Handbook of Attachment, Third Edition: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications [3 ed.] 9781462525294, 1462525296

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Table of contents :
Cover......Page 1
Half Title Page......Page 3
Title Page......Page 5
Copyright......Page 6
Dedication......Page 7
About the Editors......Page 8
Contributors......Page 9
Preface......Page 12
Contents......Page 19
Part I. OVERVIEW OF ATTACHMENT THEORY......Page 23
Chapter 1. The Nature of the Child’s Ties......Page 25
Chapter 2. Attachment Disruptions, Reparative Processes, and Psychopathology: Theoretical and Clinical Implications......Page 47
Chapter 3. Attachment, Loss, and Grief: Bowlby’s Views, New Developments, and Current Controversies......Page 62
Chapter 4. The Internal Working Model Construct in Light of Contemporary Neuroimaging Research......Page 85
Part II. BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES......Page 111
Chapter 5. Attachment Theory within a Modern Evolutionary Framework......Page 113
Chapter 6. Psychobiological Origins of Infant Attachment and Its Role in Development......Page 139
Chapter 7. Attachment In Rhesus Monkeys......Page 155
Chapter 8. Attachment, Parenting, and Genetics......Page 177
Chapter 9. Attachment and Psychoneuroimmunology......Page 202
Chapter 10. Attachment and Temperament as Intersecting Developmental Products and Interacting Developmental Contexts Throughout Infancy and Childhood......Page 224
Chapter 11. Studying the Biology of Human Attachment......Page 245
Chapter 12. Toward a Neuroscience of Attachment......Page 264
Part III. ATTACHMENT IN INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD......Page 293
Chapter 13. Normative Development: The Ontogeny of Attachment in Childhood......Page 295
Chapter 14. Precursors of Attachment Security......Page 313
Chapter 15. Attachment Relationships in the Context of Multiple Caregivers......Page 336
Chapter 16. Early Attachment and Later Development: Reframing the Questions......Page 352
Chapter 17. Attachment in Middle Childhood......Page 371
Chapter 18. The Measurement of Attachment Security and Related Constructs in Infancy and Early Childhood......Page 388
Part IV. ATTACHMENT IN ADOLESCENCE AND ADULTHOOD......Page 419
Chapter 19. The Multiple Facets of Attachment in Adolescence......Page 421
Chapter 20. Pair Bonds as Attachments: Mounting Evidence in Support of Bowlby’s Hypothesis......Page 438
Chapter 21. Adult Romantic Attachment: Developments in the Study of Couple Relationships......Page 457
Chapter 22. Attachment and Sexual Mating: The Joint Operation of Separate Motivational Systems......Page 486
Chapter 23. Same-Sex Romantic Attachment......Page 506
Chapter 24. Adult Attachment and Emotion Regulation......Page 529
Chapter 25. Attachment in Middle and Later Life......Page 556
Chapter 26. The Adult Attachment Interview: Protocol, Method of Analysis, and Selected Empirical Studies: 1985–2015......Page 575
Chapter 27. Measurement of Individual Differences in Adult Attachment......Page 620
Part V. PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND CLINICAL APPLICATIONS......Page 659
Chapter 28. Attachment and Psychopathology in Childhood......Page 661
Chapter 29. Attachment Disorganization from Infancy to Adulthood: Neurobiological Correlates, Parenting Contexts, and Pathways to Disorder......Page 689
Chapter 30. Challenges to the Development of Attachment Relationships Faced by Young Children in Foster and Adoptive Care......Page 718
Chapter 31. Attachment States of Mind and Psychopathology in Adulthood......Page 737
Chapter 32. Prevention and Intervention Programs to Support Early Attachment Security: A Move to the Level of the Community......Page 761
Chapter 33. Attachment and Adult Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice......Page 781
Chapter 34. Reconciling Psychoanalytic Ideas with Attachment Theory......Page 802
Chapter 35. Couple and Family Therapy: An Attachment Perspective......Page 827
Part VI. SYSTEMS, CULTURE, AND CONTEXT......Page 847
Chapter 36. Caregiving......Page 849
Chapter 37. Cross-Cultural Patterns of Attachment: Universal and Contextual Dimensions......Page 874
Chapter 38. A Lifespan Perspective on Attachment and Care for Others: Empathy, Altruism, and Prosocial Behavior......Page 900
Chapter 39. Attachment and Religious Representations and Behavior......Page 939
Chapter 40. Divorce through the Lens of Attachment Theory......Page 963
Chapter 41. Attachment and School Readiness......Page 988
Chapter 42. Implications of Attachment Theory and Research for Child Care Policies......Page 1005
Part VII. PERSPECTIVES ON ATTACHMENT......Page 1017
Chapter 43. The Place of Attachment in Development......Page 1019
Author Index......Page 1034
Subject Index......Page 1062
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ebook THE GUILFORD PRESS

Handbook of Attachment

Also Available Attachment in Adulthood: Structure, Dynamics, and Change, Second Edition Mario Mikulincer and Phillip R. Shaver

Handbook of

Attachment Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications Th i r d E d i t i o n

