Chantyal Dictionary and Texts 9783110802597, 3110162407, 9783110162400

116 74 39MB

English Pages 615 [628] Year 1999

Report DMCA / Copyright


Table of contents :
Chantyal: Introduction and typological sketch
English-Chantyal dictionary
Kinship Charts
Chantyal-English index
Chantyal discourses
Recommend Papers

Chantyal Dictionary and Texts
 9783110802597, 3110162407, 9783110162400

  • 0 0 0
  • Like this paper and download? You can publish your own PDF file online for free in a few minutes! Sign Up
File loading please wait...
Citation preview

Chantyal Dictionary and Texts



Mi I


Trends in Linguistics Documentation 17

Editors Werner Winter Richard A. Rhodes

Mouton de Gruyter Berlin • New York

Chantyal Dictionary and Texts


Michael Noonan with Ram Prasad Bhulanja Jag Man Chhantyal William Pagliuca

w G DE

Mouton de Gruyter Berlin • New York


Mouton de Gruyter (formerly Mouton, The Hague) is a Division of Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin.

© Printed on acid-free paper which falls within the guidelines of the ANSI to ensure permanence and durability.

Library of Congress


Noonan, Michael. Chantyal dictionary and texts / by Michael Noonan ; with Ram Prasad Bhulanja, Jag man Chhantyal, William Pagliuca. p. cm. - (Trends in linguistics. Documentation ; 17) ISBN 3-11-016240-7 (cloth) 1. Chantel language - Dictionaries - English. 2. Nepali language — Dialects - Texts - Dictionaries. I. Bhulanja, Ram Prasad. II. Chhantyal, Jag Man. III. Pagliuca, William. IV. Title. V. Series. PL3801.C418N66 1999 495'.4-dc21 98-43669 CIP

Die Deutsche Bibliothek -


Noonan, Michael: Chantyal dictionary and texts / by Michael Noonan. With Ram Prasad Bhulanja ... - Berlin ; New York : Mouton de Gruyter, 1999 (Trends in linguistics : Documentation ; 17) ISBN 3-11-016240-7

© Copyright 1998 by Walter de Gruyter G m b H & Co. KG, D-10785 Berlin All rights reserved, including those of translation into foreign languages. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Printing: Werner Hildebrand, Berlin. Binding: Luderitz & Bauer, Berlin. Printed in Germany.


Who can find a good woman? She is precious beyond all things. Her husband's heart trusts her completely. She is his best reward. PROV: 31:10-11

Contents Abbreviations Introduction and typological sketch English-Chantyal dictionary Kinship Charts Chantyal-English index Chantyal texts References

vii 1 7 487 495 533 605

Abbreviations Abbreviations: (N) = Nepali borrowing; (C) = Chantyal vocabulary prior to massive recent influx of Nepali; (E) = English, usually, though not always, via Nepali; (H) = Hindi borrowing where these are likely borrowed directly from Hindi by Gurkha soldiers, not from Hindia via Nepali. Grammatical abbreviations: A [adjective; may also refer to adjective and adverb], Ab [adverb], ABES [abessive], abs [absolute], ADES [adessive], adj [adjective], advl [adverbial], ALL [allative], ANT [anterior], ATTR [attributive], caus [causative], CAUS [causative: see RSLT], CIRC [circumlative], cl [clause], COM [comitative], COMP [comparative], concat [concatenation], conj [conjunction], COTEMP [cotemporal], DAT [dative], DESID [desiderative], DUB [dubitative], EMPH [emphatic], ERG [ergative], esp [especially], ESS [essive], etym [etymology], f [feminine], GEN [genitive], HON [honorific], HOR [hortative], id [identical], IMP [imperative], IMPF [imperfective], INCL [inclusive], INES [inessive], INF [infinitive], INST [instrumental], INT [interjection], LOC [locative], m [masculine], Nn [noun], NOM [nominalization], NOMV [nominalization as main verb], NPST [non-past], PAST+ANT [past anterior], PERF [perfective], PL [plural], post [postposition], PRES+SUP [present suppositional], PROG [progressive converb], Q [interrogative], RC [remote conditional], RECIP [reciprocal], RSLT [result], quant [quantifier], redup [reduplication], SEQ [sequential converb], sp [species], SUB [subessive], SUP [suppositional], SUPER [superessive], TEMP [temporal], trans [transitive], V [verb], < [derives from], = [equals]. Language abbreviations: Ak [Akha], Bh [Bahing], B1 [Balti], Bu [Burmese], C [Chantyal], Ch [Chepang], Cn [Chinese], CNw [Classical Newari], CT [Classical Tibetan], Di [Dimasa], Dm [Dumi], E [English], G [Gurung], Ga [Garo], Gh [Ghale], GMn [Gyaru Manang], Ha [Hayu], IA [Indo-Aryan], Ji [Jirel], Kc [Kachin], Ke [Kaike], Kg [Khaling], Kh [Kham], Kn [Kanauri], Kr [Karen], Lb [Limbu], Lh [Lahu], Lp [Lepcha], Ls [Lusei], LT [Lhasa Tibetan], Lu [Lisu], Mg [Magar], Mi [Mikir], Mn [Manang], Mp [Manipuri], N [Nepali], Nr [Nar-Phu], Nw Newari, OT [Old Tibetan], PMn [Prakaa Manang], PST [Proto-Sino-Tibetan], PT [Proto-Tamangic], RTa [Risiangku Tamang], Sh [Sherpa], ST [Sino-tibetan], Su [Sunwar], Ta [Tamang], Tn [Tangkhul], TB [Tibeto-Burman], Th [Thakali], Ti [Tibetan], Ts [Tshangla], Va [Vayu], WB [Written Burmese], WT [Written Tibetan], Za [Zangskar],

