Quality Education and International Partnership for Textile and Fashion: Hidden Potentials of East Africa 9819913195, 9789819913190

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Table of contents :
Foreword
Preface
Contents
1 Analysis of the Current Situation and Prospects of China–East Africa Higher Education Cooperation
1.1 Introduction
1.1.1 Current Situation of Internationalization of China’s Higher Education: The History of Internationalization of China’s Education and China–Africa Higher Education Cooperation
1.1.2 Initial Development Stage (1950–1965)
1.1.3 Regeneration Restart Stage (1978–1988)
1.1.4 Exploration and Development Stage (1989–1999)
1.1.5 Gradually Mature Stage (2000–2016)
1.1.6 High-Quality Construction Stage: After 2017
1.2 Current Situation of Economic and Educational Development in East Africa
1.2.1 Overview of Economic Development
1.2.2 Overview of Education Development
1.2.3 Analysis of Characteristics of Internationalization of African Higher Education
1.3 Main Forms of China–Africa Higher Education Cooperation
1.3.1 Exchange Visits of Educational Delegations at the Government Level
1.3.2 Joint Promotion of Overseas Students’ Education
1.3.3 Mutual Exchange of Teacher Resources
1.3.4 International Cooperation in Scientific Research Projects
1.3.5 Establishment of the Cooperative Culture Research Base
1.4 Main Difficulties and Problems
1.4.1 Ideological Differences Have Long Existed
1.4.2 Cultural Differences and Cross-Cultural Conflicts
1.4.3 Western Media Misleading China–Africa Relations
1.4.4 China’s Research on African Studies Needs to Be Deepened
1.5 Suggestions on Promoting Educational Exchanges and Cooperation Between China and Africa
1.5.1 Enhancing the Effect of Training Foreign Students
1.5.2 Enhancing Exchanges and Cooperation Between Chinese and African University Teachers
1.5.3 Establishing a Discourse System for Cultural Exchanges Between the Two Sides
1.5.4 Increase Support for Cultural Studies of Both Sides
References
2 Textile and Fashion Internationalization-Hidden Potentials of the Federal Republic of Somalia
2.1 Introduction
2.2 The Textile Industry in Somalia
2.2.1 History
2.2.2 Traditional Somali Finger Weaving
2.2.3 Traditional Hand Weaving
2.2.4 Somali Traditional Women’s Clothing
2.2.5 Somali Traditional Men’s Clothing
2.2.6 Tie and Dye
2.2.7 Transformation of Fashion Design Somalia
2.3 Bridging the Gap Between Textiles and Agriculture
2.3.1 Banana Production
2.3.2 Cotton Cultivation in Somalia
2.4 Textile Related Educational Institutions in Somalia
2.4.1 Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Somalia
2.4.2 Partners in Implementing TVET Programs
2.4.3 Other Funding Organizations Include
2.4.4 Somalia Education Support Bodies of TVET Programs
2.4.5 TVET Textiles Courses/Activities
2.4.6 Other Informal Skills Training Initiatives
2.4.7 Challenges Hindering the Advancement of Technical Training and Skills Development
2.4.8 Strategies by the Government to Support TVET Programs
2.4.9 Non-Formal Education (NFE)
2.5 University Education
2.5.1 University Textile Education in Somalia
2.6 Conclusion
References
3 Transformation of Higher Education in Kenya in the Context of Collaboration with China on Textile and Fashion
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Overview of Higher Education on Global Perspectives
3.3 Historical Background of Higher Education in Kenya
3.4 Changes in Higher Education Vis-a-Vie Increased Number of Universities
3.5 Higher Education and Textile and Fashion
3.6 Overview Textile and Fashion Sector in Kenya
3.6.1 Textile Sub-sector
3.6.2 Fashion Sub-sector in Kenya
3.6.3 Big Five Design
3.7 Investment in Textile and Fashion by Government
3.8 Contributions by Private and Non-governmental Entities to the Textile and Fashion Sector
3.9 Collaborations Between Chinese and Kenyan Universities in Textile and Fashion Sector
3.10 Opportunities for Investors
3.11 Challenges of Textile and Fashion Sector and Their Mitigations
3.12 Recommendations
3.13 Conclusion
References
4 Overview of Textile and Fashion Higher Education in Burundi
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Overview of Textile and Fashion Higher Education in Burundi
4.2.1 Overview of the Higher Education System
4.2.2 Public University
4.2.3 Private University
4.2.4 Universities and Enrollment Rate of Textile and Fashion Higher Education Institutions
4.3 Projects Aimed at Improving the Textile Industry in Burundi
4.3.1 FEMCOM/COMFWB Project
4.3.2 Fashionomics Africa Initiative
4.4 Investment in Textile and Fashion in Higher Education
4.5 Reform and Development of Textile and Fashion Higher Education
4.6 Exchange and Cooperation of Burundi with China’s Higher Education
4.6.1 Overview of Internationalization of Higher Education
4.6.2 Quality Concerns and Challenges Associated with Internationalization
4.6.3 Internationalization Versus Regional Characteristics and Connection with the Local Community
4.6.4 Development Process and Current Situation of Educational Exchanges with China
4.6.5 Development of Confucius Institutes
4.6.6 Inter-School Communication with Chinese Universities
4.7 The Direction of Higher Education Exchange and Cooperation in the Context of China-Africa Cooperation in Textile and Garment-Related Majors
4.7.1 Cooperation and Connections Between Regional Institutions
4.7.2 Impact of Sino-Africa Cooperation on Africa’s Textile and Apparel Industry
4.7.3 Scholarships that Foster Sino-Africa Cooperation and Exchange
4.8 Why is Burundi Best Suited to Cooperate for Textile Education? Reasons that Make Burundi the Ideal Country to Cooperate for Textile Education
4.9 Conferences, Seminars, Journals, and Magazines Related to the Textile and Fashion of Burundi
4.9.1 International Publications Which Cover Burundi’s Textile and Fashion Industry
4.9.2 Burundi’s Local Textile and Fashion Magazines
4.10 Investment Opportunity in the Textile Sector in Burundi
4.10.1 Investment in Textile Agriculture, i.e., Plantation of Natural Fibers
4.10.2 Investment in the Traditional Textile Industry—Factors that Drive Investments in the Traditional Textile Industry
4.10.3 Problems Faced by Complexe Textile Du Burundi (Burundi Textile Company)
4.10.4 Investment in the Hi-Tech Industry
4.11 Conclusion
4.12 Recommendation
References
5 Uganda Textile Education and Industry: The Current Status and Investment Opportunities
5.1 Preamble
5.1.1 Uganda
5.1.2 The Economy
5.1.3 The Uganda Textile Industry
5.1.4 The Uganda Textile Education
5.2 Overview of Textile Higher Education in Uganda
5.3 Curriculum Content of the Textile Programs
5.3.1 Bachelor of Science in Textile and Clothing Technology, Kyambogo University
5.3.2 Bachelor of Science in Polymer, Textile and Industrial Engineering, Busitema University
5.3.3 Bachelor of Fashion and Textiles Design, Nkumba University
5.3.4 Makerere University Short Courses
5.4 Key Underlying Issues Affecting Textile Higher Education in Uganda and Their Possible Solutions
5.4.1 Limited Enrollment
5.4.2 Limited Study Resources, Knowledge, and Brain Drain
5.4.3 Poor Link Between Industry and Education Institutions
5.5 Overview of Internationalization of Higher Education
5.5.1 Development Process and Current Situation of Educational Exchanges with China
5.5.2 Inter-School Communication with Chinese Universities
5.6 Investment Opportunity of Textile Sector in Uganda: The Case of Value Addition on Uganda’s Cotton
5.7 Important Value Addition Relationships in the Cotton Textile Industry
5.7.1 Estimation Cotton Fiber Waste Generated at Various Stages of Production
5.7.2 Price Approximation
5.7.3 Analysis of Potential Export Revenue from the Cotton Value Addition Chain
5.7.4 Concluding Remarks
References
6 Green Supply Chain Management Practices—A Case Study from the Mauritian Textile Industry
6.1 Background of Textile Industry in Mauritius
6.1.1 Mauritian Economic Situation
6.1.2 Environmental Situation in Mauritius
6.1.3 Sustainability Awareness in the Mauritian Textile Industry
6.1.4 Global Sustainability Issues
6.2 Case Study of the Mauritian Textile Industry
6.2.1 Company 1
6.2.2 Company 2
6.2.3 Company 3
6.3 Drivers of Green Practices
6.3.1 Driver 1: Top Management Support and Commitment
6.3.2 Driver 2: Corporate Social Responsibility
6.3.3 Driver 3: Customer Awareness and Sensitivity
6.3.4 Driver 4: Resource Scarcity and Circular Economy
6.3.5 Driver 5: Government Legislation and Support
6.3.6 Driver 6: Competition
6.3.7 Green Practices and Firm’s Performance
6.3.8 Green Practices and Innovation
6.4 Conclusion
References
7 Education and Investment Opportunities in the Textile Sector in Ethiopia—an Overview
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Potential of the Textile Sector in Ethiopia
7.3 Universities, Colleges and Training Centers for the Textile and Apparel Education Field
7.4 Internationalization of the Ethiopian Textile Sector
7.5 Exchange and Cooperation Between Ethiopian and Chinese Higher Education
7.5.1 Donghua University
7.5.2 Tianjin University of Technology
7.5.3 Tianjin University of Science and Technology
7.5.4 Chengdu Textile University
7.6 Investment Opportunity in the Textile Sector in Ethiopia
7.7 Government Supports and Incentives
7.7.1 Custom Duty Exemptions
7.7.2 Exemption from Income Tax
7.7.3 Export Incentives
7.7.4 Remittance
7.7.5 Industrial Parks
7.7.6 Investment Guarantee and Protection
7.7.7 Cost of Land and Utilities
7.8 Investment Areas in the Textile Value Chain Sector
7.8.1 Cotton Farming
7.8.2 Textile and Garment Manufacturing
7.9 Conclusion
References
8 Textile and Fashion Industry of Mozambique
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Capulana
8.3 The Trend of 2nd Hand Clothing in Mozambique
8.4 Cotton Industry
8.5 SWOT Analysis of Mozambique Textile Industry
8.6 The Creativity of Upcycling Used Garments in Mozambique
8.7 Cut Make Trim
8.8 Vertical Integration of Textile Sector
8.9 WITH Project
8.10 Fashion Week of Mozambique
8.11 Fashion Designer of Mozambique
8.12 Suggestions for Improvement of the Apparel Sector in Mozambique
8.12.1 Export-Oriented Strategies
8.12.2 Easy Access to Markets
8.12.3 Diversified Products
8.12.4 Types of Garments for Vertical Integration
8.12.5 Action Plan
8.13 Conclusion
References
9 Overview on Textile and Fashion Industry in Tanzania: A Need to Realize Its Potential in Poverty Alleviation
9.1 Introduction
9.2 History of Fashion and Textiles in Tanzania
9.3 Status of Textile Industries in Tanzania
9.4 Higher Learning Institutions Overview and Opportunities to Cooperate
9.4.1 Contribution of High Learning Institutions to Textile and Fashion
9.4.2 Why Is It Best to Cooperate with Tanzania Universities in Textile Education
9.5 Tanzania Cotton and Sisal
9.5.1 Conventional Cotton
9.5.2 Organic Cotton
9.5.3 Sisal Is Back
9.6 Fashion Trends in Tanzania
9.6.1 Tanzanian Fashion Designers
9.6.2 Challenges Facing Fashion Industry Sector in Tanzania
9.7 Investing in Textile and Apparel in Tanzania
9.8 Conclusion and Recommendations
References
10 Textiles Education in Sudan: An Overview of Sudanese Cotton Production, and Textiles and Fashion Design in Higher Education Institutions
10.1 Introduction
10.1.1 Prologue
10.1.2 Aesthetical Values of Sudanese Textiles
10.1.3 Higher Education in Sudan
10.2 Cotton Production in Sudan
10.2.1 Cotton Cultivation: From Ancient to Current Sudan
10.2.2 Agricultural Research
10.2.3 Cotton Research Program
10.2.4 Challenges
10.3 Textiles Education at the University of Gezira
10.4 Textiles Education at the Sudan University of Science and Technology
10.5 Fashion Education at the College of Fine and Applied Arts
10.6 Conclusion and Prospective
References
11 Concluding Remarks on Textile and Fashion Education Internationalization—Hidden Potentials of East Africa
11.1 Advantages and Experience of China’s Higher Education
11.2 Development and Transformation of African Higher Education
11.3 Benefit Analysis of China–Africa Higher Education Cooperation
11.3.1 Role of China–Africa Higher Education Cooperation in Promoting China’s Social Development
11.3.2 Role of China–Africa Higher Education Cooperation in Promoting Social Development in Africa
11.3.3 Role of China–Africa Higher Education Cooperation in Promoting the Development of the International Community
11.4 Difficulties and Solutions of China–Africa Higher Education Cooperation
11.4.1 External Environment of Non-higher Education Cooperation Is Relatively Complex
11.4.2 Misunderstanding of China by International Public Opinion
11.4.3 Restriction of Sino-African Cultural Barriers
11.5 Exploration of the Mode of China–Africa Higher Education Cooperation
11.5.1 Cooperation Mode of Vocational Education
11.5.2 Language Education Cooperation Mode
11.5.3 Cooperation Mode of Studying Abroad in China
11.5.4 Cooperative Education Cooperation Mode
References
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SDGs and Textiles

Xinfeng Yan Lihong Chen Hafeezullah Memon Editors

Quality Education and International Partnership for Textile and Fashion Hidden Potentials of East Africa

SDGs and Textiles Editor-in-Chief Hafeezullah Memon , College of Textile Science and Engineering, International Institute of Silk, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou, China

The book series “SDGs and Textiles” addresses the strategies to achieve sustainable development goals (SDGs) in the present, past, and future. It presents books about the present and future policies of textile ministries of different countries, and books related to sustainability education around different parts of the world in the textile sector. Moreover, it would welcome the conference proceeding related to SDGs and Textiles. The series would cover books comparing the sustainability and SDGs of different institutions and countries. The individual book volumes in the series are thematic. The goal of each book is to give readers a comprehensive overview of a different area of sustainability in the textile sector. As a collection, the series provides valuable resources to a broad audience in academia, the research community, industry, and anyone looking to expand their knowledge of SDGs and Textiles. Textiles and life are together – life cannot be separated from textiles as it is the most important need for human beings after food. In 2015, the United Nations General Assembly proposed 17 interlinked global goals to be achieved by 2030. Since then, academia and industry have paid much attention to achieving these goals. Textile found its close relation with almost all of these 17 goals. SDG 1 - No Poverty: Poverty would never be overcome by a charity only; it is essential to develop people’s skills to have a better and wealthy life. Thus, the textile can be considered an excellent discipline to achieve this goal by creating jobs and small and medium businesses. SDG 2 - Zero Hunger: Through the effective utilization of advanced application of Agrotech Textiles, it is possible to have higher crop yields and save crops from rough weather, unexpected rains, floods, insects, etc.; thus, geotextiles play an essential in achieving this goal of sustainable development. SDG 3 - Good Health & well-being: There has been much health consciousness after Covid19, and medical textiles assist in getting good health and well-being. SDG 4 - Learning & Education: Textile or fashion has remained a significant discipline for societies for ages, and there has always remained much to explore in this field. Textile-related universities may play a vital role by offering free access to their education resources, training and spreading information among the locals. SDG 5 - Gender Equality: The textile sector is one of the industrial sectors that accepted gender equality long ago; in particular, the garment sector has more females than males. Thus, the textile sector has been doing gender equality. Moreover, there has been a recent trend for Gender Neutral Clothing, which need worth studying and may further assist gender equality. SDG 6 - Clean Water & Sanitation: Textiles could be achieved through filtration, and of course, textile is one of the critical materials for filtration. SDG 7 - Affordable & Clean Energy: With the recent advancement in material science and engineering, the textile sector has come on the front for, not only by using this clean energy during textile production but also by assisting the production of this clean energy, either in the form of wind turbines blades made of textile composites or by energy harvesting from T-Shirts, etc. SDG 8 - Decent Work: Recently, there has been much attention that the textile workers are not paid well, labor rights are not cared about, etc. SDG 9 - Industry and innovation: Textile Industry always follows innovation; the textile companies that do not chase innovation cannot survive in the market. SDG 10 - Reduced Inequalities: Getting better life and well-being would help reduce inequalities in the textile industry. SDG 11 - Sustainable Cities: Sustainable Textile Cities through Buildtech and transport textiles. SDG 12 - Consumption and Production: Textile and garment consumption and production all come under. SDG 13 - Climate Action: Oekotech or Ecotech Textile, waste management of textiles are upfront to achieve this goal of sustainable development. SDG 14 - Life Below Water: Mitigating microfiber waste in rivers and oceans may come under the context of it. There has been much attention on this subject after passing the bill at the parliament level of the UK. SDG 15 - Life on Land: Geotech or Geotextiles studies life on land. SDG 16 - Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions: Protective textiles are doing their best to achieve peace, justice, and strong institutions. SDG 17 - Partnerships for the Goals: The application of textiles to achieve sustainable development goals is only an example. In all textiles sectors, combined efforts of all the goals are essential to achieve true sustainability.

Xinfeng Yan · Lihong Chen · Hafeezullah Memon Editors

Quality Education and International Partnership for Textile and Fashion Hidden Potentials of East Africa

Editors Xinfeng Yan International Cultural Exchange School Donghua University Shanghai, China

Lihong Chen Shanghai International Fashion Science and Innovation Center Donghua University Shanghai, China

Hafeezullah Memon College of Textile Science and Engineering International Institute of Silk Zhejiang Sci-Tech University Hangzhou, China

The authors would like to acknowledge funding support from the Research Fund for International Scientists (RFIS-52150410416), National Natural Science Foundation of China, and National Social Science Foundation of China (BGA200057). ISSN 2948-1236 ISSN 2948-1244 (electronic) SDGs and Textiles ISBN 978-981-99-1319-0 ISBN 978-981-99-1320-6 (eBook) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-99-1320-6 © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2023 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are solely and exclusively licensed by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors, and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. The registered company address is: 152 Beach Road, #21-01/04 Gateway East, Singapore 189721, Singapore

Foreword

China–Africa cooperation, in general, started in the early sixties of the last century. Most of the cooperation and relations between China and Africa began in many fields, including development projects, trade, education, financial support, etc. In regard to the textile sector in Africa, China was known as a leading country in textile trade and machinery. As an example, in Sudan, China established one of the biggest textile firms in the late sixties of the last century. I, as a textile student, in 1984 did my training and indusial attachment in this factory, and I have known a lot during this period of attachment. Again, another clothing factory was established by the Chinese government as a joint investment with the Sudanese government, and it was the biggest clothing firm in the country. Both factories had a positive impact on development and society’s welfare. I think such projects were also established in different African countries. Regarding textile engineering and fashion education, the University of Gezira, located in the central region of Sudan, had signed an MOU with CTU (China textile University) in Shanghai, China. That was in the early nineties of the last century, and accordingly, six staff members from the University of Gezira in the department of textile engineering and technology had benefitted scholarships for MSc degrees and research scholars. This program was the first MSc program in CTU taught in English and was highly successful. Since then, relations between the university of Gezira and CTU (lately became DHU—Donghua university) have continued in an excellent manner and are still reflecting a model of bilateral academic relations. During this period, many fellows from different African countries had been studying for their graduate and postgraduate degrees. Many colleagues I knew were still keeping good academic collaboration, and on the basis of our study in China, we are still continuing in research programs and other academic relations. This is to say that our study in China gave us this fruitful chance for better and close bilateral relations. Thus, many successful research projects were carried out with counterparts in both universities and with other African universities, especially those sponsored by the Belt and Road initiative of China.

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Foreword

I feel enormously proud that I have studied in China for both my MSc and Ph.D. degrees as a result of the cooperation between China and Africa. I am still keeping intact academic contacts regarding research work in different areas and keeping network building between the University of Gezira in Sudan and Donghua University, Shanghai, China. It is a great honor for me to write this foreword for this valuable reference book which keeps historical track and traces the early beginning of the relations between China and African countries in Textile and Fashion Education. Prof. Dr. Salah Eldin M. Elarabi Vice Chancellor at University of Gezira Wad Madani, Sudan

Preface

The compilation of this book is based on the cooperation of African scholars and Chinese scholars. It mainly discusses the opportunities, problems and paths of international exchanges and cooperation in education between China and Africa from the perspective of African scholars. It focuses on analyzing the current situation of higher education demand, education resources, education system, education philosophy, and other aspects of East African countries. This book takes international cooperation colleges and universities textile and clothing as key discipline as an application case to explore the feasibility and specific plans of international cooperation in higher education between Africa and China. The purpose of the study is to give full play to China’s advantages in higher education resources and scale, drive the improvement of education level and education level in Africa, promote deeper exchanges between China and Africa, enhance cultural exchanges and integration between China and Africa, and enhance mutual respect and understanding between China and Africa. The publication of this book is expected to serve China–Africa higher education management departments, universities, and scholars and provide readers with decision-making and research references. China is the largest developing country, and Africa is the continent with the largest concentration of developing countries. The two countries are closely linked. From ancient times to now, China and Africa have been separated by thousands of miles but have closely cooperated. The establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Africa has a long history. In the past 2000 years, the exchanges between China and the African continent have never been interrupted. Along with the Silk Road, the development has continued to this day. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, China–Africa educational exchanges have been constantly innovated and developed in form and content, from the initial exchange of international students to the current multi-level, multi-field and multiform educational exchanges, and cooperation. In terms of content compilation, this book, based on the specific situation of higher education in various African countries, takes textile and clothing higher education as a specific application case, and combines the industry development and talent demand, respectively, from the overview of textile and clothing higher education, the vii

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status quo of exchanges and cooperation with China’s higher education, the direction of exchanges and cooperation in higher education under the background of China– Africa cooperation, the main cooperation and information dissemination media and carriers, as well as investment opportunities in the textile and clothing industries of African countries, are presented. The content involves not only exchanges and cooperation in higher education but also industrial development and talent training, which has a certain reference value for competent government departments, scientific research institutions, and relevant enterprises. Through the analysis of the current situation and development trend of textile and garment education in East African countries, this book explores the paths and methods of international exchange and cooperation of higher education with industry characteristics to provide the analytical basis and theoretical support for the practice of international cooperation between Africa universities and Chinese universities. We have welcomed to describe the diverse aspects to emphasize different aspects of textile education in East Africa to retain the interest and attention of a large number of readers in this book. Most of the experts invited in the compilation of this book are experts, scholars, and professors from universities in major East African countries. We thank all the experts and scholars for their experts’ knowledge, deep analysis, and wise judgment. They all have studied in China and have deep experience and understanding of China’s higher education. In combination with the actual situation of China’s higher education, they have obtained unique insights and valuable suggestions. We would like to express our sincere thanks to Dr. Ahmed Dawelbeit, Dr. Mike Tebyetekerwa, Dereje Kebebew Debeli, Dr. Juma and Prof. Nibikora Ildephonse, Okech Christopher Oduor, Marie Joelle Emmanuelle Joseph, Tabbisa Namulinda and Dr. Amna Siddique, who participated in the preparation of this book. Shanghai, China Shanghai, China Hangzhou, China

Dr. Xinfeng Yan Dr. Lihong Chen Dr. Hafeezullah Memon, CText FTI

Contents

1

2

3

Analysis of the Current Situation and Prospects of China–East Africa Higher Education Cooperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Xinfeng Yan, Lihong Chen, and Hafeezullah Memon

1

Textile and Fashion Internationalization-Hidden Potentials of the Federal Republic of Somalia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tabbisa Namulinda

15

Transformation of Higher Education in Kenya in the Context of Collaboration with China on Textile and Fashion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Christopher Oduor Okech

37

4

Overview of Textile and Fashion Higher Education in Burundi . . . . Nibikora Ildephonse

5

Uganda Textile Education and Industry: The Current Status and Investment Opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mike Tebyetekerwa, Innocent Tendo Mugaanire, and Shengyuan Yang

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6

Green Supply Chain Management Practices—A Case Study from the Mauritian Textile Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Marie Joelle Emmanuelle Joseph and Hua Cheng

7

Education and Investment Opportunities in the Textile Sector in Ethiopia—an Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Dereje Kebebew Debeli, Alemayehu Gashaw Woldegiorgis, and Molla Tadesse Abate

8

Textile and Fashion Industry of Mozambique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Jawad Naeem and Amna Siddique

9

Overview on Textile and Fashion Industry in Tanzania: A Need to Realize Its Potential in Poverty Alleviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Juma Makweba Ruteri ix

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Contents

10 Textiles Education in Sudan: An Overview of Sudanese Cotton Production, and Textiles and Fashion Design in Higher Education Institutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Ahmed Dawelbeit, Abdelrahman H. Abdelatif, Khalid Abdala, and Hasabo A. Mohammed 11 Concluding Remarks on Textile and Fashion Education Internationalization—Hidden Potentials of East Africa . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Xinfeng Yan, Lihong Chen, and Hafeezullah Memon

Chapter 1

Analysis of the Current Situation and Prospects of China–East Africa Higher Education Cooperation Xinfeng Yan, Lihong Chen, and Hafeezullah Memon

Abstract China and countries in Africa have similar development experiences and a long history of exchanges. They not only have close exchanges in politics, economy, and culture but have also carried out a series of exchanges and cooperation in education, such as exchanges of high-level visits in education, overseas students, interschool scientific research cooperation, teacher exchanges, and cultural research. This paper reviews the historical development of China–Africa higher education exchanges, introduces the forms and contents of China–Africa higher education cooperation and exchanges since the founding of new China, analyzes the problems existing in China–Africa higher education exchanges, and puts forward constructive suggestions. Keywords China–Africa cooperation · Education internationalization · International students · Exchange and cooperation

1.1 Introduction China and Africa have a long history of cooperation and exchange [1]. Since the founding of new China, China and African countries have had closer political, economic, and cultural exchanges. In the field of education, under the framework of the “China–Africa Cooperation Forum,” with the deepening of China–Africa friendly relations, educational cooperation and exchanges between China and African countries have also made considerable progress [2]. In higher education, new forms of X. Yan International Cultural Exchange School, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051, China e-mail: [email protected] L. Chen (B) Shanghai International Fashion Innovation Center, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051, China e-mail: [email protected] H. Memon College of Textile Science and Engineering, International Institute of Silk, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2023 X. Yan et al. (eds.), Quality Education and International Partnership for Textile and Fashion, SDGs and Textiles, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-99-1320-6_1

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cooperation and exchanges have been continuously explored and developed, such as mutual visits of senior education officials, exchange of overseas students, sending teachers to Africa, cooperation in university scientific research projects, and establishing Confucius Institutes in African countries and African research institutions in China. China and African countries have established diplomatic relations with each other politically, helped each other economically, and understood each other culturally, thereby actively promoting the development of China–Africa friendly relations and forming a stable, friendly, cooperative, and equal partnership [3]. These efforts have laid a deep foundation for China–Africa educational cooperation and exchanges.

1.1.1 Current Situation of Internationalization of China’s Higher Education: The History of Internationalization of China’s Education and China–Africa Higher Education Cooperation China and African countries share many similarities. China is the largest developing country, and Africa has the largest number of developing countries. The greatest embodiment of China–Africa educational exchanges and cooperation is overseas students. After the founding of new China, the cooperation and exchanges between China and African countries in the field of education have roughly experienced four historical development stages.

1.1.2 Initial Development Stage (1950–1965) Shortly after the founding of new China, China and African countries have carried out close cooperation and exchanges in education [4]. In 1960, as more and more African countries gained independence, the Chinese government offered scholarships to African students for the first time and enrolled more than 100 African students in China. This stage was the initial stage of China–Africa educational cooperation and exchange. Although the form and content of cooperation and exchange are not mature and perfect and the scale development is still relatively small, it has opened the prelude to China–Africa educational exchange and cooperation.

1.1.3 Regeneration Restart Stage (1978–1988) Since 1978, China began to implement the reform and opening-up policy and has resumed educational exchanges with African countries. During this period, on the

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basis of the original forms of cooperation and exchange, the Chinese government increased its educational material assistance to African countries and began to actively try and encourage Chinese colleges and universities to carry out inter-school cooperation with African colleges and universities.

1.1.4 Exploration and Development Stage (1989–1999) In 1989, the State Education Commission issued the relevant provisions on the recruitment of foreign students to China at their own expense, giving colleges and universities greater power to recruit students independently and promoting the pace of international cooperation and exchanges among colleges and universities. In 1993, China issued the outline of China’s education reform and development, which proposed the establishment of a new education system adapted to the development of the market economy [5]. The number of overseas students, especially those who come to China at their own expense, has grown rapidly, and China–Africa educational exchanges have also entered a period of rapid development.

1.1.5 Gradually Mature Stage (2000–2016) In 2000, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the Ministry of Public Security promulgated the regulations on the administration of the acceptance of foreign students by institutions of higher learning in the form of Decree No. 9, which defined the objectives and direction of the internationalization development of the main bodies of universities. In the same year, the China–Africa Cooperation Forum was held, providing a good foundation for China–Africa educational exchanges and cooperation. During this period, many Chinese universities have set up international education colleges or international cultural exchange colleges. These institutions are especially responsible for language teaching and management of foreign students. The reform of educational management structure in colleges and universities has provided a foundation for the steady development of international exchange and cooperation in education. International cooperation and exchanges in education between China and Africa have entered a new development period. African students studying in China increased from 1,388 in 2000 to 61,594 in 2016, a 44-fold increase.

1.1.6 High-Quality Construction Stage: After 2017 In 2017, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the Ministry of Public Security jointly issued measures for the administration of school enrollment

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and training of international students (Decree No. 42), marking a new stage in the internationalization of China’s education. In 2018, the Ministry of Education of China formulated the higher education quality standard for overseas students in China (Trial), indicating that the future international exchange and cooperation in China’s education will develop in the direction of improving quality and efficiency. China–Africa educational exchanges and cooperation have also entered a stable state.

1.2 Current Situation of Economic and Educational Development in East Africa According to the criteria of the African Development Bank, East Africa comprises 13 countries: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda.

1.2.1 Overview of Economic Development Since 2010, the average annual economic growth rate of East Africa has exceeded 6%, which is higher than the average growth rate of developing countries. In 2018, the economic growth rate of East Africa exceeded that of Southeast Asia, becoming the fastest-growing region [6]. The driving factors of economic growth in East Africa mainly include resident consumption, infrastructure investment, expansion of traditional and emerging industries, and national strategic intervention policies. Owing to the slow overall development, the economic structure of East African countries is dominated by agriculture and primary processing industries, and the agricultural population accounts for more than 60%. Since 2020, due to the global COVID-19 outbreak, East African countries have generally continued the primary product-dependent economic growth model [7]. The economic and social structure has not changed significantly, and economic growth has been greatly affected. In addition, the degree of African regional economic integration of East African countries is low, the complementarity of their economic structures is low, and the international competitiveness of their products is low. Regional economic cooperation fails to serve sustainable economic growth, and the region as a whole has a weak ability to lower external risks and is vulnerable to the negative impact of the deterioration of the external economic environment.

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1.2.2 Overview of Education Development African higher education faces multiple challenges, such as insufficient funds, poor leadership, and low quality of education. These challenges have long affected the ability of African countries to identify and solve development problems. To solve the problem of insufficient educational resources, various regional organizations in Africa, with the support of African sovereign countries, actively explore the development strategy of education regionalization, and design and implement institutional cooperation in education from the perspective of the region as a whole. African education integration is an important part and form of African education regionalization. The East African community and the East African countries’ education quality inspection alliance was established under the concept of integrated development to jointly promote the interests and enhance the voice of the international exchange of regional overall education.

1.2.3 Analysis of Characteristics of Internationalization of African Higher Education The internationalization of African higher education is not the result of the initiative pursued by African countries themselves but the result of occupation and control during the colonial period, utilization during the Cold War, and long-term dependence on foreign finance and knowledge. Owing to the far-reaching influence of colonialism, the internationalization of African higher education reflects the characteristics of regionalization and globalization in organization, the nature of high dependence, and sharp conflict with localization. (1) History of internationalization influenced by colonialism Before the colonists came to Africa, higher education institutions already existed in Africa, including Azhar University in Egypt, which is the world’s oldest higher continuing education center [8]. However, as the influence of colonialism deepened, colonialism erased or destroyed almost all the traditional higher education centers in Africa. The colonial authorities did not make any efforts to develop colonial higher education, and the development of African higher education was inhibited or even stifled by external factors, which was a characteristic of the internationalization of African higher education during the colonial period. During the colonial period, the second characteristic of the internationalization of African higher education was the “Europeanization” brought about by the educational policies and practices imposed by the colonists. At that time, the languages, majors, courses, management, teaching materials and other reading materials taught in African institutions of higher learning all reflected the vested interests and established policies of the colonists. After independence, the internationalization of African higher education continued to copy the school-running model of the colonizing state. The new university and higher

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education system operated in close cooperation with, and under the guidance and supervision of, the former colonial universities. (2) Regionalization and globalization in organization International institutions and African regional organizations have played a strong organizing and leading role in the internationalization of higher education in Africa. To meet the challenges caused by the globalization economy and other factors, the African Union has made efforts to promote international exchanges between African universities and African scholars through various plans and has also proposed programmatic documents such as the African higher education integration strategy to plan and promote the development of higher education in Africa as a whole. This integration is the internationalization within Africa. Given that Africa is a continent heavily dependent on foreign aid, foreign governments, and international institutions, such as UNESCO, UNDP, and the International Institute for African Capacity Building (IICBA), have also played an important role in the internationalization of higher education in Africa. The regional and global nature of the internationalization of higher education in Africa is reflected in many “capacity-building” projects and plans initiated, funded, and implemented by African regional or global organizations. For example, the policy reform and leadership development project of the African Capacity Building Foundation (ACBF), the higher education Revitalization Strategy of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA), and the comprehensive higher education development strategy of the African higher education partnership [9]. (3) Internationalization of highly dependent donors Most African countries put the development of higher education on the important agenda when they became independent, but at the same time, they were highly dependent on universities and other foreign donors of former colonizers. For example, when Ghana became independent in 1957, the only higher education institution was the Gold Coast University, which was highly dependent on the University of London [10]. The University of London still awarded degrees until 1961. While African higher education receives assistance from western discourse hegemony and attached conditions, many countries have become highly dependent on receiving assistance. This dependence in higher education, on the one hand, is manifested in the serious dependence on external resources in the monetary sense. On the other hand, it is manifested in the deprivation of the discourse power of higher education. Therefore, African institutions of higher learning are often only weak partners in international exchanges and cooperation, unable to act as equal participants. Playing a leading role creatively is even more difficult. (4) Conflict between internationalization and localization is significant Contradictions are consistent between the internationalization and localization of higher education in Africa in terms of teaching language, curriculum content, and key majors. First, the local consciousness and emotion of college staff are weakened. One of the serious consequences of relying on external international resources is that

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many universities and research institutions in Africa have not seriously considered their adaptability to national and local needs. International resource owners dominate the development direction of African higher education (including specialty and curriculum) and the results of scientific research topics, also alienating Africans from local needs in consciousness and emotion. Second, African native languages and cultures have been severely weakened. English, French, and Portuguese remain the teaching and research languages of universities in most African countries. The teaching language in African universities does not use the native language in the strict sense, although Arabic and Afrikaans are used. The third contradiction is the serious loss of local talents in the process of internationalization. The continuous outflow of high-level talents has become a major obstacle to Africa’s social and economic development. The large-scale and continuous brain drain is devouring the economic, social, health, cultural, and intellectual capital that African countries need to confront poverty and social hidden dangers.

1.3 Main Forms of China–Africa Higher Education Cooperation The cooperation between China and Africa in higher education carries multiple meanings, such as political, economic, and cultural exchanges. Therefore, such cooperation and exchange also present diversified characteristics in form and content.

1.3.1 Exchange Visits of Educational Delegations at the Government Level Since the 1960s, with the independence of African countries, the exchange of educational delegations has been frequent. In particular, after China’s reform and opening up in 1978, the exchange of educational visits between China and Africa has increased dramatically. There are more than 100 educational delegations from African countries to China and Chinese educational delegations to Africa.

1.3.2 Joint Promotion of Overseas Students’ Education The exchange of foreign students is one of the main forms of educational exchange and one of the most effective means to promote exchange. Such exchange is an important way for countries to cultivate talents needed by society and enhance mutual friendship and mutual understanding. Owing to the gap in economic development, the exchange of international students is mainly reflected in African students studying

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in China. The number of African students studying in China has increased from dozens in the early 1960s to more than 60,000 in 2018. The number of Chinese students studying in Africa has increased from 7 in 1955 to more than 270 in 2002. The number of Chinese students studying in Africa has also increased from a few to hundreds.

1.3.3 Mutual Exchange of Teacher Resources With the reform of China’s higher education system and the improvement of the comprehensive strength of China’s colleges and universities, the exchanges between China’s colleges and universities and African countries’ colleges and universities have become increasingly close. The number of teachers sent by the government or colleges and universities to Africa for assistance and exchange is increasing. They mainly go to African countries for activities such as lectures, teaching, and investigation. Moreover, some collaborative research works between China and East African countries have also been done related to yarn manufacturing [11], textile marketing [12], advanced application of cotton [13, 14], composite materials [15], Kenyan wool [16, 17] and Ethiopian leather [18], etc. by our research group. Moreover, we have also explored composites formed from natural fiber and its straw, Abutilon originally from Sudan [19, 20]; the researchers were invited here to perform the research together using the state of art facility in Donghua University, China.

1.3.4 International Cooperation in Scientific Research Projects Scientific research exchange and cooperation are integral parts of the internationalization of higher education. Owing to China’s relatively solid scientific research level and economic strength, the cooperation between China and Africa in higher education and scientific research projects is mainly funded by the Chinese government, which supports inter-university cooperation and exchange between China and African universities. Such support helps African universities carry out scientific research.

1.3.5 Establishment of the Cooperative Culture Research Base To strengthen the profound understanding and cultural integration between China and Africa, many Chinese universities have strengthened the teaching and research of

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African studies. Universities such as Peking University, Nankai University, Xiangtan University, Yunnan University, and Zhejiang Normal University have established African research institutions to specialize in African Studies and cultivate several talents engaged in African studies.

1.4 Main Difficulties and Problems Although China and Africa have made remarkable achievements in higher education cooperation and exchange through their efforts, the exchanges and cooperation between the two sides are also moving toward new goals and directions due to differences in history, culture. and consciousness. The promotion of China and Africa education cooperation and exchange still faces many problems and challenges.

1.4.1 Ideological Differences Have Long Existed Africa is composed of 62 countries and regions. The long-term Western colonial rule has formed a set of thinking and ideological bigotry. Making fundamental changes in the short term is difficult. Except for a few countries, such as Ethiopia and Rwanda, are trying to eliminate ideological constraints and take their development path with independent characteristics to achieve significant economic development, most African countries have not experienced fundamental changes.

1.4.2 Cultural Differences and Cross-Cultural Conflicts China and Africa have noticeable cultural differences, which are reflected in many aspects, such as value orientation, thinking mode, national cultural character, and life attitude. With the deepening of exchanges between the two sides, such cultural differences may turn into contradictions at any time to a certain extent, resulting in cross-cultural conflicts. Conflict resolution requires constant running in and mutual understanding between the two sides, which may take a relatively long time.

1.4.3 Western Media Misleading China–Africa Relations With its powerful discourse system, the mainstream Western media have negatively interpreted China–Africa relations, seriously distorted facts and China’s image in Africa, and even misinterpreted China’s friendly assistance to Africa as an act of

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plundering resources and destroying the environment, thereby damaging China– Africa friendship [21].

1.4.4 China’s Research on African Studies Needs to Be Deepened Although the research on African studies has made some achievements and provided help to understand Africa, China still needs to deepen its research on African studies. It is mainly manifested in the following aspects. Surface phenomena are extensive, and in-depth research on the logic of ideology and cultural formation is lacking. The research tends to focus on countries with stable social development and better economic development. Constructive and operational research suggestions are minimal. Theoretical research and practical exploration on improving the effects of cultural communication from the perspective of African student training is lacking.

1.5 Suggestions on Promoting Educational Exchanges and Cooperation Between China and Africa 1.5.1 Enhancing the Effect of Training Foreign Students Based on the existing scale of international students, stakeholders should enhance the cultivation of students’ comprehensive quality, strengthen the learning and experience of cultural knowledge, enhance mutual cultural trust, pay attention to the cultivation effect of humanistic care and emotional level, and use the education of international students to build a solid bridge of friendship between the two sides.

1.5.2 Enhancing Exchanges and Cooperation Between Chinese and African University Teachers Teachers are the main body to impart culture and knowledge. The cultivation of teachers’ teaching and scientific research ability and the development of teachers’ cultural quality and vision will help to solve the cultural conflicts arising from China–Africa educational exchanges and cooperation and can effectively enhance the cultural identity of both sides.

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1.5.3 Establishing a Discourse System for Cultural Exchanges Between the Two Sides Through the joint construction of China and Africa, stakeholders should create a media system for cultural communication and exchange, spread friendship, establish a system of mutual trust, and form a discourse system that serves the cultural identity of both sides.

1.5.4 Increase Support for Cultural Studies of Both Sides China should strengthen the training of talents in African Studies, constantly improve the talent training model, attract Chinese and African scholars to participate in African Studies research, and subsidize young people with aspirations to go to Africa for volunteer activities and field research. African scholars are also encouraged to study Chinese thought, spread Chinese culture, and promote cultural integration and identity between the two sides.

References 1. Li, A. (2022). African students in China: Research, reality, and reflections. In The changing world and Africa (pp. 459–512). Springer. 2. Cheng, H., Mawdsley, E., & Liu, W. (2022). Reading the forum on China–Africa Cooperation (2000–2021): Geoeconomics, governance, and embedding ‘creative involvement’. Area Development and Policy, 1–24. 3. Bilate, G. T., & Zou, X. (2022). Effectiveness and driving factors of Chinese Cooperation towards East Africa: Case study of China and Kenya (1963–2021). Journal of African Foreign Affairs, 9, 113. 4. Suglo, I. G. (2022). Visualizing Africa in Chinese propaganda posters 1950–1980. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 57, 574–591. 5. Ye, J., & Zhao, D. (2019). Developing different identity trajectories: Lessons from the Chinese teachers. Teachers and Teaching, 25, 34–53. 6. Dumor, K., Li, Y., Yongkai, M., Ampaw, E. M., & Dumor, H. K. (2022). Evaluating the belt and road initiative effects on trade and migration: Evidence from the East African community. African Development Review, 34, 16–28. 7. Adelowokan, O., Adesoye, A., Akpa, E., & Maku, O. (2020). Remittances, foreign aid and private consumption in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA): A system GMM estimation. KIU Journal Of Social Sciences, 5, 67–76. 8. Thurston, A. (2018). Polyvalent, transnational religious authority: The Tijaniyya Sufi Order and Al-Azhar University. Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 86, 789–820. 9. Kwandayi, H. (2021). Re-engineering and modernising civil service training for effective service delivery in Zimbabwe based on a study sponsored by the African Capacity Building Foundation (ACBF). African Renaissance, 18, 253. 10. Asiedu-Acquah, E. (2019). “We shall be outspoken”: Student political activism in postIndependence Ghana, c. 1957–1966. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 54, 169–188.

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11. Memon, H., Ayele, H. S., Yesuf, H. M., & Sun, L. (2022). Investigation of the physical properties of yarn produced from textile waste by optimizing their proportions. Sustainability, 14, 9453. 12. Chen, L., Qie, K., Memon, H., & Yesuf, H. M. (2021). The empirical analysis of green innovation for fashion brands, perceived value and green purchase intention—Mediating and moderating effects. Sustainability, 13, 4238. 13. Lugoloobi, I., Shahriari Khalaji, M., & Memon, H. (2020). Advanced biological applications of modified cotton. In H. Wang & H. Memon (Eds.), Cotton science and processing technology: Gene, ginning, garment and green recycling (pp. 473–500). Springer Singapore. 14. Lugoloobi, I., Memon, H., Akampumuza, O., & Balilonda, A. (2020). Advanced physical applications of modified cotton. In H. Wang & H. Memon (Eds.), Cotton science and processing technology: Gene, ginning, garment and green recycling (pp. 433–472) Springer Singapore. 15. Hassan, E. A., Elagib, T. H., Memon, H., Yu, M., & Zhu, S. (2019). Surface modification of carbon fibers by grafting peek-nh2 for improving interfacial adhesion with polyetheretherketone. Materials, 12, 778. 16. Memon, H., Wang, H., & Langat, E. K. (2018). Determination and characterization of the wool fiber yield of Kenyan sheep breeds: An economically sustainable practical approach for Kenya. Fibers, 6, 55. 17. Wang, H., Memon, S., & Memon, H. (2018). Kenyan wool fiber properties sampled from different sheep body parts. Journal of Donghua University (English Edition), 35(6), 503, 508. 18. Memon, H., Chaklie, E. B., Yesuf, H. M., & Zhu, C. (2021). Study on effect of leather rigidity and thickness on drapability of sheep garment leather. Materials, 14, 4553. 19. Wang, H., Hassan, E. A. M., Memon, H., Elagib, T. H. H., & Abad AllaIdris, F. (2019). Characterization of natural composites fabricated from abutilon-fiber-reinforced poly (lactic acid). Processes, 7, 583. 20. Wang, H., Memon, H., Hassan, E. A. M., Elagib, T. H. H., Hassan, F. E. A. A., & Yu, M. (2019). Rheological and dynamic mechanical properties of abutilon natural straw and polylactic acid biocomposites. International Journal of Polymer Science, 2019, 8732520. https://doi.org/10. 1155/2019/8732520 21. Liu, H., & Luo, J. (2021). Changes in the geopolitics of Africa, and issues pertaining to three-way cooperation among China, Africa and the West (pp. 79–101). Springer.

Xinfeng Yan Dr. Xinfeng Yan received his Master’s degree in Management from Donghua University, China, in 2007. After graduation, he worked at the International Cultural Exchange School of Donghua University. He has long-term working experience in international education and was selected as “Outstanding Manager in Charge of Overseas Student”. He has been actively researching and has gained fruitful results on overseas student management and university internationalization. In 2014, he completed his doctoral degree in Management from Donghua University, China. Later, he was appointed as invited researcher and deputy director of the “Belt and Road Initiative” international cooperation development center of Donghua University. In 2018, he was appointed as the invited researcher of the Institute of International Education of Donghua University. In 2019, he was a Visiting Professor at the Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Macedonia. At present, as an associate professor, Dr. Yan is engaged in the management and research of university internationalization, cultural exchange, and university brand image communication at Donghua University. In 2020, his research was funded by the 13th Five-year Plan of China National Education Science and was also funded by the China

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Association of Higher Education, China Education International Exchange Association etc. He has published three academic monographs and more than 40 papers. He has also held five international academic conferences for overseas students and published five conference proceedings as chief editor. He has taught more than ten courses for Chinese students and international students. He has been awarded the title of “Best Teacher” by overseas students of Donghua University. Lihong Chen Dr. Lihong Chen received his Bachelor of Science degree in Clothing and Textile Science at Textile Institute from Inner Mongolia University of Technology, China, in 2006. In 2009, she received her Master of Science degree from the College of Fashion and Design at Donghua University, China (before China Textile University). She has researched textile safety and international trade market access. In 2013, she received her Doctoral of Philosophy degree from the College of Fashion and Design at Donghua University, China. She has been researching developing biofibers from agricultural products and byproducts for textile and composite applications as a visiting scholar at the Textile Science Institute from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, the United States, from 2010.09 to 2012.09. She has been working on the sustainability of the textile and apparel industry as a postdoc in Management Engineering at the Glorious Sun School of Business and Management Institute from Donghua University, China, for two years. At present, Dr. Lihong Chen is an associate professor at Shanghai International Fashion Innovation Center at Donghua University. She is engaged in the teaching and research of Fashion Brand Marketing and Management. She is a specialist and scholar in Fashion Industry Economics and Management. She is actively involved in the research and development of fashion design and engineering, green consumption behaviors, fashion brand communication, and the sustainable textile and apparel industry. She has published more than 55 papers and three academic works. Hafeezullah Memon Dr. Hafeezullah Memon received his B.E. in Textile Engineering from Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro, Pakistan, in 2012. He served at Sapphire Textile Mills as Assistant Spinning Manager for more than one year while earning his Master’s in Business administration from the University of Sindh, Pakistan. He completed his Master’s in Textile Science and Engineering from Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, China, and a Ph.D. in Textile Engineering from Donghua University in 2016 and 2020. Dr. Memon focuses on fiber-reinforced composites, textiles and management, and biobased materials. Since 2014, Dr. Memon has published more than 60 peer-reviewed technical papers in international journals and conferences, filed more than ten patents, edited more than ten books and special issues, and worked on more than ten industrial projects. Dr. Memon is a Fellow of the Textile Institute, a full professional and an active member of the Society for

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Chapter 2

Textile and Fashion Internationalization-Hidden Potentials of the Federal Republic of Somalia Tabbisa Namulinda

Abstract Textiles and Fashion design in Somalia is a major industry that cannot stand alone without a vibrant agricultural sector and aggressive research. Therefore, incorporating major textile-related training programs at various education levels can be considered a major step toward reestablishing a vibrant industry. This is because gifts/talents and built-in expertise are required at every level, and in this way, creativity from a trained mind is always without limit when compared to the conventional methods of productivity, which are limited in competition. This chapter seeks to open the reader’s eye to the great potential that Somalia once carried and flourished, in which it is believed that much more can be attained with the awareness of a fully-fledged system in every production chain. The discouragement towards exporting unprocessed materials can only be fully implemented when the home industry has trained human resources from the first level of the production chain to the last. Currently, the walk towards restoring peace in the different parts of the country shall surely open more doors for the advancement and development in research, innovations, and creativity in the different industries with the return of the Somalis to invest in their nation with acquired knowledge and skills. Building a strong literature backbone ranging from educational materials to agriculture with the various parties involved will be a step ahead to enhancing research. Keywords Textiles · Fashion design · Traditional hand weaving · Finger weaving · Education

Abbreviations UNESCO COMESA USAID

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa United States Agency for International Development

T. Namulinda (B) College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biology, Department of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai, China e-mail: [email protected] © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2023 X. Yan et al. (eds.), Quality Education and International Partnership for Textile and Fashion, SDGs and Textiles, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-99-1320-6_2

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NGO USD U.S EC UN UNHCR ILO L/INGOs TVET GECPD WGSS BVTC SIITCO TVETB VTC SOSTA PCC SIBA SOSTA MoE

T. Namulinda

Non-Government Organization United States Dollars United States European Commission United Nations United Nations High Commission for refugees International Labor Organization Local and International Non-Governmental Organizations Technical, Vocational Education and Training Galkayo Education Center for Peace and development International medical Corps-Supported Women and Girls Safe Space Burao Vocational Training Center Scientific Institute and Information Technology College Technical and Vocational Education Board Garowe Vocational Training Center Somaliland Skills Training Association Puntland Community College Somali Institute of Business Administration Somaliland Skills Training Association Ministry of Education

2.1 Introduction Somalia is an African nation located at the Eastern edge with the longest coastline on the Indian Ocean (on the East) and the Gulf of Aden (on the North) [1, 2]. History records that this nation was once called an important center for commerce. It is predominantly semi-arid or arid, with pastoralism of sheep, goats, camels and cattle as the export pattern in the agricultural sector to the Middle East across the Gulf of Eden into Yemen and other neighboring places [3, 4]. Although this nation has been frustrated with violence for a long time, causing it to be ranked among the least economic nations, it is in reality rich with resources, fertile land, especially in the Southern region and boarded with the Indian Ocean, which makes it a target for industrialization due to the abundance of unexplored potentials. Currently, the Southern part is faced with a prolonged drought which has greatly affected agriculture and business. Therefore, establishing irrigation schemes and digging dams would be the best options to support the agriculture of textile crops and better the lives of the local citizens [5]. This will also solve the problem that most children are not schooled because they have to relocate with their families to look for pasture and water for themselves and their livestock. According to a report by UNESCO in 2020, a small number of children, estimated 40%, can access quality education and curriculum in their mother language.

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It is a nation currently and steadily undergoing reconstruction and consolidation in every walk of life, which leaves a wider gap to be bridged by the well-wishers, especially in strengthening the education sector. The youths are considered the most vulnerable group in Somalia, and education is a valuable asset to help them unveil their immense gifts and talents within and for the world at large [6, 7]. In July 2018, Somalia was admitted to the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). In July 2022, it was reported that Somalia reaffirmed her interest in joining the East African community, originally established by three member states (Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania) in 1999 (east African.co.ke). These can be considered two major steps to rebooting the crumbling economy of the nation. It is worth noting that international corporations, urban businesses and rural pastoralists are still ongoing amidst the reconsolidation of the nation. Somalia provides financial services through different informal national institutions with money transfers through the Hawala system. This has allowed Somalis to transfer money domestically and internationally [8, 9]. In general, Agriculture, Fishing, mining, Telecommunication, and tourism have been considered as the major bases for the economy of Somalia. An estimated 60% of Somalis are involved in nomadic or seminomadic pastoralism, keeping cattle, sheep, camels and goats; it can be considered that most of these animal products have not been explored for textile advancement [10]. Somalia is largely subdivided into three major regions: Puntland, Somaliland and Central South Somalia. These have been mentioned in certain sections of this chapter.

2.2 The Textile Industry in Somalia 2.2.1 History Before the civil war, Somalia’s Southwestern region was a major entrepot of textiles, spices, aromatic gums and ivory. Cotton was majorly grown in Jubaland plain with a number of cotton plants. An estimated 350,000 fabrics were produced annually from these plants and depended on traditional weaving, where many Somalis were traditional weavers. This was known as an inheritable business from generation to generation, similar to many other nations, including Bhutan [11]. However, after the war, most hand weavers could not survive what was termed a cultural transition in the nation.

2.2.2 Traditional Somali Finger Weaving Finger weaving involves using no loom but only fingers. This weaving technique is common among Somali nomads for making mats commonly used in their homes for

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decoration, sitting on and covering, among others. It is a hands-on and authentic weaving that can be done anywhere, and to the Somali older women, it is a preservation of their heritage [12]. Kabads These are known traditionally Somali hand-woven mats used to decorate and insulate homes. They are also used as sleeping and praying mats. Originally, these mats were made from rice straws, old cloth strips and beads by twisting 5 or 6 strands and then weaving them into sections of 6-inches. This is followed by dyeing the mats by submerging them in a dye and rinsing them before being left to dry. On the other hand, the straws can be pre-dyed before weaving to attain different patterns. These mats are made in different sizes by length and width [13].

2.2.3 Traditional Hand Weaving Weaving has remained a well-known source of income for many households throughout the world [14]. Somali weaving is dated back to the late 1950s when the weaving of blues, reds, purples, reds and yellows was made into futas and guntinos. Woven fabrics from these colored yarns were used for making traditional marriage clothes. Some were used for funerals, war dancing, and furniture. The story says weavers started inventing several unique patterns, such as “teeth” and goats in the sand dunes”. Today, these are used as standards for major ceremonies and religious festivals among Muslims. A time came when the local Somalis could not buy handwoven clothing but resorted to secondhand imported textile materials from Europe, the USA and China. This same threat known and faced by the local textile market in East Africa and Africa has taken over the Somalis market with the influx of cheap secondhand clothes. A report made by USAID showed that the secondhand clothing industry employs more than 350,000 people in East Africa. Unfortunately, most locals choose to purchase the used secondhand clothes over their locally made ones because the former is cheaper, although the quality of Alindi is better since they are hand woven. This left a few weavers still standing in the business, hoping that quality and creativity would beat the used clothes, although most of them gave up the business and opted for something else for a living. The other reason why the young generation chose secondhand products was due to social-cultural change in fashion. Generally, traditional hand looms are used to weave brightly colored handmade fabrics sawn into different clothing items for both men and women [15]. This employs a certain small number of weavers for production purposes. These target tourists and NGO workers for their market since such seem to attach more value to locally produced clothing items. Some producers with the ability are largely targeting the international market. Most of the owners of these cottages have inherited them from their parents without any tangible professional training since the time of the memorial; it was a generational family business in some households.

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Alindi/Futa Benaadir This dates back beyond the 1330s when “The Weaver’s song” was written about the thriving textile industry of Somalia by then. Somalia’s traditional clothes are brightly woven, hand woven of different kinds for both women and men, which were specifically known to be common in the Hamarweyne open market as of 2011 in Mogadishu, the home of local textiles. The hand-woven fabrics are produced in many yards and then sold to designers and tailors to make dresses, shirts, hats and men’s sarongs, among other items. This industry used to employ many Somalis and was considered a source of income for many households. The hand-woven clothes are generally worn on special occasions among the civilized and diaspora groups, but the elderly and those residing in rural areas used them often, if not daily. It was considered prestigious Somalia’s textile until it faced thick competition with the imported Tanzanian Kitenge and similar materials from elsewhere. It has endured for more than 20 centuries and is a symbol of their heritage to some Somalis. The New Trend of Alindi The once-known piece of fabric has taken another route with the introduction of more modernization in the locally designed handmade Alindi, which targets the high-end market. The embrace of new design styles has become a hit in almost the whole of Africa. Such clothes in Somalia include hijab head scarves and abaya gowns made in various bright and dull colors with both loose-fitting and tight-fitting styles. The decorations can be done by embroidery finishing. Currently, the major market for such clothes is among those in the diaspora compared to the local market filled with imported secondhand clothes [16, 17] (Fig. 2.1).

