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COMPLETE

ATLAS

OF THE

WORLD

COMPLETE

ATLAS

OF THE

WORLD

FOR THE THIRD EDITION Senior Cartographic Editor Simon Mumford Cartographers Encompass Graphics Ltd, UK Producer, Pre-Production Luca Frassinetti Producer Vivienne Yong Jacket Design Development Manager Sophia MTT Publishing Director Jonathan Metcalf Associate Publishing Director Liz Wheeler Art Director Karen Self FOR PREVIOUS EDITIONS Cartographic Editors Tony Chambers, John Dear, Ruth Hall, Andrew Johnson, Belinda Kane, Lynn Neal, Ann Stephenson Cartographers Paul Eames, Edward Merritt, John Plumer, Rob Stokes, Iorwerth Watkins Digital Map Suppliers Advanced Illustration, Congleton, UK • Cosmographics, Watford, UK Encompass Graphics, Brighton, UK • Lovell Johns Ltd., Long Hanborough, UK Netmaps, Barcelona, Spain Digital Terrain Data Digital terrain data and continental panoramic images created by Planetary Visions Ltd, Farnham, UK Editor Robert Dinwiddie Designers Nicola Liddiard, Yak El-Droubie Picture Research Louise Thomas, Jenny Baskaya Indexing and Database T-Kartor, Sweden Francesca Albini, Eleanor Arkwright, Renata Dyntarova, Edward Heelas, Britta Hansesgaard Systems Coordinator Philip Rowles Flags courtesy of The Flag Institue, Cheshire, UK

First American Edition, 2007 This revised edition 2016 Published in the United States by DK Publishing, 345 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014 16 17 18 19 20 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 265177–May 2016 Reprinted with revisions 2009, Second edition 2012, Third edition 2016 Copyright © 2007, 2009, 2012, 2016 Dorling Kindersley Limited. All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited. A Penguin Random House company. A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. ISBN: 978-1-4654-4401-1 DK books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk for sales promotions, premiums, fund-raising, or educational use. For details, contact: DK Publishing Special Markets, 345 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014 or [email protected] Printed and bound in Hong Kong.

A WORLD OF IDEAS: SEE ALL THERE IS TO KNOW

www.dk.com

Introduction The World at the beginning of the 21st Century would be a place of unimaginable change to our forefathers. Since 1900 the human population has undergone a fourfold growth coupled with an unparalleled development in the technology at our disposal. The last vestiges of the unknown World are gone, and previously hostile realms claimed for habitation. The advent of aviation technology and the growth of mass tourism have allowed people to travel further and more frequently than ever before.

Allied to this, the rapid growth of global communication systems mean that World events have become more accessible than ever before and their knock on effects quickly ripple across the whole planet. News broadcasts bring the far-flung corners of the world into everyone’s lives, and with it, a view of the people and places that make up that region. The mysteries of the World that once fueled global exploration and the quest to discover the unknown are behind us; we inhabit a world of mass transportation, a world where even the most extreme regions have been mapped, a world with multi faceted view points on every event, a World of communication overload.

However, does this help us make sense of the World? It is increasingly important for us to have a clear vision of the World in which we live and such a deluge of information can leave us struggling to find some context and meaning. It has never been more important to own an atlas; the DK Complete Atlas of the World has been conceived to meet this need. At its core, like all atlases, it seeks to define where places are, to describe their main characteristics, and to locate them in relation to other places. By gathering a spectacular collection of satellite imagery and draping it with carefully selected and up-to-date geographic information, this atlas filters the World’s data into clear, meaningful and user-friendly maps.

The World works on different levels and so does the DK Complete Atlas of the World. Readers can learn about global issues of many kinds or they can probe in a little further for the continental context. Delving even further they can explore at regional, national or even subnational level. The very best available satellite data has been used to create topography and bathymetry that reveal the breathtaking texture of landscapes and sea-floors. These bring out the context of the places and features selected to appear on top of them. This third edition of the DK Complete Atlas of the World incorporates hundreds of revisions and updates affecting every map and every page, distilling the burgeoning mass of information available through modern technology into an extraordinarily detailed and reliable view of our World.

Contents The atlas is organized by continent, moving eastward from the International Date Line. The opening section describes the world’s structure, systems and its main features. The Atlas of the World which follows, is a continent-by-continent guide to today’s world, starting with a comprehensive insight into the physical, political, and economic structure of each continent, followed by detailed maps of carefully selected geopolitical regions.

WORLD

NORTH AMERICA North America ..................................................... 42–43

Africa .........................................................................120–121

North America Political ................................ 44–45

Africa Political.................................................... 122–123

North America Physical ................................. 46–47

Africa Physical .................................................... 124–125

North America satellite image ................. 48–49

Africa satellite image .................................... 126–127

Canada ........................................................................50–51

Northeast Africa ............................................. 128–129

Northern Canada ................................................ 52–53

Northwest Africa .............................................. 130–131

Western Canada ..................................................54–55

West Africa including Cape Verde ........132–133

Southwest Canada ............................................ 56–57

Central Africa ..................................................... 134–135

Eastern Canada .................................................... 58–59

East Africa ............................................................. 136–137

United States of America.............................. 60–61

Southern Africa including Madagascar and Comoros .........................138–139

US: NE States & Southeast Canada ........62–63

The Solar System .......................................... 8–9

AFRICA

US: Boston to Washington DC.................. 64–65

South Africa ........................................................ 140–141 Africa City Plans ............................................... 142–143

US: Eastern States ............................................. 66–67

The Physical World ...................................10–11 Structure of the Earth .......................... 12–13 Shaping the Landscape ........................ 14–15 The World’s Oceans ................................16–17 The Global Climate................................. 18–19

US: Southeast States ....................................... 68–69 US: Texas .................................................................... 70–71 US: Great Lakes States .................................... 72–73 US: Great Plains States .................................... 74–75 US: Northwest States ...................................... 76–77 US: Southwest States .......................................78–79 US: California ......................................................... 80–81 US: Alaska & Hawaii ...........................................82–83

Life on Earth ................................................. 20–21 Man’s Impact on the Environment ...................................... 22–23 Population & Settlement ................. 24–25

Northern Mexico ............................................... 84–85 Southern Mexico ............................................... 86–87

Europe .................................................................... 144–145 Europe Political ................................................ 146–147 Europe Physical ................................................ 148–149 Europe satellite image .................................. 150–151 Scandinavia, Finland & Iceland ............... 152–153 Southern Scandinavia .................................. 154–155

Central America ..................................................88–89

United Kingdom & Ireland ........................ 156–157

The Caribbean ...................................................... 90–91

Northern Britain & Ireland ....................... 158–159

North American City Plans .......................... 92–93

Southern Britain ............................................... 160–161

Languages & Religion ........................... 26–27 World Health ............................................. 28–29

EUROPE

The Low Countries ......................................... 162–163

SOUTH AMERICA

Water Resources ....................................... 30–31

France ..................................................................... 164–165 Northern France .............................................. 166–167 Southern France & the Pyrenees ......... 168–169 The Iberian Peninsula .................................... 170–171

South America ..................................................... 94–95

Southern Iberia ................................................. 172–173

South America Political ................................. 96–97

Global Communication...................... 34–35

The Italian Peninsula...................................... 174–175

South America Physical ................................. 98–99

The Alpine States & Northern Italy ... 176–177

The Political World ................................ 36–37

South America satellite image ................100–101

Germany ............................................................... 178–179

Northern South America ...........................102–103

Rhineland & Hamburg .................................. 180–181

Western South America including Galapagos ...................................... 104–105

Central Europe ..................................................182–183

Amazon Basin .................................................... 106–107

Greece .................................................................... 186–187

Eastern Brazil .................................................... 108–109

Romania, Moldova & Ukraine ................ 188–189

Southeast Brazil .................................................. 110–111

The Baltic States & Belarus ....................... 190–191

Central South America .................................. 112–113

Russian Federation .......................................... 192–193

River Plate ...............................................................114–115

Northern European Russia ....................... 194–195

Southern Argentina & Chile ...................... 116–117

Southern European Russia ........................ 196–197

Central Chile and Argentina ............................... 118

The Mediterranean ........................................ 198–199

South America City Plans .................................... 119

European City Plans .................................... 200–203

The Economic System .......................... 32–33

States, Borders, Conflicts & Disputes

.......................... 38–39

Standard Time Zones ................................... 40

Southeast Europe ........................................... 184–185

Australasia & Oceania satellite image .................................................. 272–273

Western China ................................................ 238–239 Southeast China .............................................. 240–241

ASIA

Australia ............................................................... 274–275

Yangtze River Valley .....................................242–243

Southeast Australia ...................................... 276–277

Yellow River Valley ....................................... 244–245

New Zealand .....................................................278–279

Northeast China ............................................. 246–247 Asia ......................................................................... 204–205 Asia Political ..................................................... 206–207 Asia Physical ..................................................... 208–209 Asia satellite image ..........................................210–211 Southwest Asia .................................................. 212–213 Turkey & the Caucasus ................................. 214–215 The Near East .....................................................216–217 Israel & Lebanon ............................................. 218–219 The Arabian Peninsula ................................ 220–221 Iran........................................................................... 222–223

Papua New Guinea & Melanesia .......... 280–281

Korea & Japan .................................................. 248–249

Micronesia .......................................................... 282–283

Southern Japan .................................................250–251

Polynesia ............................................................. 284–285

Northern Japan ............................................... 252–253

Pacific Ocean ................................................... 286–287

Southeast Asia ................................................. 254–255

Indian Ocean.................................................... 288–289

Mainland Southeast Asia ..........................256–257

Atlantic Ocean ................................................ 290–291

Western Maritime Southeast Asia .... 258–259

Antarctica ........................................................... 292–293

Eastern Maritime Southeast Asia ....... 260–261

The Arctic .......................................................... 294–295

Philippines .......................................................... 262–263 Asian City Plans.............................................. 264–265

INDEX & GAZETTEER

Central & South Asia ................................... 224–225

AUSTRALASIA & OCEANIA

Kazakhstan .........................................................226–227 Central Asia ...................................................... 228–229 Afghanistan & Pakistan ............................... 230–231

Geographical Comparisons.................... 296–297

Northern India, Nepal & Bangladesh .................................................... 232–233

Countries of the World ............................ 298–304 Australasia & Oceania ................................ 266–267

Geographical Names ............................................. 305

Southern India & Sri Lanka ...................... 234–235

Australasia & Oceania Political ............ 268–269

Index ...................................................................... 306–432

East Asia ............................................................... 236–237

Australasia & Oceania Physical ..............270–271

Credits/Acknowledgements ............................. 432

Key to regional maps Physical features elevation 6000m / 19,686ft

Drainage features main river

motorway / highway

secondary river

motorway / highway (under construction)

tertiary river

4000m / 13,124ft

minor river

3000m / 9843ft

main seasonal river

2000m / 6562ft

secondary seasonal river

1000m / 3281ft

canal

500m / 1640ft

waterfall

250m / 820ft

rapids

100m / 328ft

dam

sea level

perennial lake

below sea level

seasonal lake

elevation above sea level (mountain height)

perennial salt lake seasonal salt lake

volcano

reservoir

pass

salt flat / salt pan

elevation below sea level (depression depth)

marsh / salt marsh mangrove

sand desert lava flow coastline reef atoll

Communications

wadi spring / well / waterhole / oasis

Ice features ice cap / sheet ice shelf

major road minor road tunnel (road) main railroad

Settlements

Physical features (continued)

built up area

sea features

INDIAN OCEAN

more than 5 million 1 million to 5 million undersea features

50,000 to 100,000

Regions

10,000 to 50,000

country

ARMENIA

fewer than 10,000

dependent territory with parent state

NIUE (to NZ)

autonomous / federal region

MINAS GERAIS

tunnel (railroad)

country/dependent territory capital city

Borders

autonomous / federal region / other 1st order internal administrative center

full international border undefined international border

other 1st order internal administrative region

2nd order internal administrative center

sea level

summer pack ice limit winter pack ice limit

-250m / -820ft -2000m / -6562ft -4000m / -13,124ft

2nd order internal administrative region

Vaucluse

disputed territorial claim border

Typographic key

cultural region

New England

Physical features

Settlements

landscape features

capital city

BEIJING

ANDES

dependent territory capital city

FORT-DE-FRANCE

headland

Nordkapp

other settlements

Chicago

elevation / volcano / pass

Mount Meru 4556 m

drainage features

Lake Geneva

indication of country extent (Pacific only) indication of dependent territory extent (Pacific only)

Namib Desert

Massif Central demarcation/ cease fire line autonomous / federal region border other 1st order internal administrative border 2nd order internal administrative border

Graticule features lines of latitude and longitude / Equator

Miscellaneous features ancient wall

seamount / guyot symbol undersea spot depth

Tropics / Polar circles degrees of longitude / latitude

MINSKAYA VOBLASTS’

disputed de facto border

glacier / snowfield

sea depth

Barracuda Fracture Zone

100,000 to 500,000

minor railroad

international airport

Andaman Sea

settlement population symbols

500,000 to 1 million

Golfe de Lion

site of interest scientific station

Adana Tizi Ozou Yonezawa Farnham

rivers / canals spring / well / waterhole / oasis / waterfall / rapids / dam

Mekong

sites of interest / miscellaneous

Valley of the Kings

ice features

Vatnajökull

Tropics / Polar circles

Antarctic Circle

Miscellaneous

The Solar System The Solar System consists of our local star, the Sun, and numerous objects that orbit the Sun – eight planets, five currently recognized dwarf planets, over 165 moons orbiting these planets and dwarf planets, and countless smaller bodies such as comets and asteroids. Including a vast outer region that is populated only by comets, the Solar System is about 9,300 billion miles (15,000 billion km) across. The much smaller region containing just the Sun and planets is about 7.5 billion miles (12 billion km) across. The Sun, which contributes over 99 percent of the mass of the entire Solar System, creates energy from nuclear reactions deep within its interior, providing the heat and light that make life on Earth possible.

THE MOON’S PHASES As the Moon orbits Earth, the relative positions of Moon, Sun and Earth continuously change. Thus, the angle at which the Moon’s sunlit face is seen by an observer on Earth varies in a cyclical fashion, producing the Moon’s phases, as shown at right. Each cycle takes 29.5 days. 1. WA XING CRESCENT

2 . FIRST QUARTER

The Moon Earth’s only satellite, the Moon, is thought to have formed 4.5 billion years ago from a cloud of debris produced when a large asteroid hit the young Earth. The Moon is too small to have retained an atmosphere, and is therefore a lifeless, dusty and dead world. However, although the Moon has only about 1 percent of the mass of the Earth, its gravity exerts an important influence on Earth’s oceans, manifest in the ebb and flow of the tides. The Earth and Moon’s relative sizes are clear in this long-range image from space.

What is a Planet? THE WORLD

The International Astronomical Union defines a Solar System planet as a near-spherical object that orbits the Sun (and no other body) and has cleared the neighborhood around its orbit of other bodies. A dwarf planet is a planet that is not big enough to have cleared its orbital neighborhood. Extra-solar planets are objects orbiting stars other than the Sun.

CERES (dwar f planet)

8

MERCURY

VENUS

E ARTH

M ARS

The Sun The Sun is a huge sphere of exceedingly hot plasma (ionized gas), consisting mainly of the elements hydrogen and helium. It formed about 4.6 billion years ago, when a swirling cloud of gas and dust began to contract under the influence of gravity. When the center of this cloud reached a critically high temperature, hydrogen nuclei started combining to form helium nuclei – a process called nuclear fusion – with the release of massive amounts of energy. This process continues to this day. JUPITER

SOL AR ECLIPSE A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, casting its shadow on Earth’s surface. During a total eclipse (below), viewers along a strip of Earth’s surface, called the area of totality, see the Sun totally blotted out for a short time, as the umbra (Moon’s full shadow) sweeps over them. Outside this area is a larger one, where the Sun appears only partly obscured, as the penumbra (partial shadow) passes over.

Moon

Penumbra (partial shadow)

Area of totality

Earth

INSIDE THE SUN The Sun has three internal layers. At its center is the core, where temperatures reach 27 million°F (15 million°C) and nuclear fusion occurs. The radiative zone is a slightly cooler region through which energy radiates away from the core. Further out, in the convective zone, plumes of hot plasma Core carry the energy towards the Sun’s visible surface layer, called the photosphere. Once there, the energy escapes as light, heat and other forms of radiation.

Photosphere

Radiative zone

Convective zone

Sunlight

Umbra (total shadow)

Area of partial eclipse

Sunspots mark cooler areas of surface

Prominences are loops of gas arching above the photosphere

3. WA XING GIBBOUS

4. FULL MOON

5. WANING GIBBOUS

6. L AST QUARTER

7. WANING CRESCENT

PLANETS

8. NEW MOON

MAIN DWARF PLANETS MERCURY

VENUS

EARTH

MARS

JUPITER

SATURN

URANUS

NEPTUNE

CERES

PLUTO

ERIS

DIAMETER

3029 miles (4875 km)

7521 miles (12,104 km)

7928 miles (12,756 km)

4213 miles (6780 km)

88,846 miles (142,984 km)

74,898 miles (120,536 km)

31,763 miles (51,118 km)

30,775 miles (49,528 km)

590 miles (950 km)

1432 miles (2304 km)

1429-1553 miles (2300-2500 km)

AVERAGE DISTANCE FROM THE SUN

36 mill. miles (57.9 mill. km)

67.2 mill. miles (108.2 mill. km)

93 mill. miles (149.6 mill. km)

141.6 mill. miles (227.9 mill. km)

483.6 mill. miles (778.3 mill. km)

889.8 mill. miles (1431 mill. km)

1788 mill. miles (2877 mill. km)

2795 mill. miles (4498 mill. km)

257 mill. miles (414 mill. km)

3675 mill. miles (5,915 mill. km)

6344 mill. miles (10,210 mill. km)

ROTATION PERIOD

58.6 days

243 days

23.93 hours

24.62 hours

9.93 hours

10.65 hours

17.24 hours

16.11 hours

9.1 hours

6.38 days

not known

ORBITAL PERIOD

88 days

224.7 days

365.26 days

687 days

11.86 years

29.37 years

84.1 years

164.9 years

4.6 years

248.6 years

557 years

SURFACE TEMPERATURE

-292°F to 806°F (-180°C to 430°C)

896°F (480°C)

-94°F to 131°F (-70°C to 55°C)

-184°F to 77 °F (-120°C to 25°C)

-160°F (-110°C)

-220°F (-140°C)

-320°F (-200°C)

-320°F (-200°C)

-161°F (-107°C)

-380°F (-230°C)

-405°F (-243°C)

THE WORLD

DWARF PL ANETS In 2006 a new type of dwarf planet was defined in an attempt to classify the numerous smaller bodies within the solar system that behave like planets physically but which are only a fraction of the size of the major planets. Currently, there are five dwarf planets recognized under this system, Ceres, Pluto, Haumea, Makemake, and Eris.

ERIS (dwar f planet)

PLUTO (dwar f planet) NEPTUNE UR ANUS THE OUTER PL ANETS

SATURN

Orbits

THE OUTER PL ANETS The four gigantic outer planets – Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune – consist mainly of gas, liquid and ice. All have rings and many moons. The dwarf planet Pluto is made of rock and ice.

All the Solar System’s planets and dwarf planets orbit the Sun in the same direction and (apart from Pluto) roughly in the same plane. All the orbits have the shapes of ellipses (stretched circles). However in most cases, these ellipses are close to being circular: only Pluto and Eris have very elliptical orbits. Orbital period (the time it takes an object to orbit the Sun) increases with distance from the Sun. The more remote objects not only have further to travel with each orbit, they also move more slowly.

THE INNER PL ANETS The four planets closest to the Sun – Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars – are composed mainly of rock and metal. They are much smaller than the outer planets, have few or no moons, and no rings.

THE INNER PL ANETS

AVERAGE DISTANCE FROM THE SUN B:G8JGN

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1000 500

1500

2000 1000

2500 1500

3000

3500 2000

4000 2500

5000 3000

5500 3500

6000 4000

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9

The Physical World Earth’s surface is constantly being transformed. Movements of the rigid tectonic plates that make up this surface are continuously, if slowly, shifting its landmasses around, while the land itself is constantly weathered and eroded by wind, water, and ice. Sometimes change is dramatic, the spectacular results of earthquakes or floods. More often it is a slow process lasting for millions of years. A physical map of the world represents a snapshot of Earth’s ever-evolving architecture. The maps below and at right show the planet’s whole surface, including variations in ocean depth as well as the mountain-rippled texture of Earth’s continents.

Arctic Circl e

N O RT H AMERICA Tropic of Cancer

ATLANTIC OCEAN

P A C I F I C

Equator

O C E A N

SOUTH AMERICA

Tropic of Capricorn

THE WORLD’S OCEANS Earth’s surface is dominated by water. The hemisphere shown here, centered around the southwest Pacific, is nearly all ocean, with the waters interrupted only by Antarctica, a part of South America, Australia, and the numerous islands of Australasia & Oceania, and southeast Asia.

Mendocino Fracture Zone

Shelf An

Enderby Plain

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Weddell Sea

Bouvet Island

Scale 1:87,000,000

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Gough Island

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Cape Horn

Dr Prince Edward Islands

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Pa t a g o n i a

Bahía Jo Blanca rge

Argentine Basin

A

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SOUTH AMERICA

Rio de la Plata

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Golfo Corcovado

Tierra del Fuego

Fa lkl an d

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ou th Sandwi

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Maud Rise

S

Crozet Islands

Ri

Strait of Magellan

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A N T A R C T I Ronne C IceA

Bellingshausen Sea

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Tong a Tre nch

South Pole

Pa m p a

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Tr e n ch

Na z c a R i d g

Chile Basin San Ambrosio Island

Juan Fernandez Islands

Pa s s a

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Ba

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Ross Ice Shelf

hw di

Ro g g e v e e n Basin

C h i l e

Da rlin g

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Eauripik R is e

Sea

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Rid ge

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Amundsen Sea

Peru Basin

San Felix Island

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THE WORLD

Philippine e

Mo lucca S

N Bro k

n

Sout

Wilkes Land

tor ua Eq

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Sala y Gomez

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Kerguelen

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Gulf of San

Heard Island

Am

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Galapagos Islands

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Mt Erebus 3794m

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Galapagos Rise

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D ronning Maud L and

Ross Sea

a

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Easter Island

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Southeast Pacific Basin e actur d Fr nar Me

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Tropic of Capricorn

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Eq ua tor

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So

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Campbell Island

N

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Bauer Basin

Islands Plateau Auckland Islands

t e au

Zone

Pitcairn Islands

H E R N idge c tic R U T nt ar O Ant a rcti c C i rc l e i f i c - A O S Pa c C

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Marques as Fra cture

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Amsterdam Island St Paul Island

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New Zealand

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Marquesas Islands

Southwest Pacific Basin

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Tubuai Islands

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North Island

Co o

Mount Kosciuszko 2228m

ow

O

Kiritimati

Tonga

South Fiji Basin

rd

H

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New Caledonia

South Australian Basin

Perth Basin

North Fiji Basin

Lo

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Samoa Fiji

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Arafura Sea

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South China Sea

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Solomon Islands

Solomon Sea

Mount Wilhelm 4509m

Melanesian Basin

Tro pic of

Clarion F racture Z one

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Bismarck Archipelago

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South China Basin

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c

s

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Sea

10

West Mariana Mariana Islands Basin

Central Basin Trou gh

Philippine Islands

Haw ai’ia n

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u Ba kok Shi

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Tropic of C apricorn

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s

ARCTIC OCEAN

rcle Arctic Ci

THE EARTH 7,926 miles (12,756 km)

DIAMETER AT EQUATOR:

E U ROPE

SURFACE AREA OF LAND COVERED BY ICE:

6 million sq miles

(15.6 million sq km)

A

S

I

7,900 miles (12,714 km)

DIAMETER FROM POLE TO POLE:

A

12 million sq miles

SURFACE AREA COVERED BY MOUNTAINS:

Tropic of Cancer MASS:

5988 million billion tons (tonnes)

PACIFIC

AF RI C A

324 million cu miles (1.36 billion cu km)

VOLUME OF OCEANS:

OCEAN

(30 million sq km)

24,901 miles (40,075 km)

EQUATORIAL CIRCUMFERENCE:

SURFACE AREA OF OCEANS, SEAS AND LAKES:

SURFACE AREA COVERED BY DESERTS:

7.5 million sq miles (19 million sq km)

SURFACE AREA COVERED BY FORESTS:

17 million sq miles (44 million sq km)

MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF LAND:

140 million sq miles

29,029 ft (8,848 m) (Mt. Everest, Himalayas)

(361 million sq km)

Equator

MAXIMUM DEPTH OF OCEANS:

IND IA N

SURFACE AREA OF LAND:

36,201 ft (11,034 m) (Mariana Trench,

Pacific Ocean)

57.5 million sq miles (149 million sq km)

O C EA N Tropic of Capricorn

AUSTRALIA

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Carlsberg Ridge

Mid-Indian Basin

arene Plateau

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Sri Lanka Ceylon Plain

Islands Maldive Islands

Somali Plain

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Red Riv er

a d Gu L o Tropic of C re lf o ancer O fC al O ifo r

M

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THE WORLD

y

Nicobar

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Lake Nyasa

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Arabian Basin

Anda ma nS e

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Somali Basin

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11

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Kilimanjaro 5895m

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Cape Basin

H

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Angola Basin

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C

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Va

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Mount Everest 8848m ges Gan

Lake Tanganyika

g

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Mid-A

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one Ascension Fracture Z

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Gulf of Guinea

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Guinea Basin

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Abrolhos Bank

Brazil Basin

Nubian Desert

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Lake Volta

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Sa

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Western Desert

ia

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Iranian Plateau

Euphrate s

Aegean Sea

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Great Plain of China

A

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Cape Verde Terrace

Ustyurt Plateau

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Amu Dar ya

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Cape Verde Islands

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Yellow Sea

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Strait of Gibraltar

Madeira

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Mont Blanc 4807m

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th

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Bay of Biscay

ATLANTIC

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Stanovoy Khrebet

Poluostrov West Yamal Kara Sierian Sea Plain

Lake Ladoga

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Sea of Japan

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t

Central Siberian Plateau

Spitsbergen Barents Sea

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a

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Fr A t Fr ac M i d act-u Azores tur re Z eZ one on e

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Franz Josef Land

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An

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en al

North Pole

i S t ra ar k Jan Mayen nm e Arctic Circle D Iceland Labrador Norwegian s in Nov Basin B a dg e s a Sea e i Scot ia j an n e s R n un i k s y Gr a e Faroe Islands dl ja R B k a C a Ne n y d nd ha Re wf d B rlie l an -Gi ou an Ice bbs nd ks North F l a of ract nd ure Z British Sea one Newfoundland Isles R Basin

lan tis

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sl and s

Sea of Okhotsk

Laptev Sea Queen Elizabeth Islands

or ad br ea a L S

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East Sib e Sea rian

New Siberian Islands

Ellesmere Island

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Lake Erie

Hudson Bay

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Lake Michigan

Lake Superior

an

Mi d d l e Am e r i c a Tre n c h

Gulf of Mexico Mexico

at

s

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in Pla

s

Lake Winnipeg

io Oh

Sierra Madre del Sur

re

G

Guatemala Basin

N O R T H AouriM E R I C A

o

R

al

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ie Mt

Mount McKinley (Denali) 6194m

Tre nch Kur i l e

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ri

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THE WORLD’S L AND Most of the world’s land is concentrated in a hemisphere centered around Europe. This concentration was even greater before tectonic movement opened up the Atlantic, splitting the Americas h c en J a p a n Tr from Europe and Africa, some 170 million years ago. Honshú Hokkaidó Japan

Madagascar Basin

Natal Basin

Scale 1:87,000,000 (projection: Azimuthal Equidistant) @b

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The Structure of the Earth

Boundary between lower and upper mantle

INNER CORE COMPOSITION : Solid iron, with some nickel DENSITY: 7.0 oz/in 3 (12 g/cm 3) DEPTH: 3200-3963 miles (5150-6378 km) below surface TEMPERATURE : 7200–8500°F (4000–4700°C)

OUTER CORE COMPOSITION : Liquid iron and nickel DENSITY: 5.7 oz/in 3 (10 g/cm 3) DEPTH : 1907-3200 miles (2990-5150 km) below surface TEMPERATURE : 6300–7200°F (3500–4000°C)

LOWER MANTLE COMPOSITION : Semisolid high-density silicates DENSITY: 3.2 oz/in 3 (5.5 g/cm 3) DEPTH : 48-1907 miles (75-2990 km) below surface TEMPERATURE : 1800–6300°F (1000–3500°C)

UPPER MANTLE COMPOSITION : Semisolid rock, primarily peridotite DENSITY: 2.0 oz/in 3 (3.5 g/cm 3) DEPTH : 3–48 miles (5–75 km) below surface TEMPERATURE : 1800°F (Less than 1000°C)

CONTINENTAL CRUST COMPOSITION : Solid, relatively light rock such as granite DENSITY: 1.6 oz/in 3 (2.7 g/cm 3) DEPTH : 0–48 miles (0–75 km) below surface TEMPERATURE : 1800°F (Less than 1000°C)

OCEANIC CRUST COMPOSITION : Solid, relatively dense basaltic lava DENSITY: 1.7 oz/in 3 (3 g/cm 3) DEPTH : 2–7 miles (3–11 km) below surface TEMPERATURE : 1800°F (Less than 1000°C)

Weather systems in lower atmosphere.

Ocean surface

FROM THE BIG BANG TO THE PRESENT DAY 4HE"IG"ANG

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Northern Europe

Siberia India Arabia

Africa G O

N

D

North America

Antarctica

BALTICA

A DW

South America

Cambrian 543–490 million years ago

Greenland LAURENTIA /BALTICA

North America South America

ANGARALAND

SIBERIA

Siberia

Northern South Asia Europe Kazakhstania Africa Australia Arabia India N Antarctica D

Australia

LAURENTIA

AN

Although Earth’s tectonic plates move only a few inches (centimeters) each year, over hundreds of millions of years, its landmasses have moved many thousands of miles (kilometers), to create new continents, oceans, and mountain chains.

AL

12

Plume of hot, upwelling mantle rock carries heat to surface.

EARTH FACTS & FIGURES

N

THE WORLD

Earth is an almost perfect sphere consisting of a partly liquid core overlain by a deep, semisolid layer, called the mantle, and two types of surface crust, known as continental and oceanic crust. Our planet has constantly evolved since it formed some 4.5 billion years ago. Its continents are neither fixed nor stable. Over the course of history, gradual movements of rocky material within Earth’s mantle, resulting from massive internal flows of heat, have caused the great slabs of material that make up the planet’s surface, known as tectonic plates, to shift around. The plates have moved, collided, joined together, and sometimes split apart. These processes continue to mold Earth’s surface, causing earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and creating oceans, mountain ranges, rift valleys, deep ocean trenches, and island chains.

G O N DWA N

AL

A

Devonian 418–354 million years ago

Northwest Greenland China Antarctica Northern Europe Australia Arabia Africa

LAURENTIA

North America South America

G O N D WA A L A N D N

Carboniferous 354–290 million years ago

Dynamic Earth

Plate consisting partly of continental and partly of oceanic crust

Earth’s surface is split up into several rigid, closelyfitting sections, called tectonic plates. Each of the plates contains some oceanic crust, and most also contain some continental crust. The plates constantly move relative to one another. Movements at different types of JUAN DE FUCA plate boundary produce various PLATE types of geological structure and activity.

Zone of mountain-building

Mid-ocean ridge (divergent plate boundary)

E U R A S I A N P L AT E

N ORT H A M E R IC A N PAC I F I C P L AT E

P L AT E

Tectonic activity and geological regions

PHILIPPINE PLATE

AR AB I AN P L ATE

Plate boundaries

CARIBBEAN PLATE

Convergent Divergent

PAC I F I C P L AT E

Transform

CAROLINE PLATE

COCOS PLATE

BISMARCK PLATE

Uncertain

Tectonic activity

AFRICAN P L AT E

SOUTH AMERICAN

volcanic zone

SOLOMON PLATE

P L AT E

earthquake zone

NAZCA

hot spot

P L AT E

rift valley

FIJI PLATE

I N D O A U S T R A L I A N P L AT E

Sedimentary cover Mesozoic & Cenozoic volcanic rock Cenozoic (65 mya – present) Mesozoic (252 mya – 65 mya) Paleozoic (543 mya – 252 mya)

SCOTIA PLATE

A N TA RC T I C

Plate consisting predominantly of oceanic crust

P L AT E

Shield area in middle of plate: little tectonic activity occurs here

Area of rifting, where continental crust is splitting apart

Convergent plate boundary, associated with high tectonic activity

EFFECTS AT PL ATE BOUNDARIES Ocean floor moves away from ridge

Fault line

Magma pushed upward along center of ridge

Earthquake zone

Plate

Overriding oceanic crust Ocean trench

Earthquake zone

Solid mantle

FOR M ATION OF A MID-OCE AN RIDGE

Oceanic crust pushed down

SLIDING PL ATES ( TR ANSFOR M BOUNDARY )

Arc (chain) of islands

Sea floor made of oceanic crust

Mountains thrust up by collision

Earthquake zone

Volcanic activity

FOR M ATION OF ISL AND ARC AND OCE AN TRENCH

CONVECTION CURRENTS Deep within Earth’s core, temperatures may exceed 8100°F (4500°C). The heat from the core warms rocks in the mantle, which become semimolten and rise upwards, displacing cooler rock below the solid oceanic and continental crust. This rock sinks and is warmed again by heat given off from the core. The process continues in a cyclical fashion, producing convection currents below the crust. These currents lead, in turn, to gradual movements of the tectonic plates over the planet’s surface.

Boundary between upper mantle and crust

Oceanic crust forced under continental crust

Plate

Continental crust

SUBDUC TION OF OCE ANIC CRUST UNDER CONTINENTAL CRUST

Plate buckles as it collides

Mountains thrust upwards

13

Earthquake zone

Crust thickens in response to the impact

BLOCKS OF CONTINENTAL CRUST COLLIDE TO FOR M MOUNTAINS

Inner core

Subduction zone

Outer core Movement of plate Oceanic crust

Mid-ocean ridge

Convection current

Mantle

Continental crust

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Siberia Northern Manchuria Europe China North America Spain Turkey Africa Arabia Central Asia South Southeast Asia America G O India ND Australia W Greenland

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Cretaceous 142–65 million years ago

(OLOCENE

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Northern Europe India Australia

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Jurassic 199.5–142 million years ago

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Triassic 252–199.5 million years ago



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Tertiary 65–2 million years ago

THE WORLD

pre-Cambrian Shields

Shaping the Landscape

THE WORLD

The basic material of Earth’s surface is solid rock: valleys, deserts, soil, and sand are all evidence of the powerful agents of weathering, erosion and deposition that constantly transform Earth’s landscapes. Water, whether flowing in rivers or grinding the ground in the form of glaciers, has the most clearly visible impact on Earth’s surface. Also, wind can transport fragments of rock over huge distances and strip away protective layers of vegetation, exposing rock surfaces to the impact of extreme heat and cold. Many of the land-shaping effects of ice and water can be seen in northern regions such as Alaska (below), while the effects of heat and wind are clearly visible in the Sahara (far right).

DELTA A delta, such as that of the Yukon River (above), is a roughly triangular or fan-shaped area of sediment deposited by a river at its mouth.

PINGO These blister-like mounds, seen in regions of Arctic tundra, are formed by the upward expansion of water as it freezes in the soil.

Ice and water

FJORD A valley carved by an ancient glacier and later flooded by the sea is called a fiord.

Some of the most obvious and striking features of Earth’s surface are large flows and bodies of liquid water, such as rivers, lakes, and seas. In addition to these are landforms caused by the erosional or depositional power of flowing water, which include gullies, river valleys, and coastal features such as headlands and deltas. Ice also has had a major impact on Earth’s appearance. Glaciers—rivers of ice formed by the compaction of snow—pick up and carry huge amounts of rocks and boulders as they pass over the landscape, eroding it as they do so. Glaciallysculpted landforms range from mountain cirques and U-shaped valleys to fiords and glacial lakes.

TIDEWATER GL ACIER Glaciers of this type flow to the sea, where they calve (disgorge) icebergs. Like all glaciers, they erode huge amounts of rock from the landscape.

L ANDSLIDE The freezing and later thawing of water, which occurs in a continuous cycle, can shatter and crumble rocks, eventually causing landslides.

The meandering Colville River has cut out high bluffs and also created vast sand bars and expanses of gravel in this coastal region

The Malaspina Glacier is a vast lobe of ice, fed by tributary glaciers, that has eroded a 1000 ft (300 m ) deep crater in the coastal bedrock

14

The Chugach Mountains have been sculpted by one of the highest concentrations of glaciers in the world

Yukon Flats is a region of flatlands and lakes formed over millions of years by the meanderings of the Yukon River

Glacial retreat at the end of the last Ice Age left a series of deep elongated lakes in this region of Alaska

N

This vast, lake-studded alluvial plain was formed from sediment transported by the Kuskokwim River

ME ANDERING RIVER In their lower courses, some rivers carve out a series of looping bends called meanders.

CIRQUE A cirque is a hollow formed high on a mountain by glacial action. It may be ice-filled.

POSTGL ACIAL FE ATURES Glacially-polished cliffs like these are a tell-tale sign of ancient glacial action. Other signs include various forms of sculpted ridge and hummock.

RIVER VALLE Y Over thousands of years, rivers erode uplands to form characteristic V-shaped valleys, with flat narrow floors and steeply-rising sides.

GULLIES Gullies are deep channels cut by rapidly flowing water, as here below Alaska’s Mount Denali.

Heat and wind Marked changes in temperature—rapid heating caused by fierce solar radiation during the day, followed by a sharp drop in temperature at night—cause rocks at the surface of hot deserts to continually expand and contract. This can eventually result in cracking and fissuring of the rocks, creating thermally-fractured desert landscapes. The world’s deserts are also swept and scoured by strong winds. The finer particles of sand are shaped into surface ripples, dunes, or sand mountains, which can rise to a height of 650 ft (200 m). In other areas, the winds sweep away all the sand, leaving flat, gravelly areas called desert pavements.

Stone mushroom Gravel Sand desert

Faceted rock Wind direction

Wind rippling Desert pavement

Thermal fracturing

FE ATURES OF A DESERT SURFACE

LOESS DEPOSIT A deposit of silt that has been transported over long distances by wind, then compacted. Loess is found in a few marginal areas of the Sahara.

YARDANG A yardang is a ridge of rock produced by wind erosion, usually in a desert. Large yardangs can be many miles long.

DESERT PAVEMENT Dark, gravelly surfaces like this result from wind removing all the sand from an area of desert.

Part of the Grand Erg Oriental, this region is a vast wind-sculpted sea of sand, much affected by sand storms

THE WORLD

DUST STOR M A common phenomenon in some deserts, dust storms result from intense heating of the ground creating strong convection currents.

DESERT L ANDSCAPES In desert areas, wind picks up loose sand and blasts it at the surface, creating a range of sculpted landforms from faceted rocks to large-scale features such as yardangs. Individually sculptedrocks are called ventifacts. Where the sand abrasion is concentrated near the ground, it can turn these rocks into eccentrically-shaped “stone mushrooms.” Other desert features are produced by thermal cracking and by winds continually redistributing the vast sand deposits.

15

N

Wind erosion of the sandstone rocks in this area (the Tassili n’Ajjer) has created nearly 300 natural rock arches

This area of complex dune morphology has resulted from two different types of dunes overlapping and coalescing

The Tefedest is an impressive, sun-baked, wind-eroded, granite massif located in southern Algeria

This highland region, called the Ahaggar Mountains, has largely been blasted free of sand and is heavily eroded throughout

TR ANSVERSE DUNES This series of parallel sand ridges lies at right angles to the prevailing wind direction.

VENTIFAC T A ventifact is a rock that has been heavily sculpted and abraded by wind-driven sand.

CR ACKED DESERT Intensely heated and dried-out desert areas often developed geometrically-patterned surface cracking.

WADI Wadis are dried out stream beds, found in some desert regions, that carry water only during occasional periods of heavy rain.

BARCHAN DUNE This arc-shaped type of dune migrates across the desert surface, blown by the wind.

The World’s Oceans

P A C I F I C C E A N

Yukon

Li m i t o f w i n O te r p

Me n d e le y Ri dge e v

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Crozet Plateau

So u t h e a s t

Crozet Basin

Ke

rg

le

n

P

la

t

THERN SOU

A N TA R

O CE A N

Ocean currents Surface temperature and currents ice-shelf (below 32°F / 0°C) sea-ice* (average) below 28°F / -2°C sea-water 28–32°F / -2 to 0°C * sea-water freezes at 28.4°F / -1.9°C 32–50°F / 0–10°C 50–68°F / 10–20°C 68–86°F / 20–30°C warm current cold current

SURFACE TEMPER ATURES AND CURRENTS

ue

in an la ndi tic-I y P Atlan Basin rb e le d c Circ arcti En Ant

e

ANTARCTICA

Surface currents are driven by winds and by the Earth’s rotation. Together these cause large circular flows of water over the surface of the oceans, called gyres. Deep sea currents are driven by changes in the salinity or temperature of surface water. These changes cause the water to become denser and sink, forcing horizontal movements of deeper water.

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SOUT HE RN

Antarctic Circle

W

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Zone

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Tropic of Capricorn

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Vema Frac ture Zone Doldrum s Fracture Zone

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C E A N

Sierra Leone Four North Fracture Zone Basin e Guinea Zon a Basin cture a r F uine e h Romanc f of G

Equator

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Barents Sea

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THE WORLD

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16

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Labrador Basin

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Wrangel Plain

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n ai

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l

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RCTIC

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T

NOR T H AM ER ICA

S

a t. L

Chukchi Plain

Northwind Plain

Arctic Circle

we rth ce No id-O M

Great Lakes

e

in Pla n da asi Cana aB C an a d

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s an t Atl F r a c t u r e Z o n e Ca ant ny ic on

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Arctic Circle C hu k ch i Sea

A

Labrador Sea Labrador Basin

ice

A

Two-thirds of Earth’s surface is covered by the five oceans: the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern (or Antarctic), and Arctic. The basins that form these oceans, and the ocean floor landscape, have formed over the past 200 million years through volcanic activity and gradual movements of the Earth’s crust. Surrounding the continents are shallow flat regions called continental shelves. These shelves extend to the continental slope, which drops steeply to the ocean floor. There, vast submarine plateaus, known as abyssal plains, are interrupted by massive ridges, chains of seamounts, and deep ocean trenches.

ack

DEEP SE A TEMPER ATURES AND CURRENTS

The ocean floor

Tides

The ages of seafloor rocks increase in parallel bands outward from central ocean ridges. At these ridges, new oceanic crust is continuously created from lava that erupts from below the seafloor and then cools to form solid rock. As this new crust forms, it gradually pushes older crust away from the ridge.

Tides are caused by gravitational interactions between the Earth, Moon, and Sun. The strongest tides occur when the three bodies are aligned and the weakest when the Sun and Moon align at right angles Strongest tides

Weakest tides

Gravitational pull from the Sun

Ages of the ocean crust 0–5 million years 5–21 million years 21–38 million years 38–65 million years

Tidal bulges created by gravitational interactions

65–140 million years 140–190 million years continental shelf no data

rait

Earth

South In dian

OCEAN

ts

ing St Be r

B a s i n

CTICA Deep southerly return flow

Winter sea-ice cover

Mend

Fr e Zon

Fra aña

ct

ur

e

en ch

re actu

rac siz F

Tr

hi

Challen F r a c t u rg e r e Zone

-C

e

Chatham Rise

Antarctic Circle

North Atlantic flow

Ea SOUTHER N

O CEAN

Pa c i f i c - A n t a r c t i c R i d g e Ross Sea

Amundsen Sea

A N TA R C T I C A

Bellingshausen Sea

Be

st

l

g lin

sh

au

s

en

Pl

ai

n

Temperature 0˚C

5

10

15

20

25

32˚F

41

50

59

68

77

North Atlantic Heat Conveyor Deep sea temperature and currents ice-shelf (below 32°F / 0°C) sea-water 28–32°F / -2 to 0°C (below 16,400 ft / 5000 m) sea-water 32–41°F / 0–5°C (below 13,120 ft / 4000 m) primary currents secondary currents

Gulf Stream

SOUT

Zo

ne

re

The North Atlantic Heat Conveyor is a system of heat flows in the Atlantic that keeps western Europe relatively warm. Surface currents, notably the Gulf Stream and its extension, the Subtropical recirculation North Atlantic Drift, carry warm water from the tropical Atlantic into the northeastern Atlantic. There, the heat they supply is released, warming Europe, while the water itself cools and sinks. This cold water then returns at depth towards the equator.

A key part of the North Atlantic Heat Conveyor is the warm Gulf Stream, visible as the dark red ribbon in this Atlantic sea-surface temperature map.

H AMERICA

e

le

Agas

Zon ture

pbell Cam eau Plat

Sinking regions

tu Frac otu e n o Z

S o u t h w e s t

Ta s m a n Sea

Basin

P

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P a c i f i c

i s e

tral

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u

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East Ind Rid iam ge a

ge

w

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N

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A

a

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R i d g e

S outh Fi j i B a sin

Tropic of Capricorn

E

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n B as i South Australian

C

Tu a m

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Basin

Kermadec Trench To nga T re n ch

lia

H

I n d i a n

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North Fiji Basin

Sea

Penrhy n Basin

Am

in

Great Aus tra

Zone

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Samoa

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Solomon Sea

Torres Strait

a

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ni

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ch Izu T re n

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s

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P e r u - C h i l e Tr e n c h

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C e n t r a l P a c i f i c B a s i n

East Mariana Basin

I

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C

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R i d g e

Ma

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THE WORLD

aci

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S Arafura

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Ca

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Tropic of Cancer

Wha rt on n Ba s in

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Gulf of Thailand

a ch am ch K il- en u r Tr S

a tk

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of ea

sk

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v

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Moon Yuko

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ASIA

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Arctic Circle

17

Global Climate The climates of different regions on Earth are the typical longterm patterns of temperature and humidity in those regions. By contrast, weather consists of short-term variations in factors such as wind, rainfall, and sunshine. Climates are determined primarily by the Sun’s variable heating of different parts of Earth’s atmosphere and oceans, and by Earth’s rotation. These factors drive the ocean currents and prevailing winds, which in turn redistribute heat energy and moisture between the equator and poles, and between sea and land. Most scientists think that major changes are currently occurring in global climate due to the effects of rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere.

Global air circulation Cool air subsides at North Pole

Polar cell Polar easterly blowing away from high pressure over North Pole

Air rises in subpolar region

Ferrell cell Air descends in subtropics

Hadley cell

Air rises near equator

The atmosphere Earth’s atmosphere is a giant ocean of air that surrounds the planet. It extends to a height of about 625 miles (1000 km) but has no distinct upper boundary. The Sun’s rays pass through the atmosphere and warm Earth’s surface, causing the air to move and water to evaporate from the oceans.

Southwesterly caused by Coriolis deflection of surface air flow in Ferrell cell

Polar-front jet stream

-10°C (14°F)

Aurora caused by collisions between protons and electrons from the Sun, and nitrogen and oxygen molecules in the atmosphere

-90°C (-130°F)

M E SO

-50°C (-58°F)

-10°C (-14°F)

-20°C (-4°F)

Meteor burning up in the atmosphere

35 miles (60 miles)

Average pressure STR

Negligible ATO PAU S

Thin layer of ozone gas absorbs harmful radiation from the Sun

24 miles (40 km) 1 mb 18 miles (30 km) 3 mb

All weather occurs in the lowest layer of the atmosphere

-60°C (-80°F)

T RO

PO P AU S

12 miles (20 km) 10 mb 6 miles (10 km)

E

50 mb

200 mb

1000 mb

Height above sea-level

N O R T H

Tropic of Cancer

at Nor ther n Equ

Decem ber–

re ur l C E oria

nt

A S T Ja n

T R A D E S

E q u a t o r i a l Equator

MESOSPHERE The temperature of the lower part of this layer stays constant with height; but above 35 miles (55 km), it drops, reaching -112°F (80°C) at the mesopause.

Doldrums

C o u n t e r

uar

y

Ju l y

C u r r e n t

El Niño

tor ial Cur rent South Equa

S O U T H E A S T

Tropic of Capricorn

STR ATOSPHERE The temperature of the stratosphere is a fairly constant -76° F (-60°C) up to an altitude of about 12 miles (20 km), then increases, due to absorption of ultraviolet radiation.

T R A D E S

W E S T E R L I E S

We s t

Sea-level

15°C (59°F) Average temperature

THER MOSPHERE This layer extends from a height of 50 miles (80 km) upward. Its temperature increases rapidly above a height of 60 miles (90 km), due to absorption of highly energetic solar radiation.

30 miles (50 km)

E

-40°C (-40°F)

-60°C (-80°F)

42 miles (70 km)

Noctilucent clouds, which appear when ice crystals form on meteoric dust at high levels, reflect the sunlight

-30°C (-22°F)

56 miles (90 km)

50 miles (80 km)

PAUS E

k Chinoor y Janua

Ju l y

-80°C (-112°F)

Ja n u a r y

ent

62 miles (100 km)

-80°C (-112°F)

Arctic Circle

ar y

68 miles (110 km)

Earth has 12 climatic zones, ranging from ice-cap and tundra to temperate, arid (desert), and tropical zones. Each of these zones features a particular combination of temperature and humidity. The effects of prevailing winds, ocean currents of both the warm and cold variety, as well as latitude and altitude, all have an Ju l y important influence on a region’s climate. e nt For example, the climate of western Cu r r Al a s k a Europe is influenced by the effects W E S T E R L I E S of the warm North Atlantic ur re nt c N o r t h Pa i f i c C Drift current.

May –Ju ly

60°C (140°F)

74 miles (120 km)

Nor the r J anu

Above this level the air is so thin that each molecule may have a different temperature

Winds, currents, and climate

Tornadoes

80 miles (130 km)

Southeasterly trade wind

Roaring Forties

Northeasterly trade wind, caused by Coriolis deflection of surface air flow in Hadley cell

a Cu rr

18

L AYERS OF THE ATMOSPHERE The main layers of the atmosphere are the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. Each is defined by the way temperature changes within its limits. Distinct boundaries, such as the tropopause and stratopause, exist between the layers.

Californi

THE WORLD

Subtropical jet stream

TROPOSPHERE This layer extends from Earth’s surface to a height of about 10 miles (16 km) at the equator and 5 miles (8 km) at the poles. Air temperature in this layer decreases with height.

Wind

Drift

Antarctic Circle

Temperature and precipitation Air moves within giant atmospheric cells called Hadley, Ferrell, and polar cells. These cells are caused by air being warmed and rising in some latitudes, such as near the equator, and sinking in other latitudes. This north-south circulation combined with the Coriolis effect (below) produces the prevailing surface winds.

The world divides by latitude into three major temperature zones: the warm tropics, the cold polar regions; and an intermediate temperate zone. In addition, temperature is strongly influenced by height above sea level. Precipitation patterns are related to factors such as solar heating, atmospheric pressure,

winds, and topography. Most equatorial areas have high rainfall, caused by moist air being warmed and rising, then cooling to form rain clouds. In areas of the subtropics and near the poles, sinking air causes high pressure and low precipitation. In temperate regions rainfall is quite variable.

AVER AGE JANUARY TEMPER ATURE

AVER AGE JANUARY R AINFALL

AVER AGE JULY TEMPER ATURE

AVER AGE JULY R AINFALL

Arctic Circle

THE CORIOLIS EFFECT

Tropic of Cancer

Air moving over Earth’s surface is deflected in a clockwise direction in the northern hemisphere and counterclockwise in the south. Known as the Coriolis effect, and caused by Earth’s spin, Direction of these deflections to the air Earth’s spin movements produce winds such as the trade winds and westerlies.

Equator Tropic of Capricorn Antarctic Circle

Arctic Circle

Deflected clockwise

Tropic of Cancer

Deflected counterclockwise

Equator

THE WORLD

Tropic of Capricorn

Initial direction

Antarctic Circle 32 to 50°F (0 to 10°C) 50 to 68°F (10 to 20°C) 68 to 86°F (20 to 30°C) above 86°F (30°C)

below -22°F (-30°C) -22 to -4°F (-30 to - 20°C) -4 to 14°F (-20 to - 10°C) 14 to 32°F (-10 to 0°C)

S

T

E

R

L Ju l

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Mo n s o

Ju l y

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Ja n u

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Ju l y

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Counter C urr e

n

Tropic of Cancer

y–

an

M o n s o o n

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Equator ial Cur ren

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Be

T R A D E S

S ou

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Ju ly

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Equator

S a s t out h E q u ato r i a l Cu r r e nt Mo ns o on Oc to be r– M ar ch

Tropic of Capricorn

Ju l y

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Ju ly

Dr if t

W

Doldrums

the

Qu een sla nd ur ric an es Jan uar y

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Pampero

Peru mboldt) (Hu urrent C

We s t

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E q u a t o r i a l C o u n t e r Cu r re nt

Doldrums

Ju

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Ja n

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W

Ju l y

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Ja n u a r

Ja n

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Ja n u a r y r rent Cu wo

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Ja n u a r y

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Ca

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semi-arid hot humid

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mediterranean

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Ja n u a r y

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warm temperate

tundra

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Arctic Circle

Ju l

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th

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19

Climate zones

ft

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Ju l y

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Ju l y

Ju l y

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Ocean currents, winds and climatic regions

Eq

P

8–12 in (200–300 mm) 12–16 in (300–400 mm) 16–20 in (400–500 mm) above 20 in (500 mm)

0–1 in (0–25 mm) 1–2 in (25–50 mm) 2–4 in (50–100 mm) 4–8 in (100–200 mm)

I

We s t W ind Dr i f t

E

Ocean currents

S

warm cold

Prevailing winds warm cold

Antarctic Circle

P

O

L

A

R

E

A

S

T

E

R

L

I

E

S

Local winds warm cold July

seasonal winds (cold or warm)

Life on Earth

ARCT

Beaufort Sea R s a k n g e ro o

Arctic C ircle

B

as

es

tai

Bay

Great Lakes

Great Plains

Ap

l pa

h ac

ia

n

M

Baffin Bay

Greenland

De

Labrador Sea

NORT H AM E RIC A

Roc

ky

Co

t

un

Vancouver Island

IC O CEAN

Victoria Island

Great Bear La ke Great Slave Lake Hudson

ns

Gulf of Alaska

ng

sl

an d s

nm

ar k

a St r

it

Greenland Sea

Iceland

British Isles

Newfoundland

ts

Iberian Peninsula

Azores Madeira

Canary Islands

Tropic of Cancer

Gulf of Mexico

Ha Isl w a

TEMPER ATE GR ASSL AND Also known as steppe or prairie, grassland of this type occurs mainly in the northern hemisphere and in South America (the Pampas).

ian ai ds n

Cape Verde Islands

Li Isl

an

y

Galapagos Islands

ds

Amazon Basin

n

Marquesas Islands

A

e s

n

Lake Titicaca

e s

Pa

ra

Easter Island

on

SOUTH AM E RIC A d

i Tropic of Capricorn

z Ama

o

l

ne

OCEAN

hac

o

PACIFIC

a

Pa m



NEEDLELE AF FOREST These vast forests of coniferous trees cover huge areas of Canada, Siberia, and Scandinavia.

OCEAN

Caribbean Sea

Equator

las

ATLANTIC Cuba

P

20

At

Gran C

THE WORLD

Earth’s biogeographical regions, or biomes, are communities where certain species of plants and animals coexist within the constraints of particular climatic conditions. They range from tundra to various types of grassland, forest, desert, and marine biomes such as coral reefs. Factors like soil richness, altitude, and human activities such as deforestation can affect the local distribution of living species in each biome.

POL AR REGIONS Ice restricts life in these regions to just a few species, such as polar bears in the Arctic.

Ra

I Al e ut i a n

Biogeographical regions

Mo

A unique combination of an oxygen-rich atmosphere and plentiful surface water is the key to life on Earth, where few areas have not been colonized by animals, plants, or smaller life-forms. An important determinant of the quantity of life in a region is its level of primary production—the amount of energyrich substances made by organisms living there, mainly through the process of photosynthesis. On land, plants are the main organisms responsible for primary production; in water, algae fulfil this role. These primary producers supply food for animals. Primary production is affected by climatic, seasonal, and other local factors. On land, cold and aridity restrict the quantity of life in a region, whereas warmth and regular rainfall allow a greater diversity of species. In the oceans, production is mainly affected by sunlight levels, which reduce rapidly with depth, and by nutrient availability.

pa s

Pa t

ago

ni

Falkland Islands

a Tierra del Fuego

World biomes ice

Cape Horn

tundra

Dra

temperate coniferous forest temperate broadleaf mixed forest

TROPIC AL GR A SSL AND This type of grassland is widespread in Africa and South America, supporting large numbers of grazing animals and their predators.

Animal diversity The number of animal species, and the range of genetic diversity within the populations of those species, determines the level of animal diversity within each country or other region of the world. The animals that are endemic to a region—that is, those found nowhere else on the planet— are also important in determining its level of animal diversity.

temperate grassland mediterranean desert and shrubland boreal forest/taiga

Number of animal species per country more than 2,000 1000–1999 700–999 400–699 200–399 100–199 0–99 data not available

Ant a rc

le t i c Ci rc

a ke P

e ssag

Antarctic Peninsula

South Georgia

South Sandwich Islands

SOUT

TUNDR A With little soil and large areas of frozen ground, the tundra is largely treeless, though briefly clothed by small flowering plants in summer.

us

Hi

Thar Desert

an

r

Yang

s

Deccan

g

M e l a

Borneo Java Sea

E a s t I n d i e s

INDIAN

o Ti m

OCEAN

r

New Guinea

21

Equator

n

e rS

a

Coral Sea

Mauritius

Great Sandy Desert

Réunion

in

r li Da

Gr

Ta sm an ia

idi

or Pla

ng

iv

lar b Nu l

Tropic of Capricor n

D

t

AUSTRALIA

Cape of Good Hope

HOT DESERT Only a few highly adapted species can survive in hot deserts, which occur mainly in the tropics.

