be your dwelling.



By your sword you will live and you will serve your brother. If you repent, 2 his yoke shall pass away 3 from your neck.”



Esau held a grudge against Jacob because of the blessings with which his father had blessed him. Esau said to himself, 4 “Let the days of mourning for my father come. Then I will kill Jacob my brother.”

XLIII



The words of her older son Esau were told to Raphka and she sent word and summoned Jacob her younger son. She said to him, “Esau your brother is threatening to kill you.



Now listen to me, my son. Rise and go 5 to Laban my brother, to Haran. Stay there 6 a few days until your brother’s anger will have subsided,



until your brother’s anger against you will have passed and he forgets what you did to him. Then I will send word and fetch you from there so I will not be bereft of you both in one day.”



Raphka said to Isaac, “I am distressed by these daughters of the Hittites. If Jacob takes a wife from among these daughters of the Hittites, like these daughters of the land, why should I continue living?” 7

MT: ‘from’. See the Introduction: Divergent readings. 3 MT: ‘you will tear off’. 4 ‘to himself’: lit. ‘he said in his heart’. 5 MT: ‘flee’. 6 MT: ‘with him’. 7 ‘why should I continue living?’: lit. ‘why does life go on for me?’ 1 2



ł ŏ ŏœ Ņ Ņ ňŁœ űœũƕ IJĬô Ŵò ÿŶł ĥķĭ  ųÿɤ  ƃ Ļĥ  Ŕ ĭ :ƅ Ŕ ÿƆĬ łŔ ťƤŅ ſĿŦ Ō ĬŅ :ŴƐ ŏ ŌƖɝƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭơ ň ŷƐſ Ņ Ō ĥť  ƍƕ Ņ ŵƆ ň ň ł Ņ ł ł Ņ ŏ ł ňœ ò ł ň ň œ ň űŔũƕ ňœ ĥť  ƍŅƉƈƀ Ņ ƃŌ Ŕ ĬŅ ƅ Ŕ Ɔĭ Ņ :ĬƦ  Ɔ  Ʀ Ŕ Ũųſ œ ƄŔ Ɗ  Ə ŧ ƢƊ  ŷ ŨŔ ĭŧ  ĿŴ  ũƖŔ Ũĭ Ŕ :ŧ űũŔ ƕų .IJô ƢŨňœ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ŏŌ ł ň Ņ œ ŏœ  Ŕ ĥƁô ƍƀƃł Ŕ ƢňŨłœ :Ɓô ŨŔ ĥ ƅ Ŕ Ɔ .Ɓô ÿŨŔ ĥ ƁÿƆŌ Ļ  IJĬô ŧ űŶŦ ŅŔ Ʀ Ŕ ƃĿŴ  Ũ :IJĬŴ ô Ũŏ Ŕ Ƨ ŴƐ  ƕƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ŸƆ ň Ņ ŏŌ Ō ł Ņ ł .ťƄŔ ŨŔ ĭų  Ƈ Ɵ ŴƐ  ƕƋſ  Ŀĥ ĭ ł Ņ Ō Ņ ň :ƅ Ŕ ŨŅ Ŕ ŁŴ ł ĭų ƎÿƉĭ œ ÿƉŦ ň ÿňƌťƕĿĥ Ņ Īłœ ųñ ƍƉŴ Ņ Ƥŏ ŨŦ Ŕ ĬŅ :ųƆƢ ň Ɖĥ ł ĭňIJĬô ŴŨŏ Ŕ ĥơ  ŷƐſ  ĥť  ƍƕ  ŻƆ Ņł ň ň ł ł  ƀŅƊƣ  Ī .ƈƖɝ  ƎƉť Ŕ ƨŹ ŏ œ ň Ō Ņœ ł ł ŏ ň  ĭ .įŴƇ ƘŔ Łœ ĴŴ Ŕ Ŷŏ Ƨĭ  :ťŶň ĥŁœ ƅ Ŕ ŨƢ .ĴŔ Ŀĭ Ņ ĽƎ ł ƉĬ ň Ƣƀ ň ƌƢ Ō ũƖ łœ ňƌ :ħĭ  Ŕ ŁŔ Łķĥ  Ŷ ƈłƕĭ  Ķ ł ň ł Ņ Ņœ ŏœ ŏ ƀɞ ł ĭň .IJĬŴ ŴÿƐŏ ŌƕƢ  ÿƉĥ ô ÿŨŏ Ŕ ĥų  ÿƃƢ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ ƃ ǓŴÿŨ ƈÿłƕ ħŴ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ ł ŴÿƐŏ ŌƕƢ  ƠƏ ł ĭł ťƉ Ŕ ŨŔ ĪŦ Ņ Ņ ò ł ŏ ň ňœň Ō ŏ ƀɞ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ ħŴ ł IJĬô ŴÿƀƇźƟĥ  ĭň :Ɓô ÿŨĥŔ ĪŅœ IJĬô ŴòƄłŔ ŨŅœ Ʀƀ  ŨŔ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ Ɖ  Ŵɖ ķŴŨƢƠ Ŕ Ũň Ŕ ĪŦ Ŕ ƌ :ųũ ɢ Ņ .Ɓʖ ô ĥ







 

ŭƉįĽ

ň ŏ ƀɞ Ņ ƤŌ Ɵł Ĭñ ƢŅÿŨŔ ŴƐ ł .ťÿƤƀ ł ŁĥŔ ĭň ŪƉ Ɖĥ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ ħŴ ł ŒŁŔ ƢÿƟ Ņ Œ ŁŔ Ŀłűœÿƣĭ ŏ ŌƕĪœIJĬô Ŵò ɤ ł Ɖť ň ƠŅ ƘŔ ƢɝƢ ł ł ŏŌ Ņ ň Œ ł ň Ņ ŏ Ņ œ Ņ .ƅ Ŕ ƇźƠ  ƊƆ ň ƅ Ŕ ƆƋ Ņ ŷł Ɔ ł Ʀ Ŕ Ɖ ň ĴŴ Ŕ Ŷŏ ĥ ŴƐ  ƕŦ  Ĭ :ųƆ  ŁŔ ƢƉĥ  ĭ :ŧ ĿŴ  ƕĮ  Ĭñ ƢŨ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ɓô ÿʖĥƎ ňŔ ƣŅ ĬŅ ŭƉ  ũŅ Ŕ Ɔ  ŁŔŴɝ  ƅ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ ĵňĮĶŴƟĭ ŏ :ƁƇ ô ƠŅ Ũœ ƗƊƣ ł IJô ƢŨť  Ŕ ŁŔ ĭ .ķƢŅÿŷƆ ħ ň ŏ Ņ Ņ ò ł Ņ łœ .ĴŴ Ŕ Ŷĥ ŏ Īłœ Ĭŵňūĭ Ŕ ĿŸɚ ŏ ɧŌŁœƦ œ ňƌĪť Ŕ Ɖ Ņ űƕ łŔ ŧ ǓŴƕĮŦ  Ʀ Ŕ Ɖ  Ŵ ɖƎ  Ɖ  Ł ň ÿňƖźňƌĭ :ƅ Ŕ ÿƍŅ Ɖ ł Ŕ Īłœ ĶűňœÿƉť Ŀűł œ ÿƣł ĥĭň :ųÿƆň Łœűœÿũƕ ň ĴŴ Ŕ Ŷĥ ŏ Īłœ Ĭŵňūĭ Ŕ Ŀŏ ƢũƖ łœ ňƌĪť Ŕ Ɖ Ņ űƕ łŔ ĭł űƉ Ņ ł ň Ņ ł œ Ņ ł œ ň Ņ œ ł œň .űŔŶť ł ƉŴ Ņ ƀłŨœ ķŴƄſ ŏœ ǓłŁœ ƎƉ ň Ļ  Ŕ ĥŦ  ŵňū  œ ŁŔĥťƊƆ  Ī :ƎƉ  Ł ƎƉ  ĴŔ ƢŨ Īĥ ň Ō Ņ Ņ ň òł ł ŒŔ Ơł ƕŅ .ơŷƐſ Ņ Ƨť  ƠŅ ƘŔ Ŀł Œ ŁŔ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň ųƉ  ŨŔ ƁƆ Ō Ʀ  Ɓɚʛ  Ŕ ÿƐł ňƌķ Ū  ĥ .Ʀƀ Ŕ ʖ Ō Ʀ Ŕ òƍŨœ ĶűƟƎ Ŕ Ɖ Ņ Ņ ł òŅ œ ň Ņ ł Ņ ň Ņ œ ł Ō ƆĮ  ŦŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſ  Ĭ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ ʖ Ō Ʀ Ŕ òƍŨœ ƎƉ ƁÿƆƎÿƀ ô Ō ĥť  ÿƍŅ ƊƆ  :ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ Ʀ Ŕ ƍŨ ƎƀƆ ň ł  .ťƀò ʖ











Ch. 



Isaac his father said to him, “Draw near and kiss me my son.” He drew near and he kissed him.



He smelled the scent of his clothes and he blessed him and said, “See, the scent of my son is like the scent of the field that the Lord has blessed.



May God give to you of the dew of heaven and of the fatness of the earth and an abundance of crops and of wine.



May peoples serve you and may nations bow down to you. Be chief among your brothers and may your mother’s sons bow down to you. Those who curse you are cursed. Those who bless you are blessed.”



Just when Isaac finished blessing Jacob and Jacob departed from Isaac his father, Esau his brother came from his hunt.



He too made a stew and brought [it] to his father. He said to his father, “Let my father rise and eat of his son’s game so that your very self might bless me.”



Isaac his father said to him, “Who are you?” He said, “I am your first born son, Esau.”



Isaac was alarmed with a great and very violent 1 panic. He said, “Who indeed was the one who hunted game and brought [it] to me? I ate some of it before you came and I blessed him. Indeed, he shall be blessed.”



When Esau heard his father’s words, he let out a great and very bitter wail. He said to his father, “Bless me as well, father.”



His father said to him, “Your brother came deceitfully and received your blessings.”



Esau said, “Rightly he is called Jacob because he has deceived 2 me now twice. He took my birthright and now he has received my blessings.” Esau said to his father, “Do you still have a blessing left for me?” 

1 2



Absent in the MT. See the Introduction: A Final Word: The Genius of the Translator.



ł Ņ Ō ň ł ň .ųƠƤ ň ƌĭ ł ħ  Ŕ ƢƟ ň ĭł :IJô ƢŨňœ Ɓô ƍƀƟŴ ł ƣĭ ŏ ħĭ  Ŕ ƢƟ ŏ :IJĬŴ ô Ũŏ Ŕ ĥơ  ŷƐſ  ĥų  ƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ŵƃ ł ň Ŕ Ũĭ ł ĭų ň ĿŌ ĭŵÿŶ Ņ ĿŌ ƅÿſ ł :ƢÿƉĥ ň ÿƃƢ łŔ :IJĬô Ŵò ÿɥł ŤƉ Ņ Īť Ŕ ŷɖ Ņ ĿŸɖ Ō ĿĥŌ ĭł ŵƃ ťÿŷɖ  Ŕ ĥ :IJô ƢÿŨň Ŕ Īœ ųÿŷɖ Ņ .ťɕƢ Ņ Ɖ Ņ ųñ ƃƢ Ŕ ƨƠ  Ŷł ĪŔ ŅŔ Ũł Ŕ Ī Ņł ň Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ň ŏ Ŕ ĪŦŤ ŏ :ťƕĿĥ ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ÿũƕ łŔ ūŴ ŔŅ ÿƏĭ Ņ Īłœ ųñ ƍƉŴ Ņ ƣƎ ŏ Ɖĭ ň :ťƀŅƊƣ ł Ī łŔ ƨ ŹƎ  ƉŦ  ų Ɔ  ĥ ƅ Ŕ Ɔĵ  Ʀ œ ňƌ Ÿƃ Ņ Ŷł ĪŔĭł .ŧ ƢƊ Ņ òň Ņ Ņ œ òň ł œ ňƌĭ ķĭűŏŔÿŬƐ  :ƅ œ ÿƀò ʖ ł Ƨť  ÿƤŅ ſĿŌ IJĭĬ Ō .ŦŁŔ ŴŅƉ  ĥ ƅ Ŕ Ɔķ  űŔ Ŭ Ɛ  ƌĭ  :ťƊň Ɗòô łƕ ƅ Ŕ ƌŴ Ņ ŷŏ ɤƙŔ ňƌ Żƃ ň ł Ō Ō œ ł ò Ņ Ō Ŕ ƢŌŨœ ƅƀ Ņ .ƎƀƄſ  œ ƃłœ ǔŨŅ Ŕ ĭ :Ǝƀź  ƀƆ  ƅ ƀź  ƀɞ  .ƅ Ŕ Ɖ Ņ ĥ ƁòƍŨœ ƅ Ŕ Ɔ ň ŏŅ ł ł Ņ Ō ň ł ł ł Ŕ ĭł :ħŴ ŏ łſơ ŏ ƀɞĬ Ŕ ƃŔ ƢũƊ  ơŷƐſ  ĥ ƋƇ ƣ űŔƃĭ Ŕ ĵ ŁŔŴÿɝƎ Ņ ÿƉň ħŴ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ  ÿƙƌ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ ł ŁŴ Ŕ Ɔ ň Ņ ł ł Ō ň ŏ Ņ ŏ ŏ ň ł Ņ ô ŨŔ ĥ ơŷƐſ  Ō ĥ .Ĭűſ œ ĽƎ  ƉŦ  ŁŔ ĥIJĬô ŴŶ ĥ ŴƐ  ƕ ŦĬ ĭ :IJĬŴ Ņ ŏ ŅŅ ŏ ŏ Ņ ł ł ł ł ň ł ƑłƖɤ  ňƌĭ  Ɓô ŨŔ ĥĶŴ  Ơƌ  :IJĬŴ ô Ũŏ Ŕ ƧƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ .IJĬŴ ô Ũŏ Ŕ Ƨƈ  ň ƕĥ  ĭł :ƨƣŴ  ŨŔ ĭĬ Ļ  Ŕ ĥ űŔũƕ Ŕ ĭ Ƨ ŏ ň ň ł Ņœ ł ň ł ł ł ł Ņ œ .ƅ Ŕ Ƥ ƙŔ ƌƁô ƍƃƢ Ŕ ŨŔ ŁŔĪ ƈź Ɖ  :ĬƢŨŔ Īŧ  Ľ ƎƉ  Ŕ űſ ň ł ň œ ł ł ł Ņ Ō ň łŅ .ŴƐ ŏ Ōƕ ĴŔ ƢŅƃŴ Ŕ Ũŏœ ĴŔ ƢŅŨœ ĭĬô ťƌłĥƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ :Ʀ  ô ƌĥƎƉ  IJĬô ŴŨŏ Ŕ ĥơ  ŷƐſ  ĥų  ƆƢ  Ɖ  ĥ ŪƆ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł ŧ űÿſ Ņœ Ľł ĪŔ ĽŅĪœ ĭĬł Ɓƃł Ŕ ŴƍŏƉƢ ł Ɖĥ ł ĭň .Ū  Ŕ ŹĪœŦƦƍƀ œ ƤŌ łƕĭŦ  Ʀ Ŕ Ũœ ĿŦ  ŁĬĭ Ŕ Łœ ơŷƐſ Ņ Ō ĥĬ  ĭłŁŔĭł ŭƆ Ō ň ł ň Ō Ņ ł Ŕ ƧűŔƕƈ  ƃŏœ ƎƉ ň Ʀ Ŕ ƐƖ ň Ɔĭ ň :ƁƆ Ō IJƦſĥ œ ĭł .Ŧĭų ň ňƌ ƅſ  Ŕ ƢŌŨœ Ļ  Ŕ ĥĭĬ Ņ Ʀ Ŕ Ł œ ƃŔƢňŨĭ Ŕ ŦŁĥ Ņ Ņ œ Ō ł Ņ œł Ņ ň Ō ň ł ł Ŕ űƆ :Ū  Ŕ ŹĪœŦŁƢſ  ƢƉĭŦ  Ʀ Ŕ Ũ ĿŦ  ƦƇ Ŕ Ƈ ſƈƇſ  ĥ :IJĬŴ ô Ũĥŏ Ŕ ĪłœIJĬô Ŵò ɤ ł Ɖ ň ŴƐ ŏ ŌƕƗ  Ɗƣ ł űŔƃĭ Ņ Ō Ņ ł ł ň .Ɓô ŨŔ ĥ ƁƆ  Ļ  Ŕ ĥƁô ƍƀƃłŔƢňŨłœ :IJĬŴ  ĭ ô Ũŏ Ŕ ƧƢ  Ɖĥ ň ň Ņ ł ł Ņ .ĴŔ Ʀ Ŕ ƃŅœ ǓŴŨŏœ Ǝƀň ƌĥ ƈũňœ Ɵĭ ł :ƨ ƄŔ ňƍŨœ ĴŴ Ŕ Ŷŏ ĥ ƈłƕ :IJĬŴ ô Ũŏ Ŕ ĥų  ƆƢ ň Ɖ ł ĥ ųƆ ň ł Ņ ł łœ ň Ō Ņ Ōł Ō ŏ łſų  Ŕ ÿƠƖ  Ɗƣ ň IJƢƟ Ō ŁŔĥ Ʀſ Ŕ ĥƢſ  Ƣƣ :ŴƐ ŏ ŌƕƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň ŴƆ :ƎÿƀòƍŨŔ ĮłƎÿſŁœ ĿŁŦ Ŕ Ĭ  Ɓô ÿƍƇ ƄŔ ƌĪ :ħŴ ł ƁÿƆŌ :IJĬŴ ô ÿŨŏ Ŕ Ƨ ŴƐ ŏ ŌƕƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň .IJô Ʀ Ŕ ƃŅœ ǓŴŨŏœ ƈũňœ ƟŦ ł Ĭť Ņ ƣŅ Ĭĭ Ņ :Ū  Ŕ Ɛƌ ł IJô Łĭ Ŕ ƢŏƃŴ Ŕ Ũŏ Ŕ ĭ Ņ œ ŏœ œ ł Ņ  ũƣ Ŕ Ƨ .ŦƦ Ŕ ƃĿŴ  Ũ ƦƠ



 









 



 

Ch. 



Perhaps my father will touch me and I will seem like a mocker in his eyes and you will bring 1 upon me curses and not blessings.”



His mother said to him, “On me be your curses, my son. Only obey me and go, fetch for me [those things].”



He went and got [them] and brought [them] to his mother. His mother made the stew just as his father liked.



Raphka fetched the fairest clothes of her older son Esau, which she had with her in the house, and she clothed Jacob her younger son.



She clothed his hands and the smooth part of his neck with the hide of kid goats.



She gave to Jacob her son the stew and the bread that she had made.



He brought [them] to his father and he said, “Father.” He said, “Here I am.” He said, “Who are you, my son?”



Jacob said to his father, “I am your son, your first born, Esau. I have done just as you said to me. Rise, sit and eat of my game that your very self may bless me.”



Isaac said to his son, “How is it that you found it so quickly my son?” He said, “It is something that the Lord your God provided 2 before me.”



Isaac said to Jacob his son, “Draw closer. I will touch you, my son. Are you my son Esau or not?”



Jacob drew closer to Isaac his father. He touched him and said, “The voice is of Jacob but the feel is the hands of Esau.”



He did not recognize him because his hands were hairy like the hands of Esau his brother. Then he blessed him



and said, “Is this you, my son Esau?” He said, “I am.”



He said to him, “Bring [it] to me and I will eat of my son’s game that I myself may bless you.” He brought [it] to him and he ate. He brought him wine and he drank. 



1 The MT reads, ‘I will bring upon myself’. See the Introduction: Divergent Readings. 2 MT: ‘The Lord God made it happen before me’.



Ņ ł ŏ ł ň ł Ņ Īłœ Ūſ Ɓÿł ƇƕƎÿÿſƦſ œ Łĭ Ŕ :ťÿ ƍŅ Ŷŵ Ņ ũƉ łŔ ƅÿŔ ÿſĥIJĬô Ŵÿÿƍł əòɳ ł ŨŦ Ŕ ĭĬĥ ň ĭňƁô ÿ ŨŔ ĥƁô ƍƣŴ  ÿ Ɗƌťÿ ƊƆ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ŏ Ŕ ƧŅĭŦƦ Ŕ ŹŴò ɝ  .ŦƦ Ŕ ƃŅœ ǓŴŨ ň ň Œ ł ň Ņ Ņ ł ĪŴ ŏ Ũłœ :IJô ƢÿŨň œ ĴŔ Ʀ ĵňĮĭ  :ƁÿƇ ô ƠŅ Ũœ ƗÿƊƣ Ŕ ÿŷɤ Ŕ ŹŴò ÿɝł ƁÿłƇƕ :ųƉ ň ĥų  Ɔ  ŁŔ ƢƉĥ  ĭ ŭſ Ō . ƁƆ  Ū  ŔƏ ł ň Ōœ ł ł ł ł Ņ Ņ ŏ œ ň ň Œ łœ ň .IJĬŴ ô Ũŏ Ŕ ĥƋ  Ŷň ĿŅĪť Ŕ ƍŅƄſ łœ ĥ ƨƣŴ  Ũ ųƉ  ĥ ŁŔ űũŔ ƕĭ :ųƉ ň Ƨ IJƦſĥ  ĭ Ū  Ŕ Ɛƌĵ  Įĥł ĭň űſ ň Ņ Ņ ł Œ łœ ň Ņ :ŦƦÿƀ œ ũłŔ Ũœ ųñ ÿƊŅ łƕ Ʀÿſĥ Ŕ Īť ŌŔ ÿŬƀ ŔŌ ǓťÿŨŅ œ Ŀł Ĭñ ƢŅÿŨŔ ŴÿƐŏ ŌƕĪť Ŕ ũƐ  ƌĭ ųſ Ŕ òƌŤƉť  Ơ ƘŔ Ŀ Ʀ Ŕň ū Ņ.ŧ ĿŴ ŏ ŏ Ņ Œ ł ł œ  ƕĮ  Ĭñ ƢŨ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ  ƀɞ  Ʀ Ŕ Ƥ ũɝĥ œ ĭł Ō Ņ Ņ ł ň ň òŅ ł œ ł ň œ ò ň łƕĭ Ŕ Ƅ Ƥ Ɖĭ  Ŵſ ŒŔ Ƥł ũɝ œ ĥ :Ŧ ŵò ɯ  Īť Ŕ ɕűū Ŕ Īť .ĬĿĭ ň ĽłĪŦ Ŕ ŁŴ Ŕ Ɩŏɳƣƈ   IJĬô ĭűłŔɖòĥ ƈłƕ Ʀ Ņ ł œ ň ſĭ ŵſ .Ĭñ ƢŅŨœ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞ ł ŒŁŔ űłœũŔ ň ƕĪť Ŕ Ɗŷ Ņ Ɔĭ ł ƨ ƣŴ Ņ Ũŏœ Ʀ ŒŔ Ũų Ņ ł ň ł ł ł ň Ņň Ņ ł ň ł .IJô ƢŨňœ Ʀ œ ô ƌĥƎƉ  :ƢƉĥ  ĭ :ťƌĥŦ  ĬƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ :ƁŨŔ ĥ :ƢƉĥ  ĭ .IJĬô ŴŨŏ Ŕ Ƨ ƈň ƕĥ  ĭł Ÿɖ ň ł ł : ƁƆ Ō ŁƢ œ Ɖĥ ł Īňœ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ŁŔűňœũŔ ň ƕ .ŴƐ ŏ Ōƕ ĴŔ ƢŅƃŴ Ŕ Ũŏœ ĴŔ ƢŅŨœ ĭĬô ťƌłĥ :IJĬŴ ô Ũŏ Ŕ Ƨ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň Żſ ň ŏ ň œł ň .ƅ Ŕ ƤŅ ƙŔ ƌłƁô ƍƃƢ łŔ ŨłŔ ŁŔĪłœ ƈź Ɖ  :IJô űſ  ĽƎ  ƉĵŴ  ŏŔ ĭł ħ ƃĥ  Ŕ Łœ ĶŴƟŏ ň ĶűňœƉƢ ň Ɖĥ ł ĭň :IJô ƢŨňœ Ʀŷ œ Ƅƣ łœ ĥ ƈŬƖ Ŕ ł ŨłŔ Īť Ŕ ƌŅĬŅ ĭĬô ťƍłƉ Ņ :ĬƢňũŔ Ɔ ł ơŷƐſ Ņ Ō ĥƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň Ĵ ł Ņ Ņ ňł œ . ƁƉ ł űƟ ŅŔ ĴŔ ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥť  ɕƢ Ɖ  ŪŔ ƀŹĪ ň ł ň IJô ƢÿŨň Ŕ ĭĬô ŏ Ʀ œ ô ƌĥķĥ :IJƢŨňœ ƅ Ŕ ƣŴ Ņ Ɖ ŏ ĥť  ƌŌ ħĭ  Ŕ ƢƟ ŏ :ĬƢňŨœ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞơ ł Ņ Ō ĥƢƉĥ ŷƐſ ł ĭň ťƃ Ņ ł ŏŌ  ƕ .Ƨ ĭĥ ŴƐ Ņ ł Ņ Ō Ņ ŏ łſĪ ŏ łſ ħ ł ĭų :ħŴ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ Ŕ ƨÿƟŅ :ƢÿƉĥ ň ÿƤň Ɖ Ņ ĭ :IJĬŴ ô ÿŨŏ Ŕ ĥơ  ÿŷƐſ ĥ ŁŔŴÿ  ÿɝ ħŴ  Ŕ ÿƠƖ  Ŕ ƢÿƟ ň ĭł Ūƃ Ō .ŴƐ ŏ ŌƕĪť Ŕ ɕŅűł Ŕ ɖòĥ Ʀ ňŔ Ŕ Ƥł ūĭ Ō ł ł ŏ ň ň œ łœ ň Ņ Ņ IJĬŴÿŶŏ ĥł ŴÿƐŏ Ōƕ IJűłŔÿɖò ĥŌ ƅſ :ķǔŅÿɳƏ  Ŕ ĥIJĬô ĭűłŔɖòĥ IJĭò ĬĪłœ ƈź Ɖ  :ųƕĪĭ  Ʀƣ  ĥ Ƨĭ  ŭƃ ô ň łŔ .ųƃƢ Ŕ Ũĭ ň ł ň ŏŌ ň ŅŅ ŏ œ ł ł ň Ŕ ƌĬ ĭĬô Ʀ .ĭĬť ô ƌłĥƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ :ŴƐ  ƕIJô ƢŨť  ô ƌĥ :ƢƉĥ  ĭ űƃ ň Ō ň ł ň ł ň Ņ Ŕ ŨłŔ ŁŔĪłœ ƈÿźŏ Ɖ :Ɓô ÿƤƙŔ ƌł ƅ Ŕ ÿƃƢ Ŕ űſ Ņœ ĽłƎƉĵŴ ň ƃŏŔĥ ƁƆ  ħ  Ŕ ƢƟ :ųƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ųƃ ň :IJô ƢÿŨň Ŕ Īŧ Ōœ ň Ņ ł ň ň ň ň ł ł ł .IJƦƣĥ  ĭŧ  ƢƊ  Ŷų  Ɔƈ  ƕĥ  ĭ :ƑƖɝ  ĭų  Ɔ  ħ  Ŕ Ƣň Ɵĭ







 

   









 

Ch. 

Chapter  XLI



When Isaac was old and his eyes were too weak to see, 1 he summoned Esau, his elder son, and he said to him, “My son.” He said, “Here I am.”

XLII



Isaac said to him, “Behold, I am old and I do not know the day on which I will die.



Now then, get your equipment, your sword 2 and your bow.



Go out in the open field and hunt game and make a stew just as I like it. Bring it to me and I will eat, because I myself am about to bless you 3 before I die.”



Raphka was listening when Isaac spoke to Esau his son. Esau went to the field to hunt game to bring back.



Raphka said to Jacob her son, “I heard your father speaking with Esau your brother,



‘Bring me game and make a stew. I will eat and I will bless you before the Lord before I die.’



Now my son, obey me 4 regarding that which I am instructing you.



Go to the flocks and fetch for me from there two choice kid goats and I will make them into a stew for your father just as he likes it.



Bring it to your father and let him eat and bless you before the Lord before he dies.”



Jacob said to Raphka his mother, “Look, Esau my brother is a hairy man. I am a smooth-skinned man. 



‘his eyes were too weak to see’: lit. ‘his eyes were too heavy to see’. The Hebrew hapax legomenon is often translated ‘quiver’. 3 ‘I myself am about to bless you’: lit. ‘my soul is about to bless you’. 4 ‘obey me’: lit. ‘listen to my voice’. 1 2



.ŵƃ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ň IJĬô ŴƍłəòɯƢ ťÿŨŅ œ ĿłĬƢňÿŨŔ ŴƐ ŏ ŌƖɝ ŧ ƢƟ Ņ :Ŧ ŵŷ Ņ ƊƆ ł Ơſ ł ĭŌ :ơŷƐſ Ņ Ō ĥ ħŤ Ŕ Ə ň űŔƃłŔĪŦ Ŕ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł ň Ņ ł ň ň Ɖĥ ł ĭň .ťƌŅĥŦ  ĬƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ :IJƢŨňœ :ųƆƢ ň Ņ Ņ ň Ŕ ƌŅôĥ ŁŔňŤƉ Ņ Īť Ŕ ƉŴ Ņ łſť  ƌŅôĥĺűłŔɖ Ņ Ƨĭ  :Ʀ Ŕ ŨŤ ňœ Əť ň ƌŅĥŦ  ĬŅ :ơŷƐſ Ņ Ō ĥų  ƆƢ ň Ɖ ł ĥ .ųŨť Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ Ņ  Ū  Ŕ Əť  ƣ Ĭ .ĴŔ ƦƤ œ Ɵň ĭ ƅ Ŕ ƙƀ Ņœ Ə ł ƅƀ  œ òƌŤƉ ňŏ Ō Ņ œ ł Ņ ł ňŔ ĭł :ŧ űſ Ņœ Ľł ĪŔĭĽĭ ŏ :ŧ ƢŅŨŔ űɝ łŔ ľŴƘĭ ŏŔ :ĵŴƃŔ ĥ ƁƆŦ  Ʀſĥ  ĭ :Ʀ Ŕ ƊŶ ň ĿňĪœ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ƨƣŴ Ņ Ũŏœ űŔũƕ ň Ņ ŏ ň .ŁŴ Ŕ Ɖ ŏ ĥ  ƧűŔłƕƁô ƤƙŔ ƌł ƅ Ŕ ƃƢ ŅŔ ŨłŔ ŁŔĪłœ ƈź Ɖ  ň Ņ ł Ņ Ō ĥƢ ŒŔ łƖƊ  ƣť ň ƠŅ ƘŔ Ŀĭ ł ƨ ÿƠŷƆ  ŴÿƐŏ Ōƕĵ  Įĥł ĭň :ĬƢňÿŨŔ ŴÿƐŏ ŌƖɝơ  ÿŷƐſ  ÿƉł ĥ űŔÿƃł œ :Ʀ Ņ ł Ņœ ł Ņ ł  Ɔŧ űſ  Ľ ĪŔ ƞƊ  Ɔ  .ŴſŏƦƀ œ Ɗ ň łŏ ŏ Ō ł .ĴŴ Ŕ Ŷ ĥ ŴƐ  ƖɝƢ  Ɖĥ ł Īňœ ĴŴ Ŕ Ũŏ Ŕ Ƨ Ʀ Ŕ ň ƖƊ  ƣŦ ň ĬŅ :Ĭñ ƢŅŨœ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞ ł ŒŁŔ ƢƉ ł ĥť  ƠŅ ƘŔ Ŀĭ ł Ņ Ņ ŏ Ō ň ł Ņœ ł Ō Ņ œ ł Ņ ƉĶ ĶűÿƟť ŅŔ ÿɕƢ Ņ űÿƟ ŅŔ ƅ Ŕ ÿƃŅ Ŕ ƢŨĥ  Ľ ƁƆŦ  Ʀſ  ĥ łœ ĭĵŴ ň ÿƃĥŏ Ŕ ĭň :ƨ ƣŴ  ŨŔ ƁƆ  űŔũƕ Ŕ ĭ :ŧ űſ .IJô ŁŴ œ Ɖ ł ň :ƁƇ ň Ŕ ƣŅ ĬŅ ĭ Ņ Ŕ ƙƉ .ƅ Ŕ Ɔť Ņ ƌŅôĥ ŧ űƠ łŔ Īłœ Ķűň œ ƊƆ ô ƠŅ Ũœ ƗƊƣ ł IJô ƢŨť Ņ ň ň ňœ ň ŅŅ Ņ œ ň œ Ņ łœ ň Ō ňĮ  ķŴÿƌŏ ĥ űŔÿũƕĥ ĭ :ƎÿƀũŌ Ŕ ŹĪœŦ ŵò ÿɯň Īť Ŕ òɕűłŔū  ƎſĿŁ ƎƉ  Ł ƎƉ  ƁƆ  Ū  Ŕ Əĭ ł :ťòƍɳɝĵ ł ŏ ł ŅŅ ŏœ .ƋŶň ĿŅĪœ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ĴŴ Ŕ ŨŔ Ƨ  ƨƣŴ  Ũ ňœ ł Ņ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ł .ĬŁŴ  ƉĶ  űƟƎ  ɕƢ  ƉĶ  űƟ ŅŔ ũƌ łŔ ĭł :ĵŴƃŤ ŏŔ ňƌĭ  ĴŴ Ŕ Ũŏ Ŕ Ƨ ƈň ƕĥĭł Ŕ Ɖť Ŕ ƅ Ŕ ƃƢ ň Ņ ň ł ł  œ Ɓô ÿʖĥŅ ŴÿƐŏ ŌƕŦ Ƣÿũł Ŕ ūť  ĬŅ :ųÿƉň ĥť  ƠŅ ƘŔ Ƣɝ ł ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň Ŕ ÿƌĥĭ .ƢÿƖƏƢÿũŔ ū .ƗƖƣ Ņ



ťƉįĽ ĥ



ŪƉįĽ ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



į



İ



IJ  ťſ 

Ch. 



He named it Saba. 1 Because of this the name of the city is Beer-seba to this day.



Esau was forty years old. He took to wife Judith, the daughter of Beeri the Hittite and Basemath, the daughter of Elon the Hivite. 2



They embittered the spirit of Isaac and Raphka.

The Hebrew name ‘Shibah’ can be interpreted in several ways. The Hebrew associates this place name with ‘Beer-sheba’ (‘the well of Sheba’). The Peshiṭta has interpreted the Hebrew to mean ‘satiation’. To maintain the word play in Syriac, the Peshiṭta has the name Beer-saba, ‘well of satiation’. 2 MT: ‘Hittite’. 1



ŏ ň Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ō łœ ñ Ņ Ņ ł Ŕ ƢŨŦ ťÿƉŅ űƕ łŔ ƗÿũƏ ŌŔ Ʀÿſ Ŕ ƢƟ  Ī ų ÿƊƣŧ ƢÿƟť  ÿƌŅ Ĭƈ Ņ ÿźƉ  :ťƖũŔ Ə  ųñ Ɗƣŧ  ƢƟ  ĭ ŭƆ .ťƍŅƉŴ Ņ ƀɞ ł Ņ œ ł ł ŏ Ɔ Ō Ŕ ųƀ ł ĭł :Ǝÿƀò ɫŌ ƣƎÿÿƀŌƖŨœ ĿĥƢ IJƢŌÿŨň œ ŁŔƢôÿŨł œ Ʀÿ Ŕ ÿſĪĭ Ō :ŦŁŔ Ʀÿ  ÿôƌĥ Ū  Ŕ ÿƐƌ  ÿŨł Ŕ ŴÿƐŏ ŌƕŦ  ĭĬ Ņ ĭł űƆ ł Ņ Ō ň Ŕ ĭł :ťɕŅƦ  .ťɕŅŴŅ ŶķŴ ł Ɔ ŏ ĥ ŁŔƢôŨł œ Ʀ Ŕ ƊƐ ł ũƆ Ŕ ƀʖ ł .ťƠŅ ƘŔ ĿłĪŔĭơ ł ŷƐſĥ Ņ ĪŌœ ųŶĭ ň Ƣɝķ ŏ ǔŅƊƉ ł IJĭò Ĭĭł ųƆ









Ch. 



They dug another well and they also quarreled over it. He named it “The Adversary.” 1



He departed from there and they dug another well. They did not quarrel over it and he named it Rahoboth. He said, “Now the Lord has made room for us and we have become numerous in the land.”



He went up from there to Beer-sheba.

XL



The Lord appeared to him that night and said to him, “I am the God of Abraham your father. Do not fear because I am with you. I will bless you and I will multiply your offspring because of Abraham my servant.”



He built an altar there and he called on the name of the Lord. He pitched there his tent and the servants of Isaac dug a well there.



Abimelech came to him from Gadar along with Ahuzzath his advisor 2 and Phicol, the commander of his army.



Isaac said to them, “Why have you come to me? You hated me and you sent me away from you.”



They said to him, “We have truly seen that the Lord has been with you. We said, there should be a treaty between us and you. We will make a pact with you



so that you will not harm us just as we have not hurt you, just as we have treated you well and we sent you away in peace. Now then, you are the blessed of the Lord.”



He made a banquet for them and they ate and drank.



They rose early in the morning and they swore an oath to each other and Isaac sent them off and they left him in peace.



On that day the servants of Isaac came and told him about the well that they had dug. They said to him, “We have found water.” 



1 MT: ‘Sitnah’. The Peshiṭta imports the Hebrew consonants and vocalizes them to mean ‘Adversary’ or ‘Satan’. 2 ‘advisor’: lit. ‘friend’.



Ņ Ō Ņ Ōœ ł ł Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ň .ťƍŅź ƒ  ųñ Ɗ  ƣŧ ƢƟ  ĭ :ųƀ ñ Ƈƕ  Ļ  Ŕ ĥ ĭƞƌł ĭł :ŦŁŔ ƢŶ  ôĥŧ ƢŨ ĭô ƢƙŶ Ŕ ĭ ťƃ Ņ Ņ Ō Ņ Ōœ ł ł Ņ łœ ň Ō ł ň ŏ œ Ŀł ųñ ÿƊƣŧ Ņ ƢƟ :ŁŴ Ŕ ÿũŶ Ņ ĭł :ųƀ ñ Ƈƕ  ĭƞƌ ł Ƨĭ  :ŦŁŔ ƢŶ  ôĥŧ ƢŨ ĭô ƢƙŶ Ŕ ĭ :ƎƉ  Ł ƎƉ  Ɓƍƣĭ  Ūƃ ł Ņ Ņ ł ň ł Ņ.ťƕĿŤ Ņ ł ł ł Ņ œ Ō  Ũ ƎƀŬƏ  ĭ Ŕ ĭ :ťɕƢ  ƉƎ  Ɔį  ĭĿ  ĥť  ƣ Ĭ :ƢƉĥ ł ň ň ł .Ɨũƣ łŔ ƢũƆ ŌŔ ƎƉ Ņ Łœ ƎƉơ  ƇƏ  ĭ ŭƃ

 



ĶįĽ

ň ň ł ň ł Ņ Ō Ņ Ņ ł Ō œ ň ĶĬŅ ƢŅÿŨĥŔ Īłœ Ĭųň Ɔ Ņ ĥť  ƌŅôĥťƌŅĥ :ųƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ĭĬť  ƀˁ  Ƈ Ũť Ŕ ɕƢ Ɖ  IJĬô Ŵł Ƈƕ  ƁƇ ū  Łĥ Ŕ ĭ űƃ ň ł Ņ ŏ ň Ņ ł ňœ ł Ņ ł œ ň Ņ ŏ Ŕ Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ ƈÿźƉ  ƅ Ŕ ÿƕĿĮť  ÿŬƏĥĭ ƅ Ŕ ÿƃŔ ƢŨĥ Ŕ Ƨ :ĴŴ  ĭ :ťÿƌôĥ ƅ Ŕ ÿƊŅ łƕĪœ ƈÿźƉ ň ƈŶł ĪŔŁ ł .IJô űœũŔ łƕĶ  ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥ ł ł ł Ŕ ĭł :ųÿňƍƄƤ ĭô ƢÿƙŶ œ ƉƎ ł ÿƉŅ Łœ ƥÿƠƌł ĭł :ťɕƢ Ņ Ɖ Ņ Īœ ųƊƤ ň Ũŧ łŔ ƢƟ Ņ ĭł :ťŷŅ Ũœ űŔƉƎ ł Ɖ Ņ ŁŔ ťƍŅŨŔ ĭł ųƃ ł .ŧ ƢŅŨŌœ ơŷƐſĥ Ņ ĪŌœIJĬô ĭűł œ ũò Ŕ łƕƎƉ Ņ Łœ ň Ņ Ņň œ ł Ō ł ň ł œł ň Ō Ŕ Ɔ  ŦŁŔ ĥ ƅƇ  ƊƀŨŔ ĥĭ Ŵƃ .ųƇƀ ʖ  ħ  Ŀƈ  Ƅƀ Ŕ ƘĭŔ :ųƊŶ ň ĿŅ Łĭ Ŕ ŵŶĥ ŏ ĭł :ĿűŅ Ŕ ū Ņ œ ƎƉĬ ň ŁŴ ŏ ł ŏ ł ŏ łň ł ĭň ŵƃ Ņ Ō ĥķĭ Ɓô ÿ ƍƌĭ Ņ Ʀƀ œ ƍƏķĭ  Ʀÿ œ ÿôƌĥ :IJô ŁŔŴÿ Ņ ÿɝķĭƦÿ œ ÿſŁŔ ĥťÿ ƍŅ Ɗ Ņ Ɔ :ơÿ ŷƐſ  ųÿ ŏ ÿɝƢÿ Ɖĥ ŏ œ űłœƣł ĭ .ķŴƃŏ Ŕ ŁŔŴɝƎ Ņ Ɖ ň Ɓô ƍƌĭ Ņ ŁĿ Ņ Ņ ł ň ň œ ł ň  ĭ .ƅ Ŕ Ɗ Ņ łƕť  ɕƢ Ņ ƉŦ Ņ ĭĬ Ņ Īłœ ƎſŵŶŦ Ǝÿƀƍƀł ŨŦ łŔ Ʀ Ŕ Ɖ  ŴÿƉŦĭĬ  ŁŔ Ī ķƢƉĥ ł ŵŷ Ņ Ɖ ň :ųƆ ň ĭô ƢƉĥ ł ĭň Ÿƃ ƠƌŌ ĭł :ƅ Ŕ Ɔĭ Ņ .ƅ Ŕ Ɗ Ņ łƕť  Ɗ Ņ ƀƟƋƀ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ łœ ł Ņœ Ōœ ł ňœ ň Ņ œ ł Ŕ Īť ł Ŕ ÿƍŅ Ƅſĥ Ŕ ƧĪ Żƃ  űŔÿũƕ łœ ĭł :ƅ Ŕ ÿƌĿŅ Ĭł ĥ  ƧĪŔ ťƍŅƄſ  ĥ :ŦƦƤƀ  Ũ ƎƆ  űŔũƕ  Ł ŦŁƢÿƀ œ ƙŌœ ƣł ĴŔ ŁŔ Ŵÿɝķ ł Ņ Ō ň .ťɕƢ Ņ Ɖ Ņ Īœ ųƄſ Ŕ ƢŨť Ŕ ƣŅ ĬŅ ĭĬô ŏ Ʀ œ ô ƌĥ :ťƊ Ņ ɤƤ  Ũłœ ƅ Ŕ ƌĿŅ űłœƣł ĭ Ō .ŴſƦƣĥ œ ĭň ŴôƐň Ɩɝ  ĭł :ťɕŅƦƤ œ Ɖķĭ ł ųɝ ŏ űŔũƕ łŔ ĭł ĵ ň ł Ņ Ō ĥķŴ ƎÿƉň Ŵô ÿƆĮĥł ĭň :ơÿŷƐſ  ÿƌŏ ĥĿ  űłœÿƣł ĭ :IJĬŴ ô Ŷŏ ƧƢ  ũłŔ ū  œ ŴƀƊſ Ō ĭŧ Ō ƢŅƘŔ ƞłŨœ Ŵô ƉűňœƟĭ ł Ƨ ň Ņ .ťƊ Ņ ɤƤ Ņ Ũłœ ĬŁŔ Ŵɝ  Ņ ŏ ł ŧ ƢŅÿŨŌ Ŕ ĪŦ Ŕ ŁŴ Ŕ ÿŨĽƈ ÿłƕIJĬô ŴÿſŴŌŶĭ ł :ơŷƐſĥ Ņ ĪŌœIJĬô ĭűł œ ũò Ŕ łƕ ĭŁĥ Ŕ ĭň ĭĬť ł ƉŴ Ņ ƀłŨŦ Ŕ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł ŪƆ Ŕ Ņ ł łœ ň ň ł ĭň :ĭƢƙŶ łŔ ĪłŔ  Ƅƣ  ĥųƆ  ĭô ƢƉĥ .ťƀò ƉƎŷ







 





 



Ch. 



Abimelech said to him, “What is this that you have done to us? In a short time one of the people would have slept with your wife and you would have brought sin 1 upon us.”



Abimelech gave orders to all the people and said, “Anyone who harms this man or his wife will certainly be put to death.”



Isaac planted in the land and he reaped 2 in that year one hundred [measures] of barley. 3 The Lord blessed him and the man grew in power.



He continued growing powerful until he became very powerful.



He had flocks and oxen and a large household and the Philistines envied him.



The Philistines had stopped up all the wells that the servants of his father dug in the days of Abraham his father. They had filled them with dirt.



Abimelech said to Isaac, “Go away from us because you are much stronger than us.”



Isaac went from there and he camped in the valley of Gadar 4 and he settled there.



Once again Isaac dug wells of water that his father’s servants had dug in the days of Abraham his father. The Philistines had stopped them up after the death of Abraham. He named them according to the names that his father had named them.



The servants of Isaac dug wells in the valley and they found there a well of spring water.



The shepherds of Gadar quarreled with Isaac’s shepherds. They said, “The water belongs to us.” He named the well “The Dispute” 5 because they disputed with him. 



MT: ‘guilt’. ‘he reaped’: lit. ‘he found’. 3 The MT has a hapax legomenon. See the Introduction: Reinterpretations or Misinterpretations. 4 MT: ‘Gerar’. 5 ‘The Dispute’ or ‘Askah’. 1 2



ł ň ł ň Ō ł ŨŌ Ŕ ĥų ł Ŕ ƌŅĬŅ ŴƍłƉ ƎÿƉň űŔŶł ŦĭŅĬô ƅ Ŕ Ɖ ň ĪŅœ ƈƀƇ Ɵł űŔłƕ :ƎƆ ł Łœűœũƕ łŔ Īť Ņ :ƅƇ  œ Ɗƀ  ƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ IJ Ņ ł ŅŅ ň ł .Ŧų źŶƎƀ  Ƈƕ  Ʀſ œ ĭłĬŦ ô Ʀƀ œ Ɖĭ ł :ĴŔ ŁŔ Ʀ œ ô ƌĥ Ƌłƕť  Ɗ Ņ łƕ ň œ ł ŅŅ Ņ ł ň ŏ ł ŨŌ Ŕ ĥł űŔƠň Ƙĭ  ƢÿũŔ ŬƆ Ŕ Ŀųł Ɖ ł Īœ ƎƉ ł :ƢƉĥ ł ĭť ň Ɗ Ņ łƕų  Ƈ ƄƆ Ŕ ƅƇ  œ Ɗƀ łŔ ťſ :ĬŁŔ Ʀÿ ô ƌƧĭťÿƌĬŧ ň ň ŏ Ņ  Ʀ Ŕ Ɖ ň .ƈźƟ  Ʀ Ŕ ƌ ŴƇ źƟ Ņ ň Ŕ Ũĭ Ņ ĪŦŤ ł Ŕ ÿƉŅ IJĬŦ Ņ Ɖų ťÿɕƢ Ņ ÿƃƢ łŔ :ŧ ǔňÿɳƏ Ņ Ʀÿ œ ôƍƤł Ũœ ŸƄƣĥ łœ ĭň :ťƕĿŤ Ņ Ũłœ ơŷƐſ Ņ Ō ĥĺ  ĿĮł ĭł Ūſ ł œ ħ  Ŕ Ƣſ ň ĭŌ .ŧ ƢŅũŔ ū Ņ ň Ō Ņł .Ū  Ŕ Ź ħ  Ŕ Ƣſ  Īť Ŕ Ɖ  űƕ Ŕ ĵĮŤł Ɖĵ Ō ňĮĥ ĭŅ ŭſ ł Ņ œł Ņ œ œ Ņ ł ň ł ŅŅ ň ĭĬ  Īť Ŕ ÿÿƍŅ əƍ Ņ Ɵų ň ÿÿƆŦ Ņ ĭł űſ ųÿÿŨň œ Ŵô ÿÿƍŹĭ  :ŦƦ Ŕ ÿÿŨĿŦ  ŁűÿÿũŔ ƕĭ :ŧ ǓĭŁŔ Īť Ŕ ÿÿƍŅ əƍ Ņ Ɵĭ ň :ťÿÿòƍɯ Ņ .ťňɕƦ œ Ƥò ɤň Ƙ œ ł ł ł Ŵô ÿƊƊ ň Ź :IJĬŴ ô ÿŨŏ Ŕ ĥĶ  ĬŅ ƢŅŨĥ Ŕ ĪłœIJĬô ŴƉ łŔ ǔňŨŌœ Ǝſųɤ ň ƃĭ ŏŔ ųſ łŔ Īŧ ł Ŵò əłŨœ IJĬô ŴŨŏ Ŕ ĥ IJűłœũòŔ łƕĭô ƢƙŶ ň Ņ ň œ ňň .ŧ ƢŅƙŔ łƕƎƀ  ň ƌĥ Ŵł ƇƉ  ĭł :ťňɕƦ œ Ƥò ɤ  Ƙ Ǝƀƌĥ Ņ ň œ ň łœ ŏ ň ł Ņ Ō œ ł Ōł ł ň ňĮ :ơŷƐſ .Ū  Ŕ ŹƎ  ƍłƉ  Ʀƍ  ƤƕĪ ƈź Ɖ  :ķŁŔ ŴɝƎ  Ɖ ň ƅ Ŕ Ɔĵ Ņ Ņ Ƨ ƅƇ  ƊƀŨŔ ĥƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ŵſ łŅ œ ň Ō Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ Ō Ņ ł œ ň .ƎƉ  Ł ħ  Ŕ Ʀſ Ŕ ĭ :ĿűŔ ū Ŕ Ī Ŕ ƨŷ  ƍŨŧ Ŕ Ƣƣ  ĭ :ơŷƐſ  ĥƎ  Ɖ  Ł ƎƉĵ  Įłĥĭň ŵſ ł łœ ò ł ł Ŕ Īłœ :ťÿƀò Ņ Ɖ ł Ŕ ĭł ơÿŷƐſ Ņ Ō ĥ ƅ Ŕ ƘĬ IJĬô ŴÿƉł ŴòəłŨœ IJĬô ŴÿŨŏ Ŕ ĥ IJűÿ ũŔ ƕĭô ƢÿƙŶ ł Īŧ Ŕ ǔňÿŨŌ œ ƢÿƙŶ łŔ ĭł Ÿɖ ł ł ł Ņ ň œ ňň ł Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎƉť Ŕ Ɖ Ō Īœ ĿƦ ň ňɕƦ œ Ƥò ɤ  Ƙ ƎƀƌĥŴô ƊƊ ň Źĭ  :IJĬŴ ô Ũŏ Ŕ ĥĶ  ĬŅ ƢŅŨĥ Ŕ Īłœ ŧ ƢÿƟ Ņ ĭł :ĶĬŅ ƢŅÿŨŔ ĥ Ʀƀ ł ň Ņ ł ň ň Ņ  ƣ Ǝſųɝ ň  ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ Ŧųò Ɗ .IJĬŴ ô Ũŏ Ŕ ĥƎſ  ųɝŦ  ĭŅĬŧ ô ƢňƟŅ ĪŦ Ŕ ųò Ɗƣ ň ł òŅ ł Ņ Ō œ Ņ ł œ ł œ ň Ņ ł œ Ņ Ō œ  Īŧ Ŕ ƢŨ ƎƉ  ŁŴô ŷƄƣĥ  ĭ :ƨŷ  ƍŨ ơŷƐſĥ  ĪIJĬô ĭűł œ ũò Ŕ łƕĭô ƢƙŶ łŔ ĭł Żſ .ťƀò ʖť  ƀƉ ň Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł ł Ņ ł ł ĭň :ơŷƐſĥ  ÿƌŏ ĥƎ  ÿłƇſĪŌœĭô ƢÿƉĥ Ņ ĪŦ ŌŔ ŁŔ ŴŅ ɯ  ǓƋƕĿ  űŔ ū Ŕ ĪŦ Ŕ ŁŔ Ŵɯ  Ǔ ĭƞƌ ĭ Ĵ ŧ ƢÿƟ Ņ ĭł :ťÿƀò ƉķŴ ŏ Ņ Ņ ł ł ł ň ň Ō Ņ ň ł . ųƊ  ƕŴô ƠƐ  ƕŁĥ Ŕ Īœ ƈź Ɖ  :ťƠƐ  ƕŧ  ƢŨŔ Īœ ųñ Ɗƣ









 



  

 

Ch. 

Chapter  XXXVIII



There was a famine in the land, besides the previous famine that happened in the days of Abraham. Isaac went to Gadar, 1 to Abimelech, king of the Philistines.



The Lord appeared to him and said to him, “Do not go down to Egypt. Settle in the land that I will say to you.



Reside in this land. I will be with you and I will bless you, because to you and to your offspring I will give all these kingdoms. I will establish the oaths that I swore to Abraham your father.



I will multiply your offspring like the stars of heaven and I will give to your offspring all these lands. All the nations of the earth will be blessed in your offspring,



because Abraham obeyed me 2 and observed my precepts, my commands, my statutes and my laws.”

XXXIX



So Isaac lived in Gadar.



The people of the area asked him about his wife. He said, “She is my sister,” because he feared that if he would say, “She is my wife” then the people of the area would kill him, 3 because Raphka was beautiful in appearance.



After he stayed there for some days, Abimelech, the king of the Philistines, looked out from a window and he saw Isaac caressing 4 Raphka his wife.



Abimelech summoned Isaac and said to him, “Look, she is your wife. Why did you say, ‘She is my sister’?” Isaac said to him, “Because I thought, 5 ‘I might die because of her’.” MT: ‘Gerar’. ‘Abraham obeyed me’: lit. ‘Abraham listened to my voice’. 3 MT: ‘me’. 4 The Hebrew and Syriac verb can mean ‘to laugh’ or ‘to mock’. While the exact gesture is not clear, Isaac’s behavior leads Abimelech to conclude that Raphka is Isaac’s wife. 5 ‘thought’: lit. ‘said’. 1 2



.Ŵƃ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ł ł ò ł Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ łœ ň ł ĵĮĥł ĭň :ĶĬŅ ƢŅÿŨŔ ĥ ƁƉ  ŴəŨŦ Ŕ ĭĬ  Īť Ŕ ƀƉ  űŔƟť  ƍƙŔ ƃ ƎƉƢ  ź  ƒ :ťƕĿŤ Ņ Ũť łŔ ƍŅƙŔ ƃŦ łŔ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł Ņ ň ł Ņœ ł œ ł Ō ł Ņ Ŕ Ņ ňɕƦ œ Ƥò ɤ  ƘŔ Īť Ŕ ƄɤƉ  ƅƇ  ƊƀŨŔ ĥ ŁŔŴɝơ  Ņ Ō ĥ ŷƐſ .ĿűŅ Ŕ ŬƆť ň Ņ ň ł ň Ņ Ņ ň Ō ň Ŕ Ƨ :ųƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭť  ɕƢ  Ɖų  Ɔ  IJŵŶ  Łĥ Ŕ ĭ .ƅ Ŕ ƆƢ Ņ Ɖĥ ł Īť ŌŔ ƕĿŤ Ņ ŨłŔ IJƢƣ Ō :ƎſĿƞň ƊƆ ň ŁŴ Ŕ Ŷŏ Ł ň œň Ņ ł ł Ņ œ ŏ ň ĵŁĥ ƅ Ŕ ÿƕĿŵɟ  ĭ ƅ Ŕ ÿƆĪ ƈÿźƉ  :ƅ Ŕ ÿƃŅ Ŕ ƢŨĥ łœ ĭň ƅ Ŕ ÿƊŅ łƕŦ  ĭĬĥ ň ĭň :ŧ ĪňŔĬť Ņ ƕĿŤ Ņ Ũłœ ƢƊƕ ł Ņ łŏ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ņò ł ň ƃŏœ .ĴŴ Ŕ ŨŔ ĥĶ  Ĭ ƢŨŔ Ƨ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ɗſ Ō ĪŦ ŌŔ Ʀ Ŕ Ɖ  ŴƉ  ƋƀƟĥ Ō ĭł :ƎƀƆ ň ĬŦ Ņ ŁŔ ŴŅƄœ ˁ ò Ɖ ł Ǝſųɤ ňœ ň Ņ ł ł Ņ ł ňœ ł Ņ ł ň ŏœ Ņ ł :ƎÿƀƆ ň ĬŦ Ņ Ʀ Ŕ ƕŅǓĥƎſ  ųɤ  ƃ ƅ Ŕ ƕĿ  ŵɟĵ   ĭ :ťƀƊƣ Łĥ  ƁũłŔ ƃœŴò ƃłœ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ƅ Ŕ ƕĿ  Įť  ŬƏĥĭ ò ŏ Ņ.ťƕĿĥ Ņ ł ŏ ň ł  ĪŔ ťƊƊô ƕķĭųɤ  ƃœ ƅ Ŕ ƕĿ  ŵłŨœ ķŴƃƢ ŏŔ Ũł œ Ʀ Ŕ ňƌĭ ł ł łœ Ņ ŏ ł ł Ņ ŏ IJŁǓŅŴźƌƢ  ĭ :ƁƇ ô ƠŅ Ũœ ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥƗ  Ɗƣ  Ī ƚ .ƁƏ ł Ŵò Ɗ ŏ ƌĭ Ņ ƁƊ ł ƀò Ɵĭł ƁƌłűŅ œ ƟŴòƘĭ  Ŕ ƇŶ  Ŕ ô Ŕ  źƌ ň .ĿűŅŔŬ Ŕ Ņ Ũœ ơŷƐſ Ņ Ō ĥ ħ  Ŕ Ʀſ Ŕ ĭŌ ŏ ň Ō œ ô ƌĥł ƈÿłƕŧ ĿŅŁŔĥł ƁƤò ł ƌŅôĥIJĬô ŴƆŤ ł ĭň :ĬňŁŔ Ʀÿ Ņ ÿƉĥ ƈÿŶň ĪŔĪłœ ƈÿźƉ  :IJĬô IJô Ʀ ŏ ƣĭ ł Ŕ ÿŶƢ ł ŏ ŏ ň Ņ łœ Ō ł œ łœ ł Ō œ Ŕ ÿƠŅ ƘŔ Ŀƈ ł ÿźƉ ň :ŧ ĿŅŁŔĥ ƁƤò ł ƌŅôĥųňƌŴ  ƇźƠ  ƌť  ƊƆ  Ī :IJĬô  IJô ŁŔƦ ŧ Ƣÿƀ Ņ ƙŌœ ƣł Īť  ô ƌĥĪ ƢƉŤ  ƌĪ Ņ ň œ .Ĭñ ĭŵ  ŷŨ IJĬô ł ł ł Ņ ň ł Ņœ ł œ ł Ō Ņ Ņòł Ņ œ ň ťÿňɕƦ œ Ƥò ɤ  ƘŔ Īť Ŕ ÿƄɤƉ  ƅÿƇ  ƊƀŨŔ ĥơſ  ĪŌŔĥ :ŦƦ Ŕ Ɖ  Ŵ ɖƎ  Ɖ  Ł ųƆ  ĭô ƢŬƌ Ŕ ł űŔƃłŔĪŦ Ŕ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł ň ł Ō Ņ ł łƕ ƅ Ŕ ŷň ŬƉ Ŕ ł űŔƃł œ ơŷƐſ Ņ ƧIJųô ſŵŶ Ņ ĭł :ŦŁŴ Ŕ ƃłœ ƎƉ ň .ĬŁŔ Ʀœ ô ƌĥťƠŅ ƘŔ ĿƋ Ņ łœ ł Ō Ņ œ ł Ņ ň ł ň Ņ Ō œ ł Ō ł Ņ ł œ ĭłĬƢ Ʀÿſ ô ÿƉł ĥť  ÿƍŅ Ƅſĥ  ĭ :IJĬô ĴŔ ŁŔ Ʀ  ƌĥŦĬ :ųƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭơ  ŷƐſ  Ƨ ƅƇ  ƊƀŨĥŧ  ƢƟ  ĭ ň Ņ łœ ň ô ňœ ŏ ň Ņ Ō ň ł Ņ Ō Ŕ Ņ œ Ņñ Ņ ŏ ň ŏ .Ĭ Ʀ Ŕ Ƈ ź Ɖ  ŁŴ Ŕ Ɖ  ĥť  ƊƆ  Ī ŁŔƢƉĥ  Ī ƈź  Ɖơ  ŷƐſ  ĥų  ƆƢ  Ɖ  ĥ .IJĬô IJô Ʀ Ŕ Ŷ Ī



ŸƆįĽ ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ŻƆįĽ ĭ



Į



į



İ



Ch. 



Jacob said to him, “Swear to me today.” He swore to him and he sold his birthright to Jacob.



Then Jacob gave Esau bread and the lentil stew to eat. He ate and drank. Then he rose and left. Esau despised his birthright.



ň ň ÿ Ɗſ ň ÿ Ɖł ĥňŭƆ ŏ łſų Ņ ĭŌ :ťÿ ƍŅ ƉŴ Ŕ ÿ Ũŏ œ Ǝÿ Ũň œ Įĭł :ųÿ Ɔť Ņ łſ Ɓÿ ƆŌ Ɓÿ ƊŌ Ōſ :ħŴ  Ŕ ÿ ƠƖ  ÿ ƆƢ ĬŁĭŔ ƢŏƃŴ .ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞ ł ŏ Ŕ ÿƊŷ Ņ Ɔ ł Ŕ ƨŅƣŴ ƑÿňƖɝĭł :ťÿŷň ƙòŔ ɤŹ Ņ Ī Ņ ÿŨĭť ł :ƑÿłƖɤƊƆ ň ŴƐ ŏ ŌƖɝ  ħ  Ŕ ųô łſ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſĭ  űƆ Ņ ŏ ŏœ ł ŏ Ō ł ł Ō Ņ  IJƦƣĥ œ ĭň .ŦŁĭ Ŕ ƢƃŴ Ŕ Ũ ƈƕ ŴƐ  ƕƢ  Ɛ  ŨĭŔ .ĵĮĥł ĭňƋƟĭ







Ch. 



Her sons were struggling in her womb and she said, “If it is so, why am I alive?” 1 She went to ask the Lord.



The Lord said to her, “Two peoples are in your womb. Two nations from your womb will be separated. One nation will prevail over the other nation. The elder shall be subject 2 to the younger.”



Her days for giving birth were complete and there were twins in her womb.



The first one came out red haired, all of him was ringlets of hair. He named 3 him Esau.



After him his brother came out. His hand was gripping Esau’s heel. He named him Jacob. Isaac was sixty years old when she bore them.



The boys grew. Esau became a man knowing how to hunt, a man of the outdoors. Jacob was guileless, 4 living in a tent.



Isaac loved Esau because he liked game 5 and Raphka loved Jacob.

XXXVII



Jacob was boiling a stew just as Esau his brother 6 come in from the field, exhausted.



Esau said to Jacob, “Let me taste some of these red lentils 7 because I am exhausted.” For this reason they called him Edom.



Jacob said to him, “Sell me today your birthright.”



Esau said to himself, 8 “I am going to die. What good is the birthright to me?” 



MT: ‘Why am I here?’ See the Introduction: Divergent Readings. MT: ‘shall serve’. 3 MT: ‘they named’. 4 Or ‘perfect, innocent’. 5 ‘he liked game’: lit. ‘his [Esau’s] hunting was in his mouth’. 6 The MT lacks ‘his brother’. 7 ‘red lentils’: lit. ‘the reds of this red [food]’. The precise food is left to our imaginations. 8 ‘to himself’: lit. ‘in his heart’. Absent in the MT. 1 2



ň ł ň Ņ ł œ ňò œ Ō Ņ ŒŔ Ɔô Įłĥĭň .ťÿƌŅ ôĥťÿƀŅ ʖť ł ÿƍŅ ƊƆ Ņ :ĭĬť ô ƍłƃłŔĬķ Ņ ĥ .ŒŁŔ ƢƉĥ  ĭ :ųñ ƏƢ  ƄŔ Ũ ųƀ ñ ƍŨ Ǝɖƞɞĥ  ĭ Ūƃ Ʀÿ .ťɕƢ Ņ ƉƎ Ņ ƉĵŤ ň Ƥł ƊƆ ň ł ň ŴŅ ÿƉò ĥňƎſňŁœ ĿŁĭ Ɓô ÿƄœ ɛò ɳ ł ƉƎÿƉķ Ŕ :Ɓô Ƅœ ɛò ɳ ł ƊŨłœ ƎƀƊŌ Ɗòô łƕƎſĿňŁœ :ťɕƢ Ņ Ɖ Ņ ųñ ɝƢ Ņ Ɖĥ ł ĭň ŭƃ ň Ņ Ņ ł Ŕ ňƌ .ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ƕŵ ŏ Ɔ ł űŔũƕ łœ ƦƤ œ ňƌťŨŅœ Ŀłĭ :ƎƤƕ Ŕ ƦƉĭ Ŕ ŏ ĥƎ  ƉŦ ň ƦƉĭĥ Ŕ ĭŏ .ƎƣŅ ǔƘł œ Ʀ ł ŁŦ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņòł ň ł .ųñ ƏƢ Ņ Ƅł Ŕ Ũť Ŕ Ɖ ò ĥŁŦ Ŕ Ĭĭ  :űŔƆŤ ł ƊƆ Ō Ĭñ Ʀ Ŕ Ɖ  ŴɖŴô ƊƇƣ  ĭ űƃ Ņ ň ň ŏ .ŴƐ ŏ Ōƕų  Ɗƣŧ ň ƢƟ Ņ ĭł :ŧ ƢƖ Ņ Ə ł ĪŦ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ ƟŅ ŵòɯų  Ƈ ƃĭ Ŕ :IJƢƠ Ņ ƊƏť ł ƀŅƉ Ņ űŔƟơ ł ƙƌ łŔ ĭł ųƃ ł ł ł ň Ņ ňŔ ň ƖŨŧ Ŕ űƀ ŅŔ ʖ Ō ĥĬ  űňŔſĥĭŌ :IJĬŴ ô Ŷŏ ĥơ  ƙƌ Ŕ ĬĿƦ Ŕ ŨĭŔ Ŵƃ .ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſų  Ɗƣ ň ŧ ƢƟ Ņ ĭł :ŴƐ ŏ ŌƕĪœ ųũƠ ň Œ łœ ň ł œ ò Ō Ņ Ōœ łœ Ņ Ō ŏ .ķŴƌĥ ŁŔ űɤ  ſ űŔƃ Ǝƀɫ ƣŦĭĬƎſ ô ƦƣƢ  Ũ ơŷƐſĥ  ĭ ň Ņ Ƣÿũł Ŕ ū  œ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſĭ  .ŧ ƢŅŨłŔ Īŧ Ŕ ƢŅũŔ ūŧ Ŕł űſ Ņœ ĽłĺűłŔɖŧ Ņ ƢŅũŔ ū Ŕł ŴƐ ŏ ŌƕŦ  ĭĬ Ņ ĭł :ťƀò ˁ  Ź ŴŨĿ łŔ ĭł ŵƃ ł .ťƍŅƄƤ œ Ɗ ł Ũœ ƢƊ ł ƕĭƋƀ Ņ Ō Łœ Ɖ ŏ ň ł Ŀť ň ĭł Ÿƃ Ņ Ō ĥƋ ŒŔ ÿÿƊŶ Ʀ ň ÿÿƠŅ ƘŔ Ŀłĭ :ųƉŴ ň ÿÿƙŏ Ŕ Ũœ Ĭűÿÿſ ňœ ĽłĪœ ƈÿÿźƉ  :ŴÿÿƐŏ ŌƖɝơ  ÿÿŷƐſ  ÿÿŶĿ .ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞ ł





  





ŵƆįĽ

Ņ ł ň Ņň ł ŏ Ō Ņ ŅŅ ŏœ ł .Ļ  Ŕ ƢłźƉ  ĭĬĭ ŏ :ƨƠ  ŶƎ  ƉŦ  ŁŔ ĥIJĬô ŴŶŏ ĥ ŴƐ  ƕŦ  Ĭĭ  :ƨ ƣŴ  Ũ ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſƈ  Ƥň Ũĭ łŔ Żƃ ł ŏ ň ŅŅ Ņ Ņ ŏ ň Ņò ŏ ň ƈÿźƉ  :ťÿƌĬť  ÿƠƉŴ  Əť  ÿƠƉ  ŴƏƎ  ÿƉ Ɓô ÿƍƀƊ ł ň ƖŹ  ĥ :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ ƀɞ ł ŴƐ ŏ ŌƕƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň ĵ ł ň Ņ ŅŅ ŏ ň Ņ ł ł łœ  Ŕ ƢźƉ  Ī .ĶĭĪŏŔĥų  Ɗƣŧ  ƢƟ  ťƌĬƈ  ź Ɖ  :ťƌôĥ Ļ ň Ņ ŏ Ŕ ƍŅƉŴ .ĴŔ Łĭ Ŕ ƢŏƃŴ Ŕ Ũť Ņ łſ ƁƆƎ Ō Ũňœ Įł :ħŴ  Ŕ ƠƖ ŏ łſų  Ɔ ň ƢƉ ł ĥ Ƨ Ņ Ņ ň Ņ ňœň ŅŅ Ņ Ņ .ŦŁĭ Ŕ ƢŏƃŴ Ŕ Ũŏ Ŕ ƁƆ Ō ƧĮ  ĥť  ƍƊƆ  :Ʀ Ŕ ƊƊ Ņ Ɔť ł ƌŅôĥ ĵňĮĥť  ƌŅĥŦ  Ĭ :ųũ ɢ  ŨŔ ŴƐ ŏ ŌƕƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň ŪƆ



 

 

Ch. 



After the death of Abraham, God blessed Isaac his son. Isaac dwelt beside the well of Hayya-hezan. 1

XXXV



These are the descendants of Ishmael, son of Abraham, whom Hagar the Egyptian, the maidservant of Sarah, bore to Abraham.



These are the names of the sons of Ishmael, by their names according to their births. Nebaioth, the first born of Ishmael, Kedar, Arbal, 2 Mibsam,



Mishma, Ruma, 3 Massa,



Hadar, 4 Tema, Netor, 5 Naphish, and Kedem. 6



These are the sons of Ishmael. These are their names according to their habitations and their encampments: twelve princes for their clans.



These are the years of Ishmael’s life: one hundred and thirty-seven years. He became sick 7 and died and was gathered to his people.



They settled from Havilah as far as Shod, 8 which is opposite Egypt, on the way toward Assyria. He settled along the border of all his kinsmen.

XXXVI



These are the descendants of Isaac, the son of Abraham. Abraham begot Isaac.



Isaac was forty years old when he took Raphka, daughter of Bethuel the Aramean, from Paddan-aram, sister of Laban the Aramean, as a wife for himself.



