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Table of contents :
Cover
Half Title
Series Page
Title Page
Copyright Page
Table of Contents
List of tables
Acknowledgments
List of contributors
Introduction: religion in global societies
PART I: Market and branding
1. Christian churches’ responses to marketization: comparing institutional and non-denominational discourse and practice
2. ‘The Greatest Leader of All’: the faces of leadership and Christianity in contemporary Brazil (1980s–2010s)
3. JPCC: a megachurch brand story in Indonesia
4. Rebranding the soul: rituals for the well-made man in market society
PART II: Contemporary ethics and values
5. The prosperity ethic: the rise of the new prosperity gospel
6. Islamic ethics in Muslim Eurasia: prosperity theology vs. renunciation?
7. Public morality and the transformation of Islamic media in Indonesia
8. Pious-modern subjectivities in the Palestinian West Bank: identity formations and contours between the individual and the familial, the local and the global
9. ‘We are overfed’: young evangelicals, globalization, and social justice
10. ‘Mediacosmologies’: the convergence and renewal of indigenous religiosities in cyberspace
PART III: Intimate identities
11. Saints, sinners, and same-sex marriages: ecclesiological identity in the Church of England and the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Denmark
12. When two worlds collide: Asian Christian LGBTQs coming out to parents
13. Gender politics and education in the Gülen Movement
14. Global Catholicism, gender conversion and masculinity
PART IV: Transnational movements
15. Pilgrimage, traveling gurus and transnational networks: the lay meditation movement in contemporary Chinese societies
16. Globalization and asceticism: foreign ascetics on the threshold of Hindu religious orders
17. Maya revival movements: between transnationality and authenticity
18. Defending tradition and confronting secularity: the Catholic Buen Pastor Institute
19. The globalization of the Catholic Church: history, organization, theology
PART V: Diasporic communities
20. Dialectics between transnationalism and diaspora: the Ahmadiyya Muslim community
21. Transnational religious movement: the Turkish Süleymanlı in Indonesia
22. Young Buddhists in Australia: negotiating transnational flows
23. The formation of global Chinese Christian identities
24. Church as a homeland and home as a place of worship: the transformation of religiosity among Georgian migrants in Paris
PART VI: Responses to diversity
25. Interreligious dialogue in international politics: from the margins of the religious field to the centre of civil society
26. Faith, identity and practices: the current refugee crisis and its challenges to religious diversity in Southern Europe
27. Urban public space and the emergence of interdenominational syncretism
28. ‘As local as possible, as international as necessary’: investigating the place of religious and faith-based actors in the localization of the international humanitarian system
29. Religion, national identity and foreign policy: the case of Eastern Christians and the French political imaginary
30. Religious echoes in secular dialogues: global glimpses of peacebuilding
31. City of gods and goods: exploring religious pluralism in the neoliberal city
PART VII: National tensions
32. Islam, politics, and legitimacy: the role of Saudi Arabia in the rise of Salafism and Jihadism
33. Religion and nationalism in post-Soviet space: between state, society and nation
34. Religion, nationalism and transnationalism in the South Caucasus
35. The sacred and the secular-economic: a cross-country comparison of the regulation of the economic activities of religious organizations
36. Religious identities in times of crisis: an analysis of Europe
37. Poetry in Iran’s contemporary theo-political culture
PART VIII: Reflections on ‘religion’
38. Questioning the boundaries of ‘religious’ and ‘non-religious’ actions and meanings
39. Religion in the Anthropocene: nonhuman agencies, (re)enchantment and the emergence of a new sensibility
40. Science and religion in a global context
41. Religion through the lens of ‘marketization’ and ‘lifestyle’
Index
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Routledge International Handbook of Religion in Global Society

Like any other subject, the study of religion is a child of its time. Shaped and forged over the course of the twentieth century, it has reflected the interests and political situation of the world at the time. As the twenty-first century unfolds, it is undergoing a major transition along with religion itself. This volume showcases new work and new approaches to religion which work across boundaries of religious tradition, academic discipline and region. The influence of globalizing processes has been evident in social and cultural networking by way of new media like the internet, in the extensive power of global capitalism and in the increasing influence of international bodies and legal instruments. Religion has been changing and adapting too. This handbook offers fresh insights on the dynamic reality of religion in global societies today by underscoring transformations in eight key areas: Market and Branding; Contemporary Ethics and Virtues; Intimate Identities; Transnational Movements; Diasporic Communities; Responses to Diversity; National Tensions; and Reflections on ‘Religion’. These themes demonstrate the handbook’s new topics and approaches that move beyond existing agendas. Bringing together scholars of all ages and stages of career from around the world, the handbook showcases the dynamism of religion in global societies. It is an accessible introduction to new ways of approaching the study of religion practically, theoretically and geographically. Jayeel Cornelio is Associate Professor and the Director of the Development Studies Program at the Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines. François Gauthier is Professor of Religious Studies at the Social Sciences Department of the Université de Fribourg, Switzerland. Tuomas Martikainen is the Director of the Migration Institute of Finland, Finland. Linda Woodhead is Distinguished Professor of Religion and Society at Lancaster University, UK.