Fiji

e

asca

OCEAN

i a

Mo zam biq ue C han Ma nel d ag

s

s

Gre

Seychelles

e

e

a t R i f t Va l l e y

ng o

PACIFIC

a

Co

M i c r o n

Malay Peninsula

a atr

Maldive Islands

South China Philippine Sea Islands

i

Sri Lanka

Sum

er ib Des Nam

Kalahari Desert

Philippine S ea

Rang

a Ethiopian Horn of Highlands Africa

TROPIC AL R AINFOREST Characterized by year-round warmth and high rainfall, tropical rainforests contain the highest diversity of plant and animal species on Earth.

Tropic of Cancer

Me

Bay of Bengal

er

Congo Basin

East China Sea

t ze

kon

e dS

Arabian Sea

ala yas

ge

ve

ASIA

ng

Ni le

Re

S a h e l Ni g

Arabian Peninsula

im G

S a h a r a

Iranian Z a Plateau g ro sM ts

In d

es

o f Tibe t

Sea of Japan (East Sea) Honshú

Ye

ea

t

Tasman Sea

Ne w Zea lan d

Kerguelen

World biomes (continued) tropical and subtropical coniferous tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf

HERN OCEAN

tropical and subtropical wet broadleaf tropical and subtropical grassland/savanah

Wilke s Land

Number of plant species per country more than 50,000 7000–49,999 3000–6999 2000–2999 1000–1999 600–999 0–599 data not available

Antarctic Circle

THE WORLD

ra t

Syrian Desert

H

r ia n Manchu P la in

Ri

Sea

MouAltai ntai ns i a n h S n ob e i T G ush uK P la tea u nd

l low

Eu ph

is

nean

Aral Sea

Am ur

Lake Balkash

Caspian Sea

Anatolia

r ra

c

Cauc asus

Black Sea

m

s

nu b e

gr Ti

Medite

Mts

Da

in

s

Lake Baikal

ta

Al

Sea of h a tk a Okhotsk

Ob ’

un

E U ROPE p

Khrebe t Cher a skog o

Ka

Volga

pe uro n No r t h E P l ai

ey

Mo

an

ircle Arctic C

Len

a S i b e r i

al

nd

v ia in a

Ye ni s

Ur

a Sc

Barents Sea

MOUNTAINS In high mountain areas only a few hardy species of plant will grow above the tree-line.

Laptev Sea

Kara Sea

COR AL REEFS Occurring in clear tropical waters, coral reefs support an extraordinary diversity of species, especially fish and many types of invertebrate.

TEMPER ATE R AIN FOREST Occurring in mid-latitudes in areas of high rainfall, these forests may be predominantly coniferous or mixed with deciduous species.

montane grassland mangrove wetland

OPEN OCE AN Earth’s largest biome, the oceans are home to a vast diversity of fish, mammals, invertebrates, and algae.

Plant diversity Environmental conditions, particularly climate, soil type, and the extent of competition with other living organisms, influence the development of plants into distinctive forms and thus also the extent of plant diversity. Human settlement and intervention has considerably reduced the diversity of plant species in many areas.

Man and the Environment OZONE HOLE Man-made chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), used in refrigeration and aerosols, damaged the ozone layer in the stratosphere which helps filter out the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays. When a seasonal ozone hole first appeared in 1985 over Antarctica, a shocked world agreed to phase out CFC use.

1980

1985

NO

(million tons)

C

over 4000 1000–4000 500–1000 100–500 50–100 10–50 2–10 0–2

D A

UNITED KINGDOM

ATLANTIC

E

EST. LAT. LITH.

DENMARK

BELARUS NETH. POLAND BELG. GERMANY CZECH UKR AINE REP. SLO. FRANCE SWITZ. AUS. HUNG. MOLDOVA ROMANIA CRO. SLOVENIA IT B.-H. A BULGARIA KOS. LY MON. MAC.

PORTUGAL SPAIN

O

C

O

MALTA

CYPRUS

ALGERIA THE BAHAMAS CUBA DOMINICAN REPUBLIC JAMAICA HAITI

A NI

+%%

+%%

RO O N

O

-%%

B

P E

R

A

Z

I

L

>XZXdgZYViV

A NG OL A ZAMBIA

)%%

Some heat emitted by greenhouse gases escapes to space Escaping longwave radiation Diffused incoming radiation Solar radiation deflected back into space

Incoming solar radiation

Some heat emitted by greenhouse gases heats surface

BIA

Greenhouse gases absorb longwave radiation

PACIFIC OCEAN

BOTSWANA SWAZILAND LESOTHO

Other 11,349

URUGUAY

E

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Some solar energy, reflected from the Earth’s surface as infra red radiation, is reflected back as heat by “greenhouse gases” (mainly carbon dioxide and methane) in the atmosphere. Nearly all scientists now agree that an upsurge in emissions caused by humans burning fossil fuel has contributed to making the resultant warming effect a major problem.

N A T I E N A R G L I

&+%% &-%% '%%% '&%% NZVgh Since 1800 the amount of C02 in the atmosphere has risen sharply. Urgent worldwide action to control emissions is vital to stabilize the level by the mid 21st century.

H

&)%%

ZIMBABWE

MI

AG UA Y

C

&'%%

(million tons) TOTAL: 35,669

R PA

'%%

% &%%%

CO2 emissions by country in 2014

BOLIVIA

NA

'%%

RWANDA BURUNDI

(Cabinda)

U

)%%

DEM. R E P. CONGO

ANGOLA

R

7^aa^dchd[idchd[XVgWdcY^dm^YZ

ECUADOR

9^gZXibZVhjgZbZcih

ME

SAO TOME & GABON PRINCIPE

S U DA N

CENTRAL SOUTH AFRICAN SUDAN REPUBLIC

CA

TOGO

Egd_ZXi^dch -%%

NIGERIA

EQUATORIAL GUINEA

&%%%

&%%%

IVORY COAST

CONG

French Guiana (to France)

CHAD

BENIN

LIBERIA

NIGER

BURKINA FASO G H A NA

SIERRA LEONE

SURINAME

G U YA N A

COLOMBIA

U

RI

BARBADOS GRENADA TRINIDAD & TOBAGO

VENEZUELA

PANAMA

SENEGAL GAMBIA GUINEABISSAU GUINEA

SAINT LUCIA

COSTA RICA

MALI

A

CAPE VERDE

ANTIGUA & BARBUDA ST KITTS & NEVIS

LIBYA

TA

(occupied by Morocco)

M

BELIZE GUATEMALA HONDURAS EL SALVADOR NICARAGUA

WESTERN SAHARA

PT

CO

Global warming is happening much faster than Earth’s normal long-term cycles of climate change. The consequences include unpredictable extreme weather and potential disruption of ocean currents. Melting ice-caps and glaciers, and warmer oceans, will raise average sea levels and threaten coastlines and cities. Food crops like wheat are highly vulnerable to changes in temperature and rainfall. Such changes can also have a dramatic affect on wildlife habitats.

EGY

M

O

R

C

ALBANIA GREECE

TUNISIA

OCEAN

Climate change

N

. RB SE

U N I T E D S TAT E S OF AMERICA

MEXI

THE WORLD

N A

IRELAND

no data

22

A

AY

AND

ICELAND

NL FI

CO2 emissions in 2008

RW

Greenland (to Denmark)

USA (Alaska)

SWED

The impact of human activity on the environment has widened from being a matter of local concern (typically over the build-up of urban waste, industrial pollution, and smog) to affect whole ecosystems and, in recent decades, the global climate. Problems crossing national boundaries first became a major issue over acid rain, toxic waste dumping at sea, and chemical spillages polluting major rivers. Current concerns center on loss of biodiversity and vital habitat including wetlands and coral reefs, the felling and clearance of great tropical and temperate forests, overexploitation of scarce resources, the uncontrolled growth of cities and, above all, climate change.

H E R N S O U T

FOOD AND L AND USE The world has about five billion hectares of agriculturally useful land, well under one hectare per person. The majority of this is pasture for grazing. Crops are grown on about 30 percent (and nearly a fifth of cropland is artificially irrigated). Mechanized farming encouraged vast single crop “monocultures,” dependent on fertilizers and pesticides. North America’s endless prairies of wheat and corn, huge soybean plantations, and southern cotton fields are mirrored in Ukraine (wheat), Brazil and Argentina (soya) and Uzbekistan (cotton). Elsewhere, scarce farmland can be squeezed by the housing needs of growing urban populations. Current interest in crop-derived “biofuels” means further pressure to grow food more productively on less land.

United States 5334

Brazil 501 Canada 565 South Korea 610 Iran 618 Germany 767 Japan 1278

China 10,540

India 2341 Russian Federation 1766

O C E A N

Intensive farming. Satellite photography picks up the greenhouses that now cover almost all the land in this Spanish coastal area southwest of Almeria.

SOUTH A F R IC A

1996

2000

R U S S I A N

IS

EN

TAJ.

KUWAIT BAHRAIN QATAR

H

I

frontier forest

PA

frontier forest 8000 years ago

L

I N D I A

M

AN

UAE

TAIWAN MYANMAR LAOS (BURMA)

VI

ET

EN

THAILAND

PACIFIC

M NA

M

Deforestation

BHUTAN

O

YE

A

BANGLADESH

S AU D I ARABIA ERITREA

N

degraded forest NE

PA

AF

KI

ISRAEL JORDAN

ST

GH

AN

I R A N

I R AQ

C

JAPAN

SOUTH KOREA

CAMBODIA

PHILIPPINES

DJIBOUTI

OCEAN

IA

PALAU SRI LANKA

UG

M

MALDIVES

O

A N DA

AL

ETHIOPIA

S

TANZANIA

INDIAN

MALAYSIA

E

U

NAURU

I N D O N E S I A

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

SOLOMON ISLANDS

EAST TIMOR

IQ

TONGA

R

MB

VANUATU

SCA MA

DA

GA

ZA

MALAWI

OCEAN

COMOROS

GL ACIATION The world’s glaciers and ice sheets have been in retreat for decades, forming less new ice at high altitudes than they lose by melting lower down. The loss of ice from Greenland doubled between 1996 and 2005, with alarming implications for rising sea levels. Other dramatic evidence of global warming includes the rapid thinning of ice in the Himalayas, and the highly symbolic loss of the snowcap on Africa’s Mount Kilimanjaro.

BRUNEI

SINGAPORE

KENYA SEYCHELLES

MO

THE WORLD

.

SYRIA LEBANON

NORTH KOREA

KYRG.

TA

I ST AN

EK

KM

N

TUR

Over 25,000 sq miles (60,000 sq km) of virgin rain forest are cleared annually by logging and agricultural activities, destroying an irreplaceable natural resource.

M O N G O L I A

AN

UZB

2005

F E D E R A T I O N

K A Z A K H S T A N

GEORGIA ARMENIA AZERB. TURKEY

DEFORESTATION At current rates of destruction, all tropical forests, and most old-growth temperate forest, will be gone by 2090. The Amazon rain forest is a valuable genetic resource, containing innumerable unique plants and animals, as well as acting as a crucial natural “sink” for absorbing climate-damaging carbon dioxide. Stemming the loss of these precious assets to logging and farming is one of the major environmental challenges of modern times.

FIJI

MAURITIUS

Réunion

(to France)

A U S T R A L I A

NEW ZEALAND

Helheim Glacier 2001 The Helheim glacier (above) almost completely fills this image, with the leading edge visible on the righthand side, and was in a relatively stable condition.

Helheim Glacier 2005 By 2005 (right) it had retreated by 2.5 miles (4 km).

Delhi 1971 In 1971 Delhi (above) occupied an area of about 190 sq miles (500 sq km).

Delhi 1999 By 1999 (right) it had sprawled to cover 500 sq miles (1300 sq km). It vies with Mumbai in the southwest to be the sub-continent’s most populous city, fast approaching 20 million people.

CIT Y GROW TH The world in 2015 had 15 cities with populations over 20 million. The number of cities with populations between 10 and 20 million has surpassed 20 and continues to rise. The search for work, and the hope of escape from rural poverty, drives migration from rural to urban areas across the developing world. Urban dwellers now amount to more than half the world’s population, and consume more resources than their rural counterparts.

23

Population and Settlement Earth’s human population is projected to rise from its current level of 7.3 billion to between 8.1 and 11 billion by the year 2050. The distribution of this population is very uneven and is dictated by climate, terrain, and by natural and economic resources. Most people live in coastal zones and along the valleys of great rivers such as the Ganges, Indus, Nile, and Yangtze. Deserts cover over 20 percent of Earth’s surface but support less than 5 percent of its human population. Over half the world’s population live in cities—most of them in Asia, Europe, and North America—as a result of mass migrations that have occurred from rural areas as people search for jobs. Many of these people live in so-called “megacities”—sprawling urban areas that have populations higher than 10 million.

Population density by country (population per sq mile) over 2600 775-2599 390-774

260-389 195–259 130–194

65–129 26–64 0–25

THE WORLD

Population density

24

A few regions, including Europe, India, and much of eastern Asia, have extremely high population densities. Within these areas, a few spots, such as Monaco and Hong Kong, have densities of over 12,900 per sq mile (5000 people per sq km). Other regions (mostly desert, mountain, ice cap, tundra, or thickly forested areas) have densities close to NORTH AMERICA zero –examples include large areas of Australia, western China, Siberia, North Africa, Canada, Greenland, and much of the Amazon rain forest region.

EUROPE

World population World land area 10% 7.1%

World population World land area 8% 17.0%

Million-person cities In the year 1900 there were fewer than 20 cities in the world with a population that exceeded one million. By 1950 there were 83 such cities, and by the year 2015 there were more than 500 such cities, 100 of them in China alone, with another 54 in India, 20 in Brazil, and 14 in Japan.

Population density (persons per sq mile)

Million-cities in 1900 Cities over 1 million in population

520–2600 260–520 130–260 52–130 26–52 13-26 3–13 0–3

SOUTH AMERICA

World population World land area 6% 11.8%

Million-cities in 1950 ANTARCTICA

World population World land area 0.0% 8.9%

Million-cities in 2006

Tokyo urban sprawl City boundary, 1860

City boundary, 1964

GREATER TOK YO The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous urban area in the world, with an estimated head count in 2015 of 37.8 million. It includes Tokyo City, which has a population of about 12 million, and adjoining cities such as Yokohama. This satellite photograph shows the Greater Tokyo Area today, and also the boundaries of Tokyo City in 1860 (red) and 1964 (yellow).

Every year about 200 million people – 3 percent of the global population – change their country of residence. Emigration rates are generally highest in countries affected by wars or that have suffered economic woes, natural disasters, or where groups of people have been oppressed or persecuted. Immigration rates are generally highest in stable, developed countries, such as the USA, Spain and Canada, which usually have low birth rates and need immigrants to provide economic support to their ageing populations.

11

High variant

Migration

10

Net migration average annual migration (thousands) dkZg(%% '%%id(%% &%%id'%% %id&%% "&%%id% "'%%id"&%% "(%%id"'%% ")%%id"(%%

9

Medium variant

NET MIGR ATION The map at right shows the net migration rate for each country. A positive value means more people are entering the country than leaving it (net immigration) and a negative value the reverse (net emigration).

8

7

THE WORLD

This graph (right) of world population growth since the year 1500 includes three different projections to the year 2050, based on different assumptions about the factors affecting growth.

ASIA

6

25

World population World land area 60% 29.1%

5

AUSTR ALASIA & OCEANIA

AFRICA

4

World population World land area 0.5% 5.9%

World population World land area 15.5% 20.2%

3

Population growth Improved nutrition and medical care have played a major part in the remarkable growth in world population. There is currently a stark contrast between continuing high growth in many poorer countries, particularly in Africa, and low or negative future growth in most developed countries.

Population (billions)

2

Population growth rate (annual percentage change) above 4% 3 to 4% 2 to 3%

1

1 to 2% 0 to 1% -1 to 0%

Years 1500

1550

1600

1650

1700

1750

1800

1850

1900

1950

2000

Low variant

YViVjcVkV^aVWaZ

0 2050

Language Over 6800 different languages exist throughout the world, each one with its own unique evolutionary history and cultural connotations. Most of these languages are spoken only by small groups of people in remote regions. Sadly these minority tongues are dying out—it is estimated that about a third will have disappeared by the year 2100. The relatively small number of widely-spoken languages have gained their current predominance and pattern of distribution through a variety of historical factors. Among these have been the economic, military, or technological success of certain peoples and cultures, differing population growth rates, and the effects of migrations and colonization. The European Union (EU) embraces the diversity of its 28 countries and 24 official languages by providing a translation and interpretation service for the majority of its meetings and documentation. This costs around US$ 650 million per year, which equates to 1 percent of the EU budget.

G

ARCTIC OCEAN

re

en

Samoyed

ia

Ta

m

at

se

Cebuano

M

Au s t r o n e s i a n

l

m

i

ali

Filipino

c -

Malay

ay

B a h a s aD In donesia Javanes e

a

l a Pa

y

-

P Pi p u a nd g i n

o

s

sy

laga

y

l

C

nt u

ole

n

d

re

n

INDIAN OCEAN

e s i a n

Af r ikaan s N g u ni

a

or

i other language

i

Portuguese/other

Spanish/other

ar

English/French

English/Spanish

a

tu

Portuguese

isa

Russian/other

vi

hili

n Ba

Chinese/other

Russian

ara

Kho

French

Sw a

B

Ay m

ra

So

u

Hindi/English/other

r ib

English

Ca

Arabic/other

ua

Hindi

c

ak

English/other

Ban t

ech

Arabic

Hausa

Qu

French/other

rw

Spanish

Ar

Arabic/French

D

Amh

M ay a

Chinese

ani

PAC I F I C OCEAN

n

Berber

Fu l

Main international languages

Ko re a n a Jap

Mandar in

hto Punjabi Ti b e t a n

ro st ti A us i a A

at

AT L A N T I C OCEAN

les

as

Cantonese

Ma

hu

eo

rsi anP

Mongol

Uighur

ne

k

Pe

Cr

K h al k a Mo ng ol

h

yr

Kazak

O

ee

l

Tu Ma ngu nc shu

Mo rdv i n i a n

T u r k i c

Gr

PAC I F I C OCEAN

26

av ic

ance Rom

Na

M

B a n t u language group uninhabited land

The colonial powers

TOP TEN LANGUAGES

About 45 percent of people speak one of just ten languages as their native tongue. Mandarin Chinese is spoken by far the largest number—a situation likely to persist, as minority language speakers in China are encouraged to switch to Mandarin. English usage is also increasing, as it is the most favored language on the internet and in business circles. Wherever English is not the mother tongue, it is often the second language.

This dual language sign, written in both in Hindi and English, stands outside Shimla railway station in northern India. The sign reflects India’s past—the British used Shimla as their summer capital during the colonial period.

Colonial Empires in 1914 Austro-Hungarian

Italian

Independent

Belgian

Japanese

Disputed

British

Ottoman

Chinese

Portuguese

Danish

Russian

Dutch

Spanish

French

United States

German

Javanese (84 million)

Japanese (130 million)

Russian (170 million)

Bengali (190 million)

Portugese (200 million)

Arabic (240 million)

THE TEN MOST SPOKEN L ANGUAGES (number of native speakers)

Hindi/Urdu (260 million)

Colonialism between the 15th and 20th centuries had a major influence in establishing the world prevalence of various, mainly European, languages. Britain, for example, was the colonial power in Canada, the USA (until 1776), the Indian subcontinent, Australia, and parts of Africa and the Caribbean. Hence, English is still the main (or a major) language in these areas. The same applies to France and the French language in parts of Africa and southeast Asia, and to Spain and the Spanish language in much of Latin America. For similar reasons, Portuguese is the main language in Brazil and parts of Africa, and there are many Dutch speakers in Indonesia.

English (340 million)

other language

Spanish (470 million)

Ma r i

Mandarin Chinese (1.2 billion)

THE WORLD

Sl

c

Algonquin

Mar i Chuvash

ni

ltic

I n d i a n

Aleut

ak

e r i c a n ascan

Ya k u t

ish

Icelandic

nn

a

n

Sami (Lapp)

h is

Fi

t

u

e

l

A

Ce

hab

-

o

D

m

m

Germa

At

i

ic

k A

nd

s

la

E

Religion The spread of religion By their nature, religions usually start off in small geographical areas and then spread. For Christianity and Islam, this spread was rapid and extensive. Buddhism diffused more slowly from around 500 BCE into a large part of Asia. The oldest religion, Hinduism, has always been concentrated in the Indian subcontinent, although its adherents in other parts of the world now number millions following migrations from India.

About 83 percent of the world’s population adheres to a religion. The remainder adopt irreligious stances such as atheism. In terms of broad similarities of belief, there are about 20 different religions in the world with more than 1 million adherents. However, the larger of these are split into several denominations, which differ in their exact beliefs and practices. Christianity, for example, includes three major groupings that have historically been in conflict—Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, and Orthodox Christianity—as well as hundreds of separate smaller groups. Many of the world’s other main religious, such as Islam and Buddhism, are also subdivided.

AUSTRALIA p Pa ua ns

Australian Aborigines

Malays

1ST– 7 TH CENTURY During this period, Christianity spread from its origins in the eastern Mediterranean, while Hinduism and forms of Buddhism spread in Asia. Islam became established in Arabia.

g us Tun

al Chiefdoms Forest N O R T H hauthnetreerrs g AMERICA Co a st

A S I A an

s

Maya cit y states

ds

e Tib

an oms

An Chi de e fd

S

Amazon hunters dic hun ters Marajó Gu ara ni SOUTH AMERICA

Nom a

Buddhist heartland Chinese Confucianism/ Daoism and indigenous primal traditions Converted to Christianity by 600 CE Hinduism

o am

EUROPE

B erbe

Tupí

Islam under Muhammad

t

ye

Rise and spread of the classical religions to 650 CE

rs

i Kush

tes

Saharan Peoples AFRICA West Atlantic Peoples

Mahayana Buddhism Shintoism

Bantus

Zoroastrianism

RELIGION AROUND THE WORLD

spread of Buddhism spread of Christianity spread of Hinduism

7 TH –16TH CENTURY Islam later spread further through Asia and into parts of Africa and Europe. Christianity diffused through Europe and was then carried to many other parts of the world by colonialists and missionaries. Buddhism spread further in Asia.

AUSTRALIA p Pa ua ns

Australian Aborigines

Malays

a st Nor thcu-eltures Pueblos coast Car ibou N O R T H hunters AMERICA Plainses v illag Inuit

Each year millions of Muslims visit Mecca during the the Islamic pilgrimage known as the Hajj

Buddhist (0.36 billion)

Judaism (15 million)

Sikhism (23 million) Christianity (1.9 billion)

Chinese traditional (0.36 billion)

World religions c.1500 CE

i an s ip p ssis res Mi cultu

A S I A

Primal indigenous (0.36 billion)

Catholic Christianity

27

area converted to Catholic Christianity Hinduism

Amazon hunters dic hun ters Gu SOUTH ara ní A M E R I C A

Hindu (0.84 billion)

Islam

Nom a

Mahayana Buddhism and Confucianism, Daoism and Shinto

EUROPE

Mahayana Buddhism and Confucianism, Daoism Russian Orthodoxy

Tupnam bá

S o ng h

ay

AFRICA

Hausa States

Mali

Bantus K h o i s an Peoples

Not religious (0.96 billion)

Theravada Buddhism

spread of Catholicism

Tibetan Buddhism

spread of Islam

Aztec Empire

spread of Protestantism

Inca Empire

spread of Russian Orthodoxy

Islam (1.06 billion)

SVALBARD (to Norway)

GREENLAND

N

(to Denmark)

SWE

DE

ICELAND

(to US)

NORWAY

C

A

N

A

D

R U

FINLAND

ESTONIA RUSS. LATVIA UNITED DENMARK FED. LITHUANIA KINGDOM BELARUS GERMANY IRELAND NETH. POLAND BELG. CZ.REP. UKR AI NE

A

SLVK. LIECH. K AUT. MOLD. HUNG. SLVN. CRO. SERB. ROMANIA GEORGIA KOS. B.&H. S.M. BULG. AZERB. MON. VAT. CITY ARMENIA S P A I N I T A L Y ALB. MACED. LUX.

FRANCE

S T A T E S

M OR

L

other Marxism / Maoism

A R G E N T I N

M

AN

A

IA

AL

SOUTH AFRIC A

URUGUAY

State policy FALKLAND ISLANDS (to UK)

SRI LANKA MALDIVES

M

CHILE

secular ideologies governing communist states during 20th century non-pluralist states

S. KOREA

TAIWAN

MARSHALL ISLANDS

PH I L I P PI N E S PALAU

BRUNEI

MICRONESIA

MALAYSIA

I N D O N E S I A SEYCHELLES COMOROS

JAPAN

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

R

EAST TIMOR

TUVALU SAMOA VANUATU

SCA

DA GA

SWAZILAND LESOTHO

K I RI BA T I

NAURU SOLOMON ISLANDS

MAURITIUS

FIJI

MA

BI AM

A

LAOS MYANMAR (BURMA)

SINGAPORE

Q

IA

Tibetan Buddhism

BOTS.

MO Z

MIB

PARAGUAY

N

CAMB.

MALAWI E U

ZIMB.

NA

Mahayana Buddhism

DEM. REP. CONGO

I

THAI.

UGANDA S KENYA RWANDA

ZAMBIA

Hinduism

Theravada Buddhism

INDIA

BURUNDI

ANGOLA

B OLIVIA

Sunni Islam

IS

H

YEMEN

A

U

Shi'a Islam

Judaism

C

N

NEPAL BHUTAN

BANGLADESH

O

NG

Z I

K PA

SOUTH ETHIOPIA C.A.R. SUDAN

M

A

O

NA M

R

I

N. KOREA

I

R P E

B

A T

M O N G O L I A

DJIBOUTI

AN

SAO TOME & PRINCIPE

SURINAME

R

KYRGYZSTAN

C

SAUDI ARABIA O

ERITREA M A L I NIGER NA CHAD S U DA N KI

SENEGAL GAMBIA R O U FAS NIGERIA GUINEA GUINEABISSAU IVORY BENIN SIERRA COAST LEONE CA LIBERIA GHANA EQ. GUINEA GABON

D E

TAJIKISTAN

I R A N AFGH.

Z TAN

GUYANA

ECUADOR

Catholic Christianity Orthodox Christianity

FRENCH GUIANA (to France)

UZBEKISTAN

E

ET

Protestant Christianity

EGYPT

TOGO

Majority religions

ST LUCIA

BARBADOS ST VINCENT & GREN. GRENADA TRINIDAD & TOBAGO

F

VI

JAMAICA DOM. REP. GUATEMALA EL SALVADOR NICARAGUA VENEZUELA COSTA RICA PANAMA COLOMBIA

CAPE VERDE

UR MA

N

A Z A K H S T A N

JORDAN KUWAIT BAHRAIN QATAR U.A.E.

ALGERIA L I B Y A

ER OO N

I

BELIZE

WESTERN SAHARA (disputed)

O

X

O

ST KITTS & NEVIS ANTIGUA & BARBUDA DOMINICA

IA

E

C

THE BAHAMAS HAITI

O CC

IT AN

M

PUERTO RICO (to US)

HONDURAS CUBA

O

A

TURKMEN.

GREECE T U R K E Y SYRIA TUNISIA MALTA CYPRUS LEBANON ISRAEL IRAQ

A M E R I C A

B

O F

S I

SWITZ. MONACO

O

U N I T E D

PORT.

ANDORRA

S

TA N

ALASKA

THE WORLD

About 72 percent of humanity adheres to one of five religions: Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Chinese traditional religion (which includes Daoism and Confucianism). Of the remainder, many are adherents of primal indigenous religions (a wide range of tribal or folk religions such as shamanism).

Maoris

dispersion of Jews, to 500 CE

A U S T R A L I A

NEW ZEALAND

TONGA

Health Life expectancy Life expectancy has risen remarkably in developed countries over the past 50 years and has now topped 80 years in many of them. In contrast, life expectancy in many of the countries of sub-Saharan Africa has fallen well below 50, in large part due to the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. Many people in developed countries are now living for 15–20 years after retirement, putting greater pressure on welfare and health services.

75–80 years 70–75 years IRELAND

60–70 years

O

O

M A TA U

A

CHAD

I VORY C OAST

LIBERIA

B

R

A

Z

I

U

(Cabinda)

A NG OL A

BIA

UA AG

H I

NA TI EN ARG

Y

SOUTH A F R IC A

URUGUAY

ATLANTIC

L

E

20–29

OCEAN

below 20

Nutrition Two-thirds of the world’s food is consumed in developed nations, many of which have a daily calorific intake far higher than is needed by their populations. By contrast, about 800 million people in the developing world do not have enough food to meet basic nutritional needs.

Daily calorie intake per capita above 3000

2500–2999

2000–2499

below 2000

The extensive public healthcare system in Cuba provides for around 6 doctors per 1000 people, one of the highest ratios in the world.

Healthcare An indicator of the strength of healthcare provision in a country is the number of doctors per 1000 population. Some communist and former communist countries such as Cuba and Russia score well in this regard. In general, healthcare provision is good or adequate in most of the world’s richer countries but scanty throughout much of Africa and in parts of Asia and Latin America.

Medical doctors (per 1000 people) above 5

4–5

DEM. R E P. CONGO

MI

R PA

C

30–39

GABON

ANGOLA

Number of births (per 1000 people) above 40

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

NA

Liberia: currently has one of the lowest life expectancies in West Africa, at about 45 years, owing to factors such as high rates of infectious disease, recent conflict, and poverty.

L

BOLIVIA below 15

TOGO EQUATORIAL GUINEA SAO TOME & PRINCIPE

WA N A

SIERRA LEONE

French Guiana (to France)

NIGERIA RO O N

BURKINA FASO

GUINEA- GUINEA BISSAU

SURINAME

NIGER

3–4

TS

COLOMBIA

MALI

SENEGAL GAMBIA

O

VENEZUELA

ALGERIA

GH A NA

PANAMA

G U YA N A

United States of America: has an average life expectancy of about 78 years, with women living about 5 years longer than men.

CAPE VERDE

M

HAITI DOMINICAN REPUBLIC ANTIGUA & BARBUDA DOMINICA BELIZE SAINT LUCIA GUATEMALA HONDURAS ST VINCENT & THE GRENADINES ST KITTS & GRENADA NEVIS EL SALVADOR NICARAGUA BARBADOS TRINIDAD & TOBAGO COSTA RICA

R

15–34

C

RI

CUBA

JAMAICA

P E

35–74

C

NI

(occupied by Morocco)

World infant mortality rates (deaths per 1000 live births) 75–124

O

LIBYA

WESTERN SAHARA

THE BAHAMAS

ECUADOR

above 125

R

TUNISIA

CO

THE WORLD

B. SER

PORTUGAL

OCEAN XI

28

ATLANTIC

ME

Infant mortality is still high in many developing nations, especially some African countries, due in part to stretched medical services. As well as lower infant mortality, the world’s developed countries have much lower birth rates—greater female emancipation and easier access to contraceptives are two causative factors.

RW

GERMANY CZECH LIECH. REP.SLO. AUS. HUNG. SWITZ. CRO. SLOVENIA MONACO B.-H. SAN IT MON. AL MARINO MAC. SPAIN ANDORRA Y ALBANIA GREECE MALTA BELG. LUX.

FRANCE

below 50 years

U N I T E D S TAT E S OF AMERICA

UNITED DENMARK LITH. KINGDOM POLAND NETH.

ME

D A

NG

N A

CO

A

N

CA

C

50–60 years

Infant deaths and births

NO

above 80 years

AY

SWED

ICELAND

E

Life expectancy

BO

Greenland (to Denmark)

BENIN

On most health parameters, the countries of the world split into two distinct groups. The first of these encompass the richer, developed, countries, where medical care is good to excellent, infant mortality and the incidence of deadly infectious diseases is low, and life expectancy is high and rising. Some of the biggest health problems in these countries arise from overeating, while the two main causes of death are heart disease and cancer. The second region consists of the poorer developing countries, where medical care is much less adequate, infant mortality is high, many people are undernourished, and infectious diseases such as malaria are major USA (Alaska) killers. Life expectancy in these countries is much lower and in some cases is falling.

1–3

0.5–1

below 0.5

no data

Smoking

Communicable diseases

Cigarette smoking—one of the most harmful activities to health—is common throughout much of the world. Smoking prevalence is generally highest in the richer, developed countries. However, awareness of the health risks has seen cigarette consumption in most of these countries stabilize or begin to fall. By contrast, more and more people, especially males, are taking up the habit in poorer developing countries.

Despite advances in their treatment and prevention, infectious diseases remain a huge problem, especially in developing countries. Three of the most common and deadly are tuberculosis (TB), HIV/AIDS, and malaria. Of these, active TB affects about 25 million people (often as a complication of AIDS), with a particularly high prevalence in parts of Africa. HIV/AIDS has spread since 1981 to become a global pandemic. Malaria affects about 225 million people every year.

Annual cigarette consumption (per person) above 2000 1500–2000

1000–1499 500–999

0–499

no data

NL FI

AND

R U S S I A N

F E D E R A T I O N

EST. LAT.

Estimated tuberculosis cases (per 100,000 per year)

BELARUS UKR AIN E

TA .

SYRIA

I R A N

WEST BANK

GAZA STRIP

H

I R AQ

ISRAEL

AN

LEBANON

G AF

C NE

PA

S AU D I ARABIA

PA

I N D I A

EN

IA AL

O

M

A N DA

MALDIVES

INDIAN

UG

0.1–0.5 below 0.1

1–5 0.5–1

15–34 5–15

no data

29

BRUNEI NAURU

MALAYSIA

OCEAN

UE

I N D O N E S I A

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

EAST TIMOR VANUATU

R GA

SOLOMON ISLANDS

NEW CALEDONIA

MAURITIUS

DA

MO

MARSHALL ISLANDS

SCA

M

M

COMOROS

ZA

I

ZA

M A LAW

BIA

TANZANIA

Malaria cases (per 100,000 per year) above 25,000 10,000–25,000

MA

ZIMBABWE

Adult (15-49) HIV prevalence rate (percent of population)

MICRONESIA

SINGAPORE

SEYCHELLES

Q

PHILIPPINES

PALAU SRI LANKA

S

BI

LAOS

CAMBODIA

KENYA

RWANDA BURUNDI

MYANMAR (BURMA)

THAILAND

DJIBOUTI

ETHIOPIA

Japan: has one of the world’s highest life expectancies, at over 81 years—a fact commonly put down to the typical Japanese low-fat diet of rice, fish, and soy products.

TAIWAN

M NA

M

A

ET

YE

N

VI

ERITREA

I

JAPAN

BHUTAN L

O

S U DA N

H

OCEAN

SOUTH KOREA

BANGLADESH

UAE AN

PT

BAHRAIN QATAR

M

EGY

JORDAN KUWAIT

KI

CYPRUS

NORTH KOREA

TAJ. I ST AN

EN

KYRG.

THE WORLD

KM

IS

N

TUR

TURKEY

EK

AN

UZB

GEORGIA ARMENIA AZERB.

below 10

50–100 10–50

ST

ROMANIA

SOUTH SUDAN

PACIFIC

M O N G O L I A

BULGARIA KOS.

above 300 100–300

K A Z A K H S T A N

MOLDOVA

1000–10,000 100–1000

10–100 below 10

low risk

A U S T R A L I A

SWAZILAND LESOTHO

Swaziland: currently has the lowest life expectancy in the world, at about 40 years, due to widespread HIV/AIDS.

NEW ZEALAND

TOP TEN KILLER DISEASES

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Throughout the world, doctors recognize that the prevention of disease and disease transmission is just as important as the treatment of illness. Preventive medicine has many aspects and includes advice about diet and nutrition; education about the avoidance of health-threatening behaviors such as smoking, excess alcohol consumption, and unprotected sex; and the use of vaccines against diseases such as typhoid, polio and cholera. In developing countries, some of the main priorities in preventive medicine are the provision of pure water supplies and proper sanitation, as well as measures against malaria, including the use of antimalarial drugs and mosquito nets.

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The world’s biggest killer diseases fall into two main groups. One group, which includes HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and childhood diseases such as measles, mainly kills people in poor countries. The other group includes cardiovascular diseases and cancer, the big killers in rich countries.

Water Resources

Rhine

SWITZ.

ATLANTIC

C

C

O

ALGERIA

A

(occupied by Morocco)

TA U

LIBERIA

French Guiana (to France)

N IA ER

IG

I VORY C OAST

N

G U YA N A

SIERRA LEONE

SURINAME

BURKINA FASO

BENIN

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO

VENEZUELA

IG

Niger

GAMBIA GUINEABISSAU GUINEA

BARBADOS

ER

MALI

SENEGAL

G H A NA

CAPE VERDE

ANTIGUA & BARBUDA

COLOMBIA

O

WESTERN SAHARA

ST KITTS & NEVIS

Orinoco

R

M

O

OCEAN

HAITI

PANAMA

SPAIN

PORTUGAL

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

COSTA RICA

OCEAN

FRANCE

RI

JAMAICA

NETH. BELG. LUX.

NI

CUBA

CO

TOGO EQUATORIAL GUINEA

ECUADOR

SAO TOME & PRINCIPE

Amazon

Availability of fresh water

Z

BOLIVIA R PA

Paraná

AG UA Y

N A T I E N A R G L I

ATLANTIC URUGUAY

OCEAN

E

Agriculture accounts for 70 percent of water consumption worldwide. Industry and domestic use each account for 15 percent. Excessive withdrawal of water affects the health of rivers and the needs of people. China’s Yellow River now fails to reach the sea for most of the year.

L

H

over 50% of water resource originating from outside country

I

São Francisco

C

major drainage basin

Water withdrawal

A

U

less than 1300 (water scarcity) 1300–2221 (water stress) 2222–3921 (insufficient water) 3922–12,999 (relatively sufficient) 13,000 or more (plentiful supplies)

30

R

R

total renewable (cubic yards/capita/per year)

Amid the desert of Wadi Rum, Jordan, crops grow on circular patches of land irrigated with water from an underground aquifer.

B

P E

THE WORLD

UNITED KINGDOM IRELAND

BAHAMAS

BELIZE GUATEMALA HONDURAS EL SALVADOR NICARAGUA

PACIFIC

ICELAND

A

(to US)

Greenland (to Denmark)

M

MEXI

Water covers 71 percent of Earth’s surface, but only 2.5 percent of this is fresh water, and two thirds of that is locked up in glaciers and polar ice sheets. Patterns of human settlement have developed around fresh USA (Alaska) water availability, but increasing numbers of people are now Yukon vulnerable to chronic shortage or interruptions in supply. Mackenzie Worldwide, fresh water consumption multiplied more C A N A D A than sixfold during the 20th century as populations increased and agriculture became more St. Lawrence dependent on irrigation, much of it hugely U N I T E D S TAT E S wasteful because of evaporation and OF AMERICA Mississippi/ run-off. Industrial water demand also Colorado Missouri rose, as did use in the home, for washing, flushing, cooking, Rio Grande and gardening. THE Hawaii

E R N S O U T H

O C E A N

Percentage of freshwater withdrawal by agriculture 79–100

66–79

47–66

31–47

16–31

0–16

Percentage of freshwater withdrawal by industry 79–100

66–79

47–66

31–47

16–31

0–16

Percentage of freshwater withdrawal by domestic use 60–81

45–60

30–45

15–30

0–15

no data

Drought The disruption of normal rainfall patterns can cause drought problems even in temperate zones, with consequences ranging from domestic water usage restrictions to low crop yields to forest fires. In regions of the developing world where monsoon rains fail, or water is perennially scarce, drought is a life or death issue. Parts of central and east Africa, for instance, have suffered severe and recurring droughts in recent decades, with disastrous results including destruction of livestock, desertification, famine, and mass migration.

In a severe drought, river beds may dry up (above left), leaving stranded fish to die, as here in Florida. A Chinese farmer waters dry fields (above) in China’s southern province of Guangdong. This picture was taken in May 2002, but the image is timeless; it could be August 2006 in Sichuan province, to the northwest of here—or almost any year in water-stressed northern China.

Water stress

AND

NO SWED E

Lena

NL FI

AY RW N

R U S S I A N

F E D E R A T I O N

Ob’

EST. LAT. LITH.

DEN.

A region is under “water stress” when the rate of water withdrawal from its rivers and aquifers exceeds their natural replenishment, so that people living there are subject to frequent shortages. Currently 1.7 billion people live in “highly stressed” river basins worldwide. This is a major potential cause of conflict, particularly when several countries share one river; the Euphrates, running through Turkey, Syria, and Iraq, or the rivers of southern China running south into Korea, are just two examples.

Yenisey

Volga

Amur

BELARUS POLAND UKR AI NE

GERMANY

Indus

AN

I R A N

Yellow River

TAJ.

.

AF

KUWAIT

PT

BAHRAIN QATAR

C

ST

WEST BANK JORDAN

NE

PA BHUTAN L

I N D I A

TAIWAN MYANMAR LAOS (BURMA)

Mekong

EN

THAILAND

PACIFIC PHILIPPINES

CAMBODIA

IA AL

SRI LANKA

O

A N DA

M

MALDIVES

S

RWANDA

SEYCHELLES

TANZANIA

INDIAN

(Cabinda)

10–20

below 10

MALAYSIA

I N D O N E S I A PAPUA NEW GUINEA

R

EAST TIMOR

SCA GA DA

ZA

Freshwater stress in 2025 Water withdrawal (% of total available)

MAURITIUS

Réunion

BIA

MA

above 40

(to France)

20–40

10–20

below 10

31

A U S T R A L I A

SWAZILAND LESOTHO

SOUTH A F R IC A

Murray/ Darling

NEW ZEALAND

WATER AVAILABILITY

y nc Plentiful 16.3%

Water stress 24.5%

Relatively sufficient 24.5%

ffi

in

Insufficient 16.7%

cie

n cy

re l a t i

ve

suf

fic

ie

(by percentage of world’s population)

Water scarcity 7.8%

MI

Orange

MO

NA

ZIMBABWE BOTSWANA

E

MB

Zambezi

U

ZAMBIA

OCEAN

COMOROS

IQ

MALAWI

A NG OL A

20–40

SINGAPORE

KENYA

Congo BURUNDI

ANGOLA

above 40

PALAU

BRUNEI

su

O

DEM. R E P. CONGO

UG

RO O N ME

CA NG

ETHIOPIA

Freshwater stress in 1995 Water withdrawal (% of total available)

Clean drinking water Sub-Saharan Africa is among the most deprived regions for lack of access to safe drinking water. Worldwide, this terrible health hazard affects over a billion people—at least 15 percent of the population. One of the agreed United Nations “millennium goals” for international development is to halve this proportion by 2015, by tackling chemical pollution from agriculture and industry, and by introducing essential purification facilities and local supply systems. In the industrialized world, people have come to expect clean drinking water on tap, even if they face rising prices for its treatment and supply.

THE WORLD

GABON

CO

SOUTH SUDAN

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

OCEAN

DJIBOUTI

Nile

JAPAN

Yangtze

M NA

Y

SOUTH KOREA

A

ET

CHAD

EM

N

VI

ERITREA

I

BANGLADESH

O

S U DA N

H

Ganges/ Brahmaputra

UAE

S AU D I ARABIA

NORTH KOREA

KYRG.

TA

I ST AN

IS

EN

AN

Tigris/

EGY

LIBYA

KM

SYRIA Euphrates I R AQ

CYPRUS LEBANON ISRAEL GAZA STRIP

MALTA

EK

GH

TUNISIA

ALBANIA GREECE

TUR

N

GEORGIA ARMENIA AZERB. TURKEY

KI

UZB

Danube

KOS. BULGARIA

L Y MON. MAC.

PA

A

M O N G O L I A

AN

T

K A Z A K H S T A N

MOLDOVA ROMANIA

M

. RB SE

CZECH REP. AUS. SLO. SLOV. HUNG. CRO. B.-H. I

Mozambican children (above) fetch precious water in metal pans. Gujarati villagers gather to draw water from a huge well (above left) in Natwarghad, western India. Many wells and village ponds ran dry in the severe drought of 2003, leaving local people to wait for irregular supplies brought in by state-run tankers.

Access to safe drinking water source (percentage of population) 91%–100% 76%–90% 50%-75%

below 50% no data

Economic Systems The world economy is now effectively a single global system based on “free market” capitalist principles. Few countries still cling, like North Korea, to the “command economy” formula developed in the former communist bloc, where centralized state plans set targets for investment and production. In the West, state ownership of companies has greatly diminished thanks to the wave of privatization in the last 25 years. Major companies move capital and raw materials around the globe to take advantage of different labor costs and skills. The World Trade Organization (WTO) promotes free trade, but many countries still use subsidies, and protect their markets with import tariffs or quotas, to favor their own producers.

H UT ICA SO ER M A

Balance of trade

THE WORLD

Few countries earn from their exports exactly as much as they spend on imports. If the imbalance is persistently negative, it creates a potentially serious problem of indebtedness. The European Union’s (EU) external trade is broadly in balance, but the US balance of trade has been in deficit since the 1970s, partly because it imports so many consumer goods. This deficit now stands at around US$ 500 billion a year.

New York

Enormous volumes of trade pass through the world’s stock markets making them key indicators of the strength of the global economy.

Balance of trade (million US$)

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Market sector Oil and gas producers Banks General Industrials

600,000

Pharmaceuticals Computer software

500,000

General Electric

Johnson & Johnson

Wells Fargo

ICBC

Petro China

Google

100,000

Exxon Mobil

200,000

Microsoft

300,000

Berkshire Hathaway

400,000

Apple Inc.

Market value (US$ million)

(2015)

PE

700,000

CA RI AF

TOP TEN GLOBAL COMPANIES

EURO

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Yatsuga-take 2899m

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Kennedy Mawla ik Peak 2704m Kalewa

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CHIN STATE

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China)

ARUNĀCHAL Along (Much of Ar PRADESH unāchal Pra

is claimed by

Mainling

Kohīma i Hkamti illong Lumding ro Nongstoin 3826m H e Durgapurills nge H i l g i l s s Jow ā ai h Cherrap Ra n K a unji N itabari R Sheral pur Tamanthi Bogra Ja ai l MANIPUR Mogaung malpur Sunamganj Chhatak B ar Muktagach Sy lhet Ukhrul a M Silchar

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Urbinasopon Warmandi Koor Sausapor Pulau Bepondi Pulau Gunung Kwoka Sau Korem er i p Supiori m 2452m a Tanjung Saweba Napido Sansundi Selat D Makbon Pegunungan Tamrau an d Sorong n u Manokwari Pulau Kam Todlo Bosnabraidi i Asbakin a Mubrani g Manim Sowek Megamo un Andoi Kepulauan Sarwon Wardo Yeflio at Namber Boo Maboi Pulau Saba W Pulau Biak Kuwawin oup Hebera Kepulauan Rawas oin Mandori Salawati Gr Samberi Biak Pulau u Pandaidori Tanjung S Gunung Mebo i e l at Gasim Saileen Kepulauan ar ra Wanau w Kofiau 2940m A Oransbari r u r i Selat Yapen Aua Island a D’Urville Teba Kumamba Seget Ransiki Teminabuan f or Num Pom Apauwar Mambetaloi Timo i Selat MiosWool Konda Mumi Yauke T Matewar Rori P Wuvulu Island Atkri i u Baru Yobi l a u Ya p e n Snabai Pulau Rumberpon Ansas Pulau Misool Teluk Waromge Sarmi Mogoi nga Bonoi Tip Wageseri Maffin Sisember Kepulauan Kepulauan Serui Barma Danau Kepulauan Kepulauan Dombo Pamdai Inanwatan Kuran Podena Pulau Maswaar Kapocol Rombebai Kedir Sarmi Tomu Valse Pisang Amboi Bintuni Rasawi Yomber Ansudu a Serami Demta Waren iM Paradoi rso Yende Te luk Bint uni P Kepulauan egunu uda Pulau Roon Teluk nga Kaptiau ai n Van Re e s ambe Yos S Te l u k B e r a u Sonar a k Segaf Aredo Sobiei g u w l n n e Kepulauan Wutung Ga Cenderawasih Asori Babo nu Koagas Andamata Sa Entrop T Nirabotong utt g u Gunung Dom Vanimo Pisang uk Danau Kepulauan Pami ie Bom Pe Rumbati Pegu Tel Wahai 1430m Pue bera TiwarraMamasiware nun Moor Pua Sentani Kobi Piar P R r e e i a s g f e rves Wosimi Rouf an Hoti e Napan-Yaur Maniwori F Semenanjung Se ram Fakfak Sissano Bawe Walis Schouten Is Maki Napanwainami Su To Bolifar lands Bomberai (Ceram nga g Aitape rri Kwatisore Island Weri Krau Jazirah i Ta cell Van Daalen Nabire ) ong Imonda Kairiru Island S i r i Tarak Yaputih Bemu Bomberai Hamuku i a Mo u n t Du tatu Maimawa Waru Pisapa ung Selassi S s a n i Pulau Karas n Mas Muschu Island Haya Naver Wanggar Lumi Ibonma Wunen Mas r iwang Dreikikir Wandai Pau Senggi Ilugwa wasi bako Sopinusa Maprik Wewak Lobo Warika Nuku Gariau Amanab Teluk Se PeguObome Kilwo Banggelapa ungan Kaup n P u e g Waipa w Pulau Kerai Undur Ku nung KobowreDanau Enarotali Pegunu Ilaga Tiom Green River Jantan ma an Amisibil Wosi Gorong ngan Woogi Paniai wa Puncak Jaya S u Pulau Manawoka d k irman a Ilur Pegunungan Sepi Ambunti Nusawulan Seinma au 5040m Nama Kepulauan Angoram Tiy Pegun May River Chambri Modowi Sepik o Manggawitu y ungan Soba Lake Gorong Ma Umari Tembagapura Kepulauan Pulau Adi J Yapa Kopra a y a wijaya Pulau Kasiui Yaminbot Banda Aiduna Wanapiri Uta Kepulauan Gulir Sabang Timika Kokenau Watubela Oksibil Capella Pulau Manuk 3932m Mount Aiyang Amamapare Om 3325m u Kawentinkim a a l Lagaip Telefomin u ng u Simbai S P i Wair a Ok Tedi g Remoon Lake n Warilau u S Tabubil Pulau Warilau Porgera Copiago Pulau Kur Pulau Lutur WabagKompiam Baiyer M Har Teluk Flamingo Agats ull River Gumzai Laiagam Kaima er HELA Pulau Kepulauan Watnil Ra Komfane Pulau Ningerum Atsy Wapenamanda nge Koroba Wamar Pulau Pulau Jursian Tayandu Pulau K a i m Tari Kai Besar a Mount Biwarlaut Dobo Wokam Namalau Kanggup Kandep Hagen Sung tu Kai Kecil Weduar Ke Tanjung Margarima Mount Wandip Pulau Kepulauan Tanjung Weduar Ngoni Nipa Mendi Giluwe 280 Komo Kepulauan Kobroor Aru Kiunga 4368m Taberfane Poroma Nomad Ialibu a Kai SOUTHERN Kagua Su mu o Pulau T HIGHLANDS Od Mayu Pulau Workai Trangan am Mount Bosavi Erave a Lake Murray Pulau Molu mu em Baimun 2397m Yar n Ai Kik Tusirah Tanjung De Jongs Oreyabo Keisak Pulau Fordate rebi` ori Tanjung Ngabordamlu Lake Murray Tu Abemaree Mapi Heitske Larat Bado ram Kepulauan Jin d n a a Pulau Yamdena l Arak Muting Pulau Larat ck Yodom Yomuka Mul Pulau Wuliaru Bupul Wa Kikori Kofarau wo Kaba i Koreare Gam Manuwui Pulau Yos Morigio a Amdassa Pembre Emeti Yatoke Island i Aramia Sudarso Saumlaki Pulau Babar Sunga mu Kurik Amplawas Fly Solaka Balimo Wamal Alotip M i Eliase ga Kladar Wabuda Mombum Komoran Kepulauan Sun Tanjung Pulau Selaru Island Babar Pulau Komoran Tanjung Vals Wan Merauke Aro Usu Purutu Island Weam a ul Sakiramke p Kiwai Island e Morehead K Kondomirat Oriomo Parama Island Sibidiri Daru

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Scale 1:7,000,000

Gaoxiong

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Hengchun

(Special Administrative Region)

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Shangchuan Dao

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Batan Islands

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San Fernando Li n Bauang ga ye Bolinao n G u

La Trinidad

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San Ildefonso Peninsula

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Palayan City

Tarlac

Masinloc Iba

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Lincoln Island

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Mount Cagua 1133m

ie

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Escarpada Point Aparri

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an Channel

Claveria

Cabanatuan Angeles

High Peak 2037m Mount Pinatubo 1485m

San Fernando

Malolos Polillo Islands Caloocan Quezon City Pasig Ninoy Aquino Lamon Bay Imus Laguna Corregidor Island Labo de Bay Tagaytay

5

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Balanga

San Pablo Lucena Batangas

a

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P

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Oroquieta de Oro Iligan Bay Iligan

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Sultan Kudarat Cotabato

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Balabac Island

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Mount Malindang 2425m

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Baybay Leyte Danao Sogod Camotes Sea

Dumaguete Siquijor Island o Siaton

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Toledo

S

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Sandy Cay

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SPRATLY ISLANDS

Burias Island

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2488m

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Marinduque Pinamalayan

Mindoro Sablayan Mount Baco

Pili San Iriga Tabaco Francisco Mayon Volcano San Ligao 2422m Pascual Legazpi City

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Catanduanes Island Virac

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Lubang Island

Northeast Cay Southwest Cay

263

MANILA

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"&(!&')[i

ASIA – Cities A

B

C

D

Baghdad

F

G

Bangkok Tig ri

1

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Bangkhen

Nonthaburi

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Ch

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Quds

Shaala

ra

Tunis

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Rusāfa Shaikh Aomar

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Chitralanda Palace

Bangkok Noi

National Museum Wat Phra Kaeo & Grand Palace

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Tishrīyaa Karrādah

Al-Rasheed Airport

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ay

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Phra Pradaeng

Tig r i s

Dōra

0

5 Km

Ratburana 0

4 Km 4 Miles

Beijing

Delhi Sadar Bazar

Summer Palace

Jiuxianqiao Olympic Park

Matihutong

Beijing

Xizhimen

Chaoyangmen

Bei Hai

Chongwen

Ce nt ral Ridge Rese r ved Forest

Temple of Heaven

Guangminglou

Stadium

You’Anmen

Fengtai

Shabanzhuang

Puhuangyu Li

na

ng s

7

0

0

3 Km

Dhaka Turag

Cantonment

Golabari

Mirpur Nibria

Mohammadpur

National Assembly Hall

Hazaribag

Ramna

Bu r ig

Garden Reach

Bangladesh National Museum

ang a

Keraniganj

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Shyampur r ig

an

D h al

e sh

wa

0

0

ri 3 Miles

0

A

B

a un

Derya-ye Chamcheh

Mahtab Gala

0

D

Idqah Mosque

E

Tapa-iMaranjan

Karta-e-Nao

Pul-e Kheshti Mosque

Koli Hashma Tkhan

Kohi Bini Hisar

t

Ayyub Khan Maina

N

Bakhtyara 0

2 Miles

C

Prime Minister’s Office King’s Palace

Qala-i-Sayedah ‘Ala’ Od Din-e Bala

Garia

2 Km

0

Mas

Karta-i-Seh Taliganja

Chakdaha 3 Km

Kote-Sangi

Kasba

South Suburb

Grandaria

Macroriyan

(Kabol)

Karta-i-Dehnaw

(Calcutta)

g

K

Kabul

Dehburi

Dhapa

Bartala

a

10

Karta Parwan

Kolkata

Alipur Batanagar

Shahr-i-Nau

Dehmazang

Indian Museum

Birla Planetarium St Paul’s Khidirpur Cathedral National Library

Dhanmandi Shabujbag Lalbag Supreme Court Kamrangirchar Madaripur Kotwali Demra Keraniganj Sutrapur

Kolola Pushta Fort

Kohi Ali Abad

Kankurgacchi

Botanical Gardens H ugli

Udkhel

Qala-i-Dasht Tapa-i-Kulola Shasdarak Pushta Sherpur

University

Raj Bhawan

Kabul International Airport

Sra Mena

Krishnapur

Podara Khilgaon

Dum Dum

Chitpur

Haora

Gulshan

Army Museum

Tapa-i-Culo Pushta

li

Pallabi

Tejgaon

Lajpat Nagar

Proja-i-Wazir Abad

Hug

Belur

Dhaka

Qala-i-Malik Ashur Garui

Zia International Airport

Lake

Nizamuddin Lodi Colony

1 Miles

Panihati

8

Air Force Museum

Humayun’s Tomb

Lodhi Gardens

Kabul Uttarpara

Kafrul Banani

Delhi Zoo

Safdar Jang’s Tomb Safdarjung Airport

Kolkata Ultra Model Town

9

Chanakyapuri

1 Km

0

3 Miles

0

Old Fort

Khan Market

Nehru Park

Tiejiangyin

National Stadium

National Museum

Dhaula Kuan

hu i H u

Dahongmen

New Delhi

Dajiaoting

Longtan Hu

Taoranting Hu

India Gate

ul

Guang’anmen

President’s Residence

ab

Shawocun 6

Pu sa Forest

Tian’anmen Square

T h e

Xuanwu

Fuxinglu

National Zoo

Natural History Museum

i d

Chaoyang

Forbidden City

Temple of Moon

Military Museum

Connaught Place

g

Balizhaung Sanlihe

Rajendra Nagar New

Dongheng

R

Beijing Exhibition Centre

Temple of Earth

e

e an H

Weigongcum

Pahar Ganj

Dongzhimen

Deshengmen

264

Delhi

Rajendra Nagar Old

Beijiaoshichang

Red Fort

Old Delhi

East Patel Nagar

Ya m

Haiden

h Nan

ASIA

ing Hu Kunm

5

Samut Prakan

5 Miles

0

0

4

Bang Kapi

Sathorn

Jizīra

Amal Qadisiya

Bangkok (Krung Thep)

Bang Kholaem

Chom Thong

New Baghdād

University

Huay Khwang

Jim Thomson’s House

Wat Arun

Diyāl

Muthana

Riyad

Hamrā Firdows Baghdad Intl. Airport

Chatuchak

Phaya Thai

Dusit

Khansā’

h

Al-Shaab Stadium Liberation Monument

Aalām Khudrā

ya

Baghdād

Baghdadi Museum

Iraqi National Museum

3

Bangsu

Sadr City Al’Azamiyah

2

ya

2 Km 2 Miles

F

G

H

I

J

K

Hong Kong

L

N

Islamabad Kowloon City

Mong Kok

Kowloon

Shah Faisal Mosque

Hung Hom

Fatima Jinnah Park

Kowloon B ay

Hong Kong Coliseum

Sheung Wan Mid Levels Government

Wan Chai Happy Valley Hong Kong Island

Margalea Railway Station

Tai Tam

Tiger Balm Garden 0

Zone 4

Islamabad International Airport

1 Miles

Zone 5

0

ib Al

H

al



Zeytinburnu

bu

Topkapi

Üsküdar

Ayasofya Blue Mosque

Selimiye Kislasi

Teluk Jakarta

Bakirköy Soekarno-Hatta International Airport

Penjaringan

5 Miles

Jakarta

Kembangan

Sentul

Kepong

National Art Gallery

National Monument

Damansara Lake Gardens

Bangsar

Petronas Towers

Golden Triangle

Kuala Lumpur

Matraman Jatinegara Manggarai

Taman Meur

Pulo Gadung 6

Jakarta Halim Perdanakusuma Airport

Kramat Jati

Pasar Munggu

Central Market

National Mosque

University Rawamangum

Menteng

Kebayoran Baru Cilandak

265

Cempaka Putih

Kebayoran Baru

Ampang

5

Koja

National Monument

Pancoran

Ulu Kelang

Baru

Tunku

Sunter

Welcome Monument Parliament House

Kebayoran Lama

Tanjung Priok

Merdeka Palace

Kebon Jeruk

Kuala Lumpur

Sungai Buloh

Jakarta Museum

Taman Sari

Maltepe

Lake Titiwangsa

Ancol

Pademangan

Kalideres

Mar mara Sea

5 Km

ASIA

Kapati Çarsi

Java S ea

Is t

Galata Kulesi

Fatih

Güngören Bahçelievler

4

g

Istanbul

¸Sisli ¸ Beyoglu

Ci l i w un

Eyüp

an

Esenler

azi

(Bo

Jakarta

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Kagithane Besiktas

Gaziosmanpasa

Küçükçekmece

3 Miles

s)

ru

Beykoz

sp o

Hurriyet Abidesi

Bagcilar

3 Km

0

ey

Ciracas 7

Pondok Cabe Airport

Jagakarsa

0

National Museum

5 Km 5 Miles

0

Taman Mayang

Salak Selatan

Petaling Jaya

0

Pengkalan Udara Airport

Sungai Besi

0

Manila

1 Km 1 Miles

Masambong

Maypajo

Ulan Bator

San Francisco de Monta

Cubao Sampaloc Gesper Temple Gandan Monastery

Government Palace

Ulan Bator (Ulaanbaatar)

Ulaanbaatar Museum

Manila

University of Santo Thomas

Intramuros Rizal Park National Library

Manila Bay

Selbe

1 Km

0 0

1 Miles

J

K

Pa sig

Malacañang Park

Pandacan

L

Metropolitan Museum

Ortigas

Mandaluyong

Santa Ana

Guadalupe

10 Pasi g

Malate 2 Miles

San Juan del Monte

Paco

Ermita

2 Km

u an nJ

Malacañang Palace

Fort Santiago

Selbe

Sampaloc

Binondo Quiapo San San Miguel Nicholas

Sa

National Amusement Park

9

Cathedral

I

La Loma

Tondo

Winter Palace Museum of Bogd-Khan

H

Quezon City

New Manila

South China Sea

Stadium

0

8

Quezon Memorial

Santa Mesa Heights

Caloocan

0

3

N

Istanbul

0

2

g

1 Km

Rawalpindi

0

Rawal Town

Tai Hang

0

Atatürk Intl. Airport

Rawal Lake

Shakar Parian National Park

Tun Lo Wan

Hong Kong

House

Victoria Peak 554m

North Point

ria Harbour

Convention Centre

University

an

Victo

Conference Centre

Ku r

Sai Ying Pun Kennedy Town

Zone 1

Islamabad

Zone 2

Space Museum & Planetarium

1 Parliament Building Supreme Court

Islamabad Sports Complex

Tsim Sha Tsui Star Ferry

Zoo Islamabad Museum

Ho Man Tin

Royal Observatory

University of Hong Kong

M

Makati

Rizal Stadium

M

N

AUSTRALASIA & OCEANIA C

D

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F

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368m

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Highest Points: Mount Wilhelm, Papua New Guinea 14,793 ft (4509 m) Mount Giluwe, Papua New Guinea 14,331 ft (4368 m) Mount Herbert, Papua New Guinea 13,999 ft (4267 m) Mount Bangeta, Papua New Guinea 13,520 ft (4121 m) Mount Victoria, Papua New Guinea 13,360 ft (4072 m)

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Largest Islands: New Guinea, 312,000 sq miles (808,000 sq km) South Island, New Zealand 56,308 sq miles (145,836 sq km) North Island, New Zealand 43,082 sq miles (111,583 sq km) Tasmania, Australia 24,911 sq miles (64,519 sq km) New Britain, Papua New Guinea 13,570 sq miles (35,145 sq km)

Fortescue n rto bu Ash

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Longest Rivers: Murray-Darling, Australia 2330 miles (3750 km) Cooper Creek, Australia 880 miles (1420 km) Warburton-Georgina, Australia 870 miles (1400 km) Sepik, Indonesia/Papua New Guinea 700 miles (1126 km) Fly, Indonesia/Papua New Guinea 652 miles (1050 km)

D

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Largest Lakes: Lake Eyre, Australia 3430 sq miles (8884 sq km) Lake Torrens, Australia 2200 sq miles (5698 sq km) Lake Gairdner, Australia 1679 sq miles (4349 sq km) Lake Mackay, Australia 1349 sq miles (3494 sq km) Lake Argyle, Australia 800 sq miles (2072 sq km)

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Most Northerly Point: Eastern Island, Midway Islands 28˚ 15‘ N S Most Southerly Point: Macquarie Island, Australia 54˚ 30‘ S E Most Easterly Point: Clipperton Island, 109˚ 12‘ W W Most Westerly Point: Cape Inscription, Australia 112˚ 57‘ E N

Halma hera

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AUSTRALASIA & OCEANIA

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Australasia and Oceania with a total land area of

Phil

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Lowest Point: Lake Eyre, Australia -53 ft (-16 m) below sea level

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Highest recorded temperature: Bourke, Australia 128°F (53°C)

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Wettest Place: Bellenden Ker, Australia 443 in (11,251 mm)

Dirk Hartog Island, Australia

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Lowest recorded temperature: Canberra, Australia -8°F (-22°C)

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AUSTRALASIA and OCEANIA – Political Political Vast expanses of ocean separate this geographically fragmented realm, characterized more by each country’s isolation than by any political unity. Australia’s and New Zealand’s traditional ties with the United Kingdom, as members of the Commonwealth, are now being called into question as Australasian and Oceanian nations are increasingly looking to forge new relationships with neighboring Asian countries like Japan. External influences have featured strongly in the politics of the Pacific Islands; the various territories of Micronesia were largely under US control until the late 1980s, and France, New Zealand, the USA and the UK still have territories under colonial rule in Polynesia. Nuclear weapons-testing by Western superpowers was widespread during the Cold War period, but has now been discontinued.

