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AL-FARABI KAZAKH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
E. S. Onalbekov Zh. T. Makhambetova
PEDAGOGY OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Educational-methodological manual
Almaty «Qazaq University» 2018
UDC 37.0 (075) LBC 74.00 я 73 O-76 Recommended for publication by the decision of the Academic Council of the Faculty of Philosophy and Political Science, Editorial and Publishing Council of Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Protocol №5 dated 06.03.2018) Reviewers: Candidate of Pedagogical sciences, acting professor KazNU after al-Farabi G.A. Kassen Ph.D, Burgas Free University, Bulgaria Pepa Miteva
Onalbekov E.S. Pedagogy of interpersonal communication: educationalmethodological manual / E.S. Onalbekov, Zh.T. Makhambetova. – Almaty: Qazaq University, 2018. – 190 p. ISBN 978-601-04-3422-6 The educational-methodological manual contains a large lecture material, methodological material for seminars, which includes questions for discussion, texts for seminars, themes for seff-study interpersonal communication games and a list of necessary literature. Pedagogy of interpersonal communication, which is devoted to this educationalmethodological manual, is an integral part of pedagogical education. In interpersonal communication, anyway, the whole system of existing social relations is manifested. The emergence of new conditions for the socialization of the younger generation, the high demands on the professional and personal traits of the future teacher call for an indepth study of communication as a means of pedagogical cooperation. This manual will help students to become more familiar with the theories of relationships, the dynamics of interpersonal communication, ways of resolving conflicts in pedagogical communication used in the educational process. Published in authorial release.
UDC 37.0 (075) LBC 74.00 я 73 ISBN 978-601-04-3422-6
© Onalbekov E.S., Makhambetova Zh.T., 2018 © Al-Farabi KazNU, 2018
The educational-methodological manual contains a large lecture material, methodological material for seminars, which includes questions for discussion, texts for seminars, topics for independent work, interpersonal communication games and a list of necessary literature. Pedagogy of interpersonal communication, which is devoted to this educational-methodological manual, is an integral part of pedagogical education. In interpersonal communication, anyway, the whole system of existing social relations is manifested. The emergence of new conditions for the socialization of the younger generation, the high demands on the professional and personal traits of the future teacher call for an in-depth study of communication as a means of pedagogical cooperation. This manual will help students to become more familiar with the theories of relationships, the dynamics of interpersonal communication, ways of resolving conflicts in pedagogical communication used in the educational process. The educational-methodological manual, in our opinion, will create a good basis for organizational and methodological support for teaching pedagogy of interpersonal communication in bachelor’s and master's degree in pedagogical specialties. Given educational-methodological manual is written accessible, informative, meets the requirements and rules for the compilation of modern educational publications in English.
The results of observations of people's behavior in interpersonal interaction made it possible to formulate an important conclusion of the theory of interpersonal communication: effective interpersonal communication appears as a system of specific actions, skills and skills that are not innate, they must be learned, practiced and trained. To assess the level of formation of the necessary skills for effective communication, the concept of communicative competence is used, which consists of the following elements: ‒ the ability of a person to predict the communicative situation in which communication is to be conducted; ‒ orient himself in the situation in which he turned out; ‒ communication performing skills; ‒ the ability to find a communicative structure that is adequate to the topic of communication and to implement a communication conception; ‒ the ability to understand oneself, one's own psychological potential and partner's potential; ‒ self-adjustment skills, self-regulation in communication, including the ability to overcome psychological barriers in communication; ‒ remove excessive tension; ‒ emotionally adjusted to the situation; distribute efforts in communication. The main goal and objectives of the pedagogy of interpersonal communication and given textbook are aimed at familiarizing students with the theoretical foundations of intercultural communication, the system of communication, the properties and functions of pedagogical communication, pedagogical communication in a group and a team, the culture of pedagogical communication, the role and place of communicative culture in professional activity of a lecturer of a higher educational institution. 4
Upon studying the course the master shall know and master the following: ‒ the ability of social interaction; ‒ social and ethical attitudes and beliefs; ‒ capacity for interpersonal reflection; ‒ professional self-esteem, and self-criticism; ‒ the expression of his views on the tasks to be solved. In interpersonal communication one way anyway, the whole system of existing social relations is manifested. The emergence of new conditions for the socialization of the younger generation, the high demands on the professional and personal qualities of the future pedagogue call for an in-depth study of communication as a means of pedagogical cooperation. This manual will help students to become more familiar with the theories of relationships, the dynamics of interpersonal communication, and ways of resolving conflicts in pedagogical communication used in the teaching and educational process. The first section of the educational-methodological manual has been developed in the form of a lecture work-book. The second section is devoted to questions for discussion, the forms of conducting and the material of the seminars. Themes for seld-f-study are in the 3rd section, interpersonal communication games are in the 4th and list of recommended literature is in the 5th section. The course of «Pedagogy of interpersonal communication» is closely connected with such academic disciplines as «Pedagogy and psychology of high school», «Philosophy». The educational and methodological manual, in our opinion, will create a good basis for organizational and methodological support for teaching pedagogy of interpersonal communication in bachelor's and master's degrees in pedagogical specialties.
1. Lecture 1
PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECTS OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF MAN TO MAN
Interpersonal communication is an exchange of information between two or more people. It is also an area of study. Related skills are learned and can be improved. During interpersonal communication there is message sending and message receiving. This can be conducted using both direct and indirect methods. Successful interpersonal communication is when the message senders and the message receivers understand the message. (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) The word «communication» has visible connection with the word «common». Indeed, man in communicating shares with knowledge, opinions, feelings, desires – in other words, something that was «mine, is common to us». In the words of the famous philosopher Einstein, «if we (2 persons) have an apple and we will exchange them, then each will have an apple; if the two will exchange ideas, then each will have two ideas. The communication achieves a certain goal, a general result. Communication – is an interaction as well as co-operation to get the result, which is difficult and sometimes impossible to achieve alone. Since the end of the nineteenth century, philosophical discussions of knowledge have shifted from general descriptions of the phenomenon to questions of understanding and meaning. The discussions of the uses of communication lead to considerations of understanding, meaning and. nature of man. The results of this change are evident in the analysis of the media, the form and content of interpersonal communication, the nature of group and organizational communication etc. Discussing the issue of meaning and its influence in human communication, the subject matter finds relevance in the Symbolic Inter6
action Theory. This theory is therefore used to frame the thrust of discussion in this paper. The Symbolic Interaction Theory has three basic themes and seven related assumptions. The three themes are: the importance of self-concept; and the relationship between the individual and the society. The seven assumptions of the theory are that: ‒ Humans act towards others on the basis of meanings those individuals have for them. Because individual are perceived as choice makers, human behavior is viewed as loop of conscious thought and behavior between stimuli and response people exhibit to those stimuli. ‒ Meaning is created in interaction between people. Meaning can only exist when people share common interpretations of the symbols they exchange in interaction. ‒ Meanings are modified through an interpretive process. The first step is intrapersonal communication in which an individual points out to her or himself the things that have meanings in the context in which they find themselves. ‒ Individuals develop self-concept through interaction with others. Self-concept is defined as the relative stable set of perceptions that people hold of themselves. ‒ Self-concept provides an important motive for behavior. ‒ People and groups are influenced by culture and social processes. Social norms constrain individual behaviour and self-concept. ‒ Social structure is worked out through social interaction. Symbolic interaction acknowledges that individuals can change social social situations. The word 'philosophy' derives from two Greek words, 'philo' and 'sophia' which means 'love' and «wisdom' respectively. Hence, the etymological definition of philosophy is love of wisdom'. Apart from the etymological definition, which gives the literal meaning, philosophy has been defined in so many ways. Aristotle defines philosophy as knowledge of essence in itself or of the essence of all that exists. The metaphysical systems of the middle ages in Europe and modern times also define philosophy as the study of being. In modern western philosophy this definition is accepted by Neo-Thomaist, a substantial number of Christian spiritualists, and also the existentialists, and Nicolai Harmann's 1882 new Ontology. 7
Buddha in ancient India defines philosophy as the study not of being but of cognition, or morality or happiness, or of man in general. In ancient times, this definition constantly competed with opposing definitions of philosophy both in metaphysics and ontology. David Hume, a British Philosopher, questioned the existence of any objective reality that was independent of the consciousness. He thus limited the sphere of philosophical inquiry to the study of mental activity, particularly the act of knowing. Hume was not interested in knowledge in general, but in the study of man, in self-knowledge. In this he saw the way of overcoming the age-long errors in philosophy and arranging human life on rational lines. Kant, a German Philosopher who, unlike Hume, acknowledges the existence of a reality independent of the knower, nevertheless dismisses the problem of being on the grounds that it is unknowable. Accordingly, he defined philosophy as a doctrine of the absolute boundaries of all possible knowledge. These boundaries, according to Kant, are determined by the very mechanism of cognition: it is a priori form which may be applied only to sensory data but not to the transcendental 'thing-in itself. The thing in itself to Kant is beyond human knowledge. The definition of philosophy as the study of cognition is also developed by the positivists, who argue that philosophy should be reduced to the theory of knowledge, on grounds that all other possible objects of cognition are studied by specialized science and there is nothing left for philosophy but to study science itself, the fact of knowledge. From Hegel's point of view, a philosophical system is an encyclopedia of philosophical sciences, interpreting even questions studied by the specialized sciences but its own peculiar speculative position which is beyond their scope. Hence, according to Hegel, philosophy can be primarily defined as 'thinking examination of objects'. In his view, philosophy constitutes a peculiar mode of thought. A mode of thought by which it becomes cognition, and cognition by means of concepts. Philosophy involves reflection, analysis, criticism and evaluation. The Idea of Human Communication The idea of human communication is derived from the notion of 'sharing meaning within, between and among people. However, there have been numerous attempts to define human communication. For instance, Cronkite observes that «human communication has occurred 8
when a human being responds to a symbol.» Dance on his part looks at human communication as «the transmission of information, ideas, emotions, skills etc. by the use of symbols, words pictures, figures, graphs, etc.» Miller, in conceiving human communication, points out that, «communication has its central interest in those behavioral situations in which a source(s) transmits a message to receivers) with consciousness intent to affect the latter's behaviors.» The definitions provided by Cronkite, Dance and Miller above are different from the one advanced by Infant, Rancer and Womack. According to them, «communication occurs when humans manipulated symbols to stimulate meaning in others». Their definitions differ from those above in that it emphasizes both sender and receiver. It also calls attention to the symbolic and intentional nature of communication. However, the definition of human communication as «shared meaning» advanced by Baran and Meyer is most compatible with the focus of this paper. Human beings share some of the meanings of words or gestures because they speak the same language. This idea of shared meanings in human communication is the thrust of one of the postulations of the symbolic interaction theory. The postulation is to the effect that «meaning is created in interaction between people. Meaning can only exist when people share common interpretations in the symbols they exchange in interaction». It has also been observed that human communication occurs in a context, involves co-orientation, individual interpretation, and a process (Ibid). Communication has components (source, message, channel and receiver) which interact with one another, and the specific nature of that interaction produces specific consequences. How much meaning is shared, what meanings are shared and when sharing takes place are all variables which can function in different combinations. The idea that human communication is contextual as well as operates through an interpretive process, is a well-accepted idea in communication theory. The explanations of the symbolic interaction theory are particularly instructive in this respect. Specifically, the theory partly postulates that «meanings are modified through an interpretive process. The first step is interpersonal communication in which an individual points out to her or himself the things that have meanings in the context in which they find themselves. There also is, rather, an extensive agreement on the contexts. Generally, the contexts considered 9
include, intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, organizational, public, mass, intercultural, family, health and political Communication. The Notion of Essence of Man Before we ask «what is the essence of man?», we might as well ask: what is man? According to Allen, man is a complex 'machine', an interaction of chemical and physical properties we do not fully understand.» In an attempt to define man, Saint Paul pointed out that man is composed of body, soul and spirit. According to Olst, the essence of man is not his body. The body, according to him, is an aid to something else –- an aid to his feelings and thoughts. He further explains that his thoughts in their turn can be viewed as an aid to his will, or conversely, there is a part of his consciousness that uses his thought. He continues by saying that this consciousness, this part of himself, is thus more essential than his thought. He concludes by saying that the essence of man goes beyond the mind and the body. According to Plato, reality has two sides. The material (i.e. physical) side and the immaterial (spiritual) side. In Plato's philosophy, everything including man is made up of matter and form or essence. Matter changes, it comes and goes i.e. it is destructible, it is finite and perceived by the senses. On the other hand, the forms are eternal, indestructible, infinite, changes and can only be known by reason. In his view, the existence of things depends on their form or idea. The immaterial aspects of things constitute their real nature, and are therefore superior. They provide what Plato calls the essence or form of the things. Plato even postulates a world of essence or form from which all sensible objects derive. Aristotle, Plato's student for 20 years, disagrees with Plato on the ground that our knowledge of that which is immaterial depends on the particular things we see. He holds matter to be superior and primary Being, because the immaterial (i.e. forms, essence) are abstracted from particular things. He believes that we know immaterial things because we first of all experience them in particular objects of the world. The Hindu Group believes that character is the essence of man. According to the group, character is the total of a person's values, beliefs and personality. It is reflected in our behaviour, in our actions. Wezen offers the most simplistic and suitable definition. He views essence of man as what man intrinsically is – his totality, his uniform being. He 10
goes further to say that what relates to man's specific identity «is the dynamical law that has directly generated man.» Man, Language, Symbols and Meaning Man communicates in ways that are very different from those used by any other species on the planet. Specifically, man communicates with some form of learned «and shared verbal and nonverbal language that is part of a culture that has accumulated and grown increasingly complex over time. The substance of language is symbol. A symbol is a word, action, or object that ‘stands for’ and arouses a standardized internal meaning in people in a given language community. By an established convention (a well-established rule), each symbol – such as «woman», «man», or even the complex term interrogation, is supposed to arouse parallel, that is, similar, internalmeaning – experiences in everyone who uses it. In addition, actions such as gestures and facial expressions – can be governed by meaning as dictated by conventions. The same is true of certain objects, such as cross, a star or a wedding ring. According to Rivers, Petterson and Jesen, «Man is the creature we know to react not only to his real physical environment but also symbolic environment of his own making». They further point out that, «man, by creating a symbolic world, has given reality a dimension known only to him.» In their opinion, what all this means is that «man does not confront reality first hand. Instead of always dealing with things themselves, as other animals do, man develops ideas about things.» They continue by pointing out that, «man so envelop himself in linguistic forms, in artistic images, in mythical symbols, or in religious rites that he cannot see or know anything except through his symbolic system.» According to them, the framework and structure of reality are not something that man can touch or directly see because they are intellectual, and man can perceive them only indirectly through symbols. As Rivers, Pettersen and Jesen points out, this distinctive mark of man's life is not necessarily related to his rationality (or his irrationality). But man sometimes use symbols in unusual ways, and clear communication is almost impossible. This raises the question of meaning, which is an important subject matter in this section. The foregoing contentions of Rivers Petterson and Jesen find relevance in the postulation of the symbolic interaction theory to the effect that 11
‘humans act towards others on the basis of meanings those individuals have for them. Because individual are perceived as choice makers, human behavior is viewed as loop of conscious thought and behavior between stimuli and response people exhibit to those stimuli’. The concept of meaning operates on at least two basic levels: denotation and connotation. Denotation refers to agreed-upon meaning or dictionary meaning for a term. Connotation refers to an individualized or personalized meaning that may be emotionally laden. Denotative meanings are understood and shared by a large number of people. They are meanings people hold because of a common social experience with a symbol. For example, the word computer is generally understood similarly by others through their essentially common experience with these objects, connotative meanings may be held by a single person or very small number of people. They are meanings others have come to hold because of a personal or individual experience. People sometimes deliberately use the connotative meaning of a word for a particular purpose. For instance, when discussing economy, politicians may use the word hunger to gain a desired response. Communication and the Essence of Man Jean-Paul Sartre offered a dynamic view of how communication correlates with the essence of man when he said, «I am what I say». He continued by saying that «language is not an instinct of the constituted human creature, nor is it an invention of our subjectivity ... it forms part of the human condition.» He further pointed out that, «the man who talks is beyond words». Agreeing with Satre, Richard Weaver, in a public lecture delivered at the University of Oklahoma in 1962 titled, «Language is Sermonic», said that every use of speech, oral and written, exhibits an attitude, and an attitude implies an act pointing out that the saying, «thy speech betrayeth thee» is aphoristically true. He continued by saying that your speech reveals your disposition, first by what you choose to say, then by the amount you decide to say, and so on down through the resources of linguistic elaboration and intonation. In his contribution to the discussions on logical positivism, Ayer elaborated on these notions. According to him, « transference of infor12
mation, in a very broad sense of this term, which may be taken to include, not merely the imparting of news, in a factual sense but also the expression of feelings, wishes, commands, desires, or whatever it may be ...». Either makes the tree good, and his fruit good, or else make the tree corrupt, and his fruit corrupt: for the tree is known by his fruit. O generation of vipers, how can ye, being evil, speak good things. For out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh. A good man out of the good treasure of the heart bringeth forth good things, and an evil man out of the evil treasure bringeth forth evil things. If you are a success, you say this in many ways and on many occasions. Your verbal message reflects optimism and unpretentious confidence. Non-verbally, your posture, gestures, tone of voice, and facial expression say you are a success. However, people sometimes exude too much confidence. This communication is also revealing. Other people say quite clearly in their verbal message that they are pessimistic about their future or that they are helpless in their environments. As a way of asking for help, such people sometimes use facial expressions to say they are depressed, a message which is also communicated by posture and gesture. As the Bible says: out of the abundance of the heart, the mouth speaketh, not what a man fancies himself to be, but what he is deep within. Education, religious or social backgrounds, are shaping factors, but not deciding issues, for man as Vanlear has pointed out, is more than his environment. »It is true what Shakespeare said: «There is no art to find the mind's construction on the face». But anybody who is vast in psycholinguistics could assail to find the mind's construction via a person's diction. The words that flow from a person's mouth . . . are a window to his mind, for those words, at worst, mirror or reflect what is in his or her mind: at best represent them. In short, given a person's words, we could try to deconstruct him or her mentally, that is, attempt to analyze or decipher his or her state of mind. Questions for discussion: 1. What is the etymological definition of philosophy? 2. Name the substance of language? 3. What is communication?
4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
What happens during interpersonal communication? What is the idea of shared meanings in human communication? Two basic levels the concept of meaning operates on. The ways of communication. What does, according to Richard Weaver, every use of speech, oral and written exhibit? 9. How do You understand Shakespeare’s words: «There is no art to find the mind's construction on the face». 10. How do verbal and nonverbal messages reflect person’s behavior?
INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF RELATIONS
Uncertainty reduction theory Uncertainty reduction theory comes from the socio-psychological perspective. It addresses the basic process of how we gain knowledge about other people. According to the theory people have difficulty with uncertainty, they want to be able to predict behavior and therefore they are motivated to seek more information about people. The theory argues that strangers, upon meeting, go through certain steps in order to reduce uncertainty about each other and form an idea of whether one likes or dislikes the other. As we communicate we are making plans to accomplish our goals. At highly uncertain moments we become more vigilant and rely more on data available in the situation. When we are less certain we lose confidence in our own plans and make contingency plans. The theory also says that higher levels of uncertainty create distance between people and that nonverbal expressiveness tends to help reduce uncertainty. Social exchange theory falls under the symbolic interaction perspective. The theory predicts, explains and describes when and why people reveal certain information about themselves to others. The social exchange theory uses Thibaut and Kelley’s (1959) theory of interdependence. This theory states that «relationships grow, develop, deteriorate, and dissolve as a consequence of an unfolding socialexchange process, which may be conceived as a bartering of rewards and costs both between the partners and between members of the partnership and others» (Huston & Burgess, 1979, p. 4). Social exchange theory argues the major force in interpersonal relationships is the satisfaction of both people’s self-interest. Theorists say self-interest is not necessarily a bad thing and that it can actually enhance relationships. 15
According to the theory human interaction is like an economic transaction, in that you may seek to maximize rewards and minimize costs. You will reveal information about yourself when the costrewards ratio is acceptable to you. As long as rewards continue to outweigh costs a couple will become increasingly intimate by sharing more and more personal information. The constructs of this theory include discloser, relational expectations, and perceived rewards or costs in the relationship. Symbolic interaction comes from the sociocultural perspective in that it relies on the creation of shared meaning through interactions with others. This theory focuses on the ways in which people form meaning and structure in society through interactions. People are motivated to act based on the meanings they assign to people, things, and events. Symbolic interaction argues the world is made up of social objects that are named and have socially determined meanings. When people interact over time they come to shared meaning for certain terms and actions and thus come to understand events in particular ways. There are three main concepts in this theory: society, self and mind. Constructs for this theory include creation of meaning, social norms, human interactions, and signs and symbols. An underlying assumption for this theory is that meaning and social reality are shaped from interactions with others and that some kind of shared meaning is reached. The boundary conditions for this theory are there must be numerous people communicating and interacting and thus assigning meaning to situations or objects. Relational dialectics In order to understand relational dialectics theory, we must first understand specifically what encompasses the term discourse. Therefore, discourses are «systems of meaning that are uttered whenever we make intelligible utterances aloud with others or in our heads when we hold internal conversations». Now, taking the term discourse and coupling it with Relational Dialectics Theory, it is assumed that this theory «emerges from the interplay of competing discourses». This theory also poses the primary assumption that, «Dialogue is simultaneously unity and difference». Therefore, these assumptions insinuate the concept of creating meaning within ourselves and others when we communicate, however, it also shows how the meanings 16
within our conversations may be interpreted, understood, and of course misunderstood. Hence, the creation and interpretations we find in our communicative messages may create strains in our communicative acts that can be termed as ‘dialectical tensions.’ So, if we assume the stance that all of our discourse, whether in external conversations or internally within ourselves, has competing properties, then we can take relational dialectics theory and look at what the competing discourses are in our conversations, and then analyze how this may have an effect on various aspects of our lives. Numerous examples of this can be seen in the daily communicative acts we participate in. However, dialectical tensions within our discourses can most likely be seen in interpersonal communication due to the close nature of interpersonal relationships. The well known proverb «opposites attract, but Birds of a feather flock together» exemplifies these dialectical tensions. In order to understand relational dialectics theory, one must also be aware of the assumption that there are three different types of relational dialectics. These consist of connectedness and separateness, certainty and uncertainty, and openness and closedness. Most individuals naturally desire to have a close bond in the interpersonal relationships we are a part of. However, it is also assumed that no relationship can be enduring without the individuals involved within it also having their time alone to themselves. In close interpersonal relationships, individuals may often feel a pressure to reveal personal information. This assumption can be supported if one looks at the postulations within social penetration theory, which is another theory used often within the study of communication. This tension may also spawn a natural desire to keep an amount of personal privacy from other individuals. The struggle in this sense, illustrates the essence of relational dialectics. Coordinated management of meaning is a theory assuming that two individuals engaging in an interaction are each constructing their own interpretation and perception behind what a conversation means. A core assumption within this theory includes the belief that all individuals interact based on rules that are expected to be followed while engaging in communication. «Individuals within any social situation first want to understand what is going on and apply rules to figure things out». There are two different types of rules that individuals can 17
apply in any communicative situation. These include constitutive and regulative rules. Constitutive rules «are essentially rules of meaning used by communicators to interpret or understand an event or message». Regulative rules «are essentially rules of action used to determine how to respond or behave». An example of this can be seen if one thinks of a hypothetical situation in which two individuals are engaging in conversation. If one individual sends a message to the other, the message receiver must then take that interaction and interpret what it means. Often this can be done on an almost instantaneous level because the interpretation rules applied to the situation are immediate and simple. However, there are also times when one may have to search for an appropriate interpretation of the ‘rules’ within an interaction. Social Penetration Theory Developed by Irwin Altman and Dallas Taylor, the Social Penetration Theory was made to provide conceptual framework that describes the development in interpersonal relationships. This theory refers to the reciprocity of behaviors between two people who are in the process of developing a relationship. These behaviors can vary from verbal/nonverbal exchange, interpersonal perceptions, and ones use of the environment around them. The behaviors vary based on the different levels of intimacy that a relationship encounters. An example of the social penetration theory can be seen when one thinks of a hypothetical situation such as meeting someone for the first time. The depth of penetration is the degree of intimacy a relationship has accomplished. When two individuals meet for the first time, it is the cultural expectation that only impersonal information will be exchanged. This could include information such as names, occupations, age of the conversation participants, as well as various other impersonal information. However, if both members participating in the dialogic exchange decide that they would like to continue or further the relationship; with the continuation of message exchanges, the more personal the information exchanged will become. «Onion Theory» This theory is best known as the «onion theory». This analogy suggests that like an onion, personalities have «layers» that start from 18
the outside (what the public sees) all the way to the core (ones private self). Often, when a relationship begins to develop, it is customary for the individuals within the relationship to undergo a process of selfdisclosure. As people divulge information about themselves their «layers» begin to peel, and once those «layers» peel away they cannot go back; just like you can’t put the layers back on an onion. There are four different stages that social penetration theory encompasses. These stages include the orientation, exploratory affective exchange, affective exchange, and stable exchange. Orientation stage – At first, strangers exchange very little amounts of information and they are very cautious in their interactions. Exploratory affective stage – Next, individuals become somewhat more friendly and relaxed with their communication styles. Affective exchange – In the third stage, there is a high amount of open communication between individuals and typically these relationships consist of close friends or even romantic partners. Stable exchange stage – The final stage, simply consists of continued expressions of open and personal types of interaction. If a person speeds through the stages and happens to share too much information too fast, the receiver may view that interaction as negative and a relationship between the two is less likely to form. Example-Jenny just met Justin because they were sitting at the same table at a wedding. Within minutes of meeting one another, Justin engages in small talk with Jenny. Jenny decides to tell Justin all about her terrible ex-boyfriend and all of the misery he put her through. This is the kind of information you wait to share until stages three or four, not stage one. Due to the fact that Jenny told Justin much more than he wanted to know, he probably views her in a negative aspect and thinks she is crazy, which will most likely prevent any future relationship from happening. «Computer Mediated Social Penetration» Also important to note, is the fact that due to current communicative exchanges involving a high amount of computer mediated contexts in which communication occurs, this area of communication should be addressed in regard to Social Penetration Theory as well. Online communication seems to follow a different set of rules. Because much of online communication between people occurs on an anonymous level, individuals 19
are allowed the freedom of foregoing the interpersonal ‘rules’ of selfdisclosure. Rather than slowly disclosing personal thoughts, emotions, and feelings to others, anonymous individuals online are able to disclose personal information immediately and without the consequence of having their identity revealed. The study finds that the Facebook user’s level of self-disclosure is directly related to the level of interdependence on others. This may result in negative psychological and relational outcomes as studies show that people are more likely to disclose more personal information than they would in face to face communication, In other words, those with poor social skills may prefer the medium of Facebook to show others who they are because they have more control. This may lead to an avoidance of face-to-face communication, which is undoubtedly harmful to interpersonal relationships. The reason that self-disclosure is labeled as risky, is because, individuals often undergo a sense of uncertainty and susceptibility in revealing personal information that has the possibility of being judged in a negative way by the receiver. Hence the reason that face-to-face communication must evolve in stages when an initial relationship develops. Relational patterns of interaction theory Relational Patterns of Interaction Theory of the cybernetic tradition, studies how relationships are defined by peoples’ interactions during communication. Gregory Bateson, Paul Watzlawick, et al. laid the groundwork for this theory and went on to become known as the Palo Alto Group. Their theory became the foundation from which scholars in the field of communication approached the study of relationships. Ubiquitous communication The Palo Alto Group maintains that a person’s presence alone results in them, consciously or not, expressing things about themselves and their relationships with others (i.e., communicating) . A person cannot avoid interacting, and even if they do, their avoidance may be read as a statement by others. This ubiquitous interaction leads to the establishment of «expectations» and «patterns» which are used to determine and explain relationship types. Identity Management Theory – Falling under the Socio-Cultural tradition and developed by Tadasu Todd Imahori and William R. Cupach, identity-management theory explains the establishment, 20
development, and maintenance of identities within relationships, as well as changes which occur to identities due to relationships. People establish their identities (or faces), and their partners, through a process referred to as «facework». Everyone has a desired identity which they’re constantly working towards establishing. This desired identity can be both threatened and supported by attempting to negotiate a relational identity (the identity one shares with their partner). So, our desired identity is directly influenced by our relationships, and our relational identity by our desired individual identity. Identity-management pays significant attention to intercultural relationships and how they affect the relational and individual identities of those involved. How partners of different cultures negotiate with each other, in an effort to satisfy desires for adequate autonomous identities and relational identities, is important to identity-management theory. Communication privacy management theory Of the socio-cultural tradition, communication privacy management theory is concerned with how people negotiate openness and privacy in concern to communicated information. This theory focuses on how people in relationships manage boundaries which separate the public from the private. Cognitive dissonance theory. The theory of cognitive dissonance, part of the Cybernetic Tradition, explains how humans are consistency seekers and attempt to reduce their dissonance, or discomfort, in new situations. The theory was developed in the 1950s by Leon Festinger. When individuals encounter new information or new experiences they categorize the information based on their preexisting attitudes, thoughts, and beliefs. If the new encounter does not coincide with their preexisting assumptions, then dissonance is likely to occur. When dissonance does occur, individuals are motivated to reduce the dissonance they experience by avoiding situations that would either cause the dissonance or increase the dissonance. For this reason, cognitive dissonance is considered a drive state that encourages motivation to achieve consonance and reduce dissonance. An example of cognitive dissonance would be if someone holds the belief that maintaining a healthy lifestyle is important, but they don’t regularly work out or eat healthy, they may experience dissonance between their beliefs and 21
their actions. If there is a significant amount of dissonance, they may be motivated to change their attitudes and work out more or eat healthier foods. They may also be inclined to avoid situations that will point out the fact that their attitudes and beliefs are inconsistent, such as avoiding the gym or not reading health reports. Attribution theory is part of the socio-psychological tradition and explains how individuals go through a process that makes inferences about observed behavior. Attribution theory assumes that we make attributions, or social judgments, as a way to clarify or predict behavior. Attribution theory assumes that we are sense-making creatures and that we draw conclusions of the actions that we observe. Steps to the attribution process The first step of the attribution process is to observe the behavior or action. The second step is to make judgments of interactions and the intention of that particular action. The last step of the attribution process is making the attribution which will be either internal, where the cause is related to the person, or external, where the cause of the action is circumstantial. An example of this process is when a student fails a test, an observer may choose to attribute that action to 'internal' causes, such as insufficient study, laziness, or have a poor work ethic. The action might also be attributed to 'external' factors such as the difficulty of the test, or realworld stressors that led to distraction. We also make attributions of our own behavior. Using this same example, if it were you who received a failing test score you might either make an internal attribution, such as «I just can’t understand this material», or you could make an external attribution, such as «this test was just too difficult.» Expectancy violations theory is part of the socio-psychological tradition, and explains the relationship between non-verbal message production and the interpretations people hold for those non-verbal behaviors. Individuals hold certain expectations for non-verbal behavior that is based on the social norms, past experience and situational aspects of that behavior. When expectations are either met or violated, we make assumptions of the behavior and judge them to be positive or negative. 22
Teaching Good communication between teachers and young students is thought to improve the test scores of the students. Some parents of students at The William T. Harris School were interviewed and stated that they can tell how good a teacher is just by watching them in the classroom setting. Observing how teachers talk to their students and how they promote communication between their students can lead to conclusions about how well these students will score on standardized tests. Parents of students at The William T. Harris School have admitted that they do not always trust the publicized rankings of teachers, however, they stated that there are strong similarities between their children’s grades and their impressions of their children’s teachers. Questions for discussion: 1. What does Uncertainty reduction theory mean? 2. Find out the process of relations with another person as an example of relationships in the «teacher – pupil». 3. What helps to reduce uncertainty in communication? 4. What does symbolic interaction mean? 5. What does a core assumption within coordinated management of meaning theory include? 6. What theory shows human interaction like an economic transaction? 7. Give an example of the social penetration theory. 8. Cognitive dissonance theory. 9. Attribution theory. 10. Expectancy violations theory.
