Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois: Jo Daviess County

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Union County, on the Illinois Central Railroad, HG miles from Cairo; is center of extensive fruit and vegetable-growing district, and largest shipping-point for these commodities city in


located here.


(1900), 2,018; (est. 1904), 3,000.

Elliott, jurist,

was born of New

England Quaker ancestry at SpafTord, Onondaga County, N. Y., June 10, 1827; was related on the maternal side to the Chases and Phelps (distinguished lawyers) of Vermont. His early years were spent in labor on a farm, but after a course of pre])aratory study at Cortland Academy, in 1847 he entered the sophomore cla.ss in Hamilton College at Clinton, graduating with honors in 1850. The next year lie began the study of law, at the same time giving instruction in an Academy at Clinton, where he had President Cleveland iis one of his pupils. After admission to the bar at Oswego, in 1851, he removed West, stopping for a time at Sterling, 111., but the following year located in Chicago. Here he compiled "A Digest of Illinois Reports"; in 18,58 was elected City Attorney, and. in 1803, liecame solicitor of the Galena & Chicago Union Railroiid (now the Judge Anthony Chicago & Northwestern ). served in two State Constitutional Conventions

being chairman of the Committee on Executive Department and member of the Committee on Judiciary in the latter. He was delegate to the National Republican Convention of 1880, and was the same year elected a Judge of the Superior Court of Chicago, and was re-elected in 1880, retiring in 1892, after which lie resumed the practice of his profession, being chieflj' employed as consulting counsel. Judge Anthony was one of the founders and incorporators of the Chicago Law Institute and a member of the first Board of Directors of the Chicago



on the

those of 1802 and 18C9-70





which convened at

pursuant to the suggestion tlien a weekly paper publislied at Jacksonville, for the purpose of formulating a policy in opposition to the principles of the Kansas-Nebraska bill. Twelve editors were in attendance, as follows: Charles H. Ray of "The Chicago Tribune"; V. Y. Ralston of "The Quincy Wliig"; O. P. Wliarton of "The Rock Island Advertiser"; T. J. Pickett of "The Peoria Republican"; George Schneider of "The Chicago Staats Zeitung" Cliarles Faxon of "The Princeton Post"; A. N. Ford of "The Lacon Gazette"; B. F. Shaw of "The Dixon Telegraph" E. C. Daugherty of "The Rockford Register" E. W. Blaisdell of "The Rockford Gazette"; W. J. Usrey of "The Decatur Clironicle"; and Paul Selby of "The Jacksonville Journal. " Paul Selby was chosen Chairman and AV. J. Usrey, Secretary. The convention adopted a platform and recommended tlie calling of a State convention at Bloomington on May 29, following, appointing the following State Central Committee to take tlie matter in charge: W. B. Ogden, Chicago; S. M. Church, Rockford; G. D. A. Parks, Joliet; T. J. Pickett, Peoria; E. A. Dudley, Quincy; William H. Herndon, Springfield; R. J. Oglesby, Decatur; Joseph Gillespie, Edward.sville D. L. P)iillips, Jonesboro; and Ira O. Wilkinson and Gustavus Koemer for the State-at-large. AbraDecatur, Feb.


22, 1850,

"The Morgan Journal,"





HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. Lincoln was present and participated in the consultations of the committees. All of these served except Messrs. Ogden, Oglesby and Koerner, the two former declining on account of ab-


sence from the State. Ogden was succeeded by the late Dr. John Evans, afterwards Territorial Governor of Colorado, and Oglesby by Col. Isaac (See Bloomington ConvenC. Pugh of Decatur. tion of 1S56.



Jo Daviess Central Railroad, 31 miles east-northeast from Galena. Population (1880), County, on the

a village of


626; (1890), 573; (1900), 576. APPLINGTON, (Maj.) Zeiias, soldier,


Broome Coimty,

was born

N. Y., Dec. 24, 1815; in 1837

emigrated to Ogle County, 111., where be followed successively the occupations of farmer, blacksmitli, carpenter and merchant, finally becoming the founder of the town of Polo. Here he became wealthy, but lost much of his property in the financial revulsion of 1857. In 1858 he was elected to the State Senate, and, during the session of 1859, was one of the members of that body apiJointed to investigate the "canal scrip fraud" (which see), and two years later was one of the earnest supporters of the Government in its preparation for the War of the Rebellion. The latter year lie assisted in organizing the Seventh Illinois Cavalry, of which he was commissioned Major, being some time in command at Bird's Point, and later rendering important service to General Pope at New Sladrid and Island No. 10.

He was

killed at Corinth,





while obeying an order to charge upon a baud of rebels concealed in a wood. APPORTIONMENT, a mode of distribution of the counties of the State into Districts for the election of members of the General Assembly and of Congress, which will be treated under separate heads:

Legislative. The first legislative apportionment was provided for by the Constitution of

instrument vested the Legislature with power to divide the State as follows: To 1818.


create districts for the election of Representatives not less than twenty -seven nor more than thirty-

number, until the population of the State should amount to 100,000; and to create senatorial districts, in nmuber not less than one-third nor more than one-half of the representative districts at the time of organization. The schedule appended to the first Constitution contained the first legal apportionment of Senators and Representatives. The first fifteen counties were allowed fourteen Senators and six in


Each county Representatives. twenty-nine formed a distinct legislative district for representation in the lower liouse, with the number of members for each varying from one to three; while Johnson and Franklin were combined in one Senatorial district, tlie other counties being Later apportionentitled to one Senator each. ments were made in 1821, '26, '31, '36, '41 and '47. Before an election was held under the last, however, the Constitution of 1848 went into effect, and considerable changes were effected in this regard. The number of Senators was fixed at twenty-five and of Representatives at seventyfive,

until the


entire population

should equal

members of the House were added and five additional members for each 500,000 increase in population until the whole num1,000,000,


ber of Representatives reached 100. Tliereafter the number was neither increased nor diminished, but apportioned among the several counties according to the niimber of white inhabitShould it be found necessary, a single ants. district might be formed out of two or more counties.

The Constitution of 1848 established fifty-four Representative and twenty-five Senatorial districts. By the apportionment law of 18.54, the number of the former was increased to fifty-eight, and, in 1861, to sixty-one. The number of Senatorial districts remained unchanged, but their geographical limits varied under each act, while the number of members from Representative districts varied according to pojjulation. The Constitution of 1870 provided for an immediate reapportionment (subsequent to its adoption) by tlie Governor and Secretary of State upon the basis of the United States Census of 1870. Under the apportionment thus made, as prescribed by the schedule, the State was divided into twenty-five Senatorial districts (each electing two Senators) and ninety-seven Representative districts, with an aggi'egate of 177 members varying from one to ten for the several

according to population. This arrangein force for only one Legislature that chosen in 1870. In 1872 this Legislature proceeded to reapportion the State in accordance with the principle of "minority representation," which had been submitted as an independent section of the ConstituThis tion and adopted on a separate vote. provided for apportioning the State into fifty-one districts, each being entitled to one Senator and three Representatives. The ratio of representation in the lower house was ascertained by dividdistricts,

ment continued

— ;



ing the entire population by 153 and each county to be allowed one Representative, provided its population reached tliree-fifths of the ratio counties having a [Kipulation equivalent to one and ;

were entitled to two Representatives; while each county with a larger l)opulation w;i.s entitled to one additional Kejirethree-fifths times the ratio

sentative for each time the full ratio was repeated Apportionments in the number of inhabitants. were made on this principle in 1872, '83 and "93. Jlemljers of the lower house are elected bienni-

odd and each alternate The election of Senators for

ally: Senators for four years, those in



being chosen

legislative election.


the even (numbered) districts takes place at tlie same time with that of Ciovernor and other State officers, and that for the odd districts at the inter-

mediate periods.

— For

fourteen years of the State's history, Illinois constituted but one Congressional district. The census of 1830 showing sufficient population, the Legislature of 1831 CoXGRESSlON.'VL.



(by act. approved Feb. 13) divided the State into three districts, the first election under this Law being held on the first Slonday in August, 1832. At that time Illinois comprised fifty-five counties, which were apportioned among the districts Gallatin, Pope, Johnson, as follows: First Alexander, Union, Jackson, Franklin, Perry,

Randolph, Monroe, Washington, St. Clair, CUnton, Bond, Madison, JIaci>iii)in; Second White, Ilaniilton, JelTerson, Wayne, Edwards, Wabash, Clay. JIarion, Lawrence, Fayette, Montgomery, Shelby, Vermilion, Edgar, Coles, Clark, CrawSangamon, Third Greene, Morgan, ford; Macon, Tazewell, Mcl.«an, Co9 he removed to Centralia, 111., and commenced practice there in August, 18l!2; was commissioned Major of the Eightieth Illinois ^'olunteers. being successively jiromoted to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel and Colonel, and finally brevetted Brigadier-General. For fifteen months he wjis a prisoner of war, escaping from Libby Prison only to lie recaptured and later exixised to the tire of the Union batteries at Mor-

verse (1873).

HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. ris Island, Charleston harbor. In 18G6 he was elected to the Legislature, and, in 1868, State

of nearly 70,000 votes.

Treasurer, being re-elected to the latter office under the new Constitution of 18T0, and serving

city of Beardstown,







29, 1898,



and was buried at Spring-

ing by a plurality over his Democratic opponent

BE.4RD, Tliomas, pioneer and founder of the 111., was born in Granville, Washington County, N. Y., in 1795, taken to Northeastern Ohio in 1800, and, in 1818, removed to Illinois, living for a time about Edwardsville


BATES, George C, lawyer and



born in Canandaigua, N. Y., and removed to Michigan in 1834 in 1849 was appointed United States District Attorney for that State, but removed to California in 1850, where he became a member of the celebrated "Vigilance Committee" ;

at San Francisco, and, in


delivered the


Republican speech there. From 1861 to 1871, he practiced law in Chicago; the latter year was appointed District Attorney for Utah, serving

two years, in 1878 removing to Denver, Colo., where he died, Feb. 11, 1886. Mr. Bates was an orator of much reputation, and was selected to express the thanks of the citizens of Chicago to Gen. B. J. Sweet, commandant of Camp Douglas, after the detection and defeat of the Camp Douglas conspiracy in November, 1864 a duty which he performed in an address of great eloquence.

early day he married the widow of Dr. Alexander Wolcott, for a number of years previous to 1830 Indian Agent at Chicago, his wife being a daughter of John Kinzie, the first white

At an

settler of Chicago.

BATH, a village of Mason County, on the Jacksonville branch of the Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis Railway, 8 miles south of Havana. Population (1880), 439; (1890), 384;

BATLIS, a corporate on the main


(I'JOi)), yiio.

village of Pike County,

Wabash Railway, 40 miles

and Alton.

In 1820 he went to the locality of the present city of Beardstown, and later established there the flr.st ferry across the Illinois River. In 1827, in conjimction with Enoch March of Morgan Coimty, he entered the land on

which Beardstown was platted Beardstown, in November,

in 1829.

Died, at


BEARDSTOWN, Illinois River,

a city in Cass County, on the being tlie intersecting point for

the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railways, and the northwestern terminus of the former. It is 111 miles north of St. Louis and 90 miles south of Peorip,. Thomas Beard, for whom the town was

named, settled liere about 1820 and soon afterwards established the first ferry across the Illinois River. In 1827 the land was patented by Beard and Enoch March, and the town platted, and, during the Black Hawk War of 1832, it became a principal base of supplies for the Illinois volunteers. The city has six churches and three schools (including a high school), two banks and two daily newspapers. Several branches of

manufacturing are carried on here flouring and mills, cooperage works, an axe-handle fac-


two button factories, two stave factories, one shoe factory, large machine shops, and others of less importance. The river is spanned here by tory,

was born about 1846, served as a private in the First Michigan Cavalry the last two years of the Civil War, and graduated from

a fine railroad bridge, costing some S300,000. Population (1890), 4,326; (1900), 4,837. BEAUBIEN, Jean Baptiste, the second peimaneut settler on the site of Chicago, was bo:":i at Detroit in 1780, became clerk of a fur-trader c_i Grand River, married an Ottawa woman for h r first wife, and, in 1800, had a trading-post at ML-

Hillsdale College (Mich.), in 1870, .supporting himself during his college course by work upon a farm and teaching. After serving three years as County Superintendent of Schools in La Grange County, Ind., 1874 he came to Illinois and entered upon the vocation of a teacher in the northern part of the State. He served for some time as Superintendent of Schools for the city of Sterling, afterwards becoming Principal of the Township High School at Streator, where he was, in 1898, when he received the nomination for the office of State Superintendent of Public Instruction, to which he was elected in November follow-

waukee, which he maintained until 1818. Hj visited Chicago as early as 1804, bought a cabiii there soon after the Fort Dearborn massacre ol 1813, married the daughter of Francis La Frarc-' boise, a French trader, and, in 1818, becani& agent of the American Fur Company, having' charge of trading posts at Mackinaw and elsewhere. After 1823 he occupied the building known as "the factory," just outside of Fort Dearborn, which had belonged to the Government, but removed to a farm on the Des Plaines in 1840. Out of the ownership of this building grew his claim to the right, in 1835, to enter seventy-five

line of the

soutbea.st of Quiiicy


has one newspaper.


lation (1890), 368; (1900), 340.


Alfred, Superintendent of Public





acres of land belonging to the Fort Dearborn reservation. Tlie claim was allowed by tlie Land

and sustained by the State courts, but disallowed by the Supreme Court of the United States after long litigation. An attempt was made to revive this claim in Congress in 1878, but it was reported upon adversely bj- a Senate Committee of which the late Senator Thomas F. Bayard was chairman. Mr. Beaubien was evidently a man of no little prominence in his day. He led a company of Chicago citizens to the Black Hawk War in 1832, was appointed by the Governor the first Colonel of Militia for Cook County, and, in IS.jO, was commissioned BrigJidier-General. In 18.^8 he removed to Na.sliville, Tenn., and died there, Jan. .5, IBd'.i. Mark (Beaubien), a younger brother of Gen. Beaubien, was born in Detroit in 1800, came to Chicago in 182G. and bouglit a log house of James Kinzie, in wliich he kept a hotel for some time. Later, he erected the first frame building in Chicago, which was known as tlie "Sauganasli." and in which he kept a hotel until 1834. He also eng;iged in merchandising, but was not s\iccessful, ran the first ferry across the Soutli Branch of the Chicago River, and served for many years as lighthouse keeper at Chicago. About 1834 the Indians transferred to him a reservation of 640 acres of land on the Calumet, for which, some forty years afterwards, he received a patent which had been signed by Martin Van Buren lie liaving previously been ignorant of its existence. He was married twice and had a family of twenty two children. Died, at Kankakee, 111., April 16, 1881. Madore B. (Beaubien), the second son of General Beaubien by his Indian wife, was born on Grand River in Michigan, July 15, 1809, joined liis father in Chicago, was eilucated in a Baptist Mission Sdiool where Niles, Jlich., now stands; was licensed iis a merchant in Chicago in 1831. but failed as a business man; served as Second Lieutenant of the Naperville Compjiny in tlie Black Hawk War, and later was First Lieutenant of a Chicago Company. His first wife was a white woman, from whom he separated, afterwards marrying an Indian woman. He left IlliOffice officials

nois with the Pottawatomies in 1840, resided at Council Bluffs and, later, in Kansas, being for many years tlie official interpreter of the tril>e

some time, one of six Coniiiiissioners employed by the Indians to look after their alTairs with the United States Government.— and, for

Alexander (Beaubien), son of General Beaubien by his white wife, was born in one of the buildings belonging to Fort Dearborn, Jan.


In 1840 lie accompanied his father to his farm on the Des Plaines, but returned to Chicago in 1862. and for years past has been employed on 1822.

the Cliic-ug"

jMilice force.

ItEIUt, William, Governor of Ohio,

was born

Hamilton County in that State in 1802; taught .school at North Bend, the home of William Henry Harrison, studied law and practiced at Hamilton; served as Governor of Ohio, 1846-48; later led a in

Welsh colony

to Tennes.see, but left at the outbreak of the Civil War, removing to Winnebago County, III., where he had i)urcha.sed a large body of land. Ho was a man of uncompromising loyalty and high principle; served as Examiner of Pensions by appointment of President Lincoln and, in 1868, took a prominent part in the campaign which resulted in Grant's first election to the Presidency. Died at Rockford, Oct. 23, 1873. A daughter of Governor Bebb married Hon. John P. Reynolds, for many years the Secretary of the Illinois State Agricultural Society, and, during the AVorld's Columbian Exposition, Director-in-Chief of the Illinois Board of AVorld's Fair Coniniissidiicrs.


Charles St. N., ex State Treasurer, 14, 1840, and brought to this country by his parents at the age of 11 years, the family settling in St. Clair County, III. Early in the Civil War he enlisted in the Twelfth Missouri regiment, and, at the battle of Pea Ridge, was so severely wouiuled that it was found nece.ssary to amputate one of his legs. In 1866 ho wiis elected Sheriff of St. Clair County, and, from 1872 to 1880, he served as clerk of the St. Clair Circuit Court. He also served several terms as a City Councibnan of Belleville. In 1888 he was elected State Treasurer on the Republican ticket, serving from Jan. 14. 1889, to Jan. 12, 1801. BECKWITH, Corj don, lawyer and jurist, was iKirn in Vermont in \>*'l'.i. and educated at Providence. K. I., and Wrenthain. Mass. lie read law and was admitted to the bar in St. Albans. Vt., where he practiced for two years. In 18.')3 he removed to Chicago, and, in January, 1864, was appointed by Governor Yates a Justice of the Supreme Court, to fill the five remaining months of the unexpired term of Judge Caton. who had resigned. On retiring from the iM^nch he re-

was born


Germany, June

.sumed ])rivate


BECKWITH, Hiram author,

was born




at Danville.


18, 1890.




and 1833.

Mr. Beckwith's father, Dan W. Beckwith, a pioneer settler of Esistern Illinois and one of the founders of the city of Danville, was a native of Wyalusing, Pa., where he was born about 1789,


HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. mother being, in her girlhood, Hannah York, one of the survivors of the famous Wyoming massacre of 1778. In 1817. the senior Beckwith. in company with his brotlier George, descended the Ohio River, afterwards ascending the Wabash to where Terre Haute now stands, but finally locating in what is now a part of Edgar County, 111. A year later he removed to tlie vicinity of the present site of the city of Danville. Having been employed for a time in a surveyor's corps, he finally became a surveyor himself, and, on the organization of Vermilion County, served for a time as County Surveyor by appointment of the Governor, and was also employed by the General Government in surveying lands in the eastern part of the State, some of the Indian reservations in that section of the State being In connection' with Guy W. set off by him. Smith, then Receiver of Public Moneys in the Land Office at Palestine, 111., he donated the ground on wliich the county-seat of Vermilion County was located, and it took the name of Dan"Dan." In 1830 he ville from his first name was elected Representative in the State Legislature for the District composed of Clark, Edgar, and Vermilion Counties, then including all that section of the State between Crawford County and the Kankakee River. He died in 1835. Hiram, the subject of this sketch, thus left fatherless at less than three years of age, received only such education as was afforded in the common schools of that period. Nevertheless, he began the study of law in the Danville office of Lincoln & Lamon, and was admitted to practice in 1854, about the time of reaching his majority. He continued in their office and, on the removal of Lamon to Bloomington in 1859, he succeeded to the business of the firm at Danville. Mr. Lamon who, on Mr. Lincoln's accession to the Presidency in 1861, became Marshal of the District of Columbia was distantlj" related to Mr. Beckwith by a second marriage of the mother of the latter. While engaged in the practice of his profession, Mr. Beckwith has been over thirty years a zealous collector of records and other material bearing upon the early history of Illinois and the Northwest, and is probably now the owner of one of tlie most complete and valuable his

collections of


in Illinois.




the autlior of several monographs on historic themes, including "The Winnebago War," "The Illinois and Indiana Indians," and "Historic Notes of the Northwest," published in the "Fergus Series." besides having edited an edition of "Reynolds' History of Illinois" (published by the




which he has enriched by the addition During 1895-96 he contributed

of valuable notes.

a series of valuable articles to "Tlie Chicago Tribune" on various features of early Illinois and Northwest history. In 1890 he was appointed by Governor Fifer a member of the first Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library, serving until the expiration of his term in 1894, and was re-appointed to the same position by Governor Tanner in 1897, in each case being chosen President of the Board. BEECHER, Charles A., attorney and railway solicitor, was born in Herkimer County, N. Y.



removed with his where he lived

1839, but, in 1836,

family to Licking County, Ohio, upon a farm until he reached the Having taken a course in the University at Delaware, in 1854 Illinois,

locating at Fairfield,

and began the study of law


age of 18 years. Ohio Wesleyan he removed to Wayne County,

in the office of his

admitted to pracIn 1867 he united with others in the organization of the Illinois Southeastern Railroad projected from Shawneetown to Edgevs'ood on the Illinois Central in Effingham County. This enterprise was consolidated, a year or two brother,

Beeclier, being

tice in 1855.


with the Pana, Springfield

ern, taking the




of the Springfield

Southeastern, under which name structed and opened for traffic in




was con-

1871. (This Mr. Beecher served for some time as Vice President now constitutes the Beards-


— which



& Shawneetown

Division of the Baltimore

Ohio Southwestern.)

nois Southeastern



Company having



fallen into

financial difficulty in 1873, Mr. Beecher was appointed receiver of the road, and, for a time, had control of its operation as agent for the bondholders. In 1875 the line was conveyed to the Ohio & Mississippi Railroad (now a part of the Baltimore & Ohio), when Mr. Beecher became General Counsel of the controlling corporation, so remaining until 1888. Since tliat date he has been one of the assistant counsel of the Baltimore & Ohio system. His present home is in Cincinnati, although for over a quarter of a century he has been prominently identified with one of the most important railway enterprises in Southern Illinois. In politics Mr. Beecher has always been a Republican, and was one of the few in Wayne County who voted for Fremont in 1856, and for Lincoln in 1860. He was also a member of the Republican State Central Committee of Illinois from 1860 for a period of ten or twelve years.



BKECHER, Edward, was born



clergyman ami

East Hampton, L. I, August 37, 1803 the son of Rev. Lj-nian Beeclier and the elder brother of Henry Ward gratluated at Yale College in 18i2, taught for over a year at Hartford, Conn., studied theologj', and after a year's service as tutor in Yale College, in 1826 was ordained i)astor of the Park Street Congregational Church in Boston. In 1830 he became President of Illinois College at educutor,



remaining until





resigned and returned to Boston, serving as pastor of the Salem Street Church in that city until


also acting as senior editor of

"The Congregationalist" he returned to

for four years.



Congregational Church at Galesburg. continuing until 1871, when lie removed to Brooklyn, where he resided without pastoral charge, except 188.'5b'.l. when he was pastor of the Parkville Congregational Church. While President of Illinois College, that institution was exposed to much hostile criticism on account of his outspoken opiwsition to slavery, as shown by his ])articii)ation in founding the first Illinois State AntiSlavery Society and his elocjuent denunciation of tlie murder of Klijah P. Lovejoy. Next to his brother Henry Ward, he was i)robably the mo.st powerful orator belonging to that gifted family, and. in coiuiection with his able a.s,sociates in the faculty of the Illinois College, assisted to give that institution a wide reputation as a nurserjof independent thought. Up to a short time before his death, he was a prolific writer, his proiluctions (besides editorials, reviews and contributions on a variety of subjects) including nine or ten volumes, of which the most important are: "Statement of A nti Shivery Principles and Address to the People of Illinois" (1837); 'A Plea for Illinois College"; "History of the Alton Riots" (183,8); "The Concord of Ages" (1853):


Illinois as pastor of the First

Conflict of




Conspiracy Exjiosed" (1854), besides a number of others invariably on religious or anti-slavery Died in Hnx.Ulyn. July 28. 1895. topics. BEECHER, William H., clergyman oldest son of Rev. Lyman Beeclier and brother of Edward and Henry Ward was born at East Hampton, N. Y., educated at home and at Andover. became a Congregationalist clergj-man, occupying pulpits at Newport. R. I.. Batavia, N. Y., and Cleveland, Ohio; came to Chicago in his later years, living at the home of his daugh-

ters in th.1t city.


23. 1S89.

ItEGCiS, (Rev.) Stephen R.. pioneer Methodist

Episcopal preacher, was born in Buckingham County, Va., March 30, 1801. His father, who was opposed to slavery, moved to Kentucky in 1805, but remained there only two years, when he removed to Clark County, Ind. The son enjoyed but poor eilucatioual aerland. first as Lieutenant and afterw.ards !is Adjut.int of the Eighth Iowa Cavalry, still later being upon the staff of Gen. E. M. McCook, and taking part in the ;


HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. Atlanta and Nashville campaigns. prisoner in the hands of the rebels he




of the


Chicago in

While a was placed

batteries at Charleston.

he served as Principal in various public schools, including the North Division High School. He was one of the earliest advocates of manual training, and, on the establishment of the Chicago Manual Training School in 1884, was appointed its Director position wliich he lias continued to occupy. During 1891-03 he made a trip to Europe by appointment of the Government, to investigate the school systems in European countries. BELKNAP, Hii^h Reid, ex-Member of Congress, was born in Keokuk, Iowa, Sept. 1, 18G0, being the son of W. W. Belknap, for some time Secretary of War wider President Grant. After attending the public schools of his native city, he took a course at Adams Academj-, Quinoy, Mass., and at Pliillijis Academy, Andover, wlien he entered the service of the Baltimore & Ohio rtailroad, wliere he remained twelve years in various departments, finally becoming Chief Clerk of the General Manager. In 1802 he retired from this position to become Superintendent of tlie South Side Elevated Haih'oad of Chicago, lie never held any political position until nominated (1894) as a Republican for the Fifty-fourth Congress, in the strongly Democratic Third District of Chicago. Although the returns .showed a plurality of thirty -one votes for his Democratic opponent (Lawrence McGaiin), a recount proved him elected, when, Mr. McGann having voluntarily withdrawn, Mr. Belknap was unanimously awarded the seat. In 1896 lie was re-elected from a District usually strongly Democratic, receiving a plurality of 590 votes, but was defeated bj' his Democratic opponent in 1898. retiring from Congress, March 3, 1899, when lie received an appointment as Paynia.ster in the Army from President ilcKinley, with the rank of Major. BELL, Robert, lawj-er, was born in Lawrence County, 111., in 1829, educated at Mount Cariiiel and Indiana State University at Bloomington, graduating from the law department of the latter in 18.5.5; while yet in his minority edited "Tlie Mount Carmel Register," during 18ol.53 becoming joint owner and editor of the same with his brother, Victor D. Bell. After graduto


ation he opened an office at Fairfield, Wayne County, but, in 1857, returned to Mount Carmel and from 1864 was the partner of Judge E. B. Green, until the appointment of the latter Chief

Oklahoma by President Harrison in In 1869 Mr. Bell was appointed County

Justice of 1890.


Judge of Lawrence Count}', being elected to the Sime office in 1894. He was also President of






was merged


in 18G7







into the Cairo

later became President of the St. Mt. Carmel Railroad, now a part of the Louisville, Evansville & St. Louis line, and secured the construction of the division from Princeton, Ind., to Albion, III. In 1876 he visited California as Special Agent of the Treasury ;

Department to investigate alleged frauds in the Revenue Districts on the Pacific Coast in 1878 was an unsuccessful candidate for Congress on the Republican ticket in the strong Democratic Nineteenth District; was appointed, the same ;

year, a


of the Republican State Central

Committee for the State-at- large, and, in 1881, officiated by appointment of President Garfield, as Commissioner to examine a section of the


Pacific Railroad in New Mexico. a gifted stump-speaker and is known in the southeastern part of the State as the "Silver-tongued Orator of the Wabash." BELLEVILLE, the county-seat of St. Clair County, a city and railroad center, 14 miles south


Judge Bell



It is one of the oldest having been selected as the county-seat in 1814 and platted in 1815. It lies in tlie center of a rich agricultural and coal-bearing district and contains numerous factories of various de.scriptions, ini;luding flouring mills, a nail mill, glass woiks and slioe factories. It has five newspaper establishments, two being German, which Lssue daily editions. Its commercial and educational facilities aie exceptionally good.

of east




in the State,

population is largely of German Population (1890), 15,361; (1900), 17,484. Its




(See Louisville. Ei-(insrille d- St.

Louis (Coiisolidi(fcd) liailroad.)

BELLEVILLE & CARONDELET RAILROAD, a short line of road extending from Belleville to East Carondelet, 111., 17.3 miles. It was chartered 20, 1881, and leased to the St. Louis, Alton Terre Haute Railroad Compaii}', June 1, 1883. The annual rental is .SSCOOO, a sum equivalent to the interest on the bonded debt. The cajiital stock (1895) is §500,000 and the bonded debt S485,000. In addition to these sums the floating debt swells the entire capitalizatiiyii to §995,054 or §57,317 pev mile.





a road 50.4 miles in length running from Belleville to Duquoin, 111. It was chartered Feli. 22, 1861, and completed Oct. 31, 1871. On July 1,




1880, it was leased to the St Louis, Alton & Terra Haute Railroad Company for 4>i() years, and has since been operated by that corporation in connection with its lielleville branch, from East At Eldorado the road St. Louis to Belleville. intersects the Cairo & Vincennes Railroad and the Shawneetown branch of the St. Louis & Southeastern Railroad, operated by the Louisville & Npshville Railroad Company. Its capital stock (189.5) is §1,000,000 and its bonded debt S.^.^O.OOO.


coriM.rate office



Louis. Altiin





Ti'rrc llaiitv liiiilrinid.




RAILKO.VI), a road (laid with steel rails) running from Belleville to Duquoin, 111., 56.4 miles It was chartered Feb. 15, 1857, and in length. completed Dec. 15, 1873. At Dui|Uoin it connects with the Illinois Central and forms a short line between St. Louis and Cairo. Oct. 1. 1H60. it was leased to the St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute stock 000.




is Sl,fi92.()00

and the bonded debt


The corporate

office is at Belleville.



999 years.


a village of Wabash County, on the Louisville, Evansville & St. Louis Railway, 9 miles west of Mount Carmel. Population (1880), 350; (1890), 487; (1900). 624.

BELT I{.\ILWAY COMPANY OF CHICAGO, cor()cinUi'TANO, Lorenzo, was born at Mannheim, in the Grand Ducliy of Baden, Germany, Nov. 14, 1813; was educated at the Universities of Heidelberg and Freiburg, receiving the degree of LL. D., and attaining liigh honors, both profesHe was successively a sional and political. member of the Baden Chamber of Deputies and of tlie Frankfort Parliament, and always a leader of the revolutionist party. In 1849 he became tlie

President of the Provisional Republican Government of Baden, but was, before long, forced He first to find an asylum in the United States. settled in Kalamazoo County, Mich., as a farmer, but, in 18.j9, removed to Chicago, where he was

admitted to the

Illinois bar, but

soon entered the

of journalism, becoming editor and part proprietor of "The Illinois Staats Zeitung." He held various public offices, being elected to the field

Legislature in 1863, serving five years as President of the Chicago Board of Education, was a Republican Presidential Elector in 18C8, and United States Consul at Dresden in 1872 (a genhaving been granted to the eral amnesty revolution of 1848), and Representative in Congress from 1877 to 1879. Died, in Chicago, Sept. 17, 1891. BRIlMiEPORT, a town of Lawrence County, participants in the

on the Baltimore



Southwestern Railroad, It lias a bank

14 miles west of Vincennes, Ind.

and one weekly paper. Population (1900), 487. BRID(iEP()RT, a former suburb (now a part of the city) of Cliicago. located at the junction of the Illinois & Michigan Canal with the South

Branch of the Chicago River.





center of industry.

the large slaughtering and packing-

BRIli«EPORT & SOUTH CHIC.VGO RAILAV.VY. (See Chicago d- yorthern Pacific Railroad.)

BRIGHTON, a village of Macoupin County, at the intersection of the Chicago & Alton and theRock Island and St. Louis branch of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railways; coal is mined here; luis a newspaper. Population (1880), 691; (1890), 697; (1900),




town of Peoria County, on

Buda and Kushville branch


of the Cliicago, Bur-

& Quincy Railway, 38 miles south of Buda; coalmining and farming are the chief indu.stries. It has one weekly paper and a bank. lington

Population (1880),


BRISTOL, Frank in Orleans County, to Kankakee,


(1890). 719; (1900), 077.


Milton, clergj'man, was N.



in boyhood,





and having


his father at 12 years of age, spent the following

years in various manual occupations until about nineteen years of age, when, having been converted, he determined to devote his life to the ministry. Tlirough the aid of a benevolent lady, he was enabled to get two years' (1870-72) instruction at the Northwestern University, at Evanston, afterwards supixirting himself by preaching at various points, meanwhile continuing hisstudies at the University until 1877. After completing his course he served as pastor of some of the most prominent Methodist churches in Chicago, his last charge in the State being at Evanston. In 1897 he was transferred to Washington City, becoming pastor of the Metropolitan M. E. Churcli, attended by President McKinley Dr. Bristol is an author of some repute and an orator of recognized ability. BRO.VIUVEl.L, Norman M., lawyer, was born in Morgan County, 111., .\ugust 1, 182."); was educated in the common schools and at McKendree and Illinois Colleges, but compelled by failing liealth to leave college without graduating; spent some time in the book business, then began the study of medicine with a view to benefiting his own health, but finally abandoned this and, about 18.50, commenced the study of law in the office of Lincoln & Herndon at Si)ringfield. Having been admitted to the bjir, he jiracticed for a time at Pekin, but, in 18.54. returned to Springfield, where he spent the remainder of his life. In 1860

he was elected as a Democrat to the House of Representatives from Sangamon County, serving in tlie Twenty-second General As.sembly. Other offices held by him included those of County Judge (1863-65) and Mayor of the city of Spring-


HISTOKICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. was twice elected and again in 1869). Judge Broadwell was one of the most genial of men, popular, highminded and honorable in all his dealings. Died, field,

to wliich last position he


Flavel, educator,

was born

Oneida County, New York, Dec. 3, 1801 graduated at Hamilton College, 1828; studied three years in the theological department of Yale College was ordained to the Presbyterian minin


and came to Illinois in the service the American Home Missionary Society. After preaching at CoUinsville, Belleville and other points, Mr. Brooks, who was a member of the celebrated "Yale Band," in 1837 assumed the principalship of a Teachers' Seminary at Waverly, Morgan County, but three j-ears later removed to Springfield, where he established an academy for Although finally compelled to both sexes. abandon this, he continued teaching with some interruptions to within a few j-ears of his death, which occurred in 1886. He was one of the Trustees of Illinois College from its foundation up to istry in 1831,


his death.

BROSS, William, journalist, was born in Sussex County, N. J., Nov. 14, 1813, and graduated with honors from Williams College in 1838, having previously developed his phj'sical strength by much hard work upon the Delaware and Hudson Canal, and in the lumbering trade. For five j'ears after graduating he was a teacher, and settled in Chicago in 1848. in bookselling, but later

Thsre he




in journalism.

was "Tlie Prairie Herald," a which was discontinued after two J'ears. In 18.52, in connection with John L. Scripps, he founded "The Democratic Press," which was consolidated with '"The Tribune" in His


Died, in Chicago, Jan. 27,


BROWN, Henry, lawyer and historian, was born at Hebron, Tolland County, Conn., May 13, 1789 the son of a commissary in the army of General Greene of Revolutionary fame; graduated at Yale College, and. when of age, removed to New York, later studying law at Albany, Canandaigua and Batavia, and being admitted to the bar about 1813, when he settled down in practice at Cooperstown; in 1816 was appointed Judge of Herkimer County, remaining on the bench until about 1824. He then resumed practice at Cooperstown, continuing until 1836, when he removed to Chicago. The following year he was elected a Justice of the Peace, serving two years, and, in 1842, became Pro.secuting Attorney of Cook Countj'. During this period he was engaged in writing a "History of Illinois," which was published in New York in 1844 This was regarded at the time as the most voluminous and

in Springfield, Feb. 28, 1893.


and "Tom Quick."



religious paper,

Mr. Bross retaining his connection with the new concern. He was always an ardent freesoiler, and a firm believer in the great future of Chicago and the Northwest. He was an enthusiastic Republican, and, in 1856 and 1860, served as an eff'ective campaign orator. In 1864 he was the successful nominee of his party for Lieutenant-Governor. This was his onl}- official position outside of a membership in the Chicago Common Council in 18.5.5. As a presiding officer, he was dignified yet affable, and his impartiality was shown by the fact that no appeals were taken from his decisions. After quitting public life he 18.58,

devoted much time to literary pursuits, delivering lectures in various parts of the country. Among his best known works are a brief "History of Chicago," "History of Camp Douglas,"

best digested work on Illinois histoiy that had as yet been published. In 1846, on assuming the Presidency of the Chicago Lyceiun, he delivered an inaugural entitled "Chicago, Present and Future," which is still jireserved as a striking prediction of Chicago's future greatness. Originally a Democrat, he Ijecame a Freesoiler in 1848.

Died of cholera, in Chicago,

BROWN, James


16, 1849.

was born in County, N. H., Sept. 1, 1833 his father being a member of the Legislature and Selectman for Iiis town. The son was educated at Gilmanton Academy, after which he studied medicine for a time, but did not graduate. In 1857 he removed West, first settling at Dunleith, Jo Daviess County, 111., where he Gilmanton,

B., journalist,


became Principal of the public schools; in 1861 was elected County Superintendent of Schools for Jo Daviess County, removing to Galena two years later and assuming the editorsliip of "The Gazette" of that city. Sir. Bi-own also serv-ed as Postmaster of Galena for several years. Died, Feb.

13, 1896.

BROWN, James man, was born 1806;



N., agriculturist



in Fayette County, Ky., Oct.





in 1833,

locating at Island Grove, where he engaged extensively in farming and stock-raising. lie served as Representative in the General Assem-

and '52, and in the last was instrumental in securing the incorporation of the Illinois State Agricultural Society, of which he was chosen the first President, being re-elected in 1854. He was one of the most enterprising growblies of 1840, '42, '46,



era of blooded cattle in the State


and did much to


lawyer and jurist, was born Cumberland, England, his parents emigrating to this country when he was eight years old, and settling in "Western NewYork. He was admitted to the bar at Rochester, in Octoljer, 1845, and at once removed to RockIn 18.52 ford, 111., where he commenced practice. he was elected State's Attorney for the Fourteenth Judicial Circuit, and, in 1857, was chosen Mayor of Rockford. In 1870 he was elected to the bench of the Circuit Court as successor to Judge Sheldon, later was promoted to the Supreme Court, and was reelected successively in Died, at Rockford, Jan. 1.5, 1873, in '79 and '85.



and a population (1890) of 11,951; was cut from Schuyler and made a separate county in May, 1839, being named in honor of Gen. Jacob Brown. Among the pioneer settlers were the Vandeventers and Hambaughs, Jolm and David 'William McDaniel, Jeremiah Walker, Six, Willis O'Neil, Harry Lester, John Ausmus and Robert H. Curry. The county-seat is Mount Sterling, a town of no little attractiveness. Other prosperous villages are Mound Station and


BROWN, William H., lawyer and financier, was born in Connecticut, Dec. 20, 1796; spent his boyhood at Auburn, N. Y., studied law, and, in 1818, came to Illinois with Samuel D. Lockwood (afterwards a Justice of the State Supreme Court), descending the Ohio River to Shawneetown in a flat-boat. Mr. Brown visited Kaskiis-

and was soon after ai)pointed Clerk of the United States Di.strict Court by Judge Natlianiel kia

Pope, removing, in 1820, to Vandulia, tlie new State capital, where he remained until 1835. He then removed to Chicago to accept the ]X)sition of

Cashier of the Chicago branch of the State


of Illinois, wliich he continued to





served the city as School Agent for years (t!^40-.53), managing the city's school fund through a critical period with great discretion and success. He was one of the grouj) of early patriots who successfully resisted the attempt to plant slavery in Illinois in 1823-24; was also one of the projectors of tlie Chicago & Galena Union Railroad, was President of the Chicago Historical Society for seven years and connected with many other local enterprises. He W!us an ardent personal friend of President Lincoln and served as Representative in the



Twenty-second Assembly (1860-(52). General While making a tour of Europe he died of paralysis at Amsterdam, June 17, 1867.

the western


The chief occupation of the people is farming, although there is some manufai'turing of lumber and a few potteries along the Illinois Population (1900). 11,5.57. River. Ripley.

1819, in




16, 186S.



part of the State, with an area of 300 square

introduce them in Central Illinois; was also an earnest and influential advocate of scientific education for the agricultural classes and an efficient colaborer with Prof. J. B. Turner, of Jacksonville, in securing the enactment by Congress, in 1862, of the law granting lands for the endowment of Industrial Colleges, out of which grew the Illinois State University and instituDied, tions of like character in other States.


Francis Fisher, editor and author, South Halifax, Vt.. Dec. 1, 1843, the son of William Goldsmith Browne, who was a teacher, editor and author of the song "A Hundred Years to Come." In childhood he wasbrought by his parents to Western Massachusetts, where he attended the public schools and learned the printing trade in his father's newspaper ofl^ce at Cliicopee, Mass. Leaving school in 18C2, he enlisted in the Forty-sixth Regiment Mas.sachusetts Vohmteers, in which he served one year, chiefly in North Carolina and in the Army of the Potomac. On the discharge of his regiment he engaged in the study of law at Rochester, N. Y., entering the law department of the University of Michigan in 186G, but abandoning

was Iwrn



his intenton of


the legal profession,

removed to Chicago in 1807, where he engaged in journalistic and literary pursuits. Between 1869 and "74 he wius editor of "Tlie Lakeside Monthly," wlien he became literary editor of "The Alliance," but, in 1880, he established and iissunjed the editorsliip of "The Dial," a purelj' literary publication which hiis gained a high reputation, and of which he hiis remained in control continuously ever since, meanwhile serving as the literary adviser, for many years, of the well-known i>ublishing house of McCIurg & Co. Besides his journalistic work, 5Ir.




and literary anthologies a number of short lyrics, and is the author of "The Everyday Life of Abraham Lincoln" (1886), and a volume of poems entitled, "Volunteer Grain" He also compiled and edited "Golden (1893). Poems by British and American Authors" (1881); "The Golden Treasury of Poetry and Prose'* (1886), and the "Laurel Crowned"series of standard )K>etry (1891-92). Mr. Browne wjis Chairman of the Committee of the Congress of Authors in to the magazines

HISTOKICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. the World's Congress Auxiliary held in connection witli The Columbian Exposition in 1893.

BROWNE, Thomas C, early jurist, was born


law there and, coming to Shawneetown in 1812, served in the lower branch of the Second Territorial Legislature (181-t-lGj Kentuckj', studied

and in the Council (1816-18), being the first lawyer to enter that body. In 1815 he was appointed Prosecuting Attorney and, on the admission of Illinois as a State, was promoted to the Supreme bench, being re-elected by joint ballot of the Legislature



and serving continuously the Supreme Court

until the reorganization of

under the Constitution of 1848, a period of over Judge Browne's judicial character and abilities have been differently estimated. thirty years.

Though lacking

in industry as a student, he


represented by the late Judge John D. Caton, who knew him personally, as a close thinker and a good judge of men. While seldom, if ever, accustomed to argue questions in the conference room or write out his opinions, he had a capacity for expressing himself in short, pungent sentences, which indicated that he was a man of considerable ability of his own.



liad clear and distinct views attempt was made to impeacli

before the Legislature of 1843 "for want of capacity to discharge the duties of his office," but it failed by an almost unanimous vote. He was a Whig in jjolitics, but had some strong supporters among Democrats. In 1823 Judge Browne was one of the four candidates for Governor in the final returns standing third on the list and, by dividing the vote of the advocates of a pro-slavery clause in the State Constitution, contributing to the election of Governor Coles and the defeat of the pro-slavery part_v. (See Coles, Edward, and Slarenj and Slave Latcs.) In the latter part of


term Judge Browne resided at Galena, but, in 1853, removed with his son-in-law, ex-Congressman Joseph P. Hoge, to San Francisco, Cal., where he died a few years later his official

probably about 1856 or



Orvllle Hickman, lawyer. United

was born After receiving a classical education at Augusta in his native State, he removed to Quincy, 111., and was admitted to the bar in 1831. In 1833 he served in the Black Hawk War, and from 1836 to 1843, was a member of the Legislature, serving in both houses. A personal friend and political adherent of Abraham Lincoln, he aided in the organization of the Republican party at the memorable States Senator and Attorney-General, in Harrison County, Ky.


in 1810.


Bloomington Convention of 1856. As a delegate to the Cliicago Convention in 1860, he aided in securing Mr. Lincoln's nomination, and was a conspicuous supporter of the Government in the Civil War. In 1861 he was appointed by Governor Yates United States Senator to fill Senator Douglas' unexpired term, serving until 1803. In 1866 he became Secretary of the Interior by appointment of President Johnson, also for a time discharging the duties of Attorney-General. Returning to Illinois, he was elected a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1869-70, which was his last participation in public affairs, his time thereafter being devoted to his profession. He died at his home in Quincy, 111., August 10, 1881.


Silas Lillard, legislator



born in Culpepper County, Va., Nov 4, 1832; was left an orphan at an earlj' age, and came west in 1840, living for a time with a brother near Troy, Mo. The following year he came to Marion County, 111., where he attended school and worked on a farm; in 1845 entered McKendree College, graduating in 1849, and two years later was admitted to the bar, supporting liimself meanwhile by teaching. He settled at Salem, III., and, in 1852, was elected as a Democrat to the State Senate, in which body he served for eight years, being re-elected in 1856. In 1861 he was elected to the bench of the Second Judicial Circuit, and again chosen in 1807, his second term expiring in 1873. While serving as Judge, he was also elected a Delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1869-70. He was an unsuccessful candidate for Congress on the Greeley ticket in 1873. Died at Salem, Marcli 30, 1880.— William Jennings (Bryan), son of the preceding, vpas born at Salem, 111., March 19, 1860. Tlie early of young Bryan was spent on his father's farm, but at the age of ten years he began to attend the public school in town later spent two years in Whipple Academy, ^the preparatory life


department of Illinois College at Jacksonville, and, in 1881, graduated from the college proper as the valedictorian of his class. Then he devoted

two years

to the study of law in the Union Law School at Chicago, meanwhile acting as clerk and studying in the law office of ex-Senator Lyman Tnmibull. Having graduated in law in 1883, he soon entered upon the practice of his profession at Jacksonville as the partner of Judge E. P. Kirby, a well-known lawyer and prominent Republican of that city. Four years later (1887) found him a citizen of Lincoln, Neb., which has since been his home. He took a prominent part



stumping the State Democratic nominees in 1888 and '89, and in 1890 received tlie Democratic nomination for Congress in a district wliich liad been regarded as strongly Republican, and was elected by a in the politics of Nebraska, for tlie

World's Columbian Ex|X)sition in Chicago in 1890, later becoming Vice-President of the Board of Directors and making a visit to Euroi)e in the After the war Mr. Bryan interest of the Fair.

age of twenty-one, settlestles, in behalf of the prophet of the Lord." On another occasion, being asked if he was opposed to the war with Me.xico, he "I opposed one war" meaning his rei)lied.


laer of those who afterwards became prominent citizens Illinois.

of Central In 1836, in conjmiction witli two part-

ners, he laid out the

town of Mount Pulaski, the Logan County, where he

original county-seat of

continued to live for the remainder of his life, and where, during its later period, he served as Postmjister .some fifteen years. He also served as Recorder of Logan County four years. Died, April 1, 1896, in the 100th year of his age. t'ARBONDALE, a city in Jackson County, founded in lf-.")2, 57 miles north of Cairo, and 91 Three lines of railway miles from St. Louis. center here. The cliief indu.stries are coal-mining, farming, stock-raising, fruit-growing and lumbering. It luus two preserving plants, eight

churches, two weekly papers, and four public and is the seat of the Southern Illinois Normal University. Poi).(1890), 2,382 (1900), 3,318.





line 17'+'

miles in lengtli. ex-

tending from Marion to Carbondale. .and ojierated by the St. Ix>uis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad Coni])any, as lessee. It was incorporated as the

Murphysboro & Shawneetown Railroad in 1867; its name changed in 1869 to The Carbondale &



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. Shawneetown, was opened for business, Dec. 31, 18T1, and leased in 1886 for 980 years to the St. Louis Southern, through which it passed into the hands of the St. Louis. Alton & Terre Haute Railroad, and by lease from the latter, in 189G, became apart of the Illinois Central System (which see). CAREY, William, lawyer, was born in the town of Turner. Maine, Dec. 29, 1836 studied law with General Fessenden and at Yale Law School, was admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court of Maine in 1856, the Supreme Court of Illinois in 1857, and the Supreme Court of the United States, on motion of Hon. Lyman Trumbull, in 1873. Judge Carey was a member of the State Constitutional Convention of 1869-70 from Jo Daviess Count}', and the choice of the Republicans in that body for temporary presiding officer; was elected to the next General Assembly (the Twenty -seventh), serving as Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee through its four sessions; from 1873 to 1876 was United States District Attorney for Utah, still later occupying various offices at Deadwood, Dakota, and in Reno County, Kan. The first office held by Judge Carey in Illinois (that of Superintendent of Schools for the city of Galena) was conferred iipon him through the influence of John A. Raw;

afterwards General Grant's chief-of-staff during the war, and later Secretary of War altliough at the time Mr. Rawlins and he were politically opposed. Mr. Carey's present residence is in Chicago. CARLIN, Thomas, former Governor, was born of Irish ance.stry in Fayette County, Ky., July lins,

18, 1789;

emigi-ated to Illinois in 1811,

and served

War of 1813, and as a Captain Black Hawk War. While not highly eduhe was a man of strong common sense,

as a private in the in the


high moral standard, great firmness of character and unfailing courage. In 1818 he settled in Greene Comity, of which he was the first Sheriff was twice elected State Senator, and was Register of the Land Office at Quincy, when he was elected Governor on the Democratic ticket in 1838. An uncompromising partisan, he never-


the respect and good-will of Died at his home in his political opponents. Carrollton, Feb. 14, 1852. theless

CARLIN, William Passmore, soldier, nephew of Gov. Thomas Carlin, was born at Rich Woods, Greene County, 111., Nov. 24, 1839. At the age of 21 he graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point, and, in 1855, was attached to the Sixth United States Infantry as Lieutenant. After several years spent in Indian


fighting, he was ordered to California, where he was promoted to a captaincy and assigned to recruiting duty. On August 15, 1861, he was

commissioned Colonel of the Thirty-eighth IlliH is record during the war was an exceptionally brilliant one. He defeated Gen. nois Volunteers. Jeff.



Thompson at Fredericktown, Mo., Oct. 21, commanded the District of Southeast Mis-

souri for eighteen months; led a brigade under

Slocum in the Arkansas campaign served with marked distinction in Kentucky and Mississippi took a prominent part in the battle of Stone River, was engaged in the Tullahoma campaign, at Chattanooga, Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, and, on Feb. 8, 1864, was commissioned Major in the Sixteenth Infantry. He also ;

took part in the Georgia campaign, aiding in the capture of Atlanta, and marching with Sherman to the sea. For gallant service in the assault at Jonesboro, Tenn., Sept. 1, 1864, he was made Colonel in the regular army, and, on March 13, 1865, was brevetted Brigadier-General for meritorious service at Benton ville, N. C, and MajorGeneral for services during the war. Colonel Carlin was retired with the rank of BrigadierGeneral in 1893. His home is at Carrollton. CARLINVILLE, the count3'-seat of Macoupin County; a city and railroad junction, 57 miles northeast of St. Louis, and 38 miles southwest of Springfield. Blackburn University (which see)

Three coal mines are operated, is located here. and there are brick works, tile woiks, and one newspaper. The city has gas and electric light plants and water-works. Population (1880), 3,117, (,1890), 3,293; (1900), 3,502.


the countj-seat of Clinton County,

48 miles east of St. Louis, located on the Kaskaskia River and the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railroad. The town has churches, parochial and public schools, water-works, lighting plant, and


has a flourishing seminary for weekly papers, and a public library connected with the high school. Popula-



ladies, three

tion (1890), 1,784; (1900), 1,874. CARMI, the county -seat of White County,


the Little Wabash River, 134 miles east of St. Louis and 38 west of Evansville, Ind. The surrounding country is fertile, yielding both cereals and fruit. Flouring mills and lumber manufacturing, including the making of staves, are the chief industries, though the city has brick and tile works, a plow factory and foundry. Population (1880), 2,512; (1890), 2,785; (1900), 2,939. CARPENTER, Milton, legislator and State



entered upon public

life in Illinois





Representative in the Ninth Greneral Assembly (1834) from Hamilton County, serving by successive re-elections in the Tenth, Eleventh anj Twelfth. While a member of the latter (1841) he was elected by the Legislature to the ofiice of State Treasurer, retaining this position until the adoption of the Constitution of 1848, when he was chosen his own successor by popular vote, but died a few days after the election in August, 1848. He was buried in what is now known as a burying the "Old Hutchinson Cemetery" ground in the west part of the city of Springlield, long since abandoned where his remains still lie (1897) in a grave unmarked by a tombstone. CARPENTER, Philo, pioneer and early druggist, was born of Puritan and Revolutionary ancestry in the town of Savoy, Mass., Feb. 27, 1805 engaged as a druggist's clerk at Troy, N. Y. in 1828, and came to Chicago in 1832, where he established himself in tlie drug business, wliioh was later extended into otlier lines. Soon after his arrival, he began investing in lands, wliich have since become immensely valuable. Mr. Carpenter was associated with the late Rev. Jeremiaii Porter in the organization of tlie First Presbyterian Church of Chicago, but, in 1851, withdrew on account of di.s.TERSVILLE,





County and manufacturing center, on Lake Geneva branch of theChicago& Northwestern Railroad. 6 miles north of East Elgin and about 48 miles from Chicago. Pop. (1890), 7.54 (1900). 1.002. CARR, Clark E., lawyer, politician and diplomat, was born at Boston, Erie County, N. Y., May 20, 1830; at 13 years of age accompanied his fatlier's family to Galesburg, 111., where he spent ;

Knox College. In 18.')7 lie graduated from the Albany Law School, but on returning to Illinois, soon embarked in politics, his aflSliations being uniformlj- with the Republican party. His first office was that of Postmaster at Galesburg, to which he was apjiointed by Presi dent Lincoln in 1801 and whicli lie held for twenty-four years. He wjis a tried and valued assistant of Governor Yates during the War of the Rebellion, serving on the staff of the latter with the rank of Colonel. He was a delegate to the National Convention of his party at Baltimore in 1864, which renominated Lincoln, and took an active part in the campaigns of that year, as well as those of 1808 and 1872. In 18G9 he purcliased "The Galesburg Republican," which he edited and published for two years. In 1880 he wius an unsuccessful candidate for the Republican nomination for Governor; in 1884 was a delegate to tlie Rejiublican National Convention, from the Stateat-large, and, in 1887, a candidate for the caucus nomination for United States Senator, which was given to Charles B. Farwell. In 1888 he was defeated in the Republiciin State Convention as candidate for Governor by Joseph Fifer. In 1S89 President Harrison apix)inted liim Minister to Denmark, which jxjst he filled with marked aliility and credit to the country until his resignation was accepted by President Cleveland, when he returned to his former home at GalesWhile in Denmark lie did much to burg. promote American trade with that country, especially in the introduction of American corn as an article of food, which has led to a large incresise in the annual eximrtation of this commodity to Scandinavian markets. CARR. Eugene A., .soldier, was born in Erie County. N. V.. May 20. 1830, and graduated at West Point in ISHO, entering the Jlounted Rifles. L'ntil 1801 he was stationed in the Far West, and engaged in Indian fighting, earning a First Lieuseveral years at


HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. tenancy through his gallantry. In 1861 he entered upon active service under General Lyon, in Southwest Missouri, taking part in the engagements of Dug Springs and Wilson's Creek, winning the brevet of Lieutenant-Colonel. In September, 18G1, he was commissioned Colonel of the Third Illinois Cavalry. He served as acting Brigadier-General in Fremont's hundred-day expedition, for a time commanding the Fourth Division of the Army of the Southwest. On the second day at Pea Ridge, although three times woxmded, he remained on the field seven hours, and materially aided in securing a victory, for his bravery being made Brigadier-General of Volunteers. In the summer of 1803 he was promoted to the rank of Major in the Regular Army. During the Vicksburg campaign he commanded a division, leading the attack at Magnolia Church, at Port Gibson, and at Big Black River, and winning a brevet Lieutenant-Colonelcy in the United States Army. He also distinguished himself for a first and second assault upon taking Vicksburg, and, in the autumn of 1862, commanded the left wing of the Sixteenth Corps at Corinth. In December of that year lie was transferred to the Department of Arkansas, where he gained new laurels, being brevetted Brigadier-General for gallantry at Little Rock, and Major-General for services during the war. After the close of the Civil War, he was stationed chiefly in the West, where he rendered good servIn 1894 he was ice in the Indian campaigns. retired with the rank of Brigadier-General, and has since resided in New York. CARRIEL, Henry F., M.D., alienist, was born ^t Charlestown, N. H., and educated at Marlow Academy, N. H., and Wesleyan Seminary, Vt. graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York City, in 1837, and immediately accepted the position of Assistant Physician in the New Jersey State Lunatic Asylum, remaining until 1870. Meanwhile, however, he visited a large number of the leading hospitals and asylmus of Europe. In 1870, Dr. Carriel received the appointment of Superintendent of the Illinois Central Hospital for the Insane at Jacksonville, a position which he continued to fill until 1893, when he voluntarily tendered to Oovernor Altgeld his resignation, to take effect July 1 of that year.— Mrs. Mary Turner (Carriel), wife of Dr. Carriel, and a daughter of Prof. ;

Jonathan B. Turner of Jacksonville, was elected a Trustee of the University of Illinois on the Republican ticket in 1896, receiving a plurality of 148,039 •over Julia Holmes Smith, her highest competitor.



originally a part of Jo

Davi&ss County, but set apart and organized in 1839, named for Charles Carroll of Carrollton. The first settlements were in and around Savanna. Cherry Grove and Arnold's Grove. The first

County Commissioners were Messrs. L. H. Bor den. Garner IMoffett and S. M. Jersey; who held their first court at Savanna, April 13, 1839. In 1843 the county seat was changed from Savanna


Carroll, where it yet remains. Townwere first organized in 1850, and the development of the county has steadily pro



gressed since that date. The surface of the land is rolling, and at certain points decidedly picturesque. Tlie land is generally good for farming. It is well timbered, particularly along the Mississippi. Area of the county, 440 square miles; population, 18,963. Mount Carroll is a pleasant, prosperous, wide-awake town, of about 2,000 inhabitants, and noted for its excellent public and private schools.

CARROLLTO?f, the county-seat of Greene County, situated on the west branch of the Chicago & Alton and the Quincy, Carrollton & St. Louis Railroads, 33 miles north-northwest of Alton, and 34 miles south by west from Jacksonville. The town has a foundry, carriage and wagon factory, two machine shops, two flour two banks, six churches, a high school, and two weeklj' newspapers. Population (1890), mills,

2,258; (1900), 3,355.

CARTER, Joseph

N., Justice of the Supreme was born in Hardin County, Ky., March 1843; came to Illinois in boyhood, and, after

Court, 13,

attending school at Tuscola four years, engaged in teaching until 1863, when he entered Illinois College, graduating in 1866; in 1868 graduated from tlie Law Department of the University of Michigan, the next year establishing himself in practice at Quincy, where he has since resided He was a member of the Thirty-first and Tliirty.second General Assemblies (1878-82), and, in June, 1894, was elected to the seat on the Supreme Pencil, wliich lie now occupies

CARTER, Thomas Henry, United

States Senaborn in Scioto County, Ohio, Oct, 30, 1854; in his fifth year was brought to Illinois, his father locating at Pana, where he was educated in the public schools was employed in farming, railroading and teaching several years, then studied law and was admitted to the bar, and, in 1883, removed to Helena. Jlont., where he engaged in practice; was elected, as a Republican the last Territorial Delegate to Congress from Idaho and the first Representative from the new




82 State:

was Commissioner of the General Land 189.1, was elected to tlie

Office (1891-92), and, iu

United States Senate for the term ending in 1901. lie was chosen Chairman of the Republican National Committee, serving until the St. Louis Convention of 1896. CARTERVILLE, a city in Williamson County, Coal min10 miles by rail northwest of Marion. ing is the principal industry. It has a bank, five churches, a public school, and a weekly newsPopulation (IHHO), 092; (1890). 969; (1900), paper. In 1S92

1,749; (1904, est), 2,000. C.VRTHAOE, a city

ami the county-seat of Keokuk, Iowa, on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincyand the Wa-

Hancock County,

13 miles east of

lias water-works, electric h'ghts. three banks, four trust companies, four weekly and two semi-weekly papers, and is the seat of a Lutheran College. Pop. (1890), 1.6.54; (1900), 2,104. CARTHAGE COLLEOE, at Carthage. Hancock lias a teaching County, incorporated in 1871

bash Railroads;


faculty of twelve members, and reports l.")M pupils sixty-eight men and ninet)' women for 1.S97-98.

has a library of .'5,000 vohimes and endowment Instruction is given in the classical, of $32,000. scientific, musical, fine arts and business departments, as well as in preparatory studies. In 1898 this institution rejiorted a property valuation of It

$41,000, of




in real estate.

CARTHAGE k HIHLIXJTOX RAILROAD. (See Cliicayo. Burlinijtun d- Quincy Railroad.) CARTWRKiHT, James Henry, Justice of the

Supreme Court, was born

;it Maijuoketa, low.a, son of a frontier Methodist clergyman; was educated at Rock River Seminary and the University of Michigan, graduating




— the

from the latter in 1867 began practice in 1870 at Oregon, Ogle County, wliich is still his home; in 1888 was elected Circuit Judge to succeed Judge Eustace, deceased, and in 1891 assigned to Appellate Court duty; in December. 189."), was elected Justice of the .Supreme Court to succeed Justice ;

John M.


deceased, and








was born in Amlierst County, Va., 1785, and at the age of five years accom-




panied his father (a Revolutionary veteran) to Logan County. Ky. The country w;is wild and unsettled, there wei'e no scliools, the nearest mill

was 40 miles distant, tlie few residents wore homespun garments of flax or cotton and coffee, tea and sugar in domestic use were almost unknown. Methodist circuit riders soon invaded the district, and, at a camp meeting held at Cane ;

Ridge in

Peter received his



impressions. his reckless




first religious;

he abandoned sold his race-horse and abjured began preaching immediately

few months


180:i, was regularly received into the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church, although only 18 years old. In 1823 he removed to Illinois, locating in Sangamon

after his c.inversion, and, in

County, then but simrsely settled. In 1828, and again in 1832, he was elected to the Legislature, where his homespun wit and undaunted courage stood liim in good stead. For a long series of years he attended annual conferences (usually as a delegate), and was a conspicuous figure at camp-meetings. Although a Democrat all his life, he was an uncompromising antagonist of slavery, and rejoiced at the division of his denomination in 1844. He was also a zealous supporter of the Government during the Civil War. In 1846 he was a candidate for Congress on the Democratic ticket, but was defeated by Abi-iliam Lincoln. He was a powerful preacher, a tireless worker, and for fifty years served as a Presiding Elder of his denomination. On the lecture platform, hisquaintness an z >

w o z


w 7,

")0,0()0 bu-shels.

reixirts of the Board of Trade, the total receipts and sliipments of grain for the year 1898 counting flour as its grain eiiuivalent in bushels amounted to 323.097.4."):$ bushels of the former, to 2«9,920.028 bushels of the latter. The receipts and shipments of various jiroducts

According to the

for the

year (1898) were as follows: Receipts.

Flour (bbls.)






"... "... "...



Corn Oats



Cured Meats





Dressed Beef " Live-stock Hogs " Cattle " Sheep .




35, 741..555

127.426,374 110.293.647 4.935.308

Shipments. 5.032,236 38,094,900 130,397,681 85.057,636

18, 116. .594


229.(H)5,246 110.286,6.53

923.627.722 l,00O.H.59.808


9.360.968 2.480.633 3,502,378

864.408 545,001

an important lumber market,

the receipts in 1895, including shingles, being As a center for beef and jmrk1, .562, .527 M. feet.

packing, the city is witliout a rival in tlie amount of its products, there Iiaving been 92,4.59 cattle


packed in 1894-9.5. In bank and general mercantile business it

760,514 hogs


ranks second oidy to New York, while it is also one of the chief manufacturing centers of the country. The census of 1890 shows 9,959 manufacturing establisliments. with a capital of ^OOJ,477,038; employing 203,108 liands, and turning out products valued at §032,184,140. Of the output by far the largest was that of the slaughtering and meat-packing establishments, amounting to S203.S25,092; men's clothing came ne.xt (§32,517.226)






steel. 831,419.854;


foundry and



lumber, .'?17.604,494. Chicago is also the most important live-stock market in the United States. The Union Stock Yards (in the soutliwest jKirt of the city) are connected witli all railroad lines entering the city, and cover many hundreds of

acres. In 1894, there were received 8,788,049 animals (of all descriptions), valued at §148,057,620. Chicago is also a jiriinary market for Iiides and leather, the production and sales being both of large proportions, and the trade in manufactured leather (notalily in bfnits and shoes) exceeds that of any other market in the country. Sliip-building is a leading industry, as are also brick-making, distilling and brewing. Transport.\tio.n. etc.— Besides lieing the chief port on the great lakes, Chicago ranks second to no other -American city as a railway center. The old "Galena & Chicago Union," its first railroad, was ojierated in 1849, and within liiree years a substantial advance liad been scored in tlie way of steam transportation. Since then the multiplication of railroad lines focusing in or passing through Chicago has been rapid and steady. In 1895 not less than thirty-eight distinct lines enter the city, although these are operated by only twenty-two companies. Some 2,600 miles of railroad track are laid within the city limits.

The number

of trains daily arriving and departing (suburban and freight included) is alx)ut 2.000. Intramural transjKirtation is atforded by electric, steam, cable and horse-car lines. Four tunnels under the Chicago River and its branches, and numerous bridges connect tlie various divisions of the city. History.— Point du Sable (a native of San Domingo) was admittedly the first resident of Cliicago other than the aborigines. The French missionaries and explorers Jlarijuette, Joliet, La Salle, Hennepin and others came a century earlier, their explorations beginning in 1673. After tlie expulsion of tlie French at the close of the French and Indian War, the territory i)assed

under British control, though French traders remained in this vicinity after the AVar of the Revolution. One of these named Le Mai followed Point du .Sable alx)ut 1796, and was hini-self succeeded by John Kinzie, the Indian trader, who came in 1803. Fort Dearlx)rn was built near the mouth of the Chicago River in 1804 on hind acquired from the Indians by the treaty of Greenville, concluded by Gen. Anthony Wayne in 179.5, but was evacuated in 1812. when most of the garrison and the few inhabitants were mas.sa(See Fort Dvarborii.) The cred by the savages. fort was rebuilt in 1816, and another settlement established around it. The first Government survey was maile. 1829-30. Early residents were the Kinzips. the Wolcotts. the Beaul)iens and the Millers. The Black Hawk War (1832) rather aided in developing the resources and increasing

o a



o M o





3 a 3 O

o o < o X o < ?:

o z




c o


HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. the population of the infant settlement by drawing to it settlers from the interior for purposes of mutual protection. Town organization was effected on August 10, 1833, the total number of votes polled being 28. The town grew rapidly for a time, but received a set-back in the financial

During May of that

crisis of 1837.




ever, a charter was obtained and Chicago became a city. Tlie total number of votes cast at that time was 703. The census of the city for the 1st of July of that year showed a population of 4,180.

The following


shows the names and term from 1837 to

of office of the chief city ofiScers 1899:

CiTV Treasiirkr.


B. Ogden..

1837 1838




1S40 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865

Alexander Lloyd F. C. Benj,


I. N. Arnold, Geo. Davis Geo. Davis Wm. H. Brackett


W. Raymond

Thomas Hoyne Thomas Hoyne

Sherman W. Raymond



Albert H. Rodman Albert H. Bodman Albert H, Bodman Albert H. Bodman Albert H. Bodman Charles T. Hotchkiss Charles T. Hotchkiss Charles T. Hotchkiss Charles T. Hotchkiss Jos. K. C. Forrest Jos. K. C. Forrest


P.J. P. J.

Howard Howard

R.S. Tuthill R.S. Tuthill Julius S. Grinnell Julius S. Grinnell Julius S. Grinnell


John O. Neumeister


Herman Plautz D. W. Nickerson Franz Amberg James R. B. Van Cleave

Hempstead Washburne Hempstead Washburne Geo. F. Sugg



C. Cregier

Hempstead Washburne

H. Hsirrison, Geo. B. Swift,'ll) John P. Hopkins.dit Chas. D. Gastfield


Clinton BrlggS. Chas. B. Larrabee. W. C. Seipp. I

Rudolph Brand. John M. Dunphy. Wm. M. Devlne. C Herman Plautz.

Bernard Roesing. Jacob J. Kern, G.A.TrudeUO) Peter Klolbassa.



K. B.

Geo. A. Trude....


\au Cleave


Wilhani LuetTler William Loeftler



Miles J. Devine..


I, N. Arnold resigned, and Geo. Davis appointed, October, 1837. Gurnee resigned. Bolles appointed hia successor. April, 1840. Manierre resigned. Brown appointed his successor. July, 1843. Election of Garrett declared illegal, and Sherman elected at new



December of that


Michael J. Bransfield. Adam Wolf. Ernst Hummel.

Adam Ortseifen.

election, held April, 1844.

Brown appointed to till vacancy caused by resignation of Rucker. Harvey resigned and Hunt appointed to fill vacancy. Cutting havimc failed to qualify, Rice, who was already in office, held ove-. Legislature changed date of election from April to November, the persons in to


Egbert Jamleson

Caspar Butz Caspar Butz

Monroe Heath



David A. Gage. A.G. Tliroop. A. G. Throop. Wm, F. Wentworth. Wm. F. Wentworth. Wm. F. Wentworth. David A. Gage. David A. Gage. David A. Gage. David A. Gage. Daniel O'Hara. Daniel O'Hara.

H. D. Colvin,

Carter H. Harrison Carter H. Harrison Carter H. Harrison [Carter John A.

Francis Adams Daniel D. Driscoll Daniel D, Driscoll Hasbrouck Davis Hasbrouck Davis Has'irouck Davis Israel N. Stiles Israel N. Stiles Israel N. Stiles Israel N. Stiles Egbert Janiieson

H. W. Zimmerman

F.C.Sherman..... John B. Rice John B. Rice John B. Rice John B. Kice John B Rice (8) R. B. Mason R. B. Mason





1895-9R Geo. B. Swift lsy7-98 .Carter H. Harrison. Jr 1899 Carter H. Harrison, Jr


W.S. Gurnee, N. H. Bolles(2) N. H. Bolles.


Thomas Hoyne


Mark Skinner Geo. Manierre



1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 Joseph Medill 1873 Joseph Medill 1874 Harvey D. Colviii 1875 Harvey D. Colvin 1876 Monroe Heath. (9)

(2) (3) (4) (0) (6) (7) er minute. From tile point where the channel runs out of ground is a rapid fall; over this constructed to let the water down in such a manner as not to damage Joliet. Ground was broken on the rock-cut near Lemont. on Sept. 3. 1S92. and work has been in progre-ss almost constantlv ever since. The progress of the work was greatly obstructed during the year 1898, by difficulties encountered in securing the right of way for the discharge of the waters of the canal through the citj- of Joliet, but the.se were compromised near the close of the year, and it was anticipated that the work would be prosecuted to completion during the year 1899. From Feb. 1, 1S90, to Dec. 31, 1898," the net receipts of the Board for the prosecution of the work aggregated 828,2.57,707, while the net expenditures had amounted to §28,221 864.57. Of the latter, 820,099.2,84.07 was charged to construction account, 83.150.903.12 to "land account" (including right of way), and 81,222,092.82 to the cost of maintaining the engineering depiartment. AVhen finislied, the cost will reach not less than These figures indicate the stupen835,000,000. dous character of tlie work, which bids fair to stand without a rival of its kind in modern engineering and in the results it is expected to

to Joliet Lake,



works are to






mileage of this




30, 1898,


miles are operated and owned in Illinois. The line in this State extends west from Chicago to East Dubuque, tlie extreme terminal ixjints being Chicago and Minneapolis in the Northwest, and Kans;is City It has several branches in lUi in the Southwest. nois, Iowa and Minnesota, and trackage arrangements with several lines, the most imix)rtant 1,008 miles, of

152. .52

being with the St. Paul & Northern Pacific (10.56 miles), completing the connection between St. Paul and Minneapolis: with the Illinois Central from East Dubuque to Portage (12.23 miles), and with the Chicago & Northern Pacific from Forest Home to tlie Grand Central Station in Chicago. The company's own track is single, of standard gauge, laid with sixty and seventy -five-pound steel rails. Grades and curvature are light, and the equipment well maintained. Tlie outstanding capital stock (1898) wiis 852,019,054: total capitalization, including stock, bonds and miscellaneous indebtedness, 857,144,245. (History). The road was chartered, Jan. 5, 1892, under the laws of Illinois, for the pur|iose of reorganization of




HISTOEICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. the Chicago, St. Paul & Kansas City Railway Company on a stock basis. During 1895, the De Kalb & Great Western Railroad (.j.81 miles)


from De Kalb


to S3-camore as a feeder


1865 by Dr. Mary Harris Thompson. declared objects are: "To afford a home for women and children among the respectable poor in need of

medical and surgical aid; to treat

home by an

the same

of this line.

classes at

CHICAGO, HARLEM & BATAVIA RAILROAD. (See Chicago & No>ihe7-n Pacific Rail-

afford a free dispensary for the same,





2-1, IS.'JO,

for the jjurposes of (1) establishing

a library and a cabinet of antiquities,

relics, etc.

the collection and preservation of historical manuscripts, documents, papers and tracts; (3) the encouragement of the discovery and investigation of aboriginal remains, i^articularly in Illinois; (4) the collection of material illustrating the growth and settlement of Chicago. By 1871 the Society had accumulated much valuable material, but the entire collection was destroyed in the great Chicago fire of that year, among the manuscripts consumed being the original draft of the emancipation proclamation b}' Abraliam Lincoln. The nucleus of a second collection was consumed by fire in 1874. Its loss in this second conflagration included many valuable manuscripts. In 1877 a temporary building was erected, wliich was torn down in 1892 to make room for the erection, on the same lot, of a thoroughly fire-proof structure of granite, planned after the most approved modern systems. The new building was erected and dedicated (2)

under the direction of its late President, Edward G. Mason, Esq., Dec. 13, 1896. The Society's third collection now embraces about twenty-five thousand volimies and nearly fifty tliousand pamphlets; seventy-five portraits in oils, with other works of art; a valuable collection of mauuscript documents, and a large museum of Mr. Charles local and miscellaneous antiquities. Evans is Secretary and Librarian.



in 1876,

with a teaching faculty

forty-five matriculates.

term opened October




of that year, in a leased


1881 the college had outgrown its and a commodious, well appointed structure was erected by the trustees, in a more desirable location. The institution was among




to introduce a graded course of instrucextending over a period of eigliteen vears. In 1897, the matriculating class numbered over 200.



tion, -


CHICAGO HOSPITAL FOR WOMEN AND 'CHILDREN, located at Chicago, and founded in

assistant physician;

competent nurses."



At the


and to



through jirilargely through

fairly well sustained

vate benefactions, and, in 1870,

was organized

Dr. Thompson's efforts, a college for the medical education of


exclusively. (See Northicestern University Wonuni's Medical School.) The hospital building was totally

destroyed in




of 1871, but temporary

accommodations were provided of the city.

in another section

with the aid of appropriated by the Cliicago Relief and Aid Society, a permanent building was purchased, and, in 1885, a new, commodious and well planned building was erected on the same site, at a cost of about §75.000. Tlie following 3'ear,


CHICAGO, MADISON & NORTHERN RAILROAD, a line of railway 231.3 miles in length, 140 miles of which lie within Illinois. It is operated by the Illinois Central Railroad Company, and is

known as



.$2, .500,


The par value and of

"Freeport Division."

of tlie capital stock outstanding

is .550,000

while the floating debt is a total capitalization of



§6,170,698, or §26,698 per mile.

(See also Illinois Central Railroad. ) This road was opened from Chicago to Freeport in 1888.


(See North-

irestern Univer.^ity Medical College.)

MILWAUKEE & ST. PAUL RAILone of the great trunk lines of tlie Northwest, having a total mileage (1898) of 6,153.83 CHICAGO,


miles, of


317.94 are in Illinois.

The main

extends from Chicago to Minneajiolis, 420 miles, although it has connections with Kansas City, Omaha, Sioux City and various points in Wisconsin, Iowa and the Dakotas. The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad Company enjoys the distinction of being the owner of all the lines operated by it, though it operates 245 miles of second tracks owned jointlj' with other lines. The greater part of its track is laid with line

60, 75





steel rails. is



follows: capital stock, §77,843,000; §135,285,500; §5,572,401.

1898 tures,


other Its


ployes in Illinois


bonded debt,

forms of indebtedness, earnings in Illinois for

and the total expendiThe total number of emfor 1898 was 2,293, receiving



total cajiital




Taxes 81,746,827.70 in aggregate compensation. paid for the same year amounted to Sl.jl.is.^.— (History). The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway was organized in ISC:! under the name of the Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway. The Illinois portion of the main line was built under a cliarter granted to the Cliicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Company, and the Wisconsin portion under cliarter to the Wisconsin Union Railroad Company; the whole built and opened in 1873 and imrchased by the Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Company. It sub.sequently acipiired by purchase .several lines in Wisconsin, the whole receiving the present name of the line by act of the Wisconsin Legislature. pas.sed, Feb. 14, 1874. The Chicago & Evanston Railroad was chartered, Feb. 16, 18G1, built from Chicago to Calvary (10.8 miles), and oiiened. May 1, 188.5; was consolidated with the Chicago & Lake Superior R;iilroad, under the title of the Chicago, Evanston & Lake Superior Railroad Company, Dec. 22, ISS."), opened to Evanston, August 1, 1886, and purchased, in June, 1887, by the Chicago, ililwaukee & St. Paul Railway Company. The Road, as now organized, is made up of twenty-two divisions located in Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, North and South Dakota, Missouri and Michigan.


ROAD isn;?.

(Projected), a road chartered, Dec. 19, between Altamont and Metropolis,

to run

111., 1,J2


with a branch from Johnston City

to Carbondale, 20 miles

— total

length, 172 miles.

standard, and the track laid with sixty-pound .steel rails. By Feb. 1, 1895, the road from Altamont to Marion (100 miles) was com-

The gauge


line has intended to connect with the Wabash and the St. Louis Southern systems. Capital stock authorized and subscrilied. S2,.')00,-


and work on the remainder of the

been in progress.




It is

issued, SI.').

$1,.57."), 000.


000 per mile in five per cent

debt, first

Cost of road up to Feb. 1. 1895, §20,000 per mile; estimated cost of the entire In December, 1896, this road line, §2,000,000. pa-ssed into the hands of tlie Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad Company, and is now operated to (See Ch iciigo it Marion, in Williamson County.

mortgage gold bonds.

Eiistcni Illinuis liuilroad.)

CHICAGO, PEKIN & SOITHWESTERX RAILROAD, a division of the Chicago & Alton RiiilChicago & Plainfield Railroad, in 18.i9 opened from Pekin to Streator in 1873, and to Mazon Bridge in 1876 sold under foreclosure in 1879. and now constitutes a part of the Chicago & Alton system.












(of Illinois J, a corporation oi)erating


one extending from Peoria and the other from Peoria to with a connection from the latter

lines of railroad,

to Jacksonville, Springfield,

place (in 1895), over a leased line, witli St. Loviis. The total mileage, as officially reported in 1895,


208.00 miles, of



were owned by

the corporation. (1) The original of the Jacksonville Division of this line was the Illinois River Railroad, ojjened from Pekin to Virginia in 1859. In October, 1863, it was sold under foreclosure, and, early in 1864, wiis transferred by the purcha.sers to a new corporation called the Peoria,








Jacksonville Railroad Company, by was extended the same year to Peoria, 1869, to Jacksonville. Another forein



with the Wabash. (2)






by consolidation,




to in

the 1881,

Pacific Railway.

The Springfield Division was incorporated

1869 as the Springfield





was begun in 1872, and road opened from Springfield to Havana (4.5.20 miles) in December, 1874, and from Havana to Pekin and Peoria over the track of the Peoria, Pekin &


Jacksonville line. The s;ime year the road was leased to the Indianajxjlis, Bloomington & West-

ern Railroad Company, liut the lease was forfeited, in 187,5, and the road placed in the hands In 1881, together with the of a receiver. Jacksonville Division, it was transferred to the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Rivilway, and by that company operated as the Peoria & Springfield Puiilroad. The Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific having defaulted and gone into the liands of a receiver, both the Jacksonville and the Spiingfield Divisions were reorganized in Februarj-, 1887, under the name of the Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis Railroad, and placed under control of A the Jacksonville Southeastern Railroad. reorgiinization of the latter took place, in 1890,

under the name of the Jacksonville, Louisville & Louis Railway, and, in 1893, it passed into the hands of receivers, and was severed from its The Cliicago, Peoria & St. Louis allied lines. Railroad remained uniler the management of a separate receiver until January, 1896, when a St.

reorganization was effected xinder its present name "The Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis Railroad of Illinois." The lease of the Springfield


Louis Division having expired in Decemit has also been reorganized as an independent corporation under the name of the St. Louis, Peoria & Northern Railway (which see) St.





a sluggish stream, draining

a narrow strip of land between Lake Michigan and tlie Des Plaines River, the entire watershed drained amounting to some 470 square miles. It is formed by the union of the "North" and the "South Branch," which unite less than a mile and a half from the mouth of the main stream. At an early day the foiTiier was known as the "Guarie" and the latter as "Portage River." The total length of the North Branch is about 20 miles, only a small fraction of which is navigable. The South Branch is shorter but offers greater facilities for navigation, being lined along its lower portions with grain-elevators, lumber-yards and manufactories. 'The Illinois Indians in early days found an easy portage between it and the Des Tlie Chicago River, with its Plaines River. branches, separates Chicago into three divisions, known, respectively, as the "North" the "South" and the "West Divisions." Drawbridges have been erected at the principal street crossings over the river and both brandies, and four tunnels, connecting the various divisions of the citv, have been constructed under the river bed.


WAT, formed lines



by the consolidation of various The parent corporation (The


Rock Island Railroad) was chartered 18.51, and the road opened from Chicago to the Mississippi River at Rock Island (181 In 1852 a company was miles), Jul)' 10, 1854. Chicago


which 236.51 miles are in miles being owned by the corpoof the Company's owned and

3,568.15 miles, of


Illinois, 189.52



The total same year was §116.748,211, of which §50,000,000 was in stock and 858,830,000 in bonds. The total earnings and income of the line in Illinois, for the year ending June 30, 1898, was §5,851,875, and the total expenses §3,401,165, of which §233,129 was in the form of taxes. The Company has received under lines are laid



steel rails.

capitalization reported for the

Congressional grants 550, 194 acres of land, excluwhich there had been sold,

sive of State grants, of




31, 1894, ,548,609 acres.



& Nortlucestcrn Railway.)



