Metro Ethernet: the definitive guide to enterprise and carrier Metro Ethernet applications [illustrated edition] 158705096X, 9781587050961

The definitive guide to Enterprise and Carrier Metro Ethernet applications.Discover the latest developments in metro net

469 37 4MB

English Pages 276 Year 2003

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD PDF FILE

Recommend Papers

Metro Ethernet: the definitive guide to enterprise and carrier Metro Ethernet applications [illustrated edition]
 158705096X, 9781587050961

  • 0 0 0
  • Like this paper and download? You can publish your own PDF file online for free in a few minutes! Sign Up
File loading please wait...
Citation preview



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

Copy right

The dAbout ef initth iveeAut guid h or e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. About th e Tech nical Rev iewer s Ack nowledgmen Discover t h etslat est

developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and y our or gan izat ion

Iw con s Used Th is Book hat t heyin can do f or I n tr oduct ion

Lear n franom t h eodseasy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o Goals d Meth unWho derst an d t h e concep ts Shou ld Read This Book? How This Book I s Organized

Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Part I : Et hernet : From LANet to Rou t he MAN Halabi, au t hor of Itnhet ern t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Cha pter 1. I nt rod uct ion t o Dat a in t he Met ro

Met r o n et The w orMet k srowNetwor ill emker ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent Etah er mnet ajor t in in tsh he ifMet ro how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r oThe h as alw ays b een challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as Early Metr o Eth ernetaMovers been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o The U. S. I ncum bent Lan dscape go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed The I nt erna tion al Landsca pe by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e A Dat of t h e Met ro el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o oper at ional anadView b usiness mod Metced ro Serv off er enhan datices a ser vices. Et h er net Access and Fr ame Relay Compar ison

Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic Con clusion v iew . I t Cha descr t he cu rrnologies ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he pteribes 2. Met ro Tech dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Et h er net ov er SONET/ SDH

Resilien Rin g t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s Met r o Et hern et tdPacket iscusses Et her erynetofTran sport t o t he d eliv m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book clusion t hen examCon ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , vCha ir t ual atro e Et local ea ices net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic pter p 3.riv Met hernetarServ engineer inL2g,Swit anchin d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . g Basics Met ro Et hern et Serv ices Concept s Ex am ple of an L2 Metr o Eth ernet Serv ice Cha lleng es wit h All- Et hernet Met ro Net work s Con clusion

Cha pter 4. Hy brid L2 an d L3 I P/ MPLS Net work s Un derst andin g VPN Com ponent s Deliv ering L3 VPNs ov er I P L2 Et hernet Serv ices ov er an I P/ MPLS Net wor k Con clusion Part I I : MPLS: Con tr ollin g Tr aff ic ov er Your Opt ical Met ro Cha pter 5. MPLS Traf fic En gineer ing



Table of Content s

Advant ages o f Traff ic Engin eerin g



I ndex

Pre-MPLS Traff ic Engin eerin g Tech niques Me tr o Et her ne t MPLS an d Traf f ic En gineering By Sam Halabi Con clusion Cha pter 6. RSVP fo r Tra ff ic En gineering and Fast Rerou te Pub lish er: Cisco Press Un derst andin g RSVP-TE Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 Un derst andin g MPLS Fast Rer out e I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Con clusion Pages: 24 0 Cha pter 7. MPLS Cont ro llin g Opt ical Swit ches Un derst andin g GMPLS Estab lish ing t he Need for GMPLS Signaling Models La bel Swit ch ing in a Non packet World

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Con clusion Cha pter 8. GMPLS Archit ectu re

Discover lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and GMPLSt Ihnteerf aces w hatModif t hey can do f or our or gan izat ion icat ion of Rout ingyan d Signaling I n clusion of Techn ology -Specific Param eters

Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o Lin k an Mandagement Prot ocol un derst t h e concep ts GMPLS Prot ect ion and Restor at ion Mechanism s

GainSum fr om exp er ces ience of indu st and r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam mar tyhe of Diff eren Between MPLS GMPLS Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Con clusion Appendix A. SONET/ SDH Basic Fram in g a nd Concat enat ion

Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill SONET/ SDH Fram e Forma ts r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. SDH Archit The m etSONET/ r o h as alw aysect b ure een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as SONET/ SDH dle Con cat en at been b uilt t o han t he stion r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o Conhclusion go t hr oug f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by entGlossary er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o A off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. B C

Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t Ddescr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s Ean d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. F

Met r o EtGhern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he dIeliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s L ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic M engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . N O P Q R

S T U V W I n dex



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Copyright Cop yr igh t © 2 003 Cisco Sy st em s Pub lished by :Table of Content s • Cisco Pr ess • I ndex 80 0 East 96 t h St reet , 3 rd Floor Me tr o Et her ne t I ndian apolis, I N 462 40 USA By Sam Halabi

All r ight s reserv ed. No par t of t h is book m ay b e repr od uced or t r ansm it t ed in an y for m or b y any m ean r onic or m ech anical, inclu ding ph ot ocopy in g, r ecor d in g, or by any in for m at ion Pubs, lishelect er: Cisco Press st orPub ageDat and r et r iev al20 syst e: Oct ober 0 1, 03 em , w it hou t w r it t en p er m ission fr om t h e pu blish er , ex cept for t he inclusion of b rief qu ot at ions in a r eview . I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0 Pr int ed in t h e Un it ed St at es of Am erica 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

Lib rar y of Con gr ess Cat aloging- in - Publicat ion Num ber: 20 021 035 27 First Prin t in g Sep t em ber 2 003 The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions.

Warning and Disclaimer Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and hat ist hey can dot of orpryov our gan izat ion This bwook desig ned ideorinf or mat ion ab out Met r o Et her net . Ever y eff ort has b een m ade t o mak e t h is book as com plet e and as accur at e as p ossible, bu t n o w ar r ant y or f it ness is imp lied. Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o an dist hper ovided concep ton s an " as is" basis. The au t hor , Cisco Pr ess, an d Cisco Sy st ems, The inun forderst m at ion I nc. , shall hav e n eit h er liabilit y n or r espon sibilit y t o any p er son or ent it y w it h r espect t o any loss Gaines fr om t he exp indu st r ycont in nov at orinand - selling Cisco essofaut he t hor Sam or d amag arising fr omer tience h e infof orm at ion ained t h isbest book or fr om t h ePr use d ,iscs or Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es pr ogr am s t h at m ay accomp any it . Met o ninions et w or ex k s pr w essed ill em er as bt hook e nex t ar eat ooft he gr ow h forand t hearn eetnot w or necessar k ing induily st r tyhose an d of w ill The rop inge t his belong autt hor Cisco rSy epstr esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. em s, I nc. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o All t erenhan ms ment in tvices. his b ook t hat ar e kn ow n t o be t rad em ar k s or serv ice mar k s hav e b een off er ced ion dated a ser app rop riat ely capit alized. Cisco Pr ess or Cisco Syst em s, I nc. cannot at t est t o t he accur acy of t his inf at hern ion. et Usef r om of a Cisco t er m Pr in ess t h islook book should notloy be fect g t ices he v alid anyic Metorm r o Et s at t he d ep m regar ent ofded metas r o af d at a in serv fr omit ya of holist tvriew adem ark or ser v ice m ar k . . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he

Trademark Acknowledgments

dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices.

Feedback Information Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur t an int os of t h et he role v ir t qu ualalit p r yiv and at e nvet w e. or k s At Cisco Press, ourr en g oal isdt oem crerg eatin e gin-t rend d ep ts, h tand echndelves ical book h igofhest alu (Each VPN)book , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic is cr aft ed w it h car e an d p recision , und er g oin g r igor ous developm ent t hat in volv es t he engineer g, an MPLS an d ( GMPLS) un iq ue exinpert ised of m emb er Generalized s f r om t he prMPLS ofessional t ech. nical com m un it y. Reader s' f eed back is a n at ur al cont inu at ion of t his pr ocess. I f y ou h ave any com ment s regar d in g how w e cou ld im pr ov e t he qualit y of t h is book , or ot h er w ise alt er it t o bet t er su it y our n eeds, y ou can cont act u s t hr ou gh e- m ail at feedback @ciscopr ess. com . Please mak e sur e t o include t he book t it le and I SBN in y our message.

We g reat ly app r eciat e y our assist an ce.

Pub lisher

John Wait

Ed it or- in - Chief

John Kane

Cisco Repr esent at ive

Ant h ony Wolf en den



Table of Content s

ogr am Manager • Cisco Pr ess Pr I ndex Me tr o ager, Et her ne t ket ing Man Mar

Sonia Torr es Ch avez

Com m unicat ions, Cisco

By Sy Sam st em Halabi s

Cisco Mar k et in g Pr og ram Manager

Scot t Miller Ed ie Quir oz

Pub lish er: Cisco Press

Pr oduct ion Manag Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0er 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X

Dev elopm ent Edit or

Pat r ick Kanouse Day na I sley

Pages: 24 0

Cop y Edit or

Bill McManu s

Tech nical Ed it ors

Mik e Bern ico, Mark Gallo, Giles Her on, I r w in Lazar

Team ore t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r oTam m i Ross The d efCoor init ivdinat e guid Et hern et app licat ions. Cov er Desig ner

Lou isa Adair

h er npetosit , and v ices and Com Discover posit ion t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro netI w ntor erking act iv, eEtCom ion MPLS Cor porser at ion w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Pr oofr eader Gay le John son Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o I ndex erderst an d t h e concep t s Lar r y Sw eazy un Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. Corpor e aalw dqua s a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as The m etat r oe hHas aysrtber een Cisco Sy st em s, I nc. been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o 17 Woug est hTasm an Dr go 0t hr f un dam enive t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed San Jose, CA 9 513 4by ent er pr ise cust om17 er s06and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e USA oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o w w .cisco. offwer enhancom ced dat a ser vices. Tel: 40 8 526- 400 0 - NETS ( 638 7) Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic Met8r o00Et553 hern et f r om Cisco Fax: 40 8 5 264 100 v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Eur ope an H ea dq ua rt e rs Cisco st emet s I dntiscusses er nat ional Met r o Sy Et hern t heBV ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s Haar k m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t o t helerdber elivgpar er y of Haar ber ines gw egcur 1 319t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s t hen ler exam r en 11 01 CH st p erd ( VPN) , v irAm t ual rivam at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic The Net hin erg, lands engineer an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . w w w - eu rop e. cisco. com Tel: 31 0 20 35 7 100 0 Fax: 31 0 20 35 7 1 100 Am e ri ca s H e adq ua rt e rs

Cisco Sy st em s, I nc. 17 0 W est Tasm an Dr ive San Jose, CA 9 513 4- 17 06 USA w w w .cisco. com Tel: 40 8 526- 766 0 Fax: 4 08 52 7- 08 83 •

Table of Content s

Asia Pa ci fi c H e adq ua rt e rs • I ndex Cisco Sy st em s, I nc. Me tr o Et her ne t Cap it al Tow er By Halabi 16Sam 8 Robinson Road # 22 - 01 t o # 2 9- 01 Singap orer: e 068 Pub lish Cisco912 Press www .cisco. com Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 Tel: + 65 63 17 777 7 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Fax: + 65 63 17 779 9 Pages: 24 0

Cisco Sy st em s h as m ore t han 200 of fices in t h e follow ing cou nt r ies and r eg ion s. Addr esses, ph one nu m bers, an d f ax nu m bers ar e list ed on t h e Cisco. com W eb sit e at w w w . cisco.com / go/ off ice s. Ar gent st r alia Aust r ia Belgiu mier • Met Br azil Canad a • Chile • China PRC • The d efina init •iv eAu guid e t o•Ent er pr ise• an d Carr r• o Bulgar Et hernia et •app licat ions. Colom bia • Cost a Rica • Cr oat ia • Czech Repu blic D • en mar k • Dub ai, UAE • Fin lan d • Fran ce • Ger man y • Greece • Hong Kon g SAR • Hu ngar y • I ndia • I nd onesia • I r eland • I sr ael • I t aly • latxem est bou developm ent s in m• etMex ro net king Et land h er nset•, and ser v•ices JapanDiscover • Koreat h• e Lu rg • Malaysia icow•oreTh Net h, er NewMPLS Zealand Norand w ay • w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Peru • Philippines • Poland • Por t ug al • Puert o Ric o • Rom ania • Ru ssia • Saud i Ar abia • Scot land • Sing apor e • Slov ak ia • Slov enia • SoutAfr h ica • Spain • Sw eden • Sw it zerland • Lear fr om t h e• easy - t o- r• ead mat• t hat or kin p rat ofessionals of all els tnam o Taiw an • nThailand Tur key Uk fror aine Un itenables ed Kingd omnet • wUn it edg St es • Ven ezu ela lev • Viet • un derst an d t h e concep t s Zim babw e fr om exp erSy ience of indu r y rig in nov or and selling Cisco ess au t hor ,logo, Sam t h e Cop yrGain igh t © 200t he 3 Cisco st ems, I n c. stAll ht s at r eser v ed best . CCI- P, CCSP, t h e Pr Cisco Ar row Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Cisco Pow ered Net w or k m ar k, t he Cisco Sy st em s Ver ified log o, Cisco Un it y, Follow Me Brow sing , Form Sh are, iQ Net Readiness Scorecar d, Net w or king Academ y, and Scr ipt Sh ar e are t r ademar k s Met r o n etSy w st orem k s s, w ill em; er as t g h et hnex t ar ea ow, tLive, h for Play t he ,n and et w orLear k ingn,indu r y an w ill of Cisco I nc. Chge angin e Way WeofWgr ork Th estFast estd W ay t o rI ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu omer s. ncr ease Your I n t ern et Quot ient , and iQuick St ud y ar e ser v ice m ar k s of Cisco Sy st em s, Ist nc.; and The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as Air onet , ASI ST, BPX, Cat aly st , CCDA, CCDP, CCI E, CCNA, CCNP, Cisco, t he Cisco Cer t ified been b uilt t o han dle tlogo, he st rCisco ing enItOS, r eliab y an dI OS availabilit y needs f or Cisco v oice. Sy Car iers wCisco ill h ave t o I nt er net w ork Ex pert t heilitCisco logo, Cisco Pr ess, strems, go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed Sy st em s Cap it al, t he Cisco Sy st ems log o, Em p ower ing t he I nt er net Generat ion , by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e En t er p rise/ Solv er , Et h er Ch annel, Et h er Sw it ch, Fast St ep, GigaSt ack , I nt er net Qu ot ien t , I OS, oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met I P/ TV, iQ Ex pert ise, t he iQ logo, Light St ream , MGX, MI CA, t h e Net w ork ers log o, Net w ork r o t o off er enhan ced dat serPost vices. Regist r ar, Packet , PIaX, - Rout ing , Pr e- Rout ing , Rat eMUX, Regist r ar, Slid eCast , SMARTn et , St r at aView Plus, St r at m , Sw it chPr obe, TeleRou t er , Tran sPat h , and VCO ar e r eg ist er ed Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic t r adem ark s of Cisco Sy st em s, I nc. an d/ or it s af filiat es in t he U. S. and cer t ain ot her coun t ries. v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr erhserant rad d challenges ier s win ill tface t r ansfor m ing et reot he t o addr essydat ser vrespect ices. ive Allivot em ar k s m car en trioned his din ocum en t or W ebt he sit m e ar p r opert of at heir ow ner s. The use of t h e w or d p art ner does not im ply a p art nership r elat ion sh ip b et w een Cisco Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s and any ot her comp any . ( 03 03R) t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s Pr int ed in tines h e USA ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Dedications I d ed icat e t his book t o m y w onder fu l fam ily , w ho sp en t m any night s and w eek en ds alone t o help m e fin ish t he man uscr ipt . To m y lov ely w if e, Roula, I pr omised y ou aft er t he I RA book t hat I

w ouldn 't w rit e anot her b ook. Sor r y I lied. Th ank y ou for sup por t ing m e. To m y sons, Joe an d Jason, I lov e y ou bot h f or t he sacr if ices y ou had t o mak e du r in g t he last y ear for me t o f in ish t h is book .



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

About the Author Mr . Halabi is a season ed execut iv e and an indu st ry v et eran w it h m ore t han 18 y ear s of exp er ience m ark et ing and selling t o t he w or ldw ide Ent erp rise an d Carr ier net w or king m ar k et s. While at Cisco, heofwContent r ot e t hse fir st Cisco I nt er net r out in g book , I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es, a • Table best seller in t he U. S. and int er nat ional mar k et s. He has h eld m ult iple execut iv e m anagem ent • I ndex posit ions in t he field of m ar ket ing , sales, an d b usiness d ev elopm en t an d has been in st ru ment al Me tr o Et her ne t in ev olv in g f ast - gr ow ing businesses f or t he Ent er pr ise and Car r ier Et her net m ar ket s. By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

About the Technical Reviewers Mi k e Be rni co is a sen ior net w or king eng in eer at t he I llinois Cent ur y Net w or k . I n t his posit ion, he f ocuses pr imar ily on net w ork desig n an d in t eg rat in g adv anced net w or k ser v ices such as QoS, I P Mu lt icast , I Pv 6, an d MPLS in t o t h e net w or k. He has also au t hor ed op en - sou rce sof t w are •r elat ed t o h isTable Content s int erofest s in new n et w or k ing t ech nologies. He en joy s r ead ing and spending t im e in •t he lab incr easing I ndex h is kn owledg e of t he n et w or k ing indu st r y . He liv es in I llin ois w it h h is w if e Me o e. Et her t Jaytrm Henecan be con t act ed at m [email protected] nico. net . By Sam Halabi

Ma r k Gal lo is a t echnical m anager w it h Am er ica Online. His net w or k cer t ificat ions includ e Cisco CCNP and Cisco CCDP. He h as led sever al engineer in g gr oups r esponsible f or desig ning and Pub lish er: Cisco Press im plem ent in g ent er pr ise LANs and int er nat ion al I P net w or k s. He has a BS in elect r ical Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 engineer in g fr om t h e Un iv er sit y of Pit t sbu r gh. He resides in n ort hern Vir ginia wit h his wif e, SBN: 1- 58,705 -0 96 -X Bet sy , Ian d son Paul. Pages: 24 0

Gil es H e ron is t he pr incipal net w ork ar chit ect f or Packet Ex chan ge, a n ex t - gener at ion car r ier pr ov iding Et h er net ser v ices on a g lob al basis. He designed Pack et Ex chang e' s MPLS net w or k and has been inst r um ent al in t he developm ent of it s ser vice por t f olio. A cofou nder of Packet Exchan ge, he p rev iously w ork ed in t h e Net w or k Ar chit ect u r e gr oup at Level( 3) Com icat coau hor h eCarr dr aft sphern ecificat ionlicat for ions. t ran sp ort of Lay er 2 The dmefun init iv eions. guidHe e t ois Ent er tpr iseof ant d ier- mar Mettrini o Et et app pr ot ocols ov er I P and MPLS net w or ks and t he d raf t - lasser r e- v k omp ella sp ecificat ion for emu lat ion of m ult ip oin t Et her net LAN seg ment s over MPLS, as w ell as v ar ious ot her I nt er net dr af t s. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion I rw i n Laz a r is pr act ice m anag er for Bu rt on Gr ou p in it s Net w ork s an d Telecom gr oup, m anagin eamt hof s wh o mat ad vise ge end-net u ser orkin g anizat ions on t opics includ in gt o Leargnafrt om e consult easy - t o-ant r ead f or t hatlarenables w or g p r ofessionals of all lev els net w or k ar ch it ect u re an d em erg ing net w or k t ech nologies. He adm inist er s Th e MPLS Resou rce un derst an d t h e concep t s Cent er ( ht t p: / / w w w . mp lsr c. com ) and is t he conf erence dir ect or for t he MPLScon Con fer en ce and Ex hibit Gain ion . frHe omhas t hepexp ublished er ience num of er indu ousstar r y t icles in novon at or t opics and rbest elat-in selling g t o dat Cisco a net Prwess or kau in gt hor an d, Sam t he I nt er net Halabi, an d au is at hor fr equent of I n t ern speaker et Rouon t ingnet Arwch oritkect in gurres elat ed t opics at m any ind ust r y con fer en ces. He hold s a b ach elor 's degr ee in m anag em ent infor m at ion sy st ems fr om Rad for d Un iv er sit y an d MetMBA r o n et or kGeor s w illgeem er ge as h e sit nex ar ea gr ow t h tfor t heI nnfor et w ingSy indu st rsy Secur an d witill an f rw om Mason Un tiver y .t He is of also a Cer ified mor atkion st em y r epofession r esent a ajor sh.if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. Pr al m ( CI SSP) The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Acknowledgments I w ould like t o ack now led ge m any in divid uals w ho mad e t his b ook possib le. Many t h ank s t o Giles Heron f rom Pack et Ex chang e for h is t hor oug h r ev iew of t he m at erial and t o h is man y cont r ibut ion sTable t o t he Met r o sEt her net space. I w ould like t o t han k I rw in Lazar , Mik e Ber nico, Mar k • of Content Gallo, an d Saaed Sard ar f or t heir cont r ibut ion s and for keeping m e hon est . Th ank s t o An dr ew • I ndex Malis f or his init ial w or k on t his pr oject . I also w ould like t o t h ank m any of t h e aut h ors of t he Me tr o Et her ne t I ETF RFCs and I ETF dr af t s w hose inf orm at ion has b een used f or som e of t he concept s and By Sam Halabi defin it ion s in t his book . Th is inclu des t he follow in g people: Lu ca Mar t ini, Nasser El- Aaw ar, Er ic Rosen, an d Giles Her on f or t h eir w or k on t he encap su lat ion of Et hern et fr am es ov er I P/ MPLS Pub Press net w orlish ks.er:V.Cisco Komp ella, Mark Lasser r e, Nick Ting le, Su nil Khan dekar , Ali Sajassi, Tom Soon, Yet ik PubSer Datbe:est Oct, ober Eric0 Pu 1, 20 et03 z, Vasile Radaoca, Rob Nat h, Andr ew Sm it h, Juha Heinan en , Nick SlabakIov, ica, L. And er sson, Giles Heron , S. Kh andek ar, P. Lin, P. Menezes, A. SBN:J.1-Achir 58 705 -0 96 -X Mor ang ant i,24H. Pages: 0 Ould- Br ahim , and S. Yeong - il f or t heir w or k on t he VPLS dr aft specif icat ion . K. Kom pella for his or iginal w or k on t he DTLS dr aft specif icat ion. Special t hank s t o Daniel O. Aw duch e for h is m any cont r ibut ion s t o t raf fic eng ineer ing r eq uir em ent s an d his ph en omenal w or k in d r iv ing m ult ipr ot ocol lam bda sw it ch in g an d GMPLS. Thank s t o J. Malcolm , J. Agog bua, M. O'Dell, and J. McManus for t h eir con t rib ut ions t o TE r eq uirem ent s. Man y t hank s t o t he CCAMP gr oup an d it s m an y con t r ibut or s t o GMPLS, including Pet er Ashw ood Smit h , Er ic Man nie, Thom as The d efeau init ,ivAy e guid e t oerEnt pr ise anOng d Carr ier Met r oBasak Et hern et app ions. it r iou, Lou Ber ger , D. Nad an Ban j ee,erLyn don , Debashis , Dim it r i licat Papadim Dim it r ios Pen dar akis, Gr eg Ber nst ein, Bala Rajag opalan, Su dheer Dh aran ikot a, Yakov Rek ht er , John Discover Dr ak e, Debanj an Yan he Fan, Shar m a,ser Ger t Gr amm t h e lat estSaha, developm ent s in Hal m etSandick, ro net w orDon kingFedy , Et hker, nVishal et , and MPLS v ices and el, Geor ge Sw allow , Dan Guo, Kireet i Kom pella, Jennif er Yat es, Alan Kullber g, Geor ge R. Youn g, w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Jonat han P. Lan g, Joh n Yu , Fong Liaw , and Alex Zinin. I w ould also lik e t o t hank t he Met r o Et h er n et For m and he MPLS For um for m anyenables of t heir net infor m kin at ivgeprref er ences about Lear n fruom t h e teasy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat w or ofessionals of allMPLS lev elsand to VPLS.un I derst am sur e I h ave m issed m any of t h e nam es of t alen t ed p eop le w ho cont ribu t ed in direct ly an d t h e concep t s t o t he concept s in t his b ook, man y t han ks for y our ef for t s. Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Last but not least , mof anIyn ttern hanetksRou t o Cisco Halabi, au t hor t ing ArSy chstitem ectsuran esd t h e Cisco Pr ess t eam , Joh n Kan e, Day na I sley , and ot h er s f or supp ort in g t his pr oject . Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Icons Used in This Book Thr oug hout t his b ook, you see t he f ollowin g icons: •

Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Introduction Met r o Et hern et —opposit es at t r act . Et h er n et is a t echnolog y t hat has h ad m aj or success in t he LAN, disp lacing ot h er once- p rom ising t ech nologies such as Token Ring , FD DI , and ATM. Et licit an d p srice/ per for m ance adv ant ag es h ave mad e it t h e ult im at e w inner , • h er n et ' s simp Table ofyContent ext end ing fr om t h e ent erp r ise w or k gr oup closet all t he w ay t o t he ent er pr ise backb one an d d at a • I ndex cen t ers. Th e m et r o is t he last p ort ion of t h e net w or k st anding bet w een sub scr ibers or bu sinesses Me tr o Et her ne t and t h e vast am ount of infor m at ion t hat is available on t h e I nt ern et . The m et r o is ent r enched By Sam Halabi w it h legacy t im e- div ision m ult iplexin g ( TD M) an d SONET/ SDH t echn ology t h at is d esigned for t r adit ional voice and leased- line ser vices. These legacy t echnolog ies ar e inad eq uat e f or han dling lish er: Press ds of em er gin g d at a ap plicat ion s. t he Pub band widCisco t h deman Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03

Et h er n Iet in 1t he m et can b e deploy ed as an access int er face t o r ep lace t rad it ion al T1/ E1 TDM SBN: 58 705 -0 ro 96 -X int er faces. Many d at a serv ices ar e b ein g d ep loyed in t h e m et ro, in clu ding point - t o- point Et h er net Pages: 24 0 Lin e Ser v ices an d m ult ip oin t - t o- m ult ipoin t Et hern et LAN ser vices or Vir t ual Pr iv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) t hat ext end t h e ent erp rise cam pus acr oss geogr aph ically disper sed back bones. Et h er net can ru n ov er m any m et r o t r anspor t t ech nologies, in clu ding SONET/ SD H, next - generat ion SONET/ SD H, Resilient Pack et Ring ( RPR) , and w avelengt h - div ision m ult iplex ing ( WD M) , as w ell as ov er pur e Et her net t r anspor t . The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Et h er n et , how ev er , w as not desig ned for m et r o app licat ions and lack s t h e scalabilit y an d r eliabilit y r equir ed f or m ass deploy ment s. Deployin g Et her net in t he m et r o r equir es t he h e ust lat est developm s inexist m eton ro ly net Et h ipr er not etocol , andLabel MPLSSw ser v ices and scalabDiscover ilit y an d trob ness feat ur esent t hat inwIor P king and ,Mult it ching ( MPLS) w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion cont r ol p lan es. As su ch , hy br id Lay er 2 ( L2) and Lay er 3 ( L3) I P and MPLS n et w or k s hav e emer ged as a solut ion t hat m ar ries Et hern et ' s sim plicit y an d cost ef fect iveness w it h t he scale of Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o I P an d MPLS n et w or k s. Wit h man y t r anspor t t echn ologies deployed in t he m et r o, Et h er net un derst an d t h e concep t s ser v ices h ave t o be pr ovisioned an d mon it ored ov er a m ix of dat a sw it ches and op t ical sw it ches. I t b ecom t o er find a con r ol plane hat at can bot h- selling d at a and op Pr t ical ork,s.Sam MPLS Gainesfressent om t heialexp ience of tindu st r y int nov or span and best Cisco essnet auwt hor has been ext end ed t o do t his t ask v ia t h e use of t he Gen er alized MPLS ( GMPLS) cont r ol plan e, Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es w hich con t rols bot h dat a and opt ical sw it ch es. Und er st and in g t hese t opics and m ore will h elp yMet ou rm t he o sp an tdh itesnex man y ea int rof icacies. o ast n eter w or k s met w ill rem erace ge as t ar gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Goals and Methods The g oal of t h is book is t o mak e y ou fam iliar w it h t he t op ic of met r o Et her net —w hat it is, how it st ar t ed , and how it h as ev olv ed . One t hing is f or cer t ain: aft er y ou r ead t his book , you w ill nev er be in t imid at ed by t he m et r o Et hern et t opic ag ain. You w ill be f am iliar w it h t he diff er ent •t echnologies,Table Content suchofas Et hers net sw it ching, RPR, next - g en er at ion SONET/ SD H, MPLS, and so on, in •t he con t ex t of I ndex met r o deploym ent s. Me tr o Et her ne t

The in Halabi dust r y t oday is div id ed am ong dif fer en t p ools of ex per t ise—LAN swit chin g, I P r ou t ing, an d By Sam t r anspor t . Th ese ar e t h ree d if fer en t w or lds t hat r equ ir e t h eir ow n special kn ow ledg e base. LAN sw it ch in g ex per t ise is sp ecific t o indiv iduals w h o com e fr om t h e ent er pr ise space, I P r out in g Pub lish er: Cisco Press exp er t ise is m or e sp ecific t o ind iv idu als w ho d eal w it h p ublic and p riv at e I P r out ed back bones, Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 andPub t r anspor t ex per t ise is sp ecific t o ind iv idu als w ho d eal w it h TD M an d op t ical net w ork s. The I SBN: 1- 58 -0 96 -Xareas of ex pert ise. This b ook at t em pt s t o br idge t he gap b et w een m et ro blends all705t hese Pages: 24 0 I P/ MPLS, and t r anspor t k now ledge in t h e sam e w ay m et r o b ridg es t he g ap ent er pr ise LAN, bet w een ent er pr ise net w ork s and I P rou t ed b ack bon es ov er a blen d of t ran sp ort t echnologies. The st y le of t his b ook is nar r at ive. I t goes fr om sim ple t o m ore ch alleng in g w it h in each ch apt er and acr oss ch apt ers. Th e big pict ur e is alw ay s pr esent ed fir st t o giv e y ou a bet t er v iew of w h at is being descr in et he anan d tdh en t hier e t Met ext rgoes int o et m app ore licat det ails. The d ef init ivibed e guid t o chapt Ent er er pr ,ise Carr o Et hern ions.I t is possib le t o sk ip t he m or e det ailed sect ions of t he book and st ill hav e a com plet e pict ur e of t h e t opic. I call t h e dif fer en t levels w it hin a chap t er or across chap t ers " war p s. " Diff er ent reader s w ill fin d com for t in dif fer en t w ar ps. t hin g is ent t o learn h ing er y ser t imveices y ouand en t er Discover t h The e lat main est developm s in msom et roetnet w ornew kingand , Et hchallenging er n et , and ev MPLS a n ewww arpt hey . hat can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Who Should Read This Book? The b ook is t ar get ed at a wid e audience, r anging f r om nont echn ical, b usin ess- or ien t ed indiv iduals t o v er y t echn ical in divid uals. The d if fer en t p eop le w ho h ave in t erest in t he su bject include net w ork op er at or s, engin eer s, con su lt ant s, m anag er s, CEOs, and v en t ur e capit alist s. •En t er p rise dirTable s olog y and CI Os w ill r ead t he book t o assess h ow t hey can build ect orofs Content of t echn •scalab le vir t ual I ndex en t er p rise net w or ks. Telecom operat ors w ill f ind in t he book a w ay t o mov e int o Me tr o Et nex her ne selling t -tgener at ion d at a ser vices. Engin eer s w ill augm ent t heir k now led ge b ase in t he areas of Sam Et h er net sw it chin g, I P/ MPLS, and opt ical n et w or k s. Salespeople w ill gain exp er t ise in selling in By Halabi a f ast - gr ow ing m et r o Et her net m ar k et . Last b ut not least , b usin esspeople w ill un derst an d t he t opic t o t h e lev el w her e t hey can m ak e w ise inv est m ent s in t he m et r o Et hern et space. Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

How This Book Is Organized This b ook is or ganized in t o t wo m ain p art s:

• •

Par t I —Et Table hern of et Content : From s t he LAN t o t he MAN I ndex

p art Me tr o This Et her ne t

of t he book —Ch apt ers 1 t hr ough 4—st ar t s by descr ibing t he d iff er ent dr iver s t hat m ot ivat ed t he adopt ion of m et ro Et h er net ser vices and how t hey hav e ev olv ed in t h e Un it ed By Sam Halabi St at es v er sus in t er nat ion ally . You w ill see how Et her net has mov ed fr om t h e LAN in t o t h e MAN and how it is comp lem ent ing exist ing and em er gin g m et r o t echnolog ies such as PubSONET/ lish er: Cisco SD Press H, nex t - gener at ion SONET, RPR, and WDM. You w ill t hen lear n about t he Pub Oct 0 1, 20 difDat fere:en t ober Et hern et 03 ser v ices, such as point - t o- point Et h er net Line Ser vices and m ult ipoint - t omI SBN: ult ipoint 1- 58 705 Et-0 h er 96 n -Xet LAN ser vices as r ep r esent ed by t he con cept of Virt ual Pr iv at e LAN Serv ice Pages: 24 (0VPLS) . This par t of t he book ex plains t he challen ges of deploy ing Et h er net net w or ks and how h yb r id Et hern et and I P MPLS n et w or k s hav e em er ged as a scalable solut ion for d ep loying L2 Et her net VPN ser vices. Par t I I —MPLS Con t r olling Tr aff ic ov er Your Op t ical Met ro The dMPLS ef init ivise an guid e tor o tEnt pr iseology an d Carr ier Met rm o et Etro hern et app licat imp antert echn f or scaling deploy m en t s.ions. Wher eas t he fir st p art of t he book discusses MPLS in t he con t ex t of building Layer 2 m et ro Et h er net VPNs, Par t I I —Ch apt ers 5 t hr ough 8—exp lores t h e use of MPLS t o con t r ol t he t raf fic t r aj ect or y in t he Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and opt ical m et r o. The m et r o is b uilt w it h dat a- sw it ching, SONET/ SDH, and opt ical- sw it ching w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion syst em s. The act of p r ovisioning dif ferent syst em s and cont r olling t r aff ic acr oss pack et and opt st em is d if- ficult andf orconsit es enables a m aj or net oper at kin ional pense. GMPLS Learical n frsy om t h es easy t o- r ead mat tut hat w or g pex r ofessionals of allhas lev els t o ext end ed t h e use of MPLS as a univ ersal cont rol plane f or bot h p ack et / cell an d op t ical un derst an d t h e concep t s syst em s. GMPLS is one of t hose " w arp 7 " sub ject s. Par t I I f ir st fam iliarizes y ou w it h t h e subj ect of ttrhe affexp ic energineering an dsthrow he RSVPTE sig naling pr ot ocol Pr is ess used cont r ol Gain fr om ience of indu y int nov at or and best - selling Cisco aut tohor , Sam t r aff ic t rau aject or of y and r eret outRou e t raf e case Halabi, t hor I n t ern t ingficArincht h it ect ur esof f ailu r e. Th is m akes t h e t r ansit ion int o t h e t opic of GMPLS go sm oot her , w it h m any of t he basic t r aff ic en gineer ing in pack et / cell ined. Met r onet n etwwororks k salr w eady ill em derefge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. Ch hr ough 8 an d t he ap pendix cov er irt he f ollow t op ics:ing dat a ser v ices because it h as Theapt mers et r o1 ht as alw ays b een a challengin g env onm en t fing or deliver been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed Cha pt e r 1 , " I nt r oduct i on t o D at a i n t he M et r o"— Th e m et ro has alw ay s been a by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e challen ging env iron ment for deliv er in g d at a ser vices, b ecau se it w as bu ilt t o h andle t he oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o st r in gent reliabilit y and av ailab ilit y need s of voice com mu nicat ions. The m et r o is ev olv ing off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. dif fer en t ly in d if fer ent r egions of t he w or ld, d ep en ding on man y fact or s. For exam ple, ro Eteth er is ev olv g slow in tthe he dU. because legr acy TD d ep loym ent sa an d stic if f Met r omEtethern f r net om Cisco Prin ess look ly s at epS.loy m ent ofofmet o d at aM serv ices fr om holist r eg ulat ions, b ut it is evolv ing quick ly in ot h er par t s of t he wor ld, especially in Asia and v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he w hich do ncar ot hr ier aves w asillman legt racy TDM deploym are ess not dat as aheavily dr iv erJapan s an d, challenges facey in ansfor m ing t he ment et rso and t o addr ser v ices. r eg ulat ed. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s pter e ry 2of, "mMe t r odat Teach nolog s" — r o Et her m net do tnot necessities, at et han allt o t heCha d eliv et ro ser v ices.ieWit h Met a chan ging ix ser of tvices r anspor t echnolog e book Et h er n et Lay er 2 net w ork ; rat h er , t hey can b e deploy ed ov er diff er ent t ech nologies such t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or kas s at at ione SONET/ SDH P/ MPLS k s.pThis t erser goes int( oVPLS) mor e, tdr et ( VPN)nex , v irt -t gener ual p riv local ar ea netand w or Iks ( VLAN)n ,etvwor ir t ual riv atchap e LAN v ices affails ic abou e diff erentan t echnologies used in t h( GMPLS) e m et r o.. engineer intg,t han d MPLS d Generalized MPLS Cha pt e r 3 , " Me t r o Et he rn et Se rv ice s" — Et her net ov er SONET, Resilien t Pack et Rin g, and Et hern et t r anspor t are all viable m et hod s t o d ep loy a m et r o Et hern et ser v ice. How ever , fu nct ionalit y needs t o be of fer ed on t op of m et ro eq uipm ent t o d eliv er rev en ue- generat in g ser v ices such as I nt er net conn ect iv it y or VPN ser vices. Ch apt er 3 st ar t s b y discu ssing t h e basics of Lay er 2 Et her net sw it ching t o f am iliar ize y ou wit h Et hern et sw it ch in g con cept s.

You' ll t hen lear n abou t t h e diff erent m et ro Et h er net ser vices concep t s as int r od uced by t he Met r o Et hern et Foru m ( MEF) . Defining t h e r ig ht t r aff ic and perf or man ce par am et er s, class of ser v ice, an d ser vice fr am e d eliv er y ensur es t hat bu yer s and users of t he serv ice un derst an d w h at t h ey ar e p ayin g f or and also h elps ser vice pr ov iders com m un icat e t heir capabilit ies. Cha pt e r 4 , " H yb ri d L2 a nd L3 I P / MP LS N e t w ork s"— Ch apt er 4 f ocuses fir st on descr ibin g a pur e Layer 3 VPN im plem en t at ion and it s app licabilit y t o met r o Et her net . This • Table of Content s giv es you enou gh in for m at ion t o com par e Lay er 3 VPNs and Lay er 2 VPNs r elat iv e t o m et r o • I ndex Et h er n et applicat ions. The ch apt er t hen delves int o t h e t opic of deploy ing L2 Et hern et Me tr o Et her ne t ser v ices ov er a h yb rid L2 Et hern et and an L3 I P/ MPLS net w or k. Some of t he basic By Samscalab Halabi ilit y issues t hat ar e consid er ed inclu de r est r ict ions on t h e num ber of cust om ers because of t he VLAN- I D lim it at ions, scaling t h e Lay er 2 backb one w it h sp annin g t r ee, iceCisco pr ovisioning and m onit or ing, and carr y ing VLAN in for m at ion w it h in t h e net w or k. Pubser lishver: Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03

Cha pt e r 5 , " MP LS Tra f fic Engi ne er ing "— Pr ev iou s chapt er s discussed how met r o I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Et h er n et Lay er 2 ser vices can b e deploy ed ov er an MPLS net w ork . Th ose ch apt ers also Pages: 24 0 cover ed t h e concep t of p seud owir es and LSP t un nels. I n Ch apt er 5, y ou' ll lear n abou t t h e dif fer en t par am et ers u sed for t r aff ic en gineer ing . Tr aff ic en gineering is an im por t ant MPLS fu nct ion t hat allow s t he net w or k oper at or t o hav e m ore con t rol over h ow t r aff ic t r aver ses it s net w or k . This chap t er det ails t he concept of t raf fic eng ineer ing and it s u se.

6 , " eRSV P f or Tra ic dEn ginier ee ri ngr oan Fa st rout — MPLS p lays a big r ole The dCha ef initptiveer guid t o Ent er pr iseffan Carr Met Etdhern et Re app licate" ions. in deliv erin g an d scaling ser v ices in t he m et r o, so y ou need t o und er st and how it can be used t o achieve t raf fic eng ineer ing and pr ot ect ion v ia t he use of Resour ce Reser v at ion Discover e ic laten estgineerin developm ent s inTE) m .etI ro or king h ersee n et how , andMPLS, MPLS tser v ices Pr ot ocol ttrhaff g ( RSVPn t net his wchap t er,, Et you h rou gh tand he u se w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion of RSVP- TE, can b e used t o est ab lish back up pat h s in t he case of failur e. This chap t er discusses t h e basics of RSVP- TE and how it can b e app lied t o est ablish LSPs, band w id t h Lear n frion om t h e feasy t o-out r ead f or matues. t hatYou'll enables w orailed kin g exp p r ofessionals allRSVPlev elsTE to allocat , and ast - r- er e t echniq get net a det lan at ion of of t he un derst an d t h e concep t s m essages and ob ject s t o g ive y ou a b et t er u nder st andin g of t h is com p lex p rot ocol. Gain exp er Cont iencerol of liindu r y iin nov at ior and best - selling Cisco upon Pr ess wau t horMPLS , Sam Cha ptfreom r 7 t,he " MP LS ng st Opt cal Sw t ches" — Th e pr inciples hich Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es t echnology is based ar e gener ic and app licable t o m ult iple lay er s of t h e t r anspor t n et wor k . As such, MPLS- based con t r ol of ot her n et w or k lay er s, such as t he TD M an d op t ical layer s, is Met r oalso n et wpossible. or k s w ill Ch emapt er ge h e nex t w arhy ea Gener of gr ow t h forMPLS t he n( GMPLS) et w or k ing st r y t an er 7asd tiscusses alized is indu n eeded o d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer dy nam ically pr ovision op t ical net w or ks. You 'll lear n ab out t he benef it s and dr aw back s of s. The mbot et rho st h at asicalw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because cent r alized and dy nam ic d ecent r alized pr ov ision in g mod els. Ch apt er 7 also it h as been int b uilt t o han enen t r teliab ilit y anmd odels availabilit needs f or and v oice. Carent r iers ill h ave r odu ces ydle ou tt he o t hster ing dif fer signaling ( ov erylay , peer, augm ed)wand to to go t hrhow oug hGMPLS f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed uses labels t o cr oss- conn ect t he cir cu it s for TDM an d WDM net w ork s. by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional el tthat wre ill "— allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o at t ran sf or met ro t o Cha pt ean r d8 ,b "usiness GMP LSmod Archi ect u Gen er alized MPLS ( GMPLS) t emp t smt ot he addr ess off er som enhan ced dat a ser vices. e of t he challenges t h at ex ist in op t ical net w ork s b y buildin g on MPLS an d ex t en ding it s cont r ol p aram et ers t o han dle t h e scalabilit y and m anag eab ilit y asp ect s of op t ical net w ork s. Met r oThis Et hern et t er f r om Cisco Pr ess look s erist at t he eptloy ent of archit met r oect d at ices a tholist ic s chap ex plains t he char act icsdof he m GMPLS urae,serv such asfrt om he ex en sion v iew . tIot rou descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he t ing and sig naling and t he t echn ology par am et er s t hat GMPLS adds t o MPLS t o be dr iv erable s an d w illkface t ochallenges cont r ol optcar icalr ier n ets wor s. in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r oAp Et pen herndix et d, iscusses of met r o Et her net serv ices hatappend h as led r ier s s " SON ET/t he SDad H opt Ba ion si c Fra m i ng a nd Conca t en at iand on"how — Tht is ix car pr esent t o t het he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book basics of SONET/ SDH f r am in g an d how t h e SONET/ SD H t echnology is bein g ad apt ed via t hen exam ines r en t an d emverg t rend s, and int ot he t h echrole of in v irgt ual p sr ivofatem e ner et ging w or k s t he use of cur st andar d and ir t uin algconcat enat iondelves t o m eet alleng need ( VPN)dat , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff a ov er SONET/ SDH net w ork s in t he met r o. The em er gence of L2 m et r o ser v ices w illic engineer in g,ge antdh e MPLS an dSONET/ Generalized MPLS challen leg acy SDH net w ork( GMPLS) deploym. ent s and w ill dr iv e t h e emer gence of m ult iser v ice p r ovisioning plat f orm s t hat w ill ef ficient ly t ran sp or t Et hern et , Fr am e Relay , ATM, an d ot her dat a ser v ices ov er SONET/ SDH.

Part I: Ethernet: From the LAN to the MAN Ch apt er 1 I n t rod uct ion t o Dat a in t he Met r o •

Ch apt er 2 Met r o Techn ologies

Table of Content s r o Et her net Ser v ices • Ch apt er 3 Met I ndex Me tr o Et her ne t

Ch apt er 4 Hy br id L2 and L3 I P/ MPLS Net w ork s

By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Chapter 1. Introduction to Data in the Metro • s This chap t er Table cov erofs Content t he f ollowin g t opics: •

I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t

The Met r o Net w or k

By Sam Halabi

Et h er n et in t he Met r o Pub lish er: Cisco Press

The Ear lyober Met0 1, ro20Et03h er net Pub Dat e: Oct

Mover s

I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X

The U. S. I ncum bent Lan dscap e Pages: 24 0

The I n t er nat ion al Lan dscap e A D at a View of t h e Met ro r oivSer vices The dMet ef init e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Et h er n et Access and Fram e Relay Comp arison Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and The mwet r o,t hey t h e fir st do span t he or net w ork hat con nect s su bscr iber s and bu sin esses t o t h e WAN, hat can f orofy our gan izattion has alw ay s been a challen ging env iron ment f or deliv er in g dat a ser vices becau se it has been bu ilt t o hand le nt he st r ingent r eliabilit y and av ailabilit y need snet of wvor oice unicat ions.ofThe met r ot is Lear fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables kincom g p rm ofessionals all lev els o evolv ing diff erent ly in dif fer en t r egions of t he w or ld d ep en ding on man y fact or s, includin g the un derst an d t h e concep t s follow ing : Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Ty pe of ser vi ce prov id er — Met r o deploy ment s var y w it h r espect t o t he t yp e of ser v ice iders building ile of region iesst( rRBOCs) Met r oprnov et w or k st hat w ill are em er ge as t ht h e em nex. tWh ar ea gr owalt hBell for operat t he n etinwgorcom k ingpan indu y an d war ill e inclined o bu sh ildifttr adit ional SONET/ SDHarmeetoff r oered net wt oork s, gr eenfield or sial h ave r ep r esent a mtajor in how dat a ser v ices b usinesses andoperat r esident cu stt he omer s. o bu ild bm or ear challengin ev olut ionargyenv r atirher t hen ant ev ionaring y n dat et waorser k s.v ices because it h as The mt endency et r o h as talw ays een onm f orolut deliver been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o —en U.tS. deploy t sipdif f rom s er inatEur Japan , and go t hrGeogr oug h fap unhy dam al shift s tm o en equ t hfer em et ro deploym for next -ent g en ionope, dat aAsia ser vPacif ices ic, dem and ed so on . For ex am ple, w hile m any m et r o deploy m en t s in t he U. S. ar e SONET cen t ric, China by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e and Koran ead ar e not t ied d own to w leg deploym ent s band t herrier ef ore ld sfad an Et her oper at ional b usiness mod el t hat illacy allow t he incum en t car s t ocou t ran oropt m t he met r onet to net w or k fast er . off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. a et t ions— Reg ulat t ie tso at geogr hyloy and t h eoft ymet pe of pr ices ovider s. Eu e, ic for Met r oRe Etgul hern f r om Cisco Prions ess look t he ap d ep m ent r o ser d atvaice serv fr om a rop holist exam ple, h as less r egulat ion t han t h e U. S. as far as defining t h e boun dar y bet w een a dat a v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he net w or k and a Sy nch ron ous Dig it al Hier ar ch y ( SDH) net w ork ; hence, t he ad opt ion of dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Et h er n et over SD H deploy m en t s could mov e f ast er in Eu r ope t han in t he U. S. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

The Metro Network The m et r o is sim ply t he fir st span of t he n et wor k t h at conn ect s su bscr iber s and bu sinesses t o t h e WAN. Th e diff erent ent it ies ser v iced by t h e met r o in clu de r esident ial and business cust om er s, exam ples of w hich are lar g e en t erp rises ( LEs) , sm all of fice/ hom e off ice ( SOHO) , sm all and •m ed ium - sized Table of Content(sSMBs) , m ult it en ant unit s ( MTUs) , an d mu lt id w elling un it s ( MDUs) bu sinesses •( see Figur e 1-I 1 ndex ). Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Figu r e 1 - 1 . The M e t r o

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been t he r ingten t r eliab y an d availabilit y needs f ormvile oice. Caricat r iers ill last h ave t o The p boruilt t iont oofhan t h edle m et r o stt hat ouches t hilit e cu st omer is called t h e last t o ind e twhe go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and span of t he car r ier 's net w ork . I n a w or ld w here t he pay ing cust om er is at t h e cen t er of t he ed by er prtise cust om s and consum er an s. This is st notm only t echow nology t , tbu also a sh iftcom in es the un ivent er se, h e indu st ryeralso calls t h is sp t he fir ile t oaackn led geshif t hat het cu st omer oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o fir st . An adequ at e t erm w ould pr obably b e " t he f inal f r ont ier" because t he last sp an of t he off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. net w or k is nor m ally t he m ost challengin g an d t he m ost ex pensiv e t o bu ild and is t h e final bar r ier for acceler at ing t h e t r ansfor m at ion of t he m et ro int o a hig h- speed d at a- cent ric n et wor k . Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic vThe iewlegacy . I t descr ibes t he cu rr m etily r o,ofw thim iche-is based mu on lt TD d discu sses t he is m et r o consist s ent pr imar d ivision ipM lext echnolog ing ( TDM)y, t an echnology , w hich dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. v er y op t imized for d eliv er ing v oice ser vices. A t y pical m et ro net w or k consist s of TD M equ ipm en t placed in t he basem ent of cu st omer b uildings and incum bent local ex chang e car r ier ( I LEC) Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s cen t r al off ices. The TDM eq uipm en t consist s of digit al m ult iplexer s, digit al access cr oss- conn ect s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book ( DACs, oft en ref er r ed t o as dig it al cross- connect s) , SONET/ SDH add / dr op m u lt ip lex ers ( ADMs) , t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s SONET/ SD H cr oss- connect s, and so on . ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer d MPLS Generalized . ent . This scenar io sh ows con nect iv it y t o Figur e 1-in 2 g, shan ows a TDManv d iew of a legacyMPLS m et r o( GMPLS) deploym bu sin ess cust om er s f or on- net and of f- n et net w or ks. An on- n et n et wor k is a net w or k in w h ich fib er reaches t he building and t h e carr ier inst alls an AD M in t he basem ent of t he b uilding and off ers T1 or DS3/ OCn cir cuit s t o diff er ent cust om er s in t he b uilding . I n t h is case, d ig it al m ult iplexer s such as M13 s m ult iplex m ult iple T1s t o a DS3 or m ult iple DS3 s t o an OCn cir cuit t hat is car ried over t h e SONET/ SD H fib er ring t o t he cent r al of fice ( CO) . I n an off - net n et wor k , in

w hich fiber does n ot r each t h e buildin g, conn ect iv it y is done via cop per T1 or DS3 cir cuit s t hat ar e agg regat ed in t he CO using DACS. The ag gr eg at ed cir cu it s ar e cross- connect ed in t he CO t o ot her cor e COs, wh er e t h e cir cuit s ar e t er m inat ed or t r anspor t ed acr oss t he WAN dependin g on t he ser vice t h at is b eing of fer ed .