Population

Borders

above 5 million

full international border

1 million to 5 million 500,000 to 1 million

indication of maritime country extent

100,000 to 500,000

indication of maritime dependent territory extent

50,000 to 100,000

state border

10,000 to 50,000

Communications

below 10,000

major roads

Country capital

major railroads

State capital

Scale 1:32,000,000 (projection: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area) @b

a Islands M

M

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c

r

n

Ra

l

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S I A

PA L AU

a

n

New Guinea Mount Hagen

Ubai

Island

S olomon S ea Tapini

Lae

New Georgia Islands

PORT MORESBY

Hughenden

re

a

QUEENSLAND

D

Barcaldine

Alice Springs

Miles

Charleville

Niue (to NZ)

NUKU'ALOFA

A

C

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F

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on

g Bourke

Kermadec Islands (to NZ)

Grafton Lord Howe Island (to Australia)

Da

G Ranrey ge

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B ar w

Wilcannia

NEW Dubbo Newcastle SOUTH WALES Sydney

Esperance

Melbourne Geelong t

Bass

Str

Tasmania

ai

North Island

Whangarei

Auckland Hamilton

Ta s m a n Sea

Launceston

New Plymouth Co

South Island

n

TASMA NIA

Al

ps

Strait

Horsham Island Ballarat Mount Gambier

Albany

TONGA

Lau Group

F I J I

ok

Perth

Tanna Lo ya uté

Labasa

Norfolk Island (to Australia)

Great Victoria Lake Everard Wollongong Campbelltown Port Augusta Desert Lake Gairdner CANBERRA n Mount Magnet ur ray i a M Ceduna Whyalla AUSTRALIAN Wagga Wagga Pl CAPITAL TERRITORY or Kalgoorlie ar b l Great Adelaide l Bendigo u N VIC TOR IA Au st ralian Kangaroo Big ht

Î les

PAGO PAGO

SUVA

Viti Levu

Erromango

r

Geraldton

Lake Torrens

F l in d e r s R a n

Carnavon

SOUTH AUSTR ALIA

Brisbane

nge Ra

Lake Eyre North

W E S T E R N AU S T R A L I A

PORT-VILA

P

Toowoomba

Cunnamulla

Gibs on D es e r t

Lautoka

Rockhampton

i

Vanua Levu

NOUMÉA

Mackay

t

A U S T R A L I A Hamersley Rang e

f

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Great S andy D es e r t

VANUATU

New Caledonia

ÁPIA

(to France)

Espiritu Santo Malekula

in

Mount Isa Tanami Desert T E R R I T O RY

(to US) Wallis and Futuna SAMOA

Hobart

l

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Rotorua Hastings Palmerston North WELLINGTON Chatham Islands

NEW (to NZ) ZEALAND

Christchurch

Dunedin

So

N A

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N O RT H E R N

American Samoa

id

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(to NZ)

Santa Cruz Islands

(to France) R

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Tokelau

v

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Tennant Creek

Broome

Guadalcanal

(to Australia)

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Normanton

Kimberley Plateau Derby

Port Hedland

Cairns

A

Fongafale

SOLOMON ISLANDS

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B

Wyndham

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HONIARA

Coral Sea Islands

B

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Coral S ea

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Cape York Peninsula

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Joseph Bonaparte Gulf

Timor Sea

Gulf of Carpentaria

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Banks Islands

G

Arnhem Land

Darwin

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Phoenix Islands

he

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Britain

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New Ireland

Bi smarck New S ea

Wewak

Baker & Howland Islands (to US)

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R O N

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Bikini Atoll

PALIKIR

Pohnpei

P A C I F O C I E C A N

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Wake Island (to US)

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Stewart Island

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Auckland Islands (to NZ)

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Language groups O RR

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Population

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Density of settlement in the region is generally low. Australia is one of the least densely populated countries on Earth with over 80% of its population living within 25 miles (40 km) of the coast – mostly in the southeast of the country. New Zealand, and the island groups of Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia, are much more densely populated, although many of the smaller islands remain uninhabited.

G

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Kingman Reef (to US)

FR

N

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MA

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AN

A

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Palmyra Atoll (to US) Teraina Tabuarean

K I R I BAT I L

Kiritimati

i n

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Jarvis Island (to US)

Starbuck Island

No r t h e r n C o o k I s l a n d s

Penrhyn

Equator

269

s n d l a I s

Malden Island

Marquesas Islands

Manihiki Millennium Island

Population density (people per sq mile)

Flint Island

C o ok Islands

below 10 10-62 63-130 131-259

(to NZ)

Tu a

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Tropic o f Capri corn

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260-519 520-780 above 780

Standard of living

s

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S o ut h

AUSTRALASIA & OCEANIA

G

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English is spoken throughout Australia and New Zealand. In Australia, English has been superimposed on a mosaic of Aboriginal languages. In New Zealand, the indigenous language, Maori, is the official language besides English. In Papua New Guinea, Melanesian Pidgin has become a lingua franca alongside several hundred indigenous languages. Across the region, the indigenous languages can be grouped into (1) the Aboriginal languages of Australia, (2) the Papuan languages spoken mostly inland in Papua New Guinea, and (3) the widely dispersed Austronesian, which includes coastal languages of Papua New Guinea, New Zealand Maori, and languages of Oceania.

H

S

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Languages

Îles Gambier

Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie & Oeno Islands (to UK) Pitcairn Island

In marked contrast to its neighbor, Australia, with one of the world’s highest life expectancies and standards of living, Papua New Guinea is one of the world’s least developed countries. In addition, high population growth and urbanization rates throughout the Pacific islands contribute to overcrowding. The Aboriginal and Maori people of Australia and New Zealand have been isolated for many years. Recently, their traditional land ownership rights have begun to be legally recognized in an effort to ease their social and economic isolation, and to improve living standards.

Transportation While sea travel remains of paramount importance throughout the continent, well-developed regional and international air travel has reduced the region’s global isolation. Internal air travel is particularly important in Australia, where distances are great and road systems are poorly developed or in some areas nonexistent. Australia’s rail system, still operating on three different guages, a legacy of its piecemeal development, is being upgraded, particularly in the north-south links.

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Moluccas

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Yap

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Nor the r n Mar i ana Island s

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Kosrae

n

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Ralik Chain

Marshall Island s

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Wake Island

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Pohnpei

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New Guin ea

We s t Caroline Basin

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Saipan

Mar iana Island s

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ac

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Vityaz Seamount

Johnston Atoll

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Clarion Fracture Zone

O C E A N

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Baker & Howland Islands

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Bounty Islands

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AUSTRALASIA & OCEANIA

7

6

5

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2

1

AUSTRALASIA & OCEANIA – Physical

Average Rainfall

Climate

Rainfall

Surrounded by water, the climate of most areas is profoundly affected by the moderating effects of the oceans. Australia, however, is the exception. Its dry continental interior remains isolated from the ocean; temperatures soar during the day, and droughts are common. The coastal regions, where most people live, are cooler and wetter. The numerous islands scattered across the Pacific are generally hot and humid, subject to the different air circulation patterns and ocean currents that affect the area, Sou including the El Niño ocean current the ast Mo nso anomaly, which produces on extreme aridity. Madang

Tropic of Cancer

0–1 in (0–25 mm) 1–2 in (25–50 mm) 2–4 in (50–100 mm) 4–8 in (100–200 mm) 8–12 in (200–300 mm) 12–16 in (300–400 mm) 16–20 in (400–500 mm) more than 20 in (500 mm)

Equator Tropic of Capricorn 60°S January rainfall

July rainfall

Average Temperature Temperature

Tropic of Cancer

below -22°F (-30°C) -22 to -4°F (-30 to -20°C) -4 to 14°F (-20 to -10°C) 14 to 32°F (-10 to 0°C) 32 to 50°F (0 to 10°C) 50 to 68°F (10 to 20°C) 68 to 86°F (20 to 30°C) above 86°F (30°C)

Equator Sou th E

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Tropic of Capricorn

Tra des

Suva

60°S

Queensland

Townsville

Alice Springs

January temperature

Jan Brisbane ua ry W inds

Auckland

Melbourne

Perth

The prospect of rising sea levels poses a threat to many low-lying islands in the Pacific. Nuclear weapons-testing, once common throughout the region, was finally discontinued in 1996. Australia’s ecological balance has been irreversibly altered by the introduction of alien species. Although it has the world’s largest underground water reserve, the Great Artesian Basin, the availability of fresh water in Australia remains critical. Periodic droughts combined with over-grazing lead to desertification and increase the risk of devastating bush PA CI fires, and occasional FI C flash floods.

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Much of the region’s industry is resource-based: sheep farming for wool and meat in Australia and New Zealand; mining in Australia and Papua New Guinea and fishing throughout the Pacific islands. Manufacturing is mainly limited to the large coastal cities in Australia and New Zealand, like Sydney, Adelaide, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Auckland, although small-scale enterprises operate in the Pacific islands, concentrating on processing of fish and foods. Tourism continues to provide revenue to the area—in Fiji it accounts for 15 percent of GNP.

C

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N PACIFIC TEST SITES Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands Johnston Atoll Mururoa Atoll, French Polynesia Fangatau Atoll, French Polynesia Christmas Island, Kiribati

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271

AUSTRALASIA & OCEANIA

1

MELVILLE ISLAND, NORTHERN TERRITORY, AUSTRALIA Lying off Australia’s north coast, the island is sparsely populated consisting of sandy soils and mangrove swamps.

2

ANATAHAN, NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS The volcano on Anatahan is one of 12 in the Mariana Islands and erupted on a large scale in April 2005.

3

FLY RIVER, PAPUA NEW GUINEA Flowing down from New Guinea’s Central Range, the river carries a heavy load of sediment which it deposits in the Gulf of Papua, sometimes forming new islands.

4 RABAUL VOLCANO, NEW BRITAIN, PAPUA NEW GUINEA After erupting in 1994, this image shows how the highest particles blew west causing condensation of water vapor over a wide area.

AUSTRALAISIA & OCEANIA

2

5

4

3

1

272 10 9 11

9

ULURU/AYERS ROCK, NORTHERN TERRITORY, AUSTRALIA This enormous sandstone rock occupies Australia’s heart, both physically and emotionally.

10 JAMES RANGES, NORTHERN TERRITORY, AUSTRALIA A series of low ridges, these hills lie at the geographical center of Australia.

11

LAKE EYRE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, AUSTRALIA This great salt lake consists of north and south sections, joined by a narrow channel, Lake Eyre South being the smaller, elongated saltflat at the bottom of the image.

12

NEWCASTLE, NEW SOUTH WALES, AUSTRALIA The industrial seaport of Newcastle lies on the south bank of Hunter river.

BIKINI ATOLL, MARSHALL ISLANDS This atoll was the site of 23 atomic bomb tests in the 1940s and 1950s, involving the intentional sinking of at least 13 naval vessels in the shallow lagoon.

5

GREAT BARRIER REEF, QUEENSLAND, AUSTRALIA The world’s largest reef system is made up of 3000 individual reefs and 900 islands and stretches for 1600 miles (2600 km).

6

AMBRYM, VANUATU Mount Marum, a 4166 ft (1270 m) volcano, erupted in April 2004 producing an extensive plume of ash.

7

KIRITIMATI, KIRIBATI Kiritimati is the largest atoll in the Pacific Ocean, its interior lagoon filled in with coral growth.

8

8

AUSTRALASIA & OCEANIA

7

6

273 14 12 13

SYDNEY, NEW SOUTH WALES, AUSTRALIA Expanding outward from the inlet of Port Jackson, Australia’s largest city was founded in 1788.

13

MOUNT TARANAKI, NORTH ISLAND, NEW ZEALAND 14 This dormant 2518 m (8261 ft) volcano is one of the most symmetrical in the world.

15

15 AORAKI/MOUNT COOK, SOUTH ISLAND, NEW ZEALAND New Zealand’s highest peak rises 12,238 ft (3744 m) and is surrounded by permanent ice fields.

16

BANKS PENINSULA, SOUTH ISLAND, NEW ZEALAND 16 With a circular drainage pattern typical of eroded volcanoes, this is the only recognizably volcanic feature on New Zealand’s South Island.

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Scale 1:500,000

Teafuafou

Howland Island (to US)

t

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3

FI

be

Banaba

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0

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Tarawa

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ru

Tarawa

Bonriki

Eita Banraeaba

Bairiki

ga

Marakei

Abaiang

Betio

Teraina

CI

Butaritari

Bikeman Bikenebu

Palmyra Atoll (to US)

ea Fuag Fatato Funangongo Ava Te Vasafua Te A va P Fuagea ua P Falefatu ua Tefala Funafara

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2

Tu n

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Nabeina Tabiteuea

Ta r a w a

Kingman Reef (to US)

Funaf uti

Fuafatu

N

Marenanuka

Ebon Atoll

TUVALU Amatuku

Fongafale

Fualopa

O

Taratai

Knox Atoll

C

Kili Island

FI

Buariki

MARSHALL ISLANDS

Mili Atoll

Jaluit Atoll

Iku

C

i

PAC I

Arno Atoll

Majuro Atoll

Te Av Fualifeke aI Te pe

R

Aur Atoll

h

G

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Birnie Island

McKean Island

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Nikumaroro Nanumea Atoll 4

Niutao Nanumaga Nui Atoll

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Vaitupu Nukufetau Atoll

Funafuti Atoll

Atafu Atoll Nukunonu Atoll

TUVALU

Nukulaelae Atoll

Fakaofo Atoll

TOKELAU

Rakahanga

(to NZ)

5 Niulakita

284

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Rarotonga Maungaroa 509m

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Matavera

Te Manga Ngatangiia Te Kou 652m Motutapu 564m Oneroa Muri

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Rarotonga

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Mere Lava

Nassau

Swans Island

SAMOA

(to France) 281

Manihiki

Pukapuka

Koromiri Titikaveka Taakoka

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B

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Faleālupo Sātaua Cape Puava Mauga Silisili Fālelima 1858m

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Poland (Christmas Island) Bay of Wrecks South West Vaskess Isles Lagoon Joe’s Hill Point Bay Aeon 12m Point

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Azur Lagoon

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C

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S

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P

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Scale 1:1,175,000 0

5

10 Km 5

0

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Pelican Lagoon South East Point

L Equator

i Paopao

Mont Matotea 714m

Baie de Matavai Pointe Vénus Papenoo Mahina

PAPEETE

I

Moorea Afareaitu

s

Faaa

Mont Aorai 2066m Mont Orohena 2241m

Pointe Nuupere Punaauia Pointe Nuuroa

Malden Island

l

P

A

a

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d

s

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Faaone Taravao

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Scale 1:1,000,000 5

Mont Rooniu 1332m

Teahupoo

10 Km 5

0

Hiva Oa

Atuona

N

Ta h i t i

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Millennium Island Vostok Island

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is

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F

Pointe Maraa

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es

Nuku Hiva Taiohae

s M

E

I

(to France) V e n t

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Mont Tetufera 1799m

Paea

C

O

n

Starbuck Island

Pirea

Faaa

Mont Tohiea 1207m

Haapiti

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Papenoo Riv ière

Ba ie

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Papetoai

FRENCH POLYNESIA Î l e s

Tahuata Motane

AUSTRALASIA & OCEANIA

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Fatu Hiva Omoa

285

Flint Island

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P A C I F I C

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Fagataufa

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5

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PITCAIRN ISLAND

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8 Tropic of Capricorn

Ducie Island

Henderson Island

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Îles Gambier Magareva Temoe

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Rurutu

l

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(to France)

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287

Îles du Duc de Gloucester

F R E N C H P O LY N E S I A Î

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6

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Manuae

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M

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Pacific Ocean A

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F

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au

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i

(to US)

Palmyra Atoll

(to US)

Basin

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Malden Island

Enderbury Island

s

si

(to US)

6249m

K I R I B A T I

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(to US)

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Kiritimati

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Baker & Howland Islands

ne

S ea

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s

P

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o

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ran

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Valerie Guyot

Chatham Rise

Campbell

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Sa

f

Hartog Ridge

East Indiaman

Kerm adec T rench

sv

C

ui

Ta s m a n Basin

NEW ZEALAND

Chatham Islands Dunedin B o u n t y Tr o u g h Bounty Islands (to NZ) Antipodes Islands (to NZ)

Plateau

Auckland Islands

Campbell Islands (to NZ)

(to NZ)

Bollons Tablemount 5415m

Macquarie Island (to Australia)

O C E A N

t i c P a c i fi c – A n t a r c

Balleny Islands

A N TA R C T I C A B

Strait

South Island

4602m

Lo

k

Antarctic Circle

A

e

e

e W

eau

Wellington

S O U T H E R N

Banzare Seamounts

10

Ridg

S outh Indian B a sin

u

h

ea

at

(to Australia)

North Challenger P l a t e a u Coo Island

S e a

e on eZ tur rac nF ma Tas

R i d g e

Pl

Ri s

m

at

Ta s m a n 5369m

B a sin Norfolk Island

st Northland No rfo Plateau lk R idge Raukumara Plain Auckland

Gascoyne Tablemount

it Stra King Island Bass Furneaux Group Tasmania Hobart East Tasman Plateau

an

n ia Basi

Melbourne

No r f o l k

Kangaroo Island

we L o rd Ho

Balls Pyramid

Caledon

r

Mu r ray

5852m

I n d i a n

Ne w

ve

Sydney

S outh Au st ralian Plain

S o u t h e a s t

Ri

s Ta

134m

Pl

s ount Seam

a t Au s t r a l i a n Bi g ht

nc Tre

e Lord How

Ridge

r

des

r ie

Gre

ng

5386m

en

eb r i ew H Nor th N

T

a

B ar

d an u a

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Naturaliste Plateau Dia Naturaliste Fracture Zone ma nt in a Fr ac t ur e Zone

li ar

Tasm an Plain

Irrawaddy

nt

Haw

Necker Island

834m

Banaba

Ba

ou

Hess Tablemount

ay

as tm r is Ch

WORLD OCEANS

am

Lisianski Island

Salmon Bank

Mur r

Se

s unt mo Sea

an

ns

ll ha ars M

e

n

(to US)

PAC I F IC

NAURU

si

ia

h

n

ne

Midway Islands

Kure Atoll

ic

enc

-250m

nts

Laysan Island

e

cino

us

Tr

Pe r th B a sin

(to Australia)

el

ou

6800m

i c r o n

Lord Howe Island (to Australia)

Brisbane

Heard & McDonald Islands

gu

a

Isl an ds

la

ndo

M

in

e Ob’ Trench

4285m

er

m

Bikini Atoll

Me

M e l a

gh

ap

r S ke

m ea

MIC RON E SI A

East Caroline Basin

7184m

5999m

Hellish Seamount Kammu Seamount

Enewetak MARSHALL ISLANDS

M Caro line

Sur ve yor

gh

Me

M

ea mo un ts

Chin

ou

a

Bon

East Mariana Basin

n ria

ge oline Rid

ou gh

Tr ook

aii aw st H we ugh rth Tro No

I z u Tr e n c h

ra

Ridge

Gulden Draak Seamount

9

-4000m

ou

Mag ella nS

Comstock Seamount Harris Seamount

Island M o Wake (to US) un tai n s 6464m

A U S T R A L I A

Seamount

4980m

-2000m

Basin

at

n ua l a ai pu w Ke e nt a I n v e s t i g a t o r M

C e ra m Tr

Mi dPa ci fic

Bismarck Archipela Ontong go New Admiralty Java Gui nea Islands Rise Tre Bismarck nch Sea New New Ireland Ne w Britain

Moluccas

Celebes

at

5267m

Ceram Starbuck n G u PAPUA NEW GUINEA South Makassar B and a Island Phoenix ine Weber Makassar Solo S ea itain Tr Islands r Santa Cruz Jakarta J Surabaya B a Basin m Lae w Basin en ava Flores Sea Sumbawa o Ne Islands Kepulauan n C o n o r k Island e ch Ja Isla Bali Vi Tokelau Flores North s 5451m Aru Ja Port va tya nd Solomon Sea T UVA LU (to NZ) EAST TIMOR Penrhyn S s Moresby Tr e v a R i d g e z o Arafura Arafura Torres Lombok Tre u L h Cook Islands Timor SOLOMON g nch i d R g u o e t e i e nch hS ro Millennium Papua B a s i n Pulau Ro b b (to NZ) Arcui si a d go Sea 7125m ol om Strait ISLANDS Shelf or T Island hi p e l a Plateau o n Tre n c h Pandora Hazel Holme Bank Sumba Savu im Timor Manihiki Roo American Bank Rise Penrhyn Flint Plateau Samoa Rotuma SAMOA Osprey Gulf Sea Coral Sea (to US) North Savai‘i Horizon elf Reef of Basin Island Sh Gascoyne Australian Bank Wallis & Futuna Upolu Q u eBasin Coral 1577m ul (to France) Tutuila Carpentaria e h n Bora-Bora Plain P l a sl Samoa Basin Zephyr te Nor th Taveuni Raiatea S ea Reef Basin Rowley So VANUATU Fi j i cie TONGA Îles Chesterfield Shoals ty B a sin Sou Viti Levu le the Coral Sea Islands FI JI Re h r S Lau n Co Exmouth Niue e y Mauke (to Australia) e f l o k Islands Row (to NZ) Plateau Basin New Wallaby Rarotonga Cuvier n Caledonia 7183m Plateau e r Basin (to France) Île Horizon Deep 10,800m Los Ne w br ides T tD Cuvier He s Kermadec Ri utchmPlateau dg e e n S outh Islands Ozbourn Batavia (to NZ) Fi j i Seamount

8

K

West Caroline Basin

Java S ea

Tropic of Capricorn

Sea Level

PALAU

h

i sk

Marcus Island (to Japan)

Ma Challenger Deep Car

nc

Makarov Seamount

Northern Mariana Islands (to US)

Guam (to US)

10,920m

a

Sh

Mariana Islands

West Mariana Basin

Mindanao

Celebes B a sin

Wharton Basin

R i dg

Sea

-K

6650m

9780m

Yap

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m

h

Borneo

Sunda Shelf

n

Celeb es S ea

INDIAN O CEAN

B ro k e n

D ai tō Ri dg

10,057m

Davao

Kota Kinabalu

M A L AY S I A

Kuching

e

Su

nc

7

Sulu Basin

Sulu S ea

I N D O N E S I A

Cocos Basin 6

PHILIPPINES

Palawan

BRUNEI Natuna Islands Bintulu

SINGAPORE

ip p in

nd

Equator

es

Su Tr e

P hi l

Klang

a

South China Reed B ank Basin

S ea

Kuantan

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286

BO

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5

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Hong Kong Hai Phong Gulf n Strait Luzo of Hainan Dao Luzon Tonkin e Ce nt ral Bas sfi in T Đa Năng cle k ro u a c B an Benham gh Manila M Seamount

CAM Hô Chi Minh Kâmpóng Saôm s th on S outh Gulf of u o k Thailand M e Me China th

Nicobar Islands

ky u Ryu

Phili

ong

Bangkok

Andaman Sea

t

(to

Philippine

Me k

Andaman Islands Andaman Basin

E a st China S ea

e Ry DaitōJilong 7460m Oki-Dai jima tō R TAIWAN id Gaoxiong

Guangzhou

r

LAOS

THAILAND

Kyushu

ge

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ve

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ac

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MYANMAR (BURMA)

Shikoku

Shanghai

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Fuzhou

Red

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ku Shiko

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Nor thwest Pacific Basin

JAPAN

SOUTH KOREA Busan Nagoya Yellow Mokpo Ōsaka

Lianyungang

n Ya

Japan Basin

hu

r i ve wR l lo Ye Qingdao

Ku

at

e Tr

Patton Seamount

Unalaska Island Umnak Island

A l e u t i a n Tr e n c h

r rT ro

Sea of

NORTH Wônsan Japan KOREA (East Sea)

Dalian

Tropic of Cancer

Hokkaido

Vladivostok

h mc

n

Kodiak Island

s land

Is A l e u t i a n 7314m

Amchitka Island

Bristol Bay

20m Pribilof Islands Unimak Island

pe Em

A S I A C H I N A

a Is l r il Ku9783m

Kuril Basin

7864m

eror Seamounts

MONGOLIA

6102m

B ow e r s Attu Island

Emp

Am

Komandorskiye Ostrova

PetropavlovskKamchatskiy

Lake Baikal

Aleutian Basin

Yukon Rive r

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (ALASKA)

Saint Lawrence Island e a Nunivak Island

R i dg e

S ea of Okhotsk

Bering S

ka at l a ch n su i

Tinro Basin

K Pe a m n

R U S S I A N F E D E R AT I O N

3

Gulf of Anadyr

Anadyr

1

2

Bering Strait

Arctic Circle

Scott Island (to NZ)

D

E

F

G

PANAMA

os

C

Coló n Ridge

ate

u

rm

Be

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Venezuelan Basin

Lesser A o Or ino c

Panama B a sin

COLOMBIA

Esmeraldas Isla San Cristóbal C a r n e g i e R i dg e ECUADOR (to Ecuador) Guayaquil ge Rid a jalv Gri Paita

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re

H

Zo

e

Ga

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URUGUAY

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h ug

636m

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Ur

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a

I N

A

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R

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8

A

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Tropic of Capricorn

n

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p

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Valparaiso

I

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Chile Ri se

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Zapiola Gulf of San Jorge

Falkland Islands

re Zone

Mor ning ton Ab yss al Plain 6034m

re Zon e

Bellingshausen Sea Peter I Island (to Norway)

J

Punta Arenas

Burdwood Bank Cape Horn

Yag han age B a sin s s a ke P d Trough Dra tlan She uth So

De Gerlache Seamounts

Marie Byrd Seamount

(to UK)

ren ch

B el lingshau s e n Plain

ne

I

Pe

Isla Isla Alejandro Róbinson Selkirk Crusoe S el k ir Talcahuano k

Ilha da Trindade

g

t Pa cific

lenger

1426m

Southeast Pacific Basin Amundsen Plain

(to Chile)

A

e d g R i

Fra

in

Hotspur Seamount

PAR AGUAY

K

a nsul eni cP i t c ar nt

South Shetland Islands

Ar g e Fa l k

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e

nt i n e P l ain

lan d E s

Falkland Plateau

9

c ar pm e nt Maurice Ewing Bank

t Scotia Ridge We s

Is l a s O rc a Ri s e d a s 8325m

South Georgia

Scot ia Sea

an South S dwic

East Scotia Basin

5576m

7152m

h Trench

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Islas Juan Fernández

le T Chi

Udin

nin F rac t u

ard F rac tu

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Chile B a sin

se

Me n

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8069m

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Southwest Pacific Basin

Pla

a Na

(to Chile)

e Zone

Ri se

rac tur ssiz F

SOUTH B OLIVIA

Islas de los Desventurados (to Chile) Isla Isla San Ambrosio San Félix

Sala y Gomez

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Equator

ra

zc

Yup anqui B a sin

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(to UK)

a l Rapa es

az on

AMERICA

H

Henderson Island Ducie Island Pitcairn Island Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie & Oeno Islands

Pe r u B a sin

Zone Mendaña Fracture

Pa ta

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c

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287

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us

A

Fra ral ust

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a

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Îles Gambier

President Thiers Seamount

Ga

i

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(to France)

one Fracture Z

5

B R A Z I L

ch

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French Polynesia

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en

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D e me rara Plain

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ne ure Zo

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le

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es arqu

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6

hi

n

5852m

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B aue r B a sin

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Tumaco

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Marquesas Islands Hiva Oa

B ar ra

GUYANA

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Doldr um s Frac t ure Zone FRENCH Ce GUIANA a ra (to France) Ri d Amazon ge SURINAME Fan

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Tropic of Cancer

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O C E A N

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO Demerara Plateau

Isla Isabela Galápagos Islands

Gallego Ri se

2

co

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3806m

4567m

East Thulean Rise

i d g e

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Gulf of Honduras Gulf of Darien COSTA RICA Panama Canal Panama City Caldera

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Zone

sa Pas ard Windw

GUATEMALA Caribbean HONDURAS Puerto San José Sea EL SALVADOR 6662m Acajutla Colombian NICARAGUA Corinto B a sin

Gu ate m ala B a sin

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W e s t ge

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Kan

Nares Plain

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Clipperton Island (to France)

Seamounts

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Mathematicians

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A T L A N T I C

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THE BAHAMAS

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West Thulean Rise

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Mexico B a sin

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WORLD OCEANS

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Blake-Bah Ridg e Blake Plateau

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me

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Long Beach

Channel Islands

Fisberling Seamount

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San Francisco

Revillagigedo Islands (to Mexico)

Cla

Lake Erie

U N I T E D S T AT E S OF AMERICA

Ce

M

aw

3300m

Gulf of St L aw 13m Flemish ren Cap ce Grand Banks Milne ia Kin of Newfoundland Newfoundland Seamounts c ot S Trou gs Seamounts va gh New o N fou ndl 69m Newfoundland Georges an d Bank Basin 6492m Ri dg e New Eng lan Azores Corner dS (to Portugal) Seamounts ea Ocea m n 5464m o g raph ou e r Fra c t ure At l a Zone e n s tis F Bermuda i R rac t (to UK) a S ohm u re Z d Nashville one

ce en

Lake Ontario

Lake Michigan

ure Zone

5561m

ai F olok

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Lake Huron

r

Great L akes

Columbia

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Frac t ure Zone

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Newfoundland

Lake Superior

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Cascadia Basin

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ser

Vancouver

Vancouver Island

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a

C A N A D A

Queen Charlotte Islands

Iceland Iceland Basin

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t Frac

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Pratt Seamount

Ala sk a Plain

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Ungava Bay

Reykjanes Basin

Mag d al e

Gulf of Ala sk a

L abrador S ea

Huds on Strait

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Great Slave Lake

Arctic Circle

Norwegian Basin

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Rio G ra

Anchorage

(to Denmark)

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10

SOUTHERN OCEAN

Antarctic Circle

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-820ft

M

N

-6562ft

-13,124ft

7

6

5

4

3

W

ESTONIA

BELARUS

SLOVAKIA

M

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

CHAD

Tropic of Cancer

DEMOCRATIC

Lake Albert

Sudd

S OUTH SUDAN

3039m

Djibouti

Massawa

No

Sh

eb

a

er

Kuwait

si a

KUWAIT

TUR K

ak art

a R idge

T

ch ren

1128m

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C

Andrew Tablemount

Error Tablemount

a-F Alul Socotra Raas (to Yemen) Caseyr

Somali

Mogadishu

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U.A.E. Míná’ Qábús

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s

be

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dg

e

N

Sagar Kanya Seamount

Taz

F

G

Ga nge s

NE

H

Kav

MALDIVES

4846m

Gulf of Mannar Colombo

er i

Penne

ishna Kr ru Chennai (Madras) Mangalore

Mumbai (Bombay)

t

SRI LANKA

Sri Lanka

3462m

B ay of B e ngal Trincomalee

as

(to India)

Tr

e

ac

kR

d

Ri v

ive r

LAOS

Bl

N

S

f

so uth on Mo Mek the

South China Basin

Parcel Islands Macclesfield Bank

SINGAPORE

5277m

r ve Ri

e

w

Yangtz

o el l

Le na

Natuna Islands

P

BRUNEI

Borneo

Sea of

Arctic Circle

NORTH Japan KOREA (East Sea)

J

SOUTH

yu

rait

an

B e nham Plateau

10,057m

Celebes Sea Celebes Basin

Basin

Philippine

6326m

P H I L I P P I N ES

Sulu Sea

Is l

Ri e yu R y u k u Tr Tropic y k of Cancer Ry u

Ry u k

East China Sea

JAPAN Great Ya n g t z e B a n k

TAIWAN

it

Yellow KOREA Sea

Lu z o n S t

Taiwan Banks

L apte v S ea

South China Sea

Lexington Seamount

n Kerule

I

Y

M A L A Y S I A

Klang

Royalist Bank

Gulf of Thailand

ala cca

A

CAMBODIA

THAILAND

M of ait r t S Bedawan

(to India)

Nicobar Islands

Andaman Basin

Andaman Sea

Yangon (Rangoon) Mou the I ths of rraw addy

Andaman Islands

2429m

I

(BURMA) Chittagong the

G a n g e s Fa n

f Mouths os G ang e

Visákhapatnam

n a di ha Ma

Dhaka

Lake Baikal

MO N G O LI A

MYANMAR

ra aput Brahm

BHUTAN

H

BANGLADESH

L

Kolkata (Calcutta)

PA

C

A S I A

Lake Zaysan

I ND IA a Narmad

N

Kochi/Cochin Tuticorin

(to India)

Laccadive Islands

Panikkar Seamount

20m

ne Zo re u t c ra sF bi s a ah M

4481m

Sea

Arabian Ba sin

T

Bhávnagar

Karáchi

IS

TA

N

Lake Balkhash

KYRGYZSTAN

TAJIKISTA

A ST

K

NI

Arabian

dg

Syr

AN

G AF

AN

3427m

ur

Oman Basin

ST

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Aral Sea

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F E D E R A T I O N

KAZAKHSTAN

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KENYA

Lake Turkana

ETHIOPIA

vi

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Barents Sea

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ERITREA

AFRICA

le e Ni

Equator

Port Sudan

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Eu phr ates

IRAQ

igr is

ARMENIA

GEORGIA

SAU D I ARA B IA

SYRIA

TURKEY

Nile Fan ISRAEL Dead Sea Nile Delta Suez JORDAN Canal Suez Sinai

EGYPT

SUDAN

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Sun

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Cyprus

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LIBYA

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Aegean Sea

Ionian Sea G R E E C E

ALBANIA

MACEDONIA

MONTENEGRO KOS. BULGARIA

SLOVENIA ROMANIA CROATIA e BOZ. & SERBIA D a nu b HERZ

MOLDOVA

UKRAINE

EUROPE

POLAND

RUSS. FED.

c LATVIAWeste rn ti Dv l in a LITHUANIA Ba

S

HUNGARY

AUSTRIA

CZECH REPUBLIC

GERMANY

DENMARK

e Nile

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N

O

s

Arctic Circle

Se a

i a a v Y i n N E A d n D W a E R S c F

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WORLD OCEANS

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Indian Ocean

M

u

h

da

i

nge Riv

e

Tugela

ian R idge

Ag ulha s B a sin

5819m

Ag ulha s Plateau

Africana Seamount

At l

Transkei Basin

East London

a Dr

Durban

B Quelimane

Beira

69m

Nacala Lúrio

COMOROS

Cabo a Delgado Ruvum

Mafia

an

tic

Île Europa

n –I

di

an

s Ba

Antarctic Circle

A

B

t es

Walters Shoal

Réunion (to France)

ia

Lena Tablemount

4936m

D

5386m

B a sin

Crozet

R

ge d i

7023m

Crozet Plateau Crozet Islands

d

n

Enderby Plain

Ob’ Tablemount

C

3658m

Diego Garcia

2078m

e

one re Z u t c Fra ria Ege

(to UK)

5614m

Osborn Plateau

Basin

Mid-Indian

British Indian Ocean Territory

Chagos Archipelago

Ceylon Plain

N i n e t y e a s t

E

4684m

Ke rg

dz

Bay

re S

la

eam

184m

P

(to Australia)

Amsterdam Island St Paul Island

Heard & McDonald Islands

n

nza

le

Ba

ue

Kerguelen

(to France)

French Southern & Antarctic Lands

m da ter s Am

Zo re u t ac Fr

F

o u nt s

4023m

(to Australia)

ke

Ob’ Trench

n R idge

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esz

Sea

Gascoyne Plain

ts

Roo Rise

moun

(to Australia)

7125m

Ja va Ridg en e ch

Wharton Basin 5678m

gM

Dia

Batavia Seamount

Gulden Draak Seamount

Tr

Christmas Island

a

ma

na F

4980m

nt i

Geraldton

ra c t ure Z o n e

South Indian Basin

5386m

G

H

I

J

Antarctic Circle

South Australian Basin

5852m

Great Australian Bight

AU S T R A L I A

Fremantle Naturaliste Bunbury Plateau Albany Naturaliste Fra cture Z one

Pe r th Basin

ugh

Timor S ea

Tro

Wyndham

elf Sh

or

Tropic of Capricorn

Broome

helf ey S Rowl Port Hedland

Ro w l e y Shoals

(to Australia)

Ashmore & Cartier Islands

m Ti

EAST TIMOR

Banda Sea

ul ah

Timor Savu

Sumbawa

Lombok Basin Pulau Sumba

Bali

Nor th Au s t r a l i a n Basin

m Ex lat P

Java

Wallaby Cuvier Lo Plateau Basin st Du Cuvier tch m Plateau en Ri dg e

in

Jav

Java Sea

Celebes

I N D O N E S I A

Shelf

Sunda

So ut he as t I ndi an R idge

Bro

Ve n

5759m

sar

kas

SOUTHERN O CEAN

4285m

4464m

Cocos Islands

Cocos Basin

INDIAN O CEAN

Mascarene MAURITIUS Rodrigues Islands (to Mauritius)

Madagascar Basin

In

4976m

Toamasina

1984m

Del Cano Rise

w

ch

Fred Seamount

ne Zo e r tu Saya de Farquhar Agalega rac Malha Bank Group aF Islands m e ne V Zo Mascarene re u t Basin ac Nazareth Fr ne Bardin o Zo g Bank Seamount Ar ure t c ra eF Mascarene Cargados Carajos lest e C Bank rie Plain Ma

Madagascar Plateau

th

(to South Africa)

Prince Edward Islands

u So

Natal Basin

Jaguar Seamount

Bassas da India

Mahajanga

Comoro Basin

(to France)

Mayotte

Comoros

Giraud Seamount

Aldabra Group

SEYCHELLES

Basin

SOUTHERN O CEAN

At l ant i c – In d

Protea Seamount

Cape Port Elizabeth Town Mosselbaai Cape of Good Cape Agulhas Hope Agulhas Bank

Maputo

SWAZILAND

LESOTHO

SOUTH AFRICA

Ora

Tropic of Capricorn

Lim p

ZIMBABWE

BOTSWANA

MALAWI

Lake Nyasa

Za m Lake Cabora bezi Bassa

ZAMBIA

Lake Mweru

Lake Rukwa

Dar es Salaam

Zanzibar

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Mombasa

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au

14

zi

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TANZANIA

Lake Tanganyika

M Mahé adi

Amirante Seychelles Islands Bank Amirante

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te

13

12

11

10

9

8

OF CONGO

BURUNDI

4886m

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289

Sea Level

-820ft

-6562ft

-13,124ft

7

6

5

4

3

A

N

d

e lv i l l e St rai t

A

D

an

L a k e Sup e r i or

Florida Plain

Bay of Campeche

Savannah

W

Jacksonville

EL SALVADOR

Coló n Ridge

Co

c

e

e s s ag

Is

COLOMBIA

Tumaco

Buenaventura

69m

Halifax

Ri

se

5464m

Or inoc

o

La Guaira

d

Great Hellefiske B ank

218m

Hamilton Bank

L abrador B a sin

L abrador S ea

aw r

ea m o

6492m

e

Nashville Seamount

Flemish Cap

5356m

Rise

su

ak

Plain

At l

e Fra c tur

ant

i

e Zone

c

is F ra

dem

y Re

ch kj

an

an

l ne es

Georgetown

D e me rara Plateau

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO

SURINAME

(to France)

FRENCH GUIANA

Cayenne

Paramaribo

Am F

Frac t ur

c ea

ha

n

R

Banary Basin

Ce

a ra

Ri d

ge

Zon

Knipovich Seamount

Gambia Plain

CAPE VERDE

(to Brazil)

e

a

is

in

ca

up

y

e

Ri

Pl

4139m

B s-

ai Bi s

A Ca ga d ny i r on

(occupied by Morocco)

4700m

Bay of

Nantes

M

Safi

Strait of Gibraltar

O

e ga

Dakar

SENEGAL

Sen

Sierra Leone Basin e Zone

LI BE R

SIERRA LEONE Monrovia

Freetown

GUIN E A

Bissau

Conakry

GUINEABISSAU

l

Nouakchott

n

Rh i

GERMANY

Sardinia

Corsica

SWITZ.

ula

T

A

ROMANIA CROATIA Da nu BOS. be & HERZ. SERBIA

TUNISIA

n

Gulf of Guinea

Lomé

Niger Fan

Douala Malabo

EQUATORIAL GUINEA

Lagos Porto-Novo Port Harcourt Sekondi-Takoradi

N I GE R I A

NIGER

S e a

5095m

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

CHAD

Tropic of Cancer

LIBYA

e a

G REEC E

ALBANIA

AFRICA BUR K INA F AS O

UKRAINE

BELARUS

KOS. L Y MONTENEGROMACE.DONIA

SLOVENIA

AUSTRIA HUNGARY

SLOVAKIA

S a h a r a

ALGERIA

LATVIA LITHUANIA

POLAND

Vi s t

Arctic Circle

ESTONIA

RUSS. FED.

CZECH REPUBLIC

O der

Ba

e d i t e r r a Sicily M 1705m n

Bordeaux

F R ANC E

IVORY COAST GHANA IA Abidjan

d

in

102m

J

Barents Sea

ia v a

rough ents T Bar

EUROPE

BELGIUM

Elb e

DENMARK

NETH. Rotterdam

MALI

Casablanca

Gibraltar

SPAIN

MAURITANIA

Nouâdhibou

GAMBIA Banjul

Cape Verde Terrace

Plain

L o i re

Milford Haven Cork Celt ic Southampton

cay

Vor ing Plateau

North Sea

UNITED Belfast Ireland KINGDOM Britain IRELAND

Shelf

Svalbard

I

(to Norway)

rge

2580m

sbe

Great Fisher Bank

Faroe Islands (to Denmark) d lan het e-S ough o Shetland r r Fa T Islands

Nor weg ian B a sin

Lisbon Tag u s Plain

(to Portugal)

e ho s e s u nt o

Madeira

Dacia Seamount

ge

Spit

Nor weg ian Sea

s Ri d

5601m

Charcot Biscay Seamounts Gijón Galicia Bilbao Bank Ib e Pl r ia Leixões ai n n

Goban Spur

5536m

n

n Moh J F ra a n M c t u ay re e n Zo ne

Rockall

Canary Islands (to Spain) Sa S e a h a ra n m ou nts 254m Western Sahara

4645m

(to Norway)

Fa r o e Ri d- Ice l a g e nd

H

Gree nland Plain

Jan Mayen

ro ll T ka Roc Porcupine Bank

ll B

ge

rac tur S a i n t Pa u l F

Fo ur No r t h Fra c t ure Z o n e

O C E A N

Saint Peter and Saint Paul Rock

e

Made ira Plain

Cape Verde Plain

Cape Verde Basin

D oldr um s Fra c t ure Zon e

gh

6324m

Ri d

ka Roc

on

Iceland B a sin

re s F r a c t u r e Z o n e

Cruiser Tablemount

Zone

Great Meteor Tablemount

ture

e

Iceland Plateau

dg

Greenland Sea

Reykjavík

l ne

(to Portugal)

Azores

t ure

G

ICELAND

rait

Kings Tro u

E a st A z o

es A z or e au P l at

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691m

ractu re Zo ne Fractur e Zone

ato v

Olympus Knoll

r Fra c

e Zone

aphe

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Zone

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3780m

Ve m a Frac t ure

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D e me rara Plain

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u

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Ma

R

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Aka

Milne Seamounts

4579m

Newfoundland Seamounts 3883m

13m

S ohm

Kan

Im

s ar

a Se

Reykjanes Basin

G

St an d - Ic e l ark and s e m l n n Ri re e De

A T L A N T I C BARBADOS

GUYANA

ik

g Ri d

fou ndl Newfoundland and Ridg e Basin

Corner Seamounts

Ne w

Ei r

Nuuk

(to Denmark)

Greenland

O C E A N

F

N Edoras Mi or thw Bank d- O es C h a r l i e G i b bs F r a c t u r e Z o n cea t A e n C t l an Hecate an t i c Seamount East Thulean yo West Thulean Farad n Rise ay F

Grand Banks of Newfoundland

(to France)

St Pierre & Miquelon

Newfoundland

or

E

A R C T I C

Sargasso Sea

New Eng lan dS

V E N EZ U E LA

Maracaibo

Lesser

Los Roques Basin

St L

a coti

Gulf of

a S ov

B af fi n B a sin

Cu mb erl an dS

nd

Nares Plain

Researcher Seamount

Ve nez uelan B a sin

4557m

la

Ungava B ay

da

N

I n d i e s

8962m

5508m

Bermuda (to UK)

Georges Bank

er An illes t

an Sea

Colombian B a sin Barranquilla Gulf of Darien Cartagena Panama City

be

Panama Canal Panama Basin

Acajutla Corinto Bluefields Midd le A me NICARAGUA Gulf of ric aT COSTA Honduras re RICA Cristóbal Limón Caldera PANA MA

Guate mala B a sin

6662m

Nicaraguan Puerto Cortés HONDURAS Rise Puerto San José

Cari b

CUBA

W e s t

Bahama THE f G rea BAHAMAS Basin St raits o tB Ba aha nk ma

Blake Basin

lake-B Blake B Ridg ah e Plateau

Baltimore

New York

Boston

nce wre Montréal La

Is

land

D

B af fi n B ay

e re

Hu d so n Str ait

in

El

m les

Yucatan Pa Puerto Rico Trench Basin ench ard an Tr Windw HAITI DOMINICAN m y Lee a Belize City C Gr wa REPUBLIC JAMAICA ea Muertos Trough Jamaica t

GUATEMALA BELIZE

M EXI CO

Veracruz

Tampico

Mexico Basin

Yu Bank C h c a an eche mp a C

Gulf of Mexico

Central Slope

si Texas-Louisiana issis n M Fa Shelf

Tropic of Cancer

Corpus Christi

Mobile New Orleans

Lake St Ontario

Lake Erie

Lake Huron

Great L akes

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

Houston

A

Hud son B ay

Baff

Foxe B a sin

C

Fox e Ch annel

Queen Elizabeth Isl an d s

N O RT H A M E R I C A

C

i

ipp

Mi s s i s s

2

c o unt M

Vi c t o r i a Is lan

Vi s

se ks Ri

ig

ch

Mi

Arctic Circle

Ban

pp i

os

IN BEN TOGO

Rid

g

h nc

al e n a

lles

1

n ta n e l

nti

3674m

Fl

in

Pla

tera s

Hat

u

rm Be

L ake

elf a Sh

r

Mag d

d - A t M i l a

B

a

or id

rid Flo est

ds Islan rd

A

t

n

d

i

Ri

sey

A

a am

ge

S

ts un

Ni

ie r ra Ri L e o se ne

g e

Ko

Ha tt

or Az

h ug

nk

se

H S e or s am

lbe in

Ma d R i d e i ra ge

PORTUGAL

b ce en

O

La ra R

nd ou

O

t ai Str rc

C

v is Da Po

ne

I

C

NO S RWA ca Y n SW E D EN

-4000m Ri d g e

Sea

-2000m ye n

ic

-250m Ma

lt

Sea Level Jan

ND CAMEROON

290

FI A NL

CONGO

WORLD OCEANS

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Atlantic Ocean

on az n a

Zon

e

e Zon e

Islas Juan Fernández (to Chile) Isla Alejandro Selkirk S el k ir

A

Sea

B

en

ch

Peter I Island (to Norway)

S an

Bellingshausen Plain

C

e

Maurice Ewing Bank

Ridg

Scotia Sea

e nt

e P l ai n

s car pm

e nt in

Falkland Plateau

l an d E

Ar g

Zapiola

Arge nt ine B a sin

S antos Plateau 636m

3667m

S ou

th G Ri e s

Rio Grande Ri se

Ilha da Trindade

sO

rc

1748m

Is l a

Zapiola Seamount

D Sh th ou

D

en

u in s

E

We d d e l l Sea

O CEAN

Scotia Ridge 5576m South ney South Orkney rk ep Islands De

Ronne Ice Shelf

la

Islands

ag e Pass nd Trough e k South Shetland ra etla

P rotec tor B a sin

ad

F

(to UK)

1739m

(to UK)

e e Zon rac tur

Tristan da Cunha

F Rio Gran de

na S ai nt He l e

one ure Z Frac t

Bonaparte Seamount

e e Zon

Ascension Island

on F

ur Frac t B o d e Ve r d e

South Sandwich

7152m

Weddell Plain

Basin

5706m

Ascensi

ne re Zo rac t u

G

Fracture Zone

Maud Ri se

Lazarev Sea

H

a

dg

e

Zubov Seamount

Vema Seamount

Namibia Plain

ts

NAMIBIA

Namibe

Lüderitz

Seamount

s

id d R

ge

Rii se r- L ars e n S ea

I

A N TA RC T I C A

A

i tr

J

Antarctic Circle

dian

Cape of Good Hope Ag ulha s Plateau Protea

Cape Town

AFRICA

SOUTH

O ra n g e

Tropic of Capricorn

At l a nt i c - In Ridge

(to Norway)

se

Bouvet Island

i eR

Lobito

Luanda

Equator

DEM. REP.