(See Chicago Great Western Railway.)



a short road, of standard gauge, laid with extending from Marion to Brooklyn,

steel rails, 111.,

53.64 miles.


was chartered. Feb.

and opened

for traflSc,

Louis, Alton




Terre Haute Railroad

chartered under the name of the Mississippi & Missouri Railroad for the extension of the road from the Mississippi to the Missouri River. The two roads were consolidated in 1866 as the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad, and the extension to the Missouri River and a junction

RO.AD, the


The extent of the lines owned and Kansas. operated by the Company ( 'Poor's Manual, 1898) '



1887, St.




mile. The cost of the road was incumbrance (1895), §3,016,715.



having guaranteed principal and interest on its first mortgage bonds. Its capital stock is §1,000,000, and its bonded debt §2,000,000, making the total capitalization about §56,000 per the

in Illinois in

with the Union Pacific completed in 1869. The Peoria & Bureau Valle}- Railroad (an important 46.7 feeder from Peoria to Bureau Junction miles) was incorporated in 1853, and completed and leased in perpetuity to the Chicago & Rock Island Railroad, in 1854. The St. Joseph & Iowa Railroad was purchased in 1889, and the Kansas City & Topeka Railway in 1891. The Company has financial and traffic agreements with the Chicago, Rock Island & Texas Railway, extending from Terral Station, Indian Territory, to Fort Worth, Texas. Tiie road also has connections from Chicago with Peoria St. Paul and Minneapolis; tirnaha and Lincoln (Neb.); Denver. Colorado "Springs and Pueblo (Colo.), besides various points in South Dakota, Iowa and Southwestern


§2,950,000; total

CHICAGO TERMINAL TRANSFER RAIL.successor to the Cliicago

Pacific Railroad.




1889, to acquire




was organized


lease facilities to

other roads and transact a local business. The Road under its new name was chartered, June 4, 1897, to purchase at foreclosure sale the property of the Chicago & Northern Pacific, soon after acquiring the property of the Cliicago & Calumet

Terminal Railway

also. Tlie combination gives the control of 84. 53 miles of road, of which 70.76 miles are in Illinois. The line is used for both passenger and freight terminal purposes, it


a belt line just outside the city limits. Chicago Great Western, the Baltimore & Ohio, the Wisconsin Central also

Its principal tenants are the

and the Chicago, Hammond & Western The Company also has control of the ground on which the Grand Central Depot is located. Its total capitalization (1898) was §44,553,044, of which §30.000,000 was capital stock and §13,394,000 in the form of bonds. Lines,


CHICAGO THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, organ1854, by a convention of Congregational ministers and laymen representing seven ized, Sept. 26,



Western States, among wliich was Illinois. A special and liberal charter was granted, Feb. 1~>, IH')'). The Seminary has always been under Congregational control and supervision, its twenty-four trustees being elected at Triennial Conventions, at which are represented all tlie churches of that denomination west of tlie Ohio and east of the Rocky Mountains. The institution was formally opened to students, Oct. 6, professors and twenty-nine 1858, with two matriculates. Since then it has steadily grown Preparatory and in lioth numbers and influence. linguistic schools have been added and the faculty (1896) includes eight professors and nine

minor instructors. The Seminary is liberally endowed, its productive assets being nearly $1,000,000, and the value of its grounds, buildings, library, etc.,

No charge



to nearly $.'500,000

room and there are forty two endowed scholarships, the income of which is devoted to the aid of needy students. The buildings, including the library and dormitories, are four in number, and are well constructed and arranged. CinCAGO & ALTON RAILROAD, an important railway running in a southwesterly direction from Chicago to St. Louis, with numerous branches, extending into Slissouri, Kansas and Colorado. The Chicago & Alton Railroad proper was constructed under two charters the first more.


for tuition or


granted to the Alton & Sangamon Railroad Company, in 1847, and the second to the Chicago & Mis.si.s.sippi Railroad Company, in 18.52. Construction of the former w;is begun in 18.j2, and the line opened from Alton to Springfield in 1853. Under the second corporation, the line was opened from Springfield to Bloomington in 1854. and to Joliet in 18,56. In 1855 a line was constructed from Chicago to Joliet imder the name of the Joliet & Chicago Rjiilroad, and leased in perpetuity to the present Company, which was reorganized in 1857 under the name of the St. Louis, Alton


Chicago Rivilroad Companj-.


some time connection was liad between Alton and St. Louis V)}' steam-packet boats running in connection with the railroad but later over the line of the Indianapolis & St. Louis Railroad the first railway line connecting the two cities and, finally, by the Company's own line, which was constructed in 1864. and formally 0|)ened Jan. 1, 1865. In 1861, a company with the present name (Chicago & Alton Railroad Companj') was organized, which, in 1862, purcha.sed the St. Louis, Alton & Chicago Road at foreclosure sale. Several branch lines have since ;

been acquired by important in the Bloomington to St. This was chartered

purchase or lease, the most State being the line from Louis by way of Jacksonville. in 1851 under the name of the St. Louis, Jacksonville & Chicago Railroad, was o[)ened for business in January, 1868, and having been diverted from the route upon which it was originally projected, was completed to Bloomington and leased to the Chicago & Alton in 1868. In 1884 this branch was absorbed by the main line. Other important branches are the Kansas City Branch from Roodhouse, crossing the ilississippi at Louisiana, Mo. the W;ishington Branch from Dwight to Wasliington and l^icon, and tlie Chicago & Peoria, by which entrance is obtained into the city of Peoria over the tracks of the Toledo, Peoria & "Western. The whole number of miles operated (1898; is 843.54, of which 580.73 lie in Illinois. Including double tracks and sidings, the Company has a total trackage of 1,186 miles. The total capitalization, ;


§32,793,972, of which §22.230,600 was and .?6. 694. 8.50 in tends. The total earnings and income for the year, in Illinois, were $5,022,315, and the operating and other expenses, $4,272,207. This road, under its management as it existed up to 1898, has been one of the most uniformly successful in the country. Dividends have been paid semiannually from 1863 to 1884, and quarterly from 1884 to 1896. For a number of years previous to 1897, the dividends had amounted to eight per cent per annum on both preferred and common stock, but later had been reduced to seven per cent on account of short

in 1898,

in stock,

line. The taxes paid in 1898 were $341,040. The surplus, June 30, 1895, exceeded two and three-quarter million dollars. The Chicago & Alton was the first line in the world to put into service sleeping and dining cars of the Pullman model, which liave since been so

crops along the

widely adopted, as well as the

first to run free convenience and comfort of its passengers. At the time the matter embraced in this volume is undergoing



for the

final revision (1899), negotiations are in progress

for the purchase of this historic line bj- a syndi-

representing the Baltimore & Ohio, the Pacific, the Union Pacific, and the Missouri, Kansas & Texas systems, in whose interest it will hereafter be operated. cate




Chicago. Burlington







in length, of

company operates a line 516.3 miles which 278 miles are within Illinois.


HISTOaiCAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. The main line in this State extends soutlierly from Dolton Junction (17 miles south of Chicago) Entrance to the Polk Street Depot to Danville. in Chicago


secured over the tracks of the

Western Indiana Railroad. The company owns From sevei-al important branch lines, as follows :

Momence Junction

the Indiana State Line; from Cissna Junction to Cissna Park from Danville Junction to Shelbyville, and from Sidell to The system in Illinois is of standard Eossville. gauge, about 108 miles being double track. The right of way is 100 feet wide and well fenced. to


The grades (including

are rails,

generally excellent.

ing (1895)

and the construction and bridges), is

light, ties,

is §13, .594,


The 400;

floating debt, §916,381;

capital stock outstand-

funded debt, §18,018,000; total



pany, to form a connection with Valparaiso, Ind. This corporation acquired the Chicago & Southern Railroad (from Chicago to Dolton), and the Chicago & State Line Extension in Indiana, all being consolidated under the name of the Northwestern Grand Trunk Railroad. In 1880, a final consolidation of these lines with the eastward connections took place under the present name

the Chicago


Grand Trunk Railway.

CHICAGO & GREAT EASTERN RAILWAY. (See Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago








Evansvillc Railway.)

CHICAGO & ILLINOIS SOUTHERN RAILWAY. (See Peoria, Decatur & Evansvillc Railway.



§32,570,781; total earnings in Illinois, §2,592,072;

expenditures in the State, $2,595,631. The company paid the same year a dividend of six per cent on its common stock (§286,914), and reported a surplus of §1,484,762. The Chicago & Eastern Illinois was originally chartered in 1865 as the Chicago, Danville & Vincennes Railroad, its main line being completed in 1872. In 1873, it defaulted







Alton Railroad. (See

Eastern Illinois Railroad.)

CHICAGO & NORTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD. (See Chicago Terminal Transfer Railroad. )


on interest, was sold under foreclosure in 1877, and reorganized as the Chicago & Nashville, but In later in same year took its present name. 1894 it was consolidated with the Chicago & Indiana Coal Railway. Two spurs (5.27 miles in length) were added to the line in 1895. Early in

one of the great trunk lines of the country, penetrating the States of Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, Iowa, Minnesota and North and South Dakota. The total length of its main line, branches, proprietary and operated lines, on May

1897 this line obtained control of the Chicago, Paducah & Memphis Railroad, which is now

operated in

operated to Marion, in Williamson County. (See Chicago, Paducah G, lie returned to the service of the Illinois Central. In ISilOhe went to

wliere he was one of tlie original founders of the city of Denver, and chief engineer of its first water supply company. In 1803 he started on a surveying expedition to Arizona, but was in Santa Fe when that place was captured by a rebel expedition from Texas; was also present soon after at the battle of Apache Canon, when the Confederates, being defeated, were driven out of the Territory. Returning to C'liicago in lS(i4. he became a member of the wholesale leatlier firm of Gray, Clark & Co. Tlie ofiicial positions held by Mr. Clark include tliose of Alderman (1879-81), Memlier of the Board of Education, Collector of Customs, to which he was appointed by President Harrison, in 18S9, and President of the Chicago Civil Service Board by appointment of Mayor Swift, under an act l)a.ssed by the Legislature of 1S9.'), retiring in 1897. In 1881 he was the Republican c;indidate for Mayor of Chicago, but was defeateil by Carter 11. Harrison. Mr. Clark is one of the Directoi-s of the Crerar Library, named in the will of Mr. Crerar.





March, 1779; in early

was born removed


in Virginia,



studied law, and was, for a time. Auditor of Public Accounts in that State; in 1815, was converted and gave himself to the Bajitist ministry, locating at

most of



where he spent

Died, in 18.50. CLAY CITY, a village of Clay County, on the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railroad, 12 his life.

miles west of Olney has one newspaper, a bank, fruit-growing region. is in a grain and Population (1890), 612; (1900), 907; (1903), 1,020. CL.\Y COUNTY, situated in the southeastern ipiarter of the State; has an area of 470 square ;


It was miles and a jxjpulation ^lyoO) of 19. .553. The first claim in the for Henry Clay. county was entered by a Mr. Elliot, in 1818, and smin after settlers begiin to locate liomes in the


county, although it was not organized until 1824. During the same year the pioneer .settlement of

Maysville was made the county -seat, but immicontinued inactive until 1837, when


many settlers arrived, headed by Judges Apperson and Hopkins and Messrs. Stanford and Lee, who were soon followed by the families of CochThe Little Wabash ran, McCuUom and Tender. River and a number of small tributaries drain the county. A light-colored sandy loam con.stitutes the greater part of the soil, although "black


loam" appears here and

Railroad there. but sufficient to accommoFruits, county's requirements.

facilities are limited,








Educational advantages are fair, although largely confined to district schools and academies in Louisville was made the countylarger towns. seat in 1843, and, in 1890, had a population of Xenia and Flora are the most important 637. towns. CLAYTON, a town in Adams County, on the Wabash Railway, 28 miles east-northeast of Quincy. A branch of the Wabash Railway extends from this point northwest to Carthage, 111., and Keokuk, Iowa, and another branch to Quincy, 111. The industries include Hour and feed mills, machine and raih-oad repair sliops, grain elevator, cigar and harness factories. It has a bank, four churches, a high school, and a weekly newspaper. Population (1890), 1,038; (1900), 996. CLE.iVER, William, pioneer, was born in London, England, in 1813; came to Canada with his parents in 1831, and to Cliicago in 1834; engaged in business as a chandler, later going into the grocery trade in 1849, joined the gold-seekers in California, and, six years afterwards, established himself in the southern jiart of tlie present city of Chicago, then called Cleaverville, where he served as Postmaster and managed a general store. He was the owner of considerable real estate at one time in what is now a densely populated part of the city of Chicago. Died in Chicago, Nov. 13, 1896. ;


Isaac, ex-Congressman

and Gov-

ernor of Soldiers" and Sailors' Home at Danville, III., was born in Franklin County, Ind., in 1837; graduated from Asbury University, at Greencastle, in 18.59, having supported himself during After reading his college course by teaching. law and being admitted to the bar at Greencastle, he removed to Carbondale, 111., where he again found it necessary to resort to teaching in order to [lurchase law-books. In July, 1861, he enlisted in the Ninth Illinois Infantry, and was commis-. sioned Second Lieutenant of Company G. He was in the service for three years, was three times wounded and twice promoted "for meriIn June, 1867, he was aptorious service." pointed Register in Bankruptcy, and from 1873 to 1875 was a Republican Representative in the Forty-third Congress from the (then) Eighteenth District. He was also a member of the RepubIn 1889, he lican State Convention of 1880. became Pension Agent for the District of Illinois, by appointment of President Harrison, serving


imtil 1893. In the latter part of 1898, he was appointed Superintendent of the Soldiers' Orphans' Home, at Normal, but served only a few months, when he accepted the position of Governor of the new Soldiers' and Sailors' Home, at Danville.

CLEVELAND, CINCINNATI, CHICAGO & ST. LOUIS RAILWAY. The total length of tliis system

(1898) is 1,807.34 miles, of which 478.39 miles are operated in Illinois. That portion of the main line lying within the State extends from East St.

Louis, northeast to the Indiana State line, 181 miles. The Company is also the lessee of the


Eastern Railroad (133 miles), and operin addition, other lines, as follows: The Cairo Division, extending from Tiltbn, on the

Peoria ates,

line of the


southwest of DanChicago Division, extending from Kankakee southeast to the Indiana State line (34 miles) the Alton Branch, from Wann Junction, on the main Une, to Alton Besides these, it enjoys with the Chi(4 miles). cago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, joint ownership of tlie Kankakee & Seneca Railroad, which it operates. Tlie system is uniformlj- of standard gauge, and about 380 miles are of double track. It is laid with heavy steel rails (sixty-five, sixtyseven and eighty pounds), laid on white oak ties, and is amply ballasted with broken stone and gravel. Extensive rejiair shops are located at Mattoon. The total capital of the entire system on June 30, 1898— including capital stock and bonded and floating debt was 897,149,361. The total earnings in Illinois for tlie year were $3,773,19.3, and the total expenditures in the State §3,611,437. The taxes iiaid the same year were ville,

to Cairo


3 miles





The history

of this syntem, so far as concerned, begins with the consolidation, in 1889, of the Cincinnati, Indianapolis, St. Louis & Chicago, the Cleveland, Columbus, CinIllinois is

& Indianapolis, and the Indianapolis & Louis Railway Companies. In 1890, certain leased lines in Illinois (elsewhere mentioned) were merged into the system. (For history of the several divisions of this system, see St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute, Peoria & Eastern, Cairo cinnati



Vlnecnnes, and Kankakee


erature to a point lower than is customary nearer the seaboard on the same latitude. Lake Michigan exerts no little influence upon the climate of Chicago and other adjacent districts, mitigating both summer lieat and winter cohl. If a comparison be instituted between Ottawa and Boston the latter being one degree farther north, but 570 feet nearer the sea-level the springs and summers are found to be about five degrees warmer, and the winters tliree degrees In comparing tlie colder, at the former point. East and West in respect of rainfall, it is seen that, in the former section, the same is pretty equally distributed over the four seasons, wliile in the latter, spring and summer may be called the wet season, and autumn and winter the dry. In the extreme West nearly three-fourths of the yearly precipitation occurs during the growing season. This is a climatic condition higlily favorable to the gro%vth of grasses, etc., but detrimental to the growth of trees. Hence we find luxuriant forests near the seaboard, and, in the interior, grassy plains. Illinois occupies a geographical position where these great climatic changes begin to manifest tliemselves, and wliere 'the distinctive features of the prairie first become The annual precipitation of fully ai)i)arent. rain is greatest in the southern part of the State, but, owing to the higher temperature of that The section, the evaporation is also more rapid. distribution of the rainfall in respect of seasons is also more unequal toward the south, a fact whicli may account, in part at least, for the increased area of woodlands in that region. While Illinois lies witliin the zone of southwest winds, their flow is affected In' conditions somewhat abnormal. The northeast trades, after entering the Gulf, are deflected by the mountains of Mexico, becoming inward breezes in Texas, southerly winds in the Lower Mississippi Valley, and southwesterly as they enter the Upper Vallej'. It is to this aerial current that the liot, moist summers are attributable. Tlie north and northwest winds, which set in with the change of the season, depress the temperature to a point below that of the Atlantic slope, and are attended with a diminished precipitation. in the .southern portion of the State,


the county-seat of De Witt County, miles south of Bloomington, at intersection of the Springfield and the ChampaignHavana Divisions with the main line of the Illinois situated


Central Railroad lies in a productive agricidtural region; has machine shops, flour and planing mills, brick and tile works, water works, electric lighting plant, piano-ca.se factory, banks, three new.spapers, six churches, and two public schools. Population (1890). 2,rj98; (1900), 4,4.52. CLINTON COUNTY, organized in 1824. from portions of Washington, Bond and Fayette Coun;

honor of De Witt Clinton. It e;ist of .St. Louis, has an area of 494 sden-Sidney and William and Mary Colleges, but com|)elled to leave before graduation by an accident which interrupted his studies; in 1809, became the private secretary of President Madison, re:nainiag six years, after which he made a trip to Russia as a special messenger by apix)intment of the President. He early manifested an interest in the emancipation of the slaves of Virginia. In 1815 he made his first tour through the Northwest Territory, going as far west as St. Louis, returning three years later and visiting Kaskaskia while the Con.stitutional Convention of li^lH was in session. In April of the following year he set out from his Virginia home, accompanied by his slaves, for Illinois, traveling by wagons to Brownsville. Pa., where, taking flat-boats, he descended the river with his goods and servants to a jwint below Louisville, where they disembjvrked, journej-ing overland to Edwardsville. While descending thp Ohio, he informed his slaves that they were

State of



and, after




at their destination,

each head of a family 160 acres of land. This generous act was. in after years, made the ground for bitter persecution by his enemies. At


HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. Edwardsville he entered upon the duties of Register of the Land Office, to wliicli he had been appointed by President Monroe. In 1823 he became the candidate for Governor of those opposed to removing the restriction in the State Constitution against the introduction of slavery, and, although a majority of the voters then favored the measure, he was elected by a small plurality over his higliest competitor in consequence of a division of the ojiposition vote






chosen at the same time submitted to the people a proposition for a State Convention to revise the Constitution, which was rejected at the election of 1824 by a majority of 1,G68 in a total vote of 11,612. While Governor Coles had the efficient aid in opposition to the measure of such men as Judge Samuel D. Lockwood, Congressman Daniel P. Cook, Morris Birkbeck, George Forquer, Hooper Warren, George Churchill and others, he was himself a most influential factor in protecting Illinois from the blight of slavery, contributing

term (§4,000) to that end. duty to welcome La FayRetiring from office in 1826, he ette to Illinois. continued to reside some years on his farm near his salary for his entire

In 1825




Edwardsville, and, in 1830, was a candidate for Congress, but being a known opponent of General Jackson, was defeated by Josepli Duncan. Previous to 1833, he removed to Philadelpliia, where he married during the following year, and continued to reside there until his death, July 7, 1868, having lived to see the total extinction of slavery in the United States. (See Slavery and Slave Laws.)


centrally located, and has a number of handsome public buildings, private residences and business blocks.







laid out in 1831,



and incorporated




a railroad center, situated some 130 miles east of St. Louis. It has a population of 9.622, and is an important shipping point for grain and live-stock. Other principal towns are Ashmore. Oakland and Lerna. COLFAX, a village of McLean County, on the Kankakee and Blooraington branch of the Illinois Central Railroad, 23 miles northeast of BloomingFarming and stock-grovf ingare the leading ton. industries; has two banks, one newspaper, three elevators, and a coal mine. Pop. (1900), 1,153. is

COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS, located at Chicago, and organized in 1881.


term opened in September, 1882, in a building erected by the trustees at a cost of §60,000, with a faculty embracing twenty-five professors, with a sufficient corps of demonstrators, assistThe number of matriculates was 152. ants, etc. The institution ranks among the leading medical colleges of the West. Its standard of qualifications, for both matriculates and graduates, is first

equal to those of other first-class medical schools throughout the countrj^. The teaching faculty, of late years, has consisted of some twenty-five professors, who are aided by an adequate corps of assistants, demonstrators, etc. COLLEGES, EARLY. The early Legislatures of Illinois manifested no little unfriendliness toward colleges. The first charters for in.stitutions of this character were granted in 1833, and were for the incorporation of the "Union College of Illi-

COLES COUNTY, originally a part of Crawford County, but organized in 1831, and named in honor of Gov. Edward Coles.— lies central to the eastern portion of the State, and embraces .520 square miles, with a population (1900) of 34.146. The Kaskaskia River (sometimes called the Okaw) runs through the nortliwestern part of the county, but the principal stream is the Embarras (Enibraw). The chief resource of the people is agriculture, although the county lies within the To the north and limits of the Illinois coal belt. west are prairies, while timber abounds in the southeast. The largest crop is of corn, although wheat, dairy products, potatoes, hay, tobacco, sorghum, wool, etc. are also important products.

Randolph County, and the "Alton Colat Upper Alton. The first named vfas to be under the care of the Scotch Covenanters, but was never founded. The second was in the interest of the Baptists, but the charter was not accepted. Both these acts contained jealous and unfriendly restrictions, notably one to the effect that no theological department should be established and no professor of theology employed as an instructor, nor should any religious test be applied in the selection of trustees or the admission of pupils. The friends of higher education, however, made com-





extensively cultivated.


is carried on to a fair extent, the output embracing sawed lumber, carriages and wagons, agricultural implements, tobacco and snuff, boots and shoes, etc. Charleston, the county-seat, is


nois," in

lege of Illinois,"


cause, and, in 1835, secured the passage of

an "omnibus

incorporating four private the Illinois, at Jacksonville the McKendree, at Lebanon, and the Jonesboro. Similar restrictive provisions as to theological teaching were incorporated in these charters, and a limitation was placed upon the amount of bill"

— the Alton



112 propertj' to be



resjiects the






Owing to predecessors of two years previous the absence of suitable preparatory schools, these institutions were compelled to maintain preparatory departments under the tuition of the college The


college last

named above


boro) was to have been founded by the Christian denomination, but was never organized. Tlie

three remaining ones stand, in the order of their formation, McKendree, Illinois, Alton (afterward in the order of graduating initial Shurtleff) ;


— Illinois,




paratory instruction began to be given in Illinois College in 1829, and a class was organized in the collegiate department in 1831. The Legislature of 1833 also incorporated the Jacksonville Female Academy, the first school for girls chartered in

From thi.s time forward colleges and academies were incorporated in rapid succe-ssion, many of them at places wliose names have long since dis;ippeared from the map of the State. It was at thi.s time that there developed a strong party in favor of founding what were termed, rather euphemistically, "Manual Labor Colleges." It was believed that the time which a student might be able to "redeem" from study, could be so profitably employed at farm or shopthe State.


as to enable



institution, but in

law was more

to earn his



Acting upon this theory, the Legislature of XS'i') granted charters to tlie "Franklin Manual Labor College," to be located in either Cook or La Salle County; to the "Burnt Prairie Manual Labor Seminary," in White County, and the "Chatham Manual Labor School," at Lick Prairie, Sangamon County. University powers were conferred upon the institution la.st named, and its charter contained the somewhat extraordinary provision that any sect might establish a professorIn 1837 si.x more ship of theologj- therein. colleges were incorporated, only one of which (Knox) was successfully organized. By 1840, better and broader views of education had developed, and the Legislature of 1841 repealed all prohibition of the establishing of theological departments, as well as tlie re.strictions previously imposed upon the amount and value of property to be owned by private educational institutions. The whole number of colleges and seminaries incorporated under the State law (1896) is forty-


was bom

Laird, clergyman,

in Salisbury, Md.,


Boston University,



1837; graduated at

soon after became an

itinerant Methodist minister, but, in 18C6, united

with the L'nitarian Church and officiated as pastor of churches in Chicago, Boston .sas






and Kan-

supplying pulpits in various (1880-8.)).



he was

apix)inted United States Consul at Leipsic, but later served as a special

Johns Hopkins L'niversity

commissioner of the in

the collection of

meanwhile gaining a wide reputation as a lecturer and mag-azine writer. His published works include: "E^veryDay Subjects in Sunday Sermons" (18G9) and labor statistics in Europe,

"Meditations on the Essence of Christianity" Died near his birthplace, July 27, 1890. (1876). COLLINS, Frederick, manufacturer, was bom in Connecticut, Feb. 24, 1804. He was the youngest of five brothers who came with their parents

from ville

Conn to Illinois, in 1822, and town of Unionville now CoUins-


settled in the

— in







They were enterprising and

Madison public-

men, who

engaged, quite extensively for the time, in various branches of manufacture, including flour and whisky. This was an era of progress and development, and becoming convinced of the injurious character of the latter branch of their business, it was jiromptly abandoned. The subject of this sketch was later a.ssociated with his brother Michael in the pork-packing and grain business at Naples, the early Illinois River terminus of the Sangamon & Morgan (now Wabash) Railroad, but finally located at Quincy in 18.")1, where he was engaged spirited


manufacturing business for many years. He was a man of high business probity and religious


Lake Forest University, McKendree College, Monmouth College, Jacksonville Female Seminary, Montieello Female Seminary, Northwestern Uni-

determined opixjnent of the shown by the fart that he was once subjected by liis neighbors to the intended indignity of lieiug hung in effigy for the crime of assisting a fugitive female slave on the road to freedom. In a speech made in 1834, in commemoration of the act of emancipation in the West Indies, he gave utterance to the following prediction: "Methinks the time is not far distant when our own country will celebrate a day of emancipation witliin her own borders, and conindeed ring sistent songs of freedom shall tliroughout the length and breailth of the land." He lived to see this prophecy fulfilled, dying at Quincy, in 1878. Mr. Collins was the candidate of the Liberty Men of Illinois for Lieutenant-Oov-

versity, Shurtleff College.)

ernor in 1842.


(See also Illinois College,



principle, as well as a

institution of slavery, as


H., lawyer




born in Cambridge, Washington County, N. Y., but taken in early life to Vernon, Oneida County, where he grew to manhood. After spending a couple of years in an academy, at the age of 18 he began the study of law, was admitted to the bar in 1824, and as a counsellor and solicitor in 1837, coming to Chicago in the fall of 1833, making a part of the journey by the first stage-coach from Detroit to the present Western metropolis. After arriving in Illinois, he spent some time in exploration of the surrounding coiuitry, but returning to Chicago in 1834. he entered into partnership with Judge John D. Caton, who had been his preceptor in New York, still later being a partner of Justin Butterfield under the firm


name of Butterfield Collins. He was considered an eminent authoritj' in law and gained an extensive practice, being regarded as espechancery cases as well as an able he was an uncompromising anti-slavery man, and often aided runaway slaves in securing their liberty or defended others who did so. He was also one of the original promoters of the old Galena & Chicago Union Railroad and one of its first Board of Directors. Died, suddenly of cholera, while attending court at Ottawa, in 1854. COLLINS, Loren C, jurist, was born at Windsor, Conn., August 1, 1848; at the age of 18 accompanied his family to Illinois, and was educated at the Northwestern University. He read law, was admitted to the bar, and soon built up a remunerative practice. He was elected to the Legislature in 1878, and through his ability as a debater and a parliamentarian, soon became one of the leaders of his party on the floor of the lower house. He was re-elected in 1880 and 1882, and, in 1883, was chosen Speaker General Assembly. In of the Thirty-third December, 1884, he was appointed a Judge of the Circuit Court of Cook County, to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of Judge Barnum, was elected to succeed himself in 1885, and re-elected in 1891, but resigned in 1894, since that time devoting his attention to regular practice in the cially strong in



city of Chicago.

COLLIXS, William H., retired manufacturer, born at Collinsville, 111., March 20, 1831; was educated in the common schools and at Illinois College, later taking a course in literature, philosophy and theology at Yale College served as pastor of a Congregational church at La Salle ;

18.58, became editor and propri"The Jacksonville Journal," which he

several years; in

etor of


conducted some four years. The Civil War having begun, he then accepted the chaplaincy of the Tenth Regiment Illinois Volunteers, but resigning in 18G3, organized a company of the One Hundred and Fourth Volunteers, of which he was chosen Captain, participating in the battles of Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. Later he served on the staff of Gen. John M. Palmer and at Fourteenth Army Corps headquarters, until after the fall of Atlanta. Then resigning, in November, 1864, he was appointed by Secretary Stanton ProvostMarshal for the Twelfth District of Illinois, continuing in this service until the close of 1865, when he engaged in the manufacturing business as head of the Collins Plow Company at Quincy. This business he conducted successfully some twenty-five years, when he retired. Mr. Collins has served as Alderman and Mayor, ad interim, of the city of Quincy; Representative in the Thirty-fourth and Thirty-fifth General Assemblies during the latter being chosen to deliver the eulogy on Gen. John A. Logan was a prominent candidfCte for the nomination for Lieutenant Governor in 1888, and the same year Republican candidate for Congress in the Quincy District; in 1894, was the Republican nominee for State Senator in Adams County, and, though a Republican, has been twice elected Supervisor in a strongly Democratic city. COLLINSVILLE, a city on the southern border of Madison County, 13 mUes (by rail) east-northeast of St. Louis, on the "Vandalia Line" (T. H. & I. Ry.), about 11 miles south of Edwardsville. The place was originally settled in 1817 by four brothers named Collins from Litchfield, Conn., who established a tan-yard and erected an ox-mill for grinding corn and wheat and sawing lumber The town was platted by surviving members of this family in 1836. Coal-mining is the principal industry, and one or two mines are operated within the corporate limits. The city has zinc works, as well as flour mills and brick and tile factories, two building and loan associations, a lead smelter, stock bell factory, electric street railways, seven churches, two banks, a high school, and a newspaper oflice. Population


(1890), 3,498; (1900), 4,021; (1903, est), 7,500.

COLLTER, Robert, clergyman, was born at Keighly, Yorkshire, England, Dec. 8, 1823; left school at eight years of age to earn his living in a factory at fourteen was apprenticed to a blacksmith and learned the trade of a hammer-maker. His only opportunity of acquiring an education during this period, apart from private study, was ;



which he attended two winters. became a local Methodist preacher,

was appointed by President Johnson United

in a night-school,


In 1S49

States Consul at Venice, remaining there until



to the United States the next year, settling wliere he pursued his trade,

in Pennsylvania,

His views on the atone-

preaching on Sundays.

ment having gradually been changed towards Unitarianisiu, his licen.se to preach was revoked by the conference, and, in 18,)9, he united with the Unitarian Church, having already won a wide reputation as an eloquent public speaker. Coming to Chicago, he began work as a missionary, and, in 18G0, organized the Unity Church, beginning with seven members, though it has since become one of the strongest and most influIn 1879 he accepted ential churches in the city. a

call to

a church in

New York

where he


remains. Of strong anti-slavery views and a zealous Unionist, he served during a part of the Civil War as a camp inspector for the Sanitary still

Commission. Since the war he lias repeatedly visited England, and has exerted a wide influence as a lecturer and pulpit orator on both sides of the Atlantic. He is the author of a number of volumes, including "Xature and Life" (18GC); "A Man in Earnest: Lifeof A. H. Conant" (1868); "A Hi-story of the Town and Parish of likely" (188G). and "Lectures to Young Men and Women" (188G).

COLTOX, Chaunecy

Sill, pioneer,

was born


Springfield, Pa., Sept. 21, 1800; taken to Massachusetts in childhood

and educated at Monson

State, afterwards residing for


in that

years, dur-

ing his manhood, at Mon.son, Maine. He came to Illinois in 1H3G, locating on the site of the present city of Galesburg, where he built the first store and dwelling house; continued in general merchandise some seventeen or eighteen years, meanwhile associating his sons with him in business under tlie firm name of C. S. Colton & Sons. Mr. Colton was sissociated with the construction of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad from the beginning, becoming one of the Directors of the Conijiany; was also a Director of the First National Bank of Calesburg, the first organizer and first President of the Farmers" and Meclianics' Bank of tliat city, and one of the Trustees of Knox College. Died in Galesburg. July 27, 1885. Francis (Colton), son of the preceding; born

at Monson, Maine,


24, 1834,


to Gales-

burg with his father's family in 1836, and -.t-as educated at Knox College, graduating in 18.5.5, and receiving the degree of A.M in 18.58. After graduation, he was in partnership with his father .some seven years, also served as Vice-President of the First National Bank of Galesburg, and, in

1869. The latter year he became the General Passenger Agent of the Union Pacific Railroad, continuing in that position until 1871, meantime visiting China, Japan and India, and e.stablisliing agencies for the Union and Central Pacific Railways in various countries of Europe. In 1872 he succeeded his father as President of the Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank of Galesburg, but retired in 1884. and the same year removed to Washington, D. C, where he has .since resided. Mr. Colton is a large land owner in some of the Western States, especially Kansas and Nebraska. COLUMBI.i, ,1 town of Monroe County, on Mobile it Ohio Railroad, 1.5 miles south of St. Louis; has a machine shop, large Hour mill, brewery, five cigar factories, electric light plant, telephone system, stone quarry, five churches,

and public

Pop. (1900), 1,197; (1903), 1,205. a company


COMP.VXY OF THE WEST, THE, formed in France,

August, 1717, to develop France," in which the "Illinois Country" was at that time included. At the head of the companj- was the celebrated John Law, and to him and his asscjciates the French monarch granted extraordinary powers, Ixjtli governmental and commercial. They were given the exclusive right to refine the precious metals, as well as a monopoly in the trade in tobacco and slaves. Later, the company became known as the Indies, or East Indies, Company, owing to the king having granted them concessions to trade with the East Indies and China. On Sept. 27, 1717, the Royal Council of France declared that the Illinois Country should form a part of the Province of Louisiana and, under the the resources of




shrewd management of Law and his associates, immigration soon increased, as many as 800 settlers arriving in

a single year. Tlie directors of the company, in the exercise of their govern-

mental powers, ajipointed Pierre Duque de Boisbriant Governor of the Illinois District. He proceeded to Kaska.skia. and, witliin a few miles of that settlement, erected Fort Chartres. (See Furt Churtren. ) Tlie policy of the Indies Company was energetic, and. in the main, wise. Grants of commons were made to various French villages,

and Cahokia and K;isk;iskia steadily grew in size and population. Permanent settlers were given grants of land and agriculture w;is encouraged. These grants (which were allodial in their character) covered nearly all the '.ands in that part of tlie

American Bottom. lying between the Missisand the Kaskaskia Rivers. Many grantees


HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. held their lands in one great common field, each proprietor contributing, pro rata, to the maintenance of a surrounding fence. In 1721 the Indies Company divided the Province of Louisiana into nine civil and military districts. That of Illinois was numerically the Seventh, and included not only the southern half of the existing State, but

an immense tract west of the Mississippi, extending to the Rocky Mountains, and embracing the present States of Missouri, Kansas, Iowa and Nebraska, besides portions of Arkansas and Colorado. The Commandant, with his secretary and the Company's Commissary, formed the In District Council, the civil law being in force. 1732, the Indies Company surrendered its charter, and thereafter, the Governors of Illinois were appointed directly by the French crown. CONCORDIA SEMINARY, an institution located at Springfield, founded in 1879 the successor of an earlier institution under the name of also







preparatory departments are maintained, although there is no classical cour.se. The institution is under control of the German Lutherans.


institution reports $125,000


are five

worth of


The members of the Faculty (1898) in number, and there were about 171

students in attendance.

CONDEE, Leander D., lawyer, was born in Athens Covmty, Ohio, Sept. 26, 1.S47; brought by his parents to Coles County, 111. at the age of seven years, and received his education in the common schools and at St. Paul's Academy. Kankakee, taking a special course in Michigan State University and graduating from the law department of the latter in 1SG8. He then began prac.


private in the One Hundred and Second Illinois Volunteers, serving through the war and attaining the rank of Captain, besides being brevetted

Major for gallant service. Later, he graduated from the Albany Law School and practiced for a time in Galesburg, but, in 1868, removed to Iowa, where he engaged in farming, stock-raising and banking; was twice elected County Treasurer of and, in 1880, State Treasurer, being re-elected in 1882 in 1886, was elected to Congress from the Des Moines District, and twice re-elected (1888 and '90), but before the close of his last term was appointed by President Harrison Minister to Brazil, serving until 1893. In 1896, he served as Presidential Elector for the and, in 1897, was re-appointed State-at-large, Minister to Brazil, but, in 1898, was transferred He was sucto China, where (1899) he now is. ceeded at Rio Janeiro by Charles Page Bryan of Dallas County,



CONWREGATIONALISTS, THE. Two gational ministers

— Rev.




and Rev. and spent


Daniel Smith visited Illinois in 1814, some time at Kaskaskia and Sha-mieetown, but left for New Orleans without organizing any churches. The first church was organized at Mendon, Adams County, in 1838, followed by others during the same year, at Naperville, Jacksonville and Quincy. By 1836, the number had increased to ten.


the pioneer ministers

were Jabez Porter, who was also a teacher at Quincy, in 1828, and Rev. Asa Turner, in 1830, who became pastor of the first Quincy church, followed later by Revs. Julian M. Sturtevant

In 1892, he was the Republican nominee for Judge of the Superior Court of Cook County, but was defeated with the National and the State tickets of that year, since when he has given his atten-

(afterwards President of Illinois College), TruM. Post, Edward Beecher and Horatio Foot. Other Congregational ministers who came to t'^e State at an early day were Rev. Salmon Gridley, who finally located at St. Louis; Rev. John M. Ellis, who served as a missionary and was instrumental in founding Illinois College and the Jacksonville Female Seminary at Jacksonville; Revs. Thomas Lippincott, Cjtus L. Watson, Theron Baldwin, Elisha Jenney. William Kirlw, the two Lovejoys (Owen and Elijah P.). and many more of whom, either temporarily or permanently, became associated with Presbyterian churches. Although Illinois College was under the united patronage of Presbyterians and Congregational-

tion to regular practice, maintaining a high rank


in his profession.

ment were

COXGER, Edwin Hurd, lawyer and diplomatist, was born in Knox County. III., March?, 1843;

true of

Butler, Bates County, Mo., wliere he served three years as Citj' Attorney, but, in 1873, returned to Illinois, locating in Hyde Park (now a part of Chicago), where he served as City Attorney for four consecutive terms before its annexation to Chicago. In 1880, he was elected as a Republican to the State Senate for the Second Senatorial District, serving in the Thirtysecond and the Thirty-third General Assemblies. tice at

graduated at Lombard University, Galesburg. in 1862, and immediately thereafter enlisted as a


the leading spirits in


original establish-

Congregationalists, and the


College at Galesburg.

same was

In 1835. at

Big Grove, in an unoccupied log-cabin, was convened the first Congregational Council, known in the denominational history of tlie State as



that of Fox River. Since tlien some twelve to fifteen separate Associations have been organized. By 1890, the development of the denomination had been such that it had 280 churches, support-

ing 312 ministers, with 33, 126 members. During that year the disbursements on account of charities and liome extension, by the Illinois churclie-S, were nearly .$1,000,000. The Chicago Theological Seminary, at Chicago, is a Congregational school of divinity, its projMjrty holdings being worth nearly §700,000. "The Advance" (published at Chicago) is the chief denominational organ.

Mr. Lincoln was fittingly illustrated by his position for over thirty years as an original member of the Lincoln Monument Association. Other

public positions held by him included those of State -Agent during the Civil War by appointment of Governor Yates, Trustee of the State University at

Champaign, and of Blackburn University at

Carlinville. as also that of

Postmaster of the city


which he was appointed in 1890, continuing in oflice four years. High-minded and honorable, of pure personal character and strong religious convictions, public-spirited and liberal, probably no man did more to promote the growth and prosperity of the city of Spring-

Ax)portionment, Congressional; also Re^iresentatives in Congress.) CONKLI.XtJ, James Cook, lawyer, wa,'- born in New York City, Oct. 13, ISIG; graduated at Princeton College in 1835, and, after studying law and being admitted to the bar at Morristown, N. J. in

during the sixty years of his residence there, than he. His death, as a result of old age, occurred in that city, March 1, 1899.— Clinton L. (Conkling), son of the preceding, was born in Springfield, Oct. IG, 1843; graduated at Y'ale College in 18G4, studied law with his father, and

Here his first business partner was Cyrus Walker, an eminent and widely known lawyer of his time, while at a later period he was associatei7iiilioiis







to Springfield,


Mr. Lincoln addressed his celebrated by his special request, Mr. Conkling read before the great Union ma.ss-meeting at Springfield, held, Sept. 3, 18G3, now known as the tliat



"Lincoln-C'onkling Letter." Mr. Conkling was chosen Mayor of the city of Springfield in 1844, and served in the lower branch of the Seventeenth and the Twenty-fifth General Assemblies (ISril and 1807). It was largely due to his tactful management in the latter, that the first approjtriation was made for the new State House, which established tlie capital permanently in that city. At the Blooniington Convention of ISoG, where the Republican party in Illinois may be said to have been formally organized, with Mr. Lincoln and three others, he represented Sangamon County, served on the Committee on Resolutions, and was apixjinted a member of the State Central Committee which conducted the campaign of that year. In 18G0, and again in 18G4, his name was on the Republican State ticket for Presidential Elector, and, on both occasions, it became his duty to cast the electoral vote of Mr. Lincoln's own District for him for President. The intimacy of personal friendship existing between him and

of Springfield, to




attention of late years to real and has represented large land interests in this and other States. For many

estate business,

he was Secretary of the Lincoln Monument and has served on the Board of Count}- Supervisors, which is the only political office he has held. In 1897 he was the Republican nominee for Judge of the Springfield Circuit, but, although confessedly a man of the highest probity and ability, was defeated in a district overwlielmingly Democratic. CO>'NOLLY, James Austin, lawyer and Congressman, was born in Newark, N. J., March 8, 1843; went with his parents to Ohio in 1850, where, in 1858-59, he served as Assistant Clerk of tlie State Senate; studied law and was admitted to the bar in that State in 1861, and soon after removed to Illinois; the following year (1862) he enlisted as a private soldier in the One Hundred and Twenty-third Illinois Volunteers, but was successively commissioned as Captain and Major, retiring with the rank of brevet LieutenantColonel. In 1872 he was elected Representative in the State Legislature from Coles County and yeiirs



in 1874; was United States District Attorney for the Southern District of Illinois from 1876 to 188.-), and again from 1889 to 1893; in 1886 was appointed and confirmed Solicitor of


the Treasury, but declined the office; the same year ran as the Republican canili late for Con-



gress in the Springfield (then the Thirteenth) M. Springer, and District in opposition to

people of Illinois Territory to organize a State

was defeated by

than 1,000 votes in a district usually Democratic by 3,000 majority. He declined a second nomination in 1888, but, in 1894, was nominated for a third time (this time for the Seventeenth District), and was elected, as he was for a second term in 1896. He declined a renomina-

duced, April 7, and became a law, April 18, following. the people to frame a It authorized Constitution and organize a State Government apportioning the Delegates to be elected from each of the fifteen counties into which the Ter-

tion in 1898, returning to the practice of his pro-

of July, following, as the day of election,

fession at Springfield at the close of the Fifty-fifth





CONSTABLE, Charles H., lawyer, was born at Chestertown, Md.,July 6, 1817; educated at Belle Air Academy and the University of Virginia, graduating from the latter in 1838. Then, having studied law, he was admitted to the bar, came to Illinois early in 1840, locating at Mount Carmel, Wabash County, and, in 1844, was elected to the State Senate for the district composed of Wabash, Edwards and Wayne Counties, serving until 1848. He also served as a Delegate in the Constitutional Convention of 1847. Originally a Whig, on the dissolution of that party in 1854, he became a Democrat; in 18.56, served as Presidential Elector-at-large on the Buchanan ticket and, during the Civil War, was a pronounced opponent of the policy of the Government in dealing with secession. Having removed to Marshall, Clark County, in 1852, he continued the practice of his profession there, but was elected Judge of the Circuit Court in 1861, serving until his death, which occurred, Oct. 9, 1865. While holding court at Charleston, in March, 1863, Judge Con-

was arrested because of his release of four from the army, and the holding to bail, on the charge of kidnaping, of two Union officers who had arrested them. He was subsequently released by Judge Treat of the United States stable


District Court at Springfield, but the affair culriot at Charleston, on March 32, in which four soldiers and three citizens were killed outright, and eight persons were wounded.

minated in a



has had four State Conventions called for the purpose of formulating State Constitutions. Of these, three— those of 1818, 1847 and 1869-70— adopted Constitutions which went into effect, while the instrument framed by the Convention of 1863 was rejected by the people. A synoptical history of each will be found below: Convention op 1818. In January, 1818, the Territorial Legislature adopted a resolution instructing the Delegate in Congress (Hon. Nathaniel Pope) to present a petition to Congress requesting the passage of an act authorizing the




was then


to this



naming the





and the August as the time for the meeting of the Convention. The act was conditioned upon a census of the people of the Territory (to be ordered by the Legislature), showing a population of not less than 40,000. The census, as taken, showed the required population, but, as finally corrected, this was reduced to 34,630 being the smallest with which any State was ever admitted into the Union. The election took place on July 6, 1818, and the Convention assembled at Kaskaskia on August 3. It consisted of thirty-three members. Of these, a majority were



limited education, but with a fair hard common-sense. Five of the Delegates were lawyers, and these xmdoubtedly

farmers of portion





Thomas (afterwards one




United States Senators) presided, and Elias Kent Kane, also a later Senator, was among the dominating spirits. It has been asserted that to the latter should be ascribed whatever new matter was incorporated in the instrument, it being copied in most of its essential provisions from the Constitutions of Ohio, Kentucky and Indiana. The Convention completed its labors and adjourned, August 26, the Constitution was submitted to Congress by Delegate John McLean, without the formality of ratification by the people, and Illinois was admitted into the Union as a State by resolution of Congress, adopted Dec. 3, 1818. Convention of 1847. An attempt was made in of



1822 to obtain a revision of the Constitution of 1818, the object of the chief promoters of the

movement being

to secure the incorporation of a provision authorizing the admission of slavery into Illinois. The passage of a resolution, bj' the necessary two-thirds vote of both Houses of the

General Assembly, submitting the proposition to a vote of the people, was secured by the most questionable methods, at the session of 1823, but after a heated campaign of nearly two years, it was rejected at the election of 1824. (See Slavery and Slave Laws; also Coles, Edivard.) At tlie session of 1840-41, another resolution on the subject was submitted to the people, but it was rejected by the narrow margin of 1,039



Again, in 1845, the question was submitlii-tO, was approved. The election of delegates occurred, April 19, 1847,

lay before them. The instrument drafted proposed numerous impi)rtant changes in the organic law, and was generally regarded as objectionable.

and the Convention met at Springfield, June 19, following. It was composed of 102 members, ninety-two of whom were Democrats. The list of Delegates embraced the names of many who



ted, and, at the election of

afterwards attained high distinction in public affairs, and the bodj-, as a whole, was representative in character. The Bill of Rights attached to the Constitution of 1818 was but little changed in its successor, except by a few additions, among which was a section disqualifying any person who had been concerned in a duel from holding ever,




howand several important these may be mentioned

earlier Constitution,

carefully revised

changes made.


the following: Limiting the elective franclii.se for foreign-born citizens to those who had become naturalized; making the jiidiciarj- elective; reiiuiring that all State officers be elected by the people; changing tlio time of the election

and making liim ineligilile for immediate re-election; various curtailments of the power of the Legislature: imposing a twomill tax for payment of the State debt, and pro-

of the Executive,

was rejected at an election held, June 17, 1863, by a majority of over 16,000 votes. Convention of 1869-70. The second attempt

to revise the Constitution of 1848 resulted in submission to the people, by the Legislature of 1867, of a proposition for a Convention, whicli was

approved at the election of 1868 by a bare majority of 704 votes. Tlie election of Delegates was provided for at the next session (1869), the election held in Noveml)er and the Convention assembled at Springfield, Dec. 13. Charles Hitchcock was chosen President, John Q. Harmon, Secretary, and Daniel Shepard and A. H.

.Swain, First

and Second

eighty-five memters, of



Republicans and forty -one Democrats, although had been elected nominally as "Independents." It was an a.s.semblage of some of the ablest men of the State, including repre.sentatives of all the learned professions except the clerical, besides merchants, farmers, bankers and journalists. Its work was completed May 13, 1870, and fifteen

in the

main good.

Some of


principal clianges

viding for the establishment of a sinking fund. The Constitution framed was adopted in convention, August ;31. 184T; ratilied by popular vote, March (i, 1848, and went into effect, April 1, 1848. The proposition for CosvEXTlo.N OF ISG'v.


holding a third Constitutional Convention was submitted to vote of the people by the Legislature of 1859, endorsed at the election of 1860, and the election of Delegates held in November, 1861. In the excitement attendant upon the early events of the war, jieople i)aid comparatively little attention to the choice of its members. It was composed of forty-five Democrats, twenty-one Rei>ublicans, seven "fusionists" and two classed The Convention assembled at as doubtful.

in reference to divorces, lotteries

and remained in sesIt was in many respects a remarkable body. The law providing for its existence prescribed that the members, before proceeding to b\isine.ss, should take an Springlield on Jan.

sion until






oath to support the State Constitution. This tlie majority refused to do. Their conception of their powers was such that they seriously deliberated upon electing a L^nited States Senator, as-sumed to make ap|)roi)riations from the State treasury, claimed the right to interfere with military affairs, and called upon the Governor for information concerning claims of the Illinois Central Railroad, which the Executive refused to

There were

forty-four were

fundamental law, as projiosed by the Convention, were tlie following: Tlie prohibition of special legislation where a general law


in the



to cover the necessities of the case,

and the absolute

proliibition of

such legislation and a score of

other matters; prohibition of the pas.sage of any law releasing any civil division (district, county, city, township or town) from the payment of its just proportion of any State tax; recommendations to the Legislature to enact laws upon certain specified subjects, such as liberal Immestead and exeiiipticm rights, tlie construction of drains, the regulation of charges on railways (whicli were declared to be public highways), declaring all elevators and storehouses etc., etc. public warehouses, and proviiling for their legislative inspection and supervision. The maintenance of an "efficient system of public schools" was made obligatory uikiii the Legislature, and the appropriation of any funds .State, municipal, town or district to the support of sectarian ;




The principle



lative voting, or "minority representation." in

the choice of members of the House of Representwas provided for, and additional safeguards thrown around the pa.ssage of bills. The ineligibility of the Governor to re-election for a second consecutive term was set aside, and a atives




HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. two-thirds vote of the Legislature made necessary to override an executive veto. The list of State officers was increased by the creation of the offices of Attorney-General and Superintendent of Public Instruction, these having been previously provided for only by statute. The Supreme Court bench was increased by the addition of four members, making the whole number of Supreme Court judges seven; Appellate Courts authorized after 1874, and County Courts were made courts of record. The compensation of all State officers executive, judicial and legislative was left discretionary with the Legislature, and no limit was placed upon the length of the .sessions of the General Assembl}-. The instrument drafted by the Convention was ratified at an election held, July 6, 1870, and went into force, August 8, following. Occasional amendments have been submitted and ratified from time to

(See Constitutions. Elections


and Repre-

sentation: also Minoritii Representation.)




has had three con-

— that of 1870 being now (1898)


in force.

instrument was that approved by

Congress in 1818, and the first revision was made the Constitution having been ratified at an election held, March .5, 1848, and going into Tiie term of State force, April 1, following. officers has been uniformly fixed at four years, except that of Treasurer, which is two years. Biennial elections and sessions of the General Assembly are provided for, Senators holding their seats for four years, and Representatives two years. The State is required to be apportioned after each decennial census into fifty-one districts, each of which elects one Senator and three Representatives. The principle of minority representation has been incorporated into the organic law, each elector being allowed to cast as many votes for one legislative candidate as there are Representatives to be chosen in his district or ho may divide his vote equall}' among all the three candidates or between two of tl'em, as he may see fit. One of the provisions of the Constitution of 1870 is the inhibition of tlie General Assembly from passing private laws. Municiin 1847

palities are classified,


legislation is for


a class, not for an individual corporaIndividual citizens with a financial grievtion. ance must secure payment of their claims under the terms of some general appropriation. The sessions of the Legislature are not limited as to time, nor is there any restriction upon the power of the Executive to summon extra sessions. '(See also Constitutional Conventions; Elections: cities of

Governors and other System; Suffrage, Etc.


119 Officers;


COOK, Burton C, lawyer and Congressman, in Monroe Count}', N. Y. May 11, 1819;

was born


completed his academic education at the Collegiate Institute in Rochester, and after studying

removed to Illinois (1835), locating first at Hennepin and later at Ottawa. Here he began the practice of his profession, and, in 1846, was elected by the Legislature State's Attorney for the Ninth Judicial District, serving two j'ears, when, in 1848, he was re-elected by the people under the Constitution of that year, for four years. From 1852 to 1800. he was State Senator, taking part in the election which resulted in making Lj-man Trumbull United States Senator law,

In 1861 he served as one of the Peace Commissioners from'lllinois in the Conference wliich met at Washington. He ma}' be called one of the founders of the Republican party in this State, having been a member of tlie State Central Committee appointed at Bloomington in 1856, and Cliairman of the State Central Committee in 1862. In 1864, lie was elected to Congress, and re-elected in 1866, "68 and '70, but in 1855.

resigned in 1871 to accept


solioitorship of the

Northwestern Railroad, which he resigned in 1886. He was an intimate friend of Abraham Lincoln, serving as a delegate to both the National Conventions which nominated him for the Presidency, and presenting his name at Baltimore in 1864. His death occurred at Evanston. August 18,


COOK, Daniel Pope,

early Congressman, was born in Scott County, Ky., in 1795, removed to Illinois and began the practice of law at Kaskaskia in 1815. Early in 1816, he became joint owner

and editor of "The Illinois Intelligencer, and at the same time served as Auditor of Public Accounts by appointment of Governor Edwards the next year (1817) was sent by President Monroe as bearer of dispatches to John Quincy Adams, then minister to London, and, on his return, was •


appointed a Circuit Judge. On the admission of the State he was elected the first AttorneyGeneral, but almost immediately resigned and, in September, 1819, was elected to Congress, serving as Representative until 1837. Having married a daughter of Governor Edwards, he became a resident of Edwardsville. He was a conspicuous opponent of the proposition to make Illinois a slave State in 1823-34, and did much to prevent the success of that scheme. He also bore a prominent part while in Congress in securing the donation of lands for the construction of the



& Michigan

He was distinguished and it was during his tirst Congressional campaign that stump-speaking was Suffering from introduced into the State. Illinois


for his eloquence,


This theory


of stratified beds of coal

and southern

borne out by the finding

and gravel

in the eastern

jxirtions of the county, either under-

lying the prairies or assuming the form of ridges. latter, geologists maintain, indicate the existence of an ancient kej-, and they conclude that, at one time, the level of the lake was nearly forty feet higher than at present. Glacial action is

consumption, he visited Cuba, and, after returning to his home at Edwardsville and failing to improve, he went to Kentucky, wliere he died, Oct. 16, 1827.— John (Cook), soldier, born at Edwardsville, III. June 12, 182.5, the son of Daniel P. Cook, the second Congressman from Illinois, and grandson of Gov. Xinian Edwards,


was educated by private tutors and at Illinois College in 1855 was elected Mayor of Springfield and the following year Sheriff of Sangamon

abundance. Athens marble (white wlien taken out, but growing a rich yellow through exposure) is found in the southwest. Isolated beds of peat have also been found. The general surface is level, although undulating in some portions. The .soil near the lake is sandy, but in the interior becomes a black mold from one to four feet in depth. Drainage is afforded by tlie Des Plaines, Chicago and Calumet Rivers, which is now being improved by the construction of the Drainage Canal. Manufactures and agriculture are the


County, later serving as Quartermaster of the Raising a company promptly after the firing on Fort Sumter in IHOl, he was commissioned Colonel of the Seventh Illinois Volunteers the first regiment organized in Illinois under the first call for troops by President Lincoln was promoted Brigadier-General for gallantry at Fort Donelson in March, 18G2; in 1864 commanded the District of Illinois, with headquarters at Springfield, being mustered out, August, 1865, with the brevet rank of Major-Oeneral. General Cook was elected to the lower house of the General Assembly from Sangamon County, in 1868. During recent years )iis home lias been in Michigan. State.



situated in the northeastern

believed to have been very effective in establishing surface conditions in this vicinity. Lime-

stone and building stone are quarried in tolerable

principal industries outside of the city of Chi(See also Chicago.)




in Chi-

cago and under control of the Commissioners of Cook County. It was originally erected by the City of Chicago, at a cost of §80,000, and was intended to be used as a hospital for patients

section of the State, bordering on Lake Micliigan, and being the most easterly of the second tier of

suffering from

counties south of the Wisconsin State line. It has an area of 890 square miles; population (1890), 1,191,922; (1900), 1,838,735; county-seat, Chicago.

it was leased by an association of physicians, who opened a hospital, with the further purpose of

The county was organized in 1831, having originally embraced the counties of Du Page, Will, Lake, McHenry and Irotiuois, in addition to its present territorial limits. It was named in honor of Daniel P. Cook, a distinguished Representative of

Daniel P. )









(See Cook,

first County Commissioners were Gholson Kercheval and James



oath of office before Justice

John S. C. Hogan, on March 8, 1831. William Lee was appointed Clerk and Archibald Clybourne Treasurer. Jedediah Wormley was first County Surveyor, and three election districts (Chicago, Du Page and Hickory Creek) were created. A scow ferry was established across the South Branch, with Mark Beaubien as ferryman. Only non-residents were required to pay toll. Geologists are of the opinion that, previous to the glacial epoch, a large portion of the county lay under the waters of Lake Michigan, whicli was connected with the Mississippi by the Des Pkines

infectious diseases.



3ears the building was unoccupied, but, in 1858,

affording facilities for clinical instruction to the students of Rush Medical College. In 1863 tlie

building was taken by the General Government for military purposes, lieing used as an eye and ear hospital for returning soldiers. In 1865 it reverted to the City of Chicago, and, in 1806, was purchased by Cook Countj'. In 1874 the County Commissioners purcha.sed a new and more spacious site at a cost of $145,000, and began the erection of buildings tliereon. The two principal

and occupied tefore the amphitheater and connecting corridors were built in 1876-77, and an administrative building and two additional pavilions were addeil in 1882-84. L^p to that date the total cost of the buildings had been .'?719,574, and later additions and improvements liave swelled the outlay to more than §1,000,000. It accommodates about 800 patients and constitutes a part of the county machinery for t)ie care of pavilions were completed close of









of beds are placed

under the care of homeopathic physicians.




present (1896) allopathic medical staff consists of fifteen physicians, fifteen surgeons, one oculist and aurist and one pathologist the homeopathic staff comprises five physicians and five surgeons.

and finally in the city of Quincy in 1842 took a prominent part in the campaign which resulted in tlie election of Thomas Ford as Governor also received from Governor Carlin an appointment as

In addition, there is a large corps of internes, or physicians and surgeons, composed of recent graduates from the several medical col-

Quartermaster-General of the State. On the accession of Governor French in December, 1846,





he was appointed Secretary of State and elected same oflice under the Constitution of 1848, dying before the expiration of his term, April 2,

gain their positions through competitive examination and hold them for eighteen

to the




COOKE, Edward Dean, lawyer and man, born


Dubuque County, Iowa,

CongressOct. 17,

was educated in the common schools and Dubuque studied law in that city and at Columbian University, Washington, D. C, graduating from that institution with the degree of Bachelor of Laws, and was admitted to the bar in Washington in 1873. Coming to Chicago the same year, he entered upon the practice of his profession, which lie pursued for the remainder of his life. In 1882 he was elected a 1849;

the high school of


Representative in the State Legislature from Cook County, serving one term was elected as a ;

Republican to the Fifty-fourth Congress for the Sixth District (Chicago), in 1894, and re-elected in His death occurred suddenly while in 1896. attendance on the extra session of Congress in Washington, June 24, 1897. COOLBAUGH, William Findlay, financier, was born in Pike County, Pa., July 1, 1831; at the age of 15 became clerk in a dry-goods store in Philadelphia, but, in 1842, opened a branch establishment of a New York firm at Burlington, Iowa, where he afterwards engaged in the banking business, also serving in the Iowa State Constitutional Convention, and, as the candidate of his party for United States Senator, being defeated by Hon. James Harlan by one vote. In 18G2 he came to Chicago and opened tlie banking house of W. F. Coolbaugh & Co. which, in 1865, became the Union National Bank of Chicago. Later he became the first President of the Chicago Clearing House, as also of the Bankers' ,

Association of the West and South, a Director of the Board of Trade, and an original incorporator of the Chamber of Commerce, besides being a member of the State Constitutional Convention of 1869-70. His death by suicide, at the foot of Douglas Monument, Nov. 14, 1877, was a shock to the whole city of Chicago. COOLEY, Horace S., Secretary of State, was born in Hartford, Conn., in 1806, studied medicine for two years in early life, then went to Bangor, Maine, where he began the study of law in 1840 he came to Illinois, locating first at Rushville ;

CORBUS, (Dr.) J. C., physician, was born in Holmes County, Ohio, in 1833, received his primary education in the public schools, followed by an academic course, and began the study of medicine at Millersburg, finally graduating from the Western Reserve Medical College at Cleveland. In 1855 he began practice at Orville, Ohio, but the same year located at Mendota, 111., soon thereafter removing to Lee County, where he remained until 1862. Tlie latter year he was appointed Assistant Surgeon of the Seventy-fifth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, but was soon promoted to the position of Surgeon, though compelled to resign the following year on account of ill health. Returning from the army, he located at Mendota. Dr. Corbus served continuously as a member of the State Board of Public Charities from 1873 until the accession of Governor Altgeld to the Governorship in 1893, when he resigned. He was also, for fifteen years, one of the Medical Examiners for his District under the Pension Bureau, and has served as a member of the Republican State Central Committee for the Mendota District. In 1897 he was complimented by Governor Tanner by reappointment to the State Board of Charities, and was made President of the Board.

Early in 1899 he was appointed Superintendent of the Eastern Hospital for the Insane at Kankakee, as successor to Dr. William G. Stearns.


Paul, real-estate operator and capiwas born of English Quaker ancestry in Washington County, N. Y.,_ August 5, 1822; at 9 years of age removed with his step-father, Dr. Barry, to Ohio, and five years later to Adams County, 111. Here young Cornell lived the life of a farmer, working part of the year to earn money talist,

to send himself to school the

remainder; also taught for a time, then entered tlie office of W. A. Richardson, at Rushville, Schuyler County, as a law student. In 1845 he came to Chicago, but soon after became a student in the law office of Wilson & Henderson at Joliet, and was admitted to practice in that city. Removing to Chicago in 1847, he was associated, successively, with the late



Judge James H. Collins and Hoyne; finally entered into a contract with Judge Skinner to perfect tlie title to L.




Messrs. Skinner


320 acres of land held under tax-title within the present limits of Hyde Park, which he succeeded in doing by visiting tlie original owners, thereby securing one-half of the proijerty in his own name. He thus became the founder of the village of Hyde Park, meanwhile adding to his possessions other lands, which increased vastly in value. He also established a watch factory at Cornell (no%v a part of Chicago), which did a large business until removed to California. Mr. Cornell was a memljer of the first Park Board, and therefore has the credit of assisting to organize Chicago's extensive park system. COR WIN, Franklin, Congre.ssman, was born at

Lebanon, Ohio, Jan. 12, 1818, and admitted to the bar at the age of 21. While a resident of Ohio he served in both Houses of the Legislature, and settled in Illinois in 1857,


He was







of the lower house of

the Twentj^-fourth, Tuenty-lifth and Twentysixth General Assemblies, being Speaker in 1867, and again in 18ii!). In 1872 he was elected to Congress as a Republican, but, in 1874, was defeated by Alexander Campbell, who made the race as an Independent. Died, at Peru, 111., June 15,


COUCH, James, pioneer at Fort Edward, N. Y.. to

Chautauqua County,


August in the

31, 1800;


was born removed

stage-house keeper, lumber-dealer, and in the disbusiness, in 1836, in comi)any with his younger brother, Ira, he visited Clucago. They both decided to go into business there, first ojiening a small store, and later entering upon their hotel ventures which proved so eminently successful, and gave the Tremont House of Chicago Mr. Couch so wide and enviable a reputation. tilling

superintended for his brother Ira the erection, at various times, of many large business blocks in the city. Upon the death of his brotlier, in 1857, he was made one of the trustees of his estate, and, with other trustees, rebuilt the Tremont House In April. 1892, after the Chicago fire of 1871. while boarding a street car in the central part of the city of Chicago, he was run over bj- a truck, receiving injuries which resulted in his death the same day at the Tremont House, in the 92d year of his age. Ira (Couch), younger brother of the preceding, was born in Saratoga Coimty,

At the age

of sixteen he

to a tailor, and, in 1826, set up

on his own account. In 1836, while Chicago with his brother James, he determined to go into business there. With a stock of furnishing goods and tailors' supplies, newly bought in New York, a small store was in business


opened. This business soon disposed of, 5Ir. Couch, with his brother, obtained a lease of the old Tremont House, then a low frame building kept as a saloon boarding house. Changed and refurnished, this

was opened as a




destroyed by fire in 1839, as was al.so the larger rebuilt structure in 1849. A second time rebuilt, and on a mucli larger and grander scale at a cost of §75,000, surpassing any thing the AVest had ever known before, the Tremont House this time stood until the Chicago fire in 1871, when it was again destroyed. Mr. Couch at all times enjoyed an immense patronage, and was able to accumulate (for that time) a large fortune. He jmrchased and improved a large number of business blocks, then within the business center of the city. In 1853 he retired from active business, and, in consequence of impaired health, chose for the rest of his life to seek recreation in travel. In the winter of 1857, while with his family in Havana, Cuba, he was taken with a fever which soon ended his life. His remains now rest in a mausoleum of masonry in Lincoln Park, Chicago.

COULTERVILLE,a town of Randolph County,

State, wliere

he remained until Ids twentieth year, receiving a fair English education. After engaging successively, but witli indifferent success, as hotel-clerk,

N. Y., Nov. 22, 1806.

was apprenticed

tlie crossing of the Centralia it Chester and the St. Louis & Paducah branch Illinois Central Railways, 49 miles southeast of St. Louis. Farming and coal-mining are the leading industries. The town has two banks, two creameries, and a newspaper Population (1890). 598; (1900), 6.50. COrXTIES, UXORGAXIZEl). (See Unorgmi-


ized Counties.)


village of Shelby County, at the

& Oliio .Southwestern and the Toledo, St. Louis & Western Railways, 60 miles southeast of Springfield. Conintersection of the Baltimore

is mined in the vicinity; has a bank and a weekly paper. Population (1880),

siderable coal

350; (1890), 702; (1900), 751.

COWLES, .\lfre(i, newsi)aper manager, was born in Portage County. Ohio, May 13. 1832, grew up on a farm and, after spending some time at Michigan L'niversity. entered the office of "The Cleveland Leader" as a clerk; in 18,55 accepted a similar position on "The Chicago Tribune," wliich had just been bought by Joseph Jledill and others, finally becoming a stockholder and busi-

HISTOEICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. ness manager of the paper, so remaining until his death in ChicaKC Dec. 20, 1889.

COX, Thomas, pioneer. Senator in tlie First General Assembly of Illinois (1818-22) from Union County, and a conspicuous figure in early State histor}' was a zealous advocate of the policy of making Illinois a slave State became one of the original proprietors and founders of the city of Springfield, and was appointed tiie first Register of the Land Office there, but was removed under charges of misconduct after liis retirement from the Land OflSce, kejit a hotel at Springfield. In 1886 he removed to Iowa (then a part of Wisconsin Territory), became a member of the first Territorial Legislature there, was twice re-elected and once SjDeaker of the House, being prominent ;



in 1840 as


of the "Regulators"'


drove out a gang of murderers and desperadoes who had got possession at Bellevue, Iowa. Died, at Maquoketa, Iowa, 1843. COT, Irus, lawyer, was born in Chenango County, N. Y., July 2.5, 1832; educated in the common schools and at Central College, Cortland County, N. Y., graduating in law at Albany in 1857. Then, having removed to Illinois, he located in Kendall County and began practice in 1868 was elected to the lower house of the General A.ssembly and, in 1872, served as Presidential Elector on the Republican ticket; removed to Chicago in 1871, later serving as attorney of the Union Stock Yards and Transit Company. Died, in Chicago, Sept. 20, 1897. CRAFTS, Clayton E., legislator and politician, born at Auburn, Geauga County, Ohio, July 8, 1848 was educated at Hiram College and graduated from the Cleveland Law School in 1868, coming to Chicago in 1869. Mr. Crafts served in seven consecutive sessions of the General Assembly (1883-95, inclusive) as Representative from Cook County, and was elected by the Democratic majority as Speaker, in 1891, and again in '93. CRAIG, AKred M., jurist, was born in Edgar County, 111., Jan. 15, 1831, graduated from Knox College in 1853, and was admitted to the bar in the following year, commencing practice at Knoxville. He held the offices of State's Attorney and County Judge, and represented Knox County in the Constitutional Convention of 1869-70. In 1873 he was elected to the bench of the Supreme Court, as successor to Justice C. B. Lawrence, and was re-elected in '82 and '91 his present term expiring with the century. He is a Democrat in politics, but has been three times elected in a Republican judicial ;






Charles H., lawyer and legislawas born in Bennington, Vt., but reared in Bureau and La Salle Counties, 111. has practiced law for twenty years in Chicago, and been three times elected to the State Senate 1884, "88 and '94 — and is author of the Crawford Primary Election Law, enacted in 1885. tor,


CRAWFORD COUNTY, a southeastern county, bordering on the Wabash, 190 miles nearly due south of Chicago named for William H. Crawford, a Secretary of War. It has an area of 452 square miles; population (1900), 19,240. The first settlers were the French, but later came emigrants from New England. The soil is rich and well adapted to the production of corn and wlieat, which are the principal crops. The count}' was organized in 1817, Darwin being the first county-seat. The present county-seat is Robinson, with a population (1890) of 1,387; centrally located and the point of intersection of two railroads. Other towns of importance are Palestine (population, 734) and Hutsonville (population, 582). The latter, as well as Robinson, is a grain-shipping point. The Embarras River crosses the southwest portion of the county, and receives the waters of Big and Honey Creeks and Bushy Fork. The county has no mineral resources, but contains some valuable woodland and many well cultivated farms. Tobacco, potatoes, sorghum and wool are among the leading products. CREAL SPRINGS, a village of Williamson County, on the St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad has a bank and a weekly paper. Popu-


lation (1800), 539; (1900). 940.

CREBS, John M., ex-Congressman, was born in Middleburg, Loudoun County, Va., April 7, 1830. When he was but 7 j-ears old his parents removed to Illinois, where he ever after resided. At the age of 21 he began the study of law, and, in 1852, was admitted to the bar, beginning practice in W^hite County. In 1863 he enlisted in the Eighty-seventh Illinois Volunteers, receiving a commission as Lieutenant-Colonel, jxirticipating in all the important movements in the Mississippi Valle}-, including the capture of Vicksburg, and in the Arkansas campaign, a part of the time commanding a brigade. Returning home, he resumed the practice of his profession. In 1866 he was an unsuccessful candidate for State Superintendent of Public Instruction on the Democratic ticket. He was elected to Congress in 1868 and re-elected in 1870, and. in 1880, was a delegate to the Democratic State Convention, Died, June 26, 1890.




CREKwHTOX, James Wliite County,

removed with was educated


A., jurist,



his parents to

was bom


childhood County, and

184fi; in


in the schools at Fairfield

and at

the Southern Illinois College, Salem, graduating from the latter in 1868. After teaching for a time while studying law, he was admitted to the bar in 1870, and opened an office at Fairfield, but, in 1877, removed to Springfield. In 1885 he was elected a Circuit Judge for the Springfield Circuit, was re-elected in 1891 and again in 1897. CRERAR, John, manufacturer and philanthropist, was born of Scotch ancestry in New York City, in 1827; at 18 years of age was an employe of an iron-importing firm in that city, subsequently accepting a position with Morris K. Jessup & Co., in the same line. Coming to Chicago in 1863, in partnership with J. McGregor Adams, he succeeded to the business of Jessup & Co., in that city, also becoming a partner in the

Adams & Westlake Company, iron manufacturHe also became interested and an official in


various other business organizations, including the Pullman Palace Car Company, the Chicago & Alton Kailroad, the Illinois Trust and Savings Bank, and, for a time, was President of the Chicago & Joliet Railroad, besides being identified with various benevolent institutions and associations. After the fire of 1871. he was intrusted by the New York Chamber of Commerce with the custody of funds sent for the relief of sufferers bj' that calamity. His integrity and business sagacity were universally recognized. After his deiith, which occurred in Chicago, Oct. 19, 1889, it was found that, after making munificent bequests to some twenty religious and benevolent associations and enterprises, aggregating nearly a million dollars, besides liberal legacies to relatives, he had left the residue of his estate, amounting to some S2. 000.000, for the purpose of founding a public library in the city of Chicago, n&ming thirteen of his most intimate friends as the first Board of Trustees. No more fitting and livsting monument of so noble and public-spirited a man could have been devised. CRETE, a village of Will County, on the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad, 30 miles south of Chicago. Population (1890), 642; (1900), 760. CROOK, (ieorfire, soldier, was born near Dayton, Ohio, Sept. 8, 1828; graduated at the United

Academy, West Point, in 1852, and Second Lieutenant to the Fourth Infantry, becoming full Second Lieuten-

.States Military

was assigned

as brevet

ant in l.s.");{. In 1861 he entered the volunteer service as Colonel of the Thirty-sixth Ohio Infan-

was promoted Brigadier-General in 1802 and JIajor-Geueral in 1864, being mustered out of the try;

1806. During the war he some of the most important battles in West Virginia and Tennessee, fought at Chickamauga and Antietam, and commanded the cavalry in the advance on Richmond in the





spring of 1805. On being mustered out of the volunteer service lie returned to the regular army, was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel of the Twenty-third Infantrj-, and, for several years, was engaged in campaigns again.st the hostile Indians in the Northwest and in Arizona. In 1888 he was appointed Major-General and, from that time to his death, was in command of the MilitarjDivision of the Missouri, with headcjuarters at Chicago, where he died, March 19, 1890.

CROSIAR, Simon, Pittsburg,


was born near

in the latter part

of the last century; removed to Ohio in 1815 and to Illinois Pa.,

Cap au Gris, a French on the Mississippi just above the mouth of the Illinois in what is now Calhoun County in 1819, settling first at


later lived at Peoria (1824). at Ottawa (1826), at Shippingport near the present city of La Salle (1829), and at Old Utica (1834); in the meanwhile built one or two mills on Cedar Creek in La Salle County, kept a storage and commission house, and, for a time, acted as Captain of a steamboat plying on the Illinois. Died, in 1846. CRYSTAL LAKE, a village in McHenry County, at the intersection of two divisions of the Chic^igo & Northwestern Railway, 43 miles northwest of Chicago. Population (1880), ,546; (1890), 781; (1900), 950.

CUBA, a town in Fulton County, distant 38 miles west-southwest of Peoria, and about 8 miles north of Lewistown. The entire region (includ underlaid with a good ((uality of which the late State Geologist Worthen asserted that, in seven townships of Fulton County, there are 9.000.000 tons to the

ing the town)



coal, of

square mile, within


and cigars are made

feet of the surface.


and the town has two banks, a newspaper, three churches and good








(1903, school census). 1,400.

CULLEX, William, editor and Congressman, born in the nortli of Ireland, March 4, 1826; while yet a child was brought by his parents to Pittsburg, Pa., where he wsis eduavted in the public schools. At the age of 20 he removed to La Salle County, 111, and began life as a farmer. Later he took up his residence at Ottawa. He lias served as Sheriff of La Salle County, and held


other local


owner and

senior editor of





years a part

"The Ottawa Repub-

1881 to 1883, as a Republican, he

represented the Eighth


District in Con-


CULLOM, Richard legislator,

was born in

Nortlicraft, farmer tlie


State of Maryland,

1795, but early removed to Wayne Ky., where he was married to Miss Elizabeth Coffey, a native of North Carolina. In 1830 he removed to Illinois, settling near Washington, Tazewell County, where he continued to reside during the remainder of his life. Although a farmer by vocation, Mr. Cullom was a man of prominence and a recognized leader in public affairs. In 183G he was elected as a Whig Representative in the Tenth General Assembly, serving in the same body with Abraham Lincoln, of whom he was an intimate personal and political friend. In 18^0 he was chosen a member of the State Senate, serving in the Twelfth and Thirteenth General Assemblies, and, in 1853, was again elected to the House. Mr. Cullom's death occurred in Tazewell County, Dec. 4, 18T3, his wife having died Dec. 5, 1868. Mr. and Mrs. Cullom were the parents of Hon. Shelby M. Cullom. CULLOM, Shelby Moore, United States Senator, was born in Wayne County, Ky., Nov. 23, 1829. His parents removed to Tazewell County, 111., in 1830, where his father became a member of the Legislature and attained prominence as a public man. After two years spent in Rock River Seminary at Mount Morris, varied by some experience as a teacher, in 1853 the subject of this sketch went to Springfield to enter upon the study of law in tiie office of Stuart & Edwards. Being admitted to the bar two years afterward, he was almost immediately elected City Attorney, and, in 1856, was a candidate on the Fillmore ticket for Presidential ElectOT-, at the same time being elected to the Twentieth General Assembly for Sangamon County, as he was again, as a Republican, in 1860, being supported alike by the Fillmore men and tlie Free-Soilers. At the session following the latter election, he was chosen Speaker of the House, wliich was his first Important political recognition. In 1863 he was appointed by President Lincoln a member of the War Claims Commission at Cairo, serving in this




with Governor Boutwell of Massachuand Charles A. Dana of New York. He was also a candidate for the State Senate the same capacit}^


year, but then sustained his only defeat.


years later (1864) he was a candidate for Con-


former preceptor, Hon. John being re-elected in 1866, and again in 1868, the latter year over B. S. Edwards. He was a delegate to the National Republican Convention of 1873. and. as Chairman of the Illinois delegation, placed General Grant in nomination for the Presidency, holding the same position again in 1884 and in 1893; was elected to the Illinois House of Representatives in 1873 and in 1874, being chosen Speaker a second time in 1873, as he was the unanimous choice of his party for Speaker again in 1875; in 1876 %vas elected Govgress, defeating his

T. Stuart,



re-eiccted in 1880, and, in 1883, elected

to the United States Senate as successor to Hon.

David Davis. Having had two re-elections since (1889 and '95), he is now serving his third term, which will expire in 1901. In 1898, by special appointment of President McKinley, Senator Cullom served upon a Commission to investigate the condition of the Hawaiian Islands and report a plan of government for this new division of the American Republic. Other important measures with which his name has been prominently identified have been the laws for the suppression of polygamy in Utah and for the creation of the Inter-State Commerce Commission. At present he is Cliairman of the Senate Committee on Inter-State Commerce and a member of those on Appropriations and Foreign Affairs. His career has been conspicuous for his long public service, the large number of important offices whicli he has held, the almost unbroken uniform-,

when a candidate, and his comfrom scandals of every sort. No man in tlie history of the State has been more frequently elected to the United States Senate, and only three Senators Douglas, Trumbull and Logan for an equal number of terms; though only one of these (Senator Trumbull) lived to serve out the full period for which he was ity of his success

plete exemption


CUMBERLAND COUNTY, situated in the southeast quarter of the State, directly south of Coles County, from which it was cut off in 1843. Its area is 350 square miles, and population (1900), 16.134. The county-seat was at Greenup until 1855, when it was transferred to Prairie City, which was laid off in 1854 and incorporated as a town in 1866. The present county-seat is at Toledo (population, 1890, 676). The Embarras

River crosses the county, as do also three lines of Neoga, a mining town, has a popula-


The county received its name from the Cumberland Road, which, as originally projected, passed through it.

tion of 839.

— ;




David, Bishop of the ReEpiscojjal Church, was born near Smyrna, Del., Dec. 11, 1832; graduated at Dickinson College, Pa., in 1841, and became a licentiate in the Methodist ministry, the Epi.scopal 1846, took orders in but. in




Church; afterwards held rectorships in Baltimore, Norfolk, Richmond and the Trinity Episcopal Church of Chicago, in 1866 being consecrated Assistant Bishop of the Dioce.se of Kentucky. As a recognized leader of tlie LowChurch or Evangelical party, he early took issue with the ritualistic tendencies of the High-Church party, and, liaving withdrawn from the Episcopal Church in 18T3, became the first Bishop of the Reformed Episcopal organization. He was zealous. elo(iueiitanrated in that of 1870, the laws on the subject are very stringent. Besides imposing a penalty of not less than one nor more than five years' imprisonment, or a fine not exceeiling .$3,000, uyion any one who, as principal or second, participates in a duel with a deadly weapon, whether such duel proves fatal or not, or who sends, carries or accepts a challenge: the law also provides that any one convicted of such offense shall be disqualified for liolding "anj- office of profit, trust or emolument, either civil or military, under the Constitution or laws of this State." Any person leaving the State to send or receive a challenge is subject to the same penalties as if the offense had lieen committed within the State; and any person who may inflict upon his antagonist a fatal wound, as the result of an engagement made in this State to fight a duel beyond its jurisdiction when the person so woimded dies within this State is held to be guilty of murder and subject to punishment for the same. The iniblishing of any i>erson as a coward, or the applying to him of opprobrious or abusive language, for refusing to accejit a challenge, is declared to be a crime punisliable by fine iir imprisonment. Dl'FF, Andrew D., lawyer ami Judge, was born of a family of pioneer settlers in Bond

HISTOKICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. County, 111., Jan. 24, 1820; was educated in the country schools, and, from 1842 to 1847, spent his time in teaching and as a farmer. The latter year he removed to Benton, Franklin County, where he began reading law, but suspended his studies to enlist in the Slexican "War, serving as a private;





County Judge of

Franklin County, and, in the following year, was admitted to the bar. In 1861 he was elected Judge for the Twenty-sixth Circuit and reelected in 1867, serving until 1873. He also served as a Delegate in the State Constitutional Convention of 1862 from the district composed of Franklin and Jackson Counties, and, being a zealous Democrat, was one of the leaders in calling the mass meeting held at Peoria, in August, 1864, to protest against the policy of the Government in the prosecution of the war. About the close of his last term upon the bench (1873), he removed to Carbondale, where he continued to reside. In his later years he became an Independent in politics, acting for a time in cooperation with the friends of temperance. In 1885 he was appointed by joint resolution of the Legislature on a commission to Died, at revise the revenue code of the State. Tucson, Ariz., June 2.i, 1889. DUNCAN, Joseph, Congressman and Governor, was born at Paris, Ky., Feb. 23, 1794; emigrated to Illinois in 1818, having previously served with distinction in the War of 1812, and been presented with a sword, by vote of Congress, for gallant conduct in the defense of Fort Stephenson.