Figu r e 1 - 2 . A TD M V ie w of t h e M et r o •

Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. The op er at ion and inst allat ion of a pu re TDM n et wor k is v er y t edious an d ex t r em ely ex pensiv e t o deploy , because it self is a verent y r sigid and does ot nhetave t h eMPLS flex ibser ilit yv ices or t he Discover t h eTDM lat est developm in tmechn et roolog net yw or king , Et hn er , and and econ om ics t o scale w it h t he need s of t he cust om er. The cost of d ep loy ing m et ro net w or ks is t he w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion sum of capit al ex pend it ur e on eq uipm ent an d operat ion al exp en dit ur e. Op er at ional ex pend it ur e includes w or insttallat ion, operat em ent , of maint en ance Leart hn efrcost om tof h enet easy - tko-plann r ead in f org,mat hat enables netion w orand kin gmp anag r ofessionals all lev els t oand t r oub un leshoot ing , and so on . What is im por t ant t o r ealize is t hat t hese operat ion al exp en dit ur es derst an d t h e concep t s could reach about 70 per cent of t he car r ier ' s t ot al ex pendit u re, w h ich could w eigh h eav ily on t he carr ier Gain 's d ecision fr om t he r egar expding er ience w hich of indu pr oduct st r y sinan nov d tat echn or and ologbest ies t-oselling inst allCisco in t hePrness et wor au kt hor . , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es The cost of b r in ging up serv ice t o a cu st omer h as a h uge ef fect on t he su ccess of deliv erin g t h at Metvrice. ser o n et Th weorless k s wt ill h eem carr erier ge has as t ht oe tnex ouch t art he ea cu of st grom ower t h pr foremt he ises n et and w orCO k ing equ indu ip msten r yt an t o ddeliv w ill er r ep ial init r esent an d ainm crajor em ensht al if t ser in vhow ice, dat t h ea high ser ver ices t hearcar e off rier ered 's r et t ourbnusinesses on inv estand m ent r esident w ill b eial forcut hat st omer s. The om cust m eterr o. Th h as e talw ermays t r uck b een r olls a challengin r efer s t o g t he env t r ir uck onm s t en hatt far ore deliver dispat ched ing dat t oat he ser cust v icesom because er pr emitises h as tbeen o actbivuilt at e t or o han m od dle if y t he a par st rting icu en lar t ser r eliab v ice. ilitThe y anmor d availabilit e t r uck ryolls needs r eq uir f oredv oice. f or a Car cust r iers om er, w illt he h ave m ort oe m gooney t hr oug t heh car f unrdam ier isensp t al enshift dings on t o equ t hatipcut hsteomer m et ro . for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e The allengan ed t hat TDM inmod t erf aces h ave t hat t he incum b andwbidt t h ey ofsfer g rtow operch at ional b usiness el t hat w illisallow enht car rier t o dt oes ran sfnot or m he linearly met r o t o w h cu st omer emaand bu t r at her g row s in st ep f unct ions. A T1 int erf ace, for ex amp le, off er s offiter enhan ced ddat sersvices. 1. 5 Mbp s; t he next st ep f unct ion is a D S3 in t er f ace at 45 Mb ps; t h e nex t st ep f un ct ion is an OC3 int Meterr oface Et hern at 155 et f rMb omps; Cisco an dPr soess on.look So swh at en t hea dcu epstloy omer m ent 's band of met wid r ot hd at need a serv s exices ceedfr om t he a1.holist 5- Mb ic ps vr at iew e,. tIhe t descr car r ier ibes is tfhe or ced cu rrtent o offer m ettrhe o, w cust h ich omiserbased mu lt iple on TD T1 M( nXT1) t echnolog cir cuit y, sanord mov discuesses t o a tD heS3 dr circuit iv er sand an dgiv challenges e t he cu stcar omr er ier sa w por ill tface ion of in t the r ansfor DS3 .mThe ing end t he m effet ect r o is t ot hat addrt ess he pdat hy sical a serint v ices. er f ace sold t o t he cu st om er has ch anged, and t he cost of t h e chang e has a m ajor im pact on b ot h t he Met rier o Etand hern d iscusses carr t hete cu st omer . t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book Mov t hening exam fr om ines a T1 cur in r en t erf t an ace d em t o an ergnXT1 in g t rend or Ds, S3/ and OCn delves r equirint eso chang t h e role es tof o vt hiret ual cu stpomer r iv at epnrem et wises or k s equipm ( VPN) , vent ir t ual ( CPE) p rivtat o esulocal ppor tart ea he net n eww or intks erf(ace VLAN) and, valso ir t ual r eqp uir riv at esech LAN anges ser vt oices t he( VPLS) CO equ , tipr aff m en ic t t o accom engineer m odat in g, eant he d MPLS n ew deployed an d Generalized cir cuit s.MPLS Th is will ( GMPLS) occur. ev ery t im e a cust om er r equ est s a ban dw idt h chang e for t he life of t h e cust om er con nect ion . Serv ices such as Ch annelized D S1 , Ch annelized DS3 , and Ch annelized OCn can off er m ore flexibilit y in deploy ing increm en t s of ban dw idt h. How ev er, t hese ser vices come at a mu ch h ig her cost f or t he p hy sical int er face an d r out er s and hav e lim it ed gr anu larit y . Th is is one of t h e m ain dr iv er s f or t h e pr olif erat ion of Et h er n et in t he m et ro as an access int er face. A 1 0/ 10 0/ 10 00 Et h er net in t erf ace scales m uch

bet t er f rom su bm egabit sp eeds all t he w ay t o gigab it , at a f ract ion of t he cost of a TDM int erf ace. Figur e 1- 3 sh ows t he d if fer en ce bet w een t he TD M m odel an d Et her net m odel f or d eliv er ing I nt er net conn ect iv it y. I n t h e TDM mod el, t he m et r o carr ier , such as an I LEC or RBOC, off er s t he point - t o- point T1 cir cuit , w h ile t he I SP m anag es t he deliver y of I nt er net serv ices, w h ich includes m anagin g t he cust om er I P addr esses an d t h e r out er connect ivit y in t h e point of pr esence ( POP) . This n orm ally has been t h e pr ef err ed mod el for I LECs w h o do not w ant t o get inv olv ed in t h e I P add ressin g an d in r out in g t he I P t r af fic. I n som e cases, t h e I LECs can ou t sou r ce t he ser v ice or • Table of Content s m anage t he w hole I P con nect ion if t hey w ant t o. How ev er , t h is m odel k eeps a dem ar cat ion line • I ndex bet w een t h e deliv er y of I P ser v ices an d t h e deliver y of connect ivit y ser vices. Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Figu r e 1 - 3 . Con ne ct i vi t y : TD M Ve r sus Et h er n e t

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam I n t heHalabi, Et hernau et tm odel, h net w or tking int Ar er faces t he cust om er sid e and t he I SP sid e ar e hor of I bot n t ern et Rou ch it ecton ur es Et h er n et int er faces. Th e I LEC m anag es t he Lay er 2 ( L2 ) connect ion, w h ile t he I SP m anag es t he IMet P serv anem oper at ional spect e, of t his ar rtang emt he entnkeeps e I indu LEC st inr ya an m odel r o nices. et w orFrkom s w ill er ge as t hpeernex t arivea gr ow h for et w or kt h ing d w illsim ilar tr oeptrhe T1 pr iv at eline ser vice; h owev er, it opens up t he op por t unit y for t h e I LEC t o upsell esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. add it ion al ser v ice on t op of t h e same Et her net conn ect ion w it hout any ch anges t o t he CPE The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices becausean it dh as tbeen he net w ork . b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Ethernet in the Metro Et h er n et t ech nology h as so far been w idely accept ed in en t er pr ise deploy m en t s, and m illions of Et h er n et por t s h ave alr eady been deployed. The sim plicit y of t h is t ech nology enab les y ou t o scale t he Et h er n et int er face t o high band w id t h w hile r em aining cost eff ect iv e. The cost of a 100 •Mb ps int er face Table Content s w or k gr oup L2 LAN sw it ches w ill be less t han $5 0 in t h e next f ew f orofent erp rise •y ear s. I ndex Me tr o Et her ne t

These cost s and per for m ance m et r ics and Et h er n et ' s ease of use ar e mot iv at ing car rier n et w or k s By Sam Halabi t o use Et h er net as an access t echn ology . I n t his new m odel, t h e cust om er is g iven an Et her net int er face r at her t h an a TDM int er face. Pub lish er: Cisco Press

Dat e:inOct ober 1, 20m 03ary of t he v alue pr op osit ion t hat an Et her net access lin e off er s r elat ive t o ThePub f ollow g is a 0sum I SBN: 158 705 -0 96 -X TDM pr iv at e lin es: Pages: 24 0

Ba ndw id t h sca la bil it y — Th e low cost of an Et h er net access int er face on bot h t he CPE dev ice an d t he car rier access equip ment f avor s t h e inst allat ion of a higher - speed Et hern et int er face t h at can last t he lif e of t he cust om er connect ion. Ju st comp ar e t he cost of h aving a single inst allat ion of a 10 0- Mb ps Et hern et int er face v er sus t he inst allat ion of a T1 int erf ace The dfor ef init guid t o Ent d Carr ierser Met r o Etand hernan et OC3 app licat 1.iv 5-eMb ps eserv ice,era pr T3iseforan45Mbps vice, ( 15 5ions. Mbps) for 1 00- Mbps ser v ice. A TDM int erf ace off er ing r esu lt s in m an y CPE int er face chang es, m any t ru ck rolls deploy ed tthoet he cu stdevelopm om er pr em and equip ment t hat morMPLS e ex pensive it h t he Discover lat est entises, s in m et ro net w or king , Etonly h er ngetet, sand ser v icesw and speed of t h e int erf ace. w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Ba ndw t ht hgra nul a- trit — Anf orEtmat hernt hat et int er face can pr ov ed t o deliv Lear n frid om e easy o-yr ead enables net wbe or kin g ision p r ofessionals oferallt iered lev els t o ban dw idt h t hat scales t o t he m ax imu m int er face speed. By com par ison , a r igid TDM un derst an d t h e concep t s hier archy ch anges in big st ep f unct ions. I t is im p ort an t t o not e t hat band wid t h g r anular it y is notfraom f unt ct specif ic t oofEtindu her net utnov r atat h er sp ecific t o any Cisco packetPrin t erau f ace. Gain heion exp er ience st r y bin or is and best - selling ess t horEarly , Sam deploy mau ent thor s ofofmIet nett ing st r ug gled wur it hest h is fun ct ion because m any ent er pr ise- class Halabi, n tro ernEteth er Rou Ar ch it ect Et h er n et swit ches d id n ot hav e t h e capabilit y t o police t he t r af fic and enf orce SLAs. Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill Fast aprov ision D ep dat loying anv ices Et h er v icet or esult s in a dif fer en t op erial at ional mod el r ep r esent m ajor sh ing if t in—how a ser arneetoffser ered b usinesses and r esident cu st omer s. in w hich p ack et leased lines ar e pr ovisioned inst ead of TDM circuit leased lin es. Th e packet The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as ov isionin m od el st can m uch t h an t hey legacy m odel because been pr b uilt t o hangdle t he r ingbe endone t r eliab ilit y fast an deravailabilit needs TDM f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o pr ov isionin g can be d one w it hou t chan ging net w or k equipm ent and int er faces. Packand et ed go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem pr ov isionin g is a simp le fun ct ion of chan ging soft w ar e par am et er s t h at w ou ld t h rot t le het h e by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift tin pack et s and can in cr ease or decrease band w idt h, est ablish a connect ion in m inu t es, an oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r od tboill t heced n ewdat ser ice. off er for enhan a vser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

The Early Metro Ethernet Movers The ear liest ser vice pr ov ider s t o m ov e int o t he m et r o Et hern et space app ear ed in t h e 199 9–2 000 t im ef r ame in t h e m idst of t h e t elecom bu bble an d h ave adopt ed v ariat ions of t he sam e business m odel acr oss t he w or ld. •

Table of Content s

•I n t he U. S., tIhe ndex ear ly adopt er s of m et ro Et h er net w er e t h e gr eenf ield serv ice pr ovid er s t h at Me tr o ed Et her t w ant t one p rov ide ser vices t o som e niche segm ent s, such as SMBs t h at ar e un derser ved by t h e incum By Sam bent Halabi pr ov iders. Ot her pr ov id er s h ave foun d an op por t unit y in p rom ot ing cheaper ban dw idt h by sellin g Et her net p ip es t o lar ge ent er pr ises or t o ot h er pr ovider s such as I SPs or cont ent pr ov id er s. Pub lish er: Cisco Press

Dat e:ield Oct ober 0 1,at20 ThePub g r eenf oper or03 s con sist of BLECs and m et r o operat ors, w h ich ar e discu ssed next . I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The BLECs The Bu ild ing Local Ex chang e Car r ier s ( BLECs) hav e adopt ed a r et ail ban dw idt h m odel t h at of fer s ser v ices t o SMBs w hich ar e con cent rat ed in lar ge MTUs. ( These ar e t h e " t all an d shin y buildin gs" The iv e guid e to pr ise tan Carr ier tMet Etyhern et app licat ions. f ocus on w irin g t he t hat darefeinit usually locat edEnt in er concen r atded d own ow nr ocit ar eas.) The BLECs inside of t h e MTUs for b r oadban d b y deliv er in g Et her net conn ect ions t o ind ividu al off ices. Th e BLECs capit alize on t he f act t h at f rom t he t im e an SMB places an or der , it t akes an incum bent Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and oper at or t h ree t o six m on t hs t o deploy a T1 cir cu it f or t hat SMB. Th e BLECs can ser vice t h e w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion cust om er s in w eek s, day s, or even hou rs rat h er t han m ont hs and at m u ch less cost . Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o As show n in Figur e 1- 4 , a BLEC inst alls it s equ ip ment in t he b asem ent of t he MTU, r uns Et her net un derst an d t h e concep t s in t he r iser s of t h e buildin g, and inst alls an Et h er net jack in t he cust om er off ice. Th e cust om er can t hen etom all tof s d at serv ices fr om Et her netand conn ect-ion. Gaing fr heitexp eraience of indu st r yt he in nov at or best selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es

Figu r e 1 - 4 . The BLEC N et w or k M od el Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

The Metro Ethernet Carrier Alt hou gh t he BLECs ar e consider ed m et r o oper at or s, t hey specialize in ser v icing t h e MTU cust om er s r at h er t han building conn ect iv it y w it hin t he m et r o it self . The m et r o car r ier s ar e focu sed on building connect iv it y w it h in t he m et ro and t hen selling connect ivit y t o BLECs, lar ge ent er pr ises, or even ot her serv ice pr ov id er s, d ep en ding on t he b usin ess m odel. How ever , a lot of consolid at ion has occu r red because m et r o operat or s h ave acq uir ed BLECs, blur r ing t he •dist inct ion bet Table of Content w een t he t wos dif ferent pr ov iders. •

I ndex

Me tr o eas Et hersom ne t e m et r o car r ier s hav e adop t ed a r et ail mod el, sellin g band wid t h t o lar ge Wher ent er pr ises, By Sam Halabi ot her m et r o car rier s hav e adop t ed a w holesale m odel, selling ban dw idt h t o ot her ser v ice pr ovider s ( see Figur e 1- 5 ) . Pub lish er: Cisco Press

Figu r e 1 - 5 . Re t a il Ve r su s W hol esal e M odel

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam au tplans hor off or I n tmern et Rou t ingmAr ur es Ot h erHalabi, business et ro deploy ench t sittect ar get cit ies t hat w ant t o enh ance t he q ualit y of life and at t r act b usiness by t y ing t he w h ole cit y w it h a fiber net w or k t hat connect s schools, Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill un iv er sit ies, businesses, f in ancial dist r ict s, an d gov er nm ent agencies. r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o The go t hrGreenfield oug h f un dam enValue t al shiftProposition s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e operfat ionalin an d b usiness mod el t the hatv alue w ill allow t heion incum eneen t car rier sopt oer tat ran m off t heermet The ollow g sect ions describe p rop osit t hatb gr field or sf s or can to ro t o offt er enhan ced dat at r act b usiness awaayser f rvices. om t he in cu m bent s. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he Bringing the Service Up in Days Rather Than Months dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. As lier, onet he of tad heopt key selling poin t sher for net t heserv m etices r o grand eenfield or sled is car t heir Metm r oent Etioned hern etear d iscusses ion of met r o Et how toperat hat h as r ier s abilit brer ing sermv ice ina day HowWit ever accom he servt ice has t o ies, be alm t o t hey dt oeliv y of et rou p dat ser s. v ices. h , at ochan gingplish m ixt hofis,t r tanspor t echnolog t h eost book rt hen ead yexam t o beines br oug once t he er rs,equest s it . Grint eenfields spend onw idle curht r enup t an d em ergcu inst g om t rend and delves o t h e role of v a ir tlot ualof p rm iv oney at e n et or k s connect a cust omnet er wt oorap ( VPN) , vions, ir t ualwpait riving at efor local ar ea ks pear. ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Pay as You Grow Model Wit h an Et her net con nect ion , t he cust om er can pur chase an in it ial am ount of ban dw idt h and SLA and t h en has t he opt ion t o chang e t he serv ice in t he f ut ur e b y sim ply calling t he p rov ider . The

pr ov ider could t hen im m ediat ely assign t he cu st om er t o a d if fer en t SLA by ch anging t h e net w or k par am et er s v ia sof t w are. Som e m et r o oper at or s off er t heir cust om er s t h e abilit y t o ch ange t heir ow n band w id t h par amet er s v ia a w eb- b ased app licat ion.

Service Flexibility •Wit h an Et herTable of tContent net in er f ace,s t h e pr ov ider can of fer t h e cust omer d iff er ent t yp es of ser vices, su ch •as I nt er net access, I ndex t r ansp arent LAN ser vice ( TLS) , Voice over I P ( VoI P) , and so on, wit h m inim al Me tr oat Etional her ne ov t erh ead . Each ser v ice is pr ovided ov er it s ow n v ir t ual LAN ( VLAN) and is sw it ch ed oper dif fer en t ly in By Sam Halabi t h e net w or k. The dif fer en t serv ices can be sold ov er t he sam e Et h er net in t erf ace or, alt ern at ively , each ser v ice can hav e a separ at e phy sical in t er f ace. Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03

LowerI SBN: Pricing Model 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The in it ial claim s f or t he m et r o Et her net serv ice w er e v ery ag gr essive. Som e of t h e early m ar ket ing cam paigns claim ed " t w ice t he band wid t h at half t h e pr ice. " The qu ot es for 1 00- Mbps Et h er n et connect ions init ially r anged fr om $ 100 per m ont h t o $5 000 per m ont h d ep en ding on w hich car r ier you t alk ed t o and at w h at t im e of t h e day y ou t alked t o t hem. Table 1 - 1 com par es The ple d ef init iv egguid o Enteterand pr iseT1/ anT3 d Carr Met et app licat m ions. sam pr icin f or eEtthern servier ices. Thr oe Et Ethern h er net pr icing igh t v ar y w id ely depend in g on t he r eg ion an d how ag gr essive t he carr ier get s. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o Tab le 1 -1 . Sam pl e Pr ici ng Com pa r ison f or Et h er n et Ve r su s T1 / T3 un derst an d t h e concep t s Pr iv at e- Li ne Ser v ice Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au tGre hor en of fie I n tlern d et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es I ncum be nt Met 1. 5r oMbp n etswat or k~s$ w 500 ill /em m ont er ge h as t h e nex t ar eaT1of( gr 1. 5 owMbp t h for s) at t he~ n$ et 750 w or / mk ont ing hindu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. 3 Mbp $ 750 monbteen h a challengin g env 2 ir* onm T1 at The m ets rat o h~as alw/ays en~t f$1 or500 deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y f or m v oice. 45 Mb ps at ~ $22 50/ m ont h T3 ( 45 Mb ps) at needs ~ $60 00/ ont h Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at The Challenges ional an d b usiness of the mod Greenfield el t hat wOperators ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. The BLECs and m et r o Et her net car r ier s hav e encoun t er ed man y challen ges in t heir business Met r o Et et ef rhom Cisco esssuccess look s atant he d ep loy m of tmet a serv m odel t hhern at hav in der ed tPr heir d caused a ent lot of hemr ot od at cease t oices ex istfr om aft era tholist he ic vt elecom iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he d ow nt ur n. This sect ion exp lor es sev er al of t hose challenges. dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s The for the Building Riser t o t heFight d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s Deliver ( VPN) , ing v ir t ual Et her p riv netatcon e local nectar ion eas net t o tw h eorMTU ks ( VLAN) of fices, vrequ ir t ual ires p riv hav ating e LAN access ser v tices o t he ( VPLS) b uilding , t r aff r iser ic , w engineer hich means in g, an dealin d MPLS g w itan h dt he Generalized building ow MPLS ner —alt ( GMPLS) hou gh. t her e are regu lat ions t hat pr ev en t bu ild in g own er s f r om r ef using t o allow access t o pr ov ider s. The BLECs, w ho nor mally m anag e t o hav e t h e fir st access t o t he b uilding , hav e t he ear ly field adv ant age in capt u rin g r eal est at e in t he basem ent and t he r iser . Of cou rse, how m uch r eal est at e becom es av ailable or u nav ailab le t o ot her BLECs w h o ar e com pet ing for t he sam e MTU usually depend s on w hat percent ag e of t he pr of it s t he b uilding ow ner is r eceivin g.

Cost of Overbuilding the Network Becau se man y pr ov id er s in t he past op er at ed on t he " bu ild it and t hey w ill come" t heor y, m illions of dollars wer e spent on over building t h e net w or k, wh ich consist ed of •

Table s Pulling fib er of in Content t h e r iser



I ndex

Me tr o Building Et her ne t

t h e last - mile conn ect iv it y

By Sam Halabi

Building t h e core m et r o n et w or k

Pub lish er: Cisco A challenge for tPress h e BLECs is t o figu re out how m uch connect ivit y t h ey need inside t h e bu ild in g. Dat e: Oct ober 1, 20 03 ed as m an y con nect ion s as p ossible in t he b uilding on t he h ope t h at t h e ManPub y BLECs hav e 0deploy BLECs Iw ill at r act cust om ers. Th is m odel has, ag ain , r esult ed in a lot of m on ey spent w it h no SBN: 1-t58 705 -0 96 -X r et ur nPages: on inv est ment , for cing m any BLECs out of bu sin ess. 24 0

The p r em ise of deliv er in g ser vices t o cust om ers in h our s and day s r at her t h an mon t hs is m ad e un der t he assum pt ion t h at t h e BLEC has con t r ol of t he n et wor k f acilit ies inside and ou t sid e t he bu ild in g. Th e per fect solut ion is t o h ave t he BLEC lease or ow n fib er conn ect ions int o t he bu ild in g. How ev er , on ly about fiv e per cent of bu ild ings in a m et r o ar ea h ave access t o f ib er , The initrest iv e guid e t o Ent pr ise anvia d Carr o Et hern app licat ions. w hiled ef t he can only b e er accessed copier perMet T1 rand DS3 et lines. Many BLECs ar e look ing for t he " low - han ging fr uit , " building s t hat ar e alr ead y con nect ed v ia f ib er . I n m any cases, t he BLECs t r y t o hav e ar ran gement s w it h u t ilit y com pan ies t o pu ll fib er in t o t h e buildin gs using exist ing Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and condu it s. I n t h e cases w her e fib er p asses acr oss t he bu ild ing and not int o t he bu ild ings, t h e w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion BLECs hav e t o shar e t he cost of d igging u p t h e st r eet s w it h buildin g ow n er s or ut ilit y com p anies. The ch alleng is tthat t he f-irst t omat ask t for in net t o aw building as t o shar eof t hall e cost of t o Lear n freom h e easy t o- r BLEC ead f or hat access enables or kin g p rhofessionals lev els digg ing t he t r ench, wh ile t he BLECs w h o com e aft er can easily hav e access t o t he ex ist in g un derst an d t h e concep t s condu it . Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam For buHalabi, ild in gs au t h tat couldn hav f ib er con it yur, es t he BLECs had t o r ely on ex ist ing cop per T1 hor of I n 't t ern eteRou t ing Arnect ch itiv ect and DS3 lines t o deliv er ban dw idt h int o t he bu ild ing. So alt hou gh t he BLECs w er e comp et in g w it hr ot he LECs, st ill t ot hr ely ont tar hem t o gr prow ov ide t h et he copnper t he st I LECs' Met n etI w or k s twhey ill em erhad ge as e nex ea of t h for et w lines or k ingat indu r y an dslow w ill p ace of at ion. r epoper r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as The r o tcar r ierdle s t hat bu en ild tinrgeliab t he ilit m yetan r o dedge and cor inf r ast u r e hav sunkw ill a lot of t o beenmbet uilt o han t he ar ster ing availabilit y eneeds f orruvctoice. Carer iers h ave m oney int o buy ing or leasin g t he f ib er t hat con nect s t he d if fer ent p oint s of p resen ce. Many m go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and edet ro pr iders lock edert shemselves int er o m im illionollarafiber ased ont talso he h aope t hat byov ent er prhav ise ecust om and consum s. ult This is not donly t ech leases nology bshif t , bu sh ift in t h e toper heir at b ional usin ess w ill g row t o f ill up t he b ig p ipes. an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r oBreadth Et hern et and f r omReach Cisco Prof ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic The Services v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr ivrer anrier d challenges s led w ill wface m ing t heofmser et rvices o t o addr dat a er serand v ices. Met o scar s hav e alsocar strrier ugg it h tin het rdansfor if fer ent t yp es t hat ess t hey off w het her t h e ser v ice is of fer ed on a region al or nat ion al basis. High- end cust om ers su ch as lar ge Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s ent er pr ises and f inancial inst it ut ion s usually use a one- st op shop : on e pr ov id er off er ing local and t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book nat ion al connect ivit y w it h dif fer en t t y pes of serv ices, such as Fram e Relay or ATM VPN ser vices. t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s An Et h er net - only ser vice app roach w it h no n at ional cov er age isn 't t oo at t r act iv e. This has f or ced ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic t he met r o p r ovider s t o rem ain as niche play ers t hat do n ot h ave t he supp ort and r each t h at t h e engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . incum bent s hav e.

The Pricing Model

The ch eap Et h er n et connect ivit y p ricing m odel could not be sust ained. Hig h- speed connect ions bet w een 10 an d 1 00 Mbp s r eq uir e a h ig her- sp eed backb one, w hich is ex pensiv e t o b uild an d m anage. Also, t h e gr een field p rov ider s w er e st ill bu ild ing up t heir cust om er base, and t he low Et h er n et pr icin g m od el did n ot h elp w it h a v ery sm all cust om er base. So Et hern et pr icin g for 10 0- Mb ps connect ions w as acr oss t he m ap and a t rial- an d- err or p rocess w it h p r ices v ary ing by t hou san ds of d ollar s d ep en ding on w ho y ou t alk t o. •

Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

The U.S. Incumbent Landscape While t h e gr een field op er at or s w ere fast t o bu ild t h eir m et r o net w or k s, t he U. S. incum bent s t ook a sit - an d- w at ch ap pr oach t o see how t h e m ark et w ou ld shak e out . I f t he gr eenfield met r o Et h er n et m odel w er e t o succeed, it w ould st art st ealing cust om ers fr om t h e incum bent s, t h er eby •aff ect in g t he Table of m Content deploy en t ofs t h eir p r iv at e- line ser v ices. Thr eat ened by t he newcom ers, t he RBOCs •and I XCs, such I ndex as SBC, Ver izon, Bellsou t h, Qwest , an d MCI , init iat ed r equ est s f or inf orm at ion Me tr os)Et ther ne t ( RFI o solicit inf or mat ion f rom vend ors about how t o d eliv er Et her net serv ices in t h e m et r o. By Sam Halabi

The ch alleng es t he incum bent s face in deployin g m et r o Et hern et ar e v er y d if fer ent t han t he challen ges of t he g r eenf ields. Th is sect ion discu sses some of t hose challen ges, in clu ding t he Pub lish er: Cisco Press follow ing : Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X

Ex ist ing Pages: 24 0legacy TD M inf r ast ru ct u r e Building an all- Et h er net dat a net w ork Pr icing t h e ser v ices The dRegu ef init lat iv eion guid s e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and

Existing Legacy Infrastructure w hat t hey can doTDM f or y our or gan izat ion

Lear n et fr om e easy - t o- r in ead f or mat hat enables w or kin g p r ofessionals of all blev elsspent to The U. S. m ro ist hent r enched TDM t ech tnology , an d bnet illions of dollars h ave alr eady een un derst an dntet h ewor concep t sone wh o int en ds t o build a n ew ser vice h as t o consider t h e ex ist ing on buildin g t hat k . Any inf rast r uct ur e. As in ef ficien t as it m ay seem , bu ild in g an Et her net serv ice over t h e leg acy fr om he texp ience indu r y infor novsom at ore and best - selling ess en auttrhor , Sam inf rastGain r uct ur e mtigh b e er t he on lyofviab lestway incum bent s t o mCisco ak e aPr f irst y int o t he Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es m et ro Et h er net business. Many of t h e oper at ional m odels hav e alr ead y been b uilt f or t he SONET net w or k. Oper at or s kn ow how t o b uild t he net w or k , how t o m anag e and m aint ain it , and how t o Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill deliver a ser v ice an d b ill for it . The incum b en t s hav e t he ch alleng e of adopt in g t heir ex ist ing r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. discip lin e t o t he m et ro Et h er net m odel. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed Building an All-Ethernet Data by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s.Network This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er dat a U. ser Alt ernenhan at ivelyced , some S.vices. incum bent s hav e opt ed ( aft er m an y int ern al debat es) t o bu ild an allEt h er n et net w or k t ailored for d at a ser vices. How ev er , as of t he w r it ing of t his book , n one of r o net Et hern r ome Cisco ess look s at bent t he ds,epwloy enteof met d at a w serv fr omt ech a holist ic , tMet hese w or et ks fhav m at erPr ialized . I ncum h omhav alw ayrsodealt it h ices SONET nology vstiew . I tnot descr ibes t he cu entEtmher et rnet o, wnhetich on bent TD Ms tnechnolog an dt hdiscu sses t he ill do quit e u nder st rr and worisk based s. I ncum or mally by,uild eir net w ork s and dr s an r ier s wso ill an face in t r ansfor m ing tthey he mdeploy et r o t oneeds addr ess dat a ser v ices. serivver ices t od tchallenges ailor t o t he car m asses, y new t echnology t o scale t o supp ort t hou san ds of cust om ers nat ionw ide. Wit h Et hern et ' s r oot s in ent erp rise n et w or k s, a big gap st ill Met et w d iscusses t he adbent opt ion of met herexist net ing servEt ices how t hat horasexled car r ier s existr os Et b ethern w een h at t h e incum s n eed andr owEt hat h erand net sw it ches, ist ing tEt o hter hen deteliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book st andar ds, h ave t o of fer . I ncum bent s ar e also u nfam iliar w it h how t o m anage an tEt hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et or k s h er n et net w or k, pr ice t h e ser v ice, an d b ill for it . All of t hese fact or s hav e cont r ibu t ed t o twhe (delay VPN) ,inv ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic t he d ep loy m ent of such net w or ks. engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . The d ef iciencies in Et her net t echnolog y and Et h er net st an dar ds in dealing w it h t he m et ro scalab ilit y an d availabilit y r eq uir em ent s w er e one of t he m ain r easons f or t he p r olif er at ion of MPLS in t he m et r o. This t op ic w ill be exp lain ed in m ore det ail in Ch apt er 4, " Hy br id L2 and L3 I P/ MPLS Net wor k s."

Pricing the Service For t he in cu m bent s, pr icin g t he m et r o Et h er n et ser v ices is an ext r em ely challengin g ex er cise. I ncum bent s t hat are sellin g T1 an d D S3 con nect iv it y ser v ices w ould be com pet ing w it h t hem selv es by of fer in g Et her net ser vices. A v er y agg r essive Et her net pr icing m odel w ould jeopar d ize t he sales of T1 an d DS3 lin es an d disr up t t he incum bent ' s bu sin ess m odel. •

Table of Content s

For incum bent s sellin g T1/ E1 and DS3 serv ices, t h eir Et her net p ricing m odel has t o do t he • I ndex follow ing t o su Me tr o Et her ne t cceed : By Sam Halabi

Mov e han d in han d wit h ex ist ing p ricing for legacy serv ices t o av oid u nder cut t ing t h e leg acy ices. Pubser lishver: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03

Of fer dif fer en t levels of serv ices w it h dif fer en t p rice poin t s, in ad dit ion t o t h e basic I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X connect ivit y ser vice. Met r o Et hern et ser v ices p resen t a good v alu e pr oposit ion for b ot h t he Pages: 24 0 cust om er and car r ier . The cust om er can enj oy en hanced dat a ser vices at h igher per for m ance levels, and t he car r ier can benefit fr om sellin g ser vices t hat it ot h er w ise w ouldn 't hav e been ab le t o sell w it h a simp le TDM con nect ion . So t he carr ier can act u ally sell t he Et hern et connect ion at a low er p rice t han t h e leg acy con nect ion , based on t h e hope t hat t he addit ional ser v ices w ill event u ally result in a mor e p rof it able serv ice t han t he The dlegacy ef init iv e serguid v ices. e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and

The wIncumbent Regulations hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion

n fr om e alleng easy - tes o- rtead f or matmten hat enables w or et kinser g pvrices ofessionals ofS.allarlev Anot hLear er area t hatt hch he deploy t of m et r o net Et hern in t he U. e t els he t o unions derstt hat an dt the h eincum concep t s carr iers hav e and t he delin eat ion bet w een t h e r eg ulat ed an d r eg ulat bent un regu lat ed oper at ion insid e t he sam e car rier s. The r egulat ed por t ions of t h e incum bent s d eal Gain he exp er ience of and induhstave r y inr ules nov at or and bestes - selling t horlocat , Sam m ainly w it hfr om t rantspor t equ ip ment and g uidelin aboutCisco t he uPr seess andaut he ion of Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es dat a sw it ch in g equ ipm en t . The unr egulat ed por t ion of t he incum b en t nor m ally has enou gh flex ibilit y t o d ep loy a m ix of hy br id dat a sw it ching and t r anspor t eq uipm ent wit h out man y t ies. Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill rThese ep r esent a mions ajor hsh if t in how a ser v ices e off ered t o b usinesses esident ial tcu r eg ulat ave cr eat eddat a big bar rier ar inside t he incum bent s andand havr e creat ed w ost omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because dif fer en t oper at ional en t it ies t o deal w it h dat a and t r anspor t . Th e deploy ment of new d at a it h as been b uilt t o han dle heEtsthrer ing en w t rilleliab ilit yt oanbe d availabilit or S. v oice. Car r such iers wser ill vhices ave t o ser v ices such as m et tro net pr ove ch alleng inyg needs in t h e f U. b ecause go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed e r eq uir e a lot of coor d in at ion b et ween t he d at a oper at ion and t he t r an sp ort oper at ion of t he sam by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in the incum bent carr ier. oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

The International Landscape I n 200 0, w hile t h e U. S. m ar k et w as bu bbling w it h gr eenf ield oper at or s bu ild in g t heir m et r o net w or ks and ch alleng ing t he alm ight y RBOCs and I XCs, t he m et r o Et hern et m ar ket was t akin g it s ow n for m an d sh ape across t he globe. W hat w as diff er ent about t he rest of t h e w or ld w as t h e •lack of vent u Table ofitContent s g t hat h ad allow ed new gr een field p rov ider s t o mu sh room in t he r e cap al f undin •U.S. I ndex Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

The European Landscape Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub ope, Dat e: tOct 20iv 03it ies in m et ro Et h er net occur r ed in Scandinav ia, specifically Sw eden. I n Eur h eober fir st0 1,act I SBN: 158 705 -0 96 -X Telia, t he lar gest Sw edish t elecom pr ovid er , h ad sub m it t ed an RFI f or m et r o Et her net ser vices. UnlikePages: t he U.S. 24 0 , w h er e t h e pr ov id er s w er e focusing on T1 pr ivat e- line r eplacem ent , t he t ar get app licat ion in Sw eden w as r esident ial. Man y MDU ap ar t ment com plex es w ere locat ed in concen t r at ed r esid en t ial ar eas, an d m an y of t he n ew developm ent s h ad f iber alr ead y deploy ed in t he basem ent s of t he MDUs. Et h er n et ser v ices seem ed lik e t he perf ect v eh icle t o deliv er v alu eadd ed serv ices such as conv erg ed v oice, d at a, and v ideo app licat ions. A sin gle Et hern et connect ion t o an MDU could pr ov ide I nt er net access, VoI P, v ideo on dem and , and so on. The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions.

Also across Eur ope, a hand ful of gr eenf ield oper at or s had v er y ag gr essive p lans t o deploy m et ro Et h er n et ser v ices, bu est t m ost f aced tent he ssam e et challenges t h, eEtU.S. ield operser at or s. I nand Discover t h e lat developm in m ro net w or as king h er ngr eteenf , and MPLS v ices pock et s of Eur ope su ch as I t aly , lar ge play ers su ch as Telecom I t alia wer e exp er im en t ing w it h an w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion all- Et h er net met r o f or r esident ial cu st omer s. Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o I n general, h an owdevt her, t he Eurt sopean met r o is ent renched in SD H t echnology and, lik e t he U. S. , un derst e concep has in vest ed in legacy TDM deploym ent s. Th is put s t he b ig Eur opean p r ovider s in t he sam e challen gingfr posit ionexp as er t he U. S.ofincum bent s in d at ealing w itbest h ser v ice cann ibalizat ion d t,he cost Gain om t he ience indu st r y in nov or and - selling Cisco Pr ess auan t hor Sam of a nHalabi, ew buildou t . How , Eu dif fers t hes e U. S. in t h at it doesn 't hav e st rin gent au t hor of Iever n t ern et rop Rouet ing Ar chfritom ect ur r eg ulat ions t hat r equ ir e a st rict bound ar y bet w een t he op er at ion of dat a swit chin g equ ipm en t and t equ t , twhhich bigt hr ole d met Etdher net Met r SDH o n et twr anspor or k s w ill em ip erm geenas e nexcou t arldeap lay of gra ow for in t het he n etshift w or kt ow ingarindu st r ryoan w ill bu out s. a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. r epild r esent The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hrAsian oug h f unLandscape dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed The by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o The et r o Et herdat neta land scape in Asia is v ery d iff er ent t han in t he U. S. and Eu rop e. Japan, off ermenhan ced ser vices. Kor ea, and Chin a w ill pr ov e t o b e t he maj or play ers in t h e deploy ment of all- Et her net met r o ser On eetoff rtom he m aj or Pr r easons is st hat t hese ntent r ies of hav enr'to inv ed as m uch Metvrices. o Et hern Cisco ess look at t he d epcou loy m met d atest a serv ices fr ominaSONET holist icor SDH and, t hus, h ave a cleaner slat e t h an t he U.S. and Eur op e fr om w hich t o d ep loy new dat a v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he ser v ices in t he met r o. dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Man r o Et net d ep loy ent s ion h aveofalr eady b her eennet annou ep loy ed hby Met ryo met Et hern et her d iscusses t hemad opt met r o Et servnced ices and and dhow t hat asbig led t elecom car r ier s pr iders suerch as m Kor Telecom and s. Chin aw get as a big play his t o ov t he d eliv y of et ea ro dat a ser v SK ices. Witot h her a chan ging mill ix also of t r emer anspor t echnolog ies,ert hin e tbook m ar ket aft er t hecur rest of Chin Telecom o dif fer ent it ies,ofChin Net t hen exam ines r enr tuct anurd ing em erg in g tarend s, andint delves inteno tt h e role v ir taual p rcom iv at,eUnicom n et w or,k s and Railcom . p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic ( VPN) , v ir t ual engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . I n Japan, t ough com pet it ion b et w een t elecom pr ov id er s h as dr iv en t he cost of pr ivat e- line ser v ices low er t han in m ost ot her coun t r ies. Japan is also a lead er in all- m et ro Et h er net deploy m en t s for mu lt imedia ser v ices.

A Data View of the Metro A d at a v iew of t he m et r o p ut s in per sp ect iv e t he diff er ent met r o ser vices and how t hey ar e off ered by t h e dif fer en t pr ov iders. •Figur e 1- 6 shTable ows of a vContent iew ofs t he m et r o w it h t he em phasis on t he dat a access, d at a ag gr eg at ion, •and serv ice deliv I ndexery . As you can see, t he met r o is d ivided int o t hr ee segm ent s: Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Me t r o a cce ss— Th is seg ment const it ut es t h e last - m ile por t ion, w hich is t h e par t of t he net w or k t hat t ouches t h e end cu st omer . For bu sin ess app licat ions, f or ex amp le, access Pubequipm lish er: Cisco ent Press r esides in a closet in t he basem en t of t h e en t er p rise or MTU. Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03

Me t r o1-e58 dge Th I SBN: 705 — -0 96 -Xis seg ment const it ut es t h e fir st level of m et r o agg r eg at ion . The connect ions leavin g t he bu ild in gs ar e ag gr eg at ed at t his CO locat ion in t o b igger pip es t hat Pages: 24 0 in t ur n get t r anspor t ed w it hin t he m et r o or acr oss t he WAN. Me t r o core — Th is seg ment const it ut es a second lev el of agg regat ion w her e m any edg e COs are aggr egat ed in t o a core CO. I n t ur n, t he cor e COs are con nect ed t o one anot h er t o for m a m et ro core f r om w hich t raf fic is ov er hauled acr oss t he WAN. The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions.

Figu r e 1 - 6 . Da t a Vi ew of t he M e t r o Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion [ View full size im age]

Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. The mhern inology m an y Pr var iatlook ionss of b eof confu som ices e cases, is ic only Met rtoerEt et f ran omd Cisco ess at t the he m d et epro loycan m ent metsin r o g. d atI an serv fr omt here a holist one lev el of aggr egat ion; hence, t he b uilding connect ions ar e ag gr eg at ed int o one p lace and v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he t hen ectdlychallenges conn ect edcar t o raiercore r ou t er .inI nt rot her scen arios, t het e rm cor ess e CO, etvim es called dr iv erdir s an s w ill face ansfor m ing t he m o et t oroaddr datsom a ser ices. t he met r o h ub, co- locat es w it h t he w ide- ar ea POP. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Metro Services The m et r o serv ices var y d ep en ding on t he t ar get mar k et —comm er cial or resident ial—and w het her it is a r et ail ser v ice or a w holesale ser vice. The f ollow in g list g ives a su m mar y of som e of t he met r o ser vices t hat are pr om ot ed : •

Table of Content s



I ndex

erne net Me tr o IEtnt her t

conn ect iv it y

By Sam Halabi

Tr anspar ent LAN serv ice ( point - t o- point LAN t o LAN)

PubL2 lish er: Cisco Press VPN ( poin t - t o- point

or m ult ip oin t - t o- m ult ipoin t LAN t o LAN)

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03

LAN et705 w or esou rces ( r emot e dat a cent er ) I SBN:t o1-n58 -0 k 96r-X Pages: 24 0

Ex t r anet

LAN t o Fr am e Relay/ ATM VPN St or age ar ea n et w or k s ( SANs) The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Met r o t r anspor t ( back haul) VoI P Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Som e of t hese ser v ices, such as I n t ern et connect ivit y an d TLS, h ave b een off er ed for m an y y ear s.Lear Then diff er ence now- tiso-trhat sert hat v ices ar e pr ov ided it hg Et er n et connect ivitlev y , els andt ot h e fr om t h e easy eadt hese f or mat enables net w orw kin p rhofessionals of all carr ier s are mov ing t ow ar d a m odel in w hich all of t hese ser vices can b e off er ed on t he sam e un derst an d t h e concep t s inf rast r uct ur e an d can be sold t o t he sam e cu st omer w it h out an y m ajor op er at ional over head. This in Gain t rod fr uces om an t heex exp cellent er ience v alue of indu p r oposit st r y in ionnov t oatbot or hand t hebest cu st- omer sellinganCisco d t h ePrcarr essier. au tThe hor , serv Samices ar e prHalabi, ov isioned au tthor hr oug of h I n t ran ern sp et or Rou t intging t heArap chplicat it ect ur ion es ov er point - t o- p oint or m ult ipoint - t om ult ipoint L2 conn ect ions. Th e follow ing sect ions d iscuss som e of t hese ser v ices in gr eat er Metail. r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill det r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o LAN to Network Resources go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e Ear in t han e sect ion " Themod Metelr ot hat Net w , " y out he saw howbIen n ttercar n etrier sers vt ice cansfbe d eliv ed rby operlier at ,ional d b usiness w or ill kallow incum o t ran or m t heermet o to inst atced t h edat cust p r em ises an Et hern et connect ion rat h er t han a T1 TDM connect ion. off eralling enhan a om ser er vices. Aft er t he Et hern et connect ion is in st alled at t h e en d cu st om er , t he I LEC can sell dif ferent ser v ices tMet o t he cust ometer,f r om su chCisco as LAN t o net Anent exam ple rof a ser vicefr is t hat ic r o Et hern Pr ess lookwsork at tresour he d epces. loy m of met o dsuch at a serv ices omone a holist an entibes erp rise t o rrback upetitr so,dwathaich in is a rbased em ot eon and e locat ion ford ddiscu isastsses er r ecov venables iew . I t descr t he cu ent m TDsecur M t echnolog y, an t he ery . dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Figur e 1- 7 sh ows t hat in ad dit ion t o I nt er net ser vice, t he cust om er can h ave a dat a back up and disast recover ser v ice t hat con stion ant ly datnet a across t h e and m et how ro. t hat h as led car r ier s Met r o er Et hern et dyiscusses he ad opt of back met rso up Et her serv ices t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t Figu an d em delves intko Resour t h e role of r eerg 1 -in7g. t rend LANs,tand o Ne t w or cevsir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

For new d at a n et w or k s in w h ich t he con nect iv it y is d one v ia gigab it an d 1 0 g igabit pipes, t he m et ro can b e t r ansfor m ed int o a high- speed LAN t h at of fer s ban dw idt h- in t en siv e app licat ions t hat w ould not nor m ally be feasible t o deploy ov er legacy TD M inf r ast r u ct u re. The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. As pr ev iou sly m ent ion ed , t he ser vice in t he m et r o w ill t ak e m any shap es an d for m s dependin g on t he t arg et cust om er . Th e sam e LAN t o net w or k resour ces mod el cou ld b e applied t ow ard Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and r esident ial applicat ions, enabling t he I LECs t o st ar t com pet ing w it h cab le com pan ies in w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion dist r ibut in g m ult im edia ser vices. I n a r esid en t ial app licat ion, vid eo ser v er s w ould be locat ed in a m et roLear POP ial- tMD cust could accessnet high al vid eo of onall d em n and fr omresident t h e easy o- r U ead f oromer mat st hat enables w or- sp kineed g p rdigit ofessionals levan elsd tov o er an Et hun erderst net con nect ion . While t h ese serv ices st ill seem fut ur ist ic in t he U. S. , t h e int ern at ional an d t h e concep t s landscape soon could be v er y d iffer ent in Eu r ope ( par t icular ly Sw ed en ) , Japan , and Kor ea, w here t he fast d ep entexp of Et netofn et worstkrsy is y m aking ese ap plicat s a rau ealit y., Sam Gain fr loym om t he er her ience indu in alr novead at or and bestt h- selling Ciscoion Pr ess t hor Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w orL2VPN k s w ill emServices er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill Ethernet r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as You m ay hav e not iced t hat m an y of t he serv ices ment ion ed ar e pu re L2 ser v ices t hat of fer been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o connect ivit y only. This is similar t o leg acy Fr am e Relay and ATM ser v ices, w here t he Fr ame go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed Relay/ ATM conn ect ion off er s a pur e L2 pipe and t h e I P r out ed ser v ices can rid e on t op of t h at by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e pipe. oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Figur e 1- 8 sh ows a car rier deploy ing an Et her net L2VPN ser vice. The car r ier n et w or k b eh aves as an L2 Et h er net sw it ch t hat off ers m u lt ip oint - t o- m ult ip oin t conn ect iv it y bet w een t he diff er ent Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic cust om er sit es. The cust om er can benefit f r om r unn ing it s ow n con t rol plane t ran sp arent ly over v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he t he car r ier ' s net w or k. The cust om er rou t ers at t h e ed ge of t h e en t erp rise could ex chang e r out ing dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. pr ot ocols w it hout int er fer en ce wit h t h e carr ier r out ing, and t he car r ier w ou ld n ot h ave t o supp ort any t he cust er ' s I P add essin porr ot ant observ at ion is tand hat w hilet hat t he hcar ier ' scar net w or Met rof o Et hern et om d iscusses t her ad optg. ionAnofim met Et her net serv ices how asr led r ier sk behav es like an L2 Et her net sw it ch , t he und er ly in g t echn ology and t h e diff erent cont r ol plan es t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book used in t h eines car rcur ier rnet ordk em areerg notin necessar based on int Et hern or aofLay 2 con role plane. t hen exam en twan g t rend s,ilyand delves o t h eetrole v irer t ual p r ivt at n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized Figu r e 1MPLS - 8 . L2 ( GMPLS) V PN . ser v ices

[ View full size im age]



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Ethernet Access and Frame Relay Comparison Fram e Relay VPN ser v ices hav e been w id ely accep t ed an d hav e pr oven t o be v er y cost eff ect iv e com par ed t o point - t o- point pr ivat e- line serv ice. I n essence, Et h er n et ser v ices can be considered t he next - g en er at ion of Fram e Relay b ecause t h ey pr ovide most of t he b en ef it s of Fram e Relay •w it h bet t er scalabilit Table of Content s as p rov iding h ig her ban dw idt h and m ult ipoint - t o- m ult ipoint y as f ar •connect ivit y ser I ndex vices. The f ollow ing list show s som e of t he sim ilar it ies and dissim ilar it ies Me Et heran ne tEt h er net and a Fr am e Relay ser v ice: bettrwo een By Sam Halabi

I nt e rf a ce spe e d— Fr am e Relay int er face speed s r ange f r om sub- T1 r at es up t o OCn speed s. How ev er, Fr am e Relay has b een w idely deploy ed at t he low er sub- T1 , T1, an d DS3 Pub Dat e: s. OctAn oberEt 0 her 1, 20net 03 int er face can r un at u p t o 10 Gb ps. speed

Pub lish er: Cisco Press

I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X

La st - m Pages: 24il0 e conne ct iv it y — Et her net serv ices will f ind bet t er accept ance in on - net deploy m en t s ( w her e fiber r eaches t he b uilding) , irr espect iv e of t h e t r anspor t m et hod ( as w ill be ex plained in t h e next chapt er ) . Fr am e Relay has t h e adv ant ag e of being deployed in off - net applicat ions ov er ex ist ing cop per T1 and DS3 lines, w hich so f ar const it ut es a ver y high p er cen t age of d ep loy m ent s. Ther e ar e exist ing eff ort s in f or um s, su ch as t he Et h er n et in t he Fir st Mile ( EFM) for um , t o r un Et h er net dir ect ly ov er ex ist ing cop per lines. I t is The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. un kn ow n at t his p oint w h et h er su ch a deploy ment w ould find accep t ance com par ed t o a t r adit ional Fr am e Relay ser v ice. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and V t uat hey l ci rcui sup — or Bot h Et her net and Fr am e Relay off er a m ult iplexed int er face t hat w ir hat can tdo f orport y our gan izat ion allow s one cust om er locat ion t o t alk t o d iff er ent locat ions over t h e same phy sical in t er f ace. The of Et hern et is t o enables t he Fr amnet e Relay en t v ir t ual it els ( PVC) Lear VLAN n fr omnot t h ion e easy - t or ead f orsimilar mat t hat w or kinper g pman r ofessionals of cir allcu lev to . un derst an d t h e concep t s Mu lt i poi nt conn ect iv i t y— An ob vious diff er ence bet w een Fr ame Relay and Et her net is t hat Fram Relay t ual cir it s ar - tat o-or point cuit s. Any Cisco point - Pr t o-ess m uau lt ipt hor oint, or Gain fr om et he expveririence ofcuindu st rey point in nov and cir best - selling Sam m ult ipoint t o- mofultI nipoint ivitAry ch b et w een sit es is don e v ia t he p r ovisioning of m ult iple Halabi, au -t hor t ern etconnect Rou t ing it ect ur es point - t o- point PVCs an d rou t ing bet w een t hese PVCs at a h igher lay er , t h e I P lay er . W it h etk, st he a br oadcast sitk es shar m ult Met r oEtnheterwnor w illVLAN em erconst ge asittut h eesnex t ar ea of grdom ow tain, h forand t he man n et wy or ingcan indu st r ye an d wipoint ill t o- m ult ipoin conn ecthow iv it y dat at aL2. r ep r esent am ajort sh if t in ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as i ntt oe rfa imen port trant bot h Fr ame Relay Et her of fer he to been L2 b uilt hance— dle tAhev er st rying eliabbenefit ilit y antdhat availabilit y needs f or and v oice. Carnet r iers w illishtave abilit y t o keep t he separ at ion b et ween t he net w or k connect ivit y at L2 an d t he hig herlev go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and edel plicat ionom , including L3 r outer in s. g. This Th is is allow t he acust omnology er t o hshif avet ,cont over s in t h e by entI P erap pr ise cust er s and consum not sonly t ech bu t rol also a shit ift exist ing L2 or L3 net w ork an d keep a dem arcat ion bet w een t h e cu st omer 's net w ork anrdo tt he oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met o carr ier 's n et w or k . off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Conclusion The p r olif er at ion of dat a ser v ices in t he m et r o is alr ead y t ak ing place. You h ave seen in t his chapt er h ow m et ro dat a ser v ices and specifically Et her net serv ices ar e m ak ing t heir m ov e int o t he met r o. Th e gr eenf ield m et ro oper at or s hav e had qu it e an in fluence on t h is sh if t by pu t t ing •pr essu re on tTable r adit of ionContent al m etsr o operat ors, such as t h e I LECs. W hile m et r o Et her net is ev olving •slowly in t h e I U. ndex S. d ue t o leg acy TD M d ep loym ent s an d r egu lat ion s, it has foun d good su ccess in Me o en Et her ne tt s of t he w or ld, especially in Asia and Japan. Met r o Et h er n et ser v ices of fer an dif tr fer t par excellent v alue pr oposit ion bot h t o ser vice pr ov ider s and t o b usinesses and consum ers. Met r o By Sam Halabi Et h er n et ser v ices w ill r ed uce t he recur r in g cost of ser vice deploy m en t w hile of fer ing mu ch flexPub ibilit y in of fer ing value- ad ded d at a serv ices. lish er: Cisco Press Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 MetPub r o Et hern et ser v ices d o not necessit at e an all- Et her net L2 net w ork ; rat her, t hey can b e I SBN: 705ferent -0 96 -X t echnologies such as nex t - gener at ion SONET/ SDH an d I P/ MPLS deploy ed ov1-er58dif 0 er 2, " Met r o Techn olog ies, " g oes in t o m or e det ails abou t t h e dif ferent net w orPages: ks. Ch24apt t echnologies used in t h e m et r o.

