Online Dictionary of Invertebrate Zoology


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Table of contents :
A......Page 8
B......Page 116
C......Page 158
D......Page 279
E......Page 318
F......Page 359
G......Page 388
H......Page 423
I......Page 470
J......Page 499
K......Page 502
L......Page 507
M......Page 534
N......Page 602
O......Page 627
P......Page 657
Q......Page 775
R......Page 778
S......Page 806
T......Page 895
U......Page 934
V......Page 944
W......Page 960
X......Page 963
Y......Page 965
Z......Page 966
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Parasitology, Harold W. Manter Laboratory of

Armand R. Maggenti Online Dictionary of Invertebrate Zoology University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Year 

Online Dictionary of Invertebrate Zoology: Complete Work Mary Ann (Basinger) Maggenti∗

Armand R. Maggenti†

Scott Lyell Gardner (Editor)‡

∗ University

of California, Davis (emerita) of California, Davis (emeritus) ‡ University of Nebraska - Lincoln, [email protected] This paper is posted at [email protected] of Nebraska - Lincoln. † University

http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/onlinedictinvertzoology/2

Online Dictionary of

Invertebrate Zoology Compiled and directed by

Mary Ann Basinger Maggenti University of California, Davis (emerita)

Armand R. Maggenti, Ph.D. University of California, Davis Honorary Curator of Nemata Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology University of Nebraska State Museum University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Edited by

Scott L. Gardner, Ph.D. Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology W- 529 Nebraska Hall University of Nebraska State Museum University of Nebraska–Lincoln Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0514 http://hwml.unl.edu Tel: 402-472-3334 Fax: 402-472-8949 E-mail: [email protected]

digitalcommons.unl.edu 2005

Copyright © 2005 Armand R. Maggenti and Scott L. Gardner

Designed and set in Verdana type by Paul Royster

Version 1.0, posted September 6, 2005 Version 1.01, posted September 14, 2005 Version 1.02, posted September 22, 2005 Version 2.0, posted October 20, 2005 Version 2.1, posted July 31, 2008

In memory of Mary Ann Maggenti, a good friend and teacher.

This book is dedicated to Mary Ann’s sons, Timothy and Peter Maggenti.

The roots and origins of the terms presented in this dictionary were taken from textbooks and from the original literature. Wherever possible the original first reference was located so that the original meaning was preserved. Original use, subsequent or current usage, and common acceptable uses of terms are also presented. Many of the terms were taken from Charles T. Brues and A. L. Melander, Key to the Families of North American Insects (1915) and their Classification of Insects: A Key to the Known Families of Insects and Other Terrestrial Arthropods (1932).

The authors wish to acknowledge the dedication to this project given by Mr. Gaylen Paxman.

Abbreviations

a. A.S. Ab.Am. ACANTHO

adv. ANN

Ar. ARTHRO BRACHIO BRYO CHAETO CNID

Corn. CTENO

D. Dan. dim. ECHI ECHINOD ENTO

F. GASTRO

Ger. GNATHO

Gr. HEMI

Hind. It. KINOR

L. LL. LORI

adjective Anglo-Saxon Aboriginal American Acanthocephala adverb Annelida Arabic Arthropoda Brachiopoda Bryozoa Chaetognatha Cnidaria Cornish Ctenophora Dutch Danish diminutive Echiura Echinodermata Entoprocta French Gastrotricha German Gnathostomulida Greek Hemichordata Hindi Italian Kinorhyncha Latin Late Latin Loricifera

Mal. MD. ME. MESO

MF. ML. MOLL

n. NEMAT NEMER

NL. Obs. OE. OF. ON. ONYCHO

pert. pl. PLATY POGON PORIF PRIAP ROTIF

Russ. sing. SIPUN

Skt. Sp. Sw. TARDI

Turk. v. v.t.

Maldivean Middle Dutch Middle English Mesozoa Middle French Medieval Latin Mollusca noun Nematoda Nemertina New Latin obsolete Old English Old French Old Norse Onychophora pertaining plural Platyhelminthes Pogonophora Porifera Priapula Rotifera Russian singular Sipuncula Sanskrit Spanish Swedish Tardigrada Turkish verb verb, transitive

Ju m p t o:

A ..............1

N .......... 595

B .......... 109

O .......... 620

C .......... 151

P ........... 650

D .......... 272

Q .......... 768

E........... 311

R .......... 771

F ........... 352

S ........... 799

G .......... 381

T ........... 888

H .......... 416

U .......... 927

I

V

........... 463

T

.......... 937

J ........... 492

W ......... 953

K .......... 495

X

L ........... 500

Y ........... 958

M

Z ........... 959

......... 527

.......... 956

A a ba ct ina l a. [L. ab, from; Gr. akt is, ray] (ECHINOD) Of or pertaining to the area of the body without tube feet that normally does not include the madreporite; not situated on the ambulacral area; abambulacral. a ba ct ina lly adv. a ba m bu la cr a l see a ba ct in a l A- ba nd That zone of the sarcomere composed of both actin and myosin filaments. a ba pe r t u r a l a. [L. ab, from; apert ura, an opening] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Refers to being away from any shell aperture. a ba pica l a. [L. ab, from; apex, top] 1. Pertains to the opposite of apical and thus the lower pole of spherical organisms. 2. (MOLL: Gastropoda) Away from the shell apex toward base along axis or slightly oblique to it. a ba x ia l a. [L. ab, from; axis, axle] Refers to being situated outside of or directed away from the axis or central line. see a da x ia l. a bbr e via t e fa scia (ARTHRO: Insecta) A fascia extending less than half the wing. a bca u line a. [L. ab, from; caulis, stalk] (CNID: Hydrozoa) Pertaining to polyps that extend outwards from the common stem. see a dca uline . a bdom e n n. [L. abdom en, belly] 1. (ARTHRO) The posterior of the three main body divisions of insects; not homologous with chelicerate opisthosoma. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The trunk somites (with or without limbs) between the thorax and telson; the pleon. a bdom e r e n. [L. abdom en, belly; Gr. m eros, part] An abdominal segment. a bdom ina l fe e t see pr ole gs a bdom ina l fila m e n t see ce r cu s

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a bdom ina l ga n glia (ARTHRO) Ganglia of the ventral nerve cord that innervate the abdomen, each giving off a pair of principal nerves to the muscles of the segment; located between the alimentary canal and the large ventral muscles. a bdom ina l pr oce ss (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Branchiopoda, fingerlike projections on the dorsal surface of the abdomen. a bdom ina l som it e (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Any single division of the body between the thorax and telson; a pleomere; a pleonite. a bdu ce v. [L. abducere, to lead away] To draw or conduct away. a bdu ct v. [L. abducere, to lead away] To draw away from position of median plane or axis. a bdu ct in n. [L. abducere, to lead away] (MOLL: Bivalvia) Rubber-like block of protein of the inner hinge ligament of Pecten. a bdu ct or m u scle The muscle that draws an appendage or part away from an axis of the body. see a ddu ct or m u scle . a be r r a n t a. [L. aberrans, wandering] Pertaining to a deviation from the normal type or form; abnormal; anomalous variations; different. a bie n t a. [L. abire, to depart] Avoiding or turning away from a source of stimulation. see a die n t . a biocoe n n. [Gr. a, without; bios, life; koinos, common] The non-living components of an environment. a bioge n e sis n. [Gr. a, without; bios, life; genesis, beginning] The theoretical concept that life can arise from non-living matter; spontaneous generation; archebiosis; archegenesis, archigenesis. see bioge n e sis, n e obioge ne sis. a biology n. [Gr. a, without; bios, life; logos, discourse] The study of inanimate objects; anorganology. a biot ic a. [Gr. a, without; bios, life] Pertaining to, or characterized by the absence of life. a bj uga l fur r ow (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, the line sepa-

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rating the aspidosoma (prodorsum) and the podosoma of mites. a bla t ion n. [L. ablat us, taken away] Removal of a part as by excision or amputation. a bor a l a. [L. ab, from; os, mouth] 1. Pertaining to, or situated away from the mouth; surface opposite the mouth. 2. (ECHINOD: Asteroidea) The surface opposite that bearing the mouth and ambulacral grooves; abactinal; apical; dorsal. see or a l. a bor igin a l a. [L. aborigineus, ancestral] 1. Of or pertaining to an aborigine, the first, original. 2. Native fauna and flora of a geographic region. a bor t ion n. [L. abort us, premature birth] Arrest or failure of development of any entity or normally present part or organ rendering it unfit for normal function. a br a n ch ia t e a. [Gr. a, without; branchia, gills] Pertains to being without gills. a br e pt or n. [L. ab, from; rept ere, to crawl] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The postabdomen of water fleas terminating in two claws. a bscise d n. [L. abscissus, cut off] Cut off squarely; with a straight margin. a bscission n. [L. abscissus, cut off] The separation of parts. a bsolu t e a. [L. absolut us, finished, perfect, complete] Any entity existing in and of itself free from impurities or imperfections. a bsor pt ion n. [L. ab, from; sorbere, to suck] The passage of water and dissolved substances into a living cell or tissue. see a dsor pt ion . a bt e r m in a l a. [L. ab, from; t erm inus, limit] Passing from the end toward the center. a bu lla t e a. [Gr. a, without; L. bulla, bubble] Lacking a bulla. a byss n. [Gr. abyssos, the deep sea] Bottomless, sometimes used to denote very deep.

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a byssa l a. [Gr. abyssos, the deep sea] Pertaining to the ocean depth beyond the continental shelf; dark area of the ocean below 2,000 meters. a byssobe nt h os a. [Gr. abyssos, the deep sea; bent hos, depth of sea] Pertaining to all organsims that are sessile, or creep or crawl over the ocean bottom. a byssope la gic a. [Gr. abyssos, the deep sea; pelagos, sea] Pertains to all organisms inhabiting the deep abyssal zone; they are either active swimmers, or float with the current. a ca n t ha n. [Gr. akant ha, thorn, spine] Spinous process; prickle. a ca n t ha ce ou s a. [Gr. akant ha, thorn, spine] Pertaining to being armed with spines or prickles. a ca n t h e lla la r va (ACANTHO) Transitional larva developed from an acanthor after crossing through the gut wall into the intermediate host hemocoel; stage between an acanthor and a cystacanth in which the definitive organ systems are developed. a ca n t h o- [Gr. akant ha, thorn, spine] A prefix meaning spine. Aca nt h oce ph a la , a ca n t h oce pha la n s n.; n.pl. [Gr. akant ha, thorn, spine; kephale, head] A phylum of parasitic pseudocoelomate, bilateral animals distinguished by a generally eversible proboscis with recurved, sclerotized, retractable hooks; commonly called spiny-headed worms. a ca n t h oce ph a lou s a. a ca n t h ocyst n. [Gr. akant ha, thorn, spine; kyst is, bladder] (NEMER) The stylet apparatus housed in the middle (stylet bulb) portion of the proboscis, including two to several accessory stylet pouches containing replacement stylets. a ca n t h odion n.; pl. -dia [Gr. dim. akant hodes, thorn, spine] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, a tarsal seta that contains an extension of a sensory basal cell. a ca n t h odr ilin se t (ANN: Oligochaeta) With reference to male terminalia, having prostatic pores in segments xvii and xix, and male pores in segment xviii, all pores are in seminal furrows.

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a ca nt hopa r ia n.; pl. -ia e [Gr. akant ha, thorn, spine; pareion, cheek] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Coleoptera, the lateral spiny paired region of the paria (epipharynx) in scarabaeoid larvae. a ca n t h ophor e n. [Gr. akant ha, thorn, spine; phoreus, bearer] (NEMER) A conical mass that forms the basis of the median stylet. a ca n t h ophor it e s n. [Gr. akant ha, thorn, spine; phoreus, bearer] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, spine bearing plates at the tip of the female abdomen used to aid oviposition in soil. a ca nt hopod n. [Gr. akant ha, thorn, spine; pous, foot] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A barnacle appendage (cirrus) bearing a short row of strong sharp spines distally at each articulation of greater curvature, and few or no spines of lesser curvature. see ce nt opod, ba sipod( it e ) . a ca nt hopor e n. [Gr. akant ha, thorn, spine; poros, passage] (BRYO) 1. A tubular spine in certain fossils. 2. In Stenolaemata, sometimes referred to as style, stylet, or acanthorod. a ca n t h or n. [Gr. akant ha, thorn, spine] (ACANTHO) The first stage larva that emerges from the egg; the infective stage in the gut of the arthropod (intermediate host); has 6-8 blade-like hooks forming an aclid organ or rostellum. a ca nt hor od n. [Gr. akant ha, thorn, spine; A.S. rod] (BRYO: Stenolaemata) A style or stylet. see a ca n t hopor e . a ca nt hosom a n. [Gr. akant ha, thorn, spine; som a, body] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, the last larval stage preceding the postlarva; zoea; mysis; schizopod larvae. a ca nt hosphe not e a. [Gr. akant ha, thorn, spine; sphen, wedge] (ECHINOD: Echinoidea) Pertaining to a spine composed of solid wedges separated by porous tissue. a ca n t h ost e gou s a. [Gr. akant ha, thorn, spine; st egos, roof] (BRYO) Pertaining to an overlay of spines, as the ovicell. a ca n t h ost yle n. [Gr. akant ha, thorn, spine; st ylos, pillar] 1. (BRYO: Stenolaemata) A type of stylet with a smooth rod

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core of nonlaminated calcite, with sheath laminae usually strongly deflected toward the zoarial surface as spines; usually larger than paurostyle. 2. (PORIF) A monactinal spicule covered with thorny processes. a ca nt hozooid n. [Gr. akant ha, thorn, spine; zoon, animal; eidos, form] (BRYO) A specialized zooid that secretes small tubules that project as spines above the colony's surface. Aca r i n. [Gr. akari, mite or tick] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) Subclass of the most diverse and species-rich group of arachnids containing the mites and ticks; formerly the order Acarina. a ca r ia sis n. [Gr. akari, mite or tick; -iasis, diseased condition] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) Infestation with ticks or mites, or any diseased condition resulting therefrom. Aca r in a see Aca r i a ca r in a r ium n.; pl. -a r ia [Gr. akari, mite or tick; L. - arium , place for] 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) Any surface or anatomical feature, enclosed or not, internal or external, that regularly serves as an abode for mites. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, variously placed and constructed integumental cavities that serve as abodes for mites in certain eumenine wasps; originally defined as the enclosed acarid chambers of xylocopid bees. a ca r oce cidiu m n.; pl. -ia [L. akari, mite or tick; Gr. kekis, gallnut] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) Any plant gall caused by a mite. a ca r ology n. [Gr. akari, mite or tick; logos, discourse] That branch of zoology that studies mites and ticks. a ca r oph ily n. [Gr. akari, mite or tick; philos, loving] Symbiosis of mites and plants. a ca r yot e see a k a r yot e a ca u da l, a ca u da t e , e ca u da t e a. [Gr. a, without; L. cauda, tail] Without a tail. a cce le r a t ion n. [L. accelerat are, to hasten to] The speeding up of a development so that a feature appears earlier in the ontogeny of a descendant than in an ancestor.

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a cce n t u a t ion n. [L. ad, to; canere, to sing] Intensify; increase distinctness. a cce ssor y a.; pl. -r ie s [L. ad, to; cedere, move] Contributing to the effectiveness of a principal design; secondary; supplemental. a cce ssor y a ppe n da ge s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Odonata, the genital appendages (intromittent organs) on the venter of the second and third abdominal segment. a cce ssor y bodie s Argyrophil particles obtained from Golgi bodies in spermatocytes. see chr om a t oid bodie s. a cce ssor y bor in g or ga n (MOLL: Gastropoda) A glandular structure (in naticaceans on the lower lip, and in muriaceans sole of the foot) that aid the radular rasping process by acidic secretions so mechanical removal by the radula is made easy. a ce ssor y ce ll (ARTHRO: Insecta) A cell in the wing not normally present in the group, or definite location. a cce ssor y cir cu la t in g or ga ns see a cce ssor y pu lsa t ile or ga ns a cce ssor y cla w s (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Araneae, clawlike bundles of setae or bristles below the true claws. a cce ssor y ge n it a lia see a cce ssor y a ppe nda ge s a cce ssor y gla nds (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. A pair of glands opening primarily on the venter or the eighth or ninth abdominal segment of females that secrete an adhesive substance or material forming a cover or case (ootheca) for the eggs. 2. In males, secretion glands opening into the ejaculatory duct. a cce ssor y la m e lla e (MOLL: Bivalvia) In Pholadinae, accessory periostracal coverings or shelly plates along the dorsal margin, over the anteroventral pedal gape, or along the posteroventral margin encircling the siphons. a cce ssor y lobe s (ARTHRO) Ventral lobes of the protocerebrum. a cce ssor y n ida m e nt a l gla n d (MOLL: Cephalopoda) Small paired glands subordinate to the nidamental gland.

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a cce ssor y pigm e nt ce lls (ARTHRO: Insecta) As many as twenty-four cells that surround the retinulae of a compound eye; in superposition eyes the pigment granules assume different positions in light and darkness; also known as secondary pigment cells, secondary iris cells, iris pigment cells and outer pigment cells. a cce ssor y pu lsa t ile or ga ns (ARTHRO) Pulsating structures connected with the hemocoel that are concerned with maintaining a circulation through the appendages, but pulsating independently from the heart. a cce ssor y sa c (PLATY: Cestoda) A sac in the proglottid wall that opens into the genital atrium. a cce ssor y spicu le (PORIF) A category of megasclere, supplemental to the primary skeleton, may be located anywhere. a cce ssor y st yle t s (NEMER) Replacement stylets that are stored in reserve stylet sacs or pouches. a cce ssor y su bcoa st a l ve in (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Perlidae, the vein given off from the subcosta, branching toward the apex of the wing. a cce ssor y t e st is (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Coleoptera, the coiled middle section of the vas deferens serving as a reservoir for mature sperm. a ccide n t a l e volu t ion A condition that occurs as a consequence of mutation, but does not appear to improve survival value. a ccide n t a l h ost A host in which a pathogenic parasite is not commonly found. a ccide n t a l m yia sis (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, the presence within a host of a fly larva that is not normally parasitic; pseudomyiasis. a ccide n t a l pa r a sit e A parasite in other than its normal host; an incidental parasite. a ccide n t a l t r a nspor t Unintentional movement of a pathogen from one location to another by an animal not normally associated with the parasite or disease. see phor e sis.

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a cclim a t ion n. [L. ad, to; Gr. klim a, climate] The habituation of an organism to a foreign or different climate or environment; acclimatization. a cclivou s a. [L. acclivis, ascending] Pertaining to an upward slope. see de clivou s. a ccr e t ion n. [L. accrescere, to increase] Growth or increase by external addition. see in t u ssu sce pt ion. a ce lom a t e see a coe lom a t e a ce n t r ic a. [Gr. a, without; kent rol, center] Pertaining to not being centered; lacking a centromere when referring to a chromosome or chromosome fragment. a ce n t r ic inve r sion An inversion of any part of the chromosome not involving the centromere. Ace ph a la (MOLL) Former name for Class Bivalvia. a ce ph a locyst n. [Gr. a, without; kephale, head; kyst is, bladder] (PLATY: Cestoda) A hydatid larval stage; bladderworm; cysticercus. a ce ph a lous a. [Gr. a, without; kephale, head] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertains to the absence of any structure comparable to a head, as in certain dipteran larvae; acephalic. see e u ce ph a lou s, he m ice ph a lou s. a ce r a t a n. [Gr. a, without; kerat os, horn] 1. Without true antennae. 2. (ARTHRO) In former classifications, the name Acerata comprised a class combining Merostomata and Arachnida. a ce r a t e a. [L. acer, sharp] Of or pertaining to needle-shaped; acerose; acicular. a ce r ose a. [L. acer, sharp] Having a sharp, rigid point; acerate; acicular. a ce r ou s a. [Gr. a, without; keras, horn] Lacking horns, antennae or tentacles. a ce r va t e a. [L. acervare, to heap] Pertaining to heaped or growing in heaps or clusters. see coa ce r va t e . a ce r vu line a. [L. acervare, to heap] Resembling small heaps.

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a ce sce n ce n. [L. acesceres, to turn sour] Acetic acid fermentation. a ce t a bu la r ca ps (ARTHRO: Insecta) The coxal cavity of Hemiptera. a ce t a bu lifor m a. [L. acet abulum , cup; form a, shape] Resembling the shape of a shallow cup or saucer. a ce t a bu lum n.; pl. -la [L. acet abulum , cup] 1. A cup-shaped socket or cavity. 2. (ANN: Hirudinoidea) In leeches, the large posterior sucker. 3. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, the genital sucker. 4. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. Any cavity into which an appendage is articulated; the coxal cavity. b. The conical cavity at the anterior of some larvae; in Diptera, the cavity in the sucking mouth. c. In dytiscid water beetles, stalked cuplets or sucker discs on the anterior tarsi, in some, also the second tarsi, thought to act as adhesive organs during copulation; a pallette. 5. (ECHINOD: Echinoidea) The cavity located on the proximal end of a spine. 6. (MOLL: Cephalopoda) The sucker on the arm. 7. (PLATY: Cestoda) The sucker on the scolex. 8. (PLATY: Trematoda) The ventral sucker. a cha e t ou s, a che t ou s a. [Gr. a, without; chait e, hair] Without setae, bristles, or chaetae. a cha t in e , a cha t in u s a. [L. achat es, agate] Pertaining to lines resembling those of an agate; in bands of more or less concentric circles. a ch e la t e a. [Gr. a, without; chele, claw] Lacking pincherlike organs or claws. a ch ila r y a. [Gr. a, without; cheilos, lip] Lacking a lip. a ch la m yda t e a. [Gr. a, without; chlam ys, mantle] Lacking a mantle. a ch r oa cyt e n. [Gr. a, without; chroa, colored; kyt os, container] A colorless cell; a lymphocyte. a ch r oglobin n. [Gr. a, without; chroa, colored; L. globus, sphere] (MOLL) A colorless respiratory pigment. a ch r oic see a ch r oou s

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a ch r om a sia , a ch r om a sie n. [Gr. a, without; chrom a, color] Lacking the usual reaction to stains. see chr om a sia . a ch r om a t ic a. [Gr. a, without; chrom a, color] Being achroous; stains not permeating readily; uncolored. a ch r om a t ic a ppa r a t u s/ figu r e Pertaining to mitosis, those structures (spindle fibers and cell centers) that do not stain readily. a ch r om a t in n. [Gr. a, without; chrom a, color] Those parts of the cell nucleus that do not absorb color of the basic stains. a ch r om a t in ic a. see chr om a t in . a ch r om ic a. [Gr. a, without; chrom a, color] Free from color; unpigmented. A- chr om osom e Any of the chromosomes of the normal chromosome complement, as opposed to the B-chromosomes. a ch r oous a. [Gr. a, without; chros, complexion] Colorless; unpigmented; achromatic. a cia n. [L. acia, thread] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A thin cuticular plate of the mandible. a cicle n. [L. dim. acus, needle] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A thornshaped scaphocerite of hermit crabs. a cicu la n.; pl. -la e [L. dim. acus, needle] A slender needle-like process; a spine or bristle; something larger than a seta or chaeta. a cicu la r , a cicu la t e a. a cicu lifor m see a cicu la a cicu lum n.; pl. -lum s, -la [L. dim. acus, needle] (ANN: Polychaeta) A chitinous stiff basal seta or rod supporting the parapodial lobes. a cid gla n d, poison gla n d 1. Any of numerous glands secreting acid in many invertebrates. 2. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Araneae, the poison gland. 3. (ARTHRO: Diplopoda) The HCN-secreting glands. 4. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Gland of stinging Hymenoptera. 5. (MOLL: Gastropoda) The salivary gland. a cidic a. [L. acere, to be sour] Acid forming; having the properties of an acid.

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a cidobion t ic a. [L. acere, to be sour; Gr. bion, life] Living in an acid environment. see ox yphilic. a cidoph il a. [L. acere, to be sour; Gr. philein, to love] Growing in an acid media. see ox yph ilic. a cidoph ilic, a cidoph ilou s a. [L. acidus, sour; Gr. philein, to love] 1. Tolerating acid; aciduric. 2. Staining readily in an acid stain. a cidophobic a. [L. acere, to be sour; Gr. phobos, fear] Pertaining to the intolerance of an acid environment; oxyphobic. a cidot h e ca n. [L. acere, to be sour; Gr. t heke, case] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The pupal sheath of the ovipositor. a cidur ic a. [L. acere, to be sour; durus, hardy] Tolerating an acid medium. see a cidoph ilic. a cie s n. [L. acies, sharp edge or point] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The extreme termination of a margin. a cifor m a. [L. acus, needle; form a, shape] Pertaining to being shaped like a needle; acicular. a cina cifor m , a cin a cica t e a. [L. acinaces, short sword; form a, shape] Scimitar-shaped; having one edge thick and slightly concave, the other thin and convex; curved and growing wider toward a curve with a truncate apex. a cina r iou s a. [L. acinarius, pert. to grapes] Having globose vesicles resembling grape seeds. a cin ifor m a. [L. acinus, berry or grape; form a, shape] Resembling a cluster of berries; having small kernels like grapes. a cin u s n.; pl. -in i [L. acinus, berry or grape] A small sac or alveolus in a multicellular gland or lung. a cinose a. a clid or ga n (ACANTHO) A spined invagination located at the anterior end of an acanthor; sometimes referred to as a rostellum. a clin e see or t hoclin e a clit e lla t e a. [L. a, without; clit ella, packsaddle] (ANN: Oligochaeta) Lacking a clitellum; an adult earthworm, but still

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without a clitellar tumescence of the epidermis; the second growth stage. a cm e n. [Gr. akm e, point] 1. The highest point. 2. That period of greatest development in the phylogenetic history of a group of organisms. Acoe lom a t a n. [Gr. a, without; koilos, hollow] A coined term denoting those lower phyla of zoological classification that lack a body cavity or coelom as Cnidaria (=Coelenterata), Nemertea, Platyhelminthes, Porifera, or Ctenophora. a coe lom a t e , a ce lom a t e a. [Gr. a, without; koilos, hollow] Refers to any Metazoa with no internal cavities in the body other than the lumen of the gut. a coe lou s a. a cone e ye (ARTHRO: Insecta) A condition (possibly primitive) of a compound eye in which the ommatidium is lacking a crystalline cone, but is modified in the form of elongated transparent bodies called Semper cells. see pse u docon e , e u cone , e x ocone . a cont ioids n.pl. [Gr. akon, dart; eidos, shape] (CNID: Anthozoa) Simple or branched adhesive threads of tube anemones situated on the lower portion of the mesenteries. a cont ium n.; pl. -ia [Gr. akon, dart; ium , nature of] (CNID: Anthozoa) An elongate, hollow, nematocyst-studded thread of sea anemones. a coust ic a. [Gr. akouein, to hear] Auditory; pertaining to the organs or sense of hearing, or produce sound such as a stridulatory organ. acquired a. [L. acquirere, to seek] 1. Pertaining to being developed as a result of environmental effects; noninheritable. 2. Resulting from experience or learning. a cqu ir e d ch a r a ct e r A trait or somatic modification that originates during the life of an organism as the result of an environmental or functional cause. a cr a e in n. [Gr. akrasia, bad mixture] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Lepidoptera, a secretion of certain butterflies of protective or distasteful function. Acr a spe da n. [Gr. akraspedos, without fringes] (CNID: Hydro-

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zoa) In former classifications, a group of jellyfish having a medusa without a velum. a cr a spe dot e a. [Gr. a, without; kraspedon, border] 1. (CNID: Hydrozoa) Refers to medusae without a velum. 2. (PLATY: Cestoda) Pertaining to tapeworm segments that do not overlap. a cr e m bolic pr oboscis (MOLL) Having a completely invaginable proboscis. see ple u r e m bolic pr oboscis. a cr idopha gus n. [Gr. akridion, locust, grasshopper; phagein, to eat] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The act of preying and feeding on members of the Acrididea. a cr obla st n. [Gr. akros, tip; blast os, bud] In spermatogenesis, Golgi material giving rise to an acrosome. a cr oce n t r ic a. [Gr. akros, tip; kent ron, center] Pertaining to chromosomes with the centromere at or near one of the ends; rod-shaped chromosomes. see t e loce n t r ic. a cr oce r cu s see ce r cu s a cr ocyst n. [Gr. akros, tip; kyst is, sac] (CNID: Hydrozoa) A chitinous sac containing a planula in which development is completed; may protrude from the gonangium. a cr ode ndr oph ily a. [Gr. akros, tip; dendron, tree; philein, to love] Inhabiting the tree-tops. a cr on n. [Gr. akros, tip] 1. (ARTHRO) The anterior unsegmented, or indistinguishably fused, body segments. a. In Crustacea, ophthalmic somite; presegmental region. b. In Insecta, the prostomium. 2. (MOLL) The prostomal region of trochophore larva. a cr on e m a t ic a. [Gr. akros, tip; nem a, thread] Referring to smooth, whip-like flagella. a cr on e m e n. [Gr. akros, tip; nem a, thread] The slender section of a flagellum. a cr opa r ia n.; pl. -a e [Gr. akros, tip; pareion, cheek] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Coleoptera, the anterior part of the paria bearing the bristles of scarabaeoid larvae. a cr ope r ipha llu s n.; pl. -li [Gr. akros, tip; peri, around; phal-

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los, penis] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Protura, the distal part of the periphallus, sometimes retractable into basiperiphallus. a cr oph ilous a. [Gr. akros, tip; philein, to love] Preferring regions of high altitude. a cr or h a gus n.; pl. -gi [Gr. akros, tip; rhax, berry] (CNID: Anthozoa) A marginal tubercle of sea anemones containing specialized nematocysts. a cr oscopic a. [Gr. akros, tip; skopein, to view] Looking towards the apex. see ba siscopic. a cr osom e n. [Gr. akros, tip; som a, body] A cap-like structure investing the front part of the sperm head allowing penetration of the cover of the egg cell; formed from Golgi material. a cr ost e r n it e n. [Gr. akros, tip; st ernon, chest] (ARTHRO: Insecta) That part of the narrow marginal flange anterior to the antecosta of a definitive sternal plate, including the preceding primary intersegmental sclerotization; normally found on abdominal sterna, but absent on thoracic sterna. a cr ost ica l see a cr ost ich a l a r e a , br ist le s, sca le s a cr ost ich a l a r e a (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, the median longitudinal area of the scutum between the anterior promontory and prescutellar area, bearing bristles or scales. a cr ost ich a l br ist le s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, setae occurring in a median longitudinal row on the acrostichal area of the scutum. a cr ost ich a l h a ir s/ se t a / se t u la e see a cr ost ich a l br ist le s a cr ost ich a l sca le s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, scales occurring in one or two lines on the acrostichal area. a cr osynde sis n. [Gr. akros, tip; syndesai, to bind together] Incomplete end-to-end pairing of two chromosomes during meiosis; telosyndesis. a cr ot e r git e n. [Gr. akros, tip; L. t ergum , back] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The anterior precostal part of the tergal plate of a secondary segment usually in the form of a narrow flange, varying in size or sometimes obliterated.

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a cr ot e r ic a. [Gr. akros, tip; -t erion, place for] Relating to or affecting the extremities. a cr ot r och n. [Gr. akros, tip; t rochos, hoop] (ANN: Polychaeta) The band of cilia anterior to the prototroch (preoral band) of a larval stage. a cr ot r oph ic ova r iole see t e lot r oph ic ova r iole a cr ydia n a. [Gr. akridion, locust, grasshopper] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to grasshoppers or grasshopper-like. a ct in n. [Gr. act us, move] A muscle protein that combines with myosin to form a contractile protein complex, actomyosin; the chief constitutent of the I and Z-band myofilaments of each sarcomere. a ct ina l a. [Gr. akt is, ray] 1. Star-shaped; pertaining to that area of a radiate organism from which arms or tentacles radiate. 2. (CNID: Anthozoa) Oral area of sea anemones. a ct in e n. [Gr. akt is, ray] (PORIF) The single ray of a starshaped spicule. a ct in e n ch ym a a. [Gr. akt is, ray; en, in; chym a, to pour] Cellular tissue resembling a star. a ct in ic a. [Gr. akt is, ray] Pertaining to wave lengths between those of visible violet and X-rays, having certain chemical effects. a ct in ifor m a. [Gr. akt is, ray; form a, shape] Having a radiated form; star-shaped. a ct in oid a. a ct inobiology n. [Gr. akt is, ray; bios, life; logos, discourse] The study of effects of radiation upon living organisms. a ct inobla st n. [Gr. akt is, ray; blast os, bud] (PORIF) The rudimentary cell of a spicule. a ct inoch it in n. [Gr. akt is, ray; chit on, tunic] Chitin that is anisotropic or birefringent (double refracting). a ct inodon t a. [Gr. akt is, ray; odous, tooth] (MOLL: Bivalvia) With teeth radiating from the beak of the shell. a ct inogon idia l a. [Gr. akt is, ray; gonos, seed] Having genitalia arranged in a radial pattern.

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a ct inoid, a ct in ifor m a. [Gr. akt is, ray; eidos, shape] Raylike; star-shaped; stellate. a ct inology n. [Gr. akt is, ray; logos, discourse] 1. The study of radially symmetrical animals. 2. The study of the activity of radiation. a ct inom e r e n. [Gr. akt is, ray; m eros, part] A segment of a radially segmented organism. a ct inopha r yn x n. [Gr. akt is, ray; pharynx, gullet] (CNID: Anthozoa) Gullet of the sea anemone. a ct inost om e n. [Gr. akt is, ray; st om a, mouth] The mouth of a radially symmetrical animal. a ct inot r och a , a ct inot r och n. [Gr. akt is, ray; t rochos, wheel] (PHORON) A free-swimming, elongate, ciliated larva of the phylum Phoronida, bearing tentacles attached to a girdle immediately posterior to the preoral lobe. a ct in u la n. [Gr. dim. akt is, ray] (CNID: Hydrozoa) A larval stage that looks like either a polyp or medusa, depending upon whether the mouth is turned upward or downward. a ct ion cu r r e n t The flow of electric current between a region of excitation and neighboring unexcited regions. a ct ion pot e n t ia l A temporary change in potential that occurs across the surface membrane of a muscle or nerve cell following stimulation. a ct iva t or n. [L. agere, to act] Any substance that renders another substance active. a ct ive a. [L. agere, to act] Pertaining to movement; given to action; alert. a ct ive ce nt e r The site on an enzyme molecule that interacts with the substrate molecules; where activation and reaction take place. a ct ive t r a n spor t The transportation or movement of substances through differentially permeable cell membranes against a concentration or electrical gradient with the expenditure of energy. a ct om yosin n. [Gr. akt is, ray; m ys, muscle] Actin and myosin

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linkage in myofilaments that shortens when stimulated resulting in muscle contraction. a cua t e a. [L. dim. acus, needle] Sharpened; needle-shaped; sharp pointed. a cu le a n.; pl. -e a e [L. dim. acus, needle] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. In Diptera, one of the minute spines comprising the tomentum that covers the cuticula (except the wing membrane), usually dense in adults but sparse or absent in immatures. 2. In Lepidoptera, one of the minute spines on the wing membrane. a cu le a t e a. [L. dim. acus, needle] 1. Pertaining to being armed with a sting or short, sharp points. 2. Furnished with aculeae. a cu le a t e - se r r a t e Armed with saw-like teeth inclined toward one direction. a cu le i pl. of a cu le u s a cu le ifor m a. [L. dim. acus, needle; form a, shape] Formed like a thorn. a cu le u s n.; pl. -le i [L. dim. acus, needle] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. In Hymenoptera, an ovipositor in the form of a sting. 2. In Diptera, a sharp spine projected from the margin of the eighth sternite of Tipulidae. a cum e n n. [L. acum en, point] 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, the pointed tip of the rostrum. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The pointed tip of genitalia. a cum ina t e a. [L. acum en, point] Terminating in a long tapering point. a cum in ose a. [L. acum en, point] Nearly acuminate. a cum in u la t e a. [L. acum en, point] Minutely acuminate. a cu pu n ct a t e a. [L. acus, needle; punct us, a pricking] Pertaining to fine superficial punctures as if made with a needle. a cu t a n gu la r a. [L. acut us, sharpened; angulus, angle] Forming or meeting at an acute angle. a cu t e a. [L. acut us, sharpened] Pointed; forming an angle of

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less than 90°; having a sharp or sharply tapering point. see obt use . a cu t ilingua l a. [L. acut us, sharpened; lingus, tongue] Having a sharp pointed tongue or mouth structure. a cu t ilingue s n. pl. [L. acut us, sharpened; lingua, tongue] A former classification (Acutilinguae) of bees that have a short pointed tongue. see obt u silin gu e s. a cyclic a. [Gr. a, without; kyklos, circle] Referring to noncyclic; not arranged in circles or whorls. a da ct yl, a da ct yle a. [Gr. a, without; dakt ylos, finger] Lacking fingers, toes, or claws. a da m bu la cr a l a. [L. ad, near; am bulare, to walk] (ECHINOD: Asteroidea) Relates to structures situated along the ambulacral grooves in starfish. a da na l a. [L. ad, near; anus, anus] Pertaining to being located near the anus. a da na l bur sa (NEMATA) Referring to a bursa not enclosing the tail terminus; leptoderan. a da na l copu la t or y pa pilla e (NEMATA) Male adanal supplements, glandular or sensory. a da na le n. [L. ad, near; anus] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The fourth axillary sclerite of a wing. a da na l se gm e n t (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Actinotrichida Acari, segment XIV plus one of the paraproctal segments. a da na l supple m e n t s (NEMATA) Organs of secretion and attachment near the male anus. a da pe r t u r a l a. [L. ad, near; apert ura, opening] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Refers to being toward the shell aperture. a da pica l a. [L. ad, near; apex, top] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Slightly oblique or along the axis toward the top. a da pt a t ion n. [L. ad, near; apt us, fit] The process and condition of showing fitness for a particular environment, as applied to characteristics of a structure, function, or entire organism; also the process by which such fitness is ac-

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quired. a da pt ive a. [L. ad, near; apt us, fit] Capable of or showing adaptation. a da pt ive dive r ge n ce Evolutionary new forms from a common ancestry due to adaptation to different environmental conditions. a da pt ive oce lli (ARTHRO: Insecta) Simple eyes or ocelli of most larvae. see st e m m a t a , oce llu s. a da pt ive r a ce A race that is physiologically, rather than morphologically, distinguished. a da pt ive r a dia t ion Evolutionary diversification of members of a single phyletic line into a series of different niches or adaptive zones. a da x ia l a. [L. ad, near; axis, axle] 1. Situated on the side of, or facing toward an axis. 2. (MOLL: Gastropoda) Inward toward the shell axis. a dca u line a. [L. ad, near; caulis, stalk] (CNID: Hydrozoa) Pertaining to polyps that bend towards, or are near to the common stem. a dde ndum n.; pl. -da [L. addere, to add] Something to be added; an addition, extension or supplement. a ddit ive va r ia n ce Gradation due to the average value of different genes. a ddor sa l a. [L. ad, near; dorsum , back] Near to, but not on the middle of the dorsum. a ddor sa l lin e (ARTHRO: Insecta) A longitudinal line between the dorsal and subdorsal line of caterpillars. a ddu ct v.t. [L. ad, near; ducere, to lead] To draw towards a median axis or plane, or one part toward another. see a bdu ct . a ddu ct ion n. [L. ad, near; ducere, to lead] 1. Drawn toward or beyond the median line or axis. see a bdu ct ion . 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In describing the movement of the legs, the movement of the coxa towards the body.

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a ddu ct or n. [L. ad, near; ducere, to lead] A muscle that draws parts together or toward the median axis. see a ddu ct or m u scle s. a ddu ct or cox a e (ARTHRO: Insecta) The second muscle of the coxa. a ddu ct or m a n dibu la e (ARTHRO) The muscle that retracts or closes the mandible. a ddu ct or m u scle s 1. Any muscle that adducts or bring parts into apposition. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In bivalves, muscles attached to the carapace that pull it to the body, or connect the carapace. a. In Barnacles, any transverse muscle, especially those attached to the scutum for closing the aperture. 3. (MOLL: Bivalvia) A single posterior or an anterior and posterior muscle connecting the two valves. a. In oysters, the crescent shaped "catch" muscle that holds the valves in a set position, or the "quick" muscle, the main opening and closure muscle. a ddu ct or m u scle sca r (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Ostracoda, an impression of the adductor muscles on the valve interior, serving for closure of valves. a ddu ct or pit (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Depression on the inner surface of the scutum between the adductor ridge and the occludent margin for the attachment of the adductor muscle of certain barnacles. a ddu ct or r idge (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In sessile barnacles, the linear elevation on the inner surface bounding the adductor pit on the tergal side. a de ct icou s a. [Gr. a, without; dekt ikos, able to bite] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to pupae without articulated mandibles. see de ct icou s. a de loce r ou s, a de la ce r a t ou s a. [Gr. adelos, concealed; keras, horn] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Having antennae concealed in a cavity or groove. a de locodon ic a. [Gr. adelos, concealed; kodon, a bell] (CNID: Scyphozoa) Refers to degenerate attached medusae lacking an umbrella (bell).

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a de lom or ph ic, a de lom or phou s a. [Gr. adelos, concealed; m orphe, form] Indefinite or obscure in form. a de lonym y n. [Gr. adelos, concealed; onym os, name] State of an organ that makes it impossible to receive a distinct nomenclatorial designation. a de lonym ous a. a de lphoga m y n. [Gr. adelphos, brother; gam os, marriage] Mating of siblings. see ba ck - cr oss. a de lphopa r a sit e n. [Gr. adelphos, brother; para, beside; sit os, food] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A heteronomous hyperparasitoid. a de n dr it ic, a de n dr ic a. [Gr. a, without; dendron, tree] Having no dendrites or branches. a de n ifor m a. [Gr. aden, gland; L. form a, shape] Glandlike; resembling the shape of a gland. a de n in e n. [Gr. aden, gland] A 6-amino-purine base, closely related to uric acid, that derived its name from the original source from which it was derived. a de n obla st n. [Gr. aden, gland; blast os, bud] An embryonic glandular cell. a de n och e ir i see a de noda ct yl a de n oda ct yl n.; pl. -t yli, -yls [Gr. aden, gland; dakt ylos, finger] (PLATY: Turbellaria) Prostatoid male apparatus occurring in the wall of the common antrum in some freshwater and land triclads and some Acoela, thought to act as stimulators in copulation. Ade n ophor e a , a de noph or e a n n. [Gr. aden, gland; phora, producing] A class of unsegmented worms in the phylum Nemata; formerly Aphasmidia. a de n ose a. [Gr. aden, gland] Glandular. a de n osin e n. [Gr. aden, gland] A nucleoside whose phosphates provide the primary energy transfer system in living materials. a de n osin e diphospha t e ( AD P) Formed in biokinetic systems from decomposition of ATP.

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a de n osin e m onoph ospha t e ( AM P) A compound of importance in the release of energy for cellular activity, composed of adenine, d-ribose and phosphoric acid; also called AMP, adenylic acid, adenine ribotide. a de n osin e t r iphospha t e ( ATP) A major energy contributor in biokinetic systems that upon hydrolysis yields adenosine diphosphate (ADP). a de n ot a x y n. [Gr. aden, gland; t axis, arrangement] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, the number and distribution of the openings of the tegumentary glands of mites. a de n ot r oph ic vivipa r it y Reproduction characterized by fully developed, shelled eggs passing to and retained in the uterus, where the egg hatches and the larva is nourished by special maternal glands until fully developed. a de on ifor m a. [L. Adeona, Roman goddess; form a, shape] (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) Pertaining to a lobate, bilamellar colony; resembling the fossil Adeona. a de r m a t a n. [Gr. a, without; derm a, skin] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Transparent cuticle in pupa allowing the wings and other parts of the forming imago to be seen. a de sm a t ic a. [Gr. a, without; desm os, ligament] Pertaining to a segment of an appendage, or to the articulation between segments of an appendage, lacking its own tendons and muscles. see e ude sm a t ic. a de t opn e ust ic a. [Gr. adet os, free; pnein, to breathe] (ECHINOD) Dermal gills occurring beyond the abactinal surface. a dfr on t a l a r e a s/ pla t e s (ARTHRO: Insecta) A pair of narrow oblique plates on the head of Lepidoptera larvae, extending upwards from the base of the antennae and meeting medially above. a dfr on t a l se t a e (ARTHRO: Insecta) Setae borne on the adfrontal areas of immature insects, usually numbered according to their proximity to the vertex. a dfr on t a l su t u r e s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In immature insects, sutures separating the adfrontal sclerites or areas from the epicranium.

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a dhe r e nt a. [L. ad, near; haerere, to stick] Referring to being attached, clinging or sticking fast. a dhe sion n. [L. ad, near; haerere, to stick] 1. Act or state of adhering. 2. Attraction between two molecules of different substances. a dhe sion or ga n s 1. Any of numerous invertebrate organs used for adhesion to various surfaces. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Abdominal suckers, tarsal suckers and ventral tube. 3. (NEMATA) The spinneret. 4. (PLATY: Cestoda) Suckers, bothria and bothridia. 5. (PLATY: Trematoda) Oral and ventral suckers. 6. (ROTIF) Pedal glands in the toes. a dhe sion t u be s (NEMATA) Specialized hollow, tubelike structures, that may be supplied with muscles, associated with glands presumed to secrete a sticky substance; sometimes referred to as tubular setae, adhesive bristles or ambulatory setae. a dhe sive br ist le s see a dhe sion t u be s a dhe sive ca psu le (CNID) A type of nematocyst used for attaching to objects. a dhe sive ce lls Various glandular or specialized cells capable of causing adhesion in cnidarians and tubellarians; sometimes referred to as colloblasts, glue cells, or lasso cells. a dhe sive gla nd Various invertebrate glands that secrete a sticky substance. a dhe sive pa d (CNID: Hydrozoa) In some medusae, an adhesive sucker near tip of the tentacles utilized for clinging to sea weed. a dhe sive pa pilla e (PLATY: Turbellaria) In triclads, the protuberant structures for the purpose of attachment at the ends of the marginal adhesive glands. a dia ba t ic a. [Gr. a, without; dia, through; bainein, to go] Without gaining or losing heat. a dia ph a n ou s, a dia ph a n us a. [Gr. a, without; diaphanes, transparent] Impervious to light; opaque. a die n t a. [L. adire, to approach] Turning toward or approach-

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ing a source of stimulation. see a bie n t . a dipocyt e s n.pl. [L. adeps, fat; Gr. kyt os, container] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Cells that form the fat-bodies of insects; adipohemocytes; trophocytes. a dipoge ne sis n. [L. adeps, fat; Gr. gennaein, to produce] The formation of fat or fatty tissue. a dipoh e m ocyt e s n.pl. [L. adeps, fat; Gr. haim a, blood; kyt os, container] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Hemocytes characterized by refringent fat droplets and other inclusions; spheroidocytes. see a dipole u cocyt e s. a dipole u cocyt e s n.pl. [L. adeps, fat; Gr. leukos, white; kyt os, container] 1. Leucocyte blood cells with fat inclusions. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hemiptera, large cells containing fat droplets, often thought to be hemocytes. a dipose a. [L. adeps, fat] Pertaining to fat. a dipose t issu e see fa t body A- disc see A- ba nd a discot a n. [Gr. a, without; diskos, circular plate] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Adult development without forming imaginal discs. see discot a . a dit u s n.; pl. aditus, adituses [L. adit us, entrance] Anatomical passage or opening to a part or structure. a dive r t icu la t e a. [Gr. a, without; L. divert ere, to turn away] Without diverticula. a dj u st or n. [L. ad, near; j ust us, just] 1. Any central nervous organ of an animal that links receptors with effectors. 2. (BRACHIO) The muscle linking stalk and valve. a dj u st or ne u r on A neuron that is neither sensory nor motor, but which correlates the activities of both. a dm e dia l, a dm e dia n a. [L. ad, near; m edial, middle] 1. Near the median plane. 2. (MOLL) The lateral teeth of a radula between central and marginal. a dm in icu lu m n.; pl. -u la [L. adm iniculum , support] 1. A support or prop. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. Minute hairs, spines

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or teeth on the dorsal abdominal surface of certain pupae that aid in locomotion. b. Elevated or indented lines on some larvae. a dna t e a. [L. ad, near; nat us, born] Pertaining to being united or fused to another organ or structure, normally of unlike parts. a dne u r a l a. [L. ad, near; Gr. neuron, nerve] 1. Adjacent to a nerve. 2. (POGON) Term used instead of dorsal. see a n t in e u r a l, subn e u r a l. a dnot a le a. [L. ad, near; Gr. not os, back] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Lepidoptera, having fused median and postmedian notal processes; median notal process. a dole sca r ia n.; pl. -ia e [L. adolescens, young; Gr. kerkos, tail] (PLATY: Trematoda) Cercaria or metacercaria stage. see m a r it a , pa r t h e n it a . a dopt ion socie t y A group of one or more organisms living together, free to dissociate, and to neither does the continued association bring any apparent advantage. a dopt ion su bstance (ARTHRO: Insecta) Any secretion put forth by a social parasite that induces the potential host to accept it as a member of their colony. a dor a l a. [L. ad, near; os, mouth] Near or toward the mouth. AD P see a de n osin e diph ospha t e AD PP see a de n osin e t r iphospha t e a dpr e sse d a. [L. ad, near; pressus, pressed] 1. Refers to being pressed close to or laying flat against. 2. (MOLL: Gastropoda) Condition of whorls that overlap in such a manner that their outer surfaces converge very gradually. a dr a diu s n. [L. ad, near; radius, ray] (CNID) The midradius between perradius and interradius; a radius of the third order. a dr e ct a l a. [L. ad, near; rect us, straight] Associated with the rectum. see a da na l. a dr ost r a l a. [L. ad, near; rost rum , snout] Adjacent to or connected with a beak or rostrum.

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a dsor pt ion n. [L. ad, near; sorbere, to suck in] Adhesion of dissolved substances, liquids or gases, to the surfaces of solid bodies with which they come into contact. a dspe r se , a dspe r su s a. [L. adspursus, a sprinkling] Having closely spaced small spots. a dst e r na l a. [L. ad, near; Gr. st ernon, chest] Being situated adjacent to the sternum. a dt ida l a. [L. ad, near; A.S. t id, time] Referring to organisms living in the littoral zone just below the low tide mark. a du lt n. [L. adult us, grown up] 1. A fully grown, sexually mature individual. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The imago. 3. (NEMATA) That stage following the 4th (juvenile) and final molt. a du lt a t ion n. [L. adult us, grown up] The appearance of adult ancestral characters in the larvae of descendants. a du lt oid a. [L. adult us, grown up; Gr. eidos, shape] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A nymph having imaginal characters more developed than in the normal nymphs. a du lt oid r e pr odu ct ive (ARTHRO: Insecta) In higher termites, a replacement reproductive following the disappearance of the primary reproductive, that is an imaginal already present, or a nymph reared to an imago stage and morphologically indistinguishable from the primary. see pr im a r y r e pr odu ct ive , n ym ph oid r e pr odu ct ive , e r ga t oid r e pr odu ct ive . a du lt t r a nspor t (ARTHRO: Insecta) The conveying of an adult social insect by carrying or dragging during colony emigrations; frequent behavior among ants. a dun ca t e , a dun cous a. [L. ad, near; uncus, hooked] Inwardly curved; hooked; hamate. a dust a. [L. ad, near; urere, to burn] Burnt; scorched; dried up. a dve he n t see a ffe r e n t a dve nt it ia n. [L. advent it ius, extraordinary] The connective tissue covering of an organ (mainly fibroelastic in nature),

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such as the heart, or blood vessels. a dve nt it iou s a. [L. advent it ius, extraordinary] Acquired; accidental; additional; occurring in abnormal places; ectopic foci. a dve nt it iou s bud (BRYO: Phylactolaemata) The small bud primordium on the dorsal side of the main bud near the parental polypide. a dve nt it iou s ve in (ARTHRO: Insecta) A secondary wing vein, neither accessory nor intercalary, usually the result of cross veins lined up to form a continuous vein. a dve nt ive a. [L. advenire, to arrive] Referring to an organism that has been accidentally introduced to a new area; not native. a dve nt r a l lin e (ARTHRO: Insecta) A line that extends along the underside of caterpillars between the middle and the base of the legs. a dve nt r a l t u bercle (ARTHRO: Insecta) In caterpillars, a small pimple, sometimes bearing setae, located on each of the abdominal segments on the inner base of the leg and apodal segment. a dvolu t e n. [L. ad, near; volut a, spiral] (MOLL: Gastropoda) A condition of whorls that barely touch one another, not distinctly overlapping. a e da e a gu s, a e da gus, a e doe a gu s see a e de a gu s a e de a ga l fu lcr u m see j ux t a a e de a gu s n.; pl. -a gi [Gr. aidoia, genitals; agein, to lead] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In males, the intromittent organ; distal part of the phallus: penis plus parameres. see pe nis, t e lopod. a e doe ot ype n. [Gr. aidoia, genitals; t ypos, type] The first specimen in which the genitalia are studied. a e ne ous, a e ne u s a. [L. aeneus, of bronze] Bright brassy or golden green in color. a e r a t e v.t. [Gr. aer, air] To combine or charge with air; to supply or impregnate with common air.

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a e r a t ion n. [Gr. aer, air] 1. Exposure to air. 2. Impregnation of a liquid with air or oxygen. 3. Oxygenation of blood in lungs. a e r ia l a. [Gr. aer, air] Living or occurring in air. a e r idu ct , a e r idu ct u s n. [L. aer, air; ducere, to lead] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Tubes concerned with respiration, such as internal trachea or breathing tubes. a e r ifor m a. [Gr. aer, air; L. form a, shape] Of the nature or form of air; gaseous. a e r obe , a e r obiont n. [Gr. aer, air; bios, life] An organism utilizing air. a e r obiot ic a. see a na e r obe . a e r obic r e spir a t ion That which requires oxygen. a e r obiology n. [Gr. aer, air; bios, life; logos, discourse] The study of aerial organisms. a e r obiosis n. [Gr. aer, air; biosis, manner of life] Life in air or oxygen. a e r ophor e n. [Gr. aer, air; phorein, to bear] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In caterpillars, a hollow hair on the body containing liquid. a e r opyle n. [Gr. aer, air; pyle, orifice] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. Rings of cells. 2. In the follicular epithelium, functioning in secretions for chorion formation. 3. Small pores between plastron and spiracles in spiracular gills. a e r osce psin , a e r oscepsy n. [Gr. aer, air; skepsis, observe] The theoretical power possessed by certain organisms of observing the quality of air by means of special sense organs. a e r oscopic pla t e (ARTHRO: Insecta) The air-containing part of the chorion of an egg. a e r ost a t n. [Gr. aer, air; st at os, placed] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Air sacs in the body. a e r ost a t ic a. [Gr. aer, air; st at os, placed] Said of any organism or object that is, by certain means, supported chiefly by buoyancy derived from surrounding air. a e r ot a x is n. [Gr. aer, air; t axis, arrangement] Movement of

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organisms toward or away from oxygen. a e r uginous, a e r uginose , a e r ugin u s a. [L. aerugo, copper rust] Nature or color of copper rust or verdigris (green). a e st ha cyt e , e st ha cyt e n. [Gr. aist het es, perceiver; kyt os, container] A sensory cell of certain primitive organisms. a e st he sia , e st h e sia n. [Gr. aist het es, perceiver] Sensibility; sense-perception. a e st he t a sc, a e st h e t a sk , e st h e st a sc n. [Gr. aist het es, perceiver; askos, bag] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Sensory seta covered by a delicate cuticular membrane, often projecting from an antenna or antennule; an olfactory hair. a e st he t e , e st h e t e n. [Gr. aist het es, perceiver] 1. Any invertebrate sense organ. 2. (ARTHRO) Usually applied as sensory nerve endings, but also used for sensory hairs and bristles. 3. (MOLL: Polyplacophora) Sensory organs terminating in the tegmentum. see m e ga la e st he t e s, m icr a e st h e t e s. a e st iva t e , e st iva t e v. [L. aest as, summer] To pass the summer in a quiet, torpid condition. a e st iva t ion , e st iva t ion n. [L. aest as, summer] A form of dormancy during the summer months in high temperatures, or dry seasons. see h ibe r ne st iva t ion . a e t iology see e t iology a ffe r e n ce n. [L. ad, near; ferre, to bear] Impulses from the external sense organs of an animal because of events in the environment. see r e a ffe r e n ce . a ffe r e n t a. [L. afferre, to bring] Refers to a structure or vessel that leads to or toward a given position. see e ffe r e n t . a ffe r e n t ch a n ne l (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The opening through which water passes to the gills. a ffe r e n t fibe r A nerve fiber carrying impulses from a receptor to the central nervous system. a ffe r e n t ne r ve A nerve that conducts impulses from the periphery toward a nerve center; the axon of a sensory neuron between a receptor and the central nervous system. a ffe r e n t ne u r on ( n e u r one ) A sensory neuron that conveys inward impulses received or perceived by a sense organ

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from external sources. a ffin it y n.; pl. -t ie s [L. affinis, related to] Relationship; sometimes misleadingly employed as synonym for phenetic similarity. a fla ge lla r a. [Gr. a, without; L. flagellum , whip] Without flagella. a ft e r body a. [A.S. aeft er, behind; bodig, body] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Coleoptera, the body area behind the pronotum. a ft e r - discha r ge 1. The continuing discharge of impulses after stimulation has ceased in sensory receptors. 2. The continuation of the motor response (reflexes) after discontinuance of stimulation. see a ft e r - se n sa t ion . a ft e r nose a. [A.S. aeft er, behind; nosu, nose] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to the triangular area below the antennae and above the clypeus. a ft e r - se n sa t ion Continuation of nerve impulses after cessation of external stimulation of sensory apparatus. a ga m e on n. [Gr. a, without; gam os, marriage; on, being] A species reproducing exclusively by apomixis. see a pom ict ic ( a m e iot ic) pa r t h e n oge n e sis. a ga m e t e n. [Gr. a, without; gam os, marriage] Any product of reproductive multiple fission that develops directly into the adult form without sexual union. a ga m ic a. [Gr. a, without; gam os, marriage] Parthenogenetic; reproduction without mating, may be either mitotic or meiotic. a ga m obium n. [Gr. a, without; gam os, marriage; bios, life] The asexual form in alternation of generations. see ga m obiu m . a ga m ode m e n. [Gr. a, without; gam os, marriage; dem os, people] A population mainly consisting of asexual organisms. a ga m oge ne sis n. [Gr. a, without; gam os, marriage; genesis, beginning] Asexual reproduction; parthenogenesis; reproduction without fertilization by a male gamete. a ga m oge n e t ic a. see ga m oge ne sis. a ga m ospe cie s n. [Gr. a, without; gam os, marriage; L. spe-

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cies, kind] A species without sexual reproduction; an asexual species. a ga m ou s see a ga m ic a ga r n. [Malay agar- agar, substance from seaweed] A nonnitrogenous, gelatinous hydrophilic substance obtained from certain seaweeds used in the preparation of culture media in microbiology and as a stabilizer of emulsions. a ga st r ic a. [Gr. a, without; gast er, stomach] Lacking a digestive tract or cavity. a ge n. [L. aevum , lifetime] 1. The period of time any living individual has existed. 2. A particular period of life or development. a ge a n d a r e a t h e or y The older a species, the more extensive its area of distribution. a ge n e sis, a ge n e sia n. [Gr. a, without; genesis, beginning] 1. Lacking development. see a pla sia . 2. Inability to produce offspring. see a ge n n e sis. a ge n n e sis n. [Gr. a, without; gennesis, an engendering] Impotent; sterile. a ge n n e t ic a. a ge polye t h ism (ARTHRO: Insecta) In social insects, the regular changing of labor specialization as they grow older. see polye t h ism . a gge n it a l a. [L. ad, to; genit alis, genitalia] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, pertaining to that area on both sides of the genital region. a gglom e r a t e n. [L. ad, to; glom erare, to form into a ball] To group or gather into a mass or cluster; clustered densely; piled or heaped together. a gglu t ina t e v. [L. ad, to; glut inare, to glue] To join by adhesion; to unite as with glue; to collect in masses. a gglu t ina t e d a. [L. ad, to; glut inare, to glue] 1. Sticking together. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Used by entomologists to describe a larva with an unusually heavy chitinous covering. see obt e ct pu pa . a gglu t in in n. [L. ad, to; glut inare, to glue] A substance or specific antibody causing clumping of cells.

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a ggr e ga t e a. [L. ad, to; gregare, to collect] Clustering or crowding together to form a dense mass. a ggr e ga t ion n. [L. ad, to; gregare, to collect] 1. Collection or grouping into a mass or sum. 2. A group of individuals comprised of more than a mated pair or family, collecting in the same place, that do not construct nests or rear offspring in a cooperative manner. see colon y. a ggr e ssin n. [L. aggressus, attacked] A substance produced in the body of a host by a pathogenic organism that paralyzes the defense mechanisms of the host. a ggr e ssion n. [L. aggressus, attacked] The behavior of an organism involving threats or attack of another organism or object. a ggr e ssive m im icr y A method of mimicry of one species by another that is hostile to it. a gige r ia t e a. [Gr. a, without; gigerium , gizzard] Gizzardless; without a gizzard. Aglossa see Biva lvia a glossa t e n. [Gr. a, without; glossa, tongue] Lacking a tongue. a gm ina t e a. [L. agm inis, crowd] Grouped together; aggregated. see clu st e r . a gna t hou s a. [Gr. a, without; gnat hos, jaw] Lacking a jaw. a gnot obiot ic cu lt u r e Any population with one or more kinds of organisms present. see gn ot obiot ic cu lt u r e . a gon ist n. [Gr. agonist es, contestant] A primary muscle responsible for the movement of a part or appendage. a gon ist ic a. [Gr. agonist es, contestant] Behavior signaling aggressive attitude. a gr iot ype n. [Gr. agrios, wild; t ypos, type] Ancestral type. a gr iot ypifor m a. [Gr. agrios, wild; t ypos, type; L. form a, shape] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, referring to the peculiar form of larval Agriotypidae, with the first instar having a heavily sclerotized, mandibulate head, rows of spiniform setae on the succeeding segments, and a slender, bifurcate caudal appendage.

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a h e r m a t ype cor a ls (CNID) Non-reef building species of corals. a h e r m a t ic a. see h e r m a t ype cor a ls. a ile r on n. [F. dim. aile, wing] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A large scale or structure in front of the base of the fore wing; sometimes used as synonymous with alula. a ir ch a m be r (MOLL: Cephalopoda) The gas-filled cavity of a nautilus shell that was previously occupied by that organism. a ir sa cs 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pouch-like enlargements of tracheal tubes in winged forms, usually lacking taenidia, capable of inflation and thought to function as an aid in flight and to lessen specific gravity. 2. (CNID: Hydrozoa) In Siphonophora, that portion of a pneumatophore that contains gas. a ir st or e s (ARTHRO: Insecta) The covering of bubbles of air carried by hydrofuge structures of certain aquatic forms. a ir t ube A respiratory tube or siphon. a it ioge nic a. [Gr. ait ios, causing; gennaein, to produce] Referring to the resultant reaction from stimulation. a k a n t h see a ca n t h a k a r yot e , a ca r yot e n. [Gr. a, without; karyon, nut] 1. Lacking a nucleus. 2. A non-nucleated cell. a k in e sis, a k in e sia n. [Gr. a, without; kinesis, motion] Loss or disturbance of motion, as in certain insects, resulting from loss of antennae. a la n.; pl. a la e [L. ala, a wing] Any wing-like process or structure; a thin, cuticular projection or fin, running longitudinally, usually lateral or sublateral, frequently paired. a la ba st r ine a. [Gr. alabast ros, alabaster box] Pertaining to, or like alabaster; smooth and white. a la ca r do n. [L. ala, a wing; cardo, hinge] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The distal sclerite of the cardo. a la ce r cu s n. [L. ala, a wing; Gr. kerkos, tail] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The caudal filament; the middle cercus when three are present. a la cox a su t u r e n. [L. ala, a wing; coxa, hip; sut ura, seam]

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(ARTHRO) The suture that appears to divide the coxa into an anterior and posterior part; found on only one side of the coxa. a la cr ious a. [L. alacer, lively] Brisk; active; lively. a la cr ist a n.; pl. -a e [L. ala, a wing; crist a, ridge] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Coleoptera, a ridge on each side of the anterior scutal area that converges posteromesally. a la e pl. of a la a la glossa n. [L. ala, a wing; Gr. glossa, tongue] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Glossae fused into a single plate. a la r a. [L. alaris, of the wing] Pertaining to a wing, or wingshaped. a la r a r e a (ARTHRO: Insecta) In certain coleopteran scarabaeoid larvae, an integral area immediately above the epipleural area, separated in the thorax by an oblique suture. a la r fr e num (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. In Diptera, a ligament dividing the supra-alar cavity into anterior and posterior areas. 2. In Hymenoptera, a ligament crossing the supra-alar groove toward the wing base. a la r ia n. [L. alaris, of the wing] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The notal wing processes. a la r im a n. [L. ala, wing; rim a, cleft] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The opening between the two paraglossae. a la r m ph e r om one A chemical released into the environment inducing a fright response in other members of the same species. a la r squ a m a (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, one of three membranous lobes in the region of the wing base that represents the jugum. see a lu la , t hor a cic squa m a . a la r y a. [L. alaris, of the wing] Wing-like; aliform. a la r y m u scle s see a lifor m m u scle s a la r y polym or ph ism (ARTHRO: Insecta) Two or more shapes of wings in the same species, not necessarily correlated to sex. a la ssost a sy n. [Gr. allassein, to alter; st asis, standing] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) An orthostasic stage in the life cycle in-

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volving secondary changes in number and/or shape of stases and number of molts. see or t host a sy. a la t a e n. [L. ala, wing] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Winged forms of Aphidae. a la t a t e a. [L. ala, wing] Possessing lateral wing-like expansions. a la t e a. [L. ala, wing] 1. Winged, or wing-like expansions, auricles or alae. 2. (MOLL: Gastropoda) Commonly refers to outer lip. a la ve r t e x see occipu t a lbinism n. [L. albus, white] The congenital deficiency of pigmentation, and particularly of melanin. see m e la n ism . a lbinist ic a. [L. albus, white] Affected with albinism; tending toward whiteness of normally dark forms. a lbum e n n. [L. album en, white of an egg] Egg white, containing several proteins, but consisting principally of albumin. a lbum e n gla n d (MOLL: Gastropoda) A gland that produces the perivitelline fluid that connects to a hermaphroditic gland. a lbum in n. [L. album en, white of an egg] One of a group of proteins present in blood serum, muscle, and other tissue. a lbum inoid a. [L. album en, white of an egg; Gr. eidos, form] Like or of the character of albumin, including collagen and keratin. a lbum inoid sphe r e s (ARTHRO: Insecta) Eosinophilic bodies that are liberated into the blood during molting and metamorphosis, formed by extruded chromatin granules of fat cells. a le a t or y a. [L. alea, chance] Pertaining to organs that are existing or lacking, depending on chance. see ve r t it ion. a le t ocyt e n. [Gr. alet es, wanderer; kyt os, container] A wandering cell; a phagocyte. a le u r it ic a cid (ARTHRO: Insecta) One of the organic acids contained in lac that is produced by certain scale insects. a lgicolou s a. [L. alga, seaweed; colere, to inhabit] Pertaining to an organism living on or around seaweed. a lgopha gous a. [L. alga, seaweed; Gr. phagein, to eat] Refer-

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ring to any algae eating organism. a lie n icola n.; pl. -cola e [L. alienus, foreign; colere, to dwell] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In aphids, the parthenogenetic, viviparous female that mostly develops on the secondary host. see fu nda t r ix , m igr a n t e . a life r n. [L. ala, wing; ferre, to bear] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The pleural fulcrum of the wing. a life r a n.; pl. a life r a e [L. ala, wing; ferre, to bear] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The projections of the pleuron, against which the pteralia of a wing articulates. a life r ou s a. [L. ala, wing; ferre, to bear] Bearing or possessing wings. a lifor m a. [L. ala, wing; form a, shape] Shaped like or resembling a wing; alary. a lifor m a pophyse s (BRACHIO) Incurved anterior and posterior extremities of the growth line. a lifor m m u scle s (ARTHRO: Insecta) Muscles closely associated with the heart, usually fan-shaped; sometimes also associated with the abdominal as well as the thoracic muscles. a lim a n. [Gr. halim os, pert. the sea] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The last larval stage of a mantis shrimp of the family Squillidae; a megalopa stage larva. a lim e n t a r y a. [L. alim ent um , food] Pertaining to food or nutrition. a lim e n t a r y ca na l ( t r a ct ) The food tube traversing the body from mouth to anus; generally divided into three main regions: the ectodermal foregut or stomodeum, the endodermal midgut or mesenteron and the ectodermal hindgut or proctodeum. a lim e n t a r y ca st r a t ion Pertaining to an individual deprived of sufficient nourishment in the larval form leading to suppression of gonadal development. see n u t r icia l ca st r a t ion . a linot um n. [L. ala, wing; Gr. not on, back] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The notal plate of the mesothorax or metathorax of winged forms. a lipha t ic a. [Gr. aleiphos, fat] Refers to compounds having an

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open-chain structure, and those cyclic compounds that resemble the open-chain structure. a liqua nt a. [L. alius, other; quant us, how great] In mathematics, dividing a smaller number into a larger number with a remainder; in biology, taking equal quantities of a solution with unequal numbers of organisms in suspension. see a liqu ot . a liquot a. [L. alius, other; quant us, how great] In mathematics, dividing a smaller number into a larger number evenly; hence, in biology, dividing a population of organisms evenly or into equal parts. see a liqua nt . a lit r un k n. [L. ala, wing; t runcus, trunk] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Thorax to which the wings are attached, including the first abdominal segment in certain Hymenoptera; mesosoma. a livin cu la r h in ge (MOLL: Bivalvia) A somewhat flattened cord from one bivalve umbo to another, having the long axis transverse to the planes of the margins and the axis of motion. a liza r in , a liza r in e n. [F. alizari, the juice] A transparent orange-red stain or dye. a lk a lin e gla n d (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, the Dufour's gland; an accessory gland that discharges at the base of the sting; function unknown, but thought to be concerned with lubrication of the sting. a lk a n e s n.pl. [OF. al qualiy, ashes of salt wart] A group of saturated hydrocarbons found in Pre-Cambrian geological strata presumed to be fossils. a lla e st he t ic, a lle st h e t ic a. [Gr. allos, other; aist het es, perceiver] Recognition of characteristics of an organism, as perceived by another. a lla n t oin n. [Gr. allas, sausage] The resultant of purine and pyrimidine metabolism occurring in allantoic fluid and urine of various invertebrates. a lla t e ct om y n. [L. allat um , brought; Gr. ekt em nein, to cut out] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Total excision of the endocrine glands, corpora allata. a lla t u m h or m on e see j uve nile hor m one

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Alle e 's pr in ciple The concept of an optimal population level where organisms flourish. a lle le n. [Gr. allelon, one another] Genes occupying the same locus in homologous chromosomes, that segregate from each other at the reduction division. see dom in a n t a lle le , pse udoa lle le , isoa lle le , r e ce ssive a lle le , m u lt iple a lle le . a lle lism n. [Gr. allelon, one another] The relationship between two characters that are alleles; alleomorphism; alternative inheritance. a lle loch e m ic, a lle loch e m ica l n. [Gr. allelon, one another; chem eia, pert. chemistry and chemical terms] 1. A chemical agent of natural origin involved in interaction between species or individuals; sometimes divided into four subgroups based on whether the emitter, the receiver, or both benefit in the interaction: allomones, kairomones, synomones and apneumones. 2. Xenomone. a lle lom im e t ic a. [Gr. allelon, one another; m im ikos, imitative] Referring to imitation of behavioral habits of another animal, usually of the same species. a lle lom or ph n. [Gr. allelon, one another; m orphe, form] 1. Two contrasting, although closely parallel genetic characters. 2. A member of a Mendelian pair. a lle lopa t hy n. [Gr. allelon, one another; pat hos, suffer] The chemical effect of plants on other organisms in the environment. a lle lot r opism n. [Gr. allelon, one another; t ropein, to turn] The mutual attraction between two cells or organisms. a lle lot ype n. [Gr. allelon, one another; t ypos, type] The repeated occurrence of alleles in a given population. a lle st h e t ic see a lla e st h e t ic a lliga t e v.t. [L. alligare, to tie] To unite, fasten or suspend. a llioge ne sis see a lloioge n e sis a llobiosis n. [Gr. allos, other; biosis, manner of life] Differentiation from the normal; a changed environment. a lloch or e n. [Gr. allos, other; chorein, to spread] Any organism occurring in two different habitats in the same geo-

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graphic region. a lloch r oic a. [Gr. allos, other; chroia, color of the skin] Changeable in color, or variation of color. a lloch r on ic a. [Gr. allos, other; chronos, time] Not occurring at the same period of time; not contemporary. a lloch r on ic spe cia t ion Speciation that does not occur at the same period of time, thus causing morphological discontinuity. see syn ch r on ic spe cia t ion . a lloch t h onou s a. [Gr. allos, other; cht hon, earth] Exotic; imported or migrated from another area; peregrine. see a u t och t hon ou s. a llocr ypt ic a. [Gr. allos, other; krypt os, conceal] Concealing; said of organisms that conceal themselves with coverings of other organisms or with inanimate materials. a lloga m y n. [Gr. allos, other; gam os, marriage] Cross-fertilization. see a u t oga m y. a llogr a ft n. [Gr. allos, other; OF. greffe, graft] A piece of tissue or organ from one individual grafted to another of the same species. a lloh e t e r oploid n. [Gr. allos, other; het eros, different; aploos, onefold; eidos, form] Heteroploid individuals whose chromosomes derive from various chromosome sets. see a u t oh e t e r oploid. a lloioge n e sis n. [Gr. alloios, of another kind; genesis, beginning] Alternation of sexual and parthenogenetic generations: alternation of generations. a lloiom e t r on n. [Gr. alloios, of another kind; m et ron, measure] Measurable variability in the physical development within a species or race. a llok in e sis n. [Gr. allos, other; kinesis, movement] Passive or reflex movement. a llok in e t ic a. see a u t ok ine sis. a llom e r ist ic a. [Gr. allos, other; m eros, part] Refers to any organism differing in the number of parts of any organ from that which is customary in the group. a llom e t r ic coe fficie nt The slope of the logarithmic growth curve of the measurement of an organ or part against that of the whole remainder or another part; sometimes re-

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ferred to as the heterogonic or heteroausecic coefficient. a llom e t r ic gr ow t h The growth rate of one part of an organism differing from that of another part or of the body as a whole. see h e t e r a ux e sis. a llom e t r osis n. [Gr. allos, other; m et ros, mother] Having different species or races living in an organized group. a llom e t r y n. [Gr. allos, other; m et ron, measure] The study of relationship of growth. a llom e t r ic a. a llom ix is see cr oss- fe r t iliza t ion a llom on e n. [Gr. allos, other; horm aein, to instigate] Any chemical secreted by an organism that causes another organism of different species to react favorably to the emitter. a llom on a l a. a llom or phic e volu t ion A rapid increase in specialization. a llom or phosis n. [Gr. allos, other; m orphe, form] Rapid development of specialized organs or increase of specialization in an organism. see a r om or phosis. a llopa r a le ct ot ype n. [Gr. allos, other; para, beside; lekt os, chosen; t ypos, type] A specimen from the original collection, a sex other than that of the holotype, and described later than the original publication. a llopa t r y n. [Gr. allos, other; pat rios, father land] Populations separated by spatial barriers preventing gene flow. allopatric a. see sym pa t r y. a llope la gic a. [Gr. allos, other; pelagos, sea] Referring to open water; marine or freshwater organisms found at various depths. a llopla sm n. [Gr. allos, other; plassein, to mold] Cell organelles that serve a special purpose and are not of regular occurrence, such as the neuro- and myofibrils, cilia and flagella. a llopla st n. [Gr. allos, other; plassein, to mold] A cell organelle composed of more than one kind of tissue. see h om opla st . a llopolyploid n. [Gr. allos, other; polyploos, many fold; eidos, form] A polyploid produced by the chromosome doubling of a species or genus hybrid, that is, of an individual with two

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unlike chromosome sets. a lloscu t um n. [Gr. allos, other; L. scut um , shield] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, the dorsal part of the exoskeleton posterior to the scutum of larval ticks. a llose m a t ic color Having protective coloration resembling that of dangerous or inedible species; aposematic color; Batesian mimicry. see se m a t ic. a llosom a l in h e r it a n ce The inheritance of characters produced by genes in an allosome. a llosom e n. [Gr. allos, other; som a, body] A chromosome deviating in size, form or behavior from other chromosomes, usually a sex-chromosome; heterochromosome. see a ut osom e . a llosyna psis see a llosyn de sis a llosynde sis n. [Gr. allos, other; syndesis, a binding together] In polyploids, pairing of completely or partially homologous chromosomes that were introduced into the zygote by the same gamete at fertilization. see a ut osynde sis. a llot e t r a ploid n. [Gr. allos, other; t et raploos, fourfold; eidos, form] A tetraploid produced when a hybrid derived from a genetically different parent doubles its chromosome number; amphidiploid. a llot h e r m n. [Gr. allos, other; t herm e, heat] Any organism dependent on environmental temperature for its own body temperature. see poik ilot he r m a l, e ct ot he r m . a llot opot ype n. [Gr. allos, other; t opos, place; t ypos, type] An allotype obtained from the original locality. a llot r iom or ph ic a. [Gr. allot rios, abnormal; m orphe, shape] Displaying an abnormal or unexpected shape. a llot r iploid n. [Gr. allos, other; t riploos, threefold; eidos, form] A triploid with two similar and one dissimilar chromosome sets. see a u t ot r iploid. a llot r oph ic a. [Gr. allos, other; t rophe, nourishment] Referring to organisms dependent upon other organisms for nutrition; heterotrophic. a llot r opism n. [Gr. allos, other; t ropos, turn] The propensity of attraction of certain cells or structures; allotropy.

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a llot r opous a. [Gr. allos, other; t ropos, turn] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Refers to insects that are not limited to or adapted to visiting certain kinds of flowers. a llot r opy see a llot r opism a llot ype n. [Gr. allos, other; t ypos, type] A paratype of the opposite sex to the holotype. a llozygot e n. [Gr. allos, other; zygot os, yoked] A homozygote with only recessive characters. a llu r ing color a t ion (ARTHRO: Insecta) Patterns or colorings adapted by predators that attract other species; aggressive mimicry. a llu r ing gla n ds Glandular structures that disperse an odor attractive to the opposite sex; sex pheromones. a llux n. [L. ad, to; luxus, dislocated] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Curculionidae, the next to the last joint of the tarsus. a lpha - ch lor ophyll n. [Gr. alpha, a; chloros, green; phyllon, leaf] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Chlorophylic properties producing coloration. see be t a - ch lor ophyll.

a lpha - fe m a le n. [Gr. alpha, α Α; L. fem ina, female] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Formicidae, the intermediate form between the teratogyne and normal female.

a lpha t a x on om y That level of taxonomy involved with the characterization and naming of species. see be t a t a x onom y. a lpine a. [L. alpinus, of or like high mountains] Applied to organisms occurring in high mountain meadows; also referred to as alpestrine. a lt a ce r a t uba e n. [L. alt er, the other; Gr. keras, horn; tuba, trumpet] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In certain scale insects, ceratubae shaped like large broad cylinders with oblique openings, located at or near the margin of the pygidium. a lt e r a t ion t h e or y Explanation of the phenomenon of electromotive forces of nerve and muscle by changes in chemical composition of tissue in cross-section. a lt e r n a t e h ost One that alternates with another in the life cycle of a parasite. see in t e r m e dia t e host .

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a lt e r n a t ing cle a va ge see spir a l cle a va ge a lt e r n a t ion of ge n e r a t ion s The alternation of two or more generations reproducing in different ways; an alternation of sexual and asexual, or parasitic with a free-living cycle. see a lloioge n e sis, dige ne sis, h e t e r oga m y, h e t e r oge ne sis, h e t e r ogony, m e t a ge n e sis. a lt e r n a t ive in h e r it a n ce see a lle lism a lt it ude see h e igh t a lt r icia l a. [L. alt rix, nourisher] Having young at hatching or birth that require care for sometime. a lt r u ism n. [L. alt er, the other] Behavior disadvantageous to the individual, but benefits other individuals of the species. a lu la n.; pl. -la e [L. dim. ala, wing] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. In some Diptera, one of the membranous lobes in the region of the wing base, thought to be part of the vannal region. see t h or a cic squa m a , a la r squa m a . 2. In some Coleoptera, the alula is folded beneath the elytron/jugum. a lu le t n. [L. dim. ala, wing] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, a lobe at the basal posterior part of the wing; wing appendage; posterior lobe. see a lu la . a lu t a ce ou s a. [L. alut aceus, soft leather] Pertaining to brown or brownish-yellow; leathery; covered with, or appearing like, minute cracks. a lve a t or n. [L. alveat us, hollowed out] (ECHINOD) A form of pedicellaria; usually two valved and recessed into an alveolus or depression in the endoskeleton. a lve ola n.; pl. -la e [L. alveolus, small cavity] A small pit or depression on the surface of an organ; faveolus; alveolus. alveolar a. a lve ola r hyda t id cyst (PLATY: Cestoda) A larval form of Echinococcus multilocularis comprised of many compartments containing many protoscolices that infiltrate body tissues. a lve ola t e a. [L. alveolus, small cavity] Deeply pitted or having the appearance of a honeycomb. a lve olu s n.; pl. -e oli [L. alveolus, small cavity] Any small cavity, pit or depression; alveola.

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a m a cr ine a. [Gr. a, without; m akros, long; inos, fiber] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to a unipolar nerve cell within a synaptic region of the brain, i.e., the antennal lobes or the medulla. a m a cr in a l a. a m a lga m a t e d lips (NEMATA) Lips combined together giving a smooth contour, not discernibly separated from each other. a m a st igoph or e n. [Gr. a, without; m ast ix, whip; pherein, to bear] (CNID) A nematocyst with no tube beyond the hempe; in microbasic types , the hempe is not more than three times the capsule length; in macrobasic types , the hempe is more than four times the capsule length. see m a st igophor e . a m be r n. [Ar. anbar ambergris, a fossilized resin] A transparent, clear, pale yellow-brown gummy resin of coniferous trees in which insects and spiders were trapped and fossilized in the hard transparent state as much as 30 million years ago. a m bie nt a. [L. am bire, to go around] Moving around; surrounding. a m bie nt ve in (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. The vein that partially encircles the wing close to the margin. 2. The vein-like structure that serves to stiffen the margin of a wing. a m bife n e st r a t e a. [L. am bo, both; fenest ra, window] (NEMATA) A term used to describe two semifenestrae in the vulval cone formed by a narrow vulval bridge, but not surrounding the vulva. see bife n e st r a t e . a m bigu ous a. [L. am bigere, to wander about] Vague or doubtful in meaning; having more than a single meaning. a m bila t e r a l a. [L. am bo, both; lat us, side] Pertaining to or affecting both sides; bilateral. a m bise x ua l see m onoe ciou s, he r m a ph r odit e a m bit a l see a m bit u s a m bit u s n. [L. am bit us, going around] The periphery or outer edge of an organism. a m bit a l a. a m blych r om a t ic a. [Gr. amblys, dull; chrom a, color] Staining only slightly, as opposed to trachychromatic. a m bose x ou s see h e r m a ph r odit e

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a m br osia n. [Gr. am brot os, immortal] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Fungi cultures cultivated by scolytid beetles to feed their larvae; sometimes used to designate that part of the fungus that grows out into the burrows and is eaten by the beetles. see be e - br e a d, fu ngu s ga r de n. a m bu la cr a l a r e a s (ECHINOD: Asteroidea) The radially arranged arms (typically 5) bearing the tube feet or podia. see in t e r a m bu la cr a l a r e a s. a m bu la cr a l gr oove (ECHINOD: Asteroidea) A groove or furrow bordered by large spines extending along the oral surface of each arm of sea stars, that contain two to four rows of small tubular projections called feet or podia. a m bu la cr a l r idge (ECHINOD: Asteroidea) The internal ridge of the external ambulacral groove. a m bu la cr ifor m a. [L. am bulare, to walk; form a, shape] Resembling or having the form of an ambulacrum. a m bu la cr um n.; pl. -la cr a [L. am bulare, to walk] 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The adhesive disc of hooks that terminate the tarsus of ticks. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The walking leg. 3. (ECHINOD) Plates with pores forming the test, arranged in 5 or more rows, where the podia of the water-vascular system project to the exterior. a m bu la t e v.i. [L. am bulare, to walk] To walk or move about. a m bu la t or y a. [L. am bulare, to walk] Having the power of walking or moving from place to place. a m bu la t or y le g see pe r e opod a m bu la t or y r ose t t e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Neuroptera, a prehensile "holdfast" organ located at the tip of the abdomen that aids in locomotion of larval snakeflies. a m bu la t or y se t a e 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Hairs or bristles on the ventral segments of the abdomen. 2. (NEMATA: Adenophorea) Hollow tubelike projections used for locomotion. see a dhe sion t ube s. a m bu la t or y w a r t see a m pu lla a m e - see a m oe - for words not found here a m e iosis n. [Gr. a, without; m eiosis, to make smaller] Failure of meiosis that is replaced by a form of nuclear division not

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involving the reduction of the chromosome number. a m e iot ic a. [Gr. a, without; m eiosis, to make smaller] Pertaining to maturation division of a gamete without the diploid number of chromosomes being reduced to the haploid. a m e iot ic pa r t he n oge n e sis Parthenogenesis without meiosis. a m e n sa lism n. [Gr. a, without; L. m ensa, table] A form of symbiotic relationship in which one of the organisms is inhibited and the other is not. a m e t a bolic a. [Gr. a, without; m et abole, change] Without metamorphosis; ametamorphic. a m e t a bolou s m e t a m or phosis (ARTHRO: Insecta) Insects whose eggs hatch into nymphs closely resembling the adult form, differing only in size and life stages; without metamorphosis. a m e t a m or ph ic a. [Gr. a, without; m et a, after; m orphe, form] Having no metamorphosis. a m e t hyst in e a. [Gr. am et hyst os, not drunk] Pertaining to, or resembling amethyst, a bluish-violet color. a m icr on n. [Gr. a, without; m ikros, small] One of the smallest particles detectable with the electron microscope; smaller than one (1) nm and can only be seen as a diffuse illumination in the track of the beam. a m icr oscopic a. [Gr. a, without; m ikros, small; skopein, to view] Too small to be seen with either the light microscope or the electronmicroscope; less than about one (1) nanometer in diameter. a m ict ic e gg Eggs that do not undergo a meiotic division and are therefore diploid producing females parthenogenetically. see m ict ic e gg. a m in osu ga r n. [prefix names of chemical compounds containing one of the amino groups; Gr. sakcharon, sugar] A monosaccharide with an amino or substituted amino group in place of a nonglycosidic hydroxyl group. a m it osis n. [Gr. a, without; m it os, thread] Cellular division without the appearance of chromosomes or any mitotic figure. a m it ot ic a. see m it osis. a m ix ia , a m ix is n. [Gr. a, without; m ixis, a mixing] Absence of

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interbreeding between members of the same species or races due to morphological, geographical or physiological isolation. a m m ocha e t a n.; pl. -t a e [Gr. am m os, sand; chait e, long hair] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, specialized hairs or bristles on the head or lower lip of desert ants, used for removing sand from the strigils on the forelegs. a m m onit e n. [Gr. Am m on, Jupiter] (MOLL: Cephalopoda) Any fossil ammonean shell curved into a spiral like a ram's horn, common in Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks of all parts of the world. a m m onit ife r ous a. [Gr. Am m on, Jupiter; ferre, to carry] Said of rocks containing ammonites. a m m onoid a. [Gr. Am m on, Jupiter] (MOLL: Cephalopoda) Pertaining to a shell covered cephalopod. a m m onot e lic a. [Gr. am m oniakon, temple of Jupiter Ammon; t elos, end] The excretion of nitrogen principally as ammonia. see u r icot e lic. a m m oph ilou s a. [Gr. am m os, sand; philos, loving] Sand-loving; living in or frequenting sand. a m n ion n.; pl. -n ions, -nia [Gr. am nion, membrane around the fetus] (ARTHRO) The inner cellular, membranous embryonic covering of various insects and other arthropods. a m n iot ic a. a m n ios n. [Gr. am nion, membrane around the fetus] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Cuticular covering of an embryo that is shed before or very shortly after hatching. a m n iot ic ca vit y The cavity between the amnion and the embryo in the developing egg of various invertebrates. a m n iot ic flu id Liquid surrounding the embryo while in the egg. a m n iot ic folds Lateral folds of the amnion that meet to enclose the germ band in the ovum. a m n iot ic por e (ARTHRO: Insecta) An opening to the amniotic cavity during embryonic development. a m oe ba , a m e ba n. [Gr. am oibe, change] Any amoeba-like cell or corpuscle of the blood or other parts of an organism.

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a m oe bocyt e n. [Gr. am oibe, change; kyt os, container] 1. Certain body cells or tissues capable of independent amoeba-like movement. 2. (PORIF) Any mesohyl cell where no special activity is evident. see pla sm a t ocyt e . a m or ph n. [Gr. a, without; m orphe, form] An inactive allele that acts as a genetic block to biosynthesis. a m or ph a n. [Gr. a, without; m orphe, form] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Those pupa that share no resemblance with the imago. a m or ph ous a. [Gr. a, without; m orphe, form] Lacking distinctive form or structure; shapeless. AM P Adenosine monophosphate a m ph e r ot ok y see a m ph it ok y a m ph ia pom ict n. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; apo, away; m ikt os, mixed] Biotypes that propagate facultatively, i.e. amphimictally and parthenogenetically. a m ph ia st e r s n.pl. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; ast er, star] 1. The two asters in cell division, one at each end of the cell, from which the spindle fibers diverge. 2. (PORIF) Streptasters stellate at each end. a m ph ibiot ic a. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; biot ikos, pert. to life] Being aquatic during one period of the life history and terrestrial during the rest. a m ph ibious a. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; bios, life] Capable of living both on land and in the water. a m ph ibla st u la n. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; dim. blast os, bud] A blastula in which the cells of one pole are markedly different in size or shape from the other pole. a m ph ibla st u la la r va (PORIF: Calcarea) A type of free-swimming larva possessing a central cavity, and two morphologically distinct types of cells, one anterior and the other posterior. a m ph icoe lou s a. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; koilos, hollow] Being biconcave. a m ph icyr t ic a. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; kyrt os, curved] Having both sides curved, said of angles between curves; biconvex.

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a m ph id n. [Gr. am phi, on both sides] (NEMATA) One of a pair of lateral chemosensory organs opening on or near the lip region; variable in size and shape according to taxa. a m ph id a pe r t u r e see a m ph idia l a pe r t u r e a m ph ide lph ic a. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; delphys, womb] (NEMATA) Pertaining to uteri opposed; position and direction of the uteri, not the ovary. see dide lph ic. a m ph ide t ic a. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; det os, bound] (MOLL: Bivalvia) Refers to the ligament extending both before and behind the umbo or beak. see opist h ode t ic, pa r ivin cu la r . a m ph idia l a pe r t u r e (NEMATA) The amphid opening pore or orifice through which stimuli are received. a m ph idia l du ct (NEMATA) The passage connecting the amphidial aperture and the amphidial pouch. a m ph idia l gla nd (NEMATA) A gland originating posterior to the nerve ring that connects with the anterior lateral amphids. a m ph idia l n e r ve (NEMATA) The nerve originating posterior to the nerve ring that extends anteriorly, connecting to the amphid. a m ph idia l pou ch or pock e t (NEMATA) The anterior cavity or chamber of the amphid; a fovea. a m ph idia l t u be s (NEMATA) Passages containing the amphidial nerves connecting the fibrillar terminals and the sensilla. a m ph idiploid see a llopolyploid, a llot e t r a ploid a m ph idiscs, a m ph idisk s n.pl. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; diskos, round plate] (PORIF: Hexactinellida) Small spicules with hooks at both ends, grapnel shape; no six rayed spicules. a m ph ige a n , a m ph iga e a n a. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; gaia, the earth] Pertaining to both the Old and New Worlds. a m ph ige ne sis n. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; genesis, beginning] Development induced by the fusion of two unlike gametes; amphigony. a m ph igon ic a. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; gonos, seed] Referring to sperm and ova being produced in separate gonads in different individuals; biparental reproduction. see di-

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gon ic; syngon ic. a m ph igony n. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; gonos, seed] biparental or bisexual reproduction. a m ph igon u s a. a m ph iha ploid n. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; haploos, simple; eidos, form] Said of haploid types produced from amphidiploids. a m ph ik a r yon n. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; karyon, nut] The nucleus of the zygote produced in the course of fertilization containing two haploid genomes. see diplok a r yon. a m ph im ict n. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; m ikt os, mixed] Reproduction by amphimixis. a m ph im ix is n. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; m ixis, mingling] The union of two gametes in sexual reproduction, as opposed to automixis. a m ph im or u la n. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; L. m orum , mulberry] A morula derived from an amphiblastula. Am ph ine ur a , a m ph ine u r a n see Polypla cophor a a m ph iodon t a. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; odous, tooth] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Coleoptera, male stag beetles bearing mandibles only intermediate in size; mesodont. see t e lodon t , pr iodon t . a m ph ion la r va (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Malacostraca, larva of Amphionidacea, zoea and megalopa types; telson is narrow with spines in first stage and pointed with no spines in last stage. a m ph iploid see a llopolyploid a m ph ipn e u st ic a. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; pneust ikos, breathe] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Refers to aquatic larva having the first and last pairs of spiracles open and functioning. see m e t a pn e u st ic; pe r ipne u st ic. a m ph ipyr e n in n. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; pyren, fruit stone] The substance of the nuclear membrane of cell nuclei. a m ph ist e r n ou s a. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; st ernon, breastbone] (ECHINOD: Echinoidea) Used to describe the sternum structure in certain sea urchins; two equal plates that meet the labrum.

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a m ph ist om e a. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; st om a, mouth] (PLATY: Trematoda) Having a ventral acetabulum located at the posterior end. a m ph ist om ou s a. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; st om a, mouth] (PLATY: Trematoda) Bearing a sucker at each extremity. a m ph it e lic a. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; t elos, end] In mitosis, pertaining to orientation of the two chromatids of each chromosome to different spindle poles at the first meiotic division as opposed to syntelic. a m ph it ok y, a m phe r ot ok y n. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; t okos, birth] Parthenogenesis in which unfertilized eggs develop into either sex; deuterotoky; gametotoky. a m ph it r ia e n e n. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; t riaina, trident] (PORIF) A spicule with three divergent rays at each extremity. a m ph it r och a n. [Gr. am phi, on both sides; t rochos, wheel] (ANN) Larva bearing two rings of cilia that function in locomotion. a m phocyt e see a m phophil a m phodyna m ou s a. [Gr. am pho, both; dynam is, power] Pertaining to an organism that may or may not enter a diapause phase, according to circumstances. a m phoge nou s a. [Gr. am pho, both; gennaein, to produce] Refers to females producing male and female offspring at a ratio of 1:1. a m phoph il, a m phophile , a m ph oph ilic a. [Gr. am pho, both; philos, love] Certain cells and tissues that have an affinity equally for acid and for basic dyes. a m phot e r ic a. [Gr. am phot eros, in both ways] 1. Possessing opposite characters. 2. Capable of acting either as a base or an acid. a m phot e r ot ok y see a m phit ok y a m ple a. [L. am plus, large] Large in size, capacity, volume or scope. a m ple ct e d a. [L. am plexus, embracing] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Having the head set into a hollow or recess of the prothorax.

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a m ple x ifor m w in g cou pling (ARTHRO: Insecta) Lepidopterous wing coupling by virtue of an extensive area of overlap between the fore and hind wing. a m plia t e a. [L. am pliat us, made wider] To enlarge; to make greater. a m plifica t ion n. [L. am plificare, to enlarge] An enlargement or extension; expanding a statement or description. a na m or phosis n.; pl. -se s [Gr. ana, backwards; m orphosis, forming] 1. A process of slow, steady evolution without apparent gross mutant variation. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. The increase of number of segments after hatching. b. Development in which the young gradually become more like the adult in body form after each ecdysis, as opposed to metamorphosis. a n a m or phic a. see a m e t a bolous, m e t a m or phosis, e pim or phosis. a na n dr ic a. [Gr. an, without; aner, man] (ANN: Oligochaeta) Designating earthworms without testes. a na pha se n. [Gr. ana, up; phasis, appearance] The period of mitotic division in which the daughter chromosomes move toward opposite poles. a na phyla x is n. [Gr. ana, again; phylax, guard] A state of excessive sensitivity to a serum or foreign protein that can result in a state of shock, that may develop with marked circulatory disturbances and possible death. a na phyla ct ic a. a na pla sis n. [Gr. ana, up; plassein, to form] Progressive ontogenetic development. a na ple u r it e n. [Gr. ana, up; pleuron, side] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A dorsal sclerite of the thoracic pleural region. a na polysis n. [Gr. an, without; apo- , separate; lysis, loosen] (PLATY: Cestoda) The detachment of a spent proglottid after it has shed its eggs. a na polyt ic a. see a polysis. a na pt e r ygot e a. [Gr. an, not; a, without; pt erygot os, winged] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Designates apterous insects that are derived from winged ancestors. a na pt ych us n. [Gr. an, without; apo- , away from; pt ychos, fold] (MOLL: Cephalopoda) A shelly plate found in some fos-

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sil cephalopods, thought to function as an operculum. see syna pt ychu s. a na r se n osom ph ic a. [Gr. an, without; arsen, male; som phos, porous] (ANN: Oligochaeta) Designates earthworms without male terminalia, such as parthenogenetic morphs, cephalic regenerates, or abnormal individuals. a na r t h r ous a. [Gr. an, without; art hron, joint] Lacking a distinct joint or joints. a na sca n n. [Gr. an, without; askos, sac] (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) Cheilostomata in which the autozooids have a hydrostatic system including the flexible part of the frontal wall, thus lacking an ascus. a na st om osin g colony (BRYO) A branching erect colony where branches join and rebranch to form an open network. a na st om osis n.; pl. -se s [Gr. anast om osis, formation of a network] A union or joining between two or more structures forming a network. a na st r a l a. [Gr. an, without; ast er, star] Lacking an ast er, with reference to mitosis. a na st r oph ic a. [Gr. ana, backwards; st rephein, to turn] (MOLL: Gastropoda) In Prosobranchia, as in Architectonica , pertaining to a heterostrophic shell with the protoconch coiled about the same axis as the teloconch and the nucleus directed toward the base of the shell. a na t om y n. [Gr. ana, again; t em nein, to cut] The science of internal morphology, as revealed by dissection. see z oot om y. a na t ox in n. [Gr. ana, backwards; t oxikon, poison] A toxin modified by heat or chemical treatment eliminating its toxic properties, but retaining its antigenic properties; toxoid. a na t r e psis n. [Gr. anat repein, to turn over] 1. Increase of movement during blastokinesis. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In blastokinesis, a term used to describe the movement of the embryo inside the egg from one pole to another; refers to different activities in different groups of insects, i.e., ventral to dorsal, dorsal to ventral. see k a t a t r e psis. a na t r ia e n e n. [Gr. ana, up; t riaina, trident] (PORIF) A tetracti-

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nal megasclere with three short recurved rays and a single long shaft. a na u t oge ny a. [Gr. an, without; aut os, self; genes, producing] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Refers to the necessity of a blood meal of certain Diptera before eggs can develop within the female. see a u t oge ny. a na x ia l a. [Gr. an, without; L. axis, axle] Lacking a distinct axis; asymmetrical. a na x on , a n a x one n. [Gr. an, without; axon, axis] A nerve cell having no apparent axon. a n ce st r a l a. [L. ant ecedere, to go before] Referring to derivation from an earlier form or ancestor; primitive. a n ce st r u la n. [L. ant ecedere, to go before] (BRYO) The first formed colony founding zooid. a. In Stenolaemata and most Gymnolaemata, the zooid formed by metamorphosis of a sexually produced larva. b. In Phylactolaemata, the zooid formed from a statoblast. a n ch ia line a. [Gr. anchi, near; hals, salt] Pertaining to landlocked pools or cave lakes that have subterranean connections to the ocean. a n chor n. [L. ancora, anchor] 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Copepoda, enlarged first thoracic segment of an anchor worm. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Ephemeroptera, a distal fibrous knob of the egg, terminating an elongate adhesive thread coiled around the base. 3. (ECHINOD: Holothuroidea) An anchor-shaped ossicle or spicule of sea cucumbers. 4. (PLATY: Cestoda) In Monogenea, large curved hooks on the opisthaptor; hamuli. a n chor a t e a. [L. anchora, anchor] (PORIF) Pertaining to a chela with four clads at each end. a n chor pr oce ss (ARTHRO: Insecta) An anterior process of some dipterous larvae; sternal spatula. see br e a st bon e . a n chylosis see a nk ylosis a n ci see a nk o a n cipit a l a. [L. anceps, double-headed] 1. Having two opposite edges or angles. 2. (MOLL) A two-edged, double-faced, double-formed shell having two varices that are continu-

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ous. a n cist r oid a. [Gr. ankist ron, a hook; eidos, shape] Hookshaped; barbed. a n cyloid a. [Gr. ankylos, hooked; eidos, shape] (MOLL) Shaped like the patelliform shell of the fresh-water limpet-like Ancylus , with the apex strongly directed anteriorly. a n dr ic a. [Gr. aner, male] Male. see gyn ic. a n dr ium n. [Gr. aner, male] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In male Diptera, the posterior part of the postabdomen comprising abdominal somites 9 and 10, and including the copulatory apparatus. a n dr ocon ia n.pl. [Gr. aner, male; konia, dust] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Specialized scales associated with aphrodisiac pheromone glands, on the wings of male butterflies; comparable scales may occur on legs or abdomen; scent scales. a n dr oe cium n. [Gr. aner, male; oikos, house] (ECHI) In some female bonellids, a specialized part, usually basal, of the nephridium where the male may be found. a n dr oga m e t e n. [Gr. aner, male; gam et es, husband] A spermatozoan; a male germ cell or gamete. a n dr oge ne sis n. [Gr. aner, male; genesis, beginning] Male parthenogenesis; the development of a haploid embryo from a male nucleus. a n dr oge n ic gla n d (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A gland located near the vas deferens responsible for development of male secondary sexual characteristics. a n dr oge nous a. [Gr. aner, male; genes, producing] Pertaining to the production of males or male gametes. a n dr ogynous see h e r m a ph r odit e a n dr ogyny n. [Gr. aner, male; gyne, woman] Having male organs develop before female during maturation; protandrous hermaphrodite. a n dr oid n. [Gr. aner, male] Resembling a male. a n dr ospe r m n. [Gr. aner, male; sperm a, seed] A male-producing spermatozoan; containing a Y-chromosome, limited

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to one sex. a n dr osyn he sm ia n. [Gr. aner, male; syn, with; hesm os, swarm] A group of males gathered together during mating season. see synh e sm ia , gyn osynh e sm ia . a n dr ot ype n. [Gr. aner, male; t ypos, type] The male type specimen of a species. a n dr y n. [Gr. andros, a man] (ANN: Oligochaeta) Pertaining to a testis containing segments. a n e cdysis n. [Gr. an, without; ekdysis, molt] 1. Ecdysis in which successive molts are separated by long intermolt phases. 2. Terminal anecdysis when maximum size is reached and no further ecdyses occur. a n e cic n. [Gr. anekas; upward] (ANN: Oligochaeta) Deep dwelling worms that come to the surface to feed or breed. see e n doge a n; e pige a n . a n e llife r n. [L. anellus, little ring; ferre, to bear] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In male Lepidoptera, the lateral parts of the anellus when joined to the inner surface of the valvae; sometimes a distinct structure. a n e llu s n. [L. anellus, little ring] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In male Lepidoptera, a sclerotization of the inner wall of the phallocrypt, forming a funnel-like cone around the aedeagus; penis funnel; ring wall. a n e lyt r ou s a. [Gr. an, without; elyt ron, sheath] Lacking elytra. a n e m och or ou s a. [Gr. anem os, wind; chorein, to spread] Dispersed by the wind. a n e m or e ce pt or n. [Gr. anem os, wind; L. recipere, to receive] A sensory receptor of air currents; trichobothrium. a n e m ot a x is n. [Gr. anem os, wind; t axis, arrangement] Orientation of an animal in response to air currents. a n e n t e r ic a. [Gr. an, without; ent eron, gut] Lacking an alimentary tract. a n e pim e r on n. [Gr. ana, up; epi, upon; m eros, part] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The upper portion of an epimeron above a distinct suture. a n e pist e r nit e see m e sople u r on

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a n e pist e r nu m n. [Gr. ana, up; epi, upon; st ernon, breastbone] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The upper division of the episternum. see infr a e pist e r n u m . a n e r n. [Gr. aner, male] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Male, especially in Formicidae. a n e st r u s, a noe st r us n. [Gr. an, without; oist ros, desire] A period of sexual inactivity; a non-breeding period. a n e u ce n t r ic t r a n sloca t ion One that involves the centromere of a chromosome; one daughter chromosome is acentric and the other dicentric. a n e u ploid a. [Gr. an, without; eu, well; aploos, onefold] Refers to cells or individuals having one, two or a few whole chromosomes, more or less than the basic number of the species in question. see h e t e r oploid, e u ploid. a n e u r on ic a. [Gr. an, without; neuron, nerve] Absence of innervation. a n e u r ose a. [Gr. an, without; neuron, nerve] 1. Without nerves. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Term used for a wing with veins near the costa only. a nfr a ct u ose a. [L. anfract us, circuitous] Wavy, winding, turnings, sinuous. a n gioge n e sis n. [Gr. angeion, vessel; genesis, beginning] The development of blood vessels. a n giost om a t ou s a. [Gr. angeion, vessel; st om a, mouth] Having a non-distensible mouth. a n gst r om n. [after A. J. Angstrom] One hundred-millionth of a centimeter, or one-tenth of a nanometer (nm); a unit used in measuring the length of light waves. a n gu la t e a. [L. angulare, to make angular] Having angles or sharp corners. a n gu la t ion n. [L. angulus, angular] An angular formation or edge where two surfaces meet at an angle. a n gu li fr on t a le s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In immatures, the anterior projections from the frons situated laterad to a median projection, the nasale; may or may not be symmetrical. a n gu st a t e a n t e n na (ARTHRO: Insecta) An antenna in which

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the intermediate and terminal joints are thinner. a n gu st icor n t r um pe t (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, a respiratory structure of Culicidae pupae bearing the longest axis vertically and approximately in line with the stem, funnelshaped when closed, with a split (meatal cleft) down one side allowing it to open widely at the water surface. a n gu st ir ost r a t e a. [L. angust us, narrow; rost rum , beak] Having a narrow rostrum or snout. see la t ir ost r a t e . a n holocyclic a. [Gr. an, without; holos, whole; kyklos, circle] Having only parthenogenetic reproduction. see h olocyclic. a n hydr obiosis n. [Gr. an, without; hydor, water; biosis, manner of life] A state of dormancy in various invertebrates due to low humidity or desiccation. a n hydr ou s a. [Gr. an, without; hydor, water] Being without water; completely lacking in water. a n im a l n. [L. anim alis, a living being] Any member of a group of living organisms distinguished from plants by a definite body form, absence of rigid cell walls of cellulose, locomotion responses to external stimuli, and inability to manufacture foods from inorganic substances. An im a lia n. [L. anim alis, a living being] A kingdom of organisms that contains the animals. a n im a l st a r ch see glycoge n a n ion n. [Gr. ana, up; ienai, to go] Any ion bearing a negative charge. see ca t ion. a n isoch e la n. [Gr. anisos, unequal; chele, claw] 1. (ARTHRO) A chela with two unlike parts. 2. (PORIF) A diactinal microsclere with unlike, recurved hooks, plates or flukes at each end. see isoch e la . a n isocyt ic a. [Gr. anisos, unequal; kyt os, container] Having cells in the intestinal epithelium unequal in height in a given cross section. a n isoga m e t e s n.pl. [Gr. anisos, unequal; gam et es, spouse] Outwardly dissimilar male and female gametes; heterogamete. a n isoga m y n. [Gr. anisos, unequal; gam os, marriage] Gametes when fusing during fertilization vary in size, shape and

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behavior. see he t e r oga m y. a n isoglot t id a. [Gr. anisos, unequal; glot t is, mouth of the windpipe] (NEMATA: Secernentea) Having a glottoid apparatus with metarhabdions at different levels. see isoglot t id. a n isogna t h ou s a. [Gr. anisos, unequal; gnat hos, jaw] Bearing unequal jaws. a n isom or ph a n. [Gr. anisos, unequal; m orphe, form] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Insects whose metamorphosis differ in various ways. a n isom or ph ic a. [Gr. anisos, unequal; m orphe, form] Varying in form, size or structure. see isom or ph ic. a n isom ya r ia n a. [Gr. anisos, unequal; m yos, muscle] 1. Having unequal muscles. 2. (MOLL: Bivalvia) Having the anterior adductor muscle reduced or absent. see m on om ya r ia n. a n isot r opic a. [Gr. anisos, unequal; t ropein, to turn] Doubly refracting, such as dark bands in the sarcomere of a muscle fiber. see isot r opic. a n k ist r oid see a n cist r oid a n k ylosis, a n chylosis n. [Gr. angcheein, to press tight] 1. The union or fusion of parts into one structure. 2. A stiffness or immobility of a joint. a n la ge n.; pl. -e n , -e s [Ger. anlage, predisposition] A primordium or cell group that constitutes identification of a part or organ. see bla st e m a . a n ne ct e n t a. [L. annect ere, to bind together] Linking; an intermediate; connecting together. a n ne le t n. [L. dim. annellus, little ring] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, a small ring-joint between the basal scape and the funicule of the antenna. An n e lida , a n ne lids n.; n.pl. [L. annulus, ring; Gr. eidos, form] A phylum of segmented or cylindrical ringed worms, encompassing the Polychaeta, mainly free-living and marine, the Oligochaeta, mainly free-living, either terrestrial (earthworms), fresh water, or marine, and the Hirudinoidea or leeches, that are ectoparasitic, fresh water, marine, or

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rarely terrestrial. a n n ida t ion n. [Gr. an, without; L. nidus, nest] Describing a mutant organism existing in a deme because of an ecological niche the normal organism is unable to utilize. a n not ina t e n. [L. annus, year] (MOLL: Bivalvia) Depressed lines placed at varying distances across some shells, marking their yearly growth; annual ring; growth ring. a n n ua l a. [L. annus, year] Occurring once a year, or lasting for one year. a n n ua l colon y A deme that lasts only one season and dies out. a n n ua l r ing see a n not in a t e a n n ula r a. [L. annulus, ring] 1. Pertains to being ring-shaped; marked with rings or bands. 2. (ANN: Oligochaeta) Referring to the clitellum of earthworms encircling the body and continuing ventrally. see sa ddle . a n n ula r la m ina (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, the lamina or sternal plate situated in front of the genitalia of Formicidae. a n n ula r spir a cle (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. In immature Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera, simple, ring-like spiracles with a single opening with no accessory chambers. 2. In other immature insects, may be biforous, having two small or large accessory or secondary chambers usually adjacent to the margin; uniforous, when opening occurs on the margin, or multiforous if three or more openings are present. a n n ula t e a. [L. annulus, ring] Composed of, or furnished with ring-like bands or annuli; may refer to structural bands or colored bands. a n n ula t e s n.pl. [L. annulus, ring] A group of segmented invertebrates including the arthropods, annelids and related forms. a n n ula t ions n.pl. [L. annulat us, ringed] Deep, transverse cuticular striae occurring at intervals (usually regular) giving the body a segmented appearance. a n n ule t n. [L. annulus, ring] A small ring into which a segment is divided by complete transverse constrictions, crenula-

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tions, or plicae. a n n uli pl. of a n n u lu s a n n ulose a. [L. annulus, ring] Bearing rings. a n n ulu s n.; pl. - li - luse s [L. annulus, ring] 1. Any ring-like circling of a joint, segment, spot or mark. 2. (BRYO: Phylactolaemata) The outer epidermal layer of a statoblast that encircles the protective capsule. 3. (NEMATA) The interstice area between the transverse striae of the body cuticle. a n n ulu s a n t e n na lis (ARTHRO: Insecta) The encircling sclerite into which the basal segment of the antenna is inserted; antennal sclerite. a n n ulu se s pl. of a n n u lu s a n n ulu s ve n t r a lis (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, the seminal receptacle of a female crayfish. a nodon t ia n. [Gr. an, without; odont os, tooth] 1. Lacking teeth; edentate. 2. (MOLL: Bivalvia) Lacking hinge teeth. a nodon t a. An odon t oda see Biva lvia a noe st r us see a n e st r u s a nom a lou s a. [Gr. anom alos, irregular] Deviating from the common or usual rule, form or type. a nom a ly n. a nom ocla d n. [Gr. anom oios, dissimilar; blados, branch] (PORIF) A subglobular microsclere spicule produced by the swelling of the middle part of the spicule. a nom pha lou s a. [Gr. an, without; om phalos, navel] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Without an umbilicus. a nopr oce ss n.; pl. -se s [L. anus; processus, process] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Neuroptera, the uppermost process of each half of the anal segment. a nor ga nology see a biology a nor t hoge n e sis n. [Gr. an, without; ort hos, straight; genesis, beginning] Adaptive changes of evolutionary significance based on preadaptations; zigzag evolution. a nosm a t ic a. [Gr. an, without; osm e, smell] Lacking or impairment of the sense of smell.

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a nox ybiont n. [Gr. an, without; oxys, sharp; bios, life] An organism incapable of using oxygen as opposed to one that is aerobic. a n sa n. [L. ansa, handle] A loop or loop-like structure. a n sifor m a. [L. ansa, handle; form a, shape] Looped, or looplike in shape. a n t a fossa see a n t e n na l fossa a n t a gon ism n. [Gr. ant agonist es, competitor] 1. Inhibition or interference in growth of an organism due to unfavorable conditions created by the presence of another species. 2. Opposing action by two different muscles or structures. 3. Neutralizing ability of one drug or hormone upon another; chalone. a n t a gon ist ic sym biosis A symbiotic association in which one symbiont seeks to establish domination over the other. see pa r a sit ism . a n t e a l a. [L. ant e, before] Being in front or forward. a n t e a la r a. [L. ant e, before; ala, wing] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to being positioned anterior to the front wing. a n t e a la r sin u s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Odonata, the transverse grooved area in front of the base of the front wings. a n t e a pica l a. [L. ant e, before; apex, summit] Proximal of the apex. a n t e a pica l ce ll (ARTHRO: Insecta) A cell in the distal part of the wing. a n t e clype u s n. [L. ant e, before; clypeus, shield] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The anterior division of the clypeus when differentiated from the postclypeus by a sulcus or suture. see clype u s. a n t e cost a n. [L. ant e, before; cost a, rib] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The anterior marginal or submarginal interior tergal or sternal plate, on which the longitudinal muscles are attached. a n t e cost a l su lcu s/ sut u r e (ARTHRO: Insecta) The groove of the intersegmental sclerite that marks the base of the antecosta.

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a n t e cox a l pie ce (ARTHRO: Insecta) An inner sclerite between the trochantin and the episternum; the lateral sclerites of the clypeus. a n t e cox a l scle r it e (ARTHRO: Insecta) A part of the metasternum just anterior to the hind coxae. a n t e cu bit a l see a n t e noda l cr oss ve in s a n t e cu r r e n t see pr osoclin e a n t e fr on s n.pl. [L. ant e, before; frons, forehead] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Frons situated anterior to the antennal base lines. a n t e fu r ca n.; pl. -fu r ca e [L. ant e, before; furca, fork] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The internal chitinous forked process projecting into the thoracic cavity from the anterior thoracic segment. a n t e h um e r a l a. [L. ant e, before; hum erus, shoulder] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Designating the area immediately anterior to the basal portion of the wing. a n t e la br um n. [L. ant e, before; labrum , lip] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The anterior part of the labrum when differentiated. a n t e m a r gin a l pr oce ss (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Scarabaeoidea, a process distad of the lateroproximal marginal region of the phallobase. a n t e m or t e m a. [L. ant e, before; m ors, death] Before death. see post -m or t e m . a n t e n na n.; pl. -n a e [L. ant enna, feeler] 1. Analogous, unsegmented structures in mollusks, polychaete worms and rotifers. 2. (ARTHRO) A movable sensory appendage of various arthropods; usually segmented and located on the head above the mouth parts; most arthropods bear antennae, although some are greatly reduced; missing in all arachnids. 3. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The second antennae proper; the second pair of appendages posterior to antennules; primarily sensory in function, but often adapted for other functions; derived from appendages on primitive third preoral somite; postantennal appendages; no homologous appendage in insects. see a n t e nn u a , a n t e n n u le . a n t e n na l a ppe nda ge (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Anoplura, protu-

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berance on the first or third antennal segment of male biting lice. a n t e n na l ca r ina (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A prominent ridge extending posteriorly from a decapod antennal spine. a n t e n na l clu b (ARTHRO: Insecta) The enlarged distal segment of a clubbed antenna. a n t e n na l fossa (ARTHRO: Insecta) A cavity or depression in which the antenna is located; antennal groove; antafossa. a n t e n na l fove a see a n t e n na l gr oove a n t e n na l gla nd 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Malacostraca, a complex excretory gland with ducts opening on the second antenna; green gland. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) One of a pair of glands that open on the antenna. a n t e n na l gr oove (ARTHRO) A groove or depression in the head of many arthropods, extending posteriorly from the basal segment of the antenna. a n t e n na l lobe s see de u t oce r e br u m a n t e n na l m u scle sca r (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Ostracoda, an impression of the antennal muscle on the inner surface of a valve, situated in front of the adductor muscle scar, usually above the mandibular scar. a n t e n na l or ga n s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Collembola, sensory structures of springtails situated on the distal segment of the antenna. a n t e n na l r e gion (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, the anterior marginal part bordering orbital region laterally, adjoining hepatic, pterygostomial, and occasionally also the frontal regions of the carapace. a n t e n na l sca le see sca phoce r it e a n t e n na l scle r it e (ARTHRO: Insecta) The sclerotic rim of the basal antennal socket. see a n nu lus a nt e n na lis. a n t e n na l se gm e n t (ARTHRO) That segment of an arthropod head from which the antennae arise, usually second segment; deuterocerebral segment. a n t e n na l spin e (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A decapod spine situated on the anterior margin of the carapace, slightly below the

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orbit. a n t e n na l su ppor t (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Coleoptera, ringshaped cranial projections of scarab larvae, to which the antennae are appended; the proximal, nonarticulated first antennal segment. a n t e n na l su t u r e (ARTHRO: Insecta) The external groove in the cranial wall surrounding the antennal socket. see cir cu m a n t e nn a l su lcu s. a n t e n na r ia n. [L. ant enna, feeler] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In immatures, an annular sclerite forming the periphery of each antennal sclerite. a n t e n na t ion n. [L. ant enna, feeler; suff. denoting act] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The act of touching with the antennae that function as a sensory probe or tactile signal to another insect. a n t e n n ife r n. [L. ant enna, feeler; ferre, to carry] (ARTHRO) The single marginal point into which the basal scape of the antenna is inserted, allowing it freedom to move in all directions. a n t e n n ifor m a. [L. ant enna, feeler; form a, shape] Appearing like or shaped like an antenna. a n t e n n om e r e n. [L. ant enna, feeler; Gr. m eros, part] (ARTHRO: Diplopoda) An antennal segment. a n t e n n ua n. [L. dim. ant enna, feeler] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The second antennae, when there are two pair. a n t e n n u la r fose t t e (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A depression, pit or socket containing the basal portion of the antennule. a n t e n n u la r r e gion see de u t oce r e br a l r e gion a n t e n n u la r sca le see st yloce r it e a n t e n n u le n. [L. dim. ant enna, feeler] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The first antenna; anteriormost appendage, primarily sensory in function, but often adapted for other functions in different species; derived from appendages on the primitive second preoral somite; homologous to antennae of insects. see a n t e n na . a n t e n oda l a. [L. ant e, before; nodus, knob] Preceding a node or nodes.