2.2.4 Somali Traditional Women’s Clothing (1)

(2)

Guntiino: This is a traditional long stretch cloth for women that drapes around the waist and is tied over the shoulder. It is normally made from a plain white or red cotton fabric with decorated borders. Wearing a Guntiino is tying it over one shoulder on one arm and wrapping it around the whole body. In some cases, guntiino has been substituted by alindi which can be worn in various styles and fabrics among some women [18]. Dirac: This is a brightly colored and patterned light and long garment worn by women on special occasions like religious celebrations and weddings. These dresses can be made from cotton, chiffon, silk or velvet and rarely polyester and are normally worn over full and half sleeves and under skirts made from silk. Dirac is sparkling with gilded threads or borders. Recently, some women wrapped a Dirac in a Guntiino in what is known as the dirac-guntiino style. However, the bridal Dirac differs from the normal daily use one because of the difference in details and design.

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Fig. 2.1 Somalia’s Alindi in different shades and patterns (photo taken by Faiza Omar osoble)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6) (7)

(8)

Gorgorad/Googarad: This is an underskirt/dress made of silk with a length to the ankle and is normally worn to complete the fullness of a Dirac. Some define it as a petticoat worn inside a Dirac [19]. Shash: This is majorly worn by married women to cover their heads and the upper body together with garbassaar (shawl). Some originally say that a shash was worn by women to represent their elevated status in their communities as adult married women. However, in today’s world, a Shash can be worn by all women regardless of their marital status. Jilbaab: This garment is common for young unmarried women. It does not include a Shawl [18]. It covers the body except for the head and hands. The jilbab is generally worn with a niqab to cover women’s faces. Hejab/Hijab: This generally refers to a head covering worn by women up to the neck [19]. It is considered an act of modesty by Muslim women. Burqa: This garment is worn by women from head to toe with only eyes left out in some instances, and in other instances, veils are worn. Some say that it was introduced in Somalia by Al-Shabaab as part of the incept of the Sharia law. Baati/Dirac shiid: This is an everyday loose women’s dress made of cotton. It is normally made with different patterns and colors and worn together with a matching scarf. Some call it the liberating modest fashion for both married women and girls. Recently, a Baati can be made from comfortable polyester and normally used as a house dress by most women in Somalia and East Africa.

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Fig. 2.2 A colorful hand-woven basket (left); Maryan Abdi Mohammed making face masks in response to the COVID-19 Pandemic (Right) (copied with permission from International Medical Corps) [20]

(9)

Accessories: These dresses are complimented with jewelry made from silver and gold. Most Somali women like wearing bangles with gold necklaces and anklets as part of these full dressing cord. (10) Somali Traditional Art-facts: Some Somalis consider as part of their custom to possess decorated baskets (Fig. 2.2, left) and pots with women using henna as a very important part on the hands, feet, necks and arms of women during weddings and religious celebrations and for some applying such as part of day to day living.

2.2.5 Somali Traditional Men’s Clothing (1) Macawis/ma’awiis: This is a men’s traditional garment that is worn and tied around the waist with a large cloth wrapped around the body part (Fig. 2.3). This is normally followed by wrapping a colorful turban or wearing a koofiyad which is normally embroidered in beautiful colors, or banadiri kula. Macawis is also considered as the combination of a sarong-like piece and a white robe (thawb) [21]. (2) Khamis: This is a men’s hot climate whether wear a long and loose shirt. It is generally worn while attending prayers in the mosque. Challenges by traditional hand weavers – Low production, since hand-weaving takes more time to produce one whole fabric – Lack of appreciation of traditional garments and the labors incurred – Low income due to competition from imported products.

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Fig. 2.3 Somalia’s dharka Hidaha iyo dhaqanka-a modern men’s Macawis (Photo by Abdinasir Liban Mohamed)

2.2.6 Tie and Dye These are largely based on natural dyes extracted from roots like turmeric to dye woven textiles from leather, rice straws and cotton. However, of course, some are using synthetic dyes like vat dyes. This technique has a long history before the civil war when locally grown vegetable dyes like saffron and dyed yarns which were imported from India and Pakistan, were used. In 2020, a Boresha project demonstrated Mohamed Hassan’s work using a bucket method to produce intricately designed tie-and-dye fabrics in Dollow Somalia, which is offered through Vocational Education Training [22].

2.2.7 Transformation of Fashion Design Somalia Compared to the older Somali generation, the younger ones have embraced designer clothes, leaving more room for covering a wider market that seems readily available [23]. Designers like Hawa Adan Hassan, Muna Mohamed Adbulahi, Addishakur Abdirahman Adam, and Bakhardo Axado, among others, brought a new face to the traditional Somali fabric and market.

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Inspiration Having understood that some of the local people have a negative impression of locally made clothes, these designs aim to encourage the local person to take pride in the locally made Somali products. This is demonstrated by adding beauty and value to what once looked common and ordinary. Challenges These designers started as self-trained and self-made, which brings about limited exposure to how much they can explore in the industry. Narrow local market coverage due to competition from imported products. Lack of support and criticism from individuals who down look at this pursuit, especially for the males who are told that fashion design is a women’s job [24].

2.3 Bridging the Gap Between Textiles and Agriculture In this section, having known the once proven Somalia’s potential to produce cotton, leather and banana, we look at the possibility of merging agriculture and textile having the understanding that these three items serve in the textile industry as raw materials and estimating the gains this can bring about for not only Somalia but also the international community. It can be admitted that many hindrances still appear to be overcome, but we know that where “there is a will, there is a way”.

2.3.1 Banana Production The growing of bananas was first introduced in the Southern part of Somalia by Italian colonists in the fertile Shebelle and Juba River basins in the 1920s. According to a report made by a former world Bank agricultural expert, Mohamood Adbi Noor, the first banana trade peak was registered in the 1980s with a record worth of USD 96 million in 1990. During this time, Somalia was among the leading banana producers. This never continued because of the war with broken supply chains, damaged transportation and destroyed irrigation schemes. However, in 2012, some farmers started to rebuild the venture for a comeback of banana growing, reestablishing connections with the national and international market, and rebuilding the irrigation schemes with the help of the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization [25, 26]. In 2015, a report by Sheldon Mayer showed that nations like Turkey provided banana seedling varieties that are resistant to viruses and drought. More precisely, exports were recorded in 2014 to the Middle East markets [27, 28].

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Banana Fibers in Somalia; The Untapped Potential Area for Sustainable Clothing As banana growing is being revived in the fruiting area, we can incorporate a very resourceful textile area of banana fiber production. In a world that looks at the restoration of eco-friendliness in manufacturing and research, banana fibers are considered the future of sustainable clothing [29]. It is to the end that a chain is created not only in the food industry but also in the textile industry that goes the whole way of the plant, from exploring leaves, fruits, peels and stems [30]. Banana fibers are agricultural wastes attained from the pseudo banana stems after harvesting the fruits through different extraction processes such as mechanical, chemical, and biological using enzymes [31]. These fibers are natural bast fibers, mainly cellulosic in nature (60%), with hemicellulose and lignin. They are biodegradable in nature, renewable, strong, eco-friendly, and used in the furniture industry, interior decoration, and clothing, among others. Banana fibers have been considered a potential substitute for cotton fibers. In Nepal and Japan, much use of these fibers has been explored with the increasing demand. In Japan, banana fibers are used to make traditional dresses such as kamishimo and kimono. Other items include tablecloths, bags, bed covers, carpets, curtains, sofa covers, appliance covers, hats, scarves, gloves, and technical textiles [32–35]. These can be from plain banana fibers, dyed fibers, processed and blended with other natural fibers. Depending on the target products, these may range from daily basic and available equipment to sophisticated modern equipment. Composite materials are also well-known textile materials, owing to their unique properties [36–38]. Different research groups have conducted several studies to display the richness of banana fibers in various parts of life, which is proved by the number of search results from different search sites. 370 results were provided by typing in Banana Fibers in PubMed. In the composite industry, among others, Ezeh M. Ernest et al. showed the ability of modified banana fibers for enhanced composite production [39–42]. Embracing the mind of sustainable development goals (SDGs 2030) today’s fashion industry is highly demanded to pruduce sustainable clothing [43]. Therefore, this is an area to be given much attention in an agricultural country like Somalia with a growing trend of banana production to expand the economy and research sectors (Fig. 2.4).

2.3.2 Cotton Cultivation in Somalia Cotton is known as the forgotten civilization crop in Somalia although it was a major cash crop in the country’s national economy. It was the main raw material feeding traditional hand spinning and weaving to produce Alindi/Benadiiri locally before the worldwide industrial revolution. The main cotton production areas were along the coast in Mogadishu, Barave and Merca [44]. According to a report by Knoema® 2020, the production of seed cotton from 1971 to 2020 had increased from 4,580 to 7,163 tones with an average annual rate of 4.13% at an average area coverage of 17,901 Ha and with a yield of 4,001 Hg/Ha in 2020. A report from the Ministry of

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Fig. 2.4 The a Banana Pseudo stems b Extracted Untreated banana fibers [39] (Copied with Permission from Cleaner Materials 5 (2022) 100,131)

Foreign Agriculture Service, US Department of Agriculture, planting is normally done in April and September, with harvest between August to October and February, respectively [45]. However, there are no clearer details of current cotton production in Somalia. One can definitely, consider that the restoration of this venture should be given much attention even as other cash crops are being revived in the country. Other potential areas to be specially built and advanced in the textile industry in Somalia include. The leather industry, due to the great engagement of cattle keeping and export through value chain addition and development to help the local cattle keepers earn more with continuous supply to feed the industry. Fiber processing of rayon fibers from bagasse due to the potential of growing sugarcane, especially in the Southern part of the nation. Rayon fibers include viscose, modal and lyocell. (1) The Once known Somalia Agriculture-textile related exports ● ● ● ●

Leather Animal hides Cotton Bananas

(2) Major Agriculture-textile related Importers to Somalia ● ● ● ●

United Arab Emirates India China Turkey

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● Kenya (3) Major Textile Imports ● ● ● ● ●

Coated textile fabric Cotton sewing threads Rubber Textile Fabric Textile wall coverings Synthetic filament yarns.

2.4 Textile Related Educational Institutions in Somalia Education in Somalia is generally conducted in three languages, Somali, Arabic and English. Schooling starts from pre-primary to primary school with major subjects such as Islam, Mathematics, Natural Sciences, Social Sciences, and Languages. This is followed by Secondary school education with course subjects including Physics, Mathematics, Chemistry, Biology, History and Geography [46, 47]. Then, the next step is either joining Higher Education Institutions or vocational training centers.

2.4.1 Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Somalia TVET can be defined as the acquisition of skills, knowledge and attitude connected with the occupation of different social life, sectoral and economic attributes. Before the 1991 civil war, history records that functional technical and vocational institutions in Mogadishu, Kismayu, Hargeisa and Burao were involved in technical courses and traditional trade at craft and artisan levels. Special skills were acquired by the youths, which enabled them to be either self-employable or be employed. These were initially introduced in 1993–1997 by UNESCO’s Program of Education for Emergence and Reconstruction (PEER) and UNICEF after the war destroyed almost 90% of the educational premises [48]. It has been reported that there is no standardized syllabi or curriculum for TVET programs nor a systematic design for TVET assessment, examination and certification [49]. The revival of Technical and Vocational Education has taken courses at the grassroots level. However, there are still many gaps in teaching materials such as textbooks, curricula/syllabi, human resource training, assessment schemes and standardized certification. TVET programs target primary and secondary school dropouts, returnees, demobilized soldiers, disabled individuals, and refugees [50].

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2.4.2 Partners in Implementing TVET Programs European Commission (EC) is known to be one of the leading international community funding and implementing a number of Somalia TVET activities since 2004. Such include projects in different parts of Somalia as the Vocational Education and Training for Accelerated Promotion of Employment (VETAPE) project, Promotion of employment Through Training I & II (PETT I & II) and Skills Training for Employment Opportunities (STEO). These projects have been implemented in partnership with Diakonia and Save the Children, Denmark, since 2009. Recently, a report indicated the partnership between EC and UNESCO-PEER, which is a major provider of TVET services.

2.4.3 Other Funding Organizations Include i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix.

United Nations (UN) International Labor Organization (ILO) United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) Local and International Non-Governmental Organizations (L/INGOs) Non-State Actors (NSA) Civil Society Organizations (CSO) United Nations Development Program (UNDP) World Bank Italian cooperation.

2.4.4 Somalia Education Support Bodies of TVET Programs These were established to support the coordination between Somali government authorities and the international community. They include: i. ii. iii. iv. v.

Ministry of Education (MoE) Somali Support Secretariat (SSS) NFE department Technical and Vocational Education Board (TVETB) The Parent Teacher Association.

2.4.5 TVET Textiles Courses/Activities Generally, TVET programs are designed for skills development, especially among the youths. Textile-related skills considered in high demand include (Table 2.1):

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Table 2.1 Centers for TVET programs Name

Location

Puntland Community College (PCC)

Puntland

Garowe Vocational Training Center (VTC) School of Professions Studies and Services (SPSS) Galkayo Vocational Training Center Somali Institute of Business Administration (SIBA) Havoyoko Vocational and Technical Training Center

Somaliland

Hargeisa Vocational and Training School Hargeisa Technical Institute Scientific Institute and Information Technology College (SIITCO) Burao Vocational Training Center (BVTC) Somaliland Skills Training Association (SOSTA) Kanava Youth Center

Hiran

Kulmiye Youth Organization ISRAC Women Origination Mogadishu Vocational Training Centers

i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii.

Mogadishu

Tailoring/dressmaking Shoemaking Printing Embroidery Tie and dye Carpentry Batik.

2.4.6 Other Informal Skills Training Initiatives (1) Galkayo Education Center for Peace and Development (GECPD) This Education center is located in Galkayo district. It is an initiative supported by UNHCR, Oxfam Novib, and Diakonia, among others. It provides formal education to around 1,250 girls. The girls are taught basic literacy, numeracy and life skills such as sewing. The educator, designer and activist Aden Muhamed have been a key player in empowering girls in this initiative in a society that has been known to been traditionally patriarchal and not many women were allowed to school. Sewing workshops have been established to make underwear and pads for “dignity kits” for displaced women [51].

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(2) International medical Corps-Supported Women and Girls Safe Space (WGSS) This group in Kaafi IDP camp has trained more than 700 women and girls hand weaving skills for a living. Some of the beneficiaries, like Maryan Abdi Mohamed, were among the people who made face masks after the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak (Fig. 2.2, right). Other woven products include baskets, mats, and hats, among other crafts [52].

2.4.7 Challenges Hindering the Advancement of Technical Training and Skills Development i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii.

Poverty, especially to afford proper training Insecurity has hindered many private investors Low expectations by the local person Market imperfections Lack of skilled and qualified personnel to effectively train the interested trainees Inadequate infrastructure and systems to establish the training activities Many implementing partners (IPs) are carrying out training activities using informal methods, which has left a gap in the embrace of formal training activities. viii. Lack of standardized curriculum, proper management structures and personnel motivation ix. Undedicated available personnel x. Inadequate teaching and learning materials and equipment [53–55].

2.4.8 Strategies by the Government to Support TVET Programs i. ii. iii. iv. v.

Expanding access to TVET programs by both men and women Renovation and upgrading of the existing TVET training institutes Providing support to the private sector Increase students’ enrollment for both primary and secondary school graduates Encouraging the introduction of attractive incentives to TVET graduates by employers vi. Providing bursaries and sponsorships to economically disadvantaged TVET trainees vii. Providing guidance and counseling to TVET trainees at TVET institutions viii. Translation of modern teaching materials into the Arabic language ix. Encouraging the teaching of English as a second language for the students to access more materials on an international scale.

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2.4.9 Non-Formal Education (NFE) This is considered the last tier in Somalia’s Education system, which includes learning opportunities to provide education to out-of-school children, youths and adults regardless of their educational level. Such include vocational skills training, adult education, community health education and extension of agricultural activities. They are largely intended to equip the different categories of individuals with life skills to be able to survive in life.

2.5 University Education The post-conflict Somalia have over one hundred universities operating throughout the country. These have undergone huge transformations to adapt to the dynamics of the current state. Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are on the rise based on the attention given both by the national system and the international community [46, 56]. Established universities include; Amoud University in Borama zone, Mogadishu university, Hargeisa University and East African University in Bosaaso, Islamic University, Benadir University, Xamar University, Indian Ocean University and Somali Institute of Management and Administration (SIMAD), among others [49].

2.5.1 University Textile Education in Somalia Textile education is one of the important disciplines in many countries like Bangladesh [57], India [58] and Pakistan [59]. To the best of our knowledge, there is no searchable and known information about any public or private university offering textile-related programs as per September 2022 Search Results. Textile Education has not been embraced in any recognized University Education in Somalia as per our search. This shows how viable this nation is as stability and reconsolidation are happening every day, leaving one to wonder how big such a gap is. It is a viable opportunity to explore the future of embarking on curriculum design, development and implementation of the same at different education levels. Therefore, the major ways around East Africa by which advancement of the Textile and Fashion design industry through Higher Education is being achieved, especially in university education, include the introduction of such study programs but not limited to these (Table 2.2).

2 Textile and Fashion Internationalization-Hidden Potentials … Table 2.2 Proposed textile-related study programs at university level

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Study program

Duration (years)

Study level

Textile Engineering and Management

4

Bachelor’s degree

Textile and Clothing Design

2

Diploma

Pattern Making and Garment Design

2

Diploma

Textile Manufacturing and Processing

4

Bachelor’s degree

Fashion and Apparel Design

4/2

Bachelor’s degree/Diploma

Materials and Textile Technology

4

Bachelor’s degree

Textile Chemistry and Finishing

4/2

Bachelor’s degree/Diploma

Fiber Science and Engineering

4/2

Bachelor’s degree/Diploma

Apparel and Production Engineering

2

Diploma

Fashion Design and Technology

3

Bachelor’s degree

Textile Marketing and Management

2

Diploma

Apparel and Production Engineering

2

Diploma

Natural and Synthetic Fiber Engineering

3

Bachelor’s degree

2.6 Conclusion Somalia has a large gap between the Educational Sector, the Agricultural sector and the Textile and Fashion industries. Not much information is available in an organized manner to guide research or investment in many of these sectors. The revival of modern irrigation schemes to revitalize the agricultural sector will be a big plus in encouraging men citizens back into agriculture. With all these, the vast number of opportunities to build and establish a vibrant modern textile industry is based on the ability to establish Education programs at the different levels of learning locally to enable the young generation especially to make a difference with less foreign aid into the textile and fashion industry. In particular, the Ministry of Education should consider introducing Textile and Fashion design-related programs at university education to nurture the young generation for the future. Regardless of the thick competition that the locally produced

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textiles are facing, with improved quality and advanced technology in production, awareness can be spread among the local people to embrace their own motherland products. This, therefore, comes as a call for the revival and the marriage between these industries for the betterment of the economy of Somalia, and with the mind, the future shall not remain a mystery. Acknowledgements Special thanks to Mohamud, Abdinasir Liban Mohamed and Faiza Omar Osoble for their willingness and sacrifice to provide photos and names of and about Somalia’s Clothing and traditional wear.

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15. Smriti, S. A., Farha, F. I., Siddiqa, F., Jawad Ibn Amin, M., & Farzana, N. (2020). Cotton in weaving technology. In H. Wang, H. Memon, (Eds.), Cotton Science and Processing Technology: Gene, Ginning, Garment and Green Recycling (pp. 191–246). Springer Singapore: Singapore. 16. Warsameh, A. (2011). Traditional hand-woven textiles gain popularity in Somalia. 17. Salaad, A. (2021). Undocumented textiles: Material expressions of Indian Ocean identities in literature. Textile, 19, 415–432. https://doi.org/10.1080/14759756.2021.1932075 18. IC, A. (2020). Somali culture, tribe, people, language, religion and tradition. 19. Akou, H. (2010). Somalia. pp. 413–420. 20. Fadwo Hassan Jim’ale, G. (2021). Weaving groups build community and economic empowerment among women in Somalia. 21. Nag, O. S. (2019). The culture of Somalia. 22. Shale, K. (2020). From despair to Hope-Habiba’s story. 23. Mukami, M. (2019). Young fashion designer shines in Somalia. 24. Wafula, C., & Mulongo, G. (2020). Are children in South and Central Somalia accessing education, and are they learning? Baseline information. Social Sciences & Humanities Open, 2, 100011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssaho.2019.100011 25. Kushkush, I. I. (2014). After banana years in Somalia, signs of growth in bananas. 26. Abdullahi, A. S., & Wekesa, M. (2018). Determinants of Banana farming growth in Somalia (case study: Afgoye and Janale Districts of Lower Sabelle Region). The Strategic Journal of Business & Change Manamegement, 5, 1028–1043. 27. Mayer, S. (2015). Somalia resumes banana production, hopes to grow exports. 28. Kullane, M. A. (2022). The economic impacts of Banana Export’s decline in MArka District of Somalia. Journal of Business and Econmic Development, 7, 18–24. https://doi.org/10.11648/ j.jbed.20220701.13 29. Yusuf, A. (2021). Banana fibers-the future of sustainable clothing. 30. Khumsingha, U. (2014). Green textiles of traditional banana leaft folding techniques. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 533, 481–484. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM. 533.481 31. Kaur, A., Varghese, L. M., Battan, B., Patra, A. K., Mandhan, R. P., & Mahajan, R. (2020). Bio-degumming of banana fibers using eco-friendly crude xylano-pectinolytic enzymes. Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology, 50, 521–528. 32. Dyeing properties of banana fibre dyed with different dyes. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology. (2019). 33. Chattopadhyay, S. N., Pan, N. C., Roy, A. N., & Samanta, K. K. (2020). Pretreatment of jute and banana fibre—its effect on blended yarn and fabric. Journal of Nature Fibers, 17, 75–83. https://doi.org/10.1080/15440478.2018.1469450 34. Chattopadhyay, S. N., Pan, N. C., Roy, A. N., & Samanta, K. K. (2020). Pretreatment of jute and banana fibre—its effect on blended yarn and fabric. Journal of Natural Fibers, 17, 75–83. 35. Affo, G. (2015). Extraction & production of Agro–Sack from Banana (Musa Sapientum) & plantain (Musa Paradisiaca l) fibres for packaging agricultural produce. 36. Hu, Q., Zhang, Y., Mao, Y., Memon, H., Qiu, Y., Wei, Y., & Liu, W. (2019). A Comparative study on interlaminar properties of l-shaped two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) woven composites. Applied Composite Materials, 26, 723–744. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10 443-018-9745-6 37. Wang, H., Memon, H., Hassan, E. A. M., Elagib, T. H. H., Hassan, F. E. A. A., & Yu, M. (2019). Rheological and dynamic mechanical properties of abutilon natural straw and polylactic acid biocomposites. International Journal of Polymer Science, 2019, 8732520. https://doi.org/10. 1155/2019/8732520 38. Bowman, S., Jiang, Q., Memon, H., Qiu, Y., Liu, W., & Wei, Y. (2018). Effects of styreneacrylic sizing on the mechanical properties of carbon fiber thermoplastic towpregs and their composites. Molecules, 23, 547. 39. Ernest, E., & Peter, A. (2022). Application of selected chemical modification agents on banana fibre for enhanced composite production. Cleaner Materials, 5, 100131. https://doi.org/10. 1016/j.clema.2022.100131

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40. Logendran, D., Gurusami, K., Anand Chakaravarthi, M. C., Puthilibai, G., Suresh, M., & Sudhakar, M. (2020). Experimental research on glass fibres/caustic soda treated banana fibers hybrid composite. Materials Today: Proceedings. 41. Sundararaju Perinbakannan, A., Karuppusamy, M., & Ramar, K. (2021). Mechanical and water transport characterization of Indian Almond—banana fibers reinforced hybrid composites for structural applications. Journal of Nature Fibers. 42. Polymeric Composites Reinforced with Banana Fibers (2020). 43. Memon, H., Jin, X., Tian, W., & Zhu, C. (2022). Sustainable textile marketing—editorial. Sustainability, 14, 11860. 44. Abdulle, M. (2021). The forgotten civilization crop in Somalia. 2, 10. 45. Dadgar, M. (2020). The harvesting and ginning of cotton. In H. Wang, & H. Memon (Eds.), Cotton science and processing technology: Gene, ginning, garment and green recycling (pp. 61– 78). Springer Singapore: Singapore. 46. Cassanelli, L. V., & Abdikadir, F. S. (2007). Somalia: Education in transition. Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies, 7, 7. 47. Faqih, A. (2021). A study analysis on challenges and opportunities for Somali education system (2016–2021). 6, 32. 48. Williams, J. H., & Cummings, W. C. (2015). Education from the bottom up: UNICEF’s education programme in Somalia. International Peacekeeping, 22, 419–434. 49. Kokomo, K. (2017). Teaching goes on: Assessment models and the case of an internally displaced higher education institution in the Somali. 50. Farah, A. A., & Farah, D. A. (2022). Challenges and opportunities for the technical and vocational education and training (TVET) in Somalia: A case for Puntland. International Journal of Vocational and Technical Education. 51. Chonghaile, C. N. (2012). Prize for Somali woman whose life work has focused on empowering women. 52. Jim’ale, F. H. (2021). Weaving groups build community and economic empowerment among women in Somalia. 53. Wahba, M. M. M. (2011). Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) challenges and priorities in developing countries 54. Gyimah, N. (2020). Assessment of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) on the development of the World’s Economy: Perspective of Africa, Asia and Europe. 55. Farah, A. A. (2022). Evaluating the association between various indicators of school quality and educational outcomes in Somalia with special reference to puntland state. African Journal of Education and Practice. 56. Farah, A. A. (2021). Governance of Somali tertiary education systems: A case study in complexity. Cultural and Pedagogical Inquiry. 57. Uddin, M. F. (2022). Brief analysis on the past, present, and future of textile education in Bangladesh. In X. Yan, L. Chen, & H. Memon (Eds.) Textile and fashion education internationalization: A promising discipline from South Asia (pp. 35–57). Springer Nature Singapore: Singapore. 58. Dutta, S., & Bansal, P. (2022). Textile academics in India—an overview. In X. Yan, L. Chen, & H. Memon (Eds.) Textile and fashion education internationalization: A promising discipline from South Asia (pp. 13–34). Springer Nature Singapore: Singapore. 59. Ali Hayat, G., Hussain, M., Qamar Khan, M., & Javed, Z. (2022). Textile education in Pakistan. In X. Yan, L. Chen, & H. Memon (Eds.) Textile and fashion education internationalization: A promising discipline from South Asia (pp. 59–82). Springer Nature Singapore: Singapore.

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Tabbisa Namulinda The author is currently a researcher in Medicinal/Organic Chemistry/Green Synthesis for antimicrobial and anticancer therapy. She holds a master’s degree in Textile Science and Engineering (2018) and a Bachelor of Science in Textile and Clothing Technology (2012) with a teaching experience in textile-related subjects for more than one year (2014-2015). The author has a keen eye for Textile Advancement in East Africa and Africa as a whole while upholding the AU Agenda 2063 of “The Africa We Want”. In writing this Book Chapter, the writer consulted with different journals, international organizational reports, books, blogs and nationals of Somalia regarding the relevance to Education in Textiles, Fashion Design and the untapped internationalization potential for the benefit of readers from different walks of life and in particular Education and Manufacture.

Chapter 3

Transformation of Higher Education in Kenya in the Context of Collaboration with China on Textile and Fashion Christopher Oduor Okech

Abstract A lot has been written on higher education but its diffusion into specific sector such as textile and fashion are scanty. The objective of the chapter was to have a theoretical reflection on the impact of higher education on textile and fashion in contributing knowledge and trigger further discourse among academia, professionals and policy makers. Even though textile and fashion sector in Kenya is as old as country called Kenya it has moved back and forth as the years goes by and currently still at nursing stage which requires government intervention to provide sustainable trade incentives, lower taxes and energy costs to manufacturers and other players in the textile value chain. In addition, prioritize provision of adequate research funds and institutional capacity building for universities that offer textile, apparel and fashion programs. Keywords Textile · Fashion · Higher education · Capacity building

3.1 Introduction Our focus in the study on the transformation of higher education and how it impacts the textile and fashion sector in Kenya is derived from the importance placed on higher education, textile, and fashion the world over as the engine of the global economy. We bring the three, higher education, textile, and fashion, into perspective that a lot has been written on higher education in Kenya, its history, roles in development, challenges, and opinions for better tidings [1]. However, having an eye-view of its diffusion into specific sectors such as textile and fashion is scanty. Our objectives in this endeavor were to have a theoretical reflection on the impact of higher education on textile and fashion to contribute knowledge and trigger discourse among academia, professionals, policymakers, and other stakeholders. We also took cognizance of Kenya’s major economic shift or diversification from Western economies to China on infrastructural development. The mentioned economic shift gave us the impetus C. O. Okech (B) Moi University, Nairobi, Kenya e-mail: [email protected] © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2023 X. Yan et al. (eds.), Quality Education and International Partnership for Textile and Fashion, SDGs and Textiles, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-99-1320-6_3

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to devolve into deliberate reflection on collaborations between Universities in China and Kenya in the fields of textile and fashion. Textile and fashion, even though they are closely related, there are still significant differences, and we shall treat them as so when we venture into their specific needs, growth, opportunities, and challenges.

3.2 Overview of Higher Education on Global Perspectives Knowledge-Economy is a race shaped by competition and co-opetition. Competition among institutions to come out as the best among the best in attracting those in need of education and training is displayed through universities’ regional and global ranking models [1, 2]. Co-petition, on the other hand, is a diplomatic strategy of sharing resources and expertise with competitors under collaboration arrangements to achieve goals that would not have been possible to tackle by an institution on its own [3]. The above in “toto” make institutions within the purview of higher education conscious that they operate in a fluid environment and must constantly transform to remain relevant and, more specifically, relevant to the sectors they serve. Higher Education is an epitome of a knowledge-based dynamic sector that has continued to elicit debate on how countries mold it to fit into their local needs while at the same time attempting to maintain a universal outlook. Universities, research, and other training institutions are tied together despite their scope differences [4]. As much as there is no serious contention on the definition now, there may still be a debate on it in the future because of differences in mission, goals, and scope. There has been contention on where higher education started in the world. Some argue that it started in medieval Europe, while others argue that other regions in Asia and Africa also had some touch on higher education [5]. What stands out is that Europe has a long history of high quality in higher education, looking at the number of highranked universities in the world, most of which are situated in Europe. However, human beings, whether African, European, or Asian, a discovering apparatus: “Discovered that yesterday”, “Discovered this today.” “And will discover - we do not know what tomorrow”. “Failed attempts to solve a problem is also a discovery of what cannot work”. That is what higher education stands for.

Even though every nation has passed through different paths in achieving progress in higher education, the destination looks common; to have a framework that provides training, research, and development for the good of humanity.

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3.3 Historical Background of Higher Education in Kenya In Kenya, higher education is traced to the colonial period in the 1950s. It has since transformed over the years in terms of programs, quality controls, and student enrollment, the most significant years being between 2010 and 2016, when the number of Public Universities recorded the highest leap from 7 to 38 Public Universities [6]. Besides expanding higher education in providing more access to students, there have been collaborations between Kenyan institutions and those in western countries whose educational model Kenya’s model was based on from independence [1], even though some changes have taken place. The recent shift of major economic blocks from western countries to an “open door policy” with China through the Belt and Road Initiative has created more opportunities for cooperation between China and Kenya [7]. This has resulted in more visible engagement in the higher education capacity building between China and Kenya. The notable ones are Donghua University and Moi University on textile training and research and the establishment of Confucius institutes in the four major Kenyan Universities. There are collaborations between Chinese and Kenyan Universities in areas other than Textile but are omitted because they fall outside the scope of our study. Like others in Kenya, the Confucius Institute at Moi University offers training predominantly in Chinese language and culture but differs from the rest in integrating culture and textile and fashion studies. This is seen through the collaboration with Donghua University, based in Shanghai, China, whose niche is textile engineering, and Rivatex Textile Manufacturing facility owned by Moi University [8]. Such knitted collaboration arrangements of four entities, Confucius Institute (1), Moi University (2), Donghua University (3), and Rivatex textile manufacturer (4), provide a profound platform for capacity building in textile and fashion studies. Our focus was to reflect on how higher education has impacted the textile and fashion sector, specifically public universities. We reviewed the following in the study; The status of the textile and fashion sector in Kenya in terms of government contributions, Private and non-government support, its contribution to the Kenyan economy, Universities offering textile-related programs, and collaborations that exist between Chinese and Kenyan universities on capacity building in textile related programs, challenges in the textile sector, mitigation and recommendations to revamp the sector.

3.4 Changes in Higher Education Vis-a-Vie Increased Number of Universities We reviewed the transformation of higher education in Kenya from 1963, when it gained independence from Britain. At that time, Kenya had Royal University College that, later in 1970, got a charter to operate as the University of Nairobi, breaking up from the University of East Africa. The other higher education institution at that time

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was Egerton College, which offered diploma programs and was upgraded in 1987 as a Constituent University College of the University of Nairobi and barely a year after upgraded as Egerton University as a full-fledged University. After the establishment of the University of Nairobi in 1970, six more universities were established; Moi University in 1984 to specialize in technology, Kenyatta University in 1985 to specialize in Education, Egerton University in 1987 to specialize in Agriculture, Jomo Kenytta University of Agriculture and Technology in 1997, to specialize in technology, Maseno University in 2001, to specialize in Education and Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology in 2008, to specialize in Science and Technology. Together with the University of Nairobi, the six universities become the beacons of higher education by mentoring others. From 2012 to 2016, a big race to establish universities resulted in the establishment of 27 new public universities, some constituent Colleges, and 10 private Universities. Currently, there are 38 public universities, inclusive of universities’ Constituent Colleges, and 36 private ones, as shown in Table 3.1. In the early years, private universities were faith-based or religious and were established to fill the gap not catered for by public universities. As the years went by, other non-faith private universities were established, a pointer that higher education in Kenya was opening up leaps and bounds. The profound increase of public universities between 2012 and 2016, through which tertiary learning institutions were transformed into universities, reaffirms that the demand for higher education increased in early 2000, but there was minimal response to address the required infrastructure. The year 2013 shall remain in the Kenyan annals of history as the year 14 public universities were granted a charter. The establishment of Universities remains a regulated affair by the government, be it public or private; as much as there was a profound leap in 2013, the increase was subject to rigor assessment by Universities’ regulators. The government regulates universities in Kenya through Commission for University Education, ensuring that programs and curriculum delivery modes meet quality standards. So far, the commission has approved 38 Public Universities to offer programs; these include full-fledged universities and their constituent colleges. The commission for University Education periodically assesses the activities of the universities in Kenya to ensure sustainability.

3.5 Higher Education and Textile and Fashion As the epicenter of knowledge creation and dissemination, no known sector in the global economy or social or political arena has no hard contact with higher education. The contact between higher education, textile, and fashion is complimentary as higher education creates a framework under which the textile and fashion sector depends on providing trained manpower for operations, research, and development. While on the other hand textile and fashion industry provides a demand pool for human resources, and its requirement is meant to guide higher education in curriculum

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Table 3.1 Public and private universities in Kenya S. No. Public university

Date established Private university

Date established

1

University of Nairobi

1970

University of Eastern Africa Baraton

1991

2

Moi University

1984

Catholic University of Eastern Africa

1992

3

Kenyatta University

1986

Daystar University

1994

4

Egerton University

1987

Scott Christian University

1997

5

Jomo Kenyatta University of Technology

1994

United States International University

1999

6

Maseno University

2001

African Nzarene University

2002

7

Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology

2007

Kenya Methodist University

2006

8

Dedan Kimathi University

2012

St Paul’s University

2007

9

Chuka University

2013

Pan Africa Christian University

2008

10

Technical University of Kenya

2013

Strathmore University

2008

11

Technical University of Mombasa

2013

Kabarak University

2008

12

Pwani University

2013

Mt. Kenya University

2011

13

Kisii University

2013

Africa International University

2011

14

University of Eldoret

2013

Kenya Highlands Evangelical University

2011

15

Maasai Mara University

2013

Great Lakes University of Kisumu

2012

16

Jaramogi Oginga 2013 Odinga University of Science & Technology

KCA University

2013

17

Laikipia University

2013

Adventist University

2013

18

Southeastern Kenya University

2013

KAG East University

2016

19

Meru University of 2013 Science & Technology

Umma University

2019

20

Multimedia University 2013 of Kenya

Presbyterian University of East Africa

2020

21

University of Kabianga 2013

Hekima University College

1993 (continued)

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Table 3.1 (continued) S. No. Public university

Date established Private university

Date established

22

Karatina University

2013

Tangaza University College

1997

23

Kibabii University

2015

Marist University College

2002

24

Rongo University

2016

Kiriri Wome’s 2002 University of Science & Technology

25

Cooperative University 2016 of Kenya

Agakhan University

2002

26

Taita Taveta University 2016

GREATSA University

2006

27

Muranga University of 2016 Technology

East African University

2010

28

University of Embu

Management University 2011 of Africa

2016

29

Machakos University

2016

Riara University

2012

30

Kirinyaga University

2016

Pioneer International University

2012

31

Garissa University

2017

International Leadership 2014 University

32

Alupe University College

2015

Zetech University

2014

33

Kaimosi Friends University College

2016

Lukenya University

2015

34

Tom Mboya University 2016 College

RAF International University

2016

35

Turkana University College

2016

AMREF International University

2017

36

Tharaka University College

2017

Uzima University

2020

37

Bomet University College

2017

38

Koitalel Samoei University College

2017

Source Commission for University Education

formulation. Higher education has to train individuals who would join the economic sector on employment or self-employment. Therefore, the sector’s very existence triggers higher education’s behavior. It is a vicious relationship circle that can be demonstrated in the Balancing Model in Fig. 3.1. Our theoretical Balancing Model in Fig. 3.1 signifies the fashion and textile as protagonists that sit on balancing positions and higher education as the fulcrum. In the equilibrium mode, the supply and demand for fashion and textiles would be

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Fig. 3.1 Balancing model higher education (Source Author)

indifferent, which is a rare phenomenon. Higher education would be more or less in hibernation mode at the equilibrium mode since there is less pressure to create knowledge. In distress mode, either textile or fashion moves down or upward in good tidings. In a distress mode for textiles, the demand for fashion is out-way supply. The textile sector is expected to react by enhancing production or triggering imported fabrics and clothes. Higher education would also react to the distress in textiles by creating knowledge to bridge the gap. Again, for higher education, distress for fashion seeks solutions. We carried out a brief, purposeful interview involving 10 academicians who are experts in textile and fashion to seek their opinion on higher education and its impact on textile and fashion in Kenya to supplement our understanding. Five of the selected academicians were those who have undergone training in textiles in China and understand the intricacies of collaborations between China and Kenya. We seek opinions from the interviewees on the strength and weaknesses of higher education in expanding textile in Kenya to enable us to determine whether higher education has taken or is taking the right path concerning the enhancement of textile and fashion. Also, to understand the weaknesses for redress. The other was to know from them whether in their opinion the students’ numbers taking textile and fashion are increasing or declining and what could be the cause and mitigation of such situation if need be. We also sort to know some of the textile or fashion research work they know of that has impacted textile or fashion. This was intended to enable us to determine the new areas in textile and fashion that have a current interest in Kenya since research is done to solve current problems and open up new opportunities. The research work that has been done meant for textile and fashion but has not made an impact on textile or fashion helps to determine whether such research work may not be relevant to the Kenyan setup. On collaborations between universities based in China and Kenya on textile and fashion, we seek to know the impact such collaborations have made on Kenya’s textile and fashion sector. We also reviewed the challenges such collaborations face and how they can be mitigated for sustainability. The respondents who received training in China strongly believed that the collaboration between Chinese and Kenyan Institutions greatly benefited Kenya on capacity building for textiles and still does. However, some weaknesses were pointed out that some trainees, even though they received good training under such arrangements, have not put into good use their training due

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to laxity. This could result from weaknesses in the selection process; however, such challenges are rare. Taking cognizance that textile and fashion are still transforming, we tried to understand the areas of textile and fashion which though are essential and relevant, but Kenyan Universities have given less focus and reasons behind that situation and solutions. Being dynamic with frequent changes in technology, operations, and consumer preferences, Textile and fashion would require practitioners to have periodic refresher courses under Continues Professional Development Program to keep staff abreast of new changes. Currently, such arrangements are lacking; even professional membership specific to textile and fashion is not known to exist in Kenya. Textile composites find their application in many advanced applications [9–11]. Technical textile that produces products such as medical textile, smart textile, and use of textile composite materials has not been well grounded in Kenya, and those people who, in one way or the other, have received training abroad on technical and smart textile would continue to have challenges in getting places or opportunities to practice. The following were interview questions: 1.

What are the strengths and weaknesses of higher education in expanding textile and fashion in Kenya? 2. What do you think is why students taking textile and fashion are increasing or declining? 3. What should be done to increase student numbers? 4. What are some of the research works that have made an impact on the textile and fashion sector? 5. What is the research work that has not made an impact on the textile and fashion sector in Kenya? 6. What benefits have collaborations between China and Kenyan institutions brought to improve textile and fashion? 7. What challenges do such collaborations face, and how can they be mitigated? 8. What are the critical areas that textile and fashion universities in Kenya have not focused on, and why? 9. What can be done to make universities focus on the mentioned areas? 10. Which Professional Membership Bodies provide a platform for people in textile and fashion to share ideas that supplement Continues Professional Development? All the interviewees opined that higher education had contributed a lot to textile and fashion by offering training opportunities locally and abroad through scholarships. The training has seen Kenyans taking up jobs that earlier were for expatriates. On the other hand, the expansion of higher education created space at institutions of higher learning, encouraging Kenyans trained abroad to come back and contribute to knowledge creation and dissemination, thereby reducing brain drain. Brain drain has been a problem for the country whereby those trained abroad take up jobs abroad and fail to come back at the time they are needed to push the cogwheel of development.

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In terms of enhancing the quality of graduates, it was noted that the textile curriculum had been reviewed, which requires 70% of curriculum delivery to be practical, thereby equipping students with hands-on experience. However, the weakness of higher education relating to textile and fashion was also pointed out, including a weak link with the industry—universities, and industry are still walking on different paths. The main reason was that most textile and fashion facilities are privately owned and exhibit little trust with outsiders they think could be coming to spy on them either for taxes or to get access to their business secrets. As a result, getting slots for attachments for students has been a challenge even though firms that receive them are not obligated to pay for the services students offer while with them, but the reason is to maintain the confidentiality of their trade secrets. It was also noted that textile firms get concerned about the disruption of their operations since trainees have to be coached, which consumes their operations time. More often than not, learning institutions issue an open introductory letter to students to go out there to search for places for attachment with minimal support and also given little time within two to three months. This kind of networking break indicates that universities do not relate well with the industry. In an ideal situation, it would be expected that every year a firm, for instance, will set aside 20 placement slots for students doing textile engineering for a particular university, and such assurance and confidence will be maintained. The government has tried to mitigate this by requiring firms to engage a certain number of students for attachments annually as part of their corporate social responsibility. However, this is difficult to enforce. In addition, the government acknowledges that there are challenges for students to get industrial attachment placements and, in its wisdom, established National Industrial Training Authority (NITA) in 2011 to open up the avenue in placing students for attachment in firms and other institutions [12]. Students are required to make applications and attached other documents including insurance cover for the period they will be engaged and also indicate firms or institutions where they intend to do their industrial attachment. However, the process of following up with NITA and the requirement for insurance is somewhat expensive for most students, and also, most often, they do not get attachment placement in selected firms. In recognition of the challenge for students to get attachments, Prime Innovest Limited, which is a private company, was established in 2021 to assist students in getting placements in their selected firms and also provide professional advisory services on what is expected of them in the firms during the period they are on attachments [13]. Prime Innovest’s services are convenient and cost-effective since they are charged about 20 USD for placement and professional advice, while the company benefits from economies of scale because of the large number of students. Another challenge was that University graduates joined the industry as middlelevel managers, and employers expected them to deliver right at their feet, giving them no time to gain exposure on the job. Universities are addressing this challenge by offering more exposure for students in the industry and also encouraging students to go for internships upon graduation to get more hands-on experience.

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All that equipment also pointed out that research on alternative raw materials such as fibers and polyester is scanty. This has created a situation where most raw materials for textiles production in Kenya are almost 100% imported. We also established from all interviewees that as much as the student numbers are increasing in the fashion sub-sector, the numbers for textile engineering are on a lower trajectory because it is not attractive to students due to the hardship of getting employment. Universities find it costly to continue offering courses that attract fewer student numbers. As a result, some of such programs have been discontinued or merged with the rest; where for instance, Textile is merged with another engineering discipline to keep afloat. While this is a positive strategy, it limits the level of specialization. There has been a concerted effort to make students doing textile see the bigger picture in the discipline whereby institutions have been encouraging and giving students opportunities to get involved in projects and exposure abroad through student exchange. This seems to be working, although in slow motion. Research work that has made a small impact on textiles is on natural dye, especially in the textile cottage industry. However, it is yet to be embraced in large textile entities that still rely on synthetic dyes [14]. Synthetic dyes have been used in the textile industry for decades and are the one majorly used [15, 16]. Synthetic dyes come in many forms, such as direct dyes applied mainly on cotton and cellulose fibers; they are considered cheaper. Also available are acid dyes used mainly in silk and wool fabrics. In the sense of eco-friendly, natural dyes have been preferred over synthetic dyes, but their efficiency is in question in the textile sector [17]. It is, therefore, an eye opener for researchers who are engaged in research on natural dye that it is no longer the question of extracting dye from what and applying it on what but of how efficient it is from the perspective of synthetic dyes. The textile industry is majorly a profit-making entity, not a charity, and would be attracted to raw materials that are cost-effective and efficient. Unless more research is done beyond extraction of dyes, which Kenyan researchers are doing, but less emphasis as of now on efficiency concerning synthetic dyes—replacing synthetic dyes with natural dyes will not be any sooner ceteris paribus. The government has made several times and moved to encourage investors in textiles through reduced taxation promises, but this could be made more realistic and sustainable by investing clusters of investors in either spinning or weaving. Such investment clusters joined together would still deliver the products the same way firms with integrated textiles would do but, in this case, separately and sustainably. Most textile research, mainly those that use high technological equipment, is more laboratory-based than feasible for the Kenyan textile industry. Such research work terminally ends in libraries after being published. Very little research takes place to enhance more efficient production lines, energy, and diversification of raw materials. A look at some of the high technological research work published by Kenyans as first authors domiciled in Kenya and co-authors in developed countries should not be confused with the notion that Kenyan laboratories are highly technological. However, the reality is that it has been made possible through joint research with others in developed countries with such highly technologically equipped laboratories.

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As a result of few employment opportunities in the relevant field, some textile graduates have opted to get jobs in the fashion sector even though related it is distinctly different from textile leading to distress for those who employ them and, of course, themselves. It was advisable that even though textile training is technical, the social aspect of fashion should also be included in the university’s curriculum delivery because of their close relationship.

3.6 Overview Textile and Fashion Sector in Kenya The relationship between textile and fashion is complementary, and the two require input from each other. Textiles have to provide the technical support of producing fabrics from cotton lint, going through the process from spinning up to when the garment is ready, and ensuring that all those processes meet the quality standards required by the fashion sub-sector [18]. On its part, fashion is a consumer of textiles and dictates what the textile sub-sector produces [19].

3.6.1 Textile Sub-sector The existence of the textile sector can be traced to the construction of the KenyaUganda Railway by the British Colonial government from the 1890s to 1901. The British sourced manual labor for the railway construction from India since there was no skilled labor in the region. After the railway construction, some Indians who survived the harsh environment, disease, and killing of wild animals returned to India, while others remained and settled in Kenya. It was the descendants of Indian laborers who remained in Kenya after the construction of the railway and started the first textile integrated mill in Kenya under the sun flag in 1938, which has remained to date [20]. It is argued that they used their family connections with those in the textile sector in India. In Kenya, the textile sector is dominated by Kenyans of Indian origin. Textile in Kenya is a sub-sector that deals with manufacturing fabrics and garments for consumers. Some entities only deal with a section of the value chain textile, such as yarn preparation, while others, such as Rivatex, which is a model facility, does an integrated textile product mainly from cotton where they process yarn from the cotton lint, weave it into fabrics, dye, fixed designed prints ready for tailoring into garments. Textile production is a labor-intensive sub-sector that requires adequately trained personnel, modern machinery, and a well-planned value chain. Through the forward linkage, Rivatex has been involved in stitching garments ready to wear or catering for orders brought by customers from its tailoring unit from time to time—this has been going well. In the case of backward linkages, it has participated in cotton production through collaboration with cotton farmers, where Rivatex provides seeds and other technical support through their extension

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and corporate social responsibility unit. However, on this front, the impact has been dismal. Even though Textile is in the manufacturing sector, it relies heavily on the performance of agriculture to provide raw materials, mainly cotton. The other primary raw materials that textile manufacturing require is silk and wool. The production of silk has not been picked in Kenya due to production challenges. Agricultural sectors remain the dominant sector accounting for 23% of the total value of the Kenyan economy while manufacturing accounts for 17.1% of the economy [21]. The two are essential in our case, taking cognizance that textile falls within the purview of agriculture concerning raw materials and manufacturing that processes its raw materials into garments.

3.6.2 Fashion Sub-sector in Kenya Textile and fashion compliments each other and seldom exist independently; fashion starts right from the stage fabrics undergo through the dying process that gives the fabric background color. The background color determines the quality of the prints that finally is put on the fabrics and meet the consumer’s choice and demand. Fashion is shaped by human civilization, culture, perception, and ego and is a visual communication platform that gives meaning, self-esteem, and belonging [22]. The garment design may quickly distinguish the person’s nationality, especially in countries with national clothing, such as the Maasai tribe in Kenya and Lesso dress from the Kenyan coastal region. Fashion and design go hand in hand with civilization, as examples of the design below in Fig. 3.2 (a sketch) and Fig. 3.3 (garment) that we call the Nile and Blue Economy Design. River Nile is the longest river in Africa. Human civilization in farming and making pyramids is traced to the river Nile as it entered Egypt. It passes through eleven African countries, and its importance to Africa’s blue economy is undisputed. The blue side of the garment depicts Africa’s Nile water, while the other part depicts aquatic life. The small button on the lower part of the dress depicts the source of the River Nile, which is Lake Victoria; the line from the small button goes up till it reaches the more prominent button, which depicts the Mediterranean Sea. Because Lake Victoria is smaller than the Mediterranean Sea, it is represented by a smaller button, while a more prominent button represents the Mediterranean. The line on the garment shows the path of the river Nile and the button along the line shows the countries it passes through with their dominant flag colors. River Nile pours its water into the Mediterranean Sea.

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Fig. 3.2 Sketch of garment “Blue Economy”. Source Author, 2020

Fig. 3.3 Blue Economy garment design, designed by the author and submitted for fashion competition in China in 2020

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3.6.3 Big Five Design The print of the Big Five in Fig. 3.4 acts as an encouragement in the preservation of wildlife. Kenya is a country that still has Elephants, Rhinoceros, Buffalo, Lion, and Leopard known as the Big Five living in their natural habitat. It is a spectacle nature that gives Africa its identity as the land of natural resources that attracts tourism. Early hunters named the big five the most complex and dangerous wild animals to hunt on foot. It also portrays Kenya as a unique country that was not easy to conquer by the colonialists. The green symbolizes Kenya as a predominantly green vegetation country. The dots around each picture of the animal are their muddy footprint marks, while the brown strip from the shirt color to the bottom represents the soil that holds the grass, vegetation, and animals. Fashion design that goes with the story creates a long-lasting expression in the minds of consumers. Fashion is not static and goes with what is trending in society; the covid pandemic saw textile manufacturers and designers coming up with all sorts of designs and branding of masks, such as the one shown in Fig. 3.6. Historically, we have seen fashion come and go and even come back in some form. In the 1970s, the men’s trouser fashion was bell-bottom trousers narrow from the waist to the knee and broader below. In the 1980s, it quickly became unfashionable to wear bel-bottom, and the fashion then was tight trousers. In the 1990s, fashion changed to regular trouser fitting, as the near millennium set in the trouser in fashion was the buggy

Fig. 3.4 Big five shirt design promoting tourism and wildlife conservation. Source Author

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one, closer to bel-bottom of the 1970s. The men’s trouser in fashion currently is tight trouser fittings a replica of the 1980s.

3.7 Investment in Textile and Fashion by Government Historically textile is a sector that resonates with Kenya’s industrialization path right from independence from Britain; however, it has been a problematic sector that has seen quite a good number of firms closing down. It is also a sector that the government has been keen to maintain because of its potential as a foreign exchange earner and key to creating employment and spurring the growth of other sectors of the economy. The Kenyan Government has identified the textiles and fashion sector as a priority sector [23]. Its prominence in the manufacturing pillar under the Big 4 Agenda and the Kenya Industrial Transformation Program manifests its soft spot in the government’s thought processes. For over a decade, Kenya has been a “mitumba nation” (second-hand clothes), relying heavily on used garments imported from developed countries. In 2019, Kenya imported 185,000 tons of second-hand clothing, and the demand continues [24]. Though is also possible to recycle these clothes to form a new textile materials [25]. Previous governments have found themselves in a quagmire between having a population consisting primarily of the poor or middle class that accounts for more than 80% of its population relying on cheap imported used clothes or having its production of new garments which are more costly in comparison to used clothes. Imports of second-hand clothes, mainly from Europe and the United States, account for 17% of the Kenyan garments market size, imported new ready ones, 32%, while locally manufactured accounts for 14% and customer tailored 37% [26]. From the onset, the government’s long-term agenda has been revamping the manufacturing sectors, which fall within the purview of textiles. Kenya’s government appreciates the vital role played by the textile sector. It has, over the years, provided both direct and indirect support. Direct by the budgetary allocation for public textile production factories such as Rivatex East Africa, the facility of Moi University. While indirectly providing a framework that encourages investment and marketing of textile products locally and abroad, such as the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) policy and framework, as textile marketing is of great importance for the success of textile industry [27]. Besides supporting institutions of higher learning to have a conducive collaboration environment, the government has also implemented a mechanism to promote local textile and fashion markets. This initiative is under the government flagship of “Buy Kenya Build Kenya”. The “Buy Kenya Build Kenya” initiative is Government renewed strategy to promote local textile production and marketing. Through the initiative, the government has put requirements into its institutional performance requirements that staff in government facilities wear locally made garments every Friday each week as a promotional tool for Kenyan-made textile. The “Buy Kenya Build Kenya” Initiative have also created an opportunity for staff to design their

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unique outfit using institutional corporate color, emblem, and logo. Figure 3.5 is corporate wear designed for the University of Nairobi staff with the university’s corporate colour, emblem and logo. Figure 3.6 is a mask with University of Nairobi corporate colour and emblem. The government has also integrated a bilateral understanding with other governments and international institutions such as the World Bank. Through such bilateral arrangements, the government opened up research proposals for universities on a competitive basis. Moi University relying on its strength in textile in the region, won the World Bank Project on African Center of Excellence in Phytochemicals, Textile, and Renewable Energy [28]. The Centre provides high-level training and research for Kenya and the African continent. Besides the ACII-PTRE project, another initiative worth mentioning is the United Nations Environmental Program on microbial biotechnology that brings together Rivatex Textile facility, Moi University, University of Nairobi, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya Wildlife Services, and Kenya Industrial Research Development Institute. The ongoing research aims to enrich studies on enzymes necessary for the textile industry [29].

Fig. 3.5 Shirt designed for corporate wear, for staff at the University of Nairobi with corporate color and emblem and logo (Source Author, 2022)

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Fig. 3.6 Mask with University of Nairobi corporate color and emblem (Source Author, 2022)

As much as the government has invested substantially in textiles, one area still lacking is making and supporting Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs). The bottom of the textile and fashion pyramid is under SMEs, and many start businesses and quickly collapse due to business shocks and numerous challenges in textile. The government needs to find a way out of a business model that ensures SMEs are stable and can withstand business shocks. From a general perspective, Kenyans are not generally good at business startups, and this situation needs to be recognized and redressed by the concerned authorities.