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Chapter 2. Metro Technologies This chap t er cov er s t he f ollowin g t opics: • •

Table of Content s

Et h er n et over SONET/ SDH ( EOS) I ndex

Me tr o Resilient Et her ne t

Packet Ring ( RPR)

By Sam Halabi

Et h er n et Tr anspor t Pub lish er: Cisco Press

Met r o Et hern et ser v ices an d ap plicat ion s do not necessarily r equir e Et h er net as t he und er lyin g Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 t r anspor t t echn ology . The m et r o can be b uilt on dif ferent t echnologies, such as I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

Et h er n et over SONET/ SDH ( EOS) Resilient Packet Ring ( RPR) Et h er n et Tr anspor t The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Ethernet over SONET/SDH Man y incum bent car r ier s in t he U. S. an d Eur ope h ave alr eady spent billion s of dollar s bu ild in g SONET/ SD H m et ro inf rast r uct ur es. These car r iers w ou ld lik e t o lev er age t he ex ist ing inf rast r uct ur e t o deliver n ex t - gener at ion Et her net ser vices. For su ch deploy m en t s, band w id t h •m anagem entTable ofeContent s k is essent ial, because of t he low cap acit y of ex ist in g SONET/ SDH on t h net w or •r ings an d t heI ndex f act t hat t hey can be easily over su bscr ibed w hen used f or dat a ser v ices. Me tr o Et her ne t

IByncum bent s wh o w ant t o deploy EOS ser v ices f ace t ough challenges. Tr adit ionally, for RBOCs Sam Halabi and I LECs in t he U. S., t her e is a clear- cut delineat ion b et ween t ran spor t an d d at a. The regu lat ed par t of t he or gan iz at ion d eals w it h t r anspor t - only equ ipm en t , not dat a equipm ent . Wit h EOS, t h e Pub lish er: Cisco Press equipm ent v en dor s blur t he line b et w een d at a an d t ran sp or t , w hich cr eat es a pr ob lem f or t he Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 adop t ion of t h e new t echnolog y. So, it is w or t h spending som e t im e ex plainin g t he EOS I SBN: 158 705 -0 96 -X t echnology it self. Pages: 24 0

The b en ef it of EOS is t hat it int r odu ces an Et h er net ser v ice w h ile p reserv ing all t h e at t r ibut es of t he SONET in fr ast r uct ur e, su ch as SONET f ast r est or at ion , lin k- qualit y m onit or ing, and t he u se of exist ing SONET OAM& P n et wor k m anag em ent . Wit h EOS, t h e fu ll Et h er net fr am e is st ill pr eser v ed and g et s en cap su lat ed inside t h e SONET pay load at t he net w ork in gr ess an d g et s rThe em ov ativteheguid eg ress. d efed init e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. As Figur e 2- 1 sh ows, t he ent ir e Et h er net fr am e is encapsulat ed in side an EOS h ead er by t h e EOS fu nct ion of t he t end syst at t he in grsess. The herwnet f r ame t hen ap ped on tser o t vh ices e Discover h e lat estem developm ent in m et roEtnet or king , Etis h er n et ,mand MPLS and SONET/ SD H Sy nchr onou s Payload En velope ( SPE) an d is t ran sp ort ed ov er t he SONET/ SDH r ing . w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion The Et her net f r ame is t hen ex t r act ed at t he EOS f unct ion on t he egr ess side. Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s r e 2 - 1 . Et he r ne t ove r SO NET Figu Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper ional usiness mod el st hat ill spor allow t he incum enes t car t o t ran sfSD or H m net t hewmet Ther at e ar e t wan od st b and ar dized w ay t o tw ran t Et hern et fr bam ovrier er as SONET/ or k :r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r oLA EtPS— hern etEt fher r om Cisco essLink lookAccess s at t hePrdoced ep loyurmeent of ismet r o d at by a serv holist ic net ov erPrt he SDH defined t h eices I TU-frT,om w haich v iew . pu I t blish descred ibes cu rr m et o, Febr w h ich TD is M at echnolog y, an d discu ssessim t heilar t o t h et he X. 86 stent an dar d rin uarisy based 20 01. on LAPS connect ionless p rot ocol dr iv erHighs an dLevel challenges cark rCont ier s w in .t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Dat a Lin r olill (face HDLC) Met r oGFP Et hern et der iscusses t he adocedur opt ion eofismet r oan Et her serv ices anduses howt he t hat h as car r ierks — Gen ic Fr amin g Pr also I TUnet st andar d t hat Sim pleled D at a Lin t o t he( SDL) d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book p rot ocol as a st ar t ing point . One of t h e dif fer en ces bet w een GFP and LAPS is t hat t hen exam inesaccom cur r en an deem ergeinfor g tm rend int onet t h,esuch role of ir t ualFiber p r iv at n et w orf ib k ser GFP can mtodat fr am at s s, ot and h er tdelves han Et her as vPPP, Cheannel, ( VPN)connect , v ir t ualivit p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic y ( FI CON) , and En t er pr ise Sy st em s Con nect ion ( ESCON) . engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . The EOS f un ct ion can reside inside t h e SONET/ SD H equipm ent or inside t h e pack et sw it ch . This creat es som e int er est ing com pet ing scenar ios bet w een sw it ch v en dor s and t r anspor t vend or s t o off er t he Et her net conn ect ion. Figur es 2- 2 , 2- 3 , an d 2- 4 sh ow dif ferent scenar ios f or t he EOS con nect ion . I n Figur e 2- 2 , t h e

EOS fu nct ion is in sid e t he AD M. This is nor mally d one v ia a com bin at ion f r amer / m apper t h at supp ort s EOS and is placed on a lin e car d or d augh t er car d inside t he ADM. Th e EOS m apping fu nct ion adds an X. 86 or GFP w rap per ar ound t h e w hole Et h er net fr am e, and t he f r am in g fu nct ion en cap su lat es t he f ram e in t he SONET/ SDH SPE. Fr om t hen on, t he SONET/ SDH SPE is t r anspor t ed acr oss t he SONET/ SDH rin g an d get s peeled off on t h e eg ress side. ADMs t hat cont ain t he EOS f un ct ion plus ot her f unct ions such as v irt ual concat enat ion ( discu ssed in t h e nex t sect ion ) ar e called nex t - gener at ion AD Ms. Figur e 2- 3 p laces t h e EOS fu nct ion in side t he sw it ch . • Table of Content s •

I ndex

Figu r e 2 - 2 . EOS Fun ct i on I n side t he ADM

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

Figu r e 2 - 3 . EOS Fun ct i on I n side t he Sw i t ch

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions.

Figu r e 2 - 4 . EOS a nd Sw i t ch in g Fun ct ions I n si de t h e AD M

Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill The d iff er ence her e is t hat t he dat a equ ipm en t an d t he t r anspor t eq uipm ent are t wo dif ferent r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. ent it ies t hat can b e ow ned by dif fer en t oper at ional gr oups w it h in t h e same car r ier . Th is mak es it The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as m uch easier for regu lat ed and un r eg ulat ed ent it ies w it hin t he car r ier t o deploy a new serv ice. been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o The r egu lat ed gr oup 's sole r esp onsibilit y is t o p rov ision SONET/ SDH cir cu it s, as t hey w ould do go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed for t r adit ional v oice or leased- line cir cuit s. The u nr eg ulat ed g r oup in t u rn d ep loy s t h e high er by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e lay er d at a ser vices. I t is also w or t h m ent ion in g t hat in t h is scenar io, t he Et her net sw it ch t hat oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o deliver s t he dat a ser vices has f ull cont r ol of t he SONET/ SDH t r ibu t aries. This is in cont r ast t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Figur e 2- 2 , in w hich t he SONET/ SDH t r ibu t aries ar e t er min at ed inside t he ADM, and t he Et her net sw it ch sees on ly a concat enat ed Et her net p ipe. Figur e 2- 4 com bines t h e pack et - sw it ching , ADM, Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic and EOS f unct ions in t h e sam e equ ipm en t . v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. For equipm ent ef ficiency, t his is t he opt im al solut ion; how ever , t he deploym ent of such sy st em s can be challen ging if st rict operat ion al delineat ion b et w een packet and t r anspor t ex ist s. Su ch Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s deploy m en t s ar e occu rr ing in t he U. S. by sm aller com pet it iv e t elecom p rov ider s and by t h e t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book un regu lat ed por t ion of t he RBOCs/ I LECs t hat do not hav e m any r est rict ions ab out dat a v er su s t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s t r anspor t . D ep loy m ent s of such syst em s in Eur ope ar e m or e pr evalent becau se Eur ope has f ew er ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic r est r ict ions t h an t h e U.S. engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . EOS int r odu ces som e ban dw idt h ineff iciencies in deploy ing m et ro Et h er net ser vices because of t he coar se ban dw idt h gr anu lar it y of SONET/ SDH cir cu it s and t he band wid t h mism at ch w it h t he sizes of Et her net p ip es. Vir t ual con cat en at ion ( VCAT) is a m echan ism u sed t o allev iat e su ch ineff iciencies, as discu ssed n ex t .

The Role of Virtual Concatenation Vir t ual concat enat ion is a m easur e for redu cin g t he TDM ban dw idt h ineff iciencies on SONET/ SDH r ings. Wit h st and ard SONET/ SDH concat enat ion, SONET/ SDH pipes ar e pr ov ision ed w it h coar se gr anu larit y t hat can not b e t ailored t o t he act ual band wid t h requ ir em en t . The TDM cir cuit s ar e all oroft Content oo lar ge •eit her t oo smTable s t o accom m odat e t h e r eq uir ed ban dw idt h . On a SONET/ SDH r ing , is allocat ed, t he r ing loses t h at am oun t of b andw idt h w het her t he ban dw idt h is •once t h e cir cuit I ndex used orher not Me tr o Et ne. t By Sam Halabi

App en dix A, " SONET/ SDH Basic Fr amin g an d Concat enat ion, " br ief ly descr ibes SONET/ SD H and t he diff er ent t erm inology you see t hr ough out t his chap t er . Pub lish er: Cisco Press

Wit hPubVCAT, a num Dat e: Oct ober 0b1,er20of 03 sm aller pipes ar e concat en at ed an d assemb led t o cr eat e a bigger p ip e t hat car ries 1-m58or705 e -0 dat I SBN: 96a-Xper second . Virt ual concat enat ion is don e on t he SONET/ SDH lay er ( L1) it self , Pages: m ean24 ing 0 t hat t he d iffer ent in div id ual cir cu it s ar e bond ed an d p resen t ed t o t he upp er net w or k layer as one ph ysical pipe. Vir t ual con cat en at ion allow s t h e gr oupin g of n * STS/ STM or n * VT/ VC, allowin g t h e creat ion of pipes t h at can be sized t o t he bandw id t h t hat is need ed . Figur e 2- 5 h ighligh t s t he bandw id t h ef ficiency t h at VCAT can pr ovid e. I f st and ard concat enat ion is used and t he b andw idt h r equir ement is for 300 Mb ps ( ab out six STS- 1 s) , t he car rier h as t he The d efof initprivov e ision guid ein tgo m Ent anint d Carr ier Met Et hern et appmu licat ions.ing t echniqu es at t h e opt ion u lter ippr leise DS3 erf aces andr ousing packet lt iplex cust om er pr em ises eq uipm ent ( CPE) t o d ist r ibu t e t he t raf fic ov er t he in t er f aces. ( Not e t hat a DS3 int er face is t h e phy sical in t erf ace t hat r uns at a 4 5- Mb ps r at e, w hile an STS- 1 is a SONET Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and env elop e t hat can car ry 50 Mbp s. ) Prov isioning m ult iple DS3 s at t h e CPE is nor m ally ineff icient , w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion because it in cr eases t h e cost , does not guar an t ee t he f ull ban dw idt h ( because of pack et loadshar ing t ech niques) , and r est rict s t h e pack et flow t o 45 Mb ps ( b ecause t h e indiv idual phy sical Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o circuit s are r est rict ed t o DS3 b andw idt h ) . The ot her alt ern at ive is f or t h e car r ier t o allocat e a full un derst an d t h e concep t s OC12 ( 12 STS- 1s) ; t his causes t he car rier t o lose rev en ue f rom selling six STS- 1 s, becau se t hey ar e allocat t o tahepar t icular cust er st and cannot u sedbest for -ot her cust om er on au t he rin, g. Wit h Gain ed fr om exp er ience ofom indu r y in nov at be or and selling Cisco Prsess t hor Sam v irt u al concatau enat ion, caret rier can pr Ar ovision 30 Halabi, t hor of tIhe n t ern Rou t ing ch it ectaur es0 Mbps pipe by bond in g six STS- 1 s as one big pipe—h en ce n o w ast ed b andw idt h. Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in Figu how dat t o b usinesses r ea 2ser - 5v.ices Virart euaoffl ered Concat en at ionand r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Figur e 2- 6 sh ows an ex am ple of how mu lt ip le ser v ices such as Et h er net con nect iv it y serv ices an d

t r adit ional TDM ser vices can b e carr ied ov er t he sam e SONET/ SDH in fr ast ru ct ur e. I f t h e SONET/ SD H equip ment supp ort s VCAT, a Gigabit Et h er net int erf ace can b e car r ied ov er a concat enat ed 2 1 STS- 1 p ipe, anot h er Fast Et her net ( FE) 10 0- Mb ps int er face can be car ried over t w o STS- 1 s, and a t rad it ion al DS3 int er face can be car ried over a sin gle STS- 1. I n m any cases, t he sp eed of t he Et her net int er face d oes n ot h ave t o m at ch t he speed on t h e SONET/ SDH sid e.

Figu r e 2 - 6 . Tr an spor t in g Et h e r ne t ov er SO N ET •

Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. A Fast Et her net 1 00- Mb ps int er f ace, f or exam ple, can be car ried over an STS- 1 ( 50 Mb ps) , t w o Discover t h eSTSlat est ent meretsubscr ro netip w tor kingt h, rot Et ht lin er ngetof, d and v icesof and STS- 1s, or t hr ee 1s.developm To h andle t hsisinov ion, at aMPLS an d qser ueuing w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion pack et s or some kind of d at a back off n eed t o h appen t o m inim ize pack et loss. om tsu h eppor easy t o-annelizat r ead f or ion matdtow hatn enables net w kin g plev r ofessionals all lev elsect to Most Lear ring sn t fr oday t -ch t o t he STS1 or ( DS3) el and can of cr ossconn derst anlevel. d t h e For concep s v ices, M13 m ult ip lex er s ar e u sed t o ag gr eg at e m ult iple T1 lines t o circuitun s at t h at T1 tser a D S3 b ef or e t r anspor t ing t hem on t h e r in g. SONET/ SDH equ ipm en t t h at op er at es at t he VT/ VC Gain hebe exp er ience st rRBOCs, y in nov at and bests- tselling Pr ess aucat t hor , Sam level is st arfrt om ing tt o deploy ed of b y indu some w or hich m ean hat w itCisco h v ir t ual con enat ion , Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es circuit s of n * VT/ VC size can b e pr ov isioned. Met o n etan w or s w ill f em erions ge as t h im e nex t ar h for he nex et it w or k ings indu y an d wSD ill H The rEOS d kVCAT unct are plem enea t edofatgrtow he ten t ry tand point of t hst e rSONET/ rinf eprast r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer r uct ur e, an d n ot n ecessar ily at ev er y SONET/ SDH st at ion along t he way . I n Figur e 26 , s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it hsas ADMs 1 an d 2 sup por t t h e EOS and VCAT fu nct ions, w hile t he cr oss- con nect ( XC) t hat connect been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t he t w o r ings fun ct ion s as a t rad it ional cr oss- conn ect . How ever , f or VCAT t o b e ef fect ive, t h e t o go t hr oug damment en t alon shift s troing equ ip tthoebm ro for next - gcon en er at ion a ut ser icessudem SONET/ SDhHf un equip t he has e et able t o cr ossnect t hedat t rib arvies pporand t eded by by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift int ton he t he VCAT; ot h er w ise, t he b andw idt h sav in gs on t he rin g ar e n ot r ealized. So, if t he equ ip m en oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o t he rin g sup por t s t h e allocat ion of STS- 1 cir cuit s and h ig her, t he sm allest cir cuit t h at can be off er enhan dat a 1ser allocat ed is ced an STScirvices. cuit . I f t he t er m inat ing equip ment supp ort s VCAT t o t h e VT 1. 5 level ( T1) , a f ull STS- 1 ban dw idt h is st ill w ast ed on t he r ing even if t he CPE is allocat ed n * VT 1. 5 via Met r o Et et ef r2om Pr ess look s at t he d ep m ent met r odow d atna tserv ices holist ic VCAT. I nhern Figur 6 , Cisco f or exam ple, if ADMs 1 an d loy 2 sup porof t VCAT o t he VT fr1.om 5 ( aT1) lev el, vand iew t. hIet descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he cr oss- con nect can cr oss- con nect only at t he STS- 1 ( D S3) lev el, t he savin gs ar e not dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. r ealized. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book Link Capacity Adjustment t hen exam ines cur r en t an d emScheme erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic Vir engineer t ual concat in g, an enat d MPLS ion is an a pd ow Generalized er f ul t ool for MPLS ef ficient ( GMPLS) ly gr.ouping t h e band w idt h and creat ing pip es t hat m at ch t he r equir ed b andw idt h . How ev er , t he cust om er ban dw idt h r eq uir em ent cou ld chang e ov er t im e, w hich requ ires t h e SONET/ SD H pipes t o be r esized. This could cause net w ork disr upt ion as m or e SONET/ SD H chann els ar e ad ded or r em ov ed . Link Capacit y Adj ust m en t Scheme ( LCAS) is a p rot ocol t hat allow s t he chann els t o be r esiz ed at any t im e w it hout disr upt in g t h e t r aff ic or t h e lin k. LCAS also perf or m s con nect iv it y checks t o allow f ailed link s t o

be r em oved and new link s t o be ad ded d yn am ically w it hout net w or k disr upt ion . The com binat ion of EOS, VCAT, an d LCAS pr ovid es m ax im um eff iciency w hen deploy in g Et her net ser v ices ov er SONET.

• •

NO TE Table of Content s I ndex

Me tr o Vir Et her ne tconcat enat ion t ual

and EOS ar e or t hog onal t echnologies, m ean ing t hat t hey ar e ind ep en dent . EOS is a m apping t echnolog y t hat ru ns ov er st andar d concat enat ion and VCAT; how ev er , t he f ull b en ef it s ar e achiev ed if d one ov er t he lat t er . Pub lish er: Cisco Press

ally By Samt ot Halabi

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages:in24 The f ollow g 0sect ions describe diff er ent scenar ios in w hich EOS is u sed as a p ur e t r anspor t ser v ice or is applied in conj unct ion w it h packet sw it ching .

EOS Used as a Transport Service

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Et h er n et over SONET/ SDH by it self is st ill a t ran sp or t serv ice w it h an Et hern et int er face, sim ilar t o t heDiscover t r adit iontal ivat line ser vice a et T1, orking OCn, Et inther EOSMPLS off ersser whv at is and h eprlat este-developm entw s it inh m ro DS3, net w or erface. n et , and ices com par able t o a point t opoint pack et leasedline ser vice. I t pr ov ides an easy m igr at ion for w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion carr ier s t hat sell t r an sp ort t o get t h eir f eet w et w it h Et her net ser vices. EOS is a " pack et m appin g" nt echn not- tao-" rpead ack et it ching" t ech nology and n ot of fer t hof e pack etels t o Lear fr omolog t h ey,easy f orsw mat t hat enables net w, or kindgoes p r ofessionals all lev m ult iplexin g t hat is n eeded for t he ag gr eg at ion an d deaggr egat ion of ser v ices. To d eliv er un derst an d t h e concep t s enhan ced swit ched dat a ser v ices, y ou n eed t o in t r oduce pack et - sw it ching f unct ionalit y int o t he m et roGain equipm . exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam fr oment t he Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es The lack of pack et m ult iplex in g for t h e EOS ser v ice an d t he f act t hat t hou san ds of p oin t - t o- poin t circuit need over ision eent ar t h ea e cust omer h e ncen ( CO) eat Met r o sn et w or tkos be w illprem ge ed as bet t h ewnex of gr ow tsh and for tthe et wt ral or k off ingice indu st r ycran d ewaill pr heajor ag grshegat of ser lar gedeploym ent s. Each ividu al ial EOS r epoblem r esentina t m if t inion how datvices a ser vinices ar escale off ered t o b usinesses andind r esident cu circuit st omer s. could t edays as a sep arat e Et her net in t ir eronm f aceen int tfhore deliver CO. Witing h t housand of cubecause st omer sit h as The m be et r pr o hesen as alw b een a challengin g env dat a ser vs ices get t ing an tEOS circuit , t he w ould havilit e yt oant erm inat e t housand idual her net es. t o been b uilt o han dle t he st r CO ing en t r eliab d availabilit y needss fof or indiv v oice. CarEt r iers w ill wh ir ave Igo m agine cheds Telephon ( PSTN) er eerst oper it h each t hr ougifht he f un Public dam enSw t al itshift t o equ ip teh eNet mw etor rok for next - w g en atill ion datat a ing ser vwices dem and ed cust omererprlin t ermom inat inside t h e CO a p hy w ir ea r tat hernology t han as circuit This by ent isee cust ered s and consum er s.asThis is sical not only ech shifat ,logical bu t also a sh. ift in t h e w ould creat eanadbig pat ch- pmod anelel eff ect wand a nig tht ar e forb en pr tovisioning sw w een oper at ional b usiness t hat ill allow hemincum car rier s t oand t ran sfitorchming t hebet met ro t o circuit s. Th isced patdat ch-apser anel eff ect pr esent s a scalabilit y lim it at ion f or lar ge- scale EOS d ep loy m ent s, off er enhan vices. as ex plained n ex t . Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic 7 sh ows scen is u sinon g EOS sell a basic I nt net -sses connect vFigur iew .eI t2-descr ibes at he cu ario rr entinmwethich r o, wa hcar ichr ier is based TD Mt ot echnolog y, an d er discu t he ivit y serivver ice. A dSONET/ SD H car m etr ier ro saccess r in gincon nect s m mu lt iple an dess m ult it enan nit dr s an challenges w ill face t r ansfor ing t he ent m eterp r o rise t o addr dat a sertv uices. ( MTU) b uilding s t o a CO locat ion . Next - g en er at ion ADMs in t h e basement s of t he b uildings Met Et10 hern et dps iscusses t heconnect ad opt ion r o Etect her tnet icesidual and rou howt er t hat as ledcust carom r ierers pr ovr o ide 0- Mb Et hern et ionsoft hmet at conn o t hserv e indiv s atheach tpr o em t heise. d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book The ring it self , in t his ex am ple, allow s chan nelizat ion d own t o t he VT 1. 5 ( T1) lev el, tand hen each examEt ines cur rconnect en t an dion emis erg in g ped t rend h ecuit roles.of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s her net map t os,onand e ordelves n * VTint 1.o5 t cir ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS Figuan r ed Generalized 2 - 7 . EOS MPLS I nsid( GMPLS) e Tr an. spor t Equ ipm e nt

[ View full size im age]



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

For ever y cust om er w h o is p rov ision ed w it h an Et her net in t er f ace, an Et hern et int er face is ext end ed ou t of t h e XC at t h e CO, b ecau se t he XC w ork s at t he TD M lev el, an d each cir cuit h as t o be t er m inat ed in div id ually. The ind ividu al Et h er n et int er faces are t hen conn ect ed t o an Et hern et sw it ch t h at agg r eg at es t he t r aff ic t ow ar d t he I SP r out er . Th is means t hat if a bu ild in g has 20 The d efer init e guid e en t o tEnt anedt oCarr Met r o ed Et hern cust om s,iv20 d if fer cir er cupr it sise hav be ier pr ov ision f or tet hatapp bulicat ild inions. g an d hav e t o b e t er min at ed in t he CO. I f t he CO su ppor t s 5 0 b uildings w it h 2 0 cust om er s per bu ild in g, 1 000 TDM circuit s hav e t o b e pr ov isioned, and hence 100 0 Et her net in t er f aces h ave t o be t er m inat ed in t h e Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and CO. This m odel is v ery in ef ficien t an d does not scale w ell in t er m s of equipm ent or m anag em ent . w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion The XC w ill be load ed w it h phy sical Fast Et h er net in t erf aces, and t h e ph ysical connect ivit y is un man ageable. ical solut ionf orf or t his p rob lem is net t o int r odu egat ion of t ech Lear n fr om The t h e log easy - t or ead mat t hat enables w or kin gcep aggr r ofessionals allniques lev els t o insideun t hderst e crossconnect using Et hern et VLANs an d t o agg regat e m ult iple Et h er n et cir cuit s ov er a an d t h e concep t s single Gig abit or 10 Gigabit Et h er net int erf ace w here each cir cuit is in div id ually ident if ied. While such tGain echn fr iques possible, w ould inv olvem en t of tCisco r anspor t v en s on t he om t ar heeexp er iencet hey of indu st r yminean novm ator oreand best - selling Pr ess audor t hor , Sam dat a sid e, w hich is challengin g fRou r omt ing an Ar operat ionur ales per spect iv e, esp ecially in t h e U. S. Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et ch it ect Figur anem ex er amge ple ich tt hareea XCofaggrgrow egtat EOSindu cir cuit ov derwaillsingle Met r oe n2et8w sh or kows s w ill asint hwh e nex h es for t he t hedniff eter went or k ing st r ys an Et h er n et int er face t hat connect s t o an Et her net sw it ch . For t his t o hap pen, t h e XC need b e s. r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cus stt oomer able t o logically separ at e t h e indiv idual EOS cir cuit s w hen pr esent in g t hem t o t he Et h er n et The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as sw it chb.uilt This eeds t ot he be st done e yt ran affdicavailabilit sent f romy tneeds he Et hern sw it Car ch troiers t hewXC er t o been t onhan dle r ing benecause t r eliabt hilit f or vetoice. ill hov ave tgo he t hr GEoug porht fnun eeds t o be t agged w it h t he r ight cir cuit I D t o r each t he cor r ect dest in at ion. On e dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed m etent hod t o hcust ave om t heerXC t ag consum indiv idual cuitis sw it h only a VLAN I D nology b ef or e shif send t o in t he by er is pr ise s and er s.cir This not a t ech t , ing bu tt he alsot r af a fic sh ift the Et h er n et swit ch. Ot her cur r ent im plem en t at ions p ut t he w hole Et her net br idg ing fun ct ion inside oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o t heerXC it selfced t o allow t h evices. m ult iple EOS st r eam s t o be ag gr eg at ed ov er a sing le in t erf ace w hen off enhan dat a ser leaving t h e t r anspor t equ ipm en t . This h as all t h e sig ns of f uelin g an ong oing indu st r y d eb at e ov err owh f unetct fion s reside in ess w hich asloy t he dat aofv met en dor t r anspor st ar Met Etat hern r om Cisco Pr lookequ s atipm t heendt ep m ent r o sdand at a serv ices tfr vend om aors holist ict st epping on each ot h er ' s t oes. v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices.

Figu r e 2 - 8 . EOS Aggr e gat ion I nside Tr a nspor t Equ ipm e nt

Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, full andsize delves [ View im age]int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

An obv ious benef it of a t ran sp ort ser v ice t hat giv es each cu st om er it s ow n TDM circuit is t hat t he cust om er is guar ant eed t he f ull b andw idt h . The m et r o car rier s t hat sell SONET/ SDH cir cuit s h ave dealt w it h t h is mod el for y ear s and k now f ull w ell how t o sub st an t iat e t he SLAs t hey sell. When t his m od el is used w it h VCAT, w hich enables carr iers t o t ailor t h e size of t he circu it t o t he The d efer init e guidcar e trier o Ent er prrise anedgr Carr o Et et appand licatoff ions. cust om ' sivneed, s can ealiz eat ier banMet dwridt h hern eff iciency er fir m QoS gu aran t ees. How ev er , y ou n eed t o w eigh t his w it h t h e com p lex it y of m anaging t h e m ult it ude of addit ional TDM cir cuit s t hat h ave t o b e pr ovisioned, b ecau se all t hese new cir cuit s n eed t o be crossDiscover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and connect ed in t he net w ork . w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o derst an d t h e concep ts EOSunwith Packet Multiplexing at the Access Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam The p r ev ious ex amp le assu mes t h at each cust om er in t he b uilding get s an indiv idual TDM cir cuit . Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Anot h er alt er nat iv e is f or t he ser vice pr ov ider t o in t r oduce pack et m ult iplex in g in t h e access sw ser overider cant hachiev savgring h aving mw ult st omster shar Metitrch o .n The et w or k svice w ill pr em ge as e nex tearcost ea of owst hbyfor t he n et oriple k ingcuindu r ys an d weillt he sam e TDM cir cuit . Th ese cost sav in gs t r anslat e int o low er cost for t he basic connect ivit y st ser vices. r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu omer pr ov ided t o t he cu st om er . The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o Figur e 2- 9 sh ows a scen ario wh er e, in t he sam e 50 - buildin g m et r o, each b uilding has an STS- 1 go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed ( DS3 ) link t h at is shar ed by all 2 0 cust om er s in each building . This g reat ly r educes t he num ber by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e of TDM cir cuit s t hat h ave t o b e pr ovisioned, b ecause all cu st om er s in t he sam e buildin g shar e t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o sam e STS- 1 cir cuit t ow ar d t he CO. Th is redu ces t h e t ot al TD M cir cu it s fr om 1 000 t o 50. Not ice off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. t hat 50 Et hern et por t s st ill n eed t o b e t erm inat ed in t he CO if t he cr oss- con nect does not hav e tMet aggr o ing pack - muCisco lt ip lexPring Et or hern et fet r om esscapabilit look s aties. t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he r e 2 -car 9 . r ier EOS wface it h in Pack et M ul t tip t hess e Acce ss v ices. dr iv er s an d Figu challenges s w ill t r ansfor m ing helemxi etng r o t oataddr dat a ser Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit [ View h afull chan sizeging im age] m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 58 705 -0 96 -X Packet I SBN: mu lt1iplex ing in t he last m ile is y et anot her increm ent al st ep t hat t he m et r o car rier s w ould 24 0 t o mov e in t he d irect ion of deliv ering sw it ched Et her net serv ices. Alt hou gh t his hav e tPages: o adopt m odel r educes t he n um ber of TDM circuit s t hat need t o be pr ov ision ed , it int rod uces issues of circuit over subscrip t ion an d SLA g uar ant ees. Tr af fic f rom m ult iple cust om er s w ou ld be figh t ing for t he STS- 1 link , and on e cu st omer w it h a Fast Et her net ( 1 00 Mbp s) int er face could easily ov er subscr ibe t he 45- Mbps link . Th e carr ier w ould need t o use t ech niqu es such as t r af fic policing and aff ic iv shapin ab o sell cust omMet er sr ot ier b andw idtlicat h . These The dt ref init e guidget ot obe Ent erleprtise an dit sCarr ier Eted hern et app ions. t ech niques ar e discussed in Ch apt er 3, " Met r o Et her net Ser vices, " as par t of a discussion abou t b andw idt h par am et er s d ef ined b y t he Met ro Et h er net For um ( MEF) . Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion

EOSLear with Switching n fr Packet om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat

t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s The d iscussion t hus f ar has addr essed t he ab ilit y t o deliver a basic point - t o- point leased- line or Gain fr om t he ervice. ienceMor of eindu r y ced in nov at or and best - selling Cisco ess au t hor I nt er net - connect ivit yexp ser ad st van VPN serv ices can also be delivPr ered ov er a , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es SONET/ SD H m et ro net w or k t hat supp ort s EOS. W it h a VPN serv ice, t he assum pt ion is t hat dif fer en t locat ions of t h e " same" cu st om er ex ist in a m et r o area, an d t he cust om er w ant s t o be Met s w ill locat em erions ge as t arnea t h for et wvice or k ring indu r y an dsw w ill abler ot on tet iewtor o kt hese viat haevnex irt ual et woforgr k .ow This t y pet he of nser equir es stpacket it ching . rOf epcour r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu se, if all t he cust om er w ant s is a point - t o- point ser v ice, n o sw it ch in g is requ ired. st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt o han dle he dsteliv r ingeren eliab an dofavailabilit needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o Packet sw ittching can t be edt rusin g ilit eityher t w o m et hyods: go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e Cent r alized it chingmod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o oper at ional an d bsw usiness off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Local sw it ching Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er with s an d Centralized challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. EOS Switching Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s Wit h cen t ralized sw it ching , a TDM cir cu it is p rov ision ed f rom each bu ild in g t o t h e CO. All cir cuit s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book ar e t erm inat ed in t he CO, w hich is w here t he pack et sw it ch ing happ en s. Not e t hat t he st an dar d t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s SONET/ SD H oper at ion in u nidir ect ional pat h sw it ch ed r ings ( UPSRs) is t o h ave act iv e circuit s an d ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic pr ot ect cir cu it s on t he ot h er side of t he r ing t o achiev e t he 5 0- m s r ing failur e. So, in t he met r o engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . t hat has 50 building s, 50 act ive STS- 1 s and 50 p rot ect STS- 1 cir cu it s are pr ovisioned. Also n ot e t hat in case t h e XC does not su ppor t packet t agg in g or sw it ching , 50 Et hern et int er faces need t o be con nect ed t o t he Et h er n et swit ch at t he CO. I n Figur e 2- 1 0, cust om er A in sit es 1 an d 2 belongs t o VPN A, w hile cust om er B in sit es 1 and 2 belongs t o VPN B.

Figu r e 2 - 1 0 . EO S w i t h Cen t r a li ze d Sw it chi ng [ View full size im age]



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

EOS with Local Switching Wit h local sw it chin g, pack et sw it ch ing occur s on each n ode in t he r ing . The d iff er ence her e is The ef initcircuit iv e guid er pr an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat t hat dTDM s areet on oEnt long erise pr ovisioned bet w een t he b uildings andions. t he CO b ut are in st ead pr ov isioned ar ound t h e r in g. Each ADM in t he b uilding t erm inat es cir cu it s for bot h east and w est , and pack et s get sw it ched at t h e local sw it ching f unct ion in t he basem en t of t h e building , as Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and show n in Figur e 2- 1 1. I n t his case, SONET/ SDH r in g pr ot ect ion is not used. Th e met r o car r ier w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion m ust r ely on higher - level p rot ect ion. I n t he case of L2 Et hern et , t his m eans im plem en t ing st andar d spann ing- t r ee m ech anism s, such as t he Spannin g Tr ee Pr ot ocol ( STP) , or som e ot h er Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o pr opr iet ar y m echan ism s t h at t h e Et h er net sw it ch vend or off ers. For ex amp le, STP w ould block un derst an d t h e concep t s one side of t he r ing t o p rev ent a br oadcast st or m . Also not e in Figur e 2- 1 1 t hat in each AD M, a sep arat e Etfrhom er net t erfer ace is dedicat each TDM cir cuit get s Cisco t er minPratess ed ,au unt hor less, Sam t he Gain t heinexp ience of indued st rtyo in nov at or and bestt hat - selling ADM Halabi, it self has pack it ching t oit ect ag gr auat hor ofetI -nsw t ern et Rouf unct t ing ion Ar ch ureg esat e t h e t r aff ic t ow ard t h e buildin g. I f m ore ban dw idt h is needed f or t h e buildin g, VCAT can b e used t o agg regat e mor e cir cu it s w hile st ill m akin t hem Met r o gn et w or klook s w illlike emaersin gegle as pip t h ee.nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays bFigu een ar e challengin env onm t f or deliver 2 - 1 1 . gEO Sirw i t henLocal Sw iing t chdat inagser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s.[ View Thisfull is size not im only age]a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

A v ar iat ion of local sw it ching is t o in t eg r at e t he Et her net sw it ching fu nct ion an d t he ADM/ EOS fu nct ion in t o on e box , as show n in Figur e 2- 1 2.

Figu r e 2 - 1 2 . A Va r ia t i on of EO S w it h Local Sw it chi ng



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X

I n t hisPages: case,24t0he TDM circuit s ar e st ill t er m in at ed at each sw it ch / ADM box on t he rin g. The benefit of t his m odel is t hat it r ed uces t he n um ber of box es deploy ed in t he n et w or k ; h ow ev er, it blur s t he line b et w een t h e oper at ion of d at a an d TD M n et wor k s. You pr obab ly realize by n ow w hy m et r o car rier s t hat ar e used t o SONET/ SD H pr ov ision in g wou ld like ayivclose sam - p r ier ovisioning odel. t er mions. s " spann in g t ree" an d The tdoefst init e guidt oe tthoeEnt ereprold ise circuit an d Carr Met r o Etmhern et The app licat " br oadcast st or m s" g iv e m et r o oper at or s t he j it t ers, b ecau se t hese ar e ent er pr ise t er m s t h at sound v ery t hr eat enin g f or car rier s t hat ar e boun d t o st r ict SLAs. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion

EOSLear Interfaces in the n fr om t h e easy - t o- rData ead f orEquipment mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s So f ar , t his chap t er has d iscussed d if fer en t scen ar ios for h aving an EOS int er face w it hin t he Gain fr om t he of indu st r y in tnov or ar and best Pr ess au t hor t r anspor t eq uipm entexp . Therisience sect ion discusses he at scen io in wh- selling ich t h e Cisco EOS int erf aces ar e, pSam art of Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es t he dat a eq uipm en t r at h er t han t he t r an sp ort equipm ent . I n t h is mod el, t he t r anspor t eq uipm ent does n ot hav e t o deal w it h m apping t h e Et h er net fr am es car r ied in t he SONET/ SDH p ayload ; t h e Met r osw n et w or k sequip w ill em er gedoes as t thheatnex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill dat ait ching ment inst ead. r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. m et r o asf aces alw ays b een a dat challengin g env en t nf orin deliver v ices because it h as The EOS in ht er inside t he a equipm ent ir , onm as show Figur eing 2- 1dat 3, a ar ser e SONET/ SDH been b uilt w t oit han t he st enion t r eliab y antdh eavailabilit needs f or in v oice. iers w illSDH h ave t o int er faces h a dle m appin g rf ing unct t hat ilit m aps EOS fr amy es carr ied side Car t he rSONET/ go tload hr ougt oh an f unEt dam t o equ ip t h em et roe for er at ion sersw v ices demlogic and ed pay h eren n ett alfr shift am e.s The Et her net f ram is innext t ur-ng en pr esent ed dat t o at he it ching by ent er ise acust om er ent s and s. This only a t ech nology shif t ,int buert face also can a shsupp ift in ort the inside t hpr e dat eq uipm . Asconsum in t h e er case of t r is annot sp ort equipm ent , t he EOS oper at ional an dant b usiness modmelodel t hatiswt ill t heit ch incum b enctt ion car,rier t o t ran m ,t he VCAT. Th e adv ag e of t his hatallow t he sw ing fun t h es EOS funsfctorion andmet t h er o t o off er enhan ceds dat serinvices. VCAT fun ct ion ar eaall t he sam e box an d are decou pled f rom t he TD M b ox, wh ich m ay alr ead y be in st alled in t h e net w or k. This allow s t he d at a equ ip m en t t o hav e bet t er cont r ol ov er m apping o Et Cisco Pr ess look s at t heSDH d epcir loycu mitent of met ro m d at a serv ices fr om- t ao-holist ic tMet he rdiff erhern ent et datfar om st ream s ov er t he SONET/ s. Wit h t his odel, m ult ipoint vmiew I t descr ibes t he rr ent m et r o, wcan h ichbeisdeliv based on ef TD M t echnolog d discu ult .ipoint sw it ch ed Et cu hern et ser v ices er ed ficient ly wh ile y,levan erag in g tsses he ext he ist ing dr iv er s SONET/ an d challenges ill This face also in t r fansfor ingw tithe r orrt ent o addr ess ion datal a ser v ices.in legacy SDH infr car ast rr ier uctsurwe. it s betm t er h tm heetcu operat m odel, w hich t ran sp or t and d at a ar e m anag ed sep ar at ely . Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book r e erg 2 - in 1 3g .t rend EO S in t delves he Daint t ao Equ ip m t hen exam ines cur r en Figu t an d em s, and t h e role of en v ir tt ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . [ View full size im age]



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03

The p r ev I SBN: iously 1- 58 705 m en -0 96 t ioned -X EOS scen ar ios are bound t o creat e a lot of d eb at es and con fusion in t he in dust r y . From a t echnology perspect ive, all opt ions ar e v iable, assu m in g t he v en dor Pages: 24 0 equipm ent is capable of d eliv er ing t he ser vices. Fr om a bu siness per sp ect iv e, t he ow n er ship of t he EOS in t erf ace det er m ines w ho m akes m oney on t he sale: t h e dat a- sw it ching v en dor s or t h e t r anspor t vend ors. You w ill see num erou s debat es f r om bot h ends about w here t he EOS serv ices and f unct ions such as VCAT st art and t er m in at e. The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Resilient Packet Ring RPR also play s an im por t ant role in t h e developm ent of dat a ser vices in t he m et ro. RPR is a n ew Media Access Cont r ol ( MAC) p rot ocol t hat is desig ned t o opt im ize ban dw idt h m anagem ent and t o facilit at e t h e deploy ment of dat a ser v ices ov er a r ing net w or k. The r oot s of RPR g o back t o t he •point at w hich Table of Content s s ad opt ed a pr op riet ar y Dat a Pack et Tr ansp ort ( DPT) t ech nology t o Cisco Sy st em •opt im ize pack I ndex et r ings for r esiliency and ban dw idt h m anagem en t . DPT fou nd it s w ay int o t he I EEE Me Et her nekg t rou p, w hich led t o t he cr eat ion of an RPR st andar d t hat dif fer s fr om t h e init ial DPT 80 tr 2.o17 w or app roach. By Sam Halabi RPR has so far b een a v er y at t r act iv e ap pr oach t o m ult iple ser v ice operat or s ( MSOs) , such as Pub lish er: Cisco Press cable oper at or s t hat ar e aggr egat in g t r af fic f rom cab le m odem t erm inat ion sy st em s ( CMTSs) in ober 0 1, 20 03 t he Pub metDat r o.e: IOct t rem ains t o been seen w het her RPR w ill b e deploy ed by t he incum b en t car rier s, I SBN: 158 705 -0an 96 -X such as t he RBOCs d I LECs, t h at so f ar hav en' t b een w id ely at t ract ed t o t h e RPR concep t . The Pages: 24 0 wh y t hey lack int er est is t hat t hey v iew RPR deploym ent s as new deploy m en t s, pr im ary reason com par ed t o EOS deploy ment s, w h ich lever age exist ing inf r ast r uct u re and are t heref ore mor e evolu t ion ar y. RPR is a new p ack et - r ing t ech nology t h at is d ep loy ed over d ark f iber or w av eleng t h div ision m ult iplexin g ( WDM) in st ead of t h e t r adit ional SONET/ SDH r ing s. RPR cou ld b e deploy ed as an ov er lay ov er ex ist ing SONET/ SDH infr ast r uct ur e; h ow ev er, t he com plexit y of ov erlay ing logical ysical SONET/ SDHierr ings r obably n ot beions. t oo at t r act iv e t o m any The d efRPR init ivreings guidover e t o ph Ent er pr ise an d Carr Met rwill o Etphern et app licat oper at or s. Alt houg h RPR an d EOS solv e dif ferent issu es in t h e m et r o ( EOS solv es Et h er net ser v ice deploym ent , and RPR solv es ban dw idt h ef ficiency on packet ring s) , bot h t echnologies w ill com pet Discover e for t he t hm e lat et ro estprdevelopm ov ider' s m ent ind s in shar m et e. ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Figur e 2- 1 4 sh ows a t y pical RPR deploy m en t w it h a cab le operat or . Th e CMTSs aggr egat e t h e t r aff icLear comin n frgom ov er t h et he easy coax - t o-ial r ead cable f orfmat rom tbusinesses hat enablesan net dw h omes or kin gan pd r ofessionals h and ov er of t healldat leva els port toion ( assum unin derst g t he ancable d t h e is concep car r ying t s v oice/ v ideo as w ell) t o t he RPR r out er . Mult iple RPR r out er s connect v ia an OC48 pack et r in g, an d t he t r aff ic get s ag gr eg at ed in t he cor e hu b, w h er e I nt er net Gain t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam connect ivitfr y om is est ablished. Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es

Figu r e 2 - 1 4 . RPR D ep loym e n t s

Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen is exam enet com an d m em erg associat in g t rended s, wand o t hwe itrole v ir t ualwh p er r iveas at e EOS n et wis or k s RPR somines eh owcur mror only it h delves rou t er sint t han h swofit ches, (mVPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic or e com m only associat ed w it h sw it ches t h an r out er s. The r eason f or t h ese associat ions is t hat engineer in g, an dhas MPLS andeploy d Generalized DPT hist orically b een ed u singMPLS Cisco( IGMPLS) P r ou t er. s f or deliver ing r out ed I P ser v ices ov er a pack et r ing. While t he I EEE 802 .1 7 st an dar ds b ody w ould like t o m ake RPR independent of Lay er 2 ( L2 ) sw it ch ing or Lay er 3 ( L3) r out ing , t he fact r em ain s t hat RPR has so far b een adop t ed f or L3 serv ices. Also, m any r out er s lack t he r igh t f unct ionalit y t o deliver L2 ser vices, wh ich m ak es EOS m or e su it able f or sw it ches. Again, w hile t he t echn olog ically sav vy r eader m ight ar gue t hat L2 or L3 cou ld b e deliv er ed w it h eit h er t echn ology —and t her e ar e ex ist ing plat for m s t h at sup por t

bot h L2 an d L3 ser v ices—ser vice pr ov ider adop t ion w ill b e t he d et er m ining fact or in how each t echnology w ill m ost lik ely be used. I n com par ing RPR w it h t r adit ional SONET/ SDH ring s, you w ill r ealize t hat RPR deploym ent s hav e m any ad van t ages sim p ly becau se RPR is a pr ot ocol b uilt f rom t he g rou nd up t o su ppor t dat a r ings. Th e follow ing sect ions d iscuss sever al feat u res of RPR. •

Table of Content s

RPR Packet • I ndexAdd, Drop, and Forward Me tr o Et her ne t

The RPR operat ion consist s of t hr ee basic oper at ion s: add , dr op, and for w ar d. Th ese oper at ions By Sam Halabi m imic t he add / dr op mechan ism s t h at ar e used in t r adit ion al SONET net w or ks, w her e circuit s get add ed , dr opp ed , and cr oss- connect ed in side a r ing. Pub lish er: Cisco Press

Oct ober 0 1,RPR 20 03 h as ov er a t r adit ional Et her net sw it ched packet rin g is t h at Et her net ThePub ad Dat vane:t age t hat I SBN: 158 705 -0 96 80 2. 3 MAC op er at ion -X pr ocesses pack et s at each n ode of t h e rin g ir r espect iv e of w het her t he 24 0 ion is behind t h at nod e. I n cont r ast , RPR 8 02. 17 MAC f orw ar ds t he t r af fic on t he pack etPages: dest inat r ing w it hout doing any in t erm ediar y swit chin g or buf fer ing if t he t r aff ic does not belong t o t he nod e. This r ed uces t he am oun t of w or k ind iv idu al nodes h ave t o do.