Edited by

Jude Cassidy Phillip R. Shaver

The Guilford Press New York London

Copyright © 2016 The Guilford Press A Division of Guilford Publications, Inc. 370 Seventh Avenue, Suite 1200, New York, NY 10001 www.guilford.com All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America This book is printed on acid-free paper. Last digit is print number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Handbook of attachment : theory, research, and clinical applications / edited by Jude Cassidy, Phillip R. Shaver. — Third edition. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-4625-2529-4 (hardcover) 1.  Attachment behavior.  2.  Attachment behavior in children.  I.  Cassidy, Jude.  II.  Shaver, Phillip R. BF575.A86H36 2016 155.9′2—dc23 2015030511

With respect and gratitude for the pioneering work of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth

About the Editors

Jude Cassidy, PhD, is Distinguished Scholar-Teacher and Professor of Psychology at the University of Maryland, College Park, and Director of the Maryland Child and Family Development Laboratory. Her research interests include socieoemotional development from infancy through adolescence, with an emphasis on attachment and family relationships; social, cognitive, and regulatory mechanisms through which children’s early family experiences come to influence later well-being and relationships; and early intervention designed to reduce the risk of insecure attachment and mental disorders. Her research has been funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the Zanvyl and Isabelle Krieger Fund. Dr. Cassidy serves as coeditor of the journal Attachment and Human Development and is on the editorial boards of Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology and Infant Mental Health Journal. She is a Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science (APS) and the American Psychological Association (APA), and is a recipient of the Boyd R. McCandless Young Scientist Award from APA Division 7 (Developmental Psychology). Phillip R. Shaver, PhD, is Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of California, Davis. He has published several books and over 250 journal articles and book chapters. Dr. Shaver’s research focuses on attachment, human motivation and emotion, close relationships, personality development, and the effects of meditation on behavior and the brain. He is a Fellow of both the APA and the APS, and has served as executive officer of the Society of Experimental Social Psychology (SESP) and as president of the International Association for Relationship Research (IARR). Dr. Shaver is a recipient of Distinguished Career Awards from the SESP, the IARR, and the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, and an honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Stockholm, Sweden.

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Contributors

Joseph P. Allen, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia Elizabeth Allison, DPhil, Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London, United Kingdom Camilla Azis-Clauson, BSc, Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg, PhD, Centre for Child and Family Studies, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands Jay Belsky, PhD, Department of Human Ecology, University of California, Davis, Davis, California Lisa J. Berlin, PhD, School of Social Work, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland Gurit E. Birnbaum, PhD, Baruch Ivcher School of Psychology, Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya, Herzliya, Israel Kelly K. Bost, PhD, Department of Human and Community Development Family Resiliency Center, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, Illinois Audrey Brassard, PhD, Department of Psychology, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada Inge Bretherton, PhD, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin Preston A. Britner, PhD, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut Laura E. Brumariu, PhD, Derner Institute of Psychology, Adelphi University, Garden City, New York

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Chloe Campbell, PhD, Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London, United Kingdom Lauren M. Carter, BA, Curry School of Education, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia Jude Cassidy, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, Maryland James A. Coan, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia Judith A. Crowell, MD, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York Michelle DeKlyen, PhD, Center for Research on Child Well-Being, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey Mary Dozier, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware Katherine B. Ehrlich, PhD, Institute for Policy Research and Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois R. M. Pasco Fearon, PhD, Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London, United Kingdom Brooke C. Feeney, PhD, Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Judith A. Feeney, PhD, School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia Peter Fonagy, PhD, Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, and The Anna Freud Centre, London, United Kingdom

viii Contributors Nathan A. Fox, PhD, Child Development Lab, Department of Human Development, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, Maryland R. Chris Fraley, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Champaign, Illinois María Teresa Frías, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, Davis, California Carol George, PhD, Department of Psychology, Mills College, Oakland, California Pehr Granqvist, PhD, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden Mark T. Greenberg, PhD, Prevention Research Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania Jacquelyn T. Gross, MS, Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, Maryland Amie A. Hane, PhD, Department of Psychology, Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts Cindy Hazan, PhD, Department of Human Development, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Erik Hesse, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California Myron A. Hofer, MD, Department of Psychiatry and Sackler Institute for Developmental Psychobiology, Columbia University, New York, New York Carollee Howes, PhD, Psychological Studies in Education Program, Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California Skyler D. Jackson, BA, Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, Maryland Deborah Jacobvitz, PhD, Department of Human Ecology, College of Natural Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas Susan M. Johnson, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Ottawa, and Ottawa Couple and Family Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Jason D. Jones, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, Maryland Kathryn A. Kerns, PhD, Department of Psychology, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio Lee A. Kirkpatrick, PhD, Department of Psychology, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia Roger Kobak, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware Alicia F. Lieberman, PhD, Child Trauma Research Program, University of California, San Francisco, and San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, California