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a n t e n oda l cr oss ve in s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Odonata, wing veins along the costal border between the base and the nodus, extending from the costa to the radius. a n t e ocu la r a. [L. ant e, before; oculus, eye] Before the eye. a n t e pe ct us n. [L. ant e, before; pect us, chest] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The underside of the prothorax. a n t e pe nu lt im a t e a. [L. ant e, before; paene, almost; ult im us, last] Pertaining to the second from the last segment of various invertebrates. a n t e ple ur on see e pist e r n um a n t e pr on ot u m n. [L. ant e, before; Gr. pro, before; not os, back] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, the anterior division of the pronotum. a n t e pude ndu m n. [L. ant e, before; pudenda, external genitals, vulva] (NEMATA) Genital tube proceeding anterior from the vulva in monovarial amphidelphic descendants. a nt e pude ndic a. a n t e pygidia l br ist le (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Siphonaptera, one or more large bristles on the apical margin of the seventh tergum. a n t e r ia d adv. [L. ant e, before; ad, toward] Directed toward the anterior part of the body; directed forward, as opposed to posteriad. a n t e r ior a. [L. ant e, before] 1. Before or toward the front. 2. Pertaining to the direction in which the head tends to point when an animal is active. 3. (MOLL: Gastropoda) In a crawling gastropod, pertaining to the head being closest to that part of the apertural margin lying farthest from the shell apex; in high-spired conispiral shells, and some others, anterior is equivalent to abapical. a n t e r ior a poph yse s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In female Lepidoptera, a pair of slender chitinized internal rods extending anteriorly from the ninth abdominal segment. a n t e r ior ca n a l see siph ona l ca n a l a n t e r ior ca r dia c ch a m be r see pr ove n t r iculu s a n t e r ior ha r d pla t e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, an irregular platelike anterior area of the clypeopalatum of Culicidae.

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a n t e r ior k e e l (MOLL) The high point of the whorl next to the suture at the lower edge of the shell nearest to the anterior end. a n t e r ior la t e r a l t oot h (MOLL: Bivalvia) A lateral tooth in front of the beak. a n t e r ior pr om on t or y (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, the median area of the mesonotum, at the anterior end of the acrostichal area. a n t e r ior se t a e see ve nt r a l se t a e a n t e r ior st igm a t a l t ube r cle (ARTHRO: Insecta) Prominence on the thoracic and abdominal segments of caterpillars. a n t e r ior t e n t or ia l a r m s (ARTHRO: Insecta) An apodeme arising from the anterior tentorial pits, meeting the posterior tentorial arm at a visible fusion point; sometimes bearing a small dorsal or ventral tentorial arm. a n t e r ior t e n t or ia l pit s (ARTHRO: Insecta) External depressions in the epistomal suture marking the base of the anterior tentorial arm(s). a n t e r ior t u be r cle (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A swelling or small projection in the anterior region of the carapace of archaeostracans; polygenetic, sometimes including the optic tubercle. a n t e r obipr ost a t ic a. [L. ant ero, anterior; bis, twice; Gr. prohist anai, to set before] (ANN: Oligochaeta) Pertaining to the male terminalia of parthenogenetic earthworm morphs in which the posterior prostates of an acanthodrilin set are absent. a n t e r odor sa l a. [L. ant ero, anterior; dorsum , back] Toward the front and the top or upper side. a n t e r ola t e r a l r e gion (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The lateral part of the carapace bordering the subhepatic or hepatic regions. a n t e r om e sa l a. [L. ant ero, anterior; m esos, middle] In the front and along the midline of a body. a n t e r opost e r ior a x is The longitudinal axis, from head to tail. a n t e r ove nt r a l a. [L. ant ero, anterior; vent er, belly] In the front on the lower side.

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a n t e st e r n it e n. [L. ant e, before; Gr. st ernon, breastbone] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The anterior ventral plate or spicule; basisternum; eusternum. a n t he lm in t ic, a n t h e lm in t h ic a. [Gr. ant i, against; helm ins, worm] Pertaining to therapeutic agents used against intestinal helminths causing death or expulsion. see ve r m icide , ve r m ifu ge . a n t hobia n n. [Gr. ant hos, flowers; bios, life] Feeding on flowers. a n t hobla st n. [Gr. ant hos, flower; blast os, bud] (CNID: Anthozoa) In stony corals, a young sessile polyp producing an anthocyathus. a n t hoca u lu s n. [Gr. ant hos, flower; kaulos, stalk] (CNID: Anthozoa) The stalk of a solitary coral after the separation of the disklike anthocyathus. a n t hocodiu m n.; pl. -ia [Gr. ant hos, flower; kodeia, head] (CNID: Anthozoa) The distal end of an alcyonarian coral; the upper tentacular part of the polyp that can be retracted into the calyx. a n t hocya nin s n.pl. [Gr. ant hos, flower; kyanos, blue] Important plant pigments (flavones) that may contribute to the blue or red coloration of insects. see a n t hox a n t h in s. a n t hocya t h u s n.; pl. -ia [Gr. ant hos, flower; kyat hos, cup] (CNID: Anthozoa) The disklike crown portion of solitary corals that separates from the stalk (anthocaulus). a n t hoge n e sis n. [Gr. ant hos, flower; genesis, beginning] The production of both males and females by parthenogenesis. a n t hoph ilou s a. [Gr. ant hos, flower; philein, to love] Designating attraction to or feeding on flowers; anthobian. a n t host e le n. [Gr. ant hos, flower; st ele, column] (CNID: Anthozoa) The stiff proximal part of certain stoloniferan polyps into which the tentacular portion is retracted. a n t hox a n t h in s n.pl. [Gr. ant hos, flower; xant hos, yellow] Plant pigments (flavones) responsible for the ivory to yellow color of some true bugs and Lepidoptera. see a n t hocya n in s. An t hozoa , a n t hozoa n s n.; n.pl. [Gr. ant hos, flower; zoon,

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animal] Any coelenterate of the class Anthozoa, phylum Cnidaria, including the sea anemones and corals. a n t h r a ce ne , a nt h r a cin e n. [Gr. ant hrax, coal] Coal black; shiny black with a bluish tint. a n t h r a qu in on e s n.pl. (ARTHRO: Insecta) A group of orange or red pigments found in certain insects. a n t h r opoch or ou s a. [Gr. ant hropos, man; chorein, to spread] Refers to any disease or organism transported by man, usually unintentionally; peregrine. a n t h r opoge n ic a. [Gr. ant hropos, man; genes, producing] Caused by, or resulting from, the influence of man. a n t h r opom or ph ic a. [Gr. ant hropos, man; m orphe, form] Attributing human attributes to animals. a n t h r opoph ilou s a. [Gr. ant hropos, man; philein, to love] Used to describe insects that prefer human blood. a n t h r opozoic a. [Gr. ant hropos, man; zoe, life] Designating that period of time since man appeared upon the earth. a n t h r opozoonosis n. [Gr. ant hropos, man; zoon, animal; nosos, disease] A disease of humans transmissible to other animals. see zooa n t h r opon osis, zoonosis. a n t ia pose m a t ic a. [Gr. ant i, against; apo, away; sem a, signal] Referring to coloration that disguises a predator. see pa r a se m a t ic, a pose m a t ic. a n t ibiosis n. [Gr. ant i, against; biosis, manner of life] An association between two organisms in which one secretes a substance destroying or inhibiting the other. a n t iclina l a. [Gr. ant i, against; klinein, to bend] Radial; inclining in opposite directions; at right angles to the surface of a part. a n t iclype us see a nt e clype us a n t icoa gu la n t a. [Gr. ant i, against; L. coagulare, to curdle] Pertaining to any substance that prevents or delays the coagulation of blood. a n t icoa gu lin n. [Gr. ant i, against; L. coagulare, to curdle] (ARTHRO) The secretion of certain parasitic species that prevents or delays the coagulation of the host's blood.

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a n t icr ist a n.; pl. -a e [Gr. ant i, against; L. crist a, crest] (MOLL: Cephalopoda) A cartilaginous outgrowth of the statocyst wall that protects the macula and crista from sudden inertial movements of the endolymph. a n t icr ypt ic color A color or color pattern used for concealment by a predator in order to facilitate attack on its prey. see cr ypt ic color , h om och r om y. a n t icu s a. [L. ant icus, foremost] Anterior; belonging to or toward the front; frontal. a n t idiu r e t ic h or m one (ARTHRO: Insecta) A diuretic regulatory hormonal mechanism that enhances the rate at which fluid is secreted via the Malpighian tubules, and in certain insects, reduces resorption in the rectum. a n t idr om ic a. [Gr. ant i, against; drom os, running] Moving in a direction contrary to normal. see or t h odr om ic. a n t ige ny a. [Gr. ant i, against; genes, producing] Pertaining to sexual dimorphism. a n t ilysin n. [Gr. ant i, against; lyein, to dissolve] Any substance that can counteract lysin. a n t im e r e n. [Gr. ant i, against; m eros, part] Left and right halves of a bilaterally symmetrical object, or a homologous part repeated in segments arranged around an axis, as in radially symmetrical animals. a n t im e t a bolit e n. [Gr. ant i, against; m et abole, change] Any compound that interferes with normal cellular metabolism. a n t im it ot ic a. [Gr. ant i, against; m it os, thread] Refers to the action of physical or chemical agents that produce a consistent deviation in the mitotic cycle. a n t im or ph n. [Gr. ant i, against; m orphe, form] A mutant allele that inhibits the production of the ancestral allele. a n t ine u r a l a. [Gr. ant i, against; neuron, nerve] 1. Distal to a nerve. 2. Term used instead of ventral for certain invertebrates, such as Pogonophora. see a dne u r a l, su bn e u r a l. a n t ipe r ist a lsis n. [Gr. ant i, against; peri, around; st alsis, contraction] Peristalsis occurring in reverse; reversed muscular contractions in the digestive tract. a n t ipoda l a. [Gr. ant i, against; pous, foot] Diametrically oppo-

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site; located on the opposite side. a n t ipygidia l br ist le s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Siphonaptera, bristles located on the seventh abdominal segment. a n t ir ost r um n. [Gr. ant i, against; L. rost rum , beak] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) Terminal segmental appendages of some mites. a n t ispa dix n. [Gr. ant i, against; L. spadix, palm branch] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Four modified tentacles opposite the spadix of the male Naut ilus, sp. a n t isqua m a n.; pl. -m a e [Gr. ant i, against; L. squam a, scale] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, the upper lobe (alula) that moves with the wing; antitegula. see squa m a . a n t ist yle n. [Gr. ant i, against; st ylos, pillar] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The basal segment of the stylifer. a n t it e gu la see a n t isqu a m a a n t it he t ic ge n e r a t ion Alternation of generations in which the alternates are very different in appearance and origin. a n t it ox in n. [Gr. ant i, against; t oxikon, poison] Any substance that neutralizes a toxin. a n t it ype n. [Gr. ant i, against; t ypos, type] 1. An opposite type; a countertype. 2. A corresponding specimen of a type species, obtained at the same time and location of the type. This definition has no standing in the ICZN. a n t izoe a n. [L. ant i, against; zoe, life] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The first larval stage of the large, carnivorous marine mantis shrimps of the superorder Hoplocarida, that lack the raptorial claws. see pse u dozoe a . a n t le r e d la r va e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In some newly hatched Lepidoptera larvae, antler-like horns on the first thoracic segment and other horns (scoli) on the abdominal segments. a n t lia n. [Gr. ant lia, pump] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The spiral, tubular proboscis. a n t r or se a. [L. ant ero, anterior; versus, turned] Directed or leaning upward or forward. see de t r or se , r e t r or se . a n t r um n. [L. ant rum , hollow] 1. A hollow space or cavity. 2. A

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sinus. a n u cle a t e a. [Gr. an, without; L. nucleus, kernel] Lacking a nucleus. a n u r a l a. [Gr. an, without; oura, tail] Lacking a tail. a n u r ia n. [Gr. an, without; ouron, urine] Absence of or inability to excrete urine. a n u s n. [L. anus] The terminal orifice of the alimentary canal, through which unabsorbed food and waste products are voided; in some groups it is associated with the cloaca. see u r opor e . a or t a n. [Gr. aort e, the great artery] The main vessel carrying blood from the heart; the dorsal blood vessel. a or t a l cha m be r The thoracic expansion of the aorta. a or t ic va lve The closure mechanism of the dorsal vessel, separating the aorta and the heart proper. a pa t e t ic color Those colors that enable an organism to mimic either its environment or another species. a pe r t um n. [L. aperire, to open] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Coleoptera, a basal cell opening on the hind wing. a pe r t u r a l a. [L. aperire, to open] Pertaining to or on the same side as the aperture. a pe r t u r a l m u scle (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) One of either two pairs of muscles of cheilostomate autozooids, the occlusor muscle of the operculum or the diaphragmatic dilator muscle. a pe r t u r e n. [L. aperire, to open] 1. An opening or hole, cleft, or gap. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The postero-ventral opening into the mantle cavity of barnacles. see or ifice . 3. (BRYO: Stenolaemata) The terminal skeletal opening of a zooid. 4. (MOLL) An opening at the last-formed margin of a shell, providing the outlet for the head-foot mass. a pe x n.; pl. a pe x e s, a pice s [L. apex, tip] 1. That portion of any structure opposite the base of attachment; the tip. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The upper angle of the scutum or tergum of certain barnacles. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Wing tip. 4. (MOLL) a. In Polyplacophora, the beak or umbo of a valve. b. In Gastropoda, the first-formed end of a shell.

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a pha gia n. [Gr. a, not; phagein, to eat] Unable to ingest. a pha r ynge a t e ce r ca r ia e (PLATY: Trematoda) Larvae that develop in daughter sporocysts in pulmonate or prosobranch snails. Apha sm idia see Ade nophor e a a phe le n choid bu r sa see bu r sa a ph ide in e see a ph idilu t e in a ph idicolou s a. [NL. aphis, plant-louse; L. colere, to dwell] (ARTHRO) Pertaining to associating with aphid colonies, as certain ants. a ph idilu t e in n. [NL. aphis, plant-louse; L. lut eus, yellow] The yellowish liquid found in plant lice. see a ph in s. a ph idivor ou s a. [NL. aphis, plant-louse; L. vorare, to devour] Feeding on aphids. a ph in s n.pl. [NL. aphis, plant-louse] Fat soluble pigments derived from various aphids that impart a purple or black color to the whole insect. a phodu s n.; pl. a ph odi [Gr. aphodos, departure] (PORIF: Desmospongiae) The short channel connecting the flagellated chamber with the excurrent canal. see pr osodu s. a phor ism n. [Gr. aphorizein, to define] The concise definition of a principle. a phot ic zon e That zone of ocean water that lies below 800 meters and which receives little or no light. a phot ot r opic a. [Gr. an, without; phos, light; t ropein, to turn] Turning away from light. a phr odisia c ph e r om one (ARTHRO: Insecta) A pheromone that facilitates copulation. a phyt a l zon e Those waters in which the penetration of light is too poor to support photosynthesis. a pia n a. [L. apianus, of bees] Of or pertaining to bees. a pia r y n.; pl. -ie s [L. apiarium , beehive] The area where bees are kept; a collection of hives maintained for honey production. a pica d adv. [L. apex, tip; ad, toward] Toward the apex.

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a pica l a. [L. apex, tip] Refers to the apex or top, as of a conical or spherical structure. a pica l a n gle 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The angle of a wing at its apex. 2. (MOLL: Gastropoda) In a plane through the axis, that angle subtended between two straight lines that touch adjacent whorls on opposite sides near the apex; identical with the spire angle if whorls increase at a regular rate. a pica l a r e a 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) see petiole. 2. (MOLL: Polyplacophora) The short part of the periostracum and tegmentum on the head and intermediate valves that is adjacent to the posterior dorsal edge of a valve and which extends over the edge and onto the ventral side. a pica l ca r in a (ARTHRO: Insecta) In ichneumonid Hymenoptera, the posterior transverse carina. a pica l ce ll 1. A cell situated at the apex of a structure distinguished by location, shape, size and function. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Apical testicular cell of Orthoptera, Dictyoptera, Diptera and Homoptera, and some Lepidoptera, that supplies mitochondria to the spermatogonial cytoplasm during spermatogenesis; Verson's cell; Versonian cell. 3. (NEMATA) An epithelial cell that forms the gonoduct wall. a pica l ch a m be r (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to the germarium in the acrotrophic egg tubes. a pica l cr oss ve in (ARTHRO: Insecta) A cross vein near the apex of the wing. a pica l fie ld (ROTIF) The central anterior unciliated area of the corona. a pica lia n. [L. apex, tip] (GNATHO) Paired sensory cilia on the head. a pica l lip n ot ch e s (NEMATA) Indented lip margins at the junction of the lips. a pica l m a r gin (ARTHRO: Insecta) The outer margin of the wing. see cost a l m a r gin , a na l m a r gin . a pica l or ga n A sensory organ located at the apex of trochophore larvae and some cestodes. a pica l or ifice (MOLL) An opening at the top or apex of a shell. a pica l pla t e An external sensory organ of a primitive nervous

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system or cluster of nerve cells at the anterior pole of the body of certain arthropods and annelids. a pica l scut e lla r s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, the apical pair of marginal bristles on the scutellum; sometimes refers to the sub-apical scutellars, when the true apicals are absent. a pica l spur 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The short bristles on the ventral surface of the tibia. 2. (MOLL) The initial pointed plug forming a posterior septum in truncate shells. a pica l syst e m (ECHINOD: Echinoidea) Plates surrounding the body organs of sea-urchins, found at the dorsal or aboral pole of the test. see cor ona l syst e m . a pice s pl. of a pe x a picoba sa l r idge or fu r r ow (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A longitudinal feature of barnacles, dividing the tergum from the remaining valve. a picu la t e a. [L. dim. apex, tip] Pertaining to a short, abrupt point or points. a picu lt u r e n. [L. apis, honeybee; cult ura, cultivation] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The culturing of bees; beekeeping. a picu lu s n. [L. dim. apex, tip] Any small apical tip or point. a pid ve nom gla nd (ARTHRO: Insecta) A type of venom gland in which the single venom gland is widened into a saclike reservoir that contains glandular elements, but no muscles. see br a conid ve nom gla nd. a pist h ogna t hou s see opist hogna t hou s a pit ox in n. [L. apis, honeybee; Gr. t oxikon, poison] The main toxic constituent of bee venom. a pivor ous a. [L. apis, honeybee; vorare, devour] Refers to feeding on bees. a pla sia n. [Gr. an, without; plasm a, formed or molded] 1. The entire failure of organs or tissue to develop. 2. Incomplete or faulty development. a pla st ic a. see a ge n e sis. a pne um one n. [Gr. an, without; pneum a, air] A substance emitted by a nonliving material that envokes a behavioral or physiological reaction favorable to the receiving organism, but detrimental to another species that may be found

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in or on the nonliving material. see a lle loch e m ic. a pne u st ic a. [Gr. an, without; pneust os, breath] 1. Lacking external breathing organs. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Lacking spiracles, or supplied with nonfunctional spiracles, as in aquatic forms. a pobiot ic a. [Gr. apo, away; biot ikos, of life] Of or pertaining to any change leading to diminished cells or tissues. a poce n t r ic a. [Gr. apo, away; kent ron, center] Deviating from the original type. see a r ch e ce n t r ic. a poch e t e n. [Gr. apo, away; cheo, pour] (PORIF) An exhalant canal that extends from the apopyles to apopore. a pocr it e a. [Gr. apo, away; krinein, to separate] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to Hymenoptera in which the first abdominal segment is fused to the reduced metathorax to form a narrow waist. a poda l a. [Gr. a, without; pous, foot] Lacking feet or legs; apodous. a pode m e , a pode m a n. [Gr. apo, away; dem as, body] An invagination of the cuticle that serves for muscle attachment and for strengthening of the body wall. see a pophysis, a podom e . a pode r m a n. [Gr. apo, away; derm a, skin] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The membrane developed during resting stage of instars of certain Acari. a podict ic, a pode ict ic, a podict a l a. [Gr. apodeikt os, proving fully] Being evident beyond contradiction; clearly proving. a podom e n. [Gr. apo, away; L. dom us, roof] (ARTHRO) The internal portions of a skeleton, consisting of both apodeme and apophysis; sometimes used as synonymous with apodeme. a podou s see a poda l a podou s la r va e (ARTHRO) Larvae without legs and with reduced head, that require maternal deposition in or on a food source. a poe nzym e n. [Gr. apo, away; en, in; zym e, yeast] The protein portion of an enzyme that cannot function without a coenzyme. see h oloe nzym e .

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a poga m e t e n. [Gr. apo, away; gam et e, spouse] A gamete formed by apomixis. a poga m y see a pom ix is a pola r a. [Gr. an, without; polos, pivot pole] Lacking a pole; without radiating processes. a pole ga m ic a. [Gr. apolegein, to choose; gam os, marriage] Pertaining to sexual selection. a polysis n. [Gr. apo, away; lysis, loosen] 1. (ARTHRO) The first process of molting, characterized by the detachment of the old cuticle from the underlying hypodermal (epidermal) cells. see e cdysis. 2. (PLATY: Cestoda) The detachment of a gravid proglottid in tapeworms. a polyt ic a. see a na polysis. a pom ict n. [Gr. apo, away; m ikt os, mixed] Any organism produced by apomixis. a pom ict ic ( a m e iot ic) pa r t h e noge n e sis No reduction division occurs, so that the offspring have the same genetic constitution as the mother and all are female. a pom ix is n. [Gr. apo, away; m ixis, mixing] Botanical term sometimes used in invertebrates. see pa r t he noge n e sis. a pom or ph n. [Gr. apo, away; m orphe, form] A derived character. a pom or phy n. [Gr. apo, away; m orphe, form] A term pertaining to derived characters, normally used in cladistic taxonomy. a pom or phic a. see ple siom or phy. a pophysa r y see a poph ysis a pophysis n.; pl. -se s [Gr. apo, away; phyein, to grow] 1. An internal or external tubercular or elongate process of the body wall; a prominence, swelling or expansion. see a pode m e , a podom e . 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) see ple u r a l a pophysis, st e r na l a pophyse s. 3. (MOLL) a. In Bivalvia, a large, styloid projection, one in each valve, extending from beneath the umbos to which the foot muscles are attached. b. In Polyplacophora, see sutural laminae. a pophyst e ga l pla t e s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Orthroptera, plateor blade-like sclerites covering the gonapophyses. a popor e n. [Gr. apo, away; poros, passage] (PORIF) An aper-

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ture forming an exit from the apochete; may be equivalent to an oscule. a popyle n. [Gr. apo, away; pyle, gate] (PORIF) An exhalent aperture from a choanocyte chamber. a por r hysa n.pl. [Gr. aporrhyein, to flow away] (PORIF) The exhalent canals. see e pir r h ysa . a pose m a t ic a. [Gr. apo, away; sem a, signal] Warning coloration or structures that repel predators, also including movements, sounds, smells, etc. see a llose m a t ic color , se m a t ic. a pose m e n. [Gr. apo, away; sem a, signal] A population in which all the individuals, even though taxonomically distinct, share the same aposematic coloration. a post a t ic a. [Gr. apost at es, deserter] Widely departing from the norm; said of a phenotype that differs strikingly from the search image of a predator. a post e r ior i w e igh t ing The weighting of taxonomic characters on the basis of their proved contribution to the establishment of sound classifications. see a pr ior i w e igh t ing. a posym biot ic a. [Gr. apo, away; syn, together; bios, life] Referring to an organism separated from its symbiotes; symbiote-free; usually refers to mutualistic symbiotes. see m u t ua lism . a pot e le n. [Gr. apo, away; t elos, end] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The terminal eudesmatic segment of the appendages of mites, generally constituting two tendons and two articulation-points. a pot e lic a. see pr e t a r su s. a pot om e n. [Gr. apo, away; t om os, a cut] A part or subdivision appearing as if separated from the whole. a pot or m a n.; pl. -m a e [Gr. apo, away; t orm os, socket] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Scarabaeoidea larvae, a process that extends forward from the torma between the pternotorma and the interior end of the torma. a pot ype see hypot ype a pot ypic a. [Gr. apo, away; t ypos, type] Varying from a type. a ppa r a t us n.; pl. -r a t u s, -r a t u se s [L. apparat us, equipment] Any group of structures or parts that unite together in a

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common function. a ppa r it ion n. [L. appareo, manifest] Something appearing. a ppe a se m e n t be ha vior That which follows after the attack of one animal on another of the same species with the loser assuming a submissive attitude. a ppe a se m e n t su bst a n ce The secretion by a social parasite of attractive substances that reduce aggression in a host insect and aid the parasite's acceptance by the host colony. a ppe nda ge n. [L. ad, to; pendere, to hang] A structure attached or appended to a larger structure, as parts or organs that are attached to the body of various invertebrates. a ppe ndicle n. [L. ad, to; pendere, to hang] A small appendage or appendix. appendicular a. a ppe ndicu la t e a. [L. ad, to; pendere, to hang] Bearing or forming small appendages. a ppe ndicu la t e ce ll (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, a small cell just beyond the apex of the marginal cell of the wing. a ppe ndicu le n. [L. ad, to; pendere, to hang] (NEMATA) A large, single, ventral, extensible preanal supplementary male organ. a ppe ndicu lu m n. [L. appendicula, small appendage] (CNID: Scyphozoa) The remainder of the partial veil on the pileus rim of jellyfish. a ppe ndife r n. [L. ad, to; pendere, to hang; ferre, to carry] (ARTHRO: Trilobita) A ventral projection for the attachment of thoracic muscles. a ppe ndix n.; pl. -dix e s, -dice s [L. ad, to; pendere, to hang] Any supplementary or additional piece or part appended to a regular structure. a ppe ndix in t e r na (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Malacostraca, the median process of the pleopodal endopod uniting members of each pair; stylamblys. a ppe ndix m a scu lina (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Isopoda, the modified second (sometimes first also) pleopod(s) in the form of a long, often grooved, rodlike organ that functions

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as a copulatory organ or gonopod. a ppe ndot om y n. [L. appendix, appendage; Gr. t om e, a cutting] The loss of appendages. see a u t ospa sy, a u t ot illy, a u t ot om y. a ppose v.t. [L. ad, to; ponere, to put] To place opposite or before; to put, apply, or add one thing to another, to place in juxtaposition. a pposit ion n. [L. ad, to; ponere, to put] 1. Juxtaposition. 2. The growth of a structure by the successive deposition of layers on its outside. see in t u ssusce pt ion . a pposit ion e ye (ARTHRO) The compound eye of diurnal insects and crustaceans in which the rhabdom reaches the crystalline cone, it absorbs oblique rays of light in the pigmented walls of the ommatidium and, produces a mosaic image. see su pe r posit ion e ye . a pposit ion im a ge A mosaic image. a ppr e sse d a., adv. [L. ad, to; prem ere, to press] Pressed or closely applied against something; adherent. a ppr ox im a t e a. [L. ad, to; proxim are, to come near] Situated near or close together. a pr ior i w e igh t ing The weighting of taxonomic characters on the basis of preconceived criteria. see a post e r ior i w e igh t ing. a pr ost a t ic a. [L. an, without; pro, before; st are, to stand] (ANN: Oligochaeta) Lacking prostates. a pt e r a n.pl. [Gr. an, without; pt eron, wing] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Insects without wings; formerly an ordinal term including the fleas, lice and other wingless forms. a pt e r e r ga t e n. [Gr. an, without; pt eron, wing; ergat e, worker] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A wingless worker in vespid wasps, that are normally winged. a pt e r odice r a a. [Gr. an, without; pt eron, wing; dikeros, twohorned] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A wingless insect bearing two antennae. a pt e r ogyne n. [Gr. an, without; pt eron, wing; gyne, female] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A wingless female social insect that is normally winged.

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a pt e r ou s a. [Gr. an, without; pt eron, wing] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Wingless, without wings or winglike expansions; exalate. a pt e r ou s ne ot e in ic see e r ga t oid r e pr odu ct ive a pt e r ygoge n e a n.pl. [Gr. an, without; pt eryx, wing; genos, race] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Insects that are wingless in all stages and assumed to be descended from wingless ancestors. see pt e r goge ne a . Apt e r ygot a , a pt e r ygot e n. [Gr. an, without; pt erygion, wing] A subclass of primitively wingless insects containing the bristletails, silverfish and rock jumpers. see Pt e r ygot a . a pt ych u s n. [Gr. an, without; pt ychos, fold] (MOLL) A double calcareous plate found in many fossil ammonites, assumed to be an operculum. a pyr a se n. [Gr. an, without; pyr, fire; -ase, enzyme] An enzyme that functions in the utilization of energy. a pyr e ne a. [Gr. an, without; pyren, kernel] (MOLL) Designates nonfunctional sperm with no flagella or chromatin. see e u pyr e n e , oligopyr e n e . a qua m a r ine n. [L. aqua m arina, sea water] Blue, blue-green or green in color. a qua t ic a. [L. aqua, water] Pertaining to living or growing in water. a que ou s a. [L. aqua, water] Of or of the nature of water; watery. a que ou s hu m or The fluid in the anterior chamber of the eye. see vit r e ous h u m or a qu ife r ous a. [L. aqua, water; ferre, to bear] (MOLL) Supplying water or watery fluid, as the aquiferous canals. a r a ch na ct is n. [Gr. arachne, spider; akt is, ray] (CNID: Anthozoa) The larval stage of anemone-like cerianthids. Ar a ch n ida , a r a ch n id n. [Gr. arachne, spider] A class of the phylum Arthropoda that includes the scorpions, mites, spiders, harvestmen and ticks, etc. a r a ch n idism n. [Gr. arachne, spider; ism os, denoting condition] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) Envenomation by an arachnid, such as a spider, tick or scorpion. see a r a ch nism .

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a r a ch n idium n. [Gr. arachne, spider] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The spinning apparatus of spiders, consisting of the spinning glands and their ducts and the spinnerets. a r a chn idia l a. a r a ch n ism n. [Gr. arachne, spider; ism os, denoting condition] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) Poisoning, or poisoned condition due to envenomation by a spider. see a r a ch n idism . a r a ch noid, a r a ch n oide a l a. [Gr. arachne, spider; eidos, form] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) 1. Resembling a member of the Arachnida. 2. Resembling a spider's web, thin and fine, filmy. a r a ch nologist n. [Gr. arachne, spider; logos, discourse] One who studies the arachnids. a r a gon it e n. [fr. Aragon, in Spain] 1. A calcium carbonate, dimorphous with calcite. 2. The innermost layer of a shell. 3. (CNID: Anthozoa) The skeleton of coral, produced by the calicoblastic epithelium. a r a k ode r a n a. [Gr. arake, bowl; deros, skin] (NEMATA: Secernentea) Pertaining to a caudal ala that completely surrounds the cloacal area. see le pt ode r a n; pe lode r a n. a r a n e ifor m a. [L. aranea, spider; form a, form] Spiderlike in appearance. a r a n e ology n. [L. aranea, spider; Gr. logos, discourse] That branch of zoology that treats only of spiders. a r bor e a l a. [L. arbor, tree] Pertaining to or living in or among trees. a r bor e sce n t a. [L. arbor, tree] Tree-like in character or appearance; branching like a tree, as some species of mollusks and corals. a r bor iza t ion s n.pl. [L. arbor, tree] A tree-like branching of terminal fibers of axons or collaterals. a r bovir u s n. Any of a group of (ar)thropod-(bo)rne (virus)es, including the causative agents of yellow fever, viral encephalitis and certain febrile infections, that are transmitted to man by various mosquitoes and ticks. a r c n. [L. arcus, bow] Any object having a bowlike curvature. a r ca de n. [L. arcus, arch] (NEMATA: Secernentea) Lateral col-

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lecting tubules of the excretory system of Ascaris. a r ca de ce lls (NEMATA) The nine anteriormost cells that are believed to form the lips, two opposite each esophageal lumen radius and one opposite each sector. a r cha e ocyt e s n.pl. [Gr. arche, beginning; kyt os, container] 1. (PORIF) Large, wandering amoebocytes with multiple phagosomes in the mesenchyme; nurse cells; trophocytes. 2. A totipotent amoeboid cell. a r cha e st om a t ou s a. [Gr. arche, beginning; st om a, mouth] (ANN) Describing a group, Archaeostomata of former classifications, with a mouth derived directly from the blastopore of the embryo. a r ch e biosis n. [Gr. arche, beginning; biosis, manner of life] Abiogenesis. a r ch e ce n t r ic a. [Gr. arche, beginning; kent ron, center] Designating or pertaining to an original type. see a poce n t r ic. a r ch e dict yon n. [Gr. arche, beginning; dikt yon, net] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The irregular network of cuticular ridges on the wings of many fossils. a r ch e ge ne sis n. [Gr. arche, beginning; genesis, beginning] Abiogenesis. a r ch e n ce ph a lon see a r ch ice r e br u m a r ch e n t e r ic pou ch One of the paired, segmented, dorsoventral prominances of the archenteron from which the mesoderm derives. a r ch e n t e r on n. [Gr. arche, beginning; ent eron, intestine] The primitive digestive cavity of many invertebrates, formed by gastrulation; the gastrocoele; precursor to the gut. a r che ocyt e see a r cha e ocyt e s a r ch e t ype , a r ch it ype n. [Gr. arche, beginning; t ypos, type] A hypothetical ancestral type arrived at by the elimination of specialized characters of known later forms. see ph yloge n y. Ar chia ca nt hoce pha la n. [Gr. arche, beginning; akant ha, thorn; kephale, head] A class of Acanthocephala that are parasites of predacious birds and mammals; insects and myriapods are the intermediate hosts.

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a r ch ibe n t hic a. [Gr. arche, beginning; bent hos, depths of sea] Refers to the continental deep-sea zone, extending from the edge of the continental shelf (200-400 m.) to depths of about 800-1100 m. see a byssa l. a r ch ice pha lon n. [Gr. arche, beginning; kephale, head] The primitive annelid-arthropod head; the prostomium. a r ch ice r e br u m n.; pl. -br a [Gr. arche, beginning; L. cerebrum , brain] 1. (ANN) The ganglionic nerve mass of a prostomium. 2. (ARTHRO) The primitive suprastomodeal nerve mass of a prostomium; the primitive brain. a r ch idict yon see a r ch e dict yon a r ch iga st r u la n. [Gr. arche, beginning; gast er, stomach] A type of gastrula in which the endoderm is produced by invagination; emboly. a r ch ige n e sis see a bioge ne sis a r ch ine phr idiu m n. [Gr. arche, beginning; nephros, kidney] An excretory organ of many invertebrate larvae; a solenocyte. a r ch ipla sm n. [Gr. arche, beginning; plasm a, formed or molded] A former name for the substance of the spindle fibers and astral rays; was thought to exist during the entire cell cycle, but to only become visible after aggregation at mitosis. Ar ch ipt e r a see Pse udone ur opt e r a a r ch it om y n. [Gr. arche, beginning; t om e, cut] (ANN) Designating reproduction by fission, with regeneration after separation of heads and/or tails. see pa r a t om y. a r ch it ype see a r ch e t ype a r choophor a n s n.pl. [Gr. arche, beginning; pherein, to carry] (PLATY: Turbellaria) 1. Individuals with modified cleavage in which yolk is stored in the oocytes; entolecithal eggs. see n e ophor a ns. 2. Archoophora A former division of the Tubellaria; a superorder. a r cifor m a. [L. arcus, bow; form a, shape] Being arcuate; shaped like a bow or arch. a r ct ic a. [Gr. arkt os, bear] 1. Pertaining to the region of the North Pole within the Arctic Circle. 2. Pertaining to the high

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latitude regions, that may or may not be inside the geographical Arctic Circle, from which tree growth is normally absent, but with plants and animals. a r ct icoid t e e t h (MOLL: Bivalvia) Heterodont teeth intermediate between corbiculoid and lucinoid types. a r ct oga e a n. [Gr. arkt os, bear; gaia, the earth] One of the primary zoogeographic zones comprising North America (except Central America), Europe, Asia and Africa. a r cua t e a. [L. dim. arcus, bow] 1. Pertaining to being shaped like an arc; arch-like. 2. (MOLL: Bivalvia) Referring to the ventral edge in some pelecypods. 3. (PORIF) Referring to the chelate microsclere in the form of one to three curved plates; commonly three plates. a r cua t e ve in (ARTHRO: Insecta) The first jugal vein. a r cu lu s n. [L. dim. arcus, bow] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A basal cross vein between the radius and the cubitus. a r e n. [L. area, open place] A metric area measurement of a square, with each side 10 meters in length. a r e a n. [L. area, open place] (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) In anascans, the space occupied by the frontal membrane. a r e na ce ous a. [L. arena, sand; -aceus, having the nature of] Sandy, or the nature of sand. a r e n icolous a. [L. arena, sand; colere, to inhabit] Burrowing in or inhabiting sand. see psa m m oph ilou s. a r e oce l see a cce ssa r y ce ll a r e ola , a r e ole n.; pl. -la e , -la s (a r e ole s) [L. dim. area, small open place] 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In crayfish, the longitudinal strip between the brachiocardiac grooves and posterior to the cervical groove on the dorsum. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. An accessory wing cell of Lepidoptera. see ba sa l ce ll. b. In ichneumonid Hymenoptera, the pentagonal or hexagonal area on the propodeum enclosed by carinae. 3. (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) In cheilostomes, a small opening in the frontal wall connecting the endocyst with the ectocyst. 4. (ECHINOD) see scrobicula. 5. (NEMATA) A small area within longitudinal striae delimited by transverse annuli. 6. (NEMATOM) Round or polygonal cuticular plates,

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sometimes containing pores, that may exude a lubricant onto the cuticle surface, aiding tight-coiling behavioral movements. a r e ola r , a r e ola t e a. a r e ola t ion n. [L. area, open space] 1. Any small space, bounded by some part differing in color or structure. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Spaces founded by nervures in the wings. 3. (NEMATA) Transverse body striae extending into the lateral field. a r e ole see a r e ola a r e ole t n. [L. dim. area, small open space] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A small cell in a wing. a r ge n t a ffin a. [L. argent um , silver; affinis, related] Of or pertaining to the taking of a silver stain; an argyrophil. a r ge n t a ffin ( e ) ce ll Any cell that stains readily by silver techniques. a r ge n t e ous a. [L. argent um , silver] Silver-like, silvery, white, shinning. a r ge n t oph ilic ce lls (ARTHRO: Insecta) In aquatic larvae, specialized cells for ion uptake in the anal papillae or rectal gill. a r gilla ce ou s a. [L. argilla, white clay] Containing or consisting of, or like clay; clayey. a r gyr oph il a. [Gr. argyros, silver; philein, to love] Pertains to staining readily with silver dyes; argentaffin. a r ist a n.; pl. -t a e [L. arist a, awn] A bristlelike appendage. a r ist a t e a. [L. arist a, awn] Having an arista; aristate antenna. a r ist ope dia n. [L. arist a, awn; podos, foot] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A developmental deviation in which the arista may mature as a leg. Ar ist ot le 's la n t e r n (ECHINOD: Echinoidea) A complicated masticating apparatus consisting of several ossicles surrounding the mouth of sea urchins; called Aristotle's lantern because it resembles an early Greek lantern. a r ist u la t e a. [L. dim. arist a, awn] Bearing a short bristle. a r k n. [L. arca, chest] (MOLL: Bivalvia) A marine arcoid bivalve with an equivalve shell; a heavy box-like shell; an ark-

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shell. a r m n. [A.S. arm , forelimb] 1. Anything resembling or corresponding to an arm. 2. (ECHINOD) a. In Asteroidea, the radial extension of the body surrounding the axis; the ambulacra. b. In Crinoidea, the radial evagination of the body extending from the theca; undivided distal branches. 3. (ECHI) The forked section of the proboscis. 4. (MOLL: Cephalopoda) a. In squids and cuttlefish, eight of the ten short and heavy appendages around the head, the other two larger dorsal appendages being tentacles. b. The tentacles of an octopod. a r m a t e ce r ca r ia (PLATY: Trematoda) A larva of the xiphidiocercariae group with oral and ventral suckers unequal, without a virgula organ and with a Y-shaped excretory bladder. a r m a t u r e n. [L. arm are, to arm] Defensive or protective structures of invertebrates, such as spinous or chitinous processes in the form of hooks, horns, teeth, spines and claws on various parts of the body. a r m illa n.; pl. -la e [L. arm illa, bracelet] Bearing a bracelet-like ring or annulus. a r m illa t e a. a r oliu m n.; pl. -ia [Gr. arole, protection] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A medium lobe or pad-like cushion of the foot. a. Between the claws of Orthoptera. b. The base of each tarsal claw of Hemiptera. c. Between the tarsal claws and comprising part of the pretarsus of Hymenoptera. see pse uda r olium . a r om or phosis n.; pl. -se s [Gr. airein, to raise; m orphosis, shaping] An advancement in organization of an organism, without a marked increase in specialization; an aromorph. see a llom or phosis. a r r he n oge n y n. [Gr. arrhen, male; genos, offspring] The condition of producing only male offspring. see m on oge ny, t h e lyge ny. a r r he n oidy n. [Gr. arrhen, male; eidos, form] (NEMATA: Secernentea) Sex reversal from female to male; recognized by males having two testes, instead of one. a r r h e noid a. a r r he n opla sm n. [Gr. arrhen, male; plasm a, molded] The male element of idioplasm.

formed or

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a r r he not ok y n. [Gr. arrhen, male; t okos, birth] The haplodiploid parthenogenesis in which males arise from unfertilized, haploid egg cells. see t h e lyot ok y. a r se n osom ph ic a. [Gr. arsen, male; som phos, porous] (ANN: Oligochaeta) Pertaining to earthworms with male terminalia. a r t a t e ndon n. [L. art us, joint; t endere, to stretch] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The tendon articulating the post-tarsus. a r t e fa ct see a r t ifa ct a r t e n k r e is see su pe r spe cie s a r t e r ia l a. [L. art eria, artery] Pertaining to an artery. a r t e r iole n. [L. dim. art eria, artery] A small artery. a r t e r y n. [L. art eria, artery] A vessel conveying blood from the heart to the tissues. a r t h r a l a. [Gr. art hron, joint] Pertaining to a joint. a r t h r iu m n. [Gr. art hron, joint] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Coleoptera, minute tarsal joints, trimera (3 tarsal joints) and tetramera (4 tarsal joints). a r t h r obr a nch ia n.; pl. -ia e [Gr. art hron, joint; branchia, gills] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, a gill attached to the articulating membrane between the appendage and body; arthrobranchiata. a r t h r ode r m n. [Gr. art hron, joint; derm a, skin] (ARTHRO) The outer covering of skin, or the outer body-wall. a r t h r odia l m e m br a ne (ARTHRO) Articular membranes that permits unrestricted motion; flexible joints. a r t h r om e r e n. [Gr. art hron, joint; m eros, part] (ARTHRO) A segment, somite or metamere. a r t h r oph r a gm see e ndoph r a gm a r t h r ople ur e n. [Gr. art hron, joint; pleura, side] (ARTHRO) That portion of the body that bears the limbs. Ar t hr opoda , a r t hr opod n. [Gr. art hron, joint; pous, foot] A phylum of invertebrates that contains the chitinous segmented, exoskeletoned, jointed-legged animals, such as centipedes, millipedes, insects, crustaceans, spiders, scorpions, and many other less well-known types.

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a r t h r opodin n. [Gr. art hron, joint; pous, foot] (ARTHRO) A protein constituent part of the chitinoproteinic structures. a r t h r opodiza t ion n. [Gr. art hron, joint; pous, foot] (ARTHRO) Evolutionary development of the combination of characteristics associated with arthropods, including the chitinous exoskeleton. a r t h r ost r a cou s a. [Gr. art hron, joint; ost rakon, shell] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Having the thorax and abdomen segmented, and bearing seven pairs of thoracic legs. a r t icle n. [L. dim. art us, joint] 1. A distinct segment or jointed part or structure. 2. (ARTHRO) a. In Chelicerata, the serrated process on the chelicera of a tick. b. In Crustacea, a subdivision of the antennal or antennular flagella or appendage. c. In Insecta, a segment of a leg. see se gbm e nt . a r t icu la m e n t u m n. [L. art iculare, to divide] (MOLL: Polyplacophora) The shell layer between the tegmentum and hypostracum, that is composed of several separate components of crystalline shell structure; formerly the hard, semiporcellaneous shell layer projecting past the tegmentum forming the insertion plates and the sutural laminae. a r t icu la r a. [L. art iculare, to divide] Pertaining to a joint. a r t icu la r a r e a (ARTHRO: Insecta) The basal portion of a wing. a r t icu la r cor ium see articular membrane, corium a r t icu la r fu r r ow (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A groove near the tergal margin of the scut um , or scutal margin of the t ergum , forming part of articulation between the two valves of barnacles. a r t icu la r is n. [L. art iculare, to divide] The pre-tarsus. a r t icu la r m e m br a ne (ARTHRO) The nonsclerotized, flexible membrane between the segments of arthropods, and the joints of arthropod appendages. a r t icu la r pa n A cup or dish-like impression into which an articulation is fitted; frogga. a r t icu la r r idge (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In barnacles, a linear elevation on the scutum or tergum bordering the articular furrow and together forming an articulation between the two valves.

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a r t icu la r scle r it e (ARTHRO: Insecta) A sclerite between an insect body and its appendage. Ar t icu la t a n. [L. art iculus, joint] 1. (BRACHIO) A class of the Phylum Brachiopoda, having the valves articulated by teeth on the ventral (pedicle) valve and sockets on the dorsal (brachial) valve. 2. (BRYO) A division of Bryozoa containing tubular bryozoans in which colonies are erect, branched and attached by rhizoids. 3. (ECHINOD) A subclass of echinodermatan crinoids comprising sea lilies and feather stars. a r t icu la t e a. [L. art iculare, to divide] Jointed; formed of segments; connected by a joint. a r t icu la t e d a pe x see cla sp fila m e n t a r t icu la t e fa scia A band of contiguous spots. a r t icu la t ion n. [L. art iculare, to divide] A movable point of contact between two sclerotic parts of a structure. a r t ifa ct , a r t e fa ct n. [L. ars, art; facere, to make] An appearance, or structure, produced by preparation of material that was not present in the original material before the manipulation. a r t ificia l cla ssifica t ion A classification based on convenient and conspicuous diagnostic characters, ignoring characters indicating relationship; often a classification based on a single character instead of an evaluation of all of the characters. see cla ssifica t ion, phyloge n y. a sca r idin , a sca r idine n. [Gr. askaris, an intestinal worm] (NEMATA) A protein in the sperm. a sca r ylic a cid Material making up the refringent bodies or crystalloids in the oocytes of nematodes, that presumably form the vitelline membrane of the egg. Asch e lm int h e s, a sche lm in t h s n.pl. [Gr. askos, bag; helm ins, worm] A taxon (phylum) of the animal kingdom, when recognized, that includes the (classes) Rotifera, Gastrotricha, Kinorhyncha or Echinodera, Nematomorpha or Gordiacea, and Nemata (=Nematoda). a scon n. [Gr. askos, bag] (PORIF) 1. A simple sponge with unfolded pinacoderm and choanoderm. 2. Sometimes used to describe the small, simple, most primitive sponge Leu-

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cosolenia . a scon oid gr a de (PORIF) A grade of construction in which the choanocytes line thin, short tubes. see sycon oid gr a de , le u conoid gr a de or t ype. a scopor e n. [Gr. askos, bag; poros, channel] (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) In some Cheilostomata, a small opening in the frontal wall connecting the ascus to the external environment. a scu s n.; pl. a sci [Gr. askos, bag] (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) In ascophoran cheilostomates, the exterior-walled, flexiblefloored, sac beneath the frontal shield of an autozooid. see a na sca n . a scu s sa c (MOLL: Gastropoda) In Sacoglossa, a storage area for the holder of outgrown teeth usually retained in a spiral or jumbled heap in the pharynx; ventral sac. a se m ic a. [Gr. asem os, without mark] Pertaining to being without markings. a se pt a t e a. [Gr. an, without; L. sept um , partition] Pertaining to being without a septa. a se pt ic a. [Gr. an, without; sepsis, decay] Refers to being free of microorganisms, especially those causing decay, putrefaction, or poisoning. a se pt ic cult u r e A maintained population of organisms containing a single species and free of contamination by all other organisms. a se t a l a. [Gr. an, without; L. set a, bristle] (ANN: Oligochaeta) Pertaining to being without setae; as in the peristomium and pygomere of earthworms. a se x ua l a. [Gr. an, without; sexus, sex] Not related to sex. a se x ua l r e pr odu ct ion Any method of reproduction not involving fertilization, as that by fission, fragmentation, spore production, budding, vegetative reproduction, and gemmule formation. a siph ona t e a. [Gr. an, without; siphon, tube] Lacking a siphon. a spe ct n. [L. aspicere, to look at] The general appearance, direction or view with respect to seasons, species or popula-

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tions, an object or individual. a spe ct ion n. [L. aspicere, to look at] Seasonal succession of ecological phenomena. a spe r a t e a. [L. asperare, to roughen] Referring to having a rough and uneven surface. a spe r it y n.; pl. -t ie s [L. asperare, to roughen] 1. Roughness of surface. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Spinelike structures arranged in rows or confined to specific areas; sculpturings or dotlike elevations. a spe r ou s a. [L. dim. asper, rough] (MOLL) Used to denote very distinct elevated dots, more uneven than scabrous; rough to the touch. a spe r u lous a. [L. dim. asper, rough] Slightly rough. a sph yx ia n. [Gr. an, without; sphyzein, pulse, respiration] Suffocation; suspended animation or apparent death resulting from a deficiency of oxygen. asphyxial a. a sph yx ia t ion n. [Gr. an, without; sphyzein, pulse, respiratrion; L. -t ion, denotes act] Act of causing axphysia; suffocation. a spidium n. [Gr. aspidion, a little shield] A drug used for the expulsion of tapeworms obtained from male Dryopteris filix-mas ferns from which it is extracted as oleoresin of aspidium. a spidosom a n. [Gr. aspis, shield; som a, body] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, the dorsal region bordered laterally by the abjugal furrow that may be indistinct or incomplete, posteriorly by the disjugal furrow, and anteriorly by the circumcapitular furrows. a spla n chn ic a. [Gr. an, without; splanchnon, entrail] Pertaining to the lack of an alimentary canal. a spor oge nic a. [Gr. an, without; spora, seed; genes, producing] Pertaining to not producing or bearing spores. asporous a. a sse m bla ge n. [L. assim ulare, to bring together] A collection of organisms, or particular things. a sse m bly n.; pl. -lie s [L. assim ulare, to bring together] An assemblage of organisms; the smallest community recog-

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nized in ecology. a ssim ila t ion n. [L. ad, near; sim ilis, like] The basic nature of living matter to convert other substances into its own components. see ge ne t ic a ssim ila t ion. a ssocia t ion n. [L. ad, near; sociare, to join] 1. A group assemblage of organisms in a specific geological area with one or two dominant species. 2. A climax plant community dominated by a particular species and named according to their characteristics. a ssocia t ion n e u r on An internuncial neuron, that connects sensory and motor neurons, or other association neurons of the central nervous system; a connector neuron. a ssocie s n.pl [L. ad, near; sociare, to join] 1. A transitory or intermediate stage in the development of an association. 2. A developmental unit of a consocies. a ssor t m e nt n. [L. ad, near; sors, lot] 1. To distribute or classify. 2. The normal separation of genes at meiosis. a ssu r ge nt a. [L. assurgens, to arise] Curving upward; ascending. a st a ce n e , a st a cin n. [L. ast acus, lobster] A carotenoid red pigment of some invertebrates. a st a x a n t h in n. [L. ast acus, lobster; xant hos, yellow] (ARTHRO) A carotenoid biochrome of certain ingested vegetation found in certain insects and marine crustaceans. a st e ga sim ou s a. [Gr. an, without; st ege, roof] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) Referring to mites when the prodorsal sclerite does not project over the chelicerae. see st e ga sim ous. a st e locyt t a r ou s a. [Gr. an, without; st ele, pillar; kyt t aros, cell of a honeycomb] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to nests, especially of social wasps, in which the brood comb is directly attached to a support and lacking pillars. see st e locyt t a r ou s. a st e r n. [Gr. ast er, star] 1. Star-shaped figures that develop during mitosis. 2. (PORIF) A type of microsclere with several rays originating from the same center. see ch ia st e r . a st e r ifor m a. [Gr. ast er, star; form a, shape] Of or pertaining to starlike or star-shaped.

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a st e r oid a. [Gr. ast er, star; eidos, form] 1. Refers to starlike or resembling a star. 2. (ECHINOD) A stellate echinoderm of the subclass Asteroidea. Ast e r oide a n. [Gr. ast er, star; eidos, form] A subclass of Somasteroidea of the phylum Echinodermata, containing the stellate sea stars and star fish; characterized by having five-radiate to multi-armed rays, usually not sharply offset from the central disk. a st h e n ia n. [Gr. ast henes, feeble] Muscle weakness; debility. a st h e n obiosis n. [Gr. ast henes, feeble; biosis, manner of life] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Hibernation or aestivation in certain generations of insects induced by non-elimination of uremic products by previous active generations. a st ichou s a. [Gr. an, without; st ichos, row] Not arranged in a row or rows. a st igm a t ic a. [Gr. an, without; st igm a, mark] Lacking stigmata; without a spiracle or breathing pore. a st oge n e t ic diffe r e nce s (BRYO) Differences in the morphology of an asexual generation of zooids, and thereby restricted to zones of astogenetic change in the colony. a st oge n y n. [Gr. ast y, town; genos, descent] (BRYO) The development of a colony through a sequence of asexual generations of zooids with any extrazooidal parts. a st om a t e a. [Gr. a, without; st om a, mouth] 1. Lacking a mouth. 2. (ANN: Oligochaeta) In earthworms, a closed nephridium, without a nephrostome. 3. (NEMATA) Referring to a stoma lacking the cheilostome, but retaining an unexpanded esophastome. a st r a ga l n. [Gr. ast ragalos, vertebra] (MOLL: Gastropoda) The step-sided, rounded elevations of a shell, that extend spirally around the whorls giving added strength. a st r a l r a y 1. A ray seen in the cytoplasm that radiates from each centriole to the asters during cell division, thus forming the spindle. 2. A polar ray. a st r a l sphe r e see a st r osph e r e a st r oce n t e r see ce n t r osom e a st r ocyt e n. [Gr. ast er, star; kyt os, container] 1. A star-

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shaped neuroglia cell. 2. Any star-shaped cell, especially in stroma tissues. a st r or h iza e n.pl. [Gr. ast er, star; rhiza, root] (PORIF) Starlike depressions on the surface of the calcareous skeleton. a st r osphe r e n. [Gr. ast er, star; sphaira, ball] The central mass of an aster lacking rays. a st r ot a x is n. [Gr. ast er, star; t axis, arrangement] The orientation of certain organisms sensitive to polarized skylight, i.e., bees, ants and spiders. a sym m e t r ica l a. [Gr. asym m et ros, without symmetry] Not symmetrical; not alike on both sides of an axis; bilaterally unequal. a sym m e t r y n. [Gr. asym m et ros, without symmetry] Lack of symmetry; unlikeness in form or development. a sym pt om a t ic a. [Gr. a, without; sym pt om a, a sign of disease] Lacking subjective evidence of a disease. a syn a pt ic a. [Gr. a, without; synapsis, union] Pertaining to the complete failure or incomplete pairing of chromosomes during the first meiotic division. asynapsis n. a syn ch r onou s a. [Gr. a, without; syn, together; chronos, time] Not simultaneous; not occurring at the same time. a t a ct ot r ichy n. [Gr. at akt os, not arranged; t richos, hair] Chaetotaxy in which all setae are not describable in distinct patterns and arrangements. see pr im or diot r ich y. a t a vism n. [L. at avus, ancestor] Recurrence of an ancestral character, after an interval of generations. a t a vist ic a. a t a x ia n. [Gr. a, without; t axis, arrangement] Lacking muscle coordination. a t e lia n. [Gr. at eles, incompletedness] Incomplete or imperfect development. a t h e ca l a. [Gr. a, without; t heke, case] (ANN) Without spermathecae. a t h e ca t e a. [Gr. a, without; t heke, case] 1. Lacking a theca. 2. (CNID: Hydrozoa) In Hydroids, lacking an investing cup or sheath. a t h e r ice r ou s see a r ist a t e

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a t h e r m obiosis n. [Gr. a, without; t herm os, hot; biosis, manner of life] 1. Dormancy induced by low temperatures in relation to an organism. 2. The process of waste elimination during a resting stage at low temperature. a t h r ocyt e n. [Gr. at hroos, collected; kyt os, container] A sessile type of coelomocyte, phagocytic in function. a t h r ocyt osis n. [Gr. at hroos, collected; kyt os, container] The ability of cells to absorb and retain particles in suspension. a t m osph e r e n. [Gr. at m os, vapor; sphaira, ball] 1. The outer circle of an ocellate spot. 2. The envelope of air around earth that supports life. a t ok e n. [Gr. a, without; t okos, birth] (ANN: Polychaeta) The anterior sexless portion of certain marine worms. atokous a. see e pit ok e . a t oll n. [Mal. atoll] A circular coral reef surrounding a central lagoon. a t om n. [L. at om us, a small particle] 1. Any extremely small particle, dot or point. 2. An elementary particle which enters into a chemical reaction. ATP adenosine triphosphate a t r a ch e a t e a. [Gr. a, without; t rachia, windpipe] Without tracheae, or visible constriction between head and prothorax. a t r a ct oid a. [Gr. at rakt os, spindle; eidos, form] Pertaining to spindle-shaped; fusiform. a t r ia l a. [L. at rium , vestibule] 1. Of or pertaining to an atrium. 2. (ANN) Referring to glandular tissue associated with a cleft or coelomic invagination containing the male pore. a t r ia l ba g (BRYO) That part of a polypidian vesicle attached to the frontal wall of a developing zooid, from which the tentacle sheath is formed. a t r ia l ca vit y In procordates, a cavity located between the pharynx and the body wall. a t r ia l cor nu a (ANN: Hirudinoidea) Horns or hornlike prolongations of the atrium. a t r ia l gla nd (ANN) Prostates without stalks. a t r ia l or ifice (ARTHRO: Insecta) The exterior opening of the

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spiracular atrium. a t r ia l sa c (ANN: Oligochaeta) In primitive moniligastrid earthworms, the spermathecal diverticulum. a t r ichosy n. [Gr. a, without; t richos, hair] The absence of setae due to evolutionary regession. a t r ichou s a. [Gr. a, without; t richos, hair] 1. Lacking flagella or cilia. 2. (CNID) Lacking spines or barbs, i.e., isorhizas, etc. a t r ichou s isor h iza (CNID: Hydrozoa) A small nematocyst with a smooth tubule. see h olot r ichou s isor hiza , ba sit r ich ou s isor h iza . a t r iobu r sa l or ifice (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The opening of the seminal receptacle of female spiders. a t r ium n.; pl. a t r ia [L. at rium , vestibule] 1. A cavity, division, entrance or passageway of various invertebrates. 2. (ANN) a. A diverticulum of the spermatheca; a tubular or capsular prostate. b. Male reproductive organ in leeches, consisting of a thin-walled bursa, a thick-walled glandular and muscular chamber and a pair of atrial cornua opening into the muscular median chamber. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) A specialized area of the trachea; a. A spiracular atrium. b. The preoral cavity in certain larvae. 4. (PORIF) A cavity into which many exhalant systems empty and conduct the contents to one or more usually terminal ocules. atriate a. a t r ium or is (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The preoral cavity. a t r och a n. [Gr. a, without; t rochos, wheel] (ANN: Polychaeta) A uniformly ciliated larva, lacking the preoral band. atrochal a. a t r ophy n. [Gr. a, without; t rophein, to feed] Decrease in size of a tissue, organ, or part after full development has been obtained; a condition induced from lack of use, pathological condition or lack of nourishment. see h ype r t r ophy. a t r ou s a. [L. at er, black] Black in color. a t t a ch m e nt disk (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The series of tiny zigzag lines or spots of silk that serve to anchor the draglines of spiders. a t t e nu a t e a. [L. ad, toward; t enuis, thin] To become thin,

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slender, fine, extended, growing narrower, tapering. a t t inge n t a. [L. at t ignus, touching] Touching, making contact. a t t it ude n. [L. apt us, suited] The posture or expression assumed by an organism. a t t r a ct a n t n. [L. ad, toward; t ract us, draw] A chemical substance causing positive behavorial responses. see ph e r om on e . a t t r a ct or e pim e r a lis m u scle (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, a prominent muscle inserting along the line of the brachiocardiac groove. a t t r a ct ion sph e r e see ce n t r osom e a t t r it ion n. [L. ad, toward; t rit us, rub] A rubbing out or grinding down by friction. a t yph losola t e a. [Gr. a, without; t yphlos, blind; solen, channel] Without longitudinal infolding of the intestinal wall; without a typhlosole. a t ypica l adv. [Gr. a, without; t ypos, shape] Irregular; not conforming to type. a u dit or y a. [L. audire, to hear] Pertaining to the organs or sense of hearing. a u dit or y ne r ve see M u lle r 's or ga n a u dit or y or ga n Any specialized structure capable of being stimulated by sound vibrations, such as tympanal organs and auditory hairs. a u dit or y pe g see scolopa le a u la e um n. [Gr. aule, courtyard] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, a fringed plate found in the labium of many larvae. a u lost om a t ou s a. [Gr. aulos, pipe; st om a, mouth] Bearing a tubular-shaped mouth. a u r a t e a. [L. auris, ear] Having ears or ear-like expansions. a u r e a t e a. [L. aurum , gold] Golden yellow in color. a u r e lia n. [L. aurum , gold] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A chrysalis or pupa of butterflies. a u r e lia n n. [L. aurum , gold] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A collector and breeder of butterflies; a lepidopterist.

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a u r e ole n. [L. aurum , gold] A circlet of color that dissipates outwardly. a u r icle n. [L. auricula, little ear] 1. Any ear-shaped structure or small lobe-like appendage. 2. An atrium or chamber of the heart. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. In Hymenoptera, a flat plate forming a part of the pollen basket or corbicula of honeybees. b. In Anisoptera, ventrolateral outgrowths of tergum two; oreillets. 4. (CTENO) In Lobata, the four ciliated, delicate lobes projecting from the equatorial level. 5. (MOLL) a. Paired chambers that receive blood from each side of the body. b. In Bivalvia, an earlike protuberance on the dorsal part of the shell. 6. (PLATY: Turbellaria) A blunt lateral chemical receptor. 7. (ROTIF) Paired ciliated lateral coronal projections that aid in swimming. auricular a. a u r icu la r cr u r a (MOLL: Bivalvia) Internal, blunt ridges swelling distally to form low tubercles. a u r icu la r ia la r va (ECHINOD: Holothuroidea) A free-swimming bilaterally symmetrical larva characterized by the main ciliated band being increased in length due to sinuosity. see diple u r u la . a u r icu la r su lcu s (MOLL: Bivalvia) A furrow demarcating the auricle from the shell. a u r icu la r va lve 1. A mechanism that controls the flow of blood in various invertebrates. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pouches with incurrent ostioles in the heart that prevent the backflow or escape of hemolymph from this vessel. a u r icu la t e a. [L. auricula, little ear] Bearing an auricle or auricles. a u r icu la t e a n t e n na e (ARTHRO: Insecta) An antenna with basal joints expanded into an ear-like cover. a u r icu lo- ope n ings see ost ium a u r icu lo- ve n t r icu la r a. [L. auricula, little ear; dim. vent er, belly] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The outer valves of the heart between the auricle and the chamber. a u r ifor m a. [L. auris, ear; form a, shape] Ear-shaped. a u r ophor e n. [L. auris, ear; phoreus, bearer] (CNID: Hydrozoa) In siphonophores, a portion of the float or pneumato-

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phore. a u st r a l a. [L. aust ralis, south] Pertaining to a southern biogeographical region extending across North America between the transition and tropical zones, including the United States and Mexico, except the boreal mountains and tropical lowlands. Au st r a lia n Re a lm A zoogeographical region comprising Australia, New Zealand and Pacific islands. Au st r o- Colu m bia n see N e ot r opica l a ut e cology n. [Gr. aut os, self; oikos, house; logos, discourse] The ecology of an individual organism or species stressing the physical factors of the environment, as opposed to community studies. see syne cology. a u t hor it y cit a t ion The practice of citing the name of the author of a scientific name or name combination, i.e., X-us Brown, X-us albus Brown, Y-us albus (Brown). a u t oa gglu t in a t ion n. [Gr. aut os, self; L. agglut inare, to cement to] The agglutination of an individual's cells by its own serum. a u t och t hon ou s a. [Gr. aut ocht hon, from the land itself] Pertaining to aboriginal; indigenous; native; endemic; inherited. see a lloch t honous. a u t ocopu la t ion see he r m a ph r odit ism a u t ode m e n. [Gr. aut os, self; dem os, people] Members of a taxonomic group that perform self-fertilization. a u t oe visce r a t ion n. [Gr. aut os, self; L. ex, out; viscera, entrails] (ECHINOD: Holothuroidea) Ejection of intestines and associated organs caused by adverse environmental conditions, severe disturbance, or seasonally; regeneration occurs within weeks. a u t ofe cu ndit y n. [Gr. aut os, self; L. fecundus, fruitful] Selffertilization, as in a few hermaphroditic animals. a u t oga m y n. [Gr. aut os, self; gam os, marriage] Self-fertilization; the fusion of two nuclei originating from a single cell. see a lloga m y. a u t oge n e sis n. [Gr. aut os, self; genesis, beginning] Spontaneous generation; abiogenesis. autogenetic a.

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a u t oge n y n. [Gr. aut os, self; genesis, birth] 1. Self-generation. 2. Endogeny. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The ability of Culicidae females to develop mature eggs without a prior blood meal. autogenous a. a u t ogon y see a u t oge n e sis a u t oh e m or r h a ge n. [Gr. aut os, self; haim orrhagia, a bleeding] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Voluntary exudation or ejection of nauseous or poisonous blood through a rupture of the skin as a deterrent against predators. a u t oh e t e r oploid n. [Gr. aut os, self; het eros, different; aploos, onefold] A heteroploid derived from a single genome or from multiplication of its own chromosomes. see a lloh e t e r oploid. a u t oinfe ct ion n. [Gr. aut os, self; L. inficere, to taint] Infection of a host by microorganisms or parasites produced within or upon the body of the same individual host. a u t oin t ox ica t ion n. [Gr. aut os, self; L. int oxicare, to poison] Poisoning of an organism from a toxic substance produced within its own body. a u t ok in e sis n. [Gr. aut os, self; kinesis, motion] Voluntary movement. see a llok ine sis. a u t ologous a. [Gr. aut os, self; logos, discourse] Referring to being obtained or derived from an individual organism. see hom ology, h e t e r ology . a u t olysis n. [Gr. aut os, self; lysis, loosen] The degradation of tissues after death of a cell by the contained autogenous enzymes. autolytic a. see h e t e r olysis. a u t om a t ism n. [Gr. aut om at os, self-moving] The automatic activity of tissues, organs, or organisms. a u t om ict ic m e iot ic pa r t he n oge n e sis A normal reduction division occurs, followed by the fusion of the two nuclei so that the diploid number of chromosomes is restored; often the female pronucleus fuses with the second polar body nucleus, or two cleavage nuclei may fuse; only females are produced. see fa cu lt a t ive m e iot ic pa r t h e n oge n e sis. a u t om ix is n. [Gr. aut os, self; m ixis, mingling] Obligatory selffertilization; egg and sperm being derived from the same

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individual, as opposed to amphimixis; automictic parthenogenesis. a u t om or ph ic see idiom or ph ic a u t om u t a ge n n. [Gr. aut os, self; L. m ut are, to change; Gr. gennaein, to produce] Any mutagen produced in an organism as a normal or abnormal metabolite that may induce gene and chromosome mutations. a u t on om ic a. [Gr. aut os, self; nom os, usage] Functioning due to internal causes; self-regulation; spontaneous. a ut onom ou s a. see ch or onom ic. a u t opa r a sit e n. [Gr. aut os, self; parasit os, parasite] A parasite existing at the expense of another parasite. a u t ope la gic a. [Gr. aut os, self; pelagios, of the sea] Referring to organisms found only in the surface waters of the sea. a u t opha gocyt osis n. [Gr. aut os, self; phagein, to eat; kyt os, container] The consumption of contractile muscular tissue by its own cells, as opposed to leucocytes. a u t opha gy n. [Gr. aut os, self; phagein, to eat] The eating of an appendage shed from the body by autotomy or otherwise. a u t oploid see a u t opolyploid a u t opolyploid n. [Gr. aut os, self; polys, many; aploos, onefold; eidos, form] A polyploid originating from the doubling of a diploid chromosome set. see a llopolyploid. a u t osk e le t on n. [Gr. aut os, self; skelet on, dried body] (PORIF) The endoskeleton, comprised of spicules or spongin fibers secreted by the cells. a u t osom a l lin k a ge The linkage of alleles on the same autosome. a u t osom e n. [Gr. aut os, self; som a, body] Any chromosome other than a sex-chromosome; euchromosome. see a llosom e . a u t ospa sy n. [Gr. aut os, self; spaein, to pluck off] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The loss of appendages by breaking them at a predetermined locus of weakness when pulled by an outside force; frequent in spiders and other arachnids.

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a u t osyn a psis see a u t osyn de sis a u t osyn de sis n. [Gr. aut os, self; syndesis, a binding together] The pairing of completely or partially homologous chromosomes contained in the same gametes at fertilization; autosynapsis. see a llosyn de sis. a u t ot e t r a ploid n. [Gr. aut os, self; t et raple, fourfold] A tetraploid containing 4 sets of chromosomes per cell. a u t ot h ysis see st in g a u t ot om y a u t ot illy n. [Gr. aut os, self; t illest hai, to pluck] Loss of appendages by self-amputation. see a u t ospa sy. a u t ot ok y n. [Gr. aut os, self; t okos, birth] The production of progeny by a single organism, including hermaphroditism and parthenogenesis. a u t ot om ize v.t. [Gr. aut os, self; t em nein, to cut] To shed a part intentionally; to effect autotomy. a u t ot om y n. [Gr. aut os, self; t om e, a cutting] The act of reflex self-mutilation of a part or appendage of various invertebrates, i.e., annelids, cnidarians, crustaceans and insects. a u t ot r iploid n. [Gr. aut os, self; t riploos, threefold] A triploid in which the three diploid sets are identical. see a llot r iploid. a u t ot r oph ic a. [Gr. aut os, self; t rophein, to nourish] Capable of synthesizing all substances needed for nutrition from inorganic food substances. see he t e r ot r oph. a u t ot ype see h e a u t ot ype a u t ozooe cium n. [Gr. aut os, self; zoon, animal; oikos, house] (BRYO) A tube that encloses an autozooid. a u t ozooid n. [Gr. aut os, self; zoon, animal; eidos, form] 1. (BRYO) a. A zooid having at some stages of ontogeny a protrusible lophophore, with or without the ability to feed. b. A common bryozoan containing feeding organs in the colony; capable of all life functions in a monomorphic colony. 2. (CNID: Anthozoa) In Alcyonaria, a feeding individual member of a polymorphic colony. a u t ozooida l polym or ph (BRYO) An autozooid with a protrusible lophophore, with or without feeding ability, differing from ordinary feeding zooids in size, shape, tentacle number, or other features.

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a u x ilia r ie s n.pl. [L. auxilium , aid] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, potential queen bees (gynes) that, in association with a queen, become workers. see gyne . a u x ilia n.; pl. -la e [L. auxilium , aid] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Small plates between the unguitractor and the claws; the basipulvilli. a u x ilia r y a. [L. auxilium , aid] Referring to that which supplements, aids or supports. a u x ilia r y ve in (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, the subcostal vein anterior to the radius. a u x oa u t ot r oph n. [Gr. auxein, to increase; aut os, self; t rophe, nourishment] Any organism capable of synthesizing the growth substances required in its development. see a u x ohe t e r ot r oph. a u x ocyt e n. [Gr. auxein, to increase; kyt os, container] Any germ cell in the growth period, during which snyapsis and tetrad formation occur. a u x ohe t e r ot r oph n. [Gr. auxein, to increase; het eros, other; t rophe, nourishment] Any organism that is incapable of synthesizing the growth substances required in its development. a u x ot r oph n. [Gr. auxein, to increase; t rophe, nourishment] Nutritionally dependent cells, individuals or strains whose growth depends on a specific nutrient in addition to their basic food medium. a ve sicu la t e a. [Gr. a, without; L. vesicula, small bladder] (ANN) a. Referring to a genital system without seminal vesicles. b. Refers to a nephridium without a bladder. a vicu la r a. [L. dim. avis, bird] Beak-like. a vicu la r ium n.; pl. -r ia [L. dim. avis, bird] (BRYO) An enlarged pedunculate operculum of polymorphs, resembling a bird's beak and more intricately reinforced than those of ordinary feeding autozooids. a vicu loid a. [L. dim. avis, bird; Gr. eidos, form] Having winglike projections. a x e n ic a. [Gr. a, without; xenos, guest] Without, or free from associated organisms; aseptic. see x e n ic, dix e n ic, m on-

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ox e n ic, polyx e nic, t r ix e n ic. a x ia l a. [L. axis, axle] Of or pertaining to an axis; relative to the central axis of a cylindrical body or organ. a x ia l ce lls (MESO: Rhombozoa) Central cells, comprised of a nucleus and germinal cells (axoblasts). a x ia l con st r u ct ion (PORIF) A type of skeletal organization with certain components condensed to form a dense central region or axis. a x ia l fila m e n t 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) see axoneme. 2. (PORIF) A protein core around which siliceous spicules are organized. a x ia l gla nd (ECHINOD) A dark elongated mass of spongy tissue extending along the length of the stone canal, forming part of the hemal system; sometimes called axial organ or genital stolon. a x ia l gr a die n t Gradation in metabolic rate along the three main body axes, anterior-posterior, dorsoventral and median-lateral. a x ia l or ga n see a x ia l gla nd a x ia l st yle t , a x ia l spe a r see st om a t ost yle , odon t ost yle a x il n. [L. axilla, armpit] (ECHINOD: Asteroidea) The angle formed by junction of rays or straight-sided arms with no interbrachial arcs. a x il- a r m (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) A main-axil arm and its branches, exclusive of terminal branchlets (omega-ramule). a x illa n.; pl. a x illa e [L. axilla, armpit] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, a triangular or rounded sclerite on each side of the scutellum. a x illa r ie s see pt e r a lia a x illa r is n. [L. axillaris, of an axil] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The second and third anal wing veins. a x illa r y a.; pl. -ie s [L. axilla, armpit] 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to the axilla. 2. (ECHINOD: Asteroidea) In an axil, applied to a single ossicle. 3. (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) A brachial supporting 2 arm branches. a x illa r y ce ll (ARTHRO: Insecta) A cell in the anal area of a

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wing. a x illa r y cor d (ARTHRO: Insecta) The posterior edge of the articular membrane of a wing base. a x illa r y e x cision (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, a notch in the hind wing that is at the distal end of the second anal furrow between the 2nd and 3rd anal veins. a x illa r y fur r ow see plica j u ga lis a x illa r y incision (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, an incision on the inner margin of a wing, distinguishing the alula from the main part. a x illa r y lobe (ARTHRO: Insecta) One of the sclerites covering the base of a wing. a x illa r y m e m br a n e (ARTHRO: Insecta) The membrane of the wing base extending from the tegula at the base of the costal margin to the axillary cord at the base of the anal area. a x illa r y pla t e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Odonata, a large plate hinged to the t ergum , supported by an arm from the pleural wing process. a x illa r y r e gion (ARTHRO: Insecta) That area of a wing base that contains the axillary sclerites. a x illa r y scle r it e s (ARTHRO: Insecta) Small plates between the notum and base of the wing, functioning in wing-flexing; sometimes called ossicles or pteralia. a x illa r y ve in (ARTHRO: Insecta) A vein in the anal area of the hind wing. a x is n.; pl. a x e s [L. axis, axle] A line of reference around, along or across where symmetry is established or gradients measured. a x is cylinde r An axon. a x obla st n. [Gr. axon, axle; blast os, bud] (MESO: Rhombozoa) Germinal cells of dicyemids that undergo cleavage and produce new individuals. a x ocoe l n. [Gr. axon, axle; koilos, hollow] (ECHINOD) The first pair of coelomic sacs in an embryo, that open to the surface by the hydropore.

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a x on , a x on e n. [Gr. axon, axle] A long-unbranched or sparsely branched, nerve fiber, which usually conveys impulses away from the cell-body of its neuron. a x on e m e n. [Gr. axon, axle; nem a, thread] The core of a cilium or flagellum , comprising microtubles; genoneme of a chromosome. a x opla sm n. [Gr. axon, axle; plasm a, formed or molded] The cytoplasm or neuroplasm of an axis cylinder. a zoic e r a A geologic era embracing the first four or five billion years of earth history, antedating any record of organized life forms. a zon ic a. [Gr. a, without; zone, belt] Not restricted to a zone or locality. a zu r oph il a. [F. azur, blue; Gr. philein, to love] Having an affinity for staining with azure-eosin combinations. see e osin oph il. a zygobr a nch ia t e a. [Gr. a, without; zygon, yoke; branchia, gills] Pertaining to gills or ctenidia variously reduced on one side. a zygou s n. [Gr. a, without; zygon, yoke] An unpaired appendage, structure or process. a zygou s, a zygot e a.

B ba cca t e a. [L. bacca, berry] Berry-like in appearance; bacciform. ba cilla r y a. [L. bacillum , little stick] Rod-shaped, or consisting of rod-shaped structures. ba cilla r y ba n d (NEMATA) A modification of the hypodermis, consisting of glandular and nonglandular cells. ba cilla r y la ye r see br u sh bor de r ba cillifor m a. [L. bacillum , little stick; form a, shape] 1. Rodshaped. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In certain male Diptera, refers to a pair of sclerites in the postabdomen joining the hypandrium and epandrium. ba ck n. [A.S. baec, the rear or dorsal part] The dorsal or upper surface. ba ck - cr oss A cross between a heterozygote and one of its parents. ba ck - m u t a t ion The reversion by mutation of a mutant gene to the form from which it was derived. ba ct e r e m ia n. [Gr. bakt erion, small rod; haim a, blood] The presence of bacteria in the hemolymph or blood of invertebrates, without production of harmful toxins or other deleterious effects. ba ct e r iopha gou s a. [Gr. bakt erion, small rod; phagein, to eat] Feeding on bacteria. ba cu lifor m a. [L. baculum , stick or rod; form a, shape] Appearing rod- or staff-like. ba cu lit e n. [L. baculum , stick or rod] (MOLL: Cephalopoda) A straight shelled ammonite, extinct at the end of the Cretaceous Period. ba e n om e r e n. [Gr. bainein, to walk; m eros, part] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The leg-bearing thoracic segment. ba e nopoda n. [Gr. bainein, to walk; pous, foot] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The thoracic legs.

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ba e n osom e n. [Gr. bainein, to walk; som a, body] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The thorax. Ba e r 's disc (PLATY: Trematoda) In Aspidogastrea, the large, ventral sucker. see opist h a pt or . ba ile r n. [F. baille, a bucket] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) An exopod of the maxilla of crayfish and lobsters that functions in regulating the flow of water in the gill chamber; scaphognathite. ba la n ce d le t h a ls Heterozygotes in which a gene mutation or chromosome structural change occurs that blocks normal development and is fatal before sexual maturity. see le t h a l fa ct or . ba la n ce d loa d A term describing a decrease in the overall fitness of a population due to the component genes that are maintained in the population because they add to fitness in different combinations, i.e., heterozygotes. ba la n ce d polym or phism A polymorphism maintained in the same breeding population by a selective superiority of the heterozygotes over either type of homozygotes. see t r a nsie n t polym or ph ism . ba la n ce r s n.pl. [L. bis, two; lanx, plate, pan of a balance] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The halteres of Diptera. ba la noid a. [Gr. balanos, acorn; eidos, like] Acorn shaped. ba la n t in , ba la n t in e n. [Gr. balant idion, little bag] (ANN: Oligochaeta) Male and prostatic pores in segment xix. Ba lbia n i's body/ nu cle u s The yolk nucleus. Ba lbia n i r in g (ARTHRO: Insecta) In chironomid Diptera, a large RNA puff on chromosome IV of the salivary glands during larval development. ba ld a. [ME. balled, equivalent to ball, white spot] Lacking specific hair or other surface covering. Ba ldw in e ffe ct The condition in which an organism can stay in a favorable environment, with modification of the phenotype by mutation and selection, until genetic assimilation has been achieved. ba llon e t s n.pl. [OHG. balla, a spherical body] (NEMATA: Secernentea) Four inflated areas in the cephalic region, im-

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mediately posterior to the lips, that form a collarette in Gnathostomatidae; head bulb of some authors. ba lloon in g n. [OHG. balla, a spherical body] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) Flying through the air on silken lines spun by spiders. ba nd n. [A.S. bindan, band] 1. A transverse marking broader than a line. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. In Diptera, the chromosome pairing of like chromomeres that produce the giant chromosomes. b. In male Lepidoptera, a descriptive term of a linear series of cornuti. ba r b n. [L. barba, beard] 1. Any spine or hair-like bristle with a process projecting obliquely or crosswise from the surface. 2. A spine with teeth pointing backward. ba r ba t e , ba r ba t u s a. [L. barba, beard] Tufts or fascicles of hair or short bristles; bearded; having tufts of hair. ba r bu la n.; pl. -la e [L. dim. barba, beard] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Coleoptera, a tuft of hairs or short bristles at the sides of the abdomen near the anal region of scarabaeoid larvae. ba r k n. [Sw. bark, rind] (PORIF) The outer casing of spongin of those having discontinuous fiber structure. ba r oce pt or , ba r or e ce pt or n. [Gr. baros, weight; L. capere, to take] An organ perceiving changes in pressure. ba r ot r opism n. [Gr. baros, weight; t ropein, to turn] A response to pressure stimuli. ba r r ie r n. [OF. barre, bar] An obstacle or obstruction that limits the spread or distribution of animals. ba r r ie r r e e f see cor a l r e e f ba sa d adv. [L. basis, base; ad, to] Toward the base. ba sa l a. [L. basis, base] Pertaining to the base; near the point of attachment of a structure or appendage. ba sa la r a. [L. basis, base; ala, wing] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to the sclerites below the wing base. ba sa l bu d (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) The bud arising from the basal wall of the parent zooid. see dist a l bud. ba sa l ca na l (BRYO) The circumoral lacuna of the lophophore into which the internal lacunae of all the tentacles open.

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ba sa l dia ph r a gm (BRYO: Stenolaemata) The diaphragm acting as the floor of the living chamber. ba sa l disc (BRYO: Stenolaemata) The encrusting proximalmost part of an ancestrula. ba sa lia a. [L. basis, base] (PORIF) Pertaining to spicules protruding from the lower surface of a sponge. ba sa lis n. [L. basis, base] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The main mandibular sclerite to which all other parts are joined. ba sa l k nobs (NEMATA) The posterior knobs of the oral stylet. see st yle t k n obs. ba sa l la m in a (PORIF) The attachment surface. ba sa l m a r gin (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Cirripedia, the lower edge of the scut um , tergum or other plates. ba sa l pla t e s 1. (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) A cycle of 5 aboral calyx plates in primitive stalked crinoids. see r a dia l pla t e s. 2. (NEMATA) The circular base of the cephalic framework, composed of an annular structure with posteriorly directed rim, the basal ring, and six radial elements. ba sa l pla t for m (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) In Cheilostomata, the multizooidal skeletal layers of the basal zooidal walls; basal plate. ba sa l r in g (NEMATA) The annular structure that extends posteriorly from the outer margin of the basal plate of the cephalic framework. ba sa l scle r it e s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, two lateral, vertical lamellae uniting ventrally to form a trough that lodges the pharynx. ba sa l su t ur e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Isoptera, the line along which the wing separates from the body and shedding takes place. ba sa l w indow (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) In Cheilostomata, the subcentral, uncalcified section of an encrusting colony's exterior basal zooidal wall. ba sa l zooida l w a ll (BRYO) In Stenolaemata and Gymnolaemata, the interior or exterior zooidal supporting wall, normally parallel to the orificial wall.

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ba se n.; pl. ba se s [L. basis, base] 1. The bottom of anything. 2. The main ingredient in anything that is a fundamental element or constituent. 3. The portion of a body to which an appendage or structure is attached. 4. (MOLL) The extremity opposite the apex of a shell spire. ba se m e n t m e m br a ne 1. The noncellular membrane underlying the epidermal cells of the body wall that separates it from the body cavity. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Applied also to the inner surface of the eye; the basilemma. ba sica r na l a ngle (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Cirripedia, the intersection of the basal and median dorsal margins of the dorsal plate (tergum). ba sice r it e n. [Gr. basis, base; keras, horn] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, the second segment of the antennal stalk of shrimp (Caridea) that bear flattened exopods. ba sicon ic pe g (ARTHRO: Insecta) Sensory organs in the form of short hairs or pegs projecting above the general surface. ba sicost a n. [L. basis, base; cost a, rib] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The basal part of the coxa, as indicated by the basicostal suture. ba sicost a l a. ba sicost a l su t u r e (ARTHRO: Insecta) A strengthening ridge that indicates the external basal part of the coxa, the basicosta. ba sicox it e n. [L. basis, base; coxa, hip] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The narrow basal rim of the coxa. ba sife m or a l r in g (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, the suture in the basal segment of the fem ur, that separates the basiand telofemur of the leg. ba sife m u r n. [L. basis, base; fem ur, thigh] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, a segmental division of the fem ur, separated from the telofemur by the basifemoral ring. ba sila ir e see j u gu m ba sila r a. [L. basis, base] Related to or situated at the base. ba sila t e r a l a n gle see ba sit e r ga l a n gle ba sile m m a see ba se m e nt m e m br a ne ba sim a n dibu la n. [L. basis, base; mandibulum, lower jaw]

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(ARTHRO: Insecta) In Orthoptera, a narrow sclerite between the mandible and gena; a trochantin. ba sim a x illa n. [L. basis, base; m axilla, upper jaw] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The basal maxillary sclerite. ba sim e t r ica l n. [Gr. basis, base; metrikos, of measuring] The vertical or horizontal distribution of organisms at the seabottom. ba sin ym n. [Gr. basis, base; onym a, name] The name upon which new names of species or higher classifications has been based. see isonym . ba siocclude n t a ngle (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Cirripedia, the intersection of basal and occludent margins of the scutum. ba sioph t ha lm it e n. [Gr. basis, base; opht halm os, eye] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The proximal segment of the eyestalk, that articulates with the distal segment (podophthalmite) bearing the corneal surface of the eye. ba sipe r ipha llu s n.; pl. -li [Gr. basis, base; peri, around; phallos, penis] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Protura, the basal ring of the periphallus, into which the acroperiphallus is sometimes retracted. ba sipha r yn x n. [Gr. basis, base; pharynx, gullet] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The epipharynx and hypopharynx combined. ba sipod( it e ) n. [Gr. basis, base; pous, foot] 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The second segment of a telopodite; the first trochanter. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) see ba sis. ba sipr oboscis n. [Gr. basis, base; proboskis, trunk] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, the basal portion of the proboscis; the rostrum. ba sipu lvilli n.pl. [L. basis, base; pulvillus, small cushion] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, the small lateral sclerite at the base of the pulvillus. ba sir ost r a l a. [L. basis, base; rost rum , bill] At the rostrum base. ba sis n; pl. ba se s [L. basis, base] 1. A general term for the base of any appendage. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) a. A protopod segment adjoining the coxa and carrying the exopod and endopod distally. b. The basipodite. c. A basal calcare-

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ous or membranous plate functioning in anchorage of sessile barnacles to the substrate. ba siscopic a. [Gr. basis, base; skopein, to view] Looking toward the base. see a cr oscopic. ba siscu t a l a n gle (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Intersection of basal and scutal margins of the tergum in thoracic barnacles. ba sist e r num n. [L. basis, base; st ernum , breastbone] (ARTHRO: Insecta) That part of a thoracic sternum anterior to the sternacostal suture and/or the sternal apophyses; sternannum; antesternite. see fu r ca st e r n um . ba sist ylu s n. [Gr. basis, base; st ylos, pillar] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. In Diptera, the basal segment of the gonopods. 2. In Protura, the basal part of the stylus. see dist ist ylu s. ba sit a r sa l r in g (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) A suture separating the basitarsus and telotarsus of the legs; mesotarsal ring. ba sit a r sa l scissu r e (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) A scissure separating the basitarsus and telotarsus of the leg. ba sit a r su s n.; pl. -si [Gr. basis, base; t arsos, flat of the foot] (ARTHRO) 1. The proximal division of a tarsus; the metatarsus. 2. In Chelicerata, separated from the telotarsus by the basitarsal ring or scissure. ba sit a r sa l a. ba sit e r ga l a ngle (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Intersection of the basal and tergal margins of the scutum of thoracic barnacles. ba sit ibia l pla t e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Apoidea, a small plate or scalelike projection at the base of the hind tibia. ba sit r ich ou s isor h iza , ba sit r ich (CNID) Isorhizal nematocyst with spines at the base of the tube only. ba siva lvu la n.; pl. -la e [L. basis, base; dim. valva, fold] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A small sclerite at the base of the first valvulae of the genitalia. ba sopin a cocyt e s n.pl. [Gr. basis, base; pinax, tablet; kyt os, container] (PORIF) Cells that form the basal epithelium; in Corvomeyenia , a fresh-water sponge, they actively ingest and digest bacteria. ba t a t ifor m a. [L. bat at a, sweet potato; form a, shape] Resembling the shape of a sweet potato.

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Ba t e sia n m im icr y A form of deceptive mimicry in which a palatable species assumes the appearance of a species distasteful or poisonous to a predator; false warning color; allosematic color; pseudaposematic color. see M ulle r ia n m im icr y. ba t hm is see pt e r ost igm a ba t hya l a. [Gr. bat hys, deep] That zone over the continental slope to a depth of perhaps 2000 meters. ba t hylim ne t ic a. [Gr. bat hys, deep; lim ne, marsh] Pertaining to or inhabiting the depths of fresh water lakes or marshes. ba t hym e t r ic a. [Gr. bat hys, deep; m et ron, measure] 1. Pertaining to the science of measuring depths of oceans, seas or other large bodies of water. 2. Pertaining to the vertical or altitudinal distribution of organisms. ba t hym e t r ic zon e One of the horizontal divisions of an ocean; one of the contour zones of the ocean or sea. ba t hype la gic a. [Gr. bat hys, deep; pelagos, sea] Living on or near the bottom in the depths of the ocean. see e pipe la gic, m e sope la gic. ba t t e r y n.; pl. -ie s [F. bat t re, to beat] (CNID: Hydrozoa) A group of nematocysts on the tentacles of hydras and some other hydroid polyps. ba t um e n n. [uncertain origin] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A layer of propolis, or hard cerumen plus various other materials that enclose the nest cavity of a colony of stingless bees. ba t um e n pla t e s (ARTHRO: Insecta) Batumen walls partitioning portions of a larger cavity from that utilized as a nest cavity by stingless bees. ba ve n. [F. bave, drivel] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The double thread of fluid silk spun by caterpillars. B- ch r om osom e , supe r n um e r a r y, a cce ssor y or e x t r a ch r om osom e s Any chromosome of a heterogeneous category of chromosomes that differ in their behavior from normal or A-chromosomes. bde lloid a. [Gr. bdella, leech; eidos, form] Being leech-like in appearance. be a d n. [A.S. gebed, prayer] (MOLL: Bivalvia) A rounded rib

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protuberance. be a de d see m on ilifor m be a k n. [OF. bec, beak] 1. Anything projecting and ending in a point. 2. (ARTHRO) a. In Chelicerata, the gnathosome of acarines. b. In Crustacea, the anteroventral projection of the free margin of the carapace; not equivalent to rostrum. c. In Insecta, the snout, proboscis, or rostrum; in Homoptera, usually 3-segmented, arising from the ventroposterior of the head and directed backward under the body. 3. (BRACHIO) The pedicel valve. 4. (BRYO) The avicularia. 5. (MOLL) a. An angular projection of the apex of an intermediate valve; a mucronate valve; a similar projection of the upper surface of the valve anteriorly and between the sutural laminae is termed a false beak. b. In Bivalvia, noselike angle, along or above the hinge margin, marking the area of shell growth. c. In Cephalopoda, paired horny mandibles. be a k e d a pe x (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Balanomorpha, the upper angle of the tergum formed into a long narrow point. be a n sha pe d see r e n ifor m be a r d n. [L. barba, beard] 1. Any tuft of filaments on any part of an organism. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) For Diptera, see mystax. 3. (MOLL) see byssu s. be a r de d a. be de gua r , be de ga r n. [F. bedeguar, Per. bad-awar, windbrought] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A cynipid gall of Rhodites rosae; a pin-cushion gall. be e br e a d n. (ARTHRO: Insecta) A bitter pollen stored by bees in the honeycomb that when mixed with honey is used for food by larvae and newly-emerged workers; cerago. see a m br osia , fu ngu s ga r de n . be e da n ce (ARTHRO: Insecta) A series of movements performed by honeybees upon returning to the hive, that informs other bees of the location of the food source. be e lice (ARTHRO: Insecta) Small, flattened, apterous dipteran flies that are commensal with honeybees, often epizoic on the workers or queens. be e m ilk see w or k e r j e lly

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be e s n.pl. [A.S. beo, bee] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The flower-visiting, social or solitary, aculeate hymenopterous insects belonging to the superfamily Apoidea. be e sw a x n. [A.S. beo, bee; weax, wax] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A wax secreted by glands on the ventral surface of the abdomen of worker bees that is used in the construction of honeycombs. be le m noid a. [Gr. belem non, javelin; eidos, form] Dartlike in shape. be ll n. [A.S. belle, bell] 1. Any bell-shaped structure. 2. (CNID) a. In Hydrozoa, the umbrella of jellyfish. b. In Scyphozoa, the nectophores of siphonophores. 3. (NEMATA) The bursa. Be llon ci or ga n see or ga n of Be llon ci be ll sha pe d see ca m pa n u la t e be lon oid a. [Gr. belone, needle; eidos, form] Needle-like in shape. be n t h ic a. [Gr. bent hos, depths of sea] Pertaining to the seabottom; maybe extended to include some of the benthic animals: crabs, snails, starfish, certain worms, clams, sponges, sea anemones, corals, bryozoans, crinoids, barnacles and tunicates. be n t hopot a m ou s a. [Gr. bent hos, depths; pot am os, river] Pertaining to organisms or plants living on the bottom of a river or stream. Be r gm a n n 's r u le The principal that the average body size is geographically variable in that the animals are larger in the cooler climates of the range of a species. Be r le se 's or ga n see Riba ga 's or ga n be r r y n. [A.S. berie, berry] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) An egg of certain Decapoda. be som ifor m a. [A.S. besm a, broom; L. form a, shape] Broom shaped. be t a n. [Gr. bet a] The second letter of the Greek alphabet ( ) used to designate the second in a series, as -chlorophyll and -chlorophyll. be t a - ch lor ophyll (ARTHRO: Insecta) The chlorophyll that pro-

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duces color. be t a - fe m a le see t e r a t ogyn e be t a t a x onom y A level of taxonomy involving the arrangment of species into a natural system of lower and higher taxa. see a lpha t a x onom y, ga m m a t a x onom y. bia la t e a. [L. bis, two; alat us, winged] Two-winged. bia ngu la r a. [L. bis, two; angulus, corner, bend] Having two angles or double keeled. bia r cu a t e a. [L. bis, two; arcuat us, bent like a bow] Twice curved. bia r e ola t e a. [L. bis, two; areolat us, small places] Two celled, or having two areolae. see bilocu la r . bia r t icu la t e a. [L. bis, two; dim. art us, joint] Having two joints; diarticular. bia x ia l a. [L. bis, two; axis, axle] Having two axes. bica na licu la t e a. [L. bis, two; canalis, a channel] Having two channels or grooves. bica r in a t e a. [L. bis, two; carina, keel] Having two carinae or keel-like projections. bica uda l, bica uda t e a. [L. bis, two; cauda, tail] Possessing two tails or anal processes. bice llu la r a. [L. bis, two; cellula, little cell] Composed of two cells. bicilia t e a. [L. bis, two; cilium , eyelash] Furnished with two cilia, flagella, or elaters. bicon ca ve a. [L. bis, two; concavus, hollow or arched inward] Being concave on both sides; amphicoelous. see a m ph icyr t ic. bicondylic see dicondylic bicon ic a. [L. bis, two; Gr. konos, cone] Being formed as two cones placed base to base. biconve x a. [L. bis, two; convexus, arched outward] Being convex on opposite sides; lens-shaped. see a m ph icyr t ic, a m ph icoe lou s. bicor n a. [L. bis, two; cornu, horn] Bearing two horns; cres-

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centlike. bicor nu a t e a. [L. bis, two; cornut us, horned] Having two horns or cephalic processes. bicor nu a t e u t e r u s A uterus in which both uteri are fused, but have short lateral extensions. bicr on see n a nom e t e r bicu spida t e a. [L. bis, two; cuspidat us, pointed] Being double pointed; having two cusps or points. bida ct yl n. [L. bis, two; Gr. dakt ylos, finger] (ARTHRO) An appendage, ambulacrum, apotele, or claw with two lateral ungues. see m onoda ct yl, t r ida ct yl. bide ficie n cy n. [L. bis, two; deficare, to be wanting] A form of phanerotaxy, exhibited by the absence of two of the elements typically present in a particular organism. see h olot a x y. bide n t a t e a. [L. bis, two; dens, tooth] Having two teeth. bide n t icu la t e a. [L. bis, two; dim. dens, tooth] Having two small teeth or tooth-like processes. bide sm a t ic a. [L. bis, two; Gr. desm os, bond] Pertaining to two tendons attached at the base of the distal segment of an appendage; a eudesmatic articulation. bidiscoida l a. [L. bis, two; Gr. diskos, circular plate; eidos, form] Having two disc-shaped parts. bidive r t icula t e a. [L. bis, two; devert ere, to turn away] Having two diverticula. bie m a r gina t e a. [L. bis, two; em arginat us, notched at the apex] Having two notches on the border or edge. bie n n ia l a. [L. bis, two; annus, year] Occurring once every two years. bifa cia l a. [L. bis, two; facies, face] Having opposite surfaces alike. bifa r iou s a. [L. bis, two; fariam , in rows] Being arranged in 2 rows, on either side of an axis; being oriented or pointed in opposite directions.

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bifa scia t e a. [L. bis, two; fascia, band] With two broad well defined bands or fascia. bife n e st r a t e a. [L. bis, two; fenest ra, window] (NEMATA: Secernentea) A term used to describe heteroderid fenestra divided by a broad vulval bridge so that it appears to be two distinct semi-fenestra. see a m bife n e st r a t e . bifid a. [L. bis, two; findere, to split] Divided into two branches, arms, or prongs, or into two equal parts by a cleft; separated down the middle by a slit; divided by a groove into two parts. bifila r a. [L. bis, two; filum , thread] Having two filaments, threads, or fibers. bifla be lla t e a. [L. bis, two; flabellum , fan] (ARTHRO) Twice fabellate; a form of antenna with each side of the joints having long flattened processes. bifla ge lla t e a. [L. bis, two; flagellum , whip] Having two flagella; dikont. bifle x a. [L. bis, two; flect ere, to bend] Bending in two directions. bifolia t e colony (BRYO: Stenolaemata) An erect colony formed by two layers of zooids budding back to back from the interior multizooidal median wall. bifollicu la r a. [L. bis, two; folliculus, small sac] Having two follicles. bifor a t e a. [L. bis, two; forare, to bore] Having two perforations. bifor m a. [L. bis, two; form a, form] Having two forms, or combining characteristics of two forms. bifor m e s n. [L. bis, two; form a, form] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A carapace that reflects sexual dimorphism in differing valve proportions for each sex of the same species. bifor ou s spir a cle (ARTHRO: Insecta) An immature's spiracle having two entrances (air tubes); annular-biforous spiracles. bifur ca t e a. [L. bis, two; furca, fork] Divided into two branches, stems or knobs; two pronged.

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bige m ina l a. [L. bis, two; gem inus, twin] Doubled; paired. bige n e r n. [L. bis, two; genus, kind] A bigeneric hybrid. bige n e r ic a. [L. bis, two; genus, kind] Pertaining to hybrids between species of different genera. bigice r ia t e , bigige r ia t e a. [L. bis, two; gigerium , entrail] Having two gizzards. bigu t t a t e a. [L. bis, two; gut t a, drop, spot] Having two droplike spots. bij u ga t e a. [L. bis, two; j ugum , yolk] Being yoked two together; two-paired. bila bia t e spir a cle (ARTHRO: Insecta) An elongate or annular spiracle of certain larvae with a pair of projecting lips interior to the peritreme; one having two lips at the slit-like entrance. bila m e lla r a. [L. bis, two; lam ella, plate] Having two lamellae or plates; two-lipped. bila m ina r a. [L. bis, two; lam ina, thin plate] Consisting of two lamina or thin plates; diploblastic. bila m ina t e colony (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) A cheilostomate colony with erect branches comprised of two layers of zooids, each with separate, but common exterior basal walls. bila t e r a l a. [L. bis, two; lat us, side] Having two equal or symmetrical sides. bila t e r a l cle a va ge That in which the blastomeres exhibit marked bilateral symmetry. Bila t e r a lia , Bila t e r a A former division of the animal kingdom containing all those forms that show bilateral symmetry. bila t e r a l sym m e t r y Symmetry such that a body or part can be divided through the longitudinal axis by one mediosagittal plane into equivalent right and left halves, each for all practical purposes a mirror image of the other. see r a dia l sym m e t r y. bilia r y ve sse ls see M a lpigh ia n t u bu le s bilin e a t e a. [L. bis, two; lineat us, of a line] Of or pertaining to two lines; marked with two lines. biloba t e , bilobe d a. [L. bis, two; lobus, rounded projection]

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Having two lobes. bilocu la r a. [L. bis, two; loculus, compartment] Divided into two cells, chambers, compartments or loculi. bim a cu la t e a. [L. bis, two; m acula, spot] Marked with two spots or stains. bim a r gin a t e a. [L. bis, two; m argo, border] Having two margins. bim ine r a lic sk e le t on (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) Zoarium or zooecium composed of layers of calcite and others of aragonite. bim uscu la r a. [L. bis, two; musculus, muscle] Having two muscles. bin a r y a. [L. binarius, from bini, pair] 1. Composed of two units, elements or parts. 2. Refers to designations of two kinds of names. see bin om in a l nom e n cla t ur e . bin a r y fission A form of asexual reproduction in which a cell, or organism divides into approximately equal parts. see t r a n sve r se fission . bin a r y nom e n cla t u r e see bin om ina l nom e n cla t u r e bin a t e a. [L. bini, pair] Doubled; growing in pairs. bin e r va t e a. [L. bis, two; nervus, nerve] Having two nerves or veins. bin ocu la r a. [L. bini, pair; oculus, eye] Having two eyes. bin odu lose a. [L. bis, two; nodulus, little knot] Having two nodes, knobs, or swellings of small size. bin om e n n. [L. bis, two; nom en, name] The scientific designation of a species, consisting of a generic and a specific name. see binom in a l n om e n cla t u r e , t r in om in a l nom e n cla t u r e . bin om ia l nom e n cla t ur e A system of nomenclature using two names, first established for animals by Linnaeus in 1758 and now generally referred to as binominal nomenclature. bin om ina l a. [L. bis, two; nom en, name] Consisting of two words or names. bin om ina l n om e n cla t u r e The system of nomenclature adopted by the International Congress of Zoology, by

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which the scientific name of an animal is designated by both a generic and specific name. bin ot a t e a. [L. bis, two; not a, mark] Having two rounded spots. bin ovu la r a. [L. bini, pair; ovum , egg] Pertaining to two ova. bin u cle a t e a. [L. bis, two; nucleus, kernel] Having two nuclei. bioa ssa y see biologica l a ssa y bioce lla t e a. [L. bis, two; dim. oculus, eye] Having two ocelli. bioce n ose n. [Gr. bios, life; koinos, common] A community of plants and animals that occupy a particular habitat; a biotic community. see biocoe n osis. bioche m ist r y n. [Gr. bios, life; chem eia, chemistry] Biological or physiological chemistry; the chemistry of living organisms. biochor e n. [Gr. bios, life; choros, place] A subdivision of biocycle, comprising a group of similar biotopes large enough to form a recognizable habitat. see chor e . bioch r om e n. [Gr. bios, life; chrom a, color] Any natural pigment found in a living organism. see in digoid biochr om e , qu inon e bioch r om e , sche m ochr om e . biocoe n n. [Gr. bios, life; koinos, common] All of the living components of an environment. biocoe nosis n.; pl. -nose s [Gr. bios, life; koinos, common] 1. A community of organisms occupying a biotope. 2. An aggregation of fossils comprised of the remains of organisms living together. see t ha na t coe n osis. biocom m un ica t ion n. [Gr. bios, life; L. com m unicare, to communicate] The process of conveyance or transfer of information between non-human organisms. biocon t r ol see biologica l control biocycle n. [Gr. bios, life; kyklos, circle] Subdivisions of the biosphere: land, sea and freshwater. biodegradable a. [Gr. bios, life; L. de, down; gradatus, step by step; abilis, tending to be] Substances that can be broken down by micro-organisms (mainly aerobic bacteria). biode m ogr a phy n. [Gr. bios, life; dem os, people; graphein, to

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write] A science concerned with the statistical study of the ecology and genetics of a given population. bioe cology n. [Gr. bios, life; oikos, house; logos, discourse] The study of the interrelationships of plants and animals and their environment. bioe le ct r icit y n. [Gr. bios, life; elektron, amber] The electric phenomena within living tissues. bioe n e r ge t ics n. [Gr. bios, life; energos, active] The science of conditions and laws governing the manifestation of energy in living organisms. bioge n n. [Gr. bios, life; genos, beginning] The hypothetical protoplasmic unit of which cells are composed; precursor of bios. bioge n e sis n. [Gr. bios, life; genesis, beginning] The doctrine that living organisms originate from antecedent life. see a bioge n e sis, ne obioge n e sis. bioge n e t ic la w The recapitulation theory of Haeckel that "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny". see pa linge n e sis. bioge nou s a. [Gr. bios, life; gennaein, to produce] Being produced from living in or on other living organisms; providing life. bioge ny n. [Gr. bios, life; genesis, beginning] The evolution of organisms, comprising ontogeny (individual) and phylogeny (tribal). bioge och e m ist r y n. [Gr. bios, life; ge, earth; chem eia, chemistry] The study of the distribution and movement of chemical elements within living organisms and their interaction with the geographical environment. bioge ogr a ph y n. [Gr. bios, life; ge, earth; graphein, to write] That biological science dealing with the geographical distribution of plants and animals. see zooge ogr a phy. biohe r m n. [Gr. bios, life; herma, mound] A body of rock composed largely of sedentary organisms such as corals and mollusks. biologica l a. [Gr. bios, life; logos, discourse] Pertaining to biology, the science of living things. biologica l a ssa y, bioa ssa y The determination of the effect of

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any stimulus, physical, chemical, biological, physiological, or psychological, by means of the response which it produces in living organisms or matter. biologica l cla ssifica t ion The arrangement of organisms into taxa on the basis of inferences concerning their genetic relationship. biologica l clock An endogenous physiological rhythm, such as metabolic or behavioural rhythmical changes. see cir ca dia n. biologica l con t r ol The reduction in population of undesirable animals and plants by the intentional introduction of a predator, parasite or disease; biocontrol. biologica l pr odu ct ivit y The increase in biomass, normally measured in protein-time units. biologica l r a ce s Noninterbreeding sympatric populations that are morphologically alike, but physiologically different due to preference for food or other hosts. see siblin g spe cie s. biologica l spe cie s concept A concept at the species level stressing reproductive isolation, and the possession of a genetic program effecting such isolation; biospecies. see spe cie s. biology n. [Gr. bios, life; logos, discourse] The scientific study of living things. biolum ine sce n ce n. [Gr. bios, life; L. luminescere, to grow light] The production of light by living organisms, as occurs in the insect orders of Collembola, Homoptera, Diptera and Coleoptera, all ctenophores, some cephalopods, a large number of polychaetes, and certain diplopods; biophotogenesis. biolysis n. [Gr. bios, life; lysis, to loosen] The disintegration of life or organic matter; the decomposition of organic matter as a result of the activity of living organisms; death. biolyt ic a. biom a ss n. [Gr. bios, life; L. m assa, quantity, bulk] The total weight of a population or other specified group of individuals per unit of area or volume. biom e n. [Gr. bios, life] A major biological community of living

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organisms characterized by distinctive dominant vegetation and associated animals. biom e t e or ology n. [Gr. bios, life; m et eoros, high in the air; logos, discourse] The science of the relationship of plants and animals to weather. biom e t e r n. [Gr. bios, life; m et ron, measure] An indicator organism that determines climate and condition acceptability. biom e t r y n. [Gr. bios, life; m et ron, measure] The statistical study of biological phenomena; the application of mathematics to the study of living organisms. see biost a t ist ics. biom or phot ic a. [Gr. bios, life; m orphe, form] Concerning the development or change of form of a living organism by the formation of tissues. bion n. [Gr. bios, life; on, being] 1. A living, independent organism; a living cell or unit; synonymous with "individual". 2. Sometimes used as a variant spelling of biome; a biont. bionom y, bionom ics see e cology bion t n. [Gr. bion, life; on, being] A living thing; a member of a biome. biopha gous a. [Gr. bios, life; phagein, to eat] Pertaining to an organism that feeds upon other living organisms or tissues. bioph or e , bioph or n. [Gr. bios, life; phorein, to carry] A hypothetical ultimate supramolecular unit capable of life. bioph ot oge n e sis see biolum ine sce n ce bioph ysics n. [Gr. bios, life; physis, nature] The application of the laws of physics to the study of living organisms. biopla sm n. [Gr. bios, life; plassein, to mold] Protoplasm. biopla st n. [Gr. bios, life; plassein, to mold] 1. A minute mass of living protoplasm. 2. An amoeboid cell. biopoie sis n. [Gr. bios, life; poiesis, making] The origination of the first living thing, as well as the preceding chemical history. biopot e n t ia lit y n.; pl. -t ie s [Gr. bios, life; L. potens, powerful] The potential of a tissue developing into different structures. biopsy n. [Gr. bios, life; opsis, sight] The study of tissues of

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living organisms. bior dina l cr och e t s (ARTHRO: Insecta) Crochets of larvae arranged in a single series or row, but having two alternating lengths. see or dina l. bios n. [Gr. bios, life] Plant and animal life; organic nature. biosis n. [Gr. biosis, manner of life] 1. The condition of being alive. 2. The condition of a specific mode of life. biospe cie s see biologica l spe cie s con ce pt biospe le ology n. [Gr. bios, life; spelaion, cave; logos, discourse] The scientific study of cave-dwelling organisms. biosph e r e n. [Gr. bios, life; sphaira, ball] That portion of the earth that contains living organisms, encompassing the soil, air and water. biost a sis n. [Gr. bios, life; st asis, a standing] The ability of organisms to tolerate environmental alterations without being changed themselves. biost a t ics n.pl. [Gr. bios, life; st at os, stationary] The science of the structure of organisms in relation to their function. biost a t ist ics n. [Gr. bios, life; st at os, stationary] The branch of biometry that deals with vital statistics. biost r om e n. [Gr. bios, life; st rom a, bed] (MOLL: Bivalvia) Biocoenosis of hard shelled, sedentary organisms or sediment from them. biosyn t he sis n. [Gr. bios, life; synt hesis, composition] The formation of an organic compound by an organism. biosyst e m see e cosyst e m biosyst e m a t ics n. [Gr. bios, life; syst em a, an ordered arrangement of things] The study of the biology of populations in respect to evolution and variation of a taxon; experimental taxonomy. biot a n. [Gr. bios, life] The fauna and flora of an area or region. biot ic a. [Gr. biot ikos, of life] Of or pertaining to life. biot ic in se ct icide An organism used to suppress a local pest population.

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biot ic pot e n t ia l 1. The reproductive potential of a species. 2. An estimate of the rate of increase of a species in the absence of predators, parasites or other inhibiting factors. biot on u s n. [Gr. bios, life; t onos, tension] The ratio between assimilation and dissimilation of a hypothetic unit, cell, organ or organelle (biogen). biot ope n. [Gr. bios, life; t opos, place] 1. An area that is uniform in its main climatic, soil and biotic conditions. 2. An ecological niche with suitable conditions for certain fauna and flora. see biochor e , cor e . biot u la r spicules (PORIF) Amphidiscs; having scalloped disks that may occur at both ends of the rhabdome. biot ype n. [Gr. bios, life; t ypos, type] A group of genotypically identical individuals; frequently used interchangeably with the term race. biovu la r see bin ovu la r biovu la t e a. [L. bis, two; ovum , egg] Having two ovules. bipa r a sit ic a. [L. bis, two; parasit us, one who eats at the table of another] Being a parasite upon or in a parasite. bipa r e n t a l a. [L. bis, two; parentalis, parent] Pertaining to or derived from two parents. bipa r ie t a l a. [L. bis, two; paries, wall] Provided with two paries. bipa r ou s a. [L. bis, two; parere, to beget] Producing two young at a time. bipa r t it e a. [L. bis, two; part it us, divided] Having two distinct parts; bifid. bipa r t it e ut e r u s A uterus with paired, tubular uteri that fuse at the point of junction with the vagina. bipe ct in a t e a. [L. bis, two; pecten, comb] Having branches on two sides like the teeth of a comb. bipe ct u n cu la t e a. [L. bis, two; pect unculus, small scallop] Minutely pectinate. bipe n na t e a. [L. bis, two; penna, feather] Twice pinnate. bipe n n ifor m a. bipinn a r ia la r va (ECHINOD: Asteroidea) The free-swimming,

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bilaterally symmetrical larva; characterized by ciliated preoral and postoral bands and extending onto lobes projecting from the body; dipleurula larva. see br a chiola r ia . biplica t e a. [L. bis, two; plicat us, fold] Twice plaited or folded. bipocillu s n. [L. bis, two; poculum , cup] (PORIF) A spicule (microsclere) with a curved shaft and cup-shaped expansion at either end; in Iophon , one discoid end and one pointed or forked end. bipod a. [L. bis, two; Gr. pous, foot] Having one pair of legs. bipody n. see t e t r a pod. bipola r a. [L. bis, two; polus, pole] 1. Having two poles or processes. 2. Pertaining to the polar regions. bipola r it y n. [L. bis, two; polus, pole] 1. Being bipolar. 2. Pertaining to the polar regions, as comparing the flora and fauna between the northern regions and the southern regions, and with that in between. 3. Nerves having processes at both ends. bipr ost a t ic a. [L. bis, two; pro, before; st are, to stand] Having two prostates. bipupilla t e a. [L. bis, two; pupilla, pupil of the eye] 1. Having two pupils. 2. Having two ocelli or spots that resemble two pupils. bir a dia l cle a va ge Cleavage in which the tiers of blastomeres are symmetrical with regard to the first cleavage plane. bir a dia l sym m e t r y A type of symmetry in which an organism consists of radially arranged parts, equally arranged on each side of a median longitudinal plane. bir a dia t e a. [L. bis, two; radiat us, rayed] Having two rays or spokes. see dia ct ina l, dia x on . bir a m ou s a. [L. bis, two; ram us, branch] Consisting of two branches. bir a m ou s a ppe nda ge (ARTHRO: Crustacea) An appendage with two rami; also antennule or antenna with two flagellar elements; not all appendages of a crustacean are biramous. bir a m ou s pa r a podium (ANN) A parapodium having bundles of setae on both noto- and neuropodium.

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bir e fr inge n t a. [L. bis, two; refringens, refractive] Having double refraction, high or low according to the difference between the refractive indices. bir ost r a t e a. [L. bis, two; rost rum , beak] Having two beak-like processes. bir ot u la t e spicu le s (PORIF) A spicule having a disc or series of radial, umbrella-like spokes at both ends; amphidiscs. bir t h por e Uterine pore; birth opening. bise gm e n t n. [L. bis, two; segm ent um , piece] One of two equal segments of a line. bise pt a t e a. [L. bis, two; sept um , partition] Having two partitions. bise r ia l a. [L. bis, two; series, row] Arranged in two rows, or subdivided into two series. bise r ia l cr och e t s (ARTHRO: Insecta) Crochets of larvae with proximal ends arranged in two, usually concentric rows. see se r ia l cr och e t s. bise r r a t e a. [L. bis, two; serra, saw] Having two notched or saw-teeth. bise t ose a. [L. bis, two; set a, bristle] Having two bristle-like appendages. bise x u a l a. [L. bis, two; sexus, sex] 1. Of or pertaining to both sexes. 2. A population composed of functional males and females. 3. An individual possessing functional male and female reproductive organs; hermaphrodite. bisin ua t e a. [L. bis, two; sinuare, to bend] Twice winding or bending; having two sinuations or notches. bist r a t e a. [L. bis, two; st rat um , layer] Having two layers of tissues. bisu lca t e a. [L. bis, two; sulcus, groove] Of or pertaining to twice scored or grooved. bit h e ca l a. [L. bis, two; t heke, case] 1. Having two thecae. 2. (ANN) Having two spermathecae. bit u be r cu la t e a. [L. bis, two; tuberculum, swelling] Having two tubercles or swellings. biu n cina t e a. [L. bis, two; uncus, hook] Having two hooks.