Isaac prayed before the Lord for his wife because she was barren. The Lord answered him and Raphka his wife conceived. See 24:62. MT: ‘Adbeel’. 3 MT: ‘Dumah’. 4 MT: ‘Hadad’. 5 MT: ‘Jetur’. 6 MT: ‘Kedmah’. 7 See Gen 25:8. 8 MT: ‘Shur’. 1 2



Ō Ņ ł ň łœ Ņ Ņ ł ň ł ơŷƐſ Ņ Ō ĥ ħ  Ŕ Ʀſ Ŕ ĭŌ :ĬƢňŨœ ơŷƐſ Ņ ƧŦ  ųŅ Ɔ  ĥ ĴŔ ƢŨ :ĶĬ ƢŨŔ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎƉŦ Ŕ Ɖ Ō Īœ ĿƦ ň ĭĬ Ņ ĭł .Ɓƌ ô ŵŶť Ņ ƀŅʖ ł ĪŔ ŧ ƢŅŨŌœ Ū  œ ôƍū ň œ ƈłƕ

ťſ  ųƆįĽ

ň Ņ ò łœ ň Ņ Ņ ł Ņ œ Ņ ň Ņ Ņ Œ łœ ň œ Ņ Ņ ł ł œ Ĭñ ƦÿƉ Ŕ ĥŦ  Ʀÿſ  ĿƞƉƢ  ū Ŕ Ĭ ŁŔ űɤ  ſĪ :ĶĬ ƢŨŔ ĥƢ  Ũ ƈƀň ƖƊƤſĥ Ŕ ĭŁ ƎƀƆ  Ĭĭ  Ūſ Ņ ĪŌœ ĬŁŔ űɝ ł Ņ ł œ Ņ Ņ .ĶĬ ƢŨŔ Ƨ ŧ ƢƏ  Ī ł òŅ Ŕ ųŏ ÿòſųł ƊƤ Ņ Ũłœ ƈÿƀň ƖƊƤſ ĬƢňƃŴ Ŕ ÿŨŏ œ :ķĭĬŏ ŁŔűÿɝ ŅŔ ĭòƦƆķĭ łŔ ųň ÿƊƣƎƀ ň Ĭĭ Ɔ Ņ ŭſ Ņ Ō ĥ Ɓÿƍł Ũò Ŕ ĪŦ ň ƖƊƤſĥ . ƋƐ ł ũŔ Ɖĭ ł :ƈŨŅœ Ŀĥĭł :ĿűŅŔƟĭ ŌŔ Ņ ĪŌœ ł :ŁŴ Ŕ ƀŏũƌƈƀ .ťƐ Ņ Ɖĭ ł :ťƉĭ Ņ Ŀĭ ŏ :ƗƊƤ ł Ɖĭ ł űſ ł ŏ .ĶűƟ ňŔ ĭł :ƥƙƌ ňŔ ĭł :ĿŴźƌ  ĭł :ťƊſ Ņ Łĭ Ŕ :ĿűŅŔŶĭ Ņ ųſ ň ķĭųÿÿſ ŏ ǔłſűłŔŨœ ķĭųŏ ÿÿòſųł Ɗ Ņ ƣƎÿÿƀƆ ň Ĭĭ Ņ :ƈÿÿƀň ƖƊƤſĥ Ņ ĪŌœIJĬô Ŵòÿÿɩł Ũœ ķŴÿÿƌŏ ĥƎÿÿƀ  Ɔ ň ĬŅ Ŵſ ň ł ĿňŁłœ :ķĭųſ .ķĭĬŏ ŁŔŴŅƉ ò ƧƎƀ  ƍŌŨŅ Ŕ ǓĭĿł ƢƐƕ ŏ ǔłəź Ņ Ũĭ łŔ Ō Ņ ł Ņ ł ł Ŕ ĭł ƎſƦ ň Ĭĭ Ņ ŵſ Ŕ Ɔ  ŁŔĭŦŤ  Ɖ  :ƈƀň ƖƊƤſĥ Ņ ĪŌœIJĬô ŴòəłŶł ƁòƍƣƎƀƆ ĬƢłÿƃœ Łĥ Ŕ ĭň :Ǝÿƀò ɫŌ ƣƗÿũƣ .ųƊ ň łƕ ŁŔŴɝ Ņ ƥňƍƃœ Łĥ Ŕ ĭň Ʀƀ Ŕ Ɖĭ Ō ŏ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł łœ ň ň Ņ łœ ŏ Ņ Ō ň ł ł Ŕ Īť ƈÿłƕ :ĿĭŁĥ Ŕ ÿƍˁƖ  Ɗ  ŨŔ Ī ƎÿſĿƞ ƉĶ  űÿƟ Ŕ Ī ĪŴ Ŕ ÿƤƆťÿƉŅ űƕ łŔ ĭł :ƨſ  ŴŶƎ  Ɖ  ĭƢƣ  ĭ Ÿɖ łł ò ŏ Ņ.ŧ Ƣƣ Ŕ ƉŴ Ņ Ŷŏ Łœ  IJĬô Ŵ Ŷ ĥ ķĭųɤ ŏ ƃŔ Īť Ō ň ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł ł œ Ņ Ōœ ň Ņ ò ł œ ň Ņ .ơŷƐſ Ņ Ƨ űŔƆĭ  ĥĶ  Ĭ ƢŨŔ ĥ .ĶĬ ƢŨŔ ĥƢ  Ũ ơŷƐſĥ Ŕ ĭŁ ƎƀƆ  Ĭĭ   Ī ĬŁŔ űɝ Ņ ň ł ŏ Ŕ Ũœ ŁŔƢŨť łŔ ƠŅ ƘŔ Ƣɝ ł Ū  Ŕ Ɛƌ ł űŔƃł œ :ƎƀòɫŌ ƣƎƀŌƖŨœ ĿĥƢ  Ũłœ ơŷƐ ťƀŅƉ Ņ ĿŅĥ ƈſĥĭ Ʀ Ņ ſŌ ĥŦ  ĭĬ Ņ ĭł Ņ œ ł ň Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ œ ň Ņ Ņ Ņœ Ņ Ņ œ ň  .ŦŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥųƆť  ƀƉ  ĿĥƎ  ũŔ Ɔ  Ī ĬƦ Ŕ Ŷ :ĶĿĥ Ī ķűŔ Ƙ ƎƉ ň Ņ ł łœ ł ŏ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ɖ :ťÿɕƢ Ņ IJųô ÿƀƍƕ Ņ ĭł :IJĬŦ ô ŁƢ Ŕ ÿƠƕ Ī ĬŁŔ Ʀœ ô ƌĥ ƈź  Ɖť  ɕƢ  ƉĶ  űƟơ Ŕ ŷƐſ Ņ Ō ĥ ƁƆ Ō Ľĭ ł ň œ ł Ņ ł Œ ł ň Ŕ Ŕ ƍź  Ũĭ .ĬŁŔ ƦôƌĥťƠ ƘŔ Ŀ Ʀ







  





ŴƆįĽ Żſ  Ĵ  ťƃ 

Ch. 

Chapter  XXXIII



Abraham took a wife again. Her name was Kentora. 1



She bore Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ashbak, 2 and Shuah.



Jokshan begot Sheba and Daran. 3 The sons of Daran were Ashodim, Letushim, and Amim. 4



The sons of Median were Ephah, Haphar, Hanoch, Abida, and Eldaah. All of these were the descendants of Kentora.



Abraham gave everything he had to Isaac his son. 5



To the sons of Abraham’s concubine, Abraham, while he was still living, gave gifts and he sent them away from his son Isaac, at first 6 to the land of the east.

XXXIV



These are the days of the years of the life of Abraham, which he lived: one hundred and seventy-five years.



Abraham became sick 7 and died at a good old age, elderly and full of his days, 8 and he was gathered to his people.



His sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the double cave, which was in the field of Ephron son of Zohar the Hittite, which was in front of Mamre,



the field that Abraham bought from the Hittites as a burial site. 9 Abraham and Sarah, his wife, were buried there. 



MT: ‘Keturah’. MT: ‘Ishbak’. 3 MT: ‘Dedan’. 4 MT: ‘Leummim’. 5 MT lacks ‘his son’. 6 See the Introduction: The Peshiṭta imitates the formal character of the Hebrew. 7 See the Introduction: Particular lexical choices. 8 Absent in the MT. See the Introduction: Harmonization. 9 Absent in the MT. See the Introduction: Harmonization. 1 2



.ųƃ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

Ņ œ ł ł ł ŅŅ ł ň ł ŏ .ŧ ĿŴ Ņ źƍ  Ɵň ųñ Ɗƣ Ņ ĭł :ŦŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥ Ū  Ŕ Ɛƌ  ĭĶ  Ĭ ƢŨŔ ĥ ƚ  Ŕ Əĭĥ  ĭ Ņ œ ĭł :ƎłſűŔƉĭ .įŴƣĭ ŏ :ơũƣĥ ň :ķűŅŔƉĭ Ņ :ƎƤƠ Ņ łſĭ  :ķƢƉ Ņ ŵɟų ł ň Œ ŁŔ űɤ Ɔ łœ ň ſĭ ł ł Ņ Ņœ ł ò ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł ň ł Ņ ł .ƋƀƉĥ Ō ĭŅ :ƋƀƤź Ō Ɔĭ Ņ :ƋſĪŴ ŌŔ ƣŏ ĥ ĭĭĬķ  ĿĪ ƁƍŨŔ ĭ :ķĿűɝ Ŕ ĭť  ũƤ  űŔƆĭ  ĥƎ  ƤƠ  ſĭ  Ŕ Ɔ ł ň Ĭķĭ Ņ ųɤ ŏ ƃŏœ :ťƕŅűɝĥ łœ ĭł :ĺűƀ łŔ Ũĥ ŌŔ ĭł :ĴŴ Ŕ ƍŶ ŏ ĭł :ƢƙŅŔ Ŷĭ Ņ :ťƙƕ ŅŔ :ƎłſűŔƉ ň Ɓƍł Ũò Ŕ ĭł ƁòƍŨœ ƎƀƆ ŏ .ŧ ĿŴ Ņ źƍ  Ɵň Ō ň ł ň .ĬƢňŨœ ơŷƐſ Ņ Ƨų  Ɔ  Ʀſĥ Ŕ ĪŌœ Ķűň œ Ɖƈ ƃŏœ ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥ ħ  Ŕ ųô łſĭ ň ł ň ŏœ łò ł Ņ Ņ ň ƌŏĥĿ ƉķŴ  űłœƣł ĭ :ŦƦ Ŕ ŨŅ Ŕ ĬŴòƉĶ ł ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥ ħ  Ŕ ųô łſ :ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥĪłœ ĬƦ ŁŔŴÿɝƎ œ ƃĭ Ŕ ĿĪƁƍũŔ Ɔĭ ł ł Ņ ł ł ŏ ł ň œ Ņ Ō Ņ ł Ņ .ťŷƌ  űŔ Ɖ  ĪŔ ťƕĿ  Ƨ Ʀ Ŕ ƀƉ  űŔƟ :Ɓʖ  ĭĬ űŔƕ :ĬƢŨ ơŷƐſ  ĥ ł ŌƖũŔ ƣĭŦŤ ƎƀòɫŌ ƣƥƊ ň ŶĭƎƀ ł ł Ɖ Ņ :ťƀʖ Ņ Īłœ ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨĥ Ŕ ĪłœIJĬô Ŵò əłŶł Ɓòƍƣ ƁƉ ł ŴòɖƎƀ ł Ɔ ň Ĭĭ Ņ ň Ņò ł Ņ Ņ Ņ ŏœ ł œ Ņ Ņ ł ł Ŕ ĭł ħŤ :ĬƦ Ŕ Ɖ  Ŵ ÿ ɖƗÿ ũƏ  Ŕ ÿ Əň :ŦƦ Ŕ ÿ ũŔ ŹŦ  ŁŴ Ŕ ÿ ũƀƐ  Ũ ĶĬ Ƣÿ ŨŔ ĥ Ʀÿ Ŕ ÿƀƉĭĬ Ō Ƣłÿ ƃœ Łĥ Ŕ ĭň ňƍƃœŁĥ Ŕ ĭň . ųƊ ň łƕ ŁŔŴɝƥ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł łœ Ņ Ņ Ō ĥIJĬô ĭƢŏÿ ũŔ Ɵĭ  ÿƠŷł ŨŔ ĪŦ ƨÿ łŔ Ʀ œ ÿ ƙƀŔ ŌƕĥŦ  ŁƢ Ŕ ÿ ƖƊŨ :IJĬô Ŵò ÿ ɩł Ũœ ƈÿÿƀň ƖƊƤſĥ Ņ ĭơ Ō ÿ ŷƐſ ł Ņ Ō Ņ Ņ łœ ŏ ň .ŧ ƢƊ ň ƉĶ ł űƟ ŅŔ ĪłŔ ťɕŅƦ Ŕ ƀʖƢ  Ŷ ĽƢ  Ũ ķĭƢƙŔ ƕĪŔ ł ł ň Ņ łœ Ņ ł ŅŅœ ŏ ł ň ŅŅ ł ł ł Ņ ł  ƨƠ  Ŷ  Ĭ ƢŨŔ ĥƎ  ŨĮ  Ī ĶĬŅ ƢŅÿŨŔ ĥƢ  ÿũƟ  Ɖ  Ł :ŧ ƢũŔ Ɵ Īť Ŕ ɧŁĿŴ  ƀɞ Ʀƀ Ŕ ʖ Ō ƁòƍŨœ ƎƉĶ Ŕ ŁŔĥƎ ň œ Ŕł Ŕ Ņ ł  .ĬŁŔ Ʀôƌĥŧ ƢƏĭ



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űƆįĽ Į



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IJ 

Ch. 



The servant recounted to Isaac all the things that she 1 had done.



Isaac brought her into the tent of Sarah his mother. He took Raphka and she became his wife. He loved her. Isaac was comforted after [the death] of his mother.

1

MT: ‘he had done’.



ň Ņ ň œ ŏ ŏ œ Ņ Ō Ņœ ł Ō ł œ ň .ŒŁŔ űłœũŔ ň ƕĪť Ŕ Ɗ ò ū Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ Ƙ ķĭųɤ  ƃ ơŷƐſ  Ƨŧ  űũŔ ƕ ƁƕƦƣĥ  ĭ ň ł ųñ ÿũƐ Ņ œ ƌłĭ :ųÿƉň ĥŧ Ņ Ō ĥ ųñ ɤƕĥ ųÿƆň Œ ŁŔ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł :ťÿƠŅ ƘŔ Ƣɝ  ƢŅÿƏł Īť Ŕ ÿƍŅ ƄƤ œ ƊƆơ ł ÿŷƐſ Ņ ĭł ň ł Ņœ Ņ Ō ł łœ ň Ņ ł Ņ œ ł Ŕ Ũ ơŷƐſ . ųƉ ň ĥĿ  Ʀ  ĥť  ƀŨ Łĥ  ô ƌĥ Ŕ ĭ :ųñ ƊŶ  Ŀĭ .ŦŁŔ Ʀ



ŴƏ  ŵƏ 

Ch. 



He and the men with him ate and drank and they spent the night. He 1 rose at dawn and said to them, “Send me off, I will go 2 to my lord.”



Her brothers and her mother said to him, “Let the young girl stay with us a full month. 3 Then she can go.”



He said to them, “Do not delay me for the Lord has prepared my journey. Send me and I will go to my lord.”



They said, “Let us call the girl and ask her.” 4



They called Raphka and they said to her, “Will you go with this man?” She said, “I will go.”



So they sent off Raphka their sister, her nurse, Abraham’s servant and his men.



They blessed Raphka their sister and they said to her, “You are our sister. Become thousands and myriads. May your descendants take possession of the lands 5 of their enemies.”



Raphka and her young maidens arose, mounted the camels and followed the man. So the servant took Raphka and went off.



Now Isaac was coming from the well of Hayya-hezan. 6 He was dwelling in the southern land.



Isaac went out to walk 7 in the field during the evening. He raised his eyes and looked. The camels were coming.



Raphka raised her eyes and saw Isaac. She descended from the camel.



She said to the servant, “Who is this man who is coming into the field to meet us?” The servant said, “He is my lord.” She took a veil and she covered herself. 



MT: ‘They’. Absent in the MT. See the Introduction: Harmonization. 3 MT: ‘days or ten’. 4 ‘Let us call the girl and ask her’: lit. ‘We will ask from her mouth’. 5 MT: ‘the gates’. 6 ‘the well of Hayya-hezan’ or ‘the well of the Living One who saw me’. 7 The meaning of the Hebrew word, a hapex legomenon, is unknown. 1 2



Ō ł .ĭôƦ Ņ Ŕ :ųÿƊň łƕĪŧ ł ĭň ŧ ƢŅÿƙŔ Ƥł Ũœ ĶűňœÿƟĭ ƢÿƉĥ Ŕ ÿŨĭ Ŕ ǔňÿũŔ ūĭ Ŕł ĭĬŏ Ŵô ÿſƦƣĥ œ ĭň ŴôÿƐň Ɩɝ  ĭł űƌ Ō IJô ƢƉŅ ŁŔŴɝĵ Ņ ĮłĥƁô ƌĭĿŏűœƣł :ķĭųŏ ɝ ňň Ņ ňł ň Ņ ĭň ųƀ Ō ÿƊł łƕŦ ł ƢłÿɕƎ Ǝÿſűſ ňœ Ĭĭ Ņ :ƎƀƉ Ō Ŵò ÿɖį  ƦÿƊƀ Ŕ ł Ƈƕ  ħ  Ŕ Łœ Łœ .ųñ ÿƉĥ ñ ʖ ò ĥų  Ɔ  ĭô ƢƉĥ ł ĭň ųƌ Ō .ĵĮĥł Łœ ł Ņ Ņ œ Ņ ŏ ł Ņ ŁŔŴÿɝĵ Ņ Įĥł ĭŌƁô ÿƌĭĿŏűœƣł :ƁÿʖĿĭ ô ŏ ĥƎ  Ɵň ŁŔĥť  ɕƢ Ɖ  Ī :Ɓƍ ô ƌĭ  ƢŶŴ  ƣ Ł Ŕ Ƨ :ķĭųɝƢ ŏ ł ĭň Ŵƌ Ɖĥ IJô ƢƉŅ Ņ Ō ł ň ň .ųñ ƉŴ Ņ Ƙŏ œ ƎƉĵŤ ň Ƥł ňƌĭŦ  Ʀƀ Ŕ Ƈź  Ɔŧ  ƢƠ  ƌ .ĭƢƉĥ ł ĭň ŵƌ Ņ ł ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ł œ ł ŅŅ Ņ ł ň Ņ ł Ƨô ĮŅĥ :Œ ŁŔ ƢÿƉĥ  ĭ :ťÿƌĬŧ  ƢÿũŔ ūœ Ƌÿƕ IJô Ʀôƌĥ Ƨô Įĥ :ųñ ɝ  ĭô ƢƉĥ  ĭ :ťƠ ƘŔ Ƣɝ  Ĭĭ ñ ŏ ĥƢƟ ł ĭł Ÿƌ .ťƌŅôĥ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ Ŕ Īŧ łŔ űŅœũŔ łƖɝĭł .Ĭñ ƦƠ Ŕ ƍƀł ƊƆ ł ĭķĭ ł Ĭŏ Ʀ Ŕ Ŷť Ņ ƠŅ ƘŔ Ƣɝ ł Ĭĭ ñ Ŀŏűœƣĭ ł Żƌ .IJĬĭ ô ǔłũŔ ŬƆ Ŕ ł ĭ :ĶĬ ƢŨĥ ł ň Ŕ Ƨł IJĭĬ ŏ Ŕ Ũĭ œ ÿôƌĥł ķƦ ł ĭň :ķĭĬŏ Ʀ Ņ ÿ ƠŅ ƘŔ Ƣɝ Ŕ ÿ ŶŅ :ųñ ÿ ɝŅ ĭô Ƣÿ Ɖĥ Ŕ ÿ Ŷť ł ĬŴ ñ ÿ ƃƢ łŔ ĸ ťÿ ƙƆ Ņ :IJô Ʀÿ Ņ Ņ ł ò œ ň ƖŨŔ ĪŦ .IJĬŴ ô ũłŔ ŨŅ Ŕ űɤ łŔ Ʀ Ŕ ƕŅǓĥƁô ƄŔ ň ƕĿ  Įł ŁŔĿŤ ł ƌĭ Ō :ŦŁŔ ŴŅ Ũœ ǔňɝĭł ň ł ň Ņ Ņò ł ł Ņ ł Œ ł Ņ ł Ŕ ÿŨŅ œ Ɓô ÿƆò Įĥł ĭ Ŕ Ɗ  Ɵĭ  ťƏ :ŧ ƢŅÿũŔ ū ł œ ĿƦ ň ƨ ÿƊò ū  œ ƈłƕ Ɓô ŨòŔ Ʀſ Ŕ ĭŌ :Ĭñ Ʀ Ŕ Ɗ  ƀˁ  ƕĭť  Ơ ƘŔ Ŀ Ʀ Ņ ł ł ň ł ł Ņ .ĵĮĥ ĭ ťƠ ƘŔ Ƣɝŧ  űœ ũŔ ƕ ƢŨŔ ĪŔĭł Ņ ň ňŅ Ņ Ō ł Ņ łœ ň Ņ ŏ .ťƍƊſ Ņ ŁŔ Īť Ŕ ƕĿ  ŤŨ ħ  ĭ ŪƏ  ŔƦ Ŕ ſ ĭĬĭ  :Ɓƌ ô ŵŶť Ņ ƀŅʖ ł Īŧ Ŕ ƢŅŨŌœ ƎƉ ň ŦŁŤ Ŕ ƉŦ  ŁŔ ĥơŷƐſĥ Ņ Ņ Ŀł ķűŅœɳ :Ŧ ŵÿŶ Ņ ĭłIJĬô Ŵÿƍł əòɯƋÿſ ł ĿĥŌ ĭł .ťÿƤƉ ň ŨŔ ƨƠ  ŷł ŨŔ ŴƄŏŔ Ɔ Ņ ųƊ ł Ɔơ ł ŷƐſ Ņ Ō ĥơ  ƙƌ łŔ ĭł ŭƏ ňŅ ňò ł Ņ  ūŦ Ŕ Ĭĭ   ƨ Ɗ .ƎſŁŔ ĥ Ō Ņ ł ňò ł Ņ ł Œ ł Ō ł Ņ ł Ŕ Ɗſ  Ŀĥ ĭ űƏ ŒŔ ƍłƃŔĿłŁĥ Ŕ ĭň :ơŷƐſ Ņ Ƨ Œ ŁŔ ŵŶ  ĭ ųƀ ñ ƍəɯť  Ơ ƘŔ Ŀ Ʀ .ƨƊ  ū  œ ƈłƕ Ʀ ŏ Ņ ł ň Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ŏ ł Ņœ ł Œ ł ň ł ĭň :ƎÿłƕĿĭƧ ŏ Ĭŧ Ŕ Īť Ŵÿſĭ ŏ űŅœÿũŔ łƕƢÿƉĥ  ƨƠ  ŷ ŨŦ Ŕ Łĥ Ŕ ƌĬ ŧ ƢũŔ ū Ŕ ŴƍƉ  :ŧ űũŔ Ɩɝ ŁŔ ƢƉĥ  ĭ ųƏ .Ʀ ŒŔ ƀƐ ł ƃłœŁĥ Ŕ ĭŧ ň űſ ŅŔ ĪĿŌŔ Ʀ ŒŔ ũƐ łœ ňƌĭ :IJô ƢƉ Ņ









 

 



 

 

Ch. 



Before I had finished speaking to myself, 1 behold Raphka came out and a jar was on her shoulder. She went down to the spring and she drew water. I said to her, ‘Give me to drink some water from your jar.’ 2



She quickly lowered her jar from her and she said to me, ‘Drink and also give water to your camels.’ 3 So I drank and I also gave water to my camels. 4



I asked her and said to her, ‘Whose daughter are you?’ She said, ‘I am the daughter of Bethuel, Nahor’s son, whom Milcah bore to him.’ I put the bracelets on her wrists and the rings on her ears. 5 Then I knelt and worshipped the Lord.



Then I blessed the Lord, God of my lord Abraham, who had led me on the true path to the house of my lord’s brother to get the daughter of my lord’s brother for his son.



Now then, if you are acting loyally and true to my lord, tell me, and if not, tell me, and I will turn to the right or to the left.”



Laban and Bethuel answered and said, “The word has come forth from the Lord. We cannot speak either good or bad to you.



See, Raphka is in front of you. Take [her] and go. May she become the wife of your lord’s son, just as the Lord has spoken.”



When the servant of Abraham heard their words, he bowed down to the ground before the Lord.



The servant brought forth objects of gold and objects of silver, 6 and clothing, and he gave [them] to Raphka. He gave gifts to her brothers 7 and to her mother. 



‘to myself’: lit. ‘in my heart’. Absent in the MT. See the Introduction: Harmonization. 3 MT: ‘Drink, and I will also give water to your camels’. 4 MT: ‘she also gave water to the camels’. 5 MT: ‘I put a ring in her nose and bracelets on her wrists’. 6 MT: ‘objects of silver and objects of gold’. 7 MT: ‘her brother’. 1 2



Ņ ŏ Ņ ł ł ň ł Ņ ŏ Ʀ ŒŔ Ơł ƙŔ ňƌť  ƠŅ ƘŔ ĿŦ ł Ĭĭ Ņ :Ɓô ũœ ɢ ň ŨŔ ŴƇ Ƈ ƊƊ  Ɔ  Ʀ Ŕ Ɗɤ  ƣ Ƨƈƀ  ƃŌœ űƕ łŔ ťƌĥŅ ĭň ųƉ ŦƦƆŴ Ŕ ÿƟĭ Ņ ł Ō ł Ō Ņ ł ñ Ņ ň ň Œ Ņ ł Ņ ł Œ łœ ň ñ Ņœ łœ ł Ŕ ƃ ƈƕ Ŕ ƇƉ  ĭť  ƍƀ Ɩɝ  ŁŔ Ʀŷ  ƌĭ :ų Ƙ Ʀ  Ƈ Ɵ Ɓô ƍſŤƠƣ  ĥ :ų ɝ  ŁŔƢƉĥ  ĭ :Ʀ ťƀò Ɖƈƀ ň .Ɓô ƃŔƦƆŴ Ŕ Ɵŏ ƎƉ ň Ņ ł ł ł ň ł Ŕ ƦƏĥ ŒŔ ÿÿŨĬĿ œ ĭň ŴƉ Ŕ ĭł Ʀ  Ŕ ĭŅ IJƦÿÿƣ Ļĥ œ ĥ :ƁÿÿƆŌ Œ ŁŔ ƢÿÿƉĥ ł ĭň .ųñ ÿÿƍŅ Ɖ ň Ĭñ ƦƆŴ Ŕ ÿÿƟŏ ŒŁŔ ƦÿÿŶĥ ł ł œł ò ł Ō .Ʀƀ Ŕ Ơƣ Ō ĥ Ɓł Ƈ Ɗ ò ŬƆ Ŕ ł Ļĥ  Ŕ ĭŅ Ʀſ Ŕ Ʀƣĥ  Ƈ Ɗ  ŬƆ Ŕ œ ĭň :ťƠƣ Ņ ĥ ƅƀ ň ł ł łœ Ņ ň ň Ņœ ň ł ŏ ł Ŕ ÿƌŅ ôĥ ƈÿſĥĭ Ŕ Ũœ ŁŔƢôŨłœ :ŒŁŔ ƢƉĥ ƢÿŨť Ʀ ł ĭň IJô Ʀœ ô ƌĥƎƉ  ŁŔƢôŨ :ųñ ɝ  ŁŔƢƉĥ  ĭ :Ĭñ Ʀ  ƆŤƣĭ  ŵƉ ň ň ň ň Ņ ò Œ Ō ň Ō ň ň ł ł ò ò Ŕ ƣ űƟ ŅŔ ĭ ųſ ñ űňŔɖŤŨŧ Ŕ ǓŤƣŌ Ʀƀ Ŕ ƉĿĥ  ĭ :ťƄɤ œ Ɖ  ųƆ  ŁŔ űɤ łœ ň ſĪœ ĿŴŷŏ ƌŅ ñ ƌĪŤ Ŕ Ũť ŁŔűÿƖ ňœ Ɵĭ  .ųƀ .ťɕƢ Ņ ƊƆ Ņ ŁŔűňœŬ Ŕ Əĭ ň ł Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ũŏœ  Ɓô ƌƢłŨœ ĪłŔĪœ :ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥł IJô ƢƉ ňŔ ŦƦƣŴ œ ÿƟŏ Īť Ŕ ÿŶĿĭŤ Ņ ĪŔŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥť  ɕƢ  ƊƆ  Ʀ Ŕ ƃƢ ňŔ Ũĭ łŔ ŸƉ Ŕ ũƆ Ʀÿƀ ł ł .ĬƢňũŔ Ɔ ł IJô ƢƉ Ņ ĪœIJĬô ŴŶŏ ĥ ŁŔƢŨłœ Ū  ŔƐ ł ƊƆ ň :IJô ƢƉ Ņ ĪœIJĬô ŴŶŏ ĥ ň Ņ Ņ ŏœ ł ŏœ Ņ Ņ Ņ ÿłƕŦƦƣŴ :Ƨķĥĭň .Ɓƌĭŏ ĥŴŅ ÿŶł :IJƢÿƉƋ œ ÿƟŏ ĭŦŁŴ Ŕ ÿũƀ  Ʀ Źķĭ  ÿôƌĥƎſűŌœũŔ ƕķ Ņ ĥť  ƣŅ Ĭĭ  ŻƉ ŅŅ ň ł Ņ Ōł ň œ ň ŏ Ŕ ĭ :Ɓƌĭ ô ĥŴŅ Ŷł .ƨ Ɗ  ƐƆ  ĭĥ ťƍƀ Ɗ  ƀɞť  ƍƘ Łĥ ň ŏ ł Ņ Ņ ł ł Ņ Ņ ň Œ ł ň Ņ Ņ ň Ŕ ŨŔ ĭƎ  ũŔ Ɔ  Ŵƍƕ  ĭ Ǝƌ Ŕ ÿƠƙŔ ƌť  ɕƢ  ƉƎ  Ɖ  :ĭôƢƉĥ ł ĭň :ƈſĥĭ Ʀ Ǝÿƍƀł ʛ Ō ƄƤ œ Ɖ ň Ƨ :ŦƦÿƇ Ŕ Ɖ Ʀ Ņœ Ōœ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ō  ƉŤ  ƊƆ  .ŦƦƤƀ  Ũ ĭĥŦ Ʀ Ŕ ũŔ Ź ƅ Ŕ ƆƢ ň Ņ ł ł Ŕ :ĵňĮĭƢ  ŨłŔ Īœ ƅƀ œ Ɖ ł űƟť ŅŔ ƠŅ ƘŔ ĿŦ ł ĬŅ ťƌ .ťɕƢ Ņ ƉƢ Ņ Ɖĥ ł ĪňŔ ťƍŅƄſ Ņ ũƆ łŔ ŦŁŔ Ʀ łœ ĥ ĴŔ ƢŅƉƢ œ ô ƌĥŦĭĬ ň Łĭ ł ł Ŕ Ūƌ .ťɕƢ Ņ ƉĶ Ņ űƟť ŅŔ ƕĿ Ņ ĥ ƈłƕ űŔŬƏ łŔ űŅœũŔ łƕƗƊƣ ł űŔƃĭ Ŕň :ķĭųŏ ƀòˁ  ł ƉĶ ň ĬŅ ƢŅŨĥ Ŕ Īŧ ň Ņ Ņœ ł ň œ ł ň Ņ ŏ Ŕ ĭł :ťÿƉŤ Ņ Ə Ņ Ŕ ĪłŔĪť Ŕ òƌŤƉŧ  űũŔ ƕ ơƘĥ  ĭ ŭƌ :ťÿƠŅ ƘŔ Ƣɝ ł ħ  Ŕ ųô ÿłſĭ .ťÿƣň ŴòũƆ Ō Īť Ŕ ÿòƌ ŤƉĭ  :ťÿŨĬ ňŅ ł Ņ ò .ųñ Ɖ  Ƨĭ  ųñ ƀòʖ ň Ƨ ħ  Ŕ ųô łſŦƦ Ŕ ŨŅ Ŕ ĬŴ Ɖĭ ł















  

Ch. 



He said, “I am Abraham’s servant.



The Lord has blessed my lord and he has become very great. He has 1 flocks and oxen, silver and gold, servants and maidservants, female donkeys, 2 camels and male donkeys.



Sarah, my lord’s wife bore a son for my lord after she had already grown old. He has given to him everything that he has.



My lord made me swear and he said to me, ‘Do not take a wife for my son from among the daughters of the Canaanites in whose land I am dwelling.



But go to my father’s house and to my tribe and get a wife for my son from there.’



I said to my lord, ‘Perhaps the woman will not be willing 3 to come with me.’



But my lord said to me, ‘The Lord, before whom I serve, 4 will send his angel with you and he will prepare your way. You will get a wife for my son from my tribe and from my father’s house.



Then you will be free from my oath. When you go to my tribe, even if they will not give [her] to you, you will be free from my oath.’



I came today to the well and I said, ‘Lord God of my lord Abraham, if you have prepared my way on which I have come,



now I am standing beside the well of water and a young woman is coming out to draw water. I will say to her,



“Give me some water to drink from your jar.” She will say to me, “You drink and I will draw water for your camels as well.” She is the woman whom the Lord has prepared for the son of my lord.’ 



MT ‘he [God] has given’. See the Introduction: Harmonization. Absent in the MT. See the Introduction: Harmonization. 3 Absent in the MT. See the Introduction: Harmonization. 4 MT: ‘before whom I walk’. See the Introduction: Particular Lexical Choices. 1 2



.ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨĥ Ŕ Īť łŔ ƌŅôĥŧ űŅœũŔ łƕ .ƢƉĥ ł ĭň űƆ ň ł òŅ Ņ ň ł ł Ņ ň Ō Ņ Ŕ Īĭ  Ɔ  ĭĭĬ  ĭ Ū  Ŕ Ź ħ  Ŕ Ƣſ  ĭ :IJô ƢƊƆ Ņ ĴŔ ƢňŨť łŔ ɕƢ Ņ Ɖĭ Ņ ųƆ :ťÿŨĬ łŔ :ťƉŤ Ņ Əĭ Ō :ŧ ǓĭŁĭ Ŕ :ťƍɯų ňò ł ň Ņœ ł Ņ Ņ ò ň ňœ ò ł Ŕ :ťɧò Łĥ  .ŧ ǔŅƊŶĭ ň :ƨ Ɗ  ūĭ  ĭ :ŦŁŔ ų Ɖ  ĥĭ :ŧ űũŔ ƕĭ ň ł ł Œ łœ ň ł ň Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎƉ  ŁŔ űɤſĭ ŴƆ ŒŔ ŨŤ łŔ Ə ň Īœ ĿƦ ň IJô ƢƊƆŧ Ņ ƢŅŨœ IJô ƢƉ Ņ Īœ ĬŁŔ Ʀœ ô ƌĥŧ ƢŅƏ ƈƃŏœ ųƇ ŨŔ ųô łſĭ :Ʀ ň . ųƆ  Ʀſĥ Ŕ ĪŌœ Ķűň œ Ɖň ň Ņ ł Ņ Ō Ɖĥ ň Ŕ ŦŁŅŔƦÿ Ŕ Ƨ :ƁÿƆƢ ł ĭňIJô ƢƉ Ņ Ɓô ƍƀƉĭĥ ł ĭł ŵƆ  œ ô ƌĥ Ū  Ŕ ÿƏł Ł ťÿƀň ɫŅ ò Ɩɩłƃœ Ʀ Ŕ ÿòƍŨœ ƎÿƉň IJô ƢÿũƆ ň .ķĭųƕ ŏ ĿŤŨłŔ ťƌŅôĥ ħ  ŔƦ Ŕ ŅſĪŔ Ņ ň ł ň ň Ņ œ ł ł Ņň Ŕ ĵňĮ  Ƨĥ ŸƆ Ŕ ŦŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥ Ū  Ŕ Əĭ  :IJô Ʀ Ŕ ŨƢ łŔ Ƥł ƆĭłƁô ŨŔ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ ũƆ ƎƉ Ņ Łœ ƎƉ  IJô ƢũƆ Ņ Ō Ņ œ ł ňœň Ņ Ņ ł Ŕ Ƨť  ƊƆ  Īĭ Ŕ :IJô ƢƊƆ Ņ ŁŔƢƉĥ ň ĭň ŻƆ .ƁƊ ô łƕŦ  ŁŤ Ŕ ƊƆŦ  ŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥťŨĽ  Ł ł ŅŔ Ʀ ô Ɖ ł űƟ Ŕ ŷɤ ň ƘňŔ Īť Ŕ ɕƢ Ņ Ɖ Ņ :IJô ƢƉ Ņ ƁƆƢ Ō Ɖĥ ł ĭň Ķ ƎƟň Ʀ Ŕ ƌłĭ ƅ Ŕ Ɗ Ņ łƕų  ƃňŔƨƉł ĿűłœƤł ƌ ĭĬŏ :IJĬŴ ň Ņ Ņ ňœ ň ł ň Ŕ ŦŁŔ Ʀ Ņ ŏ ĥ Ŕ :ƅ Ŕ ŶĿĭ  œ ô ƌĥ Ū  ŔƏ ł Łĭ .Ɓô ŨŔ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũ ƎƉĭ  IJô Ʀ Ŕ ŨƢ łŔ ƣł ƎƉ ň IJô ƢũƆ Ō ň Ōœ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ɔ :ƅ Ŕ ÿƆķŴ ŏ Ʀ œ ňƌ Ƨķĥ  ĭň .IJô Ʀ Ŕ ŨƢ łŔ Ƥł ƆĵĮĥł Łœ űŔƃłœIJô Ʀ Ŕ ƉŴ Ņ ƉƎ ł Ɖť ň Ɛ ň Ŷł ŁŔŁœ Ǝſűſ  Ĭĭ  ťƉ ň œ Ņ ł ł ł Ʀſ  ĭĬ ł .IJô Ʀ Ŕ Ɖ  ŴƉƎ  Ɖ  ƁƐ  ŷƉ Ō ł ň ł ł œ Ɵň ŁŔĥķ Ʀÿƍ  ĥ :ĶĬŅ ƢŅÿŨŔ ĥIJô ƢÿƉŅ ĪŔ ŦųŅ ÿƆŅ ĥť  ɕŅƢƉ Ņ :ŁŔƢƉĥ ň ĭŧ ň ƢŅŨŌœ ŁŔŴɝť Ņ ƍŅƉŴ Ņ łſ Ʀ Ŕ ſŁŔ ĥĭň ŪƉ Ō ň .ųƀ ñ Ƈƕ  Ʀ Ŕ ſŁŔ ĥĪňœƁô ʖĿĭŏ ĥ Ņ ň Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ōœ ł Ņ ň Ņ Ņň Ņ ł ĭŌ :ťÿƀò Ņ Ɖ  ĪŔ ŧ ƢŨ ƈƕť  ƌôĥĶŤƟť  ƌĥŦ  Ĭ ŭƉ ł ƨÿƊ  ƊƆť  ÿƠŅ ƙŔ ƌŅĪŦ Ŕ ƦƊƀ Ŕ ł Ƈƕ  ĭł :ťƀò Ɖ ƢÿƉĥ .ųñ ɝ Ņ Ņ łœ ň œ ł Ņ Ō ł Ō ň Ņ ł Ō ł ŌŅ ł  Ƈ Ɵ  Ɓô ƍſŤƠƣ  ĥ űƉ Ŕ Ɵŏ ƎƉť ň ƀò Ɖƈƀ  Ŕ ĥ IJƦÿƣ Ļ  ĥ Ʀÿ  ô ƌĥ Ļ  Ŕ ĥ ƁÿƆ ƢÿƉĥŁŔ ĭ .Ɓô ƃŔƦƆŴ ň ň Ņ ł ł ł ò Ō Ņ Ņ œ Ņ ł IJô ƢƉƢũƆ Ŕ ťɕƢ Ņ Ɖ  Ū  Ŕ ƀňŹĪœŦŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥ IJĬô IJĬ :ƨƉ  ŬƆ Ŕ ł  ĥ ƅƀ  œ Ƈ Ɗ



 





  









Ch. 



When the camels had finished drinking, the servant took a gold ring weighing a shekel and two bracelets for her wrists, their weight being ten gold shekels.



He said to her, “Whose daughter are you? Tell me if there is room in your father’s house for us to spend the night.”



She said to him, “I am the daughter of Bethuel son of Milcah whom she bore to Nahor.”



She said to him, “We have plenty of straw and hay and also a place to spend the night.”



The man bowed down on the ground 1 and adored the Lord.



He said, “Blessed is the Lord, the God of my lord Abraham who did not withhold his faithfulness and his justice from my lord. Rather, 2 the Lord has led me along the road to the house of my lord’s brother in order to get the daughter of my lord’s brother for his son.” 3



The girl ran and informed her father’s 4 household of these words.



Raphka had a brother and his name was Laban. Laban ran outside to the man at the well. 5



When he saw the rings and the bracelets in the hands of his sister and when he heard the words of Raphka his sister, who said, “Thus, the man spoke to me,” he came to the man. Now he was standing by the camels at the well.



He said to him, “Come in, O blessed of the Lord. Why are you standing here in the open? I have prepared the house and a place for the camels.”



The man entered the house and unharnessed the camels. He set down straw and hay for the camels and water to wash his feet and the feet of the men with him.



He set food before them to eat but he said, “I will not eat until I have spoken my words.” They said to him, “Speak.” Not in the MT. See the Introduction: Inner-Syriac Corruptions. 3 See the Introduction: Harmonization. 4 MT: ‘her mother’s’. 5 MT: ‘spring’. 1 2



Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ Ņ Ņœ ł Ņ ň ň ò łœ ł œ ł ň :ųƇ ƟŅ Ʀ Ŕ Ɖ ł ƨƟŅ Ʀ Ŕ Ɖť  ŨĬ Ŕ ƣ űƟ Ŕ ŧ űũŔ ƕ Ū  Ŕ Ɛƌ ł :ŦƦƤ œ Ɗ  Ɔƨ Ɗ ū  ĭô ƢƊ ū  űŔƃĭ Ŕ Ūƃ Ŕ ĪŔĪť Ō Ō ň ň Ņ Ņ Ņ Ŕ Īł ŔĪŧ .ķĭųɤ ŏ Ɵ Ʀ Ŕ Ɖť ł ŨĬ Ŕ ƢƐ  ƕƎ  Ɖ ň :ųſ ñ űňŔɖòĥ ƈłƕ ƎſǓŤƣƎſ Ō ĿŁŔĭł ň ł ł Ņ Ɖĥ ň Ŕ ĿŅŁŔĥƎ œ ô ƌĥł ƎÿƉł ŁŔƢÿŨł œ :ųñ ÿɝƢ  ÿƆł Ʀÿſ Ŕ Ō ĥķĥƁô ƍſŌ ĥŴŅ ÿŶł :IJô Ʀÿ Ɓô ƃŴ Ŕ ÿŨŏ Ŕ ĥ Ʀÿƀ Ŕ Ũŧ ł ĭň ŭƃ ô ŅŔ Ɔ ł .Ʀ Ŕ ũƊ ň ŏ œ łœ ň Œ ł ň Ŕ Ũ ŁŔƢôŨ :ųƆ .ĿŴŷŏ ƍɞ Ņ Œ ŁŔ űɤ łœ ň ſĪť Ŕ Ƅɤ Ņœ Ɖ ň ƢŨłŔ ťƌŅôĥ ƈſĥĭ Ʀ  ŁŔ ƢƉĥ  ĭ űƃ ł Ņ ł Ōœ ł Ņ ň œ Ņ Ņ ň œ Ņ ň Œ ł ň Ņ Ŕ Ɔŧ .Ʀ Ŕ ũƊ ł ĿŅŁŔĥ Ļĥ  Ŕ ĭ :ƎƆ  ƁŬ  ƏŦ  ƦƐ Ŕ ƃ Ļĥ  Ŕ ĭť  ƍŨŔ Ł Ļĥ  Ŕ ĭ :ųƆ  ŁŔ ƢƉĥ  ĭ ųƃ ł .ťɕƢ Ņ ƊƆ Ņ űŔŬƏ Ŕň ĭł :ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ƈłƕŧ ƢŅũŔ ū ł œ ĴŔ ƢłŨŔ ĭł Ŵƃ ł Ņ Ņœ ŅŅ ł Ņ œ ň Ņł Ņ Ņ ŏ Ō œ ł ň ň ŏ ňŁŴŔ ũŏœ ƀŹ ĬƦ  ƨƃ Ŕ ƧĪ :ĶĬ ƢŨŔ ĥ IJô ƢƉ  Ī Ĭų Ɔ  ĥť  ɕƢ Ɖ  ĭĬô ƅſ œ ƣŴÿƟĭĬ  Ŕ ƢŨ :ƢƉĥ  ĭ ŵƃ ň ł Ņ ł ň ŏ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ł ł ŁŔƢôÿŨœ Ū Ŕ ťɕƢ Ņ Ɖ  Ɓô ƌƢŨœ Īť Ŕ ŶĿĭŤ Ņ ŨŔ Ƨĥ IJô ƢƉƎƉ ň  Ŕ ÿƐƊƆ  :IJô ƢƉ  ĪœIJĬô ŴŶŏ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ ũƆ ł ĬƢňũŔ Ɔ ł IJô ƢƉ Ņ ĪœIJĬô ŴŶŏ ĥ ň ňò ł ň Œ ł ł Ņ Ō Œ ł ň Ŕ ŹĬ  Ŀĭ  Ÿƃ Ŕ ſŴ  Ŷĭ  ŦƦƀ Ŕ ƇŹ  Ʀ .ƎƀƆ ň Ĭ Ņ ƨƉ Ŕ Ʀ  ĬŴ ñ Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ ũƆ ł ň ĭť ł Ŕ ŧ ƢŅÿũŔ ū ƢÿũƆ ł œ ŁŔŴÿɝƎ Ņ ÿũŅ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ İĬĿ ň ĭł :ƎÿũŅ Ŕ Ɔų Ņ ÿƊƣ ł ŶŅ ĥŦ  ĭŅĬô Ʀſ Ŕ Ō ĥť  ƠŅ ƘŔ Ƣɝ ł ĭł Żƃ Ņ .ŧ ƢŅŨŌœ ŁŔŴɝ ň Ņ Ņ łœ ñ ò ň ň ň ň Ō ňò Ņ Ņ ł œ ł űŔƃĭ :ĬƦ Ŕ ÿŶť ÿƠƘŔ ĿĪ ų ÿƀˁ  Ɖ  ƗÿƊƣ łŔ :ĬƦ Ŕ ŶŅ IJűłŔɖòŤŨŧ ŌŔ ǓŤƣĭť  ƣ űƟŦ  ŵŶ  űƃ ĵ ň ò ł Ņ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ň Ņ ł Ō ł ň Ņ ł ŔŅ œ Œ ł Ŕ ňœ ƨÿƊū  œ ŁŔŴɝĶ  ŤƟ ŦĬĭ  :ŧ ƢũŔ ūœ ŁŔŴɝŦ  Łĥ Ŕ ĭ :ŧ ƢũŔ ū Ŕ ƁƆƢ  Ɖ  ĥ ťƍƃŔ Ĭ Ī ŁŔ ƢƉĥ  Ī Ņ.ŧ ƢŨŌœ ƈłƕ ł ł ň Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ƥŏ Ũœ Ʀ Ŕ ÿňƍƟŁť Ʀ Ŕ ÿƌĥŅ ĭň :ťÿƟŴ œ ô ƌĥĶŤƟť  ƍƊƆ  :ťɕƢ Ņ Ɖ Ņ Īœ ųƄſ ňŔ ƢŌŨœ ĵŴƕŏ :ųƆƢ ň Ɖĥ ł ĭň Ƨ ňò ł Ņ œ ŏ Ņœ łœ  Ũ .ƨƊ  ŬƆ Ŕ ŦƦ Ŕ ƃĭ  Īĭ Ŕ ŦƦƀ ň ň ò ł ň Ņ Ņ ň Ņ Ō ĭł :ƨƊ ò ū ł œ ƎƉŧ ň Ƣƣ Ņ ĭł :ŦƦƀ œ ũłŔ Ɔ ŧ ƢŅũŔ ū ł œ ƈłƕĭ  ŪƆ :ƨ ÿƊŬƆ Ŕ ƃĭ Ŕ ťƍŨŔ ŁŔ ƁƉĿĥ Ŕ ŦƦÿƐ ň Ņ ň ň ł ň ł ł ň ò Ņ ŏ ł . ųƊ  ƕĪŧ Ŕ ǔũŔ ū Ŕł Ī Ŕ ƨ ū Ŕ ǓĭIJĬô ŴƇ ū Ŕ Ǔ ŴŬ Ŕ ƤƊ  Ɔť  ƀƉĭ Ņ ł ň ň ł Ō Ņł Ņ .ƁÿłƇƉò ƢÿƉĥ Ŕ ÿƉűƕ Īť Ŕ ťÿƌôĥƑÿňƖɝ Ņ Ƨ :ƢÿƉĥ ĭ :ƑÿłƖɤƊƆķĭ ň ŏ Ɖ ųƀ ł űƟƋ ŅŔ Əĭ Ņ ŭƆ ň ň Ō Ņ .ƢƉ ł ĥ :ųƆƎſ  ƢƉ  ĥ







   

 









Ch. 



Then he prayed and said, “Lord God of my lord Abraham, prepare 1 the day before me and be faithful to my lord Abraham.



Now I am positioned at the well 2 of water and the daughters of the people of the city are coming out to draw water.



The young woman to whom I say, ‘Lower your jar for me so that I may drink’ and she will say to me, ‘Drink and I will also give a drink to your camels,’ she is the one whom you have prepared for your servant Isaac. By this I will know that you are acting faithfully and rightly 3 with my lord.”



Before he had finished speaking, there came Raphka, who was borne to Bethuel, son of Milcah, the wife of Nahor, Abraham’s brother. The jar 4 was on her shoulder.



The young girl was very beautiful in appearance; a virgin whom no man had known. She went down to the well 5 and she filled the jar and came up.



The servant ran to meet her and said to her, “Give me a little water to drink from your jar.”



She said to him, “Drink, my lord.” She quickly lowered the jar 6 onto her hands and gave him a drink.



She finished giving him a drink and said, “I will continue drawing [water] for your camels as well until they have finished drinking.”



She quickly emptied her jar into the trough and ran again to the well to draw [water]. She drew [water] for all his camels.



The man was giving [his camels] a drink 7 and he was studying her, waiting to know whether or not the Lord had granted success to his journey. 



See the Introduction: Harmonization. See the Introduction: Harmonization. 3 See the Introduction: Harmonization. 4 MT: ‘her jar’. 5 MT: ‘spring’. 6 MT ‘her jar’. 7 See the Introduction: Reinterpretations or Misinterpretations. 1 2



ł Ņ Ņ ł ň Ōł ň Ŕ ĭł :ťÿƍŅ ƉŴ Ņ Ŕ ŪŔ ÿƀň Źł :ĶĬŅ ƢŅÿŨŔ ĥł IJô ƢÿƉŅ Īœ Ĭųň Ɔ Ņ łſ ƁÿƉł űƟ Ņ ĥť  ɕƢ Ɖ  :ƢƉĥ  ĭ ƁƆ  Ľĭ  Ūſ űŔ ÿũƕ Ņ ł ł Ņ .ĶĬŅ ƢŨŔ ĥIJô ƢƉƋ Ņ łƕŦ  ŁŴ Ŕ ũƀ ŏœ Ź Ņ Ō òł Ņ òŅ ł òŅ ł Ņ Ō œ ł Ņ ň Ņ Ņ ň Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ň  ĪŔ ŧ ƢŨ ƈƕť  ƌôĥĶŤƟť  ƌĥŦ  Ĭ ŭſ  ƊƆ  ƎƠŅ ƙòŔ ƌŅ ŦƦſ Ŕ ƢƟ  ƁƤƌôĥ Ʀ Ŕ ƍŨŔ ĭ :ťƀƉ  ƨƊ .ťƀò Ɖ Ņ ł ň Ō ł Ō ň œ ňœ ň ň œ ĥł :ųñ ɝƢ Ŕ :ŦƦƣĥ IJƦÿƣ œ ĥ ƁÿƆƢ  Łĭ Ɖĥ  ĪƁô ƃŔƦƆŴ Ŕ Ɵŏ ƁƆ Ō Ɓƍ ô ƃĿ Ņ Ɖĥ ł ĪŦ ŌŔ ƦƊƀ Ŕ ł Ƈƕ  ĭł űſ ň ł ł œł ò ł Ņ Ō ĥ ĴŔ űŅœÿũŔ łƖɝ Ʀ ĺĪłœĥŧ ĪňŔųŅ ÿŨŔ ĭł :ơÿŷƐſ œ ÿũŔ ƀňŹĪœ IJĬô Ō IJĬŅ :ťƠƣ  ŬƆ Ŕ Ļĥ  Ŕ ĭŅ ň ĥ ƅƀ  ƇƊ Ņ ŏœ ł œ ł ň Ņ œ Ņ IJô ƢƉŅ ƋłƕŦ  ƦƣŴ œ Ɵŏ ĭŦŁŴ Ŕ ũƀ  Ź Ʀ  ô ƌĥ űŔũŔ ƕĪ ŏ Ņ ł ł ň ł Ņ Œ ŁŔ űÿÿ ŒŔ ÿÿÿƠł ƙŔ ňƌť  ÿÿÿƠŅ ƘŔ ĿŦ ł Ĭĭ Ņ :ŴÿÿÿƇƇ ƊƊ  ƆƋ  ÿÿÿƇƣ  Ƨƈÿÿ  ÿƀƃŌœ űƕ łŔ ĭĬĭ ŏ ųſ łœ ÿɤłſŁĥ Ŕ Īňœ Ʀ ň ŏ ł ł Ņ ł ł ŏ :ĶĬŅ ƢŅÿŨĥŔ ĪłœIJĬŴÿŶŏ ĥĿŴ ƈÿłƕŦƦƆŴ Ŕ ÿƟĭ œ ô ƌĥ ťƄŅœ ɤƉ ň ƢŨłœ ƈſĥĭ Ŕ ũŔ Ɔ  Ʀ ô  ÿŷŏ ƌŅ ŁŔƦÿ Ņ œ Ŕ ƃłœ .ųñ Ƙ Ʀ Ņ Ņ ŏ œ Ņ Ņ ň œ Œ Ņ Ņ Ōœł Ņ ł ł ł Œ ŁŔ Ʀÿŷ Ŕ Ƈƕ  ĭ Ŵſ Ŕ Ũ :Ū  Ŕ Ź Ŧĭŵ  ŷ Ũ ŁŔ ĭĬŧ ô Ƣƀ  ƙ ƣ ŦƦƊƀ œ ňƌĭ :ųñ ÿƕŅ űŔłſ  Ƨŧ  ƢŅũŔ ū Ŕł ĪŦ Ŕ ƦƆĭ Ŕ Ʀ Ņ Ņ ł ŅŌ ŏ ł ň Œ.Ʀ Œ Ŕ Ơɤ  Əĭ  ŦƦƆŴ Ŕ Ɵ Ʀ Ŕ ƇƉ  ĭ :ŧ ƢũƆ Ŕ ň Ņ ł Ō ł Ō Ņ ł ñ Ņ ł ň ñ Ņ ŏ Ņœ ł ň ł  Ƈ Ɵ Ɓô ƍſŤƠ ƣĥ :ų ɝƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ :ų ƕĿĭ  Ƨŧ  űũŔ ƕİĬĿ  ĭ ŵſ .Ɓô ƃŔƦƆŴ Ŕ Ɵŏ ƎƉť ň ƀò Ɖƈƀ Ō Ņ ł ł ň ł ł Ŕ ƦƏĥ ŒŔ ÿŨĬĿ œ ĭň :IJô ƢÿƉŅ IJƦÿƣ œ ĥ :ųÿƆň ŒŁŔ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň Ÿɖ Ŕ ĭł Ʀ :ųÿſ ñ űňŔɖòDŽ  łƕ ŦƦƆŴ Ŕ ÿƟŏ ŒŁŔ ƦÿŶĥ ň ł ł .ĬƦ Ŕ ƀƠƣĥ  ĭ ň ň œ ł ò ł ň ŏŅ ł Œ ł ł Ņ ŏ ňƌĪť Ŕ ƀƠƤ  ƊƆ  ŁŔ ƢƊ  ūĭ  Żſ ķŴÿƊɤƤ Ŕ ÿƉŅ űƕ łŔ ƨÿƉ  ĥ ƅÿƀ  Ƈ Ɗ  ŬƆ Ŕ Ļ  Ŕ ĥ :Œ ŁŔ ƢłÿƉĥĭň :ĬŁŴ Ņ œ ňŔ .ŦƦƤ  Ɗ Ɔ ŏ Œ ł ň Ņ ň Ņ Ō Ņ ł Ņ ƤƆ ŒŔ ŨĬĿ łŔ ƦƏĥ œ ĭň Ĵ Ŕ ÿŹĬĿĭ  :ťÿƀƠ ň Ĭñ ƦƆŴ Ŕ ÿƟŏ ŒŁŔ ƞłÿƙŔ ňƌĭ  Ʀ :ƨÿƊ  ƊƆŧ  ƢÿũƆ  Ŕ Łœ Ʀ Ŕ ħĭ Ņ ł ŒŔ ƇƉ  ĭ .IJĬŴ ô ł Ƈ Ɗ ò ū ł œ ķĭųɤ ŏ ƄƆ ŏŔ Ʀ ł ň ł ł ł ñ Ņ ň łœ ň ň ł Ņ ł ň ŏ ĥť :ųÿŶĿĭ  ɕƢ Ņ ƉŸ Ņ ƆĽ ł ĥķ  ĥ :ĺűłœƊ ň ƆĿƦ œ ƄƉ Ŕ Ɖ  ĭťƠƤ  Ɖŧ  ƢũŔ ūĭ Ŕ ťƃ Ŕ ĭ :ų Ũť Ŕ Ơ Ũ Ʀ Ņ ł .Ƨ ĭĥ





 





 







Ch. 

Chapter  XXXII



Abraham was old, advanced in years and the Lord blessed Abraham in every way.



Abraham called his senior servant, the head of his household, who was in charge of everything that belonged to him, and he said to him, “Place your hand under my thigh.



I will make you swear by the Lord God of heaven and the God of the earth, you shall not take a wife for my son from among the daughters of the Canaanites among whom I am dwelling.



But go to my homeland and to my kindred and get a wife for my son Isaac.”



The servant said to him, “If the woman is not willing to follow me to this land, I will have to bring your son back to the land from which you came.”



Abraham said to him, “Be careful not to bring my son back there.



The Lord God of heaven, who brought me from there, from my father’s house and from the land of my kindred and who spoke to me and who established 1 for me [saying], ‘To your descendants I will give this land,’ he will send his angel before you and you will get a wife for my son from there.



If the woman is not persuaded to come with you, then you are free from this oath to me; only do not bring my son back there.”



So the servant placed his hand under the thigh of Abraham, his lord, and he swore to him in regard to this affair.



The servant brought ten camels from his lord’s camels and he went. Some 2 of his lord’s bounty was in his hand. He rose and went to Aram-nahrin, to the city of Nahor.



He made his camels kneel down outside the city by the well of water at the evening, at the moment that the women come out to draw water.  1 2

 See the Introduction: Particular Lexical Choices. MT: ‘all of the bounty’.



űƃ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ł ł Ņ Ņ òŅ ł ł œ ł ƈƄŏ Ŕ Ũœ ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ Ƨ ĴŔ ƢňŨť Ŕ ɕƢ  Ɖĭ  :ťƀɫ ƤŨ ƈƕĭ  ħŤ  Ŕ ƏĶ ň ĬŅ ƢŅŨĥ Ŕ ĭł ł Ņ ł ň Ō ƢƉĥ ł ĭň :ųƆ ň Ʀſĥ Ŕ ĪŌœ ƈƄŏ Ŕ Ũœ ŻƀƇ ƣł Īœ ĬƦƀ œ Ũłœ ħ  œ Ŀť ł ũŅ Ŕ ƏĬ Ņ űňœũŔ łƖɝĶ  ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥ ŧ ƢƟ  ĭ Ō œ Ō ň .IJô ƞŶł Ʀƀ Ŕ ʖ ň Ł ĴŔ űſ ŅŔ ĥƋƀ  Ə  : ųƆ ł łň Ņœ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł ł Ņ Ņł Ņ Ņ œ ň ł ň Ŕ ŦŁŅŔƦ Ŕ ƧĪ :ťƕĿĥ  ĪŦ Ŕ ų Ɔĥ  ĭť  ƀƊƣ  ĪŦ Ŕ ų Ɔ  ĥť  ɕƢ Ɗ  Ũ ƅƀ  Ŕ Ɖĭĥ  ĭ  œ ô ƌĥ Ū  ŔƏ  Ł ƎÿƉň IJô ƢÿũƆ ň Ņ ň Ņ ò ł œ òŅ œ ŏ Ņ Ņ ł .ķĭĬ Ʀ Ŕ ƍƀ Ũť Ŕ ƌôĥ ħ  ŔƦ Ŕ ſĪŔ ťƀɫ Ɩɩƃ Ʀ Ŕ ƍŨ Ņ œ ł ł ł Ņň ł Ŕ ĭłƁô ƕĿƧ  Ƨĥ ňŔ ŦŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥ Ū  Ŕ Əĭ  :ĵňĮIJô ŁŔűɝ ŅŔ ĭòƦƆ .ơŷŅ ƐſŌ ĥIJô ƢũƆ ł Ņ Ņ Ō Ņ œ ł ň œ ň Ņ ň Ņœ ł ň ł ň Ņ ƧłIJô ĿƦ  Ƨķĥ  ĭ :ŧ űũŔ ƕųƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ŕ ÿŨŦ Ŕ ƊƆŦ  ŁŔ Ʀ  ƌĥťŨĽ  Ł Ņ œ Ɖ ł :ŧ ĪňŔĬť Ņ ÿƕĿ ŴÿƄŏ Ŕ Ƙų Ŕ ŁŤ łŅ œ ň ô œ ł ł Ŕ Ņ ł Ņ ł ł Ō Ŕ Īť  ƦƠ  ƙƌ .ƎƉ  Ł ƎƉ Ŕ ƕĿ  Ƨ ĴŔ ƢũŔ Ɔ  IJĬô ŴƀƄŔ ƘĬ  œ ĥ ł Ņ łœ Ņ ř łœ ň Ņ Ņ ł ň ł ň ł ňŔ ƅ Ŕ ƘĬ ň œ Łť Ŕ ƊƆ  Ī ƅ Ŕ ƆĿ Ŕ IJô ƢũƆ  Ĭ ĪĮ ĥ :ĶĬ ƢŨŔ ĥų . ƎƉ Ņ ƦƆ  ƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ņ ł ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ĥƎ  ÿɕƢ  Ɖ Ŕ ÿƀŅ Ɗƣ ł ĪłŔ ŦųŅ ÿƆŅ ĥť ťÿƕĿ  ÿƉň ĭ :Ɓô ÿŨŔ ĥ Ʀÿ Ŕ ÿƀŨňœ ƎÿƉň :ƎÿƉŅ Łœ ƎÿƉň Ɓô ÿƌƢłŨŔ ĪłŔĪť ň ł ł Ō Ō Ō œ ò Ō Ņ Ņ ŏ Ņ ň ň ł ł ł ł Ņ ł ł œ Ŀűœ Ƥ ƌ ĭĬ :ŧ ĪŔĬť  ƕĿ  ĥ ųƀ ñ Ɔ  Łĥ ƅ Ŕ ƕĿ  ŵɟ  Ī :ƁƆƋƀ  Ɵĥ  Īĭ  :ƁƆƢ  Ɖĥ  Īĭ Ŕ .IJô ŁŔűɝ Ŕ ĭŁŔ ĪŔ łŅ œ ň ň Ņ œ ł Ŕ ł ň ł Ŕ :ƅƀ œ Ɖ ł űƟų ŅŔ ƃň Ŕ ƨƉł  ô ƌĥ Ū  ŔƏ  Łĭ  IJô ƢũƆ . ƎƉ  Ł ƎƉ Ŕ ŦŁŔ Ʀ ň Ņ ň Ņ Ō Ņ œ ł ł ÿƉň ƁÿƃŅ œ Įł Ʀÿſ Ŕ Ƨķĥ  ĭ Ōœ ŁœŁ :ŧ ĪňŔĬŅ  IJô Ʀ Ŕ Ɖ Ņ ŴÿƉƎ œ ĭĬ ł :ƅ Ŕ ÿƊŅ łƕŦ  ŁŤ Ŕ ƊƆŦ  ŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥƑƀƙŹ ł Ņ łŅ ň Ŕ ŷɤ ŏ Ũłœ ňŔ ĪŴ Ŕ ƅ Ŕ ƘĬ  œ ŁŔ ƧIJô ƢũƆ . ƎƉ  ƦƆ ťÿƊŅ ū ŔŅ Ʀ Ŕ Ƙň œ ƈłƕų  Ɔť ň Ɗſ Ņ ĭŌ :ĬƢňƉĶ Ņ ĬŅ ƢŅŨĥ Ŕ Īłœ ĬňƞŶł Ʀƀ Ŕ ʖ ň Łœ Ĭűſ ňŔ Ō ĥŧ  űŅœũŔ łƕƋƏĭ Ņ .ťƌŅĬŅ ň ò ł ň Ō ò ł Ņ ň Ņœ ł ł ł ň :ĵĮłĥĭĬ Ņ Ŕ ŏŹƈ ťÿŨŴ  ÿƃŏ œ ƎÿƉĭ ň ƢňÿƉŅ Ī Ŕ ƨƊ ū  œ ƎƉƎƀ  Ƈ Ɗ  ūŧ Ŕ ƢƐ  ƕŧ  űũŔ ƕ ƢŨŔ ĪŔĭ ň Ņ Ņ Ō Ņ Ō ł Ņ Ņ ĪŔ .ĿŴŷŏ ƌŅĪŦ Ŕ Ʀſ Ŕ ƢƠ  ƆƎſ  ǓųƌĶ ł ĿƧĵ  ĮłĥƋƟĭ  :ĬűſŤ ňŔ ŨŌœ ĬƢňƉ Ņ Ō Ņ ł Ņ Ōœ ň ũƆ Ņ Ŀķ  Īŧ Ŕ ƢÿŨ ƈÿłƕ :ŦƦÿſ Ŕ ƢƟƎ  ÿƉƢ łŔ IJĬô Ŵł Ƈ Ɗ ò ū ł œ ĴŔ ƢňŨĥ Ŕ ĭł :ťÿƤƉ ł űŅœÿɳň ɝťÿƀò Ɖ Ņ ł òŅ Ņ Ņ ò Ņ œ Ņ œ ň  ƎƠ ƙŔ ƌĪ ķűɳ ɝ  Ʀ Ŕ ƀˁƉ .ťƀò Ɖ



ŪƆįĽ ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



į



İ



IJ  ťſ 

Ch. 



He said, “No my lord. Listen to me. I give the field to you and the cave that is in it I give to you. In the presence of my people I have given it to you. Bury your deceased.”



Then Abraham bowed down before the people of the land.



He said to Ephron in the presence of the people of the land, “If you are willing, listen to me. I will give to you the price 1 of the field. Take [it] from me and I will bury my deceased there.”



Ephron answered and said to Abraham,



“My lord, Listen to me. The land is valued at four hundred shekels of silver, but what is that between me and you? Bury your deceased.”



Abraham listened to Ephron and Abraham weighed out for Ephron the silver about which he had spoken in the presence of the Hittites, four hundred shekels of silver, what a merchant would spend.



So Ephron’s field in Double, which was before Mamre, the field of the cave, and the cave which was in it and all the trees in the field of the surrounding borders, passed



to Abraham. They were sold in the presence of the Hittites and in the presence of all those entering the gate of his city.



After this, Abraham buried Sarah his wife in the double cave in the field before Mamre, which is Hebron in the land of Canaan.



So the field of the cave and the cave that was in it passed from the Hittites to Abraham as a burial site.

1

‘the price’: lit. ‘the money of the price’.



Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ň Ņ ň œ ň ſ ƨƠ :Ĭñ Ʀÿ œ ŨŔ ųô łſ ƅŔ Ɔ Ņ ųñ ŨŅ Ŕ ĪŦ Ŕ łƖƉ  ĭł :ƅ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ Ʀ Ŕ Ũų  Ŷł :Ɓƍƀ ô łƖƊƣ ł :IJô ƢƉ Ņ Ƨ .ƢƉĥ  ĭ ťſ Ŕ ŁƢ Ņœ œ Ō ŏ Ņñ œ ł ł Ņ ò ŅŔ .ĴŔ ŁƦƀ  Ɖ  ĿŴũƟ  Ĭ Ʀ  ŨŔ ųô ſƁô Ɗłƕ ƁƍŨœ ĶűƟ Ŕ :ƅ Ŕ Ɔ ł ň ł .ťƕĿĥ Ņ Īť łŔ Ɗ Ņ łƕĶ  űƟĶ ŅŔ ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥ űŔŬƏ Ŕ ĭ Ūſ ň œň ł Ņ ň Ņ ł Ņł Ņ Ņ œ ƃňœ ƅ Ŕ Ɔĵ  ĥ :ťƕĿĥ  Īť Ŕ Ɗ  ƕĶűƟķĭ Ŕ ƢŏƙŔ ň ƖɝƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň ŭſ ťƙƐ Ņ Łĥ :Ɓƍƀ ô łƖƊƣ ł Ʀ œ ô ƌĥťŨňŔ Ľķ ł Ņ ł ò ĪŔ œ ƉĿŴ Ō ũƟĥ ŏœ ĭň :ƁƍƉ ň Ū  Ŕ Ə ł ƨƠ  Ŷł ƁƉ . ƎƉ Ņ Łœ IJô ŁœƦƀ ł ł ň ŏ ň Ņ ł .ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ƧƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭķĭ  ƢƙŔ ƕť  ƍƕ  ĭ űſ ň ł ł ťƍŅƉ Ņ ƅ Ŕ Ɔĭ Ņ Ɓƍƀł Ũłœ :ťƙƐ Ņœ ƃňŔĪœ Ǝƀòˁ  Ō ƟŅ Ʀ Ŕ ƉķŴ ł ƌŏĥŦŤ  Ɖ Ņ ƗŨłœ ĿĥťƕĿ Ņ ĥ :Ɓƍƀ ô łƖƊƣ ł IJô ƢƉ Ņ ųſ ŏ Ŕ ĴŔ ŁŅœƦƀ .ĿŴũƟ œ Ɖ Ō ĭ .IJĬô ł ł ł ł ň ł Ņœ ňœ ŏ ň ĶűƟƈ ŅŔ Ƈ Ɖ  Īť Ŕ ƙƐƃ ķĭƢƙŔ ƖɝĶ  ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥ ƈƟł ŁŔĭł :ķĭƢŏƙŔ ň ƖɝĶ  ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥƗ  Ɗƣ  ĭ Ŵſ ł ł ł ň Ņ Ō ň Ņ.ŧ Ƣū Ņ œ Ņ Ņ ł ò ł Ō œ Ŕ ơƙŔ ƌĪť Ŕ ƙƐ  ƃŔ Īœ Ǝƀˁ  Ɵ Ʀ Ŕ ƉŦŤ  Ɖ  ƗŨ Ŀĥ :Ʀƀ Ņ œ ƦƆ Ŕ ʖ  ƁòƍŨœ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ō ł œ ŏ ň Ņ ł Œ ł Ņ Ņ Ŕ ĪŦ Ɗ  Ɵĭ  ŵſ łŔ Ʀ œ ƙƀ Ŕ ƕŤŨŔ Ī ķĭƢƙŔ ƕĪ  ƨƠ  Ŷ Ʀ łŔ ƨÿƠ  Ŷł :ŧ ƢÿƊ ň ƉĶ ł űƟ ŦŁƢ Ŕ ÿłƖƉĭł :ŦŁƢ Ŕ ÿłƖƉĪ Ņ ł ł ň Ņ òŌ Ŕ ŏ ŏ Ŕ Ņ Ņ.ŧ ĿűŶŅ űƃł ťƉŴ Ņ ł ŏ Ŕ ŨŔ Ī Ŕ ƨƠ  ŷ ŨŔ Īť Ŕ ƍˁ  ſĥķĭ  ųɤ  ƃĭ Ŕ :ųñ ŨŔ ĪŔ Ŕ Ŕ Ŕ  Ŷ Ʀ ň ł ň Ō ł Ņ łœ ò ł Ņ ł Ņ Ŕ Ŵô ƍŨłœ ĪĮłœ ĥĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ Ƨ Ÿɖ Ŕ ƕĿ  Ł Ɓ ɞ  Ťƕƈ  ƃŏœ ĶűƟ ŅŔ ĭł .Ʀƀ Ŕ ʖ Ō ƁòƍŨœ ĶűƟ .ĬƦſ Ŕ ƢƟ  Īť ł ł ňœ ł Ņœ ň Ņ Ō ł Ņ ł ł Ņ ł łœ ň œ ł Ņ ł ŅŔ ĪŦ Ŕ Ũ ƎƉĭ ĶűƟ łŔ Ʀ œ ƙƀ Ŕ ƕĥ  ƨƠ  ŷ ŨŔ ĪŦ Ŕ ŁƢ Ŕ ƖƊ  Ũ :ĬŁŔ Ʀôƌĥŧ ƢƐƆĶ  ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥƢ  ũƟ Ŕ ƎƃĿ Ʀ  Żſ ŏ ň Ņ Ō Ō ł ł ł .ƎƖƍƃŔĪť Ŕ ƕĿŤ  ŨŔ Īœ ķĭƢũŔ Ŷň IJĬô IJĬ :ŧ ƢƊ  Ɖ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ Œ ł Ņ ł ň ƢŅÿũŔ Ɵł Īť Ŕ Ɗ  Ɵĭ  Ĵ łŔ ƨƠ  Ŷł Ʀ ŁŔŴÿɝƎ Ņ ÿƉŧ Ŕ ɧŅŁĿŴ œ ƀŏɞĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ Ƨ :ųñ ŨŅ Ŕ ĪŦ Ŕ ŁƢ Ŕ łƖƉĭŦ ł ŁƢ Ŕ łƖƉ  Ī ł .Ʀƀ Ŕ ʖ Ō ƁòƍŨœ





 

 





 



Ch. 