THE DYNAMICS OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS
«A good apology is like an antibiotic, and a bad apology is like rubbing salt in the wound» Interpersonal relationships are part of the interaction, and considered in its context. Interpersonal relationships – it is objectively experienced, in varying degrees conscious relationships between people. They are based on a variety of emotional states of interacting people and their psychological features (N.N. Obozov). In contrast to the business relationship interpersonal communication is called sometimes expressive, emotional. The development of interpersonal relationships is determined by gender, age, nationality, and many other factors. Women's social circle is much smaller than that of men. In interpersonal communication, they are in need of self-disclosure, transfer information about yourself to others. They often complain of loneliness (I.S. Kon). More significant features for women , manifested in interpersonal relationships, and for men – business skills. Interpersonal communication in different nationalities are built taking into account the position of man in society, his age and gender status, belonging to different social strata, and others. The process of interpersonal relationships includes dynamics, furism regulation of interpersonal relations and the conditions of their development. Interpersonal relations are developing in the dynamics: they are born, are fixed, are reached a certain maturity, and then may gradually weaken. The dynamics of interpersonal relationships are passing through several stages: acquaintanceship, friendly, companionship and friendship. 24
Acquaintanceship are carried out depending on the socio-cultural norms of the society. Friendly relations form the willingness to further development of interpersonal relationships. At companionship a convergence of views and supporting each other is carried out. Friendly relations have a common objective content – common interests, goals, activities, etc. It can be identified utilitarian (instrumental-business) and emotionally-expressive (emotional and confessional) friendship (I.S. Kon). The mechanism of development of interpersonal relationships is empathy – response of one person to another. Empathy has several levels (N.N. Obozov). The first level includes cognitive empathy, which is manifested in the form of understanding mental state of another person (without changing their status). The second level assumes empathy in the form of as understanding the state of the object, so empathy to him, i.e. the emotional empathy. The third level includes the cognitive, emotional and, mainly, the behavioral components. This level involves interpersonal identification, which is a mental, sensual and efficient. Between these three levels of empathy there are complex, hierarchically organized relationship. Various forms of empathy and its intensity can be at a subject and object of communication. The high level of empathy leads to emotion, tenderness, and others. Terms of interpersonal relationships greatly affect their dynamics and manifestations. In urban areas, compared to rural areas, interpersonal contacts are more numerous, and quickly starts as quickly interrupted. Influence of time factor varies depending on the ethnic media: in Eastern cultures the development of interpersonal relationships as it is stretching in time, and in the western – compressed dynamically. Interpersonal relationships have been identified as more important than anything else in making our lives meaningful. For a relationship to exist the people must 1) be aware of each other and take each other into account; 2) there must be some degree of influence; and 3) some agreement about the social form and expectations that govern the interaction. A strong association between individuals with similar interests and mindsets is called as interpersonal relationship. No one on this earth can ever stay alone and it is really important for people to have 25
trustworthy friends around. One needs time to come really close to someone and trust him/her. Miracles do not happen in a single day. One needs to be patient enough to understand the other person for the relationship to grow and reach to the next level. Knapp’s Relationship Escalation Model 1st stage ‒ relationship begins with a stage where two individuals not knowing each other before meet and instantly get attracted towards each other; ‒ both the participants try their level best to create an everlasting first impression on the other person. Individuals show their best side to mark the beginning of a relationship; ‒ physical appearance, grooming, manners, etiquette play an essential role as individuals do not know each other much. 2nd stage ‒ Individuals try to know each other more. They share their likes and dislikes and also try to find out about the other person’s interests; ‒ extensive meetings and phone calls so that individuals get to check their compatibility level. Two ways of relationships ‒ Case 1 – Individuals are not compatible with each other. ‒ Result – Individuals do not take the relationship forward and decide to end it for a better future. ‒ Case – 2 Individuals are compatible with each other ‒ Result – Individuals decide to continue the relationship 3rd stage – individuals make regular efforts to strengthen their relationship. People make commitments and prepare themselves for a long term relationship. 4th stage – begins when individuals in a relationship start doing things together. They are often seen together shopping, dining, going for movies and so on. ‒ When individuals are really sure about their relationship, they decide to stay together for ever. Individuals enter the wedlock in the 5th stage What is important for developmental relationship? Effective communication between partners – It is important for individuals to stay in touch on a regular basis. 26
‒ Trust ‒ Care ‒ Loyalty ‒ Understanding ‒ Respect for each other A relationship does not survive if any of the above is missing. Knapp’s Relationship Termination Model ‒ A relationship ends when individuals do not communicate with each other effectively. ‒ Misunderstandings + confusions = conflicts ‒ There is no place for ego and jealousy in relationships! One needs to be forgiving for the relationship to grow. The stagnating stage is often characterized by individuals avoiding each other and not interacting much. Metatheoretical Assumptions: ‒ Ontological Assumptions: ‒ The Relational Development Model is more of a scientific theory ‒ Epistemological Assumptions: ‒ This model is humanistic ‒ Axiological Assumptions: ‒ The model is about neutrally between humanistic and scienticfic Ideas and Implications: ‒ It is relevant for romantic as well as platonic or same-gender relationships. ‒ The model also helps couples understand why there are discrepancies in what each partner is wanting from the relationship. The following is a tangible example of the model of relationship development created by Knapp. Process Coming together
Representative dialogue «Hi, how are You doing?» «Fine, You?» «Oh, so you like to ski…so do I» «You do?!»Great. Where do You go?
«I…I think I love You». «I love You too». «I feel so much a part of You». «Yeah, we are like one person. What happens to You happens to me». «I want to be with You always». «Let’s get married». «I just don’t like big social gatherings». «Sometimes I just don’t understand you. This is one area where I am not like you at all». «Did you have a good time on your trip? «What time will dinner be ready?» «What’s there to talk about?» «Right, I know what you’re going to say and you know what I’m going to say»
Bonding Coming apart
Duck’s Relationship Filtering Model consists of many filters, a relationship has to pass through. ‒ Distance ‒ Perception ‒ Physical appearance I. Why We Form Relationships A. Appearance-especially important in the early stages of a relationship B. Similarity-similar values, interests, and likes (similarity thesis) C. Complementarity-differences that strengthen a relationship (opposites attract) D. Rewards-determines whether the relationship is a «good deal» (social exchange theory) E. Competency-talented, skilled F. Proximity-we are likely to develop relationships with people with whom we interact frequently G. Disclosure-telling others important information about yourself can build liking (social penetration theory) II. Communication and Relational Dynamics A. Developmental Models of Interpersonal Relationships 28
B. Dialectical Perspectives on Relational Dynamics C. Characteristics of Relational Development 1. Relationships are constantly changing 2. Movement is Always to a New Place III. Communicating About Relationships A. Content and Relational Messages B. Expression of Relational Messages IV. Compliance Gaining in Interpersonal Relationships A. Types of Compliance Gaining Strategies 1. Direct Requests 2. Indirect Appeals 3. Reciprocity 4. Reward and Punishment 5. Face Maintenance 6. Relational Appeals B. Which Strategy to Use? 1. Which strategy has the best chance for immediate success? 2. How will the strategy affect the long-term well-being of the relationship? 3. Does the strategy conform to your values and personal style? 4. Reward and Punishment 5. Face Maintenance 6. Relational Appeals Questions for discussion: 1. What factors is development of interpersonal relationship determined by? 2. List the general principles and laws of development of relations. 3. Depending on what norms of the society acquaintanceship are carried out? 4. What is interpersonal relationship? 5. What is the difference between business relationship and interpersonal communication? 6. Give definition to empathy. 7. What is important for developmental relationship? 8. Knapp’s Relationship Termination Model. 9. Duck’s Relationship Filtering Model. 10. Why do we form relationships?
HELPING RELATIONSHIPS – PRINCIPLES, THEORY AND PRACTICE
‘Helping’ is one of those taken-for-granted words. It is a familiar part of our vocabulary. Traditionally, for example, social workers, youth workers and support workers have been talked about as members of the ‘helping professions’. The question, ‘do you need some help?’ is part of our daily business as informal educators and social pedagogues. Yet what we mean by ‘helping’ isn’t that obvious – and the qualities we look for in ‘helping relationships’ need some thinking about. Here we try to clear away some of the confusion. What do we mean by helping? For many people within the social professions – social work, youth work and community work – the notion of helping is tied up with counseling and guidance. The same is probably true of those working within informal education and social pedagogy more broadly. People having to deal with difficult situations and choices, worrying feelings and/or a sense of having missed opportunities may well feel they need someone to listen and to assist them to make sense of what is going on, and to move on. Sometimes it will be others who judge that it is in the best interests of people that they receive such ‘help’. Gerard Egan, whose book The Skilled Helper (first published in 1975) did much to arouse the interest in ‘helping’ within the counselling arena, has argued that it involves two basic goals. Each of these is based in the needs of the person seeking help. The first relates to those they are helping to manage specific problems. It is to ‘help clients manage their problems in living more effectively and develop unused or underused opportunities more fully. The second helping goal looks to their general ability to manage problems and develop opportunities. 30
It is to help ‘clients become better at helping themselves in their everyday lives’. As well as being linked to counseling and guidance, helping is often used to talk about specific moments of teaching e.g. ‘helping’ someone with their homework or filling in an income-support form. It is also associated with giving direct physical assistance – for example, helping someone to wash or to go to the toilet – or practical aid such as giving clothing or money. Many of the people whose work Smith and Smith explored in The Art of Helping Others (2008) – youth workers, housing support workers; priests, nuns and lay workers within churches and religious groups; and learning mentors – engaged in all these areas and placed an emphasis upon developing and sustaining relationships. The helping we explore here is characterized and driven by conversation; explores and enlarges experience; and takes place in a wide variety of settings (many not of the helper’s making). However, describing the role exclusively in terms of counseling or teaching or educating narrows things down too much for us. Making sense of what these people are actually doing and expressing entails drawing upon various traditions of thinking and acting. This form of helping involves listening and exploring issues and problems with people; and teaching and giving advice; and providing direct assistance; and being seen as people of integrity. The processes and approach to helping that is being discussed here overlaps a lot with what we know as informal education – but it also goes beyond it. Helpers are concerned with learning, relationship and working with people to act on their understandings. However, they also step over into the world of counseling. They do this by being experienced as a particular kind of person and drawing upon certain skills, not by taking on the persona of counselor (British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy 2002; Higson 2004). Counseling entails a more formalized relationship than what we are talking about as helping; and is based in a specific set of traditions of thinking and practice. Thus, the helping relationship in the context of therapy and counselling feels and looks different to the helping relationship in the context of pastoral care or housing support – but more of this later. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow (1908–70) pioneered a movement called humanistic psychology which reached its peak in the 1960s. 31
The person-centered approach, his own unique approach to understanding personality and human relationships, found wide application in various domains such as psychotherapy and counseling (clientcentered therapy), education (student-centered learning), organizations, and other group settings. Rogers had the following five hypotheses regarding learner-centered education: 1. «A person cannot teach another person directly; a person can only facilitate another's learning» (Rogers, 1951). This is a result of his personality theory, which states that everyone exists in a constantly changing world of experience in which he or she is the center. Each person reacts and responds based on perception and experience. The belief is that what the student does is more important than what the teacher does. The focus is on the student (Rogers, 1951). Therefore, the background and experiences of the learner are essential to how and what is learned. Each student will process what he or she learns differently depending on what he or she brings to the classroom. 2. «A person learns significantly only those things that are perceived as being involved in the maintenance of or enhancement of the structure of self» (Rogers, 1951). Therefore, relevancy to the student is essential for learning. The students' experiences become the core of the course. 3. «Experience which, if assimilated, would involve a change in the organization of self, tends to be resisted through denial or distortion of symbolism» (Rogers, 1951). If the content or presentation of a course is inconsistent with preconceived information, the student will learn if he or she is open to varying concepts. Being open to consider concepts that vary from one's own is vital to learning. Therefore, gently encouraging open-mindedness is helpful in engaging the student in learning. Also, it is important, for this reason, that new information be relevant and related to existing experience. 4. «The structure and organization of self appears to become more rigid under threats and to relax its boundaries when completely free from threat» (Rogers, 1951). If students believe that concepts are being forced upon them, they might become uncomfortable and fearful. A barrier is created by a tone of threat in the classroom. Therefore, an open, friendly environment in which trust is developed is essential in the classroom. Fear of retribution for not agreeing with a concept 32
should be eliminated. A classroom tone of support helps to alleviate fears and encourages students to have the courage to explore concepts and beliefs that vary from those they bring to the classroom. Also, new information might threaten the student’s concept of him- or herself; therefore, the less vulnerable the student feels, the more likely he or she will be able to open up to the learning process. 5. «The educational situation which most effectively promotes significant learning is one in which (a) threat to the self of the learner is reduced to a minimum and (b) differentiated perception of the field is facilitated» (Rogers, 1951). The instructor should be open to learning from the students and also working to connect the students to the subject matter. Frequent interaction with the students will help achieve this goal. The instructor's acceptance of being a mentor who guides rather than the expert who tells is instrumental to student-centered, nonthreatening, and unforced learning. The helping person – caring, committed and wise Teaching, like any truly human activity, emerges from one’s inwardness, for better or worse. As I teach, I project the condition of my soul onto my students, my subject, and our way of being together…. When I do not know myself, I cannot know who my students are. I will see them through a glass darkly, in the shadows of my unexamined life – and when I cannot see them clearly, I cannot teach them well. When I do not know myself, I cannot know my subject – not at the deepest levels of embodied, personal meaning. I will know it only abstractly, from a distance, a congeries of concepts as far removed from the world as I am from personal truth. If we do not know who we are then we cannot know those we work with, nor the subjects we teach and explore. As well as knowing themselves, Smith and Smith (2008) argue that helpers also need certain other qualities. When people search for someone to help them reflect upon and improve their lives, they tend to be drawn into relationship with those who are seen or experienced as caring, committed and wise. They are liable to look around for help from people whom they can approach easily and with confidence. They ask people they know who they would recommend and/or approach those they already know to offer helping relationships. 33
Compassion Compassion is being in tune with oneself, the other person(s) and the whole world. It is goodness at its most intuitive and unreflecting. It is a harmony which opens itself and permits the flowing out of love toward others without any reward. It avoids using people as tools. It sees them as complete and without a need to be changed. Ideas like these are difficult to handle within the way many people talk about professionalism – but there is considerable evidence that people are better able to explore questions and issues when they are in the presence of a helper who accepts and respects them, listens and cares. David Brandon put caring and concern to alleviate suffering at the core of helping. Caring When considering caring and caring relationships it is helpful first to distinguish, as Nel Noddings does, between ‘caring about’ and ‘caring for’. Caring-for someone, according to Noddings, involves sympathy – feeling with. It also entails being open to what the other person is saying and might be experiencing and reflecting upon it. However, there is also something else here. When caring for another we have to be concerned with the interests of the that person. Carers have to respond to the cared-for in ways that are, hopefully, helpful. For this to be called ‘caring’ a further step is needed. There must also be some realization on the part of the cared-for that an act of caring has occurred. Caring involves connection and relationship between the carer and the cared-for, and a degree of reciprocity. Both gain from the relationship in different ways and both give. Caring-about is more abstract. When we talk about caring-about it usually involves something more indirect than the giving immediate help to someone. For example, we may care-about the suffering of those in poor countries. In this we are concerned about their plight. This may lead to us wanting to do something about it – but the result is rarely care-for. Wisdom Smith and Smith have argued that helpers need to cultivate wisdom – both in themselves and those they help. It is quality which 34
especially attracts people to them for help. However, while they possess expertise: … often it is not just the knowledge they pass on or the advice they give that makes them special. Rather it is how they are with us, and we with them. We can feel valued and animated and, in turn, value them. Out of this meeting comes insight. The thing about wisdom is that it is usually associated by others to particular people rather than claimed by them. It generally means that the person so labelled is seen as having a deep understanding, a regard for truth, and an ability to come to sound judgements. For helpers, Smith and Smith suggest, this involves them appreciating what sort of things might make for happiness and for people to flourish; and being knowledgeable especially about themselves and relationships, around ‘what makes people tick’, and the systems of which we are a part. The helping relationship Relationship is a human being’s feeling or sense of emotional bonding with another. It leaps into being like an electric current, or it emerges and develops cautiously when emotion is aroused by and invested in someone or something and that someone or something «connects back» responsively. We feel «related» when we feel at one with another (person or object) in some heartfelt way. When considering the nature of a helping relationship one of the key reference points, perhaps the key reference point, is the work of Carl Rogers. He suggested that helping relationships could be defined as one in which: … one of the participants intends that there should come about in one or both parties, more appreciation of, more expression of, more functional use of the latent inner resources of the individual. We can see that this definition can apply to a counselling-client, parent-child and educator-learner relationship. In other words, Carl Rogers understood that counselling relationships, for example, were just special instances of interpersonal relationships in general (op. Furthermore, he concluded that ‘the degree to which I can create relationships which facilitate the growth of others as separate persons is a measure of the growth I have achieved in myself’. 35
Rogers goes on to suggest that people will be prepared to explore things once they believe that their feelings and experiences are ‘both respected and progressively understood’. We can see this belief at work in his best known contribution – the ‘core conditions’ for facilitative helping – congruence (realness), acceptance and empathy. Exhibit 1: Carl Rogers on the interpersonal relationship in the facilitation of learning Realness in the facilitator of learning. Perhaps the most basic of these essential attitudes is realness or genuineness. When the facilitator is a real person, being what she is, entering into a relationship with the learner without presenting a front or a façade, she is much more likely to be effective. This means that the feelings that she is experiencing are available to her, available to her awareness, that she is able to live these feelings, be them, and able to communicate if appropriate. It means coming into a direct personal encounter with the learner, meeting her on a person-to-person basis. It means that she is being herself, not denying herself. Prizing, acceptance, trust. There is another attitude that stands out in those who are successful in facilitating learning… I think of it as prizing the learner, prizing her feelings, her opinions, her person. It is a caring for the learner, but a non-possessive caring. It is an acceptance of this other individual as a separate person, having worth in her own right. It is a basic trust – a belief that this other person is somehow fundamentally trustworthy… What we are describing is a prizing of the learner as an imperfect human being with many feelings, many potentialities. The facilitator’s prizing or acceptance of the learner is an operational expression of her essential confidence and trust in the capacity of the human organism. Empathic understanding. A further element that establishes a climate for self-initiated experiential learning is emphatic understanding. When the teacher has the ability to understand the student’s reactions from the inside, has a sensitive awareness of the way the process of education and learning seems to the student, then again the likelihood of significant learning is increased…. [Students feel deeply appreciative] when they are simply understood – not evaluated, not judged, simply understood from their own point of view, not the teacher’s. 36
Conclusion While the notions of ‘helping’ and helping relationships may lack some precision, they have the great merit of taking us outside some of the usual bureaucratic and professionalized ways of categorizing work in the social professions and informal education. Some of the issues that arise from their use alert us to significant problems and tensions in the work. Once we unhook ourselves from an over-concentration on skills and look to relationships, the person of the helper, and the nature of the systems people have to work within, then some interesting possibilities arise. As David Brandon recognized, helping is based in relationship and the integrity and authenticity of the helper. The foundation of genuine helping lies in being ordinary. Nothing special. We can only offer ourselves, neither more nor less, to others – we have in fact nothing else to give. Anything more is conceit; anything less is robbing those in distress. Helping demands wholeheartedness, but people find it hard to give of themselves to others. Why? In essence we are afraid to offer ourselves for fear we will prove insufficient, and if all that we have and are is not enough, what then? We are afraid to risk using simply our own warmth and caring, and as a result the thousands of therapy techniques which are becoming increasingly popular are intended to conceal rather than reveal. Questions for discussion: 1. What is the notion of helping? 2. Who pioneered a movement called humanistic psychology? 3. What are the five hypotheses of learner-centered education according to Rogers? 4. What is prizing, acceptance and trust. 5. What is compassion? 6. The qualities that facilitate learning. 7. What is «caring-for someone» according to Noddings? 8. The interpersonal relationship in the facilitation of learning according to Carl Rogers. 9. Empathic wisdom. 10. What does, according David Brandon, helping demand?