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biva le n t a. [L. bis, two; valens, strong] 1. Having two completely or partially homologous chromosomes pairing during the first meiotic division. see u n iva le n t . 2. Double or joined in pairs; pertaining to an articulation permitting levator and depressor movements. biva lve a. [L. bis, two; valvae, a folding door] Having two valves or parts; clamlike. Biva lvia , biva lve s n., n.pl. [L. bis, two; valvae, a folding door] A class of marine, estuarine or freshwater bivalve mollusks, in which the body is enclosed within two calcareous valves, or shells; other names for this class are Acephala, Conchifera, Pelecypoda, Conchophora, Dithra, Lamellibranchia, Lamellibranchiata, Elatobranchiata, Cormopoda, Tropipoda, Aglossa, Elatocephala, Anodontoda and Lipocephala. bivit t a t e a. [L. bis, two; vit t a, band] Having two broad longitudinal stripes or vittae. bivium n. [L. bivius, two-way] (ECHINOD: Asteroidea) Collectively, the two rays of a sea star, between which lies the madreporite. see t r ivium . bivolt ine a. [L. bis, two; It. volt a, time] Having two sets of offspring a year. see polyvolt ine . bivu lva r a. [L. bis, two; vulva, vulva] Having two vulvae in a single female. bla dde r n. [A.S. blaeddre, bag] Any membranous sac or vesicle filled with air or fluid. bla de n. [A.S. blaed, leaf] 1. Any elongate, flattened, usually stiff structure shaped like a leaf, sword or knife. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The lacinia or galea. 3. (NEMATA) see la m in a . bla st a e a n. [Gr. blast os, bud] Hypothetical animal ancestral to all metazoans; inferred from the blastula as a common stage in the development of higher invertebrate animals. bla st e m a n.; pl. -t e m a t a [Gr. blast em a, bud] 1. Undifferentiated cells that later develop into an organ or structure. a. The part of an organism that gives rise to a new organism, as in asexual reproduction. b. That which often gives rise to regeneration of a lost part or appendage. see a n la ge .

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bla st oce pha lon n. [Gr. blast os, bud; kephale, head] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The head of an embryo. bla st oche m e n. [Gr. blast os, bud; ochem a, vehicle] (CNID) A reproductive bud in certain medusae. bla st ochyle n. [Gr. blast os, bud; chylos, juice] Fluid contained in a blastocoel. bla st ocoe l(e) n. [Gr. blast os, bud; koilos, hollow] The primary cavity formed during the embryological development of animals; segmentation cavity; the subgerminal cavity. bla st ocyst n. [Gr. blast os, bud; kyst is, bladder] (PLATY: Cestoda) In Trypanorhynca, a posterior bladder of the metacestode into which the body is withdrawn. bla st ocyt e n. [Gr. blast os, bud; kyt os, container] An embryonic cell before differentiation. bla st ode r m n. [Gr. blast os, bud; derm a, skin] The primary epithelium formed in early embryonic development of many invertebrates; germinal membrane. bla st oge ne sis n. [Gr. blast os, bud; genesis, beginning] 1. Development by asexual reproduction, or of an organ or part from a blastema. 2. The transmission of inherited characters by germ plasm. see e m br yoge n e sis. bla st oge n ic a. [Gr. blast os, bud; genos, birth] Originating in germ cells. Bla st oide a , bla st oids n., n.pl. [Gr. blast os, bud; eidos, form] A class of extinct echinoderms of the former Subphylum Pelmatoza; Ordovician to Permian. bla st ok ine sis n. [Gr. blast os, bud; kinesis, movement] Displacements, rotations and revolutions of an embryo within an egg. bla st om e r e n. [Gr. blast os, bud; m eros, part] Cells formed during primary cleavage of an egg, before the formation of a distinct gastrula stage. bla st oph or e n. [Gr. blast os, bud; phorein, to bear] 1. The external opening of the enteron of a gastrula. 2. (ANN) The endodermal cells brought into an internal position in the embryo during the mitotic division. bla st opor e n. [Gr. blast os, bud; poros, passage] The mouth-

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like opening from the archenteron to the exterior during the gastrula stage of development. bla st ost yle n. [Gr. blast os, bud; st ylos, pillar] (CNID: Hydrozoa) The living axial portion of a modified gonangium, from which numerous medusae are budded. bla st ozooid n. [Gr. blast os, bud; zoion, animal; eidos, form] A zooid or individual produced by asexual reproduction. see oozooid. bla st u la n., pl. -la e [Gr. dim. blast os, bud] A stage near the end of cleavage, in the form of a hollow sphere bounded by a single layer of cells. blist e r n. [A.S. blast r, a swelling] Any vesicle or raised spot on the surface of an organism. Blochm a nn's body (ARTHRO) Any intracellular organisms in the egg; mainly bacteria; thought to be symbiotic. blood n. [A.S. blod, blood] The variously colored or colorless fluid circulating in the vascular system or body cavity of animals, usually containing respiratory pigments, and carrying oxygen, food-materials, excretions, etc. blood ce lls Cellular elements of the blood; hemocytes; plasmatocytes. blood cha n n e l (ARTHRO: Insecta) In predacious larvae, a channel, either internal (duct or tube) or external (excavation or groove), usually extending the full length of the inner margin of the mandible. blood gills (ARTHRO: Insecta) Thin walled respiratory or osmoregulatory evaginations continuous with the hemocoel and filled with blood, occurring in, but not confined to aquatic larvae. blood r oom s (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Conchostraca, a network of anastomosing cavities in the body that function in blood circulation. blood sin us (MOLL: Bivalvia) A blood vessel which is irregular in shape without specialized walls. blood t ube see blood ch a n n e l blood ve sse l Any vessel or canal facilitating blood circulation.

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blot ch n. [OF. block, a clod of earth] A large irregular spot or marking. blu n t v. [uncertain origin] To dull; to neutralize or dilute. boa t -sh a pe d see na vicu la r , sca ph oid body n. [A.S. bodig, body] 1. The physical structure of an organism. 2. The main part of an organism as compared to its limbs or appendages. 3. The trunk. 4. The corpus. body ca vit y The principal cavity between the body wall and internal organs of an organism: coelom, pseudocoelom or hemocoelom. body of Gia r dini see chr om a t in body body r in g (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Notostraca, the combined tergite and sternite of a single somite, with or without legs. body som it e (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A unit division comprising thorax and abdomen. see ce pha lic som it e . body va lve see in t e r m e dia t e va lve body w a ll 1. The integument, the outer layer of many invertebrates, comprising the epidermis (hypodermis) and the cuticle. 2. (BRYO) The wall enclosing the body cavity of a colony and its parts. 3. (ECHI) The dermal, glandular, muscular and epithelial tissues that make up the wall of the trunk. body w hor l see la st w hor l bolst e r s n.pl. [A.S. bolst er, support] (MOLL) A pair of supports and muscle attachments for the radula. bolu s n. [Gr. bolos, lump] Any rounded mass, such as collected or chewed food. bom bifr ons n.pl. [F. bom be, convex; L. frons, forehead] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A rounded, blister-like protuberance on the forward part of the head. bom bou s a. [F. bom be, convex] A curved or rounded surface; blister-like. bom bycic a cid (ARTHRO: Insecta) An acid utilized by certain moths to dissolve the gum binding the silk threads of the cocoon at imago emergence. bom bycinou s a. [Gr. bom bycinus, silken] Of silk, or pale yel-

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low resembling fresh spun silk. book gill (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Merostomata, a gill composed of thin plates or lamella. book lun g (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) A series of leaf-like respiratory pouches of arachnids, located on the internal ventral surface of the abdomen, and believed to be modified insunken gills. bopyr idum n. [NL. Bopyrus, type genus] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Malacostraca, a postlarva of an epicaridean isopod that attaches to a permanent host. Bor da s' gla n d (ARTHRO: Insecta) A paired, or fused into one, accessory gland of the sting apparatus of certain Hymenoptera, composed of multiple, densely packed cells whose canaliculi end with a gathering duct; function unknown. bor e a l a. [L. boreas, north wind] Of or belonging to the northern biogeographical region. bor e r n. [A.S. borian, bore] 1. An invertebrate that bores. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) An adult or larva that makes channels in woody or vegetable tissue. 3. (MOLL: Bivalvia) A pelecypod that burrows in stone or wood. 4. (MOLL: Gastropoda) One that bores through the shell of an oyster or other mollusk. boss n.; pl. bosse s [F. bosse, hump] 1. Any protruberant part, prominence or swelling. 2. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Arachnida, a smooth lateral prominence at the base of a chelicera of spiders. 3. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) An umbo. 4. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, a sclerotized, elevated area at the base of the ventral brush in certain Culicidae larvae. 5. (ECHINOD: Echinoidea) The base of a spine on a sea urchin test. 6. (MOLL: Gastropoda) A rounded elevation of a shell, larger than a tubercle. bosse la t e d a. [F. bosse, hump] Being covered with small knob-like projections, composed of or covered with small protuberances. bot hr idia l se t a (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) Variously shaped seta inserted into a bothridium. bot hr idium n.; pl. -r ia [Gr. dim. bot hros, trench] 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) A chitinous cavity or projecting cup in which a bothridial seta is inserted; (bothridial seta + bothridium =

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trichobothrium). 2. (PLATY: Cestoda) One of 4 muscular lappets on the scolex of a tapeworm, often highly specialized with many types of adaptations for adhesion. bot hr iot r ich ia n.pl. [Gr. bot hros, trench; t richos, hair] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Slender seta arising from indentions in the tegument. bot hr on ic a. bot hr ium n.; pl. -r ia [Gr. bot hros, trench] (PLATY: Cestoda) Dorsal or ventral grooves on the scolex that may be variously modified in the form of ruffles, or fused so as to form a tubular structure. bot r u cn ids n.pl. [Gr. bot rys, bunch of grapes; knide, nettle] (CNID: Anthozoa) The septal filaments of certain mesentaries of tube anemones. bot r yoida l a. [Gr. bot rys, bunch of grapes; eidos, form] In the form of a bunch or cluster of grapes. bot r yoida l t issu e (ANN: Hirudinoidea) Connective tissue present in the enteric canals. bot r yology n. [Gr. botrys, bunch of grapes; logos, discourse] The science of organizing objects or concepts into groups and clusters. bot t le - sha pe d see la ge na , a m pulla , a m pullifor m bouqu e t st a ge A meiotic prophase stage, including leptotene, zygotene and pachytene, in certain species where the chromosomes are oriented by one or both ends towards one point of the nuclear envelope. bou r r e le t n. [F. bourrelet , circular pad] 1. A ridgelike prominence or rounded edge. 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) see parameres. 2. (ECHINOD) A raised prominence on the interambulacral plates at the edge of the mouth. 3. (MOLL: Bivalvia) A ligamental area anterior and posterior to the resilifer. bou r se s copu la t r ice s see copu la t or y cha m be r bou t on n. [F. bout on, bud] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A lappet-like terminal process of the glossa of bees; spoon; flabellum. bow lik e see a r c, a r cua t e box n.; pl. boxes [A.S., fr. 1. buxus, boxwood] (MOLL: Bivalvia) A pair of empty, attached hinged (valves) shells of oysters.

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br a ch e lyt r a n.pl. [Gr. brachys, short; elyt ron, sheath] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Having shortened wing covers or elytra. br a ch e lyt r ou s a. br a ch ia n.pl. [L. brachium , arm] 1. Processes like arms. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. Paired, unfused processes resembling arms surrounding the aedeagus; clasper; paramere. b. A tracheal or blood gill. 3. (BRACHIO) see br a ch idiu m . br a ch ia l a. [L. brachium , arm] 1. Pertaining to an arm-like process or appendage. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to the fore wing. br a ch ia l ca na l (CNID: Scyphozoa) A canal in the oral arm of medusae. br a ch ia l ba sk e t (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Odonata, a barrel-like chamber in the anterior two-thirds of the rectum that functions by the intake and expulsion of water; rectal gills. br a ch ia l va lve (BRACHIO) A valve containing any skeletal support for the lophophore, generally smaller than the pedicle valve; dorsal valve. br a ch idium n.; pl. br a ch idia [L. dim. brachium , arm] (BRACHIO) The internal skeleton or brachial support for the lophophore, consisting of a calcareous loop or spire. br a ch iola r ia n.; pl. -la r ia e [L. dim. brachium , arm] (ECHINOD: Asteroidea) The free-swimming, ciliated larva that develops from the bipinnaria and is characterized by three additional arms extending from the anterior part of the ventral surface, anterior to the preoral loop. br a ch iole n. [L. dim. brachium , arm] (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) The slender arm or arms extending from the ambulacral groove. br a ch iophor e s n. [L. brachium , arm; Gr. phorein, to bear] (BRACHIO) Blades of the secondary shell projecting from the side of the notothyrium and forming anteromedian boundaries of sockets in some brachial valves. Br a ch iopoda , br a ch iopods n.; n.pl. [Gr. brachys, short; pous, foot] A phylum of relatively small, solitary coelomates enclosed within a bivalved shell and usually attached to the substrate by a pedicle; common called lamp shells; brachiopods have one of the longest and best recorded fos-

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sil histories in the animal kingdom. br a ch it a x is n.; pl. -t a x e s [Gr. brachium , arm; t axis, arrangement] (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) A series of brachials extending from radial or biradial to the distal extremity of the arm. br a ch iu m see br a ch ia br a ch yce r ou s a. [Gr. brachys, short; keras, horn] Bearing short antennae. br a ch yda ct yly n. [Gr. brachys, short; dakt ylos, digit] Abnormally short digits. br a ch ym e iosis n. [Gr. brachys, short; m eiosis, to make smaller] Meiosis with the second meiotic division omitted. br a ch yple u r a l a. [Gr. brachys, short; pleuron, side] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to shortened pleura or side plates. br a ch ypodou s a. [Gr. brachys, short; pous, foot] Bearing a short stalk or legs. br a ch ypt e r ou s a. [Gr. brachys, short; pt eron, wing] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Having short or abnormally short wings that do not cover the abdomen. see m a cr opt e r ous. br a ch ypt e r ou s n e ot e in ic see n ym phoid r e pr odu ct ive br a ch ypt e r y see br a chypt e r ous br a ch yst om a t ou s a. [Gr. brachys, short; st om a, mouth] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Having a short proboscis, as certain Diptera. br a ch yt r a ch e a n.; pl. -e a e [Gr. brachys, short; t racheia, windpipe] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, an elongate, saclike structure, sometimes branched, that functions in respiration. br a ch yu r ou s a. [Gr. brachys, short; oura, tail] Having a reduced abdomen; having a short tail. br a con id ve nom gla nd (ARTHRO: Insecta) A type of venom gland where numerous gland tubes end basically in the reservoir that has muscles but no glandular elements. see a pid ve nom gla n d. br a ct n. [L. bractea, small leaf] (CNID: Hydrozoa) A protective medusoid (hydrophyllium or phyllozooid) siphonophoran

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with a simple or branched gastrovascular canal. br a ct e ifor m a. [L. bract ea, small leaf; form a, shape] Bractlike. br a ct e ose a. [L. bract ea, small leaf] With numerous bracts. br a dya ux e sis n. [Gr. bradys, slow; auxesis, growth] A form of heterauxesis in which the growth process of a part is less than that of the whole. see isa ux e sis br a dyge ne sis n. [Gr. bradys, slow; genesis, beginning] Retarded development in ontogeny. see t a ch yge n e sis. br a dyt e lic a. [Gr. bradys, slow; t elos, completion] Pertaining to evolution, evolving slowly; slower than the standard rate. see hor ot e lic. br a in n. [A.S. braegen, brain] 1. The nervous center of invertebrates. 2. (ARTHRO) The cephalic nerve mass; the encephalon, the supraesophageal ganglion; the archicerebrum. 3. (NEMATA) The nerve ring and associated ganglia. br a in hor m one (ARTHRO: Insecta) A secretion of the brain activating the prothoracic glands. br a n ch n.; pl. br a n che s [OF. branche, branch] 1. That which puts forth branches. 2. A primary division of a taxonomic group. 3. A gill. br a n ch e d see r a m ify br a n ch ia n.; pl. -chia e [Gr. branchia, gills] Respiratory organs; a gill; a ctenidium. br a n ch ia l a. [Gr. branchia, gills] Pertaining to gills or branchiae. br a n ch ia l a pe r t u r e The exterior opening of a gill chamber. br a n ch ia l ba sk e t (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Odonata, a chamber of the rectum that contains the rectal gills. br a n ch ia l ca r ina (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, that part of the carapace extending posteriorly from the opening (orbit) in the anterior face over the branchial region. br a n ch ia l ch a m be r (ARTHRO: Crustacea) That area between the body and carapace enclosing the branchiae; the gill chamber. br a n ch ia l cle ft A gill slit.

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br a n ch ia l cr ow n (ANN: Polychaeta) A structure surrounding the terminal mouth composed of ciliated, bipinnate filaments functioning in suspension filter feeding and respiration; tentacular crown. br a n ch ia l gla nds 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Masses of connective-tissue cells, lacking ducts, that surround the venous channels in branchiae. 2. (MOLL: Cephalopoda) Glands along the gill where they connect with the mantle; site of hemocyanin production. br a n ch ia l h e a r t (MOLL: Cephalopoda) One of two hearts that pumps blood to the gills of squid. br a n ch ia l pa ssa ge (MOLL: Bivalvia) A passage in gills that carries parts of the exhalant water system. br a n ch ia l plu m e (ANN: Polychaeta) In certain Sabellidae and Serpulidae, a structure around the terminal mouth comprised of semicircular lobes bearing a few to a series of grooved, ciliated filaments or radioles, each with a series of paired ciliated side branches or pinnules functioning in filter feeding and respiration. br a n ch ia l r a y A gill ray. br a n ch ia l r e gion (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, the lateral part posterior to the pterygostomial region, overlying the branchiae. br a n ch ia l siphon (MOLL) The incurrent siphon. br a n ch ia t e a. [Gr. branchia, gills] Having gills or branchiae. br a n ch icolou s a. [Gr. branchia, gills; colere, to inhabit] Parasitizing gills. br a n ch ifor m a. [Gr. branchia, gills; form a, shape] Shaped like gills. br a n ch ioca r dia c a. [Gr. branchia, gills; kardia, heart] Pertaining to gills and heart. br a n ch ioca r dia c ca r ina (ARTHRO: Crustacea) That part of a carapace dividing the branchial and cardiac region. br a n ch ioca r dia c gr oove (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, an oblique groove on each side of the carapace separating the branchial and cardiac regions.

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br a n ch ioca r dia c sinu s (ARTHRO: Crustacea) One of several sinus channels that facilitates blood flow from the gills to the pericardial sinus and then to the heart. br a n ch iopa llia l a. [Gr. branchia, gills; L. pallium , mantle] (MOLL) Pertaining to the gill and mantle. br a n ch iopn e u st ic a. [Gr. branchia, gills; pneust ikos, of breathing] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to a form of respiration in larvae where the spiracles are functionally replaced by gills. br a nchiost e ga l a r e a (ARTHRO: Crustacea) That part of a carapace extending laterally and ventrally over the branchiae. br a nchiost e ga l spin e (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, a spine on the carapace between the antennal and pterygostomial spines. br a n ch iost e git e n. [Gr. branchia, gills; st egos, roof] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Expanded dorsal and lateral branchial region of the carapace that covers the gills. br a n ch ir e m e n. [Gr. branchia, gills; rem us, oar] (BRACHIO) Any limb. br a n ch it e llu m n.; pl. br a n ch it e lla [Gr. dim. branchia, gills; t elos, end] (MOLL: Bivalvia) A point on the posterioventral shell margin of oysters at the aboral end of the gills near the palliobranchial fusion. br e a k a ge pla ne or j oin t The site of autotomy in invertebrates. br e a st bone n. [A.S. breost , front of the chest; ban, bony] 1. The sternum. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In certain dipterous larvae, a horny ventral process behind the oral opening, representing the labium; anchor process; sternal spatula. br e a t h ing por e see spir a cle br e ph ic a. [Gr. brephos, embryo] 1. Pertaining to an early stage of development. 2. (BRACHIO) The juvenile stage in shell development after protegulum, shown by presence of growth lines; from neanic shells, distinguished by absence of radial ornamentation. br e va ce r a t u ba n.; pl. -t u ba e [L. brevis, short; cera, wax; tuba, trumpet] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A wax gland of scale in-

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sects with an outlet short of the margin of the pygidium. br e via t e a. [L. brevis, short] 1. Shortened; smaller than normal. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Used to describe antennae that are about the length of the head. br e vica u da t e a. [L. brevis, short; cauda, tail] Having a short tail. br e vilin gua l a. [L. brevis, short; lingua, tongue] Having a short tongue. br e vior a t e a n t e nn a e (ARTHRO: Insecta) A term to describe antennae extending passed the head, but short of the body length. see br e vissim a t e a nt e nna . br e vipe d a. [L. brevis, short; pes, foot] Having short legs. br e vipe n na t e a. [L. brevis, short; penna, wing] Having short wings. br e vir ost r a t e a. [L. brevis, short; rost rum , beak] Having a short beak or rostrum. br e vissim a t e a n t e n na e (ARTHRO: Insecta) Antennae length shorter than head length. br idge n. [A.S. brycg, bridgework] 1. Chromosome arrangement at anaphase of meiosis produced from a dicentric strand. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Odonata, a connecting wing vein. br idge cr oss ve in (ARTHRO: Insecta) A cross vein anterior to the bridge vein. br idgin g host An intermediate host that allows a parasite to go to a previously unsuitable host. br idle see fr e n u lum br in n. (ARTHRO: Insecta) A filament of silk of silkworms; when coated with sericin, two adhere together, forming the bave. Br in dle y's gla nd (ARTHRO: Insecta) In certain adult Heteroptera, simple sac-like structures of the scent gland system, occurring in the hemocoele below the first visible abdominal tergite, towards the lateral margin. br ist le n. [A.S. byrst , hair] Any of various stiff, coarse hairs or hairlike structures. br ist le se t a e (NEMATA: Adenophorea) Ambulatory setae func-

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tioning in traction. br it n. sing. & pl. [Corn. bryt h, speckeled] The minute marine animals, mainly crustaceans, that form an important link in the food chain of the aquatic environment. br ochosom e s n.pl. [Gr. brochos, cord; som a, body] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In leafhoppers, ultramicroscopic reticulated bodies, products of the Malpighian glands. br om a t ium n.; pl. bromatia [Gr. brom a, food] A hyphal swelling on the fungus cultured by fungus ants on organic debris in underground galleries. br on ch ia see t r a ch e a br ood n. [A.S. brod] The individuals hatched at the same time from eggs by a single parent and normally mature at about the same time. br ood ca n a l (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Stylopidea, the passage between the female parasite and its puparium; a brood chamber. br ood ca psu le (PLATY: Cestoda) A small hydatid cyst containing 10 to 30 protoscolices; parasites of carnivores. br ood cha m be r 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) a. In Cladocera, a dorsal space between the trunk and enveloping carapace containing developing eggs and newly hatched young. b. In Peracarida, a space arising from the coxae of the thoracic limbs, forming a marsupium in which eggs develop directly, without external metamorphosis. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) see brood canal. 3. (BRYO) a. In Gymnolaemata, water-filled space partly enclosed by the body wall of one or more polymorphs, in which embryos grow during development. see ovice ll. b. In Stenolaemata, a zooidal or extrazooidal internal coelomic chamber that encloses eggs developing into larvae. 4. (ECHINOD) see marsupium. 5. (MOLL: Gastropoda) In female Argonauta , a beautiful, calcareous, bivalve case secreted by the two dorsal arms into which the eggs are deposited; females retain and usually remain with the posterior of her body in the case; when disturbed, she withdraws completely into the retreat. br ood pouch Any space or sac-like cavity utilized as a uterus, in which eggs or embryos are developed; a brood chamber,

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ovisac or marsupium. br oom sha pe d see be som ifor m br ow n bodie s 1. (ANN: Oligochaeta) Spheroidal, ellipsoidal or discoidal masses, free in the coelomic cavities, containing corpuscles or brown debris, setae, cysts of parasites, nematodes and various other foreign bodies. 2. (BRYO) In Stenolaemata and Gymnolaemata, an encapsulated mass of degenerating cells from the lophophore, gut, muscles and other nonskeletal parts of a zooid, retained in the body cavity or expelled after regeneration of feeding and digestive organs. see br ow n de posit . 3. (ECHINOD: Holothuroidea) Small clumps of amoebocytes, parasites and other ejecta found in the coelom. br ow n de posit (BRYO: Stenolaemata) Granular deposits of iron oxide or pyrite believed to be fossilized organic material of organs or brown bodies of degenerated organs. br ow n ia n m ove m e n t The continual vibratory movement of small particles dispersed in a fluid medium, as a result of bombardment by the molecules of the medium. Br u n n e r 's or ga n (ARTHRO: Insecta) A soft tubercle at the base of the hind femur of grasshoppers, against which the caudal tibiae press when at rest. br u sh bor de r Projections of microvilli free on the surface of epithelial cells that produce a brush-like appearance. br u she s n.pl. [OF. broisse, brushwood] 1. A cluster of bristles, stout hairs or scales. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. In Diptera, anterior "mouth bristles" of some mosquitoe larvae, that may or may not be prehensile; posterior or respiratory siphon area bristles. b. In Lepidoptera, anterior pheromone hair-like scales of noctuid moths, or posterior abdominal brush of smooth hairs, function unknown. br u sh - or ga n s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In male Lepidoptera, anterior phermone-producing paired glands, storage organs and distributive brushes functioning to elaborate and disperse sex attractants. br u st ia (ARTHRO: Insecta) Small spines or setae on the mandibles. Br yozoa , br yozoa n s n.; n.pl. [Gr. bryon, moss; zoon, animal]

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A phylum of sessile aquatic coelomates, formerly subdivided into Ectoprocta and Entoprocta, and commonly called moss animals. bu cca n.; pl. bu cca e [L. bucca, cheek] 1. The cheek. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) That area on both sides of the head below the compound eye and just above the mouth opening. bu cca l a. [L. bucca, cheek] Pertaining to the mouth or cheek. bu ca lly adv. bu cca l a ppe nda ge (ARTHRO) Any articulating mouth part. bu cca l ca vit y 1. The mouth or oral cavity. 2. (NEMATA) The stoma. bu cca l cone (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acarina, that portion of the mouthparts composed of hypostome and labrum. bu cca l fie ld (ROTIF) A division of the corona; pertaining to the area surrounding the mouth. bu cca l fissu r e The mouth opening. bu cca l fr a m e (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Brachyura, the structural region of the cephalon that encloses the mouthparts. bu cca l fu nn e l (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Siphunculata, that portion of the fore-intestine that extends into the pharynx. bu cca l gr oove (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Nephropidae, a transverse groove that connects the gastroorbital and antennal grooves crossing the mandibular elevation behind the antennal spine. bu cca l m a ss (MOLL) A bulging mass comprising the radula and associated structures. bu cca l t e nt a cle s/cir r i (ANN) Elongate or digitiform food gathering appendages in or around the mouth. bu cca l t ube 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) see food meatus. 2. (ROTIF) The tubular, ciliated area between the mouth and mastax. bucca t e a. [L. bucca, cheek] Having distended or protuberant cheeks. buccinifor m a. [L. buccinum , a horn-shaped mollusk; form a, shape] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Resembling a trumpet shape; resembling the shape of a Buccinum mollusk. bu ccopha r yn ge a l a. [L. bucca, cheek; Gr. pharynx, throat] 1.

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Pertaining to the cheeks and pharynx. 2. Pertaining to the mouth and pharynx. bu ccopha r yn ge a l sk e le t on

arm ature

see

ce pha lopha r yn ge a l

bu ccopha r yn ge a l/ sa lva r y gla n d (MOLL: Gastropoda) In predacious Prosobranchia, a gland producing a sulfuric acidcontaining secretion that is injected into its victim. bucculla n.; pl. bu ccu lla e [L. dim. bucca, cheek] (ARTHRO: Insecta) One of two ridges on the underside of the head on either side of the beak or rostrum. Bu ce ph a lu s ce r ca r ia (PLATY: Trematoda) Larva of the furcocercous group with the oral sucker on the midventral surface as in adults, with the tail arising from a large bulbous structure instead of a stem. Bu ch n e r fu n n e l A funnel with an interior perforated plate on which filter paper is placed that functions in vacuum filtration. bu d n. [ME. budde, bud] A young individual produced by budding, prior to detachment from the parent. bu ddin g n. [ME. budde, bud] 1. The asexual reproduction of a new individual as the result of an outgrowth or bud from the parent organism. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) see colon y fission. bu ffe r e d popu la t ion s Populations of organisms affecting one another in such a way as to maintain a population density mean. bu ffe r spe cie s An alternative food for a predator, thereby, buffering the effect of the predator on its normal prey. Bu ge l or ga n (ARTHRO: Insecta) A sense organ attached to the back of the tympanum, containing two scolopidia supported by an apodemal ligament and an invagination of the tympanal frame. bu lb n. [L. bulbus, a swelling] Any hollow globose organ. bu lbose , bulbous, bulba r a. [L. bulbus, a swelling] Pertaining to or resembling a bulb. bu lbu s e j a cu la t or iu s (ARTHRO: Insecta) Ductus ejaculatorius. a. In some Hymenoptera, the swollen almost spherical

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structure. b. In Lepidoptera, the distal part. c. In Diptera, a muscled, syringe-like structure. bu lla n.; pl. bu lla e [L. bulla, bubble] 1. A rounded prominance, blister- or knob-like. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A structure secreted by the head and maxillary glands of certain parasitic female copepods that serves as an anchor for attachment to gill filaments of fish. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. Weakened spots on concave wings that allows them to bend. see st igm a . b. In diaspid Hemiptera, located in the terminal outlet of wax glands (ceratuba) at the inner end. c. In scarabaeoid Coleoptera, a sclerite that closes the trachea. 4. (NEMATA: Secernentea) In Heteroderidae, knoblike structures within the vulval cone of cysts near the underbridge or fenestra. bu lla t e a. [L. bulla, bubble] Having a blister-like appearance, inflated, swollen. bu llifor m a. [L. bulla, bubble; form a, shape] Bubble-shaped. bu n dle n. [A.S. byndele, a binding] 1. A band or group fastened together. 2. A group of nerves, muscles or other fibers; a fasicle. bu r de n n. [A.S. byrt hen, load] The total number of infectious parasites of an individual. see in t e n sit y. bu r r ow n. [uncert. origin] A hole or excavation used as a shelter and habitation, or place of retreat. see fossor ia l. bu r sa n.; pl. bu r sa e [L. bursa, purse] 1. Any pouch or sac, a sac-like cavity. 2. A lateral cuticular extension adanal, or surrounding the tail of male nematodes and acanthocephalans that functions as claspers or guides during copulation; has also been applied by various workers to all caudal alae. 3. (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) In Ophiurida, formed by infoldings of the body wall of the oral disc to either side of the base of each arm, functioning in gas exchange or as bursal slits. see bu r sa copu la t r ix . bu r sa copu la t r ix 1. A genital pouch of numerous invertebrates. 2. In certain male nematodes and acanthocephalans, a modified caudal ala or alae, circular or oval, may be divided into two lateral symmetrical or asymmetrical lobes, separated by a dorsal lobe, and supported by rays or pa-

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pillae; bursa. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) A female copulatory pouch developed from the tubular vagina in the genital chamber for reception of the male aedeagus. see ge n it a l ch a m be r . 4. (MOLL) A copulatory pouch or sac for receiving sperm that will be stored for only a brief period; copulatory bursa. see se m in a l r e ce pt a cle . 5. (PLATY: Turbellaria) In planarians, a blind pouch that holds the secretions from the penis and adenodactyl gland (muscular organ), which then activates the sperm. bu r sa l slit s (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) Genital openings of the bursa of Ophiurida, through which water circulates for respiration, and ripe sex cells pass for fertilization or are retained as brood until rupture of the aboral disk. see ophioplu t e us. bu r sa se m in a lis see se m ina l bu r sa bu r sicon n. [L. dim. bursa, purse] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A hormone associated with hardening and darkening of the cuticle following ecdysis. bu r sifor m a. [L. bursa, purse; form a, shape] Formed like a purse. bu sch e lfor m ige n Kor pe r see r a ce m ose gla n ds bu t t see h a m pe bu t t r e ss n. [OF. bout erez, to thrust] 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Culicidae pupae, a sclerotized, thickened basolateral part of the paddle; external buttress; external thickening; nervure. 2. (MOLL: Bivalvia) A radiating ridge on the interior that reinforces the hinge process. byssa ce ous a. [Gr. byssos, fine flax] Composed of fine filaments. byssa l for a m e n (MOLL: Bivalvia) An opening in the right valve for passage of byssus in Anomiidae oysters. byssa l ga pe (MOLL: Bivalvia) An opening between the valve margins for the passage of the byssus. byssa l gla n d (MOLL: Bivalvia) A viscid secreting gland producing the byssal threads that anchors the organism to rocks and solid objects; also called byssal pit. see byssus. byssa l not ch (MOLL: Bivalvia) A small opening or notch located

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on the ventral margin for the passage of the byssus from the byssal gland. byssa l sinu s (MOLL: Bivalvia) Corresponds to the byssal notch of the right valve, but shallower and on the left valve in the Pectinacea. byssu s n.; pl. byssi, byssuse s [L. byssos, fine flax] 1. (MOLL: Bivalvia) Fibers or small bundles of silky threads by which they anchor themselves to the substratum; beard. 2. (NEMATA: Adenophorea) A series of elaborately branched projections at the poles of mermithid eggs, by which they attach to plants.

C ca da ve r icole n. [L. cadaver, dead body; colere, to dwell] An organism feeding on the dead tissues of another organism. ca ddis n. [Gr. kadiskos, urn or box] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Trichoptera, a case bearing larva. ca dr e n. [L. quadrus, square] (ARTHRO: Pentastomida) The sclerotized mouth lining. ca du cou s a. [L. caducus, falling] Naturally detached or shed; having the tendency to fall off early or before maturity. ca du cou s m u scle (ARTHRO: Insecta) In exo- and endopterygotes, larval muscles that may persist for a short time in the adult and may play an important role until destroyed. ca e cum , ce cu m n.; pl. ca e ca [L. caecus, blind] 1. A pouch or saclike cavity extending from the alimentary canal with an opening at only one end. 2. (BRACHIO) Evagination of the outer epithelium projecting into the endopuncta of the shell; pallial caecum; mantle papilla. 3. (ECHI) When present, a blind pouch arising from the posterior (precloacal) region of the intestine; function unknown. 4. (SIPUN) see r e ct a l ca e cu m . ce ca l, ca e ca l a. Ca e n oga e a , Ca inoge a n. [Gr. kainos, recent; gaia, earth] A zoogeographical region including the Nearctic, Palearctic, and Oriental regions, as opposed to Eogaea. ca e noga e a n a. ca e noge n e sis see ce n oge n e sis ca isson n. [L. capsa, box] (ANN: Oligochaeta) A box-like arrangement of longitudinal muscle fibers in certain earthworms. ca la ba r sw e lling Transient subcutaneous nodule or swelling resulting from the traversing filarial nematode Loa loa. ca la m ist r um se t a e (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In many cribellate Araneae, a row of curved bristle-like setae on the dorsal part of the fourth metatarsus; functioning in combing silk from a special spinning organ.

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ca la m u s n. [L. calam us, reed] (NEMATA) The shaft of the spicule. ca la t h ifor m a. [L. calat hus, basket shaped, bowl-like; form a, shape] Shaped like a cup or bowl. ca lca ne a see u n gu it r a ct or ca lca r n.; pl. -ca r ia [L. calcar, spur] 1. A spur-like projection. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) A spur- or horn-like hypertrophied seta or spine, with roots that may be incorporated in the tegument. ca lca r a t e a. Ca lca r e a n. [L. calcarius, of lime] A class of sponges of the Phylum Porifera, with skeleton formed of spicules of calcium carbonate laid down as calcite; tissues unlike other sponge classes due to three grades of construction: asconoid, synconoid and leuconoid. ca lca r e ou s a. [L. calcarius, of lime] Composed of, containing, or of the nature of limestone or calcium carbonate. ca lca r ifor m a. [L. calcar, spur; form a, shape] Spur-like. ca lce ola t e a. [L. calceus, shoe] Slipper-shaped; oblong with a coarctate middle; calceiform; calceoliform. ca lce olu s n.; pl. ca lce oli [L. dim. calceus, shoe] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Malacostraca, complex sensory organelles on the antennules and accessory flagellum of amphipods. ca lcife r ou s glands (ANN: Oligochaeta) Esophageal glands of earthworms, excretory in function; controls the level of certain ions in the blood, particularly calcium and carbonate ions; glands of Morren. ca lcific a. [L. calx, lime; facere, to make] Producing lime salts. ca lcipa la n. [L. calcis, heel; pala, shovel] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In certain Diptera, a flattened lobe at the apex of the basitarus of the hind leg. ca lcosph e r it e s n.pl. [L. calx, lime; sphaera, ball] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Calcium accumulated in the adipose-bodies of larvae of phytophagous Diptera. ca lice n. [L. calyx, cup] (CNID) The open end of a coral skeleton. see cor a llit e . ca licle see ca lycle

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ca licobla st ic e pit he liu m (CNID: Anthozoa) A specialized portion of the ectoderm of corals that produces the aragonite skeleton in the true or stony corals. ca liology n. [Gr. kalia, hut; logos, discourse] The study of dwellings or natural shelters utilized by animals. ca llosit y n.; pl. -t ie s [L. callus, hard skin] 1. A state or quality of being callous. 2. (MOLL: Gastropoda) The local thickened part of the callus or inductura of the shell. ca llou s a. [L. callus, hard skin] Hardened; having a callus or callosities. ca llow w or k e r (ARTHRO: Insecta) A newly emerged adult worker ant whose exoskeleton is still relatively soft and lightly pigmented. see t e n e r a l. ca llum n. [L. callus, hard skin] (MOLL: Bivalvia) A sheet of shelly material filling in the anterior gape in the shell of certain adult mollusks. ca llu s n.; pl. ca llu se s, calli [L. callus, hard skin] 1. An unusually hardened or thickened area; a rounded swelling. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In brachycerous Diptera, a knoblike swelling on the cuticle. 3. (MOLL: Gastropoda) A shelly substance (inductura) on the parietal region or extending from the inner lip over base or into the umbilicus of the shell. ca lobiosis n. [Gr. kalos, beautiful; biosis, manner of life] A form of symbiosis in which a species lives in the nest of, and at the expense of another either temporarily or permanently. ca lom u s n. [Gr. kalam os, stalk, reed] (NEMATA) The shaft of the spicule between the manubrium and the lamina; sometimes called the spicule shaft. ca lor ic a. [L. calor, heat] Of or pertaining to heat. ca lor ige n ic a. [L. calor, heat; genere, to produce] Generating heat. ca lor im e t r y n. [L. calor, heat; m et ricus, of measuring] The measurement of heat exchange in an organism or in a system. ca lot t e n. [F. calot t e, skull cap] 1. (MESO: Rhombozoa) The headlike region of dicyemids. 2. (NEMATOM) Anterior ex-

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tremity of a nematomorph, often marked by a white area followed by a darkened band. ca lt h r op n. [ML. calcit rapa, a four-pointed weapon used to obstruct enemy movements] (PORIF) A tetraxon spicule with four rays more or less equal. ca lt r op spin e s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Lepidoptera, specialized tibial spurs of limacodid larvae. ca lva n. [L. calvaria, skull] A skull-cap; an epicranium. ca lva r ium n. [L. calvaria, skull] (NEMATA) Subcuticular cephalic framework. ca lvou s a. [L. calvus, bald] Lacking hair; bald. ca lx n.; pl. ca lce s [L. calx, heel] 1. A heel, or the portion of a limb corresponding to the heel. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The distal end of the tibia. ca lycifor m a. [Gr. kalyx, cup; L. form a, shape] Calyx-like or goblet-shaped. ca lycine a. [Gr. kalyx, cup] Cuplike; calyx-like. ca lycle n. [Gr. kalyx, cup] 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A small cap on the umbones. 2. (CNID: Hydrozoa) The theca of hydroids. ca lycula t e a. [Gr. dim. kalyx, cup] (ARTHRO) Pertaining to antennae furnished with cup-shaped joints for insertion of next annulus. ca lycu lu s n.; pl. -li [Gr. dim. kalyx, cup] 1. Any cup-shaped structure; calycle. 2. (CNID: Hydrozoa) A cavity of a coral containing the polyps. ca lyopt is la r va see ca lypt opis st a ge ca lypt e r e s n.pl. [Gr. kalypt o, cover] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, small membranous lobes or disk-like structures at the base of the wing, just above the halter. see a lu la ; squa m a . ca lypt obla st ic a. [Gr. kalypt os, covered; blast os, bud] (CNID: Hydrozoa) Pertains to hydranths in which the gonophores are commonly borne singly or multiply on stalked blastostyles that are encased in peridermal gonothecae. ca lypt obr a n ch ia t e a. [Gr. kalypt os, covered; branchia, gills]

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Bearing gills imperceptible from the exterior. ca lypt odom ous a. [Gr. kalypt os, covered; L. dom us, house] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertains to nests, especially of social wasps, in which brood combs are surrounded by an envelope. see gym nodom ou s. ca lypt opis st a ge (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Euphausiacea, the third larval stage characterized by differentiation of abdomen and appearance of compound eyes. see zoe a . ca lypt ost a se n. [Gr. kalypt os, covered; st asis, standing] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) A stase in which acarine instars are subject to regressive characters from losing the use of appendages and mouthparts, to remaining enclosed in the tegument of the preceding stase or in the egg-shell; nymphochrysalis. calyptostasic a. see pr ot e la t t osis, e la t t ost a se . ca lypt r a n. [Gr. kalypt o, cover] A hood or cap. see a lula . Ca lypt r a t a e n. [Gr. kalypt os, covered] The Calyptrate Muscoidae of former classifications, including Tachinidae, Metopiidae, Muscidae, Oestridae and Cuterebridae. see M uscoide a (=Calyptratae). ca lypt r on see ca lypt e r e s ca lyx n.; pl. -yx e s, -ycis, -yce s [Gr. kalyx, cup] 1. Any cuplike area into which structures are set. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. A flattened cap of neuropile in an insect brain, a component of the corpus pedunculatum. b. In certain female insects, an expansion of the oviduct into which the ovarioles open. c. In male Lepidoptera, a funnel-shaped expansion of the basal part of the vas deferens. 3. (CNID: Anthozoa) The spicules containing the basal portion of the anthocodium of some soft corals; calice. 4. (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) The body disk that is covered with a leathery tegumen containing calcareous plates. ca m a r odont la n t e r n (ECHINOD) When the large epiphyses are fused across the top of each pyramid of Aristotle's lantern. ca m e r a n. [L. cam era, chamber] (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. Curved narrow sclerite that supports the paired lobes of the arolium. b. A curved band of cuticle supporting the proximal end of a pulvillus.

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ca m e r a l liqu id (MOLL: Cephalopoda) A fluid found in the most recently formed nautiloid shell chambers. ca m e r a t ion n. [L. cam era, chamber] Divided into chambers. ca m e r ost om e n. [L. cam era, chamber; st om a, mouth] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) A ventral groove in the propodosome of Acarina, wherein lies the capitulum (gnathosoma). ca m pa nifor m a. [L. cam pana, bell; form a, shape] Bell or dome-shaped. ca m pa n u la t e a. [L. dim. cam pana, bell] Formed like a bell; bell-shaped. ca m pe st r a l a. [L. cam pest er, of fields] Inhabiting open country and grassland. ca m pode ifor m la r va (ARTHRO: Insecta) A larva having the form of the thysanuran genus Campodea , elongate and flattened, with well developed legs and antennae, and usually active; said of certain active carnivorous larvae; thysanuriform larva; oligopod larva. ca m pu s n.; pl. ca m pi [L. cam pus, field] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The bare or almost bare ventral region of the tenth, or fused ninth and tenth, abdominal segments of scarabaeoid larvae, in front of an entire or anteriorly split teges, or in front of the paired tegilla. Ca na dia n Zon e A biogeographical zone comprising the southern part of the great transcontinental coniferous forests of Canada, the northern parts of Maine, New Hampshire and Michigan, and a strip along the Pacific Coast extending south to Cape Mendocino and the greater part of the high mountains of the United States and Mexico. Easterly it covers the Green, Adirondack and Catskill Mountains and the higher mountains of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee; in the Rockies, extending continuously from British Columbia to western Wyoming and in the Cascades from British Columbia to southern Oregon with a narrow interruption along the Columbia River. ca n a l n. [L. canalis, channel] 1. A groove, tube, or duct. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The groove or sulcus on the mandible or mouth structures of insect larvae. 3. (CNID) Part of the

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gastrovascular system; in medusae may be radial or circular with interconnections. 4. (MOLL: Gastropoda) A narrow, semitubular extension of the aperture. ca n a la r ia a. [L. canalis, channel] (PORIF) Referring to spicules in the lining of canals. ca na licu la t e a. [L. dim. canalis, channel] Having longitudinal grooves, channels or sutures. ca na licu lus n.; pl. -uli [L. dim. canalis, channel] 1. A minute canal. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Lepidoptera, an elongate sclerotized structure that functions as a support or guide for the aedeagus. 3. (BRYO: Stenolaemata) The large style inflecting septumlike projections into the zooecial chamber parallel to the length. ca na life r ou s a. [L. canalis, channel; ferre, to carry] (MOLL) Having a canal-like extension of the aperture in the form of small grooves or furrows. ca na liza t ion n. [L. canalis, channel; Gr. izein, to make] The characteristic developmental pathways that achieve a standard phenotype in spite of genetic or environmental disturbance. ca na lizin g se le ct ion The selection of genes to stabilize the developmental pathways so as to make the phenotype less susceptible to the effect of environmental or genetic disturbances. ca n a l of fe cu n da t ion (ARTHRO: Insecta) The seminal canal of female Coleoptera. ca n a l syst e m (PORIF) Passageways through which water passes from the surface pores to the osculum or excurrent openings. ca n ce lla t e , ca n ce lla t e d a. [L. cancellat us, latticed] Being marked with numerous ridges or lines; pertaining to a network formed by small interlacing bars; reticulated. ca n cr isocia l a. [L. cancer, crab; socius, companion] Living with or on the shell of a crab; commensalism with crabs. ca n cr oid a. [L. cancer, crab; Gr. eidos, like] Resembling a crab. ca n e n. [L. candeo, shine, glow] (NEMATA) A refringent thick-

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ening of the posterior cuticle void of ornamentation. see ca lva r ium . ca n e lla n.; pl. ca ne lla s, -a e [Gr. dim. kanna, reed] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A furrow that extends from a spiracle to the lateral margin of the body of coccoid insects. ca n in e s n.pl. [L. canis, dog] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A pair of heavily chitinized spines originating from the mandibles of mayflies, adapted for holding food. ca n it ie s n. [L. canus, hoary] Grayness or whiteness of hair. ca n n iba lism n. [Sp. canibal, caribal, through Arawakan, fr. Carib calina, galibi, Caribs lit.; strong men] Eating the flesh of other individuals of the same species. ca n n u la n.; pl. ca n n ula e [Gr. dim. kanna, reed] A small tube. ca nt ha r ia sis n. [Gr. kant haris, blister-beetle; -iasis, a diseased condition] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The invasion of humans and other animals by coleopterous larvae. ca nt ha r idin n. [Gr. kant haris, blister-beetle] A chemical produced by adults of the family Meloidae that causes skin blisters; the drug is obtained for medical use from the southern European Lyt t a vesicat oria, commonly known as Spanish fly. ca n t ha r oph ilou s a. [Gr. kant haris, blister-beetle; philein, to love] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pollination by beetles. ca n t h u s n. [Gr. kant hos, edge, corner] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A cuticular bridge across compound eyes that partially or completely divides the eyes into an upper and lower half. ca pa ciou s a. [L. capax, roomy] Able to contain a great deal; roomy; large; ample; spacious. ca pa cit a t ion n. [L. capax, roomy] 1. Cause to become capable; qualify. 2. In spermatogenesis, the physiological changes between insemination and fertilization. ca pilla r y a. [L. capillus, hair] Hair-like. ca pilla t e a. [L. capillus, hair] Having a covering of long slender hair. ca pillifor m ch a e t a (ANN) A long, undivided dorsal hair. ca pillit iu m see cucullus

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ca pit a t e a. [L. caput , head] An apical knoblike enlargement or a headlike structure; capitate antenna or hairs. ca pit e llum see ca pit ulu m ca pit ula r a pode m e (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, an apodeme separating the cheliceral frame and the infracapitulum. ca pit ula r sa ddle (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, that area of the cervix separating the two cheliceral grooves. ca pit ulifor m a. [L. caput , head; form a, shape] Having an enlarged terminal part, like a capitulum. ca pit ulifor m t oot h (MOLL) The broad, flat-topped, outermost admedian on either side of the radula. ca pit ulu m n.; pl. -la [L. caput , head] 1. A small knoblike protuberance. 2. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The anterior body region of a mite or tick which bears the mouth parts; the gnathosoma. 3. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) a. In Cirripedia, a portion of the carapace that encloses the body, commonly protected by calcareous plates. b. In Ostracoda, an anterior prominence in the complex tooth and socket hingement. 4. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. The enlarged tip of an insect antenna or proboscis. b. In Diptera, the small tubercle at the tip of halteres. 5. (CNID: Anthozoa) In Actinaria, an upper, thinwalled region of the column. 6. (NEMATA) a. The head or manubrium of a spicule. b. A flange of the gubernaculum cuneus. ca pr ifica t ion n. [L. caprificus, wild fig tree] The method or process of pollination by Blast ophaga psenes, a chalcid fig wasp, that breeds in wild capri figs and serves to pollinate Smyrna figs. ca pr ifica t or n. [L. caprificus, wild fig tree] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The chalcid fig wasp, Blastophaga psenes that performs the process of caprification. ca psu la n.; pl. -la e [L. dim. capsa, box] A capsule. ca psu la r , ca psu la t e a. [L. dim. capsa, box] In the form of, or enclosed within a capsule. ca psula r fla m e ce lls Flame cells that open directly into a bladder at the end of a canal.

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ca psu le n. [L. dim. capsa, box] A sac-like membrane resulting from macroscopic alien objects enclosing an organ, egg, foreign body, etc. see gia nt ce ll. ca pt a culum n.; pl. -u la [L. capt are, to snatch at, catch] (MOLL: Scaphopoda) One of numerous slender retractile tentacles with sucker-like tips, arising from the dorsal surface of the head; used in gathering foraminifera and very small mollusks. ca pu lifor m a. [L. capulus, holder; form a, shape] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Having the shape of a depressed cone with eccentric apex and near-apical part of the shell slightly coiled, as in Capulus . ca pu t n.; pl. ca pit a [L. caput , head] 1. The head or knob-like protuberance. 2. The head with all its appendages. ca pylu s n. [LL. cappa, hood] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A hump on the dorsal aspect of the segments of many insect larvae. ca r a boid, ca r a bidoid a. [Gr. karabos, a kind of beetle] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Resembling Carabidae; a carabid beetle; the second instar larvae of Meloidae, the blister beetles. ca r a pa ce n. [Sp. carapacho, covering] 1. Any fused series of sclerites covering a portion of the body. 2. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) a. In Acari, the more or less fused dorsal sclerites of the cephalothorax covering the idiosoma of mites and ticks. b. In Arachnida, the upper covering of the cephalothorax. 3. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) a. A cuticular, usually calcified, structure formed by the posterior and lateral extension of the dorsal sclerites of the head of many decapods and other crustaceans, often covering head and thorax. b. In bivalves, a fold of integument extending from the maxillary segment forming the shell. c. In some Cirripedia, the mantle usually with calcified plates. 4. (ROTIF) The rigid cuticle of many rotifers. ca r a pa ce a n gle s (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Conchostraca, the intersection of the straight dorsal margin by the anterior and posterior ribs. ca r a pa ce ca r ina (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The narrow ridge on the surface of a carapace. ca r a pa ce cost a e (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Fine to coarse closely

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spaced radial ridges, that do not cross the umbo; radial lirae. ca r a pa ce cost e lla e (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Fine radial ridges, extending from the ventral margin to and across the um bo, generally numerous on any given valve, especially in Conchostraca. ca r a pa ce gr oove (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Various types of furrows on the surface of a carapace. ca r a pa ce gr ow t h line (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The peripheral margin of successive membranes added to the shell during each molt. ca r a pa ce h or n (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The anterodorsal termination of carapace valves in some archaeostracans; in others, may be indurated or produced into long processes. ca r a pa ce lir a e (ARTHRO: Insecta) Linear concentric ridges parallel to and interspaced between the growth lines. ca r a pa ce r e gion (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Differentiated portion of the surface of a carapace. ca r a pa ce spin e s (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Variously placed, sharp projections from the carapace. ca r a pa ce t oot h (ARTHRO: Insecta) Various blunt or small sharp spinous projections on a carapace, often broader than a spine. ca r boh ydr a t e s n.pl. [L. carbo comb. form, carbon; Gr. hydor, water] Compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio of 1:2:1. see m onosa cch a r ide , disa cch a r ide , polysaccharide. ca r cin oid a. [Gr. karkinos, crab; eidos, like] Pertaining to or resembling crabs. ca r cinology n. [Gr. karkinos, crab; logos, discourse] That branch of zoology that studies Crustacea. ca r da t e m a st a x (ROTIF) In the genus Lindia, a sucking type of mastax characterized by forked manubria with the sucking action produced by the unci. ca r dia n. [Gr. kardia, heart] 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) An anterior cardiac chamber of the midgut of Diptera; the proventriculus of some authors. 2. (BRYO) Part of the digestive tract

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into which the esophagus opens, sometimes differentiated into gizzard and stomach. 3. (NEMATA) The esophago-intestinal valve. ca r dia c a. [Gr. kardia, heart] Pertaining to or near the heart. ca r dia c not ch or in cision (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Indentation on the posterior margin of a carapace. ca r dia c pylor ic va lve (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, a calcified triangular plate that may be flat or curved, generally covered with elongate setae pointing backwards, or covered by a thick corrugated layer of pigmented chitin; functioning as a guard to the pyloric opening. ca r dia c r e gion (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, the median part posterior to the cervical groove, between the urogastric and intestinal regions. ca r dia c sin u s (ARTHRO) The dorsal part of the embryonic hemocoel of certain arthropods, that corresponds to a circulatory system, a part of which becomes the lumen of the dorsal blood vessel. ca r dia c sph in ct e r (ARTHRO: Insecta) Circular muscles at the entrance to the midgut of certain insects; cardiac valve; stomodeal valve. ca r dia c st om a ch 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, the anterior portion of the stomach. 2. (BRYO: Phylactolaemata) That part of the stomach between the cardiac valve and caecum. 3. (ECHINOD: Asteroidea) The large, loosely folded adoral stomach of a sea star, that is capable of being everted when feeding. ca r dia c t oot h (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Decapoda, a tooth on the mid-line of a carapace just posterior to the cervical groove. ca r dia c va lve 1. A valve at the junction of the foregut and midgut of many invertebrates. 2. (NEMATA) see ca r dia . ca r difor m a. [Gr. kardia, heart; L. form a, shape] Resembling the shape of a heart. ca r din a l a. [L. cardo, hinge] 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Referring to the cardo. 2. (MOLL: Bivalvia) Applied to the central or principal teeth in the hinge of a shell. ca r din a l a r e a 1. (BRACHIO) The posterior sector of the articu-

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late valve. 2. (MOLL: Bivalvia) A flat or curved surface between the beak and the hinge line. ca r din a l a x is (MOLL: Bivalvia) An imaginary line on which the shell valves are hinged. ca r din a l ce ll see t r ia ngle ca r din a l cost a (MOLL: Bivalvia) A ridge marking the cardinal area from the outer face of the shell. ca r din a l cr u r a (MOLL: Bivalvia) Narrow teeth radiating from the apex of the ligament pit. ca r din a le s The cardines. see ca r do. ca r din a lia a. [L. cardinalis, pert. to a hinge] (BRACHIO) Outgrowths of the secondary shell in the posteromedian region of the brachial valve, functioning in articulation, support of the lophophore, and muscle attachment. ca r din a l m a r gin (BRACHIO) The curved posterior margin of the shell. ca r din a l pla t e (BRACHIO) A plate extending across the posterior end of the brachial valve, consisting of outer hinge plates and inner hinge plates or plate. ca r din a l pla t for m (MOLL: Bivalvia) An internal plate containing teeth below the beak and adjoining parts of the dorsal margin; hinge plate. ca r din a l pr oce ss (BRACHIO) A blade or boss of the secondary shell placed medially in the posterior end of the brachial valve for the separation or attachment of the diductor muscles. ca r din a l t oot h (MOLL: Bivalvia) The hinge tooth positioned near the beak. ca r din e s pl. of ca r do ca r din ost e r n a l a. [L. cardo, hinge; Gr. st ernon, chest] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Of or pertaining to the cardo and the sternum of a labial segment. ca r din ost ipit a l a. [L. cardo, hinge; a st ipes, a stem] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to the cardo and stipes taken together. ca r diobla st s n.pl [Gr. kardia, heart; blast os, bud] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Special cells during embryology that originate

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from the upper angle of the coelomic sac to form the heart and dorsal blood vessel. ca r diocoe lom n. [Gr. kardia, heart; koilos, hollow] The coelom that forms the pericardium. ca r diocoe lom ic a. [Gr. kardia, heart; koilos, hollow] Pertaining to the venous openings from the heart to the body cavity. ca r do n., pl. point. 2. maxillary the basal

ca r din e s [L. cardo, hinge] 1. A hinge or turning (ARTHRO) a. A basal segment or division of the appendage. b. In Diplopoda, seen externally as cheek lobe. 3. (MOLL: Bivalvia) The hinge.

ca r dosu bm e n t a l a. [L. cardo, hinge; sub, under; m ent um , chin] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to the cardo and the submentum. ca r ide a n lobe (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In caridean shrimps, an external rounded projection on the basal part of the exopod of the first maxilliped. ca r idoid fa cie s (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A group of characters that distinguish primitive eumalacostracan crustaceans: enclosure of the thorax by the carapace, movable stalked eyes, biramous antennules, antennae with scaphocerites, thoracopods with natatory exopods, ventrally flexed abdomen, and caudal fan. ca r ina n., pl. -n a e [L. carina, keel] 1. Any keel-like structure or elevated ridge. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) a. A well defined projecting ridge on the outer surface of the carapace of podocopan ostracods. b. The unpaired posteriodorsal plate of thoracic barnacles; in lepadomorphs, l of up to 4 unpaired plates of the capitulum; in verrucomorphs, the compartmental plate between the rostrum and fixed tergum; in balanomorphs, compartmental plate, with alae on each side, opposite the rostrum. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. A form of sharp distal cornuti of the genitalia of certain male Lepidoptera. b. For Othroptera see frontal costa. c. The fused ventral outer wall of the aedeagus of male fleas. 4. (BRYO) The median ridge on the zoarium surface. ca r in a l a. ca r in a l la t u s (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The plate on each side of the carina of a lepadomorph barnacle.

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ca r in a l m a r gin (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In thoracic barnacles, the edge of any plate adjacent to the carina, and occluding with the carinal margin of the opposed tergum. ca r in a t e a. [L. carina, keel] 1. Ridged or keeled; furnished with raised lines or ridges. 2. Possessing a carina. 3. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Conchostraca, a valve bearing rib(s). see r a t it e . ca r inifor m a. [L. carina, keel; form a, shape] Keel-shaped; tropeic. ca r in ola t e r a l n. [L. carina, keel; lateralis, of the side] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) One of a pair of compartmental plates of balanomorph barnacles, usually overlapping the carina on each side, with the radius on the carinal side and the ala on the lateral side; the carinal latus of lepadomorphs. ca r iou s a. [L. caries, decay] Decayed; having surface depressions; corroded. ca r m in a t e , ca r m ina t e d a. [Ar. qirm iz, deep red] Mixed or stained with carmine. ca r m in e n. [Ar. qirm iz, deep red] A crimson dye derived from the cocineal insect Coccus cacti that is used as a histological stain. ca r n e ou s a. [L. carnosus, fleshy] Resembling flesh in color or substance. ca r n ivor e n. [L. carnis, flesh; vorare, to devour] A flesh eater, i.e., an animal preying on other animals or feeding on their flesh. ca r n ivor ou s a. [L. carnis, flesh; vorare, to devour] Eating or living on flesh or other animals. ca r nosa n n. [L. carnis, flesh] (BRYO) Those autozooids budded directly from other autozooids, or alternate with other groups of kenozooids. ca r n ose a. [L. carnosus, fleshy] Pertaining to a soft, fleshy substance. Ca r olin ia n Fa u na l Ar e a The humid division of the Upper Austral zone, including much of the eastern United States from southern New England to Georgia, and extending west to the 100th meridian.

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ca r ot e n e , ca r ot in n. [L. carot a, carrot] An important hydrocarbon pigment in plants and animals; -ca r ot e n e , C40 H56 , also known as provitamin A. ca r ot e n oid a. ca r ot e n oph or e n. [L. carot a, carrot; Gr. phorein, to bear] A pigmented stigma or eye-spot. ca r ot in see ca r ot e ne ca r ot in a lbu m e n see a st a x a n t h in , in se ct ove r din , pt e r ine pigm e n t s ca r poce r it e n. [L. carpus, wrist; Gr. keras, horn] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The distal segment (5th) of the antennal peduncle. ca r poph a gou s a. [Gr. karpos, fruit; phagein, to eat] Feeding on fruit. ca r popod(ite) n. [L. carpus, wrist; Gr. pous, foot] 1. (ARTHRO) The fifth segment of a generalized arthropod appendage. 2. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The patella. 3. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The carpus. 4. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The tibia. ca r pu s n.; pl. ca r pi [L. carpus, Gr. wrist] 1. The wrist. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The antepenultimate segment of the thoracopod or pereopod; the carpopod(ite). 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The area of the wing at which they transversely fold; the pterostigma of Odonata; the radius and cubitus extremity of the fore wing. 4. (MOLL: Cephalopoda) The tentacle. ca r r e fou r a r e a (MOLL: Gastropoda) In certain pulmonates, that area into which the hermaphroditic duct discharges, a large albumen gland and small fertilization pouch open, and the sperm duct and oviduct begin. ca r r ie r ce ll (PORIF) A migratory choanocyte that transports sperm to the oocyte. ca r r ie r st a t e A type of attenuated infection characterized by the presence of a pathogenic microorganism within or upon host tissues. ca r r ion n. [L. caries, decay] The dead or putrefying flesh of an animal. ca r t ila ge n. [L. cart ilago, gristle] 1. A translucent, elastic substance. 2. (MOLL) a. In Bivalvia, a supplement to the liga-

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ment that controls the opening of the valves. b. In Cephalopoda, supporting the brain. ca r t ila ge pit (MOLL: Bivalvia) A depression for the inner part of the ligament. ca r t ila ginou s a. [L. cart ilaginosus, gristle] Pertaining to cartilage in structure or appearance. ca r t on n. [L. cart a; leaf of paper] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Any paper-like material made and used by insects in the construction of shelters. ca r u n cle n. [L. dim. caro, flesh] 1. A fleshy excrescence or protuberance. 2. (ANN) A sensory lobe extending behind the prostomium. 3. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, a basal expansion on the tarsus that forms a sucker. ca r y see also k a r y ca r yolyt e s, ca r olit e s n.pl. [Gr. karyon, nut; lyt ikos, loosing] Numerous small nucleated masses of protoplasm, probably derived from muscles, minute grains and other fragments of disintegrating tissues. ca st n. [ON. kast a, throw] 1. Anything that is shed in a form resembling the original. 2. (ANN: Oligochaeta) The excrement of an earthworm. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The molted exoskeletons of arthropod instars. 4. (MOLL) An extraneous substance molded in the interior of a fossil shell, the shell itself having disappeared. ca st a ne ous a. [L. cast anea, chestnut] Pertaining to or of the color of a chestnut; brown; sepia. ca st e n. [L. cast us, pure] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. A group of individuals of a particular morphological type, age group, or other, that performs special functions in a colony. 2. A group of individuals in a colony that are morphologically distinct and specialized in behavior. ca st e polye t h ism (ARTHRO: Insecta) In social insects, morphological castes that are specialized for the functions which they perform. see polye t h ism , a ge polye t h ism . ca st ing n. [ON. kast a, throw] 1. Material discarded or cast off by an animal. 2. (ANN: Oligochaeta) The excrement of an earthworm.

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ca st r a t ion n. [L. cast rat us, geld] Any process that inhibits or interferes with the production of mature ova or spermatozoa in the gonads of an organism. ca t - see also k a t ca t a bolism n. [Gr. kat a, down; bolein, to throw] The destructive phase of metabolism, including the processes involved with converting complex compounds into simpler ones, especially those involved in the release of energy. see a na bolism . ca t a ch om a n. pl. -a t a [Gr. kat a, down; chom a, mound] (MOLL: Bivalvia) One of many small pits in the peripheral, inner surface of the left valve for reception of an anachoma. ca t a k in e sis a. [Gr. kat a, down; kinesis, movement] Pertaining to molecules, atoms or protoplasm low in energy content. see a na k ine sis. ca t a la se n. [Gr. kat a, down; allassein, to change] An enzyme found in essentially all living cells except anaerobic bacteria that catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. ca t a la t ic a. ca t a le psy n. [Gr. kat alepsis, seizure] A state of immobilization in which the body and limbs are often plastic with muscle rigidity in the limbs retaining any unusual position into which they are placed. ca t a le pt ic a., n. ca t a log, ca t a logu e n. [Gr. kat a, down; legein, to pick out] An index to taxonomic literature arranged by taxa including the most important taxonomic and nomenclatural references to the taxon involved. ca t a lysis n.; pl. -se s [Gr. kat a, down; lyein, to dissolve] An alteration in velocity of a reaction due to the presence of a catalyst. ca t a lyst n. [Gr. kat a, down; lyein, to dissolve] A substance that causes an acceleration of a chemical reaction and remains itself unchanged in the process, or is reconstituted at the end of the reaction. ca t a ph r a ct , ca t a ph r a ct us n. [Gr. kat a, down; phrassein, to enclose] Armored with a hard callous skin, or with closely united scales.

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ca t a pla sia n. [Gr. kat a, down; plast os, to spread over] Regressive change or decline; reversion to a more primitive character. ca t a pla sm ic a. [Gr. kat aplassein, to spread over] Irregular galls caused by parasites or other factors. ca t a ple ur it e see cox ople ur it e ca t a ple x y n. [Gr. kat a, down; plessein, to strike] Feigning death. see ca t a le psy. ca t a st r ophism n. [Gr. kat ast rophe, overturning] Cuvier's explanation of geological catastrophies resulting in the existence of fossil faunas. ca t a t r e psis see k a t a t r e psis ca t e na n.; pl. -na be [L. cat ena, chain] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In male Lepidoptera, a series of longitudinal scale-like dentations on a membranous plate, covering the proximal part of the aedeagus of Anophia. see cor nut i. ca t e na t ion n. [L. cat ena, chain] An arrangement, connection or succession in a regular series; a chain. ca t e n ifor m see ca t e nu la t e ca t e nu la t e a. [L. dim. cat ena; chain] In chainlike form; color markings or indentation on butterfly wings, or shells. ca t e nu lifor m a. ca t e r pilla r n. [LL. cat t us, cat; pilosus, hairy] (ARTHRO: Insecta) An eruciform larva; the wormlike larva of a butterfly, moth, sawfly or scorpionfly. ca t ion n. [Gr. kat a, down; ienai, to go] Any ion bearing a positive charge. ca t ion ic a. see a n ion. ca t opr oce ss n. [Gr. kat a, down; L. processus, go forward] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The lowest process of each half of the anal segment; subanal lobe; subanal appendage. ca u da n. [L. cauda, tail] A tail or tail-like appendage; extension of the anal segment, or appendage terminating the abdomen. ca uda d adv. [L. cauda, tail; ad, toward] Toward the tail region or posterior end of the body. see ce pha la d. ca u da l a. [L. cauda, tail] Pertaining to a tail or tail-like ap-

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pendage or extremity; located at or on the tail. ca u da la bia e n.pl. [L. cauda, tail; labia, lip] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Coccidae, the labiae of the abdomen. ca u da l a la e (NEMATA) Lateral cuticular extensions on the posterior end of male nematodes; the bursa. ca u da l a ppe nda ge 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) One of the terminal, multiarticulate or simple, uniramous paired appendages of barnacles, homologous with caudal furca of other crustaceans. 2. (NEMATA) The terminal portion of the tail used for food storage in certain larval mermithids and discarded during larval penetration. ca u da la r ia n. [L. cauda, tail; -aria, a thing like] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The notal wing process on the posterior part of each lateral margin of the scutum. ca u da l bur sa (NEMATA) A peloderan bursa that completely encloses the male tail. ca u da l fa n 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A structure formed of laterally expanded uropods and telson that functions in swimming or steering and balancing; tailfan. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) For mosquito larvae see ventral brush. ca u da l fila m e n t s (ARTHRO) 1. Thread-like processes at the posterior end of the abdomen. see ce r cu s. 2. For Crustacea see ca u da l r a m u s. ca u da l fur ca (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Paired caudal rami of the terminal abdominal segment or telson; small lobes or spines situated near the terminus of the telson. ca u da l gills (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Odonata, the three external gills extending from the end of the body of zygopteran larvae. ca u da l gla n ds Glands of the tail region of many invertebrates, i.e., spinneret, cement gland, adhesive gland. ca uda lid n. [L. cauda, tail] (NEMATA) A cephalid (subcuticular nerve commissure) located slightly anteriad of the anus. ca u da l oce lli (ANN: Hirudinoidea) In piscicolid leeches, eyespots on the caudal sucker. ca u da l pa pilla e (NEMATA) Papillae located on the tail.

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ca u da l por e (NEMATA) The spinneret. ca u da l pr oce ss (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Ostracoda, the posterior, upward projection of the valve border. ca u da l r a m u s pl. r a m i (ARTHRO: Crustacea) One of paired appendages, usually rodlike or bladelike, sometimes filamentous and multiarticular just anterior to the anal segment or telson; caudal filaments; caudal style; cercus; cercopod; furcal ramus; stylet. ca u da l se t a e see ce r cu s ca u da l sh ie ld (SIPUN) A flat and circular or sub-conical, furrowed or grooved, horny cap at the posterior extremity of the trunk. ca u da l siph on (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Ostracoda, the posteroventral opening in the valve border, sometimes a tubular structure. ca u da l st yle see ca u da l r a m u s ca u da l supple m e n t s (NEMATA) Papillate glandular structures on the ventral surface in the caudal region of the male. ca u da l sym pa t he t ic syst e m syst e m

see st om oga st r ic n e r vou s

ca u da l ve sicle (ARTHRO: Insecta) In braconid larvae, the hindgut everted through the anus forming a vesicle responsible for about one third of the total gaseous exchange. ca u da l w ing (NEMATA) The bursa. ca u da t e a. [L. cauda, tail] 1. Bearing a tail or tail-like appendage. 2. (MOLL) Having the columella of a univalve shell elongated at the base. ca u doce ph a la d adv. [L. cauda, tail; Gr. kephale, head] Directed toward the head from the caudal region. ca u du la n.; pl. -la e [L. dim. cauda, tail] A little tail. ca u l n. [L. caulis, stalk] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The fat bodies of larvae, thought to produce the organs of the future adults; epiploon. ca u le sce n t a. [L. caulis, stalk] Being intermediate between sessile and stalked. ca u licu lus n.; pl. -li [L. dim. caulis, stalk] (ARTHRO: Insecta)

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The larger of the two stalks supporting the calyx of the mushroom body of the protocerebral lobes. ca u lifor m a. [L. caulis, stalk; form a, shape] Stemlike. ca u liga st r ic a. [L. caulis, stalk; Gr. gast er, stomach] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) Pertaining to those of the subphylum that are narrowly joined between prosoma and opisthosoma. see la t iga st r ic. ca u line a. [L. caulis, stalk] (CNID: Hydrozoa) A term used to describe nematotheca attached to the main stem of a hydroid colony. ca u lis n.; pl. ca u le s [L. caulis, stalk] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The funicle of the antenna; the corneous basal part of the jaws. ca u lom e n. [Gr. kaulos, stem] (CNID: Hydrozoa) An erect stem or stalk of a solitary polyp. ca u sa l a ge n t or or ga nism Any organism or chemical that induces a given disease; a causative agent. ca va t e a. [L. cavus, hollow] Hollowed out; cave-like. ca ve r n icolou s a. [L. caverna, cave; colare, to inhabit] Inhabiting caves. ca ve r n ou s a. [L. cavernosus, full of hollows] Full of cavities or hollow spaces; divided into small spaces. ca vit y n.; pl. -t ie s [L. cavus, hollow] A hollow space or opening. ce ca see ca e cum ce cidium n. [Gr. dim. kekis, gall] A gall. ce cidoge n ou s a. [Gr. kekis, gall; gennaein, to produce] Producing galls on plants, as by insects and nematodes. ce cu m see ca e cum ce ilin g n. [L. caelum , sky] The maximum population density for a given set of circumstances. ce ll n. [L. cella, chamber] 1. A unit consisting of a nucleus and cytoplasm surrounded by a cell membrane that collectively make up the structural and functional unit in plants and animal bodies. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. One of the many small chambers in a bee or wasp colony, utilized for rearing young or storing food. b. A space in the wing membrane of

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an insect, partly (an open cell) or completely (a closed cell) surrounded by veins. c. A cavity under the ground containing an insect pupa. ce ll body see ne ur on ce ll con st a n cy A situation in many microscopic invertebrates where the multiplication of cells ceases at hatching, except for the reproductive system, and growth is by enlargement of existing cells. see e ut e ly. ce ll cu lt ur e The growing of cells in vit ro. ce ll division The reproduction of cells by karyokinesis and cytokinesis. ce ll doct r ine see ce ll t h e or y ce llifuga l a. [L. cella, chamber; fugare, to flee] Passing from a cell. see ce llipe t a l. ce llipe t a l a. [L. cella, chamber; pet ere, to seek] Passing towards a cell. ce ll line a ge Following individual blastomeres to their ultimate fate in the formation of definite parts of the organism. ce ll m e m br a ne see pla sm a m e m br a ne ce ll or ga n A differentiated part of a cell that has a special function, such as a centrosome, organoid, or organelle. ce lls of Se m pe r (ARTHRO: Insecta) The cells of the crystalline eye cone, whose intercellular membranes form a cruciform pattern when the cone is seen in transverse section. ce ll t h e or y All organisms are composed of cell(s); a cell is the smallest unit of matter that is alive (functional unit) proposed by Schwann for animals in 1838-40; cells are the reproductive units of all organisms; cellular. ce llu la e n.pl. [L. dim. cella, chamber] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Round or oval-like areas on the exocuticle of certain Coccidae (Lecaniidae); dermal pores; dermal cells. ce llu la r a ffinit y (PORIF) Pertaining to the selective adhesiveness found among the cells. ce llu la se n. [L. dim. cella, chamber] A digestive enzyme that hydrolyzes cellulose in food. ce llu le n. [L. dim. cella, chamber] 1. A small cell. 2. (ARTHRO:

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Insecta) A small area between the veins of an insect wing, usually a completely enclosed area. 'ce llu le s e n cr ois' (PORIF) Non-flagellated cells arranged in a tetraradial fashion in the amphiblastula of Calcaronea. ce ll w a ll A thin, nonliving sheath or pellicle that lies outside the plasma membrane of certain animal cells; more generally applicable to plant cells. ce lsiu s n. [Anders Celsius] The name of the temperature scale having 100 divisions or degrees between freezing (0 ) and boiling (100 ); abbrev. C.; formerly called centigrade. ce m e n t n. [L. caem ent um , chips (now applied to a substance used as a "binder")] A substance produced by various invertebrates and utilized as an adhesive protective layer. ce m e n t gla n d 1. Any of certain glands of invertebrates that secrete an adhesive substance. 2. (ACANTHO) A gland or glands near the male testes that secretes a binding medium that facilitates copulation with the female. 3. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Specialized dermal cells of barnacles that secrete the calcareous substance of the valves. 4. (NEMATA) see caudal gland. 5. (ROTIF) see pe da l gla nds. ce m e n t la ye r 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, the outer layer of cerotegument. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The thin layer outside the wax of certain insect bodies, that may consist of tanned protein or a shellac-like substance and may function in protecting the wax or take the form of meshwork reservoirs of lipids. ce m e n t sa c That portion of an invertebrate oviduct that functions in covering eggs. ce n ch r u s n.; pl. ce nchr i [Gr. kenchros, millet] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, specialized lobes on the metanotum of certain sawflies that contact with rough areas on the underside of the fore wing to hold them in place; sometimes functioning as a stridulatory apparatus. ce n e n chym a see coe ne nchym a ce noge ne sis, ca e noge n e sis n. [Gr. kainos, recent; genesis, beginning] The repetition of phylogeny by ontogeny, caused by heterochrony (temporal displacement), heterotropy (spacial displacement) or larval adaptation. ce noge -

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n e t ic a. see pa lin ge ne sis. ce n oge nous a. [Gr. koinos, common; gennaein, to produce] Oviparous at one season of the year and at other times viviparous. ce n osis, coe nosis n. [Gr. koinos, common] 1. A community; biocoenosis. 2. Association. 3. A community dominated by two distinct species, that may or may not be mutually antagonistic. ce nospe cie s n.pl. [Gr. kainos, recent; L. species, kind] Species that can interbreed. Ce nozoic a. [Gr. kainos, recent; zoe, life] A geological history from the beginning of the Tertiary to the present, that saw a rapid evolution of mammals, birds, grasses, shrubs, and higher flowering plants, but with little change in invertebrates. ce nt igr a de see ce lsius ce n t im e t e r n. [L. cent um , hundred; m et ron, measure] One hundredth (.0l) part of a meter or two fifths (0.3937) of an inch. Abbrev. cm. see m e t e r . ce n t r a d adv. [Gr. kent ron, center; L. ad, toward] Toward the center or interior. ce n t r a de n ia n. [Gr. kent ron, center; aden, gland] (CNID: Hydrozoa) A type of siphonophore hydroid colony. ce n t r a l a r e a 1. (MOLL: Polyplacophora) The upper surface of an intermediate valve, lying centrally, and sometimes differing in sculpture from the lateral areas. 2. (NEMATA: Secernentea) The nonstriated region around the vulva in the Meloidogyne perineal pattern. ce n t r a l ce ll (PORIF) A cell located in the cavity of a choanocyte chamber. ce n t r a l n e r vou s syst e m In invertebrates, a system to which the sensory impulses are transmitted and from which motor impulses pass out. a. In radially symmetric animals, structured in the form of one or two rings. b. In elongate animals, usually consists of an anterior bilobed cerebral ganglion (brain), and paired longitudinal ventral cords that are usually connected by the circumesophageal nerve ring.

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ce n t r a l r e gion (ARTHRO: Insecta) The costal region of a wing. ce n t r a l sym m e t r y syst e m (ARTHRO: Insecta) The median field of the moth wing pattern delimited basally and distally by the light central line of the transverse, anterior and posterior lines. ce n t r a l t ube (NEMATA) The sclerotized cylindrical axis of the head skeleton of nematodes, through which the stylet extends during feeding. ce n t r ic fusion The fusion of two acrocentric chromosomes to form a single metacentric chromosome through translocation and as a rule, the loss of a centromere. ce n t r ifu ga l a. [Gr. kent ron, center; L. fugare, to flee] 1. Turning from or being thrown away from the center. 2. Moving toward the periphery, as nerve impluses. ce n t r iole n. [Gr. kent ron, center] Either of the two minute spherical bodies in a cell center that migrates to opposite poles during cell division and serves to organize the alignment of the spindles. ce n t r ipe t a l a. [Gr. kent ron, center; L. pet ere, to move toward] Turning inwardly from the outside or periphery; toward the center. see ce n t r ifu ga l. ce n t r ipe t a l ca n a l (CNID) One of numerous blind canals running from the circular canal toward the apex of the bell in certain jellyfish. ce n t r is n. [L. cent rum , sting] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, the sting. ce n t r odor sa l a. [Gr. kent ron, center; L. dorsum , back] 1. Referring to central and dorsal. 2. (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) Pertaining to a cirriferous ossicle, fused or semifused, attached to the theca. ce n t r oge nou s a. [Gr. kent ron, center; gennaein, to produce] 1. Growing from the center. 2. (PORIF) A spicule growing from a common center. ce n t r ole cit h a l e gg (ARTHRO) A type of arthropod egg in which the nucleus is located centrally in a small amount of nonyolky cytoplasm surrounded by a large mass of yolk until fertilized; when nuclear divisions begin the nuclei migrate

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to the periphery to proceed with superficial cleavage, with the yolk remaining central. see isole cit h a l e gg, m e sole cit ha l e gg, t e lole cit ha l e gg. ce nt r om e r e n. [Gr. kent ron, center; m eros, part] The part on the chromosome where it becomes attached to the spindle. ce nt r ophor m ium n. [Gr. kent ron, center; phorm is, basket] Round basket-like Golgi bodies. ce nt r opla sm see ce nt r osom e ce nt r osom e n. [Gr. kent ron, center; som a, body] A specialized area of condensed cytoplasm that contains the centrioles at the beginning of mitosis; also called centrosphere, cytocentrum, microcentrum, attraction sphere, and paranuclear body. ce n t r osphe r e see ce n t r osom e ce n t r ot ylot e a. [Gr. kent ron, center; t ylos, knob] (PORIF) In diactinal monoaxons, having the knob near the middle of the shaft of a spicule. ce nt r um n.; pl. -t r um s [Gr. kent ron, center] A center or central mass. ce pha la d adv. [Gr. kephale, head; L. ad, toward] Toward the head or anterior end; rostrad. see ca uda d. ce ph a la r ia n. [Gr. kephale, head; -aria, a thing like] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In a generalized insect, the alaria present on each lateral margin of the prescutum anterior to the prephragma. ce pha la t e a. [Gr. kephale, head] Having a head or head-like structure. ce pha le t r on n. [Gr. kephale, head; et ron, belly] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The anterior body region of Limulidae, the horseshoe crabs. ce pha lic a. [Gr. kephale, head] Pertaining to the head or anterior end. ce pha lic br ist le s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, specialized bristles occurring on the head. ce pha lic ca ge (ANN: Polychaeta) Long forwardly directed setae encircling the mouth.

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ce pha lic ca psu le (NEMATA) An internal modification of the cephalic cuticle forming an endoskeletal helmet, often posteriorly delimited by a distinct groove on the exterior cuticle. ce pha lic con st r ict ion (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Myastacocarida, a constriction delimiting anterior antennulary part of the head from the posterior part. ce pha lic fle x u r e (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, forward, or occasionally upward, deflection of the anterior sterna. ce pha lic for a m e n (ARTHRO: Insecta) The posterior or occipital foramen of the head through which the alimentary canal and other organs pass. ce pha lic fr a m e w or k (NEMATA: Secernentea) A subcuticular framework that supports the lip region, and to which are attached the stylet protractor muscles. ce pha lic gla n d (ARTHRO: Insecta) A gland opening on to the labium and connecting with the ventral tube by a groove in the cuticle in the ventral midline of the t horax, that secrets moisture to aid walking on dry surfaces. ce pha lic gr oove s/ slit s (NEMER) Deep or shallow furrows, lined with a ciliated epithelium, that occur laterally on the sides of the head; thought to be chemosensory. ce pha lic he a r t (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Odonata, a specialized pulsating organ that exerts pressure against the egg-shell in hatching and forces out a cap-like operculum; a pulsating organ. ce pha lic hood (MOLL: Bivalvia) A chitinous covering protecting the anterior adductor muscle at a young burrowing stage. ce pha lic incision (NEMATA) Anterior extensions of the cephalic suture dividing the posterior part of the capsule into lobes. ce pha lic lobe s 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In embryology, the region of the prostomium, and usually that of the tritocerebral somite. 2. (NEMER) Brain lobes on the expanded anterior region. ce pha lic pole (ARTHRO: Insecta) An elongated egg in the ovariole aligned with the head of the parent. ce pha lic r e gion Pertaining to, on, in, or near the head. ce pha lic r im (ANN: Polychaeta) A flange encircling the head.

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sa liva r y gla n ds (ARTHRO: Insecta) A pair of glands against the posterior wall of the head of bees, that with the thoracic salivary gland to form a common see post oce lla r gla nds.

ce pha lic se t a e (NEMATA) Setae-like sensilla of the outer of three circlets around the anterior neck region or mouth. ce pha lic sh ie ld 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A chitinous, somewhat calcified covering of the head region formed of fused tergites of cephalic somites, commonly having pleura. 2. (MOLL: Gastropoda) In Opisthobranchia, an expanded thickening of the dorsal surface of the head that may at times extend dorsally over the back. ce pha lic som it e (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A unit division of the cephalic region usually recognized as one of five somites that bear distinctive paired appendages; a cephalomere. ce pha lic st om ode um (ARTHRO: Insecta) That part of a stomodeum contained in the head. ce pha lic su t u r e (NEMATA: Adenophorea) The posterior delimitation of the cephalic capsule in marine nematodes. ce pha lic t e n t a cle s see fr on t a l t e n t a cle s ce pha lic ve il (ANN: Polychaeta) A delicate hood-like membrane separating the opercular paleae from the buccal tentacles in Pectinariidae. ce pha lic ve n t r icle (NEMATA) The fluid-filled area anterior to the end of the esophagus. ce pha lic ve sicle (ARTHRO: Insecta) A single sac formed by the union of the larval pharynx and its diverticula, through which it is presumed that fluid passes to circulate into and around the embryo. ce pha lid n. [Gr. kephale, head] (NEMATA) A nerve commissure of a highly refractive nature that extends from lateral cord to lateral cord ventrally or dorsally, anteriorly they extend from dorsal to ventral. see ca uda lid, he m izon id, h e m izon ion . ce pha lige r n. [Gr. kephale, head; L. gerere, to bear] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The anterior process of the cervical sclerite that articulates with the condyle of the cranium; the head-

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bearing process. ce pha liza t ion n. [Gr. kephale, head] The process by which the highest degree of specialization became localized in the anterior end, or in the head, in animal development. ce ph a loboid a. [Gr. kephale, head; eidos, form] (NEMATA) Having the appearance of a Cephalobus nematode: an esophagus with a long, narrow anterior portion and a pearshaped valvate basal bulb. ce pha loca u da l su t u r e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In certain Vespoidea, the median suture dividing the mesepisternum. ce ph a locon i n.pl. [Gr. kephale, head; konos, cone] (MOLL: Gastropoda) In Clionidae, a circlet of adhesive oral papillae; two or three pairs of conical buccal appendages. ce ph a loga st e r n. [Gr. kephale, head; gast er, stomach] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A contractile organ in adult epicaridean isopods functioning in sucking blood and possibly respiration. ce pha lom e r e n. [Gr. kephale, head; m eros, part] 1. Those segments of a metamerically segmented animal that are considered to be part of the head. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) see ce pha lic som it e . ce pha lon n.; pl. -la [Gr. kephale, head] The anterior body region; the head. ce ph a loph a r yn ge a l sk e le t on (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, articulated sclerites of the mature larva; a secondary development: mandibular sclerites, intermediate sclerite, pharyngeal sclerite, chitinized, anterior, invaginated portion of the mouth parts. ce ph a loph or ou s a. [Gr. kephale, head; phoreus, bearer] (MOLL) Pertaining to having a head. ce pha lophr a gm a n. [Gr. kephale, head; phragm a, partition] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In certain Orthoptera, a v-shaped partition dividing the head into an anterior and posterior chamber. Ce pha lopoda , ce pha lopods n.; n.pl. [Gr. kephale, head; pous, foot] A Class of Mollusca containing the squid, cuttlefish, octopus, argonaut, and spirula, with head-foot bearing

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a ring of appendages, (many, 10 or 8), generally equipped with adhesive structures, suckers or hooks. ce pha lopodium n. [Gr. kephale, head; pous, foot] (MOLL: Cephalopoda) The head region, consisting of head and arms. ce pha lopsin n. [Gr. kephale, head; ops, eye] A purple-like photopigment found in the eyes of cephalopods and certain other invertebrates. ce ph a losom e n. [Gr. kephale, head; som a, body] (ARTHRO) The head region of an arthropod; in crustaceans, this includes only somites bearing maxillipeds or gnathopods, or both. ce pha lost e git e n. [Gr. kephale, head; st ege, roof] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The anterior part of the cephalothoracic shield. ce pha lot he ca n. [Gr. kephale, head; t heke, case] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The head covering in a pupa. ce pha lot hor a x n. [Gr. kephale, head; t horax, chest] (ARTHRO) A descriptive term used for many arthropods indicating the anterior region of the body combining head and thorax; sometimes used to denote fusion with one or more of the thoracic segments, as in crustaceans and coccids; for arachnids, see pr osom a . ce pha lot r ocha la r va (PLATY: Turbellaria) A polyclad turbellarian resembling a trochophore-like stage, but distinguished from the trochophore by the possession of one preoral and one postoral ciliated band; a young Muller's larva. ce ph a lou s a. [Gr. kephale, head] Pertaining to the head. ce pha lula n. [Gr. dim. kephale, head] (BRACHIO) A freeswimming embryonic stage. ce r a ce ou s a. [L. cera, wax] Waxy. ce r a go n. [L. cera, wax] Beebread. ce r a l a. [L. cera, wax] Of or pertaining to wax. ce r a m bycoid la r va (ARTHRO: Insecta) Flattened or cylindrical, naked, smooth and distinctly segmented larva, resembling those of Cerambycidae and some Buprestidae and Elateridae.

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ce r a r a n se t a e (ARTHRO: Insecta) The conical setae of the cerarii of soft scale insects. ce r a r iu s n.; pl. ce r a r ii [L. cera, wax] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hemiptera, a structure on the dorsum of the body of mealy bugs, consisting of pores and setae; sometimes sclerotized. ce r a s n.; pl. ce r a t a [Gr. keras, horn] 1. A horn or horn-like appendage. 2. (MOLL: Gastropoda) In some Nudibranchia, numerous projections that act as gills on the dorsal body surface, may be club shaped or grapelike and usually brilliantly colored in red, yellow, orange, blue, green, or a combination of colors; functioning in respiration, containing blood from the hemocoel and tubular branches of the digestive gland. ce r a t h e ca , ce r a t ot he ca n. [Gr. keras, horn; t heke, case] (ARTHRO: Insecta) That portion of a pupal shell surrounding the antenna. ce r a t it e n. [Gr. keras, horn] (MOLL: Cephalopoda) An ammonoid cephalopod found in the Permian Period and typical of Triassic deposits. ce r a t oid a. [Gr. keras, horn; eidos, form] Horny; horn-like or horn-shaped. ce r a t ophor e a. [Gr. keras, horn; phoreus, bearer] (ANN: Polychaeta) Pertaining to the basal joint of an antenna. ce r a t uba n.; pl. -t uba e [L. cera, wax; t uba, trumpet] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hemiptera, the terminal outlet of certain wax glands of scale insects, variable in shape and size. ce r ca l a. [Gr. kerkos, tail] Pertaining to the tail or cercus. ce r ca r ia n.; pl. -r a e [Gr. kerkos, tail] (PLATY: Trematoda) The free-swimming larval form of a digenetic trematode; produced by asexual reproduction within a sporocyst or redia. ce r ca r ia e um n. [Gr. kerkos, tail] (PLATY: Trematoda) A cercaria without a tail. ce r ca r ia or na t a (PLATY: Trematoda) A cercaria with a fin on the tail. ce r ci pl. of ce r cu s ce r cid n. [Gr. kerkis, shuttle] (PORIF) A minute migrating cell produced by division of the archaeocytes.

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ce r cobr a nch ia t e n. [Gr. kerkos, tail; branchia, gills] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The respiratory apparatus of odonatan insect nymphs, consisting of three terminal lamellate caudal gills. ce r cocyst is n. [Gr. kerkos, tail; kyst is, bladder] (PLATY: Cestoda) A cysticercoid with a tail. ce r coide n. [Gr. kerkos, tail; eidos, shape] (ARTHRO: Insecta) One of a pair of genital appendages on abdominal segments 9 and 10 of certain insects. ce r com e r n. [Gr. kerkos, tail; m eros, part] (PLATY: Cestoda) A posterior, knob-like attachment on a procercoid or cysticercoid, usually bearing the hooks of the oncosphere. ce r copod n. [Gr. kerkos, tail; pous, foot] 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A segmented terminal process located on the telson. see ca u da l r a m u s. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Jointed foot-like appendages of the last abdominal segment. see ce r cu s. ce r cu s n.; pl. ce r ci [Gr. kerkos, tail] (ARTHRO) One of a pair of appendages that arise at the posterior of the abdomen of arthropods that function as sense organs; abdominal filaments; acrocercus; anal forceps; anal styles; anal stylets; caudal filaments; caudal setae; caudal ramus; spinnerets of Symphyla; tergal valves; for Coleoptera see ur ogom ph i. ce r e v.t. [L. cera, wax] To wax or cover with wax. ce r e be llum n. [L. dim. cerebrum , brain] The subesophageal ganglion. ce r e br a l e ye s Paired eyespots embedded in or near the substance of the brain area. ce r e br a l ga nglion In invertebrates, one of a pair of ganglia (or fused median ganglion) situated in the head or anterior portion of the body; the dorsal ganglion; cerebroganglion. see br a in . ce r e br a l or ga n s 1. (NEMER) One of paired ciliated tubes associated with the dorsal ganglion and opening to the exterior, that function as chemical sense organs. 2. (SIPUN) The anterior margin of the cerebral ganglion made up of high columnar epithelium, probably not sensory in function. ce r e br oga n glion see ce r e br a l ga nglion ce r e br oida e n.pl. [L. cerebrum , brain] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The

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ganglionic center of the brain. ce r e br ope da l a. [L. cerebrum , brain; pes, foot] (MOLL) Pertaining to nerve strands connecting the dorsal cerebral and ventral pedal ganglia. ce r e br ople u r a l ga nglion (MOLL: Bivalvia) A ganglion just above the mouth. ce r e br oside s n.pl. [L. cerebrum , brain; F. -ide, from oxide] Phospholipids probably common to all living cells. ce r e br ovisce r a l a. [L. cerebrum , brain; viscera, viscera] (MOLL) Pertaining to, or connecting the cerebral and visceral ganglia. ce r e br u m n. [L. cerebrum , brain] 1. The primary cephalic or anterior ganglion or ganglia. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The supraesophageal ganglion, or brain. ce r e br a l a. ce r e ou s a. [L. cereus, waxen] Wax-like. ce r ife r ous a. [L. cera, wax; ferre, to carry] Bearing or producing wax. ce r in u la la r va (CNID: Anthozoa) In Ceriantharia, pelagic larvae resembling medusae with flagella and a circlet of marginal tentacles; many genera have been named from the pelagic larvae but the adults and life cycle are unknown. ce r n u ou s a. [L. cernuus, facing earthward] Drooping; nodding; pendulous; having the apex more or less bent downward or inclining. ce r ode cyt e n. [L. cera, wax; Gr. kyt os, container] Oenocytes; applied to such cells because they were presumed to aid in forming and conserving wax. ce r ot e gu m e n t n. [L. cera, wax; t egum ent um , covering] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, tegumental layers generally distinguishable by an outer cement layer covering the lipid layer; part of the epiostracum; part of the epicuticle; superficial epicuticular layers; tectostracum. ce r u le a n n. [L. caeruleus, sky-blue] Azure or sky-blue. ce r u m e n n. [L. cera, wax] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A mixture of resin and wax used for nest construction by stingless bees, and to a minor extent by Apis.

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ce r va cor ia n. [L. cervix, neck; corium , leather] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The cephalic membranous end of the cervix, attached to the walls of the head near the foramen. ce r vica l a. [L. cervix, neck] Of or pertaining to the neck, or to the cervix of an organ. ce r vica l a la e (NEMATA: Secernentea) In some animal parasitic nematodes, wide lateral anterior alae, single, bifid or trifid, often with internal supporting struts. ce r vica l a m pulla (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Orthoptera, cervical membrane capable of becoming a swollen dorsal vesicule protruding immediately behind the head; functioning in ecdysis. ce r vica l con dyle s see occipit a l con dyle s ce r vica l duct (NEMATA) The excretory duct. ce r vica l for a m e n (ARTHRO: Insecta) The occipital foramen of coleopterous larvae. ce r vica l fur r ow (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, a transverse groove in the median part of a carapace, between the gastric and cardiac regions, curving toward the antennal spine; cervical suture. ce r vica l gla n d 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The dorso-lateral glands of the larvae of primitive sawflies located between the head and thorax. 2. (NEMATA) The excretory gland. ce r vica l gr oove 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, a transverse groove on the carapace marking the general separation of the head and thoracic areas. 2. (NEMATA) Transverse groove on the ventral surface, or completely encircling the cervical (=cephalic) region marking the line of separation of the lip region from the rest of the body. ce r vica lia n. [L. cervix, neck] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The sclerites of the cervix or neck. ce r vica l not ch or incision (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Strong indentation of a carapace at the level of the cervical groove. ce r vica l pa pilla e (NEMATA) Paired lateral papillae in some Secernentea and Chromadoria; lateral sensory sensilla located anteriorly, usually on the so-called neck region; deirids.

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ce r vica l por e (NEMATA) The ventromedian excretory pore. ce r vica l scle r it e (ARTHRO: Insecta) Lateral sclerite or sclerites in the neck or cervix membrane, between the head and prothorax; jugular sclerites. ce r vica l sh ie ld (ARTHRO: Insecta) A chitinous plate on the prothorax of caterpillars immediately behind the head; a sclerotized pronotum; a prothoracic shield. ce r vica l sin u s (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Cladocera, a rounded to angular indentation anteriorly along the edge of the carapace, exposing the rear part of the head. ce r vica l sut u r e see ce r vica l gr oove ce r vica l ve sicle (NEMATA) Distended cuticle anterior to the cervical groove. ce r vicula t e a. [L. cervix, neck] Having a long neck or neck-like portion. ce r vicum n. [L. cervix, neck] (ARTHRO) The neck region. ce r vin u s a. [L. cervinus, deer] Reddish, deer-gray. ce r vix n.; pl. ce r vice s [L. cervix, neck] 1. The neck or necklike part. 2. A constriction of the mouth of an organ. 3. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acariformes, the dorsal part of the infracapitulum, between the line of attachment of the cheliceral frame and the base of the labrum , and laterally by the lateral ridges, and encompasses the capitular saddle and cheliceral grooves. 4. (ARTHRO: Insecta) A membranous region that extends from the occipital foramen at the back of the head to the prothorax. ce siou s a. [L. caesius] Bluish-gray. ce spit icolou s a. [L. caespes, turf; colere, to inhabit] Inhabiting grassy places. ce spit ose , ca e spit ose a. [L. caespes, turf] Growing in dense clumps or tufts; matted. ce st ifor m a. [L. cestus, girdle; form a, shape] Girdle-shaped. Ce st oda , ce st ode s n.; n.pl. [L. cest us, girdle] A class of elongate, dorsoventrally flattened obligate parasitic worms that develop in an intermediate vertebrate or invertebrate host and spend their adult life mainly in vertebrates; commonly

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called tapeworms. cha e t a n.; pl. cha e t a e [Gr. chait e, hair] (ANN) Seta. ch a e t ife r ou s see se t ife r ou s ch a e t ige r n. [Gr. chait e, hair; L. gerere, to bear] (ANN) Any segment bearing setae. Cha e t ogna t ha , cha e t ogna t h s n.; n.pl. [Gr. chait e, hair; gnat hos, jaw] A phylum of free-living planktonic or benthic animals, commonly called arrowworms, having an elongated more or less translucent body with large grasping spines at the head and a posterior horizontal tail fin. cha e t opa r ia n.; pl. -pa r ia e [Gr. chait e, hair; pareion, cheek] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In scarabaeoid larvae, the inner part of the paria covered with bristles. ch a e t oph or ou s a. [Gr. chait e, hair; pherein, to bear] Bearing bristles. Cha e t opoda n. [Gr. chait e, hair; pous, foot] Annelids that have setae, the Polychaeta and Oligochaeta. ch a e t ose m a t a n.pl.; sing. ch a e t ose m a [Gr. chait e, hair; sem a, sign] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In some families of Lepidoptera, one pair, rarely two pairs, of sensory organs located on the head in the form of setose tubercles. ch a e t ot a x y n. [Gr. chait e, hair; t axis, arrangement] Pattern, arrangement and nomenclature of bristles on any part of the exoskeleton. cha e t ot a ct ic, cha e t ot a x a l a. ch a ine t t e n. [F. chainet t e, a catenary curve] (PLATY: Cestoda) A longitudinal band of single or double rows of very small hooks located on the tentacles. ch a in t r a n spor t (ARTHRO: Insecta) The passing of food from one worker ant to another during transport to the nest. ch a la st oga st r ou s a. [Gr. chalast os, loose; gastros, stomach] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Having the abdomen attached to the thorax by a broad base, as in certain Hymenoptera. ch a la za n.; pl. -za s, -za e [Gr. chalaza, pimple] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A pimple-like swelling on the body-wall that bears a seta. ch a lce ou s, ch a lce u s a. [Gr. chalkos, copper] Brassy in color

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or appearance. ch a lim u s st a ge (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Monstrilloida, a larval infective stage that fixes to the host with a frontal filament; parasites of various marine invertebrates. ch a lle n ge n. [OF. chalangier, contest] The testing of induced immunity of a potential host by exposure to parasites after immunization. ch a lon e n. [Gr. chalinos, to curb] Any internal secretion with inhibitory actions. see h or m on e . ch a lybe a t e , cha lybe a t us, cha lybe ous, ch a lybe u s a. [Gr. chalybos, steel] Metallic steel-blue in color. cha m be r e d a. [Gr. kam ara, chamber or vault with arched roof] Having divisions or provided with a chamber. cha m be r e d or ga n (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) A five chambered structure, encased in the cup-like cavity of the aboral nervous system; connecting canals form the nerves of the stalk and cirri. ch a n k n. [Hind. cankh, conch shell] (MOLL: Gastropoda) A pear- or top-shaped shell utilized as ornaments and bangles and held sacred by the Hindus (the Xancus pyrum and the pear Turbinella ). cha nne le d, ch a nn e lle d a. [L. canalis, groove] Having furrows, grooves or channels; directed into or along a channel. cha pe r on see clype u s ch a ple t n. [OF. chapel, hat] 1. A small crown. 2. A terminal process in the form of a circle of hooks or similar structures. ch a r a ct e r n. [Gr. charassein, to make clear] A distinguishing feature, trait or property of an organism that distinguishes a member from a different group or taxon; taxonomic character. ch a r a ct e r displa ce m e n t A divergence of equivalent characters in a sympatric species due to the selective effects of competition. see cha r a ct e r dive r ge n ce . ch a r a ct e r dive r ge n ce A name given by Darwin to the differences developing in two or more related species in their area of sympatry resulting from selective effects of compe-

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tition. see ch a r a ct e r displa ce m e nt . ch a r a ct e r gr a die n t see clin e ch a r a ct e r inde x A numerical value, compounded from the ratings of several characters, indicating a degree of difference of related taxa; also a rating of an individual, particularly a hybrid, in comparison with its most nearly related species. ch e ck e r e d see t e sse lla t e ch e e k gr oove see ge na l gr oove ch e e k s n.pl. [A.S. ceace, cheek] 1. In most invertebrates, the lateral portions of the head. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Below the eyes and lateral to the mouth; parafacials. see ge n a . 3. (NEMATA) The ampulla of an amphid. ch e ilor h a bdion s n.pl. [Gr. cheilos, lip; dim. rhabdos, rod] (NEMATA) The cuticularized walls of the cheilostome. see r h a bdion s. ch e ilost om e n. [Gr. cheilos, lip; st om a, mouth] (NEMATA) The anteriad region of the st om a, that is lined by external cuticle formation. che ir onym see ch ir onym ch e la n.; pl. ch e la e [Gr. chele, claw] 1. (ARTHRO) A lateral movable claw on a limb: pincerlike, with opposed movable and immovable fingers; occasionally both fingers move. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Has been applied to feet of some Anoplura in which the opposable claw performs a holdfast function. see cla w . 3. (PORIF) A type of microsclere with a short, straight or curved axis and recurved teeth at both ends. ch e la t e a. [Gr. chele, claw] Pincerlike, or possessing or resembling chelae. ch e le n ch ium see che ilost om e ch e lice r a n.; pl. -e r a e [Gr. chele, claw; keras, horn] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) Anterior most pair of appendages, functioning in grasping, holding, tearing, crushing or piercing; pincherlike in scorpions, but modified as poison fangs in spiders and as biting mouth parts of ticks. ch e lice r a l fr a m e (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) That part of the tegu-

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ment to which the chelicerae are attached. ch e lice r a l boss (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Araneae when present, a tear-shaped or wedge-shaped process on the distal part of the chelicera where it comes into contact with the clypeus. ch e lice r a l gla nd (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) One of paired glands in the dorsal part of the prosoma; the orifice is in the chelicerae. ch e lice r a l gr oove (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) One of paired longitudinal grooves in the dorsal surface of the infracapitulum, receiving and guiding the chelicera. ch e lice r a l sh e a t h (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) A paired membranous sheath that attaches the chelicera to the cheliceral frame so as to allow extension and retraction. ch e lice r a l t e e t h (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) Serrations along the borders of the cheliceral groove. Ch e lice r a t a , ch e lice r a t e s n.; n.pl. A subphylum of arthropods without antennae, divided into three classes: the Merostomata, or horseshoe crabs; the Arachnida, spiders, scorpions, mites and relatives; and the Pycnogonida, or sea spiders. che life r ous a. [Gr. chele, claw; L. ferein, to bear] Bearing or terminating in claws or chelae. ch e lifor m a. [Gr. chele, claw; L. form a, shape] Pincherlike. che lipe d n. [Gr. chele, claw; L. pes, foot] A claw-bearing appendage; forceps that bear at its tip a chela. ch e lon ifor m a. [Gr. chelon, tortoise; L. form a, shape] Turtle or tortoise-shaped; limpet-like. che lophor e s n.pl. [Gr. chele, claw; pherein, to bear] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) Chelicerate first appendages of the arthropod class Pycnogonida. ch e m ilu m in e sce n ce n. [Gr. chem eia, pert. chemistry; L. lum inescere, to grow light] Enzymatic light production without increase in temperature in the course of a chemical reaction; bioluminescence. che m oce pt or see che m or e ce pt or

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che m odiffe r e nt ia t ion n. [Gr. chem eia, pert. chemistry; L. differens, dissimilar] The chemical change in cells preceding their visible characteristic difference in embryonic development. ch e m oh e t e r ot r oph n. [Gr. chem eia, pert. chemistry; het eros, different; t rophe, nourishment] An organism that uses organic compounds as both energy and a carbon source. ch e m ok ine sis n. [Gr. chem eia, pert. chemistry; kinesis, movement] Increased movement of an organism due to the presence of a chemical substance. ch e m ok in e t ic a. ch e m or e ce pt or n. [Gr. chem eia, pert. chemistry; L. recept or] A sense organ stimulated by chemical substances that may be perceived as smell (olfaction) or direct contact. che m or e fle x n. [Gr. chem eia, pert. chemistry; L. reflexus, bent or turned back] A reflex as a result of chemical stimulus. che m ose nsor y a. [Gr. chem eia, pert. chemistry; L. sensus, sense] Being sensitive to chemical stimuli. see che m or e ce pt or . ch e m osyn t h e sis n. [Gr. chem eia, pert. chemistry; synt hesis, composition] 1. Synthesis of organic chemical compounds in organisms. 2. A type of autotrophic nutrition through which organisms obtain their energy by oxidation of various inorganic compounds instead of from light. see ph ot osyn t he sis. che m ot a x is n.; pl. -t a x e s [Gr. chem eia, pert. chemistry; t axis, arrangement] Movement of a motile organism or cell in response to chemical stimulus. a. Positive chemotaxis: movement toward the stimulus; chemotropism. b. Negative chemotaxis: movement from the stimulus. see t a x is, t r opism . che m ot r opism n. [Gr. chem o, pert. chemistry; t rope, turn] Reaction induced by a chemical stimulus. see t r opism . ch e vr on n. [Gr. chevron, rafter] (ANN: Polychaeta) A V-shaped black, chitinous jaw piece at the base of the eversible pharynx of some Glyceridae. ch e vr on gr oove (MOLL: Bivalvia) A V-shaped furrow on the cardinal area for ligament insertion.

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ch ia sm a n.; pl. -m a t a [Gr. chiasm a, cross] 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) A crossing of nerves in the nerve center. a. External (outer): a crossover between the lamina ganglionaris and the medulla externa. b. Internal (inner): a crossover between medula externa and medula internal. 2. An X-shaped chromosome formation seen in meiotic cell division, due to breakage, exchange, and reciprocal fusion of equivalent segments of homologous chromatids. chia sm ic a. ch ia sm a t ype t h e or y A Genetic theory postulating chiasmata are the result of crossing-over; being formed at the right points at which the exchange between (non-sister) chromatids took place. chia st e r n. [Gr. χ; ast er, star] (PORIF) A type of microsclere aster with very blunt rays.

chia st one ur y n. [Gr. chiasm a, cross; neuron, nerve] (MOLL) In prosobranchs and a few other taxa, a condition in which the visceral loop is distinctively twisted; crossing of the visceral connectives; streptoneury. ch ia st on e u r a l a. see or t h ne u r y, e u t hyn e u r y. ch ila r ia n.pl.; sing. ch ila r ium [Gr. cheilos, lip] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Merostomata, small rudimentary appendages on the reduced 7th (pregenital) metamere of king crabs. ch ilidium n. [Gr. dim. cheilos, lip] (BRACHIO) A plate covering the notothyrium, when present, in the dorsal valve; chilidial plates if more than one. see hom e ochilidiu m . ch ilogn a t h n. [Gr. cheilos, lip; gnat hos, jaw] (ARTHRO: Diplopoda) Fusion of the first maxillae into a lower lip or gnathochilarium. Chilopoda , ch ilopods n.; n.pl. [Gr. cheilos, lip; pous, foot] A group of terrestrial arthropods, commonly called centipedes, characterized by having numerous trunk segments, each with a single pair of walking legs, except the first segment that bears a pair of forcipulate poison fangs. ch iloscle r e s n. [Gr. cheilos, lip; skleros, tough] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Dark brown spots, on either side of the labrum in certain ant larvae. ch im e r a , ch im a e r a n.; pl. -r a s [Gr. chim aira, she-goat] An individual with a mixture of tissues, genetically different in

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constitution. see gyna ndr om or ph . ch im n e y n. [Gr. kam inos, fireplace] (MOLL: Bivalvia) A tube formed of agglutinized particles derived from boring, extending over the posterior end of the shell and sometimes extends anteriorly nearly to the mesoplax. see siphona l t u be . ch im ope la gic a. [Gr. cheim on, winter; pelagos, sea] Certain deep-sea organisms that appear at the surface only in winter. ch in k n. [A.S. cinu, chink or crack] 1. A long and narrow cleft, crack or slit. 2. (MOLL: Gastropoda) The margin of the columella in Lacuna; umbilical chink. ch ir on ym , che ir onym n. [Gr. cheir, hand; onym a, name] A manuscript name for a species; an invalid name until published. ch ir ot ype n. [Gr. cheir, hand; t ypos, type] The type specimen designated in a manuscript as the "chironym" that becomes valid upon publication. ch ise ls see la cin ia ch it in n. [Gr. chit on, tunic] A linear polysaccharide that consists predominately, or perhaps entirely, of -linked -acetylD-glucosamine residues found in the exoskeleton of arthropods, nematode eggshells, annelid cuticle, thecate hydroids, and also in some plants, especially fungi. ch it in a se n. [Gr. chit on, tunic; -asis, denoting enzymes] An enzyme, or family of enzymes capable of decomposing chitin; found in molting fluid and as a secretion from chitinovores. ch it in iza t ion n. [Gr. chit on, tunic; izein, cause to be] The process of depositing chitin, or being chitinized. ch it in ize d a. ch it in oge nou s a. [Gr. chit on, tunic; gennaein, to produce] (ARTHRO) Pertaining to epidermal cells that secrete the chitin. ch it in oph ilu s a. [Gr. chit on, tunic; philos, loving] Pertaining to micro-organisms found in association with chitin and thought to derive nourishment from it. see chit in ovor e .

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ch it in ous a. [Gr. chit on, tunic] (ARTHRO) Composed of or resembling chitin, a colorless, hard amorphous compound; seen as the principal constituent of the hard covering of insects and crustaceans, the horny material as in the ligament of bivalve mollusks, the internal shell remnant of the squids and the horny operculum of many gastropods. ch it in ous cr a dle (ARTHRO: Insecta) Chitinized arms or bars that form the endoskeleton of the head of scale insects. ch it in ous pla t e of H a ye s see n e siu m chit inovor e n. [Gr. chit on, tunic; L. vorare, to devour] A micro-organism with the ability to digest chitin. see chit inoph ilu s. chit onost r a cum n. [Gr. chit on, tunic; ost rakon, shell] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, the thickest layer of the cuticle between epiostracum and hypodermis. see e ct ost r a cum . ch it osa n n. [Gr. chit on, tunic] A deacetylated derivative of chitin (polymeric glucosamine) that gives a characteristic violet color with iodine; the most commonly used qualitative test for the presence of chitin. ch it ose n. [Gr. chit on, tunic] A decomposition product of chitin; an acetyglucosamine and glucosamine salt. chla m yda t e , ch la m yde ou s a. [Gr. chlam ys, mantle] Bearing a cloak or mantle-like structure. ch lor a ge n ce lls (SIPUN) Yellow-brown cells on the peritoneal surfaces, especially the intestine. see chlor a goge n ce lls. ch lor a gocyt e n. [Gr. chloros, yellow-green; -agogue, that which stimulates; kyt os, container] A chloragogen cell. chlor a goge n ce lls (ANN) Yellowish-brown or greenish cells that surround the intestine of annelids that function in intermediary metabolism, similar to the role of the liver in vertebrates; also spelled chloragen, chloragogue, chlorogog. ch lor a gosom e s n.pl. [Gr. chloros, yellow-green; -agogue, that which stimulates; som a, body] Yellowish-brown or greenish globules formed in chloragogen cells. chlor ocr uor in n. [Gr. chloros, yellow-green; L. cruor, blood] (ANN: Polychaeta) A green respiratory pigment found in the

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blood; an iron porphyrin, differing from hemoglobin in one of the side chains, hence green pigment. ch lor ogog see ch lor a goge n ce lls chlor ogogue see chlor a goge n ce lls chlor ophyll n. [Gr. chloros, yellow-green; phyllon, leaf] The green pigment of plants and certain protozoa and bacteria, involved in photosynthesis. ch oa n a n.; pl. -a e [Gr. choane, funnel] Funnel-shaped. choa nocyt e n. [Gr. choane, funnel; kyt os, container] (PORIF) A flagellate cell crowned by a collar of cytoplasmic tentacles that generates currents of water; a collar cell. choa nocyt e cha m be r (PORIF) A cavity enclosed by a group of choanocytes. choa node r m n. [Gr. choane, funnel; derm a, skin] (PORIF) Any surface that is lined by choanocytes. ch oa n osom e n. [Gr. choane, funnel; som a, body] (PORIF) That area of the body that houses choanocyte chambers. ch on dr iocon t s n.pl. [Gr. chondros, grain; kont os, punting pole] Tubular and vesicular interior structures of mitochondria. ch ondr iodie r e sis n. [Gr. chondros, grain; dieres, double] Alterations in mitochondria during cell division. chondr iok ine sis n. [Gr. chondros, grain; kinesis, movement] Reproduction of mitochondria and their distribution in mitosis and meiosis. chondr iolysis n. [Gr. chondros, grain; lysein, to loosen] The disintegration of mitochondria. chondr iom e , chondr iom a n. [Gr. chondros, grain; -om e, group] The total mitochondrion content of a cell. chondr iosom e n. [Gr. chondros, grain; som a, body] The mitochondria. ch ondr ocyst n. [Gr. chondros, grain; kyst is, bladder] (PLATY: Turbellaria) Rhabdite of somewhat granular texture in land planarians. ch ondr oid a. [Gr. chondros, cartilage; eidos, shape] Resembling cartilage.

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ch on dr oph or e n. [Gr. chondros, cartilage; pherein, to bear] 1. (CNID: Hydrozoa) A disc-like colony of floating hydroids of the order Chondrophora; a chrondrophoran. 2. (MOLL: Bivalvia) A pit or large spoon-shaped form projecting from the hinge plate; support for the inner hinge cartilage. ch on e n. [Gr. choane, funnel] (PORIF) A canal that penetrates the cortex into which the dermal pores generally open. ch or d, ch or da n. [L. chorda, string] A cord, nerve or filament. ch or da l a. ch or d of t h e w in g (ARTHRO: Insecta) The straight line joining the leading and trailing edges of a wing. ch or dot on a l or ga n Subcuticular sense organs of insects and perhaps nematodes that consist of one to several hundred chordotonal sensilla (scolopidia); attached to the cuticle that function as mechanoreceptors; abundant in tympanal organs; a scolopophorus organ. see t ym pa n a l or ga n , m yochor dot on a l or ga n . ch or e n. [Gr. choros, place] An area in which geographical or environmental conditions are in harmony. see bioch or e , biot ype . ch or ion n. [Gr. chorion, membrane enclosing the fetus] The outermost shell or membranous covering of the egg of various invertebrates. ch or iot h e t e n. [Gr. chorion, membrane enclosing the fetus; t het e, servant] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A muscular structure of cyclical development that adheres to the chorion of the egg of Glossina and the Pupipara , and by the actions of the muscles aids in the removal of the chorion. ch or ology n. [Gr. choros, place; logos, discourse] The science dealing with the geographical distribution of organisms; zoogeography. ch or on om ic a. [Gr. choros, place; nom os, place or condition for living] The external influences effecting animals, such as geographical or regional environment. see a u t on om ic. ch or ot ype n. [Gr. choros, place; t ypos, type] A local type. ch r om a n. [Gr. chrom a, color] The hue and saturation of a color, i.e., red, green, brown, etc., as opposed to black,

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white and gray. ch r om a ffin a. [Gr. chrom a, color; L. affinis, related to] Staining strongly with chromium salts; also called chromophil; chromophile. chr om a phil see ch r om a ffin -chr om a sia , -chr om a sie suff. [Gr. chrom a, color] Condition of pigmentation or of staining, as in achromasia, polychromasia. ch r om a t ic a. [Gr. chrom a, color] Capable of being stained by coloring agents. ch r om a t ic body see ch r om a t oid body ch r om a t id n. [Gr. chrom a, color] One of two spiral filaments that make up a chromosome, and separate in cell division, each going to a different pole of the dividing cell and each becoming a daughter chromosome at anaphase in mitosis. ch r om a t in n. [Gr. chrom a, color] The more readily stainable substance in the cell nucleus; karyotin. see e u ch r om a t in , h e t e r och r om a t in. ch r om a t in body (ARTHRO: Insecta) A special rDNA containing body in the oocyte nucleus during early oogenesis of dytiscid water beetles; body of Giardini. ch r om a t ocyt e see chr om ocyt e s ch r om a t oge n or ga n see a x ia l gla n d ch r om a t ogr a ph y n. [Gr. chrom a, color; graphien, to draw] An analytical method of chemical analysis based on the selective absorption of inorganic or organic compounds through a porous medium. ch r om a t oid body A body containing ribonucleoprotein material found near the nucleus during certain stages of spermatogenesis. ch r om a t oid gr a in s In cell protoplasm, granules that stain similarly to chromatin. ch r om a t olysis n. [Gr. chrom a, color; lysein, to loosen] The solution and breaking up of chromatin. ch r om a t olyt ic a. ch r om a t oph or e n. [Gr. chrom a, color; phoreus, bearer] A single highly branched cell or synctia containing pigment

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granules that may disperse in the branches or concentrate in the center and effect color changes in various invertebrates. ch r om a t ot r opism n. [Gr. chrom a, color; t rope, turn] A taxis in response to stimulation by a particular color. chr om idium n.; pl. -m idia [Gr. dim. chrom a, color] Any of the basophilic fibrils in the cytoplasm that are composed of RNA-containing parts and RNA-free parts. chr om iole s n.pl. [Gr. dim. chrom a, color] The minute granules of which a chromomere is composed. ch r om obla st n. [Gr. chrom a, color; blast os, bud] An embryonic cell that develops into a pigment cell. ch r om oce n t e r n. [Gr. chrom a, color; kent ron, center] A granule of heterochromatin, whose numbers vary in the interphase nuclei. ch r om ocyt e s n. [Gr. chrom a, color; kyt os, container] 1. Pigmented cells. 2. (PORIF) Pigmented amoebocytes contained in the mesogloea. chr om oge n n. [Gr. chrom a, color; genos, birth] A colorless substance that is the precursor of a pigment. ch r om oge n e sis n. [Gr. chrom a, color; genesis, beginning] Color production. ch r om olipids n.pl. [Gr. chrom a, color; lipos, fat] The carotenoids and related pigments. ch r om om e r e n. [Gr. chrom a, color; m eros, part] One of the bead-like concentrations of chromatin found along the length of a chromosome. ch r om one m a n.; pl. -n e m a t a [Gr. chrom a, color; nem a, thread] The smallest light microscopic strand in chromosomes and chromatids. chr om ophile n. [Gr. chrom a, color; philos, loving] 1. Chromaffin. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) A blood cell, intermediate or transitional between prohemocytes, plasmatocytes and possibly other types of blood cells. ch r om oph ilic, ch r om a ph ilic a. [Gr. chrom a, color; philos, loving] Staining readily, as certain cells. see ch r om oph obe ce lls.