Chapter  XXXI



Sarah lived one hundred and twenty-seven years (the years of Sarah’s life).



Sarah died in the town of the warriors, 1 which is Hebron, in the land of Canaan. Abraham came to mourn for Sarah and to weep for her.



Abraham arose from his deceased and spoke with the Hittites 2 and said to them,



“I am a sojourner and a foreigner among you. Give me a burial site 3 among you and I will bury my deceased from my sight.”



The Hittites answered and said to Abraham,



“Hear us, our lord. You are the great one 4 of God in our midst. In the choicest of our tombs bury your deceased. No one from us will withhold from you his tomb for burying your deceased.”



Abraham arose and bowed to the people of the land, to the Hittites, 5 and he spoke with them, saying to them,



“If you yourselves are willing to allow me to bury my deceased from my sight, then hear me and plead for me before Ephron, son of Zohar.



Let him give me his cave, ‘Double,’ 6 which is at the back of his field. At the full price let him give it to me as a burial site 7 among you.”



Ephron was dwelling among the Hittites. Ephron the Hittite answered and said to Abraham in the presence of the Hittites and in the presence of everyone who was entering the gate of his city. 



MT: ‘Kiriath-arba’. See the Introduction: Proper Names. ‘the Hittites’: lit. ‘the sons of Heth’. 3 ‘a burial site’: lit. ‘the property of a tomb’. 4 The Syriac word here, ťŨĿ, has a broad meaning: prince, chief, master, etc. 5 The MT has a different verse division. 6 The Peshiṭta has translated the Hebrew place name, see the Introduction, Appendix 3: Names. 7 ‘a burial site’: lit. ‘the property of a tomb’. 1 2



ŭƃ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ň ł ł ł ł Ŕ ƀò Ņ ɫł ƣ :ƎƀòɫŌ ƣƗũƣ łŔ ĭł ƎſƢƐ Ō ň ƕĭŦŤ  Ɖŧ Ņ ƢŅƏ ł Īœ ųƀ ñ ɚò ʖ ŒŔ ƀʖ Ņ Īť  ĭĭĬ  ĭ .ŧ ƢŅƏ ł Ʀ Ņ ł Ō Ņ ŨłŔ Īœ ķĭƢŏÿũŔ Ŷň IJĬŌ IJĬŌ :ŧ ǔňÿũŅ œ ƍū ŦŁĥ Ŕ ĭň :ƎÿÿƖƍłƃŔĪť łŔ ÿƕĿŤ Ŕ ÿƀƉĭ  Ŕ łſĿŴ  ÿƠŏ Ũŧ Ŕ ƢŅÿƏł ŒŁŔ Ʀÿ ô ô ł œ Ʀ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ň Ņ ł ł ł .ųñ ƀŅƄœ ũŔ ƊƆ  ĭŧ  ƢƏƈ  ƕ ĭűŏŔƟƢ  ƊƆ  ĶĬ ƢŨŔ ĥ ň œ Ō Ņ ň ŅŅ ł Ņ ł ň ł  Ƈ Ɖĭ  :ĬŁœ Ʀƀ  ƉĶ  űƟƎ Ŕ ƉĶ  Ĭ ƢŨŔ ĥƋ  Ɵĭ  .ķĭųɝƢ ŏ ł ĭň Ʀƀ Ɖĥ Ŕ ʖ Ō ƁòƍŨœ Ƌłƕƈ Ņ ŏœ Ņ Ō Ņ ł ŏ Ŕ łƕŧ ŏ œ ĭň :ķŴÿƄƊ ĿŴÿũƟĥ  ƢŅÿũŔ Ɵł ĪŔ ŦŁŔ ĭŁƢ  ÿſ ƁƆ  Ŵô ŨŔ Ĭł .ķŴƄƊ ŏŔ łƕť  ŨŅ Ŕ Łĭ œ ŁŔ ĭťƌŅôĥŧ ĿŴ Ņ Ɗ ŏ ƕŅ œ Ɖ . ƁƉ ł űƟƎ ŅŔ Ɖ ň IJô ŁœƦƀ Ō ł ł ň ł ł ł  ĭ .ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ Ƨĭô ƢƉĥ  ĭ Ʀƀ Ŕ ʖ Ō ƁòƍŨœ Ŵƍƕ Ņ œ Ō ł ł Ņ Ņ łœ œ ł Ņ œł ł Ņ ł ł ŏŔ ĴŔ Łœ Ʀÿƀ  Ɖ  ĿŴÿũƟƎÿſ ǔłũŔ Ɵł Īť Ŕ ƀŅũŔ Ŭ Ŕ ƍƀŅ ŨŦ Ŕ ų Ɔĥ  Ī Ʀ Ŕň Ũœ :ķƦ  ô ƌĥťŨĿ :ķƢƉƎƀ  ƖƊƣ  ň ň Ņ łň Ņ Ņœ œ Ō łœ ň ň ł ň Ņ .ĴŔ ŁƦƀ  ƉƢ  ũƠ  Ɗ  Ɔ ƅ Ŕ ƍƉĬ  ƢũŔ Ɵ  ƨ ƄŔ ƌ ƧƎ  ƍƉƥ  ƌôĥ ł Ņ ň ł ł ĭķĭ ƢÿƉĥ ň ųƊ ŏ łƕƈ  Ƈ Ɖĭ  :Ʀƀ Ŕ ʖ Ō Ɓƍłũò Ŕ Ɔł ťƕĿĥ Ņ Īť łŔ Ɗ Ņ łƖɝ  űŔŬƏ Ŕň ĭĶ ł ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥƋ  Ɵĭ  ŏ .ķĭųɝ  ň Ņ ŅŔ Ɖ ƁÿƆŌ ŴÿłƖŨŔ ĭł :ƁƌŴ ô ÿƖŏ ƉŴƣŏ :ƁÿƉł űƟƎ ň IJô ŁœƦƀ œ ƉĿŴ Ō ũƟĥ ŏœ Īňœ ķŴƃŏŔƦ Ŕ Ƥò ƙŔ ƌł ƎƀŅŨòŔ ĽŅķĥ .ƢŶŅ ĽƢ Ņ Ũłœ ķĭƢŏƙŔ ň ƕƎ ň  Ɖ ł ň ň Ō Ņœ Ō ł Ņ ł Ņ œ ƄňŔ Ũœ ųÿňƇƠŶƢ Ņ ƣť ťÿƊɤ ł ÿƙƐ ł ÿźƐŨłŔ Īœ ųÿƇſĪŦ Ŕ Ʀ  ÿƙƀŔ ƕĥŦ  ŁƢ Ŕ ÿƖƉ ƁƆĵ Ō Ʀ œ ňƌĭ  Ņœ ŏ Ō Ō ŏ Ņ.ŧ ƢũŔ Ɵł Īť Ņ Ņ ł  ųƀ ñ Ɔ Ʀ œ ňƌ Ŕ ɧŁĿŴ  ƀɞ ķŴƃŔ Ʀ Ŕ ƍƀ ŨŔ ƁƆ ł ł ň ŅŅ Ō ŏ ň Ņ ł ň ł Ŕ ł Ũœ ħ  ŔƦ Ŕ Ņſķĭ  ƢŏƙŔ ň ƕĭ  ĶĬŅ ƢŅÿŨŔ ƧƢ  ÿƉĥ  ÿɕƦ ĭť Ŕ ƀʖķĭ  ƢÿƙŔ ƕť  ÿƍƕĭ :Ʀƀ Ŕ ʖ Ō ƁòƍŨœ ŴŬ ň Ō ł Ņ łœ ò ł Ņ ł œ Ņ ŏ ò ł Ō Ņ œ Ŕ .ĬƦſ Ŕ ƢƟ  Īť  ƕƈ  ƃ ĶűƟ Ŕ ĭ Ʀƀ Ŕ ʖ  ƁƍŨ ĶűƟ Ŕ ƕĿ  Ł Ɓ ɞŤ



ťƆįĽ ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



į



İ



IJ 

Ch. 



Bethuel begot Raphka. 1 These eight Milcah bore to Nahor, Abraham’s brother.



His concubine, whose name was Ruma, 2 also bore Tebah, and Gaham, and Tahash, and Maacah.

1 2

MT: ‘Rebekah’. MT: ‘Reumah’.



ň ŏ ł ł ł Ņœ Ɖ Ŕ ŨŔ ĭ ŭƃ IJĬô ŴÿŶŏ ĥĿŴ  ÿŷŏ ƍɞť Ņ ÿƄɤ ň ŒŁŔ űɤ łœ ň ſƎƀƆ ň Ĭť Ņ ƀƍŅ Ɖ Ņ Łœ :ťƠŅ ƘŔ Ƣɝ ł űŔƆĭ ň ĥ ƈſĥĭ Ʀ .ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨĥ Ŕ Īłœ Ņ łœ ň Ņ ň ŏ ł Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł :ƥÿŶŅ ƦƆ Ŕ ĭƋ  ÿŷŬƆ Ŕ ĭ :ŸÿũŅ Ŕ źƆ  IJĬŌ Ļ  Ŕ ĥ ŒŁŔ űÿɤ  ſĭ :ťƉĭ Ņ Ŀŏ ųñ ƊƣĬ Ņ Ʀ œ ƃĭ Ŕ ĿĪŔĭ űƃ Ņ ł Ɔĭł .ťƄƖœ Ɗ







Ch. 



He said to him, “Do not stretch out your hand against the boy. Do not do anything to him, because now you have made known 1 that you fear God for you did not withhold your son, your only son, from me.”



Abraham raised up his eyes and looked about. There was a ram caught in the branches by its horns. Abraham went and took the ram and offered it up as a burnt offering instead of his son.



Abraham called the name of that place, “The Lord sees,” for today it is said, “On this mountain the Lord sees.”



The angel of God called to Abraham a second time from heaven and said,



“By myself I have sworn, says the Lord, because you have done this thing and you did not withhold your son, your only son, from me,



I will truly bless you and I will truly make your descendants as numerous as the stars of heaven and as the sand on the shore of the sea. Your descendants will inherit the lands 2 of their enemies.



All peoples of the earth will be blessed in your descendants because you have obeyed me.” 3



Abraham returned to his young men and they rose and went together to Beer-sheba and Abraham dwelt in Beer-sheba.



After these things, Abraham was told, 4 “Look, Milcah has also borne children to Nahor your brother:



Uz his first born, Buz, his brother, and Kemuel the father of Aram,



Kasar, 5 Hazo, Palrash, 6 Yarlaph 7 and Bethuel.” 



See the Introduction: Reinterpretations or Misinterpretations. MT: ‘the gates’. 3 ‘you have obeyed me’: lit. ‘you listened to my voice’. 4 ‘Abraham was told’: lit. ‘Abraham was told and he said to him’. 5 MT: ‘Chesed’. 6 MT ‘Pildash’. 7 MT: ‘Jidlaph’. 1 2



ň Ņ Ņ ł ł ŅŌ ň ł Ņ ň ł ň ŏ ň ňœ ň Ŕ Ƨĭ  :ťƀˁ  Źƈ  ƕ ĴŔ űſ Ŕ ĥŻ  ƣĭ  Ł Ŕ Ƨ :ųƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ūſ ƈÿźƉ  :ĶűÿƉųÿƆň űŔũƕ ňœ Ł ł ł Ņ ň Ō Ņ ł Ņ œ Īĭ .Ɓƍ ô Ɖ ň ĴŔ űƀ ŅŔ ʛɚ Ō Ɔ  ĴŔ ƢũŔ Ɔ  Ʀ œ ƄŔ ƐŶ ł ƧĪœ :ŦųŅ Ɔĥ  Īłœ Ʀ œ ô ƌĥųƇŶ  ĪŅŔĪœ Ʀƕ łœ ĥťƣŅ ĬŅ Īœ ł ň Ņ œ ł œ Ōł ł Ņ ň Ņ Ņ ł . ĬƦ Ŕ ÿƌŅ ǔƠł ŨŦ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ ƃŴ  ÿƐŨ űÿƀ Ŕ ʖ  ĥ űŔÿŶŧ ƢƃŔĪŦ Ŕ Ĭĭ  :Ŧ ŵŶ  ĭIJĬô ŴƍłəòɯĶ ł ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥ ƋſĿĥŌ ĭł ŭſ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ň ł Ņ ň .ĬƢňŨœ ƚ  Ŕ ƇŶŦ  Ʀ Ŕ ƇƖ  Ɔų  ƠƏĥ  ĭ :ŧ ƢƃŔűɝ Ŕ ųũƐ ňœ ƌĭĶ ł ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥ ĵĮĥł ĭň ł Ņ ł ŏ ł ňŁŔ ĥĪňœ .Ŧ ŵÿŷ Ņ Ɖ ň ňƌť  ÿɕƢ Ņ :ĭĬŧ ł ĿŅŁĥ Ŕ Īłœ ųƊƣĶ ťÿƌŅ Ĭŧ Ņ ĿŴ Ņ ÿźŨť Ŕ ÿƍŅ ƉŴ Ņ łſ ƢÿƉĥ ň ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥŧ  ƢƟ  ĭ űſ Ņ .Ŧ ŵňŷňƌť  ɕŅƢŅƉ ň ł ł Ņ łœ ň ł ł Ņ ł .ƢƉĥ ł ĭň :ťƀŅƊƣƎ ł ƉƎ ň ƀòɫŌ ŨŔ ĮƎſ ł Łœ ĿŁŔ Īœ ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ƧŦ  ųŅ Ɔĥ  Ī ųƃŔ ƨƉŧ ƢƟ  ĭ ųſ Ņ Ņ Ņ ĴŔ ƢŅÿũŔ Ɔ ł Ʀ œ ÿƄŔ ƐŶ ł Ƨĭ  :ťƌŅĬť Ņ Ɗ Ņ ū ŔŅ Ʀ Ŕ Ƙň œ Łœűœũƕ łŔ Īłœ ƚ  Ŕ ƇŶ  .ťɕƢ Ņ ƉƢ Ņ Ɖ ł ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ɗ Ō Ōſ ƁŨŌœ Ŵſ .Ɓƍ ô Ɖ ň ĴŔ űƀ ŅŔ ʛɚ Ō Ɔ Ō ň Ņ ł Ņ ł ň œ ł ŏ Ņœ ł  Ŕ ĭł :ťÿƀŅ Ɗƣ ł ƁũłŔ ƃœŴòƃłœ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ƅ Ŕ ƕĿ  Įť  ŬƏ  ĥ ŴƀŬƐ  Ɖ  ĭ :ƅ Ŕ ƃŅŔƢŨłœ ĥ ŴƃŏŔƢŅũƉ ƨ ÿŶŅ ƅÿſĥ łŔ ŵſ ň ň Ņ ł Ņ ł ł Ō ò œ ň ƖŨŔ ĪŦ .IJĬŴ ô ũłŔ ŨŅ Ŕ űɤ łŔ Ʀ Ŕ ƕŅǓĥ ƅ Ŕ ƕĿ  Į ŁŔĿŤ  ƌĭ  :ťƊ Ņ łſĪœ ĬƦ Ŕ ƙŔ Ə  ƈłƕĪŔ Ņ .ƁƇ ô ƠŅ Ũœ ƦƖ œ Ɗƣ ł Īłœ ƚ  Ŕ ƇŶ  :ťƕĿĥ Ņ Īł Ŕ ťƊň Ɗ òô łƕķĭųɤ ŏ ƃŏœ ƅ Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ ŵłŨœ ķŴƃƢ ŏŔ Ũłœ Ʀ Ŕ ňƌĭ Ÿɖ ł ł ł ł ł Ŕ ũƆ .ƗÿũƣƢ ŌŔ ŧ űŅŔÿŷƃŔĥŴô ÿƆĮĥł ĭňŴô ÿƊƟĭ Ņ :IJĬŴ ô ÿƊł ƀòˁƕ  ł ŁŔŴÿɝĶ Ņ ĬŅ ƢŅÿŨŔ ĥ ƅ Ŕ ƘĬ Ŕ ĭ Żſ ł ň Ō Ņ Ō Ņ ł œ  Ŕ Ʀſ Ŕ ĭ .Ɨũƣ Ŕ ƢũŔ Ũ ĶĬ ƢŨŔ ĥ ħ ł ň ł Œ ŁŔ űÿɤ łœ ň ſŦĬŅ :ųÿƆň ƢƉĥ ł ĭĶ ň ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ Ƨ IJŴŌŶł Łĥ Ŕ ĭň :ƎƀƆ ň Ĭť Ņ Ɗ Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎƉŦ ò ū ŔŅ Ʀ Ŕ Ƙň œ ĿƦ ň ĭĬ Ņ ĭł Ĵ Ņ Ņœ ł ł Ņ  Ŕ ĥť  Ƅɤ  Ɖ  .ĴŴ Ŕ Ŷŏ ĥĿŴ  ŷŏ ƍɞť Ņ ƀò ɫł ŨŔ IJĬŌ Ļ ň ł ł ŏ Ŕ ĭĬ .ĶĿĥŅ ĪŅœIJĬô ŴŨŏ Ŕ ĥ ƈſĥŴ  ƊƠ ŏ Ɔĭ ł :IJĬŴ ô Ŷŏ ĥĮŴ  ũƆ ł ƢňƃŴ Ŕ Ũŏœ ĽŴƖɝ ŏ ťƃ ň ŏ ł Ŕ ũŔ Ɔĭ  :ƚ  Ŕ ƆƢ ł ƀɞ ł ĭł :ŀƢɤ ł ƙƆ łŔ ĭł .ĭŵŏŷƆ ł ĭł :ƢƐ Ņ ƄƆ ŅŔ ĭł Ūƃ .ƈſĥĭ Ʀ









 



 



 

Ch. 

Chapter  XXX



After these things God tested Abraham and said to him, “Abraham.” He said, “Here I am.”



He said to him, “Take your son, your only son, whom you love, Isaac, and go to the land of the Amorites 1 and offer him up there as a burnt offering on one of the mountains that I will tell you.”



Abraham rose early in the morning, loaded 2 his donkey and took his two young men with him along with Isaac his son. He chopped the wood for the burnt offering and then he rose and went to the place that God had said to him.



On the third day Abraham raised his eyes and saw the place from a distance.



He said to his young men, “Remain here by the donkey. I and the boy will go over there. We will worship and then return to you.”



Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering and he set [it] on Isaac his son. He took in his hand the fire and the knife and the two of them went together.



Then Isaac spoke to Abraham his father. He said, “Father.” He said, “Here I am my son.” He said to him, “Here is the fire and the wood. Where is the lamb for the burnt offering?”



Abraham said, “God will see to the lamb for the burnt offering himself, my son.” The two of them went together.



They came to the place that God had said to him. Abraham built there an altar and he arranged the wood. Then he bound Isaac his son and he set him on the altar above the wood.



Then Abraham stretched out his hand and took the knife to slay his son.



The angel of God called to him from heaven and said, “Abraham, Abraham.” He said, “Here I am.”  1 2

 See the Introduction: Divergent Readings. ‘loaded’ or ‘saddled’.



Ūƃ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ł ň ł ň Ņ Ņ ł Ō ł Ņ Ņ ł ň Ņ ňò Ņ ň œ ł Ņ œ ň Ņ ł :ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥ :ųƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭĶ  Ĭ ƢŨŔ Ƨ ƁƐ  ƌŦų Ɔ  ĥ ƎƀƆ  Ĭť  Ɗ Ŕ Ũ ƎƉŦ ū Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ Ƙ ĿƦ  ĭĬ  ĭ ň Ņ ł ň Ņ.ťƌĥŦ  ĬƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ō ł ł Ņ Ņ Ƨ ƅ Ŕ ÿƆĵ ňĮĭ Ņ Ŕ ʛɚ Ņ Ƨ Ʀ ťÿƕĿ  :ơÿŷƐſ œ ô ƌĥƋŶň ĿŅĪœ ĴŔ űƀ Ō Ɔ Ō ĴŔ ƢŅũŔ ƆƢ ł ŨłŔ Īœ .ųƆƢ ň Ɖĥ ł ĭň ŏ ň ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ łœ Ō Ŕ ǓňŴŹƎ ŏ ĪŅŔ .ƅ Ŕ ƆƢ Ņ Ɖĥ ł Īŧ ň ĭł :ťňɕǓŅ ŴƉĥ  Ɖ  űŔŶƈ  łƕŦ  Ʀ Ŕ ƇƖ  ƆƎ  Ɖ  ŁIJųô ƀƠŅ Əĥ ł ł Ņ IJĬô ŴÿƊł ƀòˁ  ł ƕƎÿſĿňƦ Ŕ Ɔ ł ƢÿŨł Ŕ ĪŔĭł :ĬƢňÿƊŶƈ ÿłƕ ƁƉĿĥ Ō ĭŧ ł ƢŅƘŔ ƞłŨœ ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥĶ  űňœƟĭ  Ō ňł ł łň Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ň ò ł ł ł Ņ ň ň ň ł œ Ņ  Ƨĭ  ųƊ  ƕ ųƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĪŔ ŧ ĿŁŔƧĵ  ĮĥƋ  Ɵĭ  :ŦƦ Ŕ ƇƖ  Ɔť  Ɛ  ƀƟŸ  Ɔ  Ľĭ  :ĬƢŨ ơŷƐſ ł Ņ .Ŧų Ɔ Ņ ĥ ł Ņ Ō Ņ ł ł ł ł .ťƠŶĭ Ņ Ŀŏ ƎƉ ň ĭĬŧ ł ĿŅŁŔƧIJųô ſŵŶ Ņ ĭłIJĬô ŴƍłəòɯĶ ł ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥƋſ  ĿŌĥť  ɕŅƦƀ Ŕ Ɔ  ŁŔ ťƉŴ  ƀɞ  ĭ ł ŏ Ŕ Ŵô ƣŴƘŏ œ :IJĬŴ Ņ ŁŔŴÿɝť Ņ Źĭť ťÿƀˁ  ÿƌĥŅ ĭň :ŧ ƢŅÿƊŶ Ņ ÿƃĿŅ œ ĬŅ ķŴÿƄƆ ô Ɗ ł ƀòˁƖ  ł ƆƢ ł Ɖĥ ł ĭň ŏ œ ňƌ :ťƃĿ Ņœ ųŅ ɝťƉ Ņ űƕ łŔ ĵĮŤł ƌŌ .ķŴƃŏŔŁŔŴɝ Ņ ĴŴ Ŕ Ƙų ŏ œ ňƌĭ ĪŴ Ŕ ŬƐ Ņ Ņ ł ň òł ŅŅ ł ł ł ĬűÿſŤ ňŔ ŨŌœ Ū  Ŕ Ɛƌ ł ĭł :ĬƢňŨœ ơŷƐſ Ņ Ō ĥ ƈłƕƋ  Əĭ Ņ :ŦƦ Ŕ ƇƖ  Ɔť  Ɛ  ƀƟĶ  Ĭ ƢŨŔ ĥ Ū  Ŕ Ɛƌ  ĭ ł ŏ ł œ ł ň Ņ Ōœ ł Ņ ŏ Ņ.ŧ űŷ Ŕ ƃŔĥķĭ  ųſ  ǓŁŴô ƆĮĥ ĭ :ťƍƀ ƄƏĭŧ  ĿŴ  ƌ ň ł ł ł ňŔ ƌŅĥŦ  ĬŅ :ƢƉĥ ł ĭň :ťŨŅ Ŕ ĥ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň .IJĬŴ ô Ũŏ Ŕ ĥĶ  ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ Ƨơ  ŷƐſ Ņ Ō ĥƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň : ųƆ ň ƢƉĥ ł ĭňIJô ƢŨť Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ň łœ ł ň ò ł Ņ ŏ Ņ  Ĭ .ŦƦ Ŕ ƇƖ  Ɔŧ  ƢƉ  ĥ ŴƄſ  ĥ .ťƐ  ƀƟĭŧ  ĿŴ  ƌŦ ň ł ł ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ňŔ Ʀ Ŕ ƇƖ  Ɔŧ  ƢƉ  ĥų  ƆŦ ň ŵŷ ň ňƌŦ  ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥ .ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň .ŧ űŅŔŷƃŔĥķĭ  ųſ ŏ ǓłŁœŴô ƆĮĥł ĭň :IJô ƢŨŦ ł ł ł ň ł ň Ņ ł ł ň :ťÿƐň ƀòƟĿ ł űÿƏ łŔ ĭł :ťÿŷŅ Ũœ űŔƉĶ ł ĬŅ ƢŅÿŨŔ ĥƎ  ÿƉŅ Łť Ŕ ƍŅŨŔ ĭł .ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥų  ƆƢ  Ɖĥ  Īŧ Ŕ ĿŁŔƧ ĭŁĥ Ŕ ĭ Ō ň ň ł ł ł ň ň ň ł Ņ ò ťƐ  ƀƟƎ  Ɖƈ  Ɩɝť  ŷŅ Ũœ űŔƉƈ  ƕų  Ɗ  Əĭ  :ĬƢŨœ ơŷƐſ Ņ Ƨ ĬƢƄŔ Ƙĭ łŔ ł ňŌ ň ł .ĬƢňũŔ Ɔų ł Ɛ ň Ƅœ ƊƆť ň ƍƀŅ ƄŌœ Ə ł Ū  Ŕ Ɛƌ ł ĭł :ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥĬ  űſ Ŕ ĥŻ  ƣĭĥ  ĭ ň Ņ ł ň ŅŅ ł ŅŅ ł ł ň Ņ ł ł .ťƌŅĥŦ  ĬƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ :ĶĬ ƢŨŔ ĥ :ĶĬ ƢŨŔ ĥ :ƢƉĥ  ĭť  ƀƊƣƎ  ƉŦ ň ųŅ Ɔĥ Ņ Īłœ ųƃňŔƨƉł ųƆŧ ň ƢƟ Ņ ĭł



ĵįĽ ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



į



İ



IJ  ťſ 

Ch. 



Abimelech said, “I do not know who did this thing. Indeed, you did not inform me and I did not hear [about it] until today.”



Abraham brought his flocks and oxen and gave them to Abimelech and the two of them established a covenant.



Abraham set aside seven ewe lambs of the flock by themselves.



Abimelech said to Abraham, “What are these seven ewe lambs of the flocks that you have set aside by themselves?”



He said, “The seven ewe lambs that you will take from my hands will be my testimony that I dug this well.”



Therefore that place was called Beer-sheba because the two of them swore an oath there.



They established a covenant in Beer-sheba. Then Abimelech and Phicol, the head of his army, arose and returned to the land of the Philistines.



Abraham planted a plant 1 in Beer-sheba and there he called on the name of the Lord, the eternal God.



Abraham resided in the land of the Philistines for many days.

1

See the Introduction: Divergent Readings.



Ņ ł Ņ œ ł Ņ ŅŅ Ņ Ņ ňœ ł ŏ ł ň ň Ņ œ ł Ōł ł ň .Ɓƌ ô Ʀſ œ ŴŌ Ŷ  Ƨ Ʀ  ô ƌĥ ĻĥŔ ĭ .ťƌĬťƊ ū Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ Ƙ űŔũƕ Ŕ ŴƍƉ  Ʀ Ŕ ƕűŔſ  Ƨ :ƅƇ  ƊƀŨŔ ĥƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ŵƃ ň ň ň Ņ Ņ ň .ťƍŅƉŴ Ņ łſķ  ĥ  Ƨĥ Ʀ Ŕ ƖƊ  ƣň Ƨť  ƌŅĥ Ļĥ  Ŕ ĭŅ ň ł ŅŅ ŅŅ ł ł ł ł ŨŌ Ŕ Ƨł ħ  Ĭ ƢŨŔ ĥ ƢŨŔ ĪŔĭ ŵƃ .ťƊ Ņ ƀƟķĭ Ņ ŏ ǓłŁœŴô ƊƀƟĥ ųſ Ō ĭł :ƅƇ  œ Ɗƀ  Ŕ ųô łſĭŧ ǓĭŁŔ ĭ ťòƍɯĶ ł Ō ł Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ łœ ł Ŕ ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥƋƀ  Ɵĥ  ĭ Ÿƃ  ĪŦ Ŕ ŁŔ ǔƘ Ɨũƣ .Ǝſųſ ň ĪŴ łŔ ŷɤ ŏ Ũť łŔ òƍɯ ň Ņ ł ł ŅŅ ł ŨŌ Ŕ ĥƢ ł Ŕ ƎÿƀƆ ň ĬƎÿƀ Ņ ň ƌĥť  ƍŅƉ Ņ :ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ Ƨ ƅƇ  œ Ɗƀ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň Żƃ  ĪŦ Ŕ ŁŔ ǔŅÿƘł œ Ɨÿũƣ œ Ɵĥ ƦÿƊƀ Ō Īť łŔ ÿòƍɯ .Ǝſųſ ň ĪŴ łŔ ŷɤ ŏ Ũł œ ň Ņ ň Ņ ŏœ Ņ ŏ ň łòŌ ň ł ĭň ĵ Ɖ  IJűŔ ɖĥƎ  Ɖ  Ū  ŔƏ ł ŁŔ ĪŔŦŁŔ ǔŅƘł œ ƗũłŔ ƣĪłœ ƢƉĥ ŁŔƢňƙŔ Ŷň ĪŦ Ŕ Łĭ Ŕ Īų Ɛ  Ɔ ƁƆŦ Ō ĭĬ ň ŁŔ Īœ ƈź .ŧ ĪňŔĬŅ ŧ ƢŅŨŌœ ł ł Ņ ŅŅ ŏ ň ŏ ň .ķĭųſ ŏ ǓłŁœ ŴƀƊ Ō ŌſƎ  Ɖ Ņ ŁŔ Īœ ƈź Ɖ  :ƗũƣƢ łŔ ŨŌœ ĭĬŧ ł ĿŅŁŔƧŧ  ƢƟť  ƌĬƈ  ź Ɖ  Ƨ ł Ņ ň ł œł Ō ƅƇ ł ŨŌ Ŕ ĥƋ Ŵô ÿƄŔ ƘĬ łŔ ĭł :ųƇƀ ʖ  ħ  Ŀƈ  Ƅƀ ňŔ Ƙĭ  Ɵĭ  :ƗũƣƢ łŔ ũŌŔ Ũť Ŕ Ɗ Ņ ƀƟ Ņ Ŵô ƊƀƟĥ Ō ĭł ŪƆ Ŕ  œ Ɗƀ Ņ ň ł Ņ ł  ƘŔ Īť .ťňɕƦ œ Ƥò ɤ Ŕ ƕĿ  Ƨ ł Ņ Ņ œ ň łœ Ņ ł Ņ ł ł Ō Ņ œ ň Ņ Ņ ł ł ł ň .ťƊò ɤƕŅĪŦ Ŕ ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥť  ɕƢ Ɖ  Ī ųƊƤ  Ũ ƎƉ  Łŧ Ŕ ƢƟ  ĭ .ƗũƣƢ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ Ũƞ  ƌĶ  Ĭ ƢŨŔ ĥ ħ  Ŕ ƞƌ ĭ ŭƆ Ŕ ũŔ ŨŦ ň Ōœ ł Ņ Ņ ò ł ň Ņ œ ò ň ł Ņ ł œ Ņ Ņ ł ł ł  ƏŦ  Ʀ Ŕ Ɖ  Ŵɖť  ɕƦ  Ƥ ɤ  ƘŔ Īť Ŕ ƕĿŤ  Ũ ĶĬ ƢŨŔ ĥƢ .ŦŤƀò Ŭ  Ɗƕ  ĭ űƆ





  



 

 

Ch. 



I will also make the son of the maidservant into a great people because he is your descendant.”

XXIX



Abraham rose early in the morning and took some bread and a skin of water and gave [them] to Hagar. He put [them] and the boy on her shoulder and sent her off. She went and wandered in the desert of Beer-sheba.



The water from the skin was finished and she placed the boy under one of the bushes.



Then she went and sat opposite. She went a distance, about the length of a bowshot, because she thought, “I do not want to see the boy’s death.” So she sat opposite and she raised her voice and wept.



God heeded 1 the voice of the boy, and the angel of God called to Hagar from heaven and said to her, “What is the matter, Hagar? Do not fear because God has heeded the voice of the boy where he is.



Rise, pick up the boy. Hold him fast in your hands because I will make him into a great people.”



God opened her eyes and she saw a well of water. She went and she filled the skin with water and she let the boy drink.



God was with the boy. He grew up and dwelt in the desert of Paran. He was learning the bow in the desert of Paran.



His mother brought a wife for him from the land of Egypt.



At that time, Abimelech and Phicol, the head of his army, said to Abraham, “God is with you in all that you do.



Now then swear to me by God here that you will not deceive me or my family or my tribe, but by the loyalty that I have dealt with you, deal with me and with the land where you reside.”



Abraham said, “I swear.”



Then Abraham rebuked Abimelech regarding the affair of the well of water that the servants of Abraham had dug 2 and that the servants of Abimelech had captured.  1 2

 The Peshiṭta adds the preposition ħ before ƨƟ. See the Introduction: Harmonization.



ň ŏ ň Ņ .ĭĬô ŏ ƅ Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ Įł Īœ ƈź Ɖ  :IJĬŴſ ô űŌŔũƕ œ ĥť  ŨŅœ ĿłťƊ Ņ łƖɝŦ  ƦƉĥ Ŕ Īłœ Ĭñ ƢŅŨœ ĻĥŔ ĭŅ

ŭſ  ŻƃįĽ

ł ł Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ :Ƣū  Īť Ŕ ũƟ  Ɗŷ  Ɔ  Ū  Ŕ Ɛƌ ł ĭł :ŧ ƢŅƘŔ ƞłŨœ ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥĶ  űňœƟĭ  űſ ƋÿƏĭ ŔŅ ųɝ Ņ ħ  Ŕ ųô łſĭťƀò Ɖ Ŕ Ŀĭť ł Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ň Ō ł ł ł œ ł Œ Œ Ŕ ƃœ ƈłƕ Ŕ Ɔô Įłĥĭ Ĭñ Ŀűœƣĭ ł :ťƀˁ Ņ źƆ  ĭ ųñ Ƙ Ʀ Ŕ ƖŹ  ĭ :Ʀ .Ɨũƣ Ŕ ƢŨŔ Īŧ Ŕ ƢŨœ űŔƊ  Ũœ Ʀ ł ň ł ł Ņ ł ň òŅ ł  ĭô ƢƊ ł ū Ŕ ĭł ųſ .ťŷň ɚò ƏƎ Ō Ɖ ň űŔŶł Ʀƀ Ŕ ʖ ň Łť Ŕ ƀˁ Ņ źƆĬ  Ʀ Ŕ ƀƉĿĥ  ĭ :ťũƟ  Ɖť  ƀƉ Ŕ ĿƎ ŏ ň Ņ œ ň ňœ ł ł Œ ł ł ŒŁŔ ƢƉĥ ŏŔ Ɖ ŒŔ Ũłœ Ʀ ŒŔ Ɔô Įłĥĭň Ŵſ Ŕ ƠŶĿ  ĥ :ĵŴũƟƎ ň Ʀ Ŕ ň ſĭ Ʀ ł Īňœ ƈź  Ơ Ũŧ Ŕ űƤ Ɖ  ƅſ Ɖ  :ŦƦƤ Ŕ ĥ Ʀ ň ł œ ł ň ň Ņœ ŏŔ Ɖ ŒŔ Ũłœ Ʀ Ɗ  ŨŦ Ŕ ŵŶ  ĥ ƧĪ ŒŔ Ɗſ ł ĿĥŌ ĭł :ĵŴũƟƎ ň Ʀ Ŕ ň ſĭ .ťƀˁ Ņ ŹĪœĬŁŴ ŒŔ ƄŅŔ ŨŔ ĭł ųñ ɤ Ņ ƟŅ Ʀ .Ʀ ł ł Ņ ł Ņ ł œ ň Ņ Ņ Ņł ł ł ň ÿūŅ ųɝ ťÿƀŅ ƊƣƎ ł ÿƉƢ Ņ ŦųŅ ÿƆŅ ĥĪœ ųƃňŔƨ Ɖł ŧ ƢƟ  ĭ :ťƀˁ  ŹĪųƇ Ơ ŨŦ Ŕ ų Ɔ  ĥƗ  Ɗƣ  ĭ ŵſ Ŕ ň Ņ ŏ Ō ň Ņ Ņ Ņł ň Ņ ł Īłœ ƈÿźƉ  ƢƉĥ ł ĭň ųÿƇƠ ŨŦ Ŕ ų ÿƆĥƗ  ÿƊƣ Ŕ Ƨ :Ƣū ŔŅ ĬŅ Ɓô ƄŔ Ɔť  Ɖ Ņ .ųñ ɝ ň :ƎƀƇŶ  ĪŔŁ ł ł ł .ĭĬŏ ĪĿ œ Łœ ĥťƀˁ Ņ ŹĪœ ŏ ň ňœ œ ł òŌ ň ł Ņ ł ťÿŨŅ œ ĿłťÿƊŅ łƖɝ  Īłœ ƈÿźƉ  :ųŨ Ɓô Ƅſ  űŔ ɖĥƁô ƍƐƊ  Ŷĭť  ƀˁ  źƆ  Ɓô ƆŴƠƣ ŏ Ɓô ƉŴƟŏ Ÿɖ ň .IJĬŴſ ô űŌŔũƕ œ ĥ Ņ ł Ņ ł Œ Ņ ł Œ ł ň òŅ ł Ņ Ō œ Œ Ņ ł ñ ň ò ł Ņ Ņ ł ł ł Ŕ ƘŔ ĭ Żſ  Īŧ Ŕ ƢÿŨ ŁŔ ŵÿŶ  ĭ :ųÿƀ  ƍəɯ  Ŧų Ɔ  ĥį  Ʀ Ŕ Ɔô Įĥĭ :ťÿƀƉ Ŕ ÿƇƉĭ Ʀÿ  ÿũƟ ťÿƀò Ɖť Ŕ Ŀ Ʀ ł ň .ťƀˁ Ņ źƆĬ  Ʀ Ŕ ƀƠƣĥ ł ĭł ň Ō Ņ ł Ņ ł ł ňł Ņ Ņł Ņ ł ň ŦĭŅĬô ƚ  Ŕ ÿƇŅſĭ  :ķƢŅÿƘŅ Ŕ Īŧ Ŕ ƢŅÿŨœ űŔƊ ł Ũœ ħ  Ŕ Ʀſ Ŕ ĭť  ŨĿŔ ĭ :ťƀˁ  ŹƋ  ƕų  Ɗ  ƕŦ  ų Ɔ  ĥŦ  ĭĬ  ĭ Ĵ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł œ Ɵň .ķƢƘŔ Īŧ Ŕ ƢŨœ űŔƊ  Ũœ ŦƦƤ ł ň Ņ œ ł ň ň ň Œ łœ ň Ŕ ũƐ  ƌĭ ťƃ  ƉŦ  ŁŔ Ʀ .ƎſĿƞň Ɖ ň Īť Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ ĥƎ  ô ƌĥųƉ  ĥų  Ɔ  Ʀ ł ł ł ň ł Ņ ł Ņ ł ł ň ł œł Ō ƅÿƇ ň Ŕ Ƙĭ ł ŨŌ Ŕ ĥƢ ŦųŅ ÿƆŅ ĥ .ĶĬŅ ƢŅÿŨŔ Ƨų  ÿƇƀʖ  ħ  Ŀƈ  ÿƄƀ  Ɖĥ  ĭ :ĭĬť  ƍŨŔ ŵŨŦ Ŕ ĭĬ  ĭ Ūƃ Ŕ  œ Ɗƀ łœ ň Ņ œ ŏ œ Ņ ł  ƕ .Ʀ  ô ƌĥ űŔũŔ ƕĪ ƈƄŔ Ũ ƅ Ŕ Ɗ Ņ Ņœ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ō Ō Ō Ņ Ņ ł Ŕ Ƥł ŨŔ ĭłƁô ƉĬŴÿźŏ ŨŔ ĭł ƁŨŌœ ƈū Ŕ ƧĪœ .ťƃĿ  Ĭ Ŧų ƆŤ  ŨŔ ƁƆ  ƁƊ  ſť  ƣ Ĭĭ  ŭƃ .IJô Ʀ Ŕ ÿŨƢ ň œ ĪłŔŁ Ņ ł ł œ ň Ņ .ųñ ŨŅœ ŁƢ  Ɗƕ ł Īť ňŔ ƅ Ŕ Ɗ Ņ łƕ ŁŔűňœũŔ ƕĪŦ Ŕ ŁŴ Ŕ ũƀ ŏœ Ź ƅſĥ  Ŕ ĭł łŔ ƕĿ  ĥ Ƌłƕĭ  Ɓô Ɗłƕ űŔũƕ Ō ň ł ł ň .ťƉ ň ĥť  ƌŅĥ :ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ űƃ Ņ ŏ ł ł ł Ŕ Īłœ :ťÿƀò Ņ Ɖ ł ŨŌ Ŕ ƧĶ ł œ ÿũò Ŕ łƕĭô ƢÿƙŶ IJĬô ĭűÿ ł Īŧ Ŕ ƢŅÿŨŌ Ŕ ĪŦ Ŕ ŁŴ Ŕ ÿŨĽƈ ÿłƕ ƅÿ  œ ÿƇƊƀ  ĬŅ ƢŅÿŨŔ ĥƑ  ÿƃĥň œ ĭł ųƃ Ŕ ŏ ł ł ŨŌ Ŕ ĥĪłœIJĬô ĭűł œ ũò Ŕ łƕ ĬŴ .ƅƇ  œ Ɗƀ Ŕ Īłœ ñ ƇƠ  ƣĭ  :ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨĥ





 









 



 

Ch. 

Chapter  XXVIII



The Lord remembered Sarah just as he had said and the Lord did for Sarah just as he had spoken.



Sarah conceived and she bore a son to Abraham in his old age at the time that God had spoken with him.



Abraham called the name of his son who was born to him, whom Sarah had bore to him, Isaac.



Abraham circumcised his son Isaac when he was eight days old, just as God had commanded him.



Abraham was one hundred years old when Isaac his son was born to him.



Sarah said, “God has brought great joy 1 to me this day. Let everyone who hears [of it] rejoice for me.”



She said, “Who would have said 2 to Abraham that Sarah would nurse children? For she has borne a son for him in his old age.”



The child grew and was weaned. Then Abraham made a great feast on the day that Isaac was weaned.



Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian that she had borne to Abraham ridiculing [Isaac].



She said to Abraham, “Send away this maidservant and her son, for the son of this maidservant will not inherit with my son Isaac.”



The affair was very displeasing to Abraham because of his son.



God said to Abraham, “Do not be displeased over the boy and over your maidservant. Comply with everything that Sarah is saying to you, because through Isaac offspring will be named for you. 

1 2



See the Introduction: Divergent Readings. ‘Who would have said’: lit. ‘Who said’.



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ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ň Ņ Ņ ł ł ň ł œ ł Ņ ł .ƈƇ Ɖ  Ī ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ŧ ƢƐƆť  ɕƢ Ņ Ɖ Ņ űŔũƕ łŔ ĭł .ƢƉĥ ł Īňœ ƅ Ŕ ſĥ ŧ ƢŅƐƆƢ  ƃłŔĪœŁœĥť  ɕƢ  Ɖĭ  ň ł łœ ň Ņ ł Œ ł ň ň ł Ņ ł ŏ œ ƐƆŧ Ŕ ƍź  ŨĭŔ Ŕ ÿũƀ ł ƢŅÿŨœ ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ Ƨ ŒŁŔ űɤ  ſĭŧ ƢƏ  Ʀ ųÿƊň łƕƈ  ÿƇƉ  Īť Ŕ ÿƍŨŔ ŵɟ  :ĬŁŴ ł Ņ ĥ .ŦųŅ Ɔ ň Ō ňœ ň œ ň Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł Ŕ Ī ĬƢŨ ƋƣĶ  Ĭ ƢŨŔ ĥŧ  ƢƟ  ĭ .ơŷƐſ Ņ Ō ĥŧ  ƢŅƏų ł Ɔ ň ŒŁŔ űɤ łœ ň ſĪœ ųƆ ň űŔƇſ  Łĥ ł ňœ ł œ ł Ō ò ł Ņ Ņ œ ł œ ň œ Ņ Ō Ņ Ņ ł ł ł .ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥĬ  űƠ  ƘŔ Ī ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ƎƀƉ  Ŵɖť  ƀƍ Ɖ  Ł ƢŨ ĬƢŨ ơŷƐſ  ƧĶ  Ĭ ƢŨŔ ĥĿ  ŵū Ŕ ĭ ň Ō ň łœ ò Ō Ņ ô ƉƢ Ņ Ũłœ ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨĥ .ĬƢňŨœ ơŷƐſ Ņ Ō ĥų  Ɔ ň űŔƇſ  ŁŔ ĥ űŔƃ Ǝƀɫ ƣŦĭĬŦŤ Ŕ ĭł ł Ō ł Ņ œł Ņ ŏ ł Ņ ł Œ ł ň .ƁƆŧ Ō űŷ ňœ ňƌƗ  Ɗ ł ƣŅ Īœ ƈƃŏœ .ťƍŅƉŴ Ņ łſŦ  ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥ ƁƆ  űŔũƕ Ŕ Ũ ĿŦŁĭ Ŕ űŔ Ŷ :ŧ ƢƏ  ŁŔ ƢƉĥ  ĭ Ŕ ŦƦ ň ŏ œ ł Ņ œ ň Œ ł œ ň œ Ņ ł òŅ ł œ ň ł œ Ņ Ņ ł ł ň ł Œ ł ň  Ɖ  ĥƎ  Ɖ  .ŁŔ ƢƉĥ  ĭ Ŕ ũƀ  ſĪ :ŧ ƢƏť  ƀɫ Ũ ơƍſ ŁŔ Ī ĶĬ ƢŨŔ ƧƢ  ƐƆ  ŧ ƢŨ ųƆ  ŁŔ űɤ .ĬŁŴ ł Ņ ł ł ł ł Ņ ƀłŨť ƈÿƐň ŶŁĥ Ŕ Īť ňŔ ÿƉŴ Ŕ ÿŨŅ œ ĿłťÿɕŅ ƦƤ œ ƉĶ ł ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥ űŔũƕ Ŕ ĭ :ƈƐ ň ŶŁĥ Ŕ ĭť ň ƀˁ Ņ Źť  ŨĿ Ŕ ĭ .ơŷƐſ Ņ Ō ĥ ł łœ ň Ņ œ Ņ ň Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł Œ Ņ ł .ƅ Ŕ ŷň ŬƉ Ŕ ł ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ Ƨ ŒŁŔ űɤ  ſĪŦ Ŕ Ʀſ  ĿƞƉƢ  ū Ŕ ĬƢ  ũƆ  ŁŔ ŵŶ  ĭ Ŕ ŧ ƢƏ Ņ ł ł œ ł Ō Ņ œ ŏ ň ñ Ņ ł ň Ņ Ņ ł ñ Ō ň œł Ņ Ņ ł Œ ł ň  ÿŨ ŁŔĿŤ ŦƦÿƉ  ƌ  ƧĪ ƈź Ɖ  :Ĭ ƢũŔ Ɔĭŧ  ĪŔĬŦ  ƦƉ Ŕ Ƨ ųƀ  Ơ Ƙ ĥ :ĶĬ ƢŨŔ Ƨ ŁŔ ƢƉĥ  ĭ Ŕ ĥƢ Ō ł ň œ Ņ .ơŷƐſ  ĥIJô ƢŨ Ƌƕť  ƌŅĬŅ Ņ Ņ Ņ ňœ ňœ ň Ņ ŏ łƕĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥł Ɓƍłəòɳ ł Ŕ ŁŴ Ŕ ŨĽƈ ł Ũœ Ū  Ŕ Źť  Ɗ ū Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ Ƙ ŀŤŨŁĥ Ŕ ĭ ĬƢňŨŔ ĪŦ Ŕ ł ł ł Ņ ł Ņ Ņ Źƈ .ĴŔ ƦÿƉ Ŕ ĥ ƈÿłƕĭťÿƀˁ  ÿłƕ ƅƀ  œ ƍłəòɳ ł Ũœ ŀŤŨň œ Ʀ Ŕ ňƌ  ƧĶ  ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ƧŦ  ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň Ņ ƢÿƟ Ņ ŨŌŔ Īœ ƈÿźŏ Ɖ Ņ ƢƉĥ Ņ ĪŅœ ƈƃŏœ ƅ Ŕ ÿƆŧ ň Ʀ Ŕ ňƌơ  ÿŷƐſŤ ň :ųñ ÿɤŅ ƠŅ Ũœ ƗƊƣ ł ŧ ƢŅƏ ł ƅŔ Ɔŧ .ťƕĿ Ņ Įł



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IJ  ťſ  Ūſ 

Ch. 



Abimelech said to Abraham, “What did you intend by doing this affair?” 1



Abraham said, “Because I thought, 2 ‘Perhaps there is no fear of God in this place. They will kill me because of my wife.’



However, truly she is my sister, the daughter of my father but not the daughter of my mother. She became my wife.



When God brought me out 3 from my father’s house, I said to her, ‘This act of fidelity you must do for me: to whatever place we go, say about me, he is my brother.’”



Then Abimelech took sheep and oxen, male and female slaves and gave them to Abraham. He restored Sarah his wife to him.



Abimelech said to Abraham, “See, my land is before you. Dwell wherever it seems best to you.”



He said to Sarah, “Look, I have given a thousand pieces of silver to your brother. It was also given for you because you have covered the eyes of all who are with me and you have rebuked me 4 in every way.”



Abraham prayed to God and God healed Abimelech and his wife and female slaves and they bore children,



for the Lord had closed fast every womb in the house of Abimelech because of Sarah the wife of Abraham.

‘What did you intend by doing this affair?’: lit. ‘What did you see that you did this affair?’ 2 ‘thought’: lit. ‘said’. 3 MT: ‘made me wander’. The Peshiṭta reading harmonizes with 15:7. 4 The Hebrew is obscure and the Peshiṭta offers an interpretation. 1



ł œ ł Ōł ł ň ł Ŕ Īłœ Ʀſ .ťƌŅĬť Ņ Ɗ Ņ ū ŔŅ Ʀ Ŕ Ƙň œ Łœűœũƕ œ ŵŶť ł ƍŅƉ Ņ .ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ Ƨ ƅƇ  ƊƀŨŔ ĥƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ł ł ň ŏ ň ň Ņ Īłœ ĬƦƇŶ ł Ŕ ųŅ ÿƆĥ :ťÿƌŅ Ĭŧ Ņ ĿŅŁŤ Ŕ ÿŨŦ Ŕ Īňœ Ʀƀ œ Ɔ ł ťƊƆ Ņ Īłœ :ŁŔƢƉĥ ň Īňœ ƈź Ɖ  .ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ł œ ł òł œ ł ł Ņ ŏ ň  ƇźƠƌĭ  .IJô ŁŔƦ  ô ƌĥƁƘ ĥ ƈƕƁô ƍƌŴ ň ł Ņ Ņ œ ł Ō Œ Ņ ł Ņ .ŦŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥ ƁƆ  ŁŔ ĭĬ  ĭ :ƁƉ ô ĥ ŁŔƢŨ Ŕ Ƨĭ  Ɓô ŨŔ ĥ ŁŔƢŨłœ :IJĬô Ō IJô Ʀ Ŕ ŶŅ Ʀſ Ŕ Ō ĥƢſ Ņ ƢŌƣĶ ł ƢłŨœ ň Ņ ŏœ ł ň Ņ ň Ņ ň œ ň Ņ Ņ ł ł œł ł Ņ ł Ŕ ŁŴ Ŕ ũƀ  Ź ŧ ĪŔĬ .ųñ ɝ Ņ ŁŔƢƉ ň ĥ :Ɓô ŨŔ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũ ƎƉŦ  ų Ɔ  ĥƁô ƍƠ Ƙ ĥ űŔƃŔ ĪŦ Ŕ ĭĬ  ĭ ƎÿſűŌŔũƕ œ ŁŔ ĪŦ ň ł ł ł ł œ ŏ ŏ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ Ō ł œ .ĭĬô Ɓô ʖĥĪœ ƁƇƕ Ŕ ƎƍŶƎƀƆ ô Įĥ ĪĿ  IJô ƢƉ  ĥ :ƎƉ  ƦƆ œ Łĥ ƈƄŔ Ũ .ƁƊłƕ Ņ ò ň ň œ ò ł ň ł òŅ Ņ œ ł Ō ł ł ł ł  ƅƇ  ƊƀŨŔ ĥ ƢŨŔ ĪŔĭ ųÿƆň ƁÿƍŌ Ƙĭ łŔ .ĶĬŅ ƢŅÿŨŔ Ƨ ħ  Ŕ ųô ÿłſĭŦŁŔ ųŅ Ɖ  ĥĭ ŧ űũŔ ƕĭŧ ǓĭŁĭť Ŕ ƍɯ ň ł ł .ĬŁŔ Ʀœ ô ƌĥ ŧ ƢŅƐƆ ň œ łò ł œ Ōœł œ łœ œ ł Ņ ł ł œ ł Ōł ł ň  Ɖ  űƟ  ĬŅ .ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ Ƨ ƅƇ  ƊƀŨŔ ĥƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ .ħ  Ŕ Łœ ƅƀ  ƍəɳ  Ũ Ƣƀƙƣ Ī Ƣƃ .ƅƀ Ŕ Ɓô ƕĿĥŦ ň Ņ Ņ ł ň łœ ň Ņ ň œ ň Ņ ł Ņ ł ł ň Ūſ  Ŕ ųŌ Ōſ ĭĬŏ Ļ  Ŕ ĥŦ  Ĭĭ  .Ɓô ƃŴ Ŕ Ŷŏ Ƨ ƚ ŔƐ  ƃŔĪ ƚ :Ɓô ƄŔ Ɔ ŔƆ  ĥ Ʀ Ŕ ŨųſŦĬ .ƢƉ  ĥŧ  ƢƐƆ  ĭ Ō œ ň œł ň œ ň Ņ Ō ŏ ŏ œ ł ł ł œ ň ò  Ŕ ƇŶ  .Ɓƍſ ô ƦƐ  ƃĥĶ  űƉƈ  ƃœ ƈƕĭ  :ƁƊ ô ƕĪœ ƈƃŔ Īť Ŕ ƍəɯ  IJô Ʀƀ  ƙ Ŷł Īœ ƚ ň Ņ ò ň ň œ ł œ ł Ō ł Ņ Ņł Ō ł Ņ Ņł Ņ ł Ōł  ƊƀŨŔ ƧŦ  ų ÿƆĥ ƁÿƏĥĭ :Ŧų Ɔ  ĥĶűƟĶ Ŕ ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥ ƁƆ  Ľĭ   ĬŁŔ ƦÿôƌƧĭ ƅÿƇ ĬŁŔ ų ÿƉƧĭ ň  ĭŌ .IJôò űŔ Ƈſ ň ł ň œ ŏ ň ŏ ň œ ł Ōł ň Ņ œ ł ò ł œ Ũť łŔ ɕƢ Ņ Ɖ Ņ űŔŶł ĥ űŔŶŤ Ɖ  Ī ƈź Ɖ  Ŕ ƖŨƢ  Ɖƈ  ƃŏœ ƁƘŤ ƈÿźƉ  :ƅÿƇ  ƊƀŨŔ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ ŨŔ Īť ň ł Ņ Ņ Ņ œ ł ł .ĶĬ ƢŨĥ Ŕ Īœ ĬŁŔ Ʀôƌĥŧ ƢƏ



IJ  ťſ  Ūſ  ŭſ  űſ  ųſ  Ŵſ  ŵſ  Ÿɖ 

Ch. 

Chapter  XXVII



Abraham set out from there to the southern region. He settled between Reqem 1 and Gadar. 2 Abraham stayed in Gadar. 3



With regard to Sarah his wife, Abraham said, “She is my sister.” Then Abimelech, king of Gadar, sent and took Sarah.



God came to Abimelech in a dream by night and said to him, “Now you are about to die on account of the woman that you have taken because she is the wife of a man.”



Now Abimelech had not approached her. Abimelech said, “Lord, will you also kill an innocent people? 4



Look, he said, ‘She is my sister.’ She also said, ‘He is my brother.’ In the integrity of my heart and by the innocence of my hands I have done this.”



God said to him in the dream, “I know that in the integrity of your heart you have done this. I myself have restrained you lest you sin against me. Because of this, I did not allow you to approach her.



Now then, return the man’s wife because he is a prophet. He will pray for you and you will live. If you do not return [her], know that you will surely die, you and everyone who belongs to you.”



Abimelech rose at dawn and called to all his servants. He spoke all these words within their hearing and the men became very afraid.



Abimelech called to Abraham and said to him, “What have I done to you? 5 How have I sinned against you that you have brought upon me and my kingdom a great sin? Things that are not done you have done to me.” 



P always has ‘Reqem’ for MT ‘Kadesh’. MT: ‘Shur’. 3 MT: ‘Gerar’. 4 The Peshiṭta does not express the question in the Hebrew explicitly. 5 MT: ‘What have you done to us?’ 1 2



ƅƃ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ł Ņ ł Ņ łœ ň Ņ Ņ ł ł ł ň ň Ʀƀ ň Ŕ ƋÿƟĿ Ŕ Ũňœ ħ  Ŕ Ʀſ Ŕ ĭŌ :ťƍƊſ Ņ ŁŔ Īť Ŕ ƕĿ  ƧƎ  Ɖ  Ł ƎƉĶ  ĬƢŨŔ DŽ  Ơƣ  ĭ .ĿűŅŔÿūŅ œ Ʀÿƀ Ŕ ũƆ ł ł ł Ņ Ņ Ņ œ Ņ  Ɗƕ  ĭ Ŕ Ũ ĶĬ ƢŨŔ ĥƢ .ĿűŔ Ŭ ň ł ł ł Ņœ Ɖ œ ô ƌĥŧ ƢŅÿƏƈ ł ŨŌ Ŕ ĥĿ ł ťÿƄɤ ł ƅÿƇ  œ Ɗƀ  űłœÿƣł ĭ .IJĬô Ō IJô Ʀ ÿłƕ ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň Ŕ ÿŶŅ Īœ ĬŁŔ Ʀÿ ŔŅ ĪŔ .ŧ ƢŅƐƆ ł Ĭñ ƢŅŨŔ Īĭ łŔ ĿűŅŔū ł ň Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ň ň ÿƉĥ ł ĭť ł ŨŌ Ŕ ĥł ƈłƕŦ Ņ Ɔ œ ô ƌĥ ŁŔŤÿƉŦ Ʀÿ Ĭ .ųÿƆƢ ň ÿƀˁ Ō Īť Ŕ Ɗɤ Ņ ŷň Ũœ ƅƇ  œ Ɗƀ  ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥŦ  Łĥ Ŕ ĭ ł Ņ ł ł ŏ ł ò œ Ņ ň œ œ œ ł ł ł œ .IJĬŧ ô ƢũŔ ūł œ ŁŔƦ  ô ƌĥĪœ ƈź Ɖ  :ŁƢ  Ũ ĪŔĪŔ ŦŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥƁƘ ĥ ƈłƕ Ņ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ œł Ņ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ œ ł Ō ł ł ň ƈÿźƟť  ÿƀƃ ĮťÿƊƕ Ļ  Ŕ ĥ :ťɕƢ Ɖ  .ƅƇ  ƊƀŨŔ ĥƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ .ųñ ɝ Ņ ħ  Ŕ ƢƟ ň Ƨ ƅ œ ƇƊƀ ł Ũĥ ŌŔ ĭł ł  œ ô ƌĥ .Ʀ ň ň ŏ Ņ ł ŏ Ɖ Ŕ Ũœ .ĭĬô ŏ Ɓô ÿʖĥĪŅœ ŒŁŔ ƢÿƉ Ɓô ÿũœ Ɔ ň ŁŴ Ŕ ÿƊƀ Ō Ʀ ł ĥ IJĬŌ Ļĥ  Ŕ ĭŅ :IJĬô Ō IJô Ʀ Ŕ ÿŶŅ Īœ ƢƉ ł ĥ ĭĬŦ  Ĭ Ņ ŏ łœ ł ŌŔ ŁŴ ň.ŧ ĪŔĬŅ ŁŔűňœũŔ ň ƕ IJűłŔɖòĥĪŦ Ŕ ƀƃŔűŨŔ ĭ ň Ņ ł ł ł Ņ łŅ Ņ  ƌĥ Ļ  Ŕ ĥ .ťƊɤ Ņ ŷň ŨŦ Ŕ ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥų  ƆƢ ň Ɖĥ ł ĭň Ŕ ŨŔ Īť ŧ ĪňŔĬŅ Łœűœũƕ łŔ ƅ Ŕ ũŅœ Ɔ ň ŁŴ Ŕ Ɗƀ ŏ Ɖ Ō Ʀ Ŕ ƌôĥĺűŔ ɖť ŏ ň ň ň Ņ Ņň Ņ Ņ œ ł ł Ņ ł Ņ ŅŅ Ō ÿźŶ Ŕ ƧĪť Ŕ ƌĥ Ļ  Ŕ ĥ ĴŔ Ʀ  ƄŔ Ɛ  Ŷĭ  Ŕ ƢÿƠ ħ ł ƊƆ ň ĴŔ ƦÿƠ œ ũƣ Ŕ Ƨť  ÿƌĬƈ  ÿźƉ  :ƁÿƆť Ł .ųñ ɝ Ņ Ō œ ł ňł ł Ņ ŏ ň Ņ łœ ł œ ł ň œ ł Ņ Ņ Ŕ ƅÿƀ  Ƈ ƕƧ ƞƌ ĭ .ĭĬť ô ƀłũƌ ŌŔ Īłœ ƈź Ƨķĥ  ĭň .ťÿŶň ĥŁĭ Ɖ  :ŧ ƢũŔ ū  ŁƦ  ƌĥ ƅ Ŕ ƘĬ  ĥťƣ Ĭ ł œ ł ň Ņ Ņ ł œ Ŕ ł ôœ œ ł ň œ ł Ņ ŏ œ Ō œ .ƅ Ŕ Ɔ  Ʀſĥ Ŕ Ī ƈƃĭ Ŕ Ʀ  ô ƌĥ : Ʀ  ô ƌĥ ŁŔŤƉ  Ʀ Ŕ ƊƉ  Ī ĺĪ :Ʀ  ô ƌĥ ƅ Ŕ ƘųƉ  ň ň ň ł ł ŨŌ Ŕ ĥł ĶűňœƟĭ ƨ ÿƉò Ǝÿſųɤ ň ƃŏœ ƈƇ Ɖĭ  :IJĬô ĭűł œ ũò Ŕ łƕķĭųɤ ŏ ƄƆŧ ŏŔ ƢƟ Ņ ĭŧ ł ƢŅƙŔ Ƥł Ũœ ƅƇ  œ Ɗƀ ł Ņ .Ū  Ŕ Źť  ƤŅ ƌŅôĥŴô ƇŶň ĪŔĭł :ķĭųŏ ƀòɧłĪŤŔ Ũňœ ƎƀƆ ň ĬŅ ł œ ł Ōł Ņ ł Ō ƅ Ŕ ÿƆŅ Ʀÿƀ Ŕ źŶť  ÿƍŅ Ɖĭ Ņ :ƅ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ ŁŔűňœũŔ ň ƕť  ƍŅƉ Ņ .ųƆƢ ň Ɖĥ ł ĭĶ ň ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ Ƨ ƅƇ  ƊƀŨŔ ĥŧ  ƢƟ  ĭ Ņ ň òŅ Ņ Ō œ łœ ł ł œŁűœÿũƕ ŏ ł ň œ Ņ Ņ ł ł Ŕ ƎÿſűŌœũŔ łƕƦ œ œ Ŕ Ɖ  ƧĪŧ Ŕ űŔ ÿũƕ  Ī   IJô ŁŴ Ŕ Ƅɤ  Ɖ  ƈƕĭ  ƁƇƕ  ƦſƦſĥ Ŕ :ťŨ ĿŦų źŶ .ƁƊ ô łƕ



ŵƃįĽ ĥ



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Ch. 



They gave wine to their father also that night and the younger one went in and slept with him. He did not know when she lay down or when she rose.



Both the daughters of Lot became pregnant by their father.



The elder gave birth to a son and she named him Moab. He is the father of the Moabites to this day.



The younger one also gave birth to a son and she named him Baramm. 1 He is the father of the Ammonites to this day.

1

See the Introduction, Appendix 3: Names.



Ņ ł ł Ņ Ō œ Ņ ł œ Īĭ ŒŔ ÿłƇň ƕĭ  :ŧ ƢÿƊ Ņ ŶƎſ ł ĬŴ ň ÿŨŏ Ŕ Ƨ ĭĬť  ÿƀˁƇ Ũ Ļ  Ŕ ĥIJųô ƀɚŅ Ơò ƣĥ ň ĭł ųƆ ŒŔ ÿƄƉ ňŔ ŦŁĿŴ œ ÿƕŏ Į Ʀ Ʀ Ņ .ųñ Ɗ Ņ ƠƊ Ņ Ũĭ łŔ ųñ ƄƉ ŅŔ űŔƊ ł Ũœ ĺűłŔɖ Ō Ƨĭ :ųƊ ň łƕ ł ł ň ł ł ň ň Ņ ň Łœ ǓŁœ Ɓô òƍź  ŨŔ ĭ ŴƆ .ƎſĬŴ ň Ũŏ Ŕ ĥƎ  ƉİŴ  Ɔ ŏ Īœ ĬƦ Ŕ òƍŨœ Ǝſųſ ł ŏ ŏ Ņ ŏ ň Œ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ œ Ō ł Œ łœ ň ł Ŕ ťƀňŨŅ Ŕ ĥŅŴò Ɖ ťÿƉŅ űƕ ŏ Īœ ķĭĬŴ ŏ Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ Ŵſĭ  Ĭ :ħ  Ŕ ĥŴ  Ɖų  Ɗƣ  ŁŔ ƢƟ  ĭ :ŧ ƢŨŦ Ŕ ƦƤƀ  Ƥ Ɵ ŁŔ űɤ  ſĭ ŵƆ Ņ Ņ .ťƍƉŴ  ƀɞ ł Ņ Ņœ ŏ ł ł ŏ ŏ Ɓÿƍł Ũò Ŕ Īłœ ķĭĬŴ ŏ ÿŨŏ Ŕ ĥ Ŵſĭ  Ĭ .ƁƊ ô łƕƢ  Ũłœ ųƊƣ ň ŒŁŔ ƢƟ Ņ ĭł :ŧ ƢŅŨœ ŒŁŔ űɤ łœ ň ſ IJĬŌ Ļ  Ŕ ĥŦ  ŁĿŴ  ƕĮĭ ŸƆ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ł .ťƍƉŴ  ƀɞ  ťƉ  űƕ Ŕ ķŴƊ ŏ łƕ





 



Ch. 



Escape there quickly, because I cannot do anything until you enter there.” Because of this, the name of the city is called Zoar.



The sun rose over the land as Lot entered Zoar.



The Lord brought down from heaven brimstone and fire from the Lord on Sodom and Gomorrah.



He overthrew these cities and the entire plain and all the inhabitants of the land and the vegetation of the land.



His wife looked behind her and she became a pillar of salt.



Abraham went early in the morning to the place where he had stood before the Lord.



He gazed toward the area of Sodom and Gomorrah and toward the entire area of the land of the plain. He saw the smoke of the land rising like the smoke of a furnace.

XXVI



Thus when God destroyed the cities of the plain, God remembered Abraham and sent Lot away from the midst of the upheaval when he overthrew the cities in which Lot was dwelling.



Lot and his two daughters with him went up from Zoar and dwelt on the mountain because he was afraid to live in Zoar. So he and his two daughters lived in a cave.



The elder said to the younger, “Look, our father is old and there is no one in the land to have relations with us in the manner of all the world.



Come, let’s give our father wine to drink and we can sleep with him and establish descendants through our father.”



That night they gave wine to their father. The elder daughter went in and slept with her father. He did not know when she lay down or when she rose.



Then the next day the elder said to the younger: “See, I slept [last] evening with my father. Let’s give him wine again tonight. Then go and sleep with him. We will establish descendants through our father.” 