HIGHER SCHOOL EDUCATION AS A PROCESS OF PERSONAL – PROFESSIONAL INTERACTION
Teachers’ vocational (professional) development is a lifelong process. It goes through several steps and requires some profession decisions – beginning with the child’s fantasy about being a primary school teacher similar to the teacher the child meets, over high school selection and the teacher faculty selection, to the employment within the school system. Teachers’ vocational development consists of the improvement of the teachers’ awareness about: what he/she does, how he/she does it, how he/she can improve professional dealing? Vocational development of teachers should provide relevant and formative impact of teacher professional skills, knowledge and abilities on the students’ development as well as on the realization of teachers’ potentials in their professional engagement. Teacher profession is the profession of specific educational services. Considering that characteristic, the teachers’ vocational/professional development is the sequences of chosen activities which increase the teacher’s professionalism in education/educational interaction. Professional competences are the system of knowledge, skills, abilities and motivational disposition which provide the effective realization of the professional teaching activities. Teachers’ professional competences are determined by the social-interaction characteristics of the instructional process. The investigators agree about differentiation of the educational and program teacher competences. But, they don’t agree about the status of the communication competence: is it a different competence, is it the third teacher’s professional competence, and is it the part of the educational and/or program competences? 38
According to the continuality of the teacher’s professional/vocational development, the teacher’s professional improvement means the development of three fundamental professional competences: (1) educational competences, (2) program (content) competences and (3) communication competences. Communication competence. Teachers’ professional action is the component of the sociointeractive procedures of education realization. Since the teaching process is an interactive category, the conditions of effective social interaction are at the same time the conditions of the effective teaching process. Communication is the most obvious manifestation of the social interaction. Thus, the effectiveness of education in the school situations is determined by the quality of the communication process. Teacher professional action is a dimension of educational process of teaching, so the frames of educational communicology are to be applied. Also, it is a dimension of the teacher’s job, thus the business communicology rules should be applied. Educational communicology formulates the following principles of the teachers’ communication: mutual respect and esteem of students (the actors of education situation); arousing students to communicate, communication process reversibility; awareness of the communication activities and means repertoire; awareness of the communication behaviour and the manner of the changing. Business communicology formulates the following communication principles of teachers’ communication: communication process reversibility; communicator flexibility; self-esteem, esteem of the communication partner and situation; team work, continual learning of the communication skills. Developed empirical and frequent experimental investigations of the professional dealing and communication competences confirmed the following: there is the causal link between the learning and training of adequate communication behaviours, and the effectiveness in professional dealing. The teachers with developed communication competences are more effective in all segments of the teaching process. They have skills to model and manage teaching communication (to regulate the interaction and control social situations, define and change the aims of communication and teaching conversation, etc.). 39
Communication competent teacher is: adaptable and flexible; involved in the conversation – he/she manifests the involvement in conversation by behavioral manifestations (gestures, visual direction), and by cognitive activities (concluding, repeating key sentences, paraphrasing); he/she has skills to manage conversation (to regulate interaction and control social situations, define and change the aims of the conversation); considers the social relations and make a plan of the engagement; he/she has developed empathy; he/she is effective in the communication process – sustain the aims of conversation and personal aims; he/she has expectations coordinated to the situation; he/she is ready to team work; he/she is learning continually about communication process, and is gaining insights about communication situation; he/she is aware of his/her own behaviour; continually develop the communication skills, train and test messages exchange; continually master the use of different communication means (the means of the ICT in teaching, increasing the teachers’ informatics literacy, dealing with PC as the functional teaching means to demonstrate and investigate technical processes and phenomena). Communication competence is considered as a person’s ability to choose communication behavior which is suitable to achieve the aim of the social relation. Communication competence integrates the two dimensions, cognitive and behavioral, and the basic communication skills (cognitive skills and behavioral skills). Keatlen Reardon considers the cognitive dimension of communication competence as a broad concept. Cognitive dimension consists of the awareness process and cognitive processing of information. Behavioral dimension indicates different manifestations of communication competence (fig. 1). Roloff and Kellermann believe that the social cognitive processes are important for the planning and assessing communication behaviour. They investigated the impact of the interpersonal awareness and social knowledge to the communication competences assessment. Interpersonal awareness is the level at which a person is paying attention to other people’s and his/her own communication behaviour during interaction and how that person responds to what he/she is observing.
Questions for discussion: 1. What is professional competence? 2. Communication as the most obvious manifestation of the social interaction. 3. What impact should provide vocational development of teachers in their professional career? 4. What principles does education communicology formulate? 5. The principles of teachers’ communication in business communicology. 6. According to the continuality of the teacher’s professional/vocational development are there any fundamental professional competences for teacher’s professional improvement? 7. What skills must the communication competent teacher possess? 8. What dimensions does communication competence integrate? 9. What did Roloff and Kellermann investigate? 10. What the social cognitive processes are important for, according to Roloff and Kellerman?
COMMUNICATION AS A MEANS OF TEACHING COOPERATION
In traditional education methodologies, teachers direct the learning process and students assume a receptive role in their education. Armstrong claimed that «traditional education ignores or suppresses learner responsibility». With the advent of progressive education in the 19th century, and the influence of psychologists, some educators have largely replaced traditional curriculum approaches with «handson» activities and «group work», in which a child determines on their own what they want to do in class. Key amongst these changes is the premise that students actively construct their own learning. Theorists like John Dewey, Jean Piaget, and Lev Vygotsky, whose collective work focused on how students learn, is primarily responsible for the move to student-centred learning. Carl Rogers' ideas about the formation of the individual also contributed to student-centred learning. Student-centred learning means inverting the traditional teachercentred understanding of the learning process and putting students at the centre of the learning process. Maria Montessori was also an influence in centre-based learning, where preschool children learn through independent self-directed interaction with previously presented activities. The following provides a few examples of why student-centred learning should be integrated into the curriculum: Strengthens student motivation Promotes peer communication Reduces disruptive behaviour Builds student-teacher relationships Promotes discovery/active learning Responsibility for one’s own learning 42
The student-centred learning environment has been shown to be effective in higher education. A certain university sought to promote student-centred learning across the entire university by employing the following methods: Analysis of good practice by award-winning teachers, in all faculties, to show that, they made use of active forms of student learning. Subsequent use the analysis to promote wider use of good practice. A compulsory teacher training course for new junior teachers, which encouraged student-centred learning. Projects funded through teaching development grants, of which 16 were concerned with the introduction of active learning experiences. A programme-level quality enhancement initiative which utilised a student survey to identify strengths and potential areas for improvement. Development of a model of a broadly based teaching and learning environment inﬂuencing the development of generic capabilities, to provide evidence of the need for an interactive learning environment. The introduction of programme reviews as a quality assurance measure. The success of this initiative was evaluated by surveying the students. After two years the mean ratings indicating the students' perception of the quality of the teaching and learning environment at the university all rose significantly. The success of the initiative at the university in this study indicates that by adapting a more student-oriented approach to education, the students will enjoy a more positive learning experience which will likely help them develop greater passion for learning and lead to more success in their learning endeavours. As well, this approach involves students in their overall education, creating a proactive involvement in learning.
Bloom's taxonomy Bloom's taxonomy is a set of three hierarchical models used to classify educational learning objectives into levels of complexity and specificity. The three lists cover the learning objectives in cognitive, affective and sensory domains. The cognitive domain list has been the primary focus of most traditional education and is frequently used to structure curriculum learning objectives, assessments and activities. The models were named after Benjamin Bloom, who chaired the committee of educators that devised the taxonomy. He also edited the first volume of the standard text, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals. Barriers to Effectiveness Several things can stand in the way of effective teaching in general. However, some issues that are unique or critical to the co-teaching process are described below with some suggestions as to how to address these issues. 1. Time – The amount of time to plan, the time spent developing a school-wide support structure for co-teaching, the time spent to prepare the students, and the time teachers are given to develop a personal as well as a professional relationship can all greatly impact the co-teaching process. This statement does not mean that co-teaching has to take more time, but initially the time must be dedicated to create a school and classroom that support teaching teams as well as including students. Leadership must either lead teachers in using this type of model or must empower teachers to develop their own skills. Also critical to making this type of structure work school-wide is that the schedules of students with disabilities and co-taught teams should be created first, and then other activities must fill in around these important structures. No matter how creative, a limited amount of time or structure for this process can jeopardize the success of this model. 2. Grading – Just as the time and structure must be determined and scheduled prior to the start of a co-teaching relationship, the same should hold true for grading. Co-teaching teams must determine prior to the start of the semester how they will grade students with diverse learning needs in their classrooms. Other ideas for grading are provided below, but the most important variable to remember is to deter44
mine how students will be evaluated prior to the start of the semester instead of at the end of the grading period. 3. Student Readiness – Even 10 years ago many students with disabilities were not included into the general education curriculum. They were often pulled out and taught separate skills or curriculum. It is important to remember that simply including students into general education co-taught settings may not ensure their success. One of the struggles that teachers at upper grade levels must acknowledge is that many students with disabilities have received a disjointed education and may have large gaps in their knowledge base. Just as teachers take the time to prepare themselves for a co-teaching relationship, this same type of preparation may be needed to assist students with disabilities who will be included in the class who have either academic or behavioral gaps compared to their peers. 4. Teacher Readiness – Even in the strongest schools with the strongest teachers, resistance to a co-teaching model can occur because teachers often are considered to be autonomous. The best way to address a school-wide co-teaching model is to let teachers know (preferably using a family model) that they will be co-teaching next year. Then allowing teachers collective autonomy to design models or structures that will work for them but using collective accountability that these structures must show teachers should be allowed collective autonomy to design models or structures that will work for them, along with collective accountability which shows how they are using coteaching to ensure all students are in their least restrictive environment and making strong achievement gains. 5. High Stakes Testing – At the core for everyone at every grade level in every district is the issue of how co-teaching may impact testing. As mentioned earlier, clear evidence does not indicate a conclusive outcome for co-teaching, but with that said, some things are critical to consider in relation to the impact of co-teaching on standardized assessment. First, any initiative that is implemented must be done in a careful and planned manner to ensure the success of all students. For example, if 15 students with the same disability are placed into a classroom so that co-teaching can occur, how will this impact the other 12-15 students in that class? Research clearly indicates that heterogeneous learning communities are the most productive, yet many times when we include students with disabilities, this 45
factor is quickly forgotten. Second, is the co-teaching model being implemented to raise students' test scores, as a cost saving attempt, or in some cases as a dumping model? If students with disabilities are included without sufficient supports, this is not only against the law but will ensure failure of the co-teaching relationship. Third, is ongoing evaluation and data being gathered that reflect the intent of the co-taught setting? Whether co-teaching is occurring at a classroom or school-wide level, data on behavioral, academic, and social skills of all students must be gathered and assessed on an ongoing basis. If this does not occur, then waiting until the local or state assessment indicates that students are failing is too late. Fourth, as data is assessed, school leaders need to look across the data and within the data. Are students in a specific quartile moving up for the first time? Over and over again students who are considered «at-risk» but do not qualify for special services talk about their feeling of success for the «first» time in co-taught settings. Finally, listen to the data and the students. In my work, students who are gifted assure me over and over again that they like co-taught classrooms, yet students with behavioral challenges often say they «get in trouble too much» or «don't like being double teamed.» In both of these cases, our state or local assessments will not capture students' perceptions; however, these are critical to consider in all classrooms, but especially important in cotaught settings. Questions for discussion: 1. What does student-centred learning mean? 2. The differences of teacher centered learning and the student-centred learning. 3. The reasons student-centred learning should be integrated into the curriculum. 4. Who claimed that «traditional education ignores or suppresses learner responsibility». 5. What scientists were primarily responsible for the move to student-centred learning? 6. Bloom’s Taxonomy. 7. Some examples of why student-centred learning should be integrated into the curriculum. 8. The main issues that are important for pedagogical process. 9. What barriers can stand in the way of effective teaching? 10. Student readiness. Teacher readiness.
DIALOGUE NATURE OF COMMUNICATION BETWEEN TEACHER AND STUDENTS IN A STUDENT-CENTERED PEDAGOGY
The Bologna Process, initiated by 29 Ministers responsible for higher education in Bologna in 1999, has brought with it unprecedented reform across the European continent in terms of the huge efforts undertaken to make higher education programmes more transparent and comparable and to make higher education students and staff more mobile across the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). This has been guided by an ethos of greater transparency within higher education, with a greater emphasis on the student, encouraging higher education institutions (HEIs) and academic staff to place students at the centre of their thinking and to help them manage their expectations and be able to consciously and constructively design their learning paths throughout their higher education experience. This has necessitated a shift from more organisational input-oriented curricular design, based on the description of course content, to outcome-based higher education. This has therefore resulted in a re-thinking of higher education course content in terms of learning outcomes; making students more aware of what skills, knowledge and competences they can expect to develop through their studies. While the ongoing shift towards learning outcomes in higher educational course organisation across Europe is undoubtedly the fruit of the Bologna Process, student-centred learning (SCL) is a learning approach, which started to be researched and analysed long before the first Bologna Declaration of 19 June 1999 (Bologna Process, 1999) as one of the possible pedagogical approaches for higher education. With student-centred learning, students are responsible for planning the curriculum or at least they participate in the choosing the 47
individual is 100 percent responsible for his own behaviour, participation and learning. Student-centred learning, as the term suggests, is a method of learning or teaching that puts the learner at the centre. With the application of an SCL approach in higher education, there is necessarily a shift in focus from academic teaching staff to the learner. This approach has many implications for the design and flexibility of curriculum, course content, and interactivity of the learning process. The fact that conventional teaching predominantly places its focus on the design, organisation and follow-through of the perspective of the academic teacher has made it difficult to determine what students see as constituting SCL, because often they have never been asked. The outcome is an entwined ongoing process, which builds towards the climate of good practice in which there is continuous monitoring of, and reflection upon, programme design, which can evolve over time in response to changes to society, technology, student needs and higher education. Collaboration between Teachers and Students In turn, the role of the student is tied to that of the teacher in student-centred learning. Abel et al show how, as learning becomes less-teacher centered, teachers take on a role which is more that of a ‘coach’ guiding the student through the learning process, with the aim of instilling a culture of collaboration and cooperation. As part of SCL, teachers take on the role of promoting learning by lecturing less, in the traditional manner, and being more around the classroom than in front of it, signifying a shift of power for the teacher to a shared teacherstudent relationship, thus creating mutual ownership of the education process (ibid). Abel et al (ibid) contend that this cooperative relationship must ultimately be reflected in ‘an assessment process which promotes mutual learning’. They argue that since students’ primary learning comes from what they perceive that they will be evaluated on, sharing in the evaluation process will enhance students’ ownership of the whole learning process. This leads students to have a greater sense of control over their own learning as they feel ‘fully appraised of the criteria upon which the evaluation will be based’. Within these new roles for both the teacher and the student, the key factor in implementing a new approach to learning, as well as in 48
maintaining it, is motivation, of both teachers and students. Greater involvement with students by the teacher is central to student motivation. Diekelmann et al show how a nursing teacher increasingly included students in ‘co-creating compelling courses’ and was surprised ‘by the insights students shared regarding how to create compelling courses and their willingness to collaborate with her to improve teaching and learning experiences’. Maclellan examines the issue of student motivation in depth as a psychological construct and finds that ‘the higher-level cognitive competencies that are implied by the term, student-centred-learning, must integrate motivational constructs such as goal orientation, volition, interest and attributions into pedagogical practices. Maclellan finds that ‘the teacher is involved in clarifying the subject matter, offering examples, or suggesting arguments for or against a point of view may minimize the students’ need to think’ while, equally, ‘little engagement by the tutor, leaving students to determine both what and how to learn without any criteria to judge their process, is unsatisfactory, inefficient and makes a nonsense of formal, higher education as a planned and designed system. Maclellan finds that judicious balance of students engaging in tasks through the stimulation of tutors (who perhaps ask detailed questions, have students present arguments, require students to analyze the cause of their problems) requires considerable sensitivity, strength of conviction to allow students regulate their motivation, and skills of negotiation since misperceptions may lead to scaffolding mismatch in instruction and negative perceptions of the interacting partners in certain learning situations (ibid). This shows that the role of the teacher in SCL is by no means a small one. It is an ongoing endeavour, requiring a redirection of the teachers’ efforts into – creating a trusting classroom culture which promotes: (1) cooperative learning; (2) authentic learning; and (3) meaningful assessment of the learning process. This a hefty task and often requires a shift in mentality and culture with respect to the teachers’ approach to student learning, particularly where the teacher-centred approach is ingrained into the system of their HEI. 49
5 Ways to Make Your Classroom Student-Centered What interests you? Sports? Historical novels? Cars? Finding crafty ideas on Pinterest? For adults, making choices is the norm. We're motivated by stimuli that we value, by our passions. If ideas hold no personal interest for us, we often quit, unless a relationship or reward is involved. Our students aren't so different. Expert teachers know how to give students choice and voice, finding ways to design learning experiences that tap into what students value. This isn't always easy, especially if our preparation experiences didn't frame learning this way. Here are five questions that can help us develop and refine the teacher strengths needed for creating a student-centered classroom. 1. How does the classroom environment promote interaction among learners and how do you operate in that environment? Student-centered classrooms are big on collaboration, which means they don't usually have rows of desks facing a teacher lectern or desk. Instead, desks or tables are arranged so that it's easy for students to collaborate on projects or on analyzing readings (rather than listening to lectures). And whether teachers are leading lessons on protein synthesis or the issues leading up to a world conflict, we make the most of these possibilities. Teacher strength: giving up absolute control. The teacher becomes a participant and co-learner in discussion, asking questions and perhaps correcting misconceptions, but not telling learners what they need to know. 2. What kind of assessments do you use? Student-centered assessments ask open-ended questions that force learners to reflect and synthesize what they have learned. They demand that students access higher orders of thinking. For example, traditionally, students might learn about velocity by reading (or listening to a lecture), completing worksheets, then answering multiple-choice questions. But if a student maps a local route and tracks the time for different legs of a journey, they can determine average velocities for each segment of a journey. The data will be individualized, as will the route and the calculations. Assessment can be a creative product and process that involves student choice. Teacher strength: valuing student engagement over convenience. Creating and completing meaningful assessments is hard (but worthwhile) work for both teacher and students. 50
3. How do you respond to a lack of buy-in? No matter how wellintentioned we may be about student engagement, we sometimes miss the mark. «This past week, when studying sound waves, my 9th grade science students created instruments-flutes, pan pipes, wind chimes, and water bells, all tuned to specific frequencies. For the first time in years, kids didn't care for this assignment, but I noticed they loved using Audacity to record their instruments. Even after completing the day's assignment, they kept looking at different tools in the program. I thought about it on the way home and the next day I shifted gears. The original plan had been to continue our study of frequency, wavelength, and sound concepts by creating a class concert (as in years past). But instead, I decided to ask students to explore autotune and show choir mash-ups, studying the same concepts. Students still recorded songs using software, changed the sound characteristics, and played the resulting jams for one another». Teacher strength: honoring student passion and interest. Both approaches would have taught my students what they needed to know about sound. But learning must matter to the learner; in this case, I realized my students were less interested in creating their own instruments than in understanding how technology can influence personal musical taste. To activate this strength takes flexibility, resourcefulness, sensitivity to student needs, and a deep understanding of content-all of which require even the most experienced teacher to stay on his or her toes. 4. Which is more important to you: compliance or knowledge? Occasionally we come across learners who drive most of their teachers crazy. They text on the sly, don't hand in homework, read unrelated books during class time. Backing them into a corner is an understandable reaction: «Dude, you're in my class to do my work». It can be almost infuriating when this learner takes the test and aces it: He or she understands the content and is competent at what you have to offer. What happens when you meet these learners? Does a yearlong power struggle begin ... or do you rethink your plans, looking to online resources? Teacher strength: admitting you do not have the market cornered on knowledge. The truth is that 21st-century learning is focused 51
more on creation and critical thinking than on compliance. Most of us were formed in a teaching crucible that emphasized our wisdom and students' compliance. Shifting our perspective means that students take on more active roles as learners and that our roles change, too. We must decide whether to think and act as facilitators who empower (and learn from) our students or as the people guarding the vault. 5. If learners weren't required to come to your class, would they? Ask yourself this difficult but honest question: Is there joy in the journey we are taking together? It's one of the most difficult tasks in teaching, because it asks us to consider the learner as a part of our community, rather than just a mind to fill. Asking this question and responding to the answer requires a combination of flexibility, humor, and the ability to try new things, fail, and laugh when things work out ... and when they don't. Teacher strength: developing healthy relationships with learners. You've heard all the warnings before: Don't let them see you smile, don't communicate with them via social media, don't let them know that you aren't the expert. But it just doesn't work that way in our own lives. If we sincerely believe in lifelong learning and commit to modeling it, we'll be honest with one another, cajoling, encouraging, and mentoring with challenging and appropriate dialogue. Here's the great news. These strengths can be developed! Pick one that you aren't doing as well as you want and work on it for 2014. Ask a colleague to be an accountability partner. Grant yourself extra reflection time. And start with small changes. If you are in a leadership position, empower another to take a chance and build a better classroom for students. Inspiration, interest, and happy learners isn't that a great resolution for the upcoming semester? Questions for discusson 1. The reforms that has brought the Bologna Process in 1999. 2. The key factor in implementing a new approach to learning 3. What are students responsible for with student-centered learning? 4. 5 ways to make classroom student-centered 5. How does the classroom environment promote interaction among learners? 6. The higher-level cognitive competencies by Maclellan 7. Teacher strengths in communication between teacher and student. 8. What is student-centered learning? 9. Which is more important to you: compliance or knowledge? 10. What kind of assessment do you use?
