Higher Education: Handbook Of Theory And Research: Volume 36 [36, 1 ed.] 3030440060, 9783030440060, 3030440087, 9783030440084, 9783030440077

Published annually since 1985, the Handbook series provides a compendium of thorough and integrative literature reviews

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Table of contents :
Preface
Contents
About the Editor
About the Associate Editors
Reviewers
Contributors
1 Forward March: Living an Academic Life
Introduction
Part I: Constructing an Academic Life
Preparation of Myself
Catholic Ideas
Being Irish-American
Middle-Class Privilege and Safety
Forging a Gay Identity
Preparation of My Academic Self
On Reading
On Writing
On Puzzles
On Listening
On Solitary Activities
Coming Out/AIDS/Barry
Preparation of My Intellectual Self
Pine Street Inn
Peace Corps Morocco
Fort Berthold Community College and the Three Affiliated Tribes
Harvard and Stanford
Developing My Academic Self
The National Center
Penn State University
University of Southern California
International
ASHE/AERA
Friendships
The Development of My Mature Self
Part II: Organizing Ideas for an Academic Life
Understanding Culture in Organizations
The Enduring Challenge of Equity
On Theory, Method, and Writing
Advancing Democracy and Fighting Fascism
Conclusion
References
2 Reforming Transitions from High School to Higher Education
Introduction
Factors Contributing to Lack of Academic Preparation for College Coursework
Chapter Overview
Overview of Early Assessment and Underlying Conceptual Frameworks
Impacts and Implementation of Early Assessment Policies
Early Assessment Impacts on College Enrollment
Early Assessment Impacts on First Year Coursetaking
Early Assessment Impacts on Longer-Term Postsecondary Outcomes
Implementation of Early Assessment
Overview of Transition Courses and Underlying Conceptual Frameworks
Impacts and Implementation of Transition Courses
Transition Course Impacts on First Year Coursetaking
Transition Course Impacts on Longer-Term Postsecondary Outcomes
Implementation of Transition Courses
Overview of Summer Bridge Programs and Underlying Conceptual Frameworks
Impacts and Implementation of Summer Bridge Programs
Summer Bridge Impacts on First Year Coursetaking
Summer Bridge Impacts on Longer-Term Postsecondary Outcomes
Implementation of Summer Bridge Programs
Overview of Early College High Schools and Underlying Conceptual Frameworks
Impacts and Implementation of Early College High Schools
Early College Impacts on College Enrollment
Early College Impacts on Longer-Term Postsecondary Outcomes
Implementation of Early College High Schools
Conclusions
References
3 The Limits of Choice: A Black Feminist Critique of College ``Choice´´ Theories and Research
Introduction
Neoliberalism and the Contradictions of College Access
More Than the Color Line: Institutionalized Forms of Oppression and College Access
Incomplete College ``Choice´´ Theories and Models
Review of Literature
Theoretical Perspectives in College-Going and College ``Choice´´ Research
Traditional and Alternative Research Approaches
New Approaches to Examine the College ``Choice´´ Process
The Paradox of Education and the Black Struggle
Problematizing College ``Choice´´
Racial Theories in Higher Education and Empirical Research on Black Student´s College-Going Processes
Research on Black Women and College ``Choice´´
A Historical Perspective on Black Feminism
Black Feminist Thought
Controlling Images
Interlocking Nature of Oppression
Black Women´s Culture, Self-definition, and Self-valuation
Conclusion: New Imaginings and Possibilities
References
4 Queer and Trans College Student Success
Queer and Trans College Student Success: A Comprehensive Review and Call to Action
Purpose
Framing
Epistemology
Jay´s Positionality
Dolan´s Positionality
Theoretical and Conceptual Frameworks
Identity Development
Student Development Theory
Outness and Identity Disclosure
Queerphobia and Transphobia
Normativity
Finances
Conceptual Model of Student Success
Free Application for Federal Student Aid
College Choice
Relationships and Spaces
Multicontextual Model for Diverse Learning Environments
Belonging
Relationships
Spaces
Institutions
Transformational Tapestry Model
National Inventories of QT Resources
Institutional Policies
Institutional Contexts
Society
Minority Stress Theory
Nondiscrimination
Violence
Sexual Stigma
Implications
Institutional Change
Data Collection
Data Analysis
Policy and Legislation
Using Frameworks
Conclusion
References
5 Strengthening Outcomes of Adult Students in Community Colleges
Introduction
Defining Adult Students
Age as an Imperfect Proxy
Subjective Sense of Adulthood
Adult Learners
Adult Students Cross-Classified as Nontraditional Students
Synthesizing a Multidimensional Conceptualization of Adult Students
Operationalizing Adult Status
Adult Students´ Participation in Postsecondary Education
Enrollment in Higher Education
Role of Community Colleges in Adult Undergraduate Education
Adult Students as Diverse Learners
Differences Between Older and Younger Students