Chantyal: Introduction and typological sketch1 1. Introduction to the Chantyal people The Chantyal [ts h 3ntjal] people2 are a relatively small ethnic group, numbering no more than 10,000. They can be divided into two groups, the Myagdi Chantyal and the Baglung Chantyal, named for the districts they inhabit within the Dhaulagiri Zone of central Nepal. Until the recent immigration to towns and cities, the interaction between the two groups was, in general, quite limited. The Baglung Chantyal ceased to speak the Chantyal language some time in the 19th century and now know only the national language, Nepali; the majority of the Myagdi Chantyal continue to speak Chantyal in their home villages3. There are approximately 2000 or so who still speak the Chantyal language. The Chantyal language belongs to the Tamangic group of the Bodish languages, which in turn constitute a branch of the Bodic Division of Tibeto-Burman. The other Tamangic languages are Gurung, Manangba, NarPhu, Tamang, and Thakali. A fairly complete listing of the literature on Tamangic languages can be found in the bibliography.

2. Typological sketch4 2.1. Phonology and morphophonemics Chantyal has a regionally typical vowel system consisting of six vowel positions with contrastive length and nasalization. Distinctive vowel length is a marginal part of the system, however, and long nasal vowels are quite rare: in general, vowel length is the product of fairly recent — and still rather unstable — processes of syllabic coalescence.



Front i, ii I, n e, ee ë, ëë


3, 93


Back u, uu ü, (üü) o, oo ö, öö

a, aa ä, ää


Introduction and typological sketch

As for consonants, Chantyal contrasts four points of articulation: bilabial, dental, alveolar/ alveolo-palatal, and velar. The dental point of articulation is lamino-dental. The alveolar/alveolo-palatal series contains of a set of oral affricates whose stop portions are alveolar and whose fricative portions are alveolo-palatal before front vowels (/ci/ = [tci]) and alveolar elsewhere (/ca/ = [tsa]); the fricatives show a similar distribution in being alveolo-palatal before front vowels and alveolar elsewhere. The nasals in this series are postalveolar, whereas the tap approximants are apico-alveolar. The Chantyal consonant inventory is rich in contrasts involving voice onset time and murmur. Typical of the South Asian speech area, Chantyal contrasts voiceless, voiceless aspirated, voiced, and murmured stops. In addition, Chantyal has stops with voiceless and voiceless aspirated onsets followed by murmur5. Nasals, approximants, fricatives, and glides also contrast murmured and non-murmured phonemes. In the transcription used here, indicates aspiration, murmur. Unaspirated Stop Aspirated Stop Voiced Stop M u r m u r e d Stop M u r m u r e d Stop with V o i c e l e s s Onset

P ph b bfi pfi

M u r m u r e d Stop with V o i c e l e s s Aspirated O n s e t V o i c e d Nasal Stop M u r m u r e d Nasal Stop V o i c e d Lateral A p p r o x i m a n t M u r m u r e d Lateral A p p r o x i m a n t

m mfi

t th d dfi tfi thfi n nfi 1 lfi

c ch

k kh

j jfi cfi

g gfi kfi khfi

ny nfiy

Voilcess Fricatives

r rfi s

M u r m u r e d Fricatives with Voiceless Onsets




V o i c e d Tap Approximant M u r m u r e d Tap A p p r o x i m a n t

M u r m u r e d Glides


w fiw

As the chart above shows, there are gaps in this system: /phfi/ and /chfi/ are unattested, and while /thfi/ and /khfi/ are attested, they are rare. The lack of attested /qfi/ likely reflects the absence of /i)/ morpheme initially: murmured consonants are generally restricted to morpheme-initial position, except in some borrowings. Geminate consonants occur and are distinctive, but they are found only intervocalically within morphemes.

Typological sketch


Retroflex consonants are heard very occasionally in a few N borrowings. There are few phonological or morphonological processes commonly encountered in moderately careful speech. Of these, the most important are the reduction of / w a / in suffixes to [o], and / w a / and / m a / to [o], and the weakening of morpheme initial / s / to [h] in suffixes. 2.2 Morphology Chantyal is overwhelmingly suffixing and agglutinative. There are only two native prefixes — the negative prefixes {a-} and {tha-} on verbs and adjectives. Nouns are inflected for number (singular and plural) and case. The singular is unmarked, the plural has the suffix {-ma}, which precedes the case affixes. The case affixes are, in fact, NP-final clitics. Below is a list of case clitics and a set of descriptive labels6 used to identify them. Major variants are listed, as are common case clitic combinations. Nepali borrowings are identified by (N): Absolute -0 Ergative/Instrumental -sa, -ha Ablative -gam-sa, -q-sa, -sa, -gam, -IJ, -kam, -kam, -kyam -nfia-ri-gam-sa Elative -nasa-w Abessive-proximal -ra Dative -nas Allative -ri Locative -ai] [with a few common nouns, deictics, case clitics] -cha [with the noun mAun 'night'] -ra [in a few special expressions] -muwa Inclusive -muwa-ri Adessive Inessive -nfia-ri Genitive -ye, -yi, -i -sii], -sag, -saga, -sagga (N, Allative/Comitative except? -siq) -ru Comitative -mar, -war Circumlative -pAiri Subessive