AN G OLA

Atlant ic -Indian B a sin

un

Me Ri teo se

Cap

Schmidt-Ott Seamount

ANGOLA (Cabinda)

Matadi

Walvis Bay

Cape Ba sin 5115m

mo

5042m

Angola B a sin

Pointe-Noire

GABON

Port-Gentil

O

SOUTHERN O CEAN

tic

Ri

Sea D av is

6039m

Dampier Seamount

Seamounts

TOME & Guinea SAOPRINCIPE B a sin Pierre Brazza

Discovery Tablemount

Gough Island

(to UK)

Saint Helena

America-Antarc

Zone c t ure a r F a h Tr i s t a n d e C u n re Zone Frac tu Gough

Brazil B a sin

Ilhas Martin Vaz

ge

6308m

Pe r nambuco B a sin

South Georgia R idge Ridge cotia Burdwood st S S o ut h S a n d 8325m e racture Zone F e h c l e u h e T W wi South Georgia & the Bank E c Fracntdurance Cape Horn South Sandwich Islands ure Z QuestF one (to UK) ractu Yag han re Zon East Scotia e

Fa l k

at a

Montevideo a Pl

B a sin

(to UK)

as

de l

Falkland Islands

Mar i

Patagonian Shelf Punta Arenas Tierra de Fuego

Tr

f of

Gulf of San Jorge

Gul

Bahía Blanca

Buenos Aires

Ri o

URUGUAY

y

Paranaguá

Santos

Rio de Janeiro

Vitória

Ri d

Hotspur Seamount

ra z

a

A N TA R C T I C A

sen

le

PARAGUAY

SOUTHERN

hi

Talcahuano

B el ling sh au s e n S ea

De Gerlache Seamounts

6034m

Valparaiso

C

Amun d

Zone

Antofagasta

BOLIVIA

Fe r

Stocks Seamount

Pernambuco Seamounts

(to Brazil)

Parnaiba Fernando do Ridge Noronha

Recife

in

h

Antarctic Circle

re actu fo Fr Gua

se

e Mocha Frac ture Zon

Ri

8069m

Isla Róbinson Crusoe

Mor ning ton Ab yssal Plain

Chile

r

Pla

e Z o n e 7728m Rom an c h e Fra c t ur ne re Zo Chain Frac tu

nc Tre

S outhea st Pac if ic B a sin

ure

rd Fr ac tur

Frac t ure Zo ne

in Fr act

Me n a

lenger

T

Chile Basin

e

ra

h

Eltan

Chal

O CEAN

Rog ge vee n B a sin

PAC I F IC

Easter

Tropic of Capricorn

l

AMERICA

SOUTH

Cea

gi or e

se

14

Peru Basin

Callao

az on

B R A Z I L

Am

Belém Ridge

Ri

13

Paita

Islas de los Desventurados (to Chile) Isla y Gome z Ri dge Sala Isla San Ambrosio e n Zo San Félix Frac t ure

Yup anqui B a sin

Ga Zone acture Mendaña Fr

G

a

ise

12

11

10

9

5,852m

B aue r B a sin

lá Ri p ago s se

8

lv r i ja

z

Na

e

dg

Ri

ge Ri d

P a t a A R G g o E N n T I N i a A

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Esmeraldas Isla San Cristóbal Isla Isabela C a r n e g i e R i dg e ECUADOR Galápagos Islands Guayaquil (to Ecuador)

Pa r a n a

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Equator

Tr e n c h

P e r u – C h i l e

E

L

I

H

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S

r

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13

12

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8

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Scale 1:34,400,000 &'%%@b &'%%B^aZh

291

Sea Level

-820ft

-6562ft

-13,124ft

Antarctica A

B

C

D

pa ck ice

South Orkney Laurie Island Orcadas (Argentina) Islands Coronation Island

STANLEY

Signy (UK)

East Falkland

Se Clarence Island

ait B ran s fi e l d St r

age

e P ass

ak

Dr

Anvers Island

We d d e l l

Jason Peninsula

g Haa taks a Nun rd Rutfo

o u nt E l l s wor th M

Canisteo Peninsula

We s t M

a st

Burke Island

Bear Peninsula

By

Carney Island

Mount Sidley 4181m

G

Siple Island

Dean Island

A

er

as

o

Li

E

pa

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ders un st Sa Coa

t

Ruppe rt Co ast Newman Island

ce

N

Argentinian claim

sC

pe Ca

um m

Rockefeller Plateau

bb

O C

TERRITORIAL CLAIMS

ive cut ittee Exem m Co ange R

Grant Island

m it of s

rd Lan d

Ho

t a s lf Co She t i s Ic e ku etz

Wright Island

Sea

Mount Siple 3100m

Brazilian zone of interest

8

ie

Ba

Amundsen

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Antarctica ar

Martin Peninsula

7

(%%%b

Whitmore Mountains Mount Seelig 3022m

een Co

King Peninsula

a

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Cape Flying Fish

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Pin Glae Isla cie nd r

Anta rctic Circl e

S Ca te p

Coast

ge er mb st Zu Coa

Sherman Island

Noville Peninsula

Henry Ice Rise

Korff Ice Rise

Ell swor th L and

t

helf Abbot Ice S

i ce

Thurston Island

Eig ht s Coas

Dendtler Island Farwell Island Dustin Island

r v ille

S ea

Ronne Ice Shelf

tO

B el ling sh au s e n

Sky-Blu (UK)

Case Island

Rydberg Peninsula

Limit of mmer pack su

N E R T H S O U

A N O C E

6

Rontran En

Spaatz Island Smyley Island

Peter I Øy (to Norway)

287

Berkner Island

as

ter pack ice Limit of win

292

Filchner Ice Shelf

Co

Latady Island

P A C I F I C

5

Belgrano II (Argentina)

er

Charcot Island

ish Coast

Wilkins Island Ice Shelf

d

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Alexander Rothschild Island

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B

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British claim Norwegian undefined limit fw to mi Li

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Chilean claim

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287 A

B

C

D

Halley (UK)

S e a

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d Churchill Peninsula nd nd Islan ssiz la la n nd Larsen ga st Is g Is a A r a t Ice Shelf ape ea win olleme Isl ryan wles and tosh Biscoe Islands C el e B no Isl ckin D o K er r wman st n a Lavoisier Island tl pe M aco as c t i Coa B l a c k C t Ca Bu ape De Cape Mascart c Pen oa C ape e i n st San Martín C sk Adelaide s u Mount Jackson Rothera (Argentina) Fi Island Fa l l 4190m L a pe (UK) l P a a i è lme a ss C Marguerite C o a s t re s it r George VI So Bay Bluff L a Douglas Range und Fossil n (UK)

Palmer (US) Vernadsky (Ukraine)

ne ce Geo rge VI Ice Shelf

Arenas

d

Puerto Natales

Snowhill Island James Ross Island Robertson Island

a Co Foyn

Cerro Pirámide 3380m

Brabant Island

n

I L E

Península o d de Taitao Golfo e lo de s Ch onos Penas

Isla Wellington

POLAR REGIONS

M

ice ack

Joinville Island Dundee Island

Lan

Porvenir ag Punta e l

El Calafate

S outh Shetland Island s

rp mme Limit of su

General Bernardo O’Higgins (Chile) Esperanza (Argentina) Marambio (Argentina)

Coast

Cabo de Hornos (Cape Horn)

Capitán Arturo Prat (Chile)

Livingston Island

la

l ag

Ushuaia

f



Strait o

hi

San Valentín 4058m

H

Tierra del Fuego

King George Island

Graham Davis Coast Danco

Río

De

se

Elephant Island

B Co r ya as n t

y

3

Puerto Aisén Cerro Cochrane

Quellón

C

Río Gallegos

Arctowski (to Poland) Artigas (to Uruguay) Bellingshausen (to Russian Federation) Comandante Ferraz (to Brazil) Great Wall (to China) Jubany (to Argentina) King Sejong (to South Korea) Teniente Rodolfo Marsh (to Chile)

Lu i t p C o a s to l d

Cape Meredith

E

ma

Puerto Montt

rc

Comandante Luis Peidra Buena Bahía Grande

Alto Río Senguer Perito Moreno Coihaique

Research stations on King George Island

a

(to UK) Mount Adam 700m

H

Río Li

Cerro Tres Picos 2492m

Isla de Chiloé A

G

in ter

Lim it of w

FALKLAND ISLANDS

West Falkland Golfo San Jorge Maquinchao Puerto Deseado Comodoro Punta Pozos Rivadavia Caleta Olivia Indios de Paso San Carlos Jaramillo o de Bariloche ad Puerto San Julián

Ancud

F

ia



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San Antonio Oeste Puerto Lobos Valcheta Rawson Gaimán

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117

E

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Sulzberger Bay

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Sør Rondane

au

d

T

Belgicafjella

rs

ha

vn

ian

st

Cape Batterbee

Napier Nye Mountains Mountains

Dronning Fabiolafjella 2588m

e

Mount Elkins 2300m

Ende rb y L and

Dismal Mountains

Edward VIII Gulf

N E R

i rd t Ca oas C

2

H

Stancomb-Wills Glacier

he

Molodezhnaya (Russian

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Lyddan Island

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Cape Norvegia sen ar -L a r e e er n iss ise Ri rsen a

Fimbulisen

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Georg von Neumayer (Germany)

Law Promontory

son Maw

Co at s L and

Hansen Mountains

Mawson (Australia)

a Co

Ke mp L and

Pr ince Ch Lambe

rt Glacier

Cape Darnley

Mackenzie

Amery Ice Shelf Gillock Island

p Su

Bay Ing rid Ch Zhongshan (China) r is ten Prydz Bay se n Davis (Australia) Co as t

co

and pold ast Leo d Co ng stri Ki en A e Qu

nt a

Scott Glacier

u

By rd

s i n

Gla cier

a

Ross Ice Shelf

V

Roosevelt Island

r i a t o i c

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h elf

br

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7

Dalton Iceberg Tongue

inter pack ice

&.!+-+[i

Co

Ba

ar

W

Land O ates L and Rennick Glacier

Cape Cheetham

G e or g e

o VC

as

Leningradskaya (Russian Federation)

Cape Freshfield Cape Hudson

Ad é

li e

Cape Goodenough

Porpoise Bay

George V

Mount Minto 4163m

nz

Adélie

Mertz Glacier

Cape Adare

Te r r e

d L a n

Coulman Island

st

Ross S ea

t Coa

Drygalski Ice Tongue

Cape Poinsett

Cape Waldron

274

e

Scot

Mount Erebus 3794m

t

Ross Island

Sa

Co k a s es t

McMurdo (US)

Ninnis Glacier

Edward VII Peninsula

d

Casey (Australia)

in

Mount Lister 4026m Scott Base (NZ)

Bu d

6

Bowman Island

Vincennes Bay

L a n d

293

Mill Island

Kn

W i l k e s

Mount McClintock 3492m

ar y Hillast Co

C

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Dumont d’Urville (France)

Cape Gray

Cape Keltie

Dibble Iceberg Tongue

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POLAR REGIONS

Larsnsen ste Chri oast C

s tain oun M s e l r a

Mount Menzies 3355m

Land

N E A O C

Gustav Bull Mountains

Mac. Robertson

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Skagway Haines

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Mount Chamberlin Kaktovik 2749m

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Geographical comparisons Largest countries countries Russian Federation

Least populous countries 6,592,735 sq miles

(17,075,200 sq km)

Vatican City

3,855,171 sq miles

(9,984,670 sq km)

Nauru

9488

USA

3,794,100 sq miles

(9,826,675 sq km)

Tuvalu

10,782

China

3,705,386 sq miles

(9,596,960 sq km)

Palau

21,186

Brazil

3,286,470 sq miles

(8,511,965 sq km)

San Marino

32,742

Australia

2,967,893 sq miles

(7,686,850 sq km)

Monaco

36,950

India

1,269,339 sq miles

(3,287,590 sq km)

Liechtenstein

Argentina

1,068,296 sq miles

(2,766,890 sq km)

St Kitts & Nevis

51,538

1,049,150 sq miles

(2,717,300 sq km)

Marshall Islands

70,983

919,590 sq miles

(2,381,740 sq km)

Dominica

73,449

Andorra

85,458

Antigua & Barbuda

91,295

Canada

Kazakhstan Algeria

842

37,313

GEOGRAPHICAL COMPARISONS

Smallest countries

296

Vatican City

0.17 sq miles

(0.44 sq km)

Monaco

0.75 sq miles

(1.95 sq km)

8.2 sq miles

(21.2 sq km)

Nauru

Most densely populated countries

Tuvalu

10 sq miles

(26 sq km)

Monaco

49,267 people per sq mile

San Marino

24 sq miles

(61 sq km)

Singapore

23,305 people per sq mile

(9016 per sq km)

Liechtenstein

62 sq miles

(160 sq km)

Vatican City

4953 people per sq mile

(1914 per sq km)

Marshall Islands

70 sq miles

(181 sq km)

Bahrain

4762 people per sq mile

(1841 per sq km)

(261 sq km)

Maldives

3448 people per sq mile

(1333 per sq km)

(300 sq km)

Malta

3226 people per sq mile

(1250 per sq km)

(320 sq km)

Bangladesh

3066 people per sq mile

(1184 per sq km)

Taiwan

1879 people per sq mile

(725 per sq km)

Barbados

1807 people per sq mile

(698 per sq km)

Mauritius

1671 people per sq mile

(645 per sq km)

St. Kitts & Nevis Maldives Malta

Largest islands

101 sq miles 116 sq miles 124 sq miles

To the nearest 1000 – or 100,000 for the largest

Greenland

849,400 sq miles

(2,200,000 sq km)

New Guinea

312,000 sq miles

(808,000 sq km)

Borneo

292,222 sq miles

(757,050 sq km)

Madagascar

229,300 sq miles

(594,000 sq km)

Sumatra

202,300 sq miles

(524,000 sq km)

Baffin Island

183,800 sq miles

(476,000 sq km)

Honshu

88,800 sq miles

(230,000 sq km)

Britain

88,700 sq miles

(229,800 sq km)

Victoria Island

81,900 sq miles

(212,000 sq km)

Ellesmere Island

75,700 sq miles

(196,000 sq km)

Richest countries Monaco

(18,949 per sq km)

Most sparsely populated countries

GNI per capita, in US$

Mongolia

5 people per sq mile

(2 per sq km)

Namibia

7 people per sq mile

(3 per sq km)

Australia

8 people per sq mile

(3 per sq km)

Suriname

8 people per sq mile

(3 per sq km)

Iceland

8 people per sq mile

(3 per sq km)

Botswana

9 people per sq mile

(4 per sq km)

Libya

9 people per sq mile

(4 per sq km)

Mauriania

10 people per sq mile

(4 per sq km)

Canada

10 people per sq mile

(4 per sq km)

Guyana

11 people per sq mile

(4 per sq km)

186,950

Liechtenstein

136,770

Norway

102,610

Switzerland

90,760

Most widely spoken languages

Qatar

86,790

1. Chinese (Mandarin)

6. Arabic

Luxembourg

69,900

2. English

7. Bengali

Australia

65,390

3. Hindi

8. Portuguese

Sweden

61,760

4. Spanish

9. Malay-Indonesian

Denmark

61,680

5. Russian

10. French

Singapore

54,040

Poorest countries

GNI per capita, in US$

Largest conurbations

Urban area population

Burundi

260

Tokyo

37,800,000

Malawi

270

Jakarta

30,500,000

Somalia

288

Manila

24,100,000

Central African Republic

320

Delhi

24,000,000

Niger

400

Karachi

23,500,000

Liberia

410

Seoul

23,500,000

Dem. Rep. Congo

430

Shanghai

23,400,000

Madagascar

440

Beijing

21,000,000

Guinea

460

New York City

20,600,000

Ethiopia

470

Guangzhou

20,600,000

Eritrea

490

São Paulo

20,300,000

Gambia

500

Mexico City

Most populous countries

20,000,000

Mumbai

17,700,000

Osaka

17,400,000

Lagos

17,000,000

China

1,393,800,000

Moscow

16,100,000

India

1,267,400,000

Dhaka

15,700,000

USA

322,600,000

Lahore

15,600,000

Indonesia

252,800,000

Los Angeles

15,000,000

Brazil

202,120,000

Bangkok

15,000,000

Pakistan

185,100,000

Kolkatta

14,700,000

Nigeria

178,500,000

Buenos Aires

14,100,000

Bangladesh

159,000,000

Tehran

13,500,000

Russian Federation

142,500,000

Istanbul

13,300,000

Japan

127,000,000

Shenzhen

12,000,000

Countries with the most land borders 14: China

Greatest waterfalls

(Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Mongolia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, North Korea, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Vietnam)

14: Russian Federation

(Azerbaijan, Belarus, China, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Mongolia, North Korea, Norway, Poland, Ukraine)

10: Brazil

(Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay,

(Angola, Burundi, Central African Republic, Congo, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia)

9: Germany

600,400 cu. ft/sec

(17,000 cu.m/sec)

Khône (Laos/Cambodia)

410,000 cu. ft/sec

(11,600 cu.m/sec)

Niagara (USA/Canada)

195,000 cu. ft/sec

(5500 cu.m/sec)

Grande, Salto (Uruguay)

160,000 cu. ft/sec

(4500 cu.m/sec)

Paulo Afonso (Brazil)

100,000 cu. ft/sec

(2800 cu.m/sec)

97,000 cu. ft/sec

(2750 cu.m/sec)

Iguaçu (Argentina/Brazil)

62,000 cu. ft/sec

(1700 cu.m/sec)

Maribondo, Cachoeira do (Brazil)

53,000 cu. ft/sec

(1500 cu.m/sec)

Victoria (Zimbabwe)

39,000 cu. ft/sec

(1100 cu.m/sec)

Murchison Falls (Uganda)

42,000 cu. ft/sec

(1200 cu.m/sec)

(Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Luxembourg,

Churchill (Canada)

35,000 cu. ft/sec

(1000 cu.m/sec)

Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland)

Kaveri Falls (India)

33,000 cu. ft/sec

(900 cu.m/sec)

8: Austria

(Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Liechtenstein, Slovakia,

8: France

(Andorra, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Monaco,

Slovenia, Switzerland)

Spain, Switzerland) (Burundi, Dem. Rep. Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, Zambia) 8: Turkey

(Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Syria)

8: Zambia

(Angola, Botswana, Dem. Rep.Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, Zimbabwe)

Longest rivers Nile (NE Africa)

4160 miles

(6695 km)

Amazon (South America)

4049 miles

(6516 km)

Yangtze (China)

3915 miles

(6299 km)

Mississippi/Missouri (USA)

3710 miles

(5969 km)

Ob’-Irtysh (Russian Federation)

3461 miles

(5570 km)

Yellow River (China)

3395 miles

(5464 km)

Congo (Central Africa)

2900 miles

(4667 km)

Mekong (Southeast Asia)

2749 miles

(4425 km)

Lena (Russian Federation)

2734 miles

(4400 km)

Mackenzie (Canada)

2640 miles

(4250 km)

Yenisey (Russian Federation)

2541 miles

(4090km)

Highest mountains

Highest waterfalls

* Indicates that the total height is a single leap

Angel (Venezuela)

3212 ft

(979 m)

Tugela (South Africa)

3110 ft

(948 m)

Utigard (Norway)

2625 ft

(800 m)

Mongefossen (Norway)

2539 ft

(774 m)

Mtarazi (Zimbabwe)

2500 ft

(762 m)

Yosemite (USA)

2425 ft

(739 m)

Ostre Mardola Foss (Norway)

2156 ft

(657 m)

Tyssestrengane (Norway)

2119 ft

(646 m)

*Cuquenan (Venezuela)

2001 ft

(610 m)

Sutherland (New Zealand)

1903 ft

(580 m)

*Kjellfossen (Norway)

1841 ft

(561 m)

Largest deserts

NB – Most of Antarctica is a polar desert, with only 50mm of precipitation annually Sahara

3,450,000 sq miles

(9,065,000 sq km)

Gobi

500,000 sq miles

(1,295,000 sq km)

Ar Rub al Khali

289,600 sq miles

(750,000 sq km)

Great Victorian

249,800 sq miles

(647,000 sq km)

Sonoran

120,000 sq miles

(311,000 sq km) (310,800 sq km)

Kalahari

120,000 sq miles

Kara Kum

115,800 sq miles

(300,000 sq km)

Takla Makan

100,400 sq miles

(260,000 sq km)

Namib

52,100 sq miles

(135,000 sq km)

Thar

33,670 sq miles

(130,000 sq km)

Height above sea level

Hottest inhabited places

Everest

29,029 ft

(8848 m)

K2

28,253 ft

(8611 m)

Djibouti (Djibouti)

Kangchenjunga I

28,210 ft

(8598 m)

Tombouctou (Mali)

Makalu I

27,767 ft

(8463 m)

Tirunelveli (India)

Cho Oyu

26,907 ft

(8201 m)

Tuticorin (India)

Dhaulagiri I

26,796 ft

(8167 m)

Nellore (India)

Manaslu I

26,783 ft

(8163 m)

Santa Marta (Colombia)

Nanga Parbat I

26,661 ft

(8126 m)

Aden (Yemen)

Annapurna I

26,547 ft

(8091 m)

Madurai (India)

Gasherbrum I

26,471 ft

(8068 m)

86° F

(30 °C)

84.7° F

(29.3 °C)

84.5° F

(29.2 °C)

84° F

(28.9 °C)

83.8° F

(28.8 °C)

Niamey (Niger) Hodeida (Yemen) Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) Thanjavur (India) Tiruchchirappalli (India)

Largest bodies of inland water Caspian Sea Lake Superior Lake Victoria

With area and depth 143,243 sq miles (371,000 sq km)

3215 ft (980 m)

31,151 sq miles (83,270 sq km)

1289 ft (393 m)

26,828 sq miles (69,484 sq km)

328 ft (100 m)

Lake Huron

23,436 sq miles (60,700 sq km)

751 ft (229 m)

Lake Michigan

22,402 sq miles (58,020 sq km)

922 ft (281 m)

Lake Tanganyika

12,703 sq miles (32,900 sq km)

4700 ft (1435 m)

Great Bear Lake

12,274 sq miles (31,790 sq km)

1047 ft (319 m)

Lake Baikal

11,776 sq miles (30,500 sq km)

5712 ft (1741 m)

Great Slave Lake

10,981 sq miles (28,440 sq km)

459 ft (140 m)

9,915 sq miles (25,680 sq km)

197 ft (60 m)

Lake Erie

Driest inhabited places Aswân (Egypt)

0.02 in

(0.5 mm)

Luxor (Egypt)

0.03 in

(0.7 mm)

Arica (Chile)

0.04 in

(1.1 mm)

0.1 in

(2.3 mm)

Antofagasta (Chile)

0.2 in

(4.9 mm)

Al Minya (Egypt)

0.2 in

(5.1 mm)

Asyut (Egypt)

0.2 in

(5.2 mm)

Ica (Peru)

Callao (Peru)

0.5 in

(12.0 mm)

Trujillo (Peru)

0.55 in

(14.0 mm)

0.8 in

(19.0 mm)

Al Fayyum (Egypt)

Deepest ocean features

Wettest inhabited places

Challenger Deep, Mariana Trench (Pacific)

35,827 ft

(10,920 m)

Mawsynram (India)

467 in

(11,862 mm)

Vityaz III Depth, Tonga Trench (Pacific)

35,704 ft

(10,882 m)

Mount Waialeale (Hawaii, USA)

460 in

(11,684 mm)

Vityaz Depth, Kuril-Kamchatka Trench (Pacific)

34,588 ft

(10,542 m)

Cherrapunji (India)

450 in

(11,430 mm)

Cape Johnson Deep, Philippine Trench (Pacific)

34,441 ft

(10,497 m)

Cape Debundsha (Cameroon)

405 in

(10,290 mm)

Kermadec Trench (Pacific)

32,964 ft

(10,047 m)

Quibdo (Colombia)

354 in

(8892 mm)

Ramapo Deep, Japan Trench (Pacific)

32,758 ft

(9984 m)

Buenaventura (Colombia)

265 in

(6743 mm)

Milwaukee Deep, Puerto Rico Trench (Atlantic)

30,185 ft

(9200 m)

Monrovia (Liberia)

202 in

(5131 mm)

Argo Deep, Torres Trench (Pacific)

30,070 ft

(9165 m)

Pago Pago (American Samoa)

196 in

(4990 mm)

Meteor Depth, South Sandwich Trench (Atlantic)

30,000 ft

(9144 m)

Mawlamyine (Myanmar [Burma])

191 in

(4852 mm)

Planet Deep, New Britain Trench (Pacific)

29,988 ft

(9140 m)

Lae (Papua New Guinea)

183 in

(4645 mm)

GEOGRAPHICAL COMPARISONS

8: Tanzania

Boyoma (Dem. Rep. Congo)

Urubupungá, Salto do (Brazil)

Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela) 9: Congo, Dem. Rep.

Mean flow of water

297

Countries of the World

Country factfile key

There are currently 196 independent countries in the world – more than at any previous time – and almost 60 dependencies. Antarctica is the only land area on Earth that is not officially part of, and does not belong to, any single country. In 1950, the world comprised 82 countries. In the decades following, many more states came into being as they achieved independence from their former colonial rulers. Most recent additions were caused by the breakup of the former Soviet Union in 1991, and the former Yugoslavia in 1992, which swelled the ranks of independent states. In July 2011, South Sudan became the latest country to be formed after declaring independence from Sudan.

AFGHANISTAN

COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD

Central Asia

ANTIGUA & BARBUDA West Indies

AZERBAIJAN Southwest Asia

Formation Date of independence / date current borders were established Population Total population / population density – based on total land area

BELARUS Eastern Europe

Languages An asterisk (*) denotes the official language(s) Calorie consumption Average number of calories consumed daily per person

BOLIVIA South America

Official name Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Formation 1919 / 1919 Capital Kabul Population 31.3 million / 124 people per sq mile (48 people per sq km) Total area 250,000 sq. miles (647,500 sq. km) Languages Pashtu*, Tajik, Dari*, Farsi, Uzbek, Turkmen Religions Sunni Muslim 80%, Shi’a Muslim 19%, Other 1% Ethnic mix Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Hazara 19%, Uzbek and Turkmen 15%, Other 3% Government Nonparty system Currency Afghani = 100 puls Literacy rate rate 32% Calorie consumption 2090 kilocalories

Official name Antigua and Barbuda Formation 1981 / 1981 Capital St. John’s Population 91,295 / 537 people per sq mile (207 people per sq km) Total area 170 sq. miles (442 sq. km) Languages English*, English patois Religions Anglican 45%, Other Protestant 42%, Roman Catholic 10%, Other 2%, Rastafarian 1% Ethnic mix Black African 95%, Other 5% Government Parliamentary system Currency East Caribbean dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 2396 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Azerbaijan Formation 1991 / 1991 Capital Baku Population 9.5 million / 284 people per sq mile (110 people per sq km) Total area 33,436 sq. miles (86,600 sq. km) Languages Azeri*, Russian Religions Shi’a Muslim 68%, Sunni Muslim 26%, Russian Orthodox 3%, Armenian Apostolic Church (Orthodox) 2%, Other 1% Ethnic mix Azeri 91%, Other 3%, Lazs 2%, Armenian 2%, Russian 2% Government Presidential system Currency New manat = 100 gopik Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 2952 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Belarus Formation 1991 / 1991 Capital Minsk Population 9.3 million / 116 people per sq mile (45 people per sq km) Total area 80,154 sq. miles (207,600 sq. km) Languages Belarussian*, Russian* Religions Orthodox Christian 80%, Roman Catholic 14%, Other 4%, Protestant 2% Ethnic mix Belarussian 81%, Russian 11%, Polish 4%, Ukrainian 2%, Other 2% Government Presidential system Currency Belarussian rouble = 100 kopeks Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3253 kilocalories

Official name Plurinational State of Bolivia Formation 1825 / 1938 Capital La Paz (administrative); Sucre (judicial) Population 10.8 million / 26 people per sq mile (10 people per sq km) Total area 424,162 sq. miles (1,098,580 sq. km) Languages Aymara*, Quechua*, Spanish* Religions Roman Catholic 93%, Other 7% Ethnic mix Quechua 37%, Aymara 32%, Mixed race 13%, European 10%, Other 8% Government Presidential system Currency Boliviano = 100 centavos Literacy rate 94% Calorie consumption 2254 kilocalories

ALBANIA

ARGENTINA

THE BAHAMAS

BELGIUM

BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA

Southeast Europe

South America

West Indies

Northwest Europe

Southeast Europe

Official name Republic of Albania Formation 1912 / 1921 Capital Tirana Population 3.2 million / 302 people per sq mile (117 people per sq km) Total area 11,100 sq. miles (28,748 sq. km) Languages Albanian*, Greek Religions Sunni Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10% Ethnic mix Albanian 98%, Greek 1%, Other 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency Lek = 100 qindarka (qintars) Literacy rate 97% Calorie consumption 3023 kilocalories

Official name Argentine Republic Formation 1816 / 1816 Capital Buenos Aires Population 41.8 million / 40 people per sq mile (15 people per sq km) Total area 1,068,296 sq. miles (2,766,890 sq. km) Languages Spanish*, Italian, Amerindian languages Religions Roman Catholic 70%, Other 18%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 2%, Jewish 1% Ethnic mix Indo-European 97%, Mestizo 2%, Amerindian 1% Government Presidential system Currency Argentine peso = 100 centavos Literacy rate 98% Calorie consumption 3155 kilocalories

Official name Commonwealth of The Bahamas Formation 1973 / 1973 Capital Nassau Population 400,000 / 103 people per sq mile (40 people per sq km) Total area 5382 sq. miles (13,940 sq. km) Languages English*, English Creole, French Creole Religions Baptist 32%, Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%, Other 17%, Methodist 6%, Church of God 6% Ethnic mix Black African 85%, European 12%, Asian and Hispanic 3% Government Parliamentary system Currency Bahamian dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 96% Calorie consumption 2575 kilocalories

Official name Kingdom of Belgium Formation 1830 / 1919 Capital Brussels Population 11.1 million / 876 people per sq mile (338 people per sq km) Total area 11,780 sq. miles (30,510 sq. km) Languages Dutch*, French*, German* Religions Roman Catholic 88%, Other 10%, Muslim 2% Ethnic mix Fleming 58%, Walloon 33%, Other 6%, Italian 2%, Moroccan 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency Euro = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3793 kilocalories

Official name Bosnia and Herzegovina Formation 1992 / 1992 Capital Sarajevo Population 3.8 million / 192 people per sq mile (74 people per sq km) Total area 19,741 sq. miles (51,129 sq. km) Languages Bosnian*, Serbian*, Croatian* Religions Muslim (mainly Sunni) 40%, Orthodox Christian 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, Other 10%, Protestant 4% Ethnic mix Bosniak 48%, Serb 34%, Croat 16%, Other 2% Government Parliamentary system Currency Marka = 100 pfeninga Literacy rate 98% Calorie consumption 3130 kilocalories

ALGERIA

ARMENIA

BAHRAIN

BELIZE

BOTSWANA

298

North Africa

Southwest Asia

Southwest Asia

Central America

Southern Africa

Official name People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria Formation 1962 / 1962 Capital Algiers Population 39.9 million / 43 people per sq mile (17 people per sq km) Total area 919,590 sq. miles (2,381,740 sq. km) Languages Arabic*, Tamazight (Kabyle, Shawia, Tamashek), French Religions Sunni Muslim 99%, Christian and Jewish 1% Ethnic mix Arab 75%, Berber 24%, European and Jewish 1% Government Presidential system Currency Algerian dinar = 100 centimes Literacy rate 73% Calorie consumption 3296 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Armenia Formation 1991 / 1991 Capital Yerevan Population 3 million / 261 people per sq mile (101 people per sq km) Total area 11,506 sq. miles (29,800 sq. km) Languages Armenian*, Azeri, Russian Religions Armenian Apostolic Church (Orthodox) 88%, Armenian Catholic Church 6%, Other 6% Ethnic mix Armenian 98%, Other 1%, Yezidi 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency Dram = 100 luma Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 2809 kilocalories

Official name Kingdom of Bahrain Formation 1971 / 1971 Capital Manama Population 1.3 million / 4762 people per sq mile (1841 people per sq km) Total area 239 sq. miles (620 sq. km) Languages Arabic* Religions Muslim (mainly Shi’a) 99%, Other 1% Ethnic mix Bahraini 63%, Asian 19%, Other Arab 10%, Iranian 8% Government Mixed monarchical– parliamentary system Currency Bahraini dinar = 1000 fils Literacy rate 95% Calorie consumption Not available

Official name Belize Formation 1981 / 1981 Capital Belmopan Population 300,000 / 34 people per sq mile (13 people per sq km) Total area 8867 sq. miles (22,966 sq. km) Languages English Creole, Spanish, English*, Mayan, Garifuna (Carib) Religions Roman Catholic 62%, Other 13%, Anglican 12%, Methodist 6%, Mennonite 4%, Seventh-day Adventist 3% Ethnic mix Mestizo 49%, Creole 25%, Maya 11%, Garifuna 6%, Other 6%, Asian Indian 3% Government Parliamentary system Currency Belizean dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 75% Calorie consumption 2751 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Botswana Formation 1966 / 1966 Capital Gaborone Population 2 million / 9 people per sq mile (4 people per sq km) Total area 231,803 sq. miles (600,370 sq. km) Languages Setswana, English*, Shona, San, Khoikhoi, isiNdebele Religions Christian (mainly Protestant) 70%, Nonreligious 20%, Traditional beliefs 6%, Other (including Muslim) 4% Ethnic mix Tswana 79%, Kalanga 11%, Other 10% Government Presidential system Currency Pula = 100 thebe Literacy rate 87% Calorie consumption 2285 kilocalories

ANDORRA

AUSTRALIA

BANGLADESH

BENIN

BRAZIL

Southwest Europe

Australasia & Oceania

Official name Principality of Andorra Formation 1278 / 1278 Capital Andorra la Vella Population 85,485 / 475 people per sq mile (184 people per sq km) Total area 181 sq. miles (468 sq. km) Languages Spanish, Catalan*, French, Portuguese Religions Roman Catholic 94%, Other 6% Ethnic mix Spanish 46%, Andorran 28%, Other 18%, French 8% Government Parliamentary system Currency Euro = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption Not available

Official name Commonwealth of Australia Formation 1901 / 1901 Capital Canberra Population 23.6 million / 8 people per sq mile (3 people per sq km) Total area 2,967,893 sq. miles (7,686,850 sq. km) Languages English*, Italian, Cantonese, Greek, Arabic, Vietnamese, Aboriginal languages Religions Roman Catholic 26%, Nonreligious 19%, Anglican 19%, Other 17%, Other Christian 13%, United Church 6% Ethnic mix European origin 50%, Australian 25.5%,

ANGOLA

AUSTRIA

Southern Africa Official name Republic of Angola Formation 1975 / 1975 Capital Luanda Population 22.1 million / 46 people per sq mile (18 people per sq km) Total area 481,351 sq. miles (1,246,700 sq. km) Languages Portuguese*, Umbundu, Kimbundu, Kikongo Religions Roman Catholic 68%, Protestant 20%, Indigenous beliefs 12% Ethnic mix Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Other 25%, Bakongo 13% Government Presidential system Currency Readjusted kwanza = 100 lwei Literacy rate 71% Calorie consumption 2473 kilocalories

other 19%, Asian 5%, Aboriginal 0.5%

Government Parliamentary system Currency Australian dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3265 kilocalories

Central Europe Official name Republic of Austria Formation 1918 / 1919 Capital Vienna Population 8.5 million / 266 people per sq mile (103 people per sq km) Total area 32,378 sq. miles (83,858 sq. km) Languages German*, Croatian, Slovenian, Hungarian (Magyar) Religions Roman Catholic 78%, Nonreligious 9%, Other (including Jewish and Muslim) 8%, Protestant 5% Ethnic mix Austrian 93%, Croat, Slovene, and Hungarian 6%, Other 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency Euro = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3784 kilocalories

South Asia

West Africa

South America

Official name People’s Republic of Bangladesh Formation 1971 / 1971 Capital Dhaka Population 159 million / 3066 people per sq mile (1184 people per sq km) Total area 55,598 sq. miles (144,000 sq. km) Languages Bengali*, Urdu, Chakma, Marma (Magh), Garo, Khasi, Santhali, Tripuri, Mro Religions Muslim (mainly Sunni) 88%, Hindu 11%, Other 1% Ethnic mix Bengali 98%, Other 2% Government Parliamentary system Currency Taka = 100 poisha Literacy rate 59% Calorie consumption 2450 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Benin Formation 1960 / 1960 Capital Porto-Novo Population 10.6 million / 248 people per sq mile (96 people per sq km) Total area 43,483 sq. miles (112,620 sq. km) Languages Fon, Bariba, Yoruba, Adja, Houeda, Somba, French* Religions Indigenous beliefs and Voodoo 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20% Ethnic mix Fon 41%, Other 21%, Adja 16%, Yoruba 12%, Bariba 10% Government Presidential system Currency CFA franc = 100 centimes Literacy rate 29% Calorie consumption 2594 kilocalories

Official name Federative Republic of Brazil Formation 1822 / 1828 Capital Brasília Population 202 million / 62 people per sq mile (24 people per sq km) Total area 3,286,470 sq. miles (8,511,965 sq. km) Languages Portuguese*, German, Italian, Spanish, Polish, Japanese, Amerindian languages Religions Roman Catholic 74%, Protestant 15%, Atheist 7%, Other 3%, Afro-American Spiritist 1% Ethnic mix White 54%, Mixed race 38%, Black 6%, Other 2% Government Presidential system Currency Real = 100 centavos Literacy rate 91% Calorie consumption 3263 kilocalories

BARBADOS

BHUTAN

BRUNEI

West Indies Official name Barbados Formation 1966 / 1966 Capital Bridgetown Population 300,000 / 1807 people per sq mile (698 people per sq km) Total area 166 sq. miles (430 sq. km) Languages Bajan (Barbadian English), English* Religions Anglican 40%, Other 24%, Nonreligious 17%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist 7%, Roman Catholic 4% Ethnic mix Black African 92%, White 3%, Other 3%, Mixed race 2% Government Parliamentary system Currency Barbados dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3047 kilocalories

South Asia Official name Kingdom of Bhutan Formation 1656 / 1865 Capital Thimphu Population 800,000 / 44 people per sq mile (17 people per sq km) Total area 18,147 sq. miles (47,000 sq. km) Languages Dzongkha*, Nepali, Assamese Religions Mahayana Buddhist 75%, Hindu 25% Ethnic mix Drukpa 50%, Nepalese 35%, Other 15% Government Mixed monarchical– parliamentary system Currency Ngultrum = 100 chetrum Literacy rate 53% Calorie consumption Not available

Southeast Asia Official name Brunei Darussalam Formation 1984 / 1984 Capital Bandar Seri Begawan Population 400,000 / 197 people per sq mile (76 people per sq km) Total area 2228 sq. miles (5770 sq. km) Languages Malay*, English, Chinese Religions Muslim (mainly Sunni) 66%, Buddhist 14%, Other 10%, Christian 10% Ethnic mix Malay 67%, Chinese 16%, Other 11%, Indigenous 6% Government Monarchy Currency Brunei dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 95% Calorie consumption 2949 kilocalories

BULGARIA Southeast Europe

CAPE VERDE Atlantic Ocean

COMOROS Indian Ocean

CYPRUS Southeast Europe

EAST TIMOR Southeast Asia

Official name Republic of Bulgaria Formation 1908 / 1947 Capital Sofia Population 7.2 million / 169 people per sq mile (65 people per sq km) Total area 42,822 sq. miles (110,910 sq. km) Languages Bulgarian*, Turkish, Romani Religions Bulgarian Orthodox 83%, Muslim 12%, Other 4%, Roman Catholic 1% Ethnic mix Bulgarian 84%, Turkish 9%, Roma 5%, Other 2% Government Parliamentary system Currency Lev = 100 stotinki Literacy rate 98% Calorie consumption 2877 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Cape Verde Formation 1975 / 1975 Capital Praia Population 500,000 / 321 people per sq mile (124 people per sq km) Total area 1557 sq. miles (4033 sq. km) Languages Portuguese Creole, Portuguese* Religions Roman Catholic 97%, Other 2%, Protestant (Church of the Nazarene) 1% Ethnic mix Mestiço 71%, African 28%, European 1% Government Mixed presidential– parliamentary system Currency Escudo = 100 centavos Literacy rate 85% Calorie consumption 2716 kilocalories

Official name Union of the Comoros Formation 1975 / 1975 Capital Moroni Population 800,000 / 929 people per sq mile (359 people per sq km) Total area 838 sq. miles (2170 sq. km) Languages Arabic*, Comoran*, French* Religions Muslim (mainly Sunni) 98%, Other 1%, Roman Catholic 1% Ethnic mix Comoran 97%, Other 3% Government Presidential system Currency Comoros franc = 100 centimes Literacy rate 76% Calorie consumption 2139 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Cyprus Formation 1960 / 1960 Capital Nicosia Population 1.2 million / 336 people per sq mile (130 people per sq km) Total area 3571 sq. miles (9250 sq. km) Languages Greek*, Turkish* Religions Orthodox Christian 78%, Muslim 18%, Other 4% Ethnic mix Greek 81%, Turkish 11%, Other 8% Government Presidential system Currency Euro = 100 cents; (TRNC: new Turkish lira = 100 kurus) Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 2661 kilocalories

Official name Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste Formation 2002 / 2002 Capital Dili Population 1.2 million / 213 people per sq mile (82 people per sq km) Total area 5756 sq. miles (14,874 sq. km) Languages Tetum (Portuguese/Austronesian)*, Bahasa Indonesia, Portuguese* Religions Roman Catholic 95%, Other (including Muslim and Protestant) 5% Ethnic mix Papuan groups approx 85%, Indonesian approx 13%, Chinese 2% Government Parliamentary system Currency US dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 58% Calorie consumption 2083 kilocalories

BURKINA FASO

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

CONGO

CZECH REPUBLIC

ECUADOR

West Africa

BURUNDI Central Africa Official name Republic of Burundi Formation 1962 / 1962 Capital Bujumbura Population 10.5 million / 1060 people per sq mile (409 people per sq km) Total area 10,745 sq. miles (27,830 sq. km) Languages Kirundi*, French*, Kiswahili Religions Roman Catholic 62%, Traditional beliefs 23%, Muslim 10%, Protestant 5% Ethnic mix Hutu 85%, Tutsi 14%, Twa 1% Government Presidential system Currency Burundian franc = 100 centimes Literacy rate 87% Calorie consumption 1604 kilocalories

CAMBODIA Southeast Asia

Official name Central African Republic Formation 1960 / 1960 Capital Bangui Population 4.7 million / 20 people per sq mile (8 people per sq km) Total area 240,534 sq. miles (622,984 sq. km) Languages Sango, Banda, Gbaya, French* Religions Traditional beliefs 35%, Roman Catholic 25%, Protestant 25%, Muslim 15% Ethnic mix Baya 33%, Banda 27%, Other 17%, Mandjia 13%, Sara 10% Government Transitional regime Currency CFA franc = 100 centimes Literacy rate 37% Calorie consumption 2154 kilocalories

CHAD Central Africa

Central Europe

South America

Official name Republic of the Congo Formation 1960 / 1960 Capital Brazzaville Population 4.6 million / 35 people per sq mile (13 people per sq km) Total area 132,046 sq. miles (342,000 sq. km) Languages Kongo, Teke, Lingala, French* Religions Traditional beliefs 50%, Roman Catholic 35%, Protestant 13%, Muslim 2% Ethnic mix Bakongo 51%, Teke 17%, Other 16%, Mbochi 11%, Mbédé 5% Government Presidential system Currency CFA franc = 100 centimes Literacy rate 79% Calorie consumption 2195 kilocalories

Official name Czech Republic Formation 1993 / 1993 Capital Prague Population 10.7 million / 351 people per sq mile (136 people per sq km) Total area 30,450 sq. miles (78,866 sq. km) Languages Czech*, Slovak, Hungarian (Magyar) Religions Roman Catholic 39%, Atheist 38%, Other 18%, Protestant 3%, Hussite 2% Ethnic mix Czech 90%, Moravian 4%, Other 4%, Slovak 2% Government Parliamentary system Currency Czech koruna = 100 haleru Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3292 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Ecuador Formation 1830 / 1942 Capital Quito Population 16 million / 150 people per sq mile (58 people per sq km) Total area 109,483 sq. miles (283,560 sq. km) Languages Spanish*, Quechua, other Amerindian languages Religions Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant, Jewish, and other 5% Ethnic mix Mestizo 77%, White 11%, Amerindian 7%, Black African 5% Government Presidential system Currency US dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 93% Calorie consumption 2477 kilocalories

CONGO, DEM. REP.

DENMARK

EGYPT

Central Africa

Northern Europe

North Africa

Official name Republic of Chad Formation 1960 / 1960 Capital N’Djaména Population 13.2 million / 27 people per sq mile (10 people per sq km) Total area 495,752 sq. miles (1,284,000 sq. km) Languages French*, Sara, Arabic*, Maba Religions Muslim 51%, Christian 35%, Animist 7%, Traditional beliefs 7% Ethnic mix Other 30%, Sara 28%, Mayo-Kebbi 12%, Arab 12%, Ouaddai 9%, Kanem-Bornou 9% Government Presidential system Currency CFA franc = 100 centimes Literacy rate 37% Calorie consumption 2110 kilocalories

Official name Democratic Republic of the Congo Formation 1960 / 1960 Capital Kinshasa Population 69.4 million / 79 people per sq mile (31 people per sq km) Total area 905,563 sq. miles (2,345,410 sq. km) Languages Kiswahili, Tshiluba, Kikongo, Lingala, French* Religions Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Traditional beliefs and other 10%, Muslim 10%, Kimbanguist 10% Ethnic mix Other 55%, Mongo, Luba, Kongo, and Mangbetu-Azande 45% Government Presidential system Currency Congolese franc = 100 centimes Literacy rate 61% Calorie consumption 1585 kilocalories

Official name Kingdom of Denmark Formation 950 / 1944 Capital Copenhagen Population 5.6 million / 342 people per sq mile (132 people per sq km) Total area 16,639 sq. miles (43,094 sq. km) Languages Danish* Religions Evangelical Lutheran 95%, Roman Catholic 3%, Muslim 2% Ethnic mix Danish 96%, Other (including Scandinavian and Turkish) 3%, Faeroese and Inuit 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency Danish krone = 100 øre Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3363 kilocalories

Official name Arab Republic of Egypt Formation 1936 / 1982 Capital Cairo Population 83.4 million / 217 people per sq mile (84 people per sq km) Total area 386,660 sq. miles (1,001,450 sq. km) Languages Arabic*, French, English, Berber Religions Muslim (mainly Sunni) 90%, Coptic Christian and other 9%, Other Christian 1% Ethnic mix Egyptian 99%, Nubian, Armenian, Greek, and Berber 1% Government Transitional regime Currency Egyptian pound = 100 piastres Literacy rate 74% Calorie consumption 3557 kilocalories

CHILE

COSTA RICA

DJIBOUTI

EL SALVADOR

South America

Central America

East Africa

Central America

Official name Kingdom of Cambodia Formation 1953 / 1953 Capital Phnom Penh Population 15.4 million / 226 people per sq mile (87 people per sq km) Total area 69,900 sq. miles (181,040 sq. km) Languages Khmer*, French, Chinese, Vietnamese, Cham Religions Buddhist 93%, Muslim 6%, Christian 1% Ethnic mix Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Other 4%, Chinese 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency Riel = 100 sen Literacy rate 74% Calorie consumption 2411 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Chile Formation 1818 / 1883 Capital Santiago Population 17.8 million / 62 people per sq mile (24 people per sq km) Total area 292,258 sq. miles (756,950 sq. km) Languages Spanish*, Amerindian languages Religions Roman Catholic 89%, Other and nonreligious 11% Ethnic mix Mestizo and European 90%, Other Amerindian 9%, Mapuche 1% Government Presidential system Currency Chilean peso = 100 centavos Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 2989 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Costa Rica Formation 1838 / 1838 Capital San José Population 4.9 million / 249 people per sq mile (96 people per sq km) Total area 19,730 sq. miles (51,100 sq. km) Languages Spanish*, English Creole, Bribri, Cabecar Religions Roman Catholic 71%, Evangelical 14%, Nonreligious 11%, Other 4% Ethnic mix Mestizo and European 94%, Black 3%, Other 1%, Chinese 1%, Amerindian 1% Government Presidential system Currency Costa Rican colón = 100 céntimos Literacy rate 97% Calorie consumption 2898 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Djibouti Formation 1977 / 1977 Capital Djibouti Population 900,000 / 101 people per sq mile (39 people per sq km) Total area 8494 sq. miles (22,000 sq. km) Languages Somali, Afar, French*, Arabic* Religions Muslim (mainly Sunni) 94%, Christian 6% Ethnic mix Issa 60%, Afar 35%, Other 5% Government Presidential system Currency Djibouti franc = 100 centimes Literacy rate 70% Calorie consumption 2526 kilocalories

Official name Republic of El Salvador Formation 1841 / 1841 Capital San Salvador Population 6.4 million / 800 people per sq mile (309 people per sq km) Total area 8124 sq. miles (21,040 sq. km) Languages Spanish* Religions Roman Catholic 80%, Evangelical 18%, Other 2% Ethnic mix Mestizo 90%, White 9%, Amerindian 1% Government Presidential system Currency Salvadorean colón = 100 centavos; and US dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 86% Calorie consumption 2513 kilocalories

CAMEROON

CHINA

CROATIA

DOMINICA

EQUATORIAL GUINEA

Central Africa

East Asia

Southeast Europe

West Indies

Central Africa

Official name Republic of Cameroon Formation 1960 / 1961 Capital Yaoundé Population 22.8 million / 127 people per sq mile (49 people per sq km) Total area 183,567 sq. miles (475,400 sq. km) Languages Bamileke, Fang, Fulani, French*, English* Religions Roman Catholic 35%, Traditional beliefs 25%, Muslim 22%, Protestant 18% Ethnic mix Cameroon highlanders 31%, Other 21%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8% Government Presidential system Currency CFA franc = 100 centimes Literacy rate 71% Calorie consumption 2586 kilocalories

Official name People’s Republic of China Formation 960 / 1999 Capital Beijing Population 1.39 billion / 387 people per sq mile (149 people per sq km) Total area 3,705,386 sq. miles (9,596,960 sq. km) Languages Mandarin*, Wu, Cantonese, Hsiang, Min, Hakka, Kan Religions Nonreligious 59%, Traditional beliefs 20%, Other 13%, Buddhist 6%, Muslim 2% Ethnic mix Han 92%, Other 4%, Hui 1%, Miao 1%, Manchu 1%, Zhuang 1% Government One-party state Currency Renminbi (known as yuan) = 10 jiao = 100 fen Literacy rate 95% Calorie consumption 3108 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Croatia Formation 1991 / 1991 Capital Zagreb Population 4.3 million / 197 people per sq mile (76 people per sq km) Total area 21,831 sq. miles (56,542 sq. km) Languages Croatian* Religions Roman Catholic 88%, Other 7%, Orthodox Christian 4%, Muslim 1% Ethnic mix Croat 90%, Other 5%, Serb 5% Government Parliamentary system Currency Kuna = 100 lipa Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3052 kilocalories

Official name Commonwealth of Dominica Formation 1978 / 1978 Capital Roseau Population 73,449 / 253 people per sq mile (98 people per sq km) Total area 291 sq. miles (754 sq. km) Languages French Creole, English* Religions Roman Catholic 77%, Protestant 15%, Other 8% Ethnic mix Black 87%, Mixed race 9%, Carib 3%, Other 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency East Caribbean dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 88% Calorie consumption 3047 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Equatorial Guinea Formation 1968 / 1968 Capital Malabo Population 800,000 / 74 people per sq mile (29 people per sq km) Total area 10,830 sq. miles (28,051 sq. km) Languages Spanish*, Fang, Bubi, French* Religions Roman Catholic 90%, Other 10% Ethnic mix Fang 85%, Other 11%, Bubi 4% Government Presidential system Currency CFA franc = 100 centimes Literacy rate 94% Calorie consumption Not available

CANADA

COLOMBIA

CUBA

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

ERITREA

North America Official name Canada Formation 1867 / 1949 Capital Ottawa Population 35.5 million / 10 people per sq mile (4 people per sq km) Total area 3,855,171 sq. miles (9,984,670 sq. km) Languages English*, French*, Chinese, Italian, German, Ukrainian, Portuguese, Inuktitut, Cree Religions Roman Catholic 44%, Protestant 29%, Other and nonreligious 27% Ethnic mix European origin 66%, other 27%, Asian 5%, Amerindian 2%

Government Parliamentary system Currency Canadian dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3419 kilocalories

South America Official name Republic of Colombia Formation 1819 / 1903 Capital Bogotá Population 48.9 million / 122 people per sq mile (47 people per sq km) Total area 439,733 sq. miles (1,138,910 sq. km) Languages Spanish*, Wayuu, Páez, and other Amerindian languages Religions Roman Catholic 95%, Other 5% Ethnic mix Mestizo 58%, White 20%, European– African 14%, African 4%, African–Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1% Government Presidential system Currency Colombian peso = 100 centavos Literacy rate 94% Calorie consumption 2804 kilocalories

West Indies Official name Republic of Cuba Formation 1902 / 1902 Capital Havana Population 11.3 million / 264 people per sq mile (102 people per sq km) Total area 42,803 sq. miles (110,860 sq. km) Languages Spanish* Religions Nonreligious 49%, Roman Catholic 40%, Atheist 6%, Other 4%, Protestant 1% Ethnic mix Mulatto (mixed race) 51%, White 37%, Black 11%, Chinese 1% Government One-party state Currency Cuban peso = 100 centavos Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3277 kilocalories

West Indies Official name Dominican Republic Formation 1865 / 1865 Capital Santo Domingo Population 10.5 million / 562people per sq mile (217 people per sq km) Total area 18,679 sq. miles (48,380 sq. km) Languages Spanish*, French Creole Religions Roman Catholic 95%, Other and nonreligious 5% Ethnic mix Mixed race 73%, European 16%, Black African 11% Government Presidential system Currency Dominican Republic peso = 100 centavos Literacy rate 91% Calorie consumption 2614 kilocalories

East Africa Official name State of Eritrea Formation 1993 / 2002 Capital Asmara Population 6.5 million / 143 people per sq mile (55 people per sq km) Total area 46,842 sq. miles (121,320 sq. km) Languages Tigrinya*, English*, Tigre, Afar, Arabic*, Saho, Bilen, Kunama, Nara, Hadareb Religions Christian 50%, Muslim 48%, Other 2% Ethnic mix Tigray 50%, Tigre 31%, Other 9%, Afar 5%, Saho 5% Government Mixed presidential– parliamentary system Currency Nakfa = 100 cents Literacy rate 70% Calorie consumption 1640 kilocalories

COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD

Official name Burkina Faso Formation 1960 / 1960 Capital Ouagadougou Population 17.4 million / 165 people per sq mile (64 people per sq km) Total area 105,869 sq. miles (274,200 sq. km) Languages Mossi, Fulani, French*, Tuare g, Dyula, Songhai Religions Muslim 55%, Christian 25%, Traditional beliefs 20% Ethnic mix Mossi 48%, Other 21%, Peul 10%, Lobi 7%, Bobo 7%, Mandé 7% Government Transitional regime Currency CFA franc = 100 centimes Literacy rate 29% Calorie consumption 2720 kilocalories

Central Africa

Central Africa

299

ESTONIA Northeast Europe

COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD

West Africa

GUATEMALA Central America

HUNGARY Central Europe

IRELAND Northwest Europe

Official name Republic of Estonia Formation 1991 / 1991 Capital Tallinn Population 1.3 million / 75 people per sq mile (29 people per sq km) Total area 17,462 sq. miles (45,226 sq. km) Languages Estonian*, Russian Religions Evangelical Lutheran 56%, Orthodox Christian 25%, Other 19% Ethnic mix Estonian 69%, Russian 25%, Other 4%, Ukrainian 2% Government Parliamentary system Currency Euro = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3214 kilocalories

Official name Republic of the Gambia Formation 1965 / 1965 Capital Banjul Population 1.9 million / 492 people per sq mile (190 people per sq km) Total area 4363 sq. miles (11,300 sq. km) Languages Mandinka, Fulani, Wolof, Jola, Soninke, English* Religions Sunni Muslim 90%, Christian 8%, Traditional beliefs 2% Ethnic mix Mandinka 42%, Fulani 18%, Wolof 16%, Jola 10%, Serahuli 9%, Other 5% Government Presidential system Currency Dalasi = 100 butut Literacy rate 52% Calorie consumption 2849 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Guatemala Formation 1838 / 1838 Capital Guatemala City Population 15.9 million / 380 people per sq mile (147 people per sq km) Total area 42,042 sq. miles (108,890 sq. km) Languages Quiché, Mam, Cakchiquel, Kekchí, Spanish* Religions Roman Catholic 65%, Protestant 33%, Other and nonreligious 2% Ethnic mix Amerindian 60%, Mestizo 30%, Other 10% Government Presidential system Currency Quetzal = 100 centavos Literacy rate 78% Calorie consumption 2419 kilocalories

Official name Hungary Formation 1918 / 1947 Capital Budapest Population 9.9 million / 278 people per sq mile (107 people per sq km) Total area 35,919 sq. miles (93,030 sq. km) Languages Hungarian (Magyar)* Religions Roman Catholic 52%, Calvinist 16%, Other 15%, Nonreligious 14%, Lutheran 3% Ethnic mix Magyar 90%, Roma 4%, German 3%, Serb 2%, Other 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency Forint = 100 fillér Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 2968 kilocalories

Official name Ireland Formation 1922 / 1922 Capital Dublin Population 4.7 million / 177 people per sq mile (68 people per sq km) Total area 27,135 sq. miles (70,280 sq. km) Languages English*, Irish* Religions Roman Catholic 87%, Other and nonreligious 10%, Anglican 3% Ethnic mix Irish 99%, Other 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency Euro = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3591 kilocalories

ETHIOPIA

GEORGIA

GUINEA

ICELAND

ISRAEL

East Africa

300

GAMBIA

Southwest Asia

West Africa

Northwest Europe

Southwest Asia

Official name Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Formation 1896 / 2002 Capital Addis Ababa Population 96.5 million / 225 people per sq mile (87 people per sq km) Total area 435,184 sq. miles (1,127,127 sq. km) Languages Amharic*, Tigrinya, Galla, Sidamo, Somali, English, Arabic Religions Orthodox Christian 40%, Muslim 40%, Traditional beliefs 15%, Other 5% Ethnic mix Oromo 40%, Amhara 25%, Other 13%, Sidama 9%, Tigray 7%, Somali 6% Government Parliamentary system Currency Birr = 100 cents Literacy rate 39% Calorie consumption 2131 kilocalories