He was commissioned


and elected State Senator

Illinois militia in 1823

from Jackson County


in 1824.


served in the

lower house of Congress from 1827 to 1834, when he resigned his seat to occupy the gubernatorial chair, to which he was elected the latter year. He was the author of the first free-school law, adopted in 182.5. His executive policy was conservative and consistent, and his administration successful. He erected the first frame building at Jacksonville, in 1834, and was a liberal friend In his personal of Illinois College at that place. character he was kindly, genial and unassuming, although fearless in the expression of his convictions. He was the Whig candidate for Governor in 1842, when he met with his first political defeat.






mourned by men of all parties. DUXCAX, Thomas, soldier, was born


in Kas-

served as a private in the Illinois mounted volunteers during the PJack Hawk War of 1832 also as First Lieutenant of kaskia,



14. 1809;



army in the Mexican War and as Major and Lieutenant-Colonel

cavalry in the regular (1846),

dm-ing the War of the Rebellion, still later doing duty upon the frontier keeping the Indians in

He was retired from active service in and died in Washington, Jan. 7, 1887. DUNDEE, a town on Fox Ri%-er, in Kane County. 5 miles (by rail) north of Elgin and 47 check. 1873,

miles west-northwest of Chicago. distinct corporations



— East


has two

and West Dundee

progressive and united in action. Dairy is the principal industry of the adjacent


and the town has two large milk-oondeusing plants, a clieese factory, etc. It has good water power and there are flour and saw-mills, region,

and tile-works, au.extensive nursery, a handsome high school building, a public library and one weekly paper. besides brick

two banks,

six churches,


(1890), 2,023; (190U), 2,765.


High, banker and Board of Trade operator, was born in Seneca County, N. Y., 1817; came to Chicago in 1844, engaged in the wholesale grocery trade, and, a few years later, took a prominent part in solving the question of a water supply for the city was elected to the Twentieth General Assembly (1856) and the next year assisted in organizing the Merchants' Loan & Trust Company, of which he became the ;

first President, retiring five years later and reengaging in the mercantile business. While Hon. Hugh McCuUough was Secretary of the Treasury, he was appointed National Bank

Examiner for was a member


serving until 1866.


of the Chicago Historical Society,

Academy of Sciences, and an early member of the Board of Trade. Died, April 28, 1893, leaving a large estate. the

DUNHAM, Bansom W., merchant and Congressman, was born at Savoy, Mass., March 21, 1838 after graduating from the High School at Springfield, Mass., in 18.55, was connected with the Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company until August, 1860. In 1857 he removed from Springfield to Chicago, and at the termination of his connection with the Insurance Company, embarked in the grain and provision commission business in that city, and, in 1882, was President of the Chicago Board of Trade. From 1883 to 1889 he represented the First Illinois District in Congress, after the expiration of his last term devoting his attention to his large private business. His death took place suddenly ;

at Springfield, Mass.,



19, 1896.

(Jeorge Lincoln, civil engineer and Railway Superintendent, was born at Brunswick,



Maine, in 1828 studied mathematics and engineering at Gorham Academy, and, after several years' experience on tlie Boston & Maine and ti>e New York & Erie Railways, came west in 1855 and accepted a position as assistant engineer on what is now the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad, finallj- becoming its General Superintendent, and, in fourteen j-ears of his connection with that road, vastly extending its lines. Between 1872 and '79 he was connected witli the Montreal & Quebec Railway, but the latter year returned to Illinois and was actively connected with the extension of the Wabash system until his retirement a few years ago. DUXLAP, Henry M., horticulturist and legislator, was born in Cook County, 111., Nov. 14, IH'ui the son of M. L. Dunlap (the well-known "Rural"), who became a prominent horticulturist In Cliani|)aign County and was one of the founders of tlie State Agricultural Society. The family having located at Savoy, Champaign County, about 1857, the younger Dunlap was educated in the University of Illinois, graduating in the .scientific department in 1875. Following in the footsteps of his fatlier. he engaged extensively in fruit-growing, and has served in the office of both President and .Secretary of the State Horti cultural Society, besides local oflTices. In 1892 he was elected as a Rei)ublican to the State Senate for the Thirtieth District, was re-elected in 1896, and hius been prominent in State legislation. DU>'LAP, Mathias Lane, horticulturist, was born at Cherry Valley, N. Y., Sept. 14. 1814; coming to La Salle County, 111., in 1835, he taught school the following winter; then secured a clerkship in Chicago, and later became bookkeeper for a firm of contractors on tlie Illinois & ;

Michigan Canal, remaining two years. Having entered a body of Government land in the western part of Cook County, he turned his attention to farming, giving a portion of his time to surveyIn 1845 he became intere.sted in horticulture ing. and, in a few years, built up one of the most extensive nurseries in the West. In 18.54 he was chosen a Representative in the Nineteenth General Assembly from Cook County, and, at the following session, presided over the caucus which resulted in


nomination and final election of to the United .States Senate for

Lyman TrxunbuU the




Politically ', William Bradsliaw, M.D., pioneer jihysican, was born in Ireland, Sept. 28, 1>*0S; spent some time during his youth in the study of sur-

ELDRIUGE, Hamilton





Died. Oct. 27, 1800.

a village of Kane County, on tlie Chicago & Northwestern Railway, 8 miles west It has banks and a weekly newsof Geneva. Population (1890), .584; (1900). 606. paper ELDOR.VDO, a town in Saline County, on the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, the

>'., lawyer and soldier, Williamstown. Mass., August, graduated at Williams College in the class

was born 1837


at Soutli

with President Garfield,


School, in


in 18.56.

and at Albany

soon afterward came to

Chicago and began practice; in 1862 assisted in organizing the One Hundred and Twenty -seventh Illinois Volunteers, of which he was elected Lieutenant-Colonel, before the end of the year being promoted to the position of Colonel; distinguished liimself at Arkansas Post, Chickamauga and in the battles before Vicksburg. winning the rank of Brevet Brigadier-General,


but, after

years' service,

was comi>elled


on account of disability, being carried east on a stretcher. Subsequently he recovered sufficiently to resume his profession, but died in Chicago, Dec. 1, 1882, much regretted by a large circle of friends, with whom he was exceedinglv retire



earliest settlers.

gery in England, later attending lectures at Dublin. About 1828 he went to Canada, taught for a time in the schools of Quebec and Montreal and, in 1830, was licensed by the Sledical Board of New Jersey and began practice at Newark in that State, later practicing in New York. In 1833 he removed to Chicago and was early recognized as a prominent physician on July 4, 1830, delivered the address at the breaking of ground During the for the Illinois & Michigan Canal. early years of his residence in Chicago, Dr. Egan was owner of the block on which the Tremont House stands, and erected a number of houses there. He was a zealous Democrat and a delegate to the first Convention of that party, held at Joliet in 1843; was elected County Recorder in 1844 and Representative in the Eighteenth General

(1900), 1,445.



& Nashville, and the St. Louis, Alton Terre Haute Railroads; has a bank and one newspaper; district argicultural. Population, Louisville


in Illinois are of

conducted laws,


in (II)

elections of public officers

two general


(I) tho.se

accordance with United States those conducted exclusively under

State laws. I.

To the

first class



the election of

United States Senators; (2) Presidential Electors, and (3 ) Representatives in Congress. 1. (United St.\tes Se.vators). The election of United States Senators, while an act of the .State Legislature, is conducted solely under forms prescribed by tlie laws of the United States. These make it the duty of the Legislature, on the second Tuesdaj- after convening at the se.ssion next preceding the expiration of the term for which anjSenator maj- liave been chosen, to proceed to' elect his successor in the following manner: Each House is required, on the daj' designated, in open session and by the viva voce ^vote of each member present, to name some person for United States Senator, the result of the balloting to be entered on the journals of the respective Houses.

At twelve o'clock (M.) on the d,\v following the day of election, the members of the two Houses meet in joint as-semblj-, when the journals of both Houses are read. If it appeai-s that the same person has received a majority of all the votes in each Hou.se. he is declared elected Senator. If, however, no one has received such majority, or either House has failed to take proceedings as required on the preceding day, then the members


HISTOEICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. of the two Houses, in joint assembly, proceed to ballot for Senator by viva voce vote of members present. The person receiving a majority of all the votes cast—a majority of the members of both Houses being present and voting is declared elected otherwise the joint assembly is renewed at noon each legislative day of the session, and at least one ballot taken until a Senator is chosen. When a vacancy exists in the Senate at the time of the assembling of the Legislature, the same rule prevails as to the time of holding an election to fill it; and, if a vacancj' occurs during the


session, the Legislature is required to

an election on the second Tuesday

proceed to



received official notice of such vacancy. The tenure of a United States Senator for a full term the regular term beginning with a is six years new Congress the two Senators from each State

belonging to different "classes," so that their terms expire alternately at periods of two and four years from each other. 2. (Presidential Electors). The choice of Electors of President and Vice-President is made by popular vote taken quadrennially on the Tuesday after the The date of such first Monday in November. election is fixed by act of Congress, being the same as that for Congressman, although the State Legislature prescribes the manner of conducting it and making returns of the same. The number of Electors chosen equals the number of Senators and Representatives taken together (in 1899 it was twenty-four), and they are elected on a general tick.et, a plurality of votes being sufficient to elect. Electors meet at the State capital on the second Monday of January after their election (Act of Congi-ess, 188"), to cast the vote of the The elecState. 3. (Members op Congress). tion of Representatives in Congress is also held under United States law, occurring biennially (on the even years) simultaneously with the general State election in November. Should Congi'ess select a different date for such election, it would be the duty of the Legislature to recognize it by a corresponding change in the State law relating to the election of Congressmen. The tenure of a Congi'essman is two years, the election being by Districts instead of a general ticket, as in the case of Presidential Electors the term of each Representative for a full term beginning with a new Congress, on the 4th of Slarch of the odd years following a general election. (See Congressional Apportionment. ) n. All officers under the State Government except Boards of Trustees of charitable and penal institutions or the heads of certain departments,


which are made appointive by the Governor are elected by popular vote. Apart from county they consist of three classes: (1) LegislaExecutive; (3) Judicial which are chosen at different times and for different periods. officers



1. (Legisl.\ture). Legislative officers consist of Senators and Representatives, clio.sen at elections lield on the Tuesday after the first Monday of

November, biennially. The regular term of a Senator (of whom there are fifty one under the present Constitution) is four years; twenty-five (tliose in Districts bearing even numbers) being chosen on the years in which a President and Governor are elected, and the other twenty -six at the intermediate period two years later. Thus, one-Iialf of each State Senate is composed of what are called "liold-over" Senators. Representatives are elected biennially at the November election,


liold office two years. The qualifications as to eligibility for a seat in the State Senate require

the incumbent shall be 35 years of age, while 31 years renders one eligible to a seat in the House tlie Constitution requiring that each shall have been a resident of the State for five years, and of the District for which he is chosen, two years next preceding his election. (See Legislative Apportionment and Minority Representation.) 2. (Executive Officers). The officers constituting the Executive Department include the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Secretary of State, Auditor of Public Accounts, Treasurer, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and Attorney General. Each of these, except the tliat

State Treasurer, holds office four years and with the exception of the Treasurer and Superintend-

ent of Public Instruction are elected at the general election at whicli Presidential Electors are chosen. The election of State Superintendent occurs on the intermediate (even) years, and that of State Treasurer every two years coincidently witli the election of Governor and Superintendent of Public Instruction, respectively. (See Executive Officers.) In addition to the State officers already named, three Trustees of the University of Illinois are elected biennially at the general election in November, each holding office for six years. These trustees (nine in number), with the Governor, President of the State Board of Agriculture and the Superintendent of Public Instruction, constitute the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. 3. (JUDICIARY). The Judicial Department embraces Judges of the

Supreme, Circuit and County Courts, and such other subordinate officials as may be connected with the administration of justice. For the



members of the Suprsme Court the divided into seven Districts, each of which elects a Justice of the Supreme Court for a term of nine years. Tlie elections in five of these the First, Second, Third, Sixth and election of



Seventh^occur on the first Jlonday in June every ninth year from 1879, the last election having Tlie elections in the occurred in June, 1897. other t .vo Districts occur at similar periods of nine years from 18T6 and 1HT3, respectively tlie hust election in the Fourth District liaviuK occurred in June, 1893, and that in the Fifth in 1891.— Circuit Judges are chosen on tlie first Monday in June even,- six years, counting from 1873. Judges of the Superior Court of Cook County are elected every six years at the November election. Clerks of the Supreme and Appellate Courts are elected at the November election for six years, the last Under the act election liaving occurred in 189G. of April 2, 1897, consolidating the Supreme Court into one Grand Division, the number of Supreme Court Clerks is reduced to one. although the Clerks elected in 189(i remain in oflice and have charge of the records of their several Divisions The until tlie expiration of their terms in 1902. Supreme Court holds five terms annually at Springfield, beginning, respectively, on the first Tuesday of October, Decemlier, February, April and June. (Other Ofkickks). (a) Members of the State Board of Equalization (one for every Congressional District) are elective every four years at the siime time as Congressmen, (b) County oflHcers (except County Commissioners not under township organization) hold office for four j'ears and are chosen at the November election as follows: (1) At the general election at which the Governor is chosen Clerk of the Circuit Court, State's Attorney, Recorder of Deeds (in counties having a population of GO. 000 or over). Coroner and County Surveyor. (2) On intermediate years Slieriff, County Judge, Probate Judge (in counties having a ]iopulatioii of 70,000


over). County Clerk, Treasurer, ,Superintendent of Schools, and Clerk of Criminal Court of Cook County, (c) In counties not under township organization a Board of County Commissioners is elected, one being chosen in November of each year, and eiich holding office three years, (d) Under the general law the polls open at 8 a. m., and close at 7 p. m. In cities accepting an Act of the Legislature pa.s,sed in 188."i, the hour of opening the polls is 6 a. m., and of closing 4 p. m. (See also Aii.-er of Lodges within the same jurisdiction in 1895 was 713, with a membership of 50.727, of which 47,335 resided in Illinois. The dues for 1895 were §37, 834..50; the contributions to members, their widows and orphans. §25,038.41; to nonHiembers, §6.300.38, and to the Illinois Ma.sonic Orphans' Home, §1,31,5.80. Apollo Commandery No. 1 of Knights Templar the pioneer organization of its kind in this or any neighboring State was organized in Chicago, May 20, 1845,

— —


being formally




10,189; (1900), 13,258.


institution at Freeincorporated in 1895; is co-educational; had a faculty of six instructors in 1896, with 116 port.



FREER, Lemuel Corell Paine, early lawyer, was born in Dutchess County, N. Y., Sept. 18, 1815; came to Chicago in 1836, studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1840; was a zealous anti-slavery man and an active supporter of the Government during the War of the Reliellion; for many years was President of the Board of Trustees of Rush Medical College. Died, in Cliicago, April 14. 1892.

FRENCH, Augustus C,

ninth Governor of was born in New Hampshire, August 2, 1808. After coming to Illinois, he became a resident of Crawford County, and a lawyer by profession. He was a member of the Tenth and Eleventh General Assemblies, and Receiver, for a time, of the Land Office at PalesIllinois (1846-.52),


He served

was elected

as Presidential Elector in 1844,

Governor as a Democrat in 1846 by a majority of nearly 17,000 over to the office of

two competitors, and was the unanimous choice of his i>arty for a second


in 1848.

His adminis-




from scandals.

He was appointed

Bank Commissioner by Governor Matteson, and later accepted the chair of Law in McKeudree College at Lebanon. In 1858 he was the nominee of the Douglas wing of the Democratic part}' for State Superintendent of Public Instruction, ex-Gov. John Reynolds being the candidate of

the Buchanan branch of the party. Both were defeated. His last public service was as a member from St. Clair County of the Constitutional Convention of 1862. Died, at Lebanon, Sept. -t, 1864.




premonition of this struggle in the West was given in 1698, wlien two English vessels entered the moutli of the Mississippi, to take possession •of the French Territory of Louisiana, which then included what afterward became the State of Illinois. This expedition, however, returned without result. Great Britain was anxious to have a colorable pretext for attempting to evict the French, and began negotiation of treaties with the Indian tribes as early as 1724, expecting thereby to fortify her original claim, which was based on tlie right of jjrior discovery. Tlie


shiftings of the political kaleidoscope in

Europe prevented any further steps in this direction on the part of England until 1748-49, when the Ohio Land Company received a royal grant of 500,000 acres along the Ohio River, with exclusive trading privileges.


Company proceeded

to explore and survey and, about 1752, establislied a trading post on Loramie Creek, 47 miles north

The French foresaw that hostilities were probable, and advanced tlieir posts as far east as the Allegheny River. Complaints by the Ohio Company induced an ineffectual remonstrance on the part of Virginia. Among the ambassadors sent to the French by the Governor of Virginia was George Washington, who thus, in early manhood, became identified witli Illinois history. His report was of such a nature as to induce the erection of counter fortifications by the British, one of wliich (at the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers) was seized and occupied by the French before its completion. Then ensued a series of engagements which, while not involving large forces of men, were fraught with grave consequences, and in which the French were generally successful. In 1755 occurred "Braddock's defeat" in an expedition to recover Fort Duquesne (where Pittsburg now stands), which had been captured by the French the previous year, and the Government of Great Britain determined to redouble its efforts. The of Dayton.


was the termination of French domination in the Ohio Vallej-. Later came the downfall of French ascendency in Canada as the result of the battle of Quebec; but the vanquished yet hoped to be able to retain Louisiana and Illinois. But France was forced to indemnify Sjjain for the loss of Florida, whicli it did by the cession of all of Louisiana lying west of the Mississippi (including the city of New Orleans), and this virtually ended French hopes in Illinois. Tlie last military post in Xorth America to be garrisoned by French troops was Fort Chartres, in Illinois Territory, final result

Ange remained



evacuation was demanded


the English.




until its


Governors began to be appointed by the Company of the Indies (which see) in 1723, the "Illinois Country" having previously been treated as a dependency of Canada. The first Governor or (

"commandant") was Pierre Duque de Boisbriant, who was commandant for onI_v three years, when he was summoned to New Orleans (1725) to succeed de Bienville as Governor of Louisiana. Capt. du Tisne was in command for a short time after his departure, but was succeeded by another Captain in the royal army, whose name is variously spelled de Liette, de Lielte, De Siette and Delietto. He was followed in turn by St. Ange (the father of St. Ange de Bellerive), who died in 1742. In 1733 the Company of the Indies surrendered its charter to the crown, and the Governors of the Illinois Country were thereafter appointed directly by royal authority. Under the earlier Governors justice had been administered under the civil law with the change in the method of appointment the code known as the "Common Law of Paris" came into effect, although not rigidly enforced because found in many particulars to be ill-suited to the needs of a new country. The first of the Royal Governors was Pierre d' Artaguiette, who was appointed in 1734, but was captured while engaged in an expedition against the Chickasaws, in 1730, and burned at the stake. (See D' Artaguiette.) He was followed by Alphonse de la Buissoniere, who was succeeded, in 1740, by Capt. Benoist de St. Claire. In 1742 he gave way to the Chevalier Bertel or Bertliet, but was reinstated about 1748. The last of the French Governors of the "Illinois Country" was Louis St. Ange de Bellerive, who retired to St. Louis, after turning over the command to Cajitain Stirling, the English officer sent to supersede him, in 1765. (St. Ange de Bellerive died, Dec. 27, 1774.) The administration of the French commandants, while firm, was usually conserva;



Local self-government was tive and benevolent. encouraged as far as practicable, and, while the Governors' power over commerce was virtually unrestricted, they interfered but little with the ordinary

of the people. Calvin Haniill, lawyer and State Senator, was born in Cleveland, Ohio, educated at Finley (Ohio) High School, Beaver (Pa.) Academy and Vermilion Institute at Hayesville, Ohio. in 1862 was Principal of the High School at Kalida, Ohio, where he began the study of law. which he continued the next two years with Jlessrs. Strain & Kidder, at Monmouth, 111., meanwhile acting life



Young America; Ford County, which has since been his home, and the same year was admitted to the bar by the Supreme Court of Illias Principal of a liigh school at in 1865


to Paxton,

nois. Mr. Frew served as Assistant Superintendent of Schools for Ford County (1865-68) in 1868 was elected Representative in the Twenty -sixth General Assembly, re-elected in 1870, and again Wliile practicing law he has been conin "78. nected with some of the most important cases ;

before the courts in that section of




and skill in their management are by members of the bar, as well as Judges upon the bench. Of late years he has devoted his attention to breeding trotting horses, with a view to the improvement of his health but not with the intention of permanently abandoning his i)rofession. FRY, Jacob, pioneer and soldier, was born in Fayette County, Ky., Sept. 20, 1799: learned the trade of a carpenter and came to Illinois in 1819, working first at Alton, but, in 1820. took up his his fidelity testified

canal management. In 1850 he went to California, where he engaged in mining and trade for three years, meanwhile .serving one term in the State Senate. In 1857 he was appointed Collector of the Port at Chicago by President Buchanan, but was removed in 1859 because of his friendship for Senator Douglas. In 1860 he returned to Greene County in 1861. in spite of his advanced age. was commissioned Colonel of the ;

Sixty-first Illinois Volunteers,


later partici-

pated in numerous engagements (among them the battle of Sliiloli), was captured by Forrest, and ultimately com|)elled to resign because of impaired health and failing eyesight, finally becoming totally blind. He died, June 27, 1881, and was buried in Oak Ridge Cemetery, near SpringTwo of Colonel Fry"s sons achieved disfield. tinction during the Civil (Fry), rollton.


War.— James Barnet was born at Cargraduated at West

son of the preceding, III..

Feb. 22, 1827;



a.ssigned to artillery service

in ;


and was

after a short experi-

ence as Assistant Instructor, joinetl his regiment, the Third United States Artillery, in Mexico, remaining there througli 1847-48. Ljiter, be was employed on frontier and garrison duty, and again as Instructor in 1853-54, and as Adjutant of the Academy during 18.54-.59; became Assistant Adjutant General. March 16, 1861, tlien .served as Chief of StalT to General McDowell and General Buell (1801-62), taking part in the battles of Bull Run. .Shiloh and Corinth, and in the campaign in Kentucky was made Provost-Marshal-Oeneral of the L'nited States, in March, 1SG3, and conducted the di-afts of that year, receiving the rank ;

residence near

tlie present town of Carrolltou. in which he built the first house. Greene County was not organized until two years later, and this border .settlement was, at that time, the extreme

of Brigadier-General, AprU 21, 1864. He continued in this office until August 30, 1866, during wliich time he put in the army 1,120,621 men,

He served nortliern white settlement in Ilhuois. as Constable and Deputy SherilT (simultaneously)

and made an exact enrollment of the National forces. After the war he served as AdjutantGeneral with the rank of Colonel, till June 1, 1881, wlien he was retired at his own request.

and was then elected SherilT. being times re-elected. He served through the Black Hawk War (first as Lieutenant-Colonel and afterwards as Colonel), having in his regiment Abraham Lincoln, O. H. Browning, John Wood (afterwards Governor) and Robert Anderson, of Fort Sumter fame. In 1837 he was appointed Commissioner of the Illinois & Michigan Canal, and re appointed in 1839 and '41, later becoming Acting Commissioner, with authority to settle up the business of the former commission, which was that year legislated out of office. He was afterwards appointed Canal Trustee by Governor Ford, and, in 1847, retired from connection with for six years, five

arrested 76..562 deserters, collected $26,366,316.78

Besides his various official reports, he published a ".Sketch of the Adjutant-General's Department, United .States Armj-. from 1775 to 1875," and "His-

and Legal Effects of Brevets in the Armies of Great Britain and the United States, from their origin in 1692 to the Present Time, " (1877). Died, in Newport. R. I., July 11, 1894.— William M. (Fry), another son. was Provost Marshal of the Nortli Illinois District during the Civil War, and rendered valuable .service to the Government. FULLER, Allen Curtis, lawj-er, jurist and Adjutant-General, was born in Farmington, tor)-

HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. Conn., Sept. 24, 1832; studied law at Warsaw, N. Y., was admitted to practice, in 1846 came to Belvidere, Boone County, 111., and, after practicing there some years, was elected Circuit Judge in 1861.

A few months afterward he was induced

the office of Adjutant-General by appointment of Governor Yates, entering upon the duties of tlie office in November, 1861. At first it was understood that his acceptance was only temporary, so that he did not formally resign his place upon the bench until July. 1862. He continued to discharge the duties of AdjutantGeneral until January, 1865, when, having been elected Representative in the General Assembly, he was succeeded in the Adjutant-General's office by General Isham N. Haynie. He served as Speaker of the House during the following session, and as State Senator from 1867 to 1873 in the Twenty-fifth, Twenty-sixth and Twentyseventh General Assemblies. He was also elected a Republican Presidential Elector in 1860, and again in 1876. Since retiring from office. General Fuller has devoted his attention to the practice of his profession and looking after a large private accept


business at Belvidere.


Charles E., lawyer and legislator, Boone County, 111., March 31, attended the district school until 12 years

was born 1849


at Flora,

and '67, served as clerk in stores at Belvidere and Cherry Valley. He then spent a couple of j-ears in the book business in Iowa, when (,1869) he began the study of law with Hon. Jesse S. Hildrup, at Belvidere, and was admitted to the bar in 1870. Since then

of age, and, between 1861

Mr. Fuller has practiced his profession at Belvidere, was Corporation Attorney for that city in 1875-76, the latter year being elected State's Attorney for Boone County. From 1879 to 1891 he served continuously in the Legislature, first as State Senator in the Thirty-first and Thirtysecond General Assemblies, then as a member of the House for three sessions, in 1888 being returned to the Senate, where he served the next two sessions. Mr. Fuller established a high reputation in the Legislature as a debater, and was the candidate of his party (the Republican)

Speaker of the House in 1885. He was also a delegate to the Republican National Convention of 1884. Mr. Fuller was elected Judge of the Circuit Court for the Seventeenth Circuit at the judicial election of June, 1897. FULLER, Melville Weston, eighth Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court, was for

born at Augusta, Maine, Feb.

from Bowdoin College

11. 1833,

in 1853,


was admitted



the bar in 1855, and became City Attorney of his native city, but resigned and removed to Chicago the following year. Through his mother's famih' he traces his descent back to the Pilgrims of the Mayflower. His literary and legal attainments are of a high order. In politics he has always been a strong Democrat. He served as a Delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1862 and as a member of the Legislature in 1863, after that time devoting his attention to the practice of his profession in Chicago. In 1888 President Cleveland appointed him Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, since which time he has resided at Washington, although still claiming a residence in Chicago, where he has considerable property interests.


Alexander N., pioneer

and lawyer, born

in Chester,



in 1804,


educated at Middlebury College and Litchfield Law School, and, coming to Chicago in 1833, finally engaged in real-estate and mercantile business, in which he was very successful. His name has been given to one of the avenues of Chicago, as well as associated with one of the prominent business blocks. He was one of the original members of the Second Presbyterian


of that city.


a city

Died, Sept.

29, 1880.

and railway center



side County, 133 miles west of Chicago, located on the Mississippi River and the Cliicago


Northwestern, the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, and the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railways. It was formerly the terminus of a line of steamers which annually brought millions of bushels of grain down the Mississippi from Minnesota, Wisconsin and Illinois, returning with merchandise, agricultural implements, etc., but this river trade gradually 'died out, having been usurped by the various railroads. Fulton has extensive factories for the making of stoves, besides some important lumber industries. The Northern Illinois College is located here. Population (1890), 2,099; (1900), 2,685

FULTON COUNTY, situated west of and bordering on the Illinois River was originally a part of Pike Count}', but separately organized in 1823 named for Robert Fulton. It has an area of 870 square miles with a population (1900) of 46,201. The soil is rich, well watered and wooded. Drainage is effected by the Illinois and Spoon Rivers (the former constituting its eastern boundary) and by Copperas Creek. Lewistown became the county-seat immediately after county organization, and so remains to the present time (1899). The surface of the county at a distance from the ;



flat, although along the Illinois Muffs rising to, with a contiguous vein of fire-clay. Some of the earliest settlers were Mes.srs. Craig and .Savage, who, in 1818. built a saw mill on Otter Creek; Ossian M. Ro.ss and Stephen Dewey, who laid off Lewistown on his own land in 1822. The first hotel in the entire military tract was opened at Lewistown by Truman Phelps, in 1827. A flat boat ferry across the




tliere are

was established at Havana, in 1823. The Lewistown (population, 2.1(56), Farmington (l,3T.i), and Vermont (1,158).


principal towns are

FULTON COUNTY NARROW-UAUliE RAILextending from the west bank of the

W.VV, a




opjwsite Havana,

to Galesburg,

a single-track, narrow-gauge although the e.xcavations and (3-foot) road, embankments are being widened to accommodate The grades are few, a track of standard gauge and, as a rule, are light, although, in one instance, 61



the gradient



eighty-four feet




There are more than 19 miles of curves, the ma.xinium being sixteen degrees. The rails are of iron, thirty-five pounds to the j-ard, road not ballasted. Capital stock outstanding (1895), S(i;i(i.T94;


debt, 8484,000;


obligations, $462,.302; total capitalization. SI, .583.150. The line from Havana to Fairview (31 miles) was chartered in 1 878 and ojjened in 1880 and the

extension from Fairview to Galesburg chartered in


and opened


in 1882.

was born in Clark County. Ky., Nov. 17, 1797; grew up with meager educational advantages and, in 1823, came to Illinois, finally settling at what afterwards became known aa Funk's Grove in McLean County. Here, with no other cajiital than industry, perseverance, and integrity. Mr Funk began laying the fouMiIation of one of the most ample fortunes ever acquired in Illinois outside the domain of Isaac,



trade or speculation.


agriculture and deiiling

in live stock, he l>eciime the pos.sessor of a large area of the finest farming lands in the State, which he brought to a high state of cultivation, leaving an estate valued at his death at not le.ss than S2.00fl.000. Mr. Funk served three sessions in the General Assembly, first as Representative in the Twelfth (1840-42). and as Senator in the Twenty third and Twenty fourth (1862-06), dying before the clo.se of his last term.. Jan. 29. 1805. Originally a Whig in politics, he ttecame a Re]>ublican on the organization of that party, and gave

a liberal and patriotic support to the Government during the war for the preservation of the Union. During the session of the Twenty-third General As-senibly, in February, 1863, he delivered a speech in the Senate in indignant condemnation of the policy of the anti-war factionists, which, although couched in homely language, arou-sed the enthusiasm of the friends of the Government throughout the State and won for its author a prominent place in State history. Benjamin F. (Funk), son of the preceding, was liorn in Funk's Grove Township, McLean County, 111., Oct. 17, 1838. After leaving the district schools, he entered the Wesleyan University at Bloomington, but suspended his studies to enter the army in 1802, enlisting as a private in the Sixty eighth Illinois Volunteers. After five months' service he was honorably di.scharged, and reentered the University, completing a three-j'ears' course. For three years after graduation he followed farming as an avocation, and, in 18()9, took up his residence at Bloomington. In 1871 he was chosen Mayor, and served seven consecutive terms. He was a delegate to the National Republican Convention of 1888, and was the successful candidate of that party, in 1892, for Representative in Congress from the Fourteenth Illinois District. Lafayette (Funk), another son of Isaac Funk, was a Repre.sentative from SIcLean County in the Thirty third General Assembly and Senator in the Thirty-fourth and Thirty-fifth. Other sons who have occupied .seats in the same body include (Jeorge \V.. Representative in the Twentyseventh, and Duncan M.. Representative in the Fortieth and Forty-first Assemblies The Funk family have been conspicuous in the affairs of McLean County for a generation, and its members have occupied many other positions of importance and influence, besides those named, under the State, County and municipal governments.

GAGE, Lyman was born June 28.



Secretary of the Treasury,

De Ruyter. Madison County.

1830; received a

N. Y.,


school education in his native county, and, on the removal of his parents, in 1848, to

Rome, N.

Y., enjoj-ed the

advantages of instruction in an academy. At the age of 17 he entered the employment of the Oneida t'entral Bank as oHice-boy and general

two years afterwards, came to Chicago, first securing employment in a planing mill. and. in 18.58. obtaining a position as bkkeejier of the Merchants' Loan anintment of a non-jiartisan Commission of twelve to draft a new revenue code the Crawford primary election law an act amending the code of criminal procedure estab:




and Sailors' Home, subsequently located at Quincy creating a Live-Stock Commission and appropriating $531,712 for the completion of the State House. The Assembly adjourned, sine die, June 26, 1885, after a session lishing a



of 171 days.

General Assembly convened The Republicans had a majoritj- of twelve in the Senate and three in the House. For President pro tempore of the Senate, August W. Berggren was chosen; for Sjjeaker of the House, Dr. William F. Calhoun, of De Witt County. The death of General Logan, which had occurred Dec. 26, 1886, was officially announced by Governor Oglesby and. on Jan. 18, Charles B. Farwell was elected to succeed him as United States Senator. William R. Morrison and Benjamin W. Goodhue were the candidates of the Democratic and Labor parties, respectively. Some of the most important laws passed bj- this General Assembly were the following: Amend Thirty'-fifth




ing the law relating to the spread of contagious among cattle, etc. the Chase bill to prohibit book-making and pool-selling: regulating trust companies; making the Trustees of the University of Illinois elective; inhibiting aliens from holding real estate, and forbidding the marriage of first cousins. An act virtually creating a new State banking system was also passed, subject to ratification by popular vote. Other acts, having more particular reference to Chicago and Cook County, were: a law making cities and counties responsible for three- fourths of the damage resulting from mobs and riots; the Merritt conspiracy law the Gibbs Jury Commission law, and an act for the suppression of bucket-shop gambling. The session ended June 15, 1887. having continued 162 days. diseases



Thirty-sixth General Assembly convened 7. 1889, in its first (or regrular) ses.>iion. the Republicans being largely in the majority. The Senate elected Theodore S. Chapman of Jersey County, President pro tempore, and the House



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. Asa C Matthews of Pike County, Speaker. Mr. Matthews was appointed First Comptroller of the Treasury by President Harrison, on May 9 (see Matthews, Asa C), and resigned the Speakership on the following day. He was succeeded by James H. Miller of Stark County. Shelby M. CuUom was re-elected to the United States Senate on January 22, the Democrats again voting for ex-Gov. John M. Palmer. The "Sanitary Drainage District Law," designed for the benefit of the city of Chicago, was enacted at this session an asylum for insane criminals was established at ;

Chester the annexation of

towns, villages, etc., under certain conditions, was authorized; more stringent legislation was enacted relative to the circulation of obscene literature a new compulsory education law was passed, and the employment on public works of aliens who had not declared their intention of becoming citizens was prohibited. This session ended. May 28. A ;



was convened by Governor Fifer to frame and adopt legislation rendered necessary by the Act of Congress locating the World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago. special session

on July

24, 1890,

Mr. Miller having died in the interim, William G. Cochran, of Moultrie County, was chosen Speaker of the






An Act




session concluded

having enacted the following measgranting the use of


State lands,

(submerged or other) in or adjacent to Chicago, to the World's Columbian Exposition for a period to extend one year after the closing of the Exposition; authorizing the Chicago Boards of Park Commissioners to grant the use of the public parks, or any part thereof, to promote the objects of such Exposition; a joint resolution providing for the submission to the people of a Constitutional Amendment granting to the city of Chicago the power (provided a majority of the C]Ualified voters desired it) to issue bonds to an amount not exceeding §5,000,000, the same to bear interest and the proceeds of their sale to be turned over to the Exposition Managers to be devoted to the (See use and for the betiefit of the Exposition. Columbian Exposition. ) The total

also World's

length of the two sessions was 150 days.

Thirty-seventh General Assembly convened 7, 1891, and adjourned June 12 following.




Farwell. Neither of the two leading parties had a majority on joint ballot, the balance of power being held by three "Independent" members of the House, who had been elected as representatives of the Farmers' Mutual Benevolent Alliance. Richard J. Oglesby was the caucus nominee of the Republicans and John M. Palmer of the Democrats. For a time the Independents stood as a unit for A. J. Streeter, but later two of the three voted for ex-Governor Palmer, finally, on March 11, securing his election on the 154th

Meanwhile, the Repubhcans had cast tentative ballots for Alson J. Streeter and Cicero J. Lindley, in hope of drawing the Independents to their support, but without effective result. The final ballot stood Palmer, ballot in joint session.

103; Lindley, 101, Streeter



1,296 bills intro-

duced in both Houses at this session, only 151 became laws, the most important being: The Australian ballot law, and acts regulating building and loan associations; prohibiting the employment of children under thirteen at manual labor; fixing the legal rate of intere.st at seven per cent ployes,

system" of paying emand granting the right of suff'rage to


in the election of school officers.

proliibiting the "truck



of the State Constitution permitting the submission of two Constitutional Amend-

ments to the people at the same time; was submitted by this Legislature and ratified at the election of 1893. The session covered a period of 157 days.

Thirty-eighth General Assembly*. This body convened Jan. 4, 1893. The Democrats were in the ascendency in both houses, having a majority of seven in the Senate and of three in the lower house. Josepli R. Gill, the LieutenantGovernor, was ex-ofticio President of the Senate, and John W. Coppinger, of Alton, was chosen President pro tem. Clayton E. Crafts of Cook County was again chosen Speaker of the House. The inauguration of the new State officers took place on the afternoon of Tuesday, Jan. 10. This Legislature was in session 104 days, adjourning June 16, 1893. Not very much legislation of a general character was enacted. New Congressional





passed, the former dividing the State into twenty-


presided in the Senate, Milton (Republican), of Urbana, being elected President pro tem. The Democrats had control in the House and elected Clayton E. The most Crafts, of Cook County, Speaker. exciting feature of the session was the election of

an Insurance Department was a naval militia was established; the scope of the juvenile reformatory was enlarged and the compulsory education law was amended.

a United States Senator


Lieut. -Gov.

W. Matthews

to succeed Charles B.






This regular and a The former opened Jan. 9, 1895, and

Legislature held two sessions




196 closed







plexion of the Senate was Republicans, thirtythree; Democrats, eighteen; of the House, ninety-two Republicans and sixty-one Democrats.

John Meyer,


Cook County, was elected Speaker

of the House, and Charles Bogardus of Piatt County, President pro tem. of the Senate. Acts were passed making appropriations for improvement of the State Fair Grounds at Springfield authorizing the establishment of a Western Hospital for the Insane (SlOO.OOU); appropriating 1100,000 for a Western Hospital for the Insane; $65,000 for an Asylum for Incurable Insane; §50,000, each, for two additional Normal Schools one in Northern and the other in Eastern Illinois; $25,000 for a Soldiers' Widows' Home all being new institutions besides §15,000 for a State exhibition at the Atlanta Exposition; §05, 000 to

mark, by monuments, the position of Illinois troops on the battlefields of Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. Other acts passed fixed the salaries of members of the General Assembly at $1,000 eacli for each regular session; accepted the custody of the Lincoln


at Springfield, authorized


and pensioning of teaoliers in public schools, and authorized tlie adoption of The special session civil service rules for cities. convened, pursuant to a call by the Governor, on June '^5, 1895, took a recess. June 28 to July 9, re-assembled on the latter date, and adjourned, sine die, August 2. Outside of routine legislation, no laws were passed except one providing for the retirement

additional necessary revenue for State purposes and one creating a State Board of Arbitration.

The regular

session continued 157 days

special twenty-nine

— total

and the


Fortieth Geser.a.l Assembly met in regular 6, 1897, and adjourned, sine die, June 4. The Republicans liad a majority in both branches, the House standing eightyeight Republicans to sixty -three Democrats and two Populists, and the Senate, thirty-nine Republicans to eleven Democrats and one Populist, giving the Republicans a majority on joint ballot of fifty votes. Botli liouses were promptly organized by the election of Republican officers, Edward C. Curtis of Kankakee County being chosen Speiiker of the House, and Hendrick V. Fisher, of Henry County. P*resideut pro tem. of the SenGovernor Tanner and the otiier Republican ate. State officers were formally inaugurated on Jan. 11, and, on Jan. 20, William E. Mason (Repul)lican) was chosen United States Senator to succeed John M. Palmer, receiving in joint session at Springfield, Jan.

session 125 votes to seventy-seven for



Altgeld (Democrat). Among tlie principal laws enacted at this se.ssion were the following: An act concerning aliens and to regulate the right to hold real estate, and prescribing the terms and conditions



conveyance of the same;

empowering the Commissioners who were


pointed at the previous session to ascertain and mark the ix>sit ions occupied by Ilhnois Volunteers in the battles of Chickamaug-a, Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, to expend the remaining appropriations in their hands for the erection of monuments on the battle-grounds; authorizing tlie appointment of a similar Commission to ascertain and mark the positions held by Illinois troops in the battle of Shiloh; to reimburse the University of Illinois for the loss of funds resulting from the Spaulding defalcation and affirming tlie liability of the State for "the endowment fund of the University, amounting to §4.J6,712.91. and for so much in addition as may be received in future from tlie s;ile of lands"; authorizing the adoption of the "Torrens land-title system" in the conveyance and registration of land titles by vote of the people in any county tlie consolidation of the three Sujireme Court Districts of the State into one and locating the Court at Springfield; creating a State Board of Pardons, and prescribing the manner of applying for pardons and comniutatious. An act of this session, which produced much agitation and led to a great deal of discussion in the pre.ss and elsewhere, was the street railroad law empowering the City Council, or other corporate authority of any city, to grant franchises to street railway companies extending This act was repealed by the to fifty years. General As.senibly of 1899 before anj- street railway corporation had secured a franchise under it. ;

A to

special session

meet Dec.

five topics




called by Governor

1897, the


proclamation naming

legislative action.



continued to Feb. '24, 1898, only two of the measures named by the Governor in his call being affirmatively acted upon. These included: (1) an elaborate act prescribing the manner of conducting primary elections of delegates to nominating conventions, and (2) a new revenue laxv regulating the manner of assessing and collecting taxes. One provision of the latter law limits the valuation of property for assessment purposes to one-fifth The length of the regular session its cash value. was 1,50 days, and that of the special session eighty days total, 230 days. (iEXESEO, a city in Henry County, about two miles soutli of the Green River. It is on the Chi-



cago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway, 23 miles east of Rock Island and 75 miles west of Ottawa. It is in the heart of a grain-growing region, and

above the surface is about 80 feet, thin bands of Magnesian limestone alternating with layers of

has two large grain elevators. Manufacturing is also carried on to a considerable extent here, furniture, wagons and farming implements constituting the chief output. Geneseo has eleven churches, a graded and a higli school, a collegiate institute, two banks, and two newspapers, one issuing a daily edition. Population (1890),

tain good hydraulic rock,

3,182; (1900), 3,356.


a city and railway junction on Fox

River, and the county -seat of

miles west of Chicago.


Kane County



has a fine courthouse,

completed in 1893 at a cost of $250,000, and numerous handsome churches and school buildings. A State Reformatory for juvenile female offenders has been located here. There is an excellent water-power, operating six manufacincluding extensive glucose works. The town has a bank, creamery, water-works, gas and electric light plant, and two weekly newspapers. The surrounding country is devoted to agriculture and dairy farming. Population tories,

(1880), 1,239; (1890), 1,692; (1900), 2,446.

GENOA, a village of De Kalb County, on Omaha Division of the Chi., Mil. & St. Paul, the 111. Cent, and Chi. & N.W. Railroads, 59 miles west of Chicago.



a leading industry; has

two banks, shoe and telephone newspapers.



and two

(1890), 634; (1900), 1,140.



structure of Illinois embraces a representation, more or less complete, of the whole paleonic series of formations, from the calciferous group of the Lower Silurian to the top of the coal meas-

In addition to these older rocks there is a limited area in the extreme southern end of the


covered with Tertiary deposits. Overspreading these formations are beds of more recent age, comprising sands, clays and gravel, varying in thickness from ten to more than two hundred feet. These superficial deposits may be divided into Alluvium, Loess and Drift, and constitute the Quaternary system of modern geoloState


Lower Silurian System.— Under this heading may be noted three distinct groups the Calcifer;

Trenton and the Cincinnati. The first mentioned group comprises the St. Peter's Sandstone and the Lower Magnesian Limestone. The former outcrops only at a single locality, in La Salle County, extending about two miles along the valley of the Illinois River in the vicinity of Utica. The thickness of the strata appearing ous, the

Calciferous sandstone.


of the layers con-

which is utilized in the The entire thickness of

manufacture of cement. the rock below the surface has not been ascerThe tained, but is estimated at about 400 feet. St. Peter's Sandstone outcrops in the valley of the Illinois, constituting the main portion of the bluffs from Utica to a point beyond Ottawa, and forms the "bed rock" in most of the northern townships of La Salle County. It also outcrops on the Rock River in the vicinity of Oregon City, and forms a conspicuous bluff on the Mississippi Its maximum thickness in in Calhoun County. the State may be estimated at about 200 feet. It is too incoherent in its texture to be valuable as a building stone, though some of the upper strata in Lee County have been utilized for caps and sills. It affords, however, a fine quality of sand

The Trenton for the manufacture of glass. group, which immediately overlies the St. Peter's Sandstone, consists of three divisions. The lowest is a brown Magnesian Limestone, or Dolomite, usually found in regular beds, or strata, varying from four inches to two feet in thickness. The aggregate thickness varies from twenty feet, in the northern portion of the State, to sixty or seventy feet at the bluff in Calhoun County. At the quarries in La Salle County, it abounds in fossils, including a large Lituites and several specimens of Orthoceras, Maclurea, etc. The middle division of the Trenton group consists of light gray, compact limestones in the southern and western parts of the State, and of light blue, thin-bedded, shaly limestone in the northern portions. The upper division is the well-known Galena limestone, the lead-bearing rock of the Northwest. It is a buff colored, porous Dolomite,

sometimes arenaceous and unevenly textured, giving origin to a ferruginous, sandy clay when decomposed. The lead ores occur in crevices, caverns and horizontal seams. These crevices were probably formed by shrinkage of the strata from crystallization or by some disturbing force from beneath, and have been enlarged by decomposiFossils belonging to tion of the exposed surface. a lower order of marine animal than the coral are found in this rock, as are also marine shells, Although this limestone corals and crustaceans. crops out over a considerable portion of the territory between the Mississippi and the Rock River, the productive lead mines are chiefly confined to Jo Daviess and Stephenson Counties. All the divisions of the Trenton group afford good build-



ing material, some of the roi-k being susceptible making a handseing separated by about twenty feet of calcareous shales. The limestones are highly bituminous. In Jersey ami Calhoun Counties the group is only six to ten feet thick, and consists of a hard, silicious limestone, passing at some points into a quartzose sandstone, and at others becoming argillaceous, as at Grafton. The most northern outcrop is in Rock Island County, where the rock is concretionary in stnu'ture and is utilized for building purposes and in tlie manufacture of quicklime. Fossils are nimierous, among them being a few fragments of fishes, which are the oldest remains of vertebrate animals yet found in the State. The black shale probably attains its maximum development in Union County, where it ranges


fifty to

seventy-five feet in thickness.


laminated slate, sometimes closely resembling the bituminous lower portion




bla8 he was gust, 1867, to January, 1868. elected President of the United States an

n s >

o o

w O


»T3 ft


5 55

CI 'Ji

O O < u 5 a < a,

Z J o (J


w p z o

Q o

s s



by patriotism and integrity of purpose. During 1877-79 he made a tour of the world, being received every wliere with the highest honors. In 1880 his friends made an unsuccessful effort to

that he visited Paris for treatment, but failed

secure his renomination as a Presidential candidate on the Republican ticket. Died, at Mount McGregor. N. Y., July 33, 1885. His chief literary work was his "Memoirs" (two volumes, 1885-86),

biographers assert that he died at sea; others that he returned from France, yet suffering from the Indian poison, to Louisiana in Februarj', 1708, and died near Mobile, Ala., the same year. GRAY, Elisha, electrician and inventor, was born at Barnesville, Ohio, August 2, 1835; after serving as an apprentice at various trades, took a course at Oberlin College, devoting especial attention to the physical sciences, meanwhile supporting liimself by manual labor. In 1865 he began his career as an electrician and, in 1867, received his first patent devised a method of transmitting telephone signals, and, in 1875, succeeded in transmitting four messages simultaneously on one wire to New York and Boston, a year later accomplishing the same with eight messages to New York and Philadelphia. Professor Gray has invented a telegraph switch, a repeater, enunciator and tj'pe-writing telegraph. From 1869 to '73 he was employed in the manufacture of telegraph apparatus at Cleveland and Chicago, but has since been electrician of the Western Electric Company of Chicago. His latest invention, the "telautograph" for reproducing by telegraph the handwriting of the sender of a telegi-am attracted great interest at the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893. He is author of "Telegraphy and Telephony" and "Experimental Researches in Electro-Harmonic Telegraphy and Telephony." GRAY, William C, Ph.D., editor, was born in Butler County, Ohio, in 1830; graduated from the Farlners' (now Belmont) College in 1850,


which was very extensively


GRAPE CREEK, a surburban

raining village in

Vermilion County, on the Big Vermilion River and the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad, six miles south of Danville. The chief industry is coal mining, which is extensively carried on. Population (1890). 778; (1900), 610


Charles, of Huguenot parentage, 1752. After receiving a mercantile training in the counting house of an uncle in London, he emigrated to Canada, entering the employ of another luicle at

born at Lausanne, Switzerland, in

He first came to the "Illinois Country" in 1775, as an Indian trader, remaining one year. In 1777 he returned and formed a partnerMontreal.

MoRae and John Kay, two young Scotchmen from Montreal. He established depots Upon the arrival of at Cahokia and Kaskaskia. Col. George Rogers Clark, in 1778, he rendered

ship with David


commander material



becoming personallj' responsible for the supplies needed by the penniless American army. When sovereignty took place at St. Louis, on March 10, 1804, and Louisiana Territory became a part of the United States, it was from the balcony of his house that the first American In recomflag was unfiurled in Upper Louisiana. pense for his liberal expenditure, he was promised 30,000 acres of land near the present site of the transfer of

Louisville, but this St. Louis,


he never received.

Died, at

21, 1817.


Jacques, a Jesuit missionwhat date cannot be stated with certainty. After some years spent in Canada he was sent by his ecclesiastical superiors fo the Illinois Mission (1688), succeeding AUouez as Superior two years later, and being made Vicar-General in 1691. He labored among the Miamis, Peorias and Kaskaskias— his most numerous conversions being among the latter tribe as also among the Cahokias, Osages, Tamaroas and Missouris. It is said to have been largely through his influence that the Illinois were induced to In settle at Kaskaskia instead of going south. 1705 he received a severe wound during an attack by the Illinois Indians, incited, if not actually led, by one of their medicine men. It is said ary, born in France, but at

Accounts of his death vary as

to find a cure. to time


place, but all agree that it resulted

from the wound above mentioned.


of hii


read law and began secular editorial work in 1852, being connected, in the next fourteen j'ears, with "The TiflSn Tribune," "Cleveland Herald" and "Newark American." Then, after .several years spent in general publishing busine.ss in Cincinnati, after the great fire of 1871 he came to Chicago, to take charge of "The Interior," the organ of the Presbyterian Church, which he has since conducted. The success of the paper imder his management affords the best evidence of his practical good sense. He holds the degree of Ph.D., received from Wooster University in 1881. GRAYVILLE, a city situated on the border of White and Edwards Counties, lying chiefly in the former, on the Wabash River, 35 miles northwest of Evansville, Ind., 16 miles northeast of Carmi, and forty miles southwest of Vincennes. It is located in the heart of a heavily timbered




is an important liard-vrood market. Valuable coal deposits exist. The industries include flour, saw and planing mills, stave factories and creamery. The city has an electric light and water plant, two banks, eight churches, and two weekly papers. Population 09'"J). 1.9-18.

region and


a M.\TT00> railroad,


J'eoria, Decatur d- Evansi-illc Raihcay.)

GREATHOt'SE, Carlinville,


Lucien, soldier, was born at

in 1843; graduated at Illinois

Wesleyan University, Bloomington. and studied law enli.sted as a private at the beginning of the War of the Rebellion and rose to the rank of ;

'Colonel of the Forty-eighth Illinois Volunteers; bore a conspicuous part in the movements of the Army of tlie Tennessee; was killed in battle neiir

Atlanta, Oa., June

21, 1864.


(of 1843


(See Illinois Central Railroad.)



in Lee County, Bureau County, flows ward through Henry County, and enters River al>er of the United States Civil Service Commission. The degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him by Madison University (Hamilton. N. Y.) in 1866. While State SuperintenELL, JuUns S., lawyer and ex-Judge, was born in St. Lawrence County, N. Y., in 1842, of New England parents, who were of French

He graduated from Middlebury



in 1866, and,


was admitted to the In 1870 he removed to

j-ears later,

bar at Ogdensburg, N. Y. Chicago, where he soon attained a prominent position at the bar; was elected City Attornej- in In 1884 he 1879, and re-elected in 1881 and 1883. was elected State's Attorney for Cook Comity, in

which capacity he successfully conducted some most celebrated criminal prosecutions in

of the tlie

hi.story of






mentioned the cases against Joseph T. Mackin and William J. Gallagher, growing out of an election conspiracy in Chicago in 1884; the conviction of a number of Cook County Coirmiissioners for accepting bribes in 1885. and the conviction of seven anarchistic leaders charged with complicity in the Haymarket riot and massacre in Chicago, in May, 1886 the latter trial being

The same year (1887) he was elected to the Circuit bench of Cook County, but resigned his seat in 1890 to become counsel for held



the Chicago City Railway.



Died, in Chicago,


GROSS, Jacob,

ex-State Treasurer and banker, Germany. Feb. 11, 1840; having lost his father by death at 13. came to the United States two years later, spent a year in Chicago scliools. learned the trade of a tinsmith and

was born


clerked in a store until August, 1862.

when he

enlisted in the Eighty -Second Illinois Volunteers

(the second ticipated in

"Hecker Regiment"); afterwards parsome of the most important battles

of the war, including Chancellorsville, GettysAt burg. Lookout Mountain. Re.saca and others. ia. he had his right leg badly shattered by a bullet-wound above tlie knee, four successive ani])utations being found necessjiry in order 'to save his life. Having been discharged from the service in February, 1865, he took a course in a commercial college, became deputy clerk of the Police Court, served three terms as Collector of the West Town of Chicago, and an equal number of terms (12 years) as Clerk of the Circuit Court of Cook County, and. in 18.'' MEDICAL COLLEGE,


in Chicago, chartered in 1834-35, but not organized until 1860, when temporary quarters were secured over a drug-store, and the first college term opened, with a teaching faculty numbering nine professors, besides clinical lecturers, demonstrators, etc. In 1866 07 the institution moved into larger quarters and. in 1870, the corner-stone of a new college building was laid. Tlie six succeeding years were marked by internal dis.sension, ten of the professors withdrawing to establish a rival school. Tlie faculty was curtailed in numbers and re-orgauized. In August,

HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. 1892, the cornerstone of a second building


laid with appropriate Masonic ceremonies, the new structure occupying the site of the old, but

being larger, better arranged and better equipped. Women were admitted as students in 1870-71 and co-education of the sexes has ever since continued For :an established feature of the institution. more than thirtj'-five years a free dispensary has been in operation in connection with the college. HAINES, John Charles, Mayor of Chicago and legislator, was born in Oneida County, N. Y., IMay 26, 1818; came to Chicago in 1835, and, for the next eleven years, was employed in various pursuits; served three terms (1848-54) in the City Council; was twice elected Water Commissioner i(1853 and '56), and, in 1858, was chosen Mayor, He also served as Delegate jserving two terms. from Cook County in the Constitutional Convention of 1869-70, and, in 1874, was elected to the State Senate from the First District, serving in the Twenty-ninth and Thirtieth General Assemblies. At the session of 1877 he received si-ictynine votes for the seat in the United States Senate to which Judge David Davis was afterwards elected. Mr. Haines was a member of the Chicago Historical Society, was interested in the old Chicago West Division Railway and President of the Savings Institute. During his later years he was a resident of Waukegan, dying there, i





—Elijah Middlebrook


brother of the preceding, lawyer, politician .and legislator, was born in Oneida County, N. Y., April 21, 1822; came to Illinois in boj-hood, locating first at Chicago, but, a year later, went to

Lake County, where he resided

until his death.

His education, rudimentary, classical and profeslie began to occupy sional, was self-acquired. -and cultivate a farm for himself befoi'e attaining his majority; studied law, and, in 1851, was admitted to the bar, beginning practice at Waukegan in 1S60 opened an office in Chicago, still, however, making his home at Waukegan. In 1855 he published a comijilatiou of the Illinois township laws, followed by a "Treatise on the Powers and Duties of Justices of the Peace. " He made similar compilations of the townsliip laws of Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin and Missouri. By nature Mr. Haines was an agitator, and his career as a politician both checkered and unique. Originally a Democrat, he abandoned that organization upon the formation of the Republican part)', and was elected by the latter to the Legislature from Lake County in 1858, '60 and "62. In 1867 he came into prominence as an anti-monopolist, and on this issue was elected to the Consti;


tutional Convention of 1869-70. In 1870 he was again chosen to the Legislature as an "independent, "and, as such, re-elected in '74, '82, '84, '86 and '88, receiving the aupport, however, of the DemoHe crats in a District normally Republican. served as Speaker during the sessions of 1875 and '85, the party strengtli in each of these Assemblies being so equally divided that he either held, or was able to control, the balance of power. He was an adroit parliamentarian, but his decisions were the cause of much severe criticism, being regarded by both Democrats and Republicans as

often arbitrary and unjust.

The two


over which he presided were among the stormiest in the State's history. Died, at Waukegan, April 25, 1889.


Albert, pioneer clergyman, was born

at Glastonbury, Conn., Nov. 29, 1799; after


years spent as a clerk in a country store at Wethersfield, completed a course in the theological department of Yale College, later serving as a


missionary, in Georgia;


to Illinois in

doing home missionary work in Bond County, and, in 1833, was sent to Chicago, where his open candor, benignity and blameless conduct enabled him to exert a powerful influence over the drunken aborigines who constituted a large and menacing class of the population of what was tlien a frontier town. In 1839 he assumed the pastorate of the Second Presbyterian Church in Springfield, continuing that connection until 1865. From that time until his death, his life was largely devoted to missionary work among the extremely poor and tlie pariahs of society. Among these he wielded a large influence and always commanded genuine respect from all denominations. His forte was love rather than argument, and in this lay the secret of his suc1831,


Died, in Springfield, Jan. 30, 1891.


(Dr.) Edniu 31., physician, was born Newport, tr. H., in 1.929, commenced the study of medicine in 1848 and, in 1850, entered the Cleveland Homeopathic College, at the end of the in

session locating at Jonesville, Mich.



he labored in the interest of a representation of homeopathv in the University of Slichigau. Wlien this was finally accomplished, he was offered the chair of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, but was compelled to decline in consequence of having been elected to the same position in the Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago. In 1876 he made a visit to Europe, and, on his return, severed his connection with the Hahnemann and accepted a similar position in the Chicago Homeopathic College, wliere he remained


216 five years,

when he

fessor Emeritus.

retired with the rank of ProHale was the author of



several volumes held in high esteem by

of the profession, and maintained a high reputation for professional skill and benevolence of He was a member of the Chicago character. Academy of Sciences and an honorary memlier of Died, in

various home and foreign associations. Chicago, Jan. 18, 1899.



ette County,





was bom

in Fay-

son of a

29, 1S-.32— the

pioneer who came to Illinois about the time of He served as Second its admission as a, State. Lieutenant in the Third Illinois Volunteers (Col. Foreman's regiment), during the Mexican War,

"Notes on the Western States," "Sketches of the West," "Romance of Western History," and "History of the Indian Tribes."

the Border,"

HAMER, Thomas, born


and legislator, was June 1, 1818; came in 1840 ancl began business as a merVermont, Fulton County; in 1802

to Illinois



Union County, at


assisted in recruiting the Eighty-fourth Illinois

Volunteers and was elected Lieutenant-Colonel; was wounded in the battle of Stone River, returned to duty after partial recovery, but was finally compelled to retire oh account of disability. Returning home he resumed business, but retired in 1878; was elected Representative in the General Assembly in 1880 and to the Senate in



and, in 18GU, removed to .Slielbyville to engage in


The Civil War coming on, he raised the first company for the war in Shelby County, which was attached to the Fourteenth Illinois (Col. John M. Palmer's regiment); was promptly promoted from Captain to Major and

ton years of continuous service.

on the promotion Palmer to Brigadier-General, succeeding to command of tlio regiment. The Fourteenth Regiment having been finally con.solidated with Lieutenant-Colonel Hall was the Fifteenth, transferred, with the rank of Colonel, to the command of the One Hundred and Forty-fovirth Illinois, which ho resigned in JIarch, 1804, was brevetted Brigadier-General for gallant and

the foot of the lower rapids insures abundant An water power for manufat-turing purposes. iron railroad and wagon bridge connects the IlliIt has two banks, elecnois city with Keokuk. tric lights, one newspaper, six churches, a high

meritorious service in the field, in March, 180.5, and nmstered out Sept. 10, 1805. Returning to Slielbyville, he engaged in the furniture trade, later was appointed Postmaster, serving some ten

HAMILTON, John B., M.D, LL.D., surgeon, was born of a pioneer family in Jersey County,


finally to Lieutenant-Colonel,


years and until his deatli, Sept.

HALL, James, legislator,



jurist, State


August 19, 1793; after serving in the War of 1812 and spending some time with Com. Step'lien Decatur

and author, was born

in Philadelphia,

he studied law, beginning practice at Shawneetown, in 1820. He at once assumed prominence as a citizen, was appointed State's Attorney in 1821, and elevated to the bench of the Circuit Court in 182.5. He was legislated out of office two years later and in the Mediterranean, in 1815,

resumed private practice, making liis home at Vandalia, where he was associated with Robert Blackwell in the publication of "The Illinois Intelligencer." The same .year (1827) he was elected by the Legislature State Treasurer, continuing in office four years. Later he removed to He conCincinnati, where he died, July 5, 1808. ducted "The Western Monthly Magazine," the first

periodical published in Illinois.

published volumes




be mentioned "Tales of

re-elected to tlie latter in 1892,


a city in Hancock County, on the Keokuk, Iowa; at junc-

Mississippi River opposite

& Western and Keokuk Wabash Railway. Its position at

tion of the Toledo, Peoria

brancli of the

and an apiary. The surrounding country A sanitarium a farming and fruit district. located here. Population (1890), 1,301; (1900),

school, is is


Dec. 1, 1847, his grandfather, Thomas M. Hamilton, having removed from Ohio in 1818 to jMonroe County, 111., wliere the father of the sub-


ject of this sketcli




latter (Elder

Hamilton) was for fifty years a Baptist preacher, chiefly in Greene County, and, from 1862 to '65, Chaplain of the Sixty-first IlliYoung Hamilton, having renois Volunteers. ceived Ids literary education at home and with a classical teacher at Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1803 began the study of medicine, and tlie following year attempted to enlist as a soldier, but was In 1869 he rejected on account of being a minor. graduated from Rush Medical College in Chicago, and, for the next five yeiirs. was engaged in genThen, having passed an examinaeral practice. tion before an Army Examining Board, he was appointed Assistant Surgeon in the regular army with the rank of First Lieutenant, serving suc-



cessively at Jefferson Barracks, St. Ix>uis; Fort Colville,

Washington, and


the Marine Hospital

became Supervising SurgeonGeneral as successor to Gen. Jolin M. WiMidworth

at Boston


in 1879

HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. and, during the yellow-fever epidemic in the South, a few years later, rendered efficient service in checking the spread of the disease by taking charge of tlie camp of refugees from Jacksonville and otlier stricken points. Resigning the position of Surgeon-General in 1891, he took charge of the Marine Hospital at Chicago and became Pro-

Surgery in Rush Medical College, besides holding other allied positions was also editor of "The Journal of the American Medical Association." In 1896 he resigned his position in the Medical Department of the United States Army, in 1897 was ajjpointed Superintendent for the Northern Hospital for the Insane at Elgin, «but fessor of


died, Dec. 34, 1898.


farmer and legislator, was born at Newry, Ireland, Nov. 9, 1829; emigrated to Jersey County, 111., in 1851, where he began life working on a farm. Later, he followed the occupation of a farmer in Mason and MacouL.,

pin Counties, finally locating, in 1861, in Iroquois County, which has since been his home. After filling various local offices, in 1875 he was elected County Treasurer of Iroquois County as a Republican, and twice re-elected (1877 and "79), also, in 1880, being Chairman of the Republican County


Oglesby to head the State ticket. Since then Governor Hamilton has been a prominent practitioner at the Chicago bar. HAMILTON, Richard Jones, pioneer lawyer, was born near Danville, Ky., August 31, 1799; studied law and, about 1820, came to Jonesboro, Union County, 111., in company with Abner Field, afterwards State Treasurer in 1821 was appointed ;

cashier of the


newly established Branch State

at Brownsville, Jackson County, but,


Governor Reynolds having appointed him the first Probate Judge of Cook County. At the same time he also held the offices of Circuit and County Clerk, Recorder and Commissioner of School lands the sale of the Chicago school section being made under his administration. He was a Colonel of State militia and, in 1832, took an active part in raising volunters for defense during the Black Hawk War; 1831,


to Chicago,

was a candidate for the colonelcy of the Regiment for the Mexican War (1847), but was defeated by Colonel Newby. In 1856 he was an unsuccessful candidate for Lieu-



tenant-Governor on the Democratic ticket. Dec.


36. 1860.


Stephen, pioneer

— son

Central Committee. In 1884 he was elected to the House of Representatives, being one of the "103" who stood by General Logan in the memorable Senatorial contest of 1885; was re-elected in 1886, and again returned to the same body in

of Alexander Hamilton, first United States Secre-

1890 and

public lands, elected Representative from Sanga-


HAMILTON, John Marshall, lawyer and exGovernor, was born in Union County, Ohio, May 28, 1847; when 7 years of age, was brought to Illinois by his father, who settled on a farm in Marshall County. In 1864 (at the age of 17j he enlisted in the

One Hundred and



a 100-day regiment. After being mustered out, he matriculated at the Wesleyan (Ohio) University, from which he graduated in 1868. For a j'ear he taught school at Henry, and later became Professor of Languages at the Wesleyan (111.) University at BloomingHe was admitted to the bar in 1870, and has ton. been a successful practitioner at the bar. In 1876 he was elected State Senator from McLean County, and, in 1880, Lieutenant-Governor on the On Feb. 6, ticket with Gov. Shelby M. CuUom. 1883, he was inaugurated Governor, to succeed Governor CuUom, who had been chosen United States Senator. In 1884 he was a candidate for the gubernatorial nomination before the Republican State Convention at Peoria, but that body selected ex-Gov. and ex-Senator Richard J. nois Volunteers

tary of the Treasury City,




— was

born in

New York

1797; spent three years (1814-17),

West Point came west and located at an early 111. was a deputy surveyor of ;

day at Springfield,



County, in the Fourth General Assembly in 1837 removed to the Lead Mine region and engaged in mining at "Hamilton's Diggings" (now Wiota) in southwest Wisconsin, and occasionally practiced law at Galena was a member of the Wisconsin Territorial Legislature of 1842-43, emigrated to California in 1849, and died in Sacramento, Oct. 9, 1850, where, some twent}' years later, a monument was erected to (1834-26);


memory. Colonel Hamilton was an aid-deof Governor Coles, who sent him forward to meet General La Fayette on his way from New Orleans, on occasion of La Fayette's visit to Illihis


nois in 1825.

HAMILTON COUNTY, situated in the southeastern part of the State; has an area of 440 square miles, and population (1900) of 20,197 Alexander Hamilton. It was organMcLeansboro as the countyThe surface of the county is rolling and seat. the fertile soil well watered and drained by



ized in 1821, with

numerous creeks, flowing east and south into the Wabash, which constitutes its southeastern




being I. J. Waggen, for nearly sixty years a resident of Montebello Township. Black Hawk, the famous Indian Chief, is reputed to have been born within the limits of Camp Creek

boundary. Ck)al crops out at various points in the southwestern portion. Originally Hamilton County was a liense forest, and timber is still abundant and sawmills numerous. Amon},' the hard woods found are black and white oak, black walnut, ash and hickory. The softer woods are Corn and tobacco are the in unusual variety.

among them

principal crops, although considerable fruit is cultivated, besides oats, winter wheat and potaSorghum is also extensively produced toes. Among the pioneer settlers was a Mr. Auxier (for


whom a water course was named), in ISl."); Adam Crouch, the BiggerstatTs and T Stelle, in 1818, and W. T. Golson and Louis Baxter, in 1821. The most important town is McLeansboro, whose population in 1^011 was l,3.").'i. H.\MMOM), Charles Goodrich, Railway Manager, was born at Bolton, Conn., June -1, 1804, spent his youth in Chenango County, N. Y., where he became Principal of the Whitesboro Seminary (in which he was partially educated), and entered mercantile life at Canandaigua in 1834 removed to Michigan, where he held various offices, including member of the Legislature and Auditor; in 18.')2 completed the construction of the Michigan Central Railroad (the first line from the East) to Chicago, and took up In IS.Jo he became his residence in that city. Superintendent of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, but soon resigned to take a

MendenhalLs, Ix)gans, and Luther Whitney. James White, George Y. Cutler and Henry Nich-

to Europe for the benefit of his health. Returning from Europe in 186!», he accepted the Superintendency of the Union Pacific Railroad, but was compelled to resign by failing health, later becoming Vice-President of the Pullman Palace Car Company, He was Treasurer of the Chicago Ralief & Aid Society after the fire of 1871, and one of the founders of the Chicago Theological Seminary (Congregational); also President, for several years, of the Chicago Home for the Friendtrip


Died, April

15. 1884.

HAMPSHIRE, a village of Kane County, on Omaha Division of the Chicago, Milwaukee


Paul Railway, M miles west-northwest from Chicago, There are brick and tile works, a large



canning factory, pickle factory, and machine shop; dairy and stock interests are large. The place has a bank, electric lights and water-works, and a weekly paper. Pop. (1890), G96; (1900), TOO. H.XNCOCk COrXTT, on the western border of the Stiite, lK)undH0). Between 1850 and l^iGO lie was engaged ( 1848 In 186J lie enlisted as a in railroad enterprises. at

private in the Eighty-third



was commissioned Colonel and. in less than a year, was promoted to Brigadier-General. In 1864 he was elected to Congress and re-elected He did much for the development of the in 1866. Infantry,

western part of the State in the construction of & Oquawka (now a part of the Chicago. Burlington & Quincy Iieing one of the lines constructed by him. He left a fortune railroads, the Peoria


of about §2.000,000. and, before his death, en, 1877. It consists of seven members, named by the Gov-

who liold office for seven years. It is charged with "general supervision of the interests connected with the health and life of tlie citizens of the State." All matters pertaining to quarantine fall within its purview, and in this respect it is invested with a power which, while ernor,



well-nigh autocratic.

The same

standard holds good, although to a far less exas to its supervisory power over contagious diseases, of man or beast. The Board also has a modified control over medical practitioners, under the terms of the statute popularly known as the "Medical Practice Act." Through its powers thereunder, it lias kept out or expelled from the State an army of irregular practitioners, and has done much toward raising the standard of professional qualilication. HEALY, (ieorsre r. A., artist, was born in Boston. July \'>. 18(l.s. and early manifested a predilection for art, in which he was encouraged by the painter Scully. He struggled in the face of difficulties until 1836, when, having earned some money bj- his art, he went to Europe to study, spending two years in Paris and a like period in London. In 18.5.') he came to Chicago, contemi)Iating a stay of three weeks, but remained until 1867. During this time he is said to have painted .57.5 i)ortraits, many of them being likenesses of prominent citizens of Chicago and of the State. Many of his picture.s, depositeii in the rooms of the Chicago Historical Society for safe-keeping, were destroyed by the fire of 1871. From 1869 to '91 his time was spent cliiefly in Rome. During his several visits to Europe he


painted the portraits of a large


of royal

personages, including Louis Phillippe of France, as also, in this country, the jwrtraits of Presidents

and other distinguished persons. One of his his"Webster Replying to torical pictures was Hayne," in which 1.50 figures are introduced. A few j-ears before his death, Mr. Healy donated a large numter of his pictures to the Newterry Library of Chicago. He died in Chicago, June 24, 1894.

HEATOX, William Weed, was born

lawyer and


at Western, Oneida County, N.


After completing his academic studies he engaged, for a short time, in teaching, but soon began tha study of law, and, in 1838, was admitted to the bar at Terre Haute, Ind. In 1840 he removed to Dixon, 111., wliere he resided until his death. In 1861 lie was elected Judge of the Circuit Court for the Twenty-second Circuit, and occupied a seat upon the bench, through repeated re-elections, until liis death, which occurred Dec. 20, 1877, while .serving as a member of the Appellate Court for the First District. HECKER, Friedrich Karl Franz, German patriot and soldier, was born at Baden, Germany, He attained eminence in his Sept. 28, 1811. native country as a lawyer and jxilitician was a member of the Baden Assembly of 1842 and a leader in the Diet of 1846-47, but, in 1848, was forced, with many of liis compatriots, to find a refuge in the United States. In 1849 he settled as a farmer at Suinmerfield, in St. Clair County, III. He took a deep interest in politics and, being earnestly opposed to slavery, ultimately joined the Republican party, and took an active part in the campaigns of 18.56 and '60. In 1861 lie was commissioned Colonel of the Twenty-fourth Illinois Volunteers, and was later transferred to the command of the Eighty -.secoiul. He was a brave soldier, and actively participated in the battles In of Mis.sionarv Ridge and. Chancellorsville 1864 he resigned his commission and returned to Died, at St. Louis, his farm in St. Clair County. April






24, ISSl.


an institution incorpo-

conducted under the auspices of the Methodist IC|)iscopal Church, at Abingdon, Knox County. 111. has a faculty of seventeen rated in

187.5 anil


and reports (1895-96), 403 students, 212 were male and 181 female. The




bi-anehes taught include the sciences, the cUissics, music, fine arts, oratory and jireparatorj- courses.

The institution has funds and endowment amounting to $55,000, and property valued at $1.58.000.

roceeded to distribute the bulk of the goods as promised, but

ammunition, guns and liquors were deThis he justified on the ground that a bad use would be made of them, while the Indians construed it as a violation of the agreement. The tragedy which followed, is thus dethe


scribed in Moses" "History of Illinois:"

"Black Partridge, a Pottawatomie Chief, who had been on terras of friendship with the whites.

appeared before Captain Heald and informed liim plainly that his young men intended to imbrue their hands in the blood of the whites; that he was no longer able to restrain them, and, surrendering a medal he had worn in token of amity, closed by saying: 'I will not wear a token of peace while I am compelled to act as an enemy." In the meai\time the Indians were rioting upon the provisions, and becoming so aggressive in their bearing that it wjus re.>iolved to march out the next day. The fatal fifteenth arrived.







The baggage and ambulance wagons were laden, and the garrison slowly wended its way outside the protectro\mds of reserved ammunition.

ing walls of the fort the Indian escort of 500 following in the rear. What next occurred in this disa.strous movement is narrated by Captain Heald in his report, as follows: 'The situation of the country rendered it necessary for us to take the lieach. with the lake on our left, and a high sand bank on our right at about three hundred yards distance. We had proceeded about a mile and a half, when it was discovered (by Captain Wells) that the Indians were prepared to attack us from behind the bank. I ininiep of the bank, when the action commenced: after firing one round, we charged, and the Indians gave way in front and joined those on our flanks. In about fifteen minutes they got possession of all our horses, provisions and baggage of every description, and finding the Miamis (who had come from Fort AVayne with Captain Wells to act as an escort) did not assist us, I drew olf the few men I had left and took possession of a small elevation in the open prairie out of shot of the bank, or any other cover. The Indians did nf)t follow me but assembled in a bod}- on top of the bank, and after soiue consultation among themselves, made signs I advanced toward for me to approach them. them alone, and was met by one of the Pottawatomie chiefs called Black Bird, with an interAfter shaking hands, he reipiested me to preter. surrender, promising to spare the lives of all the On a few moments" consideration I prisoners. concluded it would be most prudent to comply with this re(|uest, although I did not put entire confidence in his promise. The troops had made a brave defense, but what could so small a force do against such overwhelming numbers"? It was evident with over half their mnnl>er dead upon the field, or wounded, further resistance would be ho|ieless. Twenty-six regulars and twelve militia, with two women and twelve children, were killed. .Vmong the slain were Captain Wells. Dr. Van Voorhis and Ensign George Ronan. (Captain Wells, wlien j-oung, had been captured by Indians and had married among them.) He (WelLs) was familiar with all the niles, stratagems, as well as the vindictiveness of the Indian charai'ter. and when the conflict began, he said to his niece (Mrs. Heald). by whose side he was standing, 'We have not the

chance for life: we must part to meet no more in this world. Go o o I











reduced to

elected were:


The other State

Andrew Shuman,


tenant-Governor; George H. Harlow, Secretary Thomas B. Needles, Auditor; Edward Rutz, Treasurer, and James K. Edsall, AttorneyEach of these had pluralities exceeding General. 20,000, except Needles, who, having a single competitor, had a smaller majority than CuUom. The new State House was occupied for the first time by the State officers and the Legislature chosen at this time. Although the Republicans had a majority in the House, the Independents held the "balance of power" in joint session of the General Assembly. After a stubborn and protracted struggle in the effort to choose a United States Senator to succeed Senator John A. Logan, David Davis, of Bloomington, was elected on the fortieth ballot. He had been a Whig and a warm personal friend of Lincoln, by whom he was appointed Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States in 1802. His election to the United States Senate by the Democrats and Independents led to his retirement from the Supreme bench, thus preventing his appointment on the Electoral Commission of 1877 a circumstance which, in the opinion of many, may have had an important bearing upon the decision of that tribunal. In the latter part of his term he served as President pro tempore of the Senate, and more frequently acted with the Republicans than with their opponents. He supported Blaine and Logan for President and Vice-President, in 1884. (See Davis, David. ) Strike of 1877. The extensive railroad strike, in July, 1877, caused widespread demoralization of business, especially in the railroad centers of the State and throughout the country generally. The newl}' -organized National Guard was called out and rendered efficient service in restoring order. Governor Cullom's action in the premises was prompt, and has been generally commended as eminently wise and discreet. Election op 1878.— Four sets of candidates were in the field for the offices of State Treasurer and Superintendent of Public Instruction in 1878 Republican, Democratic, Greenback and Prohibition. The Republicans were successful, Gen. John C. Smith being elected Treasurer, and James P. Slade, Superintendent, by pluralities averaging about 35,000. The same party also elected eleven out of nineteen members of Congress, and, for the first time in six years, secured a majority in each branch of the General Assembly. At the session of this Legislature, in January following, John A. Logan was elected to the of State;


United States Senate as successor to Gen. R. J. Oglesby, whose term expired in March following. Col. William A. James, of Lake County, served (See as Speaker of the House at this session. Smith. John Corson; Slade, James P.; also Thirtyfirst

General Assembly.

Campaign of 1880. —The political campaign of 1880 is memorable for the determined struggle made by the friends of General Grant to secure nomination for the Presidency for a third The Republican State Convention, beginning at Springfield, May 19, lasted three days, ending in instructions in favor of General Grant by a vote of 399 to 285. These were nuUii'ied, however, by the action of the National ConvenGovernor Cullom was tion two weeks later. nominated for re-election John M. Hamilton for Lieutenant-Governor; Henry D. Dement for Secretary of State Charles P. Swigert for Auditor Edward Rutz (for a third term) for Treasurer, his




McCartney for Attorney-General. Henry D.; Swigert, Charles P.; Rutz, Edward, -And. McCartney James.) Ex-Senator Trumbull headed the Democratic ticket as its

and James

(See Dement,


candidate for Governor, with General L. B. Parsons for Lieutenant-Governor. The Republican National Convention





After thirty-six





306 delegates stood unwaveringly

by Gen-

Grant, James A. Garfield, of Ohio, was nominated, with Chester A. Arthur, of New York, for Vice-President. Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock was the Democratic candidate and Gen. James B. Weaver, the Greenback nominee. In eral

votes were cast, Garfield receiving a plurality of 40,716. The entire Republican State ticket was elected by nearly the same pluralities, and the Republicans again had decisive majorities in both branches of the Legislature. No startling events occurred during Governor Cullom's second term. The State continued to increase in wealth, population and prosperity, and the heavy debt, by which it had been burdened thirty years before, was practically "wiped out." Illinois, 622,156

Election op 1882.— At the election of 1882, Gen. John C. Smith, who had been elected State Treasurer in 1878, was re-elected for a second term, over -Alfred Orendorff, while Charles T. Strattan, the Republican candidate for State Superintendent of Public Instruction, was defeated by Henry Raab. The Republicans again had a majority in each House of the General Assembly, amounting to twelve on joint ballot. Loren C. Collins was elected Speaker of the



278 House.

In the election of United States Senator,

which occurred at this session, Governor Cullom was chosen as the successor to David Davis, Gen. Jolin M. Palmer receiving the Democratic vote. Lieut.-Gov. John M. Hamilton thus became Governor, nearly in the middle of his term.

Cullom, Shelby




John M.; ColUnx.

Loren C, and Raab, Henry.) The "Harper High License Law," enacted by the Thirty-third General Assembly (lfit in nomination in the Convention by Senator Cullom. Tlie choice of the Convention, however, fell upon James G. Blaine, on the fourth ballot, his leading competitor being President Arthur. Logan was then nominated for Vice-President by acclamation.

At the election in November the Republican party met its first reverse on tlie National battlefield since 18.56, Grover Clevelanil and Thomas A. Hendricks, the Democratic candidates, being elected President and Vice-President by the narrow margin of less tlian 1,200 votes in the State of



Tlie result



doubt for sev-

and the excitement throughout tlie country was scarcely less intense than it had been in the close election of 18T(i. The Greenback and Prohibition parties both had tickets in eral days,

nearly 'JU.OOO votes. The plurality in the State for Blaine was 2.j,118. The Republican State officers elected were Richard J. Oglesby, Governor; John C. Smith, LieutenIllinois,

polling a



ant-Governor; Henry D. Dement, Secretary of State Charles P. Swigert, Auditor Jacob Gross, State Treasurer; and George Hunt. AttorneyGeneral—receiving pluralities ranging from 14,000 to 25,000. Both Dement and Swigert were elected for a second time, while ( Jross and Hunt were chosen for fii'st terms. (See fJro.'.-.s-. Jacob, and Hunt, George. Chicago Election- Frauds. An incident of this election was the fraudulent attempt to seat ;


Rudolph Brand (Democrat) as Senator in place of Henry W. Leman, in the Sixth Senatorial District of Cook County. The fraud was exposed and Joseph C. Mackin. one of its alleged perijetrators, was sentenced to the penitentiary for four years for perjury growing out of the inve.stigation. A motive for this attempted fraud was found in the close vote in the Legislature for United States Senator Senator Logan being a candidate for re-election, while the Legislature stood 102 Republicans to 100 Democrats and two Greenbackers on joint ballot. A tedious contest on the election of Speaker of the House finally resulted in the success of E. M. Haines. Pending the struggle over the Senatorship, two seats in the House and one in the Senate were rendered vacant by death the deceased Senator and one of the Representatives being Democrats, and the other Representative a Republican. The special election for Senator re.sulted in filling the vacancy with a new member of the same political faith as his predecessor; but l)Oth vacancies in the House were filled by Republicans. The gain of a Republican member in place of a Democrat in the House was brought about by the election of Captain William H. Weaver Representative from the Thirty-fourth District (composed of Mason, Menard, Cass and Schuyler Counties) over the Democratic candidate, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Representative J. Henry Shaw, Democrat. This was accomplished by what is called a "still hunt" on the part of the Republicans, in which the Democrats, being taken by It furnished the sensurprise, suffered a defeat. sation not only of the session, but of special elections generally, especially as every county in the District was strongly Democratic. This gave the Republicans a majority in each House, and the

Logan followed, though not until two months had l)een consumed in the contest. re-election of


Loijiiii. .hihii


OOLESBYS Third Term. —The only disturbing events during Governor Oglesby "s third term were strikes among the quarryinen at Joliet and Lemont, in May, 1885; by the railroad switchmen at East St. Louis, in April, 1886, and among the employes at the Union Stock-Yards, in November In each case troops were called of the same year. out and order finally restored, but not until several persons had been killed in the two former, and Vjoth strikers and employers had lost heavily in the iiiterrnption of

election of 1886,

Dr. Richard tively


John R. Tanner and Edwards (Republicans) were respecelected State Treasurer and State Superin-

At the


HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. tendent of Public Instruction, by 34,816 plurality for the former and 29,928 for the latter. (See Tanner, John R.; Edwards, Richard.) In the Thirty-fifth General Assembly, which met Januarj-, 1887, the Republicans liad a majority in each House, and Charles B. Farwell was elected to the United States Senate in place of Gen. John A. Logan, deceased. (See Fanvell, Charles B.)