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Routledge International Handbook of Religion in Global Society

Edited by Jayeel Cornelio, François Gauthier, Tuomas Martikainen and Linda Woodhead

First published 2021 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN and by Routledge 52 Vanderbilt Avenue, New York, NY 10017 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business © 2021 selection and editorial matter, Jayeel Cornelio, François Gauthier, Tuomas Martikainen and Linda Woodhead; individual chapters, the contributors The right of Jayeel Cornelio, François Gauthier, Tuomas Martikainen and Linda Woodhead to be identified as the authors of the editorial material, and of the authors for their individual chapters, has been asserted in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record has been requested for this book ISBN: 978-1-138-18250-9 (hbk) ISBN: 978-1-315-64643-5 (ebk) Typeset in Bembo by River Editorial Ltd, Devon, UK

Contents

List of tables Acknowledgments List of contributors Introduction: religion in global societies Linda Woodhead, François Gauthier, Jayeel Cornelio and Tuomas Martikainen

x xi xii 1

PART I

Market and branding

17

1 Christian churches’ responses to marketization: comparing institutional and non-denominational discourse and practice Marcus Moberg

19

2 ‘The Greatest Leader of All’: the faces of leadership and Christianity in contemporary Brazil (1980s–2010s) Karina Kosicki Bellotti

31

3 JPCC: a megachurch brand story in Indonesia Jeaney Yip, Susan Ainsworth and Chang Yau Hoon

42

4 Rebranding the soul: rituals for the well-made man in market society Anne-Christine Hornborg

52

PART II

Contemporary ethics and values

63

5 The prosperity ethic: the rise of the new prosperity gospel Jayeel Cornelio and Erron Medina

65

6 Islamic ethics in Muslim Eurasia: prosperity theology vs. renunciation? Aurélie Biard

77

v

Contents

7 Public morality and the transformation of Islamic media in Indonesia Arie Setyaningrum Pamungkas 8 Pious-modern subjectivities in the Palestinian West Bank: identity formations and contours between the individual and the familial, the local and the global Ferial Khalifa 9 ‘We are overfed’: young evangelicals, globalization, and social justice Catherine Rivera 10 ‘Mediacosmologies’: the convergence and renewal of indigenous religiosities in cyberspace Laurent Jérôme

95

105

117

129

PART III

Intimate identities

141

11 Saints, sinners, and same-sex marriages: ecclesiological identity in the Church of England and the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Denmark Karen Marie Leth-Nissen

143

12 When two worlds collide: Asian Christian LGBTQs coming out to parents Joy K.C. Tong, Samuel Kang, Peter Lee and Hyo-Seok Lim

155

13 Gender politics and education in the Gülen Movement Duygun Gokturk

166

14 Global Catholicism, gender conversion and masculinity Ester Gallo

174

PART IV

Transnational movements

185

15 Pilgrimage, traveling gurus and transnational networks: the lay meditation movement in contemporary Chinese societies Ngar-sze Lau

187

16 Globalization and asceticism: foreign ascetics on the threshold of Hindu religious orders Daniela Bevilacqua

199

17 Maya revival movements: between transnationality and authenticity Manéli Farahmand vi

212

Contents

18 Defending tradition and confronting secularity: the Catholic Buen Pastor Institute Esteban Rozo and Hugo Cárdenas

226

19 The globalization of the Catholic Church: history, organization, theology Isacco Turina

234

PART V

Diasporic communities

245

20 Dialectics between transnationalism and diaspora: the Ahmadiyya Muslim community Katrin Langewiesche

247

21 Transnational religious movement: the Turkish Süleymanlı in Indonesia Firdaus Wajdi

258

22 Young Buddhists in Australia: negotiating transnational flows Kim Lam

268

23 The formation of global Chinese Christian identities Joshua Dao Wei Sim

277

24 Church as a homeland and home as a place of worship: the transformation of religiosity among Georgian migrants in Paris Sophie Zviadadze

292

PART VI

Responses to diversity

303

25 Interreligious dialogue in international politics: from the margins of the religious field to the centre of civil society Karsten Lehmann

305

26 Faith, identity and practices: the current refugee crisis and its challenges to religious diversity in Southern Europe Viviana Premazzi and Roberta Ricucci

315

27 Urban public space and the emergence of interdenominational syncretism Peter van Gielle Ruppe

326

vii

Contents

28 ‘As local as possible, as international as necessary’: investigating the place of religious and faith-based actors in the localization of the international humanitarian system Olivia J. Wilkinson 29 Religion, national identity and foreign policy: the case of Eastern Christians and the French political imaginary Alexis Artaud de La Ferrière 30 Religious echoes in secular dialogues: global glimpses of peacebuilding Xicoténcatl Martínez Ruiz 31 City of gods and goods: exploring religious pluralism in the neoliberal city Gina Lende (with Bankole Tokunbo)