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ch r om oph obe ce lls Cells that do not absorb stains readily. see ch r om oph ilic. ch r om oph or e n. [Gr. chrom a, color; phorein, to bear] A group of atoms to whose presence definite color in a compound are attributed, and when combined with certain salt-forming groups (auxochromes) produce dyes. ch r om opr ot e in n. [Gr. chrom a, color; prot eios, primary] A compound protein that contains a pigment, as in hemoglobin of higher animals and hemocyanin of lower animals. ch r om osom a l a be r r a t ion see chr om osom e a be r r a t ion ch r om osom a l inve r sion Reversal of the linear order of the genes in a segment of a chromosome. ch r om osom a l ve sicle see k a r yom e r e ch r om osom e n. [Gr. chrom a, color; som a, body] One of the deeply staining DNA-containing bodies in the nucleus of the cell that carries genetic information arranged in a linear sequence. see diploid, ha ploid, polyploid. ch r om osom e a be r r a t ion In a broad sense, all types of changes in chromosome structure and chromosome number. ch r om osom e com ple m e n t The group of chromosomes derived from a particular gametic or zygotic nucleus, composed of one, two or more chromosome sets; karyotype. ch r om osom e dim inu t ion In embryogenesis, the elimination of certain chromosomes from cells that form somatic tissue. ch r om osom e m a p The graphic representation showing the position of genes belonging to a particular linkage group. ch r om osom e m u t a t ion A structural change in chromosome segments involving gain, loss or relocation. ch r om osom in n. [Gr. chrom a, color; som a, body] A nonhistone chromosomal protein. ch r om ot r opic a. [Gr. chrom a, color; t rope, turn] Controlling pigmentation. ch r on ic a. [Gr. chronos, time] Of long duration; not acute. chr onocline n. [Gr. chronos, time; klinein, to slant] A mor-

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phological character gradient in the time dimension. ch r onot r opic a. [Gr. chronos, time; t rope, turn] Affecting the rate of action, as accelerating or inhibiting. ch r ysa lis, ch r ysa lid n.; pl. ch r ysa lise s, chrysalides [Gr. chrysos, gold] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The pupa, e spe cia lly of a butterfly with complete metamorphosis; an obtect pupa. ch r ysa lloid a. [Gr. chrysos, gold; eidos, like] Like a chrysalis; golden. chr ysosym phily n. [Gr. chrysos, gold; syn, together; philios, loving] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Friendly relations between ants and lepidopterous larvae. ch yle n. [Gr. chylos, juice] Partially digested nutrients in the alimentary canal. chyle st om a ch (ARTHRO: Insecta) The ventriculus. ch ylific ve n t r icle (ARTHRO: Insecta) The midgut. ciba r ia l a r m a t u r e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In certain female Culicidae, a series of specialized spicules (cibarial teeth and spicular ridges on the cibarial ridge). ciba r ia l ba r see ciba r ia l cr e st ciba r ia l cr e st (ARTHRO: Insecta) In certain female Culicidae, a transverse ridge at the ventral posterior margin of the cibarium supporting the cibarial teeth; cibarial bar. ciba r ia l dom e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In certain Diptera, a dome shaped spiculate structure protruding at the posterior margin of the cibarium. see clype opa la t um . ciba r ia l pum p (ARTHRO: Insecta) The sucking pump; in Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera, combined with a pharyngeal pump. ciba r ia l r idge (ARTHRO: Insecta) In certain female Culicidae, one of a series of short spiculate ridges posterior to the cibarial crest; part of the cibarial armature. ciba r ia l se t a (ARTHRO: Insecta) One of several types of setae borne within the cibarium of some female Culicidae; dorsal, palatal and ventral setae; cibarial sensillum. ciba r ia l t e e t h (ARTHRO: Insecta) In some female Culicidae, a series of spicules, cones, and or rods borne on the cibarial

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crest on the ventral posterior margin of the cibarium. ciba r iu m n. [L. cibarius, pert. food] (ARTHRO: Insecta) That part of the pre-oral cavity enclosed by the hypopharynx and the clypeus; the sucking pump in Hemiptera. see pr e ciba r iu m . cibivia n. [L. cibarius, pert. food; via, road] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The sucking tube, food channel or food canal of sucking insects. cica t r ix n.; pl. cica t r ice s [L. cicat rix, scar] 1. A scar or scarlike marking. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Large, pore-like structures of giant scale insects, often appearing on the body surrounded by a chitinized rim. cilia n. pl.; sing. ciliu m [L. cilium , eyelid] Vibratile hair-like processes on the surface of a cell or organ, shorter and more numerous than flagella. cilia r y a. cilia r y fe e din g Feeding accomplished by ciliary action in conjunction with a flow of water. cilia r y loop (CHAETO) A delicate epidermal structure of two concentric rings of cells on the dorsal surface of the head and neck, sometimes extending onto the trunk, and possibly functioning in movement of sperm. cilia t e a. [L. cilium , eyelid] Provided with cilia; edged with parallel hairs; fringed; having minute hairs. cilia t e d fun n e ls (ECHI) Small, ciliated cup- or funnel-shaped structures attached to the outer surface of the anal vesicles. cilia t e d gr oove 1. (ECHI) A ciliated channel along the ventral surface of the mid-intestine to the precloacal caecum; occasionally forming a ridge and closely associated with the siphon. 2. (SIPUN) A ciliated channel along the ventral surface of the intestine from anterior region of the pharynx (esophagus) to the rectum. ciliogr a de a. [L. dim. cilium , eyelid; gradus, step] Movement by means of cilia. ciliola t e a. [L. dim. cilium , eyelid] Minutely ciliated. ciliolum n.; pl. ciliola [L. dim. cilium , eyelid] A minute or secondary cilium.

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ciliu m sing. of cilia cim ie r n. [Sp. cim ( a) , peak] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The head crest of the pierid butterfly chrysalis. cin cin n u lus see r e t ina cu lum cin clide s n.pl.; sing. cin clis [Gr. kinklis, latticed gate] (CNID: Anthozoa) In Actinaria, permanent or temporary perforations of the columnar body wall that permit the extrusion of water or acontia. cin ct a. [L. cinct um , girdle] Belted, girdled or encircled. cin e r e ou s a. [L. cinereus, ash colored] Ash-gray, ashen, or having the color of wood ashes. cin gu lum n. [L. cingulum , girdle] 1. Any band or girdle-like structure. 2. (ANN) The clitellum. 3. (MOLL) The colored bands or spiral ornamentation on certain univalve shells. 4. (ROTIF) The outer ciliary band of the coronal disc. cingula t e a. cir ca dia n a. [L. circum , about; dies, day] Pertaining to a metabolic or behavorial phenomena in living organisms at about twenty-four hour intervals; circadian rhythm; diurnal rhythm. cir ca - e qua t or ia l About the equator; around or near the middle. cir cin a t e a. [Gr. kerkos, circle] Ring-shaped; spirally rolled. cir cle t n. [Gr. kerkos, circle] A small circle; a ring. cir com ya r ia n n. [Gr. kerkos, circle; m ys, muscle] A muscle cell in which contractile fibrils completely surround the sarcoplasm. see pla t ym ya r ia n, coe lom ya r ia n. cir cu la r m uscle la ye r 1. The outermost muscular layer. 2. (BRYO: Phylactolaemata) In the body, the outer of the two thin muscle layers, between the peritoneum and the epithelium. 3. (ECHI) In all, except for genus Ikeda . 4. (SIPUN) May be grouped into defined bands or fasicles or formed in sheets. cir cu la r ove r la p The phenomena in which a chain of contiguous and intergrading populations of one species curves back until the terminal links overlap geographically and are then found to be reproductively isolated from each other,

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and as such, behave as if they belong to separate species; a rassenkreis. cir cu la r pla t e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Syrphidae larvae, a weakly sclerotized refractive area on the dorsal inner sector of the posterior spiracular plate; however, in saprophytic forms a sunken area at or just above the center of the posterior spiracular plate. cir cu la t ion n. [L. circulare, to make round] In higher invertebrate forms, movement of blood within definite channels in the body; in other forms, movement of blood in the body cavity fluid. cir cu la t or y syst e m The cardiovascular system; the heart and blood vessels. a. Closed system: the blood is confined to tubes throughout its entire course. b. Open system: the blood leaves the arteries and circulates through body spaces before reentering the heart. cir cu lu s n.; pl. cir cu li [L. circulus, ring] 1. Any ring-like arrangement, i.e., the branching of small blood vessels. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In scale insects, a glandular structure that discharges its contents internally. cir cum a na l a. [L. circum , around; anus, anus] About or surrounding the anus. cir cu m a pica l ba n d (ROTIF) The second division of the corona that encircles the margin of the head. see bucca l fie ld. cir cu m bor e a l a. [L. circum , around; Gr. boreas, north wind] Pertaining to the north, i.e., distribution around the boreal region. cir cu m ca pit u la r fu r r ow (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, the furrow around the base of the gnathosoma. cir cu m colum e lla r a. [L. circum , around; colum ella, pillar] Surrounding a columella. cir cu m e n t e r ic r in g (NEMATA) A commissural nerve ring that encircles the esophagus (pharynx). cir cu m e soph a ge a l, cir cum oe sopha ge a l a. [L. circum , around; Gr. oisophagos, gullet] Structures or organs encircling the esophagus. cir cu m e soph a ge a l com m issur e The major commissure of

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the nervous system of many invertebrates to which and from which ramify anteriorly and posteriorly directed nerves and nerve cords; sometimes called the nerve ring. cir cu m e soph a ge a l con n e ct ive s The nerve strand connectives on each side of the esophagus connecting the superesophageal ganglia and subesophageal ganglia of arthropods, annelids and brachiopods; circumoesophageal connectives. cir cu m fe ne st r a t e a. [L. circum , around; fenest ra, window] (NEMATA) In Heterodera spp., in which a vulval bridge across the vulval cone is not present, producing only a single opening. see a m bife ne st r a t e . cir cu m fe r e n t ia l a. [L. circum , around; ferre, to bear] Of or pertaining to the circumference; encompassing; encircling. cir cu m fe r e n t ia l ca na l see r in g ca na l cir cu m filum n.; pl. cir cu m fila [L. circum , around; filum , thread] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In dipteran Cecidomyid, antennal joints bearing elaborately looped or wreathed, thinwalled chemoreceptors with pores lying among fine surface ridges. cir cu m fle x a. [L. circum , around; flexibilis, bendable] Bent or winding, esp. blood vessels or nerves. cir cu m ge nit a l a. [L. circum , around; gignere, to beget] 1. Surrounding the genital pore. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In scale insects, groups of small circular glands with an excretory orifice at the tip, surrounding the genital pore. cir cu m ocu la r a. [L. circum , around; oculus, eye] Around or surrounding the eye. cir cu m ocu la r su lcu s (ARTHRO: Insecta) A commonly occurring groove that strengthens the rim of the eye; may develop into a deep flange protecting the inner side of the eye. cir cum oe sopha ge a l see cir cu m e soph a ge a l cir cu m or a l a. [L. circum , around; os, mouth] Encircling the mouth. cir cum pe da l a. [L. circum , around; pes, foot] Surrounding the base of a leg. cir cum pha r yn ge a l com m issur e s (connectives) (ANN:

Oli-

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gochaeta) The two parts of the nerve collar surrounding the esophagus and linking the ventral nerve cord with the cerebral ganglia. cir cu m scissile a. [L. circum , around; scindere, to cut] Splitting along a circular line, as in hatching. cir cu m se pt e d a. [L. circum , around; sept um , partition] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to a wing being encircled by a vein. cir cu m ve r sion n. [L. circum , around; vert ere, to turn] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, the rotation of the postabdomen during imaginal development. cir cu m volu t ion n. [L. circum , around; volvere, to turn around] Around an axis or center; a whorl; rotation; revolution. cir r a l ossicle s (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) Pertaining to the small ossicles of a cirrus of sea lilies. cir r a t e a. [L. cirrus, curl] Having curls or cirri. cir r a t e a n t e n na (ARTHRO: Insecta) An antenna with very long curved lateral branches, with or without fringes of hair; a pectinate antenna. see plum ose . cir r i pl. of cir r u s cir r ife r ou s a. [L. cirrus, curl; ferre, to bear] Bearing a curl or tendril. cir r oph or e n. [L. cirrus, curl; Gr. phorein, to bear] (ANN: Polychaeta) The basal section of a cirrus. cir r ose , cir r ou s a. [L. cirrus, curl] Bearing tendrils or cirri. cir r ost yle n. [L. cirrus, curl; Gr. st ylos, pillar] (ANN: Polychaeta) The distal section of a cirrus. cir r u s n.; pl. cir r i [L. cirrus, curl] 1. Any slender, usually flexible structure or appendage. 2. Has been used for hair on appendages of insects and male copulatory organs in various invertebrates. 3. (ANN: Polychaeta) Small, tentacle-like protuberances on the parapodia, peristomium and pygidium. 4. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In barnacles, a thoracic multiarticulate appendage, usually flattened laterally and curled anteriorly, with food gathering function. 5. (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) The aboral ring of unbranched jointed appendages, curved and tapered at the end that aid in fas-

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tening to rocks, coral or soft substrata. 6. (MOLL: Bivalvia) A bundle of fused cilia that filters particles from the water entering the gill. 7. (NEMATA) Elaborate cephalic appendages such as those found in Chambersiella. 8. (PLATY) The penis or copulatory organ of trematodes and cestodes. cir r u s a cuu m (ARTHRO: Insecta) A rounded sclerotized form of cornuti of male Lepidoptera, often bearing dense spinehairs. cir r u s pouch or sa c Pouch or sac containing the copulatory organ (cirrus) of various invertebrates. cist e r n a e n.pl. [L. cist erna, underground reservoir for water] Any of various flattened, membranous, fluid-filled vesicles. cist r on n. [Gr. kist e, box] The functional gene; the section of a DNA molecule that specifies the formation of a particular polypeptide chain. cit r in e a. [L. cit rus, citron-tree] Lemon-yellow in color. cit r on sha pe d Having the form of a large lemon. cla di, cla ds n.pl. [Gr. klados, branch] (PORIF) The three shorter rays of a tetraxon spicule, that may be forked or branched at their free ends. cla dism n. [Gr. klados, branch] A method by which organisms are ordered and ranked entirely on the basis of the most recent branching point of the inferred phylogeny. cla dist ic a. cla doce r ous a. [Gr. klados, branch; keras, horn] Having branched horns or antennae. cla doge n e sis n. [Gr. klados, branch; genesis, beginning] Branching evolution; the splitting of species, i.e., speciation. see a n a ge n e sis. cla dogr a m n. [Gr. klados, branch; gram m a, picture] A dendrogram based on the principles of cladism; a strictly genealogical dendrogram, ignoring rates of evolutionary divergence. cla dom e n. [Gr. klados, branch] (PORIF) The three short rays or cladi of a tetraxon spicule. cla dot ylot e a. [Gr. klados, branch; t ylos, knob] (PORIF) In diactinal monaxons, a tylote having somewhat recurved clads

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at each end. cla dus n.; pl. cla di [Gr. klados, branch] (PORIF) Smaller branch of a tetraxon spicule. cla dose a. cla m p n. [D. klam p] (PLATY: Trematoda) A complex set of sclerotized bars, forming a pinching organ on the opisthaptor of a monogenetic trematode. cla n de st ine e volu t ion Evolutionary change introduced and developed in juvenile stages and incorporated into descendant adult stages by paedomorphosis. Cla pa r e de or ga n s see u r st igm a t a cla spe r n. [ME. claspen, to embrace] 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) An appendage, including antenna, modified for holding of female during copulation; or an organ for fixation in parasites. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. A modified male appendage of certain insects that enables the male to hold to the female during copulation. b. The harpe of male Lepidoptera. 3. (MOLL: Bivalvia) An extension of the shell which tends to attach to objects. cla spe t t e see h a r pa gon e s cla sp fila m e n t see dist ist ylu s cla spin g a ppa r a t us (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A movable, heavily sclerotized sclerite of male ostracods, that articulates with the midportion of the peniferum in a socket near the ventral cardo and the loop of the spermatic tube; probably a tactile organ. cla ss n. [L. classis, division] A taxonomic group used in classification of organisms into which a phylum or division is divided, and which in turn is subdivided into orders. cla ssica l t a x onom y A taxonomic method incorporating the uses of morphological, serological, and biochemical data in classifying, describing and naming of organisms. see t a x on om y. cla ssifica t ion n. [L. classis, division; -fic, make] The process of delimitation, ordering, and ranking taxa (populations and groups of populations) at all levels by inductive procedures. cla t h r a t e , cla t h r ose a. [L. clat hrat us, latticed] 1. Divided like latticework. 2. (MOLL: Gastropoda) Shells having orna-

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mentation of spiral and transverse components that intersect to form a broad lattice. cla u silium , cla ucilium n. [L. claudere, to close] (MOLL: Gastropoda) In Clausiliidae, a calcareous closing device that effectively seals the apertural lamellation; collectively called lunellarium. cla u st r u m n. [L. claust rum , bar] 1. A bolt or bar. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Any structure uniting wings in flight, i.e., hooks, thickened margins, or a jugum. 3. (CNID: Scyphozoa) The transverse circumferential membrane dividing the stomach pouches in some medusae. cla va n.; pl. clavae [L. clava, club] 1. Any club-shaped structure. 2. (ARTH RO: Chelicerata) The ventral mouth part of ticks. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The terminal enlarged joints of the antenna; clavola. cla va l fu r r ow (ARTHRO: Insecta) A flexion line of the wings found just behind the posterior cubital vein; cubito-anal fold. cla va l su t u r e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hemiptera, the suture of the front wing separating the clavus from the corium. cla va l ve in (ARTHRO: Insecta) A vein in the clavus. cla va t e a. [L. clava, club] Enlarged at the tip; club shaped. cla vicle n. [L. dim. clavis, key] (MOLL: Bivalvia) A buttress for support of the chondrophore. cla vicu la n. [L. dim. clavis, key] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Coxa of an anterior leg. cla vicu la r lobe (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Homoptera, that portion of the hind wing behind the anal veins. cla vifor m a. [L. clava, club; form a, shape] Club-shaped; clavate. cla vola n. [L. dim. clava, club] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The antenna beyond the second segment; flagellum. cla vu le n. [L. dim. clava, club] 1. (ECHINOD: Echinoidea) In Spatangoida, a minute ciliated spine on the test. 2. (PORIF) A modified triaxonal spicule with a disk or bulb at one end. cla vu lu s see fr e nu lum

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cla vu s n. [L. clavis, key] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. The oblong or triangular anal portion of the fore wing of certain hemipteran and homopteran insects. 2. Rounded, peaked or brush-like process of the dorsal margin of the sacculus of certain Lepidoptera. 3. The area between the claval furrow and the jugal fold on wings without a vannus. cla w n. [A.S. clawu, claw] Any sharp structure terminating an animal limb that is adapted for clawing or clutching; unguis; apotele. see che la . cla w t e e t h (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The teeth, varying in numbers, lining the curve of the true claws. cla w t u ft s (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The pair of dense tufts of adhesive hairs present below the paired claws at the tip of the tarsi of many spiders. cle a r - zon e e ye see supe r posit ion e ye cle a va ge n. [A.S. cleophian, split] The process by which the division of the egg cell gives rise to all the cells of the organism. cle a va ge ce lls The cells formed during cleavage; a blastomere. cle a va ge n u cle u s 1. The nucleus of a fertilized egg cell or zygote. 2. The nucleus of egg cells that develop parthenogenetically. cle ft a. [A.S. cleofian, split] Split or forked. cle idoic a. [Gr. kleis, bar; oion, egg] Pertaining to an egg enclosed within a shell or membrane that is permeable only to gasses. cle m e n. [Gr. klem a, shoot, twig] (PORIF) In megascleres, an uncinate spicule. cle pt obiosis n. [Gr. klept ein, to steal; biosis, manner of life] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A form of symbiosis in which one species robs the food stores, feeds on refuse piles, or in other ways steals food from another species, but does not nest in close association. see le st obiosis. cle pt opa r a sit ism n. [Gr. klept ein, to steal; parasit os, one who eats at the table of another] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, a parasitic relationship in which a female seeks out

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prey or stored food of another, usually of a different species, and appropriates it for the rearing of her own offspring. clim a t ic isola t ion Prevention of interbreeding between two or more populations because of differential preferences in climatic conditions. see ge ogr a ph ica l isola t ion / ba r r ie r s. clim a x n. [Gr. klim ax, ladder] 1. A stage in the community of organisms that have reached equilibrium with existing environmental conditions; arrives at the final stage in the natural succession. 2. A mature and stabilized stage of a biotic community extending over a vast geographic area. clim ogr a ph n. [Gr. klim a, slope; graphein, to write] A diagram on which localities are represented by the annual cycle of temperature and rainfall. clin a l a. [Gr. klinein, to slope] The gradual varying of characteristics. clin e n. [Gr. klinein, to slope] A change in population characteristics over a geographical area, usually related to a corresponding environmental change; geocline. clin ology n . [Gr. klinein, to slope; logos, discourse] The study of the retrogression or decline of organisms after maturity, or after their phylogenetic apex as a group. clist oga st r ou s a. [Gr. kleist os, enclosed; gast er, belly] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, having a petiolated abdomen. clit e lla t e a. [L. clit ellae, pack saddle] (ANN: Oligochaeta) Having a clitellum; the age or stage during which the earthworm has a clitellum. clit e llu m n. [L. clit ellae, pack saddle] (ANN: Oligochaeta) A glandular annular swelling of the epidermis; the gland cells that secrete material to form a cocoon; cingulum. clit h r u m n.; pl. clit h r a [Gr. clit hros, bar] (ARTHRO: Insecta) One of a pair of sclerotic rings of the epipharynx, that separates the corypha and the paria of certain scarabaeoid larvae. cloa ca n.; pl. -ca e [L. cloaca, canal] The terminal portion of the digestive tract in various invertebrates that functions as

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a digestive, excretory and reproductive duct. cloa ca l a. cloa ca l a pe r t u r e The external opening of the cloaca; the vent. cloa ca l ca vit y see spon gocoe l cloa ca l pa ssa ge (MOLL: Bivalvia) A passage in exhalant mantle chamber that serves as a cloaca. cloa ca l t ubu s see t ubus clon e n. [Gr. klon, twig] 1. All the descendants derived by asexual reproduction from a single sexually produced individual. 2. (PORIF) A ray-like arm; a desma. clon ot ype n. [Gr. klon, twig; t ypos, type] 1. An asexually propagated specimen from a part of a type specimen or holotype. 2. The phenotype or homogenous product of cloning. clon u s n. [Gr. klonos, violent confused motion] Muscle contractions interspersed with relaxation in rapid succession; incomplete tetanus. close d a. [L. claudere, to close] (MOLL: Bivalvia) Pertaining to pelecypods, the shells of which do not gape. close d ce ll (ARTHRO: Insecta) A wing cell completely surrounded by veins, and not reaching the wing margin. closin g a ppa r a t u s of a spir a cle (ARTHRO: Insecta) One or two movable valves in the spiracular opening or internal constriction closing off the atrium from the trachea. closing ba nd (ARTHRO: Insecta) A soft, convex valvular fold of the inner closing mechanism of a spiracle. closin g bow (ARTHRO: Insecta) A crescentric or semicircular elastic bar functioning as the inner closing mechanism of a spiracle. clu bbe d a. [ON. klubba, club] Having the distal part or segment enlarged. club sha pe d see cla va t e clu st e r n. [A.S. clyst er, cluster] Collecting together for such purposes as prior to mating or hibernation, low temperatures, etc.; agminate. clype a l a. [L. clypeus, shield] Of or pertaining to the clypeus.

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clype a l fove a (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Ichneumonid Hymenoptera, one of two anterior tentorial pits, appearing as a shallow impression in the groove between the clypeus and face. clype a l phr a gm a (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, a flat apodeme extending from the exposed part of the clypeus to the lateral margin of the cibarium. clype a t e a. [L. clypeus, shield] Shaped like a shield; having a clypeus; scutate; peltate; escutcheon. clype a t e / clype a t us he a d (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to a flattish head, with broad flat margins in the clypeus and front. clype ifor m a. [L. clypeus, shield] Clypeate. clype ola br a l su t u r e (ARTHRO: Insecta) The suture between the clypeus and the labrum. clype ola br a l a. clype olu s see a n t e clype u s clype opa la t um n. [L. clypeus, shield; palat um , roof of the mouth] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A division of the palatum of Culicidae, formed by the ventral surface of the clypeus; the roof of the cibarium. see la br opa la t um . clype u s n. [L. clypeus, shield] 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The anterior tagma between eyes and cheliceral bases in arachnids. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) That part of the head bearing the labrum. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The sclerite on the lower part of the face, usually separated from the frons by an epistomal sulcus or suture, and maybe divided into an anteclypeus and a postclypeus. 4. (BRACHIO) That part of the cephalon bearing the labrum; a plate situated anteromedially on the head formed by fusion of basal segments of the antennae. clypofr on s n. [L. clypeus, shield; frons, front] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The transverse groove delimiting the clypeus from the frons. cn ida cnida e pl. see ne m a t ocyst Cn ida r ia , cn ida r ia n n. [Gr. knide, nettle] 1. A phylum of primitive eumetazoans, including the hydras, jellyfish, sea anemones and corals, each bearing nematocysts. 2. In

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some classifications considered a subphylum of Coelenterata. 3. Sometimes considered synonymous with Coelenterata. cn idobla st , n e m a t obla st , ne m a t ocyt e n. [Gr. knide, nettle; blast os, bud] (CNID) A round or ovoid interstitial cell that forms a nematocyst. cn idocil n. [Gr. knide, nettle; L. cilium , eyelid] (CNID) A small pointed projection on a nematocyst that acts as a trigger during discharge. cn idocyst n. [Gr. knide, nettle; kyst is, bladder] (CNID) A rigid oval capsule containing the eversible thread in the cnidoblast. cnidophor e n. [Gr. knide, nettle; phorein, to bear] (CNID) A contractile stalk with an enlarged hollow tip bearing nematocysts; present on the tentacles of some medusae. cnidopod n. [Gr. knide, nettle; pous, foot] (CNID) The basal portion of a nematocyst. cn idor h a gi n. [Gr. knide, nettle; rhax, grape] (CNID) Clusters of rounded projections of tube anemones that are filled with nematocysts. cn idosa c, cn idu s sa c n. [Gr. knide, nettle; sakkos, bag] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Cells in the distal tip of the cerata in which undischarged nematocysts ingested from cnidarians are stored and later used for defense. coa ce r va t e a. [L. coacervare, to heap up] Piled up; collected into a crowd; densely clustered. coa ct u s a. [L. coact us, compress] Pertaining to a short stout form; condensed. coa da pt a t ion n. [L. cum , with; ad, to; apt us, to fit] The selection process that tends to accumulate harmonious interactions of genes brought together by natural selection. coa du n a t e a. [L. coadunare, to unite with] 1. Combined or joined together. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Elytra when permanently united at the suture. coa gu la t ion n. [L. coagulare, to curdle] The formation of a clot; to change from a liquid to a viscous or solid state. coa gu lin n. [L. coagulare, to curdle] A constituent of blood

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that aids in coagulation. coa gulocyt e n. [L. coagulare, to curdle; Gr. kyt os, container] (ARTHRO) Specialized granular hemocytes. see cyst ocyt e s. coa gulum n. [L. coagulare, to curdle] A semisolid mass; a clot; curd. coa le sce v.i. [L. coalit us, united] To come together into one; to fuse or blend. coa le sce n t a. [L. coalit us, united] A growing together, uniting. coa lit e v.i. [L. coalit us, united] To unite or associate. coa lit e st ilt pr ole gs (ARTHRO: Insecta) Having a portion of the prolegs united into one organ for a part of their length, with a bifid apex. coa r ct a t e a. [L. coarctatus, compressed] 1. Crowded together; compressed; contracted. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Having the abdomen separated from the thorax by a constriction. coa r ct a t e la r va (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. A larva similar to the dipteran puparium in which the skin of the preceding instar is not completely shed, being attached to the caudal end of the body. 2. The sixth instar of a meloid larva with the fifth exuvium present; a pseudopupa; a semipupa. coa r ct a t e pu pa (ARTHRO: Insecta) A type of pupa in certain Diptera, with the last larval skin being retained as a protective puparium, with tracheal connection maintaining contact between the pupa within the larval skin with the outside. coca r de s n.pl. [F. cocarde, insignia] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Lateral protrusible vesicles at the sides of the thorax and abdomen of Malachiidae beetles. coccin e llin n. [Gr. kokkinos, scarlet] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A defensive secretion (C 13H23 NO), of the ladybug beetle Coccinella sept em punct at e, that has a bitter taste and smell that repels the ant Myrm ica rubra. coccine ous a. [Gr. kokkinos, scarlet] Cochineal red; scarlet. coce ph a lic a. [L. cum , together; Gr. kephale, head] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Having a prognathous head in which only the foramen exists.

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coch in e a l n. [Gr. kokkinos, scarlet] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A crimson dye commercially extracted from the dried bodies of the homopterous insect Dactylopius coccus (cochineal scale) cultivated in South America, Mexico and the Canary Islands. see qu inone bioch r om e . coch le a t e a. [Gr. kochlias, snail with a spiral shell] Spirally twisted like a snail shell; screw-like. cock le n. [Gr. konkylion, shell] (MOLL: Bivalvia) The heartshaped shells or valves of the family Cariidae . cocoon n. [F. cocon, shell] A protective case or covering of an egg mass, larva, pupa, or adult of various invertebrates. cocoon - br e a k e r or cu t t e r (ARTHRO: Insecta) Structures or an elevated ridge of the pupa of certain Lepidoptera, often on the meson of the head; functioning in exiting the cocoon. code n. [L. codex, tablet] The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. codom in a n t a. [L. cum , with; dom inus, master] Pertaining to genes when both alleles of a pair are fully expressed in the heterozygote. codon n. [L. codex, tablet] The genetic unit of three adjacent nucleotides that specify a single amino acid in a polypeptide chain. codonoce pha lus la r va (PLATY: Trematoda) A metacercaria similar to a neascus larva. coe - For words not found here see ce - or ca e -. coe cum , coe ca see ca e cum Coe le n t e r a t a , coe le nt e r a t e n. [Gr. koilos, hollow; ent eron, intestine] 1. A group of diploblastic, mostly marine animals with a single internal cavity with an oral opening. 2. Cnidaria (=Coelenterata). 3. A phylum containing two subphyla, Cnidaria and Ctenophora in some classifications. coe le nt e r on n. [Gr. koilos, hollow; ent eron, intestine] The single cavity, or sole body space of a coelenterate, serving as a stomach and excretory organ, and by outgrowths, as a primitive vascular system. coe lobla st see h ypobla st

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coe lobla st ula n.; pl. -la e [Gr. koilos, hollow; blast os, bud] 1. A hollow blastula; a blastula without qualification. 2. (PORIF: Calcarea) The simple type of blastula larva found in Calcinia . coe loconoid a. [Gr. koilos, hollow; konos, cone; eidos, form] Approaching conical but with concave sides; extraconic. see conoid, cyr t ocon oid. coe loga st r u la n. [Gr. koilos, hollow; gast er, stomach] A gastrula derived from a coeloblastula. coe lom n. [Gr. koilos, hollow] The body cavity or space between the body wall and internal organs lined with mesoderm in many metazoan animals. Coe lom a t a n. [Gr. koilos, hollow] In some classifications, a taxonomic group comprising those metazoans that have a coelom or body cavity formed in and surrounded by mesoderm at some stage in their life cycle. coe lom a t e a. [Gr. koilos, hollow] Having a coelom or body cavity. coe lom e sobla st n. [Gr. koilos, hollow; m esos, middle; blast os, bud] In segmentation, the mesoblastic bands that will form the wall of the coelom and outgrowths. coe lom ic ca na ls a nd sa cs (SIPUN) Dermal canals, spaces or diverticula containing coelomic fluid connected with the body cavity through small pores; possibly aiding respiration. coe lom ic ca vit y That area between the viscera and the body wall. coe lom ic fu n n e l The nephrostome. coe lom ic pa pilla e (SIPUN) Small, flat, leaf-like processes on the coelomic surface of the body wall, usually anterior of the nephridial attachment. coe lom ic sa cs Cavities representing the coelom that appear in the mesoderm in embryology. coe lom ocyt e s n.pl. [Gr. koilos, hollow; kyt os, container] 1. Corpuscles (usually amoebocytes) in the coelomic or pseudocoelomic fluids of invertebrates. 2. (ANN) amoebocytes and elaeocytes. 3. (ECHINOD) The spindle-shaped cells,

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phagocytes, and crystal cells. 4. (NEMATA) The mesenchymatous cells in the body cavity. see pse udocoe l ce lls, pse udocoe lom ocyt e s. coe lom oduct n. [Gr. koilos, hollow; L. ducere, to lead] Any duct that connects the coelom to the external surface of the body, usually applied to the terminal tubule of nephridia; in onchophorans and mollusks, excretory and/or reproductive functions. coe lom opor e s n.pl. [Gr. koilos, hollow; poros, passage] 1. (BRYO) A body wall pore connecting the coelom with the exterior; the pore at the base of the tentacles through which the ova are extruded; supraneural pore. 2. (MOLL: Cephalopoda) Nautiloid ducts between the pericardial cavity and the exterior. coe lom ost om e n. [Gr. koilos, hollow; st om a, mouth] The external opening of a coelomoduct. coe lom ya r ia n n. [Gr. koilos, hollow; m ys, muscle] (NEMATA) Muscle structure in which the contractile fibrils are not only next to the subcuticula, but also extend varying distances up the side of the muscle cell and partially enclose the sarcoplasm. see pla t ym ya r ia n, cir com ya r ia n. coe lozoic a. [Gr. koilos, hollow; zoon, animal] Living in the lumen of a hollow organ, i.e., the intestine. coe n e n ch ym a , coe n e n ch ym e n.; pl. coe ne n ch ym a t a [Gr. koinos, common; enchyma, infusion] (CNID: Anthozoa) Thick cellular mesoglea connecting adjacent polyps of alcyonarian corals. coe ne n ch ym a l a. coe nobiosis n. [Gr. koinos, common; biosis, manner of life] A consociation of plants and animals of different species. coe n obla st n. [Gr. koinos, common; blast os, bud] Embryonic germ layer originating both in the endoderm and mesoderm. coe nocyt e n. [Gr. koinos, common; kyt os, container] A multinucleate condition of discrete cells resulting from repeated nuclear division unaccompanied by cell fission; giant cell. coe noe cium n. [Gr. koinos, common; oikos, house] (BRYO) The common secreted investment of a colony, gelatinous, chitinous, or calcareous.

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coe noge n e t ic see ce noge n e t ic coe noge n ou s see ce noge n ou s coe nogony n. [Gr. koinos, common; gone, generation] Reproduction involving coenocytes. coe n osa r c n. [Gr. koinos, common; sarx, flesh] (CNID: Hydrozoa) The hollow living tubes of the upright branching individuals of a colony. see st olon , pe r isa r c. coe nosit e n. [Gr. koinos, common; sit os, food] A free or separable commensal organism. coe nospe cie s n. [Gr. koinos, common; L. species, kind] Collectively, those related species or ecospecies that can intercross to form hybrids that are sometimes fertile. coe nost e um n.; pl. -t e a [Gr. koinos, common; ost eon, bone] 1. (CNID: Hydrozoa) The calcareous mass forming the skeleton of a compound coral. 2. (PORIF: Sclerospongiae) The basal skeleton of a stromatoporoid sponge. coe not r ope n. [Gr. koinos, common; t rope, turn] A form of behavior common to a group or species. coe n u r e see coe nu r u s coe n u r u s n. [Gr. koinos, common; oura, tail] (PLATY: Cestoda) A metacestode in the family Taeniidae, in which scolices bud from an internal germinative membrane inside a bladderlike sac. see cyst ice r cu s. coe n zym e n. [L. cum , with; Gr. en, in; zym e, yeast] An organic substance associated with an enzyme in order to function; an organic cofactor. coe volut ion n. [L. cum , with; evolvere, to unroll] Development of genetically determined traits in two species to facilitate some interaction, usually mutually beneficial. see cou n t e r e volu t ion. coe x ist e n ce n. [L. cum , with; exist ere, to exist] Existing at the same time and place with another. cofa ct or n. [L. cum , together; facere, to act] Any accessory substance (inorganic or organic) attached to an enzyme and necessary for its function; such as a metallic ion or a coenzyme.

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coh a bit a n t s n.pl. [L. cum , together; habit are, to dwell] Organisms that dwell with others. coh e sion n. [L. cum , together; haerere, to stick] Attraction between molecules of the same substance. coh or t n. [L. cohors, enclosure] In older classifications, indefinite taxonomic groups ranked above a superorder, between class and order, or related families. coila n.; pl. -a e [Gr. koilos, hollow] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The point upon the body on which the articulation of an appendage is made. coin cide n t a. [L. cum , with; incadere, to fall on] Occupying the same position. coinduct ur a n. [L. cum , with; indut us, clothed] (MOLL: Gastropoda) In some bellerophonts, a rather thick, obliquely layered shelly coating, extending over the inner lip from within the aperture, covering part of the inductura proper. coit ion , coit u s n. [L. coire, to go together] Mating; copulation. cola cobiosis see ca lobiosis cold- bloode d see poik ilot he r m a l cold- ligh t Light emitted by bioluminescent organisms; envolving relatively little heat. cole opt e r oid a. [Gr. koleos, sheath; pt eron, wing] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to the Coleoptera; beetlelike. cole opt e r y n. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In some Hemiptera, the corium and membrane of the hemeletron are not well differentiated, with the hemeletron appearing like a beetle's elytron. coliform a. [L. colum , sieve; form a, shape] Sieve-like, cribriform. colla br a l a. [L. collare, band for the neck; labrum , lip] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Shells with the growth lines conforming to the shape of the outer lip. colla ge n n. [Gr. kolla, glue; L. genos, to produce] Fibrous protein material in connective tissues binding together many cells and tissues; relatively inelastic. colla ge na se n. [Gr. kolla, glue; genos, to produce; -asis, de-

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noting enzymes] A proteolytic digestive enzyme. colla r n. [L. collare, band for the neck] 1. Any of various structures comparable with a collar. 2. (ANN: Polychaeta) Specially developed outgrowths carried on the first thoracic segment of certain worms that function in tube-building in association with calcium-secreting glands. 3. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, a circular line or ridge at the place of epiostracal attachment of setae, ungues, and rutellum. 4. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Between the head and thorax. a. The neck in Hymenoptera. b. In Diptera, the neck; the prothorax; sclerites attached to the prothorax or its processes. c. In Coleoptera, the prothorax. d. In Lepidoptera, the sclerites attached to the prothorax, shielding the neck. e. In Heteroptera, the anterior constricted part of the pronotum, usually set off by a groove. 5. (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) In Ctenostomata zooids, a pleated membranous structure attached to the diaphragm. 6. (CNID: Anthozoa) The scapus of sea anemones, standing up as a prominent fold, before joining the capitulum; the parapet. 7. (PORIF) Monaxons that project obliquely upwards from the pinacoderm. colla r ce ll A choanocyte. colla r e n. [L. collare, band for the neck] The more or less elevated posterior part of the collum. colla r e t t e n. [L. dim. collare, band for the neck] 1. (CHAETO) Thickened distended cells in the neck region that in some species extend posteriorly along the trunk for some distance; in one instance as far as the lateral fins. 2. (NEMATA) Either anterior or posterior cuticular extensions forming an annular ring in the neck region. colla t e r a l a. [L. cum , with; lat era, sides] A subsidiary; indirect; a lateral branch of an axon. colla t e r a l in t e st ine (ECHI) A tube associated with the midgut. colla t e r ia l see colle t e r ia l gla n ds colla t or ia n. [Gr. kolla, glue; -toria, derived Latin for appropriate place] The duct of the colleterial gland. colle ct ing ba sk e t (ARTHRO: Insecta) Hairs, bristles or spines on the forelegs that function in collecting or holding food

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while consuming it. colle n chym a , colle nchym e n. [Gr. kolla, glue; NL. enchym a, type of cell tissue] Mesenchyme when there is a great deal or large amounts of gelatinous intercellular material and cells are relatively few in number. colle n cyt e n. [Gr. kolla, glue; en, in; kyt os, container] (PORIF) A mobile cell responsible for collagen secretions. colle t e r ia l gla nds, colle t r ic gla n ds, se bific gla n ds 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Single or paired glands of certain females or hermaphrodites that produce a sticky substance for binding eggs together. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Paired glands of females that secrete a substance to cement eggs together or to the substratum, or to provide a material for the egg capsule or ootheca. colle t e r ium see colle t e r ia l gla nds colle t ocyst oph or e see r h opa lium collicu lum n.; pl. collicu li [L. dim. collis, hill] A small elevation. collicu la t e , collicu lose a. colliga t e v.t. [L. cum , with; ligare, to bind] To tie or bind together. colliga t ion n. [L. cum , with; ligare, to bind] The combining together of isolated facts. collobla st n. [Gr. kolla, glue; blast os, bud] (CTENO) Adhesive cells; sticky cells covering much of the surface of the tentacles that are used to capture and ingest prey. collophor e n. [Gr. kolla, glue; phoreus, bearer] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Collembola, a respiratory osmoregulatory organ, or ventral tube, on the venter of the 1st abdominal segment. collum n.; pl. colla [L. collum , neck] 1. The neck or collarlike structure. 2. (ARTHRO) The armoured tergite on the first segment behind the head in millipeds and pauropods that functions in locomotion. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. The slender connection between the head and thorax in Hymenoptera, Diptera and Hemiptera. b. The constriction of the median plate of the aedeagal apodeme prior to the fulcrum in male fleas.

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colon n. [Gr. kolon, large intestine] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The large intestine; that part of the hindgut between the ileum and the rectum. colon ia l or ga n ism An aggregate of cells all alike in structure and function. colon ici (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Phylloxera, see r a dicola ; in aphids, see a lie n icola . colony n. [L. colonia, farm] 1. A group of individuals of the same species living in close association with each other. 2. (BRYO) A morphological and functional unit comprised of one or more kinds of physically connected zooids, multizooidal parts and in certain colonies extrazooidal parts. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In social insects, those groups of individuals that construct nests or rear offspring in a cooperative manner. see a ggr e ga t ion . colon y con t r ol (BRYO) A process that influences changes of the functional and morphological aspects of zooids belonging to a colony from those of a solitary animal. colony fission (ARTHRO: Insecta) In social Hymenoptera, the establishement of new colonies by the departure of one or more reproductive forms plus groups of workers from the parental nest, in which comparable units remain to perpetuate the parental colony; sometimes called hesmosis in ants; sociotomy in termites. see sw a r m in g. colon y odor ( ARTHRO: Insecta) In social insects, the odor found on the bodies of individuals belonging to a colony, that serves as an indicator to other members of the same species whether or not they are nestmates. see n e st odor . color ch a nge in in se ct s 1. Short term reversible physiological changes that do not involve the production of new pigments. 2. Morphological change is a long-term change resulting from formation of new pigments and not usually reversible. color ( colou r ) of inse ct s Color resulting from a variety of structures and pigments; when in combinations of pigments, results from abundance and position. colu br in e a. [L. colubrinus, snakelike] Snakelike. colu lu s n.; pl. colu li [L. dim. colus, spindle] (ARTHRO: Cheli-

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cerata) The slender or pointed appendage immediately in front of the spinnerets in some spiders; in others, greatly reduced or seemingly missing; homologue of the anterior median spinnerets or cribellum. colu m e lla n. [L. dim. of colum na, column] 1. A rod, pillar or column. 2. (CNID: Anthozoa) The central skeletal mass of many corals. 3. (MOLL: Gastropoda) The solid or hollow pillar of a univalve shell around which the whorls are arranged. 4. (NEMATA) A structural unit of the female uterus composed of columns of cells believed to form the egg shell; prouterus; quadricolumella; tricolumella; oogenotop; crustaformeria. colu m e lla r fold (MOLL: Gastropoda) A spiral wound ridge on the columella that projects into the interior of the shell. colu m e lla r lip (MOLL: Gastropoda) The internal lip of the aperture of a shell. colu m e lla r m u scle (MOLL: Gastropoda) In snails, a large muscle attached in the upper portion of the shell spire; used to draw the soft parts into the shell. colum n n. [L. colum na, column] 1. Any column-shaped structure. 2. (CNID) The body. 3. (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) Segments that makeup the stem. colu m n a ls n.pl. [L. colum na, column] (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) The single row of superimposed, round or pentagonal skeletal stems. colum na r a. [L. colum na, column] Formed like a column. com a r gina l a. [L. cum , with; m argo, edge] (MOLL: Bivalvia) Coinciding with the growth lines of the shell; concentric. com a t e a. [L. com at us, with long hair] 1. Having hair; hairy. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Having hair on the upper surface. com b n. [A.S. cam b, comb] 1. Any of various comb-like structures. 2. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The pecten of scorpions. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. The strigil. b. The many brood cells or cocoons regularly arranged in the nests of many species of social wasps and bees. c. The pecten or pollen rake of honeybees. see com bs. 4. (CTENO) see com b r ow s. 5. (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) In Comasteridae, the modified segments of the distal part of the lower pinnules. 6. (MOLL) The

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ctenidium. com b colla r (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In certain Cirripedia, the retractable membrane supporting a row of uniform setae, at the superior angle of the aperture. com bin a t ion color s Colors arising from a combination of pigmentary and structural features. see color ch a n ge in in se ct s. com b pla t e see sw im m in g pla t e com b- r ib see com b r ow s com b r ow s (CTENO) Eight radially arranged bands of cilia that are partly fused in transverse rows; swimming plates; costa; comb-ribs; ctenes; paddle plate. com bs n.pl. [A.S. cam b, comb] 1. Any of various comb-like processes. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. A row of specialized spines or scales of Culicidae larvae centered on each side of abdominal segment eight; certain hairs on the upper surface of the maxillae used to clean the mouth brushes. see la t e r a l com bs. b. Ridges of cuticle that frequently bear spines. see com b. com b sh a pe d see pe ct in a t e com e t st a ge (ECHINOD: Asteroidea) A regenerating asteroid with a group of little arms at one end of a big arm. com it a lia n.pl. [L. comitare, to accompany] (PORIF) The small di- or tri-actine spicules. see pr in cipa lia . com m e nsa l n. [L. cum , with; m ensa, table] One of the partner species involved in commensalism; a coenosite. com m e nsa lism n. [L. cum , with; m ensa, table] A symbiotic relationship in which one of the two partner species benefits, without apparent effects on the other species. see sym biosis, pa r a sit ism . com m in u t e v.t. [L. cum , with; m inuere, to lessen] To reduce to minute particles or powder; pulverize; triturate. com m iscu u m n. [L. cum , with; m iscere, to mix] A group of individuals all of which can potentially exchange genes. com m issur a l indu r a t ion (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In mites, sclerotized thickening along the inner part of a commissural

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line to support the lip walls. com m issur a l lin e (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) 1. In arachnids, union between two lips. 2. In Acari there are three or four, two superiors and one or two inferiors. com m issur a l pla n e (MOLL: Bivalvia) The plane of the valve commissure. com m issur a l sh e lf (MOLL: Bivalvia) The shelflike part of the shell abutting the commissure peripherally. com m issur a l ve sse ls/ la t e r a l com m issur e s (ANN) Paired segmental lateral blood vessels from the dorsal vessel to anteriorly join the ventral vessel and more posteriorly, the sub-neural vessel; when contractile, they are called lateral hearts or pseudohearts. com m issur e n. [L. com m issura, joint] 1. Connection between two bodies, structures, organs or nerve fibers; a junction, seam or closure. 2. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, the oral commissures. 3. (MOLL: Bivalvia) The line of joining of the valves of the shell. com m issu r a l a. com m on a. [L. com m unis, general] Of frequent or ordinary occurrence; occurring on two adjacent parts or appendages. com m on bud see conflu e n t buddin g zon e com m on na m e A colloquial or vernacular name. com m on oviduct (ARTHRO: Insecta) In female genitalia, the ectodermal part of the oviduct, from fusion of paired oviducts to gonopore; oviductus communis; medium oviduct. com m on sa liva r y duct (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, the common median part of the salivary duct opening into the salivary pump. com m on vit e llin e du ct (PLATY: vitelline ducts to the ootype.

Turbellaria) Connects the

com m u n a l a. [L. com m unis, common] Living as a colony. com m u n ica t ion n. [L. com m unis, common] 1. Action on the part of one organism that alters the probability pattern of behavior in another organism. 2. Sending of signals that influence the behavior or development of others. com m u n it y n.; pl. -t ie s [L. com m unis, common] A group of

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plants and/or animals of one or more species in a given area or region that are related by environmental requirements. com ose a. [L. com osus, hairy] Having hair; hairy; ending in a tuft; comate. com pa ss n. [OF. com passer, go around] (ECHINOD: Echinoidea) A slender radial piece of the lantern of Aristotle that passes outward from the vicinity of the esophagus. com pa ct v.t. [L. com paginat us, joined] To be close together; to join firmly; to consolidate. com pa r t m e n t a l pla t e (ARTHRO: Crustacea) One of several rigidly articulated plates forming part of the shell wall of sessile barnacles. com pe n sa t or y sa c see cont r a ct ile ve sse l com pe t e n ce n. [L. com pet ere, to compete for] The ability of an embryonic primordium to differentiate in a specific direction, under appropriate stimuli. com pe t it ion n. [L. com pet ere, to compete for] The simultaneous endeavor of two or more organisms to survive when the essential resource of the environment is not sufficient for both. com pe t it ive e x clu sion The principle that no two species can coexist at the same time in the same locality when their ecological requirements are identical; Gause's rule; exclusion principle. com pla na t e a. [L. com planat us, flattened] Flattened; level. com ple m e nt see ch r om osom e com ple m e nt com ple m e nt a l m a le In certain annelids and barnacles, a small male that inhabits the same area occupied by a hermaphroditic form. com ple m e n t a l r e pr odu ct ive du ct ive

see su pple m e n t a r y

r e pr o-

com ple m e n t a t ion n. [L. com plem ent um , something that completes] The appearance of wild-type phenotype in an organism or cell containing two different mutations combined in a hybrid diploid.

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com ple t e cove r a ge see va lve cove r a ge com ple t e m e t a m or ph osis (ARTHRO: Insecta) The transformation period encompassing larva, pupa and adult; holometabolous metamorphosis. see in com ple t e m e t a m or phosis. com ple x n. [L. com plexus, entwine] Pertaining to a number of related taxonomic units, often units in which the taxonomy is difficult or confusing. see gr ou p. com ple x u s n. [L. com plexus, entwine] An aggregate. com plica n t a. [L. cum , with; plicare, to fold] 1. Folding or extending over another. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The elytron. com plica t e a. [L. cum , with; plicare, to fold] Folded longitudinally; folded together or in an irregular manner. com posit e a. [L. cum , with; ponere, to put] 1. A component part; compound. 2. (ANN: Oligochaeta) Pertaining to certain stalked glands of pheretimas annelids that contain several similar units. com posit e ne st (ARTHRO: Insecta) A nest inhabited by a communal colony. see com pound n e st . com pou n d a. [L. cum , with; ponere, to put] Composed of several elements of similar or dissimilar parts united into a single structure. com pou n d a n t e n na A capitate antenna comprised of several joints. com pou n d e ye (ARTHRO) A composite optic organ, the external surface consisting of circular facets that are very close together, or of facets in contact and more or less hexagonal in shape. see m osa ic t h e or y. com pou n d n e st (ARTHRO: Insecta) A nest inhabited by two or more species of social insects, where broods of each species are kept separate. see m ix e d n e st . com pou n d oce llu s Any ocellate spot containing three or more circles of color. com pou n d pha n e r e In phanerotaxy, composed of two different elements, one basal and one distal. com pou n d r ost r u m

(ARTHRO: Crustacea) In balanomorph

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barnacles, a compartmental plate formed by fusion of rostrolaterals with rostrum or of fused rostrolaterals. see r ostrum . com pou n d sk e le t a l w a ll (BRYO: Stenolaemata) An interior skeletal wall, calcified on the edges and both sides; the vertical wall. com pr e sse d a. [L. com pressus, pressed together] Flattened from side to side or top to bottom; nearly flat, with reduced thickness. com pr e ssion n. [L. com pressus, pressed together] A fossilized organism's carbonized remains produced by compressive forces. com pr e ssor n. [L. com pressus, pressed together] A muscle that serves to compress. com pr e ssor of t h e la br um (ARTHRO: Insecta) The single or paired median muscle attached on the anterior and posterior walls within the labrum. Com st ock - Ke llogg gla n ds (ARTHRO: Insecta) In some acridid Orthoptera, a pair of glands thought to produce a sex-attractant substance. Com st ock Syst e m or Com st ock - N e e dha m (ARTHRO: Insecta) The principal wing veins and their branches named and numbered. cona r ium n.; pl. -a r ia [L. conus, cone] (CNID: Hydrozoa) The earliest larva known that becomes a primary gastrozooid, and later develops an enlarged pneumatophore. conca m e r a t ion n. [L. cum , with; cam era, chamber] 1. Divided into chambers or cavities. 2. An arched hollow near the hinge area of a shell. conca t e na t e a. [L. cum , together; cat ena, chain] To join or link together; connect in a series or chain; having a series of points placed in regular order. con ca ve a. [L. cum , with; cavus, hollow] Rounded and hollow, as the interior of a sphere. see conve x . conca voconve x a. [L. concavus, hollowed or arched inward; convexus, arched outward] Pertains to being concave on one surface and convex on the other.

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con ce n t r ic a. [L. cum , with; cent rum , midpoint of a circle] Something having a common center, i.e., lines or ridges curving around a center; arcs having the same center. see com a r gina l. con ce pt a cu la se m in is (ARTHRO: Insecta) A mesodermal organ of certain females for the storage of sperm after deposition into a mesospermalege. conce pt ive a. [L. concipere, to receive] Capable of conceiving. con ch n. [L. concha, shell] (MOLL: Gastropoda) A trumpet shell; a large marine univalve shell. concha n.; pl. -ch a e [L. concha, shell] Any structure shaped like a shell. con ch a t e a. [L. concha, shell; -atus, provided with] 1. Conchiform. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Orthoptera, having a shell-like inflation of the auricle in the tibia. Con chife r a see Biva lvia con ch ife r ou s a. [L. concha, shell; fere, to bear] Producing or having a shell; testaceous. con ch ifor m a. [L. concha, shell; form a, shape] Shell-shaped; conch-like in form; conchoid. con ch in see con ch iolin con ch iolin n. [L. concha, shell] (MOLL) The organic component forming the thin outer layer of the shell; conchin. see na cr e . con ch it ic a. [L. concha, shell] Composed of shells, as limestones and marbles in which shell fragments are noticeable. conchology n. [L. concha, shell; Gr. logos, discourse] The branch of zoology dealing with the arrangement and description of mollusks based upon a study of their hard parts. con ch ologica l a. conchophor a see Biva lvia conchost r a ca n ca r a pa ce in t e r spa ce (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Any area between two growth lines of the conchostracan carapace; intervales; growth zone; growth band. conchost r a ca n ca r a pa ce in t e r va l (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Any

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space between two ribs, costae, or costellae of the conchostracan carapace. conchost r a ca n ca r a pa ce r ibs (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Strong radial ridges with intervals of variable width radiating from and across the um bo, usually nodose at intersections of growth lines. con ch u la n. [L. concha, shell] (CNID: Anthozoa) A modified siphonoglyph of certain sea anemones that is provided at the oral end with a spout-like lip. con chyliom or ph it e n. [L. concha, shell; Gr. m orphe, form] A fossil imprint of a shell. con cin a t e a. [L. concinnus, well-arranged] Neat; elegant. con color a. [L. concolor, colored uniformly] 1. Of uniform color. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Having the upper and lower surfaces of Lepidoptera with the same coloring. con cr e sce n ce n. [L. cum , together; crescere, to grow] The growing together of parts; joining; coalescing; the union of parts originally separated. con cr e t ion n. [L. cum , together; crescere, to grow] A massing together of parts or particles. con cu r r e n t a. [L. cum , together; currere, run] Meeting or coming together; acting in conjunction, as a joint or vein. con de n sa t ion n. [L. cum , together; densare, to thicken] 1. The act or process of condensing. 2. Descendents passing through the ancestral part of ontogeny faster than their ancestors did during phylogeny; it may occur by deletion of steps or accelerated development. con dit ione d r e fle x The habitual response in the nervous system arising from a particular outside stimulus. con dit ion in g n. [L. condit io, agreement, state] The process of acquisition by an animal of the capacity to respond to a new stimulus by associating the new stimulus with an old one. conduct ion n. [L. conducere, to lead together] The movement of heat, sound waves, or nerve impulses through an organism's cells or tissues. con du ct ivit y n. [L. conducere, to lead together] The ability to

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transmit an impulse. con du ct or n. [L. conducere, to lead together] A structure specialized for the transmission of excitation. con du plica t e a. [L. cum , together; duplicare, to double] Doubled or folded together; folded together lengthwise. con dyle n. [Gr. kondylos, knuckle] 1. A knoblike process that forms the fulcrum for joint movement. 2. (ARTHRO) The surfaces between arthropod joints, that provide the fulcra on which the joints move. 3. (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) In some cheilostomates, one of a pair of bilateral skeletal protruberances on which the operculum of an autozooid or mandible of an avicularium is hinged; in asymmetrical avicularia can be single. 4. (MOLL: Bivalvia) An enlarged prominent end of a shell. con dyla r , condylic, con dyloid a. con e n. [L. conus, cone] 1. Any cone-shaped structure. 2. The conical crystalline body of a compound eye, not always solid crystalline and occasionally not conical. see cr yst a llin e . 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The head shape of a thrip. 4. (NEMATA: Secernentea) The vulval cone of heteroderid cysts. con e ce ll (ARTHRO: Insecta) One of the four cells that produce the crystalline cone. con e - sh a pe d see cyr t ocon ic con fe r t e d a. [L. confert us, pressed together] Densely assembled or packed; crowded. con flu e n t a. [L. confluere, flowing together] Flowing together; merging; running together as confluent spots without marked lines of distinction. con flu e n t bu ddin g zone (BRYO: Stenolaemata) Coelomic budding space and surrounding exterior walls connecting body cavities of buds or combinations of buds and zooids. con flu e n t m u lt izooida l budding zon e (BRYO: Stenolaemata) Confluent budding zone that originates outside of the zooidal boundaries opposite the endozone. con flu e n t zooida l bu ddin g zone (BRYO: Stenolaemata) A confluent budding zone originating within the outer

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coelomic space of zooids opposite exozone; in some taxa, opposite distal endozone. con ge n e r ic a. [L. congener, of same race] 1. A term applied to species of the same genus. 2. Belonging to the same kind, class, or stock. con ge n e t ic a. [L. cum , together; Gr. genesis, beginning] Having the same origin. con ge n it a l a. [L. cum , together; gignere, to beget] Of or pertaining to a condition present at birth. con ge n it a l dise a se A disease present in an animal at birth; not necessarily inherited. conge st e d a. [L. congest us, heap together] Overcrowded; distended. con ge st in n. [L. congest us, heap together] (CNID: Anthozoa) The toxin of sea anemone tentacles. con globa t e a. [L. cum , together; globat us, make into a ball] Gathered together into a ball or rounded structure; spherical. con globa t e gla nd see pha llic gla n d con glom e r a t e a. [L. cum , together; agglom erat us, gathered into a mass] Irregularly grouped in spots; massed together; bunched or crowded. con gr e ssion n. [L. congressus, meeting] The movement of chromosomes to the spindle equator during mitosis. con ica l a. [L. conus, cone] Cone-shaped; conic; tapering to a point. con ico- a cu m in a t e Shaped like a long, pointed cone. con icu lu s n. [L. dim. conus, cone] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In mites, the malapophyses and lips enclosing the preoral cavity; the rostrum. con ife r ou s a. [L. conus, cone; ferre, to bear] Bearing a conelike process. conifor m la r va e (ARTHRO: Insecta) Cone-shaped larva, pointed at the head end, and enlarged, obtuse or truncate at the caudal end. con ispir a l a. [L. conus, cone; spira, coil] With a spire project-

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ing as a cone; conoid. con j oin e d a. [L. cum , together; jungere, to join] United or joined together; adnate. con j u ga t ion n. [L. conj ugare, to join together] Denotes coupling, connecting or uniting chromosomes, nuclei, cells, or individuals. con j u ga t e a. con j u n ct iva n.; pl. -t iva s [L. cum , together; j ungere, to join] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The membranous infolded portion of the segments of the body-wall. see in t e r se gm e n t a l m e m br a n e . con j u n ct ive a. [L. cum , together; j ungere, to join] Cojoining, connecting or connective. con n a t e a. [L. connat us, born together] Originating together; fused together or immovably united. con n e ct ive n. [L. connexus, join] A longitudinal cord of nerve fibers connecting successive ganglia. con n e ct ive t issu e s Tissues with cells that are irregularly distributed through a relatively large amount of intercellular material. con n e ct or n e u r on e see a ssocia t ion n e u r on con n e x iva n. pl.; sing. -vum [L. connexus, join] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The lateral flanges (laterotergites or paratergites) of the abdomen, where the ventral plates are attached to the main tergal plates. see pu lm ona r iu m . con n ive n t a. [L. connivere, to close the eyes] Converging or coming close together; arching inward so the points meet. conoid a. [Gr. konos, cone; eidos, form] Having the form of a cone; conoidal. see cyr t oconoid, coe loconoid. con ot h e ca n. [Gr. konos, cone; t heke, case] (MOLL: Cephalopoda) The thin integument of a phragmocone. con scu t u m n. [L. cum , together; scut um , shield] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The dorsal shield at the level of the anterior two pairs of legs, formed by the scutum and alloscutum united in certain ticks. conse nsua l a. [L. consensus, agreement] Pertaining to an involuntary action or movement correlated with a voluntary

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action or movement. con se r va t ive cha r a ct e r s Characters that change slowly during evolution. con socia t ion see m yr m e cobiosis con socie s n.pl. [L. cum , with; socius, companion] 1. A portion of an association characterized by one or more of the dominants of the association. 2. A portion of an association lacking one or more of its dominant species. see a ssocie s, isocie s, subsocie s. con sor t ism n. [L. consort ium , fellowship] Symbiosis in which the relationship between organisms is a fellowship. see h e lot ism . con spe cific a. [L. cum , together; species, particular kind; facare, to make] Pertaining to individuals or populations belonging to the same species. con spe r se a. [L. conpersus, besprinkled] Thickly and irregularly scattered with minute markings. con st a n t n. [L. const are, to stand firm] An invariable or fixed quantity. con st r ict e d a. [L. const rict us, drawn together] Narrowed; compressed or drawn together at some point. con st r ict ion n. [L. const rict us, drawn together] 1. Any constricted part or place. 2. An unspiralized region of a chromosome at metaphase. con st r ict or n. [L. const rict us, drawn together] A muscle that compresses or constricts a cavity, orifice, or organ. con st r ict or vu lva e (NEMATA) Muscles that function to close the vulva; possibly the large sphincter of the vagina. see dila t or vu lva e . con su t e a. [L. consuere, to sew together] Having minute stitch-like markings, differing in color from the general surface. con t e r m inou s a. [L. cum , together; t erm inus, boundry] 1. Touching at the boundry, contiguous. 2. Having like bounds or limits. cont iguous a. [L. cont iguus, bordering] Touching or adjoining

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at the edge. con t ine n t a l dr ift The hypothetical movement of continents across the surface of the earth. con t in uous va r ia t ion Individuals differing from each other by small steps, often just barely discernible. see discont in uou s variation. con t or t e d a. [L. cont ort us, twisted together] Twisted or straining out of shape or place. con t ou r n. [L. cum , with; t ornare, to turn] The outline; the periphery. con t r a ct v. [L. cum , with; t rahere, to draw] To draw together; to reduce in size; to shrink. cont r a ct ile a. con t r a ct ile t u bu le s (SIPUN) Numerous, short and simple, or longer and branching tubules originating from the contractile vessel and extending into the body cavity; polian tubules. con t r a ct ile ve sse l( s) (SIPUN) A single or pair of tubes attached to the surface of the esophagus, anteriorly communicating with the fine vessels in the tentacles and ending blindly posteriorly; compensatory sac. con t r a ct ilit y n. [L. cum , together; t rahere, to draw] The capability of muscle fibers to contract. con t r a ct in n. [L. cum , together; t rahere, to draw] Thought to be neurohumor that induces contraction of the chromatophores. cont r a ct ur e n. [L. cum , together; t rahere, to draw] Contraction of muscles enduring after stimulus has ceased. con t r a la t e r a l a. [L. contra, against; lat us, side] Pertaining to, or associated with similar parts on the opposite side. see ipsila t e r a l. con t r a na t a n t a. [L. contra, against; nat are, to swim] Swimming or migrating against the current. see de na t a n t . con u le n.; pl. con u li [L. dim. conus, cone] (PORIF) The tentlike elevation of the surface membrane. con u lose a. con u s n.; pl. con i [L. conus, cone] Any cone-shaped structure. conve r ge nce

n. [L. convergere, to incline] Morphological

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similarity in distantly related forms; homoplasy. conve r ge nt a. [L. convergere, to incline] 1. Tending to approach. 2. Organisms having similar characters. conve r ge nt e volu t ion Having similar adaptive structures among unrelated organisms due to environmental surroundings. con ve r se e ye s Eyes in which the distal ends of retinal cells face the exterior of the cup or vesicle. see in ve r se e ye s. con ve x a. [L. convexus, arched outward] Having a curved, rounded surface, as that of an external segment of a globe. see conca ve . con ve x it y n. [L. convexus, arched outward] (MOLL: Bivalvia) The degree to which the shell is convex. con ve x ve in (ARTHRO: Insecta) One that tends to fold upward or follows the ridges of the wing. con volu t e a. [L. convolut us, rolled up] 1. Rolled or wound upon themselves. 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) A wing rolled around its body. 2. (MOLL) The last whorl of a shell embracing earlier ones and concealing them. see in volu t e . con volu t e d gla nd (ARTHRO: Insecta) In some aculeates, a part of the venom producing structures invaginated into the venom sac; in formacine ants it is external to this sac; not found in bees. con volu t ion n. [L. convolut us, rolled up] A coiling or twisting, as of something rolled or folded on itself. co- or dina t e a. [L. cum , together; ordo, rank] In nomenclature, of the same value. co- or dina t ion n. [L. cum , together; ordo, rank] The production of harmonious interaction of the various parts and processes of an organism. copa l n. [Ab.Am. copalli, a resin from tropical leguminous trees] A complex mixture of amber-like resins from various tropical trees. copa r a sit ism n. [L. cum , together; parasit us, one who eats at the table of another] The parasitism of a host by more than one parasite.

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cope podid n. [Gr. kope, oar; pous, foot] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Postnaupliar developmental stage of copepods, often quite similar in body form to the adult. Cope 's r u le The generalization in which there is a steady increase in size in phyletic series. copr obion t n. [Gr. kopros, dung; bios, life] A coprozoic organism; a dung living organism. copr oph a gou s a. [Gr. kopros, dung; phagein, to eat] Feeding upon feces; scatophagous; merdivorous. copr oph a gy n. copr ophilic a. [Gr. kopros, dung; philos, loving] Growing in or on dung; coprozoic. copr ozoit e n. [Gr. kopros, dung; zoon, animal] A dung-inhabiting or coprozoic animal. copr ozoic a. copula r ium n. [L. copulare, to couple; - arium , place for] (ARTHRO: Insecta) An initial nest cell founded by the primary reproductives in the establishment of a termite colony. copu la t e v.i. [L. copulare, to couple] To unite in sexual intercourse. copu la t ion n. [L. copulare, to couple] Pairing, coupling or joined; sexual union of male and female; to copulate. copu la t ion cha m be r (ARTHRO: Insecta) A nuptial chamber excavated by certain Scolytinae beetles in the tunnel, wherein copulation takes place. copu la t or y bu r sa see bu r sa copu la t r ix , bur sa copu la t or y ca p (ACANTHO) The mucilaginous, proteinaceous material thought to aid the union of partners during copulation and insemination that soon hardens to form a covering around the extremity of the female genitalia. copu la t or y ch a m be r (ANN: Oligochaeta) An invagination containing the male pore that reaches through the body wall into the coelom; bursa copulatrix; copulatory pouch. copu la t or y or ga n Organs for the transfer or reception of sperm during copulation. copu la t or y pou ch e s (ANN: Oligochaeta) The spermathecae of earthworms in older publications. copu la t or y sa c Bursa copulatrix, copulatory pouch, seminal

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receptacle, seminal bursa. copu la t or y se t a e / ch a e t a e (ANN: Oligochaeta) Those that appear near or in the same segment as the spermathecae in earthworms; sometimes referring to similar setae in an adjacent, but athecal segment. copu la t or y w a r t s (NEMATA) In males, enlarged genital papillae. copulo [L. copulare, to couple] "In copulo" correct form for describing copulation. coqu in a n. [Sp. shellfish, cockle] A whitish limestone made up of marine shell fragments and corals, used for roadbeds and building materials. cor a cidium n. [Gr. korax, crow] (PLATY: Cestoda) 1. An onchosphere or hexacanth embryophore. 2. The ciliated, freeswimming onchosphere of a fish tapeworm hatching from the egg. cor a l n. [Gr. korallion, coral] (CNID) The calcium carbonate exterior skeleton formed by corals inhabiting warm shallow waters, masses of which form reefs and islands. cor a llife r ou s a. [Gr. korallion, coral; ferre, to bear] Pertaining to coral. cor a llin e n. or a. [Gr. korallion, coral] 1. Any corallike animal, as certain Hydrozoa and Bryozoa. 2. Resembling coral in the pinkish-red color. cor a llit e n. [Gr. korallion, coral] The skeleton of an individual coral polyp. cor a lloid a. [Gr. korallion, coral] Having the form or appearing like coral; coralliform. cor a llu m n. [Gr. korallion, coral] The skeleton of a solitary polyp or a colony of corals. cor a l r e e f A calacareous mass formed by colonies of coral organisms; types include: 1. Fringing reef, extending out to a quarter of a mile from shore. 2. Barrier reef, separated by a lagoon from a shore. 3. Atoll, a circular reef encircling a lagoon of water. cor be l n. [L. corbis, basket] (ARTHRO: Insecta) An ovate area of fringed bristles at the distal end of the tibia in certain

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coleopterans. cor bicu la n.; pl. -la e [L. dim. corbis, basket] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A smooth area on the outer surface of the hind tibia of Apidae, surrounded on each side by a fringe of long curved hairs, that serves for carrying pollen and other materials to the nest; a pollen basket. cor bicu la t e a. [L. dim. corbis, basket] Having the shape of a small basket; pertaining to corbiculae. cor bicu loid t e e t h (MOLL: Bivalvia) Having 3 cardinal teeth in each valve and a median tooth below the beak in the right valve. see a r ct icoid t e e t h . cor bu la n. [L. corbula, little basket] (CNID: Hydrozoa) A phylactocarp with leaflike protective branches arching over the enclosed gonangia. cor cula n. [L. dim. cordis, heart] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A chamber of the dorsal vessel, through which the blood flows. cor d n. [L. chorda, cord] 1. Any long, rounded cordlike structure. 2. (MOLL: Gastropoda) A round-topped, moderately coarse spiral or transverse linear sculpture on a shell surface. cor da t e a. [L. cordis, heart] Having the shape of a heart; cordiform. cor dlik e see r e st ifor m cor don n. [L. chorda, cord] (NEMATA) Longitudinal, cuticular cordlike thickening extending posteriorly from near the oral opening; may be straight, recurved or form loops; present mainly in the spiruroid nematode family Acuariidae. see e pa u le t . cor dot on a l or ga n see pr opr ioce pt or cor dylu s n.; pl. cor dyli [Gr. kordyle, swelling] (CNID: Hydrozoa) Small clubs composed of large gastrodermal cells covered by a thin epidermis, mounted on sensory cushions between the tentacle bases of certain hydromedusae; sense clubs. cor e n. [L. cordis, heart] 1. The central part of anything. 2. (BRYO: Stenolaemata) Either laminated or nonlaminated skeletal material, or a combination of both, that form the

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stylets. cor e m a , cor e m a t is n.; pl. -a t a [Gr. korem a, broom] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Paired eversible sacs of the ventro-lateral regions of certain male Lepidoptera, containing hairpencils or brushes, functioning in phermone dispersal; Julien's organ. cor e um see cor ium cor fr on t a le (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Special pulsating structure or accessory heart formed from enlargement of the anterior median artery in front of the triturating stomach in Malacostraca. cor ia ce ou s a. [L. corium , leather] Tough and leathery; of leathery texture. cor in g a. [L. cor, heart] (PORIF) A term used to describe the contents of a fiber, either spicules or sand and spicule debris taken up by the sponge. cor ium n.; pl. -r ia [L. corium , leather] (ARTHRO) 1. The membranes of the flecture areas (articular and intersegmental membranes) in segmented appendages. 2. The middle division of an elytron. corial a. cor m idia l or ifice (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) Skeletal support for the zooidal orifice produced by more than one zooid. cor m idium n.; pl. cor m idia [Gr. dim. korm os, trunk of a tree] (CNID: Hydrozoa) A siphonophore gastrozooid with a tentacle and one or more gonophores of one sex; sensu stricto, cormidia are colonies within colonies. see e udox om e . Cor m opoda see Biva lvia cor m opod( it e ) see t hor a copod cor m u s n. [Gr. korm os, trunk of a tree] 1. The body, colony, or polypary of a compound animal. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) see t h or a x . cor ne a n.; pl. -n e a s [L. corneus, of horn] The transparent cuticle covering the ommatidia of a compound eye. cor n e a l a. cor n e a ge n ce lls The epidermal cells that produce the cornea, and later produce the corneal pigment cells. cor n e a ge n la ye r That part of the epidermis extending beneath

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the cornea, normally consisting of two cells in each ommatidium; when absent, the cornea is secreted by the crystalline cone cells. see cor ne a . cor n e a l fa ce t One of the lenses of modified cuticle covering an ommatidium or the array of lenses that gives a compound eye its faceted appearance. cor n e a l le ns (ARTHRO: Insecta) The modified cuticle covering the ocellus. cor n e a l pigm e n t ce lls (ARTHRO) The two corneal cells that envelop each crystalline cone of a compound eye; in the developing eye, distal to the cone they secrete the corneal lense; also called primary pigment cells, corneagenous pigment cells and primary iris cells. see r e t inu la r pigm e n t ce ll, a cce ssor y pigm e n t ce ll. cor n e in n. [L. corneus, of horn] (CNID) The organic basis of corals. cor n e ou s a. [L. corneus, of horn] Resembling horn; of hornlike texture; corniform. cor n icle n. [L. dim. cornu, horn] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In aphids, one of a pair of movable, flap covered, pre-caudal tubes projecting from the dorsum of segment 6, that expells lipid-filled cells; thought to be a defense mechanism. cor nicula t e a. [L. dim. cornu, horn] Having horns or small horn-like structures. cor niculum n.; pl. -u la [L. dim. cornu, horn] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A small horn-like process of the cuticula of larvae, often present on the suranal plate. cor n icu lu s n.; pl. -u li [L. dim. cornu, horn] 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In some mites, a horn-shaped infracapitular seta on the malapophysis. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Orthoptera, refers to the hardened tips of the dorsal and ventral valves of the ovipositer, used to dig holes in the ground for the deposition of eggs. see u r ogom ph i. cor n ifica t ion n. [L. dim. cornu, horn; facere, to make] Formation of horn or horn-like material; keratinization. cor n ifor m a. [L. cornu, horn; form a, shape] A long mucronate or pointed process similar to the horn of an ox.

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cor n u n.; pl. cor nua [L. cornu, horn] 1. A horn or horn-shaped structure. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The horn-like processes in the cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton of dipterous larvae. cornual a. cor n u t i n.pl.; sing. cor n u t u s [L. cornut us, horned] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Sclerotized armature of the aedeagus of male Lepodoptera, in the form of slender single spines, scale-like dentations, dense spine-hairs or rasplike teeth; sometimes breaking off during copulation and remaining in the bursa copulatrix of the female. cor on a n. [L. corona, crown] 1. A crownlike structure or organ of various invertebrates. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Lepidoptera male genitalia, a specialized row of armament setae, teeth or spines on the cucullus. 3. (ECHINOD) a. In Crinoidea, a central mass and arms: a crown. b. In Echinoidea, a test, minus the apical system. 4. (ROTIF) A main ciliary wreath surrounding the mouth of a rotifer. cor on a l a. cor on a cilia t a see cilia r y loop cor on a l a. [L. corona, crown] (PORIF) Referring to being located on the rim of an oscule. cor on a l disc (ROTIF) The ciliary wreath on the anterior part of the head region. cor on a l sut u r e ( or br a n ch) (ARTHRO: Insecta) A longitudinal suture occurring along the midline of the vert ex, between the compound eyes; the stem of the Y-shaped epicranial suture; the metopic suture. cor on a l systebm (ECHINOD: Echinoidea) In sea urchins, plates forming the wall of the test. cor on a r a dia t a (NEMATA: Secernentea) In Strongylida, a series of leaf-like or fringe-like structures encircling/bordering the labial region; the internal and external or outer leaf crown of some authors. cor ona r y a. [L. corona, crown] Crown-shaped or crownlike; encircling. cor ona t e a. [L. corona, crown] Having a crown, corona or similar structure.

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cor ona t e e gg (ARTHRO: Insecta) An egg with the upper end surrounded by a circlet of spines or comparable structures. cor on e t n. [L. dim. corona, crown] A small or inferior corona or crown. cor por a pl. of cor pus cor por a a lla t a pl.; sing. cor pu s a lla t u m (ARTHRO: Insecta) Specialized endocrine glands, usually a pair of glandular bodies (may be fused to a single median organ) behind and linked to the brain by small nerve fibers, that produce juvenile hormones regulating metamorphosis and yolk deposition in the egg; ganglia alata. cor por a ca r dia ca pl.; sing. cor pus ca r dia cu m (ARTHRO: Insecta) Paired specialized endocrine glands, closely associated with the aorta and forming part of its wall and behind the brain, that store and release hormones concerned with the regulation of the brain and other physiological effects. cor por a ince r t a see cor por a a lla t a cor por a opt ica pl.; sing. cor pus opt icum (ARTHRO: Insecta) A pair of small bodies lying above the pons cerebralis in the dorsal part of the brain, connected with the glomeruli of the ocellar nerves and the medullae externae of the optic lobes; thought to be association centers for both the ocelli and compound eyes. cor por a pe du n cu la t a pl; sing. cor por a pe du n cu la t u m (ARTHRO: Insecta) The pedunculate or mushroom bodies of the protocerebrum, said to have an important role in visual integration in Hymenoptera, but in other insects plays a part in the selection and sequential organization of behavioral patterns. cor por a ve n t r a lia pl.; sing. cor por us ve nt r a lium (ARTHRO: Insecta) Ventral or lateral bodies that lie ventrolaterally in the protocerebrum just above the antennal glomeruli of the deutocerebrum, and connected to a transverse commissure tract; they are association centers connected to many other parts of the brain. cor pot e n t or iu m n. [L. corpus, body; t ent orium , tent] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Fusion of the anterior and posterior tentorial arms; the body of the tentorium.

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cor pus n.; pl. cor por a [L. corpus, body] 1. A body or structure. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. The body. b. In many Collembola, the basal part of the minute pair of appendages on the 3rd abdominal segment; the appendages themselves known as the retinaculum or hamula. 3. (NEMATA) The most anterior part of the esophagus, usually cylindrical in shape, but may be subdivided into a slender anterior portion (procorpus) followed by a swollen, often valved, bulb (metacorpus). cor pus a diposum The fat-body. cor pus ce nt r a le (ARTHRO: Insecta) The central "body" of a brain, anterior or ventral to the pons cerebralis. cor pu scle n. [L. dim. corpus, body] A small cell floating freely in a fluid such as blood or lymph or embedded in an intercellular matrix. cor pu scu la r a. [L. dim. corpus, body] Pertaining to the nature of or composed of corpuscles or particles. cor pus e soph a gi see cor pus cor pus lu t e u m (ARTHRO: Insecta) The mass of degenerating follicle epithelium left in an egg chamber after discharge of the egg, that sometimes persists and becomes compressed to form a new plug at the entrance to the pedicel. cor pus m a ndibula e (ARTHRO: Insecta) The mandibular body. cor pus scolopa le see scolopa le cor r e la t e d ch a r a ct e r s Features or qualities associated either as manifestations of a well-integrated ancestral gene complex, or because they are functionally correlated. cor r e la t e d r e spon se A change in one character (phenotype) occurring as an incidental consequence of selection for a seemingly independent character, such as reduced fertility resulting from selection for high bristle number in pomace or vinegar flies ( Drosophila ). cor r e la t ion n. [LL. correlat io, relationship] 1. The act or process of correlating. 2. The degree to which statistical variables measure the association of two or more variables. a. Correlation coefficient (r) has a value from zero to -1 or +1.

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cor r idor n. [L. currere, to run] A gallery or passageway made by an animal. cor r ode v. [L. corrodere, to gnaw to pieces] To consume or wear away. cor r uga t e a. [L. corrugare, to wrinkle] Wrinkled; contracted into alternate ridges and furrows. cor se le t see pr ot h or a x cor t e x n.; pl. cor t ice s [L. cort ex, bark] 1. The outermost covering layer of a structure. cortical a. 2. (PORIF) The ectosome when thick and gelatinous or fibrous, or packed with spicules of a special type. cor t ica l la ye r 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) A region at the surface of the egg devoid of yolk. 2. (NEMATA) see e picu t icle , e x ocu t icle , m e socu t icle , e n docut icle . cor t ica t e a. [L. cort ex, bark] Having a special cortex, or external layer. cor t icifor m a. [L. cort ex, bark; form a, shape] Sculptured or textured like bark. cor t icolous a. [L. cort ex, bark; colere, to dwell] Living in or on the bark of plants. cor u sca n t a. [L. coruscare, to flash] Rapid intermittent flashing or gleaming, as of fireflies. cor vin u s a. [L. corvus, crow] Deep, shining black. cor yoga m y see k or ioga m y cor ypha n.; pl. cor yph a e [Gr. koryphe, top] (ARTHRO: Insecta) That region of certain scarabaeoid larvae, between the epipharynx and the clithra, sometimes bearing setae; often merged with the acropariae into a common apical region when the clithra are absent. cor yst e r ium n. [Gr. korys, helmet] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In certain females, an abdominal glandular structure that functions in secreting the glutinous egg covering. cosm iot a x y n. [Gr. kosm ios, well ordered; t axis, arrangement] Secondary formation of recognizable and simple organs. cosm iot r ich y n. [Gr. kosm ios, well ordered; t hrix, hair] Setal cosmiotaxy.

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cosm opolit a n a. [Gr. kosm os, world; polit es, citizen] Worldwide in distribution; ecumenical; pandemic. cosm opolit e n. [Gr. kosm os, world; polit es, citizen] A plant or animal occurring in most parts of the world. cosm ot r opica l a. [Gr. kosm os, world; t ropikos, of turning] Occurring throughout most of the tropics. cost a n.; pl. cost a e [L. cost a, rib] 1. Any rib-like structure. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Any thickened portion of the peniferum of ostracods. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. The longitudinal wing vein of certain insects, forming the anterior margin of the wing. b. A dorsal, marginal part of the valva of male Lepidoptera, bearing a variety of structures and processes. 4. (BRACHIO) a. Radial ridge on the exterior surface of the shell, originating at the margin of the protegulal node. b. Any coarse rib. 5. (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) One of commonly two spines fused medially and intermittently laterally, that form the costal shield of cribrimorph cheilostomate zooids. 6. (CNID) Prolongations of the septa of certain corals, that connect to the surface layer. 7. (CTENO) The row of swimming plates (ctenes) that occupy adradial positions. 8. (MOLL) The rounded ridge on the surface of a mollusk shell, greater than a chord. costal a. costaeform a. [L. cost a, rib; form a, shape] Rib-like. cost a l a r e a (ARTHRO: Insecta) That portion of a wing immediately behind the leading edge (anterior or front margin). cost a l br a ce (ARTHRO: Insecta) The thick veinlet at the base of the wing of mayflies, that runs from the costa to the radius. cost a l br e a k (ARTHRO: Insecta) A point on the costa of a wing where the sclerotization is weak or lacking, or the vein appears to be broken. cost a l ce ll (ARTHRO: Insecta) The space of the wing between the costa and the subcostal vein. cost a l cr oss ve ins (ARTHRO: Insecta) In wings with numerous veins, those that extend between the costa and the subcosta. cost a l fie ld (ARTHRO: Insecta) That area of the fore wing of Orthoptera adjacent to the anterior margin or costa; the

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anterior field. cost a l fold (ARTHRO: Insecta) An eversible fold in the fore wing near the costa of certain hesperioid butterflies that contains brushes of modified scales that function to disperse pheromones. cost a l hinge (ARTHRO: Insecta) The nodal furrow. cost a lia see cost a cost a l m a r gin (ARTHRO: Insecta) The leading edge of a wing. see a na l m a r gin , a pica l m a r gin. cost a l m e m br a ne (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, the surface of the wing in front of the costal vein. cost a l n e r vu r e (ARTHRO: Insecta) The costa. cost a l r e gion ( ARTHRO: Insecta) The upper area of a wing near the costa. cost a l scle r it e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In wings, a sclerite at the base of the costa. cost a l sh ie ld (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) The discontinuous frontal shield or part of the frontal shield of cheilostomate zooids, produced by intermittently fused or unfused spines overspreading the uncalcified part of the frontal wall. cost a l spine s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In generalized Lepidoptera, a tuft of slightly curved spine-like setae on the costa of the hind wing near the base, that functions in holding the wings together. cost a l ve in (ARTHRO: Insecta) The subcosta of Lepidoptera. cost a t e a. [L. cost a, rib] Having a longitudinal rib or ribs; having costae. cost e lla n.; pl. cost e lla e [L. dim. cost a, rib] 1. A small costa or rudimentary rib. 2. (MOLL: Bivalvia) A narrow, linear elevation of the shell surface. cost e lla t e a. [L. dim. cost a, rib] Bearing costellae. cost ifor m a. [L. cost a, rib; form a, shape] Shaped like a costa or raised rib. cost or a dia l a. [L. cost a, rib; radius, ray] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Of or pertaining to the radius and the costa of the wing.

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cost ula n.; pl. cost u la e [L. dim. cost a, rib] 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, a small ridge that separates the externo-median metathoracic area into two parts. 2. (MOLL) One of the small ridges on the shell. cost u la t e a. [L. dim. cost a, rib] Being less prominently ribbed than costate. cot e r m inou s see cont e r m in ous cot yla , cot yle n. [Gr. kot yle, a cup] A cuplike cavity or organ; an acetabulum. cot ylifor m , cot yloid a. [Gr. kot yle, a cup; L. form a, shape] Cup-shaped. cot yloce r cou s ce r ca r ia e (PLATY: Trematoda) Larval marine trematodes with tails that are broad, short, with cupshaped suckers, functioning as adhesive organs. cot ylocidium n. [Gr. kot yle, cup; L. caedere, to cut] (PLATY: Trematoda) Larvae of Aspidogastridea with tufts of cilia for swimming and a posterior ventral sucker without alveoli or hooks. cot yloid ca vit y (ARTHRO: Insecta) The acetabulum or coxal cavity. cot ype Formerly used for syntype or paratype. cou n t e r e volu t ion n. [L. cont ra, against; evolut us, unrolled] Development of traits in a population in response to exploitation, competition, or other detrimental interaction with another population. see coe volut ion. cou n t e r sha ding n. [L. cont ra, against; A.S. sceadu, shade] In camouflaging, an animal being dark dorsally and pale ventrally and therefore appearing evenly colored and inconspicuous. cou plin g n. [L. copulare, to join] Bringing or coming together; linking; specifically sexual union. cou r t n. [L. cohors, enclosed space] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In bees, an assemblage of workers that form a circle around a queen, antennating, licking and sometimes feeding her. cou r t sh ip n. The behaviour pattern in animals prior to copulation between members of the same species, different sexes, that facilitates a receptive condition.

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cova r ia t ion n. [L. con, with; varius, diverse] Coincident variation; correlation. cow le d a. [L. cucullus, hood] Shaped like a hood; hooded. cox a n.; pl. -a e [L. coxa, hip] (ARTHRO) 1. The first or proximal segment of a leg that articulates basally with the wall of the thorax. 2. In Crustacea, the segment of an appendage adjoining the body sternite, except in forms having a precoxa; coxopodite. cox a l a. cox a ca va see cox a l ca vit y cox a ge n u in a see cox a ve r a cox a l br idge (ARTHRO: Insecta) The attachment structure between the sternum and pleuron; the pre- and post-coxal bridges. cox a l ca vit y (ARTHRO: Insecta) The cavity in which the coxa articulates; an acetabulum; coxacava. cox a l cor ium (ARTHRO: Insecta) The articular membrane encircling the base of a coxa. cox a l e ndit e (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A lobe issuing from the inner margin of the coxa. cox a l e pipodit e s (ARTHRO: Insecta) The small pairs of unjointed styli on the coxae of the legs. cox a l e x it e (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A lobe issuing from the outer margin of the coxa; coxepipod. cox a l file (ARTHRO: Insecta) A series of ridges on the coxa of the middle legs that by rubbing with a scraper on the trochanter of the hind leg produce sounds; a stridulatory apparatus. cox a l gla nds 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The excretory organs of arachnids; in Araneae, located opposite the coxae of the first and third legs, that function in collecting wastes into a saccule and discharging them through tubes opening behind the coxae. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Variously modified eversible glandular structures at the base of the legs. 3. (ONYCHO) The nephridia of Peripatus . cox a l lobe (ARTHRO: Insecta) In certain larvae, a triangular abdominal area extending from the hypopleurum toward the meson of the sternum.

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cox a l pla t e Plate-like expansions or dilatations of the coxa. cox a l pr oce ss (ARTHRO: Insecta) A structure of the pleuron, with which the coxa articulates at the ventral extremity of the pleural suture. cox a l sa cs (ARTHRO: Diplopoda) Eversible thin-walled sacs in the coxae of the legs. cox a l st r idu la t or y or ga n (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hemiptera, longitudinal striations of the coxal base and the cephalic margin of the lateral plate of the coxal cavity. cox a l st yle t s (ARTHRO: Insecta) The coxal epipodites. cox a l ve sicle (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Collembola, the basal part of the ventral tube, believed to represent the fused coxae of the segmental appendages and the vesicles. cox a r ot a t or ia (ARTHRO: Insecta) A coxa with a monocondylic joint; having a single condyle. cox a scr obicu la t a (ARTHRO) A coxa with a dicondylic joint; having two points of articulation. cox a ve r a (ARTHRO: Insecta) The anterior portion of the mesoand metathoracic coxae; the coxa genuina. cox e pipod( it e ) see cox a l e x it e cox ife r n. [L. coxa, hip; ferre, to bear] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The pleural pivot of the coxa. cox it e n. [L. dim. coxa, hip] 1. The basal segment of certain abdominal appendages. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) see protopod(ite). 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In male Thysanura bearing a distal stylus. cox oce r it e n. [L. coxa, hip; Gr. keras, horn] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The proximal or basal segment of an antenna. cox om a r gin a le see ba sicox it e cox om e r e s n.pl. [L. coxa, hip; m eros, part] (ARTHRO: Diplopoda) The three segments of the mandible. cox ople ur e see e pist e r n um cox ople ur it e n. [L. coxa, hip; Gr. pleura, side] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A sclerite of the thoracic pleuron, that articulates with the dorsal margin of the coxa; in lower pteryotic orders forms the trochantin and a ventral articulation with

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the coxa. cox opod( it e ) n. [L. coxa, hip; Gr. pous, foot] (ARTHRO) The basal or first segment of an appendage; a coxa. cox ost e r na l a. [L. coxa, hip; Gr. st ernon, chest] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Of or pertaining to the coxosternum. cox ost e r na l pla t e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Thysanura, the fused coxites and sternum of each segment. cox ost e r nit e a. [L. coxa, hip; Gr. st ernon, chest] The coxite; pleurosternite. cox ost e r num n. [L. coxa, hip; Gr. st ernon, chest] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The abdominal sternum; a plate of compound origin that includes the areas of the limb bases; pleurosternum. cox ot r och a n t e r a l j oint (ARTHRO) One of the two primary bendings of a typical arthropod leg; pertaining to the joining of the coxa and the trochanter. see fe m or ot ibia l j oint . cr a n ia d adv. [Gr. kranion, skull; L. ad, toward] Toward the head or anterior end. cr a n iu m n.; pl. -nium s [Gr. kranion, skull] The sclerotic, skulllike part of the head capsule. cranial a. cr a spe don n.; pl. cr a spe da [Gr. kraspedon, edge] 1. (CNID: Hydrozoa) Those possessing a velum. 2. (PLATY: Cestoda) Those with segments that overlap. cr a spe dot e a. [Gr. kraspedon, edge] 1. Having a velum. 2. (PLATY: Cestoda) Having the anterior proglottid overlapping the next posterior one. cr a ssa n.; pl. cr a ssa e [L. crassus, thick] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The mandibular apodemes. cr a ssu s a. [L. crassus, thick] Coarse, thick or tumid in structure. cr a t e r ifor m a. [L. crat er, bowl; form a, shape] Having the form of a saucer or hollow, shallow bowl; pertaining to a crater or funnel. cr a w n. [ME. crawe] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The crop. cr a w le r n. [ON. krafla, to paw] 1. One that crawls. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The first instar nymph of coccids, bearing legs and

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antennae. 3. (ANN) An annelid. cr e m a st e r n. [Gr. krem ast os, hung] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. The terminal abdominal segment of a pupa. 2. In a subterranean pupa, a terminal spine. 3. The hooked caudal extremity of the pupa that suspends the chrysalids. cr e m a st r a l a. cr e n a n.; pl. cr e na e [L. crena, notch] A notch, cleft or indentation. cr e n a t e a. [L. crena, notch] Having a scalloped or toothed margin; indented; notched. cr e n a t ion n. [L. crena, notch] 1. One of a series of rounded projections forming the edge of an object or structure. 2. (NEMATA) Used to describe the outer lines of the lateral field. cr e n a t u r e n. [L. crena, notch] A rounded projection; the indentation as between crenations. cr e n u la t e a. [L. dim. crena, notch] Finely notched or scalloped; plicate; annulet. cr e pe r a n. [L. crepera, dark] A ray of paler color on a dark background. cr e pida l pu n ct u r e s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Scarabaeoidea beetles, a group of microsensilla located anterior to the crepis. cr e pis n.; pl. cr e pide s [Gr. krepis, base] 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Scarabaeoidea larvae, a thinly sclerotized, anteriorly concave, median cross bar of the haptolachus, usually asymmetrical and indicated by a fine line when present; a transverse, strongly bowed bar. 2. (PORIF) An ordinary minute monaxon, triradiate or tetraxon spicule on which layers of silica have been irregularly deposited. cr e pit a cu lu m n.; pl. -la [L. crepit aculum , rattle] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A stridulating organ. cr e pit a t ion n. [L. crepit ans, rattling] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The discharge of fluid with an audible explosion, used by certain beetles as a defense mechanism. cr e pu scu la r a. [L. crepusculum , dusk] Activity in dim illumination of shade or twilight. see noct ur n a l. cr e sce n t n. [L. crescere, to grow] Crescent-shaped; sickle-

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shaped. cr e sce n t ic, cr e sce nt ifor m a. cr e st n. [L. crist a, crest] A ridge or linear prominence on any part of the head or body. see cr ist a t e , ca r ina t e . cr ibe lla t e a. [L. dim. cribrum , sieve] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A term used to describe the irregular woven silk webs of certain spiders due to the action of the colulus on the emerging silk. cr ibe llum n. [L. cribrum , sieve] 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In spiders, a sieve-like, transverse plate, usually divided by a delicate keel into two equal parts, located in front of the spinnerets; the modified anterior median spinnerets. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) A sieve-like chitinous plate near the upper surface of the mandibles. cr ibr a t e colon y (BRYO: Stenolaemata) A sheetlike or frondose colony with flattened, anastomosing branches separated by fenestrules. cr ibr ifor m a. [L. cribrum , sieve; form a, shape] Sieve-like; cribrose. cr ibr ifor m or ga n (ECHINOD: Asteroidea) Rows of small, webbed, flattened fringing spines forming enclosed passages for water transport from the marginal plates across the oral surface of certain starfishes. cr ibr ifor m pla t e s (ARTHRO: Insecta) Cuticular pitted or sievelike plates of certain scale insects, located on the dorsal surface of the abdomen. cr ibr im or ph n. [L. cribrum , sieve; Gr. m orphe, form] (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) Autozooids bearing costal shields composed completely, or in part, of spines fused medially, and most commonly intermittently along lengths. cr ibr ipor e n. [L. cribrum , sieve; porus, passage] (PORIF) 1. A specialized exhalant structure of sponges where several exhalant systems combine to empty into a subsurface cavity. 2. In Polymastia (Demospongiae) an inhalent pore. cr ibr ose see cr ibr ifor m cr in it e a. [L. crinit us, hairy] Having hair or hair-like growths. Cr in oide a see Cr inozoa cr in om e n. [L. crinis, hair] A network formed in cytoplasm by

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basophil substances that react to vital staining. cr in ose a. [L. crinis, hair] Hairy. Cr inozoa , cr inoids n., n.pl. [Gr. krinon, lily; zoion, animal] A subphylum of echinoderms that includes all the stalked and most primitive living forms; formerly known as Pelmatozoa, which is still in use by some authors. cr ispa t e a. [L. crispus, curly] Having a wrinkled or fluted margin; ruffled; irregularly twisted. cr iss- cr oss Pertaining to passage of sex-linked traits from parents to offsping of the opposite sex. cr ist a n.; pl. -t a e [L. crist a, crest] 1. A ridge or crest. see cr ist a e . 2. (MOLL: Cephalopoda) A long narrow strip with long hairs divided into sections by cells lacking hairs in the statocysts; functioning to register movement and acceleration. cr ist a a cou st ica , cr ist a a cu st ica (ARTHRO: Insecta) A chordotonal organ of the fore tibia of certain Orthoptera, that contain a series of scolopidia; organ of Siebold. cr ist a de nt a t a (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, a toothed crest on the ischium of the third maxilliped. cr ist a e n.pl., sing. cr ist a [L. crist a, crest] Shelflike inner folds of membrane in a mitochondrion composed of a middle double layer of phospholipid molecules with a layer of protein molecules on each side. cr ist a m e t opica (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The propodosomal plate of adult prostigmated mites. cr ist a t e a. [L. crist a, crest] Having a prominent carina or crest; cristiform. cr ist ifor m see cr ist a t e cr ist u la t e a. [L. dim. crist a, crest] Having a small crescent-like ridge or crest. cr it ica l gr oup A taxonomic group of organisms that cannot be subdivided into smaller groups. cr oce ou s a. [Gr. krokot os, saffron-yellow] Of the saffron-yellow color. cr och e t , cr ot ch e t n. [F. crochet , small hook] 1. (ARTHRO: In-

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secta) In Lepidoptera and on other insect larvae, one of a series of sclerotized hooklike cuticular structures, in rows or circles on the prolegs; also on cremaster of chrysalides; frequently called hooks. 2. (ANN) see cr ot che t . cr ook n. [ON. krokr, crook] A hook; recurved tip; bend or curve. cr op n. [A.S. crop, craw] An enlarged portion in the alimentary canal in certain invertebrates functioning in storage or transporting and passing on to the digestive tract; the ingluvies; esophageal bulb. cr op ca e ca (ANN: Hirudinoidea) Segmental pouches or diverticula of the crop. cr oss n. [OF. crois, cross] An organism produced by two differing forms; hybrid. cr osse d- la m e lla r sh e ll (MOLL: Bivalvia) A shell structure with secondary lamellae inclined in alternate directions within the primary lamellae. cr oss- fe r t iliza t ion The union of gametes from different individuals; allogamy; allomixis; xenogamy. see se lf- fe r t iliza t ion. cr ossing ove r The exchange of corresponding portions of homologous chromosomes during synapsis. cr oss- r e fle x The reaction of an effector on one side of the body to stimulation of a receptor on the opposite side. cr oss se ct ion A cut of an organism or structure at right angles to the longitudinal axis; a transverse cut. cr oss- st r ia t ion In striped and cardiac muscle fibers, dark bands running across a fiber perpendicular to the myofibrils and representing lines of A-bands. cr oss ve ins Any vein connecting adjacent longitudinal veins. cr ot ch e t n. [F. crochet , small hook] 1. A hooked or forklike process. 2. (ANN) A curved seta (chaeta), notched at the distal ends. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) see cr och e t . cr ow n n. [L. corona, crown] 1. A circular structure at or near the summit of an organ or part. 2. A corona. 3. (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) The whole crinoid without stem; corona. 4. (NEMATA) see cor ona r a dia t a .

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cr u cia t e a. [L. crux, cross] Crossing; shaped like a cross. cr u cifor m a. [L. crux, cross; form a, shape] Resembling a cross; cross-shaped. cr u cifor m m u scle s (MOLL: Bivalvia) Two bundles of muscle fibers joining valves and intersecting to form a cross. cr u m e n a n. [L. crum ena, purse] (ARTHRO: Insecta) An internal pouch in the head for retraction of mandibular and maxillary bristles. cr u r a n.pl.; sing. cr us [L. crus, leg] 1. Any leg-like part. 2. (BRACHIO) A pair of prongs (brachidium) extending from the cardinalia or septum to support the lophophore. 3. (MOLL) A stalk or peduncle. 4. (NEMATA) Lateral extensions of the cuneus of the gubernaculum. 5. (PLATY: Turbellaria) Branches of the intestine of a flatworm. crural a. cr u r a ce r e br i (ARTHRO: Insecta) The two large nerve cords connecting the supra- and subesophageal ganglia. cr u r a liu m n. [L. crus, leg] (BRACHIO) A U-shaped ridge of the brachial valve that bears adductor muscles. cr u r a l pla t e s (BRACHIO) Vertical plates that attach the crura to the dorsal valve. cr u r a l pr oce ss (BRACHIO) The pointed portion of the crus, directed obliquely inwardly and ventrally. cr u s sing. of cr ur a Cr u st a ce a , cr u st a ce a n s n.; n.pl. [L. crust a, shell] One of the divisions of arthropods, having chitin-encased bodies that may or may not be impregnated with calcium salts; contains the shrimp, crabs, lobsters, barnacles, water fleas, sand hoppers, fish lice, wood lice, sow bugs, pill bugs, scuds and slaters. cr ust a ce ous a. cr ust a for m e r ia see colu m e lla cr yoph ilic a. [Gr. kryos, icy cold; philios, loving] Adapted for living at a low temperature. cr ypsis n. [Gr. krypt os, hidden] An aspect of the appearance of organisms whereby they avoid detection by others; camouflage. cr ypt n. [Gr. krypt os, hidden] A pitlike depression; follicle;

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cavity; simple gland or tube. cr ypt ic a. [Gr. krypt os, hidden] 1. Concealing; stillness; silence; death-feigning; protective coloration. 2. A form of polymorphism controlled by recessive genes. cr ypsis n. cr ypt ic color Sematic or protective coloration, designed to blend an animal with its background. see a n t icr ypt ic color . cr ypt ic spe cie s A species in which the diagnostic characters are not easily perceived and that do not hybridize under normal conditions; a sibling species. cr ypt obiosis n. [Gr. krypt os, hidden; bios, life] 1. Living in a concealed or secluded environment. 2. A term used to describe an organism that shows no visible signs of life, with metabolic activity brought to a reversible standstill. cr ypt oce ph a lic pupa (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, a pupal stage after the larval-pupal apolysis in which marked changes of form appear through evagination of the head without molting, then proceeds to a phanerocephalic pupa. cr ypt ocyst n. [Gr. krypt os, hidden; kyst is, bladder] (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) 1. One of the two basic wall morphologies of bryozoans consisting of wholly interior walls, leaving a superficial hypostegal coelom uniting contiguous zooids. see gym nocyst . 2. A calcareous plate that functions as a hydrostatic organ in Cheilostomata. cr ypt ocyst a l a. cr ypt ocyst ide a n n. [Gr. krypt os, hidden; kyst is, bladder] Autozooids of anascan or ascophoran (BRYO) cheilostomates bearing frontal shields (cryptocysts) formed by calcification of the internal body walls grown into body cavities subparallel to and beneath the frontal walls. cr ypt odicyclic see pse udom onocyclic cr ypt odon t sh e ll (MOLL: Bivalvia) In some groups of early origin, refers to lack of hinge teeth. see ct e nodont she ll. cr ypt oga st r a a. [Gr. krypt os, hidden; gast er, stomach] Having the venter or belly covered or concealed. see gym n oga stra. cr ypt oge ne a. [Gr. krypt os, hidden; genos, beginning] Of unknown descent.

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cr ypt ogr a m n. [Gr. krypt os, hidden; gram m a, written character] Method that expresses in a standard code form a collection of data used in classification. cr ypt ogyne n. [Gr. krypt os, hidden; gyne, female] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In ants, having queens that are indistinguishable from the workers. cr ypt om ph a lou s a. [Gr. krypt os, hidden; om phalos, navel] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Having the opening of the umbilicus of a shell completely plugged. cr ypt on e ph r idia l t ube s Malpighian tubules with distal ends closely associated with the rectum and forming a convoluted layer over its surface. cr ypt on e u r ou s a. [Gr. krypt os, hidden; neuron, nerve] Having no distinct nervous system. cr ypt on iscu s n. [Gr. krypt os, hidden; oniskos, sowbug] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) An intermediate, planktonic larval stage of epicaridean isopods with pereopods modified as holdfasts, that is seeking a permanent host; stage after epicaridium. cr ypt ope n t a m e r a a. [Gr. krypt os, hidden; pent e, five; m eros, part] Pertaining to 5-jointed feet, with the 4th joint small and inconspicuous. see cr ypt ot e t r a m e r a . cr ypt ople u r on a. [Gr. krypt os, hidden; pleuron, rib] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A condition in which the pronotum covers a large part of the propleuron. cr ypt or he sis n. [Gr. krypt os, hidden; rheos, flow] The process of internal secretion. cr ypt osole n ia l a. [Gr. krypt os, hidden; solen, channel] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In certain Coleoptera, the area of attachment of the Malpighian tubules with the hind-gut. cr ypt ot e t r a m e r a a. [Gr. krypt os, hidden; t et ra, four; m eros, part] Pertaining to 4-jointed feet with one joint small and inconspicuous. see cr ypt ope nt a m e r a . cr ypt ot h or a x n. [Gr. krypt os, hidden; t horax, breastplate] (ARTHRO: Insecta) An assumed thoracic ring between the meso- and metathorax. cr ypt ot ox ic a. [Gr. krypt os, hidden; t oxikon, poison] (ARTHRO:

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Insecta) Pertaining to caterpillars that use volatile secretions that are released through an emission tube. see e r u cism , pa r a e r u cism , ph a ne r ot ox ic, le pidopt e r ism . Cr ypt ozoa n. [Gr. krypt os, hidden; zoon, animal] An ecological group of cryptozoic terrestrial animals living in leaf litter, under twigs and pieces of bark and stone. cr ypt ozoic a. [Gr. krypt os, hidden; zoon, animal] Living in concealment. cr ypt ozoit e n. [Gr. krypt os, hidden; zoon, animal] A stage of the malarial organism arising from the injected sporozoite that is found living in tissues before entering the blood; a preerythrocytic schizont of Plasmodium spp. cr ypt ozone n. [Gr. krypt os, hidden; zone, girdle] (ECHINOD: Asteroidea) The marginal plates of starfish that are not clearly distinct. Cr ypt ozoology n. [Gr. krypt os, hidden; zoon, animal; logos, discourse] The study of the Cryptozoa. cr yst a l ce ll 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Drosophila larvae, a type of hemocyte (possibly an oenocytoid) that contains tyrosinase. 2. (ECHINOD) Coelomocytes containing rhomboid crystals. cr yst a llin e a. [Gr. kryst allos, rock crystal] Appearing transparent like crystal. cr yst a llin e body see cr yst a llin e con e cr yst a llin e con e (ARTHRO: Insecta) The hard, clear intracellular structure of the eucone eye, produced by Semper cells beneath the cornea and bordered laterally by the primary pigment cells; also known as vitreous body or crystalline body. see a cone e ye , pse u docon e e ye , e u cone e ye , e x ocone e ye . cr yst a llin e st yle (MOLL: Gastropoda/Bivalvia) A translucent cylindrical rod in the style sac of the stomach, whirled on its axis by ciliary movement, releasing carbohydrate digesting enzymes. cr yst a llin e t r a ct (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. In beetles with exocone eyes, a strand formed by the Semper cells across the clear zone to the rhabdon. 2. In skipper butterflies and some

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ditrysian moths (Bombycoidea), a strand formed by the retinula cells. C- sh a pe d Semi-circular or cresent shape; U-shaped. ct e n e n. [Gr. kt eis, comb] (CTENO) The swimming plate; the row of ctenes is a costa; a comb-rib. ct e n idium n.; pl. -nida [Gr. dim. kt eis, comb] 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. A series of stout, peg-like spines on the head (genal ctenidium) and first thoracic tergite (pronotal ctenidium) of many fleas. b. A row of comblike bristles on the hind tarsus of Psocoptera. 2. (CTENO/MOLL) A respiratory gill-comb. see gill. ct e nifor m a. [Gr. kt eis, comb; L. form a, shape] Comb-shaped. ct e n ocyst n. [Gr. kt eis, comb; kyst is, bladder] (CTENO) An aboral sense organ; the apical organ; the balancing organ. ct e nodont sh e ll (MOLL: Bivalvia) In some groups of early origin having hinges with many teeth transverse to the margin. see cr ypt odont she ll. ct e n oid a. [Gr. kt eis, comb; eidos, form] Comblike; having a margin of small teeth. ct e n oliu m n. [Gr. dim. kt eis, comb] (MOLL: Bivalvia) In some Pectinacea, a comblike row of small teeth on the lower side of the byssal notch. Ct e nophor a , ct e nophor e s n., n.pl. [Gr. kt eis, comb; phoreus, bearer] A phylum of marine coelenterates commonly called sea walnuts or comb jellies, that are free swimming and biradially symmetrical with 8 rows of fused ciliary plates (combs or ctenes) at some stage of their life. ct e nopod n. [Gr. kt eis, comb; pous, foot] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) An appendage (cirrus) of barnacles with long paired setae on segments of lesser curvature and a few setae distally on each articulation of greater curvature; like a comb. see a ca nt hopod, la siopod. ct e n ose a. [Gr. kt eis, comb] Comblike. Ct e t ology n. [Gr. kt et os, that may be had; logos, discourse] That aspect of biology concerned with acquired characters. cu bica l a. [L. cubus, cube] Cube-shaped.

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cu bit a l a. [L. cubit um , elbow] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to the cubitus of a wing. cu bit a l a r e a (ARTHRO: Insecta) In a wing, the area between the two branches of the cubitus and is associated proximally with the distal median plate of the wing base. cu bit a l ce ll see cubit a l a r e a cu bit a l for k s (ARTHRO: Insecta) Branching of the cubitus; the primary cubital fork and the secondary cubital fork. cu bit a l ne r ve / ve in see cu bit u s cu bit a l supple m e n t (ARTHRO: Insecta) In a wing, the cubitoanal loop being divided longitudinally by a midrib-like vein. cu bit o- a na l (ARTHRO: Insecta) In a wing, the cubitus and anal vein. cu bit o- a na l cr oss ve in (ARTHRO: Insecta) A cross vein in a wing between the cubitus and an anal vein. cu bit o- a na l e x cision (ARTHRO: Insecta) A notch in the margin of a wing where the anal and preanal areas join. cu bit o- a na l fold see cla va l fu r r ow cu bit o- a na l loop (ARTHRO: Insecta) In certain Odonata, a loop formed in the anal area between veins A 2 and Cu 2 ; footshaped loop. cu bit u s n. [L. cubit us, reclined] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The fifth vein of a typical wing; the longitudinal vein posterior to the media vein. cuboid a. [L. cubus, cube; Gr. eidos, form] Nearly resembling a cube in shape. cu boida l a. cuculla t e a. [L. cucullus, hood] Hooded; having a hood-like structure or mark. cu cu llu s n.; pl. -li [L. cucullus, hood] 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) A transverse flap at the anterior edge of the carapace, that completely covers and protects the mouth and chelicerae in Ricinulei spiders and some other orders, where it bears the median eye (first somite of the body). 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) A hood-like process on the distal or dorsodistal part of the valva of male Lepidoptera, usually hairy or setose. cu cu m bit a t e a. [L. cucum is, cucumber] Shaped like a cucum-

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ber. cucum ifor m a. [L. cucum is, cucumber; form a, shape] Having a cucumber-like form. cu ille r n. [F. cuiller, spoon] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In male Lepidoptera, a spoon-like ventro-distal process of the clasper. cu ille r on see a lu la cu ir a ss n.; pl. cu ir a sse s [F. cuirasse, leather breastplate] A protective covering, such as cuticle, plates, scales or shells. culm e n n. [L. culm en, summit] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The carina of a caterpillar. cu lm icolous a. [L. culm us, stalk; colere, to dwell] Living on grasses. cu lt e lla t e a. [L. cult ellus, knife] Knife-like in appearance. cu lt e llu s n.; pl. -li [L. cult ellus, knife] 1. A sharp knife-like organ. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. The blade-like lancets of certain blood-sucking flies. b. Has been used for mandibles. cu lt r a t e a. [L. cult rat us, knife-shaped] Shaped like a pruning knife; cultriform. cu lt u r e n. [L. cult us, cultivated] The cultivation of micro-organisms or tissues in a prepared nutrient media. cu lu s n. [L. culus, fundament] The anus. cu m u la t e v.; -la t e d [L. cum ulat us, heap up] To accumulate in groups or heaps. cu m u lu s n.; pl. -li [L. cum ulus, heap] An accumulation; a group or heap. cu n e a t e a. [L. cuneat us, wedge-shaped] Wedge-shaped; cuneiform. cu n e u s n. [L. cuneus, wedge] 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) A terminal, more or less triangular segment of the corium of the fore wing. 2. (NEMATA) The ventral arm of the gubernaculum. cu p n. [A.S. cuppe, cup] Any structure resembling a cup. cupola or ga n see se nsillu m ca m pa nifor m ium cu pr e ou s a. [L. cupreus, of copper] Copper colored, coppery. cu p sha pe d Cupuliform; cyathiform.

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cupula n.; pl. -a e [L. dim. cupula, tub] (MOLL: Cephalopoda) The functional unit of the sensory nerves of the cristae in dibranchiates. cu pu la t e a. [L. dim. cupula, tub] Cup-shaped; bearing a cupule. cu pu le n. [L. dim. cupula, tub] A small sucker or acetabulum of various invertebrates. cupulifor m a. [L. cupula, tub; form a, shape] Cup-shaped; cyathiform. cu r cu lion ids n.pl. [L. curculio, weevil] (ARTHRO: Insecta) U- or C-shaped larvae with a distinct head, robust body and lacking legs; adults with chewing mouthparts at the end of a snout. cu r sipe ds n.pl. [L. cursor, runner; pes, foot] (ARTHRO: Chilopoda) In the order Lithobiida, ambulatory legs of the first to 13 pairs used for locomotion. cur sor ia n. [L. cursorius, of running] (ARTHRO: Insecta) An orthopteran group of insects with legs well formed for rapid movement. cu r sor ia l a. [L. cursorius, of running] Fitted or adapted for running. cu r va t e a. [L. curvat us, bend] Curved. cu r vine r va t e a. [L. curvus, bent; nervus, nerve] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Having wing veins distinctly curved. cu sp n. [L. cuspis, point] A prominence or point, esp. on the crown of a tooth; a denticle. cu spa t e , cuspida l a. cu spida t e a. [L. cuspidat us, pointed] Terminating in a sharp point, as bristles or mollusk shells. cu spidobla st ce lls (MOLL) Special cells that secrete teeth. cu spis n. [L. cuspis, point] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, an immovable process projecting from the free distal end of the volsellar plate. see digit u s. cu st odit e a. [L. cust odis, guardian] Guarded, as an enclosed larva. cu t a n e ou s a. [L. cut is, skin] Pertaining to or of the nature of skin.