ň Ņ ŏ ň Ņ ł łœ Ɖ ň œ Īť ň Ŕ ÿƌŅ ôĥŸÿƄƤ Ŕ ł Ũłœ Ūƃ Ŕ Żł Ƈ Ƙł œ ŁŔĥ ƈŬƖ ťÿƉŅ űƕ łŔ ĶűňœÿƉň űŔÿũƕĥ ň ƧĪœ ƈź Ɖ  . ƎƉ  ƦƆ ł ň ŏ ň Ņ ł Ņ Ō łœ ñ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ .ƢƕŅĽŦ Ņ Ʀſ Ŕ ƢƟ  Ī ų Ɗƣŧ Ŕ Ʀ œ ô ƌĥ ĵŤƕŅĪŔ  ƢƟ  ťƌĬƈ  ź Ɖ  : ƎƉ  ƦƆ ł łƕİŴ .ƢƕŅƞɞƈ Ņ  Ɔĭ ŏ :ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ƈłƕơ  ƙƌ łŔ ťƤƊ Ņ ƣň ŭƃ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ łƕĭĶĭ łƕ Ʀ ň ĿŴ Ņ ƉĶ ťÿɕƢ Ņ űÿƟƎ ŅŔ ÿƉŧ Ņ ƌĭŦ ŏ Ʀſ Ŕ ƢŌũŔ ƃňœ :ŧ ĿŴ Ņ Ɗ ŏ ƕƈ Ņ  ŏŔ űƏƈ Ŕ Ŷň ĥť  ɕƢ  Ɖĭ  űƃ ł Ņ .ťƀƊƣƎ  Ɖ ň Ņ ł Ŕ ĭł ųƃ ŏ Ŕ ĭł :ŦƦÿ Ņ ĥł ƁÿÿŨò ł œ ƦŔ Ņſķĭųÿ :ťÿƕĿ ŏ ÿɤƄƆ Ŕ ÿƖƠł Ƙ œ ųñ ÿɤŅ ƄƆ ŏŔ ĭƎÿ ł ÿƀƆ ň Ĭť Ņ ÿɕŅ ǓŴƠƆ ŏ ƅ Ŕ ÿƘĬ Ņ .ťƕĿĥ Ņ Īłœ Ĭñ Ʀƀ Ŕ ŌƕŴ  ƊƆ ł ĭł ň ł Œ ł łœ ň Ņ Ŕ ĭ Ŵƃ Ŕ ƀƍ Ƙ Łĥ .ťŷɤ Ņ Ɖ ň ĪŦ Ŕ ƦƊ Ŕ ƀňƟŅ ŒŁŔ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł :Ĭñ ĿŅƦƐ œ Ũňœ ƎƉ ň ĬŁŔ Ʀœ ô ƌĥ Ʀ ň ł ł ł ŅŔ Ɖ .ťɕƢ Ņ ƉĶ Ņ űƟƎ Ņ ŁŦ Ŕ ĭŅĬĶ ô ŤƟŅ Īŧ Ŕ ĿŅŁŔƧ :ŧ ƢŅƘŔ ƞłŨœ ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥĶ  űňœƟĭ ł ŵƃ ł ł Ņ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł ł Ņ ł ñ Ņ ŏ œ òł œ ł Ņ ŏ Ņ  Ÿƃ Ɗ  ƕĭĶĭ  ŏŔ ƁƘò œ ƧƢŶĭ űƏ Ŕ ƕĿ  ĥ ų ɤ  ƃ ƁƘƧĭŧ ĿŴ ơÿƇƏŦ  Ĭĭ  Ŧ ŵÿŶ  ĭ :ŦƦÿƖ Ŕ Ơ ƘŔ Īť ŏœ ł Ņ Ņ ň œ ł Ņ łœ Ņ Ņ ň œ Ņ.ťƌĭ  Łĥ  Īť Ŕ ƍɧŁ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ťƕĿĥ  Ī ųñ ƍɧŁ



 



  

ŴƃįĽ

ł Ņ ł ł œ œň Ņ ł ł Ņ ŏ Ņ Ņ ł ň œ ł ł Ņ ł ŏ İŴÿLJĿűłœƣł ĭ :ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ Ƨ ŦųŅ Ɔ  ų Ɔ DŽ  ũ Ŷ űŔƃŔ ĪŦ Ŕ ĭĬ  ĭ Żƃ  ĥƢ  ƃŔ ĪŁĥ :ŦƦƖ Ŕ Ơ ƘŔ ĪŔ ťɕǓŴƟŦ ň Ņ Ņ ŏ ł Ņœ Ō ŏ ł ň Ņ œ ł .İŴƆƎſ  ų ŨŦ Ŕ ĭĬô ħ  ŔƦ Ŕ ſĪť Ŕ ɕǓŴƟ ƅ Ŕ ƘĬ  Ƅƀ Ŕ ƘĬ Ŕ Ŵū  œ ƎƉ ň Ŕ űŔƃ :ŦƦ ŏ ŏ ň ň Ō ŅŅ ň ň Ņ ň ł ň ł Ŕ ĭĬŏ :ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ź  Ũœ ħ  Ŕ Ʀſ Ŕ ĭƢ  ƕĽƎ  Ɖİ  ŴƆơ ŏ ƇƏ  ĭ ĵ ƈÿźƉ  :ųÿƊň łƕĬ  Ʀ Ŕ òƍŨœ ƎſŁœ ĿŁĭ Ņ ł łœ ň Ō Ņ Ņ œ łœ ň ň òŅ œ ň œ ł ŏ Ŕ ƖƊ  Ũ ħ .ĬƦ Ŕ ƍŨ ƎſŁĿŁĭŔ ĭĬ :ŦŁƢ  Ŕ Ʀſ Ŕ ĭ :ƢƕƞŨ ħ  ŔƦ Ɗ  ƆƈŶň ĪŔĪłœ Ņ ň ł Ņ ĵŴÿƖŏ ɥňĪœ :ťƕĿŤ Ņ Ũłœ Ʀƀ œ Ɔŧ ł ƢŅũŔ ūĭ Ŕł .ħ  Ŕ ŤƏķŴ  Ũŏ Ŕ ĥŦ  ĬŅ .ŦŁĿŴ œ ƕŏŵƆŦ ł ƦƤƀ œ ƤŌ Ɵł Œ ŁŔ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň Ƨ ł Ņ ŏ Ņ ŏ ł ł  Ŕ ĥ ƎƀƇƕ  .ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƃŔ Īť Ŕ Ŷ Ŀĭĥ ƅſ ł ň ł ň ł Ņœ .ťƕĿ Ņ ĮķŴ ł Ũŏ Ŕ ĥƎ  ƉƋƀ  Ơƌ Ō ĭł :ųƊ ň łƕ ƅ Ŕ Ɖ ł űŔňƌĭŧ  ƢƊ Ņ ŶķŴ ł Ũŏ Ŕ Ƨť  ƠƤ  ƌ IJŁ ŪƆ łŏ ł Œ ł œ ň Ņ œ Ō ł Œ ł ň ł Ŕ Ƈ ƕĭ  :ŧ ƢƊ Ņ ŶƎſ ł ĬŴ ň Ũŏ Ŕ Ƨ ĭĬť ł ƀˁƇ Ņ ŨŌŔ ƁƠƣĥ Ō ĭł ŭƆ Ŕ ƄƉ  ĪĭŔ ŦƦƤƀ  Ƥ Ɵ Ʀ .ĬŴ ñ ŨŔ ĥƋ  ƕ Ʀ Ņ Ō Ƨĭ  .ųñ Ɗ Ņ ƠƊ Ņ Ũĭ łŔ ųñ ƄƉ ŅŔ űŔƊ ł Ũœ ĺűłŔɖ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł ň œ ĪŦ ň Ŕ ĬŅ .ŦŁĿŴ Ņ ƢłŨœ Ʀ Ŕ ũƆŦ  ĭ űƆ Ƌÿłƕ ťÿƤƉ Ŕ ÿƄƉ œ ÿƕŏ ŵƆŦ ł ƦƤƀ œ ƤŌ Ɵł ŒŁŔ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň :ťƉŴ Ņ łſ ĿƦ Ŕ ĭĬ Ņ Ņ Ō ŏ Ō Ō Ņ ł ň ň Ņ ł ł Ņ ł Ņ ł œ ƎƉƋƀ  Ơƌ  ĭ :ųƊ  ƕƁô ƄŔ Ɖ  ĪœƁô ƆŴƕĭ  :ťƌĬť  ƀˁ  Ƈ Ũ Ļ  Ŕ ĥŧ  ƢƊ  Ŷ IJĬô ŴƀƠƤ  ƌ .Ɓô ŨŔ ĥ ł .ťƕĿ Ņ ĮķŴ ł Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ









 



Ch. 



The men who were at the door of the house were struck with hallucinations, 1 from the smallest to the biggest, and they groped to find the door.



The men said to Lot, “What are you doing here? Bring out from this place your sons-in-law, your sons and your daughters and anyone that you have in the city.



For we are about to destroy this place, because their cry has come up 2 before the Lord and the Lord has sent us to destroy it.”



Lot went out and spoke with his sons-in-law who were married to his daughters. He said to them, “Get up and leave this place because the Lord is about to destroy it.” But his sons-in-law thought he was joking. 3



As the day dawned, angels urged Lot saying to him, “Get up, take your wife and your two daughters who are present lest you will be consumed in the sins of the city.”



Lot delayed so the angels grabbed his hand and the hand of his wife and the hand of his two daughters, because the Lord had spared him. They brought him out and released him outside the city.



As they brought them outside, they said to him, “Escape with your life. Do not look back. Do not stand anywhere in the plain. Escape to the mountain so that you will not perish.”



Lot said to them, “I beseech you 4 my lords,



your servant has found favor in your eyes. Great is your loyalty that you have shown to me by saving my life. I am not able to escape to the mountains so that evil will not overtake me and I die.



Look, this city is near enough to flee there. It is small. I will escape there — it is small — and my life will be saved.”



He said to him, “Look, I have been favorable to you also in this request: I will not overturn the city about which you spoke. 



See the Introduction: Divergent Readings. See the Introduction: Harmonization. 3 ‘But his sons-in-law thought he was joking’: lit. ‘But he was [considered] like one jesting in the eyes of his sons-in-law’. 4 MT: ‘no, my lords’. 1 2



Ņ Ņ ł ł ň ł .ťÿŨŅ œ ƢłɝťƉ Ņ űƕ łŔ ĭł ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ƕĮƎ ŏ Ɖ ň :ŦƦ Ŕ ƀŅūŔ ǔŅū Ŕ ƢƤ ł Ũłœ Ŵô Ɩł Ƈ Ũœ :ŦƦƀ Ŕ ŨŔ Īŧ  ǔũŔ ūĭ Ŕ ťſ œ Ũł Ŕ Īť Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ Ʀ Ōł ł ŏ Ņœ ňŔ Ņ.ťƕĿ  ŁŔ Ŵŷ ƄƤ  Ɗ  ƆŴô ſƧĭ ł ŏ ň łœ ł ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ƍŅƉ Ņ :İŴLJŧ  ǔũŔ ū  ĭô ƢƉĥ  ĭ Ūſ Ŕ Ŷł :ťÿƃĿŅ œ ĬŅ Ʀÿ œ ô ƌĥ űŔÿũň Ŕ ƕť ĴŔ Ʀ Ŕ ÿòƍŨŔ ĭł ƅ œ ÿƀò ɫł ŨŔ ĭł ƅ œ ÿƀò ɧłƦ ł ł Ņ Ņ ň Ņ Ō .ťƌŅĬŧ Ņ ĿŁŔĥƎ  Ɖ ň ơƘ œ ĥ :ŦƦſ Ŕ ƢƠ  Ũłœ ƅ Ŕ Ɔ  Ʀſĥ Ŕ ĪŌœ ƈƃĭ ŏŔ ŏ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ň ł Ō œ ł łœ ŏ ň ł Ə ŒŔ ÿƠɤ ň Īœ ƈÿźƉ  :ťÿƌĬŧ  ĿŁŔƧų  ƆƎ  ƍƀ Ƈ ũ ŷƉ  Ī ƈź ĶűÿƟķĭ ŅŔ Ĭŏ Ʀ Ŕ ÿƖŅ ū œ Ʀ Ɖ  ŭſ ň ŏ Ņœł ł Ņ Ņ ł œł Ŕ Ƈ ũ ŷ ƊƆ  :ťɕƢ Ņ Ɖ Ņ  ťɕƢ  Ɖķ  Ŀűƣĭ .ĬŁŴ ň Ņ ň ł ò ƌŅIJĬô ŴòɥłƦ Ŕ ŶƋ ł łƕƈ  Ƈ ƉĭİŴ  ŏ ƙƌ Ɔơ łŔ ĭł űſ Ŵô ÿƉŴƟŏ :ķĭųɝƢ ŏ ł ĭň :ĬƦ Ɖĥ Ŕ òƍŨœ Ɓũłœ Ɛ ł Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ŏ ň ŅŅ Ņ ł ň ň ƅ Ŕ ÿŷň ŬƉ Ŕ ł ƅÿſ  Ŕ ĥ ŦĭĬ  ĭ .ťÿɕƢƉų  ÿƆƈ ũňœ ŷƉ ł Īłœ ƈź  Ŵô ƟŴƘŏ œ Ɖ  :ťƌĬŧ  ĿŁŔĥ ƎƉ .IJĬô ŴòɥłƦ Ŕ Ŷł Ɓƍłəòɳ ł Ũœ Ņ œ ł ł œ ŏ ň Ō Ņ ŏ ł ň ł ň ĴŔ ŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥ ƢŨŔ Ī ĶŴƟ :ųƆƎſ  ƢƉĥ  ĭ :İŴLJ  ťƃò Ŕ ƨƉł IJĬô ĭƞɞ ŏ ĥ :ŧ ƢŅƙŔ ƣơ ł ƇƏ  űŔƃĭ łŔ ųſ ň ň ł Ņ Ō łœ ñ ň Ņ ò ł œ ł Ņ Ņ .ŦƦſ Ŕ ƢƟ  Ī ųſ Ŕ  ų ź  ŷ Ũ ƗƇ ŨŔ Łť Ŕ ƊƆ Ņ Īłœ :ŸƃłŔƦƣ œ ĥĪňœ ĴŔ Ʀ Ŕ òƍŨœ ƎſŁœ ĿŁĭ ň ł Ņ Ō ň œ ł Ņ Ō ň Ō ňò ł ł ł ň ł Ŕ űÿſŤ Ŕ ŨŔ ťÿƃŔ ƨƉĭô űŔŶĥ  ĭ :İŴƆƢ ŏ Ŷĭ ł Ʀƣĥ œ ĭň Ŵſ ƎÿſŁœ ĿŁŔ Īŧ Ŕ űÿſŤ Ŕ Ũĭ Ŕ ĬŁŔ ƦÿôƌĥĪŧ Ŕ ŨĭĬ Ŕ űÿſŤ ŏ ň ň òŅ œ ň ÿũƆ ł Ŕ IJĬô ŴÿſƢŌƣĥĭłIJĬô ŴÿƠŏ Ƙĥ ƎÿƉƢ  œ ĭł :IJĬŴ ô ÿłƇƕťɕƢ Ņ ƉƑ Ņ ŶŅ Īœ ƈź Ɖ  :ĬƦ Ŕ ƍŨ Ņ Ō .ŦƦſ Ŕ ƢƟ  ň ň Ņ ł Ņ ň ň ƢƉ Ō ĥ :ƢũƆ łŔ ķŴƌŏĥŴô ƠƘň œ ĥ űŔƃĭ łŔ ŵſ Ŕ Ƨ :ƅ Ŕ ÿƤŅ ƙŔ ƌŻ ł Ƈ Ƙł œ :ųƆƎſ ňŔ ťÿňƍƘ œ ŁŔŁ :ĴŔ ĿŅƦÿƐ œ ũƆ Ō Ņ ň Ņ ŏ Ņ Ņ  źƆ  :ŦƦƖ Ŕ Ơł Ƙ œ ųñ ɤ Ņ ƄŏŔ Ũœ ĶŴƟŏ Ł Ŕ Ƨĭ  Ŕ ƧĪœ Żł Ƈ Ƙł œ ŁŔĥŧ ĿŴ .űŔŨĥ łŔ Ł .IJǔłƉķŴ Ņ Ƅƍ ŏŔ Ɖť ň ƌŅôĥťň ƖŨŅœ :İŴƆķĭ ŏ ųɝƢ ŏ ł ĭň Ÿɖ Ɖĥ ň Ņ ł ł Ŕ Īłœ ĴŔ ŁŴ Ɓô ÿƊłƕ Łœűœÿũƕ Ŕ ÿũŏ œ ƀŹIJĬô ŦŤÿƀŅ Ŭ Ō œ Əĭ ł :ƅÿƀ  œ ƍłəòɳ ł Ũť Ŕ ƊŶ ň Ǔł ĴŔ űŅœũŔ łƕŸƄƣ łœ ĥŦĬŅ Żſ ł Ņ łœ Ņ ŏ Ņ ŏ Ņ Ɓô ÿƍƃłŔĿĪŔŁŔ ťƊƆ  Ī :ŧ ĿŴ Ŕ Ɗ ň ƆťƌŅôĥŸƄƤ łœ Ɖ ň Ƨť  ƌĥŅ ĭň :Ɓô ƤƙŔ ƌł Ŵƀŏʖ Ņ ŤƊƆ ł  źƆ  Ŵź  Ƈ Ƙł œ Ʀ Ņ .ŁŴ Ŕ Ɖĥ ŏ ĭŦ ň ƦƤƀ œ ŨŌœ ň Ņ Ō Ņ ł Ņ Ŕ ƢŌƟŧ Ņ ƕĮ Ŕ ľƢÿƖ ł ƊƆ ň IJĬô ťÿũſ ł ĪňŔĬŦ Ņ Ʀſ Ŕ ƢƟŦ  Ĭ Ĵ ô ÿɕĿŴ ŏ IJĬŌ :ƎÿƉŅ ƦƆ ŻÿłƇƘł œ ŁŔĥ :IJĬť Ō ł ŏ Ņ ł ň Ņ Ŕ  ƕĮŦ  Ĭ :ƎƉ Ņ ƦƆ .Ɓô ƤƙŔ ƌťŶ ĥŁĭŔ IJĬô ťɕĿŴ Ņ łœ łœ ňœ ň Ņ ň ł ň Ņ Ō ŏ œ ĥň ƧŅĪœ :ťÿƌŅ Ĭť  Ũ Ʀ ŦƦÿſ Ŕ ƢƟ  ĴŴ Ŕ ÿƘĬ Ņ ÿƊŅ ū ŔŅ Ʀ Ŕ ƙňŔ Ũœ Ļ  Ŕ ĥ ƅ œ ƀòƘŤ Ŕ ũƐ  ƌŦ  Ĭ :ųƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ťƃ œ.ŁƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĪňŔ

















 





Ch. 

Chapter  XXV



Two angels came to Sodom in the evening. Now Lot was sitting at the gate of Sodom and Lot saw them and he arose to meet them. He bowed with his face to the ground.



He said, “I beseech you, my lords, turn aside to the house of your servant. Spend the night and wash your feet. Then rise early and go on your way.” They said, “No. We will spend the night in the square.”



But he urged them strongly and so they turned aside toward him and entered his house. He prepared a feast for them and baked unleavened bread for them and they ate.



But before they went to sleep, the men of the city, the men of Sodom, surrounded the house, from the youngest to the oldest, all the people to the last person.



They called to Lot and said to him, “Where are the men who came to you tonight? Bring them out to us so that we might know them.”



Lot went out to them to the gate and they closed 1 the gate behind him.



Lot said to them, “Do not act wickedly, my brothers.



See, I have two daughters who have not known a man. Let me bring them out to you. Do to them whatever is pleasing in your eyes. Only do not do anything to these men because they have come under the protection of my roof.” 2



They said, “Stand back!” They continued, “Someone has come to sojourn among us. Will he pronounce judgment on us? Now then, we will act more wickedly toward you than toward them.” Lot fought 3 fiercely with the men but they advanced to smash down the door.



The men stretched out their hands and brought Lot toward them into the house and they closed the door. 



MT: ‘he closed’. ‘roof’: lit. ‘beams’. 3 See the Introduction: Divergent Readings. 1 2



.Żſ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ł ł ň ł Ŕ Ũœ ħ  ŔƦ Ŕ ŅſİŴ  Ɔĭ ŏ :ťƤƉ Ņ ƢłŨœ ĶĭűƐ ŏŔ Ɔ ł ƎƀòƃŌŔƨƉł ƎſĿňŁœ ĭŁĥ Ŕ ĭň Ŧ ŵÿŶ Ņ ĭł :ĶĭűÿƏ ŏŔ Īť łŔ ƕĿ Ņ Ʀ ň ł ł ŏ ŏ Ɵĭ ł ŏ ƌŏĥ .ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ƈłƕIJĬô ŴòƘł œ ĥ ƈłƕ űŔŬƏ Ņ İŴƆķŴ Ŕň ĭ .ķĭų ƕĿĭƧƋ ł ŏ Ŕ :ķŴÿƃŏ Ŕ űœũŔ łƕ Ʀÿƀ ňŔ Ŵź  ƒ :IJǔłƉķŴ Ņ Ƅƍ ŏŔ Ɖť ň ƌŅôĥťň ƖŨŅœ :ƢƉĥ Ŵô ÿŬƀ Ō ĭłĭô ŁŴ Ŕ ÿŨĭ Ŕ ũƆ ł ĭň Ŕ ƣĥ ŏ Ņ ň ŏ Ŕ ƟŴ ŏœ ł Ƈ ū Ŕ Ǔ .ŁŴ Ŕ ũƌť Ņ Ƥŏ Ũœ :Ƨ :ĭôƢƉĥ ł ĭň .ķŴƄŏŔ ŶĿĭƧŴô ƆňĮĭŴô ƉűňœƟĭ ł :ķŴƄƀ ň Ņ Ņ ň ł ł ł ň ł Ŕ ĭł :ĬƦƀ :ťÿɕŅ ƦƤ œ Ɖķĭ ł ųÿɝ ŏ űŔÿũƕ  Ŵź  ƒĭł :Ū  Ŕ ŹķŴ  ƌŏĥƞ  Ɔĥ  ĭ œ ũł Ŕ ƆŴô ƇłƕĭĬ  ŁŔ Ŵɝ ň Ņ Ō ł Ņ ň ŏ ł Ŕ .Ŵô ƐƖɝ  ĭķĭ  ųɝ  ťƘŔ ĥŧ  Ƣƀ ź  Ƙĭ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ Ō òł Ņ ƎÿƉň :ŦƦÿƀ œ ũłŔ ƆIJĬô Ŵƃŏœ ƢƃłœŁŔĥĶĭűƏ ŏŔ ƁƤò ł ƌŅôĥŦƦſ Ŕ ƢƟ  ƁƤƌôĥĭ :ŴôƄŔ Ɖ ň Ī Ŕ Ƨƈƀ  ƃŌœ űƕ łŔ ĭł ň ŏ ňò Ņ .ųƄňŔ ƏƎ Ņ Ɖť ň Ɗ Ņ łƕų  Ƈ ƃĭ Ŕ :ťũŔ ƐƆ  ťƉ Ņ űƕ łŔ ĭł ťƊ ň ƀòˁ ł ƕ ł ň ň ł ŏň Ņœ ł ň ł Ņ Ō œ Ņ Ņ ŏ ơÿƘň œ ĥ :ťÿƀˁ Ƈ Ũ ĴŔ ŁŔ Ŵɝ  ĭŁĥ Ŕ Īŧ Ŕ ǔũŔ ūœ ķŴƌĥť  Ƅſ  ĥ :ųƆ   ĭô ƢƉĥ ł ĭİŴ ň LJ  ĭƢƟ ł ĭł ň ň .ķŴƌŏĥĺ  űłœɥňĭ ƎƆ ł ķŴƌŏĥ ň Ņ ł Ņ ł .ĬĿňƦ Ŕ ŨŅœ ĭô űŔŶł ĥť Ŕ ķĭĬŏ ŁŔŴɝİŴ Ņ ŏ ƙƌ Ɔơ łŔ ĭł  ƕĿ  Łĭ Ŕ :ťƕĿ  ƦƆ ł ŏ ň ł Ņ Ŕ Ƨ :İŴƆ ŏ ķĭųɝƢ ŏ ł ĭň Ɖĥ .Ɓʖò ł ĥķŴ  ƣŤ  ŨŔ ĥŁ ň ł Ō Ō Ņ ň Ņ ŏ Ŕ ÿƀň ƌĥň ơÿƘň œ ĥł :ƢũłŔ ū ň Ŕ ĭł :ķŴÿƄƆƎ  œ Ǝƀň ƌĥĺ  űłŔɖŌ ƧĪœ ƎƍŅŨòœ ƎſŁœ ĿŁŔ ƁƆ  Ʀſ Ŕ ĥŦ  Ĭ ĭô űŔ ÿũƕ ň ł Ņ ň Ō ň ŏ ŏ Ũłœ :ķŴÿƄƀœ ƍłəòɳ Ŕ ƧƎÿƀ  Ɔ  Ĭŧ Ņ ǔÿũŔ ŬƆ Ŕ ł ĪŴ Ŕ ÿŷɤ łœ ĥ Ǝſųɝ ň ķĭűŏŔÿũƕœ Ł ł Ũœ Ƣÿƀƙœ ƣł ĪŔ ťƍŅƄſ Ņ ŏ ň .IJô Ʀ Ŕ ŅſǔƟŅ Ī Ŕ ƨˁ  Ņ źƆ  Ŵô ƇłƕĪœ ƈź Ɖ ň :Ķűň œ Ɖ ň Ņ ł œ ň Ņň ł ł ĥňĪŦ Ņ Ŕ Ĭĭ ƎÿƆķ Ņ :ƎƊ ł łƕ ŴŨŏ Ŕ Łĭ œ Łœ Ʀ Ɗ  ƆŦŁŔ ĥ űŔŶ :ĭôƢƉĥ ł ĭň .ĵųɝľĭ ł ƢŏƘ œ :ĭôƢƉĥ ł ĭň Ņ ł ŏ ǔňÿũŔ ūł œ ƋÿłƕŀƦ :Ū  Ŕ ÿŹİŴÿƆŧ œ ÿƃł œ Łĥ Ŕ ĭň .ķĭųɝ ŏ Īłœ ƎƉ ň ƅ Ŕ ƆŀŤ Ņ ũł Ŕ ňƌť  ƣŅ ĬŅ .ťňƍɗò ĪŌœ ł .ťƕĿ Ņ Łœ ƢŨłœ Ʀ Ŕ Ɗ ň ƆŴô ŨŔ ƢƟ ň ĭł Ō ň Ņ ł Ņœ ł ŏ .ĭôűŔŶł ĥť  ƕĿ  Łĭ Ŕ :ŦƦƀ  ũŔ Ɔ ķĭĬŏ ŁŔŴɝ Ņ İŴLJ  Ŵô Ƈň ƕĥ  ĭł :ķĭųſ ŏ űłŔɖòĥŧ  ǔňũŔ ū ł œ Ŵô źƣĭĥ ň ĭł



ųƃįĽ ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



į



İ



IJ 

Ch. 



If there are fifty righteous in the city, with a singular act of wrath you will destroy and not pardon the place on account of the fifty righteous that are in it.



Far be it from you to do this thing; you would kill the innocent with the guilty. Then the innocent would be just like the guilty. Far be it from you, O Judge 1 of all the earth. Let this verdict not be executed.”



The Lord said, “If I find in Sodom fifty righteous in the city, I will pardon the entire place on their account.”



Abraham answered and said, “Now I have undertaken to speak before the Lord — I who am dust and ash.



If five are lacking from the fifty righteous, will you destroy the entire city on account of the five?” He said, “I will not destroy [it] if I find there forty-five.”



Yet again Abraham spoke to him, “If forty are found there?” He said, “I will not destroy [it] if I find forty there.”



He said, “May it not displease 2 the Lord but I will speak. If thirty are found there?” He said, “I will not destroy [it] if I find there thirty.”



He said, “Now I have undertaken to speak before the Lord. If twenty are found there?” He said, “I will not destroy [it] on account of the twenty.”



He said, “May the Lord not be displeased, but I will speak only this once. If ten are found there?” He said, “I will not destroy [it] on account of the ten.”



The Lord departed after he finished speaking with Abraham and Abraham returned to his place.

1 The Peshiṭta translator has read the Hebrew interrogative ! as the marker for the definite article. 2 MT: ‘become angry’.



ň Ņ œ ł ňœ ł ł Ņ ŏ œ Ņ Ō Ņ Ƨĭ  :Ʀ  ô ƌĥ űŔŨŴ  Ɖ  űŔŶŦ  ŵūĭ Ŕ ƢŨ :ŦƦſ Ŕ ƢƟ  ŴŬ Ŕ ł Ũœ ƎƀƠŌ ò ſĪŌœĮƎƀ ł ƤƊ Ō Ŷł Ʀſ Ŕ Ō ĥķ  ĥ űƃ ơÿũň Ŕ ƣ ŏ ň Ņ ł œ ł .Ĭñ ŴŅŬ Ŕ ł ŨŔ Īłœ ƎƀƠŌ ò ſĪŌœĮƎƀ ł ƤƊ Ō Ŷƈ ł Ɖ ź  :ŧ ĿŁŔƧ Ʀ  ô ƌĥ ň ŏ ň Ņ ŶŅ ųƃ Ņ Ɗ Ņ ū ŔŅ Ʀ Ŕ Ƙň œ űŔũƕ ňœ ŁŔ Īœ ƅ Ŕ ƆƑ ťÿƀŅ ƃŅ œ ĮłŦĭų ň ňƌĭ  :ťũŅ Ŕ ƀŅʖ ł Ƌłƕť  ƀŅƃŅœ ĮłĵŴźƟ  ŁŔ Īœ :ťƌŅĬť ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ŏ Ņ Ņ łœ Ņ ňŔ Ʀ Ŕ ňƌ  Ƨ :ťƕĿ  ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƃŔ Īť Ŕ ƍɗ Ī ƅ Ŕ ƆƑ .ťƌŅĬť Ņ ƍſŅ ĪŌœ űŔũƕ  ŶŅ .ťũŅ Ŕ ƀŅʖ ł ƅſ Ŕ ĥ ň ň Ņ Ō ŏ œ ĥň :ŦƦÿſ ľŴÿũƣ Ŕ ƢƟ  ŴÿŬŔ ł Ũœ ƎƀƠŌ ò ſĪŌœĮƎƀ ł ƤƊ Ō ŶĶĭ ł űƐ ŏŔ Ũłœ ŸƄƣ łœ ĥķĥ :ťɕŅƢƉƢ Ņ Ɖĥ ł ĭň Ŵƃ Ņ ŏ ň Ņ ł ň ŏ  Ƈ ƄƆ Ŕ .ķĭĬŏ Ʀ Ŕ Ƈ ź Ɖ  ŧ ĿŁŔĥų ł Ņ ł Ņ ƉĶ Ņ Ŕ ŴÿŏƇŅ Ƈ ƊƊ ťÿƌŅ ôĥŧ ƢŅÿƙŔ łƕť  ÿƌĥŅ ĭň :ťÿɕƢ Ņ űÿƟ ł Ɔ ł Ʀſ Ŕ ƢŌƣŦ ł ĬŅ :ƢƉĥ ł ĭĶ ň ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥť  ƍƕ  ĭ ŵƃ .ťƊź Ņ Ɵĭ ň ŏ ň œ ł Ņ Ŷƈ Ņ ŶƎÿƀ ťÿƤƊ ł ÿźƉ  Ʀÿ  ô ƌĥ ƈÿũň œ ŷƉ ł :ťÿƤƊ ł ƠŌ ò ſĪŌœĮƎƀ ł ƤƊ Ō ŶƎ ł ƉƎſ ň Ƣƀ Ō Ɛ Ō Ŷķĥ ł ĭň Ÿƃ ň ň ň ł Ņ łœ łœ Ņ ł ň Ņ Ō ŌƖŨœ ĿĥƎ  ĥķĥ ƈũňœ Ŷł ĥ  ĭ :ŦƦſ Ŕ ƢƟ  ųñ ɤ Ņ ƃŏŔ .ťƤƊ Ņ ŶĭƎƀ ł  Ɖ  Ł ŸƄƣ  ƧƢ  Ɖĥ ł Ņ łœ Ō łœ ň ň ň ł Ō ł ŏœ ň ł ł ĭň :ƎƀŌƖŨœ ĿĥƎ ƢÿƉĥ  Ɖ  Ł Ǝƀʛ  ƃŔƦƤ  Ɖ  ķĥĭ :ųƆƢ  ƉŤ  ƊƆĶ  ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥ ħĭ  Ŕ Ł ƚ  Ŕ Əĭĥ  ĭ Żƃ łœ Ņ ł œ ł œ ň ň ň œ ł ň Ņ Ō  Ƨ  ĥķĥ ƈũ Ŷ ĥ .ƎƀƖŨ ĿĥƎ  Ɖ  Ł ŸƄƣ Ņ ł ň Ō Ņ œ Ņ łœ Ō łœ ň ň ň ł ň Ņ Ņ ł ĭň :ƎſƦ Ŕ Ɔ  Ł ƎƉ  Ł Ǝƀʛ  ƃŔƦƤ  Ɖ  ķĥĭ :ƈƇ Ɖĥ  ĭť  ɕƢ  ƊƆ  ŀŤŨňœ Ʀ Ŕ ňƌ  ƧƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ĵ ƢÿƉĥ Ō Ņ œ Ņ łœ łœ ň ň ňœł ň Ņ  Ƨ  ĥ ķĥ ƈũ Ŷ ĥ Ŕ Ɔ  Ł ƎƉ  Ł ŸƄƣ .ƎſƦ ł ł ň ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ŏ Ņ ł ł ƎÿſƢƐ Ō ň ƕƎ  ÿƉŅ Łœ Ǝÿƀʛ Ō ƃŔƦƤ œ Ɖ  ķĥĭ :ťÿɕƢƉĶ  űƟ Ŕ ŴƇ Ƈ ƊƊ  Ɔ  Ʀſ Ŕ ƢŌƣŦ ł ĬƢ Ņ Ɖĥ ł ĭň Ƨ ň Ņ ł ň ŏ ň ũňœ Ŷł ĥ .ƎſƢƐ Ō ň ƕƈ  ź  Ɖƈ  ƧƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ņ ł ň ł ň ň ň Ņ Ņœ ł ŏ łœ ň ł ň Ņ Ņ Ǝÿƀʛ Ō ƃŔƦƤ œ Ɖ  ķĥĭ .ŧ ĪŔĬŦ  Ʀ  ôƍŨĮ Ŕ ĪŴ Ŕ ŷɤ  Ũ .ƈƇ Ɖĥ  ĭť  ɕƢ Ɗ  Ɔ ŀŤŨň œ Ʀ Ŕ ňƌ  Ƨ :ƢƉĥ  ĭ ŪƆ ň ł Ņ ŏ ň ň ň Ņ.ŧ ƢƐ Ņ  ƕƈ  ź  Ɖƈ  ũňœ Ŷł ĥ  ƧƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň .ŧ ƢƐ  ƕƎ  Ɖ Ņ Łœ ł ł ł ŏ Ņ ł ł ň ł ł Ņ Ņ .ĬĿňŁŔƧ ƅ Ŕ ƘĬ Ŕ ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨĥ Ŕ ĭł :ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥƋ  łƕ ŴƇ Ƈ ƊƊ  ƆƋ  Ƈ ƣ űŔƃť Ŕ ɕƢ  Ɖĵ  Įĥł ĭň ŭƆ























Ch. 



Sarah laughed in her heart and said, “After I am worn out, will I have youthful vigour? 1 My husband is old.”



The Lord said to Abraham, “Why did Sarah laugh — she said, ‘Can I, who am old, really bear a child?’



This matter from the Lord is extraordinary. 2 At this time I will return to you while she is living and Sarah, your wife, will have a son.”



But Sarah denied it and said, “I did not laugh,” because she was afraid. But he said, “No. You, nevertheless, did laugh.”



The men got up from there and looked toward Sodom. Abraham went with them to accompany them.



The Lord said, “I am concealing from my servant Abraham what I am about to do. 3



Abraham will surely become a great and numerous nation. All the nations of the earth will be blessed in him.



For I know that he will command his sons and the descendants of his house after him to observe the ways of the Lord and to act righteously and justly so that the Lord may bring upon Abraham that which he said concerning him.”



The Lord said, “The cry of Sodom and Gomorrah has reached me. 4 Their sins are very grievous.



I will go down and see whether they have done as thoroughly5 as the cry that has reached me. If not, then I will know.”



The men turned from there and went to Sodom. Meanwhile Abraham remained standing before the Lord.



Abraham drew near and said, “With a singular act of wrath 6 you will destroy the righteous with the sinners. 7 



See the Introduction: Divergent Readings. The Peshiṭta does not express the question in the Hebrew explicitly. 3 The Peshiṭta does not express the question in the Hebrew explicitly. 4 MT: ‘is great’. 5 ‘they have done as thoroughly’: lit. ‘they have acted and completed’. 6 MT ‘also’. See the Introduction: Reinterpretations or Misinterpretations. 7 The Peshiṭta does not express the question in the Hebrew explicitly. 1 2



Ņ ŏ ł ł Ō Ō ÿɕĭ Ņ ĬŅ Ʀÿƀ :ŦŁŴ Ŕ ÿƊƀ  ƁÿƆť Ƈƕ Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎƉ ŒŔ Ƅŷ łœ ū ňŔ ĭ Ūſ ň :ŒŁŔ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň ųñ ũŅœ ɢň Ũŧ Ŕ ƢŅƏ ł Ʀ Ŕ Ƈ ŨŔ Īłœ ĿƦ Ņ .ħŤ Ŕ Ə ň IJô ƢƉĭ Ō Ō Ņ Ō ł Œ ł ň Ņ ł Œ łœ ň Ņ Ņ ň ł Ņ Ņ ł ň Ŕ ÿƄŷūť Ŕ ƍƊƆ  :ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ Ƨť  ɕƢ  ƉƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ŭſ ťÿƌŅ ĥ űŔÿƆł ĥ Ʀÿſ Ŕ ĥƢſ  Ƣƣ :ŁŔ ƢÿƉĥ  ĭŧ  ƢÿƏ Ʀ .Ʀ Ŕ ŨŤ ňœ Ə ň ĪŔ Ņ Ņ Ņ ŏ œ ĥňťÿƌŅ ĬŅ ťÿƍŅ Ũ ŵɟ :ťÿƀŅ ʖ ł IJĬŌ űŔÿƃł œ ĴŔ ŁŔ Ŵÿɝ  ĴŴ Ŕ ÿƘĬ Ņ ƉŦ ň ŁŴ Ŕ ŨĽŏ Ŕ IJĬô ťŨŅœ Ŀł űſ Ŕ ł Īłœ :ťÿɕŅ Ņ ƢƉƎ ł ł Ņ ň ň  .ĴŔ ŁŔ Ʀ œ ô ƌĥŧ ƢŅƐƆŧ  ƢŨŦ Ŕ ĭų  ƌĭ Ņ ł ň Ņ ł Œ ł ň Ņ ł ň Œ ł ň œ ŏ ň ň œ ū Ŕ ÿÿƇŶĪŔĪ ƈÿÿźƉ  :Ʀ Ŕ ÿÿƄŷ ňŔ Ƨ Œ ŁŔ ƢÿÿƉĥ  ĭŧ  ƢÿÿƏ ŁŔ ƢÿÿƙŔ ƃĭ Ŕ ųſ ĶƢłÿÿŨœ :ƧƢ  ÿÿƉĥ ĭ :Ʀ œ .IJô Ʀ œ ƄŔ ŷň ū ł ł Ņ ň ł Ņ łœ ň ň ŦŴňɤƌ ł Īłœ ķĭųƊ  ǔũŔ ū  œ ƎƉ  Ł ƎƉ  Ŵô ƊƟĭ Ņ Ŵſ ŏ łƕĵ  ĮłĥĶ  ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥĭł :ĶĭűƏ ŏŔ ƁƘò œ Ƨĭô ƢŶĭŧ ň .ķŴƌŏĥ ň Ņ Ņ ł ň ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥIJô űœũŔ łƕƎ  Ɖť ň ƌŅôĥťƐ ň ƄƉ łŔ :ƢƉ ł ĥť  ɕƢ  Ɖĭ  ŵſ .ťƌŅôĥ űŔũňŔ ƕŅĪœ ĶűňœƉĶ ŏ Ŕ Ũłœ Ʀ ķĭųÿɤ ŏ ƃŏœ ųÿŨň œ ķŴÿƃƢ Ŕ ňƌĭ :ŦŤÿƀŅ Ŭ Ō œ Əĭť ł ÿŨŅ œ ĿłťÿƊŅ łƖɝŦ  ĭų ň ÿňƌŦĭų Ņ ƉĶ ň ĬŅ ƢŅŨĥ Ŕ ĭł Ÿɖ .ťƕĿĥ Ņ ĪłŔ ťƊň Ɗòô łƕ ŏ ň ň ň Ʀÿƀ :ĬĿňƦ Ŕ ÿŨŅ œ ƎÿƉĬ œ Ũłœ Ɓÿƍł ũò Ŕ Ɔł ĭIJĬô Ŵò ɩłũŔ Ɔ ł űŔƠň ƙƉ łŔ Īłœ :ųƆ ň ťƌŅôĥĺűłŔɖŅĪœ ƈź Ɖ  Żſ ŏ ň Ņ Ō Ņ ŏ Ō œł ł œ ň ňœ ł œ ň Ņ ŏ ŏ ň œ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ œ ťÿɕƢƉŦ  Ʀÿƀ  ƌĪ ƈÿźƉť  ÿƍſĪĭŦ Ŕ ŁŴ Ŕ ÿƠſĪĮ űŔÿũƖƊ  Ɔ :ťɕƢ Ɖ  Ī ĬƦ Ŕ Ŷ Ǔĭĥķĭ  Ƣź  ƌĪ ł ł Ņ .IJĬŴ ô Ƈƕ  ƢƉĥ ł Īňœ ĶűňœƉĶ ň ĬŅ ƢŨŔ ĥ ƈłƕ Ņ Ņ Ņ œ Ņ Ņ ł ň łŔ Ʀ Ŕ ƖŅū  :ťɕƢ  ƉƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ĵ ŒŔ ÿłƇň ƕŧ  ĿŴ Ņ ÿƊŏ ƕŅĪŔĭĶĭ ł űƏ ŏŔ ĪŦ  Ŕ ÿŹķĭųŏ ÿòſųł ź Ū  Ŷĭł :ƁÿƉł űƟ ŅŔ Ʀ .ŴôƍƤƕ ň ň Ņ Ņ œ ł ň ň ň ŏň Ō ł .ĺĪłœĥ :Ƨķĥĭň .ŴƀƇƊ ŒŔ ł Ƈ ň ƕĪŦ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ ƖŅū  ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ķĥ :Ŧ ŵŶ  ĥ ŁŴ Ŕ Ŷ ĥ ťƃ  ƣĭ  ĭô űŔũƕ łŔ IJô ŁŔŴɝ Ņ Ʀ ň Ņ ł ň Ō œ ň ŦĭŅĬĶ ô ŤÿƟƈÿƀ ƃŌœ űƕ łŔ ĶĬŅ ƢŅÿŨĥŔ ĭł :ĶĭűƐ ŏŔ Ɔ ł Ŵô ƆĮĥł ĭŧ ň ǔňũŔ ū ł œ ƎƉ Ņ Łœ ƎƉ  Ŵô ƀƍƘ Łĥ Ŕ ĭ Ūƃ Ņ Ņ.ťɕƢ ŅŔ Ɖ  ĶűƟ ň Ņ ł ł ň ò Ō œł œ ł ň œ ł Ņ ŏ ł œ ł ň Ņ Ņ ł ň ł .ťƀò ź  ŶƋ  ƕť  Ơ ſĪĮ Ʀ  ô ƌĥ űŔŨŴ  ƉŦ  ŵūĭ Ŕ Ŀ űŔŷ Ũ :ƢƉĥ  ĭ ĶĬ ƢŨŔ ĥ ħ  Ŕ ƢƟ  ĭ ŭƃ













 





 



Ch. 

Chapter  XXIV



The Lord appeared to him at the oak of Mamre while he was sitting at the entrance to the tent as the day grew warm.



He raised his eyes and saw three men standing near him. He saw them and ran from the entrance of his tent to meet them and bowed down to the ground.



He said, “My lord, if I have found favor in your eyes, do not pass by your servant.



I will bring 1 some water; wash your feet, recline under the tree



and take 2 a bit of bread and refresh yourselves. 3 Afterwards you can go on your way, for you come to your servant.” So they answered, “Do just as you have said.”



So Abraham made haste. He ran to the tent to Sarah and said, “Quickly, knead three seahs of fine flour and make a cake.”



Then Abraham ran to the herd and he took a calf, fattened 4 and good. He gave it to the servant-boy who quickly prepared it.



He took the butter, milk and the calf that he had prepared and he set them before them. He was standing beside them under the tree and they ate.



They said to him, “Where is Sarah, your wife?” He answered, “There, in the tent.”



He said to him, “Undoubtedly I will return to you at this time while she is living and Sarah, your wife, will have a son.” Sarah was listening at the entrance to the tent. He was behind her.



Abraham and Sarah were old, advanced in years and the manner of women had ceased to be with Sarah. 



MT: ‘Let it be brought’. MT: ‘I will take’. 3 ‘refresh yourselves’: lit. ‘sustain your heart’. 4 MT: ‘tender’. 1 2



.Ÿɖ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

Ņ ŏ ň ł Ō œ ň Ņ Ʀ ň Ŕ ÿ ɕƢ Ņ Ɖ Ŕ Ũœ ħ  ŔƦ Ŕ ÿ Ņſ ĭĬĭ ŏ :ŧ Ƣÿ ň ÿƊƉ ł Īť Ŕ ÿ ŹŴƇ Ũłœ Ʀÿ Ņ IJĬô Ŵÿł Ƈƕ Ɓÿ Ƈū  Łĥ Ŕ ĭ ťÿ ƕĿ Ŕ ÿƀŨť ł Ņ Ņ œ ł ł Ŕ ƍƄƤ  Ɖ ł ĪŔ .ťƉŴ  ſ ƋŶ űŔƃť ň Ņ ł ň ň Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ķŴƌŏĥŦ  ŵŶ  ĭ :ųƍƉƈ  ň ƖɝƎƀ  Ɗƀ Ō ƟƎſ Ņ ǔŌũŔ ūŦ Ŕł Ʀ Ŕ Ɔ  ŁŦ Ŕ Ĭĭ  :Ŧ ŵŶ  ĭIJĬô ŴƍłəòɯƋſ ł ĿĥŌ ĭł ŏ ň ł ł ň ł ł Ņ œ Ɖ .ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ƈłƕ űŔŬƏ ŏ ĿĭƧ İĬĿ ųƕ  ĭ ł Īť Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ Łœ ƎƉķĭ Ŕň ĭ .ťƍƄƤ ň ň ň Ņ  œ ƍłəòɳ ł Ũť Ŕ ƊŶ ň Ǔł Ʀ Ŕ ŷň Ƅƣ œ ĥķ  ĥ :IJô ƢƉ Ņ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň .ĴŔ űŅœũŔ łƕƎƉƢ ň ũƕ łœ ŁŔ Ƨ :ƅƀ Ō ł Ņ ł Ō ł łň ň  Ƈ Ɵ Ū  ŔƏ  ĥ .ťƍŅˁſ  Ņ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ ʖ ň ŁœŴô Ƅœ Ɖ ř ƦƏĥ œ ĭň :ķŴƄƀ ŏœ ł Ƈ ū Ŕ ǓŴô Ŭƀ Ŕ ƣĥ Ō ĭť ł ƀò Ɖƈƀ ň ňœ ł Ņ Ņ œňœ ł ŏ ň Ŕ ŨĭŔ :ķŴÿƄŏ Ŕ ũœ Ɔ ň  Ŵô ÿƃŴŔ ƊƏ ŏ ĭť ł Ɗŷ Ņ Ɔ ł ĪŦ Ŕ ŁŔ Ʀ  Ƙ  Ŵô ũŔ Əĭ  ƈÿźƉ  :ķĭƢŏÿũƕœ Łœ ƎÿƃĿ Ʀ ŏ ň ł œ œ.ŁƢ ŏ ł Ŕ ťƍŅƃłŔĬŅ Īœ Ŕ ƍŅƃłŔĬŅ ĭô ƢƉĥ ł ĭň .ķŴƃŔ űœũŔ łƕ ƈłƕķĭ  ŁƢũƕ  Ɖĥ ł Īňœ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ űŔũƕ ňœ Łť ł ł łœ ň ł ň Ņ ł ŁŔŴɝť ł Ŕ ÿƆŅ Łœ ƈÿŬƖ Ʀ Ņ ƍŅƄƤ œ ƊƆİ ł ň ĭł :ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥ ħ ĬĿ  Ŕ ĬĿ  ƦƏĥ  ĭ Ŕ ł Ũœ :ƢÿƉĥĭ :ŧ ƢƏ ł Ņ Ņ ŏ Ņ ƟƎ ňŔ ĭłƁô ƣŴƆ  :ťƙƀ Ŕ Ƥƌ Ō ťŷƊ ł ò ſŤƏ Ō .ťƙƕ Ŕ ĿIJô űŔũƕ Ņ Ņ ň ł ň Ņ ł ł ł  Ŕ ŹĭƎƀ  Ɗ Ō ƣł Īœ űŔŶ ł ƨŬ Ŕ ƕ Ū  Ŕ Ɛƌ ł ĭł :ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥİ  ĬĿŧ  ƢƠ  ũƆ ťƀˁ Ņ źƆų  ŨňŔ ųô łſĭ :Ū Ŕ ĭ  Ŕ ĬƢ ň Əĭ ł .IJĬŴſ ô űŌŔũƖ œ ňƌĪœ ħ Ņ ň Ņ Ņ Ŕ ŶĭŦ Ņ :űŔÿũƕ ł Ŕ Ī łŔ ƨ ÿŬŔ ň ƕĭť  ũɤ ł ŁĭŤ Ŕ Ŷň Ū  Ŕ Ɛƌ ł ĭł ŦĭŅĬĶ ô ŤÿƟŅ ĭĬĭ ŏ :ķĭųÿƀ ŏ Ɖ ł űƟƋ ŅŔ ÿƏĭ Ō ň Ɩɝ .Ŵô Ƈƃĥ łŔ ĭň :ťƍŅˁſ  Ņ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ ʖ ň Łœ ķĭųƍ ŏ Ɖƈ ň  Ņ œ ł Ņ ł ł ň .ťƍŅƄƤ œ Ɗ ł ŨŦ Ŕ ĬƢ Ņ Ɖĥ ł ĭň :ĴŔ ŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥŧ ƢƏ  IJĬô ťƄſ Ņœ ĥ :ųƆ  ĭô ƢƉĥ ł ĭň ň łœ ň ň ł ň Ņ Ņ ł Ŕ ƌŅĬť  Ɖ  ųƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ŧ ƢŅÿŨŦ ň ÿňƌĭ :ťÿƀŅ ʖ ł IJĬŌ űŔƃť Ņ ƍŅŨŔ ŵɟ ł ĴŔ ŁŔ Ŵɝ  ĴŴ Ŕ ƘĬ ŏ œ ĥ ƅ Ŕ Ƙų Ŕ ĭų Ņ œ ł Ņ ł ł Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ŏ ň œ Ņ ł Œ ł ň œ œ  Ŕ Ũ Ʀ Ŕ ƖƊ  ƣŧ  ƢƏĭ  .ĴŔ ŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥ ŧ ƢƐƆ  :ťƍƄƤ  Ɖ  Īť Ŕ ƕĿ Ʀ .Ĭñ ĿƦƐ  ŨŔ ĭĬĭ ň Īłœ ƎÿƉƢ ň ÿũƕ ł Ŕ .ťƀò Ņ ɫƤ ł ĭų Ņ ŏ ĥŧ ťÿŶĿĭ  ƢŅÿƐƆŦ Ņ ÿƊƆ ł Ũłœ Ŵô Ƈłƕĭ  Ŵô ŨŤ Ŕ Əŧ ň ƢŅƏĭĶ ł ĬŅ ƢŅŨĥ Ŕ ĭł ň .ťƤò ňƌĪŔ



űƃįĽ ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



į



İ



IJ  ťſ 

Ch. 



Abraham was ninety-nine years old when he circumcised the flesh of his foreskin.



Ishmael his son was thirteen years old when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin.



On that very day Abraham circumcised Ishmael his son. 1



All the men of his house, those born in his house and those bought with his money, and even the foreigners, 2 were circumcised with him.

MT: ‘Abraham and his son were circumcised’. The Peshiṭta ensures that the reader knows that Abraham circumcised Ishmael. 2 The Peshiṭta indicates that all foreigners were circumcised whereas the Hebrew reads, ‘those purchased from foreigners’. 1



ň ŏ ŏ Ņ ňœ ł ň  ƕĪŧ Ŕ ƢƐ  Ũ Ŀŵū  œ űŔƃłœ ƎƀòɫŌ ƣƗƣł ŁŔĭŦ ł ĭŅĬô ƎƀŌƖƣ  Łœ ƢŨłœ ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨĥ .ĬŁŴŔ ƆĿŴ Ŕ ĭł ň ŏ ŏ Ņ ňœ ł ł Ņ œ łœ ň œ Ŕ Ɔ  Ł ƢŨ ĬƢŨ ƈƀň ƖƊƤſĥ  ƕĪŧ Ŕ ƢƐ  Ũ Ŀŵū  œ űŔƃłœ ƎƀòɫŌ ƣŦĭŅĬŧ ô ǔňƐň ƕƦ Ņ ĭŌ .ĬŁŴŔ ƆĿŴ Ō ł .ĬƢňŨœ ƈƀň ƖƊƤſ Ņ ƧĶ  ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥĿ  ŵłūť Ŕ ƌŅĬť Ņ ƉŴ Ņ ƀłŨœ ųŨňœ ň ň ł ň œ ƃňœ Ɓÿƍł əòŨĮ  Ŕ ĭŅ :ųÿƙƐ ŌŔ ĭĬ ł Ʀÿƀ ƁÿòƍŨœ Ļĥ œ Ũłœ IJűłŔÿəò ˁ  Ō Ōſ :ĬƦƀ œ Ũłœ ƁƤò ł ƌŅôĥķĭųɤ ŏ ƄƆ ŏŔ ĭł . ųƊ ň łƕ Ŀŵłūť Ŕ ňɕǔŅƃŴ Ŕ ƌŏ



űƃ  ųƃ  Ŵƃ  ŵƃ 

Ch. 



An eight day old son, every male throughout your generations, will be circumcised by you, the one born in the house or the one acquired with money from any foreigner who is not from your descendants.



The one born in your house or the one acquired with your money will surely be circumcised. My covenant shall be in your flesh as an everlasting covenant.



The uncircumcised male who does not circumcise the flesh of his foreskin, that person shall perish 1 from his people; he has voided my covenant.”



God said to Abraham, “As for your wife Sarai, you will not call her Sarai, rather her name shall be Sarah.



I will bless her and moreover I will give you a son by her. I will bless him 2 and he 3 will give rise to nations. Kings of the peoples shall come from him. 4



Abraham fell prostrate and laughed and said in his heart, “Can a son be born to a hundred year old man or can Sarah at ninety years old give birth?”



Abraham said to God, “O that Ishmael might live in your presence.”



Then God said to Abraham, “Truly Sarah your wife will bear you a son and you will call him Isaac. I will establish my covenant with him as an everlasting covenant for his descendants after him.



I have heard you concerning Ishmael. See, I will bless him, make him numerous and very fruitful. He shall father twelve princes and I will make him into a great people.



But my covenant I will establish with Isaac whom Sarah will bear to you at this time next year.”



When God finished speaking with him, he went up from Abraham.



Then Abraham took Ishmael his son and all those born in his house and those bought with his money, every male among the men in Abraham’s house, and he circumcised the flesh of their foreskin on that very day just as God had spoken to him. MT: ‘will be cut off’. MT: ‘her’. 3 MT: ‘she’. 4 MT: ‘from her’. 1 2



Ņ Ō ŏ œ Ǔłűɝ ŏ Ŕ ƉĿĭ :ŦƦÿƀ œ Ũłœ űÿƀ ŅŔ ŧ ƢŅÿƃŔ Īňœ ƈÿƃŏ œ ķŴƄƍ ň ŵŏŬ Ŕ ňƌƎƀ  Ɖ Ō Ŵò ɖť ł ƀƍŅ Ɖ Ņ Łœ ƢŨł Ŕ ĭ Ūſ Ŕ Ƈ Ōſ :ķŴÿƄſ Ņ ň Ņ ŏ łœ ŏœ ň Ņœ ňœ Ō ł .ƅ Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ ĮƎ ł ƉŦ ň ĭŅĬ ô ƧĪť Ŕ ɕǔƃŴ Ŕ ƌƢ  Ũ ƈƃ ƎƉ  :ťƙƐ  ƃ ƎƀŨĮ Ŕ ĭ Ņ Ō Ņ œ ƃňœ ƎÿƀŨĮŌ Ŕ ĭł ĴŔ Ʀÿƀ Ņ ĭų ň ÿňƌĭ .ƅ Ŕ ÿƙƐ œ Ũłœ űÿƀ ķŴÿƃŏ Ŕ ƢƐũň Ŕ Ũœ Ɓô ÿƊƀƟŦ Ŕ Ƈ ŌſĿĭ  ŵŏŬ Ŕ ňƌĿ  ŵłŬ Ŕ Ɖ ň ŭſ łŔ Ɗ .Ƌł Ƈ Ɩɝ Ņ Īť Ņ ƀƠ Ņ Ɔ ł Ō ň ŏ ŏ Ņ ňœ ŏ ň Ņ Ņ ň Ņ ŏ Ŕ ÿƆĿŴƕĪŧ Ŕ ƢÿƐ  Ũ ĿĭŵŬ Ŕ ƌ  ƧĪŧ Ŕ ƢƃŔĪ Ŕ ƧĿŴ  ƕĭ  űſ :ųñ ÿƊŅ łƕƎ  ÿƉň IJĬť Ņ ÿƤŅ ƙŔ ƌł űŔÿŨĥł Ŕ Łœ :ĬŁŴ ł ŒŔ Ƈź  Ũłœ Ɓô ƊƀƟ Ņ .Ʀ ň Ņ Ņ œ ł ł ł ł Ņł ł ň ŏ ň ł ł Ņ ƢƟ Ŕ Ƨ ĴŔ ŁŔ Ʀôƌĥ IJƢƏ  :ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ƧŦ  ųŅ Ɔ  ĥƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ųſ ŧ ƢŅÿƏł Īœ ƈÿźƉ  :IJƢÿƏ ųñ ÿƊƣŧ ň Ł Ņ .ųñ Ɗƣ ň œň Ņ Ņ :ťÿÿƊň Ɗòô łƖɝŦĭų ň ÿ ňƌĭIJĬô ŴÿÿƀƃŌŔƢŨĥ łœ ĭň :ŧ ƢŅÿ Ũœ ųñ ÿ ƍŅ Ɖ ň ƅ Ŕ ÿ Ɔĵ Łĥ Ļĥ  Ŕ ĭ ųÿ ñ ÿƀƃŌŔƢŨĥ łœ ĭň Ŵſ .ķĭĭų ŏ ňƌ ųňƍƉ ň ťƊň Ɗòô łƕĪŔ ťƄň œ ɤò Ɖł ĭ ł ł ł ł Ņ ÿũƆ ł Ŕ :ųÿũň œ ɢ  ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥ ƈƙƌ Ŕ ĭ ŵſ Ǝÿƀò ɫƣŦŤ Ō ÿƉƢ ň Ũœ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň :ƅ Ŕ ŷň ū Ŕ ĭłIJĬô Ŵò Ƙł œ ĥ ƈłƕĶ Ōœ ò Ō ňœ ł Ņ ł ł Ņ œ ň Ō ň Ō ł Ŕ ƌ Ʀ .űŔƆĥ  Ł Ǝƀɫ ƣƎƀƖƣ  Ł ŁŔƢŨŔ ŧ ƢƏ  ĭĥ ŧ ƢŨ űŔƇſ ł ł ň ł ŏ ň ň ƖƊƤſ Ņ Ŕ Ŷň Ťƌƈƀ .ƅƀ œ Ɖ ł űƟť Ō Ņ Ō ĥƎſ  Īňœ Ļĭ  Ŕ Ʀƣ œ ĥ .ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ƧĶ  ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ÿɖ ł Ņ Ņ œ Ņ Ņœ Ņ Ņ œ ł Ņ ł Ō Ņ Ō ł ł Ņł ł ň œ ÿôƌĥŧ ƢňÿƟĭ Ʀ :ŧ ƢÿŨ ƅ Ŕ ÿƆŧ űɤ  ſ ĴŔ ŁŔ Ʀôƌĥŧ ƢƏ  Ʀſ Ŕ ĥƢſ  Ƣƣ :ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ƧŦ  ųŅ Ɔ  ĥƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Żſ ł Ō ň ł Ō Ņ ł ň ň Ņ ł ł ł ł Ņ Ņ Ņ ƎÿƉ ųÿƕĿŵɟ  ĭ :ƋÿƇƖɝ  Īť Ŕ ÿƊƀƠ  Ɔų  ÿƊƕ Ɓô ÿƊƀƟƋƀ  Ɵĥ  ĭ :ơŷƐſ  ĥ ųƊƣ ň .ĬĿňƦ Ŕ ŨŅœ Ņ ň œ ł œ ł ň Ōœ ł ň œ ň ł Ņ Ņ œ ł  Ŕ ÿŹĬŁƢ Ū  ÿũƃĥ Ŕ ĭ :ĬƦÿƀ Ŕ ŬƏĥ  ĭĬ  Ʀ  ÿƃŔ ƢŨŦ Ŕ Ĭ :ĴŔ ƦÿƖ  Ɗ  ƣƈƀň ƖƊƤſ Ņ Ō ĥ ƈłƕĭ  Ĵ Ņ ň ł ł Ō ň œ œ .ťŨŅœ ĿťƊ  Ɛƕ ł ĿŁ .Ū  Ŕ Ź Ņ łƖɝ  IJĬô ŴƀƆ  Łĥ  ĭň :űŔƆŴ  ƌƎƀ ł ƍŌŨŅ Ŕ ǓĭĿƢ Ō Ņ Ō Ņœ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ł Ņ ł Ņ ſŌ ĥƋ  łƕƋƀ  ƟŌ ĥƁô ƊƀƟ  ĭ ťƃ .ŦŁŔ ƢŶ  ôĥŦƦ  ôƍƤƆťƌĬť  ƍŨŔ ŵɟ  :ŧ ƢŅƏ ł ƅ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ űŔƆĥ ł ŁŔ Īœ ơŷƐ ł ň Ņ Ņ ł Ō œ œň ň ł ŏ Ņ ł ł ň ł ł .ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥƎ  ƉŦ  ų Ɔ  ĥƋſ  ĿŁŁĥ :ųƊ  ƕ ŴƇ Ƈ ƊƊ  ƆƋ  Ƈ ƣ űŔƃĭ Ŕ Ūƃ Ō ł ň ŏ Ŕ ĭĬ Ɓÿƍł əòŨĮƈ ŌŔ ÿƄƆ ł Ʀƀ œ Ũłœ IJűłŔəòˁ  Ō Ōſƈ  ƄƆ ŏŔ ĭĬ ł ƢňŨœ ƈƀň ƖƊƤſ Ņ ƧĶ  ĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥ ƢŨł Ŕ ĪŔĭł ŭƃ ł ň œ òł Ņ Ņ ň œ ŏ œ ň œ ň œ  ƃ ųÿŨň œ ķĭĬŏ ŁŴ Ŕ ƆĿŴ ŏ ƕŏĪŧ Ŕ ƢƐ Ņ Ũňœ Ŀŵłū Ŕ ĭł :ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũ ƁƤƌŤŨŔ ŧ ƢƃŔĪ ƈƃ :ųƙƐ ł ň ł ôň ł œ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ ł œ Ņ Ņ .Ŧų Ɔ  ĥų  Ɗ  ƕƈ  Ƈ Ɖ  Ī ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ :ťƌĬť  ƉŴ  ƀŨ















 



  

Ch. 

Chapter  XXIII



When Abram was ninety-nine years old, the Lord appeared to Abram and said to him, “I am Elshaddai, God. 1 Be pleasing 2 before me and be blameless.



I will establish 3 my covenant between me and you, and I will make you very numerous.”



Abram fell prostrate and God spoke with him and said to him,



“See, I will establish my covenant with you. You will be a father for a multitude of peoples.



Your name shall no longer be called Abram. Rather, your name will be Abraham because I have made you 4 the father of a multitude of peoples.



I will make you fruitful and very numerous and I will make 5 nations of you. Kings shall come forth from your loins. 6



I shall establish my covenant between me and you and your descendants after you for their generations as an everlasting covenant. I will be God for you and your descendants after you.



I will give to you and your descendants after you the land of your sojourning, the entire land of Canaan as an everlasting possession and I will be their God.”



God said to Abraham, “As for you, observe my covenant, you and your descendants after you for their generations.



This is my covenant between me and you and your descendants after you that you should observe: You shall circumcise every male.



You shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin. It will be a sign of the covenant between me and you. 1 The Peshiṭta has transliterated the Hebrew name for God and added the term ‘God’ so that the reader understands that this word is a divine title. 2 See the Introduction, Particular lexical choices. 3 ‘I will establish’: lit. ‘I will give’. 4 ‘I have made you’: lit. ‘I have given you’. 5 ‘I will make’: lit. ‘I will give you’. 6 MT: ‘from you’.



.ŵſ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ň ł Ņ ł Ō œ ň òŌ ł ŨŔ ĥł ƈÿłƕťɕƢ ł ĭň ĶƢÿ ƢÿƉĥ Ņ Ɖ Ņ ƁƇ ū  Łĥ Ŕ ĭ :Ǝƀɫ ƣƗƣł ŁŔĭłƎƀŌƖƣ  Łœ ƢŨłœ ĶƢł ŨŔ ĥŦĭĬ  ĭ ł łœ ł Ō Ņ Ņ ň ň Ņ Ō ł łŅ ł Ņ ŏ Ņ  .ĶŴƉ  ƧĪŔ IJĭĬ  ĭ :ƁƉ  űƟƢ Ŕ ƙƣ Ŕ .Ŧų Ɔ  ĥ IJűƤ ɤſĥ ťƌôĥťƌĥ :ųƆ Ņ Ņ ň .Ū  Ŕ Ź Ū  Ŕ Ź ƅƀ  Ŕ ŬƏĥ ň œ ĭł :ƅ Ŕ Ɔĭ Ņ Ɓƍƀł Ũł œ Ɓô ƊƀƟĵ Ņ œ ĭň Łĥ ł ł ł ł ł ňł ň ł Ŕ ĭ . ųƆ ň ƢƉĥ ł ĭŦ ň ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥų  Ɗ  ƕƈ  Ƈ Ɖĭ  .IJĬô ŴòƘł œ ĥ ƈłƕ ĶƢł ŨŔ ĥ ƈƙƌ ň ł ň ň Ŕ :ƅ Ŕ Ɗ Ņ łƕƁô ƊƀƟť Ņ ƌŅôĥƋƀƠƉŦ Ō Ĭť Ņ ƌŅĥ .ťƊň Ɗòô łƕĪŦŤ Ŕ ūŴ ŔŅ ƐƆť ŏ ŨŅ Ŕ ĥŦ  ĭĬ  Łĭ ŏ ň ň Ņ ł Ņ ň ň Ņň ł ł Ņ ŏ ň ťÿŨĥŅ Ŕ Īłœ ƈÿźƉ Ŕ ƢƟ Ʀ Ŕ ƌ  Ƨĭ   :ĶĬŅ ƢŅÿŨŔ ĥ ƅ Ŕ ÿƊƣŦ  ÿƌƧĥ :ĶƢÿŨŔ ĥ ƅ Ŕ ÿƊƣ ħĭ ĭų  Ŕ Łŧ Ņœ ł ň ò ł ŏ Ņ Ŕ ūŴ Ŕ ƐƆ  .ĴŔ Ʀ  ŨŔ ųô ſ ťƊƊô ƕĪŦŤ Ņ Ņ .ķŴƠŏ ƙœ ňƌ ĴŔ ƞŅŶƎ ł Ɖ ň ťƄň œ ɤò Ɖł ĭ .ťƊň Ɗ òô łƖɝ ƅ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ Łĥ œ ĭň .Ū  Ŕ Ź Ū  Ŕ Ź ƅƀ  Ŕ ŬƏĥ ň œ ĭł ƅſ  Ŕ ƢňƘĥ Ŕ ĭł ťÿƊŅ ƀƠ Ņ Ɔķĭ ł ųÿſ ŏ Ǔłűɝ ŅŔ ĴŔ ĿŅƦ Ŕ ÿŨŅ œ ƎÿƉň ƅ Ŕ ƕĿ ňŔ :ƅ Ŕ Ɔĭ Ņ Ɓƍƀł Ũł œ Ɓô ƊƀƟƋƀ Ņ Įł Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũĭ Ņ Ō ĭł Ɵĥ ł Ņ ň ň ł Ņ ł .ĴŔ ĿŅƦ Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎƉ  ĪŔ ň ƅ Ŕ ƕŅ Ŀŵɟ ł ĭŦ ł ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥ ƅ Ŕ ƆŦ  ĭĬĥ  ĭ :ƋƇ Ɩɝ ňœ ň ł ł Ņ ĥ ųñ ÿɤŅ ƃŏœ :ĴŔ ƢÿƊ Ņ ĥ ĴŔ ĿŅƦ Ņ ŵɟ ƎÿƖƍłƃŔĪłŔťÿƕĿ Ņ ƖƉ ł Īť Ŕ ÿƕĿ Ŕ ÿŨŅ œ ƎÿƉň ƅ Ŕ ÿƕĿ ł ĭł ƅ Ŕ Ɔĵ Ņ  ĭ Łĥ ł ŏ ň ň ł Ņ ł ŅŅœ ŏ Ņ Ņ .Ŧų Ɔ  ĥķĭ  ųɝŦ  ĭĬĥ  ĭ .ƋƇ Ɩɝ  Īť Ŕ ɧŁĿŴ  ƀɞ ł ł ł ł ł .ķĭųſ ŏ Ǔłűɝ ŅŔ ĴŔ ĿŅƦ Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎƉ ň ƅ Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ Įĭ ł Ʀ œ ô ƌĥ :ƢŹƁô ƊƀƟ Ņ Ʀ œ ô ƌĥ :ĶĬŅ ƢŅŨŔ ƧŦ  ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň ň ň Ņ Įł Ʀÿƀ Ŕ ÿŨŅ œ ƎÿƉň ƅ Ŕ ÿƕĿ ňŔ :ķŴƄƆ ŏŔ ĭł Ɓƍƀł Ũłœ ķĭƢŹ Ņ ŴƌłĬŅ ķĭĿŵŏ ÿūŔ ŁŔ Īœ :ĴŔ ĿŅƦ Ŕ Ũĭ ŏ ŁŔ Īœ Ɓô ƊƀƟ .ŧ ƢŅƃŔĪňœ ƈƃŏœ ň ŅŅ ň ň Ŕ Ŕ :ķŴƃŏŔŁŴ Ŕ ƆĿŴ ŏ ƕŏĪŧ Ŕ ƢƐ Ņ Ũňœ ķĭĿŵŏ ū Ŕ Łĭ łŔ ŁŔ ĥŦ  ĭĬ  Łĭ .ķŴƄƆ ŏŔ ĭł ƁƍłƀŨť łŔ Ɗ Ņ ƀƟ Ņ ĪŦ



ŭƃįĽ ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



į



İ



IJ  ťſ 

Ch. 



Then the angel of the Lord said to her, “Look, you have conceived and you will bear a son. You will name him Ishmael because the Lord has heard of your oppression.