Introduction and typological sketch

Sublative -pfiiri-q-sa, -pfiiri-q Superessive -phyara-g-sa, -phyara-g -ma, -wä (N) Temporal -bfianda (N) Comparative/Temporal -dfiin, -dfiikhin (N) Comparative/Temporal -rasa, -ras Comparative/Temporal -thöy, -thwây Essive/Comparative There is no case or number agreement on modifiers of nouns. Verbs are inflected for aspect, tense, and mood. There are also numerous non-finite verbal forms. Verbal suffixes are listed below, including a few morphologically complex forms: -m, -mu Non-past -m-ë, -ë Non-past Interrogative -ji, -i Perfective -la Perfective Interrogative Imperfective -ma, -wä, -ö Negative Anterior Imperfective -s-are, -s-ere Past Anterior -sèê Anterior -siHypothetical -0 -nda, -nna, -n Suppositional -t Suppositional -ra Hypothetical -to Desiderative Imperative -o -ne Polite Imperative -ye Hortative -kay, -gay, -ge Optative -wa Nominalization -nu (N?) Infinitive -khiri, -khir, -khi (N) Cotemporal -kay, -gay, -ge Progressive converb -si-ra, -si-r, -si Sequential converb -na Resultative -la Conditional -kfiare, -gfiare Negative conditional -la-i Remote Conditional Only one verb, fiya- 'go', has an honorific counterpart, ba-, which is defective in having only imperative forms. There is little derivational morphology native to C, apart from the extensive use of the NOM suffix {-wa}. Some derivational processes have

Typological sketch


been borrowed from N, however, along with the lexical items that included them. The most important of these are the stem extensions {-i-} for intransitive verbs and {-a-} for transitive verbs. 2.3 Syntax C is overwhelmingly head final, even in spontaneous speech. Casemarking patterns are consistently ergative in all aspects, tenses, and moods. There is no agreement, either within NPs or between arguments and verbs. There are no grammatical voice distinctions and no argument-raising processes. Interrogative pronouns are not fronted; the special interrogative verb affixes are used with information questions as well as with 'yes/no' questions. Subordinate clauses are non-finite, save direct speech complements of bfii- 'say'. Nominalization with the morpheme {-waj is used for a number of grammatical functions, including the following:7 simple nominalization [i.e. naming activities and states], verb complementation, noun complementation, purpose clauses, relative clauses, non-relative attributives [e.g. adverbs, locative nouns, case-marked nouns used attributively], agent and patient nominals, attributive nominals [Le.nominals formed from attributive expressions], the expression of the semantic predicate in verbal periphrasis, and, under certain conditions, as main verbs. Additive or sequential conjunction of clauses is possible, but is a feature borrowed from Nepali and is very rarely used. Temporal sequence is typically expressed by means of a construction involving the sequential converb [conjunctive participle].8 Disjunctive coordination of clauses is both possible and commonly used. Ellipsis of arguments [zero anaphora], in particular the ellipsis of subject and object arguments, is very common where these can be recovered from preceding discourse or supplied by world-knowledge. Therefore, subject pronouns are typically found only where contrast is intended.


Introduction and typological sketch

Notes 1. I would like to thank Ram Bhulanja for his untiring assistance in the production of the materials published here. All of the material was discussed with and/ or checked by him: any remaining mistakes are entirely my responsibility. Jagman Chhantyal transcribed a number of the texts from tape. Bill Pagliuca was active in the research project in its early stages. I would like to thank also Gyongyi Boldog, Mary Brehm, and especially Cassandra Stephens for production assistance. Work on Chantyal has been going on continuously since 1989. The work has been supported by the National Science Foundation, grant No. DBC-9121114. 2. The history and ethnography of the Chantyal are discussed in Noonan (1995) and in Noonan & Bhulanja (forthcoming). 3. The Chantyal speaking villages are: Maqgale Khani, Dwari, Gfiyas Kharka, Cawra Khani, Kwine Khani, Thara Khani, Patle Kharka, Malampfiar, and Malkabaq. 4. All the points mentioned in this section are discussed in great detail in Noonan & Bhulanja (in preparation) and in Noonan (to appear). 5. An alternate view of this situation is that there are three sorts of oral stops — voiceless, voiceless aspirated, and voiced — and two sorts of syllabic nuclei: murmured and non-murmured. The view presented in the text reflects the intuitions of Chantyals, though the transcriptional system employed here, with {ft} representing murmur, is compatible with either view. 6. See Noonan & Bhulanja (forthcoming) for discussion of these labels. 7. See Noonan 1997 for discussion and exemplification. 8. See Noonan 1998 for discussion and exemplification.

English-Chantyal dictionary Entries in the dictionary are organized as follows: English








1 1

khare, gfiare (C); Ta 'kahte, Th kahte, G kadi', PMn 2kati

a. 'how much/many', but may mean 'all'

(1) gay bhaysinha-ye bhi-land, gfiyar)ghare masikdyfiya-i'li we say, "Let's raise cows and water

Discussion, including notes

buffalo!", all the forest is disappearing!' [S104-5]

on meaning

Source of the example in Noonan et al.(to appear) [ A - U ] , this volume [ V - Z ] , or Noonan with Bhulanja (in preparation) [AA]