I n t he RPR op er at ion sh ow n in Figur e 2- 1 5, t r af fic t h at d oes n ot b elong t o a p art icular node is t r ansit ed ( f or w ard ed ) on t he rin g b y t he 8 02. 17 MAC. I n t he Et hern et 80 2. 3 MAC op er at ion, t he The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. t r aff ic is pr ocessed an d b uf fered at each node for t h e swit chin g f un ct ion t o det er m ine t h e exit int er face. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or ry e our2 -or1gan ion Add, D r op, a nd For w a r d Figu 5 . izat RPR Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s [ View full size im age] Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book RPR's ad van t age er t aan SONET/ SDH at all t h e pack t hepring t hen exam ines curov r en d em erg in g rting rendiss,t hand delves int oett hs ecom roleing of int v irot ual r iv atshar e n etewt h orek s fu ll- ring b andw t h earRPR m echan m an,ages t hep briv andw idt h allocat ion( VPLS) t o av oid ( VPN) , v ir t ual pidt rivhat, eand local ea net w or ksism ( VLAN) v ir t ual at e LAN ser v ices , t r aff ic congest sp otan s. dI nGeneralized a SONET/ SDH r in (g,GMPLS) TD M t im engineerion in g,and an dhot MPLS MPLS . e slot s ar e allocat ed t o each cir cuit , and t h e band w id t h is rem ov ed f rom t he r ing w het her t h er e is t r af fic on t hat circuit or not .

RPR Resiliency

RPR of fers rin g p rot ect ion in 5 0 m s, com par able w it h t he t rad it ion al SONET/ SDH p rot ect ion. RPR fast pr ot ect ion w it h fu ll- r ing ban dw idt h ut ilizat ion is pr obab ly one of t he main asset s t hat RPR has wh en com par ed t o SONET/ SD H and ot h er p acket - pr ot ect ion m echanism s. RPR pr ot ect ion is achiev ed in t w o w ay s: Ri ng w ra ppi ng— Th e r ing is pat ched at t h e locat ion of t h e fau lt . •

Table of Content s

ndex Ri ng stIee ri ng— I n case of failur e, t he t raf fic is r edir ect ed ( st eer ed ) at t he sou rce t ow ar d Me tr o tEt herwor ne t k ing por t ion of t he r ing . he •

By Sam Halabi

I n general, t he ph ysical layer d et ect s f ault s an d sign als t hat in for m at ion t o t h e MAC layer . I f t he failur e is d et er m ined t o be cr it ical, each aff ect ed RPR node in it iat es a f ail- ov er act ion f or t h e er: Cisco Press ser vPub icelishflow s it or iginat es t hat are af fect ed b y t he f acilit y ou t age. Th e fail- ov er act ion is a sim ple Pub Dat e: of Octtober r ed irect ion he t0r1,aff20ic03fr om t he f ailed pat h t o t he pr ot ect ion pat h. The pr ocess of alar m I SBN: 158 -0 96ect -X ing t r aff ic is comp let ed w it hin 50 m s of t he ou t age. not if icat ion and705 r edir Pages: 24 0

Figur e 2- 1 6 com par es and cont r ast s RPR and SONET/ SDH. I n t he SONET/ SDH UPSR schem es, for ex am ple, 50 - m s pr ot ect ion is achieved by h aving a w ork ing f ib er and a st and by pr ot ect f iber at all t im es. A send ing node t ran sm it s on bot h f ibers ( east and w est ) at t he sam e t ime, an d a r eceivin g n ode accep t s t r aff ic fr om on ly one side. I n case of a fiber cut , recover y is don e in less t han 5 0 m s. I n UPSRs, only 50 per cent of t he fiber capacit y is used, b ecause t h e ot her h alf is The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. k ep t f or failur e m od e. I n RPR, bot h f ib er rin gs—t he ou t er rin g an d t he inn er ring —ar e used t o ut ilize 10 0 percent of t he r ing capacit y. I n case of a f ailu re, t he r ing w rap s, isolat ing t h e failed por t ion. So, in tessen h e eff ect ivent e band w et id tro h of RPR ice as mMPLS uch as Discover h e latce, est tdevelopm s in m netan w or kingr ,ing Et hisertnwet , and seravSONET/ ices andSDH r ing becau se of t he SONET/ SDH p rot ect ion. w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- rFigu ead f or net kinion g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o r emat 2 - t1hat 6 . enables RPR Pr otweorct un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st [r View y in nov at orimand full size age]best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s RPR Fairness t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s RPR a at f air n ess ar algor hm t oks g iv( VLAN) e ev er ,y vnod e on t he fairv ices shar (eVPLS) of t he, trin g.icRPR ( VPN)im , plement v ir t ual psriv e local ea it net w or ir t ual p riv at er ing LANa ser r aff uses accessm echan s t o en surMPLS e fair (ness and . t o b ound lat ency on t he r ing . The access engineer in g, con an dt rol MPLS an d ism Generalized GMPLS) cont r ol can be b rok en in t o t w o t y pes, wh ich can be app lied at t he sam e t im e: Globa l a cce ss cont r ol— Cont r ols access so t h at ev er y n ode can get a fair shar e of t h e r ing' s global band w id t h.

Loca l access cont rol — Gives t h e node addit ional rin g access—t hat is, ban dw idt h beyon d w hat w as globally allocat ed —t o t ake ad van t age of segm en t s t h at ar e less- used. RPR uses t he sp ecial r euse pr ot ocol ( SRP) , w hich is a concep t used in r ing s t o in cr ease t he r ing' s ov er all ag gr eg at e ban dw idt h. This is possible because m ult iple span s of t he r ing can be used simu lt aneously w it hout hav ing t he t r af fic on one sp an af fect t h e t r aff ic on t he ot h er sp ans. I f a nod e ex per ien ces cong est ion, it not if ies t he u pst ream n odes on t he r ing , w hich in t ur n adj ust t he t r ansm it r at e t o r elieve d ow nst r eam con gest ion . •

Table of Content s

•I t h elp s t o cont I ndex r ast ring b andw idt h f airn ess b et w een RPR an d L2 Et her net r ing s. I n t h e case of Me oh Eter her ne trin g an trEt net

w it h L2 sw it ch ing, t here is no such t hin g as ring f airn ess, because t he QoS decisions By Sam Halabi are local t o each n ode, irr espect iv e of w hat is on t he r ing . You can use r at e- limit in g t echniqu es t o pr ev en t a set of cu st om er s w ho are com ing in on on e nod e fr om ov ersub scr ibing t he Pub rinlish g; er: h ow ev er, Cisco Pressit w ould be h ar d t o hav e a global f airn ess m echanism w it hou t r esor t ing t o comPub plicat ed QoS man agement soft w ar e app licat ions t hat w ould coor din at e bet w een all nod es. Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Figur e I21 7 sh ows t hr ee diff er ent scenar ios f or SONET/ SDH UPSR, RPR, and L2 Et hern et r ings. 24 0 SDH case, if an STS- 1 is allocat ed , t he ring loses an STS- 1 w or t h of band w id t h, I n t hePages: SONET/ ir respect iv e of act ual t r aff ic. I n t he Et her net case, t r aff ic fr om A t o C and f rom B t o C m igh t ov er subscr ibe t he cap acit y of t he poin t - t o- point link bet w een sw it ches SW2 and SW3. I n t he RPR case, t he MAC ent it y on each nod e m onit or s t he ut ilizat ion on it s im m ed iat e link s and m akes t h at inf orm at ion av ailab le t o all n odes on t he r ing . Each node can t hen sen d m or e dat a or t h r ot t le back The d. ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions.

Figu r e 2 - 1 7 . Rin g Ba nd w i dt h

Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion [ View full size im age]

Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Ethernet Transport So f ar , t his b ook has ad dr essed t he r eason in g b eh ind adopt in g Et her net as an access int er f ace r at her t h an a TDM int erf ace. But as discu ssed in t h is sect ion, Et her net isn' t lim it ed t o being an access t echnology . Many eff ort s hav e been m ade t o ex t en d Et her net it self in t o t h e MAN as a •t r anspor t t echn Table of Content s t he ear ly 20 00s, m et r o Et h er n et deploy ment s hav e t ak en m any ology . Since •shapes an d f Ior ndex ms; som e h ave pr oven t o w or k , and ot h er s hav e n ot . When Et h er net is used as a Me tr o Et her t t r anspor t ne t echn ology , t he access net w ork can be b uilt in eit her r in g or hub - and - sp oke t opologies. These ar e discu ssed next . By Sam Halabi Pub lish er: Cisco Press

Gigabit Hub-and-Spoke Configuration Pub Dat e:Ethernet Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X

I n a Gigab Pages:it24Et 0 hern et hu b- and - sp oke con figu rat ion , Et h er net sw it ches d ep loy ed in t h e basement of bu ild in gs ar e d ual- hom ed in t o t h e nearest p oint of pr esence ( POP) or CO. Dedicat ed f iber, or dedicat ed w av elen gt hs usin g WDM, is u sed for con nect iv it y . Alt hou gh t his is t h e m ost exp en siv e app roach for met r o access deploym ent s b ecau se of t h e cost of fib er , som e carr ier s con sid er it t o be t he bet t er solut ion as f ar as sur viv abilit y and scalabilit y com par ed t o d ep loy ing Et hern et in a r ing t opology ( descr ibed in t he next sect ion) . Wit h t he hu b- an d- spok e m odel, t he b andw idt h The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. dedicat ed t o each b uilding can scale, becau se t he f ull f ib er is dedicat ed t o t he b uilding . Pr ot ect ion sch em es can be achieved v ia m echan ism s such as link ag gr eg at ion 8 02. 3ad or d ual hom ing . Wit h lin regat ion , t w o f ibers aggr oa bigg pipeMPLS t h at ser conn ect sand t o t he Discover t h ke agg lat est developm ent s in mare et ro netegat w or ed kingin, t Et h er n eter , and v ices CO. Trwaff load - balanced bet w he tion w o fiber s, and if one f iber is dam aged, t he ot h er hatic tis hey can do f or y our oreen gan tizat absor bs t h e fu ll load. Th is, of cour se, assu mes t h at t he t w o f iber s ar e ru n in t o t w o diff erent conduLear it s t no tfrhe bet-tter ot ect . This io is n ing Figur e 2- 1 8 f orof t h connect omCO t h ef oreasy o- rpr ead f orion mat t hatscenar enables netshow w or kin p r ofessionals alle lev els t oion bet w een bu ildan ing t he CO. un derst d t1h eand concep ts Gain fr om t he exp Figu er ience ort and best selling Cisco r eof2indu - 1 8st.r yEtinhnov er at ne H ub a -nd Spok e Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Anot h er appr oach is t o d ual- hom e t he fiber int o dif fer en t sw it ch es at t h e CO, as show n in Figur e 2- 1 8 f or b uildings 2 an d 3 . Alt hou gh t his p rev en t s a sing le point of failur e on t he sw it ching side, it cr eat es mor e com plexit ies, because STP m ust be r un bet w een t h e buildin gs and t h e CO,

causing t r aff ic on on e of t he d ual- hom ed lin ks t o be block ed.

Gigabit Ethernet Rings Man y fiber d ep loy m ent s in t he m et r o ar e laid in r ing conf ig ur at ions. Con sequ en t ly, rin g t opolog ies ar e t h e m ost nat u ral t o im plem en t an d r esult in cost savin gs. How ev er, t he sit uat ion •dif fer s dependin Table s g of onContent w het her y ou ar e dealin g wit h U. S. carr iers or int er nat ional car r ier s, •incum bent s, Ior ndex gr eenf ield s. Ring deploy ment s could b e ext r em ely cost - eff ect iv e for one car rier Me her ne t bu tr t oa Etnonissue f or anot h er . For ex ist ing f iber laid ou t in a r ing t opolog y, Gigabit Et h er net ring s arSam e a ser ies of p oin t - t o- poin t conn ect ions b et ween t he sw it ch es in t h e bu ild in g basem ent s an d By Halabi t he CO, as sh ow n in Figur e 2- 1 9. As sim ple as t h ey mig ht look , Gig abit Et her net r ings may creat e lish m er: an yCisco issues Pub Pressf or t he operat or s b ecause of p rot ect ion and band w id t h lim it at ions. Fir st of all, r ing cap acit y cou ld b e a m ajor issue. Gig abit Et her net r ings hav e only 1 GB of cap acit y t o Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 shar e bet w een all b uildings, an d som e of t h at capacit y is not av ailab le becau se sp anning t r ee I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X block s por t ions of t h e r in g t o p rev en t loops. Pages: 24 0

Figu r e 2 - 1 9 . Gi gab it Et h er n et Rin gs

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Wit h an Et her net L2 sw it ched operat ion , t he rin g it self becom es a collect ion of point - t o- point Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic link s. Ev en w it hou t a fiber cut , sp annin g t r ee block s por t ions of t h e r ing t o p rev en t b road cast v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he st or ms cau sed by loops ( see Par t A of Figur e 2- 2 0) . Br oadcast st or m s occu r , for ex am ple, w hen dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. a p acket w it h an un kn own d est inat ion r eaches a node. Th e nod e floods t he pack et ov er t he r ing accor in hern g t o et st and ard br idg as dref 80serv 2. 3dices . I f tand herehow is at loop e net or ks Met r odEt d iscusses t heing adoperat opt ionion of met o ined Et herinnet hat hin ast h led carwr ier (t oin t the hisd case, t he r ing) , t he p ack et could end up being r eceived and for w ar ded by t h e sam e n ode eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book ov er and over . The sp anning t r ee alg orit h m uses cont r ol p ack et s called br idge pr ot ocol dat a t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s un it s (, BPDUs) er loops lock h em . Sp r ee nor m ally es (bVPLS) et ween and ( VPN) v ir t ual pt orivdiscov at e local ar ea and net wbor ks (t VLAN) , vannin ir t ual gp triv at e LAN ser vt ak ices , t r30 aff ic 60 secon ds t o con ver ge. The new 80 2. 1W Rapid Spann ing Tr ee allow s f ast er conv er gence but engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . st ill doesn't com e close t o 50 m s. Many p rop riet ar y algor it hm s h ave b een int r odu ced t o achiev e r ing con ver gence in less t h an 1 secon d, w hich m any oper at or s v iew as good en ough f or dat a ser v ices an d ev en f or Voice over I P ( VoI P) ser v ices. How ev er , because L2 swit chin g cann ot oper at e in a loop en vir onm ent , man y of t hese algor it hm s st ill need t o block r ed und ant pat hs in t he rin g t o pr event br oadcast st or m s, and ar e not con sid er ed as r eliable as RPR or SONET/ SDH pr ot ect ion m echanism s t hat ar e m ore car r ier - class. Wh en a fiber cut occu rs, span ning t r ee

r ead ju st s, an d t he new p at h bet w een t he d iff er ent nodes is est ablish ed , as show n in Part B of Figur e 2- 2 0.

Figu r e 2 - 2 0 . Gi gab it Et h er n et Rin gs—Spa nn in g Tr e e



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Alt houLear gh 10Et her- net ing sf or wmat ould t allev iat e t he net cong est ion es, init ial of solut fort o10n fr Gig om abit t h e easy t o- r read hat enables w or kin g pissu r ofessionals all ion levsels GE swun it ch es are cost pr ohib it iv e. I nit ial equ ip m en t w it h 10GE in t erf aces w as d esign ed f or core derst an d t h e concep t s net w or ks rat her t han bu ild in g access. As 10- GE solut ion s m at ur e and t heir p rices are redu ced t o fit t heGain building - GE rin w illstbecom ea fr om access, t he exp10 er ience ofgs indu r y in nov atvoriable and solut best ion. - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Ot h er met h ods, such as deployin g W DM, could be u sed t o add cap acit y on t h e r ing. I t is debat lewworhet hodt hs earnex e cost ef fect iveowf or ent s, t h ey Met r oab n et k sher w illsuch em ermet ge as t ar-ea of gr t h pr forimt ehet ime n et wdeploym or k ing indu st rbyecause an d w ill incr ional erh ead deploy access . r ep rease esentt haemoper ajoratsh if t inovhow dat aofser v icesing ar et he off ered t o rbing usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Conclusion So f ar , y ou h ave read about dif fer en t t echnolog ies t h at can be u sed for phy sical m et r o connect ivit y . Et her net ov er SONET, RPRs, and Et hern et t r anspor t are all viable m et hod s t o deploy a m et r o Et her net ser vice. Et h er net over SONET pr esen t s a v iable solut ion for deployin g •Et h er n et ser vTable s ist in g in st alled base. You h ave seen h ow v irt ual concat enat ion allows ices of ovContent er an ex •bet t er eff iciency I ndexand b andw idt h gr an ularit y wh en m app ing Et her net p ipes over SONET/ SDH Me tr o EtRPR her neist a pack et - r ing t echnology t hat is at t r act in g m u ch int er est fr om MSOs because it r ings. solves m any of t h e r est or at ion and ban dw idt h ineff iciencies t hat ex ist in SONET/ SDH r in gs. By Sam Halabi Et h er n et as a t ran sp ort t echnology is also a simp le and eff icient way t o d ep loy Et her net serv ices; howPub evlish er ,er:b yCisco it self, t his solut ion inher it s m any of t h e deficien cies of L2 sw it ch ed Et hern et Press net w or ks. Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03

SBN: ionalit 1- 58 705y-0st 96ill-Xneeds t o be of fer ed on t op of m et r o eq uipm ent t o deliver r ev en ueMu ch fIunct Pages: 24 0 v ices such as I nt er net connect iv it y and VPN serv ices. Et hern et , for ex am ple, has gener at ing ser alw ays been used in a sin gle- cu st om er env iron m en t , such as an ent er pr ise net w or k. I t is now m ovin g t o a mu lt icust om er env iron ment in w hich t h e same eq uipm en t d eliv er s ser vices t o dif fer en t cust om ers ov er a sh ared carr ier net w or k. I ssues of v ir t u alizat ion of t h e ser v ice an d ser v ice scalabilit y become maj or issu es. Et her net ov er MPLS ( EoMPLS) is b ecom ing a v iable solut forivdeep loying le ise m etan r od Et herier netMet serrvices. Th eetMPLS cont r ol p lan e deliver s m ost of The dion ef init guid e t o scalab Ent er pr Carr o Et hern app licat ions. t he fun ct ion alit y t hat is lack ing in Et her net sw it ched n et wor k s as f ar as scalabilit y and r esiliency . Ch apt er 3 d iscusses m et r o Et her net ser vices and Lay er 2 sw it ching , in pr ep arat ion f or Ch apt er 4, w hichDiscover discusses t h deliv e lat est er indevelopm g Et her net ent ovs er in hy m br et ro id Et net her w or net king an,dEtI P/ h er MPLS n et , n and et wor MPLS k s. ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion

Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Chapter 3. Metro Ethernet Services This chap t er cov er s t he f ollowin g t opics: • •

Table of Content s

L2 Sw it ching Basics I ndex

Me tr o Met Et her neEt t hern et ro

Serv ices Concept s

By Sam Halabi

Ex am ple of an L2 Met r o Et hern et Serv ice Pub lish er: Cisco Press

Ch alleng es w it h All- Et h er net Met ro Net wor k s

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 96 -X As discussed in 705 Ch-0apt er 1, " I nt rod uct ion t o Dat a in t he Met r o, " Et hern et ser v ices can t ak e eit h er of t w oPages: f or ms: 24 0a r et ail ser v ice t hat com pet es w it h t r adit ional T1 / E1 pr ivat e- line ser vices, or a w holesale ser vice w her e a car r ier sells a big Et h er n et t r anspor t p ipe t o anot her , sm aller serv ice pr ov ider. I n eit her case, m u lt ip le cu st omer s shar e t he sam e m et r o inf r ast r uct u re and eq uipm ent . For TDM deploy ment s, sh arin g t h e inf rast r uct ur e is a non issue, because t he ser vices ar e lim it ed t o selling t r anspor t p ip es, an d each cu st omer is allocat ed a cir cuit t hat isolat es it s t r af fic f rom ot herd ef cust erise get s dw Carr ell- dier ef ined main dict at ed by t he cir cu it t hat is The initom iv eers. guidTh e et ocust Entom er pr an Met rSLAs, o Et hern et lyapp licat ions. pu rchased.

WhenDiscover pack et mt hult g an d sw itent ching lied, suking ch as t he swit ched EOS, e iplexin lat est developm s in ar meetapp ro net w or , Etinh er n etcases , andofMPLS ser v ices and Et h er n et Tr anspor t , and RPR, t hin gs chan ge. Packet s f rom diff erent cust om er s ar e m ult iplex ed w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion ov er t he sam e pipe, an d t he ban dw idt h is shar ed . No p hy sical b ound aries separ at e one cust om er ' ns tfrr aff an-ot her' s, only logical ound aries. of cust om er r afflev ic els andt o Lear omict hfreom easy t or ead f or mat t hat benables net wSepar or kinat g ion p r ofessionals of tall pack et qu eu in g t echn iques hav e t o be u sed t o ensu re QoS. Mult ip le fun ct ion s hav e t o be w ellun derst an d t h e concep t s defin ed t o off er a ser v ice: Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es How t o ident ify diff er ent cust omer s' t r affic over a sh ared pipe or sh ar ed net w or k Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill How taomident for ce ser vice ar giv o a ptar lar cu st om r ep r esent ajor ify sh ifand t in en how datt aheser v ices e en offtered o bt icu usinesses anderr esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as b andw idt h ilit t o ya an spdecific cust om been How b uilt ttoo allocat han dlee t cer he tstain r ing en t r eliab availabilit y er needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed How t o " t r anspar ent ly " m ov e cust omer s' t r affic bet w een diff er ent locat ion s, su ch as in t h e by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e case of t ran sp ar en t LAN ser v ices oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er How enhant oced dattah e sernu vices. scale mb er of cu st om er s Met r oHow Et hern f r om aCisco Pr ess s at hes dan epy-loy ent connect of met r ivit o d yatfor a serv fr om a om holist t o et deploy VPN ser v icelook t hat offter t o-many t h eices same cu st er ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv erchap s antderchallenges car r ier s g w ill in t rof ansfor t heswit m et r o tgo t addr ser vwices. This st art s by discussin t heface basics L2 Etmhing er n et chin o famess iliardat izea you it h Et h er n et - sw it ching concep t s. Then it discusses t h e dif ferent m et ro Et h er net ser v ice concept s as Met r o Etced hern adetopt ion m of (met r o. Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s int r odu byett hdeiscusses Met r o Ett he hern Foru MEF) t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

L2 Switching Basics L2 sw it ch ing allow s p acket s t o be sw it ched in t he net w ork based on t heir Media Access Cont r ol ( MAC) add ress. When a p ack et ar r ives at t he sw it ch, t h e swit ch check s t h e pack et ' s dest inat ion MAC add ress and , if kn ow n, sends t h e pack et t o t he out put por t fr om w hich it learn ed t h e •dest inat ion MAC. Table of Content s •

I ndex

Me tr ot wo Et her t The fune ndam ent al elem en t s in Et her net L2 sw it ching ar e t he MAC addr ess and t he v ir t ual LAN (ByVLAN) . I n t h e same w ay t hat I P r out ing r ef erences st at ions on t he net w ork s v ia an L3 I P Sam Halabi add ress, Et h er net L2 sw it chin g r efer en ces end st at ions v ia t he MAC add ress. How ev er, unlik e I P, in w hich I P ad dr esses ar e assign ed by adm inist rat or s an d can be reused in dif fer en t p riv at e Pub lish er: Cisco Press net w or ks, MAC ad dr esses ar e su pposed t o be uniqu e, becau se t hey ar e indicat iv e of t he Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 har dw ar e it self . Thu s, MAC addr esses should not be assigned by t he net w or k adm inist r at or . ( Of 1- 58e705 -0 96 -Xt h e MAC addr esses can be ov er w r it t en or dup licat ed, b ut t his is not t he cour se,I SBN: in som cases 24 0 nor m .Pages: )

Et h er n et is a b road cast m ed iu m . Wit hou t t h e con cept of VLANs, a br oadcast sent b y a st at ion on t he LAN is sent t o all p hy sical segm ent s of t h e sw it ched LAN. Th e VLAN con cept allows t he seg m en t at ion of t h e LAN int o log ical ent it ies, and t r af fic is localized w it hin t hose logical ent it ies. For ple, univ y cam can be allocat ed lt ip leetVLANs—one d ed icat ed for f acult y , The exam d ef init iv e aguid e ersit t o Ent er pr pus ise an d Carr ier Met r omEtuhern app licat ions. one d ed icat ed for st udent s, an d t he t hir d dedicat ed f or v isit or s. Br oadcast t r aff ic w it hin each of t hese VLANs is isolat ed t o t hat VLAN. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and Figur ew hat 3- 1 tsh ows t hedoconcept Etizat her ion net LAN using a h ub ( Par t A) and an Et her net sw it ch hey can f or y ouroforan gan ( Par t B) . Wit h an Et her net h ub, all st at ion s on t he LAN shar e t he sam e p hy sical segm en t . A 10Mb ps Lear hu b,n ffr orom exam br oadcast d unicast affw icorbet t h e st at ionsoft hall at lev shar t h eple, easyallow - t o- rsead f or mat an t hat enablest rnet kinwgeen p r ofessionals else ttoh e 10 - Mbp s band w id t h. Th e sw it ch ed LAN on t he r ight allow s each seg ment a 100 Mbps con nect ion un derst an d t h e concep t s ( f or t his ex amp le) , and it segm en t s t he LAN in t o t w o log ical dom ains, VLAN 10 and VLAN 20. Th e concep Gain t of frVLANs om t he is exp independ er ience enof t of indu t h est st r yatinions nov at t hem or and selv best es. The - selling VLANCisco is anPrallocat ess auion t horby , Sam the sw it chHalabi, . I n t his auexam t hor ple, of I npt ern ort set1Rou an dt ing 2 arAr e ch allocat it ect ur edest o VLAN 10, w h ile p or t s 3 and 4 are allocat ed t o VLAN 2 0. Wh en st at ions A1 an d A2 sen d t raf fic, t h e swit ch t ags t he t r af fic w it h t he Met r o assign n et w ored k st o w ill ererge as tan h ed nex t es ar ea gritow t h for t he n et wbased or k ingonindu y an dnum w ill ber . VLAN t heem int face m ak t heofsw ching decisions t hatst rVLAN r ep r esent ajort raf sh iffic t in a seris v ices ared e off eredt r taff o bicusinesses and VLANs. r esident ial cu st omer s. The r esult aismt hat w ithow h in adat VLAN isolat f r om w it hin ot her The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o Figu r e 3 - 1 . Et he r ne t M ACs an d VLANs go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The iv echin guidg eint clud o Entesertpr an d ing Carrbier r o Et hern Et h erdnefetinit swit heise f ollow asicMet concept s: et app licat ions. Discover MAC lear nt hineglat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Flooding Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o Using b road and mtult un derst an d tcast h e concep s icast Ex panfrding he exp net er w ork w itof h indu t r un ks Gain om tthe ience st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es VLAN t aggin g Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill The naeed for tsh heif tSp Traeeser Prvot ocolar(eSTP) r ep r esent m ajor inanning how dat ices off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed MAC Learning by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o MAC lear n in g allow s t h e Et h er net sw it ch t o lear n t he MAC add resses of t h e st at ions in t he off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. net w or k t o id en t ify on w hich por t t o sen d t he t r aff ic. LAN sw it ches nor m ally keep a MAC lear nin g tMet able orhern a b ridg t able) anPr d ess a VLAN t able t hefr MACs/ VLANs r o( Et et f reom Cisco look st able. at t heThe d epMAC loy mlear entning of met r o dassociat at a serves ices om a holist ic w it h a giv en p or t , and t he VLAN t ab le associat es t he p ort w it h a VLAN. I n Figur e 31 , Par t B, t he v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he swiv it er chs has ned t he car MAC ads dr ion s A1, A2t,he B1, and on p ess ort s dat 1, a2 ,ser 4, van d 3, dr an dlear challenges r ier w esses ill faceofinsttat r ansfor m ing m et r o B2 t o addr ices. r espect iv ely . I t also show s t hat por t s 1 and 2 are associat ed w it h VLAN 10 and por t s 3 and 4 ar e associat witeth dVLAN 20 . t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s Met r o Eted hern iscusses t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic Flooding engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . I f t he sw it ch r eceiv es a pack et w it h a d est inat ion MAC add ress t hat does not exist in t h e br idge t able, t h e swit ch sen ds t h at p ack et ov er all it s int er faces t hat belong t o t he sam e VLAN assigned t o t he int er face w her e t h e packet cam e in fr om . Th e swit ch does not flood t h e fr am e out t he p or t t hat gener at ed t he or iginal f r ame. Th is m echan ism is called flooding. I t allows t he f ast deliver y of pack et s t o t h eir dest in at ion s even befor e all MAC ad dr esses hav e been lear ned b y all sw it ch es in

t he net w ork . Th e dr aw back of flood in g is t hat it consum es swit ch and net w or k r esour ces t hat ot her w ise w ou ldn' t h ave b een used if t h e swit ch had alr ead y lear ned w hich p or t t o send t h e pack et t o. VLANs m inim ize t he ef fect of f looding because t hey concen t r at e t he flooding w it hin a p ar t icu lar VLAN. Th e sw it ch uses t he VLAN t ab le t o m ap t he VLAN nu m ber of t he p ort on w hich t he pack et ar r iv ed t o a list of por t s t hat t he packet is flooded on. •

Table of Content s



I ndex

Using Broadcast and Multicast Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Br oadcast is used t o enab le client s t o discov er r esou rces t hat ar e adv ert ised b y ser v er s. Wh en a ser v er adv er t ises it s ser v ices t o it s client s, it sen ds br oad cast messages t o MAC ad dr ess FFFF Pub lish er: Cisco Press FFFF FFFF, w hich m ean s " all st at ions. " End client s list en t o t he br oadcast and pick up on ly t he Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 br oadcast s t h ey ar e in t er est ed in, t o m inim ize t heir CPU u sag e. Wit h mu lt icast , a su bset of I SBN: 705 -0 96 -X br oadcast , a1- 58 st at ion sends t raf fic on ly t o a gr oup of st at ions an d n ot t o all st at ions. Br oadcast 24 0add resses ar e t reat ed as unk now n dest inat ions and are flooded over all p or t s and mPages: ult icast w it hin a VLAN. Som e higher - lay er p r ot ocols such I GMP sn ooping help mit ig at e t he f looding of I P m ult icast pack et s over an L2 sw it ched n et w or k b y ident ify ing w hich set of p or t s a p ack et is t o be flood ed on. The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions.

Expanding the Network with Trunks Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and So f arwyhat ou thav seendot he sing le ion L2 sw it ch. An L2 Et her net - swit ched net w or k w ould heye can f orcase y ouroforagan izat consist of m any int er connect ed sw it ches w it h t r u nk por t s. Th e t r unk p ort s ar e sim ilar t o t he access pornt sfruom sedt ht e o easy con nect atmat ions;t hat howenables ev er , t hey hav e t he ded t ask ofofcar t raf Lear - t o- rend ead stf or net w or kin g pad r ofessionals allr yin levgels t ofic com inun g derst in f rom man y VLANs in t he net w ork . Th is scenar io is show n in Figur e 32 . Tr un k por t s an d t h e concep t s could con nect Et h er n et swit ches b uilt b y diff erent v en dor s—h en ce t he n eed for st an dar dizat ion for VLAN Gaint agging fr om t he m ech expanisms. er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es

Figu r e 3 - 2 . Tr un k Por t s

Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book It hen n Figur e 3-ines 2 , sw it ches and e s, assign access w it of h VLAN access p ort exam cur r en t SW1 an d em ergSW3 in g thav rend and ed delves int op ort t h e 1role v ir t ual10p rand iv at e n et w or ks 2 w it h, VLAN Por is a ar t r unk p ort used, vt oir conn t o eotLAN h er ser sw itv ches t he ,n tetr aff w or ( VPN) v ir t ual20p.riv at te 3local ea net w ort hksat( is VLAN) t ual pect riv at ices (in VPLS) ick . Not e t h atinSW2 t he m an idddleGeneralized has no access por(t GMPLS) s an d is . used only t o int er con nect t r un k por t s. engineer g, anin d MPLS MPLS You can see t hat t he sim plicit y of sw it ched Et h er net becom es ext r em ely com plex because VLAN assig nm en t s need t o be t rack ed in side t he net w or k t o allow t he r igh t t r af fic t o be sw it ch ed on t he r ight por t s. I n Fr am e Relay, ATM, an d MPLS, similar com plexit ies do exist , an d sign alin g is int r odu ced t o solv e t he n et wor k conn ect iv it y issu es. Et hern et has not d ef ined a signaling pr ot ocol. The only m echan ism s t h at Et hern et net w or k s hav e ar e t hir d- p art y applicat ions t h at sur f

t he net w ork and mak e it easier t o d o som e VLAN allocat ions. Wh ile t hese mechanism s w or k in sm all en t er p rise env iron ment s, t hey imm ediat ely became sh ow st op pers in lar ger ent er pr ise deploy m en t s and car rier net w or k s. Ch apt er 4 d iscusses LDP as a sign alin g m echanism f or deliver ing Et h er net ser vices. Ch apt er 7 d iscusses RSVP- TE and it s use in r elat ion t o scaling t he Et h er n et ser v ices.

• Table of Content s VLAN Tagging •

I ndex

Me tr o 8 Et02. her 1Q ne t I EEE

defin es how an Et h er n et fr am e get s t ag ged wit h a VLAN I D. The VLAN I D is assig b y t he sw it ch and not t he end st at ion. Th e swit ch assig ns a VLAN n um ber t o a por t , an d By Samned Halabi ever y pack et r eceived on t hat por t g et s allocat ed t hat VLAN I D. The Et hern et sw it ch es sw it ch pack etlish s bet w eenPress t he sam e VLANs. Tr af fic bet w een d if fer ent VLANs is sen t t o a r out in g f un ct ion Pub er: Cisco w it hin t he sw it ch it self ( if t he sw it ch sup por t s L3 f orw ar ding ) or an ex t ern al r out er . Figur e 3- 3 Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 show s how t he VLAN t ag s get inser t ed inside t he un t agged VLAN packet . I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X

Pages: 24 0

Figu r e 3 - 3 . VLAN Ta gge d Pa ck e t

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill The u nt ag ged Et hershnet et consist s vofices t heardeest inat iont oMAC add ressand and r sour ce MAC ess, r ep r esent a m ajor if t pack in how dat a ser off ered b usinesses esident ial cuaddr st omer s. a Ty pe and e dat a. The 80 2. 1Q t g agenv header t ed bing et w dat eenat hser e vsour MAC it h as The m etfield r o h, as alwt hays b een a challengin ir onmget en ts finser or deliver icescebecause add and h e Typ field. I t con s ofilitay2-an bydt eavailabilit Ty pe field an d a f2e Tag Cont r olwIill nfho ave f ield. beenress b uilt t o than dle et he st r ing en t sist r eliab y needs orbvytoice. Car r iers to The 2 -oug by t eh Ty f ield t os 0X81 00ipt ot hind e an 02. 1Q t ag Thveices 2- by t e Tag go t hr f unpe dam en tis alset shift t o equ e micat et ro for 8next - g en erged at ionp ack datet a .ser dem and ed Con t rolerIpr nfo of tconsum h e 3 leftermost bit sisind in gat ht ech e 80nology 2. 1P pshif r ior tit, ybu ant dalso t hea12 by ent isefield custcon om sist er s sand s. This noticat only sh ift in t h e roper ightat m ional ost b itan s dindicat ing t mod h e VLAN t agw ill I D.allow The 80 1P field es rier t he sEtt oher netsfporack t o reight b usiness el t hat t he2.incum b eng tivcar t ran m et t heu pmet o to dif t pr ior leva els hat can b e used t o of fer dif ferent levels of ser v ice wit h in t h e net w or k. off fer er en enhan cedit ydat sertvices. The 1 2- b it VLAN I D f ield allow s t he assig nm ent of u p t o 40 96 ( 2 12 ) VLAN n um bers t o d ist ing uish o Et f r om Cisco packet Pr ess look tMet he rdiff erhern ent et VLAN t agged s. s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he Met o sEtan hern et app licatcar ions requ ex t ension s t o L2 sw itt ching e n otess defdat in ed in tvhe dr ivrer d challenges r ier s wirille face in t r ansfor m ing he m ett hr oatt oaraddr a ser ices. st andar d s. An ex amp le is t he ab ilit y t o do VLAN st ack ing—t hat is, t o do m ult iple VLAN t aggin g t o Met o Etehern et det iscusses he ad met rofo VLAN Et her net and as L2 ledswit carchin r ier sg t he rsam Et hern pack et t and cropt eation e a of st ack I Ds.serv D iffices er ent en how t it iest hat can hdo ton o tthe d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book he d iff er ent lev els of t he VLAN st ack . Cisco Sy st em s calls t his con cept Q- in- Q, sh ort for t hen exam anow d em in g et rend 80 2. 1Qin-ines 8 02. cur 1Q,r en as t sh n inerg Figur 3- 4 . s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS Figu r e 3( -GMPLS) 4 . Q- .i n- Q

•As show n, anTable of Content s f r am e can b e t agged again t o cr eat e a h ier ar ch y. The sim plicit y of alr eady t ag ged •Et h er n et , t heI ndex lack of st andar dizat ion f or m any such ex t ensions, t he reliance on STP, and t h e Me o Et her ne exptrlosion of t MAC

addr esses cont r ibu t e t o t he lack of con fidence of m any pr ovider s in deploy in g a lar ge- scale, By Sam Halabi all- Et her net n et wor k . VLAN t ag su ppor t is discu ssed mor e in t he sect ion " VLAN Tag Su ppor t At t r ibut e. " Pub lish er: Cisco Press

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X

The Need for the Spanning Tree Protocol Pages: 24 0 L2 Et hern et - sw it ched net w ork s w or k on t he b asis of MAC ad dr ess lear ning and f lood ing. I f m ult iple p at hs ex ist t o t h e same dest in at ion, and t h e pack et has an u nk now n dest in at ion , pack et flood in g mig ht cau se t he pack et t o be sen t b ack t o t h e or ig inal sw it ch t h at p ut it on t he n et wor k , causing a b road cast st or m . STP pr event s loop s in t he net w or k by block ing r ed und ant pat hs and The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. ensur ing t hat only one act iv e pat h ex ist s bet w een ev er y t w o sw it ch es in t h e net w or k. STP uses br idg e pr ot ocol dat a un it s ( BPDUs) , w hich ar e cont r ol p ack et s t h at t r av el in t h e net w or k and ident ifDiscover y w hich p h en ce porent t s, sneed o ro benet b lock t hat e h, latan estd developm in mtet w ored. king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion The n ex t sect ion cov ers in d et ail t he Et hern et ser v ices concept s as defined by t h e Met r o Et h er n et Foru mLear . n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Metro Ethernet Services Concepts The Met r o Et her net For um is a non pr ofit org anizat ion t hat has b een act iv e in defin in g t he scope, concep t s, and t er min olog y for deployin g Et her net serv ices in t h e met r o. Ot her st andar ds bodies, such as t he I nt er net Eng in eer ing Task For ce ( I ETF) , h ave also d ef ined way s of scalin g Et her net •ser v ices t h rou Table gh tof heContent use ofs MPLS. W hile t he t er m inologies m ig ht diff er sligh t ly, t he concept s an d •dir ect ion s t akI ndex en by t hese diff er ent bodies ar e conv er gin g. Me tr o Et her ne t

For Et hHalabi er net ser v ices, t he MEF def in es a set of at t r ibu t es and par am et er s t hat descr ibe t he By Sam ser v ice and SLA t hat ar e set b et ween t he m et r o carr ier and it s cust om er. Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03

Ethernet I SBN: 1-Service 58 705 -0 96 -X Definition Pages: 24 0

The MEF def in es a User - t o- Net w or k I n t erf ace ( UNI ) and Et h er net Vir t u al Conn ect ion ( EVC) . The UNI is a st and ar d Et her net int er face t h at is t h e point of dem arcat ion bet w een t h e cu st omer equipm ent and t he ser vice pr ov ider 's m et r o Et hern et net w or k. The EVC is defined by t h e MEF as " an associat ion of t w o or m or e UNI s." I n ot her w or ds, t he EVC The d efical init ivt unn e guid t o con Ent er pr ise Carr Met hern et sit app ions. t he t ran sfer of is a log el tehat nect s t wan o d( P2 P) ier or m or reo( Et MP2 MP) es,licat enabling Et h er n et fr am es bet w een t hem . The EVC also act s as a separ at ion bet w een t he d iffer ent cust om er s an d p r ovides d at a pr iv acy and secur it y similar t o Fram e Relay or ATM p er m anent Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and v irt u al circuit s ( PVCs) . w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion The MEF has defined t w o Et hern et ser v ice t yp es: Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Et he rn et Li ne Se rv ice ( ELS) — Th is is basically a point - t o- point ( P2P) Et her net ser vice. Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au tLAN hor of n t ern t ing chisit ect Et he rn et SeI rv i ce et ( E-Rou LAN ) —ArTh is aurmesult ip oin t - t o- m ult ipoin t ( MP2 MP) Et her net ser v ice. Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill rThe ep r esent a mLin ajor sh if t ice in how dat v ices e off eredt w t oobsu usinesses and cu steomer s. Et her net e Serv pr ov id esa aser P2P EVCarbet w een bscr iber s, simr esident ilar t o aialFram Relay The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as or p riv at e leased- line ser vice ( see Figur e 3- 5 ) . been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed e 3 - 5 er . Et he r is nenot t Se r via ce by ent er pr ise cust om er Figu s and rconsum s. This only t echConce nology pt shifst , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Figur e 3- 5 also illust r at es t he E- LAN, w h ich pr ov ides m ult ipoint connect ivit y b et w een mu lt ip le subscr ib er s inetexact t h e same an ner and ep Et hloy er m net - swofit ched w or k . An E- LAN ice ic Met r o Et hern f r omlyCisco Pr essmlook s at as t he ent met r on et d at a serv ices fr omser a vholist off ers t he m ost f lex ibilit y in pr ovid in g a VPN serv ice because one EVC t ou ch es all sit es. I f v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t hea n ew sitiv e er is sadd t o t he VPN, e new e parint icipat es in t he tEVC aut om ic conn iv it y t o dr an dedchallenges cart hr ier s w illsitface t r ansfor m ing he man et rdohtas o addr essatdat a serect v ices. all ot h er sit es. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g and t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s Ethernet Service Attributes Parameters ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . The MEF has developed an Et her net serv ices fr am ew or k t o help sub scr ibers and ser v ice p rov ider s hav e a com m on nom enclat ur e w hen t alk ing abou t t h e dif ferent ser v ice t yp es and t heir at t r ibut es. For each of t h e t w o ser vice t y pes, ELS and E- LAN, t he MEF h as defined t he f ollow in g ser v ice at t r ib ut es and t h eir cor r espon ding par am et er s t h at d ef ine t h e cap abilit ies of t h e ser v ice t y pe:

Et h er n et phy sical int erf ace at t r ibut e Tr aff ic par am et er s Perf or man ce par am et er s Class of ser v ice par amet er s • •

Table of Content s

Serv ice I fr am e deliver y at t r ibut e ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t

VLAN t ag su ppor t at t r ib ut e

By Sam Halabi

Serv ice m ult iplexing at t r ibu t e Pub lish er: Cisco Press

Bun dling at t r ibut e

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Secu rit y filt ers at t rib ut e Pages: 24 0

Ethernet Physical Interface Attribute The Et her net p hy sical int er face at t ribu t e has t he f ollow ing par am et ers: The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. P hy si ca l m ed ium — D ef ines t he phy sical m edium per t he I EEE 802 .3 st and ar d. Ex am ples Discover t h e T, lat10 est0BASEdevelopm ent s100 in 0BASEm et ro net ar e 10 BASET, and X. w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Sp ee d— D ef ines t he Et her net speed: 10 Mbp s, 100 Mb ps, 1 Gbp s, or 10 Gbp s. Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst t h e es concep t s t f or f ull du plex or half du plex and supp ort for aut ospeed Mod e—an I nddicat sup por negot iat ion bet w een Et hern et por t s. Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, ofecifies I n t ernw ethich RouMAC t ing Ar ch it ect ur es MA C la yau ert hor — Sp layer is sup por t ed as specified in t h e 802 .3 - 20 02 st andar d . Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as Traffic Parameters been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed The MEF has a sset of consum b andw idt of iles t h atonly can abet ech ap plied at shif t het ,UNI t o an by ent er pr ise defined cust om er and erhs.prThis is not nology bu t or also a shEVC. ift inAt h e ban idt h pr is a limitmod on elt he r at w e ill at allow w hicht he Et her net bf ram es can sesft or hemUNI t h reo t o operdw at ional anofile d b usiness t hat incum en t car rier st rav t o ter ran t heormet EVC. Adm inist inga t h e vices. band w id t h pr ofiles can b e a t r icky business. For P2 P conn ect ions w h er e off er enhan cederdat ser t her e is a sing le EVC bet w een t w o sit es, it is easy t o calculat e a band wid t h pr ofile comin g in and Met rof out o Et t he hern p ipe. et fHow r om ev Cisco er , for Pr ess t he look cases s at w ht he er edaepmloy ultmipoint ent ofser met v ice r o is d at d aeliv serv er ed ices and fr om t her a eholist is t he ic vpossibilit iew . I t descr y of hav ibesing t hemu cultrriple ent EVCs m et r o, onwt hhe ichsam is based e phy sical on TD in M t erf t echnolog ace, it becomes y, an d discu d ifficult ssest ot he dr detiver ermin s anedt he challenges b andw idtcar h pr rof ier silew of ill face an EVC. in t rIansfor n su chmcases, ing t helim m it eting r o ttoheaddr b andw ess idt dathapser rof ile v ices. per UNI m ight be m or e pr act ical. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s The t o t he Ban d eliv dw idt er yh of Pr ofile m et roserv datice a ser at tvr ices. ibut esWit arhe aaschan f ollow ging s: m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic I ngriness and egr essanb dandw idt h pr of ile per (UNI engineer g, an d MPLS Generalized MPLS GMPLS) . I ngr ess and egr ess b andw idt h pr of ile per EVC I ngr ess and egr ess b andw idt h pr of ile per CoS id en t ifier I ngr ess band w id t h pr ofile per d est inat ion UNI per EVC

Eg ress ban dw idt h pr ofile p er sou rce UNI per EVC The Ban dw idt h Pr ofile serv ice at t r ibut es consist of t he follow ing t r affic par amet er s: CI R ( Com m i t t e d I nfor m a t i on R at e ) — Th is is t he m inim um guar ant eed t hr oug hput t h at t he net w ork mu st deliver f or t he ser vice un der nor m al op er at ing condit ion s. A ser v ice can supp ort Table a CI of Rp er VLAN on t he UNI in t er f ace; how ev er , t he sum of all CI Rs shou ld n ot • Content s exceed t h e phy sical por t speed. Th e CI R has an add it ion al par am et er associat ed w it h it • I ndex called t he Com mit t ed Bur st Size ( CBS) . The CBS is t h e size u p t o w hich su bscriber t raf fic is Me tr o Et her ne t allow ed t o bur st in pr of ile an d not b e discard ed or shap ed . The in - pr ofile f ram es ar e t hose By Sam Halabi t hat m eet t he CI R an d CBS par am et er s. The CBS m ay b e sp ecified in KB or MB. I f , f or exam ple, a su bscriber is allocat ed a 3- Mbps CI R and a 500 - KB CBS, t he sub scr iber is Pubgu lisharan er: Cisco t eedPress a m inim um of 3 Mbps an d can bu r st up t o 500 KB of t r af fic an d st ill r emain Pub e: Oct ober 0 1, lim 20 03 w Dat it hin t he SLA it s. I f t h e t r aff ic bur st s ab ove 5 00 KB, t he t r affic may b e dr opp ed or delay I SBN:ed 1- .58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

P I R ( P e ak I nfor m at i on Rat e ) — Th e PI R sp ecifies t he rat e abov e t he CI R at w hich t r af fic is allow ed int o t he n et wor k an d t hat may g et deliver ed if t h e net w or k is not con gest ed . The PI R has an addit ion al par am et er associat ed w it h it called t h e Max im u m Bur st Size ( MBS) . The MBS is t h e size u p t o w hich t he t r af fic is allow ed t o bu rst w it h out being discar ded. The MBS can be sp ecified in KB or MB, sim ilar t o CBS. A sam ple ser v ice may pr ovide a 3- Mbps The dCI ef init iv e -guid e t o Ent pr ps ise PI anR,d and Carr ier MetMBS. r o Et Ihern et case, app licat R, 500 KB CBS, 10-erMb 1- MB n t his t heions. f ollow ing b eh avior occur s: - Tr aff ic is less t h an or eq ual t o CI R ( 3 Mbps) — Tr af fic is in pr ofile w it h a g uar ant eed Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and deliver y. Tr affic is also in p rof ile if it bu rst s t o CBS ( 500 KB) and m ay be dr op ped or w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion delay ed if it b ur st s beyon d 5 00 KB. Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o - Tr aff ic is m ore t han CI R ( 3 Mbps) and less t h an PI R ( 10 Mb ps) — Tr af fic is ou t of un derst an d t h e concep t s pr of ile. I t may get deliver ed if t h e net w or k is not con gest ed and t h e bur st size is less han t MBS ( 1erMB) . of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Gain frt om he exp ience Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es - Tr aff ic is m ore t han PI R ( 1 0 Mbps) — Tr af fic is d iscar ded. Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o Performance Parameters go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by pr iseancust er s and onlyy aexp t ech nology by shift he t , bu t alsoiber. a shThey ift in t h e Theent p ererf orm ce pom ar amet er s consum indicat eert s. h eThis ser vis icenot q ualit er ienced subscr oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met ro t o consist of t he f ollow in g: off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r oAv Etailab hernilit et yf r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv erDelay s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r oJit Ett er hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book Loss ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s t hen exam ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Availability Av ailab ilit y is sp ecified by t he follow ing ser vice at t r ibu t es:

U N I S er vi ce Act iv at i on Tim e— Sp ecifies t h e t im e fr om w hen t he new or m odif ied ser v ice or der is placed t o t he t ime ser vice is act ivat ed and u sab le. Rem em ber t hat t he m ain v alu e pr oposit ion t hat an Et her net ser vice claim s is t h e abilit y t o cu t d ow n t h e ser v ice act iv at ion t im e t o hour s v er sus m on t hs w it h r espect t o t he t rad it ional t elco m odel.