He will be a wild ass among the people. His hand will be against everyone. The hand of everyone will be on him. He will dwell along the border of all his brothers.”



She named the Lord who spoke with her and she said, “You are God in the vision,” for she said, “Behold, indeed I saw a vision 1 after he saw me.”



Because of this, she named that well, “The well where the Living One saw me.” It is situated between Reqem 2 and Gadar. 3



Hagar bore a son to Abram and Abram named his son whom Hagar had bore to him Ishmael.



Abram was eighty-six years old when Hagar gave birth to Ishmael for Abram.

See the Introduction: Reinterpretations or Misinterpretations. MT: ‘Kadesh’. 3 MT: ‘Bered’. 1 2



ň ł Ņ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ œ ň łł Ņ ł ň œ ô ƌĥł ŧ űÿɤ Ņœ ŅſĭIJô Ʀ œ ÿôƌĥťÿƍź Ŕ Ĭ :ťɕƢ ŨŦ Ɖ  Ī ųƃŔ ƨƉ ųñ ɝƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ťſ ƎÿſƢƟ ň ŁĭŔ :ŧ ƢŅÿŨœ IJô Ʀÿ ŏ Ō ň .Ɓô ƃŔűňŔũƕŴ Ņœ Ƥŏ ŨŔ ťɕƢ Ņ ƉƗ Ņ Ɗƣ ł Īłœ ƈź Ņ ĥų  Ɗƣ ň Ɖ ň :ƈƀƖƊƤſ Ņ Ŕ ĭŌ :ƈÿƃŏ œ ƈÿłƕĬűÿſ ƈÿłƕĭ :ųÿŨň œ ƈÿƃŏ Ŕ Īŧ Ŕ űÿſĥ ňŔ Ō ĥ :ťƤŅ ƍŅəòɫł ŨŔ Īŧ łŔ ĪŅŔƢƕŦ Ņ ĭų ň ňƌ ĭĬĭ ŏ Ūſ ł ŏ ŏ Ņ ŏ œ Ŕ ƉŴ  Ŷ Ł .ŧ ƢƤ ň ňƌIJĬô ŴòŶł ĥ ķĭųɤ  ƃŔ Īť ŏ ň Ņ ň Ņ Ņł ŏ œ ł Œ ł ň Ņł ň ł Ņ Ņ œ ň Œ Ņ ł ƈÿźƉ  :Ŧĭŵ  ÿŷŨŦ Ŕ ų Ɔ  ĥ ĭĬô Ʀ  ô ƌĥ ŁŔ ƢƉĥ  ĭ ųñ Ɗ  ƕƈ  Ƈ Ɖ  Īť Ŕ ɕƢ Ɖ  Ī ųƊƣ  ŁŔ ƢƟ  ĭ ŭſ Ņ ł .Ɓƌ ô ŵŶ Ņ Īłœ ĿƦ Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎƉ ň Ʀſ Ŕ ŵŶŦ Ō ĭŵ Ņ Ŷň Ļ  Ŕ ĥŦ  ĬŅ Īœ :ŒŁŔ ƢƉĥ ł Īňœ ŏ ň ň Ʀƀ Ō ĬŅ .Ɓƌ ô ŵŶť Ņ ƀŅʖ ł Īŧ Ŕ ƢŅŨŌœ :IJĬŧ Ņ ƢŅũƆ ŌŔ Œ ŁŔ ƢƟť Ņ ƌŅĬƈ Ņ ź Ɖ  űſ ňŔ ƋÿƟĿ Ŕ Ũň Ŕ IJĬŦ Ŕ ũƆ Ʀÿƀ .ĿűŅŔū Ņ œ ł Ņ Ņ Œ łœ ň ł ŨŔ ĥł ŧ ƢÿƟ ƢÿūŔŅ Ĭų Ņ ÿƆň Œ ŁŔ űÿɤ łœ ň ſĪœ ĬƢňÿŨœ Ƌÿƣň ĶƢÿ Ņ ĭł .ŧ ƢŅÿŨœ ĶƢł ŨŔ ƧƢ  ū Ŕ Ĭ ŁŔ űɤ  ſĭ ųſ ň Ņ Ō ĥ .ƈƀƖƊƤſ ł .ĶƢł ŨŔ Ƨ ƈƀň ƖƊƤſ Ņ Ō ĥƢ  ū ŔŅ ĬŅ ŒŁŔ űɤ łœ ň ſ űŔƃłœ .ƎƀòɫŌ ƣ Ʀ Ŕ ƣĭŦ ň ĭŅĬƎſŤ ô ƍŌƉ Ņ Łœ ƢŨłœ ĶƢł ŨĥŔ ĭł Ŵſ















Ch. 

Chapter  XXII



Sarai, Abram’s wife, had not borne him [children]. She had an Egyptian maidservant and her name was Hagar.



Sarai said to Abram, “The Lord has prevented me from child bearing. Have relations with my maidservant. Perhaps I will be consoled 1 by her.” Abram heeded Sarai’s voice.



Sarai, Abram’s wife, brought Hagar, her Egyptian maidservant, and she gave her as a wife to Abram her husband ten years after Abram had lived in the land of Canaan.



He had sexual relations with Hagar and she conceived. When she saw that she had conceived, she despised her mistress. 2



Sarai said to Abram, “The injury done to me is your fault. I gave my maidservant into your bosom. When she saw that she conceived, she despised me. 3 May the Lord judge between me and you.”



Abram said to Sarai his wife: “See, your maidservant is consigned 4 into your hands. Do to her whatever seems good in your eyes.” So Sarai, her mistress, mistreated her and she fled from her.



An angel of the Lord found her by a spring of water in the wilderness on the way to Gadar. 5



He said to her, “Hagar, maidservant of Sarai, from where are you coming and where are you going?” She said, “I am fleeing from Sarai my mistress.”



The angel of the Lord said to her, “Return to your mistress and subject yourself to her.” 6



The angel of the Lord said to her, “Behold, I will surely multiply your descendants. They will not be able to be counted for their multitude.” 



See the Introduction: Reinterpretations or Misinterpretations. ‘she despised her mistress’: lit. ‘her mistress was despised in her eyes’. 3 ‘she despised me’: lit. ‘I was despised in her eyes’. 4 The Peshiṭta expresses the verb. 5 MT: ‘Shur’. See the Introduction: Proper Names. 6 See the Introduction: Particular Lexical Choices. 1 2



.Ŵſ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

Ņ ł łœ ň œ ł ł ł Ņ Ņ ł :ŦƦÿſ œ ĿŅƞƉŦ ň ƦÿƉ Ŕ ĥ ųñ ÿɝŅ ŦĭŅĬô Ʀÿſĥ łœ ň ſ Ƨ ĶƢÿ ŨĥŔ Ī ĬŁŔ Ʀôƌĥ IJƢƏĭ  Ŕ ĭŌ :ųÿƆň ŒŁŔ űÿɤ Ņ Ņ  ĭł ŔŅ Ĭ ųñ Ɗƣ .Ƣū ł Ņ Ņ ł ł ł ł Œ ł ň Ƣÿũł Ŕ ƃœ :IJô ƦƉ Ŕ ĥ ƈłƕĵŴ  ƕŏ :ŧ űɤ Ņœ łſƎƉť ň ɕƢ Ņ Ɖ Ņ Ɓô ƍƇ ƃŦ Ŕ Ĭ :ĶƢŨŔ Ƨ IJƢƏ  ŁŔ ƢƉĥ  ĭ ň ł Ņ Ņ ł ł ň ł ł Ņ ł œ .IJƢƏ  Īœ ųñ ɤ  Ơ Ũ ĶƢŨŔ ĥƗƊƣ  ĭ .ųñ ƍƉť  ƀłŨłœ ŁŔĥ ň ł ł Œ ł ň Ņ ł Ņœ Ņ ň ł ł Ʀ Ŕ ÿŨŅ œ ƎÿƉň :Ĭñ ƦÿƉ ƢÿƐƕĿ Ŕ ĥŦ  Ʀÿſ  ĿƞƉƢ  ÿūŔŅ ųɝ Ņ ĶƢł ŨĥŔ Īłœ ĬŁŔ Ʀœ ô ƌĥ IJƢłƏ  ŁƢŨŔ Īĭ  ł ň Ōœ Ŕ ò Ō Ŕ ł Ņ œ ł Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł ł ł ł ł ł œ œ .ųñ ɤƖ  Ũ ĶƢŨŔ Ƨ ŦŁŔ Ʀôƌĥ Ĭñ Ʀ Ŕ ŨŔ ųô ſĭ :ƎƖƍƃŔĪť Ŕ ƕĿŤ  Ũ ĶƢŨŔ ĥ ħ  Ŕ Ʀſ Ŕ Ī Ǝƀɫ ƣ Ņ ł Ŕ :Ʀ ňŔ Ƣū ŔŅ Ĭƈ Ņ łƕƈ  łƕĭ  ŒŔ ƍź ł Ũĭ Ņ űŔƃĭ ŒŔ ƍź ł Ũň Ŕ Īœ ŒŁŔ ŵŶ ŒŔ Ɔ ł ňĮ :Ʀ .ųƀ ñ ňƍəòɳ ł Ũœ Ĭñ ŁƢ œ Ɖ Ņ Ʀ ň ł ňœ ň Ņ œ ł ł ł Œ ł ň ł Ŕ .ƅ Ŕ ŨŴ űŔÿƃĭ Ņœ ÿƖŏ Ũœ IJô ƦÿƉ Ŕ ĥ Ʀÿ Ŕ Ũųſťƌĥ :ƅƀ  Ƈ ƕƁô ƍũɝŴ Ņœ ƕŏ :ĶƢł ŨŔ Ƨ IJƢłƏ  ŁŔ ƢƉ  ĥĭ ň Ņ ł ň Ņ ň ł Œ ł ò ň ł Ņ .ƅ Ŕ Ɔĭ  ƁƍƀŨť Ŕ ɕƢ Ņ Ɖķĭ  űƌŏŔ .ųƀ ñ ƍəɳ  Ũœ Ʀ Ŕ Ɔ  Į :Ʀ Ŕ ƍź  ŨŔ Īœ ŒŁŔ ŵŶ ň ł ł ł ł ň ň ł Ō Ŕ Ɗɤ ň Ŕ :Ɓô Ƅſ  ĶƢł ŨŔ ĥƢƉĥ  ĭ œ űłŔɖòŤŨť Ņ ƤƉ ł Ɓô ƃŔƦƉ Ŕ ĥŦĬŅ :ĬŁŔ Ʀœ ô ƌĥ IJƢłƐƆ ųñ ÿɝŅ IJô űŔũƕ Ņ Ņ Ō œ ň œ ł ł ł ł ň ň Ņ Œ ł ł ò ň .ųƀ ñ Ɖ  űƟƎ ŅŔ Ɖ  Ʀ Ŕ ƟƢ  ƕĭ  .Ĭñ ŁƢ Ɖ  IJƢƏ  Ĭñ ŁƢ Ŕ ƕĽĭ ł :Ɓô Ƅƀ œ ƍəɳ  Ũœ Ƣƀƙ ƣł Īœ ĶűňœƉ ł Ņ ł Ņ ł ŏ Ŕ ƢŅŨœ űŔƊ  ĪŔ ťƍƀ ƕƈ  łƕť  ɕƢ Ņ Ɖ Ņ Īœ ųƃňŔƨƉł ųñ ŷŅ Ƅƣĥ œ ĭň .ĿűŅŔū ŔŅ Īť Ŕ ŶĿĭŤ Ņ Ũŧ ł Ũœ :ťƀò Ɖ Ņ Ņœ ł Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ñ Ņ ł ň œ ô ƌĥł ťÿɕŅ ŁŔĥť Ƨô ĮŅĥť  ÿƄſ  :IJô Ʀÿ Ƨĭ  ÿƄŅ œ Ɗ ň ſĥƎ  ÿƉň :IJƢłÿƏł Īœ Ĭñ ƦÿƉ Ŕ ĥƢ  ū Ŕ Ĭ :ų ɝƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ł œ Ņ Ņ .ťƌŅôĥťƟƢ  ƕIJô ŁƢ Ɖ Ņ IJƢłƏĶ ł űƟƎ ŅŔ Ɖ ň Œ ŁŔ ƢƉĥ ł ĭň :IJô Ʀœ ô ƌĥ ňœ Ņ Ņ ł ł ŏ :ťÿɕƢ ł œ Ʀƣĥ Ņ Ɖ Ŕ ʖ Ʀÿƀ ň ŁœIJô űŔÿũƕ œ ĭňƁô ÿƃŔ ŁƢ Ɖ  ŁŔŴÿɝ  Ɓô ƃŴ Ŕ ÿƘĬ Ņ Īœ ųƃň Ŕ ƨƉł ųñ ɝƢ Ņ Ɖĥ ł ĭň Ŕ ŅŔ Ō ĥ .Ĭñ űſ ł Ņ Ņ Ɖĥ ň ÿňƍƉƦ Ņ Ɖ ň œ ĥł Ŵÿƀŏ ŬƐ ƎÿƉť Ŕ ňƌ  Ƨĭ  :Ɓô ÿƄŔ ň ƕĿ  Įť ł ÿŬƏ Ņ œ Ɖ ł :ťÿɕƢ Ņ Īœ ųÿƃň Ŕ ƨƉł ųñ ÿɝƢ ł ĭň ňŔ Ə ŏ .ĬŤūŴ



ŪƃįĽ ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



į



İ



IJ 

Ch. 



The people whom they will serve I will judge, and afterwards they will come out with numerous possessions.



You shall be gathered to your ancestors in peace and be buried at a good old age.



The fourth generation will return here because the sins of the Amorites are not yet complete.”



The sun was setting and it became very dark. There was a smoking furnace and a flaming torch that passed between those pieces.



On that day the Lord established with Abram a covenant. He said to him, “To your descendants I will give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the Euphrates river:



the Kenites, the Kenizzites, the Kadmonites,



the Hittites, the Perizzites, and the giants, 1



the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Girgasites and the Jebusites.”

The Rephaim are normally translated with ŧǔũƍū (‘giants’) in the Peshiṭta (except in Isa 17:5 and 1 Chr 20:4).

1



ł Ņ Ņ ň Ņœ ŏ ň Ņ ł .ťŨŅœ ĿłťƍŅəƍ Ŕ Ũĭ Ņ Ơň ŨķŴ œ Ơŏ ƙœ ňƌ ƎƃĿ ňœ Ʀ Ŕ Ɗ  Ɩɝ  Ļ  Ŕ ĥĭŅ űſ Ŕ .ťƌôĥķĥĪ ķŴŷ ɤƙŔ ƌĪť ň œ ł ł Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ŏœ ł œ ł ň Ŕ :ťƊ Ņ ɤƤ Ņ Ũłœ ƅ œ ò ſųł ŨŅ Ŕ ĥ ŁŔŴɝƈ Ɛ  Ũ ƢũƟ  ň ŁŔŁœ Ʀ ƊŶ  ô ƌĥĭ ųſ .ŦƦ Ŕ ũŔ ŹŦ  ŁŴ Ŕ ũƀ Ŕ ŁŔŁĭ Ņ ŏ ň ķĭųƀ ŏ Ũłœ Ŵò ÿŶł  Ŵô ÿƊƇƣƈÿƀ  ƃŌœ űƕ łŔ ƧĪœ ƈÿźƉ ň :ťƃĿ Ņœ ųŅ ɝķŴƄŏŔ Ƙų  œ ňƌťƀŅɳƀ Ņ ŨĿ ŌŔ ŧ ĿŅĪĭ ŅŔ Ŵſ ŏ ĪŅœ .ťňɕǓŅŴƉĥ ň Ņ Ņ ŏł Ņ Ņ ŅŅ ł ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ÿƌŏ Īŧ Ŕ űŅŔÿƀƙƊ œ Ɔ ł ĭ :ķĥŁŔ Īŧ Ŕ ĿŴ  ÿɧŁŦ Ŕ Ĭĭ  :ŦĭĬť  ƍźƊ  ƕĭ  :ħ  Ŕ ƢƖ ł ƊƆť ň Ņ ƣŦ ƤƊ ň ĭĬ Ņ ĭł ŵſ .ƎƀƆ ň ĬŅ ťŬƇ ňò œ Ƙň œ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũňœ ƢũłŔ ƕŅĪŔ ň Ņ ł ł ł ł Ņ ł œ ň ÿƉĥ ł ĭň :ťÿƊŅ ƀƟ ñ Ɔ ųÿƀ Ō Łœĥ ƅ Ŕ ÿƕĿ  :ųÿƆƢ ŵɟ Ņ ĶƢł ŨŔ ĥƋłƕť  ɕƢ Ņ ƉƋƀ Ņ ƟŌ ĥ ĭĬť  ƉŴ  ƀŨ Ÿɖ ł ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ň ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ň ł ł ł ł ł œ .ŁŔƢƘŧ Ŕ Ŀų  ƌť  Ũ Ŀŧ Ŀų  ƕĿ Ņ ĥ  ƍɞť  Ɖ  űƕ Ŕ ĭ :ƎſĿƞ Ɖ  ĪŔ ŧ Ŀų  ƌ ƎƉ :ŧ ĪŔĬť .ťƀňɧŅŴò Ɖ ŏ űŔƠƆ ł ĭł :ťňɕŵŅɫò ƠƆ ł ĭł :ťƀňɫŅ ƀòƠƆ Ō Żſ ň Ņ Ō ł .ŧ ǔňũŅ œ ôƍŬƆ Ŕ ł ĭł :ťňɕĮŅǔƙƆ łŔ ĭł :ťòɕƦ Ŕ ŷƆ  ĭ Ĵ Ņ .ťƀňƏ Ņ Ŵòũŏ Ŕ ƀɞ Ņ ĭł :ťƀňƏŴ Ņ ū ŏ œ ǔŬƆ Ŕ ł ĭł :ťƀňɫŅ òƖɩłƄŔ Ɔĭ ł :ťňɕǓŅŴƉ ŏ Ƨĭ  ťƃ



  





  

Ch. 

Chapter  XXI



After these things, the word of the Lord came to Abram in a vision and said to him, “Do not be afraid, Abram, I will sustain you; 1 your reward will be very great.”



Abram said, “Lord God, what will you give me for I go without children and Eliezer of Damascus, a member of my household, is my heir?”



Abram said, “Look, you have not given to me a son and now a member of my household is my heir.”



The Lord said to him, “This one will not be your heir. Rather, your son who comes forth from your loins will be your heir.”



He brought him outside and said to him, “Gaze into the heavens and count the stars if you are able to count them.” Then he said to him, “Thus shall be your descendants.”



Abram believed in God and it was reckoned to him as righteousness.



He said to him, “I am the Lord who brought you out from Ur of the Chaldeans to give you this land to inherit.”



Abram said, “Lord God, how can I know that I will inherit it?”



He said to him, “Take a three-year-old heifer, a three-year-old ram, a three-year-old goat, a turtledove and a young dove.”



He took all these and divided them equally. He placed each piece facing its other half. He did not divide the birds.



A bird of prey descended on the carcasses but Abram drove it away.



As the sun was setting, a deep sleep fell upon Abram, dread and deep darkness fell upon him.



He said to Abram, “You should certainly know that your descendants will be sojourners in a land that is not theirs. They will serve them and they will enslave them for four hundred years. 

1



MT: ‘I am your shield’.



.ųſ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň ťƃįĽ

ň Ņ ň œ ł Ņœ ł ŨŔ ĥł ƈłƕť ł ĭŦ ƢÿƉĥ ň ĭŵ Ņ ÿŷň Ũœ ĶƢÿ  ɕƢ Ņ Ɖ Ņ Īœ ųƊ ň ū ŔŅ Ʀ Ŕ ƘŦ ňŔ ĭĬ Ņ :ƎƀƆ ň Ĭť Ņ Ɗ Ŕ Ũ ĥ ò ū Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ Ƙ ĿƦ ň Ņ ň ň ł ł Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł ł ł Ō Ŕ Ƨ :ųƆ ň . ƁŬ œ Ə  Ū  Ŕ Ź ĴŔ Ƣū Ŕ ĥ :ƅ Ŕ Ɩƀ Ə  ĥť  ƌĥ :ĶƢŨŔ ĥ ƈŶ ĪŔŁ ň œň Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł ł ł ň Ņ Ņ Ņ Ō Ŕ ÿƍƉŦ  ų ÿƆĥť  ÿɕƢƉ  :ĶƢÿÿŨŔ ĥƢÿƉĥĭ ħ :Ǝÿƀò ɫŌ Ũ Ŕ ƧĪť Ŕ ÿƌôĥ ĵňĮĥť  ÿƌĥŅ Īňœ :ƁÿƆĵ ŁŁť Ō ň Ņ ŏ œ ł ł Ņ Ņ œ .ƁƆ  ŁŔƢɕ ĭĬ IJô Ʀƀ  Ũ ƢŨť  ƉĿ ŏ Īłœ ĿŵŅ ɳƀ Ņ Ɔĥ Ō ĭň Ŕ ƀƠƏŴ Ņ Ō Ņ ł ł ł ň . ƁƆ Ō ŁŔƢňɕŅIJô Ʀƀ œ Ũłœ ƢŨŦ łŔ Ĭĭ Ņ :ŧ ƢŅŨœ Ʀ œ ŨŔ ųô łſ Ƨ ƁƆŦ  Ĭ :ĶƢŨŔ ĥƢƉĥ  ĭ Ĩ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ň ł ň .ĴŔ ŁĿŤ œ ƌŌ ĭĬŏ ĴŔ ƞŅŶƎ ł Ɖơ ň ƙňŔ ƌŅĪœ ĴŔ ƢŅŨŔ Ƨĥ :ťƌŅĬŅ ĴŔ ŁĿŤ œ ƌŌ Ƨ :ťɕƢ  Ɖų  ƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ī ł ł œ ň ň ň œò ł Ō ł Ņ ł ł œ ŏ ň ł ň ł  ÿƀƊƤ  Ũ ĿŴŶ :ųƆƢ œ ô ƌĥŸÿƄƤ Ʀÿ  ķĥ :ťÿũŔ ƃŴƃŔ ƁÿƍƉĭť Ɖ  Ɖĥ  ĭƢ  ũƆ  œ ĭł Ĭ Ŕ ň ųƠň Ƙĥ  ƍƊ Ņ ƊƆ ň .ƅ Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ ĮŦ ł ĭų ň ňƌť  ƍŅƃłŔĬŅ :ųƆ ň ƢƉĥ ł ĭň .ķŴƌŏĥť ł ň ł ŒŔ ũƤ łœ Ŷł Łĥ Ŕ ĭň :ŦųŅ ƆŤ Ņ Ũłœ ĶƢł ŨŔ ĥƎƊſ .ŴƠſ ŏ ĪŌœŵłɟ ųƆ ň Ʀ  Ĭĭ  ĭ ł ň ň Ņ ł œ ŏ ň Ņ œ ň œ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņň ň ł ň Ņ ĥł ƅ Ŕ Ɔĵ ťÿƕĿ Ņ Ʀ œ Ɗ  Ɔ :ťòɕűɤ Ŕ ɕƢ  Ɖť  ƌôĥťƌĥ :ųƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Į  Ɖ  ĴŔ ƦƠ  Ƙĥ  Īť Ŕ ƃŔ Ī ĿĭĥƎ Ņœ Ō ň Ņ .Ĭñ ŁĿŤ  Ɗ  Ɔŧ ĪŔĬ ň Ņ œ Ņ Ņł Ņ Ņ ł ł ł ň .ųñ ɝť Ņ ƌŅôĥ ŁŔƢňɕŅĪĺ œ ĪłœĥťƍŅƊ  Ũ :Ŧų Ɔ  ĥť  ɕƢ Ɖ  :ĶƢŨŔ ĥƢƉĥ  ĭ į ŏ ŏ ŏ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ň :ŦƦ ň Ŕ :ŦƦÿƆĭ  ŔƏ ł :ųƆƢ ň Ɖĥ ł ĭň İ Ŕ ƢŅÿƃŔ Īĭ œ ŁŔ ƨ ÿŬŔ ň ƕ ƅ Ŕ ÿƆŅ Ū Ŕ ŵŅÿɯĭ œ ÿƆĭŁŧ :ŦƦÿƆĭ œ ŁŦ Ŕ ƣĭ ŏ .ťƌŴ Ņ łſƢ  Ũĭ łŔ ťƍƀŅ ƍŌƘŴ ň ŌŅ ł ň ł Ņ :Ʀſ ł ĭł IJ ťÿ ƉŅ ĪŅœĬł Ƌÿ Əĭ Ŕ ŤɕŴ  ÿ ƣķŴÿ ƌŏ ĥ ŭ  Ŕ ÿ ƇƘĭ Ŕ :ķĭųÿ ŏ ÿɤƃŏœ ƎÿÿƀƆ ň Ĭų Ņ ÿ Ɔň Ū  Ŕ ÿ Ɛƌ ň ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ŕ .ĬƢňũŔ Ŷł ƈũƟŴ łŔ Ɔŏ .ŭ  Ŕ Ƈ Ƙ Ŕ ƧŦ  ƦŶ Ŕ ƢƘĭ ł ł Ņ Ņ Ņ  Ƣƀ Ņ Ź Œ ŁŔ ĭŅĬŦ ô Ʀŷ œ ƌŅĭ ťſ .ĶƢł ŨŔ ĥ ųñ ɝŦ  ĭĬƥ ô Ƅňœ Ɖĭ ł :ŧ ǔňŬ Ŕ Ƙł œ ƈłƕŧ ł Ņ ň Ņ Ņ Ŕ Ƥŏ ŶĭŦ ťÿƃŴ ň ƦƇŶ Ŕ ĪŦ Ŕ Ĭĭ  :ĶƢł ŨŔ ĥ ƈłƕƈ  ƙƌ łŔ ťƀˁ Ņ ƣĭ ň :ħ  Ŕ ƢƖ ł ƊƆť ň Ņ ƣň ŦĭĬ ƤƊ Ņ ĭł Ūſ .IJĬŴ ô ł Ƈƕƈ  ƙƌ łŔ ťŨŅœ Ŀł Ņ Ņ ł œ Ņ ł ň ň Ņ ŏ Ņ œ ł œň œ ł œ ň ł ł ł ň :ķĭųÿ ŏ ÿɤſĪ ŌŔ ƧĪť Ŕ ÿ ƕĿŤŨ ƅ Ŕ ÿ ƕĿĮŦ  ĭų  ÿ ƌŧ ĿŴ  ÿ ƊƕĪ :ĺĪŁ ĺűÿ Ɖ :ĶƢÿÿŨŔ ƧƢ  ÿ Ɖĥĭ ŭſ ň ŏ œ ł ł łœ ŏ Ņ Ō ŏ ò ł .Ǝƀɫ ƣŦŤƊƖ  Ũ ĿĥķŴƌĥ ķĭűŔ ũƖ  Ƥƌ  ĭ :ķĭų Ũœ ķŴŷŏ ɤƙŔ ňƌĭ 







  

 

 



 



Ch. 



The king of Sodom went out to meet him after he returned, having decimated Chardelamar and the kings who were with him in the valley of Shaveh, which is the valley of the kings. 1



Melchizedek, king of Salem, brought out bread and wine. He was the priest of God Most High.



He blessed him and said: “Blessed be Abram by God Most High, owner 2 of heaven and earth.



Blessed be God Most High who delivered your enemies into your hands.” He gave him a tenth of everything.



Then the king of Sodom said to Abram, “Give to me the persons but the property take for yourself.”



Abram said to the king of Sodom, “I have sworn 3 to God Most High whose possession is heaven and earth:



I would not take anything that you have, from a thread to as much as a leather strap of a sandal, lest you could say, ‘I made Abram rich,’



apart from what the young men have eaten and the shares of the men who went with me, Aner, Eshcol and Mamre. Let them take their shares.”

MT: ‘king’. The Hebrew root, !19, which normally means ‘to acquire,’ can have the sense ‘to form, to create’ when God is the subject (cf. Ps 138:13 and Prov 8:22). The translator mirrored the Hebrew, but in Syriac √ťƍƟ does not mean ‘to create’. The above translation is confirmed in Gen 14:22 where God is again referred to as ! —1œ9 and P reads ‘his possessions’. 3 ‘I have sworn’: lit. ‘I have raised my hand’. 1 2



ŏ ŏ ł Ņœ ł ł ł ł ł Ɔ ƢÿƊƖ ł ĪƢ œ ƄƆ łŔ ħŔ ƢÿŶ ł űŔÿƃł œ :ƅ Ŕ ƘĬ łŔ Īłœ ĿƦ Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎƉų ň ň ƕĿĭ  ƧĶĭ  űƏ Ŕ Īť Ŕ Ƅɤ  Ɖ  ơƙƌ Ŕ ĭ ŵſ ò ò ŏ ŏ ň ň Ņ Ņ .ťƄœ ɤƉł Īť Ŕ ƠƉŴ  ƕ ĭĬŏ :ŦŴƣ Ņ Īť łŔ ƠƉŴ  ƖŨœ ųƊ ň łƕĪŔ ťƄœ ɤƊł Ɔĭł ł Ō ň Ņ ĪŦ łŔ ĭŅĬŧ ô ƢƉŴ Ņ ÿƃŏ Ŕ ĭĬĭ ŏ :ŧ ƢƊ Ņ Ŷĭť ł Ɗŷ Ņ Ɔ ł ơƘň œ ĥƋƀƇ ƣŅ ƅ Ŕ ƇƉľ  ňŔ ƄŌœ ɤƉĭ Īŵƀ ł Ÿɖ ŦųŅ ÿƆĥ .ťƊſ Ņ ƢƉ ł ł Ō œ ł ň ň ł ł .ťƕĿĥ Ņ ĭłťƀŅƊƣť ł ňƍƟ  :ťƊſ Ņ ƢƉ ł ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ Ƨ ĶƢł ŨŔ ĥ ƅſ  Ŕ ƢŨ :ƢƉĥ  ĭų  ƃƢ Ŕ Ũĭ Ŕ Żſ ł Ņ ƢƉ ò œ ň ƖŨœ ƋÿňƇƣĥĪłœ :ťÿƊſ ųÿƆň ħ  Ŕ ųô ÿłſĭ .ƅÿſ  œ űłŔɖòŤŨŌœ ƅÿƀ  œ ũłŔ ŨŅ Ŕ űɤ ł ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥ ĭĬô ŏ ƅſ  Ŕ ƢŌŨŔ ĭł Ĵ Ņ Ɖ ł .ƈƃŏœ ƎƉŧ ň ǔňƐƖ ł ŏ ł Ņœ ł ł ň Ņ Ņ .ƅ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ Ū  Ŕ Əť ł ƍŅəƍ Ņ ƟĭŦ ň Ʀ Ŕ Ƥò ƙŔ ƌł ƁƆ Ō ħ  Ŕ Ĭł :ĶƢł ŨŔ ƧĶĭ  űƏ Ŕ Īť Ŕ Ƅɤ  Ɖ  ƢƉĥ  ĭ ťƃ Ō ł ł ł ųÿňƍəƍ Ņ Ɵň Īœ :ťƊſ Ņ ƢƉ ł ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥ ŁŔŴɝ Ņ IJűłŔɖòĥ Ʀ Ŕ Ɗſ ň ĿŌĥ :ĶĭűƏ ŏŔ Īť łŔ Ƅɤ Ņœ Ɗ ł Ɔ ĶƢł ŨŔ ĥƢƉĥ ł ĭň Ūƃ ł .ťƕĿĥ Ņ ĭť ł ƀŅƊƣ Ņ ŏ ň ň ň ň Ņ ň ň ň œ Ɖƈ łŔ ƦƟ Ŕ Ƣłɳɝť  Ɖ Ņ űƕ łŔ ĭł ťŹŴ  ŶƎ  Ɖķ  ĥ ŭƃ Ŕ ĪŌœ Ķűÿ Ʀÿſĥ ƃŏœ ƎƉ ň Ū  ŔƏ ł ĥķ  ĥ :ťƌŅŤƐƉ Ņ ĪŦ ł ň œ ł Ņ ňœ ł Ō Ņ œ Ņ ł  .ĶƢŨŔ Ƨ ŁŔĿƦƕ  ĥť  ƌĥ Ī ƢƉĥ  ŁŔ ƧĪ :ƅ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ Ņł ł ň ò ł ł ň Ŕ ǔňÿũŔ ū ƢÿƀƍŌɯ Ņ :ƁÿƊ ô łƕŴô ÿƆĮĥł Īŧ Ŕł ĪŦ Ŕ ŁŔ Ŵò ɩƉ  ĭ :ťƊ  ƀˁƕ  Ŵô Ƈƃĥ łŔ Īňœ ĶűňœƉƎ ň ƉƢ ň ź  ƒ űƃ Ņł ŏ Ŕ ňƌķŴ ŏœ ĭł  ũƐ  ƌŏĬň :ŧ ƢƊ ň Ɖĭ ł ĵŴƄƣĥ .ķĭĬŏ ŁŔŴò ɩƉķŴ







 

 





Ch. 



The king of Sodom, the king of Gomorrah, the king of Admah, the king of Zeboiim, the king of Bela, which is Zoar, came forth and went, all of them, into battle in the valley of the Sodomites 1



with Chardelamar, king of Elam, and Tarel 2 king of the Gelites 3 and Amraphel, king of Sinar and Arioch, king of Dalasar, 4 four kings against 5 five.



The valley of the Sodomites 6 had various pits of bitumen. The king of Sodom and the king of Gomorrah fled and fell there. Those remaining fled to the hill country.



They took all the property of Sodom and Gomorrah along with all their provisions and they left.



They took Lot, the son of Abram’s brother, and his property and they left. He was living in Sodom.



Someone who had escaped came and informed Abram the Hebrew, who was residing by the oak of Mamre the Amorite, the brother of Aner and the brother of Eshcol. They were Abram’s allies.



Abram heard that his nephew 7 was taken captive. He equipped 8 his young men, 9 those born in his house, three hundred and eighteen, and he pursued after them as far as Dan.



During the night he and his men divided themselves up and struck them. They pursued them as far as Hobah which is to the left of Damascus.



He brought back all the property and Lot, his nephew, as well. He brought back his property along with the women and people. 



MT: ‘Siddim’. MT: ‘Tidal’. 3 MT: ‘Goiim’. 4 MT: ‘Ellasar’. 5 ‘against’: lit. ‘with’. 6 MT: ‘Siddim’. 7 MT: ‘his brother’. 8 The Hebrew is uncertain. 9 The Hebrew, meaning perhaps, ‘trained men,’ is a hapax legomenon. 1 2



ł Ŕ ĭł į Ņœ Ɖ Ņœ Ɖ Ņœ Ɖ Ņœ Ɖ ťÿ Ƅɤ ł ĭťÿ ƉŅ ĪĥŅŔ Īť ŅŔ ÿ Ƅɤ ł ĭ :ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ÿ Ɗŏ ƕŅĪť Ŕ ÿ Ƅɤ ł ĭĶĭűÿ ŏŔ ÿƏĪť łŔ ÿ Ƅɤ ł ơÿ ƙƌ Ņ Ņœ Ɖ ł Ŕ ƎÿƀƆ ťÿŨŅ Ŕ ƢƟ Ņ  ĭô űŔÿũƕ ň Ĭķĭ Ņ ųÿɤ ŏ ƃŏœ :ƢÿƕŅ ĽŅ IJĬô Ō IJĬƗ ł ĭ :ƋſŌ ĥŴ  ŨĽŏ Ŕ ĪłŔ Ō ÿƇŨŅ Ŕ ĪŔ ťÿƄɤ .ťƀňƉ Ņ ĭòűŏŔƏĪť łŔ ƠƉŴ Ņ ƖŏŨŔ ł ň Ņ ň ƈÿƀƘƢ ň œ Ɖ ł ĥĭŅ :ťÿƀò ˁ  ū Ŕ Īť Ŕ Ƅɤ Ņœ Ɖ ł ƈƀň ƕĿ  ŁĭŔ :Ƌł Ƈƀ  ŌƕĪť Ŕ Ƅɤ Ņœ Ɖ ł ƢƊƖ ł Ɔ ł ĪƢ œ ƃłœ Ƌłƕ İ ł Ņ Ə ň Īť Ŕ Ƅɤ Ņœ Ɖ ł .ťƤƊ Ņ ŶƋ ł łƕƎ  ƀòƄɤ Ōœ Ɖť ł ƖŅŨœ Ŀĥ :ƢƐ Ņ Ɔ ł ĪłŔĪť Ŕ Ƅɤ Ņœ Ɖ ł ĴŴ Ŕ ſŏĿĥŌ ĭŅ :ƢƖƍ Ņœ Ɖ Ņœ Ɖ Ō Ŕ ǔňÿŨť Ō Ŕ ƀňƉ ťÿƄɤ ł ĭĶĭűÿƏ ŏŔ Īť łŔ ÿƄɤ ł ľƢÿƕ ł ĭł :ŧ Ƣÿƀ Ņ ƟŌ Īŧ Ŕ ǔňÿŨŧ Ņ ĭòűƏ ŏŔ Īť łŔ ƠƉŴ Ņ ƕĭ ŏ IJ ł ŏ Ņ Ņ ł œ Ņ ł ŏ œ Ņ ň ł Ŕ ĭ :ŧ ĿŴ Ɗ  ƕĪŔ .ŴôƟƢƕŧ  ĿŴ  źƆ  ĭô ƢŶł Ʀƣĥ  Īĭ Ŕ ƎƉ  ŁŴô Ƈƙƌ ň łŔ ƍŅəƍ Ņ Ɵų ň Ƈ ƃŏœŴô ũŔ Ɛƌ ł ĭł ťſ .ŴôƆĮĥł ĭķĭ ň Ĭŏ ƦƆŴ œ ƃŏ Ŕ ŤƉ ň ųñ ɤ Ņ ƃĭŧ ŏŔ ĿŴ Ņ Ɗ ŏ ƕŅĪŔĭĶĭ ł űƏ ŏŔ Īť ł ŏ ň .ĶĭűƐ ŏŔ Ũłœ ħ  ŔƦ Ŕ Ņſ ĭĬĭ ŏ Ŵô ƆĮĥł ĭų ň ňƍəƍ Ņ ƠƆ ň ĭł ĶƢł ŨĥŔ ĪłœIJĬô ŴŶŏ ĥƢ  Ũłœ İŴLJ  ĭô ƢŨł Ŕ ĪŔĭł Ūſ Ņ ŏ Ņ ł ŨŔ Ƨł IJŴŌ ÿŶĭ ł :Żł Ƈ Ƙł œ Łĥ Ŕ Īňœ ƎƉŦ ł Łĥ Ŕ ĭň ŭſ ťÿŹŴƇ Ũłœ Ʀÿƀ ňŔ ĭŅĬŧ ô Ƣÿƣ ň ĭĬĭ ŏ .ťÿɕŅ ƢŅũŔ ň ƕ ĶƢÿ Ŕ ŨŦ ł Ņ ŏŅ ň ł ųÿƊň ƀƟ Ņ ƁÿłƇòƖŨłœ ķŴƌŏĬĭ ň :ĵŴƄƣĥ ŏœ Īłœ IJĬô ŴŶĥ  ĪŔ ŏ ĭƢƀ ł ƍŌɯ Ņ ĪœIJĬô ŴŶŏ ĥ :ťɕŅĿŴ Ɖ  ĥŧ  ƢƊ  Ɖ .ĶƢł ŨĥŔ Īłœ ł ł ł ł ň ĬƦÿƀ œ Ũłœ IJűłŔÿəò ˁ  Ō ŌſIJĬô ŴÿƊł ƀòˁƕƎ  ł ÿňſ Įĭ ł :IJĬŴ ô Ŷŏ ĥƢ  ŨłŔ ƁŨŌŔ Ʀƣĥ œ Īňœ ĶƢł ŨŔ ĥƗƊƣ  ĭ űſ ł ł ŅŔ Ɖ Ŕ ŨŅœ Ļ .ķűɝť Ņ űƕ łŔ ķĭĬĿ ŏ Ʀ  Ŕ ĪĿłŔ ĭł :ƢƐƕ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ Łœ ł Ʀƍ œ Ɖ Ņ ŁŔĭŦŤ ł ƉŅ Ʀ ň ň ł ł Ō Ŕ ĭň ųſ ķŴÿƌŏ ĥ Ŵô ÿƘŔ ĪĿłŔ ĭł :ķŴÿƌŏ ĥ ŴÿŷƉ  ĭĬť ŏ ƀˁ Ņ Ƈ Ũœ ķĭųƀ ŏ ł Ƈƕ  ŭ  Ŕ ł Ƈ Ƙł œ Łĥ ĭ :IJĬĭ ô űłœÿũò Ŕ łƕĭ Ņ Ŕ ŷƆť .ľŴƐƉĿ ŏ ĪłŔĪœ ųñ ɤ Ņ Ɗ Ņ Ə ň ƎƉ ň Īœ :ťŨŴ ŏ Ɖ Ņ űƕ łŔ Ņ ňœ ł ňŅ ň ł ł ŏ ň ň  ĥ ųƍəƍ  ƠƆ  ĭIJĬô ŴŶŏ ĥƢ  Ũłœ İŴLJ ťÿƤò ňƍɞ  Ļ  Ŕ ĥ :ƅ Ŕ ƘĬ  Ļĥ  Ŕ ĭŅ :ťƍŅəƍ Ņ Ɵų ň Ƈ ƃŏœ ƅ Ŕ ƘĬĥ ň œ ĭł Ŵſ Ņ .ťƊ Ņ łƖɝ  Ļ  Ŕ ĥ









  







Ch. 

Chapter  XX



Now in the days of Amraphel, king of Sinar and Arioch, king of Dalasar, 1 Chardelamar, king of Elam, and Tarel 2 king of the Gelites 3



made war on Bera, king of Sodom and on Birsha, king of Gomorrah, Shinab, king of Admah, Shemair, 4 king of Zeboiim, 5 and the king of Bela, which is Zoar.



All of these gathered in the valley of the Sodomites, 6 that is the Salt Sea.



Twelve years they served Chardelamar and in the thirteenth year they rebelled.



In the fourteenth year Chardelamar and the kings who were with him came and struck the giants 7 who were in Asteroth-karnaim and the warriors who were in them and the craftsmen 8 in Shaveh-kiriathaim



and the Horites in the mountains of Seir as far as the oak 9 of Paran in the desert.



They turned back and came to En-dina, 10 which is Reqem. They devastated all the chiefs 11 of the Amalekites and also the Amorites who lived in En-gad. 12 



MT: ‘Ellasar’. MT: ‘Tidal’. 3 MT: ‘Goiim’. 4 MT: ‘Shemeber’. 5 The Peshiṭta reads with the qere in the MT. 6 MT: ‘Siddim’. 7 MT: ‘Rephaim’. 8 ‘craftsmen’ or ‘crafts, trades’. MT: ‘Emim’ (see Deut 2:10–11). See the Introduction: Proper Names. 9 The translator read Hebrew +'— as !+š — (see Judges 6:11). 10 ‘En-dina’ or ‘Spring of Judgment’. 11 MT: ‘fields’. 12 MT: ‘Hazazon-tamar’. 1 2



űſ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

Ņœ Ɖ Ņ Ə Ņœ Ɖ Ņœ Ɖ ł ĥĪŅœIJĬô ŴÿƉł ŴòəłŨŦ :ƢÿƐŅ Ɔ ł ĪłŔĪť Ŕ ÿƄɤ ł ĴŴŔ ÿſŏ ĿĥŌ ĭŅ :ƢÿƖƍ ň Īť Ŕ ÿƄɤ ł ƈÿƘƢ Ŕ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł Ņ ň Ņ ň Ņœ ł ł ĪƢ œ ƃĭ łŔ Ŕ Īť Ŕ Ƅɤ  Ɖ  ƈƀŌƕĿ  Łĭ Ŕ :Ƌł Ƈƀ  ŌƕĪŔ ťƄɤ Ņœ Ɖ ł ƢƊƖ ł Ɔ .ťƀò ˁ  ū Ņœ Ɖ ł Ŕ Ƅɤ Ņ Ũłœ Ƌÿłƕĭ :ĶĭűÿƏ :ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ÿƊŏ ƕŅĪť Ŕ ÿƄɤ ł ƗÿƣƢ ŏŔ Īť Ņœ Ɖ ł ĺƢŅŨŅœ Ƌłƕť  ŨŅ Ŕ ƢƟ Ņ ĭô űŔũƕ łŔ Ō Ņ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņœ ł Ņ Ņň Ņ Ņœ Ɖ Ņœ Ɖ IJĬŌ .ƗÿƇŨŅ Ŕ Īť Ŕ ÿƄɤ ł ĭ :ƋſŌ ĥŴ  ÿŨĽŏ Ŕ Īť łŔ ÿƄɤ ł ƢſŤƊƣ  ĭ :ťƉ  ĪĥŔ ĪŔ ťƄɤƉ  ħ  Ŕ Ťƍƣĭ  Ņ Ņ .ƢƕĽ IJĬô Ō ň ň Ņ ŏ ŏœ łŔ ƠƉŴ Ņ Ɩɝ ŏ Ŵô ƤƍłƃłœŁŔĥƎƀƆ ťŷɤ Ņ Ɖ ň Īť Ŕ Ɗ Ņ łſ ĭĬŏ :ťƀňƉ Ņ ĭòűƏ ŏŔ Īť  Ĭķĭ  ųɤ  ƃ ł ł ł Ņ łł ł ł œ ł Ŕ Ɔ  ŁŔűŔŨŔ ĭ :ƢƊƖ  Ɔ  ĪƢ  ƄƆ Ŕ Ŵô ŷł Ƈ Ƙ œ ƎƀòɫŌ ƣŧ ǔňƐň ƕŁĿ œ Łœ .ĭôĪŔƢƉƎ ł ƀòɫŌ ƣŧ ǔňƐň ƕƦ Ņň ł ł ł łŔ ŴŷƉ ł ĭł :ųƊ ň łƕĪŔ ťƄň œ ɤò Ɖł ĭƢƊƖ ł Ɔ ł ĪƢ œ ƃŦ łŔ ŁŔ ĥ :ƎƀòɫŌ ƣŧ ǔňƐň ƖŨł œ Ŀĥ Ʀ ŧ ǔňÿũŅ œ ôƍŬƆ Ŕ ƍƤ  Ũĭ Ŕ Ōœł ŏ Ņ ł ň ò ł ŏ ň ŏ ł ň œ Ō ň ł ò ł .ƋſƦ  ſĿŴ  ƟŦ  ŴƤ  ŨŔ Īť Ŕ ƍƉ  Ƨĭ  :Ǝſų ŨŔ Īť  ĭƋƀ  ƌĿŴ  Ɵ Łĭ Ŕ ĿƦƐ  ƖŨŔ ĪłŔ Ŕ ƍəƤŌ Ɩɝ ŏ Ņ Ņ ň ł ĭł .ŧ ƢŅŨœ űŔƊ ł ŨŔ Īłœ ķƢŅƘŅŔ ĪŦ Ņ űƕ łŔ :ƢƀŌƖƏ Ņ IJǓłŴź  ŨŔ ĪłŔ ťňɕǓŅŴŷƆ Ŕ ƦƊ Ŕ ź  ũƆ Ŕ ťƉ ł ň Ņ ł ňŅ Ō :ťÿƀò Ơɤ  ƊƕĪť Ŕ ÿƍƤ ſǓƈÿƃŏ œ Ŵô ŨŔ ƢŶ ł ĭł :ƋƟĿ ň IJĬô Ō IJĬŌ :ťƍſŅ ĪŌœ ƎƀŌƖɝ  ĭŁĥ Ŕ ĭňŴô ƄŔ ƘĬ łŔ ĭł Ņ Ņ .űŔū Ņ œ ƎƀŌƖŨœ ƎƀŨŌœ Ʀ Ŕ ŅſĪť Ŕ ňɕǓŅŴƉ ŏ Ƨ Ļĥ  Ŕ ĭ



ĴįĽ ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



Ch. 



Abraham dwelt in the land of Canaan and Lot dwelt in the cities of Kakar 1 and he took possession 2 [of them] as far as Sodom.



Now the people of Sodom were very wicked and sinners before the Lord.

XIX



The Lord said to Abram after Lot had separated from him, “Lift up your eyes and look from where you are, to the north, to the south, to the east and to the west,



for all the land that you are looking at I will give to you and your descendants forever.



I will make your descendants like the dust of the earth. If you can count the dust of the earth, so also can your descendants be counted.



Rise, walk about in the land, its length and its breadth, because I will give it to you.”



So Abraham came, entered and dwelt at the oak of Mamre the Amorite 3 in Hebron. He built there an altar to the Lord.

The translator interprets Hebrew :Vš V– !™ as a place name. See the Introduction: Particular Lexical Choices. 2 See the Introduction: Particular Lexical Choices. 3 See the Introduction: Harmonization. 1



ł ň ň ŏ :ƎÿƖƍłƃŔĪť Ņ Ũłœ ħŔ Ʀ ťÿƉŅ űƕ łŔ ŁŔƢÿſ ň ĭŌ :ƢÿƄŅ Ŕ ƃŅŔĪť Ŕ ÿɕŅ ǓŴƠŏ Ũœ ħŔ Ʀ Ŕ ÿŌſİŴÿƆĭ łŔ ÿƕĿŤ Ŕ Ōſ ĶƢł ŨŔ ĥ .ĶĭűƐ ŏŔ Ɔ ł Ņ Ņ ł ŏ Ŕ Īť .ťɕƢ Ņ ƉĶ Ņ űƟ ŅŔ Ū  Ŕ ŹƎƀ  ɚŌ ź  ŶĭƎƀ  Ƥƀ Ō ŨŌœ ĶĭűƏ łŔ ƤŅ ƌŅôĥĭ ł ň Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł ň ł  ƉİŴ ň Ɔŀ ŏ ƢłƘŔ Īłœ ĿƦ Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎƉ IJŵŶ Ō ĭł ƅƀ  œ ƍłəòɯƋſ ł ĿŌĥ :ĬŁŔ ŴɝƎ ň :ĶƢł ŨŔ Ƨť  ɕƢ  ƉƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ł ł Ņ ň œ Ņ ł ł ł ł ł Ņ ł Ŕ ĭ ťƀŅŨƢ œ ŬƆ Ŕ ł :ųŨœ Ʀ  ô ƌĥĪŔ ŧ ĿŁŔĥƎ .ťŨƢŔ ƖƊƆ  ĭť  ŷƌ Ņ űŔ ƊƆ  ĭ :ťƍƊſ  ƦƆ  Ɖ ň ň Ņ œ ł ňŅ Ņ ł Ņ ŏ œ ŏ ň .Ƌł Ƈ Ɩɝť Ņ Ņ űƕ Ɖ łŔ ƅ Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ ŵɟ ł ĭł ųƀ ñ Ɔ Ō Łœĥ ƅ Ŕ Ɔ  :Ʀ  ô ƌĥŦ ŵŶ Īť Ŕ ƕĿ  ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƃŔ Ī ƈź Ɖ  ł łœ ň ňœ Ņ ł Ņ ł ł Ņ ł Ņ ƊƆ ŧ ƢŅÿƙŔ łƕť  ÿƍƊ ň Ʀÿ œ ô ƌĥŸÿƄƤ  ķĥĪ :ťƕĿĥ Ɖ  Īŧ Ŕ ƢƙŔ ƕ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ƅ Ŕ ƕĿ  ŵɟ  IJĬô ŴſűŌŔũƕĥ œ ĭň Ņ Ņ ł  ĪŔ .ťňƍƉ  Ʀ Ŕ ňƌ ƅ Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ Įł ĻŔ ĥ :ťƕĿĥ ň Ņ œ ŏ ň ŅŅ ł Ņ œ Ƨŏ :ťƕĿŤ .ųƀ ñ Ɔ Ō Łœĥ ƅ Ŕ Ɔ  Ī ƈź Ɖ  :ųñ ſƦ Ŕ ƙŔ Ɔĭ  ųñ ƃĿĭ Ņ Ũłœ ƅ Ŕ Ɔ ň ĬĶŴ ł Ɵŏ Ņ ň ł Ņ ŏ łœ ňœ ň Ō ł ł Ņ ň ł Ŕ ÿɕŅ ĿŴ Ņ Ɖ ŏ ĥŧ  ƢƊ  Ɖ  Īť Ŕ ŹŴ  Ƈ Ũ Ʀƀ ťÿƍŅ ŨŔ ĭł :ķĭƢŏÿũŔ ŷň ŨŔ Īť Ŕ Ũ ħ  Ŕ Ʀſ Ŕ ĭƈ  ƕĭ  ĶƢł ŨŔ ĥŦŁĥ Ŕ ĭ ł Ņ ł Ņ.ťɕƢ œ Ņ  ƊƆť  ŷ Ũ űŔƉ  ƎƉ Ņ ŁŔ



Ūſ  ŭſ  ŻſįĽ űſ  ųſ  Ŵſ  ŵſ  Ÿɖ 

Ch. 

Chapter  XVIII



Abram went up from Egypt, he, his wife and everything that he possessed, along with Lot, toward the south.



Abram was very rich in cattle, 1 in silver and in gold.



He went on his journey from the south as far as Bethel,



as far as the place where he had pitched his tent formerly, between Bethel and Ai, at the place where he had built an altar previously. There Abram had called on the name of the Lord.



Likewise Lot, who went with Abram, had flocks and herds and very many tents.



That land could not sustain them residing together, because their possessions were too many. They could not reside together.



There was a quarrel between the herders of Abram’s cattle and the herders of Lot’s cattle. The Canaanites and the Perizzites were still dwelling in the land.



Abram said to Lot, “Let there not be a quarrel between me and you, between my herders and your herders, because we are kinsmen.



See the whole land is before you. Separate yourself from me. If you [go] to the right, I [will go] to the left. If you [go] to the left, I [will go] to the right.”



Lot raised up his eyes and saw all the land of the Jordan, all of which was well watered. [This was] before God destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah — like God’s Paradise, like the land of Egypt, which is at the entrance to Za’an. 2



Lot chose the entire land of the Jordan. Lot set out from the east and so they separated from one another. 

1 2



‘cattle’ or ‘possessions’. MT: ‘Zoar’. See the Introduction: Harmonization.



ŭſ

ň :ķĭŅƨ ƙłŔ Ɵň

ň ł ň ł ŏ :ųÿƆň Ʀſĥ ň Ɖ ň ĶƢł ŨŔ ĥơƇƏ  ĭ ųÿƊň łƕİŴ  ÿƆĭ Ŕ ĪŌœ ƈƃĭ ŏŔ :ĬŁŔ Ʀœ ô ƌĥĭł ĭĬŏ ƎſĿƞň ƉƎ ł Ņ Ŕ .ťƍƊſ  ƦƆ Ņ ł Ņ Ŕ űłŔŨŔ ĭł :ťƉŤ Ŕ ĶƢł ŨĥŔ ĭł .ťŨĬ Ņ Ɛ Ō ŨŔ ĭł :ťƍŅəƍ Ņ Ơň Ũœ :Ū  Ŕ ŹĿ  Ʀƕ ł ň ň Ŕ ťƉ Ņ űƕ łŔ ĭł ťƍƊſ Ņ Łœ ƎƉ  IJĬô Ŵƍłˁ  Ņ Ơò ƤƊƆĵ ł Įĥł ĭň .ƈſŌ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ ũƆ ł ł Ņł ňŔ ƈſŌ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũňœ Ʀ Ŕ ƍƀŅ Ũłœ :ƋſűƟƎ Ŕ ũƆ Ʀƀ ŌŔ Ɖ ň ųňƍƄƤ œ ƉƎ ł Ɖ Ņ ŁŦ Ŕ ĭŅĬƥ ô Ơƌ ł ĪłŔŧ ĿŅŁŔƧť  Ɖ  űŔ ƕ ł ł ł ł Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ŨŔ ĥƎƉ ň Ũłœ ĶƢÿ ųÿƊƤ Ņ Łŧ Ŕ ƢƟ  ĭł .ŦƦƀ œ Ɖ Ņ űŔƠł Ũœ ƎƉ Ņ ŁŦ Ŕ ĭŅĬô űŔũƕ łŔ Īť łŔ ŷŅ Ũœ űŔƉ ł Īŧ Ŕ ĿŁŔƧ :ƁƕŅ .ťɕƢ Ņ ƉŅ Īœ ł ł ŏ ŅŅ ł ŏ ň ò ł :ŧ ǓňĭŁĭ  ĭĭĬô Ʀſ Ŕ Ō ĥ :ĶƢł ŨŔ ĥƋłƕĵ  Įĥł Īňœ İŴLJ  Ļĥ  Ŕ ĭŅ ŦŤūŴ Ŕ :ťÿòƍɯ ŔŅ ÿƏ :ťÿƍƄœ Ƥ Ɖĭ Ņ  Ŕ ŹĪœ .Ū ł ŏ Œ Ņ Ņ œ ł Ņ ŏ ň Ņ ł łœ ň ŦĭŅĬô ƁÿŬŌ œ Ə ł Īœ ƈź Ɖ  :ŧ űŔ ŷƃŔĥ ħ  ŔƦ Ɗ  Ɔ IJĬť Ņ ƕĿ Ņ ĥķĭ  ųɝ  ŁŔ ĭĬŧ ô Ƣũƀ  ƐƉ  Ƨĭ  Ņ ł Ņ ł ŏ ň ň œ ł  ƀƍŅ Ɵň .ŧ űŅ Ŕ ŷƃŔĥ ħ  ŔƦ Ɗ  Ɔ ĭĭĬƎƀ ô ʛ Ō ƄƤ œ Ɖ  Ƨĭ  :Ū  Ŕ Ź ķĭųƍ Ņ ł Ņ ň Ņ ł Ņ ň Ņ ŏ ł Œ Ņ ł Ŕ ĶƢł ŨĥŔ Īłœ ųňƍəƍ Ŕ Łĭ Ŕ ƞƉ  ŁŔ ĭĬ  ĭ :İŴÿƆŏ Īœ ųÿňƍəƍ Ņ Ɵň ĪŦ Ŕ ŁŔ ŴŅɯ  Ǔ Ʀƀ Ŕ ũƆ Ņ Ɵň ĪŦ Ŕ ŁŔ ŴŅɯ  Ǔ Ʀƀ Ŕ ŨŦ ò ł Ō Ņ.ťƕĿŤ Ō Ņ ł Ņ  Ũœ ƎƀŨœ Ʀ Ŕ Ņſƈƀ  ƃœ űƕ łŔ ťňɕĮǔƘĭ Ŕ ťƀňɫ ƖɩłƃŔĭł Ņ ł ň ň Ņ ŏ Ņ ł Ņ ł ł ň ł Ŕ Łĭ Ŕ Ƨ :İŴLJ  ĶƢł ŨŔ ĥƢƉĥ  ĭ ňŔ :ƅ Ŕ Ɔĭ Ņ ƁƍłƀŨŦ Ŕ ƞŏƉŦ  ĭĬ  Ł :ĴŔ ŁŔ ŴŅ ɯ  ǔɝIJô ŁŔŴŅ ɯ ł ǓŅ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũĭ ňò ł ň ł œ ŏ ň ł .ƎƍŶť  Ŷ ĥŧ  ǔũŔ ū Ŕ Ī ƈź Ɖ  ň ň Ņ ň ł ł Ņ ŏ Ņ ķĥĭň :ƨ ÿƊŅ ƐƆť  ÿƌŅ ĥť  ÿƍƀŅ Ɗ Ō ƀɞ ł Ʀ œ ô ƌĥķĥ :Ɓƍ ô Ɖŀĭ ň ƢŏƘ œ :ƅƀ œ Ɖ ł űƟť ŅŔ ƕĿ Ņ ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƃŦ Ŕ Ĭ ň Ņ ł Ō Ņ ň Ņ Ņ  ƐƆ  Ʀ  œ ô ƌĥ .ťƍƀ Ɗ  ƀɞ ł ťƌĥ  ƨ Ɗ ł Ņ ƣň Ʀÿƀ :IJĬť ô ÿƀƠ Ŕ Ũňœ ųñ ÿɤŅ ƃŏ Ŕ Īœ ƎƌŅĪĿŴ œ ſŏĪť Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ ĥ ųñ ɤŅ ƃŦ ŏŔ ŵŶ Ņ ĭł :IJĬŴ ô ƍłəòɯİŴ ł ƆƋſ ŏ ĿĥŌ ĭł ł ł Ņ ŏ Ņ ł ŏ ł Ņ Ņ ł ň œ ł łœ Ņ ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ƅſĥ  Ŕ ĭł :ŦųŅ Ɔĥ Ņ Īłœ ųƐſ ň ĪƢ  Ŕ ĥ :ŧ ĿŴ Ɗ  Ɩɝ  ĭĶĭ  űƐ Ŕ ƆŦ  ų Ɔ  ĥ ƈũ ŷ ƌĪ ĶűƟ Ŕ łœ Ƙł œ ƅſ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ł Ņ .ƎƕĽĪť Ŕ ƍˁƖ  Ɗ  ŨŔ Īœ ƎſĿƞ Ɖ ň ĪŔ ł Ņ ŏœ ŏ ň Ņ ł ŀƢłÿƘŔ ĭł :ťÿŷƌŅ űŔ ƉƎ ł ƉİŴ ň Ɔƈ ŏ ł ĭł :ƎƌŅĪĿŴ Ơƣ œ ſŏĪť Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƃ İŴƆų  Ɔť  ũŔ ū  ĭ ł ň łŔ ŏ  ƉƢ  ũŔ ū œ .IJĬŴ ô Ŷ ĥƎ



ŸſįĽ ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



į



İ



IJ 

ťſ 

Ch. 



Abram set out and went. His journey took him southward. 1

XVII



Now there was a famine in the land and Abram went down to Egypt to stay there because the famine in the land was very severe.



As he was about to enter Egypt, he said to Sarai his wife, “Now I know that you are a women beautiful in appearance.



When the Egyptians see you, they will say, ‘This is his wife.’ They will kill me and keep you alive.



Say, ‘I am his sister,’ 2 so that it might go well for me because of you and I myself will stay alive because of you.”



When Abram entered Egypt, the Egyptians saw that his 3 wife was very beautiful.



Pharaoh’s nobles saw her and they praised her to Pharaoh. The woman was brought to Pharaoh’s house.



It went well for Abram because of her. He had flocks and oxen, male donkeys, male and female slaves, female donkeys and camels.



The Lord struck Pharaoh and the members of his household with severe plagues because of Sarai, Abram’s wife.



Pharaoh called to Abram and said to him, “What is this that you have done to me! Why did you not tell me that she was your wife?



Why did you say, ‘She is my sister’? I took her as a wife. Now then, here is your wife. Take [her] and go.”



Pharaoh gave orders to his men regarding him and he sent him off along with his wife and all that he possessed.

MT: ‘Negeb’. The Hebrew word is a place name (the region south of the hill country of Judah). It can also refer to the ‘south’ as the Peshiṭta has interpreted it. 2 MT: ‘Say you are my sister’. 3 The Peshiṭta adds the possessive pronoun, ‘his’. 1



ł ł Ŕ ųňƍˁƠƤ  Ņ Ɖĭ ł :ĵĮĥł ĭĶ ň ƢłŨŔ ĥ ƈƠƣ ł ĭł .ťƍƊſ Ņ ƦƆ

İ



ŵſįĽ

ł ł ň ł ň ł Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ ł ň Īłœ ƈÿźŏ Ɖ ƎÿƤƕ ň :ƎÿƉŅ Łœ ƢÿƊƖ  ƎſĿƞň ƊƆĶ ƊƆ ň ƢłŨŔ ĥ Ʀ Ŕ ŷƌ  ĭ :ťƕĿŤ  Ũť Ŕ ƍƙŔ ƃŦ Ŕ ĭĬ  ĭ IJ Ņ Ņ.ťƕĿŤ ł  Ũœ Ū  Ŕ Źť  ƍŅƙŔ ƃłœ ň œ ł ł ł ň ň ň łƖƊƆ  ň Ūſ  Ŕ ƢŌƟł űŔƃłŔĪŦ  ĭĬ Ņ ĭł ťſ ťÿƌŅ ôĥĺűłŔÿɖŅ ŦĬŅ :ĬŁŔ Ʀÿ ô ƌĥ IJƢÿƐƆƢÿƉł ĥ :ƎſĿƞ ƊƆƈ łœ Ņ ň œ ł Ō œ ł Ŕ Ņ œ ł .IJô ƦôƌĥŦĭŵ  ŷ Ũ ŁŔƢƀ  ƙ ƣ ŦŁŔ ƦôƌĥĪŔ ň Ō Ō Ƈź ł Ŕ Ūſ œ ô ƌĥłķĭƢÿƉŤ ŏ ƌŌ :ťÿňɕǓŅƞƉ ň Ɓô ÿƄŔ ňƌĭ  ŵŷ ŏ ňƌ űŔƃĭ Ɓô ÿƄŔ Ɔĭ ň .ƁÿƆƎÿƀ  ƟŅ .ŧ ĪňŔĬŅ IJĬŌ ĬŁŔ Ʀÿ .Ǝƀʖ ň ŤƉ ł Ō ň ŏ ň Ņ ň Ņ œ ň Ņ ŏ ň ł Ŕ :Ɓô ÿ ƃŔ Ʀ Ŕ Ƈ ź Ɖ  Ɓÿ ƆŌ ħŤ  Ŕ ÿ źňƌĪœ ƈÿ źƉ  :ťÿ ƌôĥĬƦ Ŕ ÿ ŶĪ IJô Ƣÿ Ɖł ĥ ŭſ Ɓô ÿ ƤƙŔ ƌť ł ÿ Ŷň ĥŁĭ ň Ņ ŏ ň Ɖ  .Ɓô ƃŔƦ Ŕ Ƈ ź ň Ņ ł ł ň Ĭĭ ñ ŏ ĥŵŶ ł :ƎſĿƞň ƊƆĶ ň ƢłŨŔ ĥ ƈłƕ űŔƃłŔĪŦ Ŕ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł űſ .Ū  Ŕ ŹIJĬô ŧ Ƣƀ Ņ ƙŌœ ƣł Īœ ĬŁŔ Ʀœ ô ƌƧťňɕǓŅƞƉ Ņ œ ł Œ ł łœ œ ň ŏ ň œ Ņ ňŔ ŦŁŔ Ʀÿ  ô ƌĥ ŁŔ ƢŨŔ ĪŁĥ Ŕ ũƆ Ʀÿƀ  ĭ :ķŴƕƢ  Ƙ ĶűƟ Ŕ ĬŴ ñ ŷŏ ũœ ƣĭ ł :ķŴƕƢ ŏ Ƙň œ ƁƍłŨŅ Ŕ ǓĭĿł Ĭĭ ñ ŏ ĥŵŶ ł ĭł ųſ .ķŴƕƢ ŏ Ƙň œ Ņ ň ł òŅ Ņ ň ł ł ñ Ņ Ņ ŏ ň ň Ņ ł ł  ųƆ  ĭĭĬ  ĭ :Ĭ Ʀ Ŕ Ƈ ź Ɖ  ħ  ŤŹ ĶƢŨŔ Ƨĭ  Ŵſ :ŦŁŔ ųŅ Ɖò ĥĭň :ŧ űňœũòŔ łƕĭ  :ŧ ǔŅƊŶĭ ň :ŧ ǓĭŁĭ Ŕ :ťƍɯ ň ò Ŕł ňò Ņ œ ł .ƨ Ɗ  ūĭ Ŕ :ťɧŁĥ  ĭ Ņ ł ŏ ň ŏ ň ň œ łœ ł ò ł Ņ IJƢłƏƈ ł Ɖ ź  :ĬƦƀ  Ũ ƁƍũŔ ƆĭųƆ ň :ŦƦ Ŕ ŨŅ Ŕ ǓĭĿŦ ł ŁŔ ŴŅ ŷò ƉķŴ  ƕƢ  ƙƆ Ŕ ťɕƢ Ņ Ɖť Ņ ŷƉ Ņ ĭł ŵſ ň ł .ĶƢł ŨĥŔ Īłœ ĬŁŔ Ʀœ ô ƌĥ ł ŏ ň Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ łŔ ƌŅĬŅ ŴƍłƉ Ņ :ųƆƢ ň Ɖĥ ł ĭň ĶƢł ŨŔ ƧķŴ  ƕƢ  Ƙŧ Ŕ ƢƟ  ĭ Ÿɖ Ɓô ƌƦſ œ ŴŌ ÿŶ  ÿƍƊƆ Ƨť  : ƁƆ Ō Łœűœũƕ łŔ Īť Ņ .IJĬô Ō ĴŔ ŁŔ Ʀ œ ô ƌĥĪłœ ň Ņ ł Ņ œ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ œ ł Ō Ņœ ł ł Ō  ô ƌĥŦĬť  ÿƣĬ :ŦŁŔ Ʀÿ  ô ƌĥ ƁÿƆ Ĭñ Ʀ  ũŔ Ɛ  ƌĭ :IJĬô IJô Ʀ ƢÿŨł Ŕ Īœ ĴŔ ŁŔ Ʀÿ Ŕ ŶŅ Īœ ŁƢ œ Ɖ ł ĥť  ƍŅƊƆ  ĭ Żſ .ĵňĮĭ  ň ł ň ň œł ň ł ŏ ňœ  Ŀűƣĭ  :ŧ ǔũŔ ū  œ ķŴƕƢ  Ƙ IJĬô Ŵł Ƈƕ  űŔƠň Ƙĭ łŔ Ĵ . ųƆ ň Ʀſĥ Ŕ ĪŌœ ƈƄƆ ŏŔ ĭł :ĬŁŔ Ʀœ ô ƌƧĭųƆĬ











 











Ch. 

Chapter  XV



The Lord said to Abram, “Go from your land, from where you were born and from your father’s house, to a land that I will show you.



I will make you a great nation, and I will bless you, and I will make your name great and you will be blessed. 1



I will bless [those races] who bless you and [those races] who curse you I will curse. All the races of the earth will be blessed in you and in your descendants.” 2



Abram did 3 just as the Lord had said to him and Lot went with him. Abram was seventy-five years old when he left Haran.



Abram brought Sarai his wife and Lot, his brother’s son, and all the possessions that they had acquired and the persons whom they had acquired 4 in Haran and they set out to go to the land of Canaan. Then they came to the land of Canaan.



Abram passed through the land as far as the area of Shechem and as far as the oak of Mamre. The Canaanites were still dwelling 5 in the land.

XVI



The Lord appeared to Abram and said to him, “To your descendants I will give this land.” He built there an altar to the Lord who had appeared to him.



He departed from there toward the mountain east of Bethel and he pitched his tent with Bethel to the west and Ai to the east. He built there an altar to the Lord and he called on the name of the Lord. 