STYLES OF PEDAGOGICAL DIALOGUE
The renowned and outstanding psychologist V.A. Kan-Kalik highlighted five pedagogical styles: 1. Communication based on high professional prescriptions of the teacher, his attitude to teaching as a whole. 2. Communication based on friendly disposition. It involves dedication to specific work. The teacher acts as a mentor, a senior fellow, and partially as a fellow in co – curricular activities. However, a teacher should avoid familiarity. This is especially true for young teachers who do not want to get into conflicts with elder students. 3. Distance communication refers to the most common types of pedagogical communication. In this case, distance is constantly observed in all areas: in education – with reference to the credibility and professionalism and with reference to the experience and age. This style creates relations «teacher-student» as opposition, however this does not mean that students should perceive the teacher only as a tutor and master. 4. Deterrence method, the negative form of communication, inhumane and intolerant, shows a pedagogical failure of the teacher, who uses fear and threatens as motivators for students’ activity and work. 5. Flirting approach is typical for young teachers seeking popularity. This communication provides false, cheap credibility. The diagnostic procedure for pedagogical communication styles is based on classification of models of teachers' behavior in communication with students within classes by L.D. Stolyarenko and S.I. Samygin. Conventionally these models can be denoted as follows: dictator model (Mont Blanc); non-contact model (Great Wall of China); model of differentiated attention (Locator); hypo-reflective model (Grouse); hyper- reflective model (Hamlet); model of inflexible 53
response (Robot); authoritarian model (My own self); model of active interaction (Union). This classification, let us consider it in more details: Dictator model (Mont Blanc) – the teacher is aloof from the students, personal influence is minimum, pedagogical functions are reduced to informative message, which results in the absence of psychological contact, shiftlessness and passivity of the students. Non-contact model (Great Wall of China) – between the teacher and the students there exists weak response due to randomly or unintentionally created communication barrier, the studies are of informative and not of dialogue pattern, which leads to weak interaction with the students and for their part, indifferent attitude to the teacher. Model of differentiated attention (Locator) – based on selective relations with the students, the teacher is oriented not at all group but only at its portion, either at good or, vice versa, at weak students, which leads to violation of integrity of interaction in the system teacher–group, which is substituted with fragmented situational contacts. Hypo-reflective model (Grouse) – the teacher is in his/her shell: the speech is presented mainly with monologues, within joint activity he/she is absorbed with his/her concepts and is emotionally deaf to others, which leads to the absence of communication between the students and the teacher, since the latter is surrounded with the field of psychological vacuum. Hyper-reflective model (Hamlet) – it is opposite to the previous model in terms of psychological characteristic: the teacher is anxious not only with substantial part of interaction, but rather with how he/she is appreciate by the others, he/she always in doubts about efficiency of his/her arguments, reacts vehemently to responses from the students, taking them personally, which leads to strained social-psychological sensitivity of the teacher and non- adequate reactions to the responses and actions of the group. Model of inflexible response (Robot) – interaction between the teacher and the students are arranged according to rigid program, where targets of the studies and teaching procedures are strictly maintained, perfect logics of narration and argumentation of facts takes place, but the teacher does not feel and understand alternating com-municative situation, which leads to low efficiency of pedagogical interaction. Authoritarian model (My own self) – educational In addition, the students-philologists demonstrated process is completely focused 54
at the teacher, there is also decreased and low level of neurotization (for more no creative interaction between the teacher and the than 70 % of tested persons), which is characterized with students, any selfaction of the students is emotional tolerance and positive background of major suppressed, their cognitive and social activity is feelings (calmness, optimism). Optimism and creativity, reduced to minimum, which leads to shiftlessness, plainness in implementation of desires form sense of loss of creative character of education, distortion of self-respect, social courage, independence, easiness in motivational sphere of cognitive activity. Communication and related with these properties stress Model of active interaction (Union) – the teacher is resistance. In contiguous dialogue with the students, supports group and reacts to them with high flexibility. Tolerance. More than 70 % of students are characterized this model is the most efficient. Pedagogical culture is an integral quality of the individual teacher, projecting the common culture within the scope of the professsion. Pedagogical culture is a synthesis of high professionalism and the intrinsic properties of a teacher, possession of methods of teaching and the presence of cultural and creative abilities. It is a measure of creative appropriation and transformation of experience accumulated by the mankind. Teacher, with high pedagogical culture, has a welldeveloped pedagogical thinking and consciousness, has the creativity and is the repository of world cultural and historical experience. Pedagogical communication is an organization of direct interaction with the audience and a teacher. The first stage of this communication largely determines the success of further development of content-didactic system and activities as well as their social and psychological basis. Questions for discussion: 1. Pedagogical styles according V.A. Kan-Kalik. 2. Classification of models of teachers' behavior in communication with students according L. D. Stolyarenko and S. I. Samygin 3. Dictator model 4. Non-contact model (Great Wall of China) 5. Model of differentiated attention (Locator) 6. Hypo-reflective model (Grouse) 7. Hyper-reflective model (Hamlet) 8. Model of inflexible response (Robot) 9. Authoritarian model (My own self) 10. Model of active interaction (Union
PEDAGOGICAL CONFLICTS, METHODS OF PREVENTION AND RESOLUTION
Modern educators – both scientists and practitioners have the problem of developing technologies for managing conflicts in the sphere of education. However, it is not easy to do this within the framework of a single science, therefore, it is necessary the integration of different subject-professional positions. Pedagogical conflicts arise in the sphere of social relations. By social relations we mean subjectively experienced interrelations between people, which are objectively manifested in the nature and ways of mutual influences that they exert on each other in the process of joint activity. The educational process is a joint activity, where the set of purposeful educational, educational and self-educational processes are aimed at solving the problems of education, upbringing and development of the individual. Conflict is one of the stages in the development of relations between people, and, following many researchers, it can be argued that it is a fundamentally human way of resolving contradictions in social relations. Contradictions in this case are objectively existing and mutually exclusive terms. Here are some contradictions arising in the educational process: ‒ Contradictions in the hierarchy of goals: between the general goal of education and the personal goals of the participants in the pedagogical process, between the overall goal of education and private methodological goals, between the personal goals of students and tasks of collective activity ‒ Contradictions between the level of theoretical training of a teacher (lecturer) and his practical skills 56
‒ Contradictions between the tasks of education (upbringing, education, development) and the methods, forms and means of pedagogical activity ‒ Contradictions between general educational standards and the tasks of creative personality development ‒ Contradictions between the level of students' needs and possible forms of their satisfaction Pedagogical conflict arises as a result of professional and interpersonal interaction among the participants in the educational process, a form of manifestation, became aggravated subject-subject contradictions that assumes a constructive conversion of the collision of the conflicting parties into an interested elimination of its causes, contributing to the goals of education understood in a particular sociocultural context. Essential in the identification of conflict as a pedagogical is the influence that renders on the formation of certain qualities of the individual, on the development of the personality. Namely this value of the conflict impart it the status of a pedagogical one. Not every conflict that arises in the sphere of education can be considered as pedagogical. In the structure of any conflict, it is customary to distinguish the following components, which have their own specifics in the pedagogical conflict: 1. The subjects (parties of the conflict) 2. The subject and object of the conflict 3. The dynamics of conflict 4. Social context The subjects of the pedagogical conflict are those persons (participants, parties) whose interests, being contradictory, in the interaction in the sphere of education are realized through a collision and influence the development of the individual. The object of conflict is a specific material (resource), social (power) or spiritual (idea, principle, norm) value, the subjects of the conflict aspire to possess or use. The subject of the conflict is an objectively existing or conceivable (imaginary) problem, which serves as a source of discord between the parties, the main contradiction, because of which a conflict arose. Pedagogical conflict is a complex phenomenon that occurs due to objective and subjective (personal) reasons. The study of causes is 57
a quintessence in science. According to F. Bacon, true knowledge is knowledge, which goes back to principles. In pedagogical conflictology, a large empirical material has been accumulated, that explores the causes of pedagogical conflicts. For example, it has been established that teachers at the age between 40 and 50 often perceive control over their activities as a challenge that threatens their authority; After the age of 50, teachers are constantly anxious, often manifested in intense irritation, emotional breakdowns leading to conflict. Dynamics of the conflict: the main stages of its development. Since the educational process is an active and dynamic system, the conflict in it is conditioned not only by the initial parameters, but also by the process of deployment, the conflict can be represented in the form of three main stages of development: a conflict situation, an incident and conflict interaction. At its core the conflict situation is always a contradiction, which manifests itself through the opposition of the interests of the parties, value orientations, goals. At this stage, the motives for conflict behavior are formulated. This is the stage of a latent conflict, since there are no actions for confrontation, that is, contradictions do not always entail a conflict. For a conflict situation to evolve into a conflict, an incident is necessary. The incident is an occasion for conflict, a concrete circumstance, which is the «trigger mechanism» that generates the development of events. The escalation of the conflict means a progressive aggravation of the confrontation, in which the intensity of the destructive influences of opponents increases against each other. Escalation means a sharp intensification of the struggle of the subjects of the conflict. The attitude towards the emerging conflict situation is largely determined by the previous experience of interaction. Therefore, it is so important for the personality to have a positive experience of conflict interaction. Among external social conflicts various forms are distinguished: inter-personal conflicts; conflicts between the individual and the group;intergroup conflict. The end of the conflict (the end of it for any reason) can occur in different forms: Extinction of the conflict as temporary stopping of the counter while saving contradictions and tense relations means a transition of the conflict in a latent form. 58
This occurs at the loss of constituent entities of motivation to confrontation, switching activity to other areas or when supplies are depleted, forces and capabilities to continue the fight. Elimination of conflict means the elimination of the basic structural elements of the conflict: the withdrawal of one of the actors or the removal of the object of conflict, etc. – Growing into another conflict is possible if there is a new, more significant contradiction and a change in the object of the conflict. – Adjustment of the conflict – elimination of contradictions between the parties to the conflict with the participation of a third party. – Conflict resolution is a joint activity of its participants, aimed at stopping the opposition and solving the problem that led to the confrontation. In resolving the conflict, three fundamentally different approaches are possible: 1) change the situation, 2) change attitudes, 3) change yourself. These three types of activity are carried out within the framework of the five styles of behavior in the conflict, identified by American scientists U. Thomas and H. Kilmen. Avoidance of conflict (withdrawal, ignoring, connivance, changing attitudes to the situation) is that a person delays the moment of solving the problem, seeks not to notice contradictions or for some time to postpone the decision. Adaptation (conciliation, concession) is to change the subject of the conflict itself and is an attempt to maintain good relations at all costs. This is a forced or voluntary refusal to fight and surrender of their positions. Confrontation – (overcoming, domination, suppression, struggle, contest, competition) as a style of behavior expresses the desire to subordinate the situation to oneself, to insist on one's own. Compromise (cooperation) – is manifested in changing the situation and changing the subject itself. This is the tactic of reaching an agreement by mutual concessions based on the use of formal components and an appeal to the formal order of things. A compromise can serve as a step in the adoption of an optimal solution, postponing for some time the final resolution of the conflict in the interests of all parties. 59
Cooperation is the type of interaction in the conflict, in which its participants seek to resolve the contradiction that has arisen between them, focusing on preserving the positive relationship. The purpose of using this strategy is to achieve a long-term agreement. The idea of cooperation as a positive strategy for resolving the conflict first arose in 1942 in the works of the American social psychologist M. Fallet and was originally designated as an integration strategy. Understanding of cooperation as a key strategy of pedagogical cooperation made it possible to create a whole pedagogical direction-the pedagogy of cooperation. The main communicative mechanism in this pedagogical technology is a dialogue. Questions for discussion: 1. What problems have modern educators – both scientists and practitioners for managing conflicts in the sphere of education? 2. Definition of the term «a conflict». 3. When does a pedagogical conflict normally take place? 4. The subjects of the pedagogical conflict. 5. Forms of the end of the conflict. 6. The main stages the development of a conflict. 7. Possible approaches in resolving the conflict. 8. Adaptation. 9. Compromise. 10. Cooperation.
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE PERSON OF THE MODERN TEACHER
Any educational system begins with the purpose of education certain type of person that meets the era. Based on the structure of pedagogical activity, principles of developmental and personality – oriented training, theoretical and pedagogical foundations of working with students in present conditions, we determined the basic requirements for professional qualifications of the teacher. A necessary condition is that the initial severity of the teacher personal principle. Personal principle is expressed in the presence of a broad, sustained interest in the world, the rejection of all forms of manipulation in relation to themselves and to others, require conscious organization behavior and the presence of the ideal. A new type of teacher should have a choice of perspective and immediate objectives, search activity, a creative approach to life. Creative approach to life form, such as the quality of the teacher determination, integrity,courage. All this forms the basis of the nature of the teacher of a new type. Psychological structure of the individual defines the general requirements to the teacher, his psycho-pedagogical orientation, expressed in love for the child, the relationship to him as a person. The main characteristics of such a teacher qualifications are: the ability of the subject building in the form of educational tasks, carrying the conceptual content, knowledge of psycho-pedagogical patterns and mechanisms of an educational activity, possession of pedagogical methods to solve educational problems in the situation of a joint community activities. In this regard, the most important professional qualities should include, such as the ability and need for reflection own academic work, empathy, a sense of humor (the ability to resolve conflicts nonviolently). The activities of the teacher should be built in 61
the mode of self-development. In addition, the teacher must be of such a general teaching abilities, as reflection, intuition, will. A new type of teacher – the owner of a number of special pedagogical tools: psychological knowledge about personality, mental processes and their relation to the type of personality, methods and form of communication, knowledge and skills, providing management of the educational processes, possession of theoretical knowledge of the subject areas. All this allows the teacher to easily build their teaching. We have considered the model of the teacher of a new type. When schools are looking to hire a teacher, there are a few basic requirements that they are looking for: a college (university) degree, experience working with children, and, of course, patience. Teachers need a variety of professional development skills along with knowledge of their subject matter and experience in order to be an effective teacher. Likewise, as the rapid developments in technology infuse into our lives, they affect the way students learn and the way teachers teach. Modern teachers need to be competent in not only basic skills, but new skill sets. Here are 15 of the many 21st-century professional development skills, or as we like to call it, «Modern skills» that today’s teachers should possess. Professional Development: 1. Adaptability In this modern, digital age, teachers need to be flexible and be able to adapt to whatever is thrown their way. New technologies are developed every day that can change the way students learn, and the way teachers teach. Likewise, administrators are changing and updating expectations and learning standards. Being able to adapt is a skill that every modern teacher must have. If it’s being able to adapt to the way students learn, the behavior their classroom exhibits, or their lesson plans, it is a definitely a trait that is a must-have. 2. Confidence Every teacher needs to have confidence, not only in themselves but in their students and their colleagues. A confident person inspires others to be confident, and a teacher’s confidence can help influence others to be a better person. 3. Communication Being able to communicate with not only your students but with parents and staff is an essential skill. Think about it: Almost all of a 62
teacher’s day is spent communicating with students and colleagues so it is crucial to be able to talk clear and concise in order to get your point across. 4. Team Player Part of being a teacher is being able to work together as part of a team or a group. When you work together as a team, it provides students with a better chance to learn and have fun. Networking with other teachers (even virtually) and solving problems together will only lead to success. Doing so fosters a sense of community not only in your own classroom, but school-wide as well. 5. Continuous Learner Teaching is a lifelong learning process. There is always something to learn when you are teacher. The world is always changing, along with the curriculum and educational technology, so it’s up to you, the teacher, to keep up with it. A teacher who is always willing to go that extra mile to learn will always be an effective, successful teacher. 6. Imaginative The most effective tool a teacher can use is their imagination. Teachers need to be creative and think of unique ways to keep their students engaged in learning, especially now that many states have implemented the Common Core Learning Standards into their curriculum. Many teachers are saying that these standards are taking all of the creativity and fun out of learning, so teachers are finding imaginative ways to make learning fun again. 7. Leadership An effective teacher is a mentor and knows how to guide her students in the right direction. She leads by example and is a good role model. She encourages students and leads them to a place of success. 8. Organization Modern teachers have the ability to organize and prepare for the unknown. They are always ready for anything that is thrown their way. Need to go home sick? No problem, they have a substitute folder all ready to go. Studies show that organized teachers lead more effective learning environments. So it is even more imperative to be organized if you want higher-achieving students. 9. Innovative A modern teacher is willing to try new things, from new educational apps to teaching skills and electronic devices. Being innovative 63
means not only trying new things, but questioning your students, making real-world connections and cultivating a creative mindset. It’s getting your students to take risks and having students learn to collaborate. 10. Commitment While being committed to your job is a traditional teaching skill, it is also a modern one. A modern teacher needs to always be engaged in their profession. The students need to see that their teacher is present and dedicated to being there for them. 11. Ability to Manage Online Reputation This 21st-century, modern teaching skill is definitely a new one. In this digital age most, if not all, teachers are online, which means they have an «Online reputation.» Modern teachers need to know how to manage their online reputation and which social networks are OK for them to be on. 12. Ability to Engage Modern teachers know how to find engaging resources. In this digital age, it is essential to find materials and resources for students that will keep them interested. This means keeping up to date on new learning technologies and apps, and browsing the web and connecting to fellow teachers. Anyway that you can engage students and keep things interesting is a must. 13. Understanding of Technology Technology is growing at a rapid pace. In the past five years alone we have seen huge advancements and we will continue to see it grow. While it may be hard to keep up with it, it is something that all modern teachers need to do. Not only do you just need to understand the latest in technology, but you must also know which digital tools is right for your students. It’s a process that may take time but will be greatly influential in the success of your students. 14. Know When to Unplug Modern teachers know when it's time to unplug from social media and just relax. They also understand that the teacher burnout rate is high, so it's even more critical for them to take the time to slow down and take a moment for themselves. They also know when it’s time to tell their students to unplug and slow down. They give their students time each day for a brain break and let them kick their heels up and unwind. 15. Ability to Empower Teachers inspire, that’s just one of the qualities that come along with the title. Modern educators have the ability to empower students 64
to think critically, be innovative, creative, adaptable, passionate, and flexible. They empower them to be able to solve problems, self-direct, self-reflect, and lead. They give them the tools both digital and knowledgeable to succeed, not only in school but in life. Questions for discussion: 1. The basis of the nature of the teacher of a new type. 2. The most effective tool a teacher can use. 3. Teaching. 4. Important skills for teacher’s development. 5. How does teacher’s confidence can help influence others? 6. Why teaching is considered to be a lifelong learning process? 7. Ability to Manage Online Reputation. 8. Understanding of Technology. 9. How do you understand «know when to unplug». 10. Is it crucial for teacher to empower students to be able solve problems, selfdirect, self-reflect and lead?
THE CONCEPT OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Interpersonal Communication communication that is based on communicators' recognition of each other's uniqueness and the interactional process in which two people send and receive messages (communications is give and take) (communicate involves relationships and information). This refers to direct one to one communication between two persons. There are three stages: Phatic, Personal and Intimate. This is the most direct form of communication which utilizes both verbal and non-verbal methods. This form of communication is also called as Dyadic. Successful interpersonal communication is possible only when there is Openness: Primary willingness to open up. Empathy: Ability to understand the other person’s feelings. Supportiveness: Supporting the other person’s view point. Positiveness: A positive feeling for the other person. Equality: differences between persons to be ignored. Homophily: The degree of similarity between the parties engaged in interpersonal communication. Redundancy: by repetition and illustration of the same point in different ways one can drive idea effectively The concept of communication style has been defined by Robert Norton as «the way one verbally, nonverbally, and para verbally interacts to signal how literal meaning should be taken, interpreted, filtered, or understood». In this, Norton has identified nine communicator styles. A persons style may be dominant, dramatic, contentious, animated, impression leaving, relaxed, open, or friendly. These dimensions 66
measure how you interact in various situations. A dominant person means the person «tends to come on strong, take control of social situations, speak frequently, and otherwise control conversations». Relaxed is defined as «calm and collected during interacting, especially under pressure. The rhythm and flow of speech is rarely affected by feelings of nervousness». Communication is one of the most intricate and under looked areas of human beings. Interpersonal communication is the process by which people exchange information and feelings both verbally and non-verbally. Concepts and theories investigate and attempt to explain the subtle complexity of interpersonal communication. Self-disclosure, the strategies people use to approach one another, and the various stages relationships go through when they are beginning and ending are key concepts in interpersonal communication theory. They help to explain why people behave the way they do and why relationships succeed or fail. Strategies Interpersonal communication theory identifies various passive, active and interactive strategies that people use to learn about and approach others. A passive strategy is to observe someone from a distance before deciding whether to approach him, whereas asking other people for information about someone is an active strategy. Approaching someone directly and initiating a conversation is an interactive strategy. Self-disclosure Self-disclosure is a key concept of interpersonal communication because, if reciprocated, it fosters trust and brings people closer together. Disclosing information about yourself to another person helps her to understand you, as it means revealing private, sensitive or confidential information. According to Oregon State University, disclosure tends to be reciprocal; with increased intimacy, people feel more comfortable disclosing information that others might perceive as negative. Stages Psychologists use the concept of stages to explain how relationships evolve. Beginning with an initial encounter, a relationship progresses to the experimental stage when people exchange information on a variety of topics to determine whether there is enough common 67
ground to pursue a relationship. If this stage is successfully negotiated, the relationship intensifies and the two people, regardless of whether they are friends, lovers or business associates, form a lasting bond. Relational Dialectics Theory Tensions between connection and separateness in interpersonal relationships are explored through the relational dialectics theory. Theorists believe that self-disclosure can vie with the need for privacy and that the urge to tell all conflicts with a desire for secrecy in a continuously changing cycle, according to Oregon State University. Reverse Pattern Relationships that break down are believed to follow a reverse pattern that negatively mirrors the way relationships are initiated. People focus on differences rather than similarities and begin to restrict their communications to impersonal topics. The relationship becomes stagnant and unfulfilling, and the members of the relationship begin to avoid each other, sometimes expressing mutual annoyance when they do meet, according to Buffalo State University. 1. Self- Disclosure intentionally letting the other person know who you are by communicating self-revealing information – nonverbally/verbally – vulnerability decides on how much info revealed 2. Power the ability to control what happens- to create things you want to happen and to block things you don't want to happen expert power your capacity to influence another person because of the knowledge and skills you are presumed to have referent power based on personal loyalty, friendship, affection, and admiration reward power requires that you be perceived as the best or only source of desired rewards coercive power based on possible negative outcomes that are used as weapons legitimate power stems from one person's perception that another person has the right to make requests of him or her because of the position that the other person has 3. Tag Questions inquires added onto the end of statements, «that movie was awesome, don't you think?» intent is to get the communication partner to enter conversation 68
4. Sexual Harassment generalized sexist remarks or behavior; inappropriate and offensive sexual advances; solicitation of sexual activity or other sex-linked behavior...sexual actions in the workplace 5. Bullying verbally or physically attacking someone Interpersonal Relationships social associations, connections or affiliations between two or more people that can vary from intimacy and sharing to establishing a common ground 6. Electronically Mediated Communication (EMC) all forms of communication using electronic devices, cell phones, mail, instant message, blogs, social networks, etc. 7. Cyber Addiction a psychological compulsion in which individuals are so involved in the Internet that they use it to the point go neglecting personal and work responsibilities and become socially isolated 8. Flaming email aggression that occurs when individuals exchange hostile or insulting remarks 9. Cyber-Bullying harassment that takes place using an electronic medium 10. Cyber-Stalking following and harassing others online 11. Blog a website with dated entries; usually by one author 12. Social Networking talking online in such communities: Facebook, myspace... 13. Text Messaging sending of short messaging using cell phones The Concepts of Interpersonal Communication – Communication takes place within a system – We teach others how to treat us – We communicate what and who we are – Much of our I.C. centers on wanting others to act or think or feel the way we do (persuasion) Meaning is in people, not in words – We cannot NOT communicate 69
– People react to our actions – We do what we do because in the end we expect to achieve happiness – We cannot always have the same understandings and feelings as others Gender Communication – women use more words/ more conversationalists/disclose more personal info/ larger vocabularies for describing emotions – men more competitive/task orientated/ direct 5 steps of Knapp's Relationship Model 1) Initiation-usually short (meeting someone) 2) Experimenting- centers on asking questions of each other in order to gain more info, establish interest 3) Intensifying- self-disclosure becomes more common, less formal relationship 4) Integrating- dyad (relational identity) 5) Bonding- Formal or Legal announcement of the relationship (engaged, marriage, business partner) 5 steps of Knapp's Terminating Model 1) Differentiating- one or both people are aware that he/she needs to assert independence 2) Circumscribing- diminishment of communication 3) Stagnating- individuals may start to avoid discussing the relationship 4) Avoiding- physically separating 5) Terminating-natural/hurtful, relationship over. Questions for discussions: 1. When is successful interpersonal communication possible? 2. How many communicator styles has Norton identified? 3. Relational Dialectics Theory 4. What strategies does interpersonal communication theory identify? 5. Electronically Mediated Communication (EMC) 6. The Concepts of Interpersonal Communication 7. Gender Communication 8. When does the relationship become stagnant and unfulfilling? 9. Describe 5 steps of Knapp's Relationship Model 10. What are the concepts of Interpersonal Communication?
SITUATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
The Situational Perspective Miller (1990) contends that the situational perspective was the first substantive perspective on the nature of interpersonal communication to emerge (probably in the late 1960s) and was the most influential viewpoint on interpersonal communication until at least the mid -1970s. Although quite influential, the origins of the situational approach are unclear. The situational perspective distinguishes types of communication on the basis of features of the communicative context, the most important of which include the number of communicators, the physical proximity of those communicators, the availability of sensory or communication channels (especially nonverbal ones), and the immediacy of feedback received by communicators. Thus, interpersonal communication typically transpires between two people engaged in face-to-face interactions who use both verbal and nonverbal channels and have access to immediate feedback. Group, organizational, public, and mass communication involve increasing numbers of persons and decreasing levels of physical proximity, channel availability, and feedback immediacy. Dyadic communication often serves as a synonym for interpersonal communication in this perspective. The definition by Trenholm and Jensen presented at the outset of this paper embodies the situational perspective on interpersonal communication. The situational perspective leads to research on ways that contextual factors, especially features of the physical setting, influence processes and outcomes of interactions. Research questions consistent with the 71
situational perspective include the following: Do dyads or groups make better decisions? Does the greater availability of nonverbal cues in dyadic interaction enhance communication fidelity? Does the use of emoticons in the «impoverished» environment of computer-mediated communication increase communicator satisfaction? The situational perspective has been criticized extensively for highlighting less central interaction features (numbers of actors and qualities of the physical setting) while ignoring more substantive features, such as the relationship between the actors and the content of their exchange. Miller maintains that «situational views of interpersonal communication imply a static, nondevelopmental perspective rather than a dynamic, developmental viewpoint of the process». Thus, for example, the situational view equates a face-to-face conversation between a postal clerk and a customer with a conversation between a pair of longtime lovers. Perhaps even more problematic, the situational view maintains that interaction between the postal clerk and a customer is more «interpersonal» than a letter from a soldier to his family that details his deepest thoughts and feelings. More generally, Miller contends that the situational perspective invites an a historical concern with the number of people in a context, excludes consideration of other features of the context (such as the quality of the relationship among participants) that may more profoundly influence communication processes and outcomes, and leads to pursuing trivial questions such as «how many people can participate in an interaction before it is no longer ‘interpersonal’». PSYCHOLOGY AND HUMAN COMMUNICATION: Psychology is generally concerned with studying the mind, the brain, and human behaviour. The frame work of human cognitive architecture is helpful in discussing how different types of thought, as well as the corresponding areas of psychology, relate to each other along a continuum, and how this continuum, in turn, relates to human communication processes. Cognitive, cultural, developmental, perceptual, and social psychology, all hold implications for communication research. Alan Newell, in his landmark text Unified theories of Cognition has thrown light on the psychological perspectives on human communication in detail. The fields of psychology and communication are closely related, to the extent that the line differentiating the two is often quite blurry. Psychology may be considered an establi72
shed discipline when compared to communication. So communication may benefit from the relatively consolidated approaches of psychology. The relationship between psychology and communication has been productive in the past as well as in the present. So, the researchers in the field of communication will continue to both learn from and inform psychologists. UNDERSTANDING INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION: The unique characteristics of interpersonal communication can be explored by tracing the meaning of the word interpersonal. It is derived from the prefix ‘inter’ meaning «between», and the word person. So, interpersonal communication literally occurs between people. On one sense, all communication happens among people, yet many interactions don’t involve us personally. Communication exists on a continuum from impersonal to interpersonal. The heart of interpersonal communication is shared meanings between people. We don’t just exchange words when we communicate. Instead, we create meanings as we figure out what each other’s words and behaviours stand for, represent, or imply. Meanings grow out of histories of interactions between unique persons. The Oxford English Dictionary (1989, Vol. III, p. 578), for example, defines communication as «the imparting, conveying, or exchange of ideas, knowledge, information, etc. (whether by speech, writing, or signs)». Gergen argues that the notion that people have ideas, formed in the mind, which are then conveyed to others by a process of communication, is pervasive in all cultures. In 1928 the English literary critic and author I.A. Richards (cited in www.britannica.com) offered one of the first and in some ways still the best definitions of communication as a discrete aspect of human enterprise: Communication takes place when one mind so acts upon its environment that another mind is influenced, and in that other mind an experience occurs which is like the experience in the first mind, and is caused in part by that experience .Richards’s definition clearly presents the link between psychology and the study of communication skills. M.E. Roloff defines interpersonal communication as...a symbolic interaction between people rather than between a person and an inanimate object. Mark L. Knapp and John Augustine Daly in their Handbook of Interpersonal Communication state: Interpersonal communication can mean the ability to relate to people in written as well as verbal communication. This type of communication 73
can occur in both a one-on-one and a group setting. This also means being able to handle different people in different situations, and making people feel at ease. Gestures such as eye contact, body movement, and hand gestures are also part of interpersonal communication. The most common functions of interpersonal communication are listening, talking and conflict resolution. Types of interpersonal communication vary from verbal to non-verbal and from situation to situation. Interpersonal communication involves face-to-face communication in a way that accomplishes the purpose and is appropriate. Stewart & Angelo in their book Together: Communicating Interpersonally defines communication in the following manner: Interpersonal communication is a mutual relational, co-constructed process, as opposed to something that one person does «to» someone else. Foa & Foa's Resource Theory focuses on the development of cognitive structures in the mind. Behavior is guided by motivational states. People are motivated to engage in certain behaviors whenever quantities of resources fall outside the optimal range. They posit that every interpersonal behavior consists of giving or taking away one or more resources, and that closely allied resources exchanges occur more frequently (i.e. love for love). Michael Cody defines interpersonal communication ...as the exchange of symbols used to achieve interpersonal goals. An interpersonal communication focus emphasizes the process of the person interacting rather than the verbal content of the interaction, accentuates behaviours and skills which extend the alternatives available for interpersonal communication. It includes affective as well as cognitive dimensions drawn from the behavioural and other sciences as well as from the humanities. It is concerned about both verbal and nonverbal human messages and responses, and represents an emphasis on the objective investigation of the experience of person-to-person communication. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION AND TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS: Over the years, a number of scholars interested in language-thought-behaviour relationships have formulated principles that are designed to assist us in overcoming some of the obstacles to effective interpersonal communication that could result from a misunderstanding of the way language influences us. One of the most accessible theories of modern psychology, Transactional Analysis (TA), propounded by Eric Berne highlights the connection between 74
language behavior and interpersonal communication process in simple and comprehensible way. It encompasses communications, management, personality, relationships and behavior. Eric Berne said that verbal communication, particularly face-to-face (interpersonal in nature), is at the center of human social relationships and psychoanalysis. Transactional analysis is a social psychology and method to improve communication. This theory outlines how we develop and treat ourselves when we relate and communicate with others. The unit of social intercourse is called a transaction. If two or more people encounter each other... sooner or later one of them will speak, or give some other indication of acknowledging the presence of the others. This is called transactional stimulus. Another person will then say or do something which is in some way related to the stimulus, and that is called the transactional response. According to Berne, each person is made up of three alter ego states. They are: Parent (our ingrained voice of authority), Child (our external reaction and feelings to external events) and Adult(our ability to think and determine action for ourselves). «Ego states» in terms of Berne: A consistent pattern of feeling and experience directly related to a corresponding consistent pattern of behaviour. The essence of Transactional Analysis lies in the principle that when we communicate we are doing so from one of our own alter ego states, our Parent, Child and Adult. Based on the state we send the stimulus or response. The person communicating the stimulus is called the agent. The person who responds is called the respondent. The parent is our voice of authority, learnt and acquired attitudes we have developed through our life. The parent is the massive collection of recordings in the brain of external events experienced and perceived during our childhood. As per the view of psychologists, the majority of the external events experienced by the children are imitations of parents, relatives, teachers and neighbours. This ego state is appropriately called parent. In contrast to the parent, the child is formed by our internal reaction and feelings to external events in the childhood. Our adult is our innate ability to think and determine our actions and communication based on the data received. Berne describes Adult as being ...principally concerned with transforming stimuli into pieces of information, and processing and filing that information on the basis of previous experience. In other words, parent is our taught concept of life; adult is our thought concept of life; child 75
is our felt concept of life. These three states can be used to understand and analyze human behaviour. This concept has been also discussed extensively in Dr. Berne’s popular book: Games People Play. Transactional Analysis is a language within a language: a language of true meaning, feeling, behavior and motive. It can help us in every situation, firstly through being able to understand more clearly what is going on. Secondly by virtue of this knowledge, we give ourselves choicesof what ego states to adopt, which signals to send, and where to send them. This will enable us to create, develop and maintain better relationships through communication. Thus the core of Berne’s theory helps us in developing effective interpersonal communication skills. INTERPERSONAL NEEDS: William C. Schutz has developed a systematic approach to the understanding of interpersonal communication that is based upon interpersonal needs. According to Schutz, interpersonal needs can be divided into three categories. They are inclusion, control and affection. Inclusion refers to the need to maintain a satisfactory relationship with others and to have enough involvement and belongingness; control is associated with the need for influence and power; and affection refers to the need for friendship, closeness, and love. Each person’s interpersonal needs are different. An awareness of the interpersonal needs of the individuals will enable us to better understand their communication behaviour. The Schutz system suggests that a successful interpersonal encounter is one where the interpersonal needs of the participants are satisfied. We engage in interpersonal communication and compare our opinions, attitudes, and beliefs with those of others. In the same way, George C. Homans (1950) identifies three elements that are present when individuals get together to perform some task: sentiment, activity, and interaction. Sentiment refers to the need that motivated the individuals to join one another as well as to the positive and negative feelings that participants develop toward one another. Activity is the label given to the specific acts the participants perform that are related to their task. Interaction refers, among other things, to the interpersonal communication that inevitably occurs as the participants conduct their activities. Activity, interaction, and sentiment are all interdependent. That is, an increase or decrease in any one element affects the other two. Both these views highlight the psychological issues in developing interpersonal relationship while communicating with one another. 76
SULLIVAN’S INTERPERSONAL THEORY OF PSYCHIATRY: Harry Stack Sullivan (1892-1949), a pioneer in the field of interpersonal psychoanalysis, has paved the way for his followers in propounding theories on psychiatry based on interpersonal competence. He has been described as «the most original figure in American psychiatry.» He believed that psychiatry is the study of what goes on between people. This is in contrast to Freud’s paradigm that emphasizes on what goes on inside people. Challenging Freud’s psychosexual theory, Sullivan propounded the theory of psychiatry, which focused on the role of interpersonal relations, society and culture as the primary determinants of personality development and psychopathology. For him, personality is a hypothetical entity that cannot be observed or studied apart from interpersonal situations wherein it is manifested. The only way personality can be known is through the medium of interpersonal situations. Therefore the unit of study is not the individual person, but the interpersonal situation. LANGUAGE, BEHAVIOUR AND INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION: There is a concrete and complex network of links among the elements such as language, behaviour and interpersonal skills in the process of communication. Social psychologists focused on behavior in interpersonal relations, their research served as agateway for research examining communication in interpersonal relationships. In the words of Heath and Bryant: Particularly since 1960, scholars adopted communication as the central term because they wanted to study it as a significant and unique aspect of human behavior. Social psychologists like Heider focused on ‘behaviour’ in the context of interpersonal communication. Heider’s theory of «naive psychology» suggested that individuals act as observers and analyzers of human behavior in everyday life. Heider stated: ...persons actively seek to predict and explain the actions of others. Individuals gather information that helps them to predict and explain human behavior. The naive factor analysis of action permits man to give meaning to action, to influence the actions of others as well as of himself, and to predict future actions. According to Larry A. Samovar and Richard E. Porter communication is... a dynamic transactional behavior-affecting process in which people behave intentionally in order to induce or elicit a particular response from another person. In addition to the previous definition, they add the proponents of a channel, through which the communi77
cation takes place; a responder, who observe the communicative behaviour; encoding and decoding, i.e. the processes of producing and interpreting information; and feedback, which refers to the information available to a source that permits him or her to make qualitative judgements about communication effectiveness. As Samovar and Porter put it: ...communication is complete only when the intended behaviour is observed by the intended receiver and that person responds to and is affected by the behaviour. Thus their definition is largely based on intentional communication in an interpersonal context. This is only to show that there are several ways to define and understand the field of interpersonal communication in various dimensions correlating ‘language’ and ‘behaviour’. CONCLUSION: The above explorations and explanations bring out the ‘intrinsic’ and ‘extrinsic’ links between psychology and interpersonal communication. Researchers in the field of interpersonal communication are largely benefited by the socio psychological approaches to interpersonal communication. These findings enable them to move further in the progress of research with better understanding of the core concepts of interpersonal communication. The theories propounded by the pioneers in the field of communication and psychology help them launch new research, either by providing the testable hypothesis or by providing them with a heuristic approach to their research findings. Questions for discussion 1. The situational perspective on the basis of features of the communicative context. 2. How does the situational perspective distinguish types of communication? 3. What is dyadic communication? 4. Are the fields of psychology and communication related (in what extent (according to Alan Newell)). 5. What can interpersonal communication mean according Mark L. Knapp and John Augustine Daly in their Handbook of Interpersonal Communication (2002)? 6. A systematic approach to the understanding of interpersonal communication developed by William C. Schutz. 7. Sullivan’s Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry. 8. The heart of interpersonal communication. 9. What is communication according to Larry A. Samovar and Richard E. Porter. 10. Links between psychology and interpersonal communication.