U N I M ea n Tim e t o Re st or e ( MTTR) — Sp ecifies t h e t im e it t ak es fr om w h en t he UNI is un available t o w hen it is r est or ed. Unav ailabilit y can b e caused by a failur e such as a fiber cut . Table of Content s



ndex EV C SeIrv ice Act i va t i on Ti m e — Sp ecifies t h e t im e fr om w hen a n ew or m odified ser v ice placed t o w hen t he serv ice is act ivat ed and usable. The EVC ser vice act iv at ion t im e By Sambegins Halabi w hen all UNI s ar e act ivat ed. For a m ult ipoint EVC, for ex am ple, t he ser vice is considered act ive w h en all UNI s are act iv e and op er at ional. Me tr o or Et her derneist

Pub lish er: Cisco Press

EVC Av ai la bi li t y — Sp ecifies h ow oft en t he su bscr iber 's EVC m eet s or ex ceeds t h e delay, loss, and jit t er serv ice perf or m ance over t h e same measur ement int er val. I f an EVC does I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X not m eet t he p er f orm ance cr it er ia, it is con sid er ed unav ailable.

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03

Pages: 24 0

EVC ( MTTR ) — Sp ecifies t h e t im e fr om w hen t he EVC is unav ailable t o wh en it becom es av ailab le again. Many r est or at ion m echan ism s can be u sed on t he p hy sical lay er ( L1) , t he MAC layer ( L2) , or t he n et w or k lay er ( L3) . The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions.

Delay Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and Delay is a cr it ical par am et er t h at sign if ican t ly im pact s t he qualit y of ser v ice ( QoS) f or r eal- t ime w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion app licat ions. D elay h as t r adit ionally been specified in one dir ect ion as one- w ay delay or end - t oend delay. bet w- een t w o fsit t he enables met r o is net an waccum ion of delay of s, st t ing Lear n The fr omdelay t h e easy t o- r ead or es matint hat or kin gulat p r ofessionals allarlev elsfrtom o one UNI at one end , going t h rou gh t he m et r o n et w or k , and goin g t hr ough t he UNI on t h e ot her un derst an d t h e concep t s end. The delay at t he UNI is af fect ed by t he line r at e at t he UNI conn ect ion and t he su ppor t ed Et h er n et fr fr am e size. Forerex am ple, a UNI ion 10 Mb ps an dCisco 1 518Pr - by t e au f ram e ,size Gain om t he exp ience of indu st r yconnect in nov at or wit andh best - selling ess t hor Sam w ouldHalabi, cause 1. millisecond s) of t r ansm delay ( 151 8 * 8 / 10 6 ) . au2t hor of I n t ernset( mRou t ing Ar ch itission ect ur es The r ownoretkws or k item self addit on nt et hewnoretkwor b ack e dspeed Met rm o et n et w ill erin get rod as uces t h e nex t arional ea ofdelays gr ow t hb ased for t he ing kindu st bon r y an w ill and level of cong est ion. Th e delay per for m ance is defin ed by t he 9 5t h per cent ile ( 9 5 p er cent ) of t hes. r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer delay of successfully d eliv er ed egr ess fr am es over a t im e int erv al. For ex amp le, a delay of 15 s The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it hmas ov er 24 hour s m eans t h at ov er a p er iod of 24 hou rs, 9 5 p er cent of t he " deliv er ed" fr am es h ad a been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o onew oug ay delay of less han orsequal s.et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed go t hr h f un dam en t tal shift t o equt oip1t5h emm by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e The er is used e follow ing at tt he r ibut es: b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o operdatelay ionalp ar anamet d b usiness modinelt ht hat w ill allow incum off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. I ngr ess and egr ess b andw idt h pr of ile per CoS id en t ifier ( UNI ser v ice at t ribu t e) Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . Class I t descr t he ( cu rr ent et r at o,t rwibu h ich of ibes ser v ice EVC ser vmice t e)is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s Jitter t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s Jit ( VPN) t er is , vanot ir t ual her p riv par atam e local et er ar t hat ea af net fect w or s ks t h e( VLAN) ser v ice, vqirualit t ualy.p riv Jit tat ere is LAN alsoser k now v icesn (as VPLS) delay , t r aff ic vengineer ariat ion in . Jit g, t an er dhas MPLS a v er anydad Generalized ver se ef fectMPLS on r eal( GMPLS) t im e ap . plicat ion s su ch as I P t eleph ony . The jit t er p ar amet er is used in t h e follow ing ser v ice at t rib ut es: I ngr ess and egr ess b andw idt h pr of ile per CoS id en t ifier ( UNI ser v ice at t ribu t e) Class of ser v ice ( EVC ser v ice at t r ibu t e)

Loss Loss ind icat es t h e per cent age of Et h er net fr am es t hat are in - pr ofile an d t hat ar e n ot r eliab ly deliver ed b et w een UNI s ov er a t im e int er val. On a P2P EVC, for ex amp le, if 1 00 fr am es hav e been sent fr om a UNI on on e end and 90 fr am es t hat ar e in p rof ile hav e been r eceiv ed on t h e •ot her end , t he Table s ( 100 – 90 ) / 100 = 10% . Loss can h ave ad ver se ef fect s, depend in g lossof wContent ou ld be •on t he ap plicat I ndex ion . App licat ions su ch as e- m ail and HTTP w eb br ow ser r equ est s can t oler at e m or Me tr oe Et loss her ne t han t VoI P, for ex am ple. The loss par am et er is used in t he f ollowin g at t rib ut es: By Sam Halabi

I ngr ess and egr ess b andw idt h pr of ile per CoS id en t ifier ( UNI ser v ice at t ribu t e) Pub lish er: Cisco Press

Class ( EVC Pub Dat e: of Octser oberv 0ice 1, 20 03

ser v ice at t r ibu t e)

I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

Class of Service Parameters Class of ser v ice ( CoS) p ar amet er s can b e defined for met r o Et her net sub scr ibers based on v ariou s CoS id en t ifiers, such as t h e follow ing: The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Phy si ca l por t — Th is is t he sim plest for m of QoS t h at ap plies t o t he phy sical por t of t h e UNI con nect All developm t r af fic t h at ent er smand heking por, t Et r eceiv es, tand he sam e CoS. Discover t h eion lat.est ent s in et ro exit netsw tor h er n et MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Sou rce/ de st in at i on MAC a dd re sse s— Th is t y pe of classificat ion is used t o giv e dif ferent tLear y pesn of ser vt hice based comb sour ce net andw dest MAC addrof esses. fr om e easy - t o-on r ead f orinat mations t hatofenables or kininat g pion r ofessionals all levWhile els t ot h is m odel is v ery f lex ible, it is diff icu lt t o adm inist er , d ep en ding on t he serv ice it self . I f t he un derst an d t h e concep t s cust om er pr em ises eq uipm ent ( CPE) at t h e ends of t he connect ions ar e Layer 2 sw it ch es tGain hat ar e par t ofexp a LANt o- LAN serv or tbest h ousands of Cisco MAC ad dr esses m ,igSam ht hav e fr om t he er ience of indu st ice, r y inhun novdr ated or sand - selling Pr ess au t hor tHalabi, o be m au onit or ed. t h eetotRou her thing and, if tithect e CPEs t hor of On I n t ern Ar ch ur es are rou t er s, t h e MAC addr esses t h at ar e m onit or ed ar e t h ose of t he r out er int er faces t hem selv es. Hence, t h e MAC addr esses ar e Met r omnuch et w or k sewm illanag em ereab ge le. as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill mor r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. D— Thays is is a v ery pr act ical gw ay assignin if t he iberv ices has because diff er ent it h as The mVLAN et r o hIas alw b een a challengin envof ir onm en t fgorCoS deliver ingsub datscr a ser v ices on dle t h e tphy sical her eilitayser is def in ed b y a VLAN I D ( tCar hese w ouwld t het o been ser b uilt t o han he st r ingpor en tt rweliab anvice d availabilit y needs f or v oice. r iers ill bheave assign go t hrcarr ougier h f-un dam ed en tVLANs) al shift s. t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e 8 ional 0 2 . 1 panva e— Th emod 80 2.el1pt hat field allow s t ht he e carr ier bt oenassign ups ttoo eigh fer tent lev els oper at d lu b usiness w ill allow incum t car rier t ran tsfdorif m he met r o of to ior it ies t he cu st om er t r af fic. Et h er net sw it ches use t h is field t o specif y some basic off er pr enhan ced t o dat a ser vices. for w ar ding pr ior it ies, such as t h at f ram es w it h pr iorit y n um ber 7 get for w ard ed ah ead of am es w pr ior it y n Pr umess berlook 6, and oneofmmet et hod h at can ices be u fr sed Met r ofrEt hern etitfhr om Cisco s at so t heon. d epThis loy misent r o dt at a serv omt oa holist ic en tibes iat e bet een VoIm Pet t rraf and egular af fic et ween highit y sses an d bt he est v iew . dif I t fer descr t hewcu rr ent o,ficw h ich ris basedt ron TDorM bt echnolog y, anpdr ior discu ortd tchallenges r aff ic. I n allcar p ract ser vice p rov ider s arteheunlik exceed o aorser t hrvee lev els dr iv ereff s an r iericalit s w illy,face in t r ansfor m ing m etely r o t o addr esst w dat ices. of pr ior it y, for t h e sake of m an ageabilit y . Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s fseer rvy/ of I PmToS— Thae ser I P ToS field b it ging field m inix sidofe t rhe I P packet t hat isies, used t o t heDdifeliv et ro dat v ices. Witis h a 3chan anspor t t echnolog t h et obook pr ov ide eight classes v ice k now n as I int P pr f ield sim t hen exam ines cur r diff en terent an d em erg in gof t ser rend s, and delves o ecedence. t h e role of This v ir t ual p r is iv at e nilar et wt o or tkhe s forarbasic for pr iorit it is ser locat ed inside P ic ( VPN)80 , v2. ir 1p t ualfield p rivifatuesed local ea net ww orar ksding ( VLAN) , v ies; ir t ualh owev p riv atere, LAN v ices ( VPLS)t h, et r Iaff header at d her t h anant he Et hern et 80 MPLS 2. 1Q t(ag header. engineer in g, ran MPLS d Generalized GMPLS) . Diff ser v has defined a m or e sophist icat ed CoS sch em e t h an t he sim ple for w ar ding pr ior it y sch em e d ef ined b y ToS. Dif fser v allow s f or 64 dif fer en t CoS v alu es, called Dif fserv cod ep oin t s ( DSCPs) . Diff ser v includes d if fer en t p er - h op b eh avior s ( PHBs) , such as Ex pedit ed For w ar ding ( EF) for a low delay , low - loss ser vice, fou r classes of Assur ed For w ar ding ( AF) f or bu rst y r eal- t ime and non - real- t im e ser v ices, Class Select or ( CS) f or some backw ar d comp at ibilit y w it h I P ToS,

and Def ault For w ard ing ( DF) f or best - effor t ser v ices.

• •

Alt hou gh Diff ser v giv es m uch m or e f lex ibilit y t o conf igur e CoS par am et er s, serv ice pr ov iders are st ill const r ained wit h t h e issue of man ageabilit y. This is similar t o t he air line QoS mod el. Alt hough t h er e ar e so m an y w ays t o ar r ange seat s and w ho sit s w here and so m any t y pes of f ood ser vice and lug gage ser vice t o off er t rav eler s, air lin es can m anage at m ost only t hr ee or fou r lev els of ser vice, such as econom y , econom y plus, b usiness class, and f ir st class. Bey ond t h at , t h e over head of main t ain ing t hese ser v ices and t h e SLAs Table of Content s associat ed wit h t h em becom es cost - pr ohibit iv e. I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Service Frame Delivery Attribute Pub lish er: Cisco Press Becau se t he m et r o net w or k behav es lik e a swit ched LAN, y ou m ust u nder st and w hich f ram es Pubt oDat e: Oct ober 0t h 1,e20net 03 w or k and w hich do n ot . On a t yp ical LAN, t h e fr am es t r aver sin g t h e need f low over I SBN: 158 705 -0 96 -X net w or k could be dat a fr am es or cont r ol f r ames. Som e Et h er n et ser v ices supp or t deliv er y of all t y pes Pages: of Et h24 er0net pr ot ocol dat a un it s ( PDUs) ; ot her s m ay not . To ensur e t h e fu ll fu nct ionalit y of t he su bscr iber n et w or k , it is im por t an t t o hav e an agr eem ent bet w een t he sub scr iber and t h e m et ro carr iers on w h ich fr am es get car r ied . The EVC serv ice at t r ibut e can def in e w het her a par t icular f ram e is d iscar ded, d eliv er ed uncond it ion ally , or deliv ered condit ionally f or each or der ed UNI pair . The d iff er ent possib ilit ies of t he Et her net d at a f ram es ar e as f ollow s:

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. U nica st fr am e s— Th ese ar e f r ames t h at h ave a specif ied dest inat ion MAC addr ess. I f t h e dest inat ion addr ess is knent owsninb ymtet heron et wor k ,king t h e, frEtam d eliv er ed ser t o vt hices e exand act Discover t h eMAC lat est developm net w or h erenget et , sand MPLS dest inat ion. I f t h e MAC addr ess is unk now n , t he LAN b eh avior is t o flood t h e fr am e w it hin w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion t he par t icu lar VLAN. Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o Mu lt i caan st df ra es— Tht ese ar e f r ames t h at ar e t r ansm it t ed t o a select gr oup of un derst t hm e concep s dest inat ions. Th is w ould b e any f r ame w it h t h e least sig nificant bit ( LSB) of t h e dest inat ion add ress sett he t o exp 1, ex oadcast , nov w here bit sbest of t-hselling e MACCisco dest inPratess ion au addr ess are set Gain fr om ercept iencefor of br indu st r y in at oralland t hor , Sam t o 1. Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es s— .3 td ar ef ines b road cast a dindu est inat MAC Met r oBroa n et wdca or k st s wfrillam emeer geI EEE as t h802 e nex ea oft he gr ow t h for t headdr n etess w or as k ing st r yion an d w ill add ress, FFFFFFFFFFFF. r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as Lay er b2uilt Cont ol Processing pack ar e tilit hey dan iffer ent L2 conyt rneeds ol- pr otf or ocol packet s rniers eeded been t o rhan dle t he st r ing enet t sr eliab d availabilit v oice. Car w illfor h ave t o specif ic applicat ions. For exam p le, BPD U packet s ar e n eeded for STP. The pr ov ider m ightand decid go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem ed e tby o tent unnerelpror discard t h ese pack et s over t he EVC, dependin g on t h e ser v ice. Th e follow ing is a ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift inlist the of cur r en t ly st an dized mod L2 prelottocols can tfhe lowincum ov er ban oper at ional an d bdar usiness hat w tillhat allow enEVC: t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. I EEE 8 0 2 . 3 x M AC cont r ol fra m es— 8 02. 3 .x is an XON/ XOFF flow - cont r ol m ech anism t hat Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic let s an Et her net in t er f ace send a PAUSE fr am e in case of t r af fic congest ion on t he egr ess of v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he t he Et her net sw it ch. Th e 802 . 3x MAC cont r ol f ram es hav e d est inat ion add ress 01 - 80- C2dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. 00 - 00- 0 1. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s Li nk Aggr eg at i on Cont r ol Pr ot ocol ( LACP) — Th is pr ot ocol allow s t he d yn am ic bun dling t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book of m ult iple Et hern et int er faces bet w een t w o sw it ches t o for m an aggr egat e bigger p ip e. The t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s dest inat ion MAC addr ess for t hese cont rol fr am es is 01- 8 0- C2 - 00- 0 0- 02 . ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, d tGeneralized ( GMPLS) . allow s a u ser ( an Et hern et por t ) t o b e I EEE 8 0an 2 .d1 xMPLS p ortan au he nt ica t ionMPLS — Th is pr ot ocol aut h en t icat ed int o t he n et wor k v ia a back - en d ser ver , such as a RAD I US ser ver . The dest inat ion MAC addr ess is 01- 8 0- C2 - 00- 00- 0 3. Gene r ic At t rib ut e Re gi st ra t ion P rot ocol ( GAR P) — Th e dest inat ion MAC addr ess is 0180 - C2- 0 0- 00 - 2X.

STP — Th e dest inat ion MAC addr ess is 01- 8 0- C2 - 00- 00- 0 0. Al l- bri dge m ul t i ca st — Th e dest inat ion MAC addr ess is 01- 8 0- C2 - 00- 00- 1 0.

VLAN Tag Support Attribute •

Table of Content s

VLAN t ag su ppor t pr ovid es an ot her set of capabilit ies t hat ar e imp ort ant for serv ice fr am e • I ndex deliver y. Ent er pr ise LANs ar e single- cust om er en vir onm ent s, m eaning t hat t he end u ser s belong Me tr o Et her ne t t o a single or gan izat ion. VLAN t ags w it h in an or ganizat ion ar e indicat iv e of diff erent logical By Halabid om ain s, su ch as d iff er ent w ork gr oup s. Met ro Et h er net cr eat es a d iffer ent brSam oadcast env iron ment in w hich t h e Et h er net net w ork su ppor t s m ult ip le en t er pr ise net w or ks t hat sh are t he samPub e infr astCisco r uctPress ur e, and in w hich each ent er pr ise net w or k can st ill hav e it s ow n seg m en t at ion. lish er: SupPub porDat t f or dif fer levels of VLANs an d t he abilit y t o m anipulat e VLAN t ag s become ver y e: Oct ober en 0 1,t 20 03 im por t ant . I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X

Pages: 24 exam 0 Con sider t he ple of an MTU building in w hich t h e m et ro pr ov id er in st alls a sw it ch in t he basem en t t h at of fer s m ult iple Et h er n et connect ions t o diff er ent small of fices in t he bu ild ing. I n t his case, fr om a carr ier per sp ect iv e, each cust om er is id en t ified b y t he phy sical Et her net int er face por t t hat t he cust om er connect s t o. Th is is show n in Figur e 3- 6 .

The d ef init iv eFigu guid er teo 3 Ent ierM Met Et hern et app - 6er. prEtise heanr dneCarr t in u ltr oicu st om er licat Envions. ir onm e nt s Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr er sgh anident d challenges ierom s werillitface in easy, t r ansfor m ing r oict obet addr esst he datdaiffser v ices. Altivhou ify ing t hecar cur st self is isolat ingt he t h emt retaff w een er ent cust om er s b ecom es an in t er est ing issue an d requ ires som e at t ent ion on t he p rov ider 's p art . Met r o Et et datiscusses ad ion r o Et her ices how as er leds in cart rhe ier s Wit hou t hern special t ent ion, t the r aff icopt mig ht of g etmet exchan gednet betserv w een t heand d iffer entt hat cu sthom tbu o ild t heindgeliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hr ough t h e basement sw it ch . You hav e already seen in t h e sect ion " L2 Sw it ching t hen exam ines cur r en t an em erg g t rend delves int o tshin e trole of yv irlogical t ual p rsegm iv at eent n ets;w or k s Basics" t hat VLANs can bedused t oinsepar at es,phand ysical seg ment o m an (how VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , r aff ic . I n ev er , t h is w ork s in a sing le- cust om er en vir onm ent , wh er e t he VLAN has a global m teaning engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . a m u lt icust om er env iron ment , each cust om er can hav e it s ow n set of VLANs t hat over lap w it h VLANs f r om anot h er cu st om er . To w or k in t his env ir onm en t , car rier s ar e adopt in g a m odel v ery similar t o how Fr am e Relay and ATM ser v ices hav e been deployed. I n essence, each cust om er is giv en serv ice ident ifier s similar t o Fram e Relay d at a- lin k connect ion id en t ifiers ( DLCI s) , w hich ident if y EVCs over w hich t he cust om er' s t r aff ic t r av els. I n t he case of Et h er net , t he VLAN I D giv en b y a car r ier b ecom es t hat ident ifier . This is illust r at ed in Figur e 3- 7 .

Figu r e 3 - 7 . Logical Sepa r a t ion of Tr a ff i c a nd Se r v ice s [ View full size im age]



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s I n t his exam p le,t he t h eexp carr needs t o assign o each ysical t a setCisco of VLAN s tthor hat , ar e Gain fr om erier ience of indu st r y intnov at or ph and bestpor - selling Pr essI Dau Sam r ep r esent at ivau e of t heofser each cust om Halabi, t hor I nvices t ern etsold Routtoing Ar ch it ect urer es. Cust omer 1 , for ex am ple, is assig ned VLAN 10 , cust om er 2 is assigned VLAN 2 0, an d cu st om er 3 is assig ned VLAN 30 . VLANs 1 0, 2 0, and 3 0 ar e rcarr ierassigned VLANs h att hare enex indt ep custt he omner' nalindu VLAN ent s. Met o n et w or k s w ill em er ge tas aren eadent of grof owt he t h for etswint or kering st r yassig an dnm w ill To ak e t haat he MEF hee noff ame t o t h eand custr esident om er - int nal VLANs. r epm r esent m dist ajorinct sh ifion, t in thow dat ahas sergviven ices tar eredCEt oVLANs b usinesses ialercu st omer s. The strom t hem selv es can hav e ex ist en t s ( CEat ovbecause erlap w itith h as The cu m et o her ass alw ays b een a challengin g ing envVLAN ir onmassign en t f ormdeliver ing VLANs) dat a sert vh ices each h er t and t he r ier VLAN. Ther eilitary ean t wdoavailabilit t y pes of VLAN t agf or supp ort : Car r iers w ill h ave t o been ot b uilt o han dlecar t he st 's r ing en t r eliab y needs v oice. go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e VLAN Tag Pr eser v at ion/ St ack in g oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. VLAN Tag Tr an slat ion/ Sw ap ping Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he VLAN Preservation/Stacking dr iv er s Tag an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met Et hern et Pr d iscusses t he all ad opt ionnet of met her net serv ices howibt er hatneed h as led carcar r ier s Wit hr oVLAN Tag eser v at ion, Et her f ramr oesEtr eceived fr om t heand subscr t o be ried tun o ttouched he d eliv wit er yhof m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book in t he pr ov ider' s net w or k across t he EVC. This m eans t h at t h e VLAN I D at t he t heness exam cur ris enequ t anald tem in g t rend s, and o t hise trole of of v irser t ualvices p r iv at or k s ingr of tines he EVC o t erg he VLAN I D on t h e delves egr ess.int This yp ical suechn et aswLAN (ext VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic ension, w here t he sam e LAN is ex t ended bet w een t w o d iff er ent locat ions and t he ent er pr iseengineer in g, an d MPLS ant sd need Generalized ( GMPLS) . int er nal VLAN assig nm en t o be prMPLS eser ved. Because t h e car r ier ' s Et h er net sw it ch suppor t s m ult iple cust om ers wit h ov erlapp ing CE- VLANs, t he car rier 's sw it ch need s t o b e able t o st ack it s ow n VLAN assignm ent on t op of t h e cust om er ' s VLAN assignm ent t o k eep t h e sep arat ion bet w een t h e t r aff ic of diff er ent cu st omer s. This concept is called 802. 1 Q- in- 80 2. 1Q or Q- in - Q st acking , as ex plained ear lier in t he sect ion " VLAN Tagging . " Wit h Q- in - Q, t h e carr ier VLAN I D becom es in dicat iv e of t h e EVC, w hile t he cust om er VLAN I D ( CE- VLAN) is in dicat ive of t he

int er nals of t he cu st omer n et w or k and is h id den fr om t h e car r ier ' s net w or k.

W ARNI NG The Q- in- Q fu nct ion is n ot st and ar dized , and m any v endor s h ave t heir ow n v ar iat ions. of Content s For t he Table ser vice t o w ork , t h e Q- in- Q f unct ion m ust w or k on a " p er - p ort " basis, m ean in g • I ndex t hat each cust om er can b e t agg ed w it h a d if fer en t car r ier VLAN t ag. Som e en t er p rise Me tr o sw Et her nees t on t h e m ark et can per for m a doub le- t ag ging fu nct ion; how ever , t hese it ch By Samsw Halabi it ch es can assig n on ly a single VLAN- I D as a carr ier I D f or t he w hole swit ch. These t y pes of sw it ch es w or k on ly if a sin gle cust om er is ser v iced and t he car r ier w ant s t o b e able t oCisco carrPress y t h e cust om er VLANs t r anspar ent ly w it hin it s net w or k. These sw it ches do Pub lish er: not w or k w hen t he carr ier sw it ch is serv icin g m u lt ip le cu st omer s, because it is Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 im possib le t o dif fer en t iat e bet w een t h ese cust om er s u sin g a sin gle car rier VLAN t ag. •

I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X

Pages: 24 0

VLAN Tag Translation/Swapping VLAN Tag anguid slat ion Sw in ganoccur sw VLAN ag app s ar licat e local t o t h e UNI , m eaning The d ef initTr iv e e t oor Ent erapp pr ise d Carr ierhen Mett he r o Et herntet ions. t hat t he VLAN t ag v alue, if it ex ist s on on e sid e of t he EVC, is ind ep en dent of t he VLAN t ag v alues on t he ot h er side. I n t he case w her e one side of t h e EVC supp ort s VLAN t agging and t h e ot her Discover side d oesn' t hest e carr ier r em ent ov es t hemVLAN t agw or fr om hern fr amMPLS es befor t h eyand ar e t h et , lat developm s in et ro net kingt ,heEtEt h er n et et , and ser veices deliver t he can d estdo inat iony.our or gan izat ion w ed hatt ot hey f or Anot hLear er case is t w ganizat hat havt hat e m enables er ged and t ogt ie heir LANs t of oget er , els b utt ot he n fr om t hoe or easy - t o- rions ead ft or mat netwwant or kin p r tofessionals allhlev int er nal VLAN assig nm en t s of each or gan iz at ion d o not m at ch. Th e pr ovid er can of fer a ser vice un derst an d t h e concep t s w her e t he VLANs ar e rem ov ed f rom one side of t h e EVC and ar e t r anslat ed t o t he cor r ect VLANs on t heGain ot her fr om sid e t he of exp t he er EVC. ience Wit ofhindu out tsthis r y ser in nov v ice, at or t h eand only best w ay - selling t o joinCisco t he tPr w ess o or au gan t hor izat, ion Sam s is v ia I PHalabi, r out in g, auwt hor hichofignor I n t ern es et t heRou VLAN t ing assig Ar ch itnm ectent ur es s an d d eliv er s t h e t r aff ic based on I P add resses. Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent Anot h er exaam m ple ajorofsht if ag t in t r anslat how dat iona issera vscenar ices ario e off whered er e dtiffer o b usinesses ent cu st om and er sr ar esident e giv en ial Icu ntst eromer net s. The m etivit connect r o yh as t o alw an Iays SP. bThe een car a challengin r ier g ives geach env ircust onm om ener t f aorsepar deliver at eing EVC. dat a The sercar v ices r ierbecause assigns itit sh as been ow n VLANb uilt tIoDhan t o tdle he tEVC he stand r ingst enrip t rseliab t he VLAN ilit y ant ag d availabilit befor e h anding y needsoff or f t he v oice. t r af fic Cart or iers t he w I SP. ill hTh ave is tis o go t hrrat illust oug edhinf un Figur dameen 3-t 8al. shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness modFigu el t hat t he incum en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o r ew3ill- allow 8 . VLAN Tr abnsla t i on off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Figur e 3- 8 sh ows t he m et r o car rier deliver ing I nt ern et connect ivit y t o t h ree cust om ers. Th e carr ier is r eceivin g u nt agg ed f ram es f rom t he CPE r out er s locat ed at each cust om er pr emises. The car r ier in ser t s a VLAN t ag 1 0 f or all of cust om er 1' s t r aff ic, VLAN 20 f or cust om er 2's t r affic, and VLAN 30 for cu st omer 3 's t r af fic. The car r ier u ses t h e VLAN t ags t o sep arat e t he t h ree cust om er s' t r aff ic w it hin it s ow n n et w or k . At t he p oin t of p resen ce ( POP) , t h e VLAN t ags ar e r em ov ed f r om all EVCs and han ded of f t o an I SP r ou t er , w h ich is off erin g t h e I nt er net I P ser vice. •

•Service

Table of Content s

Multiplexing Attribute I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t

Serv m ult iplexing By Samice Halabi

is u sed t o sup por t m u lt ip le in st ances of EVCs on t h e sam e p hy sical connect ion. Th is allow s t he sam e cu st omer t o hav e dif fer en t serv ices wit h t h e sam e Et her net w ire. Pub lish er: Cisco Press

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Bundling Attribute Pages: 24 0

The Bu ndling serv ice at t r ibut e en ables t w o or m or e VLAN I D s t o b e m apped t o a single EVC at a UNI . Wit h b und lin g, t h e pr ov ider and subscrib er mu st agr ee on t he VLAN I Ds used at t h e UNI and t h e m apping bet w een each VLAN I D and a specific EVC. A special case of b und lin g is wh er e ever y VLAN I D at t he UNI int er face m aps t o a sing le EVC. This ser v ice at t r ib ut e is called all- t oThe d und ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. one b ling. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and

Security Attribute w hat Filters t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion

Lear n ers fr omarteh e easy - t o- r ead nett ow or kin gcert p r ofessionals of all lev els Secu rit y filt MAC access list sf ort hmat at t ht hat e carenables r ier uses b lock ain ad dr esses fr om f lowt oing d t hcould e concep s ad dit ional ser vice t he car r ier can of fer at t he r equest of t h e ov er tun hederst EVC.anThis be tan subscr ib er w ho w ou ld lik e a level of p rot ect ion against cer t ain MAC ad dr esses. MAC ad dr esses Gain er ience indube st r ydrin nov or allow and best t hat m at chfraom cert the ainexp access list of could opp edator ed. - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Tables 3- 1 an d 3- 2 su mm ar ize t he Et her net serv ice at t r ibut es an d t heir associat ed p aram et ers Met r o n et k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill for UNI anwdorEVCs. r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum This IisSe notr vi only t ech Tab le 3 er -1s.. UN cea At t rnology i but e shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

U N I Se rv ice At t ri but e



P ar am e t er V a lu es or Ra ng e of V al ue s

Phy sical mediu m

A st an dar d Et her net p hy sical int er face.

Speed

10 Mb ps, 10 0 Mbps, 1 Gb ps, or 10 Gbps.

Mod e

Full- dup lex or aut ospeed n eg ot iat ion.

MAC layer

Table of Content s

• Serv ice m ultI ndex iplexing Me tr o Et her ne t

Et h er n et and/ or I EEE 80 2. 3- 20 02. Yes or no. I f y es, all- t o- one b und lin g m ust be n o.

Bun dling

Yes or no. Must be no if all- t o- one bu ndling is y es and y es if all- t o- one b und lin g is no.

All-Pub t o-lish one undPress lin g er: b Cisco

Yes or no. I f y es, ser v ice m ult ip lex ing and bu ndling m ust b e no. Must b e no if bund lin g is yes.

By Sam Halabi

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 I ngr ess and egr ess b-X andw idt h pr of ile Pages: p er 24 UNI 0

No or one of t h e follow ing par am et er s: CI R, CBS, PI R, MBS. I f no, n o ban dw idt h pr of ile p er UNI is set ; ot herw ise, t he t r aff ic par am et er s CI R, CBS, PI R, and MBS n eed t o b e set .

I ngr ess and egr ess b andw idt h No or one of t h e follow ing par am et er s: CI R, CBS, PI R, MBS. pr of ile p er EVC The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. I ngr ess and egr ess b andw idt h No or one of t h e follow ing par am et er s: CI R, CBS, PI R, MBS. pr of ile p er CoS id en t if ier I f sone ofett hroe net parwam er s, is specif y t h eser CoS Discover t h e lat est developm ent in m or et king Et hchosen, er n et , and MPLS v ices and ident ier , Delay v alue, Jit t er v alu e, Loss v alue. w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izatifion I f mat no, n o ban dw idt hnet prw ofor ilekin p er id en t ifierofisall setlev ; els t o Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or t hat enables g pCoS r ofessionals ot her w ise, t h e t r aff ic par am et er s CI R, CBS, PI R, an d MBS un derst an d t h e concep t s need t o be set . Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam I ngr ess and au egrt hor ess of b andw idteth Rou tNo of ur t h es e follow ing par am et er s: CI R, CBS, PI R, MBS. Halabi, I n t ern ingor Arone ch it ect pr of ile p er dest in at ion UNI per EVC Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep esent a dw m ajor t in how ser or v ices e toff t o ing b usinesses esident ial PI cuR, st omer Eg rress ban idt h sh prifofile p er dat a No onearof h eered follow par am et and er s: rCI R, CBS, MBS.s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as sour ce UNI p er EVC been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go Lay t hr eroug 2 Cont h f un r ol dam Prot enocol t al shift s t o equ Prip ocess, t h e mdiscar et ro for d , or next pass - g en t oerEVC at ion t he dat follow a serin v ices g con dem t roland ed by pr ocessing ent er pr ise cust om er s and consumprerots.ocol This f ram is not es: only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. I EEE 8 02. 3x MAC cont rol Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic Lin is k Aggr egat rol Prot ocol v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich based onion TD Cont M t echnolog y, an(dLACP) discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. I EEE 8 02. 1x p or t aut hent icat ion Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s Gener ic Atging t r ibutmeixReg r at ion tPrt echnolog ot ocol ( GARP) t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan of ist t r anspor ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s STP ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) Pr ot ocols mu lt .icast t o all b rid ges in a br idged LAN UNI ser v ice act iv at ion t im e

Tim e valu e

Tab le 3 -2 . EVC Ser v ice At t r ibu t e s EV CSe rv ice At t ri but e

Ty pe of Pa r am e t er V a lue

EVC Ty pe

P2P or MP2 MP

CE- VLAN I D pr eser vat ion

Yes or no

• CE- VLAN CoS Table of Content s pr eser v at ion • I ndex

Yes or no

Unicast frne am Me tr o Et her t e

Discard , deliver un condit ionally , or deliv er cond it ionally for each or der ed UNI pair

deliver y

By Sam Halabi

Mu lt icast f r ame deliv ery Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 20 er 03 y Br oadcast f ram e 0d1,eliv I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

Lay er 2 Cont r ol Prot ocol pr ocessing

Discard , deliver un condit ionally , or deliv er cond it ionally for each or der ed UNI pair Discard , deliver un condit ionally , or deliv er cond it ionally for each or der ed UNI pair Discard or t u nnel t he follow ing cont r ol f ram es: I EEE 8 02. 3x MAC cont rol

k Aggr egat Contet rolapp Prot ocol ( LACP) The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an dLin Carr ier Met r oion Et hern licat ions. I EEE 8 02. 1x p or t aut hent icat ion Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and ic At t r ibut e Reg ist r at ion Pr ot ocol ( GARP) w hat t hey can do f or y our or ganGener izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f orSTP mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Pr ot ocols mu lt icast t o all b rid ges in a br idged LAN Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam EVC ser v ice act iv at ion t ime Tim e valu e Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es EVC av ailab ilit y Tim e valu e Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill EVC m eana tm imajor e t osh r est Tima eser valu e ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. r ep r esent if t or in ehow dat v ices The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as Class of ser v ice CoS ident ifier , Delay valu e, Jit t er valu e, Loss valu e been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed This assigns t he Class of Serv ice I dent ifier t o t he EVC by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Example of an L2 Metro Ethernet Service This sect ion g iv es an ex am ple of an L2 m et r o Et h er n et ser v ice an d h ow all t h e par am et er s defin ed by t he MEF ar e applied. Th e exam ple at t em pt s t o h ig hlight m any of t h e defin it ion s and concep t s discussed in t his chapt er . •

Table of Content s

•I f you h ave nI ot ndex iced, t he concept of VPNs is inher en t in L2 Et h er n et swit chin g. The car r ier VLAN is Me o Et her t acttrually a ne VPN, and all cust om er sit es w it hin t he sam e car rier VLAN for m t h eir own u ser g rou p and exch ange t r af fic ind ep en dent of ot her cust om er s on sep ar at e VLANs. By Sam Halabi

The issue of secu rit y arises in d ealing w it h VLAN isolat ion bet w een cust omer s; h owev er , b ecau se lish er: Cisco Press t he Pub met r o n et wor k is ow n ed by a cen t r al ent it y ( such as t he met r o car r ier ) , secu r it y is en for ced . Pub e: tOct 0 1, 20sw 03 it ch es in t h e cust om er b asem ent are own ed an d ad min ist er ed b y t he First ofDat all, heober access I SBN: 158 705 -0 96 -X carr ier , so ph ysical access is pr event ed . Secon d, t h e VLANs t h at ar e sw it ch ed in t he n et wor k ar e assig ned Pages: b y24t he 0 car r ier , so VLAN isolat ion is g uar ant eed. Of cour se, m isconf igur at ion of sw it ches and VLAN I Ds could cau se t raf fic t o be mix ed, bu t t his pr oblem can occur wit h an y t ech nology used, n ot j ust Et her net . I ssues of secu r it y alw ay s ar ise in p ublic n et w or k s w het her t h ey ar e Et h er n et , I P, MPLS, or Fr am e Relay net w or ks. Th e only d ef init e m easu re t o ensur e secur it y is t o hav e t h e cu st omer - t o- cust om er t r aff ic en cr y pt ed at t h e cust om er sit es and t o hav e t he cust s iv ademin isteert ot Ent h at er encr yp tan ion. The om d efer init guid pr ise d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Figur e 3- 9 sh ows an ex am ple of an L2 m et r o Et her net VPN. This exam ple at t em pt s t o show in a pr act ical w ay how man of t he p aram ers he w concept t hat iscussed t his chap t er Discover t h e lat esty developm ent setin m and et ro tnet or king s, Et h erare n et ,d and MPLSinser v ices and ar e used. w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e reasy kin gv pice r ofessionals of all lev els t o Figu e 3--t o9 .r ead Al l-f or Etmat he rt hat n etenables L2 M enet t rw oorSer Exa m ple un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Figur e 3- 9 sh ows a m et ro carr ier off ering an L2 MP2 MP VPN ser v ice t o cust om er A and a packet leased- line ser vice ( com par able t o a t r adit ional T1 leased line) t o an I SP. I n t ur n, t h e I SP is

off erin g I nt er net ser vice t o cu st omer s B and C. I t is assum ed t hat cu st omer A con nect s t o t he carr ier v ia L2 Et hern et sw it ch es an d cu st om er s B an d C conn ect via I P r out ers. Not ice t h e dif fer en ce b et ween access por t s and t r un k por t s on t he Et her net sw it ches. The p ort s con nect in g t he cu st om er 's Et her net sw it ch t o t he car r ier ' s Et h er net sw it ch are t ru nk p ort s, b ecause t h ese por t s ar e car r ying m ult iple VLANs bet w een t he t w o sw it ch es. Wh en t h e carr ier' s sw it ch p ort is conf ig ur ed f or Q- in- Q, it encap su lat es t he cust om er s' CE- VLAN t ag s VLAN 10 and VLAN 2 0 in sid e t he car r ier VLAN 1 00. On t he ot h er hand, t he p ort s con nect in g t he cust om er r out er w it h t he carr ier sw it chTable ar e of access por t s an d are car r yin g u nt agg ed t r af fic f rom t he r out er . Tables 3- 3 an d • Content s 3- 4 d escr ibe t he UNI an d EVC ser vice at t r ibu t es for cust om ers A, B, and C as def in ed b y t he • I ndex MEF. Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press

Tab le 3 -3 . Cust om er A E-LAN UNI Se r vi ce At t r i but es

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X

Pages: 24e0 r A E- LA N U N I Se rv ice Cust om At t r ib ut e

Phy sical mediu m

P ar am e t er V a lu es or Ra ng e of V al ue s St and ard Et hern et ph ysical int er faces

Speed 10 0 Mbps sit e 1 , 10 Mb ps sit es 2 an d 3 The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Mod e Full du plex all sit es MAC layer I EEE 8 02. 3- 2 002 Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and hat hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion No Serv w ice m tult iplexing Bun dling Noenables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat un derst an d t h e concep t s All- t o- one b und lin g Yes Gainand fr om er ience indu r y inAll novsit ates or CoS and 1 best I ngr ess egrt he essexp b andw idt h of pr of ile stper : - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es CoS ident ifier Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of grCI owRt h= for t he s, n et w or=k ing r yRan ill ps, 1 Mbp CBS 100indu KB,stPI = d2wMb r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered= t10 o b0usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. MBS KB The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit CoS I D =y 802 needs .1 p f 6or–7v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed Delay m s, Loss shif < 1% by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only< a1t0ech nology t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o All sit es CoS 0 : off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic CI Ron= TD 1 Mbp s, CBS = y,100 PI R = 1t 0heMbps, v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based M t echnolog an dKB, discu sses MBS = 10 0 KB dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. ID = 802 .1 pand 0 –5, Delay m s,car Loss Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o EtCoS her net serv ices how t hat I SBN: 1705 -0 96 -X uously ident if y t he ap pr opr iat e r esour ces used b y an LSP. is suf ficient t o58unam big Pages: 24 0

Lin k bun dling imp rov es r out ing b y redu cin g t he nu mb er of lin ks and associat ed at t ribu t es t hat ar e flood ed int o r out ing pr ot ocols such as OSPF and I S- I S. Link bun dling allow s m u lt ip le par allel link s of sim ilar char act er ist ics t o b e aggr egat ed and flooded as a bun dled link . Figur e 8- 4 sh ows t his con cept . The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions.

Figu r e 8 - 4 . Lin k Bu nd lin g Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Metcom r o Etponent hern et link f r om essmlook All s inCisco a buPr ndle ust :s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Begin and en d on t h e same pair of LSRs Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s e ter hey sam t y pe, such as Wit poinh t -at opoint or m mixultof iaccess t o t heHav d eliv of meetlink ro dat a ser v ices. chan ging t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s t he psam e eTE m etar r icea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic ( VPN)Hav , v iret ual riv at local engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . Hav e t he sam e set of r esour ce classes at each en d of t he link s A b und led link is consider ed alive if on e of it s com ponent lin ks is aliv e. Det erm inin g t he liveliness of t he com pon en t link s can be d one v ia r out ing pr ot ocols, LMP, or L1 or L2 in for m at ion. Once a bu ndled lin k is consid er ed aliv e, t he in for m at ion about t he b und led link is f lood ed as a TE lin k.

W ARNI NG The b en ef it s of link b und lin g in r ed ucing t he n um ber of flood ed link s come at t h e exp en se of loss of inf or mat ion . Lin k bun dling inv olv es t he aggr egat ion of t he com ponent lin ks, an d in t h e pr ocess of sum m ar izin g t he at t r ibut es of sev er al link s int o • Table of, Content a b und led link inf ormsat ion is lost . Rem em b er t hat t he inf or mat ion t h at is f lood ed in • ndexpr ot ocols is infor m at ion about t he bun dled link it self an d not in for m at ion t he rou t Iing Me tr o abou Et her tnet h t e comp onent lin ks. As an ex amp le, wh en m ult iple p ar allel SONET link s ar e sum m arized, in for m at ion about t he t ot al r eser vab le bandw id t h of t he com ponent lin ks By Sam Halabi is adv ert ised, b ut infor m at ion about t he b andw idt h an d t im e slot s of each link is lost . Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 1- 58 705 While tIhSBN: e link - st at-0 e 96 pr-Xot ocols car r y a sing le bun dled link , sign alin g r equir es t hat indiv idual com ponent Pages: 24 lin0ks be ident if ied . Becau se t he ERO d oes not car r y infor m at ion about t he com pon en t link s, t he com ponent link select ion becom es a local m at t er b et w een t he LSR bu ndle n eig hbor s. LMP of fers a w ay t o ident ify in div id ual com ponent link s. ( LMP is descr ibed lat er in t h e chapt er , in t he sect ion " Lin k Manag em ent Prot ocol. " )

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions.

Link Protection Types

Discover t h e lat developm s in m ect et roion net w or , Etind h ericat n etes , and ser v ices and GMPLS int rod uces t heest concept of aent link pr ot t yp e, king w h ich t h e MPLS pr ot ect ion w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion capabilit ies t hat ex ist f or a link . Pat h com pu t at ion alg orit h ms use t his inf or mat ion t o est ab lish link s w it h t he app r opr iat e pr ot ect ion char act er ist ics. Th is infor m at ion is or ganized in a hier ar chy Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o w her e t y pically t h e m inim um accep t able pr ot ect ion is specified at pat h inst an t iat ion an d a pat h un derst an d t h e concep t s select ion t echn iq ue is u sed t o f ind a p at h t hat sat isfies at least t he m inim um accept able pr ot ect ion.frThe enterlin k pr ot ionst tr yy pes ar eatas ollows: Gain om diff t heerexp ience of ect indu in nov or fand best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Ex t ra Tr af fi c— Th is t y pe of link p rot ect s anot her link or link s. I n case of f ailu re of t he Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill pr ot ect ed link s, all LSPs on t h is link ar e lost . r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The mUet r o ot h as aysTh b een env ir onm t fect or ed deliver ing ot dat a ser v ices it h as npr ectalw e d— is t yapechallengin of link is gsim ply not en pr ot by any her link . I f t because he been un b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave to pr ot ect ed link fails, all LSPs on t he link ar e lost . go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by entSh er ar pr ed ise— cust s and consum erect s. This not or only a et ech t , bu t also Thom is ter y pe of link is p rot ed b yis one mor d isjnology oint linshif ks of t y pe Ex t raash Trift affin ic.t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er D enhan ced serTh vices. e dica t eddat 1 :a1 — is t y pe of link is p rot ect ed b y a d isj oint lin k of t yp e Ex t r a Tr af fic. Met r oDEt hern tetedf r 1om Pr ess s at ist he d ep loy met r o lin d at om e dica + 1Cisco — Th is t y pelook of link p rot ect edmbent y a of d isj oint k aofserv t yp ices e Ex tfrr a Tr aaf holist fic. ic v iew . How I t descr cuect rr ent m et ris o,nwoth ich is based TDlink M t -echnolog d discu hee is ev eribes , t het he p r ot ing link ad ver t ised inont he st at e daty, aban ase and tsses her eftor dr iv ernot s anused d challenges car in r ier w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. b y any r out g sLSPs. Met r oEnh Et hern et d— d iscusses t heofadlink opt ion of met net and thow t hat h as led car s ance Th is t y pe ind icat es t rhoatEtaher pr ot ectserv ion ices scheme hat is mor e r eliab le rtier han t o t heDedicat d eliv ered y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book 1 + 1 shou ld b e used—f or ex am ple, f our - fiber BLSR. t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s Figur ( VPN)e, 8v ir5t ual sh ows p rivtat hee dlocal if fer en ar ea t p rot netect w or ion ks t(yVLAN) pes. , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Figu r e 8 - 5 . Lin k Pr ot e ct i on Type s



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and Lin k AB- D t is pr can ot ectdo edf or by ylink D.izat Linion k A- C- D is of t y pe Ext r a Shar ed . The follow in g w hat hey our AorCgan pr ot ect ion scen ar ios can occur : Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Li nk A- B- D is 1 + 1 pr ot ect e d— Link A- C- D p rot ect s link A- B- D . Link A- C- D is not adv ertfrised hence doesofnot car y LSPs nless lin -kselling A- B- D Cisco f ails. Pr ess au t hor , Sam Gain om tand he exp er ience indu stry r y an in nov at oruand best Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Li nk A- B- D is 1 :1 pr ot ect e d— Link A- C- D p rot ect s link A- B- D . Link A- C- D is adv er t ised can y LSPs, b utasit tget p reem pt ed t oow pr tot linkindu A- B-stDr yf ails. Met r oand n et w or kcar s wr ill em er ge h e snex t ar ea of gr h ect for link t he An etB-wD orifk ing an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as Shared Link Information been b uiltRisk t o han dle Group t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by entof er link pr ise cust er sitand a t ech shif ta, rbu t also ift in t h e A set sm ay om const ut e aconsum shar ederr s. iskThis lin k is grnot oup only ( SRLG) if tnology h ey sh are esour ce aw sh hose oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met failur e m ay af fect all link s in t he set . Mult iple f ib er s in t he sam e cond uit , f or exam ple, couldr o t o off er it enhan ced dat abecau ser vices. const ut e an SRLG se a condu it cut m ay aff ect all t he f ibers. Th e same applies t o m u lt ip le lam bdas in a fiber t h at can all be af fect ed if a fiber cut occu rs. Th e SRLG is an opt ion al 32 - bit Met r o er Et hern f r omue Cisco Pr ess s at ain. t he dAeplink loy m met r ot o d at serv fr om The a holist ic nu mb t hat et is uniq w it hin an Ilook GP dom ment igh tofbelong mault ipleices SRLGs. SRLG vofiew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he an LSP is t he u nion of t he SRLGs of t he lin ks in t h e LSP. Th e SRLG inf or mat ion is used t o m ak e dr s andiv d challenges ier s wdo ill not facehav in et r ansfor m on ingSRLG—t t he m ethr o ser veices. suriveert hat ersely rou tcar ed rLSPs a com m att o is,addr t h eyess d odat n ota shar the sam e risk s of failur e. Figur e 8- 6 illust r at es t he con cept of an SRLG. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book r e in 8 g- 6t rend . Shs,arand e ddelves Risk int Link oup t hen exam ines cur r en t anFigu d em erg o t h eGr role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

Figur e 8- 6 sh ows t hat all lin ks t hat pass t hr oug h con duit 1 sh are t he sam e SRLG. The sam e is t r ue f or all link s t h at pass t hr ough condu it 2. I f t he SRLG op t ion is used , t w o LSPs t hat need t o be d iver sely r out ed bet w een nod e A an d n ode D cannot bot h pass t h r ough condu it 1 or condu it 2, becau se t hey w ould hav e t he sam e SRLGs in com m on. The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions.