Improving Adult Community College Students´ Outcomes
Previous Work on Classifying Community College Support Programs
Programs and Initiatives with Potential to Improve Adult Students´ Outcomes
Mapping Mechanisms onto Adult Characteristics
Directions for Future Research and Practice
Conclusion
References
6 Toward a Critical Social Movements Studies
Defining Social Justice Movements
Outer Edges of Higher Education Research on Campus Activism
Social Movements Theory and Critical Theory
Social Movements Theory
Critical Theory
A Brief History of Social Justice Movements in Higher Education
Complicating Analysis of Social Justice Movements in Higher Education
Toward a Critical Social Movements Studies Framework
Utilize Catalytic Approaches
Foster Critical Agency
Cultivate Solidarity in Social Justice Movements
Bolster Social Justice Movement Resources
Enhance Efficacy Social Justice Movement Strategies and Tactics
Expose How Systems Resist Movements
Expanding Social Movements Research in Higher Education
Expanding and Sustaining Movement Activity
Deciphering Impact
Complicating the Role of Resources
Understanding the Complexities of Strategies and Tactics
Exposing University Resistance
Conclusion
References
7 Patterns in the Study of Academic Learning in US Higher Education Journals, 2005-2020
Introduction
The Framing and Scope of This Chapter
An Overview of the Corpus
Conceptualizing Academic Learning
An Illustration
Theorizing Academic Learning
Using Conceptual Models
Literature Reviews as Framing Devices
Summary: Conceptualizing Academic Learning
Studying Students´ Characteristics
Summary: Studying Students´ Characteristics
Studying Instruction
Using Students Surveys to Study Instruction
Using Multiple Data Sources to Study Instruction
Summary: Studying Instruction
Studying Programmatic Efforts
Summary: Studying Programmatic Effects
Studying Students´ Interactions with Faculty and Peers
Summary: Studying Students´ Interactions with Faculty and Peers
Conclusions: How Have Researchers Studied Academic Learning in US Institutions?
Broad Patterns in the Study of Academic Learning
Reflections on the Criteria for the Review
Conceptualizing Academic Learning
Studying Students and Their Experiences
Studying Teaching
Studying Learning in Courses and Programs
Imagining the Future of Studies of Academic Learning
References
8 The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same
Introduction
Organization of this Chapter
Theoretical Frameworks for Understanding Doctoral Student Socialization and Professional Development
Psychological Perspectives of Career Choice
Trait and Factor Theory: Matching Personality and Occupations
Holland´s Theory: A Personality-Occupation Typology
Sociological Perspectives on Career Choice
Socialization Theory
Socialization Theory and Doctoral Student Socialization
The Congruence and Assimilation Orientation
New Approaches to Understanding Career Choice that Move Us Beyond Congruence and Assimilation
Planned Happenstance Theory (a.k.a. Happenstance Learning Theory)
Summary of HLT: Relationship to the Doctoral Student Experience
Chaos Theory of Careers (CTC)
Summary of CTC: Relationship to the Doctoral Student Experience
New Approaches to Understanding Socialization that Move Us Away from Congruence and Assimilation
Critical Approaches: Centering the Experiences of Minoritized Students
The Role of Faculty in Reshaping Socialization
Adopting an Assets-Based (or Anti-Deficit) Approach
The Role of Mentoring and Advising, and its Long-Term Impact
Mentoring Students for More than Just Academic Careers
International Students and Socialization
Revisiting Antony´s Modified Framework for Doctoral Student Socialization
An Agenda for Future Research
Enhanced Advising Approaches
Modified Programmatic Requirements
Deeply Integrated Professional Development
Conclusion
References
9 A Mid-Career Faculty Agenda
Methods
Present Day Professoriate
The Academy at a Glance: Full-Time Faculty Demographics
Challenges: Defining Mid-Career
Mid-Career: Four Decades of Research and Practice
Conceptual and Theoretical Models in the Study of Mid-Career Faculty
1980s: The Foundation for the Study of Mid-Career Faculty
Tension Between Teaching and Research
Historical Insights
Contributing Contextual Factors: Value vs. Reward
Intersection of Institutional and Individual Considerations
Professional Competence
Refocusing the Perspective
Multifaceted Nature of the Faculty Career: A Professional Perspective
Career Stage Approach
Academic Professionalization
Institutional Examples and Professional Education
Summary of 1980s Literature
1990s: A Focus on the Individual Faculty Member
Intersection of Individual and Institution
The Institution as a Source of Strain
Institutional Supports
Multifaceted Nature of the Faculty Career: An Individual Perspective
Well-Being of the Whole Person
Tension Between Teaching and Research
Challenges of Competing Time Commitments
Isolation and Lack of Recognition
Summary of 1990s Literature
2000s: The Role of Context to the Mid-Career Faculty Experience