Official name Georgia Formation 1991 / 1991 Capital Tbilisi Population 4.3 million / 160 people per sq mile (62 people per sq km) Total area 26,911 sq. miles (69,700 sq. km) Languages Georgian*, Russian, Azeri, Armenian, Mingrelian, Ossetian, Abkhazian* (in Abkhazia) Religions Georgian Orthodox 74%, Muslim 10%, Russian Orthodox 10%, Armenian Apostolic Church (Orthodox) 4%, Other 2% Ethnic mix Georgian 84%, Azeri 6%, Armenian 6%, Russian 2%, Ossetian 1%, Other 1% Government Presidential system Currency Lari = 100 tetri Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 2731 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Guinea Formation 1958 / 1958 Capital Conakry Population 12 million / 126 people per sq mile (49 people per sq km) Total area 94,925 sq. miles (245,857 sq. km) Languages Pulaar, Malinké, Soussou, French* Religions Muslim 85%, Christian 8%, Traditional beliefs 7% Ethnic mix Peul 40%, Malinké 30%, Soussou 20%, Other 10% Government Presidential system Currency Guinea franc = 100 centimes Literacy rate 25% Calorie consumption 2553 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Iceland Formation 1944 / 1944 Capital Reykjavík Population 300,000 / 8 people per sq mile (3 people per sq km) Total area 39,768 sq. miles (103,000 sq. km) Languages Icelandic* Religions Evangelical Lutheran 84%, Other (mostly Christian) 10%, Roman Catholic 3%, Nonreligious 3% Ethnic mix Icelandic 94%, Other 5%, Danish 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency Icelandic króna = 100 aurar Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3339 kilocalories

Official name State of Israel Formation 1948 / 1994 Capital Jerusalem (not internationally recognized) Population 7.8 million / 994 people per sq mile (384 people per sq km) Total area 8019 sq. miles (20,770 sq. km) Languages Hebrew*, Arabic*, Yiddish, German, Russian, Polish, Romanian, Persian Religions Jewish 76%, Muslim (mainly Sunni) 16%, Other 4%, Druze 2%, Christian 2% Ethnic mix Jewish 76%, Arab 20%, Other 4% Government Parliamentary system Currency Shekel = 100 agorot Literacy rate 98% Calorie consumption 3619 kilocalories

FIJI

GERMANY

GUINEA-BISSAU

INDIA

ITALY

Australasia & Oceania

Northern Europe

West Africa

South Asia

Southern Europe

Official name Republic of Fiji Formation 1970 / 1970 Capital Suva Population 900,000 / 128 people per sq mile (49 people per sq km) Total area 7054 sq. miles (18,270 sq. km) Languages Fijian, English*, Hindi, Urdu, Tamil, Telugu Religions Hindu 38%, Methodist 37%, Roman Catholic 9%, Muslim 8%, Other 8% Ethnic mix Melanesian 51%, Indian 44%, Other 5% Government Parliamentary system Currency Fiji dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 94% Calorie consumption 2930 kilocalories

Official name Federal Republic of Germany Formation 1871 / 1990 Capital Berlin Population 82.7 million / 613 people per sq mile (237 people per sq km) Total area 137,846 sq. miles (357,021 sq. km) Languages German*, Turkish Religions Protestant 34%, Roman Catholic 33%, Other 30%, Muslim 3% Ethnic mix German 92%, Other European 3%, Other 3%, Turkish 2% Government Parliamentary system Currency Euro = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3539 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Guinea-Bissau Formation 1974 / 1974 Capital Bissau Population 1.7 million / 157 people per sq mile (60 people per sq km) Total area 13,946 sq. miles (36,120 sq. km) Languages Portuguese Creole, Balante, Fulani, Malinké, Portuguese* Religions Traditional beliefs 50%, Muslim 40%, Christian 10% Ethnic mix Balante 30%, Fulani 20%, Other 16%, Mandyako 14%, Mandinka 13%, Papel 7% Government Presidential system Currency CFA franc = 100 centimes Literacy rate 57% Calorie consumption 2304 kilocalories

Official name Republic of India Formation 1947 / 1947 Capital New Delhi Population 1.27 billion / 1104 people per sq mile (426 people per sq km) Total area 1,269,339 sq. miles (3,287,590 sq. km) Languages Hindi*, English*, Urdu, Bengali, Marathi, Telugu, Tamil, Bihari, Gujarati, Kanarese Religions Hindu 81%, Muslim 13%, Christian 2%, Sikh 2%, Buddhist 1%, Other 1% Ethnic mix Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% Government Parliamentary system Currency Indian rupee = 100 paise Literacy rate 63% Calorie consumption 2459 kilocalories

Official name Italian Republic Formation 1861 / 1947 Capital Rome Population 61.1 million / 538 people per sq mile (208 people per sq km) Total area 116,305 sq. miles (301,230 sq. km) Languages Italian*, German, French, Rhaeto-Romanic, Sardinian Religions Roman Catholic 85%, Other and nonreligious 13%, Muslim 2% Ethnic mix Italian 94%, Other 4%, Sardinian 2% Government Parliamentary system Currency Euro = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3539 kilocalories

FINLAND

GHANA

GUYANA

INDONESIA

IVORY COAST

Northern Europe

West Africa

South America

Southeast Asia

West Africa

Official name Republic of Finland Formation 1917 / 1947 Capital Helsinki Population 5.4 million / 46 people per sq mile (18 people per sq km) Total area 130,127 sq. miles (337,030 sq. km) Languages Finnish*, Swedish*, Sámi Religions Evangelical Lutheran 83%, Other 15%, Orthodox Christian 1%, Roman Catholic 1% Ethnic mix Finnish 93%, Other (including Sámi) 7% Government Parliamentary system Currency Euro = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3285 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Ghana Formation 1957 / 1957 Capital Accra Population 26.4 million / 297 people per sq mile (115 people per sq km) Total area 92,100 sq. miles (238,540 sq. km) Languages Twi, Fanti, Ewe, Ga, Adangbe, Gurma, Dagomba (Dagbani), English* Religions Christian 69%, Muslim 16%, Traditional beliefs 9%, Other 6% Ethnic mix Akan 49%, Mole-Dagbani 17%, Ewe 13%, Other 9%, Ga and Ga-Adangbe 8%, Guan 4% Government Presidential system Currency Cedi = 100 pesewas Literacy rate 72% Calorie consumption 3003 kilocalories

Official name Cooperative Republic of Guyana Formation 1966 / 1966 Capital Georgetown Population 800,000 / 11 people per sq mile (4 people per sq km) Total area 83,000 sq. miles (214,970 sq. km) Languages English Creole, Hindi, Tamil, Amerindian languages, English* Religions Christian 57%, Hindu 28%, Muslim 10%, Other 5% Ethnic mix East Indian 43%, Black African 30%, Mixed race 17%, Amerindian 9%, Other 1% Government Presidential system Currency Guyanese dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 85% Calorie consumption 2648 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Indonesia Formation 1949 / 1999 Capital Jakarta Population 253 million / 364 people per sq mile (141 people per sq km) Total area 741,096 sq. miles (1,919,440 sq. km) Languages Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese, Bahasa Indonesia*, Dutch Religions Sunni Muslim 86%, Protestant 6%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Other 2%, Buddhist 1% Ethnic mix Javanese 41%, Other 29%, Sundanese 15%, Coastal Malays 12%, Madurese 3% Government Presidential system Currency Rupiah = 100 sen Literacy rate 93% Calorie consumption 2777 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Côte d’Ivoire Formation 1960 / 1960 Capital Yamoussoukro Population 20.8 million / 169 people per sq mile (65 people per sq km) Total area 124,502 sq. miles (322,460 sq. km) Languages Akan, French*, Krou, Voltaïque Religions Muslim 38%, Traditional beliefs 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, Other 6%, Protestant 6% Ethnic mix Akan 42%, Voltaïque 18%, Mandé du Nord 17%, Krou 11%, Mandé du Sud 10%, Other 2% Government Presidential system Currency CFA franc = 100 centimes Literacy rate 41% Calorie consumption 2799 kilocalories

FRANCE

GREECE

HAITI

IRAN

JAMAICA

Western Europe

Southeast Europe

West Indies

Southwest Asia

West Indies

Official name French Republic Formation 987 / 1919 Capital Paris Population 64.6 million / 304 people per sq mile (117 people per sq km) Total area 211,208 sq. miles (547,030 sq. km) Languages French*, Provençal, German, Breton, Catalan, Basque Religions Roman Catholic 88%, Muslim 8%, Protestant 2%, Buddhist 1%, Jewish 1% Ethnic mix French 90%, North African (mainly Algerian) 6%, German (Alsace) 2%, Breton 1%, Other (including Corsicans) 1% Government Mixed presidential– parliamentary system Currency Euro = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3524 kilocalories

Official name Hellenic Republic Formation 1829 / 1947 Capital Athens Population 11.1 million / 220 people per sq mile (85 people per sq km) Total area 50,942 sq. miles (131,940 sq. km) Languages Greek*, Turkish, Macedonian, Albanian Religions Orthodox Christian 98%, Muslim 1%, Other 1% Ethnic mix Greek 98%, Other 2% Government Parliamentary system Currency Euro = 100 cents Literacy rate 97% Calorie consumption 3433 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Haiti Formation 1804 / 1844 Capital Port-au-Prince Population 10.5 million / 987 people per sq mile (381 people per sq km) Total area 10,714 sq. miles (27,750 sq. km) Languages French Creole*, French* Religions Roman Catholic 55%, Protestant 28%, Other (including Voodoo) 16%, Nonreligious 1% Ethnic mix Black African 95%, Mulatto (mixed race) and European 5% Government Presidential system Currency Gourde = 100 centimes Literacy rate 49% Calorie consumption 2091 kilocalories

Official name Islamic Republic of Iran Formation 1502 / 1990 Capital Tehran Population 78.5 million / 124 people per sq mile (48 people per sq km) Total area 636,293 sq. miles (1,648,000 sq. km) Languages Farsi*, Azeri, Luri, Gilaki, Mazanderani, Kurdish, Turkmen, Arabic, Baluchi Religions Shi’a Muslim 89%, Sunni Muslim 9%, Other 2% Ethnic mix Persian 51%, Azari 24%, Other 10%, Lur and Bakhtiari 8%, Kurdish 7% Government Islamic theocracy Currency Iranian rial = 100 dinars Literacy rate 84% Calorie consumption 3058 kilocalories

Official name Jamaica Formation 1962 / 1962 Capital Kingston Population 2.8 million / 670 people per sq mile (259 people per sq km) Total area 4243 sq. miles (10,990 sq. km) Languages English Creole, English* Religions Other and nonreligious 45%, Other Protestant 20%, Church of God 18%, Baptist 10%, Anglican 7% Ethnic mix Black 91%, Mulatto (mixed race) 7%, European and Chinese 1%, East Indian 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency Jamaican dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 88% Calorie consumption 2746 kilocalories

GABON

GRENADA

HONDURAS

IRAQ

JAPAN

Central Africa Official name Gabonese Republic Formation 1960 / 1960 Capital Libreville Population 1.7 million / 17 people per sq mile (7 people per sq km) Total area 103,346 sq. miles (267,667 sq. km) Languages Fang, French*, Punu, Sira, Nzebi, Mpongwe Religions Christian (mainly Roman Catholic) 55%, Traditional beliefs 40%, Other 4%, Muslim 1% Ethnic mix Fang 26%, Shira-punu 24%, Other 16%, Foreign residents 15%, Nzabi-duma 11%, Mbédé-Teke 8% Government Presidential system Currency CFA franc = 100 centimes Literacy rate 82% Calorie consumption 2781 kilocalories

West Indies Official name Grenada Formation 1974 / 1974 Capital St. George’s Population 110,152 / 841 people per sq mile (324 people per sq km) Total area 131 sq. miles (340 sq. km) Languages English*, English Creole Religions Roman Catholic 68%, Anglican 17%, Other 15% Ethnic mix Black African 82%, Mulatto (mixed race) 13%, East Indian 3%, Other 2% Government Parliamentary system Currency East Caribbean dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 96% Calorie consumption 2453 kilocalories

Central America Official name Republic of Honduras Formation 1838 / 1838 Capital Tegucigalpa Population 8.3 million / 192 people per sq mile (74 people per sq km) Total area 43,278 sq. miles (112,090 sq. km) Languages Spanish*, Garífuna (Carib), English Creole Religions Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant 3% Ethnic mix Mestizo 90%, Black African 5%, Amerindian 4%, White 1% Government Presidential system Currency Lempira = 100 centavos Literacy rate 85% Calorie consumption 2651 kilocalories

Southwest Asia Official name Republic of Iraq Formation 1932 / 1990 Capital Baghdad Population 34.8 million / 206 people per sq mile (80 people per sq km) Total area 168,753 sq. miles (437,072 sq. km) Languages Arabic*, Kurdish*, Turkic languages, Armenian, Assyrian Religions Shi’a Muslim 60%, Sunni Muslim 35%, Other (including Christian) 5% Ethnic mix Arab 80%, Kurdish 15%, Turkmen 3%, Other 2% Government Parliamentary system Currency New Iraqi dinar = 1000 fils Literacy rate 79% Calorie consumption 2489 kilocalories

East Asia Official name Japan Formation 1590 / 1972 Capital Tokyo Population 127 million / 874 people per sq mile (337 people per sq km) Total area 145,882 sq. miles (377,835 sq. km) Languages Japanese*, Korean, Chinese Religions Shinto and Buddhist 76%, Buddhist 16%, Other (including Christian) 8% Ethnic mix Japanese 99%, Other (mainly Korean) 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency Yen = 100 sen Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 2719 kilocalories

JORDAN Southwest Asia

KYRGYZSTAN Central Asia

LIBYA North Africa

MALAWI Southern Africa

MAURITANIA West Africa

Official name Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Formation 1946 / 1967 Capital Amman Population 7.5 million / 218 people per sq mile (84 people per sq km) Total area 35,637 sq. miles (92,300 sq. km) Languages Arabic* Religions Sunni Muslim 92%, Christian 6%, Other 2% Ethnic mix Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1% Government Monarchy Currency Jordanian dinar = 1000 fils Literacy rate 98% Calorie consumption 3149 kilocalories

Official name Kyrgyz Republic Formation 1991 / 1991 Capital Bishkek Population 5.6 million / 73 people per sq mile (28 people per sq km) Total area 76,641 sq. miles (198,500 sq. km) Languages Kyrgyz*, Russian*, Uzbek, Tatar, Ukrainian Religions Muslim (mainly Sunni) 70%, Orthodox Christian 30% Ethnic mix Kyrgyz 69%, Uzbek 14%, Russian 9%, Other 6%, Dungan 1%, Uighur 1% Government Presidential system Currency Som = 100 tyiyn Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 2828 kilocalories

Official name State of Libya Formation 1951 / 1951 Capital Tripoli Population 6.3 million / 9 people per sq mile (4 people per sq km) Total area 679,358 sq. miles (1,759,540 sq. km) Languages Arabic*, Tuareg Religions Muslim (mainly Sunni) 97%, Other 3% Ethnic mix Arab and Berber 97%, Other 3% Government Transitional regime Currency Libyan dinar = 1000 dirhams Literacy rate 90% Calorie consumption 3211 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Malawi Formation 1964 / 1964 Capital Lilongwe Population 16.8 million / 463 people per sq mile (179 people per sq km) Total area 45,745 sq. miles (118,480 sq. km) Languages Chewa, Lomwe, Yao, Ngoni, English* Religions Protestant 55%, Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 20%, Traditional beliefs 5% Ethnic mix Bantu 99%, Other 1% Government Presidential system Currency Malawi kwacha = 100 tambala Literacy rate 61% Calorie consumption 2334 kilocalories

Official name Islamic Republic of Mauritania Formation 1960 / 1960 Capital Nouakchott Population 4 million / 10 people per sq mile (4 people per sq km) Total area 397,953 sq. miles (1,030,700 sq. km) Languages Arabic*, Hassaniyah Arabic, Wolof, French Religions Sunni Muslim 100% Ethnic mix Maure 81%, Wolof 7%, Tukolor 5%, Other 4%, Soninka 3% Government Presidential system Currency Ouguiya = 5 khoums Literacy rate 46% Calorie consumption 2791 kilocalories

KAZAKHSTAN

LAOS

LIECHTENSTEIN

MALAYSIA

MAURITIUS

Central Asia

Southeast Asia

Central Europe

Southeast Asia

Indian Ocean

Official name Lao People’s Democratic Republic Formation 1953 / 1953 Capital Vientiane Population 6.9 million / 77 people per sq mile (30 people per sq km) Total area 91,428 sq. miles (236,800 sq. km) Languages Lao*, Mon-Khmer, Yao, Vietnamese, Chinese, French Religions Buddhist 65%, Other (including animist) 34%, Christian 1% Ethnic mix Lao Loum 66%, Lao Theung 30%, Lao Soung 2%, Other 2% Government One-party state Currency Kip = 100 at Literacy rate 73% Calorie consumption 2356 kilocalories

Official name Principality of Liechtenstein Formation 1719 / 1719 Capital Vaduz Population 37,313 / 602 people per sq mile (233 people per sq km) Total area 62 sq. miles (160 sq. km) Languages German*, Alemannish dialect, Italian Religions Roman Catholic 79%, Other 13%, Protestant 8% Ethnic mix Liechtensteiner 66%, Other 12%, Swiss 10%, Austrian 6%, German 3%, Italian 3% Government Parliamentary system Currency Swiss franc = 100 rappen/centimes Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption Not available

Official name Malaysia Formation 1963 / 1965 Capital Kuala Lumpur; Putrajaya (administrative) Population 30.2 million / 238 people per sq mile (92 people per sq km) Total area 127,316 sq. miles (329,750 sq. km) Languages Bahasa Malaysia*, Malay, Chinese, Tamil, English Religions Muslim (mainly Sunni) 61%, Buddhist 19%, Christian 9%, Hindu 6%, Other 5% Ethnic mix Malay 53%, Chinese 26%, Indigenous tribes 12%, Indian 8%, Other 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency Ringgit = 100 sen Literacy rate 93% Calorie consumption 2855 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Mauritius Formation 1968 / 1968 Capital Port Louis Population 1.2 million / 1671 people per sq mile (645 people per sq km) Total area 718 sq. miles (1860 sq. km) Languages French Creole, Hindi, Urdu, Tamil, Chinese, English*, French Religions Hindu 48%, Roman Catholic 24%, Muslim 17%, Protestant 9%, Other 2% Ethnic mix Indo-Mauritian 68%, Creole 27%, Sino-Mauritian 3%, Franco-Mauritian 2% Government Parliamentary system Currency Mauritian rupee = 100 cents Literacy rate 89% Calorie consumption 3055 kilocalories

KENYA

LATVIA

LITHUANIA

MALDIVES

MEXICO

East Africa

Northeast Europe

Northeast Europe

Indian Ocean

Official name Republic of Kenya Formation 1963 / 1963 Capital Nairobi Population 45.5 million / 208 people per sq mile (80 people per sq km) Total area 224,961 sq. miles (582,650 sq. km) Languages Kiswahili*, English*, Kikuyu, Luo, Kalenjin, Kamba Religions Christian 80%, Muslim 10%, Traditional beliefs 9%, Other 1% Ethnic mix Other 28%, Kikuyu 22%, Luo 14%, Luhya 14%, Kalenjin 11%, Kamba 11% Government Presidential system Currency Kenya shilling = 100 cents Literacy rate 72% Calorie consumption 2206 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Latvia Formation 1991 / 1991 Capital Riga Population 2 million / 80 people per sq mile (31 people per sq km) Total area 24,938 sq. miles (64,589 sq. km) Languages Latvian*, Russian Religions Other 43%, Lutheran 24%, Roman Catholic 18%, O rthodox Christian 15% Ethnic mix Latvian 62%, Russian 27%, Other 4%, Belarussian 3%, Ukrainian 2%, Polish 2% Government Parliamentary system Currency Euro = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3293 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Lithuania Formation 1991 / 1991 Capital Vilnius Population 3 million / 119 people per sq mile (46 people per sq km) Total area 25,174 sq. miles (65,200 sq. km) Languages Lithuanian*, Russian Religions Roman Catholic 77%, Other 17%, Russian Orthodox 4%, Protestant 1%, Old believers 1% Ethnic mix Lithuanian 85%, Polish 7%, Russian 6%, Belarussian 1%, Other 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency Euro = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3463 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Maldives Formation 1965 / 1965 Capital Male’ Population 400,000 / 3448 people per sq mile (1333 people per sq km) Total area 116 sq. miles (300 sq. km) Languages Dhivehi (Maldivian), Sinhala, Tamil, Arabic Religions Sunni Muslim 100% Ethnic mix Arab–Sinhalese–Malay 100% Government Presidential system Currency Rufiyaa = 100 laari Literacy rate 98% Calorie consumption 2722 kilocalories

KIRIBATI

LEBANON

LUXEMBOURG

MALI

Australasia & Oceania

Southwest Asia

Northwest Europe

West Africa

North America Official name United Mexican States Formation 1836 / 1848 Capital Mexico City Population 124 million / 168 people per sq mile (65 people per sq km) Total area 761,602 sq. miles (1,972,550 sq. km) Languages Spanish*, Nahuatl, Mayan, Zapotec, Mixtec, Otomi, Totonac, Tzotzil, Tzeltal Religions Roman Catholic 77%, Other 14%, Protestant 6%, Nonreligious 3% Ethnic mix Mestizo 60%, Amerindian 30%, European 9%, Other 1% Government Presidential system Currency Mexican peso = 100 centavos Literacy rate 94% Calorie consumption 3072 kilocalories

MICRONESIA Australasia & Oceania

Official name Republic of Kiribati Formation 1979 / 1979 Capital Tarawa Atoll Population 104,488 / 381 people per sq mile (147 people per sq km) Total area 277 sq. miles (717 sq. km) Languages English*, Kiribati Religions Roman Catholic 55%, Kiribati Protestant Church 36%, Other 9% Ethnic mix Micronesian 99%, Other 1% Government Presidential system Currency Australian dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3022 kilocalories

Official name Lebanese Republic Formation 1941 / 1941 Capital Beirut Population 5 million / 1266 people per sq mile (489 people per sq km) Total area 4015 sq. miles (10,400 sq. km) Languages Arabic*, French, Armenian, Assyrian Religions Muslim 60%, Christian 39%, Other 1% Ethnic mix Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, Other 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency Lebanese pound = 100 piastres Literacy rate 90% Calorie consumption 3181 kilocalories

Official name Grand Duchy of Luxembourg Formation 1867 / 1867 Capital Luxembourg-Ville Population 500,000 / 501 people per sq mile (193 people per sq km) Total area 998 sq. miles (2586 sq. km) Languages Luxembourgish*, German*, French* Religions Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant, Orthodox Christian, and Jewish 3% Ethnic mix Luxembourger 62%, Foreign residents 38% Government Parliamentary system Currency Euro = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3568 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Mali Formation 1960 / 1960 Capital Bamako Population 15.8 million / 34 people per sq mile (13 people per sq km) Total area 478,764 sq. miles (1,240,000 sq. km) Languages Bambara, Fulani, Senufo, Soninke, French* Religions Muslim (mainly Sunni) 90%, Traditional beliefs 6%, Christian 4% Ethnic mix Bambara 52%, Other 14%, Fulani 11%, Saracolé 7%, Soninka 7%, Tuareg 5%, Mianka 4% Government Presidential system Currency CFA franc = 100 centimes Literacy rate 34% Calorie consumption 2833 kilocalories

Official name Federated States of Micronesia Formation 1986 / 1986 Capital Palikir (Pohnpei Island) Population 105,681 / 390 people per sq mile (151 people per sq km) Total area 271 sq. miles (702 sq. km) Languages Trukese, Pohnpeian, Kosraean, Yapese, English* Religions Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 47%, Other 3% Ethnic mix Chuukese 49%, Pohnpeian 24%, Other 14%, Kosraean 6%, Yapese 5%, Asian 2% Government Nonparty system Currency US dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 81% Calorie consumption Not available

KOSOVO (not yet recognised)

LESOTHO

MACEDONIA

MALTA

MOLDOVA

Southeast Europe

Southern Africa

Southeast Europe

Southern Europe

Southeast Europe

Official name Republic of Kosovo Formation 2008 / 2008 Capital Pristina Population 1.9 million / 451 people per sq mile (174 people per sq km) Total area 4212 sq. miles (10,908 sq. km) Languages Albanian*, Serbian*, Bosniak, Gorani, Roma, Turkish Religions Muslim 92%, Roman Catholic 4%, Orthodox Christian 4% Ethnic mix Albanian 92%, Serb 4%, Bosniak and Gorani 2%, Turkish 1%, Roma 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency Euro = 100 cents Literacy rate 92% Calorie consumption Not available

Official name Kingdom of Lesotho Formation 1966 / 1966 Capital Maseru Population 2.1 million / 179 people per sq mile (69 people per sq km) Total area 11,720 sq. miles (30,355 sq. km) Languages English*, Sesotho*, isiZulu Religions Christian 90%, Traditional beliefs 10% Ethnic mix Sotho 99%, European and Asian 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency Loti = 100 lisente; and South African rand = 100 cents Literacy rate 76% Calorie consumption 2595 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Macedonia Formation 1991 / 1991 Capital Skopje Population 2.1 million / 212 people per sq mile (82 people per sq km) Total area 9781 sq. miles (25,333 sq. km) Languages Macedonian*, Albanian*, Turkish, Romani, Serbian Religions Orthodox Christian 65%, Muslim 29%, Roman Catholic 4%, Other 2% Ethnic mix Macedonian 64%, Albanian 25%, Turkish 4%, Roma 3%, Serb 2%, Other 2% Government Mixed presidential– parliamentary system Currency Macedonian denar = 100 deni Literacy rate 98% Calorie consumption 2923 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Malta Formation 1964 / 1964 Capital Valletta Population 400,000 / 3226 people per sq mile (1250 people per sq km) Total area 122 sq. miles (316 sq. km) Languages Maltese*, English* Religions Roman Catholic 98%, Other and nonreligious 2% Ethnic mix Maltese 96%, Other 4% Government Parliamentary system Currency Euro = 100 cents Literacy rate 92% Calorie consumption 3389 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Moldova Formation 1991 / 1991 Capital Chisinau Population 3.5 million / 269 people per sq mile (104 people per sq km) Total area 13,067 sq. miles (33,843 sq. km) Languages Moldovan*, Ukrainian, Russian Religions Orthodox Christian 93%, Other 6%, Baptist 1% Ethnic mix Moldovan 84%, Ukrainian 7%, Gagauz 5%, Russian 2%, Bulgarian 1%, Other 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency Moldovan leu = 100 bani Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 2837 kilocalories

KUWAIT

LIBERIA

MADAGASCAR

MARSHALL ISLANDS

MONACO

Southwest Asia Official name State of Kuwait Formation 1961 / 1961 Capital Kuwait City Population 3.5 million / 509 people per sq mile (196 people per sq km) Total area 6880 sq. miles (17,820 sq. km) Languages Arabic*, English Religions Sunni Muslim 45%, Shi’a Muslim 40%, Christian, Hindu, and other 15% Ethnic mix Kuwaiti 45%, Other Arab 35%, South Asian 9%, Other 7%, Iranian 4% Government Monarchy Currency Kuwaiti dinar = 1000 fils Literacy rate 96% Calorie consumption 3471 kilocalories

West Africa Official name Republic of Liberia Formation 1847 / 1847 Capital Monrovia Population 4.4 million / 118 people per sq mile (46 people per sq km) Total area 43,000 sq. miles (111,370 sq. km) Languages Kpelle, Vai, Bassa, Kru, Grebo, Kissi, Gola, Loma, English* Religions Christian 40%, Traditional beliefs 40%, Muslim 20% Ethnic mix Indigenous tribes (12 groups) 49%, Kpellé 20%, Bassa 16%, Gio 8%, Krou 7% Government Presidential system Currency Liberian dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 43% Calorie consumption 2251 kilocalories

Indian Ocean Official name Republic of Madagascar Formation 1960 / 1960 Capital Antananarivo Population 23.6 million / 105 people per sq mile (41 people per sq km) Total area 226,656 sq. miles (587,040 sq. km) Languages Malagasy*, French*, English* Religions Traditional beliefs 52%, Christian (mainly Roman Catholic) 41%, Muslim 7% Ethnic mix Other Malay 46%, Merina 26%, Betsimisaraka 15%, Betsileo 12%, Other 1% Government Mixed presidential– parliamentary system Currency Ariary = 5 iraimbilanja Literacy rate 64% Calorie consumption 2052 kilocalories

Australasia & Oceania Official name Republic of the Marshall Islands Formation 1986 / 1986 Capital Majuro Population 70,983 / 1014 people per sq mile (392 people per sq km) Total area 70 sq. miles (181 sq. km) Languages Marshallese*, English*, Japanese, German Religions Protestant 90%, Roman Catholic 8%, Other 2% Ethnic mix Micronesian 90%, Other 10% Government Presidential system Currency US dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 91% Calorie consumption Not available

Southern Europe Official name Principality of Monaco Formation 1861 / 1861 Capital Monaco-Ville Population 36,950 / 49,267 people per sq mile (18,949 people per sq km) Total area 0.75 sq. miles (1.95 sq. km) Languages French*, Italian, Monégasque, English Religions Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 6%, Other 5% Ethnic mix French 47%, Other 21%, Italian 16%, Monégasque 16% Government Mixed monarchical– parliamentary system Currency Euro = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption Not available

COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD

Official name Republic of Kazakhstan Formation 1991 / 1991 Capital Astana Population 16.6 million / 16 people per sq mile (6 people per sq km) Total area 1,049,150 sq. miles (2,717,300 sq. km) Languages Kazakh*, Russian, Ukrainian, German, Uzbek, Tatar, Uighur Religions Muslim (mainly Sunni) 47%, Orthodox Christian 44%, Other 7%, Protestant 2% Ethnic mix Kazakh 57%, Russian 27%, Other 8%, Uzbek 3%, Ukrainian 3%, German 2% Government Presidential system Currency Tenge = 100 tiyn Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3107 kilocalories

301

MONGOLIA East Asia

COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD

Australasia & Oceania

NIGERIA West Africa

PANAMA Central America

PORTUGAL Southwest Europe

Official name Mongolia Formation 1924 / 1924 Capital Ulan Bator Population 2.9 million / 5 people per sq mile (2 people per sq km) Total area 604,247 sq. miles (1,565,000 sq. km) Languages Khalkha Mongolian, Kazakh, Chinese, Russian Religions Tibetan Buddhist 50%, Nonreligious 40%, Shamanist and Christian 6%, Muslim 4% Ethnic mix Khalkh 95%, Kazakh 4%, Other 1% Government Mixed presidential– parliamentary system Currency Tugrik (tögrög) = 100 möngö Literacy rate 98% Calorie consumption 2463 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Nauru Formation 1968 / 1968 Capital None Population 9488 / 1171 people per sq mile (452 people per sq km) Total area 8.1 sq. miles (21 sq. km) Languages Nauruan*, Kiribati, Chinese, Tuvaluan, English Religions Nauruan Congregational Church 60%, Roman Catholic 35%, Other 5% Ethnic mix Nauruan 93%, Chinese 5%, European 1%, Other Pacific islanders 1% Government Nonparty system Currency Australian dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 95% Calorie consumption Not available

Official name Federal Republic of Nigeria Formation 1960 / 1961 Capital Abuja Population 179 million / 508 people per sq mile (196 people per sq km) Total area 356,667 sq. miles (923,768 sq. km) Languages Hausa, English*, Yoruba, Ibo Religions Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, Traditional beliefs 10% Ethnic mix Other 29%, Hausa 21%, Yoruba 21%, Ibo 18%, Fulani 11% Government Presidential system Currency Naira = 100 kobo Literacy rate 51% Calorie consumption 2700 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Panama Formation 1903 / 1903 Capital Panama City Population 3.9 million / 133 people per sq mile (51 people per sq km) Total area 30,193 sq. miles (78,200 sq. km) Languages English Creole, Spanish*, Amerindian languages, Chibchan languages Religions Roman Catholic 84%, Protestant 15%, Other 1% Ethnic mix Mestizo 70%, Black 14%, White 10%, Amerindian 6% Government Presidential system Currency Balboa = 100 centésimos; and US dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 94% Calorie consumption 2733 kilocalories

Official name Portuguese Republic Formation 1139 / 1640 Capital Lisbon Population 10.6 million / 299 people per sq mile (115 people per sq km) Total area 35,672 sq. miles (92,391 sq. km) Languages Portuguese* Religions Roman Catholic 92%, Protestant 4%, Nonreligious 3%, Other 1% Ethnic mix Portuguese 98%, African and other 2% Government Parliamentary system Currency Euro = 100 cents Literacy rate 94% Calorie consumption 3456 kilocalories

MONTENEGRO

NEPAL

NORTH KOREA

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

QATAR

Southeast Europe

302

NAURU

South Asia

East Asia

Australasia & Oceania

Southwest Asia

Official name Montenegro Formation 2006 / 2006 Capital Podgorica Population 600,000 / 113 people per sq mile (43 people per sq km) Total area 5332 sq. miles (13,812 sq. km) Languages Montenegrin*, Serbian, Albanian, Bosniak, Croatian Religions Orthodox Christian 74%, Muslim 18%, Roman Catholic 4%, Other 4% Ethnic mix Montenegrin 43%, Serb 32%, Other 12%, Bosniak 8%, Albanian 5% Government Parliamentary system Currency Euro = 100 cents Literacy rate 98% Calorie consumption 3568 kilocalories

Official name Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal Formation 1769 / 1769 Capital Kathmandu Population 28.1 million / 532 people per sq mile (205 people per sq km) Total area 54,363 sq. miles (140,800 sq. km) Languages Nepali*, Maithili, Bhojpuri Religions Hindu 81%, Buddhist 11%, Muslim 4%, Other (including Christian) 4% Ethnic mix Other 52%, Chhetri 16%, Hill Brahman 13%, Tharu 7%, Magar 7%, Tamang 5% Government Transitional regime Currency Nepalese rupee = 100 paisa Literacy rate 57% Calorie consumption 2673 kilocalories

Official name Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Formation 1948 / 1953 Capital Pyongyang Population 25 million / 538 people per sq mile (208 people per sq km) Total area 46,540 sq. miles (120,540 sq. km) Languages Korean* Religions Atheist 100% Ethnic mix Korean 100% Government One-party state Currency North Korean won = 100 chon Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 2094 kilocalories

Official name Independent State of Papua New Guinea Formation 1975 / 1975 Capital Port Moresby Population 7.5 million / 43 people per sq mile (17 people per sq km) Total area 178,703 sq. miles (462,840 sq. km) Languages Pidgin English, Papuan, English*, Motu, 800 (est.) native languages Religions Protestant 60%, Roman Catholic 37%, Other 3% Ethnic mix Melanesian and mixed race 100% Government Parliamentary system Currency Kina = 100 toea Literacy rate 63% Calorie consumption 2193 kilocalories

Official name State of Qatar Formation 1971 / 1971 Capital Doha Population 2.3 million / 542 people per sq mile (209 people per sq km) Total area 4416 sq. miles (11,437 sq. km) Languages Arabic* Religions Muslim (mainly Sunni) 95%, Other 5% Ethnic mix Qatari 20%, Indian 20%, Other Arab 20%, Nepalese 13%, Filipino 10%, Other 10%, Pakistani 7% Government Monarchy Currency Qatar riyal = 100 dirhams Literacy rate 97% Calorie consumption Not available

MOROCCO

NETHERLANDS

NORWAY

PARAGUAY

ROMANIA

North Africa

Northwest Europe

Northern Europe

South America

Southeast Europe

Official name Kingdom of Morocco Formation 1956 / 1969 Capital Rabat Population 35.5 million / 194 people per sq mile (75 people per sq km) Total area 172,316 sq. miles (446,300 sq. km) Languages Arabic*, Tamazight (Berber), French, Spanish Religions Muslim (mainly Sunni) 99%, Other (mostly Christian) 1% Ethnic mix Arab 70%, Berber 29%, European 1% Government Mixed monarchical– parliamentary system Currency Moroccan dirham = 100 centimes Literacy rate 67% Calorie consumption 3334 kilocalories

Official name Kingdom of the Netherlands Formation 1648 / 1839 Capital Amsterdam; The Hague (administrative) Population 16.8 million / 1283 people per sq mile (495 people per sq km) Total area 16,033 sq. miles (41,526 sq. km) Languages Dutch*, Frisian Religions Roman Catholic 36%, Other 34%, Protestant 27%, Muslim 3% Ethnic mix Dutch 82%, Other 12%, Surinamese 2%, Turkish 2%, Moroccan 2% Government Parliamentary system Currency Euro = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3147 kilocalories

Official name Kingdom of Norway Formation 1905 / 1905 Capital Oslo Population 5.1 million / 43 people per sq mile (17 people per sq km) Total area 125,181 sq. miles (324,220 sq. km) Languages Norwegian* (Bokmål “book language” and Nynorsk “new Norsk”), Sámi Religions Evangelical Lutheran 88%, Other and nonreligious 8%, Muslim 2%, Pentecostal 1%, Roman Catholic 1% Ethnic mix Norwegian 93%, Other 6%, Sámi 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency Norwegian krone = 100 øre Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3484 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Paraguay Formation 1811 / 1938 Capital Asunción Population 6.9 million / 45 people per sq mile (17 people per sq km) Total area 157,046 sq. miles (406,750 sq. km) Languages Guaraní*, Spanish*, German Religions Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant (including Mennonite) 10% Ethnic mix Mestizo 91%, Other 7%, Amerindian 2% Government Presidential system Currency Guaraní = 100 céntimos Literacy rate 94% Calorie consumption 2589 kilocalories

Official name Romania Formation 1878 / 1947 Capital Bucharest Population 21.6 million / 243 people per sq mile (94 people per sq km) Total area 91,699 sq. miles (237,500 sq. km) Languages Romanian*, Hungarian (Magyar), Romani, German Religions Romanian Orthodox 87%, Protestant 5%, Roman Catholic 5%, Greek Orthodox 1%, Greek Catholic (Uniate) 1%, Other 1% Ethnic mix Romanian 89%, Magyar 7%, Roma 3%, Other 1% Government Presidential system Currency New Romanian leu = 100 bani Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3363 kilocalories

MOZAMBIQUE

NEW ZEALAND

OMAN

PERU

RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Southern Africa

Australasia & Oceania

Southwest Asia

South America

Europe / Asia

Official name Republic of Mozambique Formation 1975 / 1975 Capital Maputo Population 26.5 million / 88 people per sq mile (34 people per sq km) Total area 309,494 sq. miles (801,590 sq. km) Languages Makua, Xitsonga, Sena, Lomwe, Portuguese* Religions Traditional beliefs 56%, Christian 30%, Muslim 14% Ethnic mix Makua Lomwe 47%, Tsonga 23%, Malawi 12%, Shona 11%, Yao 4%, Other 3% Government Presidential system Currency New metical = 100 centavos Literacy rate 51% Calorie consumption 2283 kilocalories

Official name New Zealand Formation 1947 / 1947 Capital Wellington Population 4.6 million / 44 people per sq mile (17 people per sq km) Total area 103,737 sq. miles (268,680 sq. km) Languages English*, Maori* Religions Anglican 24%, Other 22%, Presbyterian 18%, Nonreligious 16%, Roman Catholic 15%, Methodist 5% Ethnic mix European 75%, Maori 15%, Other 7%, Samoan 3% Government Parliamentary system Currency New Zealand dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3170 kilocalories

Official name Sultanate of Oman Formation 1951 / 1951 Capital Muscat Population 3.9 million / 48 people per sq mile (18 people per sq km) Total area 82,031 sq. miles (212,460 sq. km) Languages Arabic*, Baluchi, Farsi, Hindi, Punjabi Religions Ibadi Muslim 75%, Other Muslim and Hindu 25% Ethnic mix Arab 88%, Baluchi 4%, Persian 3%, Indian and Pakistani 3%, African 2% Government Monarchy Currency Omani rial = 1000 baisa Literacy rate 87% Calorie consumption 3143 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Peru Formation 1824 / 1941 Capital Lima Population 30.8 million / 62 people per sq mile (24 people per sq km) Total area 496,223 sq. miles (1,285,200 sq. km) Languages Spanish*, Quechua*, Aymara Religions Roman Catholic 81%, Other 19% Ethnic mix Amerindian 45%, Mestizo 37%, White 15%, Other 3% Government Presidential system Currency New sol = 100 céntimos Literacy rate 94% Calorie consumption 2700 kilocalories

Official name Russian Federation Formation 1480 / 1991 Capital Moscow Population 143 million / 22 people per sq mile (8 people per sq km) Total area 6,592,735 sq. miles (17,075,200 sq. km) Languages Russian*, Tatar, Ukrainian, Chavash, various other national languages Religions Orthodox Christian 75%, Muslim 14%, Other 11% Ethnic mix Russian 80%, Other 12%, Tatar 4%, Ukrainian 2%, Bashkir 1%, Chavash 1% Government Mixed Presidential– Parliamentary system Currency Russian rouble = 100 kopeks Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3358 kilocalories

MYANMAR (BURMA)

NICARAGUA

PAKISTAN

PHILIPPINES

RWANDA

Southeast Asia

Central America

South Asia

Southeast Asia

Official name Republic of the Union of Myanmar Formation 1948 / 1948 Capital Nay Pyi Taw Population 53.7 million / 212 people per sq mile (82 people per sq km) Total area 261,969 sq. miles (678,500 sq. km) Languages Myanmar (Burmese)*, Shan, Karen, Rakhine, Chin, Yangbye, Kachin, Mon Religions Buddhist 89%, Christian 4%, Muslim 4%, Other 2%, Animist 1% Ethnic mix Burman (Bamah) 68%, Other 12%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4% Government Presidential system Currency Kyat = 100 pyas Literacy rate 93% Calorie consumption 2571 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Nicaragua Formation 1838 / 1838 Capital Managua Population 6.2 million / 135 people per sq mile (52 people per sq km) Total area 49,998 sq. miles (129,494 sq. km) Languages Spanish*, English Creole, Miskito Religions Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant Evangelical 17%, Other 3% Ethnic mix Mestizo 69%, White 17%, Black 9%, Amerindian 5% Government Presidential system Currency Córdoba oro = 100 centavos Literacy rate 78% Calorie consumption 2564 kilocalories

Official name Islamic Republic of Pakistan Formation 1947 / 1971 Capital Islamabad Population 185 million / 622 people per sq mile (240 people per sq km) Total area 310,401 sq. miles (803,940 sq. km) Languages Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtu, Urdu*, Baluchi, Brahui Religions Sunni Muslim 77%, Shi’a Muslim 20%, Hindu 2%, Christian 1% Ethnic mix Punjabi 56%, Pathan (Pashtun) 15%, Sindhi 14%, Mohajir 7%, Baluchi 4%, Other 4% Government Parliamentary system Currency Pakistani rupee = 100 paisa Literacy rate 55% Calorie consumption 2440 kilocalories

Official name Republic of the Philippines Formation 1946 / 1946 Capital Manila Population 100 million / 870 people per sq mile (336 people per sq km) Total area 115,830 sq. miles (300,000 sq. km) Languages Filipino*, English*, Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon, many other local languages Religions Roman Catholic 81%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 5%, Other (including Buddhist) 5% Ethnic mix Other 34%, Tagalog 28%, Cebuano 13%, Ilocano 9%, Hiligaynon 8%, Bisaya 8% Government Presidential system Currency Philippine peso = 100 centavos Literacy rate 95% Calorie consumption 2570 kilocalories

NAMIBIA

NIGER

PALAU

POLAND

Southern Africa Official name Republic of Namibia Formation 1990 / 1994 Capital Windhoek Population 2.3 million / 7 people per sq mile (3 people per sq km) Total area 318,694 sq. miles (825,418 sq. km) Languages Ovambo, Kavango, English*, Bergdama, German, Afrikaans Religions Christian 90%, Traditional beliefs 10% Ethnic mix Ovambo 50%, Other tribes 22%, Kavango 9%, Damara 7%, Herero 7%, Other 5% Government Presidential system Currency Namibian dollar = 100 cents; and South African rand = 100 cents Literacy rate 76% Calorie consumption 2086 kilocalories

West Africa Official name Republic of Niger Formation 1960 / 1960 Capital Niamey Population 18.5 million / 38 people per sq mile (15 people per sq km) Total area 489,188 sq. miles (1,267,000 sq. km) Languages Hausa, Djerma, Fulani, Tuareg, Teda, French* Religions Muslim 99%, Other (including Christian) 1% Ethnic mix Hausa 53%, Djerma and Songhai 21%, Tuareg 11%, Fulani 7%, Kanuri 6%, Other 2% Government Presidential system Currency CFA franc = 100 centimes Literacy rate 16% Calorie consumption 2546 kilocalories

Australasia & Oceania Official name Republic of Palau Formation 1994 / 1994 Capital Melekeok Population 21,186 / 108 people per sq mile (42 people per sq km) Total area 177 sq. miles (458 sq. km) Languages Palauan*, English*, Japanese, Angaur, Tobi, Sonsorolese Religions Christian 66%, Modekngei 34% Ethnic mix Palauan 74%, Filipino 16%, Other 6%, Chinese and other Asian 4% Government Nonparty system Currency US dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption Not available

Northern Europe Official name Republic of Poland Formation 1918 / 1945 Capital Warsaw Population 38.2 million / 325 people per sq mile (125 people per sq km) Total area 120,728 sq. miles (312,685 sq. km) Languages Polish* Religions Roman Catholic 93%, Other and nonreligious 5%, Orthodox Christian 2% Ethnic mix Polish 98%, Other 2% Government Parliamentary system Currency Zloty = 100 groszy Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3485 kilocalories

Central Africa Official name Republic of Rwanda Formation 1962 / 1962 Capital Kigali Population 12.1 million / 1256 people per sq mile (485 people per sq km) Total area 10,169 sq. miles (26,338 sq. km) Languages Kinyarwanda*, French*, Kiswahili, English* Religions Christian 94%, Muslim 5%, Traditional beliefs 1% Ethnic mix Hutu 85%, Tutsi 14%, Other (including Twa) 1% Government Presidential system Currency Rwanda franc = 100 centimes Literacy rate 66% Calorie consumption 2148 kilocalories

ST KITTS & NEVIS West Indies Official name Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis Formation 1983 / 1983 Capital Basseterre Population 51,538 / 371 people per sq mile (143 people per sq km) Total area 101 sq. miles (261 sq. km) Languages English*, English Creole Religions Anglican 33%, Methodist 29%, Other 22%, Moravian 9%, Roman Catholic 7% Ethnic mix Black 95%, Mixed race 3%, White 1%, Other and Amerindian 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency East Caribbean dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 98% Calorie consumption 2507 kilocalories

ST LUCIA

SENEGAL

West Indies

West Africa

SLOVENIA Central Europe

SPAIN Southwest Europe

SWITZERLAND Central Europe

Official name Saint Lucia Formation 1979 / 1979 Capital Castries Population 200,000 / 847 people per sq mile (328 people per sq km) Total area 239 sq. miles (620 sq. km) Languages English*, French Creole Religions Roman Catholic 90%, Other 10% Ethnic mix Black 83%, Mulatto (mixed race) 13%, Asian 3%, Other 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency East Caribbean dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 95% Calorie consumption 2629 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Senegal Formation 1960 / 1960 Capital Dakar Population 14.5 million / 195 people per sq mile (75 people per sq km) Total area 75,749 sq. miles (196,190 sq. km) Languages Wolof, Pulaar, Serer, Diola, Mandinka, Malinké, Soninké, French* Religions Sunni Muslim 95%, Christian (mainly Roman Catholic) 4%, Traditional beliefs 1% Ethnic mix Wolof 43%, Serer 15%, Peul 14%, Other 14%, Toucouleur 9%, Diola 5% Government Presidential system Currency CFA franc = 100 centimes Literacy rate 52% Calorie consumption 2426 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Slovenia Formation 1991 / 1991 Capital Ljubljana Population 2.1 million / 269 people per sq mile (104 people per sq km) Total area 7820 sq. miles (20,253 sq. km) Languages Slovenian* Religions Roman Catholic 58%, Other 28%, Atheist 10%, Orthodox Christian 2%, Muslim 2% Ethnic mix Slovene 83%, Other 12%, Serb 2%, Croat 2%, Bosniak 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency Euro = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3173 kilocalories

Official name Kingdom of Spain Formation 1492 / 1713 Capital Madrid Population 47.1 million / 244 people per sq mile (94 people per sq km) Total area 194,896 sq. miles (504,782 sq. km) Languages Spanish*, Catalan*, Galician*, Basque* Religions Roman Catholic 96%, Other 4% Ethnic mix Castilian Spanish 72%, Catalan 17%, Galician 6%, Basque 2%, Other 2%, Roma 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency Euro = 100 cents Literacy rate 98% Calorie consumption 3183 kilocalories

Official name Swiss Confederation Formation 1291 / 1857 Capital Bern Population 8.2 million / 534 people per sq mile (206 people per sq km) Total area 15,942 sq. miles (41,290 sq. km) Languages German*, Swiss-German, French*, Italian*, Romansch Religions Roman Catholic 42%, Protestant 35%, Other and nonreligious 19%, Muslim 4% Ethnic mix German 64%, French 20%, Other 9.5%, Italian 6%, Romansch 0.5% Government Parliamentary system Currency Swiss franc = 100 rappen/centimes Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3487 kilocalories

ST VINCENT & THE GRENADINES

SERBIA

SOLOMON ISLANDS

SRI LANKA

SYRIA

West Indies

SAMOA Australasia & Oceania Official name Independent State of Samoa Formation 1962 / 1962 Capital Apia Population 200,000 / 183 people per sq mile (71 people per sq km) Total area 1104 sq. miles (2860 sq. km) Languages Samoan*, English* Religions Christian 99%, Other 1% Ethnic mix Polynesian 91%, Euronesian 7%, Other 2% Government Parliamentary system Currency Tala = 100 sene Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 2872 kilocalories

SAN MARINO Southern Europe

Australasia & Oceania

South Asia

Southwest Asia

Official name Republic of Serbia Formation 2006 / 2008 Capital Belgrade Population 9.5 million / 318 people per sq mile (123 people per sq km) Total area 29,905 sq. miles (77,453 sq. km) Languages Serbian*, Hungarian (Magyar) Religions Orthodox Christian 85%, Roman Catholic 6%, Other 6%, Muslim 3% Ethnic mix Serb 83%, Other 10%, Magyar 4%, Bosniak 2%, Roma 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency Serbian dinar = 100 para Literacy rate 98% Calorie consumption 2724 kilocalories

Official name Solomon Islands Formation 1978 / 1978 Capital Honiara Population 600,000 / 56 people per sq mile (21 people per sq km) Total area 10,985 sq. miles (28,450 sq. km) Languages English*, Pidgin English, Melanesian Pidgin, 120 (est.) native languages Religions Church of Melanesia (Anglican) 34%, Roman Catholic 19%, South Seas Evangelical Church 17%, Methodist 11%, Seventh-day Adventist 10%, Other 9% Ethnic mix Melanesian 93%, Polynesian 4%, Micronesian 2%, Other 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency Solomon Islands dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 77% Calorie consumption 2473 kilocalories

Official name Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka Formation 1948 / 1948 Capital Colombo; Sri Jayewardenapura Kotte Population 21.4 million / 856 people per sq mile (331 people per sq km) Total area 25,332 sq. miles (65,610 sq. km) Languages Sinhala*, Tamil*, Sinhala-Tamil, English Religions Buddhist 69%, Hindu 15%, Muslim 8%, Christian 8% Ethnic mix Sinhalese 74%, Tamil 18%, Moor 7%, Other 1% Government Mixed presidential– parliamentary system Currency Sri Lanka rupee = 100 cents Literacy rate 91% Calorie consumption 2539 kilocalories

Official name Syrian Arab Republic Formation 1941 / 1967 Capital Damascus Population 22 million / 310 people per sq mile (120 people per sq km) Total area 71,498 sq. miles (184,180 sq. km) Languages Arabic*, French, Kurdish, Armenian, Circassian, Turkic languages, Assyrian, Aramaic Religions Sunni Muslim 74%, Alawi 12%, Christian 10%, Druze 3%, Other 1% Ethnic mix Arab 90%, Kurdish 9%, Armenian, Turkmen, and Circassian 1% Government Presidential system Currency Syrian pound = 100 piastres Literacy rate 85% Calorie consumption 3106 kilocalories

SEYCHELLES

SOMALIA

SUDAN

TAIWAN

Indian Ocean

East Africa

Official name Republic of Seychelles Formation 1976 / 1976 Capital Victoria Population 91,650 / 881 people per sq mile (339 people per sq km) Total area 176 sq. miles (455 sq. km) Languages French Creole*, English*, French* Religions Roman Catholic 82%, Anglican 6%, Other (including Muslim) 6%, Other Christian 3%, Hindu 2%, Seventh-day Adventist 1% Ethnic mix Creole 89%, Indian 5%, Other 4%, Chinese 2% Government Presidential system Currency Seychelles rupee = 100 cents Literacy rate 92% Calorie consumption 2426 kilocalories

Official name Federal Republic of Somalia Formation 1960 / 1960 Capital Mogadishu Population 10.8 million / 45 people per sq mile (17 people per sq km) Total area 246,199 sq. miles (637,657 sq. km) Languages Somali*, Arabic*, English, Italian Religions Sunni Muslim 99%, Christian 1% Ethnic mix Somali 85%, Other 15% Government Non-party system Currency Somali shilin = 100 senti Literacy rate 24% Calorie consumption 1696 kilocalories

SIERRA LEONE

SOUTH AFRICA

West Africa

Southern Africa

East Africa

East Asia

Official name Republic of the Sudan Formation 1956 / 2011 Capital Khartoum Population 38.8 million / 54 people per sq mile (21 people per sq km) Total area 718,722 sq. miles (1,861,481 sq. km) Languages Arabic, Nubian, Beja, Fur Religions Nearly the whole population is Muslim (mainly Sunni) Ethnic mix Arab 60%, Other 18%, Nubian 10%, Beja 8%, Fur 3%, Zaghawa 1% Government Presidential system Currency New Sudanese pound = 100 piastres Literacy rate 73% Calorie consumption 2346 kilocalories

Official name Republic of China (ROC) Formation 1949 / 1949 Capital Taibei (Taipei) Population 23.4 million / 1879 people per sq mile (725 people per sq km) Total area 13,892 sq. miles (35,980 sq. km) Languages Amoy Chinese, Mandarin Chinese*, Hakka Chinese Religions Buddhist, Confucianist, and Taoist 93%, Christian 5%, Other 2% Ethnic mix Han Chinese (pre-20th-century migration) 84%, Han Chinese (20th-century migration) 14%, Aboriginal 2% Government Presidential system Currency Taiwan dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 98% Calorie consumption 2997 kilocalories

SURINAME

TAJIKISTAN

South America

Central Asia

Official name Republic of San Marino Formation 1631 / 1631 Capital San Marino Population 32,742 / 1364 people per sq mile (537 people per sq km) Total area 23.6 sq. miles (61 sq. km) Languages Italian* Religions Roman Catholic 93%, Other and nonreligious 7% Ethnic mix Sammarinese 88%, Italian 10%, Other 2% Government Parliamentary system Currency Euro = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption Not available

Official name Republic of Sierra Leone Formation 1961 / 1961 Capital Freetown Population 6.2 million / 224 people per sq mile (87 people per sq km) Total area 27,698 sq. miles (71,740 sq. km) Languages Mende, Temne, Krio, English* Religions Muslim 60%, Christian 30%, Traditional beliefs 10% Ethnic mix Mende 35%, Temne 32%, Other 21%, Limba 8%, Kuranko 4% Government Presidential system Currency Leone = 100 cents Literacy rate 44% Calorie consumption 2333 kilocalories

Official name Republic of South Africa Formation 1934 / 1994 Capital Pretoria; Cape Town; Bloemfontein Population 53.1 million / 113 people per sq mile (43 people per sq km) Total area 471,008 sq. miles (1,219,912 sq. km) Languages English, isiZulu, isiXhosa, Afrikaans, Sepedi, Setswana, Sesotho, Xitsonga, siSwati, Tshivenda, isiNdebele Religions Christian 68%, Traditional beliefs and animist 29%, Muslim 2%, Hindu 1% Ethnic mix Black 80%, Mixed race 9%, White 9%, Asian 2% Government Presidential system Currency Rand = 100 cents Literacy rate 94% Calorie consumption 3007 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Suriname Formation 1975 / 1975 Capital Paramaribo Population 500,000 / 8 people per sq mile (3 people per sq km) Total area 63,039 sq. miles (163,270 sq. km) Languages Sranan (creole), Dutch*, Javanese, Sarnami Hindi, Saramaccan, Chinese, Carib Religions Hindu 27%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 23%, Muslim 20%, Traditional beliefs 5% Ethnic mix East Indian 27%, Creole 18%, Black 15%, Javanese 15%, Mixed race 13%, Other 6%, Amerindian 4%, Chinese 2% Government Mixed presidential– parliamentary system Currency Surinamese dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 95% Calorie consumption 2727 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Tajikistan Formation 1991 / 1991 Capital Dushanbe Population 8.4 million / 152 people per sq mile (59 people per sq km) Total area 55,251 sq. miles (143,100 sq. km) Languages Tajik*, Uzbek, Russian Religions Sunni Muslim 95%, Shi’a Muslim 3%, Other 2% Ethnic mix Tajik 80%, Uzbek 15%, Other 3%, Russian 1%, Kyrgyz 1% Government Presidential system Currency Somoni = 100 diram Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 2101 kilocalories

SAO TOME & PRINCIPE

SINGAPORE

SOUTH KOREA

SWAZILAND

TANZANIA

West Africa

Southeast Asia

East Asia

Southern Africa

East Africa

Official name Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe Formation 1975 / 1975 Capital São Tomé Population 200,000 / 539 people per sq mile (208 people per sq km) Total area 386 sq. miles (1001 sq. km) Languages Portuguese Creole, Portuguese* Religions Roman Catholic 84%, Other 16% Ethnic mix Black 90%, Portuguese and Creole 10% Government Presidential system Currency Dobra = 100 céntimos Literacy rate 70% Calorie consumption 2676 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Singapore Formation 1965 / 1965 Capital Singapore Population 5.5 million / 23,305 people per sq mile (9016 people per sq km) Total area 250 sq. miles (648 sq. km) Languages Mandarin*, Malay*, Tamil*, English* Religions Buddhist 55%, Taoist 22%, Muslim 16%, Hindu, Christian, and Sikh 7% Ethnic mix Chinese 74%, Malay 14%, Indian 9%, Other 3% Government Parliamentary system Currency Singapore dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 96% Calorie consumption Not available