336

349

362

374

PART VII

National tensions

387

32 Islam, politics, and legitimacy: the role of Saudi Arabia in the rise of Salafism and Jihadism Mohamed-Ali Adraoui

389

33 Religion and nationalism in post-Soviet space: between state, society and nation Denis Brylov and Tetiana Kalenychenko

399

34 Religion, nationalism and transnationalism in the South Caucasus Ansgar Jödicke 35 The sacred and the secular-economic: a cross-country comparison of the regulation of the economic activities of religious organizations David M. Malitz

410

420

36 Religious identities in times of crisis: an analysis of Europe Didem Doganyilmaz Duman

432

37 Poetry in Iran’s contemporary theo-political culture Maryam Ala Amjadi

444

viii

Contents

PART VIII

Reflections on ‘religion’

457

38 Questioning the boundaries of ‘religious’ and ‘non-religious’ actions and meanings Carlo Genova

459

39 Religion in the Anthropocene: nonhuman agencies, (re)enchantment and the emergence of a new sensibility Oriol Poveda

469

40 Science and religion in a global context Michael Fuller

478

41 Religion through the lens of ‘marketization’ and ‘lifestyle’ François Gauthier

488

Index

500

ix

Tables

11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4

x

Model of the gap between English society and the Church of England Relationship between population, affiliates, and governing bodies of the Church of England Model of the gap between Danish society and the Danish folk church Relationship between population, affiliates, and governing bodies of the Danish folk church

145 145 146 146

Acknowledgments

From the very start we knew that the Routledge International Handbook of Religion in Global Society would be an ambitious project. As editors, we wanted it to advance the study of contemporary religious transformations around the world. It was thus a deliberate effort to seek contributions from younger scholars and from those who are based in the Global South. From the 200 or so who responded to our call in 2017, we selected 41 proposals, which, taken together, present an exciting picture of religion in global society today. We want to honour each contributor who took the time and effort to closely work with us at various stages. This handbook recognizes not only the diversity of its authors but also the pioneering work emerging in many parts of the world. We also want to thank our colleagues at Routledge who believed and exercised tremendous patience for this project. Catherine Gray and Gerhard Boomgaarden led us through the process as we were developing it at the onset. Mihaela Diana Ciobotea made sure that it saw the light of day. We are also thankful to Robbin Dagle for his help in preparing the index. Erron Medina, our editorial assistant based at the Ateneo de Manila University, deserves full credit for coordinating closely with our contributors and ensuring that the manuscript was ready for submission. He is a young scholar who himself is already making a mark on the study of religion and politics in the Philippines. Jayeel Cornelio, François Gauthier, Tuomas Martikainen and Linda Woodhead

xi

Contributors

Mohamed-Ali Adraoui holds a PhD from Sciences Po Paris. Currently a Marie Curie

Fellow at the LSE, Adraoui has held positions at the European University Institute, the National University of Singapore, and Georgetown University. His articles have been published in International Affairs, International Politics, Journal of Historical Sociology, Mediterranean Politics, and the Georgetown Journal of International Affairs. Susan Ainsworth is Associate Professor in Organizational Studies at the University of Mel-

bourne. She is an internationally recognized expert in discourse analysis, qualitative methods, older workers and gender within organizations. Her research interests also include privacy and employment, specifically with respect to new technologies such as social networking sites and social media. Maryam Ala Amjadi spent her childhood in India and writes poetry in English. She received

the ‘Young Generation Poet’ Award in the 1st International Poetry Festival in China and was awarded an Honorary Fellowship in Creative Writing by the International Writers Program (IWP) at the University of Iowa. Presently, she is a PhD Fellow in Text and Event in Early Modern Europe at the University of Kent and Universidade do Porto. Karina Kosicki Bellotti is Professor of Contemporary History of the Federal University of

Paraná (Brazil). Among her publications are the book Delas é o Reino dos Céus (Annablume/ Fapesp 2010) and chapters in The Cambridge History of Religions in Latin America and The Media and Religious Authority. Daniela Bevilacqua is a postdoctoral Research Fellow at SOAS, working for the ERC-

funded Hatha Yoga Project (2015–2020). Her research interests include Hindu asceticism and ascetic practices, analyzed through an ethnographic and historical perspective. She authored Modern Hindu Traditionalism in Contemporary India: The Ś rı̄ Matḥ and the Jagadguru Rā mā nandā cā rya in the Evolution of the Rā mā nandı̄ Sampradā ya (Routledge). Aurélie Biard is a Postdoctoral Fellow in the Central Asia Program at George Washington

University’s Institute for European, Russian and Eurasian Studies. She is also an associated researcher at the Centre for Turkish, Ottoman, Balkan, and Central Asian Studies, Paris. Denis Brylov is Associate Professor in the Department of Cultural Studies, National Peda-

gogical Dragomanov University (Kyiv, Ukraine) and an Associate Professor in the Department of Religion Studies, Kazan Federal University (Kazan, Russia). xii

Contributors

Hugo Cárdenas is a Researcher in the School of Human Sciences at the Universidad del