Entries for verbs have some additional features: Verb root



na- (C); G nâqbâ, Ta 'nâ:-pâ, Th nâ-la, Mn 1naabar, na-wa, na-i, na-m

î î î




Entries for verbs always include the nominalization [NOM] following the etymological notes. Other forms, for example the perfective [PERF] and the non-past [NPST], may follow the NOM. References to grammatical categories discussed in the The Grammar of Chantyal (Noonan with Bhulanja, in preparation) are given in capital letters, e.g., DATIVE. Cognate forms are transcribed in the same manner as in their source documents, save that the tilde is used to indicate nasalization of vowels, and retroflex sounds are transcribed /{/, /({/, /r\/, and /g/. [This practice results in two different transcription systems for Gurung and


English-Chantyal dictionary

some other languages since the source documents employ different systems.] Nepali forms, however, are transliterated in the standard Indological system, with retroflex consonants written as /[/, lc§-war, NOM form is -ora-wa (1) gaw-mar 'around the village'


English-Chantyal dictionary


na jarmi-wa-ye lak pachi-wSr na hin-si-m


malday te-ij khanaij-marfiya-si[K42] 'Second

'Around the time I was born' [K32] brother went around the mine there1


sySlkharka-ora-wa manchi 'a man from around Syalkharka'

(5) (6)

anni-ma nyasa-war capa-wa la-si-ra 'we make snacks and, around evening, meals, and' [Q243]

ca-rasa yewta tapke-mar ca-war bhara-ri marmdsala-ma cica khursani-ma jhewno kuro kar-si-ia 'then, having put in a small pot... in a medium pot spices, salt, peppers — everything, and' [Q314]

(7) yewta bAara-war yewta bhalaij-marphija-i 'we spread it around in a pot... on a mat.' [Q347]

-muwa-ri (C); see ADESSIVE a.

basic sense is 'beside, next to, up to, close to, near to', but can translate 'around' when its sense is 'from the perspective o f or 'in the vicinity of.

(1) aba nowa sab-ma-muwa-ri nhi dirfija pasu januwar-ma-thwSy ta-i 'Now, around you sirs, we are like cattle, animals.' [T104]

(2) musa-sa jfii-ipin-si-m nak-muwa-ri suy-ri

'The mouse has bitten him on the face around the nose.' [X48]

waripari, woripari (N); cf. N varpar 'on both sides,



around, neighborhood', vailpaiVon both sides; round about', vanpan 'on or to both sides; round about' objects of this form take the genitive

na-ye waripari manchi-o mu 'There are lots of people around me'


saco ghati-ye waripari khi-o Tie the key around your neck!'

(3) arrange arrangement

dhwj-ye jara-ye woripariphan phan gfiumi-wa

ro 'as she circled around the tree.' [N24] see 'suit'

bebastha la-wa [arrangement do-NOM] bebastha, byebastha, bewastha (N); N vyavastha a.

'arrangement, accommodations'

English-Chantyal dictionary



(1) bebdstha la-wa 'make an arrangement' (2) koyphana caypichadi-si- wa bidyaithi-ma-ra iskul-kam koy bebastha mila-ysi-e mila-ysare-e 'Has the arrangement suited or not suited the students from the school who can't pay?' [U159] (3) thowa na yek mhun yek barsa duy barsa ci-i ki, cater na thowa-ye byebastha mila-wa pari-wa ta-i "Every time they stayed one night, one year, two years, they had to have their own accommodations.' [U194-5] tho- (C); Ta to:h 'kha-pa, Th 'tohk-la, PMn 2too-; tfio-wa a. 'arrive, reach, amount to'; used when ego not at point of arrival ~ cf. tho kha-wa 'arrive' b. cf. tho- 'plant', tho- 'go out' (1) nhwathasa nhi-ye jffla-ri-wa mantar-ye them-arj tho-i 'The following day, we arrived at the home of the minister of our district' [G18] (2) "pii-ye; ta-i," bhi-wa abastha-ri tho-si-wa mu-6 'They arrived at a state where they said: "Let's leave, it's enough." [K10] (3) mayna-ri-wa talabkhare tho-m-e 'What does your monthly salary come to?' [U225] (4) citthi-riphiri-wa khyam raches muluk-ri tfio-m 'In the letter, the lower road arrives in the country of the ogre.' [AA57] tho kha- [arrive come]; tho kha-wa a. Used when ego is at point of arrival and in stories to make narration more vivid: cf. tho-wa 'arrive'. Verb concatenation (1) cu-ri tho-kha-wa tin din thailaqga lagi-i 'It took 3 days to arrive here' (2) ca-gam-sa jhya-gay kha-si thay chyalis tho-kha-i ta 'By that reckoning, we're now at '46' [K68] (3) ca lokne manchi won-won, swayni manchi lele dho-nu dho-nu la-gay dugri-gay bhume than-muwa-ri tho kha-iro 'They arrived at the Bhume Shrine, the man in front and the woman running close behind.' [N21] (4) car) na balla ca lokne manchi sya sya ra phya phya la-gay tham-aij tho kha-i TO 'Then, finally, the man, huffing and puffing,