SPEECH AND NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR IN INTERPERSONAL INTERACTION
As we communicate, we use two major signal systems-the verbal and the nonverbal. Verbal messages are those sent with words. The word verbal refers to words, not to orality; verbal messages consist of both oral and written words. Verbal messages do not include laughter; vocalized pauses you make when you speak, such as «er», «um» and «ah»; or responses you make to others that are oral but don’t involve words, such as «ha-ha», «aha,» and «ugh!» These sounds are considered nonverbal –as are, of course, facial expressions, eye movements, gestures and so on. Messages are packed Both verbal and nonverbal signals occur simultaneously. Usually, verbal and nonverbal behaviors reinforce or support each other. For example, you don’t usually express fear with words while the rest of your body relaxes. You don’t normally express anger with your body posture while your face smiles. Your entire being works as a whole – verbally and nonverbally-to express your thoughts and feelings. Interestingly enough, this blending of verbal and nonverbal signals seems also to help you think and remember. Social networking sites enable you to package your messages with simple clicks of the mousecombining photos and videos with your verbal posts. You often fail to notice this «packaging» in others’ messages of someone’s posture or face contradict what is said verbally, you take special notice. For example, the person who says, «I’m so glad to see you», but avoids direct eye contact and looks around to see who else is present, is sending contradictory messages. You also see contradictory or mixed messages when couples say they love each other but seem to go out of 79
their way to hurt each other nonverbally – for example, being late for important dates, flirting with others, or avoiding touching each other. An awareness of the packaged nature of communication, then, suggests a warning against the too-easy interpretation of another’s meaning, especially as revealed in nonverbal behaviours. Messages Meaning Are in People Meaning depends not only on the packaging of messages (the combined verbal and nonverbal elements), but also on the interaction of these messages and the receiver’s own thoughts and feelings. You don’t «receive» meaning; you create meaning. You construct meaning out of the messages you receive combined with your own social and cultural perspectives (beliefs, attitudes, and values, for example). Words don’t mean; people mean. For example, if you wanted to know the meaning of the word love, you’d probably turn to a dictionary. There you’d find, according to Webster’s «the attraction, desire or affection felt: for a person who arouses delight or admiration.» But where would you turn if you wanted to know what Pedro means when he says, «I’m in love»? Of course, you’d turn to Pedro to discover his meaning. It’s in this sense that meanings are not in words but in people. Consequently, to uncover meaning, you to look into people and not merely into words. Also recognize that as you change, you also change the meanings you create. That is, although the message sent may not have changed, the meanings you created from it yesterday and the meanings you create today may be quite different. Meanings Are Denotative and Connotative Consider a word such as death. To a doctor this word may mean the moment at which the heart stops beating. This is denotative meaning- a rather objective description of an event. The denotation of a word is its objective definition; the connotation is its subjective or emotional meaning. Compare the term migrant (to designate Europeans who came to the United States to better their economic condition) with the term settlers (to designate Europeans who came to the United States for the same reason). Though both terms describe essentially the same activity (and are essentially the same denatavily), 80
ne is often negatively evaluated and the other is more often positively valued (and so differ widely in their connotations). Now consider a simple nod of the head in answer to the question, «Do You agree?» This gesture is largely denotative and simply says yes. But what about a wink, a smile, or an overly rapid speech rate? These nonverbal expressions are more connotative; they express your feelings rather than objective information. The denotative meaning of a message is universal; most people would agree with denotative meanings and would give similar definitions. Connotative meanings, however, are extremely personal, and few people would agree on the precise connotative meaning of a word or nonverbal behavior. «Snarl words» and «purr words» may further clarify the distinction between denotative and connotative meaning. Snarl words are highly negative (She’s an idiot, «He’s a pig», «They’re bunch of losers»). Sexist, racist, and heterosexist language and hate speech provide lots of other examples. Purr words are highly positive (She’s real sweetheart, He’s a dream, « They’re the greatest»). Although they may sometimes seem to have denotative meaning and refer to the «real world», snarl and purr words are actually connotative in meaning. They don’t describe people or events; rather, they reveal the speaker’s feelings about these people or events. Effective verbal messages include words at many levels of abstraction. At times an abstract, general term may suit your needs best; at other times a more concrete, specific term may serve better. Generally, however, the specific term will prove the better choice. As you get more specific-less abstract- you more effectively guide the images that will come into your listeners’ minds. In much the same way that you use specific terms to direct your face-to-face listeners’ attention to exactly what you want them to focus on, you also use specific terms to direct an Internet search engine to narrow its focus to (ideally) just those items you want to access. Messages Vary in Politeness One of the best ways to look at politeness (consideration, respect, etc.) in interpersonal communication is in terms of both positive and negative politeness. Both of these forms of politeness are responsive to two needs that each person has: each of us wishes to be viewed positively by others, to be thought of favorably; this is referred to as 81
maintaining positive face. And each of us desires to be autonomous, to have the right to do as we wish; this is referred to as maintaining negative face. Politeness in interpersonal communication, then, involves behavior that allows others to maintain both positive and negative face. Politeness and Directness Messages that support or attack face needs are often discussed in terms of direct and indirect language. Directness is usually less polite and may infringe on a person’s need to maintain negative face- «Write me the recommendation». Indirectness allows the person to maintain autonomy (negative face) and provides an acceptable way for the person to refuse your request. Indirect messages also allow you to express a desire or preference without insulting or offending anyone; they allow you to observe the rules of polite interaction. So instead of saying, «I’m bored with this group,» you say, «It’s getting late and I have to get up early tomorrow,» or you look at your watch and pretend to be surprised by the time. Instead of saying, «This food tasteslike cardboard,» you say, «I just started my diet» or, «I just ate.» Sometimes indirect messages allow you to ask for compliments in a socially acceptable manner. Partly for cultural reasons, indirect statements also may be seen as manipulative or underhanded, whereas direct statements may be seen as straightforward and honest. Guidelines for Using Verbal Messages Effectively ‒ Extensionalize; the word is not the thing. Avoid intentional orientation, the intendancy to view the world the world in the way it’s talked about or labeled. Instead, respond to things first; look for the labels second. ‒ See the individual; avoid allness, our tendency to describe the world in extreme terms that imply we know all or are saying all there is to say. To combat allness, remind yourself that you can never know all or say all about anything; use a mental and sometimes verbal «etc.» ‒ Distinguish between facts and inferences, and act differently depending on whether the message is factual or inferential. 82
‒ Discriminate among. Avoid indiscrimination, the tendency to group unique individuals or items because they’re covered by the same term or label. ‒ Talk with middle terms; avoid polarization, the tendency to describe the world in terms of extremes or polar opposites. To combat polarization use middle terms and qualifiers. ‒ Update messages regularly; nothing is static. Avoid static evaluation, the tendency to describe the world in static terms, denying constant change. To combat static evaluation, recognize the inevitability of change; date statements and evaluations, realizing. Nonverbal Communication is communication without words. You communicate nonverbally when You gesture, smile or frown, widen your eyes, move your chair closer to someone, wear jewelry, touch someone, raise your vocal volume, or even when you say nothing. The crucial aspect of nonverbal communication is that the message you send is in some way received by one or more other people. Your ability to use nonverbal communication effectively can yield two major benefits. First, the greater your ability to send and receive nonverbal signals, the higher your attraction, popularity, and psychosocial well-being are likely to be. Second, the greater your nonverbal skills, the more successful you’re likely to be in a wide variety of interpersonal communication situations, including close relationships, organizational communication, teacher-student communication, intercultural communication, courtroom communication, in politics, and in health care. Principles of Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal Messages Interact with Verbal Messages Verbal and nonverbal messages interact with each other. Accent. Nonverbal communication is often used to accent or emphasize some part of the verbal message. You might, for example, raise your voice to underscore a particular word or phrase, bang your fist on the desk to stress your commitment, or look longingly into someone’s eyes when saying, «I love you». Complement. Nonverbal communication may be used to complement, to add nuances of meaning not communicated by your verbal message. Thus, you might smile when telling a story (to suggest that you find it humorous) or frown and shake your head when recounting someone’s deceit (to suggest your dissapproval). 83
Contradict. You may deliberately contradict your verbal messages with nonverbal movements; for example, by crossing your fingers or winking to indicate that you’re lying. Control. Nonverbal movements may be used to control, or to indicate your desire to control, the flow of verbal messages, as when you purse your lips, lean forward, or make hand movements to indicate that you want to speak. You might also put up your hand or vocalize your pauses (for example, with «um») to indicate that you have not finished and aren’t ready to relinquish the floor to the next speaker. Repeat. You can repeat or restate the verbal message nonverbally. You can, for example, follow your verbal «Is that all right?» with raised eyebrows and a questioning look, or you can motion with your head or hand to repeat your verbal «Let’s go.» Substitute. You may also use nonverbal communication to substitute for verbal messages. You can, for example, signal «OK» with a hand gesture. You can nod your head to indicate yes or shake your head to indicate on. When you communicate electronically, of course, your message is communicatedby means of typed letters without facial expressions or gestures that normally accompany face-to-face communication and without the changes in rate and volume that are a part of normal telephone communication. To compensate for this lack of nonverbal behavior, the emotion was created. Sometimes called a «smiley» after the ever-present :), the emotion is a typed symbol that communicates through a key board the nuances of the message normally convey by nonverbal expression. The absence of the nonverbal channel through which you can clarify your message-for example, smiling or winking to communicate sarcasm or humor-make such typed symbols extremely helpful. Nonverbal Messages Help Manage Impressions It is largely through the nonverbal communication of others that you form impressions of them. Based on a person’s body size, skin color, and dress, as well as on the way the person smiles, maintains eye contact, and expresses himself or herself facially, you form impressions-you judge who the person is and what the person is like. 84
Attractive Unattractive Gesture to show liveliness and Gesture for the sake of gesturing or animation in ways that are appropriate to gesture in ways that may prove the situation and to the message. offensive to members of other cultures. Nod and lean forward to signal that Go on automatic pilot, nodding without you’re listening and are interested. any connection to what is said, or lean so far forward that you intrude on the other’s space. Smile and facially show your interest, Overdo it; inappropriate smiling is likely attention and positivity. to be perceived negatively. Make eye contact in moderation State, ogle, glare, or otherwise make the person feel that he or she is under scrutiny. Touch in moderation when appropriate. Touch excessively or too intimately. When in doubt, avoid touching another. Use vocal variation in rate, rhythm, Fall into a pattern in which, for example, pitch, and volume to communicate your your voice goes up and down without animation and involvement in what any relationship to what you’re saying. you’re saying. Use appropriate facial reactions, posture, Listen motionlessly or in ways that and back-channeling cues to show that suggest you’re listening only you’re listening. halfheartedly. Stand reasonably close to show Invade the other person’s comfort zone. connectedness. Present a pleasant smell-and be careful Overdo the cologne or perfume. to camouflage the onions, garlic, or smoke that you’re so used to you can’t smell. Dress appropriately to the situation. Wear clothing that’s uncomfortable or that calls attention to itself.
Nonverbal Messages Structure Conversation When you’re in conversation, you give and receive cues-signals that you’re ready to speak, to listen, to comment on what the speaker just said. These cues regulate and structure the interaction. These turntaking cues may be verbal (as when you say, «What do you think?» and thereby give the speaking turn over to the listener). Most often, however, they’re nonverbal; a nod of the head in the direction of someone else, for example, signals that you’re ready to give up your speaking turn and want this other person to say something. 85
Nonverbal Messages Can Influence You can influence others not only through what you say but also through your nonverbal signals. A focused glance that says you’re committed; gestures that further explain what you’re saying; appropriate dress that says, «I’ll easily fit in with this organization»-these are just a few examples of ways in which you can exert nonverbal influence. Questions for discussion: 1. Two major signal systems-the verbal and the nonverbal. 2. What do verbal messages include? 3. Messages are packed. 4. Messages meaning are in people. 5. Denotative and connotative meanings. 6. Nonverbal messages structure conversation. 7. Messages vary in politeness. 8. Politeness and Directness. 9. Guidelines for using verbal messages effectively. 10. Nonverbal messages help manage impressions.
UNIVERSITY AND SCHOOL: COLLABORATION BETWEEN EDUCATION, SOCIETY AND LIFE
‘Education is one of the basic needs for human development and to escape from poverty', it is necessary for national development and a prosperous society. Higher education is important for social and economic impacts in society Thus, governments and society have a vested interest in ensuring a constant flow of students in higher education. In order to provide ‘quality’ of higher education, quality assurance is necessary. Quality assurance for higher education systems has become an important issue worldwide. Quality of higher education can be defined in multiple ways. Following the competition-based view, dimensions of higher education quality are expressed by quality of students, faculty credentials, academic features, and administrative supports. First, students’ individual characteristics like age, research interests, previous results, perception pattern, family background, and income are important contributors to the perception of education quality. Therefore, environmental factors such as social, economic, and cultural influences can also play vital roles; parents’ education, their income, attitude, and present examination system affect the education of children. Second, qualifications of teaching staff are found to be one of the most important factors affecting the perception of education quality. The study showed that students see two types of images of teachers: the image of an ideal teacher and own self-image as a teacher. Their study revealed that students perceive personal qualities and professional knowledge to be the most significant qualities needed to be an ideal teacher. The personal qualities include general personal qualities, kindness, leadership, and attitude toward profession; and professional 87
qualities include knowledge of the subject matter and didactic knowledge. They also stated that other qualities like general knowledge, teacher as a socializing agent and a person with a distinct social mission are perceived to be less important. It was identified a set of characteristics for effective teacher education programs. These are: opportunity to learn during the pre-service course, ability to assess student learning, ability to plan curriculum unit, and ability to receive feedback. Third, an important aspect of education quality is identified by academic factors within the universities. Students’ expectation can be measured by explaining three broad categories: course contents, academic staff, and grades. The study showed that students’ responses had a wide range of deviations among the three categories: academic content that is studied in the university; career skills that are needed either in or outside the college, and life skills that are useful in all aspects of post-higher-education life. The author found that students sometimes suggest that learning is not correlated with the course design and instructor, what students actually learn does not always reflect in their grades, but recognized that student evaluation of teaching is treated as one of the widest research literature in applied psychology. Lastly, the administration systems of a university will also determine how well a projected plan will be implemented to ensure the quality of education. It was examined the perceived service quality provided by the administrative units, for example, services provided by the registrar, library, faculty office, rector office, dormitory, sports, and health care center. They found two fundamental dimensions, tangibles and intangibles, to measure the service quality. Both tangible and intangible factors have a positive effect on student satisfaction. On the Way into the Bologna reform—a consideration of the quality and the role of human resource management in higher education system. Human resource management tools play important roles in developing the teachers, supporting changes in the organizational culture, and preparing managers, leaders, and academic personnel for the higher education institutions. Education as a Social Institution Social institutions are an important element in the structure of human societies. They provide a structure for behavior in a particular 88
part of social life. The five major social institutions in large societies are family, education, religion, politics, and economics. While each institution does deal with a different aspect of life, they are interrelated and intersect often in the course of daily life. For example, for schools to be able to exist they rely on funding from the government. This is an intersection between politics and education. Social institutions affect individual lives through other aspects of society such as culture, socialization, social stratification, and deviance. Education plays a large part in the socialization of children into society. Most American children spend the required 180 days each year in school from the first grade through high school. Most of a child’s day through these years is devoted to activities involving school such as attending classes, doing homework, and participating in extracurricular activities. The school format is designed to teach children to be productive members of society. Schools bear most of the responsibility of preparing young people for the working environment. Children learn punctuality, time management, and to respect the authority of their teacher which prepares them to respect their boss. The curriculum also plays an important role. A class in civics teaches a child to be a good American, and a class in home economics teaches a child how to operate a household. Most socialization, however, occurs beyond the curriculum. Extra-curricular activities such as student government, being a part of a school newspaper, or being in a business club provide anticipatory socialization for adult jobs. Children spend much time with their peers while at school, and peers are a very important agent of socialization. Adolescents tend to choose friends that are similar to them in race, social class, and interests. Students use their reference group as a way to measure self-worth. Education and deviance have a close relationship. The education system serves several different purposes in regard to deviance. Foremost, education is a deterrent for deviance. Children learn very early about crime and punishment. They learn it in the curriculum, but they also learn it in a practical way. They are punished for cheating, fighting, and other deviant behaviors. Therefore, the education system plays a vital role in social control by producing compliant citizens that understand what deviance is and how to avoid it. Although education is used as a tool to deter deviance, it can unknowingly perpetuate it as well. We all remember those kids in school who were labeled as stupid or troublemakers. Teachers as 89
well as classmates treat these students differently. Teachers are stricter with troublemakers and assume that if something goes wrong that the troublemaker was the cause of it. If a child is labeled as stupid, a teacher expects less out of that child. The mainstream peer population avoids any peer that is deviant. Thus, these students feel that their only identity is their so-called deviant behavior. It seems to the child that they will never be able to escape this label, so they continue with the behavior that is considered deviant. Social stratification and education are tightly linked. Many Americans have the ideal that education is a main promoter of social equality. Everyone has the same opportunity to work hard, gain credentials, and become upwardly mobile. However, research has shown that the exact opposite is true. Schools may promote social inequality by limiting the opportunities of women, minorities, and those in the lower classes. This can because of purposeful discrimination, but more often it is because the social institution of education has sexism and racism built into it. Study after study has shown that students from upper classes consistently do better in school and continue their education, whereas lower classes students do not have the same success. Students from upper class families have high expectations placed on them that they will be successful in school and achieve an occupation of equal or great value than that of their parents. It is expected that they can and will do well, and therefore they do. Students from lower class families do not have high expectations for themselves, and they often only aspire to the occupation level of their parents thus maintaining the status quo. The credentials of a college degree are also not equal. A student who obtains a degree from a private, elite school will have lifetime earnings increase of over 85%, while a degree from a good private school or better state school increases earnings by 50%, and a degree from any other school provides no advantage. The cost of tuition for the very elite schools is often out of range for all but the most upper class. Lower classes can usually only afford to attend the last category. The lower classes are still denied opportunities to get ahead and the class stratification is continued. Schools perpetuate gender and race stratification as well. Boys tend to receive more encouragement to take more math and science as well as more advanced courses than girls do. In the professional world, women are shut out of occupations involving higher math and science skills. Minorities also have less opportunity 90
to do well in school. Minorities are more likely to grow up in poverty and live in unhealthy environments. Their parents may lack the skills to help the child with schoolwork. Minorities are concentrated in the inner city where the worst, most impoverished schools ... are located. Therefore, even if they wish to attend school, they still receive have less access to good teachers and a good learning environment. And perhaps the most detrimental issue that minorities face is that they are often stigmatized as inferior. This causes them to be treated differently and it causes them to have low expectations for themselves, which leads to poor performance. Education is a vital part of society. It serves the beneficial purpose of educating our children and getting them ready to be productive adults in today’s society. But, the social institution of education is not without its problems. Continual efforts to modify and improve the system need to be made, if we are to reap the highest benefits that education has to offer to our children and our society as a whole. ........ Functions of School If I were to ask you 'What did you learn in school?' what would you say? Would you tell me about the subject knowledge you gained and the classes you attended? Would you talk about the time you spent with friends and your participation in extracurricular activities? Schools certainly act as a transmitter of knowledge and academic skills like reading, writing, and arithmetic. But they also serve other functions in our society as well, and these can be categorized as manifest or latent functions. A manifest function of school is a function that people believe is the obvious purpose of school and education. Manifest functions of education are those that are intended and that most people think about. For example, in elementary school, parents expect their children to learn new information but also how to 'get along' with other children and begin to understand how society works. So, two of the most significant manifest functions of schools beyond teaching subject knowledge are socialization and the transmission of cultural norms and values. Manifest Function: Socialization Socialization refers to a process by which individuals acquire a personal identity and learn the knowledge, language, and social skills 91
required to interact with others. Again, students don't only learn from the academic curriculum prepared by teachers and school administrators. They also learn social rules and expectations from interactions with others. Students in America receive rewards for following schedules and directions, meeting deadlines, and obeying authority. They learn how to avoid punishment by reducing undesirable behaviors like offensive language. They also figure out that to be successful socially, they must learn to be quiet, to wait, to act interested even when they're not, and to please their teachers without alienating their peers. Manifest Function: Cultural Transmission Besides socialization, another significant manifest function of school is the transmission of cultural norms and values to new generations. Schools help to mold a diverse population into one society with a shared national identity and prepare future generations for their citizenship roles. Students are taught about laws and our political way of life through civic lessons, and they're taught patriotism through rituals such as saluting the flag. Students must also learn the Pledge of Allegiance and the stories of the nation's heroes and exploits. Because America is a capitalist nation, students also quickly learn the importance of both teamwork and competition through learning games in the classroom as well as activities and athletics outside the classroom. Latent Functions of Schools In addition to manifest functions like socialization and culturezation, schools also serve latent functions in society. A latent function is a function that people are not aware of or doesn't come to mind straight away and usually is not intended. For example, schools often play a matchmaker function: they put together individuals of similar ages and backgrounds, and this results in many of us finding romantic partners and mates in primary, secondary, or post-secondary school. Questions for discussion: 1. What are the individual’s important contributors to the perception of education quality? 2. What is one of the most important factors affecting the perception of education quality? 3. Qualifications of teaching staff. 4. Education as a social institution.
