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Provided by the Library of Congress Public Law 480 Program
History of the
Qutb Shahi Dynasty
Sulgan Quli Qutbw’l-Mulk, “Baya Malik”, Founder of the Quth (Courtesy, Director, Rijksmuseum,
HISTORY OF THE
QUTB SHAHI DYNASTY
Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
Munshiram Manekarial Pablishers Pvt. Led. 54 Rani Jhansi Road, New
First Published © 1969
PRINTED IN INDIA BY B. D. SEN AT NABA MUDRAN PRIVATE LIMITED, CALCUTTA-4 AND PUBLISHED BY DEVENDRA JAIN FOR MUNSHIRAM MANOHARTAL PUBLISHERS PVT. LTD., NEW DELHI 110055
To the Memory of Nigaému’l-Mulk Agaf Jah I Statesman, Soldier, Administrator, whose
the Re-florescence of Haidarabad as a great Cultural Unit.
Illustrations System of Transliteration Abbreviations
1. Sultan Quli’s Rise to Power
Sultan-Quli’s Antecedents. Conditions at Bidar. Sultan-Quli’s rise to power. Qutbu’l-Mulk, Tarafdar of Tilangana. Vijayanagar. Qutbu’l-Mulk and Yisuf
‘Adil. Battle of Deoni and fall of Raichir.
“The Declaration of Independence”. Extent
of the Province of Tilangana in 901/1496. Section
2. Qutbu’l-Mulk’s Military Campaigns
Orissa and Vijayanagar. Tilangana and Vijayanagar. Qutbul-Mulk’s Campaign in Tilangana: First phase. Qutbu’l-Mulk’s Campaign in Tilangana: Second phase. Qutbu’l-Mulk’s Campaign in Tilangana:
Third phase. Qutbu’l-Mulk’s Campaign in
Isma’l ‘Adil. Qutbu’l-Mulk
Barid. Nalgonda and Kondvidu. Qutbu’lMulk’s last days and the manner of his death.
3. Qutbu'lMulk as a Man and as a Ruler
Difficulties he had to face. Impression of
Qutbu’l-Mulk on his Contemporaries. His Diplomatic Talent. As a Military Leader. Shi’ism. Architecture. The Man. Notes Chapter
II A PERIOD
Jamsnip, 2.9.1543—22.1.1550. SusyAn, 22.1.1550—27.7.1550.
General Survey. Ibrahim. Offer of Kingship to Jamshid. Coalition between Tilang, Ahmadnagar and Berar. The end of the Coalition. Jamshid’s Supremacy and Death. Literary Aspects of the Reign. Adminis-
trative Reforms. Subhan-Quli, Daulat-Quli and Ibrahim.
III THE KINGDOM AT ITS HEIGHT Ipranio Quis Suan, 27.7.1550—5.6.1580.
Diplomacy and Military Compaigns 1550-1565.
Ibrahim’s Accession. Ibrahim’s General Policy. Alliance with Ahmadnagar. Jagadéva Rao’s Flight. The two Sieges of Ahmadnagar. Ascendency of Ramaraj. Section
2. Battle of Bannihatti, 23.1.1565
(i) (iti) (a) (c) (e)
Introduction. (i) Immediate Causes. League of the Four Sultans. (iv) War. Preparations. (b) Site of the Battle. The Opposing Forces. (d) Duration. The Action. (f) After the Battle.
Section 3. Diplomacy and Military Campaigns, 1565-1560. '
Vijayanagar after 1565. The Break-up of the League. Further Decline of Vijayanagar. . Subjugation of Southern Orissa. Elimination of the Kingdom of Berar. Ibrahim’s last days.
Section 4; Ibrahim the Ruler: A Retrospect
Section 5. Cultural and Administratice Set-up
Title and Coinage. Literature: 1. Telugu. A
Life in Tilangand. The Village.