‘you will be blessed’: lit. ‘Be blessed’. See the Introduction: Harmonization. 3 MT: ‘went’. 4 ‘they had acquired’: lit. ‘they had made’. 5 Absent in the MT. 1 2



Ūſ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

Ō ł ň ł ň Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł ň ň :Łœűœň Ƈſ ň ſĥƎ  Ɖĭ  ƅ Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ ĥƎƉ  ƅŔ Ɔĵ  ňĮ :ĶƢłŨŔ Ƨť  ɕƢ  ƉƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ʀÿƀ  ŁĥŔ ĪňŔ ťƄŅœ Ɗ Ŕ Ũňœ ƎƉĭ ł ł Ņ ň ň ł .ƅſ  Ŕ Ŵ Ŷĥ  Īť Ŕ ƕĿ  Ƨ :ĴŴ Ŕ Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ .ƅſ  Ŕ ƢŌŨŔ IJĭĬ Ō ĭł :ƅ Ŕ Ɗƣ Ņ ħ  Ŕ Ŀĭĥ ň ĭł ƅ Ŕ ƃŅŔƢŨĥ łœ ĭň :ťŨŅœ ĿłťƊ Ņ łƖɝ  ĴŔ űŅŔũƕ œ ĥĭň ň œ łŅ ò ł ł œ łŅ ł Ņ ł ųɤ ň ƃŏœ ƅ Ŕ ÿŨŅ œ ƎƃŅŔǔŨłœ Ʀ ŦƦ Ŕ ÿŨŅ Ŕ ǔƣƎÿſ Ŕ ňƌĭ .İŴƆ ŏ ĥ ƅƀ  ƍź  ƀˁ  Ɖĭ :ƅƀ  ƍƃŔ ǔũƉ Ŕ ĴŔ ƢňŨĥł œ ĭň .ƅ Ŕ ƕŅĿŵłŨŔ ĭł :ťƕĿĥ Ņ ĪłŔ ł ł ł ł ƎƀŌƖũŔ ƣƢ ł Ũłœ ĶƢłŨĥ Ŕ ĭł :İŴƆų ŏ Ɗ ň łƕĵ  Įĥł ĭň :ťɕƢ Ņ Ɖų Ņ ƆƢ ň Ɖĥ ł Īňœ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ĶƢłŨŔ ĥ űŔũƕ Ŕ ĭ ł Ņ ł ň ň Ō ò Ŕ űŔƃœ Ǝƀɫ ƣ ƥƊ  ŶĭŦ ł ĭŅĬô .ķƢŶƎ Ņ Ɖơ  ƙƌ ł ł ŏ ł ň œ ł ł ł ň ŏ ł ł Īłœ ķĭųƍ :ŴÿƍƟ ŏ ƀƍŅ Ɵų ň Ƈ ƄƆ Ŕ ĭ :IJĬŴ ô Ŷŏ ĥƢ  Ũłœ İŴLJ  ƢłŨŔ ĥ ƢŨł Ŕ ĪŔĭł  ĭ :ĬŁŔ Ʀôƌĥ IJƢƐƆĶ ł ł ł Ņ Ņ ł .ƎƖƍłƃŔĪť łŔ ƕĿ Ņ Ƨ ĭŁĥŔ ĭň :ƎƖƍłƃŔĪť łŔ ƕĿ Ņ Ƨĵ  ĮŤł ƊƆ ň Ŵô Ơƙƌ łŔ ĭł :ķƢŅŷŅ Ũœ ĭô űŔũƕ łŔ ĪłŔ ŦƦ  Ŕ Ƥò ƙŔ ƌĭ Ņ ł ŏ ł Ō Ŕ ĪłŔ ŧ ĿŅŁŔƧť Ņ Ũłœ ĶƢÿ ł ÿŨŔ ĥł Ƣÿũƕ ł Ŕ ĭł :ŧ Ƣÿ ňÿƊƉ ł Īť Ŕ ÿŹŴƇ ũƆ Ŕ ťÿƉŅ űƕ łŔ ĭł :ƋÿÿƀƄƣ  ÿƉŅ űƕ łŔ :ťÿƕĿŤ .ťƕĿŤ Ņ Ũłœ ƎƀŨŌœ Ʀ Ŕ ŅſƈƀƃŌœ űƕ łŔ ťƀňɫŅ òƖɩłƃŔĭł ň Ņ ł ł Ō œ ň Ņ ĥł ųƀ ťÿƍŅ ŨŔ ĭł .ŧ ĪňŔĬť Ņ ÿƕĿ ñ Ɔ Ō Łœĥ ƅ Ŕ ƕĿ  ŵɟ  : ųƆ ň ƢƉĥ ł ĭň :ĶƢłŨŔ ĥ ƈłƕť  ɕƢ Ņ Ɖ Ņ ƁƇ ū  Łĥ Ŕ ĭ ł Ō œ ňœ Ņ Ņ ł ł œ Ņ .IJĬŴ ô Ƈƕ  ƁƇ ū  Łĥ Ŕ Ī :ťɕƢ  ƊƆ  ťŷ Ũ űŔƉƎ  Ɖ Ņ ŁŔ ł ň Ōł ŏ ňŔ ťŷƌ Ņ űŔ ƉƎ ł Ɖ ň :ŧ ĿŴ Ņ źƆƎ  Ɖ Ņ Łœ ƎƉ  Ɓƍƣĭ  Ŕ Ũňœ :ųÿňƍƄƤ Ʀÿƀ œ Ɖƥ ł Ơƌ ł ĭł :ƈſŌ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ ũƆ ł Ņ ł Ņ ł ň Ņ Ņ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ł ł Ņ œ Ņ  :ťŨƢŔ ƖƉƎ  Ɖƈſ  Ō ĥ ŧ ƢÿƟ  ĭ :ťÿɕƢƊƆť  ÿŷŨ űŔƉƎ  ÿƉŁť Ŕ ÿƍŨŔ ĭ :ťŷƌ  űŔ ƉƎ  Ɖ  Ɓƕĭ .ťɕƢ Ņ Ɖ Ņ Īœ ųƊƤ ň ŨłŔ



ųſįĽ ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



ŴſįĽ Į



į



Ch. 



Abram and Nahor took wives for themselves. The name of the wife of Abram was Sarai and the name of the wife of Nahor was Milcah, daughter of Haran, the father of Milcah and the father of Iscah.



Sarai was barren. She had no children.



Terah took his son Abram and his grandson Lot, the son of Haran, and Sarai his daughter-in-law, the wife of his son Abram, and he went out with them from Ur of the Chaldeans to go to the land of Canaan. They reached Haran and settled there.



The days of Terah were two hundred and five years. Terah died in Haran.



ň œ ł ň ň œ ł ň ňò ň ŏ Ņ ł ł ŏ ł ƢłŨĥ  ô ƌĥƋƣĭ  :IJƢłƏĶ Ŕ Īłœ ĬŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥƋƣ :ťƤ ƌĿŴ  ŷ ƌĭ  ĶƢŨŔ ĥķĭųɝ  Ŵô ũŔ Ɛƌ ł ĭł Żƃ ĬŁŔ Ʀÿ ł .ťƄƏĥ Ņœ Īłœ ĬŴ ñ Ũĥŏ Ŕ ĭł :ťƄɤ Ņœ Ɖ ň Īœ ĬŴ ñ Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ :ķĿŅĬŅ ŁŔƢŨť łŔ Ƅɤ Ņœ Ɖ ň ĿŴŷŏ ƌŅĪœ Ņ Ņ ł ł ł Œ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ĭňĬ Ņ Ƨĭ  :ŦŁƢ Ŕ Ơƕ IJƢƏ  ŁŔ ĭĬ  ĭ ĵ .ťƀò ɫł Ũœ ųñ ɝƎſ ł ł ň łœ ł ł ł ň œ łœ Ņ Ņ łœ ŏ ł ň œ ł ł łœ ł ł œ ô ƌĥĬƦƇ Ŕ ƃ IJƢƐƆ  ĭ :ĬƢŨ ƢŨ ķĿĬƢ ŁŔƦÿ  Ũ İŴLJ  ĭ :ĬƢŨ ĶƢŨŔ Ƨ įĿŁ ƢŨŔ ĪŔĭ Ƨ ł ň ł ł ł ň ňò Ņ ł œ ŏ ň Ņ ł ł ĭŁĥ Ŕ ĭ :ƎÿƖƍƃŔĪť Ŕ ƕĿ  Ƨĵ  ĮŤ ƊƆť  ɕűɤ Ŕ ƃŔ Ī Ŀĭĥ ƎƉķĭ  ųƊ ŏ łƕ ơƙƌ łŔ ĭł :ĬƢňŨœ ĶƢłŨŔ ĥ ł ň Ō ŅŅ łŔ . ƎƉ Ņ Łœ Ŵô ŨŔ Ʀſ Ŕ ĭķƢŷƆť  ƉŅ űƕ ň ł ł œ ň Ņòł ł ł ł Ŕ Ɖ  įĿŁŔ Ī ĬƦ Ŕ Ɖ  Ŵ ɖ ĭĭĬ  ĭ ŪƆ .ķƢŅŷŅ Ũœ įĿŁœ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ɖĭ Ō :ƎƀòɫŌ ƣƥƊ ň ŶĭƎſ ł ŁŤ





 



Ch. 



Arpachshar lived four hundred and three years after he begot Shelah and he begot sons and daughters.



When Shelah had lived thirty years, he begot Eber.



Shelah lived four hundred and three years after he begot Eber and he begot sons and daughters.



When Eber had lived thirty-four years, he begot Peleg.



Eber lived four hundred and thirty years after he begot Peleg and he begot sons and daughters.



When Peleg had lived thirty years, he begot Aru. 1



Peleg lived two hundred and nine years after he begot Aru and he begot sons and daughters.



When Aru had lived thirty-two years, he begot Serug.



Aru lived two hundred and seven years after he begot Serug and he begot sons and daughters.



When Serug had lived thirty years, he begot Nahor.



Serug lived two hundred years after he begot Nahor and he begot sons and daughters.



When Nahor had lived twenty-nine years, he begot Terah.



Nahor lived one hundred and nineteen years after he begot Terah and he begot sons and daughters.



When Terah had lived seventy-five2 years, he begot Abram, Nahor, and Haran.



These are the descendants of Terah: Terah begot Abram, Nahor, and Haran. Haran begot Lot.



Haran died during the lifetime of Terah his father in the land where he was born, in Ur of the Chaldeans. 

1 2



MT: ‘Reu’. MT: ‘seventy’.



ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł ł ň ĭł :Ǝÿƀò ɫŌ ƣ ƦŔ Ɔ űŔ ÿƆĭĥ Ņ ŁŔĭŦŤ ł ƊƖ Ņ Ũłœ Ŀĥ :ŸƇ ƤƆ  űŔƆĭĥ ň Īłœ ĿƦ Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎƉƢ ł œ ĥťƀʖ  ĭ ŭſ ň ƤŅ ƄŔ ƘĿ Ņ òŅ ł òŅ ł œ  ƀɫ Ũ .ŦƦ Ŕ ƍŨŔ ĭť Ō Ņ œ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ŕ Ɔ  Ł ŸƇ ƣ ťƀʖĭ űſ .ƢũŅ Ŕ Ɩɝ Ņ űŔƆĭĥ ň ĭł :ƎƀòɫŌ ƣƎſƦ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ň ĭł :Ǝÿƀò ɫƣ Ņ Ũł œ Ŀĥł :ƢÿũŅ Ŕ Ɩɝ űŔÿƆĭĥ Ō Ʀ Ŕ ÿƆŅ ŁŔĭŦŤ ł ÿƊƖ Ņ űŔƆĭĥ ň Īłœ ĿƦ Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎƉŸ ň Ƈ ƣť  ƀʖ  ĭ ųſ Ņ òŅ ł òŅ ł œ  ƀɫ Ũ .ŦƦ Ŕ ƍŨŔ ĭť Ō Ņ œ ŅŅ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ .ŭ  Ŕ Ƈ ƙƆ Ŕ űŔƆĭĥ ň ĭł :ƎƀòɫŌ ƣƗŨłœ ĿĥĭƎſ Ŕ Ɔ  Ł ƢũŔ ƕť  ƀʖ  ĭ Ŵſ ł Ʀ ł Ō Ņ ł Ņ łœ ł Ņ Ņ ň ĭł :Ǝÿƀò ɫŌ ƣƎſƦ Ŕ Ɔ  ŁŔĭŦŤ  ƊƖ  Ũ Ŀĥ :ŭ űŔÿƆĭĥ  Ŕ Ƈ ƙƆ Ŕ űŔƆĭĥ ň Īłœ ĿƦ Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎƉƢ ň ũŅ Ŕ ƕť Ņ ƀʖ Ņ ĭł ŵſ Ņ Ņ ł òŅ ł œ  ƀɫŨ .Ŧ Ʀ Ŕ òƍŨŔ ĭť Ņ Ō Ņ œ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ŕ Ɔ  Ł ŭ  Ŕ Ƈ Ƙť Ŕ ƀʖ  ĭ Ÿɖ .ŴƕĿ ŏ Ƨ űŔƆĭĥ ň ĭł :ƎƀòɫƣƎ Ō ſƦ ň Ņ ň łœ ł Ņ œ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ň ĭł :ƎƀòɫŌ ƣƗƣł ŁĭƎſ Ŕ Ɖ ł :ŴƕĿ ŏ Ƨ űŔƆĭĥ  Ī ĿƦ Ŕ Ũ ƎƉ  ŭ  Ŕ Ƈ Ƙť Ŕ ƀʖ  ĭ Żſ ťÿƀò ɫł Ũœ űŔÿƆĭĥ Ŕ ł ŁŤ Ņ òŅ ł .ŦƦ Ŕ ƍŨŔ ĭ ň ł Ō Ņ ŏ Ņ Ņ ł Ŕ Ɔ  ŁŔ ŴƕĿ  ĥť  ƀʖ  ĭ Ĵ .Ĩĭ  Ŕ ƢŏƐƆ Ņ űŔƆĭĥ ň ĭł :ƎƀòɫŌ ƣƎſŁœ ĿŁĭ Ŕ ƎſƦ Ņ Ņ ł ł ň Īłœ ĿƦ ň ĭł :Ǝÿƀò ɫŌ ƣƗÿũƣ Ņ űŔÿƆĭĥ ł Ŕ ĭł ƎÿſňŁŤ Ŕ Ɖ ł :Ĩĭ  Ŕ ƢŏÿƐƆ Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎƉ űŔÿƆĭĥ ň ŴƕĿ ŏ ĥť  ƀʖ  ĭ ťƃ Ņ òŅ ł òŅ ł œ  ƀɫ Ũ .ŦƦ Ŕ ƍŨŔ ĭť Ō Ņ œ Ŕ Ɔ  Ł Ĩĭ  Ŕ ƢŏƏť Ņ ƀʖ Ņ ĭł Ūƃ .ĿŴŷŏ ƍɞ Ņ űŔƆĭĥ ň ĭƎ ł ƀòɫŌ ƣƎſƦ ň ł ł Ņ ň Īłœ ĿƦ ň ĭł :Ǝÿƀò ɫƣƎÿſ Ŕ Ɖ  :ĿŴÿŷŏ ƍɞ Ņ űŔÿƆĭĥ Ŕ ÿŨŅ œ ƎƉ Ō ŁŤ ň Ĩĭ  Ŕ ƢŏƏť Ņ ƀʖ Ņ ĭł ŭƃ ťÿƀò ɫł Ũœ űŔÿƆĭĥ Ņ Ņ ŦƦ Ŕ òƍŨŔ ĭł ł Ŕ űŔƆĭĥ ň ĭł :ƎƀòɫƣƗ Ō ƣł ŁŔĭƎſ ł ƢƐ Ō ň ƕĿŴ  ŷŏ ƌť Ņ ƀʖ Ņ ĭł űƃ .įĿƦƆ ł ł Ņ Ŕ űŔƆĭĥ ň Īłœ ĿƦ Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎƉĿŴ ň ĭł :ƎƀòɫŌ ƣŧ ǔňƐň Ɩƣł ŁŔĭŦŤ ł Ɖ Ņ :įĿƦƆ ň ŷŏ ƌť Ņ ƀʖ Ņ ĭł ųƃ ťÿƀò ɫł Ũœ űŔƆĭĥ Ņ Ņ .Ŧ Ʀ Ŕ òƍŨŔ ĭł ł Ņ ł ł ň ł òŌ ŌƖũŔ ƣł įĿŁť .ķĿŅųɝ Ņ ĭł :ĿŴŷŏ ƍɞ Ņ ĭł :ĶƢłŨŔ Ƨ űŔƆĭĥ  ĭ :Ǝƀɫ ƣƥƊ ň ŶĭƎƀ ł  ĭ Ŵƃ Ŕ ƀʖ ň ł ň Ņ ł ł Ņ ł ň ł łœ ŅŔ ĭòŁœ ƎƀƆ  Ĭ ŵƃ űŔƆĭ ň ĥķ  ĿŅĬĭ  .ķĿŅųɝ Ņ ĭł :ĿŴŷŏ ƍɞ Ņ ĭł :ĶƢłŨŔ Ƨ űŔƆĭ  ĥ įĿŁ :įĿŁŔ Īœ ĬŁŔ űɝ ŏ .İŴLJ  Ō ł ł ň Ņ ł œ ŏœ ñ Ņœ ň ň Ņ łœ .ťòɕűɤ Ŕ ƃŔ Ī ĿĭŤŨ :ų Ũ űŔƇſ Ŕ Īť  Ũ :IJĬŴ  Łĥ ô Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ įĿŁœ Ɓɚò ł ʛ ł Ũœ ķĿŅĬŅ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ɖĭ Ō Ÿƃ Ŕ ƕĿŤ 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 



Ch. 

Chapter  XIII



All the earth was one language, one way of speaking.



When they set out from the east, they found a broad valley in the land of Sinar 1 and they settled there.



They said to one another, “Come, let us make bricks and fire them thoroughly.” They had brick for stone and bitumen for mortar.



They said, “Come, let us build for ourselves a city and a tower, the top of which will be in the heavens. We will make a name for ourselves lest we will be scattered over the face of all the earth.”



The Lord came down to see the city and the tower that the people were building.



The Lord said, “All of them now are one people and one language and they have devised 2 to accomplish things such as this. Therefore, they will not lack the ability to do anything that they devise.



Come, let us go down there and let us divide up the languages so that no one will be able to understand the language of his neighbor.”



The Lord scattered them from there over the face of all the earth and they desisted from building the city.



For this reason it was called Babel, because there the Lord confounded the languages of all the earth and from there the Lord scattered them over the face of all the earth.



These are the descendants of Shem. When Shem was one hundred years old, he begot Arpachshar 3 two years after the flood.



After Shem begot Arpachshar, he lived five hundred years and he begot sons and daughters.

XIV



When Arpachshar had lived thirty-five years, he begot Shelah. 



MT: ‘Shinar’. MT: ‘begun’. 3 MT: ‘Arpachshad’. 1 2



.ťſ

ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

Ņ ł Ņ ŏœ Ņ ł .űŔŶ ł ƨˁƊ  ô Ɖĭ ł űŔŶť ł ƍŅƤŅ Ɔ ň ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƃ ŁŔĭĬ  ĭ ň ň Ņ Ņ Ə Ņ ŨŦ Ŵô ÿŨŔ Ʀſ Ŕ ĭŌ :ƢÿƖƍ ň Īť Ŕ ÿƕĿŤ łŔ ƦÿƖ Ŕ Ơł Ƙ œ Ŵô ÿŷƄƣ łœ ĥ :ťÿŷƌŅ űŔ ƉƎ ł Ɖ ň Ŵô ƇƠƣ ł űŔƃłŔĪŦ Ŕ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł ł .ƎƉ Ņ Łœ ň ň ł ňò ň ň ł ł œ ň ł ķĭųÿɝť ŏ Ņ Ĭĭ ɕĭ Ņ ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ƍŏŨœ Ǝƀň ƌĥ űŔƟŴ  ƌĭ  :ťƍũŔ Ɔť  ƉƢ  ƌ ĭŁ :ĬƢũŔ ŷƆƢ  ũłŔ ū  œ  ĭô ƢƉĥ ł ĭň Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ň Ŕ .ťź  ƇƊ  Ɔķĭ  ųɝŦ ŏ ĭňĬŧ Ņ űƀ Ņœ Ə ł ĭ :ťƘŤ ŅŔ ƄƆ ŌŔ ŦƦ œ ôƍũƆ Ņ ł Ņ Ō ł ň ň łœ Ņ ÿƆł űŔÿũƖ ň œ ňƌĭ :ťÿƊƣƎ  :ťƀŅƊƤ ł Ũłœ ųƤň ſĿŌĪ Ŕ ƧűœŬ Ŕ Ɖĭ  :ŦƦſ Ŕ ƢƟƎ  Ɔť  ƍũŔ ƌ ĭŁ :ĭôƢƉĥ ł ĭň ł ł ł  űłœŨłœ Ʀ .ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ųñ ɤ Ņ ƃŏœƁƘò œ ĥ ƈłƕĿ Ŕ ňƌ ťƊƆ Ņ Īłœ Ņ ł Ņ Ō Ņ ň .ťƤŅ ƍŅəòɫł Ũœ ƎƀňƍŨŅ Ŕ Ī Ŕ ƧűœŬ Ŕ Ɖĭ  :ŦƦſ Ŕ ƢƟ Ŧ ŵŷ  ƊƆť  ɕƢ Ņ Ɖ Ņ Ʀ Ŕ ŷƌ ň ĭł ň ł ĭň Ņ Ɖ ł ÿ ƍŅ ƤŅ Ɔĭ ł ÿ ƊŅ łƕŦ Ŵô ÿ ũŔ Ƥł Ŷł ŁŔĥť  ÿ ƍŅ ƃłŔĬĭ Ņ :ķĭųÿ ŏ ÿɤƄƆ ŏŔ űŔÿ Ŷť ň :űŔÿ Ŷť  ĬŅ :ťÿ ɕƢ Ņ Ƣÿ Ɖĥ Ņ ň .űŔũƖ łœ Ɗ ň ƆŴô ũŔ Ƥł Ŷł Łĥ Ŕ Īňœ Ķűň œ Ɖƈ ƃŏœ ķĭųƍ ŏ Ɖ ň ĿƞłŨłœ Ʀ łœ Ɗ ň Ɔ Ŕ ňƌ Ƨƈƀ  ƄŌœ Ɖ ň :űŔũƖ ł Ņ ň ň Ņ łœ ň ł ł .ĬƢňũŔ ŶƎ ł ƤŅ ƆƢ ň ũłŔ ū  œ ķŴƖƊ ŏ Ƥňƌ  ƧĪœ :ťòƍƤŅ ƆƎ  Ɖ  Ł ŭ  Ŕ Ƈ ƙƌ Ŕ ĭ :ŁŴ Ŕ ŷŏ ňƌ ĭŁœ ł ň Ņ Ņ ŏň łœ ł Ņ ĥł ųñ ÿɤŅ ƃŏœƁƘò ł œ ĥł ƈłƕƎ ťÿƍŅ ũŔ ƊƆ ň Īłœ ƎÿƉň Ŵô ÿƤƘĭ  Ɖ Ņ Łœ ƎƉť  ɕƢƉķŴ  ƌĥĿ  űŨĭ Ŕ ŅŔ :ťÿƕĿ Ņ Ō Ŕ ƢƟ  .ŦƦſ ŏ ň ň ň Ņ Ņ ň œ Ũł œ ƎÿƉŅ ŁłŔĪœ ƈÿźŏ Ɖ Ņ ƢƟť ťÿòƍƤŅ Ɔť  ÿɕƢƉ  ƈÿũɤ ň :ƈÿũň Ŕ ŨŅœ ųÿƊƣŧ Ņ ƌŅĬƈ Ņ ź Ɖ  ł Ņ ŏ œ òł œ ł ł Ņ Ņ ŏ ň ł œ ł œ Ņ ł œ ň Ņ ł Ņ ŏ Ņ.ťƕĿ  ɕƢ  ƉķŴ  ƌĥĿ  űŨ ƎƉ  ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƃŔ ĪŔ  :ťƕĿ  ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƃƁƘ ĥ ƈƕť  Ł ƎƉĭ ň Ņ ò łœ ň Ņ ň ł ł Ō ł œ Ƨł űŔƆĭ ň ĥ Ǝƀòɫƣ  ŦŤƉƢ Ņ Ũłœ Ƌƀƣň :Ƌƀƣň Īœ ĬŁŔ űɝ Ŕ ĭŁ ƎƀƆ  Ĭ Ǝÿƀò ɫŌ ƣƎſŁœ ĿŁœ :ƢƤŅ ƄŔ ƘĿ ł ł Ņœ ň Ņ Ņ œ Ŕ Ũ ƎƉ .ťƍƘŴŹĿƦ ł Ņ ł œ Ƨł űŔƆĭĥ ň ĭł :Ǝÿƀò ɫŌ ƣŦŤÿƉŅ ƥÿƊň ŶƢ ň Īłœ ĿƦ Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎƉƋƀ ł ƤŅ ƄŔ ƘĿ ň ƣť ň ƀʖ Ņ ĭł ťÿƀò ɫł Ũœ űŔÿƆĭĥ Ņ Ņ .Ŧ Ʀ Ŕ òƍŨŔ ĭł Ō Ņ Ņ Ņ łœ ł Ņ Ņ Ō  ĭ Ŕ Ɔ  Łť Ŕ ƀʖƢ  Ƥ ƄŔ ƘĿĥ .ŸƇ ƤƆ  űŔƆĭĥ ň ĭł :Ǝƀòɫƣƥ ň ŶĭƎſ Ɗ ł Ʀ



ŭſįĽ ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



į



İ



IJ  ťſ  űſįĽ Ūſ 

Ch. 



Their settlement was from Menasha, 1 which is at the entrance of Sepharwim, 2 the mountain in the east.



These are the sons of Shem according to their clans and their languages, by their lands and their nations.



These are the clans of the sons of Noah according to their descendants, their clans, by their nations. From these the nations spread out over the earth after the flood.

1 2

MT: ‘Mesha’. MT: ‘Sephar’.



ł ł Ņ ł .ťŷƌ Ņ űŔ Ɗ ł Ũŧ Ŕ ĿŴ Ņ ŏŹƋſ  ĭƢ Ō ƙƏ łŔ Īť łŔ ƍŅˁƖ Ņ Ɗ ł ŨŔ Īłœ :ťƤň ƍƉƎ ł Ɖķĭ ň ųŏ ŨŔ ŁŴ œ Ɖ  ŦĭĬ  ĭ ĵ ň ł .ķĭųŏ ƀƊł Ɗòô łƖŨœ :ķĭĬŏ Ʀ Ŕ ƕŅǓ ŤŨłœ :ķĭųŏ ƀòɫł ƤŅ LJ ň ĬŅ Ƨ  :ķĭĬŏ Ʀ Ŕ ŨŅ Ŕ ǔƤƆ ł :Ƌƀƣň ƁòƍŨœ ƎƀƆ Ņ ł ň Ņ ł Ŕ :įŴÿƌŏ Ɓƍł Ũò Ŕ ĪŦ łŔ Ʀ Ŕ ŨŅ Ŕ ǔƣƎƀ  Ɔ  Ĭ ŪƆ .ķĭųŏ ÿƀƊł Ɗòô łƖŨœ :ķĭĬŏ Ʀ Ŕ ÿŨŅ Ŕ ǔƤƆ ł :ķĭĬŏ ŁŔűÿɝ ŅŔ ĭòƦƆ ň ň Ņ ň ł ł Ņœ ň Ņ ł ň ò ł Ņ ň Ņ œ œ Ŕ Ũ ƎƉ  :ťƕĿŤ  ŨŔ ťƊƊô ƕŴô ƣƢƘ ŁŔĥƎƀƆ  ĬƎ  Ɖĭ  .ťƍƘŴŹĿƦ



  

Ch. 



Pathrusim, and Casluhim, whence came forth the Philistines, and Kafodekites. 1



Canaan begot Sidon, his first born, and the Hethites, 2



the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgasites,



the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites



the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. Afterwards the clans of the Canaanites spread abroad.



The borders of the Canaanites were from Sidon, which is at the entrance to Gedar, 3 up to Gaza, which is at the entrance to Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboiim as far as Lasha.



These are the sons of Ham according to their clans and their languages, by their lands and their nations.



Shem, the father of all the sons of Eber, the older brother of Japheth, also begot [children].



The sons of Shem are Elam, Asshur, Arpachshar, 4 Lud, and Aram.



The sons of Aram are Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash.



Arpachshar begot Shelah. Shelah begot Eber.



Two sons were born to Eber. The name of one was Peleg because during his days the land was divided. The name of his brother was Joktan.



Joktan begot Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah,



Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah,



Obal, Abimael, Sheba,



Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab. All of these were the sons of Joktan. 



MT: ‘Caphtorim’. MT: ‘Heth’. 3 MT: ‘Gerar’. 4 MT: ‘Arpachshad’. 1 2



Ņ ň œ Ņ łœ ň ŏ ł ł ł :ťňɕƦ œ Ƥò ɤ  Ƙ ƎƉ  Ł ƎƉ  Ŵô Ơƙƌ łŔ Īłœ :ƋƀʖŴ .ťƀňƟŅ ĪŴ òŔ ƙŏœ Ɵĭ Ō ƇƐ  ƄƆ Ŕ ĭ :ƋƀƏĭ Ō ĿŏƦ Ŕ ƙƆ łŔ ĭł űſ ł Ņ Ō ł ň ŏ œ ŏœ ł .ťňɕƦ Ŕ ƀòʛƆ  ĭ :ĬƢƃŴ Ŕ Ũ ķĭűſ  ƞɞ  űŔƆĭ ň ĥƎƖ  ƍłƃŔĭł ųſ Ņ .ťƀňƏŴ Ņ ū ŏ œ ǔŬƆ Ŕ ł ĭł :ťňɕǓŅŴƉ ŏ Ƨĭ  :ťƀňƏ Ņ Ŵòũŏ Ŕ ƀɞ Ņ ĭł Ŵſ ň ł ł .ťƀňɫŅ ƀòƐƆ Ō ĭł :ťƀňƟŅ ǔłƖɝ  ĭł :ťòɕŴŅŷƆ  ĭ ŵſ ň ňœ ł Ņœ ň ň Ņ Ņ ò ł ň Ņ ł ł ň Ņ ŏ Ņ Ņ łŔ Ʀ Ŕ ŨŅ Ŕ ǔƣł IJô Ǔ űł œ Ũł œ ŁŔ ĥƎƃĿ Ŕ Ũ ƎƉĭ .ťƀňɫŅ òƖɩłƃŔ ĪŦ Ʀ  :ťɕƦ Ŕ Ɗ  ŷ Ɔĭ  :ťɕǔƉƞɞ  ĭ :ťɕĪĭ Ŕ ǓƧĭ  Ÿɖ Ņ Ņ Ŷŏ ŁŦ Ŧ ĮŤŅ ÿƖɝť ÿƉŅ űƕ łŔ ĭł :ĿűŅŔÿūŔŅ Īť Ŕ ÿƍŅ ˁƖ Ņ Ɗ ł ŨŔ Īłœ ķĭűÿ ŏœÿſĽƎ ł ÿƉň ťÿƀň ɫŅ ò ƖɩłƃŔĪť łŔ ÿƉŴ Ŕ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł Żſ ň .ƗƤŅ LJť  Ɖ Ņ űƕ łŔ :ƋſŌ ĥŴ  ŨĽŏ Ŕ Īĭ łŔ :ťƉ Ņ ĪĥŅŔ Īĭ ŅŔ :ŧ ĿŴ Ņ Ɗ ŏ ƕŅĪŔĭł :ĶĭűƏ ŏŔ ĪłŔ ťƍŅˁƖ Ņ Ɗ ł ŨŔ ĪłŔ ň ł .ķĭųŏ ƀƊł Ɗòô łƖŨœ :ķĭĬŏ Ʀ Ŕ ƕŅǓ ŤŨłœ :ķĭųŏ ƀòɫł ƤŅ LJ ň ĬŅ Ĵ  :ķĭĬŏ Ʀ Ŕ ŨŅ Ŕ ǔƤƆ ł :ƋŶŅ ƁòƍŨœ ƎƀƆ Ņ ň ł ň ł ł ł .ťŨŅœ Ŀł Ʀ ŏ Ũŏ Ŕ ĥ :ĭĬŏ Ļ  Ŕ ĥ űŔƆĭ  ĥƋƀ  ƣĭ  ťƃ œ ƙŔ łſĪœIJĬô ŴŶŏ ĥ :ƢũŅ Ŕ ƕŅ ƁòƍŨœ ƈƃŏŔĪœ ķĭĬŴ ł ł œ ĭł :ĿŴƣĥ ŏ ĭŅ :Ƌł Ƈƀ  Ōƕ :Ƌƀƣň ƁòƍŨœ Ūƃ .ĶĿĥŅ ĭŅ :ĪŴ Ŕ Ɔĭ ŏ :ƢƤŅ ƄŔ ƘĿĥ Ņ Ņ Ņ .ƥƉĭ Ņ :ĿƦ Ŕ ūĭ Ŕ :ĵŴŶĭ ŏ :ĽŴƕŏ :ĶĿŅĥ Ɓƍł Ũò Ŕ ĭł ŭƃ ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł œ ĭŅ űƃ .ƢũŅ Ŕ Ɩɝ Ņ űŔƆĭ ň ĥŸ  Ƈ ƣĭ  :ŸƇ ƤƆ  űŔƆĭ ň ĥƢ  ƤŅ ƄŔ ƘĿĥ Ōň ŅŅ ł ŏ ň Ņ ň :Ǝÿƀò ɫŌ Ũœ ƎÿſĿňŁœĭô űŔň Ƈſ  ũŔ Ɩɝ  ĭ ųƃ IJĬô ŴÿƉł Ŵò əłŨŔ Īłœ ƈÿźƉ  ŁŔ ĥƢ  :ŭ  Ŕ ÿƇƘŅ œ űŔÿŶł Īœ ųÿƊƣ ł Œ łœ ł œ ň Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł ł ŏ .ƎʠƠ  ſIJĬô ŴŶĥ  Īť Ŕ Ɗƣ  ĭ :ťƕĿ  ĥ Ʀ Ŕ ŬƇƘ ŁŔĥ ł Ņ ł ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņœ ŏ .įƢŅəɞ Ņ ĭł :ŁŴ Ŕ ƉĿƞ ŏ ƀʛƆ ň ĭł :ƚ  Ŕ Ƈ ƤƆ  ĭ :ĪŔĪŴ Ɗ  ƆƧ űŔƆĭ ň ĥƎ  ʠƠ  ſĭ  Ŵƃ ŏ Ņ ň ł .ƨƟ  űɝ Ŕ ĭ :ĵňĮĭ  Ƨĭ  :ĶĿĭ Ņ Īų ŏŔ Ɔĭ ł ŵƃ ł Ņ Ŕ Ɔĭ Ņ Ŕ Ɩɝ .ťũƤ ł :ƈƊƀ ň ŨŌŔ Ƨĭ  :ƈŨŴ ŏ ĭł Ÿƃ Ņ Ō ł ł Ņ .ƎʠƠ  łſĪœIJĬô ŴòɩłŨœ ƎƀƆ ň Ĭķĭ Ņ ųɤ ŏ ƃŏœ .Ū  Ŕ ŨŅ Ŕ Ŵƀŏɞĭł :ƨſ  Ŵŷ  Ɔĭ  :ƢƀƘĭ Ō œ Ƨĭ  Żƃ



     

     

   

Ch. 

Chapter  

These are the descendants of Noah’s sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Sons were born to them after the flood.



Japheth’s sons are Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras.



Gomer’s sons are Ashkenaz, Daypar, 1 and Togarmah.



Javan’s sons are Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.



From these they were separated among 2 the island nations in their lands, each one according to their language and their clans among their nations.



Ham’s sons are Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan.



Kush’s sons are Sheba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca. The sons of Raamah are Sheba and Deran. 3



Kush begot Nimrod who became the first mighty warrior on earth.



He was a mighty hunter before the Lord. For this reason it is said, “Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the Lord.”



The beginning of his kingdom was Babel, Erech, Accar, 4 and Calya 5 in the land of Shinar.



From that land the Assyrian came forth and built Nineveh, the city of Rehoboth, Calah,



and Resen, which is between Nineveh and Calah. It is the great city.



Mezraim begot Ludim, Jaabim, 6 Lehabim, Japhtuhim, 7 



MT: ‘Riphath’. The Peshiṭta adds the preposition ħ. 3 MT: ‘Dedan’. 4 MT: ‘Accad’. 5 MT: ‘Calneh’. 6 MT: ‘Anamim’. 7 MT: ‘Naphtuhim’. 1 2





ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

Ņ Ņ ò łœ ň Ņ Ņ ň Ō ň œ ł Ŕ ĭ :Ʀ  ƙŔ ſĭ :ƋŶĭ Ņ :Ƌƀƣň :įŴƌŏ Ɓƍł Ũò Ŕ ĪŦ łŔ ŁŔ űɝ Ŕ ĭŁ ƎƀƆ  Ĭĭ  ŏ ĭô űŔÿƇſŁĥ ťÿƀò ɫł Ũœ ķĭųÿɝ ł ł Ņ Ŕ ŨŅ œ ƎƉ  œ Ź ĿƦ ň .ťƍŅƘŴ ŏ Ō ł Ŕ :ķŴŅɖĭ ł :IJűłŔƉĭ Ņ :ĨŴ Ŕ Ŭ Ŕ ŏ Ɖĭ Ņ :ƢƊ Ņ ū Ņ œ :Ʀ œ ƙŔ łſ ƁòƍŨœ Ŕ :ƅ Ŕ ƤŅ Ɖĭ Ņ :ƈƀŨĭ ňœ Łĭ .ĸƢſ ň Łĭ ŏ ň Ņ Ņ łò ł Ŕ :Ƣƙſ Ņœ Īĭ łŔ :ŵƍŅƄƣ œ ĥ :ƢƊ ū  œ ƁƍŨŔ ĭ .ťƉƢ Ņ ūĭ Ŕł Łĭ ň Ņ Ō Ņ Ŕ ƃĭ Ŕ :ƥƀƣĿ Ō Łĭ Ŕ :ťƤƀ Ņ Ɔ Ō ĥ :ķŴŅ ɖł Ɓƍł Ũò Ŕ ĭł .ƋƀƌŌĪŔĭĪĭ ŏŔ :ƋſƦ ň ŅŅ Ņ œ ň ň :ųÿ ňƍƤŅ LJƢ  ÿ ũł Ŕ ū  œ :ķĭĬŏ Ʀ Ŕ ÿ ƕŅ Ǔ ŤŨł Ŕ ťÿÿƊň Ɗòô łƕĪŔ ŦŁŔ Ǔŵÿ ÿŬŔ ŨŴÿÿƣƢň Ƙœ ŁŔ ĥƎÿÿƀƆ ň ĬƎ Ņ ÿ Ɖĭ Ŕ ŨŅ Ŕ ǔƤƆ ł .ķĭųŏ ƀƊł Ɗòô łƖŨœ :ķĭĬŏ Ʀ ň :ŀŴƃŏœ :ƋŶŅ Ɓƍł Ũò Ŕ ĭł .ƎƖƍłƃŔĭł :İŴƘĭ ŏŔ :ƋſĿƞň Ɖĭ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ō ł Ņ Ņ Ŀł Ɓÿƍł Ũò Ŕ ĭł .ťÿƃŅ Ŕ Ʀ Ņ Ŀĭ :ťÿƊƕ œ ũŔ Əĭ ł :ťÿƊƕ ł :ŦƦ œ ÿũŔ Ə  ĭ :ƨſ  ŴŶ  ĭ :ťũƣ Ŕ :ŀŴƃŏœ Ɓƍł Ũò Ŕ ĭł ŅŔ .ķĿŅĪĭ ŅŔ :ťũƣ ł .ťƕĿŤ Ņ Ũŧ łŔ ƢŅũŅœ ôƍūŦ Ŕł ĭų Ņ ƊƆ ň IJƢŌƣł ĭĬŏ :Īĭ Ŕ ƢƊ ŏ ňƍɞ  űŔƆĭ ň ĥŀŴ  ƃĭ ŏŔ ł ł ň ň ŅŅ ŏ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ŅŅ Ō ł Ņ Ņœ ł Ņ Ŕ ƢÿƊ Īĭ ŏ ňƌ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ :ƢƉĥ ƦŔ Ɖť  ƌĬƈ  ź Ɖ  :ťɕƢ  ƉĶ  űƟť Ŕ ɧŁƢƀ Ŕ Ƥŷ  ƌŧ  Ƣũ ôƍūŦ Ŕ ĭĬ  ĭĬŏ Ņ Ō ł Ņ Ņœ ł œ .ťɕƢ Ņ ƉĶ Ņ űƟť ŅŔ ɧŅŁƢƀ Ŕ Ƥŷ  ƌ ŧ Ƣũ ôƍū ň ŏœ ł Ō Œ Ņ ł .ƢƖƍ Ņ Ə ň Īť Ŕ ƕĿŤ Ņ Ũłœ :ťƀˁ Ŕ Ƅɤ  Ɖƥſ  Ŀ ŁŔ ĭĬ  ĭ Ņ ƃĭ ňŔ :Ƣƃĥ ŅŔ ĭŅ :ĴŔ ĿĥŅ ĭŅ :ƈũňŔ ŨŅœ ĬŁŴ ŏ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ō  ƙƌ łŔ IJĬť Ņ ƕĿ Ņ ĥƎ  Ɖ ň .ŸƇ ƄƆ Ŕ ĭ :ŦƦſ Ŕ ƢƟ  ŁŴ Ŕ ũŶ ŏœ Ƣɝ ł ĭł :ŦŴƍƀ ň ƍɞť Ō ƍŅŨŔ ĭł :ťɕŅĿĭ Ņ ŁŔ ĥơ Ņ ł Ņ Ō Ņ ň Ŕ :ŦŴƍƀ Ņ Ƣɝ ł ĭł .ŦƦ Ŕ Ũœ ĿŦ  Ʀſ Ŕ ƢƟ  IJĬô Ō IJĬŸ ň ƌŌ Ʀƀ Ŕ ŨňŔ Īœ ƎƏ Ō Ƈ ƃŅœ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũĭ ł ŏ ŏ ł ł ł ł .Ƌƀʖĭ Ō Ʀ œ ƙŔ ƀɞ  ĭ :ƋƀŨų ŌŔ LJ  ĭ :ƋƀũƖ ŌŔ ƀɞ ł ĭł :ƋſĪŴ ŌŔ LJ  űŔƆĭ ň ĥƋſ  Ŀƞň Ɖĭ ň



ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



į



İ



IJ  ťſ  Ūſ  ŭſ 

Ch. 



He said, “Blessed be the Lord, the God of Shem. May Canaan be a slave for them.



May God enlarge Japheth. May he dwell in the tent of Shem and may Canaan be a slave to them.”

XII



After the flood, Noah lived three hundred and fifty years.



All the days of Noah were nine hundred and fifty years. Then he died.



ł Ņ Ņ Ō œ ł ň ķĭųɝŧ ŏ űŅœũŔ łƕƎƖƍłƃŦ Ŕ ĭų ň ňƌĭ  :Ƌƀƣň Īœ Ĭųň Ɔ Ņ ĥť  ɕƢ Ɖ  ƅſ  Ŕ ƢŨ ƢƉĥ  ĭ ł ňœ ł ķĭųɝŧ ŏ űŅœũŔ łƕƎƖƍłƃŔ Ŧĭų ň ňƌĭ  :Ƌƀƣň Īœ ųňƍƄƤ œ Ɗ ł Ũŧ Ŕ ƢƤ ň ňƌĭ  :Ʀ œ ƙŔ ƀłɞŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥŦ Ʀ  ƙŔ ƌ ł ł Ņœ ň Ŕ Ũ ƎƉįŴ Ņ œ ŹĿƦ  ƌť ŏ ƀʖ Ņ ĭł ƎƀòɫƣƎƀ Ō Ō ŶĭŦŤ ƤƊ ł Ɖ Ņ Ʀ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ Łœ :ťƍŅƘŴ .Ʀƀ Ŕ ƉĭƎ Ō ƀòɫƣƎƀ Ō Ō ŶĭŦŤ ƤƊ ł Ɖ Ņ Ɨƣł Łœ :įŴƌŏĪœIJĬô ŴƉ ł Ŵò ɖƈ ł ƃŏœ ĭĭĬ ł ĭł



Ŵƃ  ŵƃ  ŪſįĽ Ÿƃ  Żƃ 

Ch. 



I have set my bow in the clouds and it shall be the sign of the covenant between me and the earth.



When I bring up clouds over the earth, the bow will appear among the clouds



and I will remember my covenant between me and you and every living creature with you, all flesh, and the floodwaters will never again destroy all flesh.



The bow will be among the clouds and I will see it as a reminder of the eternal covenant between God and every living creature, all flesh on the earth.”



God said to Noah, “This is the sign of the covenant that I have established between me and all flesh on the earth.”



These are the sons of Noah who went out from the ark: Shem, Ham and Japheth. Ham was the father of Canaan.



These are the three sons of Noah and from these the entire earth was populated.

XI



Noah began working on the land and he planted a vineyard.



He drank some of his wine and became drunk and he uncovered himself in his tent.



Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father and he told his two brothers.



Shem and Japheth took a cloak and they laid it over both their shoulders and, walking backwards, they covered their father’s nakedness. Their faces were turned away so they did not see their father’s nakedness.



Noah awoke from his wine and learned all that his youngest son had done for him.



He said, “Cursed be Canaan. May he be the lowest of slaves 1 for his brothers.” 

1



‘the lowest of slaves’: lit. ‘a slave of slaves’.



ł ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ň ň ňò Ņ ł œ ň œ ň œ ň Ŕ :ťƍɫƖ  Ũ Ʀ ťƕĿ Ņ Ƨ Ɓƍƀł Ũť Ŕ Ɗ  ƀƟ  ĪŔŦŁŔ ĥŦ  ĭĬ  Łĭ Ŕ ŨųſIJô ƦƤ  Ɵ ŭſ ň Ņ ł Ņ œ ň ň ň Ņ ł ł ňò Ņ Ņ ň ł Ņ ň ň Ŕ :ťƕĿ  ĥ ƈƕť  ƍɫƕť  ƌôĥơƐ Ɖ  Īť Ŕ ƉŦ  ĭų  ƌĭ  űſ ťòƍɫƖ  ŨŦ Ŕ ƦƤ  Ɵ Ŧ ŵŶ  ŁŔŁĭ Ņ ł Ņ ł ň Ŕ :ķŴƄƊ ňŔ :ķŴƄƆ ŏŔ ĭł Ɓƍƀł ŨłŔ ĪœƁô ƊƀƟƢ Ņ ƃłŔĪœŁœĥĭň ųſ ŏŔ łƕĪŔ ŦƦƀ  ƃŏœ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũĭ Ŕ Ũĭ Ʀÿƀ Ŕ ʖťƤ ƙŔ ƌƈ ŏ ŏ ň Ņ ł Ņ ł ŏ  ħĭ  Ŕ Łķĭ œ ĭų  ƌ Ƨĭ  :ƢƐ ł Ũœ ƈƃŏœ Ņ œ ŹĪœťƀò Ɖ ƢƐ ł Ũœ ƈƃŏ Ŕ ŴƇ ũŅ œ ŷł ƊƆť ł ƍŅƘŴ ł ň Ņ ł Ņœ ň ň ň ł Ŕ ÿƊŅ ƀƟ Ŕ Ŵſ ŦųŅ ÿƆŅ ĥ Ʀÿƀ Ŕ Ũňœ :ƋÿłƇƖɝ Ņ Īť Ņ Īť łŔ ÿƌŅ ƢŅƃĭ Ŕ űɝ ŏŔ ųÿſ ñ ŵŶĥ ň ĭň :ťòƍɫƖ  ŨŦ Ŕ ƦƤ  Ɵ ŦĭĬ  Łĭ ł ł œ ł œ ŏ œ Ņ ł Ņ ł ŏ Ņ.ťƕĿ ň œ Ŕ  ĥ ƈƕĪ ƢƐ  Ũ ƈƃŔ Ī :ŦƦƀ  ƃ Ʀƀ Ŕ ũƆ Ŕ ʖťƤ ƙŔ ƌƈ Ņ Ņ ł ň Ɵĥ ł Ŕ ŁŔ ĥIJĬô ŧ ĪňŔĬŅ :įŴƍɞŦ ňŔ Ɓÿƍƀł Ũłœ Ʀ ƈÿƃŏ œ Ʀÿƀ Ŕ ũƆ Ŕ ÿƊƀ Ō Īť łŔ ÿƊŅ ƀƟ Ņ ĪŦ ŏ ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥƢ  Ɖĥ ł ĭň ŵſ ł ł Ũœ .ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ƈłƕĪœ ƢƐ Ņ Ō ň ł ŏ Ņ œ ł ł ł ł IJĬô ŴÿŨŏ Ŕ ĥ ĭĬƋ  Ŷ  Ʀ  ƙŔ ſĭ :ƋŶĭ Ņ :Ƌƀƣň :ŦŁŴ Ŕ ũŏ Ŕ ƟƎ  Ɖ  Ŵô Ơƙƌ łŔ Īłœ įŴƌŏ ƁòƍŨœ ĭĭĬ  ĭ Ÿɖ ƎƖƍł ƃŔĪłœ ł Ņ ŏ œ łœ ł œ ň ň Ņ ň Ņ Ņ œ ł ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƄŔ Ũ ĭô ĿűŨ ŁŔĥƎƀƆ ň ĬŦ Ņ Ʀ Ŕ Ɔ  Ł Żſ  ĬƎ  Ɖĭ  :įŴƌŏ ƁòƍŨœ ƎƀƆ

  









ťſįĽ

ò Ņ Ŕ įŴƌŏ IJƢŌƣĭ ťƉƢ Ņ ƃłœ ħ  Ŕ ƞƌł ĭł :ťƕĿŤ Ņ ŨłŔ ŧ űň Ŕ ũƕ ł Ĵ Ō œ ň Ō ł ň ł ň Ōœ ň ųňƍƄƤ œ Ɖ ł ŴŬ Ŕ ł ŨŔ ƁƇ ū  Łĥ Ŕ ĭ :IJĭĿ  ĭĬ  ƢƊ  ŶƎ  Ɖ  IJƦƣĥ  ĭ ťƃ Ņ Ņ ł ł łœ ł ł Ņ Ņ ł IJĬô ŴòŶł ĥƎſ  ĿňƦ Ŕ Ɔ ł IJŴŌŶĭ ł :IJĬŴ ô Ũĥŏ Ŕ Īłœ ŦŁŴŔ ƀŏ ˁŹƢ ƕƎƖƍƃŔĪIJĬô ŴŨŏ Ŕ ĥƋ  ŶŦ  ŵŶ  ĭ Ūƃ Ņ ł œ ł Ņ Ņ łœ ł Ŕ ƃ ƈƕŴô ƀƉĿĥ Ō ĭł :ťŹŴ  ŏŹƢ Ɖ  ƦƙŔ ſĭƋƀƣň Ŵô ũŔ Ɛƌ ł ĭł ŭƃ łŔ Ʀ Ŕ Ƙò œ Ʀ Ŵô ÿƄŔ Ɔ ň Ĭĭ ł :ķĭųÿſ ŏ ǓłŁŔĪŦ ň Ņ Ņ ł ł ň ł œ ĭł :ķĭĬŴ ŏ ÿŨĥŏ Ŕ ĪŦ Ŕ ķĭųŏ ÿƀò Ƙĥ łŔ ŁŴ Ŕ ƀŏˁ  ŹƢ  ƕŴô ƀƐ Ō ƃĭ łŔ :Ʀſ Ŕ Ō ĥĿŅƦƐ œ Ũňœ ƢŨł œ ķĭĬĿ ŏ ƦÿƐ œ ũƆ ň Ņ Ņ Ŕ ƀŏˁ  Ņ ŹƢ  łƕĭ  ĭŵŶ ł Ƨķĭ  ĬŴ ŏ Ũĥŏ Ŕ ĪŦ łŔ ŁŴ ŧ ĿŴ Ņ ƕĮĬ ŏ ƢňŨœ ųƆ ň űŔũƕ łŔ Īłœ ƈƃŏœ ĺűſ łŔ ĭŌ :ĬƢňƊŶƎ ł ƉįŴ ň ŏ ŌƕŁœŁĥ ƌƢƀ œ ĭň űƃ ł ň ň Ōœ ò ł ň Ō Ɖĥ ł ĭň ųƃ IJĬô ŴòŶł ƧŦ  ĭų  ƌƎſ  űũŔ ƕ űŔũƕ Ŕ :ƎƖƍłƃœ ŻƀƆƢ



   

 

Ch. 

Chapter  

God blessed Noah and his sons and he said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth.



Fear and trepidation of you will be on all animals of the earth, on all the birds of heaven, on everything that creeps on the earth. All the fish 1 of the sea are delivered into your power.



Every living thing that moves will be your food, just [as I gave you] the green plants, I give you all these.



But you shall not eat the flesh with its life-blood in it.



However, your life-blood I will avenge. From the hand of all living things I will avenge it. From the hand of a person, from the hand of a man and his brother, I will avenge the life of a person.



Whoever sheds a person’s blood, his blood will be shed for that person because in the image of God Adam was made.



As for you, be fruitful and multiply. Procreate 2 on the earth and multiply on it.”

X



God said to Noah and to his sons who were with him,



“I am now establishing my covenant with you and with your descendants after you



and with every living thing that is with you, with the birds, the domestic animals and every wild beast of the earth that is with you — all those who came forth from the ark — with every living being 3 on earth.



I establish my covenant with you. Never again will all flesh perish by floodwaters. Never again will a flood destroy the earth.”



God said to Noah, “This is the sign of the covenant that I set between me and you, and every living creature that is with you for generations to come. 



The Peshiṭta translates +)š K ’ with ķĭųƇƃĭ. MT: ‘swarm’. 3 ‘living being’ or ‘wild beast’. 1 2





ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ł ł ł ł œ ŏ ł ĭň :IJĬô Ŵò ÿɩł ũŔ Ɔĭ ŴÿłƇƉĭł .ŴÿŬƏ ÿƉĥ ł :įŴƍɞŦ ŏ ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥ ĴŔ ƢňŨĭ Ŕ Ŕ ł ĭ ĭƢÿƘ :ķĭųÿɝƢ ł ŅťƕĿ  ĥ ň Ņ Ņ ĪŦ ųñ ÿɤŅ ƃŏœ ƈÿłƕĭťÿƕĿĥ łŔ ŁŴÿ Ŕ ƀŏ ʖł ųñ ÿɤŅ ƃŏœ ƈÿłƕŦĭĬ ň Łœ ķŴƃŏŔƦ Ŕ łƕĭ  Įĭ ł ķŴƃŏŔƦ Ŕ ł ƇŶ  Īĭ ňŔ ł Ņ ł œ Ņ Ņ ĥť ł Ŕ Ʀÿ ťÿ ƊŅ łſĪť Ŕ ÿ ňƌŴòɥķĭ ŏ ųÿ ŏ ÿɤƃĭ ŏŔ :ťÿ ƕĿ  ÿ ƤŶƢ  Ī ƈÿ ƃŏ œ ƈÿ łƕĭ :ťÿ ƀŅ Ɗƣ Ɖ ł ĪŦ Ŕ ÿŶƢłƘŅ œ ł ķŴƊƆ ŏ ƦƤ œ ňƌķŴƄſ ŏœ űłŔɖòŤŨŌŔ ł Ņœ ŏ ň ň œ ň ſťÿũƐ Ņ œ ň ƕĪť Ŕ Ũų Ʀÿ Ŕ ƟŅ ĿŴ Ņ ſŏ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ :ŦƦƆŴ  ƃŔ ŤƊƆŦ  ĭų ň ňƌķŴ  ƄƆ ŏŔ :Ɓʖ ł Īť Ŕ ƤŶ Ņ Ǔłƈƃĭ ŏŔ ƈƃŏœ ķŴƄƆ ŏŔ ň Ņ ň œ ň ł ł Ņ ňœ ŏ łœ Ŕ Ƨ :ųƉ  Ī ųƤ ƙŔ ƍŨŔ Īŧ Ŕ ƢƐ  Ũ ĪŴ Ŕ ŷɤ  Ũ ķŴƇƃĥ ŏŔ Ł ň Ņ ŏ ł ň ŧ űſ ŅŔ Ō ĥƎƉ ň .IJĬŴƀ ô ŌƖŨœ ŁŔĥŦ  ŁŴ Ŕ ƀʖƈƃŏœ űŔłſƎ  Ɖ ň :ƗŨłœ ŁŔĥķŴƃŏŔƦ Ŕ ƤŅ ƙòŔ ƌłĪœ ķŴƄƉ ŏŔ Īňœ ĶƢłŨŔ ĭł ň ťƤŅ ƌŅôĥĪť Ŕ ƤŅ ƙŔ ƌƗ ł Ũłœ ŁŔĥIJĬô ŴŶĥ ŏ ĭŧ ł ƢŅũŔ ū Ŕł Īŧ Ŕ űſ ŅŔ Ō ĥƎ  Ɖĭť ň ƤŅ ƌŅôĥĪŔ ł ň ł œ ŏ ň ň ň ň ň Ŕ ƤŅ ƌŅŤôŨœ :ťƤŅ ƌŅôĥĪť Ŕ ũƕŦ űÿƀ ŌŔ ųŅ ÿƆŅ ĥƋ  Ɔƞ  ŨŔ Ī ƈź Ɖ  :űŔƣĥ Ʀ Ŕ ƌųƉ  Īť Ŕ Ɖ Ņ Īœ ĪŴ Ŕ ƣŤ ŏ ňƌĪœ ƎƉ ł Ņ ĶĪŅŔĥ ŏ .ųñ ŨŅœ ŴŬƏ Ŕ ł ĭť ł ƕĿŤ Ņ Ũłœ ĭô űŔƆĭĥ ň ĭł :ŴŬƏ Ŕ ł ĭł ĭƢłƘ œ ķĭƦ œ ô ƌĥĭł ł ł ň ųƊ ň łƕIJĬô Ŵò ɩłũŔ ƆĭįŴ ł ŏ ųŅ Ɔ ƍɞŦ Ņ ĥƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ň ł ŏ Ŕ ĮƋ Ŕ ŨŅœ ķŴƄƕĿ ķŴƃĿŏ Ŕ Ʀ ł łƕĭ  :ķŴƄƊ ŏŔ łƕƁô ƊƀƟť Ņ ƌŅôĥƋƀƠƉŦ Ō Ĭť Ņ ƌŅĥ Ņ ł Ņ ł ñ Ņ ŏœ ł Ņ ł Ņœ ł  :ķŴƄƊ ŏŔ łƕĪŦ Ŕ Ʀƀ Ŕ ʖť  Ƥ ƙŔ ƌ ų ɤ  ƃ Ƌƕĭ  ųñ ÿɤŅ ƃŏœ Ƌłƕĭŧ  Ƣƀ Ņ ŌƖŨœ Ƌłƕĭ  :ŦƦŶ ƢƘ Ƌƕĭ Ŕ Ņ ŏ ł Ņ ŏ Ō łò Ņ Ņ ŏ ł ŏ ŏ ŏ ŅťƕĿĥ Ņ ł ł ň ł ł œ œ  ĪŦ Ŕ ŁŴ Ŕ ƀʖƈƃ Ƌƕĭ  :ŦŁŴ Ŕ ũŔ Ɵ ƁƠ ƙŔ ƌƈ  ƃ ƎƉ  :ķŴƄƊ Ŕ ƕĪť Ŕ ƕĿĥ  ĪŦŔ ŁŴ Ŕ ƀʖ ŏ ł œ ŏœ ł Ņ ł ň Ņ Ņ  Ɖ  ħĭ  Ŕ Łœ ƢƐ  Ũ ƈƃ ĻŴ  Ŕ Ɛƌ ŏ Ƨĭ  :ķŴƄƊ ŏŔ łƕƁô ƊƀƟƋƀ Ņ Ō ĭł Ɵĥ  :ťÿƍŅ ƘŅ œ ŴŹĪœťƀò ƉƎ Ƨĭ ŏ ň ň ł ŏ Ņ œ Źł ħĭ Ŕ ĭų  ƌ  Ŕ ŁŦ ťƕĿ Ņ Ƨ ŴƇ ũŅœ ŷł ƊƆť ł ƍŅƘŴ ŅŅ ňŅ ł ł ň ŏ Ŕ ĭł Ɓƍƀł Ũť ňŔ :ķŴƄƆ łŔ ƌŅôĥ ħ  Ŕ ųň ŅſĪť Ŕ Ɗ Ņ ƀƟ Ņ ĪŦ łŔ ŁŔ ĥŧ  ĪŔĬ :įŴƍɞŦ ŏ ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ƈƃŏœ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũĭ Ņ ł Ņ ł ł ŏ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ťƊɤ  ƕ IJǓűɝ Ŕ ķŴƄƊ Ŕ ƕĪŦ Ŕ Ʀƀ Ŕ ʖť  Ƥ ƙŔ ƌ



ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



IJįĽ į



İ



IJ  ťſ  Ūſ 

Ch. 



In the second month on the twenty-seventh day of the month, the earth was dry.



Then God spoke with Noah and said to him,



“Go forth from the ark, you together with your wife and your sons and the wives of your sons



and bring out with you all the wild beasts that are with you from all flesh and the birds, the domestic animals and all the creeping things that creep on the earth. Let them procreate 1 on the earth and be fruitful and become numerous on the earth.



Noah together with his sons and his wife and the wives of his sons went out.

IX



Every wild beast, every domestic animal, every bird and everything that creeps on the earth went out of the ark by families.



Then Noah built an altar to the Lord and he selected from every clean animal and from every clean bird and he offered a burnt offering on the altar.



The Lord smelled the sweet fragrance, the fragrance of repose 2 and the Lord said in his heart, “I will never again curse the earth because of humankind because the inclination of human hearts is wicked from their youth. I will never again destroy all living things as I have just done.



From henceforth all the days of the earth — sowing and reaping, cold and heat, summer and winter, day and night — will not cease.”

1 2

MT: ‘let them swarm’. See the Introduction: Double Translations.



ł Œ ł ň Ņ ł œ ňœ Ō ň Ņ ł œ ň ł Ņ ł ł Ŕ Ƥ ũŔ ſ ťŶƢ  ƀŨ ųŨ ƎſƢƐ  ƕĭť  ƖũŔ Ƥ Ũ :ƎſĿŁŔĪť Ŕ Ŷ ƢƀŨŔ ĭ ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ Ʀ ł ň ł ųƆƢ ň Ɖĥ ł ĭň :įŴƌƋ ŏ łƕŦ  ųŅ Ɔ Ņ DŽ  Ƈ Ɖĭ  Ņ Ņ ł ň .ƅ Ŕ Ɗ Ņ łƕ ƅ œ ƀòɫł ŨŔ Īť łŔ Ƥò ňƌĭ  :ƅ œ ƀòɫł ŨŔ ĭł :ĴŔ ŁŔ Ʀ œ ô ƌĥĭł :Ʀ œ ô ƌĥ :ŦŁŴ Ŕ ũŏ Ŕ ƟƎ Ō ƉľŴ ň Ƙŏ œ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ǓłųÿňƇƃĭ ťÿƤŶ ŏŔ :ŧ Ƣÿƀ Ņ ŌƖŨŔ ĭł :ŦƦÿŶ ƢƘĭ Ŕ :ƢÿƐł Ũœ ƈƃŏœ ƎƉ ň ƅ Ŕ Ɗ Ņ łƕĪŦ Ŕ ŁŴ Ŕ ƀŏ ʖł ųñ ɤ Ņ ƃĭ ŏŔ Ŕ ł ł Ņ ł ł ň Ņ ťƕĿ Ņ DŽ  łƕķŴ  ŬƐ ŏ œ ňƌĭķĭ  ƢŏƙŔ ňƌĭ :ťƕĿŤ Ņ Ũłœ ķĭűɝŴ ŏŔ ƌłĭ :ƅ Ŕ Ɗ Ņ łƕ ơƘň œ ĥ :ťƕĿ DŽ  ƕƥ  Ŷ ĿĪŔ ň ň œ ô ƌĥĭł :IJĬô Ŵò ɩłŨŔ ĭł :įŴƌơ ŏ ƙƌ łŔ ĭł ųƊ ň łƕIJĬô ŴòɩłŨŔ Īť łŔ Ƥò ňƌĭ  ĬŁŔ Ʀ Ņ Ņ ŏ Ŕ :ŦƦŶ Ņ ĥł ƈÿłƕƥÿŶň ĿŅĪœ ƈƃĭ Ņ ƃĭ ŏŔ :ŧ Ƣƀ Ņ ŌƖŨœ ųñ ɤ Ņ ƃĭ ŏŔ :ŦŁŴ Ŕ ƀŏ ʖł ųñ ɤ Ņ ƃĭ ŏŔ ťÿƕĿ Ŕ Ƣł ƘŅ œ ųñ ɤ Ņ Ō ň ł .ŦŁŴ Ŕ ũŏ Ŕ ƟƎ  Ɖ  Ŵô Ơƙƌ łŔ :ķĭĬŏ Ʀ Ŕ ŨŅ Ŕ ǔƤƆ Ņ Ņ ň :ŦƦƀ ųñ ÿɤŅ ƃŏœ ƎÿƉĭ Ŕ ƃŌ Ŕ ĪŔ ŦŁŴ Ŕ ƀŏ ʖł ųñ ɤ Ņ ƃŏœ ƎƉ ň Ū  Ŕ Ɛƌ ł ĭł :ťɕƢ Ņ ƊƆť Ņ ŷŅ Ũœ űŔƉįŴ ł ŏ ƍŅŨŔ ĭł ƌť Ņ Ņ ł Ņœ łƕŧ ťŷŅ Ũœ űŔƉƈ ł  űƠ Ņœ łſơƏĥ ň ĭł :ŦƦƀ Ŕ ƃŌŔĪŔ ŦƦŶ Ŕ ƢƘ Ņ ł Ņ ň ĥ ł ĭň :ťŷŅ ɚƌ Ņ ƉƢ łŔ ŷɖ Ņ Ŀť Ō ɕƢ Ņ ƉŸɖ Ņ ĿĥŌ ĭł łŔ ŷɖ Ņ ĿŌ :ŦŁŔ ŴƏ Ņ Īť  Ŕ ÿƏĭ ƚ  Ƨ :ųÿũň œ ɢ ň Ũť Ŕ ÿɕƢ Ņ ÿƉĥ Ņ Īť ŏ ŏ ň Ņ Ņ łœ ŏ ň Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł Ō Ŕ ÿƤŅ ƌƢŅ ŨłŔ Īœ ųÿũň œ Ɔ ƥÿƀŨť ň Īŧ Ŕ ĿƞŅ łſĪœ ƈź Ɖ  :ťƤ ƌƢ Ũ ƈź  Ɖť  ƕĿ  Ƨ ųñ ź  ƇƊ  Ɔ  ħĭ  Ŕ Łœ ŏ ň ł Ņ ň ŏ ł ň ł ł œ ŏ Ŕ ƀˁ  ŹƎ  Ɖ   Ŕ Əĭ  ĥ  Ƨĭ  :ĬŁŴ .ŁŔűňœũŔ ň ƕĪœ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ Ɓʖ  Ī ƈƄƆť Ŕ ŷƊ Ņ ƊƆ ň ħĭ  Ŕ Łœ ƚ Ņ Ņ Ņ ò ł ŏ ŏœ Ņ Įł :ťÿƕĿĥ Ņ ĪŦ Ņ Ŷĭť Ņ łƕ :ŧ ĪŅŔ ƞÿŶ ťÿźƀƟł :ťÿƉŴ ŏ ÿɕƢ łŔ Ʀ Ŕ Ɖ  Ŵ ÿɖķĭųÿɤ  ƃ ƈƀƄŌœ Ɖĭ ň Ņ ĭť ł ÿƕĿ ŏ ň Ņ Ņ Ō Ņ Ņ Ō Ņ ł .ķŴƇź  ũŔ ƌ  Ƨ :ťƀˁ  Ɔĭť  ƊƊſ  ĥ :ŦĭƦ Ŕ Əĭ 



űſ  ųſ  Ŵſ  ŵſ  Ÿɖ  İįĽ Żſ  Ĵ  ťƃ 

Ūƃ 

Ch. 

Chapter  

God remembered Noah and all the wild animals and all the domestic animals and all the birds that were with him in the ark. God made a wind blow on the earth and the waters subsided.



The springs of the abyss and the floodgates of the heavens were closed and the rain from the heavens was restrained.



The waters gradually receded from the earth and the waters decreased after one hundred and fifty days.



The ark came to rest on the seventh month on the seventeenth day of that month on the mountains of Qardu. 1



The waters continued to decrease until the tenth month. On the first day of the tenth month the tops of the mountains became visible.



After forty days Noah opened the window of the ark he had made



and he sent out a raven and it went forth and did not return until the waters dried up from on the face of the earth.



He sent out a dove to see if the waters had subsided from the face of the earth.



The dove did not find a resting place for the sole of its foot and so it came back to him to the ark because the waters were over the face of all the earth. He stretched out his hand and received it and brought it into the ark with him.



He waited yet another seven days and again he sent out a dove from the ark.



The dove came to him at eventide grasping an olive leaf in its beak. So Noah knew that the waters had subsided from the face of the earth.



He waited yet another seven days and he sent out a dove and the dove 2 did not return to him anymore.



Then in the six hundred and first year, on the first day of the first month, the waters dried up from the earth and Noah removed the covering of the ark and he saw that the face of the earth was drying. 1 2

See the Introduction: Divergent Readings. Absent in the MT.