5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
The socialization of children into society. Functions of School. Working environment. Manifest function: socialization. Manifest function: cultural transmission. Latent function of Schools.
2. Seminar 1
SOME METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE THEORY OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS
Issues for discussion: 1. The goal of human communication. 2. The structure of pedagogical communication. 3. The six basic functions of speech according R. Jakobson. Instruction for seminar. Form: Discussion The task of the discussion is to discover differences in the understanding of the question and in the dispute to establish the truth. Discussions can be free and manageable. The most relevant problematic issues of the discipline under discussion are discussed. Each of the participants in the discussion should learn how to express their thoughts accurately in a report or speech on the issue, actively defend their point of view, reasonably object, refute an erroneous position. A prerequisite for the development of a productive discussion is personal knowledge, which is acquired by students in lectures and in independent work. It is important to teach students a culture of communication and interaction. Part of the seminar-discussion can be elements of «brainstorming». In this case, the participants of the seminar try to put forward as many ideas as possible, without criticizing them, and then the main ones, most deserving of attention, are highlighted, which are discussed and developed. Communication is one of the forms of interaction between people in the process of their activity. Communication is an integral part of the social life of people, a means of forming and functioning of their consciousness. With the help of communication, there is an organi94
zation of expedient interaction of people in the course of joint activities, transfer of experience, labor and household skills, the emergence and satisfaction of spiritual needs. The purpose of communication is that for which a given type of activity arises, namely: education and upbringing, coordination of actions in joint activities, establishing relationships, and so on. The goal of human communication is to satisfy not only biological needs, as in animals, but also many others: social, cultural, cognitive, creative, the needs of intellectual growth, moral and professional development, etc. During the lifetime the number of goals increases. They include, besides those listed above, the transfer and acquisition of knowledge about the world, education and training, the harmonization of reasonable actions of people in their joint activities, the establishment and clarification of personal and business relationships, etc. If the goals of communication usually do not go beyond the satisfaction of actual biological needs for them, in humans they are a means of satisfying many diverse needs: social, cultural, cognitive, creative, aesthetic, intellectual, etc. Pedagogical communication occupies a special place among a variety of types of communication. There are different points of view whether it is worth singling out pedagogical communication separately from pedagogical activity. Some believe that communication is inseparable from activity, while others, including us, believe that it is possible that an independent existence of communication exists as an end in itself to unite spiritual worlds of people located to each other, when people communicate for the sake of communication, for mutual enrichment with spiritual values. In our further research, we will proceed from the premise that pedagogical communication has the right to a separate existence as an exchange of values between a teacher and a student, and not necessarily about the lesson and teaching matters. Pedagogical communication is communication between a teacher and a student or pupil, between a teacher and parents, a teacher and a school director, etc., aimed at creating a favorable psychological climate. Next, we will mainly consider pedagogical communication of the teacher-student type. The professional knowledge of the teacher also includes an idea of the structure of communication: 95
Communicative tasks that the teacher sets (motivational sphere of communication). Today we can distinguish a fairly wide range of such tasks: interchange of information; mutual knowledge, mutual correction of behavior; mobilization. R. Jakobson distinguished six basic functions of speech: 1. Emotional (expressive, affective) ‒ the attitude of the speaker to the reported («What a pity, what a nuisance!»). 2. Conative ‒ prompting the addressee to act, request, order. 3. Reference (cognitive, denotative) ‒ an expression of thought. 4. Poetic ‒ demarcation of the real and the imaginary. 5. Actual ‒ maintaining contact (for example, «Hallo», «Hello», «How are you?»). 6. Metalanguage ‒ refinement, regulation of one's own utterance.
TYPES OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP
Issues for discussion: 1. The most essential factor for a stable friendship 2. What is family relationship 3. What feeling does not exist in friendship Instruction for seminar. Form: Discussion The task of the discussion is to discover differences in the understanding of the question and in the dispute to establish the truth. Discussions can be free and manageable. The most relevant problematic issues of the discipline under discussion are discussed. Each of the participants in the discussion should learn how to express their thoughts accurately in a report or speech on the issue, actively defend their point of view, reasonably object, refute an erroneous position. A prerequisite for the development of a productive discussion is personal knowledge, which is acquired by students in lectures and in independent work. It is important to teach students a culture of communication and interaction. Part of the seminar-discussion can be elements of «brainstorming». In this case, the participants of the seminar try to put forward as many ideas as possible, without criticizing them, and then the main ones, most deserving of attention, are highlighted, which are discussed and developed. The different types of Interpersonal Relationship are: When two individuals feel comfortable in each other’s company and decide to be with each other, they enter into a relationship. A close association between individuals who share common interests and goals is called interpersonal relationship. Individuals who are compa97
tible with each other enter into an interpersonal relationship. People must gel well for a strong and healthy relationship. Friendship. Friendship is an unconditional interpersonal relationship where individuals enter into by their own sweet will and choice. Friendship is a relationship where there are no formalities and individuals enjoy each other’s presence.
Friendship can be between: ‒ Man and woman ‒ Man and man ‒ Woman and woman Must have in friendship: Transparency is the most essential factor for a stable friendship. Do not hide things from your friends. Be honest to them. Guide them whenever required. Never give them any wrong suggestions or advice. Feelings like ego, jealousy, hatred, anger do not exist in friendship. The entire relationship of friendship revolves around trust and give and take. No relationship can be one sided and same with friendship. Try to do as much as you can for your friends. Love An interpersonal relationship characterized by passion, intimacy, trust and respect is called love. Individuals in a romantic relationship are deeply attached to each other and share a special bond. 98
Must have in a Romantic relationship: Two partners must trust each other in this relationship. A sense of respect and mutual admiration is essential. Partners must reciprocate each other’s feelings for the charm to stay in the relationship for a longer period of time. Case – 1 Marriage happens when two individuals in love decide to take their relationship to the next level. Marriage is a kind of formalized relationship where two individuals after knowing each other well decide to enter the wedlock and stay together life-long through thick and thin. Keys to a successful marriage: ‒ Understanding ‒ Love ‒ Passion ‒ Intimacy ‒ Respect ‒ Trust Case – 2 Two individuals might love each other but decide not to get married. They are often called as boyfriend and girlfriend. They may or may not stay together. If they stay together without formally getting married, they are said to enter a live in relationship. Individuals staying at far off places but in a relationship are said to be in a long distance relationship. Case – 3 Individuals not getting along might decide to end the relationship for a better future. Platonic Relationship A relationship between two individuals without any feelings or sexual desire for each other is called a platonic relationship. In such a relationship, a man and a woman are just friends and do not mix love with friendship. 99
Platonic relationships might end in romantic relationship with both the partners developing mutual love and falling for each other. This is the type of relationship that exists between people of the same or different genders without any intention of marriage or intimate affairs. It can exist between a man and a woman, boy and girl, etc. Family Relationship Individuals related by blood or marriage are said to form a family. This exists between members of the same family. It is known as biological relationship. Professional Relationship (Work Relationship) Individuals working together for the same organization are said to share a professional relationship. Individuals sharing a professional relationship are called colleagues. Colleagues may or may not like each other. Peer Relationship: Is a relationship that exists among people within the same age bracket, political or social group, classmates, etc. Relationship between man and God: This is the relationship between a creator and His creatures Opposite gender relationship: Most times, this exists between unmarried man and unmarried woman. Transcript of Types of Interpersonal Relationships A small social group bound by ties of blood, null contract, and a commitment to care for and be responsible for one another, usually in a shared household. Family-a close and caring relationship between two people that is perceived as mutually satisfying and beneficial. Friendship- Online relationships were thought to be rather impersonal, lacking the richness of nonverbal cues found in face-to-face relationships. But Joe Walther changed that. Online Relationships Love is typically defined as a deep affection for and attachment to another person involving emotional ties, with varying degrees of passion, commitment, and intimacy. Romantic -the interconnections and interdependence between two individuals. 100
What Are Interpersonal Relationships? 1. Communication Skills 2. Develop Characteristics that affect how we interact with others. We Learn... Family relationships constitute the first and most basic relationships in our lives. Availability /Caring/ Honesty/ Trust /Loyalty /Empathy: Making time for one another. Caring: Feelings of concern for the happiness and well-being of each other. Honesty: Being open and truthful with each other, even if that means saying things that are hard to hear. Trust: Being honest and maintaining confidentiality. Loyalty: Maintaining relationships despite disagreements and framing differences as positive. Empathy: Communicating the ability to feel what each other is feeling and experiencing. 1. Eros erotic, sexual love This type of relationship is intimate both emotionally and physically. The focus is on beauty and attractiveness. 2. Ludus playful, casual love Ludus means «play» in Latin, and the ludic lover views love as a game. Ludic love does not require great commitment. 3. Storge love that lacks passion Lacks passion and excitement. Share interests and activities but no feelings. 4. Pragma commited, practical love Extremely logical and practical. They want a long-term relationship with an individual who shares the same life goals. 5. Mania intense, romantic love Exhibits extreme feelings and is full of excitement and intensity. But it reaches a peak and eventually fades. 6. Agape selfless, romantic love Individual gives willingly and expects nothing in return. Can care for others without close ties; a deep relationship is not necessary. Argues that communicators use unique language and stylistic cues in their online messages to develop relationships that are just as close as those that grow from face -to-face content. Joe Walther's Theory Social Information Processing Theory Online Communication is even more personaland intimate than faceto-face interaction. 101
Hyperpersonal Communication Enables us to maintain intimacy with others over great distances. Sharing photos, videos, and stories on Facebook, Twitter, or personal blogs allows us to share our lives with family and e-mail messages keep partners close and aware of each other's lives. Online relationships is more than just romantic – family, friends, and colleagues.
PEDAGOGICAL FEATURES OF DEVELOPMENTAL RELATIONSHIPS
Issues for discussion: 1. What are the characteristics of developmental relationships? 2. How does a developmental relationship help young people? 3. What results do students achieve experiencing developmental relationships? Instruction for seminar. Form: a detailed conversation with the discussion of the report, is conducted on the basis of a pre-designed plan, on which the whole training group is preparing. The main components of the following seminar are: the introductory word of the lecturer, the report of the trainee, questions to the speaker, student presentations on the report and the issues discussed, the lecturer's conclusion. A detailed conversation allows you to involve the greatest number of trainees in the discussion of problems. The main task of the lecturer in conducting such a seminar is to use all the means of activation: setting well-thought-out, clearly formulated additional questions, skilfully concentrating on the most important problems, the ability to generalize and systematize the ideas expressed in speeches, compare different points of view, create an atmosphere of free exchange opinions. This form of the seminar contributes to the development of communication skills among learners. As a rule, the topics of the reports are developed by the lecturer in advance and included in the plans of the seminars. The report is a short (15-20 min.) Reasoned presentation of one of the central problems of the seminar. During this kind of seminars, fixed speeches on the most important but difficult questions can be heard. 103
Developmental Relationships. Search Institute’s newest research-to-practice initiative will focus on studying and strengthening the developmental relationships that help young people succeed. A developmental relationship helps young people attain the psychological and social skills that are essential for success in education and in life. Young people can form these relationships with their parents and family members, with their friends and peers, with staff members in their schools and programs, and with caring adults in their neighborhoods and communities. Based on this new research, we will develop survey instruments to measure how young people experience developmental relationships with their parents and the adults in their schools and youth programs. We will also work with schools, programs, families, and communities to initiate and improve developmental relationships in the lives of children. Why Do They Matter? Over the past two decades, researchers at Search Institute have shown that developmental relationships in young people’s lives are important. The number and intensity of developmental relationships in young people’s lives is linked to a range of positive educational outcomes. Relationships with caring adults and peers can increase student engagement and improve academic motivation. Students who experience developmental relationships: ‒ get better grades, ‒ have higher aspirations for the future, ‒ and participate in college-preparatory activities more frequently. But while the importance of developmental relationships is widely acknowledged, they are not widely understood. Developmental relationships ‒ are characterized by reciprocal human interactions that embody an enduring emotional attachment, progressively more complex patterns of joint activity, and a balance of power that gradually shifts from the developed person in favor of the developing person. ‒ The idea that relationships are important in human development is neither new nor controversial to our common sense or scientific understanding. Stated simply, relationships are the – active 104
ingredients‖ of the environment’s influence on healthy human development. They incorporate the qualities that best promote competence and well-being ... Relationships engage children in the human community in ways that help them define who they are, what they can become, and how and why they are important to other people.
Figure 1. An illustration of the idealized model of developmental relationship
‒ Naturally, as the adult’s support fades or as the activity advances, the child is engaged in progressively more complex patterns of behavior and becomes more able and willing to exert independence and control (i.e., balance of power shifts towards the child). Instruction and Learning in Elementary School Classrooms.
Figure 2. An illustration of development in overly-teacher-directed classroom settings
‒ In these low quality classroom environments, despite the progressive complexity of academic subjects, the balance of power is perpetually tilted towards the institutional requirements (e.g., curricula, tests) and the enforcers (e.g., teachers), not the students. Consequently, student’s competency and development are often stifled, or at least develop in a highly compartmentalized manner. Students may accumulate subject knowledge without developing critical thinking skills, intrinsic interest in learning, or a sense of self-efficacy. The students who succeed initially may nevertheless continue to expect high levels of teacher support and direction despite their own growing competence. Figure 2 illustrates the deviation from developmental relationship (Figure 1) under these conditions.
INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP IN TEACHING ACTIVITIES
Issues for discussion: 1. Pedagogical communication. 2. One of the communication qualities of lecturer (teacher) with the student. 3. Conditions in the process of formation of culture of interpersonal relationships for successful teaching activities. Instruction for seminar. Form: Press conference The task of the Press conference Press conference is one of the varieties of the seminar – discussion of reports. For each issue of the seminar plan, the lecturer appoints a group of trainees (3-4 people) as experts. They comprehensively study the problem and allocate a speaker for the presentation of theses on it. After the first report, the workshop participants ask questions, to which the speaker and other members of the expert group are responsible. Questions and answers form the central part of the seminar. As you know, the ability to raise the question presupposes preparedness for the relevant topic. And the more thorough the preparation, the deeper and more qualified questions are asked. On the basis of questions and answers, a creative discussion unfolds, the results of which are first summarized by the speaker and then by the lecturer. Other issues of the seminar plan are discussed in a similar way. In the closing speech, the lecturer sums up the discussion of the topic, evaluates the work of expert groups, determines the tasks of independent work. 107
Communication between teacher and students, during which the teacher decides to training, educational and personal-educational tasks, we call pedagogical communication. The pedagogical communication contains 2 kinds of communication. When a teacher holds an explanation of the new material, it is included in the socially-oriented dialogue, if it works with the student one on one (conversation during response from the board or from the place), the communication personally-oriented. Communication between teacher and students, during which the teacher decides to training, educational and personal-educational tasks, we call pedagogical communication. The pedagogical communication contains 2 kinds of communication. When a teacher holds an explanation of the new material, it is included in the socially-oriented dialogue, if it works with the student one on one (conversation during response from the board or from the place), the communication personally-oriented. Styles guidance of teacher: Autocratic (autocratic leadership style), when the teacher performs individual management team of students, not allowing them to express their views and criticisms, teacher consistently presents to students the requirements and implements a strict control over their execution; Authoritarian style of leadership allows for the possibility for students to participate in discussions of educational or collective life, but the decision is ultimately takes the teacher himself; Democratic style involves the attention and consideration of the views of students a teacher, he seeks to understand them, to convince, not to order, is dialogical communication on an equal footing; Autocratic (autocratic leadership style), when the teacher performs individual management team of students, not allowing them to express their views and criticisms, teacher consistently presents to students the requirements and implements a strict control over their execution; Authoritarian style of leadership allows for the possibility for students to participate in discussions of educational or collective life, but the decision is ultimately takes the teacher himself; Democratic style involves the attention and consideration of the views of students a teacher, he seeks to understand them, to convince, not to order, is dialogical communication on an equal footing; 108
To solve educational problems most effectively allows the democratic style in which the teacher takes into account the individual characteristics of students and their personal experience, the specificity of their needs and capabilities. «Pupil – Teacher» One of the communication qualities of teacher with the student is pedagogical tact. It lies in the psychological support of the child. In this process teacher: ‒ Focuses on the positive aspects and benefits of the child; ‒ Helps children to believe in themselves and their abilities; ‒ Helps children avoid mistakes; ‒ Supports the child when failures. Type of conflict «pupil – teacher» 4 groups of pedagogical conflicts at school 1) Motivational conflicts. They occur when the teacher and student are separated, opposed, they have different purposes and in different directions. 2) Conflicts interactions. These conflicts are caused by personal characteristics of persons, their goals, and value orientations. 3) Conflicts in the interactions of «teacher – student». Can act as conflicts of moral and ethical nature. Many adolescents and older students evince distrust of the teacher. Most often this is caused by the manipulation of the teaching in communion with the teenager. 4) The conflicts related to poor organization of schooling. In the process of learning in the school student takes 4 conflict period: 1 class – the transition from gaming activities to the curriculum; adaptation period lasts from 3 months to 1.5 years; 4 class – increasing the requirements for training activities, there are many subjects, increased independence; 9 class – an internal conflict where to go after the end of grade 9; 11 class – the end of the school, how to live? «Student – Teacher» Clearly, a positive teacher-student relationship strongly contributes to student learning. Educators, parents and students understand that problematic relationships can be detrimental to student outcomes and development. Productive learning environments are characterized 109
by supportive and warm interactions throughout the class: teacherstudent and student-student. Type of conflict «student – teacher» The most common cause of conflicts between students and teachers – the inadequacy of the assessment of students' knowledge. There are teachers who are almost never put «excellent», they are convinced that an excellent knowledge of the subject is only they themselves. Such a teacher is constantly in conflict with the students. The impact on the assessment may have the personal qualities of the student, his behavior during lectures and practical sessions (replicas of wrangling, the entry in the debate). According to surveys the teachers are members of more than half of the conflicts that have been recorded by students. Only tenth of these conflicts does not described. The nature of the rest depends on the personality of the teacher – his behavior towards students (Table 1). Only in a few cases «culprits» are the students themselves, who do not turn off cell phones during class or showing their material superiority. «Teacher – Teacher» The relations in the pedagogical team greatly affect the quality of the educational process. In most cases, the transition of the teacher from one school to another to explain that it does not add up relationships at work (with the director, assistant principal, colleagues, students and parents). Type of conflict «teacher – teacher» Interpersonal conflicts exist among the higher school teachers with colleagues and management. Conflicts may arise due to different views on any issue discussed at the department, not necessarily scientific, for example, when discussing the requirements of labor discipline (this is a different kind of duty, events, etc.); due to the uneven distribution of the teaching load, especially in cases when given the opportunity to earn additional income. Personality traits on which the authority of the teacher based: 1. The professionalism and deep knowledge of the subject; 2. The ability to figuratively and available to express their thoughts; 110
3. High common culture and erudition; 4. The speed of the reaction and thinking; 5. The ability to assert and defend their own point of view; 6. The ability to use expressive (non-verbal) means; 7. The ability to understand the psychology of the student, his strengths and weaknesses; 8. Care with respect to the interlocutor. Kindness and patience; 9. The rigor combined with justice; 10. Psychological resilience and resourcefulness in difficult situations; 11. A neat appearance. Qualities that are contraindicated for teaching: arrogance, rudeness; narcissism; mentoring; shyness; slow response, conservatism; the desire to suppress the student; laziness; excessive emotions, explosiveness; the lack of pedagogical skills. Conclusion: The process of formation of culture of interpersonal relationships in teaching activities will be successful if the following conditions are met: ‒ If it is formed motivation and value orientation in a team of teachers in the development of culture of interpersonal relations, ‒ Cooperation and dialogue; ‒ If the manifestation of interpersonal relationships, such as friendship, trust, tolerance, respect for colleagues, the high demands on themselves and others is a value in community. ‒ Not only the teachers but also the students themselves have an impact on the learning process. They determine what will be the approach of teacher to training team as a whole and to each of the students individually. ‒ The main task of the teacher and the student to find the «golden» for their optimum middle, where their interaction will be much more successful and fruitful.