Rosario. Jayeel Cornelio is Associate Professor and the Director of the Development Studies Program

at the Ateneo de Manila University and an associate editor of the journal Social Sciences and Missions. He has published extensively on religious change in the Philippines, with respect to youth, politics and development. He is the author of Being Catholic in the Contemporary Philippines: Young People Reinterpreting Religion (2016) and editor of Rethinking Filipino Millennials: Alternative Perspectives on a Misunderstood Generation (2020). Alexis Artaud de la Ferrière is Senior Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Ports-

mouth. Previously, he was a Lecturer in the Department of Politics and International Studies at SOAS, University of London. He finished his MPhil and PhD at the University of Cambridge, where he also worked as Research Associate at its Centre for the Study of International Relations in the Middle East and North Africa (CIRMENA). Didem Doganyilmaz Duman is a faculty member at the Department of Political Science

and Public Administration, Izmir Democracy University – Izmir/Turkey and a research collaborator at the UNESCO Chair in Intercultural Dialogue in the Mediterranean, Tarragona/ Spain. She received her MA and PhD (Cum Laude) degrees from Universitat Rovira I Virgili (Tarragona/Spain). Her areas of research include identity politics, religion-based identity conflicts, Islamophobia, and populist politics. Manéli Farahmand is the Director of the Geneva-based Intercantonal Information Center

on Beliefs. She holds a joint PhD from the Universities of Lausanne (Switzerland) and Ottawa (Canada), for which she received the Prize of Excellence from the Vaudoise Scientific Society. She was also a Lecturer at the Universities of Lausanne and Fribourg, handling courses on contemporary religiosities and ethnographic research. Michael Fuller is Senior Teaching Fellow at New College, University of Edinburgh. He is

the author and editor of numerous books and papers in the field of theology and science. He is Vice-President for Publications of the European Society for the Study of Science and Theology, a Fellow of the International Society for Science and Religion, and an honorary Canon of St Mary's Cathedral, Edinburgh. Ester Gallo is Associate Professor of Social Anthropology in the Department of Sociology and Social Research at the University of Trento. Her research interests include migration, gender and religion, and academic displacement and refugees. François Gauthier is Professor of Religious Studies at the Social Sciences Department of Université de Fribourg, Switzerland. Canadian-born, he bridges scholarship between French and English and practises interdisciplinarity. He is the author of Religion, Modernity, Globalisation: Nation-State to Market (2020) and co-editor (with T. Martikainen) of Religion in the Neoliberal Age and Religion in Consumer Society (both 2013). Carlo Genova is Associate Professor in the Sociology of Culture in the Department of Cultures, Politics and Society at the University of Turin.

xiii

Contributors

Duygun Gokturk is Assistant Professor in the Department of Educational Sciences at the Middle East Technical University. Her research interests include the sociology of organizations, sociology of education, race, ethnicity, social class and gender, qualitative research methods and ethnography. Chang-Yau Hoon is the Director of the Centre for Advanced Research at the University of

Brunei Darussalam (UBD). He is also Adjunct Research Fellow at the University of Western Australia from where he obtained his PhD. Prior to joining UBD, he was Assistant Professor of Asian Studies and Sing Lun Fellow at the School of Social Sciences, Singapore Management University, where he was awarded the SMU Teaching Excellence Award and Research Excellence Award. Anne-Christine Hornborg is Professor Emerita in the History of Religions at Lund Univer-

sity. She has published on indigenous cosmologies, animism, ecology and religion, ritual practices and new spiritualities. In recent years, she has studied new ritual contexts in late modern Sweden. Laurent Jérôme is Professor in the Department of Religious Studies at the Université du

Québec à Montréal. His areas of expertise include anthropology of religions, aboriginal studies, co-construction of knowledge, youth culture and cultural practices, and indigenous religious traditions. Ansgar Jödicke holds a PhD in the Study of Religion from the University of Zurich and a venia legendi (habilitation) from the University of Fribourg, Switzerland, where he is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Social Sciences. Tetiana Kalenychenko holds a PhD in Sociology of Religion (National Pedagogical Drago-

manov university, 2018). She is currently working in the field of conflict transformation and peacebuilding as dialogue facilitator, trainer, and mediator. Samuel Kang is a PhD candidate in Intercultural Studies at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Deerfield, Illinois. Ferial Khalifa is an independent scholar and researcher. She earned her PhD in Middle Eastern Studies from the University of Manchester and her MA in Sociology from the University of Chicago. Her PhD thesis was on women’s Islamic activism in the West Bank, Palestine. Dr Khalifa’s research interests include Muslim women’s piety and agency, Islamic movements and religion, and aesthetics. Kim Lam is Research Officer for the Centre for Resilient and Inclusive Societies. She is based in the Centre’s Youth, Diversity and Wellbeing in a Digital Age Stream. She has a background in the sociology of religion, Buddhist studies and youth studies. Currently, she is working on a range of projects relating to religious youth, social cohesion and youth wellbeing. Katrin Langewiesche completed her doctorate at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences

Sociales in France. She currently teaches at the Department of Anthropology and African Studies at the Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz in Germany. She works on religious xiv

Contributors

plurality in modern societies, faith-based organizations, Catholic convents in Europe and Africa, and Islamic transnational networks. Ngar-sze Lau is currently Lecturer at the Education University of Hong Kong, and Honorary Research Associate at the Department of Cultural and Religious Studies at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Her research focuses on transnational meditation and mindfulness communities in contemporary China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. She has published on meditation traditions, contemplation, and healing. Peter Lee (PhD, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School) is an intercultural researcher and an

ordained Presbyterian minister. He currently works as Korea Doctor of Ministry Program Liaison Officer and Affiliate Professor of Intercultural Studies at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Deerfield, Illinois, USA. Karsten Lehmann is Research Professor at the University of Education Vienna-Krems and

Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for Systematic Theology and Religious Studies. He was a Research Fellow at the Berkley Center in 2011. Lehmann has previously held positions at the Université de Fribourg and University of Bayreuth. Gina Lende is Associate Professor in religious studies at the Norwegian School of Theology, Religion and Society (MF). Her PhD was on the growth and development of Pentecostalism on the African and the Latin American continent. She has conducted field work in several different regions. She is currently working on religion, gender and politics, as well as religion and humanitarianism. Karen Marie Leth-Nissen is Visiting Researcher in the Department of Systematic Theology

at the University of Copenhagen. Her research focuses on how individualization and marketing affect the national church in Danish society. Hyo-Seok Lim (PhD, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School) serves as a pastor at Bethel Korean Presbyterian Church in Maryland. He has been involved in different types of ministry for Korean youth and young adult groups in South Korea and elsewhere. David M. Malitz is Lecturer in the Faculty of Arts, Chulalongkorn University. He holds a double master’s degree in Business Administration and Japanese Studies from the Universities of Mannheim and Heidelberg, and a doctoral degree in Japanese Studies from the University of Munich. His research interests lie in Japanese-Thai relations and the history of ideas in Japan and Thailand. Tuomas Martikainen is Adjunct Professor in Comparative Religion at the University of

Helsinki, Finland. He is the author of Religion, Migration, Settlement, and the co-editor of Muslims at the Margins of Europe (with J. Mapril, A. Khan), The Marketization of Religion, Religion in the Neoliberal Age, and Religion in Consumer Society (all with F. Gauthier). Xicoténcatl Martínez Ruiz received his PhD in Religious Studies from Lancaster University. He is Editor-in-Chief of the journal Innovación Educativa at Instituto Politécnico Nacional, where he also conducts research on the philosophy of education, Indian philosophy, and peace and non-violence. xv

Contributors

Erron Medina is Research Associate in the Development Studies Program at the Ateneo de

Manila University. He is pursuing graduate studies in political science at the Department of Political Science, University of the Philippines Diliman. His research interests include politics of religion, populism, comparative politics, political communication and social theory. Marcus Moberg is Professor in the Study of Religions at Åbo Akademi University, Finland. His main research interests include the sociology of religion, religion in market and consumer society, the discursive study of religion, and religion, media, and culture. His recent publications include Church, Market, and Media (Bloomsbury 2017) and the Bloomsbury Handbook of Religion and Popular Music (Bloomsbury 2018). Arie Setyaningrum Pamungkas holds a PhD at the Institute of Asian and African Studies, Humboldt University. She is a faculty in the Department of Sociology, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Oriol Poveda obtained his PhD in sociology of religion at Uppsala University. He earned

his MA in Jewish Studies and Philosophy at the University of Heidelberg, and has worked on different grassroots media projects in Mexico, Israel and Palestine. Viviana Premazzi is Senior Lecturer in Cultural Intelligence and Gender and Social Policy

at the University of Malta. She is an accredited trainer in intercultural and interreligious conflict management. Roberta Ricucci is Associate Professor at the Department of Culture, Politics and Society, University of Turin, where she teaches sociology of interethnic relations and sociology of Islam. She was a Visiting Research Fellow at Princeton University, Monash University in Melbourne and the University of Western Australia in Perth and a guest Visiting Associate Professor at the Center for the Study of Religion and Society at the University of Notre Dame. Catherine Rivera is a PhD candidate at the School of People, Environment and Planning,

Massey University. Her research focuses on 21st-century citizenship formation among young Christians who are involved in social justice practices. She is also a tutor at the School of English and Media Studies in the same university. Esteban Rozo is Professor at the School of Human Sciences, Universidad del Rosario. Joshua Dao Wei Sim is a historian of Christianity and Modern China. He recently graduated

with a PhD from the Department of History at the National University of Singapore, where he is currently a doctorate trainee. His dissertation was on the transnational and intellectual history of Chinese evangelicalism in the twentieth century. Joy K.C. Tong, who holds a PhD from the National University of Singapore, is currently

teaching sociology at Purdue University, Indiana. She was Affiliate Professor of Chinese Studies at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School. She has published books, articles, and book chapters on Christianity in the US and Asia, including Overseas Chinese Christian Entrepreneurs in Modern China (Anthem, 2012).