Patrick Luyten, PhD, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London, United Kingdom Karlen Lyons-Ruth, PhD, Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, Massachusetts Stephanie D. Madsen, PhD, Department of Psychology, McDaniel College, Westminster, Maryland Carol Magai, PhD, Department of Psychology, Long Island University, Brooklyn, New York Robert S. Marvin, PhD, Department of Psychiatric Medicine, Child and Family Psychiatry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia Judi Mesman, PhD, Centre for Child and Family Studies, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands Mario Mikulincer, PhD, Baruch Ivcher School of Psychology, Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya, Herzliya, Israel Gregory E. Miller, PhD, Institute for Policy Research and Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois Jonathan J. Mohr, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, Maryland Joan K. Monin, PhD, Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Social and Behavioral Science Division, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut Kristine A. Munholland, MSW, PhD, Department of Human Development, Washington State University Vancouver, Vancouver, Washington Robert C. Pianta, PhD, Curry School of Education, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia H. Jonathan Polan, MD, Department of Psychiatry, Weill Cornell Medical College and New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York Glenn I. Roisman, PhD, Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota Beth S. Russell, PhD, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut Michael Rutter, MD, Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom Abraham Sagi-Schwartz, PhD, Center for the Study of Child Development, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel Phillip R. Shaver, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, Davis, California

Contributors ix Jeffry A. Simpson, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota Arietta Slade, PhD, Yale Child Study Center, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut Judith Solomon, PhD, Child FIRST Program, Department of Pediatrics, Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, Connecticut Susan Spieker, PhD, Department of Family and Child Nursing, Center on Human Development and Disability, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington L. Alan Sroufe, PhD, Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota Jessica A. Stern, BA, Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, Maryland K. Chase Stovall-McClough, PhD, Child Study Center, Institute for Trauma and Stress, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York Stephen J. Suomi, PhD, Laboratory of Comparative Ethology, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

Joseph S. Tan, MA, Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia Ross A. Thompson, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, Davis, California Marinus H. van IJzendoorn, PhD, Center for Child and Family Studies, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands Brian E. Vaughn, PhD, Department of Family and Child Development, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama Amanda P. Williford, PhD, Center for Advanced Study of Teaching and Learning, Curry School of Education, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia Susan S. Woodhouse, PhD, Department of Education and Human Services, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania Kristyn Zajac, PhD, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina Charles H. Zeanah, MD, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana Debra M. Zeifman, PhD, Department of Psychology, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York

Preface

I

t seems unlikely that either John Bowlby, when he first wondered about the relation between maternal deprivation and juvenile delinquency, or Mary Ainsworth, when she answered an advertisement in a London newspaper to work as a postdoctoral researcher with Bowlby, dreamed for a moment that their theoretical efforts would spawn one of the broadest, most profound, and most creative lines of research in 20th- and 21stcentury psychology. Yet that is exactly what happened. Anyone who conducts a literature search on the topic of “attachment” will turn up more than 30,000 entries that have appeared since the beginning of 1975 (three times the number we discovered when preparing the 2008 second edition of this volume). And the entries are spread across scores of physiological, clinical, developmental, and social psychology journals; medical and social work journals; and authored books and edited anthologies. The literature spans everything from the prenatal period to old age and considers all kinds of relationships: parent–child, sibling, friendship, teen romance, and adult sexual. In the study of social and emotional development, attachment theory is the most visible and empirically grounded conceptual framework guiding today’s research. In the growing clinical literature on the effects of early parent–child relationships, including troubled and abusive relationships, attachment theory is prominent. In the rapidly expanding field of research on close relationships in adolescence and adulthood—including the study of romantic, marital, or “pair-bond” relationships, and their formation, maintenance,

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and dissolution—attachment theory is one of the most influential theoretical approaches, as it also is in the field of couples counseling. Among researchers who study bereavement, Bowlby’s volume on loss is a continuing source of insight and intellectual inspiration. Attachment theory is one of the best examples of the value of deep, coherent theorizing in contemporary psychology. It is a model of the process by which scientists move back and forth between clear conceptualizations and penetrating empirical research, with each pole of the dialectic influencing the other over an extended period of time. Attachment theory today is in many respects similar to attachment theory 40 years ago, but it has become much more specific, more multifaceted, and more deeply anchored in a wide variety of powerful research methods, including new ones such as behavioral genetics and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Because the theory was remarkably insightful and accurate from the beginning, and because Ainsworth was such an effective researcher, the initial studies inspired by the theory were largely supportive of the theory’s basic ideas, but they were also surprising and provocative in certain respects. The theory encountered considerable criticism at first, as any new scientific theory should. Yet the many honors accorded to Bowlby and Ainsworth toward the ends of their careers symbolize the considerable respect their work now engenders. The present volume is further testimony to the lasting nature of their impressive contributions to psychological science.