Official name Republic of Korea Formation 1948 / 1953 Capital Seoul; Sejong City (administrative) Population 49.5 million / 1299 people per sq mile (501 people per sq km) Total area 38,023 sq. miles (98,480 sq. km) Languages Korean* Religions Mahayana Buddhist 47%, Protestant 38%, Roman Catholic 11%, Confucianist 3%, Other 1% Ethnic mix Korean 100% Government Presidential system Currency South Korean won = 100 chon Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3329 kilocalories

Official name Kingdom of Swaziland Formation 1968 / 1968 Capital Mbabane Population 1.3 million / 196 people per sq mile (76 people per sq km) Total area 6704 sq. miles (17,363 sq. km) Languages English*, siSwati*, isiZulu, Xitsonga Religions Traditional beliefs 40%, Other 30%, Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 10% Ethnic mix Swazi 97%, Other 3% Government Monarchy Currency Lilangeni = 100 cents Literacy rate 83% Calorie consumption 2275 kilocalories

Official name United Republic of Tanzania Formation 1964 / 1964 Capital Dodoma Population 50.8 million / 148 people per sq mile (57 people per sq km) Total area 364,898 sq. miles (945,087 sq. km) Languages Kiswahili*, Sukuma, Chagga, Nyamwezi, Hehe, Makonde, Yao, Sandawe, English* Religions Christian 63%, Muslim 35%, Other 2% Ethnic mix Native African (over 120 tribes) 99%, European, Asian, and Arab 1% Government Presidential system Currency Tanzanian shilling = 100 cents Literacy rate 68% Calorie consumption 2208 kilocalories

SAUDI ARABIA

SLOVAKIA

SOUTH SUDAN

SWEDEN

THAILAND

Southwest Asia Official name Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Formation 1932 / 1932 Capital Riyadh Population 29.4 million / 36 people per sq mile (14 people per sq km) Total area 756,981 sq. miles (1,960,582 sq. km) Languages Arabic* Religions Sunni Muslim 85%, Shi’a Muslim 15% Ethnic mix Arab 72%, Foreign residents (mostly south and southeast Asian) 20%, Afro-Asian 8% Government Monarchy Currency Saudi riyal = 100 halalat Literacy rate 94% Calorie consumption 3122 kilocalories

Central Europe Official name Slovak Republic Formation 1993 / 1993 Capital Bratislava Population 5.5 million / 290 people per sq mile (112 people per sq km) Total area 18,859 sq. miles (48,845 sq. km) Languages Slovak*, Hungarian (Magyar), Czech Religions Roman Catholic 69%, Nonreligious 13%, Other 13%, Greek Catholic (Uniate) 4%, Orthodox Christian 1% Ethnic mix Slovak 86%, Magyar 10%, Roma 2%, Czech 1%, Other 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency Euro = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 2902 kilocalories

East Africa Official name Republic of South Sudan Formation 2011 / 2011 Capital Juba Population 11.7 million / 47 people per sq mile (18 people per sq km) Total area 248,777 sq. miles (644,329 sq. km) Languages Arabic, Dinka, Nuer, Zande, Bari, Shilluk, Lotuko, English* Religions Over half of the population follow Christian or traditional beliefs. Ethnic mix Dinka 40%, Nuer 15%, Bari 10%, Shilluk/ Anwak 10%, Azande 10%, Arab 10%, Other 5% Government Transitional regime Currency South Sudan pound = 100 piastres Literacy rate 37% Calorie consumption Not available

Northern Europe Official name Kingdom of Sweden Formation 1523 / 1921 Capital Stockholm Population 9.6 million / 60 people per sq mile (23 people per sq km) Total area 173,731 sq. miles (449,964 sq. km) Languages Swedish*, Finnish, Sámi Religions Evangelical Lutheran 75%, Other 13%, Muslim 5%, Other Protestant 5%, Roman Catholic 2% Ethnic mix Swedish 86%, Foreign-born or first-generation immigrant 12%, Finnish and Sámi 2% Government Parliamentary system Currency Swedish krona = 100 öre Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3160 kilocalories

Southeast Asia Official name Kingdom of Thailand Formation 1238 / 1907 Capital Bangkok Population 67.2 million / 341 people per sq mile (132 people per sq km) Total area 198,455 sq. miles (514,000 sq. km) Languages Thai*, Chinese, Malay, Khmer, Mon, Karen, Miao Religions Buddhist 95%, Muslim 4%, Other (including Christian) 1% Ethnic mix Thai 83%, Chinese 12%, Malay 3%, Khmer and Other 2% Government Transitional regime Currency Baht = 100 satang Literacy rate 96% Calorie consumption 2784 kilocalories

COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD

Official name Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Formation 1979 / 1979 Capital Kingstown Population 102,918 / 786 people per sq mile (303 people per sq km) Total area 150 sq. miles (389 sq. km) Languages English*, English Creole Religions Anglican 47%, Methodist 28%, Roman Catholic 13%, Other 12% Ethnic mix Black 66%, Mulatto (mixed race) 19%, Other 12%, Carib 2%, Asian 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency East Caribbean dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 88% Calorie consumption 2960 kilocalories

Southeast Europe

303

TOGO West Africa

COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD

Central Asia

UNITED KINGDOM Northwest Europe

VATICAN CITY Southern Europe

Official name Togolese Republic Formation 1960 / 1960 Capital Lomé Population 7 million / 333 people per sq mile (129 people per sq km) Total area 21,924 sq. miles (56,785 sq. km) Languages Ewe, Kabye, Gurma, French* Religions Christian 47%, Traditional beliefs 33%, Muslim 14%, Other 6% Ethnic mix Ewe 46%, Other African 41%, Kabye 12%, European 1% Government Presidential system Currency CFA franc = 100 centimes Literacy rate 60% Calorie consumption 2366 kilocalories

Official name Turkmenistan Formation 1991 / 1991 Capital Ashgabat Population 5.3 million / 28 people per sq mile (11 people per sq km) Total area 188,455 sq. miles (488,100 sq. km) Languages Turkmen*, Uzbek, Russian, Kazakh, Tatar Religions Sunni Muslim 89%, Orthodox Christian 9%, Other 2% Ethnic mix Turkmen 85%, Other 6%, Uzbek 5%, Russian 4% Government Presidential system Currency New manat = 100 tenge Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 2883 kilocalories

Official name United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Formation 1707 / 1922 Capital London Population 63.5 million / 681 people per sq mile (263 people per sq km) Total area 94,525 sq. miles (244,820 sq. km) Languages English*, Welsh*, Scottish Gaelic, Irish Religions Anglican 45%, Other and nonreligious 36%, Roman Catholic 9%, Presbyterian 4%, Muslim 3%, Methodist 2%, Hindu 1% Ethnic mix English 80%, Scottish 9%, West Indian, Asian, and other 5%, Northern Irish 3%, Welsh 3% Government Parliamentary system Currency Pound sterling = 100 pence Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3414 kilocalories

Official name State of the Vatican City Formation 1929 / 1929 Capital Vatican City Population 842 / 4953 people per sq mile (1914 people per sq km) Total area 0.17 sq. miles (0.44 sq. km) Languages Italian*, Latin* Religions Roman Catholic 100% Ethnic mix The current pope is Argentinian, though most popes for the last 500 years have been Italian. Cardinals are from many nationalities, but Italians form the largest group. Most of the resident lay persons are Italian. Government Papal state Currency Euro = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption Not available

TONGA

TUVALU

UNITED STATES

VENEZUELA

Australasia & Oceania

304

TURKMENISTAN

Australasia & Oceania

North America

South America

Official name Kingdom of Tonga Formation 1970 / 1970 Capital Nuku’alofa Population 106,440 / 383 people per sq mile (148 people per sq km) Total area 289 sq. miles (748 sq. km) Languages English*, Tongan* Religions Free Wesleyan 41%, Other 17%, Roman Catholic 16%, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 14%, Free Church of Tonga 12% Ethnic mix Tongan 98%, Other 2% Government Monarchy Currency Pa’anga (Tongan dollar) = 100 seniti Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption Not available

Official name Tuvalu Formation 1978 / 1978 Capital Funafuti Atoll Population 10,782 / 1078 people per sq mile (415 people per sq km) Total area 10 sq. miles (26 sq. km) Languages Tuvaluan, Kiribati, English* Religions Church of Tuvalu 97%, Baha’i 1%, Seventh-day Adventist 1%, Other 1% Ethnic mix Polynesian 96%, Micronesian 4% Government Nonparty system Currency Australian dollar = 100 cents; and Tuvaluan dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 95% Calorie consumption Not available

Official name United States of America Formation 1776 / 1959 Capital Washington D.C. Population 323 million / 91 people per sq mile (35 people per sq km) Total area 3,794,100 sq. miles (9,826,675 sq. km) Languages English*, Spanish, Chinese, French, German, Tagalog, Vietnamese, Italian, Korean, Russian, Polish Religions Protestant 52%, Roman Catholic 25%, Other and nonreligious 20%, Jewish 2%, Muslim 1% Ethnic mix White 60%, Hispanic 17%, Black American/African 14%, Asian 6%, American Indians & Alaksa Natives 2%, Pacific Islanders 1% Government Presidential system Currency US dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3639 kilocalories

Official name Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela Formation 1830 / 1830 Capital Caracas Population 30.9 million / 91 people per sq mile (35 people per sq km) Total area 352,143 sq. miles (912,050 sq. km) Languages Spanish*, Amerindian languages Religions Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2%, Other 2% Ethnic mix Mestizo 69%, White 20%, Black 9%, Amerindian 2% Government Presidential system Currency Bolívar fuerte = 100 céntimos Literacy rate 96% Calorie consumption 2880 kilocalories

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO

UGANDA

URUGUAY

VIETNAM

West Indies

East Africa

South America

Southeast Asia

Official name Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Formation 1962 / 1962 Capital Port-of-Spain Population 1.3 million / 656 people per sq mile (253 people per sq km) Total area 1980 sq. miles (5128 sq. km) Languages English Creole, English*, Hindi, French, Spanish Religions Roman Catholic 26%, Hindu 23%, Other and nonreligious 23%, Anglican 8%, Baptist 7%, Pentecostal 7%, Muslim 6% Ethnic mix East Indian 40%, Black 38%, Mixed race 20%, White and Chinese 1%, other 1% Government Parliamentary system Currency Trinidad and Tobago dollar = 100 cents Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 2889 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Uganda Formation 1962 / 1962 Capital Kampala Population 38.8 million / 504 people per sq mile (194 people per sq km) Total area 91,135 sq. miles (236,040 sq. km) Languages Luganda, Nkole, Chiga, Lango, Acholi, Teso, Lugbara, English* Religions Christian 85%, Muslim (mainly Sunni) 12%, Other 3% Ethnic mix Other 50%, Baganda 17%, Banyakole 10%, Basoga 9%, Iteso 7%, Bakiga 7% Government Presidential system Currency Uganda shilling = 100 cents Literacy rate 74% Calorie consumption 2279 kilocalories

Official name Oriental Republic of Uruguay Formation 1828 / 1828 Capital Montevideo Population 3.4 million / 50 people per sq mile (19 people per sq km) Total area 68,039 sq. miles (176,220 sq. km) Languages Spanish* Religions Roman Catholic 66%, Other and nonreligious 30%, Jewish 2%, Protestant 2% Ethnic mix White 90%, Mestizo 6%, Black 4% Government Presidential system Currency Uruguayan peso = 100 centésimos Literacy rate 98% Calorie consumption 2939 kilocalories

Official name Socialist Republic of Vietnam Formation 1976 / 1976 Capital Hanoi Population 92.5 million / 736 people per sq mile (284 people per sq km) Total area 127,243 sq. miles (329,560 sq. km) Languages Vietnamese*, Chinese, Thai, Khmer, Muong, Nung, Miao, Yao, Jarai Religions Other 74%, Buddhist 14%, Roman Catholic 7%, Cao Dai 3%, Protestant 2% Ethnic mix Vietnamese 86%, Other 8%, Muong 2%, Tay 2%, Thai 2% Government One-party state Currency Dông = 10 hao = 100 xu Literacy rate 94% Calorie consumption 2745 kilocalories

TUNISIA

UKRAINE

UZBEKISTAN

YEMEN

North Africa

Eastern Europe

Central Asia

Southwest Asia

Official name Tunisian Republic Formation 1956 / 1956 Capital Tunis Population 11.1 million / 185 people per sq mile (71 people per sq km) Total area 63,169 sq. miles (163,610 sq. km) Languages Arabic*, French Religions Muslim (mainly Sunni) 98%, Christian 1%, Jewish 1% Ethnic mix Arab and Berber 98%, Jewish 1%, European 1% Government Mixed presidential– parliamentary system Currency Tunisian dinar = 1000 millimes Literacy rate 80% Calorie consumption 3362 kilocalories

Official name Ukraine Formation 1991 / 1991 Capital Kiev Population 44.9 million / 193 people per sq mile (74 people per sq km) Total area 223,089 sq. miles (603,700 sq. km) Languages Ukrainian*, Russian, Tatar Religions Christian (mainly Orthodox) 95%, Other 5% Ethnic mix Ukrainian 78%, Russian 17%, Other 5% Government Presidential system Currency Hryvna = 100 kopiykas Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 3142 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Uzbekistan Formation 1991 / 1991 Capital Tashkent Population 29.3 million / 170 people per sq mile (65 people per sq km) Total area 172,741 sq. miles (447,400 sq. km) Languages Uzbek*, Russian, Tajik, Kazakh Religions Sunni Muslim 88%, Orthodox Christian 9%, Other 3% Ethnic mix Uzbek 80%, Russian 6%, Other 6%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3% Government Presidential system Currency Som = 100 tiyin Literacy rate 99% Calorie consumption 2675 kilocalories

Official name Republic of Yemen Formation 1990 / 1990 Capital Sana Population 25 million / 115 people per sq mile (44 people per sq km) Total area 203,849 sq. miles (527,970 sq. km) Languages Arabic* Religions Sunni Muslim 55%, Shi’a Muslim 42%, Christian, Hindu, and Jewish 3% Ethnic mix Arab 99%, Afro-Arab, Indian, Somali, and European 1% Government Transitional regime Currency Yemeni rial = 100 fils Literacy rate 66% Calorie consumption 2223 kilocalories

TURKEY

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

VANUATU

ZAMBIA

Asia / Europe Official name Republic of Turkey Formation 1923 / 1939 Capital Ankara Population 75.8 million / 255 people per sq mile (98 people per sq km) Total area 301,382 sq. miles (780,580 sq. km) Languages Turkish*, Kurdish, Arabic, Circassian, Armenian, Greek, Georgian, Ladino Religions Muslim (mainly Sunni) 99%, Other 1% Ethnic mix Turkish 70%, Kurdish 20%, Other 8%, Arab 2% Government Parliamentary system Currency Turkish lira = 100 kurus Literacy rate 95% Calorie consumption 3680 kilocalories

Southwest Asia Official name United Arab Emirates Formation 1971 / 1972 Capital Abu Dhabi Population 9.4 million / 291 people per sq mile (112 people per sq km) Total area 32,000 sq. miles (82,880 sq. km) Languages Arabic*, Farsi, Indian and Pakistani languages, English Religions Muslim (mainly Sunni) 96%, Christian, Hindu, and other 4% Ethnic mix Asian 60%, Emirian 25%, Other Arab 12%, European 3% Government Monarchy Currency UAE dirham = 100 fils Literacy rate 90% Calorie consumption 3215 kilocalories

Australasia & Oceania Official name Republic of Vanuatu Formation 1980 / 1980 Capital Port Vila Population 300,000 / 64 people per sq mile (25 people per sq km) Total area 4710 sq. miles (12,200 sq. km) Languages Bislama (Melanesian pidgin)*, English*, French*, other indigenous languages Religions Presbyterian 37%, Other 19%, Anglican 15%, Roman Catholic 15%, Traditional beliefs 8%, Seventh-day Adventist 6% Ethnic mix ni-Vanuatu 94%, European 4%, Other 2% Government Parliamentary system Currency Vatu = 100 centimes Literacy rate 83% Calorie consumption 2820 kilocalories

Southern Africa Official name Republic of Zambia Formation 1964 / 1964 Capital Lusaka Population 15 million / 52 people per sq mile (20 people per sq km) Total area 290,584 sq. miles (752,614 sq. km) Languages Bemba, Tonga, Nyanja, Lozi, Lala-Bisa, Nsenga, English* Religions Christian 63%, Traditional beliefs 36%, Muslim and Hindu 1% Ethnic mix Bemba 34%, Other African 26%, Tonga 16%, Nyanja 14%, Lozi 9%, European 1% Government Presidential system Currency New Zambian kwacha = 100 ngwee Literacy rate 61% Calorie consumption 1930 kilocalories

ZIMBABWE Southern Africa Official name Republic of Zimbabwe Formation 1980 / 1980 Capital Harare Population 14.6 million / 98 people per sq mile (38 people per sq km) Total area 150,803 sq. miles (390,580 sq. km) Languages Shona, isiNdebele, English* Religions Syncretic (Christian/traditional beliefs) 50%, Christian 25%, Traditional beliefs 24%, Other (including Muslim) 1% Ethnic mix Shona 71%, Ndebele 16%, Other African 11%, White 1%, Asian 1% Government Presidential system Currency US $, South African rand, Euro, UK £, Botswana pula, Australian $, Chinese yuan, Indian rupee, and Japanese yen are legal tender Literacy rate 84% Calorie consumption 2110 kilocalories

Geographical names The following glossary lists all geographical terms occurring on the maps and in main-entry names in the Index-Gazetteer. These terms may precede, follow or be run together with the proper element of the name; where they precede it the term is reversed for indexing purposes - thus Poluostrov Yamal is indexed as Yamal, Poluostrov.

Key Geographical term Language, Term

A .............................................

................................................

................................................

B..............................................

Baelt Danish, Strait Bahía Spanish, Bay Baír Arabic, River Baía Portuguese, Bay Baie French, Bay Bañado Spanish, Marshy land Bandao Chinese, Peninsula Banjaran Malay, Mountain range Barajı Turkish, Dam Barragem Portuguese, Reservoir Bassin French, Basin Batang Malay, Stream Beinn, Ben Gaelic, Mountain -berg Afrikaans, Norwegian, Mountain Besar Indonesian, Malay, Big Birkat, Birket Arabic, Lake, well, Boêazı Turkish, Lake Boka Serbo-Croatian, Bay Bol’sh-aya, -iye, -oy, -oye Russian, Big Botigh(i) Uzbek, Depression basin -bre(en) Norwegian, Glacier Bredning Danish, Bay Bucht German, Bay Bugt(en) Danish, Bay Buíayrat Arabic, Lake, reservoir Buìeiret Arabic, Lake Bukit Malay, Mountain -bukta Norwegian, Bay bukten Swedish, Bay Bulag Mongolian, Spring Bulak Uighur, Spring Burnu Turkish, Cape, point Buuraha Somali, Mountains ................................................

C..............................................

Cabo Portuguese, Cape Caka Tibetan, Salt lake Canal Spanish, Channel Cap French, Cape Capo Italian, Cape, headland Cascada Portuguese, Waterfall Cayo(s) Spanish, Islet(s), rock(s) Cerro Spanish, Hill Chaîne French, Mountain range Chapada Portuguese, Hills, upland Chau Cantonese, Island Cháy Turkish, River Chhâk Cambodian, Bay Chhu Tibetan, River -chôsuji Korean, Reservoir Chott Arabic, Depression, salt lake Chûli Uzbek, Grassland, steppe Ch’ün-tao Chinese, Island group Chuôr Phnum Cambodian, Mountains

...............................................

D .............................................

Daban Mongolian, Uighur, Pass Daêı Azerbaijani, Turkish, Mountain Daêları Azerbaijani, Turkish, Mountains -dake Japanese, Peak -dal(en) Norwegian, Valley Danau Indonesian, Lake Dao Chinese, Island Ãao Vietnamese, Island Daryá Persian, River Daryácheh Persian, Lake Dasht Persian, Desert, plain Dawíat Arabic, Bay Denizi Turkish, Sea Dere Turkish, Stream Desierto Spanish, Desert Dili Azerbaijani, Spit -do Korean, Island Dooxo Somali, Valley Düzü Azerbaijani, Steppe -dwíp Bengali, Island ................................................

E ..............................................

-eilanden Dutch, Islands Embalse Spanish, Reservoir Ensenada Spanish, Bay Erg Arabic, Dunes Estany Catalan, Lake Estero Spanish, Inlet Estrecho Spanish, Strait Étang French, Lagoon, lake -ey Icelandic, Island Ezero Bulgarian, Macedonian, Lake Ezers Latvian, Lake

F ..............................................

.................................................

Feng Chinese, Peak Fjord Danish, Fjord -fjord(en) Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, fjord -fjördhur Icelandic, Fjord Fleuve French, River Fliegu Maltese, Channel -fljór Icelandic, River -flói Icelandic, Bay Forêt French, Forest ...............................................

G .............................................

-gan Japanese, Rock -gang Korean, River Ganga Hindi, Nepali, Sinhala, River Gaoyuan Chinese, Plateau Garagumy Turkmen, Sands -gawa Japanese, River Gebel Arabic, Mountain -gebirge German, Mountain range Ghadír Arabic, Well Ghubbat Arabic, Bay Gjiri Albanian, Bay Gol Mongolian, River Golfe French, Gulf Golfo Italian, Spanish, Gulf Göl(ü) Turkish, Lake Golyam, -a Bulgarian, Big Gora Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Mountain Góra Polish, mountain Gory Russian, Mountain Gryada Russian, ridge Guba Russian, Bay -gundo Korean, island group Gunung Malay, Mountain ...............................................

H .............................................

Íadd Arabic, Spit -haehyôp Korean, Strait Haff German, Lagoon Hai Chinese, Bay, lake, sea Haixia Chinese, Strait Hamada Arabic, Plateau Íammádat Arabic, Plateau Hámún Persian, Lake -hantó Japanese, Peninsula Har, Haré Hebrew, Mountain Íarrat Arabic, Lava-field Hav(et) Danish, Swedish, Sea Hawr Arabic, Lake Háyk’ Amharic, Lake He Chinese, River -hegység Hungarian, Mountain range Heide German, Heath, moorland Helodrano Malagasy, Bay Higashi- Japanese, East(ern) Íi§á’ Arabic, Well Hka Burmese, River -ho Korean, Lake ⁄olot Hebrew, Dunes Hora Belarussian, Czech, Mountain Hrada Belarussian, Mountain, ridge

Hsi Chinese, River Hu Chinese, Lake Huk Danish, Point

I

................................................. ...............................................

Île(s) French, Island(s) Ilha(s) Portuguese, Island(s) Ilhéu(s) Portuguese, Islet(s) Imeni Russian, In the name of Inish- Gaelic, Island Insel(n) German, Island(s) Irmaêı , Irmak Turkish, River Isla(s) Spanish, Island(s) Isola (Isole) Italian, Island(s)

J

................................................. ...............................................

Jabal Arabic, Mountain Jál Arabic, Ridge -järv Estonian, Lake -järvi Finnish, Lake Jazá’ir Arabic, Islands Jazírat Arabic, Island Jazíreh Persian, Island Jebel Arabic, Mountain Jezero Serbo-Croatian, Lake Jezioro Polish, Lake Jiang Chinese, River -jima Japanese, Island Jiªní Czech, Southern -jõgi Estonian, River -joki Finnish, River -jökull Icelandic, Glacier Jún Arabic, Bay Juzur Arabic, Islands ................................................

K..............................................

Kaikyó Japanese, Strait -kaise Lappish, Mountain Kali Nepali, River Kalnas Lithuanian, Mountain Kalns Latvian, Mountain Kang Chinese, Harbour Kangri Tibetan, Mountain(s) Kaôh Cambodian, Island Kapp Norwegian, Cape Káto Greek, Lower Kavír Persian, Desert K’edi Georgian, Mountain range Kediet Arabic, Mountain Kepi Albanian, Cape, point Kepulauan Indonesian, Malay, Island group Khalîg, Khalíj Arabic, Gulf Khawr Arabic, Inlet Khola Nepali, River Khrebet Russian, Mountain range Ko Thai, Island -ko Japanese, Inlet, lake Kólpos Greek, Bay -kopf German, Peak Körfäzi Azerbaijani, Bay Körfezi Turkish, Bay Kõrgustik Estonian, Upland Kosa Russian, Ukrainian, Spit Koshi Nepali, River Kou Chinese, River-mouth Kowtal Persian, Pass Kray Russian, Region, territory Kryazh Russian, Ridge Kuduk Uighur, Well Kúh(há) Persian, Mountain(s) -kul’ Russian, Lake Kûl(i) Tajik, Uzbek, Lake -kundo Korean, Island group -kysten Norwegian, Coast Kyun Burmese, Island ................................................

L ..............................................

Laaq Somali, Watercourse Lac French, Lake Lacul Romanian, Lake Lagh Somali, Stream Lago Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Lake Lagoa Portuguese, Lagoon Laguna Italian, Spanish, Lagoon, lake Laht Estonian, Bay Laut Indonesian, Bay Lembalemba Malagasy, Plateau Lerr Armenian, Mountain Lerrnashght’a Armenian, Mountain range Les Czech, Forest Lich Armenian, Lake Liehtao Chinese, Island group Liqeni Albanian, Lake Límni Greek, Lake Ling Chinese, Mountain range Llano Spanish, Plain, prairie Lumi Albanian, River Lyman Ukrainian, Estuary

M ............................................

...............................................

Madínat Arabic, City, town Mae Nam Thai, River -mägi Estonian, Hill Maja Albanian, Mountain Mal Albanian, Mountains Mal-aya, -oye, -yy, Russian, Small -man Korean, Bay

Mar Spanish, Sea Marios Lithuanian, Lake Massif French, Mountains Meer German, Lake -meer Dutch, Lake Melkosopochnik Russian, Plain -meri Estonian, Sea Mifra∞ Hebrew, Bay Minami- Japanese, South(ern) -misaki Japanese, Cape, point Monkhafad Arabic, Depression Montagne(s) French, Mountain(s) Montañas Spanish, Mountains Mont(s) French, Mountain(s) Monte Italian, Portuguese, Mountain More Russian, Sea Mörön Mongolian, River Mys Russian, Cape, point ...............................................

N .............................................

-nada Japanese, Open stretch of water Nagor’ye Russian, Upland Na¡al Hebrew, River Nahr Arabic, River Nam Laotian, River Namakzár Persian, Salt desert Né-a, -on, -os Greek, New Nedre- Norwegian, Lower -neem Estonian, Cape, point Nehri Turkish, River -nes Norwegian, Cape, point Nevado Spanish, Snow-capped Nieder- German, Lower Nishi- Japanese, West(ern) -nísi Greek, Island Nisoi Greek, Islands Nizhn-eye, -iy, -iye, -yaya Russian, Lower Nizmennost’ Russian, Lowland, plain Nord Danish, French, German, North Norte Portuguese, Spanish, North Nos Bulgarian, Point, spit Nosy Malagasy, Island Nov-a, -i, Bulgarian, Serbo-Croatian, New Nov-aya, -o, -oye, -yy, -yye Russian, New Now-a, -e, -y Polish, New Nur Mongolian, Lake Nuruu Mongolian, Mountains Nuur Mongolian, Lake Nyzovyna Ukrainian, Lowland, plain ...............................................

O.............................................

-ø Danish, Island Ober- German, Upper Oblast’ Russian, Province Órmos Greek, Bay Orol(i) Uzbek, Island Øster- Norwegian, Eastern Ostrov(a) Russian, Island(s) Otok Serbo-Croatian, Island Oued Arabic, Watercourse -oy Faeroese, Island -øy(a) Norwegian, Island Oya Sinhala, River Ozero Russian, Ukrainian, Lake ................................................

P ..............................................

Passo Italian, Pass Pegunungan Indonesian, Malay, Mountain range Pélagos Greek, Sea Pendi Chinese, Basin Penisola Italian, Peninsula Pertuis French, Strait Peski Russian, Sands Phanom Thai, Mountain Phou Laotian, Mountain Pi Chinese, Point Pic Catalan, French, Peak Pico Portuguese, Spanish, Peak -piggen Danish, Peak Pik Russian, Peak Pivostriv Ukrainian, Peninsula Planalto Portuguese, Plateau Planina, Planini Bulgarian, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Mountain range Plato Russian, Plateau Ploskogor’ye Russian, Upland Poluostrov Russian, Peninsula Ponta Portuguese, Point Porthmós Greek, Strait Pótamos Greek, River Presa Spanish, Dam Prokhod Bulgarian, Pass Proliv Russian, Strait Pulau Indonesian, Malay, Island Pulu Malay, Island Punta Spanish, Point Pushcha Belorussian, Forest Puszcza Polish, Forest ...............................................

Q.............................................

Qá‘ Arabic, Depression Qalamat Arabic, Well Qatorkûh(i) Tajik, Mountain Qiuling Chinese, Hills

................................................

R..............................................

Raas Somali, Cape -rags Latvian, Cape Ramlat Arabic, Sands Ra’s Arabic, Cape, headland, point Ravnina Bulgarian, Russian, Plain Récif French, Reef Recife Portuguese, Reef Reka Bulgarian, River Represa (Rep.) Portuguese, Spanish, Reservoir Reshteh Persian, Mountain range Respublika Russian, Republic, first-order administrative division Respublika(si) Uzbek, Republic, first-order administrative division -retsugan Japanese, Chain of rocks -rettó Japanese, Island chain Riacho Spanish, Stream Riban’ Malagasy, Mountains Rio Portuguese, River Río Spanish, River Riu Catalan, River Rivier Dutch, River Rivière French, River Rowd Pashtu, River Rt Serbo-Croatian, Point Rúd Persian, River Rúdkháneh Persian, River Rudohorie Slovak, Mountains Ruisseau French, Stream ................................................

S ..............................................

-saar Estonian, Island -saari Finnish, Island Sabkhat Arabic, Salt marsh Ságar(a) Hindi, Lake, reservoir fiaírá’ Arabic, Desert Saint, Sainte French, Saint Salar Spanish, Salt-pan Salto Portuguese, Spanish, Waterfall Samudra Sinhala, Reservoir -san Japanese, Korean, Mountain -sanchi Japanese, Mountains -sandur Icelandic, Beach Sankt German, Swedish, Saint -sanmaek Korean, Mountain range -sanmyaku Japanese, Mountain range San, Santa, Santo Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Saint São Portuguese, Saint Sarír Arabic, Desert Sebkha, Sebkhet Arabic, Depression, salt marsh Sedlo Czech, Pass See German, Lake Selat Indonesian, Strait Selatan Indonesian, Southern -selkä Finnish, Lake, ridge Selseleh Persian, Mountain range Serra Portuguese, Mountain Serranía Spanish, Mountain -seto Japanese, Channel, strait Sever-naya, -noye, -nyy, -o Russian, Northern Sha’íb Arabic, Watercourse Shákh Kurdish, Mountain Shamo Chinese, Desert Shan Chinese, Mountain(s) Shankou Chinese, Pass Shanmo Chinese, Mountain range Sha√√ Arabic, Distributary Shet’ Amharic, River Shi Chinese, Municipality -shima Japanese, Island Shiqqat Arabic, Depression -shotó Japanese, Group of islands Shuiku Chinese, Reservoir Shûrkhog(i) Uzbek, Salt marsh Sierra Spanish, Mountains Sint Dutch, Saint -sjø(en) Norwegian, Lake -sjön Swedish, Lake Solonchak Russian, Salt lake Solonchakovyye Vpadiny Russian, Salt basin, wetlands Sòn Vietnamese, Mountain Sông Vietnamese, River Sør- Norwegian, Southern -spitze German, Peak Star-á, -é Czech, Old Star-aya, -oye, -yy, -yye Russian, Old Stenó Greek, Strait Step’ Russian, Steppe ‹tít Slovak, Peak Stœng Cambodian, River Stolovaya Strana Russian, Plateau Stredné Slovak, Middle Stüední Czech, Middle Stretto Italian, Strait Su Anbarı Azerbaijani, Reservoir -suidó Japanese, Channel, strait Sund Swedish, Sound, strait Sungai Indonesian, Malay, River Suu Turkish, River ................................................

T..............................................

Tal Mongolian, Plain Tandavan’ Malagasy, Mountain range

Tangorombohitr’ Malagasy, Mountain massif Tanjung Indonesian, Malay, Cape, point Tao Chinese, Island ◊araq Arabic, Hills Tassili Berber, Mountain, plateau Tau Russian, Mountain(s) Taungdan Burmese, Mountain range Techníti Límni Greek, Reservoir Tekojärvi Finnish, Reservoir Teluk Indonesian, Malay, Bay Tengah Indonesian, Middle Terara Amharic, Mountain Timur Indonesian, Eastern -tind(an) Norwegian, Peak Tizma(si) Uzbek, Mountain range, ridge -tó Japanese, island Tog Somali, Valley -tóge Japanese, pass Togh(i) Uzbek, mountain Tônlé Cambodian, Lake Top Dutch, Peak -tunturi Finnish, Mountain ◊uráq Arabic, hills Tur‘at Arabic, Channel ...............................................

U .............................................

Udde(n) Swedish, Cape, point ‘Uqlat Arabic, Well Utara Indonesian, Northern Uul Mongolian, Mountains

V .............................................

................................................

Väin Estonian, Strait Vallée French, Valley Varful Romanian, Peak -vatn Icelandic, Lake -vatnet Norwegian, Lake Velayat Turkmen, Province -vesi Finnish, Lake Vestre- Norwegian, Western -vidda Norwegian, Plateau -vík Icelandic, Bay -viken Swedish, Bay, inlet Vinh Vietnamese, Bay Víztárloló Hungarian, Reservoir Vodaskhovishcha Belarussian, Reservoir Vodokhranilishche (Vdkhr.) Russian, Reservoir Vodoskhovyshche (Vdskh.) Ukrainian, Reservoir Volcán Spanish, Volcano Vostochn-o, yy Russian, Eastern Vozvyshennost’ Russian, Upland, plateau Vozyera Belarussian, Lake Vpadina Russian, Depression Vrchovina Czech, Mountains Vrh Croat, Slovene, Peak Vychodné Slovak, Eastern Vysochyna Ukrainian, Upland Vysoâina Czech, Upland ..............................................

W ............................................

Waadi Somali, Watercourse Wádí Arabic Watercourse Wáíat, Wâhat Arabic, Oasis Wald German, Forest Wan Chinese, Bay Way Indonesian, River Webi Somali, River Wenz Amharic, River Wiloyat(i) Uzbek, Province Wyæyna Polish, Upland Wzgórza Polish, Upland Wzvyshsha Belarussian, Upland ...............................................

X .............................................

Xé Laotian, River Xi Chinese, Stream ...............................................

Y .............................................

-yama Japanese, Mountain Yanchi Chinese, Salt lake Yanhu Chinese, Salt lake Yarımadası Azerbaijani, Turkish, Peninsula Yaylası Turkish, Plateau Yazovir Bulgarian, Reservoir Yoma Burmese, Mountains Ytre- Norwegian, Outer Yü Chinese, Island Yunhe Chinese, Canal Yuzhn-o, -yy Russian, Southern ................................................

Z..............................................

-zaki Japanese, Cape, point Zaliv Bulgarian, Russian, Bay -zan Japanese, Mountain Zangbo Tibetan, River Zapadn-aya, -o, -yy Russian, Western Západné Slovak, Western Západní Czech, Western Zatoka Polish, Ukrainian, Bay -zee Dutch, Sea Zemlya Russian, Earth, land Zizhiqu Chinese, Autonomous region

GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES

Å Danish, Norwegian, River Áb Persian, River Adrar Berber, Mountains Agía, Ágios Greek, Saint Air Indonesian, River Ákra Greek, Cape, point Alpen German, Alps Alt- German, Old Altiplanicie Spanish, Plateau Älve, -älven Swedish, River -ån Swedish, River Anse French, Bay ‘Aqabat Arabic, Pass Archipiélago Spanish, Archipelago Arcipelago Italian, Archipelago Arquipélago Portuguese, Archipelago Arrecife(s) Spanish, Reef(s) Aru Tamil, River Augstiene Latvian, Upland Auk#tuma Lithuanian, Upland Aust- Norwegian, Eastern Avtonomnyy Okrug Russian, Autonomous district Áw Kurdish, River ‘Ayn Arabic, Spring, well ‘Ayoûn Arabic, Wells

Ciudad Spanish, City, town Co Tibetan, Lake Colline(s) French, Hill(s) Cordillera Spanish, Mountain range Costa Spanish, Coast Côte French, Coast Coxilha Portuguese, Mountains Cuchilla Spanish, Mountains

Qolleh Persian, Mountain Qu Tibetan, Stream Quan Chinese, Well Qulla(i) Tajik, Peak Qundao Chinese, Island group

305

100 Mile House - Acerrae

I NDEX G LOSSARY

OF

This glossary provides a comprehensive guide to the abbreviations used in this Atlas, and in the Index.

A abbrev. abbreviated AD Anno Domini Afr. Afrikaans Alb. Albanian Amh. Amharic anc. ancient approx. approximately Ar. Arabic Arm. Armenian ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations ASSR Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Aust. Australian Az. Azerbaijani Azerb. Azerbaijan

INDEX

B

306

A BBREVIATIONS

Basq. Basque BC before Christ Bel. Belarussian Ben. Bengali Ber. Berber B-H BosniaHerzegovina bn billion (one thousand million) BP British Petroleum Bret. Breton Brit. British Bul. Bulgarian Bur. Burmese

C C central C. Cape ˚C degrees Centigrade CACM Central America Common Market Cam. Cambodian Cant. Cantonese CAR Central African Republic Cast. Castilian Cat. Catalan CEEAC Central America Common Market Chin. Chinese CIS Commonwealth of Independent States cm centimetre(s) Cro. Croat Cz. Czech Czech Rep. Czech Republic

D Dan. Danish Div. Divehi Dom. Rep. Dominican Republic Dut. Dutch

E E east EC see EU EEC see EU ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States ECU European Currency Unit EMS European Monetary System Eng. English est estimated Est. Estonian EU European Union (previously European Community [EC], European Economic Community [EEC])

F ˚F degrees Fahrenheit Faer. Faeroese Fij. Fijian Fin. Finnish Fr. French Fris. Frisian ft foot/feet FYROM Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

G g gram(s) Gael. Gaelic Gal. Galician GDP Gross Domestic Product (the total value of goods and services produced by a country excluding income from foreign countries) Geor. Georgian Ger. German Gk Greek GNP Gross National Product (the total value of goods and services produced by a country)

H Heb. Hebrew HEP hydro-electric power Hind. Hindi hist. historical Hung. Hungarian

I I. Island Icel. Icelandic in inch(es) In. Inuit (Eskimo) Ind. Indonesian Intl International Ir. Irish Is Islands It. Italian

J Jap. Japanese

K Kaz. Kazakh kg kilogram(s) Kir. Kirghiz km kilometre(s) km2 square kilometre (singular) Kor. Korean Kurd. Kurdish

L L. Lake LAIA Latin American Integration Association Lao. Laotian Lapp. Lappish Lat. Latin Latv. Latvian Liech. Liechtenstein Lith. Lithuanian Lux. Luxembourg

M m million/metre(s) Mac. Macedonian Maced. Macedonia Mal. Malay Malg. Malagasy Malt. Maltese mi. mile(s) Mong. Mongolian Mt. Mountain Mts Mountains

N N north NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement Nep. Nepali Neth. Netherlands Nic. Nicaraguan Nor. Norwegian NZ New Zealand

P Pash. Pashtu PNG Papua New Guinea Pol. Polish Poly. Polynesian Port. Portuguese prev. previously

R Rep. Republic Res. Reservoir Rmsch Romansch Rom. Romanian Rus. Russian Russ. Fed. Russian Federation

TH I S I N DE X L I ST S all the placenames and features shown on the regional and continental maps in this Atlas. Placenames are referenced to the largest scale map on which they appear. The policy followed throughout the Atlas is to use the local spelling or local name at regional level; commonly-used English language names may occasionally be added (in parentheses) where this is an aid to identification e.g. Firenze (Florence). English names, where they exist, have been used for all international features e.g. oceans and country names; they are also used on the continental maps and in the introductory World section; these are then fully cross-referenced to the local names found on the regional maps. The index also contains commonly-found alternative names and variant spellings, which are also fully cross-referenced. All main entry names are those of settlements unless otherwise indicated by the use of italicized definitions or representative symbols, which are keyed at the foot of each page.

1 E6 100 Mile House var. Hundred Mile House. British Columbia, SW Canada 51°39´N 121°19´W 115 H9 25 de Agosto Florida, Uruguay 34°25´S 56°24´W 118 G9 25 de Mayo La Pampa, Argentina 37°48´S 67°41´W 25 de Mayo see Veinticinco de Mayo 26 Bakinskikh Komissarov see Häsänabad 26 Baku Komissarlary Adyndaky see Uzboý 56

A

Aa see Gauja 155 D13 Aabenraa var. Åbenrå, Ger. Apenrade. Syddanmark, SW Denmark 55°03´N 09°26´E 155 D10 Aabybro var. Åbybro. Nordjylland, N Denmark 57°09´N 09°32´E

181 A10 Aachen Dut. Aken, Fr. Aix-la-Chapelle; anc. Aquae Grani, Aquisgranum. Nordrhein-Westfalen, W Germany 50°47´N 06°06´E 218 F4 Aadchît Lebanon 33°20´N 35°25´E 218 F4 Aaïtaït Lebanon 33°33´N 35°40´E Aaiún see Laâyoune 178 J3 Aakirkeby var. Åkirkeby. Bornholm, E Denmark 55°04´N 14°56´E

218 G1 Aakkâr el Aatîga Lebanon 155 D11 Aalborg var. Ålborg, Ålborg-Nørresundby; anc. Alburgum. Nordjylland, N Denmark 57°03´N 09°56´E Aalborg Bugt see Ålborg Bugt 179 E12 Aalen Baden-Württemberg, S Germany 48°50´N 10°06´E 155 D11 Aalestrup var. Ålestrup. Midtjylland, NW Denmark 56°42´N 09°31´E

218 F3 Aaley Lebanon 33°48´N 35°35´E 162 E6 Aalsmeer Noord-Holland, C Netherlands

S south SADC Southern Africa Development Community SCr. Serbo-Croatian Sinh. Sinhala Slvk Slovak Slvn. Slovene Som. Somali Sp. Spanish St., St Saint Strs Straits Swa. Swahili Swe. Swedish Switz. Switzerland

T Taj. Tajik Th. Thai Thai. Thailand Tib. Tibetan Turk. Turkish Turkm. Turkmenistan

U UAE United Arab Emirates Uigh. Uighur UK United Kingdom Ukr. Ukrainian UN United Nations Urd. Urdu US/USA United States of America USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Uzb. Uzbek

V var. variant Vdkhr. Vodokhranilishche (Russian for reservoir) Vdskh. Vodoskhovyshche (Ukrainian for reservoir) Vtn. Vietnamese

W W west Wel. Welsh

Y Yugo. Yugoslavia

162 I7 Aalten Gelderland, E Netherlands 51°56´N 06°35´E 163 C9 Aalter Oost-Vlaanderen, NW Belgium 51°05´N 03°28´E Aanaar see Inari Aanaarjävri see Inarijärvi 141 H5 Aandster North West, South Africa 27°25´S 25°10´E 153 H8 Äänekoski Keski-Suomi, W Finland 62°34´N 25°45´E 218 G3 Aanjar var. ‘Anjar. C Lebanon 33°45´N 35°56´E 218 G3 Aanjar Lebanon 33°43´N 35°55´E 138 E7 Aansluit Northern Cape, N South Africa 26°41´S 22°24´E

218 G2 Aaqoûra Lebanon 218 G2 Aaqoûra Lebanon 34°07´N 35°54´E Aar see Aare 176 D4 Aarau Aargau, N Switzerland 47°22´N 08°00´E 176 C4 Aarberg Bern, W Switzerland 47°19´N 07°54´E 163 C9 Aardenburg Zeeland, SW Netherlands 51°16´N 03°27´E 174 B3 Aare var. Aar. j W Switzerland 174 B2 Aargau Fr. Argovie. r canton N Switzerland Aarhus see Århus Aarlen see Arlon 155 D11 Aars var. Års. Nordjylland, N Denmark 56°49´N 09°32´E

163 E10 Aarschot Vlaams Brabant, C Belgium 50°59´N 04°50´E Aassi, Nahr el see Orontes Aat see Ath 218 F3 Aayoûn es Sîmâne Lebanon 34°00´N 35°49´E 239 K7 Aba prev. Ngawa. Sichuan, C China 32°51´N 101°46´E 134 J6 Aba Orientale, NE Dem. Rep. Congo 03°52´N 30°14´E 133 K8 Aba Abia, S Nigeria 05°06´N 07°22´E 220 D3 Abā al Qazāz, Bi’r well NW Saudi Arabia Abā as Su‘ūd see Najrān 107 H4 Abacaxis, Rio j NW Brazil Abaco Island see Great Abaco/Little Abaco Abaco Island see Great Abaco, N Bahamas 222 D6 Ābādān Khūzestān, SW Iran 30°24´N 48°18´E 228 D7 Abadan prev. Bezmein, Büzmeýin, Rus. Byuzmeyin. Ahal Welaýaty, C Turkmenistan 38°08´N 57°53´E 222 F6 Ābādeh Fārs, C Iran 31°06´N 52°40´E 130 G4 Abadla W Algeria 31°04´N 02°39´W 110 E1 Abaeté Minas Gerais, SE Brazil 19°10´S 45°24´W 113 H5 Abaí Caazapá, S Paraguay 25°58´S 55°54´W Abai see Blue Nile 284 B2 Abaiang var. Apia; prev. Charlotte Island. atoll Tungaru, W Kiribati Abaj see Abay 133 K7 Abaji Federal Capital District, C Nigeria 08°35´N 06°54´E 79 J5 Abajo Peak l Utah, W USA 37°51´N 109°28´W 133 K8 Abakaliki Ebonyi, SE Nigeria 06°18´N 08°07´E 192 G8 Abakan Respublika Khakasiya, S Russian Federation 53°43´N 91°25´E

227 N1 Abakan j S Russian Federation 133 I4 Abala Tillabéri, SW Niger 14°55´N 03°27´E 133 J4 Abalak Tahoua, C Niger 15°28´N 06°18´E 191 H8 Abalyanka Rus. Obolyanka. j N Belarus 192 G7 Aban Krasnoyarskiy Kray, S Russian Federation 56°41´N 96°04´E

Āb Anbār-e Kān Sorkh Yazd, C Iran 31°22´N 53°38´E Abancay Apurímac, SE Peru 13°37´S 72°52´W Abanilla Murcia, Spain 38°12´N 1°03´W Abaokoro atoll Tungaru, W Kiribati Abariringa see Kanton 222 G6 Abarkūh Yazd, C Iran 31°07´N 53°17´E 252 G3 Abashiri var. Abasiri. Hokkaidō, NE Japan 222 105 173 284

G6 F8 K6 D1

44°N 144°15´E

252 G3 Abashiri-gawa j Hokkaidō, NE Japan 252 G3 Abashiri-ko c Hokkaidō, NE Japan Abasiri see Abashiri 87 K8 Abasolo Chiapas, Mexico 16°48´N 92°10´W 85 K5 Abasolo Guanajuato, Mexico 85 M7 Abasolo Tamaulipas, C Mexico 24°02´N 98°18´W 87 H8 Abasolo del Valle Veracruz-Llave, Mexico 17°46´N 95°30´W

280 C4 Abau Central, S Papua New Guinea 10°04´S 148°34´E 227 I4 Abay var. Abaj. Karaganda, C Kazakhstan 49°38´N 72°50´E

136 D5 Ābaya Hāyk’ Eng. Lake Margherita, It. Abbaia. c SW Ethiopia Ābay Wenz see Blue Nile 192 G8 Abaza Respublika Khakasiya, S Russian Federation 52°40´N 89°58´E

Abbaia see Ābaya Hāyk’ 222 G8 Āb Bārīk Fārs, S Iran 175 B10 Abbasanta Sardegna, Italy, C Mediterranean Sea 40°08´N 08°49´E

72

Abbatis Villa see Abbeville D4 Abbaye, Point headland Michigan, N USA 46°58´N 88°08´W

Abbazia see Opatija Abbé, Lake see Abhe, Lake 165 H2 Abbeville anc. Abbatis Villa. Somme, N France 50°06´N 01°50´E

69 69 68 67 157

I3 K2 C4 H8 B10

160 176 154 292 160 140 76

A2 E7 J1 F5 G8 D9 C2

Abbeville Alabama, S USA 31°35´N 85°16´W Abbeville Georgia, SE USA 31°58´N 83°18´W Abbeville Louisiana, S USA 29°58´N 92°08´W Abbeville South Carolina, SE USA 34°10´N 82°23´W Abbeyfeale Ir. Mainistir na Féile. SW Ireland

Country Country Capital

p Dependent Territory q Dependent Territory Capital

07°03´S 140°10´E

181 J13 Abenberg Bayern, Germany 49°15´N 10°58´E 132 G8 Abengourou E Ivory Coast 06°42´N 03°27´W 172 G5 Abenójar Castilla-La Manacha, Spain 38°53´N 4°21´W Åbenrå see Aabenraa 179 G12 Abens j SE Germany 133 I7 Abeokuta Ogun, SW Nigeria 07°07´N 03°21´E 160 E4 Aberaeron SW Wales, United Kingdom 52°15´N 04°15´W

74 160 160 277

32°30´S 24°00´E

156 G5 Aberdeen anc. Devana. NE Scotland, United Kingdom 57°10´N 02°04´W 64 E9 Aberdeen Maryland, NE USA 39°28´N 76°09´W 66 C8 Aberdeen Mississippi, S USA 33°49´N 88°32´W 67 J7 Aberdeen North Carolina, SE USA 35°07´N 79°25´W 74 D4 Aberdeen South Dakota, N USA 45°27´N 98°29´W 76 B4 Aberdeen Washington, NW USA 46°57´N 123°48´W 140 G8 Aberdeen Kendrew Eastern Cape, South Africa

G5 Abrolhos Bank undersea feature W Atlantic Ocean 18°30´S 38°45´W

191 E11 Abrova Rus. Obrovo. Brestskaya Voblasts’, SW Belarus 52°30´N 25°34´E 188 C7 Abrud Ger. Gross-Schlatten, Hung. Abrudbánya. Alba, SW Romania 46°16´N 23°05´E Abrudbánya see Abrud 190 C5 Abruka island SW Estonia 175 F8 Abruzzese, Appennino m C Italy 175 G8 Abruzzo r region C Italy 220 F8 ‘Abs var. Sūq ‘Abs. W Yemen 16°42´N 42°55´E 77 J6 Absaroka Range m Montana/Wyoming, NW USA 64 G9 Absecon New Jersey, USA 39°26´N 74°30´W 215 N4 Abşeron Yarımadası Rus. Apsheronskiy Poluostrov. peninsula E Azerbaijan 222 F4 Āb Shīrīn Eşfahān, C Iran 34°17´N 51°17´E 217 L7 Abtān Maysān, SE Iraq 31°37´N 47°06´E 177 I3 Abtenau Salzburg, NW Austria 47°33´N 13°21´E 232 C7 Ābu Rājasthān, N India 24°41´N 72°50´E 250 D5 Abu Yamaguchi, Honshū, SW Japan 34°30´N 131°26´E 216 D3 Abū aḑ Ḑuhūr Fr. Aboudouhour. Idlib, NW Syria 35°30´N 37°00´E

221 J4 Abū al Abyaḑ island C United Arab Emirates 218 H3 Abū al ‘Aţā, Jabal m Syria 216 E6 Abū al Ḩuşayn, Khabrat c N Jordan 217 I5 Abū al Jīr Al Anbār, C Iraq 33°16´N 42°55´E 217 M8 Abū al Khaşīb var. Abul Khasib. Al Başrah, SE Iraq 30°26´N 48°00´E

217 K8 Abū at Tubrah, Thaqb well S Iraq 219 B11 Abu Aweigila Egypt 30°50´N 34°07´E Abu Balâs see Abu Ballās 129 H5 Abu Ballās var. Abu Balâs. l SW Egypt 24°28´N 27°36´E

Abu Dhabi see Abū abī 217 I5 Abū Farūkh Al Anbār, C Iraq 33°06´N 43°18´E 134 H3 Abu Gabra Eastern Darfur, W Sudan 11°02´N 26°50´E 217 H6 Abū Ghār, Sha‘īb dry watercourse S Iraq 129 J8 Abu Hamed River Nile, N Sudan 19°32´N 33°20´E 216 G4 Abū Ḩardān var. Hajîne. Dayr az Zawr, E Syria 34°45´N 40°49´E

217 J5 Abū Ḩasāwīyah Diyālá, E Iraq 33°52´N 44°47´E 216 E6 Abū Ḩifnah, Wādī dry watercourse N Jordan 133 K7 Abuja a (Nigeria) Federal Capital District, C Nigeria 09°04´N 07°28´E

217 I6 Abū Jahaf, Wādī dry watercourse C Iraq 104 E5 Abujao, Río j E Peru 217 J8 Abū Jasrah Al Muthanná, S Iraq 30°43´N 44°50´E 219 F12 Abū Jurdhān Jordan 216 G4 Abū Kamāl Fr. Abou Kémal. Dayr az Zawr, E Syria 34°29´N 40°56´E

32°45´S 24°19´E

160 E3 Aberdyfi United Kingdom 52°33´N 4°02´W 159 H1 Aberfeldy C Scotland, United Kingdom 56°38´N 03°49´W

160 E2 Aberffraw United Kingdom 53°11´N 4°27´W 158 G2 Aberfoyle United Kingdom 56°11´N 4°23´W 160 G5 Abergavenny anc. Gobannium. SE Wales, United Kingdom 51°50´N 03°W 160 E5 Abergorlech United Kingdom 51°59´N 4°04´W Abergwaun see Fishguard 159 I3 Aberlady United Kingdom 56°00´N 2°51´W Abermarre see Abemaree 70 D3 Abernathy Texas, SW USA 33°49´N 101°50´W 159 I2 Abernethy C Scotland, United Kingdom 160 E4 Aberporth United Kingdom 52°08´N 4°33´W Abersee see Wolfgangsee 160 E3 Abersoch United Kingdom 52°49´N 4°30´W Abertawe see Swansea Aberteifi see Cardigan 160 G6 Abertillery United Kingdom 51°44´N 3°08´W 76 D8 Abert, Lake c Oregon, NW USA 160 E4 Aberystwyth W Wales, United Kingdom 52°25´N 04°05´W

Abeshr see Abéché Ábeskovvu see Abisko 176 G9 Abetone Toscana, C Italy 44°09´N 10°42´E 195 L4 Abez’ Respublika Komi, NW Russian Federation 66°32´N 61°41´E

222 E3 Āb Garm Qazvin, N Iran 220 F7 Abhā ‘Asīr, SW Saudi Arabia 18°16´N 42°32´E 222 E3 Abhar Zanjān, NW Iran 36°05´N 49°18´E Abhé Bad/Ābhē Bid Hāyk’ see Abhe, Lake 136 F3 Abhe, Lake var. Lake Abbé, Amh. Ābhē Bid Hāyk’, Som. Abhé Bad. c Djibouti/Ethiopia 133 J7 Abia r state SE Nigeria 217 K6 ‘Abīd ‘Alī Wāsiţ, E Iraq 32°20´N 45°58´E 191 I10 Abidavichy Rus. Obidovichi. Mahilyowskaya Voblasts’, E Belarus 53°20´N 30°25´E 187 J3 Abide Çanakkale, NW Turkey 40°04´N 26°13´E 132 F8 Abidjan S Ivory Coast 05°19´N 04°01´W 140 E5 Abierkwasputs salt lake Northern Cape, South Africa Āb-i-Istāda see Īstādeh-ye Moqor, Āb-e218 F6 Abila Jordan 75 E9 Abilene Kansas, C USA 38°55´N 97°14´W 70 F4 Abilene Texas, SW USA 32°27´N 99°44´W Abindonia see Abingdon 161 I6 Abingdon anc. Abindonia. S England, United Kingdom 51°41´N 01°17´W 73 B10 Abingdon Illinois, N USA 40°48´N 90°24´W 67 H5 Abingdon Virginia, NE USA 36°42´N 81°59´W Abingdon see Pinta, Isla 65 M3 Abington Massachusetts, USA 42°06´N 70°57´W 64 F7 Abington Pennsylvania, NE USA 40°06´N 75°05´W 196 F8 Abinsk Krasnodarskiy Kray, SW Russian Federation 44°51´N 38°12´E

L6 Abiquiu Reservoir d New Mexico, SW USA Āb-i-safed see Sefīd, Darya-ye 152 F5 Abisko Lapp. Ábeskovvu. Norrbotten, N Sweden 79

68°21´N 18°50´E

51 J8 Abitibi j Ontario, S Canada 58 F7 Abitibi, Lac c Ontario/Québec, S Canada 136 E2 Ābīy Ādī Tigray, N Ethiopia 13°40´N 38°57´E 190 E5 Abja-Paluoja Viljandimaa, S Estonia 58°08´N 25°20´E Abkhazia see Apkhazeti 173 I8 Abla Andalucía, Spain 37°08´N 2°47´W 276 E1 Abminga South Australia 26°07´S 134°49´E 129 I4 Abnūb var. Abnûb. C Egypt 27°18´N 31°09´E Abnûb see Abnūb Åbo see Turku 232 D4 Abohar Punjab, N India 30°11´N 74°14´E 132 G8 Aboisso SE Ivory Coast 05°26´N 03°13´W 133 N1 Abo, Massif d’ m NW Chad 133 I7 Abomey S Benin 07°14´N 02°00´E 167 M10 Abondance Rhône-Alpes, France 46°17´N 6°44´E 134 C6 Abong Mbang Est, SE Cameroon 03°58´N 13°10´E 183 G12 Abony Pest, C Hungary 47°10´N 20°00´E 134 E3 Abou-Déïa Salamat, SE Chad 11°30´N 19°18´E Aboudouhour see Abū aḑ Ḑuhūr Abou Kémal see Abū Kamāl Abou Simbel see Abū Sunbul 215 K5 Abovyan C Armenia 40°16´N 44°33´E 263 K4 Abra j Luzon, N Philippines 129 N9 Abrād, Wādī seasonal river W Yemen Abraham Bay see The Carlton 118 C6 Abranquil Maule, Chile 35°45´S 71°33´W 172 C4 Abrantes var. Abrántes. Santarém, C Portugal 39°28´N 08°12´W