3.8 Contributions by Private and Non-governmental Entities to the Textile and Fashion Sector There are more activities concerning textile and fashion in the private sector than in the public sector, making it a private sector driven, and therefore, its lifeline depends on the general state of the economy and political will and support. Even though textile manufacturing uses heavy machinery, especially for yarn production, weaving, and dying, it remains a sector that is labor intensive, creating sizeable employment opportunities. It is also a sector with many players in the textile cottage business that have an advantage since it does not require heavy investment and is closer to the market since they do not rely on distributors to reach the market. Through the AGOA, Kenyan textile products have been given opportunities in the United States of America Market; of course, this was a bilateral arrangement and may not be guaranteed once the agreements expire in 2025. Figure 3.7 shows some of the fabrics in the Kenyan market. Kenya should therefore put their house in order by ensuring the quality of its products are sustainable in meeting the standards of the US market without relying

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Fig. 3.7 Textile fabrics with African prints have been exported to the United States (Source Author, 2021)

on trade agreements that are sensitive to political and bilateral understandings. The visibility of private sectors contributions to textile and fashion is more concentrated in the feeder kind of arrangements where you find broken value chain of a company or individual in the cottage textile sub-sector produces natural dye or does stitching, embroidery, and all this act as a tributary into the mainstream of textile and fashion. Academic Programs and Students Enrollment on Textiles and Fashion The commission for University Education regulates the quality and standards for academic programs in Kenya and periodically reviews and publicizes approved programs. We review the programs approved by CUE being offered by public universities and compare them with those related to textile and fashion, as shown in Table 3.2. Our findings indicate that out of 3272 academic programs offered by 38 Public Universities; only 23 are textile and fashion related, representing 0. 61% of the programs offered in the universities. It is important to note that 3272 programs being offered are not unique but instead duplicated across universities; for instance a case of Bachelor of Education program is offered in almost all public universities. It means that as much as we appreciate textile as one of the significant contributors to the economy, minimal contributions come from Kenyan Universities in terms of human resources on the technical side of textile due to fewer employment opportunities. There were 52 textile industries, most of which collapsed, leaving only 15 operating at 45% [21]. This is a pointer that textile is not creating the number of employment opportunities expected due to operations challenges.

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Table 3.2 Comparison of number of academic programs offered by public universities in Kenya with textile-related programs S. No.

University

Total number of academic programs

Number of programs related to textile and fashion

1

University of Nairobi

374

3

2

Moi

242

3

3

Kenyatta

256

1

4

Egerton

183

3

5

JKUAT

302

3

6

Maseno

215

3

7

Masinde Muliro

222

0

8

Dedan Kimathi

9

Chuka

10

35

0

172

2

Technical University of Kenya

70

1

11

Technical University of Mombasa

28

0

12

Pwani

42

0

13

Kisii

216

0

14

University of Eldoret

104

2

15

Maasai Maara

122

0

16

Jaramogi Oginga O

44

0

17

Laikipia

52

0

18

Southeastern

75

0

19

Meru

24

0

20

Multimedia

41

0

21

University of Kabianga

57

0

22

Karatina

39

0

23

Kibabii

45

0

24

Rongo

43

1

25

Cooperative

9

0

26

Taita Taveta

35

0

27

Muranga

25

0

28

University of Embu

14

0

29

Machakos

41

1

30

Kirinyaga

8

0

31

Garissa

23

0

32

Alupe

7

0

33

Kaimosi

7

0 (continued)

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Table 3.2 (continued) S. No.

University

34

Tom Mboya

26

0

35

Turkana

15

0

36

Tharaka

42

0

37

Bomet

13

0

38

Koitalel

4

0

3272

23

Total

Total number of academic programs

Number of programs related to textile and fashion

Source Commission for University Education

The seven universities before 2008 were meant to offer niche programs to distinguish them from the rest the way the initial East African Universities were meant to be, for instance, Makerere for Medicine, the University of Nairobi for Engineering, and Dar-es-salaam for Law. As Universities started facing a financial crunch, the quick fix that came to mind was offering programs that attract more students, and specialization was thrown out of the window.

3.9 Collaborations Between Chinese and Kenyan Universities in Textile and Fashion Sector Meaningful economic development cannot thrive outside globalization. There has to be worthwhile circulation of ideas across borders and internationalization of human exchange in a manner that benefits all partners. Even though several collaborations exist between Kenyan and Chinese institutions with the support of the Chinese and Kenyan governments in a win–win arrangement, those that relate to knowledge capacity building on textile manufacturing are scanty. The interview with professors in the textile sector in Kenya revealed that the collaboration with Kenyan and Chinese Institutions in textile and fashion is only between Moi University, Kenya, and Donghua University, China. The collaboration has since been expanded to include Confucius Institute and Rivatex Textile factory, a facility of Moi University. The collaboration between Moi University and Donghua University under 20+20 was aimed at creating a solid partnership in building human resource capacity through training and research in textile and fashion. Through this initiative, many Kenyans have undergone training in China, mainly at postgraduation and doctoral levels, and are now employed in various universities in Kenya; some of them have risen to Professor positions. The training partnership between China and Kenya is still going on and offers the opportunity for exposure to advanced textile industries in China and practical mentorship. The collaboration that started in the early 2000s has resulted in several scholarships, joint workshops, conferences, and staff and student exchange programs that

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enhance academic dialogue. The joint conference that the African Center of Excellence in Phytochemicals, textiles, and renewable Energy with Donghua University in China was a success and resulted in eight published papers in refereed journals in the textile discipline [30]. On the side of the Confucius Institute, the Chinese language has been included as a foreign language for Students in the School of Tourism and Events Management at Moi University. The number of students who chose the Chinese language is increasing. There is also, in a way, an undocumented collaboration between companies in China and Small and Medium Enterprises on the supply of machinery to support the textile cottage sub-sector, as depicted in Fig. 3.8 of embroidery machine supplied to the small-scale textile cottage industry by Yun Fu company based in Shenzhen, China. However, despite progress, there is still minimal collaboration in research and extension in the textile and fashion sector [31]. Contribution of Textile and Fashion Sector to the Kenyan Economy Kenya, through the Ministry of Trade and Industrialization every year takes stock of the performance of every sector of the Kenyan economy, be it in terms of dollar contributions or social. Other sectors, besides contributing to dollar form, also indirectly contribute to other sectors’ development, and such roles are usually recognized

Fig. 3.8 Embroidery machine imported from Yun Fu Machinery in Shenzhen for cottage textile cottage sector in Kenya (Source Author, 2022)

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and given weights. Even though some differences between textile and fashion, they are usually grouped in economic assessment impact. The textiles and fashion sector accounts for 7% of the export revenue and has also created employment of nearly 30% of labor in the manufacturing sector (ITA, 2022) [20]. There were 52 companies in the textile and fashion sector, but this number has reduced to about 15; most are privately owned and either operating in the manufacturing or value chain, such as branding and distribution. The Apparel Export to the United States, the leading export destination under AGOA, is about USD 332 annually [21]. The sector also gives opportunities for higher learning institutions by providing industrial attachment and internship to students, equipping them with the practical experience required for future employment or private practice on selfemployment.

3.10 Opportunities for Investors Kenya has a sizeable market for textiles and garments proven by importing secondhand clothes and “new ready-to-wear” from Europe; the United Kingdom, and Turkey; Asia—China, Thailand, Pakistan, United Arabs Emirates, South Korea, and India; the United States and South Africa. Kenya averagely produces 12 million square meters of fabrics annually, much less than its national demand of 178 million square meters [21]. Kenya has several attractive investment strengths, including East Africa has since been expanded to include the Democratic Republic of Congo. It has liberalized economy and good infrastructure, roads, rail, airports, and ports, which are advanced compared to other countries in the region. The export quarter incentives given through the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) and Export Processing Zone incentives, including express processing of customs documentation, are also meant to encourage investors in textile and apparel [31].

3.11 Challenges of Textile and Fashion Sector and Their Mitigations 1. The challenges that the sector faces in Kenya include a lack of raw materials—it is not that Kenya cannot grow enough cotton which is the primary raw material for its industries, but because of weak policy framework between ginners and cotton farmers who felt discouraged to produce cotton because of low returns that could not sustain future production. The government has been at the forefront of encouraging farmers and addressing the weak link, but the pace of gaining farmers’ confidence is relatively slow.

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2. The other challenge is the high energy cost for production, which discourages manufacturing, especially for textiles that rely on heavy machinery and face vicious competition globally. The government has given some incentives to reduce the cost of electricity, but it is still not attractive to textile manufacturers. 3. The challenge of old and obsolete machinery also produces fabrics that seldom effectively compete with other producers globally [32]. Kenya does not have a well-equipped textile materials testing center that would support the textile industry’s competitiveness in quality products. To address this, the government has carried out a modernization program at Rivatex Textile Facility and expects to do more. 4. Lack of expertise also hampers the sector; even though there has been an increase in some universities offering textile and fashion programs, the numbers required by the industry are still not adequate. The number of students taking technical courses in textile is declining due to fewer employment opportunities. 5. Even though Universities are researching textile and fashion, linkages with industry are still weak; industry and universities seem to be walking on different paths. As a mitigating factor, Universities are required in the newly reviewed curriculum to provide 70% practical for students and will get additional funding based on the number of their students that gets employment after graduation. 6. The policies encouraging investors to venture into textiles, such as meaningfully reduced taxes for capital investments, are inadequate. It is not easy to get capital loans with favorable terms; loans taken have to be repaid even before the business picks up, which has been one of the causes of the collapse of textile ventures. Even though there have been attempts to make loans favorable, it is just a “drop in the ocean”. 7. There is a mismatch between students’ numbers taking textile production, which includes spinning, weaving, and textile fibers, with those of fashion because they are attractive to the youthful population, which is likely to disadvantage textile production in the future. Attempts to create incentives by universities in offering scholarships create some interest, but it will take some time to create a visible impact. 8. The production output of fabrics is below par and fails to meet the demand in the local market leading to importation. Building capacity for large-scale production and enhanced quality is the long-term solution. Even though, from a general perspective, some progress has been made in turning around the textile and fashion sector, even though the government’s effort in revamping the textile sector has been loud through its policy papers, the impact has been slow. Many textile mills that collapsed, such as KICOMI and MOUNTEX Mills, and many others, are still closed and forgotten. Imports of raw materials are still rife, new and second-hand garments imports still dictate the local market, and competition with other global textile producers is still disadvantageous. The modest government’s success in a single stroke was the revival of Rivatex East Textile facility under Moi University which is on its feet and provides garments and other textile products to consumers. Moreover, government tenders have been

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given to supply garments for its armed forces, which used to be imported. However, as much as the government’s noble intention in the modernization of Rivatex East Africa is to take a leading role in transforming the textile sector, the impact has been slow. Dealing with competition through stifling imports of new garments and second-hand clothes is not sustainable. Funding for research work has been and is still abysmal negating knowledge to spur improvements. Kenya’s average spending of 0. 59% on research and development compared to 1. 79% of the world’s average shows that the country is not doing well in that perspective. This situation is not new, has been echoed severally, and requires a quick fix.

3.12 Recommendations Three primary pillars to revamp the textile sector are the availability of cheap raw materials, affordable energy, and quality fabrics; without these, even with modernization that the government has done well on, plus policy frameworks, much will not be achieved. The three pillars need to be done: get raw materials available when required at a reasonable cost, have a reliable and cheap energy source, and produce high-quality fabrics that attract local and international consumers. Achieving these requires the concerted effort of multi-sectoral involvement, in this case, collaborations between producers of raw materials, players in the textile sector, energy sector, which the government tightly controls. From the perspective of higher education which our research is based, calls for adequate funding for research work, and collaborations with institutions strong in textile-related activities will help unlock the pillars of raw materials, energy, and quality of fabrics. Quickly embracing high-yielding cotton seems to be the answer to mitigating inadequate cotton supply; the same is the government’s priority [23]. From the analysis of academic programs currently offered at Kenyan Public Universities vis-a-vie programs relating to textile and fashion, we conclude that public universities need to do more to build capacity for textile production and the fashion sector. Unless this is done and the support of stakeholders to pump in research funds and a sustainable policy framework, Kenya will remain a consuming nation of second-hand clothes and new garments imported from Asia and other parts of the world. In order to have staff and experts gain from knowledge nourishment, institutions of higher learning should establish Continues Professional Development and Professional Memberships in textile and fashion that would provide a platform for discussion and sharing of ideas of trends and opportunities that arise to enhance the sector.

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3.13 Conclusion There is a transformation of higher education vis-a-vis increasing space for student admissions, enhancing global collaboration, and the approach that has been undertaken in equipping students with practical knowledge. This is so with the significant increase of public universities from 7 to 30 between 2010 and 2016. The reviewed curriculum requires those taking technical programs such as textile to have seventy % of practicals is a positive gesture. That also gives more emphasis on practicals than theories and, in this way, encourages understanding between universities and industries which are practically centered. Even though Kenya’s textile and fashion sector is as old as a country called Kenya, it has moved back and forth as the years go by and is currently still at a nursing stage. It requires government intervention to provide sustainable trade incentives, lower taxes, and energy costs to manufacturers and other players in the textile value chain. In addition, prioritize providing adequate research funds and institutional capacity building for universities that offer textile, apparel, and fashion programs.

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Mr. Christopher Oduor Okech currently serves at Moi University, Kenya, as Deputy Registrar, Central Services. He previously served as Personal Assistant to The Vice-Chancellor, Moi University (2008–2016) and as Administrator at Maseno University, Kenya (1993–2008). He has contributed to the establishment of international collaborations between Kenyan institutions and some institutions in other countries. He is the founder of Prime Innovest Limited, a consulting company based in Kenya dealing in consultancy work on capacity building that includes students’ attachments and internships, international linkages, Business proposals, and geographical tours, among others. He holds an MBA from the University of Liverpool, UK.

Chapter 4

Overview of Textile and Fashion Higher Education in Burundi Nibikora Ildephonse

Abstract This chapter provides detailed information on Burundi’s higher education system, which comprises the public universities where enrollment of students is based on student’s weighted national test results and private institutions, which are often regarded to be for those who performed below standards as compared to public universities which are considered to be for the elite secondary school performers. The textile and apparel industries offer significant potential for value development and job creation. The cotton value chain, which includes cotton production, spinning and twisting into yarn, weaving, knitting into fabric, dyeing, printing, and designing, may generate up to 600% of the value. The fashion industry is a very lucrative sector, from manufacturing to marketing, and new jobs and cash may be generated at every step of the process, which explains why the number of fashion and clothing SMEs being established in Burundi is increasing daily. To ensure that the textile and fashion institutions are providing updated courses, there is a need for area advisory boards, which should be made up of specialists from relevant disciplines such as textile factories, fashion design, fashion technology, and management. Students must have industry mentors and complete a significant amount of fieldwork. The government should encourage more environmentally friendly and ethical cotton by minimizing the damage to freshwater systems and encouraging the use of smart irrigation technology as well as more eco-friendly growing methods, as well as collaborating with farmers, government agencies, buyers, and investment firms at critical phases of the supply network from the field to the clothing store. Keywords Institution of higher learning · Textile and apparel industry · Investment · Cotton · Partnerships

N. Ildephonse (B) Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Busitema University, Busitema, Uganda e-mail: [email protected] © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2023 X. Yan et al. (eds.), Quality Education and International Partnership for Textile and Fashion, SDGs and Textiles, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-99-1320-6_4

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4.1 Introduction This chapter provides detailed information on Burundi’s higher education system, which comprises the public universities where enrollment of students is based on student’s weighted national test results and private institutions, which are often regarded to be for those who performed below standards as compared to public universities which are considered to be for the elite secondary school performers. The chapter also focuses on projects like FEMCOM/COMFWB, which aim to improve Burundi’s textile and fashion industry. Since creative sectors like textiles and fashion are especially appealing to today’s youth, who want to explore new cultural frontiers via networking sites, investment in textile and fashion at postsecondary institutes is looked at. An emphasis is also put on the reform and development of textile and fashion higher education since it is adamant for all the institutes to keep their curricula up to date and generate graduates who are well-prepared for the future. Internalization of higher education is also looked at in this chapter, with special attention given to the quality concerns and challenges that come with internationalization, like the quality of the education being offered, the legitimacy of the providers, and the validation of the academic transcripts. Focusing on how internationalization recognizes and expands upon local, national, and regional interests, policies, and practices of the country, the chapter also looks at how internationalization influences the regional characteristics and connection with the local community. The current situation of educational exchanges between Burundi and China and how it was developed is also highlighted as well as the development of the Confucius institutes. This chapter also addresses the higher education collaboration between Chinese and African institutions, which began in 1956 and is emphasized by the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals since it is believed that North–South, South-South, and triangular cooperation between institutions of learning can help government plans to integrate all of the sustainable development goals. The impact of the Sino-Africa Cooperation on Africa’s textile and apparel industry, like enhanced academic performance and increments in grants and scholarships offered by the Chinese government, is also addressed in this chapter with a listing of a few key scholarships which are granted as a result of the Sino-Africa cooperation. Reasons for Burundi’s willingness and capability to experiment with multiple education systems and business models that might positively influence its economy’s development are also tackled in this chapter, for instance, the pre-existing beneficial bilateral agreement between Burundi and China, which makes its cooperation in textile education ideal with the largest producer and supplier of textiles and apparel. Burundi’s constant attempt to build a strong business ecosystem includes investment in professionals in the burgeoning fashion and textile sectors and the presence of the Confucius Institute, which has helped a lot in disseminating mandarin in Burundi and the cooperation of Burundi with China regarding textile education. Some of the conferences and seminars addressing Burundi’s textile and fashion industry are addressed with the inclusion of renowned media, which release timely

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information on Burundi’s textile and fashion industry and are discussed by industry experts and scholars from different walks of life. Some of the international textile and apparel discussion forums and data powerhouse highlighted in this chapter include the International Textile and Apparel Association Conference and online data repositories like Textile Value Chain, Journal of Textile Engineering & Fashion Technology, Fibre2Fashion Magazine, textileinfomedia, and Kohan Textile Journal and some of Burundi’s local textile and fashion magazines and publication sites like Jimbere Magazine and Afrizion.com is also covered. Key insight into Burundi’s current strategy to invest in cotton production to meet the demands of local, regional, and worldwide textile producers by increasing production to at least 5,000 tons over nine years with a strong intention to extend cotton production land to at least 12,000 ha. is covered in this chapter with a focus on Burundi’s investment in the traditional textile industry. It identifies the factors that drive investments in the traditional textile industry and some of the challenges that ought to be resolved for Burundi to reap some profits from its investment in this sector. The final subsection of this chapter addresses Burundi’s investment in the Hi-Tech industry which is characterized by an obsessive focus on cognitive equity and organizational heritage, along with significant investment risk, implying that the hi-tech sector is associated with a high degree of technology-intensive, high input, high risks, and high potential return.

4.2 Overview of Textile and Fashion Higher Education in Burundi 4.2.1 Overview of the Higher Education System Burundi’s educational system consists of six years of primary education, seven years of secondary schooling separated into four years of lower secondary and three years of upper secondary school, and three to five years of postsecondary education.

4.2.2 Public University The University of Burundi is the country’s principal provider of higher education. It is mainly funded by the government and has managerial and supervisory independence. It is led by a Rector selected by the Head of state for a four-year term. The policy is formulated by a Board Of trustees nominated by the President of the Republic and portrays the major areas of activity in higher education advancement. Four new private universities have lately been established [1]. Students’ enrollment into public universities depends on their weighted national test results. The education ministry assigns students a focus depending on national test

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results. It is conceivable, albeit unusual, for students to seek a different outlook than that given to them. The university’s faculties offer education, engineering, agriculture, various languages, and various sciences. However, different institutes specialize in applied economics, hands-on pedagogy, and statistics. Every student enrolled in a public university is granted a full tuition fee, which is often supplemented with a loan to aid in covering the living expenses in the city. Unfortunately, numerous learners from the countryside still find the additional expenditures of higher education exorbitant and, therefore, incapable of completing their courses for socioeconomic problems. Students gain admission to the state university a year after finishing secondary education. As a result of this lag, some students choose to continue their education at private colleges [2].

4.2.3 Private University In Burundi, private institutions are often regarded as performing below par compared to public universities, which are considered for the elite. However, these institutions provide students with additional options for choosing their field of study and would allow a student to skip a year and a half of delay in studies. In principle, private universities allow enrollment of candidates with poorer national test results than public universities. Most private institutions provide French-language courses; however, several also provide English-language degrees [1].

4.2.4 Universities and Enrollment Rate of Textile and Fashion Higher Education Institutions As it stands to date, no university in Burundi offers any textile or fashion-related courses. However, some tertiary institutions, like Buja Fashion school, specializing in textiles and fashion. Most textile and fashion trainings in the country are often run as special projects by the government and organizations seeking to improve the textile and fashion industry in the country.

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4.3 Projects Aimed at Improving the Textile Industry in Burundi 4.3.1 FEMCOM/COMFWB Project The Federation of National Associations of Women in Business for Eastern and Southern Africa (FEMCOM) and the African Union Development Agency (AUDANEPAD) Spanish Fund has embarked on a project to help women in Burundi’s textile sector to educate them. The initiative, which is supported by the Business Incubator for African Women Entrepreneurs (BIAWE), aims to create jobs for women [3]. Through skills and business development coaching, the women are taught to make high-quality textiles. After completing their training, the women are urged to economically strengthen themselves through cooperatives and coaching and mentorship programs to make their enterprises sustainable. The program also forges strong alliances with other entities around the nation and abroad. These collaborations allow trainees to interact with off-takers and a clientele for their goods [4]. Given time, such connections provide an excellent chance for designers and entrepreneurs who wish to develop their trademarks by utilizing local arts and traditions in hopes of attracting local, regional, and worldwide clients. Furthermore, the Burundi Investment Promotion Authority (API) thinks that the effort would boost the agricultural industry by encouraging the growth of indigenous cotton, a raw material used to produce most clothes and textiles [5].

4.3.2 Fashionomics Africa Initiative The textile and apparel industries in Africa have enormous economic potential. Some experts say the continent’s retail economy is roughly $1.3 trillion. Carbon information disclosure is of particular interest worldwide, and there has been significant development to address this topic [6, 7]. Nevertheless, agencies such as the United Nations Environmental Program and climate science experts claim that the industry is a severe environmental threat, representing about 10% of global carbon emissions. African governments can capitalize on the industry’s potential while minimizing environmental and climate change implications and promoting circular economy initiatives, and this can be implemented by incorporating some of these measures into higher institutions learning curricula [8]. This initiative aims to create a more sustainable, digital, and circular textile and apparel supply chain by instituting progressive changes that challenge the dominant business model of “fast fashion,” whereby companies mass-produce low-cost knock-offs of current catwalk market trends and high-fashion styles for sale when demand is most significant. This effort will shift the textile industry away from mass-manufacturing throwaway things and toward making items that can be used for a prolonged time before reusing or recycling [8, 9].

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Burundi entered a recession in 2020, partly due to the consequences of the COVID–19 epidemic. After increasing by 4.1% in 2019, real GDP dropped by 3.3%. The pandemic had the most significant impact on the industry, which witnessed a 4.5% drop in output, and services saw a 1.8% drop in output compared to 2019. This plan would benefit the country if it were to be implemented.

4.4 Investment in Textile and Fashion in Higher Education The textile and garment industries are well renowned for their ability to drive Africa’s economic restructuring and produce several of the employment opportunities that are required. A secure future depends on the growth of labor-intensive industries such as manufacturing, services, and agriculture. Integrating creative industry activities such as fashion and design into the higher education system might create new trade patterns for Burundi [4]. Creative sectors like textiles and fashion appeal to today’s increasingly linked youth, who want to explore new cultural frontiers via networking sites. Scholars in these fields of study would use their African culture and creativity as a unique selling point thus. These creative industries end up providing economic advantages while also serving as a tool for boosting Burundi’s multilateralism and identity [10]. The textile and garment sector has enormous potential for value addition and employment growth [11]. Up to 600% of value may be produced along the cotton value chain, which includes cotton production, spinning and twisting into yarn, weaving, knitting into fabric, dyeing, printing, and designing. From production to marketing, the fashion business is a hugely valuable sector, and new employment and income can be produced at every step of the way [12]. Additionally, this sector is dominated by micro, small, and medium-sized firms (MSMEs), which can quickly provide respectable jobs for the qualified and unqualified workforce [13]. As per UNIDO, women have safeguarded and nurtured rich cultural values and traditional designs worldwide. Investment in textiles and fashion at higher learning institutes for professional growth to generate revenue in these fields results in enhanced economic productivity, independence, and social and political benefits for their society. Since women are actively engaged across the fashion value chain, we see enormous economic development opportunities in rural and urban areas [10]. There is hope that the ministry of education is working on programs that take a comprehensive approach to intervention, encompassing three areas of focus: higher education, technical and vocational education, and performance management. The initiative will develop new modules and training for faculty members at universities and textile colleges in the sphere of higher education within the country to bring in textiles engineering, fashion, and design. Inter-university collaboration events will take place in response to introducing textile and fashion courses at public universities to work on stand-alone undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate programs at multiple higher education institutions where textiles and fashion would have been incorporated [14].

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4.5 Reform and Development of Textile and Fashion Higher Education All institutes that deal with textiles and fashion must do all possible to keep their curricula up to date and generate well-prepared graduates for the future. The programs that students are pursuing must be designed to meet the needs of the textile and garment industries. Every course unit will be compared to world-renowned textile and fashion universities. There is always a need for area advisory boards, which are made up of specialists from relevant disciplines such as fashion design, fashion technology, fashion, and management, who are engaged in the development of course outlines or program structures, as well as any recommended revisions. Alums serve on these boards and contribute to the industry’s demands and expectations [14]. Faculty members must remain up to date on industry needs, while students must have industry mentors and complete a significant amount of fieldwork through nonteaching credit courses such as open-book projects, internships, and dissertations. Frequent assessment and feedback from designers and industry professionals should always be a priority, along with regular design workshops and coordinated educational tours and industry visits. There will also be interactive guest lectures by top fashion designers and textile experts from well-known companies. Collaboration with the manufacturing associations and fashion designers, who give scholars chances to make the courses more vocational and directly applicable to real-world fashion circumstances, is critical [14]. The textile and fashion sector constantly evolves into entities, necessitating reform and development to satisfy current and future industry demands. As a result, the higher education ecosystem must cater to every industry component. This might be the source of the apparent chasm. The fact is that few textile and fashion colleges provide poor educational opportunities. The issue is that they entirely focus on design, ignoring other aspects of fashion education like sales, manufacturing, and business administration [15].

4.6 Exchange and Cooperation of Burundi with China’s Higher Education 4.6.1 Overview of Internationalization of Higher Education Internationalization of higher education is understood as incorporating an international, multicultural, and global dimension into a university’s or higher education system’s aims, tutoring, research, and service duties.

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An internationalized institution does not have a single formula or set of metrics. Internationalization is a transformation process adapted to each academic institution’s specific needs and goals. As a result, there is no “one-size-fits-all” internationalization paradigm. Implementing a set of ‘in vogue’ aims and tactics for ‘marketing’ intentions undermines the idea that each program, institution, or country must establish its strategy for internationalization predicated on its own clearly expressed justifications, goals, and anticipated benefits [16]. In an actual sense, one can say internationalization of higher education is the pinnacle of global university affairs; therefore, it is no longer viewed as an end but as a way to increase educational quality [17].

4.6.2 Quality Concerns and Challenges Associated with Internationalization The need for foreign education is expected to increase to 7.2 million scholars by 2025, up from 1.2 million scholars in 2000. Student mobility will provide some, but not all, of this requirement. As a result, the number of new providers providing programs to students in their home countries is growing at an unprecedented rate. International mobility is no longer limited to students, staff, and researchers; curriculums are already being given across nations, and subsidiary institutions are being formed in developing and developed nations worldwide [16]. Even though these innovations are intended to increase access to higher education and fulfill the need for international certifications and jobs, there are serious worries regarding the quality of the academics, the legitimacy of the new types of providers, and certification validity. Students, parents, employers, and the academic community should indeed contend with the emergence of offshore degree mills, accreditation mills, and rogue for-profit providers. If you were to ask people two decades ago that the world’s education system would be grappling with fraudulent degrees and accolades, earned but unacknowledged educational credentials, and uncontrolled ‘fly by night’ entities, no one would dare to believe [18].

4.6.3 Internationalization Versus Regional Characteristics and Connection with the Local Community Internationalization recognizes and expands upon local, national, and regional interests, policies, and practices. Internationalization is meant to supplement, unify, and expand the local component rather than dominate it. If this underlying fact is not honored, there is a high risk of blowback and internationalization being perceived as a dominating force since the core concept of internationalization is to respect and capitalize on local culture and surroundings [16].

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The influence of new global educational mobility on acknowledging and advancing indigenous diversity is a contentious issue. Many individuals feel that contemporary information and communication technology, as well as the flow of people, ideas, and traditions across state borders, give new chances for promoting one’s culture to other nations and enhancing cultural fusion and hybridization. A significant advantage is a greater awareness of the cultural variety and potentially enhanced intercultural acceptance and communication skills [16].

4.6.4 Development Process and Current Situation of Educational Exchanges with China China and Burundi are two places on the globe with a couple of points of overlap and some significant disparities. The two entities have ancient civilizations with a rich and diversified cultural legacy representing a priceless contribution to humanity. Both China and Burundi are emerging countries that confront many shared difficulties that must be addressed via broad collaboration, notably in the educational area. Since 1949, China has been considered an ally and a model for newly independent African countries that have aspired to imitate and collaborate with China, notably in education. International collaboration is critical to achieving this goal [19]. Considering the country’s large-scale socio-political crises and lengthy civil strife that lasted over a decade, there was a pressing need to restore the capability of its institutions of higher learning with the assistance of international partners. In this environment, long-term collaboration efforts between Burundi and China have emerged in principle, specifically in higher education. Another sudden realization has been the construction and equipping of the Higher Normal School (Higher Teacher Training College) from the ground up to improve the quality of education in the country [20]. Regarding intellectual potential, China has a big, diverse, and multifaceted scholarly system that has progressively expanded with the establishment of private postsecondary schools and a huge number of industrial institutes in a wide range of fields, all of which have achieved outstanding results. A large and active academic diaspora, exchange of intellectuals with developed nations, and a huge percentage of Chinese students in overseas institutions bring back expertise and knowledge in several domains, occasionally attaining leadership roles in teaching and research, contributing to China’s high level of academic proficiency [19]. According to China and Africa, the globe is witnessing tremendous change not seen in a couple of centuries and has entered a period of instability and metamorphosis, while the COVID-19 epidemic hastens the development of the worldwide scene. At the same time, peace, development, and win–win collaboration are major trends, and countries are becoming progressively intertwined and interrelated. The two sides focus on creating a society with a shared sustainable future, creating an

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open, inclusive, clean, and beautiful world that enjoys lasting peace, universal security, and mutual benefits in order to nurture a unique form of foreign relations sense of mutual respect, equality, justice, and win–win collaboration, and to protecting the Chinese and African people’s shared interests [21]. Despite recent gains, China still has a long way toward reaching complete parity with developed countries in research and higher education. Hence the nation must learn fresh experiences and ideas via collaboration and interaction with advanced capitalist and middle-income countries and less developed countries such as Burundi. Academic collaboration between China and Africa began immediately after the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, with the awarding of scholarships to Egyptian students, quickly followed by African countries such as Burundi. The number of award recipients and self-sponsored researchers has been growing [22]. Since their independence in 1962, China and Burundi have maintained close working ties. The relationship was extended much further in June 1972 when the two nations entered a Memorandum Of understanding in the Economic, Commercial, Educational, and Technical Fields. Since that day, China has aided Burundi’s growth through various initiatives, notably financial assistance for constructing infrastructural sectors, such as education and healthcare. China was one of the few countries to stand by Burundi during the conflict, which lasted since 1993, while other nations immediately ceased relations. Joint Commissions meet regularly to assess accomplishments and progress and plan future cooperation tactics and goals [20]. The work done by the Confucius Institute since 2012 is noteworthy regarding social and academic interaction. Ideally located on the main campus of the University of Burundi, the institute has participated in several programs aimed at disseminating Chinese culture and language among the millennial population in many areas of this country.

4.6.5 Development of Confucius Institutes The Confucius Institute, regarded as the greatest global education cooperation project in human civilization and China’s greatest internationalization effort, focuses on promoting the learning of the Chinese language and the widespread adoption of Chinese culture worldwide. It is an “instrument of popular diplomacy” for Chinese foreign policy. The Confucius Institute is also regarded as a “state-sponsored and university-piloted sort of cultural outreach, a cooperative attempt to garner China a more compassionate worldwide response.” Since 2004, 541 Confucius Institutes and 1170 Confucius Classrooms have been built in 162 nations (regions) worldwide. In 46 African nations, 61 Confucius Institutes and 48 Confucius Classrooms have been established [19]. Since 2012, Chinese language education initiatives have existed in all four corners of the continent, most notably in Burundi. They are supported by the provision of books and resources and the building and equipping of Confucius Institutes. Most

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Fig. 4.1 Inauguration of the Confucius Institute in Bujumbura

are strategically placed on university campuses, where elites and professionals are trained and have the opportunity to have a national influence [23]. As seen in Fig. 4.1. on Monday, August 19, 2019, the University of Burundi unveiled the Confucius Institute, a structure built on the Mutanga campus premises. This institute serves a significant and ‘unique’ function in realizing the two nations’ cultural and educational exchanges. In recent times, there has been a renaissance of enthusiasm for the Chinese language and culture amongst youthful Burundians, according to the institution. The enrolments in Confucius Institutes are growing, and the institute’s accomplishments are clear, including awarding grants to study in China, training courses for local Chinese instructors, and job prospects for graduates [23]. Even though it is crystal clear that the scholars studying in these institutes are benefiting greatly, most western nations consider this as China’s approach to modernday colonization, resulting in some institutes closing [24].

4.6.6 Inter-School Communication with Chinese Universities Academic contribution from Chinese universities is of particular significance as Burundian educational institutions struggle to become pertinent to the requirements of a growing society. As a result, the Chinese University’s utilitarian and workoriented approach will be extremely valuable. On either side, it has been observed

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that Chinese universities could provide some rich elements of Confucian humanitarianism and ethical principles to strengthen local educational philosophy. The Burundi government will require collaboration and help from close allies like China to fulfill its goal of delivering equitable and high-quality education for all [19]. Cultural and educational exchange programs between Burundi and China have become a reality. Upon these principles of mutual respect, such profound relationships have planted the seeds of togetherness, solidarity, and mutual admiration between the two nations. Academic contribution from Chinese universities is particularly interested in academic collaboration, as Burundian school systems struggle to become self-confident and cater to the needs of a progressive society while hoping to avoid scientific overreliance on the west [19]. The continuous Chinese language training program, which includes hundreds of teenagers across the nation, has undoubtedly enhanced communication and contributed to Burundian elites’ understanding and appreciation of China’s rich cultural history. Consequently, trips to China by Burundian artists, students, and professors in the Humanities sector have increased to encourage awareness of Burundian vibrant cultural tradition among Chinese youngsters and grownups. It would also be good for both parties to have Chinese and Burundian youngsters visit one another’s schools, colleges, and local communities throughout this exercise [20].

4.7 The Direction of Higher Education Exchange and Cooperation in the Context of China-Africa Cooperation in Textile and Garment-Related Majors 4.7.1 Cooperation and Connections Between Regional Institutions The UN’s Sustainable Development Goals express the importance of fostering international collaboration. One of the partnership goals, for example, emphasized the need to increase international commitment to implement personalized and sustainable capacity-building in developing nations to help government plans to integrate all of the sustainable development goals, such as through North–South, South-South, and triangular cooperation. Higher education collaboration involving China and Africa began in 1956, when the newly created People’s Republic of China formed bilateral agreements with Egypt, resulting in the exchange of eight students and professors between the two nations. The interaction of students has grown over time, with fast growth in the number of African students in China in the twenty-first century. As per China’s Ministry of Education (MOE), from 2005 to 2015, the population of African students in China increased from 2,757 to 49,792, representing a 35% average yearly increment. This rapid expansion can only be justified by an awareness of Chinese government programs and education methods, like the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation

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(FOCAC). The 20 + 20 Cooperation plan established by China’s Ministry of Education has resulted in collaboration among 20 Chinese and 20 African Universities in 17 African countries [25]. To internationalize postsecondary studies, the Chinese government targeted recruiting 500,000 international students between 2010 and 2020, with 150,000 participating in degree programs. As to the Ministry of Education, by 2015, the country had achieved tremendous progress, with 397,635 international students, 12.5% of whom were African. The number of African students studying in China continues to rise year after year, demonstrating China’s commitment to higher education exchange with African countries like Zimbabwe, Malawi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, CongoBrazzaville, Benin, Liberia, Zambia, Burundi, Sudan, and South Africa and recent, the scholarships being given in the textile and apparel processing and design majors is increasing [20]. A common misconception regarding cooperation and exchanges due to the internationalization of higher education is that the bigger a university’s majority of international partnerships or network affiliations, the more reputable and appealing it is to other schools and students. However, several institutions cannot manage or even reap out of a hundred or more partnerships, as experience has shown. Independent faculty members, departments, and foreign offices must spend significant financial and human resources to sustain active and successful connections. As a result, the extensive list of foreign partners frequently represents paper-based commitments rather than fruitful collaborations. The international agreements list seems more of a status symbol than a record of functioning academic cooperation since quantity is seen as more significant than quality [16].

4.7.2 Impact of Sino-Africa Cooperation on Africa’s Textile and Apparel Industry Enhanced scholarly performance, outward-looking students and faculty, and regional and global residency for students and faculty from developing countries are all advantages of Sino-Africa cooperation and exchange. Raising revenue and brain gain are probable upsides for some industrialized economies which have invested in the textile and apparel industry since China’s higher education programs are comparable to none. Other significant advantages of this cooperation include broadening and improving the educational and ecological integrity of domestic students, the university, and the country. Furthermore, it can alter the lives of international students by generating professionals who are globally informed and cross-culturally aware [17]. For over a decade, China has been the world’s top garment maker and supplier [26]. China’s garment exports soared after the century, owing to the World Trade Organization’s resolution to abolish textile quotas. In 2018, the country contributed to over 50% of global textile and garment productivity and, thus, over 30% of global

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garment exports. Nevertheless, China’s textile business has paused its growth in recent years to establish a more sustainable and technologically advanced industry. In contrast, its bilateral agreements with African nations have led to the establishment of several textile and garment companies, some of which are built by the Chinese government [27]. As a result of the expansion of the textile and apparel manufacturing factories in Africa, the number of grants and scholarships being offered by the Chinese government is increasing. Some of the renowned universities where most scholars attend their undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate studies include; ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Anshan University of Science and Technology. Changchun University of Science and Technology. Beijing University of Chemical Technology. Guangdong Textile Polytechnic institute. Beijing Foreign Studies University. Hebei Textile Education Center. Beijing Materials Institute, and many others.

4.7.3 Scholarships that Foster Sino-Africa Cooperation and Exchange There are multiple grants and scholarships which the People’s Republic of China gives to African nationals to study in some of the top-notch textile and apparel institutions in China. Some of these are; Postgraduate Scholarship from MOFCOM The MOFCOM Postgraduate Fellowship is a Partial Funding international scholarship granted by the Chinese government to overseas students. Bilateral Chinese Government Scholarship Program This is a full-fee international fellowship granted by the Chinese government to overseas students. Those that are entitled to this grant include: All nationals (besides those from the People’s Republic of China) are welcome. This undergraduate, postgraduate, Ph.D., and Post Doctorate scholarship can be used to study any field offered by the listed institutions. Chinese Government Scholarship-Chinese University Program This is a fully-funded scholarship provided by the Chinese government to overseas students. All nationals who are not citizens of the People’s Republic of China are eligible for this scholarship.

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Provincial Government Scholarships The Provincial Government Scholarships are partially funded international scholarships the Chinese government provides overseas students. Only non-Chinese nationals are eligible for this scholarship. Almost every province has these scholarships Scholarship from the Confucius Institute Hanban/Confucius Institute Headquarters founded the Confucian Institute Scholarship Program to boost the long-term advancement of international Chinese studies. Those who win the scholarship are accepted as advanced students at Beijing International Studies University. Aspirants must be non-Chinese nationals between the ages of 16 and 35 in excellent health. University Scholarships This is a prestigious Chinese scholarship available to undergraduate and postgraduate students. It is one of China’s most sought-after scholarships, comparable to Confucius’s scholarships.

4.8 Why is Burundi Best Suited to Cooperate for Textile Education? Reasons that Make Burundi the Ideal Country to Cooperate for Textile Education Burundi’s recent history has been characterized by political turmoil and conflict. However, scholars are venturing into new fields of study, which provides them with new, unique options for the long-term sustainable progress of the state. They are committed to contributing to the industrialization of the economy and hopefully improving the country’s economic outlook. Burundi, as a developing nation, is at the point where it is willing and capable of experimenting with business models that fit effectively for natives and must aim to forge its path for economic progress. Young academics continue to encounter several challenges. Finding appropriate financial assistance to finance their study is a major challenge, and at times even institutional sponsorship is a possibility. The Sino-Africa collaboration and exchange are best suited for countries that are ready to adapt and try new things, resulting in an improved higher education profile and the introduction of new commercial opportunities in creative industries like the textile and apparel sector. Burundi University’s Chinese Confucius Institute is doing a lot to disseminate mandarin in the country. Since its inception in 2012, the institute has drawn over 6,000 Burundians who felt the need to learn Mandarin and experience Chinese culture. Many Burundian students of the Chinese language have praised the institute’s influence on their lives, with numerous alums saying the Confucius Institute not only teaches Mandarin but also broadens people’s perspectives on social and

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career potential. This pre-existing beneficial bilateral agreement between Burundi and China makes it ideal for textile education cooperation with the largest producer and supplier of textiles and apparel [15]. Burundi’s business climate is improving significantly. Investors in Burundi are trying to establish a strong business ecosystem. This is particularly true in the burgeoning fashion and textile sectors. Since the internet era has rendered markets more accessible, it is an extraordinary moment for the economy to invest in new ventures. Textile education collaboration could aid in developing “international traits” in students that are desirable in a global economy, such as internationalmindedness and open-mindedness, second or third-language competency, the versatility of thought, acceptance, and compassion toward others. This phenomenon also fosters ethical commitment, allowing students to explore their subjective and objective ideas and build a feeling of duty and civic involvement, many of which might boost the economy greatly [17]. The textile industry is an important part of the economy in many Asian nations, accounting for up to 80% of export earnings depending on the country, given that the issues confronting Burundi’s textile sector are similar to those confronting Asian countries, namely providing good working conditions and decreasing environmental consequences. As the sector expands, local production businesses, business groups, relevant ministries, trade unions, civic society, and worldwide fashion brands must strengthen textile education collaboration with Asian nations, particularly China, since Burundi could benefit by copying a few things on how to boost quality and productivity as well as some feasible environmental protection initiatives that can cut across in Burundi [28].

4.9 Conferences, Seminars, Journals, and Magazines Related to the Textile and Fashion of Burundi 4.9.1 International Publications Which Cover Burundi’s Textile and Fashion Industry Some of the renowned media which release timely information on the textile and fashion industry of Burundi are; The International Textile and Apparel Association Conference This conference was held on November 18–20, 2020, and was organized by the International Textile and Apparel Association. The conference featured topics that encourage the discovery, distribution, and utilization of information, as well as the fundamental industry tools required for participants to develop their management and delivery of services to the community. As an online conference that accepts participants from around the world, it was attended by several Burundi scholars and industry experts [29].

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Journal of Textile Engineering & Fashion Technology This consensus scientific magazine strives to present the most comprehensive and accurate source of information about textilepedia discoveries and current advances. The journal’s coverage primarily encompasses textile materials and their production and manufacturing of all types of textile fabric and yarns from textile fibers [30]. Textile Value Chain This online magazine is a platform where articles relating to the textile industry from multiple countries are posted. On September 8, 2020, an article titled ‘Global Textiles’ was posted, and it covered Burundi’s folk costume, fashion, and Burundi dyeing (Fig. 4.2). This magazine article shed in-depth insight into key aspects of Burundian culture related to textiles and fashion. It emphasized Burundians’ attire, which primarily comprises pagnes (wraparounds), which are regarded as the most practical costumes for residents in rural regions, but in Bujumbura, many choose to wear “designer” Burundi apparel [31].

Fig. 4.2 Kitenge wraparounds (Left), Men’s designer shirt (Right)

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Fibre2Fashion Magazine The Fibre2Fashion Magazine is the key industry publication for the entire textile sector, with an international influence in presenting current technological developments and trend-driven content with extensive distribution. This magazine provides up-to-date information on Burundi’s textile, apparel, and fashion industry. textileinfomedia This is an online data repository for the textile industry, a typical modern-day textile B2B trade portal & local business listing site. It covered a publication on the textile industry In Burundi, giving general textile and apparel business overview. Kohan Textile Journal As a major textile publication, Kohan Textile Journal strives to feature both Middle Eastern and African textile stories. It gathers and disseminates the most recent textile articles from the Middle East and Africa.

4.9.2 Burundi’s Local Textile and Fashion Magazines A few of the magazines and publication sites that cover fashion and textiles include; Jimbere Magazine Jimbere magazine was established in 2016 by a group of young Burundian reporters; it is a monthly newspaper envisioned as a genuine media outlet that contributes wholesomely to training, educating, and entertaining young people and women in Burundi on fashion. Afrizion.com This is an online daily fashion magazine. It publishes stories on new fashion trends and clothing and features new faces of African fashion modeling. Bujumbura Fashion Week This event is organized for the ladies to showcase the latest fashion, and this event is so prestigious since it attracts many tourists. The best fashions are included in the Burundi tourism guide and other magazines like ‘Beautiful Burundi’ (Fig. 4.3).

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Fig. 4.3 Fashions that were showcased in the magazine ‘Beautiful Burundi’

4.10 Investment Opportunity in the Textile Sector in Burundi 4.10.1 Investment in Textile Agriculture, i.e., Plantation of Natural Fibers Natural fibers drove the textile industry until the advent of synthetic fibers. Cotton is the most important cellulosic fiber, followed by flax, jute, sisal, and hemp [32]. In 1990, the overall quantity of global cotton production was 87.2 million 480-pound bales. Having soared in 2011, production was approximately 126,590 bales; as of 2014, it was at 115,921 bales [33] (Fig. 4.4). Cotton is the main natural fiber grown in Burundi in a reasonable quantity. However, the cotton situation in Burundi is similar to the political atmosphere: it is dire. Indeed, in 20 years, the nation’s output decreased from 9,000 tons to 2,300 tons from 1993 to 2014. The continuous reduction in cotton prices, which exacerbated growers’ dissatisfaction with this crop, is the basis of this problem. Some may argue it seems the single advantage of Burundian cotton is that its grade remains unchanged, facilitating the fiber’s marketing. The land allocated for growing cotton was reduced from 10,000 ha. (in 1920) to 2,500 ha. (in 2020). To address the issue, the State of Burundi recently began a strategy to revitalize the industry, to meet the demands of local, regional, and worldwide textile producers by increasing production to at least 5,000 tons over nine years. It intends to extend cotton production land to at least 12,000 ha. This concept provides tremendous opportunities for the textile industry. For many years, most used garments in Burundi have been imported. In 2018, for example, it was worth more than 62 billion BIF. Establishing cotton planting and manufacturing facilities in the Zone Economique Speciale Burundi (ZES Burundi) will therefore assist in enhancing cotton output and changing the status quo [34].

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Fig. 4.4 Cotton bolls ready for harvest

The flow market is enormous. EAC nations do not have fine cotton to sustain their plants, which always run at 35–40% of their peak capability. In 2017, the bloc’s apparel sector imported 282 million dollars, three times the total volume of exports registered over the corresponding timeframe. Since the EAC nations want to eliminate the importation of used clothes to improve their textile industries, this presents a massive opportunity for textile entrepreneurs registered in ZES Burundi, which is part of the East African community [34].

4.10.2 Investment in the Traditional Textile Industry—Factors that Drive Investments in the Traditional Textile Industry Just about all produced consumer items in Burundi are outsourced. In 2019, textile imports totaled US$ 52 million, significantly higher than the country’s earnings from equivalent product exports. The above statistics provide several prospects for local, regional, and worldwide investors. They might then begin establishing production enterprises and corporate agribusiness in ZES Burundi. ZES Burundi provides resources for agro-processing enterprises (or any processing sector) and its close link to worldwide markets, allowing generated commodities to meet their objectives without needing multiple intermediaries [34]. Several elements entice investment in traditional textiles in Burundi: competent and wage-competitive labor; ideal location with unprecedented access to markets in DRC, Zambia, and Tanzania; as well as an unrivaled abundance of resources like land,

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Fig. 4.5 Winder rewinding tapes for the braider (Left) and a braider (Right)

freshwater, forestry, and plenty still awaiting discovery all of which could positively boost the textile sector [34]. Irrespective of the manufacture of apparel and other textile materials, multiple companies in the country also manufactures other polymer textile products like ropes through processes like braiding. A typical polypropylene tape-winding and braiding machine can be depicted in Fig. 4.5. Burundi, a member of the EAC and CEMAC, connects East and Central Africa (two evergreen regions of typical equatorial climate with temperatures hovering around 28 degrees throughout the year). More notably, this nation shares 1,140 km (710 miles) of the frontier with the DRC (88 million people), Tanzania (55 million people), and Zambia (15 million), as well as the greater COMESA region, which has a collective population of roughly 530 million people [34]. Burundi’s investment in the traditional textile industry can be depicted by looking at the top 10 textile exports by country (Table 4.1).

4.10.3 Problems Faced by Complexe Textile Du Burundi (Burundi Textile Company) A review of the historical record reveals that the textile and apparel sector is dealing with various critical difficulties that must be resolved to improve its competitiveness and contribute to the nation’s economic development. Perhaps, if some of these challenges are resolved, investment in this sector will result in some remarkable economic advantages. These issues are;

86 Table 4.1 Burundi’s top 10 textile export countries (Source: https://www.textilein fomedia.com/textile-industryin-burundi)

N. Ildephonse Country

Export value (in a million $)

Exporter share percentage (%)

D.R.C

0.29

83.75

Rwanda

0.02

5.69

Tanzania

0.02

5.44

Uganda

0.01

4.26

Netherlands

0

0.18

Italy

0

0.1

South Africa

0

0.1

Ghana

0

0.09

Kenya

0

0.09

Belgium

0

0.09

● Imported synthetic apparel, which is less expensive and has a wider range of designs, poses a threat to locally produced textile products. ● Second-hand garment imports, which now amount to about 2,500–3,500 tons per year, pose a threat. However, the country has imposed high tariffs on second-hand goods to support local businesses. ● Excessive production expenses, mostly due to a too big and incompetent workforce, as well as high energy usage (fuel and electricity cost the company more than cotton fiber) ● Poor management. Stocks are excessive and have an impact on working capital requirements. Budgetary management is insufficient, and there is no financial planning or forecasting, which is unusual for a firm of COTEBU’s size with such volatile activities.

4.10.4 Investment in the Hi-Tech Industry High-tech ventures operate in a non-traditional manner, with an obsessive focus on cognitive equity and organizational heritage, along with significant investment risk, defining that the hi-tech sector is associated with a high degree of technologyintensive, high input, high risks, and high potential return [35]. The tech world offers unavoidably large investment potential for a growing nation like Burundi. It is the market’s largest single sector, dwarfing all others. Above all, technology firms are connected with creativity and ingenuity. Investors anticipate significant R&D investments by technology businesses but also a consistent torrent of progress driven by a stream of creating unique products, services, and functionalities [36]. These goods and services are subsequently spread all across the business ecosystem. There seems to be no area of the contemporary economy unaffected

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by tech and does not depend on it to increase quality, productivity, and profitability [35]. Within the vast and cumbersome technological world, four important “mega sectors” may be identified: semiconductors, software, networking, and hardware. Almost all the tech business falls into one of these four mega areas; software development accounts for the majority of SMEs in Burundi. The increment in the number of scholars from Burundi studying in developed countries like the UK, USA, Norway, and China has played a big role in the upheaval of the Hi-Tech sector in the country since, technologically, those developed countries are using the latest tech there is.

4.11 Conclusion Most students in Burundi prefer enrolling in public universities for the reasons mentioned above. Very few institutions within the country provide textile and fashion education to interested parties. However, many projects like FEMCOM/COMFWB help to educate textile enthusiasts. The textile and apparel industries offer significant potential for value development and job creation. The cotton value chain, which includes cotton production, spinning and twisting into yarn, weaving, knitting into fabric, dyeing, printing, and designing, may generate up to 600% of the value. The fashion industry is a very lucrative sector, from manufacturing to marketing, and new jobs and cash may be generated at every step of the process, which explains why the number of fashion and clothing SMEs being established in Burundi is increasing daily. Given that the day-to-day need of the consumers influences the textile and fashion curriculum, it is adamant about making sure all the course units for textile and fashion courses are up to date and must always be compared to world-renowned textile and fashion institutions. Even though not many people want to say it out loud, in theory, internalization of higher education is more like a process of incorporating a multinational, multicultural, or global component into the goal, purposes, or provision of higher education. In practice, however, it resembles an operation of monetizing research and higher education, as well as competitive conditions for skilled international students from wealthy and influential nations to maximize revenue, building worldwide recognition and guaranteeing a country’s profile in the long run. Since 1949, China has been and is considered an ally and a model for newly independent African countries that have aspired to imitate and collaborate with China, notably in the sphere of education. Burundi’s collaboration with China is considered critical for achieving economic and educational prosperity, making the current educational exchanges with china as good as they can ever be. China, like most western countries, also uses Africa as a source of raw materials for their factories; thus, this cooperation creates a win–win situation since the countries that supply China with the raw materials they need also end up benefiting financially.

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The Confucius Institute encourages the study of the Chinese language and the propagation of Chinese culture worldwide. For Chinese foreign policy, it is a “tool of popular diplomacy.” Since 2012, more than 60 Chinese language education programs have been established in 46 African nations. The number of projects China runs in Africa is expected to increase with time. The inter-school communication between Chinese and Burundian universities is nearly perfect since Burundi’s administration always seeks participation and assistance from allies such as China. In an attempt to promote local educational philosophy, Chinese universities instill some of the rich aspects of Confucian humanitarianism and ethical values into Burundian scholars and the fact that both Chinese and Burundian students constantly visit each other’s schools, institutions, and towns is making the relationship and communication between institutions from these countries get better day by day. The higher education collaboration between Chinese and African institutions, which began in 1956, is highly emphasized by the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals since it is believed that North–South, South-South, and triangular cooperation between institutions of learning from different countries can help government plans to integrate all of the sustainable development goals. The positive direction taken by this cooperation and exchange between African and Chinese institutions can be attributed to the impact of the bilateral agreement between China and most African countries. Sino-Africa Cooperation in Africa’s textile and apparel industry enhanced academic performance and increments in grants and scholarships being offered by the Chinese government. Although many scholars believe China is not awarding scholarships to African students out of love, it is the first phase of a new form of contemporary colonization. Textile education collaboration and exchange are best suited for countries ready to adapt and try new things, resulting in an improved higher education profile and new commercial opportunities in creative industries like the textile and apparel sector. As a developing nation, Burundi is at the point where it is willing and capable of experimenting with business models that fit effectively for natives and must aim to forge its path for economic progress, making this textile education cooperation ideal for it. However, the Confucius Institute should be given much credit since it has aided and abetted Burundi’s cooperation with China. Of all the international textile and apparel discussion forums and data powerhouses that cover textile and apparel-related conference proceedings, journal articles, and other critical textile-related stories, only the International Textile and Apparel Association Conference and online data repositories like Textile Value Chain, Journal of Textile Engineering & Fashion Technology, Fibre2Fashion Magazine, textileinfomedia, and the Kohan Textile Journal provide timely information regarding Burundi’s textile and apparel industry. This is a clear call for more online platforms covering Burundi’s textile industry to give scholars within the region the to brainstorm and find nation-specific solutions to problems facing the country’s textile sector. As it was clearly stated, between 1993 and 2014, Burundi’s cotton output fell from 9,000 tons to 2,300 tons. Based on this data, it is evident that the EAC nations do not have enough cotton to support their factories, which always operate at 35–40%

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of their maximum capacity. Investment in the plantation of cotton in ZES Burundi would therefore help to boost cotton output and change the status quo of the textile industry in general. The fact that the textile imports in 2019 totaled US$ 52 million, which is significantly higher than the country’s earnings from equivalent product exports, is evidence enough for investment in the traditional textile industry since there seems to be a market that is not being utilized. The nation shares 1,140 km (710 miles) of the frontier with the DRC, Tanzania, and Zambia, as well as the greater COMESA region, which is another push factor that has convinced entrepreneurs to invest in the textile sector. The Hi-Tech sector being an unconventional industry characterized by intense attention to cognitive equity and organizational legacy, as well as high financial risk, is the perfect investment sector for Burundi since there is no sector of the modern economy that is untouched by technology and not rely on it to improve quality, productivity, and/or profitability. However, this country has most of its SMEs focused on software development and networking, but with time the semiconductors and hardware section will also be exhausted.