xvi

Contributors

Isacco Turina is researcher in cultural sociology at the University of Bologna. He has worked mainly on contemporary Catholicism, focusing first on consecrated life (hermits and virgins) and eventually on the Vatican's moral doctrine on sexuality, bioethics, human mobility, and ecology. He has also conducted fieldwork on the lived ethics of radical animal rights advocates. Peter van Gielle Ruppe is Scientific Staff in the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sci-

ences (Geographic Institute) at Humboldt University. Firdaus Wajdi is Assistant Professor of Islamic Studies at Universitas Negeri Jakarta. He com-

pleted his PhD at Western Sydney University in 2016. He is currently coordinator of the Islamic Education Program at Universitas Negeri Jakarta and board member of the Indonesian Islamic Education Lecturer Association (ADPISI) of Jakarta. Olivia J. Wilkinson is the Director of Research at the Joint Learning Initiative on Faith and

Local Communities. She has a PhD and a master’s in humanitarian action from Trinity College Dublin and Université catholique de Louvain, respectively. Her studies focus on social and cultural capital in disaster response and the influence of secular and religious values in shaping humanitarian action. Linda Woodhead MBE is Distinguished Professor of Religion and Society at Lancaster University. She has held visiting positions at Stanford University, the University of Münster, Ateneo de Manila University and the University of Ottawa. Her books include That Was the Church That Was: How the Church of England Lost the English People (with Andrew Brown), A Sociology of Prayer (with Giuseppe Giordan), Christianity: A Very Short Introduction, Religion and Change in Modern Britain (with Rebecca Catto), A Sociology of Religious Emotions (with Ole Riis), and The Spiritual Revolution (with Paul Heelas). Jeaney Yip is Lecturer in Marketing at the University of Sydney Business School. Her research is multidisciplinary and involves the study of discourse and identity in religion, consumer culture, gender and Asian contexts. She has published in Marketing Theory, Journal of Macromarketing, Pacific Affairs, Social Compass, and South East Asia Research. Sophie Zviadadze is Associate Professor at Ilia State University and the Chair of the Master Program in Religious Studies. She graduated from the Faculty of International Law and International Relations at Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, specializing in International Relations. She received her PhD in Political Science and Sociology from University of Muenster.

xvii

Introduction Religion in global societies Linda Woodhead, François Gauthier, Jayeel Cornelio and Tuomas Martikainen

Like any other subject, the study of religion is a child of its time. Shaped and forged over the course of the twenty-first century, it has reflected the interests and political situation of the world at the time. As the twenty-first century unfolds, it is undergoing a major transition along with religion itself. This handbook explores these changes. The academic study of religion was developed in a context of industrialization, urbanization, European colonialism and world war. Nation-states, some with colonial territories, were the dominant political unit at the time. Inevitably, the subject reflected this situation, even when it took a critical stance. ‘Religion’ was often identified with one of the handful of ‘world religions’ that colonial powers had helped to classify as such. ‘Primitive religions’ were also a subject of study, first by administrators and missionaries in the colonies, and later by anthropologists. Christianity and the churches occupied a particularly prominent place in the scholarly imagination, shaping how many imagined ‘real’ religion. Where Christianity was powerful, mainstream churches were still closely integrated with the nation-states in which they were located, often as established national churches. The question of ‘secularization’, whether religion was declining as people transitioned from traditional and rural settings to modern urban ones, was high on the agenda. By the start of the twenty-first century, things were starting to look very different, and the study of religion has been changing in order to keep up. Nations remain powerful as units of political power and social identity, but nation-states have been challenged by wider global forces, whether economic and cultural flows, or supranational corporations and other organizations. Some empires have collapsed, including the British and the Soviet ones, but the United States and China have retained de facto imperial power. Overall, ‘the West’ has been losing dominance, as multilateralism has replaced post-Cold War unilateralism. The influence of globalizing processes has been evident in social and cultural networking by way of new media like the internet, in the extensive power of global capitalism and in the increasing influence of international bodies and legal instruments. The flow of global capital around the world and the concentration of wealth in the hands of a small number of corporations have challenged the power of nation-states and their political institutions. In the process, the salience of national boundaries has been both challenged and reasserted, with some calling for a world without boundaries where capital and labour can move freely, and 1

Linda Woodhead et al.