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cu t icle , cut icu la n. [L. dim. cut is, skin] The noncellular external layer of the body wall of various invertebrates. cu t icu la r a. [L. dim. cut is, skin] Of or pertaining to the cuticle. cu t icu la r color s (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to the black and brown colors usually resulting from the color of the cuticle, along with other pigments occurring in the epidermal cells or internal tissues. cu t icu la r iza t ion n. [L. dim. cut is, skin] To form into cuticle. cu t icu la r la ye r in g Structural strata within the cuticle of invertebrates. cu t icu la r or n a m e n t a t ion A mark or sculpture of any type on the cuticle of an animal. cu t icu la r por e s Minute pores opening at the surface of the cuticle. cu t icu la r sh e a t h see scolopa le cu t icu lin n. [L. cut icula, skin] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A compound material of uncertain chemical nature that forms the epicuticle. cu t icu lin la ye r 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In mites, the epiostracum. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Layer extending over the surface of the body and over cuticular projections such as bristles and scales as well as epidermal invaginations. cu t t le bone (MOLL: Cephalopoda) The internal calcified shell remnant of cuttlefish. Cu vie r ia n or ga n s (ECHINOD: Holothuroidea) A few, or a tuft of long blind tubules extending from the base of the respiratory trees to the anus; ejected as sticky filaments to entangle possible predators; sometimes called 'cotton spinners'. cya n e ou s a. [Gr. kyaneos, dark-blue] Dark blue. cya ne sce nt a. [Gr. kyaneos, dark-blue; L. escens, become] Having a deep bluish tinge or shading; cerulean. cya n obla st n. [Gr. kyaneos, dark-blue; blast os, bud] The immature stage of a cyanocyte (hemocyte) that contains polyribosomes, cisternae often filled with dense granular material, small Golgi apparatus and mitochondria; reported

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to be typical of an active protein-synthesizing and storing cell. cya n ocyt e n. [Gr. kyaneos, dark-blue; kyt os, container] A hemocyte that breaks down and releases hemocyanin into the hemolymph. see cya n obla st . cya noge nic a. [Gr. kyaneos, dark-blue; gennaein, to produce] 1. Production of the blue color. 2. Used to describe pungent and irritating vapors emitted by certain arthropods. cya noph ilou s a. [Gr. kyaneos, dark-blue; philos, loving] Showing a special affinity for blue or green stains. cya t hifor m a. [L. cyat hus, cup; form a, shape] Cup-shaped; cupuliform; a little widened at the top. cya t hot he ca n. [Gr. cyathus, cup; t heke, case] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The cover of the thorax of a pupa. cybe r n e t ics n. [Gr. kybernet ikos, good at steering] Science of the processes of communication and control in an animal. cycle n. [Gr. kyklos, circle] A circle; circular; arranged in a circle; to pass through a cycle of changes. cyclic a. cyclocoe le n. [Gr. kyklos, circle; koilos, hollow] (PLATY: Trematoda) That area of the intestinal cecae that end blindly or are fused posteriorly. cyclocoe lic a. [Gr. kyklos, circle; koilos, hollow] Having the intestine spirally coiled. cyclodon t n. [Gr. kyklos, circle; odons, tooth] (MOLL: Bivalvia) Dentition curving out from under the umbones and twisted into line in the cardinal margin, as in Cardiinae. cycloge ny n. [Gr. kyklos, circle; genes, producing] The production of a series of different morphological types in a life cycle. cyclola bia n. [Gr. kyklos, circle; L. labium , lip] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The short forceps of certain earwigs that are of variable lengths in the same species. cyclom or ph osis n. [Gr. kyklos, circle; m orphe, form] A seasonal nongenetic change of phenotype in marine zooplankton, as certain cladocerans and rotifers. cyclope a n , cyclopic a. [Gr. kyklos, circle; ops, eye] A single

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median eye developed under certain artificial conditions, or a mutation in place of the normal pair. cyclopoid la r va (ARTHRO: Insecta) The larva of proctotrupoid Hymenoptera with a hypermetamorphosis, characterized by a swollen cephalothorax, large sickle-like mandibles and a pair of bifurcate processes of various forms. cyclops st a ge (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Post-metanaupliar stage of a copepod. cyclosyst e m n. [Gr. kyklios, circular; syst em a, placed together] (CNID: Hydrozoa) In milleporinan medusae, consisting of several dactylopores surrounding a central gastropore. cyda r ifor m a. [L. cydarum , kind of ship; form a, shape] Globose or orbicular, but truncated at opposite ends. cydippid la r va (CTENO) A larva with developmental stages resembling adult cydippids, and thus may be larval stages of other orders. cylin dr a ce ou s a. [Gr. kylindros, cylinder] Pertaining to or like a cylinder. cylin dr ica l a. [Gr. kylindros, cylinder] Round, cylinder-like with parallel sides. cylin dr ocon ic a. [Gr. kylindros, cylinder; konos, cone] Having the shape of a cylinder terminating in a cone. cym ba n. [Gr. kymbe, small boat] (PORIF) A spicule shaped like a boat. cym bium n. [Gr. kym be, small boat] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The boat-shaped tarsus of the copulatory pedipalpus in certain spiders. see pa r a cym bium . cym bifor m a. [Gr. kym be, small boat; L. form a, shape] Boatshaped; navicular; scaphoid. cym ose a. [L. cym a, young shoot] (CNID: Hydrozoa) Pertaining to the budding zone that continues to bud and form branches. cyn opodous a. [Gr. kyon, dog; pous, foot] Having non-retractile claws. cyphona ut e la r va pl. -na ut a e (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) A free-

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swimming larva with a triangular profile and strongly compressed laterally; most of the body is enclosed by a bivalve shell. cyphopod n. [Gr. kyphos, bent; pous, foot] (ARTHRO: Diplopoda) In Julidae, large, sclerotized bases of aborted appendages behind the second pair of legs. cyphosom a t ic a. [Gr. kyphos, bent; som a, body] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to larvae with the dorsal surface curved and the ventral surface straight or flat. cypr a e ifor m a. [L. Cypris, Venus; form a, shape] Oval, rolled inward from each side. cypr id n. [L. Cypris, Venus] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In some rhizocephalan barnacles, larval stage after cypris and before kentrogon. cypr is n. [L. Cypris, Venus] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In bivalve barnacles, the nonfeeding larval stage prior to metamorphosis into the cyprid, kentrogon and adult stage, so named because of its resemblance to the ostracod genus Cypris. cyr e n oid t ype see cor biculoid t e e t h cyr t ocon ic a. [Gr. kyrt os, curved; konos, cone] Cone-shaped. cyr t oconoid a. [Gr. kyrt os, curved; konos, cone; eidos, like] Approaching a cone in shape, but with convex sides. see conoid, coe locon oid. cyr t ocyt e n. [Gr. kyrt os, curved; kyt os, container] Protonephridial system with a fenestrated area in the basal part of the nephridial canal in many groups of invertebrates. cyr t opia n. [Gr. kyrt os, curved; ops, eye] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Euphausiacea, the fifth larval stage in which the antenna becomes modified and ceases to serve in locomotion and posterior legs and gills appear. cyst n. [Gr. kyst is, bladder] 1. A small sac, capsule or bladderlike structure. 2. A protective covering formed about an organism during unfavorable conditions or reproduction. 3. (NEMATA: Secernentea) The tanned cuticle of certain mature female nematodes (Heterodera or Globodera) in which

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eggs are retained. cyst a ca n t h n. [Gr. kyst is, bladder; akant ha, thorn] (ACANTHO) A juvenile having all adult structures, except the reproductive system is immature; proceeds to a quiescent state in an arthropod intermediate host; adulthood is reached when ingested by the definitive vertebrate host. cyst e n ch ym a n. [Gr. kyst is, bladder; en in; kyma, swollen] A parenchyma with large vesicular cell structure. cyst e n cyt e n. [Gr. kyst is, bladder; en, in; kyt os, container] (PORIF) A polysaccharide-secreting cell in fresh-water sponges with contents enclosed in a single vesicle. cyst ic a. [Gr. kyst is, bladder] Contained in a gall or cyst. cyst ice r ca r ia ce r ca r ia (PLATY: Trematoda) In Azygiidae, a large cercaria of the cystophorous type, with a short flat tail ending in a pair of flat clapper-like appendages (fercocystocercous). cyst ice r ci pl. of cyst ice r cu s cyst ice r coid a. [Gr. kyst is, bladder; kerkos, tail; eidos, form] (PLATY: Cestoda) A tapeworm cyclophyllidean metacestode developing from an oncosphere that has penetrated the gut of an intermediate host; it usually has a "tail" and a wellformed scolex that is not invaginated. see cyst ice r cus. cyst ice r cosis n. [Gr. kyst is, bladder; -osis, suff. denoting disease] An infection with one or more cysticerci. cyst ice r cu s n.; pl. -ce r ci [Gr. kyst is, bladder; kerkos, tail] (PLATY: Cestoda) A tapeworm metacestode with an introverted, invaginated scolex that forms on a germinative membrane enclosing a fluid-filled bladder; a bladder worm; proscolex. see coe n u r us, hyda t id. cyst id n. [Gr. kyst is, bladder] (BRYO) The external wall of a zooid. cyst ide a n la r va (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) A larval stage in which the stalk appears, but the arms are not yet present. cyst iphr a gm n. [Gr. kyst is, bladder; phragm a, fence] (BRYO) The lateral skeletal partition curving from the zooecial wall into the chamber. cyst oce r cou s ce r ca r ia e see cyst oph or ou s ce r ca r ia e

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cyst ocyt e s n.pl. [Gr. kyst is, bladder; kyt os, container] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. A type of specialized granular hemocyte that has a small, sharply defined nucleus and a pale, hyaline cytoplasm containing black granules; coagulocytes. see granulocyte. 2. Has also been applied as cells that enclose gonadial germ cells, follicle cells of an ovary, and cyst cell of the testis. cyst oge n ic ce lls (PLATY: Trematoda) Secretory cells in a cercaria that produce a metacercarial cyst. cyst oida l dia ph r a gm (BRYO: Stenolaemata) A transverse skeletal structure formed by two diaphragms in contact part way across the zooecial chamber and enclosing the compartment between them. cyst oid body (NEMATA) In the genus Meloidoderit a, the tanned uterus (light to dark brown in color), irregular to roundoval, filled with eggs and larvae. cyst on n. [Gr. kyst is, bladder] (CNID: Hydrozoa) A colony dactylozooid modified for excretory function. cyst oph or ou s ce r ca r ia (PLATY: Trematoda) 1. A large cercaria with a bulbous chamber at the anterior end of the tail into which the body can be withdrawn; also called cystocercous, cysticercaria, macrocercous cercaria. 2. The cercaria of the family Halipegdae that have a short tail with 5 appendages, all differing from each other. cyst opor e n. [Gr. kyst is, bladder; poros, pore] (BRYO) Extrazooidal skeletal structures composed of adjacent and superimposed vesicles. cyst ozooid n. [Gr. kyst is, bladder; zoon, animal] (PLATY: Cestoda) The body portion of a metacestode; a juvenile tapeworm. cyt a st e r n. [Gr. kyt os, container; ast er, star] An aster-like figure in animal cells containing the centrioles, formed in cytoplasm outside the nucleus before mitosis and meiosis. cyt obiot a x is see cyt ocle sis cyt oce nt r um see ce nt r osom e cyt och e m ist r y n. [Gr. kyt os, container; chem eia, pert. chemistry] The science of cell chemistry.

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cyt och im e r a n. [Gr. kyt os, container; chimaera, monster] The same combination of tissues or parts of tissue having different chromosome numbers. cyt ochr om e n. [Gr. kyt os, container; chrom a, color] Any of a class of hemoproteins that function in electron and/or hydrogen transport because of a reversible valency change of their heme irons. cyt ocida l a. [Gr. kyt os, container; L. caedere, to kill] That which kills cells. cyt ocine sis see cyt ok ine sis cyt ocle sis n. [Gr. kyt os, container; klesis, summons] A cell group that influences the development or differentiation of surrounding cells; cytobiotaxis. see or ga n ize r . cyt ococcu s n.; pl. -cocci [Gr. kyt os, container; kokkos, seed] The nucleus of a cytula. cyt oga m y n. [Gr. kyt os, container; gam os, marriage] Cell fusion or conjugation. cyt oge ne t ics n. [Gr. kyt os, container; genesis, beginning] The comparative study of chromosomal mechanisms and behavior in populations and taxa, and their effect on inheritance and evolution. cyt ogony n. [Gr. kyt os, container; gonos, progeny] Reproduction by single cells. cyt ok in e sis n. [Gr. kyt os, container; kinesis, movement] The changes occurring in the protoplasm of the cell outside of the nucleus during cell-division. cyt ole m m a n. [Gr. kyt os, container; lem m a, skin] Plasma membrane. cyt ology n. [Gr. kyt os, container; logos, discourse] The study of the structure and physiology of a cell. cyt olysis n. [Gr. kyt os, container; lysein, to dissolve] Cell dissolution or degeneration. cyt om e m br a n e n. [Gr. kyt os, container; L. m em brana, skin] The basic unit of the membrane system of a cell; unit membrane. cyt om or ph osis n. [Gr. kyt os, container; m orphe, form] All

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changes in cells or generations of cells from undifferentiated stage to death; cellular change. cyt ope m psis n. [Gr. kyt os, container; pem psis, mission] Passage into, through and from a cell or capillary by a particle. cyt opha gy n. [Gr. kyt os, container; phagein, to eat] Cells feeding on cells. cyt opla sm n. [Gr. kyt os, container; plasm a, formed or molded] The protoplasm of a cell excluding the nucleus, usually a slightly viscous fluid with inclusions suspended in it; the site of the chemical activities of the cell. cyt opla sm ic fa ct or A genetic factor in the cytoplasm. cyt opla sm ic in h e r it a n ce Inheritance of characters whose determinants are not located on the chromosomes. cyt osis n. [Gr. kyt os, container] Non-specific cellular ingestion or egestion processes by pinocytosis or phagocytosis. cyt osol n. [Gr. kyt os, container; solvere, to set free] Ground protoplasm of the cell exclusive of organelles or other particles. cyt osom e n. [Gr. kyt os, container; som a, body] A non-specific name for membrane bound polymorphous bodies in the cell cytosol. cyt ost a t ic a. [Gr. kyt os, container; statikos, standing] Any agent that inhibits cell growth and multiplication. cyt ot a x onom y n. [Gr. kyt os, container; t axis, arrangement; nom os, law] A method of taxonomy based on size, shape and number of chromosomes in somatic cells. see t a x on om y. cyt ot ox in n. [Gr. kyt os, container; t oxikon, poison] Cell poison. cyt ula n. [Gr. dim. kyt os, container] The fertilized egg cell or parent cell.

D da cr yoid a. [Gr. dakryon, tear; eidos, form] Tear-shaped. da ct yl n.; pl. -t yle s [Gr. dakt ylos, finger] 1. A finger or toe; a dactylus; a pretarsus; a digit. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The ultimate segment of a thoracopod; a dactylopodite. da ct yle t hr a n. [Gr. dakt ylet hra, finger sheath] (BRYO: Stenolaemata) A degenerate feeding zooid closed by a terminal diaphragm, or an aborted, shortened polymorph. da ct ylogna t h it e n. [Gr. dakt ylos, finger; gnat hos, jaw] (ARTHRO) The distal segment of a maxilliped. da ct yloid a. [Gr. dakt ylos, finger; eidos, form] Finger-like. da ct ylopod( it e ) n. [Gr. dakt ylos, finger; pous, foot] (ARTHRO) 1. The terminal segment of a generalized leg or appendage usually claw-like; the pretarsus. 2. For Crustacea see dactyl. da ct ylopor e n. [Gr. dakt ylos, finger; poros, passage] (CNID: Hydrozoa) An opening in the coenosteum of a milleporinan coral for a dactylozooid. da ct ylozooid n. [Gr. dakt ylos, finger; zoon, animal] (CNID: Hydrozoa) In colonial hydrozoans, a hydroid modified for protection and the capture of prey; protective polyp, zooid or machozooid; a hydrocyst; a palpon. see t e n t a cu lozooid, ga st r ozooid. da ct ylu s n. [Gr. dakt ylos, finger] 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) A structure of the tarsus. 2. (MOLL: Cephalopoda) see t e n t a cle . da n ce n. [OF. dancer, dance] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Communicative movements of honeybees, usually performed on their combs. da ph n id a. [Gr. daphne, laurel] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Any water flea, esp. those in the genus Daphnia . da r t n. [OF. dard, dagger] 1. Anything that pierces or wounds. 2. (ECHINOD) The spiculum. 3. (MOLL: Gastropoda) A sting

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or dart of certain snails. da r t sa c (MOLL: Gastropoda) A muscular caecum of the vagina that produces a fine-pointed calcareous shaft that is 'shot' by partners before courtship, lodging in the integument and releasing a stimulus for courtship behavior. D a r w in ism n. [C. Darwin, English naturalist] The theory of species origin through natural selection working on small inherited differences in individuals. da ue r la r va e (NEMATA) A quiescent stage entered by some parasitic larvae while enclosed in the cast cuticle of the previous stage. da ue r m odifica t ion n. [Ger. dauer, duration; L. modificare, to regulate] Character change usually induced by extreme environmental factors that survives for several generations. da ugh t e r n. [A.S. doht er, daughter] The offspring of a division, not implying sex, such as in daughter cells or daughter nucleus; a daughter chromosome applies to chromatids after metaphase. da ugh t e r ce lls The two cells resulting from division of a single cell. da ugh t e r cyst (PLATY: Cestoda) Fluid filled bladder with protoscolesces formed by exogenous budding of the germinal epithelium of a unilocular hydatid cyst. da y- e ye (ARTHRO: Insecta) The apposition eyes adapted for use in daytime when light is abundant. de a la t e , -a t e d a. [L. de, away from; alat us, winged] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Loosing wings, as ants and termites, by casting or breaking off. de a la t ion n. de a t h n. [A.S. deat h, death] Irreversible cessation of the activities and breakdown of the structure of protoplasm. de a u r a t e a. [L. de, away from; auratus, golden] Having a gold color that appears rubbed or worn. de ca ca n t h n. [Gr. deka, ten; akant ha, thorn] (PLATY: Cestoda) A ten-hooked larva that hatches from the egg; a lycophore. de ca lcifica t ion n. [L. de, away from; calcarius, of lime; ficare, to make] Loss of calcium salts from living tissues; removing calcium salts from tissues with acids.

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de ca m e r ou s a. [Gr. deka, ten; m eros, part] Having ten parts or divisions. de ca podid la r va e (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Larvae of Decapoda that swim with their pleopods; a megalopa stage larva. de ca t h e ca l a. [Gr. deka, ten; t heke, case] (ANN: Oligochaeta) Earthworms having ten spermathecae, usually in five pairs. de ce ph a lic a. [L. de, away from; Gr. kephale, head] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Having a prognathous head with structures dividing the foramen. de cidu ou s a. [L. deciduus, falling off] Having a part or parts that may fall off or be shed. de ck n. [D. dek, cover] (MOLL) A septum or small sheet of shelly substance in the umbonal region connecting the anterior and posterior ends of a valve. de clina t e a. [L. de, away from; clinat us, sloping] Bending aside in a curve with the apex downward. de clivit ous, de clivou s a. [L. de, away from; clivis, hill] Sloping downward; gradually descending. decollate a. [L. de, away from; collum , neck] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Pertaining to cut or broken off, as the apex on some land gastropods; wearing away at the apex; decapitation or discarding the apical whorls. de con j u ga t ion see de syna psis de cor t ica t e v.t. [L. de, away from; cort ex, bark] To divest of the exterior coating; deprived of the cortex or outer coat. decticous a. [Gr. dektikos, biting] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Having functional mandibles in the puparium, cell, or cocoon. see a de ct icou s. de cum be nt a. [L. decum bere, to lie down] Bending downward; upright at the base and bending down at the tip. de cu r ve d a. [L. de, away from; curvus, bend] Bowed or curved downward. de cu ssa t e d a. [L. decussat us, formed crosswise like the letter X] 1. Intersected; striations or bristles crossing at acute angles forming a series of X's. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to bristles of some Diptera. 3. (MOLL: Gastropoda)

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Pertaining to radial ribs. de de t e r m in a t ion n. [L. de, away from; determinare, to limit] Reversion of cells to their embryonic state. de diffe r e nt ia t ion n. [L. de, away from; differentia, difference] Loss of traits of specialized cells formed during the course of differentiation. de fa un a t e n. [L. de, away from; Fauna, deity of herds and fields] To remove from an organism its commensalistic or mutualistic microfauna, for which the organism ordinarily serves as a host. de fe ca t e v.i. [L. defaecare, to void excrement] To void feces. de fe r e nt a. [L. de, away from; ferre, to carry] Carrying away; deferent duct. de ficie n cy n., pl. -cie s [L. deficiens, wanting] Structural change resulting in the loss of a terminal part of a chromosome. de fin it ion n. [L. definit us, limited] 1. Limitation; defining limits. 2. In taxonomic work, the formal statement of characters delimiting the taxonomic category. de fin it ive h ost One in which the terminal (frequently sexual) stage of the parasite occurs; primary host. see in t e r m e dia t e h ost . de fin it ive r e se r voir A host or location in which a natural supply of the terminal stage (frequently sexual) of a parasite occurs. de fle ct e d a. [L. de, away from; flect ere, to bend] 1. Bent backward or to one side or downward. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Wings having the inner margins lapping and the outer margins declining toward the sides. de fle ct e d fr on t (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In some Decapoda, the broadly downturned front margin of the carapace. de fle x e d a. [L. de, away from; flect ere, to bend] Bent abruptly downward. de folia t or n. [L. de, away from; folium , leaf] Any agent, animal or chemical that destroys the leaves of plants. de for m e d a. [L. deform is, misshapen] 1. Disarranging or set-

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ting in an unusual form. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The knotted or twisted antennae in male Meloidae. de ge n e r a t e v.i. [L. degenerare, to depart from its kind] To retrogress to a lower type; to deteriorate. de ge n e r a t e code The genetic code in which more than one nucleotide triplet codes for the same amino acid. de ge n e r a t ion n. [L. degenerare, to depart from its kind] A progressive deterioration to a less specialized or functionally less active form; retrogressive development. de h isce n ce n. [L. dehiscere, to split open] The cracking, splitting or tearing of an opening in an organ or structure along lines of weakness. de hisce n t a. de ir ids see ce r vica l pa pilla e de la m ina t ion n. [L. de, away from; lam ina, a thin plate] 1. Split or divided into layers, as cells forming a new layer. 2. Gastrulation in which the endoderm is split off as a layer from the internal surface of the blastoderm. de lim it a t ion n. [L. de, away from; lim es, boundry] 1. Setting or marking a boundry. 2. In taxonomy, a formal statement of the characters of a taxon that establishes its limits. see de scr ipt ion , dia gnosis, diffe r e nt ia l dia gn osis. de lt hyr ium n.; pl. -r ia [Gr. 4th letter, delta; thyrion, door] (BRACHIO) The central triangular notch in the ventral valve, open to the hinge line; facilitating the passage of the pedicle; usually closed off from the hinge plate by the deltidium. de lt h yr ia l a. see n ot ot hyr ium . de lt idia l pla t e s (BRACHIO) A plate or pair of plates growing medially from the margin of the delthyrium, almost or completely closing it. de lt idiu m n.; pl. -t idia , [Gr. 4th letter Δ, delt a; -idion, dim.] (BRACHIO) A plate that closes off the delthyrium, in some forms there are two plates; also called pseudodeltidium. de lt oid a. [Gr. 4th letter Δ, delt a; eidos, shape] Triangular in shape. de m a n ia n syst e m (NEMATA) A complex system consisting of paired efferent tubes connecting the intestine and uteri

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with one another and sometimes posteriorly with the exterior; thought to be seminal storage tubes. de m a r ca t ion lin e (MOLL: Bivalvia) Imaginary line joining points on the beak with points of maximum transverse growth of the shell margin; forms dorsoventral profile. de m e n. [Gr. dem os, people] A population within a species; an assemblage of potentially interbreeding individuals at a given locality. de m e r sa l a. [L. de, away from; m ergere, to plunge] Living on or near the bottom of a lake or sea. de m ibr a n ch s n.pl. [Gr. dem i, half; branchia, gills] (MOLL: Bivalvia) A pair of ciliated gill filaments composed of two flat lamellae (inner demibranch and outer demibranch) in which there are blood vessels that facilitate respiration and mucociliary feeding. de m ipla t e n. [Gr. dem i, half; OF. plat e, flat] (ECHINOD) A reduced ambulacral plate in a compound plate in the test. de m ipr ovin cu lu m n. [Gr. dem i, half; pro, before; vinculum, bond] (MOLL: Bivalvia) One half of the median part of the hinge margin of the prodissoconch. see pr odissocon ch . D e m ospongia e n. [Gr. dem os, multitude; spongos, sponge] A class of sponges composed of spongin fibers alone or together with siliceous spicules that are differentiated into megascleres (larger size) or microscleres (smaller size) of diverse shapes. de na t a n t a. [L. de, away from; nat are, to swim] Swimming, drifting or migrating with the current. see con t r a na t a n t . de ndr ifor m a. [Gr. dendron, tree; L. form a, shape] Branched like a tree; dendroid. de ndr it e n. [Gr. dendron, tree] Neural aborizations or branching fibrils that conduct impulses toward the neurocyte. de ndr it ic a. de ndr it ic see de n dr oid de ndr it ic fla m e ce lls (ACANTHO) Central canal from which many smaller canals separate and end in pouches containing cilia. de ndr it ic t h ick e n ing (BRYO) Extreme skeletal thickening along

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axes of colony branches. de ndr obr a n ch (ia) n. [Gr. dendron, tree; branchia, gills] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A type of gill with lamellae divided into arborescent bundles. de ndr ogr a m n. [Gr. dendron, tree; gram m a, written character] Any branching, tree-like diagram designed to indicate degrees of relationship. de ndr oid a. [Gr. dendron, tree; eidos, form] 1. Shrub-shaped; shaped like a small tree; dendriform. 2. (BRYO) A solid ramose colony. 3. (PORIF) A sponge skeleton branching repetitively with little or no anastomosis between successive branches. de ndr on see de ndr it e de ndr opha gou s a. [Gr. dendron, tree; phagein, to eat] Feeding on woody tissues. de ndr oph ilou s a. [Gr. dendron, tree; philein, to love] Living in woody tissue, or on trees. de ne m a t ize a. [L. de, away from; Gr. nematos, of thread] To divest of nematodes. de n ize n n. [OF. denzein, one living within] Any animal that has become naturalized. de n s n.; pl. de n t e s [L. dens, tooth] 1. A tooth or tooth-like process. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. In Collembola, the proximal segment of the furcula (springing fork). b. Dentes= teeth or other pointed structures on the inner side of the mandible. de n sa r ia e n.pl. [L. dens, tooth] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Distinct thickenings of the margins of the incisurae of scale insects. de n sit y- de pe nde n t fa ct or s Factors (direct or inverse) whose effects on a population are dependent upon the density of that particular population. de n sit y- inde pe n de n t fa ct or s Factors whose effects on a population are not dependent upon the density of that particular population. de n t a ce r or e s n.pl. [L. dens, tooth; cera, wax; os, mouth] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In coccoids, irregularities in the membrane surrounding the anus; denticulate pores.

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de n t a l pla t e s (BRACHIO) Plates of secondary shell supporting the hinge teeth on the ventral valve. de n t a l scle r it e (ARTHRO: Insecta) The sclerite at each side of the base of the mandibular sclerite of muscid larvae. de n t a l sock e t s (BRACHIO) Excavations in the posterior margin of the brachial valve for reception of hinge teeth. de n t a t e a. [L. dens, tooth] Toothed, or with tooth-like processes. de n t a t e lir a t e a. [L. dens, tooth; lira, furrow] Having teeth and fine raised lines or grooves. de n t a t e - se r r a t e Teeth with serrated dentations on the edges. de n t a t e - sin u a t e Teeth with a wavy indented margin. de n t icle s n.pl. [L. dent iculus, little tooth] 1. Small, tooth-like projections. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In cirripeds, toothlet on the sutural edge of the radius of the compartment plate, or opposed buttress of adjoining plate. 3. (ANN: Polychaeta) The paragnaths. de nt icula t e a. de n t ige r ous r idge s Elevations bearing small teeth or toothlike projections. de n t it ion n. [L. dens, tooth] 1. All teeth including different forms, sizes, etc. 2. (MOLL: Bivalvia) A collective term including hinge teeth and sockets. de n ude d a. [L. de, away from; nudus, bare] Divested of all covering. de pa upe r a t e a. [L. de, away from; pauper, poor] 1. Impoverishing or exhausting. 2. Falling short of the natural size or development from being impoverished or starved. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) An impoverished or dying ant colony. de por t a t ion n. [L. de, away from; portare, to carry] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In social insects, the transport of adults or young to a new nest. de pr e sse d a. [L. de, away from; pressus, bear down] 1. Pressed or kept down; sunken below the general surface. 2. (MOLL: Gastropoda) Refers to a shell low in proportion to diameter. de pr e ssor n. [L. de, away from; pressus, bear down] Any

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muscle that lowers or depresses any appendage. de pr e ssor a n i (NEMATA) An H-shaped muscle that dilates the rectum and elevates the posterior lip of the anus. de pr e ssor m u scle cr e st s (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In balanomorph barnacles, elevated denticles or ridges on the inner surface of the tergum near the basicarinal angle for attachment of the depressor muscles. de pu r a t ion n. [L. de, away from; purat us, cleanse] The act of cleansing; free from impurities. de r ive d cha r a ct e r Any character that differs materially from the ancestral condition. de r m a , de r m is n. [Gr. derm a, skin] 1. The layer of the cuticle, laminated in structure, beneath the epidermis. 2. (PORIF) The extreme outer surface layer of membrane or reinforcement by spicules and/or sand. de r m a l a. de r m a l ce lls see ce llula e de r m a l gla n ds 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A cell or cells in the epidermis traversed by canals communicating with the surface through fine ducts. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Hypodermal unicellular glands which secrete wax, cement, pheromones, etc. de r m a lia n.pl. [Gr. derm a, skin] (PORIF: Hexactinellida) Spicules at or beneath the dermal surface. de r m a l por e s see ce llu la e de r m a t obla st s n.pl. [Gr. derm a, skin; blast os, bud] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In an embryo, the outer thin layer of cells which form the ventral body wall. see n e u r obla st s. de r m a t ozoon n. [Gr. derm a, skin; zoion, animal] Any animal parasitic on the skin. de r m is n. [Gr. derm a, skin] (PORIF) The skinlike external covering. de r m opt ic se n se The response of an animal to light or shadow after removal of eyes and other photosensors. de r m oscle r it e s n.pl. [Gr. derm a, skin; skleros, hard] (CNID: Anthozoa) Calcareous spicules (sclerites) of alcyonarian coral polyps, produced by scleroblasts embedded in the

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mesoglea or stolons (or both) or in the coenenchyma connecting the polyps. de r m osk e le t on n. [Gr. derm a, skin; sket et o, dried hard] The exoskeleton. de sce nding a. [L. de, away from; scandere, to climb] Directed downwards or caudad; detrorse. de scle r ot iza t ion n. [L. de, away from; Gr. skleros, hard] A reduction of sclerotin in sclerotized parts or structures. de scr ipt ion n. [L. describere, to delineate] In taxonomy, a more or less complete formal statement of the characters of a taxon without delimiting it from coordinate taxa. see de lim it a t ion , dia gnosis, diffe r e nt ia l dia gn osis. de se gm e nt a t ion n. [L. de, away from; segm ent um , piece] The fusion of segments formerly separated. de se r t icolou s a. [L. desert um , a waste place; colere, to inhabit] Desert-inhabiting. de sicca t e v. [L. desiccare, to dry up] To dry up; a process of preserving. de sicca t ion n. [L. desiccare, to dry up] An inactive dry state of various invertebrates, directly referable to extreme, dry conditions. de sm a n.; pl. -m a t a [Gr. desm os, bond] (PORIF: Demospongiae) In Lithistida, branched, irregular interlocking megascleres consisting of layers of silica irregularly deposited on ordinary spicules. de sm a cyt e n. [Gr. desm os, bond; kyt os, container] (PORIF) Long slender cells in the cortex and around the internal channels; fiber cells. de sm e n n.pl. [Gr. desm os, bond] (NEMATA: Adenophorea) Transverse rings around the bodies of Desmoscolecida; concretion rings. de sm e r ga t e n. [Gr. desm os, bond; ergat es, worker] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A form of ant intermediate between the typical worker and the soldier; can also be used to designate the intermediate forms between the large and small workers in certain genera. de sm one m e n. [Gr. desm os, bond; nem a, thread] (CNID: Hy-

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drozoa) A small nematocyst of hydras with a short unarmed spirally coiled tubule, which functions in entangling and wrapping around bristles of prey; volvent. de sm osom e n. [Gr. desm os, bond; som a, body] 1. That portion of a cell membrane specialized for adhesion to a neighboring cell. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) An attachment area between epidermal and muscle cells; the muscle fibrils of the muscles attach on one side and the epidermal microtubules attach on the other side of the desmosome. see h e m ide sm osom e , t on ofibr illa e . D e sm ospon gia e n. [Gr. desm os, bond; spongos, sponge] A class of sponges encompassing 90% of all existing sponges with ancestory tracing back to simple Cambrian sponges (500 million years). D e sor 's la r va (NEMER) Oval ciliated postgastral stage (in the egg) of Lineus ; develops like the pilidium larva. de squa m a t ion n. [L. de, away from; squam a, scale] Peeling or scaling off of cuticle or epidermis in flakes. de syn a psis n. [L. de, away from; Gr. synapt os, joined together] Separation of paired chromosomes during the diplotene phase of the first meiotic division; desyndesis; deconjugation. see a syna psis. de syn de sis see de syn a psis de t e r m ina n t n. [L. de, away from; t erm inus, limit] A hypothetical unit of inheritance. de t e r m ina t e a. [L. de, away from; t erm inus, limit] Having well-defined outlines or boundry limits. de t e r m ina t ion n. [L. de, away from; t erm inus, limit] A process that initiates a specific pathway of development among those that are available to the cell or embryo. de t or sion n. [L. de, away from; t orquere, to twist] 1. The process of twisting back or removing torsion; unwinding. 2. (MOLL: Gastropoda) A term used to describe the reversal of torsion. see or t hone u r y, t or sion. de t ox ifica t ion , de t ox ica t ion n. [L. de, away from; t oxicum , poison] Removal of toxic materials by metabolizing them. de t r iopha gou s a. [L. det rit us, worn away; Gr. phagein, to eat]

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Feeding on detritus. de t r it ivor e n. [L. det rit us, worn away; vorare, to devour] Any organism that feeds on detritus. de t r it ivor ou s a. de t r it us n. [L. det rit us, worn away] An aggregate of fragmentary material, such as decomposing parts of plants and animals. de t r or se a. [L. de, away from; versus, turn] Directed downward. see a nt r or se , r e t r or se . de u t e r oce r e br um see de u t oce r e br um , m e soce r e br um de u t e r ost om e n. [Gr. deut eros, second; st om a, mouth] True coelomates with radial cleavage of the egg, the blastopore becoming the anus, the coelom formed by enterocoely, including Echinodermata, Chaetognatha, Hemicordata and Chordata. see pr ot ost om e . de u t e r ot ok y n. [Gr. deut eros, second; t okos, birth] Parthenogenetic reproduction in which progeny of both sexes are produced from female gametes. see a r r h e not ok y, t he lyot ok y. de u t oce r e br a l com m issu r e (ARTHRO) The connection between the sensory neuropiles on both sides of the brain. de u t oce r e br a l r e gion (ARTHRO) That portion of a brain divided into dorsal sensory and ventral motor areas. de u t oce r e br um n. [Gr. deut eros, second; L. cerebrum , brain] (ARTHRO) The median region of a brain which receives the antennal nerves (first antennae in crustaceans, see mesocerebrum) and contains their association centers; lacking in chelicerates (scorpions, spiders and mites). de u t e r oce r e br a l a. de u t ogyn e n. [Gr. deut eros, second; gyne, woman] A female of a species which is morphologically different from the primogyne and has no male counterpart. see pr ot ogyn e. de u t om a la e n.pl. [Gr. deut erous, second; m alon, cheek] 1. (ARTHRO: Symphyla) The second pair of mouth appendages in certain myriapods. 2. (CHAETO) A broad plate formed by the fusion of the second pair of mouth appendages. de u t onym ph n. [Gr. deut eros, second; nym phe, chrysalis] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The second stage nymph of arach-

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nids. de u t opla sm , de u t e r opla sm n. [Gr. deut eros, second; plasm a, formed or molded] A substance other than the nucleus and cytoplasm in a cell, esp. yolk in an egg cell; metaplasm. see e n e r gid. de u t oscole x see pse udoscole x pr oscole x de u t ost e r nu m see subca pit u la r gu t t e r de u t ovu m n. [Gr. deut eros, second; L. ovum , egg] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) a. The resting, incompletely developed stage following the shedding of the chorion of the egg of mites and spiders. b. A prelarva. c. The second egg. de ve lopm e n t n. [F. developper, to unfold] The progressive production of the phenotypic characteristics of an organism. de ve lopm e n t a l cycle (ARTHRO: Insecta) The period between the laying of an egg and eclosion of the adult from the pupal case. de ve lopm e n t a l hom e ost a sis The ability to produce a normal phenotype in spite of developmental or environmental disturbances. de via t e n. [L. de, away from; via, way] Any animal which differs from corresponding developmental stages of others of the same species. de volu t ion n. [L. de, away from; evolvere, to unroll] Retrograde development; degeneration. D e Vr ie sia n ism Hypothesis that evolution in general, and speciation in particular, are the results of drastic mutation. see sa lt a t ion . de x iot or m a n.; pl. -m a e [Gr. dexios, on the right; torma, socket] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. A small sclerotic ring of scarabaeoid larvae, extending inward from the epipharynx, occasionally bearing a heel-shaped pternotorma. 2. The right torma. de x iot r opic a. [Gr. dexios, on the right; t rope, turn] A right turning spiral, as in shells. de x t r a l a. [L. dext er, right] Right-handed; to the right of the median line.

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de x t r a l ga st r opods (MOLL) A gastropod with genitalia on the right side of the head-foot mass or pallial cavity; commonly the shell, when viewed with the apex uppermost, has the aperture on the right. see sin ist r a l ga st r opods. de x t r on a. [L. dext er, right] Pertaining to the right side of the body. de x t r or se a. [L. dext er, right; vert ere, to twist] An organism spirally twisting to the right. see sin ist r or se . dia cr e sis see dia e r e sis dia ct in a l a. [Gr. dis, twice; akt is, ray] Being pointed at both ends. dia ct in a l m on a x on (PORIF) A monaxon that develops by growing in both directions, while originating from a central point; diactine; rhabdus. dia ct in e see dia ct in a l m on a x on dia e n e n. [Gr. dis, twice; t riaina, trident] (PORIF) A form of triaene produced by loss of one ray from the cladome. dia e r e sis n. [Gr. diairein, to divide] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A transverse groove on the posterior part of an exopod (rarely endopod) of a uropod appendage; occasionally dividing the exopod into two movable parts. dia ge nodon t t e e t h (MOLL: Bivalvia) Having differentiated cardinal teeth (up to 3) and lateral teeth (up to 2) on the hinge plate. dia gnosis n.; pl. -nose s [Gr. diagignoskein, to distinguish] A formal statement of the characters distinguishing one taxon from closely related taxa. dia gnost ic a. [Gr. diagignoskein, to distinguish] Uniquely characterizing a taxon. dia gon a l r idge (MOLL: Bivalvia) A ridge running diagonally from the umbo toward the posteriolateral margin of the valve. dia k in e sis n. [Gr. dia, through; kinesis, movement] The final stage of prophase in the first meiotic division; paired, contracted chromosomes with the disappearance of nucleolus and nuclear envelope.

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dia lyn e u r y n. [Gr. dialyein, to reconcile; neuron, nerve] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Having zygoneural connections on both left and right sides. dia lysis n.; pl. dia lyse s [Gr. dia, through; lyein, to loose] Separation of dissolved crystalloids and colloids through a suitable membrane. dia lyza t e , dia lysa t e n. [Gr. dia, through; lyein, to loose] Used for both the material that will and will not diffuse through a membrane. dia m or ph n. [Gr. dia, through; m orphe, form] (PORIF) A cell mass of spherical form and a continuous pinacoderm formed as a result of aggregation of dissociated cells. dia pa u se n. [Gr. dia, through; pausis, a stopping] A quiescent phase during the development of an organism in which most physiological processes are suspended; maybe optional, obligatory or internally controlled. see a m phody n a m ous. dia pha n ous a. [Gr. dia, through; phanos, light] Showing light through its substance; transparent; translucent; clear. dia ph r a gm n. [Gr. diaphragm a, partition, wall] 1. Any of the horizontal dividing membranes of a body cavity. 2. A structure controlling admission of light through an aperture. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. In Heteroptera, separating the general body cavity from the genital chamber. b. In Lepidoptera, that which closes the body cavity caudally, comprised of dorsally the fultura superior and ventrally the fultura inferior. 4. (BRYO) a. In Stenolaemata, the membranous or skeletal partition which extends transversly across the entire zooidal chamber. b. In Gymnolaemata autozooids, the muscular ring of the body wall. 5. (CNID: Hydrozoa) A delicate chitinous floor that supports the hydranth. 6. (ECHI) A thin-walled, funnel-like septum incompletely separating an anterior or peripharyngeal coelom from the general body cavity. dia pola r ce lls (MESO) Ciliated somatodermal cells located between the parapolar and uropolar cells; trunk cells. dia r h yse s n.pl. [Gr. dis, twice; rhysus, delivering] (PORIF: Hexactinellida) Radial canals that run through the skeletal

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wall and have a single flagellated chamber. dia r t h r osis n. [Gr. dis, twice; art hron, joint] An articulation that permits free movement. dia r t h r odia l a. dia r t icu la r a. [Gr. dis, twice; art iculus, joint] Said of, or pertaining to two joints. dia st a se , dia st a t ic see a m yla se dia st ole n. [Gr. diastole, difference] The regular expansion of the heart during which it fills with blood; the relaxatory phase. dia st olic a. see syst ole . dia st om ia n a. [Gr. dia, through; st om a, mouth] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to the orifice, (excluding ostiole), of the metathoracic scent gland of Heteroptera, consisting of a pair of relatively widely spaced openings. see om pha lia n. dia st om a t ic a. [Gr. dia, through; st om a, mouth] Through the stomata or pores. dia t h e sis n. [Gr. dia, through; t hesis, position] An inherited constitutional state whereby an individual is especially vulnerable to a certain type of reaction, disease or development. dia t om r a k e (ARTHRO: Insecta) A structure of the galea of mayfly nymphs composed of bristles and pectinated spines, or of hairs or spines on the maxillae, functioning in scraping food. dia u lic a. [Gr. dis, twice; aulos, pipe] 1. With two separate ducts open to the surface. 2. (MOLL: Gastropoda) Male and female portions with separate gonopores. see m ona u lic, t r ia u lic. di- a x ia l (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) Pertaining to chelicerae of spiders with the paturon projecting either forward or down with the fangs moving inward towards each other. see pa r a x ia l. dia x on n. [Gr. dis, twice; axon, axis] Having two axes or two axis-cylinder processes. dibla st u la n. [Gr. dis, twice; blast os, bud] (CNID) A coelenterate embryo consisting of 2 layers arranged around a central cavity. dibr a n ch ia t e a. [Gr. dis, twice; branchia, gills] Having two

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gills. dice n t r ic a. [Gr. dis, twice; kent ron, midpoint of a circle] Having chromosomes or chromatids with two centromeres. dice r ou s, dice r u s a. [Gr. dis, twice; keros, horn] Having two horns, tentacles or antennae. dichoga m y n. [Gr. dicha, in two; gam os, marriage] The production of male and female gametes at different times in an hermaphroditic organism; protogynous and protandrous hermaphrodites. dichoga m ous a. see hom oga m y. dich opa t r y n. [Gr. dicha, in two; L. pat ria, native country] Populations geographically separated to the extent that individuals of the involved species never meet. see pa r a pa t r ic spe cia t ion . dich opt ic a. [Gr. dicha, in two; ops, sight] Having eyes separated dorsally by integument. see holopt ic. dich ot om ize v.t. & i. [Gr. dicha, in two; t em nein, to cut] To cut into two parts; to divide into pairs. dichot om ous a. [Gr. dicha, in two; t em nein, to cut] Divided or dividing into two parts; successive bifurcation; two-forked. dich ot om y n. dich ot r ia e n e n. [Gr. dicha, in two; t riaina, trident] (PORIF) A tetractinal megasclere with forked clads. dich r oism n. [Gr. dis, twice; chros, color] The property of showing two very different colors, one by transmitted light and the other by reflected light, or as some dyes staining different tissues different colors. dich r om a t ic a. [Gr. dis, twice; chrom a, color] 1. Having two color varieties. 2. Seeing only two colors. dich t ha difor m e r ga t ogyn e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In army ants, an individual of an aberrant reproductive caste, characterized by a wingless alitrunk, large gaster, and expanded postpetiole. dich t ha diigyne n. [Gr. dicht hadios, double; gyne, female] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A permanently wingless ant with greatly reduced eyes, massive pedicel, abdomen and ovaries, and strong legs. dicondylic a. [Gr. dis, twice; kondylos, knuckle] Pertaining to

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an articulation with two condyles; bicondylar. dicost a lia see se cu n dibr a ct s dicr a n oclon e n. [Gr. dikranon, pitchfork; klon, twig] (PORIF) A megasclere spicule having a desma with swollen terminal couplings. dict yona l fr a m e w or k (PORIF) Spicules fused together into a rigid framework. dict yon ine n.; pl. dict yona lia [Gr. dikt yon, net] (PORIF: Hexactinellida) Rays of regular hexactines fused at their tips to form a more or less regular three dimensional network. dict yosom e n. [Gr. dikt yon, net; som a, body] The flattened set of membranes resembling a stack of plates found in a Golgi body. dicyclic a. [Gr. dis, twice; kyklos, circle] (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) Calyx plates of primitive stalked crinoids that have an additional five infrabasal plates on the aboral side of the basal series found in the monocyclic condition; further plates may be present. dida ct yl a. [Gr. dis, twice; dakt ylos, finger] Having two tarsi of equal length. dida ct yl n.; dida ct ylism n.; dida ct ylous a. dide lph ic a. [Gr. dis, twice; delphys, womb] Having two uteri. see a m ph ide lph ic. didu ct or m u scle s (BRACHIO) Two pairs of muscles that open valves of articulates, commonly attached to brachial valve immediately anterior to beak; principal pair usually inserted in pedicle valve on either side of adductor muscles with posterior accessory pair. didym ou s a. [Gr. didym os, double] Formed in pairs; twin; double. die cdysis n. [Gr. dia, through; ekdysis, escape from molt] Condition in which ecdysial processes are going on continuously and one ecdysis cycle passes rapidly into another. die ciou s see dioe cious die l a. [L. dies, day] Occurring in a 24 hour period. die t e lla n.; pl. -a e (BRYO) Large laterobasal pore chamber that functions in interzooidal communication. see por e cha m -

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be r s. diffe r e n t ia n.; pl. -t ia e [L. different ia, difference] The specific difference of one species from other species of the same genus. diffe r e n t ia l dia gn osis A statement of characters distinguishing a given taxon from other specifically mentioned equivalent taxa. see de lim it a t ion. diffr a ct e d a. [L. dis, twice; frangere, to break] 1. Bent in different directions. 2. Separated into parts. diffu sa t e n. [L. diffusus, spread out] Material that diffuses through a semi-permeable membrane; dialyzate. diffu se a. [L. diffusus, spread out] 1. Not sharply distinct at the edge or margin. 2. Widely spread; extended. 3. (MOLL: Gastropoda) The aperture when spread out or widened. diffu sion n. [L. diffusus, spread out] The spreading of a dissolved substance through solvent by virtue of the random movements of its molecules or ions. diffu sion t r a ch e a e (ARTHRO: Insecta) Cylindrical tracheae not subject to collapse. see ve n t ila t ion t r a ch e a e . diga m e t ic see h e t e r oga m e t ic dige n e sis n. [Gr. dis, twice; genesis, beginning] Alternation of generations. dige n e t ic a. [Gr. dis, twice; genesis, beginning] With sexual reproduction in the mature forms and asexual reproduction in larval stages. dige n opor ou s a. [Gr. dis, twice; genos, birth; poros, passages] Having two genital pores. dige st ion n. [L. digest us, render food assimilable] The process by which nutrient materials are rendered soluble and absorbable for incorporation into the metabolism. digit n. [L. digit us, finger] A finger or finger-like structure; a toe. digit a l a. [L. digit us, finger] Digit-like. digit a t e d a. [L. digit us, finger] Fingered or clawed; divided into finger-like processes. digit a t e pr oce sse s (SIPUN) Finger-like processes or leaf-like

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projections originating at the dorsal surface of the brain. digit a t ion n. [L. digit us, finger] (MOLL: Gastropoda) The fingerlike, outward projection from the outer lip of the shell. digit e lli n.pl. [L. dim. digit us, finger] (CNID: Scyphozoa) Tentacle-like gastric filaments on the inner edge of each septum. digit ifor m a. [L. digit us, finger; form a, shape] Shaped like, or functioning like a finger. digit u le s n. [L. digit ulus, little finger] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Appendages in the form of dilated or knobbed hairs on the feet of scale insects. see e m podium . digit u s n.; pl. -t i [L. digit us, finger] 1. A digit. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. The dactylus. b. In Hymenoptera genitalia, a curved or hooked, strongly muscled process projecting from the vosellar plate, movably opposed to the cuspis. diglyph ic a. [Gr. dis, twice; glyphein, to engrave] (CNID: Anthozoa) In sea anemones, having two siphonoglyphs: one siphonoglyph= sulcus; two siphonoglyphs= sulculus. digna t ha n a. [Gr. dis, twice; gnat hion, jaw] (ARTHRO) Having mandibles and one pair of maxillae, such as Pauropoda and Diplopoda. see t r igna t h a n. digon e ut ic a. [Gr. dis, twice; goneuein, to produce] Having two broods in one year. digone u t ism n. digon ic a. [Gr. dis, twice; gone, seed] Sperm and ova are produced in separate gonads of the same individual. see syn gon ic, a m ph igon ic. dik on t a. [Gr. dis, twice; kont os, punting pole] Biflagellate. dila ce r a t e v.t.; -ated [L. dis, apart; lacera, torn] To tear to pieces; tear apart. dila t a t e d a. [L. dilat us, spread] Having a wide margin; flattened; expanded; widened. dila t e v.t. [L. dilat us, spread] To expand or distend. dila t or n. [L. dilat us, spread] A muscle that functions to dilate. dila t or va lve (NEMATA) Ventrolateral hypodermal muscles that function to open the vulva. see con st r ict or va lve . dilu t e a. [L. dilut us, mixed] Being diluted; thin; weak.

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dim e r ic a. [Gr. dis, twice; m eros, part] 1. Having two parts. 2. Bilaterally symmetrical. dim e r ou s a. [Gr. dis, twice; m eros, part] 1. Composed of two parts. 2. Having two tarsal segments. dim idia t e a. [L. dim idius, half] 1. Divided into two equal parts. 2. Only one-half the normal development. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Having an elytra that covers only half the abdomen. dim or ph n. [Gr. dis, twice; m orphe, form] An individual displaying dimorphism. dim or ph ism n. [Gr. dis, twice; m orphe, form] A morphological difference in form, color, size or sex in a single population. dim or ph ic a. see se x ua l dim or phism , polym or phism . D im ya r ia n.pl. [Gr. dis, twice; m ys, muscle] (MOLL: Bivalvia) Taxon sometimes used to include those bivalve mollusks whose shells are closed by two adductor muscles; dim ya r ia n , dim ya r ic a.; dim ya r ia n a. & n. din e r ga t e n. [Gr. deinos, terrible; ergat es, worker] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A soldier ant, characterized by a huge head and mandibles (for defense) and a thoracic structure sometimes the size of the female, or in the development of its sclerites. din e r ga t ogyn e n. [Gr. deinos, terrible; ergat es, worker; gyne, woman] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A mosaic form in ants, combining the characteristics of a dinergate and a ergatogyne. dine r ga t ogyn om or ph n. [Gr. deinos, terrible; gyne, woman; m orphe, form] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In ants, any individual in which female characteristics alternate with worker and soldier. din oph t h ise r ga t e n. [Gr. deinos, terrible; pht hisis, decline; ergat es, worker] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In ants, a soldierworker pupal mosaic that fails to progress to the adult stage due to parasitism or other interference. dioe ciou s a. [Gr. dis, twice; oikos, house] Separate sexes; males and females being different individuals; gonochoristic; unisexual; opposed to monoecious. diopt r a t e a. [Gr. dis, twice; ops, eye] Having eyes or ocelli divided by a septum or line.

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diopt r ic a. [Gr. dis, twice; ops, eye] Refractive; vision by refraction of light. dior ch ic a. [Gr. dis, twice; orchis, testicle] Having two testes. see m on or ch ic. dipha gou s pa r a sit oid (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, a species in Adelinidae in which the male (parasitoid) and female inhabit the same host species, but both feed differently. see he t e r ot r ophic pa r a sit oid, h e t e r on om ou s hype r pa r a sit oid. diphyge n e t ic a. [Gr. diphyes, twofold; genesis, beginning] Producing two different types of embryos. diphyle t ic a. [Gr. dis, two; phyle, race) Pertaining to animals which are derived from two ancestral lines. diple u r u la n. [Gr. dis, twice, dim. pleuron, side] (ECHINOD) Collective term applied to planktonic bilaterally symmetrical, ciliated larvae; echinopaedium. see a u r icu la r ia , doliola r ia , plu t e u s, bipinn a r ia la r va . diplobion t n. [Gr. diploos, twofold; bionai, to live] An organism with two morphologically distinct haploid and diploid generations. see ha plobion t . diplobla st ic a. [Gr. diploos, twofold; blast os, bud] Having two embryonic germ layers, ectoderm and endoderm. diplocot yle a ce r ca r ia (PLATY: Trematoda) An amphistome cercaria with a pigmented anterior end. see pigm e nt a ce r ca r ia . diploda l a. [Gr. diploos, twofold; hodos, way] (PORIF) Leuconoid sponges with narrow canals leading into and out of the flagellated chambers. see a phodus, pr osodus. diploe r ga t e n. [Gr. diploos, twofold; ergat es, worker] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A mosaic ant showing characteristics of both major and media workers. diploga n glia t e a. [Gr. diploos, twofold; ganglion, ganglion] With paired ganglia. diploid a. [Gr. diploos, twofold] Having dual (2n) chromosomes, the normal number of cells in all but the mature germ cells in any individual derived from a fertilized egg. see du ple x , ha ploid, polyploid, ch r om osom e .

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diplok a r yon n. [Gr. diploos, twofold; karyon, nut] The nucleus of the zygote containing two diploid genomes. see a m ph ik a r yon. diplon e m a a. [Gr. diploos, twofold; nem a, thread] When chromosome tetrads begin separation, resulting in chiasmata at the points of cross over; sometimes used to denote diplotene stage. diplon e ur a l a. [Gr. diploos, twofold; neuron, nerve] Having a double nerve supply. diplon t n. [Gr. diploos, twofold; on, being] An organism with diploid somatic cells and haploid gametes. see ha plont . diplopha se n. [Gr. diploos, twofold; phasis, state] Diploid phase in the life cycle of an animal (fertilization to meiosis); diplotene stage in the prophase of meiosis; zygophase. see h a ploph a se . D iplopoda , diplopod n. [Gr. diploos, twofold; pous, foot] A class of arthropods, commonly called millipedes, having the body somites fused into diplosegments, each with two pairs of legs. diplose gm e n t n. [Gr. diploos, twofold; L. segm ent um , piece] (ARTHRO: Diplopoda) Fusion of two body segments resulting in a segment with two pairs of legs each; a diplosomite. diplosom e n. [Gr. diploos, twofold; som a, body] A double centrosome; paired centrioles. diplosom it e n. [Gr. diploos, twofold; som a, body] (ARTHRO: Diplopoda) A diplosegment. see pr ozon it e , m e t a zon it e . diplost e noe ciou s a. [Gr. diploos, twofold; st enos, narrow; oikos, house] Pertains to the phenomena of certain species occurring in two contrasting habitats. diplost ichou s a. [Gr. diploos, twofold; st ichos, line] 1. Arranged in two rows or series. 2. (NEMATA: Adenophorea) In Mermithida, the stichosome. diplost om u lu m n. [Gr. diploos, twofold; L. dim. st om a, mouth] (PLATY: Trematoda) Strigeoid metacercaria in the family Diplostomatidae. diplotene a. [Gr. diploos, twofold; t ainia, ribbon] The fourth stage of meiotic prophase one when paired chromatids be-

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gin to separate. see diplon e m a . diplozoic a. [Gr. diploos, twofold; zoon, animal] Bilaterally symmetrical. dipne u m on ou s a. [Gr. dis, twice; pneum on, lung] Having two lungs. dipor pa n. [Gr. dis, twice; porpe, buckle] (PLATY: Trematoda) A larval stage in the life cycle of the monogean Diplozoon that permanently unites with another. dipt e r oce cidiu m n. [Gr. dis, twice; pt eron, wing; dim. kekis, gall] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A gall formed by any dipterous insect. dipt e r ous a. [Gr. dis, twice; pt eron, wing] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Belonging to the insect order Diptera. dir e ct e ye s (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The anterior median pair of eyes in spiders. dir e ct ive m e se n t a r ie s (CNID: Anthozoa) In Zoantharia, the dorsal and ventral pairs of specialized mesentaries attached to the siphonoglyph. dir e ct ive r ib (MOLL: Bivalvia) A rib on the shell surface lying in a single plane. dir e ct ive spir a l (MOLL: Bivalvia) A directive rib that is spiral in a single plane. dir e ct m e t a m or ph osis see incom ple t e m e t a m or ph osis dir e ct w ing m u scle s (ARTHRO: Insecta) The axillary and dorsal muscles of a wing. disa cch a r ide s n.pl. [L. dis, twice; saccharum , sugar] A carbohydrate which can be hydrolized into two monosaccharides. disc, disk n. [L. discus, circular plate] 1. Any flattened part in the form of a disc. 2. Circumoral area of many animals. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Coleoptera, the general dorsal surface of the elytra, usually marked by longitudinal striae corresponding to a row of sclerotized pillars connecting the upper and lower faces of the elytra. 4. (ECHINOD: Asteroidea) The central part of the body. 5. (MOLL: Bivalvia) The whole valve exclusive of the auricles in Pectinacea. disca l a. disca l a r e a (ARTHRO: Insecta) In wings, the central area or

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area covered by the discal cell. disca l br ist le (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, one or more pairs of bristles in the mid-dorsal wall of the abdominal segment. disca l ce ll (ARTHRO: Insecta) A cell in the basal or central part of the wings. disca l cr oss ve in (ARTHRO: Insecta) A cross vein behind the discal cell in a wing. disca l e le va t ion (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hemiptera, the central area of the anterior wing raised above the surrounding level. disca l pa t ch (ARTHRO: Insecta) In male hesperoid butterflies, conspicuous patches, tufts, or brushes of modified scales, sometimes contained in eversible folds of the anterior wing. disca l scu t e lla r br ist le s see dor soscu t e lla r br ist le s disca l se t a (ARTHRO: Insecta) Large seta on the dorsal surface of the operculum. disca l ve in (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Lepidoptera, a crossvein closing the discal or median cell of the wing. discifor m a. [L. discus, circular plate; form a, shape] Having the shape of a plate or disc; discoid. discin id n. [L. discus, circular plate] (BRACHIO:Inarticulata) A planktonic bivalve larva with round valves, and five pairs of major setae, the fourth of which is larger than the others. discle r it ous a. [L. dis, twice; Gr. skleros, hard] (ARTHRO) Pertaining to tergites and sternites being distinct and separate. see syn scle r it ous. discoce llu la r ve in (ARTHRO: Insecta) The discal vein. discoct a st e r s n.pl. [Gr. diskos, circular plate; okt o, eight; ast er, star] (PORIF) Spicules containing 8 rays terminating in disks; discooctasters. discoda ct ylou s a. [Gr. diskos, circular plate; dakt ylos, finger] Having a sucker at the end of a digit. discohe x a st e r n. [Gr. diskos, circular plate; hex, six; ast er, star] (PORIF) A spicule with 6 rays meeting at right angles and terminating in discs; the individual rays may be branched.

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discoid a. [Gr. diskos, circular plate; eidos, form] 1. Flat and circular; disc-like; disciform; discous. 2. (MOLL) Certain univalve shells with whorls coiled in one plane. discoida l a. [Gr. diskos, circular plate: eidos, form] 1. Approaching a disc in form. 2. (MOLL: Gastropoda) Convolute or involute and more or less flattend, as the spire of a shell. discoida l area 1. The middle area of an organ. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The middle of a wing; discoidal field. discoida l a r e ole t s see disca l ce lls discoida l ce ll (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. An outstanding cell of a wing. 2. In Odonata, the quadrilateral. 3. In Diptera, the median cell. discoida l cr ossve in see disca l cr oss ve in discoida l fie ld see discoida l a r e a discoida l t r ia ngle see t r ia n gle discoida l ve in (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. In Hymenoptera, the vein forming a continuation of the median vein beyond the end of the transverse median vein, and extending along the posterior margin of the first discoidal cell. 2. In Orthoptera, the first and largest branch of the humeral vein. 3. In Diptera, the media 2 . 4. The anterior intercalary vein. discolor , discolour n. [L. discolor, of different colors] Change of color; more than one color. discont in ue d va r ice s (MOLL: Gastropoda) Varices of shell formation when revolution is not in a straight line with those of the next. discont in uou s va r ia t ion Phenotypic variation in an animal population in which the characters do not grade into each other; qualitative inheritance. see con t inu ou s va r ia t ion. discooct a st e r s see discoct a st e r s discor de n t m a r gins (MOLL: Bivalvia) Valve margins not matching, but overlapping one another. discor h a bd n. [Gr. diskos, circular plate; rhabdos, rod] (PORIF) A linear spicule with disc-like outgrowths arising from a straight axis.

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discot a n. [Gr. diskos, circular plate] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Adult development from imaginal discs in the embryo. see a discot a . discot r ia e n e n. [Gr. diskos, circular plate; t riaina, trident] (PORIF) A tetractinal spicule with three rays flattened flush in one plane with a short pointed fourth axis. discr e pa nt a. [L. discrepant ia, discordancy] Discordant; disagreeing; different. discr e t e a. [L. discret us, separated] Well separated; applied to distinct parts. discr im e n n. [L. discrim en, division] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A median longitudinal sulcus with an internal ridge running along the middle of the sternum. discu s n. [L. discus, circular plate] A flat circular structure, part or area. dise a se n. [L. dis, without; F. aise, comfort] An alteration of function or structure of a tissue or organ or of an organism; sickness; malady; impaired health. disj u ga l fur r ow (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) Pertaining to the furrow separating the prosoma and opisthosoma of mites. disj u n ct a. [L. disj unct us, disunited] 1. Pertaining to separation of parts or formed into groups. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Having the head, thorax and abdomen set off by constrictions. 3. (MOLL: Gastropoda) Whorls of a shell not touching each other. disj unct ion n. [L. disj unct us, disunited] Separation of daughter chromosomes during anaphase of mitosis and meiotic division. disj u n ct pa llia l line (MOLL: Bivalvia) A pallial line broken up into unequal muscle attachments. disk see disc disloca t e v.t. [L. dis, without; locus, place] To move out of its proper place, as when stria bands or lines are in discontinuity. disom ic a. [Gr. dis, twice; som a, body] Cells or individuals in the 2n condition; cells in the n+1 condition.

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dispe r sa l n. [L. dispergere, to disperse] 1. The act or result of scattering. 2. The scattering or distribution of organisms in the biosphere. displa ce m e n t n. [OF. desplacier, to displace] An abnormal position of any part due to shifting from its normal position. dispose d a. [L. dis, away from; ponere, to place] Distributing, arranged or laid out. disse ct v. [L. dissecare, to cut open] 1. To divide or separate into parts; to cut into pieces for examination. 2. To analyze, to examine. disse m in u le n. [L. dis, away from; sem inare, to sow] One who originates colonization. disse pim e n t (s) n.; n.pl. [L. dissaepire, to separate] 1. A partitioning wall; a septum. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. The septa of an embryo, separating the coelom-sacs. b. The enclosing membrane of an obtect pupa. 3. (CNID: Anthozoa) A transverse calcareous plate or partition between the radiating septa of coral. 4. (SIPUN) A series of peritoneal tissue situated transversely across the coelom. dissilie nt a. [L. dissilire, to burst asunder] Bursting or springing open. dissim ila t ion see ca t a bolism dissocon ch n. [Gr. dissos, double; konche, shell] (MOLL) The shell of a second stage larva. dissoge ny, dissogony n. [Gr. dissos, double; genos, descent] (CTENO) A form of reproduction in an animal of sexual maturity in the larval stage and again as an adult. dist a ca lypt e r on see a nt isqua m a dist a d adv. [L. dist are, to stand apart] Away from the body, or from point of attachment; toward the end farthest from the body. dist a de nt e s n.pl. [L. dist are, to stand apart; dentis, tooth] The dentes distad on the mandible. dist a l a. [L. dist are, to stand apart] Pertaining to any part of a structure farthest from midline of the body or base of attachment; opposed to proximal.

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dist a l bud (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) The bud arising from the distal side of the vertical wall of the parent zooid. see ba sa l bud. dist a l ce ll (ARTHRO: Insecta) The cell bounded by the branches of the crossveins in a wing. dist a lia n.pl. [L. dist are, to stand apart] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The segments of an antenna excluding the scape and pedicel. dist a l pr oce ss The peripheral process of a sensory nerve cell. dist a l t ube s see m a r gina l t ube s dist ich n. [Gr. dist ichos, of two rows] 1. Two vertical rows; two ranked. 2. (NEMATA: Adenophorea) In Mermithida, the stichosome esophagus with a row of gland cells on either side of the esophagus and external to it; diplost ich ou s. dist ich ou s a. see m on ost ich , st ichosom e . dist ichou s a n t e n na e (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pectinate antennae with processes issuing from each joint and bending forward at acute angles. dist ipr oboscis n. [L. dist are, to stand apart; proboscis, trunk] The enlarged distal portion of a proboscis. dist ist ipe s n. [L. dist are, to stand apart; st ipes, stock] (ARTHRO) The distal part of the maxillary stipes. dist ist ylu s n.; pl. -li [L. dist are, to stand apart; Gr. st ylos, pillar] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Culicidae, the distal segment of the gonopods; clasp filament. dist om e n. [Gr. dis, double; st om a, mouth] (PLATY: toda) A fluke with an oral and ventral sucker.

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dist r ibu t ion n. [L. dist ribut us, allot, divide] Range of an organism or group of organisms in space and time. dit a x ic foot (MOLL: Gastropoda) Foot of Pomatiasidae, divided by a transverse sulcus (groove-furrow) at about its anterior third. D it h r a see Biva lvia dit r och ous a. [Gr. dis, twice; t rochis, runner] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to Hymenoptera having a two-segmented trochanter. diu r e sis a. [Gr. dia, through; ouron, urine] Pertaining to urine

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excretion in excess of the usual amount, directly referable to drinking, eating or certain metabolites. diu r na l a. [L. diurnus, of the day] Pertaining to animals active only during the daytime. see noct ur n a l, cr e puscula r . diu r na l e ye s (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In spiders, eyes that are dark in color. diu r na l r hyt hm Having a 24 hour periodic cycle. see cir ca dia n . diva r ica t e a. [L. divaricat us, spread apart] 1. Forked or divided into branches; diverging. 2. (MOLL: Bivalvia) Pertains to ornamentation consisting of widely divergent costulae or other shell ornamentation. diva r ica t or n. [L. divaricat us, spread apart] 1. A muscle which causes parts to open. 2. (BRACHIO) A muscle from the ventral valve to the cardinal process which opens the shell. 3. (BRYO) One of a pair of muscles which open the mandible for an avicularium or an operculum. dive r ge n t a. [L. diversus, different] Becoming more separated distally; extending in different directions from the same origin. dive r ge n t a da pt a t ion Adaptation to different kinds of environmental influence that results in a change from a common ancestral form. dive r se a. [L. diversus, different] Being distinct; differing in size or shape; dissimilar; separate. dive r t icu lum n.; pl. -u la [L. devert ere, to turn away] An outgrowth or pouch of some sort from the main axis of an organ. divide d a. [L. dividere, to separate] Parted or disunited. divide d e ye s (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. One in which the ommatidia in one area are different in size and often in pigmentation. 2. In many Odonata, the dorsal facets are nearly twice the diameter of the ventral ones. 3. In certain Hemiptera, the ventral facets are larger. 4. In some coleopteran water beetles, the eye is divided transversely. 5. In certain Ephemeroptera, the lateral pair are apposition eyes and the dorsal pair are superposition eyes.

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dix e n ic a. [Gr. dis, two; xenos, guest] Rearing of one or more individuals of a single species in association with two known species of organisms. see a x e n ic, m on ox e n ic, polyx e n ic, syn x e n ic, t r ix e n ic, x e n ic. dix e n ous a. [Gr. dis, two; xenos, guest] Parasitizing two host species. see m onox e nou s. D N A Deoxyribonucleic acid docoglossa t e a. [Gr. dokos, main beam; glossa, tongue] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Pertaining to the long radula containing a few strong teeth (up to 12) per transverse row; median radular tooth may be lacking or fused with lateral teeth to form a strong median tooth; marginal and lateral teeth, when present, are uncinate. dola br ifor m a. [L. dolabra, ax; form a, shape] Hatchet-shaped. dolicha st e r s n.pl. [Gr. dolichos, long; ast er, star] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Neuroptera larvae, modified setae on the lateral segmented processes of the dentate mandibles. doliofor m , doliiofor m a. [L. dolium , wine-cask; form a, shape] Barrel-shaped; globose; capacious. doliola r ia la r va (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) A free-swimming bilaterally symmetrical larva of the crinoids and a post auricularia holothurian larva; characterized by possessing a large apical tuft and several (4 or 5) ciliated bands around the body; dipluerula. see pe n t a cr in oid. D ollo's r u le The principle that evolution is irreversible, i.e., structures or functions once lost cannot be regained. dom e or ga n A sensillium campaniformia. dom ina n t a lle le An allele that determines the phenotype of a heterozygote. see r e ce ssive a lle le . dom ina n t ch a r a ct e r A character from one parent that manifests itself in offspring to the exclusion of a contrasted (recessive) character from the other parent. see r e ce ssive ch a r a ct e r . dor m a n cy n. [L. dorm ire, to sleep] A period of inactivity or suspended animation usually referable to adverse environmental conditions, but can be genetically controlled. dor m a n t a. [L. dorm ire, to sleep] Being in a state of torpor or

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sleep, hibernating, quiescent or aestivating. dor sa d adv. [L. dorsum , back; ad, to] Toward the back or top. dor sa l a. [L. dorsum , back] 1. Pertaining to the upper surface or back of the body. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Ostracods in normal position, the upper part comprising the area that contains hinge, eyes, antennules, antennae and stomach. 3. (BRACHIO) From the pedicle valve toward the brachial valve. 4. (ECHINOD) see a bor a l. 5. (MOLL) a. In Bivalvia, the back edge in the region of the hinge. b. In Gastropoda, the back remote from the aperture; the conical top surface of a limpet. 6. (POGON) see a dne u r a l. dor sa l a r e a 1. (G.T.) 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Ostracoda, that part of the valve surface adjacent to the dorsal border, comprised of anterodorsal, mid-dorsal and posterodorsal areas. 2. (MOLL) For chitins, see j u ga l a r e a . dor sa l a r m s of t h e t e n t or ium (ARTHRO: Insecta) A pair of dorsal arms arising from the anterior arms; may be attached to the dorsal wall of the head by short muscles. dor sa l bla st ode r m see se r osa dor sa l blood ve sse l 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The posterior heart and anterior aorta. 2. (ECHI) A dorsal tubular blood vessel in the anterior part of the body cavity often associated with the foregut; functioning in the transport of blood anteriorly to the median vessel of the proboscis; sometimes called the heart. dor sa l br ist le s see dor soce n t r a l br ist le s dor sa l ca r do (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Ostracoda, that portion of the peniferum that serves as a hinge by which it articulates with the zygum. dor sa l de nt icle 1. (G.T.) 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Ostracoda, a small, solid spinose projection on the dorsal margin; smaller than the dorsal spine. dor sa l dia ph r a gm (ARTHRO: Insecta) Muscular sheets of tissue extending from the ventral wall of the heart and vessels to the laterodorsal parts of the body wall, usually incomplete laterally; it may or may not delineate the pericardial sinus from the perivisceral sinus.

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dor sa l for a m e n (BRACHIO) A posterior perforation of the cardial plate that may or may not encroach on the beak of the brachial valve. dor sa l gla n d or ifice 1. The opening of any dorsal gland. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diaspididae, disc pores and ducts for wax production on the surface of the pygidium. dor sa l h a ir t u ft see dor sa l t uft dor sa lia n.pl. [L. dorsum , back] (GNATHO) Paired sensory bristles found dorsally on the head. dor sa l lip 1. (G.T.) 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Coccoidea, a chitinized plate supporting the anal tube. dor sa l m a r gin / bor de r 1. (G.T.) 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Ostracoda, part of the valve outline, above or at the hinge line. dor sa l oce lli (ARTHRO: Insecta) Simple eyes of adults, that vary in number from 2 to 3 in different orders. dor sa l or ga n 1. (ANN: Polychaeta) In Orbiniida and Spionida, ciliated sensory tubercles, ridges, or bands located on the dorsal surface of the segments. see la t e r a l or ga n s. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Thickened glandular area of hypoderm on the dorsal surface in the posterior or anterior part of the cephalon. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) A distinct mass of cells in the dorsal part of an embryo. dor sa l ost iole s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Pseudococcidae, the dorsal tranverse, slit-like openings on the pronotum and the sixth abdominal segment. dor sa l pla t e 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Mesostigmata, the dorsal plate on the body. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, a spindle-shaped division of the carapace. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. In Buprestidae larva, the plate or disk on the dorsal surface of the enlarged segment back of the head. b. In some Diaspididae, slightly to elaborately branched marginal pygidial processes with none to many microducts. dor sa l por e s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Coccoidea, the outlet of wax glands; the ceratubae. dor sa l sca le 1. (G.T.) 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. The wax and

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exuviae cover resting tentlike over the body of armored scale. b. Usually two peglike cibarial setae borne lateral and/or posterior to the anterior hard palate of the clypeopalatum of mosquitoes. dor sa l se t a e 1. (G.T.) 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Usually two peglike cibarial setae borne lateral and/or posterior to the anterior hard palate of the clypeopalatum of mosquitoes. dor sa l sh ie ld (ECHINOD: Asterozoa) In Ophiurida, the ossicles along the mid-line of the aboral arm surface; dorsal arm plate. dor sa l sinu s 1. (G.T.) 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The blood space enclosed by the dorsal diaphragm and the heart; dorsal pericardial sinus; pericardial cavity. dor sa l spin e 1. (G.T.) 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Ostracoda, sometimes prominent, solid or hollow, pointed projection on the dorsal valve margin. dor sa l spur 1. (G.T.) 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Syrphidae larvae, a pointed spine or ridge-like elevation of the posterior spiracular plate mesad to the circular plate. dor sa l st a r (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) In some Comatulida, a stellate hollow around the aboral pole of the centrodorsal ossicle. dor sa l st yle t (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Anoplura, one of two stylets that are retracted within the trophic pouch. dor sa l t e nt or ia l a r m (ARTHRO: Insecta) Thought to be an outgrowth of the anterior arm, which it joins near the junction of the anterior and posterior arm; frequently reduced or more or less consolidated in Diptera. dor sa l t ube r cle s see su bm a r gina l t ube r cle s dor sa l t ubu la r spin ne r e t s see dor sa l por e s dor sa l t u ft (ARTHRO: Insecta) In mosquito larvae, a tuft of long setae on the dorsum of the ninth segment of the abdomen. dor sa l va lve see br a ch ia l va lve dor sa l ve sse l 1. The dorsal blood vessel. 2. (SIPUN) see contractile vessel.

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dor sife r ous a. [L. dorsum , back; ferre, to carry] Carrying young or eggs upon the back. dor sive n t r a l see dor sove n t r a l dor so- a la r r e gion (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, that area between the transverse suture and the scutellum, and the base of the wing and the dorsocentral region. dor soca u da d adv. [L. dorsum , back; cauda, tail] Toward the dorsal surface and caudal end of the body. dor soce nt r a l a. [L. dorsum , back; cent ralis, midpoint] 1. Pertaining to the mid-dorsal surface. 2. (ECHINOD) Pertaining to the aboral surface. dor soce nt r a l br ist le s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, a longitudinal row of bristles on the mesonotum, laterad of the acrostichal bristles; absent in many groups. dor soce nt r a ls see dor soce n t r a l br ist le s dor so- h um e r a l r e gion (ARTHRO: Insecta) The humeri of Diptera. dor som e dia n a. [L. dorsum , back; m edius, middle] Pertaining to the true middle line on the dorsum of an individual. dor som e dia n gr oove (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In certain Decapoda, a longitudinal groove extending from the tip of the rostrum to the posterior carapace margin dorsomedially. dor som e sa l a. [L. dorsum , back; Gr. m esos, middle] Being at the top and along the midline. dor som e son n. [L. dorsum , back; Gr. m esos, middle] Where the meson meets with the dorsal surface of the body. dor so- ple ur a l lin e (ARTHRO: Insecta) The line of separation between the dorsum and the limb bases of the body, often marked by a fold or groove. dor sople u r a l su t u r e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, a suture separating the mesonotum from the pleuron. dor soscu t e lla r br ist le s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, a pair of bristles on the dorsal portion of the scutellum, one on each side of the midline. dor sot e n t or ia n. [L. dorsum , back; t ent orium , tent] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The dorsal arms of the tentorium.

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dor sove n t r a l a. [L. dorsum , back; vent er, belly] In the axis or direction from the dorsal toward the ventral sufaces; bifacial; dorsiventral. dor sove n t r a lis post e r ior (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, a prominent muscle connecting the head apodemes with the inner surface of the carapace posterior to the cervical groove. dor su m n. [L. dorsum , back] The back or upper surface of an organism. dor yla n e r n. [Gr. dory, spear; aner, male] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A large male form of the driver and legionary ants, characterized by large, modified mandibles, long cylindrical gaster and singular genitalia. dor yloph ile n. [Gr. dory, spear; philos, loving] Any obligatory guest of army ants belonging to the Dorylini. double ha ploid A haploid possessing a complete genome from each of two species. see sn yha ploid. double he lix Form of DNA proposed by Watson and Crick, made of two chains of nucleotides arranged spirally around each other. double r e ce ssive A cell or organism showing the recessive phenotype. doublu r e n. [F. doublure, lining] (ARTHRO) The reflected margin of a carapace, as in mantis shrimp, horseshoe crabs and trilobites. D oye r e 's con e The final conical termination of a nerve fiber entering a muscle; an end plate. dr e pa noid a. [Gr. drepane, sickle] Sickle-shaped; falcate; drepaniform. dr ill n. [D. drillen, to bore, drill] (MOLL: Gastropoda) A snail that preys upon other mollusks by penetrating the shell with a drilling apparatus. see r a dula . dr om ot r opic a. [Gr. drom os, race; t ropein, to turn] 1. Bent in a spiral. 2. An influence affecting the conductivity of a nerve fiber. dr one n. [A.S. dran, the male bee] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A male social bee, especially a male honeybee or bumblebee.

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D - sha pe d la r va l st a ge (MOLL) A larva in the form of a D, the back of which is the long, straight hinge; protostracum. du ct n. [L. duct are, to lead] 1. The tubular outlet of a gland for external secretion. 2. Any tube that conveys fluids or other substances. du ct u le n. [L. dim. duct are, to lead] A small duct, or the beginning portion of a duct. du ct u s n. [L. duct are, to lead] A duct. du ct u s bu r sa e (ARTHRO: Insecta) A tube in female Lepidoptera connecting the ostium with the bursa copulatrix. du ct u s e j a cu la t or iu s The median ectodermal exit tube of the male genital system. du ct u s e nt e r icu s (NEMATA) A duct between osmium and uvette in the demanian system. du ct u s obt ur a t us (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Siphonaptera, a primitive genital character of certain females that functions as a spermathecal duct. du ct u s u t e r in u s (NEMATA) A duct between the uterus and the demanian system. D ufour 's gla n d (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, an abdominal gland of the sting apparatus that supposedly secrets a liquid which when applied to cell walls, forms a thin, cellophane-like, transparent, or waxy lining which may function as a chemical cue for nesting, maintaining humidity control, a defense against microbial infection and/or food source. du losis n. [Gr. doulosis, servitude] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Ant slavery in which a parasitic ant species raids the nests of another species to capture brood (usually pupae) to rear as enslaved nestmates. du ode ca t he ca l a. [L. duodecim , twelve; Gr. t heke, case] (ANN: Polychaeta) Pertaining to having 12 spermathecae, usually in 6 pairs. du ode nu m n. [ML. duodenum , the first part of the small intestine] The anterior intestine. du pion n. [F. doupion, double] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Lepidoptera, a double cocoon spun by two silkworms; the silk from

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such cocoons. du pla glossa n. [L. duplex, double; Gr. glossa, tongue] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A forked or divided glossa. du ple x a. [L. duplex, double] Pertaining to a polyploid having two dominant alleles for a given genetic locus (AAa); doubled. du plica t e a. [L. duplex, double] Double; twofold. du plica t o- pe ct ina t e (ARTHRO: Insecta) A bipectinate antenna with branches alternately long and short. du plica t u r e n. [L. duplex, double] 1. A doubling; a fold. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Ostracoda, the calcified inner lamella of a shell that extends along the free margin of the valve and is fused to the outer lamella. du plica t u r e m u scle fibe r s (BRYO) Muscle fibers that widen the anterior end of the tentacle sheath, through which the lophophore passes during protrusion and serves as fixator ligaments for protruded polypide. du plivin cula r liga m e nt (MOLL: Bivalvia) A ligament consisting of a series of bands attaching it to narrow grooves in the cardinal area of the valve. du r a pha gou s a. [L. durus, hard; Gr. phagein, to eat] Pertaining to animals that break shells to eat the animal inside; sclerophagus. dya d n. [Gr. dyas, two] 1. Two chromatids that make up one chromosome in the first meiotic division. 2. A pair of cells caused by aberrant meiotic division. D ya r 's la w The theory that various parts of the body increase in linear dimensions by a ratio that is constant for the species. dyna m ic a. [Gr. dynam is, power] Producing motion or activity. see st a t ic. dysodon t a. [Gr. dys, bad; odos, tooth] (MOLL: Bivalvia) Having small, weak teeth close to the beak. dysph ot ic a. [Gr. dys, bad; phos, light] Dim; zone between euphotic and aphotic zones in light penetration of water. dyssa pr obe s n.pl. [Gr. dys, bad; sappros, putrid; bios, life]

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(NEMATA) Microbiotrophic nematodes able to invade and obtain nourishment from healthy plants. dyst r oph ic a. [Gr. dys, bad; t rophein, to nourish] 1. Defective nourishment. 2. A lake high in undecomposed organic matter. D zie r zon 's r u le (ARTHRO: Insecta) In social Hymenoptera, sex determination in which fertilized eggs become females and unfertilized eggs become males.

E e a r see a ur icle e a ve s n.pl. [A.S. efes, lower border of a roof] (MOLL: Polyplacophora) Portions of the tegmentum just over the line where the insertion plates and the sutural laminae project. e a ve t issue (MOLL: Polyplacophora) Composition of the shell that forms the eaves; either porcelaneous or riddled with microscopic tubules (spongy). e bu r ne a n a. [L. eburneus, ivory] Made of, or like ivory; ivory white. e ca lca r a t e a. [Gr. ek, out of; L. calcar, spur] Lacking spurs or calcaria. e ca r ina t e a. [Gr. ek, out of; L. carina, keel] Without a keel or carina. e ca uda t e a. [Gr. ek, out of; L. cauda, tail] Lacking a cauda or tail-like process or structure; excaudate. e ca uda t e wing (ARTHRO: Insecta) A wing lacking a tail-like process. e cbolic see h ydr e la ct ic e cce n t r ic a. [Gr. ek, out of; kent ron, center] 1. Deviation from the regular. 2. (MOLL) Having an operculum with growth on one side of the nucleus only, and to one side of the center. e cde m ic a. [Gr. ekdem os, away from home] Disease brought into a region from outside; neither endemic nor epidemic. e cdysia l cle a va ge line see e picr a n ia l su t u r e e cdysia l flu id see m olt in g flu id e cdysia l gla n ds see pr ot hor a cic gla nds e cdysia l m e m br a ne (ARTHRO: Insecta) A thin membrane formed from the lateral lamellae of the old procuticle that is tanned by the polyphenols and phenoloxidase associated with the new outer epicuticle during molting. e cdysia l t ube (ARTHRO: Insecta) In some Diptera and Coleop-

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tera, a simple cuticular tube formed around the old spiracle and through which the old spiracle and trachea are pulled during molting. e cdysis n., pl. -se s [Gr. ekdysis, getting out of] Molting, the process of shedding cuticle or exoskeleton. see m olt , a polysis, e n dysis. e cdysone n. [Gr. ekdysis, getting out of] (ARTHRO) A hormone that initates changes in cells associated with molting, produced by a secretion of the prothoracotrophic hormone from the median neurosecretory cells of insects, and the Ygland of crustaceans. e cdysot r oph ic cycle (ARTHRO) Alternation of blood feeding and molting in mites, ticks, and hemimetabolous insects. e ce sis n. [Gr. ek, out of; -esis, denotes action] The migration of organisms into a new habitat. e ch ina t e a. [Gr. echinos, spiny] Set with prickles; spinous; having some or all of the surface of the body covered with spines. e ch ina t in g spicu le (PORIF) A megasclere that protrudes from a fiber or spicule tract. Ech in ode r m a t a , e ch in ode r m s n.; n.pl. [Gr. echinos, spiny; derm a, skin] Phylum of marine coelomate animals with basic pentaradiate symmetry in the adult, with a calcareous endoskeleton and a water vascular system. e ch in opa e diu m see diple u r ula e ch in ost om e ce r ca r ia (PLATY: Trematoda) A cercaria having a collar with spines around the margin of the head and a long slender tail. e ch ioplu t e u s la r va Sea-urchin larva. Ech iu r a , e ch iu r a n s n.; n.pl. [Gr. echis, serpent; oura, tail] A phylum of soft-bodied, unsegmented, sac-like almost exclusively marine invertebrates with a large fluid-filled body cavity; related to Sipuncula and somewhat resembling them. e cit oph ile a. [NL. Ecit on, a genus of ants; L. philos, loving] (ARTHRO: Insecta) An obligatory guest of the tribe Ecitonini. e ciu m see zooe cium

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e cle ct ic a. [Gr. eklekt os, selected] Selecting from various systems, doctrines, or sources. e clipse d a n t ige n An antigen borne by a parasite that is common to both the host and the parasite, genetically of parasitic origin. e closion n. [F. eclosion, emerge] The act or process of emerging from the egg or pupal case; to eclose. e coclim a t e a. [Gr. oikos, house; klim a, region] Total of meteorological factors within a habitat. e coclin e n. [Gr. oikos, house; klinein, to slope] Continuous gradient of characters in response to variation in ecological conditions. e coge ogr a ph ica l r u le s The formulation of regularities in geographic variation of characters correlated with environmental conditions. e cologica l isola t ion Interbreeding between two or more sympatric populations is prevented by mating in different ecological niches. see ge ogr a ph ic isola t ion / ba r r ie r s isola t e . e cology n. [Gr. oikos, house; logos, discourse] The study of interrelationships among organisms themselves and their environment; bionomics; hexicology; mesology; poikology. e com or ph n. [Gr. oikos, house; m orphe, form] A growth form caused by a special environment; infraspecific variation. e com or ph ic a. e conom ic de n sit y The number of individuals per unit of habitat space; also called specific density. e copa r a sit e see e cosit e e coph e ne n. [Gr. oikos, house; phainein, to appear] The range of phenotypes produced by one genotype within the limits of the habitat under which it is found in nature. e coph e not ype n. [Gr. oikos, house; phainein, to appear; t ypos, type] A nongenetic modification of the phenotype by specific ecological conditions, esp. habitat variation. e coph e not ypic a. e cosit e n. [Gr. oikos, house; sit os, food] A microparasite to which its host is immune under normal conditions; eco-

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parasite. e cospe cie s n. [Gr. oikos, house; L. species, kind] A group of populations in an ecological niche that are among themselves, and with other ecospecies, capable of interbreeding without loss of fertility or vigor in the offspring; an ecotype. e cosyst e m n. [Gr. oikos, house; syst em a, an ordered arrangement of things] Any entity or natural unit that includes living and non-living parts interacting to produce a stable system in which the exchange of materials between the living and non-living parts follows circular paths; the biotic community and its habitat. e cot on e n. [Gr. oikos, house; t onos, stretch, brace] A transition area between two adjacent ecological communities or biomes; usually containing many organisms from both, as well as some characteristic of (sometimes restricted to) the ecotone. e cot ype n. [Gr. oikos, house; t ypos, type] A local race arising as a result of genotypical response to a particular habitat; an ecospecies. e csom a n. [Gr. ek, out of; som a, body] (PLATY: Trematoda) The telescoping posterior part of the body. e ct a d adv. [Gr. ekt os, outside; L. ad, toward] From within toward the exterior. see e n t a d. e ct a de n ia n.pl. [Gr. ekt os, outside; aden, gland] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A male accessory gland, ectodermal in origin; ectodene glands. see m e sa de n ia . e ct a l a. [Gr. ekt os, outside] Exterior; outer surface of the body or body parts. e ct a lly adv. [Gr. ekt os, outside] Near to or towards the body wall. see e n t a l. e ct obla st n. [Gr. ekt os, outside; blast os, bud] The outer wall of a cell; ectoderm; epiblast. e ct ochon e n. [Gr. ekt os, outside; chone, funnel-shaped hollow] (PORIF) A funnel-shaped chamber into which the ostia empty. e ct ococh le a t e a. [Gr. ekt os, outside; L. cochlea, spiral] (MOLL) An externally coiled shell, as in Nautiloidea.

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e ct ocom m e nsa l n. [Gr. ekt os, outside; L. cum , together; m ensa, table] A commensal symbiont that lives on the outer surface of its host. e ct ocr ine a. [Gr. ekt os, outside; krinein, to separate] Any chemical released into the environment that includes allelochemics, pheromones, foods, and respiratory gases. e ct ocyst n. [Gr. ekt os, outside; kyst is, bladder] (BRYO) The outer layer of the zooecium. e ct ode r m n. [Gr. ekt os, outside; derm a, skin] The outer embryonic layer from which the epidermis of the body wall and nerve tissue are derived. e ct ode r m a l a. see choa node r m . e ct ogn a t hou s con dit ion Mouthparts external to the head, not enclosed; ectotrophous. see e n t ogn a t hou s con dit ion. e ct ohor m on e s see phe r om one e ct ole cit ha l a. [Gr. ekt os, outside; lekit hos, yolk of an egg] (PLATY: Turbellaria) Having cleavage modified by a special condition whereby yolk is stored in separate cells surrounding the oocytes as opposed to entolecithal as seen in other animal phyla whose eggs contain yolk. e ct om e r e n. [Gr. ekt os, outside; m eros, part] A blastomere forming the ectoderm. e ct om e se nch ym e n. [Gr. ekt os, outside; m esos, middle; chym a, anything poured] 1. A structure with organized cells that functions in epithelial interfaces, muscular sheets, and neuroid networks. 2. (PORIF) All components except for the flagellated cells. e ct om e sode r m n. [Gr. ekt os, outside; m esos, middle; derm a, skin] Mesoderm derived chiefly from the ectoderm during early embryology of animals; forming mesenchyme predominently in Porifera, Ctenophora and in certain mollusks and annelids. e ct one u r a l a. [Gr. ekt os, outside; neuron, nerve] (ECHINOD) Pertaining to the oral part of the nervous system (sensory and motor). e ct ooe cium n. [Gr. ekt os, outside; oikos, house] (BRYO) The outer layer of the oecial wall; usually calcified.

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e ct opa r a sit e n. [Gr. ekt os, outside; para, beside; sit os, food] A parasite feeding on a host from the exterior. e ct opa r a sit ic a. e ct oph a gou s a. [Gr. ekt os, outside; phagein, to eat] Feeding externally. e ct oph a llus n. [Gr. ekt os, outside; phallos, penis] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The outer phalic wall. see e n dopha llu s. e ct opic a. [Gr. ek, out of; t opos, place] 1. Occurring in an abnormal place. 2. A parasite in an organ in which it does not normally live. see e n t opic. e ct opla sm n. [Gr. ekt os, outside; plasm a, to form or mold] An external or cortical layer of protoplasm in a cell. see e n dopla sm . e ct opr oct n. [Gr. ekt os, outside; prokt os, anus] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In certain Neuroptera, a plate of the anal segment, including the fused anoprocess, cerci and catoprocess. Ect opr oct a , e ct opr oct s see Br yozoa e ct opt ygm a see se r osa e ct osom a l spicu le (PORIF) A spicule occurring in the ectosomal region. e ct osom e n. [Gr. ekt os, outside; som a, body] (PORIF) The outer region that consists of dermal membrane and subdermal spaces, but is not supported by any special skeleton; pinacoderm. e ct ospe r m a le ge n. [Gr. ekt os, outside; sperm a, seed; legein, to gather] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In females, one to two cuticular pouches, variable in position, functioning for the reception of the male clasper and penis. see Riba ga 's or ga n . e ct ost r a cum n. [Gr. ekt os, outside; ost rakon, shell] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) 1. In acarology, the outermost layer of the chitonostracum layer that when sclerotized is normally colored; stains with acid dyes. see ch it onost r a cum . 2. The middle layer of integument of arachnids. e ct osym bion (t) n. [Gr. ekt os, outside; sym biosis, life together; on, being] A symbiont that lives on or among its hosts. see e n dosym bion t .

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e ct ot he r m a l n. [Gr. ekt os, outside; t herm e, heat] The body temperature is determined by that of the environment; poikilothermal. e ct ot r ophou s see e ct ogn a t h ou s con dit ion e ct ozoon n. [Gr. ekt os, outside; zoon, animal] An ectoparasite. e cum e nica l a. [Gr. oikoum enikos, world-wide] World-wide in extent; cosmopolitan. see pa nde m ic. e da ph ic a. [Gr. edaphos, soil] Relating to, or belonging to the soil or substratum. e da ph ic fa ct or s The influence of soil properties on organisms. e da phon n. [Gr. edaphos, soil] Soil flora and fauna. see ge obios. e de a gu s see a e de a gu s e de n t a t e a. [L. ex, without; dens, tooth] Being devoid of teeth or folds. e de n t u lou s a. e dge e ffe ct The tendency to have greater variety and density of organisms in the boundary zone between communities. e dit um n. [L. edit us, high, lofty] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In male Lepidoptera, a small, rounded, hairy prominence arising from the harpe. e doe a gu s see a e de a gu s e ffe ct or a. [L. efficere, to execute] A structure specialized for the activation of a particular form of response, i.e., movement or secretion. e ffe r e n t a. [L. ex, out of; ferre, to carry] Conducting or carried outward; discharging. see a ffe r e n t . e ffe r e n t ch a n ne ls (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Passageways through which water moves away from gills and out of the branchial region. e ffe r e n t ne r ve A nerve that conducts from a nerve center toward the periphery; the axon of a motor neuron that conducts impulses to the effectors. e ffe t e a. [L. effet us, exhausted] No longer capable of fertility; barren.

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e ffluvium n.; pl. -via [L. ex, out of; fluere, to flow] A noxious smell or invisible emanation. e ffu se a. [L. ex, out of; fluere, to flow] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Pertaining to the condition of the shell aperture when the margin is interrupted by a short spout for a siphonal outlet. e fle ct e d a. [L. ex, out of; flect ere, to bend] Bent outward somewhat angularly. e ge st v.t. [L. egest us, discharged] To eliminate solid material from a cell or from the enteron. e ge st a n.pl. [L. egest us, discharged] The total amount of substances and fluids discharged from the body. e gg- bu r st e r (ARTHRO: Insecta) Various cuticular structures that aid in hatching by rupturing the egg membranes; egg tooth; hatching spine; ruptor ovi; hatching tooth. e gg- ca lyx (ARTHRO: Insecta) The dilation of the oviduct at the opening of the ovarian tubes. e gg- ca p A cap, or operculum joined to the body of an egg along a line of weakness that facilitates hatching. e gg- ca se The case or covering of an egg or egg-mass. e gg fu nn e l see fe m a le fu n n e ls e gg gu ide ( ARTHRO: Insecta) A median caudal process of the subgenital plate. e gg- m e m br a n e Internal egg envelope or lining, thin, tough, flexible and colorless. e gg- pod (ARTHRO: Insecta) Frothy secretions that form the egg-mass of grasshoppers and the gelatinous sheath of dipteran eggs. e gg- pou ch see oot he ca e gg- t oot h see e gg- bur st e r e gg- t u be see ova r ia n t u be e gg- va lve see e gg guide e j a cu la t e n. [L. ex, out of; j acere, to throw] Emitted seminal fluid; ejected fluid from the body. e j a cu la t or y bu lb (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. In Lepidoptera, the distal part of the ejaculatory duct, cephalad of the scle-

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rotized aedeagus. 2. In Diptera, a syringe-like, stronglymuscled structure, of the ejaculatory duct. e j a cu la t or y duct The terminal portion of the male sperm duct. e la br a t e a. [L. ex, out of; labrum , lip] Without a labrum. e la ph oca r is la r va (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A third protozoeal stage or postnaupliar stage, leading to the acathosoma (mysis) stage. e la st e s n.pl. [Gr. elast ikos, rebounding] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The abdominal flexion organs of the bristletail apterygote insects. e la st ic a. [Gr. elast ikos, rebounding] Capable of resuming the original shape; flexible. e la st ic m e m br a ne (MOLL) A membrane between the radular membrane and the pharyngeal epithelium, secreted by the latter and found in the part of the radula which is in use. e la t e a. [L. elat us, high] Elevated; lifted up. e la t e r n. [Gr. elat er, driver] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Collembola, the furcula or springing organ. e la t e r ifor m la r va (ARTHRO: Insecta) A slender, heavily sclerotized larva with short thoracic legs, and with few body hairs; resembles a wireworm. Ela t obr a n ch ia t a see Biva lvia Ela t oce pha la see Biva lvia e la t t ost a se n. [Gr. elat t on, smaller; st asis, position] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) A rare stase of prelarva or larva in which the mouthparts are subject to regression in that though the mouthparts are intact, they are unable to function, or the lack of chelicerae and palps, closure of the mouth, and regression of the pharynx. e la t t ost a sic a. see hypopu s. e lbow e d a nt e nna (ARTHRO: Insecta) An antenna with the first segment elongated and the remaining segments coming off the first segment in an obtuse angle; a geniculate antenna. e le ct r ot r opism , e le ct r opism n. [Gr. elekt ron, amber; t rope, turn] Movement of an organism as determined by the direction of an external electric current; galvanotropism. e le ocyt e , e la e ocyt e n. [Gr. elaion, any oil; kyt os, container]

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(ANN) Free fatty globules, yellow or transparent, inodorous or evil-smelling, in the coelom; emitted by the dorsal pores when the worm is irritated. e le u t he r or h a bdic a. [Gr. eleut heros, free; rhabdos, rod] (MOLL: Bivalvia) Pertaining to ctenidia with each filament having approximately two ciliated disks that interlock holding the filaments in position; junctions by ciliated disks. see syn a pt or ha bdic. e le u t he r ot ogon y n. [Gr. eleut heros, free; gonos, offspring] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In embryology, having the back formed without participation of the membranes. e le va t e d a. [L. elevat us, raised] High in proportion to diameter; higher than surrounding areas. e le u t he r ozoic a. [Gr. eleut heros, free; zoe, life] Free-living. e le va t or see le va t ion e lim ina t ion n. [L. elim inare, to turn out of doors] The casting out or discharging of excretory waste or foreign substances from the body. e lin gua t a n. [L. ex, out of; lingua, tongue] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Having maxillae and labium united at the base. see synist a . e lit e n. [MF. elit , to choose] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A member of a colony showing greater than average initiative and activity. e llipsoida l see e llipt ica l e llipt ica l a. [Gr. elleipsis, lack, defect] Oblong with rounded ends, oval in shape. e longa t e v. [L. elongat us, prolonged] To lengthen or stretch out. e longa t e a nt e nna (ARTHRO: Insecta) An antenna equaling the body length. e lu t e a. [L. ex, out; lut us, washed] With barely distinguishable marking. e lyt r a pl. of e lyt r on e lyt r a l ligula (ARTHRO: Insecta) In beetles, a tongue and groove joint at the midline of the elytra which meet and hold them together.

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e lyt r ifor m a. [Gr. elyt ron, sheath; L. form a, shape] Shaped like or resembling an elytron. e lyt r in n. [Gr. elyt ron, sheath; L. -ine, compound] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Coleoptera, the chitinized composition of the body surface covering. e lyt r on n.; pl. -t r a [Gr. elyt ron, sheath] 1. (ANN: Polychaeta) The numerous modified setae in the form of scales or plates. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) A thickened, leathery, or horny fore wing or wing cover of certain insects. see h e m e lyt r on . 3. Tegmen. e lyt r ophor e n. [Gr. elyt ron, sheath; phoreus, bearer] (ANN) A process on the prostomium that bears an elytron. e m a n dibu la t e a. [L. ex, out of; m andibula, jaw] Lacking well developed mandibules. e m a r gin a t e a. [L. em arginat us, notched at the apex] 1. Having a margin or apex notched or indented. 2. (MOLL) Having the margin of the outer lip notched or variously excavated. e m bolium n.; pl. -lia [Gr. em bolos, wedge] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. In the hemipteran hemeletron, the narrow costal part of a wing, separated from the rest of the corium by a suture. 2. A basal enlargement in the fore wing. e m bola r a. e m bolu s n. [Gr. em bolos, wedge] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) 1. The distal division of the palpus of some spiders. 2. The intromittent portion of the male copulatory organ, containing a portion of the ejaculatory duct of spiders. e m boly n. [Gr. em bole, anything inserted] The formation of a gastrula by the process of invagination. e m bosse d a. [ME. em bossen, to hide] Ornamented with a raised pattern. e m br yo n.; pl. e m br yos [Gr. em bryon, fetus] A young organism before emerging from the egg, or the body of the mother. e m br yoge ne sis n. [Gr. em bryon, fetus; genesis, beginning] Formation and development of an embryo from an egg; embrogeny. e m br yology n. [Gr. em bryon, fetus; logos, discourse] The

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study of the formation, early growth and development of living organisms. e m br yon ic a. [Gr. em bryon, fetus] 1. Pertaining to an embryo. 2. (MOLL: Bivalvia) Pertaining to a larval stage, as the freeswimming embryo of an oyster. e m br yon ic fission (BRYO) Division of the first embryo into secondary and tertiary embryos. see polye m br yony. e m br yon ic sh e ll (GASTRO) That part of the shell formed before hatching. e m br yophor e n. [Gr. em bryon, fetus; phoreus, bearer] 1. (ENTO) The vestibular wall anterior to the anal cone to which the stalks of the eggs and embryos are attached. 2. (PLATY: Cestoda) The protective shell covering the developing onchosphere of some tapeworms. e m e n da t ion n. [L. em endat us, corrected] In nomenclature, an intentional change of the spelling of a previously published zoological name. e m e r ge n ce n. [L. em ergere, to come up] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The act of the adult winged insect leaving the pupal case, cocoon, or the last nymphal skin. Em e r y's r ule (ARTHRO: Insecta) The dulotic ants and the parasitic ants, both temporary and permanent, that generally originate from closely related forms that serve them as hosts. e m igr a t ion n. [L. em igrare, to move out] Moving from one permanent nesting area to another. e m ine n ce n. [L. em inens, projecting] A ridge or projection on a surface. e m m e t n. [ME. em et e, ant] (ARTHRO: Insecta) An ant. e m podia l h a ir (ARTHRO: Insecta) A bristle or hair on the tarsus or tibia of scale insects. see e m podiu m . e m podiu m n.; pl. -dia [Gr. en, in; pous, foot] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A median bristle-, spine- or lobe-like process arising ventrally at the apex of the last tarsal segment, usually from the unguitractor plate. see a r olium , digit u le s. e n a m e l n. [OF. esm aillier, to coat with enamel] (MOLL: Gastropoda) The glossy substance which forms the inductura of

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the shell. e n a n t iom or ph ic a. [Gr. enant ios, opposite; m orphe, form] Alike but contraposed as a mirror image. e n a r t h r osis n. [Gr. en, in; art hron, joint] An articulation; a ball and socket joint. e n ca psu la t ion n. [Gr. en, in; L. dim. capsa, box] 1. Enclosed in a capsule or membrane. 2. An animal host surrounding and walling off internal parasites; capsules often involve blood cells, or melanin formation. e n ce ph a la a. [Gr. encephalos, brain] (MOLL) Pertaining to bearing a head and usually protected by a spiral shell. e n ce ph a lon n. [Gr. encephalos, brain] The brain. e n cr u st ing colon y (BRYO) A colony in which most individuals are attached to the substrate. e n cyst v.t. [Gr. en, in; kyst is, bladder] To form a cyst, or become enclosed within. see e x cyst . e n de m ic a. [Gr. endem os, native] 1. Confined to a given region; indigenous, native. 2. Any disease occurring at the normal or expected level. see e pide m ic, pa nde m ic. e n d- hook (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Odonata, a small hook at the inner border of the lateral lobes of the labium. e n dit e n. [Gr. endon, within] 1. The inner lobe of any limb segment. 2. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The plate borne by the coxa of the pedipalps of most spiders, that functions as a crushing jaw. 3. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The inwardly (medially) directed lobe of the precoxa, coxa, basis, or ischium. e n dit e lobe s (ARTHRO: Insecta) The lacinia and galea on the inner apical angle of the stipes. e n dobiot ic a. [Gr. endon, within; bios, life] Living in the cells or tissues of another living organism. see e x obiot ic. e n dobla st see e n dode r m e n doca r diu m n. [Gr. endon, within; kardia, heart] The membrane lining the inner surface of the heart. e n doch or ion n. [Gr. endon, within; chorion, membrane] The inner layer of the chorion of an egg shell. see e x och or ion . e n docoe le , e ndocoe l n. [Gr. endon, within; koilos, hollow]

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(CNID: Anthozoa) 1. Situated on the inner-wall (visceral side) of the coelom. 2. Part of a gastrovascular cavity between paired mesentaries. e ndocoe la r a. see e x ocoe le . e n docom m e n sa l n. [Gr. endon, within; L. cum , with; m ensa, table] A commensal symbiont that lives inside its host. e n docr a n iu m n. [Gr. endon, within; kranion, skull] The inner surface of the cranium. e n docr in e gla nds Ductless glands which produce internal hormonal secretions that are released directly into the blood or hemolymph. see e x ocr ine gla nds. e n docr inology n. [Gr. endon, within; krinein, to separate; logos, discourse] Study of endocrine glands and secretions and their various effects, e.g., molting, metamorphosis and oocyte production. e n docu t icle , e ndocu t icu la n. [Gr. endon, within; L. dim. cut is, skin] The innermost softer, elastic layer of the cuticule. e n docyclic a. [Gr. endon, within; kyklos, circle] (ECHINOD: Echinoidea] Pertaining to a test with rounded profile, peristome and periproct central at the oral and aboral poles respectively; periproct encircled by apical system of plates. e n docyst n. [Gr. endon, within; kyst is, bladder] (BRYO) A soft layer lining a zooid; used to include both epidermis and peritoneum or peritoneum alone. e n docyt osis n. [Gr. endon, within; kyt os, container] Ingestion of particulate matter or fluid by phagocytosis or pinocytosis. e n dode r m n. [Gr. endon, within; derm a, skin] 1. The innermost cell layer of the embryo forming the epithelium of the archenteron, endoblast, entoderm, and hypoblast. 2. (CNID) Layer of cells lining the gastrovascular cavity. 3. (PORIF) see pin a code r m . e n dodyoge n y n. [Gr. endon, within; dyas, two; genos, offspring] The formation of only two daughter cells surrounded by their own membrane, while still in the mother cell. see e ndopolyoge n y. e n doe nzym e s n.pl. [Gr. endon, within; en, in; zym e, yeast] Intracellular enzymes.

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e n doga m y n. [Gr. endon, within; gam os, marriage] Inbreeding; sexual reproduction in which mating partners are closely related. see e x oga m y, a u t oga m y. e n doga st r ic a. [Gr. endon, within; gast er, stomach] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Pertaining to the normal adult coiled so as to extend backward from the aperture over the extruded head-foot mass. e n doge a n a. [Gr. endon, within; gaia, the earth] 1. Interstitial soil dwellers. 2. (ANN: Oligochaeta) Earthworms dwelling within the soil. see e pige a n , h ypoge a n. e n doge n ou s a. [Gr. endon, within; genes, producing] Pertaining to development from within; internal origin. e ndoge n y n. see e x oge n ous. e n dogna t h, e n dogna t h it e n. [Gr. endon, within; gnat hos, jaw] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The endopod (inner and principal branch) of the maxilliped. e n dola bium n. [Gr. endon, within; L. labium , lip] (ARTHRO) The inner surface of the labium; the well developed hypopharynx. e n dole cit ha l see e n t ole cit h a l e n dolym ph n. [Gr. endon, within; L. lym pha, water] (MOLL: Cephalopoda) The fluid in the inner sac of the statocyst of Octopods and Vampyroteuthis ; in squid and cuttlefish, the only fluid filling the single walled statocyst sac. e n dolysis n. [Gr. endon, within; lyein, to dissolve] Dissolution of the cytoplasm of a cell. e ndom e m br a ne n. [Gr. endon, within; L. m em brana, skin] Membrane inside a cell; endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies, vesicles and other structures. e n dom e sode r m n. [Gr. endon, within; m esos, middle; derm a, skin] Mesoderm derived from the endoderm during embryology of animals. e n dom it osis n.; pl. -se s [Gr. endon, within; m it os, thread] Mitosis within the nuclear envelope without nuclear or cytoplasmic division. e n don e u r iu m n. [Gr. endon, within; neuron, nerve] Supporting fibers within a nerve.

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e n dooe cium n. [Gr. endon, within; oikos, house] (BRYO) The inner layer of the ooecial wall, usually membranous. e n dopa r a m e r e n. [Gr. endon, within; para, beside; m eros, part] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The lamina phalli of Caelifera. e n dopa r a sit e n. [Gr. endon, within; para, beside; sit os, food] A parasite that lives inside its host. e n dopa r a sit ic a. e n dopha gy n. [Gr. endon, within; phagein, to eat] The internal feeding of endoparasites. e n dopha llic ca vit y (ARTHRO: Insecta) In male Ensifera, the cavity into which the gonopore opens; for Caelifera, see spe r m a t oph or e sa c. e n dopha llu s n. [Gr. endon, within; phallos, penis] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The inner wall, sac or tube of the aedeagus, which is a continuation of the ejaculatory duct. e n dophr a gm n. [Gr. endon, within; phragm a, partition] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In some Decapoda, a wall formed by union of opposed apodemes (cephalic and thoracic) forming part of the endoskeleton; an arthrophragm. e n dophr a gm a l sk e le t on (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A complex internal structure composed of fused apodemes, providing the framework for muscle attachment. e n dophyt ic a. [Gr. endon, within; phyt on, plant] Living within the tissues of plants. e n dophyt ic oviposit ion (ARTHRO: Insecta) In certain Odonata a form of oviposition in which they insert their eggs by making slits in plants or mud. e n dopina cocyt e n. [Gr. endon, within; pinax, tablet; kyt os, container] (PORIF) Cells that form the internal epithelium lining the canals. e n dopla sm n. [Gr. endon, within; plasm a, to form or mold] The inner or central part of the cytoplasm of a cell. see e ct opla sm . e n dopla sm ic r e t icu lum A network of double membranes continuous with the cell membrane and nuclear membrane; if lined with ribosomes called rough, if unlined called smooth. e n dople u r a l r idge see ple u r a l r idge

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e n dople u r it e n. [Gr. endon, within; pleuron, side] 1. (ARTHRO) A sclerotized infolding between pleurites. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, a lateral apodeme of the endoskeleton. e n doplica see im ple x e n dopod( it e ) n. [Gr. endon, within; pous, foot] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The inner ramus of a biramous appendage; the main shaft of that appendage. see e x opodit e . e n dopolyoge ny n. [Gr. endon, within; polys, many; genos, offspring] Formation of many daughter cells, each surrounded by its own membrane, while still in the mother cell. see e ndodyoge ny. e n dopolyploid n. [Gr. endon, within; polys, many; aploos, onefold] Cells whose chromosome number has been increased by endomitosis. En dopr oct a , e ndopr oct s see En t opr oct a En dopt e r ygot a n. [Gr. endon, within; pt eron, wing] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In some classifications a division of insects with complete metamorphosis. see H olom e t a bola ; Ex opt e r ygot a . e n dopt e r ygot e n. [Gr. endon, within; pt eron, wing] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A condition of internal wing bud development, or any insect secondarily wingless but derived from such an ancestor; associated with holometabolous insects. e n dopun ct a n.; pl. -a e [Gr. endon, within; L. punct us, point] (BRACHIO) An internal cavity in the shell which does not penetrate all the way through; caeca extend into these depressions. see pse udopu n t a . e n dosiphuncle n. [Gr. endon, within; siphon, pipe] (MOLL: Cephalopoda) A tube leading from the protoconch to the siphuncle. e n dosk e le t on n. [Gr. endon, within; skelet on, dried body] A skeleton or internal supporting structure of the body or an apodeme for muscle attachment. e n dosk e le t a l a. see e x osk e le t on. e n dosm osis n. [Gr. endon, within; osm os, a pushing] Osmotic diffusion toward the inside.

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e n dosom e n. [Gr. endon, within; som a, body] (PORIF) All areas of a sponge except for the ectosomal structures. e n dospin e see pa pilla e n dost e r na l r idge (ARTHRO: Insecta) A Y-shaped furca of higher insects, formed by the two apophyses of the eusternum arising together in the midline and only separating internally. e n dost e r n it e n. [Gr. endon, within; st ernon, chest] 1. (ARTHRO) In various arthropods, an internal sclerotized ridge, plate or other process of the cephalic exoskeleton that functions for muscle and connective tissue attachment; sometimes called entosternite. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) a. In Notostraca, the mesodermal plate beneath the anterior portion of the alimentary canal. b. In certain Decapoda, a firm calcareous plate of the anterior thorax between the nerve cord and alimentary canal. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) see a pophyse s. e ndost om e n. [Gr. endon, within; st om a, mouth] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In some brachyuran Decapoda, a platelike part of the buccal frame; a palate. e n dost r a cu m n. [Gr. endon, within; ost rakon, shell] 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) For arachnids, see epiostracum. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The endocuticle. 3. (MOLL) The inner layer of a shell. e n dost yle n. [Gr. endon, within; st ylos, pillar] (MOLL) A special gland on the ctenidial axis, that produces mucus used for transport of particles to the mouth. e n dosym bion (t) n. [Gr. endon, within; symbiosis, life together; on, being] An internal symbiont. see e ct osym bion t . e n dot e r git e see phr a gm a e n dot h e ca n.; pl. -t he ca e [Gr. endon, within; t heke, case] The inner wall of a theca. e n dot h e r m a l see hom oiot he r m a l e n dot hor a x n. [Gr. endon, within; t horax, chest] Internal structure or processes of a thorax. e n dot oicha l ooe cium (BRYO) An ooecium which appears to be

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inside the distal zooid, but opens separately to the exterior. e n dot ok ia m a t r icida see m a t r icida l ha t ch in g e n dot ok y n. [Gr. endon, within; t okos, birth] A form of reproduction in which the eggs develop within the body of the mother. see e x ot ok y. e n dot ox in n. [Gr. endon, within; t oxikon, poison] A substance produced by microorganisms which is confined within the microbial cell. see e x ot ox in. e n dot r a che a n. [Gr. endon, within; t rachia, windpipe] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The inner surface or lining of the tracheal tubes. see in t im a . e n dozoic a. [Gr. endon, within; zoon, animal] Living within or passing through an animal. see e n t ozoic, e pizoic. e n dozon e n. [Gr. endon, within; zone, belt] (BRYO: Stenolaemata) The inner parts of zooids in a colony with weak walls and skeletons. e n dozooida l ooe cium (BRYO) An ooecium opening below the operculum of the parent zooid. e n dysis n. [Gr. endysis, putting on] The development of a new cuticle. see m olt . e n e r gid n. [Gr. energos, active] Nucleated cytoplasmic aggregations containing all the apparatus necessary for life. e n e r vose a. [L. ex, out of; nervus, sinew] 1. Without veins. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Lacking wing veins. e n gr a ve d a. [OF. engraver, cut] Having superficial irregular impressed lines; exsculptate. e n n om oclon e s n.pl. [Gr. ennea, nine; klon, twig] (PORIF) Megasclere spicules of the dicranoclone or sphaeroclone type. e n sa t e a. [L. ensis, sword] Ensiform; sword-shaped. e n sh e a t he d a. [Gr. en, in; A.S. sceat h, case] 1. Enclosed by or inserted as in a sheath. 2. During development, cuticle preceding the molt is retained into the next stage. e n sifor m a. [L. ensis, sword; form a, shape] Sword-shaped; two-edged and tapering toward a point. e n t a d adv. [Gr. ent os, within; L. ad, toward] Extending in-

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wardly from the exterior; internally. see e ct a d. e n t a l a. [Gr. ent os, within] Away from the body wall, toward the center of the body. see e ct a l. e n t e le ch y n.; pl. -chie s [Gr. en, in; t elos, end; echein, to hold] 1. An actuality or realization as opposed to potentiality. 2. A vital force or agent directing growth and life. e n t e r ic a. [Gr. ent eron, intestine] Pertaining to the enteron or alimentary canal. e n t e r ocoe l, e n t e r ocoe le n. [Gr. ent eron, intestine; koilos, hollow] Coelom that arises as an outpocketing of the archenteron. e n t e r ocoe lic a. e n t e r ocoe ly n. [Gr. ent eron, intestine; koilos, hollow] The process of forming the perivisceral cavity. e n t e r oic a. [Gr. ent eron, intestine] (ANN) Pertaining to the excretory system when it opens into the gut lumen. see e x oic. e n t e r on n. [Gr. ent eron, intestine] The digestive cavity of multicellular animals. e n t e r on e ph r ic a. [Gr. ent eron, intestine; nephros, kidney] (ANN: Oligochaeta) Having nephridia opening into the gut lumen. see e x on e ph r ic. e n t e r ose gm e n t a l or ga ns (ANN: Oligochaeta) In Moniligastrida, paired structures containing a bundle of glandular tubes bound together by a delicate connective tissue investment on the dorsal face of the post-gizzard gut. e n t e r ost om e n. [Gr. ent eron, intestine; st om a, mouth] (CNID) Aboral opening of the actinopharynx leading to the gastrovascular cavity. e nt e r ozoa see e n t ozoa e n t ir e a. [L. int eger, complete] 1. Without emargination; having a smooth margin. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to a wing with an unbroken margin. 3. (MOLL: Gastropoda) When the aperture margin is uninterrupted by a siphonal canal, sinus or crenulation. e n t obla st see e n dode r m e n t obr a n ch ia t e a. [Gr. ent os, within; branchia, gills] Having

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internal gills. e n t ocodon n. [Gr. ent os, within; kodon, bell] (CNID: Hydrozoa) The primordium of the subumbrella in the development of medusae from the gonophore. e n t ode r m see e n dode r m e n t ogna t hou s condit ion (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Collembola, Diplura and Protura, the mouthparts which lie in a cavity within the head. see e ct ogna t hous condit ion . e n t ole cit ha l a. [Gr. ent os, within; lekit hos, yolk of an egg] (PLATY: Turbellaria) A type of egg where the yolk is stored within the oocytes as opposed to ectolecithal; sometimes referred to as endolecithal. e n t olom a n. [Gr. ent os, within; lom a, fringe] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The inner margin of a wing. e n t om ia sis n. [Gr. ent om on, insect; -iasis, a diseased condition] A lesion in the tissues of animals caused by insects. e n t om ochor ic a. [Gr. ent om on, insect; chorein, to spread] Dispersed by insects, such as fungal spores and nematodes. e n t om ochor e , e n t om ochor y n. e n t om oge n ou s a. [Gr. ent om on, insect; genee, producing] Pertaining to micro-organisms growing in or on the bodies of insects. e n t om ogr a ph y n. [Gr. ent om on, insect; graphein, to write] The description and life history of an insect. e n t om olin see ch it in e nt om ology n. [Gr. ent om on, insect; logos, discourse] That branch of zoology dealing with insects. e n t om opa r a sit ic a. [Gr. ent om on, insect; para, beside; sit os, food] Refers to insect parasites. see e n t om oge nou s, e n t om oph ilic, e n t om oph a gou s. e n t om opha gou s a. [Gr. ent om on, insect; phagein, to eat] Insectivorous; the eating of insects or their parts. e n t om oph ilic, e n t om oph ilou s a. [Gr. ent om on, insect; philos, loving] 1. Pertaining to associations between insects and plant microorganisms, protozoa, and nematodes. 2. Being pollinated by the agency of insects.