FiFER Elected Governor. campaign of 1888 was a spirited

— The one,




than the one of four years previous. ExSenator Joseph W. Fifer, of McLean County, and ExGov. John M. Palmer were pitted against each other as opposing candidates for Governor. (See Prohibition and Labor tickets Fifer, Joseph W.) were also in the field The Republican National •Convention was again held in Chicago, June 20-2.5, resulting in the nomination of Benjamin Harrison for President, on the eighth ballot. The delegates from Illinois, with two or three exceptions, voted steadily for Judge Walter Q. Gresham. (See Gresham, )Valter Q.) Grover Cleveland headed the Democratic ticket as a bitter

candidate for re-election.

At the November


747,683 votes were cast in Illinois, giving the Republican Electors a plurality of 23, 104. Fifer's plurality over Palmer was 12,.547, and that of the remainder of the Republican State ticket, still larger. Those elected were Lyman B. Ray, Lieutenant-Governor; Isaac X. Pearson, Secretary of State Gen. Charles W. Pavey, Auditor Charles Becker, Treasurer, and George Hunt, Attorney-General. (See Ray, Lyman B.; Pearson, Isaac N.; Pavey, Charles W; and Becker, Cha7-les.) The Republicans secured twenty-six majority on joint ballot in the Legislature the largest since 1881. Among the acts of the Legislature of 1889 were the reelection of Senator Cullom to the United States Senate, practically w'thout a contest the revision of the compulsory education law, and the enactment of the Chicago drainage law. At a special session held in July, 1890, the first steps in the preliminary legislation looking to the holding of the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in the city of Chicago, were taken. (See World's Columbian Exposition.) Republican Defe.\t of 1890. The campaign of 1890 resulted in a defeat for the Republicans on both the State and Legislative tickets. Edward S. Wilson was elected Treasurer by a plurality of 9,847 and Prof. Henry Raab, who had been Superintendent of Public Instruction between 1883 and




was elected for a second term by 34,042. Though lacking two of an absolute majority on 1887,


Legislature, the Democrats with the aid of two members belonging to the Farmers' Alliance, after a prolonged and exciting contest, to elect Ex-Gov. John M. Palmer United States Senator, as successor to The election took place on March C. B. Farwell. 11, resulting, on the 154th ballot, in 103 votes for Palmer to 100 for Cicero J. Lindley (Republican) andonefor A. J. Streeter. (See Palmer, John M.) Elections of 1892.— At the elections of 1892 the Republicans of Illinois sustained their first defeat on both State and National issues since 1856. The Democratic State Convention was held at Springfield, April 27, and that of the Republicans on May 4. The Democrats put in nomination John P. Altgeld for Governor; Joseph B. Gill for Lieutenant-Governor; WilUam H. Hiarichsen for Secretary of State; Rufus N. Ramsay for State Treasurer; David Gore for Auditor Maurice T. Moloney for Attorney-General, with Jolin C. Black and Andrew J. Hunter for Congressmen-at-large and three candidates for

joint ballot in the




Trustees of the Universitj' of Illinois. The canFor Govdidates on the Republican ticket were ernor, Joseph W. Fifer; Lieutenant-Governor, Lyman B. Ray Secretary of State, Isaac N. Pear:


son; Auditor, Charles W. Pavey; Attorney-General, George W. Prince; State Treasurer, Henry L. Hertz Congressmen-at-large, George S. Willits ;

and Richard Yates, with three University TrusThe first four were all incumbents nomitees. nated to succeed themselves. The Republican its session at Minneaponominating President Harrison for re-election, while that of the Democrats met in Chicago, on June 21, remaining in session until June 24, for the third time choosing, as its standard-bearer, Grover Cleveland, with Adlai T. Stevenson, of Bloomingtou, 111., as his runningmate for Vice-President. The Prohibition and People's Party also Iiad complete National and

National Convention held lis



field. The State campaign was conducted with great vigor on both sides, the Democrats, under the leadership of Altgeld, making an especially bitter contest upon some features of the compulsory school law, and gaining many votes from the ranks of the German-Republicans. The result in the State showed a plurality for

State tickets in the

Cleveland of '26,993 votes out of a total 873,646— the combined Prohibition and People's Party vote amounting to 48,077. The votes for the respective heads of the State tickets were: Altgeld (Dem.),



Link 402,6.59; 108— plurality for Fifer was the high-


(Pro.), 25,6'28;Barnet (Peo.), 20.

Altgeld, 22,808.

The vote




any Republican candidate on either the National or the State ticket, leading that of President Harrison by nearly 3,400, while the vote for Altgeld, though falling behind that of Cleveland, led the votes of all his associates on the Democratic State ticket with the single exception of Ramsay, the Democratic Candidate for Treasurer. Of the twenty-two Representatives in Congress from the State chosen at this time, eleven were Republicans and eleven Democrats, including among the latter the two Congressmen from the State-at-large. The Thirt.v-eighth General Assembly stood twenty-nine Democrats to twenty-two Republicans in the Senate, and seventy-eight Democrats to seventy-five Republicans in the House. The administration of Governor Fifer the last in a long and unbroken line under Republican Governors closed with the financial and industrial interests of the State in a prosperous condition, the State out of deVjt with an ample surplus in its Fifer was the fir.st private .soldier of treasury. the Civil War to be elected to the Governorship, est given to

though the

result of the next

shown that he was not first

elections have

to be the last

successors belonging to the

Altgeld was the



—both of his Governor


foreign-born citizen of the

State to be elected Governor, though the State has had four Lieutenant-Governors of foreign birth, viz.: Pierre Menard, a French Canadian; John iluore, an Englishman, and Gu.stavus Koerner and Francis -V. IIotTiiian. both Germans. The ThirtyAl^TGEi.D's Admixistr.vtiox. eighth General Assembly began its session, Jan. 4, 1893, the Democrats having a majority in each

House. (.See Thirty-eighth General Aasembly.) The inauguration of the State officers occurred on Januarj- 10. The most important events connected with Governor .\ltgeld"s administration were the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893, and the strike of railway employes in 1894. Both of these have been treated in detail under their proper heads. (See ]Vtirl(l's Columbian E.rponitioti.

and Labor




befell the State in the destruction




on the

night of Jan. 3, 189,5, of a portion, of the buildings connected with the Southern Hospital for the Insane at Anna, involving a loss to the State of nearl}' §200,000, and subjecting the inmates and officers of the institution to great risk and no small amount of suffering, although no lives were The Thirty-ninth General .\.s,sembly, which lost. met a few days after the fire, made an appropriation of SI" 1,970 for the restoration of the buildings destroyed, and work was begun immediately.

The defalcation of Charles W. Spalding, Treasurer of the University of Illinois, which came to light near the close of Governor Altgeld's term, involved the State in heavy loss (the exact amount of which is not even yet fully known), and operated unfortunately for the credit of the retiring administration, in view of the adoption of a policy which made the Governor mqre directly responsible for the


of the State in-

by most of his predeThe Governor's course in connection

stitutions than that pursued cessors.

with the strike of 1894 was also severely criticised some quarters, especially as it brouRht him in opposition to the policy of the National administration, and exposed him to the charge of sympathizing with the strikers at a time when they were regarded its acting in open violation of law. Electio.v of 1894.— The election of 1894 showed as surprising a reaction against the Democratic party, as that of 1892 had been in an opposite direction. The two State offices to be vacated this }-ear State Treasurer and State Superintendent of Public Instruction were filled by the election of Republicans by unprecedented majorities.



i)lurality for




Henry Wulff for State Treasand that in favor of Samuel M.

Inglis for State Superintendent of Public Instruc-

Of twenty-two Repretwo returned as elected were Republicans, and these two were unseated as the result of contests. The Legislation, scarcely 10,000 less.

sentatives in Congress, all but

ture stood thirty-three Republicans to eighteen Democrats in the Senate, and eighty -eiKht Republicans to sixty -one Democrats in the House.

One of tlie most important acts of the Thirtyninth General As.sembly, at the following session, was the enactment of a law fixing the compensation of members of the General Assembly at 81,000 for each regular session, with five dollars per day and mileage for called, or extra, sessions. This Legislature also passed acts making appropriations for the erection of buildings for the use of the State Fair, which had l>een permanently located at Springfield for the establishment of two additional hospitals for the insane, one near Rock Island and the other (for incurables) near Peoria; for the Northern and Eastern Illinois Normal Schools, and for a Soldiers' Widows' Home at ;

Wilmington. Pekm.\next Location of the St.\te Fair. In consequence of the absorption of public attention especially among the indu-strial and manufacturing classes by the World's Columbian

Exposition, the holding of the Illinois State

Annual Fair

of the

Board of Agriculture for 1893 was


HISTOKICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. time since the Civil War. were taken by the Board at its annual meeting in Springfield, in January of that year, looking to the permanent location of the Fair and, at a meeting of the Board held in Chicago, in October following, formal specifications were adopted prescribing the conditions to be met These were sent to cities in securing the prize. intending to compete for the location as the basis Responses of proposals to be submitted by them. were received from the cities of Bloomington, Decatur, Peoria and Springfield, at the annual meeting in January, 1894, with the result that, on the eighth ballot, the bid of Springfield was accepted and the Fair permanently located at that place by a vote of eleven for Springfield to The ten divided between five other points. Springfield proposal provided for conveyance to the State Board of Agriculture of 155 acres of land — embracing the old Sangamon County Fair Grounds immediately north of the city besides a cash contribution of §50,000 voted by the Sangamon County Board of Supervisors for the Other contrierection of permanent buildings. omitted for the



initial steps




parties, were industrial

butions increased the estimated value of the donations from Sangamon County (including the land) to §139,800, not including the pledge of the two streets to the gates

city of Springfield to pave

Grounds and furnish water free, bean agreement on the part of the electric

of the Fair

company to furnish light The construction begun the same year, and the

two years



of charge.

of buildings





crats followed, at Peoria, on June 23. The former put in nomination John R. Tanner for Governor; William A. Northcott for Lieutenant-Governor; James A. Rose for Secretary of State; James S. McCullough for Auditor; Henry L. Hertz for Treasurer, and Edward C. Akin for AttorneyGeneral, with Mary Turner Carriel, Thomas J. Smyth and Francis M. McKay for University Trustees. The ticket put in nomination by the for State officers embraced John P. Altgeld for re-election to the Governorship for Lieutenant-Governor, Monroe C. Crawford; Secretary of State, Finis E. Downing: Auditor, Andrew L. Maxwell; Attorney-General, George A. Trude, with three candidates for Trustees. The National Republican Convention met at St. Louis on June 16, and, after a three days" session, put in nomination William McKinley, of Ohio, for President, and Garret A. Hobart, of New Jersey, for Vice-President; while their Democratic opponents, following a policy which had been maintained almost continuously by one or the other party since 1860, set in motion its party machinery in Chicago holding its National Convention in that city, July 7-11, when, for the first time in the history of the nation, a native of Illinois was nominated for the Presidency in the person of William J. Bryan of Nebraska, with Arthur Sewall, a ship-builder of Maine, for the second place on the ticket. The main issues, as enunciated in the platforms of the respective



Fair held on following. Additional first

buildings have been erected and other improvements introduced each year, until the grounds are now regarded as among the best equipped for exhibition purposes in the United States. In the meantime, the increasing success of the Fair from year to year has demonstrated the wisdom

of the action taken by the Board of Agriculture in the matter of location.

The political campaign Campaign op 1896. was one of almost unprecedented activity

of 1896

in Illinois, as well as remarkable for the variety and character of the issues involved and the number of party candidates in the field. As

Democratic and the Republican parties were the chief factors in the contest, although there was a wide diversity of sentiment in each, usual, the

which tended to the introduction of new issues and the organization of parties on new lines. The Republicans took the lead in organizing for the canvass, holding their State Convention at Springfield on April 29 and 30, while the Demo-




financial, as

shown by

the prominence given to the tariff and monetary questions in each. This was the natural result of the business dejiression which had prevailed since 1893. While the Republican platform adhered to the traditional position of the party on the tariff issue, and declared in favor of maintaining the gold standard as the basis of the monetary system of the country, that of the Democracy took a new departure by declaring unreservedly for the "free and unlimited coinage of both silver and gold at the present legal ratio of 16 to 1;"' and this became the leading issue of the campaign. The fact that Thomas E. Watson, of Georgia, wlio had been favored by the Populists as a candidate for Vice President, and was afterwards formally nominated by a convention of that party, with Mr. Bryan at its head, was ignored by the Chicago Convention, led to much friction between the Populist and Democratic wings of the party. At the same time a very considerable body in influence and political prestige, if not in numbers in the ranks of the old-line Democratic party, refused to accept the doctrine of the free-silver





section on the monetary question, and, adopting the name of "Gold Democrats,'' put in nomination a ticket composed of John M. Palmer, of Illinois,

Among the principal measures enacted by the Fortieth General A.ssembly at its regular session were: The "Torrens Land Title Sy.stem," regu-

B. Buckner, of Kentucky, for Vice-President. Besides these, tlie Prohibitionists, Nationalists, Socialist-Labor Party

lating the conveyance

for President,

and Simon

"Middleof-the-Road"" (or "straight-out"' had more or less complete tickets in the field, making a total of seven sets of candidates api>ealing for the votes of the people on issues assumed to be of National importance. The fact that the two grejvt parties— Democratic and Republican established their principal head-



quarters for the prosecution of the campaign in Chicago, had the effect to make that city and the State of Illinois the center of political activDemonstrations of an imposity for the nation. ing character were held by both parties. At the election the Republicans carried the plurality, in Illinois, of 141.517 for their national ticket out of a total of 1,090,869 votes, while the leading candidates on the State ticket

November day by a

received the following pluralities: John R. Tanner (for Governor), 113,381; Nortlicott (for Lieutenant-Governor), 13T,3.54: Rose (for Secretary of State),



(for Auditor). 138,-

Hertz (for Treasurer), 116,064; Akin (for Attorney -General), 13'>,6,50. The Republicans also elected seventeen Representatives in Congress to three Democrats and two People's Party men. The total vote ca.st, in this campaign, forthe "Gold Democratic" candidate for Governor was 8,100. Gov. Tanner's Administr.^tion The Fortieth General Assembly met Jan. 6, 1897, consisting of eighty-eight Republicans to si.xty-three Democrats and two Pt)pulists in the House, and thirtynine Republicans to eleven Democrats and one Populist in the Senate. The Republicans finally gained one member in each house by contests. Edward C. Curtis, of Kankakee County, was chosen Speaker of the House and Hendrick V. Fisher, of Henry County, President pro tem. of the Senate, with a full set of Republican officers Tlie inauguration in the subordinate positions. of the newly elected State officers took i>lace on




the inaugural




Tanner taking strong ground in favor of maintaining the issues indorsed by the people at the On Jan. 20, William E. Mason, late election. of Chicago, was elected United States Senator, as the successor of Senator Palmer, whose term was about to expire. Mr. Mason received the full Republican strength (12.5 votes) in the two Houses, to the 77 Democratic votes cast for John P. Altgeld.

(See Fortieth General Assembly.

and registration of land (which see) the consolidation of the tliree Supreme Court Districts into one and locating the Supreme Court at Springfield, and the Allen



Street-Railroad I^aw, empowering City Councils and other corporate authorities of cities to grant street railway




l)e.\NisH- American War.— The most notable event in the history of Illinois during the

year 1898 was the Spanish-American War, and In this contest tlie part Illinois played in it. lUiuoisans manifested the same eagerness to serve their country as did their fathers and fellow citizens in the War of the Rebellion, a third The first call for volunteers of a century ago. was responded to with alacrity by the men comjmsing the Illinois National Guard, seven regiments of infantry, from the First to Seventh inclusive, besides one regiment of Cavalry and one Battery of Artillery in all about 9,000 men being mustered in between May 7 and Maj- 21. Although only one of these the First, under the


Henry L. Turner of Chicago saw practical service in Cuba before the surrender at Santiago, others in camps of instruction in the South stood ready to respond to the demand for Under the .second call their service in the field. for troops two other regiments — the Eighth and of Col.

— were organized and the former

(comby men of their own race) relieved the First Illinois on guard duty at Santiago after the surrender. A body of engineers from Company E of the Second United States Engineers, recruited in Chicago, were among the first to see service in Cuba, while many lUinoisans belonging to the Naval Reserve were assigned to duty on United States war vessels, and rendered most valuable service in the

the Ninth po.sed of

A fro- Americans


HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. naval engagements in Cuban waters. Tlie Third Regiment (Col. Fred. Bennitt) also took part in the movement for the occupation of Porto Rico. The several regiments on their return for musterout, after the conclusion of terms of peace with Spain, received most enthusiastic ovations from Besides the regitheir fellow-citizens at home. ments mentioned, several Provisional Regiments

were organized and stood ready to respond to the call of the Government for their services had the emergency required. (See ll'ar, The Spanish American.) The principal labor Labor Disturbances. disturbances in the State, under Governor Tanner's administration, occurred during the coal-

miners' strike of 1897, and the lock-out at the

Pana and Virden mines

in 1898.

The attempt


introduce colored laborers from the South to operate these mines led to violence between the adherents of the "Miners' Union'' and the mineowners and operators, and their employes, at these points, dirring which it was necessary to call out the National Guard, and a number of

on both sides. A flood in the Ohio, during the spring of 1898, caused the breaking of the levee at Shawneetown, consequence of 111., on the 3d day of April, in lives



which a large proportion of the city was flooded, many homes and business houses wrecked or greatly injured, and much other property deThe most serious disaster, however, was stroyed. the loss of some twenty-five lives, for the most part of women and children who, being surprised Aid was in their homes, were unable to escape. promptly furnished by the State Government in the form of tents to shelter the survivors and rations to feed them and contributions of money and provisions from the citizens of the State, collected by relief organizations during the next two or three months, were needed to moderate the ;


(See Inundations, Remarkable.)



—The political

campaign of

1898 was a quiet one, at least nominally conducted on the same general issues as that of 1890, al-

though the gradual return of business prosperity had greatly modified the intensity of interest with which some of the economic questions of the preceding campaign had been regarded. The only State officers to he elected were a StateTreasurer, a Superintendent of Public Instruction, and three State University Trustees the total

vote cast for the former being 878,623 against Of the former, 1,090,869 for President in 1896. Floyd K. Whittemore (Republican candidate for

State Treasurer) received 448,940 to 405,490 for


F. Dunlap (Democrat), with 24,193 divided between three other candidates; while Alfred jM.







68,899 over his Democratic competitor, with 33,-

190 votes cast for three others. The Republican candidates for University Trustees were, of course, The Republicans lost heavily in their elected. representation in Congress, though electing thirteen out of twenty-two members of the Fiftysixth Congress, leaving nine to their Democratic opponents, who were practically consolidated in this campaign with the Populi.sts. Forty-first General Assembly. The Fortyfirst General Assembly met, Jan. 4, 1899, and adjourned, April 14, after a session of 101 days, with one exception (that of 187.5), the shortest regular session in the liistory of the State Government since the adoption of the Constitution of 1870. The House of Representatives consisted of eighty- one Republicans to seventy-one Democrats and one Prohibitionist and the Senate, of thirtyfour Republicans to sixteen Democrats and one Populist giving a Republican majority on joint Of 176 bills which passed ballot of twenty-six. both Houses, received the approval of the Governor and became laws, some of the more important were the following: Amending the State Arbitration Law by extending its scope and the general powers of the Board creating the office of State Architect at a salary of S3, 000 per annum, to furnish plans and specifications for public buildings and supervise the construction and care of the same authorizing the consolidation of the territory of cities under township organization, and consisting of five or more Congressional townships, into one township empowering each Justice of the Supreme Court to employ a private secretary at a salary of .?2,000 per annum, to be paid by the State; amending tlie State Revenue Law of 1898 authorizing the establishment and maintenance of parental or truant schools; and empowering the State to establish Free Employment Offices, in the proportion of one to each city of 50,000 inhabitants, or three in cities of 1,000,000 and over. An act was also passed requiring the Secretary of State, when an amendment of the State Constitution is to be voted upon by the electors at any general election, to prepare a statement setting forth the provisions of the same and furnish copies thereof to






each County Clerk, whose duty

it is to have said and posted at the places of voting for the information of voters. One of the most important acts of this Legislature was the repeal, by a practically unanimous vote, of the Street-

copies published



railway Franchise Law of the previous session, the provisions of whicli. empowering City Councils to grant street-railway franchises extending over a period of lifty jears. had been severely criticised by a portion of the press and excited intense hostility, especially in some of the larger Although in force nearly two cities of the State. years, not a single corporation had succeeded in obtaining a franchise under it. A Retrospect and a Look ixto The Future. The history of Illinois has been traced concisely and in outline from the earliest period to the present time. Previous to the visit of Joliet and Marquette, in 1673, as unknown as Central Africa, for a century it continued the hunting ground of savages and the home of wild animals conmion to the plains and forests of the Mississippi Valley. The region brought under the influence of civilization, such as then existed, comprised a small area, scarcely larger than two ordinarily sized counties of the present day. Thirteen yeare of nominal British control( 1765-78) saw little change, except the exodus of a part of the old French population, who preferred Spanish to British rule. The period of devoloiiment began with the occupation of Illinois by Clark in 1778. That saw the "Illinois County," created for the government of the settlements northwest of the Ohio, expanded into five States, with an area of 250,000 square miles and a population, in 1890, of 13,.500,000. In 1880 the population of the State equaled that of the Thirteen Colonies at the close of the Revolution. The eleventh State in the Union in this respect in 18.")(), in 1800 it had advanced to third rank. AVith its unsurpassed fertility of soil, its inexhaustible supplies of fuel


manufacturing purposes,


roads, surpassing in extent that of



little risk in

system of

Important Events in lUinots History. 1673.— Jollet ftnd Marquetto renrti Illinois from Green way of thu Upper Mississippi himI Illinois Rivers.

Bay by

— Maniuette

niakf.s a .secoiitl visit to Illinois uiid spends the wlnieron the present site of (,'hlcago. 1680. — La Salle and Tonty rtesreiid the Jlliimis to Peoria Lake. 1681.- Toiity iM?«ins the eret-tion of Fort St. Louis un "Starved Rock" in Lu Salle County. IGSi.— La Salle and Tonty descend the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers to the nionlh of the laiier, and take jHibfiesslon erniaiient French settlement in Illinois and Mission of St. Sulpice established at Cahokla. 1G74-5.

1700.— Kaakaskia Indians remove from the Upper IIUdois and locate near the mouth of the Kaskaskia River. French settlement established here the same year becomes the town of Kaskaskia and future capital of Illinois. 1718.— The tirst Fort Chartres. erected near Kaskaskia. 1718. - Fort St. Louis, on the UpiM-r Illinois, burned by Indians. 17M. Fort C'hartres rebuilt and streipntheneil. The lUiiiiils (-ountry surrendered by the French to the ITtio. British under the treatv of 17i;:{ 1778.— July A> Col. George Rogers Clark, at the head of an expedition orgitiilred under authority of Gov. Patrick Henry of Virginia, arrives at KaskH.okia. The occupation of Illinois bv the ,\tnerican troops follows. 1778— Illinois County created by Act of the VirRlpla House of iJelegtttes. for the goverument of the selllemeiiis northwest of the Ohio River. 1787.- Congres.s adi>pts the Ordinance of 1787. organizing the Northwest Territory, embracing the present Stales of Ohio. Indiana, Illinois. Ulchlgnn and Wisconsin. 1788.— General Arthur St. Clair appointed Governor of Northwest Territory. 1790.— St Clair County organized. 1795.— Randolph County organized. 1800.— Northwest Territory divided Into Ohio and Indiana Territories. Illinois being embraced In the latter. 1809.— Illinois Territory set off from Indiana, and NlnlaD


Kdvvards appointed Governor : Illinois admittwl as a Stale. -State capital removed from Kaskaskia to Vandalia. 1.S22- 24. -Unsuccessful attempt to make Illinois a slave State. IHi5.-i .April :(U) General La Fayelte visits Kaskaskia. 1832.— Black Hawk War. 18:{y.— July I Spritiglield becomes the third capital of the State 1»37. under nil Act of the 1.^-gisIature passed 1818.— The second Constitution adopted. isiiu.— Abraham Lincoln is electeJan. I) Lincoln issues bis linal Proclamation of EmaD1818.— .Dec. IHio.





18G4.— Lincoln's second election to the Presidency. ltH(,i._i April I4i .\hraham Lincoln assasslimted In Washington. 18fi5.— Mav 4i Prcsiilent Liiieiiln'fl funeral in Springlleld. J8ta.— The'War of Ilie Uebellion ends. I8(!8.— Gen. U. s. Grunt elected to the Presidency. 1870.- The tliird Slate Constitution adopted. I



any other State,

predicting that the next

advanced to second, if not first rank, in both wealth and i)0]>ulation. But if the development of Illinois on material lines has been marvelous, its contributions to the Nation in philanthropists and educators, soldiers and statesmen, have rendered it conspicuous. A long list of these might be mentioned, but two names from the ranks of lUinoisans have been, by common consent, assigned a higher place than all others, and have left a deeper impress upon the history of the Nation than any others since the days of Washington, These are, Ulysses S. Grant, the Organizer of Victory for the Union arms and ('oii(|ueror of the Rebellion, anil Abraham forty years will see



Lincoln, the (Jreat Emancipator, the Preserver of the Republic, and its Martyred President.

At Each Decennial ISW



1810 (23) 18»U (241


157.445 476,183 851,470


1S40 (H> 1850 (1I>


1810 to 1900, I.ni.95l

1860 (41 1870 (4



,4t !H!W (3)





3 K2*;,;«l

Note.— Figures In parenthesis Indicate the rank of the Slate fo order of population.


Having a Poimlation Name.



of io,ooo

and Over















29,353 29,655 24.147 23.286 22,4:« 20.754 19,498 19,259




Aurora BIcKimington Elgin I)ecatur Island




Population. 18.607



INDEX. This index relates exclusively to matter embraced in the article under the title "Illinois." Subjects of general State history will be found treated at length, under topical heads, in the body of the Encyclopedia.

Admission of

Illinois as a State, 258. John P., administration as Governor. 27y-80; defeated for re-election, 1^1.


Anderson. Stinson H..2t)4. Anti-Nebraska Editorial Convention,


Anti-slavery contest of 1822-24; defeat of a

conventiou scheme, 260. Baker, Cot. E. D., 263; orator at laying the corner-stone of State capitol, 2ii4. Batemaii, Nevvtun, State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 270.274,275. Beveridge, John L.. Congressman and Lieutenant-Governor; becomes Governor by resignation of Governor Ogle3by,27ti. Birkbeck. Morris, 2C0. Bissell, William H.. Colonel in Mexican War. 265; Governor, 269; death, 27u.


Hawk War. 262.

Blodgett. Henry W.,Free Soil the LeKJsIature, 268.



Blooniington Convention (1856), 269. Boisbriant, first French Commandant, 249. Bond, Shadrach. 255; Delegate iu Congress, 257; first Governor, 258. Breese. Sidney, 259.

Browne. Thomas C, 260. Browning. Orville H., in


Convention, 269; U. S. Senator. 27:^. Cahokia, first French settlement at, 252. Camp Douglas conspiracy, 273. Canal Scrip Fraud, 270. Carlin, Thomas, elected Governor, 26:*. Casey, Zadoc, elected to Congress: resigns the Lieutenant-Governorship, 262. Charlevoix visits Illinois, 247 Chicago and Calumet Rivers, importance of in estimation of early explorers, 247. Chicago election frauds, 278. Chicago, fire of 1871,276. Chicagou, Indian Chief for whom Chicago

was named, 24S. dark, C^ol. George Rogers, expedition

candidate for Governor, 259; his election, 260; persecuted by his enemies. 261. Constitutional Convention of 1818, 258. Constitutional Conventiun of 1847,266. Constitutional Convention of 1862,272. Constitutional Convention of 1870, 2(5. Cook, Daniel P.. 255; Attorney-General, 258: elected to Congress. 260-61. Craig, Capt. Thomas, expedition against Indians at Peoria. 257. Cullom.SheU)y M., Speaker of General Assembly, 27u; elected Governor. 27ii; ft'iitures of his administration; re-elected, 277; elected to U. S. Senate. 278. Davis. David. United States Senator. 277. Douglas, Stephen A., 263; Justice Supreme Court, 2ti4, U. S. Senator, 266; debates with Lincoln, 268-70; re-elected U.S. Senator. 270; death, 272. Duncan, Joseph. Governor; character of his administration, 262-63. Early towns, 258. Earthquake of 1811.256. Edwards, Ninlan, Governor Illinois Territory, 255. elected U. S. Senator, 259; elected Governor; administration and death, 261. Ewing, William L. D., becomes acting

many offices,


Explorers, earl V French, 244-5. Farwell. Churles B..279. Field-MoCltjrijand contest. 264. Fifer, Joseph W., elected Governor, 279. Fisher, Dr. George. Speaker of Territorial House of Representatives, 257. Ford, Thnmiis, Governor; embarrassing questions of his administration, 264. Fort Chartres, surrendered to British, 250.

Fort Dearborn ma.ssacre, 256-57. Fort Gage burned, 251. Fort Massac, startingpoint on the Ohio of Clark's expedition, 251. St. Louis, 246; raided


and burned by

Indians, 247. Franklin, Benjamin, Indian Commissioner for Illinois in 1775, 251.


French, Augustus Governor, French aud ludian War, 250.


Morgan, Col. George, Indian Agent at Kaskaskia in 1776. 251.

Mormon War,


villages, population of in 1765,251. Gibault. Pierre. 2ii2.

Grant. Ulysses S., arrival at Springfield; Colonel of Twenty-first Illinois Voluuteers, 271; elected President, 275. Q,, supported by Illinois Republicans for the Presidency, 279.

Gresham, Walter

Hamilton, John M., Lieutenant-Governor, 277; succeeds Gov. Cullom, 278.

Hansen-Shaw contest, 260. Hardin, John J., 263; elected to Congress, 264; killed at Buena Vista, 265. Harrison. William Henry, first Governor of Indiana Territory, 254. Henry, Patrick, Indian Commissioner for Illinois Country; assists in planning Clark's expedition, 251; ex-offlcto Governor of territory northwest of the Ohio


rank in order of admission into the Union, area and population, 241; Indian origin of the name; boundaries and area; geographical locatioti; navigable streams, 242; topography, fauna and flora, 243; soil and climate, 243-44; contest for occupation, 244: part of Louisiana ill 1721, 249; surrendered to the British iu 1765, 251 undpr government of Virginia, 252: part of Indiana Territory, 254; Territorial Government organized; Ninian Edwards appointed Governor, 255; admitted as a State. 258 Illinois & Michigan Canal, 261. Illinois Central Railroad. 267-68, "Illinois Country," boundaries defined by Captain Pittman. 241; Patrick Henry, first American Governor, 252, Illinois County organized by Virginia Illinois, its


House to

IlUnois; capture of Kaskaskia, 251. Coles, Edward, emancipates his slaves;

Governor; occupant of

French occuoation settlement about Kaskaskia and Cahokia. 249. French

of Delegates, 252.

Illinois Territory organized; first Territorial ofiBcers, 255. Indiatia Territory organized. 254; first Territorial Legislature elected. 255. Indian tribes; location in Illinois, 247. Internal hiiprovement scheme, 263. Joliet, Louis, accompanied by Marquette, visits Illinois in 1673, 24o.

Kane. Elias Kent, 258. Kansas-Nebraska contest, 268. Kaskaskia Indians remove from Upper Illinois to


of Kaskaskia, 248. guide for Clark's expedi-

Kenton, Simon, tion against Kaskaskia. 251. Labor disturbances. 270,280,283. La Fayette, visit of, to Kaskaskia, 261.

La Salle,

expedition to Illinois in 1679-80, 245; builds Fort Miami, near mouth uf St. Joseph; disasterof Fort Creve-Coeur; erection of Fort St. Louis, 246. Lincoln, Abraham, Representative in the General Assembly, 263; elected to Congress, 266 ; unsuccessful candidate for States Senate; member of Convention of 1856; House-divided-agaiust-itself " speech, 269; elected President, 270: departure for

the United



Washington, 271; elected for a second term, 273; assassination and funeral, 274. Lincoln- Douglas debates, 270.

Lockwood, Samuel

D., Attorney-General; Secretary of State; opponent of proslavery convention scheme, 260. Logan. Gen. John A., prominent Union soldier, 272; Congressman-at-Iarge, 274-76; elected United .States Senator. 276; Republican nominee for Vice-President; third election as Senator, 278 "Long Nine, "263. Louisiana united with Illinois. 254. Lovejoy, Elijah P., murdered at Alton, 263. Macalister andStebbins bonds. 270. Marquette. Father Jacques (see Joliet); his mission among the Kaskaskias, 248. Mason, William E., U. S. Senator, 282. McLean, John, Speaker; first RepresentativeinCongress: U.S Senator: death, 265. Menard, Pierre, 255; President of Territorial Council, 257; elected LieutenantGovernor. 258; anecdote of, 259.

Mexican War, 265.


New Design Settlement, 255. New France, 244. 249. Nicolet. Jean. French explorer, 244-5. Northwest Territory organized: Gen. Ar-


St. Clair

appointed Governor, 253;

first Territorial Legislature; separated into Territories of Ohio and Indiana. 254. Oglesby, Richard J., soldier in Civil War, 271; elected Governor, 274; second election; chosen U. S. Senator, 276; third election to governorship, 278. Ordinance of 1787, 253. •' Paincourt " (early name for St Louis)


by French from

Palmer. John M., ference of


Illinois, 251.


of Peace Con-

271; elected


prominent events of his administration, ^75; uiisucceesfnl Democratic candidate for Governor; elected U. S. Senator, 279; candidate for President, 282.

Peace Conference of Peace conventions of

1861,271. 1863,273.

Perrot, Nicholas, explorer, 245. Pittman, Capt. Philip, defines the boundaries of the 'Illinois Country." 241. Pope, Nathaniel, Secretary of Illinois Territory, 255; Delegate in Congress: service in fixing northern boundary, 258. Prairies, origin of, 243. Randolph County organized. 254. Renault, Philip F., first importer of African slaves to Illinois. 249. Republican State Convention of 1856,269. Reynolds, John, elected Governor: resigns to take seat in Congress, 262; Speaker of IlUnoig House of Representatives. 268. Richardson, William A., candidate for

Governor, 270; U.S. Senator, 272. Rocheblave, Chevalier de, laat British Commandant in Illinois. 251; sent as a prisoner of war to Williamsburg, 252. Shawneetown Bank, 257.

Sliawneetown flood, 283. Shields. Gen, James, 263; elected U.



ator, 267; defeated for re-election, 269.

Southern Hospital for Insane burned, 230. spanish-.\merican War. 281. Springfield, third State capital, 263; erection of new State capitol at, authorizeu, 275: state Bank, 259, St. Clair. Arthur, first Governor of Northwest Territory, 253; visits Illinois, 254. St. Clair County organized, 254. .state debt reaches its 268. State Fair permanently located, 281. Streams and navigation. 242.



C'ourt revolutionized, 264.

Tanner. John R., state Treasurer, 278; elected Governor, 281-2. Thomas, Jesse B.. 255; President of Constitutional Convention of 1818, 258; elected United States Senator, 259. Todd. Col. John. County-Lieutenant of Illinois County, 2.52. T'jnty. Henry de(see La Salle). Treaty with Indians near Alton. 257. Trumbull. Lyman. Secretary of State, 264; elected United States Senator, 269-70; Democratic candidate for Governor, 277. Vandalia. the second State capital, 259. War of 1812, 2.56; expeditions to Peoria Lake,



of the Rebellion;

some prominent

Illinois actors; nuihher of troops furnished by Illinois; important battles participated in, 271 72; some officers who fell;, Grierson raid. 272.




Edwards ville

Spectator, 260.

Wayne, Gen. Anthony, 254. Whig mass-meeting at Springfield, 264. Wilmot Proviso, action of lUiuoii Legislature upon,


Wood, John, Lieutenant-Governor,


unexpired term. 270. Yates. Richard, at Bloomington Convention of 1856, 269; Governor, 270; prorogues Legislatureof 1863; elected United States Senator, 273. Bis^ell's



ILES, Elijah, pioneer merchant, was born in Kentucky, March 28, 1796; received the rudiments of an education in two winters' schooling, and began his business career by purchasing 100 head of yearling cattle upon which, after herding three years in the valleys of Eastern Kentucky, he realized a profit of nearly §3,000. In 1818 he went to St. Louis, then a French village of 2,500 inhabitants, and, after spending three


years as clerk in a frontier store at "Old Franklin, " on the Missouri River, nearly opposite the present town of Boonville, in IMil made a horseback tour through Central Illinois, finally locating

which had just been selected bj' a board of Commissioners as the temixjrary county -seat of Sangamon County. Here he soon brought a stock of goods by keel-boat from St. Louis and opened the first store in the new town. Two years later (1823), in conjunction with Pascal P. Enos, Daniel P. Cook and Thomas Cox, he entered a section of land comprised within the at Springfield,

present area of the city of Springfield, which later became the permanent county-seat and Mr. lies became the finally the State capital. first postmaster of Springfield, and, in 182G, was elected State Senator, served as Major in the Winnebago War (1827), enlisted as a private in

Hawk War

but was soon In 1830 he sold his store to John Williams, who had been the Black


advanced to the rank of Captain. his clerk, and,

in 1838-39, built the


House," which afterwards became the temporary stopping-place of many of Illinois' most famous statesmen.




farming lands, and. at his death, estate.

Died, Sept.


in left

valuable a large


ILLINOIS ASYLUM FOR IXCIRABLE 1>SANE,an institution founded under an act of the General Assembly,

pa,ssed at the se.s.sion of 1895,

making an appropriation of .$65,000 for the purchase of a site and the erection of buildings with capacity for the accommodation of 200 patients. The institution was located by the Trustees at Bartonville, a suburb of the city of Peoria, and the erection of buildings begun in 1896. Later these were found to be located on ground wliich

had been undermined in excavating for coal, and their removal to a dilTerent location was undertaken in





intended to by the

relieve the other hospitals for the In.saue

reception of patients deemed incurable.


way connecting Lake

Jlichigan with the Illinois and forming a connecting link in the water-route between the St. Lawrence and the River,

Gulf of Mexico. Its summit level is about 580 Its point of beginning is feet above tide water. at the South Branch of the Chicago River, about Thence it flows some five miles from the lake. eight miles to the valley of the Des Plaines, following tlie valley to the mouth of tlie Kankakee (forty-two miles), thence to its southwestern terminus at La Salle, the head of navigation on the Illinois. four feeders


Between these points the canal lias Des Plaines, Du Page

—the Calumet,






and Ottawa, receiving accessions from the waters of the Fox River at the latter ]X)int. The canal proper is 96 miles long, and it has five feeders whose aggregate length is twenty-five miles, forty feet wide and four feet deep, with four aqueducts and seven dams. The difference in level between Lake Michigan and the Illinois River at La Salle is one hundred and To permit the ascent of ve.ssels, forty-five feet. there are seventeen locks, ranging from three and one half to twelve and one-half feet in lift, their dimensions being 110x18 feet, and admitting the passage of boats carrying 150 tons. At Lockport, Joliet, Du Page, Ottawa and La Salle are large basins, three of which supply power to facTo increase the water supply, rendered tories. necessary by the high summit level, pumping works were erected at Bridgeport, having two Joliet,


independent wheels, each capabuckets of ten feet length or width) 15,000 cubic feet of water per minute. These pumping works were erected in 1848, at a cost of $15,000, and were in almost continuous use until 1870. It was soon found that these machines might be utilized for the benefit of Chicago, by forcing the sewage of the Chicago thirty-eight


ble of delivering (through

River to the summit level of the canal, and allowing its place to be filled by pure water from tlie This pumping, liowever, cost a large sum, lake. and to obviate this exjiense §2,9.55,340 was expended by Chicago in deepening tlie canal between 1865 and 1871, so that the sewage of the south division of the city might be carried through the canal to the Des Plaines. This sum was returned to the City by the State after the great (As to further measures for carrj'fire of 1871. ing off Chicago sewage, see Chicago Drainage Canal.) In connection with the canal three locks and dams have been built on the Illinois River, one at Henry, about twenty-eight miles below La Salle one at the mouth of Copperas Creek, about sixty miles below Henry; and another at La Grange. The object of these works (the first



an extension of the canal)


navigation throughout the year. The cost of that at Henry (§400,000) was defrayed by direct appropriation from the State treasury. Copperas Creek dam cosjt 6-110,831, of which amount the United States Governnient paid §63.360. The General Government also constructed a dam at La Grange and appropriated fimds for the building of another at Kampsville Landing, with a view to making the river thoroughly navigable the year round. The beneficial results expected from these vi^orks have not been realized and their demolition is advocated. History. The early missionaries and furtraders first directed attention to the nearness of the waters of Lake Michigan and the Illinois. The project of the construction of a canal was made the subject of a report by Albert Gallatin, Secretary of the Treasury in 1808, and, in 1811, a bill on the subject was introduced in Congress in connection with the Erie and other canal enterIn 1823 Congress granted the right of prises. way across the public lands "for the route of a canal connecting the Illinois River with the to furnish slack-water


south bend of Lake Michigan," which was followed five years later by a grant of 300,000 acres of land to aid in its construction, which was to be undertaken by the State of Illinois. The earliest surveys contemplated a channel 100 miles long, and the original estimates of cost varied between $639,000 and §716,000. Later surveys and estimates (1833) placed the cost of a canal forty feet wide and four feet deep at §4,040,000. In 1836 another Board of Commissioners was created and surveys were made looking to the construction of a waterway sixty feet wide at the surface, thirty-six feet at bottom, and six feet in depth. Work was begun in Jime of that year; was suspended in 1841 and renewed in 1846, when a canal loan of §1,000,000 was negotiated. The channel was opened for navigation in April, 1848, by which time the total outlay had reached ;





had liquidated


entire indebtedness on account of the canal and the latter reverted to the State. The total cost


to 1879

cago^ was

— including

amount refunded

§9,513,831, while the


to Chi-

returned to

the State from earnings, sale of canal lands, etc., amoimted to §8,819,731. In 1883 an offer was made to cede the canal to the United States upon condition that it should be enlarged and extended to the Mississippi, was repeated in 1887, but has been declined.





"Hennepin Canal"), a projected


navigable water-way in course of construction (1899) by the General Government, designed to connect the Upper Illinois with the Mississippi River. Its object is to furnish a continuous navigable water-channel from Lake Michigan, at or near Chicago, by way of the Illinois & Michigan Canal (or the Sanitary Drainage Canal) and the Illinois River, to the Mississippi at the mouth of Rock River, and finally to the Gulf of Mexico. The Route. —The canal, at its eastern end, leaves the Illinois River one and three-fourths miles above the city of Hennepin, where the river makes the great bend to the south. Ascending the Bureau Creek valley, tlie route passes over the dividing ridge between the Illinois River and the IMississippi to Rock River at the mouth of Green River; thence by slack-water dowa Rock River, and around the lower rapids in that stream at Milan, to the Mississippi. The estimated length of the main channel between its eastern and western termini is seventy-five miles the distance having been reduced by changes in the route after the first survey. To this is to be added a "feeder" extending from the vicinity of Shelfield, on the summit-level (twenty-eight miles west of the starting point on the Illinois), north to Rock Falls on Rock River opposite the city of Sterling in Whiteside County, for the purpose of obtaining an adequate supply of water for the main canal on its highest level. The length of this feeder is twenty-nine miles and, as its dimensions are the same as those of the main channel, it will be navigable for vessels of the same class as the latter. A dam to be constructed at Sterling, to turn water into the feeder, will furnish slack-water navigation on Rock River to Dixon, practically lengthening the entire route

to tliat extent.

History. The subject of such a work began to be actively agitated as early as 1871, and, under authority of various acts of Congress, preliminary surveys began to be made by Government engineers that j'ear. In 1890 detailed plans and estimates, based upon these preliminary surveys, were submitted to Congress in accordance with tlie river and harbor act of August, 1888. This report became tho basis of an appropriation in the river and harbor act of Sept. 19, 1890, for carrying the work into practical execution. Actual work was begun on the western end of the canal in July, 1892, and at the eastern end in the spring of 1894. Since then it has been prosecuted as continuously as the appropriations made by Congress from year to year would permit. According to the report of Major Marshall, Chief of



Engineers in charge of tlie work, for tlie fiscal year ending June 30, 1898, the construction of the canal around the lower rapids of Rock River (four and one-half miles), with three locks, three swing bridges, two dams, besides various buildings, was completed and that portion of the canal opened to navigation on April 17. 1895. In theearly part of 1899, the bulk of the excavation and masonry on the eastern section was practically completed, the feeder line under contract, and five out of the eighteen bridges required to be constructed in place; and it was estimated that the whole line, with locks, bridges, culverts and aqueducts, will be completed within two years, at the farthest, by 1902. Dimensions, Methods of Construction, Cost. ETC. As already stated, the length of the main

which twent}--eight miles (the e;istern section) is east of tlie junction of the feeder, and forty-seven miles (the western section) west of that point making, with the twenty-nine miles of feeder, a total of one hundred and four miles, or seven miles longer than the Illinois & Michigan Canal. The rise from the Illinois River datum to the summit-level on the eastern section is accomplished by twenty-one locks with a lift of six to fourteen feet each, to reach an altitude of 190 feet; while the descent of ninety-three feet to the low-water level of the Mississippi on the western end is accomplished line is seventy-five miles, of

varying from six to fourteen of the canal, at the water surface, is eighty feet, with a depth below the surface-line of seven feet. The banks are riprapped with stone the entire length of the canal. The locks are one hundre'E COUNTY, one of the wealthie.st and most progressive counties in the State, situated in the northeastern quarter. It has an area of 540 years, he died in



square miles, and population (1900) of 7?, 792; was named for Senator Elias Kent Kane. Timber and water are abundant, Fox River flowing through the county from north to south. Immigration began in 1833, and received a new impetus in 1835, when the Pottawatomies were o-emoved west of the Mississippi. A school was established in 1834, and a church organized in 1835. County organization was efl'ected in June, 1836, and the public lands came on the market in 1842. The Civil War record of the county is more than creditable, the number of volunteers exceeding the assessed quota. Farming, grazing, manufacturing and dairy industries chiefly engage the attention of the people. The county has many flourishing cities and towns. Geneva is the countyseat. (See Aurora, Dundee, Eldora, Elgin, Geneva


St. Charles.)

KANGLEY, a village of La Salle County, on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railway, three miles northwest of Streator. There are several coal shafts here. Population (1900), 1,004. KA>'K.\KEE, a city and county-seat of Kankakee County, on Kankakee River and 111. Cent. Railroad, at intersection of the "Big Four" with the Indiana, 111. & Iowa Railroad, 56 miles south of Chicago. It is an agricultural and stock-raising region, near extensive coal fields and bog iron ore; has water-power, flour and paper mills, agricultural implement, furniture, and piano factories, knitting and novelty works, besides two quarries of valuable building stone. The Eastern Hospital for the Insane is located here. There are four papers, four banks, five schools, water-works, gas and electric light, electric car lines,

and Government

postoffice building.


lation (1890). 9,025; (1900), 13,595.


a wealthy and popu-

lous county in the northeast section of the State,

having an area of 680 square miles

—receiving its

name from



principal river.



set apart

from Will and Iroquois Counties under the act passed in 1851, the owners of the site of the present city of

Kankakee contributing


toward the erection of county buildings. Agriculture, manufacturing and coal-mining are the principal pursuits. The first white settler was one Noah Vasseur, a Frenchman, and the first American, Thomas Durham. Population (1880), 2.5,047;

(1890), 28,732; (1900), 37,154.

KANKAKEE RIVER, a sluggish

stream, rising

and flowing westsouthwest through English Lake and a flat marshy region, into Illinois. In Kankakee County it unites with the Iroqviois from the south and the Des Plaines from the north, after the junction with the latter, taking the name of the Illinois. in St. Joseph County,



Illinois, 42.08

a line miles in length. It

has a capital stock of $10,000, bonded debt of and other forms of indebtedness (1895) reaching §557, 629; total capitalization, $1,217,639. This road was chartered in 1881, and opened in 1882. It connects with the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, and the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, and is owned jointly by these two lines, but operated by the former, (See Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Rail$650,000

road. )

KANSAS, a village in Edgar County, on the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis and the Chicago & Ohio River Railways, 156 miles northeast of St. Louis, 104 miles west of Indianapolis, 13 miles east of Charleston and 11 miles west-southwest of Paris. The surrounding region is agricultural and stock-raising. Kansas has tile works, two grain elevators, a canning factory, and railway machine shops, beside four churches, a collegiate institute, a National bank and a weekly newspaper. Population (1880), 723 (1890), ;

1.037; (1900), 1,049.

K.\SKASKI.A, a village of the Illinois Indians, and later a French trading post, first occupied in 1700. It passed into the hands of the British after the French-Indian War in 1765, and was captured by Col. George Rogers Clark, at the head of a force of Virginia troops, in 1778.

(See Clark,

George Rogers.) At that time the white inhabitants were almost entirely of French descent.



exercise of the elective franchise in


named, and, in 1804, the United States Government opened a land office there. I'or many years the most important commercial town in the Territory, it remained the Territorial and State capital down nois occurred here in the year last



when the

to 1819,

seat of

government was


Originally situated on the west side of the Kaskaskia River, some six miles from the Mississippi, early in 1899 its site had been swept away by the encroachments of the


to Vandiilia.

latter stream, so that all that





is ieft

of the princi-

of Illinois, in Territorial days,



K.VSKASKIA INDIANS, one of the five tribes constituting the Illinois confederation of Algon quin Indians. About the year 1700 they removed from what is now La Salle County, to Southern Illinois, where they established themselves along the banks of the river which bears their name. They were finally removed, with their b-ethren of the Illinois, west of the Mississippi, and, as a distinct tribe, have



extinct. rises



County, and (lows southwest through the counties of Douglas. Coles, Moultrie, Sliell)y, Fayette, Clinton and St. Clair, thence southward through Randolph, and empties into the Mississippi River near Chester. It is nearly ;iOl) miles long, and flows through a fertile, undulating country, wliich forms part of the great coal field of the State. KEITH, Edson, Sr., merchant and manufacturer, born at Barre, Vt., Jan. 28, 1833, was educ.ated at homo and in the district scliools; spent to Chicago the 18.i0-.")4 in Montpelier, coming latter year and obtaining employment in a retail dry-goods store. In 18G0 he assisted in establishing the firm of Keith. Faxon & Co., now Edson Keith & Co. is also President of the corporation of Keith Brothers & Co., a Director of the Metropolitan National Hank, and the Edison Electric Light Company. Elbridare G. (Keith), banker, brother of the preceding, was born at Barre, Vt., July IG, 1840; attended local schools and Barre Academy; came to Chicago in 18.">T, the next year taking a position as clerk in the house of Keith, Faxon & Co., in 18G.") becoming a partner and, in 1884, being chosen Pre.sident of the Metropolitan National Bank, where he still remains. Mr. Keith was a member of the Republican National Convention of 1880, and belongs to several local was also one literarj', political and social clubs of the Directors of the World's Columbian Expo;


sition of




was born of

in Jefferson County, Ohio, Feb.

graduated at the Friends' Academy, at in the same State, and. after teaching for a time, began the study of law, completing it at Baltimore, Md., where he was admitted to the bar in 1853. A year later he removed to Sterling, 111., where he continued in his profession until after the battle of the first Bull Run, when he raised a regiment. The quota of the State being already full, this was not immediately accepted but. after some delay, was mustered in in September, 1861, as the Thirtyfourth Regiment Illinois Volunteers, with the subject of tliis sketch as Colonel. In the field he soon proved himself a brave and dashing officer; at the battle of Shiloh, though wounded through the shoulder, he refused to leave the field. After remaining with the army several days, inflammatory fever set in, necessitating his removal to the hospital at Louisville, where he lay Ijetween life and death for some time. Having partially recovered, in August, 1802, he set out to rejoin his regiment, but was stopped en route by an 29, 1828;

Mount Pleasant


order assigning liim to command at Louisville. In Xoveniber following he was commissioned

Brigadier-General for "heroic action, gallantry

and ability" displayed on the field. In the last days of December, 1863. he had sufficiently recovered to take part in the series of engagements at Stone River, where he was again wounded, this time fatally. He was taken to his home in and, although he survived several months, the career of one of the most brilliant and promising soldiers of the war was cut short by liis death, July 21. 180;i. KIRKL.VND, Joseph, journalist and author, was born at Geneva, N. Y., Jan. 7, 1830 the son of Prof. William Kirkland of Hamilton College; was brought by his parents to Michigan in 1835, where he remained until 1850, when he came to the city of Chicago. In 1801 he enlisted as a private in the Twelfth Illinois Infantrj* (threemonths' men), was elected Second Lieutenant, but later became Aid-de-Camp on the staff of Illinois,

HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. General McClellan, serving there and on the staff of General Fitz-Johu Porter until the retirement of the latter, meanwliile taking part in the Pen-

campaign and in tlie battle of Antietam. Returning to Chicago he gave attention to some coal-mining property near Danville, but later studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1880. A few years later he produced his first novel, and, from 1890, devoted his attention solely to literary pursuits, for several years being literary editor of "The Chicago Tribune." His works several of which first appeared as serials in the magazines Include "Zury, the Meanest Man in Spring County" (1885); "The MoVeys" (1887); "The Captain of Co. K." (1889), besides the "History of the Chicago Massacre of 1812," and "The Story of Chicago" the latter in two volumes. At the time of his death he had just concluded, in collaboration with Hon. John Moses, the work of editing a two- volume "History of Chicago," pubDied, in lished by Messrs. Munsell & Co. (1895). Chicago, April 29, 189-t.— Elizabeth Stansbury (Kirkland), sister of the preceding teacher and author was born at Geneva, N. Y. came to Chicago insular


in 1867 and, five j-ears later, established a select school for young ladies, out of which grew what is


as the "Kirkland Social Settlement,"

which was continued until her death, July 30, She was the author of a number of vol1896. umes of decided merit, written with the especial object of giving entertainment and instruction to the young including "Six Little Cooks," "Dora's Housekeeping," "Speech and Manners," a Child's

"History of France," a "History of England," "History of English Literature," etc. At her death she left a "History of Italy" ready for the hands of the publishers. KIRKPATRICK, John, pioneer Methodist preacher, was born in Georgia, whence he emigrated in 1802 located at Springfield, 111. at an early day, where he built the first horse-mill in that viciuitj' in 1829 removed to Adams County, and finally to Ottumwa, Iowa, where he died in 1845. Mr. Kirkpatrick is believed to have been the first local Methodist preacher licensed in Illinois. ;



Having inherited three

slaves (a

woman and two

County, he brought them to Illinois and gave them their freedom. The boys were bound to a man in Quincy to learn a trade, but mysteriously disappeared— presumably having been kidnaped with the connivance of the man in whose charge they had been placed. KIRKWOOD, a city in Warren County, once known as "Young America," situated about six miles southwest of Monmouth, on the Chicago, boys) while in



Burlington & Quincy Railroad; is a stock-shipping point and in an agricultural region. The town has two banks, five churches, and two weekly newspapers. Pop. (1890), 949; (1900). 1,008.





County, runs west through Boone, and enters Rock River in Winnebago County, eight miles below Rockford. It is 75 miles long. An affluent called the South Kishwaukee River runs north-northeast and nortliwest through De Kalb County, and enters the Kiskwaukee in Winnebago Count}', about eight miles southeast of Rockford. KITCHELl, Wickliff, lawyer and AttorneyGeneral of Illinois, was born in New Jersey, May 21, 1789. Feb. 29, 1812, he was married, at Newark, N. J., to Miss Elizabeth Ross, and the same year emigrated west, passing down the Ohio on a flat-boat from Pittsburg, In 1814 near Cincinnati Pa., and settled he became a resident of Southern Indiana, where he was elected sheriff, stmlied law and was admitted to the bar, finally becoming a successful practitioner. In 1817 he removed to Palestine, Crawford County, 111., where, in 1820, he was elected Representative in the Second General Assembly, and was also a member of the State Senate from 1828 to 1832. In 1838 he removed to Hillsboro, Montgomery County, was appointed Attorney-General in 1839, serving until near the close of the following year, when he resigned to take his seat as Representative in the Twelfth General Assembly. Between 1846 and 1854 he was a resident of Fort Madison, Iowa, but the latter year returned to Hillsboro. During his early political career Mr. Kitchell had been a Democrat but, on the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska act, became an earnest Republican. Public-spirited and progressive, he was in advance of Died, Jan. liis time on many public questions. Alfred (Kitchell), son of the preceding, 2, 1809. lawyer and Judge, born at Palestine, 111., March 29, 1820; was educated at Indiana State Universit)' and Hillsboro Academy, admitted to the bar in 1841, and, the following year, commenced practice at Olney was elected State's Attorney in 1843, through repeated re-elections holding the office ten years was a menrber of the Constitutional Convention of 1847 and, in 1849, was elected Judge of Richland County later assisted ;




newspaper published in Olney, and in organizing the Republican party there in 1856; in 1859 was elected Judge of the Twenty-fifth Judicial Circuit, serving one term. in establishing the first

He was

also influential in procuring a charter for



& Mississippi Railroad, and in the construction of the line, being an original corporator and subsequently a Director of the Company. the Ohio

Later he removed to (ialesliurg, where he died, Nov. 11, 187U.— Edward (Kitchell). another son,


lx)rn at Palestine,







educated at Uillsboro Academy until 184G, when he removed with his father's family to Fort Madison, Iowa, but later returned to Hillsboro to continue his studies; in 1852 made the trip across the plains to California to engage in gold mining, but the following year went to Walla Walla, Washington Territory, where he opened a law in 18.">4 returned to Illinois, locating at Ohiey. Ricliland County, forming a partnership with Horace Hayward. a relative, in the practice of law. Here, having taken position against the oflBce:

repeal of the Missouri Compromise, he became, in 1850, the editor of the first Republican newspaper published in that part of Illinois known as

"Egypt," with his brother. Judge Alfred Kitchell, being one of the original thirty-nine Republicans In 18G2 lie assisted in in Richland County. organizing the Xinetyeighth Regiment Illinois Volunteers at Centralia, wliicli, in the following year having been mounted, became a part of the famous "Wilder Brigade." At first he was commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel, but succeeded to the command of the regiment after the wounding of Colonel Funkliouser at Chickamauga in September, 1S63; was finally promoted to the colonelcy in July, 180.5, and mustered out with the rank of Brigadier-General by brevet. Resuming the practice of his profession at Olney, he was, in 18GG, the Republican candidate for Congress in a district strongly Democratic; also served as Collector of Internal Revenue for a short time

"The Union Monitor" at Hillsboro, which he conducted until di-afted into the service in 1864, serving until the close of the war. In 1866 he removed to Pana (his present residence), resuming practice there was a candidate for the State Senate the same year, and, in 1870. was the Republican nominee for Congress in that District. ;


Joshua C, lawyer, was Columbia Comity, X. Y., Sept. 26, 1827 brought by his father to Alden, McHenry County, 111., in 1844, and educated in the common schools of that place removed to Chicago in 1860, studied law and was admitted to practice in 1862 served on the Board of Supervisors and in the City Council and, in 1868, was elected Representative in the General Assembly, serving one term. He was also a member of the State Board of Education from 1875 to '77, and the latter year was elected Probate Judge for Cook County, born

in Gallatin, ;



serving until his death, Jan.


At the


close of the year four additional

Lodges had been instituted, having an aggregate

lors as

Early in the following year, approved by the Chancellor, a Grand Lodge of the Order State of Illinois was instituted in Chicago, membership of twentj'-nine Past Chancelrepresentatives of the five subordinate


—the total membership of these Lodges at

niembersliip of 245.

on petition of these

Grand for the

with a

same District. Died, at Olney, July 11, 1869.— John Wickliff (Kitchell), youngest son of Wickliff KitchoU. was born at Palestine, Crawford


County, 111., May 30, 1835, educated at Hillsboro, read law at Fort 5Iadison, Iowa, and admitted to the bar in that State. At the age of 19 years he served as Assistant Clerk of the House of Representatives at Springfield, and was Reading Clerk of the same body at the session of 1861. Previous to the latter date be had edited "The Montgomery County Herald," and later, "The Charleston Courier." Resigning his position as Reading Clerk in 1861, he enlisted under the first call of President Lincoln in the Ninth Illinois Volunteers, served as Adjutant of the regiment and afterwards as Captain of his company. At the expiration of his term of enlistment he established



secret semi-mili-

'Welcome Lodge, Xo. 1," in the city of Chicago. On July 1, 1869, this Lodge had nineteen mem-


was Presidential Elector


tary and benevolent association founded in the City of Washington, D. C, Feb. 19, 1864, Justus H. Rivthbone (who died Dec. 9, 1889) being its recognized founder. The order was established in Illinois. May 4, 1869, by the organization of


and, in 1868,




five Lodges,

December 31, 1870, the had increased to 850. the total number of Lodges in the and the membership 38,441. The

being 382.



30, 1895,




in Illinois

belonging to the

Lodges in



amounted to $418,151.77. K>'OWLT0N', Dexter A., pioneer and banker, was born in Fairfield. Herkimer County, X. Y., March 3, 1812, taken to Chautauqua County in infancy and passed his childhood and j-outh on a Having determined on a mercantile cafarm. reer, he entered an academy at Fredonia, paying his own way; in 1838 started on a peddling tour




for the West, and, in the following year, settled 111., where he opened a general store;

at FreeiX)rt, in 1843

began investments in real

estate, finally

laying off sundry additions to the city of FreeHe port, from which he realized large profits.


also prominently connected with the Galena Chicago Union Railroad and, in 1850, became a Director of the Company, remaining in office some twelve years. In 1853 he was the Free-Soil candidate for Governor of Illinois, but a few years later became extensively interested in the Congress & Empire Spring Company at Saratoga,


then, after a four years' residence in N. Y. Brooklyn, returned to Freeport in 1870, wliere he engaged in banking business, dying in that city, ;


Joseph, lawyer, was born at Blanford, 1805; studied law with his 11, brother, Gen. Alanson Knox, in his native town, was admitted to the bar in 1828, subsequently removing to Worcester, in the same State, where he began the practice of his profession. In 1837 he removed west, locating at Stephenson, now Rock Island, 111., where he continued in practice During the greater part for twenty-three years. of that time he was associated with Hon. John W. Drury, under the firm name of Knox & Drury, gaining a wide reputation as a lawyer tliroughout Northern Illinois. Among the important cases in \vhich he took part during liis residence in Rock Island was the prosecution of the murderers of Colonel Davenport in 1845. In 1853 he served as a Democratic Presidential Elector, but in tlie next campaign identified himself with the Republican party as a supporter of John C. Fremont for the Presidency. In 1860 he removed to Chicago and, two years later, was appointed State's Attorney by Governor Yates, remaining in office until succeeded by his partner, Charles H. Reed. After coming to Chicago he was identified with a number of notable cases. His death occurred, August 6,




a non-sectarian institution

for the higlier education of the youtli of both sexes,

located at

was founded




in 1837, fully organized in 1841,



graduated its first class in 1846. The number of graduates from that date until 1894, aggregated 867. In 1893 it had 663 students in attendance,

and a faculty

of 20 professors.

Its library con-

volumes. Its endowment amounts to $300,000 and its buildings are valued tains


at §150,000.



Newton Bateman was



head for more than twenty years, and, on his


John H. Finley, Ph.D., became but resigned in 1899. KNOX COUNTY, a wealthy interior county west of the Illinois River, having an area of 720 square miles and a population (1900) of 43,613. It was named in honor of Gen. Henry Knox. Its ignation


its President,

limits were defined by legislative enactment in 1825, but the actual organization dates from 1830, when Riggs Pennington, Philip Hash and Charles Hansford were named the first Commissioners. Knoxville was the first countyseat selected, and here (in the winter of 1830-31) was erected tlie first court house, constructed of logs, two stories in iieiglit, at a cost of The soil is rich, and agriculture flourS192. territorial


Tlie present county-seat




known for its educational institutions, the best known of which are Knox College, founded in 1837, and Lombard University, burg, well

10, 1870.




founded in 1851. A flourishing Episcopal Seminary is located at Knoxville. and Hedding College at Abingdon. KNOXVILLE, a city in Knox County, on the Galesburg-Peoria Division of the Chicago, Burlington et Quincy Railroad, 50 miles west of Peoria, and 5 miles east of Galesburg; was formerly the county-seat, and still contains the fair grounds and almshouse. The municipal government is composed of a mayor, six aldermen, with seven heads of departments. It has electric lighting and street-car service, good water-works, banks, numerous churches, three public schools, is the seat of .St. Mary's school for girls, and St. Alban's. for boys. Population (1890), 1,728;


(1900), 1,857.

KOERNER, Gustavus, lawyer and LieutenantGovernor, was born in Germany in 1809, and received a university education. He was a lawyer by profession, and emigi-ated to Illinois in He at once 1833, settling finally at Belleville. affiliated with the Democratic party, and soon became prominent in politics. In 1843 he was elected to the General Assembly, and three years later was appointed to the bench of the State Supreme Court. In 1852 he was elected Lieutenant-Governor on the ticket headed by Joel A. Matteson; but, at the close of his term, became identified with the Republican party and was a staunch Union man during the Civil War, serving for a time as Colonel on General Fremont's and General Halleck's staffs. In 1862 President Lincoln made him Minister to Spain, a post wliich he resigned in January, 1865. He was a member of the Chicago Convention of 1860 that nominated Lincoln for the Presidency; was a Republican Presidential Elector in 1868, and a delegate to the Cincinnati Convention of 1872 that named Horace Greeley for the Presidency. In 1867 he served as President of the first Board of Trustees of the Soldiers' Orphans' Home, and, in 1870, was elected to the Legislature a second time. The




following year he was appointed a member of the Board of Railroad and Warehouse CommisHe is the sioners, and served as its President. author of "Collection of the Important General first

Laws St.

Comments" (in German, "From Spain" (Frankfort on-

of Illinois, with

Louis, 1838);

the-Main, 1866); "Das Deutsche Element in den Vereiningten Staaten" (Cincinnati, 1880; second edition,


Xew York,



and a number of mono-

Died, at Belleville, April




Christian C, Judge of United States Court, was born in Edwards County, 111., Jan. 8, 1844 his father being a native of Germany who settled in Edwards County in 1825, while his mother was born in England. The family removed to Galena in 1854, where young Kohlsaat attended the public schools, later taking a course in Chicago University, after which he began the study of law. In 1867 he became a reporter on "The Chicago Evening Journal," was admitted to the bar in the same year, and, in 1868, accepted a position in the office of the County Clerk, where he kept the records of the County Court under Judge Bradwell's administration. During the sessions of the Twenty-seventh General A.ssembly (1871-72) he served as First Assistant Enrolling and Engrossing Clerk of the House, after wliich he began practice; in 1881 was the Republican nominee for County Judge, but was defeated by Judge Prendergast; served as member of the Board of West Side Park Commissioners, 1884-90 in 1890 was appointed Probate Judge of Cook County (as successor to Judge Knickerbocker,



January of that year), and was November following, and Early re-elected in 1894, as he was again in 1898. in 1899 he was appointed, by President McKinley, Judge of the United States District Court for.the Northern District of Illinois, as successor to Judge Grosscup, who had been appointed United States Circuit Judge in place of Judge Showalter, died


elected to the office in


KOHLSAAT, Herman H., editor and newspaper publisher, was born in Edwards County, 111., March 22, 1853, and taken the following year to Galena, where he remained until 12 j-ears of Here, age, when the family removed to Chicago. after attending the public schools some tliree years, he became a cash-boy in the store of Carson, Pirie & Co., a year later rising to the position of cashier, remaining two years. Then, after having been connected with various business concerns, he became the junior member of the firm of Blake, Shaw & Co. for whom he had been a traveling salesman some five years. In 1880 he ,

became associated with the Dake Bakery, in connection with which he laid the foundation of an extensive business by establishing a system of restaurants and lunch counters in tlie business portions of tlie city. In 1891 after a somewhat pro,

tracted visit to Europe Mr. Kohlsaat bought a controlling interest in "The Chicago Inter Ocean,"

but withdrew early in



In April, 1895, he be-

"The Chicago TimesHerald," as the successor of the late James W. principal proprietor of



died suddenly in

New York,

soon after

two Democratic papers, "The Times"' and "Herald," in one concern. Although changing the political status

effecting a consolidation of Chicago's

from Democratic to Independent, Mr. Kohlsaafs liberal enterprise has won for it an assured success. He is also owner and pub-

of the paper

of "The Chicago Evening Post.'" His whole business career has been one of almost phenomenal success attained by vigorous enterprise and high-minded, honorable methods. Mr. Kohlsaat is one of the original incorporators of the University of Chicago, of which he continues to be one of the Trustees. KROME, WlUiam Henry, lawyer, bom of Gerlisher


parentage, in Louisville, Ky., Julj- 1, 1842; was brought by his father to Madison

in 1851




where he


and worked



years on a farm. He acquired his education in the common schools and at McKendree College, graduating from the latter in 1863. After spending his summer months in farm labor and teaching school during the winter, for a year or two, he read law for a time with Judge M. G. Dale of Edwardsville, and, in 1866, entered the law department of Michigan Universitj', graduating in 1869, though admitted the year previous Mr. to practice by the Supreme Court of Illinois.




successively the



Judge John G. Irwin, Hon. W. F. L. Hadley (late Congressman from the Eighteenth District) and He has held the office of Mayor of C. W. Terry. Edwardsville (1878), State Senator (1874-78), and, was a prominent candidate before the Democratic judicial convention for the nomination for Justice of the Supreme Court, to succeed He is also President Justice Schollield, deceased. of the Madison County State Bank. in 1893,


William C, lawyer and soldier, Germany and came to St. Clair County, 111., in 1861. B^rly in 1865 he was commissioned Colonel of the One Hundred and Forty-

was born


Illinois Volunteer Infantry, one of the regiments organized for the Civil War, and was soon after promoted to the rank of Brevet



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. Brigadier-General, serving until January, 1866. Later, General Kueflfner studied law at St. Louis,

and having graduated in practice at

He was a


in 1871, established himself


where he has since

successful contestant for a

seat in the Republican National

Convention of

1880 from the Seventeenth District.


J., lawyer and legiswas born of pioneer parents in Gallatin (now Hardin) County, III., March 3, 1815; was


self-educated chiefly, but in his early manhood the law as a profession, locating at



Johnson County, where he continued to reside to the end of his life. In 1843 he was elected a Representative in the Thirteenth General Assembly, and re-elected two years later; in in

became State Senator, serving continuously same body for twelve years in 1861 enlisted, and was commissioned Major, in the Thirty-first Illinois Volunteers (Gen. John A. Logan's regiment), but was compelled to resign, 1850

in the


in May following, on acount of impaired health. Two years later (1864) he was elected Represent-

ative in the Thirty-ninth Congress, serving one

term; and, after several years in private life, was again returned to the State Senate in 1878, serving in the Thirty-first and Thirty-second General Assemblies. In all. Major Kuykendall saw twenty years' service in the State Legislature, of which sixteen were spent in the Senate and four in the House, besides two years in Congress. A zealous Democrat previous to the war, he was an ardent supporter of the war policy of the Government, and, in 1864, presided over the "Union" (Republican) State Convention of that year. He was also a member of the Senate Finance Committee in the session of 1859, which had the duty of investigating the Matteson "canal scrip fraud." Died, at Vienna, 111., May 11, 1891.




The Railroad

Strike of 1877. By this name is generally characterized the labor disturbances of 1877, which, beginning at Pittsbui-g in July, spread over the entire country, interrupting transportation, and, for a time, threatening to paralyze trade.

nois suffered severely.


The primary cause of the

was the general prostration of business resulting from the depression of values, which troubles

affected manufacturers

and merchants



reduction of expenses became necessary, and the wages of employes were lowered. Dissatisfaction and restlessness on the part of the latter ensued, which found expression in the ordering of a strike among railroad operatives on a larger scale than

had ever been witnessed in


this country.



Braidwood, East St. Louis, Galesburg, La Salle and Chicago were the prinnois, Peoria, Decatur,

cipal points affected.

In all these cities angry, excited men formed themselves into mobs, which tore up tracks, took possession of machine shops, in some cases destroyed roundhouses, applied the torch to warehouses, and, for a time, held com-

merce by the throat, not only defying the law, but even contending in arms against the military sent to disperse them. The entire force of the State









Ducat being in command. The State troops were divided into three brigades, commanded respectively by Brigadier-Generals Torrence, Bates and Pavey. General Ducat assumed personal command at Braidwood, where were sent tlie Third Regiment and the Tenth Battalion,



suppressed the riots at



Joseph W. Stambaugh and Lieut.-Col. J. B. Parsons were the respective regimental commanders. Generals Bates and Pavey were in command at East St. Louis, where the excitement was at fever heat, the





terrorizing peaceable citizens and destroyproperty. Governor Cullom went to this point in person. Chicago, however, was the



chief railroad center of the State, and only prompt and severely repressive measures held in check one of the, most dangerous mobs which ever threatened property and life in that city. The local police force was inadequate to control the rioters, and Mayor Heath felt himself forced to call for aid from the State. Brig. -Gen. Joseph

Torrence then commanded the First Brigade, N. G., with headquarters at Chicago. Under instructions from Governor Cullom, he promptly T. I.

and effectively co-operated with the municipal authorities in quelling the uprising. He received valuable support from volunteer companies, some which were largely composed of Union veter-





were commanded by such ex-

perienced commanders as

Generals Reynolds, Martin Beem, and O. L. Mann, and Colonel Owen Stuart. General Lieb also led a company of veterans enlisted by himself, and General Shaffner and Major James H. D. Daly organized a cavalry force of 150 old soldiers, who rendered efficient service. The disturbance was promptly subdued, transportation resumed, and trade once more began to move in its accustomed channels. 2. The Strike op 1894. This was an uprising whicli originated in Chicago and was incited by a comparatively young labor organization called the American Railway Union. In its inception it

324 was sympathetic,


ostensible motive, at the wrongs alleged to


and the prevention of bloodshed. Genwith the entire second division of

outset, being the righting of

eral Wheeler,

have been suffered by employes of the Pullman Palace Car Company. The latter quit work on May 11, and, on June 23, the American Railway Union ordered a general boycott against all railroad comjjanies hauling Pullman cars after June 26. The General Managers of the lines entering Chicago took prompt action (June 2'>) looking toward mutual protectif)ii. protesting against the proposed boycott, and aflirmiug their re.solution to adliere to existing contracts, any action on the

the I. N. G. at once received orders to report to the municipal authorities. The presence of the militia greatly incensed the turbulent crowds, yet it proved most salutary. The troops displayed exeniplarj- firmness under most trying circumstances, dispersing jeering and threatening crowds bj' physical force or bayonet charges, the rioters being fired upon only twice. Gradually order was restored. The disreputable element subsided, and wiser and more consenative counsels prevailed among the ranks of the strikers.

part of the strikers to the contrary not\vithstanding. Trouble began on the 26th. The hauling of freight was necessarily soon discontinued; sub-

urban traffic was interrupted switching had to be done bj- inexperienced hands under police or militarj- protection (officials and clerks sometimes throwing the levers), and in the presence of large crowds of law-defj-ing hoodlums gathered along the tracks, avowedly through sympathy with the strikers, but actually in the hope of plunder. Trains were sidetracked, derailed, and, in not a few instances, valuable freight was burned. Passengers were forced to undergo the inconvenience of being cooped up for hours in crowded cars, in transit, without food or water, sometimes almost within sight of tlieir destination, and sometimes threatened with death should they attempt to leave their prison houses. The mobs, intoxicated by seeming success, finally ventured to interfere with the passage of trains carrying the United States mails, and, at this ;

the Federal authorities interfered. President Cleveland at once ordered the protection of all mail trains by armed guards, to be appointed by the United States Marshal. An additional force of Deputy Sheriffs was also sworn in by the Sheriff of Cook County, and the city police force was augmented. The United States District Court also issued a restraining order, directed against the officers and members of the American Railway Union, as well as against all other persons interfering with the business of Service was readily railroads carrying the mails. accepted l)y the officers of the Union, but the copies distributed among the insurgent mob were torn and trampled upon. Thereupon tlie President ordered Federal troops to Chicago, both to protect Government property- (notably the Subtreasury) and to guard mail trains. The Governor (John P. Altgeld) protested, but without avail. A few days later, the Mayor of Chicago requested the State Executive to place a force of State militia at bis control for the protection of juncture,


Impediments to traffic were removed and trains were soon running as though no interruption had occurred. The troops were withdrawn (first the Federal and afterwards those of the State), and the courts were left to deal with the subject in accordance with the statutes. The entire executive board of the American Railway Union were indicted for conspiracy, but the indictments were never pressed. The officers, however, were all found guilty of contempt of court in having disobej'ed


restraining order of



and sentenced to terms in the county jail. Eugene V. Debs, the President of the Union, was convicted on two charges and given a sentence of six months on eacli, but the two sentences were afterward made concurrent. The other members of the Board received a similar sentence for three months each. All but the Vice-President, George \V. Howard, served their terms at Woodstock, McHenry County. Howard was sent to the Will County jail at Joliet. LACEY, Lyman, lawyer and jurist, was born in Tompkins County, X.Y., May 6, 1832. In 1837 court,

his parents settled in Fulton County, 111. He graduated from Illinois College in 1855 and was admitted to the bar in 1856, commencing practice at Havana, Mason County, the same year. In 1862 he was elected, as a Democrat, to represent the counties of Mason and Menard in the lower house of the Legislature; was elected to the Circuit Court bench in 1873, and re-elected in 1879, '85 and '91 also served for several years upon the bench of the Appellate Court. LACON, a city and county-seat of Marshall County, situated on tlie Illinois River, and on the Dwiglit and Lacon branch of the Cliicago & Alton Railroad, 130 miles southwest of Chicago. ;

A pontoon bridge connects it with Sparland on the opposite bank of the Illinois. The surrounding country raises large quantities of grain, for which Lacon is a shipping point. The river is navigable by steamboats to this point. The city



has grain elevators, woolen mills, marble works, a carriage factory and a national bank. It also has water works, an excellent telephone system, good drainage, and is lighted by electricity. There are seven churches, a graded school and two weekly newspapers. Population (1880), 1,814;

a future United States Senator and Justice of the Supreme Court. The boat left Kaskaskia at midnight for Nashville, Tenn., Governor Coles accompanj-ing the party and returning with it to Shawneetown, where an imposing reception was given and an address of welcome delivered by

(1890), 1,649; (1900), 1,601.

Judge James


(Marquis de), VISIT OF. An event of profound interest in the history of Illinois, during the year 182.5, was the visit to the State by the Marquis de La Fayette, who had been the ally of the American people during their struggle for independence. The distinguished Frenchman having arrived in the country during the latter part of 1824, the General

Assembly in session at Vandalia, in December of that year, adopted an address inviting him to This was communicated to La visit Illinois. Fayette by Gov. Edward Coles, who had met the General in Europe seven years before. Governor Coles' letter and the address of the General Assembly were answered with an acceptance by La Fayette from Washington, under date of Jan. The approach of the latter was made by 16, 1825. way of New Orleans, the steamer Natchez (by which General La Fayette ascended the Mississippi) arriving at the old French village of Carondelet, below St. Louis, on the 28th of April. Col. William S. Hamilton, a son of Alexander Hamilton, and at that time a Representative in the General Assembly from Sangamon County, as well as an Aid-de-Camp on the staff of Governor Coles, was dispatched from the home of the latter at Edwardsville, to meet the distinguished On Saturday, visitor, which he did at St. Louis. 30, the boat bearing General La Faj^ette, with a large delegation of prominent citizens of


Missouri, left St. Louis, arriving at Kaskaskia,

where a reception awaited him at the elegant residence of Gen. John Edgar, Governor Coles delivering an address of welcome. The presence of a number of old soldiers, who had fought under

La Fayette at Brandywine and Yorktown, constituted an interesting feature of the occasion. This was followed by a banquet at the tavern kept by Colonel Sweet, and a closing reception at the house of William Morrison. Sr., a member of the celebrated family of that name, and one of the leading merchants of Kaskaskia. Among those participating in the reception ceremonies, who were then, or afterwards became, prominent factors in State history, appear the names of Gen. John Edgar, ex-Governor Bond, Judge Nathaniel Pope, Elias Kent Kane, ex-Lieutenant-Governor Menard,


Thomas Mather and Sidney


Hall, on May hours later General La Fayette the Ohio.



1825. A few on his way up



Lake Erie

rvision. contains the customary provisions -respecting the .sale of stimulants to minors and other prohibited

LITCHFIELD, the principal city of Montgomery County, at the intersection of Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, the Wabash and the Illinois Central, with three other short-line railways, 43 miles soutli of Springfield and 47 miles northeast The surrounding country is ferundulating prairie, in which are found coal, oil and natural gas. A coal mine is operated within the corporate limits. Grain is extensively raised, and Litchfield has several elevators, flouring mills, a can factory, briquette works, etc. The output of the manufacturing establishments also includes foundry and machine shop products, brick and tile, brooms, ginger ale and cider. The city is lighted by both gas and electricity, and has a Holly water-works ..sy.stem, a public library and public parks, two banks, twelve churches, high and graded schools, and an Ursuhospital, and two line convent, a Catholic monthly, two weekly, and two daily periodicals. Population (1800), 5,811; (1900), 5,918; (1903, of St. Louis. tile,







RAILRO.VI), a lino which extends from Columbiana, on the Illinois River, to Barnett, HI., ."il.S miles;



of standard gauge, the track being laid



steel rails.


was opened

for business, in three different sections,

to 1887,


for three years

from 1883

was operated

in connection with tlie Jacksonville Southeastern Railway. In May, 1890, the latter was sold under foreclosure, and, in Noveml)er, 1893, the Litchfield, Carrollton & Western reverted to the former owners. Six months later it passed into the hands of a receiver, by w-liom (up to 1898) it has since been operated. The general offices are at Carlinville




merchant and banker, was

in Columbia, Pa., in 1808;

ville, 111., in







to Rush-

in the mercantile

prosecuted sixty years.

18G5 he established the




Rushville, of

which he was President, in these two branches of liusine.ss amassing a large fortune. Died, March 5, 1S90.

LITTLE VERMILIOX RIVER rises in Vermilion County, 111., and flows eastwardly into Indiana, emptying into the AValxish in Vermilion County. Ind.

of the provisions of the State law rendered practically inoperative by the

LITTLE W.VBASH RIVER, rises in Effingham and Cumberland Counties, flows east and south through Clay, Wayne and White, and enters the

munici])al ordinances, or alwolutely nullified by the indifference or studied neglect of the local

Wabiish River about 8 miles above the mouth of the latter. Its estimated length is about 180



parties, or at forbidden times, but, in the larger cities,



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. LITTLER, DaTld T., lawyer and State Senator, was born at Clifton, Greene County, Ohio, Feb. was educated in the common schools in 7, 1836 ;

his native State and, at twenty-one,



Lincoln, 111., where he worked at. the carpenter's trade for two years, meanwhile studying law. He was admitted to the bar in 1860, soon after was elected a Justice of the Peace, and later appointed

Master in Chancery. In 1866 he was appointed by President Johnson Collector of Internal Revenue for the Eighth District, but resigned in 1868, removing to Springfield tlie same year, where lie entered into partnership with the late Henry S. Greene, Milton Hay being admitted to

the firm soon after, the partnership continuing until 1881. In 1883 Mr. Littler was elected Representative in the Thirty-fourth General Assembly from Sangamon County, was re-elected in 1886, and returned to the Senate in 1894, serving in the latter body four j'ears. In both Houses Mr. Littler took a specially prominent part in


cipal streams.