ňł

.į :ķĭŅ ƨƙ Ŕ Ɵň Ņ ł ŏ Ŕ ĭł :ŦŁŴÿ ŏ ųŅ ÿƆŅ ĥƢ ųñ ÿɤŅ ƄƆ ŏŔ ĭł :ŧ Ƣÿ ŅÿƀŌƖŨœ ųñ ÿɤŅ ƄƆ Ŕ ÿƀŏ ʖł ųñ ÿɤŅ ƄƆ ŏŔ ĭł :įŴÿƍɞŦ  ÿƃł Ŕ ĪœŁœĥĭň ĥ ł ł łœ ł Ņ ŏ Ō œ ň ł Ņ ł Ņœ Ņ ł  Ŵô ŷɚɧŌŁœŁĥ œ ĭň :ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ƈłƕť  Ŷĭ Ņ ĿŦ ŏ ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥƢ  ũƕĥ  ĭ :ŦŁŴ Ŕ ũŔ Ơ Ũ ųƊ  ƕĪŦ Ŕ ƦŶ Ŕ ƢƘ ťƀò Ɖ Ō ň Ņ ł ł ň œ ò Ņ Ņ ŏ ł ň ò ŏœ ł ł œ ň ťƀŅƊƣƎ ł Ɖŧ ň Ƣź Ņ Ɖ ň ƁƇ ƃœŁĥ Ŕ ĭ :ťƀƊƣ  Īť Ŕ Ƅ Ɛ  ƌĭ  :ťƉĭ  Ĭ ŁŔĪť Ŕ ƕŴ ũ Ɖ  ĭô ƢƃŔ ƦƏ  ĥĭ ħ Ņ Ņ ł ň òŅ ł ł ň ÿƀò Ņ Ɖ Ņ Ʀ ł ĭł :ƎÿƀƄŌœ ƘŔ ĬŅ ĭƎÿƀƆ  Ŵô ƄŔ ƘĬ łŔ ĭł Ĩ Ŕ ÿŨŅ œ ƎÿƉť ł ĭô ƢÿƐŶ ô ĮŌĥ :ťƕĿ  ĥƎ  Ɖť  ƀƉ ŦŤÿƉĿ ł ƤƊ Ō Ŷĭ ł ƎƀƉ Ō Ŵò ɖƎƀ ŏ Ņ ň Ŕ ǔňƐň ƖũƤ Ņ ƀłŨœ ųÿŨŧ łŔ Ũłœ :ťƀŅɳƀ ŒŔ ŷɚ ł ɧŌŁœŁœĥĭň Ī IJǓłŴÿŹƈÿłƕťÿŶƢ Ņ ũƣť ŌŔ ŶƢ Ņ ƀłŨŦ Ŕ ŁŴ Ŕ ũŏ Ŕ ƟŌ Ʀ ĭĪƢ ŏœ Ɵł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ƀłŨœ űŔŷł Ũœ :ťɕŅƢƀ  Ĭ ťÿɕŅ Ƣƀ Ņ Ɛƕť Ō ÿŶƢ Ņ Ɛƕť Ō ŶƢ Ņ ƀɞť ł Ɖ Ņ űƕ łŔ :ƎſƢƐ Ō Ŷĭ Ņ ĭĭłĬƎƀ ô Ɔ ô ĮŌĥť  ƀò Ɖĭ ň ŏ ł Ō Ō ň  ŁŔĥ ŧ ǓŴŹ ƁƤ ſǓŴô ſŵŶ Ņ Ņ ł ł Ņœ ň Ņ ł ł Ŕ Ũ ƎƉŦ Ŕ Ƙ œ :ƎƀƉ Ō ŴòɖƎƀ ł ŌƖŨĿ œ ĥĿ  Ʀ  ĭĬ  ĭ ĭ łŔ ŁŴ Ŕ ũŏ Ŕ ƟŌ ĪŦ Ŕ ŁŴ Ŕ ƃłœ įŴƌį .űŔũƕ łŔ ĪŦ ŏ Ʀ ł ł ł Ņ Ņ ł ň Ō Ņł Ņ Ŕ ƖɝĿ Ŕ Īť Ŕ Ɖ  űƕ Ŕ :ƅ Ŕ ƘĬ łŔ Ƨĭ  :ơƙłœ Ɖ ň ơƙƌ łŔ ĭł ťŨĿŴ ŏ űłœƣł ĭ Į  ŴôƤũſ ň ƀò Ɖ ťƕĿ Ņ ĥƁƘò œ ĥƎƉť ň ň ň œ ň Ņ ł ł ł ň òŅ ł  Ɖť ň ƌŴ Ņ ƀɞĿ ł űłœƣł ĭ į  ŴôƇƟķ ł ĥŦ ŵŷ  ƌĪ :ĬŁŔ ŴɝƎ  ƀƉ ťƕĿ Ņ ĥƁƘò œ ĥƎƉť ň Ņ Œ łœ ň ň Ņ Ņ Ō ŒŔ ŷł Ƅƣ œ ĥ  Ƨĭ  İ Ŕ Ƅ ƘŔ Ĭ ĭ :ųñ ɤ Ņ ū Ŕ Ŀň Ʀ Ŕ Ɛ ł ƙƆ łŔ ťŷŅ ɚƌť Ņ ƌŴ Ņ łſ ųñ ɝ Ņ Ʀ  Ʀ :ŦŁŴ Ŕ ũŏ Ŕ ƠƆĬ  ŁŔ Ŵɝ ł ł ł ŏ Ņ ò Ō Ō Ņ ŏ Ņ Ņ œ ƌłĭĬűÿſ ň ĭł :ťÿƕĿĥ ųñ ɤ ł Īœ ƈź Ɖ ň  ĥť  ƀò Ɖ :ųñ ÿũƐ ňŔ ĥŻ  ÿƣĭĥ  ƃœ ƁƘ œ ĥ ƈłƕ ĭĭłĬô Ʀſ Ņ ŏ Ō Ŕ ň Ņ Ņ ĭł  ųñ ɤƕĥ ŦŁŴ Ŕ ũŔ ƠƆĬ  ŁŔ Ŵɝ ŏ Ņ Ņ Ō ň Ņ ł ŦŁŴ Ŕ ũŏ Ŕ ƟƎ  Ɖť  ƌŴ  ƀɞ  Ĭñ ĿŅűœƣĭ ł ƅ Ŕ ƘĬ łŔ ĭł :ƎƀƌŌǔŅŶôĥƎƀƉ Ō Ŵò ɖť ł ƖŅũŔ ƣł ħĭ  Ŕ Łœ ƥƘĭ Ŕ IJ ň Ņ ŒŅ ň ł Ņ œ ł Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņœ ň ŅŔ ʖ  ŁŔ Łĥ Ŕ ĭ ťſ łŔ ĭŌ :ųñ ƉŴ  Ʀſ  ĮĪť Ŕ ƘƢ Ŕ ŹŦĬĭ  :ťƤƉ  Ŀ ķűɳ  ɝťƌŴ Ņ łſĬ  ŁŔ Ŵɝ ĺűÿſ Ņ ÿƙŏ Ŕ Ũŧ Ŕ űƀ Ō ĥŦ ł òł œ ł ň òŅ ł Ņ  Ŵô ƇƟł Īœ įŴƌŏ  ƀƉ ťƕĿ  ĥƁƘ ĥƎƉť ŏ ŏ Œ ł ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ łſ ħĭ Ŕ ƙƏĭ Ŕ ĥ  Ƨĭ  :ťƌŴ  ƀɞ  Ĭñ ĿŅűœƣĭ ł :ƎƀƌŌǔŅŶôĥƎƀƉ Ō Ŵò ɖť ł ƖŅũŔ ƣł ħĭ  Ŕ Łœ ƥƘŅŔ ĭ Ūſ ťÿƌŴ  Ŕ Łœ Ʀ ň Ņ ł œ Ɗ ň Ɔ  ƅ Ŕ Ƙų .ĬŁŔ Ŵɝ ł ň òŅ ł Ņ ĥƎ Ņ ƀłŨœ űŔŷł Ũŧ Ņ űŔƟť ł ÿŶƢ Ŕ űŶ ŅŔ ĭŦŤ ł Ɖ Ņ Ʀ Ŕ ƣň Ʀ Ŕ ƍƤ ł ŨŦ łŔ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł ŭſ ÿƀƉ  Ŵô ÿƤũňŔ Ōſ :ťÿƀŅ Ɖ :ťÿƕĿ  ÿƉť ł Ņ ł ł  Ĭĭ Ņ :Ŧ ŵŶ Ņ ĭł :ŦŁŴ Ŕ ũŏ Ŕ ƟŌ Īť Ŕ ƀŅƐ Ņ ƃœ įŴƌƢ ŏ ũƕĥ łœ ĭł ťƕĿ Ņ ĥƁƘò œ ĥƥũňŔ ŌſŦ





 





   

 





Ch. 



On that very day Noah entered the ark with Shem, Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah, and Noah’s wife and the three wives of his sons,



they and all living things of every kind, all the animals of every kind, all the creeping things that creep on the earth of every kind, all the birds of every kind, every bird and every winged creature.



Two each from all flesh that has the breath of life in it came into the ark with Noah.



Those that entered were male and female — from all flesh they entered, just as God had commanded him and the Lord shut him in.

VIII



The flood lasted forty days on the earth. The waters increased and they lifted up the ark and so it rose from the earth.



The waters prevailed and swelled greatly upon the earth while the ark was traveling on the surface of the waters.



The waters prevailed still more over the earth and all the high mountains under the entire heaven were covered.



The high mountains were covered as the waters prevailed fifteen cubits above them.



All flesh that creeps on the earth, birds, domestic animals and wild animals, every creeping thing that creeps on the earth and all people came to an end.



Everything that had the breath of life in its nostrils, everything that was on dry land, died.



[God] blotted out everything that existed on the face of the earth, from people to animals, to creeping things and to birds of heaven. They were blotted out from the earth. But Noah and those with him in the ark survived.



The waters prevailed on the earth for one hundred and fifty days.



ň œ ł ł Ņ :Ƌƀƣĭ œ ÿƙŔ łſĭ :ƋÿŶĭ ň :įŴƌƈ ŏ łƕ ťƌŅĬť Ņ ƉŴ Ņ ƀłŨœ ųŨňœ ŭſ ĬŁŔ Ʀÿ ô ƌĥĭ įŴÿƌŏ ƁÿòƍŨœ :Ʀ Ņ Ō ň Ņ ŁŔĭł :įŴƌŏĪœ .ŦŁŴ Ŕ ũŅ Ŕ ƠƆų  Ɗ ň łƕIJĬô ŴòɩłŨŔ ĪłŔ ťƤò ňƌ Ʀ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ Ņ ŬƆ Ņ ǓłųÿňƇƃĭ ťÿƤŶ ŏŔ :ųñ ÿƐƍ Ŕň ŧ Ƣÿƀ Ņ ŌƖŨœ ųñ ÿɤŅ ƃĭ ŏŔ :ųñ Ɛƍ Ņ ŬƆ Ŕň ŦŁŴ Ŕ ƀŏ ʖł ųñ ɤ Ņ ƃĭķŴ ŏŔ ƌŏĬň űſ ł Ņ ł Ņœ ñ Ņ ŏ ŏ Ŕ ųñ ÿƐƍ Ņ ŬƆ Ŕ :IJĬŴ ô ÿƐł òƍŬƆ ƢÿƘł œ Ľňƈÿƃĭ Ŕň ŦƦÿŶ Ŕň ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ƈłƕƥŶň ĿŅĪŔ Ŕ ƢƘ ų ÿɤƃĭ .ƚ  œū ň œ ƈƃĭ ŏŔ Ņ Ō Ņ Ŀķĭ ťÿŶĭ ŏ ųŏ ÿŨœ Ʀÿſĥ Ŕ ĪŌœ ƢÿƐł Ũœ ƈÿƃŏ œ ƎƉƎſ ň ĿňŁœ ƎſĿňŁœ :ŦŁŴ Ŕ ũŏ Ŕ ƠƆįŴ  ŏ łƕŴô Ƈłƕ ųſ ƌƋ ň ł .ťƀò ʖ  ĪŔ ł ňœ ł œ ł Ņ ł ĭň .ŦųŅ ÿƆŅ ĥĬ űŔÿŶĥ  űÿƠ  ƘŔ Ī ƅÿſ  Ŕ ĥ :ŴÿƇłƕƢ  ÿƐł Ũœ ƈƃŏœ ƎƉŦ ň Ʀ Ŕ ũŅ Ŕ Ơò ňƌĭŧ  ǔňƃŔĪňœŴô ƇłƕĪŔĭł Ŵſ Ņ łŔ ɕƢ Ņ Ɖ .IJĬô ŴòƘł œ ŤŨť









įįĽ

Ņ Ō ł ł Ņœ ł Ņ ł ŏ ł òŅ ł  ŹŦĭĬ  ĭ ŵſ  Ŵô ƀŬƏ Ŕ Ō ĭł :ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ƈłƕƎƀ  Ɖ Ō Ŵò ɖƎƀ ł ŌƖŨœ Ŀĥť  ƍŅƘŴ :ŦŁŴ Ŕ ũŏ Ŕ ƠƆ  ĬŴ ñ ƇƠƣĭť  ƀƉ ł ň Œ ł Ō œœň Ņ.ťƕĿ  ĭ  ĥƎ  Ɖ  Ʀ Ŕ Ɗſ  ĿŁŁĥ łł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł ň ł  Ŵô ƍƤƕ  ĭ Ÿɖ Ŕ ÿũŏ Ŕ ƟŌ Œ ŁŔ ĭŅĬť ô ƄƆ ŅŔ ųƉ ł ĭł :ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ƈłƕ Ū  Ŕ ŹŴô ƀŬƏ Ŕ Ō ĭť ł ƀò Ɖ ƁÿƘò œ ĥ ƈÿłƕŦŁŴ Ņ ł  .ťƀò Ɖ ň ŏ ŏ ŏ œ Ō ł œ ň Ņ ł ł Ņ Ņ ň òŅ ł Ŕ ʖ Ʀÿƀ ň ŁŔĪť  Żſ łŔ ÿƉň ǓŅŧ ǓŴÿŹķĭųÿɤ  ƃŴô ƀƐ  ƃŁĥ Ŕ ĭ :ťƕĿ  ĥ ƈƕ Ū  ŔŹ Ū  Ŕ ŹŴô ƍƤƕť  ƀƉĭ ł Ņ  ƃŏœ .ťƀƊƣƈ Ōł ň ň ł ł ň ŏ Ō ł œ ň òŅ ł ň ň ƖɝƎ  Ŵô ƍƤƕƈ   ƉƎƀ ň Ɖò ĥŧ  ǔƐƖƤƊ  Ŷ Ĵ .ťƉ ň ǓŅŧ ǓŴŹŴô ƀƐ  ƃŁĥ Ŕ ĭ :ťƀƉ Ņ ł Ņ ň ŏ Ņ ĥ ƈłƕƥ  Ŷň ĿŅĪœ ƢƐ ł Ũœ ƈƃŏœ ƚ  Ŕ Əĭ Ņ ťƃ ųÿƇƃĭ Ŕ :ŦŁŴÿ Ŕ ƀŏ ʖł ĭ :ŧ Ƣÿƀ Ņ ŌƖŨŔ ĭł :ŦƦÿŶ Ŕ ƢłƘŅ œ :ťÿƕĿ ł .ťƤŅ ƍŅəòɫł Ũœ ķĭųɤ ŏ ƃĭ ŏŔ :ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ƈłƕƥ  Ŷň ĿŅĪť Ņ Ǔł Ŕ ƤŶ Ņ ł łœ ŏœ ł Ŕ ňƀò ʖ .ĭôƦƀ Ŕ Ɖ Ō :ťƤŅ ũŔ ƀłŨŔ Īłœ ƈƃŏœ ƎƉ ł Īť Ŕ Ŷĭ Ņ ĿŏĪŦ Ŕ ƦƊ Ŕ Ƥƌ  Ī ƈƃ Ūƃ ň :IJĬô ŴòƘł œ ŤŨť ł Ņ Ņ ĥłƁÿƘò œ ĥł ƈÿłƕ ĶňŤÿƟŅ Īœ ƈƄƆť ŏŔ źƕ  ĭł ŭƃ :ŧ ƢŅÿƀŌƖũŔ Ɔť ł ÿƉŅ űƕ łŔ ĭł ťÿƤŅ ƍŅəòɫł Ũœ ƎÿƉň :ťÿƕĿ ł Ō ň ł ł Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ĥƎ ƢÿŶł Ʀƣĥ œ ĭň .ťÿƕĿ  ÿƉň Ŵô ƀź  ƕŁŔĥ :ťƀŅƊƣ  ĪŦ łŔ ĭł Ŕ ƦŶ Ŕ ƢƙƆ Ŕ ťƉ Ņ űƕ łŔ ĭł :ťƤŶ Ņ ǔłɝťƉ Ņ űƕ Ņ ň łƕĪŔĭįŴ ł ƌŏ .ŦŁŴ Ŕ ũŏ Ŕ ƠŌ Ũœ ųƊ ł Ņ ł ň ł  Ŵô ƍƤƕ  ĭ űƃ .ƎƀƉ Ō ŴòɖƎƀ ł ƤƊ Ō ŶĭŦŤ ł Ɖ Ņ :ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ƈłƕť  ƀò Ɖ









 

 



Ch. 

Chapter  VI



Then God said to Noah, “Go into the ark, you and all your household for I have seen that you are righteous before me among this generation.



From each clean animal take seven — males and females — and from the animals that are not clean, two each — males and females —



and also from each of the clean birds [take] seven — males and females — to preserve their issue alive on the face of all the earth,



for within seven days I am going to bring down rain on the earth for forty days and forty nights, and I will blot out everything that exists, which I made, from the face of the earth.”



Noah did everything that the Lord commanded him.



Noah was six hundred years old when the flood happened — waters over the earth.



Noah, his sons, his wife and the wives of his sons entered with him into the ark because of the waters of the flood.



From the clean animals and from the unclean animals and from the birds and from all the creeping things on the earth,



two of each — male and female — entered the ark with Noah, just as God had commanded Noah.

VII



After seven days the waters of the flood were on the earth.



When Noah was six hundred years old, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on that very day, all the springs of the great abyss were breached and the floodgates of the heavens were opened.



It rained on the earth for forty days and forty nights. 







ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ł ł ň ŏ ň Ņ ŏ Ō Ņ ň ŏ œ ł ƅ Ŕ ÿƆŅ Īœ ƈÿźƉ  :ŦŁŴ Ŕ ÿũŔ ƠƆ  ĴŔ Ʀƀ œ Ũł œ ųƇƃĭ Ŕ Ʀ  ô ƌĥ ĵŴƕŏ :įŴƍɞ ŏ ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ņ ĿŅűŅŔŨœ ƁƉ œ ô ƌĥł ơſĪŌœĮł Īœ Ʀſ Ņ.ťƌĬŧ ł űƟ ŅŔ Ʀ Ŕ ŵŶ Ō Ņ Ņ ň ŦƦ Ŕ ÿũŅ Ŕ Ơò ňƌĭŧ  ǔňÿƃŔ Īňœ :ťÿƖŅ ũŔ ƣť ł ÿƖŅ ũŔ ƣł ƅ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ Ū  ŔƏ ł ŦƦƀ Ŕ ƃŌŔĪŧ Ŕ Ƣƀ Ņ ŌƖŨœ ųñ ɤ Ņ ƃŏœ ƎƉĭ ň ƎÿƉĭ Ņ Ņ Ō œ Ņ .Ŧ Ʀ Ŕ ũŅ Ŕ Ơò ňƌĭŧ  ǔňƃŔĪňœ ƎſĿňŁœ ƎſĿňŁœ :ťƀŅƃŔĪłœ ŒŁŔ ĭĬ Ņ ƧĪŧ Ŕ Ƣƀ  ƖŨ Ņ Ņ Ņ ň Ļĥ  Ŕ ĭŅ ƈÿłƕťƕĿ Ņ Įł Ŵƀŏʛ Ņ ƊƆ ł :ŦƦ Ŕ ũŅ Ŕ Ơò ňƌĭŧ  ǔňƃŔĪňœ :ťƖŅũŔ ƣť ł ƖŅũŔ ƣł ŦƦƀ Ŕ ƃŌŔĪŦ Ŕ ƦŶ Ŕ ƢłƘŅ œ ƎƉ ł Ņ ŏ œ òł œ ł .ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƃƁƘ ĥ ł ł ŏ ň Ņ ĥ ƈÿłƕŧ Ƣÿź ł ÿƖŅ ũŔ ƤƆť ƎÿƀŌƖŨœ Ŀĥ :ťÿƕĿ Ņ Ɖť ň ÿƌŅ ôĥ Ʀ Ŕ ÿŷň ƉƎƀ ł Ɖ Ō Ŵò ÿɖť ł ƄŅœ Ɖ ň Īœ ƈź Ɖ  Ō ł òł œ ł ň ň œ ň œ ň Ņ œ ŏ Ņ ň Ņ ł Ō ł Ņ.ťƕĿ Ō Ņ Ņ ł ò œ  Ɗ Ɗ  ò ſĥ  ŁŔűũŔ ƕĪ ĶŤƟ Ī ƈƃť Ŕ ƌôĥťź  ƕĭ  :ķŴ ɤ  ƀɞ  ƎƀƖŨ ĿĥĭƎƀ  ĥƁƘ ĥƎƉ .ťɕƢ Ņ ƉĬ Ņ űƠ ňœ ƘłŔ Īœ ƈƃŏœ įŴƌŏ űŔũƕ łŔ ĭł ł Ņ ł Ņ ŅŅœ ł ò Ō  Źĭ :Ǝƀɫ ƣŦŤƉ Ņ Ʀ Ŕ ƣƢ ň Ũłœ įŴƌĭ  ĭĬť  ƍƘŴ ŏ .ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ƈłƕť  ƀò ƉŦ ň Ņ Ō ł Ŕ Ƥňò ňƌĭ ł ƌŏŴô Ƈłƕĭ   ĬŁŔ Ʀœ ô ƌĥĭł :IJĬô Ŵò ɩłŨŔ ĭįŴ ĶűÿƟƎ ŅŔ ÿƉň :ŦŁŴ Ŕ ÿũŏ Ŕ ƠƆų  ÿƊň łƕIJĬô Ŵò ɩłŨŔ Īť ł Ņ Ņ ł  œ ŹĪœťƀò Ɖ .ťƍŅƘŴ Ņ Ņ Ō œ ň Ņ Ō Ņ Ō œ ň Ņ ň :ŦƦÿŶ ň :ťƀŅƃŔĪłœ ŒŁŔ ĭĬ ƈÿƃŏ œ ƎÿƉĭ Ŕ ƢłƘŅ œ ƎƉĭ Ņ ƧĪŧ Ŕ Ƣƀ  ƖŨ ƎƉĭ  :ŦƦƀ Ŕ ƃŔ Īŧ Ŕ Ƣƀ  ƖŨ ƎƉĭ  ł ł ň Ņœ Ņ.ťƕĿ  ĥ ƈƕƥ  Ŷ ĿĪ ł ł Ņ Ņ ò ň ň ňœ Ņ ŏ Ō ŏ łƕŴô ƇłƕƎſ ŦųŅ ÿƆŅ ĥ űŔÿƠň ƘłŔ Īœ ƅÿſ  Ŕ ĥ :ŦƦ Ŕ ÿũŔ Ơ ƌĭŧ  ǔÿƃŔ Ī :ŦŁŴ Ŕ ÿũŔ ƠƆįŴ  ÿƌƋ  ĿňŁœ ƎſĿňŁœ ŏ .įŴƍɞ ł Ņ ł ł  :ƎƀƉ Ō Ŵò ɖť ł ƖŅũŔ ƤƆŦ ł ĭĬ Ņ ĭł Ņ œ ŹĪœťƀò Ɖĭ .ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ƈłƕ ĭĭĬť ł ƍŅƘŴ Ņ ƀłŨŧ Ņ ƀłŨœ :įŴƌŏĪœIJĬô Ŵò əłŷƆƎ ťÿŶƢ Ŕ ǔňÿƐň ƖũƤ łŔ Ũł œ :ƎÿſĿňŁŔĪť łŔ ÿŶƢ ł ƀòɫŌ ƣŦŤƉ Ņ Ʀ Ŕ ƣň Ʀ Ŕ ƍƤ ł Ũłœ ň Ņ Ĭŏ Łœ ƁłƕŴò ÿũŏ œ Ɖƈ ťÿƀŅ Ɗƣ ł Īť łŔ ÿƄň œ Ɛ ò ƌĭ Ņ :ťÿŨŅ œ ĿłťÿƉĭ ł ÿƃŏ œ Ŵô ÿƕĿłŁœŁœĥ :ťƌŅĬŅ ťƉŴ Ņ ƀłŨœ ųŨňŔ ł ň :ŴŶƦ œ Ƙł œ ŁŔĥ Ō ł Ņ ł ł Ņ ň Ņ ł .ķŴŅɤ ł ƀòɞƎƀ ł ŌƖŨœ ĿĥĭƎƀ ł Ɗ Ō Ɗ Ņ ò ſĥƎƀ  ŌƖŨœ Ŀĥ :ťƕĿ  ĥ ƈƕŧ  Ƣź  ƉŦ  ĭĬ  ĭ



ĭįĽ ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



į



İ



ĮįĽ IJ  ťſ 

Ūſ 

Ch. 



God said to Noah, “I have decided to bring an end to all flesh, 1 because the earth is filled with wickedness from them. Now I am going to destroy them with the earth.



Make for yourself an ark of juniper 2 wood. Make the ark with decks and cover it outside and inside with pitch.



You shall make it thus: the length of the ark will be three hundred cubits, its width will be fifty cubits, and its height will be thirty cubits.



Make windows for the ark and limit it to one cubit from above. On the side of the ark put a door and make the ark with lower, second and third decks.



Now I am about to bring floodwaters on the earth to destroy under heaven all flesh that has the spirit of life in it. Everything on the earth will perish.



I will establish my covenant with you and you shall enter the ark, you, your sons, your wife and your sons’ wives with you.



Bring into the ark with you two of each living thing, from all flesh, to keep them alive. They will be male and female.



From the birds of every kind, from the animals of every kind, from every kind of creeping thing of the earth, two of every kind should enter with you in order to live. 3



As for you, take from all the food that can be eaten and gather it with you. It will be food for you and for them.”



Noah did all that God commanded him. Thus he did.

‘I have decided to bring an end to all flesh’: lit. ‘The end of all flesh has come before me’. 2 See the Introduction: Particular Lexical Choices. 3 MT: ‘to preserve alive’. 1



ł ł ň ŏ ň łƕƢ ł Ɖ ŒŔ ÿƀˁ ł Łĥ Ŕ Īňœ ƈÿźƉ  : ƁƉ ł űƟƈ ŅŔ  Ɛ ł Ũœ ƈƃŏŔĪŦ Ŕ ƞŅƟň :įŴƍɞŦ ŏ ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ŭſ Ʀ ł ł ł Ņ Ņ.ťƕĿ Ņ Ŕ ƎƉ ň ƧŴ  łƕť  ƕĿ Ņ ĥ  ĥƋ  ƕķĭ  ųɝť ŏ ƌŅôĥ ƈũňœ ŷƉŦ ł ĬŅ .ķĭųƀ ŏ Ɖ ł űƟ Ņ ŏ :ŦŁŅŔŴÿũŏ Ŕ ƠƆ ňŔ ŧ ǔňɕŅűŔƉ ň :ťƟƢ Ņ łƕĪť Ŕ Ɛƀ Ņ Ɵł ĪŦ Ŕ ŁŴ Ŕ ũŏ Ŕ ƟŌ ƅ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ űŔũňŔ ƕ űſ ƎÿƉň ųƀ ñ ň ƕŴ  ÿƣĭ Ō ųſ ñ űŌŔũƕ łŔ ŧ ƢŅƘŴ Ŕ ƄŏŔ Ũœ ŴŬƆƎ Ŕ ł ň ũƆ ƉĭƢ Ō ł Ō ł Ņ ŏ Ō œ Ņ œ ŏ òŌ ł Ņ Ņ œ Ō ň Ņ ł Ņ Ņ  ųſ Ŕ Ƙ œ ƎÿƀƉò ĥƎƀ  ƤƊ  Ŷĭ  :ŦŁŴ Ŕ ũŔ Ɵ Ī ųñ ƃĿĭ  ĥƎƀƉĥŦŤ  Ɖ  Ʀ Ŕ Ɔ  Ł :ųñ ſűŔ ũƕ :ųñ ÿŅſƦ Ŕ ťƍƃŔ Ĭĭ ł Ō Ō ł Ņ ò Ŕ Ɔ  ŁŔĭł .ųñ Ɖĭ Ņ ĿƎƀ  ƉĥƎſ  Ʀ Ņ Ņ Ō ł ł Ņ Łĭ ň Ŕ ťňòƌĪŔĭĮ Ō ĭł Ŵſ ŦŁŴ Ŕ ÿũŏ Ŕ ƟŌ Īœ ųñ ÿƕĿ Ŕ :ƈÿňƖɝƎÿƉň ųƀ ñ ƄŌ Ŕ ƀňƏť ł Ɖ Ņ ĥ ƈłƕĭ :ŦŁŴ Ŕ ũŏ Ŕ ƠƆ  űŔũƕ ň Ņ ł ŅŅ ň ň ñŅ ň Ņ Ō ł ŅŅ Ŕ Ĭ Ƣź  Ɛ  ŨŔ Ŕ :ťɕŅƦŶ œ Łŧ Ŕ ƢɕűŔƉ  .űŔũƕ ňŔ ťɕŅƦƀ Ŕ Ɔ  ŁŔĭ :ťƍəƌ Łĭ .ųſ ñ űŌŔũƕ ł Ņ ł ŅŅœ ł Ņ ňœ ł Ņ Ņ ň ŏ  ŹťƌôĥŦƦƀ  ĪŔťƍƘŴ  ƉŦ  Ĭť  ƌĥ ĭ ŵſ Ŕ ĪŌœ ƢÿƐł Ũœ ƈÿƃŏ Ŕ ŴƇ ũŅ œ ŷł ƊƆ Ʀÿſĥ ł :ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ƈłƕť  ƀò Ɖ ň œ ŏ .ĻŴ  Ŕ Ɛƌ ŏ ĭĬô ťłƕĿŤ  ŨłŔ Īœ ƈƃĭŔ :ťƀŅƊƣ ł Ʀƀ Ŕ ʖ ň Ł ƎƉť ň ƀò ʖ ł Īť Ŕ Ŷĭ Ņ Ŀų ŏ Ũňœ ň Ņ œ ł œòł ł œ ł Ņ ŏ Ō ň Ŕ :ƅ Ŕ Ɗ Ņ łƕƁô ƊƀƟƋƀ Ņ Ō ĭł Ÿɖ Ɵĥ  :ĴŔ ŁŔ Ʀÿ  ô ƌĥŦŁŴ ťÿƤò ňƌĭ  ô ƌĥĭ :ƅ ÿƀɫ ŨŔ ĭ Ʀÿ Ŕ ÿũŔ ƠƆĵŴ  ÿƕŏ Łĭ .ƅ Ŕ Ɗ Ņ łƕ ƅ œ ƀòɫł ŨŔ ĪłŔ Ņ Ō ł Ŵÿƀŏ ʛ Ņ ƊƆŦ ł ŁŴ Ŕ ÿũŏ Ŕ ƠƆƈ  ÿňƕĥƎÿſ  ĿňŁœ ƎÿſĿňŁœ :ƢÿƐł Ũœ ƈÿƃŏ œ ƎƉ ň Ɓʖ ł Īœ ƈƃŏœ ƎƉĭ ň Żſ Ņ .ķĭĭų ŏ ňƌ ŦƦ Ŕ ũŅ Ŕ Ơò ňƌĭŧ  ǔň ƃŔĪňœ :ƅ Ŕ Ɗ Ņ łƕ Ņ ł Ņœ ň Ņ Īť ň ųñ ÿƐƍ Ņ ŬƆ Ņ ǓłųÿňƇƃŏœ ƎÿƉĭ ťÿƕĿĥ łŔ ÿƤŶ Ŕň ŧ Ƣƀ Ņ ŌƖŨœ ƎƉĭ ň :ųñ Ɛƍ Ņ ŬƆ ĭ Ĵ Ŕň ŦƦŶ Ŕ ƢƘ ƎƉ ŏ ň ň œ œ ŏ ò ô Ɛ ł ƍŬƆ .ťŶŅ ŤƊƆ ň ƅ Ŕ Ɗ Ņ łƕķŴƇƖ  ňƌ ƈƃœ ƎƉƎſ ň ĿŁ ƎſĿŁ :IJĬŴ Ŕň Ņ Ņ ň ň Ņ ň ŏ ĭł :ƈÿƃň Ŕ ĥƦ Ŧĭų ň ÿňƌĭ :ĴŔ ŁŔ ŴÿɝĵŴ  ÿƊŶ Ŕ Ɖ  Ī Ŕ ƨ ÿƃŤŔ Ɖƈ  ƃŏœ ƎƉ ň ƅ Ŕ Ɔ Ņ Ū  ŔƏ ł Ʀ œ ô ƌĥĭł ťƃ Ņ ň ŏ ĭł ƅ Ŕ Ɔ ųɝ Ņ .ŦƦƆŴ œ ƃŏŔŤƊƆķĭ ł ňœ ł œ ŏœ ŏ ł ł .űŔũƕ łŔ ťƍŅƃł Ŕ ĬŅ :ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥĬ  űƠ  ƘŔ Ī ƈƃ įŴƌ űŔũƕ Ŕ ĭ Ūƃ























Ch. 

Chapter  

It happened that when the people on the face of the earth began to become numerous and daughters were born to them, the sons of Elohim 1 saw that the people’s daughters 2 were beautiful.



They took wives from all those they chose.



Then the Lord said, “My spirit 3 should not abide in people forever because they are flesh. Let their days be one hundred and twenty years.”



There were warriors 4 on the earth in those days (and also later) because the sons of Elohim 5 had relations with the people’s daughters and they bore to them warriors, the renowned warriors of old.



Then the Lord saw that human wickedness increased on the earth and that every inclination of the thoughts of people’s hearts was wicked all the time.



The Lord regretted that he had made Adam on the earth and he was sick at heart.



The Lord said, “I will blot out humanity that I created from the face of the earth, from people to the animals, the creeping things and the birds of the sky, because I regret that I made them.”



But Noah found favor in the eyes of the Lord.



These are the descendants of Noah. Noah was a righteous and blameless man in his generation. Noah pleased 6 the Lord.



Noah begot three sons: Shem, Ham, and Japheth.



Now the earth became corrupt before God and the earth was filled with wickedness.



God saw that the earth was corrupt because all flesh corrupted its way on the earth. See the Introduction: Divergent Readings. ‘daughters’: lit. ‘human daughters’. 3 ‘spirit’ or ‘breath’. 4 The Peshiṭta interprets Hebrew ‘Nephilim’ as warriors. 5 See 6:1. 6 See the Introduction: Particular Lexical Choices. 1 2





ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ň Ņ òŅ ł Ņ ł òł œ ł ň ŁŌĥŦ Ņœ Ɗ ň ƆťÿƤŅ ƍŅəòɫł Ũœ Ŵô ſƢŌƣł űŔƃłŔĪŦ Ŕ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł Ŕ ÿƍŨŔ ĭ :ťÿƕĿĥƁÿƘĥ ƈÿłƕťÿŬƐ IJô űòŔÿɤſ Ŕ Ʀ ň ł ł ł Ņ ł Ō Ɔ  :ķĭųɝ ŏ  ƋſĬŴ ŏ ĥ ƁòƍŨœ ĭŵŶ Ŕ ƤŅ ƌŅôĥ Ʀ Ŕ òƍũŔ Ɔ .Ǝƀň ƌĥķ  ǔŅƀƙŌœ ƣł Īť ň ň ƌĥňŴô ũŔ Ɛƌ .ŴũłŔ ū Ŕ Īłœ ƈƃŏœ ƎƉ ň ťƤò ňƌ ķĭųɝƎƀ ŏ ł ĭł ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ň ŏ ň ł Ņ Ŕ Ƨ :ťɕƢ  ƉƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ɖ  :ƋƇ Ɩɝť  ƤŅ ƌŅŤôŨœ Ɓô ʖĭĿƢ ŏ Ɗƕ ł Ł ķĭĭų ŏ ÿňƌĭ :ĭĬŧ ô ƢƐ ł ŨňŔ Īœ ƈź ň Ņòł Ō ň Ņ Ō ò  Ʀ Ŕ Ɖ  Ŵ ɖ .Ǝƀɫ ƣƎſƢƐ  ƕĭ  ŦŤƉĬ ŏ ň Ņ Ņ ò ł œ Ņ łœ ł ň Ņœ ł ł ňœƦ Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎÿƉň Ļĥ Ŵô ÿƇłƕĪœ ƈÿźƉ  :ƎÿƃĿ  Ŕ ĭŅ ķŴƌŏĬŦ Ņ Ʀ Ŕ Ɖ  ŴəŨ :ťƕĿŤ  Ũ ĭĭĬŧ  ǔũ ôƍūĭ  ł Ŕ òł œ Ņ ł ňŧ ǔÿũŅ œ ƍū ň ň ŏ Ņ ò ł Ō ŏ Ō ň Ņ Ņ ò Ņ œ œ ł ł  ĥ ƁƍŨ  Ɖ  Īŧ Ŕ ǔũôƍūœ ķĭų ɝ IJô űŔ ɤſ  ĭ :ťƤ ƌôĥ Ʀ Ŕ ƍŨ ƈƕ ƋſĬŴƆ ô  œ ƋƇ ƕƎ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł  ĪŔ .ŦŁŔ ųò Ɗƣ Ņ Ņ ŒŔ ƀłŬ Ŕ Ə ň Īť Ŕ ɕƢ Ņ ƉŦ Ņ ŵŶ Ņ ĭł ųÿũň œ Ɔ ň ĪŦ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ ÿũŔ Ƥł ŷƉ ł Īŧ Ŕ ĿƞŅ łſƈ  ƃŏ Ŕ ĭťƕĿŤ Ņ Ũť łŔ ƤŅ ƌŅôĥĪŦ Ŕ ƦƤƀ œ ŨŌœ Ʀ .ĶŴſŏ ƈƄŏŔ Ũœ ƥƀŨŌ œ Ņ ł łœ ł Ņ Ņ ł ł œ œ ň ŒŔ łſƢ  ƃĭ ňŔ :ťƕĿŤ Ņ Ũłœ ĶĪŅŔƧ űŔũƕ .ųũňœ ɢ ň Ũœ Ʀ Ŕ Ī ƈƕť  ɕƢ Ɖ  įĭŁŁĥ  ĭ ł łł ň ň ň Ņ Ņ ł ň ł Ŕ ĭł ťÿƤŅ ƍŅəòɫł Ũœ ƎƉ łŔ ƤŅ ƍŅəòɫł ũŔ Ɔť ł źƕ  ĥ ťɕƢ  ƉƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ  Ʀſ Ŕ ƢŌŨŔ Īť ťÿƉŅ űƕ ň :ťƕĿ Ņ ĥƁƘò œ ĥƎƉ łœ œ ňœ ŏ ň Ņ ł ł Ņ ł Ņ ł Ō Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ł ň Ņ ł ł  Ī ƈÿźƉ  :ťÿƀƊƣ  ĪŔ ŦƦÿŶ ƦŔ ÿŶĭŁŁĥ Ŕ ťƉ  űƕ Ŕ ĭ :ťƤŶ  ǔɝťƉ  űƕ Ŕ ĭ :ŧ Ƣƀ  Ɩũ Ɔ ł Ŕ ƢƙƆ ňŏ ň œ Ŕ ň œ .ķŴƌĥ ŁŔűũŔ ƕĪ ň .ťɕƢ Ņ Ɖ Ņ Ɓƍłəòɳ ł Ũť Ŕ ƊŶ ň ǓłŸƄƣ łœ ĥįŴƌĭ ŏ ň Ņ ò łœ ň Ņ ł ł Ŕ ĭł :IJĬĭ Ŕ ĭŁ ƎƀƆ  Ĭĭ  Ƣÿƙƣ ô ǓłűŅŔÿŨŦ ô Ō Łĭ Ɖ Ŕ ơſĪŌœĮƢ ł ũłŔ ū  œ įŴƌŏ :įŴƌŏĪœ ĬŁŔ űɝ Ŕ ĭŅĬƋÿƀ ł ŏ Ņ Ņ  ƌ .Ŧų ƆƧįŴ Ņ Ņ œ ŏ ň ł .Ʀ œ ƙŔ ƀłɞĭł :ƋŷƆ Ņ ĭł :ƋƀƤƆ ň :ƎƀòɫŌ ŨŦ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ Ɔ  Ł įŴƌ űŔƆĭĥ  ĭ Ņ ł Ņ ł Œ ł ł ň Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł Œ ł œł ň Ŕ Ƈ ũ Ŷ Łĥ Ŕ ĭ Ŕ ƀˁ  Ɖ  Łĥ Ŕ ĭ :Ŧų Ɔ  ĥĶ  űƟť Ŕ ƕĿ  ĥ Ʀ .ƧŴ  ƕť  ƕĿ  ĥ Ʀ ŏ ň Œ ł œł ň Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł ň ŏ ĥƢ Ŕ Ƈ ũ Ŷ Łĥ Ŕ ĪŔ ťƕĿ  ƧŦ  ų Ɔ  ĥŦ  ŵŶ  ĭ ƈÿłƕųÿŶĿĭ  ÿƐł Ũœ ƈÿƃŏ œ ƈÿũň œ Ŷł Īœ ƈź Ɖ  :Ʀ ł .ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ



ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



į



İ



IJ  ťſ  Ūſ 

Ch. 



All the days of Mahalalel were eight hundred and ninety-five years. Then he died.



When Jared had lived one hundred and sixty-two years, he begot Enoch.



Jared lived eight hundred years after he begot Enoch and he begot sons and daughters.



All the days of Jared were nine hundred and sixty-two years. Then he died.



When Enoch had lived sixty-five years, he begot Methuselah.



Enoch pleased 1 God for three hundred years after he begot Methuselah and he begot sons and daughters.



All the days of Enoch were three hundred and sixty-five years.



Enoch pleased 2 God and then he was no more because God took him.



When Methuselah had lived one hundred and eighty-seven years, he begot Lamech.



Methuselah lived seven hundred and eighty-two years after he begot Lamech and he begot sons and daughters.



All the days of Methuselah were nine hundred and sixty-nine years. Then he died.



When Lamech had lived one hundred and eighty-two years, he begot a son.



He named the son Noah and he said, “This one will console 3 us from our labors, from the toil of our hands and from the land that the Lord has cursed.”



Lamech lived five hundred and ninety-five years after he begot Noah and he begot sons and daughters.



All the days of Lamech were seven hundred and seventy-seven years. Then he died.

See the Introduction: Particular Lexical Choices. See the Introduction: Particular Lexical Choices. 3 The Peshiṭta does not represent in Syriac the Hebrew word-play on the name Noah. 1 2



ňŅ Ņ ł œ ň Ŕ ÿ ƊŅ ňƍƉ Ņ Łœ ƈÿÿſƨɟų  Ɖ  ĪIJĬô Ŵÿ Ɖł Ŵò ɖƈ ł ÿ ƃŏ œ ĭĭĬ ł ĭł ŵſ Ǝÿ ƀò ɫŌ ƣƥÿ Ɗň ŶĭƎÿ ł ÿƀŌƖƣ  ŁĭŦŤ .Ʀƀ Ŕ Ɖĭ Ō ňœ ł Ō ň Ņ œł Ņ ł .ĴŴ Ŕ ƍŷ ŏ Ɔ ł űŔƆĭĥ ň ĭł :ƎƀòɫƣƎſ Ō ŁĿŁĭ Ŕ ƎſƦƣ œ ĭŦŤ  Ɖ  ĪƢ  ſť  ƀʖ  ĭ Ÿɖ Ņ Ņ ł òŅ ł œ ň ł ò Ō ł  ĭ :Ǝƀɫ ƣŦŤƊ Ņ ňƍƉ Ņ Łœ .ĴŴ Ŕ ƍŷ ŏ Ɔ ł űŔƆĭĥ ň Īłœ ĿƦ Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎƉ  ƀɫ Ũ űŔƆĭĥ ň ĪƢ œ łſť  ƀʖ Ņ ĭł Żſ .ŦƦ Ŕ òƍŨŔ ĭť ň ł Ō ň Ņ ł œ œł œ .Ʀƀ Ŕ ƉĭƎ Ō ƀòɫŌ ƣƎſŁœ ĿŁĭ Ŕ ƎſƦƣ œ ĭŦŤ  Ɖ  Ɨƣ Ł ĪƢ  ſĪIJĬô ŴƉ ł Ŵò ɖƈ ł ƃŏœ ĭĭĬ ł ĭł Ĵ ŏ ł Ō .Ÿł Ƈƣĭ  Ʀ œ ƊƆ  űŔƆĭĥ ň ĭł :ƎƀòɫŌ ƣƥƊ ň ŶĭƎſ ł Ʀƣ œ ĴŴ Ŕ ƍŶť ŏ ƀʖ Ņ ĭł ťƃ ł ŏ ł ł ŏ ł ł ň Īłœ ĿƦ :Ǝÿƀò ɫŌ ƣŦŤÿƉŅ Ʀ Ŕ ÿƆŅ Łœ :ŸÿłƇƣĭƦ œ ƊƆ  űŔÿƆĭĥ Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎƉŦ ň ųŅ Ɔ Ņ Ƨ ĴŴ Ŕ ƍŶƢ  ƙƣ Ŕ ĭ Ūƃ Ņ òŅ ł òŅ ł œ ň ł  ĭ .Ŧ Ʀ Ŕ ƍŨŔ ĭ ťƀɫ Ũ űŔƆĭĥ Ō ň Ņ Ņ œ ŏ łœ .ƎƀòɫŌ ƣƥƊ ň ŶĭƎſ ł Ʀƣ œ ĭŦŤ  Ɖ  Ʀ Ŕ Ɔ  Ł ĴŴ Ŕ ƍŶ  ĪIJĬô ŴƉ ł Ŵòɖƈ ł ƃŏœ ĭĭĬ ł ĭł ŭƃ ł ňœ ł œ ŏ ň ł ł Ņ Ņ ł ŏ ł ł Ŕ Ɔĭ  Ŧų Ɔ  Ƨ ĴŴ Ŕ ƍŶƢ  ƙƣ Ŕ ĭ űƃ .ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥų  ũƐ  ƌĪ ƈź Ɖ  :IJĬĭ ô Ʀƀ ŏ ł Ņ ł ł .ƅƊ œ LJ  űŔƆĭĥ ň ĭł :ƎƀòɫƣƗ Ō łŔ ĭł ƎſŤƍŌƉ ũƣ Ņ ŁŔĭŦŤ ł ƉŸ Ņ ł Ƈƣĭ  Ʀ œ Ɖť  ƀʖ  ĭ ųƃ ňœ ł ŏ ł Ņ ł ł ł ň Īłœ ĿƦ Ņ ũƣ ƎÿſŁĿŁĭ Ŕ ƎÿſŤƍŌƉ Ņ ŁŔĭŦŤ ł ÿƊƖ łŔ :ƅ œ ÿƊLJ  űŔÿƆĭĥ Ŕ ÿŨŅ œ ƎƉŸ ň ł Ƈƣĭ  Ʀ œ Ɖť  ƀʖ  ĭ Ŵƃ Ņ òŅ ł òŅ ł œ ň ł ò Ō  ĭ :Ǝƀɫ ƣ  ƀɫ Ũ űŔƆĭĥ .ŦƦ Ŕ ƍŨŔ ĭť Ō ň Ņ ł œ ł ŏœ ł œ .Ʀƀ Ŕ ƉĭƎ Ō ƀòɫŌ ƣƗƣł ŁŔĭƎſ ł Ʀƣ œ ĭŦŤ  ƊƖ  ƣ Ł ŸƇƣĭ  Ʀ Ɖ  ĪIJĬô ŴƉ ł Ŵò ɖƈ ł ƃŏœ ĭĭĬ ł ĭł ŵƃ ňœ ł .ŧ ƢŅŨœ űŔƆĭĥ ň ĭł ƎƀòɫŌ ƣƎſŁĿ  Łĭ Ŕ ƎſŤƍŌƉ Ņ ŁŔĭŦŤ ł Ɖ Ņ ƅƊ œ Ɔ ł ťƀʖ Ņ ĭł Ÿƃ Ņ ň :ƎÿſűłŔɖòĥĪ Ņ Ŕ ƎƉķŤ ƎÿƉĭ ŌŔ ƨÿƊłƕƎ  ƉĭƎ ň ò ſűłŔũƕ ň ƀłũƌ łŔ ťƌŅĬŅ :ƢƉĥ ł ĭň :įŴƌų ŏ Ɗƣŧ ň ƢƟ Ņ ĭł Żƃ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł  ĪŔ ťƕĿ  ĥ .ťɕƢ Ņ Ɖ Ņ ųñ źƆ ň ł ŌƖƣ Ņ Ɗ Ŕ ŦŤÿƊƤ ň Ŷł įŴƍɞ ŏ űŔƆĭĥ ň Īłœ ĿƦ Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎƉ :Ǝÿƀò ɫŌ ƣƥÿƊň ŶĭƎÿƀ ł  Łĭ ň ƅƊ œ Ɔ ł ťƀʖ Ņ ĭł ĵ Ņ Ņ Ņ ň ĭł .ŦƦ Ŕ òƍŨŔ ĭł ťƀò ɫł Ũœ űŔƆĭĥ .Ʀƀ Ŕ Ɖĭ Ō :ƎƀòɫŌ ƣƗũƣ łŔ ĭł ƎƀŌƖũŔ ƣĭŦŤ ł Ɖ Ņ Ɨũƣ łŔ ƅƊ œ Ɔ ł ĪœIJĬô ŴƉ ł Ŵòɖƈ ł ƃŏœ ĭĭĬ ł ĭł Ƨ .Ʀ œ ƙŔ ƀłɞĭł :ƋŷƆ Ņ ĭł :ƋƀƤƆįŴ ň ƌŏ űŔƆĭĥ ň ĭł :ƎƀòɫŌ ƣŦŤƊƤ Ņ Ɗ ň ŶƢ ł Ũłœ įŴƌŏ ŦĭĬ Ņ ĭł ŪƆ





    

   

  



 

Ch. 

Chapter  

This is the record of the descendants of Adam. On the day that God created Adam. In the image of God he created 1 him,



male and female he created them. God blessed them and called them “Adam” 2 on the day he created them.



When Adam had lived one hundred and thirty years, he begot [a son] in his likeness, according to his image, and he named him Seth.



Adam lived eight hundred years after he begot Seth and he begot sons and daughters.



All the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years. Then he died.



When Seth had lived one hundred and five years, he begot Enosh.



Seth lived eight hundred and seven years after he begot Enosh and he begot sons and daughters.



All the days of Seth were nine hundred and twelve years. Then he died.



When Enosh had lived ninety years, he begot Kenan.



Enosh lived eight hundred and fifteen years after he begot Kenan and he begot sons and daughters.



All the days of Enosh were nine hundred and five years. Then he died.



When Kenan had lived seventy years, he begot Mahalalel.



Kenan lived eight hundred and forty years after he begot Mahalalel and he begot sons and daughters.



All the days of Kenan were nine hundred and ten years. Then he died.



When Mahalalel had lived sixty-five years, he begot Jared.



Mahalalel lived eight hundred and thirty years after he begot Jared and he begot sons and daughters.  1 2

 MT: ‘made’. ‘Adam’ or ‘humankind’. The Hebrew and Peshiṭta texts read ‘Adam’.



ňł

.Ĭ :ķĭŅ ƨƙ Ŕ Ɵň ł ł ł ł Ņ Ņ ƀłŨœ .ĶĪĥŅŔ ĪŅœ ĬňŁŔ űÿ Ŕ ÿ Ɖŏ űŔŨłœ :ĶĪŅŔƧŦ ŦųŅ ÿ ƆŅ ĥ ŁŴ  ųŅ ÿ ƆŅ ĥŧ  ƢŅÿ ŨŔ Īť łŔ ÿ ƉŴ ŅŔ ÿɝĭòŁœ Ƣÿ ƙƏ Ŕ Ŵÿ ƌł ĬŅ ĥ .IJųô ſƢŅŨŔ ň Ņ ŏ ň Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł ŏň ň ł Ņ Ŕ ňƌĭ łŔ ƉŴ Ņ ƀłŨœ :ĶĪŅŔĥķĭ ŧ ƢŅ ÿŨŔ Īť  ųƊ  ƣŧ  ƢƟ  ĭ :Ŧų Ɔ  ĥķŴ  ƌĥ ĴŔ ƢŨĭ Ŕ :ķŴƌŏĥŧ  ƢŅŨť Ŕ ũƠ  ƢƃłŔĪœ ħ ň .ķŴƌŏĥ ł ň ŏ łœ ň ł ò Ō Ō Ņ ł Ņ ŅŅ Ņ ł Ŕ Ɖ  űŔŨ űŔƆĭĥ Ŕ Ɔ  ŁŔĭŦŤ  ƉĶ  ĪŔĥť ųƊƣŧ ň ƢƟ Ņ ĭł :ųƊƆ ň Ľł ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ĬŁŴ  ĭ :Ǝƀɫ ƣƎſƦ  ƀʖ  ĭ Ĩ .Ʀƀ Ŕ ƣň Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł òŅ ł œ ň ł ò Ō ł  ĭ :ƎƀɫƣŦŤ  Ɗ Ņ ňƍƉ Ņ Łœ Ʀƀ Ŕ ƤƆ ň űŔƆĭĥ ň Īłœ ĿƦ Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎƉĶ  ƀɫ Ũ űŔƆĭĥ ň ĪŅ Ŕĥť .ŦƦ Ŕ òƍŨŔ ĭť  ƀʖ  ĭ Ī Ō Ņ ł Ņ ł œ Ņ łœ Ņ Ņœ Ŕ Ɔ  ŁŔĭŦŤ  ƊƖ  ƣ Ł :ťƀʖ  Ī ĶĪĥŔ ĪIJĬô ŴƉ .Ʀƀ Ŕ ƉĭƎ Ō ƀòɫƣƎſ Ō Ʀ ł Ŵò ɖƈ ł ƃŏœ ĭĭĬ ł ĭł Ĭ Ņ ň ł òŌ .ŀŴƌŏƧ űŔƆ  ĭĥĭ :Ǝƀɫ ƣƥƊ ň ŶĭŦŤ ł Ɖ Ņ Ʀƀ Ŕ ƣť ň ƀʖ Ņ ĭł ĭ Ņ ň łœ ł Ņ œ ň Ņ ň ĭł :ƎƀòɫŌ ƣƗũƣ łŔ ĭł ŦŤƊ Ņ ňƍƉ Ņ Łœ :ŀŴƌŏƧ űŔƆĭĥ  Ī ĿƦ Ŕ Ũ ƎƉ ťÿƀò ɫł Ũœ űŔƆĭĥ  Ʀƀ Ŕ ƣť ň ƀʖ Ņ ĭł Į Ņ Ņ .ŦƦ Ŕ òƍŨŔ ĭł ł ł .Ʀƀ Ŕ ƉĭƎ Ō ƀòɫƣŧ Ō ǔňƐň ƕŁœ ĿŁĭ Ŕ ŦŤƉ Ņ Ɨƣł Łœ Ʀƀ Ŕ ƣň ĪœIJĬô ŴƉ ł Ŵò ɖƈ ł ƃŏœ ĭĭĬ ł ĭł į ň Ņ Ņ ł .ƎƍƀŅ ƠƆ ł űŔƆĭĥ ň ĭł :ƎƀòɫŌ ƣƎƀŌƖƣ  Łœ ŀŴƌŏĥť  ƀʖ  ĭ İ Ņ Ņ ł ł ň ĭł :Ǝƀòɫƣŧ űŔÿƆĭĥ Ō ǔňƐň ƖƤƊ ł ŶĭŦŤ ł Ɗ Ņ ňƍƉ Ņ Łœ :ƎƍƀŅ ƠƆ ł űŔƆĭĥ ň Īłœ ĿƦ Ŕ ŨŅœ ƎƉŀŴ ň ƌŏĥť  ƀʖ  ĭ IJ Ņ òŅ ł òŅ ł œ .ŦƦ Ŕ ƍŨŔ ĭ ťƀɫ Ũ .Ʀƀ Ŕ ƉĭƎ Ō ƀòɫƣƥ Ō ň ŶĭŦŤ Ɗ ł Ɖ Ņ Ɨƣł Łœ ŀŴƌĥŏ ĪŅœIJĬô ŴƉ ł Ŵò ɖƈ ł ƃŏœ ĭĭĬ ł ĭł ťſ ňŅ Ņ ł ŌƖũŔ ƣƎ ł ƀʖ .ƈſƨɟų  ƊƆ  űŔƆĭĥ ň ĭł ƎƀòɫƣƎƀ Ō ł ƍƀŅ Ɵť Ņ ĭł Ūſ ňŅ Ņ ł ł ň Īłœ ĿƦ ň ƍƀŅ Ɵť :Ǝÿƀò ɫŌ ƣƎÿƀŌƖŨœ ĿĥĭŦŤ ł ÿƊŅ ňƍƉ Ņ Łœ ƈÿſƨɟų  ƊƆ  űŔÿƆĭĥ Ŕ ÿŨŅ œ ƎÿƉƎ ł ƀʖ Ņ ĭł ŭſ Ņ Ņ Ņ ň ĭł .ŦƦ Ŕ òƍŨŔ ĭł ťƀò ɫł Ũœ űŔƆĭĥ .Ʀƀ Ŕ ƉĭƎ Ō ƀòɫŌ ƣƢƐƕ ł ĭŦŤ ł Ɖ Ņ Ɨƣł Łœ ƎƍƀŅ Ɵł ĪœIJĬô ŴƉ ł Ŵò ɖƈ ł ƃŏœ ĭĭĬ ł ĭł űſ ňŅ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ō .ĪƢ œ ƀɞ ł űŔƆĭĥ ň ĭł :ƎƀòɫŌ ƣƥƊ ň ŶĭƎſ ł Ʀƣƈſ œ ƨ ɟų  Ɖť  ƀʖ  ĭ ųſ ňŅ Ņ ł Ņ ł Ō Ņ ł Ņň Ņ œ œ ł ł ň Īłœ ĿƦ Ŕ Ɔ  ŁŔĭŦŤ  ÿƊƍƉ  Ł :ĪƢ  ÿƀɞ űŔÿƆĭĥ Ŕ ÿŨŅ œ ƎƉƈſ :Ǝÿƀò ɫŌ ƣƎÿſƦ ň ƨɟų  Ɖť  ƀʖ  ĭ Ŵſ Ņ òŅ ł òŅ ł œ ň ł  ĭ .ŦƦ Ŕ ƍŨŔ ĭ ťƀɫ Ũ űŔƆĭĥ 







   

  

  

  

Ch. 



Because Cain will be avenged seven times over, Lamech [will be avenged] seventy-seven times over.”



Adam knew again his wife Eve. She conceived and bore a son and she named him Seth, because [she said] “God has given me another descendant in place of Abel whom Cain killed.”



And also a son was born to Seth and he named him Enosh. Then he began to call on the name of the Lord.



ň Ņ ł œ ň Ņ ł œ ł œ ŏ ň ŌƖũŔ ƤƆ .ťƖŅũŔ ƣĭƎƀ ł ł ƅƊ œ Ɔ ł ĭ :ƎſŤƟĺ  ƢƘ Ʀ Ŕ ƌťƖũŔ Ƥ Ũ űŔŶ Ī ƈź Ɖ  ŏ Ņ ł ł ň ł ł  ħĭ  Ŕ Łœ ĶĪŅŔĥƋ ňŔ .ĬŁŔ Ʀœ ô ƌĥŦŴŅ ŷƆ  ƄŶ Ŕ ĭ ŒŔ ƍź ł Ũĭ :Ʀƀ Ŕ ƣų ň Ɗƣ ň Œ ŁŔ ƢƟ Ņ ĭł :ŧ ƢŅŨœ ŒŁŔ űɤ łœ ň ſĭ Ʀ ň Ņ ň ł œ ł Ō ŏ ň Ņ Ņ Ō Ņ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ł œ  Ŕ ƇŶ  :ťƌƢŶ  ôĥ ťƕĿ  ĮŦ  ų Ɔ  ĥ ƁƆ  ħ  Ŕ ųô ſĪ ƈź Ɖ  .ƎſŤƟų  Ƈź  Ɵ Ī ƈƀŨŔ Ĭ ƚ Ņ ň Ņ ł Ņ œ ň ň Ōň ň Ņ ň ł  Ɔ  Ļ  Ŕ ĥ Ʀƀ Ŕ ƤƆ  ĭ ŧ ƢƠ Ņ ƊƆ ň IJƢŌƣƎſ ł űſ ňœ ĬŅ .ŀŴƌŏĥų  Ɗƣŧ  ƢƟ  ĭ :ŧ ƢŨ ųƆ  űŔƇſ  ŁŔ ĥų Ņ Ņ.ťɕƢ œ ň ŨłŔ Ɖ  Ī ųƊƤ



űƃ  ųƃ  Ŵƃ 

Ch. 



Therefore you are cursed from the ground that opened its mouth and received your brother’s blood from your hands.



When you till the ground it will no longer yield its strength for you. You shall be a fugitive and a wanderer on the earth.”



Cain said to the Lord, “My offence is too great to be forgiven. 1



See, you have driven me out today from the face of the earth and I will be hidden from you. I will be a fugitive and a wanderer 2 on the earth. Anyone who finds me will kill me.”



The Lord said to him, “Not so. Anyone who kills Cain will pay seven times over.” The Lord put a mark on Cain lest anyone who might come upon him should kill him.



Then Cain went out from the Lord and he lived in the land of Nod, east of Eden.

V



Cain knew his wife and she conceived and bore Enoch. He built a city and he named the city after his son Enoch.



Idar was born to Enoch and Idar begot Mehujael. Mehujael begot Methushael. Methushael begot Lamech.



Lamech took two wives. The name of one was Adah and the name of the other was Zillah.



Adah bore Jabal; he was the father of the tent dwellers and owners of livestock. 3



The name of his brother was Jubal. He was the father of all those who play the lyre and harp.



Zillah as well bore Tubal-cain, a forger in every type of bronze and iron work. The sister of Tubal-cain was Naamah.



Lamech said to his wives, “Adah and Zillah, Hear my voice, O wives of Lamech, give ear to my discourse, because I have killed a man for my wounds, a young man for my bruises. 



MT: ‘to bear’. ‘I will be a fugitive and a wanderer’: lit. ‘I will be fleeing and wandering’. 3 ‘owners of livestock’ or ‘property owners’. 1 2



ł ň œ ł ŒŔ Ŷł Ʀ Ŕ ƘňŔ Īœ :ťƕĿ Ņ ĥƎ  Ɖ  Ʀ  ô ƌĥŻƀƆƈƀ Ō ƄŌœ Ɖ ň ťſ ƎÿƉň ĴŴŔ Ŷĥ ŏ Īłœ ųƉ ŒŔ ł Ƈ ũœ Ɵĭ ł ųñ ƉŴ Ņ Ƙŏ œ Ʀ ň Īœ Ʀ Ō .ƅſ  œ űłŔɖòĥ ň ňŅ łŅ Ņ ł Ņ ňň ł Ņ Ņ łœ ŏ ňœ łœ  Ŕ Əĭ ň Ł Ŕ Ƨ :ťƕĿŤ  Ũ įŴƇ ƘŔ Ł űŔƃ Ūſ .ťƕĿŤ Ņ ŨŦ łŔ ĭĬ ň Łœ ĪŔŤƌĭĺ  ĥĮ :ųñ ɤƀ  ʖ  ƅ Ŕ Ɔĵ  Łœ ŁŔ Īœ ƚ ň Ņ ł ň ŏ ł .ơũƤ łœ Ɗ ň ƆĪłœ ƎƉ ň IJô ŁŴ Ŕ Ƈ ƄŔ Ə  IJĬô ťŨŅœ Ŀł :ťɕƢ Ņ ƊƆƎſ Ņ ŤƟƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ŭſ ň Ņ ł Ņ ň ň ň ł œ ň œ ł Ņ ň Ņ ł òł œ ł ň Ņ Ņ ł Ņ œ ň œ ł Ņ  ƍƉŴ  ſƁô ƌƦƠ  Ƙ ĥŦĬ űſ ĪŔŤÿƌĭĺĥĮŦ  ĭĬĥ  ĭ :ťÿƤŹŁĥ ƅƀ  Ɖ  űƟ  .ťƕĿ  ĥƁƘ ĥƎƉť Ŕ ƎƉĭ ł ň ň ł œ .Ɓƍ ô ƇźƠ  ƌƁô ƍŷł ƄƤ  ƌĪœ ƎƉƈ  ƃĭ ŏŔ .ťƕĿŤ Ņ Ũłœ ň Ņ ŏ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ň ł ň Ņ .ĺƢłƘ œ Ʀ ƋÿƏĭ Ŕ ňƌťƖŅũŔ Ƥł Ũœ űŔŶƎſ ł ŤƟŅ ĪŔ ƧŴ ź  Ɵƈ  ƃť ŏŔ ƍŅƃłŔĬ Ņ Ƨ :ťɕƢ  Ɖų  ƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ųſ Ņ Ņ ň Ņ Ō ň ŏ Ņ ł ň ň ł Ņ œ œ Ɖ Ņ .ųƆŸ  ƄƤ  Ɖ  Īœ ƎƉƈ  ƃIJĬô ŴƀƇźƠ  ƌ  ƧĪœ :ƎſŤƠ ŨŦ Ŕ ŁŔ ĥť  ɕƢ ň Ņ ł ł ň .ķűƕ ňŔ Īłœ ųñ ŷƌ Ņ űŔ ƉƎ ł Ɖ ň :ĪŴ Ŕ ƌŏĪť Ŕ ƕĿŤ Ņ Ũł œ ħ  Ŕ Ʀſ Ŕ ĭŌ :ťɕƢ Ņ ƉĶ Ņ űƟƎ ŅŔ ƉƎſ ň ŤƟơ  ƙƌ Ŕ ĭ Ŵſ



  





ĬįĽ

Ņ Ō Ņ ĭł :ŦƦÿſ ł Ŕ ĭł ŵſ ň Ŕ :ĬňŁŔ Ʀœ ô ƌƧłƎſňŤƟƋ Ņ Ŕ ĭĬ Ņ ƄŶ ŒŔ ƍź ł Ũĭ ŧ ƢÿƟ Ŕ ƢƟť  ÿňƍŨŦ Ņ ĭł :ĴŴ Ŕ ƍŷ ŏ Ɔ ł ŒŁŔ űɤ łœ ň ſĭ Ʀ Ņ Ō łœ ñ Ņ łƕŦ .ĴŴ Ŕ ƍŶĬ ŏ ƢňŨœ Ƌƣƈ ň  Ʀſ Ŕ ƢƟ  Ī ų Ɗƣ  ň ł ň ł ł Ņ Ō ň Ō ň ň ĥł ƈſĥŴ ň ĥĿ ŏ Ɔ Ŕ ĭ Ÿɖ űŔÿƆĭ  ÿŷŏ Ɖĭ  .ƈſĥŴ  ÿŷŏ ƊƆ  űŔÿƆĭ  űÿ Ŕ ÿƀƕĭ  .Ŀűÿ ŅŔÿƀŌƕ ĴŴ Ŕ ÿƍŷ ł űŔÿƇſŁĥ ł ŏ ŏ ł ň œ œ ł ł ň ň  .ƈƀƣĭ  Ʀ .ƅƊ œ LJ  űŔƆĭ  ĥ ƈƀƣĭ  Ʀ  ƊƆ   Ɖĭ ň ł ň Ņ ł Ņ Ō łœ Ņ ł Ņœ ł Ņ łœ Ņ .Ƨ ĽŦ  ŁŔ ƢŶĥ  Ī ųñ Ɗƣ  ĭ :ŧ űɯ  ŧ űŶ Ŕ Ī ųñ Ɗƣ  :ƎƀòƤŌ ňƌƎſ  Łœ ĿŁœ ųƆ  Ū  Ŕ Ɛƌ ł ƅ œ ƊƆĭ ł Żſ ł Ņ .ťƍŅəƍ Ņ Ɵň Ɓɚł ɫò Ɵĭ ł :ťƍŅƄƤ œ Ɖ ł IJǔłƊƖɝť Ņ ŨŅ Ŕ ĥŦ  ĭĬ  ĭĬŏ :ƈũŅ Ŕ ƀɞŧ Ņ űŅœɯ ł ŒŁŔ űɤ łœ ň ſĭ Ĵ ł Ņ Ņ ŏ Ŕ ŨŅ Ŕ ĥŦ Ņ Ŕ ſŏIJĬô ŴŶĥ .ŧ ƢŅɩŅƃĭ ňŔ ŧ ĿŅƦƀ Ŕ ƟŌ űƀ Ŕ ʖĥ Ō Īłœ ƈƄƆť łŔ Ɗƣ Ņ ĭł ťƃ  ĭĬ  ĭĬŏ :ƈŨŴ ŏ Īť Ņ Ņł Ņ ŏ Ņ ŏ ĥ ƎÿÿƀƠɤ ŅŔ .ƧĮƢ  ÿ Ƙł Ŕ ĪŔĭł ťÿ ƤŅ ŷƌ Ņ Īłœ űŔÿ ũƕƈ Ŕ ŒŁŔ űÿ łœ ÿɤň ſ IJĬŌ Ļ  Ŕ ĥ  Ƨ Ľĭ  Ūƃ ÿ Ƅŏ Ŕ Ũœ Ǝÿ Ɖĭ Ō Ũĭ łŔ ƦƆ ŏ ň Ō Ŕ Ŷĭ Ņ .ťƊƖ Ņ ƌƎƀ ł Ơɤ  Ũĭ łŔ ŁŔ Īœ ĬƦ ň Ņ ł Ņœ ł œ Ɔ ł ƁÿƤò ł ňƌƁô ÿƇƟƎ Ņ ÿƀò ɳ ň Ɗƣ ł :Ƨ Ľĭŧ  űÿɯIJĬô Ŵò ÿƤł ňƍɞ  ƅÿƊ œ Ɔ ł ƢƉĥ ł ĭň ŭƃ ƎÿſŁŔ ĭòĽŏ :ƅÿƊ ł ł Ņœ ò ŏ œ ň ň Ņ ł œ ŏ ň Ŕ ƙƆ  ĭƞŨ Ʀ Ŕ Ƈź  Ɵŧ  ƢũŔ ū Ŕ Ī ƈźƉ  .IJô ƢƉŤ ł ƊƆ Ō .ƁƙłŔ ƟŅ ŴòƤŏ Ũť Ŕ ƀˁ Ņ Źĭ  :IJƦ







   



Ch. 

Chapter  IV



Adam knew 1 Eve, his wife, and she conceived and bore Cain. She said, “I have acquired a man for the Lord.”



Next she gave birth to his brother Abel. Abel was shepherding flocks and Cain was tilling the land.



Now some time passed and Cain brought an offering to the Lord from the fruits of his land.



Abel too brought [an offering] from the first born of his flocks and from their fat portions. The Lord delighted 2 in Abel and in his offering



but in Cain and in his offering he did not delight. Cain was very displeased and his face was sad.



The Lord said to Cain, “Why are you displeased? Why is your face sad?



If you were doing good, I would have received [it]. 3 If you do not do good, then sin crouches at the door. You will turn toward it and it will rule over you.” 4



Cain said to Abel his brother, “Let’s travel to the valley.” 5 It happened that while they were in the field Cain rose up against Abel his brother and he killed him.



The Lord said to Cain, “Where is Abel your brother?” He said, “I do not know. Am I my brother’s guardian?”



The Lord answered him, “What have you done? The sound of your brother’s blood calls out to me from the ground.