English-Chantyal dictionary

arrow arrowhead Artemisia



came home.' [N27] bfiala (N); N bhalo 'spear, pike, lance' kar (N); N kai korle (C) a. cf. 'point' pati, pathi (N); N pat 'leaf,(old)flowers offered in worship' a. identification uncertain; a small plant with deeply indented leaves, it is ritually pure and is used in worship: placed in temples, worn on ears, placed on heads during khelegfios ceremony. It's a sweet smelling herb that is also used to treat rashes and nettle stings; used in sweeping houses to make them smell fresh, bSku, bako, baijko (N); N bako "bulb of the arum lily, Arum campanulatum' a. Arisaema flavum and A. costatum: the green portions and the corms are boiled and eaten; and A. nepanthoides 'jack-in-the-pulpit'; noun is used generically for all A. species and for the flower cones, which are not eaten but are placed in bird traps as bait. cimce (N); see 'Epicanthus' a. variously identified with Arisaema tortuosum and A. erubescens; also referred to as cimce baku dhdkayo (N?); referred to as dhokayby Nepali-speaking Magars a. Arisaema wallichianum; also referred to as dhdkayo-ye baker, eaten cooked with kape sag [unidentified plant]. pinalu (N); N pinalu a. Caladium arumaciae; this word refers both to the plant and its tuberous root, which is eaten. The stem is also eaten as a vegetable: karkulo. kdikulo (N); N karkalo a. the stem of Caladium arumaciae, which is eaten as a vegetable. The plant and the tuberous root are referred to as pinalu. thokre (N); N /hokio 'quiver' a. Arisaema tortuosum; also referred to as thokre bako 'quiver arum'; cf. thoijro 'quiver' see 'as much', 'equal', 'like'

English-Chantyal dictionary

as a result

as for

as if as many as much


kña-ddyawa, kña-ddyo [< kñare 'how much' + thyawa 'big'] a. 'as much, as, equal'; used to form equative constructions (1) khi Ram kña-ddyawa na alko mu 'He is as tall as Ram' (2) khi Cdndra kña-ddyawa na ñoco mu 'He is as short as Chandra' (3) khi Candía kñd-ddyawa mu 'He's equal to Chandra [in whatever quality is under discus sion]' (4) na-ye kapal Om-ye kapal kña-ddyo na thyawa mu 'My head is as big as Om's head' palo (N); N palo 'time, turn, watch, guard' a. see also under 'turn' (1) gay palo myalo-nña-ri wó-wa bñl-si-ra tipatip pari-i 'Because the cow wanted to get into the field, it made me hurry up' (2) caijsa na palo bas-ye tikat tha-si-ra yeklay kad mandu-ii ñya-i 'Then I, as a result, bought a bus ticket and went to Kathmandu' [G14-5] ña-sara-wa-sa [that-way-NOM-INST] (1) ña-sara-wa-sa lek-ri chara-w-sa sichyak-ma-ra dukho mu 'As a result, in the highlands, there fore, for teachers there is hardship.' [U149] (2) ña-sara-wa-sa tñó-wa man mu 'As a result, I want to leave.' [U221] bñi-wa [say-NOM] (1) bikas bñi-wa tayJat ñare 'As for development, there isn't any kind.' [T21] -ra (C); see DATIVE (1) sichyak-ma-ra na ca-wa kuro a-ya-m 'As for the teachers, they can't find food.' [U146] (2) sarkar-ye ñukum-ra bis barsa-ma tñó-la-i ta-i da 'As for the government regulation, if you leave in twenty years, that's right.' [U214] see 'like' see 'as much' see 'as' cñagar(C); see 'that/this much' a. 'as much, as many' (1) tam cñagarna ñin 'That's as much talk as there


English-Chantyal dictionary

as though asafetida

ascend ascetic asceticism

ash ash



is [i.e., I'm finished talking]' khare, gfiare (C); see 'how much' a. 'as much as, as' (1) na gfiare pah-si-wa manchi Aare-si-m cu-ri 'There wasn't anybody as educated as me here.' [U101] see 'like' Aerj (N); N hii) a. the yellow-brown resinous material obtained from the roots of Ferula asafoetida, sold by Tibetans and used as a cure for stomach distress see 'go up' jogi (N); N jogi, yogi tapasse (N); N tapasya a. 'asceticism, life of meditation' (1) hattare! na pani tapasse la-to 'Oh my God! I also want to live the life of an ascetic,' [R12] kharani (N); N kharani a. 'ash, ashes from a fire' lakuri (N); N lSkuri a. Fraxinus floribunda, Himalayan ash; the wood is used for tools and the leaves are used for fodder; this tree, like the pipal tree [Ficus religiosa], is a favored tree for shaded resting places on trails. laj kha-wa [shame come-NOM] a. 'become ashamed' (1) nfii-ra laj pani kha-m 'We become ashamed' [T31] fiir-(C); G rihbaq, Ta rihp-pa(t), Th rih-lar, hira-wa, fiir-si a. 'ask for [something]; beg; borrow' (1) got-thipho-wa mi fiira-wa-khir na 'When I asked for fire to take away to the cow shed,' [R62] (2) tara na-sa a jay pani gwar hii-kay la-m 'But I still also am begging for help' [P282] (3) baw-siij as hir-ji 'asked their father for their shares' [AA6] son-, sodfii-, sodi- (N); N sodhnu 'ask, ask about, ask a question' a. the son- variant, which is the most common, is modeled after the native sura-/sora-