4.12 Recommendation Most students in Burundi prefer going to public universities because it is known for enrolling only crème de la crème applicants. Efforts should be made to reduce the year and a half time lag between finishing secondary education and joining the university, which is known to make some students choose to continue their education at private colleges, some of which provide sub-par courses. The government of Burundi should try to increase the number of institutions that provide textile and fashion-related programs like a bachelor of science in textile engineering and a Bachelor of Science in clothing technology. This might play a big part in lifting the nation’s economic status. To ensure that the textile and fashion institutions are providing updated courses, there is a need for area advisory boards, which should be made up of specialists from relevant disciplines such as textile factories, fashion design, fashion technology, and management. Students must have industry mentors and complete a significant amount of fieldwork. However much that there has been an influx in the number of scholars getting scholarships and studying in China, Burundi would benefit significantly if the number of Chinese scholars coming to the country also increased. This will give the foreign scholars the to see how things are done in the country and hopefully design courses better suited for the scholars from Burundi pursuing their higher education in China instead of courses that become almost irrelevant upon returning from China since it is clear that the two countries are at different phases of technological development. The government should encourage more environmentally friendly and ethical cotton by minimizing the damage to freshwater systems and encouraging the use of

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smart irrigation technology as well as more eco-friendly growing methods, as well as collaborating with farmers, government agencies, buyers, and investment firms at critical phases of the supply network from the field to the clothing store. Since the Hi-tech industry has not been that exploited in Burundi, investors should focus more on opening up businesses that develop semiconductors and hardware since these two have the least number of establishments in Burundi.

References 1. United States Agency for International Development. (2016). Education fact sheet–Burundi, 580, 2. 2. Nizigama, C. (2020). Higher education systems and institutions, Burundi. In The international encyclopedia of higher education systems and institutions. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-0178905-9_440 3. AFDB. (2022). Fashionomics Africa initiative offers insights on creating a more sustainable, digital and circular textile and fashion value chain. Retrieved from www.afdb.org; https:// www.afdb.org/en/news-and-events/fashionomics-africa-initiative-offers-insights-creatingmore-sustainable-digital-and-circular-textile-and-fashion-value-chain-49348 4. Chain, T. V. (2020). Culture of Burundi. Retrieved from textilevaluechain.in: https://textileva luechain.in/in-depth-analysis/articles/textile-articles/burundi/ 5. COMFWB. (2020). COMFWB looks to empower women in Burundi textile industry. Retrieved from www.comfwb.org; https://www.comfwb.org/post/comfwb-looks-to-empowerwomen-in-burundi-textile-industry 6. Wu, D., & Memon, H. (2022). Public pressure, environmental policy uncertainty, and enterprises’ environmental information disclosure. Sustainability, 14, 6948. 7. Wu, D., Zhu, S., Memon, A. A., & Memon, H. (2020). Financial attributes, environmental performance, and environmental disclosure in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 8796. 8. AGOA. (2020). The African growth and opportunity act. In Diversity and U.S. Foreign policy. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203487044-40 9. Memon, H., Ayele, H. S., Yesuf, H. M., & Sun, L. (2022). Investigation of the physical properties of yarn produced from textile waste by optimizing their proportions. Sustainability, 14, 9453. 10. Han, K., Dr. (n.d.). Textile engineering & fashion technology. Retrieved from https://medcra veonline.com/JTEFT/ 11. Yan, X., Chen, L., & Memon, H. (2022). Introduction. In X. Yan, L. Chen & H. Memon (Eds.), Textile and fashion education internationalization: A promising discipline from South Asia (pp. 1–12). Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore. 12. Memon, H., Jin, X., Tian, W., & Zhu, C. (2022). Sustainable textile marketing—Editorial. Sustainability, 14, 11860. 13. Teli, M. D., Valia, S. P., Maurya, S., & Shitole, P. (2015). sustainability based upcycling and value addition of textile apparels. International Journal of Applied and Physical Sciences, 1(3). https://doi.org/10.20469/ijaps.50002-3 14. Drake, J. (2018). Budding businesses. Retrieved from www.dandc.eu; https://www.dandc.eu/ en/article/burundi-smes-want-make-difference 15. Yang, R. (2014). China’s strategy for the internationalization of higher education: An overview. Frontiers of Education in China, 9(2). https://doi.org/10.3868/s110-003-014-0014-x 16. fibre2fashion. (2020). FEMCOM project to empower women in Burundi textile sector. Retrieved from www.fibre2fashion.com; https://www.fibre2fashion.com/news/textile-news/ femcom-project-to-empower-women-in-burundi-textile-sector-269368-newsdetails.htm

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N. Ildephonse Nibikora Ildephonse Dr. Nibikora Ildephonse is the Deputy Dean of the Faculty of Engineering from January 2021, Senior Lecturer since 2017, Head of the Department of Textile and Ginning Engineering from 2014 to December 2020, and Lecturer from 2012 to 2017 at Busitema University’s Faculty of Engineering. He received his Ph.D. in 2011 and M.Sc. in 2007 in Textile Engineering from Donghua University in Shanghai, China. In 1999, he received his Bachelor of Science in Agronomy Engineering from the University of Burundi. His research interests include textile process optimization, modeling and simulation, and textile materials engineering with various applications.

Chapter 5

Uganda Textile Education and Industry: The Current Status and Investment Opportunities Mike Tebyetekerwa, Innocent Tendo Mugaanire, and Shengyuan Yang

Abstract This chapter introduces the reader to Uganda, her current economic facts, the textile education and industry. Uganda’s current economic status is considered progressing courtesy of the conducive government policies for investment, fast and hustle-free business registration, long-term political stability and skilled human resource. This chapter is focused mainly on Uganda’s current textile industry and education. It reveals to the reader that the Uganda textile industry is one of the key players in Uganda’s economic development. It employs numerous citizens across its textile, apparel and fashion value chain, both directly and indirectly. The chapter further shows that the country’s textile industry is mainly supported by the everimproving Uganda textile education, whose overview has been provided mainly at the higher education level. In addition, the problems facing Uganda’s textile higher education sector are also discussed. Furthermore, details of the exchange and cooperation of Uganda’s higher education, mainly with China, are provided. Lastly, a case study focused on the value addition of Uganda’s cotton as an investment opportunity is detailed. Keywords Uganda · Textile · Education · Economy · Investment · Africa · China

M. Tebyetekerwa (B) Dow Centre for Sustainable Engineering Innovation, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia e-mail: [email protected] I. T. Mugaanire · S. Yang State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, People’s Republic of China © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2023 X. Yan et al. (eds.), Quality Education and International Partnership for Textile and Fashion, SDGs and Textiles, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-99-1320-6_5

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5.1 Preamble 5.1.1 Uganda The Republic of Uganda is strategically located in the East-African region in the Sub-Saharan Africa part of Africa at the Equator (Fig. 5.1). It is bordered by the Republic of Kenya in the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the west, the Republic of South Sudan in the north, the United Republic of Tanzania in the south, and the Republic of Rwanda and the Republic of Burundi in the south-west. This locality gives Uganda a strong base for regional investment, trade and a conducive climate and environment. As a country, Uganda is known for its rich and fertile soils, which receive enormous rainfall and favorable temperatures (average annual temperature is about 26 °C). Therefore, several crops can be organically grown. In addition, Uganda enjoys ample natural geologic mineral resources base such as bismuth, clay, columbite (tantalite), copper, gold, iron ore, mica, petroleum, salt, uranium, and vermiculite and oil (recently found) [1].

5.1.2 The Economy Over the past years, Uganda’s economy has witnessed considerable development from the private sector, courtesy of the government’s conducive policies related to liberalization, diversification, industrialization, and integration of the economy [2, 3]. The Uganda government has continuously addressed the underlying development and investment challenges with several policies, laws and institutional reforms to create profitable and sustainable economic growth enabling large-scale poverty reduction amongst citizens and a better investment arena for foreign capital with more savings and fewer risks [4]. One of these policies, laws and reforms include the National Investment Policy, 2018 (NIP) [5]. The NIP goal is to accelerate investment growth and diversification of Uganda’s socio-economic transformation enabling a gross domestic product (GDP) increase from 23 to 30% by 2030 to 40% by 2040. The NIP is part of Vision 2040, in which Uganda seeks to transform from a low-income to a competitive upper-middle-income economy. In terms of GDP distribution, in 2020, agriculture contributed around 23.93% to the GDP of Uganda, 26.49% came from the industry, and 42.84% from the services sector (Fig. 5.2) [6]. Among the existing and well-performing industries are food and mineral processing, beverage production, textile, apparel and fashion production, fish processing, and construction. The textile, apparel and fashion industry are unique among these as it employs at least 10% of Uganda’s population, mostly women and youth, across the value chain, even with little or no education [7]. Therefore, it is a critical industry based on which poverty alleviation can be leveraged toward the country’s middle-income status. Beyond direct employment, the textile, apparel and fashion industry can employ an extra 2%

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Fig. 5.1 Map of Uganda showing its neighboring countries

of the country’s population indirectly, for example, as educators, policy managers, security and many others.

5.1.3 The Uganda Textile Industry The textile, apparel and fashion industry are vital in improving the economy of Uganda. This explains why for many years, the Uganda government has vested efforts in ensuring that Uganda is an active member of various textile and clothing trading markets that include but are not limited to the East African Customs Union and the East Africa Community (EAC) for single customs territory, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa for the free-trade zone, the Economic Partnership Agreement for Europe market access, the African Growth and Opportunity Act for

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Fig. 5.2 Uganda’s GDP distribution in 2020

enhanced market access to the USA, and others that guarantee broad market access potential for her textile products manufactured at home. However, access to these broad markets has been constrained by the inability to meet the demands of the supply and quality of textile products required [2]. Therefore, this calls for the need for textile education amongst the citizens and increased investment in the country in this particular sector. Within the country, several major textile associations are working with the government to improve the textile sector, such as the Cotton Development Organization (CDO), the Uganda Ginners and Cotton Exporters Association (UGCEA), the Uganda Cotton Seed Processors’ Association (UCOPA), the Uganda Manufacturers Association (UMA), the Uganda Textile Society and many others. Uganda’s textile, apparel and fashion sector are also subdivided into these specific industries, i.e., textile, apparel and fashion. The textile sector is dominated by three major industry players, which include mainly: The Southern Range Nyanza, Phoenix Logistics, and Fine Spinners Ltd. The apparel sector is an informal sector mainly run by local manufacturers and private citizens, with typical businesses having approximately 1–10 employees. For the case of the fashion industry is relatively new and promising in the country and relies on the success of the textile and apparel sectors for survival. It mainly employs creative individuals, which are predominantly youth [8, 9].

5.1.4 The Uganda Textile Education Textile education is key to solving the scarcity of quality human resource problems, greatly affecting Uganda’s textile, apparel, and fashion industry and hence obtaining quality textile products. Textile education in Uganda can be broadly categorized into two, i.e., formal and informal education (Fig. 5.3). Formal textile education involves training and learning from award providing institutions such as universities and colleges authorized and accredited by the Ministry of Education and Sports together

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Fig. 5.3 Schematic tree representation of Uganda’s textile higher education

with the National Council for Higher Education. These mainly include Kyambogo University, Busitema University and Nkumba University. Makerere University only provides short-term courses that are part of the Bachelor of Fine Arts program. Students can get state-of-the-art scientific and technical knowledge across all the textile, apparel, and fashion sectors through these institutions. Informal education is the practical and hands-on training provided by the private industries such as Southern Range Nyanza, Phoenix Logistics, and Fine Spinners Ltd, non-government organizations (NGOs) such as CEDAC, Textile development authority (TEXDA), governmental organizations such as Uganda Industrial Research Institute (UIRI), and expert individuals with extended practical experience in the trade. Industrial organizations give technical expertise to their workers and individuals across all the processes available at their plants, such as weaving, spinning, dyeing, tailoring and many others. The NGOs and expert individuals usually provide training in only sewing and printing or branding related skills to the citizens willing to learn and gain skills. The following sections detail the overview of textile in higher education in Uganda.

5.2 Overview of Textile Higher Education in Uganda The current stringent customer demand for better quality and maximum production of textile products in Uganda’s local and international markets requires highly skilled and well-trained textile professionals. Well-trained citizens can revive and sustain the industry, as is the source of technical personnel with the ability to work with

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modern and state-of-the-art equipment for faster production. However, to get welltrained citizens in this arena, there is a need for continuous investment in textile education for skills development through formal and informal education. Formal education provides a holistic approach and is discussed more in the next sections of the chapter. Uganda has 13 major high-quality public universities, 5 military universities and over 39 private universities, with 3 other institutions in the category of “other-award” institutions. Amongst all these, only two universities have well-established departments for textile education and at only undergraduate degree and diploma levels. These include Kyambogo University and Busitema University, which both are public universities. Kyambogo University’s textile programs are housed under the Faculty of Science and the Faculty of Vocational Studies. Moreover, Busitema University’s textiles programs are hosted at the department of textile and ginning engineering at the faculty of engineering. On a small scale, there are other few universities that have recently started offering formal textile education at their campuses. These include Nkumba University and Makerere University. Details of the courses provided in specific universities are provided in Table 5.1, indicating the minimum requirements for admission and their study duration.

5.3 Curriculum Content of the Textile Programs The course content for all diploma programs is drawn as part of the courses in bachelor programs. Therefore, in this section, attention has been given to undergraduate programs, except for standalone short courses offered at Makerere University under their Bachelor of Fine Arts, which are offered individually and not as full undergraduate programs.

5.3.1 Bachelor of Science in Textile and Clothing Technology, Kyambogo University This is the oldest textile program in Uganda which was first introduced in 2004. Since then, it has been providing students with the required levels of technical training, skills and competence in product technology, production processes, industrial operation management and marketing for the different textile sectors. The program is made up of different course units running in a semester mode across 4 years. At the end of the program, students are expected to be able to start up their own businesses as fashion designers, clothing technologists, academicians/researchers or work as part of a team in the different departments of the textile industries and other related fields. The different course units of the program are as follows: First Year: Introduction to textile fibers, communication skills and humanities, chemistry for textiles,

Vocational studies

Industrial Art and Design

Faculty Science

Department

Chemistry

University

Kyambogo University

Table 5.1 Textile programs offered at accredited universities in Uganda Duration

2 Principal Passes at A’level obtained at the same sitting, one of which must be either Art or Home Economics 1 Principal Pass in Art and 2 subsidiary passes at A’level obtained in the same sitting 1 Principal Pass in Art and 2 subsidiary passes at A’level obtained at the same sitting

Bachelor of Textile and Apparel Design

Diploma in Textile Design and Technology Diploma in Fashion and Apparel Design

(continued)

2 years

2 years

3 years

1 Principal Pass in any science 2 years subject and 2 subsidiary passes obtained at the same sitting

4 years

Diploma in Textile Design and Technology

Requirements for admission 2 Principal Passes at A’level including Chemistry, Physics or Mathematics or Clothing and Textile obtained at the same sitting

Programs Bachelor of Science in Textile and Clothing Technology

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Faculty Engineering

Department

Textile and ginning engineering

University

Busitema University

Table 5.1 (continued) Essential: Two best done of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry Relevant: Third best done of the essential set or one better done of Geography and Economics Desirable: General Paper and Sub-Maths or Computer Studies Note: Candidates who did not take Chemistry at the “A” Level should have passed it with at least a Credit 6 at the “O” Level Essential: One better done of Mathematics and Physics Relevant: Chemistry and next better done of Mathematics and Physics Desirable: General Paper and Sub-Maths or Computer Studies

Diploma in Ginning and Industrial Engineering

Requirements for admission

Bachelor of Science in Polymer, Textile and Industrial Engineering

Programs

(continued)

2 years

4 years

Duration

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Art and design

Makerere University

School of commercial art and design

Faculty

College of Engineering, Design, Art and Technology

Other textile-related courses (non-award)

Department

University

Nkumba University

Table 5.1 (continued)

Introduction to Decorative Textile/Fabric Design

Advanced Textile Decoration

Bachelor of Fashion and Textiles Design

Programs

Duration

N/A

11–15 weeks

2 Principal Passes at A’level in 3 years any subject obtained at the same sitting or hold a diploma with at least a credit

Requirements for admission

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mathematics for textiles I, computing I, workshop practice, physics for textiles, engineering drawing, electrical engineering I, yarn technology I, structure and properties of textile fibers, clothing science, mathematics for textiles II, mechanics of textile machinery I, inhouse industrial training I. Second Year: Weaving preparatory processes, introduction to fabric knitting, electrical engineering ii, mechanics of textile machinery I, yarn technology II, polymer chemistry for textiles, entrepreneurship skills, product design and development, clothing design and construction I, wet preparatory processes, weaving, knitting, textured yarn technology, computing ii, industrial training I. Third Year: Dyeing technology, textile printing technology, color technology, clothing design and construction II, textile machinery, mechanical behavior of fabrics, nonwoven technology, laundry and clothing care techniques, material science, industrial organization and management, production engineering, statistics and quality, clothing design and construction II, textile testing and analysis, industrial training II. Fourth year: clothing design and construction IV, research methodology, industrial safety and management, textile supply chain management, environmental science and management, human resource management and industrial organization, textile finishing techniques, financial management and control, technical textiles, textile machinery and maintenance, project. At the time of drafting this chapter, the program was undergoing numerous changes with a proposal to rename it Bachelor of Science in Textile and Apparel Manufacturing Technology with minor changes in the course structure. This is due to the dynamic nature and demand of Uganda’s current textile economy.

5.3.2 Bachelor of Science in Polymer, Textile and Industrial Engineering, Busitema University This program is conducted at the department of textile and ginning engineering at the faculty of engineering of Busitema University. The program commenced in the 2009/2010 academic year as a result of the university winning the Millennium Science Initiative (MSI) grant fund of US$1.25 million under the Textile Engineering Project (MSI-TEP). The main purpose of the program is to train human resource for the textile industry in Uganda. Specific objectives of the program are to produce graduates who are capable of: managing a textile industry, designing textile processes, using textile materials to develop new products(diversification), analyzing the linkages between properties and structures of textile, understanding textile manufacturing trends, design and garment construction. Program structure. In order to balance first-class theoretical education with extensive industry experience to prepare students for a challenging and diverse career, the program was designed as follows: First three years cover the theoretical/lectures (including laboratories) and practical components. Industrial training is carried out during the recess periods of the second and third years of study. The practical textile engineering project is carried out in the fourth year of study.

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This program has undergone various stages of review to enrich it. During the review, the program was re-branded as “Bachelor of Science in Polymer, Textile and Industrial Engineering”, which initially was “Bachelor of Engineering in Textile Engineering”. This enabled the new program to effectively contribute to the National Textile Policy, 2009, the National Industrial Sector Strategic Plan, 2009, and Vision 2040. The Bachelor of Science in Polymer, Textile and Industrial Engineering was redeveloped with the objective of producing skilled graduates capable of understanding, solving and developing high-tech materials and engineering products. At the time of drafting this chapter, the program was undergoing numerous revisions yet again.

5.3.3 Bachelor of Fashion and Textiles Design, Nkumba University According to Nkumba University, this program is capable of giving students a creative fashion and textile mind [10]. It provides the needed practical experience with the help of interaction theory and practical work facilitated with technology. The courses offered across the three years include the following. First Year: Fashion and textiles skills, bound resist techniques, drawing basics, design computing, design fundamentals, information technology, fashion techniques, printing technology, pattern making applications, the language of color, ornamental accessories. Second Year: Fundamentals of accounting, fabric surface decoration, pattern making applications, fashion sketching techniques, tailoring 2, advanced web design, computer graphics, anatomy, research methodology, entrepreneurship, garment layout, liquid resist techniques, fashion production, conceptual drawing. Third Year: Marketing management, fashion illustration basics, fashion production, commercial practice in fashion and textiles, advanced fashion illustration, commercial practice in fashion, advanced fashion illustration, portfolio development, portfolio development, digital fashion imaging, major textile projects, fashion and textiles visual display, portfolio presentation, fashion and textiles publicity, dissertation, accessory design project. At the time of drafting this book chapter, the program had not produced any graduates.

5.3.4 Makerere University Short Courses The textile courses below are part of the Bachelor of Fine Art program at Makerere University. Advanced Textile Decoration. In this course, the students are guided through a series of projects that are aimed to stimulate and inspire their thinking about the trends in the textile industry [11]. The students are meant to learn creative expression using motifs for industrial reproduction and artistic statements and to develop several textile designs using mixed surface design techniques and methods for independent product

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development, emphasizing individual studies for solving textile design problems related to market research in the textile industry. The course content is as follows, done in specific weeks. Principles of design as applied to furnishing fabrics; principles of interior design; color choice and colorways in relation to local and international trends, design project based on the theme “African inspiration”, design project 2 for a recreational or home environment, field trip to textile design industries and textile marketing outlets, product development. Introduction to Decorative Textile/Fabric Design. Divided into two sections: textile decoration and weaving [12]. The course emphasizes learning the history of traditional and contemporary textile decoration with emphasis on surface designing and the science and technology for weaving, fiber science, yarn and calculations, fabric finishing and laundry. The specific course content includes introduction to weaving, introduction to textile decoration, textile decoration project and weaving project.

5.4 Key Underlying Issues Affecting Textile Higher Education in Uganda and Their Possible Solutions There are several issues affecting the current textile higher education in Uganda, ranging from technical, financial, and human aspects. Below are the major issues highlighted with possible solutions.

5.4.1 Limited Enrollment Uganda has made significant efforts to increase general enrolment at the primary level, secondary (O- and A-levels) and tertiary levels. The last official report showed a 17% increase in enrolment in nine public universities from 90,359 in the Financial Year 2018/2019 to 105,988 in the Financial Year 2019/2020 [13]. In 1922, only 14 students were enrolled in now Makerere University—7 in carpentry and 7 in auto mechanics. However, the enrolment in textile programs remains low and is among the lowest in the country at the named tertiary institutions in the early sections. A critical analysis of enrolment lists at Kyambogo and Busitema University bachelor programs shows that, on average, 25 students are admitted, with only 15 students actively taking up enrollment in these programs. This is because of many reasons. First, the cut-off points and prior requirements of admission for these courses are extraordinarily high, which calls for the top 5% of the students to be eligible. Second, the textile programs are four years, and the tuition is one of the highest because courses in the program are scientific and need expensive resources to run. Third, the same cut-off points, requirements, and tuition is the same or even above that of the related high-sought courses like civil, mechanical, biomedical, telecommunications engineering and the

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like, which many parents and students think are better for easy and fast employment after studies. Therefore, many choose to go for the other science programs rather than the textile programs. To increase enrolments, it is logical to lower the entry requirements for the textile programs. Tuition fees need to remain high for quality education, especially for such scientific and technological programs. Therefore, the universities should find ways to increase the admission of students who are government-sponsored or industrysponsored so as to lay less burden on the individual poor citizens looking for skills. Nevertheless, with strategic cooperation, the universities can easily get memorandum of understanding with other international universities, well-funded laboratories and institutions, and textile industries to help with skilling students, usually at the cost of the partners. This can ensure high-quality graduates with fewer resources at the university site. More still, career guidance as early as primary and secondary school is paramount. Many lower school-level students/pupils, together with their parents, do not have any idea about textile as a major. Therefore, when the time reaches to select programs at universities, they are inclined to select the common programs known to themselves. Therefore, early career guidance can play a critical role in improving the enrolment numbers, which can only be emphasized by textile universities and their program managers.

5.4.2 Limited Study Resources, Knowledge, and Brain Drain Like in many low developed and developing countries, the key issues at education institutions are related to effective learning and information on who is learning and who is not [14]. Together with the limited learning resources and knowledge, this makes obtaining knowledge hard. Most textile programs are run on limited budgets with little resources to cover the stipulated course outline. Textile as a major is complex, requiring an industry-like kind of setup right from the farm, for example, cotton and wool harvesting of fibers, polymer processing, through to purification with several yarn processing techniques, to finishing, fabric construction, design, marketing and merchandising and finally recycling. All these require experienced individuals and unlimited resources to generate transferrable knowledge, which currently all are rare in the country. People who have such knowledge and experience, especially those with higher textile education and experience gained from developed countries and economies like the USA, China, UK, Germany, Australia etc., usually hesitate to contribute to textile education due to fewer funds to support their efforts. Therefore, most have instead been recruited by institutions abroad that do not help the local textile education and industry. The key solution to this is creating one mega department of textile education in one of the public universities currently running textile programs. This way, the funds will not be distributed across the universities, and the equipment and learning resources can all be pooled towards one mega project. A unique department cuts the bureaucracy and thus can directly hire experts hence limiting local talent going

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abroad, can readily establish strong collaborations abroad and in the country, and thus give students a better-quality education.

5.4.3 Poor Link Between Industry and Education Institutions Students graduating from textile programs usually find it hard to find jobs in the industry due to the theoretical nature of the courses in textile programs offered at the universities. This is due to the poor link, communication and bridge between education institutions and industry players. This problem is not only true for textilerelated programs but all other programs in Uganda universities. The universities typically organize industrial training sessions running for 1–3 months every year for textile students across 4 years. However, universities put fewer efforts into helping students secure these internship positions in reputable organizations and industries. Therefore, students end up doing internships in small organizations with fewer inhouse experts and machinery, which apparently affects their skills development and possible recruitment by key industry players after their graduation. The big industries are available to offer internships, but they hardly deal with individuals. However, this is not a problem if the university works directly with big firms and organizations for internship and industrial experience for students. Therefore, it is important for universities, through their department of student internships and industrial development, to forge collaborations with industry partners for active recruitment for both internships, training, and jobs. This can bridge the gap between courses offered at the universities and the industry players. Finally, the issues mentioned above can also possibly be solved with textile postgraduate degrees and the internationalization of textile education. Currently, textile education in Uganda is only at ordinary diploma and undergraduate degree levels. This is due to the reasons mentioned earlier, including limited resources for education, limited funding and enrolment, brain drain and many others. Experts with postgraduate degree knowledge are key to drafting informed policies for the government, which can accelerate industry growth and improve the underlying factors mentioned above. To obtain experts at the local level, the internationalization of the higher education sector is paramount. It exposes the local students to advanced international knowledge, mobility, international curricula, and digital learning, as well as promotes capacity building and partnerships and encourages strategic cooperation. In addition, many textile professionals trained abroad have extended knowledge in several current science and industrial breakthroughs with capabilities to win grants from the government, international non-government and government organizations and collaborations, which can be an asset towards textile sector development in the country. The next section provides an overview of the internalization of higher education, citing its merits with a focus on China as one of the strategic partners.

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5.5 Overview of Internationalization of Higher Education Boarders in the current world are diminishing, and multiculturism is growing. With such awareness, university graduates require a multitude of intercultural competencies to stay relevant in global labor markets. Indeed, citizens from nations that are historically parochial will remain victims of this global completion. In response to this challenge, higher education institutes (HEIs) around the world are now turning towards internationalization. This process focuses on the “integration of international, intercultural and global dimensions into the purpose, functions or delivery of post-secondary education” [15]. According to the European Commission, a comprehensive internationalization strategy should promote international student and staff mobility, internationalize curricula and digital learning as well as promotion of capacity building, partnerships and encourage strategic cooperation [16, 17]. Along these lines, current HEIs try to infuse their curricula with global themes, emphasize study abroad, create new international partnerships, and seek to attract international students [18]. The internationalization of HEIs has become a driving force towards the economic transformation of many developing countries. In particular, governments from such countries usually send highly competent nationals abroad, including students and academic staff, for HEIs to acquire specialized skills which act as a tool to solve national challenges in the future. Through national and institutional scholarships, HEIs attract top talents to strengthen their research capabilities, attract funding, and improve their global academic reputation. It is interesting to note that most HEIs and multinational companies now recruit staff based on their academic achievements and work experiences abroad. This recent revelation further stresses the need to embrace the shift towards internationalization and its benefits.

5.5.1 Development Process and Current Situation of Educational Exchanges with China For many years, Europe, North America and Australia have been dominant destinations for many international students and academic staff. However, HEIs from Asia, particularly China, have become famous in the past decade [19]. In 2019, the Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China estimated about 490,000 international students to be enrolled in 1,004 HEIs in mainland China. 41% of these students were estimated to come from Africa, Europe, America and Oceania (Fig. 5.4) [20]. Furthermore, the same source further reveals that approximately 85,062 were postgraduate-level international students admitted to masters and doctoral programs. With the opening up of the Chinese economy in 1978, international students have managed to access HEIs in China through private sponsorships as well as provincial and Chinese government scholarships. However, opportunities through study scholarships have increased over the years. Depending on the preferred major, international

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Fig. 5.4 Summary statistics for students enrolled in HEIs within mainland China [19]

students from Uganda can freely apply for these scholarships directly through their nominating bodies (Universities or domestic embassies).

5.5.2 Inter-School Communication with Chinese Universities Institutions that offer textile-related majors are scarce in many African HEIs. This has further strained the competence of the continent’s textile sector and contributed to the limited exploitation of her abundant textile fiber base. Nonetheless, Uganda is on the verge of reviving its textile industry through the lens of its education system. Over the last ten years, two prominent public universities, including Busitema and Kyambogo, started majors in textile related disciplines. Currently, more than 100 professionals have been awarded undergraduate degrees in textile technology and engineering. To foster innovation as a precursor toward national development, postgraduate studies in this field are crucial, but the funding required to carry out high-end textile research is inadequate. Thanks to the internationalization of HEIs around the world. The number of Ugandan professionals with doctoral and master’s degrees in textile related majors is slated to rise in the next few years. Currently, many HEIs abroad are enrolling talented Ugandan textile professionals with undergraduate textile degrees into their graduate programs. In particular, China is the most popular destination because of its long history in textiles education and easily accessible scholarships available at both national and provincial levels. Although many institutions in China offer textilerelated studies, Table 5.2, most Ugandans prefer Donghua University and the Hong Kong Polytechnique University. These two HEIs are some of the best universities in the textile discipline around the world in terms of quality and quantity of publications per Anum [21]. In the past ten years, Donghua University has graduated more than ten master’s degree students and three PhDs, which number is predicted to increase in the next few years. Consequently, this is expected to improve the quality of skills for the country’s textile labor force and substantially contribute to the development of the

5 Uganda Textile Education and Industry: The Current Status … Table 5.2 Popular textile-based HEIs for Ugandans in China

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University

Province/region

Donghua University

Shanghai

Wuhan Textile university

Wuhan

Zhejiang Sci-Tech University

Zhejiang

Wuhan University of technology

Wuhan

Qingdao University

Shandong

The Hong Kong Polytechnique

Hong Kong

Ugandan textile sector through research and innovation at the country’s HEIs. In addition, Ugandan students have now established a strong network of Donghua University Alumni. Possible collaborations and memorandums of understanding (MoUs) will be key to strengthening the relationship between Donghua University and textile based HEIs in Uganda, including Busitema and Kyambogo.

5.6 Investment Opportunity of Textile Sector in Uganda: The Case of Value Addition on Uganda’s Cotton Uganda’s labor force continues to grow at an average of 4.8% per year with an estimated 10 million people in the labor force [5]. Despite the intervention of the National Employment Policy which was instituted to create a comprehensive and integrated framework for employment creation [22], job creation has not matched the new entrants into the labor market. As a result, the government of Uganda has recently embarked on laying strategies that would increase the rate of employment opportunities in the country. One of such strategies is reducing the cost of doing business and create an enabling environment to attract foreign direct investments in various sectors. This has been done by ensuring that investors gain easy access to land, upgrading infrastructure such as roads, construction of hydro-electricity power plants to reduce energy costs, granting tax holidays of over 10 years, among others. And, of all sectors, Uganda’s textile industry is among the priority areas for potential investors because of its long value addition chain. Here, a brief overview to Uganda’s textile sector and an analysis of the impact value addition would bring on her textile fiber base are provided. Introduced in 1903 by the British, cotton ranks as the third major export of Uganda after coffee and tea. Cotton is mainly cultivated in the northern, West Nile, eastern and western (Kazinga Channel) regions of the country. Ugandan cotton is homogeneously organic and of the Bukalasa Pedigree Albar (BPA) variety. It is characterized by an average medium staple length of approximately 29.6 mm, 85% uniform with a micronaire value of 4 (measure of fiber fineness and maturity). These properties suggest that Uganda’s cotton falls in the premium range of fibers often listed as the basis for the Cotlook A’ Index computations [23]. In addition, Uganda gins her cotton

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to preserve the intrinsic properties of the fiber with low trash content of about 1.93% because all the bolls are handpicked from the plant (Table 5.3). Although the practice is labor intensive and time-consuming [24], hand picking exerts less pressure on the fibers, so they remain straight and minimize damage [25]. Because machine-based cotton harvesting is rare, subsistence farming dominates cotton growing in Uganda where cultivation is practiced on small pieces of land. Despite its potential of being spun into quality yarn in counts of 44s, 50s, and 60s, knitted/woven into fabric and subsequently sewn into garments, the country continues to export 95% of her cotton as lint to Singapore, UK, Switzerland, China, Kenya, among other countries [26]. The two operational textile mills, that is, Southern Range Nyanza Textiles Limited and Fine Spinners Limited only utilize 5% of the roller ginned domestic lint (Fig. 5.5). This is not very surprising because only 15% of cotton grown in sub-Saharan Africa is processed locally. However, Uganda lags behind Tanzania whose value addition on their cotton stands at 30% [27]. Thus, value addition on cotton produce remains a regional challenge that is yet to be resolved. Table 5.3 Characteristics of Ugandan cotton fibers Regional sample

Fiber length (mm) Micronaire value Trash content (%) Spun yarn count

Northern

29.24

4.01

2.2

44s and 50s

West Nile

29.24

4.12

2

44s and 50s

Eastern

29.76

4.04

1.5

44s and 50s

Kazinga Channel 30.15

3.85

2

44s, 50s and 60s

Fig. 5.5 Status of Uganda’s cotton textile sector. Most of Uganda’s lint is exported unprocessed. Another player in vertical integration is required to reduce the percentage of lint exports. This would require the establishment of new spinning mills to produce a yarn that can be further reprocessed into other products on demand by many Ugandans but remain imported into the country

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5.7 Important Value Addition Relationships in the Cotton Textile Industry Value addition to Uganda’s lint is key to promoting import substitution of simple textiles as highlighted in Fig. 5.5. It is capable of reducing the overwhelming rate of unemployment, especially among the youth and women, promoting technology transfer and skills development, as well as raising the country’s GDP. We provide a systematic analysis of how much revenue Uganda can raise by either exporting yarn, fabric, or finished garments based on data supplied by the Cotton Development Organization (CDO) for revenue generated from cotton exports over the past two decades as reported by Lugojja [28]. Products of value in the textile mill mostly include but are not limited to yarn, fabric and garments. The textile industry is vertically integrated if it is capable of converting cotton fibers into garments [29]. Conversion of lint into garments requires three conversion steps, i.e., cotton fibers to yarn, yarn to fabric, and fabric to garments (Fig. 5.6). Along this value addition chain, some lint is lost in waste. Therefore, to establish relationships that allow for the estimation of lint in kilograms needed to process each product, one must know an approximate fraction of waste generated at each stage of production. In addition, estimation of the average revenue which Uganda can raise from exporting yarn instead of unprocessed bale lint (B.L) requires understanding the (i) fraction of the total cotton fiber waste generated during the conversion of lint into other products at the different stages of production and (ii) the current global market prices for each product. From this insight, the unit price per kilogram of lint at every stage of production can be approximated.

Fig. 5.6 Typical value addition chain in a vertically integrated cotton textile mill

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5.7.1 Estimation Cotton Fiber Waste Generated at Various Stages of Production Blow room lint Textile mills receive lint from ginneries in packages called bales at a processing area called a blow room. Usually, the mass of cotton lint per bale varies across countries but is almost similar for countries in the same region as Uganda and Tanzania, see Fig. 5.7. Although some sources report 181 kg, Uganda’s Cotton Development Agency (CDO) records the mass per Ugandan bale of lint in kilograms at 185 kg [28]. Thus, the total mass of lint in kg exported can be calculated basing on Eq. 5.1. Mass of lint exports per bale = 185 kg × Number of Bales

(5.1)

Lint in yarn form Conversion of B.L in the blow room into yarn on spinning ring frames generates approximately 30% waste in lint [30]. Therefore, about 70% of the B.L is converted into yarn. The relationship between B.L and cotton converted into yarn (Y) can be established as follows. Y = B.L × 0.7

Fig. 5.7 Country-wise bale weight

(5.2)

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From Eq. 5.2, a bale (185 kg) of Ugandan cotton yields approximately 129.5 kg of yarn. Yarn to Greige fabric Spun yarn on ring frames is converted into fabric by either knitting (using knitting Machines) or weaving (using power looms) which output greige fabrics [31]. Given its simplicity and short production cycle, we focus on the knitting process, which produces knitted fabrics. Knitting machines run at very high speeds (25–35 rotations per minute) which exert friction on the yarn. Consequently, yarn losses of about 2% are possible and result in 98% recovery as greige fabric (G.F). The amount of yarn converted to greige fabric (G.F) can be calculated as follows in Eq. 5.3. G.F = 0.98 × Y

(5.3)

Greige fabric to finished fabric Greige fabrics are further chemically processed using strong alkalis (scouring process) and then bleached (bleaching process) to remove natural impurities (e.g., wax) and impurities imparted from prior processes. These chemical treatments allow the modified fabrics to attain pure white shades. Furthermore, the scoured and bleached fabrics may be subjected to enzymes (cellulase) to sever protruding surface fibers [32]. In addition to scouring and bleaching, fabrics can further be either dyed or printed to add color, all of which led to yarn losses from the fabric. As a result, the total weight loss in the greige fabric is about 10% at this stage of production and the finished fabric efficiency can be approximated to 90%. The mass of finished fabric (F.F) from a bale of cotton can be related to G.F according to Eq. 5.4. F.F = G.F × 0.9

(5.4)

Finished fabric (knitted) to garment (t-shirts) Depending on the intended design, this stage of production involves cutting pattern pieces from finished fabric which generates extra fabric waste. Suppose we intend to design one regular round neck t-shirt with half sleeves. For 44s yarn count, the weights of small, medium and large sizes are approximate, 155, 165 and 175 g respectively. If we divide them in an equal ratio, the average weight of one t-shirt will be 170 g for which the fabric requirement is 220 g. This makes it possible to construct about 4.5 t-shirts from 1 kg of Fabric. Henceforth from the finished fabric, the total number of t-shirts possible can be estimated with Eq. 5.5. No. of knitted t − shirts = F.F × 4.5

(5.5)

By combining the relationships in Eqs. 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, and 5.5, we can predict the amount of cotton (lint) needed at each stage of production per cotton bale. These findings are summarized in Table 5.4.

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Table 5.4 Quantity of cotton required for each product in a textile mill at every stage of production

Stage of production

Mass

Start: Blow room (Bale lint)

185 kg

1. Blow room—spinning Waste generated

30%

Lint converted into Yarn

129.5 kg

2. Yarn—Greige fabric (knitted) Waste generated

2%

Lint converted into knitted fabric

126.91 kg

3. Greige fabric to finished knitted fabric Waste generated

10%

Lint converted into knitted fabric

114.219 kg

4. Knitted fabric—knitted round neck t-shirt (170 g) 4.5 t-shirts 114.219 kg of finished fabric (1 bale of blow room lint)

1 kg of fabric 513 t-shirts

5.7.2 Price Approximation Benchmarking prices of spun yarn and garments on the global market is the easiest approach applicable to estimate the amount of revenue these two products can fetch. Relations arriving at such prices can also be derived. Valuation of yarn lint On the market, yarn is sold on bobbins, each containing several kilograms, but costing is done per kilogram. By 2019, organic cotton yarn was averagely valued at USD. 8.5 per kilogram. Thus, a simple equation that predicts the value of yarn (Y) can be formulated as follows. Y = B.L × 0.7 × 8.5

(5.6)

From relationship 6, yarn from one bale of Ugandan cotton lint can be valued at $1,100.75. Valuation of knitted t-shirts As highlighted in Table 5.4, a bale of blow room lint can produce about 513 t-shirts which are valued at $2054, assuming that each t-shirt is priced at approximately $4. Therefore, the garment value per bale can be estimated according to Eq. 5.7. Garment value per bale = F.F × 4.5 × 4

(5.7)

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5.7.3 Analysis of Potential Export Revenue from the Cotton Value Addition Chain From Fig. 5.8, comparisons between the actual export revenue Uganda generates from each bale of cotton as well as projected values of yarn and garments can be conveniently carried out. Interesting and expected trends are revealed. The value of the yarn is approximately fourfold compared to that for one bale of blow room lint. This is even higher for garments in the form of knitted t-shirts which is close to (sevenfold). These approximations correlate closely well with predictions from the National Textile Policy, which was launched in 2009 by H.E President Yoweri Kaguta Museveni [33]. This policy document predicted that a kilogram of yarn can fetch more than $5. Although the types of garments were not specified, the national textile policy predicted that 1 kg of lint can produce garments valued within a range of UD$ 8–10. Our prediction for the value of knitted shirts is estimated to be close to $18 (4.5 × $4) per kg of fabric. Furthermore, applying data supplied by CDO to Eqs. 5.1 to 5.7 roughly estimates the export revenue Uganda would have generated from value addition on her lint over the years since the liberalization of the cotton sector in 1995, as compiled by Lugojja [26]. However, it would be difficult to closely estimate figures which can allow for drawing of reliable conclusions because determining the price changes of yarn over the last 20 years on the global market is quite tedious and unrealistic. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that the price of organic cotton yarn from 2015 to 2019 remained constant at approximately $0.8.5/kg and that the t-shirts of the same quality of cotton cost US$0.4.0. In Fig. 5.9, we establish important production and value addition trends between lint, yarn, fabric and knitted garments. The predicted quantity of cotton in the form of yarn and fabric decreases compared to bale lint, Fig. 5.9a. This is expected due to waste generated at every production stage, as explained earlier. The key to this finding is that the quantity of cotton Ugandan exports has been increasing since 2015. Nonetheless, despite the decreasing trends in lint culminating from several value addition processes, the revenue that would

Fig. 5.8 Projected revenue from a bale of blow room lint compared to yarn and knitted t-shirts (garments)

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Fig. 5.9 Cotton exports in different forms. a Values for yarn and fabric are analyzed projections based on Cotton lint data for exports according to CDO. b Export revenue from different products. Values for yarn and garment are analyzed projections based on Cotton lint export data according to CDO

have been generated from value addition on domestic lint into other products within 2015–2019 sharply rises after every stage of production, Fig. 5.9b. This confirms that value addition on domestic lint remains crucial to increasing the overall revenue realized from exports in the cotton and textile subsector.

5.7.4 Concluding Remarks In summary, the chapter provided the reader with a bird’s view of the Uganda textile higher education detailing the several textile programs and their individual courses being offered at different HEIs in the country. Also, the key underlying issues affecting textile education at these HEIs are highlighted with their possible solutions. It has been reckoned that internationalization is one of the most important solutions for solving several problems at the HEIs as it is capable of providing local students with advanced international knowledge, mobility, international curricula and digital learning as well as promotion of capacity building, partnerships and encourage strategic cooperation at relatively cheap cost. China, as the country together with its textile institutes, is currently at the forefront of this endeavor with most African nations, which overall presents an opportunity for Uganda at this moment. Additionally, it is evident that there is a huge investment gap in Uganda’s cotton textile industry. However, investments in this sector must be wisely encouraged, bearing in mind the negative implications of climate change that have already taken shape globally. The establishment of ecological industrial parks and the introduction of green logistics would play a leading role in waiving the enormous pollution associated with industrialization. Additionally, the promotion of sustainable organic cotton farming based on Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA), breeding cotton varieties with strengthened resilience, deployment of Integrated Pest Management Systems (IPMS) and environmental monitoring for soil and water will ensure a sustainable

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increase in quality cotton fiber production. Although green production comes with many economic, national and environmental benefits, the approach is still far from implementation in developing countries like Uganda because of the huge capital investment required. Therefore, conventional vertically integrated textile mills are still required to speed up value addition on the locally processed lint. This is expected to increase the rate of employment opportunities among the Ugandan population, dominated by mostly the youth and women. Additionally, foreign direct investments in this sector will promote technology transfer, contribute to poverty eradication amongst formal and informal sections of Ugandans, allow for import substitution of simple textiles like socks and undergarments that are still being imported into the country, and contribute to the nation’s development. Finally, attracting back Ugandan graduates with specialized skills from textile based HEIs abroad into domestic textile-based institutions will be key to the sector’s rapid development. It makes interaction with newly invested technology easy because of the availability of a highly skilled and trainable labor force.

References 1. Yager, T. R., & Newman, H. R. (2015). The mineral industry of Uganda. Minerals Yearbook: Area Reports: International Review 2012 Africa and the Middle East (Vol. 3, p. 40). 2. Bigsten, A., & Kayizzi-Mugerwa, S. (2001). Is Uganda an emerging economy?: A report for the OECD project “Emerging Africa”. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet. 3. World Bank. (2021). Uganda economic update (18th ed.) (p. 1). 4. Behuria, P. (2021). The political economy of reviving industrial policy in Uganda. Oxford Development Studies, 49, 368–385. https://doi.org/10.1080/13600818.2021.1960296 5. Draft National Investment Policy (NIP). (2018). 6. Uganda: Distribution of gross domestic product (GDP) across economic sectors from 2011 to 2021. https://www.statista.com/statistics/447716/uganda-gdp-distribution-across-eco nomic-sectors/ 7. Tebyetekerwa, M., Akankwasa, N. T., & Marriam, I. (2017). The current working conditions in Ugandan apparel assembly plants. Safety and Health at Work, 8, 378–385. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.shaw.2017.01.005 8. Busingye, P. (2018). The Media, effects on promotion, growth, and development of the fashion industry in Uganda today. 9. Ssenoga, U. (2019). The influence of fashion designers to the merging fashion industries in Kampala, Uganda. 10. Bachelor of Fashion and Textiles Design. https://nkumbauniversity.ac.ug/program/bachelorof-fashion-and-textiles-design/ 11. Textile Courses. https://cedat.mak.ac.ug/tag/textile/ 12. IFA 1109 Introduction to decorative textile/fabric design. https://cedat.mak.ac.ug/undergrad uate-programmes/b-fine-art/introduction-to-decorative-textilefabric-design-ifa-1109/ 13. Businge, C. (2020). Enrolment in public universities grows in Uganda, new report. New Vision Uganda. 14. The World Bank. (2019). The education crisis: Being in school is not the same as learning. 15. Buckner, E. (2019). the internationalization of higher education: National interpretations of a global model. Comparative Education Review, 63, 315–336. https://doi.org/10.1086/703794 16. De Wit, H., Deca, L., & Hunter, F. (2015). Internationalization of higher education—What can research add to the policy debate? [Overview paper]. In A. Curaj, Matei, P. Liviu, S. Remus, P. Jamil y Scott (Eds.), The European higher education area (pp. 3–12). Springer.

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17. Curaj, A., Matei, L., Pricopie, R., Salmi, J., & Scott, P. (2015). The European higher education area: Between critical reflections and future policies. Springer Nature. 18. Green, M. F. Internationalization in US higher education: The student perspective. American Council on Education. 19. Yan, X., Chen, L., & Memon, H. (2022). Textile and fashion education internationalization: A promising discipline from Southeast Asia. Springer Nature. 20. Statistical report on international students in China for 2018. (2019). 21. Li, Z., Poon, H., Chen, W., & Fan, J. (2021). A comparative analysis of textile schools by journal publications listed in Web of ScienceTM . The Journal of the Textile Institute, 112, 1472–1481. 22. Uganda National Employment Policy. (2011). 23. Kamalha, E., Kiberu, J., Nibikora, I., Mwasiagi, J. I., & Omollo, E. (2018). Clustering and classification of cotton lint using principle component analysis, agglomerative hierarchical clustering, and K-means clustering. Journal of Natural Fibers, 15, 425–435. https://doi.org/10. 1080/15440478.2017.1340220 24. Tian, J. S., Zhang, X. Y., Zhang, W. F., Li, J. F., Yang, Y. L., Dong, H. Y., Jiu, X. L., Yu, Y. C., Zhao, Z., Xu, S. Z., et al. (2018). Fiber damage of machine-harvested cotton before ginning and after lint cleaning. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 17, 1120–1127. https://doi.org/10. 1016/S2095-3119(17)61730-1 25. Dadgar, M. (2020). The harvesting and ginning of cotton. In H. Wang & H. Memon (Eds.), Cotton science and processing technology: Gene, ginning, garment and green recycling (pp. 61– 78). Springer. 26. Ahmed, M., & Ojangole, S. (2019). Analysis of incentives and disincentives for cotton in Uganda. Gates Open Res, 3, 1321. 27. Cotton and its by-products in Tanzania (2019). 28. Lugojja, F. (2017). Cotton and its by-products sector in Uganda. 29. Khanzada, H., Khan, M. Q., & Kayani, S. (2020). Cotton based clothing. In H. Wang & H. Memon (Eds.), Cotton science and processing technology: Gene, ginning, garment and green recycling (pp. 377–391). Springer. 30. Shi, J., Liang, W., Wang, H., & Memon, H. (2020). Recent advancements in cotton spinning machineries. In H. Wang & H. Memon (Eds.), Cotton science and processing technology: Gene, ginning, garment and green recycling (pp. 165–190). Springer. 31. Wang, H., & Memon, H. 2020. Cotton science and processing technology. Springer. 32. Jhatial, A. K., Yesuf, H. M., & Wagaye, B. T. (2020). Pretreatment of cotton. In H. Wang & H. Memon (Eds.), Cotton science and processing technology: Gene, ginning, garment and green recycling (pp. 333–353). Springer. 33. National Textile Policy. (2020).

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Dr. Mike Tebyetekerwa is currently a UQ Dow Center Research Fellow at the University of Queensland, Brisbane in Australia. He received his Ph.D. in Engineering from the Australian National University, Canberra, in 2021. Before that, he received his B.Sc. Textile and Clothing Technology from Kyambogo University in Uganda in 2014. In 2018, he obtained his MEng in Materials Science from Donghua University, Shanghai-China in 2018. Mike’s current research at UQ is inter and multidisciplinary and lies in the integration of highperformance fibrous materials and their performance study with advanced tools, including understanding how these materials can be formed to meet the strict requirements of the circular and green economy in high-performance energy devices. Innocent Tendo Mugaanire completed his B.Sc. Textile and Clothing Technology from Kyambogo University, Uganda, in 2011. In 2016, Tendo later joined Donghua University for his M.Sc. Textile Engineering. Currently, he is pursuing his Ph.D. in Materials procession Engineering at the same institution with a research interest in Piezoresistive textile fibers. Tendo also volunteers with the Ugandan Embassy, Beijing, on matters related to textile investments and developing a sustainable cotton value addition chain to revitalize Uganda’s textile industry.

Dr. Shengyuan Yang is currently an associate professor at Donghua University. He obtained his bachelor’s degree from Fudan University in 2008. Then, he pursued his doctorate at the National University of Singapore under the supervision of Prof. Seeram Ramakrishna after receiving the prestigious NGS scholarship, which was completed in 2013. His research is centered on the novel applications of functional electrospun nanofibers for wearable electronics and smart clothes. He is actively participating in several key national and state R&D projects. He is also currently the vice director of the DHU International Cooperation Office.

Chapter 6

Green Supply Chain Management Practices—A Case Study from the Mauritian Textile Industry Marie Joelle Emmanuelle Joseph and Hua Cheng

Abstract The textile industry has faced relentless criticism from various stakeholder groups, partly for the global environmental and social issues that have emerged during the past years. The primary purpose of this chapter is to analyze the key factors that drive firms in the Mauritian textile industry to implement green supply chain management practices. This chapter also analyzes the different green practices adopted by firms. In recent years, the Mauritian textile industry has faced enormous difficulties due to fierce regional and international competition. To remain in business, the textile industry needs to revamp its business model like other industries. A decade ago, Mauritius used to be one of the largest fully fashioned knitwear producers, the third largest exporter of pure new wool products to the EU market, with revenue generated from this sector amounted to the US $892 million worth of garments in 2005. Due to intensive competition from neighboring countries like Madagascar and Mozambique and other low-cost manufacturing countries like Bangladesh, India, and China, Mauritian textile export has declined drastically in recent years. To compete differently, firms are innovating and adopting green strategies to attract a new class of customers while simultaneously satisfying their current market. Keywords Textile industry · Green supply chain management practices · Mauritius

6.1 Background of Textile Industry in Mauritius 6.1.1 Mauritian Economic Situation Mauritius is a small island in the Indian Ocean, well-known for its beautiful beaches and lagoons. Mauritius is an upper-middle-income country with a population of 1.3 million and a GDP of $11.7 billion, as shown in Table 6.1. Since its independence in M. J. E. Joseph (B) · H. Cheng College of Economics and Management, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou, China e-mail: [email protected] © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2023 X. Yan et al. (eds.), Quality Education and International Partnership for Textile and Fashion, SDGs and Textiles, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-99-1320-6_6

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1968, Mauritius has made tremendous socio-economic progress, from a mono-crop sugar-dominated economy in 1968 to a financial hub today. The country has been through the five main economic pillars. When Mauritius was independent in 1968, the economy relied mainly on the sugarcane industry. Mauritius rapidly developed its manufacturing sector in the 1980s and its tourism and financial services in the 1990s, followed by information and communication technology (ICT) services in the 2000s [1]. The textile industry has been the central pillar of the Mauritian economy for several years and has been an essential contributor to the Export Processing Zone (EPZ). It was around the mid-1980s that the textile industry took off in Mauritius. The textile industry helped to bring FDI inflows to the country in the 1980s and helped to develop the Export Processing Zone further. The EPZ exports were from foreign firms that settled in Mauritius in the mid-1980s, and many were from Hong Kong. In 2017 the manufacturing sector contributed 13.7% to the GDP, of which textile and clothing represented 28.7% [2]. The industry employs some 13,000 employees, mostly foreign workers. Mauritius exports its textile mainly to the EU, US, and South African markets. In 2017, the textile sector accounted for around 50% of the country’s export value, with an annual export turnover reaching $716 Million [3]. The Mauritian textile industry has built a solid reputation over the years as a high-tech and high-end clothing manufacturer. Some textile firms in Mauritius are vertically integrated, have their spinning mills facilities and have more control over production processes. Around 250 firms in Mauritius operate in the textile and Apparel industry, including small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The Mauritian textile and apparel producers have enjoyed duty-and quota-free access under various trade agreements, like Interim EPA and Economic Partnership Agreement between Table 6.1 Mauritius, economic profile [4]

Key indicator Population (Millions)

1.3

GDP ($Billions)

11.7

GDP per capita ($)

9321.6

Share of world GDP (PPP $, %)

0.0

Current account surplus/deficit, the −4.3 share of GDP (%) Tariff preference margin (percentage points)

13.0

Imports and exports (goods and services), the share of GDP (%)

103.0

Services exports, share of total exports (%)

51.9

Geographic region

Africa

Country group

SIDS

Income group

Upper–middle income

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Mauritius and other European countries, aiming to boost export [2]. Mauritian textiles and apparel companies also enjoy equal access to the US market under the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA), initially set to expire in 2008 but extended to 2025 [2]. The textile industry faces enormous difficulties due to international competition and labor shortages. Many textile firms have recourse to foreign labor from Bangladesh and Madagascar as they are more productive. To compete differently, firms are forced to innovate and adopt new technology to upgrade to high-end products. The textile industry was considered the backbone of the Mauritian industrial revolution and has led the industry in the structural transformation of the Mauritian economy. Over the years, the textile industry has gone through several structural and operational changes, from being a garment producer to a vertically integrated supplier of designed-led garments [3]. However, during the last five years, the Mauritian textile industry faced enormous difficulties due to unfavorable economic conditions, new labor laws, regional competition, and other issues. As a result, textiles and apparel exports have dropped significantly [3], refer Figs. 6.1 and 6.2. To keep track, the industry is gradually emerging into a sustainable textile hub, with massive development in high-tech. Like other countries, Mauritius is also making considerable progress toward sustainable development, with several government programs to improve environmental and social conditions. Mauritius has put forth the effort to improve its appeal as an apparel sourcing destination and has in the past been called the most innovative nation in the Sub-Saharan Africa region. The Mauritian textile industry aims to become a “Fast-fashion, regionally integrated textile and apparel hub”. The fashion industry focuses on technology upgrading, process re-engineering, new marketing strategy, network development, human resource development, product and market diversification, and regional integration [3]. The surge in regional and global competition makes textile firms feel

Export of Apparel HTS chap H61+ H62 ($) 900000 800000 700000 600000 500000 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Fig. 6.1 Total export of apparel and clothing in Mauritius [4]

2018

2019

2020

2021

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Articles of Apparel and clothing accessories ($) 140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 South Africa

United States United Kindgom 2017

2018

2019

2020

France

Germany

2021

Fig. 6.2 Mauritius’s leading apparel and clothing export market [4]

the urge to meet international standards and to go by the rule of thumb to survive in the market. Firms often feel pressure from their E.U and U.S customers to sign the terms of agreement and meet international quality standards. The cost of production in Mauritius is higher compared to mass production and low-cost manufacturing countries like China, India, and Bangladesh [5]. The minimum wage increased to $240 in 2018, significantly impacting textile exports. Textile firms in Mauritius are urged to implement international environmental standards like ISO and sustainable manufacturing practices to obtain legitimacy from buyers and compete differently. The textile sector is committed to improving its products’ quality, shifting from mass production to more value-added production. Textile and apparel manufacturers are investing massively in modern technologies and adopting new practices like sustainability in their business models. To further boost the export of textile and apparel, the industry capitalizes on delivering quality products to its customers and develops its network by building strong customer relationships. Moreover, many firms are turning towards green supply chain or sustainability practices, which involve addressing the environmental issues across the supply chain network by developing strategies like green design, eco-material sourcing, ecomanufacturing, green distribution/ marketing, and reverse logistics [6, 7]. The business model innovation framework for sustainability identifies technological factors as a major push for firms that lead to a high level of sustainable innovation, like using technologies to maximize materials and energy efficiency, create value from waste, and use natural and renewable processes. Firms can maximize material productivity by redesigning their production process and improving their efficiency using renewable materials and non-hazardous materials.