The Hebrew and Aramaic word connote a sexual sense. See the Introduction: Clarifications. 3 The meaning of the Hebrew is obscure. 4 MT: ‘You can rule over it [sin]’. 5 The Peshiṭta knows of the tradition that Paradise was located on a mountain: ‘In the Syriac understanding of this tradition Adam and Eve live on the foothills of the mountain after their expulsion from Paradise, while Cain’s dastardly action takes place in the valley below’ (S. P. Brock, “Jewish Traditions in Syriac Sources,” Journal of Jewish Studies 30 [1979]: 217). 1 2







ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ł ł ł ĭň :ƎſňŤƠƆ ň Ŕ :ĬňŁŔ Ʀ œ ô ƌĥŦŴŅŷƆƋ  ƄŶ łŔ ĶĪĥŅŔ ĭŅ ŒŔ ƍź ł Ũĭ ŧ ƢŅ ÿũŔ ū ł œ Ʀÿƀ Ō ŒŁŔ ƢƉĥ Ņ ŒŁŔ űɤ łœ ň ſĭ Ʀ Ŕ ƍƟ Ņ ƊƆ Ņ .ťɕƢ ň Ņ ł ł Ō Œ ł ŅŅ ň Ņ Ŕ ƙƏĭ Ŕ ĥĭł  ƊƆ  Ʀ Ņ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł :ƈƀŨňŔ ĬŅ IJĬô ŴŶŏ Ƨ űŔƆŤ  ƕĿƈƀ  Ũň Ŕ ĬŦ ŦĭĬƎÿſ Ņ ŤƟĭ  :ťÿòƍɯť .ťƕĿŤ Ņ Ũł œ Ÿł Ƈ ƘŅŔ ň Ō Ņ Ņ ò ł ł Ņœ ň Ņ ł ł Ŕ ǓňŤƘŌ œ ƎƉƎſ Ŕ Ũ ƎƉŦ .ťɕƢ Ņ ƊƆť Ņ ƍŅŨĿŴ ň ŤƟŅ IJƦſĥ œ ĭł :ŦƦ Ŕ Ɖ  ŴɖĿ  Ʀ  ĭĬ  ĭ Ņœ Ɵŏ ųň ƕĿĥĪŧ Ņ Ōœ ł ň :ųÿňòƍɯ Ō Ŕ Ľĥĭň .ķĭųÿƀ Ņ ƁÿũŹ ŏ ƍłəòƊ Ō ƣƎ ł ÿƉĭ Ņ Īŧ Ŕ ǔňƃŴ Ŕ ÿŨŏ œ ƎƉ ň ĭĬŏ Ļ  Ŕ ĥ IJƦſ  ĥ ƈƀŨňŔ Ĭĭ Ŕ ɕƢ Ņ Ɖ Ņ .ųňƍŨĿŴ Ņœ Ơŏ ŨŔ ĭł ƈƀŨňŔ ųŅ Ũť Ņ ň Ņ ň Ņ ň Ņœ ŏ ł ň Ņ ł ł ł œ ň Ō Ŕ Ľĥ  ƃŁĥ Ŕ ĭ :Ū  Ŕ ŹƎſ  ŤƠƆ  ŀŤŨň œ Łĥ Ŕ ĭň :ƁũŹ  Ƨų  ƍŨĿŴ .IJĬô ŴòƘł œ ĥƢƊ  Ơ ŨŔ ĭƎſ  ŤƠ ŨŔ ĭ ň Ņ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ň ł ł œň Ņ Ņ ł Ņ  ƃŁŔĥť  ƍƊƆ  ĭ ƅ Ŕ Ɔ  ŀŤŨň œ ŁŔĥť  ƍŅƊƆ  :ƎſŤƠƆť  ɕƢ  ƉƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ .ƅ œ ƀòƘł œ ĥƢƊ ň œ ł Ņ Ņ łœ ł łœ ň Ņ ň ň œ ł łœ ňœ Ō Ņ Ŕ Ƨķĥĭ .Ʀ Ŕ Ƈ ũ ƟƢ  ƙƣ  Ł ƎſĥŦ  Ĭ ťňƍƘ œ ŁŔŁœ Ʀ  ƕĿ  Ł ƈƕ :Ƣƙƣ  Ł  ô ƌĥ :ƗƀŨĿŦ ŌŔ ųŅ źŶť ň Ņ łœ ň ŏ ł Ņ œ  .ƅ Ŕ Ũ ŻƆ  ƦƤ  ƌ ĭĬĭ  ĬŁŔ Ŵɝ ň Ņ ł ň Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ŤƟƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ :ƨ ÿƠŅ ŷł Ũœ ķŴÿƌŏ Ĭň űŔÿƃł Ŕ ĪŦ Ŕ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł .ŦƦÿƖ Ŕ Ơł ƙŔ Ɔŧ ł ĪƢ ňœ ňƌ :IJĬŴ ô Ŷŏ ĥ ƈƀŨňŔ ųɝƎſ ň Ņ Ņ ł ň ł ł ň Ņ ŏ  ƕƎſ  ŤƟƋƟ .ųƇź  Ɵĭ  IJĬô ŴŶ ĥ ƈƀŨŔ Ĭƈ ł ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ň ł Ņ ł ň ŏ łœ ĥ :ƎſŤƠƆť  ɕƢ  ƉƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ťÿƌŅ ôĥĬĿŴ ň ÿźƌŅ :ťÿƌŅ ôĥĺűłŔɖ Ņ ƧƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ :ĴŴ Ŕ Ŷŏ ĥ ƈƀŨňŔ ĬŅ ŴƄſ Ņ œ .Ɓʖĥ ô Ī Ƣƀū ňŔ Ņ ł ň .ťƕŅĿĥƎ  Ɖ  IJô ŁŔŴɝ Ņ ťň Ɩū Ņ œ ĴŴ Ŕ Ŷĥ ŏ Īłœ ųƉ łŔ ƨ ƟŅ :Łœűœũƕ łŔ ťƍŅƉ Ņ :ťɕƢ Ņ Ɖų Ņ ƆƢ ň Ɖĥ ł ĭň ň ĪŔĪ



ĪįĽ ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



į



İ



IJ 

Ch. 



The Lord God sent him out of Paradise of Eden to till the ground from which he had been taken.



The Lord God led him out and he set a cherubim at the east of Paradise of Eden to surround it 1 along with a sword’s point, which was turning round and round to guard the way to the tree of life.

See the Introduction: A Few Observations on the Nature of the Peshiṭta Translation of Genesis.

1



ł ň ň ň Ņ ł ł ň ł Ņ Ņ ň œł Ņ ĪƢ ł œ Ƙł Ŕ ƎƉŦ . ƎƉ Ņ Łœ ƎƉ  Ū  Ŕ Ɛƌ  Łĥ Ŕ Īť  ĥŸ  Ƈ ƙŔ ƊƆ  :ķűƕ ňŔ ĪłŔ ťƐſ ň ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥť  ɕƢ  ƉĬ  Ŀűƣĭ  ŭƃ Ŕ ƕĿ ł Ņ Ņ ň œł Ņ Ŕ Ƣŏƃœ ķűÿƕ Ņ ĪƢ ł œ Ƙł Ŕ Ɓʛò ł ƌŅűŔƉƎ ťÿƍŅ ɫƣ Ņ ĭł :ťÿŨĭ ňŔ ĪłŔ ťÿƐſ ł Ɖ ň ĴŔ Ƣňƃĥ Ŕ ĭł :ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥť  ɕƢ  Ɖų  Ơ Ƙĥ  ĭ űƃ ňò ł Ņ Ņ Ō Ņ ŏ ł ň Ņ ň Ņ ł œ œ œ .ťƀʖ  Īť Ŕ ƍˁſĥ  Īť Ŕ ŶĿĭ  ĥƢ  ź  ƊƆť  ƄŔ Ƙ Ĭ Ʀ Ŕ Ɖ  Ī :ťŨƢŶł ĪŔ



 

Ch. 



Adam said, “The woman, whom you gave [to be] with me, gave me [some fruit] from the tree and I ate.”



Then the Lord God said to the woman, “What is this that you have done?” The woman said, “The serpent deceived me and I ate.”



The Lord God said to the serpent, “Because you have done this, you are cursed more than all the domestic animals and more than all wild beasts. On your belly you will go and dust you will eat all the days of your life.



I will put enmity between you and the woman, between your offspring and her offspring. He will tread 1 on your head, and you will strike his heel.”



To the woman he said, “I will multiply your pains during 2 your pregnancies. In pain you will bear children. You will heed your husband and he will rule over you.”



To Adam he said, “Because you have listened to the voice of your wife and you ate from the tree that I commanded you and I said to you, ‘you shall not eat of it,’ the land is cursed because of you. In pain you shall eat of it all the days of your life.



It shall sprout thorns and thistles for you and you will eat the plants of the field.



By the sweat of your brow you will eat food until you return to the ground 3 from which you were taken. Because you are dust and to dust you shall return.”



Adam named his wife Eve because she was the mother of all the living.



Then the Lord God made clothes of skins for Adam and his wife and he clothed them.



The Lord God said, “See Adam has become like one of us, knowing good and evil. Now he might also stretch out his hand and take from the tree of life and eat and live forever.” 



See the Introduction: Particular Lexical Choices. ‘during’: lit. ‘and’. 3 See the Introduction: A Few Observations on the Nature of the Peshiṭta Translation of Genesis. 1 2



ň ň Ņ Ņ Ō ň Ō Œ łœ ň Ō Ŕ Ũ ųſ IJĬ :ƁƊłƕ .Ʀ Ŕ Ƈ ƃĥ Ŕ ĭ :ťƍˁſ  ĥƎ  Ɖ  ƁƆ  Ʀ ł Ņ ň Ņ œ ł Œ ł ň œœł ł ŅŅ ł Ņ Ɓô ÿƍƀłƖŹĥť  ɕŴ  Ŷ :ŦŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥ ŁŔ ƢƉĥ  ĭ .IJô Łűũƕ Ŕ Īť Ŕ ƌĬ ŴƍƉ 

Ņ œ ł ŅŅ ł ň Ʀœ ŨŔ ųô łſĪŦ Ŕ ŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥ :ĶĪŔĥƢ  Ɖ  ĥĭ Ūſ Ņ œ ł Ņ Ņł Ņ Ņ ł ň :ŦŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌƧŦų Ɔ  ĥť  ɕƢ  ƉƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ŭſ ň ň .Ʀ Ŕ Ƈ ƃĥ Ŕ ĭ ł ł Ņ Ņ ł ň :ŧ Ƣƀ Ņ ŌƖŨœ ųñ ɤ Ņ ƃŏœ ƎƉ ň Ʀ œ ô ƌĥŻƀƆ Ō :ŧ ĪňŔĬŅ Łœűœũƕ łŔ Īłœ ƈłƕ :ťɕŴ Ņ ŷƆŦ ň ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥť  ɕƢ  ƉƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ űſ ň Ņ ł Ņ ŏ ł Ņ ŏœ ň ň œ ŏ ŏ Ņ ł ł ł Ņ ł œ œ Ŕ ƢÿƙŔ ƕĭ  :ƅ Ŕ ÿƆĬ Ł ƅ Ŕ ƏƢ  ƃ ƈƕĭ  .ŧ ƢŨŔ ĪŔĪŦ Ŕ ŁŴ Ŕ ƀʖ ųñ ɤ  ƃ ƎƉĭ  ƈÿƃ ĵŴÿƃĥŔ Łŧ .ƅ œ ƀòəłŶł ƁƉł Ŵòɖł ň Ņ ŏ Ņ œ ň ł Ņ œ ł œ ł łœ Ņ ŵɟ Ņ Įł Ʀÿƀ ňŔ :ŦŁŔ Ʀÿ  ô ƌƧ ƅÿƀ  ƍƀŨ ƋÿƀƏ ŀĭűÿƌ ŏŔ ĭĬŏ .ųñ ÿƕĿ ł ƅ Ŕ ÿƕĿ Ŕ Ũĭ Ō ĥŦ  ŁŴ Ŕ ũŔ ŨŔ űƇ  ƖŨŔ ĭ ųſ ň œ ň ňŔ ƖŨœ IJĬô ŴƀʛƉ ň Ł Ʀ œ ô ƌĥĭł :ƅ Ŕ ƤŅ ſĿŌ .ųũƠ Ō ňò Ō ł ł Ņœ ł ł ň Ņ œ ł Ō Ŕ ŬƏ ł Ŕ Ɓô ÿƄœ ɛò ŨłŔ Ťƃť ł Ũĭ ň œ ĥ ŴƀŏŬƐ  Ɖ  :ƢƉ  ĥŦ  ŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌƧĭ Ŵſ Ǝÿſűɝĥ Ōœ ŁŔ ťÿŨŤ Ŕ ƄŔ ŨŔ ĭ :Ɓô ÿƄœ ɛò ɫź ň ł Ņ ň œ ł  Ũłœ ƈłƕĭ .Ɓô ƄŔ Ũňœ ŻƆ  ƦƤ œ ňƌ ĭĬĭ ŏ :ƎƀňƍƘ œ ŁŔŁƁô ƄŔ ƇƖ  :ťƀò ɫł Ũœ Ō ň Ņ œ łœ Ņ Ņ œ œ ł łœ ł ł ň Ņ Ņ Ņ Ŕ ƍŅˁſ  Ņ ĥ ƎƉ  ƦƇ Ŕ ƃł Ŕ ĥĭň :ĴŔ ŁŔ Ʀ  ƌĥĪ ųñ ɤ ĴŔ Łœ űœ ÿƠň ƘłŔ Īť  Ơ Ũ ƦƖ  Ɗƣ  Ī ƈƕ :ƢƉ  ĥĶ  ĪƧĭ  ŵſ ň Ņœ Ņ ň Ŕ ň ň ňò Ō œ Ņ Ņ ŏ ň Ņ ł ô Ņ Ō ň ň Ō ŏ  ŁŔƢƉĥ  ĭ Ŕ ÿƇź  Ɖť  ƕĿ  ĥť  źƀ  Ɔ  :ųƍƉĵŴ  ƃĥŔ ŁŔ ƧĪ :ƅ Ŕ Ɔ ñ Ƈ ƃĥŔ ŁŔ ťÿŨŤŔ ƄŔ Ũ .ĴŔ Ʀ ųÿƀ ò ł ò .ƅ œ ƀəłŶł ƁƉ  Ŵ ɖƈ ł ƃŏœ ň ł ň œ ł ň œò ŏ Ņ Ŕ ťŨ Ŵ ƃŔ ĭ Ÿɖ Ŕ :ƅ Ŕ Ɔť Ņ ň ƕĭ  Łŧ .ƨƠ  Ŷł Īť Ŕ ũƐ Ņœ ň ƕĵŴƃĥŏ Ŕ Łĭ Ŕ ǓĪĿĪĭ ň ň ň Ņ ł ŏœ ň Ņ ł Ņ łŔ Ʀƕĭ œ űŏŔŨŔ ĭł Żſ Ŕ Ɖ  űƕ Ŕ :ťƊ Ņ ŷƆĵŴ ł ŏŔ Łœ ƅ œ ƀòƘł œ ĥĪŦ ƃĥ .Ʀ œ ÿũŔ Ɛ ň ƌŁŔĥ ųñ ƍŅƉ  Īť Ŕ ƕĿ  Ƨ ĴŴ Ŕ ƘĬ  ŁŔ Īť ň Ņ ł ł œ ł Ņ ł œ ŏ ň Ŕ ƢƙŔ Ɩɝ  ĭ Ʀ  ô ƌĥŧ ƢƙŔ ƕĪ ƈź Ɖ  .ĴŴ Ŕ ƘĬ ŏ œ Łŧ ň Ņ Ņ Ņ ł ŏ ň Ņ ł ň œ łœ Ņ  ô ƌĥĪ ųñ ƊƣĶ . Ɓʖ ł Īœ ƈƃŏ Ŕ Īť Ŕ Ɖ Ņ ĥ ŒŁŔ ĭĬ  IJĬŌ Īœ ƈź Ɖ  :ŦŴŶĬ  ŁŔ Ʀ  ĪŅŔĥŧ  ƢƟ  ĭ Ĵ ň ňœ ł Ņœ ň Ņ Ņ ò Ōœ ŏœ ň œ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł ł  ô ƌƧĭĶĪŔƧŦ .ķŴƌŏĥƥ  ũɝĥ  ĭť  ƄƤ  Ɖ  ĪŦ Ŕ Ʀ Ŕ ƀƍ ſŁŴ  ƃ ĬŁŔ Ʀ  ų Ɔ  ĥť  ɕƢ Ɖ  űŔũƕ Ŕ ĭ ťƃ Ņ Ņ ł ł Ņ Ņ .ŦƦÿƤƀ œ ŨŌ Ŕ ĭ ŦƦÿ ň űŔŶł ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ŦĭĬĶ Ņ ĪŅ ŔĥŦ  ĬŅ :ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥť  ɕƢ Ņ ƉƢ Ņ Ɖĥ ł ĭň Ūƃ Ŕ ũŔ ŹĺűłœÿƊň Ɔ :ƎÿƍŌł Ɖ Ņ ň ł Ņ Ņ ł Ŕ ƣŅ ĬŅ ťÿŷň ƌĭĵŴ Ō ÿƃŤŏ Ŕ ňƌĭ  ťÿƀò ʖ  Īť Ŕ ÿƍˁſ  ĥƎ  ÿƉň Ļ  Ŕ ĥ Ū  Ŕ ÿƐł ňƌĭĬ  űſ ňŔ Ō ĥ ŻƣŴ ň ƌť ł ƊƆ Ņ Īť .Ƌł Ƈ Ɩɝ Ņ



 









 

  

Ch. 

Chapter  III



Now the serpent was the wiliest of all the wild beasts that the Lord God had made. The serpent said to the woman, “Did God really say, ‘you shall not eat from any of the trees of Paradise’?”



The woman said to the serpent, “We may eat from any of the fruits of the trees in Paradise.



But from the fruits of the tree in the middle of Paradise, God has said, ‘you shall not eat from it. You shall not touch it lest you die.’”



The serpent said to the woman, “Certainly you shall not die,



because God knows that on the day you eat from it, your eyes will be opened and you will become like gods, 1 knowing good and evil.”



The woman saw that the tree was good for eating and lovely to the eyes. The tree was desirable to gaze at 2 and so she took some of its fruit and ate. She also gave some to her husband who was with her and he ate.



Then the eyes of both of them were opened and they knew that they were naked. They fastened fig leaves and they made themselves loincloths.



Then they heard the sound of the Lord God walking in Paradise in the early evening 3 and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the Lord God among the trees in Paradise.



The Lord God called to Adam and said to him, “Where are you Adam?” 4



He said, “I heard the sound of you in Paradise and I saw that I was naked so I hid myself.”



The Lord said to him, “Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree that I commanded you that you should not eat?” 



The Peshiṭta adds VH\ćPH to ensure that the plural is understood. See the Introduction: Divergent Readings. 3 ‘the early evening’: lit. ‘the turn of the day’. 4 The Peshiṭta adds ‘Adam’. See the Introduction: Particular Lexical Choices. 1 2





ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ł Ņ Ņ ł ł Ņ ł Ņ ŏ ł Ņ ŏœ ň Ņ Ņ ŶƢ ťÿɕŴ ň Ɖĥ ł ĭň .ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥť  ɕƢ Ɖ  űŔũƕ Ŕ Īŧ Ŕ ƢŨŔ ĪŔĪŦ Ŕ ŁŴ Ŕ ƀʖ ųñ ɤ  ƃ ƎƉŦ  ĭĬƋſ ô Ƣƕť Ō ɕŴ Ņ Ŷĭ ň ň Ō ň Ņ ł Ņ ł ŏ Ņ ĪƢ ł œ Ƙł Ŕ Ɓƍłˁ œ ô ƌƧ Ŕ ƧĪœ :ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥƢ  Ɖ ł ĥ Ʀſ Ŕ Ō ĥƢſ Ņ ƢŌƣł :ŦŁŔ Ʀ .ťƐſ  Ņ ò ſĥ ƈƃŏœ ƎƉķŴ ň Ƈ ƃĥ Ŕ Ł Ō Ņ œ ł Œ ł ň Ņ ĪƢ ł œ ƙł Ŕ ŨŔ Īť .ĵŴƃŤ ŏŔ ňƌķĭ  ųɤ ŏ ƃŏ Ŕ ťƐſ łŔ ňƍˁ  Ņ ò ſĥ IJǓłŤƘŌ œ ƎƉ ň Īœ :ťɕŴ Ņ ŷƆŦ ň ŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥ ŁŔ ƢƉĥ  ĭ ň Ō ň Ņ Ņ Ņł ł Ņ ň ł ł Ņ Ņ ŏ Ŕ ƧĪŦ Ŕ ų Ɔ  ĥƢ  Ɖ  ĥ :ťƐſ Ņ ĪƢ  :ųňƍƉķŴ Ƨĭ ň Ƈ ƃĥ Ŕ Ł łœ ƘłŔ Īœ ĬƦƕ Ŕ ƞƊ ŨŔ Īť Ŕ ƍˁſ  ĥ IJǓłŤƘŌ œ ƎƉĭ ň ŏ ŏ Ņœ ň ŏ Ŕ Ɵł ŁŔňŁŔ Ŕ Ɖ  Ł Ŕ ƧĪ :ųƆ  ķŴŨƢ .ķĭŁŴ ŏ ŏ œ Ņ Ņ Ņ œ ł Ņ ň ł ň Ŕ Ɖ  Ł Ʀ Ŕ ƊƉ  Ƨ :ŦŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌƧťɕŴ  ŶƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ .ķĭŁŴ Ō Ņ Ņ ł ł Ņ Ņł łŅ œ ŏ ň Ņ œ łœ ň ň ň ŏœ Ŕ Ɖ  :ųƍƉķĭ  Ʀ  ô ƌĥƎƀƇ ƃĥ Ŕ Īť :ķŴÿƄŏ œ ƀƍłəòɯƎ ł Ŷò Ʀ  Ƙ Ʀ Ŕ ƉŴ  ƀŨŔ ĪŔ Ŧų Ɔ  ĥĺ  űŔ ɖĪ ƈź Ɖ  Ņ œ Ō Ņ Ņ ł ò Ņ ňò Ņ ł ł ŏ œ .ŦƦƤƀ  ŨŔ ĭ ŦƦŔ ũŔ Ź ƁƕűŔ ɖ :Ŧų Ɔ  ĥ ƅſ  Ŕ ĥ ķĭƦ  ô ƌĥƎſĭňĬĭ Ņ Ō Ņ œ ł Œ Ņ ł ł Ŕ ŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥ ŁŔ ŵŶ  ĭ  Ŕ ūĿ ŭÿƀ Ŕ ÿūœ Ŀĭ ň :ƈÿƃŤł Ŕ ƊƆť ň ƍŅˁſ  Ņ ĥƢƀ  ƙŌœ ƣł ĪŦ ŔŌ ĭł :ťÿňƍəòɳɝ ł ĭĬô ŦƦ Ō Ņ ł ł Ō Ņ ł ł œ ň ſĭ : Ʀ ųñ ɤƖ  ũƆ łŔ Ļ  Ŕ ĥ Ʀ  ƍŅˁſ  Ņ ĥ ŒŔ Ũų ŒŔ Ƈ ƃĥ Ŕ ĭňIJĬô ĭǓŤƘ œ ƎƉ ň Ʀ ŒŔ ũƐ łœ ňƌĭ .ųŨňœ ƢŷƊ Ņ Ɔť .ƈƃĥ łŔ ĭň ųñ Ɗ Ņ łƕ ň ň ň Ō ň ł ł ł Ŕ .ķŴƌŏĥƎƀ Ŕ ĭň łŔ ňƍəòɯį ł Ʀ œ Ƙł œ Łĥ  ɚŌ ˁ  Ņ ŹƢłƕĪœŴô ƕűſ łŔ ĭŌ :ķĭųſ ŏ ǓłŁŔĪť Ŕ ÿƘŔ ǔŹŴô ÿƠŨňœ Īĭ :ťÿòƌĥŁŔ Īť .ťƉĭ ň ĮŏǔŅƘ œ ķĭųɝ ŏ ĭô űŔũƕ łŔ ĭł ł œň Ņ ł œ ň Ņ ł Ņ Ņ œ ň Ņ ł ł  ĭ .ťƉŴ  ſĪ ųƀƍ ƙƆ Ŕ ťƐſ Ņ ĪƢ Ŵô ÿƀƤŌ ŹŁĥ łœ ƙłŔ Ũœ ƅ Ŕ Ɔ ň ųƉ ł Īłœ :ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥť  ɕƢ Ɖ  Ī ųƇ Ɵ Ŵô ƖƊƣ  ĭ ň Ō Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ ň œ Ņ Ņ ň Ņ ł ò ł ł .ťƐſĪƢœ ƙŔ ŨŔ Īť  ô ƌĥĭĶĪŅŔĥ Ŕ ƍˁ  ſĥ ŴŬ Ŕ ł ŨŦ Ŕ ų Ɔ  ĥť  ɕƢ Ņ ƉĶ  űƟƎ ŅŔ Ɖ  ĬŁŔ Ʀ Ņ œ ł Ņœ ł ň ł ň Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ ł .ĶĪŅŔĥ Ʀ  ô ƌĥťƄſ  ĥ :ųƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ :ĶĪŔƧŦ  ų Ɔ  ĥť  ɕƢ  Ɖŧ  ƢƟ  ĭ ł œ ň Ņ Ņ ň ł œ Ō ł Ņ łœ ł œ ň ň Ņ Ņ ł ň .Ʀƀ Ŕ ƤŌ ŹŁĥ  ĭ :ťƌôĥ ƁƇ ŹƢ  ƕĪ Ʀſ Ŕ ŵŶ  ĭ :ťƐſ  ĪƢ  ƙŔ Ũ Ʀ Ŕ ƖƊ  ƣ ƅ Ŕ Ƈ Ɵ :ƢƉĥ  ĭ Ō ň Ņ œ ł Ņ ň ł œ Ņ ł ŏł Ņ Ņ ň ł ň Ņ Ņ ƧĪœ ĴŔ Łœ űœÿƠň ƘłŔ Īť Ŕ ÿƍŅ ˁſ  Ņ ĥƎ  ÿƉŦ Ĭ :Ʀ  ô ƌĥ ƁƇ ŹƢ  ƕĪ ƅ Ŕ ſŴ  Ŷ ŴƍƉ  :ťɕƢ  Ɖų  ƆƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ň ň ň ň ł .ƦƇ Ŕ ƃŔ ĥ ųƍƉĵŴ  ŏŔ ŁŔ ƃĥ



ĨįĽ ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



į



İ



IJ  ťſ 

Ch. 



The Lord God fashioned the rib that he had taken from Adam into a woman and he brought her to Adam.



Then Adam said, “This time [it is] bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh. This one will be called woman because from the man she was taken.”



Because of this, a man leaves his father and his mother and he is joined to his wife. The two of them become one flesh.



Both of them, Adam and his wife, were naked, but they were not ashamed.



ň Ņł Ņ Ņ ňł Ņ œ ł ŅŅ ň Ņ .ĶĪŅŔƧ ųñ ŅſƦſĥ œ ĭł :ŦŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌƧĶĪŔĥƎ  Ɖ  Ū  Ŕ Ɛƌ ł Īť łŔ Ɩɝ Ņ ĥ ŦųŅ Ɔ  ĥť  ɕƢ Ɖ  ƎƟ Łĭ Ŕ Ūƃ ň ňŅ Ņ ł ň ňŔ :ƁƉ ł ǔū ł œ ƎƉť ň ƉƢ Ņ ū Ŕł ťƍŅŨŔ Įť ł ƌŅĬŅ :ĶĪŅŔĥƢ ň ƢƐ Ņ Ũĭ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ŭƃ ŧ ƢÿƟ ň ŁŔŁŧ Ŕ ĪŔĬ :IJô ƢƐŨňœ ƎƉŧ Ņ œ ł ŏ Ņ ň ň Ō Ņ ł œ .ťũƀŔ Ɛƌŧ  ƢũŔ ū  œ ƎƉ  Ī ƈź Ɖ  :ŦŁŔ Ʀ  ô ƌĥ ň œ ł łň ň ł ŏ ň ŏ œ ňƌť  ô ƌƧ ƚ  Ŕ ÿƠƌĭ  :ųÿƉň Ƨĭ  IJĬô ŴÿŨŏ Ŕ Ƨŧ  ƢŅÿũŔ ū ł œ ľŴÿũƤ  ƌŅĬƈ Ņ ź Ɖ  űƃ ķĭĭų ŏ ÿňƌĭ .ĬŁŔ Ʀÿ ł ŏ ł ł œ  ųſ  ǓŁœ .ƢƐ  Ũ űŔŶķĭ Ō Ņ Ņ ň œ ł ŅŅ Ō Ņ ň ł  ô ƌĥĭĶĪŔĥ :Ǝƀɚ ˁ .ƎſŁų œ Ũ  ŁŔ Ʀ  ŹƢ  ƕķĭ  ųſ ŏ ǓłŁœ ĭĭĬ ł ĭł ųƃ Ŕ ƧĭĬ



 





Ch. 



The Lord God made sprout up from the earth every tree that is lovely to look at and good to eat, and the tree of life in the middle of Paradise and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.



A river was flowing out 1 from Eden to water Paradise and from there it divided and became four branches.



The name of the first is the Pishon which flows around the entire land of Hevilah where there is gold



and the gold of that land is good. Pearls 2 and beryl stones are there.



The name of the second river is the Gihon, which flows around the entire land of Cush.



The name of the third river is the Tigris, which flows toward Assyria. The fourth river is the Euphrates.



The Lord God took Adam and left him in Paradise of Eden to cultivate it and take care of it.



The Lord God commanded Adam and said to him, “From all the trees in Paradise you can surely eat,



but from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, because on the day you eat from it, you will surely die.”



The Lord God said, “It is not good that Adam should be alone. I will make for him a helper that is like him.”



The Lord God formed from the earth all the wild beasts and all the birds of the sky and he brought them to Adam to see what he would call them. Whatever Adam named the living creature, that was its name.



Adam gave names to all the domestic animals, to all the birds of the sky and to all the wild beasts. But a helper who was like Adam was not found for him.



Then the Lord God cast a deep sleep upon Adam and he fell asleep. Then he took one of his ribs and he closed up its place with flesh. 

1 2



MT: ‘flows’. See the Introduction: Particular Lexical Choices.



ł ň Ņ Ņł Ņ Ņ Ō ł ŏ Ŕ ÿƕĿ Ņ ĥƎ Ō Īłœ ƎÿŅƇſŌ ĥ ƈÿƃť Ņ ƊƆ ň ŭÿƀ  Ŕ ūĿ ƢÿƀƙŌœ ƣł ĭ :Ŧ ŵÿŷ  ÿƉŦ ų ÿƆĥť  ÿɕƢƉ  Ɓƕĭĥ  ĭ İ Ŕ Ņ Ņ œ Ņ ł Ō Ņ Ņ Ō Ņ ł œ ł œ ň ł ł ňò ł Ņ Ņ Ō ŦƦÿ Ŕ űſŔ Īť  ĭ .ťƐ  ſĪƢ Ŕ ƍˁſĥ  ĭ :ƈƃŤ łŔ ƊƆ ň Ŕ ƞƊŨť Ŕ ƀʖĪť  ƘŔ Ī ĬƦƕ Ŕ ũŔ ŹĪŦƦÿƕ Ŕ ƍˁſĥ Ņ .ŦƦƤƀ œ ŨŌŔ ĪŔĭł ň ŏŅ ł ł ň Ņ Łœ ƎƉĭ  .ťƐſ Ņ ĪƢ Ŕ ƀƠƤ  ƊƆķ  űƕ ňŔ ƎƉŦ ň ĭŅĬơ ô ƙňŔ ƌŧ Ņ Ŀų Ņ ƌĭ ł IJ ŦĭňĬĭŀ Ņ ƢňÿƘŅ œ ƎƉ łœ ƙƆ łŔ ĬŁŴ ł Ō .ƎƀƤŌ ſǓ ťƖŅŨœ ĿƧ ł Ņ Ō ł Ņ ł Ņ ŏ łŅ œ ł Ņ Ŕ Īłœ ƎƉ .ťŨĬ  ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƄƆĿ Ŕ űŔ Ŷ Ī ĭĬ ķŴƤƀ ŏ ƘŌ œ űŔŶł Īœ ųƊƣ ň ťſ Ņ ŁŔ Īœ :ƨſ  ŴŶ  Īť Ŕ ƕĿ ňò Ō ň ŏ ň œ Ņ ł œ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł œ Ņ ł Ņ  ǔŨ ƎƉ  Ł .Ū  Ŕ Ź IJĬť  ƕĿĥ  Ī ųñ ŨĬ .Ƨĭ  ƢŏŨňŔ ĪŔ ťƘŤ Ŕ ƃĭŔ ťŷƆĭ Ŕ ĪŔĭ Ūſ ň Ņ łœ ň ł ł Ņ ŏ łŅ œ ł .ŀŴƃŏ Ŕ Īť Ŕ ƕĿ Ņ ĥ ųñ ɤ  ƄƆĿ Ŕ Ŀų  ƌĪ ųƊƣ  ĭ ŭſ Ō œ ťƍŅəƌŅ Łŧ Ŕ űŔ Ŷ Ī ĭĬ :ķŴŷŏ ɚū ŏ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ łœ ň ł łŔ Ɔŏ ĵňĮĥ ĪŅœ ĭĬł :Ʀ ťÿƖŅ ŨĿĥ œ Īŧ łŔ Ŀų Ņ ÿƌĭł .ĿĭŁŔ ĥ ƈũƟŴÿ Ŕ ł ƇƟ  ĪŦ ňŔ Ʀ Ŕ Ɔ  ŁŔĪŧ Ŕ Ŀų  ƌĪ ųƊƣ  ĭ űſ Ņ .ŁŔƢƘŔ ĭĬŏ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ĪƢ łŔ ÿÿƐſ IJĬô Ŵÿÿƀʛɤ Ō ƙŔ ňƌĪœ :ķűÿÿƕ ňŔ Īť łœ ƙłŔ Ũœ ųÿÿƠň ũŔ ƣĭ ł :ĶĪŅŔƧŦ  ųŅ ÿÿƆŅ ĥť  ÿÿɕƢ  ƢÿÿŨł Ŕ ĪŔĭł ųſ Ɖ .IJĬŴſ ô Ƣź Ō ňƌĭ  Ō ł Ņ ň ÿƉĥ Ņ ĪƢ ł ĭĶ ťÿƐſ łœ ƙłŔ ŨŔ Īť łŔ ÿňƍˁ  Ņ ò ſĥķĭ  ųÿɤ ŏ ƃŏœ ƎÿƉň :ųÿƆƢ ň ĪŅŔƧŦ  ųŅ ÿƆŅ ĥť  ɕƢ Ņ Ɖ Ņ űŔƠň Ƙĭ łŔ Ŵſ ňœ ł ň ŏŔ Łƈ  ƃŤ Ŕ Ɖ  .ĵŴƃĥ ň Ņ Ō Ņ ŏ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ō Ņ Ņ Ņ ƀłŨŔ Īłœ ƈź ťÿƉŴ Ŕ ƧŦ  ƦƤƀ œ ŨŌŔ ĪŔĭł ŦƦŔ ũŔ ŹĪœŦƦƕ Ŕ űſł Ŕ Īť Ŕ ƍˁſ  ĥƎ  Ɖĭ ň ŵſ Ɖ ň .ųňƍƉĵŴ ň ƃĥŏ Ŕ Ł ň Ņ ł ň ň .ŁŴ Ŕ Ɖ ŏ ŁŔ ŦŁŴ œ Ɖ  :ųƍƉĵŴ  ŏŔ ŁŔ ĪŔ ƃĥ Ņ ň ň œ Ōœł Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł ň ň œ ĥň :IJĬĭ ťÿƌŅ ĿŅűœłƖƉų  ÿƆň űŔÿũƕ ô ĪŴ łŔ ŷɤ ŏ Ũłœ ĶĪŅŔĥŦ  ĥť  ɕƢ  ƉƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ÿɖ  ĭų  ƌĪ Ƣƀƙ ƣ Ƨ :Ŧų Ɔ ň Ņ ł .ĬŁŔ Ŵ ƃŔĥ Ņ ł ł Ņ ł Ņœ ñ Ņ ŏ Ņ ł Ņ ĥƎ ň ųŅ Ɔ Ŕ ŁŴÿ Ŕ ƀŏ ʖ ł ųñ ÿɤŅ ƃŏ Ŕ ťÿƕĿ  ÿƉŦ Ņ ĥť  ɕƢ Ņ Ɖƈ Ņ ũłŔ ū Ŕ ĭł Żſ Ŕ :ŧ ƢÿŨŔ ĪŔĪŦ ŦƦÿŶ Ŕ ƢƘ ų ÿɤƃĭ ň Ōœ ł Ņ ł ł Ņ Ņ ŏ Ŕ .ķĭųÿɝŧ Ņ ÿƍŅ ƉŦ ŧ ƢÿƟ Ņ Īłœ ƈÿƃĭ ŏ ƢňÿƟť Ņ ŵÿŷ ň ňƌĪœ :ĶĪŅŔĥ ŁŔŴÿɝ  ķŴÿƌŏ ĥ IJƦſĥ  ĭ :ťƀƊƣĪŔ Ņ ł Ņ ł ŅŅ ŏ ŏ ň ł .ųƊƣ  ĭĬô ĭĬ :ŦƦƀ Ŕ ʖť  Ƥ ƙŔ ƌĶ  ĪŔĥķĭ  ųɝ  Ņ Ņ ł ň Ņ Ņ ŏŔ ĭł :ŧ Ƣÿƀ Ņ ŌƖŨœ ųñ ɤ Ņ ƄƆŦ ŏŔ ųò ƊƣĶ ųñ ÿɤŅ ƄƆ ŏŔ ĭł :ťÿƀŅ Ɗƣ ł ĪŦ łŔ ƦÿŶ Ŕ ƢłƘŅ œ ųñ ÿɤŅ ƄƆ  ĪŅ Ŕĥŧ  ƢƟ  ĭ Ĵ ň Ņ ł Ņ Ņ œł ň Ņ ŅŅ Ņ ł Ņ ŏ ł ň ł œ  ƌĿűƖƉų  ƆŸ  ƃŔ Ʀƣ  ĥ  ƧĶ  ĪŔƧĭ .ĬŁŔ ŴƃŔĥť  .ŧ ƢŨŔ ĪŔĪŔ ŦŁŴ Ŕ ƀʖ ň ň Ņ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ Ō ł ł ĥƎ :IJĬô Ŵò ÿɳɝ  Ɖŧ  űŶ  Ŕ Ɛƌ ł ĭł :ƅ Ŕ Ɖ ň ĪŔĭĶ ł ĪŅŔĥ ƈłƕť  ƀˁ Ņ ƣŦ ň ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥť  ɕƢ Ɖ  ƁƉĿĥ  ĭ ťƃ Ŕ Ū ň Ņ Ņ ň œ ň ĭł .ųƀ ñ ƙŔ ɤŶ  ŧ ƢƐ  Ũ űŔŶĭĥ 





   















Ch. 

Chapter  

The heavens and the earth and all their host were completed.



God completed his works that he had done on the sixth 1 day. He rested on the seventh day from all his work that he had done.



God blessed the seventh day and made it holy because on it he rested from all his work that God had done in creation. 2



These are the origins 3 of the heavens and the earth when they were created. On the day that the Lord God made the heavens and the earth,



before all the trees 4 of the field were on the earth, before all the grass of the field had sprouted, because the Lord God had not yet made rain fall on the face of the earth and there was no one 5 to work on the earth,



a spring was welling up from the earth and was watering the entire face of the earth.



The Lord God formed Adam — dust from the ground — and he breathed into his nostrils the breath of life and Adam became a living being.

II



Then the Lord God planted Paradise 6 in Eden from the east 7 and he placed there Adam, whom he had formed.

According to the Peshiṭta, God stopped working on the sixth day to ensure that the seventh day was a day of complete rest. In the Hebrew Bible God stopped working on the seventh day. 2 ‘that God had done in creation’: lit. ‘that God had created by doing’. 3 ‘origins’ or ‘generations’. The Peshiṭta has imported the Hebrew word. 4 See the Introduction: Particular Lexical Choices. 5 ‘there was no one’: lit. ‘there was no Adam’. 6 See the Introduction: Particular Lexical Choices. 7 See the discussion on this verse in Piet Dirksen, “The Peshitta and Textual Criticism of the Old Testament,” VT 42 (1992), 378. He translates the Peshiṭta ‘from of old’ and notes that this reading, because it also appears in the Targum, reflects ‘a Jewish tradition that Paradise was created before the world’. SokoloffBrockelmann gloss this phrase with ‘in the east’ (p. 1315). Both interpretations are possible. 1





ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ň ŏ Ņ ł Ņ ł ň ł .ķĭųɤ ŏ ƀʖ ł ųƇ ƃĭť Ŕ ƕĿĥ  ĭť  ƀƊƣ  Ŵô ƊƇƣ  ĭ ł ň ł Ņ Ō Ņ ƀłŨœ ŸÿÿɚɧŌŁœŁĥ Ņ ƀłŨŦ Ņ Ŕ ÿ ɕŅ Ʀſ ł Ŕ ĪłœIJĬô ĭòűłŔÿ ũƕť ťÿ ƉŴ œ ĭ ň űŔÿ ũƕ Ŕ ÿ ƉŴ Ŕ ųŅ ÿ ƆŅ ĥƋ  ÿ Ƈƣĭ  Ŕ Ʀƣť ò ŏ Ņ ŏ ň Ņ ł ł Ņ œ ł œ .űŔũƕ Ŕ ĪIJĬô ĭűŔ ũƕķĭ  ƀɳƀ  ũƣ ŌŔ  ƃ ƎƉť Ŕ ųɤ ň ł ł ŏ ň ň Ņ ƀɞŦ  :ųÿƣň űœƟĭ ł :ťÿƀŅ ɳƀ Ņ ũƣť ŌŔ ÿƉŴ ł ųŅ ÿƆŅ ĥ ĴŔ ƢňŨĭ Ŕ ƎÿƉŸÿɚ ɧŌŁœŁœĥų  ÿŨň Ŕ Īœ ƈÿźƉ ł Ņ łœ ò ł Ņ Ņ ŏ ň Ņ ł œ .űŔũƖ  Ɗ  ƆŦų Ɔ  ĥ ŧ ƢŨŔ ĪIJĬô ĭűŔ ũƕ  ƃŏœ Ŕ ķĭųɤ ł Ņ Ņ ł ł Ņ ł œ Ō œ ň ł Ņ ł Ņ ł ł Ņ Ņ ò łœ ň Ņ ŦųŅ ÿƆŅ ĥť  ÿɕƢ  űŔÿũƕ Ɖ  Īĭ Ŕ ťƀƊƣ  ĪŦ Ŕ ŁŔ űɝ Ŕ ĭŁ ƎƀƆ  Ĭ Ŕ Īť Ŕ ƕĿĥ Ŕ ÿƉŴƀŨ :ŴÿſƢŨ ŁŔĥ űŔÿƃť Ņ.ťƕĿĥ ł Ņ  ĭ ťƀƊƣ ł Ō ŏ ŏ Ņ Ņ Ņ ŏ Ŕ :ťÿƕĿŤ Ņ Ũłœ ĭĭĬ Ņ œ ň ƕųÿňƇƃĭ  Ŷł Īť ƨÿƠ Ŕ ÿũƐ ł Ƨƈÿƀ  ƃŌœ űƕ łŔ ƨÿƠ  Ŷł Īť Ŕ ňƍˁ  Ņ ò ſĥķĭ  ųɤ  ƃĭ Ŕ ł Ņ Ņ ňł Ņœ ŏ ň Ņ Ō Ņ ł òł œ ł Ņ Ō Ņ Ņ ł ň Ņ œ  ƃ űƕ łŔ  ƉŦ  ų ÿƆĥť  ɕƢ Ɖ  Ʀ Ŕ Ŷ ĥ  ƧĪ ƈź Ɖ  :ťƖɖ Ƨƈƀ :ťÿƕĿĥƁÿƘĥ ƈÿƕŧ Ƣÿź .ťƕĿŤ Ņ Ũłœ Ÿł Ƈ ƙŔ ƊƆ ň Ʀƀ œ ƆĶ ł ĪĥŅŔ ĭŅ ł ň Ņ ł łł ň Ņ Ņ ŏœ ł ŏ Ŕ ĭŅĬť ô ƠƤ ň Ɖĭ ł :ťƕĿ Ņ ĥƎ  ƉŦ  ĭĬơ ô Ƈ Əť  ƕŴ  ũ Ɖĭ  .ťƕĿ Ņ ĥƁƘò œ ĥ ƈƄƆŦ ł ň Ņ ł ŅŅ Ņ Ņł Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł Ŕ ĭł :ŦƦ ŦƦÿƊ Ŕ Ƥƌ  IJĬô Ŵò ÿƘł œ ŤŨłœ Ÿÿƙƌ Ŕ ÿƉĪŔĥƎ  ÿƉŧ ƢƙŔ ƕĶ  ĪŔƧŦ  ų Ɔ  ĥť  ɕƢ  Ɖƈ  ũł Ŕ ū Ŕ ĭł Ņ Ņ ł ňò ł .ťƀŅʖƥ ł ƙƍ ňŔ Ɔ ł ĶĪŅŔĥ ŦĭĬ  ĪŔ  ĭ :ťƀʖ ł Ņ Ņ ł ł Ņ Ņ łœ Ņ ƈũłŔ ū Ŕ Īłœ ĶĪŅŔƧƎ  Ɖ  Ł ƋƏĭ  :ƋſűƟƎ ŌŔ Ɖķ ň űƖ ňŔ Ũť łŔ Ɛſ Ņ ĪƢ łœ ƘŦ łŔ ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥťɕƢ Ɖ  ħ  Ŕ ƞƌ ĭ



ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



ħįĽ į



Ch. 



God blessed them and said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the waters in the seas and let the birds multiply on the earth.”



There was evening and there was morning, the fifth day.



Then God said, “Let the earth bring forth living creatures each according to its own kind, domestic animals, 1 creeping things and wild beasts, 2 each according to its own kind.” And so it was.



God made the wild beasts, each according to its own kind, and the domestic animals, each according to its own kind, and all the creeping things of the land, each according to its own kind. And God saw that it was good.



Then God said, “Let us make humanity 3 in our image, according to our likeness, and let them rule over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the sky, over the domestic animals, over all the wild animals and over all the creatures that creep on the earth.”



Then God created Adam 4 in his image; in the image of God he created him. Male and female he created them.



God blessed them and God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the sky, over the domestic animals and over all the animals that creep on the earth.”



Then God said, “See I have given to you every plant that produces seed on the face of all the earth and every tree that has fruit on it that produces its own seed. It will be food for you.



And to every wild beast and to every bird of the sky and to every creature that creeps on the earth, which has in it the breath of life, [I have given] all the green plants for food.” And so it was.



God saw everything that he had done and it was very good. There was evening and there was morning, the sixth day.

1

‘domestic animals’ or ‘cattle,’ but in this context the ŧƢƀƖŨ are opposed to the ŦŁŴƀʖ

ťƕĿĥĪ.

‘wild beasts’: lit. ‘animals of the land’ as opposed to domesticated cattle. See the Introduction: Particular Lexical Choices. 4 See the Introduction: Particular Lexical Choices. 2 3



ł ň ł Ņ ł ł ł ł ł œ ŏ  ŴÿƇƉĭ :ŴÿŬƏ ł ĭŦ Ɖĥ ň ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥķŴ  ƌŏĥ ĴŔ ƢňŨĭ Ŕ Ūƃ :ťÿƊň Ɗòô ƀł ŨŔ Īť łŔ ÿƀò Ɖ Ŕ ł ĭ ĭƢÿƘ :ķĭųÿɝƢ ň Ņ Ņ ŅŔ ťƕĿŤ  Ũť łŔ ŬƏ ň œ ŁŔ ŦƦŶ Ŕ Ƣł Ƙĭ .ťƤƊ Ņ Ŷł Īť Ŕ ƉŴ Ņ łſŧ  ƢŅƘŔ ĽŦ ł ĭĬ Ņ ĭť ł ƤƉ Ņ ĿŦ ł ĭĬ Ņ ĭł ŭƃ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ ł ň œł œ Ņ Ņ ł ł ň Ņ Ǔłĭŧ Ƣÿƀ ŦŁŴÿ Ŕ ƀŏ ʖł ĭ :ťÿƤŶ Ņ ŌƖŨœ :ųñ Ɛƍ Ņ ŬƆ Ŕň ŦƦƀ  ĥơ  Ƙ Ł :Ŧų Ɔ  ĥƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ űƃ Ŕ ʖťƤ ƙŔ ƌ ťƕĿ Ņ ł Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ň ťƍƃŔ ĬŦ  ĭĬ  ĭ :ųñ Ɛƍ  ŬƆ  ĪłŔ Ŕ ťƕĿĥ Ņ ł ł ł ň ŏ ñ Ņ ň ťƕĿĥ Ņ Īť łŔ ƤŶ Ņ ǓłųƇ ƃĭ Ŕ :ų Ɛƍ  ŬƆ Ŕ ŧ Ƣƀ Ņ ŌƖŨŔ ĭł ųñ Ɛƍ Ņ ŬƆ Ŕň ťƕĿĥ Ņ ĪŦ łŔ ŁŴ Ŕ ƀŏ ʖł ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥ űŔũƕ Ŕ ĭ ųƃ ł Ņ ł Ō Ņ ò œ Ņ ł ł Ŕ ų Ɔ  ĥŦ  ŵŶ  ĭIJ  ĬŴ ô Ɛ  ƍŬƆ Ŕň Ƣƀƙ ƣ ĪŦ ł ł ł ł Ņ Ņ ňœ ň Ņ Ņ ł ł ň ŏ :ťÿƊŅ łſ ƁƌłŴòÿɩŏ Ũœ ķŴÿźƇƤňƌĭ  :ķŁŴ Ŕ ÿƉŏ Īœ ƅÿſ  Ŕ ĥ ƎÿƊƆ ƞŨť Ŕ Ƥ ƌôĥ űŔũƖ  ƌ :Ŧų Ɔ  ĥƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ŵƃ ň ŏ ł Ņ ł Ņ ŏ ł ñ Ņ ŏ ł Ņ Ō ł Ņ ł ł Ņ ł Ņ ł ł Ņ ň Ņ ƥŶ ĿĪť Ŕ ƤŶ  ǓųƇ ƄŔ ŨŔ ĭ :ťƕĿĥ  ĪŦ Ŕ ŁŴ Ŕ ƀʖ ų ɤ  ƄŔ ŨŔ ĭ :ŧ Ƣƀ  ƖũŔ Ũĭ Ŕ ťƀƊƣ  ĪŔ ŦƦŶ Ŕ ƢƙŔ ŨŔ ĭ ł ŅťƕĿ  ĥ ƈłƕ ň ł ň łœ ň ł œ Ņ Ņ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ Ŕ ňƌĭ ķŴƌŏĥŧ  ƢŅŨť Ŕ ũƠ  Ƣƃł Ŕ Īœ :IJųô ſƢŅŨŦ Ŕ ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥƋ  Ɔƞ  Ũ :ųƊƆ  ƞŨ ĶĪŔƧŦ  ų Ɔ  ĥŧ  ƢŨŔ ĭ ŵƃ ň ł Ņ ĥł Ŵÿł ƇƉĭł :ŴÿŬƏ ł ł œ Ņ Ņ ł ųÿ ł ĭň :ŦųŅ ÿƆŅ ĥķŴ ł Ŕ Ÿƃ ťÿƕĿ ŏ ÿɝƢÿƉĥ  ÿƌŏ ĥ ĴŔ ƢňÿŨĭ Ŕ ł ĭ ĭƢÿƘ :ŦŅ ų ÿƆĥķĭ Ņ ųñ ÿɤŅ Ƅŏ Ŕ ŨŔ ĭŧ ł Ƣÿƀ Ņ ŌƖũŔ Ũĭ łŔ :ťÿƀŅ Ɗƣ ł ĪłŔ ŦƦŶ Ņ łſ ƁƌłŴò ɩŏŨœ Ŵô źł Ƈƣ  ĭ ł ĬŴ ñ Ƥŏ ŨŴ Ŕ ƃĭ ŏŔ Ŕ Ƣł ƙŔ ŨŔ ĭł :ťƊ ł Ņ Ŕ ŁŴ Ŕ ƀŏ ʖł ťƕĿ Ņ DŽ  łƕťƤŶ Ņ ĿŅĪŦ łł ł ł ň Ņ ĮłĪť Ņ œ ň ƕųÿňƇƃŏœ ķŴƄƆ Ŕ ÿƕĿ Ŕ ÿũƐ ŏŔ Ʀ Ŕ Ũň œ ųňſŌŦĬŅ :ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Żƃ ƁÿƘò œ ĥ ƈÿłƕĺĿłĪŵœ ÿƉň Īť Ō ł Ņ ł Ō ł Ņ ŏ ň ŏ Ņ Ņ ƃŏœ Ŧĭų ň ňƌķŴ  ƄŔ ƆĺĿĪŵœ Ɖų ň ƕĿ  ĮłĪœ ųňƍˁſ  ĥ IJǓŤƘ œ ųŨňœ Ʀſĥ Ŕ ĪŌœ ƎƇſ DŽ  ƃĭ Ŕ :ťƕĿ  ĥ ųñ ɤ Ņ œ ƃŏŔŤƊƆ ň ŦƦƆŴ Ņ ł Ņœ ñ Ņ ŏ ł Ņ ł Ņ ŏ ł ñ Ņ ŏ ł ŏ Ŕ ĭł :ťƀŅƊƣ Ŕ ŁŴ Ŕ ƀʖ ų ɤ  ƄƆ Ŕ ĭ ĵ  ƄƆ Ŕ ĭ :ŧ ƢŨŔ ĪŔĪŦ ƈÿłƕƥÿŶň ĿŅĪœ ƈÿƄƆ ł ĪłŔ ŦƦŶ Ŕ ƢƘ ų ɤ ł Ņœ Ņ ň Ņ ŏ ň ŏ Ņ ň Ņ ň Ņ Ō ł ł œ ƕĪť ŦĭĬ  ĭ :ŦƦƆŴ  ÿƃŔ ŤƊƆť  ÿũƐ Ŕ ÿƟĿŴ  ſų ŏ Ƈ ƃĭ Ŕ :ŦƦƀ  Ũœ Ʀſĥ Ŕ Īœ :ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ Ŕ ʖł ťƤŅ ƙŔ ƌų ťƍŅƃłŔĬŅ Ņ Ņ ł łœ ŏ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ łſŧ Ņ ĿŦ  Ŕ ÿŹŦĬĭ  űŔũƕ Ŕ Ī ƈƃŦ ťÿƉŴ  ƢŅÿƘŔ ĽŦ ł ĭĬ Ņ ĭť ł ÿƤƉ ł ĭĬ Ņ ĭƢÿƀ ł ƙŌœ ƣł Ū Ŕ ų Ɔ  ĥŦ  ŵŶ  ĭ Ƨ Ņœ ň .ŦƦƣ  ĪŔ





 





 







Ch. 



Then God said, “Let the waters under the sky be gathered to one place and let the dry land appear.” And so it was.



God called the dry land “Earth” and the gathering of the waters he called “Seas.” God saw that it was good.



Then God said, “Let the earth bring forth vegetation, plants that produce seed according to their own kind 1 and fruit trees that produce fruits, according to their own kind, which are reproducing on their own on the earth.” And so it was.



The earth brought forth vegetation, plants that produce seed according to their own kind and trees that produce fruits and can reproduce on their own, according to their own kind. God saw that it was good.



There was evening and there was morning, the third day.



Then God said, “Let there be lights in the dome of the sky to separate between daytime and nighttime. Let them be for signs, for seasons, for days and for years.



Let them provide light in the dome of the sky to give light over the earth.” And so it was.



Then God made the two great lights, the greater light to govern the daytime and the lesser light to govern the nighttime, along with the stars.



God set them in the dome of the sky to give light over the earth



and to govern the daytime and the nighttime and to separate between light and darkness. God saw it was good.



There was evening and there was morning, the fourth day.



Then God said, “Let the waters breed swarms of living things and let birds fly over the earth and along the surface of the dome of the sky.”



Then God created the great sea monsters and all the swarming living things, with which the waters swarm, 2 each according to their own kind, and all the winged birds each according to its own kind. God saw that it was good. See the Introduction: Harmonization. The Hebrew words ‘to creep’ (√g/:) and ‘to swarm’ (√7:f) are rendered with the same Syriac root (√ƥŶĿ). 1 2



ň ł ł ň ł ł ł ł òŅ ł ŏ ƃłœƦ ł ĿŅŁŔƧť  ÿƤƍ Ŕ ňƌ :ŦųŅ ÿƆŅ ĥƢ  ÿƉĥ ĭ İ Ŕ Īť Ŕ ÿƀƉķŴ  ÿƀŅ ƊƣƎ  ÿƉň Ʀÿ œ ÿŶƦƆ Ŧ ŵÿňÿŶŁŔŁĭŔ :űŔÿŶŧ Ņ œ ũŌœ ɖł ťƍŅƃłŔĬŦ Ņ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł :ŦƦƤƀ ł Ņ ł ł Ņ ł ň òł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ň ł Ņ ł Ņ œ Ōœł  Īť Ŕ ÿƤƍƄƆ Ŕ ĭ :ťÿƕĿĥŦ  ƦƤƀ  ũ ƀɞŦ  ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥŧ  ƢƟ  ĭ IJ ŦųŅ ÿƆŅ ĥŦ  ŵÿŶ  ĭ :ťÿƊƊô ſŧ ƢÿƟť  ÿƀò Ɖ ƢƀƙŌœ ƣł ĪŔ ł Ņ ł ň œł œ Ņ Ņ ł ł ň Ņ Įĺ ň ŬƆ Ņ œ ň ƕŦĥĪŅ ŔŁť ťÿƍŅ ˁſĥ  Ņ ĭŌ :ųÿƐƍ Ŕň ťÿƕĿ ł ĿłĪŵœ ÿƉň Īť Ŕ ÿũƐ Ŕ ƕĿ  ĥơ  Ƙ Ł :Ŧų Ɔ  ĥƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ťſ ł ň ň ň Ō Ņ Ņ ťƍŅƃł Ŕ ĬŦ Ņ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł :ťƕĿ  ĥ ƈłƕų  Ũňœ ĬƦ Ŕ Ũƞ œ ňƌĪœ :ųƐƍ ň ŬƆ Ŕ ǓŤƘŌŔ ĪŔ Ŕň ŧ ǓŤƘ œ űŔũň Ŕ ƕĪŧ Ņň Ņ ł Œ ł œł ň ň ŬƆ Ŕ Ơ Ƙĥ  ĭ Ūſ Ŕ ÿƍŅ ˁſĥ  Ņ ĭŌ :ųÿƐƍ  ĥ Ʀ ŧ ǓŤÿƘŌ œ űŔÿũň Ŕ ƕŅĪť Ŕň ťƕĿ Ņ Įł ĺĿłĪŵœ Ɖ ň Īť Ŕ ũƐ Ņœ ň ƕŦĥĪŔŁť Ŕ ƕĿ ł ň Ō Ņ Ŕ ųŅ Ɔ  ĥŦ  ŵŶ Ņ ĭł :ųƐƍ ň ŬƆ Ƣƀƙœ ƣł ĪŦ Ŕň ųŨňœ ĬƦ Ŕ Ũƞ œ ňƌĪŔ Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ ł .ŦƦ Ŕ Ɔ  ŁŔĪť Ŕ ƉŴ  ſŧ  ƢƘŔ ĽŦ  ĭĬ  ĭť  ƤƉ  ĿŦ  ĭĬ  ĭ ŭſ ł ł ň Ņ ƟƢ ťÿƊŅ Ɗſ Ņ Ō ĥ Ʀÿƀ Ŕ Ũňœ ŀƢłÿƙŔ ƊƆ ň :ťÿƀŅ Ɗƣ ł Īť łŔ ÿƖƀ Ō Ũŧ łŔ ǔňÿſųŌ ƌłķĭĭų ŏ ÿňƌ :ŦųŅ ÿƆŅ ĥƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ űſ Ņ Ņ ò ł ł ň ò ł ł Ņ òŅ Ņ ŏ ň Ņ Ō ł ò ł Ņ  :ťƀˁƇƆ  ĭųƌĭ ťƀɫ Ƥ Ɔĭ  :ŦƦ Ŕ Ɖ  Ŵ əɞ  ĭ :ťƍŨŔ ŵɟ  ĭ :ŦŁŔ ĭŁŔƧķĭ ł ťƍŅƃłŔĬŦ Ņ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł :ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ƈłƕ ĭĿŏųƍ Ņ ƊƆť ł ƀŅƊƣ ł Īť łŔ Ɩƀ Ņ ƟƢ Ō Ũłœ ƎſĿųƍ Ō Ɖķĭ ł ĭų ŏ ňƌĭ  ųſ ł Ņ ŏ ŧ Ƣÿſ Ņ ųŌ ƌĭ ł :ťÿƊŅ Ɗſĥ Ņ Īť ŌŔ ÿƍŅ źƆŴ  ƤƆť  ÿŨŅ œ Ŀłŧ Ƣſ ł ǔňſųŌ ƌƎſ ł ĿňŁŦ Ŕ ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥ űŔũƕ łŔ ĭł Ŵſ Ņ ųŌ ƌł :ťŨňŔ ǓĭĿŧ Ņ ŏ Ņ ŏ  łŔ :ťƀˁ Ņ Ɔ Ō Īť Ŕ ƍŅźƆŴ  ƤƆŧ  ĿŴ  ƕĮ ťũňŔ ƃœŴò ƃĭ ň ł ł łŔ Ɩƀ Ņ ƟƢ Ō ŨŦ łŔ ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥķŴ  ƌŏĥ ħ  Ŕ ųô łſĭ ŵſ ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ ƈłƕ ĭĿŏųƍ Ņ ƊƆť ł ƀŅƊƣ ł Īť Ō ł Ņ Ņ Ōœ ł ň ł Ņ Ŕ Ƥŏ ŷƆŧ Ŧ ŵÿŶ Ņ ĭť ł ÿƃŴ ň ĿĬŴ Ņ ÿƌŏ Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũňœ ŀƢłƙŔ ƊƆ ň ĭł :ťƀˁ Ņ Ƈ ŨŔ ĭť  Ɗ  ƊſŤ  Ũ ŻƇƤ  ƊƆ  ĭ Ÿɖ ł Ō œ Ŕ ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥ Ƣƀƙ ƣł ĪŦ łŔ ƉŴ Ņ łſŧ  ƢŅƘŔ ĽŦ ł ĭĬ Ņ ĭť ł ƤƉ Ņ ĿŦ ł ĭĬ Ņ ĭł Żſ .ťƖŅŨœ ĿĥĪť ň Ņ ł Ņ Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ ł òŅ ł ŏ ł Ņ Ņ ł ł ň Ņ ĥł ƈłƕį  ƤŶƢ  ƌ :Ŧų Ɔ  ĥƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ Ĵ Ŕ ƦŶ Ŕ ƢƘĭ Ŕ :ŦƦƀ Ŕ ʖ  ťƤ ƙŔ ƌť  ƤŶ  ǓťƀƉķŴ ťÿƕĿ  ƢłƘŔ ŁŦ ł ł ò Ō Ņ ťƀŅƊƣ ł Īť łŔ Ɩƀ  ƟĿ  ƁƘœ ĥ ƈłƕ ł ł Ņ ł Ņ ł Ņ ł ŏ Ŕ :ťÿŨň Ŕ ǓĭĿť Ņ ǓłĪŔ ŦƦÿ ł ÿňƍəòɧŌŁŦ Ŕ ųŅ ÿƆŅ ĥŧ  ƢŅÿŨŔ ĭł ťƃ  Ŵô ÿƤŶĿĥ ň Īť łŔ ÿƤŶ  ÿƃĭ ťÿƀò Ɖ Ŕ ÿƀʖťÿƤƙŔ ƌƈ ł Ņ ł Ņ ň Ņ ł Ņœ ŏ Ŕ ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥŦ  ŵŶ  ĭ ťƐƍ  ŬƆ Ŕ :ķĭųƐƍ ŏ ŬƆ ƢƀƙŌœ ƣł ĪŦ Ŕ ťƙŅœ ū ňŔ ĪŔ ŦƦŶ Ŕň Ŕ ƢƘ ƈƃĭ











 

 

 

 



Chapter  I



In the beginning 1 God created the heavens and the earth.



The earth was a formless void 2 and darkness was over the surface of the abyss and the wind 3 of God hovered 4 over the surface of the waters.



God said, “Let there be light”; and there was light.



God saw that the light was good 5 and God separated the light from the darkness.



God called the light “Day” 6 and the darkness he called “Night.” There was evening and there was morning, the first day. 7



Then God said, “Let there be a dome in the midst of the waters and let it separate the waters from the waters.”



God made the dome and he separated the waters under the dome from the waters above the dome. And so it was.



God called the dome “Sky.” 8 There was evening and there was morning, the second day. There is an extensive scholarly conversation regarding the correct interpretation of the first word in the Hebrew Bible, ='f – :— C.’ The Peshiṭta translator has imitated the Hebrew and I have followed the traditional translation in English, ‘In the beginning,’ so as not to give the impression that the Peshiṭta has a different reading. 2 In these opening verses the Peshiṭta translator imported several Hebrew words into Syriac. See the Introduction: A Few Observations on the Nature of the Peshiṭta Translation of Genesis. 3 ‘wind’ or ‘spirit’. Ephrem argues the correct interpretation is ‘wind’ (see R. M. Tonneau, Sancti Ephraem Syri in Genesim et in Exodum commentarii [CSCO 152–153; Syr. 71–72; Louvain: L. Durbecq, 1955], 1,7). Targum Onkelos also seems to interpret the word as wind (see B. Grossfeld and M. Aberbach, Targum Onqelos to the Book of Genesis: English Translation and Critical Notes [New York: KTAV, 1982], 20). 4 The Peshiṭta imports the Hebrew word =6˜ %˜ :™ /. ’ 5 ‘good’ or ‘pleasing’. The Peshiṭta often translates Hebrew L& with Ƣƀƙƣ. 6 ‘Day’ or ‘Daytime’. 7 ‘first day’: lit. ‘day one’. 8 ‘Sky’ or ‘Heavens’. 1





ň :ķĭŅ ƨƙłŔ Ɵň

ł Ņ Ņ ł ł ťƕĿ Ņ ĥ Ʀ Ŕ ſĭť  ƀƊƣ  Ʀ Ŕ ŅſŦ  ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥŧ  ƢŅŨŔ Ʀƀ Ŕ ƤŌ ſƢŌŨœ ŏ Ņ Ņ Īłœ ųÿŶĭ Ņ ĭł Ņ Ŕ Ƥŏ ŶĭĬŴ ŏŔ Ņ Ĭŏ ŁœƁÿƘò ł œ ĥł ƈÿłƕťÿƃŴ ň Ŀĭť ŦųŅ ÿƆĥ ň ÿŨĭĬĭ Łœ ŒŁŔ ĭĬť  ÿƕĿĥ ŏ ÿƉĭ Ņ ł òł œ ł ł Ņ ł  ƕť  ƙŶ Ŕ ƢƉ   ƁƘ DŽ ťƀò Ɖ ł ł ň ŧ ĿĬŴ Ņ ƌŦ ŏ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł :ŧ ĿĬŴ Ņ ƌŦ ŏ ĭų ň ňƌ :ŦųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ ł ł Ŕ ĿĬŴ Ņ ƍɞŦ ŏ ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥŦ  ŵŶ Ņ ĭł ňŔ ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥŀ  ƢłƘŔ ĭł :ƢƀƙŌœ ƣł Īŧ ťƃŴ ŅŔ Ƥŏ ŷƆŧ ň ĿĬŴ Ņ ƌŏ Ʀƀ Ŕ ŨŦ ł Ņ ł Ņ Ɔŧ Ņ ĿŦ ŦĭĬ Ņ ĭť ł ÿƤƉ ł ĭĬ Ņ ĭł :ťÿƀˁ Ō ƢÿƟť Ņ ŅŔ Ƥŏ ŷƆ ƃŴ ň ĭł :ťƊ Ņ Ɗſ Ņ Ō ĥŧ  ĿĬŴ Ņ ƍɞŦ ŏ ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥŧ  ƢƟ  ĭ Ņ .űŔŶť ł Ɖ  Ŵłſŧ  ƢŅƘŔ Ľł Ņ ł ł ň Ņ Ō ň ň Ņ Ņł ł ň Ņ ł òŅ ł  Ʀ Ŕ ƕƞ Ɗ  Ũť Ŕ Ɩƀ  ƟĿŦ  ĭų  ƌŦ  ų Ɔ  ĥƢ  Ɖĥ  ĭ  Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũňœ ŀƢňƘŦ ŅŔ ĭų ň ňƌĭ  :ťƀò Ɖ  ƀƉ ťƀò ƊƆť ł ł ł ł ł òŅ ł Ņ ł Ņ ƟĿƎ  Ʀƀ Ŕ Ũňœ ŀƢłƘŔ ĭł :ťƖƀ Ņ ƟĿŦ Ō ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥ űŔũƕ Ŕ ĭ Ŕ ƀƉ Ŕ Īť ňŔ :ťÿƖƀ Ō Ɖ ň ƦŶ œ ƦƆ  Ʀÿƀ Ŕ Ũĭ ťÿƀò Ɖ ň Ō Ņ .ťƍŅƃłŔĬŦ Ņ ĭĬ Ņ ĭł :ťƖƀ  ƟĿƎ  Ɖƈ ň ƖɝĪłŔ ł Ņ ł łŔ ƉŴ Ņ łſŧ  ƢŅƘŔ ĽŦ ł ĭĬ Ņ ĭť ł ƤƉ Ņ ĿŦ ł ĭĬ Ņ ĭł :ťƀŅƊƣť ł ƖŅƀƟƢ Ō ƆŦ ł ųŅ Ɔ Ņ ĥŧ  ƢƟ  ĭ ƎſĿňŁŔĪť



ĥįĽ ĥ



ħ



Ĩ



Ī



Ĭ



ĭ



Į



į



‫ܕ‬

‫ܬܕ‬ ‫ܕ‬

‫ܒ‬ ‫ܘܪܬ‬ ‫ܗ‬ ‫‪ .‬ܐܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܐ‬ ‫܆‬ ‫ܕ‬ ‫ܝ‬ ‫܇ ܕ‬ ‫ܨ‬ ‫ܗܕ‬ ‫݀‬ ‫ܐ ـܐ ܇ ܪ ܕ‬ ‫ܐܬ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫ܝ ܪܘ‬ ‫܆ ܘܐܘ‬ ‫ܬ ܕ ‪.‬‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܕ‬ ‫ܘܪܬ ܒ ܨ‬ ‫ܕ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫܇ ܗܪ ܘܬ ܇‬ ‫ܕܐ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܕܗ‬ ‫ܥ ܕ‬ ‫‪ .‬ܘܙܕܩ‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫ܬ ܐܘ‬ ‫ܕ‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫ܨ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܐ ܢ‬ ‫ܘܬ‬ ‫ܬ ܐܘ‬ ‫ܐ ܢ܆ ܘܕ‬ ‫ܘ‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫ܕ ‪IX‬‬ ‫ܕܗ‬ ‫ܬ ܪ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܘܬܪܨܢ ܘܪܬ ܒ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܺ‬ ‫ܪܫ ܘ ‪.‬‬ ‫ܪ‬ ‫‪:‬‬ ‫ܪܕ ‪ .‬ܐ‬ ‫ܐ ܪܐܘܣ‬ ‫ܬ‬ ‫ܕ‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫̈‬ ‫ܬܘܕ ܕ‬ ‫‪ .‬ܘ‬ ‫ܘܐ ܀‬ ‫ܡ‬ ‫ܐ‬ ‫܆‬ ‫ܒܕ‬ ‫ܕܘ ܕ ܝ‬ ‫ܐ ܢܕ‬ ‫ܪ‬ ‫ܕ‬

‫ܗ‬

‫ܬ‬ ‫݀ ܨܘܪܬ‬

‫ܒ‬ ‫ܕܘ‬

‫̇‬ ‫ܐ ܆ ܘ‬ ‫̈ ‪ .‬ܘܐ‬ ‫ܨ‬

‫ܕ‬ ‫ܘܬ ܐܬܘܬ̈‬ ‫ܘ ‪ .‬ܪ‬ ‫ܕ‬ ‫ܕ ܪ‬ ‫܀ ܐ‬ ‫̈‬

‫ܐܙ‬

‫ܙܕ ̈‬

‫܀‬

‫ܒ‬

‫ܨܘܪܬ‬

‫ܬ ܐ‬

‫ܐ‬

‫ܕ‬ ‫ܨܘܪܬ‬

‫ܪ‬

‫ܒ‬

‫ܐ‬

‫ܬ ܐ‬

‫ܪ‬

‫ܢܕ‬

‫ܪ‬

‫ܐܙ‬

‫ܕ‬

‫ܢ‬

‫ܘ ܪܘܗܝ‬

‫ܘܕ‬ ‫ܘ‬

‫ܪ‬

‫ܡ‬ ‫ܣ ܣ‬

‫ܪ ܬܝ‬ ‫ܙܘ ܢ‬

‫ܨܘܪܬ‬

‫ܒ‬

‫̈‬

‫ܪ‬

‫ܐ‬

‫ܢܕ‬

‫ܐܙ‬

‫ܐ ܪܐܘܣ‬

‫ܘܐ‬

‫ܪܕ‬

‫݁‬

‫ܨܘܪܬ‬ ‫ܐ‬

‫ܒ‬ ‫ܬ ܐ‬

‫ܕ‬