2. Dakhni or Proto-Urdu. 3. Persian. Ad-
Appendix 1. Military Organisation and Equipment
Appendix 2. Inter-statal Usage and Rules of Conduct
IV CULTURAL UPLIFT
Moyamman-Quii Quis SHA,
Section 1. Political and Military Aspects /Muhammad-Quli’s
War and Peace with Bijapur. The Mughals in the Deccan (i) Early ,ccntacts. (ii) Dynastic Turmoil at Ahmadnagar. (iii) Chand Bibi. (iv) Fall of Ahmadnagar. (v) Advent of Malik ‘Ambar. Venkata II. Turmoil in the East. Muhammad-Quli’s last days. The Sultan’s Personality.
2. Heaidarabad Foundation of Haidarabad. The Charminar. Chiarkaman, Palaces, Gardens,
Parks. Other Buildings of Public Utility.
3. Cultural Aspects
Architecture. Literary Patronage: (i) Telugu. (ii) Dakhni, or Proto-Urdu,. (iii) Persian. Section 4. Social Life
The Bhégmati Legend The Story. Historical Appraisal. Revival of the Legend. The Solution. Notes
Chapter V SIFAHAN-I-NAWI Suttin Muyammap
1. Political Aspects
Sultan Muhammad's Accession. A peaceloving Monarch. Foreign Policy: (i) Deccani Kingdoms and Persia (ii) The Mughals and
2. Cultural Aspects The Sultén’s Mental Equipment. Persian Literature. Dakhni. Architecture. Death of the King.
Section 3. Economic Aspects Establishment of European Factories. cles of Trade,
VI THE DOWNWARD TREND ‘Aspu’L-LAH Quys 21.4.1672.
Political and Military Aspects
Parentage and Accession. Foreign Relations. (i) Iran. (ii) The Mughals (a) Up to
1. Military Organisations
2. Economic Aspects Coinage. Weights and and Manufacture (i) Textiles. (iii) Other Agricultural Produce. of Trade. Price Levels. Wages.
Measures. Products Precious Stones. (ii) Manufactures. (iv) Imports and Balance Taxes, Salaries and
3. Sea Routes and Roads
The Records. Sea Routes. Trunk Roads (i) Roads from Surat to Haidarabad (ii) Roads from Haidarabad to Masulipatam (iii) Road from Haidarabad to Madras via Gandikota: (a) Sector from Hayatnagar to Kumbum. (b)
(iv) Road from Vijayavada to Madras. (v) Road
(iv) Road from Haidarabad to Ramallakota Diamond Mines. Means of Communication.
’ Section 4. Administration, International Conduct and Social Conditions I. Administration
The Dastiru’l ‘Amal. (a) Central Government: The King Majlis-i Diwan Dari. The Peshwa. Jumlatu’l-Mulk. Wazirs or Ministers,
(b) Provincial Administration: Royal * Authority. The Simt. Shah Bandar. Military Command.
II. International Conduct
Categories of Envoys.
III. Social Conditions The
Freedom and versus power
Proto- Urdu. Section
Appendix to Section 5 (iv)
Chapter VII THE END OF AN ERA Asu’L-Hasan 21.9.1687
Abu’l Hasan’s Accession.
1. Cultural Aspects
1, Language and Literature. (i) Persian (ii) Telugu. (iii) Dakhni or Proto-Urdu. 2. Architecture. 3. Painting. 4. Kichipidi Dance-Drama. Section
2. Political Aspects
Syed Mugaffar, Mir Jumla, Madanna, Mir Jumla. (i) Madanna’s Home Policy. (ii)
Relations with the English at Madras. (iii) The Marathas. (iv) The Mughals, and Bijapur. The two Battles of Malkhér. Siege and Fall of Golkonda.
Appendix. Administration and Finance Notes
Annexure 1. Contemporary Chronicles and other Accounts relating to Qutb Shahi Dynasty
OF THE QUTB
Plan of the Battle of Bannihatti, wrongly called the Battle
of Talikéta. Qutb Shahi Highways.
facing p. 137
Lay-out of the principal time of Muhammad-Quli Genealogy
roads and facing p. 493
buildings of Haidarabad at the Qutb Shah. Sacing p. 543
of the Qutb Shahi Rulers.
at the end
Frontispiece: Sultan Quii Qutbu’l-Mulk, “Bara Malik”, Founder
PLATE PLATE PLATE
of the Qutb Shahi Dynasty. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam).