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6.1.2 Environmental Situation in Mauritius The Mauritian government has shown much interest in environmental protection and has developed the “Maurice Ile Durable” MID project, which aims to promote renewable energy and sustainable development in the country from different spheres [8]. The project aims to make Mauritius a world model of sustainable development, especially in Small Island Development States (SIDS) context. SIDS is faced with environmental challenges and is hugely impacted by climate change, like the rising sea levels and loss of biodiversity. Mauritius is also a member of the Kyoto protocol since May 2001. The Kyoto protocol encourages participating countries to reduce greenhouse gas by assigning them a target amount they can use [8]. The MID has developed around several themes the government has focused on, including environmental and energy issues. One of the critical points of the project is to reduce carbon emissions and realize economic growth while preserving the environment [9, 10]. In 2016, Mauritius had a CO2 emission of about 3.4 metric tons per capita [8], refer Fig. 6.3. Under the guidance of the UNDP (United Nations Development Programs), Mauritius is making a smooth transition towards a greener economy, with the new government agenda aiming to drive this transition further. Mauritius has been investing in renewable energy and clean waste management technologies. The new government program, ‘Achieving Meaningful Change’, has determined objectives in the green economy (GE), from generating 35% of electricity from renewable energy to improving industry water efficiency. According to the economicenvironmental analysis, improving energy efficiency in manufacturing is projected to generate savings on electricity consumption between 2015 and 2020 of about Rs 1.3 billion, reaching Rs 6.5 billion by 2030 [11]. Moreover, it is expected that this investment will increase economic benefits. For example, water savings would amount to about Rs 101 million and Rs 322 million

CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita) Mauritius 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018

Fig. 6.3 CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita)-Mauritius [13]

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by 2020 and 2030, corresponding to an annual average of about Rs 20 million by 2030 [11]. These measures have a significant impact on the textile industry. The textile industry is encouraged to adopt new practices; they often have the government’s help in this transition through various collaborative industry-public institution projects. Like other countries that participated in the Rio de Janeiro conference on sustainability development held by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992, Mauritius has also developed several action plans to protect the Island [12]. To protect the environment and further promote Mauritius as a “greener, cleaner, and safer” Island, the Ministry of Environment of Mauritius has developed a series of legal policy frameworks regarding environmental issues like climate, solid and hazardous waste management, air and water pollution, disaster risk reduction and beach management [12]. Firms that do business on the Island have to follow the local rules. Firms in the textile and apparel industry must consider local policies regarding wastewater disposal and using hazardous products and materials. Most firms have been shifting to green practices to preserve the environment. Some firms have implemented ISO standards to meet international standards, while others are undertaking measures like waste reduction and the development of innovative technologies in operation to preserve the environment.

6.1.3 Sustainability Awareness in the Mauritian Textile Industry The textile industry is one of the most pollutant industries in the world in terms of water, air, and energy pollution. Firms in the Mauritian textile industry aim to reduce their energy and water consumption, waste generation, and CO2 emissions. Most firms in Mauritius have environmental certifications like ISO 14000, WRAP, Okea, and fair trade practices [14]. Most textile firms in Mauritius are aware of environmental issues and are taking necessary actions to improve their environmental performance and seeking new solutions to improve the industry’s image. Some firms are regularly measuring their environmental performance index, and data like carbon emission release index, waste disposal index, wastewater disposal index, hazardous material management data, and eco-materials are being assessed. Textile firms in Mauritius are carrying out several environmental practices [14]: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Using solar panels and photovoltaics to reduce fossil energy consumption Using wind energy for ventilation and dust evacuation Controlling their wastewater and tracking a normalized effluent metric Regularly monitoring air emission release metric Developing innovative waterless dyeing technologies Development of proper hazardous chemicals management practices Advanced effluent treatment technologies Cultivate cotton using sustainable techniques

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Advance renewable energy sources Invest in wastewater treatment infrastructure Develop methods to increase material utilization Recycle post-consumer materials Capital investment in research and development Investment in environmental and CSR projects Advanced sustainable product savoir-faire Invest in state-of-the-art automation R&D

By adopting these measures, firms can improve their environmentally sustainable metrics. It will help firms reduce their environmental impacts, improve their brand image, and meet local policies and international standards. In the same vein, these environmental practices might help firms to improve their performance, attract a new class of customers and retain their existing ones.

6.1.4 Global Sustainability Issues The textile industry has been increasingly spotlighted as a significant contributor to global environmental and social issues. It is being accused of being guided by self-interest, which is making a profit at the expense of environmental and social issues. Global textile supply chains’ substantial negative environmental footprint is alarming; high energy consumption, production of synthetic fibers, tanning of leather, use of toxic chemicals, water pollution, and CO2 emissions are just some examples of environmental challenges related to fashion production and distribution processes. In the past decades, the global textile industry has been an engine for global development and employment and wealth creation. Recently, interest perked up when well-known fashion-branded firms were accused of illegal practices. Companies are optimizing business practices to limit their negative impact as they face more pressure from different stakeholder groups. During the past decade, sustainable development has gained increasing attention from international institutions. There has been great debate about sustainability issues worldwide, and most countries are willing to improve their sustainability performance; these international institutions often act as a supervisory body to ensure that each country participates equally based on resource availability and capacity. Textile industries around the globe are reviewing their processes and business models and are more accountable to the environment and society. Regarding environmental remedies, several companies consider greening their practices, meaning sustainable practices like recycling, pollution reduction, and other green practices. Textile firms are urged to incorporate sustainability practices in their business model, and in some cases, sustainability is often linked with the company’s culture, core values, and longterm strategies. With its complex supply chain structures, the textile industry often faces enormous difficulties implementing sustainability practices into a full-fledged process. The textile industry has long and complex supply chain networks which

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are globally dispersed, with sub-tiers located in different regions and manufacturing located in low-labor cost and resources intensive countries like China, Bangladesh, and India. Several well-known brands that pretend to go green have been accused of unethical practices and wrongdoing in managing their supply chain network, like H&M. Firms are called to ensure that their suppliers and sub-suppliers respect the code of ethics and terms of engagement. Sustainable practices have emerged as an essential organizational philosophy to reduce environmental risk in the textile industry and prevent the firms’ image from being tarnished and plunged into budgetary crisis. Considering the triple bottom line approach, companies should also consider social and environmental performance, beyond financial performance, in their business operations. Firms are encouraged to revamp their business model for greater transparency and sustainability. By altering its practices, the textile industry can simultaneously stop the negative impact that its activities have on the environment, improve its brand image, and safeguard its longterm profitability. Going green often involves a considerable process as firms have suppliers and sub-suppliers decentralized around the globe. It is a crucial priority for them to develop a sustainable relationship and effectively manage their supply chain network to properly implement these practices. In line with the SDGs plan, companies worldwide are called to improve their practices to protect our planet and people. According to Boston Consulting Group, the industry has the theoretical potential to create e160 billion in annual value for the world economy by 2030.

6.2 Case Study of the Mauritian Textile Industry Three textile firms in Mauritius have been considered for the case study analysis to analyze the drivers of sustainability in the Mauritian textile industry. Information is obtained from the company website, and firms engaged in environmental sustainability practices are selected. Data collected are from interviews given to local media by the firm’s top managers during the past 5 years. Also, the data collected are obtained from sustainable business magazines and the company website.

6.2.1 Company 1 Company 1 was established in 1970; it is a vertically integrated textile firm with a home office in Mauritius. The company is among Mauritius’s leading textile companies and has a strong ethical and ecological heritage. The company has an innovation-driven culture and constantly innovates to improve, with a significant focus on research and development. The company has invested massively in the latest technologies to be more sustainable. The company uses solar panels to heat water and produce steam, and it uses natural wind on its knitting floor to control dust

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Company 1—key indicators Revenue 2018

US $30.05 Million (Rs 1.2 billion)

Main products

Garments

Operation’s location

Mauritius only

Manufacturing capacity

>16 million garments per year

Main export market

Europe, USA, South Africa

Main customers

Laura Ashley, Anthropologie, Armani, and Tommy Hilfiger

and filter the air. It uses yarn, including organic and fair-trade cotton, bamboo, and African cotton. Being aware of the low energy that Mauritius is facing, the company has developed natural lighting in its storage building with translucent roof sheeting. The company uses wind to clean the production floor and automated fan control to go further in its quest for more sustainable practices. The company is constantly improving its production facilities and moving towards greener facilities with a new dyehouse which will enable the company to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (Table 6.2).

6.2.2 Company 2 Company 2 forms part of a group company that is well diversified in different sectors and has operations in Africa and Asia. In the 1970s, the company acquired a textile firm and started operating in the textile industry in Mauritius. The company is a global player in the textile and garments industry, with operations in Mauritius, Madagascar, India, and Bangladesh. The company’s production facilities are categorized into woven, knitwear, and fine. The company aims to be the best global fashion partner to deliver premium value to the market. Company 2 is committed to sustainable development; the company actively participates in the sustainable apparel coalition, adopts a series of environmental practices, like ZDHC, as an integrated approach to chemical management, and is also a signatory member of the UN Fashion Charter COP 24 (Table 6.3).

6.2.3 Company 3 Company 3 was founded in the late 1970s and debuted as a shirtmaker. Company 3 started to operate in Mauritius in 1978. It is a vertically integrated supply chain firm with an established network of strategically located merchandising offices. According to Textile Exchange, company 3 sources its cotton from Xinjiang in China,

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Table 6.3 Company 2 key indicators Company 2—key indicators Revenue 2018

$274 Million (Rs 10.9 billion)

Main products

Woven, fine knits, knitwear

Operation’s Local

Mauritius, Madagascar, India, Bangladesh

Manufacturing capacity 2018 36 million garments per year Main export market

Europe, USA, South Africa

Main customers

Puma, suit supply, J Crew, Calvin Klein, Levi’s, Lacoste, Tommy Hilfiger, Asos

which is one of the largest organic cotton producer districts in China. They cultivate cotton using sustainable technologies and advanced renewable energy sources and invest in wastewater treatment infrastructure [15]. In 2017/2018, the Xinjiang district produced 20,473 million tons of organic fiber, and most cotton farmers are certified [16]. The company has head-quarter in Hong Kong and several branches worldwide, including Vietnam, Sri Lanka, and China. The company has invested huge capital in the latest technologies to benchmark the US market. Investment in the latest technologies is helping the company to lead in this innovation game. The company has devoted huge attention to sustainability strategy; sustainability integration has been crucial for the company, and with time, sustainability is part of the company DNA. The company aims to grow as a sustainable business and paid forth attention to four principal areas of sustainability: planet, people, product, and community (Table 6.4). Table 6.4 Company 3 key indicators

Company 3—key indicators Revenue (2014)

The US $1398 Million

Main products

Woven shirt

Operation’s location

Mauritius, China, Hong Kong, Vietnam, Vietnam, and Sri Lanka

Manufacturing capacity 2014

110 million

Main customer

Tommy Hilfiger, Jcrew, Abercrombie & Fitch, Eddie Bauer

Main export market

Asia, America

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6.3 Drivers of Green Practices 6.3.1 Driver 1: Top Management Support and Commitment Company 1: The company’s mission is “change the image of textile”, top management is committed to environmental issues, and the company’s mission is to move to sustainable textile production. Company 2: The company has a strong commitment plan to environmental sustainability. Top management at Company 2 developed a “Winning well” philosophy to integrate and manage sustainability. The company’s top management is committed to responding to environmental challenges that our planet is currently facing and developing appropriate strategies and plan-approach to improve the environmental conditions. The company’s vision is “making a difference” which is reflected in how they manage their impact on the environment, society, and communities in which they operate. Company 3: Sustainability is part of the organization’s DNA, and the management is committed to sustainability reporting. The company has its sustainability report published annually. Leadership and organizational commitment affect companies’ abilities to integrate environmental and social practices across supply networks. Firms want the company’s image to be associated with good values, which in turn create goodwill and a strong company brand. By doing so, textile firms can attract potential customers, attract a pool of skilled labor, obtain government support, and have more positive visibility on the market.

6.3.2 Driver 2: Corporate Social Responsibility All companies: Companies in Mauritius are encouraged to participate in CSR activities as per the Income Tax Act 1995 [17]. In the 2007 budget, the Mauritian government made it mandatory for profitable firms to contribute 2% of their annual profit to CSR activities. Corporate social responsibility can be defined as the firm’s efforts to develop sustainability practices, considering environmental and social issues. CSR can be voluntary or mandatory; most firms include CSR in their business activities, and some firms even have a CSR department. In Mauritius, profitable firms must engage in CSR activities. Part of CSR funding is geared towards the development of local community services and environmental protection. Government and employer representatives formulated guidelines for spending CSR funds aimed at synchronizing CSR activities for the benefit of society and the environment. Company 2: Firms in the textile industry are encouraged by their customers to engage in corporate social responsibility activities. Part of the project is geared towards environmental protection. For instance, the Global UN Fashion Charter for Climate Action asks signatories’ members to reduce greenhouse gas throughout their

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supply chain. CSR activities are also part of firm engagement and responsibilities toward the environment and society. Most CSR activities carried out by textile firms in Mauritius focus on environmental responsibility and community development. Implementing a mandatory CRS levy in Mauritius has encouraged firms in different sectors to undertake environmental and ecological projects. Although CRS activities are compulsory in Mauritius, firms can decide which activities they will focus on and devote their CRS budget. There is an increasing trend toward adopting CSR as a strategy to tackle sustainability in the textile industry. Part of the CSR activities aims to tackle environmental and sustainability by developing a proper structure for sustainability reporting, monitoring, and auditings, like fair trade, common labor laws, and transparency disclosure. Providing more information to their customers about the product sourcing process is also part of their CRS strategy. The link between CSR and the environment includes the duty that firms owe to the environment, like environmental protection, natural and climate changes, handling of industrial waste, and the reduction in carbon emission.

6.3.3 Driver 3: Customer Awareness and Sensitivity Company 1: The manager acknowledged that customers in the EU and the U.S are asking factories around the world to sign their terms of engagement, which entails: health safety standards, working conditions of local and foreign workers, water treatment, waste disposal, and recovery, transporting hazardous material, energy efficiency to ensure lower carbon dioxide emission, preventing of pollution, domestic sewage and bio-solids management and ground, and underground storage. Well-known fashion brands are more sensitive about environmental and social issues. Company 2: One of its branches is a signatory of the UN Fashion Charter at COP 24; the UN Fashion charter aims to collectively address the impact of climate change across the whole fashion supply chain. It now has more than 100 members, including well-known fashion companies. Fashion consumers are now adopting new purchasing habits, showing more interest in green products, and being more involved in online exchange platforms, as their actions have an ever-lasting impact on the environment. Community pressure on brands is also upscaling, and many social movements encourage sustainable consumption. Customers are more willing to buy environment-friendly products to achieve the advantage of environmental protection. Developing mutual trust with customers and suppliers often produces more fantastic environmental performance. The young generation is also sensitive to environmental issues as they are more likely to have been educated about climate change and its potential impacts on their generation. This group of customers often showed more interest in fashionable green products, focusing on durability, prolonged wearability, and other sustainability issues. These clusters can be a potential market that firms in the textile industry can target and promote more green products.

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6.3.4 Driver 4: Resource Scarcity and Circular Economy Company 1: Investing in renewable energy is gaining massive attention as energy consumption per person has exploded in Mauritius. The percentage of imported energy is increasing, and Mauritius has no resources. So, firms have to find ways to use renewable energy. Company 1 uses sunshine to light its store by changing the roof of its warehouse. At Company 1, solar heating panels have been installed on the main building roof. Addressing sustainability issues is of utmost importance, especially in the case of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) like Mauritius, as their resources and capacities are limited, and they are more vulnerable to climate change [11]. The government has also participated in SWITCH Africa Green (SAG) program; the program aims to enhance resource productivity and environmental performance of Micro, Small, and medium enterprises in six African countries, including Mauritius. The concept is simply that waste can be revalued, for instance, bagasse (sugarcane waste) which can be used for energy production. Mauritius aims further to implement the best practices of a circular economy. To address this issue, the government’s energy policy encourages using renewable and clean energy to reduce the country’s dependence on fossil fuels and decrease fossil greenhouse gas emissions [11]. The government aims to do so by adopting sustainable practices like using wind farms, solar energy, biomass, and wave to produce energy. The government planned to upscale renewable energy for electricity from 21 to 35% by 2025 [11]. Around 300 tons of textile waste were recycled in 2018 in Mauritius [18]. Firms are urged to adopt sustainable practices. Firms in Mauritius are well aware of the energy resource scarcity that the country is facing. For a long time, Mauritius has been dependent on fossil energy, and there is an urgency for the country to turn toward greener energy. Aware of the issue, the country is smoothly transitioning to sustainable energy. Similarly, firms are encouraged to produce and use green energy. Company 2 has also adopted recycling practices to reduce wastage. Mauritius is also transiting smoothly to a circular economy. As we all know, resources are increasingly becoming scarce, and firms and public institutions must design strategies to move entirely toward a circular economy. The circular economy is an alternative to the linear economic model, resources are used as long as possible, and their values are extracted to the maximum. Firms in the textile industry in developing countries are also encouraged to move to a more sustainable approach and adopt techniques to move towards a circular economy by adopting a closed-loop value chain model.

6.3.5 Driver 5: Government Legislation and Support All companies: The Mauritian government has developed several environmental policies to protect the environment. Firms must follow local rules and regulations as

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stated in the Environment Protection Act 2002 [12]. Firms are encouraged to reduce carbon emissions and avoid using hazardous materials. They are also encouraged to use renewable energies. Mauritius is also a member of the Kyoto protocol since May 2001. The Kyoto protocol aims to encourage participating countries to reduce greenhouse emissions by assigning them a target amount they can use. To do so, the government has encouraged companies to reduce the carbon emission index. Various supportive platforms and strategies have been designed to help different firms undertake green projects through collaboration with government and private firms. For instance, the Agence Française de Development (AFD) with the European Union and private banks in Mauritius provide green loans to businesses undertaking green projects at competitive interest rates. Government support and legislation are significant drivers for firms implementing sustainability practices in Mauritius. Environmental and social issues are significant concerns for the government beyond realizing economic growth. Most countries across the globe are implementing strict environmental policies due to environmental degradation and unprecedented natural calamities that are leaving millions of people homeless, and natural habits are also being destroyed. The government may encourage firms to adopt sustainable practices to boost the country’s export through strict environmental laws and to comply with the clauses of the Free Trade Agreement with foreign countries. Since the Mauritian textile and apparel export are primarily targeted at the EU and US markets, the Mauritian government feels the need to encourage firms to meet the international quality standard to help the country export to remain competitive.

6.3.6 Driver 6: Competition Company 1: The cost of production in Mauritius is relatively higher compared to mass production and low-cost manufacturing firms like China, India, and Bangladesh. The increase in the minimum wage has partly led to that. The surge in regional and global competition makes textile firms feel the urge to meet international standards and follow the move to stay in this fierce competition. To differentiate itself, the Mauritian textile industry focuses on sustainable production and high-end garment. The desire to appear “greener” and more ethical is a particular factor for firms to attract potential buyers. Company 2: The company aims to be the best Global Fashion Partner to deliver unbeatable value to medium and upmarket retailers through quality product delivery. Quality product delivery also means that firms are compelling with the required quality standards to protect the environment. Industry peer pressure can be a motivating factor for firms to implement sustainable practices and compete more aggressively. For instance, firms can produce ecofriendly product designs, sometimes referred to as green marketing, to gain competitiveness [19]. The development of green strategies can help firms to improve their brand image. Introducing green products in the market can lead to huge benefits,

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including developing unique manufacturing capabilities in product differentiation, getting goodwill for licensing green technology, and developing proprietary information, which will lead to a sustainable competitive edge. Similarly, it can help firms access a niche market and charge a price premium.

6.3.7 Green Practices and Firm’s Performance In terms of environmental performance, firms have been able to reduce carbon emissions, reduce fossil energy consumption. Firms’ production capacity is also affected by actual demand and other economic factors. It is pretty challenging to give a concrete conclusion on whether green strategies have further helped to boost the production capacity of firms. However, with the implementation of sustainability practices, firms can now reduce the economic cost of production, like energy costs and reduce waste by recycling and reuse [20]. The Mauritian textile industry has been facing enormous difficulties since several years ago; the main reasons are the higher minimum wages and other economic issues which drastically impact firms’ financial performance. However, as mentioned above, by implementing these practices, firms can maintain their customers and differentiate them from low-cost textile producers by benchmarking on quality, and it also helps them to respect terms of engagement.

6.3.8 Green Practices and Innovation The desire of firms to go green often impacts the firm’s innovation level. Green practices implementation impacts innovation; firms are encouraged to invest in modern technologies for better performance. Besides, firms are also encouraged to redesign their process and product for better results. Company 2 has implemented several technological changes in its production process. Company 3 has invested considerably in the latest technologies to improve efficiency. The firms have invested in technologies, machines, and automation to be more competitive and drive productivity. This is crucial for efficiency and drives positive results. Investment in new machines has helped the firm to reduce the environmental impact of its activities. Green innovation often has a positive impact on a firm’s environmental performance. Investment in new machines is helping firms to reduce their environmental impacts and deliver better performance. In addition, green innovation has also helped firms reduce costs. Green innovation is often a long-term business strategy aiming to improve a firm’s environmental performance and efficiency.

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6.4 Conclusion Based on the research findings, it can be concluded that most top companies’ managers are committed to green practices. Management commitment is a major internal factor that encourages firms to green their business practices and act more ethically while considering the interest of society, like providing a safe working environment and minimum salary. Management commitment to sustainable development has a significant impact on firms’ long-term goals and strategies, as they are the ones who formulate firms’ strategic planning and ensure that firms’ goals are being met, respectively. Multiple macro-level factors affect a firm’s decision regarding sustainability practices implementation like government policies and regulations, customer awareness of green practices, competition intensity, and resource scarcity. Over the last decade, the Mauritian government has emphasized environmental issues and produced new legislation to improve environmental conditions. This new legislation often impacts a firm’s decision, and they feel the need to revamp their business model around sustainability development. Government support for sustainability in Mauritius is also an encouraging factor for firms to go green. The Mauritian textile industry wants to compete differently vis-à-vis low-cost manufacturing countries by benchmarking on quality end products. Moreover, resource scarcity is also a significant factor that encourages firms to go green by adopting practices like recycling and reuse. Implementing green practices is often a strategy for firms to become market leaders, avoid tarnishing the company’s image, and have government and local community support. Sustainability practices often help firms to improve their environmental performance. However, there exists little evidence to conclude the effect of sustainability practices on a firm’s financial performance, as a firm’s financial performance is affected by other factors like economic condition, competition, and customer behaviors. Implementing green practices often encourages firms to improve their organizational process and innovate.

References 1. UNDP. (2020). Strategic options for the Mauritius textile and apparel industry. United Nation Climate Change. 2. MCCI. Economic data. Retrieved July 30, from https://www.mcci.org/en/key-publications/eco nomic-data/ 3. MEXA. Textile and apparel sectorial overview. Retrieved July 30, from https://www.mexama uritius.org/mexa-buy-mauritian 4. ITC. Product data availability. Retrieved July 20, from https://www.trademap.org/Index.aspx 5. Yan, X., Chen, L., & Memon, H. (2022) Introduction. In X. Yan, L. Chen, & H. Memon (Eds.), Textile and fashion education internationalization: A promising discipline from South Asia (pp. 1–12). Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore. 6. Wang, H., Memon, H., Shah, S. H. H., & Shakhrukh, M. (2019). Development of a quantitative model for the analysis of the functioning of integrated textile supply chains. Mathematics, 7, 929.

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7. Yan, X., Madjidov, S., Halepoto, H., & Chen, L. (2021) Optimisation in the logistics and management of supply chains in production by textile enterprises. Tekstilec, 64. 8. MID. Maurice Ile Durable. Retrieved June 20, from http://mid.govmu.org/portal/sites/mid/abo utMID.htm 9. Wu, D.M.H.P.P.E.P.U. (2022) Enterprises; rsquo; Environmental information, D. Sustainability, 14. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14126948 10. Wu, D., Zhu, S., Memon, A. A., & Memon, H. (2020). Financial attributes, environmental performance, and environmental disclosure in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 8796. 11. PAGE. Partnership for Action on Green Economy. Retrieved September 01, from https://www. un-page.org/countries/page-countries/mauritius-0 12. MOE. The environment protection act 2002. Retrieved June 15, from https://supremecourt. govmu.org/HighlightDoc/THE%20ENVIRONMENT%20%20PROTECTION 13. Worldbank. Climate change indicators. Retrieved January 05, from https://data.worldbank.org/ indicator/ 14. Callychurn, D. S., Gooroochurn, M., Hurreeram, D. K., & Savoo, S. (2019). Developing a sustainability index for Mauritian manufacturing companies. Ecological Indicators, 96, 250– 259. 15. Yesuf, H. M., Xiaohong, Q., & Jhatial, A. K. (2020). Advancements in cotton cultivation. In H. Wang, & H. Memon (Eds.), Cotton science and processing technology: Gene, ginning, garment and green recycling (pp. 39–59). Singapore: Springer Singapore. 16. Wang, H., & Memon, H. (2020). Introduction. In H. Wang & H. Memon (Eds.), Cotton science and processing technology: Gene, ginning, garment and green recycling (pp. 1–13). Singapore: Springer Singapore. 17. MRA. Guide on corporate social responsibility. Retrieved January 05, from https://www.mra. mu/download/CSRGuide.pdf 18. Kowlesser P (2020) An overview of circular economy in Mauritius. In Circular economy: Global perspective. 19. Chen, L., Qie, K., Memon, H., & Yesuf, H. M. (2021). The empirical analysis of green innovation for fashion brands, perceived value and green purchase intention—Mediating and moderating effects. Sustainability, 13, 4238. 20. Memon, H., Ayele, H. S., Yesuf, H. M., & Sun, L. (2022). Investigation of the physical properties of Yarn produced from textile waste by optimizing their proportions. Sustainability, 14, 9453.

Marie Joelle Emmanuelle Joseph holds a bachelor degree in International Business Management from the University of Mauritius and a master degree in Corporate Management from Zhejiang Sci-Tech University (ZSTU) in Hangzhou, one of the best textile engineering and fashion university in China. She is currently pursuing her Ph.D. at Zhejiang Gongshang University in Business Administration. Her research interests focus on sustainability practices, corporate social responsibilities (CSR) and shared value. She has participated in various youth business innovation and entrepreneurship programs in China. She also has some working experiences in the finance and banking industry.

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Chapter 7

Education and Investment Opportunities in the Textile Sector in Ethiopia—an Overview Dereje Kebebew Debeli, Alemayehu Gashaw Woldegiorgis, and Molla Tadesse Abate Abstract Ethiopian civilization is traced back to 1000 BC, and this nation is now considered the fastest-growing country in Africa due to its policy of industrialization of various sectors of the economy. Agriculture as the main source of income and Agricultural Development Led Industrialization (ADLI) are also transforming and developing into new emerging sectors. The textile and garment sector are one of the new sectors that the government is prioritizing for three reasons. First, Ethiopia has the potential to produce the highest quality cotton fiber; second, the plan is to add value to cotton (either by processing it into finished or similar products such as yarns, fabrics, or garments) rather than exporting cotton as a raw material; and third, to create a good working and business environment for the rapidly growing unemployment in the country. Recently, this sector has received much attention from the country’s government and foreign investors, development agencies, and various aid organizations that have selected Ethiopia as a fast-growing zone and investment destination in East Africa. Therefore, this chapter provides an overview of the Ethiopian textile and apparel sector. It also reports on the key players, particularly how government agencies and private and non-profit organizations have contributed first-hand to the growth of the textile and apparel sector. The chapter also outlines textile and apparel education and how the textile value chain in Ethiopia is linked to key players, from raw materials to in-country textile education and investment opportunities in the region. Keywords Ethiopia · Textile and apparel sector · Textile education · Investment opportunities D. K. Debeli (B) State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China e-mail: [email protected] A. G. Woldegiorgis Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China M. T. Abate Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Technology (EiTEX), Bahir Dar University, P.O. Box 1037, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2023 X. Yan et al. (eds.), Quality Education and International Partnership for Textile and Fashion, SDGs and Textiles, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-99-1320-6_7

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7.1 Introduction Ethiopia has a long tradition of cotton cultivation and cottage industries. Cotton supplied by smallholder farmers can be processed into yarns, fibers, and fabrics on traditional handlooms or by hand. In particular, traditional woven garments (such as Gabi, Kuta, Kemis and others) are made both on hand looms and by hand (see Fig. 7.1). Traditionally, older women are skilled in making various knitted goods [1, 2]. This traditional cotton farming is now grown to large-scale investment areas either by government agencies or private investment groups to satisfy the needs of the fast-growing population. Through its Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), the Ethiopian government investigated that a total land of 205,000 ha could be utilized to cultivate cotton fiber. Out of this area, 65,000 ha of acreage can be irrigated while 140,000 ha can be produced using rainfall. If this total area is fully utilized to produce cotton,

Fig. 7.1 Location of Ethiopia, cotton production area and applications, a Availability of highquality lint cotton and its processing steps, b traditions of wearing clothes made of cotton during festivals and holidays as the main source of celebration

7 Education and Investment Opportunities in the Textile Sector … Table 7.1 Overview of Textile Industry in Ethiopia: cotton production, spinning, weaving and export turnover (in the fiscal year of 2007/2008) [1, 6]

Cotton cultivation area

~70.0000 hectares

141

Annual production

44.000 tons

Total no. of spinning machines

11 operational

Major products / daily output

30,000 kg per day

Total no. of weaving machines

534 shuttle looms and 904 without shuttle

Major products per day

265.000 cotton and blends per day

Major products / daily output

60.000 kg per day

Total no. of garments

50 operational garments

Total no. of vertically integrated

7 already started, 2 in the project phase

Total export

14.6 $ million

Total employment of the sector

Over 35, 000

the country can be considered as the leading producer and export of lint cotton in East Africa [3]. In addition, the government has identified the textile and garment sector as a priority sector under the country’s industrial development package. The sector plays an important role based on Agricultural Development Led Industrialization (ADLI) strategy [4], and this sector is essentially linked to the agricultural sector in terms of raw material supply. Ethiopian textile factories and the apparel sector generally use natural cotton as a raw material to manufacture many different products. Therefore, the government has defined the textile and garment sector as a priority sector in the Industrial Development package of the country and as the engine of the country’s economy due to a huge export capacity. The sector plays a major role in the strategy of ADLI, as it is closely linked with the agricultural sector in raw material supply and taps into the huge global textiles and garment market. Furthermore, proper training and textile education are designed at different levels (from college to university) to facilitate and push the textile and apparel growth sector forward. Indeed, it is reasonable for the textiles. In general, most men work in technical or managerial positions (Table 7.1).

7.2 Potential of the Textile Sector in Ethiopia Recently, after the government put intervention in the textile and apparel sectors, this sector showed unprecedented growth, especially to earn foreign currency by exporting textile-product commodities to different countries. For instance, for the

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fiscal year of 2020/21, the country has planned to earn a total export value of 1 billion USD [7]. As a result, this sector showed strategic potential for the growth and transformation of the country’s economy. In addition, there are several reasons behind the government intervention and support of the textile sector. First, this sector can accommodate the highly growing unemployment rate, growth, and market potential and has already attracted relatively large local investments and initial international investors[5]. Second, the export opportunities provided by Europe and the US, free of tax, have initiated the market of cotton products, especially for poor sub-Saharan African countries [8]. However, the Ethiopian textile and apparel sectors are still limited to fully utilizing the opportunity because of less trained human power (skilled workers), complicated textile value chain, and private sector monopoly in some areas. Because of its importance to the ADLI process, government and private companies have already identified much information on the textile and apparel sector [4]. The German Development Program, in collaboration with the Ethiopian Ministry of Capacity Building Program (ECBP), analyzed and designed the textile value chain actors in a fiscal year from 2000 to 2011, conducted additional analysis, and prioritized the findings, as shown in Fig. 7.2. To establish a strong and competitive human power for this sector, the Ethiopian government has established the following actors to support and provide necessary knowledge for the fast-growing textile industries in the region. These actors are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Textile and apparel institute Ministry of trade and industry Ethiopian textile and garment manufacturing association Textile and garment companies of Ethiopia Universities/colleges and training centers

Fig. 7.2 Overview: value chain (VC) links and VC actors in the Ethiopian Textile and Garment Sector [9]

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7.3 Universities, Colleges and Training Centers for the Textile and Apparel Education Field To facilitate and support the rapid growth of the textile and apparel sector, the government is fully taken over and worked to expand service sectors, conducive environment, investing in infrastructure (including power and transportation), education (higher education, technical and vocational training (TVET) and increase private aid agencies). Especially, TVET and higher education are promoted by increasing the number of textile-oriented universities from one (Bahir Dar University) to six universities in 2015. The newly opened universities offering textile education are Axum University, Wollo University, Wolkite University, Dire Dawa University and Hawassa University. As the textile sector lacks quality skilled labor, the major role of the university is to provide the required skills for low to middle-level workers [10]. Therefore, for the booming textile sector, the equivalent skilled works are directly important and determine the growth ambitions of the textile and apparel sector plan. The government takes considerable efforts to expand and grow quality education for the growing textile sector. Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Technology (EiTEX)—a former Bahir Dar university, is the pioneer and the first textile and apparel higher education in the country, located in Bahir Dar city. Most textile experts, managers, low to middle-level workers and researchers graduated from this university. Interestingly, the textile sector made a considerable contribution to the growth and economy of the country; a fair share with a qualified workforce is mandatory to achieve the anticipated target. To build a textile and apparel institute in line with international standards that provides the industry with knowledge, skills, applied research and technology to strive to become globally competitive [2, 11]. In just two decades, the country showed rapid transformation in the textile education sector, from expanding training and technologies in the field. The fact that the number of universities dedicated to textile education has increased from one in 2000 to six in 2022 shows that the government gives indispensable priority to this sector. The newly established colleges, universities and training centers are essentially designed to provide mid- to high-level personnel to the textile companies that have recently grown in various regions and are working closely with textile companies and industrial parks. Moreover, these days the government is quite ambitious to open textile and garment sectors in every regional states. More than one university offers this textile education courses in some regions, while some regions are limited to training or TVET centers. For example, Bahir Dar and Wollo universities plan to collaborate with the nearest industrial areas, such as Bahir Dar and Kombolcha industrial parks in the Amhara region. Aksum, Dire Dawa, Wolkite and Hawassa universities are expected to provide necessary services to industrial parks established in Tigray, Oromia/Somali, Southern nations and nationalities and Sidama regional states, respectively. In 2006/7, the Ethiopian government’s goal of admitting 70% of first-year students in engineering and science was implemented to meet the growing industrialization

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strategy. That year, Bahir Dar university, with its Department of Textile Engineering (recently modernized and renamed the Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Technology, EiTEX), was the only university to admit textile education at the undergraduate level. Before that, fewer than 100 students per academic year chose to study textiles. Currently, the acceptance rate is increasing with the growing number of universities, i.e., more than 1000 students are receiving their education at different universities in the field of textiles and apparel Table 7.2 shows the courses offered and the level of specialization in Ethiopian universities/colleges. Table 7.2 The programs taught in higher Ethiopian Textiles Universities Name of university (College)

Courses taught

Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Technology (EiTEX) or former Bahir Dar University

Textile Engineering B.Sc Textile Chemical Processing Engineering Garment Engineering Leather Engineering Fashion Design Textile and Apparel Merchandising

Level of specialization

Garment Technology

B.Ed

Textile Manufacturing Textile Chemistry Fiber Science and Technology Fashion Technology Fashion Design Leather Product Design and Engineering

M.Sc

Textile Technology Fashion Technology

Ph.D

Axum University

Textile Engineering

B.Sc

Wollo University

Fashion Design Garment Engineering Leather Engineering Textile Engineering

B.Sc

Textile Engineering Textile Manufacturing

M.Sc

Dire Dawa University

Textile Engineering

B.Sc

Wolkite University

Fashion Design Engineering Garment Engineering Textile Engineering

B.Sc

Hawassa University

Textile Engineering

B.Sc

Mekelle University

Textile Engineering

B.Sc

Ethio-China Polytechnic College

Short to a long-term training

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7.4 Internationalization of the Ethiopian Textile Sector The Ethiopian government wants to modernize some sectors such as infrastructure, communications, technology centers and higher education. Among these endeavors, investing in higher education and internationalization is the top priority, which is also a versatile way to bridge knowledge gaps for different sectors. In particular, the textile and apparel sector is selected to be the top priority area because of the conducive environment created by the Ethiopian government to attract foreign investors in this area [12]. This attraction of foreign investors also creates an opportunity to expand and diversify exports from agriculturally based products to more advanced industrial commodities. In recent years, the textile sector has grown at an average rate of 51%; Ethiopia is becoming a destination for different reasons, and more than 65 international textile investment projects have been licensed as foreign investors during this period. To satisfy this growing field and provide a highly trained workforce in the textile field, the government is diversifying the textile education field and increasing the total number of universities, colleges, and training institutes. Ethiopian higher education for the textile and apparel sector is working exclusively to internationalize and improve in terms of research, standard courses, staff upgrading, and best practices for college and industry-oriented education. EiTEX, in particular, has taken the initiative to work closely with the Ministry of Higher Education, the Ministry of Industry, the Investment Commission and the regional TVET institutes. In order to promote the internationalization of this sector, EiTEX collaborates with foreign universities and training centers to organize short- and long-term training in the form of conferences or through the exchange of personnel. EiTEX organizes international conferences on not only the textile and apparel sector but also pioneers new ideas and initiates and brings stakeholders into the sector as a key player. Few countries have made rapid changes in textile education in Africa. For example, Ethiopia has established a ministry-level government office to directly hire, outsource, manage and control knowledge transfer on some best practices of some selected countries. This government office cooperates and works on different approaches such as exchanging employees, outsourcing expatriates for companies and capacity building through a simple strategy called benchmarking. The countries outlined by the Ethiopian government are China, Turkey, Germany, India and Romania, which either cooperate through their higher education or via the company. For example, Chinese higher education has long cooperation with Ethiopian institutions. On the other hand, with the help of some aid agencies, many foreign workers have been recruited and deployed in the private sector to revolutionize the garment sector since 2008.

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7.5 Exchange and Cooperation Between Ethiopian and Chinese Higher Education The cooperation and exchanges between Ethiopia and Chinese higher education were agreed to provide short-term, medium, and long-term training for Ethiopian scholars at different levels. Short-term training aims to improve workers’ skills and experiences that facilitate their work. Similarly, training higher education staffs were also the other cooperation area in which most scholars are getting opportunities to receive their higher education such as Master, Ph.D., or post-doctorate level in most Chinese universities. These opportunities can be facilitated between the two higher education agencies or through private applicants in the form of scholarship awards. For example, Ethiopia’s higher officials expressed an interest in strengthening partnerships and cooperation with China in higher education as the country strives to expand and improve the quality of higher education. The minister made the remarks at the opening of the 2019 Chinese Higher Education Fair in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, which 31 renowned Chinese universities attended. The two countries have established partnerships and are working together. Education, in particular, is one of the most important areas in which Ethiopia would like to expand cooperation with China. Therefore, recently many Ethiopians have taken advantage of scholarship programs in China for their master’s and doctoral programs. This underscores the need to strengthen cooperation in this area, as the Ethiopian government attaches great importance to education in transforming the country’s economy. Ethiopia has worked hard over the past 20 years to expand the country’s public and private higher education institutions to about 73. China is indeed a great nation, offering hundreds of scholarships each year to many foreign nationals for short- and long-term educational trainings in the mainland, including postgraduate studies, for researchers to obtain master’s and Ph.D. programs. Most of these opportunities are organized through the Chinese government’s program welcoming foreign scholars and cooperation under the Belt and Road Initiative. Especially under the China-Africa Cooperation Forum, this kind of program has helped many African researchers tremendously [13–15]. The initiative and cooperation with Africa and other nations are not only for capacity building under the umbrella of win–win cooperation but also for strengthening people-to-people exchanges.

7.5.1 Donghua University Bahir Dar University took the initiative for inter-school communication with some Chinese universities to fully operate mutual agreement for cooperation. For instance, after a fruitful discussion between Donghua University and EiTEX, they signed a memorandum of understanding for staff exchange, scientific research cooperation and short-to long-term training between the two universities in 2016 (Fig. 7.3).

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Fig. 7.3 Cooperation agreement between Ethiopian and Chinese universities, a MoU signed between EiTEX and Donghua, China. (June 21, 2016) and b photo of conferences organized by the Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Technology (EiTEX) and Donghua university (September 20, 2018)

Since then, the two universities have been actively cooperating in various forms of collaboration, such as student training, joint research and innovation, exchange of technologies, experience and capacity building, support and promotion of projects, and exchange of staff. For instance, 4 students have already obtained their degrees (Ph.D. and Master) at Donghua University through private applications in 2018. Moreover, in 2019, Donghua University awarded a scholarship to seven EiTEX employees for further studies. Three of them are participating in the so-called sandwich doctoral program jointly awarded by EiTEX and Donghua University, and four of them are directly awarded by Donghua University.

7.5.2 Tianjin University of Technology The first Confucius Institute was established in Ethiopia in 2009 by the initiation between Addis Ababa University and Tianjin University of Technology. Addis Ababa Confucius Institute (abbr. AACI) is aimed to foster the cross-cultural difference between the two countries and is orientated to teach the Chinese culture and language and support the Chinese investors residing in many parts of Ethiopia. Later, this institute is expanded to Hawassa University and Mekelle University. The Confucius institute is mainly established to work for two functions: (1) To provide the Chinese language course and (2) to facilitate cultural exchange between the two people. Currently, short to long-term courses at different levels of specializations are provided, including product development-oriented specialization, new productbased and particular skills-oriented training are outsourced from many garment and

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fashion industries at this institute. Generally, the scope of AACI is mandated to provide the following activities: ● Training the Chinese language courses. ● Providing the Chinese Proficiency Test (HSK) and Certification of the Chinese Language ● Providing consultancy and information for students who aim to go to China. ● Facilitating cultural exchange activities with some Chinese universities and so on.

7.5.3 Tianjin University of Science and Technology Ethio-China Polytechnic College (abbr. ECPC) is the first technical and vocational college established in Ethiopia by the People’s Republic of China in 2008. Tianjin University of Technology and Education (TUTE) took the initiative to organize and control facilities such as training materials, equipment, office building, and infrastructure for building a standard college. In 2008, this college recruited 370 students majoring in different fields, including mechanics, electrics, electronics, automobile engineering, textile, garment, and information technology. Currently, the Ministry of Education of China approved ECPC through TUTE, and around 18 Chinese professors and experts were directly assigned to promote the teaching and research works in the college. ECPC design courses equip students and trainees to access solid knowledge, exquisite skills, and design capacity by researching the existing gap in the work area.

7.5.4 Chengdu Textile University Chengdu Textile College and EiTEX also work together, similar to Donghua University. They had a cooperative agreement to exchange technology and experience, training, research and innovation, support, and sponsor projects, sharing experience through the staff-student exchange. Currently, there is a cooperation between EiTEX and Chendu Textile University. For example, in 2018, two students from EiTEX Joined Chendu Textile college for their Ph.D. studies.

7.6 Investment Opportunity in the Textile Sector in Ethiopia The Ethiopian government has designed and implemented a ten-year “Growth and Transformation Plan” in two phases (GTP I and II), divided into five-year plans to become among middle-income nations by 2025 [11]. Ethiopia’s GDP has grown at

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a double-digit annual rate for the past ten years. Ethiopia achieved most of the MGD targets and hopes to meet its longer-term goal of becoming a middle-income nation (in 2025) by maintaining economic development over the GTP periods [16]. The textile industry is a significant economic activity for harnessing national economic growth and earning foreign currency. It is one of the priority sectors that play a major role in maximizing the use of current production capacity, boosting export revenues, and promoting sub-sector investment. The sector is being modernized by recruiting international investors with the necessary technologies and worldwide market connections. In manufacturing and processing textile materials and apparel, Ethiopia enjoys a comparative advantage due to a plentiful supply of raw materials, low salaries, and low energy costs over other countries. Ethiopia has a very suitable climate, agricultural land and workforce for cotton growth and production, making it the top producer in the world. Because Ethiopia can produce some of the finest cottons, the cotton tradition has a long history linked to local spinning and weaving processes. Moreover, it has a competitive advantage over other countries and areas due to a plentiful supply of raw materials (particularly cotton), low salaries, and low energy costs. Out of nine regional states, 8 are suitable for first-grade cotton lint cultivation growth. These regions have an annual rainfall of 700–1000 mm, and an average temperature of 27–32 ºC, within the altitude ranges of 300–1800 m above sea level [1, 3, 17]. The Ethiopian government has been very active in supporting the textile sector (and promoting all links in the value chain) to ensure value addition and substitution of this sector with all needed accessories and components. In particular, the Ministry of Industry, the Textile Industry Development Institute (ETIDI), the Investment Commission (EIC), and the Industrial Park Development Corporation (IPDC) [12] are among the government agencies responsible for regulating and supporting the growth and development of the textile sector. In addition, many universities and TVET centers provide training, workshops, and special seminars that are part of textile education to support the skilled workforce needed by the sector. The textile industry sector in Ethiopia has several advantages to offer investors. The industry’s product/supply value chain allows investors to specialize in certain products or participate in manufacturing integrated products. Several incentives and supporting mechanisms for the sector to attract foreign investors. Due to this, the Ethiopian textile industry has been quickly growing in recent years. This growth has increased textile exports as well as local consumption. The textile and apparel sector has shown rapid growth recently. Since 2010, Ethiopia’s economy has been growing by 9.7%, with a GDP growth rate of 9–10%. The biggest contributor to the growth of Ethiopia is the textile sector, which is around 3–5% share of the country’s total economy. Recently, the sector has had various competitive and comparative advantages relative to other sectors because of immersed potential, export quality, and governmental support for poverty reduction. Therefore, the non-governmental and aid organization have collaborated to support and upgrade this sector since 1991, bringing quality products to the international market. The bold competitive advantages are:

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● Quota-free market privilege (AGOA and EBAs) ● Ethiopia has signed for COMESA, which works for more than 16 bilateral trade agreements, including China, India, Turkey, and Russia. ● Suitable Geographical Proximity either to Europe or the Middle East market. ● Ethiopia is the second most populated and has rapid economic growth in Africa. ● The region has a low-wage labor force, and the size of the working force is estimated to be 55%.

7.7 Government Supports and Incentives The Ethiopian government has devised a set of incentive packages for investors in new businesses and expansions across various sectors under Regulations No. 84/2003 to boost foreign direct investment (FDI). Several attractive incentive packages have become available for foreign and domestic investors in the textile and apparel sector. The government has built several industrial parks [18] (see Table 7.3) with some important facilities. The government put most of the work, such as infrastructure, a one-stop-shop service and related activities to promote investors in the area. There are also dedicated sectors to support the textile and apparel sector [19]. These Institutions that support sectors are: ● ● ● ● ●

Ethiopian Ministry of Industry (MoI) The Textile Industry Development Institute (TIDI) The Investment Commission (EIC) Industrial Park Development Corporation (IPDC) Many higher education centers offer textile education and training (especially Bahir Dar, Axum, Kombolcha, Wolkite, Dire Dawa, and Hawassa Universities).

Table 7.3 List of industrial parks specialized in the Textile and Apparel sector [20]

1

Industrial Park

No. of shades

Number of employees

Bole Lami

20

14,000 20,000

2

Hawassa

52

3

Mekelle

15

3,038

4

Kombolcha

9

1,366

5

Dire Dawa

15

15,000

6

Adama

19

1,065

7

Bahir Dar

8

6,000

8

Eastern (private investment)

91

1,089

9

Vogue (private investment)

36

1,635

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● Over 200 TEVET were established to guide textile and garment centers for low to the high-level working staff. ● Particular textile and garment sector association (ETGMA, ECPGEA) The following are examples of incentives accessible to both foreign and domestic investors:

7.7.1 Custom Duty Exemptions All machinery and construction materials up to 15% can be exempted from the total value of imported goods. A duty-free vehicle for the establishment of the enterprise is also allowed. The customs duty paid on raw materials or commodities used as inputs in the production of these items will be refunded to an investor who purchases building materials or capital goods from local manufacturers. Investment capital items imported without paying customs duties or other import taxes can be transferred to another investor who enjoys the same benefit.

7.7.2 Exemption from Income Tax The performance-oriented income tax holiday is given to many investors. An income exemption of two to three years for Addis Ababa and Oromia special zones, three to six years for other areas, and up to five years of income tax exemption is allowed for expatriate staff (source: EIC). In addition, investing in certain regional areas such as Afar, Somalia, Benishangul Gumuz, Gambella, etc., entitles a 30% income tax reduction for three years after the income tax exemption period expires. An investor who has incurred a loss during the time of income tax exemption is also allowed to carry that loss forward for half of the income tax exemption period after that period has expired.

7.7.3 Export Incentives Duty paid on raw materials used in manufacturing commodities at the port of entry and locally is reimbursed in full upon the exportation of the processed commodity.

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7.7.4 Remittance The constitution and investment law protects private property. Remittances out of Ethiopia can be made in any convertible foreign currency at the current exchange rate.

7.7.5 Industrial Parks See Table 7.3.

7.7.6 Investment Guarantee and Protection Private property is protected in Ethiopia by both the constitution and the Investment Code. Ethiopia is also a member of the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), which guarantees businesses investing in signatory nations against noncommercial hazards [10]. Besides, the country has bilateral investment promotion and protection treaties with several countries.

7.7.7 Cost of Land and Utilities The land is available for investment on a lease basis, can be rented for up to 80 years, and the lease price is reasonably low for investors. The leaseholders have the right to transfer, mortgage, or sublease together with on-build facilities. Utilities such as electricity, water, and telephone prices are lower than in other countries.

7.8 Investment Areas in the Textile Value Chain Sector There are several investment areas as the transformation from agriculture to industrialization is still in its infant stage. Related to the textile and apparel sector, there is a huge potential in the future. Some of the focus areas are briefly discussed here.

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7.8.1 Cotton Farming Today, cotton is mostly used fiber worldwide and there is great advantage for cotton farming [21–23]. Currently, cotton is grown in Ethiopia on a large scale using irrigated commercial farms and in small-scale farming under rainfed. Ethiopia has a great potential for rain-fed and irrigated cotton production, with around 3 million hectares of land suitable for cotton production. Ethiopia accounts for only 5% of Africa’s total cotton production. This is because it only cultivates 3% of the total appropriate land for cotton cultivation [17]. Therefore, there is a great potential for investors to involve in cotton cultivation as there is ample land suitable for cotton growing.

7.8.2 Textile and Garment Manufacturing The textile and garment sector is thought to be one of the priority sectors in a country’s structural shift from agricultural to industrial-based growth [24]. With a huge workforce with low wages, abundant raw materials, and low energy costs, Ethiopia has a comparative advantage in the textile and apparel sector. Recently, there has been an increasing trend in apparel enterprises compared with the textile sector as the former is more labor-intensive and attracts more investors at lower wages [11]. An industrial zone with ready-made sheds and amenities has been established to ease the installation of plants. Since the textile and apparel industries are the priority sectors, the number of textile and garment manufacturing units has increased dramatically in the past ten years [7]. Moreover, leather from Ethiopian sheep garments and green marketing might be considered as mportant investment areas in the textile value chain sector [25–27].

7.9 Conclusion This chapter provides an overview of the textile and apparel sector, which is expected to accelerate the growth and transformation of the Ethiopian economy through the LDI strategy. The sector was selected as a priority sector by the government not only because of the interconnectedness of the various actors and the benefits of all the work along the value chain but also it has the potential to be an exporting community that generates foreign exchange. In addition, the sector is also geared to cater to the rapidly growing population (Ethiopia is the second-most populous country in Africa) in the region. For the sector to benefit as planned, the government apprehended the commitment by the following actions: (1) investing in the textile education sector, (2) creating investment opportunities to attract foreign investors, and (3) providing various support and initiatives to transform the sector through collaboration with agencies. Universities offering textile education have been modernized (upgraded),

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facilities improved, and the number of universities increased from one to eight in 2022. In addition, cooperation and exchanges between local and foreign universities have been improved to develop professional skills at each manufacturing level and solve similar problems from time to time. An investment agency has also been established to support and encourage local and foreign investors through various incentives.

References 1. Seboka, N. (2020). Mapping Cotton value chain of Ethiopia. Journal of Textile and Apparel, 2 (1), 1–21. 2. Alderin, C. (2014). Made in Ethiopia emerging textile industry in Ethiopia, 1–32. 3. Young, R. (2015). Tapping the $31 Billion Africa Opportunity, BoF. 4. Ch, A. (2013). Agricultural development-led industrialization strategy in Ethiopia: An overview. African Journal of Political Science And International Relations, 7(5), 237–246. https://doi.org/10.5897/ajpsir10.042. 5. Diriba, M., Ghadai, S. K., & Misra, S. N. (2019). Ethiopia as a newly emerging global textile centre: A review. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering, 7(6), 583–590. 6. Wagaye, B. T., & Walle, G. A. (2018). Overview of Ethiopian textile industry. Journal of Textile and Polymers, 6, 2012–2015. 7. van der P. Nash (2016) international and Dhyana, Business Opportunity Report Ethiopia Textile & Apparel, 2–38. 8. AGOA. (2014). Trade and investment performance overview. In African Growth and Opportunity Act Trade Investment Performance Analysis. http://www.usitc.gov/publications/332/pub 4461.pdf. 9. ITC, Ethiopia Textile and Clothing Value Chain Roadmap (2016) 106. 10. ECCSA, Ethiopian Chamber of Commerce and Sectoral Associations (2014). 11. Rundassa, M. W., Azene, D. K., & Berhan, E. (2019). Comparative advantage of Ethiopian textile and apparel industry. Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, 23(3), 244–256. https:// doi.org/10.1108/RJTA-08-2018-0049. 12. Mamo, M., & Gabriela, L. (2017). Looking beyond the horizon: A case study of PVH’s commitment in Ethiopia’s Hawassa Industrial Park. 13. King, K. (2020). China-Africa education cooperation: From FOCAC to belt and road. ECNU Review of Education, 3(2), 221–234. https://doi.org/10.1177/2096531119889874. 14. Crescenzi, R., & Limodio, N. (2021). The impact of Chinese FDI in Africa: evidence from Ethiopia. Geography and Environment Discussion Paper Series, Paper No. 22, pp. 1–10. 15. Calabrese, L., Huang, Z., & Nadin, R. (2021). The Belt and Road and Chinese enterprises in Ethiopia: Risks and opportunities for development, 61. 16. Khurana, K. (2018). An overview of textile and apparel business advances in Ethiopia. Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, 22(3), 212–223. https://doi.org/10.1108/RJTA-01-2018-0003. 17. Zeleke, M., Adem, M., Aynalem, M., & Mossie, H. (2019). Cotton production and marketing trend in Ethiopia: A review. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 5(1), 1691812. https://doi.org/10. 1080/23311932.2019.1691812. 18. Wako, E. (2018). Assessment of inventory management practice: The case of Hawasa textile factory, Ethiopia. Journal of Supply Chain Management Systems, 7(1), 1–8. 19. Addis, T., Kachi, A., & Wang, J. (2021). A review of current state and future directions of cotton production in Ethiopia. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 7(1), 1880533. https://doi.org/10. 1080/23311932.2021.1880533. 20. Vallejo, B., & Mekonnen, T. G. (2021). Foreign direct investment (FDI) and learning in Ethiopia’s textile and garment sector, 1–24.