Preface xi One problem created by the enormous literature on attachment, and by attachment theory’s continual evolution in the light of new research, is that few scholars, researchers, and clinicians are familiar with the entire body of work. In order to make optimal use of the theory as a researcher, clinician, or teacher, one has to know what Bowlby and Ainsworth originally said; what subsequent research has revealed; what measures of attachment have been developed and what they measure; and what recent theoretical and empirical developments contribute to our overall understanding of attachment relationships and personality development. The purpose of this third edition of the Handbook of Attachment is to satisfy these important professional needs. The book will prove useful to anyone who studies attachment processes, uses attachment theory in clinical work, or teaches courses and seminars that touch on, or focus on, attachment. It will be an excellent single resource for courses devoted to attachment theory and research. It will also be of great interest to anyone in the general public who wishes to think more effectively about close relationships of all kinds. The first edition of the Handbook, published in 1999, was extensively read, frequently cited, and influential in affecting research and clinical applications of attachment theory and research. We were deeply gratified by the field’s response to the volume, which inspired everything from graduate seminars and clinical discussion groups to theoretical debates, major new research programs, and systematic tests of clinical interventions. It helped spawn a much more diverse and deeply probing research field. The second edition of the Handbook, published in 2008, had the same effect, and its influence grew as attachment research and its clinical applications became better known internationally. The theory’s influence is now evident all over the world, and its literature includes publications in many different languages. Because psychology and psychiatry have moved energetically in the directions of neuroscience, psychophysiology, and behavioral genetics, there are many new findings to incorporate into an expanded attachment theory. And because federal granting agencies have become increasingly interested in “translational” research—research that moves basic research findings more quickly into the realm of clinical and community applications—there is a great deal of new information about intervention procedures and outcomes. As volume editors, we have dealt with the many new developments in two ways. First, we

have added new chapters to reflect the changing nature of the field. In 2008, new additions to the second edition included chapters on social neuroscience, affect regulation, attachment in the middle childhood years, foster care, divorce, and attachment in an aging population. In this third edition, we have retained and updated those chapters while commissioning additional new ones on attachment, genetics, and epigenetics; attachment and psychoneuroimmunology; attachment and sexual mating; attachment and empathy, altruism, and prosocial behavior; and attachment and school readiness. The volume ends with a brilliant overview and evaluation of the field, “The Place of Attachment in Development,” by a distinguished attachment-research pioneer, L. Alan Sroufe. Second, we charged the authors of previously included chapters, as well as new authors who have taken over territories covered by previous chapters, with a specific task. We asked authors to specifically describe the current state of theory and research in comparison to that outlined in the earlier chapter. We asked: Have new conceptualizations emerged? Have former conceptualizations dropped by the wayside? Why? Have connections with other areas of research provided new insights? What empirical progress has been attempted and made? If little progress has been made, why? In short, in the earlier editions, we portrayed “the state of the field.” Now that we are on our third edition, an important goal is to present, in addition to the current state of the field, an overview of how the field has changed, stagnated, shifted, provided insights, opened up new questions, borrowed, fallen short, or failed—along with providing some guidance concerning how best to help the field move even further forward. Part I, “Overview of Attachment Theory,” provides an updated primer on the theory. The first two chapters correspond roughly to the first and second volumes of Bowlby’s seminal trilogy, Attachment and Loss. In Chapter 1, “The Nature of the Child’s Ties,” Jude Cassidy explains the central construct of attachment theory, first expounded by Bowlby in the first volume of Attachment and Loss. In Chapter 2, “Attachment Disruptions, Reparative Processes, and Psychopathology,” Roger Kobak, Kristyn Zajac, and Stephanie D. Madsen explain topics that Bowlby addressed in Separation: Anxiety and Anger, the second volume of his trilogy. In Chapter 3, “Attachment, Loss, and Grief: Bowlby’s Views, New Developments, and Current Controversies,” R. Chris Fraley and Phillip R. Shaver discuss theory and research related to

xii Preface topics addressed by Bowlby in the third volume of Attachment and Loss. Chapter 4, by Inge Bretherton and Kristine A. Munholland, deals with a core construct in attachment theory: internal working models. In this new version of their chapter, “The Internal Working Model Construct in Light of Contemporary Neuroimaging Research,” the authors focus on contributions from cognitive and affective neuroscience, scientific fields that have grown enormously in prominence during the past decade. Part II, “Biological Perspectives,” begins with Chapter 5, by Jeffry A. Simpson and Jay Belsky, “Attachment Theory within a Modern Evolutionary Framework.” Bowlby valued evolutionary theory and the associated ethological approach to animal research, from which he borrowed extensively—to the chagrin of some of his British psychoanalytic colleagues. This is one of several ways in which he was ahead of his time (the emphasis on cognitive “internal working models” being another). Chapter 6, by H. Jonathan Polan and Myron A. Hofer, is titled “Psychobiological Origins of Infant Attachment and Its Role in Development.” The pioneering rodent research that Hofer and his colleagues conducted over a period of decades shows that regulation of basic bodily processes in infants is multidimensional, meaning that the “attachment system” initially conceptualized by Bowlby as a single, unified system can be characterized in much greater detail. Adding to these insights from animal research is Chapter 7, by Stephen J. Suomi, “Attachment in Rhesus Monkeys.” Bowlby and Ainsworth’s theorizing about human attachment processes was strongly influenced by primate researchers, and their perspective continues to bear fruit. In recent years, Suomi and other researchers have included in their work research on epigenetic changes related to care received from parents, offering new ways to understand the long-range effects of early social experiences on later physical and psychological health (addressed throughout this volume). Chapters 8 and 9 are new to the Handbook. Chapter 8, “Attachment, Parenting, and Genetics,” by Marian J. Bakersman-Kranenburg and Marinus H. van IJzendoorn, delves further into the ideas raised by Suomi, with special emphasis on human genetics, epigenetics, and effects of early experiences with caregivers. In Chapter 9, “Attachment and Psychoneuroimmunology,” Katherine B. Ehrlich, Gregory E. Miller, Jason D. Jones, and Jude Cassidy explore connections between the quality of care one receives in at-