The Multifaceted Nature of the Faculty Career: Definitional Challenges
Mid-Career Stage Criteria
Strategies and Interventions: Supporting Mid-Career Faculty
Elements and Benefits of Institutional Strategies
Post-Tenure Review
Mentoring
Programs for Faculty Renewal and Development
Women Faculty in the Academy
Summary of 2000s Literature
2010s: Barriers, Vulnerable Faculty, and Interventions
Barriers to Advancement
Lack of Clarity
Lack of Resources
Vulnerable Faculty Populations
Interventions for Faculty Support
Summary of 2010s Literature
Mid-Career Faculty: A Research and Practice Agenda Moving Forward
Intentionality Across Contexts and Relationships
Leadership Development
Support to Help Mid-Career Faculty Manage the Evolving Nature of Higher Education
Mid-Career Faculty: A Call to Action in 2020 and Beyond
Need 1: Implement a National Database of Postsecondary Faculty and Instructional Staff
Need 2: Examine Intersectional Issues
Need 3: Support Nontenure Track Faculty at Mid-Career Stage
Need 4: Methodological Approaches
Concluding Thoughts
References
10 Four Decades of Performance Funding and Counting
Introduction
Definition and Prevalence
Main Features of Performance Funding
Brief History of Performance Funding
Theoretical Logic of Performance Funding
New Public Management
Resource Dependence Theory
Principal-Agent Theory
Neoliberalism
Ecology of Games
Establishment of Performance Funding
Adoption of Performance Funding Policies
Advocates of Performance Funding and Evidence Usage
Policy Implementation and Campus Responses
Intended Institutional Responses in Indiana, Ohio, and Tennessee
Unintended Institutional Responses in Indiana, Ohio, and Tennessee
Challenges to Implementation in Indiana, Ohio, and Tennessee
Policy Awareness and Campus Responses in Washington State
Campus Implementation in Ohio and Pennsylvania
Campus Responses to Equity Metrics in Ohio and Pennsylvania
Policy Evaluation
Policy Evaluation Considerations
Four-Year College Completion Outcomes
Two-Year College Completion Outcomes
Meta-Analysis on Outcomes and Access
Outcomes Specific to Minority Serving Institutions
Access and Admissions Outcomes
Equity Metrics and Enrollment Outcomes at Four-Year Colleges
Performance Funding Impacts on Institutional Finances
Summary of Literature on Performance Funding
Equity Considerations in Performance Funding
General Comments on Research Design of Performance Funding Studies
Evidence of Limited Impact on Degree Completion
International Perspective on Performance Funding
The Future of Performance Funding
Performance Funding During an Economic Recession
Areas of Future Research for Performance Funding
Methodological Considerations
Conclusion
References
11 US Higher Education Internationalization Through an Equity-Driven Lens
Defining Internationalization
An Equity-Driven Internationalization Lens
Integrating Equity-Driven Conceptual and Theoretical Perspectives
De-/constructing Internationalization
Defining the Sociohistorical Context
Connecting to Contemporary Forces of Globalization
Sociohistorical and Contemporary Influences on Internationalization Research
Sociohistorical Context: US HE Internationalization as National Strategy
Contemporary Globalization Forces: US HE Internationalization as Institutional Strategy
Understanding Internationalization Research Through an Equity-Driven Lens
Educating International Students
International Higher Education Partnerships and Research Activities
US Involvement in Transnational Education
Study Abroad as High-Impact Practice
Strategizing Internationalization at Home (IaH)
Moving Forward: Equity-Driven Internationalization Research
Conceptual and Theoretical Perspectives
De-/constructing Internationalization
Sociohistorical Context
Contemporary Forces of Globalization
Research-Informed Equity-Driven Internationalization Practice and Policy
Conclusion
References
12 Understanding the Complexities of Experimental Analysis in the Context of Higher Education
Why Conduct Experiments?
Logic of Experiments
Defining and Categorizing Experimental Analyses
Important Issues in Experimental Design
Units of Randomization
Pretesting and Longitudinal Designs
Multisite Trials
Treatment Arms
Preregistration
The Mathematics of Experiments
Random Assignment
Blocking
Covariate Balance Check
Cluster Randomized Control Trials
Compliance to Treatment Assignment
Attrition
Attrition Can Cause Problems
When Should We Worry About Attrition?
How to Counter Attrition
Dropping Observations Due to Missing Covariates
Examples in the Higher Education RCT Literature
Assessing Fidelity of Treatment Implementation
SUTVA
SUTVA Violations
Dealing with SUTVA
Contamination
Statistical Power Analysis
Minimum Detectable Effect Size
Power in Cluster RCTs
Tools to Assist with Power Calculations
Examples of Power Discussions in the Higher Education RCT Literature
Limitations in Conducting RCTs
Ethical Concerns
Understanding Mechanisms
Experimental Effects
Conclusion
References
Contents of Previous Five Volumes
Index
Recommend Papers