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21. Wang, H., Siddiqui, M. Q., & Memon, H. (2020). Physical structure, properties and quality of cotton. In H. Wang, & H. Memon (Eds.), Cotton science and processing technology: Gene, ginning, garment and green recycling (pp. 79–97). Singapore: Springer. 22. Yesuf, H. M., Xiaohong, Q., & Jhatial, A. K. (2020). Advancements in cotton cultivation. In H. Wang, & H. Memon (Eds.), Cotton science and processing technology: Gene, ginning, garment and green recycling (pp. 39–59). Singapore: Springer. 23. Wang, H., & Memon, H. (2020). Introduction. In H. Wang, & H. Memon (Eds.), Cotton science and processing technology: Gene, ginning, garment and green recycling (pp. 1–13). Singapore: Springer. 24. Gereffi, G., & Fernandez-Stark, K. (2011). Global value chain analysis: A primer. Center on Globalization, Governance & Competitiveness (pp. 305–342). Cambridge University Press. 25. Memon, H., Chaklie, E. B., Yesuf, H. M., & Zhu, C. (2021). Study on effect of leather rigidity and thickness on drapability of sheep garment leather. Materials, 14, 4553. 26. Chen, L., Qie, K., Memon, H., & Yesuf, H. M. (2021). The empirical analysis of green innovation for fashion brands, perceived value and green purchase intention—mediating and moderating effects. Sustainability, 13, 4238. 27. Chen, L., Halepoto, H., Liu, C., Kumari, N., Yan, X., Du, Q., & Memon, H. (2021). Relationship analysis among apparel brand image, self-congruity, and consumers’ purchase intention. Sustainability, 13(22), 12770. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212770.

Dr. Dereje Kebebew Debeli received his B.Sc. in textile engineering from Bahir Dar University in Ethiopia in 2008. After graduation, he worked as a junior textile expert in Ethiopia’s Ministry of Capacity Building for three years. Due to his strong interest for higher education, he earned his master’s degree in 2014 and doctoral degree in 2018 in textile engineering from Zhejiang Sci-Tech University and Donghua University. Dr. Debeli is now working as a postdoctoral researcher at Zhejiang University, College of Chemical and biological Engineering. His research focuses on biodegradable composites, nanoparticle-matrix interfaces, processing methods, characterization of polymer nanocomposite, and scale-up for commercialization. His current research interests include modification of biodegradable polymers such as PBAT, PLA, PBST, PHB, etc. and nanoparticle modification of polymers for high gas barrier applications. Dr. Debeli won a project fund from Zhejiang Province in 2019 and also completed a e0.8 million project funded by Infinitus (China) Company Ltd., Guangzhou, China (2022) in Professor Shan Guorong’s group as the principal investigator, Zhejiang University, China. Dr. Debeli has published more than 30 peer-reviewed scientific papers in high-ranking international journals and conferences

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D. K. Debeli et al. Alemayehu Gashaw Woldegiorgis was born in Ethiopia and has been working as a lecturer at Bule Hora University, Bule Hora, Ethiopia. He received his bachelor’s degree in chemistry from Debre Birhan University and M.Sc. from Bahir Dar University in Organic chemistry. Now he is a PhD student in Zhejiang University under the supervision of Professor Xufeng Lin. His current research interests are intended on chiral phosphoric acid-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis of heteroaromatic compounds.

Dr. Molla Tadesse is currently an assistant professor at the Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Technology (EiTEX), Bahir Dar University. His main responsibilities include doing research, teaching master’s level courses, being assigned as a reviewer for several journals, developing MSc and PhD curriculums, and participating in various extracurricular activities. His research focuses on resource-efficient processes for the development and production of textile materials for functional and smart applications. Molla finished his PhD in Textile materials technology, textile chemistry, and textile engineering with the topic of functionalization of textiles using resource-efficient a waterfree supercritical CO2 technology from the University of Boras, Politecnico di Torino, and Soochow University. Currently, he is involved in a centre of excellence (CoE) research project within EiTEX in the development of a comfortable and safer eye protector for newborns during phototherapy treatment.

Chapter 8

Textile and Fashion Industry of Mozambique Jawad Naeem and Amna Siddique

Abstract Mozambique’s textile industry started with sisal and cotton fiber production for export purposes. The first Text mill in Mozambique was Text Africa, founded in the 1940s. Globalization brought revolutionary changes to Mozambique. The past few decades have observed enormous changes in Mozambique’s fashion and textile industry. Extensive trade in second-hand clothing emphasized the inadequate means of most Mozambican users. Therefore, the regional requirement for new clothing and the volume and production of apparel manufacturing could not withstand the capital investments that a competitive yarn manufacturing, fabric manufacturing, and finishing industry needed to survive. Renewal of used or disposed garments is also trending in Mozambique fashion. The traditional fabric of Mozambique (Capulana: conventional cotton fabric with diversified prints and balanced core) was affected by regional culture and overseas components. Capulana took creativity from the Indian sari and sarong from Indonesia. The government of Mozambique is doing partnerships to revive the cotton industry. Mozambique has established a national standard to produce cotton sustainably. Numerous agreements were made with cotton certification programs like Brazil’s Algodao Brasileira Responsavel (ABR) and Australia’s my BMP. These contracts assured cotton cultivation in Mozambique by licensed farmers, which would be offered as verified Better Cotton on international markets. Every year fashion week is organized in Mozambique is beneficial for the textile trade. For participation in fashion week, applications are received from fashion designers and models to represent their creativity in the field of fashion. In addition, to promote the growth of textile and fashion education, special emphasis must be given to textile institutes and training programs for operators to fulfill the requirements of modern apparel industries. Keywords Mozambique · Capulana · Fashion · Textile

J. Naeem · A. Siddique (B) Department of Textile Technology, School of Engineering and Technology, National Textile University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan e-mail: [email protected] © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2023 X. Yan et al. (eds.), Quality Education and International Partnership for Textile and Fashion, SDGs and Textiles, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-99-1320-6_8

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8.1 Introduction The initial textile industry in Mozambique started with the production of natural fibers like cotton and sisal for export purposes. The first Text mill in Mozambique was Text Africa, founded in the 1940s. It was small cotton-based textile and clothing industry that expanded progressively till 1974. The major reason was the massive emigration of Portuguese citizens who controlled all managerial and technical posts [1]. The textile and apparel industries are a source of employment for unskilled operators worldwide. Small and medium-scale industries have the capabilities to elevate a massive amount of the population from the poverty line by hiring women. Therefore, Mozambique must be concerned about the potential of the textile and apparel sectors, including its promotion [2]. In the later stage of 2000, the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) offered a brand-new enticement to multinational clothing dealers who agreed to establish their facilities in extremely secluded sub-Saharan African areas. These areas would be the duty-free treatment of clothing fulfilling the liberal guidelines of origin and extraordinary quota caps. Small countries-initiated programs that appealed to large-scale multinational firms eager to invest in these territories. Thus, early investors were guaranteed five years of exports before eradicating quotas on most viable suppliers in Asia on January 01, 2005 [2]. After that date, the success of these firms would hang on to the extension of US rules of origin to permit the use of third-country fabrics and yarns or the availability of competitively priced fabrics that could be sourced regionally [2]. Mozambique is a pivotal case of unstable impacts of globalization on African marketplaces. It was a preliminary model of how the impact of favorable and open policies of the Mozambique government and globalization could bring revolutionary change in the nation [3]. For the last three decades, Mozambique has changed its status from a warfare country to a socially and economically stable one. Economic reforms in the country encourage liberal economies [4]. Policymakers of Mozambique depicted the country’s image as a neoclassical development model, which might be an answer to faltering economies. However, a detailed analysis revealed a very different situation [4]. After achieving the peace process in 1992, Mozambique remained a country of relentless poverty. With the discoveries of gas and coal reservoirs, there was a great expansion in terms of the economy, along with the increased gross domestic product. However, there was an uneven distribution of resources. A report in 2003 mentioned a 7% average growth in GDP per year. However, Brooks mentioned that 54% of the population remained below the poverty line between 2003 and 2009 [3]. The gross national income per capita is around 501 dollars per year. Furthermore, natural mining sources are not labor-demanding industries delivering GDP growth but provide very modest employment chances. This is the major reason for unequal distribution of wealth regardless of the encouraging economy. In the meantime, the employee salaries in the textile and apparel industry were not

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enough, and this pattern was similar in countries of Zambia, Kenya, and Rwanda. The lack of skilled operators, poor management skills and limitation of capital created benefits for second-hand clothing entrants [3, 4]. A data report by United Nations in 2012 revealed that around 55.3-million-dollar clothing was exported to Mozambique in 2012. This amount was equivalent to 52 million tons of garments, equal to the weight of 423 million knitted T-shirts. On the other hand, it was complicated to comprehend if all 52 million tons of donated garments would be essentially functional. Bales were sold in the form of sealed and unopened bundles. Traders of the market by the bales have just the knowledge of the category of bales. However, they were unaware of the quality of the market. However, it was revealed that the size of many pieces of T-shirts was large for the average person in Mozambique, and most of the pieces were torn and looked awful [3].

8.2 Capulana The traditional fabric of Mozambique is known as Capulana, a conventional cotton fabric with diversified prints and a balanced core. The main reason behind its charisma is its functionality to perform several tasks in routine life, i.e., it can be utilized as a shawl in winter and protects the body from the sun. It is often used as slings by ladies of Mozambique for carrying their children on their backs. Rural working women also use it by wrapping around their skirts and heads for protection against dust. It is famous among regional tailors who use it in bags, clothes, covers, cushions, and interior decoration articles. Portuguese merchants and coastal citizens of Mozambique introduced Capulana to Mozambique between the ninth and tenth centuries. The literature revealed that the northern women of Mozambique were acknowledged for shaping the fashion of capulana through their creative approach. In the coastal areas of Mozambique, women use capulana as a headdress with several combinations of colors and patterns. Capulana penetrated its way to the inner parts of Mozambique after gaining popularity in coastal areas of Mozambique. Initially, people in important positions had the authority to use capulana. Thus, it was used as a symbol of natural beauty and power. However, with time, people from various life classes were allowed to use it [1]. The capulana was deeply associated with old and young Mozambican women. It has become an emblem of association with the country of Mozambique. The textile of Mozambique was affected by regional culture and overseas components. Capulana took creativity from the Indian sari and sarong from Indonesia. Afterward, components like strips around the corners and bigger designs are in the cloth’s center. An activist fashion designer Fuad Luke in his book mentioned that the contribution of the population with naming and design development improves the possibilities of more efficient results [5]. In terms of fashion, Capulana has been utilized by foreign and regional designers. Designers like Wacy Zacarias, with her Woogui brand, worked with capulana. Their

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quality is very good, but the price is very expensive. The standard dimension of capulana is 2 m by 1. The latest trends have been cultivated by western fashion developments [1].

8.3 The Trend of 2nd Hand Clothing in Mozambique Around 82% of the population of Africa wears second-hand clothing. Most bales are comprised of low-grade quality. However, sometimes branded clothing in good conditions was highly acknowledged and pursued by villagers. To increase their demand, Mozambique shoe traders developed strategies to trap their customers into purchasing items that they thought to be reliable second-hand branded shoes from America, like Nike, Adidas, and Reebok. Due to this reason, second-hand branded clothes from American and European countries were preferred over local branded apparel items. People of Mozambique were purchasing fake branded products that were original second-hand donated items. This trend was popular in the sector of shoes. However, fake products in the apparel field delivered many problems. Due to this reason, the local apparel sector found many challenges to match against secondhand clothing. One of the solutions to overcome this problem was to make the image of local products as imported branded products [3]. The USAID report mentioned problems in Mozambique that applied to most countries that have launched their economies to import items. Considerable secondhand clothing imports emphasized the limitations of most customers of Mozambique. Therefore, the regional requirement of unused new apparel in terms of productivity and size of the clothing industry could not withstand the requirement of investment in yarn manufacturing, fabric manufacturing and textile processing industry for their long-term survival [2, 3]. With rising labor costs and intensive loans in terms of new regulations and laws, centralization policies made the situation very difficult for wealthy customers in the export market. Mozambique’s textile and apparel industry are limited to certain suppliers of local niche market [3]. A study stated that imports of 0.1 kg per capita did not affect the production and productivity of apparel. On the other hand, in terms of nonlinear fashion, the impact became very significant if the value exceeded 0.1 kg per capita. Therefore, it was concluded that if the weight of imported second-hand T-shirts was reduced, it might be possible that the import of second-hand T-shirts would not negatively affect the local clothing industry [6]. However, 423 million donated T-shirts were equivalent to 16 T-shirts per person for the Mozambique population of around 25 million [4]. At the current rate of an equivalent 423 million T-shirts donated annually to Mozambique, whose population is 25 million people, this equates to 16 shirts per person [4]. Interestingly, this second-hand clothing might also go recycled to make clothes similar to new textiles through textile recycling [7]. Thus, regression analysis of Frazer depicted that these unnecessary second-hand imported clothing adversely affect Mozambique’s textile and apparel industries [3].

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8.4 Cotton Industry Mozambique has established a national standard for the production of cotton sustainably. This approach will imitate the standards established by the better cotton initiative (BCI), which was taken as an initiative by a conservation organization, i.e, WWF, in 2005 [8]. The recent criteria inculcate sustainability parameters associated with the supply chain, which was not included in BCI. The government of Mozambique is doing partnerships to revive the cotton industry. The cotton institute of Mozambique (IAM) had made an agreement with BCI to involve improved principles of cotton and regulations in national rules and regulations for cotton cultivation. For the very first time, the national government opted for improved cotton standards. In this, Mozambique became the pioneer country of Africa to generate a hundred % improved cotton [9]. A case study from the ISEAL association mentioned that the licensing process was approved from BCI to IAM after establishing this new national standard. Both these institutions are training and certification organizations in Mozambique for conducting audits by third parties [9]. As BCI standard was inculcated in national standards, the institute of BCI would acknowledge Mozambique cotton through the contract of “benchmarking.” In the same way, several contracts were made with other certification programs of cottonlike cotton made in Africa (CmiA), Brazil’s Algodao Brasileira Responsavel (ABR) and Australia’s myBMP. This contract made sure cultivation of cotton in Mozambique would be done by licensed farmers, which would be offered as verified Better Cotton on international markets (RKS) [9]. The ideology behind converting the neighboring area into duty-free areas was envisioned per the Prime minister’s instructions for generating regional and foreign investment. Due to this, many jobs would be created for local people, especially young workers. It was announced that the execution of all the industrial improvements in these zones would be relieved from taxes and customs duties [10].

8.5 SWOT Analysis of Mozambique Textile Industry Strengths i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

Modest wages of workers Availability of operators and supply of water Access from the ports to main markets of Africa like Johannesburg and Durban Regulations for free zone Capability to develop the cotton chain Incentives for investment in the textile industry, including relaxation of taxes [2]

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Weakness i. ii. iii. iv. v.

Excessive time for setting up of business The situation for investment is ambiguous The regional market is small-scale The majority of consumers are below the poverty line Absence of governing body to facilitate foreign ventures and promotion of the textile industry vi. The progress of central free trade regions is very slow vii. Diseases like Malaria and HIV resulted in low productivity viii. Poor infrastructures like sewage and hygiene ix. Absence of proper training for services like lightening and air conditioning and regional products for exports with good quality x. Lead time for producing goods is not short [2] Opportunities i. Duty-free access to US markets for certified apparel beneath the AGOA act ii. Duty-free access to certified quality garments under the shelter of the EU Everything but arms agreement (EBA) and Contonou treaty iii. Duty-free access to South Africa, which is the wealthiest marketplace for Africa under the treaty of SADC iv. The inclination of the market is shifting towards huge quantities of standard clothing with cheaper cost Threats i. ii. iii. iv.

The increasing number of competitive suppliers Custom regulation of South Africa Acknowledgment of Mozambique declarations of origin Growth of retailers focusing orders promptly with suppliers [2]

8.6 The Creativity of Upcycling Used Garments in Mozambique In a study conducted by the Swedish School of Textiles, an experimental project called the life of dress pursued areas of Mozambique which were impacted by the overproduction of fashion systems. The study discovered that the help of small modifications at a basic level might instigate a huge degree of change. The experimental work studied those fashion areas which were not fully investigated. The workshop was created as part of an experimental study. In this workshop, people utilized creativity to renew the garments others disposed of—the articles made in this workshop. The articles in the workshop were handmade, and the decorations in these articles were worthy and free from any market. The inspiration for these dresses was based on an ardent and simple methodology [11].

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8.7 Cut Make Trim Cut make and trim strategy was implemented for new entrants in the apparel industry sector, especially in Mozambique textile and apparel industries. Agents and end clients, especially from South Africa, were responsible for imported buttons, clothes and labels and agreed with the apparel industries of Mozambique to cut, sew and finish clothing. CMT is the most fundamental business methodology in the value chain process of the garment industry. The capability of sourcing their own textile fabrics and accessories offered supplementary services like pattern designing and clothing distribution required business talents that excels the capabilities of a newcomer in the clothing industry business. The major cost for the business of imported clothing business companies is the electricity and transport prices along with labor costs. The Mozambique CMT’s companies were compensated for a local cost of around 70–80% labor. However, due to the easy training of workers in sewing machines, the salaries in the field of cutters and seamstresses were improbable due to the pressure of Dutch disease [12]. The effect of currency appreciation was noticed for apparel industries performing business with customers in South Africa due to the current appreciation of metical currency against rand currency. However, these industries purchased raw substrates despite receiving them. In this way, no advantage was received from decreased cost of imported items. Also, they would receive lesser meticais for every single exported garment if the cost of CMT services were fixed in the rand currency. However, some customers of South Africa have increased the price they agreed to pay. Along with an enhanced labor force with increased payment which is unproductive than countries of Bangladesh and Vietnam under the hurdles of increased electricity prices [12]. In the year of 2004, SPEED’s project, the trade and investment program in Mozambique (TIMPOZ), provided textile and apparel industry policy on apparent competitive advantage, i.e., plentiful availability of lesser labor cost, entrance to ports and shipping, and steady political and macroeconomic climate [12]. This policy was convincing about enduring sharpness of enterprise obstacles like customs, transportation labor and other business-related issues [2, 12]. Those obstacles proved to be very serious. After the WTO Agreement on Textiles and apparel expired, the multinational garment companies focused on countries with appropriate production facilities, specifically in Asia. When the TIMPOZ policy was suggested, Mozambique’s rising trade with the USA was reduced. Only a few companies were left to export to South Africa in small consignments with low productivity and profitability. Meanwhile, Mozambique’s macroeconomic climate was balanced, its security climate seemed less appealing, labor cost increased, and the advantages of assessing ports was nullified by feeble business facilities that brought Mozambique’s ranking to 110 out of 150 countries as per the Logistics Performance Index [12]. Currently, the labor laws for the textile and apparel industry in Mozambique are not flexible in terms of shift time and reduction of expenses. The major prerequisite for manufacturers is to pay off an extra amount of compensation pay if workers were kept for more than two years. High absenteeism, staff turnover and laws not favoring

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retrenchment were pivotal obstacles for global financiers and would adversely affect the local firms battling against imported stuff. Pension and pay for joblessness would be practically viable under a taxation system imposed by the government [12].

8.8 Vertical Integration of Textile Sector Vertical integration of the regional textile industry with the garment industry is the most significant approach to the productivity of apparel and clothing. This strategy might be helpful in [2]. ● Reduction of lead time for materials ● Decrease in costs of materials ● Fulfilling the requirements of international trade However, the vertical integration of Mozambique’s textile and apparel sector is very difficult. One benefit of this integration is the expertise of the textile sector in manufacturing great quality production stuff and inexpensive fabric manufacturing, fulling the requirements of regional producers. Thus, the vertically integrated industry might become a huge competitive edge. However, the major drawback in this scenario is inadequate administration, insufficient funding resources and oldfashioned textile industry that cannot manufacture good quality items at a reasonable cost. Raw material constitutes more than half of the cost of garments; therefore, benefits of privileged access, i.e., EU and USA, can swiftly be degraded by the greater cost of regionally manufactured garments. After the implementation of WTO, integration of the textile and apparel industry is the need of the hour. The presence of cotton crops did not assure the accomplishment of a favorable outcome for the textile industry. The textile industry’s survival and growth depend on the country’s economy, which must facilitate apparel production with suitable rules and regulations, laws, and independence from red tape [2].

8.9 WITH Project The inherited textiles are of particular interest to a nation and have an unintentional affection for those textile patterns or textile-related skills, and thus they always have recognition of a consistent infrastructure supply chain as national policy [13]. A study by Dr. Sarah Worden investigated the connection between tradition and transformation in the lives of Mozambican women. A fair was held in Maputo to fulfill this purpose. The focus was on cotton-printed capulana, which facilitated arguments related to heritage and identity. The project’s name was “Women, Identity, Textiles and Heritage: Coastal Style in Mozambique’ project (WITH).” This study explored the task of material heritage in women of Kemble. A group of people living southwest of Maputo Bay [14].

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Capulana delivered a platform for women to have an open debate on problems associated with their living standards at the time of infrastructure progress in the city of Maputo. The building of the Katembe bridge would affect the conventional live style of inhabitants of fishing areas. The major achievement of WITH study was a limited-duration display of the project in the museum of Fortress in Maputo. This display investigated a special community of women and their views of life, values, and identical crises. The life of people living around the shores is mostly related to consuming and trading fish. This is the origin of communal unity for all the age groups of Katembe. Foreign tourists were familiarized with this project through excellent photos of women in the form of daughters, sisters, and friends. The capulana fabric in printed form became a source of representation of freedom and cultural inheritance. The research was documented in both Portuguese and English language. Women’s responses were collected through interviews, which became provocative and insightful with the help of photographs. This research paved the way for discussion on cultural inheritance [14].

8.10 Fashion Week of Mozambique Each year, Mozambique Fashion Week (MFW) escalates to influence local production in the textile and apparel industry and delivers its supporters an excellent occasion with the help of fashion designers and models, which added up the value of the fashion industry and the cultural values of Mozambique [15]. Mozambique Fashion week provided the base for exploring, inspiring, and marketing the fashion trade. It was believed that providing easy access to youth and small-scale businesses would be the first step to growth in their business and career path. MFW team received applications from fashion designers and models to represent their creativity in fashion [15]. Registration of the applicants in the design, catwalk and fashion designing fields on the event’s website. Each year the registration procedure varied. The number of registered candidates is increasing every year [15]. The main aim of fashion week is to instigate fashion designers and beginners to enhance their creativity. They could provide a unique and mesmerizing experience to their audience through innovative ideas. This might guarantee the success of their products and brand [15].

8.11 Fashion Designer of Mozambique The fashion designer of Mozambique began Karingana Wa Karingana Textiles to produce genuine African prints. Wacy Zacarias is a fashion designer inspired by creative patterns, garments, and reminiscent printing. Textiles and clothing utilize your creativity to pay tribute to traditions in the form of capulana or dress decorated

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in the traditional grab. However, Zacarias found that the African textiles were not actually from Africa but were introduced to Africa through merchants. A few were a copy of textiles available in West Africa. Thus, the mass trade of textiles in the Western part of Africa was creating competition for handmade textiles. Some basic components were manufactured in China Netherland. This recognition would alter the approach of Zacarias related to the textiles of Africa, and it proved to be a game changer for Mozambique and the continent of Africa. The reason behind the approach of Zacarias was a historical fact that goes back to the establishment of the first Dutch shop in 1846 by Dutch textile tycoon Vlisco [16]. The organization had imported wax printing methodology, which was used to make batiks. This dress was worn in Indonesia. These people launched these mass production items into West African markets, which were used as an alternative to expensive local handmade textiles. When Chinese and Indian firms established their business in the market of East Africa, Vlisco was still the most famous trader of African Textiles. This firm is known as African textiles and sells 95% of its products to African customers. Tunde Akinwumi, a scholar from Nigeria, noted that the patterns are created based on designs not from Africa. Zacarias mentioned that it was imported culture which did not belong to Africa. An in-depth design process analysis revealed no evidence of African tradition in these textiles. It was a firm from China, India or Europe commanding the textiles of Africa. Due to this reason, Zarcaris realized she wanted to contribute to solving this issue. Zarcaris’s firm started business in 2008 without knowledge of African textiles’ traditions and heritage. A tailored shirt brand Woogui was launched to renovate Africa’s fashion industry in Mozambique. Afterward, Zacarias founded another firm Karingana Wa Karingana Textiles, with the help of Djamila de Sousa (fashion designer). It was the textile company of Mozambique which prints African Textiles built on a heritage of Africa. A month was devoted to acknowledging prostate cancer awareness; a month was devoted. In this way, Zacarias tried to handle a problem that was not openly debated in the continent of Africa. Zacarias took pride in mentioning that they were trying to escalate awareness about the health of African men to get themselves checked by doctors. This slogan was easy-going to print. In another printing design, Zacarias offered homage to Maputo. She mentioned that this print design unites the residents of the city where they were grown. She reported that popular images of things were seen in everyday life. For example, images of church, public transport, dahl boat and cassia flower. Thus, all things acknowledged were components of precious traditions [16]. With the help of a story-telling theme, Zacarias wanted to decrease the difference between textile products of Africa, where local raw materials are very costly, and imported printed products were less expensive and easily available. A seasoned art designer Dilys E. Blum mentioned that imported printed fabrics explained the heritage of African culture through custom-built design. Zacarias mentioned that these printed fabrics in stitched form looked completely different because the dress designer had to develop motifs artistically. Zacarias’s focus was to employ alternate methodologies rather than substituting them. She mentioned that it was challenging to compete against India and China in terms of cost, as mass production means more

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convenience. There must be an alternate way to offer a niche market, considering the high price of products manufactured in Africa. Zacarias mentioned that the ideology inspired her that the continent of Africa could gather a greater amount of profit from the local textiles of Africa. Along with several fashion designers like French Ivorian, Maki-Oh thought that local sourcing within Africa is a matter of national dignity. These designers believed that people wear textiles when people die and are born. Textiles are worn at a wedding in certain areas of Africa. Therefore, textiles are the way of communication among people at the present age [16].

8.12 Suggestions for Improvement of the Apparel Sector in Mozambique 8.12.1 Export-Oriented Strategies The main aim of the industrial strategies of Mozambique’s government must be the creation of jobs, the decline in poverty of people and its impact on the balance of trade. Apart from that, the government must focus on the geographical divergence of its apparel manufacturing industries and their connection with environmental sources and agriculture. Progress of the garment industry can start a rational move in acquiring their goals. Due to this reason, many workers would be able to acquire jobs that would improve the country’s financial economy. Improved working conditions might also contribute to an increase in productivity. By inspiring investors from foreign countries, Mozambique might be able to reduce poverty of country in three to five years. The population of Mozambique is 18 million. The country’s poor economic conditions forced people to buy cheap second-hand clothing. At present, the development of the local apparel industry might not be able to prosper. If imported clothing is banned in Mozambique, the people have to distract income from other essentials such as food, water, medicine and education. The export-oriented policies acknowledged that foreign customers and markets have greater attraction to the local market. To facilitate the production of regional industry, the Mozambiquan government must uniform local industry contracts and assist them in promoting local products, i.e., capulanas. As local infrastructure is not suitable for local transportation, the export industry must be in areas with easy access to the ports. Thus, with infrastructure development, it is possible to attain geographic diversification. The first phase of government strategy must be to develop a viable apparel industry to counter the effect of globalization. This is a short-term strategy. Afterward, the strategy’s second phase would be developing suitable textile industry. Thus, the viable apparel industry can be integrated into textiles with the support of apparel manufacturers with expertise in textile value chain integration.

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8.12.2 Easy Access to Markets The major markets for Mozambique apparel exports are the USA, the EU, and South Africa. Rich customers buy enough brand-new apparel in these countries. However, the market trends are changing due to circumstances like COVID 19 etc. The USA market is more reliable as compared to European markets. The bulk export orders came from the USA. Walmart is a typical example of the transformation of the apparel industry at cheaper rates in the USA. At present, retail services like fast fashion are available at cheap prices. The retail chains in European countries are segmented into smaller retail chains. However, they are competing with American markets. South African apparel retailers like Woolworth are providing superior quality and cheaper garments. Thus, they are forcing their competitors to decline their costs. For this purpose, great emphasis was given to managerial practices and an increase in productivity by incrementing the amount of bulk production by establishing a business in countries with fewer workers, along with the low cost of production. This might provide a chance for the apparel industry of Mozambique to produce at an economical cost and greater volume because of the low labor cost and modest lifestyle.

8.12.3 Diversified Products Government must have separate strategies for basic garments, basic fashion garments and fashion garments. Each strategy must consider cotton, cotton knit products from less skilled labor. Basic Garment The country must have political stability, a suitable business climate, and good investment regulations to provide basic garments at a competitive price. Apparel manufacturers require a valid shipment timetable to meet lead time at a low cost [17]. The raw materials and accessories must be cleared from customs, and the clearance procedure should not be tedious and expensive. Retapes and corruption of government officials must be reduced to a minimum to maintain stable apparel manufacturing business. The labor laws and ambiguous government procedures make it very difficult for apparel producers to meet delivery schedules in time. Manufacturers are not dependent on developing pattern-making, and the central office approves preproduction procedures as clothing lines. Even more than 2000 workers are required to fulfill the order of American, EU and South African markets [2]. Mozambique can acquire swift progress in the category of basic garment segment, but there is a risk of rapid decline in this category because of strong competition. The basic garment occupies the largest share in the apparel business as it inculcates every category of undergarments, shirts, skirts, trousers, and suits. By focusing on backward integration, apparel manufacturers of Mozambique can acquire local raw

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materials, which could enhance their transformation into fully integrated textile units [2]. Fashion Basic Garment In this category, the cost of the product becomes a secondary aspect and delivery, services, and quality of the garment are of prime importance. In this scenario, the capability of the supplier to achieve good quality services while managing costs is necessary. Apparel manufacturers require complete supplier platform managing every aspect of the supply chain, i.e., from fiber to retail shop/showroom floor. The services inculcate pattern designing, quality assurance and control, cutting, sewing, procuring raw materials, transportation, and labeling. Regional infrastructure must be able to facilitate a shorter lead time for regaining export orders. Those apparel manufacturers have close contact with the textile suppliers, and retailers succeed in this business. Due to the long distance from the USA and EU, lack of qualified operators, and lack of infrastructure, it would be challenging for Mozambique to attract suppliers for basic fashion garments [2]. Fashion Garments Highly fashioned articles require sufficient expenditure for promotion and manufacturing. Therefore, the high cost of promotion and lengthier lead time is not suitable for fulfilling the aim of job creation in the apparel industry of Mozambique. The apparel fashion market requires already recognized suppliers with sound records of networking and contacts. For developing networks, expats must be used for developing market contacts in the USA and Europe. Thus, the capability of Mozambique is limited in this sector [2].

8.12.4 Types of Garments for Vertical Integration Those products that require low capital investment are cotton knit garments, cotton hosiery, cotton knit shirts and sweaters. Cotton Knit Undergarments This segment’s profit margin is low as the value addition per garment is less. To survive in this business, apparel manufacturers seek vertical integration. Sometimes, they start with CMT operations. The expenditures are less than fabric manufacturing and knitting operations [2]. Cotton Hosiery The major hosiery products in the USA come from Mexico, Korea, and Central America suppliers. The regulations of origin for special suppliers are outstanding in Mozambique and deliver benefits to countries with the supply of raw cotton [2].

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Cotton Knit Shirts and Sweaters This category inculcates vertical and non-vertical manufacturers from manufacturing basic garments to highly fashioned garments. Backward integration into knitting and spinning gave these manufactures may provide distinctive cost and quality control of products with a decrease in lead time for imported woven and knitted fabrics [2].

8.12.5 Action Plan The Mozambican government must facilitate the improvement of the textile and apparel industry by highlighting pivotal problems of apparel manufacturers. There are some requirements for improvement: Improvement of Infrastructure The roads, ports and buildings are in an impoverished state. For managing costeffective operations, the government must instigate manufacturers with superior quality features. The preservation of infrastructure is a critical parameter in maintaining the apparel industry. Establishing an industrial zone due to free zone policies is a rational approach to maintaining solid infrastructure [2]. Improvement in Investment and Business Climate The Mozambican government has components of business identified by apparel manufacturers, i.e., efficient productivity, access to the shipping port and secure government policies. However, Mozambican apparel manufacturers must contest with manufacturers operating in the advanced business community. Mozambican government must facilitate policies with clarity to reduce the risk of doing business, reducing risks, the ambiguity of starting over for business and incentives for labor [2]. Development of Duty-Free Industrial Zones Rules and regulations of Mozambique related to free trade zones are already established. These rules facilitated manufacturers if the export of products is greater than 70% of their production. This way, they can gain the advantage of tax-free raw materials or any input with significant tax reduction benefits [2] Encourage Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment The government must encourage foreign investors by promoting facilities and advantages of investment. Foreign investors must know the location of free trade zones, and the information flow between investors and the government must be smooth without any hurdles. In addition, if there can be a way to disclose carbon information to the public for the new coming sectors, it would benefit the country’s economy [18, 19]. Thus, a promotion package is required through which investors can be easily familiarized. In this way, investors can adjust business according to that package.

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Moreover, policy flaws can also be communicated easily to the government. The government must act swiftly to adjust those flaws in its policies. Those investors who have the expertise in the integration of fabric and yarn production must be prioritized. For this purpose, identification of yarn market potential is necessary, and this ability must be marketed effectively to foreign investors. Apart from that, the design and development of patterns must be investigated for utilization in conventional clothing [2].

8.13 Conclusion It can be concluded that for the survival of Mozambique’s textile and apparel industry, the government must facilitate friendly policies to improve infrastructure. The textile policy must be refined and promoted effectively to the target investors. Special attention must be given to the apparel sector of Mozambique on an immediate basis. Afterward, on a medium-term basis, emphasis must be done on the backward integration of the apparel industry, i.e., textile processing, fabric manufacturing and yarn manufacturing. This way, more jobs will be created, and the textile industry can compete easily with other foreign competitors. Apparel manufacturer of Mozambique must start their business with basic products like T-shirts, trousers, and undergarments. They can also use the CMT approach for their initial survival in this business. The government can also coordinate with South Asian countries like Pakistan or India for student exchange programs in textile universities [20, 21]. This way, Mozambique can have qualified and trained professionals at a low cost compared to western countries. Special emphasis must be given to textile institutes and operators’ training programs to fulfill the requirements of modern apparel industries. Fashion week of Mozambique must be promoted effectively all over the world. Combining the latest design elements in local products like capulana can become immensely popular for foreigners or tourists.

References 1. Textiles of Mozambique. Retrieved October 5, 2022, from https://textilevaluechain.in/in-depthanalysis/articles/textile-articles/textiles-of-mozambique/ 2. Minor, P. J. (2004). A Mozambique textile and garment industry strategy. Nathan Associates Inc. 3. Hoang, N. L. (2015). Clothes minded: An analysis of the effects of donating secondhand clothing to Sub-Saharan Africa. Scripps College. 4. Brooks, A. (2019). Clothing poverty: The hidden world of fast fashion and second-hand clothes (2nd ed.). Bloomsbury Publishing. 5. Fuad-Luke, A. (2009). Design activism: Beautiful strangeness for a sustainable world (1st ed.). Routledge. 6. Frazer, G. (2008). Used-clothing donations and apparel production in Africa. The Economic Journal, 118, 1764–1784.

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7. Memon, H., Ayele, H. S., Yesuf, H. M., & Sun, L. (2022). Investigation of the physical properties of yarn produced from textile waste by optimizing their proportions. Sustainability, 14, 9453. 8. Wang, H., Siddiqui, M. Q., & Memon, H. (2020). Physical structure, properties and quality of cotton. In H. Wang & H. Memon (Eds.), Cotton science and processing technology: Gene, ginning, garment and green recycling (pp. 79–97). Springer Singapore. 9. Mozambique developing standard for sustainable cotton. Retrieved October 5, 2022, from https://www.fibre2fashion.com/news/textile-news/mozambique-developing-standard-for-sus tainable-cotton-239827-newsdetails.htm 10. Mozambique plans special economic zone in Manica province. Retrieved October 5, 2022, from https://www.fibre2fashion.com/news/textile-news/mozambique-plans-special-eco nomic-zone-in-manica-province-252234-newsdetails.htm 11. Ericsson, A. (2014). The life of a dress: Mozambique. University of Borås. 12. Salinger, L., & Ennis, C. (2014). Manufacturing in Mozambique: What are the potential impacts of the resource boom on the competitiveness of the manufacturing sector. United States Agency for International Development. 13. Memon, H., Ranathunga, G. M., Karunaratne, V. M., Wijayapala, S., & Niles, N. (2022). Sustainable textiles in the past “wisdom of the past: Inherited weaving techniques are the pillars of sustainability in the handloom textile sector of Sri Lanka.” Sustainability, 14, 9439. 14. Worden, S. (2021). Women identity textiles and heritage in Mozambique. Edinburgh, 2021-8-5. 15. Mozambique fashion week: open call for aspiring Mozambican fashion designers, models. Retrieved October 5, 2022, from https://clubofmozambique.com/news/mozambique-fashionweek-open-call-for-aspiring-mozambican-fashion-designers-models-222643/ 16. Matroos, J., Wacy Zacarias on taking back the African textile market. Retrieved October 5, 2022, from https://www.designindaba.com/articles/creative-work/wacy-zacarias-taking-backafrican-textile-market 17. Khanzada, H., Khan, M.Q., Kayani, S. (2020). Cotton based clothing. In H. Wang & H. Memon (Eds.), Cotton science and processing technology: Gene, ginning, garment and green recycling (pp. 377–391). Springer Singapore. 18. Wu, D., Zhu, S., Memon, A. A., & Memon, H. (2020). Financial attributes, environmental performance, and environmental disclosure in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 8796. 19. Wu, D., & Memon, H. (2022). Public pressure, environmental policy uncertainty, and enterprises’ environmental information disclosure. Sustainability, 14, 6948. 20. Ali Hayat, G., Hussain, M., Qamar Khan, M., & Javed, Z. (2022). Textile education in Pakistan. In X. Yan, L. Chen, H. Memon (Eds.), Textile and fashion education internationalization: A promising discipline from South Asia (pp. 59–82). Springer Nature Singapore. 21. Dutta, S., & Bansal, P. (2022). Textile academics in India—An overview. In X. Yan, L. Chen, & H. Memon (Eds.), Textile and fashion education internationalization: A promising discipline from South Asia (pp. 13–34). Springer Nature Singapore.

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Dr. Jawad Naeem is a Textile Engineer from National Textile University, Faisalabad. He has done his Ph.D. in Textile from the Technical University of Liberec, Czech Republic. He has expertise in thermal protective performance and thermal comfort properties of textile substrates. Currently, he is serving as a lecturer at National Textile University, Faisalabad.

Dr. Amna Siddique is currently serving as an Assistant Professor at National Textile University, Faisalabad, Pakistan. She has done her Ph.D. from Donghua University, China. She has more than 30 Scientific research articles and two book chapters. Her research interests include Textile composites, Textile Processing, Polymeric Materials and Finite Element Modelling.

Chapter 9

Overview on Textile and Fashion Industry in Tanzania: A Need to Realize Its Potential in Poverty Alleviation Juma Makweba Ruteri

Abstract Since Tanzania’s independence, when the government owned the bulk of the textile industry and other significant economic sectors, textile and fashion have played an important role in the country. There is little knowledge of the textile and apparel industry’s potential to reduce poverty in Tanzania. This chapter provides an overview of many facets of the textile industry sector and its role in improving people’s quality of life and contributing to the nation’s GDP, in line with the significance of textiles and their extensive supply chain. However, it is important to recognize that higher education institutions play a crucial role in providing students with the knowledge, abilities, and skills they need to address the various issues facing our society. This chapter also looked at Tanzania’s higher education institutions concentrating on textile and fashion, presenting an overview of them here. The prospects and difficulties in Tanzania’s textile and apparel industries are also discussed. This study was developed from a qualitative point of view and is descriptive. Journals, websites, reports, emails, phone conversations, and talking application tools were used to gather information. Numerous attempts have been made to revitalize and promote the industry as a whole, according to the results in this chapter, but there are still significant obstacles that must be overcome throughout the entire supply chain. Even though the private sector and people are all working hard to seize chances to generate money and reduce poverty in society, support from government institutions and benevolent legislation are essential. Keywords Textile · Fashion · Higher learning institutions · Tanzania

9.1 Introduction The textile industry is one of the major contributors to poverty alleviation. The industry has a lengthy and intricate supply chain. Through a series of steps depicted in Fig. 9.1, final products, such as clothing and other products related to textiles, J. M. Ruteri (B) Global Outsourcing and Management Consult Pty Ltd, Sydney, Australia e-mail: [email protected] © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2023 X. Yan et al. (eds.), Quality Education and International Partnership for Textile and Fashion, SDGs and Textiles, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-99-1320-6_9

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Fig. 9.1 Textile industry supply chain

are produced. Human capital is required for many activities along the supply chain, making it an industry that consumes a significant amount of labor. The implication and interpretation of this industry are that, if carried out professionally and effectively, it improves the quality of life for its population and significantly contributes to the nation’s GDP. Asian nations, such as Bangladesh [1], Pakistan [2] or India [3], which have provided clothing to the entire world for several years, can serve as models for other nations. Final products, i.e., clothes and other textile-related products, are obtained through several steps presented in Fig. 9.1. Many activities along the supply chain need human capital, meaning it is an industry sector that absorbs a significant workforce. Implication and interpretation of this industry are that it greatly contributes to the country’s GDP and improves people’s living quality if conducted professionally and efficiently. Asian nations, which have provided clothing to the entire world for several years, can serve as models for other nations. For instance, contracts for 60% of Bangladesh’s exports to European buyers and 40% to American buyers make it China’s second-largest exporter of western brand apparel. Chowdhury [4] claims that Bangladesh’s ready-made garment industry employed approximately four million people, most of whom were women, and exports brought in $19 billion annually. Realizing that agriculture would not be the primary driver of economic growth and job creation, they decided to follow other Asian nations like China, South Korea, and Japan. Strangely, most less developed countries, including Tanzania, have realized this and have been working on getting their industrialization moving faster. The textile and apparel export contribution to Tanzania’s imports of $304.68 million in 2018 was USD 24.47 million. The ten nations that export the most are: Kenya, Rwanda, China, Malawi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Africa, Uganda, the United States, India, and the Philippines (Table 9.1). South Africa has historically been the continent’s largest exporter and producer of apparel, apparel products, and textile yarn material. The apparel and textiles

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No.

Country name

Export value US$ in million

Export share (%)

1

Kenya

7.54

30.83

2

Rwanda

2.37

9.7

3

China

2.04

8.32

4

Malawi

1.63

6.66

5

D.R. Congo

1.19

4.87

6

South Africa

1.14

4.6

7

United States

0.92

3.77

8

Uganda

0.68

2.8

9

India

0.56

2.3

10

Philippines

0.35

1.41

industry continues to expand successfully. The sector accounts for approximately 14% of manufacturing employment, 9% of the country’s GDP and is the second largest source of tax revenue. By acquiring technologies or attracting investors, many continent-wide nations exert much pressure to ensure that the textile industry plays a significant role in economic development. The large pool of skilled labor and factors related to improved performance, such as a better business environment and business incentives, must be taken seriously. In many industries and organizations, skilled employees have always been a source of efficiency. As a result, well-established training facilities in various fields within the nation are crucial. One of the world’s largest cotton producers, Tanzania has a good chance of becoming a global manufacturing hub focused on exports. This chapter aims to provide an overview of various aspects of the textile industry sector and related opportunities available in Tanzania, which aligns with the significance of textiles and the extensive supply chain they require. From a qualitative perspective, this study is a descriptive one. Journals, the internet, reports, emails, phone calls, and chat application tools were used to gather information.

9.2 History of Fashion and Textiles in Tanzania The history of fashion and textiles in Tanzania can be traced back to the country’s independence. In the 1970s, the government invested much money in textile industries to meet local clothing demand and use much cotton grown locally. The primary justifications for substantial investment in this sector were the idea of industrialization: creating new jobs, adding value to the cotton supply chain, and reducing imports. However, fashion was not as defined back then as it is today. It was merely the art of making clothes that could be worn. The textile industry was one of the largest

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employers, contributors to manufacturing GDP, and taxpayers. The governmentcontrolled all major economic sectors, not just the textile industry, guided by the socialism philosophy. Even though the government made policies intending to protect the industry by restricting imports, productivity and quality of manufactured clothing still declined significantly. The inadequate supply of cotton lint, electricity, a lack of skilled labor, poor management, high power tariffs, and unfair import competition were among the other factors that contributed to the textile industry’s demise. Batik and tie-dye with African print first emerged during this time. However, not only were the tie-dye and batik of poor quality, see Fig. 9.2, and pricey to the point where some people could not afford them. The method was easy, but it took a long time because everything had to be done by hand (Fig. 9.3).

Fig. 9.2 Batiki

Fig. 9.3 Tie and dye

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In the late 1980s, Tanzania and other developing nations were also forced to undergo structural adjustment due to a performance loophole and pressure from the West, led by the International Monetary Fund and World Bank. According to Estrin and Pelletier [5], those giants’ primary goals included introducing competition into monopolized industries, reducing government intervention, increasing revenue, and improving economic efficiency through firm performance. The nation had to comply with the conditions attached to obtain loans from the two multinational financial institutions—the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. For instance, one of the requirements for receiving HIPC debt relief was privatizing the Dar es Salaam Water and Sewage Authority [6]. In the early 1990s, Tanzania established a Parastatal Sector Reform Commission, which signaled the beginning of privatization. The privatization of public businesses began in the middle of the 1990s. According to Shimba and Sewando [6], various forms of privatization were used, including the sale of all government shares, a partial sale, concession, lease, management contract, hiring, sale of non-core business activities, and opening previously restricted sectors to private competitors and new entrants. However, even some of the privatized businesses failed or went out of business, so the outcomes following privatization were not what was anticipated to be positive. It has been suggested that many factors contributed to the failures, such as the machines purchased at that time utilizing out-of-date technology, making it difficult for these businesses to be productive and competitive [7]. There have been significant advancements in cotton spinning machinery [8], which are believed to be very important for the textile spinning sector of Tanzania. Another factor that could have contributed to the outcomes was that privatizing state-owned businesses was not a topic of discussion in the negotiations. Because of this, only a few government officials could negotiate such a deal with International Monetary Fund and World Bank [6]. This echoes the suggestion that the privatization of public enterprises will unlikely improve economic efficiency unless liberalization measures accompany it significantly [9]. The number of large and medium businesses decreased from 66 in the 1980s to 53 in 1990, and by 1995, fewer than 30 were operating, although the contribution made by the garment industry decreased from 2.8% in 1980 to 1% in 1986. Further, the percentage continued to fall, reaching 0.2% in 1994 [7]. For the textile industry to grow, several factors contributing to its success must be carefully considered. Raw materials, financial capital, appropriate technologies, and skilled human resources are all extremely important. Because of this, training cannot be eliminated from the equation.

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9.3 Status of Textile Industries in Tanzania In accordance with the Ministry of Industry and Trade’s 2004 report on the state of Tanzania’s textile industries, the government and private businesses had established fifty textile industries by 2002. Only 23 of the established were operating, which surprised everyone. Dyeing, spinning, weaving, printing khanga (Fig. 9.4) and kitenge (Fig. 9.5), bed sheets, clothing, knitting, woven blankets, and socks were all part of the industries. Nevertheless, privatization did not provide the anticipated significant advantages. Some privatized industries continued to perform poorly, and others fell apart completely. After all the hardships, the government’s attention and efforts to rebuild the cotton and textile industries by enhancing the investment climate, enacting policies and laws that make it easier to do business in the country and signing various trade agreements were beneficial to both industries. For instance, Tanzania amended two laws in the budget for the fiscal years 2021 and 2022 through the Finance Act of 2020 and is currently introducing the Trade Remedies Act of 2021 to safeguard local businesses. Sunflag Tanzania, Mwanza Textile Mills, Century Textiles, Karibu Textile Mills, and Nida Textile Mills are just a few of the businesses currently operating.

Fig. 9.4 Khanga

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Fig. 9.5 Kitenge

9.4 Higher Learning Institutions Overview and Opportunities to Cooperate The public and private universities, university colleges, and vocational/technical training institutes that makeup Tanzania’s higher education system are all included. However, the average length of university education is five years for medicine, four for science and engineering, and three for arts and business. By providing students with the opportunity to advance their careers, vocational education and training centers in Tanzania play an important role in various career fields. These institutions offer specialized training in particular fields, occupations, and trades. Computer technology, agro-mechanics, office machinery mechanics, germ stone cutting, polishing, and auto electric, handloom weaving, information and communication technology, heavy equipment mechanics, food and beverage service, business administration, design sewing, and clothing technology, among others, are a few of the topics that merit mention. Tanzania’s oldest public university is the University of Dar es Salaam. As an affiliated college of the University of London, it was established in 1961. Since then, UDSM has undergone a number of transformations and structural changes that have

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significantly improved Tanzanian education. For instance, in July 2009, the College of Engineering and Technology, the first campus college of the University of Dar es Salaam, merged the former departments of Structural Engineering and Construction Technology and Management into the Department of Structural and Construction Engineering. CEBE was the Faculty of Civil Engineering and the Built Environment at the time. As a result, international universities have a lot of potentials to collaborate and exchange ideas with UDSM or any other reputable university or institution in Tanzania, particularly for projects or courses in fashion and textile design.

9.4.1 Contribution of High Learning Institutions to Textile and Fashion Individuals undergo transformations due to education, which boosts workplace productivity and efficiency. Textile and fashion have long been overlooked as one of Tanzania’s most important courses in higher education, despite their significance to economic growth and poverty alleviation. The twenty-first century is characterized by technological advancement. The days of informal clothing-making instruction are over. In Tanzania, before the turn of the century, you might see a woman with just one sewing machine making clothes either by herself or by learning the skills from her parents or friends. The young generation has been encouraged to enter the industry by their incredible talents, in addition to their skills and widespread use of the internet, television, social media, and fashion show events. Swahili Fashion Week, Zanzibar Fashion Week, Serengeti Fiesta, Groove Theory, The Nyama Festival, Hollywood Fresh, Zanzibar International Film Festival, and International Young Fashion Designers Showcase are examples of fashion events that attract young people in Tanzania. People tend to pay attention to these well-publicized calendar events and wait to see something new and interesting. Training future generations in the field is unavoidable, given their God-given abilities and the competitive global market. This is because fashion is a part of our everyday lives, whether we realize it or not. Schools and students in many countries are paying attention to this ever-expanding industry with new fashion career opportunities. Daily, fashion is communicated to everyone through celebrities and various media messages. This demonstrates the power of fashion research to influence a generation. As a result, training in textiles and fashion must be designed to raise awareness of the significance of clothing, textiles, and fashion to our day-to-day lives. A student might want to learn how to sew or design textile goods or clothing. Through training, the student can have the chance to succeed by gaining both theoretical knowledge and hands-on experience in the classroom or workplace. This is in line with the trend toward self-employment, which means that the acquired knowledge and skills can be used in the workplace. Better late than never, the College of Engineering and Technology at the University of Dar es Salaam has begun offering B.Sc. degrees in textile design, technology, and

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engineering, respectively, in recognition of the sector’s significance. Nevertheless, the Dar es Salaam Vocational and Training Service Centre’s Vocational Education and Training Authority (VETA) established a brand-new textile and fashion design diploma program to meet the growing demand for skilled workers. VETA offers training in the textile and apparel industries, both directly and indirectly. Tailoring, graphic design, batik making, handloom, weaving, leather goods technology, screen printing, and textile and fashion design are all included in the training. The textile and fashion design program is a two-year program that uses the Competence-Based Education and Training Approach to modularize learning and training. This course teaches students about fashion and textiles, particularly weaving, textile technology, surface technology, knitting, and design. As was mentioned earlier, the absence of skilled workers was one factor that contributed to the failure or underperformance. In addition to established industries, there is an influx of newcomers, particularly from Far East Asia, seeking a new investment location in Africa, particularly Tanzania. The motivation behind UDSM and VETA is that the government wants to ensure that 90% of the cotton lint produced in the country is turned into products with more value. In addition to the availability of technology, middle and high levels of skilled labor ought to be available locally to accomplish that objective.

9.4.2 Why Is It Best to Cooperate with Tanzania Universities in Textile Education The response is easy: Today, there are numerous reasons for manufacturers, brands, and consumers to choose Tanzania for investment, in addition to its geographical location and stable political environment. This is why Tanzania is well-positioned to become a global textile hub. One of the main reasons is an opportunity to obtain a supply of locally handpicked cotton. It is important to note that Tanzania is the largest producer of organic cotton in Africa and the leading cotton producer in Eastern and Southern Africa. According to Textile Development Unit Tanzania, traditional methods have been used to grow cotton in Tanzania for generations. Up to 450,000 smallholder farmers still use these same methods today, supporting the claim that Tanzanian cotton has strong sustainability and ethical credentials. Tanzania is one of a kind because it combines cotton production on this scale with the expertise and infrastructure needed to maintain the spinning, weaving, and manufacturing parts of the value chain. As a result, Tanzania’s Traditional and High-Tech textile industry presents a one-of-a-kind opportunity for vertically integrated textile and garment operations. As a result, skilled workers will always be required. Universities and other high-level educational institutions will significantly contribute to the nation’s goal of exporting value-added goods rather than cotton as raw materials to the global market as it currently does—as there can be various kinds of feasible value additions in the textile sector [10].

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Even though some of the Memorandums of Understanding that the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) has signed with various local and international institutions regarding research collaboration have expired [11], there are a few to mention, including the recent agreement with the Geological Survey of Tanzania and the Memorandum of Understanding between UDSM and Shanghai Administration Institute, UDSM and Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, UDSM and Zhejiang Ocean University, UDSM and East China Normal University, UDSM and Norway University of Applied Sciences, UDSM and University of Health Sciences Istanbul, UDSM and Development Economics Research group of University of Copenhagen. In 2013, the Confucius Institute at UDSM (CI-UDSM) was established in response to the rising demand for Chinese language instruction and a better understanding of Chinese culture. The establishment was authorized by an agreement between Zhejiang Normal University and the Confucius Institute Headquarters in Hanban. Experienced Chinese teachers teach the Chinese language courses offered by CIUDSM at various levels. Confucius Institute began to offer a Bachelor of Arts with Education (Chinese and English) and a diploma in Chinese during the 2018–2019 academic year.

9.5 Tanzania Cotton and Sisal According to the Textile Exchange 2020 report, Tanzania is one of Africa’s largest conventional cotton growers [12]. Also, Tanzania is the world’s sixth largest organic cotton grower, trailing only India, China, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey, and Tajikistan. For the 2018/19 season, Tanzania is ahead of the United States. Investors interested in cotton farming, textile manufacturing, or apparel manufacturing benefit greatly. For conventional and organic cotton small-scale farmers, farming in Tanzania is mostly done manually, using hand hoes and occasionally animal traction. Conventional cotton farmers, who make up the majority of the country, have used agricultural inputs like fertilizers and pesticides at rates that are below the recommended levels. The affordability and availability of agricultural inputs like fertilizer account for the decrease in their use. The northwest regions of Simiyu, Shinyanga, Mwanza, Geita, Tabora, and Mara produce nearly 94% of all cotton. Tanzania’s cotton-growing regions are depicted in Fig. 9.6. The country imports more than 90% of its fertilizers, which are so expensive that small-scale farmers cannot afford them. A further explanation offered by some small-scale farmers is their perception of the fertilizer’s quality. They decide not to use fertilizers despite low crop yields because they believe they are of poor quality on the local market. The most recent Tanzania National Sample Census of Agriculture, which was published in August 2021 and can be found on the website Tanzania Invest, indicates that fertilizers were applied to 2.8 million ha, or 20.1% of the total cultivated area, during the 2019/20 agricultural year. There were 2.7 million ha on Tanzania’s mainland, and 40,020 ha on Zanzibar these. Organic fertilizers were used on 60.6%, and

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Fig. 9.6 Cotton growing areas

inorganic fertilizers were used on 39.4% of the total area. Despite efforts to increase the use of fertilizers in crop production, adoption in Tanzania has been low, partly due to the high costs of imported inorganic fertilizers. The country’s low agricultural productivity can be attributed to the low use of fertilizers. The document says that this is a chance for investors to get involved in the production of fertilizers in the country to lower prices and maybe get farmers to use them. Mr. Husen Bashe, the minister of agriculture, told the parliament on February 24, 2022, about shortterm and long-term measures to stop fertilizer price increases. Reduced port fees, prioritizing offloading and rail transportation, and encouraging the use of alternative fertilizers are among the measures. Increasing investment in the fertilizer industry is a long-term goal. However, the extensive use of organic fertilizers can also be used as an opportunity to investigate specific niche markets that are willing to pay a premium for organic goods.