Interface Discover Switching t h e lat estCapability developm ent Descriptor s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion I n t he cont ex t of GMPLS, a lin k is connect ed t o a n ode v ia an int er face. An in t erf ace on t he sam e omh er t h eside easyof- ttooray math ave t hatmenables netitw or kincapab g p r ofessionals lev els t o nod e Lear and nonfr eit her ead link fm u lt ip le sw ching ilit ies. Theofintall er face un derst an d t h e concep t s sw it ch in g cap abilit y descr ipt or is u sed t o hand le in t erf aces t h at sup por t m u lt ip le sw it ching capabilit ies, for int er faces t hat hav e Max LSP Ban dw idt h v alu es t hat diff er by p rior it y level ( P) , Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam and f or int er faces t hat su ppor t discr et e ban dw idt h. A f iber int erf ace, for ex am ple, t hat is Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es connect ed t o a n ode can car r y m ult iple lam bd as, and each lam bda can b e t erm inat ed. I f t he lam iswcarr s, pas ack switt chin can f orm ed. I fwt or h ek lamb da is r yin a TDM Met rbda o n et or k ys ing w illpacket em er ge t het e -nex ar eag of gr be ow tpherfor t he n et ing indu st rcar y an d wg ill circuit , t he TDM circuit is sw it ch ed . I f t he lam bda is not t erm inat ed at t he n ode, t he lam bd a it self r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. can be lam bda sw it ched. To supp or t such int erf aces, a lin kst at e adv er t isem ent w ould car r The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices becausey ita hlist as of int er facet osw it chdle in gt he descr ipt or been b uilt han st r ing ens.t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed You saw in t he " GMPLS I nt er faces" sect ion t hat GMPLS defines f ive t yp es of in t er f aces: PSC, by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e L2 SC, TDM, LSC, and FSC. The follow in g list descr ibes t he in t er f ace descr ipt or s associat ed wit h oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o t hese t y pes of int er faces: off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r oFor Et hern f r om Cisco Pr vess look lev s atels t he ep loy m ent r o 4d at a serv fr om aa hier holist t he et PSC int er faces, arious of dPSC f rom 1 of t hrmet ough exist t o ices est ablish aric chy v iew . of I t LSPs descrtibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he unn eled wit h in LSPs, w it h PSC 1 being t he h ighest or der . dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. For int er faces of t yp e PSC1 t hr ou gh 4, TDM, and LSC, t he in t erf ace descr ipt or car r ies Met r oadd Et hern iscusses t heinad optf ollow ion ofing met o Eter her it ionet al dinf orm at ion t he mr ann : net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e int local ar ea net ordit ks ional ( VLAN) , vm ir tat ual at e es LAN serim v ices VPLS) , t r aff ic - For PSC er faces, t hewad in for ionp riv in clud Max u m ((Max ) LSP engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . Band wid t h, Min imu m ( Min) LSP Bandw idt h, and int er face MTU. - For TD M- capable in t er f aces, t he addit ional in for m at ion in clu des Max imu m LSP Band wid t h, in for m at ion on w het her t h e int er face supp ort s st andar d or ar bit r ar y SONET/ SD H, and Minim um LSP Ban dw idt h .

- For LSC in t erf aces, t h e addit ion al infor m at ion includes Reser v able Band w id t h per pr ior it y, wh ich specif ies t he b andw idt h of an LSP t hat can b e su ppor t ed by t h e int er face at a giv en p r ior it y n um ber.

Determining the Link Capability •The link cap abilit TableyofisContent s ined based on t h e t up le < in t er f ace sw it ching capabilit y , label> . det erm •Car r yin g lab el I ndex in for m at ion on a giv en TE link depend s on t he in t er f ace sw it ching capabilit y at Me Et her bottrho end sne oft t he link an d is det er m ined as follow s: By Sam Halabi

[ PSC, PSC] — Th e label is car ried in t h e " shim " h ead er ( RFC 3 032 , MPLS Lab el St ack PubEn lishcod er: in Cisco g) . Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03

[ TDM, TDM] Th-Xe label r epr esent s a TDM t im e slot . I SBN: 158 705— -0 96 Pages: 24 0

[ LSC, LSC] — Th e label r epr esent s a por t on an OXC. [ PSC, TDM] — Th e label r epr esent s a TDM t im e slot . [ TDM, LSC] — Th e label r epr esent s a por t . The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions.

Interface Switching Capability Descriptor Examples Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion The f ollow in g ar e ex am ples of in t erf ace sw it ching capab ilit y d escr ip t or s. Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o Fast Et er n etan 100 s Et h er unhderst d t-hMbp e concep t s net packet int erf ace on an LSR: Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam IHalabi, nt er face it chofinIgn tcap y descr iptchorit:ect ur es ausw t hor ernabilit et Rou t ing Ar Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill - I n t er f ace Swit chin g Capabilit y = PSC- 1 r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h- as alw ays b= een a challengin Encoding Et her net 8 02. 3 g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h -f un dam en tBandw al shiftidt s tho[ P] equ=ip100 t h e Mb m et forallnext en er at dat es a ser Max LSP psrof or P (-wghere P ion indicat t hev ices LSPdem p r iorand it y ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e level; a pr iorit y of 7, f or exam ple, giv es t he LSP h ig h pr ior it y ) oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off erf ollow enhaninced a ser The g is dat how t h evices. int er face descr ipt or is repr esen t ed f or an OC- 1 92 SONET in t erf ace on a digit al cr oss- con nect w it h St andar d SONET. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic vAssu iew .mI in t descr cu rr ent etablish r o, w h tich based TD ect M tions, echnolog d discu sses 3c, t he STSg t hatibes it ist he possible t o mest he is f ollow ingon conn VT- 1y,.5an , STS1, STSdr s an48c, d challenges cartrhier s werillface facesw inittch r ansfor m ing m et ript o tor o addr ser vcan ices.be 12iv c,erSTSSTS- 1 92c, e int in g cap abilitt he y descr of t hess at indat t eraf ace adv ert ised as follow s: Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam I nt er face ines Sw curitr ching en t anCapab d em erg ilit in y g= tTDM rend s, [ Stand anddelves ard SONET] int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic En cod ing T1. 10 5 engineer in g, an=d SONET MPLS anANSI d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . Min LSP Bandw idt h = VT1. 5 Max LSP Band w id t h[ p ] = STS1 92 for all p ( w here p r efer s t o LSP p rior it y )

Enhancements to Signaling GMPLS enh ances t he t r adit ional MPLS con t r ol plane t o sup por t ad dit ional d if fer ent classes of int er faces, su ch as TD M, LSC, and FSC. Th e su ppor t of t hese int erf aces requ ir es som e changes t o signaling , such as t he f ollow ing :



LSP hierar Table chy of—signaling Content s



I ndex

hancement s Me tr o En Et her ne t

t o lab els

By Sam Halabi

Band wid t h en cod in g

PubBidir lish er:ect Cisco ional Press LSPs Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03

Not ificat ion of lab el er r or I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0 Ex plicit label cont r ol

Pr ot ect ion inf orm at ion Adm inist r at ive st at u s inf orm at ion The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Separ at ion of cont rol and dat a ch annels Not ify messag esest developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and Discover t h e lat w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion The f ollow in g sect ions describe t he d if fer en t enh ancem ent s t o signaling int r odu ced by GMPLS. Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s

LSP Hierarchy—Signaling Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam aulain t horedofinI nt he t ern" LSP et Rou t ing Ary—Rout ch it ect ur es" sect ion, GMPLS su ppor t s t h e concep t of As alrHalabi, ead y exp Hier ar ch ing hier archical LSPs, wh ich allow s m ult iple LSPs t o b e nest ed ; t h at is, it allow s n ew ly init iat ed LSPs Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill t o be agg regat ed w it hin exist ing LSPs. Th e new ly in it iat ed LSPs are t unn eled in sid e an ex ist ing r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. high er - or der LSP, w hich b ecom es a link alon g t he pat h of t h e new LSP. This d ram at ically The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as enhan ces n et w or k scalab ilit y and man ageabilit y because it m inim izes t he n um ber of elem ent s been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o t hat ar e flood ed and ad ver t ised w it hin t he n et w or k . This sect ion ex plains t he sig naling asp ect of go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed t he LSP h ier ar ch y. by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional anamp d b usiness el t hat ill allow t het he incum en t car rier, sassum t o t ran or ma tcer he tmet To g ive an ex le of howmod GMPLS sigwnaling uses LSPb hier archy e sf t hat ain rr o out toer off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. r eq uest s band w id t h t o b e allocat ed along a n et w or k consist in g of dat a sw it ches, SONET cr ossconnect s, WDM- cap able swit ches, and f iber swit ches. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic vThe iewr. equ I t descr cuge rr ent mer et rt o, w hab ichlish is based andw d discu sses t he est fribes om tthhe e ed r out o est a PSC on LSPTD wM it ht echnolog a cer t ain y,ban idt h could t rig ger dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a v ices. t he est ablishm ent of mu lt ip le high er - or der LSPs t hat get init iat ed by ot h er sw it chesser along the pat h . Low er - or der LSPs ( t he new LSPs) get nest ed inside t h e higher - or der LSPs t hat alr eady Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s exist or t hat get t rigg er ed based on t he ed ge r out er 's r equ est . t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen e exam curtrhe en test anablish d em m erg and int o tah pe at role of v con ir t ual n et k s, Figur 8- 7 ines sh ows enint goft rend a sers,ies of delves LSPs along h t hat sistpsr iv ofatr e out erw s or ( R0 (R1 VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic , R8, and R9) , SONET ADMs ( S2 an d S7 ) , WDM Op t ical Elect r ical Opt ical ( OEO) swit ches ( W 3 engineer g, an MPLS an d Generalized ( GMPLS) . , pat h 0, need ed f or t he f or mat ion of and W6 ) ,inand f ibd er sw it ches ( F4 and F5 ) MPLS . A PATH r eq uest LSP0 bet w een R0 an d R9, is sent fr om R0 t o R1 . At r out er R1, t h is t r igger s t he in it iat ion of LSP1 bet w een R1 an d R8. LSP1 is n est ed insid e LSP0 . The PATH messages—p at h1 , pat h 2, and pat h 3—cont in ue t o pr opagat e, an d t he LSPs keep g et t ing cr eat ed u nt il t h e fin al est ab lishm ent of LSP0 bet w een R0 an d R9.

Figu r e 8 - 7 . I n it ia t ion of N ew N est e d LSPs [ View full size im age]



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear frablished om t h e easy - t omat t hat has enables net wed or it kin ph r ofessionals of -all els t o An LSP is nest w hen t hr eead patfhorm essage com plet s pg at in side higher levlev el LSPs un derst an d t h e concep t s and a RESV message is r eceived. Not e in Figur e 8- 8 h ow LSP3 , t h e higher - level LSP, get s est ablish ed f ir st , t h en LSP2 g et s est ablished in sid e LSP3, t hen LSP 1 inside LSP2, an d LSP 0 Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam inside LSP1. Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es

- 8of. gr Ne Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t hFigu e nexrt ear8ea owst t hed for LSPs t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Now assum e t hat a car r ier is off er ing an Et her net packet t ran sp or t serv ice bet w een t w o serv ice pr ov iders—I SP1 and I SP2—w it h an SLA set t o 200 Mb ps. For simp licit y , assu m e t hat t he car r ier 's end- t o- en d n et wor k is f or med v ia r out er s ( R0, R1, R8, an d R9) , SONET AD Ms ( S2 and S7) , WDM OEO sw it ches ( W3 and W6) , and fiber sw it ches ( F4 an d F5 ) . Also, for t he sake of sim plicit y, t he GE ser v ice for t h e carr ier is assu m ed t o be poin t - t o- point bet w een R0 an d R9, m eaning t hat all t r aff ic t hat comes in on t he GE link s of R0 com es out on t he GE link s of R9 . Phy sical conn ect iv it y is don e in t he f ollow ing w ay : • •

Table of Content s

R0 - R1 Iandex nd R8 - R9 — Et her net GE ( 1 Gb ps) link

Me tr o Et her ne t

- S2 By SamR1 Halabi

a nd R8 - S7 — OC48 c ( 2. 4 Gbp s) pack et ov er SONET ( PoS) link

S2 - W 3 a nd S7 - W 6 — OC19 2 ( 9. 6 Gbps) TDM lin k

Pub lish er: Cisco Press

Pub ober 03 — WDat 3 -e:F4Octan d 0W1,620 - F5

1 6 OC19 2 lam b das

I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X

F4 - F5 24 —01 6 fiber s, car r y in g 16 OC1 92 lam b das each Pages: The f ollow in g illust r at es t he pr ocess of LSP cr eat ion on all t he box es bet w een I SP1 and I SP2: LSP0 bet w een R0 an d R9 as a 2 00- Mb ps conn ect ion The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. LSP1 bet w een R1 an d R8 as an OC48 c connect ion Discover e latS2 estand developm entOC1 s in 92 m etconnect ro net wion or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and LSP2 bet wt heen S7 as an w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion LSP3 bet w een W3 an d W6 as a lam bda con nect ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst LSP4 bet an wdeen t h eP4 concep and P5 t s as a fiber conn ect ion LSP0 Gain is nest fr om ed int he sid exp e LSP1, er ience LSP1 of is indu nest st red y in inside nov atLSP2, or andan best d LSP2 - selling is n Cisco est ed Pr inside ess au LSP3 t hor. , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es I n addit ion t o t he creat ion of t he LSPs, t he n odes ann ounce t h e residual band wid t h available in tMet he rLSP o n et h ier w orarkch sw y ill in em t heerf ge ollow asing t h emnex annt er ar:ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as 1 . Node an noun cesstar ing PSC fr om t od R9 w it h band wid t h f or eq ual t o tCar he dr iers iff er w ence been b uilt tR0 o han dle t he enlin t rkeliab ilitR0 y an availabilit y needs v oice. ill h ave t o bet w een t h e GE lin k and 20 0 Mbps—t h at is, 80 0 Mbps. go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e 2 . at Node ces mod a PSC k frwom R1 t o t he R8 incum w it h band h eqs ual o t he iff er ence oper ionalR1 an an d bnoun usiness el lin t hat ill allow b en twid cartrier t o ttran sf ordm t he met r o t o bet w een t h e OC4 8c capacit y ( 2. 4 Gb ps) and 2 00 Mbp s—t hat is, 2 .2 Gb ps. off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. 3 .r oNode S2etann ounces TDM S2 dt oepS7 h ban t o ices t he diff er ence Met Et hern f r om Ciscoa Pr ess link look sfr om at t he loyw mitent of dw metidt r ohdeq at ual a serv fr om a holist ic bet w een t h e OC1 92 ( STS192 ) link cap acit y an d t he allocat ed OC48 ( STS48) t im et he v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses hat is, STS-car 1 44. dr iv erslot s ans—t d challenges r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. 4 .r oNode W et 3 an noun ces t an link rom W3 o her W6 net w it hserv band w idt h eq ualt hat t o t he ence Met Et hern d iscusses he LSC ad opt ion f of met r o tEt ices and how h asdiff ledercar r ier s bet w een 16 lam bd as and t he allocat ed lam bd a—t hat is, 15 lam bdas. t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s 5 . Node P4 an nounces an FSC link f r om P4 t o P5 w it h band w id t h eq ual t o t he diff er ence ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic bet w een 16 f ibers and t he allocat ed f iber—t hat is, 1 5 f iber s. engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . As par t of en hancem en t s t o sign alin g, GMPLS in t r oduces enhan cem en t s t o t he MPLS label it self, as d escrib ed nex t .

Enhancements to Labels

GMPLS int rod uces new label concep t s t o accom m odat e t h e specif ic r eq uirem ent s of t h e opt ical space. The n ew con cept s in clu de t h e gener alized label, t he label set , an d t h e sugg est ed lab el.

The Generalized Label •

Table of Content s

•To accom m odat I ndex e t h e scope of GMPLS t hat includes non - pack et / cell int er faces, sev er al n ew for m s Me o Et herar neet r eq uired, w hich ar e called generaliz ed labels. A gener alized label ext en ds t he of tr labels tBy r adit Sam ional Halabilab el by allow ing t he lab el t o ident if y t im e slot s, wav elen gt hs, or sp ace- div ision m ult iplexed posit ions. Ex am ples ar e label r ep r esent at ion of a f iber in a bu ndle, a w av eband w it hin a f iber, a w av eleng t h in a wav eband , and a set of t ime slot s w it h in a w avelen gt h , as w ell Pub lish er: Cisco Press as t h e t r adit ional MPLS lab el. Th e gener alized label has en ough inf orm at ion t o allow t he Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 r eceivin g n ode t o pr ogr am a cr oss- con nect r eg ar dless of t h e t y pe of t h e cr oss- con nect . As y ou I SBN: 705 -0in 96Ch -X apt er 7, " MPLS Cont r ollin g Opt ical Sw it ches, " t he label is p ur ely a hav e alr ead1y 58 seen Pages: 24 0 r uct u sed t o g ive in for m at ion ab out how int er faces ar e cross- connect ed an d is not signaling const par t of t he f orw ar din g p lane.

An ex am ple of a SONET/ SDH label for m at is sh ow n in Figur e 8- 9 . Th is is an ex t ension of t h e ( K, L, M) n um ber in g schem e defin ed in I TU- T Recom m endat ion G. 70 7, " Net w or k Node I nt er face f or tThe he Syn ch ron Hier arise chyan " (dOct ob er The S,etU,app K, licat L, and M f ield s help id en t ify t h e d ef init iv eous guidDig e titoalEnt er pr Carr ier 2000 Met r )o. Et hern ions. signals in t he SONET/ SDH mu lt iplex . Each let t er indicat es a p ossible b ran ch n um ber st art in g at t he par en t n ode in t he SONET/ SDH m u lt ip lex st r uct ur e. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do Figu f or y our ion r e or8gan - 9 .izat SO NET/ SDH La bel For m at Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es A g en alized t o comm e t the char actnerist icsk ing requindu iredstt roy su t t he Met r o er n et w or klab s wel ill requ em erest ge isasused t h e nex t ar eaun oficat gr ow h for t he et w or anppor d w ill LSP being ar eq or mat riedarine toff h eered gener label rand eq uest includes r ep r esent m uest ajor ed. sh ifThe t in inf how dat aion sercar v ices t oalized b usinesses r esident ial cut hsteomer s. follow The ming et r :o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed g Ty — An 8 - bit er f ield t hatisind es tah et ech LSP en codshif in g tt,yp sucha as pack by entLSP er prEncodin ise cust om er spe and consum s. This noticat only nology bues, t also sh ift in et t h ,e Et h er n et , PDH, SDH, SONET, Dig it al Wr apper ( D W) , lam bda, fiber , and Fiber Chan nel. oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. When a g en er alized lab el requ est is mad e, t he r equest car r ies an LSP encoding t y pe am eteter f rt hat in dicatPresess t helook t y pe t hedLSP, Gigabit h eranet , Met r opar Et hern om Cisco s atof t he ep loysu mch entasofSONET, met r o dSDH, at a serv ices frEtom holist ic lam bda, fiber , and so on . The lam bd a encoding t y pe, f or exam ple, r efer s t o an LSP t v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t hehat a w hole w avelengt h . in The f iber encoding y pe s t o an dr iv erencom s an d passes challenges car r ier s w ill face t r ansfor m ing t he tm et rroefer t o addr essLSP dat at hat ser v ices. encom passes a w hole fiber p ort . The encodin g t y pe repr esen t s t he t yp e of t he LSP and n ot nat ur t h e linkt he s t he t r av ses.r oAEt link ayserv supp or t and a sethow of en codhinasg led for m atrsier s Met r ot he Et hern etedof iscusses ad LSP opt ion ofermet herm net ices t hat car link can an vdices. sw it ch onemorix m of t hese encodingies, f orm s t o t hewdher eliveert he y of m et ro car dat ry a ser Witah signal a chanof ging ofort reanspor t t echnolog t h at e book depend in gcur onr en t het an link r esour and capacit t hen exam ines d 'sem erg in ce g t availabilit rend s, andy delves int o tyh. e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic Sw iint ch pe —anAn 8 - bit f ield t hat ind icat es t h e. t y pe of sw it ch in g t hat sh ould be engineer g, ing an d Ty MPLS d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) per for m ed on a par t icu lar lin k. This f ield is need ed f or link s t hat adv ert ise m or e t han one t y pe of sw it ching capabilit y, su ch as PSC, L2 SC, TDM, LSC, and FSC. Gene r al iz ed P ay l oad I de nt i fi er ( G- P I D ) — A 16 - bit f ield used by t he nodes at t he endp oin t of t h e LSP t o id en t if y t h e pay load car r ied by t he LSP. Ex amp les of t he PI D ar e st andar d Et h er t y pe values f or pack et and Et hern et LSPs. Ot her valu es in clu de pay load

t y pes such as SONET, SD H, Digit al Wrap per ( DW) , STS, POS, ATM m app in g, an d so on. A g en er alized lab el car r ies only a sing le lev el of labels—t h at is, t h e label is non hier ar chical. When m ult iple levels of labels ar e r eq uir ed , each LSP m ust b e est ab lished separ at ely , as discussed in t he pr ev iou s sect ion " LSP Hier ar ch y—Sig naling. "

Waveband Switching Support • Table of Content s •

I ndex

Awtrav and Me o eb Et her ne tr epr esent s a set of cont igu ous w av eleng t hs t h at can be sw it ched t oget her t o a new w av eb and. For op t imizat ion r eason s, it m ay be d esir able f or an OXC t o op t ically sw it ch m ult iple By Sam Halabi w av elengt hs as a unit . This m ay r ed uce t he d ist or t ion on t he in divid ual w av eleng t hs an d allow t igh t er separ at ion of t he in divid ual w av eleng t hs. The wav eband label is d ef ined t o sup por t t h is Pub lish er: Cisco Press special case. Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03

Wav ebIand SBN: sw 1- 58 it 705 ch in -0g 96u-Xses t he sam e for m at as t he gener alized label. Figur e 8- 1 0 sh ows t he for m atPages: of t he g en er alized label in t he con t ex t of w aveban d sw it ching. 24 0

Figu r e 8 - 1 0 . Ge ne r al iz e d La be l—W a ve ba nd Sw it chi ng The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o The Label Set go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e The set an is dused t o restmod r ict elt he labwelillran ges tthe hatincum m ay bbe for sa tpar t icular LSP bet w een operlabel at ional b usiness t hat allow enut sed car rier o t ran sf or m t he met ro t o t w oerpenhan eer s. The eceiv er vices. of a label set m ust rest r ict it s choice t o on e label r ange t hat is in t h e off ced rdat a ser label set . The lab el set is usef ul in t h e opt ical dom ain because of t he r est rict ions on how opt ical equipm allocat es w av eleng t hslook an ds hatandles w av hichices r estfrrict e useicof Met r o Etent hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess t he d ep loyeleng m entt hofconv meter r osion, d at awserv oms at hholist ar eibes boun d tcu o rr t hent ese m wet avr eleng hs. isReasons f orTD using t he lab ely,set desses t h e tfollow vlabels iew . Itthat descr t he o, w h tich based on M t echnolog an dinclu discu he ing: dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. endetequ ip m en t can r ansmit r eceive on ly a sm all,and sp ecific Met r oThe Et hern d iscusses t he tad opt ion and of met r o Et her netonserv ices how tset hatofh as led car r ier s elengt hs/mband t o t hewdav eliv er y of et ro s.dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s is ap riv sequence f aces h at( VLAN) cann ot, vsupp or tp w con ver sion and, tt hr aff at ic ( VPN)Ther , v ir et ual at e localofarint eaernet w ort ks ir t ual rivav ateleng e LANt hser v ices ( VPLS) r eq uir es t he sam e w avelengt h t o be u sed en dt oend ov er a sequence of hop s or an ent ir e engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . pat h . For oper at or s, it is desirab le t o lim it t h e am ount of w avelengt h conv ersion bein g perf or med t o redu ce t he dist or t ion of t he op t ical sign als. The t wo ends of a link supp or t dif fer en t set s of w av elengt h s.

The u se of a label set is op t ional, and if it is n ot p resent , it is assum ed t hat all labels can b e used.

The Suggested Label GMPLS allow Table s an upst r eams nod e t o sug gest a lab el t o t h e dow nst r eam ( one hop aw ay) node for • of Content dif fer en t opt im izat ion pu rp oses t h at ar e specif ic t o opt ical net w or ks. Th e dow nst r eam nod e may • I ndex ov er r ide t h e suggest ed lab el at t h e exp en se of h igher LSP set u p t im es and p er hap s subop t imal Me tr o Et her ne t allocat ion of net w or k r esou rces. A t y pical exam p le is w hen an opt ical sw it ch con figu res it s ow n By Sam Halabi label t o adj ust it s m ir r ors an d sav e v aluable t im e b ef ore t he d own st ream sw it ch allocat es t he label. Ot h er ex am ples inv olv e an y act iv it y w her e t her e is lat ency in con figu rin g t h e sw it ch in g fab rPub ic.lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03

Ear ly conf ur58 at705 ion-0 96 can I SBN:ig1-X r educe set up lat en cy and may be im por t ant for rest or at ion p ur poses w her ePages: alt er n24at e LSPs m ay n eed t o b e r apidly est ablish ed as a r esult of net w ork failur es. 0

Bandwidth Encoding GMPLS LSPs ppore tt opack or ise nonan packet For non packet LSPs, it is u sef ul t o list t he The d ef init iv esuguid Entet er pr d CarrLSPs. ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. discret e b andw idt h v alue of t h e LSP. Ban dw idt h encoding v alu es inclu de v alues for DS0 t o OC768, E1 t o STM- 256 , 10 / 100 / 100 0/ 10 , 000- Mbps Et her net , an d 1 33- t o 1 062 - Mbp s Fib er Ch annel. Discover The bandw t h e latid est t h developm encodin gsent arse in carmried et roinnet p rot w or ocolkingspecif , Et h er ic n( et RSVP, andTE, MPLS CR- ser LDP) v ices object ands. Ex amw ples hat of t hey RSVPcanTE doarf or e tyhe ourSENDER_ or gan izat TEMPLATE ion an d FLOW_SPEC ob ject s. Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Bidirectional LSPs Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Man y Halabi, opt ical au sert vhor ice of prIovider s consider bidir n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch itect ection ur al es opt ical LSPs a r equir em en t , because m any of t he und er lyin g const r uct s f or SONET/ SDH n et w or k s ar e inher en t ly bidir ect ion al. I t is assum ed tMet hatr obid ir ect t het hsam e TE eq uir entt hs (for in clud fatoreksh prr ot n et w orion k salw LSPs ill em hav er gee as e nex t arr ea of em gr ow t he ing n et w ingaring indu, st y ect an dion, w illan d r est at ion) and equirdat emaent su charas latered ency tan j it t er) in each ect ion. ep ror esent am ajorr esour sh if t ce in rhow sersv (ices e off o bdusinesses and r dir esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as The it ion MPLS aben lishm ent ilit is yunan iddirect ional. Est ab lishing bidir Car ect ion al LSP beent rad b uilt t o al han dle tLSP he stest r ing t r eliab availabilit y needs f or vaoice. r iers w ill h ave t o rgo eq tuir es est ablishing t w o unidir ect ion al LSPs, w hich has m any disadv ant ages: hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o The lat ency t o est ab lish t he bidir ect ional LSP is equ al t o one r oun d- t r ip sign alin g t im e p lus off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. one in it iat or- t er m inat or signaling t r ansit delay . Th is ex t end s t he set up lat ency for ablishm ent ansd at extthe ends st -of case discover in g aanholist ic Met r osuccessful Et hern et fLSP r om est Cisco Pr ess look d ept he loy w mor ent metlat r oency d at af or serv ices fr om un su ccessf ul LSP. These delays are p ar t icu lar ly signif ican t f or LSPs t hat ar e est ablished v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he f or r est or at ion pur p oses. dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. con et t rold iscusses over headt he of ad t w opt o un idirect ional is t wserv ice ices t hat and of one irecthional Met r oThe Et hern ion of met r o LSPs Et her net howb id t hat as ledLSP, car r ier s because sep arat e con t r ol m essages m ust b e gener at ed f or each u nidir ect ional LSP. t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s Becau se t he r esou rces ar e est ab lished in separ at e segm ent s, r out e select ion get s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic com plicat ed. Also, if t h e r esour ces need ed t o est ab lish t he LSP ar e not av ailab le, one engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . un id irect ional LSP g et s est ablished, b ut t he ot h er doesn 't . This decreases t he ov erall pr obab ilit y of su ccessf ul est ablish m en t of t h e bidir ect ional connect ion. SONET equipm ent in p ar t icu lar relies on h op- by - h op p at hs f or pr ot ect ion sw it ching. SONET/ SD H t r ansm it s cont r ol inf or mat ion in- b and. This r eq uir es con nect ion s t o b e pair ed, m ean ing t hat bidir ect ion al LSP set u p is h ighly desirab le. Theref ore, GMPLS su ppor t s

add it ion al m et hods t hat allow bidir ect ional LSP set up , t o redu ce session est ab lish ment ov er head.

Notification of Label Error Som e sit uat ions in t r adit ional MPLS and GMPLS r esu lt in an er r or m essage cont ain in g an •" Unaccept able Table of Content label v alue"s ind icat ion. When t hese sit u at ions occur , it is u sef ul if t he node t hat is •gener at ing t he I ndex er r or m essage ind icat es w h ich labels ar e accept ab le. To cover t h ese sit uat ions, Me tr o Et her t uces t he abilit y t o conv ey such inf orm at ion v ia an accept ab le lab el set . An GMPLS intne rod accept able label set is car ried in ap pr opr iat e pr ot ocol- sp ecific er r or m essages. By Sam Halabi The f or m at of an accept ab le label set is ident ical t o a label set , as d escr ib ed ear lier in t his Pub lish er: Cisco Press chapt er in t he sect ion " The Label Set . " Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0 Control Explicit Label

As discussed in Ch apt er 7, w it h RSVP- TE, t he in t er f aces u sed by an LSP m ay be cont r olled b y an exp licit rou t e v ia t he ERO or ERO h op. Th is allow s t he LSP t o cont rol w hich n odes/ int er f aces it goes in and out on. Th e pr oblem is t h at t h e ERO and ERO hop do not sup por t ex plicit label The d ef inits,ivw e hich guid m e eans t o Entter pr tise d Carr Met rt ot he Et hern appylicat ions. subob ject h at h eyancan not ier su ppor gr anetularit need ed by opt ical net w or ks. For exam ple, in net w or ks t hat are n ot p ack et - based, LSPs somet im es need t o be spliced t oget h er . Th is means t hat t he t ail en d of an LSP needs t o be spliced w it h t he h ead end of anot h er Discoverintt rhodu e latces estt hdevelopm ent s ject in m et ro hop net wt oorallow king , fin Et herer gn retanular , and itMPLS serplicit v icesr out andes. LSP. GMPLS e ERO subob / ERO y for ex w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o

Protection un derst Information an d t h e concep t s

Gain fr om t he obj expect er ience of indu r y in(nov at or and Pr ess t hor , Sam GMPLS u ses a new t y pe lengt h vstalue TLV) f ield t o best car r-yselling LSP prCisco ot ect ion infau orm at ion. The Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es use of t h is in for m at ion is opt ional. Pr ot ect ion in for m at ion in dicat es t he LSP' s link p rot ect ion t yp e. When a p rot ect ion t y pe is ind icat ed, t he connect ion requ est is pr ocessed only if t h e desir ed Met o nion et wtor k s can w ill be em honor er ge as nex of ion gr ow t h abilit for t ies he nmetay w or st r yinanr out d wing ill . pr otrect y pe ed.t hAe lin k' ts ar prea ot ect cap b ek ing adv indu er t ised r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o inf h as alw een ind a challengin g her env irt honm en tisf or a ser because it h as Pr ot ect ion orm atays ion balso icat es w het e LSP a pdeliver rim ar ying or dat secon darv yices LSP. A been b uilt o han t he up st r ing r eliab y an d availabilit needs f or v oice. Carar r iers w ill h ave second ar y tLSP is dle a back t o aenprt im ary ilit LSP. The resour cesy of a second ary LSP e n ot u sed untt oil dam en tTh al eshift s t o ces equallocat ip t h e ed m etfor ro aforsecondar next - g en er at ion ser v ices dem ed tgo he t hr pr oug imarhy f un LSP f ails. resour y LSP m aydat bea used by ot herand LSPs by tent er pr cust om erfails s and consum s. This only t ech nology shif t , of buLSPs t alsot hat a shar iftein t h e un il t he prise im ar y LSP ov er t o t heersecon darisy not LSP. At tahat point , any set oper attional an d b usiness el t hat ill allow b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o using he resour ces f or t h mod e second arywLSP m ustt he be incum pr eemp t ed. off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic Administrative Status Information v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. GMPLS int rod uces a new ob ject / TLV for ad min ist r at iv e st at us inf or mat ion . The use of t his inf at hern ion isetopt ion al. The mat ionofcan o w ices ays: and how t hat h as led car r ier s Metorm r o Et d iscusses t heinf adoropt ion metbe r o used Et herin nett wserv t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s t he ist rwator ivks e st at e, such rat iv ser ely vdow " " t est,ing , " ic or ( VPN)To , v in ir tdicat ual periv at eLSP's localad arm eainnet ( VLAN) , v iras t ual" Adm p riv inist at e LAN icesn, ( VPLS) t r aff " delet ion in pr ogr ess. " The nod es can use t h is infor m at ion t o allow local d ecision s, su ch as engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . m akin g sur e an alar m is not sen t if t h e LSP is put in a t est m ode. I n RSVP- TE, t his obj ect is carr ied in t h e PATH and RESV m essag es. To send a r equ est t o set t h e LSP' s adm inist r at iv e st at e. Th is requ est is alway s sent t o t h e ingr ess nodes t h at act on t he r equest . I n RSVP- TE, t his obj ect is car r ied in a Not if y m essage ( d iscussed lat er , in t he sect ion " Not ify Messages" ) .

Separation of Control and Data Channels I n opt ical net w or ks, t h e cont r ol and d at a chan nels need t o be separ at ed f or m ult iple r eason s, includin g t h ese: • •

Table of Content s

Mu lt ip leI ndex lin ks can be bund led .

Me tr o Et her ne t

Som e dat a chann els cann ot car ry con t r ol infor m at ion.

By Sam Halabi

The in t eg r it y of a dat a chann el does not aff ect t he in t eg rit y of con t rol ch annels. Pub lish er: Cisco Press

The f ollow in g t wo sect ions discuss t wo crit ical issu es for t he sep arat ion of d at a and cont r ol Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 chann els. I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X

Pages: 24 0

Interface Identification I n MPLS, a one- t o- one associat ion ex ist s bet w een t he d at a an d cont rol ch annels ( except for MPLS link bu ndling ) . I n GMPLS, w here su ch associat ion does not exist , it is necessary t o conv ey The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. add it ion al inf orm at ion in sig naling t o ident if y t he par t icu lar dat a ch annel b ein g cont rolled. GMPLS sup por t s exp licit dat a chan nel ident if icat ion by pr ovidin g in t er f ace id en t ificat ion inf ormDiscover at ion. GMPLS s t he u seent of ssev in t net er f ace en ,t ificat includ g I Pv 4 or t h e latallow est developm in er mal et ro w or id king Et h erion n etschem , and es, MPLS ser vinices and I Pv6 ad dr esses, in t er f ace in dexes, and com ponent int er faces ( est ab lished v ia config ur at ion or a w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion pr ot ocol such as LMP) . I n all cases, t he choice of t h e dat a in t erf ace is indicat ed b y t he ad dr esses and ident s u sed t h -et oupst r eam nod e. Learifnier fr om t h e by easy r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam FaultGain Handling Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Tw o n ew fau lt s mu st be hand led w hen t he cont r ol chan nel is ind ep en dent of t he dat a chann el: Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The mCont et r o rol h ascha alwnne ays lbfa een onm en failur t f or deliver ing itdat a ser v ices because it ing h as ul ta—challengin A link or g otenv h er irt yp e of e t h at lim s t he abilit y of neighbor been nod b uiltest ot ohan dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave to pass cont rol messages. I n t h is sit u at ion, neigh bor ing nodes ar e un able t o go t hrexchan oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed ge cont r ol m essag es for a per iod of t im e. Once com m unicat ion is rest or ed , t he by entun erderly pr iseing cust om er s and consum isenot t ech nology t ,ained bu t also a sh iftein t h e sig naling pr ot ocol m er usts. inThis dicat t hatonly t he anodes hav e mshif aint t heir st at oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met ro t o t hr ou gh t he f ailu re. Th e sig naling pr ot ocol m ust also en su re t hat any st at e chan ges t hat off er w enhan ced dat a ser vices. ere in st an t iat ed d ur ing t he f ailu r e are sy nchr onized bet w een t he nodes. Met r oNEt hern etulf rtom at et he d epan loy d at loses a servm ices oda l fa — ACisco nod e'Pr s ess contlook r ol ps lan fails dm t hent en rof estmet art sr oand ost frofom it sastholist at e ic v iew . inf I t orm descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he at ion bu t d oes n ot lose it s d at a f orw ar ding st at e. I n t his case, bot h up st r eam and dr iv erdow s anndstchallenges car r ier w illchface in ttrheir ansfor meing hemat m et r o wt oit haddr v ices. r eam nod es mu st ssyn r onize st at inftor ion t heess r estdat artaedser nod e. For any r esyn ch ron izat ion t o occu r , t he n ode u nder going t he r est ar t needs t o pr eser v e som e Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s inf orm at ion, su ch as it s map ping s of incomin g lab els t o out g oin g lab els. t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic Notify engineerMessages in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . GMPLS p rov ides a mechanism t o infor m n onadj acen t n odes of LSP- r elat ed failur es using Not ify m essages. I n opt ical n et w or k s, failur e n ot if icat ion som et im es has t o t r av er se t r anspar ent nodes t o not ify t he nod es responsible f or r est or ing f ailed con nect ion s ( t r anspar ent nodes do not or iginat e or t er m inat e conn ect ions) . This m echan ism en ables t arg et nod es t o b e not ified dir ect ly

and m or e quick ly of a net w or k f ailu re. Th e Not ify m essag e has b een added t o RSVP- TE. Th e Not ify messag e includes t h e I P add ress of t he node t h at n eeds t o b e not ified. Ot her nod es in t h e pat h j ust p ass on t he m essage u nt il it r eaches t h e t ar get ed n ode. The Not if y m essage d if fer s fr om t he er ror messag es Pat h- Err or an d Reser vat ion- Er ror in t h at it can b e " t ar get ed" t o a n ode ot her t h an t he im m ed iat e upst r eam and dow n st r eam neigh bor . Anot h er applicat ion of t he Not ify messag e is t o not ify w h en t h e con t r ol plane has f ailed w hile t he dat a plane is st ill f un ct ion al. GMPLS uses t his m echanism t o id en t ify degr aded link s. •

Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Inclusion of Technology-Specific Parameters The p r ev ious sect ion s discu ssed t he enh ancem ent s t o signaling t h at allow GMPLS t o cont r ol t h e dif fer en t t y pes of pack et and n onpack et net w or ks. GMPLS also allow s t h e inclusion of t echnology - specif ic par am et er s t h at ar e car ried in t h e signaling pr ot ocol in t r aff ic •par am et er –specific Table of ob Content ject s.s This sect ion looks at how t his ap plies t o SONET/ SDH. A d escr ip t ion •of par am et erIsndex t h at ar e specific t o opt ical t r anspor t net w ork ( OTN) t echnolog y is not inclu ded in Me tr ob Et her ne t t his ook. By Sam Halabi

The SONET/ SDH t raf fic p ar amet er s specif y a set f or SONET ( ANSI T1. 10 5) and a set f or SDH ( I TU- T G. 70 7) , such as concat enat ion and t r anspar ency. Ot her capab ilit ies can b e defin ed and Pub lish er: Cisco Press st andar d ized as w ell. These t raf fic p aram et er s m ust be used w hen SONET/ SD H is specif ied in t he Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 LSPPub Encodin g Ty pe field of a generalized lab el r eq uest , discu ssed ear lier in t h e sect ion " The I SBN: 1-Lab 58 705 Gener alized el.-0" 96 Th-Xe SONET/ SD H t r aff ic par am et er s ar e car ried in t h e SENDER_TSPEC an d Pages: 24 FLOWSPEC ob0ject s of RSVP- TE and in SONET/ SDH TLVs in CR- LDP. Figur e 8- 1 1 sh ows how t h e SONET/ SD H t r aff ic par am et er s ar e or gan ized. The Sign al Ty pe indicat es t he t yp e of t he element ary sign al of t he requ est LSP. Sev er al p aram et ers can b e app lied on t he signal t o b uild t he f in al r eq uest ed signals. These par am et er s ar e ap plied using t he Requ Cont ous ionan( dRCC) Num ber Com ponent s ( NCC) , and The dest ef init iv eigu guid e tConcat o Ent eren prat ise Carr, ier Met r o of EtCon hernt iguou et appslicat ions. Tr anspar ency fields included in t he t r af fic par am et er . Discover t h e lat est rdevelopm s in m et roSDH net w or er nr et , and Figu e 8 - 1 1 ent . SON ET/ Trking a f fi, Et c hPa am e t eMPLS r s ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o Ex am ples of sig nal t y pes f or SONET/ SDH includ e VT1. 5, VT2 , VT3, VT6 , STS1, VC- 11 , VC- 12 , go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed VC2 , VC- 3, and VC- 4 , plus ot her possib le t y pes, depending on t he lev el of con cat en at ion an d by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e t r anspar ency. oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off enhan ced t h dat a ser field, vices. an d t h e Num ber of Vir t ual Com ponent s ( NVC) f ield ar e used t o TheerRCC field, e NCC negot iat e t he t y pe of concat enat ion and t h e num b er of sign als t hat are t o b e con cat en at ed . As Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic m en t ioned in Ch apt er 2, " Met r o Techn olog ies, " concat enat ion can be app lied t o sign als t o f or m v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he lar ger sig nals. Diff erent t y pes of concat en at ion, such as cont igu ous or vir t ual, can be ap plied , dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. and t h e infor m at ion is relat ed in t h e sig naling pr ot ocol. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic NO TE engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . Tr anspar ency, in t h e cont ext of SDH/ SONET signals, r ef ers t o t h e over head sig nals, such as t he sect ion ov erh ead ( SOH) and t he lin e over head ( LOH) in t he case of SONET. Tr anspar ency indicat es w hich of t h ese ov erh ead f ields need s t o r em ain u nt ouched w hen deliv ered t o t he ot h er en d of t h e LSP.



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Link Management Protocol Fut ur e n et w or k s m ay consist of opt ical sw it ch es, d at a sw it ches t hat ar e m anaged by GMPLS. Thou san ds of f ib er s m ay conn ect a p air of nodes, and hu ndr eds of w av eleng t hs m ay ex ist on each f iber. Mult iple f ibers an d wav elen gt hs can be bun dled t o for m TE link s. These lin ks need a •cont r ol chan nel Table Content t oofman ages r out ing , signaling , and link conn ect iv it y and m anagem en t . LMP is a •link - con t r ol pr I ndex ot ocol t h at r un s bet w een neigh bor in g nodes t o man age TE link s. Me tr o Et her ne t

LMP as cr eat ed t o ad dr ess t he issu es of lin k pr ovisioning and f ault isolat ion t o im pr ov e and By SamwHalabi scale n et wor k m anag eab ilit y . W it h GMPLS, t h e cont r ol chan nel bet w een t w o ad jacent nodes is no longer r equir ed t o use t h e same phy sical mediu m as t he dat a ch annels bet w een t h ose n odes. A Pub lish er: Cisco Press cont r ol chan nel can r u n on a separ at e I P man agem en t net w or k , a separ at e f ib er , or a separ at e Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 w avPub elengt h. LMP allow s for t he d ecoup lin g of t h e cont r ol chan nel fr om t he com ponent lin ks. As I 1- 58h 705 such, t hSBN: e healt of-0t96 he-Xcont r ol ch annel d oes n ot n ecessar ily cor r elat e t o t he healt h of t he d at a 24 0 v ersa. link s, Pages: and vice LMP is designed t o p rov ide f our b asic fun ct ion s t o a nod e pair : Cont rol cha nne l m an ag em e nt — A core fun ct ion of LMP t h at is u sed t o est ablish an d The dm efaint init iv e guid t o chann Ent er el pr ise d Carr r o Et hernbor et ing app nodes. licat ions. ain con ter ol conan nect iv it y ier betMet w een n eigh This con sist s of light w eight Hello m essages t hat act as a fast keepaliv e mechan ism b et w een t he nod es. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and Li nk conn ect i vi t y v er if icat i on— An op t ional LMP f unct ion t hat is used t o v er ify phy sical w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion connect ivit y of t he dat a- bearin g chan nels bet w een t he n odes and t o ex chang e t he in t er f ace ILear Ds tnh at ar et hused in -GMPLS alin g. Th e err or - pr one angual pr ocedur ake fr om e easy t o- r eadsign f or mat t hat enables net w ormkin p r cabling ofessionals of all es levm els to LMP link conn ect iv it y ver ificat ion v er y usef ul. un derst an d t h e concep t s Li nk fr prope rt yexp corerre la t ion A core fun ct ion LMPbest t h at is d esigned o ess aggrau egat ult iple Gain om t he ience of— indu st r y in nov at orofand - selling Cisco tPr t hore, m Sam por t s or com pon en t link s int o a TE link an d t o sy nchr onize t h e pr oper t ies of t h e TE lin k. Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Lin k pr oper t ies, such as link I Ds f or local and r em ot e nodes, t he p r ot ect ion m echan ism , an d y, kcan beem exer chang edt hveianex LMP using Link bet wst een addjacent Met r oprnior et witor s w ill ge as t ar ea oft hgreow t h Sum for tm hearnyetm wessage or k ing indu r y an w ill nod es. r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as a nadle ge m enstt raing ndenisola t i on— t ional LMP f unct ion pr ov id res am echhanism been Fau b uiltltt omhan t he t r eliab ilit y An an dopavailabilit y needs f ort hat v oice. Car iers w ill ave t o t o isolat e link an d ch annel f ailu res in bot h op aque an d t ran sp arent net w or k s, ir r esp ect iv go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ede of t he dat a for m at . Op aque n odes ar e nodes w her e chann els can be t er m inat ed for t h e by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e pu rp ose am ining t heelhtead d datt a. anspar ent nodes esorwmhere annels oper at ional anof d bex usiness mod hat erwsillan allow he Tr incum b en t car rier sar t oe tnod ran sf t he ch met ro t o pass t h rou gh w it hout t er minat ion . off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. LMP es ett hat a pair of Pr n odes havse at at t least one ive of bidir ect t rices ol chann w een Met r or eq Etuir hern f r om Cisco ess look he d ep loy act m ent met r oional d at a con serv fr omela bet holist ic tvhem . Th is con t rol channel m ay b e im plem ent ed using t w o u nidir ect ional con t r ol chann els iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t het h at ar iv e er coupled usin g t he LMP allow s backu channels ined, dr s an d challenges car rHello ier s wm illessages. face in t rLMP ansfor m ing t he mpetcon r o tt rol o addr ess datt oa be ser dv ef ices. such as using t he d at a- bear in g ch annels as b ack up in case of f ailu re in t h e pr im ary con t rol chann Met r o els. Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

GMPLS Protection and Restoration Mechanisms GMPLS int rod uces t he necessar y feat ur es in r out ing, sig naling, and lin k m anagem en t t o supp ort t he fault m anagem en t r equir ed in opt ical an d elect ron ic net w or ks. Fault man agem en t r equir es t he follow in g cap abilit ies: •

Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Fau Et herlt nede t t ect ion —

For op t ical net w ork s, f ault d et ect ion can b e hand led v ia m echan ism s such as loss of ligh t ( LOL) and opt ical sign al- t o- noise r at io ( OSNR) at t he op t ical lev el, and By Sam Halabi bit er r or r at e ( BER) , SONET/ SDH Alar m I nd icat or Sig nal ( AI S) , or LOL at t he SONET/ SDH level. Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat lt e: Oct obert ion 0 1, 20 Fau isola —03For

GMPLS, LMP can be u sed for fau lt isolat ion . The LMP f ault mI SBN: anagem 1- 58 705 ent-0pr 96ocedu -X re is based on sen ding Ch annelAct iv e and Chann elFail m essages ov er tPages: he con24t 0r ol chann el. Th e Chan nelAct iv e m essage is u sed t o in dicat e t hat one or mor e d at abear ing ch annels ar e now car r y in g user dat a. Th e Chan nelFail m essag e is used t o indicat e t hat one or m ore act iv e dat a chann els or an ent ir e TE link h as failed.