English-Chantyal dictionary

na yewta kura sori-m 'I'll ask you one thing' [P185] (2) "caij na ta-rimu-wa"bAi-si-ra ca syal-sa sori-i "'Then, what were you in?" that jackal asked.' [P310-2] (3) syal-sa bAuluij-ra sori-i 'the jackal asked the leopard.' [P347] sura-, sora- (C); GMn 2shu, Kgsu-ne, sura-wa, sura-i a. 'ask, request [information]' (1) syal-ra sura-i ro '[Bear] asked Jackal' [L55] (2) nAi-i baw-ra "nuwa-sa them-aij khawa la-si-ra puca la-m-e bfii-si-ra sura-ma ro 'The Whiteman was asking our father: "How do you worship in the house?" [052] (3) na "ama tato pani-rj-sa kha-la?" bAi-si-ra suragay kara-i 'I asked crying: "Did mother come back from the hot springs?'" [R93] kurilo (N); N id. a. Asparagus racemosus jamma ta-wa [all become-pra] kachari (N); N kacahari 'court of justice' see 'mature' chara (N); N chacfi 'desolate, forsaken; independent, wanton' a. 'astray; stray'; as a noun, refers to a stray animal (1) chara ta-wa 'go astray' (2) chara pira-wa 'lead astray' -arj (C); see LOCATIVE a. can translate 'at' only for a few common nouns (1) them-aij 'at home' (2) Bini-ar) 'at Beni' -cha (C); see LOCATIVE a. used only with mfiun 'night' and pfiarabi 'morning' (1) mAun-cha 'at night' (2) pAarabi-cha 'early in the morning' -muwa-ri (C); see ADESSIVE a. basic sense is 'beside, near to, around', but means 'at' with tAo-wa 'arrive' (1) cawtaro pipal-muwa-ri tAo-sir 'When they arrived at the resting place pipal tree,' [P203] (1)

asparagus assemble assembly assistant astray




English-Chantyal dictionary

-ra (C); see LOCATIVE a. can translate 'at' in certain time expressions (1)


barsa-ra ath kakchya-n



'nowadays at 16 years old I'm in the eighth grade' [SI6] -17(C); see LOCATIVE


can translate 'at' in certain time and locational expressions

(1) (2) (3)

khi chakal-ri kha-i ' h e c a m e a t n o o n ' UWM-ri mu 'He's at UWM' unnis barsa-ri na-ye nani ta-i

'At the age of nineteen, my baby was bom.' [U88] sad, samma (N); see 'until'

at that time at the moment of attack [N] attack [V] attempt attend attention attentive attract aunt


basic sense is 'until', but may translate 'at' in temporal expressions with the sense that the relevant state is still ongoing


ha-ja byala samma iskulyekle



ra mu-ma 'At that time, the school was located at Single Oak Hill.' [030] see 'now' see 'immediately' hamala (N); N hamala (1) hamala la-wa 'attack' hamala la-wa [attack do-NOM]

see 'try' see 'care' see 'care', 'voice' jatti (N); N jatVgood, right; wholesome' see 'pull' ako, akava (C); cf. akaw 'uncle'

a. 'aunt younger than ego's parent' cyama (N); N chyaim. [sic] 'mother's younger sister; stepmother' a. 'mother's younger sister, father's younger brother's wife' kanchio,



kanchi ama [young mother]

'parent's youngest sister, parent's younger brother's wife'

nini (C)


'father's elder sister'

English-Chantyal dictionary



away away from awl

axe babbler

baby bachelor

back [Adv] back [N]


phupu (N); N id. 'father's sister' a. 'father's younger sister, mother's younger brother's wife' thyapaw, thep3w(C)-, < thewa ama [big mother] a. 'mother's elder sister; father's elder brother's wife' till7 (C); see 'up/down' a. the basic sense of this form is 'upward', but it may be used in the sense of 'the authorities'; cf. English 'higher-ups' (1) phiri tuij-gam skul kha-i 'Again, we got a school from the authorities.' [U100] SUIJ bari-wa [face avoid-NOM] a. 'avoid someone' bari- (N); N barnu 'avoid for the time being; stop; limit, fence' a. found only in the expression surj bari-wa 'avoid [someone]' te-r (C); see 'that/this way/place' see 'from' sar (N); N sar 'shaft (of a spear, arrow, etc.)' a. seems to refer to any piercing tool, e.g., awl or needle; also refers to the shaft of an arrow; cf. 'shaft' bancoro (N); N bancaro see 'tit-babbler', 'wren babbler' ryawryaw{C); onomatopoetic a. Turdoides caudatus, common babbler tarkulut (C?) a. Macronous gularis, yellow-breasted babbler see 'child' kumar{N); N kumar natha (N); N nafha 'bachelor; lover, paramour' a. 'bachelor' (1) natha-ye nani 'bastard' see *back [N]' lele (C); G Th lili, Ta liliq, Nw lo 'after', cf? G -/¿'from', Dm lal 'front' a. 'back, after'; probably the element le- is shared with lesarj. b. -ye lele 'behind [motion], after'

Etiglish-Chantyal dictionary (1) (2)

-ye lele Aya-wa 'to follow' Ram Birendra-ye lele pAara-i


puh's gari-ye lele Aya-i

(4) (5)

lele dugri-i ro 'she ran after him.' [N20] bAulurj ra bura lele wan lele wan la-si-ra Aya-i


khi-ye lele Mare nhe kAare nAe ariijijal-ma


Ram Birendra-ye lesaij ci-i

'Ram walked behind Birendra'

'The police chased the car'

'the leopard and the old man went single file, single file.' [P201]

laskarpari-si-wa mu 'After him, there were Idon't-know-how-many hornets in a line.' [Y86] lesaij (C); Th Use 'behind'; cf. lele 'back' a. the element le- is probably shared with lele. Comparison with wansarj 'front', which con tains wan 'front', suggests that both contain -sag, which could derive from any of several sources, e.g., ERG/INST -sa + LOC -aij, or COM -sag. For more examples, see under 'after'. b. -ye lesai) 'behind [location], back, after' (1) lesaij sari-wa 'draw back' (2) lesai7 pira-wa 'leave behind' (4) (5)