tachment relationships and subsequent immune functioning. In Chapter 10, “Attachment and Temperament as Intersecting Developmental Products and Interacting Developmental Contexts Throughout Infancy and Childhood,” Brian E. Vaughn and Kelly K. Bost discuss the complex relations between attachment, viewed primarily as affected by social experiences, and temperament, viewed primarily as a product of genes and psychobiology. In Chapter 11, “Studying the Biology of Human Attachment,” Amie A. Hane and Nathan A. Fox describe both well-established and recently developed methods for studying attachment-related psychobiological processes. One of the recent methods, functional magnetic resonance imaging, is then described in much more detail in Chapter 12, by James A. Coan, “Toward a Neuroscience of Attachment.” Coan explains social baseline theory, a companion for attachment theory that focuses on the human brain’s tendency to treat social connectedness, rather than independence, as a default state. Part III of the volume, “Attachment in Infancy and Childhood,” addresses the age periods that were the original focus of Bowlby’s theorizing and Ainsworth’s seminal research methods and findings. In Chapter 13, “Normative Development: The Ontogeny of Attachment in Childhood,” Robert S. Marvin, Preston A. Britner, and Beth S. Russell explain the species-typical development of human attachments over the first few years of life. As attachment theory has become popular worldwide and inspired scores of new measures and research streams, an increasingly small proportion of researchers know the details of the developmental processes at the heart of the theory. Marvin and colleagues provide an excellent starting point for anyone wishing to understand the early development of attachment. Chapter 14, “Precursors of Attachment Security,” by R. M. Pasco Fearon and Jay Belsky, reviews the extensive body of research on the early determinants of security and insecurity. In Chapter 15, “Attachment Relationships in the Context of Multiple Caregivers,” Carollee Howes and Susan Spieker explain what is known about the attachment-related effects of having multiple caregivers, an issue that became increasingly controversial as more women in developed societies entered the workforce. Howes and Spieker show that there is no simple answer to the question of whether early day care is “good” or “bad” for children. The answer depends on the quality of care and its temporal extent. Among Bowlby’s main concerns were the

Preface xiii long-term effects of early attachment-related experiences on later personality development and long-term life outcomes. In Chapter 16, “Early Attachment and Later Development: Reframing the Questions,” Ross A. Thompson explains what is known about early attachment and subsequent development. The “reframing” referred to in the chapter subtitle includes different ways of characterizing internal working models, taking continuity of sensitive or insensitive care into account, considering biological/health effects of attachment, and exploring the connections among attachment, emotions, emotion understanding, and emotion regulation. Because Bowlby and Ainsworth focused mainly on attachment in infancy, it took some time for researchers to redirect attention to the nature and fate of attachment processes in middle childhood. That is the subject of Chapter 17, “Attachment in Middle Childhood,” by Kathryn A. Kerns and Laura E. Brumariu. They show that although relations with peers become increasingly important, parents remain the principal attachment figures, even though children become more active participants in the parent–child relationship. The authors also discuss the continuing lack of resolution concerning how to measure attachment during middle childhood. The last chapter in Part III, Chapter 18, “The Measurement of Attachment Security and Related Constructs in Infancy and Early Childhood,” by Judith Solomon and Carol George, deals with the extremely important issue of measurement. When Bowlby was beginning his theoretical journey as a young psychoanalyst, he was part of a psychoanalytic milieu in which several key theorists, such as Anna Freud and Donald Winnicott, were concerned with social aspects of mental development in infancy. Although they, like Bowlby, had interesting ideas based on clinical observations of children, they did not have anyone to operationalize and test those ideas empirically. By collaborating with Ainsworth, a creative and well-trained researcher, Bowlby benefited from the huge volume of scientific information being built upon Ainsworth’s early work. In 1982, he revised the 1969 first volume of his attachment trilogy in light of new data. Today, attachment theory is much more firmly anchored in psychological science than the observations and insights of Bowlby’s psychoanalytic peers, thanks largely to the measures described in this chapter. Part IV, “Attachment in Adolescence and Adulthood,” deals with age periods in which there has been a huge explosion of research in recent