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e n t om ophobia n. [Gr. ent om on, insect; phobos, fear] Having an abnormal fear of insects. e n t om ophyt e , e n t oph yt e n. [Gr. ent om on, insect; phyt on, plant] A fungus living on or in the body of an insect. entomophytic a. e n t om osis n. [Gr. ent om on, insect; -osis suff. denoting a condition usually morbid] An insect borne disease. En t om ost r a ca , e n t om ost r a ca n n. [Gr. ent om on, insect; ost rakon, shell] Formerly considered a single natural group of Crustacea including Brachiopoda, Ostracoda, Copepoda, Branchiura and Cirripeda which is no longer acceptable to systematists. e nt om ot a x y n. [Gr. ent om on, insect; t axis, arrangement] The art of preserving and mounting insects. e m t om ot om ist n. [Gr. ent om on, insect; t em nein, to cut] A student of entomotomy. e n t om ot om y n. [Gr. ent om on, insect; t em nein, to cut] The art of insect dissection; dealing with internal structures of insects. e n t om u r och r om e n. [Gr. ent om on, insect; ouron, urine; chrom a, color] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The color pigments of the urine of insects. e n t on e u r a l a. [Gr. ent os, within; neuron, nerve] (ECHINOD) Pertaining to the aboral ring and nerves. e n t opa r a sit e see e ndopa r a sit e e n t opic a. [Gr. en, in; t opos, place] Occurring in the normal place. see e ct opic. e n t ople ur on see ple u r a l a poph ysis e n t opr oce ssu s n. [Gr. ent os, within; L. procedere, to go forward] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Neuroptera, a pair of lateral processes of the gonarcus. En t opr oct a , e n t opr oct s n.; n.pl. [Gr. ent os, within; prokt os, anus] A small phylum of solitary or colonial animals, having a flame cell protonephridial excretory system and a looped intestine with both the mouth and anus opening within the circle of tentacles; formerly a class of Bryozoa.

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e n t osa cca l ca vit y (BRYO) That part of the body cavity containing the digestive and reproductive systems. e n t ost e r n it e see e ndost e r n it e e n t ost e r nu m n.; pl. -st e r na [Gr. ent os, within; st ernon, chest] (ARTHRO) The internal processes or system of processes of the sternum. e n t ot e r gum n. [Gr. ent os, within; L. t ergum , back] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A large V-shaped ridge of the thorax on the undersurface of the notum. e n t ot h or a x n. [Gr. ent os, within; t horax, chest] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The apodemes or processes that extend inwardly from the sternal sclerites; an apophysis. see e n dot h or a x . e n t ot r ophou s see e nt ogna t hous con dit ion En t ot r opha see a pt e r a e n t ozoa n.pl., sing. e nt ozoon [Gr. ent os, within; zoon, animal] The internal parasites collectively. e nt ozoa l a., e n t ozoa n a. & n. e n t ozoic a. [Gr. ent os, within; zoon, animal] Living within another animal; an internal parasite. see e ndozoic, e pizoic. e n u cle a t e v. [L. ex, out of; nucleus, kernel] 1. To remove an entire organ, etc. 2. To destroy or remove the nucleus of a cell. e n ve lope n. [OF. enveloper, wrap up] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A sheath surrounding the nest of a social wasp. e n vir onm e n t n. [F. environ, about] The totality of physical, chemical and biotic conditions surrounding an entire organism. e n zoot ic dise a se A disease which is constantly present in a population of lower animals, although usually at a low maintenance level. e nzym e n. [Gr. en, in; zym e, yeast] An organic catalyst produced by a living organism. Eoga e a n. [Gr. eos, dawn; gaia, earth] Seldom used zoogeographic term; including Africa, South America and Australia. see Ca e n oga e a . e opla sm a t ocyt e

n. [Gr. eos,

dawn; plasm a,

formed or

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molded; kyt os, container] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A form of plasmatocyte with conspicuous acidophilic nucleus and light basophilic cytoplasm. e opla sm a t ocyt oid a. [Gr. eos, dawn; plasm a, formed or molded; kyt os, container; eidos, like] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A form of plasmatocyte intermediate to the eoplasmatocyte and microplasmatocyte. e osinoph il a. [Gr. eos, dawn; philos, loving] A polymorphonuclear leukocyte or other granulocytes whose cytoplasm has an affinity for eosin dye. e osinoph ilia n. [Gr. eos, dawn; philos, loving] With an elevated eosinophil count in the circulating blood, resulting from chronic parasite infection or other diseases. e pa cm e n. [Gr. epi, upon; akm e, top] The evolutionary phylogeny of a group of organisms before reaching its highest point. e pa lpa t e a. [L. ex, out of; palpus, feeler] Lacking palpi; expalpate. e pa n dr iu m , e pia n dr iu m n.; pl. -dr ia [Gr. epi, upon; aner, male] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In male Diptera, the tergite of the 9th segment, maybe reduced or enlarged, sometimes bearing surstyli. e pa u le t , e pa u le t t n.; pl. e pa ule t s, e pa u le t t e s [F. dim. epaule, shoulder] 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. In Diptera, sclerites at the base of the costa. b. In Hymenoptera, the tegula. c. In Lepidoptera, the sclerotized separation of the tympanum from the membranous dorsoposterior portion of the epimeron, variable in shape between species; the nodular sclerite. 2. (CNID: Scyphozoa) Branched or knobbed processes of the oral arms. 3. (ECHINOD: Echinoidea) Crescentic ridges of cilia of the sea urchin nymph. 4. (NEMATA) A specialized shield-shaped band of cephalic cuticle, not to be confused with cordons. e pe da ph ic a. [Gr. epi, upon; edaphos, soil] Pertaining to, or dependent upon climatic conditions. e pha r m on ic a. [Gr. epi, upon; harm onia, a fitting together] Pertaining to the adaptation of an organism or species to its environment. e pha r m on y n.

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e pha r m osis n. [Gr. epi, upon; harm onia, a fitting together] The method of adaptation of organisms to a new environment. e ph e bic a. [Gr. epi, upon; hebe, puberty] 1. Mature. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The adult; between the neanic and gerontic stage; the winged adult stage. 3. (BRYO) Zooids laid down during the phase of astogenic repetition. e ph e m e r a l n. [Gr. ephem eros, living only a day] A short-lived animal species, especially insects. e ph ippium n.; pl. ephippia [L. ephippium , saddle] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Exuvia of some female cladocerans with one to several eggs enclosed, capable of withstanding dessication; a vehicle of dispersal. e ph ippia l a. e phyr a n.; pl. e ph yr e , e ph yr a e , e phyr u la [Gr. Ephyra, name of a sea nymph] (CNID: Scyphozoa) A small free-swimming medusa arising by asexual division (transverse fission) of a strobila; a monodisk. e pia n dr ous gla nds (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) A group of glands found in most male spiders that add to the sperm web a small white mat on which the drop of sperm is deposited. e pibe n t hos n. [Gr. epi, upon; bent hos, depth of the sea] The fauna of the sea bottom between low tide line and 100 fathoms. e pibion t see e picole e pibiot ic a. [Gr. epibionai, to survive] 1. Endemic species that are relicts of former fauna. 2. Growing on the surface of other animals. see h ypobiot ic. e pibla st n. [Gr. epi, upon; blast os, bud] Ectoderm, the outer germ layer in early embryos; ectoblast. e piboly, e pibole n. [Gr. epibole, placing upon] The growth of one structure around another during embryonic development. e pibolic a. e pibr a n ch ia l lobe or a r e a (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, the anterior part of the branchial region of the carapace. e pibr a n ch ia l spa ce (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, that part of the gill chamber above or external to the gills. e pica r idum , e pica r idiu m n. [Gr. epi, upon; kardis, shrimp]

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(ARTHRO: Crustacea) The first larval stage of a parasitic epicaridean; a microniscus. e picn e m is n. [Gr. epi, upon; knem e, leg] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) A tibial accessory joint of arachnids. e picn e m ium see pr e pe ct u s e picole n. [Gr. epi, upon; L. colere, to inhabit] An animal that lives on the surface of another animal and neither harms nor helps that animal. e picon dyle n. [Gr. epi, upon; kondylos, knuckle] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The cephalic or dorsal swelling of the proximal end of the mandible, articulating with a socket in the gena or postgena. e picr a n ia l pla t e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In larval forms, a plate-like structure forming the epicranium e picr a n ia l st e m (ARTHRO: Insecta) The coronal suture. e picr a n ia l su t u r e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In larval forms, the dorsal Y-shaped line of the cranium normally associated with molts, but may persist in adults and form a true sulcus; ecdysial cleavage line. e picr a n ium n. [Gr. epi, upon; kranion, skull] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The upper part of of the head, from the face to the neck; the calva. e picr a n ia l a. e picu t icle , e picu t icu la n. [Gr. epi, upon; L. dim. cut is, skin] 1. (ACANTHO) See glycoca lyx . 2. (ARTHRO) The thin, outermost nonchitinous exterior layer of arthropod cuticle. 3. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) For mites see e piost r a cum . e pide m ic n. [Gr. epi, upon; dem os, the people] 1. A rapidly spreading attack of disease in a population. 2. A disease level higher than expected for a designated area. see e n de m ic. e pide m iology n. [Gr. epi, upon; dem os, the people; logos, discourse] A science that deals with all ecological aspects of disease including transmission, distribution, prevalence, and incidence. e pide r m a n [Gr. epi, upon; derm a, skin] An abnormal outgrowth of the skin. e pide r m is n. [Gr. epi, upon; derm a, skin] 1. The cellular layer

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of the body wall that secretes the cuticle; the hypodermis. 2. (BRYO) Secretes cuticle and calcium carbonate of the skeleton. 3. (MOLL) The periostracum. e pide r m a l a. e pididym is n. [Gr. epi, upon; didym os, testicle] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The coiled part of the vas deferens. e pifa un a n. [Gr. epi, upon; L. Faunas, deity of herds and fields] Any animal living on the surface deposits of the ocean. see in fa u na . e pifr ont a l fold (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) In Umbonulidae, a fold of the exterior body wall and body cavity arching over the frontal wall. e piga e n see e pige a n e piga m ic a. [Gr. epi, upon; gam os, marriage] Serving to attract individuals of the opposite sex during courtship; the colors displayed during courtship. e piga st r ic fu r r ow (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) A transverse ventral suture near the anterior end of the abdomen of spiders, along which lie the opening of the book lungs and in the middle the reproductive organs. e piga st r ic lobe or a r e a (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, the anterior extension of the gastric region of the carapace. e piga st r ium n. [Gr. epi, upon; gast er, stomach] 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In spiders, the ventral portion of the opisthosoma. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The ventral side of the mesoand metathorax. e pige a n , e piga e n a. [Gr. epi, upon; gaia, earth] Living at or above the soil surface; epigeic; epigenous. see e n doge a n, hypoge a n . e pige n e sis n. [Gr. epi, upon; genesis, beginning] The theory that morphological complexity develops gradually from an essentially formless egg during embryology; during the 18th and 19th century debates, epigenesis represented the theory that complexity must be directed by a vital force from outside the system for normal development. e pige n e t ics n. [Gr. epi, upon; genesis, beginning] That branch of biology that deals with the causal analysis of development.

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e pige n ot ype n. [Gr. epi, upon; genesis, beginning; L. t ypus, type] The chain of interactions among genes resulting in the phenotype; the developmental system. e piglossa see e piph a r yn x e piglot t is n. [Gr. epi, upon; glot t is, mouth of the windpipe] 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The epipharynx. 2. (BRYO) The epistome. e pigyn ia l pla t e see e pigyn um e pigyn um , e pigynium n.; pl. -yna [Gr. epi, upon; gyne, woman] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) 1. A sclerotized structure of certain female spiders and mites, variable in form, covering the genital opening. 2. In mites also referred to as epigynial plate or genital plate. e pila br um n.; pl. -la br a [Gr. epi, upon; L. labrum , lip] (ARTHRO) In Myriapoda, a sclerite on each side of the labrum. e pilim n ion n. [Gr. epi, upon; lim ne, lake] The upper layer of water found in deep lakes. see t h e r m oclin e a n d h ypolim n ion . e pilobe n. [Gr. epi, upon; L. lobus, a rounded projection] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A lateral appendage of the mentum of ground beetles. e pilobou s a. [Gr. epi, upon; L. lobus, a rounded projection] (ANN: Oligochaeta) A prostomium that is continued by a tongue into the peristomium but without reaching the division between segments 1 and 2. e pim e ge t ic a. [Gr. epi, upon; m egas, large] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Being the largest in a series of polymorphic forms. e pim e r a pl. e pim e r on e pim e r a l fold (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, the folded endopleurites connected to the branchiostegite that forms the branchial chamber. e pim e r a l pa r a pt e r um (ARTHRO: Insecta) The posterior basalar sclerite between the pleural wing process and the epimeron of the wing bearing segment. e pim e r a l su t u r e (ARTHRO: Insecta) The caudal portion of the sternopleural suture.

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e pim e r e n. [Gr. epi, upon; m eros, part] 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A dorsolateral, flat overhanging keel on the somites which may form a carapace, flattened shield or clam-shell valves. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Lepidoptera, a dorsal process of the phallobase. e pim e r on n.; pl. -r a [Gr. epi, upon; m eros, part] 1. (ARTHRO) In Arachnida and Diplopoda, a ventral plate to which the basal segment of the leg is attached; a coxal plate. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) See e pim e r e . 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) That portion of a thoracic pleuron posterior to the pleural suture; for Diptera, see m e se pim e r on . e pim or phosis n. [Gr. epi, upon; m orphosis, form] 1. With the same form in successive stages of growth. see a n a m or ph osis, m e t a m or phosis. 2. Larval forms which are suppressed or passed before hatching, emerging as the adult body form. 3. (ANN: Oligochaeta) A type of regeneration that results in the addition of new tissues and/or parts at the level of amputation. e pim or ph ic a., e pim or pha n. e pin e u r a l ca n a l (ECHINOD) A canal or sinus between each radial nerve and the epidermis. e pin e u r a l sin u s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In embryology, the development of primary body cavity between the upper surface of the embryo and the yolk. e pin e u r ium n. [Gr. epi, upon; neuron, nerve] 1. Outermost connective tissue sheath on the nerve. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The fibrous connecting tissue that invests a nerve ganglion. e pinot a l spin e s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Formicoidea, the spines on the first abdominal segment that protect the pedicel. e pinot um n. [Gr. epi, upon; not os, back] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Formicoidea, the thoracic dorsum posterior to the mesonotum, consisting of the metanotum and propodeum. see pr opode um . e piopt icon see m e du lla e piost r a cum n. [Gr. epi, upon; ost rakon, shell] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) 1. A thin elastic, colorless layer of the cuticle of arachnids which overlies the ectostracum layer; further divided into two layers: inner, dense and proteinaceous, and

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outer, cuticulin. 2. The upper layer of cuticle of arachnids. e pipe la gic a. [Gr. epi, upon; pelagos, sea] Pertaining to suspended organisms inhabiting an aquatic environment between the surface and a depth of 200 m. see m e sope la gic, ba t hype la gic. e piph a llu s n. [Gr. epi, upon; phallos, penis] 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. In male Orthoptera, a plate on top of the genital complex. b. In male Dictyoptera, a pair of valves dorsad of the phallus. 2. (MOLL: Gastropoda) A very muscular part of the sperm duct proximal to the penis sheath which participates in the formation of spermatophores. e piph a r ynge a l w a ll (ARTHRO: Insecta) The inner surfaces of the labrum and clypeal regions of the head. e piph a r ynx n. [Gr. epi, upon; pharynx, throat] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A small medium lobe on the interior surface of the labrum or clypeus. e piph a r yn ge a l a. e piph r a gm n. [Gr. epi, upon; phragm a, partition] (MOLL: Gastropoda) In land snails, a sheet of dried mucus across the aperture preventing loss of moisture during aestivation or hibernation. e piph ysis n.; pl. -se s [Gr. epi, upon; phyein, cause to grow] 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Lepidoptera, a lamellate spur or process on the inner surface of the fore tibia bearing a dense brushlike array of setae. 2. (ECHINOD: Echinoidea) One of 5 small peripheral bars in Aristotle's lantern. e piple u r a n.; pl. -r a e [Gr. epi, upon; pleura, side] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Coleoptera, the infolded lateral edge of the elytra. e piple u r a l scle r it e s (ARTHRO: Insecta) One or two small sclerites in the membranous area between the thoracic pleura and the wing bases that are important to wing movement due to muscle attachment. e piple u r um n. [Gr. epi, upon; pleuron, side] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. Among coleopterous larvae the lateral area above the ventrolateral suture and below the dorsolateral suture. 2. In ichneumonid Hymenoptera, the thin margin of the second and following abdominal segments. e piploon see ca u l

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e pipodia l pla t e (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Ostracoda, a setaceous respiratory plate on the maxilla or the fifth limb. e pipod(ite) n. [Gr. epi, upon; pous, foot] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A laterally directed exite of the protopod, usually branchial in function; a laterally directed ramus of the coxa; gill separator. see e x it e . e pipodiu m n.; pl. -dia [Gr. epi, upon; pous, foot] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Lateral grooves between foot and mantle, with tentacles and integumentary sensory organs, usually flat. e pipr oct n. [Gr. epi, upon; prokt os, anus] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A process or appendage situated above the anus; the dorsal part of the eleventh abdominal segment. see sur a na l pla t e . e pipr osom a n. [Gr. epi, upon; pro, before; som a, body] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, a body division consisting of gnathosoma and aspidosoma. e pipt ygm a n.; pl. -m a t a [Gr. epipt ygm a, overflap] (NEMATA) Anterior and posterior cuticular flaps associated with the vulval opening of some female nematodes. see hypopt ygm a . e pipygiu m n. [Gr. epi, upon; pyge, rump] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A dorsal arch in the last abdominal segment. e pir r hysa n.pl., sing. -su m [Gr. epirrheein, to flow into] (PORIF) The inhalent canals. see pr osoch e t e , a por r h ysa . e pise m a t ic a. [Gr. epi, upon; sem a, sign] A term used to designate distinctive markings which serve as a recognition signal. see pse ude pise m a t ic color ; se m a t ic. e pisit e n. [Gr. epi, upon; sit os, food] A predator able to complete its life cycle by devouring a succession of victims. e pist a sis n. [Gr. epi, upon; st asis, a standing] When one gene interferes with the phenotypic expression of another nonallelic gene (or genes), producing a phenotype determined by the former and not by the latter when both genes occur together in the genotype. e pist e r na l la t e r a l see pr e - e pist e r n u m e pist e r na l pa r a pt e r a (ARTHRO: Insecta) One or two anterior basalar sclerites in front of the pleural process in the mem-

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brane at the base of the wings; indistinctly separated from the episternum. e pist e r n a l su t u r e (ARTHRO: Insecta) The anterior part of the sternopleural suture. e pist e r n um n.; pl. e pist e r na [Gr. epi, upon; st ernon, chest] 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, the posterolateral projection of various sterna. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The area of a thoracic pleuron anterior to the pleural suture. e pist e r na l a. e pist om a see e pist om e e pist om a l r idge (ARTHRO: Insecta) The cranial inflection of the epistomal sulcus. e pist om a l su lcu s or su t u r e (ARTHRO: Insecta) The groove situated between the frons and clypeus that unites with the anterior ends of the subgenal sulcus extending to the anterior tentorial pits. e pist om e , e pist om a , e pist om is, e pist om um n. [Gr. epi, upon; st om a, mouth] 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) See t ect um , cervix. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In brachyuran Decapoda, a plate of varying shape between the labrum and bases of the antennae; sternum of antennal somite. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. In Diptera, the oral margin; that part of the face above the mouth. b. In Odonata, the clypeus. c. In certain Coleoptera, the reduced frontoclypeal region. see pe r ist om e . 4. (BRYO: Phylactolaemata) A small, movable lip-like lobe of tissue and coelom overhanging the mouth. e pit he ca n. [Gr. epi, upon; t heke, case] (CNID) The external layer surrounding the theca in many corals. e pit he lia l la ye r 1. Any layer of cells, one surface of which is lining a tube or cavity. 2. (BRYO) A single layer of cells of two types: secretory cells and fat storage cells. e pit he lia l syn cyt iu m Multinucleated epithelial cells. e pit he lia l t issu e s Surface tissues in which the cells form regular layers, containing very little intercellular material. e pit he liom u scu la r a. [Gr. epi, upon; t hele, nipple; L. musculosus, fleshy] (CNID) Pertaining to epithelium with a longitudinal contractile fiber at the base; myoepithelial.

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e pit he lium n., pl. -lum s, -lia [Gr. epi, upon; t hele, nipple] An epithelial tissue, covering an external or internal surface. e pit he lia l a. e pit ok e n. [Gr. epi, upon; t okos, birth] (ANN: Polychaeta) The posterior sexual portion of certain marine worms. see a t ok e . e pit ok y n. [Gr. epi, upon; t okos, birth] (ANN: Polychaeta) Reproduction of certain dimorphic swarming worms in which structural modifications such as enlarged eyes, nonfunctional gut and modification of parapodia for swimming occur; also called hetero-forms: heteronereis, heterosyllid. see h e t e r on e r e id. e pit or m a n.; pl. -m a e [Gr. epi, upon; t orm os, socket] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In scarabaeoid larvae, a rod extending from the inner end of the laeotorma. a. Epitorma anterior, when directed toward the apex of the epipharynx. b. Epitorma posterior when directed in the opposite direction. e pizoic a. [Gr. epi, upon; zoon, animal] Pertaining to an organism living on, or attached to the body of another animal. see e n dozoic. e pizoicide n. [Gr. epi, upon; zoon, animal; L. caedere, to kill] An agent that destroys epizoa. e pizoon n.; pl. e pizoa [Gr. epi, upon; zoon, animal] An animal parasite living upon the exterior of the body of the host; an external parasite. e pizoot ic a. [Gr. epi, upon; zoon, animal] An outbreak of disease in animals in which there is an unusually large number of cases; identical to an epidemic in humans. e pizoot iology n. [Gr. epi, upon; zoon, animal; logos, discourse] The field concerned with the study of diseases of animals involved in an epizootic outbreak. e pizyga l n. [Gr. epi, upon; zygon, yolk] (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) The distal member of a syzygial pair of brachials. see h ypozyga l. e pizygia l a. e pizygu m n.; pl. e pizyga [Gr. epi, upon; zygon, yolk] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In certain beetle larvae, an elongate plate or bar extending from the zygum toward the clithrum on the right of the epipharynx, or embodied in the tylus; may

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be present when clithrum is absent. e poch n. [Gr. epoche, stop] Subdivision of a period or division in geologic time. e pom ia n.; pl. -a e [Gr. epom idios, on the shoulder] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. The margin of the propleural furrow in which the front femur is inserted. 2. In ichneumonid Hymenoptera, a carina on the side of the pronotum, obliquely crossing the trough in the side of the pronotum. e pupilla t e a. [L. ex, out of; pupilla, pupil of eye] Without a pupil or color spot; pertaining to ocellate spots. e qua l w e igh t ing Treating all taxonomic characters as equally important. e qua t or ia l pla t e Plane where chromosomes gather during metaphase of mitosis or meiosis. e qu idist a nt a. [L. aequus, uniform; dist ant ia, remoteness] Equally spaced from any two or more points. e qu ila t e r a l sh e ll (MOLL: Bivalvia) With the shell parts equal or almost equal anterior and posterior to the beak. e qu ilibr a t in g a. [L. aequus, uniform; libra, balance] Balancing equally. e qu im e r ic a. [L. aequus, uniform; Gr. m eros, part] (ANN: Oligochaeta) Pertaining to regenerates having the same number of segments as had been amputated. equimery n. e qu ipe da l a. [L. aequus, uniform; pes, foot] Possessing pairs of equal feet. e qu ipot e n t a. [L. aequus, uniform; pot ens, powerful] Differing cell parts or organs capable of performing like functions. e qu iva lve a. [L. aequus, uniform; valva, leaf of a folding door] (MOLL: Bivalvia) When two valves (shells) are the same shape and of equal size. e r a n. [L. aera, epoch] A division of geologic time, such as Palaeozoic, etc.; divided into periods. e r a dia t e v. [L. ex, out of; radiat us, rayed] To shoot forth as rays of light; to radiate. e r e ct opa t e n t a. [L. erect us, upright; pat ens, open] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to having the fore wings erect and the

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hind wings partially spread during resting. e r e ism a n. [Gr. ereism a, prop] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The furcula in Sminthurus which has a fanlike structure. e r e m obic a. [Gr. erem os, solitary; bios, life] Living a solitary existence. e r e m ocha e t ou s a. [Gr. erem os, solitary; chait e, mane] Lacking the normal arrangement of bristles. e r e m ology n. [Gr. erem ia, desert; logos, discourse] A science concerned with the desert and its phenomena. e r e m oph ilou s a. [Gr. erem ia, desert; philos, loving] Desert loving; pertaining to animals that live in deserts or arid regions. e r e m osym bion t n. [Gr. erem os, solitary; syn, together; bios, life] A species living in an ant nest for protection, not taking or contributing anything. e r ga st ic a. [Gr. ergast ikos, fit for working] Pertaining to the integration or union of parts during evolution. see m e t a pla sm . e r ga st opla sm n. [Gr. ergaest hai, working; plasm a, form or mold] 1. Granular endoplasmic reticulum. 2. A former conception of cytoplasm, the fibrillar or flocculent masses found in many gland cells and elsewhere. e r ga t a n dr om or ph n. [Gr. ergat es, worker; aner, man; m orphe, form] (ARTHRO: Insecta) An abnormal ant possessing the worker characteristics, combined with qualities of the male. see e r ga t ogyna n dr om or ph . e r ga t a n e r see e r ga t om or ph ic m a le e r ga t e n. [Gr. ergat es, worker] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A type of worker ant. e r ga t ogyna n dr om or ph n. [Gr. ergat es, worker; gyne, female; andros, male; m orphe, form] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A mosaic form of ant possessing qualities of male and worker. see e r ga t a ndr om or ph . e r ga t ogyne n. [Gr. ergat es, worker; gyne, female] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A form intermediate between the worker and queen.

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e r ga t oid m a le see e r ga t om or phic m a le e r ga t oid r e pr odu ct ive or e r ga t oid (ARTHRO: Insecta) Supplementary reproductive termite, usually larval in appearance with a distinctive rounded head; tertiary reproductive; apterous neote(i)nic. e r ga t om or ph ic m a le (ARTHRO: Insecta) A social insect with normal male genitalia and a worker-like body; an ergatoid male; an ergataner. e r ga t ot e lic t ype (ARTHRO: Insecta) A group of social insects, including the honey-bees in which the queen manifests only secondary instincts, while the workers retain the primary instincts. see gyna e cot e lic t ype . e r gon om ics n. [Gr. ergon, work; nom os, law] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The quantitative study of the distribution of work performance and efficiency of social insects. e r ice t icolou s a. [Gr. erike, heath; L. colere, to inhabit] Inhabiting a heath or similar environment. e r ich t h u s la r va (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Hoplocardia, a megalopa type larva of mantis shrimp in the families Lysiosquillidae and Gonodactylidae. e r osion n. [L. erosus; eaten away] 1. Wearing away of soil because of wind, water, or gravitational action. 2. (MOLL: Gastropoda) The disintergration of the apex of the shell. e r r a n t ia n. [L. errere, to wander] 1. Mobile organisms. 2. (ANN: Polychaeta) Sometimes used as a taxonomic group. e r u ca n.; pl. erucae [L. eruca, caterpillar] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A caterpillar or other insect larva similar in appearance. e r u cifor m a. [L. eruca, caterpillar; form a, shape] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Having a body shaped like a caterpillar: cylindrical body, well developed head, thoracic legs, and abdominal prolegs. see polypod la r va . e r u cifor m la r va (ARTHRO: Insecta) The larval instar of certain Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera, caterpillar-like larva with a well-developed head capsule, true legs and often abdominal prolegs. e r u cism n. [L. eruca, caterpillar; -ismus, denoting condition] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Poisoning or rash caused by caterpillars

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or pupae. see le pidopt e r ism , pa r a e r u cism , m e t a e r u cism , cr ypt ot ox ic, pha n e r ot ox ic. e r u civor ous a. [L. eruca, caterpillar; vorare, to devour] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The eating of or on caterpillars. e r u ct a t ion n. [L. ex, out of; ruct are, to belch] The emitting of contents from the intestine via the mouth. e r u pt ive ce ll see sphe r ule ce ll e r yon e icus la r va (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Eryonoidea, a larval stage with almost spherical carapace with many spines and abdomen shorter than carapace. e x plor a t or y t r a il (ARTHRO: Insecta) An odor trail laid by advance workers of a foraging group of social insects. e x plosive ce ll see sph e r u le ce ll e x plosive e volu t ion a n d spe cia t ion Rapid formation of numerous types from a single or a few types. e x scu lpt a t e a. [L. ex, out of; sculpere, to carve] Having more or less irregular longitudinal lines with grooves between. e x scu t e lla t e see e scut e lla t e e x se r t e d a. [L. exsert us, projecting] Protruding or projecting from the body. e x se r t ile a. [L. exsert us, projecting] Capable of being exerted or extruded. e x she a t h v. [L. ex, out of; A.S. sceat h, case] To escape from the residual membrane (egg shell) of a previous developmental stage. e x su le s n. [L. exule, exile] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In apterous Adelges on the secondary host, give rise parthenogenetically to the neosistens form. e x t e n d v. [L. ex, out of; t endere, to stretch] To spread or stretch out. e x t e n sile a. [L. ex, out of; t endere, to stretch] Capable of being extended, stretched or spread. e x t e n sion pla t e see un gu it r a ct or pla t e e x t e n sion sole (ARTHRO: Insecta) The pad-like pulvillus. e x t e n sor m u scle see u n gu it r a ct or

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e x t e n so- t e n don see un gu it r a ct or t e ndon e x t e n u a t e v. [L. ex, out of; t enuis, thin] To make or become thin or slender; to diminish. e x t e r ior a. [L. ext erus, out] Situated away from the central axis; outward; outside. Gymnolaemata) In e x t e r ior sk e le t a l w a ll (BRYO: Cheilostomata, a skeletal wall which calcifies against the cuticle; the membrane forming this wall expands the coelomic volume of the colony. e x t e r ior w a ll (BRYO) Body wall that increases the size of the zooid body and colony. e x t e r n a l a. [L. ext erus, outside] Outward; that part away from the center of the body. e x t e r n a l bu t t r e ss see bu t t r e ss e x t e r n a l cor t ica l la ye r (NEMATA) The outermost stratum of the cuticle, comprised of a dense outer area, an inner less dense area, and a thinner area. e x t e r n a l e x ocu t icle (NEMATA) In derived forms, a subdivison of the exocuticle. e x t e r n a l ge n it a lia The organs involved with sexual mating and the deposition of eggs. e x t e r n a l m e du lla r y m a ss see m e du lla e x t e r n a l m u scle (BRYO) A muscle extending from a body wall across the body cavity, to the lophophore or to the gut. e x t e r n a l pa r a m e r e s (ARTHRO: Insecta) All male external genital appendages. e x t e r n a l pa r a sit e An ectoparasite. e x t e r n a l r e spir a t ion The process of gaseous exchange between an organism and its environment. e x t e r n a l se cr e t ion Any secretion to the outside of the body or into the cavity of the enteron. e x t e r n a l st a t ocyst s (ARTHRO: Insecta) Special hair structures for the retention of the air supply that are adapted to underwater life. e x t e r n a l t h ick e n ing see but t r e ss

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e x t e r n om e dia l ve in (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. In Hymenoptera, the radius. 2. In Orthoptera, the media. e x t e r n om e dia n n e r ve (ARTHRO: Insecta) The humeral and discoidal veins collectively. e x t e r oce pt or s n.pl. [L. ext erus, outside; capere, to take] Sense organs situated externally which respond to conditions in the external environment, as opposed to interoceptors. e x t oge n ous see e x oge n ous e x t r a - a x ia l sk e le t on (PORIF) Skeletal elements that surround or arise from an axial region. e x t r a ce llu la r a. [L. ext ra, outside; cellula, little cell] Pertains to being outside of the cell but within the organism. e x t r a ce llu la r dige st ion Digestion of food within a cavity of the digestive system. e x t r a con ic a. [L. ext ra, outside; Gr. konos, cone] Almost conical, but with concave sides. see coe locon oid. e x t r a cor por e a l a. [L. ext ra, outside; corpus, body] Occurring outside of the body. e x t r a cor por e a l dige st ion A mode of feeding whereby some parasites and predators release esophageal or salivary secretions into the host or prey that predigests the internal contents of the host or prey. e x t r a dos n. [L. ext ra, outside; F. dos, the back] The exterior curve of an arch. see int r a dos. e x t r a e m br yon ic a. [L. ext ra, outside; Gr. em bryon, fetus] Outside the body of the embryo. e x t r a e m br yon ic fie ld see se r osa e x t r a e n t e r ic a. [L. ext ra, outside; Gr. ent eron, intestine] Outside the enteron. e x t r a n ida l a. [L. ext ra, outside; nidus, nest] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In social insects, outside the nest or hive. e x t r a n u cle a r a. [L. ext ra, outside; nucleus, kernel] Structures or processes found outside the nucleus. e x t r a ocu la r a. [L. ext ra, outside; oculus, eye] Away from or beyond the eyes.

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e x t r a or a l a. [L. ext ra, outside; os, mouth] Away from or beyond the mouth. e x t r a pa llia l spa ce (MOLL: Bivalvia) A narrow muscus-filled space between the mantle lobe and the valve of the shell. e x t r a t e n t a cu la r buddin g (CNID: Anthozoa) Development of new polyps of a zoantharian colony from the tissue between existing ones. e x t r a t r opica l a. [L. ext ra, outside; t ropicus, solstice] Outside of the tropics; not in the tropics. e x t r a zooida l a. [L. ext ra, outside; Gr. zoon, animal] (BRYO) A colony structure, protective or supportive in function, that remains outside zooidal boundries. e x t r e m it y n.; pl. -t ie s [L. ext rem us, outermost] The remotest part or point from the base. e x t r insic a. [L. ext rorsus, in an outward direction] 1. Not in or a part of a body or congregation; external. 2. Environmental influences on a population. see in t r in sic. e x t r insic a r t icu la t ion One in which the articulating surface of contact is outside of the skeletal parts. see in t r in sic a r t icu la t ion . e x t r insic m u scle s Muscles which move an organ (leg, etc.), but that originate outside of it. see in t r in sic m u scle s. e x t r or se a. [Gr. ext rorsus, in an outward direction] Turning or facing outwards; toward the outside. see in t r or se . e x t r ude v. [L. ex, out of; t rusus, thrust] To turn; to force out. e x t r u sion n. e x uda t e n. [L. exsudo, discharge by sweating] Any flow from the body or organ through pores or openings by natural discharge. e x uda t or ia n. [L. exsudo, discharge by sweating] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Finger-like appendages of certain larvae of ants and termites that produce secretions attractive to the workers. e x ude v. [L. exsudo, discharge by sweating] To ooze moisture or other liquids through minute openings. e x um bilica t e a. [L. ex, out of; um bilicus, navel] Lacking an

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umbilicus. e x um br e lla n. [L. ex, out of; dim. um bra, shade] (CNID: Scyphozoa) The convex aboral surface of a medusa or jellyfish. see su bum br e lla . e x uvia n.; n.pl. e x uvia e [L. exuvia, cast] The cast parts of the cuticle; cuticle shed at a molt; usually used only in the plural. e x uvia l gla n ds Certain epidermal glands associated with the molting fluid during ecdysis at molting. e x uvia l spa ce (ARTHRO: Insecta) An area between the epidermis and the cuticle into which the molting enzymes are secreted after apolysis. e x uvia t e v. [L. exuvia, cast] To cast skin or shell; to molt. e ye n. [A.S. eage, eye] An organ of sight; a photoreceptor; a compound eye; an ocellus. e ye - br idge (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, eyes dorsally joined above the antennae by a narrow line of facets. e ye br u sh see pr osa r t e m a e ye ca p (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Lepidoptera, a structure overhanging or capping the compound eye. e ye spot s n.pl. [A.S. eage, eye; ME. spot t e, spotted] Pigmented areas in many invertebrates to which are attributed various functions: a simple eye or visual organ (ocellus); intimidation of predators; to deflect attention to the least vulnerable parts of the body; a sensory organ. e ye st a lk see ocu la r pe du n cle

F F 1 First filial generation, arising from a cross, subsequent generations abbreviated F 2 , F 3 , etc. see P 1 . fa ce n. [L. facies, countenance] 1. The surface of anything. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The front of a verticle head between the compound eye above the mouth to vertex. a. In Hymenoptera between antennae and clypeus. b. In Diptera, below the frontal suture, often having grooves or fovea below the antennae; the mesofacial plate. c. In Ephemeroptera, the fused front and vertex; facies. fa ce t n. [F. facet t e, small face] 1. A small surface. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The external surface or part of a compound eye unit or ommatidium. fa ce t t e n. [F. facet t e, small face] (ARTHRO: Pentastomida) A funnel-shaped opening through the inner membrane complex of the egg into which the product of the dorsal organ is deposited. fa ce t t e d e ye see com poun d e ye fa cia l a n gle (ARTHRO: Insecta) The angle formed by the point of union of the face and vertex. fa cia l br ist le s see or a l vibr issa e fa cia l ca r in a (ARTHRO: Insecta) One of the carinae of the frontal costa and of the accessory carinae of the face. a. In Orthoptera, one of the accessory carinae. b. In Diptera, the single median facial ridge separating the antennal grooves. fa cia l de pr e ssion (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. The antennal groove. 2. For Diptera, the middle of the face; the facial plate. fa cia lium see vibr issa l r idge fa cia l or bit (ARTHRO: Insecta) On the head, the region next to the mesal margin of a compound eye. fa cia l pla t e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, the central part of the face. fa cia l qua dr a n gle (ARTHRO: Insecta) In bees, the quadrangle

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formed by the eyes laterally, and between their apex and below by a line between their lower points. fa cia l r idge see vibr issa l r idge fa cie s see fa ce fa cio- or bit a l br ist le s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, bristles on each side near the orbit, may extend to the gena or cheek; orbital bristles. see ge na l br ist le s. fa ct or n. [L. facere, to do, to make] 1. An agent or causative agent in genetics determining development of a hereditary character in offspring. 2. (PORIF) A cell surface-active proteoglycan affecting the stability of cell-to-cell adhesion. fa cult a t ive n. [L. facult as, capability] The ability to live under different conditions. see obliga t e . fa cult a t ive m e iot ic pa r t he n oge n e sis The diploid chromosomal complement in the reduced oocytes is restored by fusion of the second polar nucleus with the egg pronucleus. see a u t om ict ic m e iot ic pa r t h e noge n e sis. fa cult a t ive pa r a sit e 1. A parasitic organism that can develop inside a host, but still retains the ability to complete a freeliving life cycle in the outside environment. 2. Organisms normally free-living that may become parasitic under special environmental conditions. see obliga t e pa r a sit e . fa cult a t ive sym bion t A symbiont that establishes a relationship with a host only if the opportunity presents itself. see obliga t e sym bion t . fa e ce s see fe ce s Fa h r e nh olz's r u le Common ancestors of present day parasites were themselves parasites of the common ancestors of present day hosts; parasite phylogeny mirrors host phylogeny. fa lca t e a. [L. falx, sickle] Sickle-shaped, hooked or new moonshaped. fa lce s n.pl.; sing. fa lx , fa lcis [L. falx, sickle] 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) Falces used to denote chelicerae of ticks; chelicerae of certain arachnids. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In lycanid butterflies, when present, paired, sclerotized, curved arms articulated with the caudal margin of the tegumen ventrad

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of the uncus, and extending ventro-caudad. fa lcifor m a. [L. falx, sickle; form a, shape] Having the shape of a sickle; curved like a sickle. fa lcige r n. [L. falx, sickle; gerere, to carry] (ANN) A compound, distally blunt, curved seta. fa lcu la t e a. [L. dim. falx, sickle] Curved with a sharp point. fa lsa de n t e s see ciba r ia l t e e t h fa lse h e a d (ARTHRO: Insecta) In some syrphid fly larvae, a broad globulose or hood-like cephalic segment(s) with a visible constriction behind. fa lse le gs see pr ole gs or spu r iou s le gs fa lse um bilicu s (MOLL: Gastropoda) A cavity or depression in the base of the last whorl of the shell; a pseudumbilicus. fa m u lu s n.; pl. -li [L. fam ulus, servant] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, microsensory seta found on the genu, tibia and tarsi. fa n n. [A.S. fann, fr. L. vannus, fan] 1. A segment or process flattened and spread triangularly or in a semicircle, appearing fan-like. 2. (ANN: Polychaeta) The parapodia on the l4th, 15th, or 16th segments. 3. (CNID: Anthozoa) A colony of zooids. 4. A flabellum. fa n g n. [A.S. fang, seizure] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The clawlike distal segment of the chelicera of spiders. fa r ct a t e a. [L. farct us, filled] Fully filled; distended; to swell out. fa r in a ce ous a. [L. farina, flour] 1. Mealy. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Has been used to describe powdery looking insect surfaces and wings; pulverulent; pollinose. fa scia n., pl. -cia e [L. fascia, bundle] 1. A broad and well-defined band of color; striped. 2. Marked with transverse bands of color. see vit t a . 3. A layer of connective tissue covering an organ or attaching a muscle. fa scia t e a. fa scicle , fa scicu lu s n.; pl. -li, -le s [L. dim. fascia, bundle] 1. A small bundle or tuft. 2. A bundle of nerve or muscle fibers. 3. (ANN) A bundle of setae originating from a common muscular source, normally two dorsolateral and two

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ventrolateral fasciculi per segment. 4. (ARTHRO) A stylet bundle or combination of mouthparts of blood-feeding arthropods that function to pierce the skin. 5. (CNID) Tubes intergrown together to form a stem or branches. 6. (MOLL: Polyplacophora) A bundle of hairs or bristles against each valve end. 7. (PORIF) Fibers intertwined in bundles to produce complex interlocking tracts. fa sciole n. [L. dim. fascia, bundle] 1. (CNID: Echinoidea) In Spatangidae, a small band of minute spine-bearing tubercles used to produce water currents in the burrow for feeding, respiration and excretion. 2. (MOLL: Gastropoda) A spiral band formed by the successive growth lines on the edges of a canal. fa scio- m a cu la t a Having spots arranged in bands. fa scio- pu nct a t e Ornamented with colored points arranged in bands. fa st e n ing or fix in g m u scle (SIPUN) A thin strand or filament of muscle joining or attaching some part of the alimentary canal, (the esophagus or posterior region of the intestine) to the body wall. fa st igia t e a. [L. fast igium , gable end] Arranged into a conical bundle. fa st igium n. [L. fast igium , gable end] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Orthoptera, the anterior dorsal surface of the vertex of grasshoppers. fa t body Aggregated cells that store food reserves, storage for excretory materials, or light producing organ; a center in which many metabolic processes occur. fa t e m a p Diagrammatic method of indicating the fate of embryonic cells. fa u ce s n.pl. [L. fauces, gullet] That portion of the interior of a spiral shell that can be viewed by looking into the aperture. fa u na n. [L. Faunus, diety of herds and fields] The animal life of a region. see flor a , biot a . fa u na l r e gion An area where certain groups of animals are found. fa ve ola t e a. [L. favus, honeycomb] Pitted; having depressions

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or cells resembling a honeycomb; favose. fe ce s n.pl. [L. faex, dregs] Pertaining to sediment, refuse or excrement. fe cu la n. [L. dim. faex, dregs] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Excrement. fe cu nda t e v.t. [L. fecundus, fruitful] To fertilize; to impregnate. fe cu ndit y n. [L. fecundus, fruitful] The potential reproductive capacity as measured by the quantity of gam et es, particularly eggs, produced. fe e dba ck m e cha n ism Regulation mechanism in cells by which the final product of a metabolic reaction inhibits further production of that product. fe e ding zooid (BRYO) A zooid that at some developmental stage feeds and provides nourishment to the entire colony. fe e le r n. [A.S. felan, to feel] A tactile organ of many invertebrates. fe lt cha m be r (ARTHRO: Insecta) A spongy structure within the spiracular chamber of larval trypetid flies, thought to act as an air filter. fe lt se t a e (ANN: Polychaeta) In scale worms, threadlike setae that arise from the notopodia and trail back over the dorsal surface of the animal. fe m a le duct s see gonoduct , oviduct fe m a le e n cyst m e n t see m a t r icida l ha t ch ing fe m a le funne l (ANN: Oligochaeta) Enlargement of the ental end of an oviduct of earthworms that facilitates entry of the ova on their way to the exterior. fe m a le por e s (ANN: Oligochaeta) The external apertures of the female ducts of earthworms. fe m or o- a la r y or ga ns (ARTHRO: Insecta) A stridulatory apparatus. fe m or oge nu n. [L. fem ur, thigh; genu, knee] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In mites, a leg segment resulting from the fusion of the femur and genu. fe m or ot ibia l j oin t (ARTHRO) One of the two primary bendings of a typical leg, pertains to the femur and the tibia. see

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cox ot r och a n t e r a l j oint . fe m u r n. [L. fem ur, thigh] 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) a. In spiders, the thigh; normally the stoutest segment, articulating to the body through the trochanter and coxa and bearing the patella and remaining leg segments at the distal end. b. In mites, segment of palp and legs, between the trochanter and genu; sometimes divided into femur 1 (proximal) and femur 2 (distal). 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The largest and stoutest part of the leg of most adults; the third segment, located between the trochanter and the tibia. fe ne st r a n.; pl. -t r a e [L. fenest ra, window] 1. A small opening; a window. 2. An opening through a shell; a foramen. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. Transparent spots or marks on the wings. b. In Orthoptera, a small membranous area at the base of an antennae of a cockroach. c. In Isoptera, a cavity on the head; a fontanel. d. The membranous base of the ommatidia at the junction with the optic nerve of a compound eye; a transparent ocellate spot in an eye. e. In male Odonata, the genital opening on the ventral surface of abdominal segment 11. see fon t a ne lle . 4. (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) In Cheilostomata, an open space or mesh in reticulate zoaria. 5. (NEMATA) a. In Secernentea, the thin membranous area surrounding or on either side of the vulva of a cyst forming nematode (Heterodera spp.). b. In some marine Adenophorea, the openings in subcuticular helmets through which sensory nerves pass. fe ne st r a t e a., fe ne st r a t ion n. fe ne st r a t e colon y (BRYO) An erect colony in which the branches form a reticulate pattern. fe ne st r e lla n. [L. dim. fenest ra, window] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Orthoptera, a transparent spot in the anal area of the anterior wings. see fe ne st r a . fe ne st r u le n. [L. dim. fenest ra, window] (BRYO) A small opening between branches of a fenestrate colony. fe n t e n. [F. fent e, a hole] (MOLL: Bivalvia) An opening or slit near the hinges when the valves are closed. fe r a l a. [L. ferus, wild, untamed] Undomesticated; wild; uncultivated.

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fe r m e n t see e nzym e fe r m e n t a t ion cha m be r s (ARTHRO: Insecta) A tube or pouch in the hind gut where food materials are broken down by various bacteria or protozoa. fe r r e ous a. [L. ferreus, of iron] The color metallic gray resembling polished iron. fe r r u ginous a. [L. ferrugineus, like iron rust] Rusty red-brown in color. fe r r u le n. [L. dim. viria, bracelet] (NEMATA) A ring or bushing making a tight joint between the odontostyle and odontophore. fe r t ile a. [L. fert ilis, fruitful] Producing viable gam et es, capable of producing viable eggs or living offspring. fe r t ilit y n. fe r t iliza t ion n. [L. fert ilis, fruitful] Fusion of two gam et es, especially of their nuclei, to produce a zygote. fe r t iliza t ion cone Protuberance on an ovum where the spermatozoon fuses with the ovum. fe r t iliza t ion m e m br a n e A delicate membrane that grows outward from the point of contact of the egg and spermatozoon and rapidly covers the surface of the egg. fe r t ilizin n. [L. fert ilis, fruitful] A chemical causing species specific attachment of spermatozoon to ovum. fe st ivu s a. [L. fest ivus, holiday, feast] Having a variety of colors. fe st oon n. [F. fest on, garland] Garlands hanging in curves. fe st oon s n.pl. [F. fest on, garland] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) Sclerites on the posterior margin of the opisthosoma of certain hard ticks. fe t id a. [L. fet idus, stinking] Having a disagreeable odor; malodorous. fibe r n. [L. fibra, thread] 1. Any thread-like structure. 2. (PORIF) A column more homogeneous than a tract. fibe r la ye r s (NEMATA) Cuticular strata of dense connective-like tissue that is oblique, ribbonlike, possibly spiral (mesocuticle). fibr il n.; pl. -lla e [L. dim. of fibra, thread] Small fibers or

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threads within cells. fibr illa r la ye r (NEMATA) In ascarids, a cuticular stratum that consists of a condensation of spongy matrix forming a closely woven network between the internal cortical layer and the matrix layer. fibr in n. [L. fibra, thread] A fibrous protein that constitutes muscular tissue and facilitates blood clotting or coagulation. fibr in oge n n. [L. fibra, thread; gigno, producing] A protein substance of the blood and other body fluids facilitating the production of fibrin. fibr ocyt e n. [L. fibra, thread; Gr. kyt os, container] Elongated cells derived from connective tissue cells, the fibroblasts, functioning in the production of fibrous tissue. fibr oin n. [L. fibra, thread] (ARTHRO) 1. A protein found in silk and webs. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Bom byx, a unique protein containing an unusual amount of the simpler amino acids glycine and alanine. fibr opla sm n. [L. fibra, thread; Gr. plasm a, molded] (NEMATA) That portion of a muscle cell differentiated into contractile fibers. see sa r copla sm . fibr ou s liga m e n t (MOLL: Bivalvia) The fibrous part of a ligament in which the conchiolin is impregnated with calcium carbonate; elastic to compression. fibu la see j u ga l lobe fide v.t. [L. fidus, trustworthy] Used to indicate that the author has not seen the work or specimen cited. fila m e n t pla t e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In early embryology, a differentiated sheet of cells connecting the genital and heart rudiments on the same side of the body. fila m e nt a r y a ppe nda ge (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Cirripedia, a membranous process at the base of the cirrus. fila r ia n. [L. filum , thread] (NEMATA: Secernentea) Microfilaria (Spirurida), motile embryo found in the subcutaneous tissue, blood or lymph systems of many animals and man. fila r ifor m la r va (NEMATA: Secernentea) A post-feeding stage larva characterized by its delicate, elongate structure and

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its slim, capillary esophagus. fila t e a. [L. filum , thread] Threadlike, slender, and without appendages. fila t or n. [L. filum , thread] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The silk spinning apparatus of caterpillars. see spinn e r e t s. file n. [A.S. fil, feo, file] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A filelike, rough ridge on the ventral side of the tegmen, near the base, that functions as a part of the stridulating mechanism in crickets and long-horned grasshoppers. filia t ion n. [L. filius, - ia, son, daughter] The relationship of offspring; lineage. filia l a. filibr a n ch gill (MOLL: Bivalvia) Gills with bars of tissues between the limbs of the "U" at intervals with filaments attached to adjacent filaments by specialized ciliary junctions; functioning in inhalent and feeding-ventilating currents. filicor n ia n. [L. filum , thread; cornu, horn] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Insects with filiform antennae, e.g., the coleopteran Adephaga. filifor m a. [L. filum , thread] 1. Hairlike or threadlike. 2. (CNID) Used to describe thread-like tentacles tapering to a point. Filippi's gla n ds see Lyonne t 's gla n ds fille t s n. [L. filum , thread] Bands of fibers; any raised rib. filose a. [L. filum , thread] Having a threadlike appendage, or terminating in a threadlike process. filt e r a ppa r a t us (ARTHRO: Insecta) Opposing rows of tapering processes of some spiracular atrial walls, clothed with interlacing hairs, that permits passage of air and prevents foreign particles or water from penetrating into the atrium. filt e r cha m be r An area that serves to filter suspended matter. filt e r fe e de r An animal that feeds on small particles which it filters from the surrounding medium. filum t e r m ina le (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Thysanura, tergite XI prolonged into a bristle. fim br ia n.; pl. -br ia e [L. fim briat us, fringed] 1. A fringe-like structure. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Ciliated hair terminating

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any part. fim br ia t e a. [L. fim briat us, fringed] 1. With finger-like projections; having a fringed or puckered margin. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) An antenna with joints bearing a lateral hair. 3. (MOLL: Gastropoda) A shell with an irregular margin. fin n. [A.S. finn, fin] An extension of the body of an aquatic animal used in locomotion or steering. fin ge r n. [A.S. finger, finger] 1. Any structure resembling or used like a finger. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) a. In Decapoda, one of the scissor-like blades at the end of the cheliped, usually one is movable and one fixed. b. In Ostracoda, a dorsal and ventral process of the male copulatory apparatus which are thought to be tacticle organs and may also assist in directing or holding certain structures during copulation. fin ge r gua r d (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In male Ostracoda genitalia, an extension of the ventral cardo alongside the dorsal and ventral fingers. fir m a t opor e n. [L. firm us, strong; porus, hole] (BRYO: Stenolaemata) In Tubuliporina, a degenerate zooid that appears as a slender, proximally directed tubule. fir st a n t e nn a see a n t e n n u le fir st a x illa r y (ARTHRO: Insecta) The sclerite that articulates with the anterior notal process; its anterior necklike portion abuts the base of the subcostal wing vein. fir st in cisur a (ARTHRO: Insecta) In scale insects, the pygidial marginal notch on the meson between the median pair of lobes. fir st m a x illa see m a x illu la e fir st m a x illa e (ARTHRO: Insecta) The second pair of appendages belonging to the mouth, posterior to the mandibles or jaws; the maxillae. fir st phr a gm a (ARTHRO: Insecta) A transverse apodeme of Diptera, under the anterior promontory of the mesonotum and internally connecting the antepronota. fir st r e vise r The first author to publish a definite choice of one among two or more conflicting names or zoological inter-

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pretations that are equally available under the ICZN. fir st se gm e nt The nearest segment of any segmented appendage nearest the body at point of attachment. fir st spe cie s r u le Authors that specify the first species named in a new genus to be the type of that genus; generally the works of older authors in which no generic type was specified. fir st t hor a cic spir a cle (ARTHRO: Insecta) The mesothoracic spiracle, sometimes dislocated into the posterior part of the prothorax. fir st t r ocha nt e r (ARTHRO: Insecta) The first segment of a telopodite; the basipodite. fissa t e a. [L. fissus, cleft] Cleft or split; having fissures or cracks. fissile a. [L. fissus, cleft] Capable of being divided or separated into layers; divided into parallel lamellae. fission n. [L. fissus, cleft] The splitting of a single chromosome into two chromosomes; splitting of one organism into two organisms. see fu sion . fissipa r ous a. [L. fissus, cleft; parere, to produce] Reproduction or propagation by fission. fissu r e n. [L. fissura, cleft] A narrow opening, slit, furrow or groove separating adjacent tissues, parts or organs. fist u la n.; pl. -la s [L. fist ula, pipe] 1. A reed, pipe or tube. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The proboscis of Lepidoptera. fistular a. fix v. [L. fixus, bind] To kill and preserve specimens for observation and retention. fix a t ion n. [L. fixus, bind] (MOLL: Bivalvia) The process of animals permanently attaching themselves to the substrate. fix a t ive n. [L. fixus, bind] A chemical compound which has the quality of fixing and preserving specimens for observation and retention. fix e d fin ge r (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The distal immovable part of the propodus of the chela; the pollex. fix e d ha ir s see m icr ot r ichia fix e d j a w (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, the distal (fixed) part

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of the cheliceral segment. fix e d- w a ll colony (BRYO: Stenolaemata) Feeding zooids with oral walls attached to the body apertures. fla be lla t e a. [L. flabellum , fan] Having fanlike processes or projections. fla be llifor m a. fla be llum n.; pl. -la [L. flabellum, fan] 1. Any leaflike or fanlike process. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The thin distal exite of a branchiopod; or epipodite of a thoracopod. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) A transparent distal lobe of the glossa of bees; bouton. fla ccid a. [L. flaccus, flabby] Lacking firmness or elasticity; limp; limber. fla ge lla t e a. [L. flagellum , whip] 1. Having flagella or whip-like structures. 2. Having a lash-like appendage as the terminal part of an antenna. fla ge lla t e d cha m be r (PORIF) Cavities lined with coanocytes. fla ge llifor m a. [L. flagellum , whip; form a, form] Flagella-like; whip-like; lash-like. fla ge llom e r e n. [L. flagellum , whip; Gr. m eros, part] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, an individual subdivision or unit of the antennal flagellum; in mosquitoes 13-14 flagellomeres. fla ge llum n.; pl. -lum s, -lla [L. flagellum , whip] 1. Any of various whiplike appendages. 2. A protoplasmic process, longer than a cilium , whose movements usually effect locomotion of the cell. 3. The whip-like tip of the male copulatory organ in some invertebrates. 4. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The multiarticulate distal portion of the antennule, antenna, or exopod. 5. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The distal portion of an insect antenna beyond the second segment (pedicel). see fla ge llom e r e . 6. (PORIF) A long projection from a cell, used as a propeller. fla m e bu lb Common name for solenocytes. fla m e ce ll see sole nocyt e fla m m a u le s n.pl. [L. flam m ula, blaze; Gr. aule, court] Having spots of color resembling a small flame; reddish, tinged with red. fla n ge n. [OF. flangier, flank] 1. A projecting rim, edge, or ex-

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ternal or internal rib; a guide attachment for another part or organ. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In ostracods, a ridge along the valve margin formed by projection of the outer lamella as a narrow brim. 3. (NEMATA) Posteriorly sloping thickening or knob at the base of the odontostyle extension. fla n k n. [OF. flanc, side] (MOLL: Bivalvia) The middle of the valve surface, bounded posteriorly by the posterior ridge. fla r in g a. [Uncertain] To open, spread or project outward; spreading from within toward outward; a lip. fla t w or m s Classes Trematoda, Turbellaria and Cestoda; Platyhelminthes. fla ve sce n t a. [L. flavus, yellow] A yellow color. fla vid a. [L. flavus, yellow] Golden yellow; sulphur yellow. fla von e s n.pl. [L. flavus, yellow] Plant pigments that can be incorporated into the tissues of insects which contribute to their coloration. see a n t hocya n in s, a nt h ox a n t h ins, ca r ot e n e pigm e n t s. fla vou s see fla vid fle shy fila m e n t (ARTHRO: Insecta) A flexible, attenuate process of the body wall on some butterfly larvae. fle x v. [L. flect ere, to bend] To bend or curve back. fle x or a. [L. flect ere, to bend] Pertains to muscle that serves to bend a limb at an articulation. fle x or su r fa ce A surface brought closer together when a jointed structure is bent at a joint. fle x u ou s a. [L. flexuosus, full of turns] Having gentle turns and windings in opposite directions; zigzag. fle x u r e n. [L. flexura, a winding] 1. A bending. 2. (MOLL) The progressing folding or warping of one or both valves. floa t n. [A.S. flot ian, float] An air filled sac used for buoyancy by an organism or its eggs. floa t obla st n. [A.S. flot ian, float; Gr. blast os, bud] (BRYO) A statoblast with a peripheral pneumatic annulus, with or without marginal hooks. floccu le n t a.; pl. -li [L. floccus, lock of wool] Covered with a

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soft, waxy substance, often resembling wool; clinging together in bunches. floccu lu s n.; pl. -li [L. floccus, lock of wool] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, a tuft of hairs on the posterior coxa. flor a n. [L. flos, flower] The plants or plant life of a region. see fa u na , biot a . flor icom e n. [L. flos, flower; coma, hair] (PORIF) An elaborately branched hexaster spicule. flosce lle n. [L. flos, flower] (ECHINOD: Echinoidea) A flowerlike structure composed of bourrelets and phyllodes around the mouth. floscu lu s n. [L. dim. flos, flower] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A small, crescent shaped, tubular anal organ with a central style, found in certain lantern flies (Fulgoridae). flu t e d a. [OF. flaut e] A channeled or grooved area. fluvia t ile a. [L. fluviat ilis, of a stream] Living in rivers; growing near or inhabiting rivers or fresh water. fly- blow (ARTHRO: Insecta) An egg or larva of flesh flies. focus n.; pl. foci [L. focus, central point] A particular region of disease; a localized region. fold n. [A.S. folde, a fold] 1. A doubling or folding. 2. (BRACHIO) A major external elevation of the valve surface, convex in transverse profile and radial from the umbo. 3. a. (MOLL: Bivalvia) A broad undulation in the shell surface which is directed radially or comarginally. b. (MOLL: Gastropoda) The spirally wound ridge on the interior of a shell wall. see colu m e lla r fold, pa r ie t a l fold. folde d m e m br a ne (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Cicadidae, a specialized membraneous area of the anterior wall of the ventral cavity of the sound-producing organ. folia ce ou s a. [L. folium , leaf] Leaflike in appearance. folia t e a. [L. folium , leaf] Foliaceous; leaves, consisting of laminae or thin plates. foliole s a. [L. dim. folium , leaf] Having leaflike processes extending from a margin or protuberance. foliu m n. [L. folium , leaf] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) A pigmented

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design or pattern on the abdominal dorsum of some spiders. follicle n. [L. dim. follis, windbag] Any small cavity, sac or tube. follicle ce lls Epithelial cells surrounding the oocytes in the vitellarium, that in some species secrete on its external surface the chorion and perhaps function in a nutritional role. follicu la r a. [L. dim. follis, windbag] Pertaining to or having follicles. follicu la t e a. [L. dim. follis, windbag] Having, consisting of, or enclosed in a follicle or follicles. font a ne lle , fon t a ne l n. [F. font annella, little fountain] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Isoptera, when present, a small circular or slit-shaped orifice of the frontal or cephalic gland near the center of the head, through which a liquid is emitted; a frontal pore. food n. [A.S. foda, fodder] Any material that an organism obtains from the environment that yields energy or supplies matter for its growth. food bodie s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, secretions on the seeds and leaves of some plants used by ants as food. food cha in Food energy transferred from plants through a sequence of organisms in which each is food of a later member of the sequence. food cha nne ls see food m e a t us food cycle see food w e b food m e a t u s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, a channel formed by the juxtaposition of the mouthparts of mosquitoes anterior to the cibarium. food w e b Interlocking pattern of food chains in a community; typical food web composed of plants, herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, and detritus feeders. foot n.; pl. fe e t [A.S. fot , foot] 1. An organ of locomotion or attachment. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The tarsus. 3. (MOLL) a. The muscular undersurface of the body. b. In Bivalvia, the muscular, protrusible structure extending from the body

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mid-line; used for burrowing. 4. (ROTIF) The foot or tail, with or without toes. foot - sha pe d loop see cu bit o- a na l loop for a m e n n.; pl. -r a m in a , -r a m e n s [L. foram en, hole] 1. A small opening, orifice or perforation through a bone, shell, membrane or partition. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The opening of an insect cocoon. 3. (BRACHIO) A round opening at or near the beak facilitating the extension of the pedicle. for a m e n m a gn um (ARTHRO: Insecta) The opening on the posterior side of the head, giving passage to the internal structures that extend from the head to the thorax; the occipital foramen. for a m ina pl. for a m e n for ce ps n.; pl. & sing. [L. forceps, pincers] 1. (ARTHRO) Hook or pincer-like processes terminating the abdomen of various arthropods which function as weapons in predation or for defense, for holding the mate during courtship, or even for cleaning the body or folding the wings. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The chelipeds. 3. (PORIF) Tongs-shaped. for cipa t e a. [L. forceps, pincers] Bearing forceps or similar structures. for cipa t e m a st a x (ROTIF) Slender, elongate trophi formed by rami and fulcrum (incus). for cipifor m a. [L. forceps, pincers; form a, shape] Forcepsshaped. for e n. [A.S. for, fore] The front; the anterior. for e br a in n. [A.S. for, fore; braegen, brain] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The protocerebrum. for e gu t n. [A.S. for, fore; gut , channel] The anterior portion of the alimentary tract, from the mouth to the midgut. see st om ode um . for e h e a d n. [A.S. for, fore; heafod, head] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The frons. for e le g n. [A.S. for, fore; ON. leggr, leg] (ARTHRO: Insecta) One of a pair of legs on the prothorax. for fe x n. [L. forfex, shears] A pair of shears.

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for ficifor m a. [L. forfex, shears; form a, shape] 1. Scissorshaped. 2. (ECHINOD: Asteroidea) The pedicellaria of certain starfish. for ficu la t e a. [L. dim. forfex, shears] Scissor-shaped; forked; furcate. for m n. [L. form a, shape] 1. An image or likeness. 2. A term for a single individual, phenon, or taxon. see gr ou p. for m a lde hyde A colorless gas with a pungent odor; forms a 40% solution in water (formalin) which is used as a fixative, preservative and for hardening tissues; formalin. for m a lin The 40% solution of formaldehyde in water; used as a preservative and for hardening tissues. for m a t ion n. [L. form a, shape; -tion, process] A definite type of habitation, i.e., tundra, coniferous forest, prairie, rain forest, etc. for m a t ive ce lls see pr oh e m ocyt e for m ic a. [L. form ica, ant] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Of or pertaining to ants. for m ic a cid An organic acid naturally occurring in some hymenopteran insects. for m ica r y n.; pl. -ie s [L. form ica, ant] (ARTHRO: Insecta) An ant's nest or dwelling; an ant-hill; a formicarium. for n e n t pr e p. [A.S. for, fore; efen, even] Opposite to; facing; alongside. for n ica t e d a. [L. fornix, vault] Concave within, convex without; arched; vaulted. for n ix n.; pl. for n ice s [L. fornix, vault] 1. An arch or fold. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A ridge in the lateral part of the cephalon above insertion of antennal muscles in water fleas. 3. (MOLL: Bivalvia) The cavity on the inside under the hinge; the upper or convex shell of an oyster. for n ica l a. fossa n.; pl. -sa e [L. fossa, ditch] A depression or cavity. fosse n.; pl. -se s [L. fossa, ditch] (CNID: Anthozoa) A groove between the collar and base of the capitulum in sea anemones. fosse t t e n. [L. dim. fossa, ditch] 1. A small, hollow, dimple or

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depression. 2. (MOLL: Bivalvia) Any socket; for example a socket for a cardinal tooth. 3. (PLATY: Cestoda) A ciliated, sensory pit. fossil n. [L. fossilis, dug out] An organic relic of a previous geological period preserved by natural means in rock or softer sediments which afford information as to the character of the original organism. fossor ia n. [L. fossor, digger] 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Insects that burrow or dig, i.e., mole crickets, digger wasps, etc. 2. (NEMATA) The cheilostomal, outwardly movable teeth. fossor ia l a. [L. fossor, digger] Fitted for or having the habit of digging. fossu la n.; pl. -la e ; fossu le , fossule t [L. dim. fossa, ditch] 1. A shallow fossa. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Grooves on the head or sides of the prothorax, in which the antennae are concealed; a foveola. 3. (MOLL: Gastropoda) A shallow linear depression of the inner lip in some Cypraeidae. fossu la t e a. [L. dim. fossa, ditch] Having slight hollows or grooves. foun de r ce lls 1. Daughter cells from the early cleavages of the zygote, with potential to form the individual tissues and organs of the body. 2. (PORIF) Cells responsible for ray length during the secretion of calcareous spicules. founde r pr inciple / e ffe ct The principle that when founders populate a new colony as an isolated entity, the population will contain only a small fraction of the total genetic variation of the parental population. four t h a x illa r y (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera and Orthoptera wings, an axillary sclerite between the posterior notal process and the third axillary sclerite. fove a n.; pl. -a e [L. fovea, pit] A small depression, pit, pocket; a fossa. fove ola t e a. fove ola n.; pl. -la e [L. dim. fovea, pit] 1. An extremely small pit; a small fovea. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) A small pit into which the antennae are inserted. fr a ct a t e a. [L. frangere, to break] Displaced; bent at an angle. fr a ct a t e a nt e nna (ARTHRO: Insecta) An antenna with one very

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long joint with other annuli attached at angles. fr a ct u r e n. [L. frangere, to break] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The suture on the hemelytra of Heteroptera that separates the cuneus from the corium. fr a gile a. [L. frangere, to break] Easily broken; delicate; thin and brittle. fr a gm e nt a t ion n. [L. frangere, to break] 1. Separated in parts or fragments. 2. Amitotic division. 3. (BRYO) Asexual production of a colony from a single or group of zooids from another colony. fr a m e n. [A.S. fram ian, fashion, prepare] (ECHINOD) A structure composed of pentagonal rings of small ossicles on the distal end of the tube feet. fr a ss n. [Ger. fressen, to devour] Insect larval excrement usually mixed with plant fragments. fr e e a. [A.S. freo, freedom] Unrestrained; motile; not attached. fr e e e dge (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The line of contact of an ostracod shell between closed valves, except along hinge line marking the distal limit of the contact margin. fr e e - living Not attached or parasitic; capable of independent movement and existence. see se ssile . fr e e m a r gin (ARTHRO: Crustacea) All parts of an ostracod shell margin, except hingement. fr e e m e sode r m a l ce ll see h e m ocyt e fr e e pupa see e x a r a t e pupa fr e e - sw im m in g Swimming about; not sessile. fr e e - w a lle d colony (BRYO: Stenolaemata) A colony covered loosely by membranous exterior walls that are not attached at oral apertures. fr e e - w a x ce ll (ARTHRO: Insecta) Cells found in the hemolymph of Aphididae and Coccoidea. fr e na t e w in g coupling (ARTHRO: Insecta) Lepidopterous wing coupling with a well developed frenulum that engages with a catch or retinaculum on the underside of the fore wing, securing the wings together. fr e nu lum n.; pl. -la [L. dim. frenum , bridle] 1. (ARTHRO: In-

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secta) The strong spine or group of bristles on the humeral angle of the hind wing, that projects beneath the fore wing, uniting them in flight; frenum. 2. (CNID) Gelatinous fold supporting the subumbrella of certain jellyfish. 3. (POGON) A v-shaped cuticular thickening held in an epidermal groove that functions as an adhesive device; also called bridle. fr e nu lum hook (ARTHRO: Insecta) A cuticular clasp (retinaculum) that functions in wing coupling. fr e nu m n.; pl. fr e n na [L. frenum , bridle] 1. Any fold of skin or tissue supporting an organ. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Membranous bilateral fold of the carapace of barnacles that holds eggs. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The frenulum. fr ille d or ga n (PLATY: Cestoda) A posterior attachment organ in the order Gyrocotylidea. fr inge n. [L. fim bria, border] 1. To furnish or adorn. 2. Hair, scales or other processes extending beyond the margin, usually of equal length. 3. (MOLL: Bivalvia) Periostracum extending passed the calcareous shell. fr inge d pla t e s see pe ct in a e fr inge sca le (ARTHRO: Insecta) Any scale in the wing fringe. fr ogga see a r t icu la r pa n fr on dose a. [L. frondis, of leaves] More or less divided into leaf-like expansions, as certain mollusks or bryozoans. fr on s n.; pl. fr on t e s [L. frons, fore part of anything, face] 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The head sclerite bounded by the postfrontal suture dorsally and the epistomal suture ventrally; the frons is delimited in various ways by different authors and in different insects and stages. see fr ont , fa cie s. 2. (SIPUN) see ce r e br a l or ga n s, digit a t e pr oce sse s. fr on t n. [L. frons, fore part of anything, face] 1. The forehead; face. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, that part of a brachyuran carapace between the orbits. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. That portion of a cranium between the antennae, eyes, and ocelli; the frons. b. In ants, the facial area above the clypeus between the frontal carinae; dorsally it passes without definite boundary into the vertex.

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fr on t a l a. [L. frons, fore part of anything, face] 1. Of or pertaining to the front or forehead. 2. (BRYO) Pertaining to the exposed or orifice-bearing sides of the zooecial chambers. fr on t a l a ppe nda ge s (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Anostraca, paired filaments arising from the bases of the antennae, but independent of them. fr on t a l a r e a (ARTHRO: Insecta) The small median triangular plate of ants, on the anterior surface of the head, just above the clypeus. fr on t a l ba n d (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A glandular adhesion organ of parasitic copepods, in the frontal region, used for attachment to the host. fr on t a l br ist le s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, a row of bristles on each side of the boundry between the median, frontal vitta or plate and the eye orbit. fr on t a l budding (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) Buds arising from the frontal wall or associated structure. fr on t a l ca r in a (ARTHRO: Insecta) A carina, or ridge, forming the medial boundary of the antennal fossa. fr on t a l closu r e (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) In Cheilostomata, calcified frontal and oral walls which were membranous in the autozooid originally. fr on t a l con dyle (ARTHRO: Insecta) A process of the frons that articulates with the dorsal fossa of the mandible. fr on t a l cost a (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Orthoptera, a prominent vertical ridge of the head; a carina. fr on t a l cr e st (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, an elevation extending across the head above the antennal sockets. fr on t a l dila t or s of t he ph a r ynx (ARTHRO: Insecta) The muscles which run from the frons to the pharynx. fr on t a l disc (ARTHRO: Insecta) In larval Diptera, a projecting histoblast upon which develops the rudiment of an antenna. fr on t a l e ye see fr on t a l or ga n fr on t a l e ye com ple x (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The eyes or reduced eyes innervated from the nauplius eye center. see

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or ga n of Be llon ci, fr on t a l or ga n. fr on t a l fissu r e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, the line extending from the crescent-shaped sclerite above the antennae to the border of the mouth. fr on t a l ga nglion (ARTHRO: Insecta) The median ganglion above the esophagus, in front of the brain, connected by nerves to the tritocerebral lobe on either side. fr on t a l gla n d (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Isoptera, a large median gland beneath the integument of the head in certain soldier-termites, opening through the fontanelle or frontal pore, which produces secretions. fr on t a lia n. [L. frons, front] 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) For Diptera, see frontal vitta. 2. (GNATHO) Paired sensory bristles on the anterior part of the head. fr on t a l lobe s (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. In Psyllidae, two lobes or protrusions divided by a suture in which an ocellus is situated. 2. In Formicoidea, lateral projection of the frontal carina. fr on t a l lu nu le (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, the lunar-shaped sclerite above the base of the antennae and below the frontal suture. fr on t a l m e m br a ne (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) In Cheilostomata, membrane of the frontal wall in autozooids. fr on t a l or bit see fa cia l or bit fr on t a l or bit s see ge nove r t ica l pla t e s fr on t a l or ga n (ARTHRO: Crustacea) a. Sensory cells on the anterior surface of the cephalon of malacostracans; the haft organ or frontal eye in non-malacostracans. b. The Bellonci organ of ostracods. see or ga n of Be llonci, fr ont a l e ye com ple x , x - or ga n . fr on t a l pla n e A plane or section parallel to the body main axis and at right angles to the sagittal plane; horizontal plane. fr on t a l pla t e (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In brachyuran Decapoda, a modified rostrum with a downward projecting process united with the epistome. fr on t a l pla t e of t he t e n t or iu m (ARTHRO: Insecta) The plate formed by fused anterior arms of the tentorium.

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fr on t a l por e see fon t a n e lle fr on t a l/ pr e t e n t or ia l pit s (ARTHRO: Insecta) The internal invaginations of the anterior arms of the tentorium. fr on t a l r e gion (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The anteromedian part of a carapace including the rostrum and the region behind it. fr on t a l r idge (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. An anteriorly directed ridge on the dorsal margin of the eye. 2. For mosquitoes, see postfrontal ridge. fr on t a l sa il (MOLL: Gastropoda) In Prosobranchia, an erect transverse fold on the anterior part of the head which may be simple or formed into scallops, tubercles, or projections. fr on t a l se t a 1. (ARTHRO: Diplopoda) One of a pair of setae on either side of the median line of the frontal surface of the head. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) One of two setae on the frons of caterpillars. fr on t a l sh ie ld (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) In Cheilostomata, the skeletal structure of the frontal or body wall that supports and protects the retracted organs of an autozooid. fr on t a l st r ipe (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, a membranous or discolored area on the middle front. fr on t a l su t u r e (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. One of two sutures arising at the anterior end of the coronal suture which extends ventrad toward the epistomal suture. 2. In Diptera, a suture shaped like an inverted "U", having the base crossing the face above the bases of the antennae, and the arms extending downward on each side of the face; a ptilinal suture. fr on t a l t e n t a cle s (MOLL: Gastropoda) In Opisthobranchia, tentacles just posterior to the mouth; cephalic tentacles. fr on t a l t r ia n gle (ARTHRO: Insecta) In holoptic flies, the triangle between the eyes and the antennae, the apex being above. fr on t a l t ube r cle see na su s fr on t a l t uft (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, a group of elongate simple setae and fusiform scales arising at the interocular space and the adjacent portion of the vertex. fr on t a l ve sicle (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Odonata, a protuberance

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between the compound eyes, bearing the ocelli. fr on t a l vit t a (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, an area on the head between the antennae and the ocelli; the frontalia. fr on t a l w a ll (BRYO) An external wall supporting the oral wall wholly or partly. fr on t oclype a l a r e a (ARTHRO: Insecta) The front of the head, that is divided by the epistomal sulcus (or suture) into the frons above and the clypeus below. fr on t oclype a l su lcu s or su t u r e see e pist om a l su t u r e fr on t oclype u s n. [L. frons, forehead; clypeus, shield] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The line (sulcus or suture) between the combined clypeus and frons which is not externally visible. fr on t oclype a l a. fr on t oge na l sut u r e (ARTHRO: Insecta) A more or less vertical suture on the front of the head, between the frons and the gena. see su ba n t e nn a l su t u r e . fr on t ola t e r a l hor n (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Cirripedia nauplii, a pair of tubular frontolateral extensions of cuticle. fr on t o- or bit a l br ist le s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, bristles on the front, next to the eyes. fr ot h gla nds (ARTHRO: Insecta) In nymphal Cercopidae, the modified Malpighian tubules. fr ugivor ous a. [L. frux, fruit; vorare, to devour] Feeding upon fruit. fr y n.; sing. & pl. [ME. fry, offspring] 1. Young or offspring. 2. The recently hatched brood of oysters. fu ga ciou s a. [L. fugere, to flee] Having a tendency to disappear; not permanent; perishing early; lasting a short while. fu ga ciou sly adv.; fuga ciou sn e ss n. fu lcr a l a. [L. fulcrum , support] Of or pertaining to a fulcrum. fu lcr a l pla t e s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In aculeate Hymenoptera, see triangular plates; for Diptera see clype a l ph r a gm a . fu lcr a n t t r och a n t e r (ARTHRO: Insecta) A trochantin traversing the fem ur, but not intervening between it and the coxa. fu lcr a t e m a st a x (ROTIF) A mastax with an elongate fulcrum , having a pair of leaf-like manubria attached anteriorly.

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fu lcr o- cr a n ia l m u scle (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. A muscle arising from the postoccipital phragma or ridge and inserted on the fulcrum in the thysanuran Lepismodes and mayfly nymphs. 2. In the blattoid Periplaneta and lower apterygotes, a muscle arising from each of the posterior tentorial arms. fu lcr um n.; pl. fu lcr um s [L. fulcrum , support] 1. Any structure that props or supports another. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. In Heteroptera, the trochantin. b. In lower hemimetabolous insects, a sclerotized fulcrum formed by two ligual sclerites joined proximally on the ventral surface of the hypopharynx. c. In Diptera and Hymenoptera, the horny part of the lingula. 3. (MOLL: Bivalvia) That portion to which the cartilage is attached; chondrophore. 4. (ROTIF) The unpaired trophus of the mastax. fu lgid a. [L. fulgidus, shining] Appearing red with bright metallic reflections. fu lgu r a t ion n. [L. fulgurare, to flash] The act of flashing as lightning; to emit flashes. fu ligin ou s a. [LL. fuligo, soot] Of or pertaining to soot or smoke; having the color of soot; dark colored, sooty opaque brown. fu lt e lla n. [L. dim. fult ura, prop] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, the aedeagal apodeme of male Tephritidae possessing a pair of lateral processes extending to the hypandrium. fu lt e llifor m a. [L. dim. fult ura, prop; form a, shape] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Having the fultella at least partially fused with the median internal surface of the hypandrium. fu lt u r a n.; pl. -a e [L. fult ura, prop] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In male Lepidoptera, a rectangular sclerite (paired) extending into the abdomen from sternite 9. see su spe n sor iu m . fu lt u r a e of hypopha r yn x (ARTHRO: Chilopoda) Two ventral plates posteriorly attached to the margin of the cranium, and mesally extended forward as a tapering arm against the side of the hypopharynx; hypopharyngeal supports. fu lt u r a infe r ior (ARTHRO: Insecta) In male Lepidoptera, sclerotized structures situated on the ventral diaphragm, including the ventral part of the anellus and juxta. fu lt u r a pe n is (ARTHRO: Insecta) In male Lepidoptera, the

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sclerotized structures of the diaphragm, namely, the fultura inferior and the fultura superior. fu lt u r a supe r ior (ARTHRO: Insecta) In male Lepidoptera, sclerotized structures situated on the dorsal part of the diaphragm, including the dorsal part of the anellus and transtilla. fu lvous a. [L. fulvus, tawny yellow] Having low saturation and median brilliance; orange, reddish yellow, tawny, rust color or reddish brown. fu n ct ion v. [L. funct io, perform] The activity or action of any part of an organism. fun ct iona l a. fu n ct iona l h a plom e t r osis (ARTHRO: Insecta) A colony in which an initial pleometrotic association of females undergoes a change, resulting in a haplometrotic society of the original females, presided over by one of them; functional monogyny. see pe r m a n e n t ha plom e t r osis, t e m por a r y h a plom e t r osis. fu nda m e n t n. [L. fundam ent um , foundation] The primordium. fu nda t r ige n ia n. [L. fundare, to found; Gr. genos, descent] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Homoptera, the wingless, viviparous parthenogenetic Aphidae and Phylloxeridae females, the offspring of a fundatrix, that lives on the primary host. fu nda t r ix n.; pl. -t r ice s [L. fundare, to found] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The wingless, viviparous, parthenogenetic female Aphidae, Phylloxeridae and Adelgidae that hatches from overwintered eggs and founds a new colony. see fu n da t r ige n ia , a lie n icola , m igr a n t e , ga llicola . fu nda t r ix spu r ia see a ga m ic, m igr a n t e fu ndu s n. [L. fundus, bottom] The base or bottom, as in the bottom of a hollow organ. fu ngicolous a. [L. fungus, mushroom; colare, to inhabit] Living in or on fungi. fu ngifor m a. [L. fungus, mushroom; form a, shape] Mushroomshaped. fu ngivor ous a. [L. fungus, mushroom; vorare, to devour] Feeding on or devouring fungus mycelium; mycetophagous; mycophagous.

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fu ngu s ga r de n Fungi cultivated within the nest of higher termites or fungus ants for use as food. see a m br osia , be e br e a d. fu ngu s- gr ow in g be e t le (ARTHRO: Insecta) Any beetle that feeds on symbiotic fungi, i.e., ambrosia beetles, etc. fu n icu la r st r a nd (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) Tissue crossing all body cavities; in males and hermaphrodites produces sperm. fu n icu la t e a. [L. funiculus, little cord] Having or forming a funiculus. fu n icu lu s, fu n icle n.; pl. -li [L. funiculus, little cord] 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. The middle antennal segments between the scape and the club. b. The main tendon of the abdomen. c. In Hymenoptera, the ligament connecting the propodeum to the petiole. 2. (BRYO) A strand of tissue that attaches the digestive tract to the body wall or communication pores, thus extending from zooid to zooid throughout the colony. 3. (MOLL: Gastropoda) A narrow ridge of callus spiraling from the upper lip into the umbilicus. fu n ne l n. [L. infundibulum , funnel] 1. (ANN: Oligochaeta) Internal opening of both male and female genital ducts. see fe m a le a nd m a le funne l. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) See peritrophic membrane. 3. (MOLL: Cephalopoda) a. A specialized siphon from the mantle cavity providing locomotion by propulsion. b. For Nautiloidea, see h yponom e . fu n ne l or ga n (MOLL: Cephalopoda) A glandular structure on the dorsal side of the funnel, slightly behind the valve; Verrill's organ. fu n ne l sh a pe d see infu n dibu lum fu r ca n.; pl. -ca e [L. furca, fork] 1. Any forked process. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The caudal furca; cercopod. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. The cercopods; the forked sternal process arising from the thoracic sternum of pterygote insects formed by the sternal apophyses, supported on a medium inflection; referred to as pro-, meso, or metafurca. b. In Collembola, the modified abdominal jumping appendages. see fu r cu la . c. In some male Lepidoptera, the sclerotized structure of the juxta. d. For furca of the labellum, see la -

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be lla r scle r it e . fu r ca e m a x illa r e s see su pe r lingu a e fu r ca l a r m s see st e r na l a poph yse s fu r ca l r a m u s see ca u da l r a m u s fu r ca pe ct in a e see pe ct ina fu r ca st e r na l sut u r e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In pterygote insects, the internal median longitudinal line formed at the point of meeting the mesopleurosternal ridges of opposite sides and confluent with the mesosternal ridge. fu r ca st e r nu m n. [L. furca, fork; st ernum , breast] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. In apterygote insects, that area of the thoracic sternum separated from the basisternum by the sternacosta. 2. In pterygote insects, the bases of the sternal apophyses form the furca, the sternacosta is lost, and the separation of the basisternum and furcasternum is usually obscure. fu r ca t e a. [L. furca, fork] Forked; having two divergent branches from a common base. fu r ca t e pla t e s see pe ct ina fu r ce lla see spina fu r cilia n. [L. dim. furca, fork] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Euphausiacea, the larval stage following the calyptopis (mysis type) with stalked and movable compound eyes and with thoracic and abdominal appendages; antennae not used for locomotion. fu r cina n. [L. dim. furca, fork] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The outer surface of the sternum bearing an invaginated furca. see fu r ca st e r na l su t u r e . fu r coce r cou s ce r ca r ia e (PLATY: Trematoda) Cercariae with forked tails into which the body is not retractable; divided into several groups: 1. Bucephalus group (including gasterostomes). 2. Lophocercous group (apharyngeate, monostome cercariae). 3. Apharyngeate or ocellate group. 4. Pharyngeate, nonocellate group. 5. Suckerless apharyngeate group. fu r cocyst oce r cou s ce r ca r ia e see cyst ice r ca r ia e ce r ca r ia e

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fu r cu la n.; pl. -la e [L. dim. furca, fork] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. The forked springing apparatus of springtails; furca. 2. In Hymenoptera, a small sclerite of the anterior sting base which depresses, raises and rotates the sting of bees. furcular a. fu r cu la t e a. [L. dim. furca, fork] Having a furcula. fu r r ow n. [A.S. furh, trench] A groove separating parts, divisions or segments of an invertebrate body. fu r r ow spin e s (ECHINOD: Asteroidea) Spines on the adambulacral plates that protect the ambulacral furrow. fu sce sce n t a. [L. fuscus, dusky] Having a dusky or somber hue. fu scou s a. [L. fuscus, dsky] Brown or grayish black; dusky. fu se d a. [L. fundere, to pour] Pertaining to being united, blended or run together. fu se d phoba l m a ss (ARTHRO: Insecta) In certain scarabaeoid larvae, the large, coalesced group of phobae located on each side of the pedium, slightly anterior to the tormae. fu se d- w a ll colony see fix e d- w a ll colony fu sifor m a. [L. fusus, spindle; form a, shape] 1. Spindleshaped, tapering almost equally toward both ends. 2. (MOLL: Gastropoda) Of or pertaining to univalves having a long canal and an equally long spire, tapering from the middle toward both ends. fu sion n. [L. fusus, spindle] A joining together of adjacent structures, parts or sclerites. fu sion la ye r (MOLL: Bivalvia) That part of the ligament secreted by the mantle. fu soid a. [L. fusus, spindle] Spindle-shaped; fusiform. fu su la e , fusu le s n.pl. [L. dim. fusus, spindle] (ARTHRO) Minute upright cylinders with a tapering spine on the base of the spinnerets; the spinning tubes of the silk glands in various arthropods. fu su s a m phidia lis see se n silla pouch

G ga le a n. [L. galea, helmet] 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) A moveable process on the digit of the chelicera of pseudoscorpions, used to spin silken cocoons for protection during molting, hibernation, or the brooding of eggs. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Outer distal hoodlike lobe of the second segment of the maxillula. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. The outer lobe of the maxilla borne by the stipes; may be present or absent. b. Basis for coiled tongue in Lepidoptera. ga le a pa lpifor m is (ARTHRO: Insecta) The galea composed of cylindrical joints as distinguished from the lacinia. ga lle r y n.; pl. -le r ie s [ML. galilaea, gallery] A passage or corridor made by an animal. ga llicola n. [L. galla, gall; colere, to inhabit] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Form of phylloxeran fundatrix that forms leaf galls. ga llicola e m igr a n t e s (ARTHRO: Insecta) Winged gall-making form of Phylloxeridae or Adelgidae that migrate to an intermediate host. ga llicola e n onm igr a nt e s (ARTHRO: Insecta) Apterous Adelgidae that remain on the primary host and produce fundatrices parthenogenetically. ga llicolou s a. [L. galla, gall; colere, to inhabit] Producers or inquilines dwelling in plant galls. ga llipha gou s a. [L. galla, gall; Gr. phagein, to eat] Feeding upon galls or gall tissue. ga lva n ot a x is n. [Luigi Galvani, pert. electricity; Gr. t axis, arrangement] A taxis in which an electric current is the directive factor. ga lva n ot r opism n. [Luigi Galvani, pert. electricity; Gr. t ropein, to turn] Tropism in which an electric current is the orienting factor; electrotropism. ga m e t a ngioga m y n. [Gr. gam et e, wife; dim. angos, vessel] The union of gametangia.

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ga m e t a ngiu m n.; pl. -ia [Gr. gam et e, wife; angos, vessel] A structure producing gametes. ga m e t e n. [Gr. gam et e, wife] A cell that unites with another cell in sexual reproduction. ga m e t ocyt e n. [Gr. gam et e, wife; kyt os, container] 1. A spermatocyte or oocyte. 2. Sexual stage of the malarial parasite in the blood which upon being taken into the mosquito host may produce gametes. see m icr oga m e t ocyt e , m a cr oga m e t ocyt e . ga m e t oga m y n. [Gr. gam et e, wife; gam os, marriage] Union of two single celled gametes to form the zygote. ga m e t oge n e sis n [Gr. gam et e, wife; genesis, beginning] Gamete formation by which oogonia become ova and spermatogonia become sperm; gametogeny; gonogenesis. see ooge ne sis; spe r m a t oge n e sis. ga m e t oge n e t ic ge ne r a t ion A sexual generation as opposed to a parthenogenetic generation. ga m e t oge n y see ga m e t oge n e sis ga m e t ogon iu m see ga m e t ocyt e ga m e t ogon y n. [Gr. gam et e, wife; gonos, seed] A phase in the development cycle of the malarial parasite in the red blood cells of man in which the two sexes of gametocytes are formed. ga m e t ot ok y n. [Gr. gam et e, wife; t okos, birth] Parthenogenesis in which unfertilized eggs develop into either sex; deuterotoky; amphitoky; arrhenotoky. ga m m a t a x onom y Taxonomy that uses all available biological information ranging from intraspecific population studies to the study of speciation, evolutionary rates and trends; systematics. see a lpha t a x onom y, be t a t a x on om y. ga m obium n. [Gr. gam os, marriage; bios, life] The sexual generation in alternation of generations. see a ga m obium . ga m ode m e n. [Gr. gam os, marriage; dem os, people] An isolated inbreeding community. ga m oge ne sis n. [Gr. gam os, marriage; genesis, beginning] Sexual reproduction. ga m ogonic a. see a ga m oge ne sis.

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ga m ogon y see ga m oge ne sis ga m on e s n. [Gr. gam os, marriage; -one, mimics ending of hormone] A group of biological agents that cause initiation of fertilization. ga m opha se see ha plopha se ga nglia a lla t a see cor por a a lla t a ga nglion n.; pl. -glia [Gr. ganglion, swelling] A discrete group of nerve cell bodies acting as a center of nervous influence. ga nglia t e a. ga nglion ic ce n t e r Where two or more ganglia of adjoining segments coalesce. ga nglion ic com m issur e A nerve cord connecting any two adjacent ganglia. ga nglion ic la ye r see la m in a ga nglion ic pla t e see la m in a ga nglion ve nt r icula r e (ARTHRO: Insecta) The ganglion in front of the proventriculus. ga p n. [ON. gap] 1. Discontinuity. 2. A narrow unstained region in a chromosome representing chromosome structural changes caused by mutagens. ga pe r a. [ON. gapa, yawn, gape] 1. An invertebrate that gapes. 2. (MOLL: Bivalvia) In oysters, used to denote a dead or dying individual with gaping valves and some remaining meat. see ga pin g. ga pin g a. [ON. gapa, yawn, gape] (MOLL: Bivalvia) Pertaining to an opening along the margin of a shell that does not naturally shut tightly together, i.e., soft shelled clams; gapers. see ga pe r . ga se ous e x ch a n ge The exchange of gases between an organism and its environment. ga se ous pla st r on see pla st r on ga s gla nd (CNID: Hydrozoa) In Siphonophora, glandular epithelium that secretes an air-like gas into a float. ga st e r n. [Gr. gast er, stomach] 1. Stomach. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The major part of the abdomen behind the pedicel in threadwaisted Hymenoptera.

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ga st e r ost om e n. [Gr. gast er, stomach; st om a, mouth] (PLATY: Trematoda) Cercaria in which the sucker is on the midventral surface. ga st e r ot h e ca n. [Gr. gast er, stomach; t heke, case] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Part of the theca or pupa case surrounding the abdomen. see som a t ot h e ca . ga st r a e a n. [Gr. gast er, stomach] Hypothetical adult ancestor of higher animals that all have the gastrula as a common stage in their early ontogeny. ga st r a e u m n. [Gr. gast er, stomach] The ventral side of a body. ga st r a l ca vit y see spongocoe l ga st r a l gr oove (ARTHRO: Insecta) A longitudinal furrow in the mid-line of the ventral plate of some eggs. ga st r a lia n. [Gr. gast er, stomach] (PORIF: Hexactinellida) Microscleres beneath the inner cell layer. ga st r a l la ye r or m e m br a ne (PORIF) Choanocytes lining the internal cavity. ga st r a l r a y (PORIF) One of the quadriradiates embedded in the wall and projecting into the central gastral cavity. ga st r ic fila m e n t (CNID) A filament lined with nematocysts that kill living prey entering the stomach of a jellyfish. ga st r ic gr oove s (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Stomatopoda, the longitudinal pair of grooves, extending from the base of the rostrum to the posterior margin of the carapace. ga st r ic mill (ARTHRO: Crustacea) 1. Thickened and calcified parts in the cardiac stomach lining composed of moveable articulated ossicles used to break up food. 2. In Acrothoracica, chitinous triturating apparatus in the foregut; masticatory stomach. ga st r ic ossicle s (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The teeth of the gastric mill. ga st r ic ost ium (CNID) Gastric pouch opening of jellyfish. ga st r ic pou ch (CNID) One of four enlargements of the stomach of a jellyfish. ga st r ic r e gion (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, the median

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part anterior to the cervical groove and posterior to the frontal region. ga st r ic sh ie ld (MOLL: Bivalvia) A sclerotized plate that lines a part of the stomach, that aids the crystalline style by abrasion, thus releasing carbohydrate digesting enzymes. ga st r ic t oot h (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, a tooth on the midline of the carapace anterior to the cervical groove. ga st r ile gou s a. [Gr. gast er, stomach; L. legere, to collect] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to bearing pollen baskets beneath the abdomen. ga st r ocoe le n. [Gr. gast er, stomach; koilos, hollow] The gastrulation cavity; archenteron. ga st r ocoe lu s n.; pl. -li [Gr. gast er, stomach; koilos, hollow] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, transverse impressions at both sides of the base of the 2nd gastral tergite; includes thyridium. ga st r ode r m is n. [Gr. gast er, stomach; derm a, skin] 1. A one cell thick lining of the digestive tract of coelenterates, ctenophors and platyhelminths. 2. Endoderm. ga st r o- ile a l fold (ARTHRO: Insecta) A circular valve-like fold separating the intestine and the chylific stomach or ventricle. ga st r olit h n. [Gr. gast er, stomach; lit hos, stone] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, a discoidal calcareous nodule, commonly found in the stomodeum. ga st r oor bit a l ca r ina (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, a narrow carapace ridge extending posteriorly from the supraorbital spine; supraorbital. ga st r oor bit a l gr oove (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, a short, longitudinal carapace groove branching from the cervical groove at the level of the orbit and directed toward it. Ga st r opoda , ga st r opods n.; n.pl. [Gr. gast er, stomach; pous, foot] A class of asymmetrical univalve mollusks with stomach situated in the region of the foot, shell in one piece, often spirally coiled, that live in the sea, fresh water, and on land, and are either herbivorous or carnivorous.

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ga st r opor e s n. [Gr. gast er, stomach; poros, hole] (CNID: Hydrozoa) In Milleporina and Stylasterina, the larger pores in the coenosteum through which gastrozooids protrude. Ga st r ot r ich a , ga st r ot r ich s n.; n.pl. [Gr. gast er, stomach; t hrix, hair] A phylum of aquatic micrometazoans that are oblong, strap-shaped to ovoid tenpin-shaped and bear locomotor cilia on the flattened venter. ga st r ova scu la r ca vit y A body cavity in which functions of both digestion and circulation occur. ga st r ova scu la r syst e m The digestive-excretory system with out-pouchings and canals. ga st r ozooid n. [Gr. gast er, stomach; zoon, animal] (CNID: Hydrozoa) In some colonial cnidarians, a hydroid modified for feeding and digestion, also called siphons; in most species, they fulfill the defensive functions of the colony. see da ct ylozooid. ga st r u la n. [Gr. dim. gast er, stomach] Embryonic stage resembling a sac with an outer layer of epiblastic cells (ectoderm) and an inner layer of hypoblastic cells (endoderm and mesoderm); the enclosed cavity is the archenteron or gastrocoel. ga st r u la r a. ga t he r ing h a ir s (ARTHRO: Insecta) The small hairs covering the glossa and the fringe of stouter bristles on the labellum of bees. Ga use 's r ule see com pe t it ive e x clu sion ge la t ige n ou s a. [L. gelat us, congealed; genos, origin] Producing gelatin. ge la t in , ge la t ine n. [L. gelat us, congealed] A jelly-like substance (gel) obtained from animal tissue; also loosely applied to secretions of animals. ge la t in ou s m a t r ix An external glandular substance secreted by some invertebrates, into which the eggs are embedded or deposited. ge m in a t e a. [L. gem inus, two-fold] To double; occurring in pairs; twins. ge m m a n.; pl. -m a e [L. gem m a, bud] A bud or bud-like organic growth.

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ge m m a t ion n. [L. gem m a, bud] 1. The act of reproducing by budding. 2. Marked with bright colored spots. ge m m a t e a. ge m m ipa r a n., pl. ge m m ipa r e s [L. gem m a, bud; parere, to beget] A form of asexual reproduction where animals reproduce by budding, as hydroids, bryozoans and sponges. ge m m u le n. [L. gem m a, bud] 1. A bud-like outgrowth that becomes an independent individual. 2. (PORIF) Composed of a mass of archaeocytes charged with reserves and enclosed in a non-cellular protective envelope. 2. Historically a particle of heredity, hypothesized by Darwin, carried in the cells and able to move to the sex cells that allowed environment to influence inheritance directly. ge m m u lost a sin n. [L. gem m a, bud; st asis, standing] (PORIF) An inhibitor of gemmule germination. ge na n.; pl. ge na e [L. gena, cheek] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. That part of an insect head on each side below the eyes, bordered by the frontal suture, and behind the eyes, by the occipital suture. 2. In Diptera, the region lying between the face and the lower margin of the eye on either side; parafacials or genal groove. 3. In Hymenoptera, the lateral portions of the head between the eyes and the insertions of the mandibles of Formicidae. genal a. ge na ce r or e see w a x gla nds ge na l br ist le s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, bristles on the genal groove at the lower corner of the eye. ge na l ca r in a (ARTHRO: Insecta) In ichneumonid Hymenoptera, the lower end of the occipital carina, ending at the oral carina or the lower mandibular socket. ge na l com b (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Siphonaptera, a row of strong spines borne on the anteroventral border of the head; genal ctenidium. see ct e n idiu m . ge na l ct e nidiu m see ct e n idium ge na l gr oove (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, a depressed and groove-like area near the ventral limits of the ptilinal suture and the juncture of the gena and parafacial; cheek groove; transverse impression. ge na l or bit (ARTHRO: Insecta) That area of an orbit adjacent to

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the ventral margin of a compound eye. ge na pon t a n. [L. gena, cheek; pons, bridge] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In specialized Hymenoptera, a bridge composed of the fused postgenae that closes the underside of the head behind the mouth. ge na t a sinu s see ge nit a l pou ch ge n e n. [Gr. genos, birth, origin] A hereditary determiner; the unit of inheritance, carried in a chromosome that is transmitted from one generation to another in the gametes and that controls the development of characters in the new individual; the factor. ge n e a ct ion Gene expression by control of specificity and rate of biosynthetic processes, particularly proteins. ge n e a ct iva t ion Differential expression of genes caused by deactivation, etc., of specific genes by products of the cell. ge n e flow The exchange of genetic factors between populations of the same species owing to dispersal of zygotes or gametes. ge n e fr e qu e n cy The percentage of all alleles at a given locus in a population represented by a specific allele. ge n e int e r a ct ion Interaction between genes that produces a particular phenotype. ge n e loca t ion The distance between genes on a chromosome map. ge n e locu s pl. loci The position of a gene in a chromosome. ge n e m a p The graphical linear arrangement of mutational sites in the gene itself. ge n e m u t a t ion Heritable change within a gene. ge n e pool The totality of the genes of a given population of sexually reproducing organisms existing at a given time. ge n e r a lize d a. [L. genus, kind] A comparative term used in biology in contrast to specialized or cenogenetic, indicating an ancient or long-standing character when compared with one or more newly evolved. ge n e r a t ion n. [L. generare, to beget] The length of time from any given stage in the life cycle of an organism to the same

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stage in the offspring. ge n e r a t ive a. [L. generare, to beget] Pertains to somatic cell generation as distinct from germ cells or gametes. ge n e r it ype Obs. see t ype spe cie s ge n e r ot ype Obs. see t ype spe cie s ge n e siology n. [Gr. genesis, descent; logos, discourse] The science of generation or heredity. Ge n e 's or ga n (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In female Ixodida, a cephalic glandular organ which functions only during egg laying. ge n e splicin g see splicin g ge n e t ic a ssim ila t ion The fixation of a genetic character being influenced by artificial environmental changes, not evident in the original phenotype. ge n e t ic ba la nce Harmonious interaction of genes ensuring normal development of the organism; genic balance. ge n e t ic code Genetic information that is encoded into DNA and transcribed to messenger RNA which forms peptides by genetic translation. ge n e t ic dr ift Genetic changes in isolated populations caused by random phenomena rather than by natural selection. see popu la t ion, loca l. ge n e t ic e ngin e e r in g Manipulation of DNA from different species to form recombinant DNA including genes from both species. ge n e t ic e quilibr ium Condition of gene frequencies and genotypes in large populations that remain stable from generation to generation. ge n e t ic h om e ost a sis The tendency of a population to balance its genetic composition and to resist sudden changes. ge n e t ic isola t ion Having sterility barriers preventing interbreeding between two or more populations. ge n e t ic m a p A chromosome map; relative distance between genes on a chromosome measured by crossing over and recombinations; may be recombination of genes (chromosome map) or within genes (gene map).

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ge n e t ic polym or ph ism The long-term common occurrence of 2 or more genotypes in a population which cannot be accounted for by recurrent mutation. ge n e t ics n. [Gr. genesis, beginning] The science of heredity and variation. ge n e t ic va r ia bilit y Inheritable variation caused by genetic change not by environment. ge n ic ba la n ce see ge n e t ic ba la n ce ge n icu la r a. [L. dim. genu, knee] Pertaining to the region of the knee. ge n icu la t e n. [L. dim. genu, knee] 1. Bent; elbowed; bent in an obtuse angle. 2. (ARTHRO) The antenna of arthropods, i.e., insects and crustaceans. 3. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The base of the chelicerae in some spiders. ge n it a l a. [L. gignere, to beget] Pertaining to the reproductive organs or the process of generation. ge n it a l a pe r t u r e 1. The genital opening. 2. (NEMATA) When a cloaca is present, the anus. ge n it a l a r e a (BRACHIO) That part of the shell underlain by saccate gonocoel or posterior part of the digitate or lemniscate gonocoel. ge n it a l a r m a t u r e Those portions of the reproductive system directly involved in copulation. ge n it a l a t r iu m (PLATY) A small cavity in the body wall into which the male and female genital ducts open. ge n it a l bur sa 1. (ECHINOD: Ophiuroidea) A genitorespiratory sac into which the gonads open; also used in respiration and brooding of larvae in brooding forms. 2. See bu r sa copu la t r ix . ge n it a l ca n a l (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) A canal in the arms in which the genital tube and cord lie. ge n it a l cha e t a (ANN) A seta that functions in sexual reproduction; spermathecal chaeta; penial chaeta; penial seta. ge n it a l cha m be r (ARTHRO: Insecta) A copulatory invagination. a. In females, sometimes forms a tubular vagina that is often developed to form a bursa copulatrix. b. In males, a

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ventral invagination containing the phallic organs. ge n it a l coe lom (MOLL) The lamina of the gonads. ge n it a l cone (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Single or paired testes openings on the eighth thoracic sternite of males. ge n it a l cor d see ge n it a l r a ch is/ cor d ge n it a l disc (ARTHRO: Insecta) The imaginal disc from which the reproductive duct system and the external genitalia are formed in the vinegar fly, Drosophila . ge n it a l duct see gonodu ct ge n it a l fossa see fe ne st r a ge n it a l gr oove 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In some female spiders, a cleft posterior to the epigynum into which the fertilization duct opens and through which the eggs pass. 2. (ECHI) A depression, with or without setae, extending from the nephridopore(s) to the mouth on the ventral surface. ge n it a l ha m u le / h ook see h a m u la r h ook , h a m u lus a n t e r ior is, ha m ulu s post e r ior is ge n it a lia n.pl. [L. genit alis, pert. to procreation] 1. The sexual organs and associated structures. 2. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In male and female spiders, the sclerotized genital structures. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Usually applied to the external sexual organs; gonapophyses. ge n it a l lobe (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Odonata genitalia, a lobe of the postero-lateral angles of the second abdominal segment. ge n it a l ope ning 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) a. In Acari, originally a transverse slit or trifid orifice associated with segment eight. b. In many actinotrochid Acari, it is found in the progenital chamber where it is named the eugenital opening. 2. (MOLL: Bivalvia) Opening for gonadal products leading into the cloacal passage. ge n it a l or ga n s The reproductive organs. ge n it a l pa pilla / pa pilla e 1. (ANN) A protuberance below the neuropodium where a reproductive duct opens. 2. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) Endite of an opisthosomatic appendage; shaped like an erectile papilla or verruca in Acari. 3. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In some males, long genital processes on

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the 5th or 8th thoracomere that provides openings for the vasa deferentia and a pair of accessory glands. 4. (ARTHRO: Insecta) see papilla genitalis. 5. (NEMATA) Sensory nerve terminations, variable in size, form and arrangement on or near the male tail. ge n it a l pla t e s 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) see epigynum. 2. (ECHINOD: Echinoidea) Plates surrounding the periproct. ge n it a l ple u r a e see ge n it a l r idge ge n it a l por e Genital opening. ge n it a l pouch (ARTHRO: Insecta) In certain Diptera, a pouch below the hypandrium receiving the tips of the surstyli and cerci. ge n it a l pr im or dium In embryology, the originating cells leading to the development of the reproductive system. ge n it a l r a ch is/ cor d (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) Strands of gonocytes in the genital canal that traverse the arms to the gonad. ge n it a l r idge (ARTHRO: Insecta) In embryology, thickenings of the viseral (splanchnic) wall of the mesoderm in the abdominal region of the body in which the gonadal rudiments lie. ge n it a l r e gion see u r oga st r ic lobe or a r e a ge n it a l sa c see pr e put ia l sa c ge n it a l se gm e n t s 1. Body segments that bear copulatory organs. 2. (ANN) Usually segments X and XI. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In males, abdominal segment IX; in females, abdominal segments VIII and IX. ge n it a l se t a e see ge nit a l pa pilla e , ge n it a l ch a e t a ge n it a l spik e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Coccidae, the penis sheath. ge n it a l st olon see a x ia l gla n d ge n it a l st yle s see ge nost yle s ge n it a l suck e r (PLATY: Trematoda) A sucker around the genital pore. ge n it a l supple m e n t s see su pple m e n t s ge n it a l t r a ch e a e (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, tracheae

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from the progenital chamber resembling gland ducts and often ending in caecae; the respiratory function is not proven. ge n it a l t ube (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) Suspended in the genital canal and carrying the rachis or genital cord. ge n it a l t u ft see br ushe s ge n it a l t um e sce n ce s (ANN: Oligochaeta) In Lumbricidae, modified epidermis through which follicles of genital setae open. ge n it a l va lve see la t e r a l gon a poph yse s ge n it a l w in gs see ge n it a l r idge s ge n it oin t e st in a l ca na l 1. (NEMATA) see demanian system. 2. (PLATY: Trematoda) A duct connecting the oviduct and intestine of certain Polyopisthocotylea monogeneans. genito-urinary see urogenital ge noclin e n. [Gr. genos, race; klinein, to slope] Change within a continuous population in frequencies of genotypes in different geographical areas. ge nocopy n. [Gr. genos, race; L. copia, abundance] Production of the same phenotype by different genes (mimetic genes). ge node m e n. [Gr. genos, race; dem os, people] A deme. ge noholot ype n. [Gr. genos, race; holos, whole; t ypos, type] A typical species specified by the author as the generic type. ge nole ct ot ype n. [Gr. genos, race; lekt os, chosen; t ypos, type] The type of a genus selected from a series of species placed in the genus subsequent to the description. ge nom e n. [Gr. genos, race; som a, body] The genes carried by a single gamete; the genetic contents of the chromosomes. ge nost yle s n.pl. [Gr. genos, race; st ylos, pillar] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In male Ephemeroptera, genital projections (consisting of 1-7 segments) initiated from the posterior corners of the 9th segment, functioning during copulation. ge nosyn t ype n. [Gr. genos, race; syn-, together; t ypos, type] Any one of a series of species that a genus is based upon

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when no one species was established as type. see t ype . ge not ype n. [Gr. genos, race; t ypos, type] 1. The genetic constitution of an organism or taxon, regardless of the outward appearance (phenotype) of the same. 2. Incorrect synonym for type species. ge nove r t ica l pla t e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, the area on the head above the antenna and next to the compound eye; the orbital plate; the parafrontals. ge n u n.; pl. ge n ua [L. genu, knee] 1. Any structure or organ with a knee-like bend. 2. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, the segment between the femur and tibia that is activated by its own muscles and tendons, corresponding with the patella in other groups of Chelicerata. ge n u s n.; pl. ge n e r a [L. genus, race] A taxon including one species or a group of species from a presumed common ancestor, separated from related similar genera by a decided gap; a taxonomic category above species and next below the family group. ge n u s novu m A new genus, never before described; gen. nov. ge obion t s n. [Gr. ge, earth; bios, life; on, a being] Organisms that permanently inhabit the soil and thereby affect its structure. see ge ocole s. ge obios n. [Gr. ge, earth; bios, life] Soil life; terrestrial life. see e da phon . ge ochr onology n. [Gr. ge, earth; chronos, time; logos, discourse] The measurement of time in relation to the evolution of the earth. ge oclin e see clin e ge ocole s a. [Gr. ge, earth; L. cola, inhabitant] Animals that spend only a part of their lives in the soil and affect its structure, aeration, et c. see ge obion t s. Ge offr oyism see La m a r ck ism ge ogr a ph ica l dist r ibu t ion The range of a species. ge ogr a ph ica l isola t ion / ba r r ie r s A population or group of populations prevented by geographic barriers from free gene exchange with other populations of the same species; a geographic isolate. see clim a t ic isola t ion.

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ge ogr a ph ic r a ce A geographically delimited race; usually a subspecies. ge ogr a ph ic va r ia t ion The differences between spatially segregated populations of a species. ge ology n.; pl. -gie s [Gr. ge, earth; logos, discourse] The science which treats of the structure and history of the earth. ge om e t r id a. [Gr. ge, earth; m et ron, measure] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A larva whose movements resemble a looping motion moving tail to head, such as the geometrid moth larva (Geometridae) "measuring worms"; geometroid. see r e ct igr a de . ge opha gou s a. [Gr. ge, earth; phagein, to eat] Feeding on earth. ge oph ilou s a. [Gr. ge, earth; philein, to love] Living in or on the ground; ground loving, as land snails. ge ot a x is n.; pl. -t a x e s [Gr. ge, earth; t axis, arrangement] A tactic response with the force of gravitation as the stimulus. a. Positive geotaxis : toward the force of gravitation. b. Negative geotaxis : away from the force of gravitation. ge ot r opism n. [Gr. ge, earth; t ropos, turn] Movement determined by the direction of gravitational force. geotropic a. see t r opism . ge ox e ne s n. [Gr. ge, earth; xenos, stranger] Organism occurring only occasionally in the soil showing little effect on the soil structure. see ge obion t s. ge r a t ology n. [Gr. geras, old age; logos, discourse] Study of degeneration and decadence of species with age. see ge r on t ology. ge r m a r ium n. [L. germ en, bud] 1. The distal chamber of an ovarial or testicular tube containing the oogonia or spermatogonia. 2. An ovary. 3. An egg or sperm producing part of a gonad. see in se ct ova r y t ype s. ge r m - ba lls 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Reproductive cells in some larvae from which other young larvae may be produced. 2. (PLATY: Trematoda) Embryos in the redial stage. ge r m ba nd (ARTHRO) In egg, the thickened area from which the embryo is produced; embryonic rudiment; germ disc;

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primitive streak. ge r m ce lls A reproductive cell in a multicellular organism. see som a t ic ce lls. ge r m idu ct n. [L. germ en, bud; ducere, to lead] (PLATY: Trematoda) The oviduct. ge r m ige n n. [L. germ en, bud; Gr. genos, offspring] (PLATY: Trematoda) The ovary. ge r m ina l a. [L. germ en, bud] Pertaining to a germ cell or embryonic structure. see som a . ge r m ina l ce ll Cells which produce gametes through m eiosis, i.e., oocytes in females, spermatocytes in males; products of the germinal primordium. ge r m ina l disc see ge r m ba nd ge r m ina l la ye r s Primary cell of the embryo: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm, from which tissues and organs of the adult are formed; germ layer. ge r m ina l m u t a t ion s Genetic alteration in cells destined to become germ cells. ge r m ina l spot The nucleolus of an ovum. ge r m ina l st r e a k The primitive streak. see ge r m ba nd. ge r m ina l va r ia t ion s A variation caused by some modification in the germ cells. ge r m ina l ve sicle The diploid nucleus of a primary oocyte before formation of polar bodies. ge r m ina l zone That part of an ovarial or testicular tube where the oogonia or spermatogonia divide. ge r m la ye r see ge r m in a l la ye r s ge r m oge n n. [L. germ en, bud; genes, born] (MESO: Rhombozoa) The central part of an infusorigen in the development of an axoblast. ge r m ovit a lla r ium n.; pl. -vit e lla r ia [L. germ en, bud; vit ellus, yolk] (PLATY) Having the ovary differentiated into yolk- and egg-producing regions. ge r m pla sm Genetic material which forms the physical basis of inheritance and is passed from generation to generation.

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ge r m t r a ct The complete detailed history of the germ cells from one generation to the next. ge r on t ic a. [Gr. geront os, old man] Pertaining to decadence; old age; deteriorating. ge r on t oge ou s a. [Gr. geront os, old man; ge, earth] Belonging to the Old World or Eastern Hemisphere. see n e oge ic. ge r ont ology n. [Gr. geront os, old man; logos, discourse] The study of aging. ge r on t om or phosis n. [Gr. geront os, old man; m orphe, form] Evolution involving specialization and diminishing capacity for further evolutionary change. ge st a t ion n. [L. gest are, to bear] In viviparous animals, the period from conception to birth. ge u sid n. [Gr. geusis, taste] (NEMATA) Gustatory organ. gia nt bu d (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) Unpartitioned distal end growth in which the side walls grow faster than the internal transverse walls. gia nt ce ll A term applied to a host response in which a multinucleate mass of protoplasm or cytoplasm often acts as a preferred feeding site or "nurse cell". see coe nocyt e , syn cyt iu m , lysige nom a , t e r a t ocyt e . gia nt ch r om osom e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, a very large chromosome bundle that arises by repeated endoreplication of single chromatids. gia nt fibe r Enlarged nerve fibers that transmit rapid impulses in certain mollusks, crustaceans, annelids, pogonaphorans and insects; giant fibre. gibbe r n. [L. gibbus, humped] A swelling or enlargement; a rounded protuberance. gibbou s, gibbose a. [L. gibbus, humped] Very convex; humpbacked; embossed; swollen; a protuberance. Gick lh or n 's or ga n (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Copepods, paired photoreceptors having two cells that closely resemble retinula cells, found in proximity to the frontal eye. giga n t ism n. [Gr. gigas, giant] Excessive growth of an organ or a complete organism to a large size.