'Ram sat down behind Birendra' kei nilesai7paki-m 'after a little bit they cook.' [Q21]


dedgAanta lesaij


'after an hour or hour and a half, it is cooked.' [Q191]

Iigam, liyam, lei7 (C); G liudiq, Ta Iihkkyam, Ji lhak-napaq, Nw lyune a. 'back, after'; -ye ligam 'after'; ligam-wa 'next'; limay be cognate with element le- in lele and lesaij, -gam being ABL. b. large number of variants possible: ligam, ligaij, liij, li:irj, liam, legam. c. NOM form: ligam-wa > ligaw (1) kanna ligam tam la-wa 'gossip' (2) tiwar dase-ye ligam kha-m' Tiwar comes after Dasaiii (3) tiwar dase ligam kha-m' Tiwar comes after Dasaiii

English-Chantyal dictionary (4)

back, lower back, upper

bad bael


Birendra-ye ligam Dipendra rajya ta-m 'Dipendra will become king after Birendra' (5) capa ca-wa-ye ligam 'after eating a meal' (6) dwi din ligam 'after 2 days' (7) lig§-wa samra-yephalce 'hind thigh muscle' (8) ca ligSwpfiale cay mar) na khyala-i 'The back legs, below, I threw away' [154] (9) ligam-wa [ligao] barsa 'next year' [1149] (10) ligam ca-wa la-wa-khi, barjra na-si-ra cet ta-i ta 'After, I tried to eat it, my teeth hurt, and I got fed up' [199] (11) khyam-ar) Bini-ri-wa yow-ta cini-si-wa mastar-ra dfio-si-ra ca-ye ligam lagi-i 'On the way, I met a teacher from Beni I knew and followed him' cak (N); N cak a. 'from small of back through buttocks'; cf. 'buttocks', 'hip' kanna (C); cf? G kre, G Ta Th Mn 3ko a. 'from neck to small of back'; used only for humans and animals; cf. kannyaulo 'spine' (1) kanna ligam tarn la-wa 'gossip' (2) phara-ye ta wko-nas kanna pharka-ysi-ra 'turn your back toward the edge of the cliff, and' [L32] khar (C); G Th koh, Ch kah a. a literate informant said the final h i is IcJJ; for final /r/, see etymology of kha 'neck', which may be related backpack tharjna (C) a. cloth device for carrying a baby; goes over the forehead like a tumpline and resolves into a sack for baby on the back, a-ijgard, a-qaraw, a-garawa [NEG-good] a. 'bad, ugly, sad' (1) -GEN man a-garawa ta-wa 'become sad' bel (N); N id. a. Aegle marmelos, bael tree. The tree does not grow in the area where Chantyal is spoken, but the fruit is known to the Chantyal for its medicinal properties. The large unripened fruits are placed in a fire for one-half hour, then crushed and the pulp is eaten for diarrhea. Leaves are ground into a paste and used to cure


English-Chantyal dictionary




mental illness, see 'packet' jabi (N); N j&bi a. 'knitted bag, made of bark; scrotum' jfiwala (N); N jholo 'wallet; haversack' a. 'sack worn over shoulder; any bag/sack worn on body; shoulder bag' kumlo (N); N id. 'parcel, pack, bale; load of grass' a. 'a load, bundled in cloth, carried on back; a bag carried on the back' pwaka (N); N poka 'receptacle made by doubling up the slack of a dhoti or a handkerchief; parcel, bundle, packet' a. 'package wrapped in cloth or paper' salthaylo [< sano thaylo 'small sack'] a. 'small bag, used, for example, to transport grain to the cowshed when it is in the mountains' thdylo (N); N thaylo 'haversack, pouch, bag' a. 'bag, sack1 see 'clod' phurbal (N/E); N phufbal [< E football a. 'ball used in sport, e.g., a soccer ball or a volley ball' bas (N); N bas a. refers to thick stemmed bamboo grown in lower, warmer places than those found near the main Chantyal villages (1) bas-ye arjla 'bamboo joint' madar (C); Ta maq, G moq 'cane (like bamboo)', cf? G maudu "blade of grass, sprout, shoot' a. 'bamboo shoots'; the shoots of any bamboo niijijala (N); Nnirjalo 'a small bamboo, Arundinaria in termedia' a. refers to bamboo from the mountains, gathered by Chantyals; several sorts are referred to under this name: see below gfiuie nirjijala [knee bamboo] a. big nodes, solid internodes, leaves larger and ligher green than jfiir, used for feeding animals and for making thdgreto brooms; good for torches; grows high in the mountains jfiir niqqala [point bamboo]