The Charminar. (Courtesy, Department of Archaeology and Museums, Andhra Pradesh). Mosque on the uppermost storey of Charminar. Ma’dhanah. on the top of Charminar from the Central arch of the mosque. Vista towards Golkonda from Charminéar. Vista towards Koh-i-Tur from Charminar. Two of the great arches enclosing the Jilikbana or Charkaman,
PLATE PLATE PLATE
The Purana Pul, Haidarabad, ¢. 1578. Daru’l-Shifa,
Tomb of Muhammad-Quli Qutb Shah, ¢. 1611. (Courtesy, Department of Archaeology and Museums,
PLATE PLATE PLATE
10. I1. 12.
Mihrab and Pulpit, Mecca Masjid. Yali Gate, Golkonda Fort. Mecca Gate, Golkonda Fort, ¢. 1559.
Pemamati’s Mosque, near Golkonda Fort, c. 1670.
Baradari, Gosha Mahal, Haidarabad c. 1684. Tomb of ‘Abdu’l-lah Qutb Shah, c. 1672. (Courtesy,
(The art plates appear between p. 544-545)
( Arabic, Persian, Urdu ) Vowel Sounds
Aravidu—Heras: The Aravidu Dynasty of Vijayanagara. Asafiya—Asafiya State Library (now the State Central Library) Bahmanis—Sherwani: Bahmanis of the Deccan, an Objective Study. Barani—Ziyau'd-din Barani: Tarikh-i Firéz Shahi. Banerji—Banerji: History of Orissa. Basatin—Ibrahim
Bernier—Bernier: Travels in the Moghul Empire. Briggs—Briggs: History of the Rise.of the Mahomedan : in India. Burhan—‘Ali
& W.—Bilgrami and Wilmott: Historical and Descriptive Sketches of H. H. the Nizam’s Dominions. C.H.I.—Cambridge History of India. E.D.—Elliot and Dowson: History of India as told by her own Historians. E.1—¥Epigraphia Indica. E.1.A.P.S.—Epigraphia Indica, Arabic and Persian Supplement. E..M.—Epigraphia Indo-Moslemica. E. Is—Encyclopaedia of Islam. English Factories—Foster: English Factories in India. Ethe—Ethe: Catalogue of the Persian Manuscripts in the Indiz
Office Library. Fer—Muhammad Qasim Ferishta: Gulshan-i Ibrahimi, also called “Tarikh-i Ferishta.” Further Sources N. & V.—Nilkanta Sastri and Venkata Ramnayya: Further Sources of Vijayanagar History. Gribble—Gribble: History of the Deccan, I. H.A.—Mir ‘Alam (Aba Turab): Hadiqatu’l-‘Alam.
Hada’iq—Ali bin Taifar Bistami: Hada’iqu’s-Salatin. Hadiga—Nizimu'd-din Ahmad §a‘idi: Hadigatu’s Salatin. Hayat—Zor: 1.A—Indian
Hayat Mir Antiquary. Culture,
1.H.C.—Indian History Congress. Ivonow—Catalogue of the Persian Manuscripts of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. J.AS.B.—Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. J.-H.—Journal of Indian History.
J.P.H.S.—Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society.
J.N.1I—Journal of the Numismatic Society of India. Kambo—Muhammad Swialeh Kambo: ‘Amal-i Swaleh. Lahori—‘Abdu'l-Hamid
Landmarks of the Deccan.
Muntakhabu’l-Lubab. Khan: M.L—Khafi Muntakbabu’t-Tawarikh. Munt.—Badaoni:
Num. Sup—Numismatic Supplement. Q.S.—Tarikh-i Muhammad Qutb Shah. Relations—Moreland: Relations of Golconda. R.H.A.D.—Report of the Hyderabad Archaeological
British Museum. Rihlah—Ibn-i Batita: Rihlah. Salar Jung—Salar Jung Library, Haidrabad. Inscriptions S. & A.—Sewell and Aiyangar: Sewell—Sewell: A Forgotten Empire.