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gigeriate a. [L. gigerium , gizzard] (ANN) Having one or more gizzards in the digestive system. gill n. [ME. gile, gill] 1. An external respiratory organ of various aquatic invertebrates. 2. (ARTHRO) Brachia or plastron. 3. (ECHINOD: Echinoidea) The plastron. 4. (MOLL) The ctenidium. gill ba ile r see scaphognathite gill ba r (MOLL: Bivalvia) Dorsoventral rodlike thickenings of a gill lamellae. gill book see book gill gill cha m be r see br a nchia l cha m be r gill fila m e n t s 1. Finger-like subdivisions of gills of various invertebrates. 2. (ANN) Finger-like extensions of the body wall that function in respiration. gill la m e lla e (MOLL: Bivalvia) Thin plates making up a gill. gill plu m e (MOLL: Gastropoda) Gill or ctenidium. gill r e t r a ct or (MOLL: Bivalvia) When present, a muscle attaching one of the gills to the shell. gill se pa r a t or see e pipodit e gill t uft A group of mainly lateral, filamentous gills. Gilson 's gla n ds (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Trichoptera, thoracic glands homologized to coxal glands or nephridia. gin glym u s n. [Gr. ginglym os, hinge-joint] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In dicondylic jaws, a cavity or groove of the mandible that hinges on a convex process of the clypeus forming the anterior joint. gin - t r a ps (ARTHRO: Insecta) In certain coleopteran larvae, local sclerotization of opposable edges of adjacent abdominal segments, supposed organs of defense against arthropod predators. gir dle n. [A.S. gyrdel, a girdle] (MOLL: Polyplacophora) Flexible muscular integument, plain or leathery, or variously ornamented, holding the chiton valves in place; perinotum; girdle. gizza r d n. [OF. gezier, gizzard] 1. A grinding chamber of various invertebrates. 2. (ANN: Oligochaeta) A muscular area of

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the digestive system between intestine and crop. 3. (ARTHRO) For Insecta and Crustacea, see proventriculus. 4. (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) In Ctenostomata, an elongate or spherical inner part of the cardia with pointed or rounded plates or teeth. 5. (ECHI) The short, muscular region of the posterior foregut usually marked by ringed or annular striations. 6. (MOLL) A thickened muscular stomach, or lined with calcareous plates for crushing food. gla be lla n. [L. dim. glaber, bald] (ARTHRO: Trilobita) A thickened, median elevated cephalic shield of trilobites. gla br ou s a. [L. glaber, bald] Smooth, free of hair. gla diolu s n. [L. dim. gladius, sword] The mesosternum. gla diu s n. [L. gladius, sword] (MOLL: Cephalopoda) In Sepiidae, Octopoda, and Teuthoidea, the horny endoskeleton or pen of endocochleates; the internal shell. gla ir y a. [L. clarus, clear] Pertaining to glair, or white of an egg. gla nd n. [L. dim. glans, acorn] An organ or cell specialized for secretion, either for use in the body or for excretion. gla nd ce ll A single secreting cell. gla ndifor m a. [L. dim. glans, acorn; form a, shape] Acornshaped. gla ndile m m a n. [L. dim. glans, acorn; Gr. lem m a, skin] The capsule of a gland. gla nd of Le ible in (MOLL) A gland connected to the modified esophagus by a duct that secretes a strong proteolytic enzyme in some predaceous mollusks and carbohydrase in vegetarians. gla nd or ifice Any external opening for gland secretion. gla nd sh ie lds (ANN: Polychaeta) In tube-builders, a pair of large mucous-secreting pads which lay down a coating on the inner surface of the tube. gla nds of Ba t e lli (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hemiptera, large hypodermal glands in the Cercopidae; formerly believed to produce the spittle. gla nds of Filippi see Lyon n e t 's gla nd

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gla nds of M or r e n see ca lcife r ous gla n ds gla nd spine s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diaspidinae, small to large spines that are conical, bifid, or somewhat fimbriate at the tip and have one or more ducts that extend to the tip of the spine; pectines; plates; squamae. gla nd t u be r cu le s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diaspidinae, a gland spine that is short, basally swollen and sclerotized. gla nduba n.; pl. -a e [L. dim. glans, acorn] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, chitinized ring openings of the cutaneous wax glands found in most sawfly larvae. gla ndu la e a cce ssor ia e (ARTHRO: Insecta) The accessory glands of the reproductive organs. gla ndu la r a. [L. dim. glans, acorn] Having or bearing a gland or gland cell, i.e., hair, spines, etc. gla ndu la r br ist le s/ ha ir s 1. Stout and rigid glandular setae. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Lepidoptera, the urticating hairs. gla ndu la r or ga n (SIPUN) A prominent structure on the ventral, median part of the oral disc of pelagosphera larvae; lip gland. gla ns n. [L. dim. glans, acorn] (SIPUN) The acorn-shaped posterior extremity of the trunk of some species. gla ssy a. [A.S. glaes, glass] Vitreous; transparent; pellucid; clear. gla u cot hoe n. [Gr. glaukos, grey; thos, swift] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, a postlarval stage in the development of Paguridae, equivalent to a megalopa. gla u cou s a. [L. glaucus, bluish-green] Sea-green or pale bluish-green in color. gle noid cavity 1. A depression for the fit of a condyle. 2. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, part of a condylar articulation. glia , glia l ce lls, glia cyt e s n. [Gr. glia, glue] Nonnerve cells in the brain or glanglion, that may support the life processes of the neurons; neuroglia. globa t e , globa t e d a. [L. globus, ball] Globose; spherical. globofe r ous ce ll (PORIF) A cell having a prominent array of paracrystalline components.

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globose , globu la r a. [L. globus, ball] Spherical; globe shaped. globu li ce lls (ARTHRO: Insecta) Specialized association cells of the brain, small in size with round nuclei rich in chromatin. globu lin n. [L. dim. of globus, ball] A class of proteins which are insoluble in water, but soluble in saline solutions, or water soluble proteins with globulin-like physical properties. globu lu s n.; pl. -li [L. globulus, small ball] (ARTHRO: Pauropoda) One jointed globular or two joined pear-shaped sensory organs on the antennae. gloch idium n.; pl. -dia [Gr. glochis, arrow-point; idion, dim] (MOLL: Bivalvia) In Unionoida, the modified parasitic larva, with or without hooks, of certain fresh water clams. gloch is n.; pl. gloch in e s [Gr. glochis, arrow-point] 1. A barbed hair, bristle, spine or point. 2. (MOLL: Gastropoda) The protrusible radula. glom e r a t e a. [L. glom us, ball] Massed or compacted into a cluster. glom e r u le see glom e r u lu s glom e r u lus n.; pl. -li [L. dim. glom us, ball] A tuft or cluster of blood vessels or nerve fibers. glossa n. [Gr. glossa, tongue] (ARTHRO: Insecta) One of a pair of terminal lingular lobes of the labium of certain insects, between the paraglossae; the medium ligula. a. In adult Hymenoptera, the fused glossae that form the tongue. b. In Thysanoptera, the median ligula that forms the apical tip of the wall of the mouth cone. glossa r ium see la br u m - e piph a r yn x glossa t e a. [Gr. glossa, tongue] Furnished with a tongue-like structure. glossot he ca n. [Gr. glossa, tongue; t heke, case] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The pupa integument covering the tongue; a tongue-case. glot t is n. [Gr. glot t a, tongue] The opening from the pharynx into the trachea. glot t oid a ppa r a t us (NEMATA) A toothed projection at the base

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of the esophastome utilized in rhabditid species and generic identification. glu copr ot e in n. [Gr. gleukos, sweet; prot eion, primary] A substance in which hexosamine containing polysaccharide is chemically united with peptides. see glycopr ot e in, m u copr ot e in. glu e ce ll see a dhe sive ce lls glu m e s n.pl. [L. glum a, husk] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, longitudinal ridges on the flagellar segments of many wasps. glu t ina n t s n.pl. [L. glut en, glue] (CNID) A type of nematocyst; the holotrichous and atrichous isorhizas. glu t inose , glu t inou s a. [L. glut inosus, sticky] Having a slimy or sticky surface. glycoca lyx n. [Gr. glykys, sweet; kalyx, covering] 1. A filamentous layer containing carbohydrate, found on the outer surface of many cells. 2. (ACANTHO) Formerly known as epicuticle. glycoge n n. [Gr. glykys, sweet; genes, born] A branch-chained polysaccharide; a major stored food substance of most animals, fungi and bacteria. glycoge n e sis n. [Gr. glykys, sweet; gennaein, to produce] Formation of glycogen from glucose. glycoge n olysis n. [Gr. glykys, sweet; genes, born; lyein, to break up] The breakdown of glycogen. glycolysis n. [Gr. glykys, sweet; lyein, to break up] The enzymatic breakdown of glucose to lactic acid or pyruvic acid with the release of energy in the form of high energy phosphate bonds. glycopr ot e in n. [Gr. glykys, sweet; prot eion, primary] Glucoprotein whose hexosamine content is less than 4%. glym m a n.; pl. -a e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In ichneumonid Hymenoptera, one of a pair of lateral fovae between the base and spiracles of the petiolar segment; may be small and shallow or large and almost meeting in midline. gn a t h a l a. [Gr. gnat hos, jaw] Pertaining to the jaws.

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gn a t h a l lobe 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The masticatory endite of the mandible; the masticatory process. 2. (ARTHRO: Diplopoda) The third or most distal part of the mandible; bearing the teeth and grinding surfaces. gn a t h a l pouch (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. The concave surface below the oral plate; the oral chamber. b. In Hymenoptera, used as a receptacle for food particles and detritus in ants. gn a t h a l r e gion / se gm e n t s (ARTHRO: Insecta) The gnathocephalon. gn a t h it e s n.pl. [Gr. gnat hos, jaw] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The mouth parts; the buccal appendages. gn a t h oba se n. [Gr. gnat hos, jaw; basis, base] 1. (ARTHRO) One of a pair of endites used to manipulate or move food in trilobites, and some crustaceans. 2. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In arachnids, the projection from the coxa of a leg or palp, used in crushing food. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) A lobe or projection of a basal segment of an appendage near the mouth, used in eating. gn a t h oce ph a lon n. [Gr. gnat hos, jaw; kephale, head] (ARTHRO: Insecta) That part of the head formed by the gnathal segments and the procephalic lobes. gn a t h och ila r ium n. [Gr. gnat hos, jaw; dim. cheilarion, lip] (ARTHRO: Diplopoda) A plate-like mouth structure; thought to be the fused maxillae and labium. gn a t h opod( it e ) n. [Gr. gnat hos, jaw; pous, foot] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Prehensile appendages. a. The maxilliped. b. In Amphipoda, the first and second pereopods, chelate or subchelate; the gnathopodite; subchela. gn a t h os see su bsca ph iu m gn a t h osom a n. [Gr. gnat hos, jaw; som a, body] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The anterior of two basic regions of the body of a mite or tick bearing the mouth parts; a capitulum pseudotagma. gn a t h ost e git e n. [Gr. gnat hos, jaw; st egos, roof] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) One of a pair of plates covering the mouth parts. Gn a t host om u lida n. [Gr. gnat hos, jaw; st om a, mouth] A

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phylum of microscopic, free-living marine worms that are acoelomate bilateria with a mono-ciliated skin epithelium, jaws and a muscular pharyngeal apparatus; commonly called jaw-worms. gn a t h ot h or a x n. [Gr. gnat hos, jaw; t horax, breast] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Having the first, sometimes also the second, thoracic somites fused with the cephalon; the cephalon and pereon. gn ot obiot e n. [Gr. gnost os, known; bios, life] A known microorganism living in or on a host. gn ot obiot ic cu lt u r e The breeding or culturing of organisms by themselves or in association with other known kinds of organisms. see a gn ot obiot ic cult ur e . gn ot obiot ics n.pl. [Gr. gnost os, known; bios, life] A field of biology involving breeding or culturing of organisms by themselves or together with other known kinds of organisms. gnot obiot ic a. see a gnot obiot ic cult ur e . goble t ce ll see ca lycifor m ce ll goble t s n.pl. [OF. goblet e] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) Stigmatal plate markings of certain hard ticks. Golgi bodie s [=dictyosomes=golgiosomes or internal reticular apparatus] Organelle found in most eukaryote cells consisting of a stack (dictyosome) of flat sacs (cisternae), involved in secretion. golgio- k ine sis Distribution of Golgi bodies during mitosis. gona d n. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed] A reproductive organ; a testis, ovary, ovotestis, or their generative tissue. gona dia l a. gona dot r opin , gona dot r ophin n. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; t ropos, direction] A substance that stimulates the gonads to develop. gona du ct see gonoduct gona ngium n. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; angeion, capsule] (CNID: Hydrozoa) In colonials, the gonotheca and enclosed blastostyle with gonophores. gona ngu lum n. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; L. angulus, angle] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A small sclerite attached

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to the base of the first gonapophysis articulating with the second gonocoxa and the tergum of segment 9 in Lepism a; in others fused with the first gonocoxa or with tergum 9. gona pophysis n.; pl. -yse s [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; apo, from; phyein, to grow] 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In male Syncarida, a median process from the base of the first or second pleopod. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. The slender curving processes that form the shaft of the ovipositor; may be leaf- or flap-like or modified to form the sting. b. Also applied to certain paired genital appendages in the male. gona r cu s n. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; L. arcus, bow] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In male Neuroptera, an archshaped structure below the anal segment and above the aedeagus. gona t oce r ou s condit ion (ARTHRO: Insecta) In some adult Coleoptera, bearing a geniculate antenna with a long scape and compact club. see or t hoce r ou s con dit ion. gone n. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed] Any germ cell arising by meiosis. gongylidia n.pl.; sing. -ium [Gr. gongylos, ball] Spherical or ellipsoidal swellings at the tips of the hyphae that are cultivated by the Attine ants; a group of gongylidia is sometimes referred to as a staphyla. gon ia t it e n. [Gr. gonia, angle] (MOLL: Cephalopoda) Extinct Paleozoic ammonoid cephalopod existing in the Middle Devonian Period. gonobla st n. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; blast os, bud] A reproductive cell or bud. gonoca lyx n. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; kalyx, cover] (CNID) The bell of a medusa-like gonophore. gonochor ism n. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; chorism os, separation] The possession of functional gonads of one sex only (male or female); dioecious. gon ochor ist ic a. gonochor ist ic a. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; chorismos, separation] Unisexual; producing distinct males and females. see h e r m a phr odit e .

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gonocoe l n. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; koilos, hollow] The cavity containing the gonads. gonocox a , gonocox it e n.; pl. -a e [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; L. coxa, hip] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The coxite of the gonopod. see se con d va lvife r s. gonocox opodit e s n.pl. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; L. coxa, hip; pous, foot] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Siphonaptera, a pair of 2-segmented claspers associated with the 9th tergum and median intromittant organ. gonode n dr on n. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; dendron, tree] (CNID: Hydrozoa) In Siphonophora, a branching structure bearing grapelike clusters of gonophores that are not set free. gonodu ct s n.pl. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; L. ductus, led] 1. The ducts through which the gametes reach the exterior, oviduct in females, vas deferens in males. 2. (ECHI) see nephridium. gonoge n sis see ga m e t oge ne sis gonom e r y n. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; m eros, part] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The separate grouping of maternal and paternal chromosomes during cleavage in some embryos. gonopa lpon n. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; L. palpare, to touch] (CNID: Hydrozoa) In Siphonophora, tentacle-like dactylozooids associated with gonophores. gonope r ica r dia l ca na l (MOLL: Solengastres) A canal from gonads to the pericardium. gonoph or e n. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; phoreus, bearer] (CNID: Hydrozoa) In Hydroida, a structure that produces gametes and is a sporosac, medusa or any intermediate stage. gonopla c n. [Gr. gone; that which produces seed; plax, plate] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A process of the second gonocoxa; may be a separate sclerite and may form a sheath around the gonapophyses; 3rd valvula. gonopod n. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; pous, foot] (ARTHRO) The appendages serving as genital segments, or

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associated segments modified for reproductive purposes, i.e., chelicera, palp, leg, pleopod. gonopody n. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; pous, foot] A type of internal fertilization whereby the male sperm is transferred by an appendage to the female genital organs; sperm transfer which is nearly direct. see podospe r m ia , t ocospe r m ia . gonopor e n. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; poros, channel] 1. The external opening of the reproductive organs. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The sexual pore. 3. (NEMATA) The vulva in females; the anus or cloacal opening in males. gonosom e n. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; som a, body] (CNID: Hydrozoa) All gonophores of a colony collectively. see t r ophosom e . gonosom it e see ge nit a l se gm e nt gonost yle n. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; st ylos, pillar] (CNID: Hydrozoa) The blastostyle; gonodendron. gonost ylu s n.; pl. gon ost ylii [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; st ylos, pillar] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The stylus of a genital segment; harpago; style; stylus; paramere. gonot he ca n. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; t heke, case] (CNID: Hydrozoa) In Leptomedusae, a vase-like covering of the stalklike blastostyles. gonot r e m e n. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; t rem a, hole] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The female gonopore, oviporus (secondary gonopore), or vulva; in males, the gonopore. gonot r ophic con cor da n cy (ARTHRO: Insecta) In certain mosquitoes, discontinuation, or only occasional ingesting of blood meals after ovulation has stopped. see gonot r ophic dissocia t ion . gonot r ophic dissocia t ion (ARTHRO: Insecta) In certain mosquitoes, the continuation of ingesting blood meals after ovulation has stopped. see gon ot r ophic concor da ncy. gonot yl n. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; t ylos, knob] (PLATY: Trematoda) In digenetic forms, a sucker or other perigenital specialization associated with the genital atrium. gonozooe cium n. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; zoon,

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animals; oikos, house] (BRYO: Stenolaemata) An enlarged polymorph that serves as a brood chamber for eggs. gonozooid, gynozooid n. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; zoon, animal; eidos, form] 1. (BRYO) A zooid modified as a brood chamber. 2. (CNID: Hydrozoa) A gonophore or individual specialized for reproduction in a colony. gor ge r e t n. [Gr. Gorgos, terrible] 1. A barblike structure. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The sting of a honey bee. 3. (NEMATA) The barb on the spicule. gor gon in n. [Gr. Gorgos, terrible] (CNID: Anthozoa) A proteinaceous horny material forming the axial skeleton of sea fans and sea whips. Got t e 's la r va (PLATY: Turbellaria) In St ylochus, a "Muller's"type larva with the exception of four instead of eight lobes. Gr a be r 's or ga n (ARTHRO: Insecta) In tabanid larvae, a pyriform sac containing a series of capsules that opens at the surface between the last two segments, thought to be sensory in function; may be seen through the integument of living larvae. gr a cile a. [L. gracilis, slender] Gracefully slender or thin. gr a da t e a. [L. gradus, step] Regularly increasing in size; arranged in a series; blending of colors. gr a de n. [L. gradus, step] A group of organisms similar in level of organization. gr a ft n. [OF. greffe, graft] Act of grafting, or joining a part of an organism with another. gr a in e d a. [L. granum , grain] Dotted with small tubercules. gr a m ina ce ou s a. [L. gram en, grass] Grass-colored. gr a m in icolou s a. [L. gram en, grass; colere, to dwell] Living on grasses. gr a m in ivor ou s a. [L. gram en, grass; vorare, to devour] Grass-eating. gr a n ose a. [L. granum , grain] Like a string of grains; moniliform. gr a n u la t e d a. [L. dim. granum , grain] Covered with grains or small tubercles.

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gr a n u la r e osinoph ilic ce ll see gr a n u la r h e m ocyt e gr a n u la r he m ocyt e Hemocytes that vary in size and shape, phagocytic in function, characterized by possession of acidophilic granules in the cytoplasm. see gr a n u locyt e . gr a n u la r le u cocyt e see gr a nu la r h e m ocyt e gr a n u la r sph e r e s see gr a n u locyt e gr a n u le n. [L. dim. granum , grain] 1. A very small or minute elevation. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Grain-like, short, thick, dark seta of beetles. gr a n u locyt e n. [L. dim. granum , grain; Gr. kyt os, container] A hemocyte variable in size and shape, granular contents of sulfated, periodate-reactive sialomucin and other glycoproteins or neutral mucopolysaccharides, and sometimes lipid droplets may be present. gr a n u lose a. [L. dim. granum , grain] Roughened with granules, or grain-like elevations. gr a n um t in ct or ium see k e r m e s gr a ph ioh e x a st e r n. [Gr. graphe, writing; hex, six; ast er, star] (PORIF) A six-rayed spicule with long filamentous processes from four of the rays. gr a pt olit e n. [Gr. grapt os, painted; lit hos, stone] A fossil group of pelagic, colonial animals with chitinous exoskeletons, consisting of simple or branched stems (rhabdosomes) toothed along one or both edges. gr a sping spin e s (CHAETO) Chitinous spines on the posterior part of the head used for food catching; prehensile spines; seizing jaws. gr a vid n. [L. gravidus, pregnant] Containing an egg or eggs, as a gravid pinworm, or gravid proglottid of a tapeworm. gr a y ce ll (PORIF) A cell with spherical basiphilic granules and many glycogen rosettes. gr e a t e r oce lla r s see oce lla r br ist le s gr e e n gla nd (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Excretory glands on the antennae of crayfish and other Malacostraca; antennal gland. gr e e n pigm e n t s (ARTHRO: Insecta) A synthesized pigment that gives a green color to the blood and epidermal cells,

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even without chlorophyll. see in se ct ove r din . gr e ga r ia n. [L. grex, flock] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The high density phase of locusts and some caterpillars during which they are gregarious and/or migratory. see solit a r ia . gr e ga r iou s a. [L. grex, flock] Habitually associating in groups or colonies. gr e ge , gr e ige see silk gr e s see se r icin gr e ssor ia l a. [L. gressus, step] Adapted for walking. gr ibble n. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) A small wood-boring isopod of the Limnoriidae. gr ise ou s a. [ML. griseus, gray] A white color mottled with black or brown; light gray; bluish gray. gr oom in g n. [OF. grom et , servant] To make neat; the cleaning of an animal by itself or others. gr oup n. [F. groupe] A number of related taxa; a series of closely related species within a genus. see com ple x . gr oup e ffe ct Alteration in behavior within a species or group by nondirected signals. gr oup pr e da t ion Hunting and securing prey by groups of cooperating animals, i.e., army ants. gr ow ing- m olt A molt that results in a larger size, but no changes in characters or form. gr ow ing t ip or poin t (BRYO) Proliferating distal extremities of the colony. gr ow t h n. [A.S. growan] 1. The development of an organism by assimilation. 2. A morbid formation, as a tumor. gr ow t h hor m on e Any of various growth promoting hormones. gr ow t h line s (MOLL: Gastropoda) Surface marking of the shell, denoting a former position of the outer lip. gr ow t h pe r iod In germ cell development, the period in which they increase greatly in size and during which synapsis occurs and the tetrads are formed. gr ow t h r ing see a n not in a t e gr ow t h r uga e (MOLL) Irregular ridges or undulations on the

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shell surface determined by former positions of the outer lip which show slowed or stopped growth. see gr ow t h lin e s. gr ow t h squ a m a e (MOLL: Bivalvia) Scaly extensions of the shell surface parallel to the growth lines. gr ow t h st a ge The intermitotic growth stage of a cell; resting stage; resting cell. gr ow t h t h r e a d (MOLL: Bivalvia) A threadlike growth line. gr ow t h w e lt (MOLL: Bivalvia) An elongate shell elevation parallel to the growth lines. gr u b n. [ME. grubben, dig] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A legless larva; certain U- or C-shaped larvae generally found among the Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. gr ypha e a t e a. (MOLL: Bivalvia) Shell with left valve strongly convex with its dorsal part incurved and the right valve flat, as in the genus Gryphea ; gryphaeiform; gryph-shaped. gu a n in e n. [Ab.Am. huanu, dung] A purine base present in DNA and RNA, found in fish scales, animals, plants and excreta. gu be r na culu m n.; pl. -la [L. dim. gubernare, to guide] 1. (CNID: Hydrozoa) Hydroida, protoplasmic strands connecting the blastostyle and internal marsupium to the gonothecal wall; possibly functioning in nutrition or as a device for keeping the internal marsupium in position. 2. (NEMATA) A sclerotized trough-shaped structure of the dorsal wall of the spicular pouch, near the distal portion of the spicules; functions for reinforcement of the dorsal wall. a. Retractor gubernaculi muscles extend from the gubernaculum to the dorsal or lateral body wall. b. Seductor gubernaculi muscles extend from the lateral walls of the body to the gubernaculum. gu e st n. [A.S. gaest ] Animal living within the nest or den of others; a social symbiont. gu la n. [L. gula, gullet] 1. (ARTHRO: Diplopoda) The reduced sternite of the first trunk segment forming the posterior part of the gnathochilarium; the hypostoma. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) A median ventral plate of the head, extending from the submentum to the posterior tentorial pits; gular

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plate. gu la ca va see gu la r pit gu la m e n t a l pla t e (ARTHRO: Insecta) The basal labial plate formed by fusion of the gula and submental regions. gu la m e n t um n. [L. gula, gullet; m ent um , chin] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The plate formed by the fusion of the gula and submentum. gu la r a. [L. gula, gullet] 1. Pertaining to the throat or gula. 2. (MOLL) Pertaining to the innermost part of the shell aperture. gu la r pit (ARTHRO: Insecta) The infolding of a posterior arm of the tentorium. gu la r su t ur e (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. Longitudinal sutures on each side of the gula or middle piece of the throat. 2. In Coleoptera, marking the inflection of the posterior arms of the tentorium. gu lle t n. [L. gula, gullet] The esophagus. gu st a t or y a. [L. gust us, taste] Pertaining to the sense of taste. see ch e m or e ce pt or . gu t n. [A.S. gut ] The intestinal tract; the alimentary canal, or part of. gu t sin u s (ANN: Polychaeta) In some species, a thin-walled chamber around the gut filled with blood. gu t t a n. [L. gut t a, a drop or spot] A roundish spot or marking of color. gut t a t e a. gu t t e r n. [OF. gut iere, a gutter] (MOLL: Gastropoda) An elongate projection beyond the mouth. gu t t ifor m a. [L. gut t a, a drop or spot; form a, shape] Dropshaped. gym nobla st ic a. [Gr. gym nos, bare; blast os, bud] (CNID: Hydrozoa) Lacking hydrothecae and gonothecae, as some colonial forms. gym noce ph a lou s ce r ca r ia (PLATY: Trematoda) Cercaria without ornamentation, lacking spines or stylets on the anterior end or in the oral sucker; with equal sized oral and ventral suckers; no tail fin (Fasciolidae).

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gym nocoe l n. [Gr. gym nos, bare; koilos, hollow] A body cavity possessing no special lining cells other than tissue bordering cavities such as epidermis or gastrodermis. gym nocyst n. [Gr. gym nos, bare; kyst is, bladder] 1. (BRYO) A simple type of wall morphology that adds exterior walls to the ends of interior walls, thereby separating adjacent zooids that remain in communication through interzooidal pores. gymnocystal a. see cr ypt ocyst . 2. (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) In cheilostomates, continuous or partial frontal shield formed by calcification of the zooidal frontal wall or by cuticle covered spots on the frontal wall. gym nocyst ide a n n. [Gr. gym nos, bare; kyst is, bladder] (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) An Ascophora cheilostomate with autozooids having gymnocysts as frontal shields. gym nocyt e n. [Gr. gym nos, bare; kyt os, container] A cell with no cell wall. see le pocyt e . gym nodom ous a. [Gr. gym nos, bare; L. dom us, house] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to nests, especially of social wasps lacking an envelope. see ca lypt odom ou s. gym noga st r a n. [Gr. gym nos, bare; gast er, stomach] Having the venter or belly visible. see cr ypt oga st r a . Gym nola e m a t a , gym nola e m a t e s n.; n.pl. [Gr. gym nos, bare; laim os, throat] Largest class of mainly marine Bryozoa primatively cylindrical, but most commonly flattened and lozenge-shaped, with a circular lophophore and lacking an epistome. gym nopa r ia n.; pl. -a r ia e [Gr. gym nos, bare; pareion, cheek] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In scarabaeoid larvae, that part of the paria without bristles posterior to the acroparia and between the acanthoparia and chaetoparia. gym nopt e r ou s a. [Gr. gym nos, bare; pt eron, wing] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Lacking scales on wings. gyna e coid see gyne coid gyna e com or phic m a le see gyn e ca n e r gyna e cophor a l ca n a l (PLATY: Trematoda) A longitudinal infolded groove in the ventral surface of male schistosome flukes where the female usually resides.

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gyna e cot e lic t ype (ARTHRO: Insecta) One of the two groups of social insects in which the queen manifests the prototype female, with all the primary instincts, including those of the worker caste until after the colony is established when she then becomes an egg-laying machine. see e r ga t ot e lic t ype . gyna nde r see gyna ndr om or ph gyna ndr a r ch y n. [Gr. gyne, woman; aner, male; archon, leader] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Social organization among insects differing from gynarchy in that the male takes part in establishing the colony. gyna ndr om or ph n. [Gr. gyne, woman; aner, male; m orphe, form] An individual in which male and female somatic characters exist; bilateral gynandromorphs, with the left and right halves of different sex; sex mosaic. see int e r se x , ch im e r a . gyna ndr om or ph ism n. [Gr. gyne, woman; aner, male; m orphe, form] The condition of being a gynandromorph. gyn a ndr om or ph ic a. gyna ndr y n. [Gr. gyne, woman; aner, male] Hermaphroditism; also, the condition of a female approximating to the male type of physique. gyna r chy n. [Gr. gyne, woman; archon, leader] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In social insects, a colony organization in which a female initiates and dominates. gyne ca ne r , gyn a e ca n e r n. [Gr. gynaiko, womanly; aner, male] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, a male ant of certain parasitic and workerless genera that resembles a female rather than a worker, but having the same number of antennal joints and according to the genus may be wingless; a gynaecomorphic male. gyne coid n. [Gr. gynaiko, womanly; eidos, like] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, a large egg laying worker ant. gyne coph or e see gyna e cophor a l ca n a l gyne r ga t e n. [Gr. gyne, woman; ergat e, worker] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A female containing patches of tissue of both the queen and worker castes.

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gyne s n.pl. [Gr. gyne, woman] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. In bees, a potential or actual queen. 2. Especially potential queens of honeybees. 3. Certain halictid bees that are first gynes, later to become workers or queens. gyne t ype n. [Gr. gyne, woman; t ypos, type] A designated female type specimen. gynocophor a l ca na l see gyna e cophor a l ca n a l gynoge n e sis n. [Gr. gyne, woman; genesis, descent] Female parthenogenesis; pseudogamy; development of a haploid individual possessing only the maternal chromosome set. see a n dr oge n e sis. gynom e r ogony n. [Gr. gyne, woman; m eros, part; gonos, seed] Development of an egg fragment containing only the female nucleus (maternal chromosomes). gynosyn h e sm ia n. [Gr. gyne, woman; syn, together; hesmos, swarm] A group of females gathering together during mating season. see a n dr osyn h e sm ia , syn he sm ia . gynozooid n. [Gr. gyne, woman; zoon, animal] A female gonozooid. gyr a t e , gyr a l a. [L. gyrare, to turn about] Circular or spiral movement; curved. gyr a t ion n. [L. gyrare, to turn about] 1. Rotating or whirling movement. 2. (MOLL) One of the whorls on a spiral shell. gyr a t or y a. [L. gyrare, to turn about] Moving in a circle; circular or rotary motion. gyr e n. [L. gyrare, to turn about] Coiling; chromosome coiling. gyr i- ce r e br a le s (ARTHRO: Insecta) Esophageal ganglion lobes in embryos.

H h a bit a t n. [L. habit are, to dwell] The particular kind of environment where a race, species or individual lives. h a bit a t se le ct ion The capability of a dispersing individual to select a particular (species-specific) environment. h a bit a t t ype The ecotype. h a bit u de n. [L. habit us, condition] General appearance or conformation of an animal. h a br ode r e s n.pl. [Gr. habros, graceful; deire, neck] (KINOR) In Echinoderidae, the fourth juvenile stage to adulthood in which the midterminal spine is missing, and a series of molts results in the loss of posterior middorsal spines until the adult complement is reached. h a ck le d ba nd (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In cribellate spiders, composite threads spun by the cribellum and combed by the calamistrum setae. h a e m - for words not found here see h e m h a e m ocoe le see h e m ocoe l h a e m ocyt e see h e m ocyt e ha e m olym ph see he m olym ph h a e m ost a t ic dia phr a gm or m e m br a ne (ARTHRO) In some arthropods, an obstruction device between femur and trochanter preventing fluid loss after autotomy; an occlusive diaphragm. h a e m ox a nt h in e n. [Gr. haim a, blood; xant hos, yellow] (ARTHRO: Insecta) An albuminoid protein in the hemolymph, providing oxygen and nutritive materials. h a ft or ga n see fr on t a l or ga n h a ir n. [A.S. haer, hairy] Seta; chaeta; trichome. see pu be sce n ce . h a ir pa ds (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. A group of sensory hairs combined to form pads near joints together with internal pro-

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prioceptors that are involved in the normal bearing of the limbs; also involved for measuring the vector of external forces, and contributing to orientation of the animal. 2. A pad on the compound eyes of the honey bee and between the eyes of locusts controlling the self-generated flight speed. h a ir pla t e s see h a ir pa ds h a liot oid a. [Gr. hals, salt, sea; ot os, ear; eidos, like] Earshaped. H a lle r 's or ga n (ARTHRO: Insecta) A complex sensory setal field within one or more pits, on the dorsal aspect of tarsus I of ticks and mites, providing sites for contact or olfactory chemoreception. ha lm a t om e t a m or phosis n. [Gr. halm at os, leap; m et am orphosis, transform, change] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The process of degeneration of larval structures and development of specialized structures adapted for arthropod endoparasitic life. h a loclin e n. [Gr. hals, salt, sea; klinein, to slope] That area of sharp vertical salinity change in the ocean or other saline water. h a loph ile n. [Gr. hals, salt, sea; philos, love] An organism adapted to living in a salty environment. h a lt e r n.; pl. h a lt e r e s [Gr. halt er, balancer] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, sense organs consisting of a basal lobe, a stalk and an end knob on each side of the metathorax, representing a reduced hind wing; balancers. h a m a biosis see n e u t r a lism h a m a t e , ha m ifor m a. [L. ham us, hook] Hooked; bent at the end resembling a hook; aduncate. ha m a t ype n. [Gr. ham a, together; t ypos, type] Obs. A specimen from the type lot of a species, not specified as a holotype or paratype; a special group of topotypes. h a m m ock n. [Sp. ham aca, swinging couch] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Has been used to describe the hammock-like covering of a caterpillar. h a m pe n. [F. shank, stalk] (CNID) The basal tube portion of the

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nematocyst; the butt. h a m u la n. [L. ham ulus, little hook] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A trigger-like hook securing the springing organ (furcula) of springtails; a retinaculum. h a m u la r hook (ARTHRO: Insecta) In some male Odonata, a curved hook receiving the end of the basal lobe of the posterior hamuli. h a m u loh a lt e r a e n.pl. [L. ham ulus, little hook; Gr. halter, balancer] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Homoptera, giant mealybug halters developed from the metathoracic wing-buds furnished with one or more hooklets that engage in a basal pocket of the corresponding fore wing. h a m u lu s n., pl. -li [L. ham ulus, little hook] 1. A hook or hooklike process. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. In certain Hymenoptera, a row of minute hooks along the costal margin of the hind wing to unite the front and hind wings in flight; has been spelled humule. b. In male Odonata, one of a pair of anterior(is) and posterior(is) clasps of the genitalia (fenestra) for grasping the female. c. In Siphonaptera, one of a pair of movable sclerites originating from the lateral wall of the aedeagal palliolum. 3. (PLATY: Trematoda) In monogenetic forms, large hooks on the opisthaptor; anchors. h a m u s n.; pl. h a m i [L., hook] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. In Heteroptera, an abrupt spur-like vein in the hind wings. 2. In Lepidoptera, the retinaculum. H a n cock 's gla nds (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Orthoptera, large, glandular, sex-attractant pits of male tree crickets that secrete a fluid which the female ingests during the mating act. H a n cock ` s or ga n (MOLL: Gastropoda) A succession of parallel folds on each side of the mouth in the groove between the cephalic shield and the foot in some Opisthobranchia; lateral sensory areas. ha pa lode r e s n.pl. [Gr. hapalos, tender; deire, neck] (KINOR) The first three juvenile stages of Echinoderidae in which a midterminal, lateral and middorsal spines are present. see h a br ode r e s. h a plobion t n. [Gr. haplos, simple; bios, life] An organism

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characterized by one morphological distinct generation. h a plo- diploidy (ARTHRO: Insecta) A normal reduction division occurring in the oocyte, fertilized eggs developing into females, unfertilized eggs into males; characteristic of Hymenoptera and some other groups of insects. h a ploid a. [Gr. haplos, single] Having one set of chromosomes; gametes are usually haploid. see diploid. h a plom e t r osis n. [Gr. haplos, single; THRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, the ony by a single fertilized, egg laying h a plom e t r ot ic a. see t e m por a r y om e t r osis.

m et ros, mother] (ARfounding of a new colqueen; monometrosis. ha plom e t r osis, ple -

h a plone m e a. [Gr. haplos, single; nem a, thread] (CNID) Bearing threads of uniform diameter or slightly dilated at the base, but without a hampe; nematocysts, anisorhizas and isorhizas. h a plone u r a l a. [Gr. haplos, single; neuron, nerve] Supplied with one simple nerve. h a plon t n. [Gr. haplos, simple; -on, individual] An organism with haploid somatic nuclei; monoplont. h a ploph a se n. [Gr. haplos, single; phasis, look] The haploid phase or generation of the life cycle (meiosis to fertilization); gamophase. see diplopha se . h a plosis n. [Gr. haplos, single; -sis, act of] Meiotic reduction. h a pt ola chu s n. [Gr. hapt os, fasten or join; lachos, part] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In scarbaeoid larvae, that part of the posterior epipharynx behind the pedium, usually below the crepis, comprised of the nesia, sensillae and crepis; proximal sensory area. h a pt om e r u m n.; pl. h a pt om e r i [Gr. hapt os, fasten or join; m eron, a part] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The medio-anterior region of the epipharynx of scarbaeoid larvae composed generally of sensory spots, sometimes setiferous. h a pt or n. [Gr. hapt os, fasten or join] 1. Organ of attachment; an acetabulum. 2. (PLATY: Trematoda) The pre-oral, oral or ventral sucker. H a r dy- W e in be r g la w The law stating that the frequency of

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genes in a large randomly mating population remains constant in the absence of mutation, migration and selection. h a r m on ic gr ow t h see Pr zibr a m 's r u le h a r m on ic m e a n Reciprocal of the arithmatic mean. h a r m osis n. [Gr. harm osis, adapting] Total response of an organism to a stimulus; includes reaction and adaptation. h a r pa gon e s n. pl.; sing. ha r pa go [Gr. harpage, grappling hook] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. Moveable periphallic processes of males located on the ninth abdominal segment usually having a clasping function. 2. In mosquitoes, basal lobes on the mesal margin of the dorsal surface of the gonocoxites; the basal dorsomesal lobes. 3. The harpes of Lepidoptera. h a r pe s n.pl. [Gr. harpes, sickle] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Lepidoptera, a part of the male genitalia being one or more processes; clasper. h a r poon se t a (ANN) A stout pointed seta with recurved barbs near the apex. h a st a t e a. [L. hast a, spear] 1. Triangular or spear-shaped with the base diverging on each side into an acute lobe. 2. (PORIF) Pertaining to spicules of uniform diameter coming to an abrupt, sharp point. h a st ise t a e n.pl. [L. hast a, spear; set a, bristle] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Spear-headed setae found especially in tufts on tergites of the caudal segments of some larval dermestid beetles. h a t ch in g n. [ME. hacchen] Emergence from an egg shell. h a t ch in g m e m br a ne The embryonic cuticle between the larval cuticle and the chorion that is shed during hatching or shortly afterward. h a t ch in g spin e s/ t oot h see e gg bu r st e r h a u st e lla t e a. [L. dim. haust us, sucking] For sucking; possessing a haustellum. h a u st e llum n. [L. dim. haust us, sucking] A part of a beak or proboscis; mouthparts specialized for sucking. h a u st r u lum

n. [L. dim. haust rum , pump] (NEMATA: Se-

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cernentea) The cavity of the valvular apparatus in the posterior bulb of rhabditid esophagi. H a u t k or pe r see sk in bodie s H a ye s' pla t e / se n se con e see n e siu m H - ba n d The region in the center of the A-band of a sarcomere characterized by myosin filaments and absence of actin filaments. he a d n. [A.S. haefod] 1. The anterior body region. 2. (ANN: Polychaeta) The prostomium and peristomium. 3. (ARTHRO) Bearing the eyes, antennae and mouth parts. 4. (NEMATA) Comprising the lips and sensory organs, oral opening and supporting head skeleton. he a d a pode m e (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In crayfish, fused endopleurite and endosternite forming an area for muscle attachment at the anterior end of the skeleton. he a d bu lb see ba llone t s h e a d- fa n s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, fan-like rays on the main part of the torma of mature larva of Simuliidae that function as filtering organs in running water, or a raking function in Crozetia . he a d gla nd (PLATY: Trematoda) Glands of circaria which produce a secretion emitted into the matrix of the tegument that is thought to function in the postpenetration adjustment of the schistosomula. he a d va lve (MOLL: Polyplacophora) The anterior valve of chitons. h e a r t n. [A.S. heort e] Sometimes used to describe the pulsating dorsal blood vessel. h e a r t cha m be r (ARTHRO: Insecta) One of the segmental swellings of the dorsal blood vessel; ventricle. he a ut ot ype n. [Gr. heaut ou, of itself; t ypos, image] A specimen used by the original describer as an illustration of his species and compared with the type or cotype; a hypotype. h e ct ocot ylu s, h e t e r ocot ylus n. [Gr. hekat on, hundred; kot yle, a cup] (MOLL: Cephalopoda) A penislike process or arm utilized in spermatophore transfer to the mantle cavity of the female, in some species breaking off in the process.

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h e e l n. [A.S. hela, heel] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera larvae, padlike prolongation of the base of the tarsungulus opposing the claw. h e igh t n. [A.S. hieht hu, height] 1. (MOLL: Gastropoda) The length parallel to the shell axis through the columella. 2. (MOLL: Bivalvia) The greatest vertical dimension through the beak at right angles to a line bisecting the adductor scars; altitude. h e li pl. of he lu s h e lica l a. [Gr. helix, a spiral] Spirally coiled; heliciform. h e licocon e a. [Gr. helix, a spiral; konos, cone-like] (MOLL: Gastropoda) An expanding cone-like spiral tube that is the form of most shells. h e lioph il, h e lioph ilic, h e liophilou s a. [Gr. helios, philein, to love] Thriving in a high intensity of light.

sun;

h e liophobic n. [Gr. helios, sun; phobos, fear] Shade loving. h e liot a x is n. [Gr. helios, sun; t axis, arrangement] Taxis with sunlight as the stimulus. see ph ot ot a x is. h e liot r opism n. [Gr. helios, sun; t rope, a turning] Tropism with sunlight as the stimulus. h e lix n.; pl. h e lice s [Gr. helix, a spiral] Having a spiral form. h e lm e t n. [OF. helm e] (NEMATA) An internal thickening in the cephalic region, often setoff by a groove, and denoted by a lack of ornamentation of the anterior exterior cuticle. see ca n e . h e lm in t h n. [Gr. helm ins, worm] Any parasitic worm of vertebrates. h e lm in t h ia sis n. [Gr. helm ins, worm; -iasis, disease] A worm disease induced in or on a host. h e lm in t h ic a. [Gr. helm ins, worm] Pertaining to worms. H e lm in t hology n. [Gr. helm ins, worm; logos, discourse] A branch of zoology dealing with the natural history of parasitic worms, especially flatworms and roundworms. h e loce r ous a. [Gr. helos, nail; keros, horn] Having a clavate antenna. h e lot ism n. [Gr. Heilot es, slave class] Symbiosis in which one

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animal enslaves another forcing it to labour on its own behalf. see con sor t ism . h e lu s n.; pl. h e li [Gr. helos, nail] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In scarabaeoid larvae, a coarse fixed spine located near the haptomerum. h e m a l a. [Gr. haim a, blood] Pertaining to blood. h e m a poie sis see h e m a t opoie sis h e m a t a l see h e m a l h e m a t ocyt e , he m a t a cyt e see he m ocyt e he m a t odocha , ha e m a t odoch a n. [Gr. haim a, blood; doche, receptacle] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) A fibro-elastic sac at the base of the palpus of certain male spiders that fills with hemolymph and becomes distended during pairing. h e m a t oge n ic, he m a t oge n ou s a. [Gr. haim a, blood; genos, birth] 1. Forming blood, hematopoietic. 2. Relating to anything produced from, derived from, or transported by the blood. h e m a t opha gus see he m opha gus h e m a t opoie sis n. [Gr. haim a, blood; poiet es, maker] The formation of blood cells; also spelled haematopoiesis, haemopoiesis, hemopoiesis. h e m e lyt r on n.; pl. -t r a [Gr. hem isys, half; elyt ron, sheath] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A fore wing in which only the basal portion is hardened; wing-covers; also spelled hemelytran, hemelytrum, hemielytron. h e m e lyt r a l a. see e lyt r on, t e gm e n . h e m e r oph ilic a. [Gr. hemeros, cultivated; philos, loving] Having the ability to withstand culture and human interference with the environment. see he m e r oph obic. h e m e r ophobic a. [Gr. hem eros, cultivated; phobos, fear] Lacking the ability to withstand culture and human interference with the environment. see h e m e r oph ilic. h e m ia na m or phosis n. [Gr. hem isys, half; ana, on; m orphe, form] Post-embryonic development beginning as anamorphic and later becomes epimorphic. h e m ibr a n ch n. [Gr. hem isys, half; branchos, gill] Gill filaments

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only on one side; demibranch. h e m ice pha lou s a. [Gr. hem isys, half; kephale, head] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Referring to dipteran larvae with reduced head capsule retractable within the thorax; an intermediate condition between eucephalous and acephalous; hemicephalic. h e m ide sm osom e n. [Gr. hem isys, half; desm os, bond; som a, body] Attachment process of the epidermal cell to the cuticle; process from the cuticle to which microtubules are attached. see de sm osom e , t on ofibr illa e . H e m im e t a bola n. [Gr. hem isys, half; m et abole, change] A division of insects in some classifications (=Exopterygota) in which the nymphs live an aquatic life as opposed to the adult form. h e m im e t a bolou s m e t a m or phosis (ARTHRO: Insecta) Simple or gradual metamorphosis in which the nymphs are generally similar in body form to the adults, but resemble the adults more with each instar. he m iom pha lous a. [Gr. hem isys, half; om phalos, the navel] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Having the opening of the umbilicus partly plugged. h e m iph r a gm s n.pl. [Gr. hem isys, half; phragm a, wall] (BRYO: Stenolaemata) Shelf-like skeletal projections into the zooid living chamber alternating from opposite sides of the zooecia; hemiphragms in any single zooid usually comparable in morphology. see h e m ise pt a . h e m ipn e ust ic a. [Gr. hem isys, half; pnein, to breath] Having 8 functional spiracles. see polypne u st ic. h e m ise pt um n.; pl. h e m ise pt a [Gr. hem isys, half; L. sept um , wall] (BRYO: Stenolaemata) Shelf-like projections into zooid living chambers; usually on proximal walls, but also in pairs on proximal and distal walls which differ in morphology. see h e m iph r a gm s. h e m ispondylium n.; pl. -ia [Gr. hem isys, half; spondylos, back] (BRACHIO) In Thecideidae, one of two small plates attached to a medium septum and not to the valve floor or side walls, bearing the median adductor muscles. h e m isyr inx n. [Gr. hem isys, half; syrinx, pipe] (BRACHIO) A

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median, conical chamber on the spondylium floor, posteriorly marked by a pair of lateral ridges. h e m it e r git e n. [Gr. hem isys, half; L. t ergum , back] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. Any tergite that is divided into two plates. 2. Adult male Embiidae with tergum 10 divided into a pair of asymmetrical plates. 3. In female Apoidea, the divided 7th gastral tergum. h e m it r ope a. [Gr. hem isys, half; t ropos, a turn] Being half turned around; half inverted. h e m izon id n. [Gr. hem isys, half; L. zona, girdle] (NEMATA: Secernentea) A nerve commissure from the nerve ring that is highly refractive at the point it joins the ventral nerve cord near the excretory pore. see ce pha lids, h e m izon ion, ca uda lid. h e m izon ion n. [Gr. hem isys, half; L. zona, girdle] (NEMATA: Secernentea) A small nerve commissure slightly posterior to the hemizonid. h e m izygous a. [Gr. hem isys, half; zygon, yoke] A gene with no allele; gene in a haploid organism; sex linked gene as in xy-xx; gene in a part of a chromosome where the corresponding part has been deleted. h e m ocoe l, ha e m ocoe le n. [Gr. haim a, blood; koilos, hollow] 1. (ARTHRO) The main body cavity, the embryonic development of which differs from that of a true coelom, but which includes a vestige of that true coelom that emanates from the blood spaces of the embryo, or remnants of the blastocoel after invasion of the latter by the mesoderm. 2. (MOLL) The main body cavity. h e m ocoe lou s vivipa r it y, ha e m ocoe lou s (ARTHRO: Insecta) A form of viviparity in which development occurs in the hemocoel. h e m ocya n in n. [Gr. haim a, blood; kyanos, dark blue] A blue oxygen carrying respiratory protein containing copper in the prosthetic group instead of iron; found in many invertebrate species. h e m ocyt e , h a e m ocyt e n. [Gr. haim a, blood; kyt os, container] A mesodermal cell, sessile or circulating, in the hemocoel or hemolymph of insects and other invertebrates. see

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gr a n u la r he m ocyt e . h e m ocyt obla st see pr oh e m ocyt e h e m ocyt opoie t ic or ga ns see h e m opoie t ic or ga n s h e m oglobin n. [Gr. haim a, blood; L. globos, sphere] A red oxygen respiratory protein with iron in the prosthetic group with molecular weights varying from 17,000 to 2,750,000, differing in absorption spectrum and oxygen-combining properties. he m olym ph , ha e m olym ph n. [Gr. haim a, blood; L. lym pha, water] 1. (ARTHRO) Fluid within the hemocoel. 2. (NEMATA) The pseudocoelomic fluid. h e m olysis, ha e m olysis n. [Gr. haim a, blood; lyein, to dissolve] The breakdown or destruction of red blood corpuscles. h e m olyt ic a. he m opha gous a. [Gr. haim a, blood; phagein, to eat] Ingesting blood. h e m opoie t ic a. [Gr. haim a, blood; poiet es, maker] Pertaining to any blood forming cell or organ. h e m opoie t ic or ga n s (ARTHRO: Insecta) Discrete encapsulated organs, reported in Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera, functioning in the formation of blood cells; hemocytopoietic organs; also spelled h a e m opoie t ic. h e m ozoin n. [Gr. haim a, blood; zoon, animal] A pigment found in a host produced by a malarial parasite from the hemoglobin of the host. h e n idiu m n. [Gr. dim. henos, one] (BRACHIO) Deltidial plates that lose the line of fusion during growth. H e n se n gla n d (MOLL: Cephalopoda) A gland found in the head near the eyes that synthesize leucocytes; white body. h e pa t ic a. [L. hepat icus, liver] Pertaining to liver; liver colored. h e pa t ic ca e cu m / ce cu m pl. ca e ca / ce ca Pouchlike diverticulum generally connected with the mesenteron in many invertebrates. see he pa t opa ncr e a s. h e pa t ic ce lls see n e phr ocyt e s h e pa t ic gr oove (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, a groove

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connecting grooves.

cervical,

postcervical

and

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h e pa t ic pou ch e s see ca e cum h e pa t ic r e gion (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, an area contiguous with antennal, cardiac and ptergostomial regions. h e pa t ic spine (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, located below and behind the lower branch of the cervical groove. he pa t opa ncr e a s n. [Gr. hepar, liver; pan, all; kreas, flesh] A branched digestive gland of the cephalothorax of various invertebrates, functioning as both liver and pancreas. h e r bivor e n. [L. herba, plant; vorare, to eat] Animals that feed on plants. he r bivor ou s a. h e r e dit a r y a. [L. heredit as, heirship] Biological traits transmitted from one generation to another. h e r e dit y n. [L. heredit as, heirship] The transmission of genes from parents to offspring, controlling biological traits. h e r m a ph r odit e n. [Gr. herm aphrodit os, combining both sexes] An individual bearing recognizable male and female tissues and producing male and female gametes at some period of the life cycle; monoecious; androgynous; ambisexual; ambosexous; protandry. see int e r se x . he r m a phr odit ic a. h e r m a ph r odit ic du ct (MOLL: Gastropoda) In Pulmonata, the duct that connects the ovotestes and carrefour area. h e r m a ph r odit ism n. [Gr. herm aphrodit os, combining both sexes] Possession of gonads of both sexes by a single individual; autocopulation. h e r m a t ype cor a ls (CNID) Reef building species of corals. hermatypic a. see a h e r m a t ype cor a ls. h e sm osis see sw a r m in g h e t e r a ct ina l a. [Gr. het eros, different; akt is, ray] (PORIF) Spicules having a disc of six to eight rays in one plane and a single perpendicular ray. h e t e r a ux e sis n. [Gr. het eros, different; auxesis, growth] Disproportionate growth of a structure in relation to the rest of

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the body; heterogonic or allometric growth. see br a dya u x e sis, isa u x e sis, t a ch ya u x e sis. h e t e r oa ca n t h u s a r m a t u r e (PLATY: Cestoda) Hooks arranged in semicircles from the internal surface to the external surface of the tentacles without chainettes. a. Atypica : differing numbers of hook rows on the internal and external surface of the tentacles. b. Typica : same number of hook rows, etc. h e t e r oa lle lic a. [Gr. het eros, different; allelon, reciprocal] Genes having mutations at different mutational sites (nonidentical alleles). see h om oa lle lic. h e t e r oa u se cic coe fficie nt see a llom e t r ic coe fficie n t h e t e r obla st ic a. [Gr. het eros, different; blast os, bud] Similar organs arising from different germ layers in different species. see h om obla st ic. h e t e r obla st ic ch a n ge Rapidly altered structures during transition from juvenile to adult. h e t e r obr a ch ia l a. [Gr. het eros, different; brachion, arm] Chromosome arms of unequal length. h e t e r oce n t r ic a. [Gr. het eros, different; kent ron, midpoint] Dicentric chromosomes or chromatids whose centromeres are of unequal strength; frequently behave as monocentric chromosomes. h e t e r och e la t e a. [Gr. het eros, different; chele, claw] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Having the chelae of left and right chelipeds varying in size and shape. h e t e r och r om a t in n. [Gr. het eros, different; chrom a, color] Non or poorly staining part of the chromosome inactive in heredity, as contrasted with euchromatin. h e t e r ch r om a t ic a. h e t e r och r om e a. [Gr. het eros, different; chrom a, color] Having different colors. see h om och r om e . h e t e r och r om osom e n. [Gr. het eros, different; chrom a, color; som a, body] 1. Any chromosome differing from the autosomes in size, shape or behavior. 2. A sex-chromosome; an allosome. h e t e r och r on ism n. [Gr. het eros, different; chronos, time]

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Changes in the relative time of appearance and rate of development for characters already present in ancestors. h e t e r och r on ic a. h e t e r oclit e n. [Gr. het eros, differrent; clitos, hill] (MOLL: Bivalvia) A folded or twisted commissural plane. h e t e r ocot ylu s see h e ct ocot ylu s h e t e r oda ct yl a. [Gr. het eros, different; dakt ylos, finger] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) Having claws, apoteles or ungues differing from each other. h e t e r oda ct yly n. see hom oda ct yl h e t e r odont a. [Gr. het eros, different; odous, tooth] Having a variety of tooth types. h e t e r odyna m ic a. [Gr. het eros, different; dynam is, power] Genes not simultaneously influencing the same developmental process. h e t e r odyna m ic life cycle 1. A life cycle in which there is a period of dormancy. 2. A life cycle that includes a rest period not caused by environmental conditions. see hom odyna m ic life cycle . h e t e r oe ciou s, h e t e r oicou s a. [Gr. het eros, different; oikos, house] Parasitic upon two unlike hosts, either by successive generations or in a single life history. see m e t oe ciou s pa r a sit e ; he t e r ox e n ou s. he t e r oga m e t e see a n isoga m e t e s he t e r oga m e t ic a. [Gr. het eros, different; gam et e, spouse] Pertains to the sexual form that gives rise to two different types of sexual gametes in meiosis; in xy and xo systems this is usually male; digametic. see hom oga m e t ic. he t e r oga m y n. [Gr. het eros, different; gam os, marriage] 1. Alternation of bisexual with parthenogenetic reproduction. 2. The preference of an individual to mate with an unlike phenotype or genotype. see hom oga m y. 3. see a n isoga m y. h e t e r oge ne ou s a. [Gr. het eros, different; genos, kind] Possessing different characteristics. see h om oge n e ous. h e t e r oge ne sis n. [Gr. het eros, different; genesis, descent] Form of reproduction that has sexual and asexual or parthenogenetic forms; alternation of generations; xeno-

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genesis. see m e t a ge ne sis. h e t e r oge ne t ic a. [Gr. het eros, different; genesis, descent] Pertaining to meiotic chromosome pairing in hybrids when pairs are derived from different ancestors. see h om oge n e t ic, h e t e r ogon ic life cycle . h e t e r oge n ic a. [Gr. het eros, different; genos, race] Containing more than one allele of a gene. h e t e r ogom ph n. [Gr. het eros, different; gom phos, peg] (ANN) A compound seta with an asymmetrical joint between shaft and blade. see hom ogom ph . h e t e r ogon ic coe fficie nt see a llom e t r ic coe fficie n t h e t e r ogon ic life cycle Life cycle involving alternation of parasitic and free-living generations. see h om ogon ic life cycle . h e t e r ogony n. [Gr. het eros, different; gonos, seed] 1. Study of relative growth. see a llom e t r ic gr ow t h. 2. Alternation of generations. see he t e r oga m y. 3. Both males and females present in a colony. h e t e r ogynou s a. [Gr. het eros, different; gyne, woman] Having more than one type of female. h e t e r oide us a. [Gr. het eros, different; idios, personal] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to larvae with a mesoseries of crochets bearing a well developed median series of hooks flanked on each end by smaller or rudimentary crochets. see h om oide u s. h e t e r ology n. [Gr. het eros, different; logos, discourse] The lack of similarity between structures due to different components or of a different derivation. see a n ology, hom ology. h e t e r olysis n. [Gr. het eros, different; lysis, loosen] Disintegration of a cell or tissue by an external agent, either by lysins or enzymes. see a u t olysis. h e t e r om e du soid a. [Gr. het eros, different; Medousa, Medusa] (CNID: Hydrozoa) In Hydroida, a sessile gonophore of a styloid type. h e t e r om e r ou s a. [Gr. het eros, different; m eros, part] 1. Nonuniformity in number of parts between organisms of the

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same species, or organs on the same individual. see hom e om e r ous. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Coleoptera, the tarsi are usually 5,5,4 segments in both sexes, occasionally 4,4,4, and rarely 3,4,4 in males, very rarely 3,3,3. H e t e r om e t a bola n. [Gr. het eros, different; m et abole, change] In some classifications the division of Exopterygota excluding Hemimetabola. h e t e r om e t a bolou s, metamorphosis a. [Gr. het eros, different; m et abole, change] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Developing by incomplete or direct metamorphosis where there is no pupal stage; the immature resemble adult insects and are known as nymphs. heteromorph n. [Gr. het eros, different; m orphe, form] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) An adult female dimorphic ostracod, recognizable by carapace structure. h e t e r om or ph ic a. [Gr. het eros, different; m orphe, form] 1. Deviating from the normal form. 2. At different life stages progressing to another form; heteromorphous 3. Homologous chromosomes differing in size or form. h e t e r om or ph osis n.; pl. -se s [Gr. het eros, different; m orphosis, forming] The replacement of an organ or part in an abnormal position, especially one lost or removed; homoeosis. see h om om or phosis. h e t e r om or ph ou s a. [Gr. het eros, different; m orphe, form] 1. Heteromorphic. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Successive instars with differing forms and marked differences in development. see hype r m e t a m or phosis. h e t e r om or ph ou s a r m a t u r e (PLATY: Cestoda) Hooks that change radically in size and shape from internal to external surface of the tentacle. he t e r om ya r ia n a. [Gr. het eros, different; m ys, muscle] (MOLL: Bivalvia) Having adductor muscles unequally developed. see h om om ya r ia n . h e t e r on e m e n. [Gr. het eros, different; nem a, thread] (CNID) A nematocyst with an open tip with a definite hampe. h e t e r on e r e id n. [Gr. het eros, different; Neris, family Nerididae] (ANN: Polychaeta) A specialized, free swimming, sexually dimorphic marine worm that gives off sex products into

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the water and dies after spawning. see e pit ok y. h e t e r on e r e is see e pit ok y h e t e r onom ou s a. [Gr. het eros, different; nom os, usage] Having unlike segments; differing in development or function. h e t e r onom ou s h ype r pa r a sit oid (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, a species in Adelinidae in which the female develops as a hyperparasitoid of one host, while the male develops as a normal parasitoid on another host; an adelphoparasite. see dia pha gou s pa r a sit oid, he t e r ot r ophic pa r a sit oid. h e t e r onom ou s pa r a sit oid (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera species Aphelinidae, a parasitoid exhibiting heteronomy. h e t e r onom ou s se gm e n t a t ion Relative dissimilarity and specialization of certain body segments. see hom onom ous. h e t e r onych ia n. [Gr. het eros, different; onyx, claw] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) One or more legs with a different number of claws than the other legs in a particular mite stase. h e t e r opa lpi n.pl. [Gr. het eros, different; L. palpus, feeler] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Palpi that differ in number of segments between male and female. h e t e r opa r t h e n oge n e sis n. [Gr. het eros, different; part henos, virgin; genesis, beginning] Cyclic parthenogenesis. h e t e r oploid a. [Gr. het eros, different; aploos, onefold; eidos, form] Designating a chromosome number deviating from the somatic number characteristic of the species; chromosome numbers may be either euploid or aneuploid. h e t e r opod a. [Gr. het eros, different; pous, foot] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Pertains to pelagic snails with a compressed foot adapted for swimming. h e t e r opycn osis, h e t e r opyk n osis n. [Gr. het eros, different; pyknos, dense] Certain chromosomes or regions of chromosomes that are out of phase in their coiling cycle and staining properties. h e t e r opycnot ic, h e t e r opyk not ic a. h e t e r or ha bdic a. [Gr. het eros, different; rhabdos, rod] (MOLL: Bivalvia) Pertaining to plicate lamellibranchiate gill in which the filament in the bottom of the depression between two successive plicae is longer than the other filaments. see

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h om or h a bdic. h e t e r osis n. [Gr. het eros, different; -sis, process of] Selective superiority of heterozygotes; hybrid vigor. h e t e r osom a l a. [Gr. het eros, different; som a, body] Chromosomal structural changes involving two or more nonhomologous chromosomes. he t e r osom e n. [Gr. het eros, different; som a, body] Sex chromosome; a heterochromosome. h e t e r ost r oph ic a. [Gr. het eros, different; st rophe, turn] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Pertaining to a protoconch when the whorls appear to be coiled in the opposite direction to those of the teloconch. h e t e r osyllid see e pit ok y h e t e r ot a x is n. [Gr. het eros, different; t axis, arrangement] Abnormal arrangement of parts or organs. he t e r ot opy n. [Gr. het eros, different; t opos, place] Phyletic change in the location from which an organ differentiates in ontogeny. he t e r ot r opic a. h e t e r ot r ich ou s a n isor h iza (CNID) A nematocyst open at the tip with a slightly swollen base, with spines on the whole thread, but those at the base are larger. h e t e r ot r oph n. [Gr. het eros, different; t rophe, nourishment] An organism requiring organic compounds among the food substances as its source of carbon; organotroph; sometimes used as synonymous with chemoheterotroph. h e t e r ot r oph ic a. see a u t ot r oph ic. h e t e r ot r oph ic pa r a sit oid (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, a species in Adelinidae in which the male is a parasitoid of a different host species than the female. see dia ph a gou s pa r a sit oid, h e t e r onom ou s h ype r pa r a sit oid. h e t e r ot r opic a. [Gr. het eros, different; t ropos, turn] Sex chromosome that does not have an exactly homologous partner (xx-xy or xx-xo). h e t e r ot ypic a. [Gr. het eros, different; t ypos, shape] Pertaining to the first meiotic division (meiosis) in which the bivalent chromosomes separate and are reduced in number. see h om e ot ypic.

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h e t e r ox e nou s a. [Gr. het eros, different; xenos, host] Having more than one host during a parasite's life cycle. he t e r ozooid n. [Gr. het eros, different; zoon, animal] (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) A specialized zooid that forms stolons, attachment discs, rootlike structures and other such vegetative parts of the colony; a bryozoan, such as an avicularium or a rhizoid. h e t e r ozygosit y n. [Gr. het eros, different; zygon, yolk] Condition of bearing differing genetic alleles at the same loci of the two parental chromosomes. see hom ozygosit y. h e t e r ozygou s a. [Gr. het eros, different; zygon, yolk] Pertaining to an individual with different genetic alleles at the corresponding loci of the two parental chromosomes. h e t e r ozygot e n. see hom ozygous. h e x a ca n t h a. [Gr. hex, six; akant ha, thorn] (PLATY: Cestoda) A six-hooked mature embryo, or larva, hatching from the egg; an onchosphere. h e x a cha e t ou s a. [Gr. hex, six; chait e, hair] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, describing the bundle of 6 needlelike mouthparts (stylets). h e x a ct ina l a. [Gr. hex, six; akt is, ray] (PORIF) Referring to a 6 rayed spicule occurring in only the class Hexactinellida. h e x a ct in e n. h e x a gona l a. [Gr. hex, six; gonia, corner, angle] Having 6 sides and 6 angles. h e x a m e r ou s a. [Gr. hex, six; m eros, part] Having 6 radially arranged parts or multiples of 6. h e x a n e ph r ic a. [Gr. hex, six; nephros, kidney] Having 6 kidneys, or structures utilized as kidneys. h e x a pod a. [Gr. hex, six; pous, foot] 1. Having 3 pairs of legs. 2. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In larval mites, having or using 3 pairs of legs. hexapody n. see oct opod. H e x a poda see I n se ct a h e x a r a dia t e a. [Gr. hex, six; L. radius, rod] Projecting outward in 6 directions. h e x a st e r n. [Gr. hex, six; ast er, star] (PORIF) A type of hexatine with branching rays producing star-shaped fig-

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ures. h e x icology see e cology h e x ose n. [Gr. hex, six; -ose, indicates carbohydrate] Monosaccharides having 6 carbon atoms, including glucose and fructose. h e x ur on ic a cid Vitamin C. h ia t u s n.; pl. h ia t use s, h ia t us [L. hiare, to gape] 1. An opening, gap or foramen. 2. An opening in an egg shell. 3. (NEMATA) see ope r cu la r plu g. h ibe r n a cu lu m n.; pl. -la [L. hibernaculum , winter residence] 1. A case or covering. 2. (BRYO) Winter bud in a few freshwater forms that survive the winter and form a new colony in the spring. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) A case or covering in which larvae hide or hibernate; a winter cocoon. h ibe r n a l a. [L. hibernus, winter] Occurring in winter. h ibe r n a t ion n. [L. hibernus, winter] A form of suspended animation or inactivity in organisms during unfavorable winter conditions. see a e st iva t ion. h ibe r n e st iva t ion n. [L. hibernus, winter; aestivus, of summer] A period of rest or inactivity during unfavorable conditions extending through both hot and cool seasons, especially in the monsoon tropics, i.e., certain annelids. H ick s' bot t le s (ARTHRO: Insecta) Campaniform sensillae of bees and ants located in the antennae in the shape of depressions or pits, and thought to be auditory in function; sensilla campaniformia. H ick s' pa pilla e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, campaniform sensilla on the haltere base sensitive to vertical forces during flight. h ie r a r ch y n. [Gr. hieros, holy; archon, leader] 1. In classification, the system of ranks that indicates the categorical level of various taxa. 2. A social ranking system in a colony. h ill see for m ica r y h in d a ngle see a na l a n gle h in d- gu t n. [A.S. hindan; gut] The posterior ectodermal portion of the alimentary tract (canal) between the mid-gut

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and the anus. see pr oct ode u m . h in d he a d (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Mallophaga, behind the mandibles and antennae. h in dun gu is n. [A.S. hindan; L. unguis, claw] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In mosquitoes, the posterior unguis of one of the hindlegs. h in ge n. [ME. heng, hinge] 1. The point of articulation of a moveable joint. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The m axilla, cardo; in mosquitoes, between the upper and lower vaginal lips. 3. (MOLL: Bivalvia) An interlocking toothed device upon which the shells articulate. h in ge liga m e n t Elastic substance interlocking the valves of a bivalve shell. h in ge lin e 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The middorsal line of junction between two valves of the carapace permitting movement between them. 2. (BRACHIO/MOLL: Bivalvia) The external line of meeting of the brachial and pedicle valves; movement of the shells occurs here; hinge axis. h in ge m e n t n. [ME. heng, hinge; L. m ent um , tool] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A collective term for the structures comprising articulations of ostracods. h in ge node s (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Localized thickening of the right valve hinge. h in ge pla t e see ca r din a l pla t for m h in ge selvage (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Ostracoda, a single ridge extending along the free margin of the carapace, when valves are closed, fitting into the selvage groove of the opposite valve; keeps valves from slipping sideways across each other. h in ge t e e t h 1. (BRACHIO) The tooth part of the articulating device on the ventral valve in the form of small projections along the free edge of the palintrope. 2. (MOLL: Bivalvia) A series of shelly structures near the dorsal margin and fitting into a socket in the opposite valve; functioning in holding valves in position when closed. h ir su t e a. [L. hirsut us, rough, shaggy] Bearing coarse hairs or hair-like processes; shaggy.

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h ir u din in n. [L. hirudo, leech] (ANN: Hirudinoidea) An anticoagulant secretion of leeches. h ispid a. [L. hispidus, hairy, prickly] Covered with rough hairs or minute spines. hispidulous a. [L. dim. hispidus, hairy, prickly] Minutely hispid. h ist obla st n. [Gr. hist os, tissue; blast os, bud] The imaginal disc. h ist oche m ist r y n. [Gr. hist os, tissue; chem eia, transmutation] The microscopic study of the chemical characteristics of tissues. h ist oge n e sis n. [Gr. hist os, tissue; genesis, beginning] 1. The formation and development of tissues from the undifferentiated cells of the germ layers of the embryo. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In holometabolic forms, histogenesis follows after histolysis of larval organs during the quiescent late larval or pupal stadia. see h ist olysis. h ist oge n e sis a. h ist ohe m a t in, h ist oha e m a t in see cyt och r om e h ist ology n. [Gr. hist os, tissue; logos, discourse] The microscopic study of the detailed structure of the organs and tissues of organisms. h ist olysis n. [Gr. hist os, tissue; lyein, to loosen] 1. Breakdown of cells and tissues. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The breakdown of larval tissues during the quiescent late larval or pupal stages in holometabolic forms. h ist one s n. [Gr. hist os, tissue; -one, ketone] The basic proteins associated with DNA; the major general structural proteins of chromatin, however, they can also act as depressors of template activity. h ist opa t h ology n. [Gr. hist os, tissue; pat hos, suffering; logos, discourse] The study of abnormal microscopic changes in the tissue structure of an organism. h ist ozoic a. [Gr. hist os, tissue; zoon, animal] Dwelling within the tissues of a host. h ist r ich oglossa t e a. [Gr. hyst rix, porcupine; glossa, tongue] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Referring to the radula, consisting of numerous types or categories of teeth: a median central

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tooth plus several kinds of lateral and marginal teeth, in retrograde oblique position, often in bristlelike fascicles. h ive a u r a / odor see ne st odor h ive n. [A.S. hyf,] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A man-made nest for honeybees. h ola n dr ic a. [Gr. holos, whole; aner, male] 1. Describing sexdeterminate genes that are manifest only in the male sex. 2. (ANN: Oligochaeta) Classical term that originally meant the placement of testes in segments x-xi. h ola n dr y n. [Gr. holos, whole; aner, male] 1. The condition of bearing the normal number of testes. 2. (ANN: Oligochaeta) Earthworms with two pair of testes, one pair in segment x and another pair in segment xi. see pr oa ndr y, m e t a ndr y. h ola r ct ic r e gion A zoogeographical region encompassing the palaeartic and nearctic regions. h ola spis la r va (ARTHRO: Trilobita) Final larval stage in which the general adult structures are present and with succeeding molts minor changes and increase of size. see pr ot a spis and m e r a spis la r va . h olidic a. [Gr. holos, whole; - idios, distinct] Said of a medium that has exactly known chemical constituents other than purified inert materials before compounding; a defined medium. h olism n. [Gr. holos, whole; -ism os, denoting condition] 1. The philosophic principle that the determining factors in nature, especially evolution, are wholes, such as organisms and not the sum of their parts. 2. Accentuating the organic functional relation between parts and wholes. holist ic a. h olobe n t h ic a. [Gr. holos, whole; bent hos, sea-bottom] Refers to animals living their whole life on or near sea-bottom. h olobla st ic division The type of cleavage in which the entire egg cell is divided. h oloch r oa l a. [Gr. holos, whole; chroa, body surface] (ARTHRO) Refers to a compound eye with narrow facets and polygonal lenses, as in most crustacean and insect eyes. see schizochr oa l. h olocoe n n. [Gr. holos, whole; koinos, common] The whole

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environment, the biocoen and abiocoen; the ecosystem. h olocr in e a. [Gr. holos, whole; krinein, to separate] The disintegration of a gland in order to release secretions. see m e r ocr in e . h olocyclic a. [Gr. holos, whole; kyklos, circle] Pertaining to alternation of generations. see a nholocyclic. holoe nzym e n. [Gr. holos, whole; en, in; zym e, yeast] A complete functional enzyme consisting of an apoenzyme and a coenzyme taken together. see a poe nzym e . hologa m y n. [Gr. holos, whole; gam os, marriage] Condition where gametes and somatic cells are similar; macrogamy. h ologna t hou s a. [Gr. holos, whole; gnat hos, jaw] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Possessing a jaw of one piece construction, as certain terrestrial forms. h ologyn ic a. [Gr. holos, whole; gyne, woman] A term describing sex-limited characters which are manifest only in the female sex. see hola n dr ic. hologynous a. [Gr. holos, whole; gyne, woman] (ANN) A classical term pertaining to ovaries restricted to segments xii and xiii or a homeotic equivalent. h ologyn y n. [Gr. holos, whole; gyne, woman] The state or condition of being hologynous. h oloic see m e ga ne phr idia H olom e t a bola n. [Gr. holos, whole; m et abole, change] Dominant superorder of insects, distributed worldwide, that includes the vast majority of insect families, genera and species with complete metamorphosis and wing pads formed by invagination; in some classifications Endopterygota. h olom e t a bolous m e t a m or ph osis (ARTHRO: Insecta) Metamorphosis with a larva, pupa and adult; complete metamorphosis. see pa ur om e t a bolous. h olom ya r ia n a. [Gr. holos, whole; m ys, muscle] (NEMATA) Describing the longitudinal muscle cells indistinguishable as individual cells so as to appear like a single band as viewed in transverse section. This term was discarded in nematology when Butschli in 1873 showed that, by definition, no examples exist. see m e r om ya r ia n , polym ya r ia n .

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h olon e ph r idia see m e ga ne phr idia h olopa r a le ct ot ype n. [Gr. holos, whole; para, near; lekt os, choose; t ypos, type] Any specimen from the original material that is later established as a paratype, it must be of the same sex described by the author. h olopa r a sit e n. [Gr. holos, whole; parasit os, parasite] An obligate parasite. h olophyle t ic a. [Gr. holos, whole; phyle, tribe] Denoting a monophyletic group that contains all of the descendants of the most recent common ancestor of that group. see m on oph yle t ic. h olophyly see h olophyle t ic h olopne u st ic a. [Gr. holos, whole; pneust ikos, of breathing] Having 10 functional spiracles. see polypne u st ic. h olopt ic a. [Gr. holos, whole; opt ikos, eye] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Having eyes dorsally contiguous along the midline. see dich opt ic. h olose r ice ou s a. [Gr. holos, whole; serikos, silken] Covered with minute silky or shiny hair-like structures. holost om a t ous a. [Gr. holos, whole; st om a, mouth] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Having the mouth of the shell rounded or entire, uninterrupted by siphonal canal, notch, or by other extension. holost om a t e n. h olot a x y n. [Gr. holos, whole; t axis, arrangement] The presence of all the organs or structures typically present in a particular organism. H olot h u r oide a , holot h u r iids n., n.pl. [Gr. holot hurion, seacucumber] Soft bodied, bottom-dwelling echinoderms, living mostly in sand and mud where they lie buried, with their tentacles sticking up into clearer water. h olot r ichou s isor h iza (CNID: Hydrozoa) A nematocyst with tubes spiney throughout. see a t r ich ou s isor hiza , ba sit r ich ou s isor h iza . h olot r ich y n. [Gr. holos, whole; t richos, hair] Pertaining to invertebrates possessing all of the setae normally present in their natural group. see h ype r t r ich y. h olot ype n. [Gr. holos, whole; t ypos, type] The single speci-

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men designated or indicated as the type specimen by the original author at the time of original publication of a species. holozoic a. [Gr. holos, whole; zoon, animal] Obtaining organic food materials by active ingestion of organisms or particles. holozygot e n. [Gr. holos, whole; zygos, yolked] Zygote. h om e lyt r a n. [Gr. hom os, same; elyt ron, cover] Elytra similar or equal to each other. h om e oa ca n t h ous a r m a t u r e (PLATY: Cestoda) Homeomorphous hooks in spirals or in quincunxes on the tentacles. h om e och ilidiu m , h om oe och ilidiu m n. [Gr. hom oios, like; dim. cheilos, lip] (BRACHIO) An external triangular plate that closes most or only the apical part of the notothyrium. h om e och r on ou s, h om oe ch r onou s a. [Gr. hom oios, like; chronos, time] Variation occurring at the same age in offspring as in the parent. h om e ode lt idiu m , h om oe ode lt idiu m n. [Gr. hom oios, like; 4th letter, delta; dim. thyrion, door] (BRACHIO) A convex triangular plate closing most or only the apical part of the delthyrium. h om e om e r ou s see h om oe om e r ou s h om e om or ph n. [Gr. hom oios, like; m orphe, form] Two unrelated taxa that are superficially alike. hom e om or ph ous a r m a t u r e (PLATY: Cestoda) Hooks of same shape and size in a row. h om e osis see h om oe osis h om e ost a sis n. [Gr. hom oios, like; st asis, a placing] Tendency of a system to maintain a dynamic equilibrium; when disturbed the animal's own regulatory mechanisms will restore equilibrium. hom e ost r ophic a. [Gr. hom oios, like; st rophe, turn] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Having whorls of the teloconch and the protoconch coiled in the same direction. h om e ot e ly n. [Gr. hom oios, like; t elos, end, finish] Evolution from homologous parts which have no resemblance to the original structure; homeotic mutant.

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h om e ot ype n. [Gr. hom oios, like; t ypos, type] Taxonomic type for a specimen that has been compared with the holotype by another author and determined to be conspecific with it. h om e ot ypic a. [Gr. hom oios, like; t ypos, type] Referring to the second meiotic division. h om in g a bilit y The ability permitting return to the original point of departure. h om o- for those not found here, see h om e o-. h om oa lle lic a. [Gr. hom os, same; allelon, reciprocal] Genes having mutations at the same site; homoallelic pairs do not yield recombinants. see he t e r oa lle lic. h om obla st ic a. [Gr. hom os, same; blast os, bud] Similar organs arising from similar germ layers in different species; having direct embryonic development. see h e t e r obla st ic. h om och r om e a. [Gr. hom os, same; chrom a, color] Having one color or hue. see h e t e r och r om e . h om och r om y n. [Gr. hom os, same; chrom a, color] 1. Of the same or uniform color. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) A phenomenon in which certain insects tend to have a general resemblance to the prevailing color of the environment. see a n t icr ypt ic color . h om oda ct yl a. [Gr. hom os, same; dakt ylos, finger] (ARTHRO) Pertaining to a claw similar in shape to the lateral claws (ungues). see h e t e r oda ct yl. h om odon t see isodont h om odyna m ic a. [Gr. hom os, same; dynam is, power] Pertaining to different genes simultaneously influencing the same developmental process; opposed to heterodynamic. h om odyna m ic life cycle 1. A life cycle in which there is continuous development; not interrupted by a diapause. 2. A life cycle in which dormancy can only be caused by adverse environmental conditions. see h e t e r odyna m ic life cycle . h om odyna m ou s a. [Gr. hom os, same; dynam is, power] Direct development without a resting stage. h om oe cious a. [Gr. hom os, same; oikos, home] Denoting the utilization of the same host during the entire life cycle.

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h om oe och ilidium see h om e och ilidiu m h om oe ode lt idium see h om e ode lt idium h om oe om e r ou s, hom e om e r ous a. [Gr. hom oios, like; m eros, part] (ARTHRO) Pertaining to having the same number of tarsal segments on all legs; isomerous. see he t e r om e r ou s. h om oe osis n. [Gr. hom oios, like; -osis, formation] The replacement of an appendage with another part, by modification or regeneration; metamorphosis. hom oe ot ic a. h om oe ot ype n. [Gr. hom oios, like; t ypos, type] Specimen accepted to be identical with the holotype, lectotype, paratypes, or syntypes of its species. h om oe sis n. [Gr. hom oios, like] Presence of an organ, or pairs of organs, or a series of organs, in a segment or series of segments, other than those in which normally found. hom oga m e t ic a. [Gr. hom os, same; gam et e, wife] Pertaining to sexual form that gives rise to the same type of sexual gamete in meiosis; in xx-xy and xx-xo systems usually found in the female. see h e t e r oga m e t ic. hom oga m y n. [Gr. hom os, same; gam os, marriage] The preference of a mating individual for another with similar phenotype or genotype. see h e t e r oga m y. h om oge n e ou s a. [Gr. hom os, same; genos, race] Of the same kind or nature. see h e t e r oge n e ous. h om oge n e t ic a. [Gr. hom os, same; genesis, beginning] Pertaining to meiotic chromosome pairing in hybrids when pairs are derived from the same ancestor. see h e t e r oge n e t ic. h om oge n ic a. [Gr. hom os, same; genos, race] Having only one allele of a gene or gene pair. h om oge nou s a. [Gr. hom os, same; genos, race] Having a resemblance in structure due to a common progenitor. h om oge ny n. [Gr. hom os, same; genos, race] With analogous parts or organs due to descent from the same ancestral type; homology. see hom opla sy. hom ogom ph n. [Gr. hom os, same; gom phos, peg] (ANN) A compound seta having a symmetrical joint between shaft

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and blade. see h e t e r ogom ph. h om ogon ic life cycle Life cycle in which all generations are free-living or all are parasitic; there is no (or little) alternation of the two. see h e t e r gon ic life cycle . h om oide us a. [Gr. hom oios, like; idios, personal] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In larvae, denoting a mesoseries of crochets bearing well developed hooks throughout the entire series; homogeneous. see h e t e r oide u s. h om oiosm ot ic a. [Gr. hom oios, like; osmose, impulse] Said of organisms maintaining constant internal osmotic pressure. h om oiot h e r m a l a. [Gr. hom oios, like; t herm os, warm] Pertaining to warm-blooded animals having a relatively constant body temperature due to their surrounding environment. see poik ilot h e r m a l. h om ole cit h a l e gg An egg-cell with a relatively small amount of yolk evenly distributed through the cytoplasm. h om ologue , hom ology n. [Gr. homologos, agreeing] 1. Features or organs in two or more taxa that can be traced back to the same (or an equivalent) feature in the common ancester of these taxa. see a n a logy, h e t e r ology. 2. Basic similarity of organs or other structures that have had similar embryonic origin, but have developed in different ways for different purposes. h om om or ph a , hom or pha n. [Gr. hom os, same; m orphe, form] Larvae resembling the adults. h om om or ph ic a. [Gr. hom os, same; m orphe, form] Being similar in appearance or form. h om om or ph osis n. [Gr. hom os, same; m orphosis, forming] In regeneration, when the reformed part or structure is similar to the part removed. see he t e r om or ph osis. h om om ya r ia n see isom ya r ia n h om onom ou s a. [Gr. hom os, same; nom os, usage] Being similar in form, function or development. see h e t e r onom ou s. h om onom ou s se gm e n t a t ion Relative similarity in body segments arranged on a transverse axis. see h e t e r onom ou s se gm e n t a t ion .

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h om onym n. [Gr. hom os, same; onym a, name] The same independently proposed generic or specific name for the same or different taxa. see se nior hom onym , j unior h om onym . h om opla st n. [Gr. hom os, same; plastos, formed] An idorgan composed of similar plastids. see a llopla st . h om opla sy, h om opla ssy n. [Gr. hom os, same; plastos, formed] Resemblance between parts or organs between different organisms due to evolutionary convergence or of parallel evolution. h om opla st ic a. see hom oge ny. h om opt e r ou s a. [Gr. hom os, same; pt eron, wing] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Having the anterior and posterior pairs of wings alike. h om or h a bdic a. [Gr. hom os, same; rhabdos, rod] (MOLL: Bivalvia) Pertaining to lamellibranch gill filaments that are arranged in a flat, uniform series. see h e t e r or h a bdic. h om or pha see h om om or pha h om ose que n t ia l a. [Gr. hom os, same; L. sequor, follow] Pertaining to species with identical karyotypes. h om ost a se n. [Gr. hom os, same; st asis, a standing] Stase which differs only slightly from its neighboring stases. h om ot a x is n. [Gr. hom os, same; t axis, arrangement] An assemblage or succession of species in different strata or regions, may or may not be contemporaneous. h om ot e n e a. [Gr. hom os, same; L. t enere, to hold] Retaining the primitive form. hom ot e n ou s a. h om ot he r m is see h om oiot he r m a l h om ot r ichou s a n isor h iza (CNID) A nematocyst open at the tip with a slightly swollen base, and with spines of equal length along the thread. h om ot ype n. [Gr. hom os, same; t ypos, type] A structure corresponding to a structure on the opposite side of the body; reverse symmetry; homeotype. see e n a n t iom or ph ic. h om ot ypic a. [Gr. hom os, same; t ypos, type] 1. Pertaining to the second meiotic division (meiosis). 2. Exhibiting homotypy.

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hom ot ypy n. [Gr. hom os, same; t ypos, type] The similarity or equality of body structures along the main axis. see e n a n t iom or ph ic. h om ozygosit y n. [Gr. hom os, same; zygon, yoke] Quality or condition of bearing two identical alleles at one or more loci in homologous chromosome segments. see he t e r ozygosit y. hom ozygot e n. [Gr. hom os, same; zygon, yoke] One who exhibits homozygosity. see h e t e r ozygot e . h om ozygou s a. [Gr. hom os, same; zygon, yoke] Pertains to having identical alleles in the corresponding loci of homologous chromosomes; therefore breeding true. see h e t e r ozygous. h on e y n. [ME. honey] Thickened partially digested secretion from nectar of flowers produced by honeybees by enzymatic action and used as food for larvae. h on e ycom b n. [A.S. hunigcam b] 1. A waxen structure built by bees in their nests consisting of an aggregation of hexagonal cells used as breeding cells for larvae and the storage of honey. 2. Any structure resembling a honeycomb. h on e y de w A sweetish liquid excreted by aphids or other homopterous insects. h on e ypot (ARTHRO: Insecta) A wax container deposited inside the entrance of the nest cavity filled with nectar by a solitary queen bumblebee when establishing a colony. h on e y st om a ch (ARTHRO: Insecta) A thin-walled enlargement of the esophagus (crop) in which the honeybee transports nectar. h on e y t u be see cor nicle hood n. [A.S. hod] 1. A color marking or expansion suggesting a hood. 2. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In beetle mites, the dorsal wall of the camerostome that extends over the capitulum. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. In notodontoid and noctuoid Lepidoptera, a counter-tympanal cavity that expands laterally to form a covering for the tympanal cavity posteriorly. b. In tingid Hemiptera, the dorsal elevated longitudinal carinae. 4. (CHAETO) A body-wall fold with a coelomic sac which can be drawn over the head. 5. (MOLL: Cephalopoda) In Nauti-

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loidea, thickened membrane of fused sheaths of the dorsal tentacles, which serve for protection when the animal is retracted into the shell. h oode d se t a (ANN: Polychaeta) A stout, blunt or apically toothed seta with the apex protected by a delicate chitinous guard; a hook. hood pr ot r a ct or (CHAETO) An unpaired muscle that is found in the free edge of the hood that acts as a sphincter muscle to pull the hood over the head; protractor preputii. hood r e t r a ct or (CHAETO) One of a pair of curved muscles originating on connective tissue beneath the brain and attaching to the neck plates (collarette) which retract the hood from the head; retractor preputii. hook gla nds (ARTHRO: Pentastomida) The paired longitudinal glands that unite anteriorly to form the head gland. hook , hook le t s see ha m u lu s, un cu s h oplocha e t e llin a. [Gr. hoplon, implement; chait e, hair] (ANN: Oligochaeta) Denoting earthworm male terminalia in which one pair of sperm ducts open together with the prostatic ducts of segment xvii or close to the prostatic pores, the other pair of sperm ducts similarly associated with the prostates of segment xix. h or iodim or ph ism n. [Gr. horios, in season; dis, twice; m orphe, form] Seasonal dimorphism. h or ism ology n. [Gr. horos, boundry; logos, discourse] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Scientific description of the neuration of insects wings. see or ism ology. h or izont a l a. [Gr. horizon, bounding] Laying in a plane at right angles to a primary axis; parallel with the horizon. h or izont a l cla ssifica t ion Classification focusing on grouping species in a similar stage of evolution, rather than location on the same phyletic line. see ve r t ica l cla ssifica t ion. h or m e n. [Gr. horm e, impulse, impetus] 1. Behavioral activity directed toward a goal. 2. In living cells or organisms a purposive behavior, urge or drive. h or m on e n. [Gr. horm ao, instigate] A chemical regulator or coordinator secretion having some specific effect on me-

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tabolism, development, or response of the organism or some particular part of it. h or n n. [A.S. horn] 1. A stiff, pointed, unbranched cuticular process. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. A long handlelike process of the first gastric tergite of Innostemman wasps, that curves up and over the mesoscutum and houses the retracted ovipositor. b. In the plural sometimes refers to antennae. h or ny a. [A.S. horn] Thickened or hardened. h or ny cor a ls (CNID: Anthozoa) In the order Gorgonacea, commonly called sea fans or sea whips, with extensive skeleton composed of a horny protein material, gorgonin. h or ot e lic a. [Gr. horos, boundry; t elos, completion] Pertaining to evolution proceeding at the standard rate. see t a ch yt e lic, br a dyt e lic. h ost n. [L. hospes, guest or host] Any living organism in or on which a parasite lives, and/or feeds. h ost se le ct ion pr in ciple A theoretical hypothesis that female organisms that breed on two or more hosts will return to the host on which she was reared to reproduce. h ost spe cificit y The degree to which a parasite is able to mature in one or more host species. H oyle 's or ga n (MOLL: Cephalopoda) In embryonic Sepia, a distinct set of cells in an anchor-shaped complex at the site of the shell sac closure; a hatching gland that produces a proteolytic enzyme that dissolves the chorion and surrounding envelope. h u m e r a l a. [L. humerus, shoulder] 1. Pertaining to or situated on the shoulder. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The anterior basal portion of an insect wing. h u m e r a l a n gle (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. The basal anterior angle or portion of a wing. 2. The outer anterior angle of the elytrum of beetles. h u m e r a l br ist le s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, the bristles on the humeral callus. h u m e r a l ca llu s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, a more or less rounded tuberculate anterior lateral angle of the thoracic

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notum. h u m e r a l ca r ina (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Coleoptera, an elevated keel-like ridge on the outer anterior angle of an elytron. h u m e r a l cr oss ve in A cross vein between the base of a wing and the apex of the subcosta. h u m e r a l lobe (ARTHRO: Insecta) The base of the costal margin of the hind wing that overlaps the fore wing in some primitive forms that serves to prevent the wings from moving out of phase. h u m e r a l ne r ve (ARTHRO: Insecta) A transverse nerve in the wing between the costal and subcostal veins. h u m e r a l pla t e (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. In Odonata, a large plate hinged to the tergum and supported by an arm from the pleural wing process. 2. In Hymenoptera (wasps and honey bees), a small plate separated from the metanotum anteriorly and laterally which bears the anterior notal wing process of the hind wing. 3. In mosquitoes, an anterior preaxillary sclerite of the wing base supporting the costa. h u m e r a l su t u r e see m e sople u r a l su t u r e , ba sa l su t ur e h u m e r a l ve in (ARTHRO: Insecta) A branch of the subcosta that serves to strengthen the humeral angle of the hind wing. h u m e r u s n.; pl. h um e r i [L. humerus, shoulder] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The shoulder. h u m or n. [L. hum or, fluid] Any body fluid, natural or morbid. h ya lin e a. [Gr. hyalos, glass] Clear, transparent or glassy. h ya lin e ce lls see gr a nu locyt e h ya loge n n. [Gr. hyalos, glass; genes, producing] Insoluble substances found in animal tissues and related to mucoids. h ya lopla sm , hya lopla sm a n. [Gr. hyalos, glass; plasm a, formed or molded] 1. The base substance of cytoplasm in which organelles are found. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The clear non-contractile matter (sarcoplasm) of a muscle in which the organelles are found. h ya lopt e r ou s a. [Gr. hyalos, glass; pt eron, wing] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Having transparent wings as the clear winged aegerid moths.

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h ybr id n. [L. hybrida, a crossbred animal] The offspring of two forms or species that are genetically dissimilar; a heterozygote. see cr oss. h ybr idiza t ion n. [L. hybrida, a crossbred animal] The crossing of individuals belonging to two unlike natural populations, or to different species. h ybr id vigou r see h e t e r osis h yda t id cyst (PLATY: Cestoda) Metacestode of Echinococcus, with many protoscolices, some budding inside secondary brood cysts. h yda t id sa n d (PLATY: Cestoda) Free protoscolices forming the sediment in a hydatid cyst. h ydr a n t h n. [Gr. hydor, water; ant hos, flower] (CNID: Hydrozoa) A nutritive zooid in a colony; the hydroid polyp, bearing a mouth, digestive cavity and tentacles. h ydr a r ch a. [Gr. hydor, water; arche, beginning] A series of changes in time from newly formed pond or lake to land with climax vegetation; an ecological succession. h ydr a - t uba n. [Gr. hydor, water; t uba, horn] (CNID: Scyphozoa) A simple polyp-like stage that may produce a few more polyps, but all bud off larvae known as ephyrae, which bud like a hydra. see scyph ist om a . h ydr e la t ic a. [Gr. hydor, water; elaunein, to set in motion] Of or pertaining to the effects stimulation of glands have on active transport of inorganic solutes and water. h ydr ic a. [Gr. hydor, water] 1. Having an abundant supply of moisture. 2. Pertaining to or containing hydrogen. h ydr obiology n. [Gr. hydor, water; bios, life; logos, discourse] Study of aquatic plants and animals. h ydr obiont n. [Gr. hydor, water; bion, living] An organism that lives mainly in water. h ydr oca r bon n. [Gr. hydor, water; L. carbo, coal] A chemical compound of hydrogen and carbon, usually in the proportion of C-H20 . h ydr oca u lu s n.; pl. -ca u li [Gr. hydor, water; kaulos, stem] (CNID: Hydrozoa) The simple or branched upright portion of a hydroid colony; stem.

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h ydr ochor ic a. [Gr. hydor, water; chorein, to spread] Pertains to dispersal by water; being dependent on water for dissemination. h ydr ocir cus n. [Gr. hydor, water; kirkos, circle] (ECHINOD) The hydrocoelic ring surrounding the mouth. h ydr ocla diu m n.; pl. -ia [Gr. hydor, water; klados, branch] (CNID: Hydrozoa) The lateral growing branch of the hydrocaulus; the secondary branches. h ydr ocoe l n. [Gr. hydor, water; koilos, hollow] (ECHINOD) Part of the embryonic coelom which develops into the water vascular system. h ydr ocole s n.pl. [Gr. hydor, water; L. colere, to dwell] Organisms living in water or a wet environment. h ydr ocyst see da ct ylozooid h ydr oe cium n. [Gr. hydor, water; oikos, house] (CNID: Hydrozoa) A sheath-like extension that protects the zone of the siphonophoran bell from adjacent bells. h ydr ofu ge n. [Gr. hydor, water; L. fugere, to flee] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. Water repelling hairs. 2. The outer surface of the chorion of eggs, as well as the cuticles, respiratory siphons and hairs. h ydr oid n. [Gr. hydor, water; eidos, like] (CNID) Polyp of coelenterates; any member of the Hydroida. h ydr olysis n.; pl. -e s [Gr. hydor, water; lyein, to dissolve] Reaction of water with substances to produce simpler compounds as starch reduction to sugars or with inorganic compounds to produce acid, basic or neutral reactions in solution. h ydr oph a nou s a. [Gr. hydor, water; phanerus, visible] Becoming transparent when immersed in water. h ydr oph ile h a ir (ARTHRO: Insecta) A water-attracting hair as opposed to a hydrophobe hair. h ydr oph ilou s a. [Gr. hydor, water; philein, to love] Moistureloving; hygrophilous. hydr ophobe h a ir (ARTHRO: Insecta) A hair with resistance to wetting, thus making a 90° angle of contact with the water surface. see h ydr oph ile ha ir .

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h ydr oph yllu m n.; pl. -lia [Gr. hydor, water; phyllon, leaf] (CNID: Hydrozoa) A thick, gelatinous, helmet-shaped or leaf-like medusoid containing a simple or branched gastrovascular canal, protective in function; a phyllozooid; a bract. h ydr oph yt on n. [Gr. hydor, water; phyt on, plant] (CNID: Hydrozoa) A hydroid colony complete with root-like organ, stem and branches. h ydr opla nu la n. [Gr. hydor, water; L. dim. planus, flat] (CNID) Larval stage between the planula and actinula larval stages. h ydr opolyp n. [Gr. hydor, water; F. polype, polyp] (CNID: Hydrozoa) A single polyp of a hydroid colony. see h ydr u la . h ydr opor e n. [Gr. hydor, water; poros, hole] (ECHINOD) In some modern larvae and some extinct forms, the opening into the left axocoel anterior to the hydrocoel, i.e., the canal extending from the axocoel to the surface. h ydr opyle n. [Gr. hydor, water; pyle, orifice] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A specialized structure of an egg for the uptake of water; the thickened region of the serosal epicuticle over a layer of endocuticle, thinner than elsewhere. h ydr or h iza n. [Gr. hydor, water; rhiza, root] (CNID: Hydrozoa) A tubular or ribbon-like basal attachment of a colony anchoring the colony to the substrate; the stalk of the colony. h ydr ose r e n. [Gr. hydor, water; serere, to join] A sere originating in water. see lit h ose r e , x e r ose r e . h ydr osom e (=hydrosoma) a. [Gr. hydor, water; som a, body] (CNID) A hydra-like stage. h ydr osph e r e n. [Gr. hydor, water; sphaira, ball] Aqueous envelope of the earth. h ydr ospir e n. [Gr. hydor, water; L. spira, coil] (ECHINOD) In extinct Blastoidea, respiratory structures in the form of pouches at the side of the ambulacral grooves. h ydr ost a t ic a. [Gr. hydor, water; st at ikos, cause to stand] 1. Of or pertaining to the pressure of water. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertains to floats, as air sacs in larval aquatic insects.

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h ydr ost a t ic or ga n s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In some larval Culicidae, pigmented, crecent-shaped organs found laterally on the thorax and near the tail. h ydr ost a t ic syst e m (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) A method of protrusion of the lophophore in some autozooids; made up of flexible frontal wall or infolded frontal wall sac and attached parietal muscles which contract and raise the lophophore by hydrostatic pressure in the autozooid. h ydr ost om e n. [Gr. hydor, water; st om a, mouth] (CNID: Hydrozoa) The mouth of a polyp. h ydr ot a x is n. [Gr. hydor, water; t axis, arrangement] A taxis in response to a moisture gradient initiating stimulus. h ydr ot he ca n. [Gr. hydor, water; t heke, case] (CNID: Hydrozoa) Peridermal cups into which most or all of the hydranth can retract, may be provided with an operculum; in some Thecata, the cup may be reduced to a mere platform supporting the hydranth. h ydr ot r opism n. [Gr. hydor, water; t ropos, turn] The response of an organism to water stimulus. H ydr ozoa , h ydr ozoa n s n.; n.pl. [Gr. hydor, water; zoon, animal] Class of the phylum Cnidaria having both polyp and medusal stages. h ydr u la n. [Gr. hydor, water] A simple hypothetical polyp. see h ydr opolyp. h ygr ic a. [Gr. hygros, wet] Tolerating or being adapted to humid conditions. h ygr ok in e sis n. [Gr. hygros, wet; kinesis, movement] Orientation due to differences in humidity. h ygr om e t a bolism n. [Gr. hygros, wet; m et abole, change] The influence on metabolism by humidity. h ygr ope t r ic a. [Gr. hygros, wet; pet ros, stone] Pertaining to the fauna of submerged rocks. h ygr oph ilou s see hydr ophilous h ygr or e ce pt or a. [Gr. hygros, wet; L. recipere, to receive] A sensory cell or structure that is sensitive to moisture. h ygr oscopic a. [Gr. hygros, wet; skopein, to view] Moisture

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sensitive; retaining moisture; accumulating moisture. h ygr ot a x is see h ydr ot a x is h ygr ot r opism see hydr ot r opism hyloga m y n. [Gr. hyle, material; gam os, marriage] The fusion of gametes; syngamy. h ylopha gou s a. [Gr. hyle, wood; phagein, to eat] Wood eating, as some insects. h ylot om ous a. [Gr. hyle, wood; t em nein, to cut] Cutting wood, as some insects. h ym e n n. [Gr. hym en] Membrane. h yoid scle r it e (ARTHRO: Insecta) A small sclerite near the base of the labrum in many cyclorrhaphous flies. h yot e spine s (MOLL: Bivalvia) Variably shaped (founded, earshaped), hollow, tubular spines open at their tips and on their flanks, arising from the thin edges of the shell margin of oysters; typical of Hyotissa Hyotis (Linne, 1758). h ypa ndr ium n.; pl. -dr ia [Gr. hypo, under; aner, male] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The plate below the genitalia of males, usually in abdominal sternum 8 or 9. see su bge n it a l pla t e . h ype r a n dr ic a. [Gr. hyper, above; andros, male] (ANN: Oligochaeta) In earthworms, having additional testes other than those of segments x-xi. h ype r a ndr y n. h ype r a polysis n. [Gr. hyper, above; apo, separation; lyein, to dissolve] (PLATY: Cestoda) Detachment of a juvenile tapeworm proglottid before eggs are formed. h ype r diploid see hype r ploid hype r ga m e sis n. [Gr. hyper, above; gam os, marriage] Sperm digested by blood cells or phagocytes, thought to be of nutritional value. h ype r gynou s a. [Gr. hyper, above; gyne, woman] (ANN: Oligochaeta) In earthworms, having additional ovaries other than those of segments xii-xiii. h ype r gyny n. h ype r ha line a. [Gr. hyper, above; hals, sea] Pertaining to waters above the salinity of normal sea water; above 40 parts per thousand. see h ypoh a line . h ype r ha ploid see h ype r ploid

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h ype r m e r ic a. [Gr. hyper, above; m eros, part] (ANN: Oligochaeta) Said of regenerate earthworms, which reproduce more segments than originally removed. h ype r m e r y n. see hypom e r ic. h ype r m e t a m or phosis n. [Gr. hyper, above; m et a, after; m orphosis, forming] 1. In the broad sense, refers to change of form throughout the life history. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) A type of metamorphosis development in which different larval insect instars have markedly dissimilar body forms. see h e t e r om or ph ou s. h ype r pa r a sit e n. [Gr. hyper, above; parasit os, one who eats at the table of another] An organism parasitic upon another parasite. h ype r pla sia n. [Gr. hyper, above; plasis, a molding] An increase in the number of functional units of an organ (organelle, cell, tissue). hype r pla sic a. see hype r t r oph y. h ype r ploid a. [Gr. hyper, above; aploos, onefold] Cells or individuals having more chromosomes (or segments) than the characteristic euploid number. see h ypoploid, a n e uploid, m on oploid, polyploid. h ype r pne ust ic a. [Gr. hyper, above; pneust ikos, of breathing] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In some Diplura, pertaining to the greater number of thoracic spiracles. h ype r st om ia l ooe cium (BRYO) An ooecium that rests on or is partly embedded in the distal zooid with opening above the operculum of the mother zooid. h ype r st r oph ic a. [Gr. hyper, above; st rophe, twist] (MOLL: Gastropoda) In dextrally organized gastropods, characterized by genitalia on right, but shell falsely sinistral, being actually ultradextral, or vice versa. h ype r t e ly n. [Gr. hyper, above; t elos, completion] Ornamentation or coloration without apparent purpose. h ype r t r ichy n. [Gr. hyper, above; t richos, hair] Presence of setae in greater numbers than those present in its natural group of invertebrates. see h olot r ich y. hype r t r ophy n. [Gr. hyper, above; t rophe, nourishment] The enlargement of an organ due to the increase in the size of its constituent cells. see a t r oph y.

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h ypist om a see h ypoph a r yn x h ypn ody n. [Gr. hypnodes, drowsy] A resting stage of some organisms. h ypn osis n. [Gr. hypnos, sleep] A state of fatigue or inhibition due to excessive mechanical stimuli affecting the nervous system; reflex immobilization. see st e r e ok in e sis. h ypn ot e n. [Gr. hypnos, sleep] An organism in a dormant condition. h ypn ot he ca see pr e pu pa h ypn ot ox in n. [Gr. hypnos, sleep; t oxikon, poison] (CNID) A proteinaceous toxin released from a penetrant nematocyst. hypobe nt hos n. [Gr. hypo, under; bent hos, sea bottom] Sea bottom fauna below 1000 m, corresponds roughly to bathyal and abyssal benthic dwellers. see e pibe n t hos. h ypobiot ic a. [Gr. hypo, under; bios, life] Pertaining to organisms that live under objects or projections. see e pibiot ic. h ypobla st n. [Gr. hypo, under; blast os, bud] Endoderm in early embryos, entoderm. see e ndode r m . h ypobr a n ch ia l gla n d (MOLL) Single or paired glandular epidermal areas of the roof of the mantle cavity. h ypobr a n ch ia l spa ce (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The area of the lower gill chamber, (below gills). hypoce r e br a l ga nglion (ARTHRO: Insecta) An expansion of the recurrent nerve in the anterior division of the autonomic nervous system. see occipit a l ga n glion . hypoda ct yl n. [Gr. hypo, under; dakt ylos, finger] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The modified labium of Hemiptera. hypode r m see hypode r m is hypode r m a l a. [Gr. hypo, under; L. derm is, skin] Of or relating to the hypodermis. hypode r m a l chor d (NEMATA) Dorsal, ventral or lateral longitudinal thickenings of the hypodermis, generally internal. hypode r m a l gla nds (NEMATA) Glands of hypodermal origin that may serve as excretory glands. hypode r m ic e nve lope see pe r ipodia l sa c

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hypode r m is n. [Gr. hypo, under; L. derm is, skin] The cellular, subcuticular layer that secretes the cuticle of annelids, nematodes, arthropods (see epidermis), and various other invertebrates; hypoblast. h ypodigm n. [Gr. hypo, under; deigm a, specimen] The entire material of a species available to the taxonomist. h ypodiploid see hypoploid hypoge a n , h ypoga e n a. [Gr. hypo, under; gaia, the earth] 1. Living in the soil; endogean. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Soil dwellers except for nuptial flight. h ypoglossa n. [Gr. hypo, under; glossa, tongue] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In brachycerous and cyclorrhaphous Diptera, the dorsal wall of the premental plate, formed by the sclerotized ventral side of the prementum. h ypoglossis n. [Gr. hypo, under; glossa, tongue] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The under portion of the tongue. h ypoglot t is n. [Gr. hypo, under; glot t is, mouth of windpipe] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Coleoptera, the sclerite between the mentum and labium. hypogna t hous a. [Gr. hypo, under; gnat hos, jaw] (ARTHRO: Insecta) When the head is joined to the thorax so the mouth parts are directed ventrally. see pr ogn a t hou s, opist h ogna t hou s. hypogynium n. [Gr. hypo, under; gyne, female] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The eighth abdominal sternite of a female; formerly, the genital plate. h ypoha line a. [Gr. hypo, under; hals, sea] Pertaining to waters under the salinity of normal sea water; below 30 parts per thousand; brackish. see h ype r h a line , e uh a line . h ypoha ploid see hypoploid h ypolim n ion n. [Gr. hypo, under; lim ne, lake] The bottom stratum in deep lakes containing low oxygen and near absence of living organisms. see e pilim n ion, t he r m oclin e . h ypolit h ic a. [Gr. hypo, under; lit hos, stone] Living beneath stones. hypom e ge t ic a. [Gr. hypo, under; m egas, great] Pertaining to the smallest in a series of polymorphic organisms.

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h ypom e r e n. [Gr. hypo, under; m eros, part] 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. The ventral process of the phallobase. b. Inflexed edge of the pronotum and raised margin of the epipleura of beetles. 2. (PORIF) The basal portion of certain sponges in which no flagellated chambers develop. h ypom e r ic a. [Gr. hypo, under; m eros, part] (ANN: Oligochaeta) A condition of regenerates with fewer segments than had been removed. see hype r m e r ic. h ypom e r on see hypom e r e h ypom or ph n. [Gr. hypo, under; m orphe, form] An allele that functions more weakly when compared with wild-type alleles; a leaky gene. h ypon e u r a l a. [Gr. hypo, under; neuron, nerve] (ECHINOD) Part of the nervous system deeper and more weakly developed than the ectoneural system. h ypon e u st on n. [Gr. hypo, under; neust os, swimming] Any organism that swims or floats near the surface of the water. hyponom e n. [Gr. hyponom e, tunnel] (MOLL: Cephalopoda) A ventral funnel consisting of two unfused lappetlike folds; in Nautiloidea, functions in bringing oxygen to the gills in the mantle cavity, and secondarily as a powerful locomotororgan. see fun n e l. h yponom ic sin u s (MOLL: Cephalopoda) In Nautiloidea, a large concave sinus ventrally in the head-foot shell opening, marking the location of the hyponome. h yponym n. [Gr. hypo, under; onym , name] A generic name not based on a type species; a provisional or temporary name. hypopa r a t ype n. [Gr. hypo, under; para, beside; t ypos, type] Any specimen originally used to indicate a new species but not chosen as the type specimen. see h olot ype , pa r a t ype . hypopha r e see h ypom e r e hypopha r ynge a l gla n ds (ARTHRO: Insecta) In bees, paired glands in the facial part of the head that open through the lateral areas of the hypopharynx; pharyngeal glands; food

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glands. hypopha r ynx n. [Gr. hypo, under; pharyngx, pharynx] 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The chitinous plate situated on the labium in certain Acari. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The metastoma. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. A median mouth-part structure anterior to the labium , usually associated with the salivary glands by ducts. b. A tongue-like lobe that arises from the mouth-cavity floor and serves as a sensory apparatus for taste, variously modified for feeding in many groups; ligua; glossa. hypopha r ynge a l a. hypophr a gm see ope r cu lu m h ypopi pl. hypopus h ypopla sia n. [Gr. hypo, under; plasis, a molding] Developmental deficiency of an organ system, organ, or tissue. hypoplastic a. h ypopla x n. [Gr. hypo, under; plax, plate] (MOLL) A long, narrow, calcareous ventral plate covering the gape between the two valves on the ventral margin, joined to the valves by a chitinous fold. h opople u r a l br ist le s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, a row of bristles, usually vertical, on the hypopleuron, above the hind coxae. h ypople u r it e n. [Gr. hypo, under; pleura, side] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The lower plate of a divided pleuron. h ypople u r on n. [Gr. hypo, under; pleura, side] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. The region below the metapleuron. 2. In Diptera, the lower part of the mesepimeron. h ypoploid a. [Gr. hypo, under; aploos, onefold; eides, form] Cells or individuals with one or more chromosomes or segments deleted. see hype r ploid. hypopne u st ic see h e m ipne u st ic hypopolyploid see h ypoploid h ypopt e r a , h ypopt e r e see t e gu la h ypopt ygm a n. [Gr. hypo, under; pt ygm a, anything folded] (NEMATA) Anterior and posterior cuticular flaps of the cloacal opening in some males. see e pipt ygm a .

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hypopus n.; pl. h ypopi [Gr. hypo, under; pous, foot] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) 1. In Acari, the second nymphal stage. 2. The non-feeding deutonymph of Acaridida; either active, phoretic nymphs or rather inactive resistant nymphs. hypop( i) a l a. hypopygia l spine (ARTHRO: Insecta) The caudal spine ending of the hypopygium of some female cynipid wasps. hypopygium n. [Gr. hypo, under; pyge, rump] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The last ventral plate; sometimes including attached segments of the postabdomen; terminalia; genital segments (commonly used for Diptera). see pygofe r . h yposcle r it ic a. [Gr. hypo, under; skleros, hard] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) A region only partially sclerotized in mites. h ypost a sis n. [Gr. hypo, under; st asis, a standing] A non-allelic recessive gene, interferred with by an epistatic gene. h ypost e ga l coe lom (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) In Cheilostomata, part of the body cavity separated from the principle body cavity of the zooid; it may communicate with the principle body cavity by pores or remain confluent with it at some point. h ypost e ga l e pit h e lium (BRYO: Stenolaemata) In free-walled forms, epithelium that lays down extrazooidal skeleton. h ypost e gia see hypost e ga l coe lom h ypost igm a t ic ce ll (ARTHRO: Insecta) In three neuropteran Permian families, a greatly elongated cell behind the fusion of the subcosta and radius 1. h ypost om a see hypost om e h ypost om a l br idge (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. Union of the hypostomata of the two sides meeting in the midline below the occipital foramen which is continuous with the postocciput. 2. In Diptera, the parts of the genae joined ventrally between the compound eyes. h ypost om a l ca r ina e (ARTHRO: Insecta) The margin of the proboscidial fossa of bees, which turn laterally toward the bases of the mandibles at their anterior end. h ypost om a l scle r it e see in t e r m e dia t e scle r it e h ypost om a l su t ur e (ARTHRO: Insecta) Part of the subgenal

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sulcus behind the mandible. h ypost om e , hypost om a n. [Gr. hypo, under; st om a, mouth] 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, forming the ventral-median wall of the gnathosoma; fused with the pedipalps in most groups, but in ticks a toothed structure between the pedipalps. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The metastoma. 3. (ARTHRO: Diplopoda) The gula. 4. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The anteroventral part of the head including between the antennae, eyes and mouth of Diptera; the ventral part of the head of Hemiptera. 5. (ARTHRO: Trilobita) The median preoral plate or labrum. h ypost r a cu m n. [Gr. hypo, under; ost rakon, shell] 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, the inner cuticular layer, usually pigmented with basic dyes. 2. (MOLL: Bivalvia) a. Inner layer of shell wall laid down by the mantle. b. That part of the shell secreted at muscle attachments. see m yost r a cu m . 3. (MOLL: Polyplacophora) In chitons, the lowest ventral calcareous layer of a valve. h yposu lculu s n. [Gr. hypo, under; L. dim. sulcus, furrow] (CNID: Anthozoa) The groove in the siphonoglyph. h ypot he sis n.; pl. -se s [Gr. hypot hesis, theory] A tentative proposition explaining the occurrence of a phenomenon either asserted as provisional conjecture to guide an investigation or accepted as highly probable in view of established facts. h ypot om e n. [Gr. hypo, under; t om e, a cutting] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, sternum ix. h ypot ype n. [Gr. hypo, under; t ypos, type] A specimen, other than the type, upon which a subsequent or supplementary description or figure is based; an apotype; a plesiotype. h ypova lva e n.pl. [Gr. hypo, under; L. valva, leaf of a folding door] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Mecoptera, a bi- or trilobed subgenital plate formed from the larval ix sternum. hypozyga l n. [Gr. hypo, under; zygon, pair] (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) The proximal member of a syzygial pair of brachials. see e pizyga l. h yst e r e sis n. [Gr. hyst eros, after] (CNID) A lag in adjustment at one level in response to stress at another level such as

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chromosome coiling or storm damage response of corals. h yst e r ode h isce n ce n. [Gr. hyst eros, after; L. dehiscere, to split open] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, dehiscence or splitting of the cuticle in the posterior part of the body; in hatching the animal moves backward. h yst e r osom a n. [Gr. hyst eros, after; som a, body] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) Combination of the metapodosomal and the opisthosomal segments of the body of a tick or mite; pseudotagma. h yst e r ot e ly n. [Gr. hyst eros, after; t elos, end] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Retention of larval characteristics in pupa or adult. see n e ot ony. h yst r ichoglossa t e a. [Gr. hyst erix, porcupine; glossa, tongue] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Referring to a radula of the rhipidoglossate type with tufts of bristles. h yt h e r n. [Gr. hydor, water; t herm e, heat] The combined effect on an organism of moisture and temperature. H - zon e see H - ba nd

I I - ba nd That zone of the sarcomere composed of actin alone. I - ce lls (CNID) The interstitial cells. ichnot a x on n. [Gr. ichnos, track; t axis, arrangement] A taxon based on fossilized impressions, tracks, trails, and burrows made by an animal, but not part of that animal. ich t h yopha gou s a. [Gr. icht ys, fish; phagein, to eat] Eating, or subsisting on fish. icon ot ype n. [Gr. eikon, image; t ypos, type] A graphic reproduction of a type. icot ype n. [Gr. eikos, to be like; t ypos, type] A representative specimen serving for purpose of identification, but has not been used in published literature. I CZN The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. ide ot ype n. [Gr. idios, personal; t ypos, form] A specimen named by the author after comparison with the type species. see t ype . idiobiology n. [Gr. idios, personal; bios, life; logos, discourse] The biology of an individual organism. idioch r om a t in n. [Gr. idios, personal; chrom a, color] Nuclear chromatin thought to function as structural support for genes. idioch r om osom e n. [Gr. idios, distinct; chrom a, color; som a, body] A sex chromosome. idiocu t icu la r a. [Gr. idios, personal; L. cut icula, cuticle] Of or pertaining to characteristics of a cuticle; produced in the cuticle such as the microtrichia of insect epicuticle. idioga m y n. [Gr. idios, distinct; gam os, marriage] Self-fertilization. idiogr a m n. [Gr. idios, distinct; gram m a, drawing] A diagrammatic representation of chromosome morphology. idiom or ph ic a. [Gr. idios, personal; m orphe, form] (MOLL: Bi-

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valvia) The normal form of valves; not distorted by crowding or attachment to the substrate; automorphic. idionym y n. [Gr. idios, personal; onym a, name] State of an organ which makes it possible to receive its own distinct nomenclatorial designation, either in ontogeny, or a comparative study of a natural group. idionym ous a. idiopla sm n. [Gr. idios, personal; plasm a, formed or molded] All of the hereditary determinants of an organism, both nuclear and cytoplasmic; germ plasm; idiotype. see ge not ype . idiosom a n. [Gr. idios, personal; som a, body] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In mites or ticks, the posterior of the two basic parts of the body, prosoma and opisthosoma; pseudotagma. idiosom e n. [Gr. idios, personal; som a, body] 1. A purported ultimate element of living matter; micelle. 2. The sphere or region of differing cytoplasm viscosity surrounding the centrosome, surrounding Golgi apparatus and mitochondria. idiospha e r ot h e ca n. [Gr. idios, personal; sphaira, globe; t heke, sac] A vesicle containing the acrosome of sperm cells. idiot a x onom y n. [Gr. idios, personal; t axis, arrangement; nom os, law] Taxonomic study of individuals, populations, species and higher taxa; traditional taxonomy. idiot a x y n. [Gr. idios, personal; t axis, arrangement] Homonomous organs having a common relative placement, even with secondary multiplication. idiot r ich y n. [Gr. idios, personal; t richos, hair] Homonomous setae which share a common relative placement even in the case of secondary multiplication. idiot ype n. [Gr. idios, personal; t ypos, type] Genotype; idioplasm. idor ga n n. [Gr. idios, personal; organon, organ] A morphological multicellular unit composing an organ, antimere, or metamere, absent of characters of an individual or colony. ile oce ca l a. [L. ileum, flank; caecus, blind] (ARTHRO: Insecta)

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Pertaining to the valve at the junction of the large and small intestine. ile u m n. [L. ileum, flank] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. An undifferentiated tube running back to the rectum; the anterior part of the hind-gut. 2. In termites in the form of a pouch in which flagellate protozoa live. im a gina l a. [L. im ago, image] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to the adult or imago. im a gina l disc, bud or ce ll (ARTHRO: Insecta) In holometabolous forms, embryonic tissue which remains undifferentiated until they give rise to the imago (adult) structures. im a gina t ion n. [L. im ago, image] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The development of an imago or adult. im a gin e see im a go im a go n. [L. im ago, image] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. The adult or reproductive stage. 2. In termites, applied only to the adult primary reproductives. im a gina l a. im a goch r ysa lis n. [L. im ago, image; Gr. chrysallis, chrysalis] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In the chigger mite life cycle, a quiescent stage between the nymph and adult. im br ica t e pla t e s (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Cirripedia, the lower lateral, lower lat us, and lower latera. im br ica t ion n. [L. im bricare, to cover with tiles] An overlapping at the margins as of tiles or shingles. im br ica t e a. im m a cu la t e a. [L. in, not; maculatus, spotted] Without colored spots or marks. im m a r gina t e a. [L. in, not; marginatus, to enclose with a border] Without a definite rim or margin; having no colored rim or margin. im m a t ur e a. [L. in, not; m at urus, ripe] Any developmental stages preceding the adult. im m e r se d a. [L. in, not; m ergere, to dip] Inserted, imbedded or hidden, as a part or organ. im m u n it y n. [L. im m unis, free] The ability of an organism to resist a pathogen; a type of resistance to disease. im m u n oge n ic a. [L. im m unis, free; gennaein, to produce]

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Pertaining to a type of substance that stimulates production of antibody or cell-mediated immunity. im pe r fe ct m e se n t a r ie s (CNID: Anthozoa) Mesentaries spanning the gastrovascular space, but not reaching the actinopharynx. see pe r fe ct m e se n t a r ie s. im pe r for a t e a. [L. in, not; perforat us, to bore through] 1. Not perforated; lacking an opening or aperture. 2. (MOLL: Gastropoda) see a nom pha lou s. im ple x n. [L. im plexus, plaited] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Integumental infolding for muscle attachment; endoplica. im plica t e a. [L. im plicare, to entangle] To infold or twist together. im pr e gna t ion n. [L. im praegnare, to cause to conceive] To make pregnant; the introduction of sperm cells; fecundate. im pr e sse d a. [L. in, on; prem ere, to press] 1. Produced by pressure; depressed areas or markings. 2. (MOLL: Gastropoda) A suture of a shell having both adjoined whorl surfaces turned inward adaxially. im pr in t n. [L. in, on; prem ere, to press] (MOLL: Bivalvia) The impression on the valve of a muscle or gill. im pun ct a t e a. [L. in, not; punct um , puncture] Without marks, pits, spots or holes. in a e qu ipa r t it e a. [L. in, not; aequipart us, equal] (MOLL: Bivalvia) Pertaining to bivalves with one end longer than the other. in a n it ion n. [L. inanis, empty] 1. The state of being empty; inane. 2. Exhaustion from lack of nutrients; the physical condition resulting from insufficient nutrients. 3. A form of dormancy brought about by insufficient nutrients. in a ppe n dicu la t e a. [L. in, not; appendix, appendage] Without appendages. in a r t icula t e a. [L. in, not; art iculat us, jointed] Not jointed or fitted together; lacking distinct body segments. in a r t icula t e h in ge (MOLL) Lacking visible teeth or equipped only with a callosity. in a x on n. [Gr. in, not; axon, axis] A neuron in which the axon

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branches at a distance from the neurocyte. in br e e d v.t. [A.S. in, inward; bredan, nourish] To mate with genetically similar individuals, particularly with close relatives; endogamy. in br e e ding de pr e ssion A loss of fitness due to severe inbreeding. in ca se d pupa see pupa follicu la t a ince r t a e se dis Said of a taxon of uncertain taxonomic position. in cide n ce n. [L. incidere, to happen] The number of new cases of a particular disease in a population within a given time period. see pr e va le n ce . in cide n t a l pa r a sit e see a ccide n t a l pa r a sit e in cipie n t a. [L. incipere, to begin] The beginning or appearance, as a species of animal. in cipie n t spe cie s see polym or phism in cise d a. [L. incisus, cut into] Notched or cut in; sculptured with sharp cut grooves. in cisor n. [L. incisus, cut into] Adapted for cutting. in cisor lobe (ARTHRO: Insecta) A toothed lobe used for biting. in cisor pr oce ss (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The biting portion of the gnathal lobe of the mandible; pars incisiva. in cisu r a n.; pl. -u r a e [L. incidere, to cut into] 1. A notch, depression or indentation. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The incisions in the margin of the terminal segment of scale insects. in cisu r a cla vicu la r is (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Nephropidae, an incision in the anterolateral margin of the carapace forming two lobes partly overlaping that fit around a tubercle or ridge of the epistome. in cisu r e n. [L. incidere, to cut into] A cut, gash, impression line, striation or notch. in clin a t e a. [L. inclinare, to bend] Bent toward the midline of the body. in clivou s a. [L. inclivus, sloping] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Term applied to a transverse wing vein; having the front end nearer the wing base than the rear. see ve r t icle , r e clivou s.