Coal underlies the entire county,

and shafts are

in successful operation at various

It is one of the chief agricultural counthe State, the yield of oats and corn being large. Stock-raising is also extensively carried on. The development of the county really dates from the opening of the Chicago & Alton Railroad in 1854, since which date it has been crossed by numerous other lines. Pontiac, the county-

points. ties of

on the Vermilion, is a railroad center and the site of the State Reform School. Dwight has Its population in 1800 was 2,784. attained a wide reputation as the seat of the parent "Keeley" Institute for the cure of the

seat, is situated

liijuor habit.

LOCKPOKT, a 1837


village in Will County, laid out

and incorporated



situated 33

miles southwest of Chicago, on the Des Plaines River, the Illinois & Michigan Canal, the Atchison,

Topeka & Santa Fe and the Chicago & Alton The surrounding region is agricul-


on the revenue question. Asliton, reformer and philanthropist, was born (Mary Ashton Rice) in Boston, Mass., Dec. 19, 1821 taught for a time in a female seminary in Charlestown, and spent two years as a governess in Southern Virginia; later married Rev. Daniel P. Livermore, a Universalist

limestone is extensively quarried. Manufactures are flour, oatmeal, brass goods, paper and strawboaril. It has ten churches, a jjublio

minister, wlio held pastorates at various places in Massachusetts and at Quincy, 111., becoming editor of "The New Covenant" at Chicago, in During this time Mrs. Livermore wrote 1857. much for denominational papers and in assisting her husband; in 1863 was appointed an agent, and traveled extensively in the interest of the United States Sanitary Commission, visiting hospitals and camps in the Mississippi Valley; also took a prominent part in the great Northwestern Sanitary Fair at Chicago in 1863. Of late years she has labored and lectured extensively in the interest of woman suffrage and temperance, besides being the author of several volumes, one of these being "Pen Pictures of







Her home


in Boston.

LIVINGSTON COUNTY, situated about midway between Chicago and Springfield. The suris rolling toward the east, but is level in the west; area, 1.026 square miles: population (1900), It was 42,035, named for Edward Livingston. organized in 1837, the first Commissioners being Robert Breckenridge, Jonathan Moon and Daniel Rockwood. Pontiac was selected as the countyseat, the proprietors donating ample lands and §3,000 in cash for the erection of public buildings. Vermilion River and Indian Creek are the prin-



and high

school, parochial schools, a bank, gas

and one weeklj- paper. The controlling works of the Chicago Drainage Canal and offices of the Illinois & Michigan Canal plant, electric car lines,






(1900), 3,659. jurist, was born County, N. Y., August 2, 1789, left fatherless at the age of ten, after a few months at a private scliool in New Jersey, he went to live with an uncle (Francis Drake) at Waterford, N. Y., with whom he studied law, being admitted to the bar at Batavia, N. Y., in 1811. In 1813 he removed to Auburn, and later became Master in Chancery. In 1818 he descended the Ohio River upon a flat-boat in company with William H. Brown, afterwards of Chicago, and walking across tlie country from Shawneetown, arrived at Kaskaskia in December, but finally settled at Carmi, where he remained a year. In 1821 he was elected Attorney-General of the State, but resigned the following year to accept the position of Secretary of State, to which he was appointed by Governor Coles, and which he filled only three months, when President Monroe made him Receiver of Public Moneys at Edwardsville. About the same time he was also appointed agent of tlie First Board of Canal Commissioners. The Legislature

LOCKWOOI), Samuel Drake,




him Judge of the Supreme Court, his service extending until the adoption

of 1824-25 elected




which he assisted in framing as a Delegate from Morgan County. In

of the Constitution of 1848,

I80I he was made State Trustee of the Illinois Central Railroad, which office he held until his


He was always an


antagonist of slaverj- and a leading supporter of Governor Coles in opposition to tlie plan to secure a pro-slavery Constitution in 1824. His personal and political integrity was recognized by all parties.


1828 to 1853

Judge Lockwood was

^ citizen of Jacksonville, where he proved himself an efficient friend and patron of Illinois College, serving for over a quarter of a century as one of its Trvistees, and was also influential in securing several of the State charitable institutions there. His later years were spent at Batavia, where he died, April 23, 1874, in the 85th year of his age. LODA, a village of Iroquois County, on the Chicago Division of the Illinois Central Railway, 4 miles north of Paxton. The region is agricultural, and the town has considerable local trade. It also has a bank and one weekly paper. Population (ISSD), 035; (1890), 598; (1900), 668. LOIJAS, Cornelius Ambrose, physician and diplomatist, born at Deerfield, Mass., August 6, 1836, the son of a dramatist of the same name was educated at Auburn Academj- and served as Medical Superintendent of St. John's Hospital, Cincinnati, and, later, as Professor in the HosIn 1873 he was pital at Leavenwortli, Kan. appointed United States Minister to Chili, afterwards served as Minister to Guatemala, and again (1881) as Minister to Chili, remaining until 1883. He was for twelve years editor of "The Medical Herald," Leavenworth, Kan., and edited the works of his relative. Gen. John A. Logan (1886), besides contributing to foreign medical publications and publishing two or three volumes on medical and sanitary questions. Resides in Chicago. LOCwAN, John, ])hysician and soldier, was born in Hannllon County, Oliio, Dec. 30, 1809; at six years of age was taken to Missouri, his family settling near the Grand Tower among the Shawnee and Delaware Indians. He began business as clerk in a New Orleans commission house, but returning to Illinois in 1830, engaged in the blacksmith trade for two years; in 1831 enlisted in the Ninth Regiment Illinois Militia and took part in the Indian troubles of that year and the Black Hawk War of 1832, later being Colonel of the Forty-fourth Regiment State Militia. At the close of the Black Hawk War he settled in Carlinville,

and having graduated in medicine.

engaged in practice in that place until 1861. At the beginning of the war he raised a company for the Seventh Illinois Volunteers, but the quota being already

full, it

He was

was not accepted.



the Thirtysecond Illinois Volunteers, and reported to General Grant at Cairo, in January, 1862, a few weeks later taking part in the battles of Forts Henry and Donelson. Subsequently he had command of the Fourth Division of the Army of the Tennessee under General Hurlbut. His regiment lost heavily at the battle of Shiloh, he himself being severely wounded and compelled to leave the field. In December, 1864, he was discharged with the brevet rank of Brigadier-General. In 1866 Colonel Logan was appointed by President Johnson United States Marshal for tlie Southern finally


District of Illinois, ser%-ing until 1870,

resumed the practice of ville.



when he

his profession at




became a

Republican on the organization of that party, serving as a delegate to the first Republican State Convention at Bloomington in 1856. He was a man of strong personal characteristics and an earnest patriot. Died at his home at Carlinville,


24, 1885,

LOGAN, John Alexander,

soldier and statesman, was born at old Brownsville, the original county-seat of Jackson County, 111., Feb. 9, 1826, the son of Dr. John Logan, a native of Ireland and an early immigrant into Illinois, where he attained prominence as a public man. Young Logan volunteered as a private in the Jlexican War, bat was soon promoted to a lieutenancy, and afterwards became Quartermaster of his regiment. He was elected Clerk of Jackson County in 1849, but resigned the office to prosecute his law studies. Having graduated from

University in 1851, he entered into partnership with his uncle, Alexander 51. Jenkins; was elected to the Legislature as a Democrat in 1852, and again in 1856, having been Prosecuting Attornej- in the interim. He was chosen a Presidential FJector on the Democratic ticket in 1856, was elected to Congress in 1858, and again in 1860, as a Douglas Democrat. During the special session of Congress in 1861, he left his seat, and fought in the ranks at Bull Run. In September, 1861, he organized the Thirty-first Regiment Illinois Infantry, and was commissioned by Governor Yates its Colonel. His militarj' career was brilliant, and he rapidly rose to be Major-General. President Johnson tendered him the mission to Mexico, which he declined. In 1806 he was elected as a Republican to ConLouisville

HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. gress for the State-at-large, and acted as one of the managers in the impeachment trial of the President; was twice re-elected and, in 1871, was chosen United States Senator, as he was again in 1879. In 1884 he was an unsuccessful candidate for the Presidential nomination at the Republican Convention in Chicago, but was finally placed on the ticket for the Vice-Presidency with James G. Blaine, the ticket being defeated in November following. In 1885 he was again elected Senator, but died during his term at Washington, Dec. 26, 1886. General Logan was the author of "The Great Conspiracy" and of "The Volunteer Soldier of America." In 1897 an equestrian statue was erected to his memory on the Lake Front Park in Chicago. LOGAN, Stephen Trigg, eminent Illinois jurist, was born in Franklin County, Ky., Feb. 24, 1800; studied law at Glasgow, Ky., and was admitted After to the bar before attaining his majority. practicing in his native State some ten years, in 1832 he emigrated to Illinois, settling in Sangamon County, one year later opening an office at Springfield. In 1835 he was elevated to the bench of the First Judicial Circuit resigned two years later, was re-commissioned in 1839, but again resigned. In 1842, and again in 1844 and 1846, he was elected to the General Assembly also served as a member of the ConstiBetween 1841 tutional Convention of 1847. and 1844 he was a partner of Abraham Lincoln. In 1854 he was again chosen a member of the lower house of the Legislature, was a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1860, and, in 1861, was commissioned by Governor Yates to represent Illinois in the Peace Conference, which assembled in Washington. Soon afterward he retired to private life. As an advocate his ability was widely recognized. Died at Springfield, July 17, 1880. LOGAN COUNTY, situated in the central part of the State, and having an area of about 620 square miles. Its surface is chiefly a level or moderately undulating prairie, with some high Its soil is extremely fertile ridges, as at Elkhart. and well drained by numerous creeks. Coalmining is successfully carried on. The other staple products are corn, wheat, oats, hay, cattle ;


and pork. Settlers began to locate in 1819-22, and the county was organized in 1839, being originally cut off from Sangamon. In 1840 a portion of Tazewell was added and, in 1845, a part of De Witt County. It was named in honor of Dr. John Logan, father of Senator John A. Logan. Postville was the first county-seat, but.


in 1847, a change was made to Mount Pulaski, and, later, to Lincohi, which is the present capi-

Population (1890), 25,489; (1900), 28,680. of Dupage County, on the Chicago & Great Western and the Chicago & Northwestern Railways. Population (1880), 378; tal.

LOMBARD, a village

(1890). 515; (1900), 590.

LOMBARD UNIVERSITY, an institution at Galesburg under control of the Universalist denomination, founded in 1851. It has preparatory, collegiate and theological departments. The collegiate department includes both classical and scientific courses, with a specially arranged course of three years for young women, who constitute nearly half the number of students. The University has an endowment of §200,000, and

owns additional

property, real and personal, of the value of 6100,000. In 1898 it reported a facult}' of thirteen professors, with an attendance of 191 .students.

LONDON MILLS, of Fulton County,

a village and railway station on the Fulton Narrow Gauge

and Iowa Central Railroads,


19 miles southeast

the has two banks and a weekly newspaper; Pop. (1900), 528. fine brick clay is mined. of Galesburg.

district is agricultural;


LONG, Stephen Harriman, civil engineer, was born in Hopkinton, N. H., Dec. 30, 1784; graduated at Dartmouth College in 1809, and, after teaching some years, entered the United States Army in December, 1814. as a Lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers, acting as Assistant Professor of Mathematics at West Point; in 1816 was transferred to the Tojiographical Engineers with the brevet rank of Major. From 1818 to 1823 he had charge of explorations between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains, and, in 1823-24, to the sources of the Mississippi. One of the highest peaks of the Rocky Mountains was named in his honor. Between 1827 and 1830 he was employed as a civil engineer on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, and from 1837 to 1840, as Engineerin-Chief of the Western & Atlantic Railroad, in Georgia, where he introduced a system of curves and a new kind of truss bridge afterwards generally adopted. On the organization of the Topographical Engineers as a separate corps in 1838, he became Major of that body, and, in 1861, chief, with the rank of Colonel. An account of his first expedition to the Rocky Mountains (1819-20) by Dr. Edwin James, was published in 1823, and the following year appeared "Long's Expedition to the Source of St. Peter's River, Lake of the Woods, Etc." He was a member of the American Philosophical Society and the author of the



original treatise on railroad building ever published in this country, under the title of "Railroad Manual" (1829). During the latter days of his life his home was at Alton, 111. where first


he died, Sept.






active service in June, 1863, he continued in the discharge of important duties up to his death. LOXGEXECKER, Joel M., lawyer, was born in

Crawford County. 111., June 12, 1847; before reaching his eighteenth year he enlisted in the Fifth Illinois Cavalry, serving until the close of the war. After attending the high school at Robinson and teaching for .some time, he began the study of law and was admitted to the bar at Olney in 1870; served two years as City Attorney and four (1877-81) as Prosecuting Attorney, in the latter year removing to Chicago. Here, in 1884, he became the assistant of Luther Laflin Mills in the office of Prosecuting Attorney of Cook County, retaining that position with Mr. Mills" successor, Judge Grinnell. On the promotion of the latter to the bencli, in 1880, Mr. Longenecker succeeded to the office of Prosecuting Attorney, continuing

While in this office he conducted a large number of important criminal cases, the most important, perhaps, being tlie trial of the murderers of Dr. Cronin, in which he gained a wide reputation for skill and ability as a prosecutor in criminal cases. LOOMIS, (Rev.) Hul>l)ell, clergyman and educator, was born in Colchester, Conn., Jlay •i\. in that position until 1892.



prepared for college in the at Plainfield




in his native State,

graduating at Union College, N. Y., in having supported himself during a con-

the list of Trustees of the new institution, and, in proportion to his means, he was a liberal contributor to its support in the period of its infancy.







manual labor and teaching.





studied theology, and, for twenty-four years, served as pastor of a Congregational church at Willington, Conn., meanwhile fitting a number of young men for college, including among them Dr. Jared Sparks, afterwards President of Har-

vard College and author of numerous historical works. About 1829 his views on the subject of baptism underwent a change, resulting in his uniting himself with tlie Baptist Church. Coming to Illinois soon after, lie spent some time at Kaskaskia and Edwardsville, and. in 1832, located at Upper Alton, where he became a prominent factor in laying the foundation of Shurtleff College, first by the establishment of the Baptist Seminary, of which he was the Principal for



Upper Alton, Dec.

were spent among his Died at advanced age

scientific pursuits.

15, 1872,

of nearly 98 years.


at the

son of his

— Prof. Elias

Loomis an eminent mathematician and naturalist, was the author of "Loomis" Algebra" and other

extensive use in the lield professorships in various institutions at different times, the last being that of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy .scientific text-l)Ook.s, in

colleges of the country.



Yale College, from 1860 up to his death in


LORIMER, William, Member of Congress, was bom in Manchester, England, of Scotch parentcame with his parents to years of age, and, after spending in Michigan and Ohio, came to Chicago in 1870, where he entered a private school. Having lost his father by death at twelve years of age. he became an apprentice in the sign-painting business; was afterwards an employe on a street-railroad, finally engaging in the real-estate business and serving as an appointee of Mayor Roche and Mayor Washburne in the city water department. In 1892 he was the Republican nominee for Clerk of the Superior Court, but was defeated. Two years later he was elected to the Fifty-fourth Congress from the Second Illinois age, April 27, 1861

America at some years


in 1898.



in 1896, as he was again His plurality in 1896 amounted to 26,736

and re-elected





latter years of his life

books in


county-seat of Clay County;

situated on the Little Wabasli River and on the

the Baltimore it Ohio It is 100 miles southsoutheast of Springfield and 7 miles north of Flora; has a courthouse, three churche.s. a high school, a savings bank and two weekly newsPopulation (IK«i») 6;i7;(1900) 646. papers. Springfield



Southwestern Railroad.

LOriSVILLE, EVANSVILLE & >EW ALBA\Y RAILROAD. (See Loiiisi-ille, Evansville tO



(Consolidated) Railroad.)



(Consolidated) entire line


358.55 miles, of

length of this

which nearly 150

miles are operated in Illinois. It cresses the State from East St. Louis to Mount Carmel, on the AVabash River. Within Illinois the system uses

several years, and later by assisting, in 1835, to secure the charter of the college in which the

a single track of standard gauge, laid with steel The grades are usually rails on white-oak ties. light, although, as the line leaves the Mississippi bottom, the gradient is about two per cent or

seminary was merged.


His name stood











$18,236,246, of



was in

stock and 810,568,350 in bonds. (History.) The original corporation was organized in both Indi-

ana and

and the Illinois section of ihe line opened from Mount Carmel to Albion (18 miles) in January, 1873. The Indiana division was sold under foreclosure in 1876 to the Louisville, New Albany & St. Louis Railway Company, while the Illinois division was reorganized in 1878 under the name of the St. Louis, Mount Carmel & New Albany Railroad. A few months later the two divisions were consolidated under Illinois in 1.869,

the name of the former. In 1881 this line was again consolidated with the Evansville, Rockport & Eastern Railroad (of Indiana), taking the name of the Louisville, Evansville & St. Louis Railroad. In 1889, by a still further consolidation, it absorbed several short lines in Indiana and Illinois those in the latter State being the Illinois & St. Louis Railroad and Coal Company, the Belleville, Centralia & Eastern (projected from Belleville to Mount Vernon) and the Venice & Carondelet the new organization assuming the present name Louisville, Evansville & St. Louis

LOUISVILLE & NASHVILLE RAILROAD, a operating an extensive system of railroads, chiefly south of the Ohio River and extending through Kentucky and Tennessee into Indiana. The portion of the line in Illinois (known as the St. Louis, Evansville & Nashville line) extends from East St. Louis to the Wabash corporation


White County




branches from Belleville to O'Fallon (6.07 miles),

McLeansboro to Shawneetown (40.7 180.41 miles. The Illinois Division, though virtually owned by the operating line, is formally leased from the Southeast & St. Louis Railway Company, whose corporate existence is merel}- nominal. The latter company




the property after foreclosure and leased it in perpetuity to the Louisville & Nashville Company. The total earnings and income of the leased line in Illinois, for 1898, were .SI, 052,789, and the total expenditures (including $47,198 taxes) were 8657,125.

acquired in

title to






Jacksonville A' St. Louis Railway. ) LOVEJOT, Elijah Parish, minister


(See anti-

slavery journalist, was born at Albion, Jlaine, Nov. 9, 1802 the son of a Congregational minis-



procured, a


of his friends agreed to pro-

from destruction in the warehouse where it was stored. On the evening of Nov. 7, 1837, a mob, having assembled about the building, sent one of their number to the roof to set it on fire. Lovejoy, with two of his friends, stepped outside to reconnoiter, when he was shot down by parties in ambush, breathing his last a few minutes later. His death did much to strengthen the anti-slavery sentiment north of Mason and Dixon's line. His party regarded him as a martyr, and his death was made the text for many impassioned and effective appeals in opposition to an institution which employed mobocracy and murder in its efforts to suppress free tect



(See Alton Riots.)

was born at Albion, Maine, Jan. 6, 1811. Being the son of a clergyman of small means, he was thrown upon his own resources, but secured a collegiate education, graduating at Bowdoin College. In 1836 he removed to Alton, 111., joining his brother, Elijah Parish Lovejoy, who was conducting an anti-slavery and religious journal and whose assassination by a pro-slaveiy mob he witnessed the following year. (See Alton Riots and Elijah P. Lovejoy.) This tragedy induced him to devote his life to a crusade


Having previously begun the study of theology, he was ordained to the ministry and officiated for several years as pastor of a Congregational church at Princeton. In 1847 he was an unsuccessful candidate for the Constitutional Convention on the "Liberty" ticket, but, in 1854, was elected to the Legislature upon that issue, and earnestly supported Abraham Lincoln for United States Senator. Upon his election to the Legislature he resigned his pastorate at Princeton, his congregation presenting him with a solid silver service in token of their esteem. In 1856 he was elected a Representative in Congress by a majority of 7,000, and was re-elected for against slavery.


three successive terms. As an orator he had few equals in the State, while his courage in the support of his principles was indomitable. In the campaigns of 1856, '58 and '60 he rendered

he studied theology at Princeton

valuable service to the Republican party, as he

He graduated

at Waterville College in 1826,

came west and taught school in St. Louis 1827, and became editor of a Whig paper there 1829.

and was licensed as a Presbyterian minister in 1833. Returning to St. Louis, he started "The Observer" a religious weekly, which condemned slave-holding. Threats of violence from the pro-slavery party induced him to remove his paper, presses, etc., to Alton, in July, 1836. Three times within twelve months his plant was destroyed by a mob. A fourth press having been

LOVEJOY, Owen, clergyman and Congressman,

(Consolidated) Railroad.







did later in upholding the cause of the Union in Congress. He died in Brooklyn, N. Y., March 25, 1864.

LOVINGTON, a village of Moultrie County, on the Terre Haute-Peoria branch of the "Vandalia Line and the BenientA Altamont Division of the Wabash Railway. 23 miles southeast of Decatur. The town has two banks, a newspaper, waterworks, electric lights, telephones and volunteer fire




767; (1900;, 815.

LL'DLAM, (I>r.) Keuben, i)hy.sician and author, was born at Camden, X. J.. Oct. 11, 1S31. the son of Dr. Jacob Watson Ludlam. an eminent physician who, in his later years, became a resident of Evanston, 111. The younger Ludlam, having taken a course in an academy at Bridgeton, at sixteen years of age entered uix>n the study of medicine with his father, followed by a coarse of lectures at the University of Pennsyl-



where he graduated, in 1852. Having removed to Chicago the following year, he soon after began an investigation of the homojopathic system of medicine, which resulted in its adoption, and, a few years later, had acquired such prominence that, in 1859, he was apix)inted Profes.sor of Physiology and Pathologj' in the newly vania,

established Hahnemann Medical College in the city of Chicago, with which he continued to be connected for nearly forty years. Besides serving as Secretary of the institution at its inception, he had, as early as 1854, taken a ixjsition as one of the

"The Chicago Homoeopath,'" later being editorially a.s.sociated with "The North American Journal of HonnBopathy," published in New York City, and "The United States Medical and Surgical Journal"' of Chicago. He also served as President of numerous medical associeditors of

ations, and, in 1877,


Governor Board of Health,

ap|X)inted by




by two subsequent reaiipointments,


of the State

period of fifteen years.

for a In addition to his labors

as a lecturer and practitioner, Dr. Ludlam was of the most i)rolific authors on professional lines in the city of Chicago, besides numerous monographs on special topics, having produced a "Course of Clinical Lectures on Diphtheria" (1863); "Clinical and Didactic Lectures on the



and a translation from the French of "Lectures on Clinical Sledicine" (1880). The second work mentioned is recognized as a valuable text-lwok, and has passed through seven or eight editions. A few years after his first connection with the Hahnemann Medical College, Dr. Ludlam became Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecolog}% and, on the Diseases of



death of



Smith, was chosen

President of the institution. Died suddenly fronx !ieart disease, while preparing to perform a surgi-

on a patient in the Medical College, April 29, 1899.

cal operation


Ll'XDY, Benjamin, early anti-slavery journalwas born in New Jersey of Quaker parentage: at 19 worked as a saddler at Wheeling, Va., whei'e he first g-ained a practical knowledge of the institution of slavery; later carried on business at Mount Pleasant and St. Clairsville, O. where, in 1815, be organized an anti-slavery association under the name of the "Union ist,


Society,'" also contributing anti-slavery

articles to



"The Philanthropist," a paper pubMount Pleasant. Removing to St.

Louis, in 1819, he took a deep interest in the con-

admission of Missouri as a slave State. in 1821, he began the i.ssue of "The GeniiLs of Universal Emancipation," a monthly, wliich he soon removed to Jonesborough, Tenn., and finally to Baltimore in 1834, when it became a weeklj-. Mr. Lundy's trend towards colonization is shown in the fact that he made two visits (1825 and 1829) to Hayti, with a view to promoting the colonization of emancipated slaves in that island. Visiting the East in 1828. he made the acquaintance of William Lloyd Garrison, who became a convert to his views and The following winter he was asa firm ally. saulted by a slave-dealer in Baltimore and nearly killed; soon after removed his paper to Washington and, later, to Philadelphia, where it took the name of "The National Enquirer,"" being finally merged into "The Pennsylvania Freeman." In 1838 his propertj' was burned by the pro-slavery mob which fired Pennsylvania Hall, and, in the following winter, he removed to Lowell, La Salle Co., 111., with a view to reviving his paper there, but the design was frustrated by his early death, The paper, wliich occurred August 22, 1839. however, was revived by Zebina Eastman under the name of "The Genius of Liberty," but was removed to Chicago, in 1842, and issued under the

test over the

Again at Mount Pleasant,



"The Western Citizen."

(See Eastman,



and philanthroBowdoinham, Maine, Dec. 24, 1815; came to Chicago in 1842, and engaged ia the grain commission business, becoming a mempist,


Orringrton, capitalist

Ixirn in

ber of the Board of Trade at its organization. Later, he became interested in real estate operations, fire and life insurance and in railway enterprises, being one of the earlj- promoters of the Chicago & Galena Union, now a part of the




Northwestern Railroad.


also took

active part in municipal affairs, and, during

the War, was an efficient member of the "War Finance Committee." A liberal patron of all moral and benevolent enterprises, as shown by his cooperation with the "Relief and Aid Society" after the fire of 18T1, and his generous benefactions to the Young Men's Christian Association

and feeble churches, his most efficient service was rendered to the cause of education as represented in the Northwestern University, of which he was a Trustee from its organization, and much of the time an executive officer. To his noble benefaction the institution owes its splendid library building, erected some years ago at a In the future history of Chi-

cost of §100,000.

name will stand beside that of Yovmg Scammon, Walter L. Newberry, John

cago, Mr. Lunt's J.


and others of

Died, at his


LUSK, John Carolina, Nov.



T,, pioneer, 7,

liberal benefactors.

in Evanston, April


was born in South Kentucky in

1784; brought to

22, 18.57.




this sect in

nois, as elsewhere, is divided into


many branches,

a unit in accepting the Bible as the only infallible rule of faith, in the use of Luther's small Catechism in instruction of the young, in the practice of infant baptism and confirmation at an early age, and in acceptance of the Augsburg Confession. Services are conducted, in various sections of the country, in not less than twelve it is



The number of Lutheran

ministers in Illinois exceeds 400, who preach in the English, German, Danish, Swedish, FinThe churches nish and Hungarian tongues. over which they preside recognize allegiance to eight

distinct ecclesiastical bodies,

nated synods, as follows


Central and Wartburg Synods of the General Synod; the Illinois-Missouri District of tlie Synodical Conference; the Synod for the Norwegian Evangelical Church; the SwedishAugustana, and the Indiana Synod of the General Council. To illustrate the large proportion of the foreign element in this denomination, reference may be made to the fact that, of sixty-three Lutheran churches in Chicago, only four use the English language. Of the remainder, thirtyseven make use of the German, ten Swedish, nine Norwegian and three Danish. The whole numern,

ber of communicants in the State, in 1892, was estimated at 90,000. The General Synod sustains a German Theological Seminary in Chicago. (See also Religious Denominat ions. LYONS, a village of Cook County, 12 miles southwest of Chicago. Population (1880), 486; (1890), 732; (1900), 951


1791 by his father (James Lusk), who established a ferry across the Ohio, opposite the present town of Golconda, in Pope County, 111. Lusk's Creek, which empties into the Ohio in that vicinity, took its name from this family. In 180.5 the subject of this sketch came to Madison County, 111., and settled near Edwardsville. During the War of 1812-14 he was engaged in the service as a When Edwardsville began its "Ranger." growth, he moved into the town and erected a house of hewn logs, a story and a half high and containing three rooms, which became the first hotel in the town and a place of considerable Mr. Lusk held, at different historical note. periods, the positions of Deputy Circuit Clerk, County Clerk, Recorder and Postmaster, dying,




The Northern, South-


the indebtedness incurred in the year 1841, through the hypothecation, by John D.Whiteside (then Fund Commissioner of the State of Illinois), with Messrs. Macalister & Stebbius, brokers of New York

name given

to a

class of


City, of 804 interest-bearing bonds of .$1,000 each, payable in 1865, upon which the said Macalister & Stebbins advanced to the State 8261,.560. 83. This was done with the understanding that the firm would make further advances sufficient to increase tlie aggregate to forty per cent of the face value of the bonds, but upon which no further advances were actually made. In addition to these, there were deposited with the same firm, within the next few months, with a like understanding, internal improvement bonds and State scrip amounting to §109,215.44 making the aggregate of State securities in their hands $913,215.44, upon which the State had received only the amount already named being 28.64 per cent of the face value of such indebtedness. Attempts having been made by the holders of these bonds (with whom they had been hypothecated by Macalister & Stebbins), to secure settlement on their par face value, the matter became the subject of repeated legislative acts, the most important of which were passed in 1847 and 1849 both reciting, in their respective preambles, the history of the transaction. The last of these provided for the issue to Macalister & Stebbins of new bonds, payable in 1865, for the amount of princi-

pal and interest of the sum actually advanced and found to be due, conditioned ui^on the surrender, by them, of the original bonds and other



evidences of indebtedness received by them in 18-11. This the actual holders refused to accept, and brought the case before the Supreme Court in an eflfort to compel the Governor (who was then ex-officio Fund Commissioner) to recognize the full face of their claim. This the Supreme Court refused to do, on the ground that, tlie executive being a co-ordinate branch of the Government, they had no authority over his official In 1859 a partial refunding of these bonds, acts. to the amount of $114,000, was obtained from Governor Bissell, who, being an invalid, was probably but imperfectly acquainted with their history and previous legislation on the subject. Representations made to him led to a suspension of the proceeding, and, as the bonds were not transferable e.xcept on the books of the Funding Agency in the office of the State Auditor, they

were treated as illegal and void, and were ultimately surrendered by the holders on the basis originally fixed, without loss to the State. In 1865 an additional act was passed requiring the presentation, for payment, of the portion (>i the original bonds still outstanding, on pain of forfeiture, and this was finally done. MACK, Alnnzo AV., legislator, was born at Moretown, Vt., in 1822; at 10 years of age settled at Kalamazoo, Mich., later began the study of medicine and graduated at Laporte, Ind., in 18-14. Then, having removed to Kankakee, 111., he adopted the practice of law in 1858 was elected Representative, and, in 18G0 and 'G4, to the Senate, serving through five continuous sessions (1858-68). In 1862 he assisted in organizing the Seventy-sixth Regiment Illinois Volunteers, of which he was commissioned Colonel, but resigned, in January following, to take his seat in the Senate. Colonel Mack, who was a zealous friend of Governor Yates, was one of the leading spirits in the establishment of "The Chicago Repub;

lican," in



and was


business mana-

ger the first year of its publication, but ilisagreeing with the editor, Charles A. Dana, both finally retired. Colonel JIack then resumed the practice of law in Chicago, dying there, Jan. 4, 1871. M.\CKI\.VW, the first county-.seat of Tazewell County, at intersection of two railroad lines, 18 miles southea.st of Peoria. The district is agricultural and stock-raising. There are manufactories of farm implements, pressed brick, harness, wagons and carriages, also a State bank and a weekly paper. Population (1890), ,545; (190(»). 859. M.IC MILLAN, Thomas C, Clerk of United States District Court, was born at Stranraer. Scotland, Oct.



came with

his parents, in

1857, to Chicago, where he graduated from the High School and spent some time in the Chicago University; in 1873 became a reporter on "The Chicago Inter Ocean;" two years later accompanied an exploring expedition to the Black Hills


1875-70, represented that paper with Crook in the campaign against the Sioux After an extended tour in Europe, he assumed charge of the "Curiosity Shop" department of "The Inter Ocean," served on the Cook County Board of Education and as a Director of the Chi cago Public Librarj', besides eight years in the General Assembly— 1885-89 in the House and 188993 in the Senate. In January, 1896. :Mr. MacMillan



was appointed Clerk Court at Chicago.

of the Unite1, a member of the first Board of Regents of the (old) Chicago University, and prominently connected with several societies of a semi-public character. He was a polished writer and was, for a time, in editorial control of "The Chicago Democrat." MANX, James R., lawyer and Congressman, was born on a farm near Bloomington, 111., Oct. 20, 1856, whence his father moved to Iroquois County in 18G7; graduated at the University of Illinois in 1876 and at the Union College of Law in Chicago, in 1881, after which he established himself in practice in Chicago, finally becoming the head of the law firm of Mann, Hayes & Miller; in 1888 was elected Attorney of the village of Hyde Park office of .School

and, after the annexation of that municipality to the city of Chicago, in 1892 was elected Alderman of the Thirty-second Ward, and reelected in 1894, while in the City Council becoming one of its

most prominent members;

in 1894, served as

Temporarj- Chairman of the Republican State Convention at Peoria, and, in 1895, as Chairman of the Cook County Republican Convention. In 1896 he was elected, as a Republican, to the Fiftyfifth Congress, receiving a plurality of 28,459 over the Free Silver Democratic candidate, and 20,907 majority over all. In 1898 he was a candidate for re-election, and was again successful, by over 17,000 plurality, on a largely reduced vote. Other positions held by Mr. Mann, previous to his election to Congress, include those of Master in Chancery of the Superior Court of Cook County and General Attorney of the South Park Commissioners of the city of Chicago. MAXX, Orriu L., lawyer and soldier, was bom in Geauga County, Ohio., and, in his youth,

removed to the vicinity of Ann Arlxjr, Mich., where he learned the blacksmith traile, but, being compelled to abandon it on account of an injury, in 1851 began study with the late Dr. Hinman, then in charge of the Wesleyan Female College, at Albion, Mich.

two years





become President of the North-

University, at Evanston, Mr. Mann his preceptor to Chicago, continuing his studies for a time, but later engaging in teaching; in 1856 entered the University of



Michigan, but left in his junior year. In 1860 he took part in the campaign which resulted in the election of Lincoln earlj- in the following spring had made arrangements to engage in the lumbertrade in Chicago, but abandoned this purpose at the firing on Fort Sumter; then assisted in organizing the Thirty-ninth Regiment IllinoisVolunteers (the "Yates Phalanx" l.whidi having been accepted after considerable delay, he ;

was chosen Major. The regiment was first assigned to duty in guarding the Baltimore Ohio Railroad, but afterwards took part in tlie first battle of Winchester and in operations in North and South Carolina. Having previously been commissioned Lieutenant -Colonel, Major Mann was now assigned to court-martial duty at Newbern and Hilton Head. Later, he participated in the siege of Forts Wagner and (iregg, winning a brevet Brigadier-Generalship for meritorious service. The Thirty-ninth, having "veteranized" in 1864, was again sent east, and


being assigned to the command of Gen B. F. Butler, took part in the battle of Bermuda



Hundreds, where Colonel Mann was seriously wounded, necessitating a stay of several months in hospital. Returning to duty, he was assigned to the staff of General Ord, and later served as Provost Marshal of the District of Virginia, with headquarters at Norfolk, being finally mustered out in December, 1865. After the war he engaged in the real estate and loan business, but, in 1866, was appointed Collector of Internal Revenue for the Chicago District, serving until 1868, when he was succeeded by General Corse. Other positions held by him have been Representative in the Twenty-ninth General Assembly (1874-76), Coroner of Cook County (1878-80), and Sheriff (1880 82). General Mann was injured by a fall, some years since, inducing partial paraly-

MACjUON, a village of Knox County, on the Peoria Division of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railway, 16 miles southeast of Gales-


Puget Sound, for the purpose of securing data



Secretary of the Illinois & Michigan Canal Commissioners, was born in 1793, graduated at Union College, N. Y., in 1818,

and came



Southern Illinois at an early day, a time at Brownsville, Jackson County, where he held the office of CountyClerk. In 1836 he was practicing law, when he was appointed Secretary of the first Board of Commissioners of the Illinois & Michigan Canal, remaining in office until 1845. He continued to reside at Lockport, Will County, until near the close of his life, when he removed to Joliet, dying residing



there, Jan.


MANNINCt, ada, near


Julius, lawyer,

was born



completing his education at Middlebury College, Vt. in 1839 came to Knoxville, 111., where he served one term as County Judge and two terms (1842-46) as Representative in the General Assembly. He was also a Democratic Presidential Elector in 1848. In 1853 he removed to Peoria, where he was elected, in 1861, a Delegate to the State Constitutional Convention of the following ;


Died, at Knoxville, Jul3-



MANSFIELD, a village of Piatt County, at the intersection of the Peoria Division of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis and the Chicago Division of the Wabash Railways, 32 miles southeast of Bloomington. It is in the heart of a rich agricultural region has one newspaper. Population (1890), 533; (1900), 708. MANTENO, a village of Kankakee County, on the Illinois Central Railroad, 47 miles south of Chicago; a shipping point for grain, livestock, small fruits and dairy products; has ;

one newspaper. 627; (1900), 932.

Population (1880), 632;



The town has


banks and a weekly paper.



548; (1890), 501; (1900), 475.


(Dr.) Oliver, educator,

Coleraine, Mass., Feb.


was born


1820; received his early

education in the grammar schools of his native town, graduating, in 1842, from the Wesley an University at Middletown, Conn. He early manifested a deep interest in the natural sciences and became a teacher in an academy at Wilbraham, Mass. where he remained until 1862, meanwhile ,

making numerous trips for geologic investigation One of these was made in 1849, overland, to for


of the Pacific Coast,


settling dis-

puted questions as to the geologic formation of the Rocky Mountains. During this trip he visited San Francisco, making maps of the mountain regions for the use of the Government. In 1862 he was called to the professorship of Natural History in the Northwestern University, at Evanston, remaining there until his death. The institution was then in its infancy, and he taught mathematics in connection with his other duties. From 1890 he was Dean of the faculty. He received the degee of LL.D. from the University of Chicago in 1876. Died, at Evanston, March 19, 1899.



N. Y., but passed his earlier years chiefly in the State of New York,

The region


de OGEE), a pecuUar

depression (or slough) in the southwestern part of Whiteside County, connecting the Mississippi

and Rock

Rivers, through which, in

freshets, the



times of former sometimes discharges a part

waters into the

when Rock River



the other hand,

it sometimes discharges through the same channel into the Mississippi. Its general course is north and south. Cat-Tnil Slough, a similar depression, runs nearly parallel with the Maredosia, at a distance of five or six miles from the latter. The highest point in the Maredosia above low water in the Mississippi is thirteen feet, and that in the Cat-Tail Slough is twenty-six feet. Each is believed, at some time, to have served as a channel for the Mississippi. MARENGO, a city of McHenry County, settled in 1835, incorjjorated as a town in 1857 and, as a city, in 1893; lies 68 miles northwest of Chicago, on the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad. It is in the heart of a dairying and fruit-growing district; has a foundry, stove works, condensed milk plant, canning factory, water-works, elec-


relatively higher,




trie lights, has six churches,

good schools and

two weekly newspapers. Population (1890),


(1880), 1,264

445; (1900), 2,005. village of Madison County,


Illinois Central

on the

Railroad, 27 miles northeast of

Several of its earlie.st settlers were St. Louis. sea captains from the East, from whom the "Marine Settlement" obtained its name. Population (1880) 774; (1890), 037; (1900). 060.

M.VRION, the county-.seat of Williamson County. 172 miles southeast of Springfield, on the Illinois Central and Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroads; in agricultural and coal region; has cotton and woolen mills, electric cars, waterworks, ice and cold-storage plant, dry pressed brick factory, six churches, a graded school, and three newspapers. Pop. (1890), 1,338; (1900), 2,510. MARION COUNTY, located near the center of the southern half of the State, with an area of 580 square miles; was organized in 1823, and, by the census of 1900, had a population of 30,446. About half the county is prairie, the chief prodThe being tobacco, wool and fruit. ucts remainder is timbered land. It is watered by the tributaries of the Kaskaskia and Little Wabash Rivers. The bottom lailds have a heavy growth of choice timber, and a deep, rich soil. A large portion of the county is underlaid with a thin vein of coal, and the rocks all belong to the upper coal measures. Sandstone and building .sand are Ample shipping facilities are also abundant. afforded by the Illinois Central and theBaltimore & Ohio (S.W.) Railroads. Salem is the county-seat, but Centralia is the largest and most important town, being a railroad junction and center of an extensive fruit-trade. Sandoval is a thriving town at the junction of the Illinois Central and the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railroads. MAKISS.V, a village of St. Clair County, on the St. Louis & Cairo Short Line Railroad, 39 miles southeast of St. Louis. It is in a farming and mining district; has two banks, a newspaper and a magazine. Population (1890). 876; (1900). 1.086. MAROA, a city in Macon ('ounty. on the Illinois Centrnl Railroad. 13 miles north of Decatur and^Sl miles south of Bloomington. The city has three elevators, an agricultural implement factory, water-works system, electric light plant, telephone service, two banks, one newspaper, three churches and a graded school. Population (1880). 870: (1890), 1,104; (1900), 1,213.

MARCJl'ETTE, (Father) Jacques, a French missionary and explorer, born at Laon, France, in 1637. He became a Jesuit at the age of 17. and, twelve years later (1666), was ordained a priest.

sailed for Canada, landing at For eighteen months be devoted himself chieflj' to the study of Indian dialects, and, in 1668, accompanied a party of Nez-Perces to Lake Superior, where he founded the mission of

The same year he Quebec.



tudes, he



Later, after various vicissi-

to Mackinac, and. in that vicinity,

founded the Mission of St. Ignace and built a rude church. In 1073 he accompanied Juliet on his voyage of discoverj- down the Mississippi, the two setting out from Green Bay on May 17, and reaching the Mississippi, by way of the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers, June 17. (For an interesting translation of Marquette's quaint narrative of the expedition, see Shea's "Discovery and Exploration of the Mississippi,'' N. Y., 1852.) In September, 1073, after leaving the Illinois and stopping for some time among the Indians near "Starved Rock," lie returned to Green Bay much broken in health. In October, 1674, under orders from his superior, he set out to establish a mission at Kaskaskia on the Upper Illinois. In December he reached the present site of Chicago, where he was compelled to lialt because of

On March 29, 1075, he resumed his and reached Kaskaskia, after much suffering, on April 8. After laboring indefatigably and making many converts, failing health compelled him to start on his return to MackiBefore tlie voyage was completed he died, nac. Maj' 18, 1675, at the mouth of a stream which exh.austion.


long l)ore his name but is not the present Marquette River—on the eastern shore of Lake Slichigan. Ilis remains were subsequently removed to Point St. Ignace. He was the first to attempt to explain the lake tides, and modern science has not improved his theory. .MARSEILLES, a city on the Illinois River, in La Salle County, 8 miles east of Ottawa, and 77 miles southwest of Chicago, on the line of the Chicago, Rock Lsland & Pacific Railroad. Excellent water [wwer is furnished by a dam across the river. The city has several factories, among the leading products lieing flour, paper and agricultural implements. Coal is mined in the vicinity. The grain trade is large, sufficient to support three elevators. There are three papers (ecially complimented in letters

by Generals Sherman, Thomas, Baird. Mitchell. Davis and others. He was invited to enter the regular


at the close of the war. but prelife,

and resumed his

former position with S. C. Griggs & Co., soon after becoming a junior partner in the concern, In the of which he has since become the chief. various mutations through wliicli this extensive firm has gone, (ieiieral McChirg has been a leading factor until now (and since 1887) he stands at the liead of the most extensive publishing firm west (if New York.

MfCOXNEL, Murray,

pioneer and lawyer, was

born in Orange Coimty, N. Y., Sept. 5, 1798, and educated in the common schools; left home at 14 years of age and, after a year at Louisville, spent several years flat-boating, trading and hunting in the West, during this period visiting Arkansas, Texas and Kansas, finally settling on a farm near Herculaneum, Mo. In 1823 he located in Scott (then a part of Morgan) County, III., but wlien the town of Jacksonville was laid out, became a citizen of that place. During tlie Black Hawk War (July and August, 1832), he served on the staff of Gen. J. D. Henry with the rank of Major; in 1837 was appointed by Governor Duncan a memlier of the Board of Public Works for the First Judicial District, in this capacity having charge of tlie construction of the railroad lietween Meredosia and Springfield (then known as the Northern Cross Railroad) the first public railroad built in the State, and tlie only one constructed during the "internal improvement"' era following 1837. He also held a commission from Governor French as Major-General of State Militia, in 185.J was appointed by President Pierce Fifth Auditor of the Treasury Department, but In 1832, on his return from retired in 1859. the Black Hawk War. lie was elected a Repre-

sentative in the State Legislature from Morgan County, and, in 1804, was elected to the State Senate for the District composed of Morgan,

Menard, Cass, Schuyler and Brown Counties, serving until 1868. Though previously a Democrat and a delegate to the Democratic National Convention of 1860. he was an earnest supporter of the war policy of the Government, and was one of four Democratic Senators, in the General Assembly of ISO.'j, who voted for the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment of the National Constitution, prohibiting slavery in the United States.

His death occurred by assassination, by


person, in his office at Jackson-

1869.— John Liidlum (McConnel), son of the preceding, was born in Jacksonville, 111., Nov. 11, 1826. studied law and graduated at Transylvania Law School; in 1846 enlisted as a ville,



private in the Mexican War, became First Lieutenant and was promoted Cajitain after the battle of Buena Vista, where he was twice wounded. After the war he returned to Jacksonville and wrote several books illustrative of Western life and character, which were published between At the time of his death Jan. 1850 and 1853. he was engaged in the preparation of a 17, 1863 "History of Early Explorations in America," having special reference to the labors of the earlj'

Roman Catholic McCONNELL,


(Gen). John, soldier,

in Madison County, N. Y.





was born and came

with his parents to Illinois when about sixteen years of age. His fatlier (James McConnell) was a native of Ireland, who came to the United States shortly before the War of 1813, and, after remaining in New York until 1840, came to Sangamon County. 111., locating a few miles south of Springfield, wliere he engaged extensively in sheep-raising. He was an enterprising and progressive agriculturist, and was one of the founders of the State Agricultural Society, being President of the Convention of 1853 which resulted in its organization. His death took place, Jan. 7, 1867. The subject of this sketch was engaged with his father and brothers in the farming and stock business until 1861, when he raised a company for the Third Illinois Cavalry, of which he was elected Captain, was later promoted Major, serving until March, 1863, during that time taking part in some of the important battles of the war in Southwest Missouri, including Pea Ridge, and was highly complimented by his commander, Gen. G. M. Dodge, for bravery. Some three months after leaving the Third Cavalry, he was commissioned by Governor Yates Colonel of the Fifth Illinois Cavalry, and, in March, 1865, was commissioned Brevet Brigadier-General, his commission being signed by President Lincoln on April 14, 1865, the morning jirecediug the night of his assassination. During the latter part of his service. General

McConnell was on duty in

Texas, being finally mustered out in October, 1865. After the death of his father, and until 1879, he continued in the business of sheep-raising and farming, being for a time the owner of several extensive farms in Sangamon County, but, in 1879, engaged in the insurance business in Springfield, where he died, March 14, 1898.


McCO>'NELL, Samuel P., son of the preceding, was born at Springfield, 111., on July 5, 1849. After completing his literary studies he read law at Springfield in tlie office of Stuart,

Brown, and was admitted



to the bar in 1873, soon

after establisliing himself in practice in Chicago.

After various partnerships, in which he was associated with leading lawyers of Chicago, he vvas elected Judge of the Cook County Circuit Court. in 1889, to fill the vacancy caused by the deatli of Judge W. K. McAllister, serving imtil 1894, when

he resigned to give his attention to private pracAlthough one of the youngest Judges upon the bench. Judge McConnell was called upon, soon after his election, to preside at the trial of the conspirators in the celebrated Cronin murder case, in which he displayed great ability. He has also had charge, as presiding Judge, of a number of civil suits of great importance affecting cortice.



Hall, inventor and


facturer, born in

Rockbridge County, Va., Feb. 15. 1809. In youth he manifested unusual mechanical ingenuity, and early began attempts at the manufacture of some device for cutting grain, his first fiuislied machine being produced in 1831. Though he had been manufacturing for years in a small way, it was not until 1844 that his first machine was shipped to the West, and, in 1847, he came to Chicago with a view to establishing its manufacture in the heart of the region where its use would be most in demand.


of his early partners in the business



Ogden, afterwards so widely known in connection with Chicago's railroad history. The business grew on his hands until it became one of the largest manufacturing interests in the United States. Mr. McCormick was a Democrat, and, in 1860, he bought "The Chicago Times." and having united it with "The Herald," wliich he already owned, a few months later sold the consolidated concern to Wilbur F. Storey. "The Interior," the Northwestern mouthpiece of the Presbyterian faith, had been founded by a joint stock-company in 1870, but was burned out in 1871 and removed to Cincinnati. In January, 1873, it was returned to Chicago, and, at the beginning of the following year, it became the property of Mr. McCormick in conjunction with Dr. Gray, who has been its editor and manager ever since. Mr. McCormick's most liberal work was undoubtedly the endowment of the PresbyB.

Seminary in Chicago, which goes by his name. His death occurred, May 18, 1884, after a business life of almost unpreceterian Theological



dented success, and after conferring upon the agriculturists of the country a boon of inestimable value.

Mccormick theological seminary, a Presbyterian school of theology in Chicago, being the outgrowth of an institution originally connected with Hanover College, Ind., in 1830. In 18.'>9 tlie late Cyrus H. JlcCormick donated §100,000 to tlie school, and it was removed to Chicago, where it was opened in September, witli a cla.s3 of fifteen students. Since then nearly .?300,000 have been contributed toward a building fund by Mr. McCormick and his heirs, besides numerous donations to tlie same end made bj- others. The number of buildings is nine, four being for the general purposes of the institution (including dormitories), and five being houses for the proTlie course of instruction covers three fessors. annual terms of seven months each, and includes didactic and polemic tlieology, biblical and ecclesiastical history, sacred rlietoric and pastoral theology, churcli government and the sacraments. New Testament literature and exegesis, apologetics and missions, and liomiletics. The faculty consists of eight profes.sors, one adjunct professor, and one instructor in elocution and vocal culture. Between 200 and 300 students are including po.st-graduates. McCULLOCH, David, lawyer and jurist, was 1832; born in Cumberland County, Pa., Jan. received his academic education at Marshall College, Mercersburg, Pa., graduating in the class of enrolk'il,


1852. Then, after spending some six months as a teacher in his native village, he came west,

arriving at Peoria early in 18.'j3. Here lie conducted a private school for two j-ears, when, in IS.j.'i, he began the .study of law in the office of Planning & Merriman, being admitted to the bar 18.j7. Soon after entering upon his law studies he was elected School Con'imissioner for Peoria County, serving, by successive re-elections, three terms (185.5-61). At the close of this period he was taken into partnership with his old precepIn tor, Julius Manning, who died, Julj- 4, 1802. 1877 he was elected Circuit Judge for the Eighth Circuit, under the law authorizing the increase of Judges in each circuit to three, and was re-


elected in 1879, serving until 1885, Six years of this period were spent as a Justice of the .\ppellate

the Third Appellate District. On retiring from the bench. Judge McCulloch entered into partnership with his son, E. D. McCulloch, which is still maintained. Politically, Judge McCulloch was reared as a Democrat, but during the Civil War became a Republican. Since 1886



he has been identified with the Prohibition Party, although, as the result of questions arising during the .Spanish-American War, giving a cordial support to the policy of President McKinley. In religious views he is a Presbyterian, and is a member of tlie Board of Directors of the McCormick Theological Seminary at Chicago.

McClLLOlGH, James




Public Accounts, was born in Mercersburg, Franklin County, Pa., May 4, 1843; in 18.54 came

with his f.'ither to Urbana, 111., and grew up on a farm in that vicinity, receiving such education as could be obtained in the public schools.

In 1SG2,

at the age of 19 years, he enlisted as a private in


G, Sevent.v-sixth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, and served during the next three years

Departments of the Mississippi and the Gulf, meanwhile participating in the campaign against in the

Vicksburg, and. near the close of the war, in the operations about Mobile. On the 9th of April,

while taking part in the assault on Fort


Blakely, near 5Iobile, his left

arm was

torn to

a grape-shot, compelling its amputation near the shoulder. His final discharge occurred in July, 1805. Returning home he spent a year in school at Urbana. after which he was a student in pieces


the Soldiers' College at Fulton, 111., for two years. He then (1868) entered the office of the County Clerk of Champaign County as a deputy, remaining until 1873, when he was chosen County Clerk, serving by .successive re-elections until 1890. The latter year he received tlie nomination of the Republican Party for Auditor of Public Accounts, and, at the November election, was elected by a plurality of 138,000 votes over his Democratic opponent. He was serving his sixth term as County Clerk when chosen Auditor, having received the nomination of his party on each occasion without opixisition.

McDAXXOLI), John J., lawyer and ex-ConBrown County, 111., August

gressman, was iKjrn in 29, 1851, ac(iuired his

early education in the com-


schools of his native county and in a private school; graduated from the Law Department of


Iowa State University

admitted to the bar in




and was

the same year,

commencing practice at Mount Sterling. he was made Master in Chanceiy, in 1880, County Judge, and




re-elected in 1890. resigning

his seat in October, 1802, to accept an election


the Democrats of the Twelfth Illinois District as Representative in the Fifty-third Congre.ss. After retiring from Congress (March 4, 1895), Mr. McDannold removed to Chicago, where he engaged in the practice of his profession.

o o r.

w m g z >


o o



25, 1836,

organized under an

and attached,

for judicial

Schuyler Count)- until 1830. Its 580 square miles named in honor of Commodore McDonough. The first settlement in the county was at Industry, on the site of whicli William Carter (the pioneer of the county) built a cabin in 1826. James and John purposes,


present area


Vance and William Job settled in the vicinity in the following year. Out of this settlement grew Blandinsville. William Pennington located on Spring Creek in 1828, and, in 1831, James M. Campbell erected the first frame liouse on the site of the present city of


Tlie first

sermon, preached bj' a Protestant minister in the county, was delivered in the Job settlement by Kev. John Logan, a Baptist. Amorig the early officers were John Huston, Coimty Treasurer; William Southward, Slieriff; Peter Hale, Coroner, and Jesse Bartlett, Surveyor. The first term of the Circuit Court was held in 1830, and presided over by Hon. Richard M. Young. The first railway to cross the county was the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy (1857). Since then other lines have penetrated it, and tliere are numerous railroad centers and shipping points of considerable importance. Population (1880), 25,037; (1890), 27,467; (1900), 28,412.

McDOUGALL, James Alexander, lawyer and United States Senator, was born in Bethlehem. Albany County, N. Y., Nov. 19, 1817; educated at the Albany grammar school, studied law and settled in Pike County, 111., in 1837; was Attorney-General of Illinois four .years (1843-47) then engaged in engineering and, in 1849, organized and led an exploring expedition to the Rio del Norte, Gila and Colorado Rivers, finally settling at San Francisco and engaging in the practice of law. In 1850 he was elected Attorney-General of California, served several terms in the State Legislature, and, in 1853, was chosen, as a Democrat, to Congress, but declined a re-election in 1860 was elected United States Senator from California, serving as a War Democrat until 1867. At the expiration of his senatorial term he retired to Albany, N. Y., where he died, Sept. 3, 1867. Though somewhat irregular in habits, he was, at times, a brilliant and eflfective speaker, and, during the War of the Rebellion, rendered valuable aid to the Union cause. McFARLAND, Andrew, M.D., alienist, was born in Concord, N. H., July 14, 1817, graduated at Jefferson Medical College, Philadelpliia, in 1841, and, after being engaged in general practice ;


for a

few years, was invited to assume the man-


New Hampshire Asylum for the Concord. Here he remained some eight years, during which he acquired considerable reputation in the treatment of nervous and mental disorders. In 1854 he was ofl'ered and accepted the position of Medical Superintendent of the Illinois State (now Central) Hospital for the Insane at Jacksonville, entering upon his duties in June of that year, and continuing his connection with tliat institution for a period of more than sixteen years. Having resigned his position in the State Hospital in June, 1870, he soon after established the Oaklawn Retreat, at Jackisonville, a private institution for tlie treatment of insane patients, which he conducted with a great degree of success, and with which he was associated during the remainder of his life, dying, Nov. 22, 1891. Dr. McFarland's services were in frequent request as a medical expert in cases before tlie courts, invariably, however, on the side of the defense. The last case in which he appeared as a witness was at tlie trial of Charles F. Guiteau, the assassin of President Garfield, whom he believed to be insane. McGAHEY, David, settled in Crawford County, 111., in 1817, and served as Representative from tliat County in the Third and Fourth General Assemblies (1822-26), and as Senator in the Eightli and Ninth (1832-36). Although a native of Tennessee, Mr. McGahey was a strong opponent of slavery, and, at the session of 1822, was one of those who voted against the pro-slavery Constitution resolution. He continued to reside in Lawrence County until his death in 1851. James D. (McGahey), a son of the preceding, was elected to the Ninth General Assembly from Crawford County, in 1834, but died during his term of agement


of the



McGA\X, Lawrence Edward, ex-Congressman, was born

in Ireland, Feb. 2, 1852. His father having died in 1884, the following year his mother emigrated to the United States, settling at Milford, Mass., where he attended the public schools. In 1865 he came to Chicago, and. for fourteen years, found employment as a shoemaker. In 1879 he entered the municipal service as a clerk, and, on Jan. 1, 1885, was appointed City Superintendent of Streets, resigning in May, 1891. He was elected in 1892, as a Democrat, to represent the Second Illinois District in the Fifty-second Congress, and re-elected to the Fiftytlurd. In 1894 he was a candidate for re-election and received a certificate of election by a small majority over Hugh R. Belknap (Republican). An investigation having shown his defeat, he




magnanimously surrendered

his seat to his



large business interests in Chicago, especially in street railroad property, being President of an important elec-

petitor without a contest.


tric Une.

McHEXRT, a village in MfHenry County, situated on the Fox River and the Chicago oc Northwestern Railway. The river is here navigable for steamboats of light draft, which ply between the town and Fox Lake, a favorite resort for sportsmen. The town has bottling works, a creamery, marble and granite works, cigar factory, flour mills, brewery, bank, four churches, and one weekly paper.

Pop. (1890), 979; (1900), 1,013.

McHEXRY, William, legislator and soldier the Black Hawk War, came from Kentucky Illinois in 1809.

locating in

of to

White County, and

afterwards became prominent as a legislator and soldier in the War of 1812, and in the Black Hawk War of 1833, serving in the latter as JIajor of the "Spy Battalion" and participating in the He also served as Representbattle of Bad Axe. ative in the First, Fourth, Fifth and Ninth deneral Assemblies, and as Senator in the Sixth and Seventh. While serving his last term in the House (183.")), he died and was buried at Vandalia, then the State capital. SIcHenrj' County organized by act of the Legislature, pa.ssod at a second session during the winter of 183.')-36 was named in his honor McllENRY COl'XTY, lies in the northern portion of the State, bounded on the north by Wis-

consin named for Gen. William McHenry. Its area is 624 square miles. With what is now the County of Lake, it was erected into a county in Three 1836, the county-seat being at McHenry. years later the eastern part was set off as the County of Lake, and the county-seat of McHenry County removed to Woodstock, the geographical center.





watered by living

springs and is highly productive. Hardwood groves are numerous. Fruits and berries are extensively cultivated, but the herbage is especially adapted to dairying. Kentucky blue grass

Large quantities of milk are being indigenous. daily shipped to Chicago, and the annual production of butter and cheese reaches into the The geological formations millions of pounds. comprise the drift and the Cincinnati and Niagara grcjups of rocks. Near Fox River are found Vegetable remains and logs of gravel ridges. wood have l>een foimd at various depths in the drift deposits; in one instance a cedar log, seven inches in diameter, having been discovered fortytwo feet below the surface. Peat is found every-

where, although the most extensive deposits are in the northern half of the county, where they exist in slouglis covering several thoustmds of Several lines of railroad cross the county, acres. and every important village is a railway station. Woodstock, Jlarengo, and Harvard are the prinPopulation (1880), 24.908; (1890), cipal towns. 26,114; (1000), 29,759.

McIXTOSH, (Capt.) Alexander, was born in Fulton County, N. Y., in 1822; at 19 years of age entered an academy at Galway Center, remaining three years; in 1845 removed to Joliet, 111., and, two years later, started "The Joliet True Democrat," but sold out the next year, and, in 1S49, went to California. Returning in 18.52, he bought back "The True Democrai," which he e'ULTA, John, soldier and ex-Congressman, New York City, Nov. 9, 1837, received an academic education, was admitted to the bar, w;is born in


settled at Bloomington, in this State, while

yet a yovmg man. On May 3, 1801, he enlisted as a private in the Union army, and served until


9, 1805, rising, successively, to the rank Captain, Lieutenant-Colonel, Colonel and Brevet Brigadier-General. From 1869 to 1873 he was a member of the lower house of the General


Assembly from McLean County, and,

in 1872,


elected to the Forty-third Congress, as a Republican. General McNulta has l)ecn prominent in the councils of the Republican party, standing second on the ballot for a candidate for Governor, in the State Convention of 1888, and serving as

Permanent President of the State Convention of 1890. In 1890 he was one of the most earnest advocates of the nomination of Mr. McKinley for

Some of his mo.st important work, within the past few years, has been performed in connection with receiverships of certain railway and other corporations, especially that of the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railroad, from 1S84 to 1890. He is now (1898) Receiver of the National Bank of Illinois, Chicago. Died Feb. 22, 1900. President.






scended from the Clan McPherson of Scotland, was born at Mumford, Monroe County, N. Y.. Jan. 19, 1850 prepared for college at Leroy and Fulton, and graduated at Princeton, N. J., in 1874. Then, after a year's service as teacher of mathematics at his Alma Mater, he entered the Theological ;

HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OP ILLINOIS. and graduated from that departmeantime traveled through Europe, Egypt and Palestine. He was licensed to preach by the Rochester Presbytery in 1877, and spent tliree years (1879-82) in pas-




in 1879, having in the

toral labor at East Orange, N. J.


when he


cepted a call to the Second Presbyterian Church of Cliicago, remaining until the early part of 1899, when he tendered his resignation to accept the position of Director of the Lawrenceville Preparatory Academy of Princeton College, N. J. McROBERTS, Josiah, jurist, was born in

Monroe County, 111., June 12, 1820; graduated from St. Mary's College (Mo.) in 1839; studied law at Danville, 111., with his brother Samuel, and, in 1842, entered the law department of Transylvania University, graduating in 1844, after which he at once began practice. In 1846 he was elected to the State Senate for the Champaign and Vermilion District, at the expiration of his term removing to Joliet. In 1853 he was appointed by Governor Matteson Trustee of the Illinois & Michigan Canal, which office he held for four years. In 1866 he was appointed Circuit Court Judge by Governor Oglesby, to fill a vacancy, and was re-elected in 186T, '7.3, '79, and '85, but died a few months after his last election. McROBERTS, Samuel, United States Senator, was born in Monroe County, 111., Feb. 20, 1799; graduated from Transylvania University in 1819; in 1831, was elected the first Circuit Clerk of his native county, and, in 1825, appointed Circuit Judge, which office he held for thi-ee years. In 1828 he was elected State Senator, representing the district comprising Monroe, Clinton and Washington Counties. Later he was appointed United States District Attorney by President Jackson, but soon resigned to become Receiver of Public Moneys at Danville, by appointment of President Van Buren, and, in 1839, Solicitor of the General Land Office at Wasliington. Resigning the latter office in the fall of 1841, at the next session of the Illinois Legislature he was elected United States Senator Died, at to succeed John M. Robinson, deceased. Cincinnati, Ohio, March 22, 1843, being succeeded by James Semple. McTICKER, James Hubert, actor and theatrical manager, was born in New York City, Feb. 14, 1822; thrown upon his own resources by the death of his father in infancy and the necessity of assisting to support his widowed mother, he early engaged in various occupations, until, at

the age of office of



he became an apprentice in the Louis Republican," three years



later becoming a journeyman printer. He first appeared on the stage in the St. Charles Theater,


Orleans, in 1843;

two years




comedian in Rice's Theater, Chicago, remaining until 1852, when he made a tour of the country, appearing in Yankee characters. About 1855 he made a tour of England and, on his return, commenced building his first Chicago theater, which was opened, Nov. 3, 1857, and was conducted with varied fortune until burned down in the great fire of 1871. Rebuilt and remodeled from time to time, it burned down a second time in August, 1890, the losses from these several fires having imposed upon Mr. McVicker a heavy burden. Although an excellent comedian, Mr. McVicker did not appear on the stage after 1883, from that date giving his attention entirely to management. He enjoyed in an eminent degree the respect and confidence, not only of the l^rofession, but of the general public. Died in cipal

Chicago. March


McWILLIAMS, was born


David, banker, Dwight,


Belmont County, Ohio, Jan. 14, 1834; %vas brought to Illinois in infancy and grew up on a farm until 14 years of age, when he entered the office of


the Pittsfleld (Pike County) "Free Press"

an apprentice. In 1849 he engaged in the lumber trade with his father, the management of which devolved uj)Ou him a few years later. In


the early 50's he was, for a time, a student in Illinois College at Jacksonville, but did not graduate; in 1855 removed to Dwight, Livingston County, then a new town on the line of the Chi-

& Alton Railroad,

which had been completed few months previous. Here he erected the first store building in the town, and put in a 82,000 stock of goods on borrowed capital, remaining in the mercantile business for eighteen years, and retaining an interest in the establishment seven years longer. In the meantime, while engaged in merchandising, he began a banking business, which was enlarged on his retirement from the former, receiving his entire attention. The profits derived from his banking business were invested in farm lands until he became one of the largest land-owners in Livingston County. Mr. MoWilliams is one of the cago

to that point a

members of the first Methodist Episcopal Church organized at Dwight, and has served as a


lay delegate to several General Conferences of that denomination, as well as a delegate to the Ecumenical Council in London in 1881 has also been a liberal contributor to the support of various literary and theological institutions of tlie church, and has served for many years as a Trus;



tee of the Northwestern University at Evanston. In politics lie is a zealous Republican, and has repeatedly served as a delegate to the State Conventions of that party, including the BUwmington

Convention of 1850, and was a candidate for Presidential Elector for the Ninth District on the Blaine ticket in is84. He has made several ex-

tended tours to Europe and other foreign countries, the last including a trip to Egypt and the Holy Land, during 1898-99. MFXH.VXICSBURG, a village of Sangamon County, near the Wabash Railway, 13 miles east Springfield.






430; (1'JOO), 476.

MEDILL, lisher,


Joseph, editor and newspaper pub-

born, April


1823, in the vicinity



part of the city) of St. John, N. B., of ScotchIrish parentage, but remotely of Huguenot descent. At nine j'ears of age he accompanied

Stark County, Ohio, where he enjoyed such educational advantages as belonged He entered an acadto that region and period. emy with a view to prejjaring for college, but his family having suffered from a lire, he was compelled to turn his attention to basiness; studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1846, ami began his parents to







County. Here he cauglit the spirit of journalism by frequent visits to the office of a local paper, learned to set type and to work a hand-pre.ss. In 1849 he bought a paper at Coshocton, of which he assumed editorial cliarge, emi)loving liis brothers

The name of was "The Coshocton AVliig." wliicli he soon changed to "The Republican," in which he dealt vigorous blows at political and other abuses, which several times brought upon him assaults from his political opponents — that being the style of political argument in those days. Two years later, having sold out "The Republican," he established "The Daily Forest City" at as assistants in various capacities. this paper

— a Whig

paper with free-soil proclivities. The following year "Tlie Forest Citj'" was consolidated with "The Free-Democrat," a FreeCleveland

pajier under the editorship of John C. Vaughan, a South Carolina Abolitionist, the new paper taking the name of "The Cleveland


Leader." Mr. Medill, with the co-operation of Mr. Vaughan, then went to work to secure the consolidation of the elements opposed to slavery in one compact organization. In this he was aided by the introduction of the Kans;is- Nebraska Bill in Congress, in December, IS.jS, and, before its passage in May following, Mr. Medill had .begun to agitate the question of a union of all

new party under the "Republican.'' During the winter of 18.>t-53 he received a call from Gen. J. D. Webster, at that time part owner of "The Chicago Tribune," whicli resulted in his visiting Chicago opposed to that measure in a



and his purchase of an interconnection with the concern dating from June 18, 18.5.5. He was almost immediately joined by Dr. Charles H. Ray, who had been editor of "The Galena Jeffersonian," and, still later, by J. C. Vaughan and Alfred Cowles. who had been associated with him on "The Cleveland Leader." Mr. Medill assumed the jKjsition of managing editor, and, on the retirement of lir. Ray, in 1863. became editor-inchief until 1806, when he gave place to Horace a few


est in the paper, his




During the sujiporter of

"The New York Evening Post." War period he was a zealous


President Lincoln's


and served, for a time, as President of the "Loyal League," which proved such an influential factor in upholding the hands of the Government during the darkest period of the rebellion. In 1809 Mr. Medill was elected to the policy,

State Constitutional Convention, and, in that body, was the leading advocate of the principle of "minority representation" in the election of Representatives, as it was finally incorporated

In 1871 he was appointed in the Constitution. by President Grant a member of the first Civil Service Commission, repre.senting a principle to which he ever remained thoroughly committed. A few weeks after the great fire of the same

was elected Mayor of the city of Chicago. The financial condition of the city at the time, and other questions in issue, involved great difficulties and responsibilities, which he met in a way to command general approval. During his administration the Chicago Public Librars' was year, he

established, Mr. Medill delivering the address at

opening, Jan. 1, 1873. Near the close of his term as Mayor, he resigned the office and spent the following year in Europe. Almost simultaneously with his return from his European trip, he its

secured a controlling interest in "The Tribune," resuming control of the paper. Nov. 9, 1874, which, as editor-in-chief, he retained for the remainder of his life of nearly twenty-five years. The growth of the paper in business and influence, from the beginning of his connection with it, was one of the marvels of journalism, making it easily one of the most successful newspaper ventures Early in the United States, if not in the world. in December, 1898, Mr. Medill went to San Antonio. Te.\as, hoping to receive relief in that

HISTOEICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. mild climate from a chronic disease which had been troubling him for years, but died in that city, March 16, 1899, within three weeks of having reached his TCtli birthday. The conspicuous features of his character were a strong individu-

and indomitable perseverance, which led to accept defeat. A few weeks previous to his death, facts were developed going to show that, in 1881, he was offered, by President


him never

Postmaster-General, which was declined, when he was tendered the choice of any position in the Cabinet except two which had been previously promised; also, that he was offered a position in President Harrison's Cabinet, in 1889. MEDILL, (Maj.) William H., soldier, was born at Massillon, Ohio, Nov. S, 1835; in 18.5.'), Garfield,




and was associated with "The Subsequently he was editor of "The Stark County (Oliio) Republican," but


to Chicago

Prairie Farmer."

again returning to Chicago, at the beginning of the war, was employed on "Tlie Tribune," of which his brother (Hon. Joseph Medill) was After a few months' service in Barker's editor. Dragoons (a sliort-time organization), in September, 1861, he joined the Eightli Illinois Cavalry (Colonel Farnsworth's), and, declining an election was chosen Senior Captain. Tlie regi-

as Major,

ment soon joined the Army

of the Potomac.


the promotion of his superior officers Captain Medill was finally advanced to the command, and, during the Peninsular campaign of 1862, led his troops on a reconnoissance within twelve miles of Richmond. At the battle of Gettysburg he had command of a portion of his regiment, acquit-

ting himself with great credit. A few days after, while attacking a party of rebels who were attempting to build a bridge across the Potomac at Williamsburg, he received a fatal wound through the hmgs, dying at Frederick City, July 16, 1803.


Moses, pioneer, was born in NewJune 17, 1790; removed to Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1817, engaging in the manufacture of white lead imtil 1823, wlien he headed a pioneer

ark, N.




Collections." 7,



369 ShuUsburg,




a suburb of Chicago, 11 miles west

of the initial station of the Chicago



western Railroad, upon which it is located. It has two or three churches, some manufacturing establishments and one weekly paper. Population (1890), 1,050; (1900),



Zenobiiis, French missionary,


accompanied La Salle on his expedition to Illinois in 1679, and remained at Fort Creve-Cueur with Henry de Tonty descended returned to tlie Mississippi with La Salle in 1682 France and wrote a history of the expedition, and, in 1684, accompanied La Salle on his final expedition is supposed to have landed with La Salle in Texas, and there to have been massacred by the natives in 1687. (See La Salle und Tonty.) MENARD, Pierre, French pioneer and first Lieutenant-Governor, was born at St. Antoine, born in France in 1645





Can., Oct.


1766; settled at Kaskaskia, in 1790,

and engaged in trade. Becoming interested in politics, lie was elected to the Territorial Council of Indiana, and later to the Legislative Council of being presiding officer of the a State. He was, for several years. Government Agent, and in this capacity negotiated several important treaties witli the Indians, of whose characteristics he seemed to have an intuitive perception. He was of a nervous temperament, impulsive and generous. In 1818 he was elected tlie first Lieutenant-Governor of the new State. His term of office having expired, he retired to private life and the care of his extensive business. He died at Kaskaskia, in June, 1844, leaving what was then considered a large estate. Among his assets, however, were found a large number of promissory notes, wliich he Iiad endorsed for personal friends, besides many uncoUectable accounts from poor people, to whom lie had sold goods througli pure generosity. Menard County was named for him, and a statue in his honor stands in the capitol grounds at Springfield, erected by the son of his old partner Charles Pierre ChouIllinois Territory,

latter until the admission of Illinois as

expedition to the frontier settlement at Galena, 111., to enter upon the business of smelting leadHe served as Captain of a company in the ore.

teau, of St. Louis.

Black Hawk War, later removing to Iowa County, Wis., where lie built the first smelting

Sangamon, but separately organized in 1839, the Provisional Commissioners being Joseph Watkins, William Engle and George W. Simpson. The county was named in honor of Pierre Menard,


in that Territory, served in the Territorial Legislature (1840-43) and in the first ConstituA "History of the tional Convention (1846).

Early Lead Regions," by him, appears in the sixth volume of "The Wisconsin Historical Soci-

MENARD COUNTY, center of







and originally a part of

Kaskaskia prior to the Territorial Illinois. (See Menard. Pierre.) Cotton was an important crop until 1830, when settled at

organization of



agriculture underwent a change. Stock-raising Three fine veins is now extensively carried on. of bituminous coal underlie the county. Among early American settlers may be mentioned the

Matthew Rogers, Amor Batterton, SoloPruitt and William Gideon. The names of



Meadows, Montgomery, Green, Boyer and Grant are also familiar to early settlers. The county furnished a company of eighty-six volunteers for the Mexican War. The county-seat is at Petersburg. The area of the county is 320 square miles, its population, under the last census. 14,336. In 1829 was laid out the town of Salem, now extinct, but for some years the home of Abraham Lincoln, who was once its Postmaster, and who marched thence to the Black Hawk War as Captain of a company. MESDON, a town of Adams County, on the Burlington & Quincy Division of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railway, 15 miles northeast of Quincy; has a bank and a newspaper; is sur-


rounded by a farming and

.stock-raising district.

Population (1880), (i.J2; (1890) G40: (1900), 62T. ME>D()TA, a city in La Salle County founded in is.",:j, at the junction of the Chicago. Burlington & Quincy with its Rochelle and Fulton branches and the Illinois Central Railway, 80 miles southwest of Chicago. It has eight churches, three graded and two high schools, and a public liWartburg Seminary (Lutheran, opened brary

The chief industrial is located here. plants are two iron foundries, machine shops, plow works and a brewery. The city has tliree Tlie surbanks and four weekly newspapers. rounding country is agricultural and the city has in 1853)

considerable 3, .542;





(1900), 3.736.


a western county, with an square miles and a population (1900) of 20,945— named for Cien. Hugh Mercer. The Mississippi forms the western boundary, and along this river the earliest American settlements were made. William Dennison. a Pennsylvanian, settled in New Boston Township in 1S28. and, before the expiration of a half dozen years, tlie Vannattas, Keith, Jackson, Wilson, Farlow, Bridges, Perry and Fleharty had arrived. Mercer County was separated from Warren, and The soil is a rich, specially organized in 1825. black loam, admirably adapted to the cultivation of cereals. A good quality of building stone is found at various points. Aledo is the countyThe county lies on the outskirts of the seat. area of


Illinois coal fields

in 1845.

and mining was commenced


located in Chicago, and

permanent hospital

in the State chartered in 184T or 1848 as the "Illinois General Hospital of the Lakes." No steps were taken



toward organization until 1850, when, with a scanty fund scarcely exceeding 5150, twelve beds were secured and placed on one floor of a boarding house, whose proprietress was engaged as nurse and stewardess. Drs. N. S. Davis and Daniel Brainard were, respectively, the first physician and surgeon in charge. In 1851 the hospital was given in charge of the Sisters oC Mercy, who at once enlarged and improved the accommodations, and, in 1852, changed its name to Mercy Hospital. Three or four j-ears later, a removal was made to a building previouslj- occupied as an orplian asj-lum. Being the only public hospital in the city, its wards were constantly overcrowded, and, in 1869, a more capacious and better arranged building was erected. This edifice it has continued to occupy, although many additions and improvements have been, and are still being, made. The Sisters of Mercy own the grounds and buildings, and manage the nursing and all tlie domestic and financial affairs of the institution. The present medical staff (1896) consists of thirteen physicians and surgeons, besides three internes, or resident practitioners.

MERED0SI4,a town the


bank of the


Morgan County, on River and on the


Wabash Railway, some

.58 miles west of Spring a grain shipping point and fishing and hunting resort It was tlie first Illinois River point to be connected with the State capital by railroad in ISIW. Population (1890), 621 (1900), 700.





Jonathan, soldier, legislator anil farmer, was born in Vermont, Nov. 1, 1834; was brought to Springfield, 111., when two (Col.)

years old, living afterwards at Alton, his parents finally locating,

where he now ])lo3'ed


Tazewell County,

1841, in


— when

not officially em-

— pursuing the occupation of a farmer.


was educated at Wesleyan Universitj', Bloomington, and at McKendree College; entered the Unit)n


in 1862, being

tenant-Colonel of the

commissioned Lieu-

One Hundred and Seven-

teenth Illinois Infantrj-, and serving to the close During the Civil War period he was one of the founders of the "Union League of America," which proved so influential a factor in sustaining the war policy of the Government. He was also a member of the State Constitutional Convention of 1869-70; an unsuccessful Republican nominee for Congress in 1870; served as Collector of Internal Revenue for the Springfield of the war.

HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. District from 1873 to '83, was a Representative in the Thirty-ninth and Fortieth General Assemblies, and, in 1897, was appointed, by President McKinley, Pension Agent for the State of Illinois, with headquarters in Chicago. Thoroughly patriotic and of incorruptible integi-ity, he has won the respect and confidence of all in every public position he has been called to fill. MERRILL, Stephen Mason, Methodist Episcopal Bishop, was born in Jefferson County, Ohio, Sept. 16, 1825, entered the Ohio Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in 186-1, as a traveling preacher, and, four years later, became editor of "The Western Christian Advocate," at Cincinnati. He was ordained Bishop at Brooklyn in 1872, and, after two years spent in Minnesota, removed to Chicago, where he still resides. The degree of D.D. was conferred upon him by Ohio Wesleyan University, in 1868, and that of LL.D. by the Northwestern University, in 1886. He has published "Christian Baptism" (Cincinnati, 1876); "New Testament Idea of Hell" (1878); "Second Coming of Christ" (1879); "Aspects of Christian Experience" (1882); "Digest of Methodist Law" (1885); and "Outlines of Thought on Probation" (1886).

MERRITT, John W., journalist, was born in New York City, July 4, 1806; studied law and practiced, for a time, with the celebrated T.


In 1811 he removed to purchased and, from 1848

Brady as a partner.

County, 111., conducted "The Belleville Advocate"; later, removed to Salem, 111., where he established "The Salem Advocate"; served as Assistant Secretary of the State Constitutional Convention of 1863, and as Representative in the Twenty-third General Assembly. In 1864 he purchased "The St. Clair



State Register" at Springfield, and was its editor Died, Nov. 16, 1878.— Thomas for several years. E. (Merritt), son of the preceding, lawyer and politician, was born in New York City, April 29, 1834; at six years of age was brought by his father to Illinois, where he attended the common schools and later learned the trade of carriage-

Subsequently he read law, and was admitted to the bar, at Springfield, in 1863. In 1868 he was elected, as a Democrat, to the lower house of the General Assembly from the Salem painting.

same body in He also served two 1870, '74, "76, "86 and "88. terms in the Senate (1878-'86), making an almost continuous service in the General Assembly of District,

and was

re-elected to the

eighteen years. He has repeatedly been a member of State conventions of his party, and stands as one of its trusted representatives. Maj.-Gen.


another son, was born in New came with his father to Illinois in childhood, and was appointed a cadet at West Point Military Academy from this State, graduating in 1860 became a Second Lieutenant in the regular army, the same year, and was promoted to the rank of First Lieutenant, a year later. After the beginning of the Civil War, he was rapidly promoted, reaching the rank of Brigadier-General of Volunteers in 1862, and being mustered out, in 1866, with the brevet rank of Major-General. He re-entered the regular army as Lieutenant-Colonel, was promoted to a colonelcy in 1876, and, in 1887, received a commission as Brigadier-General, in 1897 becoming Major-General. He was in command, for a time, of the Department of the Missouri, but, on his last promotion, was transferred to the Department of the East, with headquarters at Governor's Island, N. Y. Soon after the beginning of the war with Spain, he was assigned to the command of the land forces destined for the Philippines, and appointed Jlilitary Governor of the Islands. Towards the close of the year he returned to the United States and resumed his old command at New York. MESSINGER, John, pioneer surveyor and cartographer, was born at West Stockbridge, Mass., in 1771, grew up on a farm, but secured a good education, especially in mathematics. Going to Vermont in 1783, he learned the trade of a carpenter and mill- Wright removed to Kentucky in 1799, and, in 1803, to Illinois (then a part of Indiana Territory), locating first in the American Bottom and, later, at New Design within the present limits of Monroe County. Two years later he became the proprietor of a mill, and, between 1804 and 1806, taught one of the earliest schools in St. Clair County. The latter year he took up the vocation of a surveyor, which he followed for many years as a sub-contractor under William Rector, surveying much of the land in



York, June

16, 1836,



and Randolph Counties, and,

still later,

assisting in determining the northern


St. Clair

of the State. He also served for a time as a teacher of mathematics in Rock Spring Seminary; in 1831 published "A Manual, or Hand-Book,

intended for Convenience in Practical Surveying," and prepared some of the earlier State and county maps. In 1808 he was elected to the Indiana Territorial Legislature, to fill a vacancy, and took part in the steps which resulted in setting up a separate Territorial Government for Illinois, the following year. He also received an appointment as the first Surveyor of St. Clair



County under the new Territorial Government; was chosen a Delegate from St. Clair County to the Convention of 1818, which framed the first State Constitution, and, the same year, was a Representative in the First General Assembly, serving as Speaker of that body. After leaving New Design, the later years of his life were spent on a farm two and a half miles north of Belleville, where he died in 1846. MET.VMOR.V, a town of Woodford County, on a branch of the Chicago & Alton Railroad, 19 elected

mil^s east-northeast of Peoria and some thirty miles northwest of Bloomington; is center of a The town has a creamery, fine farming district. soda factory, one bank, three churches, two Population newspapers, schools and a park. Metainora was the (1880) 828; (1900). 7.'")8. county-seat of Woodford County until 1899, when the seat of justice was removed to Eureka. METCALF, Andrew W., lawyer, was born in

Guernsey Countj', Ohio, August 6, 1828; educated at Madison College in his native State, graduating in 1846, and, after studying law at Cambridge, Ohio, three years, was admitted to the bar in The following year lie went to Appleton, 1850. Wis., but remained only a year,

when he removed

to St. Louis, then to Edwardsville.

and shortly

after to Alton, to take charge of the legal busi-

ness of George T. Brown, then publisher of "The Alton Courier." In 1853 he returned to Edwardsville to reside

permanently, and, in



appointed by Governor Bissell State's Attorney for Madison County, serving one year. In 1864 he was elected State Senator for a term of four years was a delegate to the Republican National Convention of 1872, and, in 1876, a lay delegate from the Southern Illinois Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church to the General Conference at Baltimore has also been a Trustee of McKendree College, at Lebanon, 111., for more than twenty-five years. METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, one of ;


the most numerous Protestant church organizaRev. tions in the United States and in Illinois. Joseph Lillard was the first preacher of this sect to settle in the Northwest Territory, and Capt. Joseph Ogle was the first class-leader (1795). It is stated that the first American preacher in the American Bottom was Rev. Hosea Riggs (1796). Rev. Benjamin Yyung took charge of the first Methodist mission in 1803. and, in 1804, this misthe Cumberland (Tenn.) Charles R. Matheny were among the early circuit riders. In 1820 there were seven circuits in Illinois, and, in


was attached



Revs. Joseph Oglesby and






exceeding 10,000. The first Slethodist service in Chicago was held by Rev. Jesse AValker, in 1826. The first Methodist society in that city was organized by Rev. Stephen R. Beggs, in June, 1831. By 1835 the number of circuits had increased to 61, with 370 ministers and 15.000 memRev. Peter Cartwright was among the bers. The growth of this denomiearly revivalists. nation in the State has been extraordinary. By 1890, it had nearlj- 2.000 churches, 937 ministers, and 151,000 members the total number of Methodists in the United States, by the same census, being 4,980,240. The church property owned in 1890 (including parsonages) approached §111,000,000. and the total contributions were estimated The denomination in Illinois supat §2.073,923.


two theological seminaries and the Garrett

"The Northat Evanston. western Christian Advocate." with a circulation of .some 30,000, is its official organ in Illinois. Biblical Institute

(See also Religious

Denominat ions.)