Fau lt not if ica t ion— GMPLS uses t he RSVP- TE Not if y m essage t o not if y nodes of an y possible failur es. The Not if y m essage can be u sed over t h e dat a- b ear ing link s t o indicat e a The dfailur ef initeiv in e guid t ot Ent pr iseor anover d Carr Met o Et hernels et app licat ions. t he econ r ol er plane, t hier e con t rrol chann t o indicat e a failur e in t he d at a plane. Th e not if y r eq uest obj ect can b e car r ied in t he RSVP PATH or RESV m essages and indicat es tthhe I P est adddevelopm ress of t he n sode t het atroshou b eking not, ifEt ied generat in gser anv ices er rorand Discover e lat ent in m netld w or h erwnhen et , and MPLS m essage. w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion GMPLS u ses h e follow ing- pr ect ion echt anisms: Lear n frtom t h e easy t o-ot r ead f or m mat hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s 1 + 1 prot e ct ion— Th e dat a is t r ansm it t ed sim ult aneously ov er t he t w o disj oint pat hs. Th e Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam r eceiver select s t h e w ork ing pat h b ased on t he b est sign al. Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es 1 : 1 p rot e ct ion— A dedicat ed b ack up p at h is pr eallocat ed t o pr ot ect t h e pr imar y p at h. Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent m ajor sh if t inMhow serh vs ices off erededt ot ob usinesses and esident ial How cu st omer M: N aprot e ct ion— backdat up apat ar e ar pr eeallocat p rot ect N pr imrary p at hs. ever , s. The mdat et rao is h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because not r ep licat ed ont o a back up pat h , bu t only t ran sm it t ed in case of failur e on t h eit h as been pr b uilt t o dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o im ary han pat h. go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by entFor er pr1:ise custM: omNerpr s ot and s. This is not only nology shif tLSPs. , bu t also a sh 1 and ectconsum ion , t h eerbacku p pat hs m ay baet ech used b y ot her For 1+ 1 ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he pr ot ect ion, t h e backu p pat hs may not b e used b y ot her LSPs because t he d at a is met r o t o off er tenhan dat a ser r ansmced it t ed on botvices. h p at hs. Met r oSp Etan hern r omi on— CiscoI nPrt er ess look se at t he met r yo tdhat at a rserv fr om a holist ic pretotfect m ediat nod es dinepit loy iat emtent he rof ecover eq uirices es sw it ching t o an v iew . alt I t ern descr ibespat t he entt m w h ich isr out based ont ension TD M t echnolog discu he at ive h. cu Asrrpar ofett hr o, e GMPLS in g ex s, t he linky, pan r otdect ion sses t y pe t is dr iv eradv s anert d ised challenges r ierpr sw m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. so t hatcar span otill ectface ion in cant r ansfor be used. Met r oSp Etan hern iscusses adm opt ion eofnod met herenet ices yand hatesh sw as itled car rt ier s reetstdora t ion —t he I n t er ediat esr oinEt it iat t heserv r ecover t hathow r eqtuir ching o an t o t healt d ern eliv at er ive y ofpat m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book h. The alt ern at ive pat h is dy nam ically com pu t ed . t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN)P, at v irht ual p riv e local ar ea , v irer t ual p riv rat LAN ser v ices t r aff ic iv e pr ot ectat i on— End nodnet es winor it ks iat e( VLAN) t he r ecov y t hat eqe uires sw it ching( VPLS) t o an ,alt er nat engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . pat h . The en d n odes swit ch t o t he back up pat h . P at h re st ora t ion — End nod es in it iat e t he r ecov er y t hat r eq uires sw it ching t o an alt ern at ive pat h. The back up pat h is dy nam ically calculat ed upon f ailu re.

Summary of Differences Between MPLS and GMPLS As y ou' ve lear ned in t h is ch apt er , GMPLS ex t en ds MPLS t o su ppor t non- packet / cell int erf aces. The su ppor t of t he add it ional TDM, lam bda, an d fiber int er faces im pact s t he basic LSP pr oper t ies, su ch as h ow labels ar e requ est ed and comm u nicat ed and t h e unid ir ect ional LSP •behav ior , errTable of Content s and so on. or p rop agat ion, •

I ndex

Me tr o Et Table 8her - 1 ne sut mm ar izes t he b asic d if fer ences b et ween MPLS and GMPLS descr ibed in t his chapt er . By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03

Tab le 8 -1 . Di f fe r en ce s Be t w ee n M PLS an d G M PLS

I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

MP LS

Sup por t s pack et / cell- based int er faces only .

GMP LS Sup por t s pack et / cell, TDM, lamb da, an d f iber.

LSPs st ar t and end on LSPs st ar t and end on " sim ilar t y pe" LSRs ( t hat is, PSC, L2SC, The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. pack et / cell LSRs. TDM, LSC, FSC) . Band wid t h allocat ion can b e Band wid t h allocat ion can on ly be don e in d iscr et e unit s for som e t hmb e lat developm etabilit ro net w or kingas , EtTDM, h er n et , and MPLS don eDiscover in an y nu er est of unit s. sw ent it chsining m cap ies such LSC, and FSC.ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Ty pical larg e nu mb er of Few er labels ar e allocat ed w hen applied t o bu ndled lin ks. Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o labels. un derst an d t h e concep t s No r est rict ions on label u se An ingr ess or upst r eam nod e m ay r est r ict t he lab els t hat may b e by u Gain pst r eam used a single op or Cisco t he w hole Th,isSam is fr omnodes. t he exp er ience of induby st ran y inLSP novalon at organd best - hselling Pr essp at auh. t hor used, f orArexam p le, t o r est r ict t h e num ber of w av eleng t hs t hat Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing ch it ect ur es can be used in t h e case w h er e opt ical equ ipm en t p rov ides a Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as tsm h e all nexnum t ar ber ea of of gr wow av eleng t h for t hs. t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. On ly f orm at b . een a challengin Use of a gspecif label specif icing intdat er face. The m one et r o label h as alw ays env iriconm en tonf ora deliver a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o Lab el for m at s depend on t he sp ecific in t er f ace u sed, su ch as go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed PSC, L2SC, TDM, LSC, FSC. by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional d bfor usiness t hatelsw ar ill eallow t he car s t o in t ran sf or m and t he met Lab els ar e uan sed dat a mod el Lab a cont r olincum plan eb en cont st rurier ct only GMPLS ar e rnoott o off enhan forerw ar dingced anddat ar ae ser car vices. ried par t of t he t r af fic. w it hin t he t raf fic. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic for tibes echntology t heisinbased clu sion t ech - specif amsses et er st he in vNo iewn. eed I t descr he cu-rr ent mSup et r o,por w thsich onofTD M tnology echnolog y, anicd par discu specif ic par am et er s, because signaling . dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. t his is applied t o pack et / cell Met int er r ofaces Et hern only et .d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book Dat aexam and ines cont rcur ol chan Separ ion s, of and cont delves rol andint dat t hen r en t nels an d em erg in g at t rend o at hch e annels role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s follow t he sam e pat h . ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, anout d MPLS an d Generalized MPLSm ( GMPLS) . for r ap id f ailov er ( Not ify messag e) MPLS fast - r er e. RSVP- specific ech anism

Unidir ect ional LSPs.

Bidir ect ional LSPs enab le t he f ollow ing : Possib le resour ce con t ent ion w hen allocat ing r ecipr ocal LSPs via separ at e signaling sessions Sim plified f ailur e r est or at ion pr ocedu res



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Lab els cann ot b e sugg est ed by u pst r eam node. Pub lish er: Cisco Press

Low er set up lat en cy Low er nu m ber of m essages r eq uir ed du rin g set up Allow a lab el t o b e su ggest ed b y an upst r eam nod e and can b e ov er w r it t en b y a d own st ream n ode ( t o pr event delays wit h set t in g opt ical m irr or s, for ex am ple)

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Conclusion As y ou hav e seen in t h is chapt er , m any ex t en sion s for rou t ing, sign alin g, t echnolog y- specific par am et er s, and LMP allow t h e use of MPLS ov er non- p ack et / cell net w ork s. Mechanism s such as link bu ndling an d shar ed lin k gr oup s are added t o r out in g t o inf luence t he t raf fic t r aj ect or y and •t o t ake adv ant Table ageofofContent h ow tsh e phy sical net w ork t opology is laid out . Sig naling m echan ism s such •as t h e en hancem I ndexen t s t o t he label allow t h e GMPLS label t o be u sed as a con t r ol const r uct t h at Me tr o Etes hertne indicat o tt he TDM/ opt ical dev ices w hat circuit s t o sw it ch an d h ow t o sw it ch t hem . The intSam r oduHalabi ct ion of LMP helps in t h e easy p rov ision ing and pr ot ect ion of op t ical cir cuit s by allow ing By chann el lin k connect ivit y v erif icat ion and f ault m an agement and isolat ion . Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Appendix A. SONET/SDH Basic Framing and Concatenation • of Content s f ollow ing t op ics: This ap pendixTable d iscusses t he •

I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t

SONET/ SD H Fr ame For m at s

By Sam Halabi

SONET/ SD H Ar chit ect u re Pub lish er: Cisco Press

SONET/ H 0Con Pub Dat e: OctSD ober 1, 20cat 03 en at ion I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X

This ap pendix ex plains b asic SONET/ SDH f r amin g an d con cat enat ion . Wit h t he em erg en ce of L2 Pages: 24 0 m et ro ser v ices, SONET/ SD H m et ro net w or ks are b ein g challenged t o offer cost - eff ect iv e and ban dw idt h- ef ficien t solut ions for t r anspor t in g d at a serv ices. Th e follow ing sect ions d escr ib e t he dif fer en t elem ent s of a SONET/ SD H f ram e an d h ow t he elem en t s can b e comb ined t o f orm bigger SONET/ SD H pip es. The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

SONET/SDH Frame Formats The f un dam en t al signal in SONET is t h e STS- 1, w h ich oper at es at a r at e of abou t 51 Mb ps. The fu ndam ent al sig nal f or SDH is STM- 1, w h ich oper at es at a r at e of about 15 5 Mbps ( t hr ee t imes t he STS- 1 r at e) . Th e sig nals ar e m ade of cont ig uous f r ames t h at consist of t w o par t s: t h e •t r anspor t over Table of Content head ( TOH) scont ain ed in t he h ead er , an d t he pay load. For sy nchr onizat ion •pu rp oses, t h e I ndex dat a can be allow ed t o shif t inside t he pay load insid e a Sy nchr onou s Pay load Me o Et her(ne t En tr velope SPE) f or SONET and inside t h e Virt u al Con t ainer for SDH. The SPE inside t he pay load is Sam r ef erenced usin g a poin t er . Figur es A- 1 an d A- 2 sh ow t he SONET an d SD H f ram es. By Halabi Pub lish er: Cisco Press

Figu r e A- 1 . SO NET Fr a m e For m a t

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as Figu A-ilit 2 .y SD Fr a m ey For m fat been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t rr e eliab an dHavailabilit needs or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

SONET/SDH Architecture The SONET/ SDH archit ect ur e ident if ies t hr ee d iff er ent lay er s, each of w hich cor r espon ds t o one level of com mu nicat ion b et ween SONET/ SDH eq uipm ent . Th e layer s ar e as f ollow s, st ar t ing w it h t he low est : •

Table of Content s



I ndex

egener at or Me tr o The Et herrne t

sect ion, or sect ion layer

By Sam Halabi

The m u lt ip lex sect ion , or line lay er

PubThe lish er: Cisco Press p at h layer Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03

Figur e IA3 sh ows t he t h ree SONET/ SDH lay ers. SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

Figu r e A- 3 . SO NET an d SDH La ye r s [ View full size im age]

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es As show n in Figur es A- 1 an d A- 2, each of t hese lay ers in t u rn h as it s ow n over head ( header) . Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill The t ran sp ort ov er h ead ( TOH) of a SONET/ SDH f r ame is main ly su bdiv ided in t o t w o par t s t hat r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. cont ain t he sect ion ov erh ead ( SOH) and t h e lin e ov er head ( LOH) . I n ad dit ion, a point er ind icat es The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as t he beginnin g of t h e SPE/ Vir t ual Cont ainer in t he pay load of t h e ov er all f ram e. The SPE/ Vir t ual been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o Con t ainer it self is m ade u p of t h e pat h ov erh ead ( POH) and a pay load . This p ayload can b e go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed fu r t her subd iv ided int o su belem ent s, or a m ult iplex st r u ct u re ( sig nals) . This m ult iplex st r uct ur e by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e leads t o id en t ify ing t im e slot s t hat con t ain t rib ut ar y sig nals such as T1 ( 1. 5 Mbp s) , E1 ( 2 Mbps) , oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o and so on . For exam ple, a SONET STS- 1 can be f ur t her d iv ided int o 7 * VT- 6 ( v irt u al off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. t r ibut ar ies) , w here VT- 6 is eq ual t o 6. 32 1 Mbps. A VT- 6 can be d ivided int o 4 * VT 1. 5, w h er e a VT1. 54et4 fMbps or a T1 . Figur e sA-at4 tsh he m SONET ultriplex st r uct u re. Figur es A-ic 5 Met 1. r o5Etishern r om Cisco Pr ess look heows d eptloy ent of m met o d atinagserv ices fr om a holist and A6 sh ow t he SD H m ult iplex in g st r uct u re. Table A1 sh ows som e h elpf ul map ping bet w een v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he SONET andd challenges SDH. dr iv er s an car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Etrhern ad opt of met r odEtLow her net icesM and h asSt led car ruier Figu e A-et4d. iscusses SO NETt heHig h- ion O r der an - Oserv r der ul thow i plet hat xi ng r uct r es t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks [ View ( VLAN) full size , v im ir tage] ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press

Figu r e A- 5 . SD H H ig h- Or d er M ul t ip le xi ng St r uct ur e

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

[ View full size im age]

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill Figu r e A- 6 . SD H Low - O r der M ul t i ple xi ng St r uct u r e r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o [ View full size im age] go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Tab le A-1 . He lp fu l SO NET/ SDH Equ iv al en cy SON ET

SD H

STS- 1

VC- 3

STM- 0

STS- 3c

VC- 4

STM- 1

• VT- 6

Table of Content s



I ndex

VC- 2

VTMe tr o3Et her ne t By Sam VT2 Halabi

VT-Pub 1.lish 5 er:

VC- 1 2 Cisco Press

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03

STS- 12 c

VC- 1 1 VC- 4 - 4c

STM- 4

VC- 4 - 16c

STM- 1 6

STS- 19 2c

VC- 4 - 64c

STM- 6 4

STS- 76 8c

VC- 4 - 256 c

STM- 2 56

I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X

STS- 48 c Pages:

24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions.

NO TE

Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat can 3do or , y-our gan ionan d so on are refer r ed t o as OC- 3, - 1 2, - 4 8, Not e t thhey at STS, - f12 48 , or - 19 2, izat - 7 68, 19 2, an d so on. Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain om N t he exp r y STSin nov or and best - selling Prleavin ess aug. t hor , Sam An STSN/ fr STMsign alerisience f orm of ed indu fr omst N 1 at / STM1 sig nals v ia byCisco t e in t er The Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es SPEs/ Vir t ual Cont ainer s in t he N in t er leaved fr am es ar e independ en t and f loat accord ing t o t h eir ow n clock in g. Th is m ean s t hat an STS- 3 ( OC3) pipe wit h ban dw idt h of abou t 1 55 Mbp s is for m ed Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill fr om t hr ee STS- 1 sign als. An STS- 12 ( OC12 ) pip e w it h b andw idt h of ab out 6 22 Mbp s is for m ed r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. fr om 12 STS- 1 sign als. Th e STS- 1 sig nals ar e independ en t . The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

SONET/SDH Concatenation To t ran sp ort t r ibut ary sign als in ex cess of t he basic STS- 1/ STM- 1 signal rat es, t h e SPEs/ Virt ual Con t ainers can be con cat enat ed —t hat is, glued t oget her. I n t h is case, t h eir r elat ionship w it h r espect t o each ot h er is fix ed in t im e, and t hey act as on e bon ded p ipe. •

Table of Content s

•Dif ferent t y pes I ndex of concat enat ions ar e d ef ined, includ in g cont iguous st an dar d con cat enat ion an d Me o Et concat her ne t enat ion. v ir tr t ual By Sam Halabi

Contiguous Standard Concatenation Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03

Con t iguou st58 andar con cat en at ion allow s t h e con cat en at ion of M STS- 1 signals wit h in an I SBN:s 1705 -0 d 96 SONET -X STS- NPages: sign al, w it h M < = N an d M = 3, 1 2, 4 8, 1 92, 768, and so on in mu lt ip les of 4 . The SPEs of 24 0 t hese M STS- 1 s can be concat enat ed t o f orm an STS- Mc. The STS- Mc n ot at ion is shor t h and for descr ibin g an STS- M sign al w hose SPEs hav e been concat enat ed ( c st ands for concat enat ed) . This m eans t h at an STS- 1 2c ( OC12c) is for m ed f rom t he concat enat ion of 12 STS- 1 sig nals, and t he 12 STS- 1s act as one b onded pipe. Con st raint s ar e imp osed on t he size of STS- Mc signals ( t h at is, t hey m ust be a mu lt iple of 3) and on t heir st art in g locat ion and int er leav ing. The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Figur e A- 7 sh ows an ex am ple of a SONET OC192 p ip e ( 9. 6 Gbp s) t hat is m ult iplex ed int o 192 STS- 1s or int o four con cat enat ed STS- 48 c pipes. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion

Figu r e A- 7 . Sa m ple SO NET St r u ct u r e

Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book On e of t he ines d isadv st andar at ion is t he flexib in stpar slot t hen exam curant r enages t an dofem erg in gd tconcat rend s, en and delves intlack o t h eofrole of ilit v iryt ual r ivt ing at e tnime et w or k ss for STSsignals in t hareir t erwleaving . This m hee pr ov ider deploy ( VPN) , v Mc ir t ual p riv atan e dlocal eainnet or ks ( VLAN) , veans ir t ualt hat p rivtat LAN ser v has ices t(oVPLS) , t r aff ic SONET/ H circuit s w it h pr edefined MPLS con cat( en at ion .b andw idt h size and w it h band w idt h engineerSD in g, an d MPLS ant dh eGeneralized GMPLS) incr em ent s t hat d o n ot m at ch it s cust omer n eeds. Th is lead s t o in ef ficien cies in band w id t h deploy m en t . Vir t ual concat enat ion solves t h is pr oblem.

Virtual Concatenation

Vir t ual concat enat ion is a SONET/ SDH en d- syst em serv ice appr ov ed b y t he com m it t ee T1 of ANSI and I TU- T. The essen ce of t h is ser v ice is t o hav e SONET/ SDH end sy st em s " glu e" t oget her t he Vir t u al Con t ain er s or SPEs of separ at e sig nals r at her t h an r equ ir ing t h at t h e sig nals be carr ied t hr ough t h e net w or k as a sing le unit . I n one ex am ple of v ir t u al concat enat ion, t wo end syst em s t hat supp ort t his f eat ur e could essen t ially com bin e t w o STS- 1 s int o a v irt u al STS- 2c for t he ef ficien t t r anspor t of 100 - Mbp s Et h er net t r aff ic. I f inst ead t hese t w o end syst em s w er e t o use st andar d concat enat ion w it h incr ement s of STS- 1, STS- 3 , and STS- 12 , a 1 00- Mbps pipe w ould • Table of Content s not fit int o an STS- 1 ( 5 1 Mbps) cir cuit an d w ou ld h ave t o use an STS- 3c ( 155 Mb ps) cir cu it , • I ndex t her efor e w ast ing about 55 Mb ps of ban dw idt h. By using a v ir t ual- concat enat ed STS- 2 c circuit Me tr o Et her ne t ( ar ound 1 00 Mbp s) , t he op er at or can achiev e 1 00 percent ef ficiency in t r an sp ort in g a 10 0- Mbp s By EtSam h er nHalabi et pipe. Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X NO TE Pages: 24 0

The in dust r y has su ggest ed t h e use of ar bit rar y cont iguou s concat en at ion , w hich is similar in nat u re t o v irt ual concat enat ion; how ev er , it is applied in sid e t he SONET/ SDH net w or k r at her t han t h e SONET/ SD H end syst em s. Vir t u al concat en at ion w ill em erg e as t he solut ion of choice for next - generat ion dat a ov er SONET/ SDH net w ork deploym ent s. The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Conclusion This ap pendix h as pr esent ed t he basics of SONET/ SDH f r amin g an d ex plained how t h e SONET/ SD H t echnology is bein g adapt ed v ia t he u se of st an dar d and vir t ual concat en at ion t o m eet t he challengin g n eeds of em erg ing dat a over SONET/ SDH n et w or k s in t he m et r o. The •emer gence ofTable ofet Content L2 m r o sersv ices w ill challenge t he legacy SONET/ SDH net w or k deploy ment s and •w ill dr ive t heI ndex em er gence of m ult iserv ice pr ov isioning p lat for m s ( MSPPs) t h at w ill eff icient ly Me tr o Et her t t r anspor t ne Et her net , Fr ame Relay , ATM, and ot her d at a serv ices ov er SONET/ SDH. By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Glossary A • •

B C

Table of Content s I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By SamDHalabi

E

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03

F

I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X

GPages:

24 0

I L The dM ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. N Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion O Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o P un derst an d t h e concep t s Q Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es R Met r oSn et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The mTet r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hrUoug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e Vional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o oper at off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. W Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

A a dd/ dr op m u lt i ple x er ( AD M ) .

• •

A d ev ice inst alled at an in t er m ediat e poin t on a t ran sm ission line t h at enab les n ew sig nals t o com e in and exist ing signals t o go out . Ad d/ dr op m ult iplexin g can be d one w it h opt ical Table of Content s or elect r onic sign als. Th e dev ice m ay d eal only w it h wav elen gt hs, or it m ay conv er t I ndex bet w een w av eleng t hs an d elect r onic TD M sign als.

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

a djPub a cen cy .Cisco lish er:

Press

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03

A r elat ionship for m ed b et w een select ed neig hbor ing r out er s and end nod es f or t h e pur pose I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X of exchan ging r out ing inf or mat ion .

Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

B bl ack hole .



Rou t ing t er m for an ar ea of t he in t er n et w or k w her e pack et s en t er but do not em er ge du e t o adv er se condit ions or poor sy st em con figu rat ion w it hin a p ort ion of t h e net w or k. Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Bui ldiHalabi ng Loca l Ex cha nge Ca rri e rs ( BLECs) .

Serv ice pr ov id er s t h at of fer b road band serv ices t o bu sin esses and t en ant s concent r at ed in bu ild in g off ices.

Pub lish er: Cisco Press

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

C cla ss of se rv ice ( CoS) .



A classif icat ion w her eb y dif ferent dat a pack et s t hat belong t o a cer t ain class r eceiv e sim ilar qu alit y of ser vice. Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By SammHalabi com i t t ed bu rst si ze ( CBS) .

A p ar amet er associat ed w it h CI R t h at ind icat es t h e size up t o w hich subscrib er t raf fic is allow ed t o bur st in pr of ile an d not b e discard ed or shap ed .

Pub lish er: Cisco Press

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

com m i t t ed i nfor m at i on r at e ( CI R) . The m inim um guar ant eed t hr oug hput t h at t h e net w ork mu st deliver f or t h e ser v ice u nder nor m al op er at ing condit ion s. The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. com pDiscover one nt l in t hke. lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion A sub set of a b ig ger link . A chan nel w it hin a SONET/ SDH chan neliz ed int er face is an exam lin k. Lear n ple fr omof t a h ecomp easyonent - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam cont rol p la ne Halabi, au. t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es log lane w her e pr pack s get chang forntet hew p poseindu of achiev Met r o A n et w ical or k spw ill em er ge asott hocol e nex t aret ea of grex ow t h foredt he orur k ing st r y aning d wm illult iple fu nct ions, such as set t in g u p pat hs used f or pack et for w ar ding or f or m anagin g t h e ess. r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu stnod omer in t he n et w or k . The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e cust om e r ean dge CE) devmod i ce .el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o oper at ional d b(usiness off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. A d ev ice such as a sw it ch or r out er t hat resides at t h e cust om er pr em ises. Th e dev ice could ow net ed f by custPr om er look or t hs eatprt ovid Met r o be Et hern r omt he Cisco ess he der ep. loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. cust r pret emd iiscusses se s e quit he pmad enopt t ( ion CPE) Met r oom Etehern of. met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book Term inat in g equ ipm en t , such as sw it ch es, r out er s, t erm inals, t elephones, and m odem s, t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s supp lied by t h e t elep hone com pan y, in st alled at cust om er sit es, an d conn ect ed t o t h e ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic t elep hone com pan y net w or k. engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

D D a t a Pa ck et Tra nsport ( D PT) .



A Med ia Access Con t rol pr ot ocol t hat add s r esilien cy an d pr ot ect ion t o packet net w ork s deploy ed in a r ing t op olog y. Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t Bye D Sam coup Halabi le d Tra nspar e nt LAN Se rv ice ( D TLS) .

A ser vice t hat em ulat es a LAN ov er an I P/ MPLS net w or k , sim ilar t o VPLS. D TLS, how ev er , pr oposes t o rem ov e any L2 sw it ching fr om t he pr ov ider edge d ev ices an d rest r ict t he L2 Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 sw it ch in g t o t h e cu st omer edg e dev ices.

Pub lish er: Cisco Press

I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

de t our LS P. An LSP t hat is set up t o r er out e t h e t r aff ic in case t he m ain LSP fails. The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. D if fseDiscover rv . t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion A m et hod used t o classif y I P pack et s so t hat dif fer en t classes r eceive diff er ent qualit y of ser vnice t reat f or war ed in t heenables n et w or knet . w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o Lear fr om t hm e ent easyw-hen t o- r ead f ordmat t hat un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

E Et he rn et LAN Se rv i ce ( E- LAN ) . A m u lt ip oint - t o- m ult ipoin t Et hern et ser v ice. •

Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o rn Et her t r Et he et ne ove

MP LS ( EoMPLS) .

By Sam Halabi

An L2 t un nelin g t echn iq ue t h at allow s Et hern et fr am es t o b e carr ied ov er an I P/ MPLS net w or k. Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0r SON ET/ SD H ( EOS) . Et he rn et ove

A t echn olog y t hat allow s Et her net packet s t o be t r an sp ort ed ov er a SONET/ SD H TDM net w or k. The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Et he rn et V ir t ua l Conn ect i on ( EV C) . Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and p oint - t o-can p oindo t Et net or serv ice. wAhat t hey f orher y our gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Ex pli cit Rout e Ob j e ct ( ERO) . Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam A f ield au t h at indof icat t het e pat t o be akiten en t r aff ic is for w ar ded. Halabi, t hor I nes t ern Rouh t ing Ar tch ectw urhes Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

F fi be r- sw i t ch cap ab le ( FSC) int e rf ace s.

• •

I nt er faces t hat can f or war d dat a based on a posit ion of t h e dat a in t he r eal- w or ld phy sical spaces. Th is is t y pical of opt ical cr oss- connect s t h at sw it ch t r af fic on t he fiber or m u lt ip leTable of Content s fib er lev el. I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Fix ed Fil t er ( FF) . Pub lish er: Cisco Press

Reser v at ion st y le t h at cr eat es a dist inct r eser v at ion f or t r aff ic fr om each send er . Th is st yle is com mon f or app licat ions in w hich t raf fic f r om each sender is lik ely t o be concur r ent and I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X independ en t . Th e t ot al am oun t of r eser v ed ban dw idt h on a link f or sessions u sing FF is t h e Pages: 24 0 sum of t h e r eserv at ions for t h e indiv idual send er s.

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03

Forw ar di ng I nfor m at i on Ba se ( FI B) . The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. A d at a st r uct ur e an d w ay of m an aging for w ar ding in w hich d est inat ion s and incom in g labels ar e associat ed w it h out g oing int erf aces and labels. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion fr am eLear che seqt hue ) . f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o n ck fr om e nce easy (- tFCS o- r ead un derst an d t h e concep t s Ex t r a char act ers added t o a fr am e f or er r or cont r ol p ur poses. Used in HDLC, Fr ame Relay , and ot h er tdhe at aexp link lay er of pr ot ocols. Gain fr om er ience indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

G ge ne ra li z ed la be l re qu est . An MPLS label sch em e t h at ex t ends t h e use of t h e MPLS label t o n onpack et net w or k s. •

Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her Gene r al izne edt

M ult ipr ot ocol Lab el Sw i t ch ing ( GMP LS) .

By Sam Halabi

A g en er alized MPLS cont rol plane t h at allow s t h e pr ovisioning and p rot ect ion of cir cuit s ov er bot h pack et and non packet net w ork s. Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X 0 ut e Re gi st ra t ion P rot ocol ( GARP ) . Gene rPages: ic At t24rib

A p r ot ocol defined by t h e I EEE t o con st rain m ult icast t r aff ic in b r id ged Et her net n et w or k s.

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Giga bi t Et h er ne t ( GE) . St and ardt hf or a est h ighspeed Etent hersnet t h e ,I EEE 2.,3z st an dar ds m itand t ee in Discover e lat developm in ,mapp et ror oved net w by or king Et h er80 n et and MPLS sercom v ices 19 96. w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

I in cu m b en t l oca l e xcha nge ca rr ie r ( I LEC) . Tr adit ional t elephon y comp any . •

Table of Content s



I ndex

Me oe Etxcha her nenge t in ttrer

ca rr ie r ( I X C) .

By Sam Halabi

Com m on car r ier t hat pr ovid es lon g- dist ance conn ect iv it y bet w een dialing ar eas ser viced b y a sing le local t eleph one com pany . Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: in t er fa ce.

24 0

I n rou t ing or t r anspor t t er m inology , a net w ork con nect ion or a por t .

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. I nt e ri or Ga t e w a y P rot ocol ( I GP) . I nt er net tphrot ocol sed t o ex chang r out ingnet infworm at ion aut onom st em. Discover e lat estudevelopm ent s ine m et ro or king , Etwhiterhin n etan , and MPLS ous ser vsy ices and Ex am ples of comm on I nt er net I GPs in clud e I GRP, OSPF, and RI P. w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

L L2 TPv 3 .



An L2 t un nelin g p r ot ocol t hat allow s t he t u nneling of Et her net p ack et s ov er an L3 I P net w or k. Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam la be l bl Halabi ock .

A b lock of MPLS lab els ex ch anged bet w een t w o MPLS r ou t er s.

Pub lish er: Cisco Press

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X 24but 0 i on Pr ot ocol ( LD P ) . La be l Pages: D ist ri

A st an dar d p r ot ocol bet w een MPLS- enab led r out er s t o negot iat e t h e labels ( addr esses) used t o f orw ar d pack et s. Th e Cisco pr opr iet ary ver sion of t his p r ot ocol is t he Tag Dist r ibut ion Pr ot ocol ( TDP) . The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. la be l Discover sw i t ch rtout e r est ( LSR) . h e lat developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Forw ar ds packet s in an MPLS net w or k by look ing only at t he f ix ed- lengt h label. Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s la be l Gain sw i t fr che h ( LS P) . of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam omdt p heatexp er ience Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es A p at h t hat MPLS packet s t rav erse b et w een t wo edge LSRs. Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as la m bda - sw ch cap LSC) e rf ace been b uilt t oithan dle tabl he est (r ing en tint r eliab ilit ys.an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed I nt er faces t hat can f or war d dat a based on t h e w avelengt h on w hich it w as r eceived. This is by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e t y pical of opt ical cr oss- conn ect s t h at sw it ch t raf fic on t h e w avelengt h level. oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic La y er 2 - sw i t ch ca pa ble ( L2 SC) int e rf ace s. v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er sI nt anerdfaces challenges carr recog ier s nize w ill face in tor r ansfor t hearies m et and r o t ocan addr t hat can L2 cell f ram embing ound foress w ardat d daatser a bv ices. ased on L2 header s. This is t y pical of int er faces on ATM sw it ches, Fr am e Relay sw it ch es, an d L2 Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s Et h er n et swit ches. t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, MPLS d Generalized MPLS Li nk Aggr egan at idon Contan r ol Pr ot ocol ( LA CP ) .( GMPLS) . A p r ot ocol t hat allow s m u lt ip le Et her net lin ks t o be b und led in a lar ger pip e.

li nk bun dli ng. Agg regat in g m u lt ip le lin ks in t o a bigg er pipe.

Li nk Ma na gem e nt Pr ot ocol ( LM P) . •

Table of Content s ains con t r ol chann el con nect iv it y bet w een n eigh bor s. LMP also Est ablishes and m aint I ndex enables neigh bor discover y, w hich allow s neigh bor s t o id en t ify conn ect ed devices, ob t ain Me tr o Et her ne t nect iv it y inf or mat ion , and ident if y and v er ify por t - lev el connect ions, net w or k - lev el UNI con resses, an d cor r espon ding oper at ional st at es f or ev er y lin k. By Sam add Halabi •

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, LSPPub t unn el .

20 03

I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: A conf24 igur 0 ed

con nect ion b et w een t w o r out ers t hat uses MPLS t o car ry t he p ack et s.

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

M m ax i m u m t ra nsm issi on uni t ( MTU ) . Max im um pack et size, in b yt es, t h at a par t icu lar int er face can h andle. •

Table of Content s



I ndex

Me oa Et her ne t Metrdi Access

Cont rol ( MA C) add re ss.

By Sam Halabi

St and ard ized dat a link lay er addr ess t hat is r eq uired for ev ery por t or device t hat connect s t o a LAN. Ot her d ev ices in t he net w ork u se t hese addr esses t o locat e sp ecific p ort s in t h e Pub lish er: Cisco Press net w or k and t o cr eat e and u pdat e r ou t in g t ables and dat a st ru ct ur es. MAC ad dr esses are 6 Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 by t es long and ar e cont r olled by t he I EEE. I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

m et r opol it a n ar ea n et w ork ( MA N ) . Net w ork t hat sp ans a defined m et r opolit an or r egional ar ea; sm aller t han a WAN but lar ger The d ef init iv et han guidae LAN. t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and m ul t idw in g u nit do s ( fMD s) . or gan izat ion w hate llt hey can or yUour Building s t hat ult iple hou sin g uenables nit s, such apar t com plexes u niv Lear n fr om t h e cont easyain - t o-m r ead f or mat t hat netas w or kin gt mpen r ofessionals of an alldlev elsert osit y dor m it or ies. un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es m ul t ipl e ser vi ce oper a t or ( MSO) . Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill Cab le ser viceshprifov ov ides her serv such as and dat ar esident and v oice t elephon r ep r esent am ajor t inider howt hat datalso a serpr v ices ar eotoff ered t oices, b usinesses ial cu st omer y. s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed m ul t ipl ng.cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e by ent erex pr iise oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o Scheme t hat allow s m u lt ip le logical sig nals t o be t r ansm it t ed sim ult aneously across a off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. single p hy sical chann el. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. m ul t ipoi nt - t o- m ul t ipoi nt ( MP 2 M P) . Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s An any - t o- any con nect ion bet w een end syst em s. t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer inocol g, anLa d MPLS anitdch Generalized ( GMPLS) . Mu lt i prot be l Sw ing ( MP LS)MPLS . Sw it ching m et h od t hat for w ard s I P t r af fic using a lab el. This label inst r uct s t h e r out ers and sw it ch es in t h e net w ork w here t o f orw ar d t he p ack et s based on p re- est ablish ed I P r ou t ing inf orm at ion.

m ul t it e na nt uni t s ( MTU s) . Mu lt it enan t b uilding off ices t h at ar e r ecip ient s of br oadban d ser vices by a BLEC.



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

N N e t w ork Ma na gem e nt Sy st e m ( N M S) .

• •

Sy st em r esponsible f or m anaging at least par t of a net w or k. An NMS is gener ally a r easonab ly pow erf ul and w ell- equipp ed com put er , such as an engineerin g w or k st at ion. Table of Content s NMSs com m unicat e w it h agent s t o help keep t rack of net w or k st at ist ics an d resour ces. I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

N e t w ork - t o- N e t w ork I n t er fa ce ( N N I ) . Pub lish er: Cisco Press

A specificat ion of t he int er face bet w een a back bone sy st em and anot her b ack bon e syst em . For exam ple, t h e specif icat ion of an opt ical int er face t hat connect s t w o opt ical sw it ch es in SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X tIhe car r ier net w ork .

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03

Pages: 24 0

N ot i fy m e ssa ge . Ainit m essag e used y RSVPifyierotMet her r nodes of et cert ainlicat f ailu res. The d ef iv e guid e t o bEnt er pr iseTEant od not Carr o Et hern app ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

O OAM & P .



Op er at ions, ad min ist r at ion, main t en ance, and pr ov isioning . Pr ovid es t he f acilit ies and per son nel r equir ed t o m anage a net w or k. Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam opt i caHalabi l cross- conne ct ( OX C) .

A n et wor k d ev ice t hat swit ches h ig h- speed op t ical sig nals.

Pub lish er: Cisco Press

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

P pa ck et m ult i pl ex in g.



Dat a pack et s com ing in fr om d if fer en t locat ions an d bein g m u lt ip lex ed ov er t he sam e out p ut w ir e. Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam pa ck et Halabi - sw i t ch cap ab le ( P SC) .

Sy st em s such as I P/ MPLS r out ers t hat can sw it ch d at a pack et s.

Pub lish er: Cisco Press

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X 0 ca pa ble ( P SC) int e rf ace s. P ack ePages: t - sw i24 t ch

I nt er faces t hat can r ecog nize pack et bou ndar ies and can for w ard d at a based on p ack et header s. This is t y pical of int er faces on rou t ers and Lay er 3 Et her net sw it ches. The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. pa ck et sw i t ch in g. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and ilit ycan t o fdo orwf or ar dy our packoretgan s inizat t h eion net w or k based on pack et header s or f ixed labels. wThe hat ab t hey Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s pe a k in for m a t i on r at e ( P I R) . Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Specifies metr at e abov h eitCI Halabi, au tt he hormofaxI nimu t ern Rou t ing eArt ch ectRuratesw hich t r aff ic is allow ed int o t he net w or k and m ay get deliv ered if t he n et w or k is n ot congest ed. Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as poi ntbof r epa ( Pst LR) . en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o been uiltl ocal t o han dle itrhe r ing go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed The r ou t er at w hich a f ailed LSP can b e locally r erou t ed . by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. poi nt - t o- poi nt ( P 2 P) . Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . IAt on descr ibes cu rr ent et rw o,een w h ich based e- t oonet he conn ect ionmbet t w oisend sy ston emTD s. M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o ovi t hede d eliv er)y dev of mi ce et .ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book pr r (P t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) ,Nor v irmally t ual p,riv ar ea rnet t ual dp riv LAN seregat v ices a at core elocal I P/ MPLS outwerortks h at( VLAN) of fer s, av ir secon levat ele of aggr ion( VPLS) for t he, tpr aff rovicider engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . edge d ev ices.

pr ovi de r edg e ( P E) dev i ce .

A p r ovider - ow ned device t hat off ers t he f irst lev el of aggr egat ion for t he d if fer en t cust om er edge ( CE) devices.

pse udow ir e ( P W ) . •

A r epr esent at ion of p ack et - leased lin e, or a v irt ual cir cu it bet w een t w o nodes. Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

Q Q- in- Q.



An Et h er net en cap su lat ion t echniq ue t hat allow s Et h er net packet s t h at alr eady hav e an 80 2. 1Q VLAN t ag t o be 8 02. 1 Q VLAN t agg ed ag ain . Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

R Re cord Rout e O bj e ct ( RRO ) . A f ield t h at ind icat es t h e pat h t hat t r aff ic t ak es wh en f or war ded. •

Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr oona Et her ne t l re gi l Bel

ope ra t ing com pan y ( RBOC) .

By Sam Halabi

Regional t eleph one com pany for m ed by t he br eak up of AT&T. Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 58 705 96 -X Re sil ieI SBN: nt P1a ck e t -0Rin g ( RP R) . Pages: 24 0

A Med ia Access Con t rol st andar d pr ot ocol t hat add s r esilien cy an d pr ot ect ion t o packet net w or ks deployed in a r ing t opology .

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Re source Re ser va t ion P rot ocol ( RSVP ) . Pr ot ocol tthhat supp s t he r eser ces acr, oss ann et I P, net ork . Apser plicat ionand s Discover e lat est ort developm ent sv at in ion m etofror esou net wror king Et h er andw MPLS v ices r unn ing on I P en d sy st em s can use RSVP t o in dicat e t o ot h er nodes t h e nat u re ( band wid t h, w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion jit t er , m ax imu m bu rst , and so on) of t he p ack et st r eams t hey w ant t o r eceiv e. Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s RS VPGain - TE. fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es A p r ot ocol t hat ex t end s RSVP t o supp ort t r aff ic engineer in g ov er an I P/ MPLS net w ork . Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

S Sh ar ed Ex pli cit ( SE) .

• •

Reser v at ion st y le t h at allow s a r eceiv er t o ex plicit ly select a r eser vat ion f or a g rou p of sen ders, r at h er t han one r eser v at ion p er send er , such as in t he FF st y le. Only a sing le Table of Content s r eser vat ion is shar ed b et w een all send er s list ed in t he par t icu lar gr oup. I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

sha re d r isk l in k gr oup ( SR LG) . Pub lish er: Cisco Press

A g r ouping t h at ind icat es sim ilar r isk char act er ist ics f or a set of elem en t s. A set of f ib er s, for ex am ple, t hat shar e t he sam e cond uit b elon g t o t he sam e SRLG, b ecause if t h e con duit I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X is cut , all fiber s w ill fail.

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03

Pages: 24 0

short e st p at h fi rst ( SP F) al gori t hm . Rou ing algoreitthm t her atpritise er atan esd on leng ofr po at t o det et er m licat in e aions. shor t est - pat h span ning The d ef initt iv e guid o Ent Carr ier t h Met Ethhern app t r ee. Com mon ly used in link - st at e r out ing algor it hm s. Som et im es called Dijk st r a's algor it hm . Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion SON ET/ t e rm al m- ul le xe ( TM)t hat . enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o LearSD n frHom t h eineasy t o-t rip ead f orr mat un derst an d t h e concep t s A d ev ice inst alled at an end point on a t r ansm ission lin e t hat m ult iplexes m ult iple t r ansm ission es, intat o or a SONET/ n et wCisco or k . Pr ess au t hor , Sam Gain fr om t he lin exp er such ience as of DS1 indus/ stD r yS3s, in nov and bestSDH - selling Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill spa ng at re r ep rnni esent m e. ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as neten w tork t opology . d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o been bLoop uilt t-ofr ee hansubset dle t heofstar ing r eliab ilit y an go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o Sy nchr onous i git l Hvices. ie ra rchy ( SD H ) . off er enhan ced Ddat a aser an dar f or Cisco d eliv erPring a ov er top fiber SDH used rop e. Met r o A Etst hern et fdr om essdat look s at het ical d ep loy m .ent of is met r o din at aEuserv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Sy t ica l N et w or ( SON ET) . r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s Metnchr r o Etonous hern et Op d iscusses t he adkopt ion of met t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book A st an dar d f or d eliv er ing dat a ov er op t ical fiber . SONET is used in Nor t h Am er ica and p art s t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s of Asia. ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . Sy nchr onous P ay l oad Env el ope ( SP E) . The p ayload - car r y in g por t ion of t he STS sign al in SONET. Th e SPE is used t o t r anspor t a t r ibut ar y sign al across t h e syn ch ron ous n et w or k . I n most cases, t his signal is assem bled at

t he point of en t r y t o t h e syn ch ron ous n et w or k and is d isassem bled at t h e point of exit fr om t he sy nchr onou s net w or k. Wit hin t he sy nchr onous net w ork , t he SPE is passed on int act bet w een net w or k elem ent s on it s r out e t hr oug h t h e net w or k.



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

T t i m e - d iv ision m ul t ipl e xi ng ( TD M) .

• •

Tech niqu e in w h ich inf orm at ion fr om m ult ip le ch annels can be allocat ed ban dw idt h on a single w ir e based on pr eassig ned t im e slot s. Band wid t h is allocat ed t o each chan nel Table of Content s r eg ar dless of w het h er t he st at ion has d at a t o t r ansmit . I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

t i m e - d iv ision m ul t ipl e xi ng ( TD M) int e rf ace s. Pub lish er: Cisco Press

I nt er faces t hat can r ecog nize t im e slot s and can for w ard d at a based on t he dat a's t im e slot in a r epeat ing cy cle. This is t y pical of int er faces on digit al cr oss- conn ect s, SONET ADMs, I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X and SONET cr oss- connect s.

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03

Pages: 24 0

Tim e To Li ve ( TTL) . Ainit m echanism everent loops I P net or ks. Thhern e TTL g et ions. s decr em en t ed ev er y t im e a The d ef iv e guid e ttoo pr Ent pr ise an dinCarr ier wMet r o Et et field app licat pack et t r av er ses a r out er . When TTL r eaches 0, t he p ack et can no lon ger be for w ard ed . Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion t ra f fic en gin ee re d ( TE) lin k . Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o A derst link tan hatd is up t o t ds iver t t h e t r aff ic over a pat h dif fer en t t h an w h at is calculat ed b y un t h set e concep I nt er ior Gat ew ay Pr ot ocols. Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es tMet ra frfic ( TE) . as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill o nen et wgin or kee s ri w ng ill em er ge r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. d pr ocesses t h at cause r out ed ten r aff t rav eling t hr dat ou gh t hev ices n et wbecause or k on aitp hatas h The m Tech et r o niqu h as es alwan ays b een a challengin g env ir onm t ic f ort odeliver a ser ot her t h an t he on e t hat w ould hav e been chosen if st and ard r out in g m et hod s w er e u sed. been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o toff raer f fic en gin eedat ri ng ( TE) t unne l . enhan ced a ser vices. el-etswf ritom ch ed t u nnel t h at is u for dt ep r aff ic m enent gineer ing r. oSuch t u nnel t hr ough Met r o A Etlab hern Cisco Pr ess look s sed at t he loy of met d at aaserv ices isfr set om ua pholist ic m ean s ot her t h an nor mal L3 r out ing ; it is used t o dir ect t r aff ic over a pat h dif ferent v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t hef rom t h at L3 r out g scould cause t unn m el ing t o t tak dr iv er st he an one d challenges carin r ier w ill face in tthe r ansfor hee.m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book tt hen ra f fic t run k . cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s exam ines ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic Phy sical and logical con nect ion b et w een t wo sw it ch es acr oss w hich n et w or k t r af fic t r av els. engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . A b ack bon e is com posed of a n um ber of t r un ks.

Tra nspa re nt LAN Se rv ice ( TLS ) .

A ser vice t hat ext en ds t he LAN ov er t he MAN and WAN.

t ru nk .



Phy sical and logical con nect ion b et w een t wo sw it ch es acr oss w hich n et w or k t r af fic t r av els. A b ack bon e is com posed of a n um ber of t r un ks. Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t

tByun neHalabi l. Sam A conn ect ion bet w een t w o en d sy st em s t h at allow s t h e en cap su lat ion of p ack et s w it hin it .

Pub lish er: Cisco Press

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

U un idi re ct iona l pa t h sw i t ch ed ri ng ( U PSR ) .

• •

Pat h- sw it ched SONET ring s t hat emp loy r ed und ant , f iber- op t ic t r ansm ission facilit ies in a pair conf igur at ion. One f iber t r ansm it s in one dir ect ion , and t he backu p f iber t r ansm it s in Table of Content s t he ot her. I f t he pr im ar y rin g f ails, t he b ack up t ak es over . I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

un num be re d li nk . Pub lish er: Cisco Press

A link t hat does not hav e an I P add ress assig ned t o it .

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

U se r- t o- N e t w ork I nt e rf ace ( U N I ) . A specificat ion of t he int er face bet w een an end syst em and a backb one sy st em . An exam ple is t he specif icat ion of an Et h er net int erf ace t hat connect s a sw it ch at t h e cu st omer sitinit e and a r ou at ter h eprpr ovan id er sit e.ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. The d ef iv e guid e tter o Ent ise d Carr Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

V v ir t ua l ci rcuit ( V C) .

• •

Log ical cir cuit cr eat ed t o en su r e reliable com mu nicat ion b et ween t w o net w or k dev ices. A v irt u al circuit is defin ed by a VPI / VCI p air , an d can be eit h er p er m anent ( PVC) or sw it ch ed Table of Content s ( SVC) . I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

V ir t ua l Con t ai ne r. Pub lish er: Cisco Press

An SDH sign al t hat t r anspor t s p ayloads t hat are sm aller t han an STM- 0 ( 48, 3 84 kb ps) pay load. VC is p art of t he SD H hier archy .

Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

v ir t ua l LAN ( V LAN ) . Gr oup of dev ices on one or m ore LANs t hat ar e config ur ed ( using m anag em ent sof t w ar e) soinit t hiv ate tguid h ey ecan mu e dasCarr if t hey w ere at thern ached t o t he e w ir e, w hen in fact t hey The d ef t o com Ent er prnicat ise an ier Met r o Et et app licatsam ions. ar e locat ed on a n um ber of dif fer en t LAN seg ment s. Because VLANs ar e b ased on logical inst ead of p hy sical conn ect ions, t hey are ex t r emely flex ible. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion V ir t ua l Prnivfraom t e LAN Se rv ( V PfLS) . t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o Lear t h e easy - tice o- r ead or mat un derst an d t h e concep t s A ser vice t hat ext en ds t he not ion of a sw it ch ed Et hern et LAN over an I P/ MPLS net w or k. Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es v ir trua r out a rdering V RF) Met o nl et w orekrs for w illwem ge (as t h e .nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. r out ing/ ardaing inst ance. A VRF conen sist an I P ing r outdat in gat ab a der ived it h as The m A etVPN r o h as alw aysforb w een challengin g env ir onm t fsorofdeliver serle, v ices because for w ar ding t ab le, a set of int er faces t hat use t he f or w ard ing t able, and a set of r uillles an d t o been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w h ave r out ing pr ot ocols t h at det er m in e w hat goes int o t he f orw ar din g t ab le. I n gener al, a VRF go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed t h eom r out inf orm at ion defin es aonly cust aom er VPN sit eshif t hat is tatalso t ached by entincludes er pr ise cust ering s and consum er ts.hat This is not t ech nology t , bu a sht o iftainPE the r out er . oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic ir t ua butibes a ry t.he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he vView . I lt Tri descr dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. A SONET sign al t hat t r anspor t s p ayloads t hat are sm aller t han an STS- 1 ( 44, 73 6 k bp s) load. is par t of SONET hier archy . her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s Met r o pay Et hern et VT d iscusses t het he ad opt ion of met r o Et t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

W w av e ba nd. A set of cont ig uous wav elen gt hs t hat can be sw it ched t oget her as a un it . •

Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr oeEt neht - di v ision w av leher ngt

m ult ipl ex i ng ( W D M) .