years. This growth is indicated by the large number of chapters in this part, including a new one on attachment and sexuality. Chapter 19, “The Multiple Facets of Attachment in Adolescence,” by Joseph P. Allen and Joseph Tan, covers the rise of research on adolescent attachment to parents and peers. As adolescents strive to attain greater autonomy from parents while continuing to rely on parents as a safe haven and secure base, many interesting issues come to the surface, and these have been the focus of fascinating new research. Adolescents have increasingly complex and important relationships with peers, including in many cases romantic/sexual relationships. The notion that romantic or marital relationships involve attachment was somewhat controversial when it first began to attract attention in the late 1980s. In Chapter 20, Debra M. Zeifman and Cindy Hazan consider “Pair Bonds as Attachments: Mounting Evidence in Support of Bowlby’s Hypothesis,” concluding that romantic relationships definitely qualify as attachment relationships. Their chapter leads smoothly into Chapter 21, “Adult Romantic Attachment: Developments in the Study of Couple Relationships,” by Judith A. Feeney. She explains how the concepts of attachment and attachment relationships have inspired a monumental growth of attachment research in social and personality psychology over the past 30 years. Chapter 22, “Attachment and Sexual Mating: The Joint Operation of Separate Motivational Systems,” by Gurit E. Birnbaum, summarizes this growing topic area. Because psychological scientists, like society more generally, have become aware of and interested in same-sex relationships, the study of attachment has been extended into that domain. In Chapter 23, “Same-Sex Romantic Attachment,” Jonathan J. Mohr and Skyler D. Jackson summarize and comment on this research area. Social/personality researchers who study adult attachment have been concerned with one of the key issues in attachment theory more generally: emotion regulation. Delving into this topic area allows attachment researchers to use a wide variety of methods developed by scholars who study social cognition and emotions, as well as the methods of cognitive and affective neuroscience. Mario Mikulincer and Phillip R. Shaver review the extensive recent research in Chapter 24, “Adult Attachment and Affect Regulation.” Just as attachment research was gradually extended from infancy to middle childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood, it is now being pursued in studies discussed in Chapter 25, “Attachment in

xiv Preface Middle and Later Life,” by Carol Magai, María Teresa Frías, and Phillip R. Shaver. This topic area is likely to become much more active as large proportions of the adult populations of industrialized countries move into old age. As already mentioned, the early science of infant–parent attachment depended heavily on Ainsworth’s creation of new measuring instruments. As research was extended into adolescence and adulthood, new measures were needed and created. One of the most influential approaches is discussed in Chapter 26, “The Adult Attachment Interview: Protocol, Method of Analysis, and Empirical Studies: 1985–2015,” by Erik Hesse. The AAI and a host of alternative measures, including many that use self-report questionnaires, are further examined by Judith A. Crowell, R. Chris Fraley, and Glenn I. Roisman in Chapter 27, “Measurement of Individual Differences in Adult Attachment.” These two chapters are must-reads for anyone wishing to conduct studies of adult attachment and related issues. Although attachment theory is not a theory of psychopathology per se, and does not characterize insecure attachment as a form of psychopathology, many connections exist between attachment insecurity and vulnerability to psychopathology, whether mild or severe. Thus, Part V of this volume is titled “Psychopathology and Clinical Applications.” Chapter 28, by Michelle DeKlyen and Mark T. Greenberg, deals with “Attachment and Psychopathology in Childhood.” When Ainsworth created her Strange Situation procedure for coding various forms of infant–parent attachment, she designated three main patterns. Later, Main and Solomon added a fourth category, labeled “disorganized/ disoriented,” now usually abbreviated as “disorganized.” Karlen Lyons-Ruth and Deborah Jacobvitz summarize the fascinating literature in Chapter 29, “Attachment Disorganization from Infancy to Adulthood: Neurobiological Correlates, Parenting Contexts, and Pathways to Disorder.” For anyone interested in links between attachment and psychopathology, or the treatment of psychopathology, this chapter is crucial. Not every infant or young child is raised by a biological mother, as was the case in the sample that Ainsworth and her colleagues studied in the early days of attachment research. Some children are raised by someone other than a biological parent. In Chapter 30, Mary Dozier and Michael Rutter discuss “Challenges to the Development of Attachment Relationships Faced by Young Children in Foster and Adoptive Care.” Chapter 31,

in parallel with Chapter 28 on attachment and psychopathology in childhood, focuses on “Attachment States of Mind and Psychopathology in Adulthood” and was written by K. Chase StovallMcClough and Mary Dozier. Because so much is now known about parenting influences on early attachment, there are a number of well-designed and carefully evaluated programs, discussed in Chapter 32, “Prevention and Intervention Programs to Support Early Attachment Security: A Move to the Level of the Community,” by Lisa J. Berlin, Charles H. Zeanah, and Alicia F. Lieberman. In Chapter 33, “Attachment and Adult Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice,” Arietta Slade explains how knowledge of attachment theory and research can guide psychotherapy. In Chapter 34, “Reconciling Psychoanalytic Ideas with Attachment Theory,” Peter Fonagy, Patrick Luyten, Elizabeth Allison, and Chloe Campbell explain the historical and contemporary relations between psychoanalytic approaches and attachment theory, including current integrations in which attachment theory is viewed much more favorably by psychoanalysts than it was during Bowlby’s lifetime. In Chapter 35, “Couple and Family Therapy: An Attachment Perspective,” Audrey Brassard and Susan M. Johnson explain how attachment theory has been incorporated into influential contemporary approaches to couple counseling. Part VI, “Systems, Culture, and Context,” provides a sampling of the many other topic areas into which attachment theory and research have been extended. In a new chapter for this edition, Chapter 36, “Caregiving,” Brooke C. Feeney and Susan S. Woodhouse explain how attachment theory’s construct of the “caregiving behavioral system” is proving useful in the study of relationships of many kinds. Chapter 37, “Cross-Cultural Patterns of Attachment: Universal and Contextual Dimensions,” by Judi Mesman, Marinus H. van IJzendoorn, and Abraham Sagi-Schwartz, explores the important issue of cross-cultural similarities and differences in attachment relationships and dynamics. In Chapter 38, another new chapter created for this edition, “A Lifespan Perspective on Attachment and Care for Others: Empathy, Altruism, and Prosocial Behavior,” Phillip R. Shaver, Mario Mikulincer, Jacquelyn T. Gross, Jessie A. Stern, and Jude Cassidy review the large and growing literature linking attachment security with caring feelings and behavior across the lifespan. In Chapter 39, “Attachment and Religious Representations and Behavior,” Pehr Granqvist