others opposing such ‘globalism’. By the early twenty-first century, popular anti-globalist movements were emerging to defend the power and legitimacy of many aspects of national government. Some conservative populist movements voice nostalgia for a time when the nation-state was the locus of power and the backdrop of personal and collective identity. Now, however, all this happens against a global backdrop. Religion has been changing and adapting, too. The kinds of religion that attracted the attention of earlier generations of sociologists of religion still bore the impress of their contemporary national and colonial contexts. The insights into such religions are still valuable. But these forms of religion are now in competition with newer kinds that are integral to the challenges and opportunities of globalized societies. For example, African traditional religions that were previously stigmatized as ‘primitive’ have been undergoing revival, while everyday ‘lived’ kinds of religiosity of enormous variety have started to be taken much more seriously – as seriously, perhaps, as ‘official’ kinds of institutional religion. The pressures and opportunities of marketization and consumerism have inspired various new kinds of ‘prosperity religion’ which offer to enhance people’s material, physical, psychological as well as spiritual wellbeing, which have also come to scholarly attention. So too has the way in which women and other marginalized groups have struggled for greater influence and power and accelerated the growth of ‘alternative’ kinds of spirituality that give them a more central role. Global flows and connections have made possible all sorts of new religious linkages and alliances – the sheer scale and reach of the internet and its ability to nurture a plethora of social groups has helped facilitate this. Religion of all kinds has become bound up with many kinds of identity formation and struggle that generally have to do less with national identity than with a myriad of subcultures focused around shared interests, aspirations, lifestyles and identities. It is this new and still emerging situation that this handbook sets out to capture. It was planned in order to do so as effectively as possible. This meant re-examining the way a handbook is put together. Instead of being led by a team of established editors from the West, it has been led by an earlier career scholar from the Philippines, assisted by three other editors in Finland, Canada (then Switzerland) and the UK. Instead of commissioning authors already within the editors’ own limited networks, open calls were placed on as many lists as possible, all around the world. Early career scholars were encouraged to come forward because many will be developing new agendas in the study of religion and picking up on new phenomena. The editors devoted time to helping contributors edit their chapters, because English was a second language for so many. All chapters follow a similar template and are written in an accessible way. In disciplinary terms, the editors all owe a debt to the social scientific study of religion, hence the focus on religion in global societies. But given the book’s awareness of the geographical limitations of social science, it welcomes new topics and approaches that move beyond existing agendas. As such, it offers an accessible introduction to new ways of approaching the study of religion practically, theoretically and geographically. In bringing together a diverse group of often younger scholars from around the world, it reflects the dynamic reality of religion in global societies today.

Framework This opening, orientating chapter presents the framework of this handbook and some of the major themes arising from the chapters that follow. It helps to crystallize an emerging agenda for the study of religion in the contemporary world.

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Introduction

‘Religion’ and the Westphalian era As Peter Beyer (2013) suggests, the political situation that shaped the academic study of religion as it came to birth can helpfully be characterized as ‘Westphalian’. At a time of growing European power, the Treaty of Westphalia of 1648 consolidated nation-states and their boundaries in an effort to bring greater peace and stability. Part of the settlement concerned religion, which was brought under national jurisdiction by the formula cuius regio eius religio (whose reign, his religion). In other words, whoever was sovereign could determine the official, national religion. Religion was defined from top-down. As the power of monarchs waned over the course of the following centuries relative to that of state governments, so the latter came to play a more central role in regulating the religious affairs of the nation. This meant that there would usually be one official ‘established’ religion in a national territory, with the treatment of other ‘minority’ religions being a controversial matter. Even when toleration was extended, these minority religions were disadvantaged relative to the official religion (which, in the case of European powers, was always Christian but could be Protestant, Catholic or Orthodox). Religions outside the West were shaped by this model too, either by the colonial powers that ruled them or by their own national governments: the nation-state shaped religion and religion shaped the nation-state. An important element of the Westphalian settlement was that religion was increasingly differentiated from other aspects of society to become a separate sphere in its own right, with its own officials, rules and boundaries. Instead of being part and parcel of state and society as it once had been – integral to education, healthcare, law and politics – it became more bounded and autonomous. This helped give rise to the idea of separate, discrete religious ‘traditions’ or ‘world religions’. For example, in India under British colonial rule, a census of religion was introduced in the mid-nineteenth century that has had a lasting influence on how people imagine and measure religion. It measured religion in terms of separate ‘traditions’ or ‘communities’ – Hindu, Muslim, Christian and so on, and has remained an important tool of governance as well as scholarship. Religious communities themselves have often accepted this approach and tried to consolidate, reform and purify themselves accordingly. In the process, religions and their leaders have entered into competition with one another, either peacefully or violently. By the twentieth century, world religions competed with one another not just within national territories but across the globe, seeking status, followers and resources. Initiatives designed to foster better relations by way of inter-religious dialogues have also developed. The differentiation of social spheres led also to the growth of the sphere of the secular. As religion separated and became more autonomous, so other spheres like politics, health and education began to define themselves as not religious – often as scientific not religious. This dichotomy between the religious and the secular became a defining feature of modernity and of the study of religion. Secularism, the ideology behind the drive to separate religion from the rest of social life, often bears the impress of its national origins. In some countries, national constitutions and ideologies are defined as secular in the sense that the state is neutral with regard to religion (as in India), whereas others are secular in an atheist and anti-religious sense, as in communist countries with Marxist ideologies that sought to curtail or destroy religion (like the old USSR and China during the Cultural Revolution). Thus the influence of the Westphalian model continues into the twenty-first century, with religion still treated by many governments and legal systems as an autonomous sphere. Some countries still have an official, state-sanctioned religion (e.g. Iran) and national identity is still closely bound up with religious identity. Others recognize a limited number of