Higher Education: Handbook Of Theory And Research: Volume 36 [36, 1 ed.]
 3030440060, 9783030440060, 3030440087, 9783030440084, 9783030440077

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Laura W. Perna Editor

Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research Volume 36

Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research Volume 36 Series Editor Laura W. Perna University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA, USA

Published annually since 1985, the Handbook series provides a compendium of thorough and integrative literature reviews on a diverse array of topics of interest to the higher education scholarly and policy communities. Each chapter provides a comprehensive review of research findings on a selected topic, critiques the research literature in terms of its conceptual and methodological rigor, and sets forth an agenda for future research intended to advance knowledge on the chosen topic. The Handbook focuses on a comprehensive set of central areas of study in higher education that encompasses the salient dimensions of scholarly and policy inquiries undertaken in the international higher education community. Each annual volume contains chapters on such diverse topics as research on college students and faculty, organization and administration, curriculum and instruction, policy, diversity issues, economics and finance, history and philosophy, community colleges, advances in research methodology, and more. The series is fortunate to have attracted annual contributions from distinguished scholars throughout the world. More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/6028

Laura W. Perna Editor

Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research Volume 36

With 17 Figures and 9 Tables

Editor Laura W. Perna University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA, USA

ISSN 0882-4126 ISSN 2215-1664 (electronic) ISBN 978-3-030-44006-0 ISBN 978-3-030-44007-7 (eBook) ISBN 978-3-030-44008-4 (print and electronic bundle) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-44007-7 © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors, and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Switzerland AG. The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland

Preface

Like the preceding volumes in this series, Vol. 36 of Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research offers an invaluable collection of thorough reviews of research on topics that are of critical importance to higher education policy, practice, and research. Each of the chapters in this volume represents an important contribution to knowledge. Individually and collectively, the chapters provide in-depth examinations of the state of knowledge on topics that are highly relevant in this current time. Together, these chapters offer important insights into current issues pertaining to: college students; faculty; diversity; organization and administration; community colleges; teaching, learning, and curriculum; economics and finance; policy; history and philosophy; and research methodology. This annual publication would not be possible without the intellectual leadership of the excellent associate editors. For Vol. 36, these exceptionally talented scholars and research mentors are: Ann Austin, Nicholas Bowman, Linda Eisenmann, Pamela Eddy, Nicholas Hillman, Shouping Hu, Adrianna Kezar, Anna Neumann, AnneMarie Nuñez, and Marvin Titus. Over the course of a year or more, the associate editors and I each worked closely with an invited author to develop, produce, and refine the included chapters. Chapters in this volume advance research-based knowledge of how to promote success for queer and trans college students (Jason Garvey and C.V. Dolan) and adult students in community colleges (Peter Bahr, Claire Boeck, and Phyllis Cummins). These chapters also establish the state of knowledge of student activism in higher education (Samuel Museus and Brenda Jimenez Sifuentez), college readiness policies (Christine Mokher), and performance funding policies (Amy Li). Chapters also offer a Black feminist critique of college “choice” theories and research (Channel McLewis), identify patterns in the study of academic learning in US higher education journals (Lisa Lattuca), provide an updated review of doctoral student socialization and professional development (James Antony and Tamara Schaps), offer a mid-career faculty agenda (Vicki Baker and Caroline Manning), propose an equitydriven framework for understanding internationalization of US higher education (Chrystal George Mwangi and Christina Yao), and assess the use of experimental analysis in higher education research (Brent Evans). Each chapter offers a comprehensive review of research findings on the selected topic, critiques the research

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Preface

literature in terms of its conceptual and methodological rigor, and offers an agenda for future research that will further advance knowledge on the chosen topic. Following the tradition of past volumes, this volume also includes an autobiographic essay by William Tierney, University Professor Emeritus, University of Southern California. In his essay, Professor Tierney offers a thoughtful and candid reflection on how he has approached academic life over the course of his distinguished career and raises questions for us to consider as we think about our own academic lives into the future. He also discusses issues that have been central to his academic work over time (organizations and culture, equity, theory and methodology, universities as organizations that advance democracy) and stresses the importance of considering what colleges and universities throughout the world can do to bolster democracy and defeat fascism. Volume 36 builds on a long and strong history of outstanding scholarly contributions. The first volume in this series was published in 1985. John C. Smart served as editor of the series through Vol. 26, when Michael B. Paulsen joined him as co-editor. After co-editing Vols. 26 and 27 with John, Mike served as the sole editor through Vol. 33. I am deeply honored that Mike invited me to serve as co-editor with him for Vol. 34, and that I have the privilege of serving as sole editor beginning with Vol. 35. I am grateful for the time, effort, and engagement that the authors and associate editors have invested in producing these important scholarly contributions. With these efforts, the chapters in this volume, like those in prior volumes, provide the foundation for the next generation of research on these important issues. In this volume, associate editors were responsible for working with the following chapters and authors: Ann Austin, “A Mid-Career Faculty Agenda,” by Vicki L. Baker and Caroline E.N. Manning Nicholas A. Bowman, “Queer and Trans College Student Success,” by Jason C. Garvey and C.V. Dolan Pamela Eddy, “Strengthening Outcomes of Adult Students in Community Colleges,” by Peter Riley Bahr, Claire A. Boeck, and Phyllis A. Cummins Nicholas Hillman, “Understanding the Complexities of Experimental Analysis in the Context of Higher Education,” by Brent Joseph Evans Shouping Hu, “Reforming Transitions from High School to Higher Education,” by Christine G. Mokher Adrianna Kezar, “Toward a Critical Social Movements Studies,” by Samuel D. Museus and Brenda Jimenez Sifuentez Anna Neumann, “Patterns in the Study of Academic Learning in US Higher Education Journals, 2005–2020,” by Lisa R. Lattuca Anne-Marie Nuñez, “The Limits of Choice: A Black Feminist Critique of College “Choice” Theories and Research,” by Channel C. McLewis Marvin Titus, “Four Decades of Performance Funding and Counting,” by Amy Y. Li