Sources of Vijayanagar
Catalogue of the Persian, Arabic and Sprenger—Sprenger: Hindu’sta’ny Manuscripts of the Library of the Kings of Oudh. Storey—Storey: Persian Literature a Bio-bibliographical Survey. Tab.—Nizamu'd-din Ahmad: Tabaqiat-i Akbar Shahi. Tadh.—Rafi'ud-din Shirazi: Tadhkiratu'l-Mulik. Tar. Gol—A.M. Siddiqui: Tarikh-i Golkunda.
T.Q.—Tawarikh Qutb Shahi.
Zaf—‘Abdu'llah el-Makki: Zafarah—Girdharilal
My study Mahmiid completed natural to d’oevre,
of the Bahmanis was motivated by my Life of Gawain which was published in 1942, and when I the history of the Bahmanis in 1953 it was only pass on to the study of the Qutb Shahis whose chef thrives
Andhra Pradesh and as the seventh largest city of the sub-continent. The scions of the dynasty formed a connection link between the Bahmanis and the Asaf Jahis, and they were also the promoters of that peculiar culture which is sometimes dubbed Dakhni culture, itself the result of the synthesis of cultures from practically all parts of the country as well as from overseas, which came face to face in the great tableland of which the Qutb Shahi dominions formed a significant part. Beginning as an enclave round the great natural bastion of Golkonda, Qutb Shahi dominions spread in all directions, till the time
border of northern Orissa. The whole of this vast area, which in fact exceeded modern Andhra Pradesh to some extent, has been
generality of a very large part of the population of the region spoke Telugu as their mother-tongue. Literature flourished, and most of the rulers were poets of some merit in Persian and Dakhni, while a majority of them were patrons of Telugu which had virtually become their second mother-tongue. The period saw a complete understanding between the two great sections of the populatien, Hindu and Muslim. These included migrants from the north as well as those from over the seas, mainly
Qutb Shahi progenitors. The city of Haidarabad was founded in 1000/1592-3, and it soon proved to be the sangam of practically all the cultures of India. Owing to the insistence of friends, the life histories of two Qutb
Muhammad Qutb Shih, have already been published, while numerous papers on the Qutb Shahi period have been included in some of the learned journals in India and abroad. I am
grateful to the publishers of the two monographs as well as to the editors of the Journals for having allowed me to utilise the materials contained in them. I have revised practically every word of my published papers in the light of my later studies
and have had to change large portions of the script in order
to link together the subject matter in the form of a book. An attempt has been made to transliterate non-English names
marks attached, as correctly as possible; but the exigencies of the press have sometimes come in the way. Moreover it has not been considered necessary to put diacritical marks to fami-
liar names of places like Golkonda, Bijapur, Ahmadnagar, Bidar
and Gulbarga, and to the names of Mughal Emperors, Jahangir, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb. The anglicised names of towns like Delhi,
patam etc., have likewise been left untouched. For the spelling
of name of the later Qutb Shahi capital, “Haidarabad” has been preferred to the rather outlandish “Hyderabad”, though the latter has been used when an indication had to be made regarding the place of the publication of a certain book of
the locus Notes, the end that they but may
of a library. both explanatory and referential, have been placed at of each chapter rather than at the end of a page so might not detract the attention of an ordinary reader be of help to those who wish to make a further study.
For the sake of brevity, whenever a reference has been made to a chapter of a book or an article in a Journal, generally only the first page of the chapter or the article is indicated.
It is a matter of satisfaction that I have been able to find the correct longitudes and latitudes of practically every city, town
and village of south India which has any importance in the history of the Qutb Shahis—and these number more than 250. This has been an uphill task mainly for two reasons. Firstly
years ago have been dwarfed out of all recognition today and it has been difficult to find them in the Survey of India Sheets;
and secondly, because the orthography of the names of most of these places has been twisted to an almost impossible degree in the accounts left to us by European travellers, and to a lesser extent by our Indo-Persian chronicles. The longitudes
once in the text. The history of the Bahmani Succession States has been eclipsed by the scintilating period of Mughal supremacy. If the present study, which comprises a discussion of the political, linguistic and cultural development of the region, puts into lime-light the lesson that, after all, what we call Indian Culture
is the result of the synthesis of cultures prevalent in different parts of the country, the efforts of the author in bringing out this volume would not be in vain Haidarabad
su & 31 x .