Preface xv and Lee A. Kirkpatrick show how the concept of attachment fits with religious notions of reliance on a personal god, and how individual differences in attachment, assessed with both interviews and questionnaires, relate to differences in religious conceptions and experiences. Divorce, an important form of separation and loss, was not explored in detail by Bowlby and Ainsworth, but has become increasingly important as it has become more common. This kind of separation and loss is examined in Chapter 40, “Divorce through the Lens of Attachment Theory,” by Brooke C. Feeney and Joan K. Monin. In Chapter 41, “Attachment and School Readiness,” new to this edition, Amanda P. Williford, Lauren M. Carter, and Robert C. Pianta show that school readiness is not simply a matter of cognitive or academic preparation, but instead depends heavily on skills linked to the kind of security that attachment researchers study. Finally, Michael Rutter and Camilla Azis-Clauson discuss, in Chapter 42, “Implications of Attachment Theory and Research for Child Care Policies,” the ways in which attachment theory and research could and should affect social policy. Part VII, “Perspectives on Attachment,” contains a single conceptual analysis by L. Alan Sroufe, “The Place of Attachment in Development.” This chapter summarizes the many accomplishments of attachment theorists and researchers, evident in the previous chapters, but also raises some concerns. Says Sroufe, “Like any major theory in the social sciences, with success come certain hazards. These include overextensions of the theory (thinking it can explain everything, including things for which it was not designed), misunderstanding and misapplication, and even complacency” (p. 997). We are grateful to have this senior and highly awarded researcher cap the volume with important ideas for future consideration, research, and applications. As the research extends in new directions and raises new issues for consideration, we assume that the theory will continue to evolve in complexity and usefulness.

Acknowledgments As can be discerned from its heft, this handbook is huge in scope, with thousands of references, including hundreds that are new to this edition. It has taken many talented people’s time and dedication to bring it to fruition. Our first thanks go to the international cast of chapter authors—busy

people all—who agreed not only to write for the volume, but also to tailor their chapters to our specific needs. As you will see, the chapters are not like ones in the usual anthologies, in which authors simply spell out their own ideas and research programs without much regard for what other authors in the same volume are saying. Here, each author or set of authors looks seriously at the history of the area under discussion and explains how work in that area is progressing, what new conclusions are being drawn, and how the work might be applied. In many places, the authors refer to other chapters in the volume, making it easier to see how different topics are connected. Many of the chapters were vetted by colleagues, and all were carefully commented upon and edited by both of us. Several of the chapters went through multiple drafts. The chapter authors, all people with considerable experience and very high standards, were remarkably cooperative with our editorial plans and interventions. The book is unusually approachable, readable, and understandable as a result. We had wonderful assistance from the professionals at The Guilford Press. Seymour Weingarten, Editor-in-Chief, helped conceptualize the first edition and get us involved with it; he then remained incredibly supportive, patient, and enthusiastic throughout the process of creating the second and third editions. C. Deborah Laughton, Judith Grauman, and Carolyn Graham were enormously helpful on a daily basis, responding quickly and helpfully to our many queries. We were fortunate in having Marie Sprayberry serve as our copyeditor for the previous two editions, and thank Jacquelyn Coggin this time around. Laura Specht Patchkofsky was our multitalented production editor. Paul Gordon designed a lovely cover. Deanna Butler composed a very detailed subject index. Behind the scenes of any large and long effort such as this one, there are scores of other professionals who quietly do excellent work without ever personally meeting the beneficiaries of their labor. We thank them, sincerely, as a group. We are also extremely grateful to our families. In the preface to the first edition of the Handbook, we noted that we had both become first-time parents while editing that initial volume; we now note that we have both become first-time parents of college students while editing this current edition. It’s not easy to study and write about attachment day after day while telling your own family members that you’ll be with them in a while, when

xvi Preface urgent editorial tasks are finished. The contradiction between sensitivity and responsiveness to chapter authors and sensitivity and responsiveness to loved ones at home is palpable. Certainly it is enlightening and personally gratifying for people who study attachment to experience its ramifications in everyday life. Finally, we wish to thank each other. Collaborating on a large project like this is somewhat like running a family business. It requires open, honest communication about both shared and divergent opinions. Over the years of working on three editions of this book, we have been guests in each other’s homes; eaten some great conference meals together; discussed every chapter in great detail; and begun to collaborate on research, not just on book editing. It’s rare for two professors at universities thousands of miles apart to sustain such a good and deep working relationship, especially