Preface

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I had the privilege of working with authors of the following chapters: “Forward March: Living an Academic Life,” by William G. Tierney “The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same,” by James Soto Antony and Tamara Lynn Schaps “US Higher Education Internationalization Through an Equity-Driven Lens,” by Chrystal A. George Mwangi and Christina W. Yao February 2021

Laura W. Perna

Contents

1

Forward March: Living an Academic Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . William G. Tierney

2

Reforming Transitions from High School to Higher Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Christine G. Mokher

47

The Limits of Choice: A Black Feminist Critique of College “Choice” Theories and Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel C. McLewis

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3

4

Queer and Trans College Student Success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jason C. Garvey and C. V. Dolan

5

Strengthening Outcomes of Adult Students in Community Colleges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Peter Riley Bahr, Claire A. Boeck, and Phyllis A. Cummins

6

Toward a Critical Social Movements Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Samuel D. Museus and Brenda Jimenez Sifuentez

7

Patterns in the Study of Academic Learning in US Higher Education Journals, 2005–2020 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lisa R. Lattuca

1

161

217 275

323

8

The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same . . . . . . . James Soto Antony and Tamara Lynn Schaps

383

9

A Mid-Career Faculty Agenda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vicki L. Baker and Caroline E. N. Manning

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10

Four Decades of Performance Funding and Counting . . . . . . . . . . Amy Y. Li

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11

US Higher Education Internationalization Through an Equity-Driven Lens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chrystal A. George Mwangi and Christina W. Yao

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12

Contents

Understanding the Complexities of Experimental Analysis in the Context of Higher Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brent Joseph Evans

611

............................

663

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

667

Contents of Previous Five Volumes

About the Editor

Laura W. Perna is vice provost for faculty, GSE Centennial presidential professor of education, and executive director of the Alliance for Higher Education and Democracy (AHEAD) at the University of Pennsylvania (Penn). Her research uses various methodological approaches to identify how social structures, educational practices, and public policies promote and limit college access and success, particularly for groups that are underrepresented in higher education. Recent publications include Improving Research-Based Knowledge of College Promise Programs (with Edward Smith, 2020, AERA), Taking It to the Streets: The Role of Scholarship in Advocacy and Advocacy in Scholarship (2018, Johns Hopkins University Press), and The Attainment Agenda: State Policy Leadership for Higher Education (with Joni Finney, 2014, Johns Hopkins University Press). She has served as president of the Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE), vice president of the Postsecondary Division of the American Educational Research Association (AERA), and chair of Penn’s Faculty Senate. She is a member the board of directors for the Postsecondary National Policy Institute (PNPI). Among other honors, she has received the Christian R. and Mary F. Lindback Foundation Award for Distinguished Teaching from the University of Pennsylvania, Early Career Achievement Award from ASHE, Excellence in Public Policy in Higher Education Award from ASHE’s Council on Public Policy and Higher Education, and Robert P. Huff Golden Quill Award from the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators. She is also a member of the National Academy of Education and a fellow of AERA.