STAGES OF BUILDING RELATIONSHIPS IN THE TEACHING ACTIVITIES
Educator's Guide to Preventing and Solving Discipline Problems Issues for discussion: 1. The main stages of building relationships in the teaching activities 2. Why is it important to give hints and clues to help students answer questions? 3. Quick and easy way to show students they are important and that you are glad to see them Instruction for seminar. Form: Discussion The task of the discussion is to discover differences in the understanding of the question and in the dispute to establish the truth. Discussions can be free and manageable. The most relevant problematic issues of the discipline under discussion are discussed. Each of the participants in the discussion should learn how to express their thoughts accurately in a report or speech on the issue, actively defend their point of view, reasonably object, refute an erroneous position. A prerequisite for the development of a productive discussion is personal knowledge, which is acquired by students in lectures and in independent work. It is important to teach students a culture of communication and interaction. Part of the seminar-discussion can be elements of «brainstorming». In this case, the participants of the seminar try to put forward as many ideas as possible, without criticizing them, and then the 112
main ones, most deserving of attention, are highlighted, which are discussed and developed. Developing Positive Teacher-Student Relations A review of the research shows that authors have a lot to say about positive relationships with students. Thompson says, «The most powerful weapon available to secondary teachers who want to foster a favorable learning climate is a positive relationship with our students». Canter and Canter make the statement that we all can recall classes in which we did not try very hard because we didn't like our teachers. This should remind us how important it is to have strong, positive relationships with our students. Kohn goes a step further, saying, «Children are more likely to be respectful when important adults in their lives respect them. They are more likely to care about others if they know they are cared about». Marzano states that students will resist rules and procedures along with the consequent disciplinary actions if the foundation of a good relationship is lacking. He goes on to assert that relationships are perhaps more important at the elementary and junior high levels than at the high school level. And according to Zehm and Kottler, students will never trust us or open themselves up to hear what we have to say unless they sense that we value and respect them. Strategies to develop positive teacher-student relations should be the largest portion of your discipline plan. What are some strategies that you can implement to develop strong and powerful relationships with your students? Let's look at some techniques that are easy to integrate into your everyday interactions with students: communicating positive expectations, correcting students in a constructive way, developing positive classroom pride, demonstrating caring, and preventing and reducing your own frustration and stress. Communicating Positive Expectations Research on teacher expectations and student achievement has shown that expectations have a dramatic impact on student academic performance. Student behavioral performance is also dependent to a large degree on the expectations of significant adults in students' lives. Numerous studies indicate that the expectations teachers have for students tend to become self-fulfilling prophesies. It is therefore 113
critically important for educators to monitor their interactions with the goal of communicating appropriately high behavioral and academic expectations to all students, not just to high achievers. There are several techniques that can be used to achieve this goal. Monitor the way you call on students. Make sure that you give all students chances to participate in class. Try to increase the amount of time you wait between asking a student a question and moving on by either answering the question yourself or calling on another student. Give students hints and clues to help them succeed in class. Tell students directly that you believe that they have the ability to do well. Your belief in them will inspire their success. Let's look at some of these techniques for communicating high expectations in more detail and discuss ways to implement these techniques in your classroom. Call on All Students Equitably When you call on students, there are several things to keep in mind. First of all, you must monitor the equitability of response opportunities. Often, teachers who keep track discover that they call on a small number of students frequently and allow few, if any, chances for students for whom they have low expectations to answer. When you fail to recognize particular students, you can communicate a low level of confidence in their abilities. Individual students may «tune out» and believe that you don't expect they will be able to answer your questions. This message is compounded when these students see others being called on regularly. Think about what it would communicate to you if your boss always asked other teachers to participate in committee work or special projects instead of you. And how would you feel if the boss continually came to you for help on curriculum projects or input on difficult students? Just as we do, students develop feelings of selfconfidence in their abilities when their teacher goes to them for the right answer. It is important that you monitor yourself to be certain that you are providing all of your students with response opportunities. Putting a check by the name of each student you call on during class discussions is an excellent way to quickly determine whether you are being equitable. Also, you should monitor yourself to make certain you are 114
not calling exclusively on your high-achieving students but also on students who have a pattern of not performing well. Keeping a simple checklist on a clipboard during classroom discussions is a great strategy you can easily implement. This could be because the teacher has confidence in these students, knows that calling on them will keep the discussion moving, and wants the other students to hear the correct answers. However, it also could lead the other students to think that the teacher doesn't have confidence in them and doesn't expect them to participate, and it increases the likelihood that they will get off task. If you were the teacher, you would want to be sure that before the end of the discussion you called on all your students so as to make the discussion more equitable. Increase Latency Periods When Questioning Students Increasing latency is another technique you can use to communicate that you have positive expectations for a student. Latency is the amount of time that elapses between the moment you give a student a response opportunity and the moment you terminate the response opportunity. Kerman and colleagues explain that the amount of time we give to students to answer questions is directly related to the level of expectation we have for them. We give more time to students when we have confidence in their ability to answer a question. Conversely, we give less time to students in whom we have little confidence. When you quickly give up on a student who is struggling with a response, it is clear to everyone in the classroom that you don't expect him or her to come up with the right answer. In addition, when you give up on a student who initially struggles with a response, the student realizes that all he or she needs to do to «get off the hook» is respond to your question with a confused expression or blank stare. What you will find when you make a conscious effort to extend the length of latency you allow for low-achieving students is that these students will begin to pay more attention, become more actively involved in discussions, and minimize their behavior issues. One thing you can do is ask a teaching peer to observe your instruction and chart the length of the latency periods you are giving each student from the time you ask the question until you move on to another student. It is especially interesting to find out which students get longer latency periods from you. 115
Give Hints and Clues to Help Students Answer Questions You also communicate positive expectations by giving hints and clues to your students. In their work on teacher expectations, Kerman and colleagues point out that teachers usually do more «delving and rephrasing» for students for whom they have high expectations and less for students for whom they have low expectations. It is important that we communicate to all our students that we have high expectations for their success, and one way to do this is by giving more hints and clues to all students, especially the low-performing students. Think about a reading lesson in which a student struggles to sound out a word. After waiting for an appropriate latency period, the teacher might prompt, «It sounds like ‘cat.’» In a secondary classroom, a teacher could ask, «What were the three causes of the War of 1812?» After the latency period, the teacher might say, «Think about what we learned regarding the British treatment of U.S. sailors.» There are things to be cautious about when using this technique. If you provide too many hints and clues, you may actually give the student the answer. Also, after a number of hints, it may be that the only student who doesn't know the answer is the one being called on, which ends up being an embarrassing experience. The important point, however, is to use hints and clues with all students to communicate that you have high expectations for the entire class. This helps build positive teacher-student relations. Tell Students They Have the Ability to Do Well Another way to communicate positive expectations to students is by directly telling them they have the ability to do well. When you tell your students you have confidence that they can handle a difficult assignment or improve their behavior, you impart a very powerful message. Students often will work hard and behave appropriately to prove that your confidence in them is justified. Every child needs to have at least one significant adult in his or her life who believes that he or she can do well. Ideally, children would hear this from their parents, but the sad truth is that is not always the case. Teachers have the unique opportunity and privilege to communicate daily to a number of students that they believe in them. What a gift to be able to be that significant adult in even one student's life. 116
You can also let students know that you have positive expectations for them by referring to past successes (Kerman et al., 1980). When you tell a student that you know he will behave appropriately at recess because he was successful yesterday, you help build confidence in the student and increase his chance for success. And after a student demonstrates good behavior or academic achievement in a specific situation, telling her you knew she would be successful (Kerman et al., 1980) also instills confidence and a culture of positive expectations. Students need to know that their teachers respect them and have confidence in them. Using these different strategies to consistently communicate your positive expectations will work wonders. We challenge you to begin using one or two of these strategies today to build high expectations and positive teacher-student relations. Correcting Students in a Constructive Way Correcting and disciplining students for inappropriate behaviors is a necessary and important part of every teacher's job. However, it doesn't have to be a negative part of your job. In fact, you can actually build positive relationships when you correct students. If you don't believe this, think for just a minute about students you have had in the past who came back to school to visit you. Often it is the students who were the most challenging and with whom you had to spend the most time who continue to visit you over the years. This is due to the positive relationships you developed with them. The goal in correcting students should be to have them reflect on what they did, be sorry that they disappointed you, and make a better choice in the future. It should not be that they go away thinking, «I hate my teacher. I'm going to be sure I don't get caught next time.» The difference in students' reactions to being disciplined is often related to the manner in which you correct them. If you allow students to keep their dignity, you increase the chance that they will reflect on their behavior and choose their behaviors more wisely in the future. The correction process will be counterproductive if students are corrected in a manner that communicates bitterness, sarcasm, low expectations, or disgust. The goal is to provide a quick, fair, and meaningful consequence while at the same time communicating that you care for and respect the student. 117
Steps to Use When Correcting Students 1. Review what happened 2. Identify and accept the student's feelings 3. Review alternative actions 4. Explain the building policy as it applies to the situation 5. Let the student know that all students are treated the same 6. Invoke an immediate and meaningful consequence 7. Let the student know you are disappointed that you have to invoke a consequence to his or her action 8. Communicate an expectation that the student will do better in the future Key Philosophical Precepts When Correcting Students ‒ Correct in a private location ‒ Treat students as you want your own children treated ‒ Stay calm ‒ Avoid frustration It is also important to follow certain steps after disciplining a student: Steps to Follow After Disciplining a Student 1. Touch base with the student 2. Acknowledge post disciplinary successes 3. Don't give up too quickly Remember: Students will recall how you made them feel long after they have forgotten the consequence they earned as a result of their actions. Developing Positive Classroom Pride If applied effectively, pride can be an extremely powerful force in developing positive teacher-student relationships (Kerman et al., 1980). In many classrooms, students are proud of the fact that they are behaving and achieving at a high level. In other classrooms, a different type of pride develops when students see themselves as being the worst they can be. The pride students develop helps shape identities that in turn drive their behaviors. When you recognize student successes, there is a decreased likelihood of fostering negative pride and an increased likelihood of developing positive pride. As a classroom 118
teacher, your goal should be to help students take pride in their accomplishments and positive behaviors rather than in their negative behaviors. Figure 1.6 lists some strategies that will help you attain this important goal. Strategies to Develop Positive Classroom Pride ‒ Display student work ‒ Positively reinforce students verbally ‒ Show off the class's achievements ‒ Speak to the accomplishments of all your students ‒ Be sincere in your pride in your students ‒ Look for opportunities for students to be proud in all areas ‒ Develop parental pride in student accomplishments ‒ Develop pride in improvement in addition to pride in excellence Displaying student work is a good way to let students know that you value the work they do and that you take pride in their work products. The displayed work does not have to be perfect and should show a significant cross section of the students you have in your class. Putting the work of students who have a history of low achievement up on a bulletin board often helps to build their self-esteem and pride and encourages them to do better work in the future. Exhibiting the work throughout the building in hallways, in the office, and in other public areas can do a great deal to develop positive levels of student pride. The impact becomes even more powerful when you let the class know that you want others to see the great work they are doing. An example of this would be to display all your students' science projects in the library and telling your class, «You all did a great job on your science projects, including stating your problem and hypothesis, clearly writing out the steps you took, and then drawing conclusions. I am so proud of all of you that I wanted the whole school to see your exemplary work. That's why I put all the projects on display in the library.» Positively reinforce students verbally on a regular basis. Tell your students when you are pleased by their behavior. Let them know that you're not surprised when they grasp a difficult concept. This is a powerful way of developing positive pride. Publicly asking other staff members to enter the classroom so that they can see a specific accomplishment of your class, such as the way they respond to your instructions, is an example of showing off the 119
class's achievements. However, be careful to speak to the accomplishments of all the students when you use this strategy rather than to the accomplishments of just the top students, or the strategy could backfire on you. There are numerous opportunities to develop pride in all areas, such as by publicly recognizing high test scores, acts of kindness, positive citizenship, and athletic accomplishments. You can also extend the pride taken in the class by developing parental pride in student accomplishments. Provide opportunities for parents to review student work in newsletters, during back-to-school events, and at parent conferences. Let parents know about high attendance rates, high test scores, and the percentage of homework or assignments completed. In this way, you are enlisting parents to be your partners in fostering this powerful positive relationship tool. Remember that pride does not always have to involve only excellence. Pride in improvement is an important type of pride to nurture. Test scores and daily assignments that go from a D to a C and homework that starts coming in on time are examples of great opportunities for you to recognize student success and build pride. When Kelley, a new teacher, took over a 6th grade class at a large elementary school in January, he used a combination of these approaches to build pride in the students. The class had already «gotten rid of» two other teachers, and they were proud of being the «baddest» class in the school. Besides teaching clearly defined parameters for appropriate behaviors and strong consequences for negative behaviors, Kelley gradually worked at building positive pride with the class. While practicing walking in the hallways and transitioning between activities appropriately with the class, he would invite the principal or other teachers in and say, «I just wanted you to see what a great job my class is doing and how proud I am of the respectful and quiet way they are walking in the halls.» After working with the students on how he wanted them to respond when he gave his signal, he would again invite other staff into the room and say, «Look at how quickly and quietly my class responds to my signal. They have really improved. Aren't they great?» In addition, he would tell the students on a regular basis that he couldn't wait to get to school each day because it was so much fun working with them and because he was so proud of their improved behaviors and academics. This continued 120
focus on building positive classroom pride gradually changed the pride the class had in their negative behaviors to pride in their new culture of positive behaviors. These are just some of the ways you can work to develop student pride individually and collectively. This in turn will help you build positive relationships with your students. A key element of Kelley's success was that he was sincere in his proclamations of pride in his students. Children are intuitive regarding sincerity, and insincere comments will quickly backfire. One caution for secondary teachers concerning pride involves a distinction between the manner in which you foster pride for different grade levels of students. What works for elementary and middle school students is not necessarily appropriate at the high school level. Sprick points out that it's more effective to use calm, quiet statements with secondary students than emotional praise, as they get embarrassed and don't like to be singled out from their peers. We believe you can and should instill positive pride with secondary students, but a more private method may be more effective. Demonstrating Caring Demonstrating caring is one of the most powerful ways to build positive relationships with your students. When your actions and words communicate that you sincerely care for your students, they are more likely to want to perform well for you and enjoy coming to school. Caring also fosters a preventive approach to discipline, as students who feel cared for are more likely to want to please you by complying with your wishes and policies. It is a tragedy when a student mistakenly believes that his teacher does not care for or like him. In most cases, teachers do care but fail to do the things that directly communicate this valuable message. Figure 1.7 lists some strategies to communicate to your students that you care about them. Strategies to Show You Care ‒ Show an interest in your students' personal lives ‒ Greet the students by the front door as they enter the classroom ‒ Watch for and touch base with students who display strong
emotion ‒ Sincerely listen to students ‒ Empathize with students 121
Inquiring about aspects of students' personal lives is a powerful way to communicate that the students are important and cared for. You can do this by asking about a recent trip, a hobby, or a sports activity. Some teachers make it a point to watch sporting events that their students are involved in, which is a wonderful way to show students you care about them beyond the classroom walls. The caution with this approach is to be as equitable as possible so that there is not a perception that you have «favorites.» A proactive way to do this is to have students write a journal at the beginning of the year in which they list what they did during their vacation, what pets they have, what sports they enjoy, and what hobbies they have. With this information, you can look for opportunities to ask questions or make comments to individual students using these facts. You might say to one student, «Susie, I read that you have a cocker spaniel. I have one, too. Does your dog know any tricks?». Standing by the door and welcoming students as they enter the classroom is a quick and easy way to show students they are important and that you are glad to see them. This procedure also helps you start the day with personal contact with each and every student. This is a procedure Wong and Wong advocate as a way to begin the day and the school year on a positive note. When you see students display strong emotions (e.g., when they are happy, excited, or angry), you have an opportunity to build positive relationships by asking how they are doing and what is going on with them. Statements such as, «Are you all right?» and «Can I help with anything?» let students know they are cared for, valued, and noticed. Listening intently and sincerely to students is a powerful way to communicate how much you care. Maintaining eye contact and paraphrasing helps students realize that you have heard them. In addition, when you empathize with students, they understand that they are recognized and valued. This does not mean that you have to agree with all their actions, but that you let them know that you recognize the emotions behind their actions. You can communicate empathy by telling students that even though it's wrong to hit someone, for instance, you understand the emotions behind an incident. These are just a few ways that you can demonstrate to your students that you care about them. As indicated earlier, you must never forget the power of caring. The bottom line is that caring helps build strong positive relationships that in turn help prevent discipline problems in the future. 122
COMMUNICATION AS A DOMINANT FEATURE IN THE TEACHING ACTIVITIES
Issues for discussion: 1. What role does sense of humour play in teaching activity? 2. The examples of barriers of communication in teaching activity. 3. How can a teacher estimate the effectiveness of a lecture? Instruction for seminar. Form: a detailed conversation with the discussion of the report, is conducted on the basis of a pre-designed plan, on which the whole training group is preparing. The main components of the following seminar are: the introductory word of the lecturer, the report of the trainee, questions to the speaker, student presentations on the report and the issues discussed, the lecturer's conclusion. A detailed conversation allows you to involve the greatest number of trainees in the discussion of problems. The main task of the lecturer in conducting such a seminar is to use all the means of activation: setting well-thought-out, clearly formulated additional questions, skilfully concentrating on the most important problems, the ability to generalize and systematize the ideas expressed in speeches, compare different points of view, create an atmosphere of free exchange opinions. This form of the seminar contributes to the development of communication skills among learners. The purpose of communication is the exchange of information for understanding When communication is effective, both the student and the teacher benefit. Communication makes learning easier, helps students 123
achieve goals, increases opportunities for expanded learning, strengthens the connection between student and teacher, and creates an overall positive experience Importance of communication in the teaching activities ‒ Self Esteem In general, people want to be heard. If a teacher shows interest in a student’s opinions, that student will feel that their thoughts or ideas are appreciated. ‒ Class Performance Teachers who reward student communication and class participation will notice an improvement in overall class performance. A teacher can gauge the effectiveness of a lecture by student feedback. By asking questions, a teacher can determine if students were able to retain the imparted information ‒ Professional Growth A degree of communication is required in every profession, and communication skills are necessary at even the most preliminary stages of career growth. POSITIVE MOTIVATION The job of the teacher to create enthusiasm and interest in the minds of the students towards a subject. It is also a teachers role to remove any fear and inhibitions that a student may have towards a subject. The importance of sense of humor has been regularly underestimated. A good sense of humor keeps the students active and interested in the teachers class. TROUBLE SPOTS Do I draw stdents’ attention? Do I motivate/ remove inhibitions? Do I speak slowly and clearly? Do I listen/ acknowledge/appreciate? Do I make things simple for my students? Do I ask questions and involve students? Do I have clean sense of humour? LANGUAGE SKILLS 1. Listening 2. Speaking 124
3. Reading 4. Writing 5. Vocabulary 6. Pronunciation 7. Grammar 8. Collocation 9. Usage TROUBLE SPOTS How rich is my vocabulary? How accurate is my pronunciation? How good is my grammar? Do I use acceptable word combinations? How fluent is my language? Do I use the right variety? EFFECTIVE TEACHING ‒ Be understood exactly as intended ‒ Be thoroughly intelligible ‒ Be clear and concise ‒ Suit your students ‒ Let your tone and body speak EFFECTIVE TEACHING Know your students Check students’ listening skills Draw and hold attention Express ideas clearly and explicitly Prepare well and organize well Make classes interactive Use verbal+visual+vocal tools INTERACTIVE TEACHING ‒ Pair work ‒ Group work ‒ Good instructions ‒ Eliciting (ask, don’t tell) ‒ Thought provoking questions ‒ Activities and games Good instruction are: ‒ Short ‒ Precise ‒ Simple 125
‒ Easy to follow ‒ Repeated ‒ Demonstrated BODY LANGUAGE
‒ Posture (e.g., head up and alert, leaning forward) ‒ Gestures (e.g., keeping arms uncrossed) ‒ Facial expression (e.g. smiling warmly) ‒ Active movement (e.g. impressive pacing) ‒ Physical distance (not very far, not very close) ‒ Eye contact (e.g. making appropriate eye contact) ‒ Volume of Voice (e.g. pleasant, audible volume) ‒ Tone of voice (e.g. confident, assuring tone) ‒ What the teacher is, is more important than what he teaches. TROUBLE SPOTS Do I have trouble maintaining eye contact? Do I cross/ wring my hands/ arms/legs? Do I smile too much or too little? 126
Do I droop/stoop/slouch? Do I keep my head down? Is my tone/voice timid/rude/inaudible? Do I speak too quickly when I am anxious? BARRIERS OF COMMUNICATION ‒ psychological, in the form of non-perception of the interlocutor, a negative attitude toward it, negative emotions; ‒ intelligence, in the form of inadequate perception of the transmitted information because of language, semantic barriers due to different levels of intelligent features; ‒ mechanical, in the form of defects in the media noise, damping it, illegible, unclear writing on paper and film. Pedagogical communication as a special kind of creativity in terms of technology is reflected in the ability to transmit information, to understand the status of the student, in the organization of the relationship with the team of students in the art of influence on the communication partner in the art to control their own mental state. And this is an important aspect of the university teacher should always pay attention to any education system if it wants to achieve its goals, to reach an understanding with the students, and will be able to target them to the process of continuous self-development and self-actualization
SYSTEM OF PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION OF COMMUNICATION
Professional Communication in the System of Specialist Training Issues for discussion: 1. When is the effectiveness of professional communication manifested? 2. The role of scientific conferences, symposia, seminars, trainings, etc. in the development of professional communication 3. The criteria of successful work of a modern specialist Instruction for seminar. Form: «small polemical groups» or a seminar-debate. The task of «small polemical groups» or a seminar-debate. During the given seminar, students' ability to search for truth on the basis of acquired knowledge and formed beliefs is tested, skills of conducting discussion on complex problems are developed. As a rule, 2-3 questions are submitted for discussion. In accordance with them, «small polemical groups» are created – two for each question. One of them reveals the essence of the problem and offers its solution, while the other acts as opponents, puts forward counterarguments and their understanding of the ways out of the situation that has arisen. Success here largely depends on the lecturer – the head of the seminar, who acts as a producer, on his ability to create psychological comfort, freedom and relaxed atmosphere for participants of the seminar, and strict observance of the ethics of the discussion. The seminar-debate requires thorough preparation from all its partici128
pants, especially the leading polemical groups. In the closing speech, the lecturer evaluates the results of the discussion, the work of the seminar of polemical groups and their facilitators, as well as each participant of the seminar separately. One of the most important components of the communication society is professional communication. The study of various interpretations of the concept of «professional communications» (communication, in the process of which communities are constructed, the process of the emergence of mutual understanding in a certain subject area, the process of information exchange between specialists professionally conditioned process of information exchange between representatives of one profession, information dissemination system, exchange of professional experience of professional activity, transfer of scientific knowledge) allows us to conclude that any professional communication is inherent in generalizing and transferring professional experience and scientific knowledge of certain specialists to a certain subject region or adjacent areas to others. The effectiveness of any professional communication is manifested when it is analyzed from two sides: as a channel for transmitting information in a professional environment and as a system of social communication between representatives of a specific professional community. The process of communication in this case can be represented by various forms-scientific conferences, symposia, seminars; trainings, presentations, professional publishing activities, creation and distribution of professional journals and newspapers; personal contacts and meetings of scientists; lecturers, students, etc. Levels of implementation of professional communications extend from interpersonal communications through group professional contacts to mass media. M.G. Vokhrysheva singles out the publication of the results of bibliographic research and generalization of practical experience as an important means of professional communication. With the help of professional communications, it becomes possible to discuss joint professional problems, provide methodological assistance and support, prepare and issue joint publications, participate in professional development events, and get acquainted with the experience of other information institutions. 129
Successful work of a modern specialist is impossible without comprehension of universal mechanisms of communication and interaction of people, social institutions and human communities. Such knowledge is necessary for the performance of professional tasks in the management system, mass communication, in the search and development of a dialogic image that allows achieving meaningful and emotional contact in communication, and in many other professional fields. In the era of technogenic civilization, the system of professional communications is dynamically expanding due to the wide introduction of electronic technologies. There are new forms of self-organization of specialists. Internet technologies are actively used, such as teleconferences, web forums, chats, Internet conferences, electronic journals, electronic libraries accessible via the Internet. The introduction of electronic means of communication allows us to achieve the scale, high efficiency in professional communications, whеrein enriching the traditional means of professional communication. Consequently, the most effective is the combination of traditional and electronic means of professional communication.