METROPOLIS CITY, the county -seat of Massac County, 156 miles southeast of St. Louis, situated on the Ohio River and on the St. Louis and

Paducah Division of the Illinois Central RailThe city was founded in 1839, on the site of olile it Ohio Railroad. 14 miles south-


of St. Louis; has electric lights, churches, schools, bank, newspaper, coal mines,

and manufactures


beer and butter.


lation (1890), 1,186; (1900), 1.172.

MILW.VIKEE & Cliicitgi).



MihrnuK-i'e ct St.




MINER, Orlin H., State Auditor, was born in Vermont, May 13, 1835; from 1834 to '51 he lived

in Ohio, the latter year

coming to Chicago, where

he worked at his trade of watch-maker. In 1855 he went to Central America and was with General William Walker at Greytown. Returning to Illinois, he resumed his trade at Springfield; in 1857 he was apixjinted, by Auditor Dulx)is, chief clerk in the Aurn in Maryland in 1773, and brought by his father to Illinois eight years later. He married a sister of Gen. John D. Whiteside, who afterwards became State Trejisurer, and also served as Fund Commissioner of the State of Illinois under the internal improvement system. Moore was an officer of the State Militia, and served in a company of rangers during the War of 1812; was also the first Count v Treasurer of



Died, July

(Moore), the third son of Capt. box-n in 1780,




and brought early


1833. James B. James Moore, ivas Illinois by his par-


manhood he followed the

business of keel-boating on the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, visiting New Orleans, Pittsburg and other points; became a prominent Indian fighter during the War of 1812, and was commissioned

Captain by Governor Edwards and authorized to a company of mounted rangers; also served as Sheriff of Monroe County, by appointment of Governor Edwards, in Territorial days was Presidential Elector in 1820, and State Senator for Madison County in 1836-40, dying in the raise

latter year.

— Enoch

James Moore, the

(Moore), fourth son of Capt.


was born

in the old

block-house at Bellefontaine in 1782, being the first child born of American parents in Illinois; served as a "ranger" in the company of his brother, James B. occupied the oflSce of Clerk of the Circuit Court, and afterwards that of Judge of Probate of Monroe County during the Territorial period was Delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1818, and served as Representative from Monroe County in the Second General Assembly, later filling various county oflSces for some twenty years. He died in 1848. MOORE, Jesse H., clergyman, soldier and Congressman, born near Lebanon, St. Clair Count)', 111., April 22, 1817, and graduated from McKendree College in 1843. For thirteen years he was a teacher, during portions of this period being successively at the head of three litei'ary institutions in the West. In 1849 he was ordained a minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church, but resigned pastorate duties in 1862, to take part in the War for the Union, organizing the One Hundred and Fifteenth Regiment Illinois Volunteers, of which he was commissioned Colonel, also serving as brigade commander during the last year of the war, and being brevetted Brigadier-General at its close. After the war he re-entered the ministry, but, in 1868, while Presiding Elder of the Decatur District, he was elected to the Forty-first Congress as a Republican, being re-elected in 1870 afterwards served as Pension Agent at Springfield, and, in 1881, was appointed United States Consul at Callao, Peru, dying in office, in that city, July 11, 1883. ;



John, Lieutenant-Governor (1843-46)

was born in Lincolnshire, Eng., Sept. 8, 1793; came to America and settled in Illinois in 1830, spending most of his life as a resident of Bloomington. In 1838 he was elected to the lower branch of the Eleventh General Assembly from


McLean District, and, in 1840, to the Senate, but before the clo.se of his term, in 1842, was elected Lieutenant-Governor with Gov. Thomas Ford. At the outbreak of the Mexican War he took a conspicuous part in recruiting the Fourth Regiment Illinois Volunteers (Col. E. D. Baker's), of which he was chosen Lieutenant-Colonel, serving gallantly throughout the struggle. In 1848 he was appointed State Treasurer, as successor of Milton Carpenter, who died in office. In 18.50 he was elected to the same office, and continued to discharge its duties imtil 1857, when he was succeeded by James Miller. Died, Sept. 23, the


MOORE, Risdon, pioneer, was born in Delaware in 1760 removed to North Carolina in 1789, and, a few years later, to Hancock County, Ga., where he served two terms in the Legislature. He emigrated from Georgia in 1812, and settled ;

in St. Clair County, 111.— besides a family of fifteen white persons, bringing with him eighteen colored people the object of his removal being to get rid of slavery. He purchased a farm in

what was known as the "Turkey



ment," about four miles east of Belleville, where he resided until his death in 1828. Mr. Moore became a prominent citizen, was elected to the Second Territorial House of Representatives, and was chosen Speaker, serving as such for two ses-

He was

sions (1814-1.5). St. Clair


from Second and Third

also Repre.sentative

in the First,

General Assemblies after the allmission of Illinois In the last of these he was one of the most zealous opponents of the pro-slavery Convention scheme of 1822-24. He left a numerous and highly respected family of descendants, who were afterwards prominent in public affairs. William (Moore) his son, served as a Captain in the War of 1812, and al.so commanded a company in the Black Hawk War. He represented St. Clair County in the lower branch of the Ninth and Tenth Genei-al Assemblies; was a local preacher of the Methodist Church, and was President of the Board of Trustees of McKendree College at the time of his death in 1849.— Risdon (Moore), Jr., a cousin of the first named Risdon Moore, was a Representative from St. Clair County in the Fourth General Assembly and Senator in the Sixth, but died before the expiration of his term, being succeeded at the next session by Adam W. Snyder. MOORE, Stephen Richey, lawyer, was born of Scotch ancestry, in Cincinnati, Ohio, Sept. 23, 1832; in 1851, entered Farmers' College near Cincinnati, graduating in 1856, and, having qualified into the Union.




himself for the practice of law, located the following year at Kankakee, 111., which has since been his home. In 1858 he was employed in defense of tlie late Father Chiniqiiy, who recently died in Montreal, in one of the celebrated suits begun against him by dignitaries of the Roman Catholic Church. Mr. Moore is a man of strik-

ing appearance and great independence of chara Methodist in religious belief and has generally acted politically in co-operation with the Democratic party, though strongly antislavery in his views. In 1872 he was a delegate to the Literal Repulilican Convention at Cincinnati which nominated 5Ir. Greeley for the Presidency, and, in 1890, participated in the same way in the Indianapolis Convention which nomiacter,

nated Gen. John M. Palmer for the s;ime office, in the following campaign giving the "Gold Democracy" a vigorous support. MORAX, Thomas A., lawyer and jurist, was born at Bridge]X)rt, Conn.. Oct. 7. 1839; receiveil his preliminarj- education in the di.strict schools of Wisconsin (to which State liis father's family

had removed in 1846), and at an academy at Salem, Wis. began reading law at Kenosha in 1859. meanwliile supporting himself by teaching. In May, 1865, he graduated from the Albany (N. Y.) Law School, and the same year commenced practice in Chicago, rapidly rising to the front rank of his profession. In 1879 he was elected a Judge of the Cook County Circuit Court, ;

and re-elected in 1885. At the e.xi)iration of his second term he resumed private practice. AVhile on the tench he at first hejird only common law but later divided the business of the equity Judge Tuley. In June, 1886. he was a.ssigned to the bench of the Appellate Court, of which tribunal he wiis. for a year, Chief Justice. MOR(iAN, Janios Dady, soldier, was born in Boston, Mass., Augu.st 1, 1810, and, at 16 years of age, went for a three years' trading voyage on the ship "Beverly." When thirty days out a mutiny arose, and shortly afterward the ves.sel was burned. Morgan escai^ed to South America, and, after many hardships, returned to Boston. In 1834 he removed to (Juincy. 111., and engaged in mercantile pur.suits; aided in raising the "Quincy Grays" during the Mormon difficulties (1844-45) during the Mexican War commanded a company in the First Regiment Illinois Volunteers in 1861 tecame Lieutenant-Colonel of the Tenth Regiment in the three months' service, and Colonel on reorganization of the regiment for three years; was promoted Brigadier-General cases,

side of the court with



in July, 1862, for meritorious service



a brigade at Nashville, and, in March, 1865, was brevetted Major-General for gallantry at Bentonville, N. C, being mustered out, August 24, 1863. After the war he resumed business at Quincy, 111., being President of the Quincy Gas Company and Vice-President of a bank; was also President, for some time, of the Society of the Array of the Cumterland. Died, at Quincy, Sept. 12, 1896. MORGAN COUNTY, a central" county of the State. lying west of Sangamon, and borilering on the Illinois River named for Gen. Daniel Morgan; area, 580 square miles; population (1900),


American settlers were Seymour Kellogg, who located on 5Iauvaisterre Creek in 1818. Dr. George Caldwell came in 1820, and was the first physician, and Dr. Ero Chandler settled on the pres35,006.





ent site of







and. Jan.




numters 1823 the county was

Immigrants tegan to arrive

in large

election teing held at

the bouse of James G. Swinerton. six miles southwest of the present city of Jacksonville. 01mstead's Mound was the first county-seat, but this choice was only temporary. Two years later, Jacksonville was selected, and has ever since so Cass County continued. (See Jacksotivillc.) was cut off from Morgan in 1837, and Scott County in 1839. About 1837 Morgan was the most ])opulous county in the State. The county is nearly equally divided tetween woodland and Besides the Illinois prairie, and is well watered. River on its western terder, there are several smaller streams, among them Indian, Apple, Bituminous Sandy and Mauvaisterre Creeks. coal underlies tlie eastern part of the county, and tliin veins crop out along the Illinois River blulTs. Sandstone has also been quarried. MORGAN PARK, a suburban village of Cook County, 13 miles south of Chicago, on the Chiorganized, the



Pacific Railway is the seat preparatory branch) of the Univei-sity of Chicago and the Scandinavian Department of the Divinity School connected with Population (1880), 187; the same institution.


Rock Island

of the




(1890), 1.027; (1900), 2,329.





a religious sect, founded by Joseph N. Y.,

at Fayette, Seneca County.

1830, styling

themselves the "Church of

Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. " Memtership in 1892 was estimated at 230,000, of whom some 20,000 were outside of the United States. Their religious teachings are peculiar. They avow faith in the Trinity and in the Bible (ivs by them






believe, liowever,


to be





and a direct revelation to Smith is of equal authority with the Scriptures, if not supeAmong tlieir ordinances are rior to them. baptism and the layiug-ou of hands, and, in their church organization, they recognize various orders apostles, i^rophets, pastors, teachers, evangelThey also believe in the restoration of ists, etc. the Ten Tribes and the literal re assembling of Israel, the i-eturn and rule of Christ in person, and the rebuilding of Zion in America. Polygorigin


and the "Saints," Smith was persuaded to surrender and go to Carthage, the county-seat, where he was incarcerated in the county jail. Within twenty-four hours (on Sunday, June 27, 1844), a mob attacked the prison. Josepli Smith and his brother Hyrum were killed, and some of their adherents, who had accompanied them to jail, Brigham Young (then an were wounded. apostle) at once assumed the leadership and, after several months of intense popular excite-


ment, in the following year led his followers across the Mississippi, finally locating (1847) in Utah. (See also Nauvoo,) There their history

vested in a President, who has authority in temporal and spiritual affairs alike; although there is less effort now than formerly, on the jiart of the priesthood, to interfere in temporalities. Driven from New York in 1831, Smith and his

has not been free from charges of crime; but, whatever may be the character of the leaders, they have succeeded in building up a prosperous community in a region which they found a virtual desert, a little more than forty years ago. The polity of the Church has been greatly modified in consequence of restrictions placed upon it

is encouraged and made an article of faith, though professedly not practiced under existing laws in the United States. The supreme power


followers first settled at Kirtland, Ohio. There, for a time, the sect flourished and built a temple but, within seven 3'ears, their doctrines and practices excited so


hostility that they «-ere

forced to make another removal. Their next settlement was at Far West, Mo. but here the hatred toward them became so intense as to in open war. From Missouri they result recrossed the Mississippi and founded the city of Nauvoo, near Commerce, in Hancock County, 111. The charter granted by the Legislature was an extraordinary instrument, and well-nigh made the city independent of the State. Nauvoo soon obtained commercial importance, in two years becoming a city of some 16,000 inhabitants. The Mormons rapidly became a powerful factor in State politics, when there broke out a more bitter public enmity than the sect had j-et encountered. Internal dissensions also sprang up, and, in 1844, a discontented Mormon founded a ;

newspaper at Nauvoo, in which he violently and threatened him with Smith's answer to this was the deexposure. struction of the printing office, and the editor promptly secured a warrant for his arrest, returnable at Carthage. Smith went before a friendly justice at Nauvoo, who promptly discharged him, but he positively refused to appear before the Carthage magistrate. Thereupon the latter issued a second warrant, charging Smith with This also was treated with contempt. treason. The militia was called out to make the arrest, and the Mormons, who had formed a strong military

assailed the prophet


After a few




trifling clashes



between the soldiers

by Congressional legislation, especially in reference to polygamy, and by contact with other communities. {See Smith, Joseph.) MORRIS, a city and the county-seat of Grundy County, on the Illinois River, the Illinois & Michigan Canal, and the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad, 61 miles southwest of Chicago. It is an extensive grain market, and the center of

a region rich in bituminous coal. There is valuable water-power here, and much manufacturing is done, including builders" hardware, plows, iron specialties, paper car- wheels, brick and tile, flour and planing-mills, oatmeal and tanned leather. There are also a normal and scientific scliool, two national banks and three daily and weekly newspapers.

Population (1880), 3,486;



(1900). 4,273.

MORRIS, Buckner Smith, at Augusta, Ky.,



early lawyer, born 1800;

was admitted

to the bar in 1827, and, for seven years thereafter, continued to reside in Kentucky, serving two

terms in the Legislature of that State. In 1834 he removed to Chicago, took an active part in the incorporation of the city, and was elected its second Mayor in 1838. In 1840 he was a Whig candidate for Presidential Elector. Abraham Lincoln running on the same ticket, and, in 1852, was defeated as the Whig candidate for Secretary of State. He was elected a Judge of the Seventh Circuit in 1851, but declined a renomination in 1855. In 1856 he accepted the




nomination for

Governor, and, in 1860, that of the Bell-Everett party for the same office. He was vehemently opposed to the election of either Lincoln or




BreckenridRp to the Presidency, believing tliat war wimld result in either event. A shadow was thrown across his life, in 1H«4, by his arrest


and trial for alleged comi)licity in a rebel plot to burn and piUage Chicago and liberate the prisoners of war held at Camp Douglas. The trial, however, which was held at Cincinnati, Died, in Kentucky, resulted in his aciiuittal. Dec. 18, 1879. Those who knew Judge Morris, in his early life in the city of Chicago, describe him man of genial and kindly disposition, in .spite

manufactories, including carriage and refrigerator works; also has numerous churches, a large

graded school, a public library and adequate banking facilities, and two weekly papers. Greenhouses for cultivation of vegetables for winter market are carried on. Pop. (190(1), '2.308. MORRISON, Isaac L., lawyer and legislator, born in Barren County. Ky.. in l.'^'iO; was educated in the common schools and the Masonic Seminary of his native State; admitted to the

and came to Illinois in 18.')1, locating at where he has become a leader of the bar and of the Republican pirty. which he

as a


of his opposition to the abolition of slavery— fact which, no doubt, had much to do with his


acquittal of the charge of complicity with the Camp Douglas conspiracy, as the evidence of his

a.ssisted to

being in communii:ation with the leading con(See spirators ap|)ears to have been conclusive.

a delegate to the Repulilican National Convention of 1804, which nominated Abraham Lincoln for the Presidency a second time. Mr. Morrison was three times elected to the lower house of the General Assembly (1870, "78 and '82), and, by his clear judgment and incisive powers as a public speaker, took a high rank as a leader in that body. Of late years, he has given his attention solely to the practice of his profession in


Ddtit/Iiix ('ouxj)inicy.)

MORRIS, Freeman

P., lawyer and politician, Cook County, 111., March 19, 1854, labored on a farm and attended the district

was born


school in his youth, but completed his education in Chicago, graduating from the Union College of Law, and wiis admitted to practice in 1874, loc-ated at Watseka, Iro(iuois County. In 18H4 he was elected, as a Democrat, to the IIou.se of Representatives from the Inxiuois District, and lias .since been re-elected in 1888, '94,

when he

being one of the most influential members of In 189li he was appointed by Oovernor Altgeld Aid-de-Camp, with the rank of Colonel, on his personal statT, hut resigned in '96,

his party in that body.


Isaac Newton, lawyer and Congress-

Bethel, Clermont County, educated at Miami University, admitted to the bar in 183."i, and the next year removed to Quincy, 111. was a member and President of the Board of Canal Commissioners (1842-43), served in the Fifteenth General Assembly (1840-48) was elected to Congress as a Democrat in 18.50, and again in 18,')8, but opposed the admission of Kansas iiiuler the Lecompton Constitution; in 1^08 supported (ieneral (irant who had been his friend in boyhood for President, and. in 1870. was ai)pointed a member of the Union Pacific Railroad Commission. Died, Oct.

Ohio, Jan.

member in



its first .State

He was







29, 1879.


a city, the county seat of WhiteIS.'iS; is a station on the Chicago it Northwestern Railroad, Vil miles west of Chicago. Agriculture, dairying and stock-raising are the principal pursuit* in the surrounding region. The city hjis good water-

side County, founded in

works, sewerage, electric lighting and several



MORRISON, James Lowery

Donaldson, polilawyer and Congressman, was born at Kaskaskia. 111., April 12, 1810; at the age of 16 was appointed a midshipman in the United States Navy, but leaving the service in 1836, read law with Judge Nathaniel Pope, and was admitted to tician,

tlie bar,




He was


to the lower house of the General A.s.sembly


man, was

organize as a

Convention at lUooniington,


County, in 1H44, and to the State Senate In 18.V2 he was an in 1848, and again in .")4. unsuccessful candidate for the Lieutenant-Governorship on the Whig ticket, but, on the dissolution of that party, allied himself with the Democracy, and was, for many yeiirs, its leader in Southern Illinois. In 1855 he was elected to Congress to fill the vacani-y caused by the resignation of Lyman Trumbull, wlio had been elected to the United States Senate. In 1800 he was a candidate before the Democratic State Convention for the nomination for Governor, but wasilefeated by James C. Allen. After that j-ear he tof)k no prominent part in public affairs. At the outbreak of the Mexican War he was among the first to raise a company of volunteers, and was commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel of the Second Regiment (t'olonel Bissell's). For gallant services at Buena Vista, the Legislature pre.sented him with a sword. He took a prominent part in the incorSt. Clair

poration of railroads, and,

and introduced

it is

claimed, drafted

in the Legislature the charter of



the Illinois Central Railroad in 1851. Died, at Mo., August 14, 1888. MORRISOX, William, pioneer merchant, came

sioned Colonel. The regiment was mustered in, Dec. 31, 1861, and took part in the battle of Fort

from Philadelphia,

severely wounded.

St. Louis,



Pa., to Kaskaskia,



the mercantile

in 1790,

house of


Morrison, of Philadelphia, and finally trade throughout the Mississippi Valley, supplying merchants at St. Louis, St. Genevieve, Cape Girardeau and New Madrid. He is also said to have sent an agent with a stock of goods across the plains, with a view to opening up trade with the Mexicans at


established an extensive

1804, but was defrauded by the appropriated the goods to his own benefit without accounting to his employer. He became the principal merchant in the Territory, doing a thriving business in early days, when Kaskaskia was the principal supply point He is defor merchants throughout the valley. scribed as a public-spirited, enterprising man, to whom was due the chief part of the credit for securing construction of a bridge across the Kaskaskia River at the town of that name. He died at Kaskaskia in 18.37, and was buried in the cemetery there. Robert (Morrison), a brother of the

Santa Fe, about



preceding, came to Kaskaskia in 1793, was appointed Clerk of the Common Pleas Court in 1801, retaining the position for many years, besides holding other local offices. He was the father of Col. James L. D. Morrison, politician and soldier of the Mexican War, whose sketch is given elsewhere. Joseph (Morrison), the oldest

son of William Morrison, went to Ohio, residing there several years, but finally returned to Prairie James, du Rocher, where he died in 1845. another son, went to Wisconsin; William located at Belleville, dying there in 1843; while Lewis? another son, settled at Covington, Washington County, 111., where he practiced medicine up to then engaged in mercantile business at 1851 Chester, dying there in 18.56. MORRISON, William Ralls, ex-Congressman, Interstate Commerce Commissioner, was born, Sept. 14, 1825, in Monroe County, 111., and educated at McKendree College served as a private



in tlie

and was the Circuit Court of Monroe

Mexican War,

was admitted

at its close studied law,

to the bar in 1855;

elected Clerk of

in 18.52

County, but resigned before the close of his term, accepting the office of Repre.sentative in the State Legislature, to which he was elected in 1854 was re-elected in 1856, and again in 1858, serving as Speaker of the House during the session of 1859. In 1861 he assisted in ocganizing the Forty-ninth Regiment Illinois Volunteers and was commis;

Donelson in February following, where he was

While yet

in the service, in

he was elected to Congress as a Democrat, wlien he resigned his commission, but was defeated for re-election, in 1864, by Jehu Baker, as he was again in 1866. In 1870 he was again elected to the General Assembly, and, two years later (1872), returned to Congress from the Belleville District, after which he served in that body, by successive re-elections, nine terms and imtil 1887, being for several terms Chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee and prominent in the tariff legislation of that period. In March, 1887, President Cleveland appointed him 1862,

a member of the first Inter-State Commerce Commission for a period of five years; at the close of

term he was reappointed, by President Harria full term of six j-ears, serving a part of the time as President of the Board, and retiring from office in 1898. his

son, for

MORRISONVILLE, a town in Christian County, situated on the Wabash Railway, 40 miles southwest of Decatur and 20 miles northnorther, st of Litchfield Grain is extensively raised in the surrounding region, and MorrLsonville, with its elevators and mill, is an important It lias brick and tile works, two banks, five churches, graded and high schools, and a weekly paper. Popula-

shipping-point. electric lights,

tion (1890). 844;



934; (1903, est.), 1,200.

village of Tazewell County, at the

Topeka & Santa Fe and the Terre Haute & Peoria Railroads, 10 miles southeast of Peoria; lias factories, a bank and a intersection of the Atchison,


Population (1890), 657; (1900), 894. Joseph, pioneer farmer and legislator, was born in Virginia. August 1, 1801; came to Madison County, 111., in 1819, and the following year to Morgan County, when he engaged in farming in the vicinity of Jacksonville. He served as a member of the House in the Tenth and Fifteenth General A.ssemblies, and as Senator in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth. He was a Democrat in politics, but, on questions of State





was non-partisan,



the interests of his constituents. Died, at his home near Jacksonville, March 2, 1881. MOSES, Adolph, lawyer, was born in Speyer, Germany, Feb. 27. 1837, and, until fifteen years of age, was educated in the public and Latin schools of his native country in the latter part of 1852, came to America, locating in New Orleans, and, for some years, being a law student ;



in Louisiana University,




Hunt and

other eminent lawyers of that State. In the early days of the Civil War he esiwused the cause of the Confederacy, serving some two years as an ofticer of the Twenty first Louisiana Kegiment. Coming north at the expiration of this period, he resided for a time in Quincy, 111., but, in IHbi), removed to Chicago, where he took a place in the front rank at the he has resided ever since. bar, and where Although in sympathy with the general princiof Randall

ples of the Democratic party. Judge Moses is an independent voter, as shown by the fact that he voted for General Grant for President in 1868, and supported the leading measures of the RepubHe is the editor and pub lican party in 1896. lisher of "The National Corporation Reporter,"' established in 1890, and which is devoted to the interests of business corporations.

MOSES, John, lawyer and

author, was born at Canada, Sei)t. 18, 1825; came to Illinois in 1837, his family locating first at Naples, He pursued the vocation of a Scott County. teacher for a time, studied law, was elected Clerk of the Circuit Court for Scott County in ly.'ie, and served as County Judge from 1857 to 1861. The latter year he became the private secretary of Governor Yates, serving until 1863, during that



period assisting in the organization of seventyseven regiments of Illinois Volunteers. While serving in this capacity, in companj" with Gov-

ernor Yates, he attended the famous conference of loyal Governors, held at Altoona, Pa., in September, 1862, and afterwards accompanied the Governors in their call upon President Lincoln, a few da3"S after the issue of the preliminary proclamation of emancipation. Having received the appointment, from President Lincoln, of Assessor of Internal Revenue for the Tenth Illinois District, he resigned the position of private secretarjIn 1874 he was chosen to Governor Yates. Representative in the Twenty-ninth General Assembly for the District composed of Scott, Pike and Calhoun Counties; served as a delegate to the National Republican Convention at Philaileli)hia, in 1872, and as Secretary of the Board of Ifailroad and WarehoiLse Commissioners for three years (1880-83). He was then appointed Special Agent of the Treasury Department, and assigned to duty in connection with the customs revenue at Chicago. In 1887 he was chosen Secretary of the Chicago Historical Society, serving until 1893. While connected with the Chicago Historical Library he brought out the most complete History of Illinois yet published, in two

volumes, and also, in connection with the late Major Kirkland. edited a History of Chicago in two large volumes. Other literary work done by Judge Moses, includes "Personal Recollections of Abraham Lincoln" and "Richard Yates, the War Governor of Illinois." in the form of lectures or adilresses.

Died in Chicago, July


MOl'LTON, Samuel W., lawyer and



man, w;is burn :U AVciihani. Ma.ss., Jan. 20, 1822, where he was educated in the public schools. After si)ending some years in the South, he removed to Illinois (1845). where he .studied law, and was admitted to the bar. commencing pnic-


tice at Shelbyville.

1852 to 1859 he

was a

member of

the lower house of the General Assembly; in 1857, was a Presidential Elector on the Buchanan ticket, and was President of the State

Board of Education from 18,59 to 1876. In l.'96;






(1900), 468.

NEW DOUGLAS, a village in Madison County, on the Toledo, St. Louis & Western Railroad; in farming and fruit-growing region has coal mine, flour mill and newspaper. Population (1900), 469. NEWEIiL, John, Railway President, v.^as born at We.st Newbury, Mass., March 31, 1830, being directly descended from "Pilgrim" stock. At the age of 16 he entered the employment of the Cheshire Railroad in New Hampshire. Eighteen months later he was appointed an assistant engineer on the Vermont Central Railroad, and placed in charge of the construction of a 10-mile section of the line. His promotion was rapid, and, in 1850, he accepted a responsible position on the ;

& St. Lawrence Railroad. From 1850 was engaged in making surveys for Kentucky and New York, and, during

Champlain to 1856 he

roads in


and rose, step by step, to a colonelcj', and was mustered out as Brevet Brigadier-General. In 1890 he was elected, as a Democrat, to represent

the latter year, held the position of engineer of the Cairo City Company, of Cairo, 111. In 1857 he entered the service of the Illinois Central Rail-

the Fourth Illinois District in the Fifty-second Congress (1891-93). His home is in Chicago. NEWBERRY, Walter L., merchant, banker and pliilanthropist, was born at East Windsor, Conn., Sept. 18, 1804, descended from English ance.stry. He was President Jackson's personal appointee to the United States Military Academy at West Point, but was prevented from taking the examination by sickness. Subsequently he embarked in business at Buffalo, N. Y. going to Detroit in 1828, and settling at Chicago in 1833. After engaging in general merchandising for several years, he turned his attention to banking, in which he accumulated a large fortune. He was a prominent and influential citizen, serving several terms as President of the Board of Edu-

road Company, as Division Engineer, where his remarkable success attracted the attention of the owners of the old Winona & St. Peter Railr oad (now a part of the Chicago & Northwestern system), who tendered him the presidency. This he accepted, but, in 1864, was made President of the Cleveland & Toledo Railroad. Four years later, he accepted the position of Genei-al Superintendent and Cliief Engineer of the New York Central Railroad, but resigned, in 1869, to become Vice-President of the Illinois Central Railroad. In 1871 he was elevated to the presidency, but retired in September, 1874, to accept the position of General Manager of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad, of which he was elected President, in Maj', 1883, and' continued in office until the time of his death, which occurred at Young.stown, Ohio, August 25, 1894. NEWHALL, (Dr.) Horatio, early physician


cation, and being, for six years, the President of the Chicago Historical Society. He died at sea, Nov. 6, 1868, leaving a large estate, one-half of which he devoted, by will, to the founding of a (See Xewberry free reference library in Chicago.


jVEW boston, a city of Mercer the Mississippi River, at the western the Galva and New Boston Division cago, Burlington & Quincy Railway. (1890), 44.J; (1900), 703.

County, on terminus of of the Chi-


and newspaper publisher, came from St. Louis, Mo., to Galena, 111., in 1827, and engaged in mining and smelting, but abandoned this business, the following year, for the practice of his professoon afterward became interested in the publication of "The Miners' Journal," and still


later in "The Galena Advertiser," with which Hooper Warren and Dr. Philleo were associated.



In 1830 he became a Surgeon

Army, and was but retired from

in the Uniteil States

stationed at


tlie service, in is;32,

Winnebago, and returned

Hawk War broke out he volunteered his services, and, by order of General Scott, was placed in charge of a military hospital at Galena, of whicli he had control until the close of the war. The difliculties of the position were increased by tlie appearance of the Asiatic cholera among the troops, but lie seems

to Galena.

Wiien the Black

to have discharged his duties with satisfaction He enjoyed a wide to the military authorities.

reputation for professional ability, and had an extensive practice. Died, Sept. 19. 1870. >'EWM.VS, a village of Douglas County, on the Cincinnati, Hamilton it Dayton Railway. .")2 miles east of Decatur; iias a bank, a newspaper, can-

ning factory, broom factory, electric



large trade in agricultural products





(ISiiO), !)»0; (lildO), 1,1C6.





published in the Northwest Territory, of which the present State of Illinois, at the time, compo.sed a part, was "TheCentinel of the Northwest Territory." established at Cincinnati by William

Maxwell, the first issue ajipearing in November, 1793. This was also the first newspaper published west of the Allegheny Mountains. In 17flG it was

Edmund Freeman and assumed the name Willis Nathaniel of "Freeman's Journal." (grandfather of N. P. Willis, the poet) estabsold to

lished 1796.

"The Scioto Gazette," at Chillicothe, in "The Western Spy and Hamilton Gazette"

Northwest Territorj' (also within the limits of Ohio), founded in 1790. Willis's paper became the organ of the Territorial Government on the removal of the capital

was the third paper


to Chillicothe. in 1800.

The first newspaper in Indiana Territory (then including Illinoi.s) was established by Elihu Stout at Vincennes, l)egiiming publication. July 4. 1804. It took the name of "The AVestern Sun and General Advertiser," but is now known as "The Western Sun.'' having had a continuous existence for ninety-five years. The first newspaper published in Illinois Territory was "The Illinois Herald." but. owing to the absence of early files and other specific records, the date of its establishment has been involved Its founder was Matthew Dunin some doubt. can (a brother of Joseph Duncan, wlio was afterwards a member of Congress and Governor of the State from 1834 to 1838). and its place of publication Kaskaskia. at that time the Territorial Duncan, wlio was a native of Kentucky, capital.

brought a press and a primitive printer's outfit with him from that State. Gov. John Reynolds, who came as a boy to the "Illinois Country" in 1800, while it was still a part of the "Northwest Territory," in his "Pioneer History of lUinoLs," has fixed the date of the first issue of this l)aper in 1809, the same year in which Illinois was severed from Indiana Territory and placed under a separate Territorial Government. There is good reason, however, for believing that the Governor was mistaken in this statement. If Duncan brought his press to Illinois in 1809 which is probable -it does not seem to have been employed at once in the publication of a newspaper, as Hooper Warren (the founder of the third paper established in Illinois) says it "was for years only used for the public printing." Tlie earliest issue of "The Illinois Herald" known

and bears from these data, if the paper was issued continuous!}' from its establishment, the date of the first issue would have been Sept. 6, 1814. Corroborative evidence of this is found in the fact that "The Missouri Gazette," the original of the old "Missouri Republican" (now "The St. Louis Republic"), which was established in 1808. makes no mention of the Kaskaskia paper before 1814, altliough communication between Kaskaskia and St. Louis was mo.st intimate. anD TRUNK W.VY.

osses3ions. In 1813 a fort, designed for permanent occupancy.


Clark, in honor of George Rogers Clark. It bad one (if not two) block-bouses, witb magazines and quarters for officers and men. It was finally evacuated in 1818, and was soon afterwards burned bj' the Although a trading-post had been Indians. maintained here, at intervals, after the affair of 1813, there was no attempt made to rebuild the town until 1819, when Americans began to In 1824 a post of the American Fur Comarrive. pany was established here by John Hamlin, the company having already had, for five years, a station at Wesley City, three miles farther down the river. Hamlin also traded in pork and other products, and was the first to introduce keelboats on the Illinois River. By transferring his cargo to lighter draft boats, when necessary, he made the trip from Peoria to Chicago entirely by water, going from the Des Plaiues to Mud Lake, and thence to the South Branch of the Chicago In 1834 the town had River, without unloading. but seven frame houses and twenty-one log It was incorporated as a town in 183.5 cabins. (Rudolphus Rouse being the first President), and, as the City of Peoria, ten years later (Wm. Hale being the first Mayor). Peoria is an important railway and business center, eleven railroad lines Col.

concentrating here. It presents many attractive features, such as handsome residences, fine views

and valley scenery, with an elaband drives. An excellent school system is liberally supported, and its public buildings (national, county and city) are fine and costly. Its churches are elegant and well of river, bluff

orate system of parks

leading denominations being Congregational, Presbyterian, Baptist, Protestant and Reformed Episcopal, Lutheran, Evangelical and Roman Catholic. It is the seat of Bradley Polytechnic Institute, a attended,




young and

flourishing scientific school affiliated

with the University of Chicago, and richly endowed through the munificence of Mrs. Lydia Bradley, who devotes her whole estate, of at least a million dollars, to this object. Right Rev. John L. Spaulding, Bishop of the Roman Cathois ei'ecting a handsome and the Spaulding Institute, a school for the higher education of young men. At Bartonville, a suburb of Peoria, on an elevation commanding a magnificent view of the Illinois River valley for many miles, the State has located an asylum for the incurable insane. It is now in process of erection, and is intended to be one of the most complete of its kind in the world. Peoria lies in a corn and coal region, is noted for


diocese of Peoria,

costly building for


number and extent of its distilleries, and, in ranked eighth among the grain markets of the countr}-. It also has an extensive commerce the


St. Louis and other important was credited, by the census of 1890, with 554 manufacturing establishments, representing

witli Chicago,



90 different branches of industry, with a capital of §15,073,567

and an estimated annual product of

leading industries are the manufacture of distilled and malt liquors, agricultural



implements, glucose and machine-shop products. Its contributions to the internal revenue of the country are second only to those of the New York district. Population (1870), 33,849; (1880), 29,359; (1890), 41, 024; (1900), .56,100.

PEORIA COUNTY, originally a part of Fulton County, but cut off in 1825. It took its name from the Peoria Indians, who occupied that region when

it was first discovered. As first organized, included the present counties of Jo Daviess and Cook, with many others in the northern part of the State. At that time there were less than 1,500 inhabitants in the entire region; and John Hamlin, a Justice of the Peace, on his return from Green Baj' (whither he had accompanied William S. Hamilton, a son of Alexander Hamilton, with a drove of cattle for the fort there), solemnized, at Chicago, the marriage of Alexander Wolcott, then Indian Agent, with a daughter of John Kinzie. The original Peoria County has been subdivided into thirty counties, among them being some of the largest and richThe first county officer was est in the State. Norman Hyde, who was elected Judge of the Probate Court by the Legislature in January, 1835. His commission from Governor Coles was dated on the eighteenth of that month, but he did not qualify until June 4, following, when he took the oath of office before John Dixon, Circuit Clerk, who founded the city that bears his name. Meanwhile, Mr. Hyde had been appointed the first Clerk of the County Commissioners" Court, and served in that capacity until entering upon his duties as Probate Judge. Tlie first election of county officers was held, March 7, 1835, at the house of William Eads. Nathan Dillon, Joseph Smith, and William Holland were chosen Commissioners; Samuel Fulton Sheriff, and William Phillips Coroner. The first County Treasurer was Aaron Hawley, and the first general election of officers took place in 1836. The first court house was a log cabin, and the first term of the Circuit Court began Nov. 14, 1825, John York Sawyer sitting on the bench, with John Dixon, Clerk; Samuel Fulton, Sheriff; and John it




Twiney, the Attorney-General, present. Peoria Count}' is, at present, one of the wealthiest and most populous counties in the State. Its soil is fertile and its manufactures numerous, especially at Peoria, the county-seat and principal city (which see) The area of the county is 615 square miles, and its population (1880), 55,3.53; (1890). .

70,378; (19C0), .88.008.


expatsion of the lUinois

name of the Peoria, Decatut Evansville Railway Company. (3) The Gray-

solidated under the


ville & Mattoon Railroad, chartered in 1857, was consolidated in 1872 with the Mount Vernon Grayville Railroad (projected), the new corporation taking the name of the Chicago & Illinois Southern (already mentioned). In 1872 the latter corporation was consolidated with the Decatur, Sullivan & Mattoon Railroad, under the name of


River, forming the eastern boundary of Peoria County, which it separates from the counties of

the Chicago

Woodford and Tazewell. It is about 20 miles long and 2^ miles broad at the widest part. PEORIA, ATLAXTA & DECATUR RAILROAD. (See Terre Haute ) Johnson, journalist, was born in Louisville, Ky., March 17, 1821; spent six years (1830-36) in St. Louis, when his family


to Peoria; learned the printer's trade in the latter city, and, in 1840, began the publication of "The Peoria News," then sold out and established "The Republican" (afterwards "The Trau.scriiit") was a memlier of the Anti-Nebraska Editorial Convention held at Decatur, Feb. 23, 18.J6, serving on the Committee on Resfilution.s, ;

and being appointed on the State Central Committee, which called the first Republican State Convention, held at Bloomington, in May followand was there appointed a -delegate to the National Convention at Philadelphia, which







Later, he published pai>ers at Pekin and Kock Island, at the latter place being one of the first to

name Abraham

Lincoln for the Presidency; was 1S6(I, and. in 1862. commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel of the Sixty-ninth Illinois Volunteers, being transferred, as Colonel, to the One Hundred and Thirty-second Illinois (100-days' men), and sen-ing at Camp Douglas during the "Conspiracy" excitement. After the war. Colonel Pickett removed to Paducah, Ky.. published a paper there called "The Feileral Union." was appointed Postmaster, and. later. Clerk of the United States District Court, and

elected State Senator in

HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. was the Eepublican nominee Removing

District, in 1874.

for Congress, in that

to Nebraska in 1879,

he at different times conducted several papers in that State, residing for the most part at Lincoln. Died, at Ashland. Neb., Dec. 24, 1891. PIERSON, David, pioneer banker, was born at Cazenovia, N. Y., Julj-

removed west with Louis, June 3, 1820.


180G; at the

age of 13

his parents, arriving at St.

The family soon

after set-

Madison County, 111., where the father having died, they removed to the vicinity of Carrollton, Greene County, in 1821. Here they opened a farm, but, in 1827, Mr. Pierson went to the lead mines at Galena, where he remained a year, then returning to Carrollton. In 1834, having sold his farm, he began merchandising, still later being engaged in the pork and grain trade at Alton. In 1854 he added the banktled near CoUinsville,

ing business to his dry-goods trade at Carrollton, engaged in milling, and, in 1803-63, erected a woolen factory, which was destroyeil by an incendiary fire in 1872. Originally an anti-slavery Clay Whig, Mr. Pierson became a Republican on the organization of that party in 1856, served for a time as Collector of Internal Revenue, was a delegate to the National Republican Convention at Philadelphia in 1872, and a prominent candidate for the Republican nomination for Lieutenant-Governor in 1876. Of high integrity and unswerving jiatriotism, Mr. Pierson was generous in his benefactions, being one of the most liberal contributors to the establishment of the Langston School for the Education of Freed men at Holly He died at Springs, Miss., soon after the war. Carrollton, May 8, 1891.— Oman (Pierson), a son of the subject of this sketch, was a member of the Thirty-second General Assembly (1881) from Greene Count}-, and is present cashier of the Greene Count.y National Bank at Carrollton. PIGGOTT, Isaac N., early politician, was born about 1798; served as an itinerant Methodist preacher in Missouri and Illinois, between 1819 and 1824, but finally located southwest of Jerse)-ville and obtained a license to run a ferry between Grafton and Alton; in 1828 ran as a candidate for the State Senate against Thomas removed to St. Carlin (afterwards Governor) Louis in 18."i8, and died there in 1874. PIKE COUNTY, situated in the western portion of the State, lying between the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers, having an area of 795 square miles named in honor of the explorer, Capt. Zebulon Pike. The first American settlers came about 1820, and. in 1821, the county was organized, at first embracing all the country north and also



west of the Illinois River, including the present county of Cook. Out of this territory were finally organized abovit one fourth of the counties of the State. Coles' Grove (now Gilead, in Calhoun County) was the first county-seat, but the seat of justice was removed, in 1824, to Atlas, and to

The surface is undulating, in and diversified with prairies and hardwood timber. Live-stock, cereals and hay are the staple products, while coal and Pittsfield in 1833.

sonie portions



limestone are found in abundance. Population (1890), 31,000; (ISOO), 31,595. PILLSBURY, Nathaniel Joy, lawyer and judge, was born in York County, Maine, Oct. 21, 1834; in 1855 removed to Illinois, and, in 1858, began farming in Livingston County. He began the study of law in 1863, and, after admission to the bar. commenced practice at Pontiac. He represented La Salle and Livingston Counties in the Constitutional Convention of 1869-70, and, in. 1873, was elected to the bench of the Thirteenth


Judicial Circuit.

He was

re-elected in 1879


again in 1885. He was assigned to the bench of the Appellate Court in 1877, and again in 1879 and '85. He was severely wounded by a shot received from strikers on the line of the Chicago & Alton Railroad, near Chicago, in 1886, resulting in his being permanently disabled physically, in consequence of which he declined a re-election to the bench in 1891. PINCKNEYVILLE, a city and the county-seat of Perry County, situated at the intersection of the Paducah Division Illinois Central and the Wabash, Chester & Western Railways, 10 miles west-northwest of Duquoin. Coal-mining is carried on in the immediate vicinity, and fiour, carriages, plows and dressed lumber are among the manufactured pmdiicts. Pinckneyville has two banks one of which is national two weekly newspapers, seven churches, a graded and a high school. Population (1880), 964; (1890), 1,298;

(1900), 2,357.




R.^ILR(>AD, one of the Pennsylvania Company's lines, operating 1,403 miles of road, of which 1,090 miles are owned and the remainder leased length of line in Illinois, 28 miles. The Compan}' is the outgrowth of a conST. L(»UIS

solidation, in 1890, of the Pittsburg, Cincinnati

& &

Louis Railway with the Chicago, St. Louis Pittsburg, the Cincinnati & Richmond and the Jeffersonville. Madison & Indianapolis Railroads. The Pennsylvania Railroad Company controls the entire line through ownership of stock. Capital stock outstanding, in 1898, $47,791,601; St.



funded debt. $48,433,000: floating debt, §2.214.703 (History.) The —total capital S'JS. 000,584. Chicago, St. Louis & Pittsburg Railroad, embracing the Illinois division of thi.s line, was made up of various corporations organized under tlie laws of Illinois and Indiana. One of its component parts was the Chicago & Great Eastern Railway, organized, in 1865, by consolidation of the Galena & Illinois River Railroad (chartered in 1857), the Chicago & Great Eastern li^vilway of Indiana, the Cincinnati & Chicago Air-Line (organized 1860), and the Cincinnati, Logansport & Chicago Railway. In 1869, the consolidated line was lea.sed to the Pittsburg, Cincinnati & St. Louis Railway Company, and operated under the name of the Columbus, Chicago & Indiana Central between Bradford, Ohio, and Chicago, from 1869 until its consolidation, under (See Penytsylvania the present name, in 1890.



a dairying section; has a bank and one news-


Pop. (1890). 852;



(190(1). 920.

Kemlall County, situated near the Fo.x River, and on the Chicago. Purlington & Quincy Railroad. 14 miles west-southwest of Aurora. There are manufactories of agricultural implements and bedsteads. The cit}- has banks, several churches, graded and high schools, and a weekly newspaper. Pop. (1890), 1,825; city in

(1900). 1,634; (1903,




a village of Sangamon County, on Springfield Division Baltimore & Ohio





16 miles uortliwest of Spring-

farming region; lias coal-shaft, churches, college and two newspapers.

in rich

bank, five Population

(1890), 518; (1900). 575.


Washiugtoii, jurist, was born in Harrod.sburg. Ky.. Nov. 24, 1823; received a cla.s.sical education at Williams College. Mass., graduating in 1842 studied law in New York City, and was admitted to tlie bar at Rochester, ;





(See Pittdmrg. Fort ]Vayi,c d- Chi-

cayii Hailiray.)

PITTSBURG, FORT WAY>E RAILWAY, the total length of






nearly 470 miles, but only a little over 16 miles arc within Illinois. It was operated b}' the Penn-

N. Y.. in 1845, establishing himself in i)ractice at

Williamstown, Mass., where he remained until 1849, In 1851 he removed to Washington, D. C, and, after residing there two 3-ears, came to Illinois, locating at Rock Island, which has since


been his home. In 1861 he was elected, as a Republican, to the State Constitutional Convention which met at Springfield in January following, and, in 1807. was chosen Judge for the Sixth (now Tenth) Judicial Circuit, having served by

August 1, 1856, of the Pennsylvania, the Ohio & Indiana and

successive re elections until June. 1897, retiring at the close of his fifth term— a record for length

the Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad Companies, under the name of the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad. The road was opened through

of service seldom paralleled in the judicial history of the State. The hist twenty years of this period were spent on the Appellate bench. For several years past Judge Pleasants has been a

The entire capitalization in 1898 was §52,549,990; and the earnings in Illinois. §472.228. — (History.) The

sylvania Railroad Comjjany as lessee.

Pittsburg, Fort

Wayne & Chicago Railway


result of the consolidation,




entire length, Jan.



was sold under

reorganized under its present title, in 1862, and leased to the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, for 999 years, from July 1, foreclosure in 1861



(See l^i'misylvania Hailrnail.) the county-seat of Pike County,


situated on the Hannibal


Naples branch of the Wabash Railway, about 40 miles southeast of Quinoy, and about the same distance south of west from Jacksonville. Its public buildings include a hand.some court house and graded and high school buildings. The city has an electric light plant, city water-works, a flour mill, a National and a State bank, nine churches, and four weekly newspapers. Pop. (1800), 2,295; (1900). 2.293.

PLAIXFIELD, a village of Will County, on the & Ea.stern Railroad and an interur-

Elgin. Joliet


electric line. 8 miles

northwest of Joliet;


from failing eyesight, but has been faithattendance on his judicial duties. As a judicial officer and a man, liis reputation stands

sufferer ful



the highest.


Ralph, .soldier and ex-Congressman, Chautawiua County, N. Y., March 29, 1810. After leaving school he became a merchant's clerk, and was himself a merchant for eighteen yejirs. From New York he removed to Ohio, where he was elected a member of the

was born


in 1855, later coming to Illinois. During the Civil War he served four years in the Union army as Captain aiul Quartermaster, being



Lieutenant-Colonel at




made his home at Streator, where he was elected Mayor (1881-1883). There he engaged in coalmining and has


important enterprises.

connected with several


1885 to




organized what is commonly spoken of as the "Conspiracy of Pontiac." He himself undertook to lead an assault upon Detroit. The garrison, however, was apprised of his intention, and made preparations accordingly. Pontiac thereupon laid siege to the fort, but was unable to prevent the ingress of provisions, the Canadian settlers furnishing supplies to both besieged and Finallj' a besiegers with absolute impartiality. boat-load of ammunition and supplies was landed at Detroit from Lake Erie, and the English made an unsuccessful sortie on July 31, 1763. After a

represented the Eighth Ilhnois District in Congress, after which he retired to private life. PLTMOUTH, a village of Hancock County, on the Cliicago, Burlington & Quincy Railway, 41 miles northeast of Quincy is trade center of rich farming district; has two banks, electric lights, water- works, and one paper. Pop. (1900), 854. POINTE DE SAIBLE, Je.in Baptiste, a negio and Indian-trader, reputed to have been the first settler on the present site of the city of Chicago. He is said to have been a native of San Domingo, but is described by his contemporaries as "well

and thus was

educated and handsome," though dissipated. He appears to have been at the present site of Chicago as early as 1794, his house being located on the north side near the junction of the North and South branches of the Chicago River, where he carried on a considerable trade with the Indians. About 1796 he is said to have sold out to a French trader named Le Mai, and joined a countryman of his, named Glamorgan, at Peoria, where he died soon after. Glamorgan, who was the reputed owner of a large Spanish land-grant in the vicinity of St. Louis, is said to have been associated with Point de Saible in trade among the Peorias, before the latter came to Chicago. POLO, a city in Ogle County, at intersection of the Illinois Central and the Chicago, Burlington & Northern Railways, 23 miles south of Freeport and 12 miles north of Dixon. The surrounding region is devoted to agriculture and stock-raising, and Polo is a shipping point for large quantities of cattle and hogs. Agricultural implements (including harvesters) and buggies are manufactured here. The city has banks, one weekly and one semi weekly paper, seven churches, a graded public and high school, and a public library. Pop. (1890), 1,728; (1900), 1,869. P0NTL4C, an Ottawa chief, born on the Ottawa River, in Canada, about 1720. While jet a young man he became the principal Chief of the allied Ottawas, Ojibways and Pottawatoraies. He was always a firm ally of the French, to whose interests he was devotedly attached, defending them at Detroit against an attack of the Northern tribes, and (it is generallj- believed) leading the Ottawas in the defeat of Braddock. He reluctantly acquiesced in the issue of the French and Indian War, although at first strongly disposed to dispute the progress of Major Rogers, the British officer sent to take possession of the western forts. In 1762 he dispatched emissaries to a large number of tribes, whom he desired to unite in a league for the extermination of the English. His proposals were favorably received,









months, the Indians withdrew into Indiana, where Pontiac tried in vain to organize another movement. Although Detroit had not been taken, the Indians captured Forts Sandusky, St. Joseph, Miami, Ouiatanon, LeBoeuf and Venango, besides the posts of Mackinaw and Presque Isle. The garrisons at all these points were massacred and innumerable outrages j^erpetrated elsewhere. Additional British troops were sent west, and the Indians finally brought under control. Pontiac was present at Oswego when a treaty was signed with Sir William Johnson, but remained implacable. His end was tragic. Broken in heart, but still proud in spirit and relentless in purpose, he applied to the former (and last) French Governor of Illinois, the younger St. Ange, who was then at St. Louis, for co-oi)eration and support in another raid against the British. Being refused aid or countenance, according to a story long popularly received, he returned to the vicinity of Cahokia, where, in 1769, he was murdered by a Kaskaskia Indian in consideration of a barrel of liquor. N. Matson, author of several volumes bearing on early history in Illinois, citing Col. Joseph N. Bourassa, an educated halfbreed of Kansas, as authority for his statement, asserts that the Indian killed at Cahokia was an impostor, and that the true Pontiac was assassinated by Kineboo, the Head Chief of the Illinois, in a council held on the Des Plaines River, near the present site of Joliet. So well convinced, it is said, was Pierre Chouteau, the St. Louis Indian trader, of the truth of this last storj', that he caused a monument, which he had erected over the grave of the false Pontiac, to be removed. Out of the murder of Pontiac, whether occurring at Cahokia or Joliet, it is generally agreed, resulted the extermination of the Illinois and the tragedy of 'Starved Rock. (See Starved Rock. ) POA'TIAC, an incorporated city, the countyseat of Livingston County. It stands on the bank of the Vemillion River, and is also a point '





of the Chicaffo & Alton, the the Illinois Central Rai!roaJs. It is 33 miles north-northeast from Bloomington and 93 miles south-southwest of Chicago. The surrounding region is devoted to agriculture, stockraising and coal-mining. Pontiac has four hanks



Wabash and

and four weekly newspapers (two issuing daily editions), numerous churclies and good soliools. Various kinds of manufacturing are conducted,


tlie principal establishments being flouring mills, three shoe factories, straw paper and candy factories and a foundry. The State Reformatory for Juvenile Offenders is located here. Pop. (1890), 3,784; (1800), 4,266. POOL, Orvnl, merchant and banker, was born in Union County, Ky., near Shawneetcwn, 111., Feb. 17, 1809, but lived in Sliawneetown from seven years of age; in boyhood learned the saddler's trade, but, in 1843, engaged in the dry-goods business, J. McKee Peeples and Thomas S. Ridgway becoming his partners in 1846. In 18.'30 he retired from tlie dry goods trade and became an extensive dealer in produce, pork and tobacco. In 1871 he established the Gallatin County National Bank, of which he was the first Presi-




30, 1871.

POOLE, William



was born at Salem, Ma.ss. Dec. 24, 1821, graduated from Yale College in 1849, and, at the clo.se of his sophomore year, was appointed a.ssistant librarian of his college society, which owned a library of 10,000 volumes. Here he prepared and published the first edition of his now famous "Index to Periodical Literature." A second and enlarged addition was published in 1853, and secured for its author wide fame, in both America and Europe. In 18."i2 he was made Librarian of the Boston Slercantile librarian





Library, and, from 18.')0to 1809, had charge of the Boston Atlien;viim, then one of the largest libraries in the United States, which he relintiuislied to engage in expert library work. He organized

New England

and towns, at the United States Naval Academy, and libraries in



the Cincinnati Public Library, finally bec-oming Librarian of the latter institution. In October, 1873, he as.sumed cliarge of the Chicago Public Library, tlien Iwing organized, and, in 1^87, became Librarian of the Newberry Library, organizing this institution and remaining at its

head until 1894.

his death, which occurred. March 1, The degree of LL.D. was conferred on him

by the Northwestern University in 1882. Dr. Poole took a prominent part in the organization of library associations, and was one of the Vice-

Presidents of

the International Conference of London in 1871. His advice

Librarians, held in

was much sought

in relation to library architec-

ture and management. He wrote much on topics connected with his profession and on historical subjects, frequently contributing to

"The North

.American Review." In 1874-75 he edited a literary paper at Chicago, called "The Owl." and was later a constant contributor to "The Dial." He was Presiilent of tlie American Historical Society and member of State Historical Societies and of otlier kindred a.s,sociations. POPE, .Nathaniel, first Territorial Secretary of Illinois, Delegate in Congress and jurist, was born at Louisville, Ky., in 1774; graduated with high honor from Transylvania University, at Lexington, Ky., read law with his brother. Senator John Pope, and, in 1804, emigrated to New Orleans, later living, for a time, at Ste. Genevieve, JIo. In 1808 he became a re.sident of Kaskaskia and, the next year, was appointed the first Territorial Secretary of Illinois. His native judgment was strong and profound and his intellect quick and far-reaching, while both were thoroughly trained and {liscijjlined by study. In 1816 he was elected a Territorial Delegate to Congress, and proved himself, not only devoted to the interests of his constituents, but also a shrewd tactician. He was largely in.struniental in securing the passage of the act autliorizing the formation of a State

government, and it was mainlj' through his northern boundary of Illinois was fixed at lat. 42° 30' north, instead of the southern liend of Lake Michigan. Upon the admission of Illinois into the Union, he was made United States Judge of the District, which then embraced the entire State. This office he filled with dignity, impartiality and acceptabihty until his death, at tlie houKs of his daughter, Mrs. Luefforts that the

Yeatman, in St. Louis, Mo., Jan. 23, 18.50. Pope County wjts named in his honor. Gen. John cretia

(Pope), son of the preceding,

was bom

in LouisKy.. March 16, 1822; graduated at the United States Military Academy. 1842, and appointed brevet Second Lieutenant of Topugraphiral ville,

Engineers; served in Florida (1842-44), on the northeast boundary survej-, and in the Mexican


being promoted First Lieutenant Monterey and Captain at Buena Vista. In 1849 he conducted an exploring expedition in ^linnesota. was in charge of topographical engineering service in New Mexico (1851-53), and of the survey of a route for the Union Pacific Railway (l.'!53-.")9). meanwhile experimenting on the feasibilitv of artc.«ia:i wplls on the "Staked (1846-47),

for bravery at


HISTOEICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. Plains" in Northwestern Texas. He was a zealous friend of Abraliam Lincoln in the political


of 18G0,

and was court-martialed Buchanan,

criticising the policy of President

for in a

paper read before a literary society in Cincinnati, the proceedings being finally dropped on the recommendation of tlie (then) Secretary of War, In 18G1 he was one of the officers Josei^h Holt. detailed by the War Department to conduct Mr. Lincoln to the capital, and, in May following, was made Brigadier-General of Volunteers and assigned to command in Missouri, where he performed valuable service in protecting railroad communications and driving out guerrillas, gaining an important victory over Sterling Price at Blackwater, in December of that year; in 1863 had command of the land forces co-operating with Admiral Foots, in the expedition against New Madrid and Island No. 10, resulting in the capture of that stronghold with 6,500 prisoners, 125 cannon and 7,000 small arms, thereby winning a Major-General's commission. Later, having participated in the operations against Corinth, he was transferred to command of the Army of Virginia, and soon after commissioned Brigadier-General in the regular armj'. Here, being forced to meet a greatly superior force under General Lee, he was subjected to reverses which led to his falling back on Washington and a request to be relieved of his command. For failure to give him proper support. Gen. Fitzjohn Porter was tried by court-martial, and, having been convicted, was cashiered and declared forever disqualified from holding any office of trust or profit under the United States Government although this verdict was finally set aside and Porter restored to the army as Colonel, by act of Congress, in August, 1886. General Pope's subsequejit service

was performed

chiefly against

the Indians in the Northwest, until 1865, when he took command of the military division of Missouri, and, in June following, of the Department of the Missouri, including all the Northwestern States and Territories, from which he was relieved early in 1866. Later, he held command, under the Reconstruction Acts, in Georgia, Alabama and Florida ( 1867-68) the Department of the Lakes (1868-70) Department of the Missouri (187084) and Department of the Pacific, from 1884 to General Pope his retirement, March 16, 1886. published "Explorations from the Red River to the Rio Grande'' and "Campaigns in Virginia" Died, at Sandusky, Ohio, Sept 23, 1892. (1863). POPE COUNTY, lies on the southern liorder of the State, and contains an area of about 360 ;




square miles named in honor of Judge Nathaniel Pope. It was erected in 1816 (two years before the admission of Illinois as a State) from parts of Gallatin and Johnson Counties. The county- seat was first located at Saudsville, but later changed to Golconda. Robert Lacy, Beuoni Lee and Thomas Ferguson were the first Commissioners Hamlet Ferguson was chosen Sheriff; John Scott, Recorder Thomas C. Browne, Prosecuting- Attor;


and Samuel Omelveney. Treasurer.


highest land in Southern Illinois is in the northeastern part of this county, reaching an elevation

The bluffs along the Ohio River are bold in outline, and the ridges are surmounted by a thick growth of timber, notably oak and hickory. Portions of the bottom lands are submerged, of 1,046 feet.

during a part of the year and are covered with cypress timber. The remains of Indian mounds and fortifications are found, and

at times,

some interesting


have been exhumed. Sand-

stone is quarried in abundance, and coal is found here and tliere. Mineral springs (with copperas as tlie chief ingredient) are numerous. Iron is found in limited quantities, among the rocks toward the south, while spar and kaolin clay are

found in the north. The chief agricultural products are potatoes, corn and tobacco. Population (1890), 14,016; (1900), 13,585.

PORT BYROX, a village of Rock Island County, on the Mississippi River and the Chicago, Milwaukee it St. Paul Railway, 16 miles above Rock Island; has lime kilns, grain elevator,

academy, public

two banks,

and a newspaper. Pop. The (Illinois) Western Hospital for (1900), 732. the Insane is located at Watertown, tivelve miles below Port Byron. POKIER, (Rev.) Jeremiah, pioneer clergyman, was born at Hadley, Ma.ss., iji 1804; graduated from Williams College in 1825, and studied theology at both Andover and Princeton seminaries, graduating from the latter in 1831. The same year he made the (then) long and perilous scliools,

journey to Fort Brady, a military post at the Sault Ste. Marie, where he began his work as a missionary. In 1883 he came to Chicago, where he remained for two years, organizing the First Presbyterian Church of Cliicago, with a membershiji of twenty-six persons. Afterwards he had pastoral charge of churches at Peoria and Farmington. While in Chicago he was married to Miss Eliza Chappell, one of the earliest teachers in Chicago. From 1840 to '58 he was located at Green Bay, Wis. accepting a call from a Chicago Church in the year last named. In 1861 he was commissioned Chaplain in the volunteer service ,




by Governor Yates, and mustered out in 1865. The next live 3-eais were divided between labors at Brownsville, Tex., in tlie service of the Sanitary Commission, and a pastorate at Prairie du

Chien. In 1870 he was commissioned Chaplain in the regular army, remaining in the service (with occasional leaves of absence) until 1883, when he was retired from active service on

account of advanced age. His closing years were spent at the homes of his children in Detroit and Beloit; died at the latter city, July 25, 1S93, at the age of 89 years. POSEY, (Gen.) Thomas, Continental and Revolutionary soldier, was born in Virginia, July in 1774 took part iu Lord Dunmore's expe9, 1750 dition against the Indians, and, later, in various engagements of the Revolutionary War, being part of the time under the immediate command of Washington; was with General Wayne in the assault on Stony Point and present at Cornwallis' surrender at Yorktown also serve ?3

W X o w !C

C 2


o H O z i ij

w o

o Q -J3







railroad sj'stein of Illinois

number of passengers products. The (earning revenue) carried during tlie year, was





The existing

had its inception in the internal improvement whicli swept

over the country in 1836-37, the basis of the plan adopted in Illinois (as in the Eastern States) being that the State should construct, maintain, own and operate an elaborate sy.stem. Lines were to be constructed from Cairo to Galena, from Alton to Mount Carmel, from Peoria to Warsaw, from Alton to the Central Railroad, from Belleville to Jlount Carmel, from Bloomington to Pilackinaw Town, and from Meredosia to Springfield. The experiment proved extremely unfortunate to the financial interests of the State, and laid tiie foundation of an immense debt under which it staggered for many years. The Northern Cross Railroad, extending from Meredosia to Springfield, was the only one so far completed as to be in operation. It was sold, in 18-17, to Nicholas H. Ridgely, of Springfield for §21,100, he being the This line formed a nucleus of higliest bidder. the existing Wabash system. The first I'oad to be operated by private parties (outside of a primitive tramway in St. Clair County, designed for the transportation of coal to St. Louis) was the Galena & Chicago Union, chartered in 1836. This was the second line completed in the State, and The subsequent the first to run from Chicago. development of the railway system of Illinois was at first gradual, then steady and finally rapid. A succinct description of the various lines now in operation in the State may be found under appropriate lieadings. At present Illinois leads all the States of the Union in tlie extent of railways in operation, the total mileage (1897) of main track being 10,785.43 or 19 miles for each 100 square miles of territory and 35 miles for each 10,000 inhabitants estimating the population Every one (1898) at four and a quarter millions. of the 103 counties of the State is traversed by at Callioun, Hardin least one railroad except tliree and Pope. Tlie entire capitalization of the 111 companies doing business in the State in 1896, (including capital stock, funded debt and current liabilities), was §3,669.164,143— equal to 867,556 per mile. In 1894, fifteen owned and ten leased lines paid dividends of from four to eight per cent on common, and from four to ten per cent on preferred, stock the total amount thus paid aggregating 835,331,753. The total earnings and income, in Illinois, of all lines operated in the State, aggregated §77,508,537, while the total expenditure within the State was §71,463,367. Of the 58,263,860 tons of freight carried, 11,611,798 were of agricultural products and 17,179,366


ployes (of




all classes)

number of was 61,200.

railroad em-



of taxes paid by railroad companies for

the year was §3,846,379. From 1836, when the first special charter was granted for the construction of a railroad in Illinois, until 1869


corporations of this character came under the general incorporation laws of the State in accordance with the Constitution of 1870 293 special charters for tlie construction of



were granted by the Legislature, besides numerous amendments of charters already in railroads

(For the history of important individual lines see each road under its corporate existence.



Virgil Toungr, editor and soldier,

was born. July

16, 1828,


Vanceburg, Ky.



a student in Illinois College one year (1846-47), after which he studied law in Quincy and practiced for a time; also resided some time in California; 1855-57 was one of the editors of "Tlie Quincy Wliig, " and represented that paper in the Editorial Convention at Decatur, Feb. 22, 1856. (See Anti-Nebraska Editorial Convention.) In 1861, he was commissioned a Captain in the Sixteenth Illinois Volunteers, but soon resigned on

account of ill-health; later, enlisted in an Iowa regiment, but died in hospital at St. Louis, from

wounds and exposure, April




was born County, 111., May 20, 1838; received a collegiate education at Illinois and McKeudree Colleges, and at Indiana State University studied law with ex-Gov. A. C. French, and was admitted to the bar in 1865, but soon abandoned the law for banking, in which he was engaged both at Lebanon and Carlyle, limiting his business to the latter place about 1890. He served one term (from 1865) as County Clerk, andtvpo terms (1889 and "91) as Representative in the General As.sembly, and, in 1892, was nominated as a Democrat and elected State Treasurer. Died in office, at Carlyle, Nov. 11, 1894. RAMSEY, a village of Fayette County, at the intersection of the Illinois Central and tlie Toledo, St. Louis & Western Railroads, 13 miles north of Vandalia; the district is agricultural; lias one newspaper. Pop. (1890), 598; (1900), 747. RANDOLPH COUNTY, Ues in the southwest section of the State, and borders on the Mississippi River; area 560 square miles; named for Beverly Randolph. It was set off from St. Clair County in 1795, being the second county organon a farm


Riifus N., State Treasurer,

in Clinton


440 ized in

tlie territorj-

which now constitutes the

State of Illinois. From the earliest period of Illinois historj-, Kandolph County has been a pivotal point. In the autumn of 1700 a French and Indian settlement was established at Kaskaskia, which subsequently became tlie center of French In 1722 influence in the Mississippi VaUey.

du Rocher was founded by the French. Randolph County tliat Fort Chartres was built, in 1720, and it was here that Col. George Rogers Clark's expedition for the .seizure of the "Illinois Country" met with success in the American immigration capture of Kaskaskia. began with the close of the Revolutionary War. Among the early settlers were the Cranes (Ichabod and George), Gen. John Edgar, the Dodge family, the Morrisons, and John Rice Jones. Toward the close of the century came Shadracli Bond (afterwards the first Governor of the State) with his uncle of the same name, and the Menards (Pierre and Hippolyte), the first of whom subsequently became Lieutenant - Governor. (See Bond, Shadracli; Menard, Pierre.) In outline, Randolph County is triangular, while Timber and building its surface is diversified. stone are abundant, and coal underlies a considPrairie

It wa-s in

Chester, the county -seat, a city of 3,000 inhabitants, is a place of considerable trade and the seat of the Southern Illinois Penitentiary.

erable area.

The county is crossed bj' several railroad and transportation facilities are excellent. ulation (1800),



2.5,049; (1900), 28,001.

RA>'SOM,((Jen.) Thomas Ednard GreenHeltl, was born at Norwich, Vt., Nov. 29, 1834; educated at Norwich University, an institution under charge of his father, who was later an officer of the Mexican War and killed at ChapulHaving learned civil engineering, he tepec. entered on his profession at Peru, 111., in 1851; in 1855 became a member of the real-estate firm of A. J. Gallowaj- & Co., Chicago, soon after removing to Fayette County, where he acted as agent of the Illinois Central Railroad. Under the first call for volunteers, in April. 18(11, he organized a company, which having been incorporated in the Eleventh Illinois, he was elected Major, and, on the reorganization of the regiment for the three-years' service, was commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel, in this capacity having command of his regiment at Fort Donelson, wliere he was severely wounded and won deserved promotion to a colonelcy, as successor to Gen. W. H. Here L. Wallace, afterwards killed at Sliiloh. Colonel Ransom again distinguished himself by his bravery, and though again wounded while soldier,

leading liis regiment, remained in command through the day. His service was recognized by He bore a promotion as Brigadier - General. prominent part in the siege of Vicksburg and in the Red River campaign, and, later, commanded the Seventh Army Corps in the operations about Atlanta, but finally fell a victim to disease and his numerous wounds, dying in Chicago. Oct. 29, 1804, having previously received the brevet rank of Major-General. General Ransom was confessedlj' one of the most brilliant officers contributed by Illinois to the War for the Union, and was pronounced, by both Grant and Sherman, one of the ablest volunteer generals in their conimanils. city in Champaign County, at junction of the main line of the Illinois Cen-

R.VNTOUL, a tlie

tral Railroad,



West Lebanon and Leroy

branch, 14 miles north-northeast of Champaign and 114 miles south by west of Chicago. It has a national bank, seven churches, opera house,

graded school, two weekly papers, machine shops, flouring and flax mills, tile factories, and many



Pop. (1900), 1,207.

R.\SLE, Sebastian, a Jesuit missionary, born in









attached to the French missions in Canada in 1689, and, about 1G91 or "92, was sent to the Illinois Country, where he labored for two years, traveling much and making a careful study of the Indian dialects. He left many manuscripts descriptive of his journeyings and of the mode of From Illilife and character of the aborigines. nois he was transferred to Norridgewock, Maine, where he prepared a dictionary of the Abenaki language in three volumes, which is now preserved in the library of Harvard College. His influence over his Indian parishioners was grejit, and his use of it, during the French and Indian War, so incensed the English colonists in Massachusetts that the Governor set a price upon his head. On August 12. 1724, he was slain, with seven Indian chiefs who were seeking to aid his escape, during a night attack upon Norridgewock by a force of EngUsh soldiers from Fort Richmond, his mutilated body being interred the

next day by the Indians. In 183:!. the citizens of Norridgewock erected a monument to his memory on the spot where he fell. RASTER, Herman, journalist, was born in Germany in 1828; entered journalism and came to America in 18.51, being employed on German papers in Buffalo and New York City; in 1867 accejited the position of editor-in-chief of "The Chicago Staats Zeitung," which he continued to

HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. until June, 1890, when he went to Europe for the benefit of his health, dying at Dresden, July While employed on papers in this 1891. 24, country during the Civil War, he acted as the American correspondent of papers at Berlin, Bremen, Vienna, and other cities of Central Europe. He served as delegate to both State and National Conventions of the Republican party, fill

and, in 1869, received from President Grant the appointment of Collector of Internal Revenue for the Chicago District, but, during the later years of •



cooperated with




RATJCH, John Henry, physician and sanitary 4, 1828. and

expert, born in Lebanon, Pa., Sept.

graduated in medicine at the Universitj' of PennThe following year he removed sj-lvania, in 1849. lie was an to Iowa, settling at Burlington. active member of the Iowa State Medical Society, and, in 18.51, prepared and publislied a "Report on the Medical and Economic Botanj' of Iowa," and, later, made a collection of ichthyologic remains of the Upper Mississippi and Missouri for Professor Agassiz. From 1857 to 1800 he filled the chair of Materia Medica and Medical Botany at Rush Medical College, Chicago, occupying the

same position in 18.59 in the Cliicago College of Pharmacy, of which he was one of the organDuring the Civil War he served, until izers. 1864, as Assistant


Medical Director,

of the Potomac,


later in

the Louisiana,

first in

being brevetted Lieutenant-Colonel at the close of the struggle. Returning to Chicago, he aided in reorganizing the city's healtli service, and, in 1867, was appointed a member of the new Board of Health and Sanitary Inspector, serving until 1876. Tlie latter year he was chosen President of the American Public Health Association, and, in 1877, a member of the newly created State Board of Health of Illinois, and elected its first President. Later, he became Secretary, and continued in that office during his connection with the Board. In 1878-79 he devoted much attention to the yellow-fever epidemic, and was instrumental in the formation of the Sanitary Council of tlie Mississipiji, and in securing the adoption of a system of river inspection by the National Board of Health. He was a member of many scientific bodies, and the author of numerous monographs and printed addresses, chiefly in the domain of sanitary science and preventive medicine. Among them may be noticed "Intramural Interments and Their Influence on Health and Epidemics," "Sanitary Problems of Chicago," "Prevention of Asiatic Cholera in North


America," and a series of reports as Secretary of the State Board of Health. Died, at Lebanon, Pa., Marcli 24, 1894. RAIIM. (lien.) Green Berry, soldier and author, was born at Golconda, Pope County, 111. Dec. 3, 1829, studied law and was admitted to the bar in ,

but, three years later, removed with his family to Kansas. His Free-State proclivities rendering him olmoxious to the pro-slavery party there, he returned to Illinois in 1857, settling at Harrisburg, Saline County. Early in the Civil War he was commissioned a Major in the Fiftysixth Illinois Volunteers, was subsequently promoted to a Lieutenant-Colonelcy, and, later, advanced to a Brigadier-Generalship, resigning his commission at the close of the war (May 6, He was with Rosecrans in the Mississippi 1865). campaign of 1862, took a conspicuous part in the battle of Corinth, participated in the siege of Vicksburg and was wounded at Missionary Ridge. He also rendered valuable service during the Atlanta campaign, keeping lines of communication open, re-enforcing Resaca and repulsing an attack by General Hood. He was with Sherman in tlie "March to the Sea," and with Hancock, in the Shenandoah Valley, when the war closed. In 1866 General Raum became President of the jiro1853,

jected Cairo


Vincennes Railroad, an enterprise

which he had been an active promoter. He was elected to Congress in 1866 from the South-


ern Illinois District (then the Thirteenth), serving one term, and the same year presided over the Republican State Convention, as he did again in 1876 and in 1880 was also a delegate to the National Conventions at Cincinnati and Chicago

the last two years just mentioned. 2,

1876, to


31, 1883,


From August


served as

Commissioner of Internal Revenue at Washington, in that time having superintended the collection of §800,000,000 of revenue, and the disbursement of 830,000,000. After retiring from the Commissionership, he resumed the practice In 1889 he was appointed of law in Washington. Commissioner of Pensions, remaining to the close



when he removed in practice.





Chicago and again engaged tlie

various political cam-

paigns of the past thirtj' years, his services have been in frequent request as a campaign speaker, and he has canvassed a number of States in the Besides his interest of the Republican party. official reports, he is author of "The Existing

Between Republican Government and Southern Oligarchy" (Washington, 1884), and a number of magazine articles. Conflict



RAl'M, John, pioneer and earlj- legislator, was born in Humnielstown, Pa., July 14, 1793, and died at Golconda, 111., March U, 1869. Having received a liberal education in his native State, the subject of this sketch settled at Shawneetown. 111., in 1823, but removed to Golconda, Pope County, in 1826. He had previously .served three years in the War of 1S12, as First Lieutenant of the Sixteenth Infantry, and. while a resident of Illinois, served in the Black Hawk War of 1832 as Brigade Major. He was also elected Senator from the District composed of Pope and Johnson Counties in the Eighth General Assembly (1833), as successor to Samuel Alexander, who had resigned. The following 3'ear he was appointed Clerk of the Circuit Court of Pope County, and was also elected Clerk of the County Court the same year, holding both offices for many years, and retaining the County Clerkship up to his death, a period of thirty-five j-ears. He was married March 22, 1827, to Juliet C. Field, and

was father

of Brig. -Gen.

Green B. Raum, and

Maj. John M. Raum, both of whom served in the volunteer army from Illinois during the Civil "War.

RAWLINS, John "War,

was born


Secretary of 13, 1831, the was also a charcoal-


at East Cialena, Feb.

son of a small farmer,


The son, after irregular attendance on the district schools and a year passed at Mount Mon-is Academy, began the study of law. He was admitted to the bar at Galena in 18.j4, and at once began practice. In 18.j7 he was elected City Attorney of Galena, and nominated on tlie DougAt the outbreak of las electoral ticket in \>^G0. the Civil War he favored, and publicly advocated, coercive measures, and it is siiid that it was partly through his influence that Cieneral Grant early tendered his services to the Government. He sen'ed on the staff of the latter from the time General Grant was given command of a brigade imtil the close of the war, most of the time being its chief, and rising in rank, step by step, until, in 1863, he became a Brigadier-General, and, in His long service on the 186.^, a Major-General. staff of General (iiant indicates the estimation in which he was held by his chief. Promptly on the assumption of the Presidency by General Grant, in March, 1869, he was appointed Secretary of War, but consumption had already obtained a hold uixm his constitution, and he survived only six months, dying in office, Sept. 6, burner.


RAY, Charles 11., journalist, was born at Norwich, Chenango County, N. Y., March 12, 1821;

came west

in 1843, studied medicine

and began

practice at Muscatine, Iowa, afterwards locating in Tazewell County,

111., also being iissociated, a time, with the publication of a temjxirance paper at Springfield. In 1847 he removed to Galena, soon after becoming editor of "The Galena Jeffersonian, " a Democratic paper, with which he remained until 1854. He took strong ground against the Kansas-Nebraska Bill, and, at


the session of the Legislature of


served as

Secretarj' of the Senate, also acting as

spondent of "The


New York

Tribune"; a few months later became as.sociated with Joseph Medill and John C. Vaughan in the purchase and management of "The Chicago Tribune," Dr. Ray assuming the position of editor-in-chief. Dr. Ray was one of the most trenchant and powerful writers ever connected with the Illinois press, and his articles exerted a wide iulluence during the period of the organization of the Republican party, in which he was an influential factor. He was a member of the Convention of Anti-Nebraska editors held at Decatur. Feb. 22, 1856, and served as Chairman of the Committee on Resolutions. (See AntiXebraska Editorial Coin-tntioii.) At the State Republican Convention held







api)ointed a niembi^r of the State Centi-al

was Com-

mittee for that year; was al.so Canal Trustee by appointment of Governor Bissell, serving from 1857 to I8OI. In November, 1863, he severed his connection with "The Tribune" and engaged in oil speculations in Canada which proved financially dis.i.strous. In 1865 he returneil to the pai)er

as an editorial writer, remaining only for a .short


In 1868 he a.ssumed the

"The Chicago Evening remained





management of with which he death.




RAY, ernor,

Lyman was born

August luis

ex-Lieutenant-GovCrittenden County, Vt.,

IJeecher, in

removed to Illinois in 18.52, and 17, 1831 since been engaged in mercantile business in

this State.



filling several local offices


County in the lower house of the Twenty-eighth General Asseml>ly (1872), and, ten years later, was chosen State Senator, serving from 1883 to 1887, and lieing one of the recognized party leaders on the floor. In 1888. he was elected Lieutenant-Governor on the Republican ticket, his term expiring

was elected

to represent (irundy

His lK)nie is at Morris. Grundy County. RAY', William H., Congressman, was lxirn in Dutchess County, N. Y., Dec. 14, 1812; grew to manhood in his native State, receiving a limited

in 1893.

HISTOKICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. education; in 1834 removed to Rushville, 111., engaging in business as a merchant and, later, as a banker was a member of the first State Board of Equalization (1867-09), and, in 1872, was elected to Congress as a Republican, representing Died, Jan. 25, his District from 1873 to 1875. ;



village of Montgomery County, Louis Division of the Wabash Railway, 50 miles southwest of Decatur; has electric lights, some manufactures and a weekly paper. Considerable coal is mined here and grain and fruit grown in the surrounding country. Population

on the



Marshall Marshall



1883-85... 1859-63...





Springfield Belleville




1871-73.. 1873-75 1859-63.. 1859-62..

State-at-large. 1869-71..

Isaac N. Arnold, R.. Isaac N. Arnold, K,

Carbondale Chicago Chicago

William J. Allen. William J. Allen,

Marion Marion


Philip B. Foul William A, J Sparks. D, William Hartzell.D .. William B. Anderson, D


H Harrison. Lorenz Brentano, R William Lathrop. R. Philip C Hayes. R Thomas A Boyd. R


Seventh Seventh

D .

Benjamin F Marsh, R.


Springfield Springfield. -, „


Bloominglon Bloomington Chester* Mt. Veriion.'.'




Chicago Chicago Chicago Rockford Morris Lewis ton




— .




[Second jThird I

Fourth Seventh Ninth


1889-93. 1875-83. 1383-95.


i, •' "".V IhirteeiitU Sixteenth Eighteenth.. |.! Nineteenth.. ,

Died Dec,



1875-77=. 1879-81. 1875-83..

1875-79. 1875-77., 1877-83., 1877-79.. 1877-79.. 1877-79..

1S77-81 1877-81 1877-83..


Le Moyne.

term of B. C. Cook.

succeeded by B. G. Caulfield. served out Rice's term.



1876-77.. 1875-77.. 1875-77..

Tenth Eleventh Twelfth Twelfth


Filled unexpired

to J.



Pittsfield Pittsfleld

May, '76, seat awarded

1873-75.. 1873-75.. 1877-79.. 1873-75.. 1873-83..

Fifteenth Fifteenth


Served unexpired term of Logan.


Danville Danville Danville



1871-73... 1871-73... 1873-76..,

1874-77.., 1873-75.. 1873-77.., 1873-75.., 1873-81..,

Thirteenth... Bloomington Tuscola and Danville. Fourteenth ...

Ale.vaiid.T I'linipbell,

William AUlrich,


Second Fourth Seventh Eighth Ninth Tenth Eleventh Eleventh

Peru Lacon Canton Rushville

Robert M. Knapp,








term of Washburne.

1869-73.. 1869-73..

1881-83.. 1871-73.. 1871-73., 1871-73.. 1873-74.,

Fifth Sixth


Filled unexpired

.__ 1-73..

State-at-large First


but res'd before beg'ng of term.



Carmi Evanston


Carter H. Harrison, John V. Le Movne, T.J. Henderson, R T.J. II..|l,l,TSOII. R

Seventh Ninth Twelfth


R Greenbury L. Fort, R Granville Biirriere, R Willin n II l!;iv. R Krjaiip,




1873-79... 1869-73... 1873-75..,

Fourth .