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About the Associate Editors

Ann Austin Michigan State University East Lansing, MI, USA

Nicholas A. Bowman University of Iowa Iowa City, IA, USA

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About the Associate Editors

Pamela Eddy William & Mary Williamsburg, VA, USA

Linda Eisenmann Wheaton College Norton, MA, USA

Nicholas Hillman University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI, USA

About the Associate Editors

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Shouping Hu Florida State University Tallahassee, FL, USA

Adrianna Kezar University of Southern California Los Angeles, CA, USA

Anna Neumann Teachers College, Columbia University New York, NY, USA

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About the Associate Editors

Anne-Marie Núñez The Ohio State University Columbus, OH, USA

Laura W. Perna University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA, USA

Marvin Titus University of Maryland, College Park College Park, MD, USA

Reviewers

Elisabeth Barnett Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, USA Cassie Barnhardt College of Education, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Gerardo Blanco Higher Education and Student Affairs, Neag School of Education, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA Rebecca Cox Faculty of Education, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada Julie Edmunds Secondary School Reform, SERVE Center at University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USA Sylvia Hurtado Department of Education, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Stephen Quaye College of Education and Human Ecology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA Robert D. Reason College of Human Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA Kelly Rosinger Center for the Study of Higher Education, Penn State University, University Park, PA, USA Xueli Wang Department of Educational Leadership and Policy Analysis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA

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Contributors

James Soto Antony University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA Peter Riley Bahr Center for the Study of Higher and Postsecondary Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Vicki L. Baker Economics and Management, Albion College, Albion, MI, USA Claire A. Boeck Center for the Study of Higher and Postsecondary Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Phyllis A. Cummins Scripps Gerontology Center, Miami University, Oxford, OH, USA C. V. Dolan University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA Brent Joseph Evans Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA Jason C. Garvey University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA Chrystal A. George Mwangi University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA Lisa R. Lattuca Center for the Study of Higher and Postsecondary Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Amy Y. Li Department of Educational Policy Studies, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA Caroline E. N. Manning Penn State University, University Park, PA, USA Channel C. McLewis University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Christine G. Mokher Educational Leadership and Policy Studies, Florida State University College of Education, Tallahassee, FL, USA Samuel D. Museus University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA

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Contributors

Tamara Lynn Schaps University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA Brenda Jimenez Sifuentez Lewis and Clark College, Portland, OR, USA William G. Tierney Pullias Center for Higher Education, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Christina W. Yao University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA

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Forward March: Living an Academic Life William G. Tierney

Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part I: Constructing an Academic Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preparation of Myself . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preparation of My Academic Self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preparation of My Intellectual Self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Developing My Academic Self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Development of My Mature Self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part II: Organizing Ideas for an Academic Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Culture in Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Enduring Challenge of Equity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . On Theory, Method, and Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advancing Democracy and Fighting Fascism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Abstract

The text has two parts. In the first part, the author offers a portrait of how he came to be an academic. He offers a reference point for others that hopefully enables critical reflection about how one might best think about academic life. Part one has five sections: the preparation of (1) the individual, (2) their academic self, and (3) their intellectual self; the author then turns to the development of (4) his academic self and (5) concludes part one by raising four questions that academics should ask themselves with regard to academic work. Part two discusses four notions that have been central to his work: (1) organizations and culture; (2) equity; (3) theory, methodology, and writing; and (4) colleges and universities W. G. Tierney (*) Pullias Center for Higher Education, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA e-mail: [email protected] © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 L. W. Perna (ed.), Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research, Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research 36, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-44007-7_1

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as organizations centrally concerned about democracy and the fight against fascism and how they can be ever vigilant about academic freedom. Keywords

Academic careers · Academic freedom · Critical theory · Democracy · Educational policy · Equity · Gay rights · Identity · Organizational culture · Postmodernism · Qualitative research · Writing

Introduction The year is 1983, and I am staring at a computer screen. I have collected data for a year and am about to begin writing a book (otherwise known as a dissertation). How did I get myself into this? I don’t know enough, I haven’t read enough, there are lots of people smarter than I am. This is a joke. I’ll never be able to write a book. I think I should go clean the fridge. After about a month, I calmed down and convinced myself that I could write a chapter; a chapter is like a term paper. I can do that. And then maybe write another chapter. And another. Maybe. Every book I have ever written has started in the same way – I don’t know enough; I haven’t read enough. And that fridge still needs cleaning. With my most recent book penned as I headed toward retirement, I was lucky to have had the space at the University of Southern California to draft the first few chapters. A month courtesy of the Rockefeller Foundation in Bellagio, Italy – and then four more months in Florence, Italy, at the European University Institute – afforded me the time and reflection to finish Higher Education for Democracy. I started the book the way I have begun all the others: with fear and worry that I would fail. Self-doubt goes with the academic territory. Knowing what I don’t know, knowing that I need to read more, and knowing that there are an awful lot of smart people out there have made me a better scholar. And it’s kept our fridge sparkling clean. What I want to do here is think through how I have approached academic life en route to retirement. We often incorrectly assume that one’s approach to a profession is the way everyone approaches the profession. I disagree. We approach academic life in different ways based on a multitude of experiences as we grow up and as we experience academic life. Times also change. The process of writing a dissertation on a typewriter, the way my own advisor did, differed from my use of a mainframe. What my graduate students do today changes the way they experience academic life from my own encounters with academe. The assumption that we all deal with academe in a similar manner has harmful consequences. The “one-size-fits-all” mentality imprints on us that the way our predecessors managed academic life is the way we should approach academe.