English-Chantyal dictionary




solid internodes, leaves darker and smaller than gfiure, useful because long; used also for feeding animals; good for torches; grows high, near the snowline; seeds edible and considered a delicacy, but since the plant flowers rarely it is not a regular food source fAir-ye mhala 'jfiir bamboo seeds'

kharse niggala [thatch (?) bamboo]


largest type of niijijala, used for mats covering cowsheds; 10'- 20' long, rough texture at joints, hollow internodes, doesn't peel well; grows at mid altitudes

malirjrjo niijrjala [malingo bamboo]


bamboo strip

most useful; smooth skinned without large nodes, hollow internodes; 2" diameter; strips used for weaving; grows at mid altitudes over a large range tite niijijala [bitter bamboo] a. Himalayacalamus fimbriatus; thin trunks, used only for rope-making and by shamans; shoots are bitter and are not eaten by humans, but used for fodder; grows at relatively low altitudes, just below the elevation of Mangale Khani see 'strip'


kyara (N); N kera

bangle bank [financial] bank [river]

see 'bracelet' byaij (N/E); < E bank tir (N); N tlr 'bank, shore, beach bagar (N); N bagar 'sand bank'


asar-ye citro [(third month)-GEN barberry] a. Berberis asiatica; asar is the name of the third month of the Nepali calendar, June-July. cittoro, citro (N); N cutro


name for plants and fruits of the genus Berberis




(N); N jiromaclo, jamane


like citro, name for plants and fruits of the genus Berberis; Mahonia napaulensis, belonging to a closely related genus, was also identified by this name. kartikh-ye citro [(seventh month)-GEN barberry]


English-Chantyal dictionary a.

Berberis aristata, Indian barberry; kartik is the name of the seventh month of the Nepali calendar, October-November barbet phista (N); N phisfo 'small; a particular kind of small bird like a wren' a. Megalaima asiatica, blue-throated barbet; noun seems to refer to various small birds: see 'bird' bare nar/r/e (N); N naggo barely done see 'after all' bark [N] bwakia (N); N bokra a. 'bark of a tree' bark [N] fiawaw{C); onomatopoetic a. T>ark of a dog' bark [V] fiawawla-wa [bark do-NOM] bhuki- (N); N bhuknir, bfiuki-wa barley cikha (C); G jahguq, Ta cahku, Th 'cika, Kh cika:, Dm tsophu a. planted in October and harvested in February; planted in rotation with corn. This is the main variety of barley grown by Chantyals. See karu below. (1) cikha ca-wa mimi 'Dark-breasted rosefinch' karu (C); PMn 3karu, Th 'karu, G karu 'a grain (oats, barley?) planted in November'; for first syllable, cf. CT ka-rtsam 'sort of oats', Ld ka-sam 'sort of oats', for the second cf. PMn 4fo 'wheat', CT gro 'wheat', LT 2mi 'barley' a. a high altitude variety of barley, referred to as 'hooded barley', Hordeum spontaneum. Called uva or /awa/ [the latter by local Magars] in Nepali. It differs from cikha barley in having a special trilobate appendage attached to the awns and lighter-colored kernels with a non-adhering glume. It is not much grown these days by Chantyals as it is considered less sustaining than corn or cikha barley. barn see 'cowshed' barren see 'become barren' barrel nal (N); N nal a. 'barrel of a gun' barter see 'exchange, barter' barwing kantate (C?)

English-Chatityal dictionary

basin bask basket


a. Actinodura nepalensis, Nepal hoary barwing see 'pot' bata (N); see 'pot' a. 'large metal basin' see 'warm [V]' bfiagdri, bfiagari N bhakari a. 'large woven basket, without a bottom, for storing grain, e.g., corn' bfiya (C); cf? G pxi 'basket for carrying things on back' a. 'basket, large, conical, open-weaved, for carrying things on back, strapped to forehead with a tumpline'; N cfoko (1) nani-ye bfiya 'cradle' byaia (C); cf? N ber 'wrapping' a. 'basket for water jugs' dalo (N); N nh^\ the nasalization on -eis secondary, deriving from NPST -m. Alternatively, it may be related to the Gurung copula ngihbaq. (1) na bidyarthi hin 'I am a student' (2) nhi bidyarthi hin 'We are students' (3) nhi bidyarthi hayn 'We're not students' (4) na ballyo manchi hin 'I am a strong man' (5) khi lhawre nhe ki hayn 'Are you a soldier or not?' (6) nhi-mapurba-nasawhin ta 'We are from the east, I know' [C4] (7) cu na-ye nhaka hin 'This is my chicken' (8) cu nhaka na-ye hin 'This chicken is mine' (9) na-sa marak-ra te-r ghucati-si-wa hin; marak hugari 'I pushed the door forward; the door opened' (10) khani hya-wa nhe [standard greeting] 'Where are you going?' (11) ha-ca thar na nhe ki? 'Is that the wild goat?' (12) nagi khyo hin sinu 'We are friends' (13) ware kuro, sya na, ca-lana, ta-wa hin na 'If you ate other things, meat, it would be fine' [1100] (14) dimag-sa kam la-lana, hin sS

English-Chantyal dictionary 'If I had used my head, it would be fine' [1103] (15) malday nñe ki su nñe ñya-si-ra 'The second brother or whoever went' [1141] (16) khl bidyaithi ñayn 'Isn't he a student?' (17) na mastar ta-wa ñin 'I'm going to become a teacher' (18) ta nñe 'isn't it?', 'OK?' (19) na Ram ñin 'I am Ram' (20) cu mi tala phui-si-wa nñe 'Why did you make this fire?' [L56] (21) na car nñe kipSc barsa-ra nñe mu-wa-khi 'When I was in my fourth or fifth year,' [Ol] mu- (C); for etymology, see below a. Mu- has a regular NPST INTER and IMPF, but an irregular NEG which is used in the NPST and IMPF. Replaces ñin in IMPF. b. Used in presentative and existential constructions; see especially (25) mu (C); G mubaq, Ta mu-pa Th 'mu-la, Dm mo:-, muwa NOM a. NPST positive, declarative hare, NEG; ?< a-rhe [otherwise unattested root]; ñare-wa a. ñare alone in NPST; has regular IMPF in ñare-ó [