when we come from different parts of psychology and conduct different kinds of research. Sharing conceptual and editing problems, thoughts about attachment theory and research, computer screens in different cities, and reactions to the book as it developed has been extremely rewarding. We heartily congratulate and thank each other. As we did with the first edition, we dedicate this volume to the memories of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. They not only had great ideas, which they were able to transform into excellent research; they provided a model of how people can work together to create a large intellectual edifice that has many beneficial consequences for other professionals and for the people whose lives they work to improve.               Jude Cassidy               Phillip R. Shaver

Contents

I.  Overview of Attachment Theory  1. The Nature of the Child’s Ties Jude Cassidy

3

 2. Attachment Disruptions, Reparative Processes, and Psychopathology: Theoretical and Clinical Implications Roger Kobak, Kristyn Zajac, & Stephanie D. Madsen

25

 3. Attachment, Loss, and Grief: Bowlby’s Views, New Developments, and Current Controversies R. Chris Fraley & Phillip R. Shaver

40

 4. The Internal Working Model Construct in Light of Contemporary Neuroimaging Research Inge Bretherton & Kristine A. Munholland

63

II.  Biological Perspectives  5. Attachment Theory within a Modern Evolutionary Framework Jeffry A. Simpson & Jay Belsky

91

 6. Psychobiological Origins of Infant Attachment and Its Role in Development H. Jonathan Polan & Myron A. Hofer

117

 7. Attachment in Rhesus Monkeys Stephen J. Suomi

133

 8. Attachment, Parenting, and Genetics Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg and Marinus H. van IJzendoorn

155

xvii

xviii Contents

 9. Attachment and Psychoneuroimmunology Katherine B. Ehrlich, Gregory E. Miller, Jason D. Jones, & Jude Cassidy

180

10. Attachment and Temperament as Intersecting Developmental Products and Interacting Developmental Contexts Throughout Infancy and Childhood Brian E. Vaughn & Kelly K. Bost

202

11. Studying the Biology of Human Attachment Amie A. Hane & Nathan A. Fox

223

12. Toward a Neuroscience of Attachment James A. Coan

242

III.  Attachment in Infancy and Childhood 13. Normative Development: The Ontogeny of Attachment in Childhood Robert S. Marvin, Preston A. Britner, & Beth S. Russell

273

14. Precursors of Attachment Security R. M. Pasco Fearon & Jay Belsky

291

15. Attachment Relationships in the Context of Multiple Caregivers Carollee Howes & Susan Spieker

314

16. Early Attachment and Later Development: Reframing the Questions Ross A. Thompson

330

17. Attachment in Middle Childhood Kathryn A. Kerns & Laura E. Brumariu

349

18. The Measurement of Attachment Security and Related Constructs in Infancy and Early Childhood Judith Solomon & Carol George

366

IV.  Attachment in Adolescence and Adulthood 19. The Multiple Facets of Attachment in Adolescence Joseph P. Allen & Joseph S. Tan

399

20. Pair Bonds as Attachments: Mounting Evidence in Support of Bowlby’s Hypothesis Debra M. Zeifman & Cindy Hazan

416

Contents xix

21. Adult Romantic Attachment: Developments in the Study of Couple Relationships Judith A. Feeney

435

22. Attachment and Sexual Mating:  The Joint Operation of Separate Motivational Systems Gurit E. Birnbaum

464

23. Same-Sex Romantic Attachment Jonathan J. Mohr & Skyler D. Jackson

484

24. Adult Attachment and Emotion Regulation Mario Mikulincer & Phillip R. Shaver

507

25. Attachment in Middle and Later Life Carol Magai, María Teresa Frías, & Phillip R. Shaver

534

26. The Adult Attachment Interview:  Protocol, Method of Analysis, and Empirical Studies: 1985–2015 Erik Hesse

553

27. Measurement of Individual Differences in Adult Attachment Judith A. Crowell, R. Chris Fraley, & Glenn I. Roisman

598

V.  Psychopathology and Clinical Applications 28. Attachment and Psychopathology in Childhood Michelle DeKlyen & Mark T. Greenberg

639

29. Attachment Disorganization from Infancy to Adulthood: Neurobiological Correlates, Parenting Contexts, and Pathways to Disorder Karlen Lyons-Ruth & Deborah Jacobvitz

667

30. Challenges to the Development of Attachment Relationships Faced by Young Children in Foster and Adoptive Care Mary Dozier & Michael Rutter

696

31. Attachment States of Mind and Psychopathology in Adulthood K. Chase Stovall-McClough & Mary Dozier

715

32. Prevention and Intervention Programs to Support Early Attachment Security:  A Move to the Level of the Community Lisa J. Berlin, Charles H. Zeanah, & Alicia F. Lieberman

739

xx Contents

33. Attachment and Adult Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice Arietta Slade

759

34