B. G. CaulHeld. D Jasper D. Ward, R Stephen A. Hurlbut, Franklin Corwin, R




Hillsboro Chicago Chicago

Lovejoy's unexpired term



Belleville Belleville Belleville


1864-'65 filled

1863-69... 1863-65...

1865-69... 1887-89... 1897-99... 1865-67... 1867-71...

Edward Y. Rice. John B. Rice, R

Served McClernand's unexpired term.

Seventeenth.., 1873-83..

Monmouth Ottawa


Served Logan's unexpired term.

1873-79.. Fifteenth Seventeenth... 1885-87..

Shelby ville Shelby ville Shelby ville

Moulton, D Moulton, D Abner C. Harding, R Burton C. Cook, R H. P. H. Bromwell.R Shelby M. Cullom, R Anthony Thornton, D Jehu Baker, R Jehu Baker, R Jehu Baker, P A.J. Kuykendall, R Norman B. Judd, R Albert G. Burr, D

W. W.


Thirteenth Fifth

Lewistown Waterloo Waterloo Waterloo




Awarded seat, vice Farwell.






Bt^lijuniln F. Maptli,

Warauw Warsaw




Fifteenth Thirteenth... Nineteenth...

Chicago Chicago Chicago Geneva and Elgin..

Second Third Third Fourth

R. M. A. lliiwk.R

Mt. Carroll







BriiJiiriilN F.


Thomiw K.Tipton. R R. W. ToiviislicMnl. 1)



Ooorff© R. Davis. OeorBe R. Duvis,



llirain Barln-r. John C. SlH-Twiii,


\V..sinKieuni. D...

A. P. Fonytlie. (i. B JolinIL Tliuniaa, R John R. TJionias. R

Metropolis Metropolis

William fulli-ii,R Wllliiiin Cullpn.R I^ewis K. Pay.ion,R


John H. Lewis.

Dielrlch C. Smith. R R. W. Dunham, R John F. I'inerty. R


euded to keep out the storms. The placing of a gliiss window leather hinges, in a

country school-house at Edwardsville, in

was considered an important event. Ordinarily the floor was of the natural earth, although this was sometimes covered with a layer of claj-, firmly packed down. Only the more pretentious school- houses had "puncheon floors"; i. e., floors made of split logs roughly hewn. Few had 1824,

"ceilings" (so-called), the latter being usually matle of clapboards, sometimes of bark, on which was spread earth, to keep out the cold. The

were also of puncheons (without backs) supported on four legs made of pieces of poles inserted through augur holes. No one had a desk, except the advanced pupils who were learning to write. For their convenience a broader and smoother puncheon was fa.stened into the wall by wooden pins, in such a way that it would slope downward toward the pupil, the front being supported by a brace extending from the wall. When a pupil was writing he faced the walL When he had finished this task, he "reversed himself" and faced the teacher and his schoolmates. These adjuncts completed the furnishings, with the exception of a split-bottomed chair for the teaclier (who seldom had a desk) and a pail, or "piggin," of water, witli a gourd for a drinking seats

Rough and unc:outh as these structures were, they were evidences of public spirit and of


appreciation of

the advantages

of education.

They were built and maintained by mutual aid and sacrifice, and, in them, some of the great men of the State and Nation obtained tliat primary training which formed the foundation of their subsequent careers.

(See Education.)


located in the western portion of the State, has an area of 430 square miles, and was named for Gen. Philip Schuyler. The first American settlers arrived in 1823, and, etirliest pioneers, were Calvin Uobart, William 11. Taylor and Orris McCartney. The county was organized from a portion of Pike County, in 1S2.), the first Commissioners being Thomas Blair, Thoniiis McKee and Samuel Horney. The Commissioners appointed to locate the

auiong the

county-seat, .selected a site in the eastern part of the county alnjut one mile west of tlie present

View, to which the name of Beardstown was given, and where the earliest court was held, Jutlge John York Sawyer presiding, with Hart Fellows as Clerk, and Orris JIcvillage of Pleasant

Cartney, Sheriff. unsatisfactorj-,

Tliis location,

however, proving

new Commissioners were


HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. pointed, who, in the early part of 1826, selected

College, but left at the

the present site of the city of Rushville, some five miles west of the point originally chosen.



The new

articles to

was first called Rushton, in honor of Dr. Benjamin Rush, but the name was afterwards changed to Rushville. Ephraim Eggleston was the pioneer of Rushville. The surface of the county is rolling, and tlie region contains excellent farming land, which is well watered by tlie Illinois River and numerous seat of justice

Population (1890), 16,013;' (1900), 16,129. Frederick, Arctic explorer, was born at Galena, 111., Sept. 29, 1849; graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1871, and was commissioned Second Lieutenant in the Third Cavalry, serving on the frontier until 1877, meantime studying law and medicine, being admitted to the bar in 1873, and graduating in medicine in 1876. Having his interest excited by reports of traces of Sir John Franklin's expedition, found by the Esquimaux, he obtained leave of absence in 1878, and, with Wm. H. Gilder as second in command, sailed from New York in the "Eothen,'' June 19, for King William's Land. creeks.


The party returned, Sept. 22, 1880, having found and buried the skeletons of manj- of Franklin's party, besides discovering relics which tended to During this clear up the mystery of their fate.

made a sledge journey of 3,2.51 miles. Again, in 1883, he headed an exploring expedition up the Yukon River. After a brief return to army duty he tendered his resignation in 188.5, and the next year led a special expedition to Alaska, under the au-spices of "The New York Times," later making a voyage of discovery among the Aleutian Islands. In 1889 he conducted an expedition to Northern Mexico, where he found many interesting relics of Aztec civiliperiod he

zation and of the


and cave-dwellers.


received the Roquette Arctic Medal from the Geographical Society of Paris, and a medal from the Imperial Geographical Society of Russia; also published several volumes relating to his researches, under the titles. "Along Alaska's

Great River"; "The Franklin Search Under Lieutenant Schwatka" "Nimrod of the North" and "Children of the Cold." Died, at Portland, Ore., Nov. 2, 1892. SCOTT, James W., journalist, was born in Walworth County, Wis., June 26, 1849, the son of a printer, editor and publisher. While a boy he accompanied his father to Galena, where the latter established a newspaper, and wliere he learned the printer's trade. After graduating from the Galena high school, he entered Beloit ;



end of

471 his

sophomore year.

NewYork, he became interested in floriat the same time contributing short horticultural periodicals.

Later he

was a compositor in AVashington. His first newspaper venture was the publication of a .weekly newspaper in Maryland in 1872. Returning to Illinois, conjointlj'

with his father

he started

"The Industrial Press" at Galena, but, in 1875, removed to Chicago. There he purchased "The Daily National Hotel Reporter," from which he withdrew a few years later. In May, 1881, in conjunction with others, he organized The Chicago Herald Company, in which he ultimately secured a controlling interest. His journalistic and executive capability soon brought additional responsibilities. He was chosen President of the American New.spaper Publishers' Association, of tlie Chicago Press Club, and of the United Press the latter being an organization for the collection and dissemination of telegraphic news to journals throughout the United States and Canada. He was also conspicuously connected with the preliminary organization of the World's Columbian Exposition, and Chairman of the Press Committee. In 1898 he started an evening paper at Chicago, which he named "The Post." Early in 189.5 lie purchased "The Chicago Times," intending to consolidate it with "The Herald," but before the final consummation of his plans, he died suddenly, while on a business visit in New York, April 14, 1895. SCOTT, John M., lawyer and jurist, was born in St. Clair County, 111., August 1, 1824; his father being of Scotch-Irish descent and his mother a Virginian. His attendance upon dis-

trict schools


was supplemented bj- private tuition, was the best that tlie

his early education

new country afforded. He read law at Belleville, was admitted to the bar in 1848, removed to McLean County, which concomparatively

tinued to be his home for nearly fiftj' years. He served as County School Commissioner from 1849 to 1852, and, in the latter year, waselected County Judge. In 1856 he was an unsuccessful Republican candidate for the State Senate, frequently speaking from the same platform with Abraham Lincoln. In 1862 he was elected Judge of the Circuit Court of the Eighth Judicial Circuit, to succeed David Davis on the elevation of the latter to the bench of the United States Supreme Court, and was re-elected in 18G7. In 1870, a new judicial election being rendered necessary by the adoption of the new Constitution, Judge Scott was chosen .Justice of the Supreme Court



for a term of nine years; was re-elected in 1879, but declined a renomination in 1888. The latter years of his life were devoted to his private affairs. Died, at Bloomington, Jan. 21, 1898. Shortly before liis death Judge Scott publi.slied a volume containing a History of the Illinois Supreme Court, including brief sketches of the early occupants of the Supreme Court bench and early lawyers of the State.

SCOTT, and


Thompson, was born

real-estate operator,

Ky., Feb.

24, 1828;

agriculturist at Le.xington,

graduated at Centre College

in 1846, then spent several j'ears looking after his father's landed interests in Oliio,

to Illinois self


and invested largely






in lands for liini-

laid out the

town of Chenoa

in 1856; lived in Springfield in 18T0-72, wlien he


to Bloomington,

where he organized the

McLean County Coal Company, remaining ;is its head until his death; was also the founder of "The BUwmington Bulletin," in 1878. Died, at Bloomington, May 21, 1891. SCOTT, Owen, journalist and e.x-Congressman. was born in Jackson Townsliip, Effingham

Adam Miller. Allen erected the first house in the county, John Scott the second and Adan^ Miller the third. About the same time came Stephen M. Umpstead, whose wife was the first white woman in the county. Other pioneers were Jedediah Webster, Stephen Pierce, Joseph Densmore, Jes.se Roberts, and Samuel Bogard. The country was rough and the conveniences of civilization few and remote. Settlers took their com to Edwardsville to be ground, and went to Alton for their mail. Turbulence early showed itself, and, in 1822, a band of "Regulators" was organized from the best citizens, who meted out a rough and ready sort of justice, until 1830, occasionally shooting a de.sperado at his cabin door. Scott County was cut off from Morgan and organized in 1839. It contains good farming land, much of it being originally timbered, and it is well watered by the Illinois River and niunerous small streams. Winchester is the county-seat. Population of the county (1880), 10,741; (1890), 10,304; (1900). 10,4-55.


was born near was taken to Rushville, 111., in childhood, and educated at McKendree College; studied law and came to L., journalist,

Cape (iirardeau. Mo., Feb.

on a farm, and, common-school education, became a teacher, and was, for eight

Chicago in

years. Superintendent of Schools for his native

but, a year or so later,





1848, reared

after receiving a thorough

county. In January, 1874, he was admitted to the bar, but abandoned practice, ten years later. to engage in newspaper work. His first publication was "The Effingham Democrat," wliicli he left to become proprietor and manager of "The Bloomington Bulletin." He was also publisher of



Freemason," a monthly periodi-

Before removing to Bloomington ho filled the offices of City Attorney and Mayor of Effingham, and also served as Deputy Collector of Internal Revenue. In 1890 lie was elected as a Democrat from the Fourteenth Illinois District to the Fifty-second Congress. In 1892 he was a candidate for re-election, but was defeated by his Republican opponent, Benjamin F. Funk. During the past few years, Mr. Scott has been editor of "The Bloomington Leader." SCOTT COUNTY, lies in the western part of the State adjoining the Illinois River, and lias an area of 248 stjuare miles. The region was originally owned by the Kickapoo Indians, who ceded it to the Government by the treaty of Edwardsville, July 30, 181!!. Six months later (in January. 1820) a party of Kentuckians settled near Lynnville (now in Morgan County), their names being Thomas Stevens, James Scott, Alfred Miller, Thomas Allen. John Scott and cal.

18, 1818;

with the intention of practicing, bought a third interest in "The Chicago Tribune," whidi had been establislied during the previous year. In 1852 he withdrew from "The Tribune," and, in conjunction with William Rross (afterwards Lieuten1847,

ant-Governor), established "The Dailj- Democratic Press," which was consolidated with "The Tribune" in July, 1858, under the name of "The Press and Tribune," Mr. Scripps remaining one of the editors of the new concern. In 1861 he was appointed, by Mr. Lincoln, Postmaster of the city of Cliicago. serving until 1865, when, having sold his interest in "The Tribune," he engaged in the banking business as a member of the firm of Scripps, Preston & Kean. His health, however, soon showed signs of failure, and he died, Sept. 21, 1866, at Minneapolis, Minn., whither he had gone in hojies of restoration. Mr. Scripps was a finished and able writer who did much to elevate the standard of Chicago journalism. SCRO(;(iS. Goorife, journalist, was born at Wilmington, Clintim. County, Ohio, Oct. 7, 1842 the son of Dr. John W. Scroggs, wlio came to Champaign County, 111., in 1S51, and, in 1858, took charge of "The Central Illinois Gazette." In 1866-67 Dr. Scroggs was active in securing the location of the State University at Champaign, afterwards serving as a member of the first Board


HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. of Trustees of that institution. The son, at the age of 15, became au apprentice in his father's printing office, continuing until 1862, when he enlisted as a private in the

One Hundred and

Twenty -fifth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, being promoted through the positions of Sergeant-Ma jor and Second Lieutenant, and finally serving on the staffs of Gen. Jeff. C. Davis and Gen. James D. Morgan, but declining a commission as Adjutant of the Sixtieth lUinois. He participated in the battles of Perry ville, Cbiekamauga, Mission Ridge and the march with Sherman to the sea, in

the latter being severely wounded at Bentonville, N. C. He remained in the service until July, 1865, when he resigned; then entered the University at


later studied law,


while writing for "The Champaign Gazette and Union," of which he finallj' became sole proprietor. In 1877 he was appointed an Aid-de-Camp on the staff of Governor CuUom, and, the following year, was elected to the Thirty-first General Assemblj', but, before the close of the session (1879), received the appointment of United States Consul to Hamburg. Germany. He was compelled to surrender this position, a year later, on account of ill-health, and, returning home, died,

Oct. 15, 18S0.


a village in Hall Township, Population (1900^, 909. SECRETARIES OF STATE. The following is

Bureau County. a


of the Secretaries of State of Illinois


admission into the Union down to the present time (1899), with the date and duration of the term of each incumbent: Elias Kent Kane, its


Samuel D. Lockwood,



Birkbeck, October, BlackweU, 1824 to January, 1825 (failed of confirmation by the Senate); George Forquer, 1825-28 Alexander Pope Field, 1828-40; Stephen A. Douglas, 1840-41 (served three months resigned to take a seat on the Supreme bench); Lyman Trumbull. 184143; Thompson Campbell, 1843-46; Horace S. Cooley, 1823-24;





Starne, 1853-57


L. Gregg, 1850-53; Alexander Ozias M. Hatch, 1857-65 Sharon ;

1869-73; Tyndale. 1865-69; Edward Rummel, George H. Harlow, 1873-81; Henry D. Dement, 1881-89; Isaac N. Pearson, 1889-93; M^iUiam H. Hinrichsen, 1893-97; James A. Rose, 1897 Nathaniel Pope and Joseph Phillips were the only .







period, the former serving from 1809 to 1816, and the latter from 1816 to 1818. Under the first Constitution (1818) the office of the Secretary of State was filled by appointment by the Governor, by and with the advice and consent of the


Senate, but without limitation as to term of By the Constitution of 1848, and again by


that of 1870, that officer was made elective by the people at the same time as the Governor, for a terra of four 3'ears.

SECRET TREASONABLE SOCIETIES. War of the Rebellion there sprang

in the

Early up, at

various points in the Northwest, organizations of persons disaffected toward the National Government. They were most numerous in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois,

Kentucky and




they were known by such titles as "Circles of Honor," "Mutual Protective Associations," etc. But they had kindred aims and their members were soon united in one organization, styled "Knights of the Golden Circle." Its secrets having been partially disclosed, this body ceased to exist or, it would be more correct to say, changed its name being soon succeeded (1863) by an organization of similar character, called the "American Knights." These societies, as first formed, were rather political than military.

The "American Knights" had more forcible aims, but this, in turn, was also exposed, and the order was re organized under the name of "Sons of Liberty." The last named order started in Indiana, and, owing to its more perfect organiNorthwest, zation, rapidly spread over the acquiring mvieh more strength and influence than its predecessors had done. The ultimate authority of the organization was vested in a Supreme Council, whose officers were a "supreme commander, " "secretary of state," and "treasurer." Each State represented formed a division, under a deputy grand commander. States were divided into military districts, under "major-generals." County lodges were termed "temples." The order was virtually an officered army, and its '




aims were aggressive. It had its commander-inThree chief, its brigades and its regiments. degrees were recognized, and the oaths of secrecy taken at each initiation svirpassed, in binding force, either the oath of allegiance or an oath taken in a court of justice. The maintenance of slavery, and forcible opposition to a coercive policy by the Government in dealing with seces-

were the pivotal doctrines of the order. Its methods and purposes were to discourage enlistments and resist a draft to aid and protect





to disseminate treasonable literature

Government Clement L. Vallandigham, the expatriated traitor, was at its head, and, in 1864, claimed that it had a numerical strength of 400,000, of whom 65,000 were in Illinois. Many overt to aid the Confederates in destroying





acts were committed, but the organization, having been exposed and defeated in its objects, dis-




SELBY, Paul,


was born in Pickaway removed with his to Van Buren County, Iowa, but. went to Southern Illinois, wliere

County, Ohio. July parents, in 1837,

Camp Douglas Conspiract/.


20, 1825;

at the age of 19, he Sj)ent four years teaching, chiefly in Madison

Returning North with his family in his hands. July, 1861, he spent some nine months in the commissary and transportation branches of the serIn July, 18G2, vice at Cairo and at Paducah, Ky. he became a&sociate editor of "The Illinois State

Journal" at Springfield, remaining until NovemThe next six montlis were spent as ber, 1805. Assistant Deputy Collector in tlie Custom House New Orleans, but, returning North in June,

County. In 1848 he entered the preparatory department of Illinois College at Jacksonville, but left the institution during his junior j-ear to assume the editorship of '"The Morgan Journal," at Jacksonville, with which he remained until period of the tlie fall of 1858, covering the organization of the Republican party, in which "The Journal" took an active part. He was a member of the Anti-Nebraska (afterwards known as Republican) State Convention, which met at


Springfield, in October, 1854 (the first ever held in

Hayes by Arthur in while he had

the State), and, on Feb. 22, 1856, attended and presided over a conference of Anti-Nebraska editors of the State at Decatur, called to devise a line of policy for the newly organizing RepubAnti-Xcbratiica Editorial lican party. (See Convention.) Tliis body apjwinted the first Republican State Central Committee and designated the date of the Bloomiugtou Convention of May 29, following, which put in nomination the first Republican State ticket ever named in Illinois, which ticket was elected in the following November (See Bloomington Convention.) In 1859 he prepared a pamphlet giving a history of the celebrated Canal scrip fraud, which was widely circulated. (See Canal iScrip Fraud.) Going South in the fall of 1859, he was eng;iged in teaching in the State of Louisiana until the last of June, 1861. Just two weeks before the fall of Fort Sumter he was denounced to his Southern neighbors as an "abolitionist" and falselj- charged with having been connected with the "underground railroad," in letters from secession sympathizers in the North, whose personal and political enmity he had incurred while conducting a Republican paper in Illinois, .some of whom referred to Jefferson Davis, Senator Slidell, of Louisiana, and other Southern leaders as vouchers for their characters. He at once invited an investigation by the Board of Trustees of the institution, of which he was the Principal, when that bodj- although composed, for the most part, of Southern men on the basis of te.stimonials from prominent citizens of Jacksonville, and other evidence, adopted resolutions declaring the charges prompted by personal hostility, and delivered the letters of his accusers into

1866, he soon after became identified with the Chicago press, serving, first upon the staff of "The Evening Journal" and, later, on, "The Republican." In May, 1808, he assumed the editorship of "The Quincy Whig," ultimately becoming

part proprietor of that paper, but, in Jainiary, 1874, resumed his old place on "The State Journal," four years later etors.

becoming one of



In 1880 he was appointed b\' President Postmaster of Springfield, was reappointed

but resigned in




"The Journal." but the following year organized a new company for its purchase, when he resumed his former sold his interest in

In 1889 he disposed of his holding in "The Journal," finally removing to Chicago, wliere he has been employed in literary work. In all he has been engaged in editorial work over thirty-five j"ears, of which eighteen were spent upon "The State Journal." In 1860 Mr. Selby was complimented by his Alma Mater with the honorary degree of A. M. He has been twice married, first to Miss Erra Post, of Springfield, who died in November. 1805, leaving two daughters, and, in 1870, to Mrs. Mary J. Hitchcock, of Quincy. by whom he had two children, both of whom died in infancy.

positioo as editor.


SEMPLE, James, born


United States Senator, was Green County, Ky., Jan. 5, 1798, of Scotch

descent; after learning the tanner's trade, studied

law and emigrated to

removing where he was ad-

Illinois in 1818,

to Jlissouri four years later,

mitted to the bar. Returning to Illinois in 1828, he began practice at Edwardsville. hut later became a citizen of Alton. During the Black Hawk War he served as Brigadier-General. He was thrice elected to the lower house of the Legislature (1832, "34 and '36), and was Speaker during the last two terms. In 1833 he was elected Attorney-General by the Legislature, but served onh- until the following j-ear. and, in 1837, was appointed Minister to Granada. South America. In 1843 he was appointed, and afterwards elected. United States Senator to fill the unexpired term of Samuel McRolierts, at the expiration of his term (1847) retiring to private

niSTOrJCAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. He laid out the town of Elsah, in Jersey County, just south of which lie owned a large estate on the Mississippi bhiffs, where he died. life.


30, ISGG.


(formerly Crotty), a village of La Salle County, situated on the Illinois River, the Illinois & Michigan Canal and the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific and the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railways, 13 miles east of Ottawa. It has a graded school, several churches, a bank, some manufactures, grain warehouses, coal mines, telephone system and one newspaper. Pop. (1890), 1,190; (1900), 1,036. SENN, (Dr.) Nicholas, physican and surgeon, was born in the Canton of St. Gaul, Switzerland, Oct. 31, 1844; was brought to America at 8 years of age, his parents settling at Washington, Wis. He received a grammar school education at Fond du Lac, and, in 1804, began the studj' of medicine, graduating at the Chicago Medical College in 1868. After some eighteen months spent as resident physician in the Cook County Hospital,

he began practice at Ashford, Wis. but removed Milwaukee in 1874, where he became attending physician of the Milwaukee Hospital. In 1877 he visited Europe, graduated the following year from the University of Munich, and, on his return, became Professor of the Principles of Surgery and Surgical Pathology in Rush Medical College in Chicago also has held the chair of the Practice of Surgery in the same institution. Dr. Senn has achieved great success and won an international reputation in the treatment of difficult cases of abdominal surgery. He is the author of a number of volumes on different branches of surgery which are recognized as standard authorities. A few years ago he purchased the extensive library of the late Dr. William Baum, Professor of Surgery in the University of Gottingen, which he presented to the Newberry Library of Chicago. In 1893, Dr. Senn was appointed Surgeon-General of the Illinois National Guard, and has also been President of the Association of Military Surgeons of the National Guard of the United States, besides being identified with various other medical bodies. Soon after the beginning of the SpanishAmerican War, he was appointed, by President McKinlej', a Surgeon of Volunteers with the rank of Colonel, and rendered most efficient aid in the military branch of the service at Camp Chickamauga and in the Santiago campaign. SEXTON, (Col.) James A., Commander-inChief of Grand Army of the Republic, was born ,


in the city of

Chicago, Jan.




in April,


being then only a



under the

475 over


enlisted as a

for troops issued by President Lincoln; at the close of his soldier



term was appointed a Sergeant, with authority to recruit a company which afterwards was attached to the Fifty-first Volunteer Infantry.

was transferred

to the

Later, he

Sixty-seventh with the

rank of Lieutenant, and, a few months after, to Seventy -second with a commission as Captain of Company D, which he had recruited. As commander of his regiment, then constituting a part of the Seventeenth Army Corps, he participated in the battles of Columbia, Duck Creek, Spring Hill, Franklin and Nashville, and in the Nashville campaign. Both at Nashville and Franklin he was wounded, and again, at Spanish Fort, bj' a piece of shell which broke his leg. His re,giment took part in seven battles and eleven skirmishes, and, while it went out 967 strong in officers and men, it returned with only 333, all told, although it had been recruited by 234 men. He was known as "The boy Captain," being only 18 years old when he received his first commission, and 21 when, after participating in the Mobile campaign, he was mustered out with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. After the close of the war he engaged in planting in the South, purchasing a plantation in Lowndes County, Ala., but, in 1867, returned to Chicago, where he became a member of the firm of Cribben, Sexton & Co., stove manufacturers, from which he retired in 1898. In 1884 he served as Presidential Elector on the Republican ticket for the Fourth District, and, in 1889, was appointed, by President Harrison, Postmaster of the city of Chicago, serving over In 1888 he was chosen Department five years. Commander of the Grand Army of the Republic tlie

for the State of Illinois, and, ten years later, to the position of Commander-in-Chief of the order, which he held at the time of his death. He had also been, for a number of years, one of the Trustees of the Soldiers" and Sailors' Home at Quincy, and, during most of the time. President of the Board. Towards the close of the j-ear 1898, he was appointed by President McKinley a member of the Commission to investigate the conduct of the Spanish-American War, but, before the Commission had concluded its labors, was taken with "the grip," which develaped into pneumonia, from which he died in Washington, Feb. 5, 1899. SEYMOUR, Oeorge Franklin, Protestant Episcopal Bishop, was born in New York City, Jan. 5, 1829; graduated from Columbia College in 1850, and from the General Theological Seminary (New York) in 1854. He received both minor



47G and major orders

at the liands of Bishop Potter,

made deacon

and ordained ])riest in 1855. For several years he w;is engaged in missionary work. Dm"ing this period lie was prominently identified with the founding of St. being

in 1854

Stephen's College. After serving as rector in various parishes, in 1865 he was made Professor of Ecclesiastical History in the New York Seminary, and, ten years later, was chosen Dean of the institution, still retaining his professorship. Racine College conferred upon him the degree of S.T.D., in 1867, and Columbia that of LL.D. in 1878. In 1874 he was elected Bisliop of Illinois, but failed of confirmation in the House of Deputies. Upon the erection of the new diocese of Springfield (1877) he accepted and was consecrated Bishop at Trinity Church. N. Y., June 11. 1878. He was a prominent member of the Third Pan-Anglican Council (London. 1885), and has done much to foster the growth and extend the influence of his cliurcli in Ids diocese.

SHABBOXA, a village of De Kalb County, on the Iowa Division of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, 25 miles west of Aurora. Population (1890), 502; (1900), 587. SHABONA (or Shabbona). an Ottawa Cliief. was born near the JIaumee Hiver, in Ohio, about 1775. and served under Tecumseh from 1807 to the battle of the Thames in 1813. In 1810 he accompanied Tecumseh and Capt. Billy Caldwell (see Hatiganash) to the homes of the Pottawatomies and other tribes within the present limits of Illinois and Wisconsin, to secure their co-operation in driving the white settlers out of the countrj'. At the battle of the Thames, he was by the side of Tecumseh when he fell, and both he and Caldwell, losing faith in their Britisli allies, soon after submitted to the United States tlirough General Cass at Detroit. Shabona was opposed to Black Hawk in 18;i'2. anreceding and early Chicago merchant, was born at Barre, Vt., March 5, 1816. After spending several years in a mercantile house in Montpelier, Vt.. at the age of twenty he came west, fir.st to New Buffalo, Mich., and, in 1836, to Chicago, opening a drj'-goods store there the next spring. With various partners Mr. Sherman continued in a general mercantile business until IS.'iS, at the same time being extensively engaged in the provision trade, one half the entire transactions in pork in the city passing through Next lie engaged in developing stone Lis hands. quarries at Lemont, 111. also became extensively interested in the marble business, continuing in this until a few years after the panic of 1873,

Brigadier-General in the Jlexican War gaining the brevet of Jlajor-General at Cerro-Gordo, where lie was .severely wounded. He was again wounded at Cliapultepec, and mustered out in 1848. The same year he was appointed Governor In 1849 the Democrats in of Oregon Territory. the Illinois Legislature elected him Senator, and he resigned his office in Oregon. In 1856 he removed to Jlinnesota, and, in 18.'i8, was chosen

to secure a better

He was esiiecially common school education, being for several years a member of the City School Board. He was city.


when he paralysis.

retired in consequence of a shock of

Died, in Chicago, Dec.


15. 1898.

lawyer, was born at his family being Fairfield, Vt., June is, 1S32 distantly related to Roger Slierman, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, and the late Elijah


Gjn. \V. T. Sherman; gained his education in the

United States Senator from that State, his term expiring in 1859, when he established a residence in California. At the outbreak of the Civil War (18(il) he was superintending a mine in Mexico, but at once hastened to Washington to tender liis .services to the Governmnet. He was commissioned Brigadier-General, and served with distinction until March. 1863. when the effect of luMiiyrous

wounds cau.sed


to resign.

He sub-

sequently removed to Missouri, practicing law at CarroUton and serving in the Legislature of that State in 1874 and 1879. In the latter year he was elected L^nited States Senator to fill out the unex pired term of Senator Bogy, who had died in office— serving only six week.s, but being the only man in the history of the country who filled the office of United States Senator from three differ-



ent States.

Ottumwa, Iowa, June



SHIPMAN, a town

of Macoupin County, on the Alton Railway, 19 miles north-northeast of Alton and 14 miles southwest of Carlinville. Population (1890), 410; (1900), 390. SHIPMAN, George E., M.D,, physician and philanthropist, born in New York City, March 4, 1820 graduated at the University of New York in 1839, and took a course in the College of Physicians and Surgeons; practiced for a time at




where he assisted in organizing the first Homeopathic Hospital in that city, and, in 1855, was one of the first Trustees of Hahnemann College. In 1871 he Peoria,


but, in 1846, located in Chicago,

established, in Chicago, the Foundlings' his




expense, giving to




the latter years of

Died, Jan. 20, 1893.


Daniel Lewis, law3'er and philanat Jonesborough, Washington County, Maine, Jan. 31, 1824; educated at Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass., and at Dartmouth College, graduating from the latter in 18.j1 taught two j-ears in Washington City, meanwhile reading law, afterwards taking a course at Dane Law School, Cambridge was admitted to the bar in Boston in 1854, the next year locating at Davenport, Iowa, where he remained teii years. In 1865 he removed to Chicago, where he prosecuted his profession until 1890, when he retired. Mr. Shorey was prominent in the estaljlisliment of the Chicago Public Library, and a member of the first Library Board was also a prominent member of the Chicago Literary Club, and was a Director in the new University of Chicago and deeply interested in its prosperity. Died, in Chithropist,

was born










clergyman and brought to Morgan County, 111. in childhood, and lived upon a farm until 20 years of age, when he entered McKendree College, spending his senior year, however, at Wesleyan University, Bloomiugton, where he graduated in 1854. He had meanwhile



was born




in 1829,


accepted a call to the Slissouri Conference Seminary at Jackson, Mo. where he remained three years, when he returned to Illinois, serving churches at Jacksonville and elsewhere, for a part of the time being Presiding Elder of the Jacksonville District. In 1875 he was elected President of Illinois Female College at Jacksonville, continuing in that position until 1893, when he was appointed Superintendent of the Illinois State Institution for the Blind at the same place, but resigned earlv in 1897. Dr. Short received ;


the degree of D.D.. conferred upon him by Ohio Wesleyan University. SHOUP, (Jeorge L., United States Senator, was born at Kittanning, Pa., June 15, 1836, came to Illinois in 1852, his father locating on a stockfarm near Galesburg; in 1859 removed to Colorado,

where he engaged


mining and mercantile

business until 1861, when he enlisted in a company of scouts, being advanced from the rank of First Lieutenant to the Colonelcy of the Third

Colorado Cavalry, meanwhile serving as Delegate to the State Constitutional Convention of 1864.

Retiring to private cantile anil


he again engaged in mer-

mining business,



Nevada and

then in Idaho; served two terms in the Territorial Legislature of the latter, was appointed Territorial Governor in 1889 and, in 1890, was chosen the first Governor of the State, in October of the same year being elected to the United States Senate, and re-elected in 1895 for a second term, which ends in 1901. Senator Shoup is one of the few Western Senators who remained faithful to the regular Republican organization, during the political campaign of 1896.

SHOWALTER, John W., jurist, was born in Mason County, Ky., Feb. 8, 1844; resided some years in Scott County in that State, and was educated in the local schools, at Maysville and Ohio University, lege in 1867;

graduating at Yale ColChicago in 1869, studied




law and was admitted to the bar in 1870. He returned to Kentucky after the fire of 1871, but, in 1872, again came to Chicago and entered the of the firm of Moore & Caulfield, with whom he had been before the fire. In 1879 he became a member of the firm of Abbott, Oliver & Showalter (later, Oliver & Showalter), where he remained until his appointment as United States Circuit Judge, in March, 1895.


Died, in Chicago, Deo.

13, 1898.

SHUMAN, Andrew, journalist and

LieutenantGovernor, was born at Manor, Lancaster County, Pa., Nov. 8, 1830. His father dying in 1837, he was reared b}- an uncle. At the age of 15 he became an apprentice in the office of "The Lancaster Union and Sentinel." A year later he accompanied his employer to Auburn, N.Y. .working for two years on "The Daily Advertiser" of that city, then known as Governor Seward's "home organ." At the age of 18 he edited, published and distributed during his leisure hours small weekly paper called "The Auburniau." At the conclusion of his apprenticeship he was employed, for a year or two. in editing and publisliing "The Cajmga Chief," a temparance journal.



In lf*."il he entereil namilton College, but, before the completion of liis junior year, consented, at the solicitation of friends of William H. Seward, to assume editorial control of '"The Syracuse In July, 1856, he came to CliiDailj' Journal." cago, to accept an editorial position on "The Evening Journal" of that city, later becoming editor-in-cliief and President of the Journal Company. From 18G.5 to 1870 (first by executive appointment and afterward by popular election) he was a Commissioner of the Illinois State Penitentiarj- at Joliet, resigning tlie office four years before the expiration of his term. In 1876 he was elected Lieutenant-Governor on the RepubOwing to declining health, he lican ticket.

abandoned active journalistic work in 1888, dying in Cliicago, May 5, 1800. His home during the latter years of his





Governor Shuman was author of a romance entitled "Loves of a Lawyer," besides numerous addresses before literary, commercial and scientific associations.

Dorice D^Tight, merchant, was born at WiUianisburg, 'Worcester County, Mass., Sept. 28, 1813. descended from French Huguenot


college §10,000.

to Zanesville, Ohio, in 1837,


Jlontgomery County, 111., in 1841; married a daughter of Hiram Rountree. an earlj- resident to

and the


was named


College classes were not organized until 1840, and several years elapsed before a class his honor.






was over

worth of real and personal jiroperty. About 25.5 students were in attendance. Besides preparatory and collegiate $126,000, in addition to §12.j,000

departments, the college also maintains a theological school. It has a faculty of twenty instructors



by Rev. John M. Peck. This l>ecame the "Rock Spring Seminary" in 1827, and, about 1831, was imited with an academy at Upper Alton. This was the nucleus of "Alton" (afterward "ShurtlefT") College. As far as its denominational control is concerned, it has always lieen dominated bj- Baptist influence. Dr. Peck's original idea was to found a school for teaching theology and Biblical literature, but this project was at first inhibited by the State. Hubbard Loomis and Jolin Ru.s.sell were among the first instructors. Later, Dr. Benjamin Shurtleff donated the





on the Chicago Division of the Waba.sh Railway, 105 miles south-southwest of Chicago; has banks and a weekly newspaper. The district is agricultural. Population (1890). 404; (1900), 444. SIBLEY, Joseph, lawyer and jurist, was bom village of Ford County,

of Hillsboro, and, in 1843, located in Christian

at Westfield. Mass., in 181S; learned the trade of

County; was engaged for a time

a wliip maker and afterwards engaged in merchandising. In 1843 he began the study of law at Syracuse, N. Y., and, upon admission to the bar, came west, finally settling at Xauvoo, Hancock County. He maintained a neutral attitude during the Mormon troubles, thus giving offense In 1847 he was to a section of the community. an unsuccessful candidate for the Legislature, but was elected in 1S.50, and re-elected in 18.52. In 1853 he removed to Warsaw, and. in 1855. was



ing at Taylorville, but retired in 18.')8, thereafter giving his attention to a large landed estate. In 1846 he was cliosen Representative in the General Assembly, .served in the Constitutional Convention of 1847, and four years as County Judge of Christian County. Died, May 9, 1870.— Hiram P. (Shumway), eldest son of the preceding, was born in Jlontgomery County, 111., June, 1842; spent his boyhood on a farm in Christian County

and in liis father's store at Taylorville; took an academy course and, in 1864, engaged in mercantile busine.ss; was Repre.sentative in the Twentyeighth Genei-al Assembly and Senator in the Thirty sixth and Tliirty-seventh, afterwards removing to Springfield, where he engaged in the stone busine.ss.


COLLEGE, an institution Upper Alton, and the third established in Illinois. It was originally incorporated as the "Alton College" in 1831, under a special charter which was not accepted, but re-incorporated in 183.5, in an "omnibus bill" with Illinois and JIcKendree Colleges. (See Early Colleges.) Its primal origin was a school at Rock located at

Spring in

St. Clair

County, founded about


Judge of the Circuit Court, and re-elected and '73, being assigned to the bench of the Appellate Court of the Second District, in 1877. His residence, after 1865, was at Quincy, where he died. June 18, 1897. SIDELL, a village of Vermillion County, on the Chicago & Eastern Illinois and Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Railroads; has a bank, electric Pop. (1900), 776. light jilant and a newspaper. SIDNEY, a village of Champjiign County, on the main lineof the Waba.sh Railway, at the junction of a branch to Champaign, 48 miles east-northeast of Decatur. It is in a farming district has a bank anil a newspaper. Po|)uIation. (1900), 564. SIM, (Dr.) William, pioneer physician, was elected

in 1861, '67


born at Aberdeen, Scotland, in




HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. America in early manhood, and was the first phyat Golconda, in Pope County, which he represented in the Fourth and Fifth General Assemblies (1824 and '28). He married a Miss Elizabeth Jack of Philadelphia, making the joiirney from Golconda to Philadelpliia for that purpose on horseback. He had a family of

sician to settle

five children,

one son. Dr. Francis L. Sim, rising

to distinction as a physician, and, for a time, being President of a Jledical College at Memphis,



elder Dr.

Sim died

at Golconda, in


SIMS, James, early legislator and Methodist was a native of South Carolina, but removed to Kentucky in early manhood, thence preacher,

111., and, in 1820, to SangaCounty, where he was elected, in 1822, as the first Representative from that county in the Third General Assembly. At the succeeding session of the Legislature, he was one of those who voted against the Convention resolution designed to prepare the way for making Illinois a slave Mr. Sims resided for a time in Menard State. County, but finally removed to Morgan. SlJfGER, Horace JI., capitahst, was born in -Schnectady, N. Y., Oct. 1, 1823; came to Chicago in 1836 and found employment on the Illinois & Michigan Canal, serving as superintendent of While thus repairs upon the Canal until 1853. employed he became one of the proprietors of the stone-quarries at Lemont, managed by the firm of Singer & Talcott until about 1890, when they became the property of the Western Stone Company. Originally a Democrat, he became a Republican during the Civil War, and served as a member of the Twenty-fifth General Assembly (1867) for Cook County, was elected County Commissioner in 1870, and was Chairman of the Republican County Central Committee in 1880. He was also associated with several financial institutions, being a director of tlie First National Bank and of the Auditorium Company of Chicago, and a member of the Union League and Calumet Clubs. Died, at Pasadena, Cal., Dec.

to St. Clair C'oimty,


28, 1896.

SINGLETON, James W., Congressman, born 23, 1811; was educated at the Winchester (Va.) Academy, and removed to

at Paxton, Va., Nov.

Illinois in 1833, settling first at

Brown County, near Quincy.

and was prominent affairs.



and, some twenty years later, By profession he was a lawyer, in political

and commercial

In his later years he devoted consider-

able attention to stock-raising. He was elected Brigadier-General of the Illinois militia in 1844,


being identified to some extent with the "Morof the Constitutional Conventions of 1847 and 1862, served six terms in the Legislature, and was elected, on the Democratic ticket, to Congress in 1878, and again in 1880. In 1883 he ran as an independent Democrat, but was defeated by the regular nominee of During the War of his party, James M. Riggs. the Rebellion he was one of the most conspicuous leaders of the "peace party." He constructed the Quincy & Toledo (now part of the Wabash) and the Quincy, Alton & St. Louis (now part of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy) Railways, being President of both companies. His death occurred at Baltimore, Md., April 4, 1892. SINNET, John S., pioneer, was born at Lexington, Ky., March 10, 1796; at three years of age, taken by his parents to Jlissouri enlisted in the War of 1812, but, soon after the war, ;3ame to Illinois, and, about 1818, settled in what is now Christian County, locating on land constituting a part of the present city of Taylorville. In 1840 he reuroved to Tazewell County, dying there, Jan.

mon War" was a member ;


13, 1872.

SKINNER, Mark, bury College in


was born at Manchesfrom Middle-

1813; graduated

ter, Vt., Sept. 13,

1833, studied law, and, in 1836,

was admitted to the bar in became City Attorney in 1840, later Master Chancery for Cook County, and finally United


to Chicago;



States District Attorney under President Tyler. As member of the House Finance Committee in

the Fifteenth General Assembly (1846-48), he aided influentially iu securing the adoption of measures for refunding and paying the State In 1851 he was elected Judge of the Court debt. of Common Pleas (now Superior Court) of Cook County, but declined a re-election in 18.53. Originally a Democrat, Judge Skinner was an ardent opponent of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill and a liberal supporter of the Government policy during the rebellion. He liberally aiiled the United States Sanitary Commission and was identified with all the leading cliarities of the city. Among the great bvisiness enterprises with which he was officially associated were the Galena & Chicago Union and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railways (in each of which he was a Director), the Chicago Marine & Fire Insurance Company, the Gas-Light and Coke Company and others. Died, Sept. 16, 1887. Judge Skinner's only surviving son was killed in tlie trenches before Petersburg, the last year of the Civil War. SKINNER, Otis Ainswortli, clergyman and author, was born at Royalton, Vt., July 3, 1807;



taught for some time, became a Universalist minister, serving churches in Baltimore, Boston and New York between 1831 and 1S57; then


to Elgin,


was elected President



bard University at Galesburg, but the following year took charge of a church at Joliet. Died, at He wrote several volNaperville, Sept. 18, 18G1. religious topics, and, at different times, edited religious periodicals at Baltimore. Haverhill, Ma.s.s., and Boston.

umes on

SKINNER, Ozias C, lawyer and jurist, was born at Floyd, Oneida County, N. Y., in 1817; in Peoria 1836, removed to Illinois, settling in County, where he engaged in farming. In 1838 he began the study of law at Greenville, Ohio, and was admitted to the bar of that State in 1840. Eighteen months later he returned to Illinois, and began practice at Carthage, Hancock County, removing to Quincy in 1844. During the "Mormon War" he .served as Aid-de-camp to Governor In 1848 be was elected to tlie lower house Ford. of the Sixteenth General Assembly, and, for a sliort time, served as Prosecuting Attorney for the district including Adams and Brown CounIn 18.51 he was elected Judge of the (then) ties. Fifteenth Judicial Circuit, and, in 1855, succeeded Judge S. H. Treat on the Supreme bench, resigning this position in April, 1858, two months before the e.\piration of his term. He was a large land owner and had extensive agricultural He built, and was tlie first President interests. of the Carthage & Quiucy Kailroad. now a part of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy system. He was a prominent member of the Constitutional Convention of 1869, serving as Chairman of the

Died in 1877. Charles, early Congressman; his early history, including date and place of birth, are unknown. In 1820 he was elected Representative from Washington County in the Second General Assembly, and, in 1826. was re-elected to the same body for Clinton and Washington. In 1833 he was elected one of the three Congressmen from Illinois, representing the First District. After attending the first session of the Twentythird Congress, while on his way home, he was attacked with cholera, dying near Vinoennes,

Committee on Judiciary.


Ind., July 11. 1834.

SLADE, James P., ex-State Suiwrintendent of Public Instruction, was born at Westerlo, Albany County, N. Y., Feb. 9, 1837. and spent his boyhood with his parents on a farm, except while absent at school; in 1856 removed to Belleville, 111., where he soon became connected with the public schools, serving for a number of years as

Principal of the Belleville High School. While connected with the BelleviUe schools, he was elected County Superintendent, remaining in office some ten j-ears; later had charge of Almira College at Greenville, Bond County, served six years as Superintendent of Schools at East St. Louis and, in 1878, was elected State Superintend-

ent of Public Instruction as the nominee of the Republican party. On retirement from the office of State Superintendent, he resumed his place at the head of Almira College, but. for the past few years, has been Superintendent of Schools at East St. Louis. SLAVERY ACilTATIOX OF 1823-24. (See Slavery and Slave Laws.)


African slaves country by a Frenchman named Pierre F. Renault, about 1722. At that time the present State formed a part of Louisiana, and the traffic in slaves was regulated by French royal edicts. When Great Britain acquired the territory, at the close of the French and Indian War, the former subjects of France were guaranteed security for their persons "and effects," and no interference with slavery was attempted. Upon the conquest of Illinois by Virginia (see Clark, George Rogers), the French very generallj' professed allegiance to that commonwealth, and, in her deed of cession to the L^nited States. Virginia expressly stipulated for the protection of the "rights and lilierties" of the French citizens. This was construed as recognizing the right of property in negro Even the Ordinance of 1787, wliile proslaves. hibiting slavery in the Northwest Territory, preserved to the settlers (reference being especially made to the French and Canadians) "of the Kaskaskias, St. Vincents and neighboring villages, their laws and cu.stoms. now (then) in force, relative to the descent and conveyance of propA conservative construction of tliis clause erty. " was, that wliile it prohibited the extension of slavery and the importation of slaves, the status of those who were at that time in involuntary servitude, and of their descendants, was left unchanged. There were those, however, who denied the con.stitutionality of the Ordinance in toto, on the ground that Congress had exceeded its powers in its passage. There was also a party which claimed that all children of slaves, born In 1794 a conafter 1787, were free from birth vention was held at Vincenues, pursuant to a call from Governor Harrison, and a memorial to Congress was adopted, praying for the repeal—or. at least a modification of the sixth clause of the



brought into the


Ordinance of mittee,














reported adversely upon it but a second committee recommended the suspension of the operation of the clause in question for ten years. But no action was taken by the National Legislature, ;

and, in 1807,' a counter petition, extensively signed, was forwarded to that body, and Congress

the matter in statu quo. It is worthy of note that some of the most earnest opponents of the measure were Representatives from Southern Slave States, John Randolph, of Virginia, being left

one of them. The pro-slavery party in the State then prepared what is popularly known as the "Indenture Law," which was one of the first acts adopted by Governor Edwards and his Council, and was re-enacted by the first Territorial Legislature in 1812.



"An Act relating and Mulattoes into


to the Introduction of Negroes this Territory,"

and gave permission

to bring

slaves above 15 j'ears of age into the State,


they might be registered and kept in servitude within certain limitations. Slaves under that age might also be brought in, registered, and held in bondage until they reached the age of 3.5, if males, and

30, if




issue of registered

master until according to sex. The efl'ect of this legislation was rapidly to increase the number of slaves. The Constitution of 1818 prohibited the introduction of slavery thereafter that is to sa}-, after its adoption. In 1822 the slave-holding party, with their supporters, began to agitate the question of so amending the organic law as to make Illinois a sla^e State. To effect such a change the calling of a convention was necessary, and, for eigliteen months, the struggle between "conventionists" and their opponents was bitter and fierce. The question was submitted to a popular vote on August 2, 1824, the result of the count showing 4,972 votes for such convention and 6,640 against. This decisive result settled the question of slave-holding in Illinois for all future time, though the existence of slavery in the State continued to be recognized by the National Census until 1840. The number, according to the census of 1810, was 168; in 1820 they had increased to 917. Then the number began to diminish, being reduced in 1830 to 747, and, in 1840 (the last census which shows any portion of the population held in bondage), it was 331. Hooper Warren who has been mentioned elsewhere as editor of "The Edwardsville Spectator," and a leading factor in securing the defeat of the slaves

to serve their mother's

the age of 30 or





a slave State in 1823 in of "The Genius of Liberty" (January, 1841), speaking of that contest, says there were, at its beginning, only three papers in the State "The Intelligencer" at Vaudalia, "The Gazette" at Shawneetown, and "The to

an article in the

Illinois first


Spectator" at Edwardsville. The first two of these, at the out.set, favored the Convention scheme, while "The Spectator" opposed it. The management of the campaign on the part of the pro-slavery party was assigned to Emanuel J. West, Theophilus W. Smith and Oliver L. Kelly, and a paper was established by the name of "The Illinois Republican," with Smith as editor. Among the active opponents of the measure were.

George Churchill, Thomas Lippincott, Samuel D. Lockwood, Henry Starr (afterwards of Cincinnati), Rev. John M. Peck and Rev. James Lemen, of St. Clair County. Others who contributed to the cause were Daniel P. Cook, Morris Birkbeck, Dr. Hugh Steel and Burton of Jackson County, Dr. Henry Perrine of Bond; William Leggett of Edwardsville (afterwards editor of "The New York Evening Post"), Benjanlin Lundy (then of Missouri), David Blackwell and Rev. John Dew, of St. Clair County, Still others were Nathaniel Pope (Judge of the United States District Court), William B. Archer, William H. Brown and Benjamin Mills (of Vandalia), John Tillson, Dr. Horatio Newhall, George Forquer, Col. Thomas JIather. Thomas Ford. Judge David J. Baker, Charles W. Hunter and Henry H.

Snow as

(of Alton).

This testimony


of interest

coming from one who probably had more

to do with defeating the scheme, with the exception of Gov. Edward Coles. Outside of the more elaborate Histories of Illinois, the most accurate and detailed accounts of this particular period are to be found in "Sketch of Edward Coles" by the late E. B. Washburne, and "Early Movement in Illinois for the Legalization of Slavery," an address before the Chicago Historical Society (1864), by Hon. William H. Brown, of Chicago.

(See also, Coles,

Edward; Warren.Hooper; Brown,


H.; Churchill, George; LipinncoU, Tliomas,- and Newspapers, Early, elsewhere in this volume.

SLOAN, Wesley, legislator and jurist, was born in Dorchester County, Md., Feb. 20,, 1806. At the age of 17, having received a fair academic education, he accompanied his parents to Philadelphia, where, for a year, he was employed in a wholesale grocery. His father dying, he returned to Maryland and engaged in teaching, at the same time studying law, and being admitted to



the bar in 1831. He came to Illinois in 1838, going first to Chicago, and afterward to Kaskaskia, finally settling at


in 1839,


continued to be his home the remainder of his life. In 1848 he was elected to the Legislature, and re-elected in IH.jO. ".W, and ''>(>. serving three times as Chairman of the Judiciary Committee. He was one of the members of tlie first State Board of Education, created by Act of Feb. 18, 18.07, and took a prominent part in the founding and organization of the State educational instiIn 18.j7 lie was elected to the bench of the Nineteenth Judicial Circuit, and re-elected in 18C1, but declined a re-election for a third term. Died, Jan. lb, 1H87. SMITH, Abner, jurist, was born at Orange, Franklin County, Mass., August 4, 1843, of an old New England family, whose ancestors came to Massachusetts Colony about 1630; was educated in the public schools and at Middlebury College, Vt., graduating from the latter in 1860. After graduation he sjtent a year as a teacher in Newton Academy, at Slioreham, Vt. coming to Chicago in 1867, and entering upon the study of law, being admitted to tlie bar in 1868. Tlie next twenty-tive years were spent in the practice of his profession in Chicago, within that time serving as the attorney of several important corjwIn 1893 he was elected a Judge of the rations. Circuit Court of Cook County, and re-elected in 1897, his term of service continuing until tutions.




ment Jan.

women's and children's




10. 1894.


Allen, lawyer, was born near

18, 1809; removed with his an early day, to Pulaski, Tenn. at 17 went to Courtland, Lawrence County, Ala., where he studied law with Judge Bramlette and Iiegan practice. His father, dying about 1831, left

Richmond, father,





him the owner

of a


of .slaves



he brought to Carlinville, 111., and emancipated, giving bond that they should not become a charge to the State. In 1839 he removed to Jacksonville, where he practiced law until his death. Col. John J. Hardin was his i)artner at tlie time of his deatli on the battle-field of Bueua Vista. Mr. Smith was a Trustee and generous patron of Illinois College, for a (piarter of a century, but never lield anj- political office. As a lawyer he was conscientious and faithful to the interests of his clients; as a citizen, liberal, pub1837,

patriotic. He contributed libersupport of the Government during the war for tlie Union. Died, at Anoka. Minn., July 13. 186.j. where he hud gone to lic-spirited





accompany an


(Smith), eldest son


Thomas ^Villiam the preceding, born at 27, 1832; died at Clearson.

Courtland, Ala., Sept. water, Minn., Oct. 29, 1865. He graduated at Illinois College in 1852, studied law and served as Captain in the Tenth Illinois Volunteers, until, broken in health, he returned home to die.

(Dr.) Charles (iilnian, physician,


born at Exeter, N. II., Jan. 4, ISiS, received his early education at Phillips Academy, in his native place, finally graduating from Harvard University in 1847. He soon after commenced the study of medicine in the Harvard Medical School, but completed his course at the University of Pennsylvania in 18.'>1. After two years spent, as attending physician of the Alms House in South Boston, Mass., in 1853 he came to Cl\icago, where he soon acquired an extensive practice. During the Civil War he was one of six physicians employed by the Government for the treatment of prisoners of


in hospital at



In 1868 he visited Europe for the purpose of observing the management of hospitals in Germany, France and England, on his return l)eing invited to lecture in the Woman's Medical College in Chicago, and also l)ecomiiig consulting physician in the Women's and Cliildreus Hosi)ital, as well as in the Pre.sbyterian Hospital a position which he continued to occujiy for the remainder of his life, gaining a wide reputation in the treat-

SMITH, Dietrich C, ex-Congressman, was born at Ostfricslaiul, Hanover, April 4. 1840. in boyhood caifie to the United States, and. since 1849, has been a resident of Pekin, Tazewell County. In 1861 he enlisted in the Eighth Illinois Volunteers, was promoted to a Lieutenancy, and, while so serving, was severelj- wounded at Shiloh. Later, he was attached to the One Hundred and Thirtj-ninth Illinois Infantry, and was mustered out of service asCaptiiin of Company C His bu.sine.ss is that of Ixiuker of that regiment. and manufacturer, besides which he has hail considerable experience in the construction and management of railroads. He was a member of the Thirtieth General Assembly, and, in 1880, was elected Representative in Congress from what was then the Thirteenth District, on the Republican ticket, defeating Adlai E. Stevenson, afterwards Vice-President. In 1882, his county (Tazewell) having been attached to the district for many years represented by Wm. M. Springer, he was defeated by the latter as a candidate for reelection.



of Chicago's pioneers

was born


in Aberdeenshire, Scot-

It was his early intention and he entered Aberdeen College with this end in view, but was forced to quit the institution at the end of two years, because




to study medicine,

of impaired vision.

In 1833 he came to America,

and, in 1834, settled in Chicago, where he resided until 1861, meanwhile spending one year in Scotland. He invested largely in real estate in Chicago and Wisconsin, at one time owning a considerable portion of the present site of Milwaukee. In 1837 he secured the charter for the

Wisconsin Marine and Fire Insurance Company, whose headquarters were at Milwaukee. He was really the owner of the company, although Alexander Mitchell, of Milwaukee, was its Secretary.


this charter Mr.

§1,500,000 in certificates,

Smith was able to issue which circulated freely

as currency. In 1839 he founded Chicago's first private banking house. About 1843 he was interested in a storage and commission business in Chicago, with a 5Ir. Webster as partner. lie was a Director in the old Galena & Chicago

Union Railroad (now a part of the Chicago & Northwestern), and aided it, while in course of construction, by loans of money was also a ;

charter member of the Chicago Board of Trade, organized in 1848. In 1854, the State of Wisconsin having prohibited the circulation of the Wisconsin Marine and Fire Insurance certificates


comand bought two Georgia bank charters, which, together, empowered him to issue §3,000,000 in currency. The notes were duly issued in Georgia, and put into circulation in Illinois, over the counter of George Smith & Co.'s Chicago bank. About 1856 Mr. Smith began winding up his affairs in Chicago, meanwhile spending most of his time in Scotland, above mentioned,



sold out tlie

to his partner, Mitchell,

but, returning in 1860,

made extensive


ments in railroad and other American securities, which netted him large profits. The amount of capital which he is reputed to have taken with


has been estimated at retained considerable tracts of valuable lands in Wisconsin and about Chicago. Among those who were associated to his native land




though he


otherwise, and

as employes or since been prominently

business, either

who have

with Chicago business affairs, were Hon. Charles B. Farwell, E. I. Tinkhani (afterwards a prominent banker of Chicago), E. W. Willard, now of Newport, R. I. and others. Mr. Smith made several visits, during the last forty




United States, but divided his time between Scotland (where he was the owner of a castle) and London. Died Oct. 7, 1899. SMITH, (ieorg'e W., soldier, lawyer and State years, to the chiefly

was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., Jan. was his intention to acquire a col-

Treasurer, 8,



education, but his father's business embarrassments having compelled the abandonment of his studies, at 17 of years age he went In to Arkansas and taught school for two years. 1856 he returned to Albany and began the study of law, graduating from the law school in 1858. In October of that year he removed to Chicago, where he remained continuously in practice, with legiate

the exception of the years 1862-65, when he was serving in the Union army, and 1867-68, when he He was musfilled the office of State Treasurer. tered into service, August 27, 1862, as a Captain in the Eighty-eighth Illinois Infantry the second Board of Trade regiment. At Stone River, he was seriovish' wounded and captured. After four days" confinement, he was aided by a negro He made his way to the Union lines, to escape. but was granted leave of absence, being incapacitated for service. On his return to duty he joined his regiment in the Chattanooga cam-

and was




for his

bravery at Gordon's Mills. At Mission Ridge he was again severely wounded, and was once more personally complimented in the oflScial report. At Kenesaw Mountain (Jime 27, 1864), Capt.

Smith commanded the regiment after the killing Lieutenant-Colonel Chandler, and was promoted to a Lieutenant-Colonelcy for bravery on the field. He led the charge at Franklin, and was brevetted Colonel, and thanked by the com-



for his gallant service.

In the spring of

was brevetted Brigadier-General, and, in June following, was mustered out. Returning to Chicago, he resumed the practice of his profession, and gained a prominent position at the bar. In 1866 he was elected State Treasurer, and, 1865 he

expiration of

after the

his term,

in January,

no public office. General Smith was, for many years, a Trustee of the Chicago Historical Society, and Vice-President of the Board. 1869, held

Died, in Chicago, Sept,

16, 1898.

SMITH, George W., lawyer and Congressman, was born in Putnam County, Ohio, August 18,


he was four years old, his father County, 111., settling on a farm. He attended the common schools and graduated from the literary department of McKendree College, at Lebanon, in 1868. In his youth he learned the trade of a blacksmith, but 1846.






After reading for later determined to study law. a time at Fairfield, 111., he entered the Law Department of tlie Bloomington (Ind.) UniverThe same year lie sity, graduating there in 1870. was admitted to the har in Illinois, and has since practiced at Murphyslwro. In 1880 he was a

Republican Presidential Elector, and, in



elected a Republican Representative to Congress Illinois District, and has been contiuuouslj' re-elected, now (1899) serving his sixth consecutive term as Representative

from the Twentieth

from the Twenty-second District. SMITH, Giles Alexander, soldier, and Assistant Postmaster-General, was born in JelTerson County, N. Y., Sept. 29, 1829; engaged in drygoods business in Cincinnati and Bloomington, 111.,

in 18G1 being proprietor of a hotel in the

latter place;

became a Captain


in the

Missouri Volunteers, was engaged at Forts Henry and Donelson, Shiloh and Corinth, and promoted Lieutenant-Colonel and Colonel in ISfii; led his regiment on the first attack on Vicksburg. and

was severely wounded at Arkansas Post was promoted Brigadier General in August, 1803, for gallant and meritorious conduct; led a brigade of the Fifteenth Array Corps at Chattanooga and ;

Missionary Ridge, as also in the Atlanta cam paign, and a division of the Seventeenth Corps in the "Slarch to the Sea." After the surrender of

Lee he was transferred to the Twenty-fifth Army became Major-General in 1865, and resigned in 18(i(), liaving declined a commission Corps,

as Colonel in the regular

army; about



by President Grant. Second Assistant Postmaster-General, but resigned on account of failing health in 1872. Died, at Bloomington, Nov. 8, 187G. Cieneral Smith was one of the ai)pointed,

founders of Tennessee.



Society of the


(iiistavns Adolphns, soldier,

of the

was born two

in Philadelphia, Dec. 26, 1820; at 16 joined


who had

located at Springfield, Ohio,

where he learned the trade of a carriage-maker. In Decemlwr, 1837, he arrived at Decatur, 111., but soon after located at Siiringtield. where he resided some six years. Then, returning to Decatur, he devoted his attention to carriage manufacture, doing a lai'ge business with the Soutli, but losing hejivily as the result of the war. An original Whig, he became a Democrat on the dissolution of the Whig party, but early took ground in favor of the Union after the tiring on Fort Sumter; was offered and accepted the colonelcy of the Thirty-fifth Regiment Illinois Volunteers, at the same time assisting Governor

Yates in the selection of of




Butler as a




been assigned to duty in Missouri, in the summer of 1861, he proceeded to Jefferson City, joined Fremont at Carthage in that State, and made a forced march to Springfield, afterwards taking

campaign in Arkiinsas and in tiie Pea Ridge, where he had a horse shot under him and was severely (and, it was supix>sed, fatally) wounded, not recovering until 1868. Being compelled to return home, he received authority to rai.se an independent brigade, but part in


battle of

was unable to accompany it to tlie field. In September, 1862, he was commissioned a BrigadierGeneral by President Lincoln, "for meritorious conduct," but was unable to enter into active service on account of his wound. Later, he was assigned to the command of a convalescent camp at Murfreesboro, Tenn., under Gen. George H. Thomas. In 186-t he took part in securing the second election of President Lincoln, and, in the early part of


was commissioned by Gov-

ernor Oglesby Colonel of a

One Hundred and

new regiment


on account of his wounds, was assigneil to courtmartial duty, remaining in the service until January, 1866, when he was mustered out with the brevet rank of Brigadier-General. During the second year of his service he was presented with a magnificent sword by the rank and file of his regiment (the Thirtj'-fiftli), for brave and gallant conduct at Pea Ridge. After retiring from the army, lie engageloyed by the Government on some of its most stupendous works on the lakes, and has also planneil several of the most important railroad bridges across the Missouri and other

He has been much consulted in reference to municipal engineering, and his name is connected with a number of the gigantic edifices in Chicago. SMITHBORO, a village and railroad junction Greenville. in Bond County, 3 miles east of Population. 303; (IKOO), 314 S>" APP, Henry, Congressman, bom in Livingston Count}-, N. Y., June 30, 1822, came to Illinois with his father when 11 years old. and, having read law at Joliet, was admitted to the bar in 1847. He practiced in Will County for twenty years before entering public life. In 1868 he was elected to the State Senate and occu])ied a seat in that iKjdy until his election, in 1871, to the Fortysecond Congress, by the Republicans of the (then) Sixth Illinois District, as successor to B. C. Cook, who had resigned. Died, at Joliet, Nov. 23, 18'J."). SNOW, Herman W., ex-Congressman, was born in La Porte County, Ind., July 3, 1836, but was reared in Kentucky, working upon a farm for five years, while yet in his minority becoming a resident of Illinois. For several years he was a school teacher, meanwhile studying law and Early in the war he iieing admitted to the bar.


enlisted as a private in the

One Hundred and

Thirty-ninth Illinois Volunteers, rising to the rank of Captain. His term of service having expired, he re-enlisted in the One Hundred and Fifty-first Illinois, and was mustered out with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. After the close of the war he resumed teaching at the Chicago High School, and later served in the General Assembly (1873-74) as Representative from Woodford County. In 1890 he was elected, as a Democrat, to represent the Ninth Illinois District in Congress, liut wiis defeated by his Re|)ublican


in ls92.


William B., first Collector of Customs at Chicago, was bliysicans and surgeons, among whom are some of the most eminent in Chicago.








Alton Railroad.













(Bluff Line), a line

field to

Granite City,


RAILOAD, a corporation formerly operating an extensive system of railroads in Illinois. The Terre Haute & Alton Railroad Company (the original corporation) was chartered in January, 1851, work begun in 1852, and the main line from Terre Haute to Alton (172.5 miles) completed, March 1, 1856. The Belleville & lUinoistown branch (from Belleville to East St. Louis) was chartered in 1852, and completed between the points named in the title, in the fall of 1854. This corporation secured authority to construct an extension from lUinoistown (now East St. Louis) to Alton, which was completed in October, 1856, giving the first railroad connection between Alton & St. Louis. Simultaneously with this, these two roads (the Terre Haute & Alton and the Belleville & lUinoistown) were consolidated under a single charter by special act of the Legislature in February, 1854, the consolidated line taking the name of the Terre Haute, Alton & St. Louis Railroad. Subsequently the road became financially embarassed, was sold under foreclosure and reorganized, in 1862, under the name of the June St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad. 1, 1867, the main line (from Terre Haute to St. Louis) was leased for niety-nine years to the Indianapolis & St. Louis Railway Company (an Indiana corporation) guariiuteed by certain other lines, but the lease was subsequently broken by the insolvency of the lessee and some of the guarantors. The Indianapolis & St. Louis went into the hands of a receiver in 1882, and was sold under foreclosure, in July of the same year, its interest being absorbed by the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railway, by which the main line is now operated. The proi^erties reported as remaining in the hands of the St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad, June 30, 1895, beside the Belleville Branch (14.40 miles), included the following leased and subsidiary lines: Belleville & Southern Illinois "Cairo Short Line" (56.40 miles); Belleville & Eldorado, (50.20 miles); Belleville & Carondelet (17.30 miles); St. Louis Southern and branches (47.27 miles), and Chicago, St. Louis & Paducah Railway (53.50 miles). All these have been lessed, since the close of the fiscal year 1895, to the Illi(For sketches of these several nois Central. officially

roads see headings of each.

(opposite St. Louis),


miles, with a branch



ST. PAUL RAILrunning from Spring-


ROAD, 102.






110.5 miles.

from Lock Haven to


length of line in is of standard

The track

gauge, laid with 56 to 70-pound steel rails.— (History. ) The road was originally incorporated under the name of the St. Louis, Jerseyville & Springfield Railroad, built from Bates to Grafton in 1882, and absorbed by the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Company was surrendered by the ;

receivers of the latter in 1886, and passed under the control of the bond-holders, by whom it was

transferred to a corporation known as the St. Louis & Central Illinois Railroad Company. In June, 1887, the St. Louis, Alton & Springfield Raih-oad Company was organized, with power to build extensions from

from Bates


to Alton, and which was done. In a receiver was appointed, followed

to Springfield,

October, 1890, by a reorganization under the present name (St. Louis, Chicago & St. Paul). Default was made on the interest and, in June following, it was again placed in the hands of receivers, by whom it was operated until 1898. The total earnings

and income §318,815,

for the fiscal year 1897-98 were operating expen.se.s, §373,270; total



in the



which, §1,500,000

form of stock and §1,235 000







a railroad line 90 miles in length, extending from Switz City, Ind., to Effingham, 111. 56 miles being within the State of Illinois. It is of standard gauge and the track laid chiefly with iron rails. (History.) The orginal corporation was chartered in 1869 as the Springfield, Effingham & Quincy Railway Company. It was built as a narrow-gauge line by the Cincinnati, Effingham & Quincy Construction Company, which went into the hands of a receiver in 1878. The road was completed by the receiver in 1880, and, in 1885, restored to the Construction Company by the discharge of the receiver. For a short time it was operated in connection with the Bloomfield Railroad of Indiana, but was reorganized in 1886 as the Indiana & Illinois Southern Railroad, and the gauge changed to standard in 1887. Having made default in the

payment of interest, it was sold under foreclosure in 1890 and purchased in the interest of the bondholders, by whom it was conveyed to the St. Louis. Indianapolis & Eastern Railroad Company, in whose name the line is operated. Its business



500 is

and chiefly local. The total earnings were §65.583 and tlie expenditures §69.112. capital stock was §740,900; bonded debt,


in 1898

Its §978.000, other indebtedness increasing the total capital investment to §1,816,736.





(See St. Louis, Cliicayu


c£- .S7.



South Railroad going out of existence. In May, 1899, tlie St. Louis, Peoria & Northern was sold to the reorganized Chicago & Alton Railroad Company, to be operated as a short line between Peoria ST.


St. Louis.



R.VILHO.VD. (See Chicago, Burlington

boro, to Carbondale.

& St.

road, extending


Louis Railroad and the Merchants' Terminal Bridge (18 miles) to St. Louis.— (History.) This road has been

over the Cliicago, Peoria

made up

of tliree sections or divisions.

initial section of







the line was constructed under & Chicago Railroad of

of the St. Louis

incorporated in 1885, anil opened from It passed to Alhambra in 1HS7.

Mount Olive

into the hands of a receiver, was sold under foreclosure in 18S9, and reorganized, in 1800. as the St.

Louis & Peoria Uaihoad. The St. Louis & Eiistem, chartered in 1889, built the line from Glen Carbon to Marine, which was opened in 1893; the following year, bought tlie St. Louis & Peoria line,

and, in 1895, constructed the link



between Alhambra and Marine. (3) The North & South Railroad Company of Illinois, organized in 1H90, as successor to tlie St. Louis & Chicago Railway Company, proceeded in the construction of the line (.50.46 miles) from Mt. Olive to Springfield, which was subseiiuently le;ised to the Chithe cago, Peoria & St. Louis, then under

management of the Jacksonville, Louisville & St. Louis Railway. The latter corporation having defaulted, the property p;vssed into the hands of a receiver. By expiration of the lease in December, 1896, the proiHM-ty reverted to the proprietary

Companj-. which took possession, Jan. 1, 1890. St. Louis & Southeastern then Ixiught the line outright, and it was inci)r]>orated as apart of


the new organization under the name of the St. Louis, Peoria & Northern Railway, the North


ST. LOUIS SOUTHERN RAILROAD, a Une running from Pinckneyville, IlL, via Murphys-

ST. LOnS, MOUNT CARMEL & NEW ALBANY RAILROAD. (See Loiiisi-ille, Evansrille Louis (Consolidated) Railroad.) ST. LOUIS, PEORIA & NORTHERN RAILWAY, known as "Peoria Short Line," a coqx)ration organized, Feb. 29, 1896, to take over and unite the properties of the St. Louis & Eastern, the St. Louis & Peoria and the Xortli and South Railways, and to extend the same due north from Springfield to Peoria (60 miles), and thence to Fulton or East Clinton, 111., on the Upper JlisThe line e.xtends from Springfield to sissippi. Glen Carbon (84.46 miles), with trackage facilities


Ha ilroiid.



The company is also the & Shawneetown Rail-

of the Carbondale

from Carbondale to Marion,

— total, 50.5 miles

gauge and


with 56


The track is of standard and GO-pound steel rails.

The company was organized

in August, 1886, to succeed to the pro|)erty of the St. Louis Coal Railroad (organized in 1879) and the St. Louis Central Railway and was leased for 980 years from Dec. 1, 1886, to the St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad Company, at an annual rental equal to thirty per cent of the gross earnings, with a mini;


guarantee of §32,000, which



to i)ay the interest on the first mortgage bonds. During the year 1896 this line passed under lease

from the St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad Company, into the hands of the Illinois Central Railroad Cumiiany. ST, LOUIS. SPRINGFIELD k TINCENNTIS RAILKOAU t'O.MP.VNY, a corporation organized in July, 1^99, to take over the projjerty of the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railway in the State of Illinois, known as the Ohio & Mississippi and the Springfield & Illinois Southeastern the former extending from VinI{iiilways cennes, Ind., to East St. Louis, and the latter from Beardstown to Shawneetown. The prop-

under foreclosure, at Cincinnati, and transferred, for purposes of reorganization, into the hands of the new cor-




Jul}- 10, 1899,

(For history of the July 28, 1899. several lines see Baltimore class of nine pupils in what is now Illinois College, at Jacksonville. Having been joined, the following year, by Dr. Edward Beecher as President, Mr. Sturtevant as.sunied the chair of Jlathematics. Natural Pliilo.sophy and Astronomy, wliich he retained until 1844. when, by the retirement of Dr. Beecher, he succeeded to the

and Professor of Intellectual and Moral Philosophy. Here he labored, incessantly and unselfishly, as a teacher during term offices of President

time, and, as financial agent during vacations,

which he had been one of the chief founders, serving until 1876, when he resigned the Presidency, giving his attention, for the next ten years, to the duties of Professor of Mental Science and Science of Government, which he had discharged from 1870. In 1886 he retired from the institution entirelj', liaving given to its service fiftj--six years of his life. In 1863, Dr. Sturtevant visited Europe in the interest of the Union cause, delivering effective addresses at a number of points in England. He w.is a frequent contributor to the weekly religious and jjeriodical press, and was the author of "Economics, or the Science of Wealth" (1876) a text-book on political economy, and "Keys in tlie interest of the institution of

of Sect, or the Church of the New Testament" (1879), besides frequently occupying the i)ulpits

and distant churches having been early ordained a Congregational minister. He received the degree of D.D. from the University of Misof local

and that of LL.D. from Iowa University. 11, ]88(i.— Julian M. (Sturtevant). Jr., son of the preceding, was burn


Died, in Jacksonville. Feb. at JacksonviUe, IlL. Feb.


1834; fitted for col-

HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. lege in the preparatory department of Illinois College and graduated from the college (proper) in 185-t. After leaving college he served as

teacher in the Jacksonville public schools one year, then spent a j'ear as tutor in Illinois College, when he began the study of theology at Andover Theological Seminary, graduating there in 1859, meanwhile having discharged the duties of Chaplain of the Connecticut State's prison in 1858. He was ordained a minister of the Congregational Church at Hannibal, Mo., in 1860, remaining as pastor in that city nine years. He has since been engaged in pastoral work in New York City (1869-70), Ottawa, 111., (1870-T3) Denver, Colo., (1873-77); Grinnell, Iowa, (1877-84); Cleveland, Ohio, (1884-90); Galesburg, 111., (1890-93), and Aurora, (1893-97). Since leaving the Congregational church at Aurora, Dr. Sturtevant has been engaged in pastoral work in Chicago. He was also editor of "The Cougregationalist" of Iowa (1881-84), and, at different periods, has served as Trustee of Colorado, Marietta and Knox Colleges; being still an honored member of the Knox College Board. He received the degree of D.D. from Illinois ;

College, in 1879.


a station and viUage on the


nois Central Railroad, in Lee Coimty, 8 miles northwest of Meudota. Population, (1900), 306.



in general, the right or privilege






SULLIVAN, William K., journalist, was born at Waterford, Ireland, Nov. 10, 1843 educated at ;

the Waterford Model School and in Dublin came to tlie United States in 1863, and, after teaching for a time in Kane County, in 1864 enlisted in the ;

One Hundred and




also a Representative


are native or natu-

male citizens of the United States, of the age of 31 years or over, who have been residents of the State one year, of the county ninety days, and of the district (or precinct) in which they Under an act passed in offer to vote, 30 days. 1891, women, of 31 years of age and upwards, are entitled to vote for school officers, and are also eligible to such offices under the same conditions, as to age and residence, as male citizens. (See ralized

Elections; Australian Ballot.)


and county-seat of Moultrie County. 25 miles southeast of Decatur and 14 miles northwest of Mattoon is on three lines of railway. It is in an agricultural and stock-raising region; contains two State banks and four Population (1880), 1,305; weekly newspapers. city


,(1890), 1,468; (1900), 2,399; (1900, est.), 3,100.



and correspondent. He from Cook County in


the Twenty-seventh General Assembly, for three years a member of the Chicago Board of Education, and appointed United States Consul to the Bermudas by President Harrison, resigning in 1893. Died, in Chicago, January 17, 1899. SULLIVAXT, Michael Lucas, agriculturist, was born at Franklinton (a suburb of Columbus, Ohio), August 6, 1807; was educated at Ohio University and Centre College, Ky., and— after being engaged in the improvement of an immense tract of land inherited from liis father near his birth-place, devoting much attention, meanwhile, to the raising of improved stock in 1854 sold his Ohio lands and bought 80,000 acres, chiefly in

Champaign and

Piatt Counties, 111 where he began farming on a larger scale than before. The enterprise proved a financial failure, and he was his estate in

Constitution of 1848, or


different times, holding the position of city edi-


were electors at the time of the adoption of the


and "The Evening Journal," on the

are fixed by the State Constitution (Art. VII.), except as to school officers, which are prescribed by law. Under the State Constitution the exer-



Then, after a brief season spent in teaching and on a visit to his native land, he began work as a reporter on New York papers, later being employed on "The Chicago Tribune" Volunteers.

voters), in the choice of public officers in Illinois,

cise of the right to vote is limited to persons


compelled to

Lands, to



T.), retiring to

Burr Oaks,

a considerable portion of


Champaign County, known as Broad John T. Alexander (see Alexander,



a farm of 40,000 acres at Henderson, Ky., Jan.

died, at

29, 1879.

SUMMERFIELD, a village of St. on the Baltimore


37 miles east of St.

Clair County, Ohio Southwestern Railway, Louis was the home of Gen. ;

Fred. Hecker.

Population (1900), 360. SUMNEB, a city of Lawrence County, on the Baltimore & Ohio Soutliwestern Railroad, 19 miles west of Vincennes, Ind. has a fine school house, four churches, two banks, two flour mills, telephones, and one weekly newspaper. Pop. (1890), ;

1,037; (1900), 1,268.


The office of State Superintendent of Public Instruction was created by act of the Legislature, at a special session held in 1854, its duties previous to that time, from 1845, having been discharged by the Secretary of State as Superintendent, ex-officio. The following is a list of the incumbents from the date of the formal




creation of the office down to the present time (1899), with the date and duration of the term of Niniau AV. Edwards (by apixjintnient of each the Governor), 1851-57; William H. Powell (by

Newton Bateman, 1859-63; Newton Bateman, 1865-75; Samuel W. Etter, 1875-79; James P. Slade, 1879-83; Henry Kaab, 1883-87; Richard Edwards, 1887-91; Henry Raab, 1891-95; Samuel M. luglis, 1895-98; James H. Freeman, June, 1857-59;






January, 1899 (by appointment of the Governor, to fill the unexpired term of Prof. Inglis, who died in office, June 1, 1898) Alfred Baylis, 1899—. Previous to 1870 the tenure of the oflSce was two 3'ears, but, by the Constitution adopted that year, it was extended to four years, the elections occurring on the even years between those for Governor and other State officers except State 1898, to






of Jastices of the

Court of Illinois who have held office since the organization of the State Government, with the period of their respective incumbencies: Joseph Phillips, 1818-33 (resigned);



1818 48 (terni expired on adoption of stitution);








John Reynolds,

1819 (resigned),


new Con1818,



Thomas Reynolds

(vice Phillips'), 1822-25; William Wilson (vice Foster) 1819-48 (term expired on adoption of new Constitution) Samuel D Lockwood, 1825-48 (term expired on adoption of new Constitution) Theophilus W. Smith, 1825-42 ;




Ford, Feb.


1841, to


Sidney Breese, Feb. 15, 1841, to Dec. 19, 1842 (resigned)—also (by re-elecWalter B. Scates, tions), 1857-78 (died in ortice) 1841-47 (resigned) also (vice Trumbull), 1854-57 (resigned); Samuel H. Treat, 1841-55 (resigned); Stephen A. Douglas, 1841-42 (resigned); John D. Caton (vice Ford) August, 1843, to March, 1843— also (vice Robinson and by successive re-elections). May, 1843 to January, 1864 (resigned) gust


1843 (resigned)



Trumbull, 1848-53

Pinkney H. Walker (vice Skinner), Corydon Beck with (by appointment, vice Caton), Jan. 7, 1864, to June 6, 1864; Charles B. Lawrence (one term), 1804-73; Anthony Thornton, 1870-73 (resigned); John M. Scott (two terms), 1870-88 Benjamin R. Sheldon (two terms), 1870-88; William K. McAllister, 1870-75 (resigned) John Scholfield (vice Thornton), 1873 93 (died); T. Lyle Dickey (vice McAllister), 1875-85 (died) David J. Baker (.ai)pointed, vice Breese), July 9, 1878, to June 2, 1879— also, 1888-97; John H. Mulkey, 1879-88; (resigned);

1858-85 (deceased);




Damon Feb.

G. Tunnicliffe (appointed, vice Walker),

15, 1885, to





P. Shoi)e,

1885-94, Joseph M. Bailey, 1888-95 (died in office).

The Supreme Court, as at present constituted (1899), is as follows:

Carroll C. Boggs, elected,


Jacob W. WilJoseph N. Carter, elected, 1894; Alfred M. Craig, elected, 1873, and re-elected, 1882 and "91 James H. Cartwright (vice Bailey), elected, 1895, and reelected, 1893, kin,

James Semple

(vice Breese), Jan. 14, 1843, to April 10, 1843 (resigned) Richard M. Young (vice Smith), 1843-47 (resigned); John M. Robinson (vice Ford), Jan. 14, 1843, to April 27, 1813 (died ;

Jesse B. Thomiis, Jr.. (vice Douglas),

(resigned)—also (vice Young), 1847-48; James Shields (vice Semple), 1843-45 (resigned) Norman H. Purple (vice Tliomas), 1843-48 (retired under Constitution of 1848) Gustavus Koerner 1843-45


by Constitution); "William A. Denning (vice Scates), 1847-48 (re(vice Shields), 184.5-48 (retired


re-elected, 1897;

elected, 1888,


re-elected, 1897;


Benjamin D. Magruder (vice 1897 Dickey), elected, 1885, "88 and '97. The terms of Justices Boggs, Phillips, Wilkin, Cart«Tight and Magruder expire in 1906; that of Justice Carter



1900. Under the Constitution of 1818, the JiLstices of the Supreme Court were chosen by joint ballot of the Legislature, but, under the Constitutions of 1848 and 1870, by popular vote for terms of nine years

on 1903; and Justice Craig's, in

(See Judicial System; also sketches of individual members of the Supreme Court under


their [iroper names.)



in office);

by Constitution)

(resigned); Ozias C. Skinner (vice Treat), 185.5-58

1897; Jesse J. Phillips (vice Scholfield, deceased)





Uniteil States law passed on the subject of Gov-

ernment surveys was dated. May

20, 1785.


reserving certain lands to be allotted by way of pensions anil to be donated for school purijoses,

provided for the division of the remaining publands among the original thirteen Stiites. This, however, was, in effect, repealed by the Ordinance of 1788. The latter provided for a rectangular system of survej^s which, with but little modificatiiin, has remained in force ever since. Briefiy outlined, the system is as follows: Townships, six miles square, are laid ort from jjrincipal bases, each township containing thirty -six sections of one square mile, numbered consecutively, the numeration to commence at the upper right hand corner of the township. The first principal meridian (84" 51' west of Greenwich), coincided it


HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. with the line dividing Indiana and Oliio. The second (1' 37' farther west) had direct relation to surveys in Eastern Illinois. The third (89" 10' 30" west of Greenwich) and the fourth (90° 29' 56" west) governed tlie remainder of Illinois surveys. The first Public Surveyor was Thomas Hutchins, who was called "the geographer." (See Hutchins, Thomas.)