By Sam Halabi

Op t ical t echn ology w her eb y m ult iple opt ical w av eleng t hs can shar e t he sam e t r ansm ission fib er . Th e spect r um occu pied by each chann el mu st be ad eq uat ely sep arat ed fr om t he Pub lish er: Cisco Press ot her s. Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

W il dcar d Fi lt e r ( W F) . Reser v at ion st y le in w hich a sin gle shar ed r eser v at ion is u sed for all send er s t o a session. The t ot al r eser vat ion on a link rem ains t h e sam e r egar dless of t he n um ber of sen ders. The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

[ A] [ B] [ C] [ D ] [ E] [ F] [ G] [ H ] [ I ] [ J] [ L] [ M] [ N] [ O ] [ P] [ Q ] [ R] [ S] [ T] [ U] [ V] [ W ] [ X]



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

[ A ] [ B] [ C] [ D ] [ E] [ F] [ G] [ H ] [ I ] [ J] [ L] [ M] [ N] [ O ] [ P] [ Q ] [ R] [ S] [ T] [ U] [ V] [ W ] [ X] access con tr ol EOS wit h packet m ult iplexing Et h er net 2n d t o b uilding risers add operat ion •

Table of Content s

add/ drop mu ltiplex er s ( ADMs) • I ndex addresses Me tr o Et her ne t MAC By Sam Halabi learnin g 2n d 3r d swit chin g 2n d PubIlish VPNPv 4er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 adj acency FA

I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X

ADM

Pages: 24 0 EOS f un ct io n in side

adm inist rat ion provisionin g adm inist rat ive st at us inf orma tion ADMs ( add/ drop m ult iplex ers)

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. aggregat ion

t run ks int o t un nels AI S ( Alarm I ndicat or nal)est Discover t hSig e lat Alarm Iw n dicat Signal (AI S) hat ort hey can do

developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and f or y our or gan izat ion

algorit hm s pat hLear com put at om ion n fr

t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o concep t s

link rot ect ion unpderst an dt y pes the

all-Et hernet n etwor ks, building all-t o- one Gain b undlin fr om g

t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam

arbit rary Halabi, cont igu ous au tconcat hor of enaI n tion t ern [ See et also Roucon t ing catAr en at chion] it ect ur es arch itect u re

Met r o n et GMPLS 2nw d or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent am sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. int erf aces 2n ajor d The need m et rfor o h2nas d alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o SONET/ SDHt o 2nhan d go t hr oug Asian mar keth s f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed byt ribut enteser pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e at oper ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o MEFat2n d off erexenhan ample oced f 2n ddat a ser vices. rou tes

Met hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic sitreoofEt origin v iew t raf.ficI t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s anetder challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. param s t raf fic tr unk s

Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s aug ment ed model [ See also sigan lin g] taut o odiscovery t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s availabilit y ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic av oiding engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . loops

[ A] [ B ] [ C] [ D ] [ E] [ F] [ G] [ H ] [ I ] [ J] [ L] [ M] [ N] [ O ] [ P] [ Q ] [ R] [ S] [ T] [ U] [ V] [ W ] [ X] back bon es L3VPNs deliverin g I P ov er 2n d scaling t raf fic f orwarding Table of Content s



back door loops I ndex • back t run kst Me trward o Et her ne ban dwidth By Sam Halabi encodin g Et h er net Pub lish er: requirem ent sCisco Press Pub2nDat RPR d e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 VCAT I2n SBN: d 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X benef it sPages: of link 24 b undlin g 0 BER (bit err or ra te) BGP signa lin g bidirect ional LSPs billing

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. bindin g

labels 2n d bit errorDiscover rat e (BER) t h e

lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and or gan izat ion

BLECs (w Buhat ilding Localcan Exchan Carr iers) t hey dogef or y our block o ff set breadt hLear of serv n ices fr om break ing un derst an d

t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o t h e concep t s

loops broadcast Gain

fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es

broadcast Halabi, f ram esau t hor broadcast st orm s

Met r og nalletEtwhernt or k sdat wailln etwo em er buildin rksge

as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The mg et r o haas alw buildin risers, ccess t o ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o bun dling golinks t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by dlin entgerserv pr ice isea ttcust Bun ribu tom e er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper att unn ional bypass els an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. r ep r esent m ajor if t in( BLECs) how dat a Building Loca laExch ange sh Carriers

Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

[ A] [ B] [ C] [ D ] [ E] [ F] [ G] [ H ] [ I ] [ J] [ L] [ M] [ N] [ O ] [ P] [ Q ] [ R] [ S] [ T] [ U] [ V] [ W ] [ X] cable m odem t ermin at ion system s ( CMTSs) capabilt ies int erf ace swit chin g descr ipt or s 2n d 3r d carr iers, m et ro Et hernet CBS (Comm it ted Bu rst Size) CCAMP (Com m onTable Cont rol and Measurem ent Plan e) Wo rkin g Grou p • of Content s CE • (cust om er edge) I ndex cent offher ice ne ( CO) Me trral o Et t cent ralized prov isioning By Sam Halabi TDM net work s 2n d cent ralized switching Pubwit lishher: Cisco Press EOS Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 ch annels con t rol I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X separat ing24 0 Pages: dat a separat ing f ault h andling 2n d CI R (Com m it t ed I nf ormat ion Rat e) circu its

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. provisionin g

class of serv ice ( CoS) pa ramet ers CMTSs Discover (cab le modem sy st em s) ent s t h et erm latinat estiondevelopm CO ( cent wral hato fftice) hey

in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and can do f or y our or gan izat ion

Com mit t ed Bur st Size (CBS) Com mitLear t ed I nnforfrmat ( CI R) omiont hRat e eeasy - t o- r ead

f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o

Com mon t rol an an dd Mea en t Plan unCon derst t h esurem concep t s e (CCAMP) Wo rkin g Grou p com parison s FramGain e Relay fr om 2n d

t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es

GMPLS/ Halabi, MPLS 2n aud t hor com ponen t links

Metponen r o n et com ts w or k s

w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r epVPN r esent 2n d a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. Theput matetion r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as com been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o pat hs go t hr f un linkoug p rothect ion dam t y pesen t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by cat ent pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e con ener at ion oper at ional andd b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o SONET/ SDH 2n offVCAT er enhan 2n d ced dat a ser vices. con figur at io n

Met o Et herneet f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic hurb-a nd-spok v iewGigabit . I t descr Et h eribes net t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. L2 PE PE

Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s PW tcon o gestion t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s TE (con VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic nect ions engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . EVC last -m ile m et ro [ See m et ro] m ulit point VPN com ponen ts 2n d

con nect ivit y LCAScon st rained-ba sed rou t in g LDP ( CR-LDP) con st raint -ba sed rou t in g 2n d con tigu ous st anda rd SONET con cat en at ion [ See also con cat en at ion, SONET/ SDH] con tr ol ch annels f ault h andling



separat ing

Table of Content s

CoS ( class of serv ice) pa ramet ers



I ndex

cost s Me tr o Et her ne t ov erbuilding net work s By Sam Halabi CPE ( cust om er prem ises equipm ent ) CR- LDP ( const ra in ed-based rout in g LDP) cross-con nect XC) Press Pub lish er: ( Cisco cu stoPub merDat edge:e Oct (CE) ober 0 1, 20 03 cu sto merI SBN: premises t (CPE) 1- 58equ 705ipmen -0 96 -X cu sto mers Pages: 24 0 rest rict ions t o n um ber of

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

[ A] [ B] [ C] [ D ] [ E] [ F] [ G] [ H ] [ I ] [ J] [ L] [ M] [ N] [ O ] [ P] [ Q ] [ R] [ S] [ T] [ U] [ V] [ W ] [ X] dat a chan nels separat ing dat a equ ipmen t EOS in terf aces in Dat a Pack et Tr anspor t (DPT) dat ion id en ier ( DLCI • a- lin k con nectTable oft ifContent s) Decoupled Tr anspar en t LAN Service (DTLS) • I ndex delay Me tr o Et her ne t deliverin g By Sam Halabi L3 VPNs over I P 2n d deploy ment lish er: Cisco Press EtPub h er net L2 serv ices Pub Dat e: Octdober incu mben ts 2n 3r d 0 1, 20 03 int erna I SBN: tion al1-2n 58d705 -0 96 -X legacy Pages: 24 0 int erwork ing wit h 2n d m et ro 2n d RPR serv ices RPR 2n d

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. descript ors

int erf ace swit chin g cap abilit y 2n d 3r d det our Discover LSPs dev icesw hat

t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion

CE no n-b ridging Lear n fr om asun spok es an d derst

t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o t h e concep t s

P PE

Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es

Diff ser vHalabi, codepointau s (DSCPs) t hor of Digital Wrapper (DW)

Met r oeryn et w or k s discov

w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r epresou r esent rce a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The tm et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as opologies been(dat b uilt t ocohan he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o DLCI a- link nnectdle ion tident ifier) go tment hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed docu at ion byMEF ent [er prMEF] ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e See oper( Data at ional anTra d nsport b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o DPT Packet ) off eroperat enhan drop ion ced dat a ser vices. DSCPs ( Dif fserv codepoint s)

Met r (oDeco Et hern f r om Cisco Pr ess DTLS upled et Tr ansparen t LAN Ser vice) look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic vdua iew . I teddescr ibes l- hom MTU dev icest he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr er s al anWr d apper) challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. DWiv( Digit dynam ic p rovision ing mod el 2n d

Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

[ A] [ B] [ C] [ D ] [ E] [ F] [ G] [ H ] [ I ] [ J] [ L] [ M] [ N] [ O ] [ P] [ Q ] [ R] [ S] [ T] [ U] [ V] [ W ] [ X] E- LAN (Et hernet LAN Serv ice) early serv ice pro viders of m et ro Et h ern et 2n d EBGP ( Ext ernal BGP) edge,cor e ELS ( Et hern et Line Serv ice) emu lat io n •

Table of Content s

• links

I ndex

encapsulat ionne t Me tr o Et her Et h er net By Sam Halabi GRE VPLS Pubglish er: Cisco Press encodin Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 ban dwidth LSP t ypes I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X end- t o-end repair Pages: 24 0met hod En t er prise Sy st em s Connect ion ( ESCON) EOS int erf aces pack et m ulit plex in g at access pack et swit ch in g 2n d

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. t ransport serv ices 2n d

EOS f un ct io ns ERO (EXPLI CI T_ ROUTE Discover t h e object lat est)

developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and or gan izat ion

ERO (EXPLI CI T_ ROUTE) ectf or 2n dy our w hat t hey canobjdo ESCON (Ent erprise Sy st em s Conn ection )

est ablishing s, RSVP2n d - t o- r ead Lear tnrunfrkom t h eTE easy Et h er net d un2n derst an d

f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o

t h e concep t s

access 2n d earlyGain serv ice fr om pro viders t he of exp 2n er d ience

of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Ar ch it ect ur es

Gigabit Halabi, Et h er net au [t See hor Gigabit of I n tEt ern h eret netRou ] t ing L2 VPN ser vices 2n d

Met r o 2n n det w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill MEF r ep r esent ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. ex ampleao fm2n d The mSONET/ et r o hSDH as alw ov er 2n d ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o serv ices go t hr oug f un net dam ens t2n aldshift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed ov er I P/hMPLS work by ent erMPLS pr ise2ncust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e ov er d operPW at ional 2n d an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off erVPLS enhan 2n d ced dat a ser vices. t ransport 2n d

Met o Et hern eticef r(E-LAN) om Cisco Et h errnet LAN Serv

Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic vEtiew . I tLindescr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he h er net e Service (ELS) dr anysica d challenges car reier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Et hiv er er nets ph l int erfa ce at t ribut Et h er net Virt ual Connect ion ( EVC)

Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s Eu ropean ma rket s 2n d tEVC o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book (Eth ernet Virt ual Conn ection ) texhen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s istin g legacy TDM inf rast ru ct ure (exVPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic panding capacit y engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . ex plicit label con tr ol explicit pat hs, est ablishin g EXPLI CI T_ROUTE object ( ERO) 2n d 3r d ex ten sions RSVP Ext ernal BGP (EBGP)

ex tr anet s



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

[ A] [ B] [ C] [ D ] [ E] [ F ] [ G] [ H ] [ I ] [ J] [ L] [ M] [ N] [ O ] [ P] [ Q ] [ R] [ S] [ T] [ U] [ V] [ W ] [ X] FA (f orward in g a djacency) f acilit y b ack ups f air ness RPR f ast provision in g f•ast rerou te

Table of Content s

• MPLS 2n d

I ndex

fMe ault h andling tr o Et her ne2n td f ault m anagem ent By Sam Halabi FCS ( fram e ch eck sequence) FF ( Fix ed Filt er ) er: Cisco Press FI B (Pub For lish warding I nf orm at ion Base) Dat e: 0 1, 20 03 f iber Pub con nect ivitOct y ( ober FI CON) f iber- switI ch SBN: capable 1- 58 705 ( FSC) -0 96 -X int erfPages: aces 24 0 f ibers SRLG FI CON (f iber con nect ivit y ) f ields TLV

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. f ilt ers

resou rce reserv at ion st yles f ir st m ile Discover

t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion

Fixed Filt w er hat

f lex ibility of serv ice f loo dingLear n

fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o t h e concep t s

FLOW_SPEC obj ect un derst an d f ormat t ing f rames Gain

fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es

SONET/ Halabi, SDHau t hor loop- free t opologies

r o operat n et w io ornk s fMet orward

w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as fThe orwarding been t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o packb etuilt s got ables t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed byt raf ent ficer pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e at ional an d b( FA) usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o foper orwarding adj acency off er enhan ced a ser( FIvices. Forwardin g I n for mat dat ion Base B) ep r esent frorward tr unk sa

f orwarding pat hs, est ablish ing

Et hern f r om fMet ramer ocheck sequet en ce ( FCS)Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic vFram iewe. Relay I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv erparison s an ds challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. com 2n d VPNs

Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s f rames t o serv t heiced eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book f rame deliv ery at t ribu te t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s SONET/ SDH ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic f ormat s engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . FSC ( fiber-swit ch cap able) int erf aces f ull m esh loops av ioding LSPs

f unct ion s EOS NSP Q-in- Q



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

[ A] [ B] [ C] [ D ] [ E] [ F] [ G ] [ H ] [ I ] [ J] [ L] [ M] [ N] [ O ] [ P] [ Q ] [ R] [ S] [ T] [ U] [ V] [ W ] [ X] G-PI D (Generalized Payload I dent ifier) GARP ( Generic Att ribu t e Regist rat ion Prot ocol) generalized lab els 2n d Gen eralized MPLS [ See GMPLS] Gen eralized Payload I dent ifier (G-PI D) Gen Registof ratContent ion Prot ocol • eric At t ribut eTable s (GARP) Gen ocol (GFP) • eric Fram ing IProt ndex generic pat h ne select Me tr o Et her t ion generic rout ing encapsulat ion (GRE) t u nnels By Sam Halabi geograph y, var iat ion s of d eploy m en t GFP ( Generic Framin g Pr oto col) PubEt lish er:netCisco Press Gigabit h er e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 huPub b-anDat d-spoke conf igurat ion ring s I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X global access Pages:cont 24 0rol GMPLS inclu sion of t echnology - specific param et ers 2n d int erf aces 2n d LMP MPLS

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. com paring 2n d

prot ect ion 2n d rest orat ion 2n d Discover

t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and y our or gan izat ion

GMPLS w (Generalized 2n df or hat t hey MPLS) can do need for 2n d gran ularit y n Lear

fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o t h e concep t s

ban dwidth un derst an d

GRE (generic rout in g enca psult ion) t un nels greenf ield Gain v alue fr om pro posit t heion exp 2n er d ience grou ps Halabi,

of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es

SRLG

Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

[ A] [ B] [ C] [ D ] [ E] [ F] [ G] [ H ] [ I ] [ J] [ L] [ M] [ N] [ O ] [ P] [ Q ] [ R] [ S] [ T] [ U] [ V] [ W ] [ X] hierarchies LSP 2n d LSPs VPLS scaling hop • s

Table of Content s

• loose

I ndex

Mest trrict o Et her ne t hu b-an d-spoke conf igurat ion By Sam Halabi Gigabit Et h er net Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

[ A] [ B] [ C] [ D ] [ E] [ F] [ G] [ H ] [ I ] [ J] [ L] [ M] [ N] [ O ] [ P] [ Q ] [ R] [ S] [ T] [ U] [ V] [ W ] [ X] I BGP ( I nt ernal BGP) ident ificat ion int erf aces PW I GP

• m et rics

Table of Content s

I•LEC (incu mb en t Ilocal ndexex ch ange carrier) imp lem enther at ion Me tr o Et ne t RSVP By Sam Halabi inclu sion of t echnology - specific param et ers 2n d incu mben t local ex ch ange carrier ( I LEC) Pub lish incu mben ts er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: 2n Octdober deploy ment 3r d 0 1, 20 03 inf rast ru ct I SBN: ure 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X signaPages: lin g m odels 24 0 2n d SONET/ SDH Et h er net ov er 2n d inf rast ru ct ureLex ist ing legacy TDM inst alling phy sical port s

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. int erf aces EOS FramDiscover e Relay FSC w hat

t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion

GMPLS 2n d identLear ificat ion n fr om L2

t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s

L2 SC LSC Gain NNI

fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es

PSC

Met r ochin n et swit gw 2nor d k 3rsd w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r epTDM r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The etdr o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as UNIm2n uilt (tI o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o Ibeen n tern albBGP BGP) goerna t hrtion oug f un dam int al h deploy men t en 2n dt al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed byerwork ent ering prwit iseh legacy cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e int deploym ent s 2n d oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o int ran ets er enhan ced Ioff P/ MPLS net work s dat a ser vices. Et h er net serv ices ov er 2n d

Met rMPLS o Et hern 2n d et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iewPW . I t2ndescr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he d dr iv er s an VPLS 2ndd challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. I Pv 4

Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s VPN- I Pv 4 addresses tI S-I o tShe d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book Traf fic Eng in eerin g ( I S-I S- TE) t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

[ A] [ B] [ C] [ D ] [ E] [ F] [ G] [ H ] [ I ] [ J] [ L] [ M] [ N] [ O ] [ P] [ Q ] [ R] [ S] [ T] [ U] [ V] [ W ] [ X] j it t er



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

[ A] [ B] [ C] [ D ] [ E] [ F] [ G] [ H ] [ I ] [ J] [ L] [ M] [ N] [ O ] [ P] [ Q ] [ R] [ S] [ T] [ U] [ V] [ W ] [ X] L2 backbon es scaling int erf aces L2 PE

• con figur ing

Table of Content s

• labels

I ndex

L2 MeSC tr o( Layer Et her2neswit t ch capab le) int erf aces By Sam Halabi L2 TP cont rol conn ect ion endp oin t s ( LCCEs) L2 VPN BGP model 2n d Pubser lish er: Cisco L2 VPN vices 2n d Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 L3 VPNs IP

I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X

deliverin ov0er 2n d Pages:g24 La bel Dist ribu t ion Prot ocol ( LDP) label swit ch ed pat h (LSP) label swit ch ed pat hs (LSPs) label swit ch ed rou ters (LSRs) LABEL_REQUEST obj ect 2n d

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. labels

bindin g 2n d ex plicit cont rol Discover

t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and can do f or y our or gan izat ion

generalized d w hat t2n hey L2 PE opt imizin Leargn

fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o t h e concep t s

ran ges un derst an d set s su ggested Gain 2n fr om d swit chin Halabi, g

t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es

GMPLS 2n d

Met rnon o npacket et w ors k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ept roub r esent a ing m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. lesh oot The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as WAN been(Link b uilt t o han t he st r ing LACP Aggregat iondle Cont ro l Prot ocol)en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go bda-swit t hr ougch h capa f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed lam ble (LSC) byintent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e erf aces oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o lam bdas offSRLG er enhan ced dat a ser vices. LAN

Met r o Et et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic VPLS 2n hern d vLAN iew( local . I t area descr netibes work )t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er srces an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. resou large en terpr ises ( LEs)

Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s last m ile tlast o -m t heiled eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s con nect ivit y (LaVPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic yer 2 switch capable ( L2SC) engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . int erf aces La yer Cont rol Processing pack et s layer s SONET/ SDH 2n d LCAS ( Lin k Capacit y Adj ust m en t Schem e) LCCEs (L2 TP cont rol conn ection endp oint s)

LDP BGP signa lin g CR- LDP direct ly con nect ed PEs LDP (Label Distr ibut ion Prot ocol) learnin g

• •

MAC addresses

Table of Content s

qua lif ied / un qualif ied

I ndex

learnin g, MAC 2n d Me tr o Et her ne t legacy deploy men ts, in t er work ing wit h 2n d By Halabi LEsSam ( large en terpr ises) line o verh ead ( LOH) Lin k Pub Aggregat ContPress rol Prot ocol (LACP) lish er:ion Cisco Lin k Pub Capacit m en0t1,Schem Datye:Adj Octust ober 20 03 e ( LCAS) Lin k ManIagement Prot ocol (LMP) SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X links

Pages: 24 0 bun dling emu lat in g

GMPLS prot ect ion/ rest orat ion 2n d prot ect ion t ypes

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. un nu mbered LMP ( Lin k Man agement Prot ocol) local access cont rol

Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion

local area n et work (LAN) resou rces

local lin k ident ifiers

Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s

local switching

EOS wit h 2n d

logical Gain sepa ratfr ion om PE

t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es

LOH (lin e ov erhead) LOL Met(rloossnof et ligh w ort) k s

w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. loops The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as av oiding been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o goback t hrdoor oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed loose h ops by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e loss oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o loss light ( LOL) off erof enhan ced dat a ser vices. loopt opologies, cr eat r ep rfree esent a m ajor shing if t

LSC (lam bda-swit ch ca pable) intrerf Met o aces Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic vLSP iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he encodin g t ydpes dr iv er s an challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. f ull m esh

Met r o Et hern hierarchies 2n et d d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o RSVP t he dt un eliv er y dof m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book nels 2n t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s t un nels (LSP VPN) , v ir t ual p rivhat (label swit ch ed pat ) e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . LSPs bidirect ional heriarchies t raf fic t run ks com paring t o LSPs (label switched pat h s)

LSRs GMPLS int erf aces 2n d LSRs (label switch ed rou t er s)



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

[ A] [ B] [ C] [ D ] [ E] [ F] [ G] [ H ] [ I ] [ J] [ L] [ M ] [ N] [ O ] [ P] [ Q ] [ R] [ S] [ T] [ U] [ V] [ W ] [ X] MAC addresses learnin g learnin g 2n d swit chin g 2n d MAC (Media Access Conof t rol) • Table Content s

• RPR

I ndex

m en t ne t Meanagem tr o Et her f ault By Sam Halabi LMP net work s Pub lish er: Cisco Press NFS Pub e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 Max im umDat Burst Size (MBS) Maxim umI SBN: Tran sm 1- 58 it 705 Un it-0(MTU) 96 -X MBS ( Max imu m24 Burst Size) Pages: 0 MDUs (m ult idwelling unit s) Media Access Con tr ol ( MAC) RPR MEF (Metr o Eth ernet Foru m) 2n d ex ample o f 2n d

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. m essages Not if y PATHDiscover 2n d RESV w hat

t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion

m et rics I GP Lear n m et ro

fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s

dat a view of 2n d deploy Gain mentfr2n om d Et h erHalabi, net 2n d

t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es

early serv ice pro viders of 2n d

Met r o 2n n det w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill MEF r ep r esent ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. ex ampleao fm2n d The mices et r2n o dh as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as serv been uilt ett oForum han dle Met ro Etbhern [ Seet he MEF]st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o goig rat t hrion oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed m byEOS entas ertpr cust ranise sport servom iceser 2nsdand consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o m odificat ion offrou er tin enhan g 2n d ced dat a ser vices. signa lin g 2n d

Met o Et hern et m onitr oring

f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he serv. ices dr er s(man challenges MP-iv BGP ultdiprot ocol BGP) car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. MP2 MP (m ult ipoint - to- m ult ipoint )

Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s MPLS t o Ett he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book h er net ov er 2n d t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s f ast rerou te 2n d ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic GMPLS engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . com paring 2n d TE 2n d MPLS L3VPN 2n d MPLS L3VPNs MSOs ( mu lt ip le service operat ors) MTU

dua l- hom ed dev ices MTU ( Maximu m Tran smit Unit ) MTU-s 2n d MTUs ( mu lt it ena nt u nit s) m ulit cast m ulit ple fibers SRLG m ulit plex ing

• •

Table of Content s

pack et s at access

I ndex

m ult icast f ram es Me tr o Et her ne t m ult idwelling un it s ( MDUs) By Sam m ult ipleHalabi lambd as SRLG m ult Pub iple lish LSPs er: Cisco Press nest ingDat 2ne:d Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 Pub m ult iple Iserv ice1-operat (MSOs) SBN: 58 705ors -0 96 -X m ult iple services Pages: 24 0 m ult iple swit ching capab ilit ies 2n d 3r d m ult iple T1 (n XT1) m ult iple TE links bun dling m ult iplex ing

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. WDM m ult ipoint connect ivity m ult ipoint -t o- mu ltipo in t ( MP2MP)

Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion

m ult iprot ocol BGP ( MP- BGP) m ult iten ant u nit s (MTUs)

Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

[ A] [ B] [ C] [ D ] [ E] [ F] [ G] [ H ] [ I ] [ J] [ L] [ M] [ N ] [ O ] [ P] [ Q ] [ R] [ S] [ T] [ U] [ V] [ W ] [ X] Nat iv e Serv ice Processin g ( NSP) need for GMPLS 2n d nest ing m ult iple LSPs 2n d Net work Lay er Reach abilit y I nf orma tion ( NLRI ) Net work Managem ent Sy st em (NMS) Net I n tof er face (NNIs) • work -t o- Net work Table Content net • work s

I ndex

Meall-Et tr o Ethernet her ne t buildin g By Sam Halabi GMPLS 2n d need for 2n d lish er: Cisco Press I P/Pub MPLS Pub Dat e: serv Oct ober 0 1,er20 Et h er net ices ov 2n03 d ov er I SBN: MPLS1-2n 58d705 -0 96 -X ovPages: er VPLS24 2n0 d PW 2n d m anagem en t m et ro [ See m et ro] on- net OTN

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. ov erbuilding reliability equalcost m ult h (TE) Discover t hipat e lat est I GP m et rics ( TE)can w hat t hey

developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and do f or y our or gan izat ion

rou tin g ( TE) TE 2n d n Lear

fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o concep t s

t echn iqu es an ( TE)d 2n un derst t hde VC ov erlays ( TE) rin g Gain

fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es

RPR Halabi, 2n d

signa lin g m odels 2n d

Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill SONET/ SDH r ep r esent a m LSPs ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. bidirect ional The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as TDM beenlabel b uilt o in han switt ch g 2ndle d t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed provisionin g 2n d byt roub ent lesh er proot ise ing cust 2n d om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper ional t runat kin g 2n d an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o offWAN er enhan ced dat a ser vices. labels

Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic WDM v iewlabel . I t descr t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he swit ch inibes g dr iv er s work an d Lay challenges car s wtion ill ) face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. NLRI (Net er Reach abilit y Irnfier orma NMS (Networ k Man agement Sy st em )

Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s NNI ( Net work -t o- Net work I n t er face) tnod o talhe d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book f ault h andling tnod hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s e pairs ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic LMP engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . non -br id ging dev ices as spok es non -direct ly co nnect ed PEs non -PSC net work ing dev ices [ See also OXCs] non packet label swit ch in g Not if y m essages

NSP (Nativ e Serv ice Processin g) nu mbers un nu mbered lin ks nXT1 ( mu lt iple T1)



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

[ A] [ B] [ C] [ D ] [ E] [ F] [ G] [ H ] [ I ] [ J] [ L] [ M] [ N] [ O ] [ P] [ Q ] [ R] [ S] [ T] [ U] [ V] [ W ] [ X] O4 obj ects ERO FLOW_SPEC LABEL_REQUEST 2n d

• RRO

Table of Content s • SENDER_TEMPLATE I ndex MeSESSI tr o EtON her ne t SESSI ON_ATTRI BUTE By Sam Halabi OC12 ( 12 STS- 1s) OLE_LI NK1 2n d 3r d 4t h PubNK3 lish er: Cisco Press OLE_LI Pubn etwo Dat e:rks Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 on- net one- t o-on I SBN: e back1-up 58m 705 et h-0od 96 -X Open ShPages: ort est Pat 24 0h Fir st f or Tr aff ic Engineering (OSPF-TE) operat ions pack et s t raf fic tr unk s opt ical cross- conn ect s (OXCs) opt ical n etwo rks

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. GMPLS 2n d

need for 2n d signaDiscover lin g m odelst h 2ned lat est

developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and or gan izat ion

opt ical w sighat nal-ttonoise rat iodo ( OSNR) hey can f or y our opt ical t ra nsport net work ( OTN) opt imiza tion n Lear

fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o t h e concep t s

ban dwidt h un derst an d RPR 2n d

labels Gain [ Seefralso om labels] t he exp er ience rou tin Halabi, g [ See also au trou hortinof g]

of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es

signa lin g [ See also signa lin g]

Met TEr o 2n n d et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent am ajor equal- cost m ult ipatsh h if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The Im etmr et o rics h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as GP beenrou b tin uilt g t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed t echn iquhesf un 2n d by ent ises cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e VCer ovpr erlay oper at ional anal-t d bo-usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o OSNR ( opt ical sign noise r atio) off er TE enhan vices. OSPF(Openced Sh ortdat est a Patser h First f or Traff ic Engin eerin g) OTN (opt ical tr anspor t net work )

Met r o Et hern et fsr om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic ov erbuilding net work voview . Imt odel descr ibes culinrrg]ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he erlay [ See alsot he signa dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. overlays VC

Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s overprovisioning tOXCs o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book ( opt ical cross-con nect s) t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

[ A] [ B] [ C] [ D ] [ E] [ F] [ G] [ H ] [ I ] [ J] [ L] [ M] [ N] [ O ] [ P ] [ Q ] [ R] [ S] [ T] [ U] [ V] [ W ] [ X] P (prov ider) P2P ( point -t o- point ) pack et -swit ch capable (PSC) int erf aces pack et -swit ched capable ( PSC) pack et -swit ched Table net work PSN) t unsnels • of( Content pack et s •

I ndex

MeDPT tr o Et her ne t EOS By Sam Halabi as t ranspor t serv ices 2n d swit chin g 2n d Pub lish er: Cisco Press f orwarding ober 0 1, 20 03 LaPub yer Dat Conte:rolOct Processing m ulit plexing I SBN: 1at58 access 705 -0 96 -X no npacket Pages:s 24 0 label swit ch in g operat ions PW RPR 2n d swit chin g 2n d

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. param et er s GMPLD inclu sion of t echnology specific 2n d Discover t h e lat est developm ent s MEFw 2nhat d

in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion

ex ample o f 2n d t raf fic Lear n

fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o t h e concep t s

atun t ribut es an d derst PATH messag e 2n d

pat h ovGain erheadfr(POH) om t he pat hs

exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es

com put at ion

Met rlink o npetrotwect orion k s t ywpes ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r epestr esent ablishinga m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et select r o h as generic ion alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been LSP b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o goLSPs t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed byRSVP-TE ent er pr2nise d cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper ional d el b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o pay a sat y ou growan mod off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. PE con figur ing

Met r owith Et hern f r nnect om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic LDP directet ly co ed v iew . I t sepa descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he logical rat ion dr iv er-direct s anlyd co challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. non nnect ed PE (p rov id er edge)

Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s PE- rs 2n d tPeak o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book I n for mat ion Rat e ( PI R) tpeer henm exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s odel [ See also signa lin g] (penu VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic ltim at e ho p poppin g engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . perf orman ce param et er s TE 2n d I GP m et rics t echn iqu es 2n d phy sical port s

inst alling PI R (Peak I nf ormat ion Rat e) plann ing provisionin g POH (pat h ov erhead) point of presence (POP) point - t o-poin t (P2P) policing at t ribut e



Table of Content s



I ndex

POP ( point of presence) port s Me tr o Et her ne t ph ysica l By Sam instHalabi alling t run ks 2n d

preempt ion er: at t ribut Pub lish Ciscoe Press pricinPub g Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 m odels I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X ov erbuilding net work s Pages: 24 0 serv ices 2n d pricin g m odels priorit y at t ribu te prot ect ion GMPLS 2n d

The init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. linkdtef y pes TLV fields prot ocols BGP

Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion

signa lin g GFP

Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s

GMPLS 2n d

need for 2n d IP

Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es

deliverin g L3VPNs ov er Halabi, au t hor of 2n I ndt ern et MAC

Met rRPR o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill ing 2n r epmrodify esent a dm ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. RSVP The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as sions beenexbten uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o imp lem ent go t hr oug h fing un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed bySRP ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e STPat ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o oper ing loops off erbreak enhan ced dat a ser vices. provider ( P) prov edge (PE) Metider r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic vprovisionin iew . I t gdescr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dynam dr iv er s ican2ndd challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. pat h com put at ion

Met r o net Et hern TDM work s et 2n dd iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s tprov o t isionin he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book g sev brices tPSC hen( pack exam ines cur rble) en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s et- swirch capa ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic int erf aces engineer in g, an d MPLS PSC ( pack et- swit ched capable) an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . PSN (pack et -swit ch ed net work ) t un nels PW (pseudo wir e) 2n d 3r d 4t h

[ A] [ B] [ C] [ D ] [ E] [ F] [ G] [ H ] [ I ] [ J] [ L] [ M] [ N] [ O ] [ P] [ Q ] [ R] [ S] [ T] [ U] [ V] [ W ] [ X] Q-in- Q f unction qua lif ied learnin g



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

[ A] [ B] [ C] [ D ] [ E] [ F] [ G] [ H ] [ I ] [ J] [ L] [ M] [ N] [ O ] [ P] [ Q ] [ R ] [ S] [ T] [ U] [ V] [ W ] [ X] ran ges labels raw mod e RD ( Rout e Dist ingu isher) RD ( rout e d istin guish er) reach of serv icesTable of Content s • RECORD-ROUTE bject ( RRO) • Iondex RECORD_ROUTE Me tr o Et her ne t ob ject ( RRO) reducin g TDM ban dwidth 2n d By Sam Halabi referen ce m odels VPLS Pubion lish regulat s er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: incu mben ts Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 reliabilit yI SBN: 2n d 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X reliablityPages: 24 0 TE 2n d equal- cost m ult ipat h I GP m et rics rou tin g t echn iqu es 2n d

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. VC ov erlay s

rem ote lin k ident if iers reordering Discover

t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion

f rames w hat requirem ent s ban dwidth Lear n

fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o t h e concep t s

VPLSun derst an d resilien ce at t ribu te resilienGain cy

fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es

RPR Halabi,

resilien t packet r in g ( RPR) 2n d

Met rrce o natett ribut w oresk s resou

w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The rce m et r o hatas resou reserv ionalw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o st y les go t hr h fatun dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed resou rceoug reserv ions bystent yleser pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e operFF at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off erSE enhan ced dat a ser vices. r ep r rce esent a ery m ajor sh if t resou discov t opologies

WF

Met rrces o Et hern et resou

f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew LAN. I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr er sionan d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. restiv orat GMPLS 2n d

Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s rest rict ions t o n um ber of cu st om ers tRESV o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book m essage tret hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ail m odels (ring VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic st eering engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . ring wrappin g ring s Gigabit Et h er net RPR 2n d risk SRLG

Rou te Dist ing uisher (RD) rou te dist inguish er ( RD) rou te reflect ors rou te t arget ( RT) rou ters at t ribut es int erf aces

• •

GMPLS 2n d RSVP-TE 2n d

Table of Content s I ndex

rou tin g Me tr o Et her ne t con st raint -ba sed 2n d By Sam Halabi CR- LDP f ast rerou te 2n d GMPLS Pub lish er: Cisco Press protDat ect e: ion/Oct rest orat0ion 2n03 d Pub ober 1, 20 GRE I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X LSP Pages: 24 0 hierarchies m odify ing 2n d TE RPR (resilient pa cket ring) 2n d RRO ( RECORD-ROUTE) object

The ef init iv e guid object e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. RRO (d RECORD_ROUTE) RSVP ex ten sions

Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion

imp lm ent ing

LSP t unn els 2n d RSVP-TE 2n d

Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s

RT (rou t e t arget )

Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

[ A] [ B] [ C] [ D ] [ E] [ F] [ G] [ H ] [ I ] [ J] [ L] [ M] [ N] [ O ] [ P] [ Q ] [ R] [ S ] [ T] [ U] [ V] [ W ] [ X] scalabilit y 2n d ban dwidth scaling back bon es VPLS SDH •

Table of Content s d • arch itect u re 2n I ndex atne iont 2n d Mecon tr o cat Et en her f rame form at s By Sam Halabi SDL ( Sim ple Dat a Link ) SE (Shared Ex plicit ) Pub lish er: Cisco SE (Shared explicit ) Press PubovDat Oct( SOH) ober 02n 1, d20 03 sect ion erhe:ead secur it y I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X f ilt ersPages: 24 0 SENDER_TEMPLATE obj ect seperat ion con tr ol/ dat a chan nels serv ice f lex ibility of

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. serv ice f rame deliv ery at t ribu te serv ice m ult iplex ing at t ribut e serv ice Discover prov iders

t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and do f or y our or gan izat ion

m et ro Et h ertnet d w hat hey2ncan serv ice, tim e t o bring up serv icesLear 2n d n

fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o t h e concep t s

dat aun view of 2n d d derst an Et h en et

ovGain er I P/ MPLS fr omnet t he work exp s 2ner d ience ovHalabi, er MPLS 2n aud t hor

of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es

PW 2n d

Met rVPLS o n et2nwdor k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r epMEF r esent 2n d a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The ex m ample et r o ho fas alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as 2n d been boring uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o m onit gomtulit hr ple oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed bypricin ent ger2n prdise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ionalg an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o provisionin offRPR er enhan ced dat a ser vices. 2n d t ran sport

Met rEOS o Et2n hern d et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew VPN. I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s ponen an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. com ts 2n d SESSI ON obj ect

Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s SESSI ON_ATTRI BUTE obj ect 2n d tset o st he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s labels (Shared VPN) ,Explicit v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic [ See SE] engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . sh ared risk lin k grou p ( SRLG) sigan lin g GMPLS prot ect ion/ rest orat ion 2n d signa lin g BGP

m odels 2n d m odify ing 2n d VPLS signa ls SONET/ SDH con cat en at ion 2n d Simple Dat a Link (SDL) sit e of origin



Table of Content s



I ndex

sm all an d m ediu m- sized b usinesses (SMBs) sm all of fice/ h om e off ice ( SOHO) Me tr o Et her ne t SMBs ( sm all and m ediu m- sized bu sinesses) By Sam Halabi SOH ( sect io n o verh ead ) 2n d SOHO (small off ice/ hom e of fice) SONET Pub lish er: Cisco Press arch Pubitecu Datre e: 2n Octd ober 0 1, 20 03 con catI en at ion 2n705 d -0 96 -X SBN: 1- 58 f rame form at s Pages: 24 0 SONET/ SDH Et h er net ov er 2n d SONET/ SDH label swit ch in g SONET/ SDH LSP SONET/ SDH LSRs

The d ef initnet ivwork e guid SONET/ SDH s e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. bidirect ional LSPs Spann ing Tree Prot ocol (STP)

Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion

loops

break ing span s

Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s

m et ro [ See m et ro]

SPE (Synch ronou s Pa yload En velope) 2n d special Gain r eu se prot ocolt he (SRP) fr om exp er ience speed

of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es

Fram e Relay speed spok Metes ro

n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill -br id ging devices r epnon r esent am ajor as sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. SRLG ( shar k grou p) b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as The m et red o risk h aslinalw ays SRP ( special protdle ocol)t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o been b uilt reu t osehan st goackt ing hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed st pr ovision ing cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e byat ic ent er pr ise TDM workan s 2ndd b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o oper atnet ional st eer ring ced dat a ser vices. off ering, enhan STP ( Spann in g Tree Prot ocol) loops Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic ing v iewbreak . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he st rict h ops dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. STS-1 (5 0 Mbps)

Met st y lesr o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o resou t he rce d eliv er yatof dat a ser v ices. Witathion] a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book reserv ion m 2net d ro [ See also resour ce reserv tsuhen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s bobject s 2n d (suVPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic ggested labels 2n d engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . su pport VC wav eband swit ching swappin g swit ches EOS f un ct io ns in side

GMPLS 2n d need for 2n d LMP swit chin g 2n d int erf aces 2n d 3r d labels GMPLS 2n d

• •

non packet s

Table of Content s

LSP

pack et s Me tr o Et her ne t EOS 2n d By Sam t y pesHalabi

I ndex

wav eband Syn chr s Payload En velope ( SPE) 2n d Pubonou lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

[ A] [ B] [ C] [ D ] [ E] [ F] [ G] [ H ] [ I ] [ J] [ L] [ M] [ N] [ O ] [ P] [ Q ] [ R] [ S] [ T ] [ U] [ V] [ W ] [ X] t ables f orwarding MAC learn ing 2n d t agged m ode t agging

• VLAN 2n d 3r d Table of Content s t•arget VPNs

I ndex

tMe arget tr os Et her ne t RT By Sam Halabi TDM ex istin g legacy in frastr uct ur e Pub lish2n er: GMPLS d Cisco Press Pub Dat e: 2n Oct need for d ober 0 1, 20 03 label swit I SBN: ch in1-g58 2n705 d -0 96 -X net work s Pages: 24 0 provisionin g 2n d TDM (t ime- division m ult iplexin g) int erf aces TE I S-I S- TE

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. OSPF- TE t un nels MPLS f ast rerou Discover t ht ee 2n latd est TE (t ra ff engin eerin can g) 2n d wichat t hey do

developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and f or y our or gan izat ion

equal- cost m ult ipat h I GP Lear m et rics n

fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o t h e concep t s

MPLS d un2nderst an d rou tin g t echn Gain iqu es fr 2nom d VC ov Halabi, erlay s

t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es

t ime to brin g u p serv ice

o n et wmor s winillg (em er ge tMet ime-rdivision ultkiplex TDM)

as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r epintr erf esent aces a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The(Tra m et r o h as alw ays TLS nsparen t LAN Ser vice)b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt TLV (t y pe lengtt o h vhan alue)dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t(thr oug h hf un damfields en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed TLV y pe lengt v alue) by ent ersport pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e TOH (t ran ov erh ead) oper(tat ional anerload) d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o TOH ran sport ov er enhan ced dat a ser vices. toff opologies loop- free

Met rcreat o Eting hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . Irce t descr resou discovibes ery t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr t rafiv ficer s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. f orwarding

Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s param et er s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book at t ribut es t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s t run ks ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic at t ribut es/ o per ation s engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) . com paring t o LSPs t raf fic en gineering (TE) 2n d equal- cost m ult ipat h I GP m et rics MPLS 2n d rou tin g

t echn iqu es 2n d VC ov erlay s t ransla tion VLAN Tran sparent LAN Serv ice ( TLS) t ransport Et h er net 2n d t ransport ov erhead (TOH)



Table of Content s



I ndex

t ransport ov erload (TOH) t ransport serv ices Me tr o Et her ne t EOS 2n d By Sam t roub lehHalabi soot ing con get sion

t roubPub leshlish ooter: ingCisco 2n d Press f ault anagem PubmDat e: Octent ober 0 1, 20 03 LCAS I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X MPLS L3VPN Pages: 24 0 net work s 2n d Not if y m essages t run kin g 2n d t run ks RSVP-TE 2n d

The ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. t rafdfic at t ribut es/ o per ation s com paring t o LSPs

Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion

t un nels

aggregat ion by pass

Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s

GRE

LSPs

hierarchies 2n dt he Gain fr om MPLS f ast rerou t e t2n d Halabi, au hor

exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es

PSN RSVP d k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill Met r o nLSP et w2nor tryep pe rlengt h v alue TLV) sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. esent a m(ajor tThe y pe lengt m ethr voalue h as( TLV) alwfields ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as tbeen y pes b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o rot ecthion golink t hrpoug f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed byLSP entencoding er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e of PW oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o ice proced viders offoferserv enhan dat a ser vices. of VC swit Met r ochin Et ghern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices.

Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

[ A] [ B] [ C] [ D ] [ E] [ F] [ G] [ H ] [ I ] [ J] [ L] [ M] [ N] [ O ] [ P] [ Q ] [ R] [ S] [ T] [ U ] [ V] [ W ] [ X] U. S. incum bent landscape 2n d 3r d UNI ( User- t o-Net work I nt erfa ce) 2n d un icast f ram es un nu mbered lin ks un qualif ied learning un packet 2n d • t agged Eth ernet Table of sContent s Usert o-Net work IIndex nt erf ace ( UNI ) 2n d • Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

[ A] [ B] [ C] [ D ] [ E] [ F] [ G] [ H ] [ I ] [ J] [ L] [ M] [ N] [ O ] [ P] [ Q ] [ R] [ S] [ T] [ U] [ V ] [ W ] [ X] values TLV fields v ariat ions of deploy ment VC t y pes VC ) • ( vir tu al circuitTable of Content s su pport • I ndex VCAT u alne con Me tr o( virt Et her t cat en at ion) 2n d VCI ( virt ual connect ion ident ifier) By Sam Halabi VCs overlays Pubcircuit lish er:( VC) Cisco Press virt ual Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 suPub pport virt ual concat I SBN:enat 1- 58 ion705[ See -0 96also -X con cat en at ion] virt ual concat Pages:enat 24 0ion ( VCAT) 2n d virt ual conn ect ion ident ifier (VCI ) virt ual pat h iden tif ier ( VPI ) Virt ual Privat e LAN (VPLS) 2n d virt ual rout er f orward in g ( VRF) VLAN

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. swit chin g 2n d

t agging 2n d 3r d VLAN Tag Preser vattion Discover he

lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and y our or gan izat ion

VLAN Tag Translat ioncan or Swapping w hat t hey do f or VPI ( virt ual p ath iden tif ier )

VPLS ( Virt ualnPrivat e LAN) d - t o- r ead Lear fr om t h e 2n easy VPN

f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o

un derst an d t h e concep t s

com ponen ts 2n d L2 VPN Gain ser vices fr om2ntdhe L3VPNs Halabi,

exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es

deliverin g ov er I P 2n d

Met o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill of rorigin r ept arget r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The Im etaddresses r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as VPNPv 4 been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o VPNs goFram t hr eoug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed Relay by ent ise om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e VRF ( virter u alprrou t ercust fo rwarding) oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

[ A] [ B] [ C] [ D ] [ E] [ F] [ G] [ H ] [ I ] [ J] [ L] [ M] [ N] [ O ] [ P] [ Q ] [ R] [ S] [ T] [ U] [ V] [ W ] [ X] WAN labels wav eband swit ching wavelen gt h d ivision m ult iplexing ( WDM) WDM

• label swit ch in gTable of Content s WDM ( wavelen gth division m ult iplexing) • I ndex WF Filt Me tr( Wildcard o Et her ne t er) 2n d wholesale m odels By Sam Halabi Wildcard Filt er [ See WF] wrappin g, ring Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .

[ A] [ B] [ C] [ D ] [ E] [ F] [ G] [ H ] [ I ] [ J] [ L] [ M] [ N] [ O ] [ P] [ Q ] [ R] [ S] [ T] [ U] [ V] [ W ] [ X ] XC ( cross- conn ect )



Table of Content s



I ndex

Me tr o Et her ne t By Sam Halabi

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Oct ober 0 1, 20 03 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -0 96 -X Pages: 24 0

The d ef init iv e guid e t o Ent er pr ise an d Carr ier Met r o Et hern et app licat ions. Discover t h e lat est developm ent s in m et ro net w or king , Et h er n et , and MPLS ser v ices and w hat t hey can do f or y our or gan izat ion Lear n fr om t h e easy - t o- r ead f or mat t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals of all lev els t o un derst an d t h e concep t s Gain fr om t he exp er ience of indu st r y in nov at or and best - selling Cisco Pr ess au t hor , Sam Halabi, au t hor of I n t ern et Rou t ing Ar ch it ect ur es Met r o n et w or k s w ill em er ge as t h e nex t ar ea of gr ow t h for t he n et w or k ing indu st r y an d w ill r ep r esent a m ajor sh if t in how dat a ser v ices ar e off ered t o b usinesses and r esident ial cu st omer s. The m et r o h as alw ays b een a challengin g env ir onm en t f or deliver ing dat a ser v ices because it h as been b uilt t o han dle t he st r ing en t r eliab ilit y an d availabilit y needs f or v oice. Car r iers w ill h ave t o go t hr oug h f un dam en t al shift s t o equ ip t h e m et ro for next - g en er at ion dat a ser v ices dem and ed by ent er pr ise cust om er s and consum er s. This is not only a t ech nology shif t , bu t also a sh ift in t h e oper at ional an d b usiness mod el t hat w ill allow t he incum b en t car rier s t o t ran sf or m t he met r o t o off er enhan ced dat a ser vices. Met r o Et hern et f r om Cisco Pr ess look s at t he d ep loy m ent of met r o d at a serv ices fr om a holist ic v iew . I t descr ibes t he cu rr ent m et r o, w h ich is based on TD M t echnolog y, an d discu sses t he dr iv er s an d challenges car r ier s w ill face in t r ansfor m ing t he m et r o t o addr ess dat a ser v ices. Met r o Et hern et d iscusses t he ad opt ion of met r o Et her net serv ices and how t hat h as led car r ier s t o t he d eliv er y of m et ro dat a ser v ices. Wit h a chan ging m ix of t r anspor t t echnolog ies, t h e book t hen exam ines cur r en t an d em erg in g t rend s, and delves int o t h e role of v ir t ual p r iv at e n et w or k s ( VPN) , v ir t ual p riv at e local ar ea net w or ks ( VLAN) , v ir t ual p riv at e LAN ser v ices ( VPLS) , t r aff ic engineer in g, an d MPLS an d Generalized MPLS ( GMPLS) .