FEATURES OF PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS AND STYLES OF PEDAGOGICAL INFLUENCE
Issues for discussion: 1. What are the styles of pedagogical influence? 2. What style of pedagogical influence is appropriate for modern teacher? 3. Styles of pedagogical communication according V.A. Kan-Kalik. Instruction for seminar. Form: Discussion The task of the discussion is to discover differences in the understanding of the question and in the dispute to establish the truth. Discussions can be free and manageable. The most relevant problematic issues of the discipline under discussion are discussed. Each of the participants in the discussion should learn how to express their thoughts accurately in a report or speech on the issue, actively defend their point of view, reasonably object, refute an erroneous position. A prerequisite for the development of a productive discussion is personal knowledge, which is acquired by students in lectures and in independent work. It is important to teach students a culture of communication and interaction. Part of the seminar-discussion can be elements of «brainstorming». In this case, the participants of the seminar try to put forward as many ideas as possible, without criticizing them, and then the main ones, most deserving of attention, are highlighted, which are discussed and developed. You can define the five main types of professional position of the teacher: 131
‒ The teacher can see their main task is to be a source of necessary and useful information to their students. ‒ The teacher may appear before the students in the role of man, vigilantly watching over the order in the classroom, as a kind of overseer. ‒ The teacher may take the position of a guardian of his disciples. ‒ The position of non-interference. ‒ Position senior companion, a wise and caring friend and mentor students. The styles of pedagogical influence Autocratic ‒ man management team of students ‒ consistent presentation requirements for students ‒ tight control over their execution Authoritarian ‒ an opportunity for pupils to participate in discussions of academic or collective life ‒ but the decision is ultimately takes the teacher in accordance with your settings Democratic ‒ attention and consideration of the teacher pupils of opinions; ‒ the desire to understand them, to persuade rather than to command; ‒ keeping dialogical communication on an equal footing. Ignoring ‒ less desire to interfere in the vital activity of pupils of; ‒ elimination of their management; ‒ Restrictions on Formal execution of the duties and ‒ transmission of educational and administrative information. Сonformal ‒ eliminated from the group of pupils of leadership, ‒ he goes on about their desires Illogical ‒ implementation depending on external circumstances and their own emotional state of any management style ‒ disorganization and situational system of relations «teacher – student» ‒ appearance of conflict situations 132
Styles of pedagogical communication (according V.A. KanKalik) ‒ Communication based on high professional teacher installations ‒ Communication on the basis of a friendly disposition ‒ Community-distance ‒ Community-deterrence ‒ Community-flirting
TECHNOLOGY FOR PROFESSIONAL PEDAGOGICAL DIALOGUE
Issues for discussion: 1. Рedagogical technology 2. The elements of dialogue technology 3. The components of pedagogical dialogue technology Instruction for seminar. Form: Discussion The task of the discussion is to discover differences in the understanding of the question and in the dispute to establish the truth. Discussions can be free and manageable. The most relevant problematic issues of the discipline under discussion are discussed. Each of the participants in the discussion should learn how to express their thoughts accurately in a report or speech on the issue, actively defend their point of view, reasonably object, refute an erroneous position. A prerequisite for the development of a productive discussion is personal knowledge, which is acquired by students in lectures and in independent work. It is important to teach students a culture of communication and interaction. Part of the seminar-discussion can be elements of «brainstorming». In this case, the participants of the seminar try to put forward as many ideas as possible, without criticizing them, and then the main ones, most deserving of attention, are highlighted, which are discussed and developed. The pedagogical technology is the direction which sets as the purpose to increase efficiency of educational process, to guarantee achievement by pupils of the planned results of training. Originally the term «pedagogical technology» was used only in relation to training, 134
and the technology was understood as training by means of technical tools. Signs inherent in pedagogical technology: effectiveness; profitability; integrity; controllability; adjustability; visualization. History of formation of a subject of dialogue technology. The first interest in a problem of dialogical interaction in education was shown by philosophers and teachers: The idea of dialogue was developed in general by Socrates, M. Buber, H.Gadamer The humanistic orientation of dialogue strategy was shown by Platon, Ya. A. Komensky, Zh.-Zh. Russo. The complete doctrine about culture of dialogue is submitted in S.S. Averintsev, G.S. Batishchev's works. Scientists-teachers investigated dialogue models in education and education as ability to understand another (V.A. Petrova, A.V. Murga). Pedagogical dialogue Implementation of dialogue technologies in training was resulted by transition from traditionally developed, instructive, personal alienated, unidirectional model of training (extractive) in case of which the teacher showed specific and standardly snugged content to all students without their identity and informative opportunities to personally oriented model creating content of training of students with the direct and their active participation and interaction with the teacher united by a general subject of discussion and considering specific features of each student. Elements of dialogue technology: goal setting and their maximum refining; strict orientation of all course of interaction to the set purposes; orientation of the course of dialogue to the guaranteed achievement of results; assessment of the current results, the training correction directed to achievement of effective objectives; final assessment of results. The pedagogical dialogue technology in formation of new concepts, is designed to execute the following functions: cognitive; creative; reflexive. Principles of pedagogical dialogue technology: problematical character and optimality; stage-by-stage circulation of information; 135
open condition and incompleteness of dialogue; decentration and decentralization; parallel interaction. Components of pedagogical dialogue technology: communicator teacher (the one who sets a semantic orientation of dialogue sets «a task on sense» for the trainee, creates the corresponding semantic installation or is the translator of a certain sense); motive and the purpose (what has to generate desire of the trainee; contents (potential field of «crystallization» of meanings); communication code (oral or written dialogue); recepient-pupil (his motivational and semantic features); result Correctly organized discussion takes place three stages of development: At the 1st stage students adapt to a problem and to each other, i.e. a certain installation on the solution of the delivered problem is developed at this time. At the same time the following tasks are set for the teacher (the organizer of a discussion): To formulate a problem and the purposes of a discussion To carry out acquaintance of participants To create necessary motivation To establish regulations of a discussion To formulate rules of conducting a discussion, basic of which – everyone shall act. To create the benevolent atmosphere To achieve unambiguous semantic understanding of terms, concepts, etc. The 2nd stage – assessment stage – usually assumes a situation of comparison, confrontation and even conflict of the ideas which in case of an inept management of a discussion can develop into the conflict of persons. At this stage the following tasks are set for the teacher (the organizer of «a round table»): To begin exchange of opinions To collect a maximum of opinions, ideas, offers. To support the high level of activity of all participants. To quickly carry out the analysis of the stated ideas, opinions, line items, offers before passing to the following round of a discussion The 3rd stage – a consolidation stage – assumes development of certain uniform or compromise opinions, positions, decisions. At this 136
stage the controlling function of occupation is carried out. Tasks which the teacher has to solve can be formulated as follows: To analyse and estimate the held discussion, to sum up the results, the results. To help participants of a discussion to come to consensus To make the group decision together with participants to bring group to constructive conclusions To achieve content from most of participants
SOME FEATURES OF LEVEL DIALOGUE OF THE TEACHER
Issues for discussion: 1. What is pedagogical communication relations? 2. What is dialogue within the discursive context? 3. Recommendations of researchers to characterize different forms of dialogue. Instruction for seminar. Form: «small polemical groups» or a seminar-debate. The task of «small polemical groups» or a seminar-debate. During the given seminar, students' ability to search for truth on the basis of acquired knowledge and formed beliefs is tested, skills of conducting discussion on complex problems are developed. As a rule, 2-3 questions are submitted for discussion. In accordance with them, «small polemical groups» are created – two for each question. One of them reveals the essence of the problem and offers its solution, while the other acts as opponents, puts forward counterarguments and their understanding of the ways out of the situation that has arisen. Success here largely depends on the lecturer – the head of the seminar, who acts as a producer, on his ability to create psychological comfort, freedom and relaxed atmosphere for participants of the seminar, and strict observance of the ethics of the discussion. The seminardebate requires thorough preparation from all its participants, especially the leading polemical groups. In the closing speech, the lecturer evaluates the results of the discussion, the work of the seminar of polemical groups and their facilitators, as well as each participant of the seminar separately. 138
Theory and Research on Teaching as Dialogue The prescriptive tradition The concept of dialogue has held a central place in Western views of education ever since the teachings of Socrates. The back-and-forth form of question and answer, challenge and response, has been viewed as the external communicative representation of a dialectical process of thinking based on conjecture, criticism, and reconstruction of ideas. Some of these views of dialogue have stressed the role of the teacher as a facilitator of a student’s discovery of certain insights on his or her own; in some cases it is in pursuit of an answer the teacher has in mind already, in others, of an answer neither participant could have anticipated. Other views have stressed the role of vigorous debate and argument as a basis for hewing defensible conclusions out of the raw material of opinion and speculation. Still other views have stressed the role of the teacher as a partner in inquiry, learning with the student as both explore a problem together through reciprocal questions and answers. Other, quite different, traditions of thought, such as Zen Buddhism, also have a view of dialogue, but denigrate the value of express communication as a way of sharing knowledge or insight, relying instead upon the indirect effect of riddles, paradoxical statements, and questions (koans) that precisely cannot be answered. The discursive tradition This rethinking of dialogue is informed by another tradition of theorizing that regards all communicative and representational acts as forms of social practice. This tradition explores discourses as forms of socio-historically constituted relations among people, activities, texts, and situations. Participating in a discourse then means assuming a role within a community of practice, rather than simply producing a pattern of decontextualized utterances. The discursive perspective implies that the various types of dialogue do not carve out distinct natural kinds; nor are dialogical forms discontinuous with discursive patterns generally. For particular analytical purposes, it may be helpful to set criteria for what will be counted as a kind of «dialogue» and what is not – but this decision in itself becomes a discursive move, not a search for the true essence of dialogue. This is the classic move of nominalism. Yet it is fruitful to ask why traditions do count certain types of communicative interaction as dialogue, and others not; why dialogue 139
has had particular appeal for some as a model of teaching and inquiry; and what is at stake in appropriating the term «dialogue» for one approach to teaching rather than another. Because the major prescriptions in favor of dialogue as an approach to pedagogy have generally come from philosophical sources, these accounts have tended to emphasize either the epistemological advantages of dialogue as a way to pursue knowledge and understanding or the moral and political reasons for favoring dialogue, because it is egalitarian, mutually respectful, and so forth. Both kinds of arguments have tended to arise from a priori assumptions that may or may not have been tested against studies of pedagogical practice. As a result, the prescriptive tradition has often neglected the ways in which idealized forms of interaction either may not be feasible in certain circumstances, or may have effects contrary to their intent. Discursive practices are related, on the one hand, to other practices and activities within a setting. What people say and how they are heard is wrapped up with other kinds of relations and interactions among them, which might range from very specific practices (how close together people stand or sit while talking, for example) to very general institutional norms or structures (such as requirements in school to raise one’s hand before speaking, or the physical arrangements of classrooms). At the same time, despite the oral connotations of «discourse,» «speaking,» and so forth, spoken language is obviously not the only form that discourse takes: it is manifested through a range of kinds of texts and other mediating objects (for example, notes passed between students, bulletin boards, or dress codes). Finally, those texts and objects are also artifacts within a setting of practices (for example, the differences in content, but also the differences in forms of production, sales, and patterns of use, between daily newspapers and weekly newsmagazines). A variety of research studies have emphasized these connections among linguistic interactions, mediating objects or texts, and other practices. Yet the issue goes even deeper, because these relations among discursive practices, other practices and activities, and mediating objects and texts are not simply interactions among discrete social factors; they are dialectical relations among elements that mutually constitute one another. A letter to a relative is a discursive practice, yet also a text, yet also a practice with nondiscursive significance 140
(such as buying or perhaps collecting stamps). A Web page on a computer screen is a mediating object or text, but also a practice (it was made, by someone, in a particular situation), and a practice with nondiscursive significance, such as using electricity (which is available to only a fraction of the world’s population). A variety of new representational forms are blurring traditional distinctions between «written» and «oral» text, or between what we have ordinarily thought of as «texts» (such as books) and what have not been (such as modes of dress). In the recent film «The Pillow Book,» for example, lovers actually write on one another’s bodies. Does this «make» the body into a text, or merely highlight the ways in which the body (through gestures, and so on), has always already been a text of sorts? Pedagogy and discourse theory Pedagogical communicative relations We want to begin by demarcating a range of interactions that could be termed «pedagogical communicative relations.» Dialogue, in its various forms, represents one family of such communicative relations, but there are many others (lecturing, for example). When we refer to «dialogue,» as it is typically used, we mean a definition grounded in the number of participants and in patterns of verbal interaction that are ostensibly distinguishable from «monological» models – although such simple distinctions are difficult to maintain as absolute categories. According to some theories, such as Bakhtin’s for instance, all language has an underlying «dialogic» nature, by which he means that every word participates in a history of rich intertextual relations in which it is related to all other utterances. People do not simply «use» language; it comes already «used» and has a history that surpasses particular uses, so that each use becomes an intersection point of multiple historically constituted discourses. On this conception, there is a dialogical element in every utterance, and even in internal thoughts (this view informs and underlies the work of much activity theory, discussed above). At the same time, there are communicative relations that are not explicitly pedagogical (ordering dinner in a restaurant, for example), and there are classroom utterances that may have «pedagogical» effects, even though they are not intended to. One cannot limit «peda141
gogical» solely to the things teachers say when they think they are teaching; nor is the involvement of a teacher necessary for communicative relations to be pedagogically significant; nor is overt and intentional speech always the form that such communicative relations might take. Here, too, a particular analytical category that helps to delimit a scope of discussion still must be situated within the continuities of discourse generally. But every theory of teaching and learning incorporates at least implicitly a set of prescriptions about pedagogical communicative relations, and depending on how these are framed teachers see certain activities as within their purview and responsibility, and others not. An emphasis on particular pedagogical communicative relations constitutes a basis for teacher reflection, for defining a set of research questions, and for establishing a basis for the evaluation or assessment of teaching performance. It is not only a descriptive endeavor. In considering dialogue as a form of pedagogical communicative relation, then, certain simple distinctions and categories interfere with deeper understandings of the issues at stake. Certain accounts of dialogue, notably that of Paulo Freire (1968, 1985), and to an extent that of Socrates as we encounter him in some of Plato’s dialogues, have suggested that there are basically only two alternative choices for pedagogy. The first is variously termed lecturing, recitation, monologue, «banking education,» or even «mug and jug» – all views holding that knowledge, possessed by the teacher, is «poured,» «fed,» or otherwise transmitted more or less directly to a passive, receptive student. In this dichotomous characterization, the alternative to this approach is «dialogue,» a relation in which the student is more of an active partner in the teaching-learning process. In Dialogue in Teaching, Burbules recommends the interaction of at least two distinct spectrums to characterize different forms of dialogue: the degree to which an interchange is critical or inclusive (a revision of the disputatious/friendly distinction noted above), and the degree to which the investigation is intended to be convergent (upon a single answer) or divergent (allowing for multiple conclusions). This two-by-two grid generates four different types of dialogue, discussed later. But a number of other considerations might be usefully added to these: the age of the persons who are engaged; the extent to which their participation is «active» (given various meanings of what might 142
constitute «active» engagement); the range of affective as well as cognitive considerations that are considered germane to the subject at hand; the degree to which one participant is steering or directing the discussion, as opposed to an open-ended, «nonteleological» investigation; the degree of opportunity within a dialogue for questioning its presuppositions and scope – all might count as criteria marking off different types of dialogue. Such considerations highlight the multiple considerations of form and purpose that can be raised about different pedagogical communicative relations, and how to demarcate some of these as dialogical in spirit. Clearly, situating any particular set of interactions along these dimensions will require judgments about a number of matters that cannot be read off a transcript of the interaction; moreover, such judgments will themselves involve assumptions about cultural norms and practices that are going to vary across the different groups or individuals who may be party to such interactions (for a study of forms of dialogue across different cultures, see Maranhão, 1990). When something is to be called a «dialogue,» and by whom, now comes to be seen as a social and political problem that runs to deeper assumptions about communication and social relations. The T/S model Within the context of current educational practice in the United States, most discussions of dialogue are influenced by a predominant pedagogical communicative relation that we will term the Teacher/ Student (or T/S) model. This model represents both a form of teaching practice, and also a paradigm of how teaching has been conceptualized for research purposes. In certain forms, the T/S model is antagonistic to dialogical possibilities; in other forms, it restricts dialogue to a very narrow range of communicative interactions. The problem, in our view, is not that this model is never appropriate; but that it often tends to «colonize» pedagogy, driving out alternative perspectives on teaching and learning and making its own assumptions seem «natural» or «inevitable» – and hence more invisible and harder to question. The T/S model assumes, first, that the performative roles of teacher and student are given, distinct, and relatively stable. If one walks into a classroom, in any part of the country, and at virtually any grade level, who are the teachers and students should be readily 143
apparent by their different communicative roles as well as other aspects of their behavior and interactions. The particular characteristics of persons – their gender, race, and so forth – are, within this framework, regarded as unimportant to these specific roles or their enactment of them: a teacher teaches and a student learns. Thus, the T/S model is part of a larger set of norms and assumptions about what «classrooms» are and what «teachers» and «students» are; these roles and patterns of performance are reinforced by adults’ memories of their own school experiences, images in the popular media, and implicit, shared «scripts» by which these roles ought to be performed. Teachers stand in front of the class, initiate topics, question students, discipline misbehavior, write on blackboards, and so on; similarly, students raise hands, answer questions, pass notes, whisper to each other, and watch the clock pass time in slow-motion. The T/S model assumes, second, that discourse in the classroom is primarily a medium for expressing information, for directing behavior, and for offering praise or other forms of evaluation; this assumes, in turn, that what the teacher says is what is most important, since the activities of expressing information, directing behavior, and evaluating performance are regarded as primarily, if not exclusively, teacherly prerogatives. The T/S model assumes, third, that teaching is centrally a matter of intentionally communicating content knowledge: either directly, in the form of didactic instruction; or indirectly, through guided readings of curriculum materials, through supervised work on problems and assignments, or through the review and rehearsal of what has been learned through structured question and answer (this latter activity is sometimes regarded as a kind of teaching through «dialogue»). The T/S model assumes, fourth, that education is an activity of instrumental practices directed intentionally toward specific ends, and that it can therefore be evaluated along a scale of effectiveness in meeting those ends. Toward new questions about teaching The discursive perspective on language The notion that language is more than a vehicle for the transparent conveyance of information has an ancient tradition. In Western philosophy, the Sophists’ focus on language as power placed rhetoric, 144
the art that matches expression with idea, in the center of philosophy. Later writers such as Aristotle, Cicero, and Quintillian continued to consider rhetoric as a topic of enormous practical and theoretical significance. Throughout the Middle Ages, various writers, such as Augustine, continued the tradition of seeking to understand the relations between language and idea, form and content. In educational research, discursive analysis, as discussed earlier, has been joined with studies of inquiry, meaning-making, shared thinking, and classroom activity in general, to illuminate and inform theories about, for example, reading; science learning and mathematics. Belying, to some extent, the stereotype of science and math education as the most content-driven and «technocratic» areas of teaching, much of the research and theory that has pushed the envelope of ideas about inquiry, group thinking, and hands-on learning has come from investigators in these areas. Discursive critiques of decontextualized pedagogy The issues just raised pose distinct challenges to the relatively decontextualized models of teaching proposed by the T/S perspective on pedagogy or, alternatively, certain dialogical pedagogies. These challenges include the following: – Who is speaking. Forms of acceptable or conventional discourse are socially and culturally constituted. How individuals and groups prefer to speak, the practices and gestures that enact speech, the implications and inferences people make in interpreting the speech of others, and so on, differ substantially by the ways in which discourse is formed among social and cultural groups. Such considerations can mean widespread differences in the meanings and effects of speech acts, apart from whatever the «words themselves» might mean. For example, linguistic or gestural forms of politeness or respect may be understood at cross-purposes in settings of cultural difference. – When people speak. Discursive engagements are historically situated, in the sense that language has a history, speech actors have a history, and the circumstances in which they come together (such as the form and purposes of curricula) have a history. These histories often inform and shape the ways in which discourse takes place, and can impose significant limits on certain discursive possibilities. For example, conventions of correct and incorrect usage in language are 145
not only culturally but historically specific; they are neither «natural» nor inevitable. – Where people speak. Discourse has a «materiality»: it takes place in physical settings and circumstances, situated in space and time. Discourse is an activity wrapped up with other activities occurring along with it. It matters, for example, whether speakers are standing or sitting; smiling or winking; speaking face-to-face, on the phone, or through a computer link (which may make facial expressions moot or require iconic representations – such as «emoticons» – to replace them). – How people speak. Discourse theory has also greatly expanded the forms of representation that can be fruitfully understood as discursive in nature. Humans use a variety of ways, consciously and unconsciously, to express meaning and intent. Moreover, the mode of discursive analysis can revealingly analyze elements that are not thought of as primarily representational (for example, the design of classroom furniture) to suggest meaning and effects no one might have intended. From this discursive perspective, both T/S and dialogical models of teaching often suffer from limited attention to the who, when, where, and how of classroom interactions. Situating them in the context of discursive theory is a first step toward reconceptualizing these pedagogical communicative relations as something more than patterns of speech acts. A reconstructed conception of dialogue, our main focus here, will need to be responsive to the same pragmatic, theoretical, and research challenges we are posing against the T/S model. Rethinking dialogue From T/S to dialogue The first step in this reconception is to detail the ways in which the who, when, where, and how of discourse have forced a rethinking of classroom interactions. Who. The first theoretical shift reflects in part a demographic shift discussed earlier: the growing diversity of classrooms and an increasing awareness of the margins or borders of common school culture as it interacts with the very different values and orientations that students bring to the classroom. The conditions of globalization and mobility have promoted both direct forms of migration across national/cultural 146
categories and (especially with the rise of new communication and information technologies) an increasing proximity and interpenetration of multiple lines of national/cultural influence. In this context, the central assumptions of common schooling – of a canon of texts, of a shared historical tradition, of a common language – are thrown into question, since even where a common aim or reference point might be retained, its value and significance are going to be regarded differently from different positions as teachers and students. In some cases they will be directly challenged. From this standpoint, the linear, goaldirected dimensions of the T/S model are incompatible with a context of multiple purposes and intentions, not all of which move in parallel lines. But a shift to a dialogical approach, in itself, many not remedy these limitations. A dialogue is not an engagement of two (or more) abstract persons, but of people with characteristics, styles, values, and assumptions that shape the particular ways in which they engage in discourse. Any prescriptive conception of dialogue must confront the challenge of acknowledging persons who do not engage in communication through those forms, and who might in fact be excluded or disadvantaged by them. Conversely, an account of dialogue that acknowledges the enormous multiplicity of forms in which people from different cultures do enact pedagogical communicative relations (let alone communicative relations generally) needs to address the question of why some versions are counted as «dialogue» and others not. Dialogue as relation, not speech act Counting a pedagogical communicative relation as dialogical cannot be based simply upon a momentary «slice of time» observation. It cannot be based simply upon counting the number of people involved. It cannot be based on finding a particular pattern of questions and answers. A dialogue is a pedagogical relation characterized by an ongoing discursive involvement of participants, constituted in a relation of reciprocity and reflexivity. Here «ongoing» means that the form of verbal interaction at any single moment may not appear «dialogical»; the question is not a matter of who is speaking and who is listening, but whether over time the participants are engaged intersubjectively in addressing the issue or problem at hand. A «relation of involvement among participants» means that active efforts at inter147
pretation, questioning, and rethinking the issue or problem at hand are continually open possibilities; a certain capacity for reflexivity, including comment on the discursive dynamic itself, must be a characteristic of dialogical engagement (see Ellsworth’s (1997) account of «analytic dialogue»). A «reciprocal relation» means that the prerogatives of questioning, answering, commenting, or offering reflective observations on the dynamic are open to all participants. Impediments to these capabilities for interaction undermine the quality of the dialogical relation. Dialogue and the teacher/student roles As should be clear from this discussion, then, the very demarcation of distinct teacher and student identities is only a feature of certain kinds of dialogue: in many cases of co-investigation or open-ended exploration, such roles might be actually counterproductive. Nor are these roles clearly distinct, stable, or cultureless. Moreover, even when those roles do have a certain applicability, dialogue tends to promote a situation in which any participant can raise certain types of question – including questions about the necessity or benefits of these roles – as part of the engagement itself. A major element of the T/S model is that these roles are taken as givens and that many tacit assumptions about the appropriate ways of enacting those roles are shared by most of the participants. In dialogical relations, these roles are neither distinct nor stable: the activities of teaching and learning are open to all participants, at different moments, and in many contexts cannot even be separated – which is what «learning with» others entails. Instead of a Teacher/Student model, we might think about a Teaching-Learning relation, with the slant and hyphen themselves connoting different type of relation (one of separateness, the other of interdependence), and the change in verb forms a shift from roles to activities. Learning here is seen as intrinsically intersubjective, situated, and problem-based. Dialogue as situated Classical models of dialogue and, even more generally, standard models of talk coming out of classical linguistics, suggest an idealized, disembodied picture of verbal interchange. We can ignore how the participants stand or sit, what they wear, their physical attributes, the 148
timbre of their voices, the ambient noise level, the relative humidity, the room decorations, the furniture, whether they are inside or outside. None of these things are thought to matter. These models of pedagogical communication have tended to support the liberal ideal that anyone can aspire to intellectual heights regardless of their circumstances of age, gender, race, culture, class, or physical conditions. What such views gain in inspirational potential they lose, unfortunately, in their engagement with the tensions and limitations of real school settings. Every act of dialogue is, in fact, embodied and situated. We could say that each act participates in a material reality as much as it does in a mental realm, or, to avoid that duality, that the logical development of a dialogue is inseparable from its material grounding. Dialogue as multiple, not singular Within these broad characteristics, as noted previously, dialogue can take a number of forms in the actual pattern of communicative performances, and in the purposes to which it might be directed. Elsewhere, Burbules (1993) has discussed the forms of inquiry, conversation, instruction, and debate as a variety of types of dialogical engagement. Inquiry involves a co-investigation of a question, the resolution of a disagreement, the formulation of a compromise, all as ways of addressing a specific problem to be solved or answered. Conversation involves a more open-ended discussion in which the aim of intersubjective understanding, rather than the answering of any specific question or problem, is foremost. Instruction involves an intentional process in which a teacher «leads» a student, through questioning and guidance, to formulating certain answers or understandings (this approach is often seen as the paradigm of the «Socratic method»). Debate involves an exchange less about reaching agreement, or finding common answers, to testing positions through an agonistic engagement for and against other positions; it may include a process of problematizing even the terms of discussion themselves. The aim is that alternative points of view can each be clarified and strengthened through such an engagement. Burbules argues that any of these forms can serve educational purposes, and that each can take deleterious and antieducational effects as well – success or benefit are not built into any procedures of communicative engagement. Other forms of 149
dialogue may be possible besides these four, and there are certainly hybrid cases; moreover, any ongoing dialogical engagement will pass through several of these forms in the course of interactions. The key point is that the actual form and tone of utterances in such interactions may vary widely: some are more critical, others more inclusive; some tend toward convergent answers, others toward a divergent multiplicity of conclusions. Yet all can be «dialogical» in spirit; and for each type many examples can be found in the philosophical and pedagogical literature on dialogue. Dialogue with texts Classical models of dialogue were developed when textual interaction, that is, discursive interactions mediated by written symbols, were far from the norm. Few people could read and write, and those who could looked with suspicion upon symbolic representations of the assumed-to-be primal form of meaning-making through the spoken word. Plato’s famous critique of writing in the Phaedrus, even when given an ironic reading, nevertheless manifests not only a distrust of writing, but a view that this form of communication is qualitatively different from oral discourse. Dialogue and difference Dialogue, understood within the discursive context, engages the issue of difference at various levels. First, there is the fact of diversity as a condition of all learning: It is precisely where people differ in outlook, background, belief, experience, and so forth, that dialogue creates an opportunity for some to learn from and with others. Such diversity, however, does not only create a set of possibilities and opportunities; it also constitutes a potential barrier – for it is these very same differences that can lead to misunderstandings, disagreements, or speaking at cross purposes. Dialogue exists at the points of tension and difficulty between these possibilities.
THE STRUCTURE OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Issues for discussion: 1. What is meaning, according Raymond G.Smith? 2. How is explained «message» from one communicator to another? 3. An integral part of social interaction Instruction for seminar. Form: Discussion The task of the discussion is to discover differences in the understanding of the question and in the dispute to establish the truth. Discussions can be free and manageable. The most relevant problematic issues of the discipline under discussion are discussed. Each of the participants in the discussion should learn how to express their thoughts accurately in a report or speech on the issue, actively defend their point of view, reasonably object, refute an erroneous position. A prerequisite for the development of a productive discussion is personal knowledge, which is acquired by students in lectures and in independent work. It is important to teach students a culture of communication and interaction. Part of the seminar-discussion can be elements of «brainstorming». In this case, the participants of the seminar try to put forward as many ideas as possible, without criticizing them, and then the main ones, most deserving of attention, are highlighted, which are discussed and developed. Meaning, of course, is central to communication. What do people mean? What do events mean? What do words mean? And more specifically, how do we best use symbols to transmit exact meanings. We 151
can describe roughly, three major categories of intelligence which are transmitted from person to person via word and gesture symbols. The first may be termed the logical, intellectual, or reasoned part. Messages limited to meaning of this kind are said to be informative. Their purpose is to dessiminate information such as who, what, where, why, where and how. A second category is designed to change beliefs or opinions. These are said to be persuasive, and although their content might at times be limited to reasons and logic, that is, to reasoned discourse, it is more frequently intermingled with content which appeals to beliefs or stirs emotional responses. The emotional response is termed affective. A third category though sometimes mixed, can be entirely emotional in nature, and is best exemplified by that type of poetry which transmits only affect, and makes little if any sense, otherwise. Its message is purely affective. There exist numerous helpful models of the manner in which meaning passess from communicator to communicator. There are the mathematical models of Shannon and Weaver And Herbert Simon, the classical models of Aristotle, and the descriptive verbal models of such communication experts as Wilburt Scramm. A common verbal paradigm of the process with which we are all familiar is: Who says What to Whom, for What purpose, and with what Effect? Each of these structural elements is constrained by all of the others, and each is subject to hazards so numerous that it is amazing we are able to communicate as well as we do. First, look at the message. It is composed of symbols which serve as units of meaning and are termed words assumes that everybody has identical concepts for the meanings of the words he uses. Communication breakdown comes from the fact that the two communicators, although using the same words, are simply not speaking the same language. This is not news. Students of perception have long known that each individual believes everyone else to perceive the world exactly as he does. Social structure and interpersonal communication The process of sharing information is an integral part of social interaction. Social psychologists have suggested that, when a number 152
of people come together for the first time, the communicative process tends to reflect influences immediate to the situation, the task and the personal characteristics of the interacting individuals. No particular communication pattern emerges. However, as groups develop a stabilized structure, it is believed that the lines of communication become increasingly predictable in terms of the reciprocal relationships of the members. In discussing this process, Sheriff contrasts communication in «transitory togetherness situation with that in stabilized group structures,» nothing that the «formation of a status hierarchy tends to polarize communication in the direction of the upper status levels». Such work as that of Bales and associates, Festinger and Hutte, and Huwitzz and associates also provides evidence of relationships between status organization and communication patterns. The analysis is concerned with the person-to-person diffusion of a single message through populations of boys between the ages of twelve and fifteen who were attending a summer camp. Each ten-day camp period was devoted two boys from a different YMCA area. Thus there was a complete population change every eleven days, resulting in five different camper populations. The first, third, and fifth camper groups were selected as the «experimental» populations. However, owing to administrative difficulties, complete sociometric data were not obtained for the fifth group; therefore, the analysis was based on the first population and the third population. A sociometric questionnaire was administered to the populations one day after the arrival at the camp. From this questionnaire the social structure of the population was determined in terms of expressed preferences for residence, leadership, and intimate associates. On the basis of this information, certain boys were selected to act as message «starters». In each study the starters included a sociometric star, an isolate, and an individual of the median sociometric position.
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS AS A SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL PHENOMENON
Issues for discussion: 1. What science does investigate the structure of social relations? 2. The social roles each person can fulfills in real life 3. The emotional basis of interpersonal relationships Instruction for seminar. Form: a detailed conversation with the discussion of the report, is conducted on the basis of a pre-designed plan, on which the whole training group is preparing. The main components of the following seminar are: the introductory word of the lecturer, the report of the trainee, questions to the speaker, student presentations on the report and the issues discussed, the lecturer's conclusion. A detailed conversation allows you to involve the greatest number of trainees in the discussion of problems. The main task of the lecturer in conducting such a seminar is to use all the means of activation: setting well-thought-out, clearly formulated additional questions, skilfully concentrating on the most important problems, the ability to generalize and systematize the ideas expressed in speeches, compare different points of view, create an atmosphere of free exchange opinions. This form of the seminar contributes to the development of communication skills among learners. As a rule, the topics of the reports are developed by the lecturer in advance and included in the plans of the seminars. The report is a short (15-20 min.) Reasoned presentation of one of the central 154
problems of the seminar. During this kind of seminars, fixed speeches on the most important but difficult questions can be heard. The problem of the essence and nature of interpersonal relations of people requires an understanding of how social and psychological qualities of the personality of these people manifest in them. The fact is that interpersonal relations are always mediated by a more general system – a system of social relations. The very person, on the one hand, is the «product» of social ties, and on the other hand, is their creator, the active creator. Hence it is important from the very beginning to consider the personality in the general system of social relations, which is society, that is, in some «social context». This «context» is represented by a system of real personal relationships with the outside world. The content, the level of these relations of man with the world are different: individual as well as groups enter the relationships. Thus, a person turns out to be the subject of numerous and varied relations. In this diversity it is necessary, first of all, to distinguish two basic types of relations: social relations and «psychological» relations of the individual (Myasishchev V.N.). Relationships in psychology are subjective relationships that arise as a result of the interaction of two or more subjects. This is primarily a system of interpersonal attitudes, orientations, expectations, determined by joint activities, living, etc. Determination of social and psychological qualities of a person and his relationship to the world in this connection can be represented by the following scheme: society