112 D3 Abra Pampa Jujuy, N Argentina 22°47´S 65°41´W Abrashlare see Brezovo 111 J3 Abre Campo Minas Gerais, Brazil 20°18´S 42°29´W 102 C4 Abrego Norte de Santander, N Colombia 08°08´N 73°14´W

84

Abrene see Pytalovo C6 Abreojos, Punta headland NW Mexico 26°43´N 113°36´W

72 C5 Abbotsford Wisconsin, N USA 44°57´N 90°19´W 231 I4 Abbottābād Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, NW Pakistan

98

32°33´S 24°33´E

55 I3 Aberdeen Lake c Nunavut, NE Canada 140 G9 Aberdeen Road Eastern Cape, South Africa

49°02´N 122°18´W

r Administrative Regions k International Airport

E3 F6 D3 L4

Aberbrothock see Arbroath Abercorn see Mbala Abercrombie North Dakota, N USA 46°25´N 96°42´W Aberdare United Kingdom 51°43´N 3°27´W Aberdaron United Kingdom 52°49´N 4°42´W Aberdeen New South Wales, SE Australia

57 M6 Aberdeen Saskatchewan, S Canada 52°15´N 106°19´W 138 F9 Aberdeen Eastern Cape, S South Africa

52°24´N 09°21´W

Abbeyleix Laois, Ireland 52°54´N 7°21´W Abbiategrasso Lombardia, NW Italy 45°24´N 08°55´E Abborrträsk Norrbotten, N Sweden 65°24´N 19°33´E Abbot Ice Shelf ice shelf Antarctica Abbotsbury United Kingdom 50°40´N 2°36´W Abbotsdale Western Cape, South Africa 33°29´S 18°40´E Abbotsford British Columbia, SW Canada

34°12´N 73°15´E

b a

13°49´N 20°49´E

Abécher see Abéché 223 I5 Āb-e Garm va Sard Khorāsān-e Janūbī, E Iran 133 I2 Abeïbara Kidal, NE Mali 19°07´N 01°52´E 171 H3 Abejar Castilla y León, N Spain 41°48´N 02°47´W 102 B5 Abejorral Antioquia, W Colombia 05°48´N 75°28´W Abela see Ávila 141 K3 Abel Erasmuspas pass Limpopo, South Africa Abellinum see Avellino 152 C5 Abeløya island Kong Karls Land, E Svalbard 136 D4 Ābeltī Oromīya, C Ethiopia 08°09´N 37°31´E 284 B3 Abemama var. Apamama; prev. Roger Simpson Island. atoll Tungaru, W Kiribati 261 L7 Abemaree var. Abermarre. Papua, E Indonesia

32°09´S 150°55´E

52°17´N 04°43´E

163 D10 Aalst Oost-Vlaanderen, C Belgium 50°57´N 04°03´E 162 F7 Aalst Fr. Alost. Noord-Brabant, S Netherlands 51°23´N 05°29´E

S

191 H9 Abchuha Rus. Obchuga. Minskaya Voblasts’, NW Belarus 54°30´N 29°22´E 162 F6 Abcoude Utrecht, C Netherlands 52°17´N 04°59´E 216 F2 ‘Abd al ‘Azīz, Jabal m NE Syria 221 I9 ‘Abd al Kūrī island SE Yemen 197 K3 Abdulino Orenburgskaya Oblast’, W Russian Federation 53°37´N 53°39´E 134 F2 Abéché var. Abécher, Abeshr. Ouaddaï, SE Chad

169 M3 Abriés Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, France 44°47´N 6°56´E

115

J4 Abrojal Rivera, Uruguay 31°45´S 55°01´W

l Mountain m Mountain Range

i Volcano t River

260 D5 Abuki, Pegunungan m Sulawesi, C Indonesia 253 D11 Abukuma-gawa j Honshū, C Japan 253 D11 Abukuma-sanchi m Honshū, C Japan Abula see Ávila Abul Khasib see Abū al Khaşīb 134 F6 Abumombazi var. Abumonbazi. Equateur, N Dem. Rep. Congo 03°43´N 22°06´E Abumonbazi see Abumombazi 106 E6 Abunã Rondônia, W Brazil 09°41´S 65°20´W 106 D7 Abunã, Rio var. Río Abuná. j Bolivia/Brazil 219 G8 Abū Nuşayr var. Abu Nuseir. ‘Ammān, W Jordan 32°03´N 35°58´E

219 G8 Abū Nuşayr Jordan 32°05´N 35°52´E Abu Nuseir see Abū Nuşayr 217 J8 Abū Qabr Al Muthanná, S Iraq 31°03´N 44°34´E 218 I2 Abu Raḩbah Syria 34°26´N 37°12´E 216 E4 Abū Raḩbah, Jabal m C Syria 217 I4 Abū Rajāsh Şalāḩ ad Dīn, N Iraq 34°47´N 43°36´E 217 K8 Abū Raqrāq, Ghadīr well S Iraq 232 C7 Ābu Road Rājasthān, N India 24°29´N 72°47´E 136 E1 Abu Shagara, Ras headland NE Sudan 18°04´N 38°31´E 129 I6 Abu Simbel var. Abu Sūnbul. headland Egypt Abu Simbel see Abū Sunbul 217 K8 Abū Sudayrah Al Muthanná, S Iraq 30°55´N 44°58´E 217 J7 Abū Şukhayr Al Qādisīyah, S Iraq 31°54´N 44°27´E Abu Sūnbul see Abu Simbel Abū Sunbul see Abū Sunbul 252 D5 Abuta Hokkaidō, NE Japan 42°34´N 140°44´E 219 G12 Abū Ţarafah, Wādī dry watercourse Jordan 279 C9 Abut Head headland South Island, New Zealand 43°06´S 170°16´E

136 A1 Abu ‘Urug Northern Kordofan, C Sudan 15°52´N 30°25´E

136 E4 Ābuyē Mēda l C Ethiopia 10°28´N 39°44´E 263 M7 Abuyog Leyte, C Philippines 10°45´N 124°58´E 134 J2 Abu Zabad Western Kordofan, C Sudan 12°21´N 29°16´E

221

J4 Abū abī var. Abū abī, Eng. Abu Dhabi. a (United Arab Emirates) Abū aby, C United Arab Emirates 24°30´N 54°20´E

Abū abī see Abū abī 129 J3 Abu Zenīma E Egypt 29°01´N 33°08´E 155 H9 Åby Östergötland, S Sweden 58°40´N 16°10´E Abyaḑ, Al Baḩr al see White Nile Åbybro see Aabybro 134 I3 Abyei Southern Kordofan, S Sudan 09°35´N 28°28´E 134 I3 Abyei Area r disputed region Western Kordofan, S Sudan Abyla see Ávila Abymes see les Abymes Abyssinia see Ethiopia Açâba see Assaba 102 C6 Acacias Meta, C Colombia 03°59´N 73°46´W 55 L3 Acadia, Cape headland Nunavut, C Canada 111 I3 Acaiaca Minas Gerais, Brazil 20°21´S 43°09´W 108 C4 Açailândia Maranhão, E Brazil 04°51´S 47°26´W Acaill see Achill Island 88 C5 Acajutla Sonsonate, W El Salvador 13°34´N 89°50´W 172 E7 Acalá del Río Andalucía, Spain 37°31´N 5°59´W 134 A7 Acalayong SW Equatorial Guinea 01°05´N 09°34´E 86 E6 Acámbaro Guanajuato, C Mexico 20°01´N 100°42´W 86 E6 Acambay México, Mexico 19°57´N 99°51´W 102 A4 Acandí Chocó, NW Colombia 08°32´N 77°20´W 170 C3 A Cañiza var. La Cañiza. Galicia, NW Spain 42°13´N 08°16´W

86 85 86 103 108 102 170 86 86 85 87 86

B3 Acaponeta Nayarit, C Mexico 22°30´N 105°21´W I8 Acaponeta, Río de j C Mexico E8 Acapulco var. Acapulco de Juárez. Guerrero, S Mexico 16°51´N 99°53´W Acapulco de Juárez see Acapulco J7 Acarai Mountains Sp. Serra Acaraí. m Brazil/ Guyana Acaraí, Serra see Acarai Mountains G3 Acaraú Ceará, NE Brazil 04°35´S 37°37´W E3 Acarigua Portuguesa, N Venezuela 09°35´N 69°12´W D1 A Carreira Galicia, NW Spain 43°21´N 08°12´W F5 Acatepec Puebla, Mexico F7 Acatepec Puebla, Mexico 19°02´N 98°17´W M7 Acatlán Jalisco, W Mexico 23°58'N  99°08'W H7 Acatlán Oaxaca, Mexico 18°32´N 96°37´W F7 Acatlán var. Acatlán de Osorio. Puebla, S Mexico 18°12´N 98°02´W

86 87

C5 Acatlán de Juárez Jalisco, Mexico 20°25´N 103°35´W Acatlán de Osorio see Acatlán I7 Acayucan var. Acayucán. Veracruz-Llave, E Mexico 17°59´N 94°58´W

Accho see Akko 67 M4 Accomac Virginia, NE USA 37°43´N 75°41´N 168 D6 Accous Aquitaine, France 42°59´N 0°36´W 133 H8 Accra a (Ghana)SE Ghana 05°33´N 00°15´W 159 J9 Accrington NW England, United Kingdom 53°46´N 02°21´W

Acebal Santa Fe, C Argentina 33°14´S 60°50´W Aceguá Rio Grande du Sol, S Brazil 31°52´S 54°12´W Acegua Cerro Largo, Uruguay 31°48´S 54°18´W Aceh off. Daerah Istimewa Aceh, var. Acheen, Achin, Atchin, Atjeh. r autonomous district NW Indonesia 175 H9 Acerenza Basilicata, S Italy 40°46´N 15°51´E 184 A8 Acerra anc. Acerrae. Campania, S Italy 40°56´N 14°22´E Acerrae see Acerra 114 115 115 258

c Lake d Reservoir

B7 K4 K4 C3

B8 D1 N9 H9 F4 F3 E4

115 H5 215 J4 187 H6

163 G9 186 F4 193 K9 177 H3 179 G13 179 G14 179 C12

Acevedo Buenos Aires, Argentina 33°45´S 60°27´W Acha United Kingdom 56°36´N 6°36´W Achaacha Algeria 36°14´N 00°38´E Achacachi La Paz, W Bolivia 16°01´S 68°44´W Achaguas Apure, C Venezuela 07°46´N 68°14´W Achahoish United Kingdom 55°57´N 5°34´W Achalpur prev. Elichpur, Ellichpur. Mahārāshtra, C India 21°19´N 77°30´E Achar Tacuarembó, C Uruguay 32°20´S 56°15´W Ach’ara prev. Achara, var. Ajaria. r autonomous republic SW Georgia Achara see Ach’ara Acharnés var. Aharnes; prev. Akharnaí. Attikí, C Greece 38°09´N 23°58´E Ach’asar Lerr see Achk’asari, Mta Acheen see Aceh Achel Limburg, NE Belgium 51°15´N 05°31´E Achelóos var. Akhelóös, Aspropótamos; anc. Achelous. j W Greece Achelous see Achelóos Acheng Heilongjiang, NE China 45°32´N 126°56´E Achenkirch Tirol, W Austria 47°31´N 11°42´E Achenpass pass Austria/Germany Achensee c W Austria Achern Baden-Württemberg, SW Germany 48°37´N 08°04´E

186 133 232 118 157

E5 L4 F6 C6 A8

Acherón j W Greece Achétinamou j S Niger Achhnera Uttar Pradesh, N India 27°10´N 77°45´E Achibueno, Río j Maule, Chile Achill Head Ir. Ceann Acla. headland W Ireland

Addison see Webster Springs J7 Ad Dīwānīyah var. Diwaniyah. C Iraq 32°00´N 44°57´E Addoo Atoll see Addu Atoll Addua see Adda 235 B14 Addu Atoll var. Addoo Atoll, Seenu Atoll. atoll S Maldives Ad Dujail see Ad Dujayl 217 J5 Ad Dujayl var. Ad Dujail. Şalāḩ ad Dīn, N Iraq 217

33°49´N 44°16´E

Ad Duwaym/Ad Duwēm see Ed Dueim 163 C9 Adegem Oost-Vlaanderen, NW Belgium 51°12´N 03°31´E

69 K3 Adel Georgia, SE USA 31°08´N 83°25´W 276 G5 Adelaide state capital South Australia 34°56´S 138°36´E 90 E2 Adelaide New Providence, N The Bahamas 24°59´N 77°30´W

276 292 52 274

G5 E3 G8 G2

13°12´S 131°06´E

81 F10 Adelanto California, USA 34°35´N 117°25´W 132 E4 ‘Adel Bagrou Hodh ech Chargui, SE Mauritania 15°33´N 07°04´W

280 B2 181 H8 274 E3 175 I9 293 K8 293 K8 181 H14

53°58´N 10°14´W

56°21´N 90°25´E

195 L10 Achit Sverdlovskaya Oblasť, Russian Federation 238 G1 Achit Nuur c NW Mongolia 215 K4 Achk’asari, Mta Arm. Ach’asar Lerr. l Armenia/ Georgia 41°09´N 43°55´E 180 E6 Achmer Niedersachsen, Germany 52°24´N 7°56´E 158 F2 Achnacroish United Kingdom 56°30´N 5°30´W 158 E1 Achosnich NW Scotland, United Kingdom 196 F8 Achuyevo Krasnodarskiy Kray, SW Russian Federation 46°00´N 38°01´E 136 B6 Achwa var. Aswa. j N Uganda 214 C7 Acıgöl salt lake SW Turkey 175 G12 Acireale Sicilia, Italy, C Mediterranean Sea 37°36´N 15°10´E

D4 B9 H6 F4

158 A8 118 E2 84 F3 141 K3 172 C3 170 C1 170 C2 88 174 174 174 176

G6 E7 F7 E7 E8

106 C7 175 H11 285 L7 161 K6 81 D10 63 I3 86 F6

Aciris see Agri Ackerly Texas, SW USA 32°31´N 101°43´W Ackerman Mississippi, S USA 33°18´N 89°10´W Ackley Iowa, C USA 42°33´N 93°03´W Acklins Island island SE The Bahamas Acla, Ceann see Achill Head Aclare Sligo, Ireland 54°02´N 8°54´W Aconcagua, Cerro l W Argentina 32°36´S 69°53´W Aconchi Sonora, Mexico Açores/Açores, Arquipélago dos/Açores, Ilhas dos see Azores Acornhoek Limpopo, South Africa 24°35´S 31°05´E Açor, Serra do m Portugal A Coruña Cast. La Coruña, Eng. Corunna; anc. Caronium. Galicia, NW Spain 43°22´N 08°24´W A Coruña Cast. La Coruña. r province Galicia, NW Spain Acoyapa Chontales, S Nicaragua 11°58´N 85°10´W Acquapendente Lazio, C Italy 42°44´N 11°52´E Acquasanta Terme Marche, C Italy 42°46´N 13°24´E Acquasparta Lazio, C Italy 42°41´N 12°31´E Acqui Terme Piemonte, NW Italy 44°41´N 08°28´E Acrae see Palazzola Acreide Acraman, Lake salt lake South Australia Acre off. Estado do Acre. r state W Brazil Acre see Akko Acre, Rio j W Brazil Acri Calabria, SW Italy 39°30´N 16°22´E Acte see Ágion Óros Actéon, Groupe island group Îles Tuamotu, SE French Polynesia Acton United Kingdom 51°30´N 0°15´W Acton California, USA 34°28´N 118°12´W Acton-Vale Québec, SE Canada 45°39´N 72°31´W Actopan var. Actopán. Hidalgo, C Mexico 20°19´N 98°59´W

111 86 87 118 114

J1 B4 H7 D4 F1

64 M4 133 H8 184 F2 74 F3 73 H10 75 E13 239 K2

Açu see Assu Açucena Minas Gerais, Brazil 19°04´S 42°32´W Acuitapilco Nayarit, Mexico Acula Veracruz-Llave, Mexico 18°31´N 95°47´W Aculeo, Laguna de c Región Metropolitana, Chile Acuña Corrientes, Argentina 29°55´S 57°58´W Acunum Acusio see Montélimar Acushnet Massachusetts, NE USA 41°40´N 70°54´W Ada SE Ghana 05°47´N 00°42´E Ada Vojvodina, N Serbia 45°48´N 20°08´E Ada Minnesota, N USA 47°18´N 96°31´W Ada Ohio, N USA 40°46´N 83°49´W Ada Oklahoma, C USA 34°47´N 96°41´W Adaatsag var. Tavin. Dundgovĭ, C Mongolia

220 E2 218 H4 219 H12 219 F12 136 E2

Adelnau see Odolanów Adelsberg see Postojna Aden see ‘Adan Aden see Khormaksar Adenan Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany 50°23´N 6°56´E Adenau Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany 50°23´N 6°55´E Aden, Gulf of gulf SW Arabian Sea Aderbissinat Agadez, C Niger 15°30´N 07°57´E Adhaim see Al ‘Uaym Adh Dhayd var. Al Dhaid. Ash Shāriqah, NE United Arab Emirates 25°19´N 55°51´E ‘Adhfā’ spring/well NW Saudi Arabia 29°15´N 41°24´E ‘Adhrā’ Rīf Dimashq, W Syria 33°36´N 36°29´E ‘Ādhriyāt, Jabāl al m S Jordan Adhruḩ S Jordan Ādī Ārk’ay var. Addi Arkay. Āmara, N Ethiopia

276 176 136 234

Adieu, Cape headland South Australia 32°01´S 132°12´E Adige Ger. Etsch. j N Italy Ādīgrat Tigray, N Ethiopia 14°17´N 39°27´E Ādilabād var. Ādilābād. Telangana, C India

181 C11 181 C11 213 H10 133 K4 221

13°18´N 37°56´E

221 K5 113 J3 134 C5 124 C5 133 M6 174 136 65 75 62 74 235 76

D4 E5 I2 E8 F5 E2 F9 C5

Ada Bazar see Adapazarı Adair, Bahía de bay NW Mexico Adair, Cape headland Nunavut, NE Canada Adaja j N Spain Adak Island island Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA Adalia see Antalya Adalia, Gulf of see Antalya Körfezi Adam N Oman 22°22´N 57°30´E Adama see Nazrēt Adamantina São Paulo, S Brazil 21°41´S 51°04´W Adamaoua Eng. Adamawa. r province N Cameroon Adamaoua, Massif d’ Eng. Adamawa Highlands. plateau NW Cameroon Adamawa r state E Nigeria Adamawa see Adamaoua Adamawa Highlands see Adamaoua, Massif d’ Adamello l N Italy 46°09´N 10°33´E Ādamī Tulu Oromīya, C Ethiopia 07°52´N 38°39´E Adams Massachusetts, USA 42°37´N 73°07´W Adams Nebraska, C USA 40°25´N 96°30´W Adams New York, NE USA 43°48´N 75°57´W Adams North Dakota, N USA 48°23´N 98°01´W Adam’s Bridge chain of shoals NW Sri Lanka Adams, Mount l Washington, NW USA 46°12´N 121°29´W

Adam’s Peak see Sri Pada 285 N10 Adam’s Rock island Pitcairn Island, Pitcairn Islands 285 N10 Adamstown q (Pitcairn Islands)Pitcairn Island, Pitcairn Islands 25°04´S 130°05´W 66 C7 Adamsville Tennessee, S USA 35°14´N 88°23´W 70 G6 Adamsville Texas, SW USA 31°15´N 98°09´W 172 G6 Adamuz Andalucía, Spain 38°02´N 4°31´W 220 G9 ‘Adan Eng. Aden. SW Yemen 12°51´N 45°05´E 214 F8 Adana var. Seyhan. Adana, S Turkey 37°N 35°19´E 214 F7 Adana var. Seyhan. r province S Turkey Adâncata see Horlivka 172 G1 Adanero Castilla y León, Spain 40°56´N 4°36´W 259 K6 Adang, Teluk bay Borneo, C Indonesia 214 D4 Adapazarı prev. Ada Bazar. Sakarya, NW Turkey 40°49´N 30°24´E

136 C1 Adarama River Nile, NE Sudan 17°04´N 34°57´E 293 I9 Adare, Cape cape Antarctica 277 J1 Adavale Queensland, Australia Ādavāni see Ādoni 176 F5 Adda anc. Addua. j N Italy 134 G3 Adda j W South Sudan 221 J4 Aḑ Ḑab‘īyah Abū aby, C United Arab Emirates 24°17´N 54°08´E

222 D9 Ad Dahnā’ desert E Saudi Arabia 130 B6 Ad Dakhla var. Dakhla. SW Western Sahara 23°46´N 15°56´W

Ad Dalanj see Dilling Ad Damar see Ed Damer Ad Damazīn see Ed Damazin Ad Dāmir see Ed Damer 288 C5 Ad Dammām desert NE Saudi Arabia 221 H3 Ad Dammān var. Dammām. Ash Sharqīyah, NE Saudi Arabia 26°23´N 50°05´E Ad Dāmūr see Damoûr 220 D3 Ad Dār al Ḩamrā’ Tabūk, NW Saudi Arabia 27°22´N 37°46´E

220 E7 Ad Darb Jīzān, SW Saudi Arabia 17°45´N 42°15´E 220 F4 Ad Dawādimī Ar Riyāḑ, C Saudi Arabia 24°32´N 44°21´E

221

I4 Ad Dawḩah Eng. Doha. a (Qatar) C Qatar 25°15´N 51°36´E

221 I4 217 I4 218 J1 217 M8

Ad Dawḩah Eng. Doha. k C Qatar 25°11´N 51°37´E Ad Dawr Şalāḩ ad Dīn, N Iraq 34°30´N 43°49´E Ad Daww m Syria Ad Dayr var. Dayr, Shahbān. Al Başrah, E Iraq 30°45´N 47°36´E

Addi Arkay see Ādī Ārk’ay Ad Dībakah see Dîbege 217 L10 Ad Dibdibah physical region Iraq/Kuwait Aḑ Ḑiffah see Libyan Plateau Addis Ababa see Ādīs Ābeba 64 C3 Addison New York, USA 42°06´N 77°14´W

b a

D4 G5 E2 F4

19°40´N 78°31´E

78 261 219 62 136

C2 I6 F10 G5 E4

136 E4 136 D3 215 H7 215 H7 188 F8 91 I8 196 G9

Adin California, W USA 41°10´N 120°57´W Adi, Pulau island E Indonesia Adir Jordan 31°12´N 35°46´E Adirondack Mountains m New York, NE USA Ādīs Ābeba Eng. Addis Ababa. a (Ethiopia) Ādīs Ābeba, C Ethiopia 8°59´N 38°43´E Ādīs Ābeba k Ādīs Ābeba, C Ethiopia 08°58´N 38°53´E Ādīs Zemen Āmara, N Ethiopia 12°00´N 37°43´E Adi Ugri see Mendefera Adıyaman Adıyaman, SE Turkey 37°46´N 38°15´E Adıyaman r province S Turkey Adjud Vrancea, E Romania 46°07´N 27°10´E Adjuntas C Puerto Rico 18°10´N 66°42´W Adjuntas, Presa de las see Vicente Guerrero, Presa Ādkup see Erikub Atoll Adler Krasnodarskiy Kray, SW Russian Federation 43°25´N 39°58´E

176 E4 53 I6 76 C3 83 M7 280 C1 214 B6

Adler see Orlice Adliswil Zürich, NW Switzerland 47°19´N 08°32´E Admiralty Inlet fjord Baffin Island, Nunavut, NE Canada Admiralty Inlet inlet Washington, NW USA Admiralty Island island Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, USA Admiralty Islands island group N Papua New Guinea Adnan Menderes k (İzmir) İzmir, W Turkey 38°16´N 27°09´E

79 N4 Adobe Creek Reservoir d Colorado, C USA 133 J7 Ado-Ekiti Ekiti, SW Nigeria 07°42´N 05°13´E Adola see Kibre Mengist 116 G6 Adolfo González Chaues Buenos Aires, E Argentina 84 D7 Adolfo López Mateos Baja California Sur, NW Mexico 25°12´N 112°07´W 234 E6 Ādoni var. Ādavāni. Andhra Pradesh, C India 15°38´N 77°16´E

218 F3 Adonis Lebanon 218 F3 AdonIsrael Lebanon 34°05´N 35°44´E 164 G8 Adour anc. Aturus. j SW France Adowa see Ādwa 170 G9 Adra Andalucía, S Spain 36°45´N 03°01´W 173 J1 Adradas Castilla y León, Spain 41°21´N 2°28´W 175 G12 Adrano Sicilia, Italy, C Mediterranean Sea 37°39´N 14°49´E

131 132 131 130

46°27´N 105°43´E

78 G10 53 K6 170 F4 82 C10

J4

229

Adrar C Algeria 27°56´N 00°12´W Adrar r region C Mauritania Adrar m SE Algeria Adrar Souttouf m SW Western Sahara Adrasman see Adrasmon J6 Adrasmon Rus. Adrasman. NW Tajikistan

H5 D1 K6 B7

40°38´N 69°56´E

134 F2 Adré Ouaddaï, E Chad 13°26´N 22°14´E 177 H7 Adria anc. Atria, Hadria, Hatria. Veneto, NE Italy 45°03´N 12°04´E

73 G9 Adrian Michigan, N USA 41°54´N 84°02´W 74 F6 Adrian Minnesota, N USA 43°38´N 95°55´W 75 G10 Adrian Missouri, C USA 38°24´N 94°21´W 70 D2 Adrian Texas, SW USA 35°16´N 102°39´W 67 J3 Adrian West Virginia, NE USA 38°53´N 80°14´W Adrianople/Adrianopolis see Edirne 148 D8 Adriatic Basin undersea feature Adriatic Sea, N Mediterranean Sea 42°00´N 17°30´E Adriatico, Mare see Adriatic Sea 177 J9 Adriatic Sea Alb. Deti Adriatik, It. Mare Adriatico, SCr. Jadransko More, Slvn. Jadransko Morje. sea N Mediterranean Sea Adriatik, Deti see Adriatic Sea Adua see Ādwa Aduana del Sásabe see El Sásabe 161 K7 Adur j United Kingdom 134 I7 Adusa Orientale, NE Dem. Rep. Congo 01°25´N 28°05´E 191 F8 Adutiškis Vilnius, E Lithuania 55°09´N 26°34´E 66 B4 Advance Missouri, C USA 37°06´N 89°54´W 117 I11 Adventure Sound bay East Falkland, Falkland Islands 136 E2 Ādwa var. Adowa, It. Adua. Tigray, N Ethiopia 14°08´N 38°51´E

193 K5 Adycha j NE Russian Federation 196 G9 Adygeya, Respublika r autonomous republic SW Russian Federation Adzhikui see Ajyguýy 132 F8 Adzopé SE Ivory Coast 06°07´N 03°49´W 195 K3 Adz’va j NW Russian Federation 195 K4 Adz’vavom Respublika Komi, NW Russian Federation 66°35´N 59°13´E Ædua see Autun 187 J5 Aegean Islands island group Greece/Turkey Aegean North see Vóreion Aigaíon 187 J5 Aegean Sea Gk. Aigaíon Pelagos, Aigaío Pélagos, Turk. Ege Denizi. sea NE Mediterranean Sea Aegean South see Nótion Aigaíon 190 E3 Aegviidu Ger. Charlottenhof. Harjumaa, NW Estonia 59°17´N 25°37´E Aegyptus see Egypt Aelana see Al ‘Aqabah Aelok see Ailuk Atoll Aelōninae see Ailinginae Atoll Aelōnlaplap see Ailinglaplap Atoll Æmilia see Emilia-Romagna Æmilianum see Millau Aemona see Ljubljana Aenaria see Ischia Aeolian Islands see Eolie, Isole 285 N2 Aeon Point headland Kiritimati, NE Kiribati 01°46´N 157°11´W

180 G6 Aerzen Niedersachsen, Germany 52°02´N 9°16´E Æsernia see Isernia 170 C2 A Estrada Galicia, NW Spain 42°41´N 08°29´W 186 E6 Aetós Itháki, Iónia Nísoi, Greece, C Mediterranean Sea 38°21´N 20°40´E 285 N4 Afaahiti Tahiti, W French Polynesia 17°43´S 149°18´W 217 K6 ‘Afak Al Qādisīyah, C Iraq 32°04´N 45°17´E Afanasjevo see Afanas’yevo 195 J9 Afanas’yevo var. Afanasjevo. Kirovskaya Oblast’, NW Russian Federation 58°55´N 53°13´E Afándou see Afántou 187 L8 Afántou var. Afándou. Ródos, Dodekánisa, Greece, Aegean Sea 36°17´N 28°10´E 136 F3 Āfar r region NE Ethiopia Afar Depression see Danakil Desert 285 L3 Afareaitu Moorea, W French Polynesia 17°33´S 149°47´W

220 E4 ‘Afarīyah, Bi’r al well NW Saudi Arabia Afars et des Issas, Territoire Français des see Djibouti 140 B5 Affenrücken Karas, SW Namibia 28°05´S 15°49´E

Country Country Capital

p Dependent Territory q Dependent Territory Capital

141 H7 Agtertang Eastern Cape, South Africa 30°40´S 25°19´E 85 H9 Agua Brava, Laguna lagoon W Mexico 102 C4 Aguachica Cesar, N Colombia 08°16´N 73°35´W 113 I2 Água Clara Mato Grosso do Sul, SW Brazil

214 C6 Afyon var. Afiun Karahissar, Afyonkarahisar. r province W Turkey Afyonkarahisar see Afyon Agadès see Agadez 133 K3 Agadez prev. Agadès. Agadez, C Niger 16°57´N 07°56´E 133 K2 Agadez r department N Niger 130 E4 Agadir SW Morocco 30°30´N 09°37´W 290 H5 Agadir Canyon undersea feature SE Atlantic Ocean 32°30´N 12°50´W

227 I5 Agadyr’ Karaganda, C Kazakhstan 48°15´N 72°55´E 289 D9 Agalega Islands island group N Mauritius 88 G4 Agalta, Sierra de m E Honduras 192 F6 Agan j C Russian Federation Agana/Agaña see Hagåtña 282 A2 Agana Bay bay NW Guam 282 B2 Aganafield bay NW Guam 253 B11 Agano-gawa j Honshū, C Japan 282 A3 Aga Point headland S Guam 232 E8 Agar Madhya Pradesh, C India 23°44´N 76°01´E 136 D5 Āgaro Oromīya, C Ethiopia 07°52´N 36°36´E 233 L8 Agartala state capital Tripura, NE India 23°49´N 91°15´E

292 E3 Agassiz, Cape headland Antarctica 68°29´S 62°59´W 267 L8 Agassiz Fracture Zone tectonic feature S Pacific Ocean 53 I2 Agassiz Ice Cap Ice feature Nunavut, N Canada 282 A2 Agat W Guam 13°20´N 144°38´E 282 A2 Agat Bay bay W Guam Agatha see Agde 187 K7 Agathónisi island Dodekánisa, Greece, Aegean Sea 261 L6 Agats Papua, E Indonesia 05°33´S 138°07´E 235 B8 Agatti Island island Lakshadweep, India, N Indian Ocean 82 A9 Agattu Island island Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA 82 A9 Agattu Strait strait Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA 72 G3 Agawa Bay lake bay Ontario, S Canada 65 J3 Agawam Massachusetts, USA 42°04´N 72°37´W 132 F8 Agboville SE Ivory Coast 05°55´N 04°15´W 215 L5 Ağdam Rus. Agdam. SW Azerbaijan 40°04´N 46°00´E Agdam see Ağdam 165 I9 Agde anc. Agatha. Hérault, S France 43°19´N 03°29´E 169 I6 Agde, Cap d’ headland S France 43°17´N 03°30´E Agedabia see Ajdābiyā 164 G8 Agen anc. Aginnum. Lot-et-Garonne, SW France 44°12´N 00°37´E

Agendicum see Sens 253 C13 Ageo Saitama, Honshū, S Japan 35°58´N 139°36´E 177 J3 Ager j N Austria Agere Hiywet see Hāgere Hiywet 179 D14 Ägerisee c W Switzerland 222 E6 Āghā Jārī Khūzestān, SW Iran 30°48´N 49°45´E 158 C8 Aghalane Ireland 54°07´N 7°29´W 83 H8 Aghiyuk Island island Alaska, USA 130 C7 Aghouinit SE Western Sahara 22°14´N 13°10´W Aghri Dagh see Büyükağrı Dağı 130 C6 Aghzoumal, Sebkhet var. Sebjet Agsumal. salt lake E Western Sahara 186 G4 Agiá var. Ayiá. Thessalía, C Greece 39°43´N 22°45´E 84 F6 Agiabampo, Estero de estuary NW Mexico 218 B2 Agía Fýlaxis var. Ayia Phyla. S Cyprus 34°43´N 33°02´E Agialoúsa see Yenierenköy 187 K7 Agía Marína Léros, Dodekánisa, Greece, Aegean Sea 37°09´N 26°51´E

218 C2 Agía Nápa var. Ayia Napa. E Cyprus 34°59´N 34°00´E 187 K5 Agía Paraskeví Lésvos, E Greece 39°13´N 26°19´E 187 J4 Agías Eirínis, Akrotírio headland Límnos, E Greece

Aguada Grande Lara, N Venezuela 10°38´N 69°29´W Aguadilla W Puerto Rico 18°27´N 67°08´W Aguadulce Coclé, S Panama 08°16´N 80°31´W Aguadulce Andalucía, S Spain 37°15´N 04°59´W Agua Escondida Mendoza, Argentina 36°09´S 68°18´W Agualeguas Nuevo León, NE Mexico 26°17´N 99°30´W Aguanaval, Río j C Mexico Aguanaval, Rió j Durango, Mexico Aguanga California, USA 33°27´N 116°52´W Aguán, Río j N Honduras Agua Nueva Texas, SW USA 26°57´N 98°34´W Aguapeí, Rio j S Brazil Aguapey, Río j NE Argentina Agua Prieta Sonora, NW Mexico 31°16´N 109°33´W A Guarda var. A Guardia, Laguardia, La Guardia. Galicia, NW Spain 41°54´N 08°53´W A Guardia see A Guarda 104 D2 Aguarico, Río j Ecuador/Peru 103 H3 Aguasay Monagas, NE Venezuela 09°25´N 63°44´W 85 K9 Aguascalientes Aguascalientes, C Mexico 102 91 89 170 118 85 85 85 81 88 70 113 116 84 170

51°10´N 114°32´E

I3 Ágion Óros Eng. Mount Athos. r monastic republic NE Greece 185 J9 Ágion Óros var. Akte, Aktí; anc. Acte. peninsula NE Greece 186 F3 Ágios Achílleios religious building Dytikí Makedonía, N Greece 187 J4 Ágios Efstrátios var. Áyios Evstrátios, Hagios Evstrátios. island E Greece 34°00´N 25°00´E 187 H7 Ágios Geórgios island Kykládes, Greece, Aegean Sea Ágios Geórgios see Ro 186 G8 Ágios Ilías l S Greece 36°57´N 22°19´E 187 J10 Ágios Ioánnis, Akrotírio headland Kríti, Greece, E Mediterranean Sea 35°19´N 25°46´E 187 K7 Ágios Kírykos var. Áyios Kírikos. Ikaría, Dodekánisa, Greece, Aegean Sea 37°34´N 26°15´E 187 J10 Ágios Nikólaos var. Áyios Nikólaos. Kríti, Greece, E Mediterranean Sea 35°12´N 25°43´E 186 F4 Ágios Nikolaos Thessalía, C Greece 39°33´N 21°21´E Ágios Sérgios see Yeniboğaziçi 187 I4 Agíou Órous, Kólpos gulf N Greece 175 G12 Agira anc. Agyrium. Sicilia, Italy, C Mediterranean Sea 37°39´N 14°32´E 187 H7 Agkístri island S Greece 187 H2 Ágkistro var. Angistro. l NE Greece 41°21´N 23°29´E 181 F13 Aglasterhausen Baden-Württemberg, Germany

21°54´N 102°17´W

34°30´S 56°24´W

110 110 110 171 173 109 173 104 170

133

42°47´N 04°15´W

Aguilar de la Frontera see Aguilar Aguilares San Salvador, C El Salvador 13°56´N 89°09´W Aguilas Murcia, SE Spain 37°24´N 01°36´W Aguililla Michoacán, SW Mexico 18°43´N 102°45´W Agujita Coahuila, NE Mexico 27°53'N  101°09'W Agulhas see L’Agulhas 289 A11 Agulhas Bank undersea feature SW Indian Ocean 88 171 86 85

05°31´N 00°42´W

171 J3 171 H3 118 F3 215 J5 222 B1 175 H10 175 F13 282 E2 187 K5 186 F5

Agordat see Ak’ordat Agosta see Augusta Agoura California, USA 34°09´N 118°44´W Agout j S France Āgra Uttar Pradesh, N India 27°09´N 78°E Agra and Oudh, United Provinces of see Uttar Pradesh Agram see Zagreb Agramunt Cataluña, NE Spain 41°48´N 01°07´E Agreda Castilla y León, N Spain 41°51´N 01°55´W Agrelo Mendoza, Argentina 33°07´S 68°53´W Ağrı var. Karaköse; prev. Karakılısse. Ağrı, NE Turkey 39°44´N 43°04´E Ağrı r province NE Turkey Agri anc. Aciris. j S Italy Agri Dagi see Büyükağrı Dağı Agrigento Gk. Akragas; prev. Girgenti. Sicilia, Italy, C Mediterranean Sea 37°19´N 13°33´E Agrihan island N Northern Mariana Islands Agriliá, Akrotírio prev. Ákra Maléas. cape Lésvos, E Greece Agrínio prev. Agrinion. Dytikí Elláda, W Greece 38°38´N 21°25´E

Agrinion see Agrínio 187 H5 Agriovótano Évvoia, C Greece 39°00´N 23°18´E 175 G10 Agropoli Campania, S Italy 40°22´N 14°59´E 195 J10 Agryz Udmurtskaya Respublika, NW Russian Federation 56°27´N 52°58´E 215 K4 Ağstafa Rus. Akstafa. NW Azerbaijan 41°06´N 45°28´E Agsumal, Sebjet see Aghzoumal, Sebkhet

r Administrative Regions k International Airport

D4 H8 C7 K5

35°30´S 21°00´E

289 A12 Agulhas Basin undersea feature SW Indian Ocean 47°00´S 27°00´E

138 E10 Agulhas, Cape Afr. Kaap Agulhas. headland SW South Africa 34°51´S 19°59´E Agulhas, Kaap see Agulhas, Cape 110 G7 Agulhas Negras, Pico das l SE Brazil 22°21´S 44°39´W 289 A11 Agulhas Plateau undersea feature SW Indian Ocean 40°00´S 26°00´E

I9 Aguni-jima island Nansei-shotō, SW Japan Agurain see Salvatierra 219 C10 ‘Agur, olot var. Kholot Agur. m Israel 263 M8 Agusan j Mindanao, S Philippines 114 B9 Agustina Buenos Aires, Argentina 34°28´S 61°04´W 102 C3 Agustín Codazzi var. Codazzi. Cesar, N Colombia 251

10°02´N 73°15´W

Agyrium see Agira 131 J7 Ahaggar high plateau region SE Algeria 228 D7 Ahal Welaýaty Rus. Akhalskiy Velayat. r province C Turkmenistan 222 D2 Ahar Āarbāyjān-e Sharqī, NW Iran 38°25´N 47°07´E Aharnes see Acharnés 216 D2 Aḩaş, Jabal l NW Syria 216 D2 Aḩaş, Jebal m W Syria 279 E9 Ahaura j South Island, New Zealand 180 C6 Ahaus Nordrhein-Westfalen, NW Germany 52°04´N 07°01´E

Ahausen Niedersachsen, Germany 52°33´N 7°55´E Ahe atoll Îles Tuamotu, C French Polynesia Ahenny Tipperary, Ireland 52°25´N 7°24´W Ahimanawa Range m North Island, New Zealand Ahinski Kanal Rus. Oginskiy Kanal. canal SW Belarus 280 D5 Ahioma SE Papua New Guinea 10°20´S 150°35´E 278 F2 Ahipara Northland, North Island, New Zealand 180 285 160 278 191

E5 J6 A4 H6 E11

51°46´N 07°53´E

180 G3 Ahlerstedt Niedersachsen, Germany 53°24´N 9°27´E 232 C8 Ahmadābād var. Ahmedabad. Gujarāt, W India 23°03´N 72°40´E

223 H6 Ahmadābād Kermān, C Iran 35°51´N 59°36´E Ahmadi see Al Aḩmadī Ahmad Khel see Ḩasan Khēl 234 D5 Ahmadnagar var. Ahmednagar. Mahārāshtra, W India 19°08´N 74°48´E 231 I6 Ahmadpur Siāl Punjab, E Pakistan 30°40´N 71°52´E 130 F7 Aḥmar, ‘Erg el desert N Mali 136 F4 Ahmar Mountains m C Ethiopia Ahmedabad see Ahmadābād Ahmednagar see Ahmadnagar 62 D3 Ahmic Lake c Ontario, S Canada 284 C10 Ahoa Île Uvea, E Wallis and Futuna 13°17´S 176°12´W 158 D6 Ahoghill United Kingdom 54°52´N 6°22´W 84 F6 Ahomé Sinaloa, C Mexico 25°55´N 109°10´W 67 L5 Ahoskie North Carolina, SE USA 36°17´N 76°59´W 181 C10 Ahr j W Germany 222 F7 Ahram var. Ahrom. Būshehr, S Iran 28°52´N 51°18´E 180 I1 Ahrensbök Schleswig-Holstein, Germany 54°01´N 10°35´E

I2 Ahrensburg Schleswig-Holstein, N Germany 53°41´N 10°14´E

Ahrom see Ahram 153 H8 Ähtäri Etelä-Pohjanmaa, W Finland 62°34´N 24°08´E 185 M7 Ahtopol var. Akhtopol. Burgas, E Bulgaria 86 88

B5 Ahuacatlán Nayarit, C Mexico 21°02´N 104°30´W C4 Ahuachapán Ahuachapán, W El Salvador 13°55´N 89°51´W

88 C5 Ahuachapán r department W El Salvador 118 A2 Ahu Akivi var. Siete Moai. ancient monument Easter Island, Chile, E Pacific Ocean 85 L9 Ahualulco San Luis Potosí, Mexico 22°24´N 101°10´W 86 C6 Ahuijullo Jalisco, Mexico 19°05´N 103°06´W 166 G10 Ahun Limousin, France 46°05´N 2°03´E 285 K7 Ahunui atoll Îles Tuamotu, C French Polynesia 278 C11 Ahuriri j South Island, New Zealand 155 G12 Åhus Skåne, S Sweden 55°55´N 14°18´E Ahu Tahira see Ahu Vinapu 118 A1 Ahu Tepeu ancient monument Easter Island, Chile, E Pacific Ocean 118 A2 Ahu Vinapu var. Ahu Tahira. ancient monument Easter Island, Chile, E Pacific Ocean 222 E6 Ahvāz var. Ahwāz; prev. Nāsiri. Khūzestān, SW Iran 31°20´N 48°38´E

Ahvenanmaa see Åland 80 E5 Ahwahnee California, USA 37°22´N 119°44´W 220 G9 Aḩwar SW Yemen 13°34´N 46°41´E Ahwāz see Ahvāz 154 D2 Åi Åfjord var. Åi Åfjord, Årnes. Sør-Trøndelag, C Norway 63°57´N 10°12´E see also Åi Åfjord Åi Åfjord see Åi Åfjord 140 C5 Ai-Ais Karas, Namibia 27°57´S 17°31´E 140 C5 Ai-Ais Hot Springs and Fish River Canyon Park Karas, Namibia 230 G2 Aibak var. Haibak; prev. Āybak, Samangān. Samangān, NE Afghanistan 36°16´N 68°04´E 179 F12 Aichach Bayern, SE Germany 48°26´N 11°06´E 243 J4 Aicheng Jiangxi, E China 29°06´N 115°46´E 251 J4 Aichi off. Aichi-ken, var. Aiti. r prefecture Honshū, SW Japan Aïdin see Aydın 261 J6 Aiduna Papua, E Indonesia 04°20´S 135°15´E Aidussina see Ajdovščina 261 M7 Aiema j W Papua New Guinea Aifir, Clochán an see Giant’s Causeway Aigaíon Pelagos/Aigaío Pélagos see Aegean Sea 177 J1 Aigen im Mülkreis Oberösterreich, N Austria 48°39´N 13°57´E

l Mountain m Mountain Range

i Volcano t River

Aigle Vaud, SW Switzerland 46°20´N 06°58´E Aignay-le-Duc Bourgogne, France 47°40´N 4°44´E Aigoual, Mont l S France 44°09´N 03°34´E Aigre Poitou-Charentes, France 45°54´N 0°01´E Aigrefeuille-d’Aunis Poitou-Charentes, France 46°07´N 0°56´W

166 C8 Aigrefeuille-sur-Maine Pays de la Loire, France 47°04´N 1°24´W

137 I10 Aigrettes, Pointe des headland W Réunion 21°02´S 55°14´E

115

J8 Aiguá var. Aigua. Maldonado, S Uruguay 34°13´S 54°46´W

169 L2 Aiguebelle Rhône-Alpes, France 45°32´N 6°18´E 169 H1 Aigueperse Auvergne, France 46°01´N 3°12´E 165 J7 Aigues j SE France 169 J5 Aigues-Mortes Languedoc-Roussillon, France 43°34´N 4°11´E

169 M3 Aiguilles Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, France 44°47´N 6°52´E

165 H5 Aigurande Indre, C France 46°26´N 01°49´E Ai-hun see Heihe 253 A10 Aikawa Niigata, Sado, C Japan 38°04´N 138°15´E 67 I9 Aiken South Carolina, SE USA 33°34´N 81°44´W 70 E3 Aiken Texas, SW USA 34°06´N 101°31´W 240 C7 Ailao Shan m SW China 167 I4 Ailette j Picardie, France 283 K5 Ailinginae Atoll var. Aelōninae. atoll Ralik Chain, SW Marshall Islands 283 L6 Ailinglaplap Atoll var. Aelōnlaplap. atoll Ralik Chain, S Marshall Islands 167 I7 Aillant-sur-Tholon Bourgogne, France 47°52´N 3°21´E Aillionn, Loch see Allen, Lough 158 F5 Ailsa Craig island SW Scotland, United Kingdom 283 L5 Ailuk Atoll var. Aelok. atoll Ratak Chain, NE Marshall Islands 193 K6 Aim Khabarovskiy Kray, E Russian Federation 58°45´N 134°08´E

N2 Aimé Césaire k (Fort-de-France) C Martinique 14°34´N 61°00´W

165 J6 Ain r department E France 165 J5 Ain j E France 171 N9 Aïn Azel Algeria 190 D5 Ainaži Est. Heinaste, Ger. Hainasch. N Latvia 57°51´N 24°24´E

131 J2 Aïn Beida NE Algeria 35°52´N 07°25´E 130 E6 ‘Aïn Ben Tili Tiris Zemmour, N Mauritania 25°58´N 09°30´W

171 M9 Aïn Bessem Algeria 171 L9 Aïn Boucif Algeria 131 I1 Aïn Defla var. Aïn Eddefla. N Algeria 36°16´N 01°58´E 175 B13 Aïn Draham Tunisia Aïn Eddefla see Aïn Defla 131 J1 Ain El Bey k (Constantine) NE Algeria 36°15´N 06°36´E 171 M10 Aïn El Hadjel Algeria 171 N9 Ain El Kebira Algeria 171 I10 Aïn El Rerd Algeria 175 C14 Aïn Garci Tunisia 171 J10 Aïn Nouissy Algeria 186 E6 Aínos l Kefallonía, Iónia Nísoi, Greece, C Mediterranean Sea 38°08´N 20°39´E 171 N9 Aïn Oulmene Algeria 171 L10 Aïn Oussera Algeria 171 J2 Ainsa Aragón, NE Spain 42°25´N 00°08´E 159 I9 Ainsdale United Kingdom 53°36´N 3°02´W 131 H3 Aïn Sefra NW Algeria 32°45´N 00°32´W 74 C6 Ainsworth Nebraska, C USA 42°33´N 99°51´W Aintab see Gaziantep 171 L8 Aïn Taya Algeria 171 J9 Aïn Tédelès Algeria 131 H2 Aïn Témouchent N Algeria 35°18´N 01°09´W 280 B3 Aiome Madang, N Papua New Guinea 05°08´S 144°45´E Aïoun el Atrous/Aïoun el Atroûss see ‘Ayoûn el ‘Atroûs 102 B6 Aipe Huila, C Colombia 03°15´N 75°17´W 104 D4 Aipena, Río j N Peru 112 D1 Aiquile Cochabamba, C Bolivia 18°10´S 65°10´W Aïr see Aïr, Massif de l’ 282 C10 Airai Babeldaob, C Palau 282 C10 Airai k (Oreor) Babeldaob, N Palau 07°22´N 134°34´E 166 G3 Airaines Picardie, France 49°58´N 1°57´E 169 N3 Airasca Piemonte, NW Italy 44°55´N 07°28´E 258 C5 Airbangis Sumatera, NW Indonesia 0°12´N 99°22´E 158 D5 Aird United Kingdom 55°14´N 6°30´W 57 I7 Airdrie Alberta, SW Canada 51°20´N 114°00´W 159 H3 Airdrie S Scotland, United Kingdom 55°52´N 03°59´W Air du Azbine see Aïr, Massif de l’ 172 B4 Aire, Serra de m Santarém, Portugal 164 G8 Aire-sur-l’Adour Landes, SW France 43°43´N 00°16´W 165 H1 Aire-sur-la-Lys Pas-de-Calais, N France 50°39´N 02°24´E

53 259 260 133 169 176 159 159 164 181 117

35°11´S 173°07´E

278 F2 Ahipara Bay bay SE Tasman Sea Áhkájávrre see Akkajaure Áhkká see Akka 215 J6 Ahlat Bitlis, E Turkey 38°45´N 42°28´E 180 E7 Ahlen Nordrhein-Westfalen, W Germany

180

176 C5 167 J7 169 I4 168 E1 166 D10

91

L1 G5 B2 E5 C2 H2 C8 M1 K5 E4 D5

42°06´N 27°57´E

I9 Agly j S France Agnetheln see Agnita B2 Agnew Lake c Ontario, S Canada G7 Agnibilékrou E Ivory Coast 07°10´N 03°11´W D8 Agnita Ger. Agnetheln, Hung. Szentágota. Sibiu, SW Romania 45°59´N 24°40´E G8 Agnone Molise, C Italy 41°49´N 14°21´E J5 Ago Mie, Honshū, SW Japan 34°18´N 136°50´E E7 Agogna j N Italy Agoitz see Aoiz Agoiz see Aoiz H8 Agona Swedru var. Swedru. SE Ghana

81 C10 165 H8 232 F6

Águas da Prata São Paulo, Brazil 21°56´S 46°43´W Águas de Lindóia São Paulo, Brazil 22°29´S 46°39´W Águas de São Pedro São Paulo, Brazil 22°36´S 47°53´W Aguasvivas j NE Spain Aguasvivas j Spain Água Vermelha, Represa de d S Brazil Aguaviva Aragón, Spain 40°49´N 0°11´W Aguaytía Ucayali, C Peru 09°02´S 75°30´W A Gudiña var. La Gudiña. Galicia, NW Spain 42°04´N 07°08´W

49°21´N 8°59´E

175 251 176

D6 D7 B7 I4 K1 B11 L2 E6 D3

Agudo Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil 29°38´S 53°15´W Agudo Castilla-La Manacha, Spain 38°59´N 4°52´W Águeda Aveiro, N Portugal 40°34´N 08°28´W Águeda j Portugal/Spain Águeda, Rio j Aveiro, Portugal Aguelhok Kidal, NE Mali 19°18´N 00°50´E Agüero Aragón, Spain 42°21´N 0°48´W Águia Branca Espírito Santo, Brazil 18°59´S 40°44´W Aguié Maradi, S Niger 13°28´N 07°43´E Aguijan island S Northern Mariana Islands Águila, Cerro de l’ l Baja California Sur, NW Mexico 170 F8 Aguilar var. Aguilar de la Frontera. Andalucía, S Spain 37°31´N 04°40´W 170 F2 Aguilar de Campóo Castilla y León, N Spain 115 172 172 170 172 133 168 111 133 282 84

187

62 132 188

E2 H7 K9 F8 G7 L6 J7 J7 E12 G3 G9 J2 I1 F2 C3

85 K9 Aguascalientes r state C Mexico 106 C10 Aguas Calientes, Río j S Peru 115 H9 Aguas Corrientes Canelones, Uruguay

39°47´N 25°21´E

Agiasós see Agiassós 187 K5 Agiassós var. Agiasós, Ayiásos, Ayiássos. Lésvos, E Greece 39°05´N 26°23´E Aginnum see Agen 193 I9 Aginskiy Buryatskiy Orrug r autonomous district S Russian Federation 193 I8 Aginskoye Zabaykal’skiy Kray, S Russian Federation

165

38°15´N 22°05´E

22°23´N 80°51´W

38°46´N 30°32´E

37°45´N 23°26´E

187 H7 Aígina island S Greece 186 G6 Aígio var. Egio; prev. Aíyion. Dytikí Elláda, S Greece

20°21´S 52°58´W

110 A3 Água Comprida Minas Gerais, Brazil 20°04´S 48°08´W 90 D4 Aguada de Pasajeros Cienfuegos, C Cuba

02°09´N 45°07´E

141 I2 Afguns Limpopo, South Africa 23°49´S 27°41´E 220 F4 ‘Afīf Ar Riyāḑ, C Saudi Arabia 23°57´N 42°57´E 133 K8 Afikpo Ebonyi, S Nigeria 05°52´N 07°58´E Afiun Karahissar see Afyon 177 K3 Aflenz Kurort Steiermark, E Austria 47°33´N 15°14´E 131 I2 Aflou N Algeria 34°09´N 02°06´E 137 F8 Afmadow Jubbada Hoose, S Somalia 0°24´N 42°04´E 83 I7 Afognak Island island Alaska, USA 170 D2 A Fonsagrada Galicia, NW Spain 43°09´N 07°03´W 280 C4 Afore Northern, S Papua New Guinea 09°10´S 148°30´E 218 G3 Afqa Lebanon 218 G3 Afqa Lebanon 34°04´N 35°53´E 108 G6 Afrânio Pernambuco, E Brazil 08°32´S 40°54´W 121 Africa continent 124 G4 Africa, Horn of physical region Ethiopia/Somalia 289 A11 Africana Seamount undersea feature SW Indian Ocean 37°10´S 29°10´E 148 B8 African Plate tectonic plate 216 D2 ‘Afrīn Ḩalab, N Syria 36°31´N 36°51´E 214 G7 Afşin Kahramanmaraş, C Turkey 38°14´N 36°54´E 162 F4 Afsluitdijk dam N Netherlands 75 G8 Afton Iowa, C USA 41°01´N 94°12´W 74 H5 Afton Minnesota, N USA 44°54´N 92°46´W 75 G11 Afton Oklahoma, C USA 36°41´N 94°57´W 218 E6 Afula Israel 32°36´N 35°17´E 214 C6 Afyon prev. Afyonkarahisar. Afyon, W Turkey

187 H6 Aígina var. Aíyina, Egina. Aígina, C Greece

167 54 165 165 177 187

K8 Air Force Island island Baffin Island, Nunavut, NE Canada H6 Airhitam, Teluk bay Borneo, C Indonesia F3 Airmadidi Sulawesi, N Indonesia 01°25´N 124°59´E K2 Aïr, Massif de l’ var. Aïr, Air du Azbine, Asben. m NC Niger N5 Airole Liguria, NW Italy 43°52´N 07°33´E E5 Airolo Ticino, S Switzerland 46°32´N 08°38´E H3 Airth United Kingdom 56°04´N 3°46´W J8 Airton United Kingdom 54°01´N 2°09´W G5 Airvault Deux-Sèvres, W France 46°51´N 00°07´W I13 Aisch j S Germany B10 Aisén off. Región Aisén del General Carlos Ibañez del Campo, var. Aysen. r region S Chile J7 Aisey-sur-Seine Bourgogne, France 47°45´N 4°35´E B3 Aishihik Lake c Yukon, W Canada I2 Aisne r department N France I2 Aisne j NE France J2 Aist j N Austria J2 Aisými Anatolikí Makedonía kai Thráki, NE Greece 41°00´N 25°55´E

171 I7 Aitana l E Spain 38°39´N 00°15´W 280 A2 Aitape var. Eitape. West Sepik, NW Papua New Guinea 03°10´S 142°17´E Aiti see Aichi 74 G3 Aitkin Minnesota, N USA 46°31´N 93°42´W 186 F6 Aitolikó var. Etoliko; prev. Aitolikón. Dytikí Elláda, C Greece 38°26´N 21°21´E Aitolikón see Aitolikó 284 G7 Aitutaki island S Cook Islands 188 C7 Aiud Ger. Strassburg, Hung. Nagyenyed; prev. Engeten. Alba, SW Romania 46°19´N 23°43´E 110 G6 Aiuruoca Minas Gerais, Brazil 21°58´S 44°36´W 190 E6 Aiviekste j C Latvia 283 J10 Aiwo SW Nauru 0°32´S 166°54´E 282 C8 Aiwokako Passage passage Babeldaob, N Palau Aix see Aix-en-Provence 165 J8 Aix-en-Provence var. Aix; anc. Aquae Sextiae. Bouches-du-Rhône, SE France 43°31´N 05°27´E 168 F1 Aixe-sur-Vienne Limousin, France 45°48´N 1°08´E 166 C10 Aix, Île d’ island Poitou-Charentes, France Aix-la-Chapelle see Aachen 165 K6 Aix-les-Bains Savoie, E France 45°40´N 05°55´E 280 A3 Aiyang, Mount l NW Papua New Guinea 05°03´S 141°15´E