Benjamin J., soldier, was born at Kirkland, Oneida County, N. Y., April came with his father, in 1848, to Sheboy24, 1883 gan, Wis., studied law, was elected to the State ((Jen.)


Senate in 1859, and, in 1861, enlisted in the Sixth Wisconsin Volunteers, being commissioned Major Later, he resigned and, returning home, in 1862. assisted in the organization of the Twenty-first and Twenty -second regiments, being elected Colonel of the former and with it taking part in the campaign in Western Kentucky and TennesIn 18C3 he was assigned to command at see, Camp Douglas, and was there on the exposure, in November, 1864, of the conspiracy to release the rebel prisoners. (See Camp Douglas ConspirThe service which he rendered in the acy.) defeat of this bold and dangerous conspiracy evinced his courage and sagacity, and was of inestimable value to the country. After the war, General Sweet located at Lombard, near Chicago, was aijjjointed Pension Agent at Chicago, afterwards served as Supervisor of Internal Revenue, and, in 1873, became Deputy Commissioner of Internal Revenue at Washington. Died, Miss Ada C. in Washington, Jan. 1, 1874. (Sweet), for eight years (1874-82) the efficient Pension Agent at Chicago, is General Sweet's ;


SWEETSER, Commander G.




and Department

A. R., was born in Oxford County,

Maine, in 1839; came to Bloomington, 111., in 1857 enlisted at the beginning of the Civil War in the Eiglith Illinois Volunteers and, later, in the Thirty-ninth; at the battle of Wierbottom Church, Va., in June, 1864, was shot through both legs, necessitating the amputation of one of them. After the war he held several oiBces of trust, including those of City Collector of Bloom;

iuj^on and Deputj' Collector of Internal Revenue for the Springfield District in 1887 was elected Department Commander of the Grand Army of the Republic for Illinois. Died, at Bloomington, ;


23, 1896.


Leonard, lawyer, was born near Turner, Maine, August 11, 1835; was educated at Waterville College (now Colby University), but left before graduation read law in Portland, and, ;


while seeking a location in the West, enlisted in an Indiana regiment for the Mexican War, being attacked by climatic fever, was discharged before completing his term of enlistment. He soon after came to Bloomington, III., where he became the intimate friend of Abraham Lincoln and David Davis, traveling the circuit with them for a number of years. He early became active in State politics, was a member of the Republican State Convention of 1856, was elected to the lower house of the General Assembly in 1858, and, in 1860, was a zealous supporter of Mr. Lincoln as a Presidential Elector for the State-atlarge. In 1863 he received the Republican nomination for Congress in his District, but was defeated. Removing to Chicago in 1865, he gained increased distinction as a lawyer, especially in the management of criminal cases. In 1872 he was a supporter of Horace Greeley for President, but later returned to the Republican party, and, in the National Republican Convention of 1888, presented the name of Judge Gresham for nomination for the Presidency.

Died, June




Charles Philip, ex- Auditor of PubAccounts, was born in the Province of Baden, Germany, Nov. 27, 1843, brought by his parents to Chicago, 111., in childhood, and, in his boyhood, attended the Scammon School in that city. In 1854 his family removed to a farm in Kankakee Count}-, where, between the ages of 12 and 18, he assisted his father in "breaking" between 400 and 500 acres of prairie land. On the breaking out of the war, in 1861, although scarcely 18 years of age, he enlisted as a private in tlie Fortysecond Illinois Volunteer Infantry, and, in April, 1863, was one of twenty heroic volunteers who ran the blockade, on the gunboat Carondelet, at Island No. 10, assisting materially in the reduction of that rebel stronghold, which resulted in the capture of 7,000 prisoners. At the battle of Farmington, Miss., during the siege of Corinth, in May, 1862, he had liis right arm torn from its socket by a six-pound cannon-ball, compelling his retirement from the army. Returning home, after many weeks spent in hospital at Jefferson Barracks and Quincy, 111., he received his final discharge. Dec. 21, 1862. spent a year in school, also took a course in Bryant & Stratton's Commercial College in Chicago, and having learned to write with his left hand, taught for a time in Kankakee County served as letter-carrier in Chicago, and for a year as Deputy County Clerk of Kankakee County, followed by two terms (186769) as a student in the Soldiers' College at Fulton. lic



516 111.


he entered upon the duties Kankakee County, serving, by

latter year

of Treasurer of

successive re-elections, until 1880, when he resigned to take the i>osition of State Auditor, to which he was elected a second time in 1884. In all these positions Mr. Swigert l)a.s proveil himself an upright, capable and high-minded pulilic oflBcial. Of late years his residence has been in Chicago. SWING, (Rev.) David, clergyman and pulpit orator, was born of (jerman ancestry, at Cincinnati, Ohio, August 23, 1836. After 1837 (his father dying about this time), the family resided for a time at Reedsburgh, and, later, on a farm near Williamsburgh, in Clermont County, in the same State. In 1H'>'2, having graduated from the Miami (Ohio) University, he commenced the study of theology, but, in 1854, accepted the position of Professor of Languages in his .\lma Mater, which he continued to fill for thirteen His first jiastorate was in connection with years. the Westminster Presbyterian Church of Chicago, which he assumed in 1866. His church edifice was destroj-ed in the great Chicago fire, but was later rebuilt. As a preacher he was popular but, in April, 1874, he was placed on trial, before an ecclesiastical court of his own denomination, on charges of heresy. He was aciiiiitted by the trial court, but, before the api>eal taken by the i)rosecution could be heard, he personally withdrew from affiliation with the denomination. Shortly afterward he became pastor of an independent religious organization known as the "Central Church," preaching, first at McVicker's Theatre and, afterward, at Central Music Hall, Chicago. He was a fluent and popular speaker on all themes, a frequent and valued contributor to numerous magazines, as well as tlie author of several volumes. Among his best known books are "Motives of Life." "Truths for To-day," and "Club Es,siiys." Died, in Chicago, Oct. 3, 1894. SYCAMOUE, the count3--seat of De Kalb County (founded in 1836), 56 miles west of Chicago, at the intersection of the Chicago & Xorthwestern and the Chicago Great Western Railroads; lies in a region devoted to agriculture, dairying and stock-Vaising. The city itself contains several factories, the principal products being agricultural implements, flour, insulated wire, brick, tile, varnish, furniture, soap and carriages and wagons. There are also works for canning vegetables and fruit, besides two creamerThe town is lighted by electricity, and has ies. high-pressure water-works. There are eleven churches, three graded public schools and a ;






3,028; (1890), 2,987; (1900). 3,653.

T.VFT, Lurado, sculptor, was born at Elmwood, Peoria County, 111., April 29, 1860; at an early age evinced a predilection for sculpture and Ijegan modeling; graduated at the University of Illinois in 1880, then went to Paris and studied sculpture in the famoiLS Ecole des Beaux Arts until 188.-). The following year he settled in Clii cago, finally becoming as.sociated with the Chicago Art Institute. He has been a lecturer on art in the Chicago University. Mr. Taft furnished the decorations of the Horticultural Building on tlie World's Fair Grounds, in 1893.

TALCOTT, Mancel, in

Rome, X.

business man,

was born com-

Y., Oct. 12, 1817; attended the

mon schools until 17 years of age, when he set out for the West, traveling on foot from Detroit to Cliicago, and thence to Park Ridge, where he worked at farming until 18.50. Then, having followed the occupation of a miner for some time, in California, with some success, he united with Horace M. Singer in establishing the firm of Singer & Talcott, stone-dealers, which lasted during most of his life. He served as a member of the Chicago City Council, on the Beard of County CommLs-sioners, as a member of the Police Board, and was one of the founders of tlie First National Bank, antl President, for several years, of the Stock Yards National Bank. Liberal and publicspirited, he contributed freely to works of charity. Died, June 5, 1878. TALCOTT, (Capt.) William, soldier of the War of 1812 and pioneer, was born in Gilead, Conn., March 6, 1774; emigrated to Rome, Oneida County, N. Y., in 1810, and engaged in farming; served as a Lieutenant in the Oneida County militia during the War of 1812-14, being stationed at Sackett's Harbor under the command of Gen. Winfield Scott. In 1835, in companj- with his eldest son, Thomas B. Talcott, he made an extended tour through the West, finally selecting a location in Illinois at the junction of Rock River and the Pecatonica, where tlie town of Rockton now stands there being only two white families, at that time, within the present limits of Winnebago County. Two years later (1837), he brought his family to this point, with his sons took up a considerable body of Government land and





from a long distance.

which customers came

In 1838 Captain Talcott took part in the organization of the first CongreA gjitional Church in that section of the State. zealous anti-slavery man, he supported James G.

HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. Birney (the Liberty candidate for President) in 1844, continuing to act witli tliat party until the organization of the Republican party in 1856; was deeply interested in tlie War for the Union, but died before its conclusion, Sept. 2, 1864. Maj. Thomas B. (Talcott), oldest son of the preApril 17, ceding, was born at Hebron, Conn .806; was taken to Rome, N. Y., by his father in nfancy, and, after reaching maturity, engaged in mercantile business with liis brother in Che,

mung County


in 1835



father in

a tour througli the West, finally locating at Rockton, where he engaged in agriculture. On the organization of Winnebago County, in 1836, he was elected one of the first County Commissioners, and, in 1850, to the State Senate, serving four years. He also held various local offices. Died, Sept. 30, 1894.— Hon. Wait (Talcott), second son of Capt. William Talcott, was born at Hebron, Conn., Oct. 17, 1807, and taken to Rome, N. Y., where he remained until his 19th year, when he engaged in business at Booneville and, still later,

in Utica; in 1838,

and joined becoming a





to Illinois



citizen of Rockford, where, in his

he was extensively engaged in manuhaving become, in 1854, with his brother Sylvester, a partner of the firm of J. H.

later years,


Manny &

Co., in the manufacture of the Manny reaper and mower. He was an original antislavery man and, at one time, a Free-Soil candidate for Congress, but became a zealous Republican and ardent friend of Abraham Lincoln, whom he employed as an attorney in the famous suit of McCormick vs. the Manny Reaper Company for infringement of patent. In 1854 he was elected to the State Senate, succeeding his brother, Thomas B., and was the first Collector of Internal Revenue in the Second District, appointed by Mr. Lincoln in 1862, and continuing in office some Tliougli too old for active service in five years. tlie field, during the Civil War, he voluntarily hired a substitute to take liis place. Mr. Talcott was one of the original incorporators and Trustees of Beloit College, and a founder of Rockford Female Seminary, remaining a trustee of each Died, June 7, 1890. Sylvester for many years. (Talcott), tliird son of William Talcott, born at Rome, N. Y., Oct. 14, 1810; when of age, engaged in mercantile business in Chemung County in 1837 removed, with other members of tlie familj-, to Winnebago- County, 111., where he joined his father in the entry of Government lands and the erection of mills, as already detailed. He became one of the first Justices of the Peace in Winne-


bago County,



served as Supervisor for a

number of years and, although a fanner, became interested,







brother Wait, at Rockford.

Manny Reaper Company

tlie example of his brother, named, in furnishing a substitute for the War of the Rebellion, though too old for service Died, June 19, 1885.— Henry Walter himself. (Talcott), foul-th son of William Talcott, was born at Rome, N. Y., Feb. 13, 1814; came with his father to Winnebago County, 111. in 1835, and was connected with his father and brothers in busiDied, Dec. 9, 1870.— Dwiglit Lewis (Talness. cott), oldest son of Henry Walter Talcott, born in Winnebago County; at the age of 17 years


also followed



enlisted at Belvidere, in January, 1864, as a soldier in the



Volunteer Infantry



as provost guard some two months at Fort Pickering, near Memjjhis, and later took part in many of the important battles of that year in MissisHaving been captured at sippi and Tennessee.

CampbellsviUe, Tenn., he was taken to Andersonwhere he suffered all the horrors of that famous prison-pen, until March, 1865, when he was released, arriving at home a helpless skeleton, the day after Abraham Lincoln's assassubsequently settled in Jlr. Talcott sination. Muscatine County, Iowa. TALLULA, a prosperous village of Menard County, on the Jacksonville branch of the Chicago & Alton Railway, 24 miles northeast of Jacksonville; is in the midst of a grain, coalmining, and stock-growing region; has a local bank and new.spaper. Pop. (1890), 445 (1900), 639. TAMARO.i, a village in Perry County, situated at the junction of the Illinois Central with the Wabash, Chester & Western Railroad, 8 miles north of Duquoin, and 57 miles east-southeast of It has a bank, a newspaper office, a Belleville. large public school, five churches and two flouring mills. Coal is mined here and exported in ville, Ga.,


large quantities.

Pop. (1900), 853.



mode of In its general sense its purposes are the support of the State and local governments, the promotion of the public good by fostering education and works of public improvement, the protection of society by the preservation of order and the punishment of crime, and the sujiport of the helpless and destitute. In practice, and as prescribed by the Constitution, tlie raising of revenue is required to be done "by levying a tax by valuation, so that every per.son and corporation shall pay a tax in proportion to the value of his, her or its property such value to be ascertained by some person or persons, to be elected or appointed in such manner jis the General Assembly shall direct, and not otherwise." T.VX.VTIOX, in


legal sense, the

raising revenue.

(State Constitution, 1870— Art. Revenue, Sec. 1.) The person selected under the law to make this





the Assessor of the count}' or tlie counties under township organization), and he is required to make a return to the County Board at its July meeting each year the latter having authority to hear complaints of taxpayers and adjust inequalities when found to exist. It is made the duty of the Assessor to

HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. include in his return, as real-estate, all lands and the buildings or other improvements erected thereon; and, under the head of personal propert}', all tangible effects, besides moneys, credits, bonds or stocks, shares of stock of companies or corporations, investments, annuities, franchises, Property used for scliool, church royalties, etc. or cemetery purjjoses, as well as public buildings and other property belonging to the State and




charities, public libraries, agricultural




are declared exempt. Nominally, all property subject to taxation is required to be tific societies,

assessed at


cash valuation but. in reality, the ;

valuation, of late years, has been on a basis of twent3--five to thirtj^-three per cent of its esti-

mated cash

In the larger cities, however, the valuation is often much lower than this, while verj' large amounts escape assessment The Revenue Act, passed at the altogether. special session of the Fortieth General Assembly (1898), requires the A.ssessor to make a return of all property subject to taxation in his district, at its cash valuation, upon which a Board of Review fixes a tax ou the basis of twenty per cent of such cash valuation. An abstract of the property assessment of each county goes before the State Board of Equalization, at its annual meeting in August, for the purpose of comparison and equalizing valuations between counties, but the Board has no power to modify the assessments of individual tax-payers. (See State Bocud of Equalization.) This Board has exclusive power to fix the valuation for purposes of taxation of the capital stock or franchises of companies (except certain specified manufacturing corporations) incorporated under the State laws, together with the "railroad track" and "rolling stock" of railroads, and the capital stock of railroads and telegraph lines, and to fix the distribution of the latter between counties in which the}' lie. The Consti tution of 1848 empowered the Legislature to value.


impose a capitation tax, of not less than fifty cents nor more than one dollar, upon each free white male citizen entitled to the right of suffrage, between the ages of 31 and 60 years, but the Constitution of 1870 grants no such power, though it authorizes the extension of the "objects and subjects of taxation" in accordance with the principle contained in the first section of the Revenue Article. Special assessments in cities, for the construction of sewers, pavements, etc., being local and in the form of benefits, cannot 1)1' said to come under the head of general taxation. The same is to be said of revenue derived






which are forms of

l>unishment for specific offenses, and go to the benefit of certain specified funds.


Abner, ex-Congressman,


a native

of Maine, and a resident of Chicago. He has been in active business all his life as contractor, builder and merchant, and, for some time, a member of

the wholesale dry-goods firm of J. V. Farwell & He was a member of the ThirtyCo. of Chicago. fourth General Assembly, a delegate to the ,

National Republican Convention of 1884, and represented the First Illinois District in the Fiftyfirst and Fifty-second Congresses, 1889 to 1893. Mr. Taylor was one of the contractors for the erection of the new State Capitol of Texas.

TAYLOR, Benjamin and

Frnnklin, journalist, poet

was born at Lowville, N. Y., July 19, 1819; graduated at Madison University in 1839, the next year becoming literary and dramatic critic of "The Chicago Evening Journal." Here, in a few years, he acquired a wide reputation as a journalist and poet, and was much in demand as a lecturer on literary topics. His letters from the field during the Rebellion, as war correspondent of "The Evening Journal," won for him even a greater popularity, -and were complimented by translation into more than one Eurojiean language. After the war, he gave his attention more unreservedly to literature, his His principal works appearing after that date. lecturer,

publications in book form, including both prose poetry, comprise the following: "Attractions

and of





"January and

Camp and


"The World on Wheels"



June" (1871);

"Old Time Pic-

Rhyme" (1874); "Songs of "Summer Savory Gleaned

tures and Sheaves of

Yesterday" (1877); from Rural Nooks" (1879); "Between the Gates"





— (1881)




the Burden of Song" (1884), and "Theophilus Trent, or Old Times in the Oak Openings," The last was in the hands of the a novel (1887). publishers at his death. Feb. 27. 1887. Among his most popular poems are "The Isle of the Long Ago," "The Old Village Choir," and "Rhymes of the River." "The London Times" complimented Mr. Taylor with the title of "The Oliver Gold-

smith of America." T.\Y'LOR, Edmund Dick, ea,rly Indian-trader and legislator, was born at Fairfield C. H. Va., Oct. 18. 1803—'the son of a commissary in the army of the Revolution, under General Greene, and a cousin of General (later. President) Zachary Taylor; left his native State in his youth and. at an early day, came to Springfield, 111., where he ,



opened an Indian-trading post and general store; was elected from Sangamon County to the lower branch of the Sevent)i General Assembly (1830) and re-elected in 1832 the latter year being a competitor of Abraham Lincoln, whom he

In 1834 lie was elected to the State Senate and, at tlie next session of the Legislature, was one of the celebrated "Long Nine" who secured the removal of the State Capital to defeated.



resigned before the close of his

term to accept, from President Jackson, the appointment of Receiver of Public Moneys at ChiHere he became one of the promoters of cago. the Galena & Chicago Union Railroad (1837), serving as one of the Commissioners to secure subscriptions of stock, and was also active in advocating tlie construction of the Illinois & Michigan Canal. The title of "Colonel," by which he was known dm-ing most of his life, was acquired by service, with that rank, on the staff of Gov. John Reynolds, during the Black Hawk War of 1832. After coming to Chicago, Colonel Taylor became one of the Trustees of tlie Chicago branch of the State Bank, and was later identified with various banking enterprises, as also a some-

what extensive operator in real estate. An active Democrat in the early part of his career in Illinois, Colonel Taylor was one of the members of his party to take ground against the Kansas-Neb raska bill in 18.'54, and advocated the election of General Bissell to the governorship in 18.56. In 1800 he was again in line with his party in support of Senator Douglas for the Presidency, and was an opponent of the war policy of the Government .still later, as shown by his participation in the celebrated "Peace Convention" at SpringIn tlie latter years of his field, of June 17, 1863. life he became extensively interested in coal lands in La Salle and adjoining counties, and, for a considerable time, served as President of the Northern Illinois Coal & Mining Company, his home, during a part of this period, being at Mendota. Died, in Chicago. Dec. 4, 1891. T.VYLORVILLE, a city and county-seat of Christian County, on the South Fork of the Sangamon River and on the Wabash Railway at its point of intersection with the Springfield Divi.sion of the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern. It is about 27 miles southeast of Springfield, and 28 miles southwest of Decatur. It has several banks, flour mills, paper mill, electric light and gas plants, water-works, two coal mines, carriage and wagon shops, a manufactory of farming implements, two daily and weekly papers, nine churches and five graded and township high







this vicinity.

Pop. (1890), 2.839: (1900), 4,248. TAZEWELL COUNTY, a central county on the Illinois River; was first settled in 1823 and organized in 1827; has an area of 650 square miles was named for Governor Tazewell of Virginia. It is drained by the Illinois and Mackinaw Rivers and traversed by several lines of railway. The surface is generally level, the soil alluvial and rich, but, requiring drainage, especiall}- on the river bottoms. Gravel, coal and sandstone are found, but, generally speaking, Tazewell is an agricultural county. The cereals are extensively cultivated; wool is al.so clipped, and there are dairy interests of .some importance. Distilling is extensively conducted at Pekin. tlie county-seat, which is also the seat of other meclianical indusiSee also Pekin.) Population of the tries.


(1880). 29.666; (1890), 29,556; (1900). 33,221.


Taylor, M.D., early Chicago born in Virginia in 1804, graduated in medicine at Middlebury College, Vt., in 1830, and, At this time he liad in 1833, arrived in Chicago. a contract for carrying the United States mail from Chicago to Fort Howard, near Green Bay, and tlie following year undertook a similar conHaving sold tract between Chicago and Ottawa. these out three j-ears later, he devoted his attention to the practice of liis profes.sion, though interested, for a time, in contracts for the conDr. struction of the Illinois & Michigan Canal. Temple was instrumental in erecting the first house (after Rev. Jesse Walker's missionary phy.sician,








worship in Chicago, and, although himself a Bajitist, it was used in common by Protestant denominations. He was a member of the first Board of Trustees of Rush Medical College, though he later became a convert to homeopatiiy,



removing to


Louis, assisted in

founding the St. Louis School of Homeopathy, dying there. Feb. 24. 1877.

TEM'RE OF OFFICE. (See Elections.) TKUHE HAUTE, ALTOX & ST, LOUIS RAILI{erating no line of



within the State, but the lessee and operator of the following lines (which see): St. Louis. Vandalia & Terre Haute, l.'>8.3 miles; Terre Haute & Peoria. 145.12 miles; Ea-st St. Louis & Carondelet, 12.74 miles— total length of leased



lines in Illinois, 316.16 miles.


Indianapolis Railroad

Indiana in 1847, as mond, completed a







named in the title, in 1852, and tool? its present name in 1860. The Pennsylvania Railroad Company purchased a controlling

interest in its stock

in 1893.

TERRE HAUTE & PEORIA RAILROAD, (Vandalia Line), a line of road extending from Terre Haute, Ind., to Peoria, 111., 145.12 miles, with 28.78 miles of trackage, making in all 173.9 miles in operation, all being in Illinois operated by the Terre Haute & Indianapolis Railroad Company. The gauge is standard, and the rails are (History.) It was organized Feb. 7, 1887, steel. successor to the Illinois Midland Railroad. The

was made up by the consolidation (Nov. (1) The Peoria, Atlanta Decatur Railroad, chartered in 1869 and opened latter

1874) of three lines:


the Paris & Decatur Railroad, chartered and opened in December, 1872 and (3) the Paris & Terre Haute Railroad, chartered in 1873 the consolidated lines and opened in 1874 assuming the name of the Illinois Midland Railroad. In 1886 the Illinois Midland was sold under 1874



in 1861


foreclosure and, in February, 1887, reorganized as the Terre Haute & Peoria Railroad. In 1892 it was Haute

leased for ninety-nine years to the Terre


Indianapolis Railroad Company, and is operated as a part of the "Vandalia System." The capital stock (1898) was §3,764,300; funded debt, §2,230,000,— total capital invested, §6,227,481.

TETJTOPOLIS, a village of Effingham County, on the Terre Haute & Indianapolis Railroad, 4 miles east of Effingham was originalh- settled by a colony of Germans fronr Cincinnati. Popu;

lation (1900), 498.

THOMAS, Horace was born



Thirty-seventh General Assemblies. In General Thomas was appointed United States Appraiser in connection with the Cu.stoni House in Chicago. THOMAS, Jesse Burgess, jurist and United States Senator, was born at Hagerstown, Md., claiming direct descent from Lord Baltimore. Taken west in childhood, he grew to manhood and settled at Lawrenceburg, Indiana Territory, in 1803 in 1805 was Speaker of the Territorial Legislature and, later, represented the Territory as Delegate in Congress. On the organization of Illinois Territory (which he had favored), he removed to Kaskaskia, was appointed one of the first Judges for the new Territory, and, in 1818, as Delegate from ,St. Clair County, presided over the first State Constitutional Convention, and, on the admission of tlie State, became one of the


incorporated in the Terre Haute & Richline


H., lawyer and legislator, Vermont, Dec. 18, 1831, graduated at

Middlebury College, and, after admission to the bar, removed to Chicago, where he commenced At the outbreak of the rebellion he practice. enlisted and was commissioned Assistant Adjutant-General of the Army of the Ohio. At the close of the war he took up his residence in Tennessee, serving as Quartermaster upon the staff of Governor Brownlow. In 1867 he returned to

Chicago and resumed practice. He was elected a Representative in the Legislature in 1878 and re-elected in 1880, being chosen .Speaker of the House during his latter term. In 1888 he was

elected State Senator from the Sixth District, serving during the sessions of the Thirty-sixth



United States Senat(?rs

— Governor


being his colleague. Though an avowed advocate of slavery, he gained no little prominence as the author of the celebrated "Missouri Compromise," adopted in 1820. He was re-elected to the Senate in 1823, serving until 1829. He subsequently removed to Mount Vernon, Ohio, where he died by suicide. May 4, 1853. Jesse Burgess (Thomas), Jr., nephew of the United States Senator of the same name, was born at Lebanon, Ohio, July 31, 1806, was educated at Transylvania University, and, being admitted to the bar, located at Edwardsville. 111. He first appeared in connection with public affairs as Secretary of the State Senate in 1830, being re-elected in 1832 in 1834 was elected Representative in the Genera'l Assembly from Madison Count3^ but, in February following, was appointed Attorney-General, serving only one year. He afterwards held the position of Circuit Judge (1837-39), his home being then in Springfield; in 1843 he became Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, by appointment of the Governor, as successor to Stephen A. Douglas, and was afterwards elected to the same office by the Legislature, remaining until 1848. During a part of his professional career he was the partner of David Prickett and William L. May, at Springfield, and afterwards a member of the Galena bar, finally removing to Chicago, where he died, Feb. 21, 1850.— Jesse B. (Thomas)


clergyman and son of the

at Edwardsville,



named born ;

educated at Kenyon College, Ohio, and Rochester (N. Y.) Theological Seminary practiced law for a time in Chicago, but finally entered the Baptist ministry, serving churches at Waukegan, 111. Brooklyn, N. Y., and San Francisco (1862-69). He 111..

29, 1832;





then became pastor of the Michijjan Avenue tist


when he


reuiaiuing until 18T4, Brooklyn. In 1887 ho

in Chicago,



became Professor of Biblic'al IIi.story in tlie Theological Seminary at Newton, Mass., where he has since resided. He is the author of several volumes, and, in 1800, received the degree of D.D. from the old University of Chicago. THOMAS, John, pioneer and soldier of the Black

Hawk War, was

Va., Jan.

11, 1800.

born in

Wythe County,

At the age of

18 he


panied his parents to St. Clair County. 111., where the familj- located in what was then called the Alexander settlement, near the present site of Shiloh. When he was 22 he rented a farm (although he had not enough money to buy a horse) and married. Six years later he bought and stocked a farm, and, from that time forward, property, until he riipidly accumulated • real became one of the most extensive owners of farming land in St. Clair County. In early life lie was fond of military exercise, holding various offices in local organizations and serving as a Colonel in the Black Hawk War. In 1S24 he was one of the leaders of the party opjrosed to tlie amendment of the State Constitution to sanction slavery, was a zealous opponent of the KansasNebnuska bill in 18.-)4. and a firm supporter of the Republican party from the date of its formation. He was elected to the lower lioiLso of the General


in 1838, "02,

"04, "72



and to the

State Senate in 1878, serving four years in the Died, at Belleville, Dec. 16, 1894, in latter body. the O.'ith year of his age. R., ex-Congressman, was born Mount Vernon, 111., Oct. 11. 1840, He served the Union Army during the War of the Reliel-

THOMAS, John at in

from the ranks to a cajitaincy. After his return home he studied law, and was admitlion, rising

ted to the bar in 1809.


State's Attorney, and,

from 1879

1872 to 1S7(> be to


1889, repro

sented his District in Congre.ss. In 1897, Mr. Thomas was appointed by President JIcKinley

an additional United States District Judge for Indian Territory. His home is now at Vanita, in that Territory.


William, pioneer lawyer and legisin what is now Allen County, Ky., Nov. 22, 1802; received a rudijuentary education, and served as deputy of his father (who was Sherilf), and afterwards of the County Clerk; studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1823; in 1826 removed to Jacksonville, III, where he lator,

was born

taught school, served as a private in the Winnebago War (1827). and at the session of 1828-29.

reported the proceedings of the General Assembh- for "The Vandalia Intelligencer" wjisState's Attorney and School Commissioner of Morgan ;

served as Quartermaster and Commisthe flack Hawk War (1831-32), first under Gen. Joseph Duncan and, a year later, under General Whiteside in 1839 was appointed Circuit Judge, but legislated out of office two years later. It was as a member of the Legislature, however, that he gained the greatest prominence, first as State Senator in 1834-40, and I\e])resentative in 1840-48 and 18,")0-,")2. when he was especially influential in the legislation which resiilteil in estab-



.sary in


lishing the institutions for tlic Doaf and Dumb and the Blind, and the Hospital for the Insane

the State) at Jacksonville— .serving, member of the Board of Trustees of the latter. He was also prominent in connection with many enterprises of a local character, including the establishment of the Illinois Female College, to which, although without children of (the



first in

a time, as a

own, he was a

liberal contributor.


year of the war he was a member of the Board of Army Auditors by appointment of Governor Yates. Died, at Jacksonville, August 22, the



THOItXTON, Anthony,

jurist, was born in County. Ky., Nov. 9, 1814 being descended from a Virginia family. After the


usual jirimary instruction in the common schools, he spent two years in a high school at Gallatin,

when he entered Centre College at DanKy., afterwards continuing his studies at Miami University, Ohio, where he graduated in Having studied law with an uncle at 1834. Paris, Ky., he was licensed to practice in 1836,

Tenn., ville,

when he

left his

native State with a view to set-

but, visiting his uncle. Gen. Thornton, at Sholbyville, 111., was iiidiiied to establish himself in i)ractice tliere. lie served as a member of llie State Constitutional Conventions of 1847 anCE>>ES RAILROAD. (See Toledo. St. Louis d- Kansas City Railroad.)

TUTHILL, Richard


at Vergennes, Jack.son County,



was born


10. 1841.

After pa.s.sing through the common schools of his native county, he took a preparatory course in a high school at St. Louis and in Illinois College, Jacksonville, when he entered Middlebury College, Vt., graduating there in 1863. Immediately thereafter he joined the Federal army at Vick.sburg, and. after serving for some time in a company of scouts attached to General Logan's command, was commissioned a Lieutenant in the First Michigan Liglit Artillery, with wliieh he served until the close of the war, meanwhile being twice promoted. During this time he was with General Sherman in the march to Meridian, and in the Atlanta campaign, also took part with General Thomas in the operations against the rebel General Hood in Tennessee, and in the battle of Nashville. Having resigned his commission in May, ISe.";, he took up the stud3- of law, which he had prosecuted as he had opportunity while in the army, and was a' LEA(;rE OF AMERICA, a .secret political and patriotic order which had its origin early in the late Civil War, for the avowed pur-

pose of sustaining the cause of the Union and counteracting the machinations of the secret organizations designed to promote the success of the Retellion. The first regular Council of the order was organized at Pekin, Tazewell County, June 25, 18G2, consisting of eleven members, as follows: Jolm AV. Glasgow, Dr. D. A. Cheever, Hart Montgomery, Maj. Richard N. CuUom (father of Senator CuUom), Alexander Small, Bev. J. W. M. Vernon, George H. Harlow (afterward Secretary of State), Charles Turner, Col. Jonathan Merriam, Henry Pratt and L. F. GarOne of the number was a Union refugee rett. from Tennes.see, who dictated the first oath from memory, as administered to members of a somewhat .similar order whicli had been organized among the Unionists of his own State. It .solemnlj' pledged the taker, (1) to preserve inviolate the secrets and business of the order; (2) to "support, maintain, protect and defend the civil liberties of the Union of the.se United States again.st all enemies, either domestic or foreign, at all times and under all circumstances, " even "if necessary, to the sacrifice of life"'; (3) to aid in electing only true Union men to offices of trust in the town, county. State and General Government; (4) to assist, protect and defend any member of the order who might be in peril from his connection with the order, and (.5) to obej- all laws, rules or regulations of any Council to which the taker of the oath might l>e attached. The oath was taken upon the Bible, the Declaration of Independence and Constitution of the United States, tlie taker pledging his sacred honor to its fulfillment. A special reason for the organization existed in the activity, about this

time, of the "Knights of the Golden Circle." a disloyal organization which had been introduced

from the South, and which afterwards took the name, in the North, of "American Kuiglits" and "Sons of Liberty. " (See Secret Treasonable Societies.) Three montlis later, tlie organization had

number of other counties of the State and, on the 2oth of September following, the first State Council met at Bloomington twelve counties being represented ami a State organization was effected. At this meeting the following general oflicers were chosen: Grand e.xtended to a

President Judge Mark Bangs, of Marshall County (now of Chicago); Grand Vice-President Prof. Daniel Wilkin, of McLean Grand Secretary George H. Harlow, of Tazewell: Grand Treasurer H. S. Austin, of Peoria, Grand Marshal—J. R. Gorin, of Macon; Grand Herald A. Gould, of Henry; Grand Sentinel John E. Rosette, of Sangamon. An Executive Committee was also appointed, consisting of Joseph Medill of "The Chicago Tribune"; Dr. A. J. McFarland, of Morgan County; J. K. "Warren, of Macon;





Rybolt, of


Salle; the President,

Judge Bangs; Enoch Emery, of Peoria; and John E. Rosette. Under the direction of this Committee, ^vith Mr. Medill as its Chairman, the constitution and by-laws were thoroughly revised and a new ritual adopted, wliich materialh' changed the phraseology and removed some of the crudities of the original obligation, as well as increased the beauty and impressiveness of

the initiatory ceremonies. New signs, grips and pass-words were also adopted, Avhich were finally

accepted by the various organizations of the order throughout the Union, which, by this time, included many soldiers in the army, as well as civilians. The second Grand (or State) Council was held at Springfield, January 14. 1863, witli only seven counties represented. The limited representation was discouraging, but the members took heart from the inspiring words of Governor Yates, addressed to a committee of the or
G1, at Chicago, when it was occupying barracks known as Kane's brewery near the river on "West Polk Street. It wa.s early ordered to Northem Jli.ssouri, and was doing garrison duty at Lexington, when, in September, 1861, it surrendered with the rest of the garrison, to tlie forces under the rebel General Price, and was paroleil.





1861, to


14, 1862. it

was detailed

to guard ijrisoners at Camp Douglas. Tliereafter it participated in engagements in the Virginias,

as follows: at South Fork, Greenland Gap. Philippi, Hedgeville, Leetown, Maryland Heights, Snicker's Gap, Kernstown, Cedar Creek, Wincliester,

Charlestown, Berryville, Opequan Creek,

Fisher's Hill. Harrisonburg, Hatcher's Run and Petersburg. It also took part in the siege of

Richmond and the

pursuit of Lee, being present

at the surrender at Appomattox. In January and February, 1864, the regiment re-enlisted as In Augu.st, veterans, at Greenland Gap, W. Va. 1864, the ten companies of the Regiment, then numbering 440, were consolidated into five com-

panies and designated, "Battalion, Twenty-third



The regiment


Veteran Volunteer Infantrj-." thanked by Congress for its

part at Lexington, and

Lexington upon


autliorized to inscribe

its colors.

(See also Mulliijati,

James A.)

Twenty-fourth Infantry, (known

as the

Hecker Regiment). Organized at Chicago, with two companies to- wit; the Union Cadets and the Lincoln Rifles from the three months' service, in June. 1861, and niu.stered in, July 8, First

participated in the battles of Perryville, Murfreesboro. Chiekamauga, Resaca, Kenesaw 1861.


Mountain and otlier engagements in the Atlanta campaign. It was mustered out of service at Chicago, August 6, 1864. A fraction of the regiment, wluch had been recruited in the field, and whose term of service had not expired at the date of muster-out, was organized into one company

and attached

to the Third Brigade. First Divi-

Army Corps, and mustered out Camp Butler. August 1. 1865. Twenty Fii'Tii Infantry. Organized from

sion, Fourteentli


the counties of Kankakee. Iroquois, Ford. Vermilion. Doughis, Coles. Champaign and Edgar, and

mustered into service at It participated in


August 4. 1861. of Pea Ridge, Stone

St. Loui.s.

the battles

Chiekamauga, Missionaiy Ridge,

siege of Corinth, the battlo of

in the

Kenesaw Moun-

and innumerable skirwas mustered out at Springfield, Sept. 5, 1,864. During its three years' service the regiment traveleil 4.962 miles, of which 3.252 were on foot, the remainder by steamboat and railroad.

tain, the siege of Atlanta,




Mustered into serv-

consisting of seven companies, at Springfield, August 31, 1861. On Jan. 1, 1864, the regiment


re-enlisted as veterans.


was authorized by the

commanding General ners

"New Madrid"


to inscribe upon its ban"Island No. 10;" "Farming-

ton;" "Siege of Corinth;"' "luka;"' "Corinth 3d and 4th, 1862;"' "Resaca;" "Kenesaw;" "Ezra Church;" "Atlanta;" "Jonesboro;" "Griswoldville;" "McAllister;'' "Savannah;"" "Columbia," and " Benton ville." It was mustered out at Louisville, July 20, 1865, and paid off and

discharged, at Springfield, July 28 the regiment having marched, during its four years of service, 6,931 miles,

and fought twenty-eight hard


besides innumerable skirmishes.

Twenty-seventh Inf.\ntry.

First organized, companies, at Springfield, August 10, 1861, and organization completed by the aildition of three more companies, at Cairo, on September 1. It took part in the battle of Belmont, the siege of Island No. 10, and the battles of Farmington, Nashville. Murfreesboro, Chiekamauga, Jlissionary Ridge, Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Calhoun, Adairsville, Dallas, Pine Top Mountain and Kenesaw Mountain, as well as in the investment of Atlanta; was relieved from dut}', August 25, 1S64. wliile at the front, and mustered out at Springfield, September 20. Its veterans, with the recruits whose term of service had not expired, were consolidated with the




Ninth Infantry. of Twenty-eighth Infantry. Composed companies from Pike. Fulton, Schuyler. Mason, Scott and Menard Counties; was organized at Springfield, August 15, 1861, and mustered into service for three years. battles of



participated in the

and Metamora. the

siege of

Vicksburg and the battles of Jackson, Mississippi, and Fort Beauregard, and in the capture of Spanish Fort, Fort Blakely and Mobile. From June, 1864. to March, 1866, it was stationed in Texas, and wiis mustered out at Brownsville, in tliat State. March 15. 1866. having served four years and seven months. It was discharged, at Springfield.


13. 1866.

Twenty-ninth Infantry. Mustered into service at Springfield. August 19. 1801, an2. was recruited from the counties of McHenry and Boone three companies from the latter and seven from the former. It took part in the campaigns in Xorthern Mi.s.si.s.sippi and against Vicksburg. in the Red River expedition, the campaigns

discharge, July

7, 186.5.

Raymond. Champion Hills. Black River. Vicksburg. Jackson. Fort Esperanza, Cirand Coteau. Fish River, Spanish Fort and Blakely: days under fire. 62: miles traveled. 5.900; men killed in battle. 38; men died of wounds and disease. 149; men discharged for disability. 127; Hills.


deserted, 35;

officers .killed

in battle.


HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. officers died, 3; officers resigned, 26.

ment was mustered out 1865,




Baton Rouge, July 31, and discharged, August 9,

jjaid off



One Hundredth

Infantry. Organized at August, 1863, and mustered in,. August The entire regiment was recruited in Will 30. County. It was engaged at Bardstown, Stone River, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, and Nashville was mustered out of service, June 12,

Joliet, in


June 6, 1865, and, a few days later, received final discharge at Chicago. ton, D. C.


One Hundred and Fifth Infantry.


tered into service, Sept. 3, 1863, at Dixon, and participated in the Atlanta campaign, being






1865, at Nashville, Tenn.,

Tree Creek and constantly skirmishing; also took part in the "March to the Sea" and tlie campaign in the Carolinas, including tne siege of Savannah and the battles of Averysboro and Bentonville. It was mustered out at Washing-







and arrived at Chicago, received final payment and


One Hundred and First Infantry.


ized at Jacksonville during the latter part of the

month of August, was mustered in.

and, on Sept. 3, 1862, It participated in the battles 1862,

of Wauhatchie, Chattanooga, Resaca,



Church, Kenesaw and Pine Mountains, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, Averysboro and Bentonville. On Deo. 20, 1862, five companies were captured at Holly Springs. Miss., paroled and sent to Jefferson Barracks, Mo. and formally exchanged in June, 1863. On the 7th of June, 1865, it was mustered out, and started for Sjiringfield, where, on the 21st of June, it was paid off and disbanded. One Hundred and Second Infantry. Organized at Knoxville, in August, 1862, and mustered It was engaged at Resaca, in, September 1 and 2. Camp Creek, Burnt Hickory, Big Shanty, Peach Tree Creek and Averysboro; mustered out of service June 6, 1865, and started home, arriving at Chicago on the 9th, and, June 14. received ,


payment and


One Hundred and Third Infantry.


cruited wholly in Fulton County, and mustered into the service, Oct. 3, 1862. It took part in

the Grierson i-aid, the sieges of Vicksburg, Jackson, Atlanta and Savannah, and the battles of Missionary Ridge, Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Dalwas las, Kenesaw Mountain and Griswoldsville also in the campaign through the Carolinas. The regiment was mustered out at Louisville, June 31, and received final discharge at ChiThe original strength of cago, July 9, 1865. the regiment was 808, and 84 I'ecruits were ;

One Hundred and Fourth Infantry. Organized at Ottawa, in August, 1862, and composed almost entirely of La Salle County men. The

regiment was engaged in the battles of Hartsville, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Resaca, Peach Tree Creek, Utoy Creek, Jonesboro and Bentonville, besides many severe skirmishes was mustered out at Washing;


D. C, June 7, 1865, and paid off and discharged at Chicago, June 17. One Hundred and Sixth Infantry. Mus-

tered into service at Lincoln, Sept. 18, 1862, eight of the ten companies having been recruited in Logan County, the other two being from San-

gamon and Menard

Counties. It aided in the defense of Jackson, Tenn., where Company "C"' was captured and paroled, being exchanged in the summer of 1863; took part in the siege of Vicksburg, the Yazoo expedition, the capture of Little Rock, the battle of Clarendon, and performed service at various points in Arkansas. It was mustered out, July 12, 1865, at Pine Bluff, Ark., and arrived at Springfield, July 24, 1865, where it received final payment and discharge

One Hundred and Seventh Infantry.


tered into service at Si^ringfield, Sept. 4, 1862; was composed of six companies from DeWitt and

four comiianies from Piatt County. It was engaged at Campbell's Station, Dandridge, Rocky-Face Ridge, Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain, Atlanta, Spring Hill, Franklin, Nashville and Fort Anderson, and mustered out, June 21, 1865, Salisbury, N. C.






payment and discharge, July 2, 1865. One Hundred and Eighth Infantry. Organized at Peoria, and mustered into service, August final




took part in the


expedition against

Vicksburg and in the battles of Arkansas Post (Fort Hindman), Port Gibson and Champion Hills; in the capture of Vicksburg, the battle of

Guntown, the burg, August

and the was mustered out at Vicksand received final discharge

I'eduction of Spanish Fort,

capture of Mobile. at Chicago.








One Hundred and Ninth cruited from

Infantry. ReUnion and Pulaski Counties and

mustered into the service, Sept. 11, 1862. Owing number being greatly reduced, it was consolidated with the Eleventh Infantry in April, to its


(See Eleventh Infantry.)

One Hundred and Tenth Infantry. Organized at Anna and mustered in, Sept. 11, 1862; was




Rirer. WooJImry, and in numerous skirmishes in Kentucky and Tennessee. In May, 18G3, the regiment was consolidated, its numbers having been greatly reduced. Subse-

engaged at Stone

participated in the battles of Chickaand Mi.s.sionary Ridge, the battles around




Atlanta and the campaign through the Carolinas, being present at Johnston's surrender. The regiment was mustered out at Washington. D. C, June 5, 186.J, and received final discharge at Chicago, June 15. The enli-sted men whose term of service liad not expired at date of muster-out, were consolidated into four companies and transferred to the Sixtieth Illinois Veteran Volunteer



of Price tlirough Mis.souri, the battle of Nashville, and the ca]>ture of Mobile. It was mvi.stered out at Vicksburg. August 3. 1865, receiving final

payment and

discliarge at Springfield.

One Hundred and Fifteenth Ordered' to 1862



One Hundred and Eleventh Infantry.

Recruited from Marion, Clay, Washington, Clinton and Wayne Counties, and mustered into the servThe regiment aided ice at Salem, Sept. 18, 18G2. in tlie capture of Decatur, Ala. took part in the Atlanta campaign, being engaged at Resaca, Dallas, Kene.saw, Atlanta and Joncsboro participated in the "March to the Sea" and the campaign in the Carolinas, taking part in the battles ;


of Fort McAllister

and Bentouville.


was mus-

tered out at Washington, D. C, June receiving final discharge at Springfield,





Missionary Ridge. Tunnel Hill. Res;ica and in all principal battles of the Atlanta campaign, and in the defense of Nashville and pursuit of Hood; was mustered out of service, June 11, 1865, and received final pay and discliarge, June tlie

23, 1865, at Springfield.


Recruited almost wholly from Macon County, numlx?ring !t80 officers and men when it started from Decatur for the front on Nov. 8, 1862. It participated in the battles of Cliickasaw Bayou, Arkan.'^is Post, Champion Hills, Black River Bridge. Mi.ssionary Ridge, Resaca, Dallas, Big Shanty, Keuesaw Mountain, Stone Mountain, Atlanta, Fort McAllister and Bentonville, and was mustered out, June 7, 1865, near Washington, D. C.

One Hundred and .Seventeenth Infantry-. Organized at Springfield, and mustered in. Sept. 19, 18G2; jjarticijiated in the Meridian camjjaign, the Red River expedition (assisting in the cap-

Springfield, Nov.


.saw BlulTs. .\rkans;vs Post. Port Gibson,





Camp Hancock 6,



(near Chicago) for the front, in the Tallahatchie

was engaged

expedition, participated in the battle of Chickasaw Bayou, and was sent North to guard prisoners and recruit. The regiment also took part in

the siege and capture of Vicksburg, was mustered out, June 20. 1865. and finally discharged at Chicago, five days later.

One Hundred and Fourteenth Infantry. Organized in July and August, 1862, and mustered in at Springfield, Sept. 18, being recruited from The regiCass, Menard and Sangamon Counties. ment participated in the battle of Jackson (Miss. ), the siege and capture of Vicksburg, and in the battles of

Guntown and

Harrisville, the pursuit


was engaged at Chickamauga. Chattanooga,

having traveled 3,736 miles, of which 1,836 wiis on the march. One Hundred and Twelfth Infantry. Mustered into service at Peoria, Sept. 20 and 22, 1862; participated in the campaign in Ea.st Tennessee, under Burnside, and in that against Atlanta, under Sherman; was also engaged in the battles of Columbia. Franklin and Nashville, and the capture of Fort Anderson and Wilmington. It w;is mustered t)ut at GoldslK)ro. N. C, June 20, 1865, and finally discliarged at Chicago,

One Hundred and TiiiRXEEXTn



front from Springfield, Oct.

One Hundred and Sixteenth




ture of Fort de Rus.sey), and in the battles of Pleasant Hill, Yellow Bayou, Tupelo, Franklin, Nashville, Spanish

was mustered out

Fort and Fort Blakely.


August 5, 1865, 2,307 of which were

at Springfield,

liaving traveled 9,276 miles,


One Hundred and Eiohteentii Infantry. Organized

and mustered into the service at 7, 1862: was engaged at Chicka-


pion Hills, Black River Bridge, Jackson (Miss.), Grand Coteau, Jackson ( La. ), and Amite River.

The regiment was mounted,





dismounted. May 22, 1865. Oct. 1, 1865, it was mustered out, and finally discharged, Oct. 13. At the ilate of the mu.ster-in, the regiment numbered 820 men and officers, received 283 recruits, making a total of 1,103; at muster-out it numbered 523. Distance marclied, 2,000 miles; total distance traveled, 5,700 miles.

One Hundred and Nineteenth Infantry. Organized at Quincy, in September. 1862, and was mustered into the United States service, October 10; was engaged in the Red River cam])aign and in the battles of Shreveport, Yellow Bayou, Tupelo, Nashville, Spanish Fort and Fort







muster-out 1865,


took place at discharge at



One Hundred and Twentiety Infantry. Mustered into the service, Oct. 28, 1862, at Springfield was mustered out, Sept. 7, 1865, and received final payment and discharge, September 10, at ;

One Hundred and Twenty-first Infan(The organization of this regiment was not


One Hundred and Twenty-second Infantry.

Organized at Carlinville, in August,


and mustered into the service, Sept. 4, with 960 enlisted men. It participated in the battles of Tupelo and Nashville, and in the capture of Spanish Fort and Fort Blakel}-, and was mustered out, July 15, 186.5, at Mobile, and finally discharged at Springfield, August 4.

One Hundred and Twenty-third Infantry*.

Mustered into service at Mattoon, Sept.


1862; participated in the battles of Perry ville, Milton, Hoover's Gap, and Farmington also took ;

part in the entire Atlanta campaign, marching as cavalry and fighting as infantry. Later, it served as mounted infantry in Kentucky, Tennes-

and Alabama, taking a prominent part in the capture of Selma. The regiment was discharged at Springfield, July 11, 1865 the recruits, whose terms had not expired, being transferred to the Sixty-first Volunteer Infantry. One Hundred and Twenty-fourth Infantry. Mustered into the service, Sept. 10, 1862, at Springfield; took part in the Vicksburg campaign and in the battles of Port Gibson, Raymond and Champion Hills, the siege of Vicksburg, the Meridian raid, the Yazoo expedition, and the capture of Mobile. On the 16th of August, 1865, eleven days less than three years after the first company went into camp at Springfield, the regiment was mustered out at Chicago. Colonel Howe's history of the battle-flag of the regiment, stated that it had been borne 4,100 miles, in fourteen skirimishes, ten battles and two sieges of forty -seven days and nights, and thirteen days see


nights, respectively.

One Hundred and Twenty'-fifth Infantry.

Mustered into service; Sept.


Hundred and Twenty-sixth Infan-


try. Organized at Alton and mustered in, Sept. 4, 1862, and participated in the siege of Vicksburg. Six companies were engaged in skirmish line, near Humboldt, Tenn., and the regiment took part in the capture of Little Rock and in the fight at Clarendon, Ark. It was mustered out July 12, 186.5.

One Hundred and Twenty-seventh Infan-




in the battles of







mauga. Missionary Ridge, Kenesaw Jlountain, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta and Jonesboro, and in the "Mai-ch to the Sea" and the Carolina campaign, being engaged at Averysboro and Bentonville. It was mustered out at Washington, D. C, June 9, 1865, and finally discharged at Chicago.

Mustered into service at Chicago, Sept. 6, took part in the first campaign against Vicksburg, and in the battle of Arkansas Post, the siege of Vicksburg under Grant, the capture of Jackson (Miss.), the battles of Missionary Ridge and Lookout Mountain, the Meridian raid, try.



in the fighting at Resaca, Dallas,


Mountain, Atlanta and Jonesboro; also accompanied Sherman in his march through Georgia and the Carolinas, taking part in tlie battle of Bentonville was mustered out at Chicago. June ;

17, 1865.

One Hundred and Twenty-eighth InfanMustered in, Dec. 18, 1862, but remained than five months, wlien, its number of officers and men having been reduced from 860 to 161 (largely by desertions), a number of officers were dismissed, and the few remaining officers and men were formed into a detachment, and transferred to another Illinois regiment. One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Infantry. Organized at Pontiac, in August, 1862, and mustered into the service Sept. 8. Prior to May, 1864, the regiment was chiefly engaged in garrison duty. It marched with Sherman in the Atlanta campaign and tlirough Georgia and the Carolinas, and took part in the battles of Resaca, Buzzard's Roost, Lost Mountain, Dallas, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, Averysboro and Bentonville. It received final pay and discharge at Chitry.

in service less




10, 1865.


and Thirtieth Infantry. Organized at Springfield and mustered into service, Oct. 25, 1862 was engaged at Port Gibson, Champion Hills, Black River Bridge, Vicksburg, Jackson (Miss.), and in the Red River expedition. While on this expedition almost the entire regiment was captured at the battle of Mansfield, and not paroled until near the close of the war. The remaining officers and men were consolidated with the Seventy-seventh Infantry in January, 1865, and participated in the capture of Mobile. Six months later its regimental re;

One Hundred and Thirtieth, was ordered. It was mustered out at New Orleans, August 15, 1865, and discharged at Springfield, August 31.

organization, as the






Thirty-first InfanSeptember, 1SG2, and mustered into the service, Nov. 13, with S15 men,




officers. In October, 1803, it was consolidated with the Twentj--nintli Infantrj-. and ceased to exist as a separate organization. Up to that time the regiment had been in but a few conflicts and in no pitched battle.

exclusive of

One Hindred

and Thirty-second Ixfan-

Organized at Chicago and mustered in for 100 days from Juue 1, 1SC4. The regiment remained on duty at Paducah until the expiration




its service,

was mustered



to Chiciigo,


out, Oct. 17, 18G4.

One Hundred




Organizeil at Springfield, and mustered in


hundred days. May 31, 1864; was engaged during its term of service in guarding prisoners of war at Rock Island was mustered out, Sept. for one


Camp Butler. One Hundred and Thirty-fourth

4, 1804,


days; was a.ssigned to garrison duty at Columbus, Ky., and mastered out of service, Oct. 23, 1864, at Chicago.






Infantry. Mustered in for 100-days" service at Mattoon, June 6, 1804, having a strength of 852 men. It was chiefly engageil, during its term of service, in doing garrison duty and guarding railroads. It was mustered out at Springfield, Sept. 28, 1804. One Hundred and Thirty-sixth Inf.vnTRY. Enlisted about the first of Jlay, 1864, for





and went into camp at Centralia.

100 days,


but was not mustered into service until June following.

duty, witli


was garrison occasional scouts and raids amongst Its



-Vt the end of its term of service the regiment re-enlisted for fifteen days; was mus-


tered out at Springfield, Oct. charged eight days later

22, 1864,



Organized at Quincy, with ex-Gov. John Wood as its Colonel, and mustered in, June 5, "Was ou duty at Memphis, 1864, for 100 days. Tenn and mustered out of service at Spring-




Hundred and Thirty eighth Organized at Quincy, and

21, 1804, for 100

son duty at Fort



ice at Springfield,




lu-isigned to garri-

Leavenworth, Kan., and in It was mustered out of servOct. 14. 1864.

Infan-vnd Thirty-ninth Mustered into service as a 100-day's regi-

One Hundred try.

days; was


ing been in the service nearly five months.

One Hundred and Fouetieth Infantry. Organized as a

lOO-daj-s" regiment, at Springfield,

and mustered into service on that The regiment was engaged in guarding date. railroads between Memphis and Holly Springs,and After the term of in garrison duty ut Memphis. enlistment liad expired and the regiment had


18, 1864,

been mustered out, it aided in the pursuit of General Price through Missouri was finally discharged at Chicago, after serving about five ;






TRY. Mustered into service as a 100-days" regiment, at Elgin. June 10, 1804 strength, 842 men; departed for the field, June 27, 1804; was mustered out at Chicago, Oct. 10, 1864.






TRY. Organized at Freeport as a battalion of eight companies, and sent to Camp Butler, where two companies were added and the regiment

mustered into service for 100 Jays, June 18. 1864. It wiis ordered to Memphis, Tenn., five days later, and assigned to duty at White's Station, eleven miles from that city, where it was employed in guarding the Memphis & Charleston railroad. It was mustered out at Chicago, on Oct, 27, 1804, the men having voluntarilj- serred one month beyond their term of enlistment. One Hundred and Forty--third InfanOrganized at Mattoon, and mustered in, try".


1804, for 100 days.


garrison dut}', and mustered


was assigned





One Hundred and Forty-foihith InfanOrganized at Alton, in 1864, as a one-year regiment was mustered into the service, Oct. 21, It was mustered its strength being 1,159 men. out, July 14, 1805.



Hundred and Forty-fifth Inf.vnMustered info service at Springfield, June It departed for the 9, 1864; .strength, 880 men. field, June 12, 1864; was mustered out, Sept. 23, One

field. 111.. Sept. 4, 1864.


was engaged in


Sept. 26. 1864.

One Hundred and Thirty-seven-th Infan-



the Confederate General Price in Missouri. The latter service was rendered, at the President's request, after the term of enlistment had expired. It wiis mastered out at Peoria, Oct. 2.5, 1S04, hav-



Organized at Chicago and mustered


ment, at Peoria, June

garrison duty at Columbus and Cairo, in making reprisals for guerrilla raids, and in the pursuit of



Hundred and Forty'-sixth Inf.v>'Organized at Springfield, Sept. 18, 1864, for one year. Was assigned to the duty of guarding drafted men at Brighton, Quincy, Jacksonville One






and mustered out at



Forty-seventh Infantry. Organized at Chicago, and mustered into service for one year, Feb. 18 and 19, 1865; was aa'd

engaged chiefly on guard or garrison dut}', in scouting and in skirmishing with guerrillas. Mustered out at Nashville, Jan. 23, 1866, and received final discharge at Springfield, Feb.


Hundred and




try. Organized at Springfield, Feb. 21, 1865, for the term of one year was assigned to garrison ;

and guard duty and mustered out, Sept. 5, 1865, at Nashville, Tenn; arrived at'Springfield, Sept. 9, 1865, where it was paid off and discharged. One Hundred and Forty-ninth InfanOrganized at Springfield, Feb. 11, 1865, and mustered in for one year; was engaged in garrison and guard duty mustered out, Jan. 27, 1866, at Dalton, Ga., and ordered to Springfield, where it received final payment and discharge.



One Hundred and Fiftieth Infantry'. Organized at Springfield, and mustered in, Feb. 14, 1865, for one year; was on duty in Tennessee and Georgia, guarding railroads and garrisoning towns. It was mustered out, Jan. 16, 1866, at Atlanta, Ga., and ordered to Springfield, where it received final paj'ment and discharge. One Hundred and Fifty-first Infantry. This regiment was organized at Quincy, 111., and mustered into the United States service, Feb. 23, 1865, and was composed of companies from various parts of the State, recruited, under It was engaged in 19, 1864. guard duty, with a few guerrilla skirmishes, and was present at tlie suiTender of General Warford's army, at Kingston, Ga. was mustered out at Columbus, Ga., Jan. 24, 1866, and ordered to Springfield, where it received final payment and

the call of Dec.


discharge, Feb.



One Hundred and

Fifty-second Infaj^Organized at Springfield and mustered in, Feb. 18, 1865, for one year was mustered out of service, to date Sept. 11, at Memphis, Tenn., and TRY.


arrived at


Butler, Sept.




at Springfield,



Sept. IS, 1865, the regiment


payment and discharge, was paid oft and dis;

Camp Butler, Sept. 29. Hundred and Fifty-fifth

cliarged at


InfanOrganized at Springfield and mustered in Feb. 28, 1865, for one year, 904 strong. On Sept. 4, 1865, it was mustered out of service, and moved to Camp Butler, where it received final pay and




Hundred and Fifty'-sixth InfanOrganized and mustered in during the months of February and March, 1865, from the northern counties of the State, for the term of one year. The officers of the regiment have left no written record of its histoiy, but its service seems to have been rendered chiefly in Tennessee in the neighborhood of Memphis, Nashville and Chattanooga. Judging by the muster-rolls of the Adjutant-General, the regiment would appear to have been greatly depleted by desertions and otherwise, the remnant being finally mustered


out, Sept. 20, 1865.

First Cavalry. Organized consisting of seven companies. A, B, C, D, E, F and G at Alton, in 1861, and mustered into the United States service, July 3. After some service in Slissouri, the regiment participated in the battle of Lexington, in that State, and was surrendered, with the remainder of the garrison, Sept. 20, 1861. The officers were paroled, and the men sworn not No exto take up arms again until discharged. change having been effected in November, the non-commissioned officers and privates were ordered to Springfield and discharged. In June, 1862, the regiment was reorganized at Benton Barracks, Mo., being afterwards employed in guarding supply trains and supply depots at various points. Mustered out, at Benton Barracks, July 14, 1862. Second Cavalry'. Organized at Springfield and mustered into service, August 12, 1861, with Company M (which joined the regiment some


re-enlisted as veterans, later, participating in the


for one year.


arrived, Sept. 22




payment and discharge. Inf.\nand Fifty-third TRY. Organized at Chicago, and mustered in, Feb. 27, 1865, for one year; was not engaged in any battles. It was mustered out, Sept. 15, 1865, and moved to Springfield, 111., and, Sept. 24, received final pay and discharge. One Hundred and Fifty-fourth Infantry.


months later), numbering 47 commissioned offiThis nmuber was incers and 1,040 enlisted men. creased by recruits and re-enlistments, during its four and a half year's term of service, to 2,236 It enlisted men and 145 commissioned officers. was engaged at Belmont a portion of the regiment took part in the battles at Fort Henry, Fort Donelson and Shiloh, another portion at Merriweather's Ferry, Bolivar and Holly Springs, and participated in the investment of Vicksburg. In January, 1864, the major jjart of the regiment


received final


mustered out at Nashville, Tenn., and ordered to Springfield

One Hundred





Red River expedition and the investment of Fort Blakely. It was mustered out at San Antonio, Tex., Nov. 22, 18G.5, and finally paid and discharged at Springfield, Jan. 3, 180G. Third Cav.vlry. Composed of twelve companies, from various localities in the State, the grand total of company officers and enlisted men, imder the first organization, being 1,433. It was organized at Springfield, in August, 18G1; participated in the battles of Pea Ridge. Haines' Bluff, Arkansas Post, Port Gibson, Champion Hills, Black River Bridge, and the siege of Vicksburg. In July, 1864, a large portion of the regiment reenlisted as veterans. Tlie remainder were mus-

and men



as veterans.



Eighth Cavalry. Organized at St. Charles, and mustered in, Sept. 18, 1801. The regiment w;vs ordered to Virginia, and participated in the general advance on Manassas in March, 1862; was engaged at Mechanicsville, Gaines' 111.,




Sugar Loaf Mountain, Middle-


tered out, Sept. o, 18C4. The veterans participated in the repulse of Forrest, at Memphis, and in the





battles of Lawrenceburg, Spring Hill, CampbelLs-

Station, Northern Neck, Gettysburg,

and Franklin. From May to October, 180.), engaged in service against the Indians in the Northwest Tlie regiment was mustered out at

burg, Funkstown, Falling Water, Che.ster


Springfield, Oct. 18,



Mustered into service, and participated in the battles of Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, and Sbiloh; in the siege of Corintli, and in many engagements of less historic note was mustered out at Springfield By order of the War Departin November, 1H04. ment, of .Tune 18, 180."), the members of the regiment wliose terms had not expired, were consolidated with the Twelfth Illinois Cavalry. Fifth Cavalry. Organized at Camp Butler, took part in the Jleridian in November, 1861 raid and the expedition against Jackson, Miss., and in numerous minor expeditions, doing effective work at Canton, Grenada, Woodville, and Cav.vlry.

Sept. 26, 1861,



other ix)ints. On Jan. 1, 1804, a large portion of the regiment re-enlisted as veterans. Its final muster-out took place, Oct. 27, 186.1, and it received final payment and discharge, October 30.

Sixth Cavalry. Organized at Springfield, Nov. 19, 1861 participated in Sherman's advance upon Grenada; in the Grierson raid through Mississi])pi and Louisiana, tlie siege of Port Hudson, ;

the battles of Mo.scow (Tenn), We.st Point (Miss.), Franklin and Nashville; re-enlisted as veterans, March 30, 1804; wiis mustered out at .Seliiia, Ala., Nov. 5, ISO.'i, and received discharge, November 20, at Springfield.

Seventh Cavalry. Organized at Springfield, and was mustered into service, Oct. 13, 1861. It participated in the battles of Farmington, luka,

Corinth (second battle); in Grierson's raid through Mississippi and Louisiana; in the engagement at Plain's Store (La.)., and the investment of Port Hudson. In March, 1864, 288


non- veterans were engaged at Guntown, and the entire regiment took part in the battle of Franklin. After the close of hostilities, it was stationed in Alabama and Mississippi, until the latter part of October, 186.5 was mustered out at Nashville, and finally discharged at Springfield, Nov. 17,



FredericksAVarrenton, Rapidan AN'illiams-


Sandy Hook, Culpepper, Brandy Station, and in many raids and skirmishes. It was mustered out of service at Benton Barracks, Mo., July 17, 186.'>, and ordered to Chicago, where it received final payment and discharge. Ninth Cavalry Organized at Chicago, in the autumn of 1861, and mastered in, November 30 was engaged at Coldwater, Grenada, Wjatt, .Saulshury, Moscow, Guntown, Pontotoc. Tupelo, ;



Creek, Hurricane Creek, Lawrence-

Franklin and Nashville. The regiment re-enlisted as veterans, March 16, 1864; was mustered out of service at Selma, Ala., Oct. 31, 1865, and ordered to Springfield, where the men received final payment and discharge. Tenth Cavalry. Organized at Springfield in the latter pail of September, 1861, and mustered into service, Nov. 1861; was engaged at Prairie burg,





Cotton Plant, Arkansas Post, in the Pass expedition, at Richmond (La),



Bayou Metoe, Bayou La Fourche

Little Rock.

In February, 18G4,_a large the regiment re-enlisted as veterans, the non-veterans accompanying General Banks in Iiis Red River expedition. On Jan. 27, 186.'), the veterans, and recruits were consolidated with the Fifteenth Cavalry, and all reorganized under the name of the Tenth Illinois Veteran Volunteer Cavalry. Mustered out of service at San Antonio, Texas, Nov. 22, 1,80.5, and received final discharge at Springfield, Jan. 6, 1866. portion of

Ele\-esth Cavalry. Robert G. IngersoU of and Basil D. Meeks, of Woodford County, obtained permission to raise a regiment of cavalrj-, and recruiting commenced in October, 1861. The regiment was recruited from the counties of Peoria, Fulton, Tazewell, Woodford, Peoria,


HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. Marshall, Stark, Knox, Henderson and Warren;

was mustered 1861, and was

into the service at Peoria, Dec. 20,



tire at Shiloh.

It also

took part in the raid in the rear of Corinth, and in the battles of Bolivar, Corinth (second battle),

and Jackson (Tenn.);

luka, Lexington



pherson's expedition to Canton and Sherman's Meridian raid, in the relief of Yazoo City, and in


less important raids and skirmishes. Most of the regiment re-enlisted as veterans in December, 1863 tlie non- veterans being mustered out at Memphis, in the autumn of 1864. The veterans were mustered out at the same place, ;

Sept. 30, 1865,


and discharged




Twelfth Cav.\lry. in February, 1862,



Organized at Springfield, and remained there guarding


mounted and sent




to Martinsburg, Va.



was was

engaged at Fredericksburg, Williamsport, Falling Waters, the Rapidan and Stevensburg. On Nov. 26, 1863, the regiment was relieved from service and ordered home to reorganize as veterans. Subsequently it joined Banks in the Red River expedition and in Davidson's expedition against Mobile. While at Memphis the Twelfth Cavalry was consolidated into an eight-company organization, and the Fom'th Cavalry, having previously been consolidated into a battalion of five companies, was consolidated with the Twelfth. The consolidated regiment was mustered out at Houston, Texas, May 29, 1866, and, on June 18, received final pay and discharge at Springfield. Thirteenth Cavalry. Organized at Chicago, in December, 1861 moved to the front from Benton Barracks, Mo., in February, 1862, and was engaged in the following battles and skirmishes (all in Missouri and Arkansas) Putnam's Ferry, Cotton Plant, Union City (twice). Camp Pillow, Bloomfield (first and second battles). Van Buren, Allen, Eleven Point River, Jackson, White River, Chalk Bluff, Bushy Creek, near Helena, Grand Prairie, White River, Deadman's ;


Lake, Brownsville, Bayou Metoe, Austin, Little Rock, Benton, Batesville, Pine Bluff, Arkadelphia, Okolona, Little Missouri River, Prairie du Anne, Camden, Jenkins' Ferry, Cross Roads,

the engagements at Bean Station and Dandridge, in the Macon raid, and in the cavalry In the latter Genbattle at Sunshine Church. eral Stoneman surrendered, but the Fourteenth cut its way out. On their retreat the men were betrayed by a guide and the regiment badly cut up and scattered, those escaping being hunted by soldiers with bloodhounds. Later, it was engaged at Waynesboro and in the battles of Franklin and Nashville, and was mustered out at Nashville, Jul}' 31, 1865, having marched over 10,000 miles, exclusive of duty done by detachments. street, in

Fifteenth Cavalry.

Cavalry Companies, raised at the outset of the war, forming the nucleus of the regiment. The former served as General Sherman's body-guard Captain Thieleman was made a for some time. Major and authorized to raise a battalion,, the two conipanies named thenceforth being known as Thieleman's Battalion. In September, 1862, the War Department authorized the extension of the battalion to a regiment, and, on the 11th of June, 1863, the regimental organization was comIt took part in the East Tennessee campleted. paign, a portion of the regiment aiding in the defense of Knoxville, a part garrisoning Cumberand Gap, and one battalion being captured by Longstreet. The regiment also participated in the battles of Rocky Face Ridge, Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Kingston, Cassville, Carterville,

Kenesaw, Lost Mountain, Mines Ridge, Powder Springs, Chattahoochie, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Franklin and Nashville. It arrived in Chicago, August 23, 1865, for final payment and discharge, having marched about 5,000 miles Allatoona,

field, Sept. 13. 1865.

ice in

Mustered into service January and February, 1863; participated in the battle of Cumberland Gap. in the defense of Knoxville and the pursuit of Long-

of companies

ments and acting as such; participated in the battles of Foi't Dohelson and Shiloh, and in the Regimental orsiege and capture of Corinth. ganization was effected in the spring of 1863, and thereafter it was engaged chiefly in scouting and post duty. It was mustered out at Springfield, August 25, 1864, the recruits (whose term of service had not expired) being consolidated with the Tenth Cavalry. Sixteenth Cavalry. Composed principally of Chicago men Thieleman's and Schambeck's

and engaged

Fourteenth Cavalry.


originally independent, attached to infantry regi-

Mount Elba. Douglas Landing and Monticello. The regiment was mustered out, August 31, 1865, and received final pay and discharge at Spring-

at Peoria, in


in thirty-one battles, besides


ous skirnrishes.

Seventeenth Cavalry.

Mustered into servJanuary and February, 1864; aided in the repulse of Price at Jefferson City, Mo., and was engaged at Booneville, Independence, Mine Creek, and Fort Scott, besides doing garrison duty, scouting and raiding. It was mustered




out in November aud December, 1805, at Leavenworth, Elan. Gov. John L. Beveridge, who liaJ previously been a Captain and Major of the Eighth Cavalry, was the Colonel of tliis regi-

ment. First Light Artillery. Consisted of ten batteries. Battery A was organized under the first call for State troops, April 21, 18«1, but not mustered into tlie three years' service until July 16; was engaged at Fort Donelson, Sliiloh, Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas Post, the sieges of Vicksburg and Jackson, and in the Atlanta campaign; was in reserve at



and mustered out July

Chicago. Battery

B was

Hills 3.



organized in April, 1801.



gaged at Belmont. Fort Donelson. Shiloh. in the siege of Corinth and at La (irange, Holly Springs, Memphis, Chicka.saw Bayou, Arkansas Post, the siege of Vicksburg, Mechanicsburg, Richmond (La.), the Atlanta campaign and the battle of Nashville. The Battery was reorganized by consolidation with Batterj' A, and mustered out at Chicago, July 2, IHO.i. Battery D was organized at Cairo, Sept. 2, 18G1 was engaged at Fort Donelson and at Shiloh, and mustered out, July 2S, ISO."), at Cliicago. Batter}' E was organized at Camp Douglas aud mustered into service, Dec. 19, 1861; was engaged et Shiloh, Corinth, Jackson, Vicksburg, Guntown, Pontotoc, Tupelo and Nashville, and mustered out at Louisville, Dec.


F was

24, 1804.

recruited at Dixon and mus-

tered in at Springfield, Feb. 2.5, 1802. It took part in the siege of Corinth and the Yocona

was consolidated with the other March 7, 180.5. Battery G was organizeil at Cairo and mustered in Sept. 28, 1801 was engaged in the siege and the second battle of Corinth, and mustered out at Springfield, July 24, 1805. Battery H was recruited in and about Chicago, expedition, and

batteries in the regiment,


during January and February,

1.^02; i)arti('ipated

in the battle of Shiloh, siege of Vicksburg.


the Atlanta campaign, the '"March to the Sea," and through the Caroliuas with Sherman. Battery I was organized at Camp Douglas and mustered in, Feb. 10, 1802; wiis engaged at Shiloh, in the Tallahatchie raid, the sieges of Vicksburg and Jackson, and in the battles of Chattanooga and Vicksburg It veteranized, March 17, 1804, and was mustered out, July 20, in


Battery iuustered

K was organized in,




Shawneetown and

1802. participated in



in Tennessee, and in the capture Part of the men were mustered out at Springfield in June, 1865, and the reman ider at Chicago in July. Biittery M was organized at Camp Douglas and mustered into the service, August 12, 1802, for three years. It .served through the Chickaraauga campaign, being engaged at Chickamauga; also was engaged at Missionary Ridge, was besieged at Chattanooga, and took pdrt in all the important battles of the Atlanta campaign. It was mustered out at Chicago, July 24, 1804, having traveled 3,102 miles and been under fire 178 days. Second Light Artillery. Consi-sted of nine batteries. Battery A was organized at Peoria, and mustered into service. May '23, 1801 .served in Mis.souri and Arkansas, doing brilliant work at Pea Ridge. It was mustered out of service at Springfield, July 27, 1865. Batter)- D was organized at Cairo, and mustered side's

of Knoxville.


into service in December, 1861; was engaged at Fort Donelson, Shiloh, Vicksburg, Jackson,

and Decatur, and mustered out at


Louisville, Nov. 21, 1864.



w;is organized at St. Louis, Mo., in

Augu.st. 1801,

and mustered into



that jioint. It was engaged at Fort Donelson and Shiloh, and in the siege of Corinth and the Yocona expedition was consolidated with 20. at

Battery A. Battery F was organized at Cape Girardeau, Mo., and mustered in. Dec. 11, 1861; was engaged at Shiloh, in the siege and second battle of Corinth, and the Meridian campaign; also at Kenesaw, Atlanta and Jonesboro. It was mustered out. July 27, 1865. at Springfield. Battery H was organized at Springfield, De-

and mustered in. Dec. 31, 1801; was engaged at Fort Donelson and in the siege of ceraljer, 1801,

Pillow; veteranized, Jan. 1, 1864, was mounted as cavalry the following summer, and


mustered out at Springfield. July 29, 1805. Battery I was recruited in Will County, and niu.stered into service at 1861.



Butler, Dec. 31,

participated in the siege of Island No.

advance upon Cornith, and in the Perry ville, Chickamauga, Lookout Jlountain, Mis.sionary Ridge and Chattanooga. It veteranized, Jan. 1, 1864, marched with Sherman to Atlanta, and thence to Savannah and through the Carolinas, and was mustered out at 10.

in the




Battery K was organized at Springfield and mustered in Dec. 31. 1803; was engaged at Fort Pillow, the capture of Clarkston, Mo., and the




was mustered

out, July


14, 1865, at

L was

organized at Chicago and musparticipated in the advance on Corinth, tlie battle of Hatchie and the advance on the Tallahatchie, and was mustered out at Chicago, August 9, 1865. Battery was organized at Chicago, and mustered in at Springfield, June, 1862 was engaged at Jonesboro, Blue Spring, Blouutsville and RogersviUe, being finally consolidated with other batteries of the regiment. Chicago Board of Trade Battery. Organized through the efforts of the Chicago Board of Trade, which raised §15,000 for its equipment, within forty-eight hours. It was mustered into tered



28, 1863;







was engaged



renceburg, Murfreesboro, Stone River, Chickamauga, Farmington, Decatur (Ga.), Atlanta,

Lovejoy Station, Nashville, Selma and Columbus (Ga. ) It was mustered out at Chicago, June 30, 1865, and paid in full, July 3, having marched 5,368 miles and traveled by rail 1,331 miles. The battery was in eleven of the hardest battles fought in the West, and in twenty-six minor battles, being in action forty-two times while on scouts, reconnoissances or outpost duty. Recruited Chicago Mercantile Battery. and organized under the auspices of the Mercantile Association, an association of prominent and It patriotic merchants of the City of Chicago. was mustered into service, August 39, 1803, at Camp Douglas, participated in the Tallahatchie and Yazoo expeditions, the first attack upon Vicksbui'g, the battle of Arkansas Post, the siege of Vicksburg, the battles of Magnolia Hills, Champion Hills, Black River Bridge and Jackson (Miss. ) also took part in Banks' Red River expedition; was mustered out at Chicago, and received final payment, July 10, 1865, having traveled, by river, sea and land, over 11,000 ;



Light Artillery.


principally from the cities of Springfield, Belle-

and Wenona, and mustered into service at term of three years, August It 31, 1863, numbering 199 men and oflScers. participated in the capture of Little Rock and in the Red River expedition, and was mustered out at Springfield, 114 strong, June 30, 1865. Cogswell's Battery, Light Artillery. Organized at Ottawa, 111., and mustered in, Nov. ville

Springfield, for the


1861, as



(Artillery) Fifty-third

Illinois Volunteers, Colonel





Cushman commandparticipated




advance on Corinth, the siege of Vicksburg, the battle of Missionary Ridge, and the capture of Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, near Mobile. The regiment was mustered out at Springfield, August 14, 1865, having served three years and nine months, marched over 7,500 miles, and participated in seven sieges and battles. Stubges Rifles. An independent company, organized at Chicago, armed, equipped and subsisted for nearly two months, by the patriotic generosity of Jlr. Solomon Sturges was mustered into service. May 0, 1861 in June following, was ;





Virginia, serving



guard of General McClellan; was engaged at Rich Mountain, in the siege of Yorktown, and in the seven days' battle of the Chickahominy. A portion of the company was at Antietam, the remainder having been detached as foragers, scouts, etc. It was mustered out at Washington, Nov. 35, 1863.




oppressions and misrule wliich had cliaracterized the administration of affairs by the Spanish

Government and


agents for generations, in the

Island of Cuba, culminated, in April, 1898, in

mutual declarations of war between Spain and The causes leading up to this result were tlie injurious effects upon American commerce and the interests of American citizens owning property in Cuba, as well as the constant expense imposed upon the Government of the United States in the maintenance of a large navy along tlie South Atlantic coast to suppress filibustering, superadded to the friction and unrest produced among the people of this country by the long continuance of disorders and abuses so near to our own shores, which aroused the sympathy and indignation of the entire civilized world. For three years a large proportion of the Cuban population liad been in open rebellion against the Spanish Government, and, while the latter had imported a large arm}' to the island and subjected the insurgents and their families and sympathizers to the grossest cruelties, not even excepting torture and starvation itself, their policy had failed to bring the insurgents into the United States.

subjection or to restore order. In this condition affairs the United States Government had endeavored, throvigh negotiation, to secure a mitigation of the evils complained of, by a modifica-


government in the but all suggestions in this direction liad either been resented by Spain as unwarrantable interference in her affairs, or promises of reform, when made, had been as invariably broken.

tion of the Spanish policy of island





In the meantime an increasing sentiment had been growing up in the United States in favor of conceding belligerent rights to the Cuban insurgents, or the recognition of their independence, which found expression in iiietisures proposed in Congress all offers of friendly intervention by the United States having been rejected by Spain Compelled, at with evidences of indignation. last, to recognize its inability to subdue the insurrection, the Spanish Government, in November, 1897, made a pretense of tendering autonomy to the Cuban people, with the privilege of amnesty

Spanish authority in the island; April 20, the sending to the Spanish Government, by the President, of an iiltiniatum in accordance with this act; April 21, the delivery to Minister Woodford, at Madrid, of his passports without waiting for the presentation of the ultimatum, with the departure of the Spanish Minister from Washington; April 23, the issue of a call by the President

insurgents on laying down their arms. The long duration of the war and the outrages perpetrated upon the helpless "reconcentrados,"' coupled with the increased confidence of the

to Admiral

to the

insurgents in the final triumph of their cause, rendered this movement even if intended to be The carried out to the letter of no avail. proffer came too late, and was promptly rejected. In this condition of affairs and with a view to greater security for American interests, the American battleship Maine was ordered to Havana, on Jan. 24. 1S98. It arrived in Havana Harbor the following ilay, and w;is anchored at a point designated by the S|)aiii.'5h commander. On

15, following, it was blown up and destro}-ed by some force, as shown by after investigation, applied from without. Of a crew

the night of February

men belonging to the vessel at the time, 266 were either killed outriglit by the explosion, or died from their wounds. Not only the American people, but the entire civilized worlil, was of 354

shocked by the catastrophe. An act of horrible treachery had been perpetr!fted against an American vessel and its crew on a peaceful mission in the harbor of a professedly friendly nation.

The successive steps leading to actual hostiliwere rapid and eventful. One of the earliest and most significant of these was the passage, by a unanimous vote of both houses of Congress, on




of an appropriation placing §.50,000,000

an emergency fund for purposes of national defense. This was followed, two days later, by an order for the mobilization of the army. The more important events following this step were: An order, under date of April 5, withdrawing American consuls from Spanish stations; the departure, on April 9, of Consul-fleneral Fitzhugh Lee from Havana April 19. the adoption by Congress of concurrent resolutions declaring Cuba independent and directing the Presiilent to use the land and naval forces of the United States to put an end to in the liands of the President as

for 125,000 voluuters; April 24, the final declara-

war by Spain April 25, the adoption by Congress of a resolution declaring that war had existed from April 21 on the same date an order

tion of



Dewey, in command of the Asiatic Squadron at Hongkong, to sail for Manila with a view to investing that city and blockading Philippine ports.

The chief events subsequent to the declaration war embraced the following; May 1, the destruction by Admiral Dewey "s squadron of the


Spanish fleet in the harbor of Manila; May 19, the arrival of the Spanish Admiral Cervera's fleet at Santiago de Cuba; May 25, a second call by the President for 75,000 volunteers; July 3, the attempt of Cervera's fleet to escape, and its destruction off Santiago; July 17, the surrender of Santiago to the forces under General Shafter; July 30, the statement by the President, through the French Ambassador at Wiishington, of the ternis on which the United States would consent to make peace August 9, acceptance of the peace terms bj' Spain, followed, three days later, by the signing of the peace protocol; September 9. the aijpointment by the President of Peace Commissioners on the part of the United States Sept. 18, the announcement of the Peace Commissioners selected by Spain October 1, the beginning of the Peace Conference by the representatives of the two powers, at Paris, and the formal signing, on December 10, of the i)eace treaty, including the recognition bj- Spain of the freedom of Cuba, with the transfer to the United States of Porto Rico and her other West India islands, together with the surrender of the Philippines for a con;



sie of They called themselves "We-weehahs. " and were sjxjken of by the French as "Ouiat-a-nons" and "Oui-as." Other corruptions of the name were common among the British and American colonists. In 1718 they had a village at Chicago, but abandoned it through fear of Indians.

their hostile neighbors, the Chipjiewas

and Potta-

The AVeas were, at one time, brave and warlike; but their numbers were reduced by watomies.

HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS. constant warfare and disease, and, in the end, debauchery enervated and demoralized them. They were removed west of the Mississippi and given a reservation in Miami County, Kan. Tliis they ultimately sold, and, under the leader-ship of Baptiste Peoria, united w