9.5.1 Conventional Cotton After coffee, cotton has become the second most important export crop in Tanzania and one of the largest foreign exchange earning contributors. Cotton being the most widely cash crop compared to coffee, tobacco, cashew nut, tea, sugar cane, sisal and pyrethrum, it is also the most employer and income provider for more than 500,000

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rural households in Tanzania [13]. Along with its supply chain, cotton supports directly or indirectly the livelihoods of up to 40% of Tanzania’s population [13]. The history of cotton growing in Tanzania starts during the time of the German colonial administration at the turn of the twentieth century. Production stayed low until after World War II, when the British colonial administration took up the promotion and expansion of cotton during the early 1940s and 1950s. Partly as a result of peasant resettlement programs, the supply of improved seeds increased delivery of extension services, and good prices for lint production picked up significantly. However, cotton output declined after liberalization from 96,372 tons of lint during 1992/93 to not more than 35,514 tons of lint in 1999/2000. Along with others, the main reason was transition. Transitioning from a single channel to a multi-channel marketing system was poorly handled, and no protections were implemented [13]. According to the United States Department of Agriculture commodity intelligence report in September 2020, Tanzania’s main cotton growing regions received excessive rainfall during the growing season, and yields were reduced from 375,000 bales down to 220,000 bales from last year’s record output. Rainfalls above average rainfall during the planting season caused flooding and poor plant establishment, reducing the cotton area to 450,000 ha or down 150,000 ha from last year’s record area (Fig. 9.7). In general, the Cotton and Textile Development Program of the Gatsby Charitable Foundation and the Department for International Development of the United

Fig. 9.7 From the western cotton growing area

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Kingdom began piloting contract farming as a model for revamping Tanzania cotton’s low productivity and contamination-related issues with the 2008/09 cropping season. This was accomplished with the assistance of the government and other stakeholders along the supply chain. In addition to other efforts to alleviate poverty, the Tanzania Gatsby Trust, a registered charitable trust established in 1992, has been working on cotton and textile projects for over a decade. In 2008, introducing an improved, high-yielding variety known as UKM08 was widely regarded as a timely boost to efforts to increase cotton production in the nation. The Tanzania Cotton Board (TCB) acknowledges that contract farming and the introduction of UKM08 seed increased seed cotton production from 164,000 tons in the previous season to 226,000 tons in the 2011/12 season. Every cotton farmer received UKM08 seed during the 2018/19 growing season. Farmers and processors shared the estimated $40 million increase in the sector’s income. This ought to have been a relative success given the substantial productivity increases. These were driven by TCB’s efficient procurement and distribution of inputs and the program’s significant success in achieving universal coverage of UKM08 seed. From the previous year, 350,000 tons of seed cotton were produced. However, in the wake of a global price shock for cotton, the industry was once more thrust into crisis.

9.5.2 Organic Cotton According to Delate [14], conventional cotton production involves extensive agricultural chemicals, which results in health and environmental issues, decreased pesticide efficacy, and increased production costs. Even though cotton is planted on only 3% of farmland worldwide, cotton crops are treated with 20% chemical pesticides and 22% insecticides [15]. Organic farming provides growers with a cost-effective alternative while outlawing the majority of pesticides and offering premium prices. Not only for food but also for other goods, demand for organically produced goods is growing worldwide. Organic fiber is also the largest and fastest-growing organic non-food industry sector, including textiles, household goods, personal care products, supplements, pet food, and flowers [14]. The market for organic cotton has a bright future, and Tanzania is one of the first African nations to enter this market. According to the Gatsby 2007 report, organic farming in Tanzania began in the 1994/95 season under the management of CIC Textile Ltd., a Swiss company, with 45 farmers allotting 141 ha to organic cotton. Through the extension service, contract farmers were promised assistance, which included the provision of inputs, a guaranteed market at a premium price, and cash payment.110 farmers harvested 443 tons of seed cotton from 645 ha of organic cotton production during the second season. Even though production appeared to be going well, internal issues and changes in CIC’s management delayed purchasing cotton, which was ultimately sold as conventional cotton without receiving the anticipated premium price. In spite of the failure of marketing, the planting area increased to 778 ha, and the number of registered farmers reached 134 during the 1996/97 season. Only 60% of the 516 tons of cotton

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that was harvested was marketed as organic, this time by a different company that took over after CIC Textile Ltd. went out of business. The new management did not carry out the project. Small-scale farmers dominate Tanzania’s agricultural sector, with little or no access to fertilizers and pesticides. Despite the low productivity resulting from a lack of access to agricultural chemicals, this serves as a stepping stone for Tanzania to become an appealing location for organic farming. In the Singida, Simiyu, and Tabora Regions, BioSustain Tanzania Ltd. and Biore Tanzania Ltd. have increased their organic cotton production and other crops. BioSustain plans to produce approximately 28,000 MT of organic seed cotton for the 2020/21 growing season, which would result in approximately 11,760 MT of organic lint. Within the next five years, they hope to produce 30,000 MT of organic seed cotton, resulting in approximately 12,600 MT of organic lint. BioSustain supports extension services, provides training and technical assistance to small farmers, and provides farmers with seed and input on credit. It is anticipated that the number of small-scale farmers working with BioSustain will significantly rise to over 24,000. Organic cotton farming contributes significantly to climate change mitigation, enhances biodiversity and maintains biological cycles [16]. Organic farming can contribute to climate change mitigation not only through the storage of carbon in the soil but also through direct benefits on the farm [17]. Through the retention of water and nutrients, organic methods, for instance, encourage resilient soils that are better able to withstand extreme weather. Additionally, the variety of crop rotations results in the cultivation of a variety of crops, providing farmers with a source of food and alternative income in the event that the cotton crop fails. For instance, organic cotton farming in Tanzania relies on crop rotation, legume intercropping, and farmyard manure for nutrient supply. Intercropping, such as with sunflower and the use of pyrethrum-derived neem leaf extract, are also included in the practice of pest control [18]. The demand for organic cotton is growing, and consumers are willing to pay a high price for organic cotton and its products, in addition to the environmental and health benefits of organic cotton production [14]. Through organic farming, the farmers can boost their income in this instance. A joint report from the International Trade Center, the World Trade Organization, and the United Nations suggests that Asian nations moving up from the least developed status should strengthen their textile and clothing industries during this transition. The industry provides a significant source of employment, particularly for women. However, the report reveals that many of the major retailers and clothing brands surveyed anticipate expanding their sourcing from graduating less developed countries over the next three to five years because they are concerned that the graduation will impact their sourcing. Many developed and developing nations provide unilateral trade preferences, such as duty-free, quota-free, and market access, to their citizens upon graduation. The Generalized System of Preferences has helped developing nations, particularly less developed countries, boost trade investment and productive capacity development. Major retailers and brands will undoubtedly find new sources in Africa, particularly Tanzania.

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9.5.3 Sisal Is Back The Germany East Africa Company started sisal production in Tanzania in the late nineteenth century. It was continuously produced during the German and British administrative regimes and became the colony’s largest export, and it was highly valued for its use universally in making carpets and cordage. By the time Tanzania gained its independence in 1961, it was already the largest sisal exporter in the world, with more than one million factory workers and farmers employed in the industry. A fall in sisal world prices dues to the rising popularity of synthetic nylon alternatives cause a decline in sisal production in Tanzania post-independence. Production declined further following the nationalization of the sisal estates during Ujamaa and poor management. Nevertheless, According to Daily News of November 19, 2020, the government has expressed its commitment to rejuvenate the industry by implementing strategies, including training farmers and extension officers. Among the regions to start with includes Tanga, Morogoro, Shinyanga, Kilimanjaro, Mara, Linda, Arusha and Simiyu. In the 2020/21 season, the plan was to grow 5 million sisal seedlings with expected production of 120,000 tons of sisal by 2025. To achieve this ambition, small-scale and large estates sisal growers have been encouraged to boost their production (Fig. 9.8).

Fig. 9.8 Sisal farm in Morogoro Tanzania

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The Tanzania Sisal Board has been encouraging researchers to develop novel applications and uses for the sisal plant and other uses for sisal. Biogas, biofertilizers, pulp, composites, inulins, bioethanol, and geotextile are just a few examples. Tanzania opened the first sisal biogas plant in the world in 2008, with a production capacity of 300 KWh per day. In addition to reducing poverty, sisal contributes significantly to environmental protection. The Food and Agriculture Organization claims that sisal may be a component of a larger strategy to combat climate change. Sisal absorbs more carbon dioxide than it produces over its life cycle. Sisal is completely degradable at the end of its life cycle, and the organic waste and leaf residues it produces during processing can be used to produce bioenergy, animal feed, fertilizer, and eco-friendly housing. When compared to synthetic fibers, none of these characteristics are present. Furthermore, the extensive root system of sisal plants aids in watershed management and reduces soil erosion. When used as hedges, sisal plants protect crops, forests, and lands from intruders and predatory animals by acting as effective vegetative barriers or fences.

9.6 Fashion Trends in Tanzania One of Tanzania’s clear fastest-growing industries is the fashion industry. It would appear that new designers are entering the market relatively rapidly. Most of the time, a nation with a rapidly expanding middle class with disposable income experiences a boom in fashion. People with money to spend start wearing whatever they want, and if they cannot find it, they make it themselves. In contrast to the dashiki, a West African design and garment, the traditional fabric in Tanzania is Khanga and kitenge. Figure 9.9 depicts the most typical dresses made from Khanga or kitenge fabric. For a long time, Khanga and Kitenge have served as cultural icons in Tanzania and other African nations. Both men and women adore dressing up in the vibrant colors of Kitenge or Khanga. Kitenge and Khanga are more than just fashion for Tanzanians; they also demonstrate the adaptability of their cultural heritage.

Fig. 9.9 Designs from local fashion designers

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Many fashion designers are increasing their creativity by creating as many newest styles and designs as possible in kitenge and Khanga fabrics for people to explore. Each year, fashion designers introduce numerous additional contemporary styles. Fashion trends have rapidly and broadly spread due to the expanding ease of travel and communication and the widespread circulation of newspapers and magazines. The spread of fashion has accelerated and expanded thanks to the internet and social media exponentially. However, African diasporas’ contribution cannot be overlooked. They will begin fashion-related businesses when they return home. Western fashion designers have begun to incorporate African-inspired concepts due to the increased recognition and appreciation of African fashion worn by Diaspora individuals. Fabrics and machinery are now readily available at reasonable prices due to the influx of foreign businesspeople operating in Africa. People may not have reverted to their pre-pandemic behavior or preferences during the pandemic. E-commerce penetration increased due to lockdowns, as did the demand for fashion brands with a mission. Aleksandar Dimovski projects that the global apparel and footwear markets will reach up to US$3.3 trillion by 2030. 71% of fashion experts expect an online business to grow by 20% more in 2021. Fashion designers from Tanzania were also able to sell their products online. The online market in Tanzania is expanding rapidly, supported by simple mobile payment systems, and it will continue to expand as more people use smartphones and the internet. It is important to remember that Tanzania was the first country in the world to have full interoperability of mobile money providers. Locally recognized services like M-Pesa and Tigo-Pesa have contributed to the mainstreaming of e-commerce in Tanzania. Aleksandar Dimovski goes on to say that out of the four ethical fashion markets—product, type, end-user, and geography—the organic segment of the fashion industry’s revenue is expected to grow at the fastest rate, at 16.2%. As a result, the demand for organic alternatives like wool and silk for clothing production will rise alongside the demand for organic cotton. Margaret Mhina, in an interview with the Guardian-TZ News Paper on August 21, 2019, stated that she believes the fashion industry has a significant impact on the development of Africa, specifically Tanzania. She added that, in addition to the fact that the fashion industry is changing at a breakneck pace, one of the driving forces behind the industry’s rapid expansion is a shift in the mindset of the industry’s players by encouraging the African community to embrace and appreciate their cultural heritage. Movies and media, particularly social media, have been used by players like Diaspora to accomplish their goals. Margaret believes that Africa’s fashion industry is worth billions of dollars. She also revealed the enormous demand for Africanprint fabrics and accessories. The community of Tanzanians has experienced a rapid increase in fashion consciousness due to the ongoing shift in mentality among the population, particularly the younger generation. Margaret sees this situation as a sign of the enormous potential of the fashion industry in Tanzania’s vision for the country in 2025, which takes advantage of its diverse traditions and culture and its unit and piece heritage.

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9.6.1 Tanzanian Fashion Designers There are a lot of creative and active fashion designers in Tanzania who have shown their work on local and international platforms. Doreen Mashika is one of the few to be mentioned. Her designs combine traditional Tanzanian styles and fabrics with a modern edge. Anne Kiwia is another designer to keep an eye on. She is well-known for her headband, featured in numerous publications, including Vogue Magazine. Hassanali, Mustafa. This professional is a medical doctor whose current field of work is fashion design. In addition to Tanzania, he has presented his designs in more than 21 nations worldwide. Supermodels like Naomi Campbell have donned his designs. The only fashion designer from Tanzania also showed his Afrikalos collection at the 2012 Arising Magazine Fashion Week. Evelyn Rugemalira. Her Eve Collection brand has made her well-known. For almost any occasion, her designs are eye-catching and sophisticated. She dressed Wema Sepetu, a Tanzanian beauty queen, for Miss Tanzania 2012. The list continues nonetheless; Christiane Kissa Zimba of Kiki Fashion comes in last but not least. Kiki’s clothes stand out from those of other designers thanks to their fashionable, eye-catching skirts and dresses.

9.6.2 Challenges Facing Fashion Industry Sector in Tanzania In Tanzania, numerous talented and upcoming fashion designers acknowledge that the fashion industry is expanding rapidly. They are innovative and creative, and they have great ideas. However, some obstacles prevent them from succeeding in the fashion industry. Even though there is a growing global demand for African fashion and designers, especially in the West, it is not easy to find a venue where their talented works can be displayed. Western designers have introduced African prints, fabrics, and textiles to the international market. They have nothing else to do but continue fighting for a share of their local market because they lack international exposure. Designers from Tanzania who are most competitive, receive support, and travel to various fashion cities worldwide can achieve fame and success on the continent. Even though there are a lot of talented designers, trainings are needed to improve their skills. Although Tanzania is one of the countries in East Africa that has excellent universities, it is surprising that none of them offer fashion design programs. Local designers have a harder time convincing international markets of their existence if higher education and government institutions do not see a need for the fashion industry. Technologies are changing, the world is changing, and consumer habits are always changing. Without formal training, it is hard to cope and compete in this environment. Another obstacle facing the fashion industry is the availability of unique, highquality raw fabric. Despite being one of the largest producers and exporters of cotton,

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Tanzania does not produce unique, high-quality textiles. The majority of designers may utilize the fabric; They are not lacking in creativity because they can find that in their neighborhood market. Capital is another significant obstacle; every stage of the fashion industry—design, production, marketing, and promotion—requires funding. They cannot access appropriate technologies and global markets due to a lack of capital investment. Due to their limited financial resources, they rely on the production method from the designing stage to the end. As a result, outsourcing is currently not an option, although it might be for their rival big brand designers.

9.7 Investing in Textile and Apparel in Tanzania Textile and apparel production has a long history in Tanzania. It is currently taking full advantage of its potential to become a leading producer of raw materials and finished goods for domestic, regional, and global markets. As one of the largest growers of both conversional and organic cotton, it is favored by its location. This industry sector has repeatedly demonstrated its potential as an economic growth engine if properly managed. This is due to the fact that it accommodates a large number of workers who significantly contribute to economic expansion. The sector offers the opportunity to attract technologies and investors to create thousands of jobs for semi- and skilled laborers in a nation like Tanzania, which has access to ports, relatively low wages, and raw materials. Wages continue to rise in the leading textile and garment manufacturing nations, particularly in Asia [19]. Investors always look for new economies with more competitive interest rates. Tanzania’s labor costs are still competitive with those of other Sub-Saharan nations. Due to this recognition, the government has prioritized textiles and apparel in its investment development plan. Tanzania has excellent transportation infrastructure, an eco-friendly and socially responsible textile and clothing industry, remarkable social and political stability, and duty-free access to South Africa, the United States, and the EU. In addition, it has a sufficient supply of low-cost English-speaking labor. However, the clothing industry lacks experience in manufacturing garments for export markets and is limited in size and product offerings. Although the number of garments that Tanzania exports are low, the number of knitted garments that the country exports are rising as textile companies in the country invest in knitting capabilities. In addition, foreign investors have shown interest in the nation, and several Tanzanian businesses have ambitious growth plans. Investors and partners choose Tanzania as a destination for investment in manufacturing, agriculture, mining, exploration, or higher learning institutions for human capacity building for a variety of immediate reasons. According to the Tanzania Investment Centre [20], the following factors are crucial:

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● Tanzania is a peaceful, politically stable nation without a history of internal uprisings, ethnic conflicts, or civil wars. ● With a forecast of real GDP growth of 7% or more over the next decade, Tanzania is one of the top ten countries for corporate investment. It is the largest country in East Africa by population and land mass, and its young and energetic population is growing at 5% per year. ● It is rich in natural resources like Tanzanite, gold, diamond, natural gas, a lot of arable lands, and a lot of tourist attractions. It also gives investors good financial incentives and protects them from nationalization and expropriation. ● Investors benefit more from a strategic location and access to the market. Rwanda, Burundi, Zambia, Malawi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo are the other six countries with no land borders. Tanzania has well-established major ports, i.e., Dar es Salaam, Tanga, and Mtwara. In addition, it is a member of the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation, the Southern African Development Community and the East African Community. Additionally, under the African Growth Opportunity Act, it exports goods to the US market more conveniently. Furthermore, China, Japan, and Canada are excellent trade partners. Tanzania is a nation that has a lot of arable lands that can be used for commercial farming of crops on a large scale to supplement the supply of raw materials for established manufacturing industries. Cotton, coffee, tea, sugar cane, sisal, sunflower, and other crops are widely grown in Tanzania.

9.8 Conclusion and Recommendations It is generally accepted that the textile industry constitutes the economic foundation of any nation. The growth of this industry has a significant impact on the prosperity of the economy. The textile industry’s overall productivity and growth must be investigated in Tanzania, a nation with all the necessary favorable conditions for fashion and textiles. The government and other supply chain stakeholders should seriously consider the issues and factors affecting the fashion and textile industries. Due to the current trade policies, it is also necessary to explain the numerous factors affecting the industry so that policymakers can produce ideas to investigate the responsiveness of the textile and fashion supply chain, such as they can promote carbon information disclosures [21, 22]. This will help them identify the various policy measures that improve Tanzania’s textile and fashion industry. In addition, Tanzania has placed an emphasis on industrialization in recent years. It goes without saying that it is extremely challenging for industries to flourish in a nation where the purchasing power of its citizens is extremely low. Therefore, more efforts in this sector are needed to ensure that most citizens are lifted out of poverty. Sustainable economic development relies heavily on a skilled workforce, and training is the only thing that increases an employee’s skill and improves work performance. As a result, educational institutions in Tanzania must also be adaptable

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and quick to respond to changes in various fields. For instance, the country’s fashion industry boomed at a time when institutions were ill-prepared. On the other hand, organic products are entering a new market that looks promising for the future. As a result, higher education institutions must conduct studies to boost the yield of organic raw materials, in this case, organic cotton. Organic cotton and sisal have a bright future, so efforts must be intensified to reach the majority of farmers in the nation. Instead of relying on western certification agencies or institutions, it is necessary to empower local institutions with skills, knowledge, and tools to support the certification of organic products and land.

References 1. Uddin, M. F. (2022). Brief analysis on the past, present, and future of textile education in Bangladesh. In X. Yan, L. Chen, & H. Memon (Eds.), Textile and fashion education internationalization: A promising discipline from South Asia (pp. 35–57). Springer Nature Singapore. 2. Ali Hayat, G., Hussain, M., Qamar Khan, M., & Javed, Z. (2022). Textile education in Pakistan. In X. Yan, L. Chen, & H. Memon (Eds.), Textile and fashion education internationalization: A promising discipline from South Asia (pp. 59–82). Springer Nature Singapore. 3. Dutta, S., & Bansal, P. (2022). Textile academics in India—An overview. In X. Yan, L. Chen, & H. Memon (Eds.), Textile and fashion education internationalization: A promising discipline from South Asia (pp. 13–34). Springer Nature Singapore. 4. Muzahidur, R. (2017). Contribution of textile industry for socio-economic development in Bangladesh: A review. Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology (JMEST), 4, 6959–6960. 5. Estrin, S., & Pelletier, A. (2018). Privatization in developing countries: What are the lessons of recent experience? The World Bank Research Observer, 33, 65–102. 6. Shimba, C., & Sewando, P. (2013). Has privatization of public owned enterprises improved the quality of workers in Tanzania: A case of Swiss Port (T) Limited. Public Policy and Administration Research, 3, 1–7. 7. Moses, K. C. (2016). A study on the performance of textile sector in Tanzania-challenges and ways forward. In Proceedings of the CADEMIC Research Conferences (p. 51). 8. Shi, J., Liang, W., Wang, H., & Memon, H. (2020). Recent advancements in cotton spinning machineries. In H. Wang, & H. Memon (Eds.), Cotton science and processing technology: Gene, ginning, garment and green recycling (pp. 165–190). Springer Singapore. 9. van de Walle, N. (1989). Privatization in developing countries: A review of the issues. World Development, 17, 601–615. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X(89)90062-4 10. Khanzada, H., Khan, M. Q., & Kayani, S. (2020). Cotton based clothing. In H. Wang & H. Memon (Eds.), Cotton science and processing technology: Gene, ginning, garment and green recycling (pp. 377–391). Springer Singapore. 11. List of MoUs. Retrieved October 5, 2022, from https://www.udsm.ac.tz/web/index.php/direct orates/dica/List-of-mous 12. Marquardt, S. Cotton in Africa: Sustainability at a crossroads. Retrieved October 5, 2022, from https://textileexchange.org/cotton-in-africa-sustainability-at-a-crossroads-2 13. Kabissa, J. C. (2016). Cotton and its by-products in the United Republic of Tanzania. 14. Delate, K., Heller, B., & Shade, J. (2021). Organic cotton production may alleviate the environmental impacts of intensive conventional cotton production. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 36, 405–412.

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15. Berry, B., Downes, L., Ford, R., Gong, H., Howcroft, J., Johnson, A., Kennon, R., Ruffer, T., Sinha, P., & Towers, N. (2007). Design capabilities and potential in “The cotton and textiles sector in Tanzania: Issues and opportunities. A report for the Tanzanian Government”. 16. Wang, H., Siddiqui, M. Q., & Memon, H. (2020). Physical structure, properties and quality of cotton. In H. Wang, & H. Memon (Eds.), Cotton science and processing technology: Gene, ginning, garment and green recycling (pp. 79–97). Springer Singapore. 17. Simionescu, M., Bilan, Y., G˛edek, S., & Streimikiene, D. (2019). The effects of greenhouse gas emissions on cereal production in the European Union. Sustainability, 11, 3433. 18. Bwana, T., Amuri, N. A., Semu, E., Olesen, J., Henningsen, A., Baha, M., & Hella, J. (2020). Yield and profitability of cotton grown under smallholder organic and conventional cotton farming systems in Meatu District, Tanzania. In Climate impacts on agricultural and natural resource sustainability in Africa (pp. 175–200). Springer. 19. Singh, R., & Shrestha, A. (2022). Namuna College of Fashion Technology: Pioneering in fashion and textile education in Nepal. In X. Yan, L. Chen, & H. Memon (Eds.), Textile and fashion education internationalization: A promising discipline from South Asia (pp. 103–118). Springer Nature Singapore. 20. Centre, T. I. (2015). Why invest in Tanzania. An overview of investment climate, opportunities, trends & services provided by Tanzania Investment Centre. 21. Wu, D., & Memon, H. (2022). Public pressure, environmental policy uncertainty, and enterprises’ environmental information disclosure. Sustainability, 14, 6948. 22. Wu, D., Zhu, S., Memon, A. A., & Memon, H. (2020). Financial attributes, environmental performance, and environmental disclosure in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 8796.

Juma Makweba Ruteri holds a Ph.D. in Management Sciences with a specialization in Supply Chain Management from Donghua University and a postgraduation in food science and Technology from the University of Pretoria. As a self-motivated person, he started his career as a Senior Outsourcing and Management consultant at GOMC PTY LTD. He has provided superior outsourcing and management consulting services to a variety of business sectors for more than ten years, assisting both small and large enterprises. He has brought a fresh and innovative approach to business, leaving the client focused on the core segment of his business while simultaneously generating better revenue, having a competitive edge, easier business management, and better productivity. He is a firm believer that opportunities are always found where problems exist. He is pleased to provide outstanding customer services, increased flexibility, and excellent value, exceeding the expectations of each client. He is able to guarantee that customers receive the most effective and professional services thanks to his extensive experience and education. He has global operations experience that spans Asia, Africa, Europe, and America, which sets him apart from other outsourcing consultants. He is particularly skilled in the ChinaAfrica niche market. He takes great pride in his demonstrated ability to manage multiple clients and suppliers efficiently. This is because the procurement, logistics, and Value Chain Management team members he deals with are always efficient and professional.

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Here are just a few of his strengths: Acquiring and sourcing equipment for the food processing industry, the agricultural industry, construction, the garment industry, the textile industry, renewable energy systems, medical and laboratory equipment. If you are looking for the best outsourcing and management consultant and understand the value of outsourcing from a trustworthy business partner, contact him right away.

Chapter 10

Textiles Education in Sudan: An Overview of Sudanese Cotton Production, and Textiles and Fashion Design in Higher Education Institutions Ahmed Dawelbeit, Abdelrahman H. Abdelatif, Khalid Abdala, and Hasabo A. Mohammed Abstract Sudan is one of the third largest countries in Africa. It is located in Northeast Africa and the Middle East. It is a developing country with a young population. Sudan’s economy mainly depends on agriculture, animal and mineral resources. Historically, at the time of independence from the Anglo-Egyptian colonization, the higher education system had two universities, five colleges, and three institutes—all centered in Khartoum state. Currently, due to the development efforts, there are more than 146 institutions distributed overall in Sudan. However, the agricultural investments and the industrial development in Sudan played the leading role in textile education. This chapter reviewed the past, present, and prospects of Sudanese higher education for textiles and fashion. In the first part, cotton production is introduced. Then an extensive review includes overarching features related to the planning and management of the textiles and fashion education have been reported. It has been found that two departments are offering a Bachelor of Science in textiles science Ahmed Dawelbeit, Abdelrahman H. Abdelatif, Khalid Abdala, Hasabo A. Mohammed: These authors contributed equally to this work. This chapter is dedicated to the memory of Professor Bashir Elfadil Makki the founder of textiles education at the University of Gezira, and the memory of Dr. Khalil Osman the father of the industrial revolution in Sudan. A. Dawelbeit (B) State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, People’s Republic of China e-mail: [email protected]; [email protected] A. H. Abdelatif Cotton Research Program, Agricultural Research Corporation, P. O. Box 126, Wed Medani, Gezira State, Sudan K. Abdala Department of Textile Design, College of Fine and Applied Arts, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Khartoum State, Sudan H. A. Mohammed Department of Textile Engineering, College of Engineering and Technology of Industry, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum North, Khartoum State, Sudan © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2023 X. Yan et al. (eds.), Quality Education and International Partnership for Textile and Fashion, SDGs and Textiles, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-99-1320-6_10

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and engineering. At the same time, there are two departments offering a Bachelor of Arts in textile design and textile coloration as well as fashion design. On the other hand, the University of Gezira is also teaching cotton classification and cotton ginning courses to provide a full spectrum of textile knowledge from the field to the consumers. It is worth mentioning here that, the curricula of textile education in Sudan mainly depend on the cotton spinning system. The woolen and worsted spinning systems are taken as introductory topics. Indeed, the textiles and fashion education in Sudan are required to establish benchmark data to identify the courses for higher education institutions and provide industrial information for policymakers and enterprises’ investments. Furthermore, the prospects and the conclusions have provided a brief overview of the state of the art. Keywords East Africa · Sudan · Cotton · Higher education · Textile · Fashion design · Higher Education Institutions (HEI)

10.1 Introduction 10.1.1 Prologue Sudan is a Northeast Africa and a Middle East country. It is the third-largest country in Africa. It shares borders with seven countries (Namely, Egypt, Libya, Chad, Central African Republic, South Sudan, Ethiopia and Eritrea) and the Red Sea. Archaeologically, the history of Sudan goes back to the Pharaonic era. The greatest African civilizations (Meroe civilization, 300 BCE–350 CE)—which is rich in cultural practices in history—have been located in Sudan. In fact, the population has been estimated to reach 56.4 million by 2030 (50.2% male and 49.8% female). At the same time, demographical survey showed that 41% of the Sudanese people are 14 years old or younger [1]. However, Sudan’s economy mainly de on agriculture, animal and mineral resources. For instance, Gezira Scheme (established in 1911) is located in Sudan. It is the largest irrigated agricultural farm in Africa (with two million acres), mainly for cotton production. Moreover, Sudan produces 80% of the Arabic gum in global gum production. This gum has been harvested commercially from the Acacia wild trees (Acacia Senegal and Vachellia [Acacia] seyal). The hot tropical climate also put Sudan in the foreground for growing the Hibiscus cannabinus plant (Guinea Hemp, Mesta)—which is the source of Kenaf fibers [2]. Here, it is worth noting that, besides cotton, hibiscus, Arabic gum and animal resources, the geographical nature of Sudan is also a desirable habitation of the wild Epiphora silk [3] and Fagar silk (Attacus atlas L. moth) proliferation [4]. Furthermore, polymer production (polyethylene) has also been, recently, established. Therefore, these resources acquire Sudan to have a good opportunity for the productions of textiles as well as for materials industries.

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10.1.2 Aesthetical Values of Sudanese Textiles Over the centuries, peoples have been used their local textile materials’ resources to develop and to shape their unique life. Indeed, the traditional textile arts are the heritage legacies for the contemporary Sudanese lifestyle. However, cotton has been used traditionally to produce nonwoven products for home textiles such as cushions (beds, mattresses, pillows and animal felts for horses and donkeys). Meanwhile, cotton ropes and lather have been used for woven-bed and woven-stools bases. While the palm frond braiding is used for matts, kitchen utensils and decorations antiques. On the other hand, textile garments are greatly linked to the Sudanese societies. They reflect their phenomenon and their current status and changes [5, 6]. In Sudan, the national costumes of Sudanese are Jalabiya for men, and Tobe for women [7]. Jalabiya (made from cotton, flax or polyester/cotton blend) is a loose-fitting garment has a wider cut with long and wide sleeves and sewn-in pockets. Normally, it has white color, but sometimes it can be light-brown or green (olive-color). Beside the national costume of Sudan, Jalabiya is a traditional garment that traditionally worn in the Nile Valley and along the Red Sea coast such as Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea and other east African countries. Moreover, Sudanese Jalabiya is different from the Arab Maghreb (the Barbary Coast) “Jellaba” and the Arabian Gulf “thawb, Kameez, dishdasha or bisht. On the other hand, Tobe is a veil (a long wrap-around cloth that can be worn on the top of a shirt and skirt/trouser to covers the entire body). This veil is commonly prepared from cotton, polyester or silk. The appearance of the Sudanese Tobe has a wide range of colors. But it is often decorated with an embroidery stitch-work or hand-work patterns. In addition, the white tobe is, usually, used for workwomen uniforms. Furthermore, men are, customarily, wear headgear (Ammama) with the skull-cap. Ammama is a type of turban that is religiously significant to Muslims. Ammama is a symbolize authority, strength, honor and dignity. Moreover, men are, also, hanging a white scarf on the shoulders “so called Shal” and they wear Sirwal; a baggy trouser or loose pant. On another hand, Frajiyah is a garment worn on the body, that have long sleeves and it has varieties of colored such as light-blue, light-grey, orange. It is special clothes (different form Moroccan Jabador and Western coat) worn by the Sheikhs and the Knowledgeable men—as shown in Fig. 10.1 [8–15] (N.B.: different tribes have different costume and adornment).

10.1.3 Higher Education in Sudan The improvement of the quality of higher education in Africa is on the rise. Chiefly, structuring and adoption of national higher education quality assurance mechanisms—which is very recent in African institutions. However, the challenges that most African countries face are the cost and the human capacity requirements [16].

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Fig. 10.1 Costume dress of Sudanese men

The internationalization—which define as: “the intentional process of integrating an international, intercultural or global dimension into the purpose, functions and delivery of post-secondary education, in order to enhance the quality of education and research for all students and staff, and to make a meaningful contribution to society”. In Sudan, the government system is a federal system that consists of 18 states and 199 local governments. For instant, there are three different government levels that have different duties and responsibilities, i.e., federal government, state government and local government. However, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research (MoHESR)—which has been established in 1975—is belong to the federal government [17]. Formerly, prior to 1975, the higher education institutions (universities, colleges and research institutes) had been under the Ministry of Education. Since, the higher education activities are teaching, scientific research and community services, such as rural development, social initiatives and innovation. The policies, plans and programs for the higher education and the scientific research have been govern by the MoHESR. Thereafter, the MoHESR is an only in charge of the higher

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education to facilitate equitable access to higher education to all who are academically qualified; establish innovative institutions that provide high quality teaching, research, and service; produce graduates who are competitive; and contribute to economic growth, social development, nation building, and the stability of the country [18], while the Federal Ministry of General Education (FMoGE) is in charge of the policy development and the service delivery for the primary and secondary education. The vision of the MoHESR is a high quality, relevant, responsive to the society needs and internationally recognized higher education system. In addition, the National Council for the Higher Education and Scientific Research is responsible for assuring that institutions of the higher education are implementing their activities efficiently, capably with high quality. This National council is chaired by the MoHESR and membered by the universities’ vice counsellors [19, 20]. Historically, at the time of independent of Sudan from the Anglo-Egyptian colonization in 1956, the Sudanese higher education system had two universities (one is a Sudanese university and another one is an Egyptian University), five colleges and three institutes. These institutions consisted of the University of Khartoum, University of Cairo—Khartoum branch (established in 1955), the Omdurman College of Islamic Studies, the College of Fine and Applied Arts, Forest Rangers’ College, Khartoum Health College, Khartoum Nursing College, Khartoum Technical Institute, Shambat Agricultural Institute and the Higher Technical Institute for the Department of Construction. All these institutions were placed at Khartoum State (Khartoum, Omdurman and Khartoum North cities) [21]. In beginning of 1990s, the government regime of Sudan has had stood up for Higher Education Revolution, decisions for reforming the high education. This revelation resulted in the expansion of the HEI from four universities to thirty universities at once and the enrollment number of the undergraduate students has also been increased! Moreover, the expansions of the institutes and the students have followed by Arabicization i.e., changing the structure medium from English language to Arabic language. Here it is important to mention that, despite the higher education needs development and expansions, but this revelation shacked the existed universities and emerged new institutes with less facilities, teachers’ shortcuts, as well as the absence of scientific books in Arabic language. This raised the need for foreigner teachers from Egypt, Syria, Iraq and other middle east countries who are the medium of instruction of their science curricula is Arabic. Those foreigner faculties teach different higher education subjects, but textile was not! The main shortcut, in particular, was textile books—which brought from Egypt and later some books had been written by Sudanese. While the postgraduate courses remain in most cases as it is—taught in English language. There is an approved taught in Arabic postgraduate program, but mostly by research, see below. By the way, the general education, during that period, had also been reformed by the reducing one-academic year from the k12 curricula. The general education system become 8/3 system instead of 6/3/3 system. This was the second reform (the first reform was in 1977, from 4/4/4 system to 6/3/3 system). Therefore, the general education has again reformed to 6/3/3 system.

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Since there, the higher institutes have been increased. Recently, the total of the HEIs that come into existence have reached more than 146 institutes (36 governmental universities, 9 governmental research centers, 19 private universities and 87 private colleges). These higher institutes are distributed overall Sudan [20]. The minimum entry requirement for all Sudanese higher institutions is passing in the higher secondary school examination (Sudanese Secondary School Certificate) [21]. The subjects of the HEIs consist of social sciences (such as education, humanitarian, social, administration and law) and natural sciences (such as agriculture, health, science, information technology and engineering). The enrolment number of the students has reached 300,000 students in 2018 with 54% female and 46% male students [22]. Unlike the other sub-Saharan countries, the participation of Sudanese women in higher education is robust [23], and their participant rate in bachelor level has surpassed the men numbers [24]. They surpass in education and medical disciplines. Surprisingly, women are largely lagged in business, law, and economics disciplines as well as in engineering disciplines. The ignorance of engineering disciplines is seemed to be according to their interests [24]. It is worth to note that, the internationalization activities such as international strategic partnerships, international student mobility as well as international research collaboration are given more attention by the higher education policymakers. Clearly, the existed institutions have been required for social and economic development [20, 25]. Moreover, beside the tertiary education, Sudan has, also, vocational schools for technical vocational engineering training (TVET). There are three types of technical and vocational educations. These are technical secondary schools, higher education institutes and private enterprises’ technical school. Similar to the academic education, the FMoGE and the MoHESR are in charge of the technical secondary schools and the higher education institutes, respectively [1]. But the nongovernmental and private technical training have been controlled by the Ministry of Labor, Public Service and Human Resource Development (MoLPSHR) [1, 26]. The textile higher education in Sudan have been simultaneously started with textile industry Fifteen-Year Plan that approved in 1970. In this aspect, the shirley Institute of UK has assigned the feasibility study of manufacturing 200,000 tons of cotton into textile goods including yarn, fabric and garment [27]. This goal has inspired by the production of the super long stable cotton in Sudan (Barakat and Shambat-B cotton varieties), see below. Later, numerous of Textile industries have been established spreading from North to South and from East to West for the development and the stability of the countryside and the low wage areas. These industries have been concentrated in Khartoum North at the capital Khartoum as well as in Wad Medani at Gezira state. Here (Khartoum and Wad Medani cities) where the first two textile institutions have been established. It is worth to mention that the textile and fashion education have been implemented in Sudanese institution in the higher and vocational educations. In fact, to prevail the technical staff for the textile industry, it is a governmental plan to have a textile HEI which has been the first textile higher Sudanese institution [28]. These institutions provided three types of degrees: Bachelor of science (10 semesters), Technical Diploma (6 semesters) and either short- or long-term courses (mostly vocational

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training) as well. The University of Gezira (U of G) [29] and the Sudan University of Science and Technology (SUST) [30] are providing textiles and garments courses in higher education. These two universities are teaching (in depth) technological aspects of textiles. But the later is also offering a bachelor of Fashion Design (8 semesters) at the College of Fine and Applied Arts. However, the Faculty of sciences and applied science at University of Juba (was temporary located in Khartoum) has had a department of textile technology. Indeed, after the separation of South Sudan in 2011, the University of Juba has returned back to its original location at Juba, and the temporary part (and the northern teachers and students) at Sudan was reformed under University of Bahri. Unfortunately, the department of textile technology has been frozen! On the other hand, the number of affiliated staff in HEIs were 21,584 in 2018, half of them were Ph.D. holders having one-third of female. Moreover, the structure of the dedicated staff is professors, associated and assistant professors and lecturers. N.B.: Teaching assistants are not considered as a faculty. For textile and fashion education in Sudan, the instruction of the bachelor’s degree of Textiles engineering—as mentioned above—is Bachelor of Science (honor) that needs five years (10 semesters) to accomplish. Among these years, beside the textile and garment courses, the curricula are also rich of basic sciences, basics of mechanical, electrical and chemical engineering as well as industrial managements. Moreover, during the study duration, there are three industrial trainings’ periods. These trainings are taking place every summer vacations. They are compulsory courses that have marks and grades. In these periods, the students have to pass through the preliminary workshop, spinning and weaving and wet processing (dyeing, printing and finishing).

10.2 Cotton Production in Sudan 10.2.1 Cotton Cultivation: From Ancient to Current Sudan Cotton “Gossypium” is the major natural textile fiber crop worldwide. Its fibers shown the ability to spun into yarns (spinnability) and to wove into fabrics. Historically, cotton production has been found dating back to 3500 BC [31]. While the recent archeological activities in Sudan revealed that cotton has been grown for centuries. The archaeological excavation of the Africa’s greatest civilization showed that the textiles productions activities in Sudan have been dated to the first millennium. The ancient Sudan and Nubia i.e. the Kushite kingdom of Kerma (c.2500–1500 BCE), the Napata kingdom (c. 760–300 BCE) and the Meroitic kingdom (300 BCE– 350 CE) shown that cotton production activities have been produced in ancient Sudan and Nubia with different capacity [32]. Among these ancient periods, the archaeological excavation revealed that the textile production activities were the higher in the Meroitic kingdom (300 BCE–350 CE) [33]. In addition, cotton have been grown in

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the Nile valley from northern Nubia in Qasr Ibrim to the Southern fertile plains in the Gezira region (Abu Geili). Interestingly, the archaeogenomic studies of the archaeobotanical remains at Meroitic periods revealed that the Gossypium herbaceum variety is an Africa native cotton resulting from the indigenous domestication process rather than the Gossypium arboreum variety that adopted from the Indian subcontinent. Moreover, cotton fibers have had been used for the local Meroitic textile industry. The textile processes were spinning (spindle and spindle whorls), weaving (looms) and sewing (needles). These archaeological excavations found that the spun yarns were spun into S and Z directions. While, the woven fabrics were used for garments, furniture and funerary. Therefore, cotton plant in Sudan is an indigenous and number of its wild relatives are still existed in various parts of the country. Until the late 1950s specimens of these wild cotton types could easily be collected from some parts of Sudan. However, in contrast to the wild cotton, the commercial growing of the cotton crop has been started in 1867 at the Tokar Delta in the Red Sea State. The first irrigated commercial cotton crop, and the first ginning factory, were established in 1904 at El-Zeidab (Nile State). But the modern agricultural and processing technologies used in cotton production have been dated back to the beginning of the 20 Century. The recent cotton production activities in Sudan have been started with small pilot scale areas in 1911 at Tayba Elsheikh Abd-Elbagi with extra-long Gossypium barbadense types, then, followed by large scale production in 1924. The milestone of the cotton production in Sudan was in 1926, the first year after completing the construction of Sennar Dam—which marked the official beginning of functioning of the Gezira Scheme. One thing to note here that, cotton cultivation in the Sudan is not only by the rain-ed irrigation, but also by the surface irrigation or gravity irrigation (i.e., furrow irrigation). Both irrigation systems (rain-fed and furrow irrigations) are used to produce different varieties of cotton with different fibers properties. In other words, Sennar Dam—which has been constructed on the Blue Nile in 1925— is mainly for Gezira Scheme irrigation through two channels: El-Gezira and ElManagel channels.

10.2.2 Agricultural Research The agricultural research endeavors in the Sudan have followed the successful Gezira Scheme pilot. In general, the establishment of the agricultural research in Sudan has been started in 1902. However, the cotton research efforts have had been dated to 1918 at the Gezira Research Farms near Wad Medani city. Later, between 1931 and 1938, these research farms were called the Agricultural Research Service. Then, during 1939 to 1943, the name was changed to the Agricultural Research Institute, and, consequently, changed to the Research Division during 1943 and 1953. Thereafter, the Research Division was, again, renamed to the Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC) in 1967. Anyhow, the ARC is, now, belong to of the Ministry of Agriculture [34]. Moreover, the greatest outstanding agricultural research in Sudan have been

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carried out by the ACR, and by the Animal Resources Research Corporation (ARRC) of the Ministry of Animal Resources. Furthermore, the HEIs (such as the University of Khartoum, the University of Gezira and the Sudan University for Science and Technology) have, also, been intensively engaged into the agricultural research in Sudan. On the other hand, among these research institutions and corporations, the strong and the most successful cotton research accomplishments have been, chiefly, provided by the Cotton Research Program (CRP) at the ARC.

10.2.3 Cotton Research Program The framework of Cotton Research Program (CRP) is generally pillared the cotton improvement, cotton stickiness and testing technology. Cotton Development The development of cotton varieties (beside the fiber length, the strength and the fineness) are mainly aimed to breeding for insects and disease resistances (bacterial blight, fusarium wilt) as well as the eerily maturing varieties. The ARC research resulted in many cotton varieties. There are more than fifty varieties have already been released in both Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadence with different quality characteristics to meet the recent demand of the consumers. However, among these varieties, only few cultivars are now under production, namely, Barakat (extra-long cotton staple fibers), Sahmbat-B (long cotton staple fibers) and Acala (medium cotton staple fibers). These cultivars (Barakat, Sahmbat-B and Acala) are gravity-furrow irrigated fibers. While the rain-fed irrigation cultivation has resulted in Acala (Acrain) cultivars—which representing the short cotton stable fibers. N.B.: The properties of Sudanese cotton varieties have been tabulated in Table 10.1. On the other hand, in Sudan, the production of genetically engineered cotton has been started in 2012 [35]. The Bt cottons have been developed genetically modified by transferring the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes from a soil born Bacteria. The genetically engineered plants by using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes have been introduced globally into different crops for resistance to insect pests. This genetically engineering research have been used in the United States, Australia, China, Mexico, Argentina, South Africa, and India. However, in Sudan, the genetically modified cottons are used to control the bollworms. There are two Chinese Bt-cotton genotypes (Gossypium hirsutum) carrying the Cry 1A gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes. These genotypes are the hybrid CN-C01 and the open pollinated CN-C02 types—which have been introduced by China-aid Agricultural Technology Demonstration Center (CATDC) in Al-Faw city in Gadarif State at the east of Sudan. As-mentioned above, the first Sudanese Bt cotton variety has been released in 2012 for cultivation under both irrigation conditions (furrow and rain-ed irrigation system). But the research activities for those two genotypes have been carried out during 2010 to 2012 period at an open-field trials. These varieties were

208 Table 10.1 The mean properties for Sudanese cotton varieties

A. Dawelbeit et al. Varieties

Length (mm)

Fineness, micronaire (MIC)

Strength (g/tex), HVI

Breeded cotton varieties Barakat

34.0

3.8

40

Shambat-B

31.0

3.5

33

Acala (67)B

28.0

4.2

30

Hamid

28.4

4.8

29

Wagar

28.9

4.5

30

Khalifa

27.3

4.1

28

Burhan

28.5

5.2

28

Albar (57)12/rainfed

26.0

3.5

26

Genetically modified Bt cotton varieties Seeni 1

27.9

4.8

28

Seeni 2

27.1

4.9

27

Hindi 1

28.3

4.4

30

Hindi 2

29.1

4.6

29

commercially released in 2012 and 2015 under the names of Seeni 1 and Seeni 2, respectively, see Fig. 10.2. Consequently, the Indian Bt hybrids verities, Hindi 1 and Hindi 2, had been released in 2015 for cotton production. Therefore, the genetically engineered Bt-cotton adoption occupied more than 95% of the grown cotton area in Sudan. Testing Technology Generally, the fiber testing program at ARC is aimed to study and to monitor the quality performance of the existing cultivars as well as prospective genotypes. The quality parameters of the cotton fibers such as effective length, strength and fineness are characterized by using both High Volume Instrument (HVI) and Low Volume Instrument (LVI). Moreover, the cotton fibers spinnability is performing by the microring spinning machine. The promising yarns are also can also be characterized at CRP. Cotton Stickiness Cotton stickiness which either physiological sugars (by plant itself) or honey dew (from the feeding insects such as whitefly) [36, 37] has caused an excess of sugars on the cotton fibers. The stickiness of cotton can be measured by different methods [38]. The cotton thermal detector (SCT) technique is used at CRP for stickiness measurement. However, there is an active research activity programs at the ARC in regard to control the stickiness in Sudan. This effort includes classification of the sugars’ types that causing cotton stickiness, quick methods for grading cotton stickiness,

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Fig. 10.2 Bt cotton engineered cotton, Seeni-x varieties

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ginning efficiency and spinning performance, the integrated pest management (IPM) package, as well as Breeding of cotton varieties tolerant to whitefly infestation. Indeed, a milestone results have been achieved in short time, from these research programs. But unfortunately, the stickiness problem is still there [39]. However, during 1998–2000, the Global Research Program (Sudan-France), financed mainly by the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC) has had executed with the objectives of developing an objective methodology (rather than the current subjective methods in use) to separate sticky from non-sticky cotton in order that the non-sticky part could be sold at due price. The study has been revealed a considerable variability in stickiness levels among the cotton production areas. While a considerably low levels of stickiness has also observed. Therefore, the research program has shared a practical knowledge on avoiding stickiness in-field practices in Sudan. On the other hand, according to International Textiles Manufacturers Federation Survey, Sudan has acquired a better position for stickiness levels, and it has been continuously decreasing since 2001. In short, the following research efforts are in progress at CRP to alleviate and to control the cotton stickiness: 1. Effect of soil moisture, sowing date and picking time on stickiness. 2. Improvement of physical and chemical testing facilities to detect stickiness levels. 3. Improvement of the spinning processes and the quality of the spun yarn depending on the sticky potential of the cotton. 4. Future mapping of zones varying in stickiness indices.

10.2.4 Challenges Recently, in Sudan, the cotton yields fluctuated around 350–400 kg/ha—which is very low and only represents about 50% of the yield results at the research station. Here, the factors contributing to this yielding gap could be attributed to improper husbandry practices, including sowing date, water management, nutrition and pest control. However, it is worth to mention here that an outstanding improvement in yield reported after the adoption of Bt. Cotton. Besides the cotton yield challenge, the domestic textile mills only consume 10% of the national cotton production. Therefore, the bulk of the output (90%) is exported as raw fiber in a highly competitive world market.

10.3 Textiles Education at the University of Gezira The University of Gezira (U of G) has been located in the Gezira State at middle of Sudan—where Gezira Scheme is founded. Its main message is to develop the life quality of the state’s residents. Historically, Naser Medical College was, initially, proposed. Then, the late Gaffer M. Numeri the president of Sudan, established the

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University of Gezira at Wad Medani City in 1975 with four faculties: Medicine, Agriculture, Science and Technology, and Economics and Rural Developments. The late Professor Mubarak Mohammed Elebeid was the vice chancellor who took the establishment responsibilities. The mission of the University of Gezira is [29]: To seek science and knowledge, reveal the secrets of nature, build human civilization in all its dimensions, assess the balance of justice, support the inherent spiritual values, raise the word of truth and prosperity, eliminate the injustice and corruption, build the mind and conscience of mankind, develop expertise and skills, enrich and refine the talents, and achieve all that through constructive cooperation in an atmosphere of brotherhood, love and fidelity

Currently, the University of Gezira contains 6 sectors. These sectors are Health, Agriculture, Engineering and Science, Economics, Education, and Humanitarian sectors. In general, there are 22 faculties, 9 institutes and 22 research centers distributed in 11 campuses all over the Gezira State. Indeed, as mentioned above, Gezira Scheme is the largest irrigated agricultural farm in Africa. These two million acres are mainly for growing cotton. Therefore, to add values to the abundant cotton, the necessity to establish a textile education at the University of Gezira has been raised. In fact, as mentioned before, the textile education in the HEI have been started simultaneously with the industrial revelation in Sudan. Therefore, the late Professor Bashir Elfadil Makki Textile education had has been assigned to start a textile education in the cotton rich areas in 1984 at the University of Gezira. The first batch has graduated in 1988 and the average of the student graduation was not more than 10. The faculty offered a bachelor’s degree of science (honors) in textile engineering technology at 5 academic years (10 semesters) in the subspecialities of Textiles, Technical Textiles, and Clothing Technology as well as the Technical Diploma in 3 academic years (6 semesters). Moreover, the department of the textile Engineering and technology at faculty of textiles has been offering three different postgraduate training programs: Postgraduate Diploma (preliminary year), Master of Science (M.Sc.) and Degree of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degrees in textile Engineering. Here, it’s worth to mention that the MSc program is either by course with a complementary research project, or by research—where the medium of instruction is either in English or Arabic languages. N.B.: The textile science and engineering or technology B.Sc. (honor) graduates are not required to study the preliminary qualification program before the M.Sc. enrolment, but the non-textile and general graduates do. The main contributions of Professor Bashir have been centered on the development of the Faculty of Science and Technology departments, laboratories, library and teaching staff, and teachers and technician training. His efforts lead to a Japanese government aid grant for infrastructure rehabilitation. He was sincerely engaged in developing and implementing the departments of textiles, food technology, and applied chemistry. He also linked the university of Gezira with local and international relationships. Moreover, he has had assigned to the development of the sugar production sector at the national training center for engineering and technician training. Professor Bashir has contributed to many feasibility studies for textiles factories. He was also the Secretary of the Textile Standards Committee.

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Historically, it is known that the University of Gezira is the first HEI offering a bachelor’s degree of science (honors) in textile education in Sudan. Here, the beginning of textile education has been started in 1984 under the name of textile technology discipline at the department of textile technology in the Faculty of Science and Technology at the main campus in Wad Medani city. Later, in 1993, another faculty for textiles named Faculty Textile Engineering had been established in AlHasaheisa city (45 km from Wad Medani city—where cotton ginning and textile friendship mill are located). Unfortunately, the faculty of textiles engineering was failed to continue. However, in 1998, the department of textile technology and the faculty textile engineering were emerged together at one faculty under the name of faculty of textiles and located at the main campus in Wad Medani, and the student enrolment has continued only for the faculty of textiles form 1999. Moreover, the number of the student enrollment has increased to more than 100 students. Recently, according to the continuous development in the engineering studies in U of G, the faculty of textiles was, again, renamed the Faculty of Industries Engineering and Technology (FIET). Therefore, the faculty of textiles has been squeezed in the department of Textile Engineering, and another two new department were added. Namely, the Materials Engineering and Technology and the Industrial Engineering departments. Currently, the FIET has three departments which are: the Textiles Engineering, the Materials Engineering and Technology and the Industrial Engineering departments. While the department of Textile Engineering has three subdisciplines— which are Textiles Engineering and Technology, Clothing Engineering and Technology, and Technical Textiles. In additional, beside the Textiles Technology, Materials Technology and Industrial Engineering, the FIET has a Center of Fibers, Paper, and Recycling as well as a unit of Geo-textiles. Generally, the FIET works in-line with the main philosophy of the University of Gezira—which is serving the community through the development of educational and research programs in the textiles and the manufacturing-related performances. Therefore, these strategies will lead to the job creation, and also will reflect to increase the value added of the agricultural products, mainly cotton. 1. Moreover, the general objectives of textile education in the University of Gezira can, chiefly, be divided into five aspects, as follows: 2. Qualifying textile students at the undergraduate and postgraduate grades. 3. Scientific research in textiles technologies and in materials sciences research areas. 4. Providing a technical consultancy to the textile and clothing industries and to the other related industries such as paper, leather, and plastic industries. 5. Providing Technical Training to personnel working in textiles and textile related area. 6. Industrials development. Furthermore, since 1984, the textile department of the FIET at U of G has been well established. Here, it should be noted that the textile department have the main machinery and equipment that needed for textile education—as shown in Figs. 10.3, 10.4 and 10.5. A full-spectrum of the well-equipped laboratories are well managed for

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Fig. 10.3 Spinning, weaving preparation and weaving (Rapier) machines

the student training and the for the industrial consultancy as well as for the scientific research in textile sciences, such as spinning machinery (carded and combed cotton and Man-made spinning systems), weaving machines (shuttle and shuttleless looms), wet processes equipment (dying, printing and finishing). The laboratories have also been equipped with knitting and sewing machines. Moreover, a quality control and testing laboratory is also provided. The curricula of the FIET are obeying the standard of the Sudanese Engineering Council for engineering curricula. This engineering curricula containing the number of the total credit hours and the number of student contact hours, the percentage of the humanities science’s courses. The basic sciences, engineering sciences, professional sciences courses are the core of the standard curricula of the Sudanese Engineering Council. These courses contents are 90% of the total designed course. Moreover, the research project and Industrial training have also been considered—which are 16% for the standard faculties. Indeed, the curricula of the textiles are rich of basic sciences and basic chemical, mechanical and electrical engineering. As known that textiles start from fibers, the naturals and synthetics resources and productions have been included in the curricula. For the spinning courses, the curriculum in the University of Gezira is mainly relying

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Fig. 10.4 Knitting, sewing and embroidery machines

Fig. 10.5 Samples printing and finishing machines

on the cotton spinning system (carded and combed systems). The other spinning systems (such as woolen and worsted) have only been introduced for introductory. The weaving and knitting courses have designated from the weaving preparation, weaving (shuttle and shuttleless machines and technology) and the advanced piles and 3D weaving design for technical textiles. The wet processing courses (dying, printing, and finishing) and the color measurement are rich of knowledge. The physical testing for textiles (fiber, yarn and fabrics) are well designed. The curricula of the clothing technology and engineering are also rich of the desired information. Beside the classroom and laboratory teaching, industrial trainings are also mandatory. It should be noted here, the well-equipped laboratories in the University of Gezira helped the textile department to gain a very solid textile education curriculum. Interestingly, the evolution of the academic achievement of the students at the University of Gezira is the United States grade point average (GPA) system—which depends on the credit hours (maximum mark is 4.00 out of 4.00) as shown in Table 10.2. However, the students in ordered to graduate are required to have at least 2.00 out of 4.00 for their cumulative grade point average (CGPA) in all their semesters

10 Textiles Education in Sudan: An Overview of Sudanese Cotton … Table 10.2 The grading system and the degree classification at University of Gezira

GPA grading system Letter grade

Grade point

A

4.0

215

U of G degree classification First class

3.50–4.00

B+

3.5

Upper-second class

3.00–3.49

B

3.0

Lower-second class

2.50–2.99

C+

2.5

Third class

2.00–2.49

N.B.: Students who have CGPA less than 2.00 will be dismissed

C

2.0

D+

1.5

D

1.0

F

0.0

(i.e., for their 5 years period, 10 semesters each of which is 15 weeks). (N.B.: the GPA shows the results of the student in each individual semester whereas the CGPA measures the achievements of the student in all the semesters.) In fact, in the Sudanese HEI, the GPA and CGPA evolution system is only applied at University of Gezira. Since the establishment of the textile education at University of Gezira in 1984, the department has excellent relationships with the local and the international textile HEI over the world. These relationships lead to a well-equipped department and very qualified faculty staff. The staff has professors, assistant and associate professor and lecturers who studied locally and abroad. Teaching assistants are also assigned with at least an Upper Second-Class Honor of a bachelor’s degree.