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official, registered and tolerated religions (e.g. China). Still others allow more of a free market in religion under the banner of ‘religious freedom’. The latter has taken on different forms especially in postcolonial societies with varying attitudes towards religious freedom (e.g. compare Singapore and the Philippines). However, by the last quarter of the twentieth century it was increasingly clear that we were entering what Beyer (2013) refers to as a ‘post-Westphalian’ era in which religion is more de-linked from both national identity as well as from old religious authorities. Instead of being structured by the nation-state, religion now takes many new forms that are less constrained by national governments and boundaries. It shifts from being a bounded sphere to something much more fluid, and starts to de-differentiate from other societal spheres, for example it creeps back into healthcare systems to offer healing and wellbeing, or it makes use of mass media and models itself on the entertainment industry – like the US televangelism of the 1980s and 1990s. At the same time, religion and ‘spirituality’ also take increasingly ‘de-traditionalized’ forms, especially in practice, while simultaneously certain groups and leaders make more intense claims to be the ‘real’ representatives of a religious tradition (the true, orthodox Christians, real Hindus, etc.) Thus ‘religion’ becomes more varied and hard to pin down, either in theory or practice. The situation is ‘messier’, to use Beyer’s word (2013: 671), and very different than when many classic works on religion were written (see also Gauthier 2020).

Globalization To speak of the current religio-political situation as ‘post-Westphalian’ is to signal that our old ways of approaching the subject are no longer adequate, and that we need new approaches to supplement them. We can go further than that, and speak not just of what was but of what is taking its place. If we can discern emerging patterns and coherence, the impression of ‘messiness’ will disappear. As the title of this handbook suggests, one useful step in this direction is to think in terms of globalization. One of the first scholars to reflect on the new importance of globalization was a sociologist who took a particular interest in what was happening to religion, Roland Robertson (1992). Early in the second part of the twentieth century, Robertson noticed that new kinds of post-national, transnational social formations – like the United Nations and the British Commonwealth – were growing in influence. He drew attention to the rise of global consciousness, a sense of all belonging to a common humanity, a single planet, a global whole. This did not necessarily mean that people gave up their old allegiances and sense of identity and belonging, but they maintained these against a wider horizon. The global now framed the local, in a way that was new and more inescapable than ever before. Robertson (1995) coined the term ‘glocal’ to capture the way in which people might still maintain situated, local commitments but against a global backdrop. He saw that the global and the local had grown in importance but the national and colonial were declining, and he reflected on the importance of religion within this change. Although still belonging to national societies, wider global horizons and connections have never been more important or contested. Since Robertson, there have been many different reflections on globalization. Despite differences and debates there is significant agreement around a broad definition that emphasizes the increased density and frequency of social interactions and cultural representations that now operate on an international or global scale rather than national or merely a local one (e.g. Held et al. 1999). Sometimes this is referred to as ‘space-time’ compression (e.g. Harvey 1989). It affects all that it touches. As Sylvia Walby puts it, 4

Introduction

‘globalization is a transformative process in which the units within the process change as well as the overall environment’ (2009: 36). It is widely recognized that globalization is not new. The ancient world was far better connected than is often imagined. Moreover, a succession of empires throughout history have pursued global territorial domination. Religion is ‘the original globalizer’ (Lehmann 2002: 299). In the past, ‘Sufi orders, Catholic missionaries, and Buddhist monks carried word and practice across vast spaces before those places became nation-states or even states’ (Rudolph and Piscatori 1997: 1). The difference today is that globalization takes new and more intense forms, affecting religion in new ways in the process. Whether one resides in Guangdong, Montevideo, Bishkek, Phnom Penh, Vancouver, Bamako, Asuncion, Davao, Maputo, Kosice, the Fijis, Cali, Nizhni Novgorod, Khartoum, Coimbra, Rabat, Perth, Oklahoma City or Bandung, the vast majority of us today live with the sentiment of being part of a connected whole that is included or excluded in, wishful or resentful about, global time and global flows. A first set of approaches to globalization that stresses increasing homogenization and the elimination of local and national differences. For example, George Ritzer’s The McDonaldization of Society (1993) highlights the global spread of fast-food culture with its standardized and standardizing practices. Everywhere you go, you can eat the same products in the same way. Similarly, shopping centres across the world look similar and feature the same brands. Global corporations strive for global dominance and push the same products, and the same modes of work and consumption are promoted everywhere. A small global elite, the wealthy ‘one percent’, has accumulated more wealth than many nations and more power than many politicians. They exploit the whole globe and its populations for profit. Finance capital moves freely across boundaries by way of electronic transactions and wage labour is employed wherever it is cheapest and most docile. Culture is spread by way of the internet and data-streaming services, resulting in an increasingly narrow and homogenized set of cultural references. Some commentators have viewed this ‘flattening’ of plane