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Since most of our academic ancestors were abled, straight, white men, the result is that implicitly we try to recreate the past rather than develop a new framework for academic life. If we assume that academe will be improved with a more diverse workforce, then we need to extrapolate the various ways people become socialized and learn how to be an academic, rather than assume that “my” way is the only way to a successful academic career. Thus, thinking through approaches to academic life is not simply a pleasant trip down memory lane but a way for us to think about the future. The point is not to recreate the past but to invent a new one. I will elaborate on this point below, but one issue that has confronted me throughout my career is that I am an introvert, and I have frequently gotten advice about how to be an extrovert. Not only is such advice anxiety-inducing, but it’s decidedly wrongheaded. We would not give a basketball player advice on how to play football, and we should not assume that what works for extroverts will assuredly work for introverts. “Go to all the academic parties,” I was told as an assistant professor, “and be sure to shake the hands of all the full professors so they get to know you. Wear your academic badge and mingle.” The advice was well-intentioned, but I remember thinking, “If that’s what I have to do to succeed, then I’m out of here.” The meta-lesson my department chair had given me, however, was that it is important to get to know people. What I learned largely on my own was that there are various ways for me to meet people without having to go to every reception at a conference and make small talk over pigs in a blanket. Such an observation is particularly important as we continue to try to diversify the academy. If we want more women in senior levels of administration, we do not need them to act like men talking about the weekend’s football scores on Monday morning. If hiring more people of color is a critical goal, then we have to acknowledge that there are various routes to academic life, and they may disagree dramatically from the well-worn paths of the past. Why hold meetings in rooms that are inconvenient for the differently abled? I divide the text into parts. In part one, I first offer a portrait about how I got here that is not intended as an instructional manual. Rather, I am offering a reference point for others that hopefully enables critical reflection about how one might best think about academic life. I do not think one’s life necessarily has to be told chronologically, but I suspect a linear telling will help the reader understand my constant feelings of inadequacy when I started writing the dissertation in 1983 – and when I sipped an expresso in Bellagio in 2019. Accordingly, the first part of the text divides into five easy pieces: the preparation of (1) myself, (2) my academic self, and (3) my intellectual self; I then turn to the development of (4) my academic self. I conclude part one with a discussion of what I call (5) “my mature self” and raise four questions that we should ask ourselves with regard to our academic work. In part two, I discuss four notions that have been central to my work and where I think we are – and are not – with these four ideas. I begin by summarizing my thoughts about organizations and culture. I then turn to a discussion about equity, how I have considered the idea over time, and what I have done about it. The third issue I raise has to do with theory and methodology, in general, and then writing, in

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particular. Finally, I consider colleges and universities as organizations centrally concerned about democracy and the fight against fascism and how we need to be ever vigilant about academic freedom.

Part I: Constructing an Academic Life Preparation of Myself Catholic Ideas There is generally not a one-to-one correspondence in terms of what one learns and what one does. I have many friends who were raised in the Catholic faith, and it made little impact on them or their subsequent employment. I have others who call themselves Catholic but do not attend mass every Sunday, believe that abortion is ultimately a woman’s choice, and have friends who are gay. I also have friends who practice their faith in a distinctly different fashion. My point is less that one or another idea is right or wrong but that one’s faith may or may not impact a child’s development. What one takes from the religion depends on a variety of factors that tangentially touch on one’s religion. My earliest memories, however, derive from Catholicism. Although I came to reject the faith, most of my memories of Catholicism are positive. My father was the second youngest of nine; my mother had a sister. I am the youngest in my family – and I was the first Tierney to attend a non-Catholic high school, although I attended St. John and St. Mary’s Grammar School. My attendance at a public high school created something of a stir in the family and was a further sign of the problems of the 1960s. I remember going to Sunday mass, to confessing my sins at Confession, and to being an altar boy. I do not recall the priests in our church very well, other than that they were kindly men who periodically gave me helpful advice. I experienced, saw, and heard nothing about the atrocities that we have come to associate with priests today. I particularly remember the nuns who taught us from kindergarten through eighth grade. My experience with nuns was the opposite from the often stilted, repressed, and isolated portrait of nuns that we read about in the media. These were smart, intelligent, funny, and committed women who had our best interests in mind. They constantly challenged us not simply to get the right answer to a question but to look behind the answer and think about why it was correct. I met a nun when I was no longer a practicing Catholic in graduate school, and we remained friends for 20 years until she passed away. Again, I cannot lay claim to a one-to-one correspondence, but I think being taught by smart women who spoke about important issues of the day made an impact on how I came to think about academic life. My parents were by no means liberal; one of them voted for Nixon, and the other voted for Kennedy. However, a constant topic of conversation around the dinner table was about the poor. I do not recall talking very much about social policies, such as affirmative action, but we talked a great deal about those in need and what were