10.4 Textiles Education at the Sudan University of Science and Technology The Textile technician Institute that, placed in the heart of the textile industry at Khartoum North had been started to accept the first students in 1971, whom graduated in 1974 with a diploma in spinning and weaving Specialization. This technician Institute was developed and impeded in the College of engineering Studies under the Technological Colleges Institute umbrella in 1975. Thereafter, the Technological (Polytechnical) Colleges Institute has been merged with the College of Fine and Applied Arts, the Higher Institute for Music and Drama, the Shambat Agricultural Institute, and the other different colleges and institutes into the Sudan University of Science and Technology (SUST) in 1990. However, one year later, the Technical Diploma of has upgraded to bachelor in Textile Engineering under the College of Engineering. The first bachelor intake was in 1991 and the first batch graduated in 1996. While the SUST continues to offer a Technical Diploma, continues Textile under the college of technology with an average of graduates of less than 10. Afterwards, in 2014, the College of Engineering at SUST has split into a number of colleges

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Table 10.3 The numbers of Diploma graduates, Institute for Technician (then Sudan University of Science and Technology) Year

Spinning

Weaving

Total

1974

12

9

21

1975

13

10

23

1976

22

12

10 11

1977

25

14

1978

17

10

7

1979

17

10

7

1980

17

10

7

1981

21

11

10

1982

23

13

10

1983

18

10

8

1984

0

0

0

1985

22

12

10

Remarks

Frozen

and schools. The textile engineering department, again, has moved to a newly emergent college, the College of Engineering and Technology of Industries. Beside textile engineering, emergent college has Leather, plastics, and chemical engineering disciplines. Furthermore, a Bachelor of Technology (B. Tech.) of food engineering as has been added. The numbers of graduates have been tabulated in Table 10.3 for the Institute for Technician from 1974 to 1985, while the numbers of the B.Sc. graduates from 1996 to 2018 have been tabulated in Table 10.4. The well establishment of Textile Technician Institute acquired the institute experienced a good relationship between academia and industry. In the early time, the institute has sponsored by the owner of the Sudan Textile Industry, the Gulf Group (Now Khalil Osman investment [40]), by providing funds and availing free training for technical for the students. The Sudan Textile Industry was the largest textile factory that had over 70,000 spindles and 2000 looms. The Late Dr. Khalil Osman, CEO, has also donated monthly fund for the students for a long time. The number of graduates each year from 1974 to 1985 fluctuated between 13 to 25 technicians each year—which satisfied the need of the local textile industry at that time. Meanwhile, the industry has received good feedback about the technicians’ performance. They later, have participated in the establishment and commissioning of the many governments and private textile industries. On the other hand, in the mid-eighties the textile industry sector in Sudan has suffered from the local currency instability problems—which is had a very negative impact. During that time, the Sudan Textile Industry had labor crises and had been shut down with other many industries. The crises of the textile industries in Sudan have affected students’ educational trends. However, The Gulf rich oil countries that have good offers and high demand

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Table 10.4 The number of B.Sc. graduates at Sudan University of Science and Technology (former Institute for Technicians) Year

Number of graduates

1996

14

1997

10

1998

7

1999

21

2000

20

2001

18

2002

21

2003

17

2004

15

2005

13

2006

24

2007

17

2008

17

2009

17

2010

31

2011

26

2012

28

2013

13

Textile production

Garment production

Remarks

Start garment

2014

27

2015

48

34

12

2016

46

35

11

2017

41

33

8

2018

42

33

9

for work force for their infrastructure attracted the experts to move abroad. But, since the textile labors are not among the gulf countries’ need, the student intake had been very low! Therefore, the student drifted to other attractive disciplines. Interestingly, despite the decline of the textile industry, the student enrollment in textile engineering department has been increased after 2009! This may be due to the Gulf war and the decrement of the oil prices which declined the labor demand in the Gulf countries. Moreover, the increment number of the student seeking higher education can be considered as an internal factor. However, the enrollment into a reputable college of engineering (not targeting the textile engineering), then, later, transfer to other science and engineering disciplines is another common reason. But those students who fail to do transferring have to remain to continue as a textile educator. On the other hand, the trend of the student targeting textile and garments education, at the present, may be attributed to the entrepreneurial nature of the textile.

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Lately, since 2008, the Sudan University science and technology has started a new policy towards the entrepreneurial creativity and innovation. Consequently, the first poultry incubators programs have been established and followed by the leather and the garment incubators. It is worth to mention here that, the new mindset will endeavor the paradigm shift the whole SUST university system to move towards the society responsibility, similar to University of Gezira. Interestingly, the MoHESR has also developed the administration of research into the Scientific Research and Innovation. The core of the new policy is to allocate a fund for the incubators. The textile education, hopefully, will be one of these benefited sectors. Indeed, the Sudan University of Science and Technology is following the MoHESR and is offering a Bachelor of Science (Honor) in Textile Engineering in two sub-disciplines: Textiles Production and Garments Manufacturing. Similar to the University of Gezira, the study duration is 10 semesters in 5 academic years and the studying system of is credit hours (i.e., 177 h for Textiles Production and 172 h for Garments Manufacturing). The annual enrollment is designated as 110 students per year. In fact, due to the international exchanges, the curricula have been developed. The curriculum is continually under revising development. Recently, the industrial trend of the Textile Engineering is towards the technical textiles and composite materials. Therefore, the curricula have been adopted to meet the requirements of the industrial need by those new courses. Moreover, in collaboration with the department of Plastic Engineering, an interdisciplinary master of Fiber and Polymer has offered to numerous students. Furthermore, beside the B.Sc. curriculum, the M.Sc. and Ph.D. studies and their curricula have, also, been directed towards the technical textile and the composite materials fields. In addition, a master in composite materials and nanotechnology has been, recently, approved to attract the ambitious students who tend to work in other industries other than the textile industry.

10.5 Fashion Education at the College of Fine and Applied Arts In Sudan, there are only two faculties for fine and applied Arts education in Sudan University of Science and Technology (see Figs. 10.6 and 10.7) and University of Alnileen. The faculties of educations have also fine arts departments. However, among these faculties and departments, only the College of Fine and Applied Arts at Sudan University of Science and Technology is teaching textiles design and textile coloration as well as fashion design. The College of Fine and Applied Arts aims to provide creative and skillful cadres in different areas of arts and design with respect to the message of the Sudan University of Science and Technology (polytechnical university). Here, the curriculums have been designed to cover the scientific knowledges and the technical aspects of the

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Fig. 10.6 College of Fine and Applied Arts, SUST

Fig. 10.7 College of Fine and Applied Arts, SUST

fine arts as well as the handicrafts skills. Indeed, they are instructed to educate and to inspire the students to develop their technical skills that will encourage them to grow their ideas into thoughtful individual vision and expression. Historically, the beginning of arts teaching in Sudan was back to the 30s of the last century. The art department has had been established for pedagogy at Bakht AlRudha Institute—which is belong to the Ministry of Education—for the development and support of the national curriculum framework for primary, intermediate and

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secondary educations, and their teachers’ orientation (Now: Sudan National Center for Curriculum and Educational Research, NCCER [41]). In 1946 Mr. Green Law has been contributed to developed, this pedagogy department, to the School of Design at Gordon Memorial College (Then: University of Khartoum). One year later, in 1947, the School of Design was started to teach the theoretical and applied knowledge of arts for carpentry, architecture, geodesy, drawing and design educations. However, in 1951, the School of Design was joint the Khartoum Technical Institute (K.T.I) under the name of the Higher Department of Arts. Moreover, the Khartoum Technical Institute was developed to Polytechnical Colleges Institute. The Higher Department of Arts has, again, renamed to the School of Fine and Applied Arts. The school was offer Intermediate Diploma in two majors of arts. Thereafter, in 1964, the School of Fine and Applied Arts was upgraded to an individual college (College of Fine and Applied Arts) under the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research (MoHESR) and was offered a four-year Diploma in Arts. But the first bachelor of art was obtained in 1981 for undergraduate students. Afterwards, as mentioned before, the Polytechnical Colleges Institute, the College of Fine and Applied Arts, the Higher Institute for Music and Drama, the Shambat Agricultural Institute, and the other different colleges and institutes have been combined to the Sudan University of Science and Technology (SUST). Since beginning, the College of Fine and Applied Art has been following the British education model for arts. The College has been inspected evaluated by the Royal College of Art at London, Central College of Art and Design at London, and the Slade College of Fine Art of University College London. Moreover, from 1963 to 1977, the college has been visited by many British delegates. A very hospitable welcome has had been given to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, the Queen of the United Kingdom who visited the College of Fine and applied Arts in 1965—as shown in Fig. 10.8. Besides the Queen Elizabeth II visit, the College has been visited for performance evaluation by Sir Robert Darwin, the dean of the Royal College of Art Michael Patrick and Patrick George the dean of the Slade College of Fine Art of University College London. In 1973, the founder Mr. Green Law has visited the College of Fine Applied arts, again. Since there, the College has been engaged in dozens of arts activities, such as documenting of Sudanese culture, and supporting the artistic-philosophical activities and the intellectual aesthetics dialogue, and books’ writing. Thanks to the great philosopher, artists and faculty whom locally, regionally and internationally stamped their authority in the fine and applied arts, such as Ibrahim El-Salahi (see Fig. 10.9), Hassan Musa, Abdallah Bashir (Bola), Mohamed Abdelrahman (Bob), Ahmed Altaieb Zienalabdeen, Ahmad Shibrain, Mohammed Omer Khalil and Osman Waqialla. In addition, the graduated students have also contributed to society developments, such as Sharhabil Ahmed, the king of Sudanese Jazz who graduated from the department of painting—as shown in Fig. 10.10. Currently, the college of Fine and Applied offers a Bachelor of Arts degree in ten different disciplines. These departments are Sculpture, Calligraphic and Islamic ornamentation (Arabic and Latin Calligraphies), Ceramics, Painting, Printmaking,

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Fig. 10.8 The Queen of the United Kingdom, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, at the College of Fine and applied Arts in 1965

Fig. 10.9 Ibrahim El-Salahi, www.artsy.net

Photography, Decorations, Industrial Design, Textiles Design and Textile Coloration, and Fashion Design. However, the focal of the art education in Sudan is to cultivates an environment that prepares and encourages students to be translators of the Sudanese culture through visualizing, exposing and questioning its values. Therefore, the fine and

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Fig. 10.10 Sharhabil Ahmed, The King of Sudanese Jazz, Pan African Music (pan-african-music. com)

applied departments are applying the studio and class teaching approaches. Moreover, there are field studies (educational tours) course to see the creative side of the cities and the country sides for each studio students and design students—as shown in Fig. 10.11. These trips are good chance for the students to visualize the nature. The students, here, are required under the faculty supervisions, to draw and to snapping shot the natural picturesque sceneries. Furthermore, beside to the required courses, the fourth-year students have to professionally exhibited their final thesis at a Thesis Exhibition—which is organized by the faculty for one week once a year— see Figs. 10.12 and 10.13. Additionally, the faculty is also offering a master (M.Sc.) and degree of philosophy (Ph.D.) degrees in arts. Particularly, the departments of the Textiles Design and Textile Coloration is one of the oldest departments in the faculty that has been established in 1974. The goal of this department is too fitful the education aspects of the designs and the preparations techniques of the printing patterns (such as silk screen patterns) for textile printing machines. However, the objectives of the department are to educate plastic arts in textiles design and printing and coloration arts, to enhance the students’ ability to design suitable garments that fit the local environments as well as the cultural legacies of Sudanese peoples, and to provide students by full knowledge to the textile’s materials and the dying and printing techniques. On the hand, the Fashion Design is the newest department that established in 2002. This department aims to educate and prepare qualified, promising students for future professional practice as clothing designers, and educators who have the abilities of the design development from the material selection and creative design to the finished clothes. The department teaches fashion designing of the traditional and the modern design garments at undergraduates and postgraduates (M.Sc. and Ph.D.)

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Fig. 10.11 Educational tour

Fig. 10.12 Fourth-year student thesis exhibition. Theme: One-thousand-night design, Designer: Amal Ali Osman

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Fig. 10.13 Fourth-year student thesis exhibition (Designer: Almalika Soliman)

levels. The first batch was graduated in 2006. Since there 252 undergraduate students were graduated from 2002 to 2022 (eighteen batches). However, the department is also inspiring the student to illustrate the Sudanese rich heritage culture in their design, and to develop new designs. Moreover, the department missions are to apply the skills in fine arts (aesthetic, behavioral, historic, cultural) in clothing manufacturing with respect to marketing aspects. Indeed, the curricula enable the students to develop conceptual and technical aspects to improve creative design abilities by promoting professional practices to train the students for their careers in the fashion industry as well as challenging them to engage in critical thinking to functionalize the aesthetical and the functional values in fashion design. Furthermore, the department of fashion design is responsible for the feasibility, marketing and administration studies for the clothing factories based on the basic theories of clothing and textiles knowledge.

10.6 Conclusion and Prospective The sustainable development (or sustainability) has been defined as: “the development which aspires to meet the needs of present generations and at the same time not to question abilities of the future generations to meet their own ones” [42]. In fact, the sustainable development and the sustainable engineering depends on the economy, the society and the environment (ecology) and their relationship [43]. Since the textiles and the fashion industry are the chiefly polluting industries, sustainable

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fashion educations have been introduced for the future development. Consequently, the industrial design that traditionally implemented for the aesthetics of products’ form, style and ergonomics has now globally been changed. Recently, significant activities of the cotton research program have addressed the cotton yield and fiber quality issues. While the stickiness contamination issues have started to acquire their fair share in the research strategies. Moreover, agronomical recommendations for various technologies regarding agronomic and pest control practices have been released. On the other hand, nanotechnology, is an emergent discipline in Sudan. The Sudanese expatriates have been extensively contributed to the promotion of nanomaterials and nanotechnology. An only two centers are existed at the African City of Technology and the University of Khartoum. Therefore, the research efforts in nanotechnology in Sudan have covered a wide range of applications. Among these efforts, textiles’ researches have been subjected [44]. For textile education, there are many textiles and fashion books have been written as tabulated in Table 10.5. Moreover, the Deanship of Scientific Research at the University of Gezira and at the Sudan University of Science and Technology are publishing scientific bi-annual journals that accepting textiles’ manuscripts (namely: Gezira Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Journal of Science and Technology). Moreover, the Ahfad University for Women had has been teaching textiles for rural development. An introductory to textiles and their materials, as well as the basics knowledge of colors, dyes and painting on textiles have been introduced to the bachelor students at the school of the rural extension education and development. In addition, the Faculty of Music and Drama is also teaching fashion design for theatres’ designs and bands clothes designs. On contrary, materials science and engineering have also been an emergent discipline that currently received the HEIs’ attentions. However, the University of Khartoum has established the Materials and Nanotechnology Research Center. While, the University of Gezira has started a bachelor of Materials Engineering and Technology at the FIET. Moreover, the University of Bahari is also offering materials science education as sub-discipline at the College of Applied and Industrial Sciences. Currently, the department of Social Supervision and Psychological Counselling of the Ministry of Education at the North Kordofan State has been introduced the textiles and the garment disciplines to the Secondary schools’ students through the “Academic Disciplines Information Project”. This project is an orientational mission for introducing the tertiary education disciplines to the Secondary schools’ students to encourage them for shaping their future as early as they can according to their hobbies, interests and ambitions.

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Table 10.5 Textiles and fashion books that have been written by Sudanese scholars Title

Author(s)/Editor(s)

Year

Textile science and engineering

Abbas Y. Ahmed

2001 Abbas Y. Ahmed

Publisher

Physical properties of textile fibers

SalahEldin M. Elarabi

2006 University of Gezira

Chemistry and technology of textile finishing

Mutasim A. Ahmed

2006 University of Gezira

Textiles in Sudan

Hasabo Abdelabgi, Eltayeb 2011 Sudan University of Science Mohamed Eltayeb, and and Technology Rashad Mekki

Chemistry and science of plastic materials

Musa E. Babiker

2015 University of Gezira

Processing/Manufacture, application and usage of plastic materials

Musa E. Babiker

2016 University of Gezira

Chemistry and application of softener materials

Musa E. Babiker

University of Gezira

Man-made fiber technology—Part 1

Musa E. Babiker

University of Gezira

Costume and adornment Zainab Abdullah among the Messiria tribe Mohammed-Salih (Sudanese fashion series 1)

2008 Sudan University of Science and Technology

Costume and adornment Zainab Abdullah among the Beja tribes Mohammed-Salih (Sudanese fashion series 2)

2013 Sudan University of Science and Technology

Acknowledgements The authors wish to extend their thanks and graduate to are grateful to Elsaid Mirghani Elbakry, Malik Sati, Elrayah Hassan, Tayseir Dawelbeit, Elsamual, Abubaker Elhadi, Osama E. Dawelbeit, Reem Alnour, Sherif, Adam, MohuEldin, Mohammed Hassan, Eshtiag Abdalla, Sudanese Ebmabassy in China (Consular: Elmunzir Ali), Mohammed Hassan, Waleed M. Elmubarak.

References 1. UNESCO. (2018). Sudan Education Policy review: Paving the road to 2030. 2. Cook, J. G. (2001). Natural fibres of vegetable origin. In J. G. Cook (Ed.), Handbook of textile fibres (pp. 3–78). Woodhead Publishing. 3. Peigler, R. S. (2020). Wild silks: Their entomological aspects and their textile applications. In R. M. Kozłowski & M. Mackiewicz-Talarczyk (Eds.), Handbook of natural fibres (2nd ed., pp. 715–745). Woodhead Publishing. 4. Babu, K. M. (2019). Introduction to silk and sericulture. In K. M. Babu (Ed.), Silk (2nd ed., pp. 1–29). Woodhead Publishing.

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5. Hameed, U., & Umer, S. (2017). Comparative study on fashion & textile design higher education system, Pakistan vs UK. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 254, 222005. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/254/22/222005 6. Tayib, G. E. (2017). Regional folk costumes of the Sudan. Sequenz Medien/xlibri.de Buchproduktion. 7. Brown, M. G. (2017). Khartoum at night. Stanford University Press. 8. Kushkush, I. (2020). In the land of Kush. Smithsonian Magazine. 9. Perner, C. (2017). Why did you come if you leave again? The narrative of an ethnographer’s footprints among the Anyuak in South Sudan. Xlibris Corporation. ¯ 10. Iranica, E. AMAMA. Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved December 09, 2020. 11. Challen, P. (2015). The culture and crafts of Egypt. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. 12. Jerusalem studies in Arabic and Islam (2000). 13. Jalabiya. Wikipedia. 14. National Clothing. http://nationalclothing.org/africa/35-sudan/49-national-dress-of-sudanmen-prefer-loose-fitting-robes-and-women-use-wrap-around-cloths.html#:~:text=The%20n ational%20costume%20of%20Sudanese,jersey%2C%20denim%20and%20other%20fabrics 15. Sudanese clothes. Sudanese Culture Blog. 16. Materu, P. (2007). Higher education quality assurance in sub-Saharan Africa. 17. Bilo, C., Machado, A. C., & Bacil, F. (2020). Social protection in Sudan: System overview and programme mapping (p. 53). 18. Research, M.o.H.E.a.S. (2016). Sudanese universities and research institutions in brief. 19. Arafeh, L. (2009). Quality assurance review in Arab countries. In Proceedings of the Towards an Arab Higher Education Space: International Challenges and Societal Responsibilities, Cairo, Egypt. 20. Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. https://www.mohe.gov.sd/index.php 21. Sanyal, B. C., & Yacoub, S. A. (1975). Higher education and employment in the Sudan. International Institute for Educational Planning. 22. Mayada, B. M., Ahmed, N. E., & Mohamed, M. E. (2020). Higher education and scientific research in Sudan: Current status and future direction. African Journal of Rural Development, 5. 23. Hamid, M., Thron, C., & Fageeri, S. (2021). Demographics of Sudanese university students in relation to regional conflict and underdevelopment, 10, 89. 24. Hamid, M., Thron, C., & Fageeri, S. (2020). Status and trends in university admissions for women in Sudan: A graphical data analysis. Social Sciences & Humanities Open, 2, 100076. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssaho.2020.100076 25. Patrick, D. L., Abasalih, A. F. Q. A., & Saifelislam, M. O. (1992). Educational change and the Khalwa in the Sudan: Reform reformed. Journal of Educational Administration, 30, 53–62. 26. MoLPSHR. (2013). Sudan TVET Policy. 27. Shirley. (1970). Textile Industry ten year plan. 28. lib.umassd.edu. UMD history of Textile Industry (Vol. 218). 29. University of Gezira. http://uofg.edu.sd/ 30. Sudan University of Science and Technology. https://www.sustech.edu/ 31. Munro, J. M. (1987). Cotton. Wiley. 32. Yvanez, E. TexMeroe. http://texmeroe.com/ 33. Yvanez, E., & Mokdad, U. (2022). Unravelling the threads of the Nubian Openworks. New inquiries on a unique textile tradition from Meroitic Sudan (c. 350 BCE–350 CE). In A. Ulanowska, K. Grömer, I. Vanden Berghe, & M. Öhrman (Eds.), Ancient textile production from an interdisciplinary perspective: Humanities and natural sciences interwoven for our understanding of textiles (pp. 241–262). Springer International Publishing. 34. Mayada, M. B., Muna, M. E., & Mamoun, B. M. (2016). RUFORUM trains the next generation of scientists for Sudan: The case of the Agricultural Research Corporation, University of Gezira and University of Kordofan. In Proceedings of the RUFORUM Working Document Series (pp. 149–161).

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35. Abdallah, N. A. (2014). The story behind Bt cotton: Where does Sudan stand? GM Crops & Food, 5, 241–243. https://doi.org/10.1080/21645698.2014.997119 36. Tesema, G. B. (2022). Cotton stickiness before and after saw ginning. The Journal of The Textile Institute, 113, 101–109. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405000.2020.1865502 37. Hequet, E., Henneberry, T. J., & Nichols, R. L. (2007). Sticky cotton: Causes, effects, and prevention. United States Department of Agriculture. 38. Adamu, B. F., & Wagaye, B. T. (2020). Cotton contamination. In H. Wang & H. Memon (Eds.), Cotton science and processing technology: Gene, ginning, garment and green recycling (pp. 121–141). Springer Singapore. 39. Khalifa, H., & Gameel, O. I. (1982). Breeding cotton varieties resistant to whitfly (Bemisa tabaci: Genn). In Proceedings of the Symposium on Cotton Production and Marketing, Khartoum, Sudan (p. 9). 40. Investment, K. O. Khalil Osman investment. http://koinvestment.com/ 41. Mohamed, S., Mohamed, W. E. A., Mohamed, S., et al. (2019). General education sector strategic plan (2018/19–2022/23). 42. Nation, U. (1987). Our common future. 43. Abu-Goukh, M. E., Ibraheem, G. M., & Goukh, H. M. E. A. (2013). Engineering education for sustainability and economic growth in developing countries (the Sudanese Case). Procedia— Social and Behavioral Sciences, 102, 421–431. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.757 44. Mustafa, M. A. (2018). Nanotechnology in Sudan: Current status, challenges and prospects.

Dr. Ahmed Dawelbeit received his B.Sc. (honor), First Class, in Textile Engineering from the University of Gezira, Gezira State, Wad Medani, Sudan, in 2004. He worked at the Faculty of Textiles (Then: Faculty of Industries Engineering and Technology) as a Teaching Assistant. He obtained his Master and Ph.D. degrees in Materials Processing Engineering from the College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, the People’s Republic of China, in 2013 and 2021, respectively. Dr. Dawelbeit is a recipient of several awards. During his B.Sc. study, he received the University of Gezira’s senates prize for Excellent Academic Performance (GPA 4.00/4.00) three consequence times in December 2003, June 2004 and December 2004 for Semester 8, 9 and 10, respectively. While during his Ph.D. studies, he received the Academic Competition and Scientific Research Award and the Excellent Social Work Award, those issued by Donghua University. Moreover, he is a cofounder of the Textile Student Association and the International Student Association (SCISA) at the University of Gezira and Donghua University. He is, also, a founder of the Materials Scientists and Engineers platform for Sudanese materials scientists in China. Currently, Dr. Dawelbeit’s research field is the structural development of polymeric materials, particularly: highperformance fibers. His research interests are polymer science, green chemistry, nanotechnology, computational materials science, materials processing and physical properties of materials such crystallographic XRD and SAXS, thermal properties, etc. He has published several peer-reviewed articles in international journals and participated in many international conferences. He also served as a reviewer.

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amdawelbeit@

Professor Abdelrahman H. Abdelatif received his B.Sc. in Cotton Science in 1978 from Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt. He obtained his M.Sc. in Textile Technology in 1989 from the University of Gezira. After that, he obtained his Ph.D. in Water Management in 2004 from the University of Gezira, Sudan. He has also, been promoted to a Full Professor in 2010. In 1978, Professor Abdelrahman joined the Agriculture Research Corporation (ARC) at Wad Medani, Gezira State, Sudan. He served as Head of Cotton Technology in the Cotton Program at the ARC, where he attained several research achievements. Chiefly, his research achievements are releasing many of the recommendations and confirmations for the emergent cotton variety. Since 1997, Professor Abdelrahman has been teaching Ginning Technology at the undergraduate level at the University of Gezira. He is also a member of the Faculty Board of the Faculty of Industries Engineering and Technology—the University of Gezira, the HVI and stickiness groups, Bremen, Germany, and the International Textile Manufacturers Federation (ITMF). He is a member of the National Cotton Committee and the Cotton and Gin Committee at Sudan Standards and Metrology Organization (SSMO). Moreover, he is a consultant for several cotton ginning mills. Professor Abdelrahman has authored many peer-reviewed articles in national and international journals, and he participated in many national and international conferences and also, he supervised and served as an external examiner for many post-graduate students at the University of Gezira, the University of Khartoum, and the University of Sudan Science and Technology. Moreover, his research achievements were releasing many cotton varieties and their spinnability and promotion. Currently, his research interests are cotton ginning technology, improvement of cotton fibers’ quality, removal of stickiness techniques, and organic cotton research. Email: [email protected]

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A. Dawelbeit et al. Khalid Abdala received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in Fashion Design from the College of Fine and Applied Arts, Sudan University Science and Technology, in 2009 and 2011, respectively. He is a lecturer at the College of Fine and Applied Arts, Sudan University Science and Technology. Khalid is serving as the Head Department of fashion Design in the College of Fine and Applied Arts at SUST. He is a member of the Sudan University Science and Technology Senate and the Faculty Board of the College of Fine and Applied Arts. He is a member of the Arts Research Board at the College of Fine and Applied Arts. Moreover, throughout his studies and career, Khalid participated in Fashion Exhibitions. He has collaborated with different universities and organizations as a fashion teacher. On the other hand, besides his fashion education, Khalid also obtained a diploma in Automotive Electrical systems from Germany Vocational Training School in Khartoum, Sudan. Currently, Khalid is pursuing his Ph.D. degree in Arts at the College of Fine and Applied Arts at Sudan University Science and Technology. His research interest is in the aesthetic and functional values of lather fashions. Email: [email protected] Professor Hasabo A. Mohammed has received professorship of Textiles and nanotechnology in 2012. He obtained First Class Diploma in Textile Technology in 1977 from College of Engineering, Khartoum Polytechnic, Khartoum, Sudan. He received Postgraduate Diploma, Textile Industries in 1980 from Leeds University, Leeds, United Kingdom. He obtained his M.Sc. in Textile Technology in 1985 from The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Then, he obtained his Ph.D. in Textile Engineering in 2003 from College of Engineering, Sudan University Science and Technology (SUST), Khartoum, Sudan jointly with the AIFCO Research Laboratory, Mumbai, India. Professor Hasabo worked as Head Department Textiles Engineering and as University Principal Assistant at SUST. He also assigned as Consultant and Contract manager in the Consultancy and Feasibility Study Centre at SUST and as a Projects Manger and deputy at Africa City of Technology. He is the Head of the Textile Committee and the Cotton and Gin Committee at Sudan Standards and Metrology Organization (SSMO). He is a member of London Institute of Materia, National Nanotechnology group, and Sudan Engineering Council. He has also been working as a consultant and an advisor for several for materials and nanotechnology research centers as well as factories. Moreover, he supervised more than ten Ph.D. students and more than twenty M.Sc. students. He served as M.Sc. and Ph.D. internal and external examiner. Professor Hasabo has authored 51 peer-reviewed articles and one book. He participated several national and international conferences, Seminars, workshops, Exhibitions and Fairs. He has also been worked as a Visiting Professor in the College of Science and Arts, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India and the Clean

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Room Technology, UNAM, Bilkent University, Turkey. Moreover, he also served as a reviewer and editor for many peerreviewed journals. In recent years, Professor Hasabo research interests are nanotechnology, plasma treatments, technical and medical textiles and composite materials. Emails: [email protected] and [email protected]

Chapter 11

Concluding Remarks on Textile and Fashion Education Internationalization—Hidden Potentials of East Africa Xinfeng Yan, Lihong Chen, and Hafeezullah Memon Abstract After more than 40 years of stable and rapid development, China’s higher education has accumulated a solid foundation. Chinese universities already have strong strength and potential for further development, providing sufficient conditions for cooperation with African universities. This chapter puts forward specific suggestions and measures from the aspects of benefit analysis of both parties, risk and difficulty prediction, and the design of the response plan. It also explores the mode of China–Africa higher education cooperation and proposes diversified cooperation paths and modes relying on vocational education, language education, studying in China, and cooperative school-running. Keywords China–Africa higher education cooperation · Interests · Difficulties · Models

11.1 Advantages and Experience of China’s Higher Education After more than 40 years of rapid development in reform and opening up, China’s higher education has entered a new stage of high-quality development [1]. It has accumulated rich experience in higher education’s scale, level, and management. However, the following areas have room for further improvement. X. Yan International Cultural Exchange School, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051, China e-mail: [email protected] L. Chen (B) Shanghai International Fashion Innovation Center, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051, China e-mail: [email protected] H. Memon College of Textile Science and Engineering, International Institute of Silk, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China e-mail: [email protected] © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2023 X. Yan et al. (eds.), Quality Education and International Partnership for Textile and Fashion, SDGs and Textiles, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-99-1320-6_11

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First, the construction of world-class universities should be accelerated [2]. In combination with the practical needs of China’s rapid economic and social development, stakeholders will further increase support for higher education, accelerate the pace of high-quality development of colleges and universities, and fully support the building of world-class universities that match the scale of China’s higher education and support high-level disciplines to take the lead in attacking the world’s first-class leaders. Second, the construction of a world-class talents should be accelerated [3]. The central gap between us and world-class universities lies in talent, especially the lack of world-class academic leaders with global influence and appeal. Talent is a vital resource that determines economic and social development and is also the fundamental prerequisite for the construction and development of high-level universities. Only by further increasing the introduction and training of high-level talents, especially relying on high-level universities and high-level disciplines to increase the introduction and protection of world-class academic leaders, can the commanding heights of future development be firmly grasped. Third, talent training should be considered the first important task [4]. The assessment and evaluation mechanism of universities should be changed so that talent training can truly become the central work of universities. Improving the quality of talent training should be made the primary goal of running a university, and the performance of talent training should be made the most important performance measure of a university. Teaching ability should be made the primary condition for teachers’ promotion and going to the university platform should be made a lifelong pursuit and honor for college teachers. The school must also start from the students’ development needs, strengthen the education and teaching reform, and pay attention to cultivating students’ learning interests and knowledge inquiry abilities. The school should also strengthen the integration of teaching and scientific research and let the most cuttingedge academic achievements enter the classroom and textbooks in time. The school should change the teaching organization mode to form an academic environment of learning atmosphere in which problems everywhere are discussed. Finally, cultural and educational confidence should be established. The construction of China’s first-class universities must take root in China, serve China’s needs, reflect China’s wisdom, make full use of the policy opportunities of comprehensive educational reform, form a resource base for university cultural confidence and educational confidence, and play a leading role in international cooperation in education.

11.2 Development and Transformation of African Higher Education From the 1960s to the beginning of the twenty-first century, the low-level development and stagnation of population quality in developing countries in Africa have been an important factor that has plagued the overall development of Africa. African

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higher education has experienced the rise from pre-independence to the 1960s, the rise from the 1980s to the 1990s, and the vigorous development of the new century. In recent years, African higher education has made some achievements. However, it still faces problems such as the difficulty in ensuring the education system and quality and the inability to update education information and resources. In today’s economic globalization, education is also facing globalization development. If African countries want to get rid of the backward situation of education, they should strengthen the development of education, constantly explore the educational methods and ideas suitable for their development according to their own characteristics, set up professional courses suitable for the needs of African society, and cultivate talents conducive to African development. Owing to economic development and historical reasons, the development of higher education in Africa is relatively backward, especially in terms of the number of colleges and universities and the quality of higher education. Specific issues are as follows. (1) Insufficient resources for higher education For most African countries, insufficient investment in education is the main problem of education development. Compared with other countries, the situation of insufficient investment in education in Africa is particularly serious. On the one hand, government investment in education is insufficient. On the other hand, the loan policies of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, which Africa depends on, are increasingly strict. (2) Policy of higher education development lags behind After the political independence of most African countries, their higher education has developed steadily. However, due to the backward economic development, the number of people receiving higher education in African countries is relatively low. Due to the different comprehensive national strengths, the development level of higher education in African countries lags far behind. In the case of limited financial support for the development of higher education, Africa pays more attention to the development of primary and secondary education because of their low cost of development. Higher education cannot develop as it should, and it is unable to cultivate professional and technical talents that meet the characteristics of social development. The lack of support from African governments for higher education has not received sufficient attention, resulting in the lack of favorable internal and external development conditions for higher education in African countries. In addition, in the process of industrial restructuring in African countries, the existing labor force cannot meet the needs of the industry, and high-quality and highly skilled talents are scarce, making the development of African education fall into a vicious circle. (3) African higher education management system is backward The administrators of most African universities are appointed by the Ministry of Education, hindering the development and improvement of the education management system of the universities. The government’s strict control over university

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administrators has restricted the free professional development of universities. At the same time, the low efficiency of African government officials, the shifting style of handling affairs, the cumbersome administrative procedures, the low salary level of university administrators, and the bureaucracy formed in the government have negative effects on the development of higher education. These unfavorable conditions are serious constraints to the development of African universities. (4) Academic development of higher education in Africa The quality of education development determines the situation of talent cultivation. Higher education can not only spread knowledge but also innovate knowledge. Therefore, the quality and level of academic research are the factors that affect the quality of higher education. To create a good academic environment, an important aspect is academic freedom. Given that African countries after independence have been deeply influenced by the colonization of western countries, most of them have implemented a political dictatorship of national management. The autocratic political system easily forms a traditional cultural system, which leads to low tolerance for academic innovation in most African countries. Forming a pluralistic and open cultural environment is difficult, and national academic innovation cannot be well developed. With the development of globalization and the gradual improvement of African countries’ openness, African countries’ academic innovation capacity is developing, and their academic environment is also improving.

11.3 Benefit Analysis of China–Africa Higher Education Cooperation 11.3.1 Role of China–Africa Higher Education Cooperation in Promoting China’s Social Development The cooperation in higher education between China and Africa is of epochal significance in helping to effectively promote mutual understanding and ideological integration. China–Africa exchanges and cooperation in this field will help promote mutual learning among civilizations. On the one hand, by accepting African students to study in China, more Chinese can understand the diverse African culture. On the other hand, the establishment of Confucius Institutes, Confucius Classrooms, and China–Africa cooperation in running schools can spread Chinese culture to Africa. In addition to cultural exchanges and mutual learning, the influence of China–Africa higher education cooperation can also radiate to aspects such as economic construction and social employment. Specifically, with the deepening of mutual understanding between China and Africa, many Chinese enterprises have invested in setting up factories and joint ventures in Africa. The promotion of Chinese and the training of African talents will weaken language barriers and cultural differences, thereby solving their employment problems. The China–Africa development cooperation

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relationship also has expanded an important international platform for achieving China’s strategic goal of peaceful development and provided a special international stage for the construction of a contemporary China’s “national identity” and “national image” with more political legitimacy and moral appeal. China–Africa higher education cooperation can promote the exchange of development experience between the world’s largest developing country and the continent with the largest concentration of developing countries, work together to build a community of shared future between China and Africa, and help China enhance its international influence.

11.3.2 Role of China–Africa Higher Education Cooperation in Promoting Social Development in Africa On the one hand, education is the basic link between national and social development and plays an important role in improving a country’s national quality and innovation ability and ensuring cultural security. Through China–Africa higher education cooperation, African countries can understand Chinese culture and enrich and accept multiculturalism. On the other hand, talents are strategic resources for national economic construction, scientific and technological development, and cultural progress. Helping African countries cultivate professional, technical, and international talents through China–Africa higher education cooperation is of great significance to strengthen Africa’s talent pool, improve innovation ability, and break the bottleneck of development. In addition, as developing countries, China and African countries have many consensuses on aspects such as development history, development paths, development backgrounds, and development demands. China’s success and detours in social development can provide experience and reference for policy formulation and road choice of African countries with a large population base, while China–Africa higher education cooperation can help African countries find their own development path better. In particular, through assistance in initiatives such as educational facilities, cooperation in running schools, and joint construction of laboratories, China has compensated for Africa’s shortcomings in vocational education and professional education, trained vocational and technical personnel for Africa’s economic development, and provided practical posts and employment opportunities for African Chinese enterprises and Sino–African joint ventures. Moreover, attention might be paid to natural resources available in African countries, such as abutilon fiber and its straw from Sudan [5, 6] that can be converted in to very useful product which was otherwise a waste and may serve as promising materials for social development in Africa.

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11.3.3 Role of China–Africa Higher Education Cooperation in Promoting the Development of the International Community First, as the continent with the largest concentration of developing countries in the world, Africa has always faced one of the core issues of world development. The rich natural resources and abundant labor force are not in harmony with the backwardness and slow pace of economic development in Africa. Therefore, promoting the revitalization of the country and the nation through education and improving the level of higher education in Africa is an important way to promote the formation of a multipolar world pattern. Second, African society is deeply influenced by the former suzerain countries (such as France and Britain) and has a strong dependence on them in education. China–Africa higher education cooperation has broadened the channels for Africa to accept multiculturalism. By enriching the subjects and forms of cooperation, Africa can ensure its own cultural security and cultural autonomy through trade-offs and can enrich and improve the international aid system for Africa. Finally, for a long time, international aid to Africa has been mostly based on national interests, with little consideration given to Africa’s realities and needs for assistance, which has led to the ineffectiveness of aid to Africa and the imbalance between input and output. In China–Africa higher education cooperation, reflecting on traditional aid concepts and cooperation methods, enriching the participants and methods of aid to Africa, and strengthening exchanges and communication with other aid countries and international aid organizations can further enhance global governance capabilities, optimize the global governance system, and better and faster build a community with a shared future for mankind. As stated in the introduction, we have been trying to develop and improve the Africa and Sino Africa relationship, we have coauthored some publications in past related to textile marketing [7], Kenyan wool [8, 9], yarn manufacturing [10], composite materials [11], Ethiopian leather [12], and advanced application of cotton [13, 14], etc. by our research group.

11.4 Difficulties and Solutions of China–Africa Higher Education Cooperation At present, China–Africa higher education cooperation is faced with practical difficulties such as the deep-rooted influence of some original suzerains of Africa, misunderstanding of China by international public opinion, and insufficient understanding of China and Africa. The main breakthrough points in deepening the development of China–Africa higher education cooperation in the new era is to coordinate multilateral cooperation, eliminate misunderstanding and misreading of international public opinion, and promote deeper understanding between China and Africa with more pragmatic projects.

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11.4.1 External Environment of Non-higher Education Cooperation Is Relatively Complex Former suzerain countries such as France and Britain have a profound impact on the economic development and social culture of the African continent. Therefore, China–Africa education cooperation must also consider the deep influence of these former suzerains. For example, the long-term cooperation between Britain and Africa in the field of higher education has made the development of African higher education more dependent. There are 18 African countries in the Commonwealth. Under the influence of a strong institutional community, the cultural and educational undertakings of African Commonwealth countries are deeply influenced by the “British model,” and they all follow the example of British universities in terms of schoolrunning standards, curriculum, textbook selection, and management model [15]. As the former colonial suzerain of many African countries and regions, France, based on its geographical proximity and profound historical foundation, has always regarded Africa as a “backyard” and an important stage for maintaining its status as a world power. France spreads its values through “elite education.” French-speaking countries in Africa have long been influenced by French culture, and almost all their political and business leaders have received higher education in France [16]. Relying on the establishment of a high-level people-to-people and cultural exchange mechanism between China and the UK on April 16, 2012, education delegations from China and the UK have made many mutual visits and carried out many fruitful exchanges and cooperation in mathematics education, Chinese language promotion, and inter-school exchanges. Based on these two points, if China can strengthen exchanges, cooperation, and experience learning with the United Kingdom in China–Africa higher education cooperation, coordinate the interests of the three parties, and complement each other’s advantages, the energy efficiency of education cooperation can be truly improved, and Africa can be effectively supported with education to solve its development bottleneck. In addition, China and France are extremely important partners in development assistance for African countries [17]. The trilateral education cooperation between China, France, and Africa is the practical token of seeking the intersection of interests and realizing mutual learning of civilizations between countries or regions involving different social systems of socialist countries, capitalist countries, and underdeveloped regions in Africa in the context of building a community of shared future for humanity [18]. China– Africa education cooperation must define the boundary of cultural assistance, learn from French experience and lessons, and emphasize two-way exchanges and mutual learning of civilizations, rather than one-way cultural output.

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11.4.2 Misunderstanding of China by International Public Opinion In recent years, China’s cooperation in Africa has met unprecedented challenges, and anti-Chinese incidents are increasing [19]. Some western media have also criticized China’s policies toward Africa, believing that China “suddenly” appeared in Africa because of its plotting toward Africa’s natural and labor resources, and voices of anti-Chinese, distorted reports, and demonizing China have been consistent. China’s higher education sector should dispel these prejudices and doubts through facts and data. First, the relevant data of China–Africa higher education cooperation should be counted and released. On August 31, 2018, the Global Value Chain Research Institute of the University of International Business and Economics, together with experts and scholars from the Ministry of Commerce and several international organizations and research institutions at home and abroad, formed a research team. Their goal was to major theoretical developments, important initiatives, and best cases in China– Africa development cooperation in the new era. They officially released the Research Report on China–Africa Development Cooperation in the New Period and addressed the essence of China–Africa “South–South Cooperation,” namely, complementary advantages. The mutually beneficial partnership was explained. At the same time, the thematic and case studies on China–Africa development cooperation provide direction and inspiration for future cooperation. Second, China and Africa should continue to cooperate and speak with results. With the promotion of the Forum on China–Africa Cooperation, China is making pledges to Africa and responding to the world through cooperation practice projects in fields in Africa such as agriculture, economy and trade, infrastructure, environmental protection, health, and humanities education. China–Africa education cooperation has never been a one-way export of China but a two-way interaction between China and Africa for mutual exchange and mutual learning of civilizations. Finally, quality and efficiency should be improved to ensure the effective development of China–Africa higher education cooperation. Through the evaluation of the current China–Africa cooperation projects, projects with low efficiency and negative influence should be stopped promptly to improve the quality of China–Africa higher education cooperation.

11.4.3 Restriction of Sino-African Cultural Barriers Many factors hinder the in-depth cooperation in education between China and Africa. The first is language, which is the carrier of culture. Cultural exchange and identification should rely on language as a medium. From this perspective, language is the basis of educational cooperation and exchange. At present, English has not been popularized in China, French talents are even more lacking, and understanding of the

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actual situation and needs of non-education is also lacking. Africa has long accepted the output of British and French culture and values, and its cultural exclusivity is obvious. It resists the communication of Chinese culture, greatly restricting the deepening of China–Africa higher education cooperation. To deepen its development, the restriction of cultural barriers must be broken, which can be started from the aspects of institutional setting, research strength, and deepening exchanges. First, special institutions for educational cooperation in Africa should be set up. With reference to the experience of higher education cooperation between France and Africa, the establishment of institutions has played a positive role in promoting education cooperation. The French Higher Education Agency, established in 2010, is subordinate to the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Higher Education. It aims to promote the French higher education and vocational training system to all parts of the world. The World Federation of French Universities has gathered nearly 800 institutions of higher education and research from more than 100 countries. These two institutions have played a positive role in understanding the educational information of African countries and helping to establish cooperative partnerships with French-speaking African countries. China can learn from the French model, establish special educational cooperation institutions in Africa, and form a domestic and foreign linkage mechanism of education under the unified system of the Department of International Cooperation and Exchange of the Ministry of Education and the Sino–Foreign Language Exchange and Cooperation Center. Second, domestic universities should participate in and strengthen research on Africa. In China, universities such as Peking University, Communication University of China, Ocean University of China, Yunnan University, Zhejiang Normal University, and Beijing Language and Culture University have all set up African research centers. Their goal is to conduct research on aspects such as Africa’s economy, people-to-people exchanges, oceans, law, language, and education. This research helps to better understand a three-dimensional and comprehensive Africa and provides support for improving China–Africa education cooperation policy formulation, project preparation, and energy efficiency improvement. Enhancing China’s understanding of Africa is of considerable importance, as is strengthening the people-to-people and cultural exchanges between China and Africa. On this basis, enterprises, social groups, non-governmental organizations, and even individuals should be encouraged to participate in it to broaden the scope of cooperation and activate the holistic development of China–Africa education cooperation. Third, the two-way flow of students should be expanded. Chinese students in Africa and African students in China are the main participants in the construction of China–Africa relations. In the new era, China–Africa higher education cooperation is faced with such constraints as cultural differences between China and Africa, teachers of Chinese language international education, and environmental differences. Especially at the moment when China’s school scale in Africa continues to expand, the cultivation of “China-connected” African students is as important as the cultivation of “Africa-connected” Chinese students. The further development of China– Africa higher education should be promoted by sending foreign students, optimizing the curriculum system of relevant majors in colleges and universities, promoting

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the innovation of curriculum content, improving the economic treatment and living security of Chinese teachers going to Africa, and cultivating African native Chinese teachers.

11.5 Exploration of the Mode of China–Africa Higher Education Cooperation China–Africa education cooperation adheres to respecting African sovereignty, listening to African opinions, and paying attention to the purpose of Africa’s proposition. According to the respective advantages and characteristics of China and Africa, higher education cooperation can be carried out in four modes: vocational education, language education, studying in China, and cooperative school running.

11.5.1 Cooperation Mode of Vocational Education Vocational education can provide the necessary technical and skilled human resources support for the economic transformation and development of African countries and China–Africa economic and trade cooperation [10], and cultivate the talents urgently needed by the current African economic development. Since the twentyfirst century, with the deepening of the “Belt and Road” initiative, China–Africa vocational education cooperation has entered a new era of comprehensive development. China–Africa vocational education cooperation is divided into three types: government coordination, college exploration, and enterprise promotion. From the government to the institutions and enterprises, the diversity of the participants in China–Africa vocational education cooperation reflects different occupational priorities and educational dimensions. China–Africa higher education cooperation is not only about national diplomacy but also about societal public opinion.

11.5.2 Language Education Cooperation Mode Strengthening language education in Africa can not only help African youth, especially college students, understand Chinese culture and lay a foundation for their study in China, but also play a role in promoting the work of Chinese enterprises in Africa. With the deepening of globalization and the increasingly frequent exchange of talents, China’s economic and political influence is growing, and the enthusiasm for China is rising worldwide. In this context, China’s establishment of Confucius Institutes and Confucius Classrooms overseas is an inevitable outcome of adapting to this trend. Since the establishment of the first Confucius Institute in Africa by Tianjin

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Normal University and Nairobi University in Kenya in 2005, China has established 55 Confucius Institutes and 30 Confucius Classrooms in 42 African countries. Through the Confucius Institutes, the Sino–African educational community has achieved a win–win situation. Eleven countries, including Egypt, South Africa, and Kenya, have incorporated Chinese into their national education systems.

11.5.3 Cooperation Mode of Studying Abroad in China China has become the largest destination for African students studying abroad. In 2018, the total number of African students coming to China was 81,562, accounting for 16.57%. Attracting African students to study in China is a micro-visual measure to promote cultural exchanges between China and Africa. African students bring their own culture to China, experience Chinese social culture on the spot, and replace the understanding based on the media and the Internet with a face-to-face, immersive communication mode. These experiences help to eliminate stereotypes of each other and correct cognitive bias. At the same time, African students studying in China can help African youth establish the ideal and belief of development, optimize the use of Chinese teaching resources to learn skills and culture, broaden the channels and fields of China–Africa cooperation, and truly feed back into Africa’s construction.

11.5.4 Cooperative Education Cooperation Mode In June 2010, the Ministry of Education of China officially launched the “20 + 20 Cooperation Plan for Chinese and African Universities,” selecting 20 Chinese universities to establish cooperation with 20 African universities, carry out long-term cooperation for key partners of cooperation between Chinese and African universities, and conduct substantive cooperation and exchanges in their respective advantageous disciplines and characteristic disciplines. These initiatives include joint scientific research, teacher training, academic visits, mutual visits between teachers and students, joint curriculum development, and joint cultivation of postgraduates. The plan has played an important role in promoting the cultivation of African talents and the revitalization of education for China–Africa friendly schools. The educational cooperation mode of cooperative school-running can promote the progress of discipline construction, scientific research ability, and talent cultivation of the two universities through mutual cooperation between Chinese and African universities.

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References 1. Li, J., & Xue, E. (2022). Exploring high-quality institutional internationalization for higher education sustainability in China: evidence from stakeholders. Sustainability, 14, 7572. 2. Do, H. T. H., & Mai, A. N. (2022). Role of the government in the establishment of world-class universities in China. Policy Futures in Education, 14782103221101775. 3. Wang, J., & Ma, H. (2021). Talent heights construction from the perspective of talent concentration. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Information Management and Technology (pp. 1–4). 4. Li, J. (2022). Exploring talent training and teaching quality of international students in China (pp. 259–304). Springer. 5. Wang, H., Hassan, E. A. M., Memon, H., Elagib, T. H. H., & Abad AllaIdris, F. (2019). Characterization of natural composites fabricated from abutilon-fiber-reinforced poly (lactic acid). Processes, 7, 583. 6. Wang, H., Memon, H., Hassan, E. A. M., Elagib, T. H. H., Hassan, F. E. A. A., & Yu, M. (2019). Rheological and dynamic mechanical properties of abutilon natural straw and polylactic acid biocomposites. International Journal of Polymer Science, 2019, 8732520. https://doi.org/10. 1155/2019/8732520 7. Chen, L., Qie, K., Memon, H., & Yesuf, H. M. (2021). The empirical analysis of green innovation for fashion brands, perceived value and green purchase intention—Mediating and moderating effects. Sustainability, 13, 4238. 8. Memon, H., Wang, H., & Langat, E. K. (2018). Determination and characterization of the wool fiber yield of Kenyan sheep breeds: An economically sustainable practical approach for Kenya. Fibers, 6, 55. 9. Wang, H., Memon, S., & Memon, H. (2018). Kenyan wool fiber properties sampled from different sheep body parts. Journal of Donghua University (English Edition), 35(6), 503–508 10. Memon, H., Ayele, H. S., Yesuf, H. M., & Sun, L. (2022). Investigation of the physical properties of yarn produced from textile waste by optimizing their proportions. Sustainability, 14, 9453. 11. Hassan, E. A., Elagib, T. H., Memon, H., Yu, M., & Zhu, S. (2019). Surface modification of carbon fibers by grafting peek-nh2 for improving interfacial adhesion with polyetheretherketone. Materials, 12, 778. 12. Memon, H., Chaklie, E. B., Yesuf, H. M., & Zhu, C. (2021). Study on effect of leather rigidity and thickness on drapability of sheep garment leather. Materials, 14, 4553. 13. Lugoloobi, I., Shahriari Khalaji, M., & Memon, H. (2020). Advanced biological applications of modified cotton. In H. Wang & H. Memon (Eds.), Cotton science and processing technology: Gene, ginning, garment and green recycling (pp. 473–500). Springer. 14. Lugoloobi, I., Memon, H., Akampumuza, O., & Balilonda, A. (2020). Advanced physical applications of modified cotton. In H. Wang & H. Memon (Eds.), Cotton science and processing technology: Gene, ginning, garment and green recycling (pp. 433–472). Springer. 15. Tawiah, V., Oyewo, B. M., Doorgakunt, L. D. B., & Zakari, A. (2022). Colonisation and accounting development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Cogent Business & Management, 9, 2087465. 16. Coquery-Vidrovitch, C. (2021). Access to higher education in French Africa South of the Sahara. Social Sciences, 10, 173. 17. Hooijmaaijers, B. (2018). China’s rise in Africa and the response of the EU: A theoretical analysis of the EU-China-Africa trilateral cooperation policy initiative. Journal of European Integration, 40, 443–460. 18. de Wit, H., & Altbach, P. G. (2021). Internationalization in higher education: Global trends and recommendations for its future. Policy Reviews in Higher Education, 5, 28–46. 19. Aidoo, R. (2019). The politics of galamsey and anti-Chinese populism in Ghana 1. In The politics of economic reform in Ghana (pp. 127–144). Routledge.

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Dr. Xinfeng Yan received his Master’s degree in Management from Donghua University, China, in 2007. After graduation, he worked at the International Cultural Exchange School of Donghua University. He has long-term working experience in international education and was selected as “Outstanding Manager in Charge of Overseas Student”. He has been actively conducting research and has gained fruitful results on overseas student management and university internationalization. In 2014, he completed his doctoral degree in Management from Donghua University, China. Later, he was appointed as invited researcher and deputy director of the “Belt and Road Initiative” international cooperation development center of Donghua University. In 2018, he was appointed as the invited researcher of the Institute of International Education of Donghua University. In 2019, he was a Visiting Professor at the Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Macedonia. At present, as an associate professor, Dr. Yan is engaged in the management and research of university internationalization, cultural exchange, and university brand image communication at Donghua University. In 2020, his research was funded by the 13th Five-year Plan of China National Education Science and was also funded by the China Association of Higher Education, China Education International Exchange Association etc. He has published three academic monographs and more than 40 papers. He has also held five international academic conferences for overseas students and published five conference proceedings as chief editor. He has taught more than ten courses for Chinese students and international students. He has been awarded the title of “Best Teacher” by overseas students of Donghua University. Dr. Lihong Chen Dr. Lihong Chen received his Bachelor of Science degree in Clothing and Textile Science at Textile Institute from Inner Mongolia University of Technology, China, in 2006. In 2009, she received her Master of Science degree from the College of Fashion and Design at Donghua University, China (before China Textile University). She has researched textile safety and international trade market access. In 2013, she received her Doctoral of Philosophy degree from the College of Fashion and Design at Donghua University, China. She has been researching developing biofibers from agricultural products and byproducts for textile and composite applications as a visiting scholar at the Textile Science Institute from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, the United States, from 2010.09 to 2012.09. She has been working on the sustainability of the textile and apparel industry as a postdoc in Management Engineering at the Glorious Sun School of Business and Management Institute from Donghua University, China, from 2014.01–2015.12. At present, Dr. Lihong Chen is an associate professor at Shanghai International Fashion Innovation Center at Donghua University. She is engaged in the teaching and research of Fashion Brand Marketing and Management. She is a specialist and scholar in Fashion Industry Economics and Management.

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X. Yan et al. She is actively involved in the research and development of fashion design and engineering, green consumption behaviors, fashion cultural communication, and the sustainable textile and apparel industry. She has published more than 55 papers and three academic works. Dr. Hafeezullah Memon received his B.E. in Textile Engineering from Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro, Pakistan, in 2012. He served at Sapphire Textile Mills as Assistant Spinning Manager for more than one year while earning his Master’s in Business administration from the University of Sindh, Pakistan. He completed his Master’s in Textile Science and Engineering from Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, China, and a Ph.D. degree in Textile Engineering from Donghua University in 2016 and 2020. Dr. Memon focuses on fiber-reinforced composites, textiles and management, biobased materials. Since 2014, Dr. Memon has published more than 60 peer-reviewed technical papers in international journals and conferences, filed more than 10 patents, edited more than 10 books and special issues, and he has been working on more than ten industrial projects. Dr. Memon is a Fellow of Textile Institute, full professional and active member of the society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering (SAMPE), Society of Wood Science and Technology (SWST), and the International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA). Moreover, he is a registered Engineer of the Pakistan Engineering Council. He has served as a reviewer and editorial board member of several international journals and has reviewed more than 600 papers. Dr. Memon is a recipient of several national and international awards. Currently, he is serving Foreign Talent Expert after completing his postdoc from Zhejiang Sci-Tech University. Moreover, he is elected as Chairman of the Alumni Association of International Students at Zhejiang Sci-Tech University. https://orcid.org/0000-00015985-5394