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in clu sion bodie s Intracellular bodies, as mitochondria, microsomes, at times viruses, etc. in com ple t e m e t a m or ph osis (ARTHRO: Insecta) In hemimetabolous exoptergotes, the immatures differing from the adult mainly by incomplete development in the wings and genitalia and develop without quiescent state; direct metamorphosis. see com ple t e m e t a m or ph osis. in cr a ssa t e a. [L. incrassare, to thicken] Thickened; making or becoming thick or thicker. in cr e m e n t a l line see gr ow t h line in cr u st a t ion n. [L. incrust at us, covered with mud] 1. Encased with a crust or hard coat. 2. A deposit of calcareous matter upon a shell. 3. (MOLL: Bivalvia) In oysters, tight attachment to the substrate. in cu ba t ion gr oove (ARTHRO: Insecta) In bumblebees, a broad depression across the top of the brood comb cell or on top of a group of larvae, into which a lone gyne lies to facilitate warming of the larvae. in cu ba t or y a. [L. in, in; cubare, to lie down] Pertaining to animals that brood their young. in cu da t e a. [L. incus, anvil] (ROTIF) Type of mastax with stout forceps-like shape with reduced mallei. in cu m be n t a. [L. incum bere, to lie down upon] Bent downwards; to touch or rest upon. in cu n a bu lu m n.; pl. -u la [L. incunabulum , cradle] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A cocoon. in cu r r e nt a. [L. in, in; currere, to run] 1. A current which flows inward; afferent. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The ostium of the heart. 3. (MOLL) Inhalant siphons. 4. (PORIF) Canals which admit water. in cu r ve d a. [L. incurvus, bent] 1. The state of being bowed or curved inwards. 2. Bent over as the apex in some shells. in cu s n.; pl. in cude s [L. incus, anvil] (ROTIF) Curved plates of the mastax, bearing on their medial sides several pronglike teeth; the fulcrum and rami collectively. in cu da l a. see u n cu s. in de n t e d a. [L. in, in; dens, tooth] Notched or dented;

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abruptly pressed inward; a cut or notch in a margin. in de t e r m in a t e a. [L. in, not; det erm inare, to limit] Not well defined; vague; indefinite. inde x n.; pl. in de x e s [L. indicare, to point out] A number expressing the relationship of one quantity to another by expressing them as ratios of a third quantity. in dige n ous a. [L. indigena, native] Being native to or originating in a specified place or country. in digoid bioch r om e Various blues and purples derived by the metabolism of trytophan found in plants and mollusks. in dir e ct life cycle see h e t e r ogonic life cycle in dir e ct n u cle a r division 1. Typical = mitosis. 2. Atypical = meiosis. in du ce r n. [L. in, in; ducere, to lead] A small molecule which causes an increase in the rate of enzyme synthesis when present. in du ct ion n. [L. in, in; ducere, to lead] Increase of the rate of production of an enzyme caused by an inducer molecule. in du ct or see or ga n ize r in du ct u r a n. [L. induct ura, a coating] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Smooth shelly layer of the shell secreted by the mantle, extending from the inner side of the aperture over the parietal region, columellar lip, and part or all of the shell exterior. in dum e n t um n. [L. indum ent um , garment] Covered by hairs, scales or tufts. in du r a t e a. [L. indurat are, to make hard] Hardened. in du sium n.; pl. -sia [L. indusium , tunic] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. A larva casing. 2. The third covering of embryonic membrane formed from a thickening of the serosa in front of the head. in du st r ia l m e la n ism The evolution of a darkened population owing to melanistic individuals that blend with their substrate in the sooty surroundings of an industrial area. in e qua l a. [L. in, not; aequus, equal] Having irregular elevations or depressions.

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in e qu ila t e r a l a. [L. in, not; aequus, equal; lat us, side] (MOLL: Bivalvia) Shells with unequal sides. see in e qu iva lve . in e qu iloba t e a. [L. in, not; aequus, equal; lobus, lobe] Having lobes of unequal size. in e qu iva lve a. [L. in, not; aequus, equal; valva, leaf of a door] (MOLL: Bivalvia) Having one valve larger, or of a different form from the other. in e r m , in e r m ou s a. [L. inerm is, unarmed] Lacking striae, spines or other sharp processes. see m u t ic. in e r t n. [L. iners, idle] Inactive; said of heterochromatin of chromosomes due to absence of gene mutations or effects on genetic balance; physiologically inactive. in fa u na n. [L. in, into; Faunus, diety of herds and fields] Bottom burrowing animals of the sea. see e pifa un a . in fe r ior a. [L. inferior, lower] Situated below, near the base; underneath; behind. in fe r ior a na l a ppe nda ge (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Odonata, the lower one or two terminal abdominal appendages used in grasping the female at the time of copulation. in fe r ior gr oove (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Decapoda, a carapace groove, beginning at the junction of the hepatic and cervical grooves toward the lateral margin. in fe r obr a nch ia t e a. [L. inferus, low; Gr. branchia, gills] (MOLL) Pertaining to gills under the mantle margin. in fe r ola t e r a l a. [L. inferus, low; lat us, side] Being below and at or towards the side. in fe r o- m a r gin a l pla t e s (ECHINOD: Asteroidea) The lower marginal plates that form the outline of the arm. see su pe r o- m a r gin a l pla t e s. in fe r om e dia n a. [L. inferus, low; m edius, middle] Being below and about the middle. in fe r opost e r ior a. [L. inferus, low; post erior, hinder] Below and behind. in fe r t ilit y n. [F. infert ilit e] Infertile state or quality; inability to reproduce. in fe st a t ion n. [L. infest us, disturbed] The living in or on a host

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by metazoan parasites. in filt r a t ion n. [L. in, in; filt rum , felt] Act or process of infiltering or permeating. in fla t e d a. [L. inflat us, inflated] 1. Expanded; distended. 2. (MOLL: Gastropoda) Applied to shells swollen, increased unduly, distended; ventricose. in fla t ion n. [L. in, in; flare, to blow] (MOLL: Bivalvia) The distance between the outermost points of the two valves. in fle ct e d a. [L. in, in; flect ere, to bend] Turned or bent inward or downward; inflexed. in fle x e d a. [L. in, in; fect ere, to bend] Curved, bent or directed inward or downward or toward the body axis; inflected. in flue n t a. [L. in, in; fluere, to flow] An animal or plant having an influence on other living forms. in for m osom e n. [L. in, in; form are, to form; Gr. som a, body] Messenger RNA combined with protein for protection as it moves from nucleus to cytoplasm. in fr a - a n a l fla ps see pa r a pr oct in fr a ba sa l a. [L. infra, underneath; basis, base] 1. Below a basal structure. 2. (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) Plates aboral to the basal plates. in fr a br a n ch ia l a. [L. infra, underneath; branchiae, gills] Being below the gills. in fr a bu cca l ca vit y/ ch a m be r (ARTHRO: Insecta) A spheroidal sac beneath the floor of the mouth cavity that opens into the mouth by means of a short narrow canal, functioning in food storage. in fr a bu cca l slit (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, the slit between the two lateral lips seen on the ventral surface of the infracapitulum. in fr a ca lypt r a l se t u la e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In tachinid Diptera, fine, bristly hairs below the point of attachment of the calypter (squamae). in fr a ca pit ula r gla n ds (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, paired glands lying in the prosoma and emptying into the cervix. in fr a ca pit ulu m n.; pl. -la [L. infra, underneath; capit ulum ,

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small head] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, part of the gnathosoma of mites, bearing lips and palpi and containing mouth and pharynx. in fr a clype u s see a n t e clype u s in fr a cox a l a. [L. infra, underneath; coxa, hip] (ARTHRO) Situated below the coxa. in fr a ct e d a. [L. infract us, break] Bent inward; bent inward abruptly as if broken. in fr a e pim e r on n. [L. infra, underneath; Gr. epi, upon; m eros, part] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The lower sclerite of the epimeron; katepimeron. in fr a e pist e r n u m n. [L. infra, underneath; Gr. epi, upon; st ernon, chest] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A ventral subdivision of an episternum. in fr a - e r ga t oid for m see ph t h ise r ga t e in fr a e sopha ge a l a. [L. infra, underneath; Gr. oisophagos, gullet] Subesophageal. in fr a ge n it a l a. [L. infra, underneath; genit alis, belonging to birth] Below the genital opening. in fr a m a r gin a l a. [L. infra, underneath; m argo, edge] Behind or below any margin. in fr a m e dia n a. [L. infra, underneath; m edius, middle] Pertaining to a belt or zone along the sea bottom between 50 and 100 fathoms in depth. in fr a m e dia n la t u s (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Lepadomorpha Cirripedia, a plate below the upper latus. in fr a n e u st on n. [L. infra, underneath; Gr. neustos, floating] Animals that live on the underside of the surface film of water. in fr a ocu la r n. [L. infra, underneath; oculus, eye] Below and between the eyes. in fr a or bit a l spine (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A spine on the lower angle of the orbit of a decapod carapace. in fr a or de r n. [L. infra, underneath; ordo, order] An optional category below the suborder. in fr a socia l a. [L. infra, underneath; socius, companionship]

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Leading a solitary life; below social. see socie t y. in fr a spe cific n. [L. infra, underneath; species, kind] Within the species; usually applied to subspecies. in fr a st igm a t a l a. [L. infra, underneath; Gr. st igm at a, marks] (ARTHRO) Below the stigmata or spiracles. in fr a su t ur a l a. [L. infra, underneath; sut ura, seam] (ARTHRO) Below the seam or suture. in fum a t e d a. [L. in, in; fumus, smoke] Clouded with a blackish color; smoke colored. in fu ndibu lu m n.; pl. -u la [L. infundibulum , funnel] 1. A funnel-shaped organ or part. 2. (CNID: Hydrozoa) The hydroecium. 3. (MOLL: Cephalopoda) An exhalant siphon leading out of the mantle cavity. infu ndibu lifor m a. in fu sca t e a. [L. in, into; fuscus, dark] Darkened with a brownish tinge; smoky gray-brown. in fu sor ifor m la r va (MESO: Rhombozoa) In Dicyemida, ciliated larva produced by the infusorigen. in fu sor ige n n. [L. infusus, poured into; genos, offspring] (MESO: Rhombozoa) A mass of reproductive cells interpreted as being a hermaphroditic gonad within a rhombogen. in ge st v. [L. ingest us, taken in] To convey food into a place of digestion. in ge st a n.pl. [L. ingest us, taken in] The total amount of substances and fluids taken into the body. see e ge st a . in ge st ion n. [L. ingestus, taken in] The act or process of swallowing or taking in food material into a cell or into the enteron. in gluvia l a. [L. ingluvies, crop] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to the ingluvies or crop of insects. in gluvia l ga nglion (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. Paired ganglion of the stomodeal nervous system at the posterior end of the foregut. 2. In Schist ocerca, autonomously exerting influence on movements of the proventriculus. in gluvie s see cr op in h a la n t a. [L. in, into; halere, to breathe] Taking into the

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body, i.e., water or air. see in cu r r e n t . in h a la n t siph on In various invertebrate groups, a tube-like organ along which water is drawn into the mantle cavity. in h e r it a n ce n. [OF. enherit ance] The sum of all characters or qualities transmitted by the germ cells from generation to generation. in h e r it e d dise a se Abnormal characters or qualities predetermined from parent to offspring; an inborn disease. in h ibit or n. [L. inhibere, to restrain] Any substance which checks or prevents an action or process. in j e ct or n. [L. in, in; j acere, to throw] (CNID) A nematocyst that injects venom through a discharged open-ended tube; stomocnide. in j u r y n.; pl. -r ie s [L. in, not; juris, right] Damage; wound; trauma. in k sa c (MOLL: Cephalopoda) A pear-shaped body in the wall of the mantle situated near the anus, containing the ink glands which eject a black substance as a defense mechanism. in n a t e a. [L. innat us, inborn] Instinctive behavior; not learned. in n e r dor soce n t r a l br ist le s see a cr ost ich a l br ist le s in n e r e pit h e lium (BRYO: Stenolaemata) In free-walled forms, an epithelium that secretes the skeleton, including both zooidal skeletal walls and hypostegal extrazooidal skeleton. in n e r la m in a (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Balanomorpha, the inner shell layer of compartmental plates separated by longitudinal tubes from the outer lamina. in n e r liga m e n t /in ne r la ye r of liga m e nt see r e silium inbner lin e (MOLL: Gastropoda) That part of the peristome against the pillar. in n e r lip (MOLL: Gastropoda) The inner edge of the aperture of a univalve shell extending from the foot of the columella to the suture; columellar and parietal lips collectively. see ou t e r lip. in n e r va t e v. [L. in, in; nervus, tendon] To supply nerves to an organ or part.

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in n e r ve sicle see ooe cia l ve sicle in ocu la r a nt e nna e (ARTHRO: Insecta) Antennae with base partly or wholly surrounded by the eye. see e ye - br idge . in ocu la t ion n. [L. in, in; oculare, to furnish with eyes] 1. Active or passive introduction of parasites into the body of a host. 2. Introduction of an inoculum into a culture medium. in ope r cu la t e a. [L. in, not; operculum , a cover, lid] Without an operculum , as a garden snail. in oscu la t e v. [L. in, in; osculum , little mouth] To anastomose. in qu iline n. [L. inquilinus, tenant] 1. A commensal organism that lives habitually on or within the body of another, or in its nest or abode without benefit or damage to either; a guest. see in qu ilin ism . 2. An animal that lives in the home of another species and derives a share of its food. see inqu ilin ism . 3. An insect developing inside a gall produced by another species. inquilinous a. in qu ilin ism n. [L. inquilinus, tenant; -ism us, condition] 1. The relationship between two organisms sharing an abode without benefit or damage to either. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The relationship of a socially parasitic species that spends its entire life cycle in the nest of a host species; workers are either lacking or scarce and degenerate in behavior; permanent parasitism. in qu ir e n de n.pl.; sing. -da [L. in, in; quaerere, to seek] Under inquiry or investigation; needs study. I n se ct a , in se ct s n.; n.pl. [L. insect um , cut into] A class of Arthropoda generally having a tracheate respiratory system, a single pair of antennae, and the body somites grouped into three functional tagmata: the head, thorax (bearing three pairs of legs) and abdomen. in se ct a r ium n.; pl. -ia [L. insect um , cut into] A building where insects are propagated or the collection contained therein. in se ct e a n , in se ct a n a. [L. insect um , cut into] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Referring to or characteristic of insects in general. in se ct ivor ou s a. [L. insect um , cut into; vorare, to devour] Feeding on insects. in se ct or u bin s n.pl. [L. insect um , cut into; ruber, red] Red or

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red-brown eye pigments of insects, produced by the oxidation of tryptophane. in se ct ova r y t ype s (ARTHRO: Insecta) There are three types of ovaries: 1. Panoistic. 2. Polytrophic meroistic. 3. Telotrophic meroistic. see separate entries. inse ct ove r din n. [L. insect um , cut into; viridis, green] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A blue pigment (usually mesobiliverdin) in combination with carotenoids which produce the green coloring of insects. see gr e e n pigm e n t s. in se ct socie t y (ARTHRO: Insecta) Strictly a colony of eusocial insects. in se ct sociology ( sociobiology) The study of population characteristics related to social behavior in insects. in se m in a t ion n. [L. insem inare, to sow] The introduction of spermatozoa into the female reproductive tract. see se m in a t ion . inse r t e d a. [L. in, in; serere, to join] Joined by natural growth; a muscle attached to a movable part. in se r t ion n. [L. in, in; serere, to join] 1. Movable end of a muscular attachment. 2. Translocation in genetics. in se r t ion pla t e (MOLL: Polyplacophora) A narrow marginal extension of the articulamentum layer in the head and tail valves and sides of the intermediate valves, projecting into the girdle; lamina of insertion. in sola t ion n. [L. in, into; sol, sun] Exposure to the rays of the sun. in spissa t e v. [L. in, into; spissus, thick, dense] To bring greater consistency; to thicken. in st a r n. [L. inst ar, form] 1. An insect or nematode at a particular larval period or stage between molts. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Numbered to designate the various periods, i.e., first instar, second instar, etc.; can be abbreviated 1°, 2°, 3°. see st a diu m . in st in ct n. [L. inst inct us, impulse] A usually invariable complex response natural to a species, independent of any previous experience of the individual. in t e ct a t e a. [L. in, not; t ect um , roof] Lacking a tectum.

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in t e gr a t ion n. [L. int eger, whole] (BRYO) Changes in individual zooid morphology brought about by colonial living. in t e gr ipa llia t e a. [L. int eger, whole; pallium , mantle] (MOLL: Bivalvia) Having a pallial line entire; lacking a sinus, as clams or oysters. in t e gum e nt n. [L. int egum ent um , covering] The outer covering of the body. in t e gum e nt a l scolophor e see scolopa le in t e gum e nt a l ve st u r e or se t a e (ARTHRO: Insecta) Numerous spines or hairs on the epidermis of syrphid larvae, excluding the segmental spines. in t e n sit y n.; pl. -t ie s [L. int ent us, intent] The total number of parasites in an individual. see bu r de n . in t e r a m bula cr a l a r e a s (ECHINOD: Echinoidea) The radially arranged arms (typically 5) that do not bear tube feet or podia. see a m bu la cr a l a r e a s. in t e r a m bula cr a l pla t e s (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) Additional calyx plates between the arm bases in stalked crinoids. in t e r a n t e nn a l se t a e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In coccids, a group or transverse row of setae on the ventral aspect of the head between the articulation of the antennae. in t e r a n t e nn a l su t u r e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Siphonaptera, a suture extending between the bases of the antennae. in t e r a n t e nn u la r se pt u m (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In some Malacostraca, a plate separating antennular cavities; proepistome. in t e r ba sa l m u scle (ECHI) A strong, narrow muscular band of tissue connecting the sheaths of the two ventral setae. in t e r br a chia l a. [L. int er, between; brachium , arm] Between adjoining arm tips, rays or brachial plates. int e r br e e d n. [L. int er, between; A.S. brod, broad] Individuals capable of actual or potential gene exchange by hybridization. in t e r ca la r y a. [L. int ercalaris, that which is inserted] Inserted or introduced between others; interpolated. in t e r ca la r y a ppe nda ge s (ARTHRO: Insecta) The rudimentary

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post antennal or premandibular appendages. in t e r ca la r y se gm e n t (ARTHRO: Insecta) The premandibular, tritocerebral segments. in t e r ca la r y st a ge (ARTHRO: Diplopoda) A non-reproductive stage between two reproductive stages in which the male gonopods and other secondary sexual structures regress. in t e r ca la r y ve in (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. An extra longitudinal wing vein of Ephemeroptera. 2. Convex wing vein which follows the crest of a ridge. 3. Concave wing vein on the bottom of a furrow. 4. In Diptera, sometimes applied to the posterior branch of the fourth vein. in t e r ca la r y w a lls (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) The outer walls of zooids attached to each other in a linear series. in t e r ce llula r a. [L. int er, between; dim. cellula, little cell] Lying between cells. in t e r ce r vica l gr oove (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Nephropidae, an oblique groove on the carapace that connects the postcervical and cervical grooves. in t e r cha n ge n. [L. int er, between; com biare, to exchange] Reciprocal translocations between nonhomologous chromosomes. in t e r ch e lice r a l gla nd (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, unpaired prosomatic gland emptying between the chelicerae; function unknown. in t e r chor da l a r e a s (NEMATA) The nonthickened regions of the hypodermis devoid of nuclei. in t e r ch r om om e r e s n. [L. int er, between; Gr. chrom a, color; m eros, part] 1. Regions connecting adjacent chromomeres. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Lighter staining areas of the giant chromosomes in Diptera. in t e r ch r om osom a l a. [L. int er, between; Gr. chrom a, color; som a, body] Reactions between chromosomes. in t e r cost a l a. [L. int er, between; cost a, a rib] (MOLL) Placed between the ribs of a shell. in t e r cost a l ve in (ARTHRO: Insecta) The subcosta. in t e r cost a t e n. [L. int er, between; cost a, rib or side] (MOLL)

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Between ribs or ridges. in t e r cox a l pr oce ss (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Coleoptera, a prosternal process, occasionally enlarged, partly concealing the coxae. in t e r de n t um n. [L. int er, between; dens, tooth] (MOLL: Bivalvia) A shelly plate between the pseudocardinal and lateral teeth. in t e r fa ce n. [L. int er, between; facies, countenance] The common surfaces of two bodies. in t e r fr ont a l br ist le s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, bristles or hairs on the frontal vitta. in t e r fr ont a lia see fr ont a l vit t a in t e r ga nglion ic a. [L. int er, between; Gr. ganglion, swelling] Between and uniting nerve ganglia. in t e r ge n ic a. [L. int er, between; Gr. genos, race] Changes involving more than one gene. Gymnolaemata) In int e r ior sk e le t a l w a ll (BRYO: Cheilostomata, walls growing off the skeletal wall interiorly which partition the original coelomic volume of the colony. int e r ior w a ll (BRYO) Any body wall that partitions the body cavity into zooids, parts of zooids or extrazooidal parts. in t e r k ine sis n. [L. int er, between; Gr. kinesis, movement] The abbreviated interphase between the first and second meiotic divisions with no chromosomal reproduction. in t e r la bia l a. [L. int er, between; labium , lip] (NEMATA) Situated between the lips. in t e r la m e lla r a. [L. int er, between; lam ella, thin plate] Between lamellae. in t e r la m ina t e figu r e (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In some Balanomorpha, a line or lines extending between epicuticle of outer lamina through longitudinal septa into the inner lamina in sections parallel to base. in t e r lobu la r in cision s see in cisu r a in t e r m a x illa n. [L. int er, between; m axilla, jaw] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The maxillary lobe. in t e r m e dia n. [L. int er, between; m edius, middle] (PORIF) Spi-

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cules between elements of principalia or dictyonalia. in t e r m e dia t e ba nd ( disc) see Z- ba nd in t e r m e dia t e ce ll see chr om ophile in t e r m e dia t e de nt icle s (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Stomatopoda, a row of small projections between the intermediate and submedian teeth on the lateroterminal margin of the telson. in t e r m e dia t e h ost One which alternates with the definitive host in which the parasite passes through partial development, but not to sexual maturity. see de fin it ive h ost . in t e r m e dia t e n e u r ons Neurons joining sensory and motor neurons; association neurons. in t e r m e dia t e scle r it e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, hypostomal sclerites shaped like an "H", joined together by a transverse bar, receiving the opening of the salivary duct. in t e r m e dia t e t oot h (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A strong spinelike or blunt projection at the margin of the telson, between submedian and lateral teeth of mantis shrimp. in t e r m e dia t e va lve (MOLL: Polyplacophora) Any valve between head and tail valves; median valve; body valve. in t e r m it ot ic a. [L. int er, between; Gr. m it os, thread] Interphase of mitotic cell cycle. in t e r na l a. [L. int ernus, within] 1. Located within the limits of the surface of something; situated on the side toward the median plane of the body. 2. (MOLL) Pertaining to shells when enclosed within the organism or mantle. in t e r na l liga m e n t (MOLL: Bivalvia) The ligament placed within the hinge and not visible when the valves are closed. in t e r na l pa r a m e r e s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In male genitalia, the paired sclerotized appendages inside the external parameres. in t e r na l r e spir a t ion The biochemical processes of metabolism that occur in all living cells that result in energy release. in t e r na l r hyt hm Endogenous rhythm. see cir ca dia n . in t e r na l r idge s (ANN: Hirudinoidea) Fleshy structures of the pharynx; pharynx folds or pods.

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in t e r na l se cr e t ion Substance absorbed directly by body fluids. in t e r na l t r ia n gle see t r ia ngle I n t e r na t ion a l Code of Zoologica l N om e n cla t u r e ( I CZN ) The official set of regulations and recommendations dealing with zoological nomenclature. in t e r n e u r on n. [L. int er, between; Gr. neuron, nerve] Internuncial neuron or association neuron. in t e r node n. [L. int er, between; nodus, swelling] 1. The interval or part between two nodes or joints. 2. (BRYO) That segment of a jointed colony between surfaces of articulation. 3. (CNID: Hydrozoa) A small repeated section of the stem or hydrocladium separated by a constriction of the perisarc. in t e r n um n. [L. int ernus, inside] Medulla of a mitochondrion. in t e r n un cia l ne u r on see a ssocia t ion ne u r on in t e r n un cia l pr oce ss (PLATY) The cell processes (trabecula) connecting the perikarya of cestode and trematode tegumental cells with the distal cytoplasm. in t e r oce pt or s n. [L. int er, between; ( re) capere, to take] Sense organs situated internally that respond to internal conditions, as opposed to exteroceptors. in t e r oscu la n t a. [L. int er, between; osculari, to kiss] Having characters common to 2 or more species or groups. in t e r pe t a loid a. [L. int er, between; Gr. pet alon, leaf] (ECHINOD: Echinoidea) Area between ambulacral areas. in t e r ph a se n. [L. int er, between; Gr. phasis, state] The period between succeeding mitoses. see in t e r k ine sis. in t e r ple u r a l su t u r e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Odonata, suture between the meso- and metapleura. in t e r ple u r it e n. [L. int er, between; Gr. pleuron, side] (ARTHRO: Insecta) An intersegmentalia between the pleurites. in t e r plica l a. [L. int er, between; plicare, to fold] Lying between folds. in t e r r a dia l pla t e s (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) Additional calyx plates between the radial plates in stalked crinoids. in t e r r a dius n.; pl. -r a dii [L. int er, between; radius, ray,

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spoke] 1. Area between radii or perradii in radially symmetrical animals. 2. (CNID) The second radius. in t e r r a m a l a. [L. int er, between; ram us, branch] Between two rami. in t e r r a m a l cir r u s (ANN: Polychaeta) Cirrus on the ventral side of the notopodium. in t e r r uga l a. [L. int er, between; ruga, wrinkle] Between rugae. in t e r r upt e d a. [L. int er, between; rum pere, to break] Irregular; asymmetrical; broken in continuity. in t e r scu t a l a. [L. int er, between; scut um , shield] Between scuta. in t e r se gm e n t a l a. [L. int er, between; segm ent um , part] Between segments. in t e r se gm e n t a l fu r r ow (ANN: Oligochaeta) In pigmented species of earthworms, the boundary between two consecutive segments where epidermis is thinnest and color is lacking. in t e r se gm e n t a l gr oove (ANN: Oligochaeta) In earthworms, a circumferential depression of strongly contracted specimens that contains the intersegmental furrow. in t e r se gm e n t a lia n.pl.; sing. -liu m [L. int er, between; segm ent um , part] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. Dorsal and ventral plates associated with narrow intersegmental sclerites which develop in the intersegmental folds. 2. Setiferous areas associated with the mesothoracic spiracles in scarab beetles. in t e r se gm e n t a l m e m br a ne (ARTHRO: Insecta) The flexible conjunctiva between two secondary segments where contraction of the longitudinal muscles produce telescoping of the segments. in t e r se pt a l a. [L. int er, between; sept um , wall] Spaces between septa. int e r se x n. [L. int er, between; sexus, sex] An individual possessing both male and female characteristics; sex mosaic. see h e r m a ph r odit e . in t e r som it ic a. [L. int er, between; Gr. som a, body] Between body segments or somites.

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in t e r spa ce s n. [L. int er, between; spat ium , space] 1. Intervening time or space. 2. (MOLL) Spaces between costa of a shell. in t e r spicu la r a. [L. int er, between; spiculum , small point] Between spicules. in t e r st e r ilit y n. [L. int er, between; st erilis, unfruitful] Crosssterility between groups. in t e r st e r n it e n. [L. int er, between; Gr. st ernon, chest] (ARTHRO: Insecta) An intersegmental sclerite, located on the ventral side of the thorax; the spinasternum. int e r st ice s n.pl. [L. interstitium, space between] A narrow space between the parts of a body or things close together; a crack, crevice or chink. int e r st it ia l a. in t e r st it ia l ce lls (CNID) Small undifferentiated epidermal cells which may give rise to cnidoblasts or nematocysts. in t e r st r ia l a. [L. int er, between; st ria, groove] 1. Between two striae. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) see e lyt r a l in t e r va ls. in t e r t e n t a cu la r or ga n (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) A small ciliated tube beneath the tentacle bases of the lophophore through which fertilized eggs pass to the outside. in t e r t e r git e n. [L. int er, between; t ergum , back] An intersegment between tergites. in t e r t ida l zone The area bounded by the high and low tide lines; also known as the littoral. in t e r t r ocha n t e r ic a. [L. int er, between; Gr. t rochant er, runner] (ARTHRO) Between trochanters. in t e r va l n. [L. int er, between; vallum , a wall] 1. The space between elevations or depressions. see int e r spa ce . 2. Distance between points. 3. The time between periods of development. in t e r zona l a. [L. int er, between; zona, belt] Connection between chromatids during separation at anaphase in mitosis. in t e r zooida l budding (BRYO: Stenolaemata) Budding that occurs outside of the living chambers of zooids producing a bud nonrelated to an individual parent zooid. in t e r zooida l gr ow t h (BRYO: Phylactolaemata) Growth of a

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wall between new polypides and parental polypides. in t e r zooida l polym or ph (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) Polymorph between zooids communicating with two or more zooids in a space smaller than that occupied by an autozooid. in t e st ina l gr oove (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, marine lobsters with a short, transverse groove of the posterior carapace. in t e st ina l r e gion (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In a decapod carapace, a short transverse area behind the cardiac region; posterior cardiac lobe. in t e st ina l siphon (ECHI) A narrow tube associated with the midgut; an accessory intestine. in t e st ine n. [L. int est ina, entrails] The chief digestive portion of the enteron; gut. in t im a n. [L. int im us, innermost] The internal membranous lining of an organ. in t im a l a. in t or t e d n. [L. in, in; t orquere, to twist] A turning or twisting in any direction from the vertical. in t ot o In its entirety; entirely; altogether. in t r a - a la r br ist le s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, a row of two or three bristles between the supra-alar and dorsocentral bristle groups. in t r a ce llu la r a. [L. int ra, within; cellula, small cell] Occurring within a cell or cells. in t r a cha nge n. [L. int ra, within; cambiare, to barter] Exchange of segments within a chromosome resulting in chromosomal structural changes. in t r a coe lom ic m u scle see e x t e r n a l m u scle in t r a cr ist a l spa ce Space enclosed by cristae in the mitochondrion. Gymnolaemata) In in t r a cut icula r sk e le t on (BRYO: Cheilostomata, skeletal layers between noncellular organic sheets or within organic networks of cuticles of the exterior walls. in t r a dos n. [L. int ra, within; F. dos, the back] The interior curve of an arch. see e x t r a dos.

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in t r a he m ocoe lic a. [L. int ra, within; Gr. haim a, blood; koilos, hollow] Within the hemocoel or perivisceral cavity of an invertebrate. in t r a le cit ha l cleavage Cleavage where the nuclei undergo several divisions within the yolk without concurrent cytokinesis; common in arthropods. in t r a pa r ie s n.; pl. in t r a pa r ie t e s [L. int ra, within; paries, wall] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Lepadomorpha, the secondary lateral margin of the carina. in t r a pe t a lou s a. [L. int ra, within; Gr. pet alon, leaf] (ECHINOD) Within the area of the tube feet. in t r a pu lm ona r y r e spir a t ion Type of respiration that does not involve movements of the outer body wall and is confined to the respiratory organs. in t r a se gm e n t a l a. [L. int ra, within; segm en, piece] Within a segment. in t r a spicu la r a. [L. int ra, within; spicula, little point] (PORIF) Pertains to spicules completely embedded in spongin. in t r a t e n t a cu la r bu dding (CNID: Anthozoa) A zoantharian colony growing by asexual reproduction, through the formation of new mouths on the oral disk, resulting in branching, or in linear groups of polyps bearing tentacles mainly on the outer edges of the row. in t r a ut e r ine a. [L. int ra, within; ut erus, womb] 1. Within the uterus. 2. Applied to developing offspring hatching within the uterus of the mother. see m a t r icida l ha t ch in g. in t r a vit a m Applied to certain stains having the property of tinting cells of living organisms without killing them. in t r a zooida l budding (BRYO: Stenolaemata) Budding within the living chamber of a single zooid. in t r a zooida l polym or ph ism (BRYO: Stenolaemata) Two different types of zooids developed in the same living chamber. in t r in sic a. [L. int rinsecus, inward] 1. Inherent or within. 2. Cycles of species in a population. 3. Rate of natural increase in a stabilized population. see e x t r in sic. in t r in sic a r t icu la t ion A type of articulation where sclerotic

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prolongations within the articular membrane make contact. see e x t r insic a r t icu la t ion. in t r in sic body w a ll m u scle s (BRYO) Circular and longitudinal muscle layers in the body walls. in t r in sic m u scle s Muscles which move an organ (leg, etc.) that originate within the segment. see e x t r insic m u scle s. int r oduce d a. [L. int ro, within; ducere, to lead] Not native but brought into an area by man. in t r oit u s n. [L. int roit us, entered] Opening or orifice. in t r om it t e n t a. [L. int ro, within; m et t ere, to send] Designed for entering or inserting. in t r om it t e n t or ga n A male organ for transfer of seminal fluid into the female. in t r or se a. [L. int ro, within; versus, turn] Facing or directed inward toward the axis. see e x t r or se . in t r ove r t n. [L. int ro, within; versus, turn] (BRYO/SIPUN) A cavity which accepts retractable appendages, e.g., the anterior cavity that accepts the anterior tentacles. int um e sce nt n. [L. in, in; tumescere, to swell up] A swelling; being swollen or expanded. in t u ssu sce pt ion n. [L. intus, within; suscipere, to take up] Deposition of new particles of formative material among those already present in a tissue or structure. see a pposit ion , a ccr e t ion . in va gina t ion n. [L. in, into; vagina, sheath] An infolding, or ingrowth of a sheet or layer of cells forming a pouch or sac, especially in embryos. see e m boly. in va lid a. [L. invalidus, not strong] Dismissing; without standing in zoological nomenclature. in ve r se e ye s Eyes in which the distal ends of the retinal cells face the interior of the cup or vesicle. see conve r se e ye s. in ve r t a se n. [L. invert ere, to turn around; -asis, ending signifying an enzyme] An enzyme found in many plants and animal intestines that causes the hydrolysis of sucrose and converts it into a mixture of glucose and fructose. in ve r t e br a t e n. [L. in, not; vertebrata, with backbones] Any

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animal without a backbone or vertebral column. in ve st m e nt n. [L. invest ire, to clothe] An outer covering of a cell, part, or organism. in vit r o [L. in, in; vit rum , glass] In the test tube or other artificial environment. in vivo [L. in, in; vivere, to live] Occurring within a living organism. in volu cr um n. [L. involucrum , sheath] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A sheath of cerumen around the brood chamber of stingless bees. in volu t e a. [L. in, in; volut e, spiral] 1. Rolled inwards at margins or edges. 2. (MOLL) The last whorl of a shell enveloping earlier ones and concealing, or nearly so, the axis or earlier volutions. see con volu t e , r e volu t e . in volu t ion n. [L. in, in; volut e, spiral] 1. Act of involving or infolding. 2. Deterioration or retrograde evolution. ipsila t e r a l a. [L. ipse, same; lat us, side] Pertaining to or situated on the same side. see con t r a la t e r a l. ir ide sce n ce n. [L. iris, rainbow] A rainbow-like display of interference colors that change with variations of the angle of view, due to diffraction of light reflected from ribbed or finely striated surfaces. ir ide sce n t a. ir idophor e n. [L. iris, rainbow; Gr. phoreus, bearer] An iridescent chromatophore; an iridocyte. ir is n.; pl. ir ise s, ir ide s [L. iris, rainbow] Dark pigment surrounding the compound eyes of arthropods and the camera-type eyes of cephalopods. ir r e gu la r n. [L. in, not; regularis, according to rule] Unequal, curved, bent; not regular. ir r e ve r sibilit y r ule see D ollo's r u le ir r it a bilit y n. [L. irrit are, to provoke] Ability to receive external impressions and the power to react to them. ir r it a n t n. [L. irrit are, to provoke] Any external stimulus that can provoke a response. ir r or a t e a. [L. in, not; roris, dew] Covered with minute marks, colors, or minute grains or specks of color.

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isa ux e sis n. [Gr. isos, equal; auxesis, growth] Equality in growth; isometry. see br a dya u x e sis, h e t e r a ux e sis, t a ch ya ux e sis. isch ia pl. of isch ium isch ioce r it e n. [Gr. ischion, hip; keras, horn] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Third segment of an antennal peduncle. isch iom e r u s a. [Gr. ischion, hip; m eros, part] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Refers to the third (ischium) and fourth (merus) segments of subchelate anterior appendages. isch iopod( it e ) n. [Gr. ischion, hip; pous, foot] (ARTHRO) The third segment of a generalized limb; the second trochanter, or second segment of the telopodite; prefemur. see isch iu m . isch iu m n.; pl. isch ia [Gr. ischion, hip] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The third segment of a pereopod, or first segment of an endopod articulating with the basis; an ischiopodite. isle t n. [L. dim. insula, an island] A spot in a plaga differing in color. isoa lle le n. [Gr. isos, equal; allelon, one another] An allele whose effect can only be distinguished from that of a normal allele by special techniques. isobila t e r a l a. [Gr. isos, equal; L. bis, twice; lat us, side] Having bilateral symmetry where a structure can be divisible in two planes at right angles. isobr a ch ia l a. [Gr. isos, equal; brachion, arm] A chromosome in which the centromere occupies the median position. isoch e la n. [Gr. isos, equal; chele, claw] 1. A chela with two like parts. 2. (PORIF) A diactinal microsclere with like recurved hooks, plates, flukes or anchor shaped at each end. see a n isoch e la . isoch r om osom e a. [Gr. isos, equal; chrom os, color; som a, body] Monocentric or dicentric chromosome with equal and genetically identical arms which are mirror images. isocie s n.pl. [Gr. isos, equal; L. socius, companion] A group of associated organisms with differing taxonomic affinities, at times used merely in the sense of habitat groups. see a ssocie s, con socie s, su bsocie s.

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isocyt ou s a. [Gr. isos, equal; kyt os, container] Having cells of equal size or height. isoda ct ylou s a. [Gr. isos, equal; dakt ylos, finger] Bearing digits of equal size. isodia m e t r ic a. [Gr. isos, equal; dia, through; m et ron, measure] Having equal diameters or axes. isodict ya l a. [Gr. isos, equal; dict yon, net] (PORIF) Pertaining to a type of skeletal construction with spicules and/or fibers interlocking in a regular triangular pattern. isodon t a. [Gr. isos, equal; odous, tooth] (MOLL: Bivalvia) With hinge teeth arranged symmetrically; homodont. isoe nzym e n. [Gr. isos, equal; en, in; zym e, yeast] An enzyme differing in polymorphic states and isoelectric point, but having the same function; an isozyme. isoga m e t e s n. [Gr. isos, equal; gam et e, spouse] Outwardly similar male and female gametes. isoga m y n. [Gr. isos, equal; gam os, union] The mutual fertilization process of isogametes. isoge n e s n. [Gr. isos, equal; genos, race] Lines on a gene map that connect points of identical gene frequency. isoge n ic a. [Gr. isos, equal; genos, race] A group of individuals that have the same genotype. isoglot t id a. [Gr. isos, equal; glot t is, mouth of the windpipe] (NEMATA) Having metarhabdions situated at the same level. see a n isoglot t id. isogr a ft n. [Gr. isos, equal; graphion, stylus] Tissue graft between animals of the same genotype. isola t e n. [L. insula, island] A breeding population or group of populations isolated from other populations by physiological, behavioral, or geographic barriers. isola t ion n. [L. insula, island] Separation from similar forms. isole cit ha l e gg An ova with yolk granules randomly distributed through the cell; a small amount of yolk; an oligolecithal egg. see ce nt r ole cit ha l e gg. isom e r n. [Gr. isos, equal; m eros, part] Compounds of the same chemical composition but with different structures.

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isom e r a se s n.pl. [Gr. isos, equal; m eros, part; -asis, enzyme] Enzymes which convert one chemical compound to another; said to be isomeric compounds. isom e r ic a. [Gr. isos, equal; m eros, part] Equivalent genes which can each produce the same phenotype. isom e r oga m y see isoga m y isom e r ou s a. [Gr. isos, equal; m eros, part] Having equal number of parts, ridges or markings; homoeomerous. see h e t e r om e r ou s. isom e t r y n. [Gr. isos, equal; m et ron, measure] Growth of two body parts remaining constant relative to each other as body size increases. isom or ph ic a. [Gr. isos, equal; m orphe, form] Alike or identical in appearance; isomorphous. see a n isom or ph ic. isom or ph ism n. [Gr. isos, equal; m orphe, form] Similarity of organisms of different ancestry. see h e t e r om or ph ic. isom ya r ia n condit ion (MOLL: Bivalvia) Having adductor muscles equal or subequal in size; homomyarian. isonym n. [Gr. isos, equal; onym a, name] The new name of a species, or higher classification being based upon the older name or basinym. isopa lpi n.pl.; sing. -u s [Gr. isos, equal; L. palpus, feeler] Palpi with the same number of joints. isophe n e , isopha ne n. [Gr. isos, equal; phainein, to show] 1. A line connecting points of equal expression of a clinally varying character. 2. A line connecting areas in a region at which a phenological phenomenon occurs simultaneously. 3. Lines at right angles to a cline on a map. isophe non n.; pl. isophe na [Gr. isos, equal; phainein, to show] Maintaining the same form, except sometimes in size, after a growing- or repetition-molt. isophe nous a. [Gr. isos, equal; phainein, to show] Showing characteristics of a phenotype. isopodu s a. [Gr. isos, equal; pous, foot] Having the legs alike and equal. isopycnosis n. [Gr. isos, equal; pyknos, thick] Chromosome or

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chromosome regions which do not differ greatly from each other. isopygou s a. [Gr. isos, equal; pyge, rump] Having pygidium and cephalon equal in size. isor h iza n. [Gr. isos, equal; rhiza, root] (CNID) A form of nematocyst in which the tube is open and the same diameter along the tube, responding to mechanical stimuli, and is used in anchoring the animal when it walks on its tentacles. see a t r ich ou s isor hiza , h olot r ichou s isor h iza , ba sit r ich ou s isor h iza . isost r oph ic a. [Gr. isos, equal; st rophe, turn] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Having two faces of the shell symmetrical with respect to a median plane perpendicular to axis. isot om y a. [Gr. isos, equal; t em nein, to cut] The process of regularly repeated bifurcation as in crinoid branchia. isot r oph ic a. [Gr. isos, equal; t ropein, to turn] Singly refracting, as the light stripes of voluntary muscle fibers. see a n isot r opic. isot ype n. [Gr. isos, equal; t ypus, image] 1. An animal, plant or group frequently found in two or more countries or life regions. 2. A specimen collected from the type locale or habitat at the same time as the holotype. isot ypica l ge n u s A description from more than one congeneric species. isozym e see isoe nzym e ist h m ia t e a. [Gr. ist hm os, neck] Connected by an isthmus-like part. ist h m us n. [L. fr. Gr. ist hm os, neck, narrow place] (MOLL: Bivalvia) Part of the mantle that secretes the horny uncalcified material (conchiolin) of the ligament. 2. (NEMATA) The middle part of a muscular esophagus, often constricted; a narrow section of the esophagus. it e r opa r ous a. [L. it erare, to repeat; parere, to bear] Having the capability to reproduce two or more times during a lifetime. it e r opa r it y n.

J j a ck e t ce lls (MESO: Orthonectida) The ciliated somatoderm; the number of body rings and their arrangement is of taxonomic importance. j a cula t or y du ct A region of the vas deferens through which sperm is emitted. see e j a cu la t or y duct . John st on 's or ga n (ARTHRO: Insecta) A chordotonal organ located in the second segment of the antenna and functioning in sound perception, flight speed indicator or water wave perception. j oin t n. [L. j ungere, to join] An articulation of two successive segments or parts. Jon st on ia n or ga n see John st on 's or ga n j or da n on see m icr ospe cie s Jor da n 's or ga n see ch a e t ose m a t a j uba t e a. [L. j ubat us, crested] Fringed with long, mane-like hairs. j u ga pl. of j ugum j u ga l a ngle (MOLL: Polyplacophora) The angle formed by the two halves of an intermediate valve. j uga l a r e a / t r a ct (MOLL: Polyplacophora) The upper surface of a valve immediately adjacent to the jugum, sometimes sculptured differently from the rest of the surface; dorsal area. j u ga l br ist le s (ARTHRO: Insecta) Bristles located on the edge of the jugal lobe. j u ga l cove r a ge see va lve cove r a ge j u ga l fold see plica j u ga lis j uga l lobe (ARTHRO: Insecta) A lobe at the base of the fore wing that makes contact with the hind wing to prevent the wings from moving out of phase. j u ga l m u scle s (MOLL) Thick longitudinal muscles at the base of

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the radular mass. j u ga l r e gion 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Decapoda, the anterolateral part on the ventral surface, located on opposite sides of the buccal cavity; pterygostomial region. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The posterior basal lobe or area of a wing demarcated from the vannal region by the jugal fold (plica jugalis). j uga l sinus (MOLL: Polyplacophora) A depression between the sutural laminae of chitins. j u ga l t r a ct (MOLL: Polyplacophora) The tegmentum surface, adjacent to the jugum. j u go- fr e n a t e w ing cou plin g (ARTHRO: Insecta) Lepidoptera, wing coupling where the jugum is folded under the fore wings and holds the frenular bristles. j u gu la r a. [L. j ugulum , collar bone, throat] Of or pertaining to the throat. j u gu la r scle r it e s see ce r vica l scle r it e j u gu lu m n. [L. j ugulum , collar bone, throat] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. The median ventral plate of the head. see gu la . 2. The jugum of the wing. j ugum n.; pl. -ga [L. j ugum , yoke] 1. (BRACHIO) The medial connection of the secondary shell between 2 primary lamellae of the spiralia. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. In Lepidoptera, a lobe-like process at the base of the fore wings, overlapping the hind wings. b. Two lateral lobes on the head of certain Heteroptera, bordering the tylus. 3. (MOLL: Polyplacophora) Longitudinal ridge of some intermediate chiton valves that may be sharp or rounded. Ju lie n 's or ga n see cor e m a j u lifor m a. [ Julus, generic name; L. form a, shape] (ARTHRO: Diplopoda) Having a cylindrical trunk and fused tergites, pleurites, and sternites as in the order Julida. j u n ct iona l com ple x Specialized area of adhesive contact between cells. j u n ior hom onym The more currently published of two or more identical names for the same or different taxa. see hom on ym , se n ior hom onym .

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j u n ior synon ym The more currently published of two or more available names for the same taxon. see synon ym s, se nior synon ym . j uve nile a. [L. j uvenilis, young] 1. A nonscientific colloquial term used to denote any stage of development prior to adulthood. 2. Often restricted to that stage immediately preceding the sexually mature adult stage. 3. In general, the immature stages resemble the adult in general morphology except for gonadal development. j uve nile hor m one (ARTHRO: Insecta) A hormone of larvae produced by the corpora allata that controls the way the larval cells differentiate at each molt. j u x t a n. [L. j uxt a, near] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. In Diptera, an eversible membranous distal section of the male intromittent organ. 2. In male Lepidoptera, a sclerotized plate at the base of the aedeagus; sometimes connected to the anellus by a thin median process that is often forked so as to surround the aedeagus; has been used as a synonym of the anellus of the aedeagal fulcrum. j u x t a ca r do n. [L. j uxt a, near; cardo, hinge] (ARTHRO: Insecta) An extension of the cardo from cardo proper toward the submentum. j u x t a cox a l ca r ina (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Ichneumonidae, an arched carina cutting off a lenticular area of the lower part of the metapleura; when complete, the carina arches between the bases of the hind and middle coxae. j u x t a posit ion n. [L. j uxt a, near; posit us, place] A placing or being placed side by side. j ux t a st ipe s n. [L. j uxt a, near; st ipes, stalk] (ARTHRO: Insecta) An extension of the stipes toward the mentum.

K k a ir om on e n. [Gr. kairos, fit; horm aein, to exite] A chemical substance, produced or acquired by an organism, that upon contact with an individual of another species evokes a behaviorial or physiological reaction favorable to the receiver and not to the emitter. see a lle loch e m ic. k a lym m a n. [Gr. kalym m a, hood] Matrix material which is thought by some authors to surround the components of chromosomes. k a r yochyle m a see n ucle opla sm k a r yocla st ic a. [Gr. karyon, nucleus; klast os, broken in pieces] Agents that inhibit mitosis without killing the cell. k a r yoga m y n. [Gr. karyon, nucleus; gam os, marriage] The union of male and female nuclei during the process of syngamy. k a r yok in e sis n. [Gr. karyon, nucleus; kinesis, movement] Nuclear division as opposed to cytokinesis. k a r yolym ph see n u cle opla sm k a r yolysis n. [Gr. karyon, nucleus; lysis, a loosing] Disappearance of the interphase nucleus at the beginning of karyokinesis; dissolution of the nucleus. k a r yom e r e n. [Gr. karyon, nucleus; m eros, part] Any of a series of micronuclei formed in cells in which the chromosomes diverge at anaphase. k a r yon n. [Gr. karyon, nucleus] The cell nucleus. k a r yopla sm n. [Gr. karyon, nucleus; plasm a, formed or molded] The protoplasm of the nucleus; nucleoplasm. k a r yor h e x is n. [Gr. karyon, nucleus; rhexis, rupture] Nuclear degeneration by nuclear fragmentation. k a r yosom e n. [Gr. karyon, nucleus; som a, body] Irregular clump of chromatin dispersed in the chromatin cell network. k a r yot he ca n. [Gr. karyon, nucleus; t heke, a box] Nuclear

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membrane. k a r yot in n. [Gr. karyon, nucleus] Chromatin. k a r yot ype n. [Gr. karyon, nucleus; t ypos, image] The particular chromosome complement of an individual or species, as defined by both number and morphology of the chromosomes, usually in mitotic metaphase. k a t a bolism see ca t a bolism k a t a ge n e sis n. [Gr. kat a, down; genesis, beginning] Retrogressive evolution. k a t a k in e sis see ca t a k ine sis k a t a ple x y see ca t a ple x y k a t a t r e psis n. [Gr. kat a, down; t repein, to turn] 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In blastokinesis, the movement of the embryo inside the egg from one pole to another. 2. Refers to different activities in different groups of insects, i.e., dorsal to ventral, ventral to dorsal. 3. Decrease of movement during blastokinesis. see a na t r e psis. k a t e pim e r on see in fr a e pim e r on k a t e pist e r n u m see infr a e pist e r n u m k a t ha r obic a. [Gr. kat haros, pure; bios, life] Pertains to living in clean water. k a t ion see ca t ion Ke be r 's va lve (MOLL: Bivalvia) Pericardinal gland, connecting the pedal and visceral hemocoels. k e e l n. [A.S. ceol, ship] 1. A prominent ridge or carina. 2. (BRYO) a. In Stenolaemata, a flat median portion of the zooidal wall between sinuses in recumbent part of endozone or as a synonym of carina. b. In Phylactolaemata, a median longitudinal ridge along recumbent tubular colony parts. 3. (MOLL: Gastropoda) A spiral ridge usually marking a change of slope in the outline of the shell. Ke fe r st e in bodie s (SIPUN) Small oval bodies on the inner or coelomic surface of the body wall. k e n ozooid n. [Gr. kenos, empty; zoon, animal; eidos, like] (BRYO) 1. In Stenolaemata, a polymorph without a lophophore, gut, muscles, and orifice. 2. In Gymnolaemata, a

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polymorph without an orificial wall or equivalent, lophophore, alimentary canal, and usually muscles. k e n t r ogon n. [Gr. kent or, piercer; gone, that which generates] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Rhizocephala, undifferentiated cells formed after the cyprid larval molts and its appendages and carapace are discarded, that penetrates the integument of a Decapoda host. k e n t r om or ph ism n. [Gr. kent or, piercer; m orphe, form] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A change brought about by environmental stimuli (high or low population density) in phasmatids, locusts, the larva of Lepidoptera and a few other insects, that cause coloration and pattern differences, anatomical proportions, physiology and behavioral differences. see gr e ga r ia , solit a r ia . k e n t r on n. [Gr. kent or, piercer] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Rhizocephala, a hollow stylet in the anterior body of a kentrogon that invades the antennule and pierces the integument of its host. k e r a t in n. [Gr. keras, horn] A sulfur-containing nitrogenous compound found in animal tissues such as horn, hair and nails. k e r a t in iza t ion n. [Gr. keras, horn] Conversion of tissues into keratin or keratin-like tissue. see cor n ifica t ion . k e r a t ose a. [Gr. keras, horn] Having horny fibers in the skeletal structure, as in certain Porifera. k e r m e s (Generic name) A red dye made from the dried bodies of female coccids of kerm ococcus ilicis; granum tinctorium. k e y n. [ME. key] A tabulation of diagnostic characters of organisms most often in dichotomous couplets facilitating rapid identification. k idn e y sh a pe d Shaped like a kidney; reniform. k in a e st h e sis, k ine st he sis n. [Gr. kinein, to move; aisthesis, perception] Perception of movement by internal stimulation; proprioceptors. k in a se n. [Gr. kinein, to move; -asis, enzyme] Enzymes that catalyse the transfer of high energy groups from a donor to an acceptor; named for acceptor; enzyme which activates a

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zymogen. k in e sis n. [Gr. kinesis, movement] Responses not directed to a variation in the stimulus or orientation of the body axis to the source of stimulation; movement resulting from a kinesis is random. see t a x is, t r opism . k in e sodic a. [Gr. kinesis, movement; hodos, way] Conveying motor impulses. k in e t obla st n. [Gr. kinet os, move; blast os, bud] Outer covering of aquatic larvae equipped with locomotory cilia. k in e t och or e see ce nt r om e r e k in e t oge ne sis n. [Gr. kinet os, move; genesis, beginning] The theory that animal structure evolution was produced by animal movements. k in e t oge ne t ic a. k in e t om e r e n. [Gr. kinet os, move; m eros, part] Chromomere; bead-like chromatin concentrations along a chromosome. k ine t one m a see ce nt r om e r e k in g n. [A.S. cyng] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In social Hymenoptera and Isoptera, a primary reproductive male that along with the queen loses its wings after founding the colony. k ingdom n. [A.S. cyngdom ] The largest primary taxonomic division; organisms usually divided into three kingdoms, plants, animals and Protista. k in om e r e see ce n t r om e r e k in opla sm n. [Gr. kinein, to move; plasm a, formed or molded] A former name for a distinct type of protoplasm which tends to form fibrillar structures and is mechanically active. Kin or h yn ch a , k in or hyn ch s n., n.pl. [Gr. kinein, to move; rhynchos, snout] A phylum of free-living marine invertebrates, with joined segments and spines; sometimes called the Echinoderida or considered a class of Aschelminthes or Nemathelminthes. k it ch e n m idde n n. [Dan. kj okkenm odding; kitchen leavings] The kitchen refuse heap of sea shells and bones of ancient dwellings along the coast of northern Europe, eastern and western United States, and many parts of the world. k lin ok in e sis n. [Gr. klinein, to bend; kinesis, movement] A

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non-directional response in which the rate of turning depends on the intensity of stimulation; trial-and-error reaction. see or t h ok ine sis. k lin ot a x is n. [Gr. klinein, to bend; t axis, arrangement] Orientation and movement toward a stimulus by an organism by moving its head or whole body from side to side symmetrically. see t e lot a x is, t r opot a x is. k n e e - se gm e n t (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) Segment of the legs between ascending and descending part; called genu in mites and patella in other chelicerates. Koe llik e r 's ca na l (MOLL: Cephalopoda) In Incirrata, a small blind tube that opens into the endolymph sac of the statocyst; function unknown. Koe llik e r 's t u ft s or or ga n s (MOLL: Cephalophoda) Groups of stiff bristles on the skin of most embryos and hatching octopods. k olyt ic a. [Gr. kolyt ikos, hindering] Inhibiting or inhibitory. k or ioga m y n. [Gr. koreios, youthful or maiden; gam os, marriage] The impregnation of a female possessing a fully developed vagina and uterus but an immature ovary; coryogamy. Koshe vn ik ov or Kosh e w n ik ow gla nd (ARTHRO: Insecta) A gland consisting of or corresponding to Leydig cells and the sting of numerous bees, that produce an attractant pheromone in honey bee queens. Kr a u se 's m e m br a ne see Z- ba nd or disc Kr e bs' cycle Energy cycle; stepwise enzymatic oxydation of simple sugars to give high energy phosphate bonds (ATP). K- st r a t e gist Any species of organism using a survival and reproductive strategy characterized by low fecundity, low mortality, longer life, and having populations approaching the carrying capacity of the environment, controlled by density-dependent factors. see R- st r a t igist . k yphor ha bd n. [Gr. kyphos, humpbacked; rhabdo, rod] (PORIF) A strongyle with a row of tubercles along one side.

L la be lla pl. of la be llu m la be lla r a bdu ct or a pode m e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, a small cuticular process below the inner basal margin of each labellum, where the labellar abductor muscle attaches. la be lla r ba sa l scle r it e s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, ventral sclerites in the membranous articulation between the prementum and the labella of the labium; basal sclerite. la be lla r m e sia l scle r it e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, two narrow sclerotized strips on the inner surface of each labellum; mesial sclerite. la be lla r scle r it e (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, one of several cuticular plates of each labellum; the prominent basal sclerite; the furca of the labellum. la be llum n.; pl. -la [L. dim. labrum , lip] (ARTHRO: Insecta) One of variously expanded apexes of the labium; the bouton or flabellum of bees. la bia l a. [L. dim. labrum , lip] Pertaining to lip or labium. la bia l a r e a (MOLL: Gastropoda) The flattened or callus-coated surface extending from inner lip of the shell. la bia l disc (NEMATA) A circular elevation of cuticle surrounding the oral opening; perioral disc. la bia l gla nds (ARTHRO: Insecta) Salivary glands in the majority of insects, situated below the anterior part of the alimentary canal; ducts originating from these glands unite into a common duct (salivary canal) which opens near the base of the labium or hypopharynx. la bia l gu t t e r see pr e m e n t a l gu t t e r la bia l k idne ys see la bia l ne phr idia la bia l lu m e n see pr e m e n t a l gu t t e r la bia l m a sk (ARTHRO: Insecta) A modification of the labium of dragonfly larvae in which the pre- and post-mentum are

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elongated and the palps modified into grasping organs for catching prey. la bia l n e ph r idia (ARTHRO: Insecta) Tubules in the head of Collembola and Thysanura, whose terminal sac may play some excretory role. la bia l pa lp/ pa lpu s pl. -pi 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) One of a pair of small feelerlike structures borne on the labium. see m a x illa r y pa lp. 2. (MOLL: Bivalvia) One of 4 structures (2 on each side of the mouth) derived from the velum by which the larva swims and collects food. la bia l pla t e (ARTHRO: Insecta) A sclerotized, serrated plate derived from the labium of larvae of aquatic Diptera; mental plate. la bia l st ipe s see la biost ipe s la bia l su t ur e (ARTHRO: Insecta) Suture on the labium between the postmentum and the prementum. la bia l ve il see or a l la ppe t s la bia t e a. [L. labium , lip] Having lips or lip-like parts or thickened margins. la bidophor ou s a. [Gr. labis, forcepts; pherein, to carry] Having pincer-like organs. la bie lla n.pl.; sing. la bie llu m [L. dim. labium , lip] 1. (ARTHRO: Chilopoda) A mouth part of a myriapod. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The hypopharynx; the median mouthpart. la bile a. [L. labilis, slipping] Readily changeable; unstable. la biost ipe s n.pl. [L. dim. labium , lip; st ipes, stem] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A portion of the basal part of the labium. la bis see socii la bium n.; pl. -bia [L. labium , lip] 1. A lip. 2. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Araneae, the lower lip, forming the floor of the mouth cavity. 3. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The metastoma. 4. (ARTHRO: Insecta) One of the mouth-part structures, the lower lip, composed of fused second maxillae; has been referred to as the tongue at a certain phase of development. 5. (MOLL) The inner lip of a univalve shell, the inner side of the aperture or columellar lip extending from the origin at the lip of the labrum and resting on the columella.

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see in n e r lip. la br a l a. [L. labrum , lip] 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Pertaining to the upper lip. 2. (MOLL: Gastropoda) Pertaining to the outer lip of a shell. la br opa la t u m n. [L. labrum , lip; palat um , roof of mouth] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, the oral surface of the labrum of mosquitoes; a division of the palatum. see clype opa la tum . la br u m n.; pl. -br a [L. labrum , lip] 1. A lip or edge. 2. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Araneae, has been incorrectly used for the labium. 3. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The unpaired outgrowth arising in front of the mouth and often covering it; upper lip. 4. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The upper lip located below the clypeus and in front of the other mouth parts. 5. (ARTHRO: Trilobita) The hypostoma of a trilobite fossil. 6. (ECHINOD: Echinoidea) A flap of the interambulacrum which projects over the ventral peristome. la br u m - e piph a r ynx (ARTHRO: Insecta) The mouth part representing the labrum and epipharynx. la c n. [Skr. laksa] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A yellowish or reddishbrown resinous substance secreted by a homopterous scale insect in the family Kerridae (=Tachardiidae, Lacciferidae), important commercially as lac or shellac for varnishes, as sealing wax, and as insulating material in electrical work, cultivated in India, Ceylon and Burma; also has a medicinal use in Mexico. la ce r a t e d a. [L. lacer, torn] Having edges jagged or irregular. la cin ia , la cin e a n.; pl. la cin ia e [L. lacinia, flap] 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) The inner distal spiny lobe of the second segment of the maxillula. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. In many, the inner lobe (elongate jaw-like structure) of the m axilla, located at the apex of the stipes. b. In Psocidae, represented by a hard elongate rod, slightly bifurcated at its free end and ensheathed by the galea, sometimes called the pick; similar modification to a stylet-like shape in Mallophaga. la cin ia m a n dibu la e see la cin ia m obilis la cin ia m obilis 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A small, generally toothed process articulated with the incisor process of the

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mandible. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) A small movable lobe-like process near the extremity of the mandible; a prostheca. la cin ia t e a. [L. lacer, torn] Slashed or cut into irregularly narrow lobes or deep segments. la ct e ou s a. [L. lac, milk] Of white or milky color. la ct e sce n t a. [L. lact escere, to turn to milk] Like milk in appearance; yielding or secreting a milky fluid. la ct ic a cid Organic acid formed in tissues of two molecules for every molecule of glucose used where oxygen is in short supply. la cu na n.; pl. -a e [L. lacuna, cavity] 1. A space, gap, cavity or channel. 2. (ACANTHO) Channels making up the lacunar system. 3. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In wing development, canals that contain nerves, tracheae, and hemolymph. 4. (BRACHIO:Articulata) The large open space surrounding the lophophore. 5. (BRYO) Open space between tubular porechambers. 6. (MOLL: Bivalvia) Irregular, blood-filled spaces between various organs in the mantle and visceral mass. la cu na r syst e m (ACANTHO) The circulatory system. la cu nose a. [L. lacuna, cavity] Marked by shallow, scattered depressions; pitted. la cu st r in e a. [L. lacus, lake] Of or pertaining to living in or near a lake. la e ot or m a n; pl. -a e [Gr. laios, left; t orm a, socket] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In beetle larvae, transverse sclerite extending inward from the left hind angle of the epipharynx, usually with a projection. la e ot r opic a. [Gr. laios, left; t ropos, turn] Of or pertaining to the left; sinistral; opposed to dexiotropic. la ge n a n. [L. lagaena, flask] 1. Bottle-shaped; dilated below and tapering to a narrow neck above; lageniform. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Lepidoptera, the smaller lobe of the spermatheca; may be fused into one organ. see u t r icu lus. La m a r ck ism A theory espoused by Lamarck, that evolution is brought about by volition or by environmental induction; Geoffroyism. la m e lla n.; pl. -a e [L. lam ella, small plate] 1. A thin plate or

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leaflike structure. 2. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) A triangular plate on the promargin of the cheliceral fang furrow in some spiders. 3. (MOLL: Gastropoda) Flared axial projection of the outer lip of the shell. la m e lla r liga m e n t (MOLL: Bivalvia) That part of the ligament secreted by the mantle edge that is lamellar in structure and contains no calcium carbonate; elastic to both compression and tension. la m e lla t e a. [L. lam ella, small plate] Composed of or covered by thin scales, plates or layers. la m e lla t e a n t e n na e (ARTHRO: Insecta) Antennae with an asymmetrical 3- to 7-segmented club of more or less flattened segments. La m e llibr a n ch ia see Class Biva lvia , Phylum M ollu sca la m e llibr a n ch ia t e a. [L. lam ella, small plate; Gr. branchia, gills] (MOLL) With plate-like gills that are bilaterally symmetrical; bilaterally compressed, symmetrical body. la m e llicor n a. [L. lam ella, small plate; cornu, horn] Having the joints of the antenna expanded into flattened plates. la m e llifor m a. [L. lam ella, small plate; form a, shape] Having the form of scales, thin plates or layers. la m e llocyt e see pla sm a t ocyt e la m e llo- fibr ou s (MOLL) Referring to shells with one portion composed of fibers and another of laminae. la m e llose a. [L. lam ella, small plate] Composed of lamella. la m in a n.; pl. -n a e , -nas [L. lam ina, a plate] 1. A thin plate, scale or layer. 2. (ARTHRO) A distal synaptic region in the optic lobes. 3. (NEMATA) The main body of the male spicule; the blade. la m in a lingu a lis pl. la m in a e lingu a le s (ARTHRO: Diplopoda) One of two median distal plates in the gnathochilarium. la m in a of in se r t ion see in se r t ion pla t e la m in a pha lli (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Caelifera, endophallic membrane sclerotizations restricting the spermatophore sac. la m in a r a. [L. lam ina, plate] Arranged in thin plates or layers;

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laminiform. la m in a t e a. [L. lam ina, plate] Composed of leaf-like, overlapping plates or scales. la m in ifor m a. [L. lam ina, plate; form a, shape] Laminar. la m pbr u sh ch r om osom e s Very large chromosomes with fine lateral projections; found in invertebrates and vertebrates. la na t e a. [L. lana, wool] Covered with long, very fine or wooly hairlike filaments. la n ce ola t e a. [L. lanceola, little lance] Tapering to a point at the apex, or sometimes at both ends; lance-shaped. la n ce t n. [L. lancea, light spear] 1. Any piercing structure. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. In Hymentoptera, the first valvulae. b. The first gonapophyses of Apis. 3. [NEMATA] Small teeth in the buccal cavity of some nematodes. la n cina t e v.t. [L. lancinare, to tear to pieces] To tear, lacerate, pierce or stab. La ng's ve sicle (PLATY: Turbellaria) A blind extension of the female canal of certain Acotylea, proximal to where the oviducts join. la n t e r n n. [L. lant erna, lantern] 1. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The light organs of fireflies and certain beetles. 2. (MOLL: Cephalopoda) The photophore. see Ar ist ot le 's la n t e r n . la n uginous a. [L. lanugo, down] Covered with very fine soft hair. la pidicolous a. [L. lapis, stone; colere, to inhabit] Living under stones. la pidr ou s a. [L. lapis, stone] Of the nature of a stone. la ppe t n. [A.S. laeppa, a loose hanging part] 1. A fold, small flap, lobe or loose hanging portion. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Mysidacea, a ventrally projecting subdivision of the pleura. 3. (CNID: Scyphozoa) A flaplike projection on the bell margin. 4. (ECHINOD: Crinoidea) A movable plate on the margin of an ambulacral groove. 5. (ECHI) In Bonellidae, the shortened arms of the proboscis. 6. (PLATY: Turbellaria) In Tricladida, earlike process on the head. la r va n.; pl. -a e [L. larva, mask] The preadult stage in some

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invertebrates after hatching from the egg, lacking adult features, usually active and feeding. la r va l a. la r va l- pu pa l a polysis (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, the interim before the cryptocephalic pupa. see pu pa l- a du lt a polysis. la r va l she ll (MOLL: Gastropoda) The hard parts of a pelagic larva before it settles down and undergoes metamorphosis. la r va l st a ge s The period of growth between molts. la r va l st e m n e m a t oge n (MESO: Rhombozoa) In Dicyemida, an early stage in development. la r va r iu m n. [L. larva, mask; - arium , place of a thing] A nest or case made by a larva as a shelter. la r va t e see pupa la r va t a la r vifor m a. [L. larva, mask; form a, shape] Shaped like a larva. la r vipa r ous a. [L. larva, mask; parere, to produce] Producing by bringing forth living larvae; viviparous. see ovipa r ous. la r viposit or n. [L. larva, mask; ponare, to place] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A modified ovipositor. la r vivor ous a. [L. larva, mask; vorare, to devour] Larvae eating. la siopod n. [Gr. lasios, wooly; pous, foot] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) A cirral appendage of barnacles, with a transverse row of setae at each articulation. see a ca nt h opod, ct e nopod. la sso n. [L. laqueus, snare, noose] 1. (CNID) Fibrils, thought to be contractile, extending down the stalk of a cnidoblast securing the nematocyst. 2. (NEMATA) Circular traps; a threecelled ring of predacious fungi that constrict around a nematode, penetrating the cuticle and ramifying inside the tissue. la sso ce ll see colobla st la st w hor l (MOLL: Gastropoda) In coiled shells, last-formed complete volution of a helicocone. la t e r a pl. of la t u s la t e r a d adv. [L. lat us, side; ad, toward] Toward the side, directed away from the midline of the body.

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la t e r a l a. [L. lat us, side] 1. Of or pertaining to the side; situated at, coming from, or directed towards. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Cirripedia, one of a pair of compartmental plates, typically located between the carinolateral and rostrum; latus or median latus. la t e r a l a bdom ina l gills (ARTHRO: Insecta) In a few genera of Odonata, filamentous (or true abdominal appendages) on either side of the 2nd to 7th or 8th abdominal segments. la t e r a l a la (NEMATA) Lateral longitudinal expansions or incisures. la t e r a l a pode m e see e n dople u r it e la t e r a l ba r (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Acrothoracica, one of a pair of external chitinous thickenings, extending from the apertural thickenings medially down each side of the mantle sac. la t e r a l ca r in a (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Conchostraca, a narrow ridge on the side margin of the carapace. la t e r a l cilia (MOLL: Polyplacophora) Cilia on the flat surfaces of the leaflets of the ctenidia. la t e r a l com b (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, lateral spines or scales on the eighth abdominal segment of mosquito larvae. la t e r a l com m issu r e s 1. (ANN) Commissural blood vessels. 2. (NEMATA) Dorso- or ventro-lateral nerves connecting ganglia and major dorsal or ventral nerves. la t e r a l cu ps (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Paired elements of the nauplius eye; absent in malacostracans. la t e r a l de n t icle (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Stomatopoda, small projection at the base of each lateral tooth on the terminal abdominal segment. la t e r a l fa cia ls (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, one or more bristles on each side of the face below and toward the eye. la t e r a l fie ld see la t e r a l line , la t e r a l r idge la t e r a l fila m e n t s (ARTHRO: Insecta) Cerci on the margins of the abdomen in some aquatic larvae. la t e r a l fr on t a l or ga ns (ARTHRO: Insecta) In most Apterygota,

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separate capsules containing the median neurosecretory cells on the dorsal side of the brain. la t e r a l gona pophyse s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In female Odonata, a pair of chitinous processes of the ovipositor on the 9th abdominal segment. la t e r a l h e a r t s see com m issu r a l ve sse ls la t e r a l h inge syst e m (MOLL: Bivalvia) Hinges in some prodissoconchs both anterior and posterior to the provinculum. la t e r a lia n. [L. lat us, side] 1. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) Lateral plates, variable in number, of lepadomorphs and balanomorphs. 2. (GNATHO) Lateral paired sensory bristles on the head. la t e r a l line 1. (ANN: Oligochaeta) In aquatic forms, the line formed by the nuclei of the fibers of the circular muscles. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In eruciform Trichoptera, finely haired, longitudinal cuticular fold on each side of the abdomen. see su pr a spir a cu la r lin e . 3. (NEMATA) In some nematodes, lateral, longitudinal cuticular incisures beneath which the lateral nuclei of the hypodermis are found; lateral field lines. see la t e r a l r idge . la t e r a l lips 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, lateroventral protuberances anterior to the mouth; joined to the labrum usually, and the labium when present. 2. (NEMATA) Lateral lobes of the hexaradiate labial region. la t e r a l longit u din a l ca r ina (ARTHRO: Insecta) In ichneumonid Hymenoptera, the longitudinal carina of the propodium on each side laying between the median and pleural carinae. la t e r a l m e se nt a r ie s (CNID: Anthozoa) In Zoantharia, the mesentaries, excluding directive or dorsal and ventral pairs. la t e r a l oce lli see st e m m a la t e r a l or ga n s 1. (ANN: Polychaeta) Ciliated sensory structures located between the notopodium and neuropodium of each parapodium. see dor sa l or ga n . 2. (NEMATA) The amphids. la t e r a l oviduct (ARTHRO: Insecta) Paired canals of the female system, leading from ovaries, frequently mesodermal, and joining the common (median) oviduct.

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la t e r a l pe n e llipse (ARTHRO: Insecta) In lepidopterous larvae, an almost complete circle of crochets, open or incomplete, toward the meson. see pe n e llipse . la t e r a l r idge (NEMATA) The ridge formed by two contiguous lateral lines, when seen in cross-section or with SEM; lateral field ridges. la t e r a l sk e le t a l pr oj e ct ion s (BRYO: Stenolaemata) Skeletal structures in living chambers opposite the feeding organs; including hemisepta, hemiphragms, ring septa, mural spines, and skeletal cystiphragms. la t e r a l t e e t h (MOLL: Bivalvia) Interlocking teeth, not functioning as a hinge, but serving to prevent valves from sliding upon each other when closed. la t e r igr a de a. [L. lat us, side; gradus, step] Walking sideways, as some spiders and crabs. la t e r is see pygidia l fr in ge la t e r ocr a n iu m n. [L. lat us, side; LL. cranium , skull] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The region of the head comprised of the genae and postgenae. la t e r ofr ont a l a. [L. lat us, side; frons, front] Situated on the side but towards the front. la t e r om a r gin a l e x pa n sion (ARTHRO: Insecta) The median part of the marginal region of the phallobase of scarabaeoid beetles, characterized by an expansion of the margin into the lateral membrane. la t e r ople ur a l a r e a (MOLL: Polyplacophora) The upper portion of the side slopes of an intermediate valve; denoting sculpture of a valve, lacking demarcation between the lateral and pleural areas. la t e r opr ox im a l m a r gina l r e gion (ARTHRO: Insecta) A lateral marginal region of the phallobase of scarabaeoid beetles, extending from the articulation with the tectum to where the margin and rugula intersect. la t e r ost e r n it e n. [L. lat us, side; Gr. st ernon, breast; -it es, part] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Lateral plates at the sides of the eusternum in Isoptera, Dermaptera, and Blattaria. la t e r ot e r git e n. [L. lat us, side; t ergum , back; -it es, part] (AR-

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la t e r ove n t r a l a. [L. lat us, side; vent er, belly] To the side (away from the midline of the body) and below. la t e r ove r t e d a. [L. lat us, side; vert ere, to turn] Displaced toward the side of the body; laterally displaced. la t icor n t r u m pe t (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Diptera, a respiratory structure of mosquito pupae bearing the longest axis transverse to the stem, frequently with a secondary cleft in the pinna opposite the meatal cleft, less wide-mouthed than the angusticorn type, but with an elaborate lobe (tragus) on the rim of the pinna. see a n gust icor n t r um pe t . la t icost a t e a. [L. lat us, broad; cost at us, ribbed] Broad-ribbed. la t iga st r ic a. [L. lat us, broad; Gr. gast er, stomach] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) Pertaining to those of the subphylum that are broadly joined between prosoma and opisthosoma. see ca u liga st r ic. la t ir ost r a t e a. [L. lat us, broad; rost rum , beak] Having a broad rostrum. see a ngu st ir ost r a t e . la t r ode ct ism n. [ Latrodectus sp.; L. lat ro, brigand; Gr. dekt es, biter; L. -ism , condition] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Arachnida, envenomation of humans by Latrodectus (black widow) spiders. la t t ice d a. [Gr. lat t e, lath] To cross or interlace; cancellated. la t u s n.; pl. la t e r a [L. lat us, side] (ARTHRO) 1. The side of the body. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Cirripedia, any of the capitular plates except paired scuta and terga and unpaired rost rum , carina, subrostrum and subcarina of certain Lepadomorpha. see ca r in a l, infr a m e dia n, low e r la t e r a l pla t e s, r ost r a l a nd uppe r la t u s. La ur e r 's ca na l (PLATY: Trematoda) In Digenea, a tubular canal extending from the base of the seminal receptacle; sometimes opening dorsally to the exterior; Laurer-Stieda canal. le a fle t s n.pl. [A.S. dim. leaf] (MOLL: Bivalvia) A double row of flat, triangular, ciliated processes on the ctenidia of Protobranchia that project into the mantle cavity for clearing particulate matter from the gills. le be r idocyt e s n.pl. [Gr. leberis, shed skin; kyt os, container]

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(ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Arachnida, glycogen containing cells that develop from and back to leucocytes during molting. le cit h in n. [Gr. lekit hos, egg yolk; -in, ending for fats, etc.] A very common, widely dispersed phospholipid, found in many kinds of cells. le cit h ot r oph ic a. [Gr. lekit hos, egg yolk; t rophe, food] Obtaining nourishment from a large quantity of stored yolk, as in various invertebrates. le cit h ot r oph ic de ve lopm e n t (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) Production of brooding larvae lacking a digestive tract. le ct oa llot ype n. [Gr. lekt os, choose; allos, other; t ypos, type] A subsequent specimen of the opposite sex of the lectotype chosen from the original material. le ct ot ype n. [Gr. lekt os, choose; t ypos, type] A specimen selected from a syntypic series that, subsequent to the publication of the original description, is selected and designated through publication to serve as the type. le ft va lve (MOLL: Bivalvia) While holding the bivalve shell with the hinge up and the apex or umbo pointed away from the pallial sinus toward the holder, the left valve is to the left. le k n. [Sw. lika, to play] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A communal display area where males congregate for the purpose of attracting and courting females, and to which females come for mating; sometimes called an arena. le m n isca t e , le m nisca t a n. [Gr. lem niskos, ribbon] A clubshaped organ. le m n iscu s n.; le m n isci pl. [Gr. lem niskos, ribbon] (ACANTHO) One of a pair of elongate structures attached to the neck region and extending into the trunk cavity; may act as a reservoir for the fluid of the neck region when the proboscis is invaginated. le m nobla st see Schw a n n ce ll le n gt h n. [A.S. lang, long] (MOLL: Bivalvia) Greatest dimension by a projection of the shell extremities onto the cardinal axis. le n s n.; pl. le n se s [L. lens, lentil] Transparent covering of the

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eye, serving to focus the rays of light. le n t ic, le n it ic a. [L. lent us, slow, viscous] Living in still water; applied to organisms that inhabit swamps, ponds or lakes. see lot ic. le n t icu la r a. [L. lent icularis, lentil-shaped] Having the form of a biconvex lens. le nt ige r ous a. [L. lens, lentil; gerere, to bear] Having a lens. le pidopt e r ism a. [Gr. lepis, scale; pt eron, wing; -ism os, denoting condition] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Any pathological condition caused by the Lepidoptera. see e r u cism , pa r a e r ucism , cr ypt ot ox ic, ph a ne r ot ox ic, m e t a e r u cism , pse u doe r u cism . le pocyt e n. [Gr. lepis, scale; kyt os, container] A nucleated cell with a cell wall. see gym nocyt e . le pr ou s a. [L. lepra, scaly] Having loose irregular scales; scalelike; covered with scales. le pt ifor m see ca m pode ifor m la r va le pt obla st n. [Gr. lept os, thin; blast os, bud] (BRYO) A floatoblast that quickly germinates after release from the parent colony. le pt ode r a n a. [Gr. lept os, thin; deras, hide, leather] (NEMATA) With caudal alae restricted to two sides of the body and not surrounding or meeting posterior to the tail tip. see pe lode r a n. le pt on e m a n. [Gr. lept os, thin; nem a, thread] A chromatin thread or chromosome at leptotene stage of prophase I in meiosis; sometimes used as a synonym of leptotene stage. see le pt ot e n e . le pt ope la gic a. [Gr. lept os, thin; pelagos, sea] Extremely fine living or non-living material floating in sea water. le pt oph r a gm a t a n.pl. [Gr. lept os, thin; phragm a, hedge, fence] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In cryptonephridial forms, specialized cells at points of attachment of Malpighian tubules to the rectal peritrophic membranes. le pt ost r a t e r a t e a. [Gr. lept os, thin; st rat os, covered] (ECHINOD: Asteroidea) Having the ambulacral plates narrow and crowded together.

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le pt ot e n e n. [Gr. lept os, thin; t ainia, ribbon] Early stage of prophase I in meiosis with chromosomes appearing as fine threads, although made up of two chromatids which are not apparent until the pachytene stage. see le pt one m a , pa chyn e m a . le pt ot r om bicu la n. [Gr. lept os, thin; It. t rom ba, trumpet] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) The slender larva of the thrombiculid mite that transmits Tsutsugamushi disease, also known as Japanese flood fever or scrub typhus. le pt u s n. [Gr. lept os, small] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Acari, larval form of mites with 6 legs. le r p n. [Native name, lit., sweet] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In australian jumping plantlice, a scale or test on leaves or small twigs under which sedentary nymphs of Spondyliaspinae shelter. le sion n. [L. laedere, to injure] In plants or animals, a wound or injury causing circumscribed pathological change in tissues, including a change or loss of function. le st obiosis n. [Gr. lest es, robber; biosis, manner of life] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, a type of symbiosis in which a group of 'thief ants' of small size nest in or near the chambers of termites and larger ants, eating their stored food, larvae, and pupae unnoticed by their benefactors. see cle pt obiosis. le t h a l fa ct or see ba la n ce d le t ha ls le t ha r gy n.; pl. -gie s [Gr. let hargios, drowsy] A state of inaction. le t isim u la t ion n. [L. let hum , death; sim ilis, like] Feigning death; thanatosis. le u cin e n. [Gr. leukos, white] An amino acid, x-amino isocaproic acid found in tissues of various invertebrates. le u cobla st n. [Gr. leukos, white; blast os, bud] The developing leucocyte; a precursor of a leucocyte; a proleucocyte; a prohemocyte; leukoblast. le u cocyt e see pla sm a t ocyt e le u con see le u conoid gr a de or t ype le u conoid gr a de or t ype (PORIF) A grade of construction of

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sponges in which the choanocyte chambers are small, and distributed through the interior tissues. see a sconoid gr a de , syncon oid gr a de . le u copt e r in e see pt e r in e ( pt e r idin e ) pigm e n t s le va t ion n. [L. levare, to raise] The raising of the leg or a part of the leg; part of protraction. le va t or n. [L. levare, to raise] Any muscle serving to raise an organ or part. le ve ls of in t e gr a t ion Levels of complexity in structures, patterns, or associations when new properties emerge that could not have been predicted from the properties of the component parts. le viga t e a. [L. levigare, to make smooth] Smooth surfaced; polished. Le ydig ce lls 1. Secretory cells of various glands. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, produces an attractant pheronome in Apis; mandibular gland and Koshevnikov gland. 3. (MOLL: Gastropoda) In Prosobranchia, cells in the mantle, foot and around the digestive tract. life cycle The complete series of successive forms through which any particular kind of organism passes in the course of its development to maturity. liga m e nt n. [L. ligare, to bind] 1. A band or sheet of tough, fibrous tissue between parts or segments. 2. (BRYO) Muscle fibers embedded in collagen with a tubular peritoneal envelope. 3. (MOLL: Bivalvia) A horny, elastic band located above the hinge, causing the valves to open when the adductor muscles relax. liga m e nt a l a r e a (MOLL: Bivalvia) An area between the umbo and ligament that shows the growth track of the ligament. liga m e nt fu lcr u m see nym pha liga m e nt gr oove (MOLL: Bivalvia) A narrow depression in the cardinal area for attachment of ligament fibers. liga m e nt pit (MOLL: Bivalvia) A broad depression in the cardinal area for ligament attachment. liga m e nt sa c 1. (ACANTHO) Encloses the genital apparatus of male and female; separates immature eggs from mature in

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females. 2. (MOLL) The sac housing the ligaments attached to the base of the teeth. liga m e nt st r a nd (ACANTHO) The nucleated, syncytial band of tissue lying between the ligament sacs or along the ventral face of the single ligament sac. liga m e nt su t u r e Elongate space behind the umbones, apparent after the ligament is gone. lign e ou s a. [L. lignum , wood] Of or like wood; woody. lign icolou s a. [L. lignum , wood; cola, inhabitant] Living in wood. lign ivor ous a. [L. lignum , wood; vorare, to devour] Eating wood or woody tissue. ligu la n.; pl. -la e [L. ligula, little tongue] 1. (ANN: Polychaeta) Lobe of the parapodium. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. The terminal lobe or lobes of the labium; the glossae and paraglossae collectively. b. In adult dipteran mosquitoes, the sharp-pointed lobe on the midline of the labium between the labella; ligular lobe. c. In male Odonata, the strongly curved process over the stem of the prophallus. 3. (BRYO) A calcareous projection from the cross-bar of an avicularium. 4. (MOLL: Cephalopoda) In octopods, a specialized terminal area of the hectocotylus. ligu la r lobe see ligu la ligu la t e a. [L. ligula, little tongue] Strap shaped. ligu le n. [L. ligula, little tongue] (ANN: Polychaeta) A parapodial lobe covering the anus dorsally. lim a ce l n.; pl. -le [F., fr. L. lim ax, slug] (MOLL: Gastropoda) The concealed vestigial shell of slugs. lim a cifor m a. [L. lim ax, slug; form a, shape] Shaped like a slug. lim b n. [A.S. lim , limb] The leg or wing of an animal. lim b n. [L. lim bus, an edge] The border, rim or edge. lim ba t e a. [L. lim bus, an edge] 1. Having a margin or limb of another color. 2. (ANN) Term used to describe seta with a flattened margin to the blade. lim bus n. [L. lim bus, an edge] 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In

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Acari, the border of an element of the exoskeleton, such as a tectum. 2. (BRACHIO) The flattened inner margin of the inarticulate valve. lim icolou s a. [L. lim us, mud; colus, dwelling in] Living in mud or shore dwelling. lim ina l a. [L. lim en, threshold] Pertaining to threshold. see su blim ina l. lim it e d chr om osom e May be eliminated or diminished in cleavage, thus producing clones of differing functional karyotypes. lim it ing fa ct or Essential factor in the environment that is in short supply; thus limiting growth, some life process or population size. lim ivor ou s a. [L. lim us, mud; vorare, to devour] (ANN) Mud eating to obtain the organic matter. lim n ic, lim n e t ic a. [Gr. lim ne, marsh, lake, pool] 1. Living in standing fresh water. 2. Inhabiting the pelagic zone in a body of fresh water; limnicolous. lim n ium n. [Gr. lim ne, marsh, lake, pool] A lake community. lim nobios n. [Gr. lim ne, marsh, lake, pool; bios, life] All life in fresh water. lim nology n. [Gr. lim ne, pond; logos, discourse] The study of fresh waters, in physical, chemical, meteorological and biological conditions. lim opha gous see lim ivor ou s lim pid a. [L. lim pidus, clear] Characterized by being clear or transparent. lin e a n.; pl. lin e a e [L. linea, line] Linear markings or structures. lin e a r - e n sa t e Somewhere between linear and ensiform in shape. lin e a t e a. [L. linea, line] Marked longitudinally with depressed parallel lines or striae. lin e ola n. [L. dim. linea, line] Marked with minute lines. lin e ola t e a. lin gua n. [L. lingua, tongue] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The tongue;

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maxillary appendages; the hypopharynx, or organ of; glossa. lin gua l a. [L. lingua, tongue] Of or pertaining to the tongue. lin gua l r ibbon [L. lingua, tongue] (MOLL) The radula or odontophore. lin gua l scle r it e s (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Psocidae, two oval sclerites, each connected to a median sitophore sclerite by a fine filament. lin gu ifor m a. [L. lingua, tongue; form a, shape] Tongueshaped; lingulate. lin gu la n. [L. dim. lingua, tongue] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Aleyrodidae, a tongue or strap-shaped organ in the vasiform orifice with the anal opening at the base where honeydew accumulates. lin gu lid la r va e (BRACHIO) Free swimming bivalve larvae of the order Lingula with elongate valves. see discin id. lin k a ge n. [ME. linke] The association in heredity of genes located in the same chromosome; the more tightly they are linked, the less likely they will be separated by crossing over. lin k a ge gr ou p A group of gene loci placed in a linear order on a chromosome. lin k a ge m a p A chromosome map. lin k e r ge ne A small piece of synthetic DNA with a restriction site used to splice genes together. lin n e on n. [Linne, Swedish naturalist] A taxon distinguished on morphological grounds, generally applies to one of the large species described by early naturalists. liocyt e see ch r om ophile lip n. [A.S. lippa, lip] Any liplike part or structure. lipa se n. [Gr. lipos, fat; -ase, enzyme] An enzyme that hydrolyses fats. lip ca p (NEMATA) A disc-like, anterior-most cuticular annulation, circumoral and usually thicker than adjacent head annuli. lip gla n d (SIPUN) A glandular organ with a ciliated groove run-

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ning from pore to tip of lip. lipids n.pl. [Gr. lipos, fat] Organic compounds soluble in various organic liquids and insoluable in water; including carbon and hydrogen with a small proportion of oxygen and/or other elements, i.e., fats, phospholipids, sterols, etc. lipin n. [Gr. lipos, fat] Complex lipids such as phospholipids, glycolipids, and cerebrocides. liple t s [A.S. dim. lippa, lip] (NEMATA) Small, reduced lips restricted to the apex of the head; pseudolips. Lipoce pha la see Biva lvia Cla ss, M ollu sca lipoch r om e s n. [Gr. lipos, fat; chrom a, color] Fat soluble pigments. lipoga st r y n. [Gr. leipo, to be lacking; gast er, stomach] Temporary obliteration of gastral cavity as occurs in sponges and some other organisms. lipoid a. [Gr. lipos, fat; eidos, like] Of fatty nature. lipoid m e m br a ne see fe r t iliza t ion m e m br a n e lipolysis n. [Gr. lipos, fat; lysis, loosen] Decomposition of fat by lipase. lipolyt ic a. lipom e r ism n. [Gr. leipo, to be lacking; m eros, part; ism os, denoting condition] Coalescence or suppression of segmentation. lipom icr ons n. [Gr. lipos, fat; m ikros, little] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Minute fat particles found in the blood. lipopa lin ge n e sis n. [Gr. leipo, to be lacking; palin, anew; genesis, beginning] The omission of a stage or series of stages in phylogeny. lipopolysa cch a r ide n. [Gr. lipos, fat; polys, many; sakcharon, sugar] Molecule with a lipid attached to a polysaccharide. lipopr ot e in n. [Gr. lipos, fat; prot eios, primary] Molecule with a lipid joined to a protein. lipost om ou s a. [Gr. leipo, to be lacking; st om a, mouth] (PORIF) Having no apertures visible to the naked eye. lipot r oph ic n. [Gr. lipos, fat; t rephein, to eat] A compound with an affinity for lipids; influencing fat metabolism.

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lip r ing (NEMATA) A ring at or near the oral aperture formed by fused, separate or subdivided cheilorhabdions. lir a n., pl. lir a e [L. lira, ridge] 1. Fine grooves or thread-like sculpture or ridge. 2. (MOLL: Gastropoda) Fine linear elevation on a shell surface or within outer lip. lir a t e a. list n. [A.S. list e, ridge] (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Ostracoda, a ridge inside the selvage on the sealing margin of the shell. list r iu m n. [Gr. list rion, small shovel] (BRACHIO:Inarticulata) In some Discinidae, a plate closing the anterior end of the pedicle opening. lit h ist id n. [Gr. lit hos, stone] (PORIF) A reticulated skeleton. lit h it e see st a t olit h lit h ocyst see lit h ocyt e lit h ocyt e n. [Gr. lit hos, stone; kyt os, container] Cell within a statocyst that contains the movable concretion or statolith; lithocyst. lit hode sm a n. [Gr. lit hos, stone; desma, bond] (MOLL: Bivalvia) 1. A calcareous reinforcement of the internal ligament. 2. A small shelly plate; ossiculum. lit h odom ou s a. [Gr. lit hos, stone; domos, house] Living in or burrowing in rock. lit h oph a gou s a. [Gr. lit hos, stone; phagein, to eat] Burrowing in rock. lit h ose r e n. [Gr. lit hos, stone; serere, to join] A sere originating on exposed rock surfaces. see x e r ose r e , h ydr ose r e . lit h ost yle see r h opa liu m lit h ot om ous a. [Gr. lit hos, stone; t om os, cut] Stone boring. lit t or a l, lit or a l a. [L. lit oralis, of the seashore] Of or pertaining to a shore, coastline, or region between high and low water marks. lit u a t e a. [L. lit uus, augur's staff] Being forked with prongs outwardly curving. lit u r a , lit ur a t e An obscure color spot with pale margins; appearing daubed or blotted. live r - pa n cr e a s Digestive gland in crustaceans and other in-

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vertebrates. see he pa t opa ncr e a s. livid a. [L. lividus, to be black and blue] Pale purplish-brown; lead-colored; ashy-pale. living cha m be r (BRYO: Stenolaemata) Outer part of the zooid body cavity that contains the major organs. loba r a. [Gr. lobos, lobe] Of or pertaining to a lobe or lobes. loba t e a. [Gr. lobos, lobe] Provided with lobes; lobed. lobe n. [Gr. lobos, lobe] A generally rounded part or projection of a part or organ. lobifor m a. [Gr. lobos, lobe; L. form a, shape] Shaped like a lobe or rounded process. lobopods n.pl. [Gr. lobos, lobe; pous, foot] (ONYCHO) Annulate, sacklike legs with internal musculature. lobu la n. [Gr. dim. lobos, lobe] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The proximal synaptic area in the optic lobes. see lobu la r com ple x . lobu la r com ple x (ARTHRO: Insecta) Lobula and lobular plate of the interior synaptic region of the optic lobes. see m e du lla in t e r na , opt icon. lobu la t e a. [Gr. dim. lobos, lobe] Divided into small lobes or lobules. lobu la t e gla n ds (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Campodea, glands situated in the head and the anterior part of the prothorax composed of cells arranged around a system of ducts opening into the cephalic hemocoel; possibly functioning in secreting some form of growth hormone. lobu le n. [F. dim. lobos, lobe] A small lobe. lobu lu s n.; pl. -li [F. dim. lobos, lobe] A lobe or lobule. see a lu la . loca l popula t ion see popu la t ion loci p. of locus locia t ion n. [L. locus, place] Local variations in the abundance or proportion of dominant species in an association. lock a n d k e y t h e or y Morphological theory of antibody-antigen, enzyme-substrate, and insect genitalia interactions; fitting exactly for the interactions to take place.

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loco cit a t o Place cited; abbr., l.c. and loc.cit. locom ot or r ods see a m bu la t or y se t a e , a dhe sion t ube s locot ype see t opot ype locu la r a. [L. loculus, cell] Having or containing small cavities or chambers. locu lu s n.; pl. locu li [L. loculus, cell] 1. A cavity, compartment or chamber. 2. (CNID) Cavities between septa at the base of some polyps. 3. (PLATY: Turbellaria) Shallow, sucker-like depressions in the adhesive organ. locu s n.; pl. -ci [L. locus, place] The position of a gene in a chromosome; may be occupied by any gene of a particular allelic series. lodix n. [L. lodix, blanket] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The ventral plate of the seventh (7th) abdominal segment that covers the genital plate in Lepidoptera. loga r it hm ic ph a se Geometric or exponential growth section of the logistic curve characteristic of unrestrained population growth. logist ic cur ve Growth of a population with time as described by a sigmoid curve; begins slowly, increases rapidly, and grows slowly or not at all as the population fills available sites. logot ype n. [Gr. logos, word; t ypos, type] A type species of a genus by subsequent designation, not originally described as such. lon gicor n a. [L. longus, long; cornu, horn] Having long antennae as in certain beetles. lon gipe nna t e a. [L. longus, long; penna, wing] Having longwings. lon gir ost r a l, longir ost r a t e a. [L. longus, long; rost rum , beak] Having a long beak or rostrum. lon git u dina l a. [L. longus, long] 1. Lengthwise of the body or an appendage. 2. The length of a shell or direction of the longest diameter. lon git u dina l ca na l see lon git u din a l t u be lon git u dina l m u scle 1. (ECHI) Layer of longitudinal muscle of

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the body wall sometimes thickened into bundles. 2. (NEMATA) The somatic muscles of nematodes. 3. (SIPUN) Innermost layers of muscle that make up the body wall of the trunk. lon git u dina l r u ga e (NEMATA) The cuticular fold projecting anteriorly from the stoma of diplogasterids supporting the circumoral membrane. lon git u dina l se ct ion Section along or parallel to the longitudinal axis. lon git u dina l se pt u m (ARTHRO: Crustacea) An inner and outer laminae partition of the compartmental plate in some balanomorph barnacles, resulting in longitudinal tubes; parietal tubes. lon git u dina l t u be (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In some Balanamorpha, a canal between longitudinal septa and inner and outer lamina in the compartmental plate; longitudinal canal; parietal tube; parietal pore. loop n. [ME. loupe, loop] (BRACHIO) A support for the lophophore composed of secondary shell and variously placed, usually ribbon-like with or without supporting septum from floor of the brachial valve. loope r n. [Eng. looper, to crawl or slink] (ARTHRO: Insecta) 1. Caterpillars with two or more anterior prolegs reduced or missing. 2. Crawl in a looping manner like the Geometridae (inch worm). lophobr a nch ia t e a. [Gr. lophos, crest; branchia, gills] Having tufted gills. lophoca lt r ops n. [Gr. lophos, crest; A.S. coltraeppe, type of thistle] (PORIF) A sponge spicule with branched or crested rays. lophocyt e s n. [Gr. lophos, crest; kyt os, container] (PORIF) Mobile collagen-secreting cells that trail attached collagen fibrils. lophoph or a l fold (BRYO) Part of the vesicle of the polypide from which the lophophore is formed. lophoph or e n. [Gr. lophos, crest; pherein, to carry] A crown of tentacles, found in Bryozoa, Brachiopoda and Phoronida.

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lophoph or e n e ck (BRYO: Gymnolaemata) A long movable cylindrical structure formed by the everted tentacle sheath that allows extension of the tentacles beyond the orifice. lor a pl. lor u m lor a l a r m (ARTHRO: Insecta) A laterally extending process from the middle of each suspensorium of the hypopharynx of certain primitive pterygote insects. lor e see lor u m lor ica n.; pl. -a e [L. lorica, corselet] A hard shell or case on Rotifera, Loricifera and Priapulida larvae. see cu ir a ss. lor ica t e a. [L. lorica, corselet] To cover with a protective coating or crust. lor icife r a n. [L. lorica, corselet; fero, bear] A phylum of microscopic organisms with a flexible, retractable tube mouth, a girdle of platelets and a crown of clawlike and club-shaped spines. lor um n.; pl. lor a [L. lorum , strap] 1. (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In Arachnida, a protective dorsal plate on the pedicle. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) a. The cheek. b. A sclerite on both sides of the head of Homoptera and certain Hemiptera, and Hymenoptera. c. In Apis, the submentum. d. In Homoptera, a narrow lateral sclerite between the clypeus and the front extending to the genae, that is an upward extension of the hypopharynx. lot ic a. [L. lot us, washed] Living in rapidly flowing waters; applied to organisms that inhabit these waters. see le n t ic. low e r a. [ON. lagr, low] (MOLL) The abapical part of the shell. low e r la t us pla t e (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Cirripedia, a valve near the basis of the shell. lox om e t a ne m e n. [Gr. loxos, oblique; m et a, behind; nem a, thread] (NEMATA) Metaneme that is at an angle of 10-30 o to the longitudinal body line; found running diagonally across the lateral hypodermal cords. loze nge n. [OF. losenge, a square window pane] A parallelogram with four equal sides having two acute and two obtuse angles; lozenge-shaped; a rhombus form; diamondshaped.

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lu cid a. [L. lucidus, clear] Luminous; translucent; pellucid; shining. lu cife r a se n. [L. lux, light; ferre, to bring; -ase, enzyme] An enzyme of luminescent organisms involved in the oxidation of luciferin and the production of light. lu cife r in n. [L. lux, light; ferre, to bring] A substance found in luminescent organisms that, in the presence of the enzyme luciferase, oxidizes and produces light. lu cifugous a. [L. lux, light; fugere, to flee] Avoiding the light, or living in concealment. see ph ot ophobic, lu cipe t a l. lu cin oid t e e t h (MOLL: Bivalvia) Having 2 cardinal teeth in each valve; left valve anterior tooth is medial below the beak. lu cipe t a l a. [L. lux, light; pet ere, to seek] Requiring light. see lu cifugous. lu m ba r ga nglia (NEMATA) Large paired ganglia in the anal region which receive the lateral nerves and from which the laterocaudal nerves pass posteriad in the tail. lum br icifor m a. [L. lum bricus, earthworm; form a, shape] Like an earthworm in appearance; lumbricoid. see ve r m ifor m . lu m br icin e a. [L. lum bricus, earthworm] (ANN: Oligochaeta) Having 4 pairs of setae per segment as in earthworms of the family Lumbricidae. see pe r icha e t ine . lu m e n n. [L. lum en, light] Space within any tubular organ or vessel. lu m e n a t e a. [L. lum en, light] Having a lumen. lu m ine sce n t a. [L. lum en, light; escens, beginning of] Producing light. see biolum in e sce n ce . lu m ine sce n t or ga n 1. Specialized light emitting organs of various invertebrates. see biolum in e sce n ce . 2. (MOLL: Cephalopoda) Open ectodermal pockets filled with luminescent bacteria. lu n a t e a. [L. luna, moon] Semicircular; falcate; crescentshaped. lu n e lla r ium see cla usiliu m lu n g book s see book lu n g lu n u la n.; pl. lu n u la e [L. dim. luna, moon] 1. A small lunate

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mark or crescent-shaped object. 2. (MOLL: Gastropoda) A crescentic ridge on the selenizone, concave toward aperture. lu n u la r a. lu n u le n. [L. dim. luna, moon] 1. A crescent-shaped part or marking. 2. (ARTHRO: Crustacea) In Copepoda, small, sucker-like adhesion disc on the anterior margin. 3. (ECHINOD: Echinoidea) One of several perforations in the test of some sand dollars that may serve for passage of sand and water while burrowing. 4. (MOLL: Bivalvia) Cordate shaped depression anterior to the beaks. lu r id a. [L. luridus, pale yellow] A dirty yellowish color; dismal; dingy. lu t e ou s a. [L. lut eus, golden yellow] Yellow in hue, especially an orange or reddish yellow. lycoph or e n. [Gr. lykos, hook; pherein, to carry] (PLATY: Cestoda) Ten-hooked first larval stage of a tapeworm; a decacanth. lygoph il n. [Gr. lygaios, gloomy; philos, fond of] Shade or darkness dwellers. lym ph gla n d 1. (ANN: Oligochaeta) Organs on the anterior faces of septa associated with the dorsal blood vessel, in the intestinal regions of some earthworms, possibly functioning in production of phagocytes. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) Organs that release free mesodermal cells into the hemolymph near pupation of Drosophila larvae. lym phocyt e see pla sm a t ocyt e lyocyt osis n. [Gr. lyein, to loose; kyt os, hollow] The process of histolysis by extracellular digestion. Lyon ne t 's gla nds (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Lepidoptera, paired accessory glands opening by a separate duct into the silk gland on its own side; Filippi's glands. lyr a n. [L. lyra, lyre] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) Stridulating organs of arachnids found on various places of the male body; they consist of a tooth (or teeth) that rubs against a series of ridges. lyr a t e a. [L. lyra, lyre] Lyre-shaped; spatulate and oblong with small lobes toward the base.

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lyr e n. [L. lyra, lyre] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In caterpillars, the border or upper wall of the spinning tube. lyr e - sha pe d Like a string musical instrument with two curved arms and strings attached to a yolk between the curved arms. lyr ifissu r e n. [L. lyra, lyre; fissura, crack] (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) Small fissures or pores in the cuticle of the body or appendages; sometimes with an internal channel; thought to be stretch receptors. lyr ifor m or ga n s (ARTHRO: Chelicerata) In arachnids, a lyreshaped organ on the joints of the legs and other appendages, sterna of the cephalothorax and abdomen and on the sting of Scorpiones; thought to be chemoreceptors; also called slit sense organs. lyr u le n. [L. dim. lyra, lyre] (BRYO) A median tooth on the proximal edge of the orifice. lyse a. [Gr. lysis, loosen] To undergo lysis. lysige nom a n. [Gr. lysis, loosen; gene, to produce; -oma, tumor] (NEMATA) The name given a group of giant cells or syncytia denoting their origin from lysis or dissolution of walls of normal cells, forming a tumor-like structure. lysin n. [Gr. lysis, loosen] Any of a number of substances capable of dissolving cells, bacteria, or tissues. lysis n. [Gr. lysis, loosen] 1. The decomposition of a substance. 2. The digestion of cells or tissues by enzymatic action. lyssa cin e a. [Gr. lysis, loosen; akis, point] (PORIF: Hexactinellida) Skeletal framework formed by interlacing of the elongate rays of hexactines producing loose networks with irregular meshes in siliceous sponges; may be considered an earlier stage of the dictyonine framework. lyt ic a. [Gr. lysis, loosen] Pertaining to lysis or to a lysin.

M m a ce r a t e v. [L. m acerare, to soften] To waste away; to soften or wear away. m a ch opolyp, m a ch ozooid see da ct ylozooid m a cr a ne r n. [Gr. m akros, large; aner, male] (ARTHRO: Insecta) A male ant of unusually large form. m a cr e r ga t e n. [Gr. m akros, large; ergate, worker] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Formicidae, an unusually large worker. m a cr obiot a n. [Gr. m akros, large; bios, life] Larger organisms in the soil, such as insects and earthworms. see m e sobiot a . m a cr oce ph a lic fe m a le (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, a large female of Halictidae, that possesses a disproportionately large head, usually the egg layers of the colony. m a cr oce r cou s ce r ca r ia (PLATY: Trematoda) Cystophorous type cercaria with a long, simple, cylindrical tail. m a cr ocha e t a e n.pl. [Gr. m akros, large; chait e, hair] Large bristles. see cha e t ot a x y. m a cr ocilia n.pl.; sing. -ium [Gr. m akros, large; L. cilium , eyelash] (CTENO) In Beroida, 2,500-3,500 giant ciliary shafts interconnected and bound together on the mobile lips that function in food gathering. m a cr ocne m e s n.pl. [Gr. m akros, large; knem e, lower leg] (CNID: Anthozoa) In Actinaria, complete and filamented mesenteries in the first one or two cycles of simple tentacles; maybe fertile or sterile and possess acontia and strong retractors. see m icr ocn e m e s. m a cr ocyt e see pla sm a t ocyt e m a cr oe st he t e s see m e ga la e st he t e s m a cr oe volu t ion n. [Gr. m akros, large; L. evolvere, to unroll] Evolutionary processes that extend through geologic eras; large scale evolution of new species and genera due to mutations that result in marked changes in chromosomal

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patterns and reaction systems. see m icr oe volu t ion. m a cr ofa u na n. [Gr. m akros, large; L. Faunus, diety of herds and fields] 1. Widely distributed; from a macrohabitat. 2. Animals measured in centimeters rather than microscopic units. m a cr oga m e t e n. [Gr. m akros, large; gam et e, wife] A large, quiescent, female anisogamete. see m icr oga m e t e . m a cr oga m e t ocyt e n. [Gr. m akros, large; gam ein, to marry; kyt os, container] The infected human red blood cell that contains the female form of the malarial parasite which upon transfer to the Culicidae becomes a macrogamete. m a cr oga m y see hologa m y m a cr oge ne sis n. [Gr. m akros, large; genesis, origin] The sudden origin of new species by saltation. m a cr ogyne n. [Gr. m akros, large; gyne, woman] (ARTHRO: Insecta) In Formicidae, a female or queen of unusually large stature. m a cr oic see m e ga n e ph r idia m a cr ole cit h a l a. [Gr. m akros, large; leket hos, egg yolk] With a large amount of yolk. see m icr ole cit h a l. m a cr om e r e n. [Gr. m akros, large; m eros, part] A distinctly large cell resulting from unequal cleavages during early embryology. m a cr om e se n t e r y n. [Gr. m akros, large; m esos, middle; ent eron, gut] (CNID: Anthozoa) One of the larger complete mesenteries. m a cr om it osom e n. [Gr. m akros, large; m it os, thread; som a, body] (ARTHRO: Insecta) The paranucleus as seen in Lepidoptera. m a cr om ole cu le n. [Gr. m akros, large; L. m oles, mass] Very large molecules such as protein, cellulose, starch, etc. m a cr om u t a t ion n. [Gr. m akros, large; m ut are, to change] Theory of instantaneous evolution of new taxa by a mutation that establishes reproductive isolation at once. m a cr onot a l a. [Gr. m akros, large; not os, back] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Having a large t horax, as a queen ant.

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m a cr onu cle ocyt e see pr ohe m ocyt e m a cr oph a ge n. [Gr. m akros, large; phagein, to eat] A large phagocytic cell of the body. m a cr oph a gou s a. [Gr. m akros, large; phagein, to eat] Feeding on large objects. see m icr opha gou s. m a cr oph t ha lm ic a. [Gr. m akros, large; opht halm os, eye] Having large eyes; having eyes larger than normal. m a cr opla nk t on n. [Gr. m akros, large; plankt os, wandering] Large organisms such as jellyfish that drift with the currents. m a cr opor e see m e ga lopor e m a cr opse u dogyn e see pse udogyne m a cr opt e r ou s a. [Gr. m akros, large; pt eron, wing] (ARTHRO: Insecta) Having a long or large wing. see br a chypt e r ous. m a cr oscle r e see m e ga scle r e m a cr oscopic, m a cr oscopica l a. [Gr. m akros, large; skopein, to view] Capable of being studied with the unaided eye; megascopic. see m icr oscopic. m a cr ose pt u m n. [Gr. m akros, large; L. sept um , partition] 1. (CNID: Anthozoa) The variously functioning primary septum. 2. (NEMER) In asexual reproduction, a partition across the body marking the plane of subsequent fragmentation. m a cr osiphon n. [Gr. m akros, large; siphon, tube] (MOLL: Cephalopoda) Internal siphon of certain cuttlefishes, and all octopuses. m a cr osym bion t n. [Gr. m akros, large; sym bios, living together] The larger of two symbiotic organisms. m a cr ot a x onom y n. [Gr. m akros, large; t axis, arrangement] The classification of higher taxa. m a cr ot r ich ia n.pl.; sing. -ium [Gr. m akros, large; t hrix, hair] 1. The larger surface hairs. 2. (ARTHRO: Insecta) The large hairs on the wing membrane. m a cr ot ype n. [Gr. m akros, large; t ypos, type] (CNID: Anthozoa) Modified arrangement of mesenteries consisting mainly of macromesenteries. see m icr ot ype . m a cr u r ou s a. [Gr. m akros, large; oura, tail] Long-tailed.

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m a cu la n.; pl. m a cu la e [L. m acula, spot] 1. A colored spot of rather large size. 2. A spot level with surrounding surface. 3. (BRYO: Stenolaemata) Prominences, and less commonly flat or depressed areas on colony surfaces regularly spaced among feeding zooids caused by clusters of a few polymorphs, and/or extrazooidal skeleton. see m on t icu le . 4. (MOLL: Cephalopoda) An oval spot on the wall of a statocyst to which a calcareous statolith is attached; gives information on position relative to gravity. m a cu la t e a. [L. m acula, spot] Splashed or spotted; blotched. m a dr e por e n. [L. m at er, mother; Gr. poros, friable stone] (CNID) A stony, branched, reef building coral of the order Madreporia. m a dr e por ic pla t e (ECHINOD: Asteroidea) An enlarged interradial plate on the disc, that connects the water vascular system to the sea. m a dr e por it e n. [L. m at er, mother; porus, pore] (ECHINOD) An oral or aboral perforated plate of the water-vascular system connecting with the stone canal; sieve plate. m a in bu d (BRYO: phylactolaemata) The largest of three bud primordia which occurs on every mature zooid, and is the first to form a new polypide. m a j or ge ne Controls production of qualitative phenotypic effects in contrast to its modifiers. m a j or w or k e r (ARTHRO: Insecta) The largest worker subcaste in social insects; in Formicidae, usually specialized for defense and referred to as a soldier. see m e dia w or k e r , m in or w or k e r . m a la n.; pl. m a la e [L. m ala, cheek, jaw] 1. A lobe; ridge or grinding surface. 2. (ARTHRO) a. Part of the maxilla of certain insects. b. Mandible of some myriapods. m a la coid a. [Gr. m alakos, soft] Soft textured. m a la cology n. [Gr. m alakos, soft; logos, discourse] The branch of zoology dealing with mollusks, the animal inside the shell. m a la coph ilou s a. [Gr. m alakos, soft; philios, loving] (MOLL: Gastropoda) Being pollinated by the action of gastropods.

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m a la pophysis n.; pl. -se s [L. m ala, cheek, jaw; Gr. apophysis, p