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we going to do about it. There was a certain sense that we had a social obligation to one another. When I attended Horace Greeley High School, and the Vietnam War was in full swing, I spoke out and marched against the war. When it came time to register for the draft, I decided to register as a conscientious objector. I thought then, and still think today, that it is expecting a great deal of a young person to decide that taking another life is morally wrong. When I told my parents what I was going to do, they had me talk with the parish priest. More importantly, in addition to my father and my American history teacher, we had Sister Mary Luke, my eighth – grade teacher – be one of my advisors and write a letter of support. If Catholicism made me think through issues big and small, it also made me doubt. “Why” was the question at the root of many of my conversations. Why were there poor? Why is it acceptable to kill another human being? Why is loving someone of the same gender immoral? Curiously, the basis of my faith led me to leave the Church; I had been taught not to accept an answer based on blind faith. I also am not surprised, upon reflection, that I followed my two older brothers into the Peace Corps. We had been taught to think about poverty, and involvement by joining the Peace Corps seemed a logical extension of Catholicism, even if I was no longer a Catholic.

Being Irish-American My ancestors arrived in the United States during the middle of the nineteenth century. In many respects, both sides of my family resembled other Irish immigrants to America. The majority were Catholic and settled on the east coast, especially in New York City. By the turn of the twentieth century, the grandchildren – my parents – were able to graduate from high school and go to college. Education was seen as a way out of poverty and a way into the middle class. I never felt particularly Irish growing up or that my identity was all that important, but, as they say, a fish doesn’t recognize water either. As I have thought about my upbringing, three factors stand out. In the elegiac Angela’s Ashes, Frank McCourt (1996) writes a fictionalized memoir of growing up in poverty in Ireland. Although I neither grew up in Ireland nor in poverty, one part of McCourt’s memoir rings true. The protagonist, a young boy, does not always understand what the adults are speaking about, but he learns that they are always talking. The Irish, as they say, have the gift of gab. They talk about the present by telling stories of the past; there is meaning in the stories, even if the young Frank does not understand them. My family revolved around conversation. What a child learns to be “normal” may be exceptional when compared to the rest of the world. Why would a child think that others are different from the environment in which they grow up? The world may certainly have changed with Twitter, email, and Facebook so that there is a better understanding of a larger world, rather than the insular one in which I was raised. We had a television, but it was largely something we watched for an hour or 2 in the evening, and even then, my parents, aunts, and uncles seemed to have conversations with one another about what was on TV, rather than watching it in silence.

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When I was around 5, I learned to read by my mother peppering me with questions in the morning as I tried to read the baseball scores of the newspaper. When I came home from school, my mother asked a raft of questions about the day. My father came home from work and sat down and asked me questions that he had heard on the news driving home. “What did I think,” he wanted to know. The questions were not a quiz with a right or wrong answer but a conversation. I learned that there were not necessarily right or wrong answers but that I needed to participate in the discussion. Dinner was around the table, and we talked about whatever topics my parents wanted to talk about that evening. I was startled when I went to a friend’s house for dinner one night, and we sat down and I started talking. My friend looked down at his plate as his father explained to me that we sat in silence and watched the news at dinner. Listening to people and telling stories were simply a way of life for me. I assume that being drawn to a method that revolves around listening and storytelling – qualitative research – in part results from that upbringing. Another part of growing up was that my father was an alcoholic. I am the youngest of three boys, and his alcoholism really did not become apparent until my brothers went off to college, I was in high school, and he took early retirement. He was never violent, but his drinking went on for years. The family had a secret which we did not talk about until very late in his life. One day, he simply stopped. I certainly wish he had not been a drunk, but it sure made me reflect a great deal about our lives. Again, I suspect that the task of reflection of figuring out a puzzle that has framed so much of my academic work in some way was fashioned by being an adolescent in an alcoholic’s family. Coupled with my father’s alcoholism was my love for reading. My mother fostered that passion by reading everything I read, all the way through college. I had an ongoing conversation with my mother about whatever book I was reading at the time. I never thought anything strange about my mom reading what I was reading, and it was fun to talk with her about the novel I was currently reading. When I was a freshman in college, my roommate asked me who I was writing to one day, and I mentioned I was writing my mother a letter about a book we were reading in class. My friend couldn’t believe that I was writing a letter to my mother and that I was writing a letter about a book in a first-year seminar. Again, a light bulb went on that how my family functioned was different from other families. I never thought that we were better or superior to others but that we were different. I chalk up these particular kinds of difference to being raised in an Irish Catholic family that revolved around dialogue and language.

Middle-Class Privilege and Safety We were a solidly white, middle-class family. The privilege that went with that was a feeling of relative safety growing up. I didn’t walk to school in fear for my life or that my classmates might shun me simply because of the color of my skin. My parents had money to pay for piano lessons and occasional trips for a summer vacation. We even visited my brother Peter when he was in the Peace Corps in St. Lucia.

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