233 L8 166 C9 190 E6 190 B6 253 C11

Aíyina see Aígina Aíyion see Aígio Āīzawl state capital Mizoram, NE India 23°41´N 92°45´E Aizenay Pays de la Loire, France 46°44´N 1°37´W Aizkraukle S Latvia 56°39´N 25°07´E Aizpute W Latvia 56°43´N 21°32´E Aizuwakamatsu Fukushima, Honshū, C Japan 37°30´N 139°58´E

175 B8 Ajaccio Corse, France, C Mediterranean Sea 41°54´N 08°43´E

175 B8 Ajaccio, Golfe d’ gulf Corse, France, C Mediterranean Sea 86 G7 Ajalpán Puebla, S Mexico 18°26´N 97°20´W 234 D4 Ajanta Range m C India Ajaria see Ach’ara Ajastan see Armenia 154 G1 Ajaureforsen Västerbotten, N Sweden 65°31´N 15°44´E 279 E9 Ajax, Mount l South Island, New Zealand 42°34´S 172°06´E

236 E3 Aj Bogd Uul l SW Mongolia 44°49´N 95°01´E 128 E3 Ajdābiyā var. Agedabia, Ajdābiyah. NE Libya 30°46´N 20°14´E

177 252 86 183 218 128 218 221 232 79 170

c Lake d Reservoir

Ajdābiyah see Ajdābiyā J6 Ajdovščina Ger. Haidenschaft, It. Aidussina. W Slovenia 45°52´N 13°55´E C7 Ajigasawa Aomori, Honshū, C Japan 40°45´N 140°11´E C5 Ajijic Jalisco, Mexico Ajjinena see El Geneina E12 Ajka Veszprém, W Hungary 47°18´N 17°32´E F7 ‘Ajlūn ‘Ajlūn, N Jordan 32°20´N 35°45´E F7 ‘Ajlūn off. Muḩāfa at ‘Ajlūn. r governorate N Jordan G7 ‘Ajlūn, Jabal m W Jordan ‘Ajlūn, Muḩāfa at see ‘Ajlūn Ájluokta see Drag J4 ‘Ajmān var. Ajman, ‘Ujmān. ‘Ajmān, NE United Arab Emirates 25°36´N 55°42´E D6 Ajmer var. Ajmere. Rājasthān, N India 26°29´N 74°40´E H9 Ajo Arizona, SW USA 32°22´N 112°51´W G1 Ajo, Cabo de headland N Spain 43°31´N 03°36´W

INDEX

276 F4 106 C6

Adelbert Range m N Papua New Guinea Adelebsen Niedersachsen, Germany 51°35´N 9°45´E Adele Island island Western Australia Adelfia Puglia, SE Italy 41°01´N 16°52´E Adélie Coast physical region Antarctica Adélie, Terre physical region Antarctica Adelmannsfelden Baden-Württemberg, Germany 48°57´N 10°01´E

157 B8 Achill Island Ir. Acaill. island W Ireland 180 F4 Achim Niedersachsen, NW Germany 53°01´N 09°01´E 231 H4 Achīn Nangarhār, E Afghanistan 34°04´N 70°41´E Achin see Aceh 192 G7 Achinsk Krasnoyarskiy Kray, S Russian Federation

70 66 74 90

Adelaide k South Australia 34°55´S 138°31´E Adelaide Island island Antarctica Adelaide Peninsula peninsula Nunavut, N Canada Adelaide River Northern Territory, N Australia

111 L3 Affonso Cláudio Espírito Santo, Brazil 20°05´S 41°08´W Afghānestān, Dowlat-e Eslāmī-ye see Afghanistan 230 F3 Afghanistan off. Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, Per. Dowlat-e Eslāmī-ye Afghānestān; prev. Republic of Afghanistan. b islamic state C Asia Afgoi see Afgooye 136 H7 Afgooye It. Afgoi. Shabeellaha Hoose, S Somalia

Acevedo - Ajo, Cabo de

114 158 173 105 102 158 234

307

Ajo Range - Alfred

79 H10 Ajo Range m Arizona, SW USA 85 H8 Ajoya Sinaloa, Mexico 24°05´N 106°22´W 86 E7 Ajuchitlán del Progreso Guerrero, Mexico 18°09´N 100°29´W

228 B6 Ajyguýy Rus. Adzhikui. Balkan Welaýaty, W Turkmenistan 39°46´N 53°57´E Akaba see Al ‘Aqabah 252 E4 Akabira Hokkaidō, NE Japan 43°30´N 142°04´E 290 F4 Akademik Kurchatov Fracture Zone tectonic feature N Atlantic Ocean 253 B10 Akadomari Niigata, Sado, C Japan 37°54´N 138°24´E 137 A9 Akagera j Rwanda/Tanzania 118 B2 Akahanga, Punta headland Easter Island, Chile, E Pacific Ocean 251 K4 Akaishi-dake l Honshū, S Japan 35°26´N 138°09´E 251 K4 Akaishi-sanmyaku m Honshū, S Japan 136 E4 Āk’ak’i Oromīya, C Ethiopia 08°50´N 38°51´E 234 E5 Akalkot Mahārāshtra, W India 17°36´N 76°10´E Akamagaseki see Shimonoseki 252 G3 Akan Hokkaidō, NE Japan 44°06´N 144°03´E 252 G4 Akan Hokkaidō, NE Japan 43°09´N 144°08´E 252 G4 Akan-ko c Hokkaidō, NE Japan Akanthoú see Tatlısu 278 F10 Akaroa Canterbury, South Island, New Zealand 43°48´S 172°58´E

214 E6 Aksaray Aksaray, C Turkey 38°23´N 33°50´E 214 E6 Aksaray r province C Turkey 195 M3 Aksarka Yamalo-Nenetskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug, Russian Federation 226 C3 Aksay var. Aksaj, Kaz. Aqsay. Zapadnyy Kazakhstan, NW Kazakhstan 51°11´N 53°00´E 197 H6 Aksay Volgogradskaya Oblast’, SW Russian Federation 47°59´N 43°54´E 229 L5 Ak-say var. Toxkan He. j China/Kyrgyzstan Aksay/Aksay Kazakzu Zizhixian see Boluozhuanjing/Hongliuwan Aksayqin see Aksai Chin 238 D7 Aksayqin Hu c NW China 214 D6 Akşehir Konya, W Turkey 38°22´N 31°24´E 214 D6 Akşehir Gölü c C Turkey 214 D7 Akseki Antalya, SW Turkey 37°03´N 31°46´E 193 J8 Aksenovo-Zilovskoye Zabaykal’skiy Kray, S Russian Federation 53°01´N 117°26´E 193 I8 Aksha Zabaykal’skiy Kray, S Russian Federation 50°16´N 113°22´E

J5 Akshatau Kaz. Aqshataū; prev. Akchatau. Karaganda, C Kazakhstan 47°59´N 74°02´E 227 L5 Akshatau, Khrebet m E Kazakhstan 229 N4 Ak-Shyyrak Issyk-Kul’skaya Oblast’, E Kyrgyzstan 227

Akstafa see Ağstafa 238 D4 Aksu Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu, NW China

34°39´N 135°00´E

51°09´N 90°36´E

228 D5 Akdzhakaya, Vpadina var. Vpadina Akchakaya. depression N Turkmenistan 260 G3 Akelamo Pulau Halmahera, E Indonesia 01°27´N 128°39´E

215

J4 Akeld N England, United Kingdom 55°33´N 2°04´E Aken see Aachen Akermanceaster see Bath I8 Åkersberga Stockholm, C Sweden 59°28´N 18°19´E E7 Akershus r county S Norway G6 Aketi Orientale, N Dem. Rep. Congo 02°44´N 23°46´E B5 Akgyr Erezi Rus. Gryada Akkyr. hill range NW Turkmenistan Akhalskiy Velayat see Ahal Welaýaty J4 Akhaltsikhe prev. Akhalts’ikhe. SW Georgia 41°39´N 43°04´E

INDEX

128 F2

308

83 I8 214 B6 129 I5

Akhalts’ikhe see Akhaltsikhe Akhangaran see Ohangaron Akharnaí see Acharnés Akhḑar, Al Jabal al hill range NE Libya Akhelóös see Achelóos Akhiok Kodiak Island, Alaska, USA 56°57´N 154°12´W Akhisar Manisa, W Turkey 38°54´N 27°50´E Akhmīm var. Akhmîm; anc. Panopolis. C Egypt 26°35´N 31°48´E

232 D3 Akhnūr Jammu and Kashmir, NW India 32°53´N 74°46´E

197 197 250 82 82 285 58 214 189 253 253 132

Akhtopol see Ahtopol I6 Akhtuba j SW Russian Federation I6 Akhtubinsk Astrakhanskaya Oblast’, SW Russian Federation 48°17´N 46°14´E Akhtyrka see Okhtyrka G6 Aki Kōchi, Shikoku, SW Japan 33°30´N 133°53´E G6 Akiachak Alaska, USA 60°54´N 161°25´W G6 Akiak Alaska, USA 60°54´N 161°12´W K7 Akiaki atoll Îles Tuamotu, E French Polynesia F5 Akimiski Island island Nunavut, C Canada F8 Akıncı Burnu headland S Turkey 36°21´N 35°47´E Akıncılar see Selçuk K7 Akinovka Zaporiz’ka Oblast’, S Ukraine Åkirkeby see Aakirkeby C8 Akita Akita, Honshū, C Japan 39°44´N 140°06´E D8 Akita off. Akita-ken. r prefecture Honshū, C Japan C2 Akjoujt prev. Fort-Repoux. Inchiri, W Mauritania 19°42´N 14°28´W

152 F5 Akka Lapp. Áhkká. l N Sweden 67°33´N 17°27´E 152 F5 Akkajaure Lapp. Áhkájávrre. c N Sweden Akkala see Oqqal’a 235 G10 Akkaraipattu Eastern Province, E Sri Lanka 07°13´N 81°51´E

227

34°25´S 19°43´E

227 H6 Akkense Kaz. Aqkengse. Karaganda, C Kazakhstan

H4 H4 H4 E5

227

I3

Akkerman see Bilhorod-Dnistrovs’kyy Akkermanovka Orenburgskaya Oblast’, W Russian Federation 51°11´N 58°03´E Akkeshi Hokkaidō, NE Japan 43°03´N 144°49´E Akkeshi-ko c Hokkaidō, NE Japan Akkeshi-wan bay NW Pacific Ocean Akko Eng. Acre, Fr. Saint-Jean-d’Acre, Bibl. Accho, Ptolemaïs. Northern, N Israel 32°55´N 35°04´E Akkol’ Kaz. Aqköl; prev. Alekseyevka, Kaz. Alekseevka. Akmola, C Kazakhstan 51°58´N 70°58´E Akkol’ Kaz. Aqköl. Almaty, SE Kazakhstan

227

J6

227

I7 Akkol’ Kaz. Aqköl. Zhambyl, C Kazakhstan

45°01´N 75°38´E

227 L6 Aksu Kaz. Aqsū. Almaty, SE Kazakhstan 45°31´N 79°28´E

227 227 227 227 197 238 136 226

J3 Aksu var. Jermak, Kaz. Ermak; prev. Yermak. Pavlodar, NE Kazakhstan 52°03´N 76°55´E L6 Aksu Kaz. Aqsū. j SE Kazakhstan M5 Aksuat Kaz. Aqsūat. Vostochnyy Kazakhstan, E Kazakhstan 47°48´N 82°51´E M4 Aksuat Kaz. Aqsūat. Vostochnyy Kazakhstan, SE Kazakhstan 48°16´N 83°39´E J2 Aksubayevo Respublika Tatarstan, W Russian Federation 54°52´N 50°50´E D4 Aksu He Rus. Sary-Dzhaz. j China/Kyrgyzstan see also Sary-Dzhaz E2 Āksum Tigray, N Ethiopia 14°06´N 38°42´E G5 Aktas Kaz. Aqtas. Karaganda, C Kazakhstan 48°03´N 66°21´E

Aktash see Oqtosh 229 L5 Ak-Tash, Gora l C Kyrgyzstan 40°53´N 74°39´E 227 I4 Aktau Kaz. Aqtaū. Karaganda, C Kazakhstan

42°14´N 77°46´E

Aktí see Ágion Óros Aktjubinsk/Aktyubinsk see Aktobe 238 C5 Akto Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu, NW China

B6 Aklavik Northwest Territories, NW Canada 68°15´N 135°02´W

226 D4 Aktobe Kaz. Aqtöbe; prev. Aktjubinsk, Aktyubinsk. Aktyubinsk, NW Kazakhstan 50°18´N 57°10´E 227 L5 Aktogay Kaz. Aqtoghay. Vostochnyy Kazakhstan, E Kazakhstan 46°56´N 79°40´E 227 J5 Aktogay Kaz. Aqtoghay. Zhezkazgan, C Kazakhstan

56°49´N 21°03´E

Akmeņrags see Akmenrags 238 C6 Akmeqit Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu, NW China 37°10´N 76°59´E

228 F7 Akmeydan Mary Welaýaty, C Turkmenistan 37°50´N 62°08´E

227 H3 Akmola off. Akmolinskaya Oblast’, Kaz. Aqmola Oblysy; prev. Tselinogradskaya Oblast. r province C Kazakhstan Akmola see Astana Akmolinsk see Astana Akmolinskaya Oblast’ see Akmola Aknavásár see Târgu Ocna 190 E7 Aknīste S Latvia 56°09´N 25°43´E 250 G4 Akō Hyōgo, Honshū, SW Japan 34°44´N 134°22´E 136 B5 Akobo Jonglei, E South Sudan 07°50´N 33°05´E 136 C5 Akobo var. Ākobowenz. j Ethiopia/Sudan Ākobowenz see Akobo 234 E4 Akola Mahārāshtra, C India 20°44´N 77°00´E 136 E2 Ak’ordat var. Agordat, Akurdet. C Eritrea 15°33´N 38°01´E

Akosombo Dam dam SE Ghana Akot Mahārāshtra, C India 20°45´N 77°00´E Akoupé SE Ivory Coast 06°19´N 03°54´W Akpatok Island island Nunavut, E Canada Akqi Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu, NW China 40°51´N 78°20´E

216 D2 Akrād, Jabal al m N Syria Akragas see Agrigento 152 B3 Akranes Vesturland, W Iceland 64°19´N 22°01´W 217 I1 Ākrē Ar. ‘Aqrah. Dahūk, N Iraq 36°46´N 43°52´E 155 A8 Åkrehamn Rogaland, S Norway 59°15´N 15°13´E 133 K3 Akrérèb Agadez, C Niger 17°45´N 09°01´E 186 F8 Akrítas, Akrotírio headland S Greece 36°43´N 21°52´E 79 N2 Akron Colorado, C USA 40°09´N 103°12´W 74 E6 Akron Iowa, C USA 42°49´N 96°33´W 64 B1 Akron New York, USA 43°01´N 78°30´W 73 I9 Akron Ohio, N USA 41°05´N 81°31´W Akrotiri see Akrotírion Akrotiri Bay see Akrotírion, Kólpos Akrotírio Kastállou see Kástelo, Akrotírio 218 B3 Akrotírion var. Akrotiri. UK air base S Cyprus34°36´N 32°57´E 218 B3 Akrotírion, Kólpos var. Akrotiri Bay. bay S Cyprus 218 B3 Akrotiri Sovereign Base Area UK military installation S Cyprus 238 C6 Aksai Chin Chin. Aksayqin. disputed region China/ India Aksaj see Aksay

b a

172 F2 171 H6 173 J4 171 H5 216 D2 129 J3 219 B10 217 N10 220 G3 260 B8 214 B6 216 G4

191 G11 Aktsyabrski Rus. Oktyabr’skiy; prev. Karpilovka. Homyel’skaya Voblasts’, SE Belarus 52°38´N 28°53´E 226 E4 Aktyubinsk off. Aktyubinskaya Oblast’, Kaz. Aqtöbe Oblysy. r province W Kazakhstan Aktyubinsk see Aktobe 229 L4 Ak-Tyuz var. Aktyuz. Chuyskaya Oblast’, N Kyrgyzstan 42°50´N 76°05´E 134 F6 Akula Equateur, NW Dem. Rep. Congo 02°21´N 20°13´E 87 N5 Akumal Quintana Roo, Mexico 250 C8 Akune Kagoshima, Kyūshū, SW Japan 32°00´N 130°12´E 82 F9 Akun Island island Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA Akurdet see Ak’ordat 133 J7 Akure Ondo, SW Nigeria 07°18´N 05°13´E 152 C2 Akureyri Norðurland Eystra, N Iceland 65°40´N 18°07´W

82 F9 Akutan Akutan Island, Alaska, USA 54°08´N 165°47´W 82 F9 Akutan Island island Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA 133 K8 Akwa Ibom r state SE Nigeria Akyab see Sittwe 197 M4 Ak”yar Respublika Bashkortostan, W Russian Federation 51°51´N 58°13´E 226 E4 Akzhar prev. Novorossiyskiy, Novorossiyskoye. Aktyubinsk, NW Kazakhstan 50°14´N 57°57´E 227 M5 Akzhar Kaz. Aqzhar. Vostochnyy Kazakhstan, E Kazakhstan 47°36´N 83°38´E 154 C6 Ål Buskerud, S Norway 60°37´N 08°33´E 191 H11 Ala Rus. Ola. j SE Belarus 69 H1 Alabama off. State of Alabama, also known as Camellia State, Heart of Dixie, The Cotton State, Yellowhammer State. r state S USA 61 J8 Alabama River j Alabama, S USA 66 D9 Alabaster Alabama, S USA 33°14´N 86°49´W 217 K7 Al ‘Abd Allāh var. Al Abdullah. Al Qādisīyah, S Iraq 32°06´N 45°08´E

217 L9 Al Abţīyah well S Iraq 229 J5 Ala-Buka Dzhalal-Abadskaya Oblast’, W Kyrgyzstan 41°22´N 71°27´E

275 K1 Alabule j C Papua New Guinea 214 F5 Alaca Çorum, N Turkey 40°10´N 34°52´E 214 F4 Alaçam Samsun, N Turkey 41°36´N 35°35´E Alacant see Alicante 69 L4 Alachua Florida, SE USA 29°48´N 82°29´W 215 J6 Aladağlar m W Turkey 214 F7 Ala Dağları m C Turkey 172 F1 Alaejos Castilla y León, Spain 41°19´N 5°13´W 246 D3 Alag-Erdene var. Manhan. Hövsgöl, N Mongolia 50°05´N 100°01´E

215 K3 Alagir Respublika Severnaya Osetiya, SW Russian Federation 43°02´N 44°10´E 176 D6 Alagna Valsesia Valle d’Aosta, NW Italy 165 110 108 109 171 170 172 153

I7 G7 I6 H8 I3 E5 E3 G8

Alagnon j C France Alagoa Minas Gerais, Brazil 22°10´S 44°38´W Alagoas off. Estado de Alagoas. r state E Brazil Alagoinhas Bahia, E Brazil 12°09´S 38°21´W Alagón Aragón, NE Spain 41°46´N 01°07´W Alagón j W Spain Alagón j Extremadura, Spain Alahärmä Etelä-Pohjanmaa, W Finland

al Ahdar see Al Akhḑar Álaheaieatnu see Altaelva 217 M10 Al Aḩmadī var. Ahmadi. E Kuwait 29°02´N 48°01´E Al Ain see Al ‘Ayn 171 M5 Alaior prev. Alayor. Menorca, Spain, W Mediterranean Sea 39°56´N 04°08´E 229 K6 Alai Range Rus. Alayskiy Khrebet. m Kyrgyzstan/ Tajikistan Alais see Alès 221 K6 Al ‘Ajā’iz E Oman 19°33´N 57°12´E 221 K6 Al ‘Ajā’iz oasis SE Oman 153 H8 Alajärvi Etelä-Pohjanmaa, W Finland 63°00´N 23°50´E 190 F4 Alajõe Ida-Virumaa, NE Estonia 59°00´N 27°26´E 89 H8 Alajuela Alajuela, C Costa Rica 10°00´N 84°12´W 88 G7 Alajuela off. Provincia de Alajuela. r province N Costa Rica 82 G6 Alakanuk Alaska, USA 62°41´N 164°37´W 220 D2 Al Akhḑar var. al Ahdar. Tabūk, NW Saudi Arabia 28°04´N 37°13´E

Alaköl see Alakol’, Ozero 227 L5 Alakol’, Ozero Kaz. Alaköl. c SE Kazakhstan 194 E4 Alakurtti Murmanskaya Oblast’, NW Russian Federation 66°57´N 30°27´E 82 C2 Alalākeiki Channel var. Alalakeiki Channel. channel Hawaii, USA, C Pacific Ocean 129 H3 Al ‘Alamayn var. El ‘Alamein. N Egypt 30°50´N 28°57´E

218 G7 Al Ālūk Jordan 32°10´N 35°55´E Al ‘Amādiyah see Amêdî 282 E3 Alamagan island C Northern Mariana Islands 217 L7 Al ‘Amārah var. Amara. Maysān, E Iraq 31°51´N 47°10´E

136 110 81 80 79 199

E3 B9 D8 B3 L7 K9

89

H5

172 219 84 84 70 86

G5 G9 B1 E4 C6 D1

Ālamat’ā Tigray, N Ethiopia 12°22´N 39°32´E Alambari São Paulo, Brazil 23°33´S 47°53´W Alameda California, USA 35°14´N 119°0´W Alameda California, USA 37°46´N 122°15´W Alameda New Mexico, SW USA 35°09´N 106°37´W ‘Alam el Rûm, Râs headland N Egypt 31°21´N 27°23´E Alamícamba see Alamikamba Alamikamba var. Alamícamba. Región Autónoma Atlántico Norte, NE Nicaragua 13°26´N 84°09´W Alamillo Castilla-La Manacha, Spain 38°41´N 4°47´W Al Āmirīyah Jordan 31°34´N 36°05´E Alamito Baja California Norte, NE Mexico Alamito Sonora, Mexico 29°12´N 110°52´W Alamito Creek j Texas, SW USA Alamitos, Sierra de los l NE Mexico 26°15´N 102°14´W

86 78

Country Country Capital

G5 Álamo Veracruz-Llave, C Mexico 20°55´N 97°41´W F5 Alamo Nevada, W USA 37°21´N 115°08´W

p Dependent Territory q Dependent Territory Capital

Alamo Tennessee, S USA 35°47´N 89°09´W Alamogordo New Mexico, SW USA 32°52´N 105°57´W Alamo Lake d Arizona, SW USA Alamos Sonora, NW Mexico 26°59´N 108°53´W Alamosa Colorado, C USA 37°25´N 105°51´W Al‘Ānāt prev. El-Aanata. Syria 32°21´N 36°48´E Åland off. Provincial Autonomy of the Åland Islands, Fin. Ahvenanmaa. r autonomous region SW Finland Åland var. Aland Islands, Fin. Ahvenanmaa. island group SW Finland Aland Islands see Åland Åland Islands, Provincial Autonomy of the see Åland Aland Sea see Ålands Hav Ålands Hav var. Aland Sea. strait Baltic Sea/Gulf of Bothnia Alange Extremadura, Spain 38°47´N 6°15´W Alanje Chiriquí, SW Panama 08°26´N 82°33´W Alanreed Texas, SW USA 35°12´N 100°45´W Alanya Antalya, S Turkey 36°32´N 32°02´E Alapaha River j Florida/Georgia, SE USA Alapayevsk Sverdlovskaya Oblast’, C Russian Federation 57°48´N 61°50´E Al ‘Aqabah var. Akaba, Aqaba, ‘Aqaba; anc. Aelana, Elath. Al ‘Aqabah, SW Jordan 29°32´N 35°00´E Al Aqabah Jordan 29°31´N 35°00´E Al ‘Aqabah off. Muḩāfa at al ‘Aqabah. r governorate SW Jordan Al ‘Arabīyah as Su‘ūdīyah see Saudi Arabia al Araïch see Larache Alaraz Castilla y León, Spain 40°45´N 5°17´W Alarcón Castilla-La Mancha, C Spain 39°32´N 02°05´W Alarcón, Embalse de d Castilla-La Manacha, Spain Alarcón, Embalse de d C Spain Al ‘Arīmah Fr. Arime. Ḩalab, N Syria 36°27´N 37°41´E Al ‘Arīsh var. El ‘Arîsh. NE Egypt 33°00´N 31°00´E Al ‘Arīsh Egypt 31°07´N 33°48´E Al Arţāwīyah SE Kuwait 28°32´N 48°06´E Al Arţāwīyah Ar Riyāḑ, N Saudi Arabia 26°34´N 45°20´E Alas Sumbawa, S Indonesia 08°27´S 117°04´E Alasca, Golfo de see Alaska, Gulf of Alaşehir Manisa, W Turkey 38°19´N 28°30´E Al ‘Ashārah var. Ashara. Dayr az Zawr, E Syria 34°51´N 40°36´E

Al Ashkhara see Al Ashkharah 221 L5 Al Ashkharah var. Al Ashkhara. NE Oman 21°47´N 59°30´E

83 83 83 287 83 258 260 176 215

Al ’Aşimah see ‘Ammān I4 Alaska off. State of Alaska, also known as Land of the Midnight Sun, The Last Frontier, Seward’s Folly; prev. Russian America. r state NW USA K7 Alaska, Gulf of var. Golfo de Alasca. gulf Canada/ USA H8 Alaska Peninsula peninsula Alaska, USA H1 Alaska Plain N Pacific Ocean I5 Alaska Range m Alaska, USA C3 Alas, Lae j Sumatera, NW Indonesia Al-Asnam see Chlef B8 Alas, Selat strait Nusa Tenggara, C Indonesia D9 Alassio Liguria, NW Italy 44°01´N 08°12´E N5 Älät Rus. Alyat; prev. Alyaty-Pristan’. SE Azerbaijan

169 L1 Albens Rhône-Alpes, France 45°47´N 5°57´E 172 G2 Alberche j C Spain 165 I10 Albères, Chaîne des var. les Albères, Montes Albères. m France/Spain Albères, Montes see Albères, Chaîne des 276 E1 Alberga Creek seasonal river South Australia 172 B2 Albergaria-a-Velha Aveiro, N Portugal

217 I8 83 I4 175 F8 197

I2

104 C2 171 H2 215 K4 152 I7 153 H8

Alat see Olot Al ‘Athāmīn An Najaf, S Iraq 30°27´N 43°41´E Alatna River j Alaska, USA Alatri Lazio, C Italy 41°43´N 13°21´E Alattio see Alta Alatyr’ Chuvashskaya Respublika, W Russian Federation 54°50´N 46°28´E Alausí Chimborazo, C Ecuador 02°11´S 78°52´W Álava Basq. Araba. r province País Vasco, N Spain Alaverdi N Armenia 41°06´N 44°37´E Alavo see Alavus Ala-Vuokki Kainuu, E Finland 64°46´N 29°29´E Alavus Swe. Alavo. Etelä-Pohjanmaa, W Finland

51°52´N 04°40´E

173 M2 Albocàcer Valenciana, Spain 40°21´N 0°01´E Albocácer see Albocàsser 171 J5 Albocàsser Cast. Albocácer. Valenciana, E Spain 170 G10 170 G10 173 K4 155 E11 222 E4 222 F3 171 H8 179 D12 172 216 173 170 79 89

B8 G4 K7 G9 L7 J6

221 221

J4 J4

170 D6 277 J6 277 J6 218 J2 221 I8 154 G4 172 B6 172 C6 170 E8

31°49´N 36°48´E

44°42´N 08°02´E

I4 C7 H2 D2 C7

171 H6 173 J5 220 C2 170 E4

Alba Texas, SW USA 32°47´N 95°37´W Alba r county W Romania Al Ba‘āj Nīnawá, N Iraq 36°02´N 41°43´E Al Bāb Ḩalab, N Syria 36°24´N 37°32´E Albac Hung. Fehérvölgy; prev. Álbák. Alba, SW Romania 46°27´N 22°58´E Albacete Castilla-La Mancha, C Spain 39°N 01°52´W Albacete r province Castilla-La Mancha, C Spain Al Bad‘ Tabūk, NW Saudi Arabia 28°28´N 35°00´E Alba de Tormes Castilla y León, N Spain 40°50´N 05°30´W

217 H2 Al Bādī Nīnawá, N Iraq 35°57´N 41°37´E 221 J4 Al Badī‘ah k (Abū aby) Abū aby, C United Arab Emirates 24°27´N 54°39´E 221 J5 Al Badī‘ah var. Al Bedei’ah. spring/well C United Arab Emirates 23°44´N 53°50´E 155 D10 Ålbæk Nordjylland, N Denmark 57°33´N 10°24´E 217 H5 Al Baghdādī var. Khān al Baghdādī. Al Anbār, SW Iraq 33°60´N 42°50´E Al Bāha see Al Bāḩah 220 E6 Al Bāḩah var. Al Bāha. Al BāḨah, SW Saudi Arabia 20°01´N 41°29´E

220 E6 Al Bāḩah var. Minţaqat al Bāḩah. r province W Saudi Arabia Al Baḩrayn see Bahrain 171 I6 Albaida Valenciana, E Spain 38°51´N 00°31´W 218 H7 Al Bā’ij Jordan 32°22´N 36°21´E 188 C8 Alba Iulia Ger. Weissenburg, Hung. Gyulafehérvár; prev. Bălgrad, Karlsburg, Károly-Fehérvár. Alba, W Romania 46°06´N 23°33´E Álbák see Albac 168 E9 Albalate de Cinca Aragón, Spain 41°43´N 0°09´E 173 L1 Albalate del Arzobispo Aragón, Spain 41°07´N 0°31´W 218 F7 Al Balqā’ off. Muḩāfaat al Balqā’, var. Balqā’. r governorate NW Jordan 62 C2 Alban Ontario, S Canada 46°07´N 80°37´W 165 H8 Alban Tarn, S France 43°52´N 02°30´E 173 H7 Albanchez de Ubeda Andalucía, Spain 37°47´N 3°28´W 59 H6 Albanel, Lac c Québec, SE Canada 184 E8 Albania off. Republic of Albania, Alb. Republika e Shqipqërisë, Shqipëria; prev. People’s Socialist Republic of Albania. b republic SE Europe Albania see Aubagne 274 D8 Albany Western Australia 35°03´S 117°54´E 69 J3 Albany Georgia, SE USA 31°35´N 84°09´W 73 F10 Albany Indiana, N USA 40°18´N 85°14´W 66 F5 Albany Kentucky, S USA 36°42´N 85°08´W 74 G4 Albany Minnesota, N USA 45°39´N 94°33´W 75 G8 Albany Missouri, C USA 40°15´N 94°15´W 65 H2 Albany state capital New York, NE USA 42°39´N 73°45´W

B6 Albany Oregon, NW USA 44°38´N 123°06´W F4 Albany Texas, SW USA 32°44´N 99°18´W E6 Albany j Ontario, S Canada Alba Pompeia see Alba Alba Regia see Székesfehérvár 114 B7 Albarellos Santa Fe, Argentina 33°14´S 60°38´W 216 D4 Al Bāridah var. Bāridah. Ḩimş, C Syria 76 70 58

34°15´N 37°39´E

217 H7 Al Barīt Al Anbār, S Iraq 31°16´N 42°28´E 171 I5 Albarracín Aragón, NE Spain 40°24´N 01°25´W 87 H8 Albarradas Oaxaca, Mexico 16°55´N 96°20´W 217 M8 Al Başrah Eng. Basra, hist. Busra, Bussora. Al Başrah, SE Iraq 30°30´N 47°50´E 217 K8 Al Baţḩā’ Dhī Qār, SE Iraq 31°06´N 45°54´E 230 A10 Al Bāţinah var. Batinah. coastal region N Oman 42 D10 Albatross Plateau undersea feature E Pacific Ocean 10°00´N 103°00´W

Al Batrūn see Batroûn 128 F2 Al Bayḑā’ var. Beida. NE Libya 32°46´N 21°43´E 220 G9 Al Bayḑā’ var. Al Beida. SW Yemen 13°58´N 45°38´E Al Bedei’ah see Al Badī‘ah Al Beida see Al Bayḑā’ 67 J6 Albemarle var. Albermarle. North Carolina, SE USA 35°21´N 80°12´W

Albemarle Island see Isabela, Isla 67 M6 Albemarle Sound inlet W Atlantic Ocean 176 D9 Albenga Liguria, NW Italy 44°04´N 08°13´E

r Administrative Regions k International Airport

Albufeira Beja, S Portugal 37°05´N 08°15´W Ālbū Gharz, Sabkhat c W Iraq Albujón Murcia, Spain 37°43´N 1°03´W Albuñol Andalucía, S Spain 36°48´N 03°11´W Albuquerque New Mexico, SW USA 35°05´N 106°38´W Albuquerque, Cayos de NW Colombia, Caribbean Sea Al Buraymī var. Buraimi. N Oman 24°16´N 55°48´E Al Buraymī var. Buraimi. spring/well Oman/United Arab Emirates 24°27´N 55°33´E Al Burayqah see Marsá al Burayqah Alburgum see Aalborg Alburquerque Extremadura, W Spain 39°12´N 07°00´W Albury New South Wales, SE Australia 36°03´S 146°53´E Albury-Wodonga New South Wales/Victoria, SE Australia 36°04´S 146°58´E Al Buşayn Syria 34°09´N 37°39´E Al Buzūn SE Yemen 15°40´N 50°53´E Alby Västernorrland, C Sweden 62°30´N 15°25´E Albyn, Glen see Mor, Glen Alcácer do Sal Setúbal, W Portugal 38°22´N 08°29´W Alcàçovas Évora, Portugal 38°24´N 8°09´W Alcalá de Chisvert/Alcalá de Chivert see Alcalà de Xivert Alcalá de Guadaira Andalucía, S Spain 37°20´N 05°50´W

219 I8 Al Azraq ash Shamālī Jordan 31°52´N 36°49´E 176 D8 Alba anc. Alba Pompeia. Piemonte, NW Italy 71 188 217 216 188

Albona see Labin Alborán, Isla de island S Spain Alborán, Mar de see Alboran Sea Alboran Sea Sp. Mar de Alborán. sea SW Mediterranean Sea Alborea Castilla-La Manacha, Spain 39°17´N 1°23´W Ålborg see Aalborg Ålborg Bugt var. Aalborg Bugt. bay N Denmark Ålborg-Nørresundby see Aalborg Alborz var. Ostān-e Alborz. r province N Iran Alborz, Ostān-e see Alborz Alborz, Reshteh-ye Kūhhā-ye Eng. Elburz Mountains. m N Iran Albox Andalucía, S Spain 37°22´N 02°08´W Albstadt Baden-Württemberg, SW Germany 48°13´N 09°01´E

32°54´N 45°05´E

128 C2 Al ‘Azīzīyah NW Libya 32°32´N 13°01´E 219 I8 Al Azraq al Janūbī Az Zarqā’, N Jordan

31°43´S 58°16´W

114 E6 Aldea San Juan Entre Ríos, Argentina 32°42´S 58°46´W 114 D5 Aldea San Simón Entre Ríos, Argentina 32°25´S 59°31´W

161 M4 Aldeburgh E England, United Kingdom 52°12´N 01°36´E 41°42´N 02°46´W

Aldeia Nova see Aldeia Nova de São Bento 172 C7 Aldeia Nova de São Bento var. Aldeia Nova. Beja, S Portugal 37°55´N 07°24´W 74 G6 Alden Minnesota, N USA 43°40´N 93°34´W 64 B1 Alden New York, USA 42°54´N 78°30´W 181 B9 Aldenhoven Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany 50°54´E 6°17´N

161 J6 Aldermaston United Kingdom 51°23´N 1°09´W 278 H4 Aldermen Islands, The island group N New Zealand 166 B3 Alderney island Channel Islands 161 J7 Aldershot S England, United Kingdom 51°15´N 00°47´W

67 I4 Alderson West Virginia, NE USA 37°43´N 80°38´W 160 G2 Aldford W England, United Kingdom 53°08´N 02°53´W 159 I10 Aldford W England, United Kingdom 53°08´N 02°53´W Al Dhaid see Adh Dhayd 161 I5 Aldsworth United Kingdom 51°47´N 1°46´W 162 G3 Aldtsjerk Dutch. Oudkerk. Fryslân, N Netherlands 53°16´N 05°52´E

73 B9 Aledo Illinois, N USA 41°12´N 90°45´W 132 C3 Aleg Brakna, SW Mauritania 17°03´N 13°53´W 170 C9 Alegranza island Islas Canarias, Spain, NE Atlantic Ocean 79 K8 Alegres Mountain l New Mexico, SW USA 34°09´N 108°11´W

115 172 115 114 115 287

I1 D4 L4 C1 I8 K8

194 E8 83

H7

196 G1 184 G5 197 J5 197 L3

40°21´N 00°01´E

62°33´N 23°38´E

Al ‘Awābī see Awābī 217 H4 Al ‘Awānī Al Anbār, W Iraq 34°28´N 41°43´E 128 G7 Al Awaynāt SE Libya 21°46´N 24°51´E Al Awaynāt see Al ‘Uwaynāt 277 H5 Alawoona South Australia 34°45´S 140°28´E Alaykel’/Alay-Kuu see Këk-Art 221 J4 Al ‘Ayn var. Al Ain. Abū aby, E United Arab Emirates 24°13´N 55°44´E 221 J4 Al ‘Ayn var. Al Ain. k Abū aby, E United Arab Emirates 24°16´N 55°31´E 219 F10 Al Aynā Jordan 30°58´N 35°46´E 219 F10 Al ‘Aynā Al Karak, W Jordan 30°59´N 35°43´E 219 F11 Al ‘Ayn al Bayḑā’ Jordan 219 F11 Al ‘Ayn al Bayḑā’ Aţ ţafīlah, C Jordan Alayor see Alaior Alayskiy Khrebet see Alai Range 193 L3 Alazeya j NE Russian Federation 217 K6 Al ‘Azīzīyah var. Aziziya. Wāsiţ, E Iraq

114 E4 Aldea San Gregorio Entre Ríos, Argentina

171 H3 Aldehuela de Calatañazor Castilla y León, N Spain

40°42´N 08°28´W

I6 Alberic Valenciana, E Spain 39°07´N 00°31´W Albermarle see Albemarle 175 I9 Alberobello Puglia, SE Italy 40°47´N 17°14´E 165 H2 Albert Somme, N France 50°N 02°38´E 54 F7 Alberta r province SW Canada 52 G7 Albert Edward Bay coastal sea feature Victoria Island, Nunavut, NW Canada Albert Edward Nyanza see Edward, Lake 114 C10 Alberti Buenos Aires, E Argentina 35°03´S 60°15´W 110 D7 Albertina Minas Gerais, Brazil 22°12´S 46°37´W 183 G11 Albertirsa Pest, C Hungary 47°15´N 19°36´E 163 F9 Albertkanaal canal N Belgium 134 J7 Albert, Lake var. Albert Nyanza, Lac Mobutu Sese Seko. c Uganda/Dem. Rep. Congo 74 G6 Albert Lea Minnesota, N USA 43°39´N 93°22´W 136 B6 Albert Nile j NW Uganda Albert Nyanza see Albert, Lake 141 J4 Alberton Gauteng, South Africa 26°14´S 28°08´E 169 L1 Albertville Savoie, E France 45°41´N 06°24´E 66 E8 Albertville Alabama, S USA 34°16´N 86°12´W Albertville see Kalemie 165 H8 Albi anc. Albiga. Tarn, S France 43°55´N 02°09´E 75 H8 Albia Iowa, C USA 41°01´N 92°48´W Albiga see Albi 103 M5 Albina Marowijne, NE Suriname 05°29´N 54°08´W 135 B14 Albina, Ponta headland SW Angola 15°52´S 11°45´E 73 D12 Albion Illinois, N USA 38°22´N 88°03´W 73 F9 Albion Indiana, N USA 41°23´N 85°26´W 74 E7 Albion Nebraska, C USA 41°41´N 98°00´W 62 E5 Albion New York, NE USA 43°13´N 78°09´W 62 C7 Albion Pennsylvania, NE USA 41°52´N 80°18´W 218 G2 Al Biqa r governorate Lebanon Al Biqā‘ see El Beqaa 220 D2 Al Bi’r var. Bi’r Ibn Hirmās. Tabūk, NW Saudi Arabia 28°52´N 36°16´E 220 E7 Al Birk Makkah, SW Saudi Arabia 18°13´N 41°36´E 218 I7 Al Bishrīyah Al Mafraq, N Jordan 114 F4 Albisu Salto, Uruguay 31°20´S 57°48´W 220 G5 Al Biyāḑ desert C Saudi Arabia 162 E7 Alblasserdam Zuid-Holland, SW Netherlands 171

39°57´N 49°24´E

47°46´N 74°06´E

63°15´N 22°50´E

190 B6 Akmenrags prev. Akmeņrags. headland W Latvia

H8 E4 F8 I2 D4

219 E14 216 B9

39°07´N 75°43´E

45°51´N 07°50´E

47°17´N 51°03´E

133 234 132 59 238

219 E14

50°13´N 73°06´E

226 B7 Aktau Kaz. Aqtaū; prev. Shevchenko. Mangistau, W Kazakhstan 43°37´N 51°14´E Aktau, Khrebet see Oqtogh, Qatorkŭhi. SW Tajikistan Aktau, Khrebet see Oqtov Tizmasi, C Uzbekistan Akte see Ágion Óros Ak-Tepe see Akdepe 229 M4 Ak-Terek Issyk-Kul’skaya Oblast’, E Kyrgyzstan

43°25´N 70°47´E

226 G5 Akkol’, Ozero prev. Ozero Zhaman-Akkol. c C Kazakhstan 162 G4 Akkrum Fryslân, N Netherlands 53°01´N 05°52´E 227 K3 Akku Kaz. Aqqū; prev. Lebyazh’ye. Pavlodar, NE Kazakhstan 51°29´N 77°48´E 226 B5 Akkystau Kaz. Aqqystaū. Atyrau, SW Kazakhstan 52

E5 I9 E2 D8 K3 M9

52°31´N 72°00´E

46°39´N 68°06´E

252 252 252 218

J7

172 89 70 214 69 195

I3 Aksu Kaz. Aqsū. Akmola, N Kazakhstan

140 E10 Akkedisberg l Western Cape, South Africa

197 M4

154

41°17´N 80°15´E

216 G4 ‘Akāsh, Wādī var. Wādī ‘Ukash. dry watercourse W Iraq Akasi see Akashi 152 G5 Äkäsjokisuu Lappi, N Finland 67°28´N 23°44´E 215 J4 Akbaba Dağı l Armenia/Turkey 41°04´N 43°28´E 171 M9 Akbou Algeria Akbük Limanı see Güllük Körfezi 197 L4 Akbulak Orenburgskaya Oblast’, W Russian Federation 51°01´N 55°35´E 215 H5 Akçaabat Trabzon, NE Turkey 41°00´N 39°36´E 214 D4 Akçakoca Düzce, NW Turkey 41°05´N 31°08´E 187 M7 Akçay j Turkey Akchakaya, Vpadina see Akdzhakaya, Vpadina 132 C1 Akchâr desert W Mauritania Akchatau see Akshatau 187 K5 Akdag l İzmir, Turkey 38°33´N 26°30´E 214 G6 Akdağlar m C Turkey 187 N8 Ak Dağları m SW Turkey 214 F6 Akdağmadeni Yozgat, C Turkey 39°40´N 35°52´E 228 E4 Akdepe prev. Ak-Tepe, Leninsk, Turkm. Lenin. Daşoguz Welaýat, N Turkmenistan 42°10´N 59°17´E Ak-Dere see Byala 218 C2 Akdoğan Gk. Lýsi. C Cyprus 35°06´N 33°42´E 192 G8 Ak-Dovurak Respublika Tyva, S Russian Federation

155 154 134 228

153 G10

41°46´N 78°34´E

129 I7 Akasha Northern, N Sudan 21°03´N 30°46´E 251 H5 Akashi var. Akasi. Hyōgo, Honshū, SW Japan

159

66 B6 79 L9 81 J12 84 F5 79 L5 218 I7 153 G10

170 G5 Alcalá de Henares Ar. Alkal’a; anc. Complutum. Madrid, C Spain 40°28´N 03°22´W 173 L2 Alcalà de la Selva Aragón, Spain 40°22´N 0°42´W 170 E9 Alcalá de los Gazules Andalucía, S Spain 36°29´N 05°43´W

173 M2 Alcalà de Xivert var. Alcalá de Chisvert, Cast. Alcalá de Chivert. Valenciana, E Spain 40°19´N 00°13´E 170 G8 Alcalá La Real Andalucía, S Spain 37°28´N 03°55´W 175 E12 Alcamo Sicilia, Italy, C Mediterranean Sea 37°58´N 12°58´E

197 H8 193 L7

50°55´N 142°12´E

182 F5 Aleksandrów Kujawski Kujawskio-pormorskie, C Poland 52°52´N 18°40´E 182 F6 Aleksandrów Łódzki Łódzkie, C Poland 51°49´N 19°19´E

J5 Aleksandŭr Stamboliyski, Yazovir d N Bulgaria Alekseevka see Akkol’, Akmola, Kazakhstan Alekseevka see Terekty 227 H2 Alekseyevka Kaz. Alekseevka. Akmola, N Kazakhstan 53°32´N 69°30´E 196 G5 Alekseyevka Belgorodskaya, W Russian Federation 185

50°35´N 38°41´E

197 K3 Alekseyevka Samarskaya Oblast’, W Russian Federation 52°37´N 51°20´E Alekseyevka see Akkol’, Akmola, Kazakhstan Alekseyevka see Terekty, Vostochnyy Kazakhstan, Kazakhstan 193 I7 Alekseyevsk Irkutskaya Oblast’, C Russian Federation 57°46´N 108°07´E 197 J2 Alekseyevskoye Respublika Tatarstan, W Russian Federation 55°18´N 50°11´E 196 F2 Aleksin Tul’skaya Oblast’, W Russian Federation 54°30´N 37°08´E

Aleksinac Serbia, SE Serbia 43°33´N 21°43´E Alele Île Uvea, E Wallis and Futuna 13°14´S 176°09´W Ålem Kalmar, S Sweden 56°57´N 16°25´E Alemdar İstanbul, NW Turkey 41°03´N 29°14´E Além Paraíba Minas Gerais, Brazil 21°52´S 42°41´W Alençon Orne, N France 48°26´N 00°04´E Alenquer Pará, NE Brazil 01°58´S 54°45´W ‘Alenuihaha Channel var. Alenuihaha Channel. channel Hawai‘i, USA, C Pacific Ocean Alep/Aleppo see Ḩalab 175 C8 Aléria Corse, France, C Mediterranean Sea 185 H5 284 C9 155 H11 187 M2 111 J6 164 G3 107 J2 82 D2

42°06´N 09°29´E

295

J6 Alert Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, N Canada 82°28´N 62°13´W

53 H1 Alert Point headland Nunavut, N Canada 165 I8 Alès prev. Alais. Gard, S France 44°08´N 04°05´E 188 B6 Aleşd Hung. Élesd. Bihor, SW Romania 47°03´N 22°22´E

176 E7 Alessandria Fr. Alexandrie. Piemonte, N Italy 44°54´N 08°37´E

Alcanadre j NE Spain Alcanar Cataluña, NE Spain 40°33´N 00°28´E Alcañices Castilla y León, N Spain 41°41´N 06°21´W Alcañiz Aragón, NE Spain 41°03´N 00°09´W Alcántara Extremadura, W Spain 39°42´N 06°54´W Alcántara, Embalse de d W Spain Alcantarilla Murcia, SE Spain 37°59´N 01°12´W Alcaracejos Andalucía, Spain 38°23´N 4°58´W Alcaraz Entre Ríos, Argentina 31°28´S 59°36´W Alcaraz Castilla-La Mancha, C Spain 38°40´N 02°29´W Alcaraz, Sierra de m C Spain Alcaraz, Sierra de m Castilla-La Manacha, Spain Alcaria Castelo Branco, Portugal 40°12´N 7°31´W Alcaria Leiria, Portugal 39°34´N 8°47´W Alcarrache j SW Spain Alcarràs Cataluña, NE Spain 41°34´N 00°31´E Alcarria, Pàramos de la upland Castilla-La Manacha, Spain 170 F8 Alcaudete Andalucía, S Spain 37°35´N 04°05´W 172 G3 Alcaudete de la Jaya Castilla-La Manacha, Spain 171 171 170 171 170 170 171 172 114 171 171 173 172 172 170 171 173

185 J5 195 K8

I3 J4 E3 I4 D5 E5 I7 G6 C4 H7 H7 J5 C3 B4 D7 J3 I2

39°47´N 4°52´W

Alcázar see Ksar-el-Kebir 170 G6 Alcázar de San Juan anc. Alce. Castilla-La Mancha, C Spain 39°24´N 03°12´W Alcazarquivir see Ksar-el-Kebir Alce see Alcázar de San Juan 105 A9 Alcebo, Volcán i Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, E Pacific Ocean 0°25´S 91°06´W 217 L8 Al Chabā’ish var. Al Kaba’ish. Dhī Qār, SE Iraq 30°58´N 47°02´E

189 M5 Alchevs’k prev. Kommunarsk, Voroshilovsk. Luhans’ka Oblast’, E Ukraine 48°29´N 38°52´E Alcira see Alzira 66 G6 Alcoa Tennessee, S USA 35°47´N 83°58´W 172 B4 Alcobaça Leiria, C Portugal 39°32´N 08°59´W 170 G5 Alcobendas Madrid, C Spain 40°32´N 03°38´W 173 I2 Alcocer Castilla-La Manacha, Spain 40°28´N 2°36´W Alcoi see Alcoy 172 G7 Alcolea Andalucía, Spain 37°56´N 4°40´W 171 H4 Alcolea del Pinar Castilla-La Mancha, C Spain

Ålestrup see Aalestrup 154 B4 Ålesund Møre og Romsdal, S Norway 62°28´N 06°11´E 174 B3 Aletschhorn l SW Switzerland 46°33´N 08°01´E 294 C6 Aleutian Basin undersea feature Bering Sea 57°00´N 177°00´E

82 D10 Aleutian Islands island group Alaska, USA 83 H8 Aleutian Range m Alaska, USA 42 A3 Aleutian Trench undersea feature S Bering Sea 57°00´N 177°00´W

193 L6 Alevina, Mys cape E Russian Federation 74 A2 Alexander North Dakota, N USA 47°48´N 103°38´W 83 L8 Alexander Archipelago island group Alaska, USA Alexanderbaai see Alexander Bay 140 C6 Alexander Bay Afr. Alexanderbaai. Northern Cape, W South Africa 28°40´S 16°30´E 52 G7 Alexander, Cape headland Nunavut, N Canada 69 H1 Alexander City Alabama, S USA 32°56´N 85°57´W 292 F4 Alexander Island island Antarctica Alexander Range see Kirghiz Range 277 J7 Alexandra Victoria, SE Australia 37°12´S 145°43´E 278 C11 Alexandra Otago, South Island, New Zealand 45°15´S 169°25´E

186 G3 Alexándreia var. Alexándria. Kentrikí Makedonía, N Greece 40°38´N 22°27´E Alexandretta see İskenderun Alexandretta, Gulf of see İskenderun Körfezi 62 G3 Alexandria Ontario, SE Canada 45°19´N 74°37´W 129 H3 Alexandria Ar. Al Iskandarīyah. N Egypt 31°07´N 29°51´E

90 E8 188 D10 158 G3 73 F10 66 F3 68 C3 74 F4 74 E6 64 C10 62

F4

41°02´N 02°28´W

170 D7 Alconchel Extremadura, W Spain 38°31´N 07°04´W 173 L3 Alcora Valenciana, Spain 40°04´N 0°12´W Alcora see L’Alcora 170 G5 Alcorcón Madrid, C Spain 40°20´N 03°52´W 171 I4 Alcorisa Aragón, NE Spain 40°53´N 00°23´W 114 B7 Alcorta Santa Fe, C Argentina 33°32´S 61°07´W 172 C7 Alcoutim Faro, S Portugal 37°28´N 07°29´W 77 L8 Alcova Wyoming, C USA 42°33´N 106°40´W 168 F10 Alcover Cataluña, Spain 41°16´N 1°10´E 171 I7 Alcoy Cat. Alcoi. Valenciana, E Spain 38°42´N 00°29´W 168 D9 Alcubierre Aragón, Spain 41°48´N 0°27´W 171 L5 Alcúdia Mallorca, Spain, W Mediterranean Sea 39°51´N 03°06´E

171 L5 Alcúdia, Badia d’ bay Mallorca, Spain, W Mediterranean Sea 289 C8 Aldabra Group island group SW Seychelles 217 J6 Al Daghghārah Bābil, C Iraq 32°10´N 44°57´E 85 H4 Aldama Chihuahua, N Mexico 28°50´N 105°52´W 86 G3 Aldama Tamaulipas, C Mexico 22°54´N 98°05´W 193 J7 Aldan Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya), NE Russian Federation 58°31´N 125°15´E 193 K6 Aldan j NE Russian Federation 114 B6 Aldao Santa Fe, Argentina 32°43´S 60°49´W Aldar see Aldarhaan al Dar al Baida see Rabat 239 I1 Aldarhaan var. Aldar. Dzavhan, W Mongolia 47°43´N 96°36´E

159 M8 Aldbrough N England, United Kingdom 53°50´N 00°08´W

161 M4 Alde j United Kingdom 172 G3 Aldea del Fresno Madrid, Spain 40°19´N 4°12´W 114 B5 Aldea María Luisa Entre Ríos, Argentina 31°53´S 60°23´W

l Mountain m Mountain Range

Alegrete Rio Grande do Sul, S Brazil 29°46´S 55°46´W Alegrete Portalegre, Portugal 39°14´N 7°19´W Alegrias Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil 31°50´S 53°25´W Alejandra Santa Fe, C Argentina 29°54´S 59°50´W Alejandro Gallinal Florida, Uruguay 33°49´S 55°33´W Alejandro Selkirk, Isla island Islas Juan Fernández, Chile, E Pacific Ocean Alëkhovshchina Leningradskaya Oblast’, NW Russian Federation 60°22´N 33°57´E Aleknagik Alaska, USA 59°16´N 158°37´W Aleksandriya see Oleksandriya Aleksandropol’ see Gyumri Aleksandrov Vladimirskaya Oblast’, W Russian Federation 56°24´N 38°42´E Aleksandrovac Serbia, C Serbia 43°28´N 21°05´E Aleksandrov Gay Saratovskaya Oblast’, W Russian Federation 50°08´N 48°34´E Aleksandrovka Orenburgskaya Oblast’, W Russian Federation 52°47´N 54°14´E Aleksandrovka see Oleksandrivka Aleksandrovo Lovech, N Bulgaria 43°16´N 24°53´E Aleksandrovsk Permskiy Kray, NW Russian Federation 59°12´N 57°27´E Aleksandrovsk see Zaporizhzhya Aleksandrovskoye Stavropol’skiy Kray, SW Russian Federation 44°43´N 42°56´E Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinskiy Ostrov Sakhalin, Sakhalinskaya Oblast’, SE Russian Federation

i Volcano t River

276 G6 187 J2

56

D6

Alexandria C Jamaica 18°18´N 77°21´W Alexandria Teleorman, S Romania 43°58´N 25°18´E Alexandria United Kingdom 55°59´N 4°36´W Alexandria Indiana, N USA 40°15´N 85°40´W Alexandria Kentucky, S USA 38°59´N 84°22´W Alexandria Louisiana, S USA 31°19´N 92°27´W Alexandria Minnesota, N USA 45°54´N 95°22´W Alexandria South Dakota, N USA 43°39´N 97°46´W Alexandria Virginia, NE USA 38°49´N 77°06´W Alexándria see Alexándreia Alexandria Bay New York, NE USA 44°20´N 75°54´W Alexandrie see Alessandria Alexandrina, Lake c South Australia Alexandroúpoli var. Alexandroúpolis, Turk. Dedeagaç, Dedeagach. Anatolikí Makedonía kai Thráki, NE Greece 40°52´N 25°53´E Alexandroúpolis see Alexandroúpoli Alexis Creek British Columbia, SW Canada 52°06´N 123°25´W

192 F8 Aleysk Altayskiy Kray, S Russian Federation 52°32´N 82°46´E

217

I5 Al Fallūjah var. Falluja. Al Anbār, C Iraq 33°21´N 43°46´E

173 K2 Alfambra Aragón, Spain 40°33´N 1°02´W 171 I5 Alfambra j E Spain Al Faqa see Faq‘ 221 H8 Al Farḑah C Yemen 14°51´N 48°33´E 172 A5 Alfarim Setúbal, Portugal 38°28´N 9°10´W 171 H3 Alfaro La Rioja, N Spain 42°13´N 01°45´W 171 J3 Alfarràs Cataluña, NE Spain 41°50´N 00°34´E Al Fāshir see El Fasher 129 I4 Al Fashn var. El Fashn. C Egypt 28°49´N 30°54´E 185 L4 Alfatar Silistra, NE Bulgaria 43°56´N 27°17´E 217 I3 Al Fatḩah Şalāḩ ad Dīn, C Iraq 35°06´N 43°34´E 217 H2 Al Fatsī Nīnawá, N Iraq 36°04´N 42°39´E 221 H2 Al Fāw var. Fao. Al Başrah, SE Iraq 29°55´N 48°26´E 129 I3 Al Fayyūm var. El Faiyûm. N Egypt 29°19´N 30°50´E 186 F7 Alfeiós prev. Alfiós; anc. Alpheius, Alpheus. j S Greece 180 H7 Alfeld Niedersachsen, C Germany 51°58´N 09°49´E 110 E5 Alfenas Minas Gerais, Brazil 21°26´S 45°57´W 180 E5 Alfhausen Niedersachsen, Germany 52°30´N 7°57´E Alfiós see Alfeiós Alföld see Great Hungarian Plain 63 J5 Alfred Maine, NE USA 43°29´N 70°44´W